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Paris, Friday, February’ 25, 1994' 

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By AI^iMedmaii - 

InUmnxional Herald Tribune ' 

VIENNA^ DentscbeJBank, the hading creditor and a 
mqj^toarefaddo- of Germany’s troubled MetaUgeseQs- 
A G^artivdy promoted the oil futures business in 
spring 1993 Iha later in the year brought the company to 
™ tank of bankruptcy, aawdtag to HdatSdmmd- 
.bust^, who was dismissed as the company’s chief executive 
last December. 

• • Mr. Schimmeibtisd^ breaking bis tococe for the first 
ume^smoc he was dismissed, contended in an interview 
h«* *** Metal^psellsciiaft had been encouraged by Deut- 
sche Bank, test spring to jointly market tbe ofl-bedgmg 
program to a dozen indnstriai clients of the bank. Docu- 
ments obtained by the International Herald Tribune indi- 
e^ that Deat^Bank board members were find briefed 
on the oil-hedging busmess in November 1992 and that the 
bank and (he company's New York-based energy aibsid- 
uny planned jointfy to market the program. 

It was the discoyery ofaliqaufity crisis at the New Ycnk 
business, MG Corp.,' eariy in December that led to Mr. ' 
Schimmdbosch’s dismissal by Ronaldo Schmitz, the Deut- 
sche Bank director who is head of MjetaDgrad Ucfai f Ts 
supervisory board. Mr. Sdumrodbusch was rKgmiwyd 

er in Germany’s Ugly Corporate Melodrama 

aiong with five other Metallgesellschaft executives for 
allegedly failing to keep the supervisory board informed of 
ihe cal-relaied problems, an accusation he denies. Metall- 
gesellsdiafi, a conglomerate of more than 250 metals, 
trading and engineering businesses, is one of Germany's 
biggest companies with animal revenue of about 25 billion 
Deutsche marks (514.7 billion). 

Th e story of MetaHgeseBschaft’s near insolvency has 
grown into an ugly corporate melodrama, pitting one of 
Germany’s best-known executives against Europe's most 
powerful bank. 

On Thursday, Mr. Schmitz, addressing a medal rp^tirE 
of MetaUgesdbchaft shareholders in Frankfurt, launched 
a blistering attack on Mr. Scbimindbusch, accusing him of 
responsibility for the company’s brush with bankruptcy 
ana saying be bad failed to keep the supervisory board 
informed of events that led lo an oil futures trading loss of 
23 billion marks. Mr. Schmitz. specifically played down 
the significance of Deutsche Bank’s cooperation with MG 
Corp. on energy-related hedging products. 

. . Using language rarely heard publicly in corporate Ger- 
many, Mr. Schmitz said the managemen t fed by Mr. 
Scfahnmdbusch “took actions which were so patently 
harmful to MetaDgeseflschaft that, in addition to the civil 
law penalties called for, penal measures would not come as 

a surprise." Mr. Schimmelbusch, 49, who had a 20-year 
career at Metallgesdlschaft. led the company for the' last 
four yean. 

Numerous shareholders at the meeting nonetheless 
bombarded Mr. Schmitz with complaints and argued that 
the supervisory board should itself accept responsibility 
for the oil-hedging losses and resign. (Page 1 1) 

Separately. Mr. Sdummelbusch. and Meinhard Forster, 
the former chief financial officer of Metallgesdlschaft are 
being investigated by the Frankfurt prosecutor's office, 
which is acting on a shareholder complaint. 

Mr. Schimmelbusch reacted (o Mr. Schmitz's remarks 
by saying they were part of “an orchestrated attack on my 

He said that “this attack will force me to defend my 

S ' i in the courts." 

more than seven hours of conversations in 
om Tuesday to Thursday. Mr. Schimmelbusch 
stressed repeatedly that Ire contacted Mr. Schmitz as soon 
as he learned of the liquidity crisis in New York and sought 

He asserted that Mr. Schmitz “was fully informed, in 
absolute cetaii" of the specifics and the structure of the oil 
futures business, 

“Schmitz and 1 discussed the New York oil operations, 
the strategy and liquidity issues a lot,” he said, “and this 
was irrespective of the joint venture we had with Deutsche 
Bank to offer the bank's industrial clients risk-manage- 
ment programs in which Deutsche Rank would handle 
foreign exchange hedging and MetallgeseOschafi would do 

the oil hedging." 

He said Mr. Schmitz received a special presentation on 
the oil-hedging program from MG Corp. executives in 


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Rout in the Bond Markets 
Leaves Blood Everywhere 9 

Widespread interest Rate Miscalculation 


- '■■■'J&a r 
r -artv; 

By Erik Ipsen 

• • ’ ImematumM IlertM Tribune "• 

"LONDON — The world’s bond traders have 
lost staggering arms in the last three weeks, the 
result of a terrible imscakailatinn of the direc- 
tion of interest raxes. . . 

FoD owing die Federal Reserve's decision 
three weeks ago to raise shortterm interest 
rates in the United States, government bond 
prices have phmuncted around the world. 

“There is blood' everywhere,” said Gtxard 
Lyons, drief economist at DKB International, a 
London bond firm. 

assert, has away Kore^it 

dotting logic. It has taken asdl-off that should 
have been confined to the United States, where 
interest rates are rising in the face of a buoyant 
economy, and madeof it- an international root. , 
Now economies tike those in Europe, stiS firm- 
ly in (he grip of recession; face me threat of 
rising tongtena iwerca rates. _•••.• 

Analysts blame a volatile amibinatibn of 
greater leverage,, pics' far greater vnaxuatity of 
sentiment, far making the beard markets tte . 
most traunifltired of .afl jniiHR^f-nHBkg^ ip 
recent weekiEspaa^^ feEiP 

rope, investors mwiBtacmto Baicdonawtte 
convinced that bond prices waSd rally do the 
back of falling long-term -rates. . As a; result, 
many of even the most coDsery ati vdfr managed 
funds entered thei New Year wrtfi unusually 
large bets an what was then viewed as a surefire 
winner., . 

In the pairt three weeks, many surtegists haw 
ventured out of their bunkers long’ enough to 
pronounce chat dungs have gone far enough- 
Bond prices, they strewed, havebeen driven too 
low and as such represent excellent buying 
opportunities. Those who have foDqwed that 
advice have bear bludgeoned badly. \ .. 

Source: Bloomberg 

I, Herald Tribune. 

China Vows to Terminate 

By Kevin Murphy . ; , 

International HcraldTiibtme 

: HONG KONG — Governor Gate Patted 
said Thursday that he would press aheadwith 
his political program in spite of a new Chinese 
threat to dissoiveHong Kong's elected bodies 
when the British colony is tunted over to Beg^ 
ing in 1997. 

- China said Thursday that all local councils 
'and the legislature would “definitely be termi- 
nated" when Hong Kong reverts to Chinese 
rule on July 1, 1997. 

■ The Chinese also threatened not 16 cooperate 
oh a new 521 billion Hong Kong airport, now 
under construction. This appeared to be a re- 
turn toe previous strategy of linking fhcpohtr- 
cal dispute to The colony s economy. 

-The Hong Kong stock market's key Hang 
Seng Index feD 331 pomts, or abort 3 percent, 
{allowing reports of Bering's hard-line stance. 

' LateWnfocsdOT, Hong Kcog lawmakers ap- 
proved tire first of a two-stage legidafive'pack- 
am that ni ^m^ riy aims to increase the number 
of voters in 1995 elections, the kst to be orga- 
nized under British rule. ■ 

“The door lo negotiations on HongK ong’s 

futnre has now been dosed by the British sdc,” 

said Shang Goof eng, a ^jokesnrac ftn China’s 
Foreign Mbiisny . 

Newsstand Prices _j_ 

ADdorra..^9.00FF Ljraarot»urB«LR 
Antilles 17.23 FF Move co.™T2Dh 

Gobon^^CFA.g^: JftaS 
. Greece — :<30Q Dr, Tunisia — . l J000 Din 

r ■ ivory Coast .1.120 CF A Turkey .IT.Ll&oop 
f ! 4onlan...^:-T JD UAE .....830 Wrh 
fj ' Leborton .1USS V3B US. Mil. (Eur.J «.T» 

. Mr. Sheng said the unilateral move on poM- 
cal refonns “fully shows the British ride has' no 

- sincerity in resolving the Hong Kong issue and 
is bent cm moving further, ahead on the wrong 
track.” . - , 

China asserts that Britain’s proposals violate 
agreements on Hong Kong’s future admrmstra- 
' tipu - : 

Me, Patten on Thursday praised the Legisla- 
tive CoundPs support of his first proposals and 
said he would offer a biD oomainmg the rest of 
(bdn on Friday. He hopes to seethe entire date 
(rf measures enacted by July. . 

“We vtand willing and able to work together 
with China in Hong Kong’s interest on other 
matters,” Mr. Fatten saia, “even if bn this 
admittedly important^ ^aneit has unfortunately 
not proved pesribte to do so." 

I^slatora »4>o oppose adt^rtiOT of dcctoral 
'-plans that do not have Oulu's Messing ques- 
ticned tbc. Wtttam of enacting such policies. 

.On Thursday, the Hong Koag gpvemmdit 
released a British government r»OTt containing 
. itS YCrskm the dispute with Beijing that first 

surfaced in October 1992 and now threatens 

- British buriness mter^ in Qiina. 

The doconaeot justified a course that guaran- 
teed confrontation. whK China by stating that 
. several features of an deckralsystem endorsed 
by "feijinB would .leave, a democratic process. 

Foreign Munster Douglas . Hurd of Britain 
said: “Our proposals, even after substantial 
revisions in an e&oit to meet Chinese concerns, 
would produce electoral arrangements which 
were fair, opes and, in our judgment, accepl- 
ableto the peopleof Hrog Krag." 

He said that China® proposals anibeeleo 
rinn jgyiK- % Airing a g pt months of negp- 
tiations m Bdjing, did not meed those stan- 
dards: . ; ■ : 

A strategist for a large international bank in 
London confessed that he, too, srarted the week 
. convinced that the sdl-off had gone loo far and 
that a rally was imminent. 

: “We put our toes in the water and bought 
bonds on Wednesday and today we don’t have 
any toes,” he said.. 

On Thursday, in fact, the bond market’s 
decline accelerated, heJpmg to drag down both 
Wall Street and major European markets. The 
Dow Jones industrial index tumbled 51.78 
points to dose at 3,839 JO, adding to the drop 
of 19.98 points recorded on Wertoesday, while 
(he stock markets in Frankfurt, Paris and Lon- 
don fdl by even wider margins cm Thursday. 

. ' Analysts increaringty blame speculators for 
turning a healthy correction in an overbought 
market into an absolute bust. Last year bond 
investors across the world racked up huge 
gains. For such investors as hedge funds, which 
feed on huge leverage and had bought as much 
as S10 in bonds for every dollar they held in 
cqateL the results ^were spectacular. , 

“Theo-success attracted a lot of newmoncy,” . 
sBidpnc London bond trader. As funds flooded 
to fee direction trf tbe specnla tore. diedr hets 
grew even larga. This year, however, it has. all 
code unstuck as faffing bond prices have 
tineatened to wipe mil their gains and then 
tome. ■ ' t ' 

' .‘T. amshting here yriflr big positions and 1 do 
not -know what to do,” said one despondent 
London-based bond trader ^ Thursday as the 
.slide of recent days became wiwt some were 
caffinga^i^ric.”. ’ 

Highly leveraged playm are not a new phe- 
nomenon in the bond market. What , is new 
today is bofe; the size of the funds at their 
command and the riteer numbers of investors, 

... See LOSSES, Page 12 

v-tfVc ’ 

busch did not suggest that Deutsche Bank 's join i- market- 
ing of the oil futures with MG Corp. had in any way caused 
the crisis, he insisted that Mr. Schmitz “should have been 
well aware of the risks.” 


Skaters Are Hurt 

Oksana Baiul, the world figure-skating 

champion who finished second to Nan- 

cy Kerrigan in the technical program, ^IIIk ^ 

was hurt during practice and is a 

doubtful starter in the women's free 

skating final on Friday night. 

The 16-year-old from Ukraine col- 
lided with Tanja Szewczenko, 16, of 
Germany as both were skating back- 
ward. Baiul suffered a gash in one leg 
from a skate blade, an injury that was 
not serious, but also hurt her back. f 

Szewczenko, fifth in the technical pro- 

gram, was carried off the ice after t'-V 

Baiul’s elbow slammed into her ribs, Vv^-il 

but the German team’s doctor said she - '1 

was not seriously injured and would 

skate on Friday night ' 

Compagnoni Triumphs 

Deborah Compagnoni of Italy, whose 
career was almost ended in the same 
event two years ago, when she tore up 
bar left knee, won the the women’s 

giant slalom. One day after the closest ■ 

Alpine race in Olympic history. Com- 

padroni easily beat the silver medalist, . H 

'Martina Enl of Germany. Vreni 

Schneider of Switzerland got the n 

bronze, her second medal of the 

Games. 9HH 

Di Centa Strikes Again 

The Italian star of the Games — no, 
not Albert Tomba, but Manuela Di 
Centa — led from stan to finish and 
beat Norway' Marit Wold by 162 sec- 
onds to win the the women’s 30-kilo- 

meter cross-country 'race. Di Centa has ' 

now won a medal in each of hex five ^Jlr 

races in Liflehammer. ^ 

Lyubov Egorova of Russia, trying to 
win a record seventh Olympic gold £ . .-<■■- 

medal, finished fifth; it was the first 
time she had failed to get a medal in 10 
Olympic races. Marja-Liisa Kirves- 
niemi of Finland took the bronze. 

Olympic report: Pages 27, 28 and 29 Tanja Szewczenko being helped up by Katarina 

New Y ork las; July 23. “Tnat szme month I even suggested 
to Mr. Sc firm lz thin the New Vork energy-related trading 
business was too large and consumed too' much cash, and 
that ideally we should look {ex’ a partner. He agreed." Mr, 
Schimmelbusch said. 

Mr. Schmitz: in response to Mr. Schimmelbusch's alle- 
gations. lold the International Herald Tribune in a state- 
ment: “1 was not fully informed of the nature and structure 
of (he oil futures business, and 1 did not discuss the New 
York oil operations, the strategy and liquidity issues as 
described by Mr. Schimmelbusch." 

Speaking' at Thursday's meeting, which was called to 
See METALS, Page 4 

Mkdcn Aoicsma'A F mc-Pm 

Witt, left, and Chen La. 

Yeltsin Shifts 
Priority From 
Reform to 

In Key Kremlin Speech, 
He Appears to Reflect 
Conservative Concerns 

By Fred Hiatt 

Washington Pan Service 

MOSCOW — President Boris N. Yeltsin, in 
a major Kr emlin address reflecting Russia's 
increasingly conservative and nationalist mood, 
shifted away from themes of democratization 
and human rights on Thursday and instead 
called for strengthening Russian statehood 
both at home and in foreign policy. 

The president's address to a joint session of 
parliament, his first since radical reformers left 
his government, had been eagerly awaited for 
si gns of Russia’s future course. The paucity of 
detail in the 40-minute address left many ques- 
tions open, but Mr. Yeltsin came down square- 
ly for more assertiveness abroad and a softer 
approach lo economic change. 

The president called Russia the “guarantor 
of stability” throughout the former Soviet 

A legal debate erupts mer parliament's amnes- 
ty for anti-Yeltsin plotters. Page 2. 

Union and said the fate of ethnic Russians 
living in neighboring countries was "our na- 
tional affair.” He warned East European coun- 
tries not tojoin NATO without Russia: And be 
said Russia’s foreign policy would be based on 
‘‘thepromotion of Russia's national interests." 

"The principal method toward this goal is 
openness and cooperation,” he said. "But Rus- 
sia has the right to act firmly and toughly when 
necessary to defend its national interests.” 

Mr. Yeltsin did not mention the arrest this 
week of an alleged Russian mole high up in the 
Central Ingelligence Agency. And be men- 
tioned only obliquely the parliamentary vote on 
Wednesday to give amnesty to the anti-Yeltsin 
coup plotters of 1991 and 1993. 

Russia’s prosecutor-general seemed to indi- 
cate Thursday that be would free forma- Vice 
President Alexander V. Rutskoi and his confed- 
erates from jaO once he receives die official 
notification of the State Duma’s vote. 

“Soda! conciliation does not mean total for- 
giveness." Mr. Yeltsin said, in his only com- 
ment on Thursday that could be seen as related 
to the amnesty vote. “Mercy is only merev if it 
does not counter law and norms of morality.'’ 

In domestic policy, Mr. Ydtsin said fhee- 
market reforms should continue, but taking 
into account “Russian specifics, the national 
character, the changing social interests and sen- 
timents. and tire psychology of Russians." 

He railed against "flagrant inequality 1 ^ in 
Russia’s emerging class structure, complained 
that people “who cheat and use violence are 
having a fidd day" and called fra- more targeted 
sure support of Russian industry. 

“The principle (hat only those who are able 
to survive will survive is ruinous." Mr. Ydtsin 
said, an indirect criticism of the radical eco- 
nomic reformers who had run his government 
for much of the last two years, bringing to 
Russia a fledgling free market but also much 

He also called for emergency measures 
against crime and criminal groups, which be 
said were “trying to put a stranglehold on the 

Ana in sharp contrast to some of his earlier 
See YELTSIN, Page 4 

The Serbs, Figuring the Odds, Appear Ready for Peace 

By Roger Cohen 

New York Times Service 

PALE, Bosnia-H erzeg ovina — Radovan 
Karadzic, the leader of the Bosnian Serbs, put it 
bluntly: “We would rather drive Mercedeses 
than tanks.” 

After almost two years of war in Bosnia, it 
appears that the Serbs — both the government 
in Belgrade and the Bosnian Sabs — are active- 
ly pursuing a peace settlement in the conviction 
that Russia’s new involvement in Balkan diplo- 
macy can secure them a share of Bosnia that 

the/ oould accept. 
The momentum 

The momentum appears to arise from two- 
factors: the crushing impact of international 
sanctions on Serbia, and a perception among 
Serbs that the Muslim-dominated Bosnian gov- 
ernment may have less room for maneuver now 

that Washington and Moscow have derided 
that a way must be found to end the war. 

“The Muslims always thought the interna- 
tional community could fight their war for 

Bosnia’s Masfim leader, cortratficting UN, 
says Serb anus still threaten Sarajevo. Page 2. 

them, and nobody has ever pressured them 
before,” said Javan Zametica, foreign-policy 
aide to Mr. Karadzic. 

“Now they, have to deal with international 
pressure for the first time.” he said “They 
know an offensive could bring NATO interven- 
tion. And they know Russia will bring objectiv- 
ity and balance to the peace talks.” 

With Russian troops now in Sarajevo as part 

of the United Nations force, and with Russia's 
president, Boris N. Yeltsin, talking of new dip- 
lomatic measures, the Serbs' leaders say they 
fed their case is being recognized for the first 

This case, in essence, is that imcnuuional 
- recognition of Bosnia- Herzegovina as an inde- 
pendent nation in April 1992 turned the Serbs 
of Bosnia, dose to a third of the population, 
into a national minority under a fairly hostile 
government and left them no alternative but to 

Conversations with several officials here in 
Pale, the Bosnian Sobs’ headquarters, suggest 
that the Sabs believe that the Geneva peace 
talks mediated by the United Nations and the 
European Union are now dead. 

Instead, the Serbs say, new talks most be 

In Spy Case , the Arrests Came Too Soon 

By R. Jeffrey Smith 
and Michael Isikoff 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON —The trail that led to the 
arrest of the CIA officer Aldrich Hazen Ames 
began in 1987 with ow^laroed disappearances 
or deaths of U.S. agents overseas, but a seven- 
year investigation failed to produce all the in- 
criminating evidence officials had hoped to get. 
according to government sources. 

Mr. Ames, 52, was arrested at his Arlington, 
Virginia, horse Monday night before the inves- 
tigation was complete primarily because offi- 
cials feared he might flee on a forthcoming 
assi gnmen t overseas, the sources said. Investi- 
gators had ample evidence to support his arrest 
But only a partial picture of tbs scope of his 
alleged espionage for Moscow. 

UJ5. officials said they assumed that Mr. 
Ames pasted along virtually everything he 
brew about matters for which he was directly 
responsible between 1985 and 1991, including 
most of the CIA’s efforts to recruit spies in the 
Soviet Union, its successor states and Eastern 
Europe. But the government is still tryiim to 
determine wh at be also may have passed' along 
about other matters, such as U.S. spy satellite 
operations, eavesdropping and general espio- 
nage procedures. 

A measure of what the government does not 
know can be found in the Clinton administra- 
tion's request this week that Moscow “explain” 
what it learned from Mr. Ames. Also, the direc- 
tor of central intelligence, R. James Woolsey 
Jr„ cat Wednesday, raged CIA employees with 
knowledge of Mr. Ames's activities at the agen- 
cy to cooperate with the continuing investiga- 

Officials privy to information about the in- 

QA officer reportedly betrayed 10 Soviet titi- 
zens working fa* U.S, inteBigenet. • Ctais- 

skm of ecooOBBC aid to Russia, Page 3. 

vestigation said the FBI had wanted to obtain 
evidence Hairing Mr. Ames directly with his 
alleged Russian handlers, such as a photograph 
depicting him at a meeting with a known Rus- 
sian intelligence agent. But investigators were 
able to amass only evidence of his planning for 
such meetings or discussing them vwth his wife, 
as well as samples of secret messages be drafted 
and evidence that he used a series of drop 
points to pass secrets or collect payments. 

Mr. Ames, a 32-year veteran at the agency, 
was arrested with his wife and charged with 

turning ova to Moscow top secret documents 
and information in return for payments that 
totaled more than $U million between 1985 
and 1993. During this period, he recruited and 
managed foreign agents in Washington and at 
least three foreign nations and worked in the 
CIA’s directorate of operations responsible For 
key counterintelligence activities. 

Investigators have been investigating Mr. 
Ames roughly since 1991, when be and other 
officials under suspicion were deliberately 
transferred out of the Soviet/ East European 
branch of the operations directorate to less 
sensitive assignments. But Washington's first 
worries that vital U.S. secrets were bring passed 
to Moscow by a mole in the intelligence com- 
munity began in 1987, officials said. 

The evidence was initially circu m stantial. A 
series of botched spy operations in the Soviet 
Union left Intelligence managers scratching 
their heads- 

Ten VS. spies — eight working for the CIA 
and two For the FBI — were exposed and 
executed in the mid-to-late 1980s, one law en- 
forcement official said. An unspecified number 
of other "people who went cooperating sudden- 
ly stopped cooperating,” said an intelligence 
source. At least 10 major U.S. espionage opera- 

See SPY, Page 4 

called, perhaps an international conference me- 
diated by Russia, the United States and the 
European Union. 

“We need something larger than Geneva 
pretty soon, probably within a month, if we're 
to braid the cease-fire in Sarajevo into a wider 
settlement,” Mr. Zametica said. 

Bnt it seems that the Serbs, who now bold 70 
percent of Bosnia, are not prepared to go much 
beyond what (hey have already offered: shrink- 
ing their lemtoriaJ holdings to abou! 50 percent 
of Bosnia to insure that the government gets 
about a third. 

President Aiija Izetbegovic has rejected this 

Both Slobodan Milosevic, the president of 
See SERBS, Page 4 


Muslims, Groats 
To Meet in U.S. 

WASHINGTON (Renters) — Bosnian 
Muslims and Croats and Croatian govem- 
ment officials will meet in Washington this 
weekend for talks armed at forming a 
unified bi-national Bosnian stale, a senior 
State Department official said Thursday. 

In a striking turnaround, Bosnian Croat 
leaders tiiis week raised the idea of confed- 
eration with Muslims. 

Related articles. Page 2. 

Book Review 

H Down gE 5 

i 51.78 1 I 


The Dollar 

Kw» V a*. Thus, close 

DM 1.7189 

Pound 1.485 

Yen 104,90 

FF 5.833 

Page 7. 

Down m 
0.73% I 

114.78 J|| 







1 ®— 

. Page 2 



Russians Debate 
Amnesty Vote 

Political Maneuvers Heat Up , 
Yeltsin Enemies StiU in Jail 

By Lee Hockstader 

Washington Post Service 

MOSCOW — A legal debate 
erupted Thursday over whether the 
legislative amnesty for the ring- 
leaders of recent rebellions in Rus- 
sia means they will walk out of jail 
soon or not. 

The Stale Duma, the lower house 
of the legislature, voted Wednesday 
to grant a full amnesty to the lead- 
ers of a botched 1991 coup and of 
October’s violent uprising in Mos- 
cow. They include some of Presi- 
dent Boris N. Yeltsin's most bitter 
and potentially dangerous oppo- 

Despite the vole, the anti-gov- 
ernment organizers remained in a 
Moscow prison on Thursday, and it 
remained unclear whether or when 
they would go free. Wives gathered 
at the prison gates hoping to see 
(heir husbands emerge, but to no 

There were continued predic- 
tions that the amnesty could lead to 
civil war if it was carried ouL But 
the debate Thursday shifted to 
whether the Duma had acted with- 
in its power, and how Mr. Yeltsin 
now might be able to block the 

Russia's prosecutor-general sug- 
gested that he would free the ac- 
cused from jail as soon as he re- 
ceived the official paperwork from 
the D uma. But that was hardly the 
Iasi word on the matter. 

In his speech Thursday to the 
Russian legislature, Mr. Yeltsin 
sidestepped direct comment on the 
amnesty question. But in a remark 
that was interpreted here as signal- 
ing his opposition to amnesty, the 
president said: “Social conciliation 

does not mean total forgiveness, 
Mercy is only merry if it does not 
counter Jaw and norms of moral- 

Mr. Yeltsin's spokesman, Vya- 
cheslav Kostikov, said the presi- 
dent would make no decision be- 
fore consulting with legal advisers. 
Yuri Baturin, Mr, Yeltsin’s nation- 
al security adviser, signaled the 
president was firmly against any 
amnesty and would try to stop it. 

Mr. Baturin said the vote by the 
Duma “is in conflict with the prin- 
ciples of the law, because there can- 
not be a situation in which there are 
corpses and nobody is to blame." 

The allusion was to the uprising 
by Russian lawmakers and Ibrir 
allies in October alter Mr. Yeltsin 
dissolved the legislature and sent 
troops to enforce his decision. The 
violence left at least 147 people 

“The president, as the guardian 
of the constitution, has the right to 
demand that the General Prosecu- 
tor’s of Gee not implement the deci- 
sion of the Duma if it is in conflict 
with the principles of the constitu- 
tion and Russian law," Mr. Baturin 

Some analysts said Mr. Yeltsin 
might simply issue a decree declar- 
ing the Duma's vote invalid. Others 
suggested that Mr. Yeltsin might be 
able lo circumvent the amnesty, 
which was written to apply to polit- 
ical prisoners, by declaring that the 
organizers of the 1991 and 1993 
disturbances are guilty of common 
crimes, not political offenses. Still 
others said the Russian constitu- 
tional court might get into the acL 

Black GIs Harassed at German Base 

The Associated Press 

BERLIN — Black soldiers at a U.S. Army 
barracks near Frankfurt have been the target 
of a hale campaign of telephone threats, 
slashed tires and “nigger’’ graffiti for 18 
months, a military spokesman said Thursday. 

The military newspaper Stars and Stripes 
quoted people in the U.S. military communi- 
ty at Budingen as saying most of the targets 
were first sergeants. 

The newspaper said the community mem- 
bers thought an underground organization 
might be involved. 

Captain Gregory R. Bartlett, spokesman 

for the 1st Armored Division at Bad Kreuz- 
narh said he could not recall such racial 
harassment occurring previously on U.S. 
bases in Germany. “I haven't heard of anony- 
mous threats like this,” the captain said. 

Bfldingen, home of the division's 1st Caval- 
ry Regiment, is offering a reward of $1,000 
for the arrest of anyone involved. 

The 1st Cavalry commander, lieutenant 
Colonel Philip Coker, ordered an investiga- 
tion into the incidents at the Armstrong Ca- 
sern a year ago, he said. 

These were among the incidents: 

• The painting of “nigger” on the walls of 

an office, a company motor pool and a non- 
commissioned officer’s automobile. 

• Threatening phone calls to blade officers 
and noncommisaoned officers, 

• The slashing of tires on a sergeant’s car. 

Colonel Coker said that the raoaldimate 

at Armstrong Casern was not tense and that 
he thought these were isolated incidents. ' 

“I don’t see a lot of indications that there’s 
some sort of racial polarization going on 
here,” Stars and Stripes quoted him as saying. 

Bui j>eople who have received threatening 
phone calls have been gives answering ma- 
chines to screes their calls. 

Guy Bonad/TS* AnodnodPmi 

HUNT FOR VICTIMS — A passenger bos sitting in deny where policemen searched for smrivore after a goM-mine dam bust 
near Virginia, South Africa. A total of 13 people were confirmed dead and 58 were missing. Many homes were destroyed. - 

Serbs Are Still Combat-Ready Outside Sarajevo, Bosnian Says 

By John Kifner 

New York Times Service 

SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Herzegovina — The Bosnian 
government asserted Thursday night that Serbian ar- 
tillery, tanks and other heavy weapons were still ready 
for combat in the hills above this besieged city despite 
days of upbeat pronouncements by the United Na- 
tions that they had all been withdrawn or placed under 
UN control 

The removal of the guns threatening the city has 
“not been accomplished," President Alija Izetbegovic 
said in a statement issued after an emergency govern- 
ment meeting 

At the stroke of a NATO deadline at midnight 
Sunday, the top UN official here, Yasushi Aka&hi, 
issued a statement saying that there has been “sub- 
stantial compliance" by the nationalist Serbian forces, 
whose guns had pounded the city from the hills for 22 
months and that no air strikes would be necessary. 

The deadline, and its threat of air strikes, was 
imposed by NATO after international outrage over a 
mortar attack on the public market here that killed 68 
people. A British lieutenant general Sir Michael Rose, 
and other UN officials have been trying to capitalize 
on the air-strike threat, moving swiftly to broker a 
cease-fire and trying to expand it into a durable peace. 

There is a sense of a possible end game to this round 
of warfare, with a cease-fire between Croatian nation- 
alists and the government in central Bosnia to go into 
effect at noon Friday. The cease-fire was agreed to 
after talks at a UN base in Zagreb presided over by 
General Rose and the UN force commander for the 
former Yugoslavia, General Jean Col 

The agreement, calling for a pullback or the turning 
over of heavy weapons, and the positioning of UN 
troops in sensitive areas to ensure adherence to the 
cease-fire, could relieve the siege of Mostar, where 
Croatian nationalists have shelled the Muslim quarter 

of the city, destroying the historic Ottoman-era bridge. 

The cease-fire is part of a series of diplomatic and 
political moves rapidly developing over the past two 
weeks that could result in some sort of confederation 
agreement between Bosnia and Croatia. 

But the fragility of the peace efforts and the endur- 
ing hostilities here were pointed up by several events 
during the day on Thursday. Two Bosnian soldiers 
were shot and killed by snipers in different sectors of 
the front line surrounding the city ovonight, despite 
the cease-fire that has beat generally holding. 

in the besieged Muslim-held town of Maglja, a shell 
hit a medical dime, killing 10 people, according to 
ham radio broadcasts from the city, the only mains of 
communications. There has also been stepped-up 
fighting in other areas of Bosnia in recent days, nota- 
bly in the Bihac pocket. 

Before and after the NATO deadline, UN spokes- 
men have issued one rosy statement after another 

Wonder in Mostar as the Shelling Stops 

By William E. Schmidt 

New York Times Service 
MOSTAR, Bosnia- Herzegovina 
— Through the rooming, there was 
the pop and crackle of automatic 
weapons, as Muslim snipers hidden 
in the shattered buildings overlook- 
ing the Neretva River traded bursts 
with Croatian marksmen across the 

Royal Plaza 


A lake legend. 

Like the one 
we're becoming. 

The only grand hotel 
right on the shore 
of Lake Geneva. 

TEL. 41-21/963 5131 
FAX 41-21/963 5637 

But among the weary residents 
of mostly Muslim eastern Mostar, 
scattered small -arms fire is hardly 
reason to keep them from leaving 
their dark basement shelters, espe- 
cially on such a bright and balmy 
February day. 

Screened from the snipers be- 
hind curtains of sandbags, over- 
turned cars and the hulks re burned 
buses, hundreds of people spilled 
over the ruins of Marsha] Tito Ave- 
nue, sitting in the winter sun and 
loudly discussing the question of 
the moment: Why has the Croatian 
artillery that rained death on their 
heads for some 270 days fallen si- 
lent in recem days? 

“All we care is that the shells 
have stopped,” said a 45-year-old 
woman named Afria, who since last 
fall has lived with six other people 
in a dark, cold concrete cellar in the 
center of town, protected from con- 
stant. hourly shelling that shredded 
the upper floors of Uie building. 

After months as the heart of the 
Bosnian nightmare, a battleground 
where more than 2,000 were killed 
on both sides, 50,000 Muslims are 
still trapped inside a dty with no 
electricity, no water and no escape. 
But there was growing hope late 
Thursday that the brutal siege of 
Mostar is drawing, at long last, to 
an end 

In the Croatian capital Zagreb, 
rival Bosnian Muslim and Bosnian 

Croatian commanders signed a 
cease-fire agreement which, if it 
holds, will disengage their forces all 
across central and southern Bos- 
nia- Herzegovina. The truce applies 
to the fighters who have waged war 
over Mostar, a once-graceful pro- 
vincial city of 125.000 known forils 
tiled red roofs and ancient Turkish 

Negotiated with the aid of UN 
officers, including Sir Michael 
Rose, the British commander who 
oversaw the cease-fire talks in Sara- 
jevo, the agreement calls for the 
two sides not only to lay down their 
arms, but to withdraw the heartiest 
weapons well back from the front 
or turn them over to UN control 

While the formal cease-fire was 
to take effect at noon Friday, both 
residents of the city and LTN peack- 
eeping troops say the worst of the 
fighting tailed off abruptly earlier 
this month, around the same time 
that NATO and the United Na- 
tions were threatening to use air 
strikes on Serbian fighters besieg- 
ing the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. 

“1 think the Croats got the mes- 
sage." a relief worker in southern 
Bosnia said. “They figured it out: 
they just might be' next on the list 
after the Serbs." 

■ Support for Confederation 

President Franjo Tudjman of 
Croatia said Thursday that his gov- 
ernment would raplore a possible 
confederation with Bosnia's Mus- 
lims to end a ruinous Mustim- 
Croat war and protect European 
civilization, Reuters repealed from 
Zagreb. Croatia. 

Mr. Tudjman endorsed a U.S.- 
inspired diplomatic initiative for 
Croat-Mushm rapprochement in a 
speech to the policy-setting central 
committee of his conservative na- 
tionalist party, Croatian Demo- 
cratic Union. 

“To continue fighting would be 
very unfavorable for Croatia." Mr. 
Tudjman said. 

Confederation, he said, could 
eliminate growi ng M uslim funda- 
mentalism in Bosnia, seen as dan- 
gerous to Croatia and the West, 
while ensuring European support 
for Zagreb's quest to recover Serbi- 
an held regions of Croatia - 

“These are the most important 
reasons for our acceptance,” Mr. 
Tudjman said. “So there are strate- 
gic reasons for us and for Europe 
and the United States to reach sudi 
a solution and we will do every- 
thing to achieve iL" 

Children fighting their own 

Javier tata/Tbe AnodaKri At* 

on Thursday in Sarajevo. 

U.S. Troops in Bosnia? Congress Wants Into Act 

'MawfA Jfau-lMi fBasi 

Eat lO1 1 - PARIS 

Just tell the taxi driver, "Sunil: too doe noo “ *u 
PARIS: 5. rue Daunou 
GENEVA: Confederation Center 
,\ MS EURQPA : At Sea MONTREUX: Montrpirc Palace 

New York Times Service 

United States begins pressing the 
Bosnian government to make 
peace, key Republican senators are 
questioning whether Congress 
would approve the administra- 
tion's plan to send American 
troops there if a settlement is 

At a hearing of the Senate For- 

eign Relations Committee, Secre- 
tary of State Warren M. Christo- 
pher warned that Bosnia's Muslim- 
led government would not sign a 
peace treaty without an American 
pledge lo said troops to take part 
in peacekeeping in Bosnia. 

Until two weeks ago, the admin- 
istration's pledge to send American 
troops to enforce a durable settle- 
ment in Bosnia seemed largely the- 

oretical. Now that the United 
States has abandoned its hands-off 
policy toward the Bosnian talks, 
and the Americans, the Russians, 
and the Western Europeans are all 
actively pressing for a settlement, 
the question of how to enforce any 
accord has taken on new urgency. 

Mr. Christopher emphasized 
that Congress would be roily con- 
sulted and its approval sought be- 

fore American forces were sent into 

Bui in a reflection of the anxiety 
in Congress over American in- 
volvement, Senator Richard G. Lo- 
goi, Republican of Indiana, atited 
how Mr. Christopher could even be 
involved in negotiating a peace that 
would require, _ American troops 
without first gaining the approval 
of Congress. 


saying that they were In control" of the Serbian 
weapons that had not been withdrawn. 

But foreign journalists in the Serbian-controlled 
hills this week have been finding more and more 
dumps of Serbian weapons, some deserted, others 
fully manned by their gun crews. In Osyek, for exam- 
ple, British troops of the Coldstream Guards have 
been trying to negotiate with the commander of a 
battery of 1 9 artillery pieces which refuses to give them 

Journalists have crane on artillery pieces being 
towed past unarmed UN militaiy observers, apparent- 
ly in defiance of the conditions of the NATO ultima- 
tum. or with their barrels pointed toward the dty. 

Journalists and militaiy observers who have seen 
the guarded weapons depots set up by the United 
Nations say (hat T 
the official count and 1 

• -Raters- 

ATHENS — Greece on Thurs- 
day rejected a call by President 
KroGheorov of Macedonia for a 
United Nations- sponsored dia- 
logue by the two countries without 
conditions and said that Greek de- 
mands nmsr first bemet. - ■ 
“Our position is dear," said For- 
eign Minis ter Karolos Pnpoufias. 
“wesay fries’ to dialogue as long as 
the prerequisites for dialogue are 

Mr. PapouUas made the state- 
ment after talks with tire European 
Union's external affairs commis- 
sioner, Hans van den Broek. 

Mr. van den Broek, acting as EU 
mediator between Greece and 
Macedonia, delivered a. letter to 
Prime Minister Andreas Papan- 
dreou from Mr. Giigorov. In it, he 
said. Macedonia was ready to re- 
sume UN-sponsored talks, broken 
off by Greece in October; without 

“If Mr. Giigorov gives up his 
intransigence then there could be 
good developments in the future," , 
Mr. Papoulias said. 

Athens wants the Macedonian 
republic to change its nany » 1 re- 
move the Macedonian star from its 
flag and change two articles is its 

constitution, which. Greece says re- 
fleet territorial claims on the Greek 
province of Macedonia. 

^What I am extremely worried 
about is that the situation wiD 
sharoen up and become more tense 
fra: the ample reason that the par- 
ties are not talking,” Mr. van den 
Broek said. 

Belgian Phone Chief 
Charged in Sex Case 

Reuters - 

. BRUSSELS — The head of Bel- 
gium’s .state. telephone company. 
Beucrit Rezrriche, has been charged 
with inciting “debauchery and 
prostitution” through leasing 
phone lines used fra sexual pur- 
poses, a spokesman fra the public 
Prosecutor said Thursday. • - 

The spokesman , said the Belga- 
com chairman had'been charged is 
tts professional capacity, not as a 
pnvate mdividuaL He was aor nfffi 
of bong being “jointly nawonst 
bte, a^olh«- people were expect- 
ed to be charged in connection wife 
the cast 










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Tnkatha Official Accused in Massacre 


tic « r_:ywi,, Mqhnnnl GrtflPTCSS SUOTJOTtCTS. . _ 

also were detained for questioning, the pohee^o. 
southeast of Johannesburg. 

Findings (kwifi™ 

THE HAGUE (Rentera) — Flawed exqpne mounri^s 
the Amsterdam air disaster in October *9® **£? 

•jet crashed into an apartment complex, tiffing 43 people, an mdqjendem 

that the design 
Board, was in line with pre 
plane out of control 

Ukraine Moves to Restrain Crimea ; 

KIEV (Renters) — Ukraine's parliament sought to put Crimea in its 
place on Thursday, affirming that the autonomous region had no right 19 
conduct independent foreign, defense ra monetary policies. 

A resolution, passed by a vote of 222 to 4, gave ^authorities in the 
pemnsula amonth to bring Crimea’s constitution and legislation into lu£ 
with Ukrainian law. It was dearly directed at efforts by Crimea s new 
president, Yuri Meshkov, to forge daser economic and political ties with 

Russia. ’ _ . 

But deputies representing both Ukrainian national and Cnmean into'- 
ests s aid its t erms were relatively mild and would probably have little 
effect cm Crimea’s policies. The resolution accused Crimean officials of 
pasting laws arid making statements “winch go .beyond the prerogatives 
of Crimea’s status and could worsen the situation in Crimea and through; 
out Ukraine." 

All 1,000 Syrian Jews Get Exit Visas 

nr-. i- — ; — J immigrate to the — 

thal some had decidod to stay iu Syria, where Jews have lived for at least 
2,500 years. Some families who immigrated recently to the United States 
had returned, Rabbi Jajati said. . ‘ 

“AH numbers of. the Jewish community in Syria now have exit mafe 
andean travd abroad if they want,” he said after performing prayers at 
Damascus’s largest synagogue. 


An article in Thursday’s etfitkms about France’s Superphfcnix breeder 
reactor contained an inmredse reference to mixed oxide fueL The fuel can 
be raided, although tqereare no plans to do so for another 10 to 15 
years. • • y / •-' . •• - ‘ “• | 

Cleanup Is Halted at jemsalem Watt j 

JERUSALEM {AFP) — Israels. Antiqaities Department has halted a 
cleanup operation at the Western WaD,f earing Judaism’s most sacred site 
amid be irreversibly damaged. ■ i 

A Jerusalem company began blasting the wall with water under Ugh- 

S^artmcn^^Q^miiig with hot water jets risks canting 

irreversible rianiagp to the ahtient bfocfcs of stone;” a spokesman said 
“We have to think of another way of retuxhmg the stones to (fiefr original 
condition,” he added. ' V. . . < 

Morocco’s onkm federation? decided to pbsqKme a 244wnr : general 
strike that was expected Friday, a spokesman said. The Democratic 
Labor Confederation claims 500,000 members. ' (Reuters) 

Improved air safety m dun is hoped for iMs year, a newspaper 
reported Thursday. The deputy director of China’s dvfliari avurnon 
administration made the call a week after an international report de- 
scribed Chimt as the most dangerems place to fly . 1 " . (AP) 

A 200-room hotel wffl be biA in Hanoi, the Vietnam News reported 
Thursday. The Hoan Khan Hotd, to be financed fra $175 million from 
Hong Kong, will be located coathe shores of Hoan Kiem Lake. (AP) 
Singapore is to be rcgjoul headquarten of the Federal Aviation 
AdmmMration. He office at Changi Airport will serve the fast-growing 
Asia-Pacific region. f^pj 

Macedonia Seeks Talks,: 
But Greece Holds Firm : 










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QA Officer Betrayed 10 Contacts to Moscow, FBI Asserts 

" ■ .. By Tim Weiner 

l'-: .' Mew York Timet Stnice- 

WASHINGTON — The Aldrich 
Hazen Ames, the CIA offkxrarrested on espionage 
charges thus week; of betraying- at least 10 Soviet 
ritizens working for United-States mtdBgence. AO 
were convicted of- treason and executed in Moscow by 

Soviet authorities. 

The agents said: to ^have been identified by Mr. 
Ames hduded the.Srst two intelligence officers the 
TBr had evier rechr&ed from Sk Soviet Embassy in 
Washington and a. senior Soviet counterintelligence 
official in Moscow responsible for catching U.S. spies, 
u. Mr. Auks had . access to a wide range of CIA 

jicounterintdligence branch chief responsible for the 
Soviet Union and Easton Europe from 1983 anal 
1991, according to government officials who received 
£BJ briefings about the case.- 

Ai though the CIA and other intelligence agencies 
keep sensitive information carefully segregated to en- 
hance, secrecy, Mr. Arses could have kept hjnreHf 
informed about most agency activities m the Soviet 
Union, indudmg the identities of Soviet citizens worit- 
mg for Washington; nffajjaK said. 

^ The FBrsaamsatians that Mr. Ames's betrayals led 
to the executions of Moscow agents havr been made 
only behind .dosed doors to Congress and other gov- 
ernment agencies, not in open court. FBT officials, say 

they arcstfflworldiigmaiinplete their list of accusa- 
tions agamst Mr. Ames and did notnanKafi 10 people 
they say were betrayed- The executions they described 
are all beEeved to have occurred before the Soviet 
Union dissolved in Dccanber 1991. 

: Mr. Ames and his wife, Maria del Rosario Casas 
Ames, who officials say has agreed to talk to federal 
■ investigators, remained imprisoned outside Washing- 
ton awaiting a scheduled arraignment cm Friday on 
csgsrooage charges. 

Among the betrayals ascribed to Mr. Ames by 
government offici a l s briefed by the FBI were those erf 
two Soviet Embassy officials, Valeri F. Maninov and 
Sergei M. Motorin. . . 

*The FBI is bitter about this case," said a govern- 
ment official who was among several who received 
briefings from the bureau on Wednesday. “They lost 
two great sources here from the embassy." 

Other government officials, who insisud cm ano- 
nymity, said that a third Soviet Embassy official who 
was secretly working for UJ5. intelligence was also 
betrayed and executed in 1986. 

Mr. Mardnov and Mr. Motorin carry- to W ashing , 
ton in 1981; each holding the innocuous rank of third 
secretary and assigned, respectively, to the cultural 
affairs and information sections of the Soviet Embassy 
in Washington. 

In reality, they were spies. with.Mn Martino" seek- 
ing scientific ana technical information, and Mr. Mo- 
torin gathering political intelligence to help Moscow 

I w' *4 '"-i- • ~ V w / (if 

|T- . v JTm.: ;- w XV tM v'tVN 

Away From Politics . 

• •LorcnaBohhitt should be released from the Vir- 

giia state mental hospital where she. has been 
confined since her acquittal oti Jan. 21 t» charges 
; bf tshttmg tit hex hosbai^spenis, jwychiatrfeis ’ 

^ rif ' 

i her attorneys and other legal sources said. 

. • Prosecutors wot to.owt to stop a man who 
kffled five college students from earning money on 
the life story he wants to tell with his fianefe. A 
motiomwas fifed in Circuit Court in Stazke, Floci- 
> da, seeking a hen any profits earned by 

DannyRoQing, an inmate at Florida State Prison. 
• A confessed munier coospaatoc and Aug fraf- 
ficker tested that berelayed an order fixun Co- 
lombia to bill MaitiieJdeDjas Unanae, tkeausad- 
ing anti-drag journalist who was killed in New 
Y«k two years ago. The directwe.}o kin. the 
journalist he. said,- tod originated with a. leader of 
’ Dios “was bnbHshirig a whole lot of th hi gs about 
The people m CaE" ■ 

’ •Themmdercase^rinstllBnncfaDariAasshas 
gorm to fte jury in SSn Antonio, Texas, after seven 

weeks of trial that encompassed 130 witnesses and 
nearly 1^00 ineces ctf evidence. 

• A fawsof filed by 47 nddriopmen who sou^it to 
Mode die U3. Navy's investigation of possible 
cheating by students at the U3. Naval Academy 
has been dismissed. The midshipmen had objected 
to the use of a Honor Review Board, led by Rear 
Admiral Richard C Allen, to renew the cases of 

- more than 100 students accused of chea ting. The 
ruling allowed the Allen pand to begin its sched- 
uled review of the allegations on Thursday. 
•When ft comes to (ast-dfrch fife-saring efforts, 
elderly people prefer to die peacefully unless the 
odds are dearly in their favor, a study suggests. Dr. 
Donald J. Murphy said: “If s not the Kresustam- 
ing machinery that intimidates them. Tbey just 
don't want lobe on it for any length of time if the 
‘ prognosis is poor."Tbe study ^ was conducted at the 
Senior Citizen’s Health Center at Presbyterian-St. 
Luke’s Medical Center in Denver. 

* A jay to New YoritGty began its first fufl day of 
deaerations on Thursday in the World Trade 
(Sato bombing trial to determine who launched 
the attack. 


House Assails Black Leader’s Talk 

Washington Pa# Sienfce 

WASHINGTON —The House of Rtpresenta-. 
fives has condemned as “outrageous hatomonger- 
ing” a speech that Khalid Abdul Muhammad, a 
Nation of Islam leader, delivered ala New Jersey 
college last November. . . • . ■ - 

The resolution denouncing the speech was 
adopted, 361 to 34, on Wednesday, aftoa debate, 
pitting concerns about hateful, remarks, aganjst. 
wanes about free speedL • • ~ 

' “WhenfreedoroofspeechTsabusedmavileand 

virious way” it condanned, Repre- 
sentative Tom Lantcs, Democrat of Cafifomia, a 
Jewish refugee from Hungary vdio sponSored.ihe 

Representative Don Edwards, also a California 
Democrat; said Congress should not be in the 
business of condemning speeches. 

In a Nov. 29 speech, Mr. Mnhammad had called 
Jews “bkxxisDckm cS the black "nation." 

Most of the. resolution’s opponents, both white 
and black, expressed concern about Congress con- 
deawmgnspcech. • : 

-A group of 29 Iawm&ers voted “present,” 
meaning they went oarecard as neither approving 
nor oppoarrg tl» measure. Voting present was 
KwasiMfume, Democrat of Maryland, the chair- 
man of the Congressional Blade Caucus. 

Earlier this month, the Senate condemned Mr. 
Muhammad's speech, 97 to 0. 

understand Washington's plans for fighting the Cold 

The FBI succeeded in reenhting them as agents for 
U.S. mfcffigence in 1983 or 1984. after tears of every- 
thing from friendly persuasion to cold-eyed entrap- 
ment, government officials said. 

“It's extremely difficult to recruit such men." said F . 
Mark Wyatt, a retired senior CIA officer who w aked 
with Soviet defectors after leaving the agency. '’For 
American intelligence, the loss of men like that, of 
which we have loo few, is a disaster and a 

The KGB found out that Mr. Martin ov had be- 
trayed Moscow in Lite 1985. according io retired KGB 
officers. In November 1985, he was ordered to escort 
back to Moscow a senior Soviet spy. Vhali Yurchenko, 
who defected to the United States and then apparently 
changed his mind. 

Mr. Ames was one of the CIA officials who de- 
briefed Mr. Yurchenko, the deputy chief of the KGB's 
Noth American bureau and the highest-ranking Sovi- 
et intelligence official ever to defect to the United 
States. The FBI has not said whether it believes Mr. 
Ames fed information from the debriefings back to 

Upon arrival in Moscow, Mr. Maninov was arrest- 
ed. So was Mr. Motorin, who was transferred back to 
Moscow at about the same time. The two men were 
executed in 1986, both American and Russian officials 
familiar with the case said. 

An even better-placed source betrayed by Mr. 
Ames, according to the FBI. was the man code-named 

In December 1990. according to an FBI affidavit 
Mr. .Ames came home from work at the CIA. sat down 
ai his home computer ar.d began tapping oui a mes- 
sage to the Soviet intelligence^ service. 

The message precisely identified a mole inside the 
Moscow headquarters of the KGB. or Committee for 
Stale Seeunty. The man Mr. .Ames is accused of 
fingering held a job much like his own. only far more 

He was the head of the American targets section of 
Soviet counterintelligence, according to jowrnuneni 
officials. His name remains secret but CIA records 
referred to him by the code name Prologue, preceded 
by a random two-letter code. “GT.” identifying him as 
a "Soviet source. 

"Ames had access to information regarding G I pro- 
logue." an FBI special agent. Leslie G. Wiser Jr_ wrote 
in a 35-page affidavit unsealed Wednesday. On Dec. 
14, 1990. the affidavit said. Mr. Ames wrote an official 
GA tcemcraadura on a relased subjecL 

A few days later, the affidavit said. Mr. Ames wrote 
the following message on his home computer; “I did 
learn that Gtprologue is the cryptonym for the SCD 
officer I provided you information about earlier.” 

The “SCD” u as the Second Chief Directorate of 
Soviet intelligence, the branch responsible for coun- 
terintelligence investigations in the Soviet Union. 

Congress Assails Aid to Russia 

Atimmistration Rejects Linkage to Spy' Case 

Compiled by Our Slog From Dispatches 

WASHINGTON — Responding to congressional 
rails for a suspension of U.S. aid to Russia because of 
the spying affair. Secretary oT State Warren M. Chris- 
topher said Thursday the fundamental purpose of the 
assistance was not charity, but to serve the U.S. 
nntirmat interest. 

Mr. Christopher, told the House Foreign Affairs 
Committee that the reported spying for Russia by a 
CIA official. Aldrich Hazen Auks, and his wife, em- 
phasized that there were “stiH forces at work in Russia 
mconsistem with reform.” 

But he said: “American assistance is not charity . We 
do it because it is in the interest of the United States 
and for no other reason." He said the aim was to 
promote political, economic and foreign policy reform 
m Russia. 

Mr. Christopher was awaiting a reply from Moscow 
to a U.S. demand that Russians involved in the alleged 
espionage be withdrawn from Washington. As of 
Thursday morning, the Russians had not responded, 
an administration official said. 

Representative Benjamin A. Gilman, Republican of 
New York, told Mr. Christopher ai the committee 
bearing that the arrest of the Ames couple this week 
“could seriously affect the future erf U.S. foreign 
assistance to Russia.” 

“It is ironic that, given the high levels of assistance 
that Russia has sought from the United Slates and 
other donors, they could still find the money to pay for 
this spy,” Mr. Gilman said. 

He called for assurance that UJx aid did not “some- 
how permit this operation to continue long after 
Russia should have shut it down on its own ” 

Clinton Off Base 
On Japan Trade, 

Bradley Asserts 

New York Tunes Semce 

WASHINGTON — In an un- 
usually pointed rebuke of his own 
party’s leader. Senator Bill Bradley 
of New Jersey has asserted that , ’ 

President Bill Clinton’s hard line |X|Mpi 
on Japan trade policy is “gratuitous 
brinkmanship" that puts the long- KgpCT 

term economic and strategic inter- g _ * : 

ests of the United Slates at risk in fM.% - “ : - 

pursttit of domestic political gain. 

“I mean, it’s kind of Japan-bash- i|| *\Ci' 

ing for domestic constituency," the !fjp|l% 

senator said, “without regard to the 
long-term strategic interests of the 
country, not even achieving the ^ 

short-term objective, which is g «- V 

ting the - bilateral trade deficit 

Mr. Bradley, an outspoken advo- ** 

cate of free trade, has occasionally 
weighed in with a dissenting Don- IflflNBjl 

ocratic voice on a range of policy 
issues. He is one of the a drmn istra- >i 

deal’s most reliable backers in the jyV * 

Senate, however, and has rarely so 
sharply criticized Mr. Clinton. |fT .] 

He said that by allowing trade 
talk* with Japan to cdlapse two p. 

weeks ago and threatening retaha- • 41 

tic®, the United Stales risked nn- ' 
dermimog Prime Minister Mori- 
hiro Hosokawa's nascent efforts at 
internal reforms that could open 
markets and strengthen the Japa- 
nese economy. 

Mr. Bradley said that by insist- ; 

ing On specific numerical bench- 
maria to show whether Japan was 
opening various markets to goods 
from the United States and other - * * 

countries, the White House could $ 

force Mr. Hosokawa imo greater ^ , r 

reliance on the labyrinthine Japa- 
nese bureaucracy, which has resist- 
ed change- 

^Obesity Is Going to TBave Its Day in Court 

The Associated Press 

T Washington — Deborah 
jButiwdl wanted to see the mowe 
Jurassic Park." but she was too 
i large to fit into the seats and the 
Jtheater would not let her bring her 
town chair. 

» So, in a test of the Americans 
‘with Disabilities Act, the Tennes- 
4 see woman has gone to court tatty 
ito force theaters to accommodate 

< “W^re sort of thb W group ^ 

'parale that society has said, ‘wdl. 

Jit’s OX to 'hurt these people, • 
rsaid Ms.'Krfwefl, who H-Jftjj 
jweighs 360. pounds (1.6 meters 163 
■^ograms). “That has to stop-. • 
■ In November, The govermncnl 
'declared that people who are ex- 
tremely obese are protected from 
zdixriminaxfcni under the disafei- 
iities act regardless of wbether the 
•weight was caused by disease or. 
Spoor diet. • • in* 

L Previoody, only pwle whose 
"ill st emme d from disease were 

p rotected. Biot in a brief filed in an 

■ employmeatilawsuit. in Rhode. Is- 
Jand, the Equal Exapjoyweni Op- . 
poxtumfy ■ Commisscnt said that 
nnprbid, obesity", from any. cause 
qualified. Morbid obesaty is a med- 

Ksd term that nKans, Hffl percent 
- oyer normal weight ... 

Ms. Bifdwd! will become the 
first person to test that ntirng um^ 
another provisrarof the fisabOi tics ' 
act— mat pobfic {daces must-ao- 
commodate the^disaUed. For h a, 
♦hat mrans a big enough thetiff 
.'seat- ’■ ■ . . •* 

In a lawsuit filed, in. U^. District 
Court in CookeviDe, Tennessee, 

1 Ms. Birdwdl is askfng Oat Car- 
nuke Cinemas ; immediately; be 
forced' toaccommodate obaepa- 
tronS- Sic also sedts unspedyed 

damages winch hff lawyer bopes 
will total $1 5 ■' :r 

; Ms. BfrdwdJ, 38, of CookwiDe; 
las' been overweight ance - duld- 
hbod,snd obesity nmsmha-fam- 
ily. She sought escape is.themov- 

ies, but in 1991 became too large 
for the seats. She said she was so 
ashamed that she became a recluse. 
. . .“I had just hibernated,” she said. 

Then last summer, die took her 
niece to see “Jurassic Park." She 
called ti» theater, explained her 
weight problem and asked if she 
could at in her own chair in the 
whedchair section, out of the way. 
A woman on the phone said yes. 

But ihe smt alleges that the the- 
^ater manager, Dewey Dodson, 
spotted Ms. Biidwdl m fine and 
ydled that she could not bring in 
the cb«ir, calling it a fire hazard 
that violated thaler policy. After 

js ask the butler.. 

several minutes of public harangu- 
ing, an embarrassed Ms. Bircradl 
collapsed in tears, the suit says. 

The disabilities act requires that i 

public places accommodate anyone 
with a physical condition that 
“substantially limits a major life 

And obese people are now de - 1 
pranriing that accommodation, said ' 
Ms. Bhdwdl’s attorney, Jim Good- 
man of the Persons with Disabil- 
ities Law Center in Ailanla. He 
alto is preparing a lawsuit against i 
an airline that charged an obese 
customer for two seats because she 
couldn’t fit in one. 


yin, Hrtw it erpbni >■* ■«« it *» 

S-l-W -G-A- P-O- K-E 

Earlier the Senate Republican leader. Bob Dole of 
Kansas, called for a halt to aid to Moscow unless the 
Russians cooperate in the .Ames prosecution and stop 
spy activities ic the United States. 

Senator Dennis DeCondni, Democrat of Arizona, 
chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelli- 
gence, and other lawmakers joined in the call for an 
aid freeze. 

Auoroey General Janet Reno said Thursday that 
she had “expressed our serious concern about the 
matter” in a meeting Wednesday with eight Russian 
officials, including General Sabir Kekhlerov. the first 
deputy prosecutor. “They acknowledged my con- 
cern." Ms. Reno said. 

In Moscow, the Itar-Tass agency reported that the 
United States was sending a high-level CLA delegation 
to Moscow “in the coming days" to discuss the Ames 
case with Russian intelligence officials. U.S. officials 
in Washington did not confirm the report. 

President Bill Clinton, meantime, sought u> strike a 
balance between tough talk and assurances that the 
case would not disturb the post-Cold War thaw in 
UJS.-Russian relations. 

He characterized the case as a very serious security 
breach, but he said it did not imdermme the policy 
toward the government and “the forces of change in 

“The relationship is bigger than handling this espio- 
nage case,” Mike McCuny. the Stale Department 
spokesman, said. While the United States is demand- 
ing a serious response from Moscow, he added, “we 
have manifest interests that go far beyond this particu- 
lar case." (AP, Reuters) 


Investigator is Warned on Foster Suicide 

WASHINGTON — The special counsel investigating ihe real- 
estate of President Bill Clinton and his wife, Hillary 
Rodham Clinton, has announced the hiring of a former New York 
prosecutor to lead an investigation into ifie events relating to the 
suicide last summer of the White House deputy counsel. Vincent W. 
Foster Jr. 

The independent counsel. Robert B. riske Jr_ said ui a written 
statement that Roderick C. Lankier uould open a Washington office 
to investigate Mr. Foster’s death. Most of the other seven lawyers 
hired by Mr. Fiske are current or former prosecutors or have 

backgrounds in investigating financial crimes. They will be based in 
Little Rock. .Arkansas. 

At the time of his death on July 20. Mr. Foster was the Clintons 
personal lawyer. He was working on a blind trust for them and had 
recemk prepared three years of delinquent corporate tax returns on 
the Whitewater Development Corp _ a company jointly owned by 
the Clintons and James McDoueal the owner of Madison Guaranty, 
and his former wife, Susan. 

Mr. Lankier was chief erf the trial division of the Manhattan 
District Atroraev’s Office under Robert M. Morgenthau and then 
worked as a special state prosecutor investigating allegations of 
corruption in the criminal justice system. 

As a private attorney since !9g4. he served on a commission 
investigating police corruption. ( W77 

Three Stars for General? Or a Demotion? 

WASHINGTON — Over the objections of at least one senator, 
the White House has recommended that the air force general who 
directed the allied air campaign against Iraq be retired as a three-star 
officer, rather than being demoted for improper interference with a 
promotion board. 

Lieutenant General Buster C. Glosson was admonished last year 
by the secretary of the air force. Sheila E. WidnalL after an investiga- 
tion determined that he had improperly intervened with a promotion 
board to try to block the advancement of a lower-ranking generaL 

General Glosson. 51. has vigorously denied the findings, which 
were made by the inspector general of the Defense Department and 
the inspector general of the air force. But the incident was serious 
enough to end his chances for promotion. 

Senator Charles E Grassley. Republican of Iowa, who has been a 
frequent critic of military spending, is challenging the White House 
decision to retire General Glosson at his three-star rank. 

The Senate, which must approve the appointments of all officers 
to three- and four-star grades, must also approve the retirements of 
officers at those levels. f.V YT) 

D.C. Mayor Takes Makeup Without Blush 

WASHINGTON — The District of Columbia mayor, Sharon 
Pratt Kelly, is spending city money on a professional makeup artist, 
and other elected officials are questioning how she can spend public 
funds on her personal appearance. 

A city contract allowed the makeup artist, Julie A. Rodgers- 
Ed wards, to receive as much as S5.000 for the eight months that 
ended in September. Another city contract will pay her as much as 
S9.000 for the 12 months ending this September. 

Ms. Rodgers- Edwards is paid S65 an hour to apply makeup for the 
mayor for all cable television productions, photo sessions and public 
appearances, according to the current contract. 

The mayor said that Ms. Rodgers-Edwards’s services, paid out of 
fees cm cable service, were available to anyone appearing on District 
cable shows. (WP) 

Quote /Unquote 

President Clinton, commenting on possible implications of the 
case of a career CIA officer accused of selling U.S. national security 
secrets to Moscow: “I do not think the facts of this case at this time 
undermine in any way shape or form the policy we have followed the 
last year toward President Yeltsin and his government and the forces 
of change in Russia." (AP) 


W 100 % m 


I february 25 - march 3, 1994 1 

I at Fiera Milano and in the city 1 
f the fashion shows I 
I of Milano Collezioni 

at Fiera Milano 

the 350 ModaMilano collections 
and the ‘Galleria delle Show Room’ 

in the city 

300 show rooms and lots 
of fashion ideas 
in the show windows 
of the image boutiques 

Efima - Expo CTS 




modh ■Haiwirafc— da 

february 25 - march 1, 1994 
Fiera Milano - Piazza VI ftbbraio 
bJL- 02/66J0^55/2a00.42J7 

Camera Nazionale della Moda Italians 


february 28 - march 3, 1994 
Fieri Milano - Piazza VI Febbraio 
Ia£u 02/76.0032.77 - 76X0.42,49 






Clinton to Fill London , Delhi and Riyadh Jobs 

By Steven Greenhouse 

New York Tuna Same 

WASHINGTON — Faring criticism for being slow 
to Twrng ambassadors to several major countries, Pres- 
ident Bill Qmton will soon name envoys to India. 
Britain and Sand? Arabia, according to administration 

In an effort to break the logjam that has delayed 
numerous appointments, the president plans to name 
Stephen J. Soiarz, the former congressman from New 
York, to be ambassador to India, and William J. 
Crowe Jr. retired admiral and chairman of the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff in 1 935-89, to be ambassador to Brit- 
ain, Ray Matas, the former governor of Mississippi, 
will be named ambassador to Saudi Arabia, officials 

Mr. Solarz’s nomination has been delayed for more 
than four months because of an FBI investigation into 
his efforts to obtain a visa for a Hong Kong executive 
with a criminal record. Last month, that investigation 
was ended, with no charges brought 

Mr. Solan, a Democrat, lost a re-election bid in 
1992 after the congressional district he had represent- 
ed since 1975 was redrawn. Respected for his expertise 
in foreign policy, be was a member of the House 
Foreign Affairs Committee and chairman of its sab- 
committee on Asian and Pacific Affairs. 

According to one adranrisiration official, Mr. Cbm- 
ton has filed formal papers with ihe State Department 
expressing his intention to nominate Mr. Soiarz. 

Stale Department officials said, however, that be- 
fore the president made a formal nomination, India 
must first approve the name. Bus is widely seen as a 

Admiral Crowe, one of the most senior military 
figures to back Mr. Clinton in the 1 992 campaign, lent 
him a much-needed military endorsement when he 
was under fire for his efforts to avoid service during 
the Vie tnam War. 

During the uproar over Mr. Clinton's efforts to stay 
out of the armed sendees, Admiral Crowe called many 
of the criticisms “divisive and peripheral" 

At a party held in Washington last weekend to mark 
the admiral's 40th wedding anniversary, be invited his 
guests to visit him once be became ambassador to 
Britain, one of the most important and prestigious 
diplomatic posts. 

Mr. Mabus was a vigorous supporter of Mr. Clinton 
in 1992 and, like the president, was considered one of 
the new breed of young, mainstream Democratic gov- 
ernors. He was governor of Mississippi from 1983 to 
1992, losinga race forre-dection in November 1991 to 
Kirk Fordice. 

SERBS: *We*d Rather Drive Mercedeses Than Tanks 9 

from page 1 divided on the issue, influential fao- to the northwest, and we will pvt 

Serbia, and Mr. Karadzic favor the 
division of Bosnia into Muslim, 
Croatian and Serbian states, Serbi- 
an officials said, but they are pre- 
pared to countenance a union of 
three republics provided that the 

X Wics have the right to secede 

The Serbs appear to have no 
deep reservations about the idea of 
a Mushm-Croatian federation in 
Bosnia, which has been suggested 
by Washington: they seem con- 
vinced in any case that neither the 
Muslims nor the Croats really want 

Then: are enormous difficulties 
with the Serbian position. Al- 
though the Bosnian government is 

divided cm die issue, infinential fac- 
tions continue to favor a angle 
State in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 
which is after all what the world 
recognized two years ago. 

Moreover, the Serbs* position an 
Sarajevo, the capital seems rigid. 

They want an immediate large 
increase in UN troops — perhaps 
an additional 3X100 soldiers — to 
police front lines. They also insist 
on a two-year administration of the 
city by the United Nations, fol- 
lowed by its formal division into 
separate Serbian and Muslim ad- 

“Sarajevo itself must be cut in 
half," said Colonel Komnen Zar- 
kovic, a senior military official for 
the Bosnian Serbs. “The Muslims 
can have a corridor out, probably 

to the northwest, and we Mil give 
them other territory in return-” 

Mr. lzetbegovic’s government re- 
fuses even to discuss dividing Sara- 

The Serbs also argue that the 
forced removal of hundreds of 
thousands of people during the war 
cannot be reversed. 

That would mean, for example, 
that Serbian-held towns Hke Zvor- 
nik. Visegrad and Foca, where 
Muslim populations were far larger 
before the war and which the gov- 
ernment wants to regain, would re- 
main in Serbian hands. 

But if an international confer- 
ence accepts this, it would appear 
to condone the brutal mainly Ser- 
bian policy of “ethnic deanring” 
That has characterized the war. 


Nationalistic Turn 

Confirmed from Page 1 

speeches, Mr. Yeltsin never landed 
Russia’s democratization. “Yes, 
there is more freedom in the coun- 
try,” he said. “But this is not 
gnrmg h Our tad? jg to make sure 
that Russia has more justice, more 
security, more confidence in the 
present day and in the future.” 

Vladimir Kozhemyakin, a cen- 
trist deputy who attended the 
speech, said several hard-line Com- 
munists around him joked that Mr. 
Yeltsin had stolen much of Ins 
speech from their party platform. 
But if the president hoped to win 
support from the Communist- and 
nan o nafis t-d ooMoat ed parliament 
elected in December, he seemed to 
have faded. His arrival and s peech 
were greeted by tepid applause, 
and many deputies dismissed his 
remarks as a mixture of empty 
words and Soviet-style lecturing. 

Mr. Yeltsin appealed repeatedly 
for cooperation between thepariia- 
ment and exeaitive branch. Calling 
ft an unacceptable brake on reform, 
he dissolved the previous parlia- 
ment in September and eventually 
called in tanks to end its resistance. 
But the new parliament elected 
Dec 12 has proven equally suspi- 
cions of his market reforms and his 
opening to the West 

On Thursday, Mr. Yeltsin restat- 
ed his determination to pursue eco- 
nomic reforms and to fi gh t infla- 
tion, a major concern of the 
reformers who left his government 
last month. But much of his ad- 
dress aimed at allaying 

conservatives' concerns about a 
weakened humiliated Russia. 

“In 1994, we most put an end to 
the misguided practice of making 
unilateral concessions.” Mr. Yelt- 
sin said, pro mis i n g to protect Rus- 
sia’s defense budget and its over- 
seas arm*; mark ets. 

He said an expansion of NATO 
that did not in crude Russia would 
be a “path to new threats to Enrope 
and the world” 

JWi ■ 1 * ■ ■ ^ 

SITTING ON ICE — RmsianfiAem^ wafting for lira big <»etoiiite ob ffreftwacASta of Far 

dty of Vladivostok, ‘IMnsaiiiis of Russians head for tfaekeon the -weekend to go fisfcingin an eHwfc to a^frrnrm im «■*». 

METALS: Pointing the Finger in Germany’s Ugly Corporate Mdodranw 

Continued from Page 1 

ratify a 3.4 btffiou-maik rescue package far the 
company, Mr. Schmitz said it was “sheer non- 
sense to present things now as though *the 
banks’ had known about this game of roulette 
and promoted it, and that, with a guilty con- 

busch ami his mauaf 
ry board “withddf 

deceived the superrist^' 

liety fdrified infbnna- 

SPY: 7-Year Investigation Was Incomplete When Arrests Had to Be Made 

Caatiooed hom Page 1 

dons failed daring one two-year period, sources 

Skip Brandon, wbo until January served as 
deputy director of the FBI's intelligence divi- 
sion and helped supervise the Ames investiga- 
tion. confirmed that one of the events that first 
tipped off the bureau to the possibility of a 
double agent within the CIA was the escape of 
the former agent Edward Lee Howard to the 
Soviet Union. 

Mr. Howard fled his home outside Santa Fe, 
New Mexico, in 1985 while under FBI surveil- 
lance. FBI officials were suspicious that he had 
been tipped off “from day one,” Mr. Brandon 

Mr. Howard gave Moscow information 
about U.S. spy operations that “virtually closed 
down our operations” there, one official said. 

Mr. Brandon said Mr. Howard's flight was a 
“major event” that alarmed FBI couztterinteUz- 
gcnce officials. He said that the FBI had to 
“strongly consider the possibility” that Mr. 
Ames was the culprit. 

But be also noted that the episode did not 
stand alone. A lot of things were happening 
that were puzzling and prompted bureau offi- 

cials to conclude there was a mote in the agency, 
Mr. Brandon said. 

A CIA damage assessment in early 1987. 
completed two years after Mr. Howard’s defec- 
tion, showed that some of the agents picked up 
in the preceding year “were people Howard was 
not aware of, one source sairL “These were 
unexplained, unaccounted for problems with 
operations,” an intelligence source said. “You 
always have some attrition. But this went well 
beyond that Eddie Lee Howard’s compromise 
didn’t explain ii alL” 

A source involved in the inquiry said the FBI 
subsequently began a general investigation 
“into what had become a nagging worry — a 
suspicion of internal betrayal. 

Although Mr. Ames did not have a high 
profile inside the agency, several of his actions 
should have caught the attention of his col- 
leagues, his superiors or the agency's own coun- 
terintelligence operation, according to former 
officials. His August 1985 marriage to Maria 
del Rosario Ditpuy, a Colombian-born former 
cultural attache at an embassy in Mexico City, 
“should have drawn a complete investigation,” 
one former CTA counterintelligence official 
said. The marriage took place within a few 
months of unusual cash deposits by Mr. Ames 
at a Virginia bank. 

Several sources said Mr. Ames may have set 
investigators on the wrong track by passing 
routine polygraph examinations in 1986 and 
1991. But another official said that shortly after 
the second exam, a review of his finances 
turned up evidence of some of the deposits, 
totaling more than SI million, that investigators 
eventually concluded were supplied by the So- 

The agency was concerned enough in June 
1993 to search Mr. Ames’s work area in the 
oouniernarcotks center. At that time they 
found documents dealing with the Soviet 
Union that had no relationship to his job. Some 
of the Soviet-related classified documents, the 
court papers said, were dated after Mr. Ames 
had been reassigned, raising the question of 
bow be obtained them. 

A full investigation apparently was then un- 
dertaken. including tapping telephones, physi- 
cal surveillance and placement of a video cam- 
era across from the Ames home. In October 
1993, a search of his trash turned up more 
incriminating evidence, according to the court 

The arrest was made because FBI agents 
learned that Mr. Ames was about to take a 
scheduled overseas trip in connection with his 
work with the CIA’s coon temarco tics center. 

science, they therefore quickly appointed a new 

Mr. Schmitz said at the meeting that in 
autumn 1992 , MeiaOgeseflscbaft “wished to of- 
fer their so-called risk-management products in 
the oil sector to customers of Deutsdie Bank — 
in other words, it was purely a matter of refer- 
ring business.” 

Both he and Hflmar Kopper, chairman of the 
board of Deutsche Bank, said that no binding 
agreements had come about "id <>»"< not a 
single deal had materialized between MG Carp, 
and a Deutsche Bank client. 

Mr. Kopper said in an interview the bank’s 
cooperation with MG Corp. on oO hedging was 
“absolutely normal” and to the prob- 

lems that surfaced later in 1993. Deutsche Bank 
owns 10.65 percent of Metallgesdlscbaft 

On several key issues raised by Mr. Schixn- 
mdbusch, he and Mr. Schmitz offered starkly 
differing various of events. 

Mr. Schnnmelbusch, far example, contended 
that in a meeting with Mr. Schmitz as early as 
last May. “it was dear to me that my career at 
MetailgeseHschaft was enuring to an end.” 

He said Mr. Sdumtz had told him that his 
five-year contract would not be renewed at the 
supervisory board meeting last July. “I objected 
to this treatment and asked why,” be said. “Mr. 
Srhmit7- was vague and did not give me a real 

Mr. Schmitz said Thursday that be post- 

Mr. Schmitz said Thursday that be post- 
poned the derision cm Mr. Sdummdbusdi’s 
-co ntra ct until November because of his-kkepti- 
dsm “based en the company's operating situa- 
tion in various sectors.” 

He added that in November, when the con- 
tract was renewed, “there were no ind i ca t ions 
of grave misconduct by Mr. Schimmefbosch.” 
The two men also differed over Mr. Schmitz's 
accusation on Thursday that Mr. Sdiimmd- 

Mr. Schmitz said that from May 27 cm* he* around S 2 O 01 . 

requested and received minutes of Metallge 3 - - Amaw the possible solutions was a dtsau- 
sdisdiaffs board meetings that "had been oen- mon be-had with. 'ececuti yes of the Kuwait 
sored in important passages soch that they dkJ Petrofemh < 3 wp. urLaadon To explore a deal 
not < Tpre«p nnri. to die actiul course .of- the - under which die oil ramspa^ would acquire the 
meetings.” . V 20 percent-share stake in MetaHgesdfechaft 

MrTStirimmdbosch denied that therfc^had hekrljythe Kuwait Investment Authority and 
beep any deception and saidthaiheobjcctqdito . thm-qj-gaane a kmgrtenp oft apply contract? 
providing the full minutes pari ty became .he Mr. Sdnnftz responded that the S 200 nnHiah 

perceived a conflict of interest. “We wo e* dig 1 figure was never m e nti on e d; although he con- 
cussing project finance and our dealings with . firmed diat Mb’. Schnmndbasdl had offered to - 
othtir banks, competitors of Deutsche Bank," go to New York to manage the o 2 position: Hb 
he said. - ... n^ted^ie offer because “by that time itrias 

Mr. Sdtimmelbusch recalled that last sami,. , dear; that R.was impossible to ^extingmriTfire 
mer he was asked by Mr. Schmitz to have with gasoline.” 

auditors KPMG flank Arthur Andentainex-*' Seihimmelbasd* 'said^hat a few days 
amming the bocks of MG Corp^ iuchHtmg.Ae| ynftcc die Docs 3 meetiq& Jje offered to resgri, 
New York <bI futures trading operation- . Sc .but was told to stay on^y M^ Sdimitz. Then, 
said both auditors reported in tatcO&abcrthai’ iDee;l 5 , he arid five dtoMdaffgesdlschaft 

the business would show aproffc “were marched into Dctrtscfae Bank 

year to last Sort. 30 , although KPM(j wanted a . nf baft-hnmly intervals and fired.” 
hi^ier proviaoo against possible fosseri llnri ^Mr^Sdmnt^ b onfir mc^&gt Mr. S chiimn e K 
wmdd have resulted in a v^bu^d£jia<l affered,.to lessee MetaDgesdsdnft. 

it. T'V'p^.TTbhfdrcfiefisnrissedhi^ 

’ Mr. Schmitz replied that KPMG ^ kave tbeoQ^any with 

the BqmfflyproHans and offered to go toNew 
York man effort to resdve tiie pnAleni. He 
estimated the potential loss ooedd be kept to 

deliver its report until “only recgrity f ”,afehocgfe L 

h^.im nf i i mwt that the 

nary an<fit showed a cocsohdated ^jmbaSe<TT 
an hypothetical profits frrm 
business. - .. .. v- - 

Mr. Schmitz said that as late as 
Sdummdbusch had said there wae>ii»'ptewiT? 
ouriy unstated rides in the 
Nfr. Sdnuuneibusdi said tins tm^ccausr^? 
was not until Nov. 29 fliat his New Yofk 'office:; ,; 
informed him that if afl prices 
there would be a mismatefabetween 

oil dejrviiry flnmniitmwi l^ 

positions. * . ' • 

' “I immediaiety caBed Mr. Sc&nira rnfftStT* 
him I needed to see him,” he said, “tfieii T.'- "1 * ' 
worked day and night to find out tbepredse T;l, . 
dimension of our futures position rirNew.York . 'aTj.' 
and the effect it might have an our profit and . .'. ^ 

loss accounL” . • ^ j >tr / .. 

On Dec. 3, he readied tdHng Mic. Schmitz of _ L .... ^ 

jeriaon, tyri^was-c ^ar to m e I 
. Jbis because the rirarehokfers 
e gked Mr- Schmitz recalled. 

.. senna. J ^ . 

tf ivvi • 


m*. nl 


46.14 82 

Meribel, at the heart of 3 Vallees 

fifes s/e /z /nenfiafwe 

Luxury apartments for sale ai the foot afihe skislopes 
in two prestigious chalet apartmau developmoils 

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From 70 to 200 m J 

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Hearing in Belfast Elections in Sight, UN Turns a Comer in Mozambique 

In-Law, One of Guildford 4 , 
Appeals Murder Conviction 

By- John Damton ■ ' 

Sev York Times Serwrc 

BELFAST —With a mw frit! q£ 
Kennedy fanaly members atting 
up front, thnsis judges this weel 
began bearing the appeal of a 1975 
murder couvrctioa brought by Paul 
HDl, one of .the GiriMfonl Four,- 
who were recently portrayed in the 
film “In the Name of'thc Father” 
as nmocearvittjm&,!tf the British 
police and jurisprudence. 

Mr. HilTs comention is that his 
confession to a nastier in Belfast 
— the only evidence against him— 
was coerced whOe lie was hwirf; 
held in the pdicestation at Goild- 
ford, in Surrey, England, for ques- . 

^MrSiGIl and^tto^cLers we 
tried and convicted of the bomb- 
ling. which killed: five people. They 
were released in 1989. after serving. 
15 years of Hfe sentences because 

been fabricated by the police.' 
.That stray, as told by Gerard 

made into the film, a tale of three 
.Irishmen and an Irishwoman being 

^rongfuBy convicted.. 

— hough the HiU rote w small, it 
has made him a celebrity at 39i 
.Eight months ago, after a three- 
•year courtship, he married May 
ipourtney Kennedy, a daughter of 
“Robert F. Kennedy, ^ whom he had 
met in the United States. . 
i The wo^rere mobbed by cam- 
eraxnen and photographers when 
they arrived at the heavily gimrrirvt 

courthouse. Inside, they safside by 
v. Nearby 

.side in the first row. Nearby was 
Ethel Kennedy, the widow of Rob- 
ert Kennedy, who was assassinated 
4n 1968. In the samc row sat other 

Kennedy children: Representative 
Joseph P. Kennedy 2d of Massa- 



ebusetts, Kathleen 

Spud and Kerry Kennedy 
f. Behind the Kennedy g _ 

members of the- family of 

Shaw, a British soldier who was 21 
when he was kidnapped, tortured 
and killed by (he m«h Republican 
Army. . • 

After the opening session, Jo- 
seph Kennedy faced television 
cameras in treat of the amrtfconsd 
" “We’re here today to sipportiny 
brother-in-law in his straggle for 
justice here in Northern Ireland," 
he said. “Given the, history of my 
family, I also want 'to let the Shaw 
family know that welmow what it’s 
like to be a victim of political vio- 
lence. But one wrongful act should 
not condemn an innocent man for 
the rest of his life." • 

Mr.. Shaw's widow, whom be 

married only wo weeks before his 
* death, is binre that Mr. Hm was let 
out on bail after the Guildford con- 
viction was quashed- “He should be 
behind bars for the res of bis life," 
she said recently. . 

Mr. Id reportedly confessed to 

- Mr. Shaw’s . murder when he was 
. visited by twoofficers of ibe Royal 

Ulster Constabulary a* the GtnM- 
fwd police station. The police offi- 
cers said, at Ms trial - that he bad 
readily admitted to being present 
when Mr. Shaw was kiDed. 

White in custody 'awaiting trial 
for the pub bombing, Mr. Id was 
flown to Belfast for a seven-day 
trial, canvirted, : given a life sen- 
fence, then returned to England. 
He was released with the three oth- 
ers in October -1989 while his ap- 
peal was pending. 

pnrirre Wednesdays session his 
lawyer, the Labor peer Tony Gif- 
ftxd, reviewed the record of his 
custody at Guildford. He said Mr. 
HH1 had been subjected to “as- 

- mu] is. threats and deprivation of 
deep and food” by the Surrey po- 
lice. Dirt had rera 

a wreck," the lawyer said, that 
when the Ulster officers arrived, 
“he was ready to agree to any accu- 
put to trim.” . 

’ a revolvertoouglra hatch m^the 
door of his cell. Lord Gifford said, 
hinting that he might ball new wit- 
nesses to establish this. .. 

Attorneys fa the Crown, who 
are fighting the appeal are appar - 
ently gamg to argue that Mr. HilTs 
signed confession to the Shaw mur- 
der preceded and was not “contam- 
inaled" by his confession to the 

If tire conviction in the death of 
Mr. .Shaw is bpheSd, it is likdy that 
the prosecutors would offer to re- 
lease him because of his time al- 
ready served. 

him to that h^was 

guilty, something that he has 
vow^ not to da Acceptance of a 
gniUy venfitt would also mean that 

Mr. Ifill would forfeit compensa- 
tion far wronghd imprisonmm^ 
m JEW .Allots Fugitive 

The FBI said h bad arrested at 
Britain’s request an Irish national- 
ist guerrilla who was involved in a 
mass breakout from a Northern 
Ireland prison in 1983, Reuters res 
parted from' San Francisco. . 

FBI agents arrested Terence Da- 
mieri Kirby, 37, also known as Paul 
Kerr, Wednesday in Concord, Cali- 
forma, 30 miles (50 kilometers) east 
of San Francisco, the FBI said. 

By Paul Lewis 

. Hew York Tims Service 

UNITED NATIONS. New York — Efforts to end 
the 16-y car-old cavil war in Mozambique passed a 
milestone when the Security Council agreed to start 
replacing some of its peacekeeping soldiers there with 
. civilian police officers. It also set a November deadline 
for ending its wvotamem in the African country. 

In a decision showing that the peace effort is shift- 
ing from monitoring the cease-fire toward preparing 
for elections in October, the council agreed to send 
1,144 UN police monitors to Mozambique but told the 
secretary-general Butros Butros Ghali to cut bade the 
WOO-merabra mflita/y peacekeeping force at the same 
time to avoid additional cosl 

The council also asked the secretary-general to plan 

the withdrawal of the whole peacekeeping force by the 
end of November, when a new, democratically elected 
government should be in power, although it expressed 
concern at delays in carrying out parts of the peace 
agreement of October 1992, particularly the denrebih- 
ration of both sides' armies and the formation of a 
new national defense force. 

fa a report to the council in late January, the 
secretary-general said President Joaquim Chissano 
and Afonso DfaJakaroa. bead of the Renamo rebel 
movement, had finally started to cooperate in carrying 
out the teams of the peace accord they signed in Roma 

approved b\ the parliament and an election commis- 
sion created. 

The rrpen said the two sides were assembling their 
forces at a slow and uneven pace. Mozambique's 
representative. Pedro Comissano Afonso, told the 

its assembly areas but only to membersof the of those who fled into neighboring countries. ta 

Rename forces. 

Another problem, his report said, is that Renamo 
needs S7_5 million to pay the expenses of transforming 
itself into a civilian political party. 

The secretary-general said that' about half of the 4 
million to 4 J million people displaced within the 
country by the civil war have now gone back to their 

Both rides' troops have begun to assemble in can- 
tonments for disarmament and demobilization and a 
start has been made on disbanding irregular and 
paramilitary forces. A new elect ora] law has been 

A sian has yet to be made on demobilizing these 
forces, sending most home but selecting some from 
both sides to form the nucleus of a new 30,000- 
raeraber national army. Tne secretary-general warned 
last month that few soldiers were likely to volunteer 
for this force unless the government made dear it 
could pay them. 

returned home. 

The peace effort in Mozambique is already a year 
behind schedule. Under the original Rome agreement 
elections were scheduled for October 1993. But the 
two rides have been reluctant to start disbanding their 
armies until recently, while the United Nations re- 
fused to allow elections to be held until they did 
because it feared the loser would restart the civil war, 
as happened in Angola. 

U.S. Studies Offer 
By North Koreans 

The Associated Press 

SEOUL — The United States is 
considering a new’ North Korean 
offer to allow in a United Nations 
team for some nuclear inspections 
next Tuesday as pan of a package 
deal according to Yonhap, the 
South Korean press agency. 

A firm agreement would mark a 
small breakthrough in the Commu- 
nist North's standoff with the inter- 
national community over its possi- 
ble development of nuclear 

But the North Korean proposal 
docs not include inspection or two 
rites that the International Atomic 
Energy Agency suspects have been 
used for nuclear weapons produc- 

The offer was made daring U.S.- 
North Korean working-level talks 
in New York, Yonhap reported, 
quoting a North Korean diplomat. 

Tom Hubbard, U.S. deputy as- 
sistant secretary of state, met with 
Ho Jong, deputy North Korean 
UN mission chief, on Wednesday 

Out of Africa: Prehistoric Migration Misdated , Scientists Say 

By Boyce Rensberger 

Washington Past Seme* 

WASHINGTON — Scientists have found 
evidence that the first prehistoric people to 
migrate out of Africa — the evolutionary 
homeland of human beings — may have 
began their journey more than half a milli on 
years earlier than bad been generally 
thought, or more than 1.8 million years ago. 

The findings are based on reevaluating 
the antiquity of bones of Homo erectus (the 
immediate ancestor of Homo sapiens) found 
on the Indonesian island of Java early in this 

They help to explain a long-standing mys- 
tery about this honrinid species: Why the 
East Asian wing' of the /aunty lacked the 

stone tool culture developed by the African 

Among African Homo erectus popula- 
tions, the most typical stone tool is the band 
ax. Hand axes are found in Africa and in 
southwestern Asia but not in East Aria, 
which includes Indonesia. 

The redating of the Java fossils explains 
why. The founders of that population left 
Africa before the hand ax was invented. 

The findings were announced Wednesday 
in San Franosco at the annual meeting of the 
American Association for the Advancement 
of Science and are being published in the 
Friday issue of the association's weekly jour- 
nal Science. 

The findings were made by Cari C. Swish- 
er 3d and Garoiss H. Curtis of the Institute 

of Human Origins in Berkeley. California. 
Both are experts in analyring'ibe chemical 
contents of rock crystals to determine their 

The Homo erectus specimens were collect- 
ed in 1936 and announced as “Pithecanthro- 
pus erectus" and as “Java Man.” Because 
fossils of this age cannot be dated directly, 
estimates of their age varied until experts 
generally settled on 1 million to 1-2 milli on 

The oldest African specimens of Homo 
erectus, found in Kenya, date to 1.95 million 
years ago. About half a million years later, 
the hand ax culture sprang up in Africa. 
Because the Java individuals were thought to 
have left Africa later, h was a mystery why 
they lacked hand axes. 

Mr. Swisher and Mr. Curtis used a com- 
paratively new method to date the Java 
skulls — measuring the relative amounts of 
two isotopes of the element argon in crystals 
of mineral found in the sediments thought to 
have encased the fossils. 

One isotope decays radioactivdy at a 
known rate to become the other. The relative 
amounts of the two isotopes tell how long 
since the crystal formed. Because the bones 
were collected by villagers and not scientists, 
however, there is some question about which 
layer of sediments they amp from. 

Mr. Swisher and Mr. Curtis concluded the 
Java fossils were 1.8 million years old. This 
makes them the oldest known species of 
prehistoric man that lived out of Africa 

for the second rime in two days to 
work out the terms of inspections 
by the UN agency. 

The North, facing possible inter- 
national sanctions, agreed last 
week to accept some inspections, 
but has dragged its feel on issuing 
visas to the inspectors. 

In the New York talks. North 
Korea said it would allow agency 
inspections to begin March 1 if the 
United States accepted a “small 
package deal" that calls for setting 
a date far bilateral high-level talks 
on improving ties, Yonhap said. 

Yoohap reported that the North 
would not issue visas for UN in- 
spectors until hs “package deal" 
was accepted. 

The North Korean deal calls for 
canceling annual U.S.-South Korea 
military exercises, dubbed “Team 
Spirit,” and considering exchang- 
ing special envoys with South Ko- 
rea to discuss a nuclear-free Kore- 
an peninsula, it said. 

The United States has accepted 
other demands, but will not ap- 
prove a Noth Korean request that 
Pyongyang only “consider" ex- 
changing presidential envoys 

American and South Korean of- 
ficials have said that the actual ex- 
change of presidential envoys, not 
just consideration, is a prerequisite 
to U.S.-North Korean high-level 

They also said that the cancella- 
tion of “Team Spirit." which North 
Korea considers nuclear war prep- 
arations, would depeid on the re- 
sult of the nuclear inspections. 

Hosokawa Will Visit Beijing 


TOKYO — Prime Minister Mor- 
ihiro Hosokawa of Japan will visit 
China from March 19 to 21 to dis- 
cuss economic relations, a Japanese 
Foreign Ministry official said 

Dinah Shore, Singer and TV Star, Dies 

CoeapUedby Of Sutff Fnm Dhpcocka - 

Shore, whose best-adfing records 
$nsl vanety sbow noade her one of ' 
itiia roast popabri entertainers in - 
•American tdewaon, died Thors:, 
oixy at her Beverty KUs hcant Sbe~ 
was 76 years bid. 

’ Miss Shore, who was recently 
diagnosed with cancer, died at hex 
home after a short iUness, accord- ■ 
jpg to her publicist, Cramie Stone.. 
Muss Shore's two driMren and her 
former husband, the actor George 
Montgomery, were with her when, 
she died, Ms. Stone said. - 
Miss Shore’s television career 
the 1950s to„ the eady 
when she had a half-hour" 
show, “A Gmyewation With 
an The Nashville Net- 
work. In Ihfi ’Ses, the honey-blonde 
singer was'ooe of "die few. women 1 
entertainers to find success as host 
of a televuion varied program. SSe 
parted m ; 1951 with “The Dinah 
Store Show," a live 15-minute mu- 
sical shew. 

i The more, elaborate “Dinah 
Shore Chevy Show^ began in 1956 

and ran until 1963. Her staging af 
the ^advertising jingle, “See the 
USA in Your Chevrofet,'* and her 
sign-off with ahagkiss to the audi- 
eott ' become trademarks. Other 
&ows were “Dinah’s Place" (1970- 
74V “Dinah” (1974-79) and “Di- 
nah and^ Wends" (1979-84) • 

Referring to the television cam- 
era, she said in a 1989 interview: “I 
dm’t know how to be afraid of that 
old red eye. It’s one person to me. I 
don’t visuhzB large numbers of - 
people out there Tin comfortable 
with it" - 

Before §omg into television, die 
was a singing star , on radio known 
fra such hits as Dll-Walk Alone" 
arid “The Anniversary. Saw." She 
occasionally appeared m films in 
the 1940s,- radudmg “Follow the 
Boys^ and Dun and Fancy Free;" 

She was boom Frances' Rose 
Shore rat March 1, 1917, in Win- 
chester, Tennessee; A graduate of 
Vanderbilt University,- rise began 
her broadcast singing career in 
1938 on New York's WNEWj'cm- 

Single-Sex Bus Service 
To Begin in Jernsalem -. 

Agetux Fnmoe-Presse 

~ JERUSALEM ~ Israd’s public 
Ibis company. Egged, ; is to run a 
service with separate bused for men r 
and women, as Orthodox Jews have 
Been urging, through Jerusalem’s 
rigorously Ortho to^tett^Fof 


i- Starting next week,, the -service 
will replace a private Hire ret up by. 
Orthodox Jews. Its vdridesbad a 
curtain down the -nriddle with men - 
bn oiie ride and women rat the 


a contract with -RCA Victor in 
1940, A year later she joined Eddie 
Qurioo's radmprogram. By 1943, . 
she had her own radio program, 
sponsored by General Foods. 

Mate recently, her “A Onivena- 
(h Mnah" oriTheNaskville ■ 

Network ran from August 1989 to 
March .1991 as a weekly show. She 
"then did imperials fra 7NN, includ- 
ing cane in T 991 in which she inter- 
viewed Burt Reynolds, a- former 
boyfriend. She appeared an a INN 
tribute show to Eddy AmoJd in 
May 1992.:- - 

Her romance with Mr! Reynolds 
is tire 1970s made Eeadlmesm part 
because rite was" nearly 20 years 
older than he wa& 

“What tfifference dots it make?” 
she said in a 1981NeW Yoik Times 
interview. .‘‘Chronology has noth-; 

Dinah Shore’s radio-television career spanned more than SO years. 

mg to do with it 1 know so many 
peopte 32jyears old who are older 
than men free who are 54. It has to 
dp with how you feel emotionally 
about yourself. Love is so hard lo 
find that you must cherish it at any 

;■ She married Mr. Montgomery in 
1943 ami had two children, Mehssa 
Aria Efinre, boro in 1948, and John 

David Montgomery, boro in 1954. 
She divorced him in 1 962. A second 
marriage to Maurice F. Smith in 
1963 lasted only a year. 

A golf enthusiast, she was fra 
more than two decades the host of 
the Dinah Shore Classic golf tour- 
nament in the Palm Springs area. 
She was also achampion ofanimal 
rights. (AF, Reuters) 

Envoy’s Memoirs Lash Back at Baker 


BONN — The U.S. ambassador in Bonn 
during German unification in 1990 said he 
resigned in frustration becarise-Secrefery. of 
State James A. Baker 3d resented that he 
correctly predicted the merger so soon: - 
Veraon A. Walters, the .sddkr-dipkxnat. 

for bdieving the Cold War would be over so 
kxaL 1 • . 

Mr. Walters said Mr. Baker, who like most 
diplomats dcub tod that the two- Gennanys 
wouM jnerge bef ore the ead of (be centmy. 

when he took up his post in April 1989, said 
in a book tbafMr. Baker tried to muzzle him 
and freeze him out of U.S. : W«i Gemian 
talks on unification. 

The book,- just published ia-Gennany, re--: 
veals disputes and intrigue over -Germany in. 
the Bush administration, wbose.carly support 
fra unity was auraal at a- time when Britain, 
France and the Soviet Umpfl all warned' to 
slow it down,. .. 

“EspeqaHy Baker seemed not to forgive 
me for being right about Gennaannity^-said 
Mr. Waiters, whom a British nCKspageadto- 
missed at the timers “quixotic or muddled*’ 

Preridcnt . Grange , Bush. 

East and .West .Germany united Oct 3, 
.1990, less than a year after the Berlin Wall 
burst. opes and tire Communist regime col- 

Mr. ' Walters, * general -who was deputy 
director of the -Central InteDigoree Agency 
and U.S. ambassador to tire United Nations 
before arriving in Bonn at the age of 72, said 
-Mr. Baker, brared.amlwssadora from giving 
interviews after he views were reported from 
Boon..- .? 

He questicmsd Mr. Walters’s judgment- on 
Germany only two months before the Berlin 
- Wall _opened in November lP80. 

" Mr. waluris' threatened io resign twice, 

both times because Mr. Baker shut him oat of 
meetings on unification with West German 
officials and seat bis own aides on secretive 
trips to Boon to negotiate. 

After the Wall opened, Mr. Walters said. 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl sought unity (prick- 
ly white Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich 
Genscher was more cautious. 
r “In Washington,” be said, “it was Presi- 
dent Bush who — like the chancellor — 
seemed to realize that a unique chance fra 
German unification had emerged and we 
should grab it" 

Mr. Baker, Hke Mr. Genscher, worried 
more about undermining Preridcnt Mikhail 
S. Gorbachev, who faced opposition to unifi- 
cation from the Soviet nulitaiy. 

“Baker overlooked tfcefact that Gorbachev 

had -long before unleashed the forces that 
.would finally swallow him up,” Mr. Walters 



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Page 6 







Next Steps in Bosnia 

Sensibly. U.S., European and Russian offi- 
cials meeting in Bonn on Tuesday decided to 
hold off on any new bombing threats end 
concentrate on intensified diplomacy. That 
means trying to consolidate the cease-fire 
around Sarajevo and extending it to other 
battief roots, improving the peace terms of- 
fered 10 the Bosnian government and nurtur- 
ing a reconciliation between government and 
Bosnian Croat forces that could lead to politi- 
cal and economic federation. 

The silence of the big guns around Sarajevo 
was the first good news to come out of Bosnia 
in a long time. But a little perspective is in 
order. Sarajevo is now, as one United Nations 
official put it, “an island of peace in a sea of 
war." Snipers and artillerymen still murder 
civilians in half a dozen other surrounded and 
refugee-swollen cities. Even in Sarajevo, siege 
lines remain frozen in place. 

Disaster may have been avoided, but no 
diplomatic triumph is yet in sight. Whether 
there will be one any time soon depends on 
how Russia and the United States define their 
newly enlarged roles. 

The Clinton administration now seems 
ready to embrace the European approach of 
partition imposed by external pressure and 
enforced by large numbers of international 
peacekeepers, one-third of them Americans. 
Republican senators on the Foreign Relations 
Committee were right on Wednesday to warn 
Secretary of State Warren Christopher against 
committing American forces on the ground 
without prior congressional approval. 

As for Moscow, the question is whether it 
has intervened as an even handed peacemaker 
or a partisan or the recalcitrant Serbs. Encour- 
agingly, Russian diplomats now acknowledge 

that better terms must be offered to the Bosni- 
an government. But the improvements can- 
not, as Moscow would prefer, come exclusive- 
ly at the expense of the Bosnian Croats. Only 
the Serbs can lift the sieges that now imprison 
the inhabitants of dries further east 

Washington, meanwhile, has assigned itself 
the role of finding out what settlement terms 
the Muslim-led government will minimally 
accept Europe and the Russians expect the 
Clinton administration to pressure as well as 
to listen. That would be a mistake. Any peace 
imposed from outside would have to be en- 
forced from outside. And if America helps to 
impose peace, it will be harder to resist 
sending peacekeepers later on. 

Outside powers can mediate, conciliate 
and encourage, but in the end they cannot 
push the three Bosnian combatants further 
than they are wilting to go. And while Bosni- 
an government and Croatian negotiators are 
showing a new disposition to compromise — 
on Wednesday they agreed to a cease-fire — 
the Serbs, all along the primary engine of the 
Bosnian war, still are not 

While the Serbs have cheered newly de- 
ployed Russian troops as reinforcements for 
their side, Russian diplomats have been assur- 
ing the West that Moscow intends to play an 
evenhanded role. The best way to demon- 
strate that would be to convince the Serbs to 
offer meaningful territorial political and mili- 
tary concessions, which, the Russians suggest, 
can sooner be elicited by friendly persuasion 
than by further military bluster. 

With not only the future of Bosnia at stake 
but also perhaps Russia’s relations with the 
West, that proposition deserves a serious try. 


The Spying Continues 

When James Jesus Angletoo died in 1987, he 
was regarded with justification as brilliant but 
unbal anced. In his long career as chief of the 
CIA's counterintelligence operations, he was so 
suspicious of Soviet trickery that he even dis- 
missed as a charade Moscow's break with Chi- 
nese Co mmunis ts. He seemed to see potential 
‘‘moles” everywhere and talked continually of 
“dangles,” “false flags" and "disinformation." 

Yet there was also method in Mr. Angle- 
ton’s view of “the wilderness of mirrors,” his 
term for the duel between Soviet and Ameri- 
can intelligence agencies. He would not have 
been surprised by the allegations that Moscow 
has paid more than SU milli on since 1985 to 
Aldrich Ames, who once headed the agency’s 
Soviet counterintelligence bureau. 

“Think of an espionage service as a highly 
specialized employment service,” Mr. Angle- 
ton told a sympathetic chronicler, Edward Jay 
Epstein. He compared rival services to corpo- 
rate “headhunters” —which is evidently how 
Mr. Ames, in trying to recruit Soviet assets, 
was ensnared himself. The only way that an 
espionage service can safely steal documents. 
Mr. Angletoo said, is to recruit an agent with 
legitimate access to secret data. 

As he put it in Mr. Epstein's 1989 book, 
“Deception," the potential mole can be incre- 
mentally drawn into “a subtle web of irresist- 
ible compromises." That is what federal pro- 
secutors say happened to Mr. Ames and his 

wife. To foil such penetration, Mr. Angleton 
instituted lie detector tests and other security 
measures. His methods and suspicions got so 
out of hand that in 1974 he was forced to 
resign. But, as the Ames affair suggests, the 
agency appears to have paid too little heed to 
wfaat was valid in his warnings — and to the 
potentially fatal consequences for undercover 
agents in the former Soviet Union. 

President Bill Clinton is right to express 
outrage, and he needs to grill the CIA about 
why Mr. Ames's betrayal went undetected for 
so long. But the scandal should not be permit- 
ted to derail U-S.-Russian relations. Spying is 
an unfriendly act, but it is not an uncommon 
one nor an exclusively Russian activity. Does 
anyone seriously doubt that the CIA was 
busily recruiting KGB employees from the 
rubble of tbe Soviet empire? 1 n the game of 
nations, there are no friends, only provisional 
allies, and even they spy on one another. 

In any event, it does not take spies to know 
the deeper truths that shape U.S.-Russian 
relations. Espionage and military competi- 
tion are not the keys to the two nations’ 
future. It is fine to lei Boris Yeltsin know 
that he has stuck his thumb in the eye of a 
potential ally. But neither Washington nor 
Moscow can let the Cold War game of spy 
versus spy throw them off the path of eco- 
nomic and political cooperation. 


Inflation Insurance 

When Alan Greenspan said that short-term 
interest rates in tbe United Stales are likely to 
rise, it was less a declaration of public policy 
than a statement of the obvious. As he pointed 
out, the real short-term rates — that is, the 
rates adjusted For inflation — have been 
around zero for the past year. With the econo- 
my picking up speed, there is nowhere for 
them to go but up. 

There are two views on this subject. The 
other one bolds that it is much too soon to talk 
of higher interest rates. That opinion is well 
represented on the House Banking subcom- 
mittee before which Mr. Greenspan, as chair- 
man of the Federal Reserve Board, was testi- 
fying. Representative Paul Kanjorskl Demo- 
crat of Pennsylvania, sternly asked why the 
Federal Reserve had already tightened credit 
earlier this month when there was no evidence 
whatever of any increase in inflation. 

The Federal Reserve’s tactics at present 
have less to do with technical economics than 
with psychology. It can control tbe short-term 
rates, but only the short-term rates, by push- 
ing money into the hanks or pulling it out. The 
long-term rates, in contrast, are set not by the 
government but by private investors betting 
against future inflation. It is mainly these 

long-term interest rates that finance industrial 
growth — and. to the administration’s dis- 
may, they have been rising for the past four 
months, lifted by anxieties in the financial 
markets about inflation ahead After the sta- 
tistics showed that the national economy had 
been growing much faster late last year than 
anyone had expected, the Federal Reserve 
moved several weeks ago to raise the short 
rates. The idea was to reassure nervous inves- 
tors that it was alert to tbe dangers of inflation 
and was capable of taking forceful action. 

It is a curious play to raise one interest rate 
a little in the hope of coaxing a more impor- 
tant one down. But the Federal Reserve oper- 
ates in a world of speculators in which appear- 
ances and expectations make all the differ- 
ence. And the expectation of inflation. Mr. 
Greenspan observed, quickly turns into the 
real thing as businesses begin to raise prices 
prematurely to get ahead of tbe game. There 
was no complaint from the White House, 
incidentally, when tbe short-term rates jogged 
up. for President Bill Clintoo. too. is desper- 
ately eager to keep those long rales down. Mr. 
Greenspan described the maneuver correctly 
as “low-cost insurance” against inflation. 


Other Comment 

Not So Helpless on Rushdie 

It would be wrong to argue that absolutely 
nothing can be done about the death edict 
[on Salman Rushdie]. Iran may have gone 
through its revolutionary phase but it is now 
all too well aware of the need for foreign 
technology, capital, know-how and basic 
consumer goods. After the “honeymoon 
of its early postrevoiuuonary years, when 
anything originating from the West was re- 

jected as decadent. Tehran is presently look- 
ing for ways to improve its relations with 
the non- Islamic world. 

Under these conditions, when the West 
is rhetorically described by Iranian leaders 
as the personification of evil but is. evident- 
ly. less so as a trading partner, the room for 
action on the Rushdie case is not as limited 
as some commentators in Europe would 
have us believe. 

— Cyprus Mail (Nicosia). 

International Herald Tribune 



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Have More 
To Achieve 

By William Pfaff 

TIARIS — It is not a bad thing that 

* ^ 

r Warfare just ain’t what it used to be.’ 

leans. Its intervention in the Saraje vo 
dfgff has been constructive, opening 
the way to a possible lifting of toe 
sieges of other Bosnian dues and 

pahaps even to an even tnal armistice 

or provisional settlement of the war. 

Tjy> piyyaan*; fn anycascWCie DCVEr 

excluded firm the Balkans. Tbey wiB 
always be there by virtue of irimous 
and cultural connections with Bulgar- 
ia, JSertaa, Romania, and Greece, and 
because of Russia's historical rote in 
bringing abow rccogmtion of the na- 
tional autonomy of ill these peoples in 
the early 19th century. 

Until now, tbe threat of overt Rib- 
sian support for Serbia, and erf passi- 
ble use of the United Nations veto to 
countermand Western initiatives, has 
blocked a cer tain kind of drinking 
abbot Balkan solutions. The Rus- 
sians now have committed them- 
selves to cooperation ar Sarajevo, and 

Stop the Balkan War and Draft Strong New Rules 

B ONN — The key new element in 
the Bosnian war is the active 
involvement of Russia and the Unit- 
ed States. The cool initial reaction to 
President Boris Yeltsin's call for a 
s ummi t should be reconsidered. It 
can be a big help. 

There are ironies in recent develop- 
ments, which emphasize that this is a 
new stage in the conflict. 

Yugoslavia was the only country in 
Europe where the Communists won 
power at the end of World War II 
without help of the Red Army. This 
was an important factor in Tito’s 
break with S talin in 1948. It was fear 
of a subsequent Soviet invasion, pos- 
sibly at the invitation of Croatian 
S talinis ts, which led to tbe organiza- 
tion and training of the Yugoslav 
army with special preparations for 
guerrilla war and masses of arms 
caches in moutainous areas, providing 
vast reserves for the current war. Now, 
bhie-belmeted Russian hoops are in 
Bosnia, to the delight of the Serbs. 

What set in motion (he forces lead- 
ing to the fight in which the Russians 
have intervened was Slobodan Milo- 
sevic’s decision to switch his power 
base from the aiming Communist 
party to Serbian nationalism. His 
first step was to cancel the autonomy 
of the ethnic Albanian-dominated 
province of Kosovo, a move which 
the West ignored on grounds of non- 
interference in a sovereign slate. 

German diplomats point this out 
ruefully when they are taxed with 
rushing recognition of Croatia on 
grounds of tbe right to self-determi- 
nation. Ex-Foreign Minister Hans- 
Dietrich Genscher argues that this 
right must belong as much to small as 
to big countries. 

The fighting did stop in Croatia 
after formal recognition in January 
1992, when the Serbs bad achieved 
major rnOitmy objectives. It broke 
out in Bosnia when its independence 
was recognized at Washington's urg- 
ing in May 1992. Now even the Unit- 
ed States welcomes Russian troops 
cm the ground as the price of persuad- 
ing Bosnian Serbs to remove artillery 
from around Sarajevo so that NATO 
doesn’t have to bomb it out. 

The second irony is that it was 
France, so allergic to NATO action, 
winch appealed to the alliance for the 
determined air attack threat winch the 
United States had sought for neady a 
year. Bui instead of going along with 
the first part of Washington’s lift” 
ftbe embargo on arms Tor Bosnia) 
“and strike." Paris persuaded Wash- 
ington to join a renewed, more inten- 
sive diplomatic effort for Bosnian 
agreement to the latest partition plan. 

Tbe third irony is that this may all 
be leading back to square one, the 
secret meeting between Mr. Milose- 
vic and Croatia's Franjo Tudjman in 
Graz. Austria, before (he war even 

By Flora Lewis 

started. They are said to have agreed 
on a map to divide Bosnia, approxi- 
mately along the lines that would 
result if the new Bosnian-Croatian 
lattes on confederation of their two 
states bring agreement Presumably, 
Bosnian Serbs would take that as 
justification for cutting out and join- 
ing Greater Serbia. 

Mr. Genscher says the big differ- 
ence between murderous Yugoslavia 
and the subsequent breakup of two 
other multiethnic states, the Soviet 
Union and Czechoslovakia, is that in 
tbe latter two the strongest party 
agreed to dissolution. But that is an ■ 
illusion. Mr. Milosevic always knew 
that his Ser bian nati onalism would 
provoke secessions (as Boris YelLsm 
knew that his Russia-based campaign 
would fracture the Soviet Union). 
Belgrade went to war not to save the 
Yugoslav federation but to change 
Serbia's borders when it broke up. 

That comes back to the issue of 

self-determination versus existing 
stale borders. The German Foreign 
Ministry, acutely sensitive to charges 
that Bonn's recognition triggered the 
Bosnian war, that “interaa- 

tionafization” — that is, accepting 
Croatia and Slovenia as sovereign 
states — was necessary to avoid the 
charge of interfering in Yugoslavia’s 
internal affairs in toe attempt to stop 
tbe war, which began in June 1991. 

This is a pernicious idea and a 
terrible precedent that could easily be 
abused m many places where restive 
minorities, who may form a. local ma- 
jority, think of breaking looser 

There is an urgent need for re- 
examination of tbe contradictions in 
the international principles of self- 
determination, territorial integrity of 
states, and noninterference, if there is 
to be a working system. 

The basic rules have to be no use of 
force, respect for minorities, and the 
right, even tbe duty, of international 

intervention when the rules are ag- 
gressively violated. Yugoslavia shows 
now that intervention is inescapable 
if Europe is to sort ant its brewing 
quarrels without spreading, intoler- 
able tragedy, that sooner is better 
than later, and that it most be pre- 
dictable and credible — the condi- 
tions for deterrence. 

Now that Russia and America are 
participating, rights must be raised 
beyond die misery of Sarajevo. 

Mr. Yeltsin’s call for a summit 
meeting with the United States, 
France; Britain and Germany, with- 
out waiting for the belligerents to go 
on ha g glin g , should be accepted and 
used to launch future talks on the 
rules, which have to be of immediate 
concern to Russia and its “near 
abroad.” Despite past bickering 
France, Britain, Germany and the 
United States are on the same tack, 
and with -the Russians there is a 
chance that the powers have come to 
see their responsibility. 

O Flora Lewis. 

doing so. They have much to gain by 
mti himing mi the cooperative course. 

Boris Yeltsin’s spokesman said on 
Monday that “without firing a shot, 
without threatening anyone or en- 
dangering one of its soktiers, without 
even spending a single ruble, Russia 
has obtained a voy important victory 
for its sMtiding in OkwocW.” This is 
a heady claim, but tree. 

But the Russians' have assumed a 
responsibili ty that they cannot easily 
shed. They say that imhtary ultima- 
tums are not the way to solve the 
Yugoslav crisis. The Western powers 

now can insist that Moscow produce 
results by better methods. 

In shout, their presence is an asset, 
if the Western governments are as- 
tute enough to make use trf than. 

The Serbs, in their collective para- 
noia, need Russian reassurances in 
order to make caaccsstms. Threat 
alone mi ght have made them retire 
their heavy weapons from Sarajevo, 
but it is also possible that, in their 
conviction that they, possess the pow- 
er to bring a thud world war down 
upon their enemies, they would hove 
defied NATO. Russia's intervention 
has spared everyone that- 

Ih a letter m Western leaders Ja^ 
weekend, Boris Yekrin warned against 
carrying oat the NATO ultima tu m . 
But in * rimntowienns letter to Bel- 
grade he “demanded” that the Sobs 
yield. Russia’s historical position and 
infhieiioeare what made it possible tor 
the Serbs to interpret their Russian- 
enforced retreat from Sarajevo as a 

Will Washington Ever Stop Wavering? 

By Stephen S. Rosenfeld 

W ASHINGTON — It is plain 
that Russia, deeply troubled at 
borne, is pushing into foreign policy 
activism, where things are easier and 
where the political leadership can 
more readily reap rewards. From tak- 
ing a quiet pan in UN peacekeeping 
in Croatia, Moscow is now taking a 
conspicuous role in Bosnia. Ostensi- 
bly it operates under the United Na- 
tions, but actually it moves under UN 
cover as an autonomous force, one 
defining its own tactics and goals. 

The Russians know the terrain in 
the Balkans, they have do public opin- 
ion drag at home (quite the contrary) 
and m the Serbs they have an ardent if 
bard-to-control client They have a 
further advantage — an American 
“partner" which is stiD hesitating over 
what its rote ought to be, notwith- 
standing tbe generally good results 
flowing from its first bout of persua- 
sive muscle-flexing in Sarajevo. 

This is what is troubling about tbe 
Chnton policy. No sooner does Bill 
Clinton convince almost eveyooe, in- 
cluding the local parties in Bosnia and 
the various allies and onlookers, that 
be means business, than he and his 
chief aides start uttering excuses for 
not extending new life-saving NATO 
ultimatums in the remaining besieged 
towns. NATO, he wanted gratuitously 
the other day. ought not be able to 
cany such further missions off. 

This is bow, on the same earlier day. 
Secretary of State Warren Christopher 
coaid declare forthrightly that “any 
military effort by tbe Muslims to re- 

gain territory was fully justified,” even 
while Mr. Clinton hnnsdf was saying 
unforgivably that “tbe ldQmg is a func- 
tion of a political fight b et wee n three 
factions and until they agree to quit, 
doing it, it's going to continue.” 

Ambivalence and inconsistency are 
poor ways to draw tbe attention of 
those who do tbe killing and “cleans- 
ing,” and to exercise international 
leadership. The president should not 
be acting as if he were taking to heart 
tbe Russian cautkm that “nodtingT in 
Bosnia justifies “strong action or 
strong language.” Plenty does. 

The president should not be devalu- 
ing the very coin — a threat of military 
toughness — that has brought him die 
modest but real enough success that 
his more assertive poBcy of the last 
two weeks has enjoyed. 

It is a bit a mi isi ng to observe that 
an administration which spent a 
year-phis fleeing from Bosnia and 
seeking to draw attention to suppos- 
edly more urgent foreign policy pri- 
orities elsewhere is now starting to 
invite congratulation far its gestures 
— so far no more than gestures —in 
that tormented land. 

But it would be tragicif the current 
opportunity for peace in Bosnia were 
frittered away by what Edward Mor- 
timer of the Financial Times calls “a 
general UJS. halfheartedness about 
international commitments, particu- 
larly those with a taibtaiy ingredient, 
winch is generating a lot trf insecuri- 
ty, especially in Central Europe.” 

To get the roost mileage out of the 

new opportunity, the CKnron admin- mfinenoe are wbat made it possible for 
istiation must go beyond a readiness tbe Serbs to interpret their Russian- 
for timely and well prepared NATO enforced retreat' from Sarajevo as a 
air strikes in other cities. Especially weatvictoiy.Jtisag^ tfing vdten 
now that the Russians havecome to those who retreat -can be convinced 

now that the Russians have come to 
Bosnia, Washington needs to match 
tiom and tbe Europeans in providing 
ground troops to reinforce interna- 
tional diplomacy. Then ar the least 
the president should ease the terns 
for provision oS American peacekeep- 
ers in a settlement. Tbe terms current- 
ly in effect would seem to limit pefio- 
ing to chemnstancesso tranquil that 
they don’t need to be polked. 

There should also be a way for the 
United States to use the new spy flap 
to advantage in Bosnia. The disdo- 
sure that an American C3A employee 
and his wife allegedly spaed.for Rus- 
sia — not just for the old Soviet' 
Union — allows Washington to argue 
plausibly that Russian in a deep hole 
with American public as well asoffi- 
dal opinion and that the way for 
Moscow to get out of (hat hole is to 
show itself a worthy partner erf Amer- 
icari diplomacy in Bosnia. 

Only a few weeks ago, after all. 
President GinlOT was in Moscow os- 
tensibly knitting up with Boris Yelt- 
sin a broad plm for complementarity 
and cooperation in foreign poEcy as 
well as m Russian domestic reform. 
Some were prepared to hafl the sum- 
mit as tbe president’s principal 
achievement abroad. Surety the as- 
surances <rf support and respect that 
Presidents Chnton and Yeltsin ex- 
changed in January remain alive and 
available in February. 

The Washington Post. 

that then * is a .victoiy. 

-The Bosmans-wotad ftbsto see the 
Serbian withdrawal as a victory for 
Bosnia. The endurance in hardship 
and suffering trf Sarajevo’s people is 
what forced Americans, French and 
the other moremterraitioiiist Euro- 
peans, such as the Dutch, finally to 
threaten (effectively) to enter the war 
on Sarajevo's side; with America 
.threatening open support for Bosnia. 
That, atlari, had an effect . 

However, the people of Sarajevo 
now .wonder if the United Nations 
wiB become their new jailers, with the 
city, and their country, parceled up 
into ethnic enclaves. They fear that 
the .principle of secular, nonethmc 
society, for which they have been 
fighting, may finally be ended — by 

- the international community itself. 

- ItisqnitepossiNe.TlKiii!eniatioo- 
al community from the start has been 
incapable of getting oat of its cafico- 
tive mind the idea that ethnic setf- 
determination, on the 1918 Wflscatian 
model (winch is. the Serbian and Cro- 
atian wodd today), is the solution Ibr 
Balkan and Eastern Europe. In fact,it 
is the modd that everyone shook! have 

China: The Rights Record Favors Carrots, Not Sticks 

S INGAPORE — It is folly for the 
Clinton administration to link 
most-favored-oation trade conces- 
sions to China’s human rights record 
The policy is born of domestic U.S. 
pressure, 'misguided idealism, poor 
tactics and double standards. It dis- 
plays an ignorance of Asian history 
and of Asian sensitivities. 

Has America's strident and accu- 
satory human rights policy worked? 
In a major new report the human 
rights group Asia Watch concludes 

China is moving toward a 
more open society in Us 
oicn t«zy, not in response 
to crude outside pressure, 

that repression ir. China has in- 
creased since January 1993. Indeed, 
1993 was the worst year for human 
rights since the suppression of tbe 
democracy movement in 1989. 

Tne United States, with its condi- 
tional policy on favored trade status, is 
telling China that it must not jam 
foreign radio broadcasts, it must deal 
with dissident minorities in a wav ap- 
proved by Washington, and it must 
aocoum for aE political prisoners and 
open prisons to U.S. inspection. 

What is the best way of ensuring 
that democracy evokes in China? Is 
it in trying to enforce such condi- 
tions? Is it in bettering the lot of the 
average Chinese by making it possi- 
ble for him to be fed. clothed and 
sheltered, to move freely in his own 
rounuy, to change jobs, to watch 
international television programs? Is 
a secret vote more important to him 
than feeding his child? Wjj] the Unit- 
ed States decide that for him? 

By James R. Lille y 

In effect, the U.S. trade conditions 
tell tbe Chinese : II you do not let 
American broadcasts mto the country, 
we will threaten the livelihood of your 
workers by halting our imports of 
goods made in their factories. This is 
not the kind of dialogue to have with 
the worlds largest country. 

There are. of course, human rights 
abuses on a grand scale in China. The 
United States must address them 
squarely. China has criticized Ameri- 
ca for its failings; just as America 
now criticizes China. But Beijing has 
yet to sanction America. 

Torture, arbitrary imprisonment 
and religious persecution in China, 
and brutality in Tibet, offend Ameri- 
cans deeply. However, brave Chines*- 
are struggling for increasing democ- 
racy inside China. The efforts outside 
China are less noble. 

The United States has in the past 
successfully addressed democracy in 
Asia, not as an American imposoon. 
where it generally failed, but in those 
places where it grew from indigenous 
roots and was given encouragement 

China has adhered on paper to in- 
ternational accords on human rights, 
including torture, treatment of prison- 
ers and genocide. As a UN member, it 
is obliged to adhere to the Universal 
Declaration of Human Rights. 

Beijing has voted for UN investiga- 
tions of human rights violations in 
China. In Hong Kong, Beijing agreed 
to allow the international covenants 
on civil and political rights and on 
economic, social and cultural rights 
to remain in force for 50 years after 
the colony revens to Chinese control 
in 1997. although China itself, like 
the United States, has not acceded 
to these covenants. 

Rather than seek to impose new 

unilateral conditions, the United 
States should work through multilat- 
eral channels to ensure that existing 
international agreements on human 
rights are implemented. Tbe United 
Stales should also pay attention to 
the indigenous human rights organi- 
zations working in Asra. 

Moves toward the rale of low and 
tbe increasing power of the National 
Peoples' Congress augur wdl for Chi- 
na's political future. Workers’ rights 
are beginning to enjoy legal protec- 
tion. Communist Party work units are 
disintegrating in southern China, 
where fiee-markct growth is strong. A 
new identification system allows 
greater molality for ordinary Qimeae. 
Previously arbitrary tax procedures 
have now been codified. 

China is moving toward a more 
open society in its own way, not in 
response to crude pressure from out- 
ride. In 1990, more than WO Chinese 
were amnestied; martial law was lift- 
ed in Beijing and Tibet; and the so- 
called instigator of the democracy 
protests in Tiananmen Square was 
released, along with his family. This 
contrasts with token releases trf Chi- 
nese political prisoners in 1993. 

The loud, pushy American ap- 
proach to human rights in China has 
not worked. Tbe lower-key approach 
taken by President George Bush was 
more effective. 

There must be a lesson here for the 
Clinton administration. The United 
States should adopt a three-pronged 
approach to democracy and Asia. It should pursue con- 
structive engagement on a broad 
front — economic, political and cul- 
tural. Such a course offers the best 
chance for bringing positive change; 

Serious human rights infractions 

by China or other Asian countries 
should be dealt with mnltikterally, 
not unflaterally. American should fo- 
cu5 its support for democracy on . 
states and territories where democra- 
cy already costs, such as Thailand, 
Malaysia; the Philippines, South Ko- 
rea, Hong Kong and Taiwan. 

The writer, who was an assistant 
secretary of defense for international 
security in the Bush administration, is 
tSreaor of Asian Studio. sat the Ameri- 
can Enterprise Institute, in Washing- 
ton. He: contributed this co mme n t to 
the International Herald Tribune. 

The last resource of the Saraevans 
is irony. The trucenow installed is for 
them non-war, certainty; since the 
shooting is halted, but it also threat- 
ens to become a new version of the 
old war. One young woman is quoted 
by a French reporter as a&ing if the 
people cf Sarajevo “are not guinea 
pigsin a cage, on whom Serbs, UN, 
NATO — me whole wodd —con- 
duct experiments in international 
politics. Yom governments should be 
content now. You have invented war 
without guns, invisible war.” 

Th e Bosnian president's special 
counselor, ‘Kemal Muftic, ' rema r ks 
that the United Nations 1 ineffectual 
resointions on the crisis in the past at 
least dis ting ui sh ed between; aggres- 
sors and victims; Now the United 
Nations seems to be treatmg every- 
one the same In that case, Bosnia has 
lost both the viable and the invisible 
wars, and Sarajevo should have' sur- 
rendered two years ago. 

International Herald Tribune / 

© Luts Angeles Times Syndicate. - 


1894; Defeat in Africa . . cruiser, Denver win meet yoiL: Mayor 

Peters and Admiral Woo 

BATHURST, West Africa — Aanali 

fi-tsaKKi as---' 

issss as?® 

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Widgeon; made an attack yesterday 
[Feb- 23J i® 0 ii Chief Fodi Sflah. The 
British force sustained a reverse and 
suffered heavy loss. Three naval offi- 
cers and ten men were IdUed and 
about forty were wounded. Ueuteo- 
ant Hervcy, of Her Majesty’s drip 
Raleigh, is among the JoSed. 

1919: WirdessTalk 

WASHINGTON —When Secretary 

1944t 644Are Released 

®UN, Sjpam fAt the French fron- 
Mr) — - (From our New York edi- 
tion:] Sa .tamdred and fortyrfbor 
tiiplqmats, newspaper men andre&f 
workers ‘from tfie- united Stales and- 
Latin Ame rica, indoding thirtv-seren 

phone apparatus to President Wilson 
aboard the George Washington, 600 
miles away, he tatted through u w _ . 
dinary telephone set installed in Ids 
office in Washington. He said- 
“YobB receive a great welcome m 
Boston. Destroyers, aircraft and die 

thefrontkrtoday [Feb. 241 fiomGdF 
nan-hdd territory -on tlm way to 
Lawn and home; .lie amm; which 

.^^exetrangedfor 1,180 Geonare 
snaFrench expected ml^sboatomo 1 * 
war, included Taylor Henry,’dHcf rf - 
bureau for. the -Associated Tress 's* \ 
Vichy when tht Gernmns 1 tb^;6vet- : ^ . '■ 







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_■ - 

The CIA’s Sweat Merchants 


By William S afire 

Tt/ASHINGTON — AJdricb Ames, 
YV the CIA official accused of bong 
a Russian' penetration agent,- was 
“fluttered” — - given a polygraph test — 
.in 1986 and again in l?9t. 

‘ . Ifke is found gnQty.tbax would prove 
f the He detectca^ is mneiiabk. It would 
. show how the CIA was hilled info a false 
;-seosc of security by a derice that Jaw 
“enforcement officers know is a splendid 
too! to scare suspects into confessions, 
but could be easuy footed by a namral 
,4ar, a psychopath or a a* fried spy. 

■ Thcsnragrdiai^byClASecmtyoji 

'machines that can only irMwaire ihnniy - 
* votsness of both Bars and truth-letters is 
•carious for das reason: Tbeagencyhas a 
rirogram that leaches agents going into 
the field how to best the enemy’s poly- 
graph. Did Mr. Ames mi«» the course or 
‘have access to its rnaicriaIs? Wc’U see. 

The FBI, I am told, is winrh more 
selective in its infernal me of po tym-apfa c. 
c jt kno ws that experienced agents arekis 
.intimidated by the "sweat menAants” 
with their high degree of inaccuracy; fed- 
eral law officers involved in the Ames 
'mvestigatjon privately seem the CIA for 
■foolish reliance on polygraph machines 
“for internal reconty. - 
’ In .1981, Mr.' Reagan's new intelli- 
gence chief. Bill _Casey, challenged 
; James Baker to a polygraph test about 
Jimmy Carter’s stolen debate papers. 

| Suspecting that -my friend Casey may . 
i have been the cnfpril, I asked Win why 
.he was taking the gamble; he winked 
'and said that with some Valium and a 
^phmcter-musde trick he teamed in the 
OSS, he coaid flatten the spikes before 
they appeared cm any machine. 

. The machines — devoutly believed m 

31 te Credit Card Spy 

' ASSUMING the government is on 
-tV the np and op, we have in Aldrich 
Ames a spy of double-take ineptness. 
TheJaguar, the lag house, the mammoth 
credit card purchases — all this should 
have lit him in neon: Spy, Spy, Spy. The 
dreary truth about poke went is that . 
|cbps usually can rdy on the incredible 
Stupidity of crooks to make their work 
-easier. I suppose we now know the drea-;; 
Yy both about espionage as wdL . " ■' 
But if that’s toe case, then it seems’ 
'that Congress ought to stop bellowing. 
;about Russian perfidy and instead 
wonder why it took the feds so long to 
catch their map. It is a bit silly to be 
'oatragpd at the Russians. We spy,. they 
"spy and we all spy. maybe bemuse no 
-toneJmows how to stop. 

’ The outrage directedaiMr. Ames is,af 
^course, justified. But. once the spotiighi 
‘moves off the Russians and Mic. Ames, it 
’ ought topause at the CIA. One can’t help 
mnditdmg that if Mr. Ames had itaBy 
t acted like a spy, be might still be doe. 
f — RiduodCchen.The Washington Post. 

by the techn^ogy-mtimidated pubhc — 
can be fooled in the other direction by 
novous tnflh-idleis. In the 1980s, Na- 
tional Security Adviser Robert McFar- 
lane flunked apedygraph test looldog for 
the le a k e r of a story to The. New York 
Times; desperate, the adviser called (be 
newspaper to establish his innocence. 
Editors who knew he was not the real 
source agreed on a one-time basis to 
exonerate the- mas whose career the 
polygraph would have wrecked. 

Despite hard evidence that reliance 
t» He detectors” was itseff a security 
ride, and despite the danger to the aril 
liberty of people wrongly suspected, the 
Defense Department under Caspar 
Weinberger borrowed hs values from 
spookdom’s nether world to launch a 
i.vast “test” of thousands erf Defense em- 
ployees anti contractors. Congress later 
put a cap on the procedure; no more 
than 5,000 people a" year can now be 
intimidated by Pentagon pdHys. 

Not all Reaganites were caught np in 
pafygrqtb fever. When a presidearial tfi- 
rectivepul die CIA’s supposedly s ecure 
methods into tbe Stale Department, Sec- 

test if ordered — and 
would then quit, because he would not 
wodc for a government that did not trust 
■him. Tbe sweat nrercbants were stopped 
before they fnrtbereroded American val- 
ues and national security. 

List May; a Rant Security Cotnmxs- 
aon was set up to cut tbe cost d undue 
secrecy, estimated at $14 bUSon a year. 
Its chairman,' Nunn Democrat Jeffrey 
Smith says hs report is due next week. 

As a result of tbe suspected Ames 
penetration, attention will be focused 
on tixsectkmoa polygraphs. 

Today’s mtdtigeace chief, Jim Wool- 
sey, long aware of die moldumt, 1ms 
declined to submit to a machine's judg- 
ment of Iris veracity. Tib: bus deputy and 
theinspectcrgeneral, the director of cen- 
tral inteffigence has been mnR rmad by 
the Senate; that process should not be 
subject to mechanical review. 

■ 1 suspeet that Mr. Woolsey will await 
the South report and demand flutter 
reform before caring in for collegial rea- 
sons, thereby awakening the pojjygrapb- 
benumbed security staff. 

' In Moscow on Wednesday, Vladimir 
Kryuchkov — initiator and controller of 
.(hepenetration charged to Mr. Ames and 
a man rewuded ty MikhiD Gorbachev 

in 1988 with tbe top RGB job — was 
pardoned by Russia's Duma for his 1991 
. ed meric was arrested , in Washington. 

Cultivating the orchids in Spook 
Heaven, James Jesus Angtet on — Amer- 
ica's counterspy fired ana vifified for his 
Haranoia” in successfully protecting 
the agency from deadly penetration — 
must be getting a. bitter dmdde out of 
the KGB's double triumph. 

The NewYork Times. 



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Back tbe Talks With Force This newfound Western credibility is 

Regarding " Answers That Could Hetp 
Contain the War in Bosnia’' ( Opinion, 
FA. 23) by A. M. RosetuhaL 

By favering negotiations in Bosnia and 
exdudmg the use of military force, Mr. 
Rosenthal misses the point. Military 
force and negotiations are complemen- 
tary, not mutually exclusive. Without 
force to back them up, negotiations in ex- 
Yugoslavia have not worked and will 
never work. Given the mrbiaiy imbalance 
between overarmed Serb militias and un- 
deranned Croats and Muslims, tbe fail- 
ure of negotiations was inevitable. Tbe 
present situation — mare than 200.000 
dead. 1 naffic® refugees — is the result of 
more than two years of “negotiations" 
unaccompanied by a credible nrihuiry 
threat or a coherent diplomatic strategy! 

Without the threat of NATO air 
strikes, tbe Serbs would not have with- 
drawn their heavy weapons from around 
Sarajevo; without the threat from 
NATO, Russia would not have inter- 
vened to reassure the Bosnian Serbs and 
put pressure oo their hackers in Bel- 
grade. Now that NATO is serious, oth- 
ers have suddenly become serious. 

fragile. It must be quickly exploited, in 
coordination with Russia, to relieve be- 
sieged towns and populations under 
threat- Using diplomacy backed by 
force, it must also be used to define and 
to impose a strategically viable and ethi- 
cally defensible solution to the conflict. 
Another false start in U5. policy would 
be a moral and political disaster. 

If great nations abdicate responsibil- 
ity for the peace of the world and tbe 
survival of its peoples to powerless nego- 
tiators, tbe result wffl be more tragedies 
like we have seen in Boatia and Croatia. 
This is an indelible shame for the West; 
an ominous indication of tbe future. 



Lone Females at Night 

In “Human-Rights Report’s New, 
Grim Focus" (Feb. 4), Indonesia some- 
how made this sad honors list on the 
incongruous ground that “Indonesian 
women are loath to go out alone at 
night because they are widely seen 
ns fair game for sexual attack." 

I have been living in Indonesia for 

For a Broad New Crusade 
To Rescue Black Children 

By William Raspberry 

more than IS years and can confirm that 
with its 1S5 million people, most of them 
Muslim, sexual attacks are rare, espe- 
cially compared to Western countries. 

Lone females at night arc. not surpris- 
ingly, the subject of male attention 
throughout the world, my native Lux- 
embourg included. 


J akar ta. 

In Luxembourg* s Shadow 

People would do well to reconsider 
their criticism of Greece's Macedonia 
policy' in light of similar life-and-death 
situations throughout tbe worid. Here in 
Belgium, for instance, we live in con- 
stant fear that an expansion-minded 
Luxembourg will try a grab at the Bel- 
gium province also called Luxembourg. 

Or is it the Luxembourgerswho live in 
dread of a Belgian land grab? In any 
case, a lot of time, money and sleep have 
been lost over this intractable situation. 

Pity Greece for its inability to acquire 
even the semblance of a mature and 
forward-looking policy on Macedonia. 



W ashington — if you had 
asked me, say 35 years ago, to list 
black America's most pressing prob- 
lems. tbe response would have centered 
— accurately and unarguably — on rac- 
ism. Negroes, as we then called our- 
selves, were plagued by racism: dis- 
crimination, segregation, denial of 
opportunity based solely on race. There 
were race-based barriers to union ap- 
prenticeships, to fair treatment by toe 
criminal justice system, to bousing in 
"white" neighborhoods and schools, to 
“white**jobs — even to the voting booth. 

Racism was tbe enemy, and there 
sprang up a movement to confront it 
This being Black History Month, two 
reminders are in order. First, the move- 


ment succeeded in dismantling Ameri- 
can apartheid. Second, it was not 
enough. Tbe fruits of that movement •— 
the opening up of places of public ac- 
commodation, the extension of tbe 
franchise, the official desegregation of 
tbe law — were critically important 
When the legal barriers were breached, 
well-prepared blacks came flooding 
through. They and their progeny still 
represent America's black (and not 
only Mack) leadership. They arc mili- 
tary generals and cabinet officers, may- 
ors and members of Congress, journal- 
ists. physicians, judges, corporate 
executives, educators, diplomats, astro- 
nauts — everything. 

These successful blacks are far from 
complacent as EDis Cose makes dear in 
his solidly researched new book “Tbe 
Rage of a Privileged Class." But they 
arc successful 

Millions of Macks are not If you asked 
me today to list tbe most pressing prob- 
lems facing black America, racism would 
be several notches down from the top. 

Racism has not gate away; maybe it 
never will But H seems obvious that rac- 
ism is a less powerful barrier than it once 
was. Young people who earnestly desire 
success and are witting to work for it 
seldom are denied that success solely on 
account of race. So why is it that milbons 
of <Mir youngsters are sot succesrful, and 
show no ago of becoming so? 

I have argued that there have always 
been both external and internal barriers 
to our progress. A generation ago, the 
decisive harriers woe external and we 
built a movement to demolish them. 
Today, the decisive barriers are internal 
and we need to build a movement to 
overcome them as wdL 
What would such a movement entail? 
There is no end to the possibilities, but 
for me the top priority would be to 
rescue our children. An astounding 
number of children are being lost: to 
drugs, to hopelessness, to violence, to 
death. They fafl at school become par- 
ents before they are grown-ups, reach 

adulthood without acquiring the educa- 
tion or skills to earn a decent living. 
Our young women suffer the debili tar- 
ing effects of low self-esteem, and our 
young men, who ought to be the strength 

of their communities, are more likely 
to terrorize them. 

We need a crusade to save our chil- 
dren — a crusade as powerful and as 
broad- based as tbe 1960s crusade for 
civQ rights. We need a new movement. 

And, I freely confess. 1 do not know 
how to create it. I am not all that clear 
on how the earlier crusade became a 
movement. In the '50s and ’60s, well 
before Rosa Parks refused to rive up 
her seat and unwittingly launched the 
Montgomery bus boycott, there were 
people across America working at vari- 
ous aspects of civil rights. There were 
voter registration workers, real-estate 
testers, school desegregators, filers of 
class-action suits, siz-in-wade-in- 
march-in demonstrators. 

Then something happened. Some- 
how an umbrella was spread over all 
these discrete and independent pro- 
jects, and they became, collectively, 
“the movement." It was far more than a 
matter of nomenclature. The birth of 
“the movement" changed attitudes. We 
saw change coming, and we wanted to 
be pari of it. We joined a vast alphabet 
soup of civil rights groups, walked 
picket lines, boycotted recalcitrant 
businesses. White people joined us 
from across America. Sharecroppers 
joined college students, business execu- 
tives joined politicians and reverend 
clergy, and America changed. 

There are today people performing all 
the elements erf 1 ' a children’s crusade: 
helping youngsters with their algebra 
and their self-esteem, keeping them out 
of jail talking to them abont fife, raising 
money for their education, helping them 
to see — and attain — their life possibili- 
ties. I wish 1 understood by what chem- 

a these individual and local efforts 
be transformed into a movement 
with the power to reach beyond tbe 
particulars of time and place and make 
our children — and not just black chil- 
dren, either — know that they are valued 
and loved and counted on. 

We would still have racism, no doubt, 
but we would also have a dung that is in 
woefiiily short supply, and whose ab- 
sence. in my view, accounts for most of 
the problems that afflict our children. 
We would have hope. 

Washington Post Writers Group. 

Letters intended for publication 
should be addressed “ Letters to the 
Editor ” and contain the writers sig- 
nature. name and full address. Let- 
ters should be brief and are subject to 
editing. We cannot be responsible for 
the return of unsolicited mamaaipts. 

-Seven Dreams, A Book of . 
•North American Lind- 



By William T. VpBnvmn. 411 
\pW3L S22S5. Viktn V’ 


n - -* • 

’By WUhqm T. VoBmam 281 
' f pages. $21. Grove. - . ' ' . 

.Reviewed by : - 
Charles Monaghan .. . 

A CENTURY frean now, read- , 
exsmay took upon our time as 
* the gplden age of the A me ri can 

*' novd. Certainty, there are at least 
' three writm now fiving and work- 
'm g who can be ranked among the 
* eight or Iff greatestnpyefists Amer- 
ica his produced, joining the files 
of Melville and Hawthorne, Twain 
*■ and James, Wharton and. Faulkner. 

1 The three are William Gaddis, 
'Thomas Fyncbon and the campar- 
^ ativdy unknown William T. voQ- 
\ maim, who is only 33 years old. _ 
“comparative literature from Cor* 

1 cell published las first npvd, “You 

■ Bright and Risen AngdsT m 1987 
‘at the age of 27. It is about an aH- 
1 encompassing war between insects 

- and electricity, which is to say. be- 
1 tween Nature and the Modern. 

. WWe “Angels" is the great ecol* 

‘ ogy novel, YoDmann is -far from a 
' samplamndedprpselytizer. Rather, 
he uses the dramatic confrontation 

■ between the ecology .movement 
I! and its enemies to pump energy 

into Iris fiction.' I.- • 

!. In 1990, VoUmann pubbsbed the 
^ first of a planned scares of novels 
called “Seven Dreams: A Book of 
North American Landscapes," , a 
danre to the music of time about 
the confrontation between Europe? 
an invaders and tbe native people 
-of North America. “Seven 

■ Drerims” has proven to ben magB- 
Itcrial work, based both on serums 

scholarship and great leaps of arus- 
T ire imagination. 

Volume I,! “The Ice Shirt," 
S cbrpnid*s the Scznifinavjan- m- 
'teoirater with North America. To 
-tefl the tale. VoUmann braves - the 
-. dense thicket td Scandinavian.raga 
"■ and eowges with a dear, exciting 

u and fanny narrativt ■ . 

- Volume FI, ‘ “Fathers -and,. 
Crows,” which appeared in 1992, 
dosely follows lhewnc of another 
great. American writer, the histori- 
an Frauds Parionan, in The Jesu- 
its in North America.” pari of the 
historian's ambitious multi volmne 

» project, “France and Eugl^Jf 

■ fie New Worid." Of conrae, Vpa- 
u mOTn -~h^gra?bCH3ys servile gn- 

; j tutor — makes the ihrilhng story 

% the third hook in the seires to ap- 
* pear but volume VJ in the overall 
'-Sea*. “The Rifles" moves, the 
;. story of ihccoafrootaOtm between 
J, Europe and tire indigenous people 

• Gnifon Sfpv, head of tire Sgur 
Center for East Asian Studies in 
Washington, is reading. * The De- 
imhdng of Asnerica* by.Wiffiam J. • 

*T think it’s fascinating. He 
makes a strong case for the renewal 
of homespun values that tire U.SL 
has beat based on for along tune.” 

^ (IBse Gersten, 1ST) 

w m 

of North America ahead totire 19th 
xenrioy. : 

However, almost half the book 
focuses cm the adventures of the 
present-day narrator (who bears 
some resemblance to the tmihor), 
especially his affair with Reepah. 
an lmrit gri, metadmg a, crazy, 
charming visit with bar to New 
York. And the navd!s efimax is his 
12-day stay, all atone, in, a remote 
and abandoned weather station. 

There seems -to be a tngectoiy in 
the “Dreams" series leading from a 
scholarly and removed account of 
myth and histtuy to a melding of 
history and contemporary fife, hi 
The Ice Shirt,' the Scandinavians 
gave tire Indians knives. In "Fatirere 

and Crows," the French give them 
tire bfaederbuss. The loud get tbe 
rifle, w likii allows than to slaughter 
trikffife to the point where there is 
no longer sufficient food. 

Resolutely evenhanded, VoU- 

iraMtwvffglofflWiwr thft fariting c 

of his Native Americans, including 
ov ahmun g He mats to picture 
tbejn in all their intricate humanity. 

Overall, Voflmann’s already sub- 
stantial oeuvre can rowhty be di- 
vided into two parts. On tire one 
hand are his production numbers 
— “Angels,” “Seven Dreams" and 
“An Afghanistan Picture Show” 
(this last an autobiographical ac- 
count of Voflmanris attempt to 

By Alan T^ruscott 

T HE Cap Voimac World Top 
Tournament, 1 played in The 
Hague, in Jamtaiy. was won by Tor 
Hdnras and Gal Hdgemou Hd- 
gemo, at 23, is without doubt tbe 
world's best young player. In the 
last year Jus other successes include 
second place in the Worid Junior 
Team Championship and third in 

- 16 
pairs were: 1st, Hrioess and -Hef- 
gexno, 890 vkaoty pomts; 2d, Jeff 
Meckstroth: and Eric RodweR 
United States, 839; 3d, Alain Levy 
and Herv6- Xfonid, France, 807; 
4th, Tonv Fdrrcstei ; and Andy 
Roteon, Britain, 784; 5th, Paul 
Chemia and '.Michel Perron, 
France; 6th, Etui Leufkens -and 
Beay Wears. - Netherlands, 772; 
?th,.Bob Hamman-andJob Wolff, 
TTuited States; 8tlt; l-David 


Berkowitz and Lany Cohen. Unit- 
.ed States. . 

... On thediagramed deal tire stan- 
dard contract was three no-trump 
after South had opened two no- 
trump. What would you lead as 
West if yon cotdd peek into the 
other hands? You might think a 
heart, which was the choice, with- 
out peeking, of Bjorn Fafienius, a 
Swedish expert who lives in Man- 
hattan. He and hispartner took the 
. first four tricks in hearts, but it did 
than no good. 

West shifted to a dub at the fifth 
trick, and Sooth won whh the king. 

With no due to tbe location of the 
diamond queen, be played the ace 
and king. This failed u> drop the 
queen, twt it squeezed West: be 
could not protect both black suits, 
and tire game was made. 

At other tables, the contract usu- 
ally failed after a passive lead in a 

fight beside the Afghans against 
tire Soviet Union). 

The second group includes The 
Rainbow Stories," “Thirteen Sto- 
ries” and “Thirteen Epitaphs," 
“Whores For Gloria” and, most re- 
cently, “Butterfly Stories: A Nov- 
el" released hue last year. These 
shorter books deal unflinchingly 
with the seamy underside of to- 
day's worid. 

Prostitutes are at the center of 
“Butterfly Stories.” The n ovd is set 
mainly in Asia, where the narrator is 
pursuing various journalistic assign- 
ments He is almost a parody of 
American innocence, hunting for 
love in the fleshpots of Bangkok and 
Phnom Penh. He finds it and its 
contemporary consequence, HIV. 

This bald summary does not do 
justice to the sharp observations of 
places and people in the book, or 
tire masterly descriptions of sex at 
once clinical and erotic. 

In everything he writes, Voll- 
mann adamantly refuses to lie to 
himself or us. In an era saturated 
with political and commercial dis- 
honesty and Disneyesqne senti- 
mentality, it is a quality as precious 
as diamonds. 

Charles Monaghan, a Book aide 
and travel writer , wrote this for The 
Washington Post 

black stnu Ironically, it was Fallen- 
ius’s “good" heart lead that helped 
ibe declarer by correcting the count 
for the squeeze. 




0 IQ 8 7 5 4 
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9 A 10 9 5 

* 10 9 6 3 

Both skies were vulnerable. The 


South West North East 

2 N.T. Pass 3 N.T. Pass 

Pass Pass 

West led tno heart five. 


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International Herald Tribune 
Friday, February 25, 1994 
Page 8 

Of Fire 

In Mid-March., 
Artists’ Works 
Go Up in Flames 

By Al Goodman 

V ALENCIA, Spain — Imagine a 
city that will spend S3 million this 
year to commission hundreds of 
works of art and then burn them, 
on the night of March 19, in front of huge 
crowds, accompanied by exploding fire- 

You call that crazy? In Valencia, they call 
it Las Fallas, the fiesta of fire. In a city 
renowned for public parties — like the one in 
July when people throw flowers at each other 
— Las Fallas is by far the most popular 
festival and certainly the biggest, bawdiest 
and most boisterous. 

“If noise bothers you, it's better not to 
come," said a local reporter. Menses Domin- 
guez, referring to the fireworks, brass bands 
and the half- milli on visitors who flock to this 
city of 750,000, the third largest in Spain. 
March 15 to 19. 

Yet the loud music and explosions, which 
start daily at 8 A. M. and continue well past 
midnight, are just Lhe accompaniment to the 
fallas themselves: 736 brightly-painted, 
mixed-media sculptures of humans, animals 
and objects that parody or pay homage to 
contemporary life. 

Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan 
were favorite subjects in their heydays for 
falla caricatures. Because of the secrecy 
surrounding the falla workshops, it is diffi- 
cult to tell which world figures will get roast- 
ed this year. 

The European Union routinely is a target 
of falla artists. The EU once was depicted as 
a dirty toilet adorned with 12 flags, and 
another lime as a vampire sucking the blood 
out of the pristine new member Spain, de- 
picted as a beautiful nude woman. 

The festival dates to medieval times when 
Valencia's carpenters burned crude wooden 
T-shaped frames that held winter lamps and 
unneeded wood shavings on March 19 to 
honor Sl Joseph, the patron of carpenters. 

Some falla chroniclers interpret the ritual 
burning as a cleansing process on the eve of 
spring. The festival has grown steadily in size 
and stature since the 1940s. Salvador Dali 
designed a bullfight falla in 1954 that includ- 
ed, not surprisingly, his own face. 

The largest falla this year rises to 30 me- 
ters (98 feet), took nearly a year to make and 
cost $156.01)0. It will be on display for four 
days in city hall plaza before it is consumed 
by flames in only about 30 minutes on the 
fateful "night of lire.” The sculpture, by 
veteran Jose Martinez MollA. commemo- 
rates the 50th anniversary of the falla artists' 

New Life for 2 Berlin Landmarks 

By Craig R. Whitney 

A’fH- York Times Service 

B ERLIN — Two extraordinary 
buildings in Berlin — the Protes- 
tant cathedral, built as the court 
church of tiie German kaisers, and 
i be gold-domed New Synagogue, which the 
Nazis set ablaze during Knstallnacht 
have risen from the ashes to bear spiritual 
witness to the German past. 

The restoration of both structures, in the 
center of the city on what used to be the 

until tile 1930s. After 1933 the synagogue wanted southing 

s swraeffsa wsr-ss- 

^Notffort was spared. Timets, triomphMl 

Communist side of the Berlin Wall, symbol- 
izes Berlin’s hone w be restored as the cul- 

izes Berlin’s hope to be restored as the cul- 
tural and political capital of free Germany 
when the government moves here at the end 
of the century. Yet both places, within a 
shon walk of each other, are poignant re- 
minders of how badly wrong things went the 
last time Berlin was the capital 
The cathedral, a late-1 9ih-century attempt 

in 1940. The German Army used it afterward 
as a uniform depot, until it was destroyed in 
an Allied bombing in November 1943. In 
1945, when the Russians marched in and 
occupied this part of Berlin, only a handful 
of Jews were left in.tbe dty. 

In 1966 the Communists permitted the 
enroll Jewish community in East Berlin to 
put a plaque on the budding declaring the 
facade a place of solemn remembrance for- 
ever. But not until 1988 did Erich Honecker, 
the last East German Communist leader, 
permit the start of the synagogue's full resto- 
ration as a Jewish center. 

It was not religion the atheistic Commu- 
nis t regime was interested in, but its own 
reputation of being supportive of Jewish 
culture — itself unusual for a state that 

by the Hobenzollerns to match the glory of 

Sl Paul’s and Westminster Abbey in Lon- 'Thp ern Irl-doTTlFu New 

don, was badly damaged in World War II l UC gVld-UUUlcu - vc w 

but reopened in June after an 18-year reoon- SvTiagOSXie Slid the 
stroction project that was partly unanoed by -■ <3 c> 

s unction project that was partly Guanoed by 
the Ger man government in Bonn. 

The synagogue’s exotic golden dome, 
topped by a gilded Star of David, was re- 
stored in the summer of 1991 and now rises 
high over the Oranienburgerstrasse, three 
blocks north of the caihedraL The rest of the 
building is still under construction as a cen- 
ter of Jewish culture, and wiQ open next year. 

Both restorations began when this part of 
Berlin was under Communist rule, a fact 
forgotteo by many now that the city is no 
longer divided But reminders of the past are 
as inescapable as the pockmarks and chunks 
still missing from the blackened stone mass 
of the cathedral even now that the interior 
has been restored to its gilded original state. 

Protestant Cathedral have 
been restored. 

gsn a period of decline that accelerated after 

the Naas took power in 1933. Heavy Allied 
air bombardments beginning in 1940 left the 
cathedral a decapitated rum is 2945: the 
dome collapsed into the main sa nctuar y be- 
low and the crypt chapel was so heavily, 
damaged that it was demolished. 

m M. • 

One of the hundreds of elaborate “ fallas " burned each year in March, 

plaster molds that yield cardboard and pa- 
pier-mache-type figures. 

The fallas are placed in public squares and 
intersections on March 15. Special juries 
view them on March 16 to decide on dozens 
of awards, the most important being the 
"special section" prize. 

The fiesta's mam religious component oc- 
curs on March 17 and 18, when locals march 
in traditional costume to the plaza next to 
the cathedral The (lowers they carry are 
arranged on a tall wooden frame into an 
image of the Virgin of the Forsaken (Desam- 
parados), Valencia's patron. 

Meanwhile, neighborhoods overflow with 
paella, the local specialty, while fireworks 

crackle and pop endlessly. The biggest ex- 
plosions are daily at 2 P. M. in city ball 

plaza, where a show lasts 10 minutes. The 
gunpowder employed in the past blew out 

medical crews on standby around the city. 

The fiesta's culmination on March 19 al- 
lows the nimble-footed visitor to see only a 
few fallas being burned, because the torching 
starts at midni gh t around town, when hanging 
firecrackers explode in chain reaction to ignite 
the fallas doused with flammable liquids. 

At city hall plaza. Dominguez recom- 
mends getting a spot on Calle Barcas for a 
good view, a few hours before the 1 A.ML 
( March 20) torching of the biggest falla. 

Yet each year a few smaller fallas. are 
“pardoned." The public votes to save one that 
is well-crafted, which is sent to city govern- 
ment's falla museum. The falla artists guild 
selects a few others for the guild’s Musco del 
Artista Fallero, which is open daily. 

Valencia's tourist office, which does not 
handle hotel requests, is in the city hall Mld- 

the Nazis dubbed Reichskristalinacht in No- 
vember 1938. It was not destroyed then be- 
cause a German police superintendent. Wil- 
helm Kxtitzfeld, arrived on the scene and 
chased away the storm troopers who had set 
fire to the building. 

A N architectural curiosity since its 
construction in the 1860s — a 
brick and terra-cotta structure in a 
style meant to bring Moorish ar- 
chitecture to mmd — the building bears over 
the main entrance an inscription in Hebrew: 
“Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation 
which keepeth the truth may ester in” (Isa- 
iah 26:2). 

In 1866, there were 28.000 Jews in Berlin, 
then a city of about 700,000. The exotic and 
opulent Reform synagogue reflected their 
economic success, and their pride in it, and it 
soon attracted anti-Semitism. 

Heinrich von Treitschke. the nationalist 
German historian, wrote. 13 years later, that 
the most beautiful and impressive house of 
worship in the German capital was a syna- 
gogue, a fact that proved to him that Jews 
were more powerful in Germany than any- 
where else in Europe. The synagogue re- 
mained at the center of Jewish life in the city 

windows in the vicinity before authorities 
limited the potency of the blasts. 

ing on Plaza del Ayuntomiento l. Tel: (34-6) 
351-0417. Request the program guide to Las 

351-0417. Request the program guide to Las 

Fireworks cause dozens of minor injuries 
annually, most of them treated on the spot by 

A I Goodman reports from Spain for CNN. 

pretended that only West Germany had in- 
herited responsibility for the crimes of the 
Nazis. Honecker attended the laying of a 
symbolic cornerstone in November 1988, 
and within a year he and the Communists 
were out of power and the Berlin Wall only 
a few hundred feet away, crumbled. 

With German reunification, it became 
easier for western Germans to contribute to 
the restoration. But the Jewish community in 
the eastern part of Botin remains tiny. The 
interior will be only partly restored, and the 
project is not expected to be completed bey 
fore May 8. 1995. the 50th anniversary of 
Bolin’s liberation by the Red Anny. 

The Moorish-style sanctuary, a large audi- 
torium with soaring arches, columns, and 
skylights, and a balcony on three tides for 
female worshipers, will not be re-created, at 
least for now, said Hermann Simon , director 
of the foundation that is financing the resto- 
ration of the synagogue. A modem museum 

T HOUGH downtown Berlin 
around the nan was nearly unpop- 
ulated until the Communists bolt 
new hooting projects, church au- 
thorities maintained toe parish and, in 1974, 
persuaded Honecker to let the bmlding be 
restored, at West German expense. 

' “It was a controversial project for several 
reasons,” said Hermann Kajima, a Protes- 
tant Church official in Boon. “It wasn’t easy 
to justify the rebuilding of the imperial Wif- 
hehnine church. But it was part of a package 
agreement between the church, the West 
German government end the East German 
authorities that allowed us to restore other 
old churches and build a few new ones in 
East Germany; for the same sunr-it cost to 
restore the caihedraL" 

Most of that amount, the equivalent of 
$63 million, was^pirovided by -the church in 
West Germany and the government in Bonn, 
while workers for the project were provided, 
mainly by the East Germans, until 1989. The 
work .ori the main' building was finished iq 
June, though it is still going an in the crypt 

of Jewish fife in Berlin will occupy part of the 
former vestibule. The outlines of the sanctu- 

fonner vestibule. The outlines of the sanctu- 
ary behind it will be marked on the ground 
and visible from a glass wafl on the street. 

While the interior remains a construction 
site, the exterior facade is complete. A broad 
and textured polychrome structure of ydlow 
bride and fiUgreed lerra-cotta, it rises to 
support the great central silver dome, over- 
laid, with gold tracery, and flanked by two 
smaller minar et-like stiver and gold cupolas 
on towers. The Jewish Community House 
next door has periodic historical exhibits on 
Jewish life in the capital and memorabilia. 

The 375-foot (115-meter) high copper- 
sheathed dome was dearly inspired -by the 
much bigger one at Sl Peter's in Rome; but . 
the Berlin structure is-uot quite W0 years 
old. Kaiser Wilhelm II and his courtiers 

■ Annals of marketing: A 
Washington winemaker whose sweet 
.■ Mute wine went bad has turned it into 
sherry under the name “Faux Pas *83," 
the Associated Press tells us. At your 
own risk: L’Ecole No. 41 Winery, west of 
Walla WaOa, Washington, from April, 
under SIS a bottle. 

THE HONE 61 ' /EE 

Martinez has won the contest to design the 
giant falla at city hall plaza for the past five 

years. He said the burning of his creations, 
which he always watches, leaves him with a 

which he always watches, leaves him with a 
sense of pride. But to hedge his bets, Martinez 
also sculpts in mixed media that will not be 
ignited at the fallas. Ditto for dozens of other 
guild members whose large workshops are 
clustered in a working-class Valencia districL 

These workshops also have created floats 
for Mardi Gras in New Orleans and store- 
front designs for Euro Disney near Paris. 

Valencia's 369 neighborhood-based falla 
“commissions" raise money throughout the 
year to order fallas of all sizes from the 
artists. Work begins in the spring, Fallas 
once were patched together from old cloth or 
wax. But modern versions involve meticu- 
lous designs and scale models before con- 
struction. using wood strips, or clay and 

Oecra Li Mjiu 

Austin O'Brien, Chlumskv in “A/v Girl 2. 

‘My Girl 2* 

Directed by Howard Zieff 

Anna Chi unisky, who is like sun- 
shine an a doudy day. deserves 
the potential franchise that be- 
gan with 1991*s “My Girl.” 
Chlumsky is such a wonderful 
actress, you can imagine sequels 
for decades ahead. Now 13, 
Vada Sultenfuss (Chlumsky) is 
al one of those crossroads of 
adolescence that seem particu- 
larly innocent because of the 
movie's setting, a small Pennsyl- 
vania town in 1974. Her father 
Harry (Dan Aykroyd) and step- 
mother Shelly (Jamie Lee Curtis) 
are about to provide Vada with a 

sibling, and the anticipation of 
that event provokes myriad feel- 
ings. But it's a school project 
that provides Vada with a pur- 
pose. Assigned to write about 
“someone who’s achieved some- 
thing worth writing about but 
someone you’ve never met," 
Vada derides to write about her 
mother, Maggie Muldovan, 
whom she knows tittle about 
After a whirlwind courtship and 
marriage to Vada's dad, and a 
difficult pregnancy, she had died 
at Vada’s birth, her life as a 
young actress chronicled in a few 

E ' ills and knickknacks col- 
in a small box clearly trea- 

lected in a small box clearly trea- 
sured by Vada. Vada turns out 

to be a Young Miss Marple. 
tracking down classmates, teach- 




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tracking down classmates, teach- 
ers and others *ho touched on 
her mother's brief life. The 
sweetness of the film is that these 
gradual revelations illuminate a 
vibrant young woman who both 
followed her muse and served os 
one — not unlike Vada herself, 
as it turns oul “My Girl 2” is 
clearly about roots and the jour- 
ney to self-discovery. At 13. 
Chlumsky is blessed with a sub- 
tle beauty that's still budding: 
Her smile is offhandedly ebarm- 

Bflled as a comedy about a hap- 
less bunch of army recruits who 
become heroes, this film could 
better be described as a tragedy 
for the viewer who sacrifices 90 
minutes and the price of admis- 
sion. The script is based cm (he 
writings of a veteran contributor 
to Spam’s leading satirical maga- 
zine, El Jueves, which is pub- 
lished on Wednesday, not 
Thursday as the title suggests. 
But whQe the magazine often 
captures the best of hard-edged 
Spanish wit, the movie comes up 
empty-handed. The five recruits 
and their bungling sergeant 
(Juan Echanove) are sent on a 
secret mission. But we never 
really team what the mission is 
or why a trio of Japanese terror- 
ists masquerading as tourists 
want to steal a compact (HA at a 
NATO military installation in 
Spain. Could the CD contain a 
prized collection of Jufio Igksias 
hits? The film is full of the lowest 

Albert Brooks and Nick Nolle in **1*11 Do Anything . 1 

attempts at humor and of wom- 
en who can’t wait to set im- 


Ttfc 1161 78 63 67 77 
Book now By pMiw witfi trtda anl 

ing, her eyes sparkle and she 
holds herself with a convincingly 

en who cant wait to get un- 
dressed for (be soldiers. Totopii 
off. there is an imitation of the 
“Rarabo" character. But even 
Sylvester Stallone is f unni er. 

(At Goodman, IHT) 


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Directed by Manuel Esteban, 

I'll Do Anything 

Directed by James Brooks, 

The same acuity with which 
James Brooks made “Broadcast 
News" is at the heart of “III Do 
Anything," a droll, buoyant 

near-musical about an out-of- 
work actor and his scary little 
daughter. This time, the fikn- 
mate turns his attention to HoL 
lywood, which be presents as a 
place ruled by insane paradox. 
Bat seif-impertant as they are, 
the high rollers live and die by 
the opinions of moviegoers. It’s 
true that common folk inspire 
nothing but coatempt in Burke 
Adler (Albert Brooks), a produc- 
er. But it’s also true that Adler 
quails over the results of audi- 
ence preview cards. In the 
course of the story, those cards 
lead to the drastic cutting of Ad- 
la's latest action picture. It’s 
almost fitting that “HI Do Any- 
thing” has come to illustrate the 
satirical premise, since tins film 
lost its musical numbers after a 
preview audience delivered a 

thumbs-down verdict. The film's • 
main character is Matt Hobbs 1 
(Nick Nolle), who reveals him- . 
self in a prologue. In 1980, as a - 
nominee for a best-actor award, ’• 

Hobbs didn't really mind when . 
somebody else won. He is hope- ■ 
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the cutthroat people who 
I hire him. When he does ! 

mre ram. wjko tie does land a 1 
job, it’s that of phtyin g chauffeur ' 
to Adler. As the fum gets going, ■ 
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sibility: care of Ins 6-year-old ' 
daughter, Jeannie (Whittni 
Wright). Jeannie is nominally ' 
Matt’s child, bot she may just be ■ 
the demonic^ offspring of . the 
movie community. Tough, • 
scheming and manipulativdy ’- 
adoraWc, Jeannie malms a teen-'. - 
fyinglypetfta show-biz lad. 

(Janet Mdsllrt, NYT) • 



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a Nostalgic soft 
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8 Ax 

• Demonstrator’s 

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48 'Brighton Rock' 
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© Sew York Times ErStedby Will Shorn, 





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statues, columns, capitals and porticoes p3e 
on top of each other on the grey grauile 
exterior, across the extension « 

Linden from where the Hoheazofieras royal 
palace used to stand. 

The kaiser's cathedral designed by JuhiH 
Carl Raschdorff, was compktod in 1905, 
after II yeais of construction. The tm and 
marble sarcophagi of most of the duteand 
kings of Prussia whose family bad five* m 
Benin since the 15 th century were trans- 
ferred to a crypt the architect hoped would 
turn out to be drier than its predecessors, 
frequently flooded by the Spree. The most 
i m p ortant stood in the monument c rape ! 

above the crypt and here, too, wm an impe- 
rial statue of Bismarck, in a toga, we remains, 
of which were destroyed in 1975. 

But Kaiser Wilhelm was never laid to rest 

in his cathedral. Wortd War 1 ended bis reign 

and his dynasty’s in 1918, and be died in 
exfle in Holland. The Protestant church be- 


/ ' ; 1 1 

f S /7 A* JF 

International Herald Tribune 
Friday ; February 25, 1994 
Page 9 

in nr s am 



KunstHaus Wien, tel: 772-D485; - 

Open flatty. Continuing /To May 1: 

J Le Corbuslar, The Archited'- 

Charies-Edpuard Jannwet, The 

palmer ” As an architeci Le Corbu- 
sier ( 1807 t 1 965). became .vrarld, 
lamous, as the painter he remained 
Charte-Ectouard Jamem. The ertf*- . 
Wtfon features 150 drawings, paint- 
ings, sculptures, architectural mod- . - 
$£ and tapestry. 

KunstoJstorisches Museum, tel: 52- * : 
.177, chased Mondays. Coniinu- 
ing/To May 29; “Isabella d’Este: La 
Pr«ma Donna del Monda" Paintings 
by Correggio. Mantegna. Ferugino, 
antique cameos and bronze statu- 
ettes. ceramics, drawings, coins and 

the Renaissance princess. 



La Monnaie. tel; {2} 218-12-11. A 
new production ot Rossini's "Otallo.” 
Greeted by Luca Ronconi, conduct- 
ed by Gtanluigi Gehnati. with Chris 
Memtt and Lfife CubertL March 5 
(premiere), 8. 10. 13, 16, 19, 22, 24 

Mustes Royaux d'Art et d'Htstotra. 
lei. (2) 741-7211, dosed Mondays. 
Continuing /To April 17; “Miniatures 
MoghotesdeHnde." Mlniaturesfrom 
the New Delhi museum, depicting file 
under the Mogul emperors. 



Royal Museum ot Scotland, tat 
(31) 225:7534, open daily. To April 

17: "The Birth of Democracy." Dis- 
coveries from archaeological exca- 
vations of the Agora in Athens. The 
exhibition contains coins, decorated 
pots and artifacts from the dally hfe of 
ancient Athenians, as well as a clep- 
sydra used in Pericles's time to Jtrnit 
the speaking time of lecturers. 

National Gallery, tel: (71) 839- 
3526, open dany. Continuing /To 
April 10; "Claude: The Poetic Land- 
scape." 25. paintings and 50 draw- 
ings by Claude Ldrrain. the 1 Tth-cen- 
tury French painter. London' 

Royal Academy of Arte, tei: (71 ) 

‘*Womon in a Hat,” by Picasso in a London show. 

Phoenician, Roman, Venjothic, Mo- 
zaratnc and medieval ami acts. 


Empress Place Museum. let: 336- 
73-33. open daily Conttnuing/To 
July 1394 1 "War and Ritual: trea- 
sures ot the warring Slates." An ex- 
hibition of Chinese bronze culture 
from me Waning States period ( 475- 
221 B C.V 

National Museum Art Gallery, tel; 
3371-265, open daily- To March 13, 
1994; "Pont des Arts; Nan yang Art- 
ists in Pans. 1925-1970.“ Features 
the early works of 21 artists from 
Singapore and Malaysia which were 
completed m France, as well as re- 
cent paintings. 



FundadP Joan MlrO, tel (951 329- 
19-08, dosed Mondays. To April 10: 
"Amat: Four Background Land- 
scapes; 1975-1992.” 122 drawings 
and works in mixed media produced 
by the Spanish pamier while he lived 
in Morocco, Mexico, the United 
States and Barcelona 
Fundacio La Caixa, tel; (3) 404 60 
73. closed Mondays. To April 3: 
"Waiem De Kooning.” 50 oil paint- 
ings, bronze sculptures and drawings 
select ad from the Hirsh horn Museum 
in Washington. The exhibition toitows 
the Abstract Expressionist's career 
from his early figurative paintings, tvs 
explorations in Cubism, and his lyri- 
cal abstractions ot the later years. 
The exhibition will travel to Atlanta, 
Boston and Houston. 


(V AM Centre Julio Gonzalez, tel: 
(6) 386-3000, dosed Mondays. To 
April 24: “Raoul Hausmann." 250 
works by the Austrian -bom artist 
(ie86-i97i), a representative figure 
oi Bertm Dadaism around 1918. The 
exhibition will travel to Berlin. 


Lau san ne 

Fonda tion de r Hermitage, tel: (21 ) 
320-50-01, dosed Mondays. Con- 

Mjto Ouniuonc 

Andrea del Sana's “Last Supper,” executed in 1527, is at the convent of San Sahi. 

Last Supper a la Carte in Florence 

439-7438, open daily, Conb'nu- Berlin 

mg/To April 2j/TTie Untoww Modi- Amerika Hans Berlin, tel: (30) 21 t- 

ing/To AprH 2: 'The Unknow 
gUani" More than 400 draw 
Amedeo Modigtlani from 1 



07-59. To March 18: "Lewis Bate 
Rule Without Exception.” A retro- 

1924. Confrnuir^/To Apr# & "Jn spectrvo of the work of die American 
Pureult ® documeritarist, including photo- 

Andent Woria" 300 masterpieces 
from the George Ortiz cottectton, in- 
cluding Sumenan carvings, Egyptian 
sculptures and Greek bronzes, vases 
and Jewelry. 

Tate Gallery, tei: (Vi) 887-8000, 
open daily. Corrtintnng/To May ft 
“Picasso: Sculptor/Painter." 168 
sculptures, paintings, (framings and 

Victoria and Albert Museum, tel; 
(71 ) 589-6371, open daily. Contin- 
uing /To April 10: “Fabeige: imperial. 


Mus6e des Beaux-Arts, teL (514) 
285-2000, closed Mondays. To May 
1 : "Duane Hanson." 30 hyperraafls-. 
■tic sculptures. - ’■ ■ . 


Castle Riding School, tei; (2) 33- 
J37-32-32. Continuing/To March 
27: ■ Recent and Contemporary 
Czech Pointing From the dote Gal- 
leries' CoWectiona"; - . - :• - 

Louisiana Museum of Modem Art. 
tel: (42)19-07-19,' open daily. Cbri- 
iintririg/ToMarchft ,J Claude Monet; 
fvorte erorrr .1880 to 1926. " . .: 

FRANCE^-; ■- 
Part* . • • 

Centre Georges Pompidou, tel: 44- 
78-1 2-33, closed Tuesdays. Confin- 
uing/Ti oMarch 28: "La Dation Vieira 
cfa SiTva." Paintings, drawings end 
sketches on paper Bar the windows of 
a church In Reims: Also continu- 
ing /To May 9: "La VHtec An et Archi- 
tecture en Europe 1870-1993." How 
the European towns of today were 
planned, perceived and idealized by 
architects and artists from the endol 
the fStfr century to dale. 

InstituJ du Monde ^abe, tel: 40-51- 
38-38, dosed Mondays. Continu- 
ing /To April 30: "Syde: Memoirs et 
Civilisation." Art objects covering the 
history ot Syria from the 3d and 2d 
millenniums B.C. to the eariy 20th 

Jeu de Paume, tel: 42-6069-69, 
closed Mondays, Continuing/To 
March 1 3: “Janes Bishop." 30 paint- 
ings on canvas and 62 aus on paper, 
spanning the years 1957 to. 1987. 
Musde du Louvre, tel: 40-20-50-50, 
closed Mondays. To Apt# 18: “Egyp- 
tomania; L'Egypie dans PArt Occi- 
dental 1750-1930," Egypt as a 
source of inspiration in European ar- 
tistic creation. 

documeritarist, including photo- es. 
graphs of tract houses at the foot of Frt 
the RockyMouTtains, the wastelands of 
near San Francrsco Bay and inner tali 
cRy parking, lots. • To 

Hans der Kutturen der Watt, id; (3) 
97-87-0, dosed Mondays. "Die Gar- «£ 



Nagoya City Art Museum, tei: (52) 
212-0001. To March 21. closed 
Mondays. 'Toulouse-Lautrec et le 
Japonfsme." 80 oil paintings, sketch- 
es. lithographs and posters by the 
French painter showing the influence 
o! Japan on his representations of 
tale 19th-century society. 


Fuji Art Museum (tel: 
426.91.4511). Continuing/To 

o! Berlin Dadaism around 1918. The JW K en Qhnlman 

exhibition will travel to Berlin. fly Ken bfiiuman 

SWITZERLAND 1 ^ LORENCE — The^ear^u 1 529, 

1 y and soldiers of Charles V were 

Lausanne ■ 1 tightening their siege of Florence. 

SrwS? destroying the homes, hospitals. 

“ d convmis Uiat btocM their march tothc 
Vague: L'Esiampe Japonaise de center of the aty. When the French wreckers 
1 868 a 1 939." From a private collar- reached the convent of San Salvi they razed 
tlon, 160 Japanese prints by artists of the church and its bell tower, but suddenly 
the Meiji, Taisho and Shows periods, stopped their sabotage before a magnificent 
Muoto del* Bys6B. tel:J21 ) 617-48- wall painting in the adjacent refectory, a 

the Meiji, Taisho and Showa periods. 

Muste de rOysde, tel: (21 ) 61 7-48- wall painting in the adjacent refectorv. a 

tographs dating from the '50s, ‘60s aanousnea. 

and 70s from the collection of La "The man who led them." wrote Giorgio 

ten /{in fciam 11 ThA mtrriflo as n mflf- 3l! # Napoteon, tho 

aphor fo rparacQ sa in Isterntc carpets. Jg&j" S^ a lST >l cSk3™e i S 
ti»xtiipp moaturBS and woodrarv- ,® P° v Y 9f i though pamtfngs by 

ings; from Indonesia to Africa. 


David and Ingres, sculptures, 
craftworks, jewelry, furniture and 

Schim Kunsthaile, tel: (069). 29-98- HakoneOpen Air Museum, tel: (4) 
82-0, open daMy. To April 17: "Gold- 602-1161. Continutng/To March 
helm, Schweri und SSbarschatze. 21: "Amokfc flomodoro." 73 works 
Gold helmets, • swords and stiver tree- including sculptures and prints by 
sures represent 6,000 years of Ro- Italian sculptor. . 

mania’s artistic heritage. •• National Museum of Western Art, 

Ha nb um tel: (3) 3828-51 31, closed Mondays. 

Hamburgtsche Staatsopsr, tel: 

(40) 35-W-454. Rosemi's "Der Bar- 

bier von Sevilla." Directed by GHbert ^ 

Deflo. conducted try Asher Ftsh, with ^^S ^ ,Dr - MtxnC - Bames 
Kfefi Lewis. Reinfiard Dorn, Ning LJ- of PhSaddphia. 
angand Urban Malmberg. March 12, S^tory Museurn of Art. tel: (3) 
15^17 .. 3470-1073. closed Mondays. To 

• * • '. March 21 : “UWyo-ebv MoronobuHP 

Mtmlcn • shikawa."80worksbyMoronobu(c. 

Barerieches National Museum, td: 1625-c. 1695) who is said to be the 
(88) 211-24-1, closed Mondays. To first ukiyo-e artist. In addition to- 
May 29: "Stiber und Gold: Au®- woodbtock prints, he produced por- 
buraer Gordschmiedekunst for Die traits and genre paintings. 

May 29: "Stiber und Gold: Au®- woodblock prints, he produced por- 
buraer Gordschmiedekunst for Die traits and genre paintings. 

Hofe Europas." Snver and gold table- ■— ■ ■■ 

ware created in Augsbura tor the Eu- NETHERLANDS 

ropean courts In the 17Vi and 18th . . 

centuries. The exhibition includes a Amstenfam 

30-piece Rococo set. as- well as the De Nedertemdse Opera, tel: (20) 

gold set-belonging to Anna, czarina 551-8922. Rossini's "n Barb ere cti 

and 70s from the collection of La "The man who led them," wTote Giorgio 
Fondation Select, includes works by Vasari in his “Lives of the Arrisis," “aban- 
Josef Koudelka and Cartier-Bresson, doned what they had embarked on, and 
Zurich would not let any more of the place be 

Kunsthaus, tel: (1) 251-6755, destroyed." 

gS? T*' paia ^^ s W d *¥ Z™* “h- 

ence of James Ensor and Bfvard OICure was Andrea del Sanos “Last Sup- 
Munch is evident in the works of Aus- per." Executed in 1527, it is the masterpiece 
Irian Expressionist painter, Richard of an artist whom Vasari once described as 
Gerstl (1683-1908). The exhibition “the faultless painter,” a composition of pic- 

t°riaJ richness and happy naturalism that 
eluding a portrait cx Arnold Schon- .k- 

berg and l^wife, and seif-ponrats. baamethe Tuscan rrapoiwe to the bener- 

known Leonardo da Vina T^ast Supper m 

UMITEP ST AT E S ^ con- 

Los Angeles vents are decorated with the scene of the 

Los Angeles County M useum of Last Supper. Known as cenocoh — after the 
[ 2i 3) ^^-6000. areas where the monks or nuns took their 

^ _ Supper scmes dqm 

The Years ot Marie-Tlwese Walter Lnnst m the dramanc moment when be 
and Dora Maar." 40 paintings, draw- declares that one of his 12 chosen apostles 
ings and prints focus on Picasso's will betray him. 

^ ^ religious orders, these frescoes 
Thetechtotiion vrill frarefto NewYorii ««re mtauled to transform the daSy ritual 
and Chicago. of eatmginto a moment of religious comem- 

Y . plation and identification. 

u.ivo.m, r* Art H.I- San Salvi is situated a few kilometers west 
f2i2i 570-3951. r.ios«i Momtevs". of the center of Florence, but the Andrea del 

berg and his wife, and self-portraits. i Dficar 



Los Angeles vents 

Los Angeles County Museum of Last! 
Art, tet (213) 857-6000, closed 
Mondays and Tuesdays. To May 1: 
“Picasso and the Weeping Women; JSPJr 


Kunsthaile Der Hypo-Kulturstif- 

togs, a screen and seven sculptures. 
Includes interior scenes, views from 
Ws house in La Carol in southern 
France, stffl Wes, nudes and land- 
scapes by the French Nabi painter. 

Srvfgiia." Conducted by Alberto 
Zedda, with Hong-Shang Li, Donald 

HnhMi«f For the religious orders, these frescoes 
TroShtortkxi £li SSfo nSJyS «we intauled to transform the daily ritual 
and Chicago. of eatmginto a moment of religious comem- 

Y . plation and identification. 

r* Art H.)- San Salvi is situated a few kilometers west 
(212) 570-3951, closed Mondays! of the center of Florence, but the Andrea del 
Continuing/To April 3: "Degas Sarto mural is well worth the lQ-mmure taxi 
Landscapes." 61 pastels, monotypes or bus (numbers 3 and 6) journey. The An- 
and oil paintings by Degas, many drea dd Sarto cenacolo is open Tuesday 
jn^ by his journey through Bur- u^gh Sunday from 9 to 2 P. M. Admission 

Museum of Modem Art, tel: (212) “ ^ SL80) 

708-9750. closed Wednesdays. To wnhm the aty center, there are many 

Adams, Monica Baceili and Vassily lect" A retrospective devoted to 

May 10: "Frank Lloyd Wright: Archi- cenacoli that can all be visited on foot within 

Geretlo. March 3, 5. 8, 1 1 , 1 3. 15. 1 8. 
21, 24 and 26. 

Van Gogh Museum, tel; (20) 570- 

Wright's 70-year career. It Induces 
350 original drawtngs, 30 scale mcxl- 
els aa well as photographs and archi- 

5200, open daily. To May 29: "Pierre tecnjral fragments. 

the space of a leisurely morning. Here are 
three of the finest: 

Taddeo Gaddi, "The Last Supper, ” Muse- 
um of Santa Croce. 



The Israel Museum, teh 972^.2-708- 
811, open' daily.’ To ^prB 30: "Uwe 
Loesch; The Place, the Time and the 
Point 1 ' 7Q posters and bWboards by 
the German graphic, designer., 

MHen . • 

Tealro afia Scate. tel: (2) 80-SI -60. 
Ftosdrii "Maonwtto Directed by 

Pier Luigi Pizri,- conducted by Gar 
briete Ferro, with Bruce Ford, Cecilia 
Gascfca. Samuel Ramey and Gloria 
Scaichl March B, ia 13, 18, 23,25. 
27^nd 29. . ; 

Rfvoff ' 

Mueeo if Arte Contsmporanea, teL. 
(11) 958-7256, dosed Mondays. 
Contirnitrig/To April 30: "Keith Har- 

nSi inmi. Puvis de Chavannes. " More than 150 
rSShSr works by the French painter (1824- 
i pamier. iq 98), known for his Arcadian 
themes and his murals on the Sor- 
""" bonne, Pantheon and city hail walls 

to Paris. Features portraits, stiff Iftes, 

landscapes and drawings, as wen as 
72*2-708- wori® by van Gogh, Picasso. Gau- 
3Q- -uwe &*** Matisse showing the direct 
ie and the Influence of Puvis de Cnavarmas's 
boards by imagery and style. 


' ' . Lisbon 

— Museu Nadonal de Arqueologla, 

tel: 362-0000. To Dec. 31 : "SuWer- 
80-91 -80. ranean Lisbon." A display d archeo- 
irected by to^cal tSnds in Lisbon’s subsoil with 

The New York Kunsthaile, tel: 
(212) 529-5691, closed Saturdays 
and Sundays. To April 3: "Witnesses . 
of Existence: Six Artists from Saraje- 
vo." Installations produced by six art- 
ists from Sarajevo, often using male- 1 
rtallrom the ravaged city. 1 

Washington ! 

National Portrait Gallery, tel: (202) 
357-2866, open dally. To April 24: 
“From Elizabeth I to Elizabeth it: Mas- 
ter Drawings from the National Por- 
frail Gallery, London." Portraits of 
writers, politicians, artists, monarchs 
.and soldiers by major British artists of 
the past 400 years. Among those 
represented are Gainsborough, Con- 
stable Sargent, Moore and Kitaj. 

Hand delivery 
is now available 
Just call 142) 23 502 
'Independent Albanian 
Economic T ribune' 

ssw! as^.«-.5P*aws*i* 

"L'Art des SoutotaursTeSnos: Chete- W®™ 51 • 

12-73. Closed Tuesdays, to May za 
"L'Art des Soulptaurs Taflnos: Chete- 
d' Oeuvre des-Grandea Antilles Pre- 
cdombiennes. " Cutt opjecte.^ dat- 
ues, weapons aid belts made ty tne 
itoOTiglnes livtog on -CiriM. Puerto 
Faco and tne Dominican Republic, at 
the time of Christopher Columbus, 


Venice ' . * • • ■ ' 

Museo Carer, tel': (41) 52-06-288. 
Continuing /To April 4: "Pletiq 
LongW." 50 patoftm 36 drawings 
and- 14 prims by toe lBttw»ntury 
Venetiat panter. -- 

A note 
to our 

Seats of Power / 

^ In facbhundrt-ds r,f them. The' VdnfkUj ilntcrtati^Coit&w^ 

1 Center ^ M.phlMicuicd facility dcdicaiedto a single objective: tbe 
• mk cuss nf ymir buMncsS. meeting or crmrerence. ' . . > 

UI.UUU square few* if meeting space. tfislinctive enriferentt.- 
■ ', 54(t luxurious Ruc-si nxims. iWefing audiltmum with . 
r britoiitusi media center Full exercise ar^J recnatlnnal faajrties: - 

' VThen book* ^ ihe' *bju».iiva, Wi^lWti-Atlwik-sunadria just 7 miks. 
tpsii Dulles Inltmilional AirpruL and a Tmwi; 3U minutes fmm 
d>Hvrtii>wn \X’ashing«»n, J^^ ™^ rnf<inralf ‘ ,n ' I*®*? ¥ 
i-i)3i xl«-030h i a iir ilw l -’SA £«ntn ..... 

i rw Qrrtft.'rt'rKi* fA-hicr Drive ■ OcmdJIy, -Vjrcjnia. 22021 : ... 
t?Uir Kl>«)3fW • FAX (7031 818-38*5^ “ ' J 

To help the International 
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Survey Questionnaire which 
will be running in the 
newspaper for 6 days as of next 
Monday, 28th February. Your 
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If you would like to read 
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weeks' time. 

Thank you in advance for 
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Andrea de! Casiagno's “ The Last Supper” in the Sant'ApoUonia Convent. 

This is the oldest cenacolo in Florence. 
Gaddi was the most intelligent and faithful 
of Giotto's students, and the Santa Croce 
“Last Supper" is his finest work. Painted in 
1340 in this Franciscan convent, the Gaddi 
cenacolo is a large, single fresco that incor- 
porates the Last Supper, the Tree of the 
Cross, and four separate scenes from the life 
of Saint Francis. 

In an ambitious if not wholly successful 
perspective scheme, the Gaddi “Last Sup- 
per" unfolds in an expanding space that 
draws the viewer into the scene. The painting 
is ripe with symbolism, particularly in the 
scene of the crucifixion, where tbe cross 
becomes a tree of life and salvation whose 
branches bear the fruit of the prophets who 
foresaw the coming of the Messiah. 

Open 10 A. M. to 12:30 and 2:30 to 6:30 
P. M. 3,000 lire. Closed Wednesdays. 

Andrea del Castagno, M The Last Supper, " 
Sant'ApoUonia Convent. 

Not far from the church of San Marco, 
Andrea del Casiagno's “Last Supper” is a 
textbook execution of formal renaissance 
composition and geometry. Like Gaddi’s 
painting, Castagno's cenacolo is a composite 
of scenes, including a monumental Last Sup- 
per, and the scenes of the crucifixion, deposi- 
tion and resurrection of Christ 

But the century that separates Castagno 
from Gaddi — the Castagno cenacolo was 

painted between 1445 and 1450 — was one 
in which perspective evolved from an ap- 
proximate art to an exact science, a science 
in which Castagno excelled. Tbe apostles 
represented in Casiagno’s “Last Supper" ap- 
pear as solid, weighty blocks, as if they had 
been sculpted ont of marble. The setting, 
too. has been changed, from the humble 
tavern to an opulent, classical Roman noble 

Open 9 A. M. to 2 P. M. Free. Cased 

Domenico Ghirlandaio, "The Last Supper, ” 
Church of Ognissami 

Located a few steps from the Excelsior 
Hotel, Ghirlandaio's cenacolo is less dra- 
matic than Casiagno’s monumental compo- 
sition and less moving than Gaddi's sensitive 
rendering at Santa Croce. Ghirlandaio, a 
prolific, able decorator who once regretted 
that he was unable to fresco the enure ex- 
panse of Florence’s city walls, represents a 
world of naturalism in his 1480 fresco. 

Set in a realistic, upper-class late- 13th- 
century Florentine home, Ghirlandaio’s 
“Last Supper" provides an excellent exam- 
ple of tbe fashion and customs of his time . 

Open 9 to noon. Free. Gosed Sundays. 

Ken Shulman is an American writer based 
in Italy. 









Genuine care for your safety and comfort. 
Delicious dishes , , delectable cuisine to touch the heart of 
tbe most discerning passenger. 


Welcome to a whole new world! 

A world of miles mid friendliness. 

Biman BANCtAJxsH aamts 

mmp mu *■* ■*“ ' 


Failed Merger Muddies Highway 

THE TUB INDEX: 114.7811 

Internafejnal Herald Tribune Work! Stock Index ©. composed of 
Z80 jrrtemaDbnafry irrvestaWe stocks from 25 countries, compiled 
byBtoornbarg Btsm^ 1992= 100 . 


i «» 


• rw -<'v •• vv- *.• , , • 

% ,*s. : 


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typra wdgh&i$j:32% 
CkOK 131.78 12947 

150 — ; — 


Approx. wdghSng: 37% 

. -dose: 11349 Pwwj 11494 

By Lawrence Malkin 

Inunaticnd Herald Tnbme 

NEW YORK — Mutual recriminations 
fined the air Thursday over the collapse of 
what was to have been history's largest com- 
munications merger, leaving the industry di- 
vided ova- whether this was only a pothole on 
the information superhighway or a serious 

Some construction delays were a certainty. 

BeO Atlantic Corp„ the most aggressive of 
America’s regional telephone companies, and 
Tde-Oxrtxnuni cations Inc, which serves one* 
quarter of the country’s cable-ieieviaon sub- 
scribers. announced Wednesday night they 
were walking away from the deal they bad 
announced Ocu 12 to swap stock then worth 
$33 bffliou. 

_ ... iTttmzm 

>*• WMM •" 

S O N D J F 

1993 TOM TO93 


Since then, the stock of both companies 
has dropped — Bell Atlantic's by about 24 
percent and TCXs by about 22 percent — 
which changed the equation so much that 
both Raymond W. Smith, the chairman of 
Bell, and John C. Malone: the entrepreneur 
who poshed his cable company into 49 states, 
tried to renegotiate the deal and foiled. 

One BeO executive Hkened Mr. Malone to 
someone who had put his house up for sale, 
saying, “If the value suddenly drops, you lake 
U off the market and wail for better times.” 

Both blamed the breakdown on Tuesday’s 
long-expected decision by the Federal Com- 
munications Commission to cut rates of all 

Latin America 

Approx. ntfgHnffSK 
Ck»K 13654 PlBV-.IASM 

North America 

Approx wejgWng:28% 
CkSB 9506 Pbbvc 9747 

S O N D J F S O N D J F 

_ 1998 ISM -190 . .-..TOW 

'Em ■ ■ ■ - — 

wona rnocuc 

The Max tracks US doBar values at stocks Ik Tokyo, NawYorit, London, and 
ArgmUnn, Aus&afia, Austria, Batghnn, BmzB, Canada, Cilia, Dantaerk, Hrtfand, 
itmiWf iiBiiwuiy, nong Kong, iuvy ( Mexico, wowionoi, Wm rMiWio, Norway r 

Singapore, Spain. Swadan, Switzerland and VMuiA. For Tokyo, NawYoikand 
London, the Max is composed of the 20 bp Issues In lama ol rnarkat capBaBzatlon, 
otoersisete tan top stocks arm tracked. . 

Indus! rial Sec tors 

local cable television monopolies by about 7 

How much the FCC was to blame was a 
matter of angry contention — all the cable 
companies accused it of robbing them of 
revenue with which to invest for future 
growth — but it certainly changed the arith- 
metic of the deaL 

The merger was predicated on pricing TCI 
stock at S35 a share, which meant BeD Atlan- 
tic would be paying about 11.75 times the 
cable company's cash flow. TCI sank steadily 
from its Oct. 14 peak of $32,875 to 525.125 

last Friday, at which time, a BeD executive 
said. “We crunched new numbers and they 
just didn't add up.” 

On Thursday, after tlx: deal unwound. BeU 
Atlantic stock rose SI. 75 to $5430 and TCI 
fell $1,625 to $22,625. Stocks b phone-equip- 
ment companies feD, and the end of the 
euphoria about the industry helped drive 
down prices on Wall Street, (Page 12) 

James Cullen, president of Bell Atlantic, 
told a phone-in news conference — which 
was blocked for about half an hour by busy 
signals because the phone company had not 
ordered enough lines — that “while we will 
still build the information superhighway, the 
reality is that this slows it down a bit." 

He said the FCC derision “changes the 
rash flow and alters the investment model for 
the industry.” During the past year, be calcu- 
lated, cable companies’ cash flow had de- 

clined from 12 percent to 10 percent or even 8 
percent because of t:ih: regulation and 
competition from other sources. 

John Yv tiller, a cable broker in Ne* ^ orL 
said he had no doubt that eventually there 
would be “four or f;-.e biz companies offering 
cable teletiston. movies ind interactive com- 
municatioDs. across boundaries, which is what 

we mean by the infomation superhighway." 
The latest developments, he said, represented 
a “bump ir. :he road." 

Mergers writ be suspended, he said, until 
ail sides can calculate the cash-flow effects of 
federal regulations on individual companies. 

Robert B. Wilkes of Brown Brothers Harri- 
raan & Co., foresaw less pressure on Congress 
to pass legislation dismantling some of the 
barriers beiwcer the cable and telephone 
business, waving “less likelihood that all 
these indusmo wiL 1 come together." 

Another reason for delay is that the cable 
companies now are jess attractive buys for 
the phone companies, who have nowhere else 
to obtain programming for their own wires 
and lack the ability to develop it themselves. 

TCI h 2 s a stake m CNN and a number of 
the other successful cable channels it carries, 
and the question for Bell was how much it 
was willing to pay to tap into them all at once, 
as other regional companies had been ac- 
cused of paying too much in smaller deals. 
Mr. Cullen said Bel! Atlantic would “now 
look for smaller alliances, and it will take 

Vent Anger at 

Japan Trots Out Elite for Chinese Visitor 

Enmr 11139 11471 -246 ftpMSqodt 112.47 113,79 -U6 

OBMea 12184 A2&3B -1.68 B—IMotMi ■ '119,06 12074 -137 

finance 121.04 12033 -K15B ConauaaGouds ' 9930 100.44 -0.B4 

Sanrlco iza02 124.42 -1,13 Mhcefcnaoua . ia&64 131X16 -1.85 

For mom Information about tite lntex,a booktet btmaBabte rise of cAaiga. 

' Write to Tri> Index, 181 Avenue Charles do GaiMa, 92S21 Neufy Cedai, France. 

O Intoma t lonaJ Herald Tribune 

’ ; Thinking Ahead /Commentary 

The G-7 Risks Losi 

By Steven Brull 

International Herald Tnbme 

TOKYO — China’s visiting eco- 
nomic czar, Zbu Rongji, moved 
among Japan’s elite Thursday in a 
way few if any dignitaries from 
other countries could match: from 
morning meetings with the head of 
the trading house Sumitomo Corp. 
and the governor of the central 
hook, to a speech to hundreds of 
executives squeezed shoulder-to- 
shculder in a glitzy hotel ballroom 
to afternoon talks with Prune Min- 
ister Morihiro Hosokawa. 

Just a few years ago. the recep- 
tion for Mr. Zhu, who is the Chi- 
nese deputy prime minis ter and 
central bank governor, would have 
been considerably more subdued. 
But the long speeches and careful 
protocol underscored the deepen- 
ing interdependence of Asia’s two 
biggest powers and Japan's grow- 
ing hope that China’s potentially 

vast market and low wages wfll 
offer i solution to its problems of a 
surging yen and moon ting trade 
friction with the United Slates. 

Trade between Japan and China 
mushroomed 54 percent to $39 bB- 
lion last year. That allowed Japan 
to surpass Hong Kong as China’s 
biggest trading partner and put 
China second to the United States 
as Japan’s biggest trading ally. 

Yet Japanese investment, which 
is a key to China’s con tinned eco- 
nomic growth, remains relatively 
restrained. Although h rose from 
$1.07 bfilion in 1992 to an estimat- 
ed total of just under $2 billion in 
1993, the amount is a small fraction 
of the sum invested by overseas 

Investment from Asia’s econom- 
ic sup e ro o w n would be much 
greater if not for fears of runaway 
inflation, political instability after 
the Chinese leader, Deng Xiaoping, 

7 Risks Losing Its Credibility 

By Reginald Dale 

• - Intematicnai Herald Trtisere - . . 

WASHINGTON — Sooner or later] the 
West win have to accept thalii cannot run the 
world eco n omy single-handed. The Western 
shares of the world's population, wealth and ; 
trade are rapidly shrinking, and big new eco- 
nomic powers are bursting onto the scene. 

The West's chosen vehicle for economic 
leadership, the Group of Seven, windfjs to 
meet in Frankfurt this weekend, has broken 
down. Its annual summit meetings have be- 
come little more than c£tist photo opportuni- 
ties. Yet the West faces one of its biggest 
challenges even to integrate China mid Rus- 
sia into the world economic system while 
main taming the liberal Western values upon . 
which the system is built. 

If it is to maintain the supremacy oT those 
values, it behooves the West w improve the 
quality of its economic leadership before the 
fftangmg balance of world economic power 
takes matters out of its hands. • 

Although President BiH Cfinton’ s ; adm inis- 
tration came to office promising to “temvigo- 
ra re" the G-7, tittle has changed. Derate the 

group 5 L^u OXlBlSi UK Jixpouwv ****** *-^*«J^ • 

an economies are in rotten shape, and Rnsxiais 
again flirting with economic disaster. — 

The G-T’s failures have made it all the . 
harder for it to rebut the charge of di*™. — 
especially when the world’s fastest-growing 
economies, in Asia and Latin America, areafl. 
outside the organization. 

The G-7, of course, was newer meant to be 
representative. It was always intended tobea ■ 
cozy dub of theleading tike-minded industri- 
al demo cracies, which only cmepao-Wcsiop 
power, Japan, has so far qualified to join. 
But unless the G-7 dramatically improves 

its track record, it is going to be less and less 
credible to keep seating France. Britain, Italy 
and Canada at the top table —alongside the 
United States, Germany and Japan — and 
excluding everyone else. 

Jeffrey Garten, the new UJ>. undersecre- 
tary of commerce for international trade, 
predicts dial three-quarters of the growth in 

world trade for years ahead will come from 10 
rapidly expanding countries ranging from 
China through India and South Africa to 
Argentina, none of which are G-7 members. 

It docs not matter precisely which countries 
you pick. The ppinl is that the dominance of 

The West must improve 
Uneconomic leadership 
beforethe changing 
balance of power takes 
matters out of its hands. 

the United Stales and the European Union ia 
seeing the rules bf wodd trade is bound to 
dedme as their share of world markets shrinks, 
The latest To lave a crack at the problem is 
Peter Snzhislandt'jdircac^ of the Ge- 
neva-based General Agreement cm Tariffs and 
Trade, . the dhrysafis from which a new World 
Trade. Organization is. to emerge next year. 

Hepropcses a new “high-level framework” 
for international economic co-operation that 
would itidnde developing and ex-Communist 
countries alongside the industrial nation* 
Mr. Sutherlands plan is short on detaOs. 
But a mam point is that sopped for the new 

group would come from the World Bank, the 
International Monetary Fund and the World 
Trade. Organization, working much more 
closely together than hitherto. 

As the head of a global body, Mr. Suther- 
land is understandably pushing worldwide 
representation in the new group — perhaps 
by rotation. He plays down the role of tne 
Paris-based Organization for Economic Co- 
operation and Development, which is limited 
to industrial countries, and which the U.S. 
administration rightly wants to strengthen. 

The G-7 will have to deride whether it 
aspires to be a genuine world body running 
the global economy or a gradually less influ- 
ential Western pressure group. 

Obviously h will be easier to reach com- 
mon derisions if the dob is limited to like- 
minded, allied countries. Even that is difficult 
enough- It is hard to see how a Group of 12 
composed of, say, the United States, the Eu- 
ropean Union, Japan, Canada, C hin a. Rus- 
sia, India, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, Korea 
and Poland could be an effective derision- 
making unit- The world is not yet ready for 
UN-styfc economic management. 

But such a group could have a useful con- 
sultative role alongside the G-7 while the 
West gets its act together. Thai is the first 

Then the West should aim gradually to 
extend its chib by co-opting members and 
associates who share its values, just as it 
initially did with Japan. The fast-growing 
countries outside the G-7 owe their success to 
free-market principles. In the end, the West is 
more tikriy to persuade other countries to 
play by its rules by including them in the 
decision-making than by trying to go it alone. 

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dies and degradation of the envi- 
ronment that could spill over into 
Japan in the form of acid rain. 

Mr. Zhu, however, said little to 
allay these fears. “He simplv dis- 
missed these problems." said' C.H. 
Kwan. senior economist and head 
of Asian Research at the Nomura 
Research Institute. “If he repeats 
the same story in other meetings- 
it’s not going to help.” 

The Chinese leader told Japa- 
nese business leaders that China's 
growth of 13 percent the past two 
years was not too rapid and that 
inflation, at 18.6 percent in the big 
cities, was acceptable because 
wages there had risen 25 percent. 

“There was confusion, tike a 
boom in real estate and increased 
prices of raw materials,” he said. 
“But this has been redressed and 
inflation put under control by our 
efforts to draw funds into infra- 
structure and agricultural sectors.” 

Mr. Zhu also characterized as 
“mistaken” Western media reports 
that the austerity drive announced 
in June 1993 had been relaxed in 
August because of pressure from 
regional authorities. “We took the 

middle way. and we succeed,” he 

Western economists fear that un- 
less credit in China is tightened 
quickly, groking industrial produc- 
tion wili cause inflation to rise this 

Prices in China's big cities were 
up 2? percent in January from a 
year earlier. Beijing reported 
Thursday. The rate was slightly 
lower than in December, but stiU 
high enough to make the govern- 
ment's goal of an average nation- 
wide inflation rale of 10 percent 
appear increasingly untenable. 

Even economists at tbe State Sta- 
tistics Bureau, quoted by the China 
Daily, acknowledged the figures 
“cast a shadow over the national 
economy and threatened the state 
bid to slow the rise in gross domes- 
tic product this year.” Tbe govern- 
ment aims to brake economic 
growth to 9 percent from 13 per- 
cent last year. 

While businessmen fret over the 
possibility that inflation will un- 
dermine their investments Japa- 

See VISIT, Page 12 

By Brandon Mitcbener 

/armu.'imjl Herald Tribune 

FRANKFURT — Angry stwe- 
holdersof MetailgeseUsehafi AG on 
Thursday authorized a special inves- 
tigation into the role former man- 
agement or the big German metals, 
mining and trading conglomerate 
played in a crisis that led 'to record 
losses and near-bankruptcy. 

Even the most critical sharehold- 
ers voted to go along with a costly 
rescue rather than risk letting the 
company go bankrupt and losing 
their investment entirely, bui many 
said they were deeply disturbed by 
the apparent negligence thaL led to 
the debacle. 

Many turned the extraordinary 
shareholders meeting, which was 
punctuated by catcalls of ’‘crooks’’ 
and “hyjxxriies." into a denuncia- 
tion of the dubby nature of Ger- 
man corporate management itself. 

Shareholders accused Ronaldo 
Schmitz, chairman of the company’s 
supervisory board, of lax manage- 
ment and said he and the rest of the 
supervisory board should hare re- 
signed to take personal responsibil- 
ity for the company’s predicamenL 

Called upon to defend not only 
his own actions but the “German 
system” in general. Mr. Schmitz 
admitted to some soul-searching 
but sard the system “proved itself 
in this instance" and rejected rails 
for his resignation. “The superviso- 
ry board does not feel that it has 
failed its duty.” he said. 

Instead. Mr. Schmitz blamed the 
former management board, and es- 
pecially Heinz Schimmdbusch, the 
former chief executive, for the com- 
pany’s problems. While Mr. Schim- 
melbusch demonstrated “flair and 
imagination” in pushing Metallge- 
seUschaft’s diversification drive, he 
said there was no question that Mr. 
Schimmelbusch was behind “an in- 
creasing tendency at Metallgesells- 
cfaa/t for the facts to go by the 

He said be would not be sur- 
prised if MetallgeseUschafi brought 
criminal charges against Mr. 
Schimmelbusch and other former 
board members. Civil proceedings 
are already under way. 

Despite the heat of the debate, 
the outcome of the meeting was 
never in doubt. Deutsche Bank 
AG, Dredner Bank AG, Daimler- 
Benz AG and other institutional 
shareholders together control 62 

percent of Metallgesellschaft stock 
and approved the 2.7 billion Deut- 
sche mark fS1.6 billion) rescue 

The system that shareholders 
called info question is the cozy rela- 
tionship between Ger man banks 
and industry that has been the sub- 
ject of numerous parliamentary in- 

A spokesman for the DSW 
shareholders union, which is repre- 
sented on MeiailgeseUschafi's 
management, said the supervisory 
board was demanding “premature 
obedience” in putting approval of 
its actions on the agenda for the 
regular annual shareholders meet- 
ing scheduled for March 30. 

London Report 
Says Soros Lost 
$ 600 Million 

A genre France- Prase 

LONDON — Tbe interna- 
tional financier George Soros 
lost StiOO million on foreign- 
exchange markets Feb. 14 be- 
cause of a sudden fall of the 
dollar against the yen, tbe 
Times of London reported 

Stanley Druckenmiller, 
manager of Quantum Fund, 
the Soros flagship, was quoted 
as saying that the firm had lost 
around $600 million that day 
and that this was “certainly 
bigger” than (he firm’s gain's 
on what was known as Black 
Wednesday in 1992. 

Mr. Soros became known as 
“the man who broke the Bank 
of England” for his role in 
forcing the pound out of the 
European exchange-rate 
mechanism on Wednesday, 
SepL 16. 1992. 

After the failure of the U-S-- 
Japanese trade summit in 
Washington, the dollar fell 
more than 3 yen in London on 
Feb. 14. 

The paper said Mr. Soros 
and his partners described 
their experience that day as 
the “Sl Valentine’s Day Mas- 



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Page 12 



Bundesbank Sales 
Drag Dollar Down 

Compiled by Oar Staff From Dtqmlcha 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
slumped Thursday despite favor- 
able economic news, with heavy 
do liar-selling by the Bundesbank 
battering tbe currency against the 
Deutsche mark. 

After its sales of dollars, the Ger- 

Forafgn Exchange 

man central bank bought marks for 
French francs and lira, dealers said. 

Tbe dollar ended in New York at 
1.7169 DM. from 1.7288 Wednes- 
day. It also weakened to 104.900 
yen from 105.705 yen Wednesday. 

Comments from Treasury Secre- 
tary Lloyd Bentsen pulled the dol- 
lar down against the Japanese cur- 
rency. Mr. Bentsen said reports 
that the United States and Japan 
had agreed to allow the dollar to 
trade as high as 1 10 yen were “a 
total fabrication." 

Tbe dollar also suffered from 
speculative liquidation after an an- 

dealer said. “Slop-losses were trig- 
gered. and before long the down- 
trend was unstoppable." 

The psychological drag of the 
sliding Treasury bond and stock 
markets also pulled down the U.S. 

Dealers said they were frustrated 
over the dollar’s repeated inability 
to rally despite favorable U.S. eco- 
nomic news. Disappointed over the 
dollar's flabbiness, traders turned 
more bearish and found other rea- 
sons to sell the dollar. 

The dollar slid to 1.4314 Swiss 
francs, down from 1.4533 Wednes- 
day. Some investors, disappointed 
with the dollar's performance, 
turned to the Swiss currency as a 
haven for funds amid fresh con- 
cerns about Russian economic and 
political stability. 

Although a rumor about tbe 
ouster of President 

ticipated lightening of interest 

rates by the Federal Reserve Board 
failed to materialize. 

Speculators also were disap- 
pointed when the dollar failed to 
hold an early rally after a report of 

higher-ihan-expecied durable 

goods orders for January. 

When the doDar faltered at 1.74 
DM. “the selling frenzy began," a 

1 Boris N. Yeltsin 

proved unfounded, there were wor- 
ries over the Russian economy and 
the U.S. outcry over die Ames spy 

The Russian ruble on Thursday 
fell to a new low of 1,657 to the 

The pound strengthened to 
51.4850 from 51.4785. while tbe 
dollar slipped to 5.8330 French 
francs from 5.8583. 

(Knight-Ridder, AFX) 

LOSSES: Bond Markets Tumble 

Cbatwued from P&ge 1 
whose bets dwarf their capital 
bases many times over. 

In rising markets leverage can 
multiply a potential gain. In falling 
markets, it has the inverse effect 
“Leveraged players said they 
could not afford to be in a falling 
market and that was the trigger for 

N.Y. Stocks 

The weakness in a number of key 
markets worldwide added to the 
gloom on WaD Street, where the 
Dow Jones industrial average 
dropped enough in the final half- 
hour of trading to trigger a New 
York Stock Exchange rule aimed at 
handling excessive volatility and 
preserving investor confidence in 
the markeL 

Traders began bailing out of 

the sell-off." said Richard Noble, 
bond strategist at Salomon Broth- 

That selling then fed on itself. 
The largest buyers of bonds be- 
came sellers and suddenly no one 
was buying. Suddenly a market 
which bad been the flavor of the 
month grew very passe. In the 
words of one speculator, “everyone 
hit the revolving door at the same 

■ Wall Street Tumbles 

Prices of blue-chip stocks tum- 
bled Thursday as bond markets 
plunged and as the stock market 
showed disappointment about the 
failure of a multi billion-doll ar 
merger, the Associated Press re- 
ported from New York. 

The Dow Jones industrial index 
fell 51.78 points to 3,839.90 as de- 
clines swamped advances by a ratio 
of 3-to-l and volume surged to 
341.62 million shares from 309.89 
million Wednesday. 

bonds early in response to a report 
showing that orders to U.S. fac- 

tories for durable goods had 
jumped a surprising 3.7 percent in 

January, marking the first tune 
since 1987 that the indicator of 
manufacturing growth had climbed 
for six straight months. 

The benc hmar k 30-year Trea- 
sury bond ended the day down 
more than a point, driving up its 
yield to 6.74 percent from 6.65 per- 
cent on Wednesday. 

Tbe market was also soured by 
the announcement late Wednesday 
that Bell Atlantic’s planned acqui- 
sition of Tele-Communications 
had been terminated. 

Vkj Auecfeled PrMl 

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NYSE Diary 





Total <mi 
Now W atte 
Now Laws 

AMEX Diary 


Total Issues 
Now Wats 
New Laws 

155 339 

471 343 

306 251 

833 835 

IS 16 

IB 10 



Total issues 
New Highs 
Now Laws 

1007 144V 

2045 157a 

1673 1704 

4805 4003 

SO 123 

92 6* 

Dour Jones Averages 

OH« M* Low Lost dig. 

Indus 38794W 3B01 ZB 3837® 3839.90 —51X8 
TRK 1791.67 1790.73 1763X0 176120—35.53 
UN 209.73 21059 20+83 207.29 —030 
Omp 139683 UD10S 13^03137908— 2200 

Standard & Poor 1 * Indexes 






SP 1* 

Man Low dose Ctfta 
55205 5079 5079-026 
42179 42465 42465-7X2 
161 SI mm 14078 +0.16 
44X6 4355 4356— OJB 
471X69 46456 464X6 — 6® 
43034 43134 432J4 —6X0 

NYSE Indexes 

LOW Last cm 






361.13 25775 23775 

32270 31014 
27336 26856 36858 —455 
31061 3 1479 2)140 -453 
21548 21205 21249 —2.9V 

NASDAQ Indexes 

t#ah Law La* cm 








78258 77755 77092—1019 

524 U1 83044 82150—1048 
49051 68731 68935 —356 

730X4 92157 »1® -934 
883.15 88072 880.94 —254 
79134 78075 7W.V1 —433 
14970 14758 168.10 —534 

AMEX Stock Index 

471.74 44 US 46551 

Dow Jones Bond Averegee 

30 Bonds 
10 Utilities 
10 Industrials 

Close CB'oe 

10374 — 04? 

101.98 —051 

>0551 —047 

Market Sales 

NYSE 4 pun. volume 
NYSE prav. cons, dose 
Amex 4 pjtl volume 
Antes nrev. cans, close 
NASDAQ 4 pjn. volume 
NASDAQ prev. 4 pun vokimo 







N.Y.S.E. Odd-Lot Trading 















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S&P 100 Index Options 

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Sterling per metric tenants or to tea* 






















































Est. volume; 



Dollars per metric hoMotS Of S tons 
Mot 1£L5 1X16 1X26 1,315 1X31 1X34 

Mar 1x2s 1X2? ix« 1523 ixts ixm 

Jet 1X27 1721 r X3S 1725 H.T. 1XB 

SOP CT 1730 1X32 1X24 1X36 1X37 

Nov 1X32 1733 1536 1730 — — 

JOB 1X30 1732 1X36 1X30 — — 

Est volume: iul 

Hteo Low Ckne Cm>r 

per metric 




tott+ats also teas 

322X8 317X8 378,58 32150 + 7 JO 
3ZCL00 3ISJ0 mS0 31 9 JO + 770 
N.T. N.T. 3QCJJ0 30 UC + 7 JO 
N.T. N.T. 29500 MOJO + 150 
or N.T. N.T. 29570 300X0 + 600 
Est. volume; SOS. Opm bit.: 11786. 



Dollars par metric: tan 
Sod 129250 129350 

Forward 131+fiC 131+00 

DoJ tors per metric ten 
soot 186650 1869 JO 

Forward tOBJO 1092X0 


DoCari per o niri c too 
Spot 468J0 469 JO 

Forward moo 48300 


Dolkn par metric ton 
Spot 509+00 

Forward 595040 


Donors per metric loo 
SPOt 547100 548550 

Forward 549100 SSO+OO 

ZINC (Spodal HI 9 I 1 Gratte) 
Dalian per metric loo _ 
spot _ 957 JO 95850 

Forward 97600 97650 

1279 JO 120050 
1372.00 13IJZ00 

105850 1859J0 
188150 108108 

iu PI 



542S50 543050 






High Low Close Orange 
000500 ■ Ph of MO pcs 





— nip 

J in 









— +16 





— +T8 





— 023 





— 029 





— 037 





— 0 JO 





— +32 





— +36 

Est. volume: 118550. Open Ini.: 430232. 
Si mDHop - pH at ISO pet 
Mar 9624 MX) 96X3 —057 

Juo 9555 9552 9S55 — 057 

SOP 9553 9SJ0 9552 —059 

Dec 9114 95.12 95.13 — 0.10 

Mar 19. T. N.T. MSS —Hit 

Jun N.T. N.T. MOB —0.11 

SOP N.T. N.T. 9647 — 0.10 

Est. volume: L918. Opal W.: MX87. 

DMI mill Ian . pts of ICO pet 









































Est. volume: 209726 Open ML: 1 966470. 

HM> Low 

fsetoso ' pH • 3&MS ofiea Kt 

Mar 11+03 111-20 11704 —M3 

JOB 11M9 11D-28 111-06 - 2-14 

Sep N.T. N.T. 110-12 — M4 

Est. volume: 229.110. Open tntj 0 167500. 

MCT 7U& 9655 96.92 —154 

JOB HAS 9654 V65S —154 

SOP 9775 9666 9656 — U* 

ee 9775 9666 9656 — If 

ESL volume: 30SJ91 Open lot: 3 S3J30. 


Last Settle CB'oe 







Hist) LOW 

U3.dnHtw p er me tric ton i pNoMWtOM 
Hm 14DJB 138L50 139X5 139XS—1X5 

139 JO 137X3 13BJB 138JO — 1JJ 

13875 137X5 l3S 138X5 —150 

13975 138XS 13875 138X5 —1X5 

141X5 14050 140X5 14075 —150 

143J0 14225 143X5 K3X5 —150 

14530 144X5 M5J0 MSJO —150 

14839 7«75 14839 IOX -VS 

15075 150XS 15073 13175 —OJC 

Doc 15X25 152J0 15750 15275 —0X5 

Eat volume: 14X83. open tot. T1U22 


Aar 13X2 n.17 1361 1359 +0X6 

MOV 1358 1X34 13X5 1X74 +027 

J*R 1453 1158 13.99 13.99 +8^ 

JW 14X2 1379 14JB UX5 +02 

A 09 U2S 13J8 UX2 14X3 +027 

Sep 1420 14X0 14X0 1443 +037 

EbL volume; 3&3S3. Open lot. 132513 

Stock Indexes 

FTS5 m (UFFE) 

(25 par Index poW 

Star Tiwa 32280 32465 —925 

Jun 3306J 32595 32595 —nS 

SEP N.T. N.T. 32805 —fZO 

Est volume: 31X92. Open int.: 71X91. 
Sources: Reuters. Mofft AeaodaiedPrmaa. 
London inrt Ftnondor Futures exenenge. 
Inti Petroleum Exchange. 

Spot Commodfttes 

Commodity Today Prev. 

Aluminum, to 0JB6 0J01 

CoHae, Braz* to 060 068 

Copper etocfrolytta lb 0765 0JB2 

iron FOB. ten 21350 21100 

Lead, lb 034 0X4 

Sliver, trovea 5.18 5Xtt 

Steel tscnmJ. ton 13X33 13 x 33 

Tin. to 36463 36647 

Zinc lb 04559 


Per Amt Pay Rec 

Capital T ransomer x JOB 

- - 34 Ml 

Xi-tntends la pay Kite amount oparlecty. 

Central Reserve 0 .11 3-W 3-30 

Toronto Domtokma ^ 3-17 +30 

Whltnev Holding Q .15 MS +1 


coww Tronac 

TCG jntjAa 






3-25 +8 

34 3-18 

M5 3-31 

Allen Group 
ADtane* wm DJIr 
Aiuanoe wkt 11 . 
Atner BkConn 
Angel too Coro 
Bk New Hompenire 

CC8 Find 








ancarp ad|pt2 

City Holding 
Cotwact Svgs 
Cotton States 
Magna Inti MA 
Marine MM odlptA 
Martin Marietta 
MOStl FloctJ 
Nature's Sunshine 
Ogtobay Norton 
Oppenbe lm r MuttGv 
San Miguel 
Scumam Inca 
Texas Ppc Land 
Torn Co 

Unton Pacific 
WaeMngtan Nall 
Wendvs Inti 

M 4-6 
3<4 MB 
34 MB 
Ml 3-2S 
3-15 +1 

__ i? >il 

32 3-15 +4 

1.50 5-16 5-31 
175 FW 5J) 
.16 W 3-15 
JM 34 3-5 

53 2-28 34 

3-15 +1 












331 +15 
34 +1 

S 3-31 
Ml 3-25 
>7 3-16 
34 3-10 
3-18 +09 

Ml 3-15 
3-23 +12 






o-anagnl; g-pnyoMe In 

monthly; o-noartartr; s-eeral 

U.S. Durable Goods Orders Jump 

WASHINGTON S? to: fim xinJwt' 

W dhow for 

Kraft ana^rts, ^^^^bijddret Hems, 

The deoartment said orders for _aU JL £1 *h 5147 9 

muuumfi — ~r 

billion, surpassing Dcccmb*- * — 

RJR Nabisco Makes Stock Off ering 

edintoshaiesof . loteOTComp^atoMa ouM ! 

die company into separate fow and tobaxo /*imoanv is 

Bot^SeswtjSTfor MR*M *e opbon ro sphtto ■ 
only one of “many, many hypothettcaT scenarios it may undertake 10 

C 1eS: ! l^^yTmaMOunccd it bad filed a 

for the 300 miHion PERCs offering, which would bring some S2 oulion. 

SiltSK rfa^tHipof RJR. ihe sfwkeswoman said 

nJr RJR hrfstetad plans u, spht 

up the company into separate food and tobacco businesses. 

Southwestern Bell Buys CeUukr Unit 

SAN ANTONIO Texas (Bloomberg) — Southwestern Bell Corp. said 

tdephooeb^s ofAssoaol- 

ed Communications Cwp. in a stock swap valued at $680 million- 
Pittsburgh-based Associated Cdmmumcatioas operates cefluiai fran- 
drisK^&ffalo, Rochester, Albany and Glens FaJK New York. It gso 
owns minority positions in cdfuiar systems m Pittsburgh and San 

Francisco/San Jose in California. . , 

San Antonio-based Southwestern Bell ts the nation s second-largest 
cellular telephone company. 

Penney ’s 4lh-Period Earnings Rise 

J.C. Penney Co. said its fourth-quaner 

carmn oc jimmed 17 percent, dealing analysts' estimates. 

Fbrthe quarter ended Jan. 29. net income at the nation's fiftWargwt 
retailer rose to $437 ntiIli^or$l.Mad)are,from$375 ntilBon, or $1.42 
a shard, in the prior year's quarter. Analysts had expected the compm»yto 
earn $1-60 a share, based on the mean of 21 estimates compiled by Zacks 

Investment Research. ’ , , .' ........ 

The quartedy results indnde a onfr-tune charge for the early retirement 
of debt Excluding die charge, earnings were S439 miHion. or 5l-o5 a 

Slac ^ Snipes After Microsoft Ruling . 

NEW YORK (Bloomberg) —Shares of Slac Hectromcs surged Thurs- 
day, a day aftm* the tiny software company won a $120 million patent 
inmngement *?<*- against industry giant Microsoft Corp. 

On Wednesday; ajrny in Los Angdes ruled tbat Microsoft bad illegally 
used the data conmression tecbnolwy of Stac Electronics in one of its key 
products, MS-DOS 6. tbe operating -system that controls the basic 
functions of millions of personal computers worldwide. Microsoft said it 
would appeal the raKng, and Stac said it. would file for an injunction to 
prevent Microsoft from shipping MS-DOS 6 with the DoubleSpwe data- 
c oinp ression feature. 

lie damage award was equal to about three times Stac's 1993 revalue. 
Tbe company's shares ruse $2,123 to S630 in over-thocormter tr adin g. 

San Miguel Corp. Boosts Dmdeuds 

VISIT: Japan Trots Out Elite for Meetings With Chinese Economic Czar 

Continued from Page 11 

The news was a blow for cable 
and communications companies in 
particular because their stocks had 
been bid up in recent months on 
takeover speculation. 

“An enormous pothole has been 
placed in A1 Gore’s superhighway.” 
Mario Gabelli, chairman of Gabelli 
& Cc*-. said. 

nese officials are increasingly wor- 
couid harm 

ried that rapid growth 
the environment in a country 
whose airborne pollution often 
drifts toward Japan. 

Foreign Ministry officials, who 
oversee a huge aid program that is 
China’s biggest source of assis- 
tance. said they wanted Beijing to 

provide more information about 
proposed projects and wished to 
see a greater commitment to envi- 
ronmental preservation. 

“In some respects, Chinese poli- 
cy and behavior is becoming a 
source of concern,” Hiroshi Hrra- 
bayashi. director-general of the 
Foreign Ministry's Economic Co- 
operation Bureau, said. 

Analysis said Tokyo wanted the 

right to a say in least 30 percent of 
the projects it funds. Although pro- 
cedures require that all projects be 
approved by Japan, in the past To- 
kyo has agreed without asking too 
many speafic questions. 

“China should accept Japanese 
ideas or demands, especially in en- 
vironmental areas and the develop- 
ment of natural resources,” an ana- 
lyst said. 

Japanese businessmen, who have 
seen their share of contracts for 
aid-related projects faD from some 
60 percent a decade ago to 27 per- 
cent, are also pressuring the gov- 

A greater emphasis on the envi- 
ronment, a field that Japanese 
companies have targeted as strate- 
gic, would tend to result in greater 
profits for Japanese companies. 

NEW YORK (Renters) — San Miguel Corp. said it will recommend 
for stockholder approval a 100 percent stock dividend together with a 
corresponding adjustmsit in its quartedy cash dividend rate from 035 
Philippine pesos a .share to 030 pesos. " 

. The proposed Stock dividend and new egh d iv idend nHftTgjlft ranKlq re 
to a 30 percent increase in cash dividends to be paid in 1994* the company 
said. . ‘ ‘ 

The stock dividend and new quarterly cash dividend will be effective 
after ratification by the stockholders and ap pro v al by the Securities and 
Exchange Commission. 

Raytheon Plans Share Repurchase 

NEW YORK (Kmgbb-Itidder) Raytheon Co. said Thursday that its 
board of directors authorized the rcpmchascof op to IZmiUian shares of 
its common stock. . . . 

The company plans to r^xnchase shares in the open market as market 
conditions may warrant from time to time. 


Agum 6o» Prow Ml 24 


ABN Amro Hid 
ACF Holding 

: Sevier 






Hunter Douglas 

IMC Catand 

inter Mueller 

Inn Nederland 









Roval Dutch 
Vim Ommeren 

6960 70.10 
57 57.70 
99 JO 102X0 

51.10 5T50 

207.50 215 

7970 8160 

42.10 4M0 
7X50 74.9Q 

109 JO 11060 

181.10 10370 

72 22 

sun 5370 
2B8J0 292 

229 JO 228J0 
6050 62 

TO 89 JO 
47.50 4360 
87 8BJ0 
88X0 88JQ 
47 47.90 
4560 46J0 
7140 7X10 
7X30 7870 
56X0 57.10 
4560 4*60 
74X0 74.30 
12770 12760 
63 6370 
130-30 13060 
7760 9760 
20270 20a« 
42J0 4130 
HA 219JQ 
48X0 4960 
104 106 

WoUerVKIuwer 11»J0 1206Q 

EOE Index 418J1 
Previous : earn 


AG Rn 
Bor co 
Cock prill 

Krod tot Dank 
P otet m n 
Royal Beige 
Soc Gen Banoue 

mto 262g 
2915 2945 
41 40 4200 
2400 7400 
74800 24775 
175 100 

5710 5710 
1404 1402 
6400 6510 
15S0 1550 
A'r'hi 4285 
9330 9400 
7510 7540 
10075 10300 

3310 3JG0 

5700 5710 
8470 8510 

Soc Gen Belgique 3760 Z7M 
Soflna 14975 14975 

Selva V 14450 14875 

Troctebel 10875 11050 

UCB 24275 24400 

Current Stack Max : 767164 

Pratau : 766964 


AEG 165 165-50 

AIHaniHoM 2569 2628 
Altana 639 643 

AskB 1040 1083 

BASF 29160 295 JO 

Bover 355.50 361 JO 

Bay. Hypo bank 451 460 

Bar Verdirtok SOS 514 

BHF Bank 

Com men bank 
Daimler Beni 
Deg tiw o 
DeuHche Bank 81 7 JO 
Douglas 547 60 557 

Dresdner Bank 41742150 

Fekbnuehle 33060 325 

F K/1IPP HoescA Ml JO 1B7 

668 665 

444J0 443 

816 820 



K oil Soft: 

322 223 
1125 1163 
295 JO 301 40 
980 999 

540X0 5*5 
470 4}9 

133 137 JO 

KkMekner Werke 129 129 

Luff homo 

v.uendi Rueck 


OAX Index : 2590X9 

856 BM 
17050 178 

430 4J5 

106.78 187 

3300 3225 
8SS B47 

^ a 

321 329 JO 
1051 1087 
380 385 
681691 JO 
253 »3 
350 750 

350 £0 
BOO 80S 











155 160 

42.90 43 

217 217 
14 14J0 
126 129 

225 227 

309 3T4 

95 95 

113 115 

299 310 


Previous : 

Hong Kong 

Bk East Asia 3 jjo 30 
CDtaayPacWc 1140 1250 
ChovnflKong 4175 4JX5 
China Light PW 41X5 43 

Dolrv Form Inn 1230 1190 
Hong Lung Dev 7AJ0 1690 
Hang Seng Bank 71 73 

Handenon Land 48XS 4675 
HK Air Eng. 47X5 47 jo 

HK China Got 19 A0 19X0 
HK Electric 25.40 25.90 
HK Land 26 2630 

HK Really Trust 24.10 24J0 
HSBC Holdings 116 116 
HKShonOHtlS 1130 1170 
HK Ferry 
Hutch Whampoa 

Hyson Dev 

J arcBne Math. 

JardlneSIr Hid 
Kowloon Motor 
Mandarin Orient 
Miramar Hotel 
New world Dev 
SHK Prons 

Swlro Poc A 

Tai Cheung Pros 1280 1X10 

TVE 3J0 150 

Wharf Hold 31 3125 

wing On inri NA — 

winsor Irto. 1180 1140 

14X0 lsxo 
1180 1130 
34 36X5 
26.10 26 
69 71 JO 
32X5 3125 
7650 16J0 

11X0 11 JO 
24 24J0 
33X5 3175 
59 61 

5JJS 5.10 
5550 56 

How. Seng index : 10*32 
Previous : 1076120 


Anglo Amer 



Dr Bears 





HtahveHJ Steel 

SA Brows 
St Helena 
western Deeo 

20 20 
93 93J0 
100 193 

27X5 27 JO 
7 JO 7X5 
NA 46 
50 JO 49X5 
BJ0 BJ5 
93 7150 
2i 2573 
>0 10 
4150 43 

77 27X5 
39 JO 39 JO 

78 76 
B4£t 84J0 

39 NA 
2150 2175 

m its 

Caanoslle Index: 477X08 
previeus : 4814X9 


Abbey Non 



AHted Lyons 



Aria Wiggins 



Argyll Group 



An Brit Foods 








5 A0 

Bank Scotland 















Blue Circle 



BOC Group 












Brir Alrwpys 



Brit Gas 



Brtf Steel 



Bril Telecom 






CnMe Wlra 



Cadbury Sd) 






Coats Viveiia 



Comm Union 


+18 1 




ECC Group 



Enierprise Oil 















G*n1 ACC 






Grand Met 


















HSBC Hidgs 















H l ■■ 

■ L : 

,y. t 

1 * M 

j YTiHB^&S3S#9f! 

; !< i T 

• | 


■ I ■ 1 


- - 1 j J f . 

■ ^ ' 

■ k 

■ 1 V J 

• r T’ 1 -It 1 “T 

r ' ' j 

Bfr * 

■t 1 


•A ft . 1 FT- -H 

1 : 3267 JO 


B8V 3330 3375 

Bco Central Him 2855 2915 

' ^ 

3025 3070 

2395 2425 
7300 7440 
154 160 

1025 1055 

45SS 4449 

T abaca tera 3970 4015 

Telefonica 197S 2025 

S-H. General index : 2ee.H 
Prevlou* : 343X0 

Banco Santander 



Banco Comm 


Benellan group 

Creo Hal 
Ferlln Rhe 
Flat SPA 
Finmec urnKu 


1 to leas 








5880 5738 

86 as 

26000 26400 

2U9 2142 

2599 2629 
2300 2360 
1TO 1785 
765 760 

4714 4770 
1750 1780 
39600 40200 
18105 15400 
11940 13070 
5270 5395 
37100 38100 
I51TO 15305 
1115 1137 

25510 25750 
.3220 3200 

San Paolo Torino 10525 MJ900 

SIP 6170 4206 

SME 3615 3725 

Siito HDD 1600 

Shnta 33940 22680 

stot 45*0 4656 

Tara Asst Rtap 28300 2B72D 

MIB loan : 1057 
Preytotts : )072 


Alc^i Aluminum 304. SJVa 
BOM Montreal 2flV> 28ta 
Bell Canada 
Bombardier B 
Can* I or 
Dominion Text a 
D onohue a 
M acMillan Bl 
Nan Bk Canada 
Power Cora. 

Ouebecar A 
Ouebecar B 
video iron 

44 44b 
296 30 

191b 20 

74V 77b 

79V 7* 

26 2AVV 
22Vj 2m 
HFV 10+. 

aw 21 
214* 21* 
19V, |f>A 
19V. 19* 
20*4 20Vi 
6?V 6* 

Wl 30 



Air Ltaulde 871 

Alcatel Alsthaai 716 

717 720 

Banco! re (Cte) 





Chargee ra 

Oments Franc 
Etl-AOu itolne 
Eurn Disney 
Gen. Eoux 


1443 1469 

>S .ffl 

266J0 27UQ 
720 733 

917 933 

3975 4080 
27540 201 JO 
14+70 142 

1420 1410 
30080 XI 
36&50 361.90 
1065 1095 
3240 14.10 
2678 2729 
44+60 45? JD 
I metal 650 645 

Lafarge Coaoee 45746110 
Legrand 5690 “ 

Lyon. Eaux 576 585 

Oreal (L ) 1273 1!TO 

L.VJIILH. 3895 39E 

Matra-Haawtte 159.10 16*20 
Mfchelln B 247 jo 7SU0 
MpuJiOex 12760 I T 

ParBxa 519 S2S 

PiCiiney Inti 202 2O4J0 
Pernod- H Icora 4046041110 
Peugeot B31 857 

Pri memos lAul 987 icoo 
Rodfatochnkuir 527 527 

Rlt-POulencA 13BJOM180 

Rofl. St. Louis 
Saint Gobaln 

Sta Generate 





1691 T694 
915 *19 

674 632 

990 S88 

705 721 

34760 354.90 
195.90 199 

322X0 330.TO 
20180 208X0 
1497 1465 

Sao Paulo 

Banco do Brasil 

_ 13 14 

7.90 7.90 
Brodosco 11 12 

Brahma >62 168 

Poronaponema 13 14J0 

Petrafaras 104 117 

Telebres 28J0 2989 

Vote Hto Once 6V 73 

Wig 110 110 

Bavesfla index : 9X79 
Previous : i<W» 


Cerebos BAD 840 

City Dev. 


Fraser Heave 
Gofden H0O9 PI 
How Aar 
Hum industries 
Lum Chqng 
Malayan Banka 

Slme Dnrbv 

SVarg Land 
roore Press 

Sing StecmsWo ... 

5"pgre Telecomm 3X0 176 

Straits Trading 386 ito 

UOB It lOifl 

UOL 227 2X0 

7X0 7.15 
IZIO 13.10 

10.90 19X0 
18X0 1780 

1W 3.14 
146 3J4 

5.10 484 

5.95 6 

nxo 1160 
134 136 
l.TO 1.99 
9JS 9J5 
13.70 1380 

8.90 195 
8 7.95 

IOO 1480 
5.75 585 
196 194 

7.90 7.93 
7J5 7 JO 

1+40 14X0 

4.10 4X0 



A sea A 
Astra A 
Allas cooco 


Investor B 

Norsk Hvdra 

Procardia af 



5-E Banken 





Trellebsre BF 

450 464 

556 561 

181 1SS 
438 446 

392 394 

347 365 

lO 125 
124 111 

193 200 
228 2 59 
141 145 

130 134 

144 145 

65 68 

173 177 

213 ns 
148 149 

451 458 

85 88 

657 670 


j Affaersvoertdai: 178S82 
| Pidvwai : WMO 

j Ctaea Prev. | 

I Sydney 













Coles Myer 












Dun loo 



Fosters Brew 

1 26 


Goodman Field 

1 ® 


■Cl Australia 








Nat Ausl Bank 



News Corp 



Nine Network 



N Broken HIM 


Pioneer Inri 



Nmiyjy Poseidon 



OCT Resources 






Western Mining 



Westpac Bankhne 



Woods We 



ftiS2STS^ :n,7J “ 

1 Tokyo 




rj ) 

As^ Glass 


Tr • 

Bank of Tokyo 

■ LfT 


V < • 



rV . 



T *-*" 

Dateia House 





Full Bonk 

Full Photo 


Full fiu 

^ f 

! *-"• 




Hitachi Cable 



He nan 


Q ri '' J 1 

■ to YoliaCo 





Jaoqn Airlines 






Kawasaki Steel 



Kirin Brewery 








ir^ ■! 

. . ..n 


R t ♦, 1 Q 


L_J-T" :“L 







Mitsui and Co 




■ ■ 




l. .-f&ffmm. 




Nlpoon KoODku 



Nlpbon Oil 



Nfenon Steel 



Nlpoon Yusen 





Nomura See 


5 1 to TOTOe 

Olympus Optical 








Sanyo Elec 





J»K> J 



*74 | 



20® 1 




Sumitomo Bk 



Sumnomo ChefTi 



Sumi Marine 


■ .11 

Sumitomo Mete! 



Talsel Cera 


WT;f 1 





rA-l-l ■ 1 



W • n 

Tokyo Marine 


131c } 

Tckya Elec Prt 



Tg«®pn Printing 


LI 1 1 

Torov ind. 








Yamoichi Sec 




Nikkei SS : 19763 
Prawaao : int 2 
Team MtiMiB 
Pretwoi :1S78 


A2HIKH Price 

I6 y l 

Aon ico Eagle 

1 S'.v 

15 1 * 

Air Canada 



Alberta Energy 



Am Barrlck Res 





Bk Nova Scat to 

BC Gas 




BF Realty Hds 














Canadian Pad he 



dose Prav. 

Can PtxAers 
Tire A 

Con ‘ 


Den Iran Min B 

12** 13 

129m 13 

46U 47 

430 4X0 
?<* ?vt 
4 4 

19 1?’M 
22VJ 23 
0X5 0X4 

Dickenson Min A 6k. 6W 
Dotecn XPk 3*H 

Dyle* A tun 080 

Echo Bay Mines 1661 16^ 
Equity Silver A 0.97 1 

FCA tall 3Vi 3.40 

FedlndA Bta 8'<* 

Fletcher Choll A 20”: 20to 
F PI 480 495 

Gentro 0J6 0J6 

Goto Corp BV» 8 <m 

GuH Cda Res 445 460 
Hees tail 14S* MU 

Hemto Gld Mines 12*s 12V, 

Hal linger 
Hudson's Bay 

tale, uiow mpe 
Mock era le 
Magna Inti a 
M aritime 
Mark Res 
MocLean Hunter 
Matson A 
Noma Ind A 
Noranda Inc 
Noranda Fares! 
Marten Energy 
Ml hern Telecom 
Nova Corn 

Pogurin A 
Placer Dome 
Ppco Petroleum 
PWA Cars 
Ray rock 
Pena is5c»«e 
Rog ers B 

14Vb Ifli 
10 17U 
1“; XT. 
39 '4 39Vg 
33 34 

314S 314* 
THa 21*« 
22V: 22*S 
20v> »v. 
10> UMi 
66 66U 
23T» 234m 

5* Eta 
16 16ta 
26*1 27 

ere 7 

24V» 25 

121S 13VS 
144. 15 

374S 40 ts 
9V» 9»i 

22W 22 

140 140 

31"* 31»s 
9 9 

1X4 1X0 

17*. 17*S 
27 21 

211t 22 

107V: 107 


Vio Assodated Pm 

. tab.24 

Season Seasai 
Hkto Law 

Open Htoh Law One Che OpM 


WHEAT (COOT) uwwmwwihi 
3.94*6 ICO MarW 0-58 158 151 

in 100 May 9J 154 3J4M 153 

156 196 ju494 142 to 141 142 

15Ti 102 Sep 94 XCto 365Vi XO 

365 X09 Doc 94 151 to 3J2to LSI 

155 to 156toMor9S 152 152M IS 

1423k 111 Jul 95 

EsL>*es 114)00 WetfisnSes 11300 
Wetnooenlte 44,941 Oft 769 
WHEAT CKOOT) usbvirMnni- dAnp. 
197 2M Mx94 XS5to 157 153 to 

179to 190 MOV 94 149 350to 3 AT* 

355 197 Jul 94 360 141 3J8Vi 

ISSto 102toS«pM 140to Ml*. 140 

160 UZtoDec94 3453*1 XPV, 36535 

151*0 X43VSMOT95 149 14»to 149 

Ed. sales NA. Waft sate 4630 
Wetfso aon je 32X07 od 1357 

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Page 13 


Energy Companies Struggle 

[British Gas Cuts Jobs Mixed Picture at Shell 

c. ' Gmpihd by Our Staff From Dispatches 

LONDON — British Gas PLC said Thurcday it had 
. a loss of £553 mlfficai (5816 naffioo) car a ainem-coa - 
‘ baas in 1993 and would cut 5,000 jobs in addition to 
the 20000 it already plaimedto over the 

next three years. : ^ .... . - . 

The natural gas production and distribution compa- 
ny is taking a £1 .65 hTQion charge to cover the cost of 
the job rats. It earned £473 nnSiou in 1992 on a 
« current-cost basis, winch values gas inventories at the 
current market price, rathertbaa on the price at which 
^ they were bought. 

- On a historic-cost basis, or valuing gas inv entories 
at the prices at which they were acquired, British Gas 
• had a £285 million Joss in 1993, compared with a profit 
-;oT £681 million in 1991 

,7. -Saks on a historic-cast basis me. ta £1059 bfflion 
from £10.25 billion hr 1992, but competition 
into operating margins, the company said. 

to remain under 

pressure in 1994 because cf 

i and market share. That outlook caused Standard & 
' Poor’s Corp. to lower its Icng-tenn outlook on the 
company’s debt to “negative” from “stable.” 

‘ But the U.S. credit rating agency affirmed its AA- 
r plos rating on British Gas’s jcng^temi debt and A-I- 
' plus rating on its commensal paper. 

Richard Giordano, chai rman of British Gas, said 
competitors had gained: a 73 percent share of the 
contract market by the end of 1993, compared with 49 
percent a year earlier. 

He said the company planned to Ssiuce radically” 
i i t$ cost ba^ in Brit^ so ittx^ be more competitive. 

“A restructuring- of this .magnitude will be painful . 
- for some,” the company said. “But we wfll do our best 
to be fair and generous to those who leave ns and to 
'create a rewarding and cbaDoagj&g opportunity for 
' those who remain." _ 

, British Gas managed strong growth in its explore 1 
; tion and production sector in 1993, but that was offset 
“by payments of royalties to the gpwnmimt and the 
costs of dosing an office in Houston. 

British Gas said talks to sell its shareholding in 
CansumersGas and some associated businesses in 
Panada for about 1.2 bflEon Panadtan dollars 
•, (US$895 million) are proceeding, and the sale should 
be completed in the fust half <rfl994. 

(Reuters, Bloomberg, AFP) 

Compiled by Our Staff Fnm Dispatches 

LONDON — Royal Dntch/SbeD Group earned 
£3-23 billion ($5 billion) in 1993, based on the replace- 
ment cost of its xnymioiks, up 3 percent from £3.12 
bdlioa-m 1992. 

But on a historic-cost basis, which values inventory 
at the price at which they were acquired. Shell earned 
£105 billion in 1993, down slig htly from £3.06 billion 
in 1992. 

The company, jointly owned by Shell Transport & 
Trading Co. of Britain, and Royal Dutch Petroleum 
Co, said an increase in oil and g as earnings was offset 
by higher losses in hschenricals sector anaby unfavor- 
able currency fluctuations. 

Shell said overall product margins in Europe im- 
proved in 1993 but remained “wdl below” those in 
Aria andJLatin America, where it expected continued 
growth in demand. 

The company said the outlook for chemicals de- 
bt industrial activity and a better 
: between capacity and demand, particularly in 

Shell said it expected crude oil prices to fluctuate 
near entreat low levels for much of ibis year, as 
increased production from countries that are not 
members dr the Organization of Pcnmleom Expormg 
Countries meets omy modest growth in demand. 

SMI said its erode ral production was little changed 
from 1992, with increases outside the United States 
offset by decreases within America, partly because of 
safes of producing Helds. 

Natural-gas sales continued to rise in 1993, and 
prodrerion Increased in most areas. Shell said. 

The company said it expected a net increase in 
crude production over the next few years, especially 
from Nigeria, Australia, Norway, and Abu Dhabi. 

The company raised its final dividend for Royal 
Dutch shareholders to 4.90 guilders ($252) a share 
Horn 4,85 guilders, wide Shdl Transport's final 
payout rase to 23.SG pence a share from 12.60. 

Also on Thursday, Showa Shell Sdriyo, a Japanese 
refiner that is half-owned by Royal Dutch/ Shdl 
Group, said it earned 9 j 03 billion yen (586 million) in 
1993, down 54 percent from 1991 

The decline came mostly from losses on foreign- 
exchange transactions, the company said. 

Early last year, the company disclosed it had lost 
125 bflKon yen by betting the wrong way on a currency 
futures contract. But the company said it made back 
72 percent of the loss by selling slocks and real estate. 

Kerkorian Alleges 
Bank 'Cover-Up 9 

By Jacques Neher 

ItUemetmal Herald Tribune 

PARIS — Exploiting a Swiss judge’s recent charge that Credit 
Lyonnais had hid important evidence about its involvement in the 
collapse of Sasea Holding SA, lawyers for financier Kirk Kerkorian 
have asked a California court IQ throw out the bank's 5500 million 
fraud suit against him related to the sale of the MGM Him studio. 

Mr. Kerkorian. in a court motion filed Wednesday, said that “a 
massive Citdit Lyonnais cover-up" bad prevented the former owner 
of Merro-Goldwyn-Maycr Inc, from obtaining documents that 
would hdp his defense against the bank's suit as wdl as bolster his 
S650 million countersuit against the French banking giant. 

Fred Spar, a spokesman for the bank in New York, said news 
media had been informed of the filing before the bank’s own 
attorneys, demonstrating that Mr. Kerkorian "cannot effectively 
defend against the charge of fraud and breach of fiduciary duty and 
is therefore scouring the globe to find dirt on the bank to wage a 
press campaign.” 

The motion asks Superior Court Judge Richard C. Hubbell to call 
a special hearing to determine whether Credit Lyonnais's lawyers 
“had any involvement” in a memorandum advising the bank to dear 
its archives of documents relating to the Sasea case before an official 

In his Feb. li order charging top officials of the bank with 
complicity in the bankruptcy of Sasea. Jean-Louis Crochet, the 
Geneva magistrate investigating the case, mentioned coming across 
such a memo but did not identify its author. 

Mr. Spar said that “any suggestion” that the bank’s attorneys had 
advised it to withhold evidence was "absolutely false.” 

Mr. Kerkorian also seized on evidence presented to the Swiss 
court to refute Crtdit Lyonnais’s claim that MGM had no value 
when he soldi no Giancarlo Parrettiin 1990 in a deal financed by the 
bank. Soon after, when MOM’S cash flow turned negative and Mr. 
Parretti defaulted on his payments, the bank took control of the 
Hollywood studio. A portion of the equity was held through Sasea. 

The motion dies valuations of MG M's net worth in 1991, made in 
documents presented to the Swiss court, of as much as $126 billion. 

Patricia L_ Glaser, Mr. Kerkorian's attorney, said in a telephone 
interview that she should have been given access to the same 
evidence. "We’re saying that you can’t say one thing in one court and 
something else in another court," she sard. 

Mr. Spar maintained that two audits of MGM made in 1991 bad 
shown the film studio to have a negative net worth as large as 5629 

Credit Lyonnais’s suit against Mr. Kerkorian is scheduled to go to 
trial May 3. 

"Our interest is getting a fair hearing for Mr. Kerkorian and put 
this to bed because be didn't do anything wrong.” Ms. Glaser said. 

Profits Increase 78% at IG 


LONDON — ImperialGh emic al Industries PLC announcing its 
first full-year results Thursday since selling off its Zeneca Nescience 
arm last year, reported a 78 percent leap in profits for. 1993. and 
forecast modest growth in 1994. 

With sales flat and prices under pressure, the increase m 1993 
pretax profit to £290 million pounds ($428 million) came mostly 
/ram currency and cost-cutting beadSts, the chairman, Sr Denys 
Headeraon, said. - 

Chemical-sector share, analysts, who had forecast profit of £281 
million to £328 auffion, pointed out that ICI wonld not beajshkmed 
by these factors this^year. But Sr Denys said be was expecting a 
"modest i m provement”* in the world economy. 

The 1993 (fivjdend was held at 2715 pence, as expected. Saks 
increased 12 percent to £8.43 bflfion. : 

Pechiney Cuts Aluminum Output 


PARIS — Pechiney SA, the 
French state-owned aluminum and 
packaging conglomerate, said 
Thursday it would cut its annual 
aluminum output of a million met- 
ric tons a year by 12 percent, or 
120,000 tons. 

It said this was part rtf an inter- 
national agreement to support 
. weak aluminum prices. 

Pechiney this week was singled 
out by a Russian executive for 
tnwkitig what he termed insufficient 
cutbacks in al umin um output Vla- 
dimir Kalchenko, an executive of 
the Russian producers’ group Ahj- 

miny, said further Russian cut- 
backs would depend on those made 
by the West 

On Thursday an Aluminy 
spokesman said be welcomed Pe- 
chiney’s announcement 

A Pechiney spokesman said the 
company’s cuts, like those of other 
producers, would continue for 18 
months starting in April 

Pechiney was one of the last ma- 
jor companies to announce cuts 
ahead of a meeting Monday in Ot- 
tawa of representatives of major 
aluminum producers. 

The European Union, the Unit- 

Thursday ’adoring ‘ 

Tabtea rnclude the natlonwkfe prices up to 
the closing on Wall street and do not reflect 

l late trades 

Vie The Associated Press 


12 Monti Os ' 

Urtl LOW Suck Oh YMPBMtti HWi LowLoMHOrao 



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13 Monti ■ . Sto 

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ed States, Russia, Canada. Norway 
and Australia agreed at the end of 
January in Brussels to make a joint 
effort to reduce their aluminum 

fll AJusuisse Profit Falls 

Ahisuisse-Lonza Holding AG, 
the Swiss aluminum, packaging 
and chemical company, said Thurs- 
day its profits ana sales slipped in 
1993, as expected, but it predicted a 
sharp improvement for 1994, Reu- 
ters reported from Zurich. 

Net profit was down 31 percent 
to 83 million Swiss francs (£57 mil- 
lion) as sales were off 5 percent at 
6.19 UBion francs. 

Financier Guilty 
In Bank Fraud 
Of $148 Million 

The Associated Press 

LONDON — Duncan Wallace 
Smith was convicted Thursday of 
swindling banks out of millions of 
pounds after falsely claiming to 
nave substantial assets in Canada. 

Mr. Smith, 59, born in Edmon- 
ton, Alberta, was found guilty by a 
jury at tbc Old Bailey of what au- 
thorities described as a £100 mil- 
lion ($148 million) fraud. The pros- 
ecution said Mr. Smith had fooled 
banks, auditors and colleagues 

Mr. Smith had served as chair- 
man of Wallace Smith Trust Ccl, 
as investment firm. He covered up 
growing problems by making bo- 
gus claims of valuable assets in 
Canada, authorities said. 

A spokeswoman for the Serious 
Fraud Office said he was not imme- 
diately certain about the penalties 
Mr. Smith coaid face. 

The prosecutor, Timothy Barnes, 
said tins was a “sophisticated fraud 
involving very high stakes” that 
cost other financial institutions 
millions of pounds. 

Philips NV 
Hooks Up 

Conpdedh Oar Stall From Daptndia 

EINDHOVEN. the Netherlands 

— Philips Electronic, NV said 
Thursday its Philips Media subsid- 
iary and United International 
Holdings Inc. of the United States 
would form a venture to develop 
and operate European multi chan- 
nel cable television operations. 

Both companies will contribute 
their existing European cable TV 
interests to the new company, in 
which each will own 50 percent. 

The joint venture will be the larg- 
est privately owned multichannel 
subscription television operation in 
Europe, both companies said. 

"we will be a dominant force," a 
spokesman for United Internation- 
al said. 

UIH1. though based in the Unit- 
ed States, only has operations over- 

Philips's European cable-TV in- 
terests are valued at $300 million 
more than those of United Interna- 
tional. In compensation. Philips is 
to receive 550 millio n of Gass A 
United stock and $125 milli on of 
subordinated notes of the joint ven- 
ture. United wifi also contribute 
S75 milli on in cash. 

(AFX, Bloomberg) 

■ UIP Threatens Lawsuit 

United International Pictures 
threatened Joao de Dens Pinheiro. 
the European Union's commission- 
er for culture and audiovisual poli- 
cy, with legal action for making 
what it called "tendentious, false 
2 nd misleading" statements, 
Bloomberg Business News report- 
ed from Brussels. 

Mr. Pinheiro said Tuesday that 
the EU should stop allowing Holly- 
wood studios to jointly distribute 
films in Europe. United Interna- 
tional is a joint venture set up in 
1981 by three major Hollywood 
studios' — Paramount, Universal 
and MGM — to run their theatrical 
distribution in Europe. 

Mr. Pinheiro said United Inter- 
national’s actions reduced compe- 
tition, for example by compelling 
theaters to take a package of less 
popular movies in return for the 
right to show a blockbuster such as 
“Jurassic Park.” 

United International denied it 
en gaged in this practice, known as 
block-booking, and challenged Mr. 
Pinheiro to "produce evidence of 
this accusation, which we consider 
defamatory, or withdraw his re- 
mark and apologize." 

Investor’s Europe 



FTSE 100 Index 

ia& 5 O tf D jf’F 
1893 1994 

Exchange' . index 

Amsterdam ' AEX 

s' tj N cTTf 
1893 1994 







■ ■% . 

■ Change! 


Stock index 

7.B7Z44 ' 




DAX . 






804.11 ■ 









Financial Times 30 





FTSE 100 ' 





General Index 







'1,072.00 ' 













Stock Index 




Zurich ■ 

SBB - 




Sources: Reuters. AFP 

Imoiniional Herald Trihmc 

Very briefly: 

■ Switzerland's gross domestic product rose 0.6 percent in the last quarter 
of 1993 from the previous quarter, while the figure for the full year 
showed a drop of 0.6 percent from 1992. 

• Westdeutscbe Lindeshank Gtrazentrale, Germany’s largest publicly 
owned bank, said net profit in 1993 rose to 334 million Deutsche marks 
(S193 million), up 53 percent from 1992, due to higher interest income 
and soaring returns from trading on its own account. 

• Royal Instance Holdings PLC announced pretax profit of £143 million 
for 1993. following a loss of £27 million in 1991 

• Bouygues SA raised its stake in the French television station TF1 to 34 
percent from 25 percent, according to the Paris bourse. 

• Europe Combined Terminals BV said it expected to invest about 1 
billion guilders (5518 million) in a new container harbor in Rotterdam. 
The city council and the Dutch state plan to invest an additional 850 
million guilders in the project 

■ Nestle SA said it was unlikely to list its shores in New York until after 

■ Mfincbew ROckyerskheningsgesdlschaft AG. the German reinsur- 
ance company, said its capital increase of 700 million DM would be a 1- 
for-8 rights issue with the new shares priced at 800 DM. 

• Norway's government said it expected petroleum revenue in 1994 to 
total 28 billion kroner ($3.75 billion), up slightly from 27.9 billion in 1993. 

• Germany's antitrust authorities conditionally cleared the planned 
merger of the department store chains Kaistadt AG and Hertie Wareo- 
uad Kaufhaus GmbH. 

• The European Union has launched an antitrust investigation of a 
proposed purchase of Britain's Newspaper PubHsbiiig PLC by a coalition 
of British. Italian and Spanish interests. 

• The European Union said it would also conduct an antitrust probe of the 
purchase of Rover Group by Bayeriscbe Motoren Werke AG. 

AFP. AFX. Bloomberg 

MAN AG’s Revenue Slips 
In Spite of Rise in Orders 

Compiled by Our Staff Fnm Dnpaicha 

MUNICH — MAN AG, the German engineering company and 
truck manufacturer, said Thursday that group sales had fallen 8 
percent to 7.62 billion Deutsche marks ($4.4 billion) in the six 
months ended in December, which is the first half of the company’s 
financial year. 

It said that despite an expected increase in sales in the second half, 
full-year revenue would also be below the previous year’ s level of 230 
million DM. 

The company also reiterated that profit for the full year would not 
match the year ended in June 1993 as a result of costs connected with 
re&tnicturing, price pressures and weak capacity utilisation. It did 
not provide profit figures for the first six months. 

MAN said cost-cutting measures should hdp it achieve an earn- 
ings turnaround in the year ending in June 1995. 

Order inflow in the six months ended in December rose 16 
it. to 8.62 billion DM, while orders on hand at the end of 
ibex had dropped 3 percent, to 15 3 billion DM. 

I AFX Bloomberg) 

WestLB Profit Up 
As Are Reserves 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

deutsche Landesbank Girozentrale 
said Thursday that its profit rose 
last year but that it raised the 
amount of money it holds in re- 
serve against posable loan losses. 

WestLB said its parent-company 
net profit Last year rose 53 percent, 
to 334 million Deutsche marks 
($193 million), and proviaons rose 
to 803 million DM from 596 milli on 
DM in 1991 The bank did not pro- 
vide group net-profit figures, which 
include subsidiaries, but it said 
group operating profit rose 45 per- 
cent, to 803 million DM. 

Group assets rose about 13 per- 
cent, to 320 bQlion DM. Chairman 
Friedd Neuber said the bank has 
"earned well in a difficult economic 

( Bloomberg, AFX) 

Den Danskfi Posts Profit 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

Danske Bank AS said Thursday it 
retunaed to profit in 1993, earning 
2.40 billion kroner ($356 million) 
after a 1.74 billion loss the year 
before. The result was below mar- 
ket expectations, and the bank, 
Denmark’s biggest, said it would 
focus on areas such as mortgage 
banking, insurance and securities 
trading to boost profit this year. 

(AFX Bloomberg, Reuters) 


16 , Boulerard Royal 
R.G Luxembourg B-32967 

The Board of Directors of the SICAV has deddrd on February 2. 1994, to 
raise the advisory fee for the Sub-Fund F1NNSEC GLOBAL (VIM) (nun 
0,70 % to 1 J50 c Mb per annum, based on the quarterly average net assets. 
This new lari IT will be applicable os from April I. 1994. 

The shareholders of the Sub-Fund FINNS EC GLOBAL (FIM) have the 
possibility cither to: 

- redeem their chans at net asset value or 

- to switch into any other wb-fiind of the BSS UNIVERSAL FUND 
SICAV without any expenses during the one month period alter this 



• ** 1 3 m n]t llW — - 

. M-. Ll - 21 * IW tig U — S 

I r \ 'Z Z » iffi tA IW *« 


a 13's 1 




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Now Printed in 
For Same day 
Delivery in Key Ctiies 


1-800-882 2884 

(IN NEW YORK, CALL 212-752-3890) 

On March 16th, the IHT will publish a 
Special Report on 



Among the topics to be covered are: 

■ Information superhighway in the U.S. 

■ IBM - under new management 

■ MuUion dollar mergers and strategic 

■ The hand-held Personal Digital Assistant 

■ The “virtual office" -the office of the 

fate Special Report ednekies with the CEBIT show 
in Hannover, March 16-23. 

For advertising information, please contact 
James McLeod in Paris at (33-1) 46379376. 


• v" fe-. 



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w Columbia 5««vrftk» FI 1427S 

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w AIG Soum EaSl Asia Fd — S 2J6M9 

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0 UBZ UauMBtr Fund I . 5 

fl UBZ Llqukfltv Fund DM — DM 237956 

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a UBZ Liquidity Fund SF—JF 1307171 

d Alfred Berg Nonfen S l«A4 

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m Curr- Alpha Hlltt Cr janll-S 37142 

m Global vest Value (Feb HU 14UAE 

w Hertol Japan Fund _ Y inti 

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m Latin vest value (Jon 311 — 5 1068* 

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in Solus Inti Fd Mailt) 5 1IIU7 


nr And Americon Quant Fd— S >383 

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m Intermor kc i Fund — 5 595.79 

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f lideretfl Inti Bds 1 SM84 

r Infervtfl ooil ConverHOIasLS 48226 

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m Class A — FF 241186 

m Class B 4 23585 

m Class C- — Y 53891 JO 


a BBL wrest America * ,«&59 

d BBL invest Betolum — 0F 1335*00 

tf BBL invest Far East Y 34847-00 

d BBL Invest Asia 5 701.83 

0 BBL Invest Lathi Amer—JI *3085 

0 BBL Invest UK 1 TfflJO 

0 BBL Rente Fd Inti LF 410100 

d Potr I moolal L F 21 484 AO 

0 Renta Cash S-Medlum BEFBF 1Z2 2S 3.00 
0 Rente Cam 5-Medlum DEMDM 30*787 
0 Renta Cash S-Medlum U5D S 521257 

0 BBL <U Inv GaMmlnas LP 1300 

0 BBL (U invest Europe LF 1520500 

0 BBL (L) inv Euro-lmmo LF 11*3700 

0 BBL I L) Invest WOrie LF 392800 

Share EHstritflitor Guemsev 0411 724414 
■V mrt Equity Fima (SiCOV) _J 13J1 

w Inrl Band Fund [»cavl 5 16*8 

iv Dollar Zone Bd Fd (StajvJ J 1232 

sv Sterling Equity Fd(Sleov)-i 13U 

w SferUng Bd Fd (Sleavi I 1533 

w Asia Pacific Region Fd— 3 11-49 


IV The Dragon Fund 5lcav — I 17733 

RlJml Gld Fd A (31/01/94)_S 12184 

m Japan GM Fd B IJ1/DI/94I-J 10933 

mOuat Futures Fd a A Units S 130.13 

inDtral Futures Fd a C UtdtsA 119-54 

m Maxima FutFdSer.i a AS 130258 

mMaxImo Fut. Fd Ser. 1 Cl. BS 117252 

mMoxlma 104B39 

m Maxima Fut. Fd Ser, 2 CL DS 104.941 

m Indosuez Curr.O A units — 5 104.944 

m Indosuez Cutt. □ B Units— 5 111734 

wlPNA-3 S <3500 

0 ISA Aslan Growth Fund 3 8380 

0 ISA Japan Reg. Growth Fd.Y 890X0 

a ISA Podfic Gold Fund 5 19-22 

0 ISA Aslan Income Fund — 5 1254 

d IndatuM Korea Fund 1 1L98 

w Shanghai Fund —5 1117 

wHImoloyon Fund t 2084 

w Manila Fund 5 3*41 

» Malacca Fund— 1 30.91 

— f 1 "*" f- 1 "* 1 * 4024 

0 indosuez Hang Kong Fund-5 58757 

d Oriental Venture Trust 5 71.190 

d North American Trust J 38520 

d smxn>A Malay Trust 1 39B95 

0 Pacific Trust HKS 37.185 

d Tasman ■=■"■« « 7JDD 

0 jaeon Fund ,. . . S 17J05 

iv Manooed Trust .... -3 38.175 

a Japan Warrant Fund— —5 0.S3 

0 WorWwtdB Growth Fund —5 457 

nr indosuez Hhjh Ykl Bd Fd A5 10343 

w Indosuez High Ykl Bd Fd 85 10545 

b Maxi France FF 544458 

wMaxI Francs 95— _^_FF 548159 


0 Eurasoc ECU A IDIv) _ — Ecu 1542929 

0 Eurosec ECU B (Cap) ECU 1542929 

0 InteHecUSDA (Dlvl 5 22.109 

0 IntehecUSDB (C0P> 5 213351 

0 Intelbond USD A (Dlvl- — S 175394 

0 IrHeibond USD B (Q»l 5 205940 

0 Flnnsec Global FM A (Dlvl FM 2414222 

0 Fbmsec Global FMB1COP1FM 2435222 

0 intettxmd FRF A (Dlvl FF 125JI4M 

0 imeOiond FRF B (Cap) FF 156.1786 

0 For East USD A (Dtv) 5 264402 

0 Far East U5D B (COP) S 264937 

0 JcpanJPYAiDtv) Y 1166703 

0 Japan JPY B fCOPl Y 11 4670a 

0 Parsec FRF B (Can) FF T275492 

0 Latin America USD A IDMl 245944 
0 Latin America USD B (Cams 269946 
0 North America USD A (Dtv)J 167334 
0 North Amor USD B (Coal— S 167334 

iv intelbond Qd SF 8733 

w InteBecCM SF ZSU3 

wSwtoJund On SF 18433 

(4122) >44-1381. Genera _ 

w Pielade Narih Am Equities 3 105.97 

w Pielade Europe Equities Ecu 13477 

w pietado Asia Podfic Eq — * WJD 

w Pielade Enrironmenl Ea — J J0B11 

■v Pleiaae Dallar Bands S 1055 

w Pielade ECU Bands Ecu 10951 

■v Pielade FF Bands FF 109.19 

wPielaoe Eura Corn, Bonds _SF lOOM 

* Pielade Dollar Reserve 1 

w Pielade ECU Rosen* Ecu 10150 

w Pielade SF Reserve SF 10134 

w Pielade FF Reserve FF 101M 

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0 China (PRCl * 16* 

0 Hong Kong S 44513 

d Indonesia 3 15592 

0 Japan 5 9-B88 

0 Korea — 5 13411 

d MalCYSlO 5 2949B 

0 ptilllpph ire 3 29.539 

0 Singapore * 1L714 

0 That lend 1 JiWO 

0 South East A5W 1 40.982 


* BDD USS Cash Fund —S 529172 

wBDO Ecu Cosh Fund —Ecu 4TO53 
nr BDD S«KS Franc Cash— SF 582155 

■v BOD lilt. Bond Fund-uSS — i SB7JM 

w BDD Ini. Bmd Fund-Ecu — Ecu 738641 
iv BDD N American Eauttv FdS 5045^9 
w BDO European Eauttv FundEcu 6427.45 
m BDD Aslan Equity Fund — S 14012 

m BOO US Small Cap Fund _S 104179 
w Euroflrwnciore Fixed Inc— FF 11294.11 

w Eurofln MuliLCr Bd Fd FF 993522 


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■vBellnvesMsrael S 92273 

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t> Bellnvesl-Swferlor S 118254 


t France Monelolre FF 1462152 

7 France Securlte ■ ---FF 17427.40 

1 Inter Caih DM DM 172188 

1 Inter Ctnh Ecu ..Eoi 1B9MK 

/ inter Cash GBP t T447.99 

f inter Cash USD S 122255 

f inter Cash Yen Y 145170 


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wflEF/LUF BF 107393M 

■vMuh (devises DM DM 305874 

■v USD * 1 34648 

■v FRF FF 1585151 

w ECU Ecu I2S651 


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■v Eurooe du Nora t 1247-79 

w Europe du Centre DM 29J82S 

w Europe du Sud Ecu 98271 

tv Japan . ...Y 1 17889 

iv Amerlaue (hi Hard S 160X32 

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l Global Hedge USD S jin 

I GIOOGl Hedot GBP - -T 1*59 

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r Podfic S 1355 

f Em trains Marteti i 2*49 


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wFractihni -Actions Fees C-FF 9928.77 

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d FructWw - Court Term* E-FF 846543 

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d Canada Guar. MornaaeFdCS 194N 


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iv CEP Court Terme FF 171M48 

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0 Otlnvest FGP USD 5 

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0 Clftnvesl Selector S 1722a 

a cmairrendes USD S 1617J8 

d CIl (currencies DEM .DM ]4M6 

d ClWcunendaGBP— — * l«7i 

0 Ciricurrenda Yen Y 'Z3J6X 

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d Gtloori Cant. Eure Equtty_Eca IH.I3 

0 cnimxi UK Eauttv c J49P4 

d Ollpgri French Equity FF 154559 

0 Ciriiion German Equity DM 9657 

d CHlport Jixxui Eaultv Y «U80 

d dtlpart I APEC J 

0 atiport Etxrwc— _ — 5 201.72 

0 attPOTl NA I Band S IM.92 

0 CHIpert Euro Bona Ecu 1075 

d Manooed Currency Fund— J 141.92 


went 96 Cap Gtd 5 9947308 ■ 


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wUSS Money Marhel 5 1688099 

w USS Bands 5 175301 

watt land S 136664353 

/natipsrformonce Ptfl SA— A 166W42 

w The Goad Earth Fund— S 1141482 

COMGEST OM)«* 702310 
wCcmgest Asln 5 ' 334.15 

w Compost Europe — SF 124589 


b WAM daeat Hodge Fd 3 113636 

D WAM Intt Bd Hedae Fd S 1029.39 

cawen Enterprise Fund N.V. 

iv Class A 5hs 5 1382JM 

iv Claes B Sits S 171756 


INDEX'S „„„ 

0 IndexN USA/S&F 500 S 1698 

d tndexis Japon/NIWel Y 1229 a! 

d IndexlsG Brrt'FTSE i 1*05 

0 index's Fronco/CAC 40 FF 1*277 

0 IndexbCT FF II4A5 


d Court Terme USD s 1678 

0 Court Terme DEM DM 3*U5 

0 Court Terme JPY Y =49.72 

0 Court Terme GBP — 1 tin 

d Court Terme FRF FF 12 6W 

0 Court Terme ESP— J*ta 292612 

0 Court Terme ECU —Ecu 1975 

0 Actions inti Dlvenlflees — FF 12275 

0 Actions Nard-Ameri calnes J 2*11 

0 Actions Japenatces Y 1973. 4 

d Adlans Angmues I 1610 

0 Actions AHemandes DM 3984 

d Actfcxn Froncatara -FF lSUTI 

0 Actions ESP. & Port Pto «h*7» 

d Actions i lauannes LB 343K.78 

0 Actions Bamn Padflaua. — J XU* 

0 OMIg inn Dlversfflees FF W.*0 

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d Court Terme Ecu Ecu 21 Jg 

0 Court Tonne USD s T7J5 

0 Court Terme FRF — . FF 13987 


0 ElYsees MonettUra — FF B8778JM 

0 Sam Acrteosh USD B S 189987 


0 CSF Bands SF 

O Band Voter 5wf SF H7X 

0 Bond vohr US- Doflar S 125J0 

0 Bond VohrD- Mart. DM 117^0 

0 Bond Voter Yen —Y NJW72 

d Bend Valor t Sterling C 11089 

0 Convert Valor Swt.. - ..SF itaM 
d Convert Velar US ■ Dotlgr-S 20981 

0 CSF International 5F 14051 

0 Actions Sulsses JF JBMl 

0 Euraaa Volar —SF 2070 

0 Energte- Valor SF 152= 

d Pacific - Valor — — SF ULB 

d CS Gold Valor 1 ,74608 

0 CS Tiger Fund S 12*486 

0 CS Ecu Bond A Ecu 109.13 

0CS Ecu Bond B Eeu 18687 

0 CS Gulden Bond A FI 10*58 

0CS Gulden Bond B FI ' 

d CSHbPona Iberia Fd A — Pto 3185880 

0 CS Htaiano Iberia Fd B — Pta 331*270 

0 C5 Prime Bond A DM HIM 

0 CS Prime Bond B DM 15615 

d CS Europe Bond a — dm 34981 

0 CS Eurapa Bond B —DM 16270 

0 CS Netherlands Fd A fl 41882 

0 CS Fixed 1 5F 7% 1796 SF 10623 

0 a Fixed I DM 8% 1/96 DM 10484 

0 CS Fixed I Ecu 83/4% 1/9 <lEcu 10782 

0CS Swiss Franc Bond A SF 27632 

0 CS Swiss Franc Band B_ — SF 307.92 

0 CS Germany Fund A — —DM 2*954 

dCS Germany Fim0B__DM 

d CS Elira Blue Chips A -DM 27782 

0CS Eure Blue CMP* B DM 28935 

0 CSShort-T, BondSA * JMRJ 

0 CS Shart-T. Bond* B S 14610 

0 C5 Sltart-T. Bond DM A DM 035J 

0 CS 5txxi-T. Bond DM B DM 15480 

0C5 Money MorlcetMS__5 17E80 

0 CS Money MqrtwIFdDM— DM 172* 4 

0 CS Money Market Fd I 1 

0 CS Money Market FdYen_Y 14466611 

0 CS Money Market Fd CS — CS 1WJ2 

0 CS Money Mortrt Fd Ecu_Enj 134874 

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.1 1610 

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.ECU 2182 

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0 CS Money Market FdSF— SF 5780J4 

0 CS Money Market Fd HFI —FI 1190 02 
0 CS Money Mortal Fd Lit — UI 120399*80 
0 CS Money Market Fd FF — FF 609649 

d CS Money Market Fd Pto_Pto 1E71S70 
0 CS Money McrVrt Fd BEF JF 5*3*6” 

0CSOetux Protec A DM W87 

0 CS OefcqProtec B. DM ma 

0 CS NorttvAmerteon A S 25774 

0 CSNorttt-AmerteonB. 1 2**j7 

0 CS UK Fund A 1 121.JB 

0 CS UK Fund B 1 IS41 

0 CS France Fund A FF 112151 

d CS France Fund B ■ FF 118085 

d CS Euroreal DM 101-M 

0CS Italy Fund A UI 24819630 

0 CS itatv Fund B Uf 25424000 

0 CS Netherlands Fd B FL *25.71 

0 CS FF Band A FF 112277 

0 CS FF Band B— FF tmw 

0 CS CcpIM SFR 2000 -SF I5B281 

0CS Capital DM 2000 DM I4B154 

0 Cj Constal DM 1997 DM 177174 

0 CS Capital Ecu 2000 Ecu I449.M 

0 CS Capital FF 2000 FF 1467.M 

0 CS Japan Megatrend SFR— SF 2*648 

d CS Japan Megatrend Yen_Y 241BJ7D 

0 CS Parti Inc SFR A/B SF l0dL39 

0 CS Port! Bal SFR SF 1D67J9 

0 CS Port! Growth SFR SF 10*575 

0 CS Parti Inc DM A/B DM UWL75 

0 CS Pfirit BaJ DM DM 110073 

d CS Portl Growth DM DM 110385 

0 CS Portl Inc USS A/B— 5 101785 

d CS Portl Bal US! S 104213 

0 CS Port! Growth USS * 105285 

0 CS Ed Fd Emtra MM* 4 133174 

0 CS Ea Fd Small Cap USA — I 11)7278 

0 CS Ea Fd Small Eur OM 995.97 

Tet 41-22 708 48 37 

d DH Malar Markets Fund — SF UC180 
0 Henrten Treasury Fd—SF 1115280 

d Samurai Portfolio SF 32880 


wMutticurr. Band — SF IJ4452 

tv Dolval Bond S 121623 

w Euraval Equity Ecu J 35675 

wN. America Equity * I42H84 

iv Poclflc Equity — 3 135586 


d Gmce ntra + ■ - ■ ■ d m 5180 

0 Inti Rentenfond + — OM _ 7*J3 

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b Htphbridge Capital Cora — S | 265U6 

m Overtook Perforiremce Fd— 5 23M34 

m Podfic RIM Oo Fd S 11271 El 

TO Saab SL SI Heller ; QS34J6JJI 

0 Capital — 8 21329 

d income. ■ ■■ ■ — J !4811 

d Long Term 8 .5 55 ! 

0 LengTerm-DMK — DM liwww 


wChMC/ Norm Amertsn — Ft 1884 

ERMITAGE LUX (1524073 30J 

w Ermltooc Sotz Fund 5 7084 

wErmltage Ashxi Hedge Fd_l 1182 

w Ermhogc Euro Hedge Fd— DM 1*33 

w Ermitoge Cnnbr Asia Fd_» 218* 

w Ermitoge Amer Hdg Fd S HUB 

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d American Eaultv Fund S 7765) 

0 American Dollar FixfK) 5 7ta87 

» Asian Equity RJ S 

w European Eauitv Fd— — I '2LK 

EVEREST CAPITAL (809) 292 2300 

m Everest Capital Inti LM * 136J0 


0 Discovery Fund J 2 -51 

0 Far East Fund— —5 21.12 

0 FXL Amer. Assets 1 ta»82 

0 FW. Amer. Values iv 5 11775180 

0 Frontier Fund — — 3 J98S 

0 (Hobo) Ind Fund 5 20^ 

d Global SefeChen Fund— 5 

0 international Fund S 20JB 

d New Europe Fund > 1381 

0 Orient Fund S W 

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w Delta Premium Carp. S ll77iB 

FOKUS BANK 63.472428 SB 
w Sc c ei ft mai Inti Growth Fd_3 1.12 


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m fmg Gtabai (3i Dec) s lU? 

m FMGN. Amer. Ill Dec) — S 1281 

m FMG Europe (31 Dec) 5 11-75 

01 FMG EMG MKT (31 Ded_S U7* 

mFMG Q (31 Dec) S 1183 

nr Conecuh Forex Fund— J 1US 


iv Gale Hedge 11 - 5 15075 

1 iv Gala Hedge III -8 187} 

IV Gala 5w«5 FrurtC Fd SF 5635 

wGAIAFx— 5 12038 

tnGoia G uarante ed Cl. i — J 87.71 

mOoio Guaranteed Cl. II— Jl 
Tel: 1352)445434470 
Fax: (352)445423 

0 DEM Bond Db MS DM 6J4 

g OlvcTMMI OblS* SF 372 

0 Dollar Band — DbUl 1 Z51 

d Eurapaafi Bd — O b 1 77 Ecu 174 

0 French Frtmc Db 1157 — FF 1LS* 

a Gtabai Bond — Ofci27l 1 288 


a ASEAN s Wg 

d Asia Pacific 3 fM 

0 Continental Europe Feu 153 

d Developing Markets S U8 

0 France FF 12.U 

0 Germany -DM MB 

a International 5 289 

0 Japan Y 26680 

0 North America— —A 273 

0 Switzerland SP *04 

0 United Klnoaom— -C 187 


d Dollar DH288 5 2 .W 

0 French Franc. — FF 1287 

0 Yen Reserve—.. Y 2861 


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w East Investment Fund. ... I 74781 

w Scott Wt World Fund 1 *761254 

w Stale St. American 5 24697 


w (A) Genesee Eagle s 1369* 

w (B) Genesee Short 3 *619 

w(C) Genesee OooortuiUty _S 14080 

tv (Fl Genesee Non-Eaufty — S 14659 


w 1 1 Slratatit Band B Ecu 16563 

wll PodflcBandB SF 141573 



II Athol SLOougka.1 el Man 44424484037 

A 44172 

w GAM Arbitrage * 39182 


w GAM Australia S 22780 

iv GAM Boston S 349-74 

m GAJWCargHI Mtnnmonko-J IM74 

w GAM Contained DM letLffl 

w GAM Cross-Market A 109^4 

w GAM European * 

nr GAM France. — — FF 211881 

w GAM Fronc-vnl SP 27*M 

wGAMGAMCO —5 21970 

w GAM H0i Yield J 14U4 

iv GAM East Asia Inc J 7»» 

wGAM Japan S M4i® 

w GAM Money Mkb USS 3 1HU5 

d Do Sterling t inn 

d Da Swiss Franc— SF 

d Do Dmitschemnk DM 1M8S 

0 Do Wl " v 1001180 

w GAM Allocated Mltt-Fd S 18162 

w GAM Emero MMs Mitt-Fd S 19170 

tv GAM Mlft-Eurape USS S 14679 

wGAM MHt-Europe OM DM 14771 

wGAMMItVGWMlUSS 3 19779 

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w GAM Trading DM_ DM 41-3 

w GAM Trading USS % «8J 

wGAM Overseas S 19684 

wGAM Poclflc s 2520 

wGAM Seloctkxi 5 70687 

wGAMSbteapare/Malavsta_S 70286 

wGAM SF special Bond —SF 13107 

wGAM Tyche S 35683 

wGAM UJL — * 2W.13 

■vGAMut Investments S 81073 

iv GAM Value S 13688 

wGAM Whitethorn —7 18984 

w G AM Worldwide S «*81 

wGAM Bond USS Otd S 14425 

wGAM Band USS Special % 20685 

w GAM Band SF SF 10583 

wGAM Band Yen Y 143080 

w GAM Band DM DM 12321 

wGAM Bend l 1 T6B82 

w GAM cspedal Band 1 150S4 

wGAM Universal USS S 14*24 

w GSAM Composite — J _ 34174 

MuhUtxxhstrane 171CH fl(D*Zurtch 

0 GAM (CH) America SF 14S681 

0 GAM (CH) Eurooe _5F W1.94 

0 GAM (CH) Mondial SF 1J3780 

0 GAM (CHI Podfic SF 301622 


135 EON 5710 Street JiY I082271MMOO 

wGAM Europe S 9183 

nrGAMGhnal S 156M 

wGAM international 3 

wGAM North America J ?a25 

w GAM Pacific Basin 1 1911* 


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wGAM Americana Acc DM *641 

wGAM Eurapa Acc -DM mu 

w GAM Otlert Acc DM 4488 

w GAM Tokyo ACC DM 17085 

wGAM Total Bond DM Acc_DM Ilia 

wGAM Universal DM Acc — DM 18879 

Bermuda: (8091 295-4000 Fax: (809)2954180 

w (C) Financial 6 Metals S U**2 

W(DIKT Global S 9179 

w IF) G7 Currency » 84X7 

w (HI Yen Financial S l»Jl 

w (Jl Diversified Rsk Adi 5 1160 

w (Kl intt Currency 6 Bond-* 10582 



wG5 Adi Rote Mart Fail — 5 9.ta 

mGS Global Currency. S '25657 

wGS Global Equity S 1237 

wGS World Band Fund S 1083 

w as World income Fund i IIU4 


wG. Swop Fund Ecu 120280 


w Granite Canttal Equity S 18444 

w Granite Capitol Mkt Neutrals -1^0 
w Granite Capital Mortgage— I 17511 

Tel : (44) 71 - 7104547 

d GTAsean Fd A Shares —S 8480 

0 GT Aseon Fd B Shares 1 1*84 

0 GT Asia Fund A Shares S 2570 

0 GT Asia Fund B Shams 1 2585 

0 GT Aslan Small Comp A ShS 2689 

0 GT Aslan Small Comp B Sh7 2185 

0 GT Australia Fd A Shares-S 3*85 

0 GT Australia Fd B Shares—* 3558 

d GT Austr. 5 mail Co A 5h — 3 3609 

0 GT AlfStf. 5ntall Co B Sh — * 3177 

0 GT Berry Japan F0 A 5h — S 2340 

0 GT Berry Japan Fd B Sh — 3 2171 

0 GT Bond Fd A Shares 5 2084 

0 GT Bona FdB Sham— S 2653 

0 GT Dollar Fund A Sh S 3588 

0 GT Dollar Fund B Sh S 36U 

d GT Emeroing MMs A 5h — S 2272 

0 GTE merging MidiBSh — S 218* 

S GT Em MW Small Co A Sh _s 1111 

0 GT Em Mkt Small Co B Sh J 1611 

w GT Euro Small Co Fd A Sh Jl 424)0 

w GT Euro Small Co Fd B ShJ 4279 

d GT Hong Kang Fd A ShontsS 1778 

0 GT Hong Kong FdB Snares I 8783 

0 GT Honshu Pathfinder A Sh* 1286 

0 GT Honshu Pathfinder B Sn* 13.M 

wGT Jao OTC Stacks Fd A SW 1287 

w GT JoP OTC Stocks Fd B 5M 12.93 

w GT Jao Small Cn Fd A 5h — s 1570 

w GT Jap Small Co Fd B Sh_* 1578 

w G.T, Latin America Fd s 2617 

d GT strategic BdFd A Sh— S 977 

a GT Strategic Bd Fa B Sh — s 9J7 

d GT Telecomm. Fd A ShvesS '584 

d GT Telecomm. Fd B Shares! 1609 

r GT Technology Fund A 5h_S 5*98 

r GT Tetfntolaav FiM B 9i~S 5522 

GT MANAGEMENT PLC (4471 7M« *7) 
d G.T. Biotech/ Health Fund-S 2440 

0 G.T. Deutschimxi Fund 1 1282 

fl G.T. Europe Fund 1 5284 

w G.T. Global Small Co Fd—S 2881 

d G.T. investment Fund * Z&w 

wG-T. Korea Fund— ■ 7 *48 

wG.T. Newly Ind C«XltrFd_7 4699 

wG.T. US Small Companies _7 __2*29 


1 GCM Gtabai SeL Ea S 11339 


a Managed Currency ■ ■ S 4088 

a Glottal Bond — S 3649 

d Global High Income Bond_I 2*30 

d Gilt Staffed r 1180 

0 Euro Hlon Inc. Bond Jt 2*30 

O Gtobol Equity S J*88 

0 American Blue Odo— 7 2971 

d Jasan and Poclflc Jt U480 

0 UK 1 2601 

0 European S 11BJ7 

0 Deutseitemark Money —DM 57,999 

0 US Dollar Money 1 38.146 

0 US Doflar High Yd Band S 3681 

fl I nil Balanced Grin 7 3691 


w Hasenbchler Cam AG 5 48828C 

w Hcaenblcmer Com Inc— 8 T0P4I 

w Htnenblchier Dlv S WL44 

wAFFT. — S 130880 

HEPTAGON FUND NV (599H1 5555) 

1 Heptagon QLB Fund S 10638 

m He p tagon CMO Fun d J 18*65 

Bermuda: IBOVilH 4000, Lux:(X91484 44*1 
Estimated Prices /Bond - Final 
ntHermes European Fund— Ecu 37*13 

m Hermes Norm American FdS 310-40 

m Hermes Asian Fond— — S 40192 

ntHermes Emero Mkis FundJ 14256 

m Hermes Strategies Funfl — Jt KCM 

ci Hermes Neutral Fund— S 1)695 

For information on howto list your fund^Eax SimonOSBORN at (33-1)4637 2133. 

For expert advice on personal investing. 

Every Saturday, the International Herald Tribune publishes The Money Report, a weekly section that provides 
a penetrating analysis of financial products and services available to today's high-net-worth investor. 

For timely investment information, read The Money Report \ 


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Buys Into Firms Avoid Hong Kong Bonds 


Bfamberg Businsxi News 

SYDNEY — Nine Network 
Australia Ltd. said Thursday it 
. would pay 165 million Australian 
dollars (USS1 19 mption) to boy a 

- 30 percent stake in the Hollywood 
fibn producer and distributor Re- 
geacy Enterprises. . 

Analysis said the move was 
. aimed at seeming programming in 
a world where an explosion of tele- 
vision channels is firing up compe- 
tition for material' to broadcast 

N in e Network is 45 percent- 
owned by Kerry Packer, Australia’s 
wealthiest businessman. Among 
Mr. Packer's other major media in- - 
. tercsts air a 15 percent stales in the 
Australian newspaper publisher 
John Fairfax Holdings Ltd. and a' 

- 49 percent stake in the American 
goup Valassis Oa mmunicifloBli 

Regency is headed by the pro-. 

- duccr Amon Mflchary. whose fibre 
include such hits as '‘Pretty Wo- 
mnn/ ’-JF g " and “War ctf the 

- Roses." Among films planned for 
production are Oliver Stone’s 
Noriega," starring A1 Pacino. 

■ “It's fundamental to the future 
. of the electronic media to have ac- 
cess to progr a m ming ** Richard 

Geoigc, an analyst « Hambro 5 Se- 
curities, said. 1 oor signals won’t 
be worth' as much in the -future 
because there will he more si gnal 
and the guy who_ supplies thejprod- 
uct will have the wmp hand.^ 

■ Sony Denies Sale Plans 

Sony Corp. denied reports that h 
planned to sell some or aS its Hol- 
lywood movie studios, Agencc 
France-Presse reported from To- 

Sony, which acquired .Colombia 
Pictures and Tri-Star Pictures far 
about $3.4billiah in the late 1980s, 
said last week that its motian-pic- 
tnre revenue had {dunged 13 per- 
cent in thethird quarter.' 

By Kevin Murphy 

IniematfanaJ Herald Tribune 

HONG KONG — The ingredients are 
almost all at- hand, but a takeoff in Hong 
Kong’s local corporate bond market stiff 
: chulcs the high-priced teams of traders and 
. arrangers assembling at finance houses 
around town. ' ■ 

;■ Daily tumoyerin Hong Kong dollar gov- 
. ernment debt now dwarfs that of the bournes 
Ba ted on the stock markers Hang Seng index. 
A fhnxy of certificates of deposit and various 
derivative products have appeared. 

... At the same time, increasing numbers of 
supranational organizations such as the 
Asan Development Bank and the Nordic 
Investment Burk seeking funds in the region 
have - also raised money m the local currency, 
whose value is pegged to the US. dollar. 

.Yet, wijh the exception of a few bond- 
ssnmg pioneers, private companies have 
largely shunned a market that cm offer 
cheaper medium-term finangj^g than bank 
loans, and one that analysts expect someday 
will be huge. ' . 

. : ‘The Kong dollar debt mmfafi is 
starved for ismas; feTas no depth,” said Peter 
Ferry, director ctf fixed-income sales and trad- 
ing for CS First Boston. “But therefs too much 
liquidity out there for it not to develop.” 

But how -long will it take? 

“Most of the major banks and 
companies are equipped to deal in Hong 
Kong bonds and notes,” Robert McBain, 
executive director of NaiWcst Capital Mar- 
kets, said. “Iberearemany mcrepuyers than 
necessary, given the size of the market now, 
but evepbaly wants to be ready when things 

Although it oanmmaOy runs a budget air- 
plus. the Hong Kong aromment sells short- 
tarn bills, with maturities of 30 days or less, 
and notes with a maximum maturity of three 
yean to help steer monetary policy and prod 
a commercial debt market into life in a finan- 
cial center where equities have long been 
king. . 

He Hong Kong Monetary Authority, the 
cotarfs central bank, has established a cen- 
tral depository and clearing system fen- its 


notes that can also be used is the trade of 
private-sector paper and serve as a bridge to 
mternatianal clearing systems. 

“The authorities have done quite a lot to 
make the environment friendly," said An- 
drew Sheng, deputy chief executive (mone- 
tary) at the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, 
the colony’s central hank. “There is lot of 
demand for high-quality, long-term paper out 
there. Now it's up to the private sector.” 

The market expects the HKMA to issue a 
note with a five-year maturity at some point 
this year, a move that will bdp provide a 
ben chmar k for debt that extends beyond July 
1997, the date of Hong Kong’s return to 
Chinese rule. 

Bin the government, winch is trying to 
stimulate market development and has re- 
cently eased listing requirements for new 
bona issues, will not heed calls to grant cor- 
porate issuers the tax-exempt status it ex- 
tends to sup ranationals. 

For this reason, and the fact that few Hong 
Kong companies have debt ratings, Hong 
Kong dritlar corporate debt can yield signifi- 

cantly more than comparable U.S. or Euro- 
pean corporate paper — on average, about 
150 basis points, or one and a half percentage 
points, more. 

“From the risk/rctum point of view, it’s a 
jungle out there now," said Philippe Delhaise. 
president of Thomson Bankwalch Asia, one 
of Aria’s few corporate rating agencies. 

“More companies are now prepared to look 

at thig financing option and to nnriw gn rating 

quality ca their paper,” said Mr. Ddhaise, who 
predicted the market would “explode” when 
secondary trading expanded. 

Bat that boom could take awhile, maybe a 
year or two, according to some traders. De- 
mand for quality paper far outweighs supply. 

“Investors are not quite ready for corpo- 
rate issues,” said Andrew Fung, manager of 
swaps and trading for Wanfley Ltd., a lead- 
ing arranger and trader in the Hong Kong debt market. 

“Tbe Swire Pacific issue was the first and 
most successful but its trading spread con- 
tinues to widen," Mr. Fung said, referring to 
the seven-year, 750 nriflioD Hong Kong dollar 
(USS97 nulliaa) bond paying a 7. 125 percent 
semiannual coupon. “But we will see more 
action in this area in the second pan of the 

By that time, more Hong Kang corporates 
will probably have debt ratings, and more 
funds held by local quasi-public agencies will 
be fanned out to professional fund managers 
likely to invest more aggressively than is 
currently the case. 

2 Issues Show the Dragons Are Diversifying 

HONG KONG— Aria’s bud- 
ding dragon bond market is al- 
ready starting to diversify, with 
the launch this week of two issues 
from Mexico and the RriBppincs. 

Dragon bonds are ordinary 

talfrom a growing pool of Asian 
wealth in the so-called ’ dragon 
economies such as. Hang Kong 
and Singapore- 

Analysts say the strong recep- 
tion for tbe two issues Wednes- 
day, one by National Finanriera, 
Mexico’s national development 
bank and one by Philippine Na- 
tional Bank, shows Asian inves- 
tors already have a healthy appe- 
tite and a strong constitution 
when it comes to debt. 

“This issue is the next step in 

the evolution of the dragon bond 

market," said Adam Howard, 
head of capital markets for JJP. 

Morgan in Asia, commenting on 
the m^jpine issue: 

“The bond market started with 
just the top-rated issuers,” Mr. 
Howard said. “This issue means 
that the dragon market can be 
tapped by the whole range of is- 
suers. especially nonsovereign 
Asian names, and even in Asian 

Until dragon bonds were 
launched in the 1990s, Asia did 





on Page 4 [ r ~ . 


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on Page 8 

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Page 15 


not have a developed bond mar- 
ket, as governments were not in 
the habit of raising funds from 

The Mexican offering this 
week, of floating-rale notes due 
in March 1999, was so successful 
that the issue was enlarged by S50 
million, to a total of S250 million, 
on the morning of the issue. Phil- 
ippine National Bank’s issue was 
more modest at, S532 million. 

Vital Signs 
For Japan 
Remain Weak 

Agence France-Prase 

TOKYO — Japan's industrial 
production and shipments in 1993 
fell for a second year in a row for 
the first rime since the mid- 1 970s, a 
government report said Thursday. 

“The final demand lacks power 
to pull up overall production, and a 
stagnant trend will continue," an 
official of the Ministry of Interna- 
tional Trade and Industry said, at- 
tributing the setback to recession 
and the higher yen. 

The 1993 index of mining and 
manufacturing stood at 91Z off 
from the base level of 100 for 1990 
and down 4.5 percent from 1992, 
the ministry said. 

Tbe 1993 index of industrial 
shipments fell 3.7 percent to 92.7, 
after a 5.1 percent decline in the 
previous year, the report said. 

The index inventories, mean- 
while, shrank 3.4 percent for its 
second consecutive a nnna l decline. 

In addition, the Japan Automo- 
bile Manufacturers’ Association re- 
ported that the country’s motor- 
vehicle exports had fallal a record 
26J percent in January from a year 
earlier, to 390,418 units, their 10th 
consecutive monthly decline. 

Malaysian Maker 
Eyes Expansion 

Bloomberg Businas News 

Paper Holdings Bhd„ the small toi- 
let-paper maker that was the ruin 
of many Malaysian spepilators last 
year, said Wednesday h was going 
on a shopping spree. 

Union Tapers new chair man, 
Abdul Ghafar Baba, who quit his 
job as the deputy prime minister of 
Malaysia last year after losing a 
power struggle, detailed his “priori- 
ty shopping tin" at the company's 
annual meeting. 

Among the coveted items: banks 
and stockbrokers, timber and 
wood-based industries, a Kuala 
Lumpur office and apartment de- 
velopment “mainly for the up-mar- 
ket tenants,” and government con- 
tracts for airport, road and | 
lekoommumcatioiis projects. 

Union Paper rose from 1.73 ring- 
git (64 cents) a share to 23 ringgit I 
last year on rumors it would be ! 
taken over by a cooperative linked : 
to the United Malays National Or- 
ganization, Malaysia's dominant , 
political party. ! 

When those hopes w ere dashed, 
rla: stock plunged as low as 4.72 
ringgit, triggering a sefloff of other 
smart companies that had alan gone 
up on takeover expectations. 

TOT Records a Profit 
After 3 Years of Losses 

Invests in 
Asia Fund 


SINGAPORE — Government 
investment bodies have taken a 
one-ihird stake in a fund to invest 
directly in Asia, officials said 

Singapore previously invested 
conservatively in shares, bonds and 
real estate in the United States, 
Europe 2 nd Japan. 

But in January, former Prime 
Minister Lee Kuin Yew told Par- 
liament that Singapore should in- 
vest more of its huge foreign re- 
serves in Aria. A few days later, his 
successor. Gob Chok Tong, said 
some funds would be set aside for 
th 2 t purpose. 

The 33 percent stake just pur- 
chased by Government of Singa- 
pore Investment Corp. and a sister 
company, Temasek Holdings, is in 
a S761 million fund to invest direct- 
ly in Asian infrastructure projects. 

Called AIG Asian Infrastructure 
Fuad L P., the fund could reach SI 
billion in a few months, the offi- 
cials said. 

The ether major investor, with 
SI 00 minion, is American Interna- 
tiona] Reinsurance Co., wholly 
owned by American International 

Half of ti:e fund will be invested 
in China, and the rest is expected to 
be invested mainly in Indonesia, 
Maiavsia, the Philippines, Taiwan 
and Thailan d. As much as 20 per- 
cent might be invested in other 
Asian countries, the fund’s promot- 
ers said. 

"China and the ASEAN group 
offer some of tbe most attractive 
opportunities for private investors 
over the next decade," said Moeen 
Qureshi, chairman of Emerging 
Markets Partnership, the fund’s 
principal adviser. 

The fund will invest in three 
main sectors: power, telecommuni- 
cations and transportation. It can, 
however, invest in other resource 
developments, property or environ- 
mental services projects. 

| Investor's Asia 


Hong Kong : • 

Singapore ■' 

" Tokyo 


m — — 

Straits Times 
- 2550 r- 

Nikkei 225 . 

- . m *—. — - 




.1994- - 

i '6 J f " ; 6 ®S J _Q N D jr 

1B94 . IDS? ' IBM 

Thursday Prev. * % . • 

' Close Close, Change 
10.43JL00 10,763^0 -&Q? ■' 
2.385J24 2.423.91 '-1.60. 

£,moti a^taso. 

19.765.45 19.341.83 +£19" 
1.14841 1.141.05 *0,47 

1A1B£4 1,430,65 . *078 

• 93245 • -95001 -138 ■ 

5J570.71 5,769.18 -f.71. 

2,95627. 228621 . ,-12?: 

. 55251 551.86 ' +0,12 

226926 226524 . +0.18 

1,955.18 ■ 1.955.89. -0.04 , 

Interna aortal Herald Tribune 

.Ho^gkiorig '.'l.HangSer^ ' 
Sin gapora ’ - , Strata Tiroes • 
Sydri^ v - : "; : AlOrdfoaries' 
Tokyo 'tttfcet225 ~ 

Bangkok - SET • 

Saotil. i Composite Stock 
Taipei Vte^aedf^co 

ifen^;'. CofT^fosite 7“ 

Jakarta Slocklndsx * 

NwrZeafaBri NZSE-40 

Bo mbay Motional index . 

Sources: Reuters, AFP 

Very briefly: 

• Taiwan will abolish its much-criticized tobacco and wine monopoly 
system by the end of June 1 99S. The move wiD allow* cigarettes and liquor 
to be imported freely and taxed according to international standards. 

■ Yazaki Corp,, a maker of electric wires and gauges, will buy the wire 
harness division of Acustar, a Mexican subsidiary of Chrysler Corp. 

■ fTitnn will form a property rights exchange in the southern dty of 
Guangzhou that will allow some domestic and foreign businesses to freely 
sell or transfer property rights. 

• Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, a state-owned power 
company, agreed to build a SI billion dam and power station in Laos with 
iu sta to-owned counterpart there. 

■ Takashimaya Co., the Japanese department store chain, cut its earnings 
projection for its financial year ending Monday to 2.8 billion yen (S27 
billion) from 3.0 billion yen. 

• Taiwan’s gross national product grew 3.9 percent in 1993, compared 
with 6 percent growth in 1992, the government said. 

• Hitachi Lid. will form a joint venture in Shanghai to produce and 
market household air conditioners: the company, which will begin 


production in April, wall be called Shanghai Hitachi Household Appli- 
ances Co. AFP, Bloomberg, AFX 

Virgin to Open Megastore in Hong Kong 

PLC of Britain 


HONG KONG — Virgin Group PLC of Britain 
and Wheeiock & Co. of Hong Kong said Thursday 
thev had teamed up to develop the Virgin Megastore 
chain of music and games retailers in Hong Kong, 
China and Taiwan in a 50-50 joint venture. 

The opening of the first Hong Kong store is sched- 
uled for early next year. 

Virgin said it had more than 50 Megastores world- 
wide. many of them joint ventures, with combined 
sales of more than $600 million a year. 

The deal with Whedock seems to fulfill up British 
entrepreneur Richard Branson's ambition to boild a 
global network at Virgin. “In most major rides in the 
world, there should be a Virgin retail store by tbe turn 
of the century.” he said this week. 


Registered Office: 

Schottiegatweg-Oost 130 
Curasao, Netherlands Antilles 


Please lake notice that the Annual General Assembly of Shareholders of Fidelity 
American Assets N.V. (the "Corporation'*) will take place at 2:00 p.m. at Schotregatweg- 
Oost 130, Curasao. Netherlands Antilles, on March 15. 1994. 

The following matters are on the agenda for this Assembly : 

1. Repon of the Management. 

2. Election of the Managing Directors. 

The Chairman of the Management proposes the re-election of all present Managing 
Directors: Edward C. Johnson 3d, Barry R. J. Bateman, Charles T. M. Collis, Sir 
Charles A. Fraser, Jean Hamilius, HJ\ van den Hoven and AMACO Holdings & Trust 
Company N.V. 

3. Approval of the balance sheet and profit and loss statement for the fiscal year ended 
November 30, 1993. 

4. Ratification of actions taken by the Managing Directors since the last Annual General 
Assembly of Shareholders, including declaration of an interim dividend in respect of 
the fiscal year ended November 30, 1993, and authorisation of the Managing Directors 
to declare additional dividends in respect of fiscal 1993 if necessary to enable the Fund 
to qualify for "distributor" status under United Kingdom tax law. 

5. Ratification of actions taken by the Investment Manager since the last Annual General 
Assembly of Shareholders. 

6 . Consideration of such other business as may properly come before the Assembly. 

Approval of each item of the Agenda will require the affirmative vote of a majority of the 
votes cast at the Assembly. 

Holders of registered shares may vote by proxy by mailing a form of registered share- 
holder proxy which will be sent to them by tbe Fund's Registrar and Transfer Agent, 
Fidelity Investments Luxemburg SA. Registered sbareholders may also obtain a form of 
registered shareholder proxy from the institutions listed below. 

Holders of bearer shares may vote by proxy by mailing a form of proxy and certificate of 
deposit for their shares to the Corporation at the following address : 

Fidelity American Assets N.V. 

do AMACO Holdings & Trust Company N.V. 

Post Office Box 3141 



Bearer shareholders may obtain a form of bearer shareholder proxy and certificate of 
deposit from the following institutions: 

Fidelity Investments Luxembourg S.A. Fidelity International Limited 

Kansallis House, 3rd Floor P-O. Box HM 670 

Place de L'Etoile Hamilton HM CX, 

Boils Postale 2174 BERMUDA 


Fidelity Investments International 
Oakhili House 
130 Tonbridge Road 
Hildcn borough 

Kent TN 1 1 9DZ. 


Anteroatively. holders of bearer shares wishing to exercise their rights personally ai the 
Meeting may deposit their shares, or a certificate of deposit therefor, with the Corporation 
at Schottegatweg-Oost 130, Curasao, Netherlands Antilles, against receipt therefor, which 
receipt will entitle said bearer shareholder to exercise such rights. 

All proxies ( and certificates of deposit issued to bearer shareholders) must be received by 
the Corporation not later than 1:00 p-m. on March 15, 1994, in order to be voted at the 

SYDNEY —The benefits of re 
structuring and a surge in profit fo: 
Ansett Airlines helped TNT LttL, i 
global transportation company, it 
post its first profit after three yean 
of deficits. 

The group Thursday announced 
a profit for the last half of 1993 1 * 
3XM millio n Australian dollar; 
(US$16 million), reversing a loss ot 
74.45 million dollars a year earlier. 
Sales rose 1.7 percent, to 2.85 bil- 
lion dollars. (Bloomberg, AFP) 

February 17. 1994 

By order of the Management 
Charles T.M. Collis 



-S3o ll iiu 

i “ *132 m 

LI i i 

Thursday's dosing 

Tables Include the nationwide prices up to 
the dosing on Wall Street and do not reflect 
lata trades elsewhere. Via The Associated Press 

9b 6 V, AIM Sir .42 m _ hi 

15V, lTbALC _ » 1916 

11 9*4 AM Inti n _ _ 9 

1«» kiAMlnwr _ _ 113 

llh 17 J1 

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5 to ARC _ n 340 

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2b IVhASR 23#IU 41 

7SH U'A ATT Fd S.«e 4.2 _ 17l 

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JVj 1 '/.Action 
6 Hi 4 ActmRsc 
Sto 71»APirFm 

_ S3 ®0 

_ _ 38 

_ 13 1 

..23 a 


_ 14 486 
_ 343 

7*1 toAdvMctfT _ _ 77 

IQS JtoAdMdpl _ _ 30 

5V. ItoAdvPhOl _ _ 13 

J". Tto Aerosol ._ 8 10 

16"4 9bAirWo1 _. 60 707 

74 18 Air Exp 30 1A 14 164 

4Vj "lAjrooa .. 17 70 

736 P-iAlomcO — B 47 

nr. 9w7v»xjw _ is 7J 

187.14 AHoocnn J6e 2.1 - 581 
l”. •w M Amn _ — 70 

17% 6*iAfldRsn _ 3 3 

11*1 8 AUauH _ 14 486 

TV. IbAtouwtB _ 3«3 

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12 V. 6VkAhWGr _ _ 464 

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1.05* 2.6 13 IS 

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.64 3.1 1031 7 

_ ._ 1053 


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Page 17 


T hree vears after the B5- 
. era lion . from Iraq, 
there is a new feeling of 
growing optimism in 
Kuwaiti although the shadow of 
S addam Hussein still lingers on. 
Hie ml sector is back to normal 
(barring some minor production 
and refining problems), construc- 
tion activity has picked op rapidr 
ly in the last year and the Kuwait 
Investment Authority is restruc- 
turing both its management and 
investment strategy. 

. r "Crude-oil production is about 22 
million barrels a day and refining 
capacity is 580,000 barrels a day, 
compared with a prewar figure of 
800,000 barrels a day. . 

Falling oil prices are, however, 
rapidly increasing the budget 
deficit, which now stands at about 
$3.5 billion. A report to the Nation- 
al Assembly last month revealed 
that Kuwait was losing about $200. 
million a month in lost oil revenues 
- equivalent to $2.4 billion a year 
at present prices. The good news, 
though, is that preliminary studies 
of a report due to be finalized in 
August show that there was no sub- 
stantial damage to oil reservoirs as 
a result of the fires. 

There are still some post-Hbera- 
tiori social problems that are caus- 
ing concern. “Trauma” is Very 
much a vogue word, and a special 
new ptychialric treatment. center is 
to be builr. The government also 
wants to remove all monuments 
and war memorials incorporating 
tanks, guns and other military 
equipment, which are said to be 
having a damaging effect on the 

minds of Kuwaitis who experi- 
enced thewar. 

In addition, the population mix is 
' said to be out of control. There are 
only 643,000 Kuwaitis out of a total 
population of 1.6 million, and the 
economically active population is 
only 22 percent, compared with 40 
percent in the developed world. The 
annual increase in the Kuwaiti pop- 
ulation is said to be 3.8 percent, one 
of the highest in tire world, and the 
present population is expected to 
double over the next 17 years, 
which should help to rectify the bal- 
ance between Kuwaitis and non- 

The government and the Nation- 
al Assembly are daily wrestling in 
public with major issues ranging 
from women's rights to whether to 
introduce charges for health ser- 
vices or to make the-public pay a 
more realistic price for electricity 
and water: 

. . AU. this is part of the new demo- 
cratic process, which is succeeding 
and is continuing to call for greater 
accountability from the government 
and civil servants. 

The role played by the Audit 
Bureau,, a public watchdog moni- 
toring the financial, economic and 
investment scene, is a direct result 
. of the changes for the better that 
have. taken place in Kuwait since 
the war. Says AbduIMobsen Taqi 
•Mudaffar, a leading local econo- 
. mist: “It is one of the many fruits of 
democracy and parliamentary life, 
which greatly protected public 
funds, and is an indication of the 
serious monitoring of the function- 
ing of financial institutions.” 

Kuwait in prewar years was not- 
ed for its casi no-Cadillac way of 
life in one of the most extensive 
welfare societies in the world, 
where every citizen was looked 
after by “Mother Kuwait” from the 
cradle to the grave. The present 
emphasis is on cutting out waste 
and creating greater social aware- 
ness and responsibility among 

Ali Abdul Al-Rashid Al-Bader, 
tiie new managing director of the 
Kuwait Investment Authority, cites 
an experimental fee of 2 Kuwaiti 
dinars ($7) for X-rays taken in a 
hospital. When they were free, the 
hospital used 800 X-ray films a 
day; when the fee was introduced, 
the figure dropped to 200. 

In another example, Mr. Bader 
says employees in his office would 
rather go to the doctor for a break 
than go to a coffee shop. “I have 
seen it with my own eyes," he says. 
“They go down to the doctor and 
get a packet of prescriptions, go to 
the pharmacy and dump most of the 
drugs on the way back to the office. 
It is crazy.” 

Sheikh Saud Al-Sabah. the min- 
ister of information, says his people 
are still recoiling from the shock of 
the war. Referring to health and 
other charges, however, he says: 
“We have to face reality now rather 
than be caught out in the future.” 

He adds dial the govemmem has lo 
look seriously at introducing tariffs 
and charges across the spectrum. 
“We have lo cut the fat and to look 
at ways and means of generating 
more income for this country 
through services - telephone, pow- 
er and water. Import taxes on luxu- 
ries are only 4 percent. Ninety per- 
cent of power is subsidized. You 
don’t have to pay a single cent 
whether you have just a headache 
and go to the doctor for a bagful of 
medicines or you need to have heart 

Sheikh Saud says people are 
demanding that the govemmem 
introduce charges. An unpublished 
report made recently by the Min- 
istry of Health to the Ministry' of 
Finance says that health charges 
must be introduced. Not everyone 
agrees, however. 

"Jasem L. Al-Sadoun. general 
manager of Alshall Economic Con- 
sultants. an outspoken critic of eco- 
nomic policy, suggests that such 
charges, particularly for the use of 
water and power, may not in them- 
selves raise much income for the 
govern menu but they may certainly 
help reduce demand and waste. 
“Bui if tiiis were to happen, it might 
lead to the cancellation of a project 
to increase production capacity. 

Continued on page 21 

- ••• ; ^ g| in : 

What’s Inside 

This advertising section was produced in its entirety by the supple- 
ments division of the International Herald Tribune's advertising depart- 
ment. • It was written by Michael Frenchman, John Roberts and Pamela 
Ann Smith, all writers based in Britain who specialize in Middle East- 
ern issues. 

Page 18 
Page i9 
Page 20 

Page 21 
Page 22 

Economy': Beyond Oil 
Interview: K1A Head Speaks 
Banking: New Markets 
Debt: The Settlement 
Health: Reforms Proposed 
Womem Gaining Ground 
POWs: Rays of Hope 
Borders: Good Fences 
Education: The Learning Curve 
Environment: Progress Made 
Rights: Citizenship Issues 

Page 23 
Page 24 

Page 25 

Defense: Offset Deals 
Construction: Booming 
Funds: Aid Projects 
OH: Up in Speed 
Profile: Oldest Banker 
P ri vati za tion: In the Works 
Aviation: New Directions 
Dnty Free: High-Flying 
Telecoms; More and 

Free Zone; On the Docket 




The success of the Refine ries R estoration Project stands as a proud achievement for 
the men anti women of FOSTER WHEELER They managed, monitored and supervised 
more than eight million work hours by. over 3,700 multi-national contractor and 
subcontractor personrieL-Thefr efforts, which .included procurement of more than US$ 
80 million of project materials, were essential to ensure that all three of Kuwait's 
refineries were efficiently and safety restored. . ; 


The largest of KNPC's three, refineries, Mina Al-Ahmadi suffered 
extensive damage as a result of the Iraqi invasion and occupation of 
Kuwait Full restoration of ail production unite and critical tankage at 
this key refinery which has capacity to refine 388,000 barrels of crude 
oil per day, was critical to support tire infrastructure and economy of 
Kuwait As a result of more than four million hours of work, all 
mechanical systems were completed in under one year from job 



Shuaiba, KNPC's original oil refinery, was commissioned in 1968 and 
expanded in 1978. At peak production Shuaiba Refinery has the 
capacity to refine Iffi^iOO barrels of crude oil daily, this was the most 
extensively damaged of KNPC's three refineries, requiring a near 
total rebuild of the crude, unit and nearby process units; pier and tank 
farm which sustained bomb and fire damage. Today, Shuaiba 
Refinery is once again producing and shipping refined products. 
Work was completed just teh months following contractor 
mobilization. - ’ 


As Kuwait's most modem refinery* Mina AbduHa has a capacity of 
200000 barrels of crude oil per day. During the Iraqi occupation of 
Kuwait, the Central Control Building, the nerve center of the Refinery, 
the shipping and inter-refinery pumphouses, the main piping 
sleeperway and small boat harbor were totally destroyed. The tank 
farm and coke handling system sustained severe damage. 
Contractors selected tb undertake the rebuilding atthe Mina AbduHa 
Refinery met the challenge* with mechanical systems on target for 
scheduled completion in March 1994. 

L rr ^J 

<L N P > 







In the restoration of the Mina Al-Ahmadi, Refinery, CPECC mobilized more than 1,200 
construction, engineering and support personnel. CPECC was supported by its sister 
company, SIN0PEC Engineering Incorporation (SEI) and 16 Kuwaiti and international 
specialty subcontractors. The repair work on eight process units was completed and 
the units returned to production within one year from contract award, with the first unit 
turned over in August 1933. 


DAEUM mobilized more than 850 personnel from Korea and the Philippines to 
accomplish the demolition, construction work and equipment overhaul at the Shuaiba 
Refinery. Twelve Kuwaiti subcontractors supported DAEUM with specially sendees in 
the refinery and on the oil pier. The first oil shipment from the restored refinery was 
made just ten months after this challenging work began. 


IMC0, a Kuwaiti Contractor, was awarded the contract for construction of electrical 
and instrument facilities at the Mina Abdulla Refinery. IMCO personnel worked half a 
million manhours performing construction of E&l work for pumping facilities, central 
control room, coke conveyor system involving miles of electrical and instrument 
cabling, and installation and hookup of sophisticated electrical and control systems. 

NOYES, of the Clough Engineering Group, one of Australia's foremost multidisciplinary 
engineering and construction organizations, was awarded the contract to rebuild the 
mechanical systems, including the coke handling structure and equipment the shipping 
and inter-refinery pumphouses and piping sleeperways atthe Mina Abdulla Refinery. 
NOYES utilized several local subcontractors. In all, more than 800,000 manhours of 
effort were needed to perform the mechanical reconstruction work. 


CBI won the contractto repair and replace damaged and destroyed storage tanks at ali 
three refineries. In all, seventeen tanks were replaced or required major repairs. Five 
Kuwaiti and Gulf region subcontractors provided important support services. CBI is a 
world leader in the design and construction of petroleum storage tanks and they have 
maintained a continuous presence in the Gulf for over fifty years. 


PACE was responsible for re-design of the enlarged Central Control Building at Mina 
Abdulla Refinery. PACE provided civil/structural design, engineering and drafting 
services which greatly aided the Refineries Restoration Project in meeting the 
scheduled completion date for this critically needed structure. Established in 1968. 
PACE has offices in Kuwait and Bahrain, and provides sendees in planning, 
architecture, engineering, landscaping, interior Resign, quantity surveying, land 
surveying, construction supervision and Savwwt; \ s : • .. ■ 


HETC0, a Kuwaiti Contractor, pravidBd cemp^ehd&l wavy ^custo® : ^ram^ 
and transportation services to KNPC for the Rtffirte'ries ReStdftitfolv Kb Is 

involved performing customs clearance for more than 1,800 air, sea and land shipments 
and transporting thousands of tons of materials from Kuwait's ports of entry to the three 
KNPC refineries. HETC0, established in 1947, provides heavy lift and transport services 
throughout the Gulf region. 







Page 18 




Beyond an Oil-Based Budget . 

As oil prices continue to faU, there « strong pressure on the government 
to cut spending and increase revenue from the sate of state-owned 

On rnSHons of Kuwaffi dinars} 






■ Budget 

Budget : 


Total Revenue 

' 870 


'' 2713 

: 22 

Oil Revenue 

700 . 

. 2000.3 

: 24)9 . 

21 . 

Non-Oil Revenue 



294 " .. 

• / '35 • 





- 25 ' ; 

Source: National B&& of Kuwait 

Investment Authority Head Outlines Changes 

Top Priority: Budget Reform 

n a country 
where a bottle of 
water costs more 
than gasoline, 
there is strong pressure 
from within and outside 
the government to trim 
spending and cut budget 
expenditures as oii prices 
continue to fail. 

Defense spending and 
civil-service salaries 
account for just under half 
of Kuwait's budget. Total 
expenditures were project- 
ed as 3.9 billion Kuwaiti 
dinars ($13.45 billion), 
while total revenues were 
put at 2.7 billion Kuwaiti 
dinars. Expenditures are 
only 60 million Kuwaiti 
dinars less than the previous 
year, but there was a 13 per- 
cent increase in wages and 

The government had orig- 
inally based its oil-revenue 
forecast for the 1993-94 
budget on $14 a barrel, but 
the price fell to SI 0.50 and. 
because of reported dis- 
counting. is now even less. 
Oil accounis for 90 percent 
of Kuwait's income. 

The locally produced Al- 
Shall Weekly Economic 
Report considered the situa- 
tion to be "alarming.” as 
half the budget allocations 
had been disbursed already 
at an average of S 1 .2 billion 
a month to the various min- 
istries and other institutions. 
According to the National 
Bank of Kuwait, however, 
if all revenues and expendi- 
tures are fully shown (sev- 
eral items are not revealed). 

the situation may not be so 
bad. It states in its last eco- 
nomic report for 1 993 that 
“the picture about the actu- 
al deficit will be much 
clearer. Investments and 
their returns do not figure in 
Kuwait's budget." 

Budget reform, a politi- 
cally sensitive issue, has 

spending is 
the subject of 

become an urgent task, 
according to Nasser Al- 
Rodhan. the finance minis- 
ter. who has appealed for 
cooperation in the National 
Assembly. Delaying mea- 
sures would inflict further 
“harm to the living stan- 
dards of citizens." he says. 

In local newspaper 
reports he added: "The rec- 
ommendations and reform 
measures require making 
sacrifices at all levels for 
the time being. They arc not 
easy to accept on the public 
level unless there is an hon- 
esty and openness with a 
future-oriented outlook and 
both the legislature and 
executive cooperate to 
ensure its success." 

Mr. Rodhan has said in a 
report to the National 

Untantt Jfounbatum 

If or ® be Stoancrmcnt of &tien ttS 

KFAS is a non-profit research funding organisation 
oriented towards the promotion of scientific and technical 
development in Kuwait and Arab countries. 

Financed by Kuwaiti shareholding companies which 
contribute 5% of their annual profit, KFAS is managed by 
a Board of Directors, Chaired by H.H. The Amir of Kuwait 
and six members nominated by the Kuwaiti shareholding 

Antral Him* of 

• Disseminating and developing scientific culture in 
society, and nurturing in it the appropriate scientific and 
technical skills. 

• Sponsoring Basic and Applied Research through grants 
in the fields of Narural Science, Engineering. Health, 
Food, Sociology, Economics, Islamic Medicine and 

■ Awarding grants and prizes in Kuwait and Arab 
countries to enhance and reward scientific excellence. 

• Contributing to the Arabic language library with 
specialized references and studies, and reviving Arabic 
as die medium for scientific siudv. 


Majallat AJ-Oloom is the only Arabic language edition of 
the internationally recognized and widely distributed 
scientific magazine: Scientific American. 

This monthly magazine is sponsored by KFAS and 
supervised by an Editorial Board headed by KFAS’ 
Director General. It aims at satisfying the scientific 
aspirations necessary for the sustained cultural 
development of Kuwait and the Arab world. 

Correspondence and subscription to: 

The Editor-in-Chief, 

P.O. Box 20856 - 13069 Safat, (State of Kuwait) 
Tel: (965) 2428186 - Fax: (965) 2403895 
Annual subscription is: KD 16/- or U.5. S56/- 
for students and scientific researchers: KD 12/- or $43/- 


“KFAS’ PRIZE 1994 

The Kuwait Prize was Instituted to Recognise 
Distinguished Accomplishments in the: 

Arts, Humanities and Sciences 

The Prizes for 1994 will be awarded in the following fields: 

• Basic Sciences in Molecular Biology 

• Applied Sciences in Nutrition and Related Diseases 

• Economics and Social Sciences in Development of 
Human Resources in the Arab World 

• Arts and Letters in Comparative Literature 

• Arabic and Islamic Scientific Heritage in Mining and 

Details and Conditions of Entry 

] . Two prizes are awarded in each category to recognise excellence in 
ihe Held of scientific research. One for Kuwaiti citizens and the other 
for citizens from other Arab countries. 

2. Each prize consists of a cash sum of KD 30.600 (USSI 00.00(1 
approx i. a Gold Medal, a KFAS Shield and a Ccruficaie of 

3. The Scientific research must have been published during ihe last ten 

Updated C.V„ a list of publications amt four copies of each of the 
published wanks should be received before 31/10/1994. and addressed to: 

Director General, Kuwait Foundation for 
the Advancement of Sciences “KFAS” 

PO Box 25263, Safat 13113, Kuwait 
Tel: (965) 242 9780 Fax: (965) 241 5365 

Assembly that an urgent 
start on reforms has to be 
made "instantly and without 
delay.” He has suggested 
there be cuts in the $3.89 
billion government wage 
bill “without affecting 
salaries.” and that more 
Kuwaitis be employed in 
the private sector, where 
nine out of 10 workers are 
expatriates. Other sugges- 
tions are to trim back 
unnecessary spending on 
services, review direct and 
indirect subsidies, impose 
fees on general services 
(health, education, power 
and water), create more 
opportunities for foreign 
investment and, finally, 
look at the introduction of 
some form of taxation. 

While there is a genuine, 
acknowledged need for 
Kuwait to lx: able to defend 
itself - more than $10 bil- 
lion has been earmarked for 
this purpose over the next 
10 years - there is strong 
pressure from many quar- 
ters to adopt a more realistic 

“Why are we spending 
billions of dollars on hard- 
ware and equipment when 
we know we cannot use 
them?" is a much-repeated 

Jasem K. Al-Sadoun, of 
Alshall Economic Consul- 
tants, feels very strongly 
about the issue. “Spending 
$1.5 billion this year on 
defense is ridiculous: we are 
nor a ‘Rambo’ state. Who 
are we going to defend our- 
selves from - the Russians, 
the Iraqis, the Saudis or the 
U.S.? We are in no position 
to create an active army of 
15.000 persons." He adds 
that acquiring military tech- 
nology is an obstacle to fur- 
ther development of the 
state: “It is just a waste of 

He suggests three alterna- 
tives: First, become like 
Costa Rica, which has no 
army, and build up the civil 
side of the economy; sec- 
ond, form a joint military' 
force with oilier Gulf coun- 
tries; third, adopt the Swiss 


II Abdul Rah- 
man Al -Rashid 
Al-Bader, who 
became manag- 
ing director of Uie Kuwait 
Investment Authority 
(KIA) last year, is intro- 
ducing sweeping changes. 
He is also tiding to clean 
up tbe image of one of the 
most powenul investment 
institutions in the world. 
In this exclusive inter- 
view, he outlines KIA’s 
strategy for the future 
and its interaction with 
the development of 
Kuwait's economy. 

Last year, KIA’s invest- 
ment portfolio grew by a 
sum more than the size of 
the budget deficit, which 
was nearly $4 billion, 
according to Mr. Bader, 
who would not give precise 
figures. Since the invasion 

‘ Banking sector a 
pillar of economy ' 

of Kuwait, the KIA has 
gone through difficult 
Times, and the government 
has withdrawn considerable 
sums from the KIA reserve 
funds and some of its 
investment operations. 

‘There are still with- 
drawals because of the bud- 
get deficit." says Mr. Bad- 
er. “but we have to be opti- 
mistic. I guess the govern- 
ment has to balance the 

al markets. Mr. Bader says: 
“The rate of return we are 
making, especially over the 
last two years, is yielding us 
a very handsome return. In 
marketable securities and 
bonds, we are exceeding the 
international indices for last 
year, so much so that in 
1993 the value of our 
investments increased suffi- 
ciently to more than cover 
all government withdrawals 
- much more, in fact, so wc 
are happy.” 

He warned, however, that 
the KIA must not become 
complacent because 1993 
was a good year: such 
returns will not necessarily 
continue, and the authority 
must choose the right 

When kind of investments 
are you concentrating on? 

We always try to keep a 
balanced portfolio. Our 
main emphasis is in mar- 
ketable securities, stocks 
and bonds, the liquid items. 
The second target is real 
estate and the third and last 
target is some kind of direct 
investment. But we have to 
be realistic and work within 
our management ability. At 
the moment we don't have 
it which is why we are con- 
centrating on* investments 
which do not need sensitive 
management. We do not 
want to take short risks; we 
want medium to long risks. 
We don’t want to get into 

Putting Kuwait’s Resources to Work 

The KIA was established in 1982 to take ovfer the 
Ministry of Finance’s investment department aud io 
invest the country’s surplus oii money. Fqbf’.yeart lat- 
er. it admitted to having-combined mads totaling 
billion in tbe Fund for Future Generations <|Q percent 
of aU oil revenue automatically goes into tbe-firad) arid ' 
tbe General Reserve Fund; these were UnoffieJally esti- ' 
mated to have risen to more than SDO.btHton prior to ■■ 
the Iraqi invasion. Now-, with greedy deleted fiusdfe it . 
is trying to build up its investment porttotio and divest 
itself of aonperforroing investments iss weft as&ti of 
its Kuwaiti interests. ' ■ 

budget, and without any 
increase in money to us. 
But we have good expecta- 
tions; because of the rate of 
return available in the mar- 
ket. we should be able to get 
back to our pre-invasion 
level of reserve funds in six 
or eight years' time.” 

This would seem to sug- 
gest that total funds under 
KIA management may be 
well over $100 billion just 
after the turn of the century. 

The KIA is now going 
through some important 
changes. These involve bal- 
ancing its portfolio, spread- 
ing its investments more 
widely and concentrating 
on achieving good medium- 
to long-term results. It is 
looking at such new fron- 
tiers for investment as 
South Asia and China. 

Due to the substantial 
improvement in inremaiion- 

things which need a lot of 
management expertise, a lot 
of monitoring, because we 
do not now have the capa- 
bility. especially for the 
international side. Our 
human resources are scarce. 

What is your present 
strategy within KIA and the 
Kuwait Investment Office irr 
London ? 

We have a special team, 
which reports to the KIA 
board this month, reviewing 
both die management and 
investment strategy. We are 
reviewing the whole organi- 
zation of KIA and KJO, try- 
ing to unify our strategy, 
unify the planning and uni- 
fy the monitoring - and of 
course the flexibility Lo 
make decisions, the flexi- 
bility to make investments. 

I expect we will kick in the 
new procedures about the 
middle of the year. Some 

steps have already been tak- 
en to enhance and improve 
the monitoring capability 
and the management struc- 
ture by merging the head of 
KIA and the KJO together 
with one chief executive 
officer. I hope we will com- 
plete the restructuring pro- 
gram by the end of the year. 

Has recent criticism of 
some of your operations 
been justified? 

We have been involved in 
some investments which 
turned sour. We are now 
taking steps to restructure 
them. I think that the gener- 
al atmosphere of criticism 
has been unfair to some 
extent. Like any other orga- 
nization, we are subject to 
the Audit Burean inspec- 
tion, which looks at what 
went wrong, where the loss- 
es are, not whether profits 
were made or if we have 
had a success story, so 
unfortunately public opin- 
ion was only exposed to the 
bad side, not the positive 

You have had some prob- 
lems in Spain. Germany 
and Switzerland . Are there 
any more “sour invest- 

Negative! We are in a 
better position today; we 
have no problem in 
Switzerland. The only area 
is Spain, but now we are in 
a sensitive area because of 
the legal aspects {court 
hearings]. But as the ulti- 
mate shareholder, we are 
helping Torres with its 
restructuring plan, and 
hopefully we will see some 
benefit for the shareholders. 

Have you been taking 
steps to clean up the orga- 

I wouldn’t say “clean 
up,” but we had some 
investments which had 
some problems. We have 
taken steps to restructure 
them, and some of the indi- 
viduals who were involved 
are no longer with us. 

The World Bank report 
said basically : "Sell every- 
thing." Will you? 

The World Bank was 
talking about the domestic 
operation and recommend- 
ed that the private sector 
should be encouraged to be 
more involved in the local 
economy. That is true, and 
we wholeheartedly agree. * 
The government is taking 
very serious steps to imple- 
ment these recommenda- 
tions. When we talk about 
privatization, we talk about 
two elements. The first is 
the general public utilities, 
which are telecommunica- 
tions, power generation, 
electricity grids and water, 
Kuwait Airways and some 
transportation systems. This . 
already started more than a 
year ago. with telecommu- 
nications. and the new coro^ 
pany is expected to be 
announced by the end of the 

.first quarter with a target for 
it to take over by. the end of 
the year. This will be the 
first in the utility sector. 
Following - that,- we will see 
what we can learn from this 
.operation; if there were any 
mistakes, can we do it better 
and. so on. The next , step 
will be to pass a new law to 
facilitate privatization of 
other operations and to set 
up' a new privatization 

shares before we can think 
df privatizing them- 

What banking merger* 

are taking place? 

Kuwait Real Estate Ban* 
and the Industrial Bank are 
now in the technical process 
of merging. Kuwait Invest- 
ment Company and Kuwait 
Foreign Trading Contract- 
ing & Investment Coiiipanv 
are approaching me final 
steps of a merger. There are 

“We have good c.\ pccta- 
tions. Because of the rare 
qf return a vailable, n't* 
should get track to our 
preinvasion level of 
reserve funds in six or 
eight yeans ’ time. 

office within the - Ministry 
of Finance; which may take 
over those operations tem- 
porarily. The second step 
will be to privatize the com- 
panies owned by the gov- 
ernment through KIA in the 
local maiket. This should be 
much easier. The govern- 
ment owns about 60 com- 
panies, of which 40 are list- 
ed on the stock exchange. 
We own a few other shares 
here and there. In some 
companies, we own more 
than 50 percent^ in others 
less than I percent. Our 
average holding is about 25 
percent, and our total 
investment in the local mar- 
ket is around - 1 billion 
Kuwaiti dinars [$3.45 bil- 
lion]. What is going, to 
make it easier for us is that , 
originally those companies . 
were in the private. sector. 
The government only went' 
into thdm after the market 
crash of the early- 1 980s, so 
we should not have prob- 
lems in putting them back 
in the hands' of the private., 
sector. This .will take, three 
to five years but will, of 
course; depend totally on 
the level of activity and the 
ability of the capital market 
to digest those holdings. 

Do you see any prob- 
lems? You have to deal with 
a few lame ducks. 

I don’t think we have any - 
problems. We have a few 
companies " that need 
restructuring, and that is 
being done now — . restruc- 
turing the investment com- 
panies. The banking sector 
is already being restructured 
after the. government took 
over the massive outstandt . 
ing debts following the war!. 
Now we have to wait for 
the 1993 results, because 

1992 was only one . year, 
after the war. We expect 

1 993 to be good and 1 994 
to be better, which win 
affect the value of the 

also the Kuwait Food Com- 
pany and the Kuwait Flour 
Mills Co. There are talks 
going on between various 
commercial banks so that 
they can merge 
capital: the Burgan Bank 
and Bank of Kuwait and the 
Middle East, Commercial 
Bank of Kuwait and Aiuhfi 
. Bank. They have to get 
their balance sheets out. and 
there is the question of per- 
sonalities* too. but the seri- 
ousness of intent to merge 
is there, especially in the 
banks we own. Sharehold- 
ers are beginning to realize 
that if they continue as they 
are, the yield will be mod- 
est. so mergers, economies 
of scale and cutting down 
expenses is important. 
There will always be per- 
sonalities involved. but at 
the. end of the day. share- 
■ holders want money, and it 
is they who decide. 

• As fur as KIA is ctm- 
. earned, have you been try- 
ing to appear very, opti - . 
niisric about the fiiture ? . 

• In this business you have" 
to be optimistic, otherwise, 
you are dead, and you may 
as well close up shop and 
go home. Look at the coun- 
try: GNP is going at a good 
rate; the banking sector, 
which is a pillar of the 
economy, is being restruc- 
tured; •corporation earnings ~ 
are increasing; the stock 
market daily trading even 
. exceeds preinyasion vol- - 
ume; the oil industry is back 
to preinvasion levels - by 
the middle of next year the 
oil-refining sector, which hr 
very important, will be up 
to preinvasioii levels! too. 
On the macroeconomic 
Side, we have 10 percent of 
all the's crude oil 
reserves below our feet and 
on top only about 1 million 
Kuwaitis, so wtiai could go 
wrong? • 







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Page 19 


Sespite many : 
pessimistic ex- 
pectations three 


uon war was coming - to 
air end, Kuwaitis banks 
have iritfastood the crisis 
and are how" be ginning to 
show profitable returns as 
well. StiHj there -are. 
doubts about, where. *hi« 
sector’s new business will 
come from; without a 
resurgence of Jrasaness 
confidence at home^ pros- 
pects remain uncertain. 

The outstanding success 
story is,. undoubtedly,, the 
National Bank of Kuwait. 
(NBK), the only, one of 
Kuwait’s six comiuercial . 
banks to have withstood the 

international freeze on 
Kuwaiti banking assets at : 
the time of the Iraqi inva- 
sion. The largest of the six, . 
it anrwunced. net profits of 
52 zhiQion Kuwaiti dinars 
($175 tniliion) last year, up - 
22.4 percent over the 423 
mill ion Kuwaiti dinars 
recorded at the end of 1992. 
Alone among the banks, it 
has^ retained its presence in 
international markets and is 
expanding its portfolio 
management facilities- a 
natural outlet for a bank that 
has long cultivated its rela- 
tionships with Kuwait's ' 
wealthy merchant families 
and. which can now claim 
the highest respect in the" 
world’s money markets. 

NBK's total assets grew 
by 28.4 percent,, to, 3.3 bil- 
lion Kuwaiti dinars at the . 
end of December 1993, ‘ 
while customers’ deposits 
rose . 13.6 percent, to 1.95 
billion Kuwaiti dinars. Its 
improved profits perfor- 
mance was due to increased 
efficiency., at management 
level, strong foreign-’ 
exchange earnings and 
good returns front its over- 
seas operations. : 

Its capital -to-assets ratio . 
amounted to juk under 15.9 
percent, nearly, double the .. 
figure, set by the “central 
bankers’ bank,” the Bank 

for International Settle- 
ments in Basel' Switzer- 
land. .' 

Altogether, ibe . bauk 
holds more than two-fifths 
of -Kuwait’s total bank 
deposits. It is currently 
expanding its international 
network by opening a 
branch in Vietnam, which 
will specialize in bilateral 
trade between that country 
and Kuwait In December 
1992, it opened a new sub- 
sidiary, National Bank of 
Kuwait ' International, in 
London to supplement its ' 
Worldwide? network, which 
includes other operations in 
New York!, Pans, Geneva, 
Beirut Bahrain and Singa- 
pore... '• 

In the sector as a whole, 
the . combined assets of the 
commercial banks, and of 


has opened 
a branch 
in Vietnam 

three other specialized 
banks amounted to 8.5 bil- 
lion Kuwaiti dinars at the 
end of October 1993, slight- 
ly less than the 8.9 billion 
Kuwaiti dinars reported a 
year earlier. While holdings 
of domestic investments, 
such as Treasury bills, 
shares and bonds, rose dur- 
ing September-October, and 
foreign assets staged a 5 
percent recovery, rising to 
1.5. billion Kuwaiti dinars, 
the sector has been handi- 
capped by the effects of bad 
debts, amounting to about 
$19 billion, left over from 
the crash of the Kuwaiti 
stock market in 1982 and by 
die commercial losses 
resulting from the Iraqi 
occupation. However, Gulf 
Bank reported a 22.percent 

^ Bokince Sh^f for Banks • 

ppmmarefcri banks are bouncing back from frie effects of the 
capital outflows from the country has receded. 

15911992 1993 1991-92 82 Dec. 

to March 93 March 

/- • -. ; • 8413 ' 8360 

1747 1325 

[■ Sector ’* 1.127 ' 1324 

• 5207 5359 ’ 
297- '303 ' 
■ ' " 8413' 8380 

' ; 786 786 

- 0.6 
-24. Y 
+ 2.0 


- 12.0 





+ 2.2 


rise in income at the end of 
1993 to 18.2 million 
Kuwaiti dinars, with assets 
up 7 percent to 1.25 billion 
Kuwaiti dinars. B organ 
Bank. is also reported to 
have achieved a return on* 
assets of 1.39 percent, giv- 
ing it number-two status 
among Kuwaiti banks. 
Deposits rose 30 percent 
last year over the J 992 fig- 
ure, while cash and liquid 
assets rose 9.4 percent 

Government deposits in 
the banking sector almost 
halved, from. 914 million 
Kuwaiti dinars at the end of 
December 1991 to 591.5 
million Kuwaiti dinars at 
the end of September 1993. 
This figure could decline 
further this year as Kuwait 
begins to feel the full effect 
of a fall in international oil 
prices and continues to trim 
spending to curb its deficit. 

On a more positive note, 
the Centra] Bank has been 
cutting the discount rates as 
it becomes clear that the 
threat of capital outflows 
from the country has reced- 
ed. The move also reflects 
the decline in international 
interest rates and is expect- 
ed to encourage local 
depositors to invest their 
funds in medium- and 
longer-term outlets rather 
than leave them in short- 
term accounts. By the end 
of November, the discount 
rate had fallen to 5.75 per- 
cent, compared with 7.5 
percent a year ago. 

Permission from the Cen- 

tral Bank for other Kuwaiti 
financial institutions, 
including the Bank of 
Bahrain and Kuwait (BBIO, 
Gulf Bank and Burgan 
Bank, as well as NBK, to 
engage in spot and forward 
foreign-exchange transac- 
tions in foreign currencies 
on their own accounts (as 
well as for their clients) 
may also help improve per- 
formance in 1994. Banks in 
Kuwait were forbidden to 
engage in such activities in 
1991 to ensure the stability 
of the financial system in 
the immediate aftermath of 
the Gulf War. *Tt is good 
news for the Kuwaiti banks 
because it adds more flexi- 
bility and depth to the mar- 
ket," says one economist 

Meanwhile, Kuwaiti 
banks are still being encour- 
aged to merge to help fur- 
ther rationalize the sector 
following the Iraqi invasion 
and the losses stemming 
from the stock market 
crash. The governor of the 
Central Bank, Sheikh 
Salem Abdulaziz AlSabah. 
told a conference in Kuwait 
in November. M I believe 
that [the] merger of ban king 
and financial institutions is 
an urgent necessity as it will 
achieve the ultimate goal of 
any commercial activity, 
[which is to] boost profits." 

The governor is also on 
record as favoring a greater 
role for foreign investors in 
the banking system. In 
December, he told reporters 
in Kuwait that he advocated 

Debt Resettlement Program: 
Both Sides Wait and See 

allowing overseas financial 
institutions the right to 
acquire shareholdings in 
local commercial banks, a 
measure that would neces- 
sitate new legislation to 
overturn the current ban on 
such investment in the 
banking sector. Foreign 
stakes of up to 40 percent 
should be permitted, he sug- 
gested, to enable Kuwaiti 
institutions to benefit from 
overseas institutions' expe- 
rience in worldwide mar- 
kets. Also under considera- 
tion is up to 49 percent 
ownership of Kuwaiti banks 
by Gulf Cooperation Coun- 
cil nationals. This could 
increase the level of exper- 
tise at Kuwaiti banks. 

The international 

Investor, a new Kuwait- 
based institution specializ- 
ing in Islamic banking, is, in 
contrast to GIB. increasing 
its focus on Europe. Spe- 
cializing in private banking 
for individuals with a net 
worth of between $1 mil- 
lion and S3 million, as well 
as placements for institu- 
tional investors, ii has 
expanded its operations in 
London and is planning to 
open an asset-management 
unit in Switzerland. 

The government is look- 
ing to liberalize the econo- 
my further by reducing its 
involvement in the domes- 
tic economy. Privatization 
is under active considera- 
tion, and real progress in 
expected in 1994. 

Pamela Ann Smith 

ppBBga ix months after 
the passage of a 
debt settlement 
program, Kuwaitis are 
still uncertain about how 
it will be implemented 
and who wiD have to pay. 
While the settlement, 
which was made neces- 
sary by the huge losses 
stemming from the Iraqi 
occupation of 1990-91. has 
already helped the coun- 
try’s banking and finan- 
cial sector to recover, the 
economy is still in the dol- 
drums pending its com- 

The program covers some 
S20 billion in corporate and 
individual debt accrued dur- 
ing the occupation and as a 
consequence of the crash of 
the Kuwaiti stock market - 
the Suq al-Manakh - in 
19S2. In late 1992. the Cen- 
tral Bank arranged to buy 
almost all the debt from the 
country's commercial 
banks and other financial 
institutions in return for 20- 
year bonds provided by the 
government. Since then, 
however, the country's new 
parliament has taken on the 
task of deciding the terms 
of repayment. 

Under the legislation 
passed by parliamentarians 
at the end of August, the 
country's 9.546 corporate 
and individual borrowers 
were given six months to 
choose one of two options 
for repayment. The first 
called for repayments to be 
made within two years in 
return for scaled reductions 
in the amount owed. 

The smallest debtors, for 
example, owing less than 
50.000 Kuwaiti dinars 
($168,0001 would be 
required to pay back only 
25 percent; those owing 
more than 500,000 Kuwaiti 
dinars, however, are to be 
assessed for 45 percent of 
the sums due. Those owing 
amounts between these two 
levels would have to pay 
between 30 percent and 40 
percent of their outstanding 
debts. The second option 
allowed borrowers to repay 

their debts over a period of 
up to 12 years, but no 
reductions would be 

Completion of the repay- 
ment program, it was 
argued, would allow the 
economy to recover insofar 
an debtors would then know 
their financial positions and 
be able to invest and con- 
sume. Since the government 
could also then start to 
redeem its bonds held with 
the banks, commercial bank 
assets could be freed and 
placed in instruments offer- 
ing more advantageous 
interest rates than those cur- 
rently on offer for the 

Since the bill's passage 
and ratification by the Emir 
in early September, little 
progress has been made. In 
particular, debtors have 
almost totally failed to pro- 
duce the financial stale- 

12% of 

for 92% 
of debt 

menis that many parliamen- 
tarians consider a necessary 
first stage. Many of the 
debtors. Tn turn, are waiting 
to see exactly what will be 
demanded of them before 
submitting such statements. 

A more intractable prob- 
lem, however, surrounds 
the issue of whether some 
debtors should be given 
favorable treatment at the 
expense of others. Of the 
9,546 involved, just 1 2 per- 
cent. or 1.126. account for 
92 percent of the $20 billion 
due. They are widely 
believed to include some of 
the country's wealthiest cit- 
izens, many of whom have 
large assets abroad, as well 
as members of the ruling 
family. The remaining 

8.420 debtors, representing 
about 88 percent, account 
for only 8 percent of the 

While many parliamen- 
tarians say that the scaled 
reductions for the smaller 
debtors are fair and that the 
elimination of their debts 
from the overall amount 
due would free up the sys- 
tem and make the larger 
repayments more manage- 
able - and less costly in 
bureaucratic terms to collect 
- some Kuwaitis think that 
all debtors should be treat- 
ed equally. 

would rather have the 
same treatment for all." 
commented the Central 
Bank governor. Sheikh 
Salem Abdelaziz Al-Sabah. 
last May. 

The governor has also 
rejected suggestions from 
some parliamentarians that 
those debtors failing to pro- 
vide financial statements 
should be named publicly. 
To do so. Sheikh Salem 
pointed out, would be to 
violate laws governing 
banking confidentiality, a 
move, he added, that would 
be particularly unenlight- 
ened given that many other 
countries were tightening 
up such regulations. 

Others argue that the 
issue of repayments is a 
highly political one and that 
some parliamentarians are 
seeking to gain the support 
of their constituents at a 
time when many are unhap- 
py with tales of past corrup- 
tion in Kuwait's overseas 
investments and with the 
lock of economic opportu- 
nities at home. They point 
out, too, that some debts 
held outside the banks, such 
as consumer car loans 
incurred before the Iraqi 
invasion, are not covered by 
the plan. 

Still others, including 
many bankers and business- 
people, wonder whether the 
government will offer 
assurances that the larger 
and more influential debtors 
will receive the same scruti- 
ny as those who owe less. 


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Page 20 




Women m the KuwdH Work Fo?ee t: 

White women moke up pne4hW of the tot^ Kuwdfi work face, \h&/ 
represent only one4iffh of Kuwaiti workers In fhe pr^^aectof. where 
nfiie workers out of 10 are expatriates. : “ " ; : - ‘ ■ •; ' „ . x . 









: 1.375 




: "131.547; 

140.246 • 


■ 399,920... 


Some: If&'PiMc Authority ftirCMtMoaa^tha- 

Women Gain Visibility, But Not Yet the Vote 

Health Services Strive 
For Greater Efficiency 


ii wait's health service prob- 
lems, not surprisingly, now 
reflect those of the developed 
rather than the developing 
world. Finance and efficiency, rather 
than the basic level of health care, are 
now in question. 

Constraints on the emirate's finances 
make it almost certain that health care will 
be reformed in the near future. At present, 
health and education are provided free in 
Kuwait to all the emirate's citizens and reg- 
istered residents. Although the provision of 

these services has come in 

for criticism, it seems unlike- 
ly that the government will 
move rapidly to wholesale 
privatization of health care 

Officially, the health ser- 
vice is currently ‘in a stage 
of assessment and review.” 

The Ministry of Health is 
hoping to improve medical 
efficiency, reduce costs and 
decrease dependence on for- 
eign medical personnel. In 
recent months, however. 

officials have stressed that 

any moves either to intro- 
duce charges for basic services or to priva- 
tize elements of Kuwaiti health care will be 
accompanied by the introduction of a com- 
prehensive health insurance program. 

Last September, Public Health Minister 
Abdul Wahab Suleyman Al-Fawzan was 
quoted as saying a proposal to impose nom- 
inal health care charges on both Kuwaitis 
and non-Kuwaitis would be presented in 
the near future to the National Assembly. 
At present, public health revenues amount 
to barely 1 percent of costs. 

Such ideas have come in for criticism in 
the National Assembly. A period of reflec- 
tion is therefore expected before any firm 
proposals are put forward. 

There may, however, be some faster 
action on private-sector involvement. 
Finance Ministry officials have raised the 
possibility of putting hospital management 
contracts out to tender. This would be an 
alternative to the outright sale of hospitals 
to the private sector, but would leave open 
the option of a sell-off. 

Public health 



to 1 percent 

of costs 

The principle of tendered management is 
thought particularly suitable for small clin- 
ics. although in thie meantime the public- 
health ministry has continued its own pub- 
licly funded programs. 

In November, it announced it had 
received final design plans for a new $15 
million dental complex, to contain no less 
than 132 specialized clinics, next to the 
Amiri Hospital. 

The reform debate is taking place against 
a background that is radically different 
from that of only a decade or two ago. The 
country enjoys a high stan- 
dard of living that is reflected 
in a balanced diet which, in 
preinvasion days, averaged 
out at more than 3,100 calo- 
ries per person per day - as 
good an average as in Britain 
or the Nordic countries. 
Between 1970 and 1988, 
average life expectancy rose 
steadily from 66 years to 74 
years, one of the longest in 
the world. Although the data 
is still coming in. there is no 
reason to doubt that such lev- 

els are being maintained in 

postinvasion Kuwait. 

The Iraqi occupation was accompanied 
by the looting of much of the advanced 
medical equipment in the country's hospi- 
tals and clinics, many of which were built 
during a sustained period of health service 
expansion between 1975 and 1985 as the 
Kuwaiti government used its oil revenues 
for extensive health investment. Thus one 
of the first projects that Kuwait had to 
undertake following its liberation was the 
cleaning and sanitizing of its medical facil- 
ities. Within a year of liberation, about 90 
percent of the country’s clinics, hospitals 
and health centers were again operational. 

An early priority was the reopening of 
the medical test center where incoming 
workers are tested for infectious diseases 
such as AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. 
Immigrant workers - defined as laborers 
coming for more than three months, not 
transient business visitors - are compulso- 
rily tested, and those found to have AIDS 
or tuberculosis are routinely deported. 

John Roberts 

he women of 
Kuwait have 
carved out a 
niche for them- 
selves in the history of the 
Gulf. They have achieved 
success and recognition 
across a wide spectrum, 
from the academic and 
business worlds to diplo- 
macy and public service. 
There are women in the 
police force, and a few 
have just joined the army. 

According to Hamad 
Munawar, assistant under- 
secretary at the Ministry of 
Planning, Kuwaiti women 
make up one-third of the 
total Kuwaiti work force. 
Many have reached the top 
in their chosen careers; sev- 
eral have received interna- 
tional recognition - but 
women do not have the 

Kuwait now has a 
woman ambassador 

right to vote. A fierce public 
debate has developed 
recently over this issue, 
intensified by the National 
Assembly’s decision to 
increase the franchise by 
including naturalized 
Kuwaitis in the next elec- 

When Iraqi troops first 
occupied Kuwait in 1990, it 
was women who started the 
resistance movements. 
Women produced, printed 
and distributed pamphlets 
and generally harassed the 
occupying forces; they 
secretly helped to took after 
hundreds of foreigners 
trapped in their homes. 
Some women, like Asrar 
Al-Qabandi, 32, paid for 
their heroism with their 
lives and were brutally tor- 
tured and shot. 

Kuwait now has its first 
woman ambassador as well 
as its first female university 
rector - the only such pest 
to be held by a woman in 
the Gulf. Professor Rasha 
Al-Sabah, a leading expo- 
nent of women’s rights, was 
last year appointed under- 
secretary at ihe Ministry of 
Higher Education. Siham 
Rezooki has been made 
deputy chairman and man- 
aging director of the Kuwait 
Petroleum Company, and 
Fatima Hussein is the only 
woman editor of a Kuwaiti 
daily newspaper. Last 
December, Nabila Al-Mulla 
was appointed nonresident 
ambassador to Zimbabwe 

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Kuwait Real Estate Investment Consortium 

after serving for more than 

10 years as a member of 
Kuwait’s permanent mis- 
sion to the United Nations. 
Fayzah Al-Kharafi, who 
was chosen “Woman of the 
Year 1993” by the Saudi 
magazine AJ-Majailah, was 
appointed rector of Kuwait 
University last year. . 

Another woman to be 
internationally honored is 
Sara Akbar, a petroleum 
engineer working for 
Kuwait Oil Company. She 
helped put out the blazing 

011 wells after the liberation 
of Kuwait in February 1991 
and received a United 
Nations award at the Inter- 
national Environment Day 
festival in Beijing. 

Professor Rasha, who 
was also named “Woman of 
the Year 1993” by the 
British publishers of the 
“International Women’s 
Who’s Who,” has been a 
prime mover in the recogni- 
tion of women, and she is 
particularly angry about 
disenfranchisement. “When 
you think that some of us 
are descended from families 
that have lived here for sev- 
eral generations, it is ridicu- 
lous that we can’t have the 
vote when they give it to 
naturalized citizens. It real- 
ly hurts," says Professor 
Rasha, the great-grand- 
daughter of Mubarrak A1 
Kabir, known as Mubarrak 
the Great, the seventh ruler 
of Kuwait between 1915 
and 1917. She was vice rec- 
tor of communications and 
information at the Universi- 
ty of Kuwait from 1985 
until late 1991. when she 

As an ambitious academ- 
ic, she had felt discriminat- 
ed against by the university 
administration in the 1980s 
- because - she was a 
woman, although she does 
not like to dwell on this 
aspect, and because of her 
family’s association with 
the ruling house of Kuwait. 
“In some ways my name 
has been my biggest handi- 
cap,” she once told an inter- 

Nevertheless, her persis- 
tence in the cause of feml- 

Professor Rasha Al-Sabah, 
a leading voice in women's 

nism has shone like a bea- 
con for others in Kuwait. 
“You have to remember 
that in Kuwait women have 
always run the show, even 
in the days before oiLWben 
the men were trading in 

pearls and went away, it 
was the women who stayed 
at home, who tried to sup- 
plement the family income 
and, in fact, controlled the 
purse strings,” she says. 
“As individuals, they had 
always had a role to play” 
The first schools attended 
by giris opened in 1937,-but 
it was not until the 1950s 
that the first . Kuwaiti 
women went out and sought 
employment. “Now we are 
everywhere, - . . not ; only 
throughout die civil service 
but. in the private sector as 
well,” she says. “We are nor 
like the women in other 
Arab and Gulf states. We 
drive' cars, we travel alone 
and we go abroad on. our 
own. If the women of this 
country stopped working, 
the '.government would 
come to a stop. There are 
women all oyer the place, 
and not just in higb places/’ 
Asked why women are 
succeeding as professionals, 
she explains . that unlike 
men, women are not side- 
tracked during their school- 
ing and higher education. 
“If you are a young man 
aged 16 or 17,you can have 
a car. you go out and about 
and you can meet with your 
cronies. Giris don’t do that 
here. They are dedicated to 
their schooling and studies. 
They don’t "follow these 
kinds of distractions” . 

In her fight for greater 
political rights, she points, 
out that the Enin' and the 
Crown Prince had both giv- 
en signals about the 
“enhancement of the role of 
women and a desire to give 
them fuller participation in. 

public life." She adds thai 
the Emir had positively 
affirmed the extension ot 
voting rights to women. But 
since the matter was firs 
raised in the National 
Assembly inJ97l • « 
been repeatedly refereed 
back for further discussion- 

“We are sure,” says Pro- 
fessor Rasha, “that ius the 

wish of the government to 

grant full political rights, 
but it is continuously being . 
blocked by parliament/’ 

Not everyone is in favor 
of giving the vote to 
women. “Even some 
women themselves don t 
want the vote.” says Profes- 
sor Rasha. A recent survey 
on women's suffrage at the 
University Qf Kuwait 
revealed that 58 percent 
said “No” to granting 
women political rights, with 
only 24 percent responding 

“Perhaps as many as 70 
percent of women are in. 
fact against the vote, ’ 
admits Professor Rasha. 
One reason, which is being 
discussed fairly openly, is. 
the spread of Islamic funda- 
mentalism, whose propo- 
nents are finding more sym- 
pathy among the female 

As one observer explains: 
“While women may not get 
the vote in the immediate 
future, there is the risk that 
when they do, we might 
end-up with a substantial 
number of Islamic delegates . 
in the National Assembly, 
which could lead to signifi- 
cant changes in the future of 
this country/’ 


Growing Support for POW Efforts 

here has been 
no slackening 
in Kuwait’s di- 
plomatic and 
other efforts to force Iraq 
to return more than 600 
missing persons and pris- 
oners of war taken during 
the invasion and occupa- 
tion of Kuwait. Support 
for Kuwait’s demands has 

Missing persons 
and POWs number • 
over 600 

been coming from the 
United Nations, the Euro- 
pean Parliament, the 
allied powers who took 
part in the Gulf War and 
many other countries. 
U.S. President Bill Clinton 
has recently taken a direct 
interest, and the Pope has 
also been approached. 

Dr. Ibrahim M. Al-Sha- 
heen, of the National Com- 
mittee for Missing Persons 
and Prisoner of War Affairs 
(NCMPA). one of the main 
coordinating bodies seeking 
information about the miss- 
ing persons, says Kuwait 
has handed files and docu- 
mentation over to the Inter- 
national Red Cross, which 
has passed them on to the 
government of Iraq - with- 
out result. 

“The Iraqis refuse to give 
any indication, or answer 
any questions about missing 
persons. Everything is one- 
sided.” says Dr. Shaheen. 
The number of missing per- 
sons and POWs is now put 
at 625 Kuwaitis, plus eight 
persons from Saudi Arabia 
and a small number of oth- 
er Arab and non-Arab 
nationals who were caught 
up in the conflict 

The European Parliament 
has wrinen to Kuwait 
promising support and con- 
firming its resolution 
demanding Iraq to release 
alt people arrested during 
the occupation without 

delay. It also points to 
Amnesty International’s 
recent report, which has 
identified 140 persons, 129 
of whom are Kuwaitis, 
whose fate is unknown 
since they were arrested by 
Iraqis. . • 1 • 

Kuwait has continued to 
maintain pressure on Iraq, 
with almost universal sup- 
port. The Arab League 
recently sent a special 
envoy to Baghdad. King 
Hassan of Morocco has 
intervened and the president 
of the Non-Aligned Nations 
has promised to help, as 
have other leaders and 
statesmen from around the 

In January. Sheikh Salem 
Al-Sabah. a former deputy 
prime minister and foreign 
minister who heads the 
NCMPA, became the first 
senior Kuwaiti official to 
meet Pope John Paul XI 
since bilateral relations 
were established with the 
Vatican. Afterward, the 
Vatican pledged to do its 
utmost to secure the release 
of the detained Kuwaitis 
and to continue to demand 
Iraq’s compliance with UN 

Earlier this months fol- 
lowing a visit by an Arab : 
League delegate to Bagh- 
dad, a report by the league’s * 
secretary-general, Esmat 
Abdel Megu id was sent to 
Duaij Al-Aniz, director- 
general of NCMPA, who 
said after a preliminary 
study that Iraqi officials had 
indicated “a hope toward 
solving the POW and miss- 
ing persons issue.” Now 
and then, local newspapers 
in Kuwait report alleged 
sightings of Kuwaitis in 
Iraqi prisons. In one of the 
most recent, an escaped 
Iraqi claimed be had seep 
five Kuwaitis, including a 
12-year-old boy. in Al- 
Rashid prison. Last Octo- 
ber, three Swedish commu- 
nications engineers released 
from detention in Iraq also 

said they had seen and spo- 
ken with a number of 
Kuwaitis among- 750 . 
inmates in the Basra prison- 
er-of-war compound where- 
they had been held: 

Such reports inevitably 
raise the hopes of the 
Kuwaitis. “We simply have 
to keep up the pressure. We 

taons laid down were that 
we had to inform them 
which prisons we wanted to 
inspect, only one visit was 
allowed and our representa- 
tive had to be accompanied 
by an Iraqi official No 
meetings with prisoners on 
their own ‘ would be 
allowed.” 1 

It is a common misconception that the- POWs were 
returned by Iraq after the end of the war. • 

cannot let go.” says Dr. 
Shaheen. He finds it sur- 
prising that there are still 
many countries unaware of 
the situation xegarding the 
missinri persons. . V ; , /./.■ 
Tains: TThete is a; 
11 ./ PpWs, " were 
to us by JGraq after 
s-fire, and we have 
had to explain to many peo- ' 
pie that, this ..was not the. 
case.” • . "• '• 

At one point last year,; it 
seemed as if firaq*s>pbshicin - 
might have changed slight/ 
ly. Tari Aziz, Saddam Hus- : 
sein’s deputy prime minis- 
ter, had told the United 
Nations that Kuwait could 
inspect Iraqi prisons provid- 
ed they abided by certain 
conditions. “These were, of 
course, totally impractical 
and quite ridiculous,”" says 
Dr. Shaheen /“The condi- 

-■ Each -time the* question 
about missing persons is . 
posed: to Iraq's.. Saddam 
Hussem, the answer, if there ; 
is one, is always the same: 

1 ’There, are no Kuwaitis in 
my prisons”. r : . 

. . There- is, of course, a •• 
..more sinister, aspect of this 
repeated reply, - which goes 
back, to one of Ithe reasons 
•for the original invasion of . 
Kuwait. Iraq has always ' 
maintained mat Kuwait is 
historically - part of Iraq. 

- After the-invaston, Kuwait 
was proclaimed' fte f 9 th , 
province of Iraq, and Sad- 
dam Hussein still holds this 
view. Therefore, when be 
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in his prisons, it is because - 
he regards them as having 
come from ., the 19th . 
province, and thus, they are 
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Page 21 


Demarcation of the International Boundary Between the Republic of Iraq and the State of Kuwait 

0 he war to liber- 
ate Kuwait 
gave common 
- currency to a 

word that was previo usly 

'scarcely used ontside the 
confines of the'engineer- 
Ing; and construction 
. industries: berms. These 
were the giant sand barri- 
ers constructed by the 
.Iraqis to deter the allies. 
Now,- their fortunes 
reversed, it is the Kuwait- 
is who are using the term. 

. Along some 200 kilome- 
ters (125 miles) of previ- 
ously open frontier with 
Iraq,. Kuwait is digging out 
a trench three meters deep 
■ and^ve meters wide - and 
is using the excavated sand 
tobuild a five -me ter berm 
along the bonier. 

The Work was begun last 
;JimeV financed in part by 
• voluntary donations. On 
various- occasions, particu- 

'Iraqi civilians have 
protested the trench 

•larty'in November, work 
was disrupted as hundreds 
of Iraqi civilians crossed 
j into Xu waif to ‘ protest 
-gainst die trench, which is 
being used as a backstop to 
the new international fron- 
tier decided and demarcat- 
ied by a special UN com- 

The frontier is conorover- 
si af for several reasons. 
First, it represents a border 
.that Iraq apparently does 
not believe should exist at 
all. It is not yet clear that 
Baghdad has totally aban- 
- doned its claims to. Kuwait; 
certainly <- the Kuwaiti 
authorities believe that Iraq 
cannot be trusted to abide 
by UN Security Council 
= resolutions, which set out 
Iraqi acceptance of 
’Kuwait's ; existence as a 
sovereign, state. 

. Second, there is the ques- 
‘ tion of where the boundary 
should lie. At present, this- 
is the most volatile Issue, 
and It remains a potential 
; trigger for renewed'confiicL 
- In colonial times, when Iraq 
. was a British mandate , ana 
London exercised consader- . 
able powers n both cdun- 
, tries, exchanges of notes in 
1923 : anS 1932 secured 
Iraqi acceptance in prihci- 
i pic of the delimitation of its 
bordex-witb Kuwait More-, 
over, as the foremost acad- 
* eniicaatfrority on the hor- 
de* K'&spbte, ' -.Richard 
Schbfield of London Uni- 
versir^^ScbooTof Oriental 
and; African as 
’pointed -out; “Arguments 
that - mandated Iraq had; 

! been unfairly pressurized 
by Britain into’ concluding 
these agreements in an era 
'preceding the admission Of 
the Hashfrnite. Kingdom 
into -the League of Nations 
as an independent state in 
October. 1932, appeared to 
lose their force in October 
1963, when ; Republican 
Iraq not only "recognized 
/Kuwait as an independent 
state; but -reaffirmed the 
boundary, delineation of 

The actual 'line of the 
.frontier had yet 7 to be 
: demarcated. however, and . 
matters were Complicated 
.by the fact that die line gen- 
erally 1 used by Iraqi and ■ 
Kuwaiti border, patrols as 
■:the deifaclo frontier actual- 
ly lay around 350. meters 
south -of the line agreed 
/upon in 1 932:?. Normally, 

- this might have appeared of 
little consequence. :In one 
•: sector, however, it was. 
extremely .significant. The 
Iraqi port of Uriah Qasr. tiie- 

cooritiy ’ s principal outlet to 
'the Gulf, stretched right up 
,10 the undemarcated fron- 

’tier arid, in the 1 960s and 
!*70 s, extended up to the 
..patrolled line. 

As Uram Qasr devel- 
"oped, Iraq pushed the bor- ■ 

' der issue in several ways. In 
; 1969, on the pretext that a 
; common defense against 
’Iran was required, Iraqi 
forces advanced a few 
miles into Kuwaiti tenitoiy 
■south of Umm Qasr. They 
; did 1 not withdraw. Iraq also 
^be^n pressing its cfaimsiO 
. fod- islands of Warbah and 
Bubjyarr, \ which would 
;enstiretbat Iraq would then 
have, control over the Knor 
rBuKyan, a relatively deep 
/channel between Umitr 
Qasr. arid the Gulf, which 
would be more useful for 
: Iraqi /shipping . *an foe 
,KhoLS»Wab channel, to 
the riorihiof Warbah . whi ch ■ 
Iraq Vhad to -share with , 
[Kuwait .. . 

Then, on March 20, 1973, 
Iraq attacked a Kuwaiti bor- 
der police post, killing two 

• Kuwaiti - frontier guards. 
After this incident, Kuwait 
began to take the Iraqi bor- 
deF • ; issue ■ seriously. 
Although diplomatic pres- 
sure from friendly Arab 
states helped secure Iraq's 
withdrawal from the post m 
April, other Iraqi forces 
remained in position well 
south of Urrim Qasr. This 
uneasy - status quo : was 
maintained until 1990. 

Warbah arid Bubiyan, 
essentially unpopulated, 
were patrolled by naval 
craft and a giant bridge was 
constructed to link the larg- 
er island, Bubiyan, to the 
mainland. On various occa- 
sions, Iraq restated its claim 
to the islands, and in May 
.1990 began hinting rfaai it 
regarded the issue as one 
needing early resolution. 

Kuwait stood its ground, 
but -Iraq's attitude toward 
the issue was shown by its 
invasion on Aug. 2 
- After liberation," the UN 
Security Council took the 
unusual step of deciding it 
would set up acxjmmission 
to determine the precise line 
of the frontier agreed upon 
in 1932 and 1.963, It was the 
decisions of this UN Border 
Commission -that led to the 

• latest border controversy. 

The commission, with 
access to both Ottoman 
Turkish documentation and 
state-of-the-art satellite pho- 
tography, determined that 
ti»e true border line lay 570 
meters north of the previ- 
ously presumed border. 
Kuwaiti territory thus 
embraced considerable 
areas of Uram Qasr, includ- 
ing part of the naval base. 

The Umm Qasr ruling has 
required the evacuation of 
Iraqis situated on the 
Kuwaiti side: of the border. . 
This was carried out in 
. December 1 993, with coop- 
eration from local Iraqi offi- 
cials. At foe same time, 
Iraqi, farmers at Abdaii, 
another outpost south of the : 
new frontier line, were also 
evacuated. ,' v 

The Iraqi government, 
however, has not recog- 
nized or participated in the 
workings of what was sup- . 
prised to be a border com- 
mission in which both 
nationswere represented. 

The Kuwaitis remain well 
aware of the border's deli- 
cate status. Ip January, the 
government announced 
-plans to set up border towns 
and “vital projects” id order 
to;, establish “a strategic 
presence m this important 
region.*? ■ - 

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fa flesearefi and Sbxfies on Kixwai in June 1933. 

Affltel photograph by fite te&raJ land Si«^ ol Sweden. 
Survey, ptotograrnmetiy, and map production by the 
Department of Survey and Land information of New 
Zealand and the National Land Survey ol Sweden. 
Cartography by Ite Department of Siney and land 
.Won n M on of New Zealand. Cartographic overvaw by the 

CaflopapNc SecBm of the United 

overwewby the 

(Jon Osar 
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rzr space vesjes. hySr^afh*: 

*!••? r:: ncude- £ ui &rst <n me cngnal 

For a Lst of boundary coordinates see section XIII ol 
the report on the demarcation of the international 
boundary between the Republic of Iraq and the State 
ol Kuwait by the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait 
Boundary Demarcation Commission 

Iratj-Kuwas Boundary Demarcation Cc-mm&smn mapping 
Senes 2. Dema'calion of me Iraq-Kiraail tnundaiy.1Z50.000 
Mapnumbei 775£ID| 

Source; Unted Waters. 1993 

Track, the Emirate Looks 

Continued from page 17 

which might not be so good 
for the future.” says Mr. 

Nevertheless, with the 
government's privatization 
program under way, the 
meed to become highly effi- 
cient and to ensure that 
businesses make a profit 
could change attitudes in a 
very short time. . 

In a report to the govern- 
ment last autumn, the 
World Bank came out with 
a dramatic economic report 
on the future of Kuwait 
The local headlines pro- 
claimed in letters several 
inches high that the govern- 
ment should “Sell Every- 
thing.” Kuwait had already 
been selling some of the 
“family silver” in order to 
pay the costs of the Gulf 
war, which amounted to 
more than $70 billion. This 

preliminary sell-off was 
mainly in the form of a 
drawdown on its reserves 
and assets held by the Fund 
for Future Generations (10 
percent of all revenues go to 
the fund) and the KIA. 

In 1986. the government, 
in its one and only state- 
ment about its reserves, said 
that the Fund for Future 
Generations totaled S53 bil- 
lion and that the general 
reserve fund was $36 bil- 
lion. Economists suggested 
that the immediate prewar 
estimate of total reserves 
was more than $129 billion. 
Today, it is thought to be 
less than $49 billion. 

The principle of privatiza- 
tion has already been 
approved by ihe National 
Assembly, and the first stale 
entity to go private will be 
telecommunications. The 
final proposal is expected to 
be approved in die summer. 

and the government hopes 
dial the new company will 
be formed by early 1995. 

“We do not have a prob- 
lem in reviving the econo- 
my locally," says Sheikh 
Saud, the minister of infor- 
mation. “Life in Kuwait is 
returning, and the private 

sector is probably in better 
shape ihan ii has ever been 
following the bad-debt set- 
tlement by the govern- 

If oil prices rise and some 
of the economic fat and 
waste is sliced off. and if 
Kuwait concentrates on im- 

proving added value in the 
oil sector, the future may be 
more assured. But full con- 
fidence will never return as 
long as Iraq remains a 
potential threat just one 
hour's drive from the capi- 

"We are probably one of 

the first countries in the 
world to have our borders 
guaranteed by such a con- 
sensus of nations - the 
Untied States, the United 
Kingdom and the 
Russians.” comments 
Sheikh Saud. 

Michael Frenchman 

. . * 

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the State of 

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On the third anniversary of Desert Storm, 
Patriot still stands guard. 

Three years ago Operation Desert Storm gave our country its fair share of heroes. 
And Raytheon salutes those brave men and women. 

Another hero is still standing guard for our allies in the Middle East. Patriot. 

Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Israel have chosen Patriot as their ballistic missile defense 
system for a good reason. They know it works. 

In both Saudi Arabia and Israel, Patriot successfully performed its military mission 
by protecting critical milrtary assets - air bases, ports, supply centers and defense 
military headquarters. Patriot also saved countless lives and defended civilian power 
plants while minimizing damage to civilian dwellings. Real-world protection from 
real-world threats. 

Now. three years later. Patriot is still the world's only proven tactical ballistic 
missile defense system. To simultaneously counter not just tactical ballistic missiles, 
but cruise missiles and aircraft as well. In fact, it's the world’s only system that can 
defeat all three types of threats . 

And as the threat has evolved, so has Patriot. Today's Patriot is upgraded well 
beyond its Desert Storm capabilities. With continued support by the U.S- Army, our 
Quick Response Program (QBP) extends Patriot's radar detection range to increase 
its area of protection against both low flying cruise missiles and high flying ballistic 
missiles. And the Guidance Enhanced Missile (GEM) upgrades, now in production, 
complement QRP by increasing system lethality over a larger area of coverage. 

Today, in a world where.regional tensions abound, it’s vital to have a strong national 
defense. And that's why our customers chose Patriot. They know it works. 




Page 22 

.. . ... 

In some districts, more girls than boys are enrolled in kindergarten. 

The ABCs of Education 

duration has made massive 
strides in Kuwait as the 
emirate has takes advan- 
tage of its oil wealth to 
invest heavily in ati levels of schooling. 
There is some concern, however, that 
the educational system, while con- 
tributing hugely to the rise of a new 
and broadly bawd middle ci*H, is not 
necessarily training Kuwaitis for a 
future of increased self-sufficiency. 

In 1 946-47, when the emirate was still 
under British protection, there were just 
2,160 students, and the budget for edu- 
cation was a mere 83.800 Kuwaiti dinars 
-then worth around $350,000. In 1993, 
with school enrollment topping 250,000. 
the education budget was set at 340 mil- 
lion Kuwaiti dinars ($U7 billion). 

Independence in 196 i saw a renewed 
commitment to education, so that by 
1965. Kuwait had secured the remark- 
able achievement of having a primary 
school enrollment of 1 16 percent. This 
improbable figure was accounted for by 
the fact that in order to catch up with the 
backlog, a substantial proportion of pri- 
mary school pupils were either younger 
or older than usual primary school age. 

The backlog in education persisted 
right up to the Iraqi invasion, although 
the provision of free education helped to 
whittle it down. By 1975. although 
schooling w as compulsory between the 
ages of six and 14, it was cstim&ed dual 
the true proportion of primary-age chil- 
dren, those aged six to 11, who were 
actually attending school was just 68 
percent. On the eve of the invasion, how- 
ever, this proportion was up to SO per- 
cent. There remained a small but signif- 
icant imbalance: the enrollment of girls 
at both primaiy and secondary levels 
seemed to be around 10 percent lower 
than that of boys, resulting in higher illit- 
eracy rates for women. 

There are some signs that this imbal- 
ance is now coming to an end. Increas- 
ing efforts were made in the i 980s to 
promote kindergarten education. This, 
too, is provided free to four-to-six-year- 
olds and here, at least, the number of 
girls attending school was almost the 
same as the number of boys. In some 
districts there was a higher female atten- 

The quality of education improved 
steadily during the 1970s and '80s. 
While the number of pupils attending 
school rose steadily, class sizes fell dra- 
matically. By 1987, Kuwait’s primary 
schools employed one teacher for every 
12 pupils, whereas in almost all the 
industrialized nations, the ratio is 
between 20 and 30 pupils per teacher. 

Higher education developed along 
lines common to most of fee Gulf states. 
The University of Kuwait was estab* 
tisbed in 1966 and was modeled essen- 
tially on Egyptian lines. Indeed, its 
Egyptian staff began by introducing 
courses in such subjects as cotton grow- 
ing and railroad transportation, which 
were not particularly appropriate in a 
train less, desert state. 

The Kuwaitis rectified this, not the 
least through die introduction of oil- 
related courses. A persistent criticism 
front both Kuwaiti academics and pri- 
vate-sector personnel is feat fee coun- 
try's extensive higher educational sys- 
tem is insufficiently oriented toward pro- 
ducing fee skills and expertise Kuwait 
requires in order to shed its dependence 
cm imported technicians and technocrats. 

The government sought to remedy this 
in 1982 through fee creation of the Pub- 
lic Authority for Applied Education and 
Training. Criticisms concerning the 
skills gap have been even more pro- 
nounced since liberation. 

John Roberts 

Environment: The Postwar Cleanup Goes On 

he assessment 
of environmen- 
tal damage to 
Kuwait and its 
neighbors, resulting from 
Iraq’s decision to blow up 
Kuwaiti oil wells and dis- 
charge crude directly into 
the Gulf almost three 
years ago, is still continu- 
ing. So is rehabilitation. 

Iraq dispersed around 4 to 
8 million tons of crude oil 

No agreement on 
extent of damage 

into the Gulf, while oil 
burning from torched oil 
wells or spilling out from 
opened valves caused dam- 
age on land and in the 
atmosphere. Ground dam- 
age may not be cleared up 
until fee end of fee century. 

The argument concerning 
fee extent of the damage 
began shortly after libera- 
tion as various scientists 
reported very different find- 
ings. A Greenpeace scien- 
tific team wrote in a 1992 
report feat fee conflict “has 
resulted in an unprecedent- 
ed disaster for fee region, 
which has been left wife a 
serious impact on the sea, 
land and atmosphere that 
will take years to heal." 

Feeding areas for birds 
and marine animals were 
destroyed. Gulf coastlines 
in some cases consisted of 
sediment wife up to 7 per- 
cent concentrations of oil. 
Fish catches were down, 
and the fish themselves 
were underweight. There 
was a prospect of increased 
rates of cancer and birth 
defects arising from pro- 
longed exposure to air and 
water pollutants, said 

The report took various 

governments to task for fail- 
ing to take the matter seri- 
ously enough to instigate 
cleaning operations on land 
and on sea. 

On fee other hand, a 
group of environmentalists 
from fee Marine Environ- 
ment Laboratory of the 
Internationa! Atomic Ener- 
gy Agency in Vienna flew 
over the Kuwaiti coast to 
observe offshore oil slicks. 
The team reported in June 
1991 feat “except for some 
localized oil patches which 
came ashore, fee beaches 
appeared from the air to be 
relatively clean.” Moreover, 
analysis of fee situation on 
Qarah Island showed that 
although some tarballs 
could be detected on fee 
beach, concentrations were 
no higher than in prewar 

The oil pollution took 
four different forms: in fee 
air, on the ground, on the 
coasts and at sea. In fee air, 
fee smoke initially caused a 

10 degree Celsius drop in 
average temperatures as it 
blotted out the sun. There 
were fears feat fee cumula- 
tive air pollution had fee 
power to prevent the mon- 
soon from breaking over the 
Indian subcontinent. The 
darkness gradually dissipat- 
ed. leaving behind a legacy 
of asthma - and possibly 
more serious medical con- 
ditions as well. 

On land, it was quickly 
demonstrated feat giant 
earth movers could scrape 

011 off the surface into 
trenches. But progress is 
slow, wife existing systems 
able to cope with only 20 
tons of crude per hour, 
while fee volumes of crude 
spilled out onto the desert 
ran into hundreds of thou- 
sands of tons. Some of this 

oil, once collected, can be 
recovered through pumping 
and filtering, dewatered 
through use of demulsifiers 
and then put to commercial 

Indeed, Kuwait was even 
exporting such crude in 
1993. Still, the govern- 
ment’s project to ensure a 
complete cleanup is likely 
to take some years to com- 
plete. and in fee meantime 
there is concern that in 
some places oil has seeped 
into Kuwait's aquifers. 

On fee coast, after, oil 
slicks came ashore, fee 
Kuwaitis were promptly 
advised feat oil-contaminat- 
ed beach material could be 

able tidal action, this consti- 
tutes a self-cleaning 

process. On Kuwait’s north- 
ern islands, it would appear 
that a deliberate decision 
was taken — in accordance 
wife standard practice - to 
leave oil pollution in place 
until it is naturally 

processed. The reasoning 
behind this is that damage 
from cleaning and deter- 
gents would be greater than 
fee damage inflicted by the 
original oil pollution. 

At sea, oil both evapo- 
rates and disperses before it 
reaches fee coast, making 
coastal cleanups much easi- 

In general, fee attitude 

tion are finally cleared lap.. 
The Kuwaitis are concerned, 
that it be cleaned up, m 
some cases through cooper- 
ation between the pub ) k 
and the private sectors, wife 
local companies encour- 
aged to find wavs to devel- 
op the country's consume 
for both industrial and- 
leisure purposes. 

Much of the lo u cai 
research work to date has 
been carried out by fee gov- 
ernment- funded j^jwait 
Institute for Scientific 
Research. which last 
August concluded a three- 
year cooperation study wife 
Japan’s Shimuzu Corpora- 
tion to study ways of reha- 

Kuwait sustained proportionally less coastal pollution than some of its neighbors. 

used in landfills, or dis- 
posed of alongside domes- 
tic refuse. In general, how- 
ever, Kuwait appears to 
have sustained proportion- 
ally Jess coastal damage 
than its neighbors. This 
was, of course, largely due 
to the prevailing Gulf cur- 
rents' taking much of fee 
Iraqi discharge south, 
toward fee northern shores 
of Saudi Arabia and fee 
coasts of Bahrain and Qatar. 

Where there is consider- 

among environmentalists 
was that the - Kuwaiti 
response to the environ- 
mental problem was insuf- 
ficient to meet the scale of 
fee disaster. There was also 
recognition feat, of necessi- 
ty. the Kuwaitis had to be 
selective in their cleanup 

These operations are still 
going on. and it may not be 
until the waning years of 
the decade that the last 
physical vestiges of pollu- 

bilitating areas polluted by 
oil spQls. The work com- 
prises an extensive field 
survey, to be followed by a 
pilot scheme to see how a 
polluted area can be reha- 
bilitated. After feat, the goal 
is to draw up a comprehen- 
sive program for rehabilitat- 
ing the remaining areas 
covered by oil spills. This 
process will be aided by 
nature. All over Kuwait, 
there are signs of recovery. 


Major Defense-Driven Offset Projects Planned 

Ive major defense-dri- 
ven offset projects are 
likely to bring $500 
million of investments 
in general projects, according to 
fee Ministry of Finance. Involved 
are three UJS. companies - Gen- 
eral Dynamics Corp., Raytheon 
and GM Hughes Electronics - as 
well as Aerospatiale of France 
and GKN of Britain. 

Just over a year ago. Hughes was 
awarded a $92 million contract to 
supply an air-defense and early- 
warning system. GKN is supplying 
about 200 Desert Warrior armored 
vehicles. Aerospatiale is to provide 
a missile-testing and support sys- 
tem following an agreement made 
last month. It has signed a $5.13 

million offset agreement for med- 
ical technology and services. 

An offset strategy was first moot- 
ed in 1991 by fee Kuwait Interna- 
tional Investment Co. and approved 
by the National Assembly in July 
1992. Under fee terms of fee offset 
program, a minimum of 30 percent 
of the total contract value must be 
invested in Kuwait if fee contract 
exceeds $3.3 million. The invest- 
ment can also take place in other 
Gulf or Arab states, but priority 
must be given to Kuwait 

When Paul Pezas, a director of 
Hughes International Service Co- 
visited Kuwait last December, he 
announced feat fee company would 
set up a $27 million joint venture. 
Gulf Industrial Technology. “We 

are chasing business for the new 
entity in four areas - training, main- 
tenance, logistics management and 
technical assistance and services,” 
he told fee Arab Times. 

Hughes, which already has offset 
agreements in Saudi Arabia and 
Egypt, was the first foreign defense 
supplier to launch an offset venture, 
whose potential clients include 
Kuwait’s defense, electricity and 
communications ministries. “But 
we will also go wherever there is 
technology embedded in systems - 
in private industry, with exporters 
and in the region as a whole. We 
would hope to achieve some syner- 
gy wife oiher Hughes offset activi- 
ty in fee region,” added Mr. Pezas. 

Another major U.S. defense sup- 

plier, Raytheon Co., which has sold 
210 Patriot missiles and five Firing 
units to Kuwait, has signed a mem- 
orandum of agreement for a $98.2 
million offset proposal. 

Thomas Peterson, Raytheon’s 
Patriot program international devel- 
opment manager, says fee compa- 
ny plans to help design and con- 
struct an energy-related .plant that 
willbe worth many times morethah 
its original offset contribution irk 
three and a half years' time. He will 
not identify the proposed project 
u Obviously. we are looking at areas 
where we can take wftai Kuwait is/ 
known for - its energy - and use’ it 
for value-added projects, not just , 
for crude-resource production.” 

' ■ ■ M.F. ‘ . 

Citizenship Rights Issues Under Discussion 

mnan rights in 
Kuwait means 
many things: 
the continuing 
saga of up to 2,000 
Kuwaitis who have disap- 
peared in Iraq as well as 
the provision of increased 
political and social rights 
for various sections of the 
emirate’s population, 
notably its women and the 
bedoun , an indigenous but 
stateless community. 

Although women, foreign 
residents and other non-vot- 
ers or non -citizens were ail 
involved in the resistance 
during the Iraqi occupation. 
Kuwait has continued to 
restrict both citizenship und 
voting rights. Citizenship, 
whether first- or second- 
class. is still confined to 
around 800.000 people, 
some of whom are living 

Expansion of the franchise 
was rejected during 1992. 

abroad. At present. 1.4 mil- 
lion people are actually liv- 
ing in Kuwait. The elec- 
torate remains much small- 
er. It is confined to 80.000 

people. Expansion of fee 
franchise to include women 
was rejected by the govern- 
ment during fee run-up to 
the 1992 National Assem- 
bly elections. 

The government seems to 
be moving to reject propos- 
als feat fee bedoun - literal- 
ly. those without a national- 
ity - should be given full 
Kuwaiti citizenship. The 
Kuwait News Agency in 
January’ carried a report 
from the local Al-Waian 
paper feat fee Higher Cen- 
iraJ Committee for Citizen- 
ship was considering the 
issue and had determined 
feat while some bedoun 
might be eligible for sec- 
ond-class citizenship, grant- 
ing the non-voting righLs of 
naturalized Kuwaitis, none 
would be eligible for first- 
class citizenship. 

The problem dates back 
to 1921, when a list of fam- 
ilies living in fee emirate 
omitted a number of Arabs 
living within its confines. 
Their descendants are fee 
original bedoun. Full citi- 
zenship held. by a brother, 
father or uncle is required 
for individuals to gain sim- 
ilar status. 

While bedoun whose ori- 
gins in Kuwait go back to 
1965 will at least be given 
permanent residence rights, 
a second group of bedoun 
comprising Arabs who have 
entere'd fee country since 
1965 Seems likely to fare 
less well. Unless they 
already possess proper resi- 
dence papers, they are con- 
sidered to be illegal immi- 
grants liable to deportation. 
Some exceptions' are being 
made for participants in the 

resistance or the relatives of 
actual martyrs killed by fee 

In recent weeks, fee trials 
of a number of collabora- 
tors wife the Iraqi regime 
and fee passing of heavy 
sentences have prompted 
external human rights orga- 
nizations to plead for 
clemency. The government, 
however, has denied com- 
ing under pressure from 
Western governments on 
this issue. Pressure to 
secure the departure of 
some 400,000 Palestinians 
and Jordanians resident in 
fee emirate until liberation, 
on the grounds feat Jordan 
and fee Palestine Liberation 
Organization supported Iraq 
during the crisis* have led to 
protests from various 
human rights organizations. 




• Capital of KD 40 mill ion. employing 3665 qualified personnel. 

KPTC operates a modern fleet of 580 buses. 

Fully computerised operations and administration. ‘ 

KPTC carries 52 million public transport passengeiyyear. 

Approximately 1000 buses for school transportation and Handicapped Treatment Institatfon. 
Marine transportation between mainland and islands. 

Touristic & Intercity transport within Kuwait and surrounding countries. 

Fleet maintenance of 

Government of Kuwait ‘ 


Kuwait Public Transpo rt Co. 

PO Box 375, SAFAT 13004, KUWAIT ■ TeL-2469420/2 Fax: 2401265 Ttxs 22246 KPTr" 


l -M 


S <? 



Kuwait’s Skyline: 

Page 23 



fr* ^ r^iraa 

T he tower cranes 
swing through 
the sky; on the 
Rromitf: the 

roar of dump tracks and 
bulldozers can be beard 
as the construction indus- 
try swings into action. 
Consultants estimate 
1-3 billion Kuwaiti dinars 
($4.48 billion) worth. of 
projects have been ap- 
proved, of which 500 mil- 
lion Kuwaiti - dinars’ 
worth arein hand. 

Work has restarted on the' 
telecommunications tower 
that punches, high into the 
Kuwaiti, skyline. It has now 
been renamed -‘Libeiation 
Tower,” and when complet- 
ed will be 273 meters (900 

Sief Palace will be 
symbol of Kuwait 

feet) high, one of the tallest 
buildings in the world. The 
project, worth 80 million 
Kuwaiti "dinars, ...which- 
includes die ancillary, tele- 
communications. ground 
buildings, is being carried 
out by the International 
Contractors Group and 
Electro watt Engineering 
Services of Switzerland. 

Fears that there may have 
been severe structural dam- 
age from bombs or missile 
attacks have proved 
unfounded. Concrete slip 
work On the main platform 
and- upper levels is now 
under way. 

Along the waterfront, 
there are more than a dozen 
tower cranes at work on one 
site alone: the huge $250 
million-plus Amiri Diwan 
and Sief Palace- project, 
which was also interrupted 
by the war. The original 
palace;" one of the oldest 
buildings irr Kuwait, has 
been frequently extended 
oyer the. years. The main 
hall was buirn^ out by the 
Iraqis, and the clock tower, . 
built inl973. is still without 
its clock mechanism. 

Twenty-two mam- con- 
tractors started work on the 

project last August with up 
to 5,000 men on she under 
the general supervision of 
Hussain AJ-Sayegh, special 
projects manager for the 
ministry of public works. 

“Some, of the main foun- 
dation weak had 

- pleted . prior to die invasion, 

-• but. that was all,” explains 

Mr. Sayegh. The ate is just 
. over a kilometer long and 
' has a total area of half amil- 

- lion square meters. The 
main palace hall will be 
-able'to seat 1 ,000 people for 
/ dinner. Underground mov- 
ing ^ sidewalks 850 meters 
long will link various parts 
of die palace, and: special 

- tracks will accommodate - 
. golf-style electric carts. 

Part of / the project 
includes a marina with a 
seawall more than one and 
a half kilometers long. The 
T whole project is on sched- 
ule, and, according to Mr. 
Sayegh, is due to be com- 
pleted toward the end of 

- next year. "Ibis is not going 
to be just another palace for 
the Emir, but a symbol for 
Kuwait, like the White 
House or Buckingham Pa- 
lace,” be says. 

The second phase of the 
Bayan Palace project, 
which also began before the 
war. is -also under way. It 
includes guest palaces for 
Six presidents or heads of 
state, a multipurpose hall 
that can accommodate up to 
1,200 and a mosque. The 
main conference building 
which was virtually des- 
.. troyed, is being rebuilt at a 
cost of 160 million Kuwaiti 

Other -major buildings 
tinder construction or near- 
ing Ena] completion are the 
National Bank of Kuwait's 
new headquarters close to 
(he stock exchange, the 
remarkable “H” building, 
which will be the 7.5 mil- 
lion Kuwaiti dinar head- 
, quarters of the State Audit 
Bureau near the “Bine Tow- 
er,” and the new combined 
head office of the Ministry 
of -Public Works andMin- 

Fund Provides 
Overseas Projects 
Development Aid 

*gw\’ v T-:-v g ;:j 

fr ■ ft - c 

The new headquarters of the National Bank of Kuwait towers over the city center. 

istry of Electricity and Pow- 
er, which is costing 35 mil- 
lion Kuwaiti dinars. This is 
under construction on the 
6th Ring Road, which is 
being completed at a cost of 
9 million Kuwaiti dinars. 

Other major projects 
include the rehabilitation of 
Kuwait University, which is 
to have a new administra- 
tive center. The project is 
costing about 160 million 
Kuwaiti dinars. Other pro- 
jects include a number of 
dental clinics, a psychiatric 
hospital, a new building for 
the Ministry of the Interior 
and another for the central 
tendering committee, a sci- 
ence museum, a central post 
office, a broadcasting cen- 
ter and the improvement of 
several hospitals. 

Due to open any time 
now is the 17 million 
Kuwaiti dinar headquarters 
building in Shukwaikh near 
the port. According to 
Hamid A. Shuaib, manag- 
ing partner of Pan Arab 
Consulting Engineers 
(PACE), it has been 
designed so that the four 
major organizations that 
will use the building can 
“feel that that they have 
their own individual head- 
quarters in the building” 

The organizations that 
will move in are OAPEC 
(the Organization of Arab 
Petroleum Exporting Coun- 

tries), Arab Maritime Petro- 
leum Transport Co., Inter- 
Arab Investment Guarantee 
Coip. and the Arab Fund 
for Economic and Social 

PACE has also taken part 
in a design competition for 
the Kuwait Monument Cen- 
ter to mark the invasion and 
celebrate liberation in Feb- 
ruary 1991. The estimated 
cost of the monument is 
between 20 million and 35 
million Kuwaiti dinars. 
PACE's design consists of 
a circular conference and 
leisure center surrounded by 
a park with a pier across die 
sea leading to a memorial 
hall, designed as a pair of 
upturned praying hands. 

Equally imposing is a 
plan to bring life back to the 
city center - the so-called 
**Champs-£lys6es” project 
The aim is to create a living 
environmental area combin- 
ing the Seif Palace, the seat 
of government the stock 
exchange, the public 
library, commercial build- 
ings and residential apart- 
ments and mosques. 

Mr. Sayegh of the Min- 
istry of Public Works says 
this will be one of the most 
prestigious ideas ever car- 
ried out in Kuwait It is to 
be developed over 10 years, 
and financial guarantees 
have been arranged. 



Our Support 

For more than three decades, Parsons has 
made major contributions to infrastructure 
development in Kuwait. We are proud to ex- 
pand this commitment to the Oil and Gas Sec- 
tor by providing Kuwait with quality engineer- 
ing, bonstructibn and management services 
through Parsons 1 Consultancy Services Con- 
tract with; the Kuwait Oil Company. 

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P.O.Box 9912, Ahmadi 61006, Kuwait 

Telephone: 965-398-9111 (ext 61034) FAX: 965-398-7083 

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P.0. Box 9912,.Ahmadi 61008, Kuwait 

Telephone: 965-398-9111 (ext. 61034) FAX: 965-398-7083 

The Parsons Corporation 

1 00 West Walnut Street, Pasadena, California 91 1 24 USA 
Telephone: 818-440-2000 FAX: 818-440-2630 

One of the models of the proposed new monument to mark 
the liberation of Kuwait after the Iraqi occupation 

E SSS ore than $26 
j d billion of Arab 
£ 3 and non-Arab 
sssi capital has 
been invested in nearly 
5,000 projects in develop- 
ing countries during the 
last few years, according 
to Mamoun Ibrahim Has- 
san. director-general of 
the Kuwait- based Inter- 
Arab Investment Guaran- 
tee Corporation (lAIGCl. 
He was speaking at a 
recent meeting of the 
Kuwait Economics Soci- 

One of the main sources 
of development funding has 
been the Kuwait Fund for 
Arab Economic Develop- 
ment (KFAED). which was 

$7.4 billion has 
funded 434 projects 

established in 1961. 
KFAED is proud that it 
continued funding develop- 
ment projects throughout 
the Iraqi invasion. 

By the end of last year, 
the fund had committed a 
total of 2. 1 5 billion Kuwaiti 
dinars ($7.4 billion) to 
finance 434 projects in 69 
countries. The recipients 
included 1 5 Arab states. 30 
African countries, 16 South 
Asian and Pacific countries, 
four Central Asian and 
European countries and 
four countries in Latin 
America and the Caribbean. 
Of the funding. 30.87 per- 
cent is for transport and 
communications. 23.79 per- 
cent for electricity. 18.78 
percent for agriculture. 
17.73 percent for industry 
and 8.18 percent for water 
and sewerage. 

■"This year's activities 
have been characterized by 
the geographical expansion 
of fund operations follow- 
ing Kuwait's initiative to 
extend the fund's activities 
to include Larin America, 
the Caribbean and Central 
Asian countries.” comments 
Nasser Abdullah Al-Roud- 
han. chairman of KFAED. 

He is also Kuwait's second 
deputy prime minister, min- 
ister of finance and minister 
of planning. "This recog- 
nizes the importance of sol- 
idarity for development and 
the need of those countries 
for development assistance 
to support their efforts to 
overcome difficulties and 
problems hampering their 
growth and progress?' 

Mr. Roudhan emphasizes 
that it is Kuwait's linn deci- 
sion to continue aid "despite 
its scarce financial re- 
sources and the substantial 
losses it has sustained as a 
result of the occupation." 

Continued funding was 
part of the strategy designed 
to enhance its political, eco- 
nomic and trade relations 
with these countries. 

In addition to providing 
loans. KFAED has also 
committed 29 million 
Kuwaiti dinars to technical 
assistance and grants-in-aid. 
Just over 24 percent of this 
went to African countries. 
Apart from providing loans 
and aid. the fund has also 
been acting as adviser and 
consultant to many recipient 
countries to ensure the sat- 
isfactory implementation 
and viability of projects. 

"Many recipient coun- 
tries." according to the 
KFAED. "need assistance 
to ensure that third parties 
perform their contractual 
obligations as required and 
in accordance with agreed 
terms and conditions." 

The scope and range of 
KFAED loans are extreme- 
ly diverse. They include 
projects from improving 
highways in Cyprus, air- 
pons in China and Beirut’s 
telephone system to an irri- 
gation project in Vietnam 
and drilling freshwater 
wells on St. Kitts and Nevis 
in the Caribbean. These are 
in addition to the bulk of the 
loans, which are for major 
projects in the Arab world, 
including cotton spinning 
mills in Syria and land 
reclamation in Noah Sinai. 




Wherever the sun rises, your money grows. 

Pacific Equities Fund 
Guarantee Warrants Fund 
Dynamic F/x Futures Fund 
Global Bonds Fund 

The fund is dollar-based and offers sub-funds under its umbrella. Switching between the sub-funds is done 
at no extra cost These sub-funds allow the investor to choose the risk profile that best meets his needs. 
The Global Fund also distributes cash dividends every six months with the option to re-in vest, 
at no additional charge, ofcourse. All classes are redeemable with no redemption fees. 


This fund concentrates on equity investments of the 
world's fastest growing economies of South East 
Asia, excluding Japan. 


A capital guarantee fund that provides a window lo 
the Japanese Warrants Markets, the world's largest 
warrant markets. The fund currently guarantees a 
fixed return till maturity. 



An investment opportunity' of potentially high 
returns, r egar dless of the movement of the market. 
The fund is based on the concept of multi-advisor, 
multi-assets and multi-trading techniques. 


This fund emphasizes capital preservation and growth 
through investments in the high quality International 
Money and Government Bonds Markets. 



Distinctive Investment Services. 



Kuwait Foreign Trading Contracting & investment Co. (&A.K) 

P O.Box 5665 Safai - 13057 Kuwait, Tel: 2449030/1/2 , Fax: 2446173 - 2402085 PMD 



Page 24 











Mosques ami minarets across a changing skyline in Kuwait City. Falling oil prices may slow construction activity. 

Oil Industry Streamlines Operations 

everal major 
g| ^J| issues now con- 
&% 18 front the oil 
sector in the 
light of falling oil prices. 
These issues, which have 
led to fierce debates in the 
National Assembly, 
include a detailed dam- 
age-assessment report on 
the oil reservoirs, a rec- 
ommendation to privatize 
25 percent of Kuwait Oil 
Company and whether to 
allow joint production- 
sharing agreements with 
more foreign companies. 

Current oil production is 
approximately 2.2 million 
barrels a day'; recoverable 
reserves are said to be about 
94 billion barrels, or 10 per- 
cent of known global 
reserves and enough to con- 
tinue current production 
levels for about 100 years. 

Refining capacity now 
totals about 580.000 barrels 
a day and is expected to 
reach maximum capacity of 
800.000 barrels a day by 
next year. 

Oil industry sources 
claim that Kuwait has been 

Current oil produc- 
tion is about 2.2 
million barrels/dav 

under strong pressure to 
reduce oil prices well below 
world market levels, which 
are now about $14 a barrel. 
Discounted prices are said 
to be under $10. and in 
some cases - sales to Chi- 
na. for example - may be 
under S9 a barrel. 

Jasem K. Al-Sadoun. 

■ ■ ■ ri 

Refining capacity is now 5SO.OOO barrels a day. 


m hr 




V \\ 


18,556 > 



37,503 33,238 

11,378 %\Y\ %v;\ 

W:M =*_ 




AMaJteb A1 AhiftcJ Sirew, Slunj. KuwaH. PO. Ek» 242S4 SafaL. 13103 
Tel iW5i2il70M.Fa» i<H,5> 2455375 

general manager of Alshali 
Economics Consultants, 
says the government should 
not be so generous in 
rebuilding its oil sector, and 
urges caution so that costs 
can be reduced and man- 
agement restructured. 
“There are too many ‘yes 
men* in the oil sector," he 
says. "We need more 
aggressive and active man- 
agement. This will come, 
but it is going to take time." 
One way of reducing costs 
would be to accept foreign 
involvement and technolo- 


Ali Al-Baghli. the oil 
minister, has said that 
rebuilding the oil sector 
could cost as much as $10 
billion, of which more than 
$2 billion has already been 

A statement from the 
Ministry of Oil earlier this 
month said that the 
Supreme Oil Council con- 
sidered that the involve- 
ment of foreign companies 
could reduce production 
costs. These are said to be 
rising from $1.50 or slight- 
ly less last year to nearer 
$ 1 .80 a barrel today. 

Mr. Sadoun believes that 
involving foreign compa- 
nies in the oil sector would 
ensure fairer bidding for 
contracts and help to reduce 
the participation of unqual- 
ified companies and unfair 

"Kuwait is still suffering 
from the oil lakes left as a 
result of the invasion and 
liberation war. According 
to Ibrahim Al-Refai. head 
of the geology faculty at 
Kuwait University, more 
than 20 percent of the coun- 
try is covered by oil lakes. 

A preliminary report by 
international consultants on 
the damage io the oil reser- 
voirs after all of Kuwait’s 
600 wells were set alight 
suggests that little harm was 
done to the main Burgan oil 
field, which has 50 million 
barrels of reserves, just over 
half of Kuwait’s tola! oil 
reserves. Mr. Sadoun says 
the hill report will be made 
public next August. 
According to a statement 
from the oil ministry, the 
report said the total oil lost 
during the war was three 


v-: ■’ ’ v .. ■ 

■ : •' : * V/ \ i.. • . .. • ’ ■' T-/!V V' ■' ' •' i 

i Ipnaxa&p--*** -““yi 


P O Be* 23727 
\ 13093 Sala: 
r Kuwait 

Tel: 2455700 (10 linesl 
Fax: 2438970/2*02 1 09 
Tlx; Livetrade 22336 KT 

1 " " . A .nvmisiNo^ bS I3SIi-^ 

Oldest Bank Director Active at 1 1 0 _ 

times the production level 
at the time. This would 
amount to just over 2 billion 
barrels, about 25 percent 
higher than industry sources 
had earlier estimated. 

Rapid progress has been 
made in getting refining 
capacity going again. Fos- 
ter-Wheeler Management 
Operations, contract man- 
agers for ihc rehabilitation 
of Kuwait National Petrole- 
um Co.’s three main 
refineries - Mina Al-Ahma- 
di. Mina Abdullah and 
Shuaiba - has been working 
ahead of schedule. It will be 
closing up its operations on 
Mina Abdullah on March 
31. exactly two years after 
work began. 

According to Chuck Feg- 
ley. FW’s project director, 
one of the keys to getting 
production back ahead of 
schedule was KNPC's 
allowing FW to do its own 
purchasing. “We are proud 
of what wc have been able 
to do in the time. ” he says. 
“We had good cooperation 
with KNPC, a good work- 
ing relationship. Although 
there were a few rough 
spots. KNPC wanted to get 
its house back in order, and 
we wanted to finish on 
time.” In fact, FW is about 
three months ahead of 
schedule and is now in the 
final stages of preparing the 
hand-over to KNPC. 

Union Carbide of the 
United Slates and Kuwait 
Petrochemical Industries 
Co. (KPICl have signed a 
S2.35 billion agreement to 
build a new world-class 
petrochemical complex. It 
is due to come on-stream in 
1997 and will have a 
650.000-ton-per-year eth- 
ane cracker. The complex 
will have the capacity to 
produce 450.000 tons a year 
of fully flexible UNIPOL- 
process polyethylene, and 

350.000 tons a year of eth- 

ylene glycol. Before the 
war. KPlC operated one of 
the largest nitrogenous fer- 
tilizer complexes in the 
Middle East. It contained 
four ammonia and three 
urea plants, which had a 
capacity to produce 

750.000 tons of urea and 

700.000 tons of ammonia a 

vcor. M.F. 

|pKPfi|| haled Abdulatif 
fg rm Al-Hammad is 
P the oldest hank 
ftesfflgda director in the 
world. According to the 
Islamic calendar, he is 114 
years old, which makes 
him approximately 110 by 
the Gregorian calendar. 
He will be 111 years old in 
May and still plays an 
active role in his bank. 

He was one of the origi- 
nal founders of the Nation- 
al Bank of Kuwait in 1952. 
Since then, he has been 
attending the bank’s 
Wednesday credit commit- 
tee (it decides the credit- 
worthiness of borrowers) 

Deals once struck 
with a handshake 

every week, and he has 
rarely missed a meeting. 
His contribution has always 
been invaluable as he, more 
than anyone else alive, 
knows everyone there is to 
know in Kuwait and what 
their standing is in the com- 

Mr. Hammad is a venera- 
ble. dignified person as 
bright and sharp as he ever 
was in his younger days. As 
he sits in his diwan before a 
large model trading dhow, 
in front of which is a large 
brass alarm clock so that he 
can keep track of the time, 
he reminisces about the old 
days. “There were no 
courts, and merchants used 
to settle disputes among 
themselves. One would be 
an expert in shipping, 
another in diving [diving for 
pearls was once the only 
business in Kuwait], and 
these elders would sort out 
the problems. 

“Things have changed 
very much in this respect. 
There is a different attitude 

toward money today;' it is 
for the worse. It is much, 
more difficult to deal with, 
people today compared to 
the old days. People used to 
keep their word and were 
honest” - 

He remembers when mer - 
chants used to strike a deal 
with a handshake or just on 
the basts on their word.' A 
dhow would go off and col- 
lect a cargo, deliver it and - 
return, and the merchant 
would get his money with- 
out any kind of agreement 
in writing. 

“Everything today is so 
much more, sophisticated, 
but I don't think the system 
is as good as in my time,” ' 
says Mr. Hammad, his eye 
on the ticking clock. 

His earliest memories are - 
of the bustle and bustle of 
the port as dhows came and 
went with cargoes of dates, 
fruit and other foodstuffs.. 
These would be exchanged 
for pearls with traders, who 
would go off to Europe to 
seek buyers at hotels in 
Paris, Nice and Rome. 

He made his money by 
trading in dates, which he 
would buy from Iraq and 
sell to pilgrims going to 
Makkah. These would “be 
exchanged for textiles, car- 
pets, fruit and foodstuffs; it 
became a lucrative busi- 
ness. He was also an agent 
for suppliers in Aden. 
Somalia and Ethiopia. As 
his trading activities 
expanded, he began to 
invest in property wherever 
he was trading. Gradually 
his empire expanded to all 
areas of Arabia and the 
Horn of Africa. 

In 195Z the British Bank 
of Iran and the Middle East 
(now the British Bank of 
the Middle East part of the 
Hongkong Bank Group), 
withdrew from Persia and 
moved into the Gulf. It 

gamed a. concession from 
the Emir of Kuwait to open 
a branch. Mr. Hammad led - 
a group of merchants >yho 
wept* to the Emir, and sug- 
gested that Kuwait should 
have its -own' bank. The 
Emir, agreed .mid. gave his 
consent. Tit. was all done 
with a verbal agreement.” ' 
recalls MrrBammad- 
The new • bank; - the 
National Bank of Kuwait, 
opened on Nov: ’18. 1952 
with a capital o£13milUon 
Indian rupees (the common 
currency of the Gulf), 
equivalent - to 1 • million 
Kuwaiti dinars. Today, the 
bank’s capital is 330- million 

1936, after . had ' ^ 

married 25 ware- His pre 

-SSiwife, Ldlwa./u 
Pearl of the Sea), is do* 
years old. They have two 
surviving sons and a daugh- 
ter, who has four girls and a 

^°As the alarm clock sud-, 
denly chimed 7:00 P-M - 
suggesting that the meeting 
w as over. Mr. ' Hammad 
spoke about his three pil- 
grimages to Makkah. On 
one occasion he went by.. 

. camel. It took 40 days and 

nights. “It was very hard 
going, but I was very t it, 
he said. He may have h« 
memories and likes to pray 

“Aliw. .. ■ , 

.they all won* 
to retire at 45. but- 
not me. 

I am not even 

Kuwaiti dinars. Almost all 
the directors and senior 
management were Kuwait- 
is, and the bank immediate)-. 
Iy attracted deposits from 
merchants engaged in for- 
eign exchange ana the high- 
ly profitable gold- trade. Mr. 
Hammad played an active 
role in the bank (“But I nev-> 
er received a cent”), attend- 
ing meetings and visiting 
the branches “to encourage 
the staff.” Now, he says, 
“They all want to retire at 
45. but not me. I am hot 
even thinking about it.” . 

When the Iraqis invaded 
Kuwait. Mr. Harhmad 
stayed in his house, never 
going out until the libera- 
tion. He has been married 
twice. His first wife died in 

thinking about it. 

for most of the day, "but he 
still keeps abreast of current 

affairs by listening to the 
BBC and Voice of America 
on the radio. 

As one who has lived 
through more troubled 
times than almost any other 
Arab alive, he comments 
favorably on the ' United 
Slates' action in pullingthe 
Arab world together by^ 
helping to arrange the peace 1 
process with Israel. 

Bur he issued a final 
warning as his alarm clock 
ticked on: “People are 
afraid of the North Koreans 
and the Russians today. If 
the North Koreans have the 
nuclear bomb, it will not be 
a good tiling for the rest of 
us. "M.F. 

One of the World Batik ’s suggestions is that foreigners he allowed to buy shares of publicly quoted companies -on the stock 

World Bank Proposes Privatization 

E S&®| hen the 

World Bank 
J ji report on 
the Kuwaiti economy 
became known last 
October, it provided the 
kind of shock treatment 
needed to shake up 
Kuwaiti opposition com- 
placency about the long- 
term economic future of 
the country. 

In no uncertain terms ir 
suggested a “sink or swim” 
strategy for the future: pri- 
vatize almost everything - 
from health services to 
power, water and pan of the 
oil sector - cut subsidies 
and slash overmanning in 
both public and private sec- 
tors, It identified a total of 
74 companies and entities 
owned or partially owned 
by the state to be privatized. 
This month. Nasser Al- 

Roudhan. minister -of 
finance and planning, 
announced a major privati- 
zation program to be spread 
over five years. “Priva- 
tization is aimed at striking 
a balance between the pub- ' 
lie and private sectors, 
employing national labor, 
creating new investment 
opportunities and attracting 

A future strategy 
of * sink or swim * 

foreign capital.” said Mr. 
Roudhan. He said there 
were 62 companies in 
which the government had a 
total investment of 800 mil- 
lion Kuwaiti dinars ($2.75 
billion) worth of shares. 

In a no-nonsense report, 
the World Bank advised the 
Kuwaiti eovemment to "sell 

Tel: Kuwait 245 82 1 2 Fax: 242 072 1 
Quality Defence Facilities 
“To Budget , on Tune” 

everything." This is already., 
coming into effecL Tbe.KlA 
is now setting up a special 
privatization office to han- 
dle the transfers as ir is tbs 
major shareholder or out- 
right" owner. 'of '62 compa- 

The World Bank says 23 
of KIA's companies could 
be privatized quickly with 
few complications; it sug- - 
gests that six companies 
should be liquidated “told 
thus: establish the precedent 
that the government will no • 
longer bail out, or rescue 
companies in financial diffi- 
culties”; and 33 companies 
(of. .which 24 are banks or 
investment groups) should, 
be analyzed in greater depth 
to determine -the next step: - 

The bank is sharply criti- . 
cal of inefficiency, com- 
menting on overstaffing in 
the ; public sector, low -pro* . 
duett vity and excessive pro- . 
tection of the private busi- 
ness sector. It says that the 
greatest obstacles to privati- 
zation have been the incen- 
tives to encourage Kuwaitis 
to work only in (he public 
sector. It suggests that “fis- 
cal dividends” should f»e : , 
paid to stop Kuwaitis! seek- 
ing jobs in the public sector, . 
which would result in less 
reliance on expatriate labor 
and an oyer? H • ft igher 
income for Kuwaiti citizens: 
At present; % percent of the -" 
total Kuwaiti work force is 
employed in The. public sec- 
tor.- ‘ : V 

The. World Bank suggests ; 
-that foreigners he allowed to 
buy shares of publidy quot- 

ed companies on the stock 
exchange or in other com- , 
paries on the. same- basis as 
Kuwaiti citizens. Also,, .it- 
suggests .that foreigners 
able to conduct business 
without ^\need''for']g local v ’ 
agent and advises dial regis- 
tration ofnew companies be 

Public services currently 
provided by the government 
— transport,, power and- 
water - should also be pri- 
vatized, according to 
>bank. It says that the gov- 
ernment might .want to 
retain 25 percent of Kuwtot 
Airways Corporation;- but 
adds that there is nq need 
for it to retain any share of 
public service companies 
: following the.tfcregullation ■. J , 
of ministries. , 

The bank's most contror . 
versial recommendations 
are in the oil sector It wants 
to see -improved “corporate-- 
goveniance”_and a reihic- 
tfqn itt-managetnent con- 
flicts of inje rest. -Kuwait •: 
Petroleum Company, it 
says, should be transferred • 
to, the new Priyarizaf iori - 
Office and jjm on stricter 
profit-makingflines, 'while 
oil policy functions should 
be left to the. Ministry of 

on. . . \y;" 

: The Ijarifc “Advises that-: 
afteratrtoisit ionaf period, : : 
KPC be. jsubiiely^ quoted, and 
upto 25 pa^mor the6bh- ::; 
l]on ; Kuwait -.mnar. capital- ^ 
izati on Ibc a v ai lablc to for*- 
e ig'n - 1 n vestbirs: Nbri-C6tfr ; 
busmess should also be pH- , r 
van zed, it recommends, v--. 

“ •: -MUF. 



Page 25 

advertising" section 


Kuwait boasts the Middle East’s newest duty-free shopping complex, which has an area of more than 800 square meters. 

Duty-Free Shopping: Splendor and Array 

-fi : 

A guttering spec- 
tacle of gold 
jewelry and 
forms part of a dazzling 
display of luxury fashion 
goods , 1 fragrances and. 
elecfronics in the Middle 
East’s newest duty-free 
shop at Kuwait’s Inter- 
national Airport - - 

Three yea re . after 
Kuwait's liberation, the air- 
port’s main terminal build- 
ings and approach have 
been fully restored and 
much improved. There are 
new cafeterias^ refurbished 
waiting lounges, better 
lighting and many addition- 
al features - including 

prominently labeled “public 
shelters.” " 

Passenger traffic through 
the purport has been rising 
.rapidly since the war. In 
1992, it was 2.8 tnifilion, 
and that figure rose by IS 

Havana cigars are 
proving popular 

percent 1 ast year and is 
expected louncrease by 
about the same amount this 

“Kuwaitis Tealiy love to 
travel,” comments an r offi- 
cial' at. the airport,- which is 
now set to become one of 
the busiest in the northern 

<jtilf. ‘This is why we have 
tended to cater to their spe- 
cial needs in. the duty-free 
shops — ©its and presents.” 
Irishman Denis Kelly is 
operations manager for 
Airport Duty Free, which is 
managed and operated by 
Habchl & Chalhou b. He has 
been, involved in setting up 
the duty-free complex since, 
he arrived on the scene last 

. The complex has a staff 
of 90 and a shopping area of 
more than 800 square 
meters, with both airside 
and lands ide outlets. It 
makes a dramatic contrast 
to thejneager facilities that 
existed before the war. Mr. 

Kelly is more than pleased 
with the encouragement and 
cooperation he has received 
from the directorate-general 
of civil aviation and die cus- 
toms directorate in estab- 
lishing the duty-free com- 

There, is a special display 
of gold — including a wide 
variety of Italian manufac- 
tured jewelry - diamonds 
and other precious stones 
just beyond the immigration 
check on entering the depar- 
ture area of the terminal. 
“These items are proving 
very popular,” comments a 
duty-free official. Other 
counters display cosmetics, 
fragrances, photographic 

equipment, fashion acces- 
sories, watches, lighters, 
Coys, premium gifts, food 
and confectionery. 

Kuwait’s duty-free opera- 
tion also prides itself on its 
extensive range of ciga- 
rettes, one of the widest 
available in any Gulf duty- 
free shop. Prices are also 
very competitive - a carton 
of Marlboro Light 200 costs 
only 2.65 Kuwaiti dinars 
($7.95). There is also a big 
selection of Havana cigars, 
which are proving popular 
as they are unavailable in 
Kuwait itself. All items are 
priced in Kuwaiti dinars and 
(J.S. dollars. 


Flag Carrier Makes Up for Lost Time 

I ncr eased 
dynamism in 
Kuwaiti avia- 
tion these days. More flex- 
iblefornosif financing , 
and more innovative 

newroutes shidnporations 
have come io the fore as 
Kuwait Airways Cor- 
poration has trounced 
back from the occupation. 
- The airline has moved 
with .alacrity to refurbish its 
"fleer 'fbflbwing the devasta- 
trdn wrought by the Iraqi 

Joint ventures are ’ 
under way in region 

invasion .and occupation, 
when its Kuwait-based air- 
craft were seized by, Iraq, 
flown: to Iran -and finally 
returned in distinctly shop- 
worn condition. • 

No sooner was Kuwait 
liberated than it placed an 
order for 11 Airbus 
Industrie planes. At that 
stage, it had only eight oper- 
ational aircraft, Some of the 
new. planes arrived in 1992, 
while others were leased 
temporarily. The bulk of the 
Airbus order was delivered 
last year: The airline also 
has two Boeing 747s on 
. order.- ■ 

Initially, the airline was 
intensely involved m recon- 
struction efforts. This 
enabled it to make a star- 
tling- recovery in 1992, 
when it carried 61,718 tons 
of cargo, becoming the 
Arab world’s third-busiest 

'Cfflgo carrier in its first full 
year of revived operations. 

Of necessity, K AC is 
likely toprovebotha leaneT 
and more innovative _ opera- 
tion in jts postwar incarna- 
tion. It has accepted the 
. World Bank’s prppqsal for . 
privatization witha sell-off 
to tile public, a 25 percent 
-Stake of which will be 
reserved for Kuwaitis. \ 

. . The airline has become 
.much more flexible. The 
. first four of its Airbus 
' Industrie purchases were 
. made using- export credits 
provided by the European 
- manufacturing companies, 
bat the remaining group, of 
seven were acquhtid under 
an iunovati ve financing 
arrangement concluded win 
the Kuwaiti-based Inter- 
national fovestorgroup. 

This group aims to pro- 
vide specifically Islamic 
financial instruments to help 

promote major commercial 
deals. In the case of the 
KAC Airbuses, Inter- 
national Investor arranged 
for 140 million Kuwaiti 
dinars ($482 million) in 
lease financing last summer, 
..under an arrangement by 
which KAC took delivery 
of seven Airbus Industrie 
aircraft, three A300-600s, 
three A3 1 0-300s and one 

The planes were delivered 
during the summer. Under 
the agreement, KAC has the 
option of purchasing the air- 
craft outright during a nine- 
year leasing and lease 
repayment period. 

KAC may. still dominate 
the local aviation sector, but 
it is also willing to Cry new 
joint-venture approaches to 
develop fresh business. In 
1993, it formed a joint ven- 
trae with Egyptian aviation 
interests to create Shorouk 

airlines, which now flies 
Airbuses on routes linking 
Kuwait with Cairo and 

KAC also has plans to 
develop a joint venture with 
the stale-owned Syrian Arab 
airlines for long-haul ser- 
vices to South America and 
Australia from Damascus 
and Kuwait The company's 
official startup time is early 
1994, with actual operations 
anticipated in the middle of 
the year. KAC and its 
Syrian partner is also con- 
sidering construction of sev- 
eral associated facilities, 
including a new hotel in 
Damascus and service units 
at Syrian airports. In India, 
KAC has taken a 20 percent 
stake in the newly estab- 
lished intercity air-taxi ser- 
vice, Jet Airways. 

Kuwait International 
Airport was badly damaged 
by the Iraqis, with all its 

advanced avionics equip- 
ment looted or destroyed. A 
prewar master plan for the 
airport, prepared by 
Aeroport de Paris, was 
revised by the Netherlands 
Airport Consultants with a 
view to resuming normal 
service as soon as possible 
and drafting initial plans for 
the construction of a new 
airport in the late 1990s. 

Key elements in renova- 
tion work have included 
construction of a new 
administrative center and 
headquarters for KAC and 
the installation of a new 
communications system. 

In the long term, the 
Kuwaiti authorities want to 
see KAC maintaining both 
its own and foreign aircraft 
at its maintenance facilities, 
which before the invasion 
were among ihe most 
sophisticated in the Middle 
East JJR- 


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5 i*is 

Ministry of 

Enters the Private Sector 

ext June should 
f§ > ? If see launch 
P Kuwait's 

Prrwrfil first privatized 
company, Kuwait Co- 
munications Co. Follow- 
ing the initial issue, shares 
will be floated on the 
Kuwait Stock Exchange. 

Habib Jawhar Hayat, 
minister of communica- 
tions. says that the process 
of transforming the ministry 
into a shareholding compa- 
ny is going smoothly. 

Within days of the libera- 
tion three years ago. mobile 

Mobile network will 
serve 50,000 clients 

satellite communications 
were in operation, putting 
Kuwait in touch with the 
world again. Today, 
Kuwait, which has a capaci- 
ty of 600,000 installed lines 
(almost one line for every 
Kuwaiti man. woman and 
child, although only about 
half are fully functional), is 
making a leap in mobile 
communications that will 
bring in some of the most 
advanced technology. 

Mobile Telephone Sys- 
tems has just signed a $32 
million contract with 
Motorola's International 
Cellular Infrastructure 
Division for a nationwide 
global system for mobile 
communications (GSM). 
The first phase will provide 
channels for 30.000 sub- 
scribers and wifi be ready 
by August. This will be 
extended to 50,000 sub- 
scribers within a few 
months. There will be 30 
base stations. 

“All GSM calls are 
scrambled, and we will 
have much better quality as 
well as roaming facility. At 
present this extends to the 
emirates, Qatar and 
Bahrain." says Hamad NA. 
Al-Sabah, MTC’s market- 
ing director. The govern- 
ment has a 19 percent share 
in the company, which was 
formed in 1983 with a capi- 
tal of $85 million following 
a decision to privatize 
mobile communication ser- 

“This was done because 

of limitations in expanding 
the existing system and 
exorbitant replacement 
costs." says Abdul Aziz Al- 
Ayoub. chairman and man- 
aging director. The first sys- 
tem" was introduced in 
1972. making Kuwait a pio- 
neer of mobile communica- 
tions with the biggest inter- 
national system in the 
world. It had 4.800 sub- 
scribers with whar was then 

and mobile voice and fax 
retrieval systems. “We hope 
to once again be the first in 
the Middle Easi with such a 
system." says Hamad Al- 

With the rapid spread of 
telecommunication facili- 
ties. Kuwait hopes to estab- 
lish itself as a hub for public 
data network services, 
many of which are provided 
by Gulfnet International 


Work has restarted on the telecommunications tower after 
a three~xear break. 

the latest car phone technol- 

Following Desert Storm, 
Ericsson of Sweden gained 
the contract for rebuilding 
the mobile network. This 
started with 30,000 sub- 
scribers, and after two 
expansions, the total num- 
ber last year had risen to 

The latest fashion acces- 
sory in Kuwait today is the 
pager now available in 
credit-card form. In 1985, 
when they were introduced, 
there were 624 units. The 
numbers shot up and there 
are now over 100.000 in 
use. Now MTC is studying 
a vehicle location system 

through its marketing arm. 
Kuwait Electronic Messag- 
ing Services. The company 
provides the facilities and 
services for all kinds of 
communications, from telex 
to E-mail. One of the 
anachronisms of Kuwait 
today has been the growth 
in telex, while in the rest of 
the world, faxes have virtu- 
ally replaced telexes. 

“There are now 554 telex 
machines as we find that 
many Kuwaitis like to be 
reassured by the chatter- 
clatter of the old telex, espe- 
cially in the ministries.” 
comments Majeed Sharif, 
general manager of KEMS. 


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Page 26 



No. 10 Kansas Loses 3d Straight 

Ihe Associated Press 

There has been big trouble for 
Kansas ever since it feu out of con- 
tention for the Big Eight title. 

The No. 10 Jayhawks lost their 
third straight game Wednesday 
night, falling 96-87 to Nebraska in 
Lincoln, Nebraska. 

league's leading scorer, had 21 and 
Charlie Ward matched his career- 

high with 19 for the Serniooles. 

Nebraska < 15-8, 5-6) led by 24 
la on 

points at halftime, then he! 
after the Jaybawks (21-6. 6-5) ral- 


lied to make it 90-87 on Patrick 
Richey’s layup with 32 seconds left. 

Nebraska’s Eric Piatkowsld. who 
scored 33 points, made four foul 
shots in die final 30 seconds. It was 
the fourth straight time that they 
have won at home against Kansas. 

'They played exceptional bas- 
ketball the fust 20 minutes and 
made more shots against us than 
anybody has made against us all 
year,” said the Kansas coach, Roy 
Williams. “But what really got me. 
was we didn’t play as well as we 
could have played and we didn't do 
the little things." 

Nebraska made 61 percent of its 
shots in the First half, forced 13 
turnovers and out-rebounded Kan- 
sas 22- 13 in takin g a 58-34 lead. 

Jarnar Johnson had 14 points. 
Melvin Brooks and Terrance Bad- 
geit each had 12 and Jaron Boone 
10 for Nebraska. Steve Woodbeny 
led Kansas with 16 points, all but 
one in the second half. 

No. 2 Duke 84, Honda State 72: 
Marty Clark and Chris Collins 
each scored 17 points and Duke 
won on the road 

Duke (20-3. 1 1-3 Atlantic Coast 
Conference) made 26 of 37 foul 
shots. Florida State (12-12, 5-9) 
made just 4 of 7. Bob Sura, the 

2 North Carotins 80, Notre 
Dame 71: Eric Montross, a 54 per- 
cent foul shooter, made 11 of 14 
from the foul line to lead North 
Carolina (22-5). 

Notre Dame f 10-16) was trying 
for its fourth upset of a ranked 
team this season. 

No. 6 Missouri 83, Southeast 
Missouri State 61: Melvin Booker 
hit a 3-pointer to close the first half. 

then scored eight points in the first 
1:35 of the second as Missouri 
breezed at home. 

The Tigers (21-2) have clinched a 
tie for the Big Eight title. Southeast 
(9-15) was within 1 1 points with 1 1 
minutes left. 

No. 7 Kentucky 77, Tennessee 
73: Roderick Rhodes scored his 13 
points from Che foul line and Ken- 
tucky won at Tennessee (5-18, 2-1 1). 

The Wildcats (21-5, 10-3 South- 
eastern Conference) played without 
Travis Ford, Jared Prickett and Gi- 

O’Neal Shakes Off 
Long 3-Minute Scare 

The Associated Press 

For three minutes, the franchise lay motionless on the court in 
obvious pain. 

It was perhaps the scariest three min utes in Shaquille O’Neal's 
career, but it turned out to be no big deal. 

After knocking knees with Indiana's Derrick McKey, O'Neal 
collapsed to the floor and stayed there for about three minutes. He 


went for X-rays at half Lime, then returned in the third quarter to lead 
Orlando to a 103-99 victory over Indiana that lied the franchise- 
record for consecutive victories (five). 

After returning to the game, O'Neal scored six points in his first two 
minutes back, then had three dunks and a key steal to put the game 
away after Indiana got to 94-91 with 3:40 left in the fourth. O’Neal 
finished with 28 points, eight rebounds and four blocks. 

Jazz 106, Spans 102: Ac the Delta Center, the Jazz put an end to 
San Antonio's franchise-record 13-game winning streak by shutting 
down David Robinson in the second overtime. 

Robinson had 25 points, 16 rebounds and nine assists, but was 
scoreless in the second extra period until making a meaningless 
bucket at the end. 

md Martinez. They were suspended 
for one game by Coach Rid: Pitino 
for swapping free- throw shooters 
Saturday at Vanderbilt. 

No. 13 LodsriHe 82, ISU 64: 
Clifford Razier had 23 points and 
1 S rebounds as Louisville stopped a 
two-game losing streak. The Cardi- 
nals (21-4) sent visiting LSU (11- 
12) to its fifth straight loss. 

Na 14 Purdue 95, OMo State 85: 
Glenn Robinson, the nation’s lead- 
ing scorer, had 40 points as Purdue 
won at Ohio State. 

Robinson made 10 of 21 shots 
and 20 at 22 free throws. He came 
within two points of his career high. 
Purdue (22-4, 10-4 Big Ten) was 33 
of 37 from the foul line. Ohio State 
(11-14, 4-10) was 10 ofl5. 

No. 18 Syracuse 91, Set on Hall 
69: Lawrence Moien scored 25 
points and Syracuse (18-5, 10-5) 
kept Seton Hall (13-11, 6- 10) winkss 
at the Carrier Dome in 14 games 
since the Big East was formed. 

No. 19 Saint Louis 70, Cincinnati 
67: Erwin Qaggeit made a 3-point- 
er with 1:40 left, sending Su Louis 
(21-3, 7-3 Great Midwest) past vis- 
iting Cincinnati. 

LaZeUe Durden scored 33 points 
for Cincinnati (17-9, 5-5) and tied 
his school record with eight 3- 
pornters. Durden and teammate 
Dontonio Wingfield each missed 3- 
pointers after Daggett's basket. 

Michigan Slate 85, No. 20 Min- 
nesota 68: Shawn Respert scored a 
career-high 43 points and tied a 
school record with eight 3-pointers, 
leading Michigan Stale (16-10, 7-7) 
over Minnesota (18-9, 8-6). 

No. 22 Marquette 63, Dayton 58: 
Tony Miller scored the last five 
points of the game and Marquette 
won on the road. 

Uky Tmpatqr'lV Anwittd Pros 

The Jaybawks* Greg Ostertag going op for a shot against Nebras- 
ka’s Bruce Chubick as Kansas fell to its third straight loss, 96-87- 



Tokio Passes Justitia 
For Whitbread Lead 

NBA Standings 

(AP) — The Japanese-New Zea- 
land yacht Tokio overtook Eu- 
rope's In irum Justitia on Thursday 
to become the new leader on the 
fourth leg of the Whitbread Round 
the World Race. 

Intnim Justitia lost ground by 
staying with a southerly course on 
the fifth day of the 5,900-nautical 
mile leg from Auckland, New Zea- 
land, to Punta del Este. Uruguay. 
Tokio took advantage and had 
surged to a lead of su miles (11 
kilometers) at last report The lead- 
ers are both Whitbread 60s. 

Atlantic Division 

For the Record 

A misdemeanor gnu charge 
against the Chicago Bulls' Scottie 
Pvppen was dismissed Wednesday 
in Chicago after a judge ruled that 
Pippen’s car had beat illegally 
searched by the police. (AP) 

Baylor voted Wednesday to be- 
come the first Southwest Confer- 
ence school to accept a merger offer 
from the Big Eight, starting a pro- 
cess that is likely to dismantle the 
nearly 80-year-old league. (AP) 

W L 



New York 

34 (6 




31 2D 


4 Vi 


27 25 



New Jenev 

27 25 




20 33 




20 33 




16 37 



Ceatral Division 


34 Tl 




34 14 


— - 


39 24 




24 25 




23 28 




15 38 




13 39 




Midwest Division 

W L 




V 13 



San Antonio 

39 IS 




35 19 




24 27 




15 34 




7 44 



Podflc Division 


37 14 




34 16 




32 71 




J7 27 


i Vi 

LA Lakers 

19 31 




18 34 



LA Clippers 

17 34 




New Jersey 

21 25 


28— 1M 

24 M 



l: Smlts 7-173-2 1* Fleming 7-11 1-1 15. O; 
O’Neal 1 1 -20 4-1 1 28, Anderson 7-12 *4 19. Re- 
bounds— Indiana 52 (D. Davis. Smlts 11). Or 
landa 53 lAvenl, O’Neal at. Assists— Indiana 
31 (McKay. Workman. Fleming 5). Orlando 25 
[Hardaway 7). 

Seattle M 25 22 f4-*2 

Atlanta 24 M 17 32—99 

S: Kemp 7-12 2-2 14. Parian 1 1-1* 1-4 21 A: 
Wilkins 7-19 3-5 24 Blavlock 10-17 2-2 2S. Re- 
bounds— Seattle 56 (Kemp IS). Atlanta 55 
(Willis 13). AsNsts — Seattle 24 (Kemp 6). At- 
lanta 23 (Blaylock B). 

Golden state 22 24 28 24— IN 

Chicago 32 21 21 25-123 

G: Mulltn 5-14 4-4 15. Johnson 8-1] 1-2 17. C: 
Plpoen 7-15 44 20. Myers 10-17 64 24. Re- 
bounds— Golden State 50 ( J. Grant 7i, Chicago 
44 (H. Grant II). Assists— Golden State IS 
(Jennings 4), Chicago 34 IMVWS 91. 

Boston 23 29 27 15— 54 

Denver 25 27 25 17-182 

B: Fox 7-12 642a Douglas 8-14 1-41 7. D: Ellis 
IT-T9 7-929, ft Williams 8-173-2 18. Redounds— 
Boston 55 1 Radios). Denver 59 (Mutombo 161. 
Ass is ts Boston 13 (DougkB 4). Denver 24 
(Abdul-Rouf. Pack 8). 

San Antonia 17 20 27 « a 9—103 

Utah 17 21 23 24 8 18-104 

5: Ellis 7-14 M 15. RoMmxl 10-315425. U: K- 
Malene 11-26 9-12 31, Stockton 15-18 5-7 31. Re- 
bounds— San Antonia 55 (Rodman, Rob in son 
Id), Utah 54 (Spencer 15). Assists— San Antonio 
28 (Robinson 9). Utah 24 (Stockton 14). 
Portland 24 32 29 34-121 

LA Clippers 38 22 29 31—112 

P: EL Williams 64 9-1021, C Robinson 9-1844 
22. LA.; Marinina I8-24642& Harper VM9S6 32. 
Rebound s -Portla n d 44 (C Robinson 13). Las 
Angeles 42 (Vaught 12). Assists— Portland 32 
(Strtcklona 13). Las AngeiesH (M. Jackson 12). 

Louisville 82. L5U 44 

Mississippi 77. VanderWit 72. OT 

Mlssisslnol SL 71 South Carolina 72 

N. Carolina SI. 79, Maryland 71 

N.C-wiimtngfon too. James Madison S3 

SE Louisiana BA G rambling SI. 75 

SW Louisiana 71 New Orleans 49 

Tn. -Chattanooga 78, Furman 48 

Ball St. 74. Akron SB 

Bowling Green 79. Cent. Michigan 44 

Bradley 78, Lavaia. IIL 55 

Kent 78, Miami. Ohio 48 

Morawette 41 Dayton SB 

Michigan SI. B & Minnesota 48 

Missouri 81 SE Missouri 41 

Nebraska 96. Kansas 87 

North Carolina SO. Notre Dame 71 

Ohio U. 92, E. Michigan 82 

Purdue 9S. Ohio St. 85 

S. Illinois 97, N. Iowa 94 

SL Louis 70, Cincinnati 47 

Toledo 79, W. Michigan 73 

Tulsa 89. Wichita SI. 51 

VO. Com mo nwealth 79. Xavier, Ohio 74 

lawa SI. 9& Oklahoma 82 

Rice 93, Baylor 91 

Texas A AM 84. Texas Christian 40 

Texas Tech 74. Oral Roberts 72 

Taxas-Pan American 45, Arkansas Sr. 40 






257 311 

Period: e-McAmmond3 (MacTavUta Thorn- 








tan); T-MJronav g [Andermv Gflmaur) ; T- 

St. Louis 







Berg 7 (ZexeU. mini Period: E-Arnott 24 








(Goar, KrovdHit!): (pp). E-Wetohf 20 (Byo- 






I7B 253 

kin, Boers); E-Otaussan 5 (Cigar. StodMan). 

PocJhc Dhbioa 

spots aa goof: T (on Rantand) 7-14-T1— 32. E 








[on Rhodes) 134-11— 3Z 








Dallas 0 8 8 0-4 








Lae Angeles 0 0 8 8-0 








Pint Period: None. Second Period: Nam. 

Las Angeles 







Third Period: Nam. Shots on gaol: D (an 






190 232 

stouter) 8-12-84—34. LA. (an Moog) 20*4- 


NHL Standings 

AHonttc Division 

Anaheim 8 1 

Buffalo 13 8-4 

First Period: B-Wood 15 (Sweonev.Snwn- 
llk). Second Period: B-Pkmte19(Mov,Smeh- 
IHc) ;A-Yake 2D (Sweeney. HoulderJ; (PP).B- 
Hawerchuk 27 (Smehilk, tdiymlev); B- 
Svotxxio2 (Homan, Dowel. Third Period: A- 
Mcswaen 2. Shots aa goal; A (an Fuhr) 6-7- 
8-21. B (an Hebert) 7-54-18. 

Sai Jose 0 1 8-1 

Montreal 2 • 1—3 

Flnt period: M-Oeslardins 10 < Petrov) i M- 
Hailer 4 (Destardlm Carbanneau). Second 
Period: S-f.-Odserol) (Baker. Error). UW 
Period: MOdeleMO (Pgtrov, Dloraie): (op). 
Shots an goal: SJ. (on Roy) 4-10-14— 30.M (an 
l rbe) 12-4-10-28. 

Boston 1 4 1—4 

M.Y. Ringers I I 1—3 

First Period: N.Y.-Grove* 41 (Messier, 
Leelch); (bp). B-Kuarialnov6( Neely. Oates). 
Seamd Period: B-Oates 25 (Bauroue); B- 
Kvartalnav7(Wesiev,OatES)i (aul. B-STum- 
pei 5 (Murray, Hughes); B-ReW 4 (Bourque, 



Eaeknid vs. West ladies. Fourth Day. 
Wedn es day , In Ktagstan, Jamaica 
England 2d Innings: 247 
West Indies 2d Innings: 9S-2 
West Indies won by eight wickets. 

Australia vs. South Africa 
Thursday, la Durban. South Africa 
Australia tarUnos: 154 U Uovero)-. 

South Africa liming*; 157-3 (45 avers) 

South Africa wan by seven wfcfcetst and leads 
series M. 


PaMsftn vs. New Zealand, First Day 
Thursday, m Chri st ch u rch. New Zealand 
Pakistan 1st Innings: 334-7 

Bernard Tapie. president of the 
■ Marseille 

Olympique Marseille soccer team, 
asked Wednesday that the French 
soccer federation confirm within 10 
days what further disciplinary mea- 
sures it intends to lake against the 
dub because of an alleged bribery 
scandal. (AFP) 

NJ. : Coleman 4-17 5-7 18, Anderson 1 1-21 7-8 
29. p: Weathers p ocw 9-21 4-4 22. Hontaeek 18 
174-525. Rebounds— New Jersey 55 (Coleman 
9|, Philadelphia 51 (WBatherspaan 91. As- 
risle— Now Jersey 27 ( Anderson 11). Phi lade)- 
oh la 20 {Barros 10). 

Cleveland 32 22 25 25—106 

W ashin gton 25 28 27 21— 94 

C: M. Price 9-172-5 22. ynnurn 4-1284 U Mllto 
54 2-2 13. W : Ougllatta 181984 2D, Adams 5-11 44 
16. Robounds— Oevotond 54 (MlBs K), wash- 

Major College Scores 

baton 41 (Guollafta 8). Assists— Oevefand 31 
ML Price 10). WadWngtan 20 (Adams 4). 
Indiana 24 27 22 24— 99 

Qriaoda 33 34 15 22—103 

American u. 81. Old Dominion 77, OT 
Colgate 72. Cam. Connecticut 5t. 54 
Lehigh 81, Lafayette 74 
Manhattan 84. Lavaia, MO. 71 
Penn 51. 89, Iowa B0 
Syracuse 91, Seton Hail tn 
Alabama 44, Tennessee St. 42 
Beltwne-Caokmgn TO, Cent. Florida 85 
Copoln St. 44, N. Carolina ALT 51 
Duke 84, Florida St. 72 
E. Tennessee St. 73. W. Carolina 73 
East Carolina 81. Richmond 77 
Georoe Mason 85, William A Mary 78 
Kentucky 77, Temessce 73 

NY Rangers 













Juneau); N.YHCavalev 9 (Zubov, Leefch); 
(PPl- Third Period: B-Juneau 14 (Weslov); 

Now Jenny 




72 216 


N.Y. -Graves 42. Stars an goal: B (an Richter, 









Hoaly] 8-144— XL N.Y. (on Casey) 84-10—34 

Morocco (L Finland 0 








Now Jersey 2 2 2-7 







718 233 

Detroit 3 8 8-3 

Nowiaislto A Coventry 0 

NY islanders 







Flnt period: N_j.-stevensl3 (Guerin. Zele- 


Tempo Bov 







puklnl; NJ^MUten 16. D-Yttrntan 17 (LW- 

Cambuur Leeuunden 0 reyenaard 0 — 

Northeast DMsaem 

stTvm.Pnmeao);D-KtaiovX 1 Coney, Chico- 









son): (pp). NJ.-Carpenter 7 ( Richer). Second 

Sum Moat, Second Lee 








Ported: NJ.-Rtriwr 22 (Zolepukln. Stevens); 

Parma 0 Sampdorfo 1 





49 207 


N-L-Chorske 13 (Carpenter. Stevens). Third 

Scmpdurta win 3-1 on aggregate 








Ported: N_i.-semak 12 (McKay); Nj^ni- 







189 204 

ettalls 13 (Medermuyer, MDCLerei). Shots on 

Attaetk de BJtaao a Lasrome » , 






ITS 707 

goal: NJ. (on Oteveldae. Osgood) 12-15-9—36. 

Ltefda a CeftoO 








D Ion Terre rt) 12-124—32. 

Racing do Sartwxler 1. Real Madrid 3 

Central Division 

W L T Pts GF GA 
Toronto 33 IB II 77 209 174 

Toronto 1 1 0—5 

Edmonton 2 13-4 

Rrsf Period: E-Arnoff 23 (Cloer, Staple- 
ton): T-CIark 30 (GIH, Eastwoodl; (DP). E- 
SlaPletanB IKrovOwk, □per); (pp). Second 

AtletlcD do Markld Z SevOla 4 
Oviedo 2, Red Sodeaod i 
Oeporflvp de La COnma 4 Aibaorle T 
Osaeuna 0, Zaragoza 8 
Tenerife 3, Sporting de Glion 0 

A Power Lineup 

For Team Viaeom 

Merger Creates 5-Gul> Arsenal 

.... - . . The Associated Pros 

ir NEW YORK — TV victor in thclakcovcr ba«lc 


television show* It's an arsenal of slam-dunkets, sUp^hootere ana 

, sss ^ ^ ^ sns 

Luc. battled over Patamoum,they were not focused 
since Viacom emerged as the wimiix, 

' 1 - l to hheup.ihat a moged viacom- 

ownership and the pnya** 
— the New York 

place has 

Paramount creates. 

■ It wfiHndodc 1 - „ 

hidings - of. a top executive and -■ — - - -j. 

Kwiffeg, the New Yorfc Rangers, the Florida Martins, the Florida 

Panthers and, most Ekdy r the Miami Dolphins. . „ . _ 

- The Panthers and Ramgas compete m the National noarey 
ae; the Knicks.m the National Basket ball Assocaationj tne 

ball, and the Dolphins in the 
National Football League. 

“There are enormous op- 
portunities here,” said Chris 
Dixon, an entertainment ana- 
lyst at Paine Webberlnc. 

But exactly what Sumner 
Redstone, Viacom’s dMarman, 
and H. Wayne Hnizeqga. who 
will become vice rhairman, 
plan to do with their sports 
treasure trove is not dear. 

Bat Snandud analysts. 

Vi acorn’s 
lineup would 
create an 
alliance oi five 

sports teams. 

“Sports is no ibore than software” Dixon said. “As Ted Turny 
. siwwctfnTly janO DStBUi in thft early day^yotican build a network 
on sports and old movies.”- -'. 

Turner, who owns the NBA’s Atlanta Hawks and die Atlanta 
Braves baseball team, is chairman of Turner Broadcasting System 
Rul, the giant cable and broadcast television company. 

Viacom's lineup would dwarf Turner's and create an xmprecedeni- 
ed alliance of five professional sport® teams. 

Viacom's acquisition of Paramount gives K ownership oT the 
Rangers «yA Knicks, the Madison Square Garden arena in New 
"York and the MSG Network, which broadcasts some of the teams' 
sanies over cable lines. ■ \ 

8 To beat QVCs bid. Viacom agreed to acquire Blockbuster Enter- 
tainment Corp. Blockbuster's diaimian, Huizenga, will become a * 
significant Viacom-Paramount shardnAder. - 

He also owns the Panthers, the Madias and has an agreement to 
acquire the 85 percent of the Dolphins he does not already own. 
Huizenga also owns half of Joe Robbie Stadium, where the Dolphins 

and Martins play. 

Viacom — if 

So Team Viacom — if nothing impedes the two acquisitions — . 
will include three Florida teams and Two New York teams , 

“ I think that’ll be . very , sellable, very padcagaHe,” said Tod 
Rosensn^ ince president of- marketing icir the -NBA’s Boston 
Celtics. "Ihcse arc great marketplaces were talking about-” 
Rosensweig said. the easiest way fer^ VraoMfr-Paranitamt to take 
. advantage of itt teams is throc^ p«A3^^ ^<msqrBiq7 deals. Pro . 
teams often arc roohsored My consurnttproducttccmpames. such as 
beermakers, in deals fhatrnn into tiie xmffionsqf dollars. 

The oompanies put op advertisements' ^ftc teams’ fidfities and 
are allowed to madeet products using the teaxtn’ names. 

IT Viacom-Paramount can make. sponsorship dollarego further' 
t through a rmtititcamjacfcage, it will be more coometitive and might 
be abfe to woo qxmsors anray from other te^ms^KDafcnswcig said- 1 * 
' Another avenue far profit wffl likely be broatkasting. Ihe on^nal 
idea for timViacom-Paiamount moger was to fill Viacom’s cable IV 
networks with Paramount's movie and television programming.' 
Professional ^orts is a powerful atufienoe draw. •’ - 
"MSG Network could dearly be expanded bum whereat is now" ■ 
said Jessica ReiT, amedia and entatainmeia analyst dt O^penheimer 
&Co^ adding that new networks might alsobecreated. 

“The other oppmtxmity, of courae, istfac merchandising of all of 
this stuff,” she said. Viaomhl^ranmuat could, for example, sell 
Ktadu jerseys and Dc^phins hats through Blockbuster stores. 

Still, same hurdles loom. . t 

Broadcasting op port uni ties could be fintited by network deals 
with the various leagues and other restrictions, and the leagues may 
balk at multiple-team ownership. 

Hirizenga’s buyout of the Dolphins still mzist be approved by (be 
NFL, wltidi has a rule against the cross-wnersfaip or teams in other, 
sports. The matter is pending. 

The NHL’s constitution, says no member can ewreire control — 
direct or indirect — over another member’s hqckey franchise. Hui- 
zenga, the Panthers’ owner, also would own a state in Viacom- 
Paramount, the Rangers’ owner. 


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Page 27 

SCHEDULES and events 

; Friday’s Events 

AM mas am GMT- 
AlpbwSWng - Men's combined si* 
tom first run. 0830; second run, 1200 
BbMdn Women** - W^icBometer 
relay*. 090% .. 

Ftpire Stating- Women's freestyte, 
1800. . 
tcaHochay - Semifinals. Finland vb. 
Canada. T830, Russia vs. Svraoen, 
2000 . 

SUjmpbig 90 rooters. 113 % ■ 

SpeodSksEng - VVoman'sS.OOO me- 
ters; 130% 

Friday** TV . 


AH times am focal ' 

Austria - ORF: 0600-1050, 1220- 
1700. 2015-2200. 2210-0030. ' - 

Britain - BBC2: 1420-155% 16»* 
1800, 2000-2230. 

Bulgaria - BWTVChanner l;-.ia25* 

1625. 1915- 1 945,2030^400; Channel 

2: 2155-2300, Q03Q43100. ' 

Croatia - HHT/TV2: 1780-2330. 
Cypru* - CYBC: 1715-1745. 2030- 
2100, 2230-2300. y 
Crech RapUrfic - CTV: 0915-1600, 
1945-2245. 230Q-001 5. : V* 

Damnaric - DR: 0945-1545. 2130- 

2215, 2215-0015. 

BMofihi — ETV: 1050-1730. 1915- 
1945, 214frOOB% 

Finland - YLE/TV1 : .1015-1700: 

Ftaace' — FR2: 0924-1115. 1120- 
1200, 1205-1253, 20502230; FR3: 
1255rl410, 1415-1520, 152O-T540. 
2005-2030. ' 

Gammy - ARD: 0900-1740. 1925- 

0000 . 

Greece - ETC 3015-1945. 2200- 
2400. - .. . .. 

Hungary - MTV/Charvwl 111347- 
1518; Channel 2: 2122-2230. 

Iceland - -RUV: 1 125-1445. 1815- 
1855, 22202300, 00300100. 

Rafy - fW2i 001*0200; HA13.-092S- 
1200. 1&KM33Q, 19502020.. 

Latvia - LT: 1915-1945 
Lithuania - LRT: 21 30-2200. 
Luxembourg - CLT: hfighOghts on 
evening nmre.l 900-200% ... . 
M a cedon ia - MKRTV/Channei 1: 
0825-0855, 1155-131% -1715-1745, 
1825-2100. 22302300; Channel 2: 
08501100. 1255-1535, 17502130; 
Channel 3: .1125-1425, 1755-1845, 

Monaco s TMC/IT: 09301200. 
13001345. 17401925, 20002230, 

NeOierlanda ■ - NOS:' 09001756, 
19302345. - 

Norway - NAC 0900175% 2000. 
2400; TV2: 18402000, 20302100. 

Poland - TVP/PR1 : 0915-1100, 
2015-2230; PR2: 1105-1545; 1605- 
1725.0030023% • 

Portugal - TV2: 2300232% RTP1: 

Romania RTVR/Chamel 1:1500 

1625. 1915- 1945, 2210-0130; Channel 

Ruasla -• RTO: 1630191% 2140 
8030; RTR: 11501400, 18501945, 

Slovakia - STV/SK; 0600-0830, 
0925-1525,1815-2845.1925-220% -. 
Slovenia - RTVSLO: 0800-1845.. 

Spain - RIVE: 08302400 (HMl- 
fita); TVE2 1445-150% w ' 
Sweden — SVT/TVSt 0915-1015. 
1400153% 20002400; Channel 1: : 

SUritrertand - T3B/TOI/ORS: 1230 
1530; S+ 11930-2200. 

Turkey - THT: 18002100. 2115- 

Ukraine - omu/lRI: 1050130% 
7800183% 2000-2330, 0080-0100; 
UT2: 1915-1945.' ... 

Guroepoit- 0600 -<x>n 8 nuoos cover- 


i ab times an local [■' 

Australia — Channel 9: 2030-010% 
New Zealand - TV): 07000800. 

Japan - NHK: 22002400 IgeneraO; 
12301500, 18000630 (aaMHta); 
1300150% 19002200 (RJ-Vlston)'. 
Papua New CUnaa - B4TV: 2200 


CMna - CCTV: 1700193% 2300 

Hong Kong - TVB: 240001 0% . 
South Korea - KBSs- 1000130%. 
MBC: 14301730, 2400013% 

Malaysia -.TO: 23100015. . 
Singapore - S8C/ Channel 12: 2400- 
010 % 

STAR TV/Prtma Sports - 0600 
133% 1530-corfflnuoua coverage. 
AB4mesare EST - 
Canada - CTV: 06300900, 1330 
180% 2000230% 

United States - CBS:07000900, 
2000233% 0100020% TNT; 1300 
1806. : - 
Mexico - .Televisa: 07001100. 1700 

Frmx* - FR2; 0914 - 103 % 1535 - 
170 % PR 3 : 1255 - 141 0 , 1538 * 170 % 

-AW* 0903 - 1858 . 2015 - 

2330 . 

®FH 0 » - ET 1 : 12301300 ; E 72 : 
1400150 % 16001800 . 1915 - 1945 . 
Hon gary - MTV/Channtf 1 : 2005 - 
202 % Channel 2 : 11001300 . 1530 

1800 .-; 

Iceland - RUV; 0825 - 0945 . 1155 - 

1315 . 1355 - 1800 . . 1650175 % 1825 - 
1855 , 2250 - 2350 . 

- RAH: 14001445 ; RAia 0100 - 
, 020 % RAO: 0925 - 140 % 1455 - 1700 . 
1930202 %. " ■- 

t-stvte"— L.T: 11001415 . 1915 - 194 % 
0030910 % Channel 2 : 1 400 - 1 $oo. 
Lfihuanla - LRT: 1600 * 1800 . 2130 
2150 . 

. L ux e m bou r g - CLT; ttgtffgMa on 
evening news. 4900200 % 

Macedonia -. MKHTV/Channel 1 : 
0825 - 0945 ,' 1155 - 1315 , 1525 - 1800 . 
1820210 % Channel 2 : 0855 - 1600 , 
1715 - 2150 , 2230230 % Channel 3 : 
1150140 % 1755483 % 19502230 . 
Menace . — - TMC/IT: 09301100 . 
1145 - 1925 , 2345 - 0015 . . 
Nediertands - N 0 SK 190 O 1420 , 
. 18402325 . 

Norway — NRK: 0900 - 1800 , 2000 
0 T 3 % TV 2 : 14554700 . 1845-1 900 
Poland - TVP/PRIr 1245 - 1345 . 
1500180 % 2225232 % PR 2 : 0920 
110 % 1345 - 150 % 2000210 % 2400 
0145 . 

Portugal - TV 2 : 2300232 % RTPt: 
1100112 % "• - 

Romania - RTVB/Chanrwl 1 ; 1400 
1445 , 15 S 02000 r -t» 300100 ; Chennai 
2 : 2150 - 0030 . . - - . . .. 

Russia - RTO: 1700190 % 2200 
013 % RTR: 1450170 % 21002300 . 
Slovakia - STV/SK: 0800 - 089 % 
0925 - 1015 , 13001700 , 1815 - 1845 . 
1925 - 240 % 

Slovenia - RTVSLO: 09001845 . 
1955 * 20215 , 2030 - 2335 . 

Spain - R 7 VE. 09302400 (saM- 
Hte); TVE 2 : Starting at 113 % 

Sweden - SVT/TV 2 : 0915 - 1015 . 
1245 - 1500 , 2100220 % Channel 1 : 
1500170 % 1915 - 210 % 2200240 % 
SwRaartand - TSR/TSi/DRS: 0930 - 
170 % 

Turicay - THT: 1615 - 1800 , 2000 
210 % 2200 - 0030 . 

Ukraine - DTRU/UT1: 1330180% 

1955 - 2045 , 0030010 % UT 2 : 1350 

1600 , 1915 - 1945 .- 

euraaport - oeoocantlnuouscova-- 

aga. . ' . 

. • AH times are local - - 
Auatrada - Charmei ft 20300100 . 
New Zealand - TVI: 0700080 % 
2130240 % 

Jdpaa - NHK: 22002400 {general); 
12301500 , 18000630 (satellite); 
13001500. 19002200 (HLVWan). 
Papua New Odnee - EMTO 220 O 
0130 .- 

Chbm - CCTV: 22202400 , 0010 - 
oiia ■■■■- 
Hong Kong — TVB: 2400 - 0100 . 
SooOt Korea ^ MBC; 14001700 , 
0100 - 023 % 

Malayala - TVS: 23150015 . 
Stegapora — SBC/Channal 12:2400 
010 % 

STAR TV/Prime .Sports - 0600 
1330 , 1530 -con 8 nuaus coverage. 

' AR times are EST 
Canada - CTV: 10001800 , 1900 
220% ■•••*••• 

United States - CBS; 1300160 % 
1900230 % 2330008 % ‘ 

Mexico - Tatavlsa: 1 1001400. 2200 

-Information prowdacr by the IOC, 7 WT, 

' and tndMtfotf broadcasters; ccmpded 
Oy the Intomatfonai Herald Tribune 

Ragged Russians Fight for Their Hockey Survival 

By Johnette Howard 

■ WaskmgWt Pea Serriet 

ULLEHAMMHR — Russia's 
tiennse as tbe world's hockey power 
has been predic te d for six years and 
three Olympics now. Bat it never 
seemed as inymmant as it did hoe 
Wednesday night. Russia had 
scratched bade twice to puli even 
with surprising Slovakia, knowing 
a loss would ensure a finish out of 
the medals for the first time since 
the Soviet Union debated at the 
Games in 1956. Bui now overtime 
arrived and defeat was riding on 
every slapshot the Slovaks took. 
Until — for the Russians — a god- 
send happened. 

Winger Andrei Nikohdune, al- 
ready playing with a broken jaw, 
fought off the two defenders and 
somebowshoved a sideways pass to 
iftaimnaie Alexandre Vinogradov 
brfore facing ridden hard into the 
boards behind the net. 

Nikolkhine didn't see Vinogra- 
dov whistle the puck past Slovak 
goalie Eduard Hartman’s snapping 
glove. But he had to hear the 
crowd's roar. And see his team- 
mates spilling over the boards, ea- 
ger to mob Him and Vinogradov. 
Perhaps he even caught a glimpse 
of what was happening hack on tbe 

Russian bench — that amazing 
om-cf -character victory jig that 
was being done by the usually 
grim-faced coach Viktor Tikhonov, 
the 64-year-old man who has pre- 
sided over the Olympic team from 
the Cold War era’to today’s Talent 
Wars with the National Hockey 
League, always cleaving tbe team's 
path through the years like the 
prow of a ship. 

Russia had won, 3-2, with only 
1:11 left in sudden death and il was 
the Slovak^ instead, for whom “Kfe 
stopped at five minutes to mid- 

night,” is the words of Slovakia's 
coach, Julius Supler. 

Russia now faces defending 
world champion Sweden on Friday 
in one medal-round semifinal 
game. And Sweden wQl be favored 
by many to win. 

[f that happens, tbe Russians 
will be shoved into the bronze- 
medal game opposite tbe loser of 
the other semifinal between Cana- 
da and Finland, ft’s not bard to 
predict how that would play back, 
m Moscow. When the 19S0 Soviet 
Union squad coached by Tikhonov 
finished second to lhe'U.S. team, 
the Americans later heard the Sovi- 
ets never bothered to take their 
silver medals home because they 
were so ashamed about the loss. 

Hus time around, the Russians 
knew they weren’t as dominant as 
they’ve been in the past But they 
have won right of the last 10 Olym- 
pic golds in ice hockey. And their 

struggles through the preliminary 
round here in Ldiehammer touched 
off plenty erf hand wringing and 
teeth -gnashing back home. 

Russia finished only third in its 
six-team pool, and it is hard to 
deride which of its two record-ty- 
ing losses was worse: Tbe *L2 
shocker to the unremarkable Ger- 
man team, or the 5-0 pasting that 
Finland, now the tournament fa- 
vorite, laid on them. It was the first 
time Russia hadn’t scored in 68 
Ofyznpk; hockey games. Afterward 
Tikhonov told a Russian journalist. 
“I cannot understand what has 
happened, why we suddenly cannot 

One answer, of course, is tbe 
NHL’s raiding of Russian talent. 
The economic upheaval gripping 
Russia since the breakup of the 
Soviet Union has fueled a talent 
exodus * - European and minor- 
leagues too. And players are leav- 

ing at younger ages than ever be- 

Vitali Smirnov, president of the 
Russian Olympic Committee, esti- 
mates that more than 200 Russian 
hockey players have left for the 
North American and European 
leagues since the Communist-bloc 
broke up and the borders opened. 
The Russians have been lured by 
the money and promise of an easier 

By Smirnov’s count. 46 Russian- 
born players are now with NHL 
i gipwi while the proud clubs back 
in Russia that used to churn them 
out are struggling io stay afloat. 
Tikhonov himself now coaches the 

Russian P enguins — the name 
grand old Moscow Dynamo 
changed to when it entered into a 
joint-venture agreement with How- 
ard Baldwin, owner of tbe NHL’s 
Pittsburgh Penguins. The Olympic 
team that Tikhonov has brought to 

these Games has no one left from 
(he Albertville Olympic team, 
though those Games happened just 
two years ago. 

Now, watching the hockey team 
wobble as it has here has Smirnov 
talking strongly that “something 
has to be done.” It’s important for 

the ice hockey team. Smirnov said 
Thursday, and it’s important to the 
Russian people. 

“Athletics help our people fed 
more convinced, help our children 
feel more convinced, that we are 
normal people — we are compara- 
ble to other people of the world 
despite all that we are going 
through.” Smirnov said. “Wc need 
to do something for our future gen- 
erations of athletes too. 

Czechs Beat U.S. Team, 
Norway Avoids Cellar 

The Associated Pros 

GJOVEK. — The US. hockey 
team lost, 5-3, to the Czech Repub- 
4k in the consolation round Inuis- 
day night, guaranteeing that it can 
do no better than equal its worst 
Olympic showing ever. 

Tbe United States (1-3-3), which 
was eliminated from medal conten- 
tioh with Wednesdays quarterfinal 
hss to Finland, will meet Germany 
in Saturdays game for seventh 

- The Americans, who Rnisligd 
seventh m 1984 and 1988, need a 
victory to avoid their fiat eighth- 
place showing. They also are in 
dun gf* of their first Olympics with 
only one win. 

Peter Ferraro and Jeff Lazaro 
scared for the ILS. team in the first 
4:08 but the Americans blew the 

many tie both times within a min- 

Norway 3, Austria 1: Norway fi- 
nally won a game, and thus avoided 
last place in the 12-ieam tourna- 

Norway outsbot Austria 26-19, 
including 13-3 in the first period, 
but had trouble putting the puck in 
tbe net despite eight power plays. 

Austria only came alive in the 
final seven mmnies of the game, 
repeatedly threatening the net after 
gating its first goaf. 

Espen Knutsen gave Norway its 

lead only 5:40 into the game on a 
power play, intercepting an errant 

in the left face-off 
drde and firing a slap-shot low to 
the far corner. 

Roy Emar Johansen gave Nor- 
way its insurance with 38 seconds 

lead before the first period ended. 

ivei Geffert and 

. fin Rucesa, Pa' 

Petr Hrbek scored in a 4:06 span to 
pul the Ckedis up 3-2 after one. 

Czechs made it 4-2 after two pe- 
riods on Jiri Dofezal’s breakaway 

Geffert and America’s Mark 
Beaufainraded third-period goals. 

Sforakii 6, Gennasy Sc Oto Hao- 
sak scored 138 into overtime to set 
Slovakia’s first-ever in«*ing with 
the Czech Republic, 

Slovakia and the Czech Repub- 
lic, which were formed when 
Czechoslovakia divided Jan. 1, 
1992, will meet for fifth place Sat- 

Hacsalds goal came after Slova- 
kia, paced by Lcbonrir Kohuk’shai 
trick, raffied from a 3-0 first-period 

deficit to twice go ahead by a goal 
in the third period, only to let Ger- 

remanring in The second, splitting 
two defenders and porting a back- 
hander through the legs of the Aus- 
trian goa he, Brian Stankiewicz, 
from jost inside the face-off drde. 

Austria’s only victory in the 
tournament was a 4-2 win over 
Norway in tbe- first round. 

Italy 3, France 2: Italy scored 
twice in a 36-second man late in 
the third period Thursday to beat 
France finish in ninth place. 

Italy (3-4), which hosts the 
Worid Championships this spring, 
improved from its last-place show- 
ing in tbe 1992 AJbcrtwSe Games. 

France (1-5-1), which also lost to 
Italy in the preliminary round, 
chopped from eighth in 1992 to 
1 Oth this year. 

The I miKans trailed 2-1 until Ste- 
fan Rghuzri’s power-play goal at 
14*34 of the third period. 

“As it is now. a private person 
signs and there is no sign of the 
money coming back (o the club 
that developed them," Smirnov 
added. “The club should get a part 
of the salary. There should be some 
kind of system in place, where if {a 
league like the NHL] takes 20 play- 
ers away, two get to come back to 
pby in the Games.” 

The NHL, the Internationa] 
Olympic Committee and the Inter- 
national Ice Hockey Federation are 
now talking about iL If the Olym- 
pics compromise by altering their 
current hockey competition format 
— perhaps by seeding the top four 
teams or so into the medal round 
without having to play the prelimi- 
nary round — the NHL will com- 
promise by shutting down for S to 
10 days, not the 16 days the Gaines 
cover now. Thai, theoretically, 
would allow stars to return to play 
in tbe Games for Iheir countries. 

w .. . ™ 



The NHL and Internationa} Ice 
Hcckey Federation are also dis- 
cusring a way to have transfer fees 
for all European-born players fun- 
neled through the international 
federation for payment to the play- 
er's dub teams. “In the past, trans- 
fer fees haw been paid by our 
teams,” an NHL source said, “but 
you never knew where the money 
was actually going in Russia. Or to 

But until the changes lake place, 
Tikhonov and Smirnov try to 
bridge the past and present for 
Russia as best they can. A lottery 
has been started in Russia to help 
finance the sports programs. The 
Russian government siSl provides 
some subsidization. Tbe Russian 
Olympic Commiiiee negotiated a 
deal to have Reebok outfit and 
house the 1994 Russian Winter 
Olympic team. While all of that is 
very nice, it won’t be much help in 
Friday's game against Sweden. 

Hbn> Peni/TT* Accented Pro* 

Gmstophe Vile of France on the ice after being checked, as iris team fefl to Italy on Thursday. 

“We have a chance,” said Igor 
Dmitriev, Russia's assistant coach. 
“But it’s not a big chance. We have 
to find a way to score more goals." 




S: f>wnma WBmtw &»wfen 
S: VrtuM SdmMtr. S wU n rtcwd 
B: Alenkn Oovzan, stovenlo 

G: Svaflano Bnawnora. Russia 
S: Cimm HunvMv. Austria 
B: Ctawflo PedisMn, Gammy 

FTMtytt Sdtos 

coutmcY • 

- B 



w • 

-1 , 







Italy . 




Canada' . - 


unflold States - 




Switzerland . 







Jaoan. ' 


Netherlands . 



Finland • - • 



Sooth Korea 



Fntaai'. - 



Saaden .. . . 



Baiwup . . 


2 . 


Kazakhstan- ' 




China - 
















G: Emus Kunvwhr, Austria 
5: Su s tlonu FsdntWna RusNo 
B: Gundb Manana, Germany 

G: Russia (Elm Vaan*, Larissa Lanrtfna. 
Nina Gavrflu*. Lyubov Egorova) 

S: Norway (Trufe DYbenctoW. ingar Helena 
Mvbroatan, EBn NllWfb Anita Macn) 

B: Italy (Bk» Varnetta, Monuela Di Canto. 
GArteHu PonsizL Stefonla BetawnOo) 

G: JearvCuc Brassard, Canada 
S: Serwi Staupictsov. Russia 
B: Edgar Grasnt r aa France 
Women's Movets 
G: Stine Use M a t te s t on . Norway 
S: Lb McIntyre. United Stores 
B: Elizaveta Kolevnlkova Russia 

i talne r, Italy 

S: susi Erdmann. Germany 
B: Andrea T n o w cr fcer. Austria 

G: Oksana Grttschak. Evgeni Matav, Russia 
S: Mala Usova and Alexmter ZmiMiv Rusba 

B: Jayne TorvO I and CUrWonherDeorv Britain 


G: Sergei Tarasov, Russia 
S: FTamr Luck, Germcsnr 
B: Sven FtscMr. Germany 

Johann Otav Koa. N annoy 
Rlntte Rltsma. NetWtants 
Falks Z a nd Nra . Ne m e rH s Ms 
Ataine SUae 

MtaaMaV SOMAdait 5Wa» 

Diora RoHS'SMnrattar, U3. 

Saturday’s Events 

Ml times are GMT 

Alpina SkBng - Woman's stetom. 
Ural run, 063 % second run. 120 % 
BMNchi - Men s 4 x 7 ti-* 2 onteter ro- 
iay. 120 % ' ^ 

Doti jlfld - Four-man first second 
runs, 090 % - _ 

Figure Skating — Exhibition, 1400 . 
to* Hockey - Ssirenm place. Gorma- 
ny-Slovakia loser ws. CrattfvUnited 
Sates laser, 753 % fifth place, Czech- 
United’ States winner vs. Gcarmarry- 
StovaWa whiner, 183 % bronze modal. 
Russta-Sweden loser ;v& f^iland- 
Cartada loser. 200 % . 

Wrt-Tracfc Spm^t SkaOng 
on's 1.000 me ter s. 180 % men’s OTV 
meter, 1 80% monte 5.000-meter relay, 
180 % . 

Saturday ’• TV 

' ajnowE 

-AM times are k?cal . 

- ORF: 0600 - 190 % 2135 - 

2355, 2200-2355. _ m 

BriMft - BBCl: 1145 - 171 % BBGt 
1715-204% ' : ' 

BiMgarto - BNT/Channel 1 : IMS- 
fS% 1355-l5l5. 1630-180%. 191£ 
1945, 2155-003% Channel 2: 1700- 


C^^C^ 1715 - 1745 .'W 
ji 00 ^ 2230 - 2300 - 
Credit n epu bB o - 
1915 - 240 % Channel 2 : 

P BBMBrt c - Oft - 1145 - 180 % 2118 - 
220 % OOKHH 3 S. 

Esfaate - £ 7 V; 1025 - 1115 . 1350 - 
im2B%P050, 2145^B%_ y ^ 
Ptamid 7 IX/ 7 V 1 : 214 S 4 J 03 Q. 
TV 2 : 1300 - 180 % 

G: Deborah Convxwnotd. rtoty 
-S: Mdrttar BrtL Germany . 

Br Vninl Schneider, Swtberlend . 

G: Manuefci Dl Cento. Italy- * 

S: Marti Wold. Morany 
B: MarttaUfm K l rve e nieml, Ffataoa 

G: Swtti i {Gustav Weder and Donat) 

S: Smttz. 1 1| Reto GoetxM cbk! Guide acKRO) 
B: Italy I (Gunther Huber and StetanoTlcel) 
SUMnam ■ 

. Large HU ue Meters 
G: Jem V fclMWug , Germany 
5; - emu aradewn, ttorwoc 
B: Andreas GaWberaer, Austria 

Svetlana Glod U daeva Russia 
rsoMe Kratner, Ifafv 

Cross Ceaanry 5M« 
Wome e V S Utetaefers 
Lyubov Egorova. Rasta . 
Manuelo Dl Cento, IKrtY 
Marto-Utaa Kl r ve sn lend 

lberra,Seaia2:3L67 1 1 0X36. 1 :TX3l> i UL Re- 
olno caraenead, France. 7:1L7S 0:2X45. 
T:txn>; l». Trtae Bakke. Norway, iSSIM 
I1-.33A t OXSSl: 2D. Urtto HravaL Slovenia, 
2:38.14 (1:2341. 1:1455). 

21, Marta Jose Rleada. Saoin. 2:39-45 
(1:2442. 1:14J3); 22. Monica Bosch, SpaJa 
2:<U3 ll:2SAl:U4l);2XAsta HaadDrsdal- 
tir. Icetant 2:4420 <1 :21fl2. 1 24, Z of] 

tlesaalt tawtratta, 2:44.14 (1:2X48.1:1744); 
CorneAo Cota Rotno nl a DNS; iouflo Kout- 
mlKi, Ru« ta, DNS ; Vervora Zeteraknta. Rus- 
sia, DNS; Eml Koaabata Japcev DNS; Fu- 
mlyo Uenwra Japan. DNS; Evo Koch. 
Hanoary. DNF-1; Natalia Buga Russia 
DNF-1: Emma Carrick-Andenon. Britain. 
DNF-1; Caroline Poussier. Andorra, ONF-t; 
Erflco Honssea Sweden, DNF-L 
Alesmro Mdaritw, Austria DNF-1; 
Kotin Keren. Steventa. DNF-1: Ylvo Nowea 
Sweden. DNF-1; KrteHnaAndensoaSwedea 
DNF-1; Sophie Leironc Franca DNF-1; Mo- 
reno GoMxla itaty. DNF-1; PernlUo Wtaera 
Sweden, DNF-1; Otaa Loginova Ukraine. 
DNS-2: Diem RoHe-Steinratter. United 
States, DNS-2; Vkdtv Grau. Andorra DNF-2; 
Meionle Turaeon. Conada DNF-2; HUde 
Gera, Germany. DNF-2; Coriwic Rev-BeliM. 
Swltsertana DNF-2; CaraUne GeddwOaW. 
Norway. DNF-2; Alenka Dovzaa Stoventa. 
DNF-3; Leila Plcecnt Franca DNF-2; Heidi 
VOelker. United States. DNF-2; Kotlo SeL 
ttnger. Germany. ONF-X 

32. AtzOeta Havrandkiwa Stavakta, 
1:23:41.5; 31 Si ike Schwoner, SwttafKmd, 
1J4:07A; 34. Bernndetto Bocefc. Poland. 
1^4^84; 35. Cristal vahtra. Estonia 
1:34:4X4; 3X Martino Vandrova Czecn Re- 
public. 1:34:5X1; 37. Brtgttre Albrecht. Swit- 
xeriona 1:14: S3; 3X Irina Kosfodin Nltad- 
cMna Butaarta, 1:36:042.' 3?, Lude 

Owoustovska Czech Republic. 1:34:GM; 4X 
Dorcas W iP Movooe. united States. 1 :3*:3*.i. 
41. Sarbora Mettier, SwMwlowt 1:34:4X1; 

42. Jana Razlova Czech Republic. 1:34:400; 

43. Tattona Kutlikova Stavakta. 1 J6:41 A; 44. 

S v ettano JCamotSkaya Belarus. 1:36’SU)i 4& 
Sumiko Yokoyoma Jopan,l:37:MJ; 44. Ye- 
lena cnernetsova Kaza k hs tan . 1:3B:17J); 47, 
Oksana Kotova Kazakhstan. 1 : 38:34.1; 4X. In- 
eta Kravcrte. Latvia 1 ; 38:41 J; m, Laura WU- 
son. United States. Sx Srtvte Glry- 

Rousset, Franca 1 : 363; 51 . Suaome lOna 
United States. 1:45:275; Lvudmlta Dldeleva 
Belarus. DNS: Yetano pnratnon, Betarvs. 
DNS; Dorata Kwasny. Poland, DNF; Iveta 
ZMtneerova Czech Republic, DNF. 



G: Andress Scboenbaechler, Swltzertond 
S; PWltaoe Lorucha Canoda : 

Bs.Uoyd LonaMs, Orada : 

G: DM Chertazcva, UtbeUttaa 
S: Marta Ltadorea Sweden. "- 
B: HUde Syonove LML Norway 

G: Johann Otav Kass, Norway 
5: KleB StorvtaL Norway 
B: Bart Wdkarap, Netherfcmds 

O: E. Gordeeva and X Grinkov. Russia 
S: N. Mls h k u ttenofc and A. Dmitriev, Russia 
B: i. Brasseur and U E«er, Canada 
Cross Cooatry suiea 
Mew's 38 Knometers 
G: Tnoma Alsaaard. Norway 
S: Btarn Dohlta, Norway 
B: MBca Mvuvia Finland 



G: Japan (TaKsnorl Kona itonwM Aba 
lUnQ Ootwora) - . 

3: J tar n « Tr (Knid7WeApetete^Mart»tatata> 
VK. Fred Bom umdbera) 

B: Svrftsertand (Htapoiyf Ksrgpc, Jean-Vva 
CuendBL Andreas Schoad) 1- :. 

Bt-Kdta SeUnaw. G o n anny 
S; Ptcobp Street; United nates 
Bt - isaMe (Costner. Italy 

G: Gcora Hoeu, Germany 
S: Martos Procfc Austria 
B: Artahj Zoaae ler . Italy 

GZ BIoni Dablle, Norway. 

Vtodmtr Smirnov, Koctakhstaa 
arSBvk, Foow, Italy 

G: Aleksandr oaiubev, Riasio 
S: Seram Ktevchenva Russia 
B: Manabti Morft Japan 



G: Cathy Turner, Untied States 
S: -Yanmei Zhana China . 

B: Amy Petersoa^Uryted Shdes 


MeaH Prne Pmrom 
- G: AtaKM Urmenav, Aorta 
Ss- EMsStelka Canada 
B: rautape Candetara France 

G; Mortals Wamelor, Gcmanv 
S; urs KaeUn. Swttzeriand ’ ... 
Br aatatton Moyer, Ausfrta ' ;. 


G: Fred Barra L u wdbera, Norway 
S: Takanori Kona Japan 
.8: Biart* Eaaen Vlk, Norway ’ 

. Speed SkaMna 

G: Tommy Moe, United States 
S: merit Andre Aaaisdb Norway 
8: Edward PadMaskr. Ooaada 

kaaori Kona M«sart>l Aba Kenll Oohrara), 1 
hoor, 22 minutes. SIX seconds; Z Norway 
UCnut Tore Apeiond, Biarte Enpen vuu Pred 
Borre Lundberel. 1:22:319; 3, Swit zer te nd 
(Hlppolvt Kempt Jean-Yves Ouendet, Aj> 
dteos Sctwodl, a Estonia (Moteter 

FretaBJttb Altar LevandL Aso Marinrantt). 
1:23^BA; X Czech ReauMc CZbynek Panek, 
AUten Kucera, Fraatt&ek Atako), 1J4. -tBS; K 
France (Svtvoln GuUteuma Stepha n a Ml- 
Chon. Fttarice Guv). 1 :20 -JUL 
7, United States tDtnrtd Jarrett Rtaa Hack- 
man ana Todd Lodwtck. Steamboat Springs. 
CotaJ.i :2S:lX4; X Flotand (ToolS oip oranta. 
Jari Mantua. To ate Nurntela). 1:24.-324; f. 
Austria (Georg Rledetsprrger. Morto 
Stechar. Felix GoMwwd), l:27M7J; IX G«r- 
many (Thsmas Outtar. ttiland Braua Tham- 
as Abratts). l :te^3A; tl. Itaty (Simone Pm- 
nrt. Andrea Longa Andrgo Cecon). 
\OKZT.1: it Russia (StanRiav OaiAravakl, 

untari Stoltarav. Voted Kobelev). 1 J0:4LX 

schpenaoectder, SwltmtenA 23447 goads; Z 
PhlUpoe Lurocha Canada 22X43; a Lloyd 
LOngtoK Conoda 22244; A Andrew Ccxtfdk. 
Conockv 21WI7; 5. Trace WurihtnPte w . U-S_ 
21X15; A NkStates Fontaine. Canada 21011. 

T. Eric Betgoaa United States. THUS; XMtds 
Johansson. Sweeten, 2 tt/JB; A Jean-More Boc- 

cada Frtncat«4J8; IX Rkteord Coobina Brh- 

ote. 19X38; IL Kris Fs dd orse a United Ste4ea 
Wsjt; IL Alexei Portentov. Betaras, Data 
QwrtaznvaUa»Ustcn.l6iS4j % Marie Und- 
grerv Sweden. 14X88; X HUde Svnnovc UA 
Norway. 14X13; X Mala Schmid. Switzerland. 
15*50. & Notalhra S u er d ny u va Ukraine, 
15X88; X Kirslto MarshatL Australia IRL7X 
7,Trocy Evans. UnhedStates.13K77;ACor- 
oaneODvier. Canada 13X94; 9. ElfleSlmehea 
Gvmcnv, 13X44; IX Julio Rakov fctvBetarm. 
13S53; 11 , mno Prthrenka Ukraina 13S28; IX 
NaroHa Orekhova Rumta. 13*52- 

4X47; X Svlvte Daigle. Canoda 5559; Marino 
Prlaveva Russia. dlsnuslNIed. 

SEMIFINALS l first two In nth heat « aT. 
ty lor finalst Heal 1 -l.Yoe Yanmei. Cdr-q. 
4 * 81 ; X Amy Petersoa united States. 4 * 28 ; \ 
Kim Sohae. South Korea 4 X 36 . Yang Yon. 
CMna dteeuMMed: Hoot 2 — 1 , Cathy Tumor, 
United State* 47 ^x- Z Won Hve-Kyuna South 
Korea 4743 ; X Wang xtutan. CMna 4 X 00 : isa- 
BeOe Charesl. Canada dtenwlifled. 

FINAL Graew A— I. Cothy Tumor, united 
Stales. 4 S 9 I; XZitang Yanmei, China 4444 J X 
Amy Patersoa United States. 44 J 4 : X won 
Hve-kvuno, South Korea < 7 SO; Group 0 — I. 
Khn Sohea South Korea 49 AI ; X Wong Xtu- 
tea China 49 X 3 . 

MEtrs SOB-METERS (ttrtt two In eochheat 
ouaWv lor Satardoirs auarterBnatel Hoal S- 
Rldiard NUetskL Aurtralta. 44 X 4 ; X Martin 
Jahonssaa Svmdoa 4454 ; X John Coyle, united 
Statea 4542 :XLILIanlLChinai: 0344 :Haal 2 — 
l.MarcGagnon.cano<to. 44 iS 5 ;XStrvefiBrt»- 

iwi Riniin nnn nan iimtr iinn 

ertondS. 4543 ; X WIN CTRetHv. Britain. 4 X 41 . 

HoolX— 1 . Derrick CompbelL Canoda 4 X 72 ; 
X Lee Jun-iia South Korea 4541 ; X Bruno 
Loseos. France. 4 X 54 ; Heal 4 — 1 , Owe Ji- 
boon. South Korra 4 X 34 ; X Jun Uomotsu, Jo- 
pcn. 4450 ; XBot-Orgii BotchuluuaMongolta. 
4 X 43 ; Oraxta Poaone. Italy, atsauaiiflod. 

Heats — 1 . LI jktlun. China 4447 ; Z Kim KL 
hooa South Koroa 4532 : X igor Ozerov. Rue- 
ste. 4 X 48 ; X Andrew Nlchoboa New Zealand. 
5 X 21 ; Heat x— L Mh+o i/uiuermte. Italy. 
4 X 29 ; X Frederic Btoatbura Conoda 4 X 38 ; X 
Sergei Koeyzev, Russia 4 X 54 ; X Eric Flolra 
United States. «X 7 T. 

Heat 7 — 1 , Nick Gooch, Britain, 4 X 03 : X An- 
drew GabeX United States. 4 X 31 ; X Midwet 
McMillea New zeotomt 4 X 98 ; xsntdwn Huv- 
aea Betekm. 4504 ; Heat 8 — 1 , Blerrar Elge- 
fun, Norway, 4441 ; X Scdoru Tenaa Jopoa 
4 x 88 ; X Kleran Hansen. Australia 4 X 38 ; X 
Christopher Nlchotsoa New Zealand. 1 : 0 X 43 . 

NALS ( first two In each heat auolltv tar Satur- 
day's final) Heal 1 — 1 . Italy, 7 minutes, 1134 
seconds; X United Slates. 7 : 1 X 58 ; X China 
7 : 1944 ; X Norwov. 7 : 2 SJ 3 : Heat 3- 1 . Canada 
7 :U»; X Aushglte. 7 :lX 4 l ; X JOPaa 7 :lX 85 ; 
X New Zealand. 73138 . 



G: Mawete Dl Centa Itaty 
5: Lyubov Egorova Russia 
B: Nina Gavrtk*. Russia 

tart W.Kano nU g : 
Gz Sterel TdteRlKwi RussJo :• ' 
3: Rlc» <NR Gernoony.- . 

B; serael Tarasov. Rtesrto -. 

- WMsnS U t el emeters 
G: Myrtan BXddnX'Gonata ■ 

5 ; Svetlana PawnM N, BMeras 
a; iratentyhaTaifbfcTIXraltiir- 

Toaiurraadef * inAudno 

ft’s nxver been crater 

lo Grid sow. 


or fere 06069-175413 

(H Boffilx BUr, OnH*d States-. ; * - " 

S; Ad* BrfBT. Qarmam :■■■ • . .. ; , . 

B: Y» CWno 

Cm* Ooontry area’' 
IH^«H Wtemeter Relay . 

G; holy (Atourilto Do Zolt Marts) Atoarsfla 
Gldrflte' vanzeffa SIM* FW«r| 

S: Ntfwgy ( Store Sivertsea-Vdaord Utvono, 
Ttevnos Atspoord. atom DatiHc) . 

B- Flntaml (Mlko Mvlfvtu, Harrt KJrv**- 
ntemL Jari ROteBtn. Jorl Isamefsa) 

- Large HB1 O B Me te r Tim 
G: S«mmr. i Moral oerg JoMdaaimtef 
DuffiW, Dtetar Thoma Jon* WrtscflBRl 
c- japan (Jlnyu NtenikataTokonobuOtajlta 
Kosoi. MOBtoftn Horodn) 
b- Aisirta (Heinz Kifttln, ChrbllM MM* r. 

HMXil JMBtemMu tuiuv . 

G: south Korea 
S; Comte 
B: United State* 

G: Bonnie Blair. United States 
Si {wm Audv Conada 
“B; FrotattM Schenk, Germany 
- ' BfaflUM 
Wo— ete-B tateatcHTS 

Or Myrtan Bedard, Canada 
Aim. Sriaha' Prance 
r B: Ursula DM, Germaav 

Mac's 5J88 Meter* 
G: Johann Otav Kass. Norway 
S: KteU StoroUd, Noranv 
B: Rlntte Rttamo. Hetheriotefc 




- - Muff n«* n « 

C: KcrT SrvWer aqa wlHrted Hotter, Italy 
S: Hobs tare Raffl antfNorttert Huber. Haht 
BiteeCMKiwwaid JOB B8hrendl;0ertiwty 
. - Speed' Rotta* 
G: Dan Jaraen, United Statra 
5: leer znrtemirtiv, Bdarm 
8: Sargol tOevdenya Russia 

■; AteteeBMXte 

- - Mteft SdPtrGW Stetea 

, G: Marian Wo imcta r. Garmtarr 
S: Tomigy Mofc Palmer, Ateskd 
B: neffl Andre Aomodt Nerwov 
One* cniedr y SXBnp 
Mom M tranmeterr 
G: Blent Doha*. Norway 
Si VMMmlr Smirnov, Kazakhstan 
B: Mares Atterelta. Italy 

Went srra 18-KBomcter Panail 
G; LYwbav Egerevn, RiMA 
«: Mamtete Dl Centa. note 
B: Staftmte Oe i m o n dB. fluty 


woMEirs nrtBSd re* — 


momX (lrtU7, l:1U0i; X Marilna EriL 
GomHOY. istTf aaux iiiRteJ; jywj 
SdmBldtr. Swinertand. 3J2R7 (1.21 J9. 
1 'iu».- 4, Anita wochter. Austria 2:XL04 
(TJU8, 1:11*1; S. contt Merle. From 
mui ndlJ«.i:rttei>; X Eva Twardckws. 
iSted State*. 2:3X41 naxix l:1U«j 7. 
LoraMoaonL |talYA3xS7 (1:218X1 :KU!» 
Marianne ttoratad. NnW. 2:3 X79 11:21 ■«. 

liBM: X NeWZdter^aefcW/Swltz^rtanil, 

i- wu fl: 21 U.l: 12 JJ 0 ); M.CWi8to«i Meter- 

Kocck, Gernwiy. 2:3122 (12102. n 1 ®**- 
II, Bnit Hera. UeJiienitein. 2:3l09 

ii- 22Al:TX5li;i2,5oeloPrctnar,5tav*°io- 
2.-3111 n:22Al.i:l»te): U Ang^Pnri- 
,iyy tuumd States. 3:30X4 (1 JX5& 1.TX89). 
IX Sylvia Eder. A ustria T MM 
1-1X4S7; li Sofcteo Penzoitni, Italy. r.3xs» 
UAH KttSW; ifc “rin Raw. 

tend. 2:3X55 (1:222X 1:13331; 17, Ataiwd 

01 Cento. Holy. 1 Hour. 25 mtnutee. seo- 
on da' X Morir wold, Norwov. 1:25:57.8; X 
Vorto-Uteo KirvesnleinL Fintana 1 r26:114; 
X Trade DrttwdoW. Norway. V3A:SLh; & 
Lvubev Egorova Ruertal :24:5t5; A Yetena 
viaiba mortal t 24:57.4; 7. inger Helene Nv- 
braotan. Norway. 1^7:113: A Marlut RoOe, 
Rrtona l&M: 9. Svgmma Naaofluna 
piwcfci I COzStai ta. Anita Mora. Norway, 

TL AmonltiaOrdlni, Swedra. 1:28 JS3; IX 
Ata ri* ltete n eOeCHtoagiwdBifc1;a^X2; H 
Am FrtthteH, Sweden. 13S&2; H Wrkkn 
MaeoeHao.Flntead. 1^9^701; IXMeriaLOit- 
ttaen. Ftetand. tdKflM; M. Mntaonate Rw- 
Mta pnksnd. l:»4U: 17. Gofdira Dal 
^ Italy, 1:»:474; H. UtDomlra Bato- 
rava Stowkla.1 :38-JX7; t9.Svfvta Honegaer. 
Swlttertond. l;3i:lUi 21 Irina Tareranka, 
Ukraine, U51 :2A3L . 

21, Ytlena wotatttoKaBddwten, 1 ai :4X1; 
2t Teteflo Staxevticn. eeioras. 1:31:478; XL 
Notatve Momma Russia 


clone. LWnmte, 1:32:123; T* 
jwn, 1:32:222; 27, Nino Kemeget United 
States, 1J2:5S0; 2X Lte FraeL Swgdea 
i;33:0x);2X PJrot N lotos. Ertordaldl.'teJ: 
30, GaBriotia PoruZrt. itat y. l 

31 . fMcMIns Madtoae*, PotanG 1 :31JXX 


WOMEjn SBBMETERS (Rial two to each 
heal auaMv tar quarterflnats] Heat 1—1. 
Wans Xhitaa China 47 J2; X Nathalie Lam- 
bert. Canoda OJt: X Froentc Rodoneva 
ButgarhbSXd7; Heet2—1.CaHiyTurner,UnH- 
ed Statev4432;X Wen teyB-KyunaSaulA Ko- 
rea 4X08: X Ante Landman. Netherlands. 
48 X Boa Ptatera, Betatura, 4yjy. 

Heat 3— L Sylvie Delate. Canada 4X99; X 
Chun Lee-kvurtoSoath Korea4M4; X Yelena 
T TOwron a Russia 4739; X DetMe Palmer. 
Britain. 4X93; Hear 4—1. teabeOe CHorest. 
Canada 4X92: X Sondrine DaudeL Franca 
49JN; x Barbara Baidtssera Italy. 1:1994: 
Som Ptntenx Bets tom. tfteou rttflea 
Heat S— L Ayako Tsubakl, Japan. 4X49; z 
Karen Koto Australia 4854; X Viktoria 
TnoUskova Russia 4X59: x verierte Borizza 
France. 5030; Heal 4— L Marine) to Cancttni, 
Italy. 47.19: X Kim Sn-nee. South Korea 4737; 
X Yetena SbiKrtea Kozokhstaa 5036. 

i» Prfayeva Ruteta, 4X47; 1 Kalla MoeunL 
ttaty^7J0;X Penelope W Lena Metnartondi. 
4X44; Heat 2— LAmy PetersoaUnlted States. 
47ia; X Zhang Yanmefc Ottaa 474s; X Loure 
DroarL France. 5047; 4 Cindy Meyer. South 
Africa, 1:17.18 

France X Italy 3 
Austria 1, Norway X 
Czech Republic X United States 3 
Slovakia A Germany X OT 
Ninth ; 


QUARTERFINALS — Heat 1—1. lie. 1 * 0 - 
beoe Chamb Canada and Yana Yana China 
472KX Karen Koto Austra0a479a; xcnunLee- 
kvtnz. South Korea !:»*; HW 2-1, Amy 
adna 4U4; x Sondrine Dradeb FroPta, 4737; 
X MtetneBa CondtaL Italy, 1J9L77. 

Heats— I. Kim SoJieaSoutti Korea 4897; X 
Cathy Turner. United States. 47X4; X Ayako 
Tsubakl. Jseaa. 4751: 4. Nathalie Lambert, 
Canada idExS; Heat 4-1. wot XtotaaCta- 
na 4X48; X Won Hn*mna. South Korea 

First period— 1, France. Franck sounier 
(Franck PatankowsklAmaud Briondi. -J3-X 
Italy. Martin Povlu (Sletan Flelluzzl. Jlmmv 
Camazzota). 11:06. Penalt i es Jimmy Co- 
mazzsto. Ita (Interference), 7:44; Pierre 
Pousse, Fra mowing), u-jx 

Seccad period— 3. France. Steftaone Arcan- 
aetonl (Chrtsiophe Viltel. 18:25 (op). Penal- 
lies— Roland Romoser, Ito {tripainel. 4:19: 
vezk> socratinL Itg irourtiUig). 9:59; Ste- 
phana BotlerL Fra (holding). *:59; Pterre 
PoussaFrairriopinoLlSilW: Bruno Zarrllia 
(to Irauohlne). 17:8). 

Third period X Italy. Sletan Flgilwzzi. 
14:34 (pp). S, itoiv. Brana zarrllia i Gaetano 
Orlando), I5MCL Penalties — Dorrt j Peres, Fra 
inoMIng), 10;M; Franck polonkowskl. Fra 
(holding). 13:48. 

Shots aa goal F ran ca 13-13-5-30. Itrnv i> 
7-11—31. Goalies— France, Pelrl Vtttnen (11 
shots-28 saves). Italy, Bruno Cdmpen 138-281. 

Eleventti Place 

Norway 1 i i — 3 

Aeefrto 8 8 1—1 

First period— I, Norway. Espen Knot- 
soa(pp)- Peretltles— Andreos Puschnik, Avt 
(holding); Esoen Knuteea Nor UnoUna); 
Fetter Satoten. Nor (sinning): Rob Deyte, 
Aid irtasMng); Mirtteel Shea Aut Islastv 
no); Austria beach, sorved by GeraM Rut- 
onto (detav tX samel. 

Soasad period— X Norway, Roy Elnar Johan- 
na Perestaes— Karem shona Aut (rough- 
lug); Po«er Soktaa Nor inoung); Morten 
FMStoa Nor (MrtvrtkMng): Mortln Kraka 
Art IhoMtaO); Many Ddlmai Art (rauWdng). 

TWrt period— X Austria Andreas Puscbnlk 
iGtrhord Pusrtmiki; X Norway. Ole Esklld 
^anislrem (Espen Knutsen); (pp«n). Penot- 
ttao— Petler Salsten. Nor (hoidlna): Arne 
BllHcvam. Nor (delay ot game); Cdo Ander- 
sen. Nor (rauohtng) ; Rob Dovle. Art ireuah- 
ina); Herbert H nh enberg or .Aut (boarding); 
Werner Kerta Art I rough tog); Herbert Ha- 
honberatr. Art (roughing): Vegar Bart la 
Nor (raughlng)- 

Stods on pool- Norway 13-0-5— Sfc. Austria 3- 
W4— 19. Goalteo— Norway. Jim M oiUdnso u 
(19 shata-18 saves). Austria Brian Stan- 
ktowtez (30-23). 


Czech Republic s l i — s 

United stoles z a l~3 

Firs! period— 1, united States. Peter Ferra- 
ro (David Somt. Crate Johnson 1; X United 
States. Jeffrey Lazaro (Mark Beaufaft); X 
Czech Republic. Jlrl Kucera I Jiri Demal); X 
Czech Republla Pavel Geffert (RldtardZem* 
I idea Petr Hritek); X Czech Republic, Potr 
Hrbek (Pavel GeHert. Richard ZemUcka); 
(pp). Penalties— Jon Voort. Cze (Chargtoa); 
Brtan Roiswa USA (hoohlm); Brett Hauer. 
USA (high-sticking): Edward Crawley, USA 

secnM period a Czech Reoubila Jiri Do- 
leral (Jon voort. Otafcor Jonedcy); Penal- 
ties— Todd Marchent, USA (hlghritlcktoa); 
Peter Lavtoiette, USA (cross-checking); To- 
irtasSrseaCzetsiashinat; Komtl KoataaCze 
I Mrtne); Petr Hrbek, Cze (In teri eretire); 
Crate Johnson, USA i hook trig). 

Third p eri od y .OodiRetoiM&PawelGe*- 
fert nuchontZemneka. Petr Hrbek); B. Unit- 
ed States. Mark Baortali. Penalties B rian 
Ralston. USA l tripping) ; Dirty Hendrickson. 
USA irtasMng).- Pavel Geffert. Cze (stash- 
ing); Dovtd socca USA, doubtotnlnor 
(roughing): Bedricn Sccrtma Cze, double- 
minor (nfgfi-sflckhwj,- Jlrl oatezai. Cze 
(hlgh-rt taking). 

Shots on Bool— Czech ROPrtdtt l*-l W-as. 
United States M-T2-a Goalies— Czztch Re- 
PUDIIa Petr Brizo <2B snals-TS saves). United 
Stole?. Michael Dunham 1 35-301. 

Co motor too 

Slovakia X Russia 3 


Slovakia 2 0 9 8-4 

Russia i I 0 1—3 

First period— bStovckw, Peter Stastnv IJp- 

tef Dana Mlrastov Marclctkol. 10:42. X Rus- 
sia Pavel Torgoev iGeorel EvtyukiUn). is jo 
(th).X Stevakte, Mlrastov Satan (Robert Pe- 
trovlcky). 19:4L Penalties— Marlon Smer- 
ctok. Svk (hoidlna). 3:28; Robert Petrwkkv. 
Svk (crocs-otttJcino). 6:84; Otax Sharaor- 
odskL Rus IhoMtoa). 13:33. 

Secoad p eri od x Russia Andrei Nlkotw 
sMa 19:25 lop). Penalties — Gearoi Evtvuk- 
Ma Rus (rough (no). 2:14; Zlomund POHfy. 
Svk (rtasM/w), 4;20; Peter Slastny. Svk 
(rough (no). 4-jO: Sergei Sorokin, Rus (cross- 
checking). «:2B: Valeri Karaov. Rus (slash- 
ing), 5:29; Serguf Tertvifwy, Rus (hooking), 
8:42; Alexander Smirnov. Rus (holding). 
13:57; Robert Svghto Svk. served by viastt- 
mii Plamicfta (roughing). 19:22; Miroslav 
Morclnka Svk (cross-checking). 19:12; Jer- 
gus Baa. Svk (cross-chetUng). 20:00; An- 
drei Nikalbfita Rus (cross-dKCi&igt, 20:00. 

TWd p eri od M on a T e nu iti es itotju rt Pe- 
frovtakv.Svk [rough too). 5:37: vtadhestevBe- 
zoUactoikov. Rus lraughtooi.s^R; Vlachesiav 
BeziMadnlkoy, Rut (Merterence), H):4i 

Ov er t i me — 5. Ruasto. Alexander vmaotiatov 
(Andrei NBuJlshin). 8:39. PenatNes— None. 

Shots on goal— Slovakia 9-7-7-3-as. Russia 
184-7-5-34. BoaUes— Sknrnkta, EitoardHarF 
mem(3X snots'll saves). Russia Andrei Zuev 

To our readers h Getmaiy 

0’s newer been < 

to subscrfceond sov* 
ftorifurt office 

toftfe. 0130-846585 
or be 069-175813. 
From Austin 
col us bftjme 0660 81 55 
or fate 06069 175413. 



Page 28 



Baiul Hurt in Collision at Practice 

By Christine Brennan 

Washington Past Service 

HAMAR — A freak collision Thursday 
between Oksana Baiul of Ukraine, the 
world champion who is a favorite to win a 
. gold medal, and Tanja Szewczenko of Ger- 
many, left both skaters injured and the 
outcome of Friday night's women's figure 
skating competition very much in doubt. 

, - Baiul who finished second to Nancy Ker- 
rigan in the technical program Wednesday 
night, was cut on the shin bone of her right 
leg, which required three stitches. She also 
has a sore lower back, said Dr. Gunnar 
Hattevig, who treated Baiul at the arena. 

, Asked if Baiul would skate Friday, Hat- 
tevig replied that he thought she could. 
Asked ir the injuries, especially her back 
pain, might affect her skating, he replied: 
“It might." 

Viktor Petrenko, the 1992 Olympic gold 
•medalist who is married to the daughter of 
Baiul's coach, said a decision would be 
made sometime Friday. But Petrenko said 
he didn't imagine the 16-year-old world 
champion would miss the competition. 

" “She will come, even if it's on one leg," 
be said. 

Szewczenko. also 16, suffered a bruised 
hip and was hit in the ribs as the two 
skaters, both going backward at a high rate 
of speed, collided near the boards by center 
ice as Kerrigan and others practiced else- 
where on the rink, 

1 Szewczenko briefly returned to practice, 
bul soon )efL Baiul never came back. 

The collision stole the spotlight from the 

seven-week-old saga of Kerrigan and 
Tonya Harding, the two U.S, skaters who 
find themselves in entirely different posi- 
tions heading into Friday’s long program. 

After unprecedented publicity and at- 
tention, the battle isn’t between Kerrigan 
and Harding anymore. It’s now between 
Kerrigan, Baiul and France's Surya Bonaly 

— and between Kerrigan and her own 
infamous anxieties. 

Never before in a major competition has 
she successfully completed both a short and 
long program without a major error. If she 
does it here, she is likely to win the gold 
medal because she skates a more difficult 
program than Baiul and is likely to be 
awarded higher artistic marks than Bonaly. 
who Is third, and China's Lu Chen, in fourth. 

Meanwhile, Harding, who made two cru- 
cial mistakes in her short program and fell 
to 10th overall is fighting simply for re- 
spect. Although she said Thursday that she 
was “going for the gold," seventh or eighth 
place is a much more reasonable target 

Practicing in the group before Kerrigan 

— the skaters have been regrouped, based 
on their short-program performances — 
Harding stopped six times during her four- 
minute long program and never tried her 
difficult triple AxeL She looked weary and 
un enthusiastic as she skated; a figure skating 
source said Harding spent Wednesday night 
in her room, and had not been seen around 
the Olympic village oo Thursday morning. 

Harding is planning to try six triples in 
alL the same number as Kerrigan and 

Szewczenko. Chen and Bonaly are sebed- 

quadruple Salchow as weH 

tiled to try seven, with Bonaly 

Jy are sc! 


five triples in her long pro- 
gram; Katarina Witt, the 28-year-ola two- 
time Olympic gold medalist who is sixth, 
has four. 

Kerrigan, 24, the 1992 Olympic bronze 
medalist, combines artistry and athleticism 
as well as any skater in the competition. She 
indudes every triple but the Axel and she 
also is likely to receive either the highest or 
second-highest artistic marks, behind Baiul. 

To stay dose to Kerrigan technically, 
Baiul must try a triple-double combination 
jump, which she has not accomplished in a 
long program since her sudden arrival on 
the world stage last year. Baiul might start 
with a triple Lutz-double toe combination, 
but her coach, Galina Zmievskaia, said that 
whatever she does, it will be a “surprise.” 

Kerrigan, who performs two combina- 
tions in her routine, tries a triple toe-triple 
toe after iter initial triple flip, and later 
includes a r riple Salchow-double toe loop. 
A triple- triple is more difficult technically 
and thus is better received by the judges 
than a triple-double. 

Bonaly, the best jumper in the field, 
attempts a triple Lutz- triple toe and triple 
loop-double loop. 

It’s uncertain now Baiul’s injury will af- 
fect her, but. whatever the case, Evy Scot- 
void. Kerrigan’s coach, said his skater is the 
one to beau 

If both women skate perfectly, “Nancy 

wins," Scotvold said. “She’s better, she’s 
stronger all-around. Oksana has the artist- 
ry but Nancy has that too. Nancy’s better 
overall Nancy's a better jumps and she’s 
more consistent." 

“I’ve never been so confident and so 
ready to do a long program,” Kerrigan 

The reason, according to both Kerrigan, 
and Scotvold, is what happened at the 1993 
worid championships in Prague last March. 
There, Kerrigan skated a flawless short pro- 
to move into first place, just as she did 
But, in the free slate, she landed only 
two clean triples, turning others into angles 
or doubles, and dropped to fifth overall 

Tve trained better mm tally to prepare 
for a long program and Tve had mare 
practice on long programs tins year than 
Tve ever had in my life," she said. 

Lerrigan wi 
up Friday. ! 

group Friday, following Chen. Baiul comes 
immediately after Kerrigan, followed by 
Szewczenko, Bonaly and Witt. 

As for Baiul this is not the first time she 
has injured ho- lower back in practice the 
day before a major competition. At the 
worid championships last year, she ran into 
the boards after landing a jump and hurl 
herself, said her manager, Michael Rosen- 

“Tm not sure bow this will affect her,” 
Rosenberg said "but Nancy’s long pro- 
gram is tux weakness and Oksana’s long 
program is her strength. But this injury 
throws everything wacko.” 

Wbmeh’s Skating 
3d Most- Watched 
U.S. Sports Event 

• The Associated Press 

NEW YORK — The Olympic - 
showdown between Nancy Kerri- 
gan and Tonya Harding was the 
third highest-rated sporting event 
in U.S. television history and the 
sxth highest-rated progam. 

Wednesday night’s CBS Olym- 

64^S^JLn Medk^R^earch 
said Thursday. . 

The three highest-rated are the* 
final episode of “M-A-S-H” in 
1983 1602). the Wbo-Siot-JJL? 
episode of “Danas’” in 1980 (533) 
and an episode of the mutisories 
“Roots" in 1977 (51.1), . 

The Olympic cousage also trailed; 
the 1982 Super Bowi between San 
Francisco and Cincinnati (49.1) 
and the 1983 game between Wash- 
ington and Miami (48.6). 

Each rating point represents 
942,000 homes and 1 percent of the 
total television households in the 
United States. The share is the per- 
centage of televisions in use .at the 

CBS estimated 110,530,000 peo- 
ple watched hs coverage Wednes- 


day night, the 
ence ever for U. 



.A .... 

Harding^ j-e 
l Canada? 
career. >. 

For Kerrigans, It's Business 
As Usual, On and Off the Ice 

By Ira Berkow • 

New York Times Service 
‘HAMAR — In the crush of jour- 
nalists in the Olympic Amphithe- 
ater news media room waiting for 
Nancy Kerrigan to arrive for her 
post-skate interview, stood a mid- 
dle-aged couple from Stonebam. 

Dan Kerrigan was holding a 
bouquet of flowers wrapped in 
plastic and tied with a red-white- 
anjf-blue ribbon. Brenda Kerrigan, 
who is legally blind, was holding 
his arm. 

The smiling parents of the dark- 
haired, 23-year-old woman who 
had emerged in first place in 
Wednesday night's technical pro- 
gram suddenly became the center 
of an army of reporters’ questions. 

Were you relieved or were you 

“Both," said Kerrigan. “Take 
your choice." 

How did yon feel? 

“1 don't think it could have been 
belter,” said Mrs. Kerrigan. “But 
I’m not the coach." 

Surya Bonaly: Victim of ’scandalous' marks from the judges 

It’s a Plot, France Says 


HAMAR — The head of the fi «*■«•: h figure skating team said on 
Thursday that the judging of the v. omen's technical program was “a 
complete scandal." 

Didier Gailhaguet said he was outraged by the high scores that the 
world champion, Oksana Baiul of Ukraine, received for technical 
merit in Wednesday’s program, and the low marks given to the 
French skater Surya Bonaly for presentation. And he saw in it a plot 
to redeem the fading prestige of American skating. 

Gailhaguet said he could not understand some of Band’s marks in 
.the technical program. 

“She two-footed the landing of her triple lutz. Thai’s a0.4 mistake. 
Yet she got one score of 5.8 and four of 5.7,” he said. 

“It was as if the judges were blind and could not see she two- 
footed the jump. It is incomprehensible. It was scandalous how she 
was marked." 

Gailhaguet said Bonaly was marked too low in her second set of 
scores for presentation. 

“Her jumps were absolutely clean and she has made great im- 
prove men is in her presentation this year. 1 really thought she 
deserved much better marks." 

Bonaly received one score of 5.5 and four of 5.6 from the judges. 
The other scores were two of 5.7 and two of 5.8. 

- Though he did not criticize the high marks given to \he American 
skater Nancy Kerrigan, he said she “was almost dying Mien she 
finished and almost fell at the end.” 

Gailhaguet said he saw it as a plot to ensure victory for Kerrigan. 
' “The .Americans need another big champion. Their federation has 
■ not got any more skaters,” he said. “We all 1 
North America.” 

I know the big money is in 

“Me?” said Kerrigan. “I felt like 
I was skating.” 

How did she look? 

“Like a picture of beauty," he 

The nine judges were in close 
agreement with him. 

It was a long way from -New 
England, for them and their daugh- 
ter, and it was a long way from Jan. 
6, when Kerrigan was clubbed 
above the right knee before the na- 
tional championships in Detroit 

As the world knows now, the 
assailant was paid to perform ibis 
vicious deed by Jeff Giflooly, the 
former husband of Kerrigan’s chief 
American rival and Olympic team- 
mate, Tonya Harding. 

Mrs. Kerrigan, her blond hair 
short and wearing a black sport 
jacket with white stripes and a red 
turtleneck, and Kerrigan, gray- 
haired and in a gray-and-black ski 
sweater, were asked how they frit 
about the competition. 

“There were some bad slips.” she 
said, “but we were hoping every- 
body skates cleanly." 


He made a gesture as though 
zrppering his lip. 

What about Harding? 

“I'd rather not comment on her ” 
he said. 

Was there ever a time when Nan- 
cy, maybe psychologically, felt she 
wasn’t np to skating? 

“No," said Kerrigan, “I never 
heard that girl say she didn't want 
to skate." 

The Kerrigans said that Nancy 
skates without pain despite scar tis- 
sue on the top of her knee as a 
result of the clubbing. 

“There’s just a lump there,” he 
said. “She doesn't think about it" 

They talked about how relaxed 
their Ha »oht»T had b e en all day, 
bow she and her mother wait to 
lunch and did some shopping in 
Hamar, although they were inter- 
rupted often by autograph seekers, 
which, from the reaction of Mrs. 
Kerrigan, hardly seemed a deter- 
rent to them. 

“I went shopping on my own.” 
said Kerrigan. “I bought Nancy a 
crystal candlestick. I always buy- 
ha something before ha perfor- 

When Nancy entered the room, 
they, like everyone else, turned their 
attention to the interview stand. 

They listened intently as Kerri- 
gan’s coach. Evy Scotvold, talked 
about how well Nancy had trained, 
how she is hardly the fragile person 
some have made ha out to be. 

JJAMAR — Now coct^isiing /" 

of these required elements: * . 

•. WonldTonya’^dress stay on? 

. was Nancy’s tore okay? - * '* 

WouIdTonya be booed? ^ . , . . 

. The answers arc: yes, ye$ JKk . .j, 

‘ And now for the essay qtiestioa: . * - 

Wbaddya mean Tonya’s out of it already? y , w she's 

_■ She’s Sic thought she was playing on New Years Day, 

- going to the Poulan Weed-Eater Indc- ~~ ' 

peadmee BowL 'What are you. W Vantage 
posed to do if yon have tickets for point 
Friday night, trade than- for short • 


get Tonya into medal contention. \s 

Meanwhile, Nancy is first! ' • , ■ 

- She was dead-solid perfect And tins means 
gan\wimdaexfcmDrahaty^ — probal _ ... 

and Kerrigan has been known to fall in important! competition 
mg the circumstances, it was the performance of Karigatfs 
So what are we to make of tins? The Unshakable Tosrya 
as tight as one of. those Inge suits, and The Quite FlappaWe NaMj 
Kerrigan dales as smooth as a gin martini. How many mflJMns as* 
thinking that justice triumphed? One’s first, and. the otters wnn. . ^ 

Yes. there are eight ska ten in between, and at least three of the®-"* 
Surya Bonaly, . Katarina Witt and Oksana Baiul who ware a °9* 
plumage dress with a fishnet-and- 
leathers hat that made her look Eke 
an ostrich; Fve heard of having 
bad-hair days, but Band had a bad- 
hat day — are more passionate and 

But this isn’t about 
Tonya and Nancy. -Haris what 
we came for, isn’t it? ■ 

Snow While vs. Bourne Parker. 

The Sound Of Music vs. Basic 
Instinc t. • • • • 

Oh, yeah, maybe die good arid 
evil thing isn’t exactly true, since 
Tonya hasn’t even' been charged 
with anything,, let alone convicted 
— bat it sure does play. 

Nancy and T toryii have over- 
shadowed evoythmg else at these 
Olympics, and it's just as well 
thefre crane on laze in the pro- 
gram, so the supporting players can 
dear tire stage as we refill the mud tank for our main wrestli 
Hey have said vimafly nothmg since they arrived. Though 
Kerrigan say to 
say to change your mmd once 
just want to win a gold medal for my country"? 

Since arriving in Norway last week, whatever small talk Tonya has 
made hasoantained the worifwonderfuL’’ She must have hired Pdlyan- 
na as her spin doctor. Norway, where rim’s dealing now, ts “wonderfiiL 
Japan, where she skated two raonthsago, is “woj3derf\d.” The food hoe, 
the accommodations, the entire U.S^ Olympic teamand every competitor? 
from evay country, the recep tion rim received, and even the camaraderie 
among her fellow figure skaters is “wooderfuL" No ram behevesa word 
she says. 

And the otha one keeps ha mouth shut andcr die advice of her ago>% 
who realizes that; with a «nife Bee that, Thar's no seed for. Kerrigan to 
open up ha mouth and Jet any air ou t „ 

Tonya skated eighth Wednesday night, more than two hoars before. 
Nancy, who admitted she' watched Tonya on TV. (When Nancy was 
asked what she thought of Tonya’s performance, Nancy merely giggled 
and said, “1 don’t know/*) The sacred moment Tonya had waited for and 

steskated onto (^t^c^ire—anid into a warmer reception than sheftf 
have gotten in, sayi Boston.. ‘‘.i 

Tonya cameoulin a red sleeveless dance-hall dress and Mary Decker’s 
makeup. She had cm so much makeup, it looked like rise rear-caded a 
Mary Kay Cadillac. I half expected her to skate ova and take my drink 1 
order. After momentarily hc&fing ha hands togetherirT prayer, she 
skated off to Utmost iroob musical choice in the congmtitum, “Much, 
Ado About Nothing.” •- •. 1* 

The rintheads around me said she looked voy tight, and, indeed,' on 
Tonya’sfiratjmnp she landedlkt, an both feel She skated the rest of the» 
program cleanly, but somewhat raggedy.The amsensuswas that Tonya 


Said's anas fashion statement: 



! ». 
! *■ 
i = 


Oksana Baiul left the ice after the collision, her kg Heating and her medal chances in doubt 

And they listened as Nancy 
talked about ba confidence, how 
she bad hoped everyone would do 
weD because it would be just that 
more of a challenge for ba. 

“Were you aware," someone 
asked ha. “that Tonya was watch- 
ing your 

“I knew lots of people were 
watching," she said. 

It brought laughs from the as- 
semblage, and smiles from ba par- 
ents. Too much had happened for 
them to laugh They understood 
that there was still much to come: 
the free program Friday night, the 
second and final night in the skat- 
ing for the Olympic gold. 

“What comes, comes," Kerrigan 
said, trying to keep a balance. 

The news conference ended, and 
Kerrigan, holding the flowers in 
one hand and reaching for his 

wife's elbow with the otha, began a 
move to the front They had some- 
thing for the young woman in first 

■ Some other comments of note, 
reported by wire services: 

• Norm Frink, the chief 
district attorney of Mult 
County, Oregon, who is the chief 
prosecutor in the case involving 
Harding: “I don’t know a triple 
axd from a double axel I'm just 
really not interested. I don’t have 
any particular interest in figure 
skating, and how she skates isn’t 
going to affect ha case.” 

• Shane Slant, who has con- 
fessed to attacking Ker r i gan , told 
she won the technical program: 
“Good deal good deaL She’s doing 
really well and I'm glad. I really am 

• Derrick Smith, Stant’s uncle. 

who also faces conspiracy charges 
in the attack: “I'm glad. I hope 
everyone does weO and has a good 

■ (It was not known whether Har- 
ding's forma husband, Jeff GiDoo- 
ly, who has pleaded guilty to help- 
ing plan the attack, saw the 
technical program, lady Snyder, an 
attorney representing min, said be 
had no comment on Harding's per- 

• The Hardi ng- Kerrigan case 
was a dear winner among journal- 
ists polled at the National Press 
Foundation's annual awards (tin- 
ner in Washington. 

Of those surveyed, 35 percent 
said ir was their favorite controver- 
sy, the Whitewater real estate con- 
troversy embroiling President BQl 
Clinton and his wife, Hillary, was a 
distant nmner-ap with 26 percent. 

rave a Triple- A performance in a major-league camp. ITU tell you this:- 
Tonvarwasn’t as good as Katarina Witt, who got hosed by the judges. I* 
dea l care if Witt’s program wasn’t difficult, she’s got as much star quali ty 1 
on theice. as Wayne Gretzky. Talk about bemgbdoved by the fans. They 
threw more flowers at Witt than at Don Corieone’s fimoaL) 

Last week Tanya spoke passionately about, how she hoped she woidg 
be judged fairly on the ice — as if she feared there might be some 
prejudice against her for what had happened off the ice. But Hus 
performance let the judges off the hoot Tonya got the marks she 
deserved. ... 

Sitting in the kiss-androy area at the edge of the rink, sandwiched 
between ha coaches who both wore enormous for coats. Tonya watched 
ha sccres -flash. without betraying any ahga. But shortly afterward she 
refused to talk to CBS, and on her way to the dressing room she was 
coughing so loudly yon could hear it in tot maD in Portland, Oregon. Sre, 
said, “I’m happy with my performance," but, of course, no one beKeyefL 
ha. •. ." * 

Nancy skated out in a white cocktail dress with shea black Jong 
sleeves, an idly elegant portrait of sophistication. From the moment' she 
hit the ice die crowd was so loudly supportive, she must have fdt she was. 
back, skating at her homerink. rt was as if the crowd fell a duty to show 
Kerrigan they knew she had been * victim, and they were behind ha ail 
the way. Kerrigan skated flawlessly, and brouht dwn the house. She set, 
a Hamar Olympic Amphitheatre record for uowos tossed onto tbeice*- 
Jfigjb above the sands* wearing a white: sweatshirt and watching, 
through the glass window of a private brae, was Tonya. When NaS 
finished, the roar of the applause soared up to where Tonya was sit ting’, 
and riowfy at first, then more enthusiastically, Tonya Harding begantq- 

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Compagnoni Powers to Giant-Slalom Gold 

Dob Emam/Aaeax RmAw 

[XMa^gmyrniea ame intense lor her aiming partto perfo rmance 

By Ian Thomsen 

International Herald Tribune 

LILLEHAMMER — Hie others 
were trying to control their skis. bat 
Deborah Compagnoni looked like she 
was propelling ten, as though each 
was a gas pedrn and she was cxoodnag 
Over the wheel It was as if she was the 
only one in the world who could not 
imagine the ramifications. In fact, it is 
not that way anymore. 

Her public was crying out for her, 
waving Italian flags and thumping 
their feet in fear as much as any thing 
and at the bottom she turned to greet 
them. Her winning time of 2:30.97 in 
the Olympic pant slalom was more 
than a second faster than the second- 
place finisher, but that alone does not 
do it for the Italians. It was a pale day, 
and as she ronoved her goggles her 
smile appeared whiter than the snow. 
In return they sighed, more' loudly 
than a scream. 

Two years after Italy first bad its 
heart broken by Compagnoni, 23, she 
was setting than up again Thursday. 
Martina Ertl of Germany was second 
in 2:32.19, with Vreni Schneider of 
Switzerland third in 2:32.97. It was 
the fourth Alpine medal of 
Schneider's career, including two 

. , \ v ;;. ■ ■ . r-i, 

• . * 

golds and a silver, which ties the re- 
cord of Hanoi Wenzel of Uchten- 
s stem. At 29, Schneider has been com- 
i peting since Compagnoni was a 
» teenager growing up in her parents’ 
] mountain hotel in Santa Caterina 
» Valfurva. Italy, where she learned to 
; fear nothing and a steep hill fell as 
t certain as the sidewalk. 

5 “We have stayed a lot of times at 
their hotel, four or five times during 
World Cup races,” Schneider said. 
’ “She helped her parents everywhere. 
5 Her parents are great people. It is a 
* great atmosphere, and you really feel 
1 at home there. Once 1 had the flii, and 
, her mother helped me a lot." 

On Thursday, Schneider was stand- 
t mg on the victory podium below the 
, teenage girl who had saved her 
r breakfast. 

! The name of the hold is Bai la Fjoj-- 

ita — it means “Flower Hut” — audit 
overlooks the finish line of the World 
i Cup races that periodically bring fam- 
s ous skiers to Santa Catenna. When 
the snow was thick enough, Compag- 
I noni would slalom down the winding 
f mountain road to schooL One day in 
i the hotel kitchen she placed her left 
hand in a meat grinder, and she was 
> staring at the white nub of bone when 

V v-.v-." . * . 

she heard her grandmother scream- 
ing. They rushed her down the moun- 
tain to the hospital. Today hex index 
finger ends where the nail should be- 
gin. She says she never cried. 

When siding die covers the hand in 
a thick glove and forgets all about ii_ 
She makes Italians want to hug her, 
because they think she never learns, 
la part they blame Alberto Tomba, 
with whom she trained as a youth. In 
fact she was even more reckless than 
hizn, because is those days her priori- 
ty was the downhill. Id 1988, that race 
shredded her right knee. The first stir- 
gay faded to take. Two years later, 
sriH trying to come back, she fdt terri- 
ble pains in her stomach. Her Father, 
Giorgio, an Alpine guide who taught 
her to ski, rushed ber down the moun- 
tain to the hospital, where doctors 
removed 70 centimeters of her qna|| 
intestine. Had Giorgio waited 20 min- 
utes longer, they said, the peritonitis 
might have killal ber. 

During her recoveries on top of the 
mountain, she would paint flowers in 
the rooms her parents let to the fam- 
ous skiers. Behind her she left a trail 
of roses in every color. Her coon try 
was just be ginnin g to learn this about 
her — their brave Tombagnoni, they 
called ber —when she lashed down a 

French mountainside in the giant sla- 
lom at the 1992 Games. The day be- 
fore. she had won the Olympic Super- 
G. on the same day that Tomba won 
his giant slalom. It was Italy's greatest 
day, and one day later the entire coun- 
try was shouting Deborah down the 
hUL She was going too fast. Her left 
knee collapsed beneath her. and ha- 
hoarse screams carried into every liv- 
ing room. For this, everyone' s(£Q 
seems to feel guilty. 

“It was just like a wall built up and 
bringing it down,” said ber teammate, 
Morena Gallizio. “It hurt the feelings 
of the whole team, of the whole na- 
tion. She was crying and everyone 

around her looked terrible. In Italy 
the people are realty sentimental. She 
became much more popular from the 
injury than she did for winning the 
gold medal." 

What did she think about all that 
time on top of the mountain? 

Skiing last among the leaders on 
Thursday afternoon, Compagnoni 
had only to protect her advantage of 
0.97 seconds over EnL She appeared 
to protect nothing. Near the bottom, a 
mogul hidden by the grey afternoon 
threatened to swmg her off the course. 
It took all of her strength to regain her 

balance and finish one-quarter of a 
second ahead of ErlTs second run. 

Ten minutes later, Tomba was 
phoning his congratulations, just like 
the president. Then Italian television 
cameras assembled around her, and 
she talked of the suffering necessary 
to conquer the same race that undid 
her two years before. No one was 
expecting her to cry — that is sup- 
posed to come after the next unavoid- 
able injury — but then she said: “I 
would like to dedicate this victory to 
all of the persons around roe, and 
especially to Ulrike Maier.” 

Coaroagnoni pulled a white tissue 
from a box and pressed it against her 
eyes. Maier was the Austrian skier 
who died in a World Cup downhill 
last month. 

“Sometimes I think of her,” Com- 
pagnoni said. “She was a fantastic 
athlete and a fantastic colleague. She 
could ski all of the disciplines. 1 miss 
her and the whole team misses her.” 

These pictures came into every Ital- 
ian living room Thursday evening, de- 
livered uke a personal plea. She un- 
derstands, she was saying with her 
tears, she undestands exactly what 
she had risked. 

5th Medal for Di Centa 
As She Wins 30K Race 

' Omipded fyOte Staff f^rntDispimhes' XT: . ~f' 

■' LILLEHAMMER — Japan, \ 

with a big head start from its, do- aB Sg HBrffl >- r >• v 

jumping triumph* easty held off '• the cross-country trails ' 

Thursday to defend its' •.'Nordic 1 v ‘ 

comhined team dtarngnonship. - ? 

Based on ski-jumping points 1 ’- ” 

earned Wednesday; Japan's three- .. 

man team started the 3Wrik>meter • 

rday 5 minutes, 7 seconds ahead of 
Norway. They lost only 18 seconds - 
of that margin, wipning by 4:49.1. 

The margin mig ht have been f tr 

sealer if Japan's final skier Kenji 
Ogjwara, the event’s individual 

world champion, had not slowed to ... 

first pick up a small Japanese Bag 

and then a large <ae from specta- . .. 

tors along the trafl. ’ ; ' 

After tnckbg tie sinanRagihto .■ /j l » fr.rjgfr ' 

his jacket withdge kflometer to go, • \ 

Ogrwara then coasted the last sev- ~ : . :~r. . .-. 

S^e i m d m. n?Jte tosS'iScs Iie ’ ’ “ A‘ ,; • ■■ - *• ^ tiff Sfor.' ;<• •• 'v ; ", ■ 

afl. AtthofiniS&e,he jumped in '-*V« ^ ?* • y * "• . . 

' About 30,000 spectators hr the ' ’ ' 

stadium — among theni was Ponce' ‘ r !* ’ : ■ : - v ••••'•. ■ . 1 — ...J'. -^-r — 

Mikasa, a cousiu <rf Emperor AK- ~ EtxAu>Kmaa^m>c Amadou nz 

hko — and tens of titousands more Pemaia Wiberg of Sweden, who won the women's Alpine combined, wasn't so tacky in the giant sWom, erasing on the first run. 


• m 

y4; : : . . 


alarm the trafis watebed. 
its first gold of the IB 
Games.- • 

The vimory^ eqpedalty sweet a* the top teams kepi their rxsi- 
after earher . drmppoanttnaitt in dms from ^ driving m 

IHa Normr rrv m Kin#ri‘ mitnnmial - m ■ , « m. m * 7* w 

Switzerland won the bronze won the sDver in the individual 
medal, 7:48.1 behind lbe winners, combiaed event here, 
as ih& top teams kept their pem- Kono was a big fact® in Japan’s 

the Nordic combined nxtividnal 
event and. in iarge-hdi team rid 

Wednesday. Hie Estonian team 
was fourth. 

tions from .die rid jumping on bead start, soaring 100 meters in 
Wednesday. Hie Estonian learn one jump Wednesday — thekmg- 
was fourth. est jump of the individual or team 

’ 7:. • j _ .- combined competition. Ogiwani 

-.Ugowua-anti Takanon -.Kono a jump of % meters, 
were both on the team that woo flie But Kono lost more than a min- 

NtH^combi^dg^mI992,giy- nteof that lead in die firstly of the 

. “This gold is the b^ijming of - Ogrivarn and Takanon -. Koto 
our chafienge for the.. Nagano ware both on the team that woo the 
Olympics," smd YusEro Yagu the Nordic combined gold in I 
team coordinator. Japan wiH hest ing Japan its first Winter 
the Winter 1998. - . gt&! medal in 20 years. K 

gold medal in 20 years. Kono 


King Harald may become the : in. Elyria. Cftrio, on duuges of ag- 
flfst modern-da>^ monarch to pie- gcawixed murder and nnmier in tfis 
sent an Olympic medal. On the - stabbing death of tharfather. 
condition that tfae>hmer of the # Alrotaiider Kozlovsky, vice 
mens 5frtotaroeter - 

sb race Stindy ^a Norwegum.-. Smurnttee, responffing to BH&h 
'■ “He tos ssA teworfdbc wfflmg , MwAtaTthe- laWcid 

to do.lto m ihm^” soothe. prc^rinU^TcSdll and Chris- 
orgaxuzmg spgcs- £pSr Dean were dicated out ctf 

man. Tor me.- a 1t is not definite. fheOtynqricicedaiiceiitte: That’s 

It is a posWtyr . , - , .JESS 

. There is also the first bylaW to 
Role 70 of the Otympic charter, fll j 
which states: “Medals shall be pro- ^ . n( i 
sdnted during the Olympic Games w^X 

wf ^ * aco ^ J L lxi 

nrernbersdtected l^lQni,8cccBDpa- “b . 
med by the Prcsufcnt of the Inter- * A 
national 'FoderutiOT Conc qn e d. )”- v 
- The rule was put .is to avoid'- 
having tlre CMympics bracked for 

pofiticaJends- as they woe by Hit- 
ler at the 1936 Summer Garass. 

But, said, the IOCs president, 
Juan Antaaao-Samaramm: *flt was 
my idea. T asked the king if he 
would do it and he accepted.” 

• According to weather ftarcast- 


“Twin and Dean were worder- 
, t *f ncr » M innovators, but you can’t 'stop 
1 2? P 1 ®" time and Tm afraid they are no 
G™** longer the besL It’s periiaps hard to 
c (° r * accept, but that’s life.” . 

*A journalist «ho chained he 
B fri y. • had an appointment with' Kerrigan, 
? avoid ' then came to blows with pffi- 
i-gjj for ' dais who stopped ban from ap- 
t_ rrj, proachizs her, has had his creden- 
tiab withdrawn, ofSdals said. They 
did notideotify the journalist, but 
said be had been expelled from, the 
5 if he Games. • « 

• Local residents^ barred from 
recast- using their cats mid forced to wait 

ere, snow could alto dtctw up Sun- boaafwbus^haveb^im seirf- 
day evening at die cforingceremoity. mgtaja oiBstotheorgtmuereofthe 

It last snowed id the x^ot on G a mgv ' ' ' ■ r- ... 

Feb. 12, the day ot the openmg : The trotb is ^ theyaoukibe 
ceremony. There had been nodting taken to court, fra- wh« is at least 
but dazing suashizm since, until the brokea p romise o f me decade, 
Thursday, Mien the ngiOQ awoke the local new^iaper Dagtringea 
to overcast skies. . said mjm editorial. 

PaalEwnsen,aiiKUeoKdogtoai - On .*c^er hand,&naiOTCh 

rst vYmierutympic T ^ R y agg^st Norway’s Knut Tore 
!0 years. Koto also Apdand-Tben Japan’s No. 2 skier, 
iw. Masashi Abe, piulfid ahead again 
' ’ . : “ against j^arte Engen Vik of N«- 

k • way, the individual bronze medal- 

r tE Ogiwara then took over with a 

nf ^ 4:43 over NoraWs anchor, 

of thor fattier. Fred Bone Lundbag, the individ- 
Kozkivsky, vice ual gold medalist, and expanded it 
* Russian Olympic - slightly degsite coasting at the end 
ponding to British Abe was % reserve and didn't ski 
ty by the- tabldd on Japan's 1992 grid medal team, 
e lOrviH and Chris- “That big disappointment made 
ere cheated out ctf me stronger,” he said after his relay 
dance titte: “That’s leg Thursday. 

The event fallowed Japan’s fa- 
3ean were wonder- yorite pattern — run up a rig lead 
but you can’t 'stcqi in the jumpiog. In the individual 
ifraid they are no competition, however, Ogiwara 
[fs perhaps hard to said had breaks with tire wind 
s life” ; spoiled Ms junms. Lundbesg wot 

t who rfamwi he tbejunroingin theiodividua] event, 
rent with Kerrigan, but couldn’t match those jumps in 
to blows with p£ fi- the team ctaqjetitian. 
red rim from ap- : Lundbe^said he was more than 
las had his caredeo- satisfied wth grid and riJvtxmed- 
offidals said. They als from the Games, 
the journalist, but . . “If anyone is dissatisfied with 
l oqjeHcd from the that then l will have to find some- 
i thing dse to do,” he said. 

mlSr barred from . ’ “They are really the lungs of ski- 
and forced to wait' ing at the moment We have to 
have begun send- ; admit it," : said. Avle Christian 
reorgerairersofthe Bj ora, coach of the Norwegian 
team. “For os, this is a great moti- 
hatttxyshOBldbe ration. We have to work harder, 
or what is at least If s realty exciting” 

By Christopher Clarey 

New York Times Service 

ULLEHAMMER — For a hot- 
blooded Italian fan in these frigid 
dimes, it is becoming difficult to 
prioritize. Too many good things 
keep happening at once. 

Thursday, whOe Mmudt Di 
Centa. the vivacious Italian cross- 
country skier, was busy recording 
the fastest 12-itiIonieter split time 
in the final women's race, a group 
of Italian cross-country supporters 
were staring tensely at a television 
screen showing Deborah Compag- 
nonfs final run in the giant slalom. 

By the time Compagnoni crossed 
the finish line and thrust her arms 
triumphantly in the air, the Italians 
were exchanging bugs and hand- 
shakes. Thirty minutes later, they 
were emoting a g am as Di Centa 
won ber second gold and fifth med- 
al of these gftmeg in the 30-ldkxue- 
ter classical event. 

“It is a victory for my life on 
skis,” Di Centa said. “My life and 
sport have always gone together.” 

Italy and winter sport nave not 
always been such a fine match. As 
recently as the 1980 Olympics in 
Lake Placid, the Italians came 
away with nothing more than two 
silvers. But that was before Alberto 
Tomba came strutting onto the 
scene to revitalize the Italian Al- 
pine program; before Italian cross- 
country skiers, higers and hotel ai- 
ders developed into some of the 
world’s best with help from home- 
grown, and in some cases East Ger- 
man, experts. 

Thirteen days into these Olym- 
pics, Italy has won 17 medals, three 
mare than itsprevious best of 14 in 
Albertville. The Italians’ six golds, 
three silvers and eight bronzes pm 
them behind only Russia and Nor- 
way on the medal chart. 

The surprise is that the Italians 
have done aD this number crunch- 
ing without any contribution from 
Tomba, who tombed in the giant 
siaJom but should rebound in Sun- 
day’s slalom. Instead, the athlete 
leading this surge is Di Centa, who 
arrived in Norway with a small 
following at home and no major 
title to her credit but is now the 
toast of tuPoItoUa. 

The 31-year-rid from the medi- 
eval mountain town of Pahizza has 
won five medals and struck a sensi- 
tive chord in her nation with her 
successful comeback from thyroid 
problems. She has been receiving 
letters by the hundreds and enougp 
computer messages on (he Olympic 
network to fill up a hard drive. 

Even Italy’s hyperactive tabloid 
press has discovoed her, publish- 
ing a topless photo of her taken 
during a family vacation last sum- 
mer in Skaty. 

“I don’t mind the photograph: I 

.. # 

Hut Us/Rakn 

Di Ceuta flashed a golden smile for the second time at the Games. 

sian who had never failed to win a Di Centa’s hopes have been an- 
medal in nine previous Olympic swered in the last two weeks. The 
races, went out too slowly m the first woman from Italy to join 
first 15 kilometers and aided up cross-country's upper echelon, she 
fin i sh i n g fifth behind Di Centa, quarreled with the Italian federa- 
Marit Wold of Norway, Marja- don after the 1984 Winter Otym- 
Liisa Kirvesniemi of Finland and pics and briefly left the root to 
another Norwegian, Trade Dybeu- focus on track and field. She re- 
tiahL turned to compete in Calgary in 

“I am satisfied with my perfor- 1988 and Albertville in 1992, but a 
mance, because a victory was not malfunctioning thyroid gland left 
possible today.” said Egorova, who hex struggling against more than 

one gold medal here, and I am 
leaving with three golds." 
Egorova, a 27-year-old from 

“I talked to some specialists, and 
one of them trid me I was suffering 
from Belmonditis,” said Di Centa, 
referring to her Italian rival. Ste- 
fania Belmondo, who won three 

pic record of ax career golds by endocrinologist in Pisa found the 

relay on Monday. She remains one 
short of the all-time medals record 

After being hospitalized for 

fast wish they hadti t cut out my gano, Japan, remained undear. 

held by Raisa Smwanina, her to- three weeks in June 1992 and to 
mer onsmnwiiry famwniie op < hp shorter periods in the months that 
Soviet Union's teams. followed, Di Centa steadily rebuilt 

Whether Yeeorova will return in ber career. Here in the temple of 
four years to finish the job in Na- Nordic skiing, she finally lived up 

family,” she said after winning 
Thursday’s race by 30 seconds. 
While Di Centa was going out in 

Time will certainty be on Yegor- 

to ber considerable 
mug more medals 

ova’s side if she chooses to return, athlete in Xiflehammer. 

itial: win- 
any other 

Mate! Mxfect/Ageace Prasct-Preac 

(A?. Reuters) Kenji Ogrirara combined siding with flag-waving as Japan won. medaL Egorova, the relentless Rus- 

While Di Centa was going out in Though she began sitting on the “I was not on top of the list 
style, Lyubov Egorova was falling World Cup circuit in 2984, she was before,” she said. “But l always 
short of a record-tying 10th career still the youngest member of the thought 1 was ot the top in my 
medaL Egorova, the relentless Rus- top five Thursday. head.” 

Jumpers Have the Edge, 

weather would probably. improve forsaking torn ctetuffeto-dpven • + / p __ 

.^S^^^^ Cntics of Nordic Event Say 

going to be doudyand there is - ^ ^Buinota pubUcbnx . . 

diaht risk of some snow, at kaa**/ “ta many cases the bed service 'Raters manages to eat five hoi dogs ai 

from the afternoon.” - for TOPS Is . to bp braes, «ud; LILLEHAMMER — Skiers and drink two colas before the ne 

m Thp Swiss &V i - Osmimd ucknd. a direetty of tne • coaches have lashed oat at the rules team starts in a rday then the eve 

by tnakeis of the farnpea' Afpirie. .organizing cttomrltro, adding: . . jJut-szade Thursday’s skiing pa- shouldn’t be on the Olympic pr 
ch e ese Emmgitii^ ja^ overeoinfe ' “Tney seem to like it. . • . ...tiOT of the Nordic combined team gram. 

the Qiy gM Bc 3>^r| nm'ti/ l s vr ti zi n g . . •. ♦ Tn m Pnwers, a cohmmist to event an uncon^petitive faren _ “This isn’t something we are sa 
In^OMd cf iwpwg 'wttfuk, the Swiss ■' the 5» ftaid Pioneer Press, offersa 'Norwegian 'and rSwiss coaches ing because we’re bad losers. We* 
sport racmg ^uils made of cheese- few handy Norwegian phrases^ Tor ' demand ed changes to the r^ula- said for along time thatsomethl 
yellow fab^ and emhiazooed.'Bfih those: attending and covering the tioos that have allowed the top ski must, be done about the team coi 
simulated cheee totes. ' “ ' Games. Soane fighEghts: ■ . V. junqjers to doniinate the sport and petition to save a as a sepan 

• Nancy Kerrigan has a ntovie Jeg v it p deg elk spar epen gene ,■ turned the subsequent cross-conn- discipline.” 

* The Swiss ski icam % Tsp&&e& 
by pukers of 'the fanfi tf Alpin e, 
cheese Enunenthal. hyveoverconre 
of uari^words, the. Swiss - 

simulated cheese totes. rr 
• Nancy Kerrigan has a movie 
deal, Tonya Harding has a television 
deal, even the' Jamaican 'bobsled 
team hara beerrompasy as ^xm- 
sor. Bonnie Kairhasfive gold, aasd- 
als, and soot wffl have her face on a 
KeDoggfs Cora Hate box. 

jun^rers to dominate the sport and 
. turned the subsequent cross-ooon- 

nrine for de ore-varmeme. ‘Tfl give Uy leg into an empty exerase, 
you. my life savings for those ear- ■ Japan retained their Cttympc 
nnrffe.” team. 1 title dunks , to griding 

manages to eax five hot dogs and 
drink two colas before the next 
team starts in a rday then the event 
shouldn’t be on the Olympic pro- 

“This isn’t something we are say- 
ing because we’re bad losers. We’ve 
said for a long time that something 
must be done about the team com- 
petition to save it as a separate 

Switzerland’s coach, Gunther 
Cfaromecek, called for changes to 
equipment, clothing and skis to 
balance the contest between the 

Jeg vil gjoTte ha McLaksen. u Y\L jumping oh the first day by their balance tne contest o 
take djs McSalmon.” trio, wtddi earned them a stagger- jumpers and tire skiers. 

Kellogg's Cora Flakes box. Jeg har frossset fast til utedoen, ing five-minute bead Start over 

The box featuriiqt Blair will hit soft jeg rit nok bit Btt son. “l am Norway and 7K minute start over 
the shelves in imd-Mar& tad . frozen « tl» outdoor toilet, so I theSwiss in the 3x 10-kilometer re- 
only ia hertome state of Ilfeos, wfflbeabiilatc-” lay. 

the company sad. There probably - Deter el merketig vett sompar- ■ . The Japanese knew they could 
aren’t any ke skaters ta Iowa., ••••■ rtrsegmedFrdkevognenmin. ^ihai . not be caireht and adimued that 

Tire Japanese knew they could 
HOI be caught and admitted that 

Changes in the sport in recent 
years have benefited jumpers, 
through better skis, aerodynamic 
suits and the improved V-style 

• Ricardo Punsalaiv 2U the is a csrious beast mating with my they skied for fun. 

1.L _/ I t ■ ' 

brother erf the ice dancer Eliz- 
abeth Punsakn, has been im&Rd 

(WF. AF. Reuters, AFP) 

Norway’s jumping coach, Jan- 
Erik Aalbu ^aid: “If a predator 

The mteraational Suing Federa- 
tion plans to address the issue at its 
congress in Rio de Janeiro this 

Turner Retains Title , 
Opponents Complain 

ne Associated Press 

HAMAR — Cathy T urner of the United 
States successfully defended her Olympic 
500-meter sbon-track gold medal Thursday, 
drawing protests from two opponents. 

Zhang Yanina of China, who finished sec- 
ond, stormed off the medals stand and hurled 
ber honorary bouquet of flowers. 

Zhang pointed at Turner as soon as she 
crossed the finish line and motioned that 
Turner had knocked her off balance while ! 
passing her with two laps to go. 

Earli er, the reigning short-trade world 1 
champion. Nathalie Lambert of Canada, left 
the track in tears after falling in the quarlerfi- 1 
nals — a fall she blamed on Turner. 

“Cathy Turner turns our sport into some- 1 
thing it's not meant to be, Lambert said. , 
“She is brutal and the judges overlook ber I 
behavior. Tomer ruined three years ot train- j 
ing to me on Thursday evening.” 

Turner sa an Olympic record by finishing 
in 45.98 seconds. 

Schonbachler and Cherjazova 
Get Golds in Freestyle Aerials 

The Associated Pros 

LILLEHAMMER — Andreas Scbdnbficbler 
of Switzerland soared past the “Quebec Air 
Force" to win the men’s freestyle aerials Thurs- 
day, shortly after Lina Cfcojazova wot Uzbeki- 
stan’s first Winter Olympics ©rid in the wom- 
en’s event. 

Scbfinbachler, ranked fourth on the World 
Cup behind three Qpebecois — Philippe LaR- 
oebe, Nicolas Fontaine and Lloyd Langlois — - 
outjumped them alL 

His first leap — a triple flip with three twists 
— put him in the lead. His second jump — a 
more-difficult triple with four twists — rated as 
the best of the day with a score ofl21 .48 points. 

His total score was 234.67. with LaRoche 
(228.63) getting the silver me dal and Langkxs 
(22144) the bronze. Canada took four of the 
top six places, with Andrew Capkik finishing 
fourth at 2)9.07 and Fontaine sixth at 210.81. 

Cherjazova, the defending world champion 
who was fifth at Albertville two years ago whoa 

aerials was a demonstration sport, barely quali- 
fied for the final round after falling during her 
first jump of the preliminaries. 

Bui she proved to be unbeatable with two 
triple jumps in a competition where doubles were 
the norm. Elfie Surrehcp of Germany was the 
only other competitor who tried a triple jump. 

Jumping first, Cherjazova all but ensured her 
victory when she nailed a back-lay full triple to a 
score of 9292 points — by far the best of the day. 

She faltered a bit on her second jump, a triple 
back-lay tuck, when she failed to bold the 
landing and earned just 73.92 points from the 

But her total of 166.84 was good enough to 
hold oil Marie Lindgren of Sweden, who was 
more consistent with double jumps of 8 1.78 and 
84.10 for 165-88 and the silver medaL 

The bronze went to Norway’s Hflde Synnove 
Lid. Her second jump scored 87.72 — the 
second-best of the day. She finished with a total 
of 164.13. 

Kirstie Marshall who led the qualifying 
round and was hoping to give Australia its first 
Winter Olympics medaL landed poorly on the 
final jump of the competition aria dropped to 
sixth with 150.76. 



i . nnA 


The Globe’s Tale 

Doris Duke’s Will: The Butler Did O.K. 

By Nina Damton 

New York Times Service 

L ONDON — When the Ameri- 
cas actor Sam Wanamaker 
made a pilgrimage here to search 
for Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre in 
1949, aQ he found was a blackened 
sign on a brewery wall: ‘“This is on 
or around where Shakespeare had 
his Globe. n 

So began a lifelong obsession to 
reconstruct the historic theater. 
Wanamaker died of cancer two 
months ago at 74 before be saw it 
completed, and with $3 million still 
to be raised, many of the Globe's 
supporters reared the project would 
founder without him. There was 
tope that Kenneth Branagh might 
come to the rescue as Wanamaker's 
successor. But Branagh, who is busy 

directing his next movie, “Frank en- 
sidn," remains uncommitted. 

Even without him. however, the 
future of the Globe now seems as- 
sured. The board has begun a new 
fund-raising drive and says the the- 
ater will open as scheduled in April 

Bit by hit the solid oak circular 
structure, a replica of the original 
torn down in 1644, is rising on the 
south bank of the Thames. 

The theater will be the centerpiece 
of a complex of six buildings devot- 
ed to the study and enjoyment erf 
Shakespeare. It is envisioned as an 
international center for Shakespear- 
ean scholarship, with a library and 
research facility, an indoor theater 
Tor the winter months, a museum, a 
cin ema, shops and offices, a restau- 
rant and a pub. 


by Stratford-upon-Avon, his binh- 

Wanamaker believed the project 
was stymied partly because of anti- 
Americanism. “I am convinced that 
if somebody like Peter HaO or lan 
McKellen or Trevor Nunn had de- 
cided this was a good idc 2 it would 
have been built yeais ago with gov- 
ernment funding," he said in an in- 
terview in The Financial Times sev- 
eral months before his death. 

Referring to the theater establish- 
ment, be said. “They had. I think, an 
i nnate suspicion regarding all Amer- 
icans, that they are money grubbing, 
out to make a fast buck." 

By James Barron 

New York Times Service 

N EW YORK — As a butler, Bernard 
Laffeny was nothing like the primly 

Money for the project was slow ii 
coming. Altogether, $12 nrillkm wai 

raised from private donors and 8 of 
the 20 sections that make up the 

polygonal structure Shakespeare 
called the “Wooden 0” are in place. 

But the trust stiH has to raise the 
additional S3 million to complete 
the theater itself. After (hat, S15 
million will be needed to pay for 
the remaining buildings. 


In 1970 Wanamaker founded the 
Shakespeare Globe Trust to raise 
money for the project. Almost im- 
mediately, however, the project ran 
into opposition. Much to Wauama- 
ker’s surprise, be found his grand 
design more derided than applaud- 
ed. The Tory politicians didn’t 
want to pay for it, the local Labor 
politicians argued that it was elitist 
and withheld site authorization, 
and the theater establishment, 
Much might have been expected to 
fight for it, sniffed that Shake- 
speare should not be turned into an 
American “theme park." 

Besides, some critics said, Shake- 
speare’s legacy was already suffi- 
ciently protected by the Barbican 
Theatre, the London home of the 
Royal Shakespeare Company, and 

The theater is to be completed in 
time for Shakespeare's 431st birth- 
day, on April 23, 1995, when the 
Queen has agreed to attend the gala 
opening of “Henry V.” 

Like all future productions, the 
opening play wfl] be performed 
much as it was in Shakespeare's 
time. The production will use no 
scenery, only four embroidered 
hangings as backdrops, but there 
will be elaborate costumes. 

Because the theater win use only 
natural light, performances will take 
place in the afternoon. The 1,500 
seats, clustered in three tiers around 
the rectangular stage, will be much 
closer to the actors than in modem 
theaters and considerably less com- 
fortable. consisting of wooden 
benches, probably covered with 
cushions. “Groundlin gs " (standing- 
room customers) will stand near the 
stage. The roof over the tiers will be 
i hatched , the first time this material 
has been allowed in Londoo since 
the great fire erf 1666, though with 
modem precautions. 

Despite the desire for authentic- 
ity, one detail mil undoubtedly be 
changed It used to cost a penny for 
a groundling ticket and just a few 
pennies more for a good seat. Tick- 
et prices haven't been set yet. bat 
chances are peonies won't be in- 

elegant Anthony Hopkins character in the 
film ‘The Remains of the Day With his 
sali-and-pepper ponytail and his far less 
formal clothes, he was “always a little 
different from what one thinks of as a 
butler in the MGM musicals, in the comer 
holding Fred Astaire’s jacket,” said a pub- 
lic-relations executive who worked for him 
briefly after his boss died. 

The boss was Doris Duke, the deeply 
suspicious, desperately unhappy tobacco 
heiress who died last year. The public- 
relations executive. Lloyd Kaplan, said 
Laf feny was “indisputably” the most im- 
portant person in her life. 

For that. Laffeny is now richer by at 
least $500,000 a year, she left him a life- 
time annuity. She also put him in a posi- 
tion of considerable power, naming him 
an executor of her estaie and placing him 
in charge of various nonprofit foundations 
she set up to channel her money to activi- 
ties and causes she cared about For that, 
he is to receive a separate lump-sum pay- 
ment of $5 million. 

But to her relatives and to many offi- 
cials in the usually dose-knit gossipy 
world of nonprofit organizations — who 
sooner or later may seek grants from the 
foundations he now controls — the 48- 
year-old Laffeny remains largely a mys- 
tery. “1 never met him." sard Newton 
Duke Angicr, the president of the Duke 
f amil y’s foundation and a cousin of Miss 
Duke. “1 don't know anybody in the fam- 
ily who has.” 

Another of Miss Duke’s cousins, Angier 
Biddle Duke, the former ambassador to 
Spain, Denmark and Morocco, said that 
he had never met Laffeny either. “But 
Mien Doris died, be called me and told 
roe,” Duke said, calling him “a very cour- 
teous Irish gentleman.” 

Mbs Duke left $10 milli on to the Metro- 
politan Museum of An, but Laffeny is not 
a familiar face there. “He was here but 
once, and briefly.” said Harold Hdzer, a 
spokesman for the museum. “You can add 
us to the list of people who don’t know 

But one who does says that Lafferty's 
mil d manner masks a street-smart tough- 
ness. “We’ve talked a lot about lawsuits" 
since Miss Duke’s death, said Alexander 
F. Pacheco, Lhe chairman of People for the 
Ethical Treatment of Anim als. “We’ve 
both been in a bunchand he’s right on the 
h all We joke about our crazy experiences 
with courts. That's where 1 got the inkling 
be wasn’t having wool puled over his 

aid come out and we’d laugh and .laugh-. 
He’s bull of joy.” 

Step b aT ri ff Mansfidd, the author of 
“The Richest- Giri m the World” (GLP. 
Ea team’s Sons)* a biography of Duke, said 
his concern for he employe - appeared 
genuine. “He was not in it for Iherooney,” 
Mansfield said. “He’s not materialistic. 
Bernard didn’t have a life beyond Doris* 
and she showed him a side of herself to 
hun that she showed to few others, that 
was warm, fimhy and loving." : 

She added, *T think he dealt withjirob- 
VaTK Doris didn’t want to deal with.” 

- Lafferty refused repeated requests , for 
an mtenriewi. “My duty to Miss Duke is to 
maintain - her privacy, even though she is 

- gone,” he said m a statement released by a 
public-relations fine last mon th. ; . 

A brief biography from the Rubensttm 
Ann said Lafferty ;wa& b ran. in .County 

Donegal m Ireland m 1945, orphaned as a 

■ frfnaggr , and immigrated to the Urited 
States “over.20 years ago" 

“Initially” it said, “he worked in the 
botd/restaurant industry. Later, he held 
various positions in the entertairunent in- 
dustry, including astiat as Peggy Lee’s road 
manager.” Kaplan said he wodeed-for die 
anger in d»e*eariy to tcdd-‘80s.” Lee de- 

- scribed him as h kind and caring employee. 

Kaplan said Duke hired hon in. 1987,. 

Who’s the GuyBoddng 

HtqjplfylitioHhSda? . 

Another rare turns the comet: 
Ri^Daftrey-wSlhit 50 next Tues- 
day, and tire former lead sings- of 
The Who tsodeJwafiiigm ibigwsy 
with b^k-to-back concerts tins 
week at Carnegie; HaH. The fin*/ 
was a tribute R> Pete Tbtrusbead, 
who appeared cm. a star-spangled' 
bffl that included David Saubtra, 


ttfs, The Spa Doctors and Eddie 

Veddecof Peari Jam. •. 


ViM gu \ m*. .« ■? 


that he wasa’twd- 

‘%ritiallyasa trader” at her estate hr Sam- 
enriDe, New Jersey. “He traveled with 
her,” Kaplan said. “Things centered on 
Somerville, bathe was with her in Califor- 
nia, Hawaii amf elsewhere.” 

Mansfield said he 1 arrived «t “a low 
point” in Duke’s life, and at roughly the 
any* time*. that die met Heffner and lent 
Imelda Marcos, the wife of die deposed 
president of the Philippines, S5 million for 
bail for her federal radccte eri ng trial in 
New Yoit “Bernard was thconly one who 
had her interests at heart,” Mansfield said. 
“Everyone else used Doris, Twit I drink 
Bernard did not.” 

Over time, Lafferty's role “evolved into 
that of Duke’s administrative aide and 
adviser,” the Rubeostem statement said, 
“assisting her with all aspects of her busi- 
ness and pasanal life. In that capacity, he 
was with her constantly as _she moved 
seasonally io each erf her estates through- 
out the country. He also traveled with her 
on her extensive trips abroad.” . 

her” I 

Bernard Lafferty, the butler, at the side of the heiress in 1991. 

Chandi Heffner, the 40-year-old woman 
Duke adopted as a daughter in the 1980s, is 
uying to block approval of the MU that 
divides up Duke’s $1.2 billion estate. That 
wfl] leave Heffner nothing, which may be 
why, in papers filed in Surrogates’ Court 
earlier this month, Heffner accused Laf- 
ferty at turning Duke against her. 

Heffner alleged that Lafferty used 

realize how dose. Richard Banks, an artist 
who knew Duke in Newport, Rhode Is- 
land. remembers Lafferty as the man who 

gave her “a pretty page-boy hairdo” and 
supervised her daily exerase routine. 

“fraud, duress and undue influence” to per- 
suade Duke, who was 80 when she died Oct. 


Lafferty's latest experience with courts 
will be played out in Manhattan, where 

suade Duke, who was 80 when she died Ocl 
28, to disinherit her. Heffner also main- 
tained that Duke “was not of sound min d 
and memory" when she signed the will, 
dated April 5. Referring to Heffner, Duke 
wrote on the next-to-last page of the wifl, “I 
do not wish ha to benefit from the estate." 

The Duke estate has denied Heffner’s 
allegations. No daze has been set for a 


Some of Duke’s longtime acquaintances 
knew she was close to Lafferty, but until 
the will was made public, they did not 

supervised her daily exerase routine. 

“It was a trig surprise what I read that 
he'd been left so much,” Baltics said. “He 
couldn't be nicer, but I don’t think anybody 
realized he’d be the head of the shooting 
match. He came across as a reticent butler, 
and I don’t mean that in a damning way.” 

Bob Magoon, a neighbor of Date's in 
Hawaii, said many of her friends looked 
on Lafferty as just a servant, and in fact he 
sometimes did serve meals. But Magoon 
said Lafferty functioned as a protector 
and guardian, and made things run 
smoothly in the far-flung Duke em pir e, 
which began wiLh her father and his hold- 
ings in the American Tobacco Co. 

“Someone gave him a funny uniform 
once,” Magoon said, “a crazy butler’s uni- 
form, with some medals. He’d put tins on 

More recently, “Mr. Lafferty’s relation- 
ship with Miss Duke grew man’ one of 
empfoyer/eoiployee toone of dose friend- ; 
drip mid deep mutual respect and trust 
Mr. Lafferty’s dedication and devotion to 
Miss Duke was reciprocated by her.” . 

Was he the son that Duke, who was 
married three times, never had? “My un- 
derstanding is the relationship was. not 
complicated in that way” Kaplan said.' 
“But it’s futile to search for a metaphor.” 

assault and battery and daunt 
was "severely ntfnrat” ;- i 

; r :y. ; ; j 
A filmed rccQrdmg: of Richard 
Barton's 1964 Broadway stage per- 
formance of “Hamter. has be^n 
found in Barton's Swiss chalet. Af- 
ter the film has a digital facelift, ^ 
wffl boshowirin a touted release®' 
US. nxwietheaters, according to 
producer Pad Bramafta. . 




Forecast for Saturday through Monday, as provided by Accu-Weather. 


Mgh Low W 










8«8 pc 

Allan dam 


■ 2(29 

1 * 


307 gh 





BM 8 

-307 Mi 






0/48 pc 



9/48 pc 


9/48 pc 



- 2/29 



205 a 



■ 8/22 



007 pc 






307 Ml 






- 1/31 9 






+R2 pc 

Caaw Dal Sal 21/70 




8/40 pc 


B /46 




205 , 






002 1 






7/44 a 



- 3/27 



104 r 



Omen BM 6 2(35 c 12/53 409 sh 

HatolrM -7120 -1319 pc - 7/20 - 13 ® 4 
■SUM 9148 409 ah 3000 2.35 ah 

Lasftrtnw 26/73 15/59 a 24/75 1702 pc 

Lisbon 16(51 11(52 C 1509 8/48 «l 

London B /43 3/37 c 10(50 409 all 

Madid 18(81 6/43 pc 17*2 205 eh 

Mian 10/50 409 pc 14/57 5(41 a 

Moscow - 3/27 - 8 / 1 B ft - 8/22 - 14.7 4 

Minch 409 -209 C 9/48 307 pc 

Mca 14(67 7/44 pc 1908 9/48 ih 

Onto - 3/27 - 12/11 H -602 - 14/7 a 

Palma 18 /Bi 10/50 po ISAM 10*50 pc 

Pam a /46 8143 « 12/53 409 ah 

Prague - 1/31 - 0/22 e 104 - 3/27 pc 

tl eylW* 4/39 - 4/25 » 3/37 -279 pc 

bn 14(57 6/43 a 1702 8/46 a 

5 L Pahasbwp -O/Ml - 14/7 e - 9/18 -150 ri 
Stockholm - 2/29 - 8/18 pc - 4/25 -1103 pc 

SmbiMB 8/43 1/34 c 1305 5/41 ah 

Tofiiwi - 7/70 - 12/11 pc - 8/18 - 13/9 M 

V«Kce 9/48 409 pc 12/53 6 '43 a 

Vienna 307 - 3 /Z 7 an 8/43 104 a 

Wenaw - 3/27 41/18 pc - 4/26 - 8/16 pc 

Zialch 8/43 1/34 an 10/60 307 oh 

North America 

Blusiery and cold «eathor 
wIK overspread Iba Great 
Lakes siates and the North- 
east this woekend. Snow 
Hurries will he common 
downwind cl the Great 
Lakes. Snow win blanket 
Maine and Ihe Canadian 
Mammies Saturday. Windy, 
very cold weather b expect- 
ed Sunday and Monday. 


Heavy rains are likely :o 
break out over western 
Spain. Portugal and the 
western British Isles this 
weekend Rain and snow wffi 


Beijing through Seoul will 

have by. m*J weather Sat- 
urday. Sunday wffl turn cold- 
er with a lew rain or snow 
showers in Seoul. Monday 
win be brisk and very cold. 
The weather will moderate 
over Japan this weekend. 
Scattered ran and snow is 
poasbia by Monday. Manta 
wM have warm swshine. 

spread into the Alps by Mon- 
day. Southeastern Europe 

day. Southeastern Europe 
will have dry. mild weather 
along wrth sunshine. Paris 
and London wifl be mild with 
frequent showers. 

Middle East 

Latin America 


AuEkfeRl 21/70 16*1 pc £ 3/73 18/61 pc 

Syttooy 28.79 21/70 pc 27 /BQ 1 B« pc 



Tempi mw 






Lew n 

Low W 


Low W 













11/52 pe 

ftwoa Arm 


ir«2 pc 


1604 pc 






9/40 pc 



19(68 pc 

ZOOS pc 



1 WW 

5/41 pc 



21/70 pc 


21 /TO pc 




18 /BI 

0/48 pc 



8/46 pc 


8/46 pc 



7/44 pc 



26/79 pc 


29/77 pc 






12/53 pc 



12/53 pc 


12/52 pc 

Leeamh s-sunny. DC-psrtV ttamfy. c-ctaurty, sn-dvrmrx ytxrOorraoma. r-raki, tf-onm fenieB. 

snaniM, Mce. W-WeaBte. 

All map*, focecogta and data provided by Accu-W aether, lnc .0 1984 


7 actor 






Low W 










24/75 pc 


- 1/31 



■ 6/22 pc 

Hong Kong 


14/57 c 


13/55 pc 




PC 34/93 

23/73 s 

New Dote 




23 m 

12*3 pe 



- 7/20 



- 4/25 pe 



- 2/29 



0/32 pe 





24775 pe 






13/55 pc 



- 2/29 



-a /27 pc 

30 OB 




12/53 pc 






17/62 pc 






7/44 pc 



BMB pc 2804 

B /40 pc 





2700 pc 




PC 28/82 

1305 pc 

Tim 2008 8/48 


22 ^ 

11/52 pe 

Anchorman wz -180 



-I 0 A 2 pc 






104 t 


4 /» 

- 7/20 


- 3/27 

-10715 M 


- 4/25 



■ 6/22 

- 11 /T 3 pc 



- 6/22 


- 3/27 pe 


- 4/29 - 10/15 


- 6/22 

-11713 pc 




PC 2700 

19 «B 6 pc 






BUB c 

Los Angefct* 




10/50 pc 






1604 jh 


- 9/16 

- 17/2 


- 11/13 

- 17/2 pc 


-B/Z 2 -190 


- 11/13 

-I 9/-2 St 




pe 2700 

19/56 pe 





- 2(29 

- 8(18 pc 


26 / 7 P 




12(53 s . 


B /46 



11152 ah 



0 /<J 


6743 ah 


-S /24 

• 10/15 



- 13/9 al 



- 2/29 



■roe pe 

Depth iBn. Rat. Snow Loot 
L UPMnMm 8M taoe 

Pas de la Casa 15S 210 Good Open var 2/20 FuMy open exceOenr skBng 
Sotdeu 130 215 Good Open Var 3/20 20/22 Bte opar. Icy patches 






0 55 Good Poor Var 2/19 5 /eats open, won fewer down 

55 145 Good Open PcM 2/19 63rt4 Mropea good gate sMng 

00 145 Good Open Petal 2/17 AS StBapen. 1 9km of x -country 

45 150 Far icy Var 2/18 AB Bte open, good sbo/e iBOQm 

00290 Good Open Var 2/21 AB 3S Bte open, good piste sxBng 

Car vWa 





L VPMaPMa Stata tenm . Ooaaa» . 

65345 Good Qoon FcW 

25130 Qood Opon Herd 2/6 vU-fpAtaqpen. good suing 
100215 Good ClBf PCW 2/21 Grmt Wtogth fresh snow ' 
45110 Good Open PcM 2/18 AM TStttet 70km otptsm open 
110240 Good Open Var 2/20 AI2T 28* open. emxtentsktng 


BO ~80 Good : 

Petal 9/12' AfMtaopan great/ 

Bagutem-Borat 170310 Good Open var 2rao g1/22W8anrf3fl^3ptaBrcpa» 

AipecTHuez 140240 

Les Arcs 106 335 

Avonaz 180 220 

CautBiets -190320 
Chamonix 45345 

Courchevel 140 195 

Las Deux Alpes B03IK 
Ftaine 12a aoo 

isoia . 230 290 
MOribel 65195 

La Piagne 145 285 

Serve Chevalier 60 180 
Tlgnas 150 295 

vaid'lstoe 1 so 380 

Val Thorens 135 285 


Garmisch I022S 

Oberstdorf 25 200 

Open P**dr 
Open Pwdr 
Open Pwdr 
Open PckO 
Open Pwdr 
Open Var 
Open Pwcr 
Open Pwdr 
Open Pwdr 
Open Pwt» 
Open Pwe 9 
Open Pwdr 
Open P»wlr 
Open var 
Open Var 

2/23 75.'as ate open, greet detog 
2/21 63/6* ids open, arew fcnf sting 
2/22 AM Rte open, tody pteeaUog 
2/18 AD 18 tteopen. very good WOrg 
2/21 AB 46 »s open, great snow 
2/21 AB67ltteand95ptstaeapen 
2/20 SO/63 Bte end 70/7Spiaee open 
2/21 20/2B Bte open. aecaHent sting • 
2/15 New snow on bard base 
2/21 48/49 Bte open, good pide sting 
2/21 Fresh snow on good base . 

2/23 At 77 Stepped. OKCdbrt sting 
2/23 S2/54 Bte open. esv eBe utpuml m - 
2/21 Superi} commons conSnuo 
2/21 AB 29 Bte open, greet plsl e eting 

a 0110 Good 

Crans Montana 40150 Good 




SLMortt* . 

90175 Good 
25 120 Good 
35 90 Good 
90180 Good. 
30360 Good 
85220 Good 

Opart Pr*d 
Open . Var 
Open Var 
Worn ‘ War 
Open ' Var 
Open Var 
Open Pm* 
Open' ■ Ver 

2/17 JAB 16 tteopen. goodp/msUBig 
.2/22 Ftedi ante on varied bete: •*.- 

2/17 AtUtsopm, waretentskiaB " 
2/2J- At S3 Bte open, resort runs warn 
2/22 AB 69 Bte open, good sting - 
2/11 AS 64 Bte open good pbge sting 
2/23 38/39 tea open. groUtting >• 
2/10. 35/36msapen.B0me)cy patches 


Aspen - . 185170' Goal Opon Pwdr 2/23 AB 8 Bte open ■■■ • 

Jackson Hole 75 165 Good Open Pwdr 2/23 Resort My tman • . . 

Keystone ' 1251-40 Good Open Pwdr 2/23 16/22 Bte opt* ■ 

Mammoth - 210 270 Good Open Pwdr 2/22 26/30 Bte open . . 

ParkCby 120190 Good Open Pwdr 2/20 14 Steepen - 

Stea mb oat ' 150200 Good Opart Pwdr 2<23 19/33** open 

TaUuride. . • 180165 Good open Pwdr 2^3 AS 10 tteopen 

VaB -130160 Good Open Pwdr 2/23 At2Smopen • . , 

Key: 4Uttepth tfrem on loww end upper dopes. Uta Pta ta ed4tx it< u i rw ld n pistes. Gws 

Pta ta rl tana laadng to resort vfcQe. AttArtiflcM snow. 

RBportseappted Oy me SU CUb p! Qrm BrteBn 

Good Open Var 2/18 33/389fiscpen. good pretesting 
Good Open Ver 2/21 At 27 tte open, soma Ireah snow 

Good Open Petal 2/11 15/17 Bte open, worn paatm 


Stea mb oat 



ABST Access Numbers. . 
How to call around the workL 

1 L'smg the dun below, find the cuuiiny yoo are calling from. ? _ ' 

i Dial the romapondlog AJST Aa*es6 Number. . . 

3. An AT&T English-speaking Operator or voice prompr w31 ask for the phone munber you wish to all or cooncct ypu to a 
Cuscraner Service represemaeve. ■; . ' - -r. -. 

lb rccchc your free wallet cairi of AKTk Access Numbers, just dial the access number bf 
the country yotf re in and ask for Customer Service. 


ASIA /PACIFIC G reece*' 

Australia 0014881-011 

China. PRC** 10811 Icdand*. 

Guam 038-872 frefand 


00-800- 1311 Bolivia* 



800-1111 Italy* 

000-117 Uetittenstett* 


l-SOO-558-000 CdktmUa 

-172-1011 Costa RicaV 

009-11 Mata* 

0800^90-110 Gnyana^T 

Someone back home would also love to 
hear the sound of your voice. 

Diai direct from Norway with AT&T. Just dial 800-190-11. 

After a day of cheering, shouting, oohing and aahing at the Olympic Winter 
Games, we know you'll want to share all the excitement with people back home. 
That's why we’ve made it so easy with AT&T. 

Anywhere in Norway, simply dial 800-190-11. In other countries, dial the access 
number from the list on the right. An English-speaking AT&T Operator or voice 
prompt will help complete your call to the L'.S. or more than 70 other countries. 
Use your AT&T Calling Card or call collect. You ‘11 gel economical AT&T rates and 
keep hotel surcharges to a minimum. 

Of course, with AT&T you also know you'll get clear, 
crisp connections. So there's no need to raise your voice. ^jiss r 

0130-0010 Belize* " 

555 l&eri» 

AT&T uimf; Cud m in .ramM.- Hi all itumm ATST WUCramf* Sanrirr 
piira.i.raiit««iiraiaha lu»Lui mc|raTlBMiBo.ljitai'ata^a' 
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fU’AAk.T m 1.XVT 140 UDfiiUSC 

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