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Paris, Wednesday, July 20, 1994 

’s Children , a Drift Toward Death 

nnuA Outside the H6td Grands Lacs, a small band of thalUnicef had recovered 1,400 children who had either 

un ifiar f affcnn & w tragic but also children collapsed in the sun. One young boy bad a babv been orphaned or had lost their families in the crowds 
p TOa ^2fi a J[^? ,lfiter fi ^ n . 0nc S* J V n f* s ^"S8®st strapped to his back who was dearlycfose to death. ’ fleeing Rwanda’s civil war. 

c ^° Ka dymg of dehydration and A reporter dashed into the hotel for bolded water — The children are taken to Ndosho, an orphanage 
_ running water was cut off several days earlier — and a outside Goma, and then farther north to a camp called 

malnutrition. . 

Too exhausted or too small to get down to the shores 
of Lake Kivu, children who have lost their parents sit or" 
lie in the streets of Goma, slowly succumbing to death. - 

A few miles away, an international airlif t fa |> rinp»g in 
tons of supplies, mil until now, almost a week after the 
exodus of more than a.ntiHion Rwandans began, little 
has been distributed. 

Some food and water have been handed oat, several 
kilometers to (he north, because the aid agencies are 
trying to hire the milling refugees out of Goma, near the- 
Rwandan herder, to refugee camps. 

But for many who have already, trekked for weeks 
through Rwanda, this last journey has just been too. 

lane Zairian Red Cross worker started coaxing it down 
the baby’s throat. 

After a while a flicker of life appeared in the child's 
eyes. The Red Cross nurse went along the row of seven 
children, slowly pouring water into their mouths. 

For the Rwandan children whose mothers were 
among the. 100 people killed in stampedes or by mortar 
fire on Sunday, whether they live seems to depend on 

Half an hour before this scene, a Unicef truck went by, 
picking up what the United Nations calls “unaccompa- 
nied children” from the street It soon filled up and did 
not take the group of seven. 

Juan Carlos Espinola, in charge of the operation, said 

The children are taken to Ndosho, an orphanage 
outside Goma, and then farther north to a camp called 
Kaiale, where the process of registration and tracing 
families be gins . 

“I lost my mother and father,** said Albeit Nkiko, a 

“When the rebels came quickly to Gisenyi we ran,” he 
said. “They opened fire and we lost each other. I don’t 
know if they are aHve or not” 

Near the border crossing, where many refugees died 
Sunday as the rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front batded 
government forces, the stench of death rose from the 
bodies strewn on the ground. 

TWo days after the killing s, no one had collected the 

See CHILDREN, Page 6 

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;from die landing Strip gt the airport in Goma, Zaire, as a transport plane carrying aid supplies landed Tuesday. 



C n iy ifa/ ty Ow Sag Fnm Dapatcka ; 

GENEVA — A “strong majority 17 of 
GATT delegates are in ' favor of Geneva 
over Bonn as (he ate foi the new World 
Trade Organization, a -senior official said 
Tuesday. • ‘ : . 

Although the consensus detiaam is not 
expected to be made final by the WTO 
Preparatory Committee until Friday, Huu- 

be^couhtries, and (hat oyer 90 percent of 
theaelcgates had made up them minds. • 

gary’s delegate, Andras SzepesL. mfonned . 
a WTO subcommittee on finance that Ge- 
neva had the support (rf most GATT mem- 

Gaxuan. delegates were afready admit- 
tmgdefeat. “When they make the decision 
on Friday evening, we will be the first to 
congratulate Switzerland,” Germany’s del- 
egate to the General Agreement on Tariffs 
and Trade, Alois Jdonek, said after the 

“We will take our defeat Eke gentlemen. 
Bonn has all the qualifications for an inter- 
national center and we wSQ relaunch it.” 

The German economics minister, Gun- 
ter Rexrodu who had proposed Bonn as 
the new seat, conceded in a statement that 
it was apparently “not obtainable." He, 
attributed the loss to the support of the 
United States for Geneva and to France’s 
backing for the French-speaking city on its 

Mr. Szepesi said that although both bids 
had been attractive, practical concerns had 
tipped the balance. 

Diplomats said that Mr. Szepesi — who 

Mitterrand Well, 
Doctors Insist 

Public Tears for One of Last Stalinists 

PARIS (Reuters) — President 
Francois Mitterrand’s doctors said he 
was ‘perfectly welT on Tuesday after 
his second prostate operation in two _ 
years and dismissed assertions that ! 
they were concealing his true state of- 

The 77-year-old president, who has 
■ prostate cancer, discussed poetry and 
affairs of state with visitors atCocbm 
Hospital one day after undergoing 
surgery to remove an obstruction 
from his urinary tract, and aides put 
on a concerted display of business as 

usual. " 

But the Paris daily Lc Monde ques- 
tioned his doctors’ statements and. 
asked whether Mr. Mitterrand was 
physcally fit to serve until the end of 
term, in May 1995. 

Mr. Mitterrand underwent surgery 
for prostate cancer in 1992. The news- 
paper said the new operation sag- 
gests the president’s state of health is 
worse *1 mhi has been admitted. 

By- Andrew Pollack 

New York Times Service 

SEOUL —With cannons firing, people 
waiting an e lab orate notorized funer- 
al procession through the' streets of its 
capital. North Korea bid its final farewell 
Tuesday to Run H Sung, one of the world's 
last Stalinist dictators and a giant figure of 
the Grid War ; ■ 

- • The late leader’s coffin, draped in the 
red flag of the ruling Workers’ Party and 
resting cm a bed of flowers, was carried 
through the broad boulevards of Pyong- 
yang on the roof of a Lincoln Continental 

Book Review 

Plage 4. 

Page 20. 

Hundreds, of thousands of people lined 
the streets, some crying and shaking hys- 
terically, in what a North Korean tdevi- 
" sicca announcer called the “greatest sorrow 
in the 5,000-year history of the nation.” 

The funeral procession capped a frenzy 
of mourning that has lasted since the 
“Great Leader” died at age 82 on July 8 
from what the government called a heart 
attack. The fervor is designed not only to 
say good-bye to the only leader North 
Korea- has ever known, but to pave the 
- emotional path for the assumption of pow- 
er by hi& son and chosen successor, Kim 
Jong II, 52; in- what would be (he first 
dynastre succesfflcm in the Communist 
world, ... 

In the television footage provided by 
North Korea, the heir-apparent was seen 

North Koreans showing jpief Tuesday at funeral procession for Kim U Sung. 

Tuesday in a dark Mao jacket flanked by 
other high officials, bowing before his fa- 
ther’s coffin and later standing outside as 
the motorcade began. 

“In the funeral ceremony he looks in 
control over everything,” said Yu Snk 

Ryul, a professor at the South Korean 
Institute of Foreign Affairs and National 
Security, which is affiliated with the South 
Korean gpvenunenL “He wants to show 
this to the Western world.” Attention is 
See KOREA, Page 6 

No. 34,645 

Serbs Duck a Yes or No 
On Bosnia’s Partition 

Parliament’s Secret ‘ Declaration 9 
Is Intended to Balk Western Plan 

By David B. Ottaway 

Washington Post Senior 

PALE, Bosnia- Herzegovina — The Bos- 
nian Serbs readied a secret decision Tues- 
day on whether they would accept a West- 
ern partition plan for Bosnia and said they 
would make it known when they met inter- 
national mediators in Geneva on Wednes- 

Waving a sealed pink envelope that he 
said contained a “declaration,” the Bosni- 
an Serbian minister of information, Miros- 
lav Toholj, said after a two-day session of 
the Bosnian Serbian Parliament that it 
would be delivered to the five-nation 
Western Contact Group, which was re- 
sponsible for drawing up the plan. 

“I'm afraid I cannot tell you any more 
than that,” he said. 

Judging from the comments of Serbian 
deputies and officials, it appeared likely 
that the “declaration" contained a careful- 
ly worded and highly ambiguous reply 
aimed at allowing negotiations over the 
plan to continue without giving a clear yes 
or no answer, other than probably accept- 
ing implicitly or explicitly the proposed 
division of the country roughly into two 

The reply is likely to contain demands 
that some changes be made in the pro- 
posed map outlining how Bosnia would be 
carved up as well as a request for a clarifi- 
cation on the constitutional principles un- 
derlying the overall peace package, includ- 
ing a demand that the Bosnian Serbs’ own 
“Republic of Srpska” be recognized and 
given the right to form a confederation 
with Serbia. 

The Bosnian Serbian reply may also ask 
for a reopening of the question of the 
status of Sarajevo, the country’s capital, 
which is supposed to come under United 
Nations adminis tration for two years. 

This approach of seeking to reopen the 
negotiations seems likely to infuriate the 
Contact Group — consisting of the United 
States, Russia, France, Britain and Germa- 

Italian Leader 
Scraps Decree 
In Attempt to 
Defuse Crisis 

ny — which had demanded a dear reply. 
It had threatened Serbia with more UN 

as chairman of the subcommittee had been 
seeking opinions — proposed that GATT 
missions supporting Bonn reconsider their 
position in consultation with their govern- 

As GATT’s headquarters since 1948, 
Geneva is also host to a number of interna- 
tional organizations with which the WTO 
will have to work. A move to Bonn could 
be a hindrance to the smooth transition 
from GATT to WTO, observers have not- 
ed. (AP, Reuters, AFX) 

It had threatened Serbia with more IJN 
sanctions and the Bosnian Serbs with a 
lifting of the present arms embargo on 
their enemies, the Musiims'and Croats, if 
they did not give an unambiguous yes 

But the decision to keep the reply a 
secret was seen here in Pale, the capital of 
the Bosnian Serbian self-prod aimed re- 
public, as a dever tactical political ploy 
aimed at keeping the Western mediators 
off balance and avoiding a crisis at home. 

“It’s a brilliant move because there’s no 
danger of alienating the domestic audience 
by any concessions that may have been 
made, with a subsequent collapse or mo- 
rale, and the Contact Group will not know 
what to expect.” said a Bosnian Serbian 

Another official said the reply was being 
kept confidential for two days to prevent 
the international media from interpreting 
its meaning before the Bosnian Serbian 
leadership had bad a chance to give its own 
interpretation to members of the Contact 

The Western plan calls for the partition 
of Bosnia and would give the Mustim- 
Croatian federation 51 percent of the 
country and the Serbs the remainder, a 
division that would require the Serbs to 
give up about 30 percent of what they now 

Both the Bosnian Serbian president. Ra- 
dovan Karadzic, and many of the 75 depu- 

See BOSNIA, Page 6 

By W illiam Drozdiak 

Washington Pan Service 

ROME — Fating a revolt in his 
r uling coalition and a fire-storm of 
public outrage, Prime Minister Silvio 
Berlusconi scrapped Monday a decree 
limiting the powers of Italy’s anti- 
conuption judges and announced that 
a new law would be drawn up to 
protect civil liberties. 

In a humiliating retreat in the face 
of his biggest political crisis, Mr. Ber- 
lusconi effectively conceded that brib- 
ery suspects caught up in the massive 
corruption scandal would again be 
subject to preventive detention, which 
had kept many of them in prison for 
months without trial. 

A government decree published last 
Wednesday lifted pretrial custody 
against bribery suspects, allowing 
more than 1,000 politicians and busi- 
nessmen awaiting trial to be released 
from prison. 

But the intensity of public outrage 
and the danger that his three-month- 
old government might collapse forced 
the media tycoon to recant on his 
promise to bring the rights of defen- 
dants up to the level enjoyed in other 
Western societies. 

“A ministerial crisis now would 
have damaged the government's ne- 
cessity to tackle urgent economic 
problems as well as threatened the 
institutional life of the country,” Giu- 
Iiano Ferrara, a government spokes- 
man. said. 

He said a new draft law would be 
presented to Parliament next month 
that would restore bribery and corrup- 
tion charges to the list of serious of- 
fenses, including terrorism and Mafia- 
related crimes, that are subject to 
pretrial custody. 

Besides dealing a serious blow to 
Mr. Berlusconi's prestige, the crisis 
over the judiciary’s powers of arrest 
also underscored the fragility of his 
fractious ruling coalition and its prob- 
lems in reaching consensus on lough 

The separatist Northern League 
and the neofascist National Alliance 
hold disparate views over basic func- 
tions of the national government, in- 
cluding the budget, taxes and regional 
powers. But on the preventive deten- 
tion decree, they joined forces to force 
the prime minister to backtrack on 
what he staked out as a matter of 
immutable principle. 

“Reason has prevailed,” Gian- 
franco Fini, head of the National Alli- 
ance, said after the government com- 
promise was reached. “There are 
neither victors nor vanquished. We 
are extremely satisfied." 

Judging from the public fury over 

See ITALY, Page 6 

U.S. Trade Deficit Leaps 

By Peter Behr 

Washington Pan Service 

WASHINGTON — The United States 
added S9.17 billion more to its trade deficit 
in May, thanks largely to a sharp increase 
in imported goods, and remains headed 
toward the second biggest annual deficit in 
its history, the Commerce Department re- 
ported Tuesday. 

The May deficit, up nearly 8 percent 
from a revised April figure; was affected 
somewhat by the dollar's decline against 
many foreign currencies, which increases 
the price of goods imported into the Unit- 
ed States. 

However, the dollar rose Tuesday be- 
cause of some improvement in the trade 
deficit with Japan, traders said. (Page 12) 
But over the long haul, trade deficits lend 

$ Down 

a 7.i2 

Sr 3743.31 

The Dollar 



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Germany Honors a Hero: Man Who Tried to KiD Hitler 

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BERLIN — He is an unlikely martyr, a traitor whose 
courage far exceeded his competence as an assassin, a 
conservative aristocrat whose admiration for his Nazi 
supezioxs only gradually yielded to revulsion and resis- 

But Germany must take its war heroes where it finds 
than and thus. Count Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg has 
been elevated to demigod status for a noble failure: his 
botched effort to kill Adolf Hitler and end the terror of 
the Third Reich. . ' 

Of the2,077 days that passed from the beginning to the 
end of Worid War H, Germans cast revel in only one — 
July 20, 1944, (he date of Stauffenberg’s unsuccessful 
bombing at the Fflhreris East Prussian headquarters. 

In this long season.of 50th anniversaries commemorat- 
ing bygone heroics, Germany’s' opportunity for fond 

remembrance has finally come round and the country is 
making the most of it 

“Nobody Hkes to celebrate a defeat, as Normandy was 

resistance fighters; certainty not.” said Johannes TucheL 
director of Berlin’s Memorial to German Resistance. 

for us,” said Commander Jdrg Duppler, a military histo- 
rian in the German Defense Muustry. “But the 20th of 

rian in the German Defense Munstry. “But the 20th of 
July is really something we’re proud of. My opinion is 
that it’s the only thing we can be proud of during World 
War B and the Nazi regime." 

Stauffenberg’s attempted coup will be honored with a 
higb-lcvd ceremony in Berlin, as well as a traveling 
exhibition titled “Against Hitler: German Resistance to 
National Socialism, 1933-1945.” which opened Thursday 
at the library of Congress in Washington. 

While extolling the virtue of (hose, Eke Stauffenberg, 
whose righteous impulses cost them their Eves, the exhib- 
it inevitably underscores bow few and ineffectual the 
resisters were. 

“You shouldn't get the impression that Germans were 

director of Berlin’s Memorial to German Resistance. 
“You can point out that during this dictatorship a hand- 
ful of people resisted, but you cannot use them to 
oounterbalance the crimes of National Socialism. You 
can’t diminish the atrocities of the Third Reach.” 

As seems inevitable whenever the subject of World 
War II is broached in Germany, controversy is not far 
afield. Chancellor Helmut Kohl has grabbed the spot- 
light for the 50th anniversary commemoration next 
Wednesday and will be the featured speaker at a ceremo- 
ny on the site where Stauffenberg ana several co-conspir- 
ators were executed. 

Mr. Kohl's opponent in the upcoming federal election, 
the Social Democrat Rudolf Scharping, has accused the 
chancellor of politicizing the event and exploiting the 

See HERO, Page 6 

to increase the amount of dollars held by 
foreigners, puLiing downward pressure on 
the dollar’s value. 

In other ways, the bad news in the trade 
report stemmed from positive economic 
factors. A relatively strong U.S. economy 
continued to pull in imports at a fast clip, 
while exports to weaker economies abroad 
could not keep pace. 

With Germany and Japan headed to- 
ward economic recovery, U.S. exports 
should increase during the balance of the 
year, said David RoDey, a senior econo- 
mist with DRI/McGraw Hill Inc„ a Lex- 
ington, Massachusetts, forecasting firm. 

“We’re having a gradual acceleration in 
export growth, but it won't be sufficient to 
keep the monthly trade numbers from wid- 
ening this year,” Mr. Rolley said. 

“Import demand is quite strong because 
the domestic economy is strong, ” he said. 
“And ml prices are moving up. U.S. pur- 
chases of foreign crude oil rose 10 peroeni 
between April and May, or Sl.27 a barrel 
“That’s going to continue.” Mr. Rolley 
said. Stronger economies in Europe and 
Japan translate into higher energy costs 

The breakdown of U.S. trade with vari- 
ous foreign countries provided conflicting 

While the U.S. deficit with Japan im- 
proved to S4.4 billion in May, in from SS.5 
billion in April, Japanese trade data indi- 
cate that the deficit between the two coun- 
tries increased in June That data will be 
reported by the U.S. government next 

The U.S. deficit with Western Europe 
expanded to SI .4 billion in May, compared 
with S83 million the previous month, but 
Mr. Rolley and other analysts said they 
thought that U.S. exports to Europe would 

See TRADE, Page 6 

Page 2 


Panic Drives Rwandan Exodus 

Victors Vow to Spare Noncombatant Civilians 

By Barry James 

Imemanonal Herald Tribune 

Despite assurances from the 
victorious Rwandan Patriotic 
Front that it will not kill non- 
combatant civilians, panicked 
refugees fled across the frontier 
into Zaire on Tuesday in an 
exodus of “biblical” propor- 

A further 500,000 people 
were reported to have crossed 
into Zaire from southwestern 
Rwanda in addition to the mil- 
lion or more who fled across the 
northwestern frontier into the 
region around Goma. 

The fear now is that up lo two 
milli on more refugees could 

flood into Zaire through the se- 
curity zone France established 
in the southwest of Rwanda. 

“The whole country is com- 
ing out of its borders,” said a 

spokesman in Goma for the 
United Nations High Commis- 
sioner for Refugees, which has 

stockpiled food and supplies 
for about 500,000 refugees and 
says it is overwhelmed. “It is 
frightening, of biblical propor- 
tions," said the agency’s 
spokeswoman in Geneva, Syl- 
vana Foa. 

The Tutsi-dominated Patri- 
otic Front has captured the en- 
tire country with die exception 
of the security zone. It swore in 

In Overcoming Hutu 

By Donatella Lorch 

New York Tima Service 

After nearly four years of intermittent war, Rwanda’s 
Tutsi-dominated rebel front has routed the larger, Hutu- 
controlled Rwandan Army through a combination of perse- 
verance, superior tactics, and a big edge in motivation and 

“The rebels were both better led and better trained,” said 

Frank Smyth, the author of “Arming Rwanda: The Anns 
Trade H uman Rights Abuses in the Rwandan War,” a 
report by Human Rights Watch released in January. “They 
were a more highly motivated and disciplined force. It's 
surprising to me that the army held out as long as it did. They 
felt they were fighting for their lives. The Presidential Guard 
were good killers. But overall, this was a classic despot army ” 

Although combat casualties were small compared with the 

200.000 to 500.000 Tutsi civilians slaughtered by Hutu mili- 
tary and militia units, the war between the Rwandan Patriotic 
Front and the government was vicious and often involved 
modern weapons. In the battle for the capital Kigali each 
side pounded the other with heavy mortars, recoilless rifles 
and howitzers. 

The two sides had been involved in an arms race since 1990, 
after the rebels’ unsuccessful invasion of Rwanda from bases 
in Uganda. The rebels won some territory in the north, bur 
failed to go farther because of insufficient training or arms, 
and also because the French government sent in paratroopers 
and advisers to bolster the Rwandan government. 

The size of the Rwandan Army was rapidly increased from 

5.000 soldiers to about 30,000, Mr. Smyth said Thousands 
more Hutu were trained as militiamen by the ruling party of 
President Juvtoal Habyarimana. But Mr. Smyth said that 
aside from some special units, most of the soldiers and 
militiamm were undisciplined 

The rebel forces, whose top officers had combat experience 
righting in the rebellion that installed Yoweri Museveni as the 
president of Uganda in 1986, also grew, to about 15,000. The 
source of their arsenal is less clear-cut: They have insisted that 

their weapons were either stolen from the Ugandan military, 
won in rattle or bought on the open market with money 
donated by the Tutsi diaspora. 

The rebels told Mr. Smyth they had long-range Katyusha 
rocket launchers, mortars, recoilless rifles and land mines. 

The rebels had observed a cease-fire since December 1993. 
But when Mr. Habyarimana’s plane crashed on April 6 and 
mass killings by Hutu militia began, the rebels moved to the 

outskirts of Kigali It took them nearly three months, howev- 
er. to capture the capitaL 

er, to capture the capitaL 

Rebel officials insist Kigali was never their immediate goal 
and Mr. Smyth said he believed rebel tacticians felt that if 
they captured Kigali too soon, their troops risked being 
encircled and bogged down. 

“1 think the RTF's primary goal was to target the militias 
more than the array," Mr. Smyth said. “Those were the ones 

Rebel tactics involved first sweeping through the eastern 
sector of the country and then slowly choking off the capital 
By the time they captured Kigali's airport, in late May, 
government forces were already highly demoralized and 
many were fleeing. 

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a new government — with 
members of the majority Hutu 
tribe as president and prime 
minister — in Kigali, the capi- 
tal on Tuesday. 

In Paris, the French foreign 
minister, Alain Juppfi, conced- 
ed that the From appeared “to 
have effectively won the war." 

He said France would negoti- 
ate the end of its humanitarian 
mission with the Patriotic 
Front, and called cm it to follow 
up its victory by assnring peo- 
ple it would not harm them. 

At the same time, in what 
appeared to be an attempt to 
head off a threat by the Patriot- 
ic Front to enter the security 
zone in search of genocidal Jail- 
ers, French officials said that 
members of the former Rwanda 
government have left the zone 
and gone to Zaire. As many as 
500,000 people, mostly Tutsi 
were massacred by the Hutu 
army and mili tias following the 
death of the Rwandan presi- 
dent on April 6 in an air crash. 

Although there have been un- 
confirmed reports of summary 
executions, there has been noth- 
ing to suggest that the Patriotic 
Front has engaged in indis- 
criminate large-scale killing , ac- 
cording to Kenneth Roth, exec- 
utive director of H uman Rights 
Watch/ Africa. 

Aid workers said virulent ra- 
dio broadcasts, warning that 
the Tutsis were coming to kill 
their opponents, had touched 
off the exodus. 

In Paris, Jean-Luc Bodin, the 
head of International Action 
Against Hunger, said the de- 
posed Rwandan government 
had taken a mobile radio with it 
into Zaire and was “scaring 
people out of their wits.” 

The head of the Patriotic 
Front forces, Paul Kagame, 
said earlier: “There is no need 
for anyone to flee Rwanda. We 
guarantee all Rwandans stabil- 
ity and security.” 

In Brussels, a spokesman for 
the Doctors Without Borden 
relief agency, said it was urgent- 
ly necessary to get the refugees 
home to harvest crops and plant 
food for next year. 

Militants Kill 

Israeli Officer 

In Gaza Strip 

AUGSBURG, Germany — 
A German businessman was 
sentenced to S'A years’ impris- 
onment Tuesday for selling 
missile components to Iraq in 
defiance of export laws and a 
United Nations embargo. 

The court ruled that Anton 
Eyerie, owner of Rhein-Bayem 
Fahrzeugbau, continued deliv- 
eries to Iraq of more than 1,000 
ignition systems after Baghdad 
invaded Kuwait in J 990. 

Judge Hartmut Kioto, pre- 
siding over the court in the 
southern German city of Augs- 
burg, said the components 
could have equipped enough 
Iraqi Styx and Scud rockets "to 
wipe out the entire Middle 

Two managing directors of 
the company had already been 
convicted. Mr. Eyerie. 70, said 
he had not known of their ac- 

Iraq fired Scud missiles and 
threatened to use chemical war- 
heads against Israel and Gulf 
Arab countries during the U.S.- 
led offensive that forced Bagh- 
dad out of Kuwait. 

By Joel Greenberg 

New York Tima Sirrice 

militants shot and killed an Is- 
raeli Army officer in the Gaza 
Strip on Tuesday in what they 
called a revenge attack for the 
killing of two Palestinians and 
the wounding of scores of oth- 
ers on Sunday when laborers 
rioted near a border crossing 
into Israel 

The aimed wing of the mili- 
tant Islamic group, Hamas, 
claimed responsibility for the 
attack, an ambush of an Israeli 
patrol jeep near Rafah on the 
border between the Gaza Strip 
and Egypt 

Under the Israeli-Palestine 
liberation Organization accord 
on Palestinian self-rule in Gaza, 
Israel controls the border zone 
between the strip and Egypt 
Palestinian police are required 
to prevent attacks from the self- 
rule areas on Israelis. 

A leaflet signed by Hamas’s 
armed wing, the Qassam bri- 
gades, said the shooting was 
“swift and direct” revenge for 
“the terrible massacre carried 
out by Rabin’s soldiers” cm 
Sunday at the Erez border 
checkpoint az the northern edge 
of the Gaza Strip. 

Israeli soldiers had opened 
fire to repel laborers who had 
hurled rocks and bottles, sen Ere 
to a bus depot and destroyed a 
gas station. 

The attack on Tuesday oc- 
curred at about 6:00 AM. when 
an army patrol along the fron- 

tier with Egypt stopped to 
check a ladder leaning on the 

check a ladder leaning on the 
border fence, an army spokes- 
man said. This ladder was ap- 
parently intended to lure the 
soldiers to the area. 

When the officer got out of 
the jeep, gunmen opened fire 
From a budding on the outskirts 
of Rafah, hitting him in the 
head. Other soldiers returned 
fire, but the assailants escaped. 


President Leonid Kuchma of Ukraine, briefly overcome by emotion while viewing a 
parade with his predecessor, Leonid Kravchuk, after his mangural in Kiev on Tuesday.. 

Strict Rule Vowed in Ukraine 


KIEV — President Leonid D. Kuchma 
took the oath of office Tuesday as Ukraine’s 
second post-Soviet head of state and said the 
time for romanticism and experiments was 

Mr. Kuchma pledged to forge ahead with 
economic changes and quickly relieve the 
poverty caused by two and a half years of 

“Strict and unpopular measures will have 
to be taken,” he said. “We must not yield to 
the temptation of cosmetic measures, of clos- 
ing our eyes, of deceiving the nation. 

“The state has no time for experiments. 
The people have neither the time nor the 
patience for them.” 

He added: “Political romanticism and eu- 
phoria associated with a new state need to be 
replaced with realism, concrete action and 

Smce his resounding election win over Leo- 
nid M. Kravchuk, the former Communist 
who led Ukraine to independence, Mr. 
Kuchma has pledged to proceed with “evolu- 
tionary, not revolutionary reforms.” 

He has stressed that entering an economic 
union with Russia, which he promised during 

his campaign, does not mean restoring 
Ukraine’s Soviet-era links with Moscow and 1 
will not harm relations with Germany, .the 
United States and other countries. 

Mr. Kuchma has said his first moves trill be 
to liberalize controlled foreign exchange mar- 
kets and to ease tax burdens. 

Official figures released on the eve of the 
inauguration underscored the extent of the 
catastrophe after Mr. Kravchuk’s failure to 
put together a comprehensive economic pro- 

The figures show that industrial production 
plunged nearly 40 percent in the first six 
months of the year, with production of souk 
consumer goods falling by up to 80 percent 

Mr. Kuchma also proposed making Rus- 
sian, the mother tongue of a large rummers of 
Ukraine’s 52 million people, an official lan- 
guage. Ukrainian, discouraged for centuries 
under czarist and Krendm rule, would remain 
the sole “state language.” 

His proposal provoked cries of “shame” 
from nationalists, but they were overwhelmed 
by applause from the large contingents of 
Communists an<! allies elected to Parliament 
earlier this year. ... 

Confided by Our Staff From Dbpacha 

Prime Minister Jacques Santer 
of Luxembourg, the European 
Union’s chief executive-desig- 
nate, said Tuesday that he op- 
poses the veto power that mem- 
bers wield over sensitive 

Mr. Santer also expressed op- 
position to Britain's exemption 
from the group’s labor laws and 
social security policies. 

His comments came during 
the first session of a three-day 
grilling by the 567-seat Europe- 
an Parliament, which will vote 
Thursday on whether to ap- 
prove his nomination. 

Mr. Santer, chosen by EU 
leaders last week after Prime 
Minister John Major of Britain 
vetoed the Belgian prime minis- 
ter, Jean-Luc Defaaene, admit- 
ted he was embarrassed by his 

“I fed very DJ at ease with 
regard to the procedure that’s 
bom adopted,” he said. “For 
several days I was in a very 
sensitive position. It was a very 
difficult situation. I had to ex- 
amine my own conscience.” 

Despite benefiting from the 
veto power, Mr. Santer said he 
was against the u nanimi ty 
rule” for decisions made by the 
12 members on foreign policy 
and other important areas. 

He said he had always object- 
ed to Britain’s reluctance to join 
its partners on the Continent in 
their tradition of social welfare. 

“A European Union can’t 
conceive of itself without a so- 
cial dimension,” he said. 

Mr. Santer met with the EU 

assembly’s two mam political 
parties, the Socialists and the 
centrist Christian Democrats. 

Under the trade bloc's new 
Treaty on European Union, the 
assembly has the right to ap- 
prove the president of the Elf’s 
executive branch, the European 
C ommiss ion 

If the Parliament rejects Mr. 
Santer, a Christian Democrat 
who has served as prime minis- 
ter for 10 years, EU leaders will 
be forced to find another candi- 

In other action Tuesday, a 
German Socialist, Klaus 
Haensch, 55, was elected presi- 
dent by an overwhelming ma- 
jority of the legislature's 567 
members. He exhorted mem- 
bers, almost two-thirds of 
whom are new to the job^ to get 
down to business. 

“I think today we now need 
to get down to weak and do oar 
duty,” Mr. Haensch told the 

He vowed to raise the Parlia- 
ment's profile and win it more 
powers when the European 
Union’s internal workings are 
reviewed in 1996. “The Europe- 
an Parliament must become 
more visible and not just reap- 
pear again in 1999 for the next 
elections,” he said. 

Whether the Parliament sub- 
mits Mr. Santer to tough ques- 
tioning or gives hfrh easy ap- 
proval will provide an eariy 
indication of how it plans to use 
powers won under the 1992 
Maastricht Treaty cm greater 

Mr. Haensch told 'he Ger- 
man radio, “A candidate cho- 

sen by heads of stair and gov- 
ernment who does not garner a 
majority in the European Par- 
liament will not have the neces- 
sary authority tp create his 
commission and submit it for a 
vote of confidence by the Par- 

Another battle in the Parlia- 
ment wlQ involve the makeup of 
the European Commission, 
over which it will have thepow- 
cr to accept or reject this falL 

The outgoiiigParliameat said 
it wanted the nominees for the 
nondc ct od commission to go 
before pariiamcntaiy commit-- 
tees for hearings of the kind 
hdd by the U& Congress. It 
hinted it would block the com- 
mission if it did - not contain 
enough women. The- current 
EU administration contains 
only one woman member. 

Mr. Haensch implored depu- 
ties, notorious in the past for 
absenteeism at voting time, to 

U S. Tries New Tack in Syrian Talks 

DAMASCUS (Renters) — Secretary State Warren M.Chns- . 
topher met Tuesday with President Hafez Assad and outlined new 
US: ihfnlring nn the impassewith Israel over the Golan Heights, 
bat he said afterward that the negotiations remained difficult. 

“We’ve developed some approaches that I outlined today,” he 
■ sirid after a two-hour meeting with Mr. Assad. He declined to give 
' details. Mr. Christopher hdd talks in Israel on Monday. 

He said his duenssions with Mr. Assad had b«ai useful and that 

bothSyria and Israd were “voy serious" abont making progress. 
“But we are still in the process of a very difficult negotiation.” he 
said; “The issues are complicated and intertwined.” 


2 UJS Peacekeepers Killed in Somalia 

• ikwMvn t A- .it m - v — - IrillivI tmA T TXT 

- ‘ MOGADISHU, SomaEa (Reuters)— Gunmen killed two UN 
peacekeepers «o d captured IT - jezi a. Mogadishu ambush, the 
United Nations said Tuesday. ■ 

The gunmen released the captives and turned over the two 
bodies within hours of the Monday firefight. The UN military 
spokesman, . Major Rick McDonald, said the two Malaysian 
peacekeepers were killed Wires gunmen ambus h ed a three-vehicle 
patrol near the “Green line” dividing the ca pita l . n 
I t was tire worst attack' on peacekeepers in Somalia in two 
months. Secretary-General Burros Butros Ghali said it underlined 
the need for a critical review of UN operations. 

Chinarlndia Border Talks Stalemated 

NEW DELHI (AFP ) Foreign Minister Qian Qichen of 
Qwna completed a visit to India on Tuesday that failed to make 
process in dre bolder dispute Tre twec n the two countries, but may 
kadto increased trade. 

Mr. Qian, who left for Nepal hdd talks with Prime Minister 
p.V. NararimhaRflo, Commerce Minister Pranab Mukheajee and 
other Indian leaders timing his three-day stay. 

Mr. Qian indicated Monday he and Mr. Rao basically 
agreed to' disagree «nd that settlement of the dispute would 
remain in the hands of & group of experts who meet regularly. 
“Two mature nations should not expect any overnight solutions, £ 
he said. 


SRINAGAR, India (AP) — Muslim guerrillas threatened Tues- 
day to kill Hhutaii they, attempt an annual pilgrimage to a 
Himalayan shrine in the disputed state of Kashmir. 

■ An advertisement in The Srinagar Tunes by the pro-Paltistan 
guerrilla group Haricot al-Ansar also warned Muslim hotel opera- 
tors and tourist agents not to hdp Hindu devotees dining their 
two-week journey early next month. ... 

- It was tire first time guerrillas have threatened to disrupt the 
pil grimag e since they began a separatist revolt four years ago in 
Tammw-ic iwhmir ; TraKaft only MusfinHoaajority state. More than 
9,400 people have been lolled since thou. 

Strikes’ 16th Day Shuts Nigeria Cities 

LAGOS (Reuters) — Economic activity in Nigerian a ties came 
to a virtual hah Tuesday as anti-gb^emment stouces, in their 16th 

In Lagos, the biggest city in Nigeria, many banks, offices and 
Stines were dosed because of tire strikes, winch have been led by 
cal muon s 

There were no r reports of clashes between the police and 
activists demanding the release of Moshood K.O. Abiola, the 
politician who isthougbt to have wan an election last year that 
was anpouBedby tire military government. On Monday, 20 people 
were reported killed in dashes.' 

ValicanDeploi^GivingBirthL at 62 

Santer , in First Day ofEU Gritting, 
Says He Opposes Nations 9 Veto Power 

-ROME (Reuter) — Criticizing a 62-yem-dd woman who has 
become the world's oldest mother, tire Vatican said Tuesday that 
her artificially assisted pregnancy had defied God’s will Rosanna 
Della Carte gave birth to a boy Monday after a donor's egg? 
fertilized with her husband’s sperm, were implanted in her uterus. 

The Vatican newspaper, L’Osservatore Romano, made it dear 
that it considered ber decision morally reprehensible. “The means 
by which her desire was realized is in roeh oontrast to God’s 
plan," tire newspaper said in an editorial It was signed by the 
Vhtitean’s chief moral theologian, Gino Concetti, whose views are 
known to be dose to Pope John Paul IPs. 


IJ.S. Warns on Russian Air Carriers 

WASHINGTON (Reuters) — The State Department instruct- 
ed U.S. government employees in Russia to defer routine local air 
travel calling Russian carriers “unreliable” and “deteriorating.” 

With the breakup of Aearoflot, a department spokesman said 
Monday, “domestic air travelers must often cope with unpredict- 
able sched u les and dif ficult .conditions including deterioration 
-and ovedoading." The policy did not affect private citizens, 
although the State Department said that Americans might wish to 
consider the infonnatiou when may-big travel plans. 

U-S. and R u s s ian civil aviation authorities are engaged in a 
joint program to deal with the problems. Until the evaluation had 
been completed, only official air travel deemed “important and 
absolutely necessary” should be undertaken on Russian air cam- 
era, the spokesnum said. 

Air traffic controllers at Maui’s Linate aoport wifl strike for 
four hours Saturday morning, affecting national and international 
flights, the air control authority said. . (Reuters) 

Worldwide air ti-affic b expected to rise 5.2 percent in 1994 
based on projections, the International Civil Aviation Orvnnha- 

tum up for key votes. 
Although Mr. Haen 

Although Mr. Haenscfa’s ap- 
pointment gained the backing 
of tire Parliament's two major 
political groups, it was con- 
demned by smaller ones, which 
said his nomination had been 
bulldozed through. 

Mr. Haensch is the second 
German in a row to be presi- 
dent of tire Parliament, replac- 
ing Egon Klepscb, a Christian 

Bora in tire Silesian, town of 
Sprottau, in what is now Po- 
land, Mr. Haensch has been a 
member of the assembly since 
direct elections were first hdd 
forthe body in 1979. 

(AP, Reuters, AFP} 

based on projections, the International Civil Aviation Organiza- 
tion reported in MiontreaL (AFP) 

^CfaWs bragemra drl aviation industry has arranged u> buy 
two mere Yak-42D passenger planes from Russia despite mourn- 
mg questions about their airworthiness. . (Reuters) 

Jsg&ssfs ill- Nsapoai Airways Co. is to start daily -service to 
Singapore from K a ns in Int e rnat ional Airport near Osaka in 
September, the Transport Ministry said Tuesday in Tokyo. (AFP) 
Restamsnte la Madrid with more (ban 25 tables will be encour- 
aged to establish no-soKdriiig areas beginning Ora. 1. The program 
us the result of an agreement between regional health officials and 
a group of restaurant owners. •*. (AP) 

Britons were to face more commuter misery Wednesday as 

over pay and conditions. British Rail said it hoped to run 3,800 
trains 25 percent of the umaTnumber. (Reuters) 

’ The Oluton mMnh tmtkw has abandoned.- plans to force states 
to ccravert highway signs from miles to kilometers by 1996, citing 
pubhc and cragressional opposition. The Federal Highway Ad- 
BMUMstrasop had intended to require states to make the change or 

facepossit^I(^{rf tlreirriiarepf Sl 8 billion in highway aid. (AP) 

To call from country to country, or back to the U.S., dial the WorldPhone number of the country you're calling from. 


lAvaitaMe Trutn pubtrc 




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Page 3 


After Jupiter’s Black Eye, an Earth- Sized Hangover 

r, i m ~~~ Stephen G. Breyer’s nemmatian to the 

supreme Court has won unanimous approval from the Senate 
dealing die way for quick confirmation 

The 10 Democrats and 8 Republicans cm the panel voted to 
recozmnend approval of President Bill Clinton's nomination 
of Judge Breyer, a longtime federal judge from Boston. 

The committee chairman, Joseph R. Biden Jr., Democrat of 
Ddawarc, said he hoped that the vote by the panel would get 
Judge Breyer’s nomination before the full Senate oh Friday. If 
"CM* said, the Senate vote would come eariy sect week. 

Mr. Clinton nominated Judge Brevet to replace Justice. 
Harry A. Blackmon, who is re tiring 

As a witness before' the Senate committee. Judge Breyer 
bolstered his reputation as a careful pragmatist who is likely 
to find a comfortable borne at the middle of the generally 
canservauve high court. He at rimes sounded 'somewhat 
liberal, in voicing general support for affirmp tivp and 
separation of church and state. But he also indicated that he 
could vote to uphold capital punishment and stringent sen- 
tences for some crimmalk . 

About abortion,. Judge Breyer said he ermydgrari a wom- 
an’s right to end her pregnancy' “settled law. M But he did not 
say whether he agreed with or opposed past Supreme Court 
rulings establishing that right. (AP) 

Peeping at Tax Files for Fun and Profit 

WASHINGTON — More than 1,300 employees of the 
Internal Revenue Service around the conn try have been 
investigated since 1989 for posable improper use ,of the 
agency’s computers to snoop on taxpayers, according to 
government officials. 

. In most instances, the violations appear to have Involved 
browsing by curious employees who were interested, for 
example, in the financial standing of friends, neighbors, 
enemies, potential in-laws, stockbrokers, celebrities and for- 
mer spouses. 

In about a third of the cases, employees have been subject- 
ed to sanctions ranging from counseling to discharge , with 
several hundred cases still unresolved. Most of the rest of the 
investigations concluded that the employees were engaged in 
official business. 

Some employees were said to have been guilty only of 
misguided attempts to help friends cut through red tape or 
interpret often confusing Internal Revenue Service communi- 

A few cases, however, involved tampering with data to 
generate fraudulent refunds and kickbacks to the employees. 
Some indictments are said to hav& resulted. 

“How much of. this was prelude to fraud and how much was 
just prurient window-peeping is difficult to say,** said Senator 
John Glenn, Democrat of Ohio, who heads the Senate Gov- 
ernment Affairs Committee. 

Bat he called the Knifings “disturbing,” adding that the 
agency had a moral and legal obligation for confidential! ty 
“when Americans sit down and provide the government with 
their most personal information.” (NYT) 

WASHINGTON — The volatility of Virginia’s four-way 
Senate race is reflected in a new poll that shows the Republi- 
can nominee, Oliver L. North, and the Democratic nominee, 
Charles S. Robb, tied for the lead. 

Each mm was the choice of 29 perce n t of likely voters 
surveyed, while the two independents, farmer Democratic 
Governor L. Douglas Wilder and J. Marshall Coleman, were 
favored by 16 peroent and 11 percrat, respectively. Fifteen 
percent were undecided. Three previous polls by other organi- 
zations have shown Mr r Robb leading, although not by 
substantial margins. 

The new-poll, of 527 randomly selected filody voters, was 
conducted July 7 through 15 by the survey research laborato- 
ry of Virginia Commonwealth University. (WP) 

Quota /Unquota 

Senator Dianne Femstcin, Democrat of California, who 
plans tz> introduce a bill requiring mandatory expulsiarifor a 
year of any public - school pupa canghl .carrying a pin to 
school, was asked what woald happen to students dunng the 
year they are barred from classes. She replied: “If you brmg a 
gun to school, you're probably notieanung anything anyway. 
And the other students waned safer.” (LAP) 

Carpikd by Our Suff Fnm Dopattha 

Washington — Explosive jolts 

from comet fragments have left Jupiter 
pocked with black scars, one of which 
is now the most prominent visual fea- 
ture on the planet. More is coming: 
three punches near the same location 
within a 20-bour period. 

Astronomers said Tuesday that a 
dark black patch, resembling a blade 
eye, left by die impact of comet frag- 
ment G has become the most easily 
seen mark on Jupiter in the 400-year 
history of observing the planet from 
Earth. * - 

Lucy McFadden, a University of 
Maryland astronomer, said the impact 
mark is so large that amateurs using 
backyard tdesdOpes under dear skies 
should be able to see iL 

“That’s something that has never 
happened before.” said Steve Maran, a 
National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration astronomer. Usually, 
only professionals or advanced ama- 

teurs can see the details on Jupiter's 

Mr. Maran said observers at the 
South Foie, where Jupiter is always 
visible this time of year, said an erupt- 
ing fireball after fragment K collided 
was equal to the explosion on Monday 
of fragment G. Both fireballs, ob- 
served with infrared instruments, were 
nearly the size of Earth and the mark 
left behind by G is even larger. 

“I'm sure we’ll have a large spot 
from K also,” said Mr. Maran. 

Jupiter is the fourth brightest heav- 
enly object to be seen from Earth. Only 
the sun, moon and Venus are brighter. 

The black marks on the planet are 
the gaseous broth of chemicals and 
particles suspended in Jupiter’s upper 
atmosphere after fireballs caused by 
the high-speed collisions of the comet 
pieces. Even though the visible sphere 
of Jupiter is all gas, experts said the 
impact scars may last for months. 

Chemical composition of the black 
marks is still unknown, but Ms. 

McFadden said scientists have been 
puzzled to find no chemical signature 
for water in images taken with special 
filters. She said rock in the comet frag- 
ments is loaded with oxygen and Jupi- 
ter itself is about 74 percent hydrogen. 
Since the impacts mix the two ele- 
ments that make up water, scientists 
had expected to detect its presence. 

“It may still be too hot at the impact 
sites for water to settle out.** she said. 
“It may rain eventually on Jupiter 
when it cools. We'd realJv like to see 
some regular H.O.” 

Jupiter's sphere was first observed 
in the 1 7th century, in the early days of 
the telescope. Galileo discovered the 
Jovian moms and later observers spot- 
ted the Great Red Spot, a permanent 
cyclonic feature of the planet. Later 
still, astronomers observed the bands 
of swirling gases that make up the 
visible face of the giant planet. 

Since observing started, said Mr. 
Maran, the prominent features on Ju- 
piter have remained relatively un- 

cnanged until comet Shoemaker- Levy 

9 started its bombardment last Satur- 

Fragment G has been the most pow- 
erful so far. but reports of the impact 
early Tuesday of fragment K suggest 
it loo. was very large. 

Images taken by telescopes in Cali- 
fornia, Texas, Hawaii and Chile show' 
a stepping-stone trail of marks or hot 
spots caused by the nine comet shards 
that hit by noon Tuesday. Four im- 
pacts are expected on Wednesday, in- 
cluding the start of a triple w hammy in 
which three fragments will hit Jupiter 

10 hours apart in virtually the same 

Fragment Q2 wall be the first to hit 
followed by fragment R 10 hours later. 
Fragment S will be 10 hours after that. 
Since Jupiter rotates once every 10 
hours, this puts the three at the same 
longitude. All 21 fragments in the 
comet train are hitting at the same 
latitude, or distance from die planet’s 

The comet bombardment is expect- 
ed to end Friday with the impact of 
fragment W. The letters do not strictly 
follow the alphabet. Some fragments 
disappeared, along with their letter. 
Others split apart and each piece also 
acquired a number, such as Q2. 

The six -day series of collisions has 
linked astronomers around the world, 
many of them communicating via the 
U.S.-based computer network Internet 
to share their observations. 

In Antarctica, where at this time of 
year the sun never rises and Jupiter 
never sets, the astronomer Hien 
Nguyen reported seeing impact sites of 
fragments A, C, E, G ana H, with G 
being “the most spectacular so far.” 

Photographs taken by the orbiting 
Hubble Space Telescope showed three 
dark dots in a line in Jupiter’s southern 
hemisphere representing the remains 
of fragments A, C and E. 

(Reuters, AP) 

CIA’s Chief Admits 
‘Grave’ Errors in 
Handling Ames Case 

By R. Jeffrey Smith 

WasHngwn Post Serria 
CIA made grave errors in han- 
dling Aldrich Hazea Ames, ac- 
cording to its director, R. James 
Woolsey, who called for over- 
hanfing the “attitudes, norms, 
and practices” that kept the 
agency from uncovering Mr. 
Ames’s espionage fra Moscow. 

Mr. Woolsey denounced Mr. 
Ames as “a malignant betrayer 
of his country” and a “warped, 
murdering traitor’’ who led ILS. 
agents to their death because he 
“wanted a bigger house and a 

- CIA officials suggested be- 
fore Mr. Woolley’s speech that 
h was designed m part to pre- 
empt what they feared was a 
forthcoming media blitz by Mr. 
Ames to criticize the agency. 
Mr. Ames was sentenced m 
April to fife in prison without 
parole after pleading guilty to 
selling secrets to Moscow. 

However, the director also 
said for the first time that his 
agency’s failure to prevent or 

ly atiecade had stemmed from 
miaiHiiiii ganen t and what he 
depicted as a defective Central 
Intelligence Agency “culture.” 

Mr.' Woolsey disclosed, fra 
example, that some colleagues 
had raised questions about Mr. 
Ames’s suitability and perfor- 
mance before he was promoted 
to the counterintelligence post 
from which he betrayed vital 
U.S. secrets. The director said 
“these questions and concerns 
were not shared outside” the 
CIA’s Latin American division. 

where Mr. Ames had previously 

Mr. Woolsey also said he had 
concluded that appropriate in- 
vestigative resources were not 
dedicated promptly in the 
Ames case at a critical juncture 
after suspicions of a Russian 
spy at the agency first arose in 
the mid-1980s. 

Another senior intelligence 
official said Mr. Woolsey was 
referring to a three-year period 
from 1988 to 1991, “when this 
case, for a variety of reasons, 
lay fallow ” 

In remarks that paralleled 
what congressional critics have 
been saying for months about 
the CIA’s handling of Mr. 
Ames and its investigation into 
the unexplained deaths of U.S. 
agents, Mr. Woolsey suggested 
that these and other mistakes 
may have kept CIA managers 
from stopping what would 
eventually become the most 
embarrassing counterintelli- 
gence failure in the agency’s 

Israelis Accuse Tehran in Blast "^TTte shortcomings 

, couraged “a sense of 

Rabin Says Trail in Argentine Bombing Leads to Hezbollah employees act elitisi 

Compiled by Om Suff From Dispaudm 

7 BUENOS AIRES — Israel 
1 sai d Tuesday that Muslim mili- 
tants tied to Iran were appar- 
ently behind a bomb attack on 
,an Argentine Jewish center here 
.‘in which at least 27 people were 
killed and about 130 wounded. 

! In addition, as many as . 70 

- people were unaccounted fra on 
Tuesday, more than 24 hours 
■after the explosion. 
r \ president Carlos Satil 
•Menem of Argentina promised 
that “everything humanly pos- 
sible” was being done to catch 
'the people responsible, as a 
.team of agents from Mossad, 
the Israeli secret service, arrived 
in Buenos Aires on Tuesday to 
-help investigate the bombing. 

Israel also sent a rescue team, 
‘police bomb experts and army 

and more than 200 wounded, bollah, a nrifitant group that has 
“At the time, the trail led to close ties to Iran, was given the 
Iran and also now preliminary go-ahead to cany oat a “spec- 
information in our hands points tacular act” provided it was “in 
to the involvement, of hostile a region very far from Lebanon 
Middle Eastern dements who and Syria.” 
do not shy from using any mea- - Hezbollah vowed “swift and 
sure to hurt those who seek merciless retaliation” after 26 

peace,” Mr. Peres said. 

of its guerrillas were lolled in an 

“There are dements in the 

changed, especially is the~fidd 
of counterintelligence,” Mr. 
Woolsey said in his 45-minute 
speech Monday at the Center 
for Strategic and International 
Studies here. Neither the Direc- 
torate of Operations where Mr. 
Ames worked, “nor for that 
matter any other part of the 
CIA can function as a fraterni- 
ty, much less a white male one.” 

Quoting from a recently com- 
pleted, classified study of the 
agency’s operations that result- 
ed from Mr. Ames’s arrest, Mr. 
Woolsey said defects in the 
CIA’s culture allowed person- 
nel problems “to be passed 
along rather be dealt with.” 

The shortcoming? also en- 
couraged “a sense of trust and 
camaraderie” that made some 
employees act elitist or arro- 
gant, and graded CIA officers 
such as Mr. Ames according to 
the number of agents they re- 
cruited rather than the quality 
of intefligence they developed. 

Mr. Woolsey said he was tak- 
ing a series of immediate steps 
to reform the agency’s opera- 



Vaccines Are Sought 
To Protect Newborns j 

The federal government’s I 
National Institute of Allergy ■ 
and Infectious Diseases will | 
spend about $8 million this j 
year researching ways to im- i 
munize pregnant women ! &-■ 
against disease. I 

In other parts of the world, j 
pregnant women are regularly j 
immunised to protect their I 
newborns a gains t one major 
threat, tetanus. But pregnant 
women in the United States 
generally do not receive vac- 
cines. Most have natural im- 
munities against the major 
childhood diseases - — such as 
diphtheria, measles, German 
measles, polio and tetanus — 
because they either had the 
disease or got vaccinations as 

The mother passes on these 
antibodies to the fetus, pro- 
tecting the child in the first 
few months of life and mini- 
mizing the need for a prenatal 
vaccine, public health officials 
mid. Two exceptions to this 
rule are Group B strep and 
Haemophilus influenza type 
b. Both are infectious and 
both can IriD infants. 

Health officials say there is 
also a potential for vaccinat- 
ing pregnant women to pro- 
tect infants against pertussis 
(whooping cough) and respi- 
ratory syncytial virus (RSV), a 
serious infection that tends to 
hit babies with bean disease 
or obstructed airways. 

Short Takes 

San Antonio, Texas, had 
L262 drive-by shootings last 
year. This inspired a contrac- 
tor named Scott Shahecn to 
offer to make houses bullet- 
resistant for 53,000 and up, 
depending on the size of the 
house. He will fortify front 
doors, walls and ceilings with 
a fiberglass-based material 
half an inch (1.3 centimeters) 
thick, cover the windows with 
special panels and offer tips 
fra avoiding the line of fire. 
The protective panels are not 
visible from the outside; the 
window panels are visible 
when they are closed. Many 
companies offer bullet-resis- 
tant material for banks, ware- 

Cirrxjr Widman/TV AwflriWd Pro# 

A COLORFUL ODOR —The newest wrinkle in crayons has been introduced by the 
makers of Crayola at their plant in Easton, Pennsylvania. Sixteen colon contain tiny 
capsules that burst open when used, releasing the scent of flowers, fruit or fresh air. 

houses and the like, but Mr. 
Shahecn is believed to be the 
first to offer it to household- 

Removal of tattoos once left 
unsightly scars. Then came the 
laser. Now skilled doctors like 
Steven B. Snyder of Owings 
Mills, Maryland, can make 
tattoos disappear with little or 
no trace. Dr. Snyder has re- 
moved the name of an ex- 
spouse from a woman’s chest, 
the naked women from the 
arms of a man who was mov- 
ing up in the world, and un- 
wanted tattoos from hundreds 

of other people “who haven’t 
been to the beach in years,” as 
The Washington Post puts it. 
Dr. Snyder charges $200 per 
treatment, and removal of the 
average tattoo takes four to 
eight visits to his office. 

Michael Moore, who lam- 
pooned General Motors Corp. 
m his 1989 film, “Roger and 
Me,” has now taken on all of 
corporate America for a new 
show for NBC, “TV Nation.” 
He tweaks chief executives by 
asking them to demonstrate a 
knowledge of the products 

their companies make. So far, 
60 have turned him down, The 
New York Times reports. 
Ralph Lauren didn’t show up 
to hem a shut. Reuben Marie 
of Colgate>-PBlmolive declined 
to roll up his sleeves and dem- 
onstrate his dishwashing de- 
tergent Jack Welch was too 
busy to screw in a General 
Electric light bulb. So far only 
Alex Trorman, chairman of 
the Ford Motor Co., has 

the oil on a Ford Explorer for 
Mr. Moore’s cameras. 

International Herald Tribune. 

In an interview with the Is- Israeh airraid m eastern Leba- 
raeli Army radio about the ex- non on June 2. 
plosion Monday in Buenos ' Iran denied any involvement 
Aires, Prime Minister Yitzhak in the bombing in Argentina. 
Rabin also referred to the 1992 The Tehran radio said Tues- 
attack. day that a Foreign Ministry 

“IF we judge by the past, and spokesman, Mahmoud Mo- 
I-tirinkvre can do that, ltis dear haimnadi, “condemned terror- 

Clinton Approach to Bank Chief Disclosed 

where the threads, are leading,” 
Mr. Rabin said. 

“Moreover,, in our assess- 
ment, there was concern that 

1st acts against innocent people 
from any religion and national- 

The radio did not comment 

By Keith Bradsher 

New Ycek Times Senice 

dent Bill Clinton asked the na- 

obtained from a government of- 
ficial who felt that its disclosure 
was inevitable. 

Mr. Ludwig, who has been 

tion’s top bank regulator over Mr. Clinton's friend since the 
last New Year’s whether he two attended Oxford Universi- 

after the blows Hezbollah, has on the arrest of an Iranian who 
sustained from Israeli forces, was seized at the Buenos Aires 

they and their patrons were Ka- 

Mr- Rabm, dtmg what he 

^bassy building there only 28 tailed Ira^-backed intema- 
Dass y, k- TWflpi: fnreien tional infrastructures to cany 

oat teiroast acts,” called for a 

airport after the government 
sealed Argentina’s borders. 

. Mr. Menem, the son of Syri- 
an merchants, blamed the at- 
tack on Islamic fundamentalists 
seeking . to undermine Arab-Is- 
raeli peace efforts. ■ ■ 

The U.S. secretary of stare, 

ties to a failed Arkansas savings banks and has almost no direct 
and loan, according to an inter- influence over federal regula- 

—r . ~ - - - tWe told out terruoM acts, wurcu im a ***■*• j ^ »»““•> 

‘minister, Peres> wo rid effort to combat “this Warren M Christopher, began 

Parliament in Jerusalem. He 

agency memorandum written 
by the regulator. 

The regulator, Eugene A. 
Ludwig, who is the comptroller 
of the currency, checked with 
Treasury Department and 

lory investigations into savings 
and loans like Madison, which 
failed in 1986. 

But Mr. Ludwig is one of the 
three string directors on the 
board of the Federal Deposit 

an banking lawyer, said Mon- eluded there were insufficient 
day night that he had never dis- grounds to prove that contacts 
cussed the Whitewater affair or between the White House and 
Madison with Federal Deposit the Treasury Department were 
Insurance Corp. officials or aimed at corrupting federal ef- 
other board members. forts to learn why Madison 

The memo is the latest indi- failed. 

Despite his findings, the 
the White House and the Trea- House and Senate banking 
srny Deparunent may have ^ be examining 

been more extemnve than it had ^ contacts in hearings that 
prroouslyappeared. start next week. 

-was referring to * bomb anack 
on the Israeli Embalm Bue- 
nos Aires in March 1992^^ 
which 30 people were failed 

venomous snake and smash its 

skua.” -* 

In Beirut, the Arab daily. A1 
Hayat said Tuesday that Hez- 

a weeklong Middle East diplo- 
matic .shuttle between load 
and Syria on Monday. 

(Reuters, AFP, AP) 

White House lawyers and told Insurance Coro- whichhas 
the president “it would be im- P®?* 1 avfl claims related to 
permissible for me to discuss Madisons couaps^ 
the matter with the president or ^ ® director, Mr. Ludwig 

the first lady,” according to the *** ^ antbonty to obtain doc- 
memo uments concerning any mstmi- 

memo. . - 

The conversation marks the m lhal d* corporation regu- 
first time that the president is - kt«s. 
known to have personally dis- , Bu*.“ his memorandum, Mr. 

* . nn-T. nr - I llrtwiff <n9t hl(flfllv mmCS 

Away From Politics ■, 

^ ... Cftrfpuj w 1.6 minion active- derswas convicted of selling cocaine. Kevin 

a of March 31, indud- Hdcrs, 28, was charged with selling one- 

overseas and 190,000 on eighth of an ounce (3.4 grams) of coesuare to 
^ ii. neoartment said The total -■ an undercover agent in December 1993 m 

^^S C S?^ 5 WpeopIe, 486,228 navy, little Rock, Arkansas. 

cussed the Whitewater affair 
with an independent regulator. 

Ludwig said that his only copies wrongdoing, 
of the corporation’s documents Lloyd N. ( 
on Madison were Freedom of counsel to the 
Information Act requests from Monday night 
newsnaDers. Fiske Jr., the 

Insurance Corp. officials or 
other board members. 

The memo is the latest indi- 
cation that contacts between 
the White House and the Trea- 
sury Department may have 
been more extensive than it had 
previously appeared. 

Mr. and Mrs. Clinton were 
partners in the Whitewater real 
estate development project with 
James B. McDougal, the owner 
of Madison Guaranty. 

Madison, which was regulat- 
ed by Arkansas officials when 
Mr, Clinton was Arkansas gov- 
ernor, allowed Whitewater to 
overdraw its accounts, and 
Madison officials contributed 
to Mr. Clinton’s campaigns. 

The president has denied any 

Ambassador Lapel Flags* 
On* World can CobOon 

FutUMDeBemy-iW* USArinada 
Aryttafl rrtx * cSy/courtiy or Jogo 
Facfexy whotewte to quaOed 
Tour Operators. Alee rataH. 

TOE Co, toe. lOIMAlrMw 
Now Mfcrtf, CT 06770, USA. 
(203) 350-7445 ■ Fax (203) 350-5334 


Lloyd N. Cutler, special 
counsel to the president, said 
Monday night that Robert B. 

- aS^j^^yP~plA486^8uavy,.. Uttie Rock, Arkansas. 

rSiair force and 174,87 1 Marines. Over- • a judge fismssed a lawsuit challenging 
I. forces included 154,331 in Burope, NBCrs average of an explosion aboard the 
in laoan and 36,921 in Korea; U.S. battleship Icrwa that killed 47 sailors. District 

rare bone gradually cut to 1.4 mfflion judge Lesley Brooks Wells issued a summary 
foros are dcihb s* . judgment in the SlO nriffion lawsuit filed by 

f**? PoScy Center says 1,908 the family of Clayton Hartwifr The gimner’s 

• The k v mins in the United mate was suspected but later cleared of caus- 

won,c ^ hirt i ust 26 ’ women used hand- ing the 1989 explosion that, killed him. The 

States i” The Washington- lawsuit alleged that reporter Fred Francis 

guns to eh m based the findings onr wrongly portrayed Mr. Hartwig as a suicidal 

based pnva 1 ^ i for l992 . homosexual and that the coverage caused the 

unpubhsnco^r Ccn?” 1 Joycelyn EU sailor’s family emotional distress. Ream af 

V ,, <JU ITUUJjaUU YVGIC S. ICSUVUl « w***^~* ~ inwiuvm, 

w., .Si” Information Act requests from Monday night mat Robert B. 

hfr. Ludwig came at a time newspapcrs _ ^ Fiske Jr., the special counsel 

The Madison case has never investigating the Whiiewaier 
! ““ °P al “y corporation matter, bad interviewed Mr. 
board meetings, according to Clinton about the Ludwig con- 
Guaranty m,. Lu dwig’sSfice. vernations, 

bavmgs and Loan. Mr. Ludwig, who is a Clinton After a three-month investi- 

political appointee and a veter- gallon, Mr. Fiske recently con- 

Savings and Loan. 

Mr. Ludwig described the en- 
counter in a memo on March 11 
to Edward S. Knight, the execu- 
tive secretary of the Treasury 
Department, after a federal 
grand jury had subpoenaed aH 
records of contacts the While 
House may have had with the 

The memo was recently sent 
to Congress, and a copy was 

ask die buder... 

wr.K« It ” 




• Monday 

international Conferences and Seminars 
a Tuesday 
Education Directory 

• Wednesday 

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• Thursday 

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• Friday 

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• Saturday 

Arts and Antiques 

Plus over 300 headings in International Classified 
Monday through Saturday 
For further information, contact Philip Oma in Paris: 
Tel: (33-1) 46 37 94 74 - Fax: (33-1) 46 37 52 12 


Page 4 

China’s Great Wall of Water 

Aqueduct Plan for Beijing Faces Resistance 

By Patiick E. Tyler 

Not York Tima Service 

DANJIANGKOU, Orina — One of the larg- 
est public works projects ever conceived — a 
plan to divert water from a huge reservoir here to 
Beijing, 1,400 kilometers to the north — * has 
been proposed by China’s Com m u n ist Party 
leadership to save the capital from perpetual 
drought in the next century. 

Rivaling even the construction of the Great 
Wall, in the words of a government engineer, a 
huge aqueduct starting here in central China and 
r unning north to Beijing and Tianjin seems the 
only solution to maintaining China’s capital as a 
center for industry, commerce and government. 

But because the project would cost billions of 
dollars and would benefit a relatively small part 
of the Chinese population — less than 10 percent 
— it is certain to ignite debate among China s 
re gi o nal leaders, who are competing for scarce 
budget resources. 

Provincial officials in the south complain, as 
China's president, Jiang Zemin, did recently, 
that Chinese cities waste billions of liters of 
water each year through poor conservation prac- 
tices and leaky toilets. Conservation should be 
tried first, they say. . 

“If a country can send satellites and missiles 
into space, it should be able to dry up its toilets.” 
Mr. Jiang complained last month, sending Com- 
munist Party cadres skittering to mount a na- 
tionwide campaign against makers of shoddy 

During the late 1950s, 100,000 Chinese peas- 
ants, seized by the political fever of Mao Ze- 
dong’s Great Leap Forward, muscled a moun- 
tain^ stone to block one of the Yangtze River’s 
largest tributaries here and build a dam that 
would control floods, generate electricity for 
China's modernization and irrigate the land for a 
new era of agriculture. For the glory of commu- 
nism, and to catch up with the West, they aban- 
doned their farms, lived in mud huts and ate 
starvation rations. . „ 

But the Great Leap’s economic flaws instead 
brought famine to China, killing lens of millions 
and scaling bade huge projects. The bills here 
remain denuded, stark evidence of the desperate 
years that followed. 

The aqueduct project has rekindled the hopes 
of the local population that this dam, after it is 
raised 15 meters more to create a mighty new 

reservoir to feed a northbound aqueduct, will 
finally fulfill the expectations of the fll-fated 
Great Leap. . , . 

The aqueduct's enormous flow, contained m 
its man -made channel, will have to cross 219 
rivers and streams along its path, inducting the 
Yellow River. To accomplish this, Chinese engi- 
neers are prepared to dig either an eight-ltilome- 
ter-long water tunnel under the Yellow River or 
erect over it an aqueduct supported by 160 giant 

Pylons- . . :.«wi 


r Jakarta Galls I" 

East Timor 


Actions Just 

Details of the water project plan, conceived by 
Mao on a trip down the Yangtze River in 1958, 

iviou uii o — --rro — - . . 

are to be presented to the Chinese leadership j 
the spring. The project comes at a time whe 


DILL East Timor — Indone- 
sia rejected on Tuesday UJS. 
concerns about its handl in g of 
East Timor protests and poured 
scorn on charges it was stoking 
religious repression in the tiny 
Roman Catholic enclave. 

Speaking in Jakarta at his 
first news conference since a 
heart attack two months ago. 

the spring. The project comes at a time wnen 
China is facing a huge bill for new building that 
is necessary to sustain its economic bootn.^ _ 
“Every province has its own very ambitious 
plans to build bridges and power plants and 
infrastructure, and they are all competing for 
national resources,” said Fan Gang, an econo- 
mist at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. 

One Chinese official predicted real opposition 
when the water project was submitted to the 
National People's Congress, where party mem- 
bers can press regional claims against it. 

“I think this project wiU be more politically 
complicated than the Three Gorges Dam," the 
economist said. . , _ . _ 

The Three Gorges project, a 20-year, $10 bil- 
lion undertaking, was approved after four years 
of contentious debate within the Communist 
Party leadership. It is the largest public works 
project in China today, designed to tame the 
Yangtze River while also generating electricity. 
But it has drawn opposition from enviro nme nt al 

- I OJ-I. luMnw It oriTl 

Foreign Minister Ali Alatas 
said Indonesia handled last 
week's protest by Catholic 
youths with restraint. 

“All the facts show that there 
was restraint, an appropriate 
response by police that toed to 
manage the demonstration,” 
Mr. Alatas said. “No one was 
seriously hurt because all the 
rim e now riot gear is used. No 
shooting, nothing." 

Indonesia, which is mostly 
Muslim, formally annexed the 
eastern half of Timor island on 
July 17, 1976. It commemorat- 
ed the event Monday. 

In Dili, capital of the former 
Portuguese colony, which was 
taken by force in 1975, the 
province’s Catholic leader. 
Bishop Carlos Filipe Belo, and 
students said the protest last 
week, was merely a reaction to 
tinning intimidation. 

Residents have said police 

groups insi de and outride China, because it will 
flood one of the most scenic river settings in the 

The South-North Water Diversion project, as 
the aqueduct is formally known, would be the 
second-largest national construction project. It 
would require a six-year effort to expand the 
reservoir to roughly the same size as that of the 
p lann ed Three Gorges reservoir. . 

The water crisis in northern China is also an 
indicator of how China' s environment is strug- 
gling under the demands placed on it by 1 2 
billion people, demands that can only grow. 

China’s population is expected to peak at 1.6 
billion to 1.7 billion in the third decade of the 
next century. 

used tear gas and nightsticks to 
break up toe march by students 

jured in the clash, the worst 

Burma Dissident Begins 6th Year of Arrest 

Agence France- Prase 
BANGKOK — Burma’s 

trading dissident. Daw Aung 
San Sun KvL 49. beans a sixth 

San Suu Kyi, 49, begins a sixth 

year of house arrest m Rangoon 
on Tuesday amid signs from the 
r ulin g junta that it may be her 

An encouraging sign came a 
week ago when Lieutenant 
General Khin Nyunt, a key jun- 
ta member, said his government 
was willing to meet with her. 
She “is not an enemy," he said. 

A living symbol of resistance 
to the military regime, the No- 

bel Peace laureate and daughter 
oF Burma’s independence nero, 
U Aung San, has kept world 
attention focused on human 
rights in her country. 

Until this year, her only visi- 
tors apart from junta represen- 
tatives were her husband, toe 
British academic Michael Aria, 
and their two teenage sons. 

■ Swede Calls for Release 

Foreign Minister Margaretha 
as Ugglas of Sweden renewed 
rails Tuesday for Burma's lead- 
ers to release Daw Aung San 
Suu Kyi to mark toe fifth anni- 

versary of her house arrest, 
Agence France- Presse reported 
from Stockholm. 

The minis ter called toe de- 
tention indefensible, saying it 
violated all norms of interna- 
tional law. 

The anniversary will be 
marked by a day of solidarity in 
at least 20 countries, according 
to Amn esty International. 

break up toe march oy students 
on the local Parliament in DHL 
It started after four men insult- 
ed two Catholic nuns. 

The United States, which had 
not received a full report on the 
incident yet, said it had ex- 
pressed concern to Jakarta and 
urged local security forces to 
use restraint. 

Residents said 14 people 
were detained and about 20 in- 
jured in the clash, the worst 
since troops gunned down up to 
200 demonstrators at a Dili 
cemetery in late 1991. 

An East Timor resistance 
leader said Tuesday that toe In- 
donesian mili tary was instigat- 
ing r elig ions violence across toe 
country to defied attention 
from corruption and pro-de- 
mocracy issues. 

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Writer Gets 
EU Offer of 



plainclothes police in Colombo 


BONN - The European 
Union has. offered a 


talists* calls for her dratiu rOT- 

ciett Minister KJausKmkelsatd 


Mr Kinkel, whose country 
currently holds toe Euxopom 
Union presidency, said that EU 
foreign ministers agreed in 
Brussels on Monday to call on 
Dhaka to take aB necessary 
measures to protect Ms. Nasrm 

and allow lwr to leave the coun- 
try if she wished. 

He said be had summoned 
Bangladesh’s ambassador m 

Bonn to discuss Ms. Nasnns 
plight and had instructed the 
Goman Embassy in Dhaka to 
involve itself in toe case and. 
. issue a visa to Ms. Nasrin if she 
wanted to come here- 
“Ms. Nasrin is welcome, in 
Germany naturally, but also in 
any other country of the Euro- 
pean Union which she wishes to 
visit," Mr. Kinkel said. 

Press Derides Murayama PoU 

Agate France-Prase 

TOKYO — Major Japanese 
newspapers on Tuesday derid- 
ed Paine Minister Tomiichi 
Murayama’ s first policy speech 
for its lack of concrete measures 
to back up his “caring" policies. 

“What does ‘politics that care 
about people* mean?,” the 
Mainidn Shimbun, one of Ja- 
pan’s three major dailies, asked 
in an editoriaL 

“If s too abstract and sounds 

Him nothing but a campaign slo- 
gan," toe newspaper said of Mr. 
Murayama’s pledge to the Diet 
on Monday to engage in politics 
that would ensure “hard-work- 
ing ordinary people" would be 
able to have “rewarding and 
anxiety-free lives.” 

The conservative Yomiuri 
Shimb un, which has the largest 
circulation in Japan, was even 
more critical. 

“When such a highly emo- 

tional and substanceless .state- 
ment is made by the nation’s 
top leader, it is time to start 

Italian Criticizes Algerian Rulers 

“The latest acts of violence 
against the East Timor popula- 
tion are clearly linked to toe 
rapidly deteriorating situation 
of Indonesia," said Jose Gus- 
mao. Southeast Aria represen- 
tative of the National Council 
of Maubere Resistance. 

PARIS — Foreign Minister 
Antonio Martino of Italy, 
bluntly spelling out his coun- 
try’s differences with France, 
was quoted Tuesday as saying 
that Algeria’s army-backed 
government had lost its legiti- 

*Tt lost the elections and 
‘stole’ the result of the vote," he 
«wd in an interview with the 
daily newspaper he Monde. He 

was referring to the cancellation 
of a general election in January 
1992 that the fundamentalist Is- 
lamic Salvation Front had been 
on the verge of winning. 

In sharp contrast to Foreign 
Minister Alain Jnpp6 of 
France, the Italian minister said 
it had been a mistake from the 
outset to stop the democratic 

process. “Thai is why we are in 

favor of a dialogue between the 
authorities and nonestremist el- 
ements in society," he said. 

the Yomiuri editorial said* was. 
that Mr. Murayama’s Social 
Democratic Party had used 
“such honeyed words before in 
armwinring policies that com- 
pletely disregard the viability of 
measures proposed or whether 
fiscal resources esdsf 'tor fulfill . 

. "We are deeply anxious that 
the Murayama adminis tration 
may postpone pending prob- 
lems, however urgent or un- 
avoidable they may be, on the 
pretext of ‘caring’," it said. 

Even the Asahi Shimbun, in 
the most sympathetic, editorial, 
complained about the lack of 

While hailing his pkSdge.tO 
give priority to ordinary people 

rather than toe state or indus- 
try, the newspaper said he 
“should have offered .specific 
policy proposals to the full ex- 
tent" to back his promises. 



Hie Stormy Marriage of 
Leo and Sonya Tolstoy 

By William L Shirer. 400 pages. 
$25. Simon & Schuster. 

Reviewed by 
Micbiko Kakutani 

T HANKS to Leo and Sonya 
Tolstoy’s shared compul- 

J. Tolstoy’s shared compul- 
sion for chronicling their own 
lives, their marriage remains 
one of toe most documented 
relationships in hterary history, 
minutely chronicled in then 
own diaries and letters as well 
as in the writings of their chil- 
dren and assorted hangers-on. 

As these first-person ac- 
counts and numerous biogra- 
phies attest, their marriage was 
a tempestuous one, by turns 
passionate and acrimonious; 
loving and bitter, nurturing and 
mutually destructive. 

The latest assessment of their 
relationship — “Love and Ha- 

tred," by the late William L. 
Shir ex, toe author of “The Rise 
and Fall of the Third Reich” — 
provides a highly readable ac- 
count of their m arri a g e, al- 
though it does not add appre- 
ciably to our knowledge or 
understanding of the couple. 

The volume lacks both the 

Sonya: The Stoiy of toe Tolstoy 


like SmoluchowsJri’s book, 
“Love and Hatred” relies heavi- 
ly on the Tolstoys' diaries: In- 
deed, it often devolves into a 
day-by-day paraphrasing of 
their words, combined with ex- 
cerpts from their journals. 

As a result, the focus tends to 
be myopic: lots erf detail about 
mdivKhial squabbles with too 
little assessment of the huger 
patterns in the couple’s rela- 

Stirr er’s analysis of Tolstoy’s 
fiction is superficial and trite in 
the extreme. And his portraits 
of the author, his wife and their 
friends also tend to be highly 

Tolstoy’s life was a mass of 
conflicts: he was a womanizer 
and a gambler who later 
preached a doctrine of chastity 
and renunciation; a member of 
the Russian aristocracy who en- 
vied the peasants’ simplicity of 
life; a famous artist who de- 
nounced his own greatest works 
of fiction; a prophet of brother-, 
ly love who spent his last years 
in a household filled with re- 

nya happily served as her hus- 
band's amanuensis, and instead 
focuses insistently on the un- 
happy later years, which hap- 
pen to have been more heavily 
documented. The reader, conse- 
quently, has a hard time under- 
standing both the roots of the 
couple’s difficulties and the- 
roots of their devotion. 

As depicted by Shirer, toe 
couple's final years together 
-were a sad, sometimes farcical 
ddnc& toward separation. Tol- 
stoy finally left He died, at 82, 
in toe stationmastei’s house at a 
railroad station, far from home. 

- Midtiko Kakutani is on the 
stiff of The New York Times. 


TV New YoA Tines . 

Ha* Bit is based on reports from more iban 
ZJDOO boofaBores timaghoKt the United State*. 
Weds ta Ek he dm necessarily consecutive. 

- Last Tbtfa 
Wk «iUt 

1 THE CH AMBER, by John 


CY. by James Redfidd 

3 THE CROSSING, by Coamc 


4 THE ALIENIST, by Caleb 


Janies Finn Gamer 

SON COUNTY, by Robert 
James WaBer 

7 REMEMBER. ME, by Mary 

Higgins Out 


LDooorcnr ^ 

9 INCA GOLD, by Oh* 

- Gassier 

Ifl DOWNTOWN, by Anne Riv- 
en Sdckna «, 


Instead ofprobing thescam- 
rvalences, Shirer settles for de- 

literary perspicuity of A.N. 
Wilson’s wonderful' 1988 biog- 
raphy, “Tolstoy," and the nar- 
rative drama of Jay Parini's fic- 
tionalized account of Tolstoy’s 
last year, “The Last Station". 
Whafs more, it basically reca- 
pitulates rrmterral already in- 
cluded in Louise Smoluchow- 
ski’s 1987 book, “Lev and 

bivalences, SHrer settles tor de- 
picting hbm as a simple hypo- 
crite, a petulant egotist 
accustomed to putting himself 

If he is to continue tax reduc- 
tion and. tackle welfare matters, 
the paper said, he cannot avoid 
facing the problem of raising 
revenue, but “be failed to con- 
vey bis eagerness for imple- 
menting tax reforms" to secure 
necessary funds. - 

The dailies also questioned 
; where Mr. Murayama stood in 
the debate on whether Japan’s 
Self-Defense Forces are consti- 
tutional. . 

• it is widdy believed that Mr. 
tifnmyauUL, the first Socialist to 
ftrad the nation in 47 years, 

; would renounce his party’s as- 
sertion that* Japanere military 

was in violation of the constitu- 

Meanwhile^ the chief cabinet 
secretary. Kobo fgarashi, said 
Tuesday be thought the prime 
. minister would make a state- 
ment on whether he thought toe 
military was constitutional 

Asked if he would use the 
word “constitutional" during 
the parliamentary questioning, 
Mr. Murayama replied, “It de- - 
pends on the questions." ** 

LIGHT, by Betty J. Eadie wilh 
Cans* Tiwr 2 €2 

by Wnbam J. Barnett 3 30 

4 D-DAY, JUNE 6. 1944, by 
Stephen E. Am b rose 4 6 

by John Bcrcadt 6 19 


Qoayfc : , 3 9 


Mickey Mantle with Mickey 
Heokowitz t 14 4 


B atty 12 3 


Christopher Oaten 8 3 

18 REHA: My S*o*y. by Rcba 

McEnmcwith Tom Carter _ 10 U 4 

11 SOUL MATES, by Thomas w 

12 BEYOND PEACE, by Rich- 
ard Nixon ; 7 9 

D MOON SHOT, by Alan Sbep- 
*rd and Deice Slayton with Jay 
Barixce and Howard Benedict . ! . 

*5ZSt;? V. 

. Danmon Brinkley with Pad 

Perry 13 13 

RIES, by H.-R. Hakfentan - II 7 

accustomed to putting himself 
before all others- Sonya, atleast 
in her later years, is smnlarjy 
portrayed in monochromatic 
terms, as a possessive hysteric, 
on the brink of madness. 

GOl. by Dr. Sens 


ROW, by ABan Folsom 

q-SQUARED, by Peter D*- 




BETTY, by Waller 

One reason for this lack of 
nuance in Shirer’s portraits is 
tiiat he skims over the Tolstoys’ 
early years together, when So- 


1 THE AGENDA, by. Bob . 
Woodwani - I 



ROSIE, by Rose Ddey 1 12 


NUS, by John Gray 2 60 

S MAGIC EYE II. by' N. E. 

Thing Enterprises 3 12 

■4 MACHC EY&by N. E-TOng 
Emnprises 4 26 

i ' e- ; 

6p t jlgy 


Page 5 



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faired freehold rife fa 

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harbor mi colocs. 540 da Kvn 
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T*t (M) 92 US 00 


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now TAX+fta used 
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Central /merratxxt 
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PAIS IHi (1)45 17 27 04 







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I feropc far fa port 20 yecn. 
Al notes era nedch. 

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feraay, 4S Mxftna Aw. Tet 212- 
75Wl». Fra 2)2752009? USA 




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and Hows far Start Tern IrtS. * 
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KENStHOTON £35/nfabt terriend 




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to rent fa 3 doys or nora. 

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tat (33-1} 41 25 16 15 



fan tefct to fire room de fa 
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Free faflte lefare to 

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74 CHAMPS B.Y5&5 



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Doaarwnh/Off-Sfeaa fkafaig - AA 
legal loHMUm by bcensed 
American Attorney /FW EeawixH- 
Caatart-. Edward ?. Oclntfarr. 
Attorneyfa-Uw. 3 Betoesfa 

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BOO* NOW by ptene rah owS cord 

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WOKUMflDE 5peod depeafat at tte 
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A unque trad ^ . 

Egypt ard goiden Kd Sea Sewn doyf. 
bx nighfs m Cairo. Sewn dayi, » 
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to hod te m low a 

For more detok mnlod 



sums RAT M NOBLY, dbn Baa 
de boaiogra & Sen, d Sept 150* 

200 sim. hJ, lorg* sittrg roam, 
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mm facten, poicry. 1-*6U 0636 

PASS 15th, 2 am SfeJ Tower, metro 
Br Hnfasm, SB! Cheep * Man. 47 
sq.DC. Auto 1-21 Frs 4500. My 
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AUGUST RBiTAL t&x axMO. 2 

rooms, view an CANAL ST MAXDN, 

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PASS: (HQ) 1 81 A* Oafadf 
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fx: (069)72 73 10 


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Tel 343.1899,3*3 , 1914 
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GKSCE 8 OfWUS: Aberto 1 Can 
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fax 654 5513 

DFMAfittEM KUxaiKttomjl, 
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fax 6121 M2 

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For (47] 55 91X72 
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Labcn. Period. 

TeL 351-1^-7393 
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SWITZBIIAND: Mardul Wdfer 
P.O Box 51 1, 

1009 Puly.Swtarfand 
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TURKEY 5c bo 5c- el. Csxhoiiyel 
Coiieir. 149/5 Bemi Aft w 
4, Eokm 3C»jC. Idsibvl 
Tel (9021*1 2317223. Fo* 
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INIWKMGDOM: 63 tea Aac. 
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BAHRAM Fendfe Foreign". PO Box 
10787, Mcnoino, Bahrain. 
TcLAmc £51734 

BRAarDtrEfetei.POB 99.Henzfao 
46101. tsa.Td Arr.. 

td WH-SE52ti. 

972-9 136346 
For 972^5^5631 
JORDAN ForexA Zoulx. P.O Bax 
81 17 jK. Amse. kr6ai 
Td 624430 Tor. 22277 Mtt) 
KUWAIT: Wendy fee. Jo 63 ten 
Td C71 £364802 
Fee 071 240 2254. 

LBANQK SYBA: faufe Apse. 

HT, P C Bc» 99. Beni 
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OJAAN: Anne to Gera Mofa.7.0 
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QATAR: Add Sdra. 9 O Bax 3797, 
Cxdvx Oser 
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fa. 412727 

(bo. PO Bex 22156. Stexph. 
United Arab Emsrtev 
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Td f9f7 1/27X16/275019 
Tax (9f7-1 J 2741 37 


EGYPT: teic Costaei tOGerimrS 
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Td 2499?2? 

Tex. 2I274V?£0UN 
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Magie Ogiw.fanofon (fty 1 Ud . 
fO Bor 130351. 

Bntosn 2021. 

Id 706 1408 Ife. 421059 
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HPN YORK: 850 Third Am 8fc R. 
New York. NY 10022 
lei [2121 752-3890 loUfiee. 
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ORCAGO- GU» Medfa he . Sira 
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Orarel ifi«l 
Tel (312)201-9393 
far 312-201 9398. 
fa! Free BO>53562N 

HAWAD: Gfebe Medro, he . 3615 
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IOS ANGBB: Gbbe Meda. he. 

3301 BakmM. 

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Tel [213i 8508339 

Ted Wee. (800)848-4739 
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TORONTO: fem Company he. 
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Far WM33 2116 


URUGUAY tm farod. Vkrante 682 
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Ik 9900600 JHAA 
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2012 -Dpbll.OaAa 2508, 
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Afntoo 436, Saif 
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ho. {506)254652 
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Tri 32S 181/325246 
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PANAMA: Sheri P J Sroub 
UJufert l Nf*-xA Apart*!? 
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Td (507)690511. 

Fenc 1507) ^0 0580 
HSU: FernonfaSanraento. Aboxez 
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Uma-27, Pero 
U 01 >4/4/7852 

Ik 20469 GVD5A. 

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lb. 61170 HiHX. 

Fax 1852)9223-1 190 
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581 Jonrtlonahedlfaad. 

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fiuAing, jbtei lend Sudtiimn No 
2. Jolcorb Pmar, hire-se. 

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Tlx 45722 IOKAIA. 
fa. (62 21)5736077 
JAPAN Mantyo hoda hnemctoal 
herdd Triur* AWtoiog (Ace- 
Jaaon- lFfAonxchiNewsxcm 
m.HWv J baih..CWx&K u 
Idfeo. Japan ICO 
W ^32^103 10 
Tx D3673 fa 3201 0309. 
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OxrxnK>fe, 3 
TeL 734I2B7 
lefac 28504 LM-PUB 
fax 27390054 


MAUY5A: Connie Na Medio- Pfe 
(MJ Sdn Bhd 34 Alafan SS 20/ 10 
toxeuieu Kim 474MPWoLng 
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W 1603)717 3552 
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hB'AL Eliean Txnifena. Medva Soldi 

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Td 221-576 nx 26G6 MEDRET 
Fc 227 236 

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Media Sofa! fPIl Ud, 205 

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Td. 52? 628- lb- 24801 (NS FK 
fa 568 3933 

PHWW43: Frown tom. DMJ 
rp L'ABuMieu 


MuoManC Td 63-14176779 
er 817-6952 
fax 63 2 817 5802 
Telex 075 64838 UA BC 

S* w*. Cec2 Court, Shngcom 
D0106 Id 1651 2236^8/9. 

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Fx 2?4 1566. 

TAIWAN: town fee. PraCom 

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fax (8862)760-852 

IHAKAMJ, WRMAiVraiVan Outrha. 
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fax 267-9)66 


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Td (03)6960288 
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that the Intmrnatfoaal 
Herald Tdbeae and be 
held rupoadbh far lom er 
h m rre d eeare- 

eemMog any moaer area- 
Mf tell* any bladhg 



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drort from USA. fehdih 
fax 503/6284P49 USA. 

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oar ndr. Foe 904773-1655 USA 


Bert prio _ 
fta LCAr 51 

whale or quartan. 


atafito buyvs. Fwxh fkrt. reft 4 
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Ctoci Stale ffa far Hnmtoe- 
service* & eanpany brochure 

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let m 28 3141Tb 875349 FAUJ CH 
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Canto a today: 

. fed.7xfcU<i 
US. tee 1-2122215958 
fend tee 97246917348. 


To Wp Snaaea lit dan pofect. 

USS 10 mSon for five year. 

Very Ngh yidkt No brofen. 

Fax wxr ao/WmtaresMO 
fade (33-1) 44 74 55 28 

IB fed refem prod 15.8% 

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• -- StlCmnd-hond- 
ap to SS MScn fex <d an. 
Good Canracn Product nfc ibdL 
0>+JI Harm/ on 
UK Fax JKn 734 4166 
UK lei tPl 439608 



dip* far our 


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toto"" n otM 

tmmmmm.-. Op fc) $50,000 

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Fax. 607-639-160 USA. 

WHOIESAIt GROUP. Ow caavany it 
wr-r i ofa ed in daieoed brto nano 
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to Tedwcd tend in hC. NO, * 
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mad Acorn to World i 

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OSTOOt OWFBHHP Mw otter red 
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introduce you to the prener ogri- 
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insured, aid nux tog ed an a Tents 
rtxxh. [judno t returns emneto d. Cel 
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through immanent e» xexute red edore 

MNMUM (NVESTM&rr U5J 75fl00 

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cfchrwy n 90 days, heert- 
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ot your funds. No payment ante* you 
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IN I toil 5. We ere looteng te iSver- 
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would Be to EXoreole nportexport 
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for any viaNe prOfBCtt 
__ fax brief syoofSB ei 
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Page 6 

Time of High Peril 
For Clinton’s Term 

Haiti, Whitewater Hearings 
And Health Care Intertwined 

By Douglas Jehl 

New York Tima Semce 

showdown with Haiti’s military 
leaders enters Its tensest stage, 
the White House risks being be- 
sieged with problems on at least 
three major fronts. 

The confluence will almost 
certainly make the month 
ahead the most perilous of Pres- 
ident Bill Clinton's term. 

With Congress bitterly divid- 
ed over health care and congres- 
sional hearings on the 
Whitewater case coming to a 
crest, his advisers say that Mr. 
Clinton probably cannot wait 
much longer before deciding 
whether to invade Haiti and 
roust the Caribbean nation's 
ruling junta. 

The extent to which so much 
at the White House this summer 
is shaping up as a kind of carom 
shot is apparent in the calcula- 
tions of aides about bow a deci- 
sion on Haiti, for one, might 
affect the president’s battle to 
get health care legislation 
through Congress before the 
Aug. 12 recess. 

If Mr. Clin ion ordered a mili- 
tary strike soon, one argument 
goes, it would steal so much 
attention that health care could 
only founder. A dissenting the- 
ory — sometimes offered by the 
same aides — is that success in 
Haiti could so enhance Mr. 
Clinton’s stature that his uphill 
struggle in Congress might be- 
come more like coasting. 

Add to this mix the congres- 
sional hearings on the 
Whitewater matter, which will 
begin next week, and the ago- 
nizing has made for more than a 
little uneasiness. 

“Health care is the one that 


we want to get done," a Clinton 
aide said. “Haiti is the one that 

aide said. “Haiti is the one that 
we have to get done. And 
Whitewater — Whitewater is 

At least for now, officials say, 
questions about how to attack 
each of the problems have been 

compounded by anxiety and 
uncertainty within the White 

uncertainty within the White 
House about what further per- 
sonnel changes will be made by 
Leon E. Panetta. the new chief 
of staff. 

Apart from Mr. Clinton and 
his wife, Hillary Rodham Clin- 
ton, the officials directing the 
day-to-day battles on the major 
fronts have been Mr. Panetta 
and his deputy, Harold M. Ick- 
es, on health care; Lloyd N. 
Cutler, the White House coun- 
sel, and John D. Podesta, the 
staff secretary, on Whitewater; 
and W. Anthony Lake, the na- 




■M to 9 

ifiL L 



tional security adviser, and his 
deputy. Samuel R- Berger, on 

But the discussions have also 
involved a constellation of oth- 
er officials, some of them in ill- 
defined roles. Several senior of- 
ficials now say that Mr. Panetta 
will seek at least to make more 
precise the responsibilities as- 
signed to senior advisers like 
Thomas F. (Mack) McLarty, 
the former chief of Staff, and 
George Stephanopoulos, a sort 
of troubleshooter without port- 

folio who has been spread thin 
by the proliferation of troubles. 

But even aides to Mr. Clinton 
respond uneasily when asked 
how the White House hopes to 
manage the three competing 

“You just do the best you 
can," one senior official said. 

It has been evident since the 
year began that if the White 
House hoped to win approval 
of a health care plan tins au- 
tumn, its first battles on the 
House and Senate floors would 
have to be fought before the 
summer recess. Since March, it 
has also been clear that Repub- 
lican pressures would force con- 
gressional hearings about 
Whitewater onto the midsum- 
mer calendar. 

What has emerged as the 
most unexpected test has been 
the showdown with Haiti. Ad- 
ministration officials insis t that 
Mr. Clinton has not decided 
whether to use force. But few 
say they can envision an alter- 
native to force if the junta re- 
fuses to step down soon. 

The White House has also 
apparently begun an aggressive 
effort to build public and con- 
gressional support for such an 
operation. As Mr. Panetta was 
warning on television that the 
adminis tration could not “al- 
low the status quo to eat us up" 
in Haiti, other senior officials 
were looking back with grim 
satisfaction on a week of televi- 
sion news coverage that focused 
on brutality there. 

“It’s helped us," said one ad- 
ministration official who advo- 
cates an invasion. 

It is events in Haiti and not 
the president's calendar, his ad- 
visers insist, that will determine 
when and whether he will in- 
vade. Similarly, they say they 
are at the mercy of any Repub- 
licans who might seek to use the 
Whitewater hearings for per- 
sonal attacks even at the height 
of the health care debate. 

ion Eye 

Prt*r KijaHtbe/RcMca 

Radovan Karadzic, the Bosnian Serbs’ president, leaving the parliamentary session in Pale, near Sarajevo, on Tuesday. 

BOSNIA: Serbs Avoid a Yes-or-No Decision on Western Partition Plan ^^c^notional but surprb- 

Coatinned from Page 1 

ties present for the debate made it clear 
that they fell the “quality” of the land 
being alloted to the Serbian side was unac- 

ceptable, with most of the country’s natu- 
ral resources, power plants and key com- 

ral resources, power plants and key com- 
munications links awarded to the Mustim- 
Croatian side. 

But they also seemed acutely aware that 
neither President Slobodan Milosevic of 
Serbia, their mentor and their key support- 
er, nor the leaders of the international 

community would tolerate a flat rejection 
of the plan. 

“Everybody wants to say no,” said a 
reporter from the militant Bosnian Serbian 
nationalist stronghold of Banja Luka. 

“The question is how. Some wanted to 
say just no. Others wanted to say yes but 
no. It’s all a game.” 

The basis for giving an ambiguous reply 
was laid right at the start of the parliamen- 
tary session Monday afternoon when sev- 
eral deputies, speaking before the debate 
was dosed to reporters, complained that 

they had no knowledge of the overall peace 
package, particularly of its constitutional 

Recognition of the right of Bosnian 
Serbs to form a confederation with Serbia, 
regarded as the motherland, has emerged 
as a key issue for many of the persons 

A British envoy who came to Pale on 
Monday night told the Bosnian Serbian 
leadership that its republic would not be 
allowed to secede later to join Serbia in a 
“greater Serbia.’* 

HERO* Germans Honor Man Who Tried to KM Hitler TRADE# 


Few York Times Service 

TOKYO — For the North 
Koreans, the huge state funeral 

Tuesday for Kim H Sung was a 
chanc e to claim "their leaders 
place m history and to-put their 
tears, and wailing on display. 
But for the outride experts who 
practice die obscure art of 
North Korea watching, it was 
an encounter with som e t hin g 
they had never witnessed befoie 
— the entry of one of the most, 
reclusive countries in the world 
to the television agp. • • 

. With the death of the hard- 
line Co mmunis t who ruled 
North Korea for nearly five de- 
cades, everyone interested _m 
the country has been watching 
for signs of Will North 

Korea ease its bdlicpsd rheto- 
ric? Will it invite foreign invest- 
ment? Will the xnititaiy take 
charge? Will there be a feud 
within tbe Kim family? 

Bat one of the greatest 
rhangK already has . been the 
raffrimm through, which the ex- 
perts have been able to do their 
w atching ! hours and hours of 
television broadcasts of the 
neatly kept North Korean capi- 
tal, the emotional but surpns- 
ingly disciplined throngs in 
mourning and many of the 
country’s most senior leaders. 

The government has broad- 
cast a limited range of television 
mag es abroad before, but nev- 
er in such abundance and never, 
according to experts, with such 

a profusion of hints and tidbits. 
Everything, from the names on 
the wreaths placed before the' 
bier to die way the film was 
edited, has been scrutinized for 
evidence to support theories on 
where North Korea’s new leadr 
era may beat beading, and who 
is in charge. . .. . " ... 

* Tbe broadcast abroad of So 

Contmoed Iran Page 1 
sacred memory of German re- 

Moreover, Stauffenberg’s 
son. Franz Ludwig, a business- 

tance. Members of the so-called Other groups often resem- 

Red Orchestra, a Bohn-based bled secret debating societies ***%/ 

cell made up largely of middle- .rather than havens for bomb- - 

rlass intellectuals, bad same throwing insurrectionists. Nev- Lamnuea from rage 1 .. 

success in distributing leaflets ertheless, they kept alive the recover strongly during the sec- 

man and former member of and passing military secrets to flame of decency and human half of the war hdnedhva 
Parliament, has bitterly object- the State Union. Those caught dignity in Germany’s darkest cheapcr doUaTagSnst the 

Parliament, has bitterly object- the Soviet Union. Those can 
ed to honoring Communists, by the Gestapo were summarily hour- 
socialists and other leftist oppo- executed or, like the late F 
nents of the Nazi regime. German leader Erich H< 

German Communists in pap- ecker, imprisoned for years, 
ticular “not only built a second “Tbe opportunities for re 

terrible dictatorship in a part of 
Germany after 1945, but also 
killed tens of thousands of peo- 
ple and had hundreds of thou- 
sands incarcerated," Franz 
Ludwig Stauffenberg, now 56, 
recently told Focus magazine. 

As the Library of Congress 
exhibition demonstrates, resis- 
tance to Hitler was diverse but 

executed or, like the late East Because of wounds sustained Deutsche mark. 

German leader Erich Hon- in the war, Stauffenberg was The country’s trade deficit 
ecker, imprisoned for years. unable to wield a pistol, so he with China shot up to KL2 biJ- 
“The opportunities for resis- decided to kill Hiller with a lion in May from $L 8 billion in 

“The opportunities for reris- decided to kill Hitler with a fion in May from $L8 billion in 
tance were severely limited due briefcase bomb. His chance tradiiie only that with, 

to the terror and the effective- caroeon Jnly20, 1944, ina daily VTT? a J 
ness of political measures, not military briefing for Hitler at Jap 

least of all the streamlining of Wolfsscfaanze in East Prussia. According to some analysts, 
the administration of justice But an officer unwittingly tbe deficit with China could 
that came after 1933,” Peter shoved die briefcase containing surpass that with Japan before 
Steinbach, a professor of poiiti- the bomb behind a heavy oak the end of the decade if current 
cal history, wrote in a recent table leg, which shielded Hitler trends continue, adding new 
essay. from the blast Although ringed f ue l to economic tensions be- 

In the face of such odds, a and a bit battered, he was essen- tween Washington and Beijing, 
few brave souls demonstrated tially unhurt • - The trade smplus with Mexi- 

that, even if few fundamental 
chang es come to North Korea, 
it has started toadbpt n*?w tac- 
tics in its war of nerves with the 
outside world. 

For instanc^'one SouthKo- 
rean government official dose 
to the intelligence services 
counted the number of times 
Mr. Kim’s- son and presumed 
successor, Kim. Jong ^ ap- 

peared Tuesday. The number, 
hesaid, was five, . 

The broadcasts baa raerrea 
to the younger. Mr. Kim as head 
of the military, but not yet as 
president or head cf the nixing 
Workers’ Party. That seemed to 
indicate that he had not yet tak- 
en charge; But, the official said, 
the weighty number of appear- 
ances had to be counted as a 
positive sign for the sot’s suc- 
cession. . 

If anyone doubted the impor- 
tance of the job of secretary- 
general of the party, the images 
broadcast of the cortege an- 
swered that question. Draped 
over Mr. Kim’s huge, dark cof- 
fin, which, as it happened, was 
balanced atop what appeared to 
be a blade Ltnoofa house, was 
not the North Korean national 
flag, but the brilliant red flag of 
the party,, with a h amm er and 
sickle in the center. 

A: number of commentators 
noted that the images shown of 
top officials and family mem- 
bers before the bier, before the 
}nng funeral procession had be- 
gan, offered what was regarded 
as a revealing gliinpse into the 
succession straggle 

Last week, when the first im- £ 
ages of the mourners were 
shown, Mr. Kim’s second wife, 
Kim Sung Ae, appeared close to 
TTrm Jong fl, hex stepson. More 
recentiyTbowever, she has been 

edited out of the frames, experts 

claim, suggesting that a poten- 
tial rival for power has been 
. pushed .aside . 

Analysts noted that in one 
series of imag es , a wreath had 
beat set up near the coffin with 
a ribbon proclaiming it a gift 
from the Ministry of Crude Oil 
Industry. Some experts said 
_ they had never heard of such a 
"'■ minkt i y — -most of North Ko- 
rea’S entargy comcs from coal 

caDcSphe unage^a sign that a 
njcxspfetiniticri;h*ii^been creat- 

Naewoe Press, a well-known 
••Pyongyang watcher funded by 
■ me Sooth Korean government, 

M ted that Kim Jong H was seen 
fWmlmd by. tiie defense minister 
and riw prime minister. That 
- was taken as a sign that he had 
wan biroad support 



, ■gjilM'.** 

.£ » • 

rt -KT- 
* *•' 

,*an * 

.** p . -an 
wr« U 1 
f. K3r V 

KOREA: Tears for Kan B Sung 

CanttanBifnmPa& l Analysts said one reason for 

now turning to a mass memori- ** 

il Service, scheduled lor tESSSSffiteHWS 

• y : - 

at service scneauiea ior iFTri iTTr Oi v.rTTr 

Wcdnesday.inwteditbe cadre 
nation is to observe three mm- 

never deep. A few clerics spoke few brave souls demonstrated tially unhurt. The trade surplus with Meri- 

out; most did noL Other oppo- extraordinary bravery. Stu- In Berlin, the coup quickly ^ increased to 5353 m m;nn in 
nents resisted from a distance, dents and teachers in a Univer- collapsed. Stauffenberg and M _ w_i_ nc ~i th* 

such as tbe author Thomas sity of Munich group known as three others were arrested and jJJJL,,- 

mu 10 ooserve mrec mm- q — .. . 

utes of silence at noon while 
ritips and trains will blow whis- 
tShnd sound sirens. 

nents resisted from a distance, 
such as tbe author Thomas 
Mann and a future chancellor, 
Willy Brandt, both of whom left 
Germany as Hitler consolidat- 
ed his grip on the country. 

!*.- , 

Continued from Page 1 
the government decree, the cri- 
sis could inflict serious harm to 
Mr. Beriusconi’s image as a 
self-made tycoon untainted by 
Italy’s sordid political tradi- 

Until now, the man known as 
“II Cavaliere,” or the knight, 
has been perceived as some- 
thing of a savior by voters in- 
censed by the rampant comip-. 
tion uncovered among the 
governing class that ruled Italy 
for the past four decades. 

Yet, Mr. Berlusconi appeared 
to reap little support for his 

SM.T u miuuui %iuuu Mivwu ao uucc uum» wac auwiou ouu . 

the White Rose, including Hans marched into a courtyard of the 

Scholl and his sister Sopme, dis- army headquarters. Shortly af- ”» of U.S. made 

tributed a pamphlet in Febru- ter midnight they wwe executed automobiles and consumer 
ary 1943 summoning “the by firing squad. Before the fatal goods across the border con- 
youth of Germany” to rebel; vofley, Stauffenberg cried, triburing to the gain, 
they were arrested and behead- “Long live our sacred Genoa- US. exports to Mexico rose 
ed- ny!” to $4.38 billion, a tribute to the 

— • - — success of last year’s North 

American Free Trade Agree- 

m Gives Jn on Decree to Defuse Crisis “^ erallt u,s . exports of 

tished by the prime minister's oo^j^ions extracted under S65A 

ues ana souna sirens. . ' v n rr^ — 

ing ratio, iSte and. dis- 

•V- 'tt' ■ 

- . , mg cuaub, uaauun: ouu ui*- 

dero&on to Ins lalhcr to hnvc ^ ^ t,, lead the 

hnnsdf &majr smmtod >s whfle he did not do 

ed his grip on the countiy. ary 1943 summoning “the by firing squad. Before the fatal 
Nazi repression of the Com- youth of Germany” to rebel; volley, Stauffenberg cried, 
munists beginning in 1933 also they were arrested and behead- “Long live our sacred Genoa- 
spawned an underground resis- ed. ny!” 

. , - , ; ua m jiL. ttiuic uc utu uui uu 

mudl “ £ronl & camera5 
besides lex* solemn and shake 

service. Some analysts 
that the redurive sob. 

the hands of well wishers, he 
came across as a dutiful son and 

ITALY : Berlusconi Gives In on Decree to Defuse Crisis 

.. . . r._ r — ' . — umrcatiinsasauuiiiuisun ana 

voKo hM rwly been h ard a nonnnl potno. not as a wfld 

te ^ or “ t ordrunken plnyboy. . 

Some (tf the outpouring of 

•« .. 

— 1 


The government’s retreat will 
only complicate Italy’s conflict 
of authority between the judi- 

penalty of jaiL 
One of Mr. Berlusconi's few 
public endorsements came from 
Pasquale Bandiera, the presi- 


Based on the figures through 
May, the annual deficit would 

Also on Wednesday, Robert grief was dearly orchestrated. 
L. Gaflucd, the U.S. assistant The people stood in a veay or- 
seexetary of state, is expected to deriy manner, with policemen 

arrnw fn SmuiI In iKcmta «ann. In MH.Ii.n . n: 

arrive in Seoul to disenss nego- 
tiations regarding North. Ko- 
rea’s program to develop nucle- 
ar weapons. 

Talks between the United 

da] and executive brandies, dent of Italy’s chapter of die ww* W37 mmoi^ we 
Some analysts predicted that International Federation of toe reaMd of 5J52 pflhon 

in civilian dothes controlling 
the crowds. 

Those in the front row. shook 
and moaned far more than 
those in the back rows, who 

the controversy over the decree Human Rights, who said the 
may assume the proportions of decree was “in tine with inter- 
an institutional crisis in the national legislation that, until 

months to come. now, has bee 

The popularity of the coun- the jndkiaiy.' 
try’s investigating judges, led by — 

magistrates in Milan, has grown 

to such an extent that they now t 1 If 1 f ' 
appear capable of exercising ull I ..lUb 
veto powers over the govern- _ . 

now, has beai disregarded by 

in 1987. 

There was a deficit in goods 
of $14;1 billion and a surplus in 
trade in services of $4i) billion 
in May. 

States and-North Korea in G©r were less visible to the cameras, 
neva earlier this month were Diplomats in Pyongyang re- 

suspended after one day be- 
cause of the leader’s death. 
Both the United States and 

pealed that traffic was banned 
throughout, the city, forcing ev- 
eryone to go to funeral ccremo- 

CB3LDREN: Left Alone to Die 

North Korea have expressed nies. Others were bused in from 
the desire to restart the talks the provinces. 

soon after the funeral. 

To some extent. North Korea 
seemed as secretive in its lead- 

claim tha t he was trying to im- ment and the legislature. 

_ I_. _ . ¥ _ T — « It nr4C fha hu A. 

prove human rights in a countiy 
that has often been criticized by 
civil libertarians for allowing 

people to languish in jail for 
long periods without trial. 

It was the threat by Milan’s 
four leading judges — Antonio 
Di Pietro, Piercamilio Davigo, 
Francesco Greco and Gherardo 
Colombo — to resign in the 

Coatianed from Page 1 battling to save lives, , but- the 

North Korean radio reported 
that 2 nnliion people, almost a 
tenth of the population, were in a 

-Pwinmano fnr iho fnn*nl 

dead. Their corpses swelled in enormity of the task has over- 
the am. In one lane, children's whelmed than. Out of 30 chil- 

er’s death as it had been during /Pyongyang for the funeral pro-' 
his lif& No mention was marie ceedings. 

Instead, Mr. Berlusconi was wake of the decree that ignited 
perceived as striving to rescue public outrage and ultimately 
nnlitical and business cronies forced the government to back 

political and business cronies 
from the corrupt old guard who 
were more accustomed to lavish 

' /TL • were more accustomed to lavish Tbi 

villas, rich food and nights at ™eld 

forced the government to back 

Tbe judges say they need to 

s judges say they need to 
the threat of pretrial cus- 

Adiorrulk with ferood lime rone 12hti4b 
«ed_ ved/goW iSd.goU iBd 

La Scala opera house than din- tody to prevent suspects from 
gy jail pells shared with thieves fiectog the countiy or larnp cr- 
and drug pushers. *’ ^ ^ 

ing with evidence. Their sup- 

“The poor in prison, the rich porters say it would have been 
in their houses,” Plena Padotti, nupossihle to expose the extent 

president of Italy's national as- 
sociation of magistrates, said in 

characterizing the alleged dou- 

of corruption, notably the prac- 
tice of trading government con- 
tracts for cash kickbacks into 

bodies lay strewn in a pile of 
dothing and abandoned pos- 

On Monday morning, report- 
ers went to the border and 
picked up the wounded and 
abandoned children, ferrying 
them to the French military 
base at Goma’s airport. 

Only much later m the morn- 
ing did Red Cross workers and 
French soldiers come to evacu- 
ate the wounded, and for many 
it was too late. 

French doctors, working out 
of a field hospital and in the 
mobile clinics of the charity 

ble s tandar d that wasestab- political party coffers, without Doctors Without Borders are 

dren brought to them Monday, 
nine died, a doctor said. - 

Local Zairians are devastated 
by the calamity and the cliwps 
that have descended on their 
town. Some, like the Red Cross 
worker, are bravely trying to 
cope, but the attitude of marry 
is to blame it on others and do. 

“You are American,” shout- 
ed an angry Zairian. “Your 
country is so powerful. Why 
don’t you do something about 

“These bodies are stinking,” 
demanded another. “What are 
you doing about itT 

in advance of the time tar place 
of the funeral and it is stiB not 
known where the body was or 
will be buried, orwhrther it will 
be displayed Hke Lenin’s body. 

Only after the formal funeral 
was overdid the official govern- 
ment news .agency announce 
that a “solemn ceremouy” had 
been held in the presidential 
palace, attended by Kim Jong B 
and other government officials. 
. But the ensuing motorcade 
and the scenes of mounting tha t 
have been broadcast for the last 
10 days have to an unosual .ex- 
tent revealed to the world at 
least carefully selected aspects 
of the secretive nation. .. 

In Face tf a Shortage 


BUCHAREST — Authori- 
ties in Bucharest turned off the 
Romanian capital's water on 
Tuesday so' that hew pumping 
staioos could be ■ installed - to 
overcame a chronic water 

'Hospitals and orphanages 
were being supplied with water 
in tankers by the Defense Min- 
istry during the 48-hour shut- 

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Page 7 

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No. 26,908 




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Published with The New York Times and The Washington Post 

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Established 1887 


Astronauts Land Craft Safely 9 
are to Walk on Surface Today 

By Al Rosnter Jr. 

CPACE CENTER, Houston, July 20, 1969 
(UPI).— -Mm landed on the moon today. 

Two pioneers from the planet Earth, Ameri- 
can astronauts Neil A. Armstrong ml Edwin E. 
Aldrin, flew their fragile spacecraft to a fright- 
ening but safe touchdown at 2017:40 GMT. 

Soon after the landing, the astronaut* recommended 
that they advance their walk on the lunar surface by 
five hours to start at 0106 GMT- tomorrow. Ground 
central agreed. 

Their landing r e alised die dreams of centuries. For 
the first time men actually r est ed on an alien world. 

The lunar lander, called Eatff, balanced precariously 
on a jet of flame, settled with a. gentle thaump on the 
moon's Sen of TnmqidIBty, near the lunar equator. - 

It op en ed to he a p er f ect descent — though it had 
■ever been done before ' 

The thrusting descent engine kicked up dust as the 
Eagle lending craft h overed briefly before dropping the 
flu* few feet- to the surface. 

"Very smooth touchdown,’' C6L Aldrin reported with 
cool easuahwes shortly after the landing. Mr. Armstrong 
amus e d fcbnseif from further reports, saying: "We’re going 
to he buy fora moment” 

Me. !*» ■*— t—w g nfurrinff piiiTir flut.iiuidlpr'qii a Manet 
ether than, hie own with Ids voice, barely imbed from tdi 
normal, laconic deUvaty. . 

"Contact fight on. Engine off. The Eagle has lauded,” 
he eaid. 

Thus began the cnlnitnatfnn of 'centuries of sum’s 
dreams, eight yean at fantastic effort and the expenditure 
of 9 M blttton. 

‘Quite a lot e/ Roch’ «t Site 

Mr.. Armstrong made a quick description of the touch- 
down scene: saying there were "quite a lot of rocks, and 
boulders” In sight. But ground control could not restrain 
its enthusiasm. 

“Guys, that was. one beautiful lob." the mission con- 
trailer called. 

One of the most critical measurements was the space- 
craft’s tilt on tile surface— a greater list than 12 degrees 
would doom the astronauts, since the ascent stage could not 
properly fire. 

Ground control reported an angle. -of lust over A degrees 
well within take-off capability— and Mr. Armstrong con- 
firmed that measurement. 

Within seconds, ground control was addressing Eagle as 
"tranquillity base.” Ur. Armstrong found time to describe a 
bit of the descent 

He said the automatic guidance system was “taking us 
right Into a football field abe (area) °I craters.** . 

Mr. Armstrong said he took over control manually over 
the rock field "to find a reasonably smooth area." 

Other News 

Kennedy Faces Charge 
After Fatal Accident . 

A 29-year -old woman, a former 
secretary of the late Robert F- 
Kennedy, wa» killed early Sun- 
day when a car driven by Sea 
Edward M. Kennedy plunged oft 

a bridge near Martha’s "Vineyard. 

It was reported that the sen- 
ator, who was unhurt, would ba 
ihaigtt? with leaving the «ene 
et an accident. The accident 
occurred shortly after midnight . 
Ben. Kennedy, w$0 said he had 
walked around in "shock,” re- 
ported it to police some right 
hours later. Page 5. 

fen. Edward M. Kennedy 

S Egyptian Planes 
Reported Shot. Doom. 

Five Egyptian and two Israeli 
planes were shot down ova: the 
Sues Canal today, an Israeli 
spokesman reported. Day-long 
fightfriy along the. canal started 
after an Israeli raid on an 
Egyptian island fortress in the 
Gulf of Suez. Pegs A 

Nixon Plans to Outline 
New Welfare Policy 

President Nixon win outline a 
“dramatic new > approach" ’ to 
welfare in a television broadcast 
Aug. S, the White House an- 
nounced- He win also discuss 
sharing of federal revenue with 
states and cities, nyfstan of 
manpower training, programs 
and reorganisation of the office 
of gpnrtpmfc Opportunity. Page 5. 

Wheeler Doubts Lull 
Means De^Esctdadon 

Gen. Earle G. Wherier, Chair-, 
man of the Joint Chiefs of 
Staff, said in Saigon that the 
lull m Vietnam fighting does 
-hot seem. to mean de-escalation 
by the enemy. - Before totting 
Vietnam after an Inspection 
tow, the general also denied 
that three North Vietnamese 
regiments had. as recently re- 
ported.. been withdrawn across 
the Demilitarised Zone. Page 5. 


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Thu is the ApoBo-11 primary l anding die on the moon am seen from the hatch of 
the command module and teleeatt back to earth. At the time the craft teas about 
170 mUea above the Sea of Tranquillity be/ore going into Us lunar orbit. 

*Tt looks Hke a collection of just about every variety 
of shapes, angularities, granularities, lust about every variety 
of rocks you can find,” Col. Aldrin reported. 

Col Aldrin said there didn’t seem to be much color, but 
he said some rocks in view “look as though they will have 
some interesting color to them." 

Later, Mr. Armstrong gave man’s first description of 
earth as seen from the surface of the, moon: 

"It's big and bright and beautiful," he said. 

Mr. Armstrong reported the astronauts’ first reaction 
to moon gravity— only one-sixth of that on earth— “is just 
like in an airplane.” He said there was no difficulty in 
adapting to the lower gravity. "We seem used to it already." 

Both he and CoL Aldrin sounded calm and unruffled 
by the first manned l umpin g on the moon. 

Ground control told them: "There are lots of smiling 
faces In this room, all over the world." Mr. Armstrong 
replied: "There are two of them here.” 

For several long minutes as the craft was dscending 
the world seemed to stand still The cool spacemen called 
out their final altitude figures as they dropped toward the 
lunar surface. 

At 220 feet: “Coming down nicely." 

At 75 feet: “Looking good." 

At 30 feet: “Picking up some dost" 

Then finally, at 2017.40 GMT: “Contact light cm. 
Engine off. The Eagle has landed." 

Nearly three hours after their touchdown on the moon, 
CoL Aldrin came on the air with a special message. 

“This is the LM pilot." he said. 

"I’d like to take this opportunity to ask every person 
listening in, whoever and wherever they may be. to pause 
for a moment and contemplate the events of the past few 
hours, and to give thanks In his or her own way." 

Sir. Armstrong told ground control: “WeTl be able to 
begin EVA (moon walk) preparations In a half-hour or so.” 

Meantime, at 2325 GMT. Mr. Armstrong and CoL Aldrin 
were eating their first meal on the moon. 

With the decision made to skip the first on-the-moon 
rest period, the astronauts moved quickly into the difficult, 
sometimes laborious preparations far the moon walk. 

One of these involved placing a filter over the valve 
which will vent oxygen to depressurize the Eagle. This la 
a decontamination device, designed to avoid polluting the 
moon's surface with any organisms the Eagle atmosphere 
may contain. 

Then Mr. Armstrong and Col Aldrin began to don 
their moonwalking back packs — about a 45-minute job, and 
a bard one. 

Mr. Armstrong and CoL Aldrin were scheduled to spend 
about two and one-half hours on tbe moon's surface and 
then return to the lunar module for a rest period. 

No Change in LiflrOff Time 

Space agency officials said they did not expect the 
lift-off of the lunar module from tbe moon to be changed 
from 1755 GMT tomorrow. It will later link up with the 
command module carrying CoL Michael Collins In orbit 
around the moon. 

At the time of the landing the moon was about 238,548 
miles from earth. 

CoL Collins was poised to swoop in and rescue his 
colleagues, had anything gone wrong But now that they 
are on the lunar surface, they are beyond Ms reach. 

“Out tbe window Is a relatively level plain cratered with 
a thoroughly large number of craters of the 5 -to- 50- 
foot variety and some small 20-to-30-feet-hlgh and literally 
thousands of one and two-foot craters around the area," 
Mr. Armstrong said. 

“We see some angular blocks several hundred feet In 
front of us." 

Ironically— after ail the controversy over whether send- 
ing men rather than machines Into space was worthwhile — 
Mr. Armstrong Indicated that the mission might have ended 
In disaster without a man at Eagle's controls. 

He said he had to “take over manually and fly It over 
the rock area” toward which the guidance system was point- 
ing the craft The automatic system was bringing them 
straight down into a crater, which was surrounded “for about 
one or two crater diameters" with Jagged boulders. 

Mr. Arm st r o ng said he flew Eagle to a “relatively good 
area" and brought it down In a swirl of dust. 

The rock samples the astronauts will collect is one of 
(Continued on Pago 2, CoL 4) 

Nixon Leads U.S. in Prayer 
For Astronauts 7 Safe Return 

Astronauts’ Conversation 

As Eagle Descends on Moon 

TUPD.— President Nixon tod*iy 
led tbe nation In prayers for a 
successful- moan landing- and 
safe return of the UJ5. astro- 

.Mr. Stum set u pm moon 
watch in the White House fol- 
lowing religious services in the 
east room at ll sum. He plan- 

ned to track the mission 
through the day and through 
the early Monday morning 
hours when man was to set bb 
foot cm the lunar surface. 

Today was Mr. Nixon's sis- 
month anniversary in the White 
trainee, but be had to be re- 
minded of it. He laughed when 
whether there was any 

connection between the anni- 
versary anH the moon landing. 

The hi ghlig ht of tbe church 
service was the reading by CoL 
Prank A. Barman, the astro- 
naut, of the first ten verses 
of Genesis, the same passage 
read whQe the Apolto-a 
rM—wi he commanded circled 
♦ha moon i««fc Christmas Eve. 

10 Miles Above Surface 

Red Craft Enters New Orbit Nearer Moon 

MOSCOW, July -to (UPI>.— 
The Russians announced today 
that their Luz>»45 spacecraft 
went into A new orbit that tent 
it within 10 miles of the moan. 

The orbital change increased 
the poss&mty that tbe Loca- 
ls might touch down on the 
moon to obtain aril samples, 
pommy virile the ApoDo-11 As- 
tronauts were carrying out 
their historic missiOD. 

The Thra announcement of 
the Change, which confirmed 
an earlier repeat from Britain's 
Jodreil Bank Observatory, said 
that the mysterious, unmanned 
lunar arbiter eased into the 
low orbit u 5:16 an, (Miff 

The brief announcement, only 
the fourth communique issued 

on Luna-15 since its launching 
one weqk ago. did not provide 
any Information on the erafL’s 
or Um reason for the 
orbital change. 

There have been frequent re- 
ports from unofficial but knowJ- 
ledgeable sources that the 
Luna-15 is a ■moonscooper'* de- 
-wsigzied to soft-land on tbe moon 
and bring aril samples back to 

The Tfess report said that tbe 
new Luna-15 orbit carried the 
craft a maximum distance of 56 
miles from the moon and down 
as low as 10 miles. 

“The orbit's inclination to tha 
plane of the lunar equator: 
137 degrees: the period of revo- 
lution: one hour and 54 min- 
utes" tbss aid- 

It concluded that “according 
to the Hwta. of the tetemetrte 
information, the systems and 
scientific equi pm e nt on bowd 
tbe station are fun c t ionin g nor- 
mally. The automatic station 
Luna-15 continues' s ci entific rx- 
pwaffnn in near -moon, outer 

lAxna-15 was launched from 
the wavaMiwum spaceport one 
week ago and entered its lunar 
orbit on Thursday. It held the 
same orbft for two days and 
then performed maneuvers that 
slightly altered its rotation 

(In Britain a spokesman for 
the Jodreil Bank Observatory 
said that there was only an “in- 
liniteshnal chance" that it 
might collide with (he Apollo 

HOUSTON. July 20 I NTT) — 
Excerpts from, caniersations be- 
tween the crew of Apoilo-ll 
and musion control in Nous- 

GMT) : We are now less than 
two minutes Iran reacquiring 
the &paceci aft on tbe 13th 
revolution. When next we 
hear from than the lunar 
module should be undocked 
from the command and ser- 
vice module. We are presently 
about S minutes away from 
the separation burn which will 
be performed by Mike Collins 
in the command module to 
gree the LM and the CSM a 
separation distance at the 
descent orbit insertion ma- 
neuver of about two miles . . . 
HOUSTON: Hello Eagle, we 
are standing by. Over. 
HOUSTON: Eagle, we see yoa 
on the steerable. Over. 
EAGLE: Roger. Undocked. 
HOUSTON: Roger. How does 
it look? 

EAGLE: The Eagle has wings. 
HOUSTON: Roger. 

EAGLE: Looking good. 
HOUSTON: Roger. 

HOUSTON (1802 GMT): Co- 
lumbia. 0« my mark. 9:30 to 
ignition. Mark 9:30. 

* • • 

HOUSTON: You're looking good 
for separation You are go 
for separation Columbia. Over. 

I'd like to take this opportunity to ask 
every person listening in, whoever 
and wherever they may be 9 to pause for i 
moment and contemplate the events 
of the past fete hours and to gifte thanks 
in his or her own way. 

—Edwin A. Aldrin. from the 
lunar module Eagle on the 
moon’s 9- iiace, July 20, 1969. 

COLUMBIA: Eagle one minute 
to take. lib care. 

EAGLE: See you later. 

Columbia: You've got a fine- 
looking flying machine there. 
’Eagle, despite the tact you're 
upside down. 

EAGLE: Somebody's upside 

going right down ELS. 1, Mike. 

v a * 

COLUMBIA: I just got some 
unexplained roll thruster ac- 
tivity. 7 might have bumped 
a hand control. 

HOUSTON: Roger. Well look 
at it. 

Apollo control We've had 
lass of signal now and the 

spacecraft Eagle has been 
given a go for descent orbit 
Jmertioti . . . When next we 
acquire tha lunar module it 
should be at an altitude of 
about 18 nautical miles on 
way down to the low point 
of about 50,000 feet from 
where the power descent to 
the lunar surface will begin. 
As the spacecraft went around 
the comer all systems on 
both vehicles looked very 
good . . . 

HOUSTON: (2649 GMT): Bogle. 
Houston. You are go for 
D.OJ. (descent orbital Inoer- 

EAGLE; Roger. Go for D.OX 



Page 8 





Sri butte 


Berlusconi’s Betrayal 

Only months ago, SDvio Berlusconi rode 

to power on public disgust with Italy's 
bribery-ridden network of politicians and 
businessmen. Last Wednesday, he out- 
raged the country with a decree that did 
the accused wrongdoers a huge favor. He 
had asked Italians to trust him as the only 
person running for high public office who 
was not tainted by the scandal that fol- 
lowed the “dean hands" anti-corruption 
investigation — and they did. Now, even 
as he talks of amending the decree, many 
are having second thoughts. 

Italians saw the magistrates who con- 
ducted the Investigation as the only moral 
players in Italy's grimy political culture. 
Prime Minister Berlusconi has abruptly 
cast off his campaign image as a tribune of 
clean government and seeks to limit their 
investigations into past political sleaze. 

Until last Wednesday, unease about the 
new government had focused on Mr. Ber- 
lusconi's coalition partners: the National 
Alliance, descended from Mussolini's Fas- 
cist Party, and the Northern League, 
which hopes to undo I talian unification. 
Now he has shifted misgivings from his 
allies to himself. His decree detonated 
street protests and scathing editorials. The 
a dmir ed magis trates have requested reas- 
signment Mr. Berlusconi’s coalition part- 
ners have taken issue with him. 

Pretrial detention, rescinded by Mr. 
Berlusconi’s decree, is obnoxious to civil 
libertarians and rare in the United States 
for those who can afford b ail. But it has 
bom normal legal practice in Italy and 
became a valuable tool for preventing 
suspects in the political corruption scan- 
dal from covering their tracks. It should 
not be selectively e limina ted as a special 

favor to the powerful and well connected. 

Potential beneficiaries of last Wednes- 
day's decree, which also barred publishing 
the names of corruption suspects, indude 
Mr. Berlusconi’s own brother, Paolo, who 
faces trial later this year, and his old politi- 
cal patron, former Prime Minister Bettmo 
Crajri, now evading the reach of Italian 
authorities in Tunisia. 

The “dean hands” investigation was the 
first real challenge to the permanent gov- 
erning coalition of Christian Democrats, 
Socialists and smaller parties that ran Italy 
for their own benefit throughout the Cold 
War. The prosecutions reawakened public 
idealism and promised better government. 
But instead of the morally renewed “Sec- 
ond Republic" that Mr. Berlusconi pro- 
mised voters last March, he now offers a 
caricature of the old regime, in which 
power is concentrated in one person's 
bands rather than in a broadly represen- 
tative political class. 

Mr. Berlusconi, under pressure from his 
coalition partners, suggested on Monday 
that he might yield to critics and alter the 
language of the decree. It is to the credit of 
the Northern League and the National 
Allian ce that they resisted curbing the 
prosecutors. These parties deserve to be 
judged as much by their present actions as 
by their past associations. 

What is important is not which politi- 
cians or parties end up on top in Rome. 
The dangerous dement to this crisis is that 
it is likely to produce further disillusion- 
ment with all elected politicians. It is in 
such disillusionment with democracy, not 
the heritage of the National Alliance, that 
the real danger of a fascist revival lies. 


Export controls require a balance be- 
tween two imperative American interests. 
The purpose is to prevent goods of mili- 
tary value from getting into the wrong 
hands abroad. Loosening the controls in- 
creases the risk. Tightening them interferes 
with economic growth by making it harder 
to sell goods abroad, especially in the 
high-technology sectors where getting to 
the market fast is essential. Two bills 
coming to the floor of the House of Rep- 
resentatives would rewrite the rules for 
exporting what the experts call dual-use 
items, which can be used for either mili- 
tary or peaceful purposes. Machine tools 
are an example. So are chemicals. 

The bills represent the two sides of the 
debate. The Foreign Affairs Committee's 
bill is based on the argument that the Cold 
War is over and in any case advanced 
technology is no longer an American mo- 
nopoly; effective controls have to be coop- 
erative, with a free How except to the 
renegade countries that do not respect the 
international rules. The Armed Services 
Committee’s bill reflects the opposite view 
that while the Soviet Union may have 
vanished, America still has other adversar- 
ies, and some have nuclear ambitions; and 
while most governments may have good 
intentions, few have sufficiently reliable 
export controls of their own to prevent 
transshipment of American technology 

to the renegade and terrorist countries. 

The House might keep two criteria in 
min d. Because most products are made in 
more than one place, controlling Ameri- 
can exports alone will not suffice to pro- 
tect American security, legislation needs 
to encourage international cooperation. 
Second, the process of making decisions 
inside the executive branch is crucial. At 
present, when one agency disagrees with 
another the application for an export 
license can fail indefinitely into limbo 
while the frustrated exporters watch their 
foreign customers turn to other suppliers. 

Both hQls would pul time limits on the 
decision process, but the Foreign Affairs 
Committee’s bill does it more simply. 

Congress hates this subject, with its 
unfathomable technical issues and its 
huge commercial stakes. There is always 
a strong temptation to find ways to kill or 
postpone export controls bills. But Amer- 
ican exports are now approaching half a 
trillion dollars' worth of goods a year, 
and the procedures that were adequate in 
the past are becoming unmanageably 
cumbersome and costly. The Foreign Af- 
fairs Committee's bill is, in general, pre- 
ferable. But even the most hesitant mem- 
ber of the House can take heart, for either 
of these bills would be preferable to the 
present obsolete law. 


Gluttony + Sloth = Fat 

America is the home of a dessert called 
Death by Chocolate. It is the home of the 
quarter-pounder with a side of fries, of 
pastrami on iye. of chile rdlenos and na- 
chos, of barbecue, glazed doughnuts and 
fetiucini Alfredo. It is a country in which 
touch-tone will bring the stay-at-home piz- 
za with everything within minutes; the 
country whose television ads for broiling 
T-bones or sizzling fried shrimp could 
have swayed Saint Jerome. It is a country 
whose restaurants sing with “I really 
shouldn’t, but ... ” and “Go ahead, you 
deserve it.” America is a land of couch 
potatoes, where labor-saving devices do 
the physical work and computer games 
replace active sports. Is it any wonder 
that America is also a country of danger- 
ously overweight people? 

According to a recent study by the Na- 
tional Center for Health Statistics, the 
number of adults characterized as over- 
weigh l in the United States has jumped to 
an astonishing one-third of the popula- 
tion. “Overweight’’ in this case means be- 
ing about 20 percent or more above a 
person’s desirable weight. Since the figures 
for “desirable weight” have moved up- 
ward in the last decade or so, total pound- 
age — even at 20 percent over — may be 
considerable. So are the attendant health 
risks. Excess weight has been linked to 
cardiovascular disease, hypertension, 
adult-onset diabetes and some forms or 
cancer, among other diseases. 

Once, when work and school and the 
grocery store were a two-mile hike away, 
Americans could afford the calories they 
consume. But not now, not when millions 
spend four or five hours a day in front of 

a television set — along with a bag of 
chips, a bowl of buttered popcorn and a 
six-pack — and there is a car or two in 
every driveway. “There is no commitment 
to obesity as a public health problem,” 
said Dr. William Dietz, director of clinical 
nutrition at the New En glan d Medical 
Center in Boston. “We’ve ignored it, and 
blamed it on gluttony and sloth.” 

If one definition of a public health pro- 
blem js its cost to the nation, then obeaty 
qualifies. According to a study done by 
Dr. Graham A. Colditz, who teaches at 
Harvard Medical School, it cost America 
an estimated S68.8 billion in 1990. 

But what is wrong with blaming it on 
gluttony and sloth? True, some unfortu- 
nate overweight people have an underly- 
ing physical or genetic problem. But for 
most Americans the problem is with two 
of the seven deadly sins. 

Losing weight is a desperately diffi- 
cult business. Preventing gain is not. 
Consumer information is everywhere, 
and there can be few adults who truly 
believe that hot dogs, fries, a soda and a 
couple of Twinkles make a good lunch. 
But they eat them anyway. 

As more and more Americans became 
educated to the risks of smoking, so 
more and more gave up the habit. Now 
it appears that Americans need an inten- 
sive education in the risks of stuffing 
themselves and failing to exercise. Giv- 
en the seductiveness of chocolate and 
cheese, the conch and the car, that habit 
will be hard to break. But if an ounce of 
prevention can obviate a pound of fat, it 
is well worth the struggle, 


International Herald Tribune 



RICHARD McCLEAN. Publisher A Chief Executive 
JOHN VINOCUR. Exectunv Et&or A YaxPraUem 


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Europe’s Core May Have to Blaze the Union’s Trail 

B RUSSELS — When John Major not 
only single-handedly vetoed the 
choice of Britain’s II fellow member 
stales for president of the European Com- 
mission but then triumphantly secured the 
appointment of a less federal politician, 
his Tory supporters cheered him to the 
echo. When the cheers died away, he 
would have been wise to look up Robert 
Southey’s “The Battle of Blenheim." 

And everybody praised the Duke 
Who such a fight did win. 

But what good came of it at last? 

Quoth little Peterkin. 

Why that I cannot tell, said he. 

But ’ twas a famous victory. 

Likewise, Prime Minister Major's vic- 
tory is a hollow one. 

When be next has a problem on which 
be needs the help of his European Union 
colleagues, he will find the leaders of 
France, Germany and Belgium (whose 
candidate he blocked) lying in wait with 
a large hatchet 

The next president of the Commission, 
assuming that the European Parliament 
will not try to block the appointment, will 
be a Luxembourger. As such he win fed 
himself far closer, on grounds of geogra- 
phy and history, to the two great powers 
on his borders than to the odd man out 
across the Channel, particularly because 
it has recently been spumed in favor of 
Germany by President Bill Clinton. A 
French-German- European Commission 

By Roy Denman 

axis will not be a great deal for Mr. Major. 

The impression given by British gov- 
ernment sources is that Monsieur Jac- 
ques Santer, the Luxanbourger, is an 
amiable poodle. His record shows that he - 
is noL He might conceivably think of 
demonstrating this sharply to Mr. Major. 

The job of Commission president was 
one of a wider portfolio of international 
jobs, including that of secretary-general 
of the OECD. The British had a presti- 
gious candidate. He now has no hope. 

There are two wider considerations. 

The affair has once again brought 
home to Britain's European partners 
(particularly after the British defeat in 
March on the blocking minority issue) 
the extraordinary degree of misunder- 
standing in Britain of European issues. 

The British, for example, talk of a 
federation as a centralized tyranny. TeU 
that to a Bavarian and he mil burst out 
laughing — pausing perhaps to ask when 
the British, as the most centralized re- 
gime in Europe, plan to give Scotland 
and Wales the decree of autonomy en- 
joyed by the German Lander. 

Again, to make out that the Belgian 
prime minister is a raving federalist is 
quite dotty. Anyone who has spent any 
time in the country knows that it is so 
decentralized as barely to remain together. 

It is as if the British look at the rest of 
Europe in a huge distorting mirror, like 
the ones to be found in tlx fairgrounds of 
old, which showed anyone peering into it 
as a monster or a hobgoblin. 

' The rcasOT for this is not just traditkinal 
British insularity. It is partly a lack of 
leadership from a divided, unpopular gov- 
ernment, wdl past its shelf life. Partly the 
antics of noisy Toy Europhobes in Pariia- 
ment who know as much about Continen- 
tal Europe as they do about Mongolia. 

And it is partly the British press, a. 
large part of which — the leading tabloid, 
and 60 percent of the broadsheets' — is 
owned by two nonresident foreigners 
who loathe Europe and ensure that their 
papers give it the same treatment as 
Pravda used .to give the United States at 
the height of the Cold War. 

The second wider consdfflation relates 
to what is now going to happen. The 
great achievements of the Union over 
nearly 50 yean had to be spearheaded by 
the Commission. The gnife market, the 
Sin gle Act, the successful negotiations 
for entry of 10 new members, successful 
participation in three world trade negoti- 
ations, the launching of the drive for 
economic and monetary umon — none 
of that would have happened without 
Commission leadership. But a different 
ball game is now about to start. 

The next leap foiWard will not depend 
essentially on the Commission. It win 

come some time afta * e «“»*«{ 
German elections this Octobcrand the 
^Xpnsdential election natM* 
For a second conference (after Maas- 
tricht) on the future o^amzation of the 

Union is due to be held m 1996. 

It shapes up as a bust, became die 
severaHrambere want quite different 
rhmro Britain wants nothing more than 
afrStrade area. Some others cannot ytt 
afford a common currency. It would 
hardly be sensible to expect much from a 
group of aeronautical engineers design- 
Sga plane, when one group ***** ™ 
nothing more than a gbder while the rest 
axe working on a jet fight®. 

So there seems much to be said for the 
proposal, put forward by the French 
Shuster for European affairs in May, 
that a hard core of European Union 
states should commit themselves in 1996 
to cany oat all its policies, not just those 
'that smt individual members. Thiscould 
mean early creation of an economic and 
political union of, say, six countries. 

It would be a step as momentous as the 
Treaty of Rome in 1957. Initially it 
would be divisive, just as in 1957. But the 
integration of Europe is not going to 
stand still, and there are moments m 
history when the only way forward is for 
those who 0 ^ to blaze the trail; in tune 
the others will catch up. Perhaps, after a 
change of government, even the British. 

International Herald Tribune. 

The Syria Question: Better a Peace With 'the Devil You Know’? 

N ICOSIA — King Hussein’s 
historic decision to meet 
Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in 
Washington next Monday to has- 
ten a Jordan- Israel peace treaty 
r anks with the boldest moves he 
has made in his 42 years of rule. 

Both that impending meeting 
and the passing of North Korea's 
Kim II Sung raise urgent questions 
for Syria's President Hafez Assad. 

King Hussein’s decision to 
break with his previous cautious 
policy of waiting for more pro- 
gress toward Syria-lsrad peace, 
partly out of respect for President 
Assad’s wishes, was keenly felt in 
Damascus, just ending a week of 
national mourning for Kim II 
Song. The pariah North Korean 
state, since the breakup of the ex- 
Soviet Union, has become Syria's 
main arms supplier. 

While King Hussein. Mr. Ra- 
bin and their peace teams meet in 
Washington and on the Israel- 
Jordan border, U.S. Secretary of 
State Warren Christopher — now 
armed with an unprecedented 
public recognition by the Israeli 
foreign minister, Shimon Peres, 
of Syria’s sovereignty over the 
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights 
— renews his efforts in Jerusa- 
lem and Damascus on the far 

By John K. Cooley 

tougher issue of Syria-lsrad peace. 

It is not difficult to imagine the 
inured emotions of King Hussein. 
Both his grandfather, King Ab- 
dallah, and President Sadat of 
Egypt were assassinated by Arab 
extremists for talking peace with 
Israel. King Hussein has sought, 
and apparently gained, assur- 
ances from President Bill Clin ton 
that the United States will forgive 
Jordan's debt and help to mod- 
ernize its armed forces. The king, 
at 59 the survivor of many plots, 
was never one to let his reason be 
overpowered by fear. 

For Mr. Assad, the stakes are 
equally high. The Syrian president 
lacks the firm domestic base that 
King Hussein has fashioned in 
Jordan. Although neither man is in 
the best of health, Mr. Assad has 
failed to build democratic-based 
institutions and has not estab- 
lished a clear line of succession. 

In North Korea, as Syrians ob- 
served. a far more rigid dictator- 
ship coped with its succession 
problem by designating Kira D 
Sung's son, Kim Jong II, as the 
new “Great Leader.” This is un- 
likely to work in Syria. A car 
accident in January killed the 

presidents much-loved son and 
presumed hear, Basil, who was 32. 

His father had made Basil, a 
popular army major mid athlete, 
the head of a kind of private intel- 
ligence service. Many Syrians 
hoped he would become a fair- 
minded bead of state who might 
even reform and modernize Syr- 
ia’s sclerotic police-state system. 

What Baal was doing before 
his fatal car crash was compiling 
a sort of data bank on corruption 
among the competing Syrian 
business and political elites. 

After BasiPs death, his father 
placed his oldest surviving son, 
29-year-old Bashar, in charge of 
sane of the same daia-gathering 
activity. This leads some Syrians 
to believe that Bashar, who had 
been a captain in the army medi- 
cal corps, is now in line to suc- 
ceed his father. 

Syria’s 1973 constitution poses, 
at least on paper, a problem for 
any of Mr. Assad’s four surviving 
children to succeed him; It re- 
quires a president to be at least 
40 years old. 

Other possible successors in- 
dude his younger brother Rifaat, 
shrewd and ambitions but unpop- 

ular after a bid for power follow- 
ing the president’s 1983 Alness; 
Vice President Abdel Halim 
Khaddam, a .foreign affairs ex- 
pert; and several senior military 
men who, unlike Mr. Khaddam, 
belong to the ruling but minority 
Alawite sect of Islam. 

What Israeli and U.S. analysts 
now must ponder is whether this 
confused situation, coupled with 
Mr. Assad’s poor health, makes 
haste imperative in reaching, a 
Syria-lsrad peace treaty. 

Mr. Assad is reputed to be a 
tough negotiator but a man of Ins 
word. Because he is also an iron 
figure of charisma and stability in 
a traditionally unstable nation, 
his prestige would uphold any 
peace treaty he signed with Israel 
until long after bos death. 

But after the successful signing 
of the PLO -Israel accord in 
Washington in September, an ac- 
cord which Mr. Assad believes 
will weaken Syria, and the com- 
mon Arab front, some diffeent 
views were expressed in load. 

“Let Assad stew for a while, 
while we settle with the Palestin- 
ians and Jordan first,” said, in 
effect, some s upp or te r s of Prime 
Minister Yitzhak Rabin. The con- 
cept ■ — perhaps since abandoned 

by Israeli leaders, now that For- - 
eign Minister Peres has recog- . 
razed Syrian sovereignty over the 
.Golan Heights — implied a kind 
of peacetime Israeli-Palestinian- 
Jordanian economic federation, - 
leaving Syria ouL 
A counterargument (heard in 
.Washington more during the Bush 
administration than it is today) is 
that Mr. Assad's health has de- 
clined since his 1983 heart attack, , 
and that it would be better to sign . 
tpeace “with the devil you know.” 

Israel and Secretary of State ! 
Christopher face an awesome 
task. Mb’. Assad wants the Golan 
Heights returned soon. The Ra- • 
bin gove rnm ent demands that 
Syria, first sign a full peace, with '. 
open borders, an Israeli Embassy - 
in Damascus and full trade. The . 
Israelis so far have signaled only a . 
partial military withdrawaL 
Both the Israeli and the Syrian ! 
peoples have been conditioned to 
view the other as an implacable , 
enemy. To bridge the chasm will 
take the most imaginative and en- 
ergetic statecraft possible. 

The writer, an ABC news corre- 
jpapdent and author based in Cy- 
prus, contributed this comment to 
the International Herald Tribune. 

Haiti: Because America Can’t Walk Away, It Will Have to Go In 

W ASHINGTON — Bill Clin- 
ton, we are told, has not 
made a decision about going to 
war in Haiti. Maybe he hasn’L But 
with American service personnel 
engaged in Haiti-like maneuvers, 
with 2,000 U.S. Marines already 
deployed off the Haitian coast and 
with U.S. warplanes broadcasting 
ches in which the ousted Presi- 

By William Raspberry 

sicker and the poor poorer,’ 


it Jean-Bertraud Aristide vows 
to return to the island, it certainly 
looks as if President Clinton has 
made a decision. 

“The end of the day is ap- 
proaching.” Deputy Secretary of 
State Strobe Talbott told a OSIN 
audience on Saturday. He said he 
hoped that the military leaders 
who have run Haiti since Father 
Aristide's ouster in a 1991 coup 
would step down voluntarily, but 
he added: “We can’t wait forever." 

Senator John Warner, Republi- 

can of Virginia, said on Saturday 
that he sensed “almost a war fe- 
ver” in Washington, adding that 
he questioned the appropriate- 
ness of an invasion. 

Walter E Faun troy used to. The 
former congressman from the Dis- 
trict of Columbia and chairman 
for 15 years of a bipartisan con- 
gressional task force on Haiti says 
the Clinton adminis tration has 
pretty much ran out of options. 
“We’re down to two choices,” he 
tokl me in an interview. “Either we 
go in, or we walk away." 

The liberal Democrat, Baptist 
minister and consultant on inter- 
national finance and trade said 
his reluctant choice was to go in. 

It is a position he does not like 
being in. He has been pushing for 
a negotiated settlement of Haiti's 

governmental crisis since the be- 
ginning, refusing even to join the 
bandwagon for economic sanc- 
tions, let alone military action. 
He still thinks he was right, and 
not merely because of ins nonvio- 
lent philosophy as a onetime lieu- 
tenant of Martin Luther King Jr. 

He believes that the reason Bill 
Clinton, and George Bush before 
him, could not find a way out of 
the Haitian mess is that they did 
not know enough. “Knowledge is 
power. If they had had more 
knowledge about Haiti, its people 
and its history, they would have 
had the power to resolve the situ- 
ation without resort to violence." 

Did Mr. Faun troy have that 

“I knew that an embargo was 
wrong, because the side would get 

Don’t Go for the Burma Junta’s Bait 

W ASHINGTON — The re- 
port last week that Bur- 
ma's military rulers have made a 
new overture to Washington 
may seem like good news. Lift 
the U.S. arms embargo, they of- 
fered. and the army will defeat 
Khun Sa, the drug trafficker 
who controls the mountainous 
Shan state, where much of the 
country's opium is grown. 

Burma produces more than 
half the world's opium, the raw 
material for making heroin. With 
cheap, high-quality heroin now 
available in many American cit- 
ies — and fears that a new her- 
oin epidemic may be looming — 
supplying Burma with the heli- 
copters and weapons it needs to 
fight the drug war can sound 
like a smart move. 

But cooperating with the mil- 
itary junta, which calls itself the 
State Law and Order Restora- 
tion Council, will not solve 
America’s drag problem but will 
further strengthen one of the 
world's most repressive regimes. 

The council, which took pow- 
er in 1988, has a long record cf 
human rights violations. It has 
forcibly resettled ethnic minor- 
ities, imprisoned political oppo- 
nents without tnal and killed 
thousands who protested the re- 
gime's suppression of the 1990 
election results. 

The leader of the democracy 
movement, the Nobel laureate 
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, whose 
party won the election by a 
landslide, is beginning her sixth 
year under house arrest. 

By Mathea Falco 

America has led the inter- 
national effort to end rights 
abases in Burma — cutting off 
economic assistance and anti- 
narcotics support, imposing an 
arms embargo, suspending trad- 
ing privileges and opposing 
World Bank and other multilat- 
eral loans. So far these tactics 
have not produced remits. 

The U.S. Congress should 
pass a pending resolution for 
tighter economic sanctions and 
for the unconditional release of 
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. 

But even if Burma's human 
rights record were less egre- 
gious, resuming UJS. anti-nar- 
cotics assistance would not be a 
good use of American tax dol- 
lars. Burma has never success- 
fully asserted authority over 
the mountainous regions where 
drug lords Eke Khun Sa oper- 
ate with tittle interference and 
various ethnic insurgents 
struggle for independence. 

Since the State Law and Or- 
der Restoration Council took 
over, opium production has 
doubled, making Burma the 
world’s largest supplier. 

Precise numbers are hard to 
come by, but U.S. officials esti- 
mate that Americans consume 6 
percent of the work's heroin — 
about 20 tons a year out of a 
total of 350 tons. Almost two- 
thuds of the heroin sold in the 
United Sfcues comes from South- 
east Asia, primarily Burma. Ac- 

cording to tbc State Department, 
Burmese opium production in 
1993 exceeded 2^00 tons — the 
equivalent of about 250 tons of 
heroin, enough to supply Ameri- 
can demand 10 times over. 

As the United Stales has 
learned from earlier skirmishes 
in the “war on drugs," like 
breaking the notorious French- 
Turkish connection in the 
1970s, other heroinprochioers 
closer to home will fill whatever 

temporary shortages occur. 

Mexico, which supplanted 
Turkey as the major heroin 
source of the United States in 
the 1980s, and Colombia, a new 
supplier, both have the capacity 
to meet the American demand. 

So even if the United States 
made a dent in Burma’s opium 
production, that would haw lit- 
tle impact on the availability of 
heroin in the United States. 

According to a poll in Febru- 
ary 1994 by Peter D. Hart Re- 
search Associates, Americans 
would rather provide funds for 
community drug prevention, 
treatment and enforcement pro- 
grams than for foreign eradica- 
tion and interdiction efforts. 
They know that the answers to 
America’s drug problems lie at 
home, not in the hands of Bur- 
ma's military dictators. 

The writer, president of Drug 
Strategies, 'was U.S. assistant sec- 
retary if state for international 
narcotics mottos from 1977 to 
1981. She contributed this com- 
ment to The New York Tones. 

! poor _ 

told me. “The last person to go 
wanting for food or medicine 
would be (he one with the gun. 

“I knew that an embargo would 
frustrate what our task force had 
been doing — seeking to attract 
labor-intensive industry to the is- 
land as a way of dealing with the 
energetic bat largely illiterate pop- 
ulation. It was predictable that an 
embargo would drive those busi- 
nesses into the eager arms of 
places like the Dominican Repub- 
lic and Honduras and Costa Rica. 

“We spent a lot of years trying 
to help Haiti recover from a 
French-led land scheme that had 
pretty much deforested the place: 
We launched a reforestation pro- 
gram to keep the soil from wash- 
ing into the sea. Well, the first 
result of the embargo was an oil 
shortage, which meant that peo- 
ple began cutting down the trees 
to make charcoal.” 

There were subtler things, too. 
that a greater U.S. knowledge of 
Haiti might have accomplished, 
Mr. Faun troy believes. 

The ouster of Jean-Claude 
(Baby Doc) Duvatier in 1986 in- 
volved not just pressure of the 
sort that the din ton administra- 
tion is applying to the present 
military leaders but also the de- 
liberate nurturing of a centrist 
political faction capable of craft- 
mg the constitution that would be . 
the basis of democracy. 

were able to isolate the e xtr e m es 
— both those on the right, with 
their penchant for violence, and 
those on the left, who wanted 

nothing less than the complete 
levefing of the society. 

“It also split the military, so 
(hat centrist military leaders 
could come to the fore and help 
put together a constitution with 
checks and balances — a sharp 
break with Haiti's history” 

The last chance for a resump- . 
tion of that policy — and of an 
effort by the present ambassador, 
William Swing, to cultivate mem- 
bers of the Haitian parliament in 
.order to work out a process for • 
Father Aristide's eventual return 
— was scuttled a year agp when ' 
Father Aristide refused to abide 
by a resolution reached by a mul- 
tiparty conference in Miami, Mr. 
Fauntroy believes. 

Now, he said, (he choices are to 
go in or walk away. And each 
option has its problems. 

Going in would give the invad- 
ers control, but it would saddle 
than with the responsibility of 
running Haiti for a decade or 
longer — hot merely to maintain 
the peace but to resume the very 4 
efforts that Mr. Faun troy’s task 
force started years ago. “Con- 
quest is easy; occapaticm is hard." 

But if America does not go in. 
he says, the thugs will stay in 
charge of what would surely be an 
outlaw territory and a transship- 
ment point for UJ5.-bound nar- 
cotics. And worse: The immigra- 
tion problem that Has driven the 
Clint o n administration to the 
brink would only grow worse. 

“It's in onr national interest to 
stop this outflow,” he concludes. 
“We’ve got to go in.” 

The Washington Past 


1894: Hawaiian Republic 

PARIS — A Republic has been, 
proclaimed in Hawaii, as a solu- 
tion of the crisis that reigned in 
the islands ever since theunited 
States Gove rnment refused to an- 
nex them. A Republic was the 

necessary outcome, as the reins of 

power were held by Republicans, 
though the Government was mo- 
narchical. Hawaii is now going to 
add a President of a Republic. 

1919: Soflcessfal Spying 

VIENNA : — The Hungarian bd- ■ 
shevists always -manage to be sur- 
prisingly weB informed of the in- 
tentions of the Entente. Thanks 
to their wireless telegraphy instal- 
lation which is situated just out- 
side Budapest, they intercept all 
messages, sent from the. Eiffel 
Tower to General Franchet cTE- 
sperey. They have obtained pos- 
session of the Entente code, 

whki, of course, is frequently 
changed. Soviet secret service 
agents are at weak at Sgedin, with 
instructions to obtain at all costs 
the wireless code. These agents 
have evidently accomplished 
their work successfully, for the 
Soviet Government is able to 
forestall every move made either 
by. the Roumanians or by the 
Counter-Revolutionary Govern- 
ment, which is harbored at Sgedin 
under French protection. 

1944: Tokyo Shake-Up 

NEW YORK • — [From our New 
York edition:] Premier General 
Tqjo’s “entire cabinet" 
has resigned, the Japanese Domei 
agency announced yesterday [July 
j ]■ The announcement canw a 
day after Tcjo had been divested 
ra. ras concurrent post as army 
chief of staff in continuation of a 
Japanese high command shake-up 
that began two days ago. 



~ O P I N l'~©~N 

^ ... .. 

Page 9 

. * 

The July 20 Attack on Hitler Brightens a Dark Heritage 

^ PARK, California — A month 

Derore ini» artnnm* - 

By Gordon A. Craig 

!«!v *?* ¥ USBpt 0a Hitler's “ 

July 1 944, the leaders of the mflitaiy conspir- 

^? c * t & “Nations of failure and Hitler biographer J. G . Fest, and a tribute to 
h* min, ir5! tkfy w puld almost certainly her friends in the resistance by Marion Count- 
md ****& by the Ger- ess DOnhoff, one of the publishers of the 
. Hamburg weddy Die ZdL ' 

hnwSSf , 1 ™ Henmng von Tresckow, Countess Donhoff is highly critical of the 
owever, refused to yieid to this discourage- Western governments for failing to ackuowl- 

a m ee ** n g with his friend Claus von . edge the existence of a German resistance and 
Maunenberg, who was, a few weeks later to ‘ 
place the bomb under the map table in . Hit- 
lers headquarters in Rastenburg, General 

1944 GERMANY 1994 

Tresckow said, “The attentat must succeed, 
coute que cotae. It is no longer a matter of its 
practicality, but a matter of demonstrating tc 
the world and before history that the resistance 
movement dared the decisive gamble Beside 
tnatevaything else is a matter of indifference." 

The bomb plot did not succeed in its imme- 
maie objective. Hitler survived to witness the 
deaths of all those who had planned and 
executed it, some of whom died in great ago- 
ny, hanging from butchers’ books in PlOtzen- 
see Prison in Berlin. But the demonstration 
that General Tresckow had in si s ted on was 
made, and if the shadow of Hitler still hang* 
over Germany, it is lightened by the memory 
of brave men and women who gave their lives 
to put an end to his cruelties. 

In the 50th year after their sacrifice that 

for refusing to assist it. She points out that in 
June 1942, Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden 
was incredulous when approached on the sub- 
ject, taking the position that until. Hitler's 
Goman enemies gave public proof of their 
feelings, by taking some positive action, they 
deserved no credence. 

When Locos P. Lochner, the longtime Ber- 
lin bureau chief of The Associated Press, had 
tried eariier to convey a message from the 
resistance to Franklin Roosevelt, he was ad- 
vised by the White House that this would be 
•highly embarrass i ng to the president 

These incidents are perhaps more under- 
standable than Countess DOnhoff is prepared 
to admit Once the war had begun, the time 
was past when any 'Western leader was willing 
to appear to be treating with Germans of any 
description, and by the early ’40s to do so 
would have flown in the face of the doctrine of 
unconditional surrender, declared at Casa- 
blanca, and was certain to inflame the suspi- 
cions of the Soviet government 
As for helping the resistance, the only pos- 


memory seems brighter than ever. This year . sibiHty of that had been before war bn 
has already seen the publication of several If at the time of the Sudeten crisis in Septera- 
new books about the resistance, including ber 1938, the Western powers had let it be 
most recently, one by the senior editor of the known that they would resist by force erf arms 
'daily Frankfurter AHgemrine Zeitung, the any attempt by Hitler to cany out his aggres- 

sive intentions against Czechoslovakia, they 
would have done a great deal to validate the 
German resistance movement. Had Hitler 
then tried to go to war, the generals could 
have put into eflect the plan they had demised 
to arrest him, and it is possible that they 
would have received public support. Instead, 
Neville Chamberlain went to Berchtesgaden 
and then to Munich. 

After the outbreak of hostilities, there was 
nothing practical that the Western powers, 
with their own backs to the wall, could have 
done. The resistance leaders were left to their 
own devices, which were scant They could 
not think of trying to build a mass movement 
against the Nazis in a country under the 
control of the secret police, who ruthlessly 
stamped out any sign of oppositional activity. 

They bad to operate through individual 
groups of intellectuals, civil servants, Social- 
ists, diplomats and soldieis, which were large- 
ly uncoordinated and rarely fully informed 
about what other groups were doing. 

Countess Ddnhoff tells us that General 
Tresckow and Hans Osier, leading figures in 
the military conspiracy, never saw or spoke to 
each other but communicated through inter- 
. mediaries, and that she herself was on friendly 
terms with the ambassador Ulrich von Hassell 
and corresponded with him regularly but nev- 
er knew that be was, like her, working for the 
same cause. Such secrecy was necessary, but it 
made for inefficiency and mistakes, and it is 
not surprising that, in the end, the attempt 
against Hitler’s life was botched. 

What would have happened if the bomb 
plot actually killed Hitler? One can only 
guess. If the conspirators had succeeded in 
winning control over the whole of the armed 

forces and the state administration and had 
been able to immobilize the SS and the secret 
police — and this is by no means a foregone 
conclusion — they could have stopped the 
killing in the camps and saved millions of 
lives, since most of ihe deaths there took place 
after September 1 944. 

There is little likelihood, however, that their 
action would have changed the nature of the 
peace imposed upon Germany by the Allies. 
The country would in all likelihood have been 
partitioned' and occupied as it was after 1945. 
The only difference would have been that this 
would have been blamed by many Germans 
upon the resistance rather than upon Hitler. 

In consequence, the nature of West Ger- 
man politics would probably have been mark- 
edly different than it turned out to be, and 

E rogress toward democracy much more prob- 
maticaL Resistance leaders like General 
Ludwig Beck and Karl Friedrich Goerdeler 
were hopelessly old-fashioned in their politi- 
cal views and more inclined to monarchy than 
to democracy. Their contribution to postwar 

S )liucs could only have been provocative and 
visive. Neonazism almost certainly would 
have become a strong political force, and 
communism a persistent one. In all probabili- 
ty, the forces that destroyed the Weimar Re- 
public would have resurfaced. 

But this is all speculation. What history tells 
us is that in July 1944 the forces of resistance 
to Hitler made their desperate gamble and 
lost, but that in doing so they redeemed the 
past and built a bridge to the future. 

The k Titer is professor emeritus of history at 
Stanford University. He contributed this com- 
ment to the International Herald Tribune. 


Rushdie and Nasrin 

Regarding the editorial “ 'Murder Is 
Murder ■” and “Dear Tastima, It Is Not 
You Who Has Dane Wr 
Jufy 15 ) by Salman 

The writings of Taslima Nasrin of 
Bangladesh, like those of Salman > 
Rushdie, are the product of poor 
taste. But, of course, the controversy 
has Httle to do with taste and even 
less to do with accountability, sensi- 
bility or sensitivity. At issue is free- 
dom of expression. 

In Britain, the government has 
condemned the call by Iranian reli- 
gious leaders for Mr. Rushdie’s 
death and protested the intended 
infringement of its sovereignty. In 
Bangladesh, the government has 
stopped short of bringing criminal 
charges against those who pose a 
threat to Ms. Nasrin’s life. Democ- 
racy’s three pillars — a free press, 
the rule of law and respect for hu- 
man rights — are as yet too bail in 
Bangladesh to withstand the test of 
^debate and dissent 
* Islam is not at issue nor, for that 
matter, is secularism. Islam is gener- 
ally taught very badly and often 
quite harshly in Bangladesh and 
South Asia as a whole. Why else do 
we have our Nasrins and Rushdies? 
And how eke to expla in the secular- 
ism they profess with such elo- 
quence ana aridity except to escape 
the man-made fanatical face of a 
beautiful faith? 

The obvious common ground be- 
tween the two. as manifested in their 
writings, is a shared hatred of the 
mullahs and a distorted vision of 
Islam. In a sense, both are “Mid- 
night’s Children,’’ rootless products . 
of our time, whose outrageous blas- 
phemies drew applause and anger, 
respectively, among two still deeply 
divided cultures. 

Like Mr. Rushdie; Ms. 
nally succeeded in offending tbs 
community to which she belongs. Bui 

no one ought to deny hear or anyone 
else freedom of expression. 


"• London. 

The writer is a former foreign min- 
ister of Bangladesh. 

The diplomatic demarche by 
the Bangladeshi ambassador to the 
United States, Humaynn Kabir, jus- 
tifying the threat to murder the au- 
thor Tastima Nasrin, who is in hid- 
ing after, f undamentalis t Islamic 
clerics offered a reward for her 
dealhjis even more obscene than the 
statement of the Egyptian cleric. 
Sheikh Mohammed Gbozafi, who 
said that u a secularist represents a 
danger to society and the nation, 
and hence it is the duty of the gov- 
ernment to loll him.” He was testify- 
ing for five defense of the Islamic 
mwlants. who had gunned down 
Farag Fodah, one of Egypt’s best- 
known authors. 

Tastima Nasrin is riot just a “fe- 
male Salman Rushdie,” but one of a 
growing list of authors targeted for 
by religious fundamentalists 
all over the world. In Algeria, Mo- . 
bammed Boukhobza, a sociologist, 
was killed by a group of Muslims 
who bum into his home, tied him up 
and slit his throat in front of his 
young daughter. Farooq Sajjad, a 
Pakistani doctor and devout Muslim 
in the town of Gujranwala, was 
murdered because he had slipped 
oyer a stove and accidentally bturied 
a page of the Koran. 

of “Third Wodd 
can justify such 
human rights violations. And 
us not forget that whether they be 
Muslim, Ch r»grian, Hebrew, Hindu, 
Sikh or Buddhist, there are religious 
fundamentalists everywhere. 



The writer is a former ambassador 
of India, most recently to Finland. 

In its July 15 editorial. The Wash- 
ington Post comments that “Bangla- 
desh, with its female prime minis ter, 
has generally been viewed as ha- 
ving ... a moderate government.” 
This comes as a surprise to those of 
US who follow Ban gladesh politics in 
its civilian and mSitaiy incarnations. 

From independence on, the Ban- 
gladesh government and govern- 
ment-backed vigilantes have carried 
out military attacks against the non- 
Islamic minorities of the Chittagong 
Hill Tracts. Buddhist temples have 
been deliberately burned and monks 
targeted. A large number of people 
from the Hill Tracts have-had to flee 
to northeast India, where they lead a 
fragile existence in camps. The land 
left vacant is then filled with land- 
less farmers from the Bangladesh 
phinx Weapons are given out in- 
discriminately to the new settlers, 
some of whom have terrorized the 
indigenous population. Efforts are 
made to convert the Hill Tracts 
people to Islam. 

Now Saudi money is reputedly be- 
mg used in the plains to hire unem- 
ployed people to attack Tastima Nas- 
rin. The current Bangladesh govern- 
ment is weak and unwilling to act, for 
fear of losing Arab revenue. But 
weakness is not moderation. 



No Freedom by Force 

Regarding “Haiti: Cautionary 
Lessons From an Earlier Invasion” 
(Opinion, Jufy 12) by Httgh de Santis 
and Kenneth J. Dillon: 

To add (me thought to this excel- 
lent historical review: You can force 
a free election on some military gov- 
ernments, but you cannot make 
them accept the result unless you 
have at least equal military power 
to enforce them. 

As many pseudo-democracies in 
all parts of the world show, you 

cannot implant a Western concept 
of democracy and majority rule 
from the outside. Fach people must 
grow its own style of government in 
situ for it to take roots. If the United 
States wanted to support “freely 
elected” majorities in all parts of the 
world, it would have to send troops 
to Rwanda and fight for the Hutus. 


Avignon, France. 


Regarding “Rabin and Arafat 
Move to Widen Automony" (Jufy 7): 

The “United Nations peace prize" 
mentioned in the article is a UNES- 
CO peace prize. The F&ix Hou- 
phoufit-Boigoy Peace Prize was creat- 
ed in 1989 at the initiative of 120 
member-stales. It is awarded each 
year to individuals, institutions or 
associations which have contributed 
to die promotion, research, safe- 
guarding or maintenance of peace in 
the world, as well as the defense of 
h uman rights and freedoms. 


Office of Public Information. 

- UNESCO. Paris. 

Bosnia: A Longer View 

Roger Cohen, reporting on the 
proposed Bosnian settlement, im- 
plies that it would be immoral to 
allow the Bosnian Serbs to retain 
control of “several towns with ma- 
jority Muslim populations before 
the war” (“Map of Bosnia: * Moral 
Bridge’ Is Abandoned," July 7). 

Many of these towns, however, 
once had majority Serb populations. 
The Serbs became a minority only 
when, daring World War LI, the 
Croat Ustashe and their Muslim al- 
lies brutally exterminated 700,000 
Serbian civilians in the Nazi-backed 
independent state of Croatia (which 
incorporated most of Bosnia). 

The article recalls the expulsion of 
Muslims from Serbian territory but 

ignores the expulsion of thousands of 
Serbs from areas controlled by 
Croats and Muslims. For example, 
the 24,000 Serbs of Mostar were driv- 
en out or killed by Croats and Mus- 
lims in 1992. To suggest that Bosnian 
Muslims have a moral claim to terri- 
tory while ignoring legitimate Bosni- 
an Serbian claims is unfair. 



To Air Is Inhuman 

Regarding the report “HTr at 
Makes America Great ? Not What 
You Think” (June 17): 

This article overlooked the vi- 
cious circle induced by the “great 
comforter”: More air conditioning 
= more people; more people = 
more tree and foliage loss to asphalt 
for shopping malls and highways: 
more asphalt = more beat released 
into the atmosphere; more heat = 
more air conditioning required. 

Air conditioning makes America 
great? I think not 

Smdelfingen, Germany. 

After three weeks in the States last 
May, I flew back to Europe to spend 
a week in bed with something dose to 
pneumonia, caused by the ubiquitous 
icy blasts in restaurants, museums, 
theaters . . . Next time I'll borrow a 
fur-lined parka before going, 



Not the Way to Arrive Alive 

Regarding “ France Tightens 
Drunk-Driving Law " (July 1): 

So, a French minister has called 
for drivers to limit their drinking 
before driving to “an aperitif and a 
half bottle of wine with each meal"? 

Question: Does this recommen- 
dation include breakfast? 



The Resistance Is Honored 
Rather Late in the Day 

By Donald Koblitz 

B ERLIN — This Wednesday they 
will celebrate tbe attempted as- 
sassination of a German chancellor. 
The celebrants are not tbe Red 
Army Faction or Middle East ter- 
rorists but the entire German politi- 
cal establishment, and they will be 
honoring the 50th anniversary of the 
attempted assassination of Chancel- 
lor Adolf Hitler on July 20, 1944. 

It may seem ironic that a failed 
attempt at high treason by a group of 
reactionary German aristocrats is a 


significant thread holding together 
the dignity of a proud nation. But the 
Germans want more than a positive 
economic balance sheet and a monot- 
onous siring of democratic elections. 
They need a history to be proud of. 

The 1944 plot was doomed by 
Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg’s 
failure to kill the Fuhrer, his fellow 
conspirators' lack of ardor in round- 
ing up Gestapo and pro-Nazi offi- 
cers, and the equivocation of key 
Wehrmacht generals. 

Colonel Scauf fen berg was quickly 
executed, along with half a dozen 
fellow conspirators. Other men lived 
to be humiliated at show trials be- 
fore the infamous Volksgerichthof, 
the People’s Court, and then were 
strung up with piano wire and 
filmed in their death agonies for the 
Fuhrer’s pleasure. Hitler's most ef- 
fective general, Erwin Rommel, was 
forced to take poison. 

Had Colonel Stauffen berg’s little 
band succeeded, they would have 
changed history. Countless lives 
would have been spared. The Sovi- 
ets would not have occupied all of 
Eastern Europe. The British Empire 
might have survived a while longer. 

The count, like most of his fellow 
conspirators, was a conservative of- 
ficer from the Prussian aristocracy 
who came rather late to the German 
opposition. Only when the army 
could see tbe tide of war turning, 
after the catastrophe at Stalingrad, 
where more than 145,000 German 
soldiers lost their lives, did a serious 
opposition to Hitler emerge. 

These men bad not been enraged 
by tbe seizure of Poland and Czecho- 
slovakia or the extermination of Eu- 
ropean Jews. During the war, there 
was precious little German resistance 
to tiie Nazi dictatorship. 

The late Chancellor Willy Brandt 
endured endless sniping during his 
postwar political career because be 
“turned his back on the Fatherland" 
and joined the anti-Nazi resistance 
in Norway. 

Dietrich Bonboffer. a pastor who 
traded places with a condemned 
man in a Nazi concentration camp, 
and whose letters from his death cell 
are among the most compelling lit- 
erature in the German language, is 
surely more worthy of admiration 
than the career officers who failed to 
kill their commander in chief. 

Yet more than any other act in the 
20th century, this failed assassina- 
tion has saved a vestige of honor for 
the Goman people. It has allowed 
them to celebrate their freedom 
from Nazism and to regret that it 
took millions of Allied troops to 
do what Colonel Stauffen berg al- 
most pulled off. 

Today the German people can 
say, “we too have our martyrs 
to freedom.” 

Naturally, celebrating tbe conspir- 

acy would have made even more 
sense in the years after the war, when 
the events were painfully fresh. There 
was a turning point in 1952, when a 
Nazi apologist. General Otto Entsi 
Remer. was convicted of slander for 
calling Colonel Stauffenberg and his 
cohorts “traitore." The case had been 
brought by several co-conspirators 
who bad escaped the Nazi purge. A 
German court sentenced Remer to 
three months in prison, referred to 
the bomb plotters as “heroes" and 
declared that the Hitler regime had 
been an “illegal state.” 

Colonel Stauffenberg's rehabilita- 
tion has continued apace ever since. 

The wives and children of the 
martyred conspirators were ignored 
after the war and many suffered 
serious deprivation during Germa- 
ny’s economic miracle in the 1950s, 
although the Remer verdict made it 
possible for some of the widows to 
receive military pensions. 

Like so much else in modem Ger- 
many. the line down the center of 
thecountry, which still exists despite 
the disappearance of the wall, the 
machine guns and the barbed wire, 
also separates two traditions of me- 
morializing the German resistance. 

In the former East Germany, it 
was the Communist underground, 
with imprisoned resistance fighters 
such as Erich Honecker. who were 
celebrated for their struggle against 
Nazi Germany. It is no longer ac- 
ceptable, after the fall of the Ger- 
man Democratic Republic, to re- 
member the Communist martyrs. 

Their place has been taken by two 
college students, the ‘Geschwistcr 
Scholl" ("brother and sister 
Scholl”), who organized a small 
group of students to distribute anti- 
regime literature and were beheaded 
by the Nazis. 

In Germany, they celebrate anni- 
versaries like' a small shopkeeper 
anxious for additional trade. 

In the past few years, they have 
noted the half-century mark of the 
Nuremberg race laws, the invasion 
of Poland and the uprising and de- 
struction of the Warsaw Ghetto. 

This relentless grinding through 
the greatest sins of tbe 20th century 
is slowly reaching its natural climax. 

Wednesday's anniversary is the 
only one of these painful memorials 
in which the German people can 
identify with tbe heroes and vic tims 
of the hour. Perhaps letting them 
have their martyrs is not too much 
to ask. But it u a shame that the 
German establishment couldn't re- 
sisipoliticizing the event. 

The German presidency is a large- 
ly ceremonial office, which was ele- 
vated to a new level of moral author- 
ity by Richard von Weizsacker 
through eloquent speeches on pre- 
cisely such occasions — most mem- 
orably in 1985, on the 40th anniver- 
sary of the end of the war. 

It would have been natural for the 
new president, Roman Herzog, to 
have gotten his baptism of fire 
on this occasion. 

But Chancellor Helmut Kohl, 
four months away from a national 
election, brushed aside his party col- 
league and insisted that he and he 
alone speak on this sacred day. 

It's hard to build legends with 
parochial politics. 

The writer, a lawyer, hot a State 
Department legal adviser in Berlin 
from 1985 to 1989. He contributed this 
comment to The New York Tones. 



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International Herald Tribune 
Wednesday, July 20, 1994 


Aix Combats Adversity With an Exquisite ‘Zauberflote 

By John Rockwell 

New York Times Service 

As recently as 1989 the Aix festi- 
val, the best and roost prestigious 
French summer music festival 
since its founding in 1948, presented five 
opera productions. That Figure had fallen 
to three by 1993, and when a new produc- 
tion of Mozart’s “Die Zauberflfite” 
opened this year’s installment, the festival 
was down to one opera, to be given eight 
times in a two-week period. 

Bui the festival, in what Le Monde has 
called “one of the most troubling periods 
in its history,*' remains devoted to high 
artistic achievement. Louis Erie, the direc- 
tor, has managed a “Zauberflote” that not 
only surpasses the Handel “Orlando” and 
Weber "Euiyanthe" of last summer, but 
recalls the Aix’s glorious past as a Mozart 
center and stakes a bold claim for quality 

over compromise in the face of adversity. 

The festival’s troubles are both complex 
and painfully simple. They amount to a 
lack of money —from the city, the region, 
the department, private sponsors, the box 
office, and, above alt the state. France is 
still in recession, and this region in particu- 
lar is hurting. In addition, the price of 
producing opera is up from what it was 
just a Few years ago. 

To add to the festival’s woes, its tempo- 
rary stage structure collapsed in mid-May, 
necessitating costly repairs, which will be 
largely covered by insurance. A deeper 
problem is that Aix is no longer without 
competition, as it virtually was in its first 
heyday in the 1950s. 

but this production finds him full of lively 
opinions on that subject. 

But given the economic realities, no one 
in authority has been able to suggest a 
solution, apart from attrition. As Erlo put 
it in an interview Saturday, “The responsi- 
ble authorities haven’t made the necessary 
decisions that would determine the exis- 
tence or nonexistence of the festival. If it is 
to exist, they have to adopt the proper 
financial measures, to give us a chance for 
long-term planning. II they can't provide 
the funds, then they should have the cour- 
age to say that we can't continue. Nobody 
is taking the lead.” 

In the face of these challenges, Erlo 
decided to flesh out his schedule with more 
concerts and recitals, many of them most 
promising on paper, and to make his sole 
operatic production as refined and intelli- 

Perhaps responding to the bass-shy 
acoustics of the outdoor theater, he has 
chosen light textures and generally fleet 
tempos. Sometimes one missed the umbra! 
richness and ritual weight of the Masonic 
scenes, although another theater acoustic 
might redress those concerns. 

gent as he could; no pandering to the 
Three Tenors crowd here. 

The production reunites two of Aix’s 
recent mainstays, the conductor William 
Christie with his Arts Florissants ensemble 
and the Canadian stage director Robert 
Carsen. Both distinguished themselves in 

ways both satisfying and surprising. 

Christie, known as the premier inter- 
preter of the French Baroque, has not 
heretofore had much to say about Mozart, 

What distinguishes Christie’s “Zauber- 
flflte,” is its sinuous flexibility. He curls 
around this music as be does around that 
of Lully and Charpentier, rejecting the 
blunt style that has characterized so much 
Mozart performance in our modernist cen- 
tury. In addition, he has encouraged all 
manner of appogggiaturas and complex vo- 
cal ornamentation, including sometimes 
elaborate cadenzas. 

And he has a first-class cast, inrinrimg 

Rosa Mansion as Painina, Hans Peter 
Blochwitz as Tamino, Steven Cole as Mon- 
astatos, Reinhard Hagen as Sarastro and a 

by now very wobbly but still gravely au- 
thoritative Theo Adam as the Speaker. 

The most impressive, however, were An- 
ton Scfaarinaer, whose folksy Papageno is 
known worldwide but with no loss of 
freshness, and' Nathalie Dessay as the 
Queen of the Night Dessay seemed a little 
lacking in vengeful intensity, but she sang 
the notes with unusual fullness, sweetness, 
and accur&cy,'‘Hnd that . provided ample 
rewards by itself. 

In a stunning opening pf the second act, 
Careen reaves this with a defUj«s un- 
urecedented in my experience In the usu- 


rER uncommon gentleness of 
stage personality fitted Careen’s 
conception, which was abetted 
H by simple but affecting decor 

-■L X by simple but affecting decor 
from the English designer Patrick Kin- 
mouth. Scholars have squabbled for two 
centuries over Mozart’s supposed mid- 
course reversal of moral poles, whereby the 
seemingly sympathetic Queen of the Night 
turns vfitainous and the evil Sarastro, who 
abducted her daughter, becomes the para- 
gon of enlightened virtue. 



Ariel Dominates a Quirky ‘Tempest’ 

By Sheridan Morley 

International Herald Tribune 

L ondon — Not often 
do you get “The Tem- 
pest” starring Ariel 
rather than Prospero, 
though this is the risk run by 
Sam Meades ’s magical revival 
newly arrived for the RSC at 
the Barbican from Stratford. 

Alec McCowen, rooming the 
company after almost 30 years 
to continue the Robert Sto- 

/John Wood policy of 
og back the old giants to 

brin g in g back the old {pants to 
show the new generation a thing 
or two about Shakespeare, offers 
an oddly muted, schoolmasterly 
wizard who spends much of his 
time an the island up a ladder, 
watching over the rest of the cast 
from a safe distance. 

Simon RusseQ Beale’s Ariel, 
on the other hand, is every- 
where. A portly dictator in a 
pair of Chairman Mao's pyja- 
mas, he roams the stage m an 
increasing fury at Prospero’s 
constant delaying tactics to the 
promise of his freedom. This is 
no mmp fairy, darting about to 
do Prospero’s bidding, but a se- 
rious rival for authority who 
might himse lf, given luck and a 
fair wind, have ended up as 
Duke of Milan. 

And Arid is by no means the 

Its origins are equally unusu- 
al. A Hungarian play by Miklos 
Laszk) managed to become two 
Hollywood movies — “The 
Shop Around the Corner” 
(James Stewart and Margaret 
Suflavan, 1940) and “In the 
Good Old Summertime” (Van 
Johnson and Judy Garland, 
1949). So now we have an all- 
British cast playing an Ameri- 
can musical set in 1934 Buda- 
pest, and what’s more making it 
work against the odds. 

DontU Cooper 

John Gordon Sinclair and Ruthie Henshall in a scene from “She Loves Me. " 

ered here. David Bradley’s 
Trinculo has become an end-of- 
the-pier ventriloquist, forever 
allowing his dummy to respond 
to the iHs that are heaped upon 
him. Even David Trough ton's 
Caliban is a rethink, no longer 
half animal but instead a shav- 
en-headed refugee from a Hol- 
lywood prison camp. This is, in 
short, a distinctly qitiiky pro- 
duction in which every individ- 

ual idea makes sense but the 
whole is somehow less than its 
character parts. 

One of its central themes is 
certainly theatricality. Ariel 
opens the proceedings by 
sprin g in g out of a ship, and 
each of the shipwrecked groups 
arrives like a band of traveling 
players to explore their new en- 
vironment. But having abdicat- 
ed the driving forces of rage and 
revenge for a kind of melan- 
choly irony, McCowen finds it 
hard to exert real authority over 
this band of exiled misfits and 
the result is a “Tempest” with 
no real eye of the storm. 

Its star is still one of the most 

thoughtful and charismatic of 
Shakespeareans, an actor who 
now takes up the mantle of Sco- 
field: but, unlike Scofield, he 
rejects the easy routes to stage 
center. He has not been helped 
by Mendes’s decision to strand 
him so far upstage for much of 
the action. 

Given that we have had at 
least half a dozen “Tempests” 
in London in the last two years, 
it is hardly surprising that 
Mendes should be casting 
around (at times so feverishly) 
for new concepts or fresh in- 
sights, and his notions of magi- 
cal theatricality often work well 
enough on then own terms. But 

the losers here are the wrongful 
Duke of Milan and his ship- 
wrecked band. Nowhere for 
them is home, because we have 
been given no real sense that 
Prospero wants his old Italian 
kingdom back. 

In the history of great Broad- 
way musicals, “She Loves Me” 
(Savoy) has always been some- 
thing of an oddity. Its score by 
Jerry Bock and Sheldon Har- 
nick dates from 1963, the year 
before they wrote the infinitely 
more successful “Fiddler on the 
Roof.” Although it then only 
achieved brief runs on either 
side of the Atlantic, it acquired 
sufficient nostalgia status to 

Fallout of ‘Filmfest Scam’ Shakes Manila 

By William Branigm 

Washington Post Service 

nothing else could show, the moral rot 
and depravity in our society.” 

M ANILA — The First Lady 
was mortified. A terrorist 
hit squad threatened retri- 
bution. And now political 
commentators are rewriting scenarios 
for future elections. 

Nearly a month after the rigging of a 
film festival awards ceremony, the scan- 
dal continues to reverberate. The “film- 
fest scam,” as the affair has been 
dubbed, has burgeoned here into the 
pretrial-publicity equivalent of Lhe OJ. 
Simpson case and spurred local pundits 
into paroxysms of self-abuse. 

Well, maybe. But the public outrage 
over the scam also showed that ordinary 
Filipinos are fed up with cheating. The 
f ilms of (he accused movie stars and 
managers, the so-called Filmfest Seven, 
have been banned in various cities, and 
Philippine movies generally have been 
taking a beating at the box office. 

“Crowds which used to ooh and aah 
whenever an actress or actor stalked by 
now turn up their noses,” said a publish- 
er and columnist. Max V. Soliven. 

“Are we a nation of cheats?” asked an 
editorial in a leading newspaper. “Are 
we a dishonest, lying, cheating people?” 

The scandal “shattered dreams, punc- 
tured illusions, transformed heroes and 
heroines into heels, grandees into grem- 
lins, role models into hooligans,” ef- 
fused a former presidential press secre- 
tary , Teodoro Benigno. “It showed, as 

The affair has overshadowed a con- 
troversy over a new value-added tax. 
diverted attention from a major speech 
by President Fidel V. Ramos. And Ra- 
mos’s wife, AmehLa, complained that 
the “shameful and unfortunate” fiasco 
had embarrassed her during a recent 
two-week trip to Europe to promote 
tourism and investment here. 

mark the Filmfest Seven for “people's 
revolutionary justice" — meaning cur- 
tains — if they did not draw prison terms. 

And political analysts say the scam 
may help stop a trend toward electing 
movie stars, comedians, basketball play- 
ers and other celebrities to public office. 

The scandal started when Ruffa Gu- 
tierrez, 20, a beauty queen who finished 
third in the Miss World pageant last 
year, and Nanette Medved, a young ac- 
tress, jointly announced the nam e of 
Gabby Concepcion as the winner of the 
trophy for best actor at the June 22 
Manila Film Festival awards ceremony. 
The announcement baffled the judges 
and an accounting firm that had tabu- 

lated their votes, since Concepcion, Ruf- 
fa’s co-star ip a local knockoff of the 
Lorena Bobbitt story, had actually come 
in a distant third. 

Even the Alex Boncayao Brigade, an 
urban assassination squad of the Com- 
munist rebel movement, threatened to 

But before anyone could intervene, 
the nationally televised show went on 
with the announcement of the best-ac- 
tress winner by a trio of presenters: 
actress Gretchen Barnetto, Rocky Gu- 
tierrez. 17, (Ruffa’s brother) and Viveka 

The Filmfest Seven — Ruffa, brother 
Rocky, mother-manager Anabelle 
Rama, Concepcion, Medved, Lolita So- 
lis, Concepcion's manager, and Babajee 
— have been charged with fraud, deceit, 
grave scandal and obstruction of justice, 
which carry jail terms of four months to 
six years. Immigration authorities also 
began looking into the residency status 
of Medved and Concepcion, who are 
said to be U.S. dozens. 

Dining Out 

Kushner’s ‘Angels’ in France 

HUBS 2nd 


Tnx&ron ol bldv wat ti ng Hi outott 1900 

MAS 13th 

By Thomas Quinn Curtiss 

International Herald Tribune 

ebrar. Eftwflonf wmm & minsrot wo ten. 
Si Mot T«L.- 964504 

ol fa Amman W*s wA 
ArntneonMnuMta ipedgfai. 

Pony bpnw M«nu induing a 
ckaoaoT darters and main const 
witfi ooBm aid brawnivi 

FP 150 Punch ScW) 

Pan Hfiban 18. or. Softau TcL 42-73.92.00 

A VIGNON — "Angels in America," 
done into French superbly, arrived 
for an early stay at the Avignon 
theater festival and its premiere in 
the Goitre des Cannes held the first-night 
spectators agog. 

Tony Kushner calls his script, “A Gay 
Fantasy on National Themes," to which he 
adds a disturbing Nostradamus mention: 
“Millennium Approaches,” but his mysticism 
goes hand in hand with a Zolaesque realism. 

Kushner is not to be read, his play broad- 
ens on the boards. His words are simple, 
natural and often raw, but only whai spoken 
do they reach full force. He has learned what 
many dr ama tists have never discovered: Au- 
diences revolt when nagged. He holds a house 
for three hours without an intermission be- 
cause he does not hammer at his public. In his 
play — at heart a tragedy — he has much to 
say, but in addition to his opinions he spreads 
compassion and laughter. 

Brigitte Jaqucs. who directed, has adopted 
Kushner’s scant furniture scheme. A chair , a. 
lamp, a bar-stool, a hospital bed, a mattress is 
quickly delivered by prop-men who rush up 
with the needed object to create the scene and 
then vanish it away. The versatile interpret 01 * 


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on a pedettriai waft. Cohn afcarajhwe. 
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MajNoJ- 1 . piece Chorku f iflion Tel. 
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Speoalihat el fa South-Wed. Coni* de 
o*wd 4 e M aoulei au confit de canard A* 
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leafood restawant. Ill Boar Mahler Hr 9 
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are exceptional, all of them persuading us that 
they are Americans of New York. There are 
only 10 performers, with five doubling, but 
one comes away seeming to remember a siz- 
able cast 

In Euripides’s “Andromaque,” performed 
in the courtyard of the Palace of the Popes, 
Jacques Lassalle, a former a dmini s tr ator of 
the Comedie Fran^aise, has sought to link the 
ancient wars to the contemporary ones. He 
believes that the dtizens of ancient Athens 
had more or less the same notions and reac- 
tions as those of today, and Marianne Basler 
as Hormone, Christine Gagnieux as Audio- 
marpie and Hubert Gignoux as P&6e are 
artists of distinction. 

This year’s spotlight is on Japan and there 
is a rich program of differing forms of theater 
from the ancient Noh to Kyogen — farcical 
skits, and Kagura — which the Japanese 
translate as “for the pleasure of the Gods.” 

The Zingaro company is an original mix- 
tun; of theater, dance and areas horse shows, 
and its new spectacle by Bartabas is based on 
the same recipe as his previous works: A 
traveling equestrian circus company discov- 
ers new lands and cultures. Here it is com-, 
bined with Indian music and damping from 
Rajasthan. The result is fascinating, a dream- 
like voyage. 

justify a triumphant New York 
revival last year. 

Those odds are high. Virtual- 
ly any song in the show can be 
taken out, put bade in some- 
where else or dropped entirety. 
Comparisons of the present 
score with the 1963 New York 
and London originals show tre- 
mendous chang es , althou gh the 
plot remains virtually intact 

The central conceit is of two 
shop assistants (the hugely win- 
ning John Gordon Sinclair and 
the Ruthie Henshall, who lodes 
set to become Elame Paige’s 
only true rival among home- 
grown West End musical stars) 
who write love letters to eadi 
other anonymously. However, 
what really makes “She Loves 
Me” work are its many sub- 
plots. As he was to do stm more 
triumphantly with “Cabaret” 
three years later, Joe Masteroff 
has taken almost a dozen char- 
acters and given each of them a 
separate biography as well as a 
reason to sing about it 

“She Loves Me” is thus a 
company show of wondrous lyri- 
cal delight: no special effects, no 
spectacular scenery, just the re- 
turn to a lost world of style, 
charm and happy endings. 

Babajee, 20, an aspiring starlet who had 
represented Mauritius in the Miss Uni- 
verse beauty pageant here in May. As 
Bairetto started to read the result from 
an official letter, Babajee, a house guest 
of the Gutierrez family, shouted. “Ruffa 
Gutierrez!” and whispered to Rocky, 
“Take it, take it” He then pocketed the 
paper, and his sister received the trophy. 

Informed by the accounting firm that 
the wrong winners had been announced. 
Mayor Alfredo Lim of Manila called the 
audience back, denounced the “hoax” 
and proclaimed the rightful awardees as 
Edu Manzano for best actor and Aiko 
Melendez for best actress. 

Chanel’s tiny wasp-waist Jacket with full skirt, low-slung at the waist . 

Qretqpta Moore 

A Very Sober Lagerfeld 


By Suzy Menkes 

International Herald Tribune 

ARIS — Knock it down and bufld it up, 
that is Kail Lagerfeld’s way with GianeL 

explain the defiantly decorated collection in the 
downtown context. . 

Against all the odds, h worked. Ungaro’s 
clothes are not for everyone. In fact, they are 

The show he sent out Tuesday was so typically for a woman who to be 
sober —give or take a flashing navel and tike a delirious bonbon box in a flirty 

a feather puff of a hat — that the designer, who with a aSme-cfaantilly of petticoats whipped ujv 
dangled couture over an abyss of destruction, has -underneath. ^ 

now backed off. 

We have had it with couture pretending to be 

Structure and simplicity,” said Lagerfeld about street .style, and if you want the diametric 
backstage of the anorexic jackets cut taut to the opposite, Ungaro’s fancy effects are fabulously 
chest, fitted with seams like old-fashioned corset well done : the juffles and appliqu&s, the boudoir 
stays and with an invisible real corset as the base, satin blouses, the vaso-of -flowers embroideries, 

TTio nmnumiirt (mu nnnf will, n #V .11 .1 / i_^s i__\ • « • , .... 

The wasp-waist tops went with a cute full skirt, the (relatively) simple dresses tucked to contour 
low-slung at the waist to show off the oh-so- the curves. 

fashionable midriff. Lagerfeld called it “my new From the street Ungaro took the idea of fling- 

TUMkf T aaV" r w f n j i m ry 4n TVim^c ICLH Jier vt_ ■ « i M - . D 

New Look,” referring to Dior's 1 947 collection, mg different things haphazardly together It eave 


Lengths were 2S»3SBL£J! 

dbfli am S Eh* PregMn sensible, the 

DrGdoUlin3Jlt checked suit in lavender blues 

Sdtaffer as her spangled wed- predominant with panther embroideries was 

HwfiancMh* magician Da- Color black. ■ of theindivid- 

Ln theaudfamas, ^cLd show could have patterned with 

^ thedothes l^msrives. AndTaSSnSS 

^ ™ rabIe ’ and is entitled to a point of view that Ire tekeswth 
proved with then subtle seaming what modem gamine couture skills tn th*-. ultimo Jncinn 

C0 £ tl f? C SL£L a S <WL , That, bythe way, was a crinoline wedding dress 

^ ^ a ^ ^ s P ua sugar and a ccSaj^haped 
show seemed flat after the wild and ward stan- like an upstanding fan. ^ 

darthhe once set Skirt lengths were sensible. The Hubert de Givenchy took a bow and attached 

shoes, worn with dark hose, can best be desdbed it every whidi way.One bow 

as Mary Janes with high heels. The predominant scooped dfccollet^ two bows aMhe^sidc of a 

and occa- liquid scarlet satin dress; 

sanal flashes of bnght primary color The only jacket worn with tailored pants. 
riiosttrfagimmkiwasasnowtihemethatbrourita collection about evenim* clotlS* fiiwSiv 
Gbd&moas Giand cameUias as snowballs of wish, seams cattltSTS SaStS 


have the last laugh on designers who have fol- This is Givenchy in the autumn 

lnwftri his lead hv ,d t«*5naih, hm h.,« Wo CT ? L , 1116 ^uxoa of his career, 

chill, then by Elvis Presley in 
the 1970s and now by Qaudia 
Schiffer as her spangled wed- 
ding outfit 

Her fianefe, the magician Da- 
vid Copperfield, applauded 


color black. 

lowed his lead by going terrmnalty hip. but his show had an deganca aWm«nv 7wi 

In a splatter of graffiti, scribbles, slogans and erf taste and ; ~ aj ™ °Py , 1 a Icv “ 

symbols, the shocking oink letters sodfed out And how tA-n2 j.?® mcrc a sin g ly rare. 

perched on her head. The juxtaposition was with coature~**for as fe 

totally surreal. 

“Productive antagonism, extreme sopimtica- i oont tnmk so” he ««.» 

lion and the sireetTsrid Emanuel Ungaro to sumstion ^ Bagi *° ** 

designer seems to have 
. ' "i don’t thfnt; s o,” hr 

why to continue, just 
as he can.” But the 
^ ideas. 

• . p* ■ 


also me inrec , r 

the Queen of the Night faeredf. 

The entire scenario We is staged by 

Sarastro and the Queen together (who may 

well be Pamina’s parents) to test Tammo, 
Papageno and Painina. In the rad every- 
oneToT every class and sex and is 
inducted into the cult of wisdom- And then 
all the angers remove their crowns and 
robes and smig straight to the audience, m a 
joyous vision erf co mmuna lity. 

The entire production was m anaged so 
ingeniously and sensitively, and was so 
exquisitely played and sung, that it did 
honor both to Mozart and to this troubled 

uir a ' 


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International Herald Tribune, Wednesday , July 20, 1994 

Page II 


the architects of time 

, •!,-.. y. 

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THE TRIB INDEX- 113. w „ 

g»^SsS«!aa , ESM 

by Bloomberg Business News. Jan. 1, 1992 = 100. 

T50 - 


Appox. weighting: 32% - 
CJ0S& 133.40 PrW- 134,16 


Appro*. weightkv S7S 


n* Max took* US. flbfer vetoes ot stock* ft; Tokyo, Now York, London, and 
ArgwAfna, Auotrefl*, Auatrto, Batatum, Bnd, Cmk CMft Domnarfc, FWand, 
Franco, (tommy, Hong Kong, RntyTltadco, fMhartanOa, Now Z—lanH Norwa y . 
Singapore, Spain, Swodon, whaanand and Vononwfe. For Tokyo, Now Yak and 
.Lonetan e>.hOlBriioonKioaadortfiaggkp e«i ia » N iaonarfniawaroop i a fcaflb ft 

1 industrial Sectors l 

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Branca 11&89 1 19.77 -are Comon»Goodi 


9030 -0/49 

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128.43 -0.0/ 

For now information shout the Index, a booktet is avatabts froe of charge. 

Write to Tito Mgx. 181 Avenue Chariot da Qaute,B25B1 NeuByCedax, Fima. . 

Canadian Sparkle in RTZ’s Eye 

Diamond Deposits Could Put It Ahead in a New Field 

By Erik Ipsen 

I/tiematienaf Herald Tribune 

LONDON —Cockle Creek, Mono de 
Ouro and Tiwai Point move over. In the 
stable of mines operated by RTZ Corp., 
a new name is looming that may put all 
the otters into its shadow. 

It is Lac de Gras in Canada, and what 
it may yet yield to its overseers in Lon- 
don is rate of the biggest gem-quality 
diamond deposits in recent decades. 

“Their diamond urines have the poten- 
tial to be enormously lucrative,” David 
Morgan, an analyst with i-rfwnan Broth- 
ers, said. "If the rumors on the size of 
these deposits turn oat to be right, wc 
could au be having diamonds in our 
Christmas crackers in a few years’ rime.” 

While such predictions remain ex- 
tremely speculative, there is no disputing 
that if Lac de Gras becomes a major 
source of gem-quality diamonds, RTZ 
would rank among the largest beneficia- 
ries, with stakes in 44 of the 77 publicly 
disclosed potential deposits. 

KIZ is expected to disclose results of 
its rests on those deposits next month, 
.and many analysts expect the results to 
lead the company to start full-scale com- 
mercial mining shortly after rtiat, 

The chances of such a move improved 
Monday, when the world's largest dia- 
mond company, De Bens Consolidated 
Mines Lto, armounced a preliminary 
agreement with its fimimfinn partner un- 
der which it would spend as much as 

$500 million to explore, evaluate and 
possibly develop hs deposits there. 

RTZ, the world's largest mining com- 
pany, has never been in the gem-quality 
diamond business. Bui then again, it had 
never owned a coal mine on its own until 
last year; and now, two acquisitions and 
$1 3 billion later, it is the fifih-largest 
coal miner in the United States. 

What drives RTZ is not strategy as 
ranch as naked opportunism. "We have 

'Their diamond mines 
have the potential to be 
enormously lucrative.’ 

David Morgan, analyst, Lehman 

no preference as to what the mix of com- 
modities we mine five or 10 years from 
now will be,” said Robert Wilson. RTZ’s 
chief executive. “We are after opportunity 
irrespective of the commodity.” 

That philosophy has consistently 
stood the company in good stead. Even 
in the last recession, when prices of non- 
ferrous metals slumped by nearly 60 per- 
cent from their 1988 peaks, RTZ re- 
mained comfortably profitable. For 
1993, a lousy year for most, the mining 
world’s pre-eminent opportunists posted 
pretax earnings of £652 milli on (51 bil- 
lion) on revenue of £4.8 billion. 

That ability to wring profit out of bad 

years as well as good has won RTZ a 
double-A credit rating, the highest among 
the world's major mining companies. 

Analysts say the company's broad 
product range — from coal and uranium 
to copper, gold and borax — has also 
enabled it to be more patient than most. 
If production costs for one commodity 
get too high, it can shift its acquisitive 
energies to another. 

The decision to move into coal mining, 
for instance, was made nearlv a decade 
before the company actually bought 
such a mine — when prices of coal and 
coal mines were far from their peaks. 

“This is a company that knows bow to 
buy straw hats in winter,” Emil Morfett, 
an analyst with Paribas Capital Markets, 

It is a philosophy fed by a strikingly 
and unswervingly ’dour outlook. “Our 
business really is to recognize tha t most 
mined products rend to be in oversupply 
more often than undersupply,” Mr. Wil- 
son said. 

With too much product and too little 
only the lowest-cost producers 
stay profitable. RTZ executives happily 
point out that the company is routinely 
outbid in auctions for mines. 

Many see this as one of the company’s 
greatest strengths. “In an industry lit- 
tered with costly mistakes, RTZ’s secret 
has been to avoid the catastrophes,” Mr. 
Morgan said. 

Take for example the company’s views 

See MINING, Page 13 

GE Profit Sets 
Record Despite 
Kidder Scandal 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

FAIRFIELD, Connecticut 
— General Electric Co. on 
Tuesday posted record second- 
quarter profit of $1-52 billion, 
as earnings in its financial -ser- 
vices sector outweighed costs of 
a bond-trading scam at its Kid- 
der, Peabody & Co. unit that 
was disclosed in April. 

famingt in the quarter — 
which equaled 89 cents a share 
and represented a 14 percent rise 
from 51 J3 billion, or 78 cents a 
share, a year earlier — were fu- 
eled by double-digit gains in 
eight business sectors. Revenue 
rose 10 percent from the 1993 
quarter, to 516.20 billion. 

The results were in line with 
market expectations. The con- 
sensus estimate among 1 1 ana- 
lysts surveyed by Zacks Invest- 
ment Research called for 
earnings of 88 cents a share. 
General Electric’s shares 
closed at 548.75, up 87_5 cents, 
on the New York Stock Ex- 

Profit on operations at GE 
Capital Services rose 12 per- 
cent, to 5463 million, with 
strong results in insurance and 
equipment managenumt more 
than offsetting a previously an- 

nounced loss of $29 million at 

Kidder Peabody. 

Kidder announced in April it 
had uncovered a scheme by its 
bead government bond trader, 
Joseph Jett, that had resulted in 
S350 million in phantom profits 
being recorded last year. The 
company fired Mr. Jett, who is 
now under federal investiga- 
tion, and took a $210 million 
charge against first-quarter 

Nice of GE’s 12 businesses 
reported improved operating 
profit. The jeight posting dou- 
ble-digit increases were appli- 
ances. transportation, motors, 

television network and at GE 
Aircraft Engines. The aircraft- 
engine division has been ac- 
cused in a lawsuit filed by a 
former employee of violating 
federal safety guidelines. 

For the first six months of the 
r. General Electric earned 
L59 billion, or $132 a share, 
compared with $2.42 billion, or 
$1.41 a share, a year earlier. 
First-half revenue rose to 
$3038 billion from $27.62 bil- 
lion. (AP, Bloomberg) 

U.S. Bank Profits Up Despite Higher Cost of Funds 

O UonMional HwbM Trbm 

By Lawrence Malkin 

• hue r n ational HtraU Tribme 

NEW YORK — Despite ris- 
ing interest rates, many mgor 
U.S. banks on Tuesday report- 
ed increased second-quarter 
profits as they lent money in an 
expanding economy. The big 
New York banks reported 
strong profits despite declines 
in trading revenue. 

“Plato-vanilla banking is do- 
ing reasonably well, and when 
you get oat of New York strong 
loan demand is pushing up 
profits where the economy is 
growing, especially in the 

Southeast and Midwest,” Ra- 
fael Soifer, bank analyst at 
Brown Brothers Har dman & 
Ox, said of this week’s quarter- 
ly bank results. 

The nationwide credit crunch 
appears to be over, and banks 
are bidding eagerly to make 
loans. But thin means they alie n 
are competing to Vn*p loan 
rates down as the Federal Re- 
serve Board raises the cost of 

The New York money center 
banks, which axe increasingly 
dependent on fees, increased 
profits in part by cleaning up 

their balance sheets, especially 
tfamtos to refinancing Brazil’s 
huge government debt with new 

A major beneficiary of this 
was Citicorp, which reported 
net income of $877 million for 
the second quarter, almost dou- 
ble last year’s second-quarter 
profit of $446 million. The 
country’s largest and most in- 
ternational bank used pan of 
the money to lift loan-loss re- 
serves by $400 million and slash 

its co mmer cial noi 

assets by a huge $1-5 billion, to 
$3.4 billion, most of which now 
is in bad UJS. real estate. 

John Reed, the president of 
Gticorp, said the bank’s “core 
business is solid” and earned 
roughly what it did in the first 
quarto 1 . But quarterly trading 
revenue dropped to $159 mil- 
lion from last year’s $572 mil- 
lion, although stiD improved 
from the first quarter’s dismal 
571 milli on. 

Chemical RanVing Corp** the 
third-largesl bank in the country 
and one of the New York banks 
most dependent on regional 
banking, increased quarterly net 
income by $20 milli on from last 
year, to $327 milli on, mainly 
from an improving loan busi- 

ness. Its trading revenue fell to 
$203 million in the second quar- 
ter from $298 million in the com- 
parable year-ago period 

Outside New York, Mellon 
Bank Corp-* in Pittsburgh, in- 
creased its quarterly income to 
$134 million from 599 minio n, 
despite an $85 million charge for 
its acquisition of Dreyfus Corn, 
to get into mutual funds. PNC 
Bank Crap., also of Pittsburgh, 
increased net income to $188 
mini on from $169 milli on , while 
Banc One Corp-. of Columbus, 
Ohio, increased net income to 
$316 millio n from $282 nrilhoiL 

Sprint Reports 
Higher Profit 

Bloomberg Business News 

souri — Sprint Carp, said 
its second-quarter profit 
rose 33 percent, paced by 
record operating inoome in 
its long-distance and cellu- 
lar telephone operations. 

Sprint posted second- 
quarter profit of $220 mil- 
lion. or 63 cents a share, 
compared with $165 mil- 
lion, or 48 cents a share, in 
last year's second quarter. 

Revenue rose 12 percent, 
to $3.15 billion. 


Li Galls Back in Britain 

By Erik Ipsen 

Jmcnuaianei Herald Tribute • 

L ONDON — Fresh from one of the 
most costly disasters in the history of 
British triecomrm mi cations, Hutchi- 
son Telecom UJKL is doubling its 
bets. Six months after itpuQed die plug on its 
£150 miHkra ($234 mutton) foray into the 
British mobile-phone market, Hutchinson, a 
unit of Ii Ka-shing’s Hong Kong-based con- 
glomerate Hutchison Whampoa LnL. has a 
new horse to ride — a digital mob3e-pbraie 
network known as Orange. 

Skeptics abound. "The view in the market 
here is that they screwed op once in Britain 
and will do it again, only on a much bigger 
scale,” said Mark Snnpkm, an analyst for 
Baring Securities ini Hong Kong. 

By the time the Hutchison's Orange system 
is completed in late 1995, it wiD have cost its 
three owners an estimated £700 n uTK on . The. 
lion’s share of that bill will faD to Hutchison, 
which holds 65 percent of Orange. British 
Aerospace PLC has a 30 percent stake and 
Barclays Bank PLC has 5 percent. 

Hutchison’s first venture into the British 

K * : market was a system called Rabbit, 
as the poor man’s mobile phone.' The 
problem was that its service matched its rock- 
bottom price. The phones, which could not 
receive calls and could make calls onlywithin 
100 yards of its aH-too-ferw base stations, 
never found a market. . . 

This time around, though, Hutchison in- 
sists it is backing a winner. Cohn Tucker, the 
company’s director of operations, said that 
Orange, which was officially launched relate 
April, was running “significantly ahead” of 

its business plan in terms of number of sub- 
scribers as weH as volume of calls. 

Hutchison's hope is that Orange’s eventual 
success will enable the company to establish 
both a track record and an expertise that they 
can take into other markets. 

- “This is our jumping-off point for all of 
Europe,” Mr. Tucker said. Hutchison already 
owns the largest mobile-phone network in 
Hong Kong mid operates paging systems in 
Australia, Thailand and Malaysia plus mo- 
bile-phone service companies in Germany 
and France. . 

For Mr. Li, the question most often asked 
is why he has come so far to spend so much — 
especially when so many European compa- 
nies are falling all over themselves to invest in 
the booming markets of China and much of 
.the rest of Asia. In reply, company executives 
shrug and point out that when the decision to 
p roceed with Orange was made three years 
ago, Britain was stiD the only market to have 
thrown qpen its doors to free competition. 

■ Others however, have also responded to 
that opportunity. Orange is not the first, sec- 
ond, or even third entry into die mobile tele- 
com sweepstakes in Britain, but the fourth. 

While Hutchison’s state-of-the-art digital 
system represents * major technological leap 
over its two largest competitors and their 
joosdy analog systems, it suffers from a geo- 
graphic reach that ax present encompasses 
only half of Britain. Moreover, its handsets 
cost £300, compared with as little as £40 for 
its competitors’ phones. 

“The vast majority of people want cheap 
handsets and n a t io n al coverage,” said James 

See TELECOM, Page 13 

Honda Cars 
To Be Made 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dapattha 

DETROIT — Honda Motor 
Co. said Tuesday it planned to 
increase auto production in the 
United Stares and Canada and 
would start assembling cars in 
Mexico next year. 

The Japanese automaker — 
which indicated last week it 
would move more production 
capacity to America, in part to 
offset the costs of the strong yen 
— stud the moves would add 
1,100 jobs in the United States 
and Canada, bringing its total 
to more than 17,000. The plan 
also would raise its manufactur- 
ing capacity in the two coun- 
tries to 720,000 cars a year by 
1997 from 610,000 at preseoL 

Honda will add 250 jobs in 
Mexico, where its plant is ex- 
pected to turn out 1S,000 cars a 
year initially, as part of an ef- 
fort to increase sales through- 
out Latin America. It said it 
would also export 150,000 cars 
m ade in the United States and 
Canada to Central and South 
America by 1999. 

Honda said it would expand 
the capacity of its engine plant 
in the United States to 750,000 
engines is 1998 from 500,000 
and develop two new Acura 
models for production in 1996. 

(Bloomberg, AP) 


Crews Rates 

. Bnnsete 

(o ) 

July 19 

. ( DA FA Lira dlh ■#. SJP. re* ct peseta 

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1E “ S2 Ew za* MW vast ism uw van vum 

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* pound: ft: ro boy one dottort •: Units atm; HA: not noted; HAJ not 

*| MflUfe. 


CHTtM Fort 


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inttm rupee 31* 
loCta.roMob 2U&» 


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Major, rfof- 

EurocuiTOiey Deposits 

July 19 










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4 Kp4 ft 


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4 IW4 ft 



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sms i-swa 

Currency Per* 
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Vmz.Mte MS M 

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Swtus None JnmTJI — Bor* tBnadmti Benao CamawnMe tfoddna 

Sources: ^ nVn0,: *°»****« <*** 

tnm /tmOers and AP- 

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448 471 


Sources; Stouten, Btacmbero. Merrill 
L radii 8onA of Tokyo. Commorubank. 
Greenaeil Montauv, Cndlt L yenaoh. 












Mew York 




US. denars aer ounce. 

London official fbi- 

Mr; Zurich and Sew York aetnktportdetoa- 
ttwOrieasj New York Cemex (Auovst) 
Source: Reuters. 

Banking Clients Have Always Expected 
Outstanding Personal Service. 
Today They Find It With Us. 

D uring the Renaissance, 
trust J advisors helped 
administer the finances 
and protect the interests of private 
individuals. The role demanded 
judgment, commitment and skill. 

Today, clients find that same 
personal service at Republic 
National Bank. We believe chat 
banking is more about people than 
numbers. It’s about the shared val- 
ues and common goals that forge 
strong bonds between banker and 

client. It’s also about building for 
the future, keeping assets secure 
for the generations to come. 

This client focus has contrib- 
uted to our leading position in 
private banking. As a subsidiary 
of Safra Republic Holdings S.A. 
and an affiliate of Republic New 
York Corporation, we’re part of 
a global group with more than 
US$5 billion in capital and more 
than US$50 billion in assets. 

These assets continue to grow 



timeless Values. Traditional strength. 

substantially, a testament to the 
group’s strong balance sheets, risk- 
averse orientation and century-old 

All banks in the group are 
locally managed, attuned to the 
language and culrure of rheir cus- 
tomers. They share a philosophy 
that emphasizes lasting relation- 
ships and mutual trust. Those 
values were once the foundation 
of banking. At Republic, they 
have been and always will be. 

HEAD OFFICE: GENEVA 120* ' 2. PLACE DU LAC • TEL (022 1 705 55 55 - FOREX: iOZzi 705 55 50 AND GENEVA 1201 • 2, HUE DR. ALFRED- VINCE NT i CORNER 
OUAI DU MONT-SLANCi MANCHE* LUGANO 6901 • I. VIA CANOUA • TEL. 1091 1 23 85 32 - ZURICH 8039 - STOCKERSTfiASSE 37 - TEL. (01 ■ 288 18 18 - 


Page 12 



Treasuries Gain, 
But Stocks Falter 

Via AndMMd has 

Dow Jones Averages 

D&Hy Nosings of the 
Dow Jones industrial average 

4000 " " 

OMfl Wall Low Lost Oi»- 

I ImJuS 3751.81 276154 374X31 3748J1 — ».1J 
Irons 160520 16K84 IjJJ J 1»6-S* "jMf 
LMJ USJJ JE14P 1B2M 1B3.17 -0V 
Orru> I300L72 130423 129900 13BUS -0.18 

European futures 



Weak Markets Hit Brokers 


BUS _ Ask 

MOB Lwr LoO santi One 
Dec 16173 16140 MUS HUS — 025 

Donors nr nwtrfc Jon 

S 163,73 16am 16323 163JD — OSO 
16275 JOTS U3JS MOX — 030 
Est volume: 10876. Own InL 87078 

Con spiled tr Our Staff From Dttyaicha 

NEW YORK — Strength in 
the dollar helped Treasury 
bond prices rally Tuesday, but 
the stock market fell amid a 
flurry of second-quarter corpo- 
rate results. 

The price of the benchmark 
30-year Treasury bond rose 
14/32 point, to 85 22/32, send- 

11.5. Stocks 

mg the yield down to 7.46 per- 
cent, down from 7.50 percent 
Monday. Bonds were lifted by 
renewed interest in dollar-de- 
□ominaied securities as the U.S. 
currency rallied. 

But strength in bonds did not 
rescue the stock market, where 
losing issues outpaced gaining 
ones by an l l-to-9 ratio on the 
New York Stock Exchange. The 
Dow Jones industrial average 
lost 7.12 points, closing at 

Banking stocks were among 
the weakest sector of the mar- 
ket, despite higher second-quar- 
ter earnings reports from most 
major banks. Analysts said the 
higher earnings were largely the 
result of shrinking loan-loss re- 
serves and cost-cutting. 

Signet Banking tumbled 4'.5 

to 37%, despite reporting a 25 
percent increase in income. 

Intel fell 1% to 57 in active 
trading after the semiconductor 
maker said its profit margins 
shrank. The company also re- 
ported an increase in second- 
quarter profit that was in line 
with analysis' expectations. 

Lotus Development plunged 
5% to 33 after the software 
maker reported reduced earn- 
ings and said it could not prom- 
ise better results for the second 
half of the year. 

CBS fell 4 to 308 after reports 
t hat Laurence Tisch, the com- 
pany's chairman, said the com- 
pany was not for sale. 

TRW rallied 2% to 67% after 
reporting a 57 percent increase 
in second-quarter earnings- The 
maker of automotive compo- 
nents, missiles and satellites 
said accelerating demand for 
automobile air bags helped the 
bottom line. 

Tribune Co. fell 1% to 54% 
despite a 37 percent increase in 
second-quarter earnings. The 
publisher of the Chicago Tri- 
bune said higher returns from 
its media sector and narrower 
losses in its newsprint division 
contributed to the profit. 

(Bloomberg, API 

Standard ft Poor’s Mans 






SP 100 

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391.03 387 SB 3 U 04 + 1.99 
15576 15407 IS*? +M 1 
4532 44 J 6 4408-844 
45 &J 0 «Ul 45186 — I Jo 
mm C 3 L 25 42 US— 1 J 4 

NYSE Indexes 

Dalian par imrtric JM 

Saal iff? 00 130300 13HOO 151649 

Sow rt 1527 JO 153099 153200 


Forward 2479 JO 248900 MAUD 2*4500 


ft&wrt 40805 60900 4MOD ULS0 


DOHOT3 POT flWtn C mipm 

Seat 631500 632500 633500 634508 

Reward 6(1900 642000 643009 6*4000 


50500 54*509 


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■eta 1600 MOO 16M 1706 +023 

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Est. volume: 31054 . 0**n tot 126W 

Hios Law Lost Out 

resUIBAS? 5 " l “ “ 

Doom per mefrictos 

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ftfUrd loasoo iomjo 100700 1OO&00 






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24X35 2*700 7*7 06 — OOI 
20X6* 20600 206*3 -028 
312.98 21107 21101 —107 



Sea NX NX 357SO +150 

Est. volume: n*L Open Int no. 


206100 +2700 

$2 SS Sgfi ffifi Hffi 

DK 210800 2t5ejO 211100 +27.59 

MOT 213700 21245B 2T36J0 +2700 

Eat. volume: 36367. Oeen lot: 68027. 

Stock Indexes 

HMi Law Close Cbaase 


w J F M A tt J J 

i NASDAQ Indexes 

NYSE Most Actives 

Ba nfca 
I Transo. 

77300 719.11 719.11 — X44 
73499 73103 73153 —301 

77103 74951 77007 -029 
901.45 897.fl 897.51 — ZI7 

93808 93606 93608 —134 
70669 70*00 78804 .191 

Hlsta Law Close Chaos* 
6599080 -PM Of MB PCI 

Sh 9658 9405 9437 +901 

dS S« fW -0J37 

Star H- «« - 0 « 

. NEW YORK (AP) — MerriH Lynch 

percent decline in second-quarter profit and f 

Holdings Ina posted an 84 percent drop m net income because oi 
the depressed financial markets earlier this y«r. 

Merrill Lynch, the largest brokerage in the Untied States, 
earned $251.8 naffian, down from $345 million in the similar 
period a year earlier. Revenuewas $4.48 billion, up 13 percrat. 

The company blamed the lower earnings on a sharp crop in 
global underwntmg volume, winch cut mvestmeni-bankiiig rev^ 
Hues by 22 percent. The 1994 spike in interest rattt and vda^e 
currency markets also cut into revenue from stock. bona ana 

Ban thatwasspunofffroin 

American Express Co. this year, said profits dropped to 

— , 9X4S ' raj? 9i« — jug 

Am, nss nso 9190 —um 

jS M 9U1 9WI —002 

S£ «S 9203 9206 -002 

Nmr 71 JB 9105 9j7» -OOI 

JHB 9159 9L53 TUB — OOI 

sS 91.36 9103 91.35 —OOI 

D6C 71.16 71.12 91.17 UnctL 

JEf Tlie 90.9S 9100 Unch. 

JOB 9BJU- 90S5 7085 —801 

Eat volume; Ob» )nt.:S 3 BM*. 


*1 oilDtoa - PM of 110 pet 

W W. 5S 
JST "x SfcT: ^ :SE 

S*b N.T. N.T. n*i +007 

Compaq J 







Pramus s 


AT 6 T 







31 Vk 

AHEX Stock Index 

NASDAQ Most Actives 

M«1 Low Lost 

*3X97 432 JO 43X90 



Dow Jom 

m Bond Avon 




29 Bondi 


+ 0J28 

10 UttIHfn 


+ 043 

10 industrials 



jwren: Marti, Associated Press, 
London Ian Financial Futures BJKtWOC, 
Inft Petroleum Exctanoo. 
















Wailing for Greenspan, 
Traders Bid Dollar Up 
















VoL Htah LOW 
SVt 56** 
38V) IFL. 
11V, 9*6 

499* 48*6 

50*6 *9*6 

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38Vi 37*6 
2M6 2016 
8 AS 

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31 V. 3 D'A 
5 *VS 

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57 —1*6 

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10*6 -1V6 

48*6 -2*6 

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11*6 —1*6 
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4*6 ~*6 

13*6 -TV, 

1*6 •S* 

23 ’* —Vi* 

Total issues 
New H&ts 
New Lows 

986 1135 

1107 1023 

757 705 

2850 7863 

55 a 

46 38 

AMEX Diary 

Compiled In Oar Staff From Dupaiches 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
rallied agains t the yen on Tues- 
day, ana it strengthened against 
most other currencies amid spec- 
ulation that the Federal Reserve 
Board chairman. Alan Green- 
span, would talk about raising 
interest rates when he testifies 
before Congress Wednesday. 

The dollar also seemed to get 

Foreign Exchange 

some support from news that 
the U.S. trade deficit with Ja- 
pan had narrowed considerably 
in May, even though the overall 
American trade gap widened. 

The dollar ended in New 
York at 1.5685 DM, up from 
1.5467 DM on Monday, and at 
99.20 yen, up from 98.41 yen. Ii 
also rose to 1-3275 Swiss francs 
from 1.3045 francs and to 
5.3760 French francs from 
5.3065. The pound slipped to 
$1.5486 from $1.5614. 

It's easy to subscribe 
■n Belgium 

[ustcaU: 0 800 17538 

Markets were expected to re- 
main quiet before the Wednes- 
day testimony by Mr. Green- 
span and a Bundesbank council 
meeting on Thursday that some 
traders and analysts say could 
produce a ait in German inter- 
est rates. Higher U.S. and lower 
German rates would give inves- 
tors an incentive to switch from 
marks to dollars. 

Mr. Greenspan is to give his 
semiannual testimony on mon- 
etary policy before the Senate 
Banking Committee. Many 
traders who had sold dollars 
earlier bought them back Tues- 
day in case Mr. Greenspan 
should indicate plans to raise 
rates to control inflation. 

“A lot of people expect 
Greenspan to hint at raising 
rates tomorrow,” said Lynn 
Tierney, vice president at Shiaw- 
mut Bank of Boston. “You have 
to be careful in case be does.” 

The Fed has raised interest 
rates four times this year to con- 
trol inflation, pushing the fed- 
eral funds rate on overnight 
bank loans to 4.25 percent from 
3 percenL The increases were 
the first in five years. 

(Reuters. Bloomberg) 

Toral Issues 
New H Whs 
Now Laws 

278 280 

278 300 

23* 233 

•19 813 

13 12 

AMEX Most Actives 





XCL Ltd 






VoL KWh Low Lori 
6491 4*6* 416 4>6 

6404 9 8*6 B*6 

4095 4SW|* 45*6 45*6 

5497 IWi, l", 1 * Vi, 

5058 1*6 1‘* IVi* 

4913 11'* IDtt 11V* 
457* 5 44* 4'Vi* 

3748 32*6 32'+ 32'1 

3912 6'6 5*6 6 

3441 3V, 2V. 

; NASDAQ Diary 

Total Issues 
New Laws 

1547 14*3 

16*6 1571 

1377 7002 

5070 3066 

111 93 

173 M 

Spot Commodities 

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DM 1 mdllMi , pts Of 188 pci 

Sn 9122 95.19 9501 +002 

SK: 95.19 95.13 95.17 +004 

Mc£ 9505 94 S 7 TS 02 +005 

9400 747 S 9 L 77 +BO* 

ta 9453 9444 9449 +004 

Dec 9423 74.15 94.19 +003 

Mar 7402 7199 9409 +004 

in BE . nj 4 93 JB +004 

s to 9158 9155 9158 +104 

Dec 9134 9131 7102 +903 

MS 93.16 93.15 93.17 +004 

JIB 1118 7103 KLQ 5 Unch. 

Est volumes 125090 Open hiT^ 800582 . 

S 940 . +012 

£5 ZS SS its 

jS 73 J 8 9 X 90 7 X 95 +007 

Sep 9374 9368 7 X 75 + 0.12 

Dec «3 93*43 7332 +013 

rSSr 9 X 29 7 X 23 7 X 29 +B. 1 Q 

3 n 9111 9112 9117 +as» 

EiL volume: 53 J 17 . Open W.: 19050 . 
CSOIM - Pit O 3 MS Of 180 Pd 
Sop 10645 103-17 NO -25 Unch. 

Dec 103-02 102-27 102-31 Unch. 

Est volume: 45 , 982 . open tot.: 111972 . 
DM 258089 -ptsoMM pa 
Sap 9479 9434 7446 +021 

Dec 9186 9156 9177 +022 

Est. volume: 144087 . Open tots 170441 
FF 54 O 0 M - Pt 3 at lOQPd 
Sea 11702 117 J 4 11706 +009 

Dec 11 L 62 11640 11650 +006 

Mar 115 J 4 11 SH) 11 A 1 B +054 

Jan NX NX N.T. unch. 

Est. volume: 131750 Open bit; 141 J 07 . 

Company Per Anti Par Rec 


Chem BkAtUPISorL -L 5425 MS MO 

Greater CMnaFd _ 05 7-29 8-12 


Ale* Brown O .ITS T-» *-JB 

Cooper Tire Q 06 7-2 ho 

versa Tech Q 07 7-29 HO 


unman eromers, me nuaumu wiu — - - r— - 

American Express Ca this year, said profits dropped to jij 
million from S83 naffion for comparable L ehman businesses in 
the year-ago period, when the firm was still owned by American 
Express. Revenue rose 7 percent, to S234 billion. 

Ulinois Central Buys Kansas City Bail 

KANSAS CITY,. Missouri (AP) — Kansas City Southern 
Industries Inc. said Tuesday it would split its railway and finan- 
cial services businesses by selling its rail unit to Illinois Central 
Com, and spinning off its mutual fund arm to shareholders. 

Bliiiois Central is to buy Kansas City Southern in a stock swap 
worth about $1 .6 b flKnn, the companies announced. 

Shareholders in Kansas Gty Southern Industries, parent com- 
pany of the 107-year-old railroad, will receive about 21.2 rnilbon 
shares of TtKnnia Genual Crap, stock. Illinois Central will also 
assume about $929 million of Kansas City Southern debt. The 
deal is subject to approval by the Internal Revalue Service and 
shareholders of bom companies. 



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PepsiCo. Profit Up on Strong Sales 

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NEW YORK (Combined Dispatches) — P«q>sioo Inc. said 
Tuesday that second-quarter profit rose 5 percent in a snbpar 
p erf ormance that reflected la g gin g profitibflity at the company’s 
restaurants and in its beverage buaness abroad. 

. The soft-drink maker said eaznings.for the quarter ended June 

11 roiTnA to $446.5 miTKim, np from $426.8 millio n in the like 
period a year carher. Revenue rose 1 1 percent, to $6J6 billion. 

Operating profit from restaurants fell 6 percent, to $155.9 
minion, despite a 12 percent increase in revenue, which advanced 
to $236 billion. Operating profitwas down at all the Pepsi restau- 
rant chains —Pizza Hut, Taco Bell. and Kentucky Fried Chicken. 
But Wayne Galloway, Pepsi’s chairman, said he was optimistic 
about long-term growth prospects. (AP, Bloomberg) 

g .H) 7-29 
05 7-27 
Q 1 J 0 831 
Q 07 81 

O 03 81 * 

One-Time Gains lift GTE Profit 35% 

NEW YORK (AP) — GTE Corp., the second-largest local 
phone company in dm country, said Tuesday that one-time gains 
from the sale of telephone properties lifted its its second-quarter 
profit 35 percent. 

The company's net income in the quaiter that ended June 30 
was $595 million, up from 5438 million in the comparable, year- 
ago period. The bottom line included a $71 million after-tax gain, 
while the 1993 quarter included a $46 million charge for employee 
buyouts. Excluding the extraordinary, iteozs, earnings rose S per- 
cent. 1 .. . 

Market Sales 




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Digital Sells Disks Dnit to Quantum 

EIJ Questions TV Venture SmithKliiw Profit Falls 

. n ,r_ _ GmbH, would devdoo the died- J 

Bloomberg Business Newt 

BRUSSELS — The Europe- 
an Commission said Tuesday it 
was investigating a proposed 
German television joint venture 
that it said could lead to a rao- 

lopoly on new cable-television 
echcoIofcY in Europe. 

technology in Europe. 

Deutsche Telekom wants to 
create a joint venture with the 
media companies Bertelsmann 
AG and Kirch Giuppc. The 
new company. Media Service 

GmbH, would develop the digi- 
tal technology planned for use 
in the cable-television industry. 

State-owned Deutsche Tele- 
kom is Germany's largest cable 
television operator. 

The commission, the Europe- 
an Union's executive body, said 
it feared that the combination 
of the three German companies 
could create a monopoly in de- 
velopment erf cable-television 
technology, particularly digital 

Bloomberg Business Hews 

LONDON — SmithKline 
Beech&m PLC said Tuesday 
its second-quarter pretax 
profit slipped I percent from 
a year earlier, to £291 mil- 
lion ($454 million) from 
£294 million. 

The company's shares 
rose 8 to 402 peace, howev- 
er, on news that sales of new 

products bad exceeded ana- 
lysts’ expectations. 

MAYNARD, Mass. (jCombmcd Dispatches) — Digital Equip- 
ment Crap. said Tuesday that Quantum CrapL had agreed to buy 
parts of its disk-drive business for about $400 million, including 
an 81 percent stake in Digital's Rocky Mountain Magnetics Inc. 

The move is part of Eag^taTs sweeping restructuring, which 
includes shedding operations and eliminating 20,000 jobs, is 
designed to transform the loss-plagued computer maker into a 
smaller company focused on fewer markets. Digital’s revalue for 
its 1993 financial year was $14.4 billion. 

The pharmaceutical gi- 
ant’s chief executive; Jazz 
Leschly, praised the perfor- 
mance of the new products 
— which included PaxO, an 
anti-depressant, and Havrix, 
a vaccine against type A' 

For fhe Record 

Lotus Development Carp, on Tuesday said it earned $9.7 
million in the second quarter, a 3& percent drop from a year ago 
because of product delays and the reorganization of its domestic 
sales force: . v .. •■. :-(Btoomberg) 

Unisys Corp. .said Tuesday that second-quarter earnings 
dropped 52 percent, to $49.9 million, mostly because of slow 
European sales, which are not expected to improve until the 
fourth quarter. ... (Bloomberg) 


tf* 11 


cjt> i 

!iU fe: 

Slowing Growth 
Of German M-3 
Cheers Investors 

Bundesbank on Tuesday re- 
ported a slowdown in German 
money-supply growth in June, 
raising investors’ hopes of a cut 
in German interest rates and 
pushing up stock prices. 

But economists and dealers 
were divided on whether the 
Bundesbank would ease its mon- 
etary policy cm Thursday, the 
final meeting before its n»nwn»T 
recess, which lasts until Aug. 16. 

Airbus Surpasses 

1993 Order Level 

Bloomberg Burma News 

PARIS — Airbus Industrie 
said Tuesday that it won more 
firm orders in the first half of 

1994 than in ah last year, vault- 
ing the European aircraft con- 
sortium past its U.S. rival, 
Boeing Co., during the period 

% The company said it received 
69 firm orders through June, riv- 
ing it a SS percent share of orders 
for planes with more than 100 
seats. It said Boeing, with 51 
orders, took 41 percent of the 
market. McDonnell Douglas 
Crap, was third with four orders. 

Airbus, a consortium of Aero- 
spatiale of France, British Aero- 
space PLC, Coastrucriones Aer- 
onaut! cas SA of Spain and 
Deutsche Aerospace AG of Ger- 
many, said the improvement in 
orders rignaled the start of a 
recovery from a four-year slump. 

The Bundesbank said M-3, its 
broad measure of money in the 
economy and a favored indica- 
tor of future inflation, had ex- 
panded at an annualized rate of 
113 percent in June The figure 
was stiD way above its target for 
1994 growth of 4 percent to .6 
percent, butdown from the 13.4. 
percent rise in May. 

The 30-share DAX index re- 
sponded by jumping 30.60 
points, or 15 percent, to close 
at 2,128.79, while German gov- 
ernment. bond yields fefl. The 
10-year bund yield fdl to 6.68 
pe r ce nt -front 6.71 percent 
Hermann Rcmsp eager, chief 
economist at BHF Bank, raid 
the latest data meant the 
Bundesbank could reduce its 
securities repurchase rate, a key 
money market rate that cur- 
rently is 4.91 percent 
But he said it was question- 
able whether the 4.50 percent 
discount rate, the floor rate in 
the German money market 
would be reduced Thursday. 

The M-3 money simply com- 
prises currency m circulation, 
tight deposits, time deposits for 
less than four years and savings 
deposits at three months* notice. 

One factor boosting its 
growth since the start o i the 
year has been investors’ reluc- 
tance to transfer money into 
long-term paper, such as bonds, 
winch do not figure in M-3. 

Despite criticism that the fig- 
ure has become meaningless be- 
cause it has been so far above the 
target, economists think the cen- 
tral bank would be 31-&dvised to 
adjust it (Reuters, Bloomberg) 


An Activist Takes a Capitalist Trip 

Nouvelles Frontieres Fights for Rights of Passage 

Page 13 


By Jacques Neher 

international Herald Tribute 

PARIS — Jacques Maillol, active a 
quarter-century ago in France's student 
protests, rays he is still fighting fora kind 
of social justice; The right to travel 
“From the start, my idea has been to 
democratize travel to make it available to 
everyone," said Mr. MriEot, whose com- 
pany, Gronpe Nouvelles Frontieres SA, 
has surpassed its more wdl -known rival. 
Club Mcdherranie SA,in the French, do- 
mestic market and now ranks as The sev- 
en tb-largest tour operator in Europe. 

- By widening the company’s range of 
travel services, Mr. Maillot said he armed 
over the next five years to lift Nouvelles 
Frontieres to third place in Europe, be- 
hind Touristik Union International 
GmbH of Germany and Thomson Tour 
Operations Ltd. of Britain. 

■StaTtmg fry nffqrog cut-rate charter 
Sights to off-thc-bealen-tra& destina- 
tions, Nouvdks Frontiers is now active in 
almost all sectors of the travel industry, 
offering organized tours and do-it-your- 
self pnwrayt tO 160 H qrhmiinnt aiOUXld 
the world. By multiplying these destina- 
tions by a choice of hotels and other add- 
on services, the company can offer nearly 
400 travel products. 

As volume has grown — it now claims 
upwards of 1.6 mndoa customers a year 
—Nouvelles Frontieres has ventured into 
related businesses. It operates its own 
airline, Corsair, with six aircraft including 
four Boeing 747s; a fast-growing string of 
seaside and mountain resort hotds; a car 
rental fleet; a language school to prepare 
its customers for their voyages,- and a 
business-travel subsidiary that aims to of- 
fer discounts of up to 50 percent on first- 
class and business-class aiding tickets. 
Expanding his buriness with a keen eye 
to the m imaging the media — he is the 
company's top press officer — Mr. Mail- 
lot never shies away from the opportunity 
to get free publicity. He relishes higb- 

F ranee to ply open protected markets. 
Most recently, his efforts resulted in Cor- 

sair breaking the national carrier's mo- 
nopoly on the route to New Caledonia. 

NouveUe Frontieres’ strategy of com- 
bining low prices and freedom of choice 
appears soiled for the limes. Last year, as 
the recession ravaged Europe's tourism 
and airline industries, the company 
racked up a 12 percent increase in sales, 
to 538 billion French francs (Si billion), 
and pretax earnings edged up 1 percent, 
to 163 minio n francs. 

Id this financial year, which ends Sept 
30, Mr. Maillot said he expected “at 

'From tlie start, my idea 
has been to democratize 
travel, to make it 
available to everyone.* 

Jacques Maillot, founder, 

NouveQea Frontieres. 

least” a 123 percent jump m sales and “a 
significant growth” in profit. 

Mr. Maillot, 52, started out in the 
business by accident. As a law student 
who had gathered experience arranging 
boy-scout outings, Mr. Maillot began 
applying ins organizational skills to put- 
ting together low-priced study tours for 
fellow students. The first one, to Moroc- 
co in 1965, drew 150 people, leading Mi. 
Maillot two years later to create Nou- 
velles Frontieres as a nonprofit associa- 
tion that, with its fast-growing member- 
ship, could increasingly bargain for 
volume discounts from the major carri- 
ers and holds. By 1973, the association 
had attracted nearly 40.000 customer- 
members and the government forced it 
to apply for a travel-agency license and 
become a tax-paying company. 

To break away from the pack. Mr. 
Maillot refused to market ins travel 
packages through established agencies, 
believing they would be unable to offer 
informed sales information on such a 

wide product offering, especially along- 
side the packages of all the other tour 
operators they represent. Instead, he 
opened his own chain of agencies exclu- 
sively devoted to the company's prod- 
ucts. Today, it operates more than 150 
agencies — two-thirds company owned, 
one- third franchised — and 35 more are 
to open this year. 

The ttk»" sales tool is a semiannual 
catalog and related brochures, on which 
the company spends about 20 million 
francs. The spring-summer 1 994 catalog 
runs 722 pages, offering, for example, a 
two-week adventure trek from Paris to 
Tanzania, starting with a safari and and 
ending with a six -day dhnb to the snows 
of Kilimanjaro — for 13.610 francs per 
person. Also on offer is a 17-day trip in 
November to Lake Chungara, 4,000 me- 
ters (13,200 fee) high in the Chilean An- 
des, to witness a total solar eclipse, at 
19390 francs, and a one- week motorcy- 
cle rally/camping tour on Crete, for 
around 4,000 francs, gasoline not includ- 

Because the company is healthy finan- 
cially, with a 33 percent debt-to-equity 
ratio, Mr. Maillot said be saw no reason 
to take it public, although he said some 
of its subsidiaries, such as Corsair, the 
Paladien hotel chain or the Pops Car 
auto rental business, could be floated 
within the next two years “to speed up 
their development.' 1 

Mr. Maillot owns 25 percent of the 
Nouvelles Frontieres holding company, 
with the rest held by company officers, 
several of which have been with the com- 
pany almost since its founding. 

Recalling his radical days, Mr. Maillot 
said he saw no contradiction between bis 
social activism in 1968 and his capitalis- 
tic success. “Tve always been a believer 
in liberalism in economic matters, and 
I’ve been on the left in the social do- 
main," he said. “But you can’t make 
social gains on credit. You need to make 
a profiL” 

Investor’s Europe 





FTSE IK) Index 



2 ®— 
23 fflV— 

• 2100— —41 
2050— r- 


F U A M 

Exchange; \ 

Brasses s 
Frankftfll , 

London ■ . 
London " 
Milan - 




Sources: Rowers, 


AEX 399.12 

Stock tmtex . 7,41079 

DAX ; 2,128.79 

FAZ 301X52 

HEX 1311-13 

Bnancia) Tanes 30 2A0&4Q 


General index 


Stock Index 










" fc 'F M A M J J 
: 1993 

• Pfev. % 

Close Change 

393.61 +1.40 

. 7,387.31 +0.40 

2.Q9&19 +1.46 

795.05 ' +0.69 

1,784.89 +1.48 

2,40700 -0-02 

3,082.00 +0.30 

304.95 +033 

1,113-00 +2.25 

2.025.13 +1.34 

1,866.71 +0.46 

452.38 +0.62 

692.% +0.85 

loJcRUlinul HcraM Tribute 

Very briefly; 

• British Aerospace PLC agreed to sell its space systems business 
to Matra Marconi Space NV, a venture between Matra-Hacbette 
and Genera] Electric Co. of Britain for £56 million (S87 million). 

• Nestte SA, said sales in the six months to June totaled 27.3 billion 
Swiss francs (S21 billion), down from 27,5 billion a year earlier. 

• Grand Metropolitan PLC said its U.S. unit Pillsbury Co. intended 
to buy Martha White, a branded baking mix business in Tennessee. 

• General Motors Corpus Adam Opel AG said unit sales outside 
Europe more than tripled in the first six months, to 50,073. from 
16,066 a year earlier, as sales in Latin America rose sharply. 

• Bic Multinational, the French maker of disposable razors and 
pens, said first-half sales rose 8 percent, to 3.32 billion French franc 
(5615 miDiofl), from 3.08 billion in the same period last year. 

• Semens AG, will obtain about half of a 1 billion Deutsche mark 
(S657 million) contract to build a power station in Kazakhstan. 

• Fininvest SpA, the Italian entertainment and retailing company 
owned by Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi of Italy, said it earned 
32.9 billion lire ($21 million) in 1993, up from 4.9 billion in 1992. 

Bloomberg. A FX. AFf 

EU Concedes Aid to Wheat and Dairy Farmers MINING: Canadian Diamond Prospect Puts Sparkle Into RTZ’s Outlook 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

BRUSSELS — European Union farm 
ministers broke a six-month deadlock over 
farm prices and mfBr quotas an Tuesday, 
with EU officials pled g in g over $450 mil- 
lion in farm aid over the next 12 months. 

The breakthrough was made after the 
European Commission conceded some aid 
for northern French producers of durum 
wheat, which is used to make pasta, and 
Germany moderated its own demands af- 

ter taking over the rotating iiU presidency 
on July I. . 

.“Durum was a particularly difficult 
question,” the German farm minister, Jo- 
chen Borcbert, said after a 10-hour negoti- 
ating session. 

France won the right to grow an extra 
50,000 hectares (125,000 acres) of hard 
wheat outside its traditional areas fra* such 
crops, to be subsidized by the EU. Agricul- 
ture Minister Jean Puech of France had 
been pushing far rights to grow four times 

as much. Spain. Portugal and Italy also 
had their hard- wheat quotas increased. 

The European Commission also agreed 
not to reduce milk quotas over the next 
two seasons, and it pledged to limit to 3 
percent any fall in guaranteed butter prices 
through 1&5. It had initially proposed a 5 
percent reduction. 

The annual EU fans price talks, which 
began in February, have a history of stretch- 
ing out over many months. 

(Reuters, AFX) 

Continued fr om Page II 

on investing in the former Sovi- 
et Union. Mr. Wilson flatly in- 
sisted it would be “daft” to in- 
vest in existing mines there, 
citing a lethal combination of 
environmental problems and 
immense overstaffing. RTZ, he 
said, was evaluating 

identified but untapped depos- 
its that lack the heavy baggage 
of existing operations. 

Most controversially, that 
conservatism even extends to 
RTZ’s approach to the futures 
markets: It avoids them. While 
many American copper compa- 
nies, for instance, seized on a 
rise in copper prices that began 
in November by taking out op- 
tions that guaranteed them at 
least a certain minimum price 
for their product, RTZ de- 
murred. As 1994 progressed 
and copper prices continued to 

rise, that seemed like a prescient 
strategy. It was not. It was a 
matter long-held policy. 

“Whenever you hedge, it 
costs you something, and the 
more sophisticated the hedge, 
the more it costs,” said Phillip 
Crowson, RTZ’s chief econo- 

RTZ’s view, in essence, is 
that the best defease against the 
risk of low commodity prices is 
a good offense — driving costs 

ever lower. To do that the com- 
pany consistently invests 5500 
milli on a year, even during the 
down part of its business cycle, 
to upgrade its operations. 

See our 

Business Menage Center 

every Wednesday 


TlMSdtty*s dosing 

Tabtes include the nationwide prices up to 
the dosing on Walt Street and do not reflect . 
late trades elsewhera. Via The Associated Press 



TELECOM: Li Defies Caution Signals 

Continued from Page 11 
Sawtell an analyst with War- 
burg Securities in London. On 
that basis, he insists that Brit- 
ain’s two largest cellular-phone 
companies, Vodafone Group 
PLC and Cellnet Ltd., still hold 
the winning cards. 

By the end of next year. Or- 
ange expects to have expanded 
its network of base-station 
transmitters to the point where 
the system will be available to 
95 percent of the nation’s popu- 
lation. Also by then, many peo- 
ple say, the price of digital 
handsets probably wfll have 
come down at least 50 percent. 

The problem is that, by that 
time, with all four cellular oper- 
ators offering roughly similar 
coverage and service, analysts 
suggest the battle win depend 
on the price of the service. 

One of the attractions of the 
British cellular market thus far 
has been its profit margins. Ste- 
fan Herz, an analyst with Smith 
New Court, estimates that Vo- 
dafone and Cellnet, which until 
this year had the market all to 
themselves, have had operating 
mar gins of more than 45 per- 
cent. With four players plying 

the market, he says, “it is a 
completely different ball 

The two new market players 
— Orange and Mercury One- 
to-One, a unit of Cable & Wire- 
less PLC — initially have done 
what upstarts do everywhere. 
They have aggressively under- 
cut the market leaders' prices to 
win market share. In Orange’s 
case, its tariffs are roughly one- 
third below those of the market 

But in a battle that analysts 
say may ultimately hinge on 
price. Orange and Mercury face 
a serious handicap. Their digi- 
tal networks use a new, high 
broadcast frequency called 
PCN, while the competition 
uses the older and more popular 
GSM frequency. PCN systems 
are more expensive to buDd be- 
cause they need more base star 
tions to cover the same geo- 
graphic area as GSM systems. 

Evan Miller, an analyst for 
Lehman Brothers, estimated 
the cost difference at £300 mil- 
lion. What is more, because the 
PCN system is not nearly as 
widely used around the world, 
handsets geared to that system 
are not expected to fall in price 

as quickly as the more popular 
GSM handsets. 

The great hope for Orange is 
that demand for mobile phones 
will grow rapidly enough to 
keep the cash registers hum- 
ming at all four phone compa- 

“Hutchison will be keen to 
hold their prices,” Warburg’s 
Mr. Sawtell said. “They are 
keen not to have a big blade 
bole in their U.K. operations.” 

With 2.3 million mobile 
phones in use in Britain now, 
and with the total widely ex- 
pected to swell to 10 million by 
the end of the century, analysts 
said Hutchison’s gamble could 
wdl pay off. That kind of 
growth, they contended, could 
allow all four companies to 
keep a steady course and avoid 
a potentially ruinous price war. 

At present, though, that re- 
mains a large question mark. In 
both Hong Kong and London, 
many analysts still wonder 
whether Mr. Li is willing to play 
out such a massive long-term 
gamble. They suggest he may 
move to sell all or part of hjs 
stake in Change in spite of his 
frequent denials of any such in- 

EU Telecom 



The Associated Press 

— The European Parlia- 
ment on Tuesday rejected a 
European Union proposal 
to deregulate Europe's tele- 
communications industry 
and open it up to outside 
competition by 1998. 

Using new powers 
sained under the new 
Maastricht Treaty, the Par- 
liament rejected a so-called 
Open Network Provision to 
open telephone calls to 
greater competition, as 
agreed by the 12 EU coun- 
tries last year. 

The Parliament objected 
to the fact that EU coun- 
tries refused to give the leg- 
islature a role in the work 
of a “management commit- 
tee” that will make a num- 
ber of follow-up proposals 
to implement the law. 

The vote means the EU 
will have to review its tele- 
communications strategy. 


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• * y jsLa)& 

Page 14 



Or> t 

Page 15 

Acer Returns 


In U.S., Europe 

Bbombcrg Businas News 

TABPH — Acer Inc. said 
Tuesday its provisional firet-half 
prefit triplol, to a record 135 
billion Taiwan dollars ($51 mil- 
lion). and analysts said the per- 
sonal-computer maker was tike- 
hr to raise its fuB-year profit 
forecast for a second rimt» 

Tbe results; which the com- 
pany attributed to increased 
sales and a return to profitabili- 
ty in its European and TJ.S. op- 
erations, were termed “very im- 
pressive” by Ben Chen, of 
the Taipei office of Barclays de 

The U.S. and European units 
had losses of $13 million in 
1993, Stan Sbih, Acer's chair- 
man, said. 

Sales rose 82 percent in the 
first half, to 13.6 billion dollars, 
the company said. While Acer's 
profit figures include earnings 
from its subsidiaries, its sales 
numbers do noL - 

Mr. Sbih said only that Acer 
expected to “smoothly reach 
the current fuB-year cermrtg e 
^target of 2.4 billion dollars, in 
part because of an expected 50 
percent rise in shipments of 
desktop computers and a dou- 
bting of deliveries of notebook 
computers in the second half. 

But analysts said the fore- 
cast, which was raised from 13 
bfltion dollars in May, might 
well be raised again. Acer had 
profit of 1.1 billion dollars for 
ati of 1993, a record year for 

Taiwan’s largest computer 


Jon Ross, chief of HG Aria 
Securities in Taipei, predicted 
Acer’s 1994 net earning s would 
reach 2.7 billion dollars. Acer’s 
shares frill to 98 dollars on the 
Taipei stock market Mr. Ross 

Said the warnings ann ounce- 
ment, which came after the 
market dosed, was “within ex- 

Mr. Gten said results were 
helped by steady prices for 
memory chips made at Acer’s 
58 percent-owned subsidiary, 
Texas btstruments-Acer Inc. 
Acer: did not say how much 
profit the venture had contrib- 
uted. Texas Instruments- Acer 
accounted for more than half of 
Acer’s fust-quarter profit erf 
about 500 million dollars. 

.Texas Insirumenl-Acer is 26 
percent-owned fry Texas Instru- 
ments Inc. and 16 percent by 
China Development Corp., a 
Taiwan investment firm. 

■ Japan Hans Grip Project 

Japan hopes to launch an in- 
ternational project, to develop 
large silicon wafers. The Asso- 
ciated Press reported from To- 
kyo, quoting Japanese officials. 

The officials, who said the 
project could improve effiaency 
m conqxiter-chip production by 
a factor of five, said the Ministry 
of International Trade and In- 
dustry would seek to begin the 
seven-year, 18 fcaDkm yen ($183 
millioa) project in March. 

India’s New Woe: Wealth 

Foreign Capital Fuels Inflation Fears 


NEW DELHI — Money brings problems. 
That is a lesson -that chronically poor India is 
beginning to learn as its cash reserves sudden- 
ly pile up. 

Three years ago, the country's treasury had 
just enough foreign-currency reserves to pay 
for two weeks’ supplies of petroleum and 
cooking oil Facing bankruptcy. India over- 
hauled its' economy. 

Now, its bank account is overflowing, 
than ks to Success in attracting foreign inves- 
tors. Reserves are $16 billion, their highest 
level ever. Economists predict they may reach 
$24 frflHon by tbe end of the year. 

Bui f inancial managers are worried that too 
much money will prompt inflation, now run- 
ning at over 10 percent annually, to soar out 
' of control 

The reason is that India’s government is 
committed to baying all the foreign money 
that is flowing in, forcing it to prim more erf 
Us own currency, with no backing by gold 

Meanwhile, imports are stagnant because 
industry is not growing fast, and there are few 
domestic buyers for foreign currrencdes, even 
'though the units are off on bow much money 
business executives and tourists can buy for 
traveling abroad. 

The problems of the wealthy — in a coun- 
try whore half the population still is too poor 
to eat property — is just one of tbe paradoxes 
created by the three-year-old reforms that 
have swept away government controls to 
make industry more competitive. 

It is not just that too much money is flow- 
ing in, say observers. Rather, it is the wrong 
kind of money. The government had hoped 
that when it ended its monopolies on heavy 
industries and opened them to foreign invest- 
ment, outside money would finance new 
dams, cal refineries, and steel plants. 

“But foreign direct investment in the core 
sector is just a trickle,” said N. Qvandramo- 
han, an editor with Business India, a leading 
fortnightly. “If the pie chart does not change 

in two years, then I will say that tbe reforms 
are not working.” 

Of the $4.7 billion that poured into India 
since the beginning of 199 3. only $600 million 
was direct investment. The rest went into 

Of the little money that did go into indus- 
try, nearly all of it was directed toward quick- 
return businesses such as food processing, 
textiles and services. 

The World Bank, which has lent India $1-3 
billion over the past three years, has criticized 

Foreign-currency reserves 
are a record $16 billion. 

_ enough on 
iucation and allevi- 

tbe government for not 
building roads, primary i 
a ting poverty. 

At the same time, it has attacked the gov- 
ernment for overspending and building a 
budget deficit of 73 percent of gross domestic 
product “The central government deficit 
could endanger India’s economic prospects,” 
the Bank warned in a recent report 

■ Petrochemical Firm Hans Equity Issue 

India’s largest state-run petrochemicals 
company, hoping to ride a global upturn in 
petrochemical prices, has revived a plan to 
tap offshore funds with a $100 milli on Euro- 
issue of equity, Reuters reported from Baro- 

da | India 

K.G. Raman a than, chairman of Indian 
Petrochemicals Corp_ said the company had 
already applied to the Indian government for 
permission. He said Goldman, Sachs & Co. 
would be tbe leading underwriter of the issue, 
which is expected to hit the market some time 
later this year. 

Last year, Indian Petrochemicals became 
the first state-run company to plan an off- 
shore equity issue, but it was forced to shelve 
it after its domestic shares dropped. 

Taiwan’s Engineers Coming Home to Roost 

By Edward A. Gargan . 

Nw Ytrk Tima Service 

HSINCHU, Taiwan — By 
nost measures, Wu Tao-yuan 
had it made. As head erf a re- 
search and development lab for 
international Business Machjens 
2orp. in Saloon Valley, he whs at 
he peak of his profession. 

But still, he was itchy. *Td 
jeen al IBM long enough,” said 
V4r. Wu. who holds a doctorate 
a electrical engineering from 
Stanford University. “I saw 
hat my future was hmited there 
because of the nature of the 
jeast. Taiwan presented a much 
greater opportunity!" or me.” 

It was to here that Mr. Wu 
ind hundreds of other Amen- 
San-educated Taiwan engineers 
;amc, to the higMechnoLogy 
»mpanies grouped in an indos- 
rial park and processing zone 
seated by the Taiwan goveoir 
sent 15 years ago to cnccrarage 
he growth of applied science 
ind technology. . 

After a slow and hesitant 
lart, tbe Science-Based Indus- 
rial Park, home to 150 higb- 
echnology businesses, generat- 
'd nearly $5 b3tion in sales last 
rear, propelling Taiwtm into 
he ranks erf major high-tech 
xmntries. Taiwan, for example, 
las about half the world market 
n scanners and monitors, 
ibout 30 percent of the market 
n network cards and terminals, 
md about 10 percent of the 
xrsonal computer market 

The park is also changing the 
rind or goods Taiwan makes. In 
he last decade; much of the 
abor-in tensive, low-tech indus- 
rics such as clothing, shoe and 
oy manufacturing that spurred 
fai wan’s economic growth 
lave been displaced by higb- 
ech industries, which make up 

tkm of integrated circuits, spe- 
cialized telecommunications 
equipment, optical-electronics 
and, less successfully, a handful 

of biotechnology companies. 

While the companies here are 
privately owned and managed, 
Taiwan ’,s National Science 
Council has poured hundreds 
of nrinkms of dollars into the 
park to buy l™d r erect build- 

scan and edit color photographs 
and transparencies. 

Mr. Wu said his company’s 
success had been enhanced by 
conditions in the park. “We en- 
joy alt kinds of benefits,” he 
said. “The customs service is 
here to simplify imports and 
exports. We enjoy a five-year 
tax holiday. All the banks are 
here. The skill pool is here. 

After a slow and hesitant start, Taiwan’s 
Science-Based Industrial Park, home to 150 
high-technology businesses, generated 
neady $51)iRu)ii in sales last year. - 

t country’s exports. 

“I think the park is very im- 
rtant for Taiwan, especially 

it of the Taiwan Institute erf 
anomic Research, a griva te 
eaxch and consulting ram. 
It took five or six years real- 
Lo see a response. But then it 
rted to demonstrate good 

rhe idea for this park -- 
rot l ,000 acres of sflicon aup 
tones, computer ana tete- 

nmunications mannfactnr- 

o research labs, office bmld- 
s, schools and restaurants — 
?mg from the early successes 
Silicon Valley, the swath ci 

muter industries max s 
th from Blo.Atoajrf 
1 University m the 19 wjs. 
The original thought was 
t since there w ere so many 
wanes® scientists and cngi- 
n in Silicon Valley thati; 
could get some of them to 
ye back and start businesses, 
lt could help us start 
i industry here, said H. 


if the science paik and noW- 

rf a doctorate from the Um- 

aty of Wisconsin. 

many for pcAiwal 

law ” he said. “ 

x people got into midffle- 
oSs- So we've fried to re- 
it them to come bere^and 
t high-tech companies. 

mgs and to provide grants for 
research and development. 

“We do not interfere in the 
daily business of the compa- 
nies,” Ml Hsich said. “They 
are on their own. But if the 
company would, tike govern- 
ment equity, the government 
uoD be willmg to chip in. Bui 
actnatiy, - this was significant 
only in the early history of the 
pan. Sentiment has changed, 
and the government role, is di- 

For Mr. Wu, president of 
Umax Data Systems; which de- 
signs and makes higfr-rcsahition 
color scanners, tins chattenge of 
succeeding or fading without 
government intervention helped 
toe him to a company that was 
floundering when he joined it 
three years ago. 

“The company was static,” 
he erolained, “It really needed 
to take off. To grow it, to be- 
come a full-fledged market 
to have a consistent, 
-range strategy, it really 
' someone with some ex- 
perience and seasoning. I 
looked at the management and 
the product and said-tins is the 
place far me.” 

Today, Umax has 11 percent 
of the vrorkTs scanner market, 
trailing only Hewlett-Packard 
Co. which dominates the busi- 
ness with about 30 percent of 
worldwide sales. Tbe ttod-tog- 
est scanner maker, Microtek In- 
ternational, is another company 
based in the science park. Tai- 
wan is the wockTs tagest manu- 
facturer of scanners. 

With a Umax scanner, a user 
can feed up to 25 documents 
into the machine, which will 
yaw each page aim convert it 
into a text-editable file in a vari- 
ety of formats used is popular 

word-processing programs. The 
scanners can also be used to 

There are two very good bilin- 
gual schools, Chinese and Eng- 
lish. All these integrated ser- 
vices and the people resources 
are one of the reasons to be in 
the park.” 

when he arrived in 1991, 
Umax bad annual sales of 
about $10 million. This year, 
Mr. Wu said, sales are expected 
to reach $90 million, up nearly 
50 percent over last year’s reve- 
nue of $62 million. “We’ve 
grown from 70 people in 1991 
to 450 people today," he said. 

Umax’s success is typical of 
most companies in the park, 
said Mr. Hrieh, the paries direc- 
tor, but that success is creating 
tremendous strains on the park. 

“We are now looking at eight 
new companies who want to 
come in,” he said. “But one of 
the most serious stumbling 
blocks is to find land. Land is 
not only a monetary issue but a 
political issue. Land is very 
hard to come by. It used to be a 
million dollars per hectare 
($15,000 per acre). Now, it's 20 

The park has been so success- 
ful that foreign companies have 
set up operations here, malting 
up Beany one quarter of the 
companies in the park. Alto- 
gether there are 30 American 
operations here, inducting sub- 
sidiaries of AT&T Carp, and 
Litton Industries Inc. 

But more than American 
companies, it is the engineers 
trained in the United States that 
have made the park, and Tai- 
wan’s high-tech industries, a suc- 
cess. Fran only a trickle in the 
mid-1980s, the retu rn of gradu- 
ate engineers from American 
universities has increased, with 
851 returning in 1992 and 1,004 
Iasi year, all to create, manage or 
ovssee the technology of the 
park’s companies. Altogether, 

73, or almost half, of all the 
companies here were started by 
Taiwan engineers who returned 
from the united Stales. 

Yau You-wen was one of the 
1,004 who returned home last 
year. “I was at Stanford in ap- 
plied physics.” he said, “and 
went on to Honeywell, and later 
to IBM. What brought me bade 
were the opportunities. The gap 
is disappearing between the 
U-S. and Taiwan.” 

Now, Mr. Yau is tbe director 
of quality and reliability at the 
Taiwan Semiconductor Manu- 
facturing Co n the largest fabri- 
cator of integrated circuits in 

Mr. Yau said the corporate 
culture of Taiwan Semiconduc- 
tor was more American than 
Taiwanese. In part, this is be- 
cause the company has an Amer- 
ican president, Donald W. 
Brooks, and because of the pre- 
dominance of UJSL customers. 
Indeed, the company’s success 
has come not from creating its 

own chips but from building the 
factories and the technology to 
manufacture designs for inte- 
grated circuits created elsewhere, 
usually in the United States. 

“Relatively speaking," Mr. 
Yau said, “the United States 
has companies that do excellent 
design. But they don’t have the 
capital or willingness to invest 
in a fabricating facility. We 
don’t have our own brand- 
name products. We manufac- 
ture them for other designers. 
Taiwan just doesn't have 
enough experience in circuit de- 
sign yet It’s starting to show 
up, but it's slow." 

Last year, Taiwan Semicon- 
ductor had sales of $473 mil- 
lion, with profit of $165 million. 
The importance of American 
chip design companies, many of 
which are in Silicon Valley, was 
demonstrated by the fact that 
61 percent of the company’s to- 
tal revenue was based on sales 
to tbe United States. 


peripheral devices, fahnea- 







.r*i ' . 

12 months 



+ i • 

+ 0.0 


• 524 

- 5 

- 0.3 

Ocher European countries 


. + •4,5 • 

. . - 



+ 28 ■ 

♦ 29 

Other cotffwws 


+ 5' 

+ 12 



+ 4.5 ' 

+ 3.7 

©rape SEB - Service Cammunkstion - B.P. 172 
69138 ECULLY CEDE* - FRANCE - TeL: 133} 78.80. 16.40. 


Sodetrf d’lnvestissemeot a Capital Variable 
Kansallis House 
Place de TEloile 

BJP. 2174 L-1021 LUXEMBOURG 
RC No B 16926 


At the Annual General Meeting held on June 28, 1994, 
it was decided to pay a dividend of USD 0.07 17 cents) 
per share on or after July 27, 1994 to shareholders of 
record on July 5, 1994 and to holders of bearer shares 
upon presentation of coupon no 15. 

Paying Agent: 

43, Boulevard Royal 
L-2449 Luxembourg 

Babcock &Brown 
Leasing Services, Inc. 

is pleased to offer its services in 
structuring and arranging domestic and 
cross-border leases of US-manufactured 
aircraft and orher equipment for use 
outside the United States. 

SI-AlTUr. • SAN * MIXIU » c :i IV 

BHP Plans 
Gas Pipeline 

Agmtx Fmna-Prau 

SYDNEY — Broken Hill 
Proprietary Co. has signed a deal 
to build an international gas 
pipeline as pan of a mayor power 
generation project in Latin 
America; BHP said Tuesday. 

The deal would be the first 
large project to tbe company's 
recently created affiliate BHP 
Power, according to Ted Hodg- 
son. BHFs manager of strategic 

Under the plan, BHP would 
be the lead developer of a 1,100 
kilometer (690-mile) gas pipeline 
running from sou them Bolivia 
to northern Chile, and of related 
power- generation projects. 

“The primary market for the 
gas would be new gas-fired 
power plants which would be 
constructed during the next two 
to five years and connected into 
the northern Chile power grid,” 
BHP said. 

After BHP posted record net 
profits of 13 billion Australian 
dollars (5944 million) for the 
year ended May 31. Managing 
Director John Prescott said the 
company intended to diversify 
into power generation. 

He then said BHP had estab- 
lished a group to hunt down 
opportunities, particularly in 
Asia and South America, where 
high returns were possible. 

BHP, the largest Australian 
company, said BHP Power had 
signed the deal with the state oil 
companies of Bolivia and Chile, 
Yacimientos Petroliferos Fis- 
cales Bolivianos and Empress 
Nacional de Petroleo. 

Mr. Hodgson said BHP hoped 
to develop natural gas sources in 
Bolivia for tbe project 

Hong Kong 



Hang Seng 

Straits Times 

Nikkei 225 


- 350 



Ml • 


21009- • ~ 



230(1 i J 


10030 \ 

an Ar 


19MB r Y 

. . 


v ™ -W-- 

1B000 ; 


M J d 










% ■ 




Hong Kong 

Hang Seng 





Straits Times 





AH Ordinaries 




Tokyo . 

Nikkei 225 

20,775220 20.717.6p 


[ Kuato Lumpur Composite 









Seoul 1 

Composite Stock 





. Weighted Price 








+0.69 1 

.Jakarta - 

Sock index 




New Zealand 






National index 




Sources: Reuters, AFP 

InicmitHiiul Haatd Tritae 

Very briefly: 

• Malaysia’s level of private consumption is rising faster than 
official estimates, threatening to increase inflation, according to 
the Malaysian Institute of Economic Research. 

• APT Satellite Co., a China-led consortium, has been granted a 
license to establish a satellite station in Hong Kong, a government 
spokesman said. 

■ Ptnfipp Hoizmaim AG, the German construction cop any, and 
Lyoonrise des Eaux-Dumez, the French unities concern, are in a 
consortium that has won a 237 million Deutsche mark ($153 
mfllion) contract to the third phase of construction of the 
Xiaolangdi dam in China. 

• Hagemeyer NV, the Dutch marketing, sales and distribution 
company, and the Swiss marketing concern Cosa Ltebennann 
plan a joint venture in Hong Kong. 

Reuters, AFP. AFX 


In re 



Chapter II Case No. 

94 B 40318 et seq. (PBA) 
(Jointly A dminis tered) 



Crystal Apparel. Inc. 

C-ryiLal Brands, Inc. 

Crystal Salts, Inc. 

Gant Corporation 
Crystal Fashion* limited 
Crystal Sportswear. Inc 
Southern Spomwcar. Inc. 

B.W.H.. Inc. 

Eagle Shin mi kerv I m. 

Jane & I jttda Sportswear Company 
Empire Textile Corn. 

Five Star Tmductt, Iik. 

SM R -411319 (PBA) 
&4 B4<i:WCHPBA) 
94 B 411321 (PBA) 
94 B 403‘J2 (I’BA) 
94 B 40323 (PBA) 
94 B 40324 (PBA) 
94 B 403*23 iPBAl 
94 B 1032G i PBA) 
94 B 40327 (PBAI 
94 tt 1032* (PBA) 
91 B 103*29 (PBA) 

PLEASE TAKE NOTICE that on January *21. 1994 (the “lYtiuiin Date'), Crystal Brands. Inc. ("Crystal 
Brands" i. Uin«her with certain uf its wliofly-nwncd direct and indirect dumeuie subsidiaries (collectively, the 
"Debtors"), each liled a voluntary pci it inn under chapter 1 1 nl tide 1 1. 1'niicd States Code (the "Bankruptcy 
tilde") wiifi the I'liitcri States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District uf New Vbrfc (the "Bankruptcy 
Court - *). 

PLEASE TAKE PTKTIIKR NOTICE (Ell tin: Buiikmpitv (jiurt has entered ar. order, dated July II. 
I99J (the "Bar Dale Order"), requiring all perxms nr endues, including, without limitation, individual, 
partnerships, joint ventures, corporations, estates, trusts .out guvernmciiiat units. EXCEPT THOSE 
PERSONS AND ENTITIES SPECIFICALLY DESCRIBED BEIOW. that assert any Claim, as defined bekw, 
against ,im ol the Debum which arose prior in the Hetitiun Dale, to file a written proof nf such claim with the 
Bankniptcv Court on a fiirm which sunsuntiaUy innfurms to the proof of claim liirm (the "Proof uf Claim*) 
that has been approved by the Clerk uf the Bankruptcy Court (the “CJerk") or Official Form N«i. 10. either (i) 
bv mailinf; the original proof of claim in the United Stiles Bankruptcy Court fur the Southern District of New 
York, pu Cr>Ma) Apparel, list . ft ol.. Bowling Crern Siatini). rust t tjfiie Box 47. New York. New York 
10274-HU47 tir tii I w delivering the original pnml uf claim via hand delivery or courier service (hut nuj by 
United States mail) to the ('Jerk of the United States Bankruptcy Court (or the Suiuhcm Disirxi nl New 
York. .Alexander Hamilton Custom House. <hte Bowling Crecti. Filth Fluor. New York, New York HKI04. iji 
either case so that ir is acuiatlv reccivvd at thr .ijipropriate desiinaiimi not later ihan_5:0ti p m (Fusimto 

PavliLdti Savings lime) on Seniemiirr 9, 1994 (i 
" ~ " 1 THEY ARE 



Ftir the purposes uf this Notice, a “Claim" means lA) a righi to payment, whether or not such right is 
reduced to jutlKnicm. liQuidatcd. unliquidated, fixed, cuniiugent. matured, unmatured. disputed, 
undisputed, legal, equitable, secured, or unsecured ur (Bi a right r« an equitable remedy for breach of 
performance if such breach gives rise tua right tu payment, whether or nut such right to an equitable remedy 
is reduced to judgment, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured. disputed, undisputed, secured or 





1. Ant imercumpuny daim hdd bv a Debtur against nn>'4her Ddunr, 

2. Am- iniercnmpanv claim held by a nun-Debtor subsidiary nr affiliate uf any Debtor against any 

3. Any daim that is allowed bv an order of the Court entered on m bekne the Bar Date; 

4. Anv daim arising from the rejection of an cxvcuit in tn unexpired lease pursuant tu an 
order of the Bankruptcy Conn that is issued after the Bar Date: [iimidt-H . however , that the 
holder of such claim shall file a proof nf suih daim on or before the date set forth therefor in the 
order authorising such rejection: 

b. Any equity interest held biy a Debtor in anv other Debtor, and 
6. Any cqunV interest in Crystal Brands. 



PLEASE TAKE FU RTHER NOTICE TH.AT acts «<r umissiuns id the Debnm that occurred uriur tn the 
Pen linn Dale, including any Dchtnr's indemnity agreemenik. inijramm. nr wniic* pruviilea tn «»r_bv a 
Debtor, mav give rise to dainu against such Deltiur notwithstanding the foo that such cLiims (ur the injuries 
on which thes are based) mav be euntinuent «>r mav mil have occurred, matured or beiunte fixed or 

ficpiidatcd prior to such dale. ‘Ihcrvfore, any creditor haring j claim nr potent iJ cLiim aatinu j Debtor. m» 
matter htiw remute or atnlingcni. must file a proof nf claim before 5:00 pan.. F-istem lYntighr Savings Time. 

on September 9, 1994- _ 

PLEAS F. T AKE HURT HER NOTICE THAT each jitml ul claim form filed muvi ovnfiinu suhujnnalK 
to < rffida! Form Nu. 10 ur to (he 1‘rtvtf *>f Claim ftirm approved liv this Court, a topy ol « huh i> on file a't 
the Office «»f the UJcrk *«f the l iiun. Pnarfs of fiiint itiuw lx- filed either (aj by m.uling each Mich pnn>l «<f 
claim to: 

United States Bankruptcy f^iun 
lor iIr- Southern DLMrki uf New Ymk 
c/o CrvMal Apparel, lin.. rj aJ. 

Pc« (Jllice IW« 47 

Bowling Green Smii'ui 

New York, New Ywrk IM271-IHH7 

nr (bt by delivering ytatr M cncd . original unvif nf claim via hand tleliveiv tir loitriei service (bill (hi! by 
United Stain, mail) tii the Offire oft lie C ileri ut'ihe United States Bjtnknipnv (kuin lor the Suit hem llwnci 
ul New York, .\kwnder Hamilton UjMihii House. One Ifowling Green. Filth Hoiir, New York, New A»rk 
IiKF'H. in either ease so m in he RECEIVED at tin* applirahle devrirution WIT LIT EK TH.IN September 9, 
1991, 5:00 pim.. Eaxcnt Dav light Savings TtitK. 

I’LF-VyElAKE FL'KT'HF.R NOTU'.E THAT topics ol die Drliton' Svliedtiies nl Liabilitiec are available 
fin- irnuttiiun al !i) the Dflitr t>f iIh* lli'it iilihr I 'mini Stales Bankrupt! a lawn for the Simlteni Di*arm uf 
New Yirt'K. Mewandcr Hamilnai Custom Hiucse. line Bowiing G roeii. New Ymk, New Voil ItWi. from 
Mtntdav to Tliurviuv betweru the liotirs ol 10:1)0 a.m. and noon and 2:1 il) p.m. ,nni 1;UU and (ii) 
CihuvwI Press. (Taints Apmi. 1 1 East IWitli Street. Fourth Flour. New i ttrk. New Ynrl 1*101G. e.tch weekday 
, llIH 

during regular biisinf«< Iwhitv 
Ihilecl: New A nrk. New Ymk 
July at, mi 

Attorney* for Debtors in Possession 
767 Fifth Avenue 
New York. New York 10153 


Plage 16 


. 6 


Tuesday's 4 p.m. 

THS list compiled by the AP, consists of me 1,000 
most traded securities in terms of dollar value. H is 
updated twice a year. 

llMontti 2s 

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Page 18 



At Alpe d’Huez, Conti Captures the Climber’s Gem Down by 11 Bum 

By Samuel Abt 

international Herald Tribune 

ALPE D’HUEZ, France — 
Roberto Conti, an Italian rider, 
won the jewel of the climbing 
stages in the Tour de France on 
Tuesday and helped shake up 
the overall standings as the bi- 
cycle race completed the first of 
four stages in the Alps, those 
splendors of nature. 

Conti crossed the line an in)' 
pressive 2 minutes 2 seconds 
ahead. That moved him up the 
ranks from 1 lib place to sixth 
and gave him a righ ting chance 
to finish second overall, the 
only big battle left before the 
Tour ends in Paris on Sunday. 

Conti, who rides for the 
Lampre team, was ecstatic 
about his performance. 

“It's a great victory for me, 
the greatest or my career,” he 

Nevertheless, he continued, 
he knows that he is a support 
rider and will return to that 
role, working for the team and 
not himself, in the mountainous 
days to come. 

But he will have something to 
remember when he is following 
his leader's orders. The Alpe 
d’Huez stage, with its long and 
steep rise up 22 switchbacks, 
usually attracts an enormous 
number of spectators, perhaps a 
quarter of a million, and is the 
day all climbers spend the win- 
ter dreaming about. 

His strategy was simple. Con- 
ti slipped into an early 14-man 
breakaway that built a lead of 
more than 8 min utes over two 
mountains rated second catego- 
ry, in an ascending scale of four 
to one in difficulty. 

Then, out of the low clouds 
that shrouded the Alps on Tues- 
day as the weather finally 
turned cool there stood Alpe 
d'Huez, rated beyond category. 
On the many twists of the 13,8- 

kilometer (8.5-mile) climb, 
Conti disposed of his compan- 

In second place was Heman 
Buenahora, a Colombian with 
Relate. Third, 3:49 behind the 
winner, was Udo Bolls, a Ger- 
man with Telekom, in the same 
time as Alberto Elli, an Italian 
with GB-MG, who was fourth. 

Despite the turn in the 
weather, attrition continued to 
be a factor. Of the 189 riders 
who started the Tour on July 2, 
just 128 remain. Seven more 
dropped out Tuesday, victims 

The Alpe d’Huez 
stage is the day all 
climbers spend 
the winter dreaming 

of fatigue brought on by a heal 
wave and the race’s rapid pace. 

Conti was timed in 6 hours 6 
minutes 45 seconds, an hourly 
average of 36.7 kilometers over 
the 224.5 kilometers from Val- 
rtas in the flatlands to Alpe 
d'Huez in the stratosphere. 

On the way there, Miguel In- 
durain, the Spaniard who rides 
for Banesto and is salting away 
his fourth successive victory in 
the Tour, lost 35 seconds of his 
huge lead. It is now down to 
7:21 over Richard Virenque, a 
Frenchman with Festina. He 
came in 11th on Tuesday, and 
Indurain was 12th. 

The Spaniard looked strong 
and untroubled coming up to 
the 1860-meter-high peak. On a 
speedy descent Monday, he 
nearly went over the edge of a 
mountain when his brakes 
locked and his front wheel skid- 
ded, so the loss of 35 seconds 
had to be taken in perspective. 

Beside Conti, the day’s gain- 
ers included Luc Leblanc, an- 
other Frenchman with Festina, 
who rose from fourth place to 
third; Marco Pantani, an Ital- 
ian with Carrera, who rose from 
sixth place to fifth, and Elli, 
who rose from 13th place to ' 

Those on the down staircase 
included Armand De Las Cue- 
vas, a Frenchman with Caszor- 
ama, who fell from third place 
to fourth; Vladimir Poulmkov, 
a Ukrainian with Carrera, who 
fell from fifth place to seventh, 
and Abraham Olano, a Span- 
iard with Mapei-Qas, who fell 
from 10th place to 16th. 

The main losers on the day, 
however, may have been the 
Dutch fans of professional bi- 
cycle racing. They usually flock 
to Alpe d’Huez, camping over- 
night: in its meadows, for a 
chance to cheer on their coun- 
trymen. And Dutch climbers 
have often responded with vic- 

Not lately, though, and sure- 
ly not Tuesday. Enk Breukink, 
who rides for ONCE, was the 
first Dutchman to cross the 
hue, in 47th place, 13:44 behind 

Since that placing was not 
unexpected and since two of the 
few other Dutch climbers of 
note, Steven Rooks and Gert- 
Jan Theunisse, both of the 
TVM team, dropped out in the 
Pyrenees, many Dutch fans 
went elsewhere for their sum- 
mer vacations. 

The long road up to Alpe 
d'Huez was strangely devoid of 
the red, white and blue bands of 
the Dutch flag and the encour- 
aging cry of “Hup, hup” was 
rarely heard. On the other hand, 
for once there were few rowdies 
in the crowd and the riders had 
a dear passage to the finish. I 

To Beat Cardinals 

TheAsKdoUd Press 

The Houston Astros are 
proving (here’s rib such thing as 
. a -safe lead .or an insurmount- 
able deficit 

Trailing 1 1-0 after three in- 
nings, the Astros polled off a 
recckri-tyiag comeback Mon- 
daynight to defeat the SL Lotus 
Cardmak, 15-12, in Houston. 

• “As we kept getting closer, we 
stinted- andfing it,” said Kevin 
Bass*, one oE four Astros to drive 


Eric Oattml/ Ream 

It was a day of celebration for Roberto Conti of Italy, who moved up to sixth place- * 

in- two runs during, ah.-ll-nm 
sixth irimiig . “After we made it 
LI-7, we/dtprctty .good because 
we bad- thFdr inmngs left mid 
were within a grand slain. It just 
snowballed from there.” 

Houston matched the biggest 
comeback in National League 
history just three day s after 
. blowing an 8-0 .lead m. Pitts- 
burgh, in an ll-r8 loss. 

Bass, Andujar Ccdeno.hfikc 
Felder 'and ifen riaiwnitf each 

drove in two' runs in the sixth 
when Houston went ahead, 15- 

The Philadelphia Phillies 
overcame a 12-1 .deficit to beat 
Chicago, 18-16. on April 17, 
1976, and the Cardinals rallied 
from an 1 1-0 deficit to beat New 
York, 14-12, on June 15, 1952. 

The major-league record for 
the [biggest comeback is 12 runs, 
done twice m the American 
Leagues The Philadelphia Ath- 
letics rallied from 14-2 behind to 
_ beat QeveSand,. 17-15, onJune 
IS, 1925, and'Drtrattcaare back 
from 13-1 to defeat Chicago, 16- 
15, on June 18, 1911. 

Players and Owners 
Each Snub Proposals 

White Sox Win in 13th to Move Atop AL 

By Richard Justice 

Washington Post Service 

NEW YORK — Baseball’s players and owners have reject- 

ed one another’s proposals, keeping the sport on a familiar 
path that seems all but certain to produce a player strike. 

path that seems all but certain to produce a player strike. 

In a four-hour session on Monday, the union chief, Donald 
Fehr, argued that the owners’ salary cap proposal would hurt 
free agency, reduce salaries and lower incentives for industry 

The Associated Press 

The Chicago White Sox didn't bother 
checking Cecil Fielder’s bat Instead, they 
just waited for Alan Trammell to uncork a 
wild throw. 

Trammell’s error in the 13th inning Mon- 
day njght gave the White Sox a 10-9 victory 


Rangers 6, Imfians 5: Jose Canseco dou- 
bled home the tiebreaking run with two 
outs in the ninth for Texas, handing Cleve- 
land only its fifth loss in its last 29 home 

Albert Belle, suspended Monday for 10 
days for using a corked bat, went l-for-4 
for the Indians. He is appealing the penal- 
ty, and is iust 3-for-le since nis bat was 
confiscated last Friday. 

Mariners 7, Orioles 5: Edgar Martinez 
doubled home two runs in the eighth in- 
ning against visiting Baltimore as Seattle 
ended a five-game losing streak, ‘ 

Ken Griffey Jr. reached base onan error 
by the second baseman, Mark McLemore, 

Indians 9 [Bette 
Suspended for 

Houston’s 11-run inning 
rynii* against four pitchers. 

Giants 7, PMffies 5r In Ph3a- 
delpbia, Barry Bonds hit bis 
fifthbomer in four games and 
Darryl Strawberry delivered, 
another big hit before being in- 
jured as San Francisco won its 
ninth straight. 

The Giants are 9-0 

Strawberry joined item. Herat 

a two-nm- single, in the first, 
then left the gazne.after the top 
of the second with an injured 
left hamstring. ' ; , ■ ; 

Bonds, who has 12 ms 
Last 23 at-bats, went 2-for-4 and 
hit his 28th homer this season 
and the 250th of his career. 

Expos 9, Padres 2s In Mon- 
treal, the Expos beat SanDiego 
for the I Oth straight tune tins 
season. Marquis Grissom had 
two of Montreal’s 15 hits arid 
scored twice for the Expos, who 
have outscored the Padres, ,63- 
17, this season. . 

Eleven hits, three Padres er-J'v 
rots and a 1 balk by Bill Krueger 
enabled the Expos to take an 8- 
1 lead alter four innings. 

Reds 5, Martins 3: Kevin 
Mitchell arid Reggie Sanders hit 
consecutive homers off Charlie 
Hough in the sixth to power 
Czncmnnti past visiting Florida. 

The solo homers broke open 
a tie ggrne and sent Florida to 
its fourth straight loss. 

Braves 3, Pirates 2s In Pitts- 
burgh, Kent Mocker pitched a 
two-hitter for Atlanta, and rook- 
ie MQreKdlyfaft his furtmaj^ 
Jeagoe homo and doubled. 

Mocker shook off the Pi- 
rates* two-nm second inning to 
retire the finaLl 8 batters for his 
fifth victory in six starts. 

Fred McGriff homered again 
in Ettsburgh, just as he did in 
the All-Star game, as the Braves 

fmatfy figured oat how to win at 
Three Rivers Stadium- The 
Braves started the season 1-7 
against die Pirates and were 
swept in a three-game series 
fben an April 29-May 1. 

Cubs 6, Rockies 3: Jim Bul- 
finger pitched a five-hitter and 
drove m three runs for visiting 
Chicago, which snapped Cakh? 
rado’s four-game winning- 

\ Baffinger doubled home two 
runs in the second inning and 
had an RBI angle in the fourth. 
It was his first complete-game 
victory since Aug. 30, 1992 in 
San Francisco, 

and aide second in the eighth. After Jay 
Buhner walked. Martinez doubled off 

"We’re not about to re-invent the wheel here,” Fehr said. 
“That’s not what we’re setting out to do.” 

Said Richard Ravitch, chief negotiator for the owners, "It 
ain’t gonna fly.” 

In essence, the owners want to impose a salary cap — a 
limit on player payrolls — and the players don't. The owners 
have said they are ready to declare an impasse to implement 
their new system in the offseason, and the players have said 
they’ll call a strike this season as a pre-emptive measure. 

The only question seems to be Mien the strike will begin 
and how long it will last. Fehr said a formal strike date will be 
set within the next two weeks, and sources said the uzuon was 
considering everything from Aug. 16 to Sept. 30. 

The players say they’ll go for an earlier date if they believe a 
settlement was possible that would save the playoffs and World 
Series. But if they're convinced the owners are unified and 

determined to get a salary cap, they may wait until the final 
weekend of the regular season. Neither side seemed optimistic 

weekend of the regular season. Neither side sea 
Monday, but informal meetings were set for Wi 

turns tic 

over the Detroit Tigers in a game featuring 
seven home runs at Comiskey Park. 

Frank Thomas hit a grand slam, Julio 
Franco connected twice and Robin Ventu- 
ra also homered for Chicago, which over- 
came a six-run deficit. Fielder homered 
twice for the Tigers and Kirk Gibson also 

The White Sox won for the 15th time in 
18 games, and moved past Oeveiand into 
first place in the AL Central Division. 

Thomas's 34th homer and third career 
slam tied it, 9-9, in the seventh. In the 13th, 
Joey Cora drew a leadoff walk from Storm 
Davis and Tim Raines sacrificed. After 
Thomas was intentionally walked. Franco 
hit a grounder to Fielder at first base. 

Fielder threw to Trammell at second for 
a force-out, but the shortstop's return 
throw sailed over the head of Davis, who 
was covering at first base, and Cora scored. 

Ivan Rodriguez hit a two-run single it i 
the seventh off Jose Mesa as the Rutgers 

the seventh off Jose Mesa as the Rangers 
tied it, 5-5. Jeff Frye doubled with one out 
in the ninth and Canseco doubled off the 
bullpen fence in dead center. 

Angels 13, Red Sox 4: In Anaheim, 
California, J.T. Snow hit a grand slam — 
the first of his career — against Boston and 
the Angels scored nine runs in the first 


Jim Edmonds had an RBI triple and an 
RBI double in the Angels’ biggest inn i n g 
since a nine-run burst on May 8, 1989, at 

Yankees 5, Athletics 3: Danny TartabuU 
it Us 17th home run and New York 

hit his 17th home run and New York 
triumphed in Oakland, California. The 
Yankees have won five straight since the 
AJl-Star break, all on the road. 

TartabuU had three hits and drove in 
two runs. He had a grand slam Sunday in 

Buhner walked, Martinez doubled off 
Marie Eichhnrn. _ 

Blue Jays 7, Twins 4 : Joe Carter Jrititis 
20th homer and drove in four runs: as 
Toronto sent 'Minnesota to its eighth 
straight road loss. 

Carter reached tire 20-homer made for the 
ninth consecutive season. He has 13RBIsiri 
10 games against Minnesota this, season. 
Kirby Puckett fait his 15th homer for the. 
Twins. He leads the American League with 
85 RBIs, one more than Carter. ■ 

Royals 2, Brewers 0: Jose Iind hit his 
first AL home run and a fill-in starter, 

as Kansas?5ty won in Milwaukee. 

Haney was called up from the minors just 
for fire game. He had a 9.70 ERA in five 
starts ra rti qr this reason for the Royals, and 
was brought back enty because Kansas Gty 
was playing its sixth game in five nigfats. 

Haney allowed five hits and struck out 

The Associated Press 

Belle of the Qevdand Indi- 
ans was found gedty of 
corking his bat and sus-. 
pended for TO days after a 
weekend Investigation that 
included a mysterious 
switched bat. . 

American League offi- 
cials X-rayed the hat, then 
sawed it in half before de? 
daring on Monday that the 
bet was “found, to have 
been treated with cork.” 

The All-Star Outfielder 
(repealed. the suspension. 

his hearing 

will be delayed until 
earing before the 

league president; Bobby 
Brown, on July 29. 

Brown, on July 29. 

A team spokesman said 
Belle would make no state- 
ment The bat had mysteri- 
ously disappeared from the 

i' roam at Comiskey 
■ two days after oflf- 

Paric for two days after 
dais had seized it 

Dodgers 7, Mats 6: In New 
York, TimWaflach drove in six 
runs and Eric Karros hit a two- 
out single in the 10th inning for 
Los Angeles. 

With two outs in the 10th, 
Mite Piazza reached base on an 
infield single against Mauro 
Gazzo. Wsutech, who had a 
three-run homer and a three-nm 
double, was intentionally walked 
after the count went to 1-1. 

Kanos then singled to left, 
scoring pinch-runner Delino 



s \ 



*• i-i - if*- . 


Page 19 

For Soccer to Win American Hearts , It Must Create Some Heroes 


-■ 0 - 

■■ i-Cyur 

_ V ta a n pPtopOteg • • Gwyi KMk(K/Ataxc Fnn^fteii 

Roberto Baggio had a wave ami a smile for fans upon returning to Rome on Tuesday, as thousands welcomed home the fourth-place Bulgarians in Sofia. 

Cheers in Brazil and a Few Jeers in Italy I Meola Signs 

Compiled bf Ovr Staff From Dtqxodia 

There were cheers / or the players and 
some jeers for the coach as the Italian 
soccer team returned home Tuesday, addle 
' tens of thousands turned out to welcome 
the Brazilian squad in Recife, Brazfl. 

Some 1 ,000 flag-waving fans greeted the 
' I talians at Leonardo da Vmti airport after 
their flight from Los Angeles. They held up 
; signs that read "still invincible” and 
"thanks anyway” 

• The Brazilians, winners of an unprece- 
dented fourth World Cup title, arrived to a 
red-carpet official weteome and a rapturous 
' reception from millions of ec static fans. 

In a marathon day of celebrations, the 
coastal city of Recife in northeast Pernam- 
. buco state was first to greet the returning 
■ heroes after their 3-2 victory mi penalties 
in the World Cup final Sunday. Thousands 
■‘if people, many waving national flags or 
wearing clothes or hats in the national 
. colors of gjreeh and ydlow; crowded the' ' 
•city streets to cheer the squad in as 18- 
. kilometer (11-mile) victory parade. . 

- In Rome, a group of fans waring ban- 
ners for the Italian dub Lazio and chant- 
ing “Signori” bedded Arrigo Sacchi, the 

coach. In a controversial decision, Sacchi 
did not play Giuseppe Sjgnreri t the Lazio 
striker and league's top scorer, in the finaL 

“They’re ignorant and I’ve had it up 
here to with ignorant people,” Sacchi said. 
“I have no reason to be bitter. Brazil 
played better than we did and so they 
deserved to win die World Cup.” 

The team’s star striker. Roberto Baggio, 
whose missed penally kick sealed Italy’s 
defeat in the first World Cup decided by a 
penalty shoot-out, was one of the few play- 
ers who smiled as he descended from the 
plane. He blew losses to the crowd before 
the police escorted Him away. 

Several players, including the midfield- 
ers Ditto Baggio and Roberto Donadoni, 
still seemed m shock over the loss. 

Donadoni, who frowned most of the 
time and hung his head low, said some fans 
were ungrateful. 

.“We could have been spared/some of 
these remarks," Donadoni said, referring 
to criticism of Sacdri. 

In Sofia, a huge and boisterous crowd 
welcomed the Bulgarian team. 

- A guard of honor greeted the team at the 
airport and a nuhtaxy band played the 

national anthem. President Zhdyu Zhelev 
was on hand, along with Alexander Yor- 

danOV, the chairman of Pa rliam ent 

After the ceremony, the team left in a 
long convoy of cars escorted by motorcycle 
police. Thousands of fans lined the streets 
waving the Bulgarian flag and cheering the 
convoy on its way to the National S tadium 
in central Sofia. (AP, Reuters) 

■ Brazil Tope Final PoD 

Brazil held the top spot in the final 
Sprint Soccer Poll, a weekly ranking of the 
top 10 national teams as voted an by an 
international panel of soccer journalists, 
poll organizers said Tuesday, The Associ- 
ated Press reported. 

Brazil received all SI first-place votes for 
the maximum 510 pants. Italy held sec- 
ond-place with 459 points. The Nether- 
lands placed third with 404 points, fol- 
lowed by Argentina with 352 and 
Germany with 307. 

Sweden was sixth in the poll with 258 
points, while Bulgaria ended up seventh 
with 188. Rounding out the top 10 were 
Romania with 139 points, Belgium with 84 
and Nigeria with 34. 

Meola Signs 
With N.Y. Jets 

The Associated Press 

York — Tony Meola, the 
goalkeeper for the U.S. soc- 
cer team, is now a kicker for 
the New York Jets of the 
National Football League. 

The Jets announced Mon- 
day that they Had signed 
Meola, 25, to a contract at an 
undisclosed amo unt. 

“We gave Tony quite an 
extensive workout late last 
week and were really im- 
pressed by his leg strength 
and accuracy.” said Dick 
Steinbeig, the general man- 
ager for the Jets. 

A national team member 
since 1989, Meola is expect- 
ed to- play in the new US. 
soccer league, set to begin in 
April 1995. That would not 
conflict with the NFL sea- 
son. which ends in January 
with the Super Bowl 

Iraemuknal Herald Tribune 

P ASADENA California — You can’t begin to 
understand how tacky the World Cup is until 
it’s all over. Everyone had gone home but the 
tents were still up, flapping white plastic blotted 
with soot in the cloudy morning, and signs of 
clashing colors and wire fencing and portable 
toilets and cables beading everywhere. 

So the 15th World Cup was over, the champi- 
onship decided in favor of Brazil by penalty 
kicks, which was — 


Nicklaus and Thomsen I ^ 

Tom Watson off 

the Augusta National after 72 even holes and 
ordering them to settle The Masters at the Putt- 
Putt minia ture golf course on Route 17 some- 
where outside the city. 

Mr. Nicklaus will he playing the red ball Mr. 
Watson, , playing the blue bah, will have honors. On 
the first note, the alligator's mouth shall be consid- 
ered out oj bounds. 

Sepp Blatter, the FIFA general secretary who 
is the game’s greatest protector on behalf of the 
international soccer federation, said Monday 
that penalty locks were preferable to playing the 
championship indefinitely until a winning goal is 
produced. “We don’t want to have a ‘sudden 
death,’ ” he said “To play indefinitely in these 
conditions, in this kind erf heat, we might have a 
sudden death on the field.” 

Why not allow more substitutions as the 
match progresses? 

“This is not in the culture of our game, to allow 
more than two substitutions,” he said. “Other- 
wise, we would have two different games.” 

They don’t now? They play 52 matches and 
decide the world champion for the next four 
years like this? 

“/ think I had Jock beat when he came to the 
windmill at 16 needing to make up a skot," said 
Watson, who became The Masters champion with 
an 18-hole score of 25, II -under par. “ The wind- 
mill blades were turning a lot faster than normal — 
surety a lot more quickly than I've ever seen them 
turn — and really it was a tough putt for anyone 
under those circumstances. ” 

“Everybody knows if there’s a weakness in my 
ga me, it's the windmill ” Nicklaus scad. 

FIFA plans a 30-minute, sudden-death extra 
time for the 1998 World Cup in France, but 
Blatter said that if the score was still tied, penalty 
kicks would be used. 

T HE AMERICANS have much bigger issues 
with which to deal. FIFA is making it clear 
that the United States is on its own now as far as 
developing the game The U.S. Soccer Federa- 
tion president, Alan Rothenberg, still has not 
committed to governing the 12-team profession- 
al league, which is to lock off next spring. Fran- 
chises have been awarded to only seven cities: 
Boston; Long Island, New York; East Ruther- 
ford, New Jersey; Washington; Columbus. 
Ohio; Los Angeles, and San Jose, California. The 
league has a TV deal with ABC and ESPN, the 
U.S. World Cup broadcasters, but it doesn’t have 
any of the American players under contract. 
Only the goalkeeper, Tony Meola, has promised 
to remain in the United States next season. 

“Virtually all of the players will either stay or 
come back to play in the MLS next year,” Roth- 
enberg predicted. If that’s the case, then his plan 
must be to take the best American players on 
loan from their foreign clubs in the middle of the 
U.S. season. It’s unimaginable that they would 
be willing to risk their careers when they are most 

marketable in order to play in a league that will 
average 12.000 fans per game and miniscule TV 
ratings in its first year, by Rothenberg’s own 
calculations. Indeed, why should they come back 
when Rothenberg hasn't committed to it? 

In any case, the growth of professional soccer 
in the united States can only be a portion of the 
plan. England, for all the tradition of its famous 
league, wasn’t able to qualify for the 24-team 
World Cup finals. The reason lies in the teaching 
of its children. Young soccer players in England 
are taught to run and to play hard and to win. but 
they are not taught how to play. It’s a worldwide 

“Our technical study group has seen in this 
exciting, attacking style of play promoted by this 
World Cup. that there is a lack of skill and 
technique among the players.” Blatter said. “So 
we are going to go back to all of the associations 
and tell them to attach more emphasis to individ- 
ual skill and technique. It can be done only in the 
beginning, when the players are learning to kick 
the balL It can’t be done later.” 

“1 am sure that the message will be received by 
everybody — especially in the U5.. where the 
game has received the letter of noblesse, or at least 
an appreciation from the public,” Blatter added. 

I N TRUTH, while the World Cup played out 
better in the United Slates than anyone could 
have imagined, the majority of Americans will be 
glad to see it leaving town. They didn't ask for it 
to come here, it was entirely new and foreign, 
and it was shoved down a lot of throats. 

If something is going to be made of this World 
Cup, it will have to start with the people who love 
the game. A lot of the soccer education in Ameri- 
ca comes directly from books and videos, as 
parents and coaches have to learn the game 
before they can teach it to the children. So this is 
a wonderful opportunity. Rather than teach soc- 
cer as a game of rules — of defenders playing 
defense and each player sticking to his assigned 
role — soccer should instead be taught as a game 
of expression and creativity. 

The U.S. federation should create books and 
videos emphasizing the game’s beauty. Use high- 
lights from this World Cup to leach kids the 
bicycle kick almost converted by the American 
Mtucelo Balboa against Colombia. Teach them 
the bead fakes of Rom&rio and the quick, poking 
passes of Roberto Baggio. Teach them to play 
however they wish; don't criticize them for taking 
the sorts of risks that create exponential growth. 

If there is a problem with American soccer at 
the grass-roots level, it's that the rules are taken 
too literally. The ball must be marked exactly 
where the infraction took place and every foul is 
called according to the book. It’s very much a 
repressive game in this country. 

What the game needs in order to achieve self- 
sufficiency is a generation of players who are 
self-sufficient, ll needs its Arnold Palmer, its 
Julius Erving, who plays with the sort of confi- 
dence and imag ination that creates a following. 
If the Americans could find and sculpt that one 
player, then others would be inspired around 
him, and the game would take off. 

The World Cup surely has created a path for 
soccer here. Now the important question is 
where that path leads. Will we see in the next 
generation a fleet of sleek Americans exuding a 
uniquely American creativity — a creativity that 
until now has been left to basketball — or will 
the coming generation of World Cup boomers be 
taught to prevent goals, not score them? 

The latter is the safer, easier route for Ameri- 
can soccer. The former is its only hope. 

U.S., Spain 
Tennis Cup 

The Asaoctmed Press 

and the United States, the 
top two seeds, moved into 
the second round of the 
Federation Cop by sweep- 
ing both singles matches 

Spain routed Ghfle with 
Concbita Martinez defeat- 
ing Akgsndra Quezada, 6-1, 
6-0, and Arantxa S&nchez 
Vicario beating Paula Cabe- 
zas with identical scores. 

But the competition be- 
tween the United States 
. and the Czech Republic 
v 5!was tougher. 

Mary Joe Fernandez 
needed more than an hour 
and 10 minutes to defeat 
her Czech opponent, Petra 
Langrova, 6-2, 6-4, and 
Lindsay Davenport lost her 
first set to Ludmila Rich- 
terova, 4-6, before bounc- 
ing back to win, 6-1, 6-4. 

Spain will play Argentina 
in tbs second round and the 
United States vwB meet Can- 
ada, which beat Swit z e r l and . 

Rene Simpson-Alter of 
Canada beat Geraldine 
Dandit, 6-0, 6^2, and her 
teammate, Patricia Hy, de- 
feated Emanuela Zardo, 6- 
3, 6-4. _ 

Italy also moved into the 
second round with two vic- 
tories ova* Denmark. 

Katerina Maleeva of 
Bulgaria beat Nadia Erce- 
govic of Croatia, 6-0, 6-3, 
but her sister, Magdalena 
Maleeva, lost to Ivh Majaa, 
6-3, 4-6* 4-6, tying the com- 
petition at one victory each. 

Brazil May Be Home, but Europe’s Where Money Is 

By Christopher Oarey 

New York Tima Semite 

PASADENA California — When the 
last Brazilian to win the World. 
Cup returned to Brazil from Mexico in 
the ■awnmer of 1970, they were unques- 
tionably going borne. 

Pete, Rivefino, the playmaker Gerson 
and all the other stars woe bom in 
Brazil, raised in Brazil and earned their 
livings in Brazil playing for their na- 
tion’s top dribs. 

Twenty-four years later, that is no 

longer the case. 

Make no mistake. Rrimario, Bebeto* 
Dunga and the other members of this 
championship team are as Brasilian as 
their beloved predecessors. Bat most of 
the players trim embarked Tuesday on a 
victory tour of thesr sprawling, diverse 
nation will soon be boarding planes 
headed for another continent: Europe. 

Eight erf the 11 men who started 
against Italy, including all of Brazil's 
mam attractions, start for European 
dubs. RomArio, Bebeto and Macro Sflva 
play in Spain; Jorginho and Dunga play 

in Germany; goalkeeper G audio Taffarel 
played far Reggiana in Italy last season 
and is Kkriy to jean another European 
.dub in the weeks to come: 

South America might have won om on 
Sunday, but it is Europe where the most 
competitive soccer is played; Europe 
where the highest salaries are paid and 
Europe where the tactical trends are es- 
tablished that shape the game at the 
World Cup level 

In recent years, many Brazilians 
reached the cohdnsion that all this Eu- 
ropean influence, with its emphasis on 
defense, was negative for their national 
team, that it inevitably nibbled away at 
the imagination of their European- 
based stars and robbed the ride of its 
singular, attacking style. 

But this year’s team, under its often- 
. beleaguered coach, Carlos Alberto Par- 
rma, managed to bridge the cultural 
divide: marrying world-class -defense 
with the virtuosity of Bebeto and Ro- 
m&rio up-front What it lacked was a 
playmaker, winch explains why the 
world’s best striker combination came 

up with only one goal in Brazil’s last two 

“The best lesson to take from this 
World Cup is that you need organiza- 
tion, on and off the odd,” Paneira said. 

Br azil, to the occasional consternation 
of Pete and its CamavaMoving fans, was 
organized. But it is doubtful that Brazil's 
success will reshape soccer worldwide. 
Though they were superb and entertain- 
ing technicians, there was little novel in 
their approach or scheme. 

“I thmk Brazil once again will create 
something of a trend with their flair, 
skills and running with the ball, which is 
great because we all love to watch that 
land of individual play,” said Andy 
Roxborough, the t e c hni cal director of 
the Union of European Football Associ- 
ations and a member of FIFA's techni- 
cal study group. 

“But I personally dunk that tea m s 
KVc Italy and Sweden will have more 
influence on the approach to the game.” 

What Italy and Sweden represent is 
what AC Mnan represents: a movement 
away from the German model, with its 

sweeper and man-to-man g u a rdin g, to- 
ward a reliance on flat back lines, zone 
defenses and constant movement for- 
ward to reduce the opponent’s room to 

Brazfl embraced this philosophy dur- 
ing qualifying, but in the knockout 
round in the United States, Parreira of- 
ten used five defenders, pushing mid- 
fielder Mauro Silva back into a central 
defender’s or quasi-sweeper’s role. 

“They must have adapted because of 
personnel and tactical considerations,” 
Roxborough said. “I have to give Carlos 
great credit for bang brave enough to 
make such decisions. I talked to him last 
year, and be told me that he was dying to 
bring bade the traditional Brazilian style, 
but the problem was dying to strike a 

The history books will show that Par- 
reira and his players succeeded where 
more flamboyant and fractious Brazil- 
ian sides had failed. They did it with 
discipline, camaraderie and flashes of 
genius from Bebeto and, above all, Ro- 
mirio, who scored five goals. 

For 9 98, FIFA Plans 
Sudden-Death Format 

The Associated Press 

PASADENA California — The World Cup win have a 
sudden-death overtime format by the next edition, in 1998, 
but it could still end in a shootout, soccer officials said. 

After penalty kicks derided the World Cup for t he fir st 
rime on Sunday, Sepp Blatter, general secretary of FIFA 
world soccer's governing body, said changes would be made 
to the overtime system before the 1998 World Cup in France. 

He said Brazil’s 3-2 victory over Italy in a penalty shootout 
after the iMms had played 120 minutes to a 0-0 tie had left a 
hollow feeling among players, coaches and officials and that 
something must be done. 

“We are not happy and the teams are not happy to go to 
penalty kicks, but we have to have a winner," Blatter said. 

Blatter said FIFA would study various alternatives and 
have a new system in place by 1998. He said the replacement 
probably would be modeled on the “Golden Goal.” FIFA’s 
version of the sudden-death overtimes of football and hockey. 

FIFA implemented sbootouts when it went to knockout 
rules in the later rounds of the cup in 1986. While the shootout 
has derided several quarterfinal and semifinal matches since 
then, it never before had derided the champion. 

Pete Sampras, the 
world’s top-ranked man, 
has withdrawn from th® 
^Washington D.C. Tennis 
j Classic because of tendom- 
tis in his ankle, an imury be 
sustained at Wimbledon 
and aggravated last week- 
end dunng a Davis Cup tie. 

Sampras split his Davis 
Cup singles matches m the 
Netherlands last weekend 
in the United States’ 3-2 
victory, losing on ^Sunday 
to Richard Krajicek. 


Bangers File Suit Against Keenan 

NEW YORK (AP) — The New York Rangers are suing their 
coach, Mike Keenan, for breach of contract after he signed a five- 
year contract with the Sl Louis Blues. 

The suit, filed Tuesday in a New York federal court, seeks to 
force Keenan to fulfill his contract, with four years left on it, with 
the Rangers, aud io outlaw any deal with another club. It also 
seeks unspecified monetary damages. 

K*«ibti was in SL Louis on Monday, defending his move. 

English Team Seeks Deal 'With Lalas 

LONDON (Renters) — Atari Lalas, the US. World Cup team 
defender, is considering a £500,000 ($782,000) move to Coventry, 
which plays in England’s Premier League. 

The team’s manag er, Phil Neal, and chairman, Bryan Richard- 
son, met Trrfas in Los Angeles last weekend and said they hope to 
finalize a deal soon. 

Promoter King Shrugs Off Charges 

■ LOS ANGELES (Reuters) —Boring promoter Don King said 
Monday that his recent indictment on charges that he schemed lo 


Major League Standings 






New York 





















41 50 

CMtnd Dlvliioa 











Kansas atv 











42 58 
























file false insurance claims proves how good I really am. 

The promoter was indicted Thursday by a New York federal 
jury on nine counts of wire fraud in connection with a cancelled 
1991 fight between Julio C6sar Chavez and Harold Brazier. King, 
62, faces a possible maximum sentence of five years in prison and 
a $250,000 fine on each of the counts. 

*T am completely innocent,” King said at a news conference. 
Tve been under mdtetment all my life, brother. This is what 
demonstrates bow good 1 really amf” 

For the Record 

GadD BndnraM, the farmer Stuttgart defender, has joined the 
Urawa Red Diamonds of Japanese soccer’s Jt-League. (AFP) 
Oinnpimae MarseOe has signed Tony Cascanno, a forward with 
Irt&s World Cup team, toatwo-yew contract Cascarino played 
two seasons for Chelsea in Eagtanff s ftonier league. (AP) 




















New York 






42 51 













2 ft 






SL Louis 






39 52 




Lae Angel is 










SoaPnaKtaeo 44 




Son Dieao 





Monday's Lfrra Scores 


Knar me im *w— 2 t 9 

MBwnMmfl m M NM T t 

Money. Belinda 18). Montgomery TO and 
Mn cfar to; Miranda. Llovd IB. lgnastt 
A). Oran m aid Mathenv.W- Haley, M 
L— Miranda VI Sv— Montgomery (ID. 
hr— K not atv. Lind (ll. 

Mi «» o in bob an dm t ■ 

ToraoKl MB M2 MW— 7 U • 

Guordodo. Camoeen (51. SeftuHstnmi (61 
ondWalbec*; A. Letter. W. Williams (7). Hall 
TO and Knurr. W— A. Letter. 4-1 L— Guar- 
dado. 0-2. Sv— Hall mo). HRs— Toronto, Carter 
(29). Mkmola Puckett (T5). 

Terns HO 080 211-4 TS 1 

C ta rrt OBd OH 208 DM— 3 18 • 

Leary, Bahama Id). Oliver (7). Henke 1*1 
ad L Rodriguez; GrUnsiev. Moon (7j and s. 
Alomar. W— Oliver, 3-8. L-Mesa, 7-i 

Sv — Henke 111). H R— Cleveland. Baerga ru). 

Detroit SI 821 818 888 0— t 11 > 

Chicago 029 W2 498 BB8 V-M 11 I 

m h— I-M.1 

Gardiner, Codnret (*>. Soever (7). Henne- 
man TO.SJDavts (lUondTertletan; Sander- 
son, DeLeon TO.Assenmoctwr m.McCasklll 
TO add Kdttuwtce, Tlnaiev (131.W— McCav 
kttU 1-2. L— S. Davis. 0-1 HRs— CMcoaa 
Thomas (J4), Prawn 2 (16), Ventura (M). 
Detroit. FMdor 2 (20. K. Gttown (18). 
Baden 200 » nt—4 t a 

California SOI 821 OCx-H M 1 

Vanaomaad. Mel o nde g (1). Howard (el. 
Pmtos |B) and Rowland; 8a Anderson, m. 
Latter (U and Myors. W— Bn. Anderson. 6-L 
L— Vonasmon&U. H Rs-CoBfcrnta. Curtts2 
(9). Snow (4). Boston, Ja Vntontin (7). 
Now York 021 m NB— 5 * • 

OekJoad Ml B18 808-1 8 6 

Hltotiadc. X. Hernand ez (4). widunon <71, 
Hon* TO 0M Stanley; Van Panel. Wtscao 
(3), Hantnat (51, Taylor TO, UHper »> end 
StoModL w— X. Hernandez, 4-4. L— Van 
PonaeL SO. Sv— Howe 110). HRv-OaWand. 
Barron (72). Mew York TorttCMI (17). 
Baltimore boi bbb bib-5 s i 

Seattle IB IB B*-7 « 0 

OauIsbTJtallai 14), WUflamen (4). Poole 
(6), EDcHiom (4), Mills (8) and HoIIh; CtinaV 
rifcICino (51.GQSWBO «),T.Davb (7). Risley 
(8). Ayala TO and D. Wilson. W— ftlslev, 7-6. 
(^-Eleonora W sv-Ayofo (Ml. HR-aolfV 
more. P a lmeiro (19). 

FlOrtOO IBB Ml 800-4 5 8 

Ctodnatl 201 002 tea-6 s 8 

Howto R. Lewd (i). Aoutoo TO and Natal; 
Seheuwk, J. Ruffin to ad Domett. 
W Seno u mtoS-LL— HoamL» 9 . 5 u-JLtefflw 
(1X.HR*— OftetonaH.MMioll mi, R. Sanders 

(18). Florida SheHMd (TO. Cenme (15). 

AltaBta BIB BIB WB-B * a 

P OUdund) 028 BIB BBD-4 a i 

Morakor and j. lobou CoeU, R. mhobiI- 

DnondPonidL W Merc fc cr. M- L— CaePo^- 
7. HR*— Atlanta, McG riff (S3). M. KeUv »L 

CHcaoa i» sat mo-4 f a 

Colorado 110 MB BBB— S S t 

BuarworOTdWttklm; Haruy. Blair (51.M. 
Munoi (7). Holmes (S) and Shoaffer. W— But- 
Hrater. 44. L— Harkey. t*L HR— Chiesaa 
Rhodes TO. 

Son Dicoo 110 081 080-2 7 3 

Montreal 7B 381 OOx— 8 15 I 

Krueger, Mauser (4). Florto (5), Ta&eKo 
(6>,P.AiMdftinez ISIandB. Johnson; Rutter, 
Sant (») and Webster. W— Rue ter. 5-2. 
L— Krueger. 1 - 2 . 5*— Scott (l). HR— San Die- 
Da TjSwnu (11). 

leo Fraecta a bbb 110-7 11 1 

PMtadetaUa BBC 0B3 280—6 B 2 

HkkcraoaMonfeleone TO, Fmr (9). Burba 
TO. Bede (9) and Menwarlng: Boskle. Carter 
(2). Borland m.AndBnon TO and LtobedhoL 
W— Hlckenen. 3* Boston. 44. Sv-Bedc 

(31 ). HRe— PMIadelBMa. InctnrlgDa (I9>. San 
Frandsoa Bonds 128). 

SL Loots 348 800 001—13 17 1 

Houston 881 22(11) «*-15 17 1 
Vrafton. Omar rill (i], E v*rs*ert (U. Dixon 
TO, R. Rodriguez TO wtd Paonmi; B. wil- 
I tarns. Edens I2L Veres (4), Hampton (51, To. 
Jones (7) and Eusebio. W-Hamutoa 2-1. 
L — Evenserd. M. HRs — Houston. Bagwell 
(»). SL LOMU. Jettorles (TO). 

Las Aegete* 306 008 300 W n 2 

New York 811 101 BBS B—4 13 2 

Valdes. OrndfeM (2). Td. Worrell (9), Get! 
(M) and Piazza. Hemandeo (10); Remitaser. 
J. Manzanillo TO.Masan (8). Gnzzo (Ifl).Gan- 
denon (Mi en d H u ndle y , w— Td.Wonun.5-4. 
L-CrsztoMSP-Ceff OJ.HR— Us Ajxetes. 
waiioch (3D). 

The Michael Jordan Watch 

MONDAY'S GAME: Jordan went <Mor-J In 
edauf a firs} base In the tram and wwiuuxngs 
and Btruc* out swmns m t» rtohth. He hod 
one eutout in rWH field. 

SEASON TO DATE: Jordan is batting .190 

MWor-3U) With 37 non U triple. 

34 Rflli. 37 wOftSi 82 BtrlkcoaK and 22 stolen 
bases In 36 artemBtS. H* IXH 153 pwooti tour 
asstete and nine errors to rfeitt field. 

Japanese Leagues 

firmto one 

Central 000 810 M0-! 5 1 

Puetflc 388 121 D>*-8 14 ) 

Tour ds France 

Reams Tuesday Of the 234-klkxneHr (MO- 
mlto) un singe trem valrras to L'Aige 
d ttaez wtn crcH. co untr y, ream and win- 
□taurtme: l, Roberto Conti, Italy. LomurB,e 
hours, 6 minutes. 45 seconds; ZHernan Buen- 
ohora. Catamtoa Kelmw 2 minutes 2 seconds 
behind; X Udo Boitsfiermanv. Telekom. 
3:49; A, Aiberto EIU. Italy, 6B-MB, 3:49: 5. 
Glancarto PerlnL Italy. ZG-Moblir, ddO. 

A JargMueder. Swttzerland Manei. 4.-J9; 7, 
Bruno Cenghloita, IM v. Gewtss. 5:05; 8. Mar- 
co Pattern!, Italy, Carrera. 5:45; 9. Roberto 
Torres. Spam FestlnO, 5:55; m, Angel Co- 
margo . CofcxnMa Kelma 7:15. 

Overall stoodtoos: l, Mtgvoi induraia 
Ssain Banestn Bl hours, 26 minutes 16 sec* 
ends; Z Richard Viretme. France, Farina , 
731; X Luc Leblanc France. Fes! Inal: 35: 4 . 
Amend De Las Cuevae. France, Costoranm. 
9;15 j & Marco PaitaAklNJftCarn*ra,9:4X 

6. Roberto Conti. Italy, GB-MG, 7:57; 7. Vla- 
dimir PouinEfcav, Russia Carrera. 11:37; 8. 
Alberto EUL rtatv. GB-MB. 13:57; 9. Plotr 
Uorumov. Russia. Gewfss. U:«; 10, Alex 
Zuiia. Switzerland, ONCE, 16:44. 

American League 

NEW YORK— Roconod Sterling Mndwock. 
ouctwr. fram Atom. EL. Oattoned Dove Sll- 
vestrl MMder. to Columbus. IL. 

OA K LAND— Put Carlos Reyes, pttriier, on 
l»der disabled IM. Recalled Eric HeHand, 
cottier, ham Tacoma pCl, 

SEATTLE— Bought contract ot George 
Gflnatsis. Ditcher, (ram Jaricsanvllie.SL. Des- 
tanated MB! KHI, Ditcher, tor asstonmeid. 
Stated Doug Carroll outfielder, and Randy 
vtafcerg, third baseme n. Assigned Carr on m 
BNltognam. Northwest League 
National League 

CHICAGO— Put Anthony Young, pitcher, on 
IStiov disabled list, retroactive to July HL 
Called un Randy Vera plldier. irom luna 
AA. Trixufm 1 sl Jobs Guzmon.plhiier.lrom 
H-dov id Btanr dtaa M cd IM. 

SAN di E OO— P ut Dannie EMail, pitcher, 
an iXtar dlio Medlltt rarrooettw to July 10. 

called up Brvee Fiarle> pNdur. (ram Las 
Veaas. PCL. 


Natlouw Batkctboll Assodailea 

GOLDEN STATE — Acquired Ricky Plena, 
guard; the rights to Cartas Rogers, tonrard- 
centor; end two second-round Picks In )99S 
draft (ram Seattle lor Soninas ManduUonii. 
guard, and Byron Houston, forward. 


National FOO I bOti League 

ARIZONA— Claimed Michael Brandon 
from Indianapolis and Darrvi Mitoum from 
New Orleans, defensive ends, off waivers. 
Signed Michael Banks) on, defensive tackle, to 
Wear contrud. 

ATLANTA— Signed Lam* Zeno, offensive 
lineman. Waived Mike Gant, defensive end. 

BUFFALO— signed Jett Burris, defensive 
back. io4- year contract Agreed » terms wttti 
Marla Perry, linebacker. 

CHICAGO— Agreed to t*rms Wtth Jay 
Leewwenburg, center, on l-v*ar eomrod and 
Marcus Spears, offensive tackle, on a 3-veor 

CINCINNATI— Sloned Darnov Scott.vrldo 
rece+vw. to 3-veor c ontract. 

DETROIT— Agreed to terms with Johnnie 
Merton, wide receiver, en 4y»r contract. 

GREEN BAY— Signed Edgar Bennett and 
Adorn Walker, running backs. Claimed Eric 
Bales, wide receiver, oft waivers from San 

HOUSTON— Stoned Cris DJshmon, earner- 
back. Agreed to terms with Darryl Lewis, 
co ra rrtodwntfStan Tborma offensive taefe- 
le. Signed Gary Brown, nmnlne back, to J- 
year contract: Tim Roberts, defensive tack- 
le: Tony Brawn, eornertock; Gary weflman 
and Sherman Smith, wide receivers; and Ray 
Berry. Lorry relmond Joe Bowden, lineback- 
ers. Waived Curtis Duncan, whto receiver; 
Mike Dumas, safety ;and3tan Thomas. offen- 
sive Hnemon. 

INDIANAPOLIS— waived Michael Bran- 
don. defensive end. Signed Mott MonllL de- 
fensive end. Announced that Michael Bran- 
don. defensive end. hoe toft training camp, 

Kansas city— Signed Dev* Treadwell. 
pkxekias e e. 

LA. Rams— waived Kevin McDougaL 
wortertt oc fc. 

LJL RAIDERS— Agreed to reran with Der- 
rick Haskins. safety. Signed Ken Lanier, toe*, 
to. signed Scott Darix detonsive end. Agreed 
to terms with CMvm Jones, nmntng back, att 
Austin Rabun, defensive tackle. 


Advice for the Vicar 

By Russell Baker 

come to the booh trade. It 
needs a touch of class, and 
you’re just the author to pro- 
vide tL 

I hope you won’t think it 
pushy if I pass along a few tips. 
Believe me, Your Holiness, I 
wish somebody had done it for 
me od my first book. 

Right off, you’re going to 
find your publisher wants you 
to get out and sell your book. 
It’s not enough that a writer has 
to write his book: nowadays, he 
is also expected to sdl it. 

A lot of authors deal with this 
by hiring somebody else to 
write the book. Hus frees them 
to take acting classes so they 
will know how to do a sma- 
sheroo sales job on TV. 

Ghost prose is not for you, 
dear Pope. The trick is to make 
your publisher do the selling. 
You've made a good start on 
this by getting that big money 
commitment. Six or seven mil- 
lion dollars up front, if the pa- 
pers are right 

Sure, you are passing it all 
through to good causes. But the 
point is, no matter who’s get- 
ting the money, the publisher is 
laying out wbat for a publisher 
amounts to a banker’s ransom. 
He has to get that money back, 
or else, which means he had 
better get out there and sell 
your book himself. 


If you'd settled for peanuts 
— an advance of, say, fifteen or 
twenty thousand simoleons _ — 
the publisher could have said, 
“If you don’t want to get out 
there and sdl your own book 
it’s no skin off my nose, J. P.” 

And tel you die in the book- 
shops after selling the tiny first 
printing he issued to recover his 

O.K-, he’s going to lean on 
you to sell it anyhow. He’s go- 
ing to say, look, he’s put up 
those millions so you owe it to 
him to be a good guy. 

And you are a good guy, 
right? A man doesn't get where 
you are without being a good 
guy. So you're going to tell the 

publisher. “Well, all right, 1T1 
do a little selling.” 

Selling means performing on 
television. The theory is that 
everybody in America is so 
busy watching television that 
they don’t have lime to read, so 
the only way to let them know 
you've got something more for 
them not to read is the tube. 

If you go on the breakfast 
shows, keep it short: a few lines 
so thoroughly rehearsed you 
can remember them no matter 
how terrified you are. Keep it 
casual too: call the interviewers 
Charlie, Hany. BiyanL Tiy not 
to look at the technicians when 
they make slashing hand ges- 
tures at their throats. 


Now you want to look re- 
laxed, no matter hew tense you 
are. Not looking relaxed makes 
viewers nervous. 

I hear you say, “You’re talk- 
ing to a fellow who can stay 
cool as a cucumber while talk- 
ing to 100.000 souls in St Pe- 
ter’s Square.” But believe me. 
Your Holiness, TV is not St 
Peter’s Square. Cool as a cu- 
cumber doesn’t work on TV. 
On TV it’s tight as a drum that 
does the trick. To look relaxed, 
get tense. Sit up on the edge of 
the chair. Arch your back until 
it screams. Whatever you do, 
Holiness, do not sit back and 
relax in the chair. 

All right, once the publisher 
discovers you really are a good 
guy and, what’s better, also a 
good sport he’s going to whee- 
dle you into bookstore appear- 
ances. Here’s what will happen: 

You go to a vast mall, find 
the bookshop between a shoe 
store and Victoria’s Secret and 
introduce yourself to a cleric 
who’s never heard of you but 
knows where to find the manag- 
er, who puts a table out in mall 
traffic, dumps books on it and 
pats up a sign saying you will 
sign books lor the next hour. 
While you sit there not selling a 
sin gl e book thousands of peo- 
ple walk by wondering silently 
if you're somebody famous. 

This. Your Holiness, is the 
book trade with the bark off. 

New York Timer Service 


Vitebsk Struggles to E 

By Lee Hocks tader 

Washington Past Serna 

T 7TTEBSK, Belarus — One day in 
V 1962, an extraordinary letter ar- 
rived at the Vitebsk museum for cul- 
ture and history, a pretty pink build- 
ing that was left standing, 
miraculously, after the city w as pul- 
verized in World War II. 

The letter was from a Soviet scholar 
in France who had been in touch with 
Marc Chagall, then in his nud-70s. 
This alone was unusual. Chagall, who 
had left his home town of Vitebsk in 
1922 to live in France, was a nonper- 
son as far as Moscow was concerned. 
As an emigre, a Jew and a painter 
whose work did not celebrate the he- 
roic triumphs of the Soviet Socialist 
people, Chagall was politically, ethni- 
cally and artistically incorrect 

If- f. firTV 

the content was astonishing. Chagall 
had never forgotten Vitebsk. It was 
where he first fell in love, married and 
learned to draw and paint. Many of 
his early canvases are scenes of Vi- 
tebsk or what he called its “special 
sky,” where he conjured soaring 
brides, flying cows, dancing fiddlers 
and airborne violins. 

Now Chagall, relaying his message 
through the scholar, wanted to know: 
Could he give some of his work back 
to the city that had inspired him so 
many years ago? 

Yevgenia Klchina, who worked in 
the museum’s art department, saw the 
letter and got excited. With some oth- 
ers in ho 1 office, she drafted a letter 
describing postwar Vitebsk, a city of 
grimy apartment blocks that was al- 
most unrecognizable as the 1,000- 
year-old town of wooden houses and 
graceful cathedrals of Chagall’s youth. 
“We said we had set up an art depart- 
ment, and would be happy if we could 
have the Chagall pieces,” she said. 

Then Kuchina mentioned the letter 
to a member of the city’s Co mmunis t 
Party committee. “He said, ‘Wfaat? 
And you are going to do this on your 
own, without any permission? How 
could this even occur to youT " She 
appealed to a regional party official, 
who turned her down. 

Now, three decades later, the city is 
struggling to reclaim what it lost 
Most suspect that Vitebsk’s bond with 
Gha gan, whodiedin 1985 at the age of 
97, is irretrievably gone. Bat a few are 
convinced that it is not too late; that 
Vitebsk and Chagall can reconnect. 

It won’t be easy. 

On a bluff high above the river that 
winds through Vitebsk stands an old 
red brick house of two stories. For- 
merly used for apartments, the build- 
ing was converted two years ago into 
the Marc Chagall Museum, although 
it contains no original works by Cha- 
gall. Officially, the museum is owned 
and operated by the city, but in truth 
it is the personal project and passion 
of the director, Lyubov Bazan, 37. 

Bazan grew up in Vitebsk during 
the pre-Goibachev period of stagna- 
tion, when the name of Chagall was all 
but unknown here. It was only as an 
an student that she discovered that 
Chagall was bom in Vitebsk, the son 
of a Yiddish-speaking manual laborer. 

She was astonished. M I started ask- 
ing people, older people, about Cha- 
gall/’ she said. “They said he had 

a traitor to his motherland. 

Chagall was once the city’s arts 
commissar but the one or two original 
works he left in the city were lost in 
1941 when the Germans swept into 
Vitebsk, occupying it for three years. 
The house where the artist grew up 
was still standing in a quiet neighbor- 
hood that was once the Jewish ghetto, 
but Lhcre was nothing to distinguish it. 
The school and museum he ran had 
been turned into a computer center. 

In a country consumed by xenopho- 
bia and anti-Semitism, it was chancy 
even to speak about Cha gall . 

Finally in 1988, as the system began 
to crumble, Bazan was allowed to pur- 
sue her interest in Chagall openly, and 
she began planning the museum. 

“When we arranged this exhibit, we 
faced a big problem because we have 
no original works of art,” said Bazan. 
“So we were producing from our 
hearts, our souls. And we needed- an 
imaginative way to show Chagall’s 
work, his composition, his coloring, 
this fairy tale quality to hts art. We 
wanted to present a general mood. It 
was the only way out, to show some- 
thing of Chagall when we didn't have 
CThag aTl himself.” 

The result is modest but appealing. 
Some of Chagall's paintings with a 
Vitebsk theme have been copied right 
on the walls and ceilings of the muse- 
um. One of them is “Red Roofs,” a 
work from the 1950s in which the 
artist, palette in hand, bows low to the 
city as he is presented with a bouquet 
of flowers. There are two lithographs, 
donated by a museum in Germany. 
Old chairs, a samovar, an oil lamp, a 

' V* 1 ■■ : V 

t . . * . 9 
-"••• * V ‘ •*> ’ 

. .. . 

• "v? r j ‘ - V - 

> -Sr. 

Lay •-‘ iy Vv^ ; 

Lyubov Bazan and exhibits in Vitebsk's Mari: 

dock and a violin are suspended in 
mid-air, as if mfHghL On the wall is a 
poem by Chagall, in his handwriting, 
dedicated to Bella, his first wife and 
the bride who is soaring with him 
above Vitebsk in his early paintings. 

Besides the museum, there are a few 
signs of Chagall m today’s Vitebsk. 
On Pokrovsky Street, where Chagall 
grew up. a statue of the -artist was 
erected in 1992. His house, too, has 
been fenced off, its inhabitants recent- 
ly evicted, with a small plaque on the 
wall saying Chagall Hred there. 

There is talk of making it, too, into 
a museum, furnished, presumably, in 
period style. But nobody knows who 

swh a project Vitebsk, 
Eke most of Belarus, is broke. / : 

But Chagall's devotees axe stfll hop- 
ing that somehow, from somewhere. 

t -; For Yevgenia Kichma, the museum 
worker wtioTried bfift failed towspoad 
-to Cfoe-gaffs dffer-inarothan‘30^ears 
ago, there is only bitterness and regret. 

“It was such & hOnriliatidn that soch 
a great man and a master should have 
begged" to^yifiriMk, she 

“It’s a drum* It’s oar pain, oar 
shame, and. our disgrace.” ■ J 

(Washington Post researcher Masha 
Upman contributed to tins report ) > 




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32*9 22/71 I 
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28*2 18*1 pc 



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New Data 






Mph Low 
32*9 24/75 
32/80 22/71 
30*8 28/79 
31*8 24/75 
32*9 28*2 
33*1 26/79 
34*3 28/79 
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North America 

Mucti of the East Coast wfl 
bo warm and humid for the 
end of this weak. A weak 
tropical disturbance may 
bring heavy rain hum coastal 
Virginia northward toward 
New York City Thursday and 
Friday. Hot weather will per- 
sist across much at the west- 
ern haB of the nabon. 


The latter pan of this week 
wil end up rather worm and 
hunkd across much of south- 
ern end central Europe. The 
wa/mth wfl even spread into 
eastern Europe by Saturday. 
London will be warm and 
rain-free much of the time. 
Parts wffl have a warm end 
to this week with plenty of 


Much of Eastern China, 
Korea, and Japan win still 
have to oopa with unseason- 
able heat and humidity 
through the and of the week. 
Super Typhoon Walt will 
room toward southern Japan 
later this week. Wall will 
most Hiaiy oKeci areas west 
of Tokyo with Hor ro r rie l rains 
and datmtyng winds. 

Mgtan 31/68 
Capo Town 18*4 
Canitance 27*0 
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Lagoa 28*2 

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North America 

Middle East 

Latin America 

Today Tomorrow 

High Low W Ugh Low W 

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Mgh Low W High Low W 


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