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Full text of "International Herald Tribune , 1994, France, English"

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Paris, Wednesday, May 18, 1994 








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Markets Satisfied 
As U.S. Bates Rise 


Fed Hints That Half -Point Increase 
Should Be Enough to Curb Inflation 


LAWYERS VS. LAWMEN — Striking lawyers stumbling out of the bar association offices in Cairo on Tuesday after the building was teargassed by 


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Islamic Militants Kill 2 Israelis in the West Bank 


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By Clyde Habennan 

New York Tima Service 



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HEBRON, Israeli -Occupied West Bank — 
Two Israeli settlers were shot to death Tuesday 
by Islamic militants just south of this West 
Bank town, and the Israeli Army commander 
warned that the violence may be a foretaste of 
what settlements will [ace under Palestinian 
seif-rule in the Gaza Strip. 

The question erf what, if anything, to do 
about Jewish settlements in Gaza and the West 
Bank has been relatively muted lately. 



But the Hftngs Tuesday, which followed 
ciasbes in Hebron on Monday that kft at least a 
dozen Palestinians wounded by settlers and 
soldiers; made dear that the issue is very much 
afore and is a factor in the, ultimate success dr 


failure of the exercise in Palestinian self-gov- 
ernment that has begun in Gaza and Jericho. 

Settlers and other Israelis who question Isra- 
el’s wisdom in signing the self-rule agreement 
with the Palestine Liberation Organization are 
likely to have deeper doubts after the ambush 
Tuesday that killed two Jews and seriously 
wounded a third in the head as they drove south 
of Hebron, an area still under Israeli control. 
An armed wing of the Hamas group of Islamic 
militants claimed responsibility. 

Later, the army chief of staff. Lieutenant 
General Ebud Barak, cautioned that the attack 
was probably not the last, either in the West 
Bank or in Gaza. 

His remarks were significant because securi- 
ty for the 5.000 Israeli settlers in the Gaza Strip 
— most concentrated in a duster of outposts 


known as Gush Qalif, along the Mediterranean 
coast — is a basic component of the Israeli- 
PLO agreemenL 


For many Israelis, a critical test of the accord 
is whether those settlers slay safe on their 


islands in a sea erf hostility. They were unlikely 


to be reassured after hearing General Barat 
say, “f don’t rule out terrorist attacks on the 
roads to Gush Qalif.'’ 

While Israeli forces are largely pulling out of 
Gaza, they will remain at border crossings and 
in newly created buffer zones around (he settle- 
ments, patrolling roads jointly with Palestinian 
police officers to assure that Jews there move 
safdv between their homes and Israel 


The troop withdrawal from the rest of Gaza, 
under way in earnest for a week, may be com- 


pleted Wednesday. The Israelis formally hand- 
ed over civil authority in Gaza to the Palestin- 
ians on Tuesday, as they did in Jericho on 
Friday, but a government is nor yet in place and 
so no real changes in daily life are expected 
right away. 

For Palestinians, the fighting in Hebron on 
Monday rekindled their rails for removing the 
estimated 130,000 settlers in Israeli-held terri- 
tories, especially the 450 in Hebron, a perennial 
flashpoint, where religious and nationalist feel- 
ings are intense. 

The settlements are such a sensitive issue that 
negotiations on the settlers’ fate have been 
delayed by brad and the PLO — presumably 
for at least two years, although under their 
agreement the matter could be raised at any 

See SETTLERS, Page 6 


By Lawrence Malkin 

ImemononaJ Herald Tribune 

NEW YORK — Hinting that it was finished 
raising interest rates for the time being, the U.S. 
central bank on Tuesday raised its discount rate 
by half a percentage point and said it expected 
market rates to move up by the same amount 
Stock and bond markets immediately rallied. 

The decision by the Federal Open Market 
Committee satisfied Wall Street's bond bears, 
who have been demanding strong medicine 
against inflation and a steady signal on interest 
rates in the form of a 4.25 percent federal funds 
rate, which is what banks charge each other for 
overnight loans. Fed funds had already reached 
that level in market trading before' the Fed 
announcement. 

The increase was the fourth in as many 
months and was expected by financial markets 
and even the White House, which did not 
protest and said it would “wan and see” what 
the impact an the economy would be. 

Bond markets saw a firm move against infla- 
tion. and buyers lowered the yield on 30-year 
Treasury bonds to 727 percent from 7.44 per- 
cent Monday. The Dow Jones industrial aver- 
age surged. (Page 12) 

Major banks across the country echoed the 
Fed move and raised their prune rales by half a 
percentage point, which will affect small busi- 
ness loans and credit card interest rates. How- 
ever. the lower long-term bond rates will proba- 
bly help pull down mortgage rates, which have 
risen recently after serving as a major economic 
stimulus when they were lower last year. 

After a morning meeting of its Open Market 
Committee, the Federal Reserve Board said it 
was raising its discount rate to 3.5 percent That 
is the rate it charges banks for emergency loans, 
and is largely symbolic. It was last raised 5 
years ago and was set at 3 percent in the 
stagnant economy of 1992. 

A Fed spokesman said that the interest rate 
decisions “substantially remove” ibe policy of 
monetary accommodation that had sent the 
economy jumping ahead last year cm the back 
of low interest rates. 

Alan Green span, the chairman of the Federal 
Reserve Board, has said the centra) bank was 
aiming for a "neutral” policy stance, in which 


the economy was neither helped nor hindered 
by the centra] bank. The Fed's statement Tues- 
day said the central bank would continue moni- 
toring the economy, a sign that it would wait to 
see the effects of the latest round of tightening 
credit before making any further moves. 

Markets throughout the world had been 
transfixed by the Open Market Committee's 
meeting, which takes place to set interest rates 
and monetary policy approximately even- six 
weeks. The committee comprises the seven 
members of the central bank's governing board 
— numbering only five at present because two 
nominees are awaiting Senate confirmation — — 
and five of the seven regional Federal Reserve 
Bank president who vote on a rotating basis. 

President Bill Clinton shrugged off the in- 
crease even before it happened. Asked about 
the Fed during a brief photo session Tuesday 
morning, he said there clearly was some room 
for short-term interest rates to rise “over the 
rate of inflation that won't slow down our 
economic growth." 

Mr. Clinton, in contrast to his Republican 
predecessors, has carefully avoided public dis- 
putes with the central bank over interest rate 
policy. Like many elected officials, he has made 
it plain he preferred rales be kept low. The 
declining rates of the previous five years had 
represented the only official stimulus to the 
economy during a time of contracting defense 
spending and rising taxes to dose the federal 
budget deficit. 

Tbe low rates of the past five years have 
helped contain the recession and they also have 
helped banks rebuild after huge loan losses in 
real estate by allowing them to borrow short- 
term money cheaply, buy high-yielding long- 
term government bonds, and pocket the differ- 
ence. But at the same time, investors and 
speculators took advantage of the cheap credit 
to buy bonds, currencies and stocks in many 
countries on margin, storing up trouble in the 
financial markets. 

Some increase in rates was widely expected 
this year as the economic recovery finally took 
hold and the Fed began to consider what' mem- 
bers of tbe Open Market Committee called a 
“preemptive strike” against inflation. The 
strike nevertheless took financial markets by 

See RATES, Page 6 


| Refuses Colonel’s Plea for Air Strike 


> .By John Pomfrei 

■ Washington Past Service 

■SARAJEVO* Bosnia-Hazegovina — The 
UN command in Bosnia rejected Tuesday a 
request for NATO air. strikes against Serbian 
tanks firing on UN troops and a UN plane, 
prompting.* senior- UN officer to accuse tbe 
command of endangering his men’s fives. 

Lieutenant Colonel Lais MoBer erf the Dan- 
ish Army, the deputy, annniandipg officer of 
the Nordic Battalion in the UN “safe area” of 
Tuzla, said a U.S. Air Force A-10 warplane had 
locked oo to a Serbian tank firing mi bis men 
around the Tuzla airfield' but that the UN 


command had denied his request for the war- 
plane to “take the tank oql” 

The incident unfolded on the day the Tuzla 
airfield reopened for the first time since April 
14, when four hours of Serbian shelling dosed 
h, in another incident involving a rejected air 
strike request. 

On Tuesday, a UN flyushin-16, carrying an 
American-made anti-mortar radar unit and 
Jordanian soldiers, landed on the airfield in 
northeast Bosnia.. Serbian forces fired seven 
tank rounds at the airport, with four rounds 
striking within the Belas perimeter. Tbe plane 
stopped unloading and took oft immediately; 
bo one was injured, UN officials said. 


The incident over Tuzla highlighted the reti- 
cence of the UN command in Bosnia, led by 
Lieutenant General Michael Rose of the Bri tisb 
Army and tbe senior civilian officer, Yasushi 
Akashi, to strike back from the air at Serbian 
forces pounding UN positions or UN -designat- 
ed “safe areas.” It also illustrates the gap be- 


tween the UN interpretation of mandates ^pro- 


tecting the “safe areas,” especially Tuzla. from 
attack and NATO's more robust understanding 
of the rales of tbe game. 


At root appears to be a fundamental differ- 
ence in miss on. NATO is concerned with its 


Sec BOSNIA, Page 4 


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Four Charged 
In Skinhead Biot 


MAGDEBURG. Germany (AFP) — 
Four persons were charged Tuesday with 
serious offenses against public order fol- 
lowing an attack Iasi week by skmheadson 
a group of Africans in this East Genztan 
town~mc state prosecutor said. 

A 1^-year-dd youth believed to be one 
of tberingleaders at the racist violence was 
charged a day earlier. Tbe prosecutor, Ru- 
do lf Jaspers, said he had requested that, 
four more people abo be charged 

On Thursday, about 50 skinheads at- 
tacked a group of Africans and chased 
tfi e pi through the town center. A group of 
drunken youths joined tbe chase. In the 
pngnrng fight, five persons were hurt, all erf 
th ere among die attackers. 


said Tuesday that the police had been too 
quick to release 49 people arrested the day 

of the attack. . , . 

The Magdeburg events arc to be debat- 
ed in the Goman Bundestag, or lower 
chamber of the federal Parfcameal, on 
Wednesday.. 


Soak Review 

Crossword 

Weather 



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DM 


1.672 


prewomdow 
- 1.6733 


Pound 


Yen 


,1.5023 

104.526 


1.5027 


104.75 


FF 


5.729 


5735 


U.S. Reviews Japan Trade Policy 


White House Seeks to Adjust to Political Realities 9 


By Peter Behr 
. and Clay Chandler 

Washington Peat Service 

WASHINGTON — The Clinton administra- 
tion's top economic adviser said it may be lime 
to ease pressure on Japan for “resohs-oriented” 
trade agreements in key industries because 
Toyko’s badly splintered government is unable 
to produce a deal 

Tbe issue is “trying to moderate or adjust the 
. tuning to the pofitical realities in Japan without 
chang in g theqveraO thrust of tbe policy,” Lau- 
ra D’Andrea Tyson. President Bill Clinton’s 
chief economic adviser, said in an interview. 

Hercommeots indicated that the admmistra- 
tion is rethinking some dements of its hard-line 
Japan trade policy because of questions about 
its effectiveness. Despite a year erf confron la- 


te 


get specific commitments from Japan to reduce 
its overall trade surplus or to open its markets 
wider to foreign autos and auto parts, computer 
and telecommunication equipment and insur- 
ance coverage. 

Indeed, ibe market-opening initiative has 
been heatedly rejected in Tokyo and sharply 
criticized in most major world capitals as too 
aggress ve. 

Professor Tyson said the administration may 
have to focus on the first pan of the policy, 
aimed at bringing down Japan's global surplus. 
On that issue, she said, the administration can 
find allies in Japan, including the new prime 
minister. Tsutomu Hata. An effort to work with 
Japan’s political leaders rather than challenge 
than would mark a significant policy shift. 

“A policy which is sensible under one sex of 
circumstances may have to be adjusted to a set 
See JAPAN, Page 6 


A Real Threat to Italy? 


Far Right May Not Hurt Democracy , 
But Could Hinder Economic Reform 


By Alan Friedman 

International Herald Tribune 

At a recent dinner gathering tbe northern 
Italian town of Reggio Emilia, a group of 
local businessmen fell into a heated debate 
about the unprecedented inclusion of five 
aoofascisi ministers from the National Alli- 
ance in the cabinet of Prime Minister Silvio 
Berlusconi. 

Much of the talk concerned Che manner in 
which the foreign press, and such foreign 
politicians as President Francois Mitterrand 
of France, had lambasted the notion of a 
NATO government that included the heirs 
of Benito MussolinL 

Finally, one entrepreneur pushed back his 
plate of flaked pasmesan cheese, sipped 
from a glass of wine and proffered his view: 
“1 consider myself a left-winger, but 1 have 
to say that the outside world does not appre- 
ciate a simple fact, which is that the leaders 
of the National Alliance are not really fas- 
cists in the old-fashioned sense. 

“I don’t like them at all personally, but 1 
must say that they do not pose any real 
threat to our democracy. They will behave 
themselves in order to stay in the govern- 
ment,” 


hard-core minority of bona fide blackshirts, 
its leader — Gianfranco Fini — is sophisti- - 
cated enough to understand the need to re- 
nounce fascism. What is not yet dear is 
whether he wfll be successful at keeping the 
extremist elements of his party at bay. 

Mr. Fini, 42. likes to style himself as a 
“post-fascist." Yet be rang alarm bells 


Derivatives Pose 


Financial Bisk , 


US. Study Says 


NEWS ANALYSIS 


around the world when be said that Mussoli- 
ni was “tbe greatest statesman of the centu- 
ry.” That outburst was termed “a mistake” 
by Carlo Scognamiglio, a member of Mr. 
Berlusconi’s Forza Italia party and the new 
speaker of the Chamber of Deputies. 

On Monday, Mr. Berlusconi was severely 
embarrassed again by ins neofascist coali- 
tion partners as be wait before tbe Senate to 
present his government program ahead of a 
confidence vote. First, be arrived in tbe 
wake of a rowdy weekend demonstration by 
hundreds of neo-Nazi skinheads in the city 
of Vicenza. Then it emerged that the Na- 
tional Alliance had made a legislative pro- 


posal to repeal the 1948 law that bans the 
f Muss 


How much of a danger are the neofas- 
cists? That is the question being asked both 
in Italy and in diplomatic, political and 
financial circles throughout Europe and the 
United States. 


There is no easy answer. But the consensus 
among political analysts in Italy appears lobe 
that while the National Alliance contains a 


revival of Mussolini's original Fascist Party. 

Mr. Fini. who has insisted repeatedly that 
his party has broken with tbe past, quickly 
backed away from the idea, and said oil 
television that the prohibition should stand. 
He also condemned the skinheads, contend- 
ing they had nothing to do with Ins party. 
“I’d send those kids to work in the salt 
See ITALY, Page 6 


the 


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ills in 


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11993. 

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By Brett D. Fromson 

Washington Poll Service 

WASHINGTON — A massive, two-year 
U.S. government study of financial derivatives 
has concluded that tbe complex, computer- 
generated trading instruments pose unprece- 
dented risks to the world's financial system. 

A copy of the final version of a Genera 
Accounting Office report obtained by Tb 
Washington Post concluded that derivative 
could women a financial panic and cost taxpay 
ers who would be forckl to bail out majo 
banks and brokerages faced with potential ruir 
The 193-page report, entitled “Financial Dt 
rivatives: Actions Needed to Protect the Firm 
rial System.” calls for international supervise 
of the $12.1 trillion market, which is large' 
unregulated. Derivatives are financial insir 
meats that derive their price from physic 
commodities or securities, such as futures at ~t 
interest-rate swaps. X 

Tbe report is scheduled for release Wedmth 
day and will be the subject of two CoagressPtym 
nal hearings on Thursday. itedps! 

An ever-lengthening string of derivatiwj-daaflso 
la ted losses by major U.S. companies, band. Repo 
brokerages, pension funds and speculators £ 
convinced many legislators, regulators and 
eminent officials that the proliferation of th 00 ™ M 
instruments must be reined in. 



The list of U.S. companies that recently 
money because they did not manage tbe risk 
derivatives includes Procter & Gamble Co.. 
Products & Chemicals Inc^ Atlantic Rich! 
Corp„ Mead Corp.. Gibson Greetings Inc. 


See REPORT, Page 6 


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Chain Reaction in the Orbital Junkyard 

Scientists Fear Collisions Could Multiply, Menacing Satellites 


131 Hil 
US179 


By William J. Broad 

New Yah Tima Service 

NEW YORK — Chain reactions are com- 
monplace on Earth. They occur in chemical 
plants when a angle excited molecule prompts 
its neighbors into a cascade of Combination to 
create plastics. 


Is nuclear reactors, they occur whenever a 
ic particle; 




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speeding subatomic partide slams into a heavy 
atom, and splits it apart, releasing more parti- 
cles that repeat and amplify the process in 
bursts of energy. 

Now, experts say, a dangerous new kind of 
chain reaction is getting undo- way in space, 
where it threatens to fintit mankind’s endeavors 
beyond tbe planet. For instance, it could put 
biOioos of dollars worth of advanced communi- 
cations and weather satellites at risk of desinic- 


uon. 


Hie problem is that some mbits near Earth 
have become junkyards of dead and active 
satellites, spent rocket stages and billions of 
bits of whining debris. 

The trashing of the heavens has reached the 
point where a speeding scrap of metallic refuse 
coqld hit a hxge object, shattering it into hun- 


dreds of pieces that rmeat and amplify the 
process in a cascade of destruction. A chain 
reaction of this sort begins at a point known as 
the critical density. 

“The consensus is that we’re at the critical 
density, or very close to it,” said Donald J. 
Kessler, tbe senior scientist for orbital-debris 
studies at the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. 

“Even if we Stopped putting things into orbit, 
you’d suQ see the population increase because 
erf random collisions/’ 

Several satellites lost to unknown causes over 
the years may well be tbe first victims of space 
junk. 

Any chain of orbital destruction would be far 
slower than reactions on Earth because dis- 
tances in space are so vast Ruin on a wide- 
spread scale would take decades. Bui the impli- 
cations for commerce, science and the military 
would nonetheless be enormous. Crowded or- 
bits, which have no substitutes for some mis- 
sions, would doubtless have to be abandoned to 
lessen the risk of collision. 

That threat is prompting unusual action 
among space organizations. In the vanguard is 


NASA, which has raised debris mitigation to a 
high policy goal and is drawing up a rule book 
for its spacecraft designers, launchers and oper- 
ators,. 

The big unknown is not so much foreign 
governments, which arc also wrestling with the 
problem, but the commercial sector, which rep- 
resents a growing share of the orbital pie as 
businesses plan new generations of communi- 
cation satellites. 


•'Right now. debris mitigation is not part of 
the culture." said John E Pike, head of space 


policy for the Federation of American Scien- 
tists, 3 private group based in Washington. “It’s 


going to be like environmental regulation ev- 
erywhere. First, people cry in the wilderness, 
saying there's a problem. Then comes the natu- 
ral progression of doing the easy things, and 
then the harder thing', that tend to cost more.” 

From the start of the Space Age. orbits near 
Earth have steadily become more and more 
littered, often by the intentional discarding of 
debris. A different kind of intentional debris 
was generated tn 1 985 when the Reagan admin- 
See UTTER, Page 6 



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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. WEDNESDAY. MAT 13, 1994 


Dark Symbols Echo 


Wir II Beachhead 


WORLD BRIEF! 


By Alan Cowell 

New York Times Service 

ANZIO, Italy — If the American 
troops wbo stormed ashore in An- 
zio 50 years ago were lo repeal the 
operation today, they might be sur- 
prised. or enraged, to find that one 
emblem of those years has endured, 
albeit in small doses — the swasti- 
ka. 

Consider, for instance. Paradise 
del Mare, an architectural confec- 
tion with terraces and now-head- 
less statues. 1 1 rises from the beach- 
es where, on Jan. 22. 1944. 36.000 
Allied troops plowed through mine 
Fields and barbed wire. They were 
fighting the campaign in south -cen- 
tral Italy that led to the liberation 
of Rome four months later, on June 
4. 

“On Jan. 22. 1944. Darby's 
Rangers landed here and for sev en 
days fought to extend and hold Lhe 
front” says a small plaque at the 
base of Paradise del Mare. 

1 1 memorializes 300 Americans 
who died trying to press inland as 
the Germans, initially surprised by 
the landing, rushed reinforcements 
to the new faint. 

On the old beachhead today, 
though, graffiti trumpet “ Juden 
Rcais" i“Jews Out”) under a spray- 
painted swastika. A little farther 
along the old beachhead other 
blurts of aerosol paint declare, ”20 
April, a Myth is Bom — Adolf 
Hitler” and “No to the Multiracial 
Society.” 

By the time President Bill Clin- 
ton arrives in this region 65 kilome- 
ters (40 miles) south of Rome on 
June 3 to visit the American War 
Cemetery at Neituoo, it is to be 
expected that the graffiti will have 
been obliterated as pan of a clean- 
up under way to tidy away garbage 
and weeds. 

Older Italians tend to remember 
Fascism and Nazism with distaste. 
“The Germans were considered op- 
pressors.” said Anzio's mayor. Giu- 
seppe Tarisciotti. 

Yet in the graffiti is a small re- 
minder that despite the deaths of 
25,000 Allied troops, including 
nearly 1.000 I talians , and 30.000 
Germans in the Anzio campaign, 
neither World War II nor the 50 
intervening years have wiped out a 
hankering for the political far right. 

Valerio Maschi, author of a 1993 
study of Italian skinheads, has said 
that the whole coastal region south 
of Rome “seems to entertain strong 
xenophobic sentiments that have 
exploded several limes.” 

The growth of s kinh ead move- 
ments is partly a reaction to the 
presence here of North and West 
Africans, who come to peddle their 


wares on the summer beaches and 
who inspire resistance, even hatred, 
among some Italians. 

But there is another factor: the 
indifference of many young people 
here to a history of sacrifice and 
pain that long predates their births. 

“For the young, it doesn’t mean 
anything.” Mr. Tarisciotti said. 

Ennio Pollastrini. who was 9 
years old when the Allies landed, 
said: “There's complete oblivion in 
the schools. And after this genera- 
tion. it will all be forgotten.'' 

"Some Americans think we are 
still in the old times, with horses.’’ 
said Ernesto Rosi, a curator at the 
Neituno war cemetery, where white 
crosses and Stars of David mark 
the graves of 7,862 American dead. 
“They don't realize that Italy now 
is a big country where most fam- 
ilies have three or four cars. They 
are surprised how it's been rebuilt 
how Italy’s doing pretty good.” 

They might not be so surprised 
to discover that this year's 50lh 
anniversary celebrations have 
turned places like this into some- 
thing between a veterans' Wood- 
stock and a cottage pilgrim-indus- 
iry. 

When Mr. Clinton comes lo An- 
zio. so will 1,000 American veter- 
ans who will visit the Nettuno cem- 
etery and have an open-air lunch 
beneath the pines. 

Early in May, a group of Ger- 
man veterans visited their cemetery 
at Pomezia, where the number of 
dead is some 26.000, and also laid 
wreaths for tbe 10.000 dead at the 
British and Commonwealth ceme- 
tery in Anzio. 

6n May 17. i.000 British veter- 
ans are due in Anzio. At Monte 
Cassino. inland, a celebration 
planned for May 19 has set off 
sparks because some British veter- 
ans have refused to inarch with 
German veterans. 

And if the veterans have not for- 
gotten the passions of war. neither 
have some of the older residents. 

“The Americans gave us choco- 
lates.” said Sergio Mingjacchi. 65. 
wbo has been running a tobacco 
store since American soldiers intro- 
duced him to Philip Morris half a 
century ago. “They taught me lo 
smoke.” he added with a laugh and 
a wheezy cough. 

All wars breed cynics, and Aide 
Bruschini. 78. the barber on Piazza 
Garibaldi who has been working in 
the same shop since 1935. seems 
one of them. 

“The Germans came.” be said. “I 
cut their bair. They gave me food. 
They were O.K. Then the Ameri- 
cans came. They gave me food. So 1 
cut their hair, loo.” 







IM? 


TV AanrtUfl) ho?- 


ITALY BANS SKINHEAD RA LLIE S — Skinheads saluting in Vicenza, Italy, before the government announced a ban tins week on 
such demonstrations by neo-Nazi youths. Tbe rally in the northern city fueled fears that rightist extremists were gaming influence. 
Vicenza’s pofice chief was temporarily removed from duty for allowing it Tbe Interior Ministry said that it had not been informed. 


Azerbaijani-Armenian Truce on; 

MOSCOW (Reuters) —An Azerbaijan delegation retnrnatf 
Tuesday for farther consultations on a draft cease-fire ag 
could pave the way for a settlement with Armenia over 
enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, an Azerbaijani spokesman said. 

Defense ministers of the two :Tran8caucajriaD;OOUfltnes, meet 
Moscow on Monday, agreed mprinripte on a new tiuce to rod 
years of fighting and establish (Aservatiotf posts untie omfbct ? 
monitork. r v . • - 

Officials from both sides had been expected to sign tneagr 
Tuesday. But a spokesman said the Azerbaijani delegate®-. ^ ^ 

Defense Minister Mamedrafi Mamedov, iad left for Bakw 
jani capital for more discussion. : 

BalaguerWms 3d Presid 

SANTO DOMINGO. Dominican 

guer. who began his political career when ‘KSSSsSSgS® ' 
the White House and has remained one of 
came from behind to win a third consecutive prcstdennai 
to official election results released Tuesday. . \ 

The blind 87-year-old leader narrowly < defeat* : . 

Gtonez, who was seeking to “ tccJunted, 

this centuiy.^ With 

43 percent of the vote,.**^ JSSJBdi 
caXtheir names did not appear on the voter registry 

German Tourist Killed in 

IDYLLWILD, California (LAT) —J A 
death, and a man thought to be her husband was 
during an apparent robbery Monday ai a s^ic lurooul - 
highway southeast of Los Angeles, aufaonhes said ^ 

Desmie severe bullet wounds in ins face and shoulder*;! 
nuSS io^ISnr to his rented car and drive about _ 

wherelK attracted the attention of p 

V Police authorities said they had no reason to beheve me ^ 

targeted because they were foreign toungs. But the 
caw of a series of random attacks in Florida since October. 1^ ^. 
claimed the lives of nine foreigners, including four Germans, tended, 
the stale’s tourism industry. •>' 




m 


Occupation Harsh Legacy for Israel 


Opposition Party Demands 


Igcnce France- Fra ic 

ROME — Italy's former Christian Democratic leaders demanded 
on Tuesday that Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi dismiss the five 
neofascists in his government, on the eve of a confidence vote in the 
Italian Senate. 

In a policy statement to Parliament on Monday. Mr. Berlusconi 
conceded “legitimate concerns" over the five neofascists in the 
government but pledged Lbai his rightist coalition would adhere to 
Italy's democratic structures. 

By Tuesday, however, the statement appeared not have been 
enough to have swung over the centrist parties, and his government 
was still eight votes short of an absolute majority of the 324 senators 
one day bd ore the vole. 

Nicola Manrino. the head of the Italian Popular Party, composed 
of the former Christian Democrats, instead urged a “change in the 
majority.” proposing that Mr. Berlusconi drop the neofascist Na- 
tional Alliance and ally with centrist and some leftist parties. 

Mr. Manrino said the National Alliance, created by Gianfranco 
Fini, tbe general secretary of the neofascist Italian Social Movement, 
was "a source of concern." 


By David Hoffman 

W'ai/tiyig/wi Post Service 

JERUSALEM — Israel’s quar- 
ter-century occupation of the West 
Bank and Gaza Strip has left a 
profound legacy in Israeli society 
that will lingo- long after the last 
jeeps roll out of Palestinian villages 
and towns. 

The departure of Israeli soldiers 
from the Gaza Strip and Jericho is 
now in full swing. A new Palestin- 
ian police force is taking up posi- 
tions. and a Palestinian National 
Authority will soon follow. 

It is the beginning of a process 
that could ultimately lead to the 
withdrawal of Israeli troops from 
much of tbe West Bank as well, and 
perhaps eventually result in the es- 
tablishment of a Palestinian entity 
or state alongside Israel. 

Whatever the outcome. Israel 
will be coping for many years to 
come with difficulties and traumas 
rooted in the occupation, ranging 
from a dependence on cheap Pales- 
tinian labor, to the army's torment 
in putting down a civilian rebellion, 
to fundamental shifts in Israeli atti- 
tudes about their Arab neighbors. 

Since the end of the 1967 Middle 
East war, no other single topic or 
event has held a longer, steadier 
grip on Israelis. What lo do with 
the territories — whether to keep 
them, to settle them, to exploit 
them, and how to police them — 
has swamped almost every other 
national concern except for the sur- 
vival of the stale. 

“This is the lasting impact: for 
26 years. Israel has not talked 
about anything else,” said Tom Sc- 
gev. an Israeli columnist and histo- 
rian. “All other problems have 
been put aside, as if there will be a 
better day to deride what kind of 
society we want to be." 

The occupation of the West 
Bank and Gaza Strip was more 
than just the capture of land: it put 


israd in control of the daily lives of 
nearly 2 million Arabs, and as a 
result it gradually proved far more 
troubling and complex than the oc- 
cupation of other lands captured in 
1967. 


“There has been a bru taliza tion 
of Israeli society.” said Mr. Segev. 
“Every Israeli is ruling every Arab, 
with almost no limitations.” 

“They have no rights, and you 
have every right." he added. “This 


Across Israeli society, there are is passed from generation to gener- 
signs that the occupation has left a ation. and there are no questions 
psychological scar. 


"The fust impact of the occupa- 
tion, and the most momentous one, 
is a direct conflict with the Arab, 
not as an external problem, but 
internalizing the problem on a dai- 


about it." 

Surveys of high school students 
in Israel before tbdr mandatory 
service in the army have shown 
steadily increasing hatred toward 
Arabs; the animosity is also report- 


Tor 26 years, Israel has not talked about 
anything else. All other problems have been 
pnt aside, as if there will be a better day to 
decide what kind of society we want to be. 9 

Tom Segev, an Israeli columnist and historian. 


also be wrestling with the impact of 
the occupation on tbe military. 

For the first 20 years after the 
1967 war, the army had a minimal 
presence in the territories, but dur- 
ing the uprising it became an uncer- 
tain and sometimes brutal police 
force. Many analysts believe the 
military is still reeling from the ex- 
perience of trying to subdue the 
largely civ ilian Pales tinian revolt, 
an assignment it never wanted, or 
quite came to grips with. 

“The army is busy with police 
work, and is undergoing a severe 
" said Yoram Ferry, a writer 


German w 

BONN (AFP) — Atop official of Germany’s far-rij 
said Tuesday she had resigned from tbe party because iL „ 

extremist under the leadership of a former Waffen SS qmOT.Tanr 

SchOnhuber. , : 4!v 

Martina Rosen berger said she had resigned as national stachuy 
because of the party’s “growing extreme right-wing ideas, saying ftatw 
chanty was possible under Mr. Schdnhuber’s leadership. . v. . 

She held him responsible for what she called the Repubhcms aw* 
from being a conservative party to an extreme rightist one, tmdMwffte 
grouping was now “anti-democratic and no longer vote-worthy. ,Shesai4 
be had divested all levds of the party of any responsibih ty and ci^rfe 
alone took derisions. 



Libyan Official Makes Visit to France 

PARIS (AP) — Libya’s foreign minister made a private weekep&wm 
to Paris, drawing a protest from the lawyer representing the fatn^KS ol 
the 170 victims in the 1989 bombing of the DC-10 UTA plane 
Niger desert. 


Fo reign Ministry confirmed the viat of Foreign __ 

Muntasser, but said be had no official contacts during his stay. whjcj^*^ 


ly basis.” said Avishai M argali L a 
philosopher who leaches at He- 
brew University. “Before, no one 
interpreted il as part of their per- 
sonal experience. Then, suddenly. 
Lhe Arab hatred, and our hatred of 
the Arabs, became a live experi- 
ence." 


After 1967. the Palestinians 
flooded Israeli workplaces, attract- 
ed by higher wages. Until the Pales- 
tinian uprising two decades later — 
and even after it — they cut the 
stones for Israeli apartments, 
served Israelis at restaurants and 
picked tomatoes in Israeli hot- 
houses. 

According to Mr. Margalit and 
others. Israeli Jews Tailed to see the 
silent underclass in their midst as 
either individuals or a society. They 
ruled the territories, but accepted 
the view once articulated by Golda 
Mar. the Israeli prime minister, 
that there was no such thing as a 
Palestinian. 


ed in studies of veterans and reserv- 
ists who served in the territories 
during the imi/aJa. 

Simha F. Landau of the institute 
of Criminology at Hebrew Univer- 
sity concluded in a recent study 
that, for Israelis, “witnessing or be- 
ing involved in violent behavior in 
the territories lowers the threshold 
to violence within the Israeli soci- 
eiv." 


crisis, 

Jought to£ve radedJ^'daymormn^Jnterior Minister*^ 
beginning of the intifada, more *ud be had not been informed of the vmL - 

tharOfxf soldiers have b£a tried . ^b^n officials have been implicated m theUTA bombing, 
and hundreds more have faced dis- “ ^ bombing the previous year of a PanAm Boeing 747 over Lockett* 
ciplinaiy action. There are thou- Scotland, that killed 270 people. 

Leotard Says Scientists Back A-Te®- 

PARIS (AFP) — Defense Minister Francois Ltotard said Tuesdtayi&af 
the scientific community believed additional nuclear tests were esmvtiu, 
in order to develop tbe capacity to simulate tests in the laboratory. 1 ; 

Mr. Leotard, speaking on French radio, said that “the sdeotiK 
community tells us that we need a few more tests,” and added tfiat lari&d 
not met a single scientist who believes otherwise. 

“France must acquire as quickly as possible, perhaps in sweiCogbior 
10 years, the capacity to simulate tests that would allow us to tesf jhe 
effects of a nuclear explosion.” Mr. Leotard said. “That is essential fpi} 
our country if we are to remain a major power.” President Era^jfBjt . 
Mitterrand is against France’s resuming nuclear testing. 


Although the occupation bred 
hatred, it also broke down some 
barriers. Oz Almog. a social scien- 
tist. said both Palestinians and Is- 
raeli Arabs bad gradually begun to 
erase the stereotypes of Arabs, 
which reached a peak in Israeli 
films, literature and media after the 
1967 war. For example, he pointed 
out, the poet Entile Habibi, an 
Arab citizen of israd, has received 
the Israel Prize, the country’s high- 
est award. 


In tile years ahead, Israel will 


Fledgling Palestinian Capital Greets Christophe a 


By Thomas W. Lippman 

Washington Post Service 
JERICHO —The route of Secre- 
ary of Slate Warren M. Christo- 
her's quick visit to this fledgling 



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Palestinian capital Tuesday spared 
him the sight of a large mural of the 
Iraqi president Saddam Hussein, 
freshly painted on a wall at a dusty 
intersection. 

The taboos of a generation have 
evaporated almost overnight as Is- 
raeli military rule ended and Pales- 
tinians assumed responsibility for 
running their own community, h is 
no surprise to see Palestinian flags 
and portraits of the Palestine Lib- 
eration Organization leader. Yasser 
Arafat, on cars and buildings, but 
other signs of the new reality' here 
are much less easilv absorbed: 


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Armed Palestinians guarding a 
synagogue, Palestinian officers 
long based in Iraq issuing orders, a 
freshly-painted sign that reads, in 
English, “PLO Office." 

[Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin 
warned tbat Mr. Arafat's reported 
call for a jihad to liberate Jerusalem 
threw into doubt the peace process. 
Agence France-Presse reported 
from Jerusalem. 

[“If it is confirmed." Mr. Rabin 
said, “it’s a serious violation of the 
written commiimems." 

[Mr. Arafat reportedly urged 
Muslims to fight to liberate Jerusa- 
lem from Jewish rule, according an 
audio tape broadcast by Israeli 
stale radio. 

[“You have to come and to fighi 


and to start the jihad to liberate 
Jerusalem, your first shrine.” Mr. 
Arafat reportedly said in a tape 
recording of a speech in a mosque 
in Johannesburg on May 10.| 

Mr. Christopher drove down 
from Jerusalem, past the “Sea Lev- 
el" marker photographed by a mil- 
lion tourists, to this sweltering oasis 
to salute lhe people he called “our 
Palestinian friends." Meeting with 
Faisal Husseini. Saeb Erekai and 
other members of the governing 
council recently appointed by Mr. 
Arafat in what was until last Week 
Israeli police headquarters. Mr. 
Christopher told them "they have 
friends who will help them achieve 
what they want to achieve." 

“Isn’t il exciting that an agree- 


ment signed only (wo weeks ago is 
being virtually fully implemented 
here and in Gaza?” Mr. Christo- 
pher said. 

Mr. Husseini in reply welcomed 
the transition to limited Palestinian 
self-rule in Jericho and the Gaza 
Strip as “the firsi step in building 
our state of the future, the new 
Palestine” 


That was a challenge to U.S. pol- 
icy. which docs not favor establish- 
ment of on independent Palestinian 
slate. 

With Israelis looking on benign- 
ly as the Palestinians fly their flag 
and talk of having a U.S. Consulate 
in Jericho, it seems only a matter of 
time before the dream of Palestine 
becomes the nation of Palestine. 


sands of files which have been 
opened by the military police inves- 
tigators.” 

Israel's economy also bears the 
scars of the occupation. Tbe early 
Zionists championed Jewish labor, 
but after the 1967 war. the menial 
jobs were increasingly taken by a 
pool of low-paid, unskilled Pales- 
tinian workers. 

Until the Palestinian revolt, Isra- 
el benefited enormously from tbe 
occupation, according to Meron 
Benvenisti. a social scientist wbo is 
an authority on the West Bank. 

“We got all tbe benefits without 
any cost.” be said. In addition to 
cheap labor, (be territories became 
a captive market for Israeli goods 
and services, and Israd made negli- 
gible investment in tbe occupied 
lands. 

Another legacy of the occupa- 
tion was an upheaval in Israeli class 
tensions and politics that will be 
fdt for years to come. 

The Jews who immigrated to Is- 
rad from North Africa and the 
Arab slates in the 1950s deeply 
resented their treatment as second- 
class citizens by the Jews of Euro- 
pean origin. 

After the 1967 war, as more and 
more Palestinians came to work in 
Israel, the Eastern Jews came to 
fed they were no longer at the bot- 
tom rung of society. Many of them 
were profoundly hawkish and up- 
wardly mobile; in 1977 they hdpaJ 
bring to power Menachem Begin of 
Likud and his vision of a “Greater 
Israel" including Jewish settle- 
ments and a permanent grip on the 
occupied territories. 

But in recent years, as the East- 
ern Jews moved up into tbe middle 
class, they began to grow resentful 
of the huge share of national re- 
sources going into settlements. 
They and other groups in Israd. 
including the new Russian immi- 
grants. turned Likud out of power 
in 1992. 

Yossi Olmert, a spokesman for 
the last Likud government, said Li- 
kud had fail 


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U.S- Group Found Tibet Persecution^ 


2 : 

Lrr.c: ! 
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BELTING (API — U.S. congressional staff members who secretly 
toured Tibet said they found Tibetans living in “an atmosphere offea^- 
persecuted by their Chinese rulers. -’-Tjc 

Posing as tourists, the four-member delegation visited Nepal and Tibet 
for 10 days in April. They talked with Tibetans fleeing Chinese peraecgf 
tion and saw evidence of Tibetan culture being destroyed, they sar’djlfca 
report faxed Tuesday to news organizations in Beijing ' 
President Bill Qmion must decide by early June whether 
deserves renewal of low-tariff trade privileges. His decisioa wfll deposit 
on how much progress China has made in h uman rights. includSjg'! 
protecting “Tibet’s distinctive religious and cultural heritage.” , -Ji&f- 




Correction 




The headline on the stock market report in Tuesday’s editions nusriat^ 1 
ed the company negotiating with Electronic Data Systems Coro. Tb£-‘ 
company is Sprint Corp. 


vSCJI- 


travel update 


.-!*£■ 

■ 


France Hit by One-Day Strikes 

“W** ~ One-day strikes grounded- 

sonw r»m ? rIine ,<Vir InlCT - blocked sh^jing traffic-inY ; ' - 

some pons and slowed health services in public hospttaSonTuesday^v 

wo EdSSTT *V d ^ were worried Sbi UbenSi of 

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N-C-V-P-O-B-f 


■ Christopher Back to Syria 
Mr. Christopher said he was re- 
turning to Syria following talks in 
Israel, Agence France-Presse re- 
ported Tram Jerusalem. He said, 
after meeting Prime Minister Ra- 
bin, that he would stop in Damas- 
cus on his way hack to the United 
States. 


kud had failed to see the shifting The strike did not disrnni ni-toT ' - ? wlesl ? 


ology intact, and refrained from 
looking at it in terms of costs to 
society,” he said. 

The Likud years thus left one of 
the most problematic and painful 
legacies of the occupation: the in- 
creasingly embattled settlement 
movement. 110.000 Jews inter- 
spersed in communities among 2 
million Arabs. 


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strike call a } ^ reel1 abports fare dandoied a 48-hour '?■& 

Champions' rim^ Ien ? l , 0 ^^nipt arrivals/or the European Chib -S-! 
v. nampions Cup soccer final Wednesday mfe? 


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General Raul Cedras, left, and Jean-Clande Duperval of (fie army higjh command, at a 
ceremony marking the investiture of the new Haiti cabinet at the National Palace in Port-au-Prince. 


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Foreign Policy Dogs Clinton 

His Approval Rating Slumps to 40%, Poll Indicates 


By Dan Baiz 
and Richard Morin 

Washington Past Service 

WASHINGTON — Public confidence in Presi- 
dent Bill Clinton's handling of foreign policy has 
declined sharply following setbacks to his Haiti 
policy and criticism of other initiatives, and a 
majority of Americans now question whether Mr. 
din ton understands difficult foreign policy prob- 
lems. 

A new Washington Post-ABC News PoD shows 
that only 40 percent of the public approve of Mr. 
Clinton’s handling of foreign policy, with S3 per- 
cent saying they disapprove, tbe lowest rating be 
has received since tbe disastrous raid in Somalia 
last fall that resulted in the deaths of IS American 
sokfiens. 

.Only 13 percent of those surveyed said Mr. 
Qjnton has a clear foreign policy, with 37 percent 
saying he does not and tally half saying they haw 
do opinion. 

Thti survey suggests recent criticism that Mr. 
.CEn tern's foreign policy lades coherence has under- 
-nnned the public’s faith in his ability to make 
somKfcdficisions. 

Asked whether they trusted Mr. Clinton to do 
the right thing on foreign policy, tbepoH found tbe 
pcftficevenly divided: 50 percent said they trusted, . 
him, while 48 percent said they did not 
. in comparison with his two predecessors, Mr. 
CEffl&qr^ those surveyed 

said he is doing a worse job on foreign policy than 
fanner Resident George Bush, while 28 percent 
said he is doing a better job. 


On a different measure. Mr. Clinton ranks be- 
low former President Ronald Reagan. Only 45 
percent of those surveyed said Mr. Clinton has a 
good or excellent understanding of complicated 
foreign policy issues. In January 1987. during the 
height of the Iran-contra affair, 53 percent said 
Mr. Reagan had a good or excelhml grasp of 
complicated foreign issues. 

The latest poll is based on telephone interviews 
with 1,523 adults and was conducted on May 12- 
1 5. The margin of sampling error is plus or minus 3 
percentage points. 

In other findings: 

• Mr. Chn tan’s overall approval rating dropped 
to 51 percent, from 57 percent in March. Half of all 
men interviewed said they disapprove of his per- 
formance; while a strong majority of women ap- 
prove: 

• The erosion in support for Mr. Clinton's 
health care plan continued, with 50 percent now 
saying they disapprove of the plan; 44 percent 
approve. 

A majority of those interviewed (52 percent) 
said Congress either should not pass any of Mr. 
Clinton’s plan or should do so only after making 
major revisions. The 25 percent who said they did 
not want any of it passed is the highest to date. 

. • More than 90 percent of the public have beard 
of the charges by Paula Corbin Jones that Mr. 
Clinton made a crude sexual advance toward her. 
But only 17 percent said they believe she was 
sexually harassed, while 35 percent said they do 
not befieve she was harassed. The remainder had 
no opinion. 


Nixon Raged at Jews, an Aide Wrote 


The Assocuaed Press 

■ ’WASHINGTON — - EL, It Hal- 
deman, Richard Nixon’s right- 
hand man in the White House, re- 
corded in -his diary that the ' 
president was “pretty fed up with, 
blacks,” and believed there was 
“total Jewish domination of die. 
media,” 

On Feb. 26, 1970, Mr. Haktanan 
dictated that Mr. Nixon “really 
st United States 


skmx of the terrible problem arising 
from the total Jewish domination 
of the media and agreement that 
this is something that would have 
to -be dealt with,” Mr. Haldexoan 
wrote. 

■ “The Rev. Graham has die 
strong feeling that tbe Bible says 
that there are sataskr Jews and 
that’s where our- problem arises,” 
he wrote. 

Mr. Nixon died last month; Mr. 


again 

Jews” and sak£ “not to let any Jews .& Haldeman last year. 


see Mm about tbe Middle East 

Mr. Haldeman, whose posthu- 
mous recollections were published 
Tuesday, noted that one particular 
outburst by Mr. Nixon was in .the. 
presence of Ins national security 
adviser, Henry A. Kissinger, who is 
Jewish. 

“There was considerable discus- 


Mr. Haldeman’s recollections 
range from the trivial — how his 
staff thought that getting Mr. Nix- 
on a dog would humanize him •— to 
bigotry at the presidential level. 

Referring to President Nixon as 
P, Mr. Haldeman. noted: 

“P emphasized that you have to 
face the tact that tbe whole prob- 


lem is really the blacks. The key is 
to devise a system that recognizes 
this while not appearing to. 

“Pointed out that there has never 
in history been an adequate black 
nation and they are the only race of 
which tins is true. Says Africa is 
hopeless, the worst there is Liberia, 
winch we built." 

After Mr. Nixon met with the 
black dvfl rights leader Ralph Ab- 
ernathy on May 13, 1969, Mr. Hal- 
deman said Mr. Abernathy had 
brought a long list of demands then 
“wait out and stabbed us on TV." 

Mr. Haldeman raid: “Proved 
again there’s no use dealing honest- 
ly with these people. They obvious- 
ly want confrontation, no solu- 
tions." He added, “Pretty fed up 
with blacks and their hopdess atti- 
tude." 


Mario Einaudi, Political Scientist, Dies 


By Wolfgang Saxon 

New York Times Service 

Mario Einaudi, who spent roost 
of his life explaining Eu rope t o 

AmaacansandAinericatoEuKipe- 

ans. died on Sunday in the house m 
which he was boro in Piedmont, 

IU §e was 90. For most of the last 
30 years he had divided his trine 
between Italy and Ithaca, New 
York* 

He died after a brief illness, his 

/3 M y hif death, he was Goldwin 
Smith professor ementas of gov- 
ernment at Cornell Umvwnty. At 
the universty, he tanufed the Cen- 
ter for International Studies, which 
Sas later renamed the Mario Hn- 


audi Center for International Stud- 
ies. 

Mr. Einaudi was the oldest son 
of Luigi Einaudi, an economist 
who was the first president of tbe 
Italian Republic, from 1948 to 
1955. Mano Einaudi created tbe 
Fondarione Einaudi, in Turin, in 
memory of Ins father. His father’s 
li brar y formed tbe basis of what 
has grown into an important collec- 
tion of texts cm economic history. 
The foundation also provides grad- 
uate research fellowships for stu- 
dents from around the world. 

- Educated at the Iftrivesrsty of 
Turin, Mr. ESnandi first came to 
the United Slates as a Rockefeller 
Foundation JeBow to study at 
7. Ha ro- 


He taught poli' 
Harvard and FordI 


Harvard University in 1927. 


ordham before join- 
ing the Cornell faculty in 1945. 
While there, he twice served as 
chairman of the Department of 
Government, and, in 1965, found- 
ed the Center for International 
Studies. 

One ofhis widely known bodes, 
still in print, is “The Roosevelt 
Revolution" (1959), an appraisal of 
tho legacy of the New Deal for 
American society. He was co-au- 
thor^ two other books that remain 
in print, “Communism in Western 
Europe” (1951) and “Christian De- 
mocracy' in Italy and France” 
(1969). 


Haiti Commanders 
Might Want to Quit, 
U.S. Aides Assert 




By Art Pine 

Las Angeles Tima Service 

WASHINGTON— 7Tie Giflton 
administration has received prelim- 
inary indications that Haiti’s mili- 
tary rulers may be willing to step 

down in the face of increased US. 

pressure, according to U.S. offi- 
cials, who cautioned that no firm 
deal was yet in the works. 

Defense Secretary William J. 
Pony told reporters traveling with 
him to Ottawa that Washington 
was “sinning to get some signals” 
that the Haitian military chief. 
Lieutenant General Raoul Cedras, 
realizes his position is precarious 
and that he “might want to step 
down." 

Although Mr. Perry did not elab- 
orate. other VS. officials cited a 
spate of recent developments, from 
signs of growing friction within the 
Haitian military to indications that 
the new military-backed govern- 
ment has been having difficulty 
putting together a cabinet 

But administration strategists, 
who dearly were taken aback by 
Mr. Perry's remarks, cautioned 
that any sucb signals were only 
preliminary and “should by no 
means be seen as any evidence" 
that either General Cedras or other 
military leaders are about to resign. 

“We think it will require addi- 
tional pressure before anything like 
that might occur," one key official 
suggested. 

Hie developments came as Hai- 
ti's new government announced a 
new cabinet Monday while leaving 
the post of prime minis ter unfilled. 
The acting prime minister, Robert 
Malval, who had beaded Haiti’s 
legally elected government, de- 
nounced the regime as illegal. 

In a bold an of defiance that 
broke a sit-month silence. Mr. 
Malval called on civil servants to 
disobey tbe new government's or- 
ders and demanded that General 
Gfedras resign immediately, charg- 
ing that he had disgraced his uni- 
form and locked Haiti into “the 
darkness of night.” 


“The time has come for you to 
leave so that a new dawn may break 
for the Haitian people," Mr. MaJ- 
val told the general publicly. “Mor- 
ally, you are not worthy of the title 

of commander in chief of the 
armed forces of Haiti." 

The White House press secre- 
tary, Dee Dee Myers, immediately 
issued a statement praising Mr. 
Malval as “courageous," saying the 
United States vigorously supported 
the his denunciation and backing 
bis demand that General CMras 
step down. 

The administration has been in- 
tensifying its economic pressure on 
Haiti, pushing to tighten United 
Nations-imposed sanctions and 
threatening to use "the military op- 
tion” if the military leaders do not 
resign. 

At the same time. President Bill 
Clinton has appointed William H. 
Gray 3d, a former congressman 
from Pennsylvania, as his special 
envoy to Haiti, in the hope of work- 
ing out a diplomatic settlement. 
Planning for possible military ac- 
tion has been suspended temporar- 
ily. 

The developments came as the 
Pentagon announced that the Unit- 
ed States had contracted with a 
Ukrainian company to provide a 
merchant vessel for use as an immi- 
grant-processing ship, at least for 
the next few weeks. 

Under a new policy put into 
force by Mr. Clinton earlier this 
month, the administration will step 
up the processing of Haitian appli- 
cations for immigration to the 
United States by reviewing them 
aboard ships at sea rather than hav- 
ing the Haitians risk traveling to 
U.S. shores. 

The State Department spokes- 
man, MikeMcCuny, told reporters 
on Monday thru while officials 
were working on putting that poli- 
cy into effect. U.S. warships had 
intercepted another 586 Haitians 
since last Thursday — the first 
since April 22, before the new poli- 
cy W 95 announced. 


POLITICAL NOTES 






Costof Vice? Try $1 Trillion 


WASHINGTON — Over the next two decades, 
Medicare will spend Si trillion caring for people 


hospitalized by diseases caused by smoking, alco- 

’ eCofui 


housm and drug abuse, according to the Columbia 
University Center on Addiction and Substance 
Abuse. 

An estimated 5800 billion of that cost wifi result 
from cigarette smoking, the center said. 

“Cigarette smoking is the largest angle drain on 
the Medicare trust fund," which faces bankruptcy 
by the aid of the decade, said Joseph A. Califano 
Jr., president of the center and former secretary of 
wealth, education and welfare. 

Smoking-related illnesses accounted for an esti- 
mated 417,000 deaths in 1990, or about one-fifth of 
all deaths in the United States, according to tbe 
study. Cancer, heart disease and respiratory dis- 
ease attributed to smoking were the leading causes 
of such deaths. 

The center’s report, based on Medicare records 
and epidemiological studies, comes as new efforts 
are under way in Congress to discourage smoking 
and restrict smoking sites. 

The use of cigarettes in the United States has 
declined from its peak in 1966. when 42.6 percent 
of the adult population reported smoking, to 25.7 
percent in 1991. 

The study, conducted by Jeffrey C. Merrill, an 
economist and health policy analyst, and Kimber- 
ley Fox, a policy analyst, "is based on studies of 
Medicare hospital admissions in 1991, plus studies 
of how many admissions for a given disease are 
related to tobacco, alcohol and drug abuse. Tbe 
researchers concluded that about 23 percent or 
Medicare inpatient costs in 1991 were related to 
these three causes. (WP) 


excessive! 

tbe states of fowi, and New Hampshire! 

The investigation, which grew out an audit of 
the 19S8 campaign, found that the George Bush 
for President Committee Inc. accepted 239 exces- 
sive contributions from individuals totaling 
5188,195 and five more donations totaling SI 1.000 
from political action committees. 

The investigation also found that tbe Bush cam- 


>105.000 and tbe New Hampshire limit by almost 
5156,000. The Federal Election Commission, rec- 
ognizing the emphasis campaigns put on states 
holding early primaries, has since dropped the 
stale- by-state spending limits. 

The commission has been criticized often for 
taking too long to audit campaigns. (WP) 


Cable TV Picks Own Monitor 


WASHINGTON — MediaSeope, a nonprofit 
California-based organization that presses the en- 
tertainment industry 10 take a “pro-social” tack, 
has been selected by the cable industry to monitor 
its programming for violent content and provide a 


report card 00 it to the public. 
Thei 


: organization will review four random weeks 
of programming chosen from September, October, 
November and January for of the next three 
seasons. A total of 25 channels will be monitored, 
including 12 basic cable channels, five premium 
channels such as Showtime and HBO, and three 
local independent stations. 

More than 2,700 hours of prog ramming a season 
will be monitored. (WP) 


Quote/ Unquote 


Bush's '88 Campaign Is Fined 


WASHINGTON — George Bush’s 1988 presi- 
dential primary campaign has agreed to pay a 
$40,000 civil penalty to settle a Federal Beciion 
Commission investigation of some $200,000 in 


Stephen G. Breyer, at a White House ceremony 
following President Bill Clinton's nomination of 
him to the 


: Supreme Court: “The effort that you 
put into this, Mr. President, testifies to your pro- 
found respect for the constitution that you were 
sworn to uphold." (WP) 


5 


4 

d tbe 


the 


Away From Politics 


• A death row inmate's comments on prison fife wifi 
not be broadcast after all by National Public 
Radio. The decision to drop the idea has angered 
anti-death-penalty activists. The network had ar- 
ranged with Mumia Abu- Jamal, a radical black 
activist convicted of killing a Philadelphia police- 
man 12 years ago, to do sporadic commentaries. 
But it said later it had “serious misgivings about 
the appropriateness of using as a commentator a 
convicted murderer seeking a new trial." 

• A man trim kified three teenagers in 1990 and 
showed no remorse at his trial was executed by 
lethal injection in a Maryland prison. John Freder- 


ick Thaw*. 45, said. “Adios" before be was admin- 
istered the lethal dose. 


• Two female FBI agents who alleged that they 
were fondled and taunted by their supervisor have 
dropped their lawsuit against the agency, which in 
turn agreed to pay them nearly $350,000. their 
lawyer said. 


• A fourth cadet at Virginia Military Institute 
resigned after an investigation turned up evidence 
of “major violations" of tbe school's honor code, 
but three other cadets were cleared of cheating 
charges. nyt. wr. afp. lat 


Vassar Held 
Guilty of 
Tenure Bias 


Justice Thomas Alleges Black Privilege 


By Mary B.W. Tabor 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — Vassar College 
discriminated against an assistant 
biology professor by denying her 
tenurepartly because she was mar- 
ried with children, according to a 
ruling by a federal judge. 

The ruling, by Judge Constance 
Baker Motley of the U.S. District 
Court in New York, was expected 
to open the door to similar suits by 
women in the academic world, legal 
and academic experts said. 

Educational institutions have 
long discriminated against women 
and minorities in matters of pro- 
motion and pay, the experts said. 
That the case involved Vassar. once 
a leading women’s college but co- 
educational since 1969, was also 
striking 

Tbe assistant biology professor. 
Cynthia J. Fisher, charged that 
Vassar, in Poughkeepsie, New 
York, had paid her less than men or 
single women in the department 
with lesser credentials and had 
failed to gram her tenure in 1985 
because she was married and older 
than her peers. 

At the time she filed the suit that 
year, Ms. Fisher was 53. She had 
joined the Vassar faculty in 1977 
after teaching pan-time at nearby 
Marist College and spending eight 
years rearing her two daughters. 

Judge Motley, in a 102-page 
opinion on Monday, documented 
Ms. Fisher’s tenure review at Vas- 
sar's biology department as well as 
the history of hiring and promotion 
in that department. She ruled that 
Vassar was guilty of sex, age and 
salary discrimination. 


By Neil A. Lewis 

New York Tima Service 

WASHINGTON — Justice 
Clarence Thomas of the Supreme 
Court said in a speech that the 
disorder and rampant crime in the 
dries were results, in part, of what 
he called the“judidal rights revolu- 
tion” that ended up treating blacks 
and poor people as victims of their 
situations ana did not hold them 
responsible for (heir actions, 

In his first speech on the issue of 
morality and justice since be joined 
the court more than two years ago. 
Justice Thomas said that well-in- 
tentioned judges and officials had 
moved many blacks from a posi- 
tion of slavery to one of crippling 
dependency. 

Justice Thomas said that when 
blade and poor people are regarded 
as victims and not held responsible 
for their actions when they commit 
crimes, they are being treated as 
children, “or even worse, treated 
like animals without a soul.’’ 


“Why are so many of our streets 
itn drug bazaars?" he asked. 


rife wit 

“Why is there no disdpline in our 
schools?" 

The reason, he said, is that peo- 


ple are no longer held responsible 
for 


for their acts and that judges are 
often lenient with criminals be- 
cause of their position in sodety. 

“The rigbis revolution worked a 
fundamental transformation in our 
c riminal laws," he said, referring to 
a series of Supreme Court cases and 
resulting decisions by lower courts 
that created new rights for poor 
people and members of minority 
groups. 

Justice Thomas, the court's only 


black member, spoke Monday at a 
meeting of a conference sponsored 
by two conservative public policy 
groups, tbe Federalist Sodety and 
the Manhattan Institute. 

The conference was devoted to a 
series of cases, beginning in 1970 
with Goldberg vs. Kelly, that dra- 
matically expanded civil and politi- 
cal rights. 

The Goldberg vs. Kelly opinion, 
written by Justice William J. Bren- 
nan Jr., found that poor people had 
a constitutional right not to have 
their welfare benefits terminated 
without full bearings. 

After that case, courts also void- 
ed vagrancy laws and expanded the 
rights of public school students, 
public housing residents and the 
mentally ill 

“The very same ideas that 
prompted tire judicial revolution 
and circumscribed the authority of 
local communities to set standards 
for decorum and civility in the 
streets and public schools also 
made it far more difficult for a 
criminal justice system to hold peo- 
ple responsible for the conse- 
quences of their harmful acts ,” Jus- 
tice Thomas said. 

The notion that has had the 
worst effect, he said, “is the idea 
that our society had failed to safe- 
guard the interests of minorities, 
the poor and other groups and as a 
consequence was at fault 

“Many began questioning 
whether the poor and minorities 
could be blamed for the crimes they 
committed,” he said. “Our legal in- 
sure lions and popular culture be- 
gan identifying those accused of 


wrongdoing as victims of upbring- 
ing and circumstances.” 

The tone and thrust of Justice 
Thomas’ remarks was similar to the 
kind of speeches Ire gave around 
tire country before he became a 
federal appeals court judge in 1990. 

He was greatly celebrated by 
conservatives and many Republi- 
cans as a black who was outspoken 
in his opposition to preferential 
treatment for members of minority 


8 


groups. President George Bush 
nominated him to tire Supreme oUdated 
Court in 1991. tins in 

Justice Thomas said that tire . 
rights revolution was well-intended ll S3” 
but, “once our legal system accept- 
ed tbe general premise that social 
conditions and upbringing could 
be excuses for harmful conduct, the 
range of causes that might prevent 
society from holding anyone ac- 
countable for his actions could be 
limitless." 


Tbe judge ordered Vassar to give 
Ms. Fisher ‘ 


the option of returnin 
to the university with a tenured 
position. She also ordered Vassar 
to double Ms. Fisher's salary for 
the past nine years, estimated to be 
about $400,000. 

Ms. Fisher, who since being de- 
nied tenure has earned a master's 
degree in social work and has been 
working as a social worker, said she 
hoped to ret urn to academics and 
would like 10 return to Vassar. 



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f/r ■ ;h e Terms or the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. J 

MP'i'd M- ftir 5w// F*«" fie, *• y s ofnda | s 5ay ,h e spent fuel rod* M be removed ; 

T« to , mm ^ Nonh . s 

reactor could vield enough pi U tom- '" 

that “quite a few" spent fuel rods had been rcnwreu . f , fjvc 3IO mic 'bombs. 

from a North Korean nuclear reactor despite wanting? um 10 maKC IO “ r . . c irv w ,|- 

that the action would violate safeguards agreements, a In Ottawa, the 'isi 1 c • ■ . ‘ , ^ j 

South Korean television network reported. lam J. Perry, satd m a *P*£ ' ™ * 

. . North Korea represents a very substantial nror-iurm 1 

“The refueling will continue for the next two . - 5 „ jhe timeframe is defined by the number of 

months, so there is still time to resolve the problem. ^ ^ woy |jj uke North Korea to convert spent fuel 
KBS television quoted Yun Ho Jin. an official at the a nuc | eaf reaclor into weapons-grade plutonium. 

North Korean Embassy in V lenna. as saymg. ~ We don't know exactly what the number of weeks 

Mr. Yun blamed the Vienna-based International ^ j ?ul wc haw mai number of weeks to get '.his $ 

Atomic Energy Agency, the UN nuclear kuleeuards p ro 5| en) resolved." Mr. Perry said at a neus'eonfer- 

watchdog. Tor railing to show up at the start yf the M( , e after ^ speec h. 

refueUng on Saturday despite repeated calls o> his ^ Nonh Korcan diplomat in Vienna told KBS That i* 
coumiy to do so. KBS said. The network quoted him ■ ^ - s decision to replace the rods &£ 

as saying that the refueling could not be delayed anv JJ»™| of yN mc , n j lors should not affect ® 

longer because of technical and safety reasons. I0 the dispute through dialogue. The 

The report came as the Unite! Nauen^ PJ'-Wj*® North has declared that it would allcw UN inspectors 

resume inspections 21 Ncjth korws l0 ^ prcxm a , die refueling but would not permit 

nuclear facilities. In March, the Nonh denied m^pec- v- f f 

tors access to an important reprocessing facility. them to take samples. 

The United Nations is demanding that its ir.vpec- Three UN inspectors arrived m North Korea on 
tors be allowed to take samples from the spent fuel to Tuesday, the official Korean Central News agency 
determine whether nuclear material has been diverted reported from Pyongyang. It added that their inspcc- 
to a weapons program. It has warned that refueling ihe tions were expected to last about a week. 
rMctnr without insDeciort present would go against (AP. AFP) 












esC 


Sc 


IVIW WllUg vu k^lllUUUJ WWf"" -*r j 

country to do so. KBS said. The network quoted him 
as saying that the refueling could not be delayed any 
longer because of technic^ and safety reasons. 

The report came as the United Nation^ prepared to 
resume inspections al North Korea's seven declared 
nuclear facilities. In March, the North denied inspec- 
tors access to an important reprocessing facility. 

The United Nations is demanding that il«. inspec- 
tors be allowed to take samples from the spent fuel to 
determine whether nuclear material has been diverted 
to a weapons program, it has warned that refueling the 
react'”' without inspectors present would go against 


Northern Forces 


Are Authorized for Rwanda 


By Trevor Rowe 

H'asfiingitm Parr Servicr 

UNITED NATIONS, New 
York — UN Security Council 
members agreed Tuesday to autho- 
rize 5,500 peacekeeping troops — 
including about 500 Ghanaian 
troops to be dispatched immediate- 
ly — to strengthen the small UN 
contingent in Rwanda. 

After initially voicing strong ob- 
jections. the United States support-, 
cd the deployment. It is uncertain, 
however, whether the council will 
be able Lo raise that number of 
troops, and their dispatch could 
also depend on whether a cease-fire 
can be established and whether the 
warring parties give their consent 
to the mission. 

There is a possibility that the 
council may have to review its deci- 
sion once the UN secretary general 
Butros Butros Ghail issues a report 
within two weeks. This could delay 
concerted international action. 

Bui the United States has been 
sharply critical of a UN proposal to 
airlift the 5,500 peacekeepers into 
Kigali, the Rwandan capital, and 
then have them fan out into the 
countryside to create protected ar- 


eas and assist in the delivery of 
humanilarijn relief. v“" v, . 

Instead. Washington has pro- jAN A. Yemen — Northern 
posed what it views as a safer and ^ orccs ' 1 ® ve 3 sserted that they have 
more realistic option with fewer ca P Iur ™ 20 important southern 
troops who would establish pro- nuutary base Tuesday and have 
lecied zones along the Rwanda scored gains in a key oil-producing 
border. region after days of fierce fighting 

Washington has been critical not ID ' eraen s av ^ war - 
just of the concept underlying the San‘a radio said the northern 
UN plan, but of the world body's forces had taken the Anad base, 
ability to make it work. about 60 kilometers nonh of Aden. 

a Lack of Accurate Figures 3001 were “ fu H control" 

Un-rene Van Odder of V«Nm 1 » ^ is a "| a i" 

York Times reported ram Sew lulls Ihc 

y ork . 1 north with the southern capital. 

Although estimates of the death A< *en. 
toll in the tribal strife that has en- The northerners earlier asserted 
gulfed Rwanda since early April several times that they either had 
have ranged as high as 500,000. the taken the base or were about :n 
United Nations, the State Depart- capture it. Both sides have issued 
meni, and agencies involved in the exaggerated and conflicting corn- 
relief effort concede that there are m uniques since civil war broke out 



Curetted by Otr Staff From Dupadus - 

BEIJING — Prime Minister li 
Peng stressed on Tuesday the lead- 
ership's absolute em phasis os so- 
da! stability in Chiiuv as the. au- 
thorities braced for the fifth 
anniversary of die Tiananmen mas- 
sacre. 

In a speech published on the 
front page of all major newspapers, 
Mr. u recalled the dictum of Deng 
Xiaoping, the senior leader; “With- 
out a stable social and political 
environment, it wiB be impossible 
to carry out reforms or construc- 
tion." 

Publication of the speech coin- 
cided with the brief detention in 
Bejjiflg of Wang Dan, a prominent 

student leader during the 1989 pro- 
democracy movement Mr. Wang 
was picked up while being inter- 
viewed by foreign journalists, but 
was released an hour later. 

Mr. Li’s remarks echoed a warn- 
ing delivered by President Jiang 
Zemin last week, when he defended 
the bloody June 4 suppression of 


demonstrates the intendon 'of <j 
authorities to take a hard Sw] 
maintain cider, even as theUc^ 
States pjmtffcs to decide wbetfcl 
to renew China’s most-fayoted-jjg 
tbn trade status; vV . 

President KB Oinwn fflua fc 
dde by June 3 on fe offlg ftff rh fa 
states, which Washington. ^ 
linked to progress m 
in fSiina. 

On Monday, Mr. ti wa^ed ^ 
visiting former U.S*. 
rity adviser. Zbigniew, Brians 
that foreign goyttmhat^.aonid 

not focos “on ^ , 

a tiny number ^£2nn»T-to the 
ignorance and wjsfe'tfafl'nriw^ 
Oiinesc peopte,"tifeofRciaf ihefia 

reported. ^ ■' 

•AJ > donT ne^^^ ^^^ v i CT | ' 

wo* 

“China for itspo^^^eUiriaterJ 
fared in the intemflaaKtfioI’xHheir 
countries and surety -itWai' aot al- 
low fwogn. ootmirici.iidirfing 
strong countries^&e: the Thntcd 


tntK'RcoMt 

Stephen FreehiH 17, leaving a Singapore court Tuesday with his mother after charges were dropped. 

Singapore Spares 2d U.S. Teenager 


.-tin *ru:cif Pmr 

SINGAPORE — Vandalism 
charges, punish j hie by Ijshings. 
were dropped Tuesday against an 
American iscnager involved in the 


youths would gain nothing by help- 
ing the government's case. 

The deal to let Mr. Freehill con- 
fess only to the stolen property 
charge will spare Singapore the 


no accurate figures. 

Chaos within the country has 
made the task of counting the dead 


nearly two weeks ago. 

San'a radio, which is run by die 
North, also said that northern 


same mischief spree as the young controversy that accompanied the 
American who received four lashing of Michael Fay for vandal- 
strokes of ihe cane. ism. 

in exchange Tor pleading guilty ^ F |g leaded t0 

BAs-siftsJa; 


aU but impossible, and. as a result, forces had overrun two southern 
news reports have uiduded death- barracks and captured 20 tanks, a 


toll estimates ranging from the tens 
of thousands to a half-million. 

Last month. Mr. Butros Ghali 
put the death toll at 200,000. 


MiG jet fighter and a large amount 
of equipment in the oil-producing 
region of Shabwah. about 240 kilo- 
meters northeast of Aden. 


INTERNATIONAL CLASSIF^IEI^ 


fer Marie said the prosecution had 
no expectation that three youths 
already conricted would testify 
against Mr. FrcetuU. who allegedly 
was involved Li spray-painting cars 
and ether acts in October. The 




Mr. Fay’s mother. Randy Chan. 


are permitted to see him once every 
two weeks. 

in brief remarks to reporters. 
Mrs. Chan described her son as 
“O.K." and “counting the days un- 
til his release." 

“1 t hink there will be a lot more 
to be said at that time." she said. 

She said she was not able to see 
the lash marks, which her son told 
her were bang treated by prison 
officers. 

Mr. Fay’s original sentence of six 
blows with a rattan cane was re- 
duced. 

Mr. Freehill originally faced 


Ulk> t/iwuy Iiuuv -T vv ■ ~ ~ j m _ •— ■ 

the 1989 movement and stressed State to_ mtfltfcw- in,-.the taternal 
that national stability would be .. 

maintained at all COStS. Adtcd main la, 

“In the eariy period of establish- problem was, hc^id, "Ihae’s no'r 
ing a socialisi market economic problem onJheChmeaead^btti 1 
structure, it is of strategic impor- hope that Presjden t Ctt ntta wiD 
lance to mamiarn so cial stability," demonstrate the courage of states- ' 
Mr Li said in his speed) to a na- man and overcome Ibesq difScuI- 
tional conference of dvil affaire of- ties and make a wise derision." 
ftcials. In a rare public reference to the 

Since the start of the year, Chi- - June 4 crackdown, Mr. Jiang said 
nese leaders have repeatedly cm- last week that without the "resolute 
phasized the paramount impor- measures" taken by the army in 
lance of stability. 19 89, Chi na would not be eqoying 

In an explicit reference to the its current stability. 

coming anni versary, the Legal Dai- By invoking the memory of June 


ly reported that a nationwide police 4, Mr. Jiang issued the strongest 
campaign was under way to secure warning to date that the govem- 
stability ''during the summer sea- meat is willing to take aU measures 
son ” necessary to eliminate any per- 

According to ihe n ew spaper, caved threat to its position, 
tens of thousands of criminals Have The fear of social _ unrest • has 
been rounded up in the past two dominated Chinese policy since the 
months, including almost 6,500 be- la un c h ing at the beginning of die 
tween April 1-20 in the eastern year of far-reaching economic re- 
province of Jiangsu. forms that have fueled inflation 

More than 2JD00 criminals were and regional economic disparities, 
picked up on a single day last The authorities are especially 
month in the northeastern province concerned that ru mblin gs in the 


along with his stepfather and a three counts of vandalism, two for 
friend from the Singapore Ameri- mischief and one of possessing stc*- 
can School visited him Tuesday for len property: taxi license plates and 
the first time since his caning. They a fire warning sign. 


of Shandong it added. 

Despite the recent release of sev- 


cotmuysde over rising prices and 
low incomes coukJ devejop into a 


eral prominent dissidents, the wave major challenge to the C ommuni st 
of arrests and executions dearly Party’s rural base. (AFT, Reuters) 


PERSONALS 


MAT ns SACKED HEART OF JBUS 
be odcred. gfcnfied. loved and pre- 
tered rfrovghout the world, now & 
forever. Saaed Heal of lews, pray 
for ib. Sax Jude; worker of nvrndej, 
pro* fa IB. Saw Jude, Wprr of *» 
bapoien, pray for ib. Say Hi prayer 
line lira a day. by rhe nwtti day 
your prayer wJ be nrswered. B ho- 
mer been known to fal Pubfcnfccn 

rrant be pofamd. A.V. 

RtAY IHE SACKED Mean of leu be 
adore*), gter?ird. loved and preserved 
dwoudiogt Ihe world now aid fa- 
ever. Sacred Heart of Jew pray for 


.OF* fr) INTERDEAN 

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SARAJEVO. Bosnia-Herzegorina — For 
the past two years. Nadina Cengjc has been 
on an odyssey, searching for sanctuary from a 
war that "has devastated the life of this tall 15- 
ycar-old girl and those around her. 

From Sarajevo to Belgrade to Macedonia, 
through Bulgaria. Romania, Hungary and 
Croatia, and over the goat tracks of Bosnia 
back to her hometown. Nadina’s travels — 
often alone, sometimes under fire, occasion- 
ally in pain — constitute a tale of a girl 
growing up loo fast in a region lorn apart by a 
conflict that she understands with a wisdom 
beyond her years. But now that Nadina’s 
physical journey has ended, a new one is 
beginning. 

Like her neighbors, the girl is trying to pick 
up the pieces of her shattered life and make 
sense of the misery she has witnessed: people 
maimed, playgrounds turned to graveyards 
and nights illuminated by artillery shells. 
And like many of her friends. Nadina finds 
that the hardest part lo bear is the silence now 
that the shells have stopped. 

Following two years of almost constant 
Serbian artillery barrages and sniping. Sara- 
jevo has fallen silent — testimony to a rela- 
tively successful cease-fire forced by a NATO 
ultimatum. 

This crumbling Bosnian capital now boasts 
several ice cream parlors, some working traf- 
fic lights, a tram and a booming business in 
replacing window panes. 

Bui as w\th this teenager, underneath the 
surface the changes are vast and the damage 
great. During this period of relative calm, 
psychological problems and other social ills 
have erupted in Sarajevo. 

The city's Center for Social Work reported 
an avalanche of divorce requests in the past 
two months. "We arc dealing with hundreds 
and hundreds of cases," said Mehra Su basic, 
head of the center. She said the center was 
considering action to make divorce more dif- 
ficult in Bosnia because “the future of our 
families is al slake.’’ 

The 65- bed psychiatric ward a( Kosevo 
Hospital is full for the first time in two years. 
And the city's trams, which before the war 
were packed with giggling children, arc now 
packed with sullen travelers. 

"Now everyone is either silent or they call 
each other names.” said Gordana Hoi, a 
therapist in the city. "There's nothing in be- 
tween.” 


Tens of thousands of well-educated people 
have fled Sarajevo —some to the West, some 
to Croatia and others Co Serbia. In their place 
have come barely literate fanners, the victims 
of Serb "ethnic cleansing” in eastern Bosnia. 
Goals now roam the streets of the old town. 
“Peasant" is the latest insulu 

In some ways, the attempts of people here 
to reconstruct their fractured psyches pose 
more of a challenge than the various interna- 
tionally backed efforts to reconstruct Saraje- 
vo’s dilapidated infrastructure. For almost 
two years, people here have faced inescap- 
able, uncontrollable and unpredictable dan- 
gers — the most damaging combination, psy- 
chologists say. 

Like hundreds of young people in Saraje- 
vo. Nadina has sought help. She has found it 
with the “Bad Gins.” Gathered around a 
table in a building speckled with shrapnel 
holes, the group of 10 teenagers, who took 
their name from an American rock band, 
meets twice a week with two psychologists lo 
share secrets, exchange advice," gossip about 
boyfriends and ay. 

War has brought a lot of things to Sarajevo. 
Ameri can-style group therapy is one of them. 
Before the war, group iherapji did not exist in 
Yugoslavia. Now, scattered m eight commu- 
nity centers around the city, the groups have 
taken the city by storm. About 3.000 people 
attend sessions several times a week in Saraje- 
vo as part of a program that began in January 
and is funded by the Sotos Foundation. 
There is a waiting list of more than 300 
people at the center in Nadina's neighbor- 
hood. 

Nadina began her journey shortly after war 
broke out in Bosnia in April I <>92. Shortly 
before Serbian forces rolled into her family's 
neighborhood and captured their bouse. Na- 
dina’s father sent her to Belgrade and then to 
Skopje, the capital of Macedonia, another 
breakaway former Yugoslav republic. There 
she took refuge with friends of her pj rents, a 
Serbian couple. As the war continued in Bos- 
nia. Nadina’s hosts slowly turned on their 
guest. 

“They said they hoped Sarajevo would be 
burned to the ground. They said they hoped 
my parents had nothing to eat.” Nadina re- 
called. “I never cried before, but there 1 cried 
all the time.” 

Serbian children in the neighborhood 
made fun of the girl and her mixed Croatian 


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and Muslim background. Three months into 
her visit employing some newty acquired 
street smarts, Nadina fled Macedonia, taking 
a bus through Bulgaria, Romania and Hun- 
gary to Croatia, where she joined her mother, 
Mirjana, and younger aster, Metita. 

Life in Croatia for Bosnian refugees was 
lough. The threesome decided to return to 
Bosnia — to live with Mbjana's mother in 
Vitez. Peace still reigned in central Bosnia 
between Muslims and Croats. The girls went 
to school Meanwhile their father, VqsQ, 
fought at the front in Sarajevo and spent 
several months on a trench-digging squad. 

The war soon spread to Vjtez. In April 
1993. local Croats began pressuring people 
from mixed marriages to leave. So the Cen- 
gics gathered their meager belongings, slung 
them on their backs and walked to the Mus- 
lim-held town of Zenica to the north. As the 
family passed through no man's land, sniper 
fire popped around them as they did then- 
best to run up the mountain road. Safely in 
the Muslim-held area, they hitched a ride on a 
passing tractor and rolled into town. 

Things were hard in Zenica, loo. Just like 
the Croats in Vitez, Zenica’s Muslims had 
little tolerance for children of mixed mar- 
riages. From the relative safety of northern 
Bosnia, the mother and her daughters decid- 
ed to return to Sarajevo. It may be burning, 
they said, but it is borne. 

In October last year they took a bus south 
to the central Bosnian town of Fojnjca, and 
then walked for six days. The last day was Ihe 
wotsl Rain and fog blanketed Mount Igman 
outside Sarajevo as the threesome crawled up 
the slopes, slipping in the mud. They made ft 
through the ttuinel dug by the Bosnian Mus- 
lims across the besieged airport into Sarajevo 
and arrived in their old neighborhood of 
Dobrinja shortly before dawn. Nadina found 
her favorite playground. It was a graveyani 

Now the giri thinks about her future. Serbi- 
an and Croatian nationalism has spread to 
Sarajevo, too. Children of mixed marriages, 
like Nadina and Meliia. are having trouble 
fitting into a society in which people have 
begun to take their identity from their ethnic 
group. Tm not Muslim and I’m not Croat so 
what am IT Nadina asked. “Maybe nothing 
at all. Asked where she wants to ga she 
mules wistfully: “To America," she says, 
^nat s where I can be myself." 

—JOHN POMFRET 


ACCESS IN LYONS 
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International 
Herald Tribune 
ads work 


| BOSNIA: UN Refuses Request for Air Strike on Attacking Serbian Tank 


ALTO SERVICES 

5TORACAJL tceang a car ir. faglato 
a impfe- Eisape'i pr*s*e' cr nrqe 
tpeoifti wifi knp fw •**; de w 
perfca wndmen dacree'Y end se- 
anffy Wtenp'toHofWt Tri *4 ; 

I (01734 3»1 704. Fa, 44 Kfl?34 39! C7 I 


ORf.Ai FsT^Tf In UP AhOi \q pARiS ^ 
SPECIAL HEADING 
; • MAY 27, 1994 

To place t our classified nd 
or for more infomuiion: 

Contact in Paris 

TeL (35-1) 46 57 93 S5 - Fax: (3341 46 5" 93 70 
OR YOUR LLCAL I.H.T. OFFICE 
OR REPREbENTAlIVE 


Continued from Page ! 

credibility while the UN operation in Bosnia 
seems more inicnoicd in placating the Serbs to 
achieve some type of peace deal. Previous UN- 
requested air strikes have been limited 10 of- 
fending guns and one sortie resulted in the 
downing of a British Harrier warplane. 

The problem with this philosophy. Colonel 
Mollcr said, is that "if you keep letting them hit 
you and don’t strike back, you can do nothing 
al the negotiating table." 

Colonel Moiler said the incident marked the 
firth rime in the past three months that the 
Nordic BaLtalion in Tuzla had been denied a 
NATO air strike to defend its men from Serbi- 
an aLtack. The most recent request came during 
the April 14 airport shelling. 

Tuesday's rejection of the air strike outraged 
the Danish officer. 

“I guess the diplomats said. ‘Oh. it's just a 
mistake, as long as there’s just UN soldiers on 
the airfield they don’t matter much.' " Colonel 
Mollcr said in a telephone interview. “I believe 
they put mv men's lives in danger."' 

In their defense, j UN spokesman said UN 
commanders did not haw time to order the 
strikes because by the time they learned of the 
20-minute tank attack it was almost over. 

“Wc initiated the dose air support but hv 


that time the Firing slopped,’* said Commander 
Eric Chaperon of the French Navy. a spokes- 
man for the UN Protection Force in Bosnia. 
"The procedure is very clear —the attack has to 
be in progress for us to strike." 

Michael Williams, a spokesman for the UN 
operation in Zagreb, said no request for close 
air support reached Mr. Akashi’s desk because 
General Rose and Major General John Ma- 
chines of the Canadian Army, the deputy force 
commander of UN troops, were handling the 
incident. Under the UN chain of command. 
Mr. Akashi would have to sign off on a request 
to blast Serbian positions from the air. 

Once it was decided that air strikes would not 
occur. Mr. Williams telephoned the leader of 
the Bosnian Serbs, Radovan Karadzic, to “pro- 
test strenuously about the incident." 

Mr. Williams said Mr. Karadzic promised 
Mr. Akashi thar~ nothing untoward would hap- 
pai Wednesday” when more UN flights are 
scheduled for Tuzla. 

According 10 UN officials, the UN plane 
landed at Tuzla airport at 1 :35 P M. The Serbi- 
an lank began firing at 1:50 P.M.. lasting for 20 
minutes. One tank shell landed within -W me- 
ters of a UN observation post. Tango 17. Colo- 
nel Moiler said. Another round landed within 
150 meters of the plane, another UN official 
said. 


During that time Colonel Moiler, who was 
standing with one of two teams of UN forward 
°h *** said he beard a 

1 fc-i’ 0 pl 01 say: “ This 15 ^“nder. We are 
locked on target. But Colonel Moller’s request 

vni5 « P ' °J to b ? aUowcd ‘o fire his 40nun tank 
killer was denied. 


J3* iiSH* * c J JN P ,ane { <*>k off. and the 

cCSS Co '" maad " 


Colonel Mollcr then requested permission to 
move a squadron or Leopard tanks toward the 
offmtdmg Serbs, but ifc* request too was d£ 

i° d 10 S0 - homc " *aid. 

■ 

don t get ,l If we didn’t P gei any + 
today we re not going to get any at all." 

■ Frencfa Sel Partial Pullout 

The Foreign Ministry said Tuesday thai 
France planned to withdraw 1500 of Iic'tv-T 81 

SSlSte- 

^nlryw ih the 

Balkans, appeared i ra ^ a /^T eperS In thc 
on negotiators to 0*5^* ^“““BP^ssure 


V * 










AMER GROUP 


A mg G roups syifriaHsca in international branded consumer goods. Id 1993, 
approximately 705 oftheGroip's net sales of FIM 7.7 MIBon derived from 
uHanatmial sales, with the large* market* of the Waited States and Finland 
^ neratg ^ 45[r and 32*t of Group net sales respectively. The largest division is the 
Sporting Goods Drrison. Wilioo aparting Goods Co. is a teadingnroducer nfgtfC 
rsequrtaiid team sport equipment worldwide. MacGregor Golf Company 
nmrHifecturafliKim8rki*te^equipmeMandebthingwDrkfwide.Olhaactiw^ 

are automuoue trade, uhacromdastrv. and publisfainR and pnnting. TIk Amor 
shares are listed on the Hplumki and f rmdnn Stock Rynhan p* TTie fwwm »tm faifi 
an ADR facility in the United States. 


INVESTMENT ASCARyO ‘ r rvj 


CARDO 


Cardo is an investment and industrial holding’ company that conducts 
international]; focused industrial operations with strong market posture in the 


A large share portfolio enhances the Group's fmaodal strength. 

Turnover has diinbed from SEK L5 biUkra to lfi.7 billkm since the Brat year of 
operation in 1966. 

96 percent of sales are made outride Sweden and of the I6JD0 employees, 

87 potent work abroad Cardo* tap* are the USA, Prance, Germany 

ana Italy. Together, they account Tor 64 percent of sales. 

Cardo has a presence in 30 countries via more than 160 opera ting companies. 



'Tit'-: fr : 


Den norsAc Bank 


DEN NORSKE BANK 3 

Den Norsk? Bank AS ts Norway's largest commensal bank, with note going back 
to the middle of the previous century. In 1993. the bank had irtaJ assets of around 
NOR 161 billkm and presented srmuiiu shaving a solid profit The bank has a 
broad range of financial products and services, a widepread domestic distribution 
fasten) comprising 162 banlting outlets and an extensive ittiesnationa] network 
including four baring entities and 12 representative offices. Combined with the 
bank's strong paaboo within the Norwegian business sector, this provides a unique 
opportunity to serve the banking needs of foreign as well as Norwegian interests. 




DET NORSKE VERITAS 4 

An independent (btmdatian established in 1864 to safeguard life, jropeity and the 
environment’, Del Norafce Veritas offers safety, quality and risk •management 
services to international shipping and industry. 

DNV Classification is one t/tfae world s leading maritime dasofkatinn societies; 
DNV Indus try p r o vi des safely, quality and en v i ronm ental services to the 
international oi&hore and process industries, with major markets in Europe, the 
United States and the Par East. 

DNV is abo active in the aerospace and aviation industries. It has ertenave 
engineering research facilities, with laboratories in Norway, the Netherlands, 
Singapore and Um USA 





EFF JOHN GROUP 


TTip TffCInhn Hump's rrrr hraanpSK k pnwwnyr ferry nppcabnn« Tn the Rgltir ■ t v-B. 
mduflul throng tfm wholly ownfld jmhairfwir y .S ifo i tfw huffing pn^ynpj 

ihf o pin gcm pan y in ^ B pf fc, Use the wholly 

owned sutekliHiy Sally UK's traifir in die English Channel and (he wboQy owned 

Cram Cruise Line’s cruise operations in Miami. 

ffah a fleetnfahont twgrty anise and passenger fanes— gmtBnriiig more than 

20^ha^andcan7inffaMnKinjatefysev«imiIfiaipaa8aigBraanmialIy— 

EttJohn is anerfthewcelcraleaffing pafflengEr shipping groups. ESTohn is listed 

on the Helanki Stock Exchange. 

Effifatm hadtotslreveaneS aTP3M 47 bUfion in 1993. of which SfljaLine .. 
accounted fix- trothiidaTteeflniinptzHid.whkh was negative in 1992. menaed 



MODO 


McDo Banintematkital forest prodnrtacanp^^btmBrimtoM^otttte 
production and sale of the following prodmls fine paper, WMWontann^priatm 
papers. paperboard, pulp, sawn timber, packaging paper, and papa- amrplastic 


The averam nombw of employees in 1993 was 11,414 6i 1993, 85 ptment of the 
Gromft tnral mUw tf 37.083 million krmor went to cnmtng outside Swede n. - 
The result afiar net financial items improved by just over one MBm kronor to a 

Gtoftie anreni orttoefc the profits* 1994 is expected to exceed oaebfflioo 
kroner. 


ANNUAL REPORT 1993 





•. i ■» 






EUROC 


The Swedish-based Eurne Gram manabetane* mineral-based budding materials 
a tv? didribates anSzodiai nUrab in bdcbL 

Earning in 1993 increased 65 percent to SEK 240 miDioii. despite a further sharp 
downturn in Eoroc's principal markets. 

An important step to structure the Nordic construction mataials industry was 
taken during lata xntnmn wfipn Eurne arqnfml mrwt nf the minwsUwpd hvnTdrn p 
irwiwwl operatiens hdon ri nf to Partek »nd Metra in Riiltod Eunx’s poaitiooi in 
the Baltic states wee strenguioted. Earnings in 1994 are expected to be at least as 
High as in 1993, despite a further dediiie in the Swedish and nnnish markets. 
Cash flow is expected to remain srfatanriafly positive. 



•O-e 



NOKIA 9 





' u 

« - a '- 3 

n 

r r. 


NOKIA 


Noltia is a Finland-based international telecoinnitniieatinnfi and electronics group. 
More than half of its US$41 billion operations are in t rixanm n n ini t urns. 

Nokia, a worid leader in mohife telephony, deHrere mobile phones i n alm na 
100 countries. It is a power in digital telecammunicatimsaiid the world’s srcoetd- 
laigBSt sapper of digital GSM mobile phone netwirka. Nokia is a m^jor European 
aaanhdmacC (derisions and other caummr eJectrmks as well as a produnsr of 
advaxwed cable technofogy. Nokia'B operating in 1993 was US$253 million. 


ivjl 

iv\uv user 






HUHTAM.ua 


HUHTAMAKI 


Hnhtamakj is a flnnisb-based consumer prodmts group vrith worldwide 
operations in amfectioneiy (Leaf), bod packaging (Potorcnpj and 
pharmaceuticals (Leina). In 1993, net saka were FQ1 8bilim(+21Et'l, rfwbkh 
8W were outside Finland. The pre-tax {anfit improved by 27% to FIM 506 miflian. 
Stratepc steps were taken to boost the company's Ekzropean operatams and 
strengthen its balance sheet He Hahtamaki shares are quoted cn the Helsiriki 
Stock Exchange and are abo traded in Lozxkai on Sean IntanationaL The 
canpany has 20,000 shareholders, with about 35%ofUie equity held 
internationally. 



NORSK HYDRO 


Nook Hydro, founded in 1905, is an energy based industrial group with main 
prodwts mineral (ertilizerB. industrial dvemkala, aOsand gas. al uminium , 
magnesium and petrochemicals. With annual sales of NOK 62 billion and 32^)00 
empkwees worldwide. Hydro is one of the leading Scandinavian companies. The 
dfficnJt market candkians continued in 1993, bed the operation income was 
significan tly strengthened to NOK 4 htHioo. mainly due to reduced costs and 
increased odpodadior. The company's shares are haded on the main stock 
exchanges in Europe and New York. 

Arexunsrve Environmental Report constitutes this year an intergrated part of the 
Annual Report 


I'W.,. X 

METSA-SERLA 


MrfaA^aria is m nf Eurnpu'n lwnting fcapst pm dinS u rfvnpmws with wi uailufaUd 

net sales of FIM 8 bffion. Ihe ccmpany employs 8h00 people at some 40 mills in 
Finland and elsewhere in Europe. 

Meteft-Seria Corporation's result after financial items moved well into profit (FIM 
269 inillnm) as the policy of (bearing oa the am baaness areas cuntiniud in 1993. 
Hie balance sheet was considerably strengthened during the fnvnnrinl year. 'Hie 
share ireue and the couvaaon d warrants into dare significantly increased the 
equity ratio. 


REPOLA CORPORATION 1 


Keptris uvnoratnn ts nruanda oggeat prmue-sedor indnstnai group with 
omsdbdatfd net sales for 1993 over FIM 25 hiflioo. Bepolfl has 26J)M employee 
IQ^OO of rhpm outauia F inland Repola Corp ora tion is a diversified, intemahotL 
girmp It ganp ris g two industrial groq» serializing in its own M/1- LhiitedPt 
hfiHs in the farest indnsby and Raurna in tne engineaingmdnstry. Repolaalso 
has a HMQwrtyintgest in the plastic packaging cmnpafiyW. Roaenlew lid. Repr 
has psndnction plantain 20 countries and sales and marketing companies 


uni ta outside Finland. Repola's shares are quoted on the Helsinki ano London si 


j 993 ANNUAL REFUKT 



SCAisastrtcg, 


printing papas 


mdaction,SCA 


in^ 26 ^ m ante 2) naDtries^ half of 
Markets outstde Swedm actoont fir about 85 
ny market. . _ 


EK 5M (LS9L Eqmt^esetB ratio 47% (41). 
,terest SEK 20^9 MllS^SlV 



Skanska AB 



QsxNan 


SKANSKA AB 

and 

in Swedai during 1993, Skanska reported an improve m e nt in tperatrog 
earauffl-CoiBotida ted legating income raaeby 3,701 millim Swedbh brnar to 
SEK L909 M. 'Dns induned property-related writabwns of SEK 2,004 M but also 

Wslfd SEK 28^ 21 M. a dedine of 9 potent from 1992. Inta^&Tefibris to 
pgmote contamed nUematkmflltntion rraolted in the opening of a number of new 
markets in 1993, while opntioos outside Sweden n» r> 23 pscent of Group 
revenues- Higher share prices on the Stockholm Sock Exchange mcxessal the 
value tf atuaka’a stock portftiio to nearly SEK 14 Mike at the end of 1963. The 
Group's financial position became anhstantiaBy atrungw during the mar 


Annual Reports 


□ 13 

□ 14 

□ 15 

□ 16 



manafecuirers « pul p, printing papers, packaging paper, ooarfl and tme papers. 
The Group has a total pulp and paper manu&dsring opacity of 7.3 mfflm metric 
lona Sweden and Germany are the Group's domestic markets and combined 
account fur slightly more than 40 percent of total safes. About 90 pereent tf 
STORA's total sales are accounted Ira by the Eurqiean markeL Tne Gratp's raw 
materials derive from Sweden's natural wats and finest resources. Store's 
hokfinei of preductire forest land in Sweden total L6 millkc hectares. In 1993, 
5T0RA had invoiced sales ofSEK5(U35mflHon. up extent frtm 1992. Income 
afar net financitfirass improved to SEK 529 tnillhKL The (hoop had an avm{£ 
number of employees in 19M of 33.629. 



•\5V 


C 


Annual R ep o rt 


PTT, Telia is a co-cnvner tfUmsouree. In 1993, The Telia Grtxtp’a revenues 
11SS45 b3bon. Rstarn on capital employed was 1455. TeBa unrated a tats 
US$910 million. 


Name 

Mail or fax this coupon to: 

e: 

nc 

Job Title 

Scandinavian Annua] Reports 

L 

rinmnanv 

International Herald Tribune 

— 

Address 

181 Avenue Charles de Gaulle 

1 


92521 Neuilly Cedex, France 

SEC 

C.\tv Countrv 

Fax: (1)46 37 52 12. 

i3 





































6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. WEDNESDAY, MAY 18, 1994 



Cairo Police Teargas the Bar Association 


By Caryle Murphy 

H'ashir.ri. /y !; S: ni, . * 

CAIRO — Egyptian riot pr<|fa- 
jncn fired tear gas and rubber hul- 
Iei5 into the Egyptian Bar 
Lori's headquarter* Tuesday ;«• 
stop a planned march by lawyers 
protesting the death in police cuv 
lody of one of their colleague':. 

. At least three lawyers were in- 
jured by bullets and scores others 
affected by gas dunns the j\u&. 
Hundreds of policemen, wielding 
batons and electric prod*. also at- 
tacked bystanders showing ;a n:pa- 
thy for the march. 

Angry lawyers shouted on ti -gov- 
ernment slogans — it a govern- 
ment, or is it a gang".’" and \ a .rc we 
in a stale or a jungle?" — from the 
association building, which was 
hung with banner* demanding 
"retribution" for the death of a 
lawyer. Abdei Hariih Madani. 

Inside the bar association head- 
quarters. a doctor attempted to 
give first aid to about 15 p copie as 
lawyers showed reporters empv- 
tear gas connisters that said “Made 
in U.S .” 

The angry confrontation under- 
scored the tense aimiepiien that 


has developed between the govern- 
ment and critics of its human rights 
record since Mr. Madam » death 
wa* disclosed Iasi week. 

Mr. Madani. 32. was a promi- 
nent defense an. -me> for militants 
of the Islamic Group, which is but- 
tling to overthrow the secular gov- 
ernment of President Hosni Mu- 
barak. 

The Egyptian Organization for 
Human Rights and the bar 


M ad ant’s family of his death, hand- 
ed over his bendy in a sealed coffin, 
refused to let an independent au- 
topsy he performed and declined to 
release the official coroner's report 
on his death. 

On Saturday, in another unusual 
move to explain itself. Ihe Interior 
Ministry released a six-page docu- 
ment in which it asserted that Mr. 
Madam was 3 "terrorist " who had 
acted as a courier between impris- 




tion have alleged that Mr. Madam. . ned |ejder , ^ lhe und er- 

■ ho was arrested npn I -6 at hi* ground Islamic Group and its clan;- 
ofr.ee. was tortured to death. rt ||, in Egypt and abroad. 

In an interview. KJialed Budawi. Mr Madam, it ^id. had trails- 


- ; : 
. ■ ''Sjrtjte' 

y-'- • +;- \ 


office, was tortured to death. 

In an interview. Kjialed Bddjwi. 
a spokesman for the bar associa- 
tion. said that "wc were .old by 
doctor*" that Mr. Madam had 
“died i>f electric shock* and a 
wound in the head 12 hours after 
his arrest." The doctors, he added. 
' are afraid h»yr. this openly. ' 

Interior Minister Ha&san AMI. in 
d rare comment on the death of d 
detainee, !a*l week denied that Mr. 
Madam was tortured. Mr. Alfi said 
Mr. Madani died of “an 31 lack of 
asthma.' 

While Mr A If 1 has asserted that 
the deatn -ill he inveMigaied. the 
govern men 1 ha* not explained why 
ii waited until Mjv ** to noiifv Mr. 


2 Israelis Killed 


Continued From Pag;- ! 
point But the question of svitlc- 
menus clearly will not 30 .3 was. 
That was guaromeed h."»he He- 
bron massacre on reh. 25. when a 
settler killed at least 2 4 Palestinians 
ai prayer. .After thaL Israeli cabinet 
ministers said they were readv m 
evict the Jews from Hebron’ for 
security reason*. But Prime Minis- 
ter Yitzhak Rabin, while unsympa- 
thetic to the Hebron settler*. 'insist- 
ed that the issue was not now on hi; 
agenda. 

Although the mailer then reced- 
ed from public attention, n- imme- 
diacy was reaffirmed when a group 
erf armed settlers her; walkcc to a 
religious site on Monday, the Jew- 
ish holiday of Shavuot, and got into 
an argument with Arab-, near a 
mosque. 

Whai happened is not clear. The 
Jews say that the Arabs threw 
stones and that they fired their 
guns in self-pro leave.. Arab.- say 
that the Jews attaches lira and that 
only then did they respond with 


only tnen did thev respond with 
rocks. 

Either way, the blinder. I reignii- 

To subscriber in Svri.-ssria.-.c? 

jus.' ;dl sell ?r’o. 

155 57 5- 


ed uie town. At least a dozen and 
perhaps as many as 18 Palestinians 
were shot in the fighting, by settlers 
and by Israeli soldiers w ho showed 
1 up and became embroiled in their 
, own clashe> with the Arabs. 
i At their weekly meeting. ‘some 
> cabinet ministers accused the set- 
tlers of having been provocative 
with iheir Monday walk through 
town, which army officers said had 
not been coordinated with them in 
advance, as required. Israel Radio 
quoted Mr. Rabin has having 
called the *ettlcr> actions unjusti- 
fied. and other officers were trou- 
bled by reports ihai ihe Hebron 
Jews, after hearing about the latest 
killings Tuesday, walked through 
the main Palestinian market, over- 
turning stands and destroying mer- 
chandise. 

Hebron *. Mayor. Mustafa 
Natshc. coiled the settlers “detona- 
tors" ready to explode, and de- 
manded dial they be removed. But 
And Sharon, die former defense 
minister, defended the right of Jews 
to be in Hebron and to defend 
themselves when attacked, 
i “What are you expecting." he 
j asked, "that they should step quiet- 
I ly. or may be that ihev should run 
■ away?” 

i In ibe hope of reducing tensions. 

I a: least for now. the army sealed off 
; Hebron to outsiders and put the 
. town under curfew. 


ferroj S16.000 sent from outside 
Egypt to finance the Islamic 
Group. 

“The security forces caught the 
terrorist Abdel Hariih Madam on 
the evening of April 26.” the state- 
ment said, adding that he was 
transferred to a hospital after “he 
had difficulty breathing' 1 later that 
night. 

“He was diagnosed as having 
had or. oi.ihma attack.” and the 
next day he died “from a serious 
collapse of the respiratory system.” 

Mr. Madani. a small man who 
had two daughters, was a well- 
known Islamic Group member 
since the early 1980s. when he 
helped create grass-roots support 
for the movement, which only' be- 
gan its campaign of violence in the 
early 1990s. in his humetown of 
Isna in Upper Egy pt. 

According to a member of the 
Egyptian Parliament, Mr. Madani 
had recently approached him about 
helping to arrange a truce between 
the police and Islamic Group mili- 
tant who are caught in a deadly 
blood feud that has left scores of 
militants and policemen dead in 
ihe post year. 

“We find the response of the 
Ministry of Interior to Mr. Ma- 
dam's death entirely unaccept- 
able.” the New York-based Middie 
East Watch said in a letter to Mr. 
Mubarak. 

The organization noted it had 
protested “on numerous occa- 
sions” about “the longstanding 
practices of incommunicado deten- 
tion and torture by Egyptian secu- 
rity forces." 

According to the Egyptian Orga- 
nization of Human Right*. 16 per- 
sons have died in security police 
custody since the beginning of 
1993. ' 

“What happened is against the 
constitution.” an attorney. KhaJed 
Farouk Amer, said of Mr. Ma- 
dam's death. 

“If we stay quiet about some- 
thing like this, then every lawyer 
should throw his syndicate card on 
the ground and work at something 
else. How can we defend the rights 



ons 


4 

V . * •! :Ttv* .. -• •? • 


GUARDED STEP — Prince Philip and President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe reviewing the guard on Tuesday in London. 


ITALY; What Kind of Threat Do the Neofascists Pose? JAJPAN; 

Continued from Page I only way he can gain credibility is Group of Seven nations, to be held fay fj S 

mines." he >aid. Mr. Berlusconi to distance himself from his party’s in Naples in July. J - 

himself acknowledged the "legiti- P 3 


only way he can gain credibility is 
to distance himself from his party's 
past. Even many Italians whose 


mate concern” about his partner* «oma<*s ^ turned by the thought 
and pledged to uphold the tradi- of neofascisis in a European gov- 


tions of Italy’s postwar democracy. 
.And Italy's new foreign minister. 


ernment say that Mr. Fini is him- 
self not a fascist — just as AchiUe 


Group of Seven nations, to be held 
in Naples in July. 

A more practical concern for Mr. 
Berlusconi is the degree to which 
his neofascist allies may hinder his 


Continued from Page 1 - 
of circumstances" that rid.one .had 


.Antonio Martino, told his Europe- pcchetto. leader of the former luU- 
an Union colleagues in Brussels he. iia Communists, is in no way a 
would “never have anything to do MarxisL 
with a rasdst minister." But the ^ probim toer< is ^ 
damage had been done, and it re- regardless 0 f Mr. Fun's political 
Hected what one senior member of sophistication he apparently still 
Mr Berlusconis own party- de- feels the need to pander to tte more 
senbed as an ‘ electoral deal with thuggish elements of his party who 
the devil. are still nostalgic for the davs oT 

In December, as Mr. Berlusconi 


free-market economic policies, .forween, sbe.said.. . : .V. 

which include an accelerated pro- *J e administration s Japan poh- 


'7JteAssNtaaf Press j 

-MOSCOWr-Sergei M.Shakh-j 
raj; resigned- Tuesday as..' deputy* 

p pjrritr minister. a day_after_he was 
fired' from* the post of minister or ‘ 
na tidoabtiee andjegfonal .policy. 

Mr. Shakhrai icW a iwws confer- 
ence hehad submitted his resigna- 
tion to Prwdent r Boris N. Yeltsin 
because be had not been consulted 

- about the naming of anew mirevter 
for nationalities issues. ■' 

“l don't fhi n fc anybody under- 
stands nafiMialities policy., better 
than I dckJ’ ''Mr /Shakhrai, a long- 
time Ydlik) ally, told the InterfaA 
..news. agency. , 

t! r. Mr. ■. Shakhrai bad dashed with 
• ihe adininia tratiptf over policy 10- 
ward Qiecimya, a; r^ion w the 
. ..Caucasus jtfountairis. .of.'-soulbem 

'.Rii^Ahar^tared intkqpentiai.c 

•■in i»r. :■ 

.- " Mr. Shakhrai openly supported 
ihe- CfieiAeri, opposition again.*! the 
R^km’s prtsKJent, -pzh{rftha r Du- 

- * dayey, -who .has refused to open 
■ talks, ot .improving ties if Mr- 

r'Siakhrai represents Russia. 

^ _On Monday, Mr. "Yeltsin re- 
1 placed. Mi'. -Shakhrai as national- 
ities chief with Nikolai Yegcrc- . 
bead Df' the southern ' Krasnodar 

- regioc,’ vriiidb : borders the Cauca- 
sus. Under : £e pread en liaJ order. 

-- Air. Shakhrii. remained deputy 
. priine nnhister. 

Mr. ShaHirai, 38 , leads the Party 
of Unity and Aaxird, a conserva- 
tiv&proraorthipaily. ' 

■ Flftrf Arfriiir al Fimi 

The coniiriarider of Russia** 


Mussolini There is, moreover, un- 


of people if we cannot defend our shrewd, rightist yuppie who has ac- 
own rights?" cepted in recent months that- the 


was planning to leave behind his doubtedly a group of genuine fas- 
indebied media empire and enter cists inside the party, including sev- 
politics. he first sought a political eral who tried to break away last 
alliance with reform-minded mem- year because of their anger at what 
hers of the old Christian Demo- they perceived to be Mr. Fini's 
cratic center. It was only when he overly “moderate" policies, 
was rebuffed that he turned to Mr. .. c- • ■ „ __ 

Fmi. roracd tb MWI bJS- S fSf fiS 

along with the neofascists and the ^ disavows l j je 0n the other, 
secessron- minded - onhern ^ ^ fneadly with neofascisis such 
LcacUe ' as Alessandra Mussolini, the 

Those who know him well assert granddaughter of II Duce and a 
that Mr. Fini is essentially a fttiled actress from Naples who is a 


„ 1 I- „ ...... ^ i"! ■ , ■ mi u t-ivaiij *towuii 5 a- 

J/the H^ _^T(y._Onihe_miebtmd. 


rfflSSE 7&. cy bascomein for Beet, Ad- 

GTof Mr. FntiTpony still hanker “tans.. from such estabtishinent 
after the old corpKatist tradition, EconomsL Ja- . 

and that means a heavy state role in W ^successfully portrayed 11- Reu 

the economv Yet the economic self as the target of U5. demands I ^mtqd ^romMosaiw. 

SkfaSed* in 6 

reinTorced bv nledees to sneed un of - S - bullying. Administration renK) '^ 1 -S w *' ISe ™ n 

^tiz^tiOT fSSmbe^Di^ . w ^ f d 5ft ^ fleel ^ ct>mbal 

the new Treasury minister, suggest c ^ s 1 5, Wore Mr.. Clintons v 

that here, too, Mr. Fini seems pro- meetaag^ July 

pared to keep a low profile. - w«* the other Iraders of theGroup .v- ; > ;r . .. 

Thus the fundamental problem ^ ustnai J “ at J° ns ' t D17DAPT. 

for Italy's new and highly esperi- WMbington and Tokyo may be • JtJCiJr Wli i 1 • 

mental government may be less ?^ t ■ gB / - Vw • 5 ■' . ' a ?• y : -' • ' 

that the institntioas of a major reduce Jiqjans cade ’ FttlOIlClQl RlsIiS - 

Western democracy will beendan- ^ « hwaree .. . 

gered, and more Inal members of many bust ness and jxrtiticaJ. .. Goi^HietkfiomJptaee l V' ; :- 
the n cofascist alliance will encour- lead" 5 already t^ee on me rreed Y/*/. - 

age a creeping respectabilitv for the ’ for ? new 10011(1 of d^ tax.reduc- Manon MeiteU Dow. Inc: The big- 
coun try's discredited political past 0orls would heJp briri& Japan gest U^, brokers and ba n fc.s . ma d e 
Some have already tried to rewrite oal of ^ cmrent recesaon. Sudi a handsome fees, idling those ’bad 


REPORT: 


as Alessandra Mussolini, the 
granddaughter of II Duce and a 
failed actress from Naples who is a 
newly elected member of partia- 


cepted in recent months that- the nent Last December, when it 

seemed she might be elected mayor 
of Naples (she lost), aides w Presi- 


UtOAA lUtUltl CUV1B. , ” *r w -t 7: Tr — ^ . • ■ . , r> 1 //Y. ■ - * 

lenge as he tries to sel Italy on an gram of .la* wts are B£dy : to be; own accomms a strat^v- that de- 
alraost Thatcherite course, the-last .ctossed .on Thursday 7 w^en .the _ F^ds on u^^Hvany^. , . 


pil 


NATO RALLY. WE'RE NOT THE 
ONES WITH OVER 392 TAKE-OFFS 
AND LANDINGS EVERY DAY. 



S^hSL'rta.'to. mSw ■ 

during the economic summit 6f er. is of his own making, . ... .foe&ti&qiun^^ted&p pl« seconiies. 

6 ««iuuii ^ ty foreign minister, Sadayuki - . Even -George Soros. : the. high- 

' - - ' ' HayashL profile speculator 'has been hurt by 

Negotiations were brokeri off in derivatives. Earlier this year, he 
I 111 n n* Gnj CUnwn Fcbniriryby Mr. OintoriaridMdr- dropped SeoamiTlion onhad beLs 

* llcULfMjff ihiro Hosokawa, then prime'minis- on txed toEuropean interesi rates. 


ry few minutes. 24 hours a day. a Pakistan International flight somewhere in the world is taking off or landing, 
ew York. London or Paris. Karachi. Dubai or Cairo. Singapore. Jakarta or Tokyo, it would seem that with over 44 
national destinations in over 40 countries around the worid, we take to the air almost „ 
aturally as the birds do. Frequent flights are just another reason tc- look at us now. 

-I 


Continued from Page 1 
isiratioD smashed a spacecraft to 
| bits while testing an anti-satellite 
I weapon, creating some 285 tracka- 
{ ble pieces of whirling junk, 
j But the rubbish that is accumu- 
lating fastest today is the kind 
made inadvertently. 

For instance, the third stage of 
an Ariane rocket engine exploded 
in orbit in November 1986. creat- 
ing 465 pieces of speeding debris 
lhai spun about Earth. Another 
Ariane upper stage shattered last 
month, creating nine tractable 
items. 

And last week, sensors on the 
ground detected the breakup of a 
Russian rocket stage. So far. that 
event has produced 38 observable 
bits of debris. 

The problem first got serious ai- 
I tenliort in the 1980s as the tide of 
refuse and spacecraft became 
, thicker. Ground-based radars, the 
1 mam tool for assessing the mess, 
round steady rises in large pieces of 
trackable debris, which ranged in 
size Trom softballs to large habitats 
for astronauts. 

, Scientists also began to discover 
1 that below the threshold of routine 
I detectability was a swarm of bil* 

I lions of bits of speeding trash that 
ranged in size from small rocks to 
grains of sand. 

For instance, space shuttles of- 
ten come back from orbit disfig- 
ured by impact craters, as did a few 
satellites returned to Earth for re- 
furbishment and evaluation. 

After years of federal inactivity. 
Daniel S. Goldin. NASA’s current 
administrator, in April 1993. 
spelled out a high-level agency poli- 
cy “to employ design and opera- 
tions practices that limit the gener- 
ation of orbital debris, consistent 
with mission requirements and 
cost-effectiveness. 

NASA also paid the National 
Academy of Sciences to assess the 
dimensions of the debris threat in a 
study that began lost August and is 
to be completed this year. 

The academy, a private group, 
often advises Ihe government on 
science issues. The emerging con- 
sensus of the IQ- member debris 
pand is said lo be that a chain 
reaction is either already under 
way, or is likely to get started in ibe 
near future. 

Mr. Kessler erf NASA, a member 
of the academy panel said the situ- 
ation was so. bleak that even rf 
nothing else were launched mio 
space, a cascade of destruction 
would cause a doubling of the num- 
ber* of pieces of flying. debris in 
some crowded orbits over the next 
100 years. 

He added that if launchings con- 
tinued at their current rale, each 
year adding to the trackabk group 
of debris 400 items (t.QUU 


newcomers and 600 dropouts that 
burn -up in the atmosphere), then 
the chain reaction would cause 
those same orbits to become 10 
times as crowded. 

"It’s clearly wiser to avoid a ten- 
fold increase,’" Mr. Kessler said. . 

Nicholas L. Johnson, an orbital- 
debris expert at the Raman Sci- 
ences Corporation, in Colorado 
Springs, another member of the 
academy panel said be felt there 
was not enough evidence to judge 
whether a chain reaction had al- 
ready begun. In any case, he said, 
its repercussions might not materi- 
alize for decades. 

"From on operational stand- 
point, I think we’re not going to 
have to worry about losing satel- 
lites m ray lifetime.” he said. “1 
don’t chink it’s imminent.' 1 

■As for possible measures lo com- 
bat space litter, one step, an expen- 
sive orte. would involve moving 
spacecraft aside as missions are ac- 
complished. either into less-crowd- 
ed parking orbits or downward into 
Earth’s atmosphere, where they 
would burn up. 

More expensive would be to re- 
design spacecraft to limit debris, 
possibly by adding protective 
shields that would ward off tiny 
projectiles, and keep a satellite from 
shattering.' 


Negotiations were brokeri off in derivatives. Earlier this .year, he 
February byMr. Clinton and Mdr- ' dropped S6Qti nuIlion dri -bad bets 
flmo Hosokawa, then prime'miztis- on tied to Euippean interest rates, 
ter. during, Mr. Hosokawa’s visit J. Ihe General Accounting Office 
here. It appeared then that the study looks set toTrame the grow- 
United States and Japan were' ing debate over derivatives bn Cap- 
beaded foran escalating confront*- itol HilL Three bills to regulate the 
non over trade issues. Bui since Mr. 


HosoLawa’s resignation, in April, 
the administration has quieted its 
criticism, waiting for the dnsf-td 
settle in Tokyo. 


iuh nuL- j nree otus-to regulate the 
market in some manner nave been, 
announced or are planned, accord- 
ing to congressional sources. 

Tn addition, the report will in- 
crease pressure on msidem Bill 


Mr. Kantor said in an interview Clinton to formulate policies to 
Friday that despite criticism of its safeguard the financial system, ac- 


Algerian Security Kills 
20 Muslim Extremists 

Awncc France-Praje 


Japan policy, the administration coining to an official familiar with 
would not give up seeking specific high-level talks taking place within 
open-market commitments in key the administration, 
industries. When past trade agree- Late Iasi year. Mr. Clinton reac- 
menis lacked specificity, they usu- treated a long dormant interagency 
ally failed, he said. - . working group on financial deriva- 

— — I...... foies originally set up after the Oc- 

-■ tober I w stock' inarket collapse. 

Algerian Security Kills 

20 Muslim Extremists 

A*eixr Franct-Pnste ties & Exchange Cbmmfesion and 

ALGIERS — Algerian security the Cmnraodity Futures Trading 
forces killed 20 armed Islamic ex- Commission. Representatives of 
tremiMs in several operations in the Federal Reserve Bank of New 
three days, security officials said York, the Office of theComptroller 
here Tuesday, bringing the total of the Currency and the National 
number killed since .May 1 to 123. Economic Council of the Office of 
Muslim extremists have beep- the President frequently attend the 
fighiing the authorities since Janu- ■ meetings as well, 
ary 1992. when the ariny intervened A 

lo cancel the second round? erf a " - - . • . . . 

general election that the now*- Ala S F rQ »* ca . 

banned Islamic Salvation Front just caB, toll free, 

was poised to win. - - 05 437 437 


■ - To gufa»cH>>e «n frgri ed 

just caB, toll free, 

- 05 437 437 


RATES: Markets Satisfied With Fed's Latest Increase 


Gutmued from Page 1 bonds kept climbing, producing On the J»nd market, inexperi- 
surprise. and the extent of their yields around .7.60 percent before enced traders' who had never omt- 
reaction also surprised the Fed. dropping back slightly. With mob- ated in a climate of rising rates 
When Mr. Greenspan tipped his ^ rates tisiag, the Dow plunged, wondered why tbe'Fed had moved 
hand in testimony 10 Congress on The reasons for themarket volatfli- ' without more si gns of inflation and 
Jan. 31 and warned that interest ty were complex, and many Wall figured officials in Washington 


rales would start rising from what Street economists publidy accused . Juiew .something they did not vi 
he pointedly called “abnormally” bond traders erf overreacting. they pushed up rates protectively 
low levels, the 'federal fundi rale One dramatic reason for' the The currency market was further 

was at 3 percent and, not coinci- market moves was-heavy borrow- buffeted, by the - 023. admin is tra 
dentally, stock maiket indices were ing at :hc low rates by operators of don’s failure 16 reach a trade asree 
at record highs. inleraarional hedge funds. When mem with Japan in rad-FebnArv 

The Dow Jones industrial aver- bond, stock and currency markets leading- to speculation th^ Wash 
age closed that day at its high of went against them." some had to' ington would punish Japan wi?hV 
3.978. Yields on 30-year Treasury dump thrir holdings, further de- cheaper . dollar to restrict its ex 
hoods, which had paced low raon- pressitE prices and .driving up- ports. .This farther sapped conf\ 
cage und automobile lc*an rates and rates. The Fed belatedly realized - dence- m. financial marker u „ -T 
stimulated the economy to an un- that it had nor known h6w overex- Treasury Secretary Llovd BenL 1 * 1 
sustainable growth rate of 7 per- tended some of these traders and publicly said he was not seeking 
ceat in the fourth quarter of last investors were,- but by that itime .il cheaper dollar and the Fed boefen 
year, stood at 6.24 percent, a range h ad no chi»ce but' to pursue its him by jorafog other wntrai S- 
not seen .since the 1960s. steady cocnetrf lijfoteniiig crediL to aipport the U,S.- currency RKS 


In Mr. Greenspan's characteris- 
tically cautious foshKHii- the fed 
funds rate- started -moving up-on 
Feb. 4 by a quarter percentage 
point. By the end of the month, the 
Dow had slipped 12 points, but 
bond jidds had shot up to 6.S4 
percent — the opposite of what the 
Fed had expected when .it made its 
move. 

Further quarter- point Increasci - 
followed on schedule on March 22 
and April IS. .but the prices erf 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. WEDNESDAY, MAY 18, 1994 


Pa«e 7 


Power May Be Fading at Last for MalawVs Little-Loved Life President 


B y Keith B. Richburg 

R( a mtvb r- . * alh4n X lon Pmi Semcr 

Hastings Kamuj^R 3 ^ "I For lhrec dccades > President 
SjESiSK h “ held wch power over his 
^ even mention Msname above a 

sag? * « •“** *■» 

“ USE WCnI l ? ■*? P°iis Tuesday in this country's 

™v Itace independence in 1964 , 

SSL k ! ESS 1 ? foreign analysts predicted that Mr. 

fade away like Africa socialism and 
cKd hv^l h f ? f 4 lhe ^dnent’s outdated relics dis- 
terror by fed up with 30 years of repression and 

Mr. Banda represents the last of old-style “big men.” 


the founders of African independence who became dicta- 
tors every bit as ruthless as the former colonizers. At an 
age some estimate to be 96, Mr. Banda may be the world’s 
oldest leader. In the traditional mode of the old autocrats, 
his portrait adorns every office and shop, his face is on al! 
the currency notes, his birthday is a national holiday, and 
he has named highways, schools, an aiipon and a stadium 
after himself. 

He has jailed political opponents, and there have been 
repeated allegations of murders. He has used red-shiried 
Young Pioneers as his private militia to keep the popula- 
tion in check. Ministers who have annoyed him were 
forced to tie down on the floor and roll over and over as a 
traditional sign of penance. 

Political control was accompanied bv Mr. Banda's biz- 


zarc rules of social behavior. Women were prohibited 
from wearing pants in Malawi. Men had to keep their hair 
cut short, and male travelers with long hair arriving at ihe 
airport often had their locks shorn before bring allowed to 
enter. But all of that began changing two years ago when 
Mr. Banda’s rule began unraveling, after a series of street 
protests and pressure from Malawi's foreign lenders, who 
suspended the country's aid. 

Now voters appear set to tell Mr. Banda that enough is 
enough. 

No official results are expected for another two days, 
and there have been no public opinion polls taken in this 
tiny and impoverished, landlocked country. But Iasi year. 
Malawians voted two-to-one lo junk the one-party state 


and adept multiparty democracy, even though the ailing 
Mr. Banda campaigned against iu 

Since then, his health has deterioraied further. He 
underwent brain surgery in South Africa last year, and 
even though he has been propped up as the presidential 
candidate of his moribund Malawi Congress Parts, he his 
missed several campaign appearances, and has had trou- 
ble walking or even standing 

On the streets, the feeling of change was palpable, as 
Malawians waited for up to two hours to vote and talked 
with rare openness about Mr. Banda's infirmity, his long 
history of repression, and the need for a fresh start. 

“He's old enough! Let him rest!" said a woman office 
worker in high heels and a bright print blouse as she 


walked briskly to a polling station in the city's commercial 
district. 

An accountant in a local hospital added; “2 don't have 
to look around and see who's behind me. Those days arc 
over. I can just talk." 

The favored opposition candidate appears to be Bakili 
Mulua of the United Democratic Front Mr. Muluzi. a 
former cabinet minister, quit the ruling party in die early 
1980s to become a businessman. He has talked about the 
need to eradicate poverty and illiteracy in a country where 
the vast majority is poor and illiterate. But mostly he aims 
his verbal attacks at the Malawi Congress Party's record of 
repression and the lack of development after 30 years of 
one-party rule. 

UDF officials have been boasting of victory. 


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H'SUMIU Kirn THK MBr HIM TlW> »>’l> WWIIMliTlW HIST 



9 


Without waiting Tor the arrival of the inter- 
national inspectors. North Korea says it has 
begun removing spent fuel rods from the 
reactor at its Yongbyon nuclear facility. Used 
fuel rods are loaded with plutonium, which 
can be extracted by an elaborate industrial 
process and fabricaied into nuclear weapons. 
By some estimates. North Korea may already 
have one or two of these weapons, and the fuel 
rods in the Yongbyon reactor presumably 
contain enough plutonium to provide several 
more. What are the major powers of the Pacif- 
ic region going to do about that? 

it is the inspectors ‘job to we that no plutoni- 
um is diverted to military purposes. Worsting 
for the International Atomic Energy Agency, 
they are the auditors of the nuclear world. A 
team of Lhem is now on its way loNorth Korea, 
which has said that it will allow them to see 
some of the fud-changing operation but not to 
carry out a fuil inspection. The Climon admin- 
istration is waiting to see exactly what the 
inspectors are permitted to do and what they 
report before it makes any further decisions. 

The rest of the world cannot ignore the 
rising menace in North Korea. But none of the 
other governments seems to have any dear 
ideas about how to pax%ed. The United 
Slates has begun offering economic aid and 


security guarantees in return for good behav- 
ior on nuclear weapons, but that has had no 
visible effect so far on the North Koreans, it is 
particularly troubling that there is no consen- 
sus among the countries most directly at risk. 
China has been notably unhelpful, resisting 
any attempt at international cooperation to 
put pressure on North Korea. 

In America there is broad support for eco- 
nomic sanctions against North Korea if it again 
refuses to permit full inspections. But else- 
where? While North Korea gets little from the 
United States, if depends on oil front China 
and money from Japan in the form of remit- 
tances from expatriate North Koreans. Most of 
the flow of cash from Japan is said to be illegal. 
even under present rales. Without full partici- 
pation by China and tighter enforcement by 
Japan, sanctions will not amount to much. 

For the United States, it is not going to be 
merely a decision whether to ask the United 
Nations to put an economic lock on this rene- 
gade country. It is going to require a demand- 
ing diplomatic effort to get serious and sus- 
tained help from other governments which in 
principle oppose the proliferation of nuclear 
weapons but apparently have their own reasons 
for reluctance to do much about it 

— THE WASHINGTON POST 


Desegregation Goes On 


m 

if 


Forty years ago this pasi Tuesday, the U.S. 
Supreme Court handed down a decision in the 
school desegregation case of Brown v. Board 
of Education. Because the enormous impact 
of the ruling was apparent and the divided 
nature of Lhe public's response was predict- 
able. Chief Justice Earl Warren, who had been 
on the court only seven months at the time, 
labored to produce unanimity and wrote a 
short, clear opinion so that there would be 
little room for argument about the intent of 
the justices. “In the field of public education." 
he wrote, “the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ 
has no place." It was the real beginning of the 
collapse of legal segregation in America and a 
giant step in Lhe long, continuing effort to 
create a more just society. 

Considering the immensity of the transition 
thus begun, the ruling itself was a modest one. 
The court did not go beyond the field of 
public education. It did not even craft a reme- 
dy for lhe plaintiffs. And a year later, when 
that task was approached, the court fell back 
on a vague directive that change should be 
undertaken “with ail deliberate speed." There 
followed a decade of resistance in which 
school boards simply ignored the ruling, de- 
clared that students’ were free to transfer if 
they wished or defiantly refused to accept 
black children in all-white schools. In Little 
Rock. Arkansas, the National Guard had to 
keep order and enforce tbe law. In Prince 
Edward County. Virginia, the entire school 
system was shut down to avoid desegregation. 

Tbe 1964 Civil Rights Act, which in part 
provided j mechanism for implementing 


Brown by withholding federal funds from re- 
calcitrant districts, strengthened the govern- 
ment's hand but did not end the turmoil. Affir- 
mative remedies, including busing, had lo be 
undertaken. And communities that had never 
been segregated by law came under attack. Tor 
government policies that facilitated (he separa- 
tion of schoolchildren by nice. It must be 
acknowledged that today. 40 years after Brown 
was decided, although official segregation has 
been dismantled, integration of educational 
institutions has not been achieved. 

The pace of desegregation, which began to 
accelerate with Brown, has been faster in 
other areas. Voting rights — less emotionally 
charged than school restructuring but a more 
powerful tool for minorities — were strength- 
ened by a series of statutes and are now just 
about universally accepted. Public accommo- 
dations were integrated almost overnight 
when the 1964 act was passed. So were hospi- 
tals. publicly owned facilities such os parks, 
libraries and transportation systems. 

Brown sounded the death knell for "sepa- 
rate but equal." -All that has been accom- 
plished in race relations since 1954 began with 
the court’s announcement of that principle. 
The ruling is celebrated today less for what it 
quickly produced iban for ibe long, incom- 
plete and largely peaceful revolution it began. 
It is in no way to detract from the importance 
and rightness of that 1954 decision to point 
out that much yet remains to be done to fulfill 
its promise and that there is no more critical 
obligation facing America today. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 



Two days after he became president of the 
United Slates. Bill Clinton ordered a review 
of whether RU-486. a French abortifacient 
banned from import by the Bush administra- 
tion and possibly useful in the treatment of 
certain cancers and other diseases, should be 
made available in the United Slates. On 
Monday. Secretary of Health and Human 
Services Donna Shalala announced that 
Roussel-Uclaf, its manufacturer, had donat- 
ed its U.S. patent rights for mifespristone 
(RU-486) to the Population Council, a non- 
profit contraceptive research group. The 
“gift" is testimony both to Roussel’s consid- 
erable wariness about the wrath of anti- 
abortionists and to the Clinton administra- 
tion's considerable powers of persuasion. 

Roussel-Uclaf agreed more than a year ago 
to License RU-486. which has been used safely 
by thousands of European women, to the 
Population Council. But the company, fearful 
that .America’s anli-abortionists might orga- 
nize boycotts of its other pharmaceuticals, 
dragged its feet over signing a contract. Thus 
.American women were denied not only j drug 


that can moke abortion the wholly private 
decision it should be. but one that holds great 
potential for ibe treatment of endometriosis, 
fibroid tumors and breast cancer. 

If and when RU-486 is approved by the 
Food and Drug Administration, a woman 
choosing to end an early pregnancy would no 
longer have to ran the gantlet of jeering pro- 
testers at an abortion clinic. No longer would 
she have to travel miles, even across state lines, 
to find a clinic. RU-486 can be administered in 
virtually any physician’s office. The drug is 
almost 100 percent effective when taken within 
49 days of the last menstrual period. 

Even after Monday's announcement, there 
is still much to be done before RU-486 is 
available in America. The Population Council 
must conduct clinical trials, find a manufac- 
turer and submit a new drag application to 
the FDA, which promises to submit RU-486 
to the same rigorous scrutiny as any other 
drag. That is the only sound approach. Al- 
though it has taken years to get RU-486 into 
the country, Lhis is no time for shortcuts. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Come and See New York 


fUZ * 


So there you are. sitting in Providence or 
Montreal or Montpellier. You warn to spend a 
weekend in New York, go to the theater, hit a 
museum or two. But the things you have to do! 
There’s the hotel. .And the tickets and the 
parking, and where to eat. Sure, it would be fun 
;o take a sightseeing bus or one of those boats 
that circle the island, but bow do you find out 
where they leave from and how often? 

Then there's the money. Ah. yes. the money. 
Stop worrying. New York is very eager to 
;?ave you as a guest — so eager that one phone 
•rail to ( SOtJ ) 554-8687 and S199.40 will get you 
:i hotel room, parking and breakfast (per per- 
,wn. double occupancy, tax included) for two 
lights, lunch someplace pricey, free admission 
'o major arts institutions, a ticket to a Broad- 
way show and a tour of Lhe city by bus or Nml 
W hat you will not get is dinner or a guaran- 


tee that any street directions given you by the 
inhabitants are correct. What these directions 
lock in accuracy, however, will be more than 
made up for by ibe enthusiasm of the delivery. 

Tbe package, one of four in a price range 
starting at SI 99.40 and rising to $459.40 (more 
money will get you a fancier hotel room), is 
available from Memorial Day to Labor Day. 
The idea sprang from a collaboration between 
the city's art institutions, cultural organiza- 
tions and the private sector. 

Its goal is to sell you. the tourist, on New 
York. But it may sell a lot of other people, loo: 
all those New’ Yorkers who have always 
tho ugh t it would be fun to exit — from, let's 
say. Far Rockaway. Sheepshead Bay or Wash- 
ington Height, the Upper East Side or Tri- 
beca — for a weekend on the town. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


it • 

13 ■ 

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74 . ; - 



International Herald Tribune 

EST,\BL/SH£D ISS~ 

KATHARINE GRAHAM. ARTHUR OCHS SULZBERGER 

Cn-Chmrmfti 

RICHARD McCLEAN. Publisher A Chief Execunxe 
JOHN VINOCUR. & tSnrrteaiwr 

•WALTER WELLS. Aw* Edm • SAMUEL ABT. KATHERINE KNORR and 
CHARLES MTTCHELMORE, Dep,sx ESton • CARL GEWDOZ. Avcwir E&or 
• ROBERT J. DONAHUE. EJiuo ,jthe Editnrud Papes • JONATHAN GAGE. Bustness arul finance Editor 
• RENfe BONDY. Deputy Publisher* JAMES McLEOD. .\dwrusme IHkw 
•JI- V-.ITA L CASPAR!. buemaLrulbex rf'i*r*7vDue<*v-" ROBERT FARRE. Cir.1A1n.y7 Durey r. Europe 

Dtrtaeunie h 1 PuhUemn: Richard D. Srmmms 
IXnctrurAp* dr b Katharine P. Damn 


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a Ban on Anti-Personnel Land Mines 


W ASHINGTON — There is a weapon 
designed act to kill and not just to 
maim bui 10 permanently disable. U turns 
toes, bones and the nails front the victim's 
shoes into projectiles that can rip apart the 
stomach or put out an eye. 

It is not simply indiscriminate but. as now- 
used favors civilians, particularly children, 
over soldiers, ll is laughably simple 10 deploy, 
and lethal to disarm. It is a weapon that no 
cease-fire can silence, one that tears apart a 
nation’s social and economic fabric as effec- 
tively as it shreds human flesh. 

it is the anti -personnel land mine. One 
hundred million of them litter a third of the 
world's countries, and the number is growing. 

Costing as Utile as 50 cents apiece I top of the 
line is S30Q), each one costs 5500 to SI. 000 10 
remove in a nightmarish process that must 
cover hundreds of square kilometers square 
meter by square meter. Kuwait, which can 
afford the effort, has spent S 800 million and 
lost 84 lives — almost as many as America lost 
in fighting the Gulf War — and this to remove 
only some of what Iraq left behind. 

Changes in technology, the nature of to- 
day’s conflicts and sheer numbers have 
turned an ancient defensive weapon into a 
new scourge. Most mines are now used offen- 
sively. in conflicts where an entire country is 
the battlefield and the purpose is to terrorize 


By Jessica Mathews 

or impoverish civilians. Marking mine fields, 
os some armies do. defeats the purpose. 

That governments sliU see these as cost- 
effective weapons means only that no one has 
vet added up (heir costs. 

* Mints cause dirty, expensive wounds: gan- 
grene, six to eight operations per patient and 
at least one amputation are typicaL Health 
agencies csumaic that every land mine casual- 
ty causes at least one more death through the 
diversion of medical resources. 

Economic recovery is impossible when 
roads, power plants, communication lines 
and the like are off-limits. Mozambique’s civil 
war has left all its major roads unusable. 

Rural areas can be unsafe for decades. This 
year 532 million worth of food aid will offset 
production lost to land mines in Angola. That 
is one cost, for one country, for one year. 

Refugees are afraid lo return, leaving a much 
heavier'finanrial burden on imemaiJonaJ re- 
lief. Land mines cut the expected rate of repa- 
triation in Cambodia From 10.000 to 1,000 per 
week. Afghanistan is much worse. The bill for 
refugees afraid to leave the camps in Pakistan 
was S50 million last year. 

Add S50 billion for de-mining, tbe burden 
on welfare systems where they exist and on the 


families of crippled victims where th^r dooL 

Bid lhe psyd»V>d j*S 

where any step can mean death and a steady 
stream of new victims keeps the tear raw. 

A full accounting will make it plain 1 that 
anti-personnel nS are a major contributor 
to htkan suffering- Economies stagger and 
states collapse. Mines multiply the bm I f 
food aid, development aid j peacekeeping 
costs and refugee support, and prolong af- 
flicts indefinitely. By any rational calculus, 
developed countries cannot afford them. 

Bui military establishments, whose budgets 
do not cover such costs, will not voluntarily 
relinquish these weapons. Unlike biological 
or chemical weapons, mines have long-estab- 
lished tactical roles. , . , 

Tbe Pentagon therefore ferns elaborate and 
wholly unenforceable international controls 
over tbe quantity, type, destination and use of 
mines; a system that would say m effect. My 
high-tech mines, in tbe way 1 use them, are 
OJK. — youn aren't" Such a system would 
stand not a gtimmer of a chance of working. 

A complete global ban on production and 
use is die only way. It must make anti-person- 
nel mines taboo, stigmatizing their use, as 
does the biological weapons ban, as "repug- 
nant to the conscience of mankind". 

Governments, responsive to their militar- 
ies, mi gh t never get there alone. But there is a 


new force in the global village, a body of 
international public opinion that can bey . , 

SSSSsrSSs 1 

A fend mine ban can become the cm* a 
international networks of doctors ^health , 

mmgorcranwi ml 

S3, wfaiefa know lhe penonal W v . 
KS b, mines). o£ those who cue 
refugees, of humamunan ageMmvoj. 
”S.lis ts wonied about ^ 

SfS. and of children s advocates wte -.: 
JSreKen dnldien lied to trees by their mothj. 

os to keep them alive.. ^ ; 


IOC iCHuaauiff ui.yw”— - - — rp./c:- 

Leahy, tEc United States has underfekw^ r.; 
unilateral moratorium on exports of 
personnel mines. France, Germany, Greece ^ 
and South Africa have done so, too.; 

Leahy is now taking the next step, uigui^a-^, 
one-year moratorium on procurement anq > : 
production. He deserve strong support. - • 
Governments should be pushed to titt: 
small steps — and discouraged from negotiat*; ^ 
Log meaningless controls — while pubucopm- •_/. 

ion works to make a global ban imavtnoawfi, 

The writer is a senior fellow at the Gtunaldk ^ 
Foreign Relations. She contributed iw wn-; ^ 
meat to The Washington Post 


1 




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And Now Let’s Have a School in Quang 

By David S. Broder 


Tri Named for Lew Puller 


W ASHINGTON — Lewis B. 

Puller Jr., son of a World War 
II officer who had won more decora- 
tions than any other man in ihe 
history of the U.S. Marine Corps, 
was a marine lieutenant in Vietnam 
when he stepped on a land mine 26 
years ago. He lost both his legs. 
Parts of both his hands were blown 
away. His body was riddled with 
shrapnel. Somehow he survived. 

Mr. Puller's book about the strug- 
gle to reassemble his life. “Fortunate 
Son." won a Pulitzer Prize in 1992. 
With the success of the book, he left 
his job as a Pentagon lawyer and be- 
came a writer-ia-residence at George 
Mason University. The alcoholism 
and addiction to painkilling drugs that 
he bad battled for years returned and 
ai the same time his marriage began to 
unravel The faiaL self-in flic ted' gun- 
shot followed last Wednesday. 

The Puller friends with whom ! 


have spoken argue forcefully that nei- 
ther he nor his fellow vets deserve to 
be stigmatized as “losers." They offer 
proof that, right up 10 the moment 
when be decided to end bis life, be 
was deeply engaged in a project 
which spoke of his concern for otbers. 

Last August. Mr. Puller went back 
to Vietnam with a friend from the 
Christian Children's Fuad. He went 
on a mission of peace and reconcilia- 
tion. Terry Anderson, the .Associated 
Press correspondent who was held 
captive in Lebanon, served in Vietnam 
with Mr. Puller, and he tells the story. 

"In November of ’92." Mr. .Ander- 
son said. “I spoke at the [Vietnam 
Memorial] WaJL and the theme of my 
speech was reconciliation. I said it 
was time to put the war behind us and 
gel on with our lives. I said all the 
people who fought in that war. on 


both sides, believed passionately in 
what they were doing, and so did (he 
people who fought against the war. 
But it was time to heal the wounds." 

“Kieu Chi nit. the Vietnamese ac- 
tress who played in The Joy Luck 
Dub,’ was there to read some of the 
names on the Wad, and she said, 
‘What you said is Sine, but wbai 
about my peoplcT 

"1 talked to Lew about it, and he 
said, “She’s right.' The Wall has 
brought such a powerful sense of 
healing to us, and he wanted us to do 
something for the Vietnamese. Our 
first idea was a memorial to the Viet- 
namese dead that we would build 
somewhere in Vietnam. 

"But when Lew came back last Au- 
gust, he said. They don’t need another 
pile of stones. Let’s make it a school — 
or a series of schools.' He was a very 


tough- minded person, and he was de- 
termined this not descend into senti- 
ment, that it be kept in focus." 

Jack Wheeler, another of tbe Viet- 
nam vets and Puller friends involved 
in budding tbe Wall, says it is impor- 
tant for people to understand what 
was entailed in Mr. Puller’s effort, 
"not just emotionally in reaching out 
to the people who had blown his legs 
off but in putting himself through the 
physical pain ana humiliation of be- 
ing lifted on anti off airplanes half- 
way across the world, and then nego- 
tiating the deal with those hard-nosed 
Vietnamese officials." 

The school will be built in Quang 
Tri Province, an area close to the old 
border between North and South 
Vietnam, devastated by years of 
fi ghting . Development officials say 
that in the Quang Tri countryside, in 
a nation (bat once boasted of a 90 
percent literacy rate, lens of thou- 


sands of children have never set foot <-^ 
in school Construction is cheap; a> ; :> 
30-person classroom can be bufc- ", 
Mr. Wheeler says, for about HOOCL,. ii 

The goal for the first sebodi jr> ~ 
$185,000. A fund-raiser that Mr. 
puller attended in New York shorilgr : - 
before his death netted about one- 
fifth of thaL In his last weeks, heanti ' 
Mr. Wheeler discussed ways to get . •: 
help for the school from souk of tiar 2 
Ui companies that^are^o^n ^into - 

has been lifted and profits beckon. 

Tax-deductible donations fertile - 
school may be sent to the Vietnam-h-.-^ 
esc Memorial Association, P.O. Box > ■ 
26176, Alexandria, Virginia, 223132 
The hope is to have the school op and 
running by next April 30, the 20th ■ . 
anniversary of tin: day the last U.S. ■ . 
troops left Saigon. The plan now is to 
name it for Lewis B. Poller Jr. 

The Washington Past - 


There Were Germans in Normandy , and Some Lie There Still 

By John C. Ausland 


O SLO — It is one thine tc. hold the cere- 
monies commemorating D-Day in Nor- 
mandy without having German officials pre- 
sent It would be quite another to ignore the 
reality that Allied forces who parachuted 
from the skies or stormed ashore ran into 
determined opposition. The German military 
cemeteries in Normandy arc sQem testimony". 

There haw been a number of articles and 
letters in these columns in recent months on 
the question of whether German officials 
should be invited to the D-Day ceremonies. 
They have not affected the negative decision 
of the French, who arc the hosts. 

But this does not mean that there will be 
no German veterans in Normandy in early 
June. On June 5, some 200 veterans of Lhe 
U.S. 90lh Infantry Division will hold a me- 
morial service at the German military ceme- 
tery at La Cambe. near Bayeux. They will be 
joined there by some 100 veterans of the 
German 6th Parachute Regiment. 

Alexander Uhlig. who now lives in Essen, 


commanded a company of the 6ih. On July 
23, 1944. after an intense fight, he persuaded 
his commander to have a three-hour truce so 
that the Americans could evacuate a number 
of wounded from between the lines. That 
humane gesture led veterans of the 90th after 
the war to establish contact with the veterans 
of the 61b and lo hold joint ceremonies with 
them at five-year intervals. 

The German military cemetery at La 
Cambe is not far from the U.S. cemetery near 
Omaha Beach, which will be the site of the 
main Allied ceremony on June 6. La Cambe is 
the largest of three German military cemeter- 
ies near the Allied beaches and has more than 
20.000 dead. The other two are at Orglandes. 
south of Cherbourg, and at Marignv. which is 
west or Saint-L6 and was in the path of the 
breakout from the bridgehead in late July. 

During a visit to Normandy in 1992. I 


Stopped at Marigoy. The cemetery made a 
lasting impression. One of the graves was for 
an 18-year-dd boy. As I located at it, the 
thought came to me that he could have been 
killed by an artillery barrage fired at my 
request My second thought was that had he 
not dial he might have killed me. 

One thing is sure. It would be difficult 
today to hold this child responsible for the 
crimes perpetrated by Hitler and the German 
generals who criticized Hitler’s conduct of the 
war but carried out his orders. 

There is no way to know wbai the altitude 
of the 40,000 German soldiers buried in these 
three cemeteries in Normandy was toward 
Hitler and the war. Whatever iheir thoughts, 
they paid with their lives and are today quiet 
evidence, along with the dead in Allied mili- 
tary cemeteries, that a terrible battle took 
place in Normandy in June and July 1944. 

No pilgrimage to the battlefields in Nor- 
mandy is complete without a visit to one of 
lhe German cemeteries. It would contribute 


to European harmony if at least one of the 
European leaders would include die German 
military cemetery at La Cambe in his or ter 
itinerary. In addition, a reference to tbe Ger- 
man cemeteries should be included in speech- 
es lo be given at the main Allied ceremony 
near Omaha Beach on Jane 6. 

It should also be noted here that simulta- 
neous ceremonies will be held on June 6 at 
four British cemeteries in the Caen-Bayenx 
area. Queen Elizabeth II is to attend, the 
ceremony in Bayeux. Like other British cem- 
eteries in France, ibis one contains hundreds 
of German dead. 

One must hope that the Queen’s speech 
trill take account of the fact that these sol- 
diers, who were enemies before they died, 
now rest near each other. She might also 
note that they offer a timeless sermon to a 
disorderly Europe about what happened: 
when leaders of the democracies waited too 
long to unite against an aggressor. 

International Herald Tribune. 


2$ 
: *1 




Think of It: A National Rebellion Against Violence in America 

By Bob Herbert 




N EW YORK — In a recent 
speech on violence in .America. 
Senator Bill Bradley told a stor. 
about a woman who was beaten on a 
regular basis by ber husband. 

The couple had two children, a 2- 
year-old girl and a 4-year-old boy. 
During an attack witnessed by the 
little girl the husband gripped his 
wife by the throat and began stran- 
gling her. The woman survived and 
sought refuge with the children in a 
shelter for battered women. 

There the children got into a fight. 
The mother turned to see what was 
the matter. Mr. Bradley said, and 
saw the 2-year-old going for the 
throat of the 4-year-old. 

In a society drenched with vio- 
lence. the legacy of brutality passes 


easily from generation 10 genera- 
tion. and the myriad techniques of 
assauli begin 10 be mastered at gro- 
tesquely early ages. Children see 
daddy shaving and they want to 
shave, too. They see mommy putting 
on makeup and suddenly lipstick is 
the most fascinating thing in the 
world. Why wouldn't a 2-year-old 
who sees daddy strangling mommy 
try to do the same to a sibling? 

The senator told another story. 

“J have spoken on Native Ameri- 
can reservations and in urban recrea- 
tion and school programs for over 25 
years. A decade ago there was a dis- 
tinct difference between the kids in 
these two places. On a Native Ameri- 


can reservation the kids sal quietly, 
almost impassively, hesitant to ask 
questions or offer opinions. The toll 
of 200 years of neglect bad settled so 
deeply that it bad squelched hope. As 
I looked out into the audience, I 
stared into dead eyes. Dead eyes — 
no response. No hope. 

“In an urban community the kids 
seemed wired with energy. They 
couldn’t sit still bobbing up and 
down, left and right. They asked 
questions and talked incessantly with 
each other. Their eyes were alive with 
expectation." 

Now, said the senator, when be 
goes into urban neighborhoods he 
often sees in the big-city youngsters 


America the Best , America Improvable 


N EW YORK — The United 
Slates is the best country in the 
world. In .America, you are free to 
become anything you want. The only 
person who can stop you is you. You 
can say what you wain, pray as you 
want, or don't want. The police will 
never bother you unless you break 
the law. So don't break ii.’ 

In America, if you want to work 
you can make a tiring Only America 
gives you all these things. God Moses 
the golden land. 

1 knew that was all true when I was 
a small boy. My parents told me so 
straight out. at home. They compared 
it with Europe, and America won. in 
every way except maybe the fruit was 
a little fresher there." 

In school, teachers gave us lessens 
and books that fully backed up what 
nw parents said about America. 
Mostly they were Irish women pre- 
siding over quiet classrooms of little 
Jews and Italians, 

Sometimes the teachers talked 
about God and how' important it 
was lo honor Him and your parents. 
At Christmastime, teachers pul up 
wreaths. My parents said why not — 
after ail. it was their country, too. 

Now in Tavares Florida, the school 
board has passed a regulation that 
children be taught that American cul- 
ture and values are inherently superior 
to other “foreign or historic cultures.'’ 

My parents and teachers would 
have* thought the board stupid. My 
father detested right-wing nosey- 
bodies, plus Communists and Social- 
ists. They all reminded him of the 
Russia he left. He would have said 
that if you need a law to teach a child 


By A. M. Rosenthal 

right from wrong, you should go back 
to school yourself. 

Bui he is also saying in my bead, 
right now. that on second thought ir 
those regulators don't know that 
America is made up of “foreign or 
historic cultures," maybe they are too 
ignorant to profit by school. 

Mrs. Margaret McCarthy and oth- 
er teachers for whom we stood up and 
shut up would have said that Tavares 
should hire teachers and elect board 
members who understood America 
before they got near a schoolhousc. 

Neither parents nor teachers ever 
used the words “values" or “culture." 
The word “America" summed it up 
nicely for them. 

Please note, readers, that my par- 
ents and teachers never said America 
was the perfect country, just the best 
Not everybody agreed in those days. 

Some thought Nazi Germany was 
better. They paraded in New York 
City — not often after the first lime, 
beheve me. 

Other Americans thought the Sovi- 
et Union was belter. Some were 
young people who believed that Sta- 
lin w as the only bulwark against Hit- 
ler. Others were older in tooth and 
even sof ter in mind — such as profes- 
sors who babbled about the wonders 
of the Soviet system until it fell to 
dust. To this day they are not inclined 
to go into the matter of the gulag- 

My parents and teachers did not 
talk much about tarnish marks on the 
golden land — crime, poverty and 
race. About crime. 1 promise not to 


glaze any more eyes with stories 
about how we spent summer nights 
sleeping in the park. iBut we did;. 
Now, though, when it comes to crime, 
we are not the best but among the 
worst. And there we will slay, as long 
as we are sentimental about either 
gun nuts or recidivists. 

About poor, that was Our Crowd. 
What was there to say except some- 
day things will be better, meantime 
join a union? My father believed that 
any white man who could not make a 
living in America was lazy or a fool or 
both. That thought lurks in me still. 

From my childhood. 1 remember 
not a single real discussion about 
minorities. Our neighborhoods were 
working-class, mildly liberal, and 
color-segregated. We did not know 
any “minorities.** As a matter of 
fact, we thought Jews and Catholics 
were the minorities. 

If I were black maybe i would 
become smart enough not lo fret 
about ugly people wno slighted me 
for my color. I doubt it. But f know 
tbal 1 would burn day and night at 
injustices that stood between me and 
believing everything in the opening 
paragraph of this column. 

What J wind up thinking is this: 
Because of America’s range for eco- 
nomic hope, and its constitution, this 
is (he best country in the world for ail 
Americans, any shade. 

Thai's not good enough. In school 
and out. the American prayer should 
now be that one day the country will 
soar farther, and make the first para- 
graph true, every word for every per- 
son. h will happen. 

The New York Times 


the same thing be used to encounter 
only on the reservations. The dead- 
ened eyes. Tbe desperation. The di- 
minished energy that inevitably fol- 
lows lhe loss of hope. 

There is great danger here. Tbe 
catastrophe that has already descend- 
ed oe the urban young is bad enough, 
but there is worse ahead. 

We Americans have prepared a 
breeding ground for levels of vio- 
lence that most people have never 
imagined. Immersed in a culture of 
extreme violence are millions of 
young people who feel despised and 
who nave Little hope of ever finding 
meaningful work, and we have pro- 
vided them with the means to heavi- 
ly arm themselves. 

When Los Angeles erupted two 
years ago. the rioters were drawn im- 
mediately to the major arms caches. 
Enormous weapons outlets were in- 
stantly and thoroughly loored in his 
speech, Mr. Bradley noted that there 
are more gun dealers in the United 
States than there are gas stations or 
grocery stores. 

Violence in America is so pervasive 
that people take it for granted, like 
background noise. Mr. Bradley noted 
that the most dangerous place or all is 
one’s own home between 6 P.M. Sat- 
urday and 6 P.M. Sunday, “especially 
if you're a woman." 


The senator called on Americans 
to join in a national rebellion against 
violence. It is futile, he warned, to 
look to the federal government to 
make as safe. The emerging federal 
crime biB may have beat “cobbled 
together" with the best of intentions, 
but it won’t do (he 'trick. 

“What is missing,” said Mr, Brad- 
ley, “is an overall national goal and 
an admission that much of what must 
be done is beyond the reach of the 
federal government." 

In other words, attitudes have to 
be changed and constructive values 


m 


f 


.'■Vs 


« responsibility. Jobs have to be 3 
found and poverty fought Guns have 2 * 
to be stringently controlled. Violent ' 
criminals have to be incarcerated, but 
equally important is the recognition 
that prevention is ibe indispensable, 
tool tor controlling violence. 

Encb Fromm, the psycholo gis t, ; 
once said, “The history of man is a, . 
graveyard of great cultures that came 
to catastrophic ends because of their • 
incapacity for planned, rational vol- 
untaiy reaction to challenge.” 

A national rebellion a gainst vio-. 1 
teice would be a terrific reaction by : 
this greai culture to a critical cfaaK-1 
lenge. At the moment there is ao’i 
evidence that it is about to happen. 

The New York Times. 


IN OUR PAGES; 100 , 
1894: French 'Spies 11 

BERLIN — A despatch from Ma- 
yence states that two Frenchmen 
were arrested there 10-day [May 171 
on suspicion of being military spies 
having been caught in the “act of 
sketching the great fortifications of 
the city. They refused to give any 

account whatever of themselves but 

they an: evidently men of superior 
education and social position, and 
probably officers, it is believed on 
the French general staff or mtdfi- 
gence department Thus it , s m 
surprising to learn that great imnor 
(once is attached to their arresi bv 
the German military authorities. 3 


100, 75 AND 5Q YEARS A 


1919: Atlantic Bridged 

HORTA. Azores ~ The Unii^ S™! 593 « northwest^ 


hop- a distance of 2,150 
been accom 
d?e at ^ Azore 

^L.. SUcces ? u * Com pletion 
greatest aenal exploit ever aft 

1944: Advance in ll 

NAPLES — [From our Ne 
edition:] While the 8 th Army 
& s if v / u « positions in the^I 

continued thdr cip^ L 

important German defense 

barnnj’heAllics-adv^Sm 



HORTA. Azores ~ The Uniied 
Slates Navy NC4 

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INTERNATIONAL HERAUD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAY IS, 1994 


OPINION 



Page 9 


In America and Japan, 
An Easing of Tensions 


By Hobart Rowes 


High on ihc list of Asian (and 


YyASHINGTON - Trade len- 

p,.,_ ® “f®. ^ween the United European) complaints is the effort 
Mat^aod ja^ a P f*ar to ^ ^ Jaanched ^ Mr. Clinton ai ihe 


ins. Th(* n^,. rr , ‘ w “*■ •■•u'viiw uy mi. iwiiun m me 
j*5L. Jr umi0n administration. Tokyo summit meeting last year 

DercenfinT> a I?l e lhe P ublic J or a “framework - agreemwi with 
P»Dcpiion of bad blood between Japan on trade. America's other 
tne United ~ 


l, ; micd States and Japan was a 
sS ft 5 ? “ J unsettling the stock 
w?J* ad seized on Prime 
Min ister Monhiro Hosokawa’s 
nsf|nauon as an excuse to back off 
a bit [rora its threat to place trade 
sanctions on Japan. 

At a minimum. Prime Minister 
isutomu Hala’s new government 
gpts some breathing room. Mr. 
Hata will not be pushed, under 
mrcai of unilateral U.S. trade sane- 


trading partners support its goals 
but not its tactics. Despite vigorous 
denials by Mr. Kanlor, the rest of 
the world, including the Japanese, 
interprets the American demand 
for trade “results" as the equiva- 
lent of a demand for numerical 


Japa 

Prime Minister Paul Keating of 
Australia, no dummy, accused the 
Clinton administration of tiring “a 
heavy-headed sledgehammer num- 
ber to crack the nut" Australia 
and other exporting countries are 
convinced that Mr. Clinton and 
Mr. Kan tor seek bilateral deals 
with Jaoan that would be carried 
out at their expense. 

Mr. Kantor insisted in an inter- 
view that this impression, which he 
says is wrong, is the work or “Japa- 
nese spin doctors," accepted at 
face value by many American jour- 
nalists. All that had been asked of 
Japan, be said, was agreement on 
“objective criteria” to show pro- 
gress in opening Japan's markets 
— not just for American compa- 
nies, but for all foreigners. 

Still, the Japanese are convinced 
that, for example, American pres- 
sure for larger auto parts purchases 
by Japanese companies, subject to 
government- lo-goveromen t “crite- 
ria" measurement, amounts to spe- 
cific market share. 

In a news conference televised 
by CNN on May 3, Mr. Clinton 
admitted to a Japanese journalist 
that there had been a “misunder- 
standing.” He went on to deny that 
the United Slates had ever de- 
manded that Japan agree to nu- 
merical import quotas. “It would 
be wrong." he said. “I have not 
asked for that. I do not want you to 
promise the United States any spe- 
cific part of your markets.” 

That is crisp and dear, more 
precise than his attempt to reassure 
the Japanese on Feb. 11 at a While 
House news conference. 

Unfortunately, because Haiti 
and Bosnia were more vivid issues, 
Mr. Clinton’s remarks on Japan 
received little attention. Bm if U.S. 
policy is exactly what be said on 
CNN, then the administration 
would do wefl to publicize it. 

To dale, the administration’s 
public relations an Japan and Asa 
have been lousy. Even Undersecre- 
tary Roger Altman, in a hawkish 
article on Japan in the current issue 
of Foreign Affairs, admits that there 
have been confusing signals. 

But more than public relations is 


lions, to complete a trade deal be- 
fore the July Group of Seven eco- 
nomic summit meeting in Naples. 

My impression is that for the 
moment, the volatility in Wall 
Street has moved the prime Amer- 
ican trade weapon, known as Su- 
per 301, which singles out trade 
offenders, from the front burner 
to the back burner. 

There have been no public an- 
nouncements of a shut In ap- 
proach. U.S. Trade Representative 
Mickey Kantor toasted in a tele- 
phone interview Wednesday that 
there had been no basic change in 
U.S. policy, which he defined as 
“resolute and pragmatic," 

But within the administration 
the president is being urged to 
adopt a more balanced approach 
to Japan, with priority given 
to presang for a boost in the 
Japanese domestic economy and 
deregulation to allow greater 
foreign investment. 

This will require a reduction of 
the emphasis on sector-bisector 
issues that has been aggressively 
articulated by Mr. Kantor. 

President Bill Clinton has been 
advised that his Asian partners see 
his approach as “aggressive unilat- 
eralism.'’ They flunk he showed 
poor judgment by taking on China 
and Japan at the same tune, China 
for its failure to improve its human 
rights score and Japan for failing 
to open its markets., 

The-dmerioration^Mr. -CHa-: 
ton's Asia policy is graphically de- 
scribed in an extraordinary memo 
from the administration* s top 
Asia expert. Assistant Secretary 
of State Winston Lord, to Secre- 
tary of State Warren Christopher. 
The memo, entitled “Emerging 
malaise in our - relations with 
Asia," says: “A series of Ameri- 
can measures — threatened or 
employed — risk corroding our 
positive image in the region, giv- 



r Beat? J love the head I love the kitchenl l love this job! I love the abuse ! 
I love everyone picking on me! I love how J can never do anything right? 


The Very Soul of Nonviolence 


W ASHINGTON — In his ear- 
ly years as a psychoanalyst 
and while an assistant professor at 
the Yale Schooi of Meajcine. Erik 
Erikson in 1938 engaged in some 
field work to satisfy his curiosity 
about cultural influences on chil- 
dren. He traveled to the bleak and 


By Colman McCarthy 


continuously, even as the body's 
metabolism V " ’ " 


the world logo out there and ask the 
grandmothers, ‘Now. before the 
white man came, bow were your 
children brought upT They loved to 


talk about it, and they had always 

earth' 


MEANWHILE 


i nobody had 


impoverished Pine Ridge Reserva- 
tion in South Dakota to interview 
and observe Sioux families. 

Of the task of gathering informa- 
tion which would eveniuaOv turn up 

in such books as "Childhood and 
Society” and "Identity: Youth and 
Crisis,” Mr. Erikson told an inter- 
viewer in 1969: "The government 
had published a 300-page handbook 
[on the Sioux). Only half a page of it 
was devoted to childhood training. 
And yet, it was the easiest thing in 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


Normandy Guest list 

Five years from now many 
thoughtful people will look back- 
on June 6, 1994. and ask whether u 
mistake was made by not inviting 
Germany to join in the 50th anni- 
versary of the Allied invasion of 
Europe. The question is not how 
Germans fed today about their ex- 
clusion. It is how those bora since 
1945 will respond when national- 
ists, specifically the far-right Re- 
publican Party, charge in future 
election campaigns that the Chris- 
tian Democratic Party over the 
years was played for fools. 

Nationalists will argue that the 
British, French and American gov- 
ernments promised in 1949 that if 
West Germany cooperated in 
NATO and European integration, it 
would earn a key role among the 
Western powers. That assumption 
can now be called into question. 

One needs to ask what positive 
purpose is served by excluding the 
German chancellor (or foreign 
minister) from the commemora- 
tion at Normandy. It could be ar- 
gued in 1954 and 1964 that memo- 
ries of the great struggle against 
Nazi Germany were too recent. 
But 50 years after the war, that 
argument does not hold. 

The real reason for excluding tbe 
Germans in 1994, 1 suspect, is to 
remind them again that they lost 
World Warn. 

DONALD NUECHTERLE1N. 

Kaiserslautern, Germany. 

^founds of Another War 

Regarding “ Vietnam Puts Matter 
Over Mind in U.S. Relations" (May 
II) by Malcolm W. Browne: 

Mr. Browne tries hard to detect 


; nu »wi sir i /wvPc anti-American sentiment in Viet- 

; Mitt tat-te oumpfe* Wr me im- 


clear that thb execution dtJJS. 
poKcy on Asia has been faulty, and' 
not just (or Japan. Mr. Lord, as the 
man in charge, does not exempt 
jrimw Jf from the criticism 
He is right to call, now, for a re- 
evaluation that would give special 
attention to what he calls “our 
style." If Americans want to par- 
ticipate in tbe Asian economic mir- 
ade, they bad belter begin by treat- 
ing Asians as equals. 

The Washington Post. 


we are an international nanny, 5 
not bully. Without proper course 
adjustments, we could subvert our 
influence and our interests.” 

There is, Mr. Lord adds, “a 
plethora of problems which Asians 
perceive as caused by hostile uni- 
lateral U.S. actions." 


Letters ■ intended for publication 
dmdd be addressed "Letters to the 
Edtor* and contain die writah sig- 
tmure. rum* (mdfuBocUrtss. Letters 
should be brief and are subject to 
u&tmg. We cannot be rapmsibte for 
the return of unso&audmamtsapts. 


convinced. American POWs did 
languish inside the “Hanoi Hil- 
ton,” but so had the Vietnamese 
revolutionaries whom it was buOt 
by the French to bold. And is h 
terribly surprising that Hanoi’s 
army museum displays flight hel- 
mets of UJS. airmen downed on 
bombing runs over the North? 

The real story is the surprising 
warmth that the Vietnamese show 
toward Americans. In two and a 
half years as a journalist in Viet- 
nam, I didn't encounter a single 
expression of anti-American hos- 
tility, and beard of only two such 
incidents. I was greeted with al- 
most embarrassing cfFusiveness by 
former South Vietnamese soldiers 
once they learned that 1 was 
an American. 



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When Lhe Vietnam War ended 
in 1975, the Vietnamese couldn't 
afford the luxury of dwelling on 
the suffering it had brought to all 


sides; they quickly got back to the 
business of life. Perhap 


Perhaps we Amer- 
icans, too, should start focusing 
on the present in Vietnam, instead 
of letung ourselves be blinded 
by the past. 

ANDREW SHERRY. 

Hong Kong. 


Nominate, Don’t Leak 


Regarding “ High Court Choice 
Wes Not Thai Easy” [May 16): 

Are President BQ1 Clinton and his 
administration capable of making 
any decision gracefully? Stephen 
Breyer is an exceptional judge, well 
deserving nomination to the Su- 
preme Court — a fact that might be 
lost in the mire of such unaitribuied 
leaks as “he was the one with the 
fewest problems.” Never have 1 
beard of a nomination being justi- 
fied by reference to the pitfalls, 
shortcomings or disabilities of tbe 
others under consideration. Even if 


Mr. Clinton had to consult another 
candidate's doctors, are there no 
confidences that must be kept? 
Must there be a painstaking expla- 
nation of why everyone not chosen, 
including Bruce Babbitt, deserved 
to lose? Judge Breyer is an excellent 
choice. Why not package him as 
such, give him the credit he de- 
serves. and allow the others left in 
Mr. Clinton's decisional wake the 
honor of having been comadered. 
without the ignominious perception 
or somehow being damaged goods? 

CHARLES ESKRIDGE. 

The Hague. 


Order and Credibility 


The editorial “Shame on Singa- 
pore.” (May 9) stated that the pun- 
ishment of caning far vandalism is 
a sign of Singapore's “wildly dis- 
proportionate" preference for or- 
der over individual rights and that 
the caning of Michael Fay under- 
scores “tbe dark side” of Singa- 
pore’s concept of order. 

We leave it to your readers to 
judge if such laws and punishments. 


designed to protect the majority of 
the law-abiding population from 
the minority of offenders, are in- 
deed so disproportionate: 

All we ask is that other countries 
respect the right of another coun- 
try to implement its own laws and 
for us to deal with law-and-order 
problems in our own way. 

You said that Singapore dis- 
played “indifference" when con- 
fronted with protests. No Singapore 
government can maintain credibil- 
ity if its people see the government 
succumbing u> media pressures to 
exempt a foreigner from a penalty 
that has been enforced on other 
Singaporeans and foreigners. 

However, the jvime minister 
and his cabinet did take into ac- 
count President Bill Clinton's ap- 
peal even (hough it found no merit 
in Mr. Fay's petition for clemency. 
The cabinet went out of its way to 
recommend to Singapore's presi- 
dent that his sentence be reduced 
from six strokes to four. 

S. R. NATHAN. 

Ambassador of Singapore. 

Washington. 


wondered why on 
ever asked them.” 

At his death Thursday at 91. Mr. 
Erikson had asked enough ques- 
tions of the Sioux — ana of Sig- 
mund Freud, under whom he stud- 
ied in Vienna, of his students at 
Yale, Harvard and Berkeley, of his 
patients, and of bimself — to have 

produced a broad literature erf 1 an- 
swers in more than a dozen books. 

For many of his readers and fol- 
lowers, Mr. Erikson, a master or 
observation and illustration who 
had scam bent for the lesser an of 
argument, was at least the intellec- 
tual equal of Freud and Carl Jung 
— and perhaps had a mind of 
greater depth because he ranged 
well beyond psychoanalytic nar- 
rowness into education, law. an- 
thropology and religion. 

In schools, homes and houses of 
worship, Mr. Erikson was heeded 
by people who believed that hu- 
man bongs were more than their 
instincts and urges. Robert Coles, 
the Boston child psychiatrist and 
writer who took an undergraduate 
class from Mr. Erikson in 1964, 
wrote in a biography of his Har- 
vard professor (“Erik H. Erikson: 
the Growth of His Work") that his 
gift was to be “appreciative as well 
as analytic, an observer of action as 
well as one who listens to free asso- 
ciations, the relaxed and at times 
vastly amused participant, who 
only later mulls things over and 
makes recommendations." 


For Mr. Erikson, the psychology 
cal events of a life are the devej 


develop- 
mental forces that shape personality 
and behavior. A life has eight influ- 
encing stages, from infancy and 
childhood through adulthood and 
maturity. Mr. Enkson is perma- 
nently linked with his phrase “iden- 
tity crisis," a term suggesting that it 
happens once and then fades. No. 
he wrote: “The personality is en- 
gaged with the hazards of existence 


In 1950. while teaching at tbe 
University of California at Berke- 
ley. and with the nostrils of Rich- 
ard Nixon and Joseph McCarthy 
sniffing deep for Reds. Mr. Erik- 
son resigned from the faculty 
rather than sign an anti-Coramu- 
nisi loyalty oath. 

Requiring the oath, he wrote, 
meant that his own university and 
others had “become puppets of 
public hysteria.” Mr. Erikson said 
he knew “that the genera] public at 
the moment indulges — as it al- 
ways does when confronted with 
change — in a ’bunching together’ 
of all that seems (indefinably dan- 
gerous: spies, bums. Communists, 
liberals and professors. A few poli- 
ticians always thrive on such over- 
simplification . . . But who, if the 
universities do not, will lad the 
countermove to enlightenment?" 

Mr. Eiikson's second field work 
came in 1962 in India. He and his 
wife Joan went on “a psychoana- 
lyst’s search for the historical pres- 
ence of Mahatma Gandhi” The 
result, seven years later, was tbe 

? sychobiography “Gandhi's 
ruth: On the Origins of Militant 
Non-violence.” It won the Nation- 
al Book Award and a Pulitzer. 

As have only a few Westerners, 
Mr. Erikson went to (he core of 
Gandhi's commitment to nonvio- 
lence to see that it was anything 
but passivity, which is the custom- 
ary and erroneous line. 

Page after stirring page of “Gan- 
dhi's Truth” reveals the intellectual 
richness of Mr. Erikson. Gandhi 
and his nonviolence, be wrote, re- 
mind “us that, since we cannot 
possibly know the absolute truth, 
we are Therefore not competent to 
punish' — a most essential remind- 
er, since man when tempted to vio- 
lence always parades as another’s 
policeman, convincing himself that 
whatever he is doing to another, 
that other tas it coming to him.' ” 
Few 20th century minds have 
been as harmoniously matched as 
those of Gandhi and Erik Erikson. 
The mahatma lived a truth, the 
psychoanalyst explained it 
Washington Post Writers Group. 


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- 


International Herald Tribune 
Wednesday, May 18, 1994 
Page 10 





Konchalovsky 



By Joan Dupont 

fnlcmatiom/ Herald Tribune 


ANNES — One of the interesting 
aspects of the Cannes festival is to 
see the gap between national con- 
cerns and aesthetics. Films still have 
ti’ ‘ , a cultural identity. French critics nitpicked 
?r.; j about the tnovie references in "The Hudsucker 
; Proxy" — they thought there were too many — 




\ murky, certain French viewers were nonplused 
iv: ; £ by "Mrs. Parker and the Vicious Circle.'' One 


irn« fi 


if l^Film is about a period in French history that even 
!i : : v the French can’t grasp, die other about a hn- 
£;* ^.guage — acerbic, witty English — that nobody 
!?;* IH] raps out quire the same way any more, 
ih: ! c And nearly everybody seemed confused by 
8 i;Lp**Du li Shi Dai" (A Confurian Confusion >. 
S’- ^ Edward Yang's interesting film about upwardly 
£; • "mobile couples in soulless Taipei. The success a 
■T: .foreign film has in being picked up — or as one 
'critic puts it, Miraroaxed — is the kind of 
^speculation that surrounds its festival screening 
(p these days. .And that seisms to depend on its 



1 ® * "?u 

jf-i jda Andrei Konchalovsky knows the ins and outs 
^ of several scenes — he has staged theater and 
>y. L opera in Paris, filmed in Siberia and the Louisi- 
t|; ; ; -ana bayous. After 10 years in Hollywood, he 
if.; j’ suffered a downward spiral in his career, and 
v i ^ relumed 10 Russia and the scene of his early 
a! film. "Assia's Happiness." made 2“ years ago 
: , 2 nd banned for many years. “Rjaba ma Pouie" 


thr 


Riaba My Chicken) is a poliu'eal fable set in a 


,C *>n 
\rb*e 

|orca 

*OcrI 

ioOert 

|OMDO 
el Dai; 
Irciro 
fS 
QL 

cvef' 

r«ic5 

ftanei’i 
:o.oi ( 
oc Ger 
iocGci 

iCHno 


Russian village about a peasant woman (Inna 
if : Churikova) and her very impressive hen. 

i;.; ( 11 This is not only a hen that talks, but one day. 

;vei jiiscovers she h 3 S laid a golden egg. The 
?»:■ | :Un .■vent revolutionizes the kolkhoz; the peasants 

■ rave swallowed every promise of Soviet mir- 

■ i icle-making. from Brezhnev' on down; they are 
: • vary, but this glimpse of sudden riches lifts 

’ heir spirits. 

“Riaba" is sheer comedy, far from Koncha- 

■ .-*® ovsky's somber “Inner Circle." He made the 
novit, a Franco- Russian co-production, on a 


f* 




octet 

, ca 

Jnion : 


EC 

■ I'.an; 
lerij 
Wt 
ASF 



low budget and say's that he will make more 
films with his company. Russian Roulette. 
‘‘Thai's cinema." he said, “you hit or miss. I 
wanted to work in a different way after 10 years 
in Hollywood. I had to rid myself of the cliches: 
1 knew' how to work fast, make an efficient 
movie, but that efficiency is to the detriment of 
originality. The more streamlined the movie, 
the less personality it has. 

“It was fabulous to work with Inna Churi- 
kova. a great actress, and the people who have 
lived in that village for ihe past 30 years, mak- 
ing moonshine, surviving — ibey've been told a 
lot of stories by a lot of regimes’ and they don’t 
believe anyone, but they trusted me. U wasn't 
easy. 1 had to use three cameras: if 1 used one. 
they spent their time staring at it. so l had to 
catch them unprepared." 

Giuseppe Tomatore's “Una Pura Formalita" 
(A Pure Formality), starring Gerard Depardieu 
and Roman Polanski, is a very different picture 
from his hit. “Cinema Paradise" — it has to do 
with memory but not with nostalgia. A writer 
(Depardieu) has lost his memory; he is con- 
fainted by a police inspector (Polanski) who 
drags his past from him. Most of the film lakes 
place in a dark and rainy police station that 
looks like an anteroom to hell. 

Tomatore. who wrote the screenplay, with 
dialogues by Pascal Quigrtard, said that he 
wrote with Depardieu in mind. 

Playing the pan, said Depardieu, “was like 
going deep down into yourself. It was a heavy 
film, difficult, it weighed on me. The interroga- 
tion was hard, especially the scenes where l was 
knocked around. Running was hard, especially 
with the weight 1 had on me — I was up to 123 
kilos. We were supposed io shoot ejghi weeks, 
we shot lo. so I ate a lot!" 

Polanski, who had been an actor first in life, 
relished getting back into the saddle, "it's hard- 
er to be a director when you're an actor than it 
is to be an actor when you're a director." he 
said. "‘You have to give up your habits, forget 
about the mark on ihe floor, you have to relax 
— j director is always tense. Gerard helped me 
a lot. he gave me assurance.'' 

“Rouge"t Red i. on the theme of fraternity. i> 
the iast section of Krzysztof Kieslow%ki‘s 
"Trois Caul curs" l Three Colors) triptych. The 
film opens on a telescopic shot of telephone 
lines and IO the sound of throbbinc electronics: 


phones ring in empty apartments, lovers rush to 
answer, and miss each other. 

As in the other Kieslowski films, accidents 
haopen. destinies intertwine. Valentine (Irene 
Jacob), a student at the University of Geneva, 
does modeling on the side. One night, distract- 
ed behind the wheel of her car. she runs over a 
dog and goes to find the owner, a retired, 
embittered judge (Jean-Louis Trintignani). 

It turns out that the judge's new bobby is 
illegal. He picks up his neighbors' telephone 
conversations, eavesdropping on secret scan- 
dals. Meeting Valentine changes all that. The 
cleverly constructed story — there is not one 
loose thread — makes ibis the most accom- 
plished film of the three 

“Rouge." like “Bleu" (Blue), has all the re- 
quired qualities for an international career — 
craft, clarity and highly polished elegance. 
Kieslowski has chosen his leading women writ 

Juliette Binoche's determined energy in 
“Bleu.” Julie Delpy's perverse angel presence in 
“Blanc" (White)"’; Irene Jacob this heroine 
from “La Double Vic de Veronique") pours her 
generosity into “ Rouge." Y ou can’t help Unking 
her luminous innocence to the Calvinist city 
where the movie is shot: she is a true believer, 
the angelic side of the Proles tarn faith; Trintig- 
nant plays the darkly misanthropic side. 

One of the wagers in making ihe trilogy was 
jo cop the big prizes at Venice. Berlin and 
Cannes, and he has won prizes 3 t the first two 
festivals. Kieslowski may get his wish for 
“Rouge" with a Golden Palm for best director, 
or a best actor prize (or Trimignam. Especially 
since he has said that “Rouge” is his Iasi film, 
that he is retiring from cinema. "It's true. I'm 
slopping." he said. “I'm just tired and fed up. 
hut who knows? A person can do other things 
in life, not just make movies.” 


□ The Absence of Zhang Yimou 

The Chinese director Zhang Yimou is staying 
away from the festival in protest at his country's 
censorship of his film “Huozhe" (To Live). AFP 
reported. In a statement read by the producer 
Chiu Fusheng at the start of a press conference 
before the premiere of the movie Tuesday. Zhang 
said: “Because my film. 'To Live,* has still not 
received its censors' visa in China. 1 am unable to 
come to the Cannes festival. 1 regret this vetv 
much." 


LONDON THEATER 


y.f- • 



ar and Ghosts of Success Past 


■Xi'&AKfe. 


.... -Tv. 


By Sheridan Morley 

inicmuriiiuit Herald Tribune 


L on 

am 

do" 

a c 


ONDON — Though it's not exactly 
another “Amadeus." "Elgar's Ron- 
a" (at the Barbican Pit) also looks at 
composer in crisis and ihe ghosts 
who come back to haunt him. In a week when 
English country gardens have been all over our 
stages, this one is by the Thames in Berkshire, 
where the great composer has gone to stay with 
friends after the disastrous reception of his 
Second Symphony. 

Ihe dramatist David Pownall (here as in his 
"Master Class" about Stalin and Shosiako- 
vicb and Prokofiev; is clearly fascinated by the 


power play between composers and their po- 
litical masters. In 1914 we therefore have King 


faint* BolUrd' 4FP»wp i. Paine* Hrm^'APF 

Cannes snapshots: Ge You and Gong U of “ Huozhe Jean-Louis Trintignani , Irene Jacob . Krzysztof Kieslowski 


George V and the massed bands of his Guards 
come to rouse Elgar from wartime lethargy 
and get him back to the land of hope and 
glory. 

In Alec McCowen's tortured and superb 
performance, we are given all sides of Elgar: 
the jingo-patriot turned pacifist, the good hus- 
band lusting after a potential mistress, the 
prolific composer wbo suddenly cannot write 
a note. Pownall raises the questions, and wise- 
ly doesn't hope for too many answers: If the 
war had not come, would Elgar's muse have 
changed him or deserted him anyway? is it 
better to be remembered for patriotic march- 
ing songs than not at all? Was Ihe Rondo 
really any better for being inaccessible io its 
first audiences? What, if anything, is the duty 
of a composer in war? 

To debate these issues, Pownall gives us 
George Bernard Shaw (in a feisty performance 
from James Hayes) and, back from the dead. 
Elgar’s first agent t John Carlisle) as well as his 
long-suffering wife (Sheila Ballaniine). All in 
Di Travis's agile production have some son of 
vested interest in getting Elgar out of his cre- 
ative crisis, an achievement in the end of a 
young Jesuit priest who just happens In more 
ways than one to be camping out in the garden. 

Those who write plays about the upper-mid- 
dle classes in limes of domestic or national peril 
do so nowadays at their peril, and Julian Mitch- 
ell's “Faffing Over England” (at the Greenwich) 
ought have been more warmly received had it 
concerned a one-parent family rather than 
three generations of a more affluent one living 
in a one-gazebo garden. But Mitchell is an 
elegant and stylish writer with a great deal to 
say about the crumbling of our betters, and like 
the lament for the old England that closes 
“Forty Years On,’’ his rime piece has a haunt- 
ing and elegiac theatricality that should be 


celebrated rather than dismissed for its unfit - 
shionabilily. 

We air in three time zones: 1945 at the 
moment of peace, 1956 as the Suez crisis starts, 
and 1994 as the next generation cames on tlw 
family battle between the cynics and the ideal- 
ists. All the children and grandchildren have in 
their different ways fallen over England, but 
one or two have also glimpsed the magical view 
of the parachutist as he WO does just that. 

True, Mitchell is sometimes torn between the 
complexities of telling in a couple of hours the 
individual stories of father, sou and grandson 
tor ten played by the same actor) while also 
looking at their wives and the gentle falling- 
apan of their nation. But somewhere in Mat- 
thew Francis's deft production, afl the right 
questions are asked about honor and individ- 
uality and survival against the political odds. 

Mitchell’s people still take tea on an English 
lawn, and it is still served by a faithful old 
housekeeper who, as is traditional in plays like 
this, has the monopoly on common sense and 
decency. “Anything to do with war,” she re- 
marks, “always ends in tears.” Janies Lauren- 
son and Charlotte Cornwell nearly hop the 
generations, turning pages in a consistently 
intriguing family album even as the skeletons 
crash out of the closets. 

In a week when the press on both sides of the 
Atlantic has, and not soon enough, begun to 
wonder whether it is really a good thing to have 
creative counselors rooting about in lost sexual 
memory as though it were a cupboard full of 
excitingly forgotten cardboard boxes, Rod Bea- 
cham's “No Big Deal" (at the Orange Tree in 
Richmond) could hardly be more topical. Its 
star is Fay (Joanna Van Gyseghem in a suitably 
over-tbe-Iop appearance), an American sex- 
leciurer come to flog a self-help manual around 
England hut also to stay with some old English 
friends into whose already uneasy domestic life 
she cheerfully brings further torment by leaping 
into bed with a hitherto dose ted wife. Kaufman 
and Han would have called this “The Woman 
Who Came to Dinner”; moved to the London 
suburbs, it is only intermittently entertaining. 

The problem is simple enough. In less politi- 
cally correct times, Kaufman and Hart were 
able to make their visitor a lovable monster; 
Bea chain has to be more circumspect, allowing 
for the more varied sexual and social alle- 
giances of a modern audience, and as a result 
his play remains caught on a fence of uncertain- 
ly, unable to decide whether the intruder is an 
evil destroyer of hearth and home or thebringer 
of a healthy blast of fresh vans-Atlanric air to 
blow away the cobwebs of British domestic 
prurience and sexual terror. In Stephanie 
Turner's production, Richard Hampton and 
Jan Carey are the bemused parents. 



Soli Vafcmn 


Laurenson and Cornwell in " Falling 
Over England. ” 


Gardiner’s ’Don Giovanni 


By Roderick 
Conway Moms 

International Herald Tribune 


P 


ARMA, Italy — Although 
it is an important teaching 
and musical research cen- 
ter. and the home of the 
Institute of Verdi Studies (the com- 
poser was born in a village close by), 
Parma would not instantly spring to 
mind as one of Italy' s leading opera 
bouses. But. while many big-league 
houses are financially and artistical- 
ly in the doldrums, theTearro Regio 
proved that it is capable of staging a 
superb, international-class show, 
when it premiered John Eliot Gardi- 
ner’s new production of Mozart's 
“Don Giovanni" 

“Don Giovanni” is a musical and 
theatrical walk on the high wire, a 
death trap (o uninspired plodders 
and the overconfident and ill-pre- 
pared alike, but the conductor Gar- 
diner, the young Italian-Amencan 
singe director Lorenzo Mariani. the 
En glish Baroque Soloists and Mon- 
teverdi Choir cany off this produc- 
tion with consummate panache. 

After the warm-up of Mozart's 
most gripping and frenetic over- 
ture. Don Giovanni’s servant, Le- 


porello, hardly has time to finish 
his a 


, complaint about his lack of job 
satisfaction, before the priapic 
arch-seducer appears, half pursued, 
half dragged back by a wild-eyed 
Donna Anna, whose virtue he has 
just been assailing. Donna Anna’s 
father, the Coromendatore, enter;. 
He and Don Giovanni fight — and 


the older man is stabbed to death. 

This could have been the finale 
of a story. Instead, the dramatic 
tension has to be maintained for 
the rest of the opera — which de- 
picts Don Giovanni's inexorable 
slide to damnation, almost seduc- 
ing on the way a pretty country girl, 
Zerlina. on her wedding day; fend- 
ing off the public denunciations of 
a discarded ex. Donna Elvira, and 
daring the statue of the defunct 
Conuaendntore to come to sup 
with him. Amusingly, in this pro- 
duction the carved marble Cora- 
mendaiorc trundles up for the din- 
ner date, sealed like Abe Lincoln 
on his monument and preceded by 
a New Orleans funeral-style pro- 
cession of baroque trombones. 

“Don Giovanni” is an opera buf- 
fs. or. as it as described on the ride 
page of the 278S Vienna edition 
that was used for this production, a 
dramma giocoso (a playful, semi- 
serious piece in the manner of Gol- 
doni). Lorenzo Da Ponte's libretto 
was based on earlier works, but 
expands and transforms them and 
introduces far more subtle and 
complex characterization. As a 
young man, Da Ponte had energeti- 
cally sowed his wild oals in Venice 
and had fallen in with a degenerate, 
profligate, promiscuous and vio- 
lently inclined aristocratic brother 
and sister (whose lover be became), 
the sole recollection of whom must 
have provided plenty of inspiration 
for his portrayal of the opera’s 
principal protagonist. 

Mozart, produced a score of an 
intensity often described, with jus- 


tice, as verging on the “demonic.” 

All the singers, including the 
chorus, in Gardiner’s production de- 
serve high commendation. The 
young American baritone Rodney 
Garry's Don Giovanni — presented 
in Mariam's consistently imagina- 
tive direction as a kind of rich, bully- 
ing, mad -bad- and- dangerous- lo- 
know rock star, simultaneously 
repulsive, yet handsome and credi- 
bly attractive to his victims — was a 
tour de ionx of acting and vocal 
command. Two Italian newcomers. 
Ildebrando D'Arcangdo fLepor- 
dlo) and Andrea SNestreUi (fi 
Cbanncndatore), both under 30. re- 
vealed captivating richness of tones 
and bore witness lo Gardiner's con- 
siderable talent-spotting abilities. 


A Glimpse 
Of 'Fedora’ 
In London 


By Henry Pleasants 


L 


N 


O less accomplished 
were the Dutch Char- 
lotte Margiono (Donna 
Elvira), the Slovakian 
Luba Orgonasova (Donna Anna), 
and the Welsh soprano Eirian 
James, wbo brought a perky, naive, 
saucy seductiveness to the part of 
Zedma, Julian Clarkson providing a 
convincingly decent but doltish foil 
as her groom, Maseuo. Christoph 
Pregadieo’s sweetness of voice lent a 
pathos to the tricky role of Donna 
Anna's fiance, Don Ottavio. The 
English Baroque Soloists led by Ali- 
son Bury left one. once again, in awe 
as to quite how they do it 

further performances: Thursday 
and Sunday. Parma ; June 5 and 7. 
Amsterdam: June 9 and I /. London, 
and July 8 and 12, Ludu igshurg, 
Germany. 


ONDON — Umberto • 
Giordano's “Fedora” oc- ‘J 
cupies a curious place in ; 
opera histwy. Most op- ■ 
eragoera are familiar with the tiUe i 
and know it as the work of the > 
composer of “Andrea Chenier ” All [ 
record collectors have a dozen or i 
more recordings of its one memoca- ■ 
ble aria. “Amor ti vieia," by the j 
greatest tenors of the century, begin- i 
ning with Caruso singing it to a | 
piano accompaniment, possibly r 
with Giordano at the piano, in 1901 \ 
The tide role (Fedora is a.Rus- ]■' 
sian princess, not a hat) has attract-, f ; 
ed many great dramatic sopranos, .[ , 
beginning with Gemma BeUindoni r ' 
who sang the premiere in 1898, r ; 
followed by Una CavaKeri, GtRLa { . 
Dalla Rizza, Maria Jeritza, Giuscp- .f’ 
iina Cobelli and, more recent™ T :: 


Si' 


aria Callas, Magda Olivero and 
Renata Tebaldi. 


Tenors, too, have been drawn to' £ 
the character and music of Loris ' 
Ipanov. The rote launched the car 
reer of the 25-year-old Caruso at 
the premiere. Among those wbo ; 
have followed in Caruso’s footsteps M 
have been Fernando De Lucta, % 
Aureliano Penile, Giovanni Mar-. i 
tinelli. Mario Del Monaco and : f 
Giuseppe Di Siefano. v £3 


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French-Style 


By David Stevens 

Inlerrulional Herald Tribune 


M 


ONTPELLIER. 
France — The Nibe- 
Iunzand Yolsung leg- 
ends ore so identified 
with Wagner’s agamic “Ring" cycle 
it is hard to imagine any other musi- 
cal garb. But there was. or is. and 
French at thaL as the opera compa- 
ny here has just recalled with a reviv- 
al of Ernest Reyer's “Sigurd." 

In its day. which seems to have 
ended about the middle of this cen- 
tury, “Sigurd" was easily the besi 
known of the half dozen stage 
works by Reyer (J&23-J909), a 
largely selT-iaughi composer and 
prolific critic and writer on music. 

Wagner was still working on the 
“Ring” when Reyer began with the 
same material in the 1860s. but 
after repeated rejections by the 
Paris Opera. Reyer's work reached 
the stage only in ISM in Bnn-sels. 
eight years after Wagner’s in Bay- 
reuth-' Paris followed a year later, 
and kepi “Sigurd" in the repertory 
until 1935 (when Marjorie Law- 
rence and Martial Srngher were in 
the cast). But since then it has de- 
pended on the occasional revival 
outside the capital. 

The story corresponds roughly to 
that of “GOiierdamnieruDg." center- 
ing on the trickery by which Sigurd 
(ark -’a Siegfried) is induced by 
Gunther to forget Bronchi id and 
many Hilda (Wagner's Gutranet. 
j with similar tragic results. But the 
j story is taken af face value, courtly 
rattier than prehistoric in atmo- 


sphere. and without Wagner’s politi- 
cal subtext or his susceptibility to 
modern psycho-musical analysis. 

Reyer was an admirer of Wagner 
(also of Gluck. Weber and Berlioz), 
but there is hardly a trace of Bay- 
reuthian influence here. There is 
some use of recurrent themes, al- 
though nothing like the symphonic 
complexity «rith which" Wagner 
used his leitmotivs. On the strength 
' r “Sigurd." Reyer seems not to 


of 


have been a strongly individual 
composer, but a highly literate one. 
and this score comes jctoss as a 
kind of anthology or l Q th -century 
French romantic opera. He has the 
French composer's sure touch for 
colorfully exotic scoring and a fac- 
ile way with attractive but forgetta- 
ble melodic lines, but not great 
force of personality. 

Baldo Podie conducted with un- 
common enthusiasm and attention 
to detail, drawing just about as 
much from the score as it could 
yield. Luca Lombardo’s lyric tenor 
was particularly strong in its lower 
range, and he made a stalwart Sig- 
urd of almost adolescent allure. 
Michele Ugrange and Valerie Mil- 
lot were well matched as Hilda and 
Branchild. and Alain Vemhes was 
a solid Gunther, 


Although this production in the 
new Opera Berlioz (a co-produc- 
tion with Marseille) fortunately did 
not Like “Sigurd" Tor anything oth- 
er than what it is. Tobias Richter's 
staging went little further than rou- 
trne traffic direction and did little 
to clarify the drama. Andreas Rein- 
hardt's "single set offered a hilly 


Rhine landscape in the distance 
and a scrim-enclosed playing area 
downstage for the plot’s coinings 
and goings. 

Almost any French city outride 
Paris might well eovy the physical 
resources of the Montpellier Op£ ra. 
whose almost 60 million francs 
(about $10 million) in subsidies 
comes more than 90 percent From 
the city and district. 

Henri Maier. the company's di- 
rector for the last nine years, has 
the use of two major theaters. The 
2,000-seal Optra Bcriioz is part of 
the new Corum congress center. 
With its four tiers of rear and side 
boxes around a deep main floor, it 
has more of a traditional theatrical 
feel than most such multipurpose 
auditoriums. 

For smaller productions (a reviv- 
al Of Mozart's “Marriage of Fi- 
garo" in June, for instance) it also 
has the 1 , 200 -seal Opfcra ComWie, 
designed by a disciple of Charles 
Gamier and with lavish foyers lo 
prove iL 

In addition, there are two small- 
er halls in the Contra, and behind 
(he main stage in the ComMie is a 
delicious 350 -sea I tbealer-reciial 
hall, where the soprano Renata 
Scoito was holding master classes 

for young professional singers. 

Besides the regular season activi- 
ty. Montpellier stays at the center 
of things in the summer as the site 
of one of France’s principal dance 
festivals (June 22-Iuly 8 ). and of 

the Monipdlier-Radjo France mu- 
sic festival (July 10-Aug. 4). 



Rodney Gilfry as Don Giovanni \ in Parma. 



Ana yet. few operagoers havens 
heard a performance of “Fedora” in 
ihe theater, and until last week's J 
Royal Opera premiere of a new pro- 
auction (borrowed from Milan's La , 
Seda). 1 was not among them. Why f 
so few? Because, except at thebehest j 
of luminaries such as those named j; 
above, ii j s rarely given. Why? Bp- 
rause. as an opera, it is a long way i -1 
from ranking with “Andrea Chb- .1 ^ 
mcr" in the vgrismo sector of the f 
iiandanj repenoire. . j";; 

The luminaries on this occasunT 
are Mirella Freni and Josfe Qo?-, 
reras. who sang it together last sea- 
son in Milan. Their names have, 
sufficed to sell out ihe house for all . 
six performances. 


Freni, now pushing 60, is neartfig 
the end of an extraordinary career . 
sparining more than 35 years, . 
with^her recent “Adrian^ LecbWr^- -' 
reur" at the Met and in Paris, nhjvf 
rag into dramatic strand ithsttt ,v • ■ 
herb by native vocal ddownani'',’ o 
but yielding to her resources 
vocal husbandry and technique ' * 
and her gifts as an actress, . ’ ' 


As for Carreras. Loris, tpo,;^- .. - 
role not his by vocal endcwxaesZris- 1 
but he brings to it the intensity afflT r I 
rervor that have sei him som cdafcZ-. • 
3 pan from Domingo and Pawotf >|k.- 
araong the ‘Three Tenors.'* ■ 


" Fedora” has only two bigsee^^ 
Md they lack the soaring 
keep “Andrea Chbtto^.izf 


^pfirtoire. but as played and-Sw^,? . 
by Freni and Carreras '-4 

opera has never 
ished uno limbo. 


Further performances 
and May 24 and 27. 


A scene from Reyer's "Sigurd " in Montpellier. 


Henry Pleasants is a 
iy^sed author and critic- 
izes in nrutif Aul mum 




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International Herald Tribune, Wednesday, May 18. 1994 


Pugc II 


(the 



THE TRIB INDEX: 112.0911 

ntomaliniiti i > • ... ... _ EK!fl 


IfinTSJ 003 .- HeraW Trifaune Worid Stock Mex ©■ composed of 
investaWe stocks from 25 countries, complied 
oy Bloomberg Business Nows. Jan. 1 , 1992 =100 
120 


110 



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World Index 

5/17/94 close: 112.0S 
Previous: 111.52 


90 


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1993 


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1994 


150 

130 

110 

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Apprat. weighSng- 32% 
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dose- m* Pm; 11439 i 





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North America 


Latin America 


Approx, weighting: 28% 
Qoee: 9350 Pievj 92J22 



The Me * tracks U.S. dollar values o! stocks irr Tokyo, Nnr York, London, and 
Argentina. AiaMs, Austria, Betyum, Brazil, Canada, Chita, Danmark, Ftatand, 
France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Mwdco. Neihertands, New Zealand. Norway, 
Singapore, Spain, Sweden, S witz erland and Venezuela. For Tokyo. New York and 
London, ffw inctax is cwnposod of the 20 tap issues tn terms at market cnpHaBzatton. 
otherwise too ten top slocks are backed 


1 ' fridustfial : : j 


Toe. pm % 


Tut 

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dote dam change 


doaa 

don 

change 

Energy 

112.05 111.74 *028 

Capital Goods 

113-88 

112.80 

+0.96 

VWes 

114.14 11525 -026 

Rawll^erials 

126-82 

12621 

+0.01 

Rnance 

1t7j44 11721 4020 

Consuner Goods 

97.71 

9656 

+1.19 

Servtees 

116.33 115l51 +0.71 

RBsceBaneous 

125J7 

125.71 

-0.11 

For mom information about the buJex. a booklet is avaRabb fm ot eftaga 


Write to Tib Index, 181 Avenue Charies da Gaulle. 92521 NeuHy Cedex, Fiance. 


Russian Rocket Scientists Show Business Acumen 


By Richard W. Stevenson 

Nr*' York Time* Sema- 

MOSCOW — la a nation brimming with advanced 
technology but sorely lacking in business acumen, one 
or the old Soviet Union's most impressive legacies, its 
space program, is shaping up to be one ol the new 
Russia's rare economic success stories. 

Unquestioned in their technological prowess. Rus- 
sia's rocket and satellite makers and other space- 
oriented enterprises have also displayed a surprisingly 
deft capitalist touch in forging lies with Western 
partners and finding markets for their products 
around the world. 

During the last several years they have won orders 
valued at more than SI billion from Western companies 
and governments, including contracts for launching 
rockets for Iridium, the global telephone system being 


set up by Motorola Inc.; satellite propulsion systems in 
a joint venture with Loral Corp- and research and 
development programs lor National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration, as well as for European space 
agencies and aerospace companies. 

“The market is the future, and we haw to learn to 
work in it.’* said Alexander I. Medvedchikov. the 
Russian Space Agency's deputy director general Tor 
international cooperation. “There are many things we 
don't know how to do yet, but we're learning fasL" 

The leader in the Russian space industry’s transfor- 
mation is the Khninicbev State Research and Produc- 
tion Space Center in Moscow. While still owned by the 
government, Khrunichev is managed much like a 
private business. 

Once best known as the maker of theSS-18 and SS- 
19 intercontinental ballistic missiles. Khrunichev took 


the audacious step in the late 1980s of turning away 

with long- 


miliiaiy orders and focusing on businesses wit.. ._ 
term commerdal prospects, particularly in space. 

It was merged recently with the Salyut Design 
Bureau, the developer of many of Russia's spacecraft, 
and is now the country's leading supplier of space 
hardware, having built, among other things, the Mir 
space station. 

in addition, it has developed dose ties to American 
companies, including Lockheed Corp. and Iridium. As 
a result, its managers said they were confident about the 
future of the enterprise. “We will continue to grow." 
said Alexander V. Lebedev, the deputy director general. 

The commcrcializaiicm of Russia's space industry is 
an encouraging development in the nation's chaotic 
economic metamorphosis, and the revenues it generates 
should help maintain the nation's technology base. 


What is happening among Russian enterprises mir- 
rors similar trends in the industry in the United States 
and other countries, where the emphasis is shifting away 
from supplying government space programs, which are 
being reduced in scale because of budget pressures. 


, that 
i ilnst 
■ -ard 

> gian 
'ate” 


Instead, the focus is increasingly on opportunities 

ich a< 


for private enterprise in areas such as telecommunica- 
tions. navigation, weather forecasting, earth imaging 
and producing materials in low gravity. 

The Russian industry's transformation has also 
sharply increased competition in the growing worldwide 
market for rocket launchings, satellites and other space- 
oriented products and services. 


- Mr. 
•a to 

I «"i 

,^ar- 
•ida- ■ 
Jmor 
. der- 
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See ROCKET. Page 15 


Receiver Offers Little Hope 
For Creditors of Schneider 


O koamahoiwl Marakt Trtbune 


By Brandon Mitchener 

International Herald Tribune 

FRANKFURT - — Few of the 150 banks and busi- 
nesses owed money by Jurgen and Claudia Schneider, 
the fugitive German real estate tycoons, will ever be 
paid because the couple's debts far outweigh their 
assets, a court-appointed receiver said Tuesday. 

"I don’t expect a profit from the sale of properties.” 
raid Gerhard Walter, the receiver, to reporters after 
the first official meeting with creditors in Kflnigstein. 
an upscale Frankfurt suburb where the Schneiders 
used to live and work. 

On the contrary, the liquidation of Dr. Jurgen 
Schneider AG will ultimately cost banks and contrac- 
tors as much as 4i billion Deutsche marks fS2.69 
billion). The completion of 15 works in progress will 
run another 1.5 billion DM, he said. Only 405 million 
DM of the company’s outstanding debts, or less than I 
percent, were secured by accessible cash deposits. 

Mr. Walter’s assessment, the first official statement 
on the value of the Schneider company's holdings, was 
far gloomier than previous readings by creditor banks, 
which had hoped to recover much of their investment 
by selling the properties behind the loans. 

Rather than net assets of 3.5 billion DM. as certified 
at the end of 1993, the Schneider business empire 
actually had an estimated net debt at the time of 3 J to 
4 billion DM, an amount that has grown since. More- 
over, its rental income was only about 28 million DM 
a year, versus 600 million DM a year in running costs, 
he said. 

“If that had continued, Schneider would have wiped 
out half a billion marks a year," he said. 

Mr. Walter also said the private partnership con- 
trolled by Mr. Schneider and his wife owned 121 
properties in 14 German cities, 41 of which were in the 
East German city of Leipzig and 24 in Frankfurt. The 
total was almost double the number that had previous- 
ly been disclosed. 

The group employed around 550 workers, most of 
whom have now been given the pink slip, and had 


business dealings with some 60 contractors who are 
unlikely to receive any payment for bills outstanding. 

“Schneider bought too expensively, built too expen- 
sively and managed too expensively.” Mr. Walter said, 
describing the Schneider company’s investments as a 
Potemkin village maintained largely by a constant 
stream of loans by gullible banks. 

“The crisis began years ago and was only concealed 
by an ongoing (low of fresh credit,” he said. 

Shares of Deutsche Bank AG, which had outstand- 
ing loans of 12 billion DM in connection with 
Schneider properties in Western Germany, fell sharp- 
ly. Tbe stock closed down 10.5Q DM, or 1.3 percent, at 
781 DM a share, though a bank spokesman said its 
exposure “hadn't changed” as a result of the revela- 
tions on Tuesday. 

Mr. Waller said the Schneiders owed bank creditors 
about 5 billion DM and contractors another 200 
million DM. Interest and principle payments on out- 
standing loans were costing the group about 400 
million DM a year. 

Police are still searching for the couple, who disap- 
peared around Easter after transferring at least 250 
million DM out of the country. Mr. Walter said 
investigators were also “still looking for the money,” 
which some local media reported had been wired to 
the Bahamas. 


Though it was Mr. Schneider who managed the 
family business, Mr. Walter disclosed that the couple's 


private partners hip was 95 percent owned by Claudia 
Granzow-Schn eider, an harass whom Mr. Sdtne' ’ 


irider 


married 28 years ago. and just 5 percent by Mr. 
Schneider himself. 

They were the only signatories to the partnership’s 
various accounts. 

[A Frankfurt newsletter reported that Mr. 
Schneider had transferred 400 million DM abroad 
before fiedn® including 242 million DM which 
passed through London to the Bahamas, according to 
a dispatch from Agence France-Presse.) 


At Lloyd’s, Lavish Losses 

Insurer £2 Billion in the Red for 1991 


By Erik Ipsen 

International Herald Tribune 

LONDON — The Lloyd's of 
London insurance market has 
notched up another year of im- 
mense losses — just over £2 bil- 
lion for 1991, bringing the cumu- 
lative damage from its four-year 
losing streak to a staggering £6.7 
billion (S10 billion). 

Lloyd's, Much reports its re- 
sults after a three-year time lag to 
allow for claims to be processed, 
announced tbe loss on Tuesday. 

“I'd love to present a different 
figure,” said Lloyd's chair man, 
David Rowland. “£2 billion is a 
deal of anyone's money to 
losing in a year.” 

As disastrous as Lloyd's resul ls 
were, Mr. Rowland emphasized 
that they still marked a slight im- 
provement over the previous year, 
for which the market posted a 
revised loss of £2.3 billion. 
Lloyd’s also predicted, although 
not for the first time, a return to 
profitability in short order. 

The company said it expected 
to post “good” profits in the 
1993 year of account, the results 
of which are to be announced in 


two years. 
Mr. Ra 


*. Rowland expressed some 
surprise at the resilience Lloyd's 
has shown in the face of huge 
losses and numerous pending 
lawsuits from Lloyd’s Names, 


the wealthy individuals who pro- 
vide the capital for policies 
which are sold by the plethora of 
underwriting groups that com- 
prise the Lloyd's market. 

The “remarkable” thing, said 
the Lloyd’s chairman, “is that we 
have had terrible losses but we 
are stiD here.” 

Mr. Rowland confidently pre- 
dicted that the market would 
pass its greatest looming regula- 
tory hurdle, the annual August 
test of Its solvency by British 
authorities. 

“I do not seriously doubt that 
Lloyd's will pass,” said Christo- 
pher StockweD. head of the um- 
brella group representing the 
myriad groups of Names suing 
Lloyd's and its agents. Mr. Stock- 
well did predict, however, that the 
latest losses would push many 
more Names into bankruptcy. 

To help tbe Names, Lloyd's an- 
nounced this month that it would 
allow them to borrow 3 percent of 
their expected profits from this 
calendar year to pay for 1991's 
losses. Last year, Lloyd's allowed 
a 5 percent borrowing. 

But with some analysts pre- 
dicting losses next year of £1 
billion, and with daims against 
policies written prior to 1991 for 
damages from pollution and as- 
bestosis still rising, the next two 
years will be no cakewalk. Those 


so-called old-year losses forced 
Lloyd's to add £96 1 million to its 
reserves in 1991. 


Peter Middleton, Lloyd's chief 
executive, said his market's re- 
serves against those pollution 
claims “match the best in the 
industry." 

But some specialists said it 
might be difficult for Lloyd’s to 
post a profit even in 1993, a year 
of high insurance rates and one 
notably free of the kinds of ca- 
tastrophes Lloyd’s specializes in 
covering. 

Stephen Dias, an insurance in- 
dustry analyst with Goldman, 
Sachs & Co., said Lloyd's may 
well need every bit of profit it 
can get in 1993, since this year is 
off to a dauntingly bad start In 
just the first five months of the 
year, losses from major catastro- 
phes have made 1994 the founh- 
costliest year on record. 

Mr. Dias said the Los Angeles 
earthquake would have cost 
Lloyd's tittle if anything if the 
original damage estimates of S3 
billion to $4 billion had held up. 

“Now those estimates are 7 to 
8 billion dollars, and there will 
certainly be some losses for 
Lloyds,” predicted Mr. Dias. 
Lloyd’s underwriters also face 
large losses from the storms that 
hit the UJ3. East Coast last win- 
ter. 


MEDIA MARKETS 


Coke light Gears Up for a Hard Sell 


By Daniel TEIles 

Special to the Herald Tribune 

P ARIS — There is no rest for tbe 
thirsty, at least when the thirst is one 
for market share in the always cut- 
throat, carbonated soft-drink cate- 
gory. Coca-Cola Co, the world’s largest soft- 
drink company is in the process of 
relaunching Coke Light, as its low-calorie 
brand is known in non-English-speaking 
countries. The same product is sold as Diet 
Coke in the United States, Canada, Britain 
and Australia and accounts for 80 percent of 
tbe company’s low-calorie Coke volume. 

The marketing push will include new pack- 
aging and a television campaign developed 
by the Paris office of the Lmtas Worldwide 
advertising agency. The first commercial has 
just debuted in France and Japan, and will 
begin airing in the approximately 30 otheT 
countries where Coke Light is sold this year. 

All this in the hopes of gaining a percent- 
age point or two in the never-ending cola 
wars against arch-rival PepsiCo Inc. and oth- 
er smaller producers. It is a high-stakes battle 
in which a 1 percent rise or fall in market 
share translates into hundreds of millions of 
dollars in syrup and, ultimately, carbonated- 

sofi-drink sales. 

Although advertising represents just one 
element in the overall marketing strategy for 
Coke Light and other Coca-Cola brands, it 
nlays the most visible role in the eyes of the. 
consumer. The company spent SI.l billion in 
1993 advertising its ensemble of products. 

The theme of the new Coke Light cam- 
paign is “You’ve never been refreshed like 
this before," and it represents a shift m 
Coke's advertising strategy for selling low- 
calorie sodas. 


“Coke Light needed to move away from a 
diet/ female-oriented positioning and to- 
wards refreshment,” said Vincent Nigre. the 
bead of Limas Paris. 

The new strategy also steps away from 
celebrity-based advertising for Coke Light. 
Previous commercials had relied on adapting 


'Europeans won’t 
change their minds easily 
about what refreshment 
means for them. 9 


Tom Ptriko, president of 
Bevntark Inc~, a consulting firm. 


the glitzy musical ads created (or Diet Coke, 
- featuring entertainers such as Elton John and 
Paida AbduL 

“We’re looking for a real people-ish type of 
advertising where the product is the hero of the 
commercial, "a spokeswoman for Coke said. 

“We've stopped the singing and lifestyle- 
vignette strategy," said Mr. N6gre, explaining 
that men had been having a more difficult 
time relating to this style of commercial exe- 
cution. 

But whatever qualities tbe new Coke Light 
advertising may possess, tbe ultimate chal- 
lenge rests upon consumer acceptance of tbe 
product's “refreshment" positioning. 


“Coke Light is trying to extend the Araeri- 
culturaT model in it 


can cultural model in its international mar- 
kets," said Ton Piriro. president of Bevmark 
Inc., a New York-based consulting firm. 
“They’re raying refreshment is a lifestyle 


thing and there may be kind of a reverse chic 
in this approach. StiD, well have to wait and 
see if people react positively to this sLraiegy." 

As for rival Pepsi, the Purchase. New 
York-based company launched a low-calorie 
product called Pepsi Max in September. 
1993, supported by an advertising campaign 
developed by BBDO Worldwide Inc. and 
featuring the theme “Pepsi Max — maximum 
taste, no sugar.” 

The brand is currently available in about 
16 countries, although not in the United 
Slates because it is stiD awaiting government 
approval for its blend of artificial sweeteners. 
Brad Shaw, a spokesman for Pepsi Interna- 
tional said the company planned to expand 
marketing of Pepsi Max'to 20 or 25 countries 
by the end of the year. 

“We projected a S250 million business by 
the end of Dae first full year and we're al ready 
exceeding that,” he said. Although Coke out- 
sells Pepsi by about a 3 J-to-l ratio outside of 
tbe United States. Mr. Shaw questioned 
whether Coke Light would lake off behind 
the new strategy. 

“Coke has been taking all sorts of sieps io 
revive a brand which may not be performing 
as well as they wish," he said. “On the other 
hand, we have cracked the image and taste 
barrier outside of the States with Pepsi Max.” 

On this last point, Mr. Pirko agreed. 

“Pepsi Max bas been a bit more creative in 
trying hybrid sweeteners.” he said. “Max is 
trying to give consumers a taste sensation like 
regular Pepsi but without the sugar. Coke, on 
the other hand, is saying we have two differ- 
ent drinks here. Coca-Cola and Coke Light 
are not intended to be the same. And again, 
the Europeans won’t change their minds easi- 
ly about what refreshment means for them.” 



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Banks Were Established to Protect 
Depositors' Funds. It's Still 
Our Most Important Mission. 



T hroughout history, man 
has sought to safeguard 
rhe things he values. 

It was true in the Middle Ages, 
when hanking institutions 
emerged to shelter the wealth 
created by an expanding market 
economy. Its equally true now. 

Today, however, safety isn’t 
a mar ter of having the biggest 
strongbox or the heaviest 
padlock, in rodav’s fluid world, 
safety is rieJ to prudent poli- 
cies, a strong balance sheet and 


a conservative banking 
philosophy. 

Those are the very qualities 
that have made Republic 
National Bank one of the safest 
institutions in the world. Our 
asset quality and capital ratios 
are among the strongest in the 
industry. And our dedication to 
protecting depositors’ funds is 
unmatched anywhere. 

As a subsidiary of Safra 
Republic Holdings S.A. and an 
affiliate of Republic New York 


Corporation, we’re part of a 
global group with more than 
US$5 billion in capital and 
more than US$50 billion in 
assets. These assets continue to 
grow substantially, a testament 
to rhe group’s risk-averse orien- 
tation and century-old heritage. 

So, while much has changed 
since the Middle Ages, safety 
is still a depositors most 
important concern. And its 
still our most important 
mission. 


REPUBLIC NATIONAL BANK 
OF NEW YORK (SUISSE) SA 


A SAFRA BANK 


timeless Values. Traditional strength. 


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Pa^e 12 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, NAY 18, 1994 




Compiled In Our Staff From Dtspatcha 

NEW YORK — Financial mar- 
kets roared with approval Tuesday 
at the most aggressive Federal Re- 
serve Board action taken in more 

U.S. Stocks 

than five years to boost interest 
rales and calm inflation Tears. 

The Dow Jones industrial aver- 
age shot up 49.1 1. to 3.720.61. 
while gaining issues swamped los- 
ing ones by an I l-to-8 ratio in ac- 
tive trading on the New York Stock 
Exchange. 

In the bond market, the 30-year 
Treasury issue, a benchmark of in- 
flation anxiety among investors, 
surged 1 28/32 point, to 87 22/32. 
The yield fell to 7.27 percent from 
7.44 percent Monday. 

Markets surged after the Fed 
pushed up two key lending rates that 
affect (he cost of borrowing 
throughout the economy. Fed poli- 
cymakers signaled an increase in the 
federal fluids rale, which is charged 
when one commercial bank borrows 
from another, to 4.25 percent from 
3.75 percent It was the fourth in- 
crease in this rate since February. 

The Fed also raised its discount 
rate, which it charges to commer- 
cial banks that borrow money, to 
3.5 percent from 3 percent. It was 


Ihe first increase in that rate since 

February 1989. 

Slock traders focused on signs the 
Fed was probably done tinkering 
with interest rates for the time being, 
rather than on the more bearish as- 
pects of higher rates, which is that 
they increase the cost of doing busi- 
ness for companies and consumers, 
slowing the pace of economic 
growth and corporate earnings. 

Wal-Mart was the most actively 
traded U.S. stock, gaining Va to 23'^ 
a day after reporting an 1 1 percent 
increase in quarterly earnings. 

IBM surged 2H to 6 1 Ik in active 
trading after introducing three new 
models of its ThinkPad PCs laptop 
computer. 

Other technology stocks did not 
fare as well, with Lotus Develop- 
ment. Oracle and Intel sliding in 
active trading. The Nasdaq index, 
which is heavily weighed with tech- 
nology issues, fell 1.13 points, to 
710.78. 

Lotus plunged 3 7 * to 51 Oracle 
lost -Ij to 29->s and Intel dropped 'i 
to 57*4. 

Bank stocks rose after several 
money-center banks announced in- 
creases in their prime lending rates. 
Citicorp jumped ! >s to 384 in ac- 
tive trading. BankAmerica rose 1 Vs 
to 48 >*. f.4P. Bloomberg. AFX) 


Via AMOC'Cmcf Piets 


Mor 


Daily closings of trie 
Dow Jones industrial average 


Rate Rise Gives Dollar 
A Solid Late-Day Boost 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dtspah bes 

NEW YORK —The dollar got a 
solid latc-day boost after the Fed- 
eral Reserve’ Board raised U.S. in- 
terest rates on Tuesday. 

The U.S. currency had softened 
in the course of the European ses- 
sion amid fears the Fed might de- 

ForeHgn Exchange 

ride on only a modest rise. As a 
resulL the decision to push up the 
federal funds rate by 50 basis 
points, to 4.25 percent, reassured 
many participants in the market. 

*The Fed took aggressive action, 
which is what the market was look- 
ing for," said Kari HaUigan. an 
ING Capital Markets trader. 
“Gains in slocks and bonds also 
helped the dollar.” 

Some traders said the surge in 
bond prices following the Fed 
move had reinforced confidence in 
the dollar. "The explanation is the 
bond market.” said one foreign- 
exchange dealer. "The gain in the 
long bond sustained the dollar." 

The dollar dosed at 1.6720 Deut- 
sche marks, down a little from a 
closing rate of 1.6733 DM on Mon- 
day but up nearly a pfennig from 
1.6640 DM. where it was trading 


soon before the announcement 
about the rate increases. 

The dollar dosed at 104.525 yen. 
down from a Monday closing quote 
at 104.750 yen but up from 104.300 
yen before the announcement 

But dealers said that the dollar 
had failed to rise further in the 
wake of such robust interest rate 
action because fears about infla- 
tion lingered. “The increases 
weren't large enough to drive the 
dollar higher,” said Ear] Johnson. 
foreign -exchange adviser at Harris 
Trust & Savings Bank in Chicago. 

In line with these concents, trad- 
ers noted that the size of the rate 
increase indicated that it would not 
be easy for Fed to raise rates again 
For some lime, leaving the U.S. cur- 
rency in a vulnerable state. The 
dollar has fallen about 6 percent 
against the mark and about 10 per- 
cent against the yen so far this year. 

Against other major currencies, 
the dollar dosed at 1.4225 Swiss 
francs, slighily off from a closing 
rate on Monday of 1.4270 francs, 
and at 5.7290 French francs, down 
from 5.7330 francs. The pound was 
quoted nearly unchanged from its 
Monday closing at 51.5025. 


(Bloomberg Knight- RidJer I 



m 


N D 
1993 


J F 


MAM 

1994 


NYSE Most Actives 



High 

LOW 

Last Clig. 

Comcmilc 

Indu5trl(]i5 

Traruo 

Llilitv 

Finance 

248.13 
3i3i»2 
236.83 

204.1? 

211.13 

245.45 

3C3.15 

734.68 

700.61 

2C8J4 

24113 -135 
305.)0 -203 
73683 -1.57 

»184 ■ 2.70 
211.13 -177 

NASDAQ indexes 


High 

LOW 

Last Oig. 





Iru3u*lrte5 

Bar+i 

Insurance 

FI nonce 
Tronw 

70LBI 
205.” 
884 02 
9«2S 
7W.B4 

726 13 
701.13 
879.83 
905.16 

6)7.45 

5316 7 —1.58 
70677 -180 
88682 -190 
909.75 -H3 
702.19 —507 


WalMirt 

IBM 

EMC S 

Tel Men 

Bank Am 

GnMotr 

AlierTc s 

HevfIPk 

SnenGri 

Ottawa 

OcoPei 

WSemt 

CenlEn 

Mere* 

Motor la i 


VOL 

High 

LOW 

Last 

Chs. 

8829] 

23 V: 

22ft% 

23'.Y 

- 4. 

53201 

61 "• 

56 

4I'» 

-2 1 * 

50382 

IS 

13". 

!4’-S 

—1'. 

32933 

57 

555, 

54'* 

- 6. 

31123 

48* 

44 <n 

48 

— I' 1 . 

30049 

54’ 5 

5IV.M 

54% 

-1<* 

30425 

319* 

28' . 

30’. 

— 1*« 

28150 

7ft -V, 

74'-, 

76'-* 

— lvt. 

26990 

21 W 

JO’n 

21ft* 

— 1 

25*04 

38% 

34 ’Jh 

38' 1 

-My 

24728 

19'- 

I8L« 

19' « 

* w 

245*4 

18«i 

16V. 

17V: 



?J 204 

IT* 

I0>6 

11 

— I., 

23777 

31". 

X ** 

31 

- v. 

2349) 

449. 

4]'. 

444. 

- U 


NASDAQ Most Actives 



VOL 

High 

Law 

Last 

an. 

a&CD 5 

174843 

23 

11*6 

221k 

— V, 

Lotus 

57425 

54 

49't 

51V. 

— 4V. 

Wellfit s 

JW55 

;B<-- 

-5 1 .. 

J7L. 

—4k 

Intel s 

48481 

58 Vk 

56 V: 

58’. 

-Vi 

Oradei 

44812 

30*2 

77": 

jgivi. 


Mlcsft 

38245 

95’ti 

93'k 

94Vk 

— *k 

3Com 

37514 

51 "k 

47 V. 

51 *« 

- >4 

XfUru 

30707 

44V. 

38 >k 

39’Y 

> 

TelCmA 

28825 

20 

IB'. 

10*. k 

- V. 

AT) era 

27426 

32 V: 

29«* 

32 

—Mi 

CrkrBrl 

24588 

24 

2P« 

34 

-l>i 

PctIdos 

25851 

I4’5 

13*.i 

14’k 


APwrCvs 

23776 

If’, i 

17*i 

19 

—Mi 

Atmei s 

22112 

739k 

2iv« 

2Tk 

— W 

MCI S 

23004 

23 Hi 

23 Vk 

zr*i. 

-"u 


AMEX Most Actives 



VoL 

Mob 

Law 

Last 

Chs. 


13135 


2V* 

3*v,. 

_ _K] a 

OwnStts 

10478 

19 

18 

18*k 

— w 

ViOCB 

8431 

279* 

27 

27 »» 

-*k 

AE»pl 

4499 

J’.i 

Ikii 

r* 


IvcnCp 

6619 

18Vk 

17’rc 

18 

-Mi 

ExpLA 

4072 

IV.i 

IV,. 

TV,. 

-.7. 


5700 

4Vi 

4*k 

41* 


Hasbro 

4442 

33 dk 

32 Ml 

33 dk 


STOR 

4187 4S''u 

44’.k 

45>'» 


Cal Lb 

3047 

4W 

4»/. a 

4V„ 



Market Sales 



Today 

Prev. 


4 pjn. 

cons. 

NYSE 

311.13 

28679 

Amcx 

1690 

isja 

Nasdaa 

290.74 

23306 


In millions. 


Dow Jones Averages 


Open Hiatt low Log dig. 

IltQUf 64 1TO 1 1 3M T JI 3770.01 “J9.ll 

Troni IK*. 49 1 55" -TO 1*M“J 1557 J0 - I (Lai 
urn 17805 lei .3i l’«H ISO? -U3 
Conus ir*S*3 II® 51 17«S« I7KIJ1 - MSI 


EUROPEAN FUTURES 



U.S./AT 


Standard & Poor's Indexes 


High Low Close cn'ge 

industrials 5?<-28 S 1 "-* 3 52*5® +*56 

Trcnso. 3 7AZS =71.70 37-L25 -riM 

Utilities I5J22 150.P0 +173 

Finance JJ.eS -UTS «jdJ +047 

SP 500 JJ9JT M3.70 «*.J7 + 4iB 

SP |D0 417.0? Jil 71 4I7J3 +5.70 


NYSE Indexes 


AMEX Stock index 


High Low Last Chs. 

431.99 J30J7 01.99 -fljl 


Dew Jones Bond Averages 


20 Borah 
ID Utilities 
10 Industrials 


Close 

97.27 

94J5 


01-90 
+ <M« 
+ 0J5 
+ 0A3 


NYSE Diary 


Oow Prev. 


Achrancod 

1351 

985 

D+dinca 

850 

1188 

Unchanged 

615 

446 

Total issues 

2816 

2819 

New Highs 

22 

21 

New Laws 

108 

119 


AMEX Diary 


Advanced 

Declined • 
Uncnanfjrd 
Tola! issues 
NewHlpns 

Now Laws 


Oase Prev. 

27 1. 2*2 
331 351 

778 194 

525 807 


NASDAQ Diary 


4dvonced 
Declined 
UnOranoeO 
Total Issues 
New mot's 
New Lows 


Cloaa Prev. 
1421 1279 

1452 1774 

1941 1954 

5014 501 1 

42 40 

183 134 


Spot Commodities 


Commodity 

Aluminum, lb 

Coffee, Bror. lb 
Copper eledrolvflc. id 
I ron FOB, ton 
Lead, la 
Silver, troy oi 
Steel (scrap), ion 
Tin, lb 
Zinc, lb 


Today 

0411 

nx. 

1.03 

21100 

aj4 

5-S55 

12733 

3JNM 

0.4527 


Prev. 

OjMl 

n.a 

un 

nxoo 

034 

5J45 

137213 

3.7324 

04534 


Metals 

Close 

Bid Ask 
ALUMINUM CHl9t> Grade) 
Dollars per metric iwi 
5 oo I 1345J0 1340-50 

Forworn 1374.00 1375.00 

COPPER CATHODES (High 
Dollars per melric ton 
SpoI =225.00 22273)0 

Forward ZOOM 2221.00 

LEAD 

Dollars per metric ton 
Spot «*i0 495-50 

Forward 51ZJ30 51 230 

NICKEL 

Dollars per metric ton 
Scot 644500 M55.D0 

Forward 6530.00 4540JH 

TIN 

Dollars per melric ion 
Spat 5725.00 5735.00 

Forward 5790.00 5800.00 

ZINC (Special HhMi Groce) 
Dollars per metric Ion 
SpoI 98250 98350 

Forward ! 004. DO 1007.00 


previous 
Bid AS* 


1324 BO 137540 
135100 135100 
Grade) 

2180.00 710200 
2177.50 2178 JD 


48450 48750 
5000 SB 00 


627000 620000 
435000 434000 


5580.00 558500 
545000 545500 


9HLO0 98100 
100300 100*00 


Hlgti low Ldtf Settle ai'ee 

Feb N.T. N.T. N.T. J50* — J-]* 

Mar N.T N.T. NT. 15.70 —0.M 

Est. volume: 348*4 . Open Ini. 114655 


Financial 

Hlpti Low Close CImiim 
3-MONTH STERLING (LIFFE) 

1500000 - ph of 100 PCi 


Jun 

94.*9 

9465 

9408 

Unch. 

Sec 

94 43 

94 M 

94J9 

-004 

Dec 

94.01 

93.94 

"194 

-0317 

Mar 

930? 

9307 

9300 

— 0J)] 

Jim 

9101 

92.95 

92.99 

-0.02 

Sep 

9151 

9U3 

9249 

Unch 

Dec 

92JB 

91.99 

V2.0S 

+ 0.02 

Mgr 

91.72 

0103 

9109 

+ 0JM 

Jun 

910* 

91 J6 

9102 

+ 0.0? 

Sen 

«1.?J 

91.17 

9124 

+ DJR 

Dec 

91.03 

91JC 

91 JW 

+ 0 02 

Mar 

"0.90 

9088 

9095 

+ 0312 


Esi. volume: 54423. Open Ini.: 501.972 
3-MONTH EURODOLLARS (LIFFE) 

SI million -pis at IN pet 


Jan 

9610 

9604 

"610 

+ 007 

Sen 

«402 

94 J 7 

9404 

+ IL09 

Dec 

*3.®3 

93JT7 

93.94 

+ 0.10 

Mar 

9305 

9305 

*DJ3 

4-0.10 

Jun 

N.T. 

N.T. 

9306 

+ 0.07 

Sea 

N.T. 

N.T. 

9127 

+ 0JJ7 


Esl. volume: 550 Open inf.: 10041. 
3-MONTH EUROMARKS (LIFFE) 

DM1 million - pts Of 188 PCt 
Jim 95.07 9504 95.06 — 00? 

Sep 9503 95J7 95J7 —0.07 

Dec 95J4 95.19 95-20 —005 

MOT 95.15 95.11 95.1 J —004 

Jun 94.93 9409 94.91 —002 

Sep 9467 9464 **67 UtKft. 

Dec °4.46 9*42 94A4 + 0.01 

Mot 94 ji 6407 6*01 +D02 

Jun 94.14 94.10 94 1J — 0.01 

Sep 93.92 9J.96 93.97 Unch. 

DeC 9J0? 9300 9300 — 002 

Mar 9X67 91.65 91*7 Uncti. 

Esl. volume: 104.999. Open Ini.: 101X471 
LONG GILT (LIFFE) 
raUMQ - Pts A 32 nos of IPO PCt 
Jon 105-21 104-18 105-13 +0-17 

SCP 104-15 103-17 104-09 + 0-13 

Est. volume: 47.732. Ooen Ini.: 123071 
GERMAN GOVERNMENT BUND (LIFFE1 
DM 250000 - PTS Of 100 PCt 
Jun 9509 9500 9SJ9 — 004 

Sep 9505 95.15 9SJ1 — 004 

Est. volume: 117040. Ooen Int : 203,924. 


Industrials 

High Low Lost Settle Clrt* 
GASOIL (IPE) 

U5. dollars per metric ton-lots of 180 tons 


Jan 

150.25 

1*650 

148.75 

1*8.75 

— 20S 

JUl 

151 J» 

14900 

15DJ» 

150-00 

— 200 

Aug 

15200 

15100 

151.75 

152JJO 

— 1J5 

Sat 

15625 

15300 

15300 

15300 

— 280 

Oct 

15675 

156.00 

15625 

15600 

— 100 

Nov 

159 J® 

158JD0 

158 00 

15800 

— 100 

Dec 

16025 

15900 

160.25 

140-15 

— 1JZ5 

Jan 

159 JO 

15900 

159JO 

16025 

— 125 

Feb 

N.T. 

N.T. 

N.T. 

15000 

— 100 

Mar 

N.T. 

N.T. 

N.T. 

15700 

— 100 

Apr 

N.T. 

N.T. 

N.T. 

15600 

— 100 

May 

N.T. 

N.T. 

N.T. 

15680 

— 10a 

Est. volume: ' 

10049. 

Ooen int. 86394 


BRENT CRUDE OIL (IPE) 

U0. dollars per borrel-lali of 1000 barrels 


Jul 

1602 

1677 

1682 

1502 —004 

Aag 

1508 

1670 

1672 

1672 — OJJ 

Sep 

1676 

1665 

1507 

1647 —OJJ 

Oct 

1672 

1502 

1644 

1504 —0.19 

Nov 

15.72 

15a3 

15 43 

1503 — OJO 

Dec 

1673 

1505 

1672 

1665 -0.10 

Jon 

1642 

1642 

1502 

1666 — 0.18 


Stock Indexes 

High Low Close Change 
F7SE 108 (LIFFE1 

as per Index poiiit .... 

i,m nu.0 31030 31740 +1|0 

& K ^ 393 :1B 

Est. volume: MW. Open Inf.: SM<3. 

Muttt prices were nof orallath Tuestfor ** 
to problems at Ufa source. 

Sources: Mailt. 

London fnfT Financial Futures Exchange. 
Ini 'I Pctretcvm Exchange. 


Dividends 


Company 


Per Amt Pov Roc 
IRREGULAR 

Alatjpw odlof A 93 
Cdn Nortftsior 

China Tire - „ 

l filer stole Gen LP - ■» 

b+'ecord dene unannounced. 

INCREASED 


_ J4t 6-7 7-1 

b 09 6-30 

, 0325 6-16 6-30 

6-1 6-14 



Am Recreation 
Interpublic Grp 
Marlon Capital 
Realty Refund 


„ 06 6-17 7-11 

Q .14 5-27 6-15 

D .15 5-27 US 

Q 00 6-1 6-15 


REGULAR 


Amor FU TrEvMlg 
AmerFltT vE AMlg 2 
Am Pen-lot Ealy 
Ban Ponce Carp 
Brascon Ltd A 
CIGNA HI Income 
ChamDkjn Ind 
Crown Crotls 
Dames & Moore 
Franklin AL TxFr 
Franklin AZ ins 
Franklin AZ TxFr 
Franklin CA HIYid 
Franklin CA ins 
Franklin CA in term 
Franklin CO 
Franklin CT 
Franklin FL Ins 
Franklin FL T*Fr 
Franklin Fed inter 
Franklin G A 
Franklin Hawaii 
Franklin Hi Yia 
Franklin in 
Franklin Ins TxFr 
Franklin KY 
Franklin LA 
Franklin MP Ins 
Franklin MD 
Franklin Ml Ira 
Franklin MN ins 
Franklin MO 
Franklin NC 
Franklin NJ 
Franklin NY ins 
Franklin NY inierm 
Franklin OH Ins 
Franklin OP 
Franklin PA 
Franklin PR 
Franklhn Shrt intr 
Franklin TX 
Franklin VA 
Franklin WA 
Hvnerlon 1997 Trm 
Hyperion 1999 
HvDerlon 2005 Inv 
ini rawest Corp 
LabOnelnc 
Marlon Merrell 
Praia meric Bev 
saletv-Kleen 
Torchmark Corp 
Transom Inca 
Tseng Labs 
WMX Tech 
Washington Water 


M .045 S-31 6-27 
M 0625 5-31 6-27 
M 0tR3 5-31 SOO 
□ 05 6-17 7-1 

g J6 8-1 8-31 
M 075 5-27 6-10 
q 05 6-3 6-24 

Q 03 6-14 6-20 
« .03 6-27 7-11 

054 5-23 5-23 

045 5-19 5-19 
... 053 5-1* 5-19 
M 053 5-23 5-23 
M 05* 5-19 5-19 
M 044 5-19 5-19 
M JB5 5-19 5-19 
M 0J1 S-23 5-23 

M 044 5-23 5-23 
M 055 5-19 5-19 
M 044 5-19 5-19 
M 055 5-23 5-23 
M .05 5-23 523 
M 062 5-23 5-23 
M 0SS 5-23 5-23 
M 06 5-19 5-19 
M 055 5-23 5-73 

M 053 5-23 5-23 
M 055 5-19 5-19 
M 051 5-23 5-23 
M JB7 5-19 5-1* 
M 058 5-19 5-t« 
M 055 5-23 5-23 
M 054 5-23 5-23 
M 056 S-23 5-23 
M 049 5-73 5-23 
M 044 5-19 Mf 
M 058 5-23 5-23 
M .051 5-19 5-19 
M .051 5-19 5-19 
M 057 5-31 Ml 
M 038 5-23 5-2J 
M 055 5-23 5-23 
M JB4 5-23 5-23 
M JK6 5-23 5-Z3 
M 05 5-23 
M 0437 5-23 
M 0425 5-23 
D 08 7-4 7-18 

O .18 5-23 6-2 

a JS 6-30 7-20 
_ .02 6-1 6-13 

Q 09 6-1* 6-3} 
O JB 7-8 B-l 
M .1* 5-31 6-15 
_ 05 5-31 6-15 

a .15 6-22 7-7 

01 5-74 6-15 


M 


6-1 

6-1 

6-1 


o-annaol; g-payable In Canadian funds; m- 
monttriy; o-g mutely: s-saml-annual 


To subscribe in France 

just call, toil free. 

05 437 437 


5 Air ruswu-'- Delivery of 737 s 

ccaTTI E(AP)--US.Mr has postponed delivery of 40 Boa^jes^ 
Lw.: for 76 other planes as the airline looU Tor wqs'tfW 

■nceled opuons for^7b o t |0 ^ ^ Qf ^ 

“■W. Sffl - between 1997 and 2000, fe dd^^crip, 
^3 2003 and 2W5 wording to documents filed with Secu^and 

delivery of 18 Bodq ^’^^“$^1 
igq^Sued An airiine spokesman said ihe 737 orda w».|AnhUi 
ihe Jd-S® when ihe carrier was seeking w expand aat errand . 

replace older jets. - , '1; V -!' 

Hewlett-Packard Earnings Up M 

PALO ALTO. California (Bloomberg) 

Tu^dav that second-quarter earnings rose 18 percent mamb^bwausc 

SSS fffSSi produce such us to pnnters andpeapud™^; 

0f ^™«r in J“ ncMrcou* of M08 nulhou. orSLi* s 

Z i with S347 million, or S1.38. for thesjOTlarquaiftr.Tast 
y«r '-SSSdcd the $1.53-a-share estimates earned by Irernmamal 
Brokers Esiima te System. - ' ’ - 

U.S. Housing Starts Drop Slighily : 

WASHINGTON (API— Rising mortgage rales began locurb residen- 
IBl CMWraclion in April, but building ac.iv.ly ,s expecUd 10, remain : 

tmcauK of .he improving economy, ihe government sadTnesday. 
Tonsil sens slipped 2.5 pereenl. lo a 1.46 nnlbon annnal mlc. 
seasonal^ adjusted. thcConuneree Departmem reponed. Thafw»down 

f^m a revised 1.49 million rare in Mareh. when consmiclion rebounded 
from a winter slump. Suns totaled 139 million las. year. 

Penney and Dayton Earnings Rise 

PLANO. Texas ( Bloomberg) —J-C. Penney Co. said Tuesday its fiscal 
firat-cuarter profit rose 30 percent, above analysis expectations, on 
widening margins and a 9.7 percent sales m crease. • 

The departmem store retailer continued its path of improvement posting 
a rise inriei income to S223 million, or 84 cents a share, compared -wifi 
year-earlier profit from operations of SI7-. million, or 65 cents a share. 

In Minneapolis. Dayton Hudson Corp. reported that firet. quarter 
earnings rose 30 percent as revenue rose in each of its three divisions. The 
retailer, which operates Target and Mervyn's stores arid Dayton s depart- 
ment stores, said net income rose to S39 million, or 48 cents a share, from 
$30 million, or 35 cents. 

W.R. Grace Reinstates Charge 

NEW YORK ( Knight- Ridderl — W.R. Grace & Co. said .Tuesday it 
has reinstated a $200 milli on aftertax noncash charge lied lo asbestos 
claims. The reinstated charge followed a derision by the U.S. Court of 
Appeals for the Second Circuit to adopt a “trigger” for asbestos property 
damage insurance coverage based on the “date of installation of asbes- 
tos-containing materials. 

The ruling resulted from the court's confirmation, of a Sept. L 1993. 
derision. The September ruling reversed an earlier decision from a lower 
court that Grace s insurance carriers' obligation to defend and indemnify 
Grace for damages and litigation costs is based on a “discovery of 
damage" trigger. 

The reversal had the effect of reducing the amount of insurance 
coverage available to Grace with respect to asbestos property damage 
litigation and claims. 

For the Record 

Bally Manufacturing Corp. said Tuesday it would spin off its troubled 
Bally’s Health & Tennis Corp- making the Chicago-based firm purely a 
casino-hotel company. ( Bloomberg ) 



K ''Vi 

• - a 

.L- :irr- r -V 


TheAga 

Compiled hr Our Staff From Dispatches 

MILAN — Fimpar SpA. the 
holding company of the Ismaeli 
Muslim leader, the Aga Khan, nr- 

? orled a steep loss for 1993 on 
uesday and asked shareholders to 
either invest more or put the com- 
pany into bankruptcy. 

The hotel bolding company post- 
ed a loss of 191 _2 billion lire ($1 18 
million) for 1 993, narrowing from a 
1992 loss of 251.9 billion lire. Re- 
stated to eliminate ils former 50 



ire Is on the Brink of Collapse 


percent stake in Ciga Hotels SpA, 
the 1992 loss was 1 17.0 billion lire. 

Claudio MioreUL a spokesman 
for Fimpar. said the company also 
would seek outside investors to 
save the company between now 
and the June 30 annual meeting. 
The company said shareholders' 
equity was negative bv 28.9 billion 
lire on May 15. 

Fimpar said 163 billion lire of 
1993's loss was due to writing down 
the value of several investments, pri- 


marily the stake in Ciga. Fimpar 
once held 50 percent of Ciga, but the 
stake was whittled down to a 3 per- 
cent holding worth about 30 billion 
lire when Fimpar did not exercise its 
rights in a recent Ciga share issue. 

The lass of Ciga occurred after 
plans for a takeover by the U.S. 
chain. ITT Sberaton. backfired last 
month. 

Sheraton agreed to take over 
Ciga. which also was struggling un- 
der massive debts, for 943 bSlion 


lire via a capital increase that Ci- 
ga's banks would underwrite be- 
fore selling the stock back to the 
U.S. company. 

As part of the deal. Sheraton 
agreed pay off a chunk of Funpar’s 
debts. In exchange, the Aga Khan’s 
company waived ils right to sub- 
scribe to the capital call for Gga. 

But the plan seemed to collapse 
after unexpected investor interest 
in the Gga rights issue left banks 


without sufficient stock to pass 
onto Sheraton. 

“There will be two options: one 
liquidation, the other recapitaliza- 
tion.’’ Mr. MioreOi said of chances 
for Fimpar to stay in business. 

The Aga Khan, one of the 
world's wealthiest men. controls 
about 86 percent of Fimpar, so it 
will be up to him whether he wants 
to bail the company oul 

By contrast, the troubles sur- 
rounding Ciga, which owns 21 lux- 


ury hotels in Italy, have receded, 
with the capital rises wiping out its 
debts and investor pouring into 
the stock. 

Fun par’s 1993 results also in- 
cluded a financial charge of 32.5 
billion (ire. It said the decline of the 
lire against the dollar also ate into 
earnings potential 

Fmtpar’s main drill is a $100 mil- 
lion revolving-credit facility from a 
group of banks led by I Ml Bank 
AG. (Reuters. Bloomberg AFX) 



Agcncv France PmM Mqjr 17 

CIom Prow. 


Amsterdam 


ABN Amro MM 
ACF Holding 
Aegon 
AJMld 
Akxo Nobel 
AMEV 

Bote-Wessanen 
C5M 
DSM 
Elsevier 
Fokker 
GIs I -Brocades 
HBG 
Heine ken 
Hoogaveiu 


61 JO 6020 
47 4L40 
10030 98 

4050 48.40 

217.70 21700 

74 73J8 
39.70 4H3D 
66 6600 
14150 14*00 
175 17220 
1AJU 16.98 

4900 41*0 
JI4J0 314 
22900 230.90 

7600 7650 


Hunier Douglra 7BJ0 7BJ0 


1HC Catena 
Irtler Mueller 
Inll Nederland 
KLM 
KNP BT 
NMItaVd 
Oce Grinten 
Pakhoed 
Philips 
Polygram 
Robeoo 
Rodamcu 
Rollnco 
Rorenio 
Royal DuhSi 
Stock 
Unilever 
Van Ommeren 
VNU 


4Z2Q 41 JO 

87 87 JO 

75.70 76.10 

5300 5550 

S05U 50.40 
B060 83.10 
8000 80 
5050 50.40 

5120 54.10 

B0 JO 79 JO 

12040 120.40 

5940 59.10 

120.70 12O0O 

9100 91.90 

207.60 206 

49 49.10 
194.10 196.90 

5400 5400 

10300 183.10 


Woliers/K Inner 11140 100.70 


Brussels 



■ 


AG Fin 



1 ’ . 

A rued 

Borco 

Bekaerl 


■ j 1 

2 

CockeriH 

arco 1 

■; I IK 


CoDeoa 

trje'l 

cckeri 


Delhaire 

Elecirabel 

otrepc 

lor 


GIB 

elhai: 

•i- 's ^ 


! GB* 

lecira 



1 9 



., Kredlettianir 

BL 




•ovacr 

• 1 ; 'i th 


Pa««rftn 

red.ei 




; • ; sa 

. 

Sac Gen Bam 


:IS ’ 

>res 
iT. 
'vio 
er . 
;m 
:rec 
:t t 
■V sc 


7730 7700 
5130 5180 
7505 2500 
28275 28300 
19? 199 

5*90 5910 
1J62 1364 
6370 63*0 
1610 1615 
4490 4490 
9950 9*3U 
7000 7000 
10075 10850 
3440 3©B 
5490 5730 
OT0 0450 
SocGenBelgiaue 2*45 2640 

Satina 15500 15450 

Solway 16050 15*25 

Trocletwl 10700 10850 

UCB TSfflffl 24950 

Union Minlere 2705 2665 

Current Slack Index : 7B1244 
Previous : 781BJ1 


Frankfurt 

AEG 190JB 198 

Allranr Hold 2712 273* 
Allana 659 658 

Aslo 938 936 

BASF 330.40 330 JO 

Boyer 385.72 . ism jM) 

flaw. Hvao bank *S1 454 

Bav Verelnsbk 403401 JO 

BBC 750 755 

BHF E>ank U5439J0 

BMW 957 954 

Com merchant. 36136S50 

Conltnentol 283 288 

Daimler Benr 893J0898J0 

gewnsa 523J0 529 

DiBobcock M1263J0 

Oeulache Bonk 781 JO 791 00 
- 5WJ0 592 
DrevJner Bank 403 408 
^eiamuemc 
F Union Hoescn 
Horoener 


JBEF ij 

3 

3 ■ 

\nti if 


main 7 

l.;.l Tv 

u 

-.■U * 

ir. .tw 33 

> -r '-i n 

'-'.Vi is 
Juni i 
mri l 


Henkel 
Hocftliel 
Hoechsi 
Hal:monn 
Honon 
1*KA 
Fen son 
Y.oriicdl 

^.auftol _ 

^nerwerke ,S f,n| 

.*36 *36 


346 Ml 

29 229 

350 155 

639 645 

1102 1120 
256357 J0 
895 895 

24760 246 JO 
41*419.70 
ISO 149 JO 
*33 *37 

.52153050 


Linflt 
Lulihonu 
MAN 

Moral HnAonn 

Msraikoesen 

™ 3719 


1902K01JD 
465 M 4«7 
477 JO 470 70 


2200 3215 

B5T 862 

«0479JO 
740*800 
*715047150 
355 35] 
1084 1B8S 
*'0 411 
270073300 

SOJJOSJj^o 
W347J0 
S30JO546JI] 
390 3*1 

46!4694(} 

■RB-70 SZSjO 

gAX-nde,^,-^ 

3271.11 

ssteasp 


j’remsog 

PWA 

Rwe 

Phelnmciaii 

senermo 

-EL 

Semens 

in men 

Vnrro 

Veoo 

V6w 

yiog 

Wolla 


Helsinki 


Amer-Ytityma 

143 

142 


4(L20 40.40 


225 

222 

icap. 

1200 

12J0 


122 

122 

Moira 

|9|) 

193 

Nokia 

438 

442 


81 

84 

Repo la 

9630 9670 

Stockmann 

235 

245 

HEX Index : 186708 
Previous : 1840JJ 


Hong Kong 


Bk E«l Asia 

3625 

3300 


11 

11 JO 

Cheung Kang 

38J5 

3925 

China Ugnr Pwr 

4000 

41.75 

Dolrv Farm Inn 

11.70 

1100 

Hang Lung Dev 

1JJ0 

1300 

Hang Sen-3 Bank 

5100 

5200 

Henaerson Land 


4225 

HK A(r Eng. 

4350 

42 

UK China Gas 

161D 

1640 

HK Electric 

ZJ0O 

7170 

HK Lana 

2200 

7700 

Hit Realty Taisl 

21 JO 

21.70 

HSBC Holdings 

04 

H6 

HK ShangHMs 

11.80 

12 

HK Telecomm 

1400 

15 

hk Ferry 

17.20 

1100 

Hutotl Whampoa 

30 

n 

Mysan Dev 

34.10 

7400 

Jardlne Moth. 

57.50 

58 

Jardlne Str Hid 

2900 

2900 

Kowloon Molar 

1620 

1630 

Mandarin Orient 

11 JO 

11.40 



71.VD 

New world Dev 

2*00 

2400 

SHK. Props 

*8.75 

5000 


300 

305 

Swire Pac A 

5600 

S7JD 


11.10 

1100 

TVE 

3J7 

327 

wharf Hold 

30J5 

30.25 

wing On Co Inll 

11.40 

1100 

Wlnsor Ind. 

11.40 

1100 

Hang Seng index 
Previous : 915141 

9044 JO 

Johannesburg 


27 Jl 

26 


110 

no 

Anglo A met 

231 

232 

Barlows 





9 


46 

46 


10900 

PI 

Driefonrein 






GFSA 

104 

10* 


2400 


High veld Steel 

2° 








DcwKftontcIn 
















MA 

HA. 

Western Deep 

163 


Composite Index 
Previous : 5522.73 

5451.48 . 


London 


AKHfY Nal l 

Allied Lvons 

Arlo Wiggins 

Argyll Group 

AuBrllFooas 

BAA 

BAe 

Bank Sen' hand 

Barclays 

Boss 

BAT 

BET 

Blue Circle 
BOC Group 
Soots 
Bowgl*r 
BP 

Bril Airways 
Brit Gas 
Brit Steel 
Bril Telecom 
BTR 

Coble Wire 
Cadbury Scb 
Corodon 
Coah Vivrila 
Comm Union 
Courtaylds 

ECC Group 

EnferprlsoOlt 

Eurotunnel 

Flsons 

Farle 

GEC 

Genl Are 

daiio 

Grand Mel 

GPE 

Gunuiess 

GU5 

Hanson 

Hillsdonn 

HS&CKIdn 

ICI 


405 

5.*5 

2.92 
Z58 
500 
900 
40* 
1.90 
5J6 
5.42 
405 
1J8 

2.95 
7.17 
S. At 
4J3 
03 
305 
203 
102 
ITT 
189 

405 

4.95 
3J4 
200 
506 
5.45 
4J2 

406 
too 
1.41 
232 
109 
5.72 
5J8 

09 

1.75 

4.93 
5.97 
269 
t.71 
707 
030 


401 
5*2 
2.90 
20B 
502 
9JB 
t93 
1.92 
5J8 
551 
409 
1J0 
2.90 
604 
50* 
4J7 
401 
194 
205 
1.45 
X77 
307 
*J0 
407 
117 
202 
566 
5.47 
I5t 
4J5 
425 
143 
2J3 
106 
506 
559 
4J2 
1 J6 
40B 
5*7 
204 
1^1 
7.40 
024 



Cloaa Prav. 


5J2 

635 

Kingfisher 

6*4 

658 

LaObrake 

1.93 

1.91 


675 

672 


7.76 

7011 

Lasmo 

103 

104 

Legal Gen Grp 

407 

403 


673 

673 


4-37 

4J8 

ME PC 

478 

4J3 

NaH Power 

407 

441 

Natwesl 

405 

450 

NtoWst Water 

602 

4W 

Pearson 

609 

671 

P AO 

605 

69] 

Pllkbiolofi 

104 

103 


404 

473 

ErSzina^Q 

3JH 

106 

Rank Ore 

4X19 

409 

Reck in cal 

672 


Red land 

5XM 

4V8 

Reed Inll 

805 

646 

Reuters 

40S 

493 


800 

477 


1.91 

108 

Rothmn (unlfl 

198 

188 

Royal Scot 

433 

4 JO 

RTZ 

80S 

008 

Salnshury 

190 

3.92 

5cot Nencas 

503 

5*3 

Scot Power 

309 

306 


1.22 

IJ1 


499 

4.92 

Shell 

701 

7-36 

Slebe 

668 

5.70 

Smith Nephew 

100 

100 


4J» 

404 

t-InllnlLi 

609 

610 


632 

378 

Tale 6 Lvle 

424 

477 

Tesco 

2J9 


Tnorn EMI 

11.18 

11.18 


206 

207 

TSB Group 

119 

2.16 

Unilever 

10.17 

1020 


343 

142 

vodohme 

627 

529 

war Loan 3W 

430* 

4300 




Whitbread 

506 

503 

Will lams HdBS 

3*0 

307 

Willis Corroon 

205 

2J9 

F.T.30 Index : 246800 



Madrid 


BBV 3290 3300 

Bco Central HISB. 30 70 3070 
Banco San'ander 6350 6430 


Bonesto 
CEPSA 
□raaodas 
Endesa 
Ercros 
Iberdrola 
Reasoi 
Tabocaiera 
Tele ton I ca 


1120 IMS 
3230 3230 
73B0 2400 
6770 6750 
189 175 

993 992 

4605 4670 
4130 3*80 
1875 1845 


Milan 


Banco Comm 5720 5565 
BastOOl 192 190 

Benetton group 29100 29150 


CIR 
Cred llal 
Enicnern 
Ferfin 
Ferlin Rise 
Fiai SPA 
Finmecorailca 
Generali 
IFI 

llaKem 

llolgas 

iialmobiltere 

Medrabancs 

Montedison 

Olivetti 

Pirelli 

RAS 

Rinascenie 

Solemn 


2985 2885 
2*00 2610 
3205 3150 
2220 2140 
MSS 1449 
7190 70S0 
2210 31SS 
480SO 470M 
28050 77550 
16100 15900 
5740 5645 
51 200 51400 
18050 17900 
1532 1492 
3010 2350 
S&75 5640 
32350 32000 
108*0 10700 
4400 4250 


San Paolo Torino 1UJSJ 11250 
SIP 4610 4500 

5ME 4060 3925 

Snlo T6B5 26A) 

Stando 39000 39500 

Slot 5860 5810 

Toro Ani PUp 33650 32850 
MIS index : iw 

prttknn : I J75 


Montreal 

Alcan Aluminum K’h 30 

Bank Montreal 25** 25^: 

Bell Canada <8 47ie 

Bombardier B Xflb 2P* 

Cnrnbtor it^d IT'k 

r if v line *. 8'^ 8'4 

Dominion Text A 4J* 6J- 

Donebue A NO. 12J; 

MacMillan Bl 19‘7 1* 

Noll Bk Catwda 9’n 9 

Power Cora. 20^* 30'+ 

Quebec Te! ,24 2f1i 

Ouebeuar A NX). 

Ouebeear B im 59W 

TetegteOe J» JJ 

unlva n.q. 5't 

Vldeofran 14*6 14H 

Hidostriais tedn: 1W704 

PrevHHts : 1901 M 


| das* Pray. 

Paris 


Accor 

750 

750 

Air Ltoulde 

849 

851 

Alcatel Alslhom 

639 

687 

Axa 

1382 

1382 

Ban calm ICIel 

585 

574 

BIC 

1350 

1393 

BNP 

270 36610 

Bauvaues 

659 

669 

B5N-GD 

B95 

881 

Carre four 

2073 

2092 

C.CJ=. 

247 

245 

Carus 

11400 

IIS 

Chargeurs 

1484 

1495 

Omenls Franc 

340 

345 

Club Med 

446.10 

448 

EK- Aquitaine 

427.70 

42/ 

EH-Sanofl 

987 

982 

Eura Disney 

3000 

I'l 

Gen. Eaux 

2738 

■ETl 

Havas 

J 50. 10 45400 

1 metal 

59* 

597 

Lo largo Connee 

4*0 46800 

Legrond 

*610 

64*0 

Lron. Eaux 

5J8 

610 

□real rL'l 

1765 

1269 

LVJVUi. 

915 

900 

Malra-Hacnetle 

179,90 

132 

Mldlelln B 

E&m 

254 

Moulinex 

139 13900 

Paribas 


|]4 7- j1| t ' 


I 1 8li * - J L J j e • 1 


Peugeol 

078 

885 

liJtfTirTTTtolfJTJl 

1067 

1069 


5*4 

545 

Rh-Poulenc A 

153 15200 

Rail. St. Louis 

1720 

1719 


939 


5alni Goboln 

719 

715 

S.E.B. 

566 

553 

5le Generate 

645 

644 

Sue: 

332J0 

■» 

Thomson- CSF 

1822017900 

Total 



UJLP. 

1530015490 

Valeo 

1323 

130« 

CAC 40 Index : TT9S.I7 
Previous : 2187 JI 


Sao Paulo 


Banco do Brasn 

25 

25 

Banes pa 

13 

1101 

Brodesco 

19 JO 

1/.7D 




Poranatxjnema 

2650 


Pelrobros 

120 

111 

Tefebros 

4800 4500 

Vale Rla Doer 

11400 

113 

vorlg 

170 

160 

Bores pa index : 
Prevkxtk : 15624 

16483 


I Singapore 


Ceretos 

670 

80S 

Citv Dev. 



DB5 



Fraser weave 

IB 

18.10 

Genling 

1600 

1670 

Golden Haoe PI 

226 

77* 

Haw Par 

348 

300 

Hume Industrie! 

S0S 


men cave 

505 

6/5 

Kepcei 



KL Kepcna 

2.90 

202 

Lum Chang 

104 

103 

Matavan Banka 

l&o 


OCBC 

11 20 


OUB 

725 

7.15 


440 


Sembgwang 

13.40 


Shanarllc 

630 


Slme Darhv 






SPore Lung 

7.40 

7. ID 

S'oore Press 



Sing Steamship 

190 


S'oore Telecomm 

306 


Straits Trading 

1*: 

7.7* 

UOB 



UOL 


7 07 

gtroittrifnci ma. ; 
rlCilOul : 229941 

Stockholm 


AGA 

391 

xe 

Aiea A 

644 


Aslrg A 

16* 

1*2 

AMOS CdPW 

504 

500 

Electroluv B 

433 

434 

Ericsson 

^77 

378 

Essalle-A 

176 

17R 

HofKJelseanven 

114 

US 

inwslor B 

209 

308 

Ngrsk Hvdra 

N.T. 

250 

Procardia af 

124 

126 

Sandvlk B 

131 

128 

SCA-A 

131 

100 

S-E Banxen 

5400 

55 

SkorvJto F 

135 

136 

Skansfea 

199 

198 

5KF 

155 

154 


450 

450 

TrellcUrc BF 

123 

121 

Volvo 


74S 

AHgerriWfgcn • IWJt 





j Close Prev. 

Sydney 


Amcor 

9.42 

945 

ANZ 

4.(3 

403 

BHP 

17.94 

1824 

Baral 

665 

165 

Bougainville 

0.90 

0.98 

Coles Myer 

409 

409 

Comolco 

625 

500 

CRA 

1806 

1BJ4 

C5H 

608 

61= 

Fosters Brew 

120 

120 

Goodman Flew 

103 

104 

ICI Auslralla 

1DJ4 

1028 

Magellan 

2JU 

2 

MIM 

32* 

321 

Not Aust Bank 

1102 

120* 

News Corp 

9.12 

9.19 

Nine Network 

4.ffl 

400 

N Broken Hill 

64/ 

308 

Pac Dunlap 

406 

404 

Pioneer Inti 

203 

2.78 

Nmndv Poseidon 

225 

5.20 

OCT Resources 

1.40 

1.40 

Santas 

4 

425 

TNT 

220 

201 

Western Mining 

705 

808 


498 

502 

woodslde 

408 

474 

All ordinaries Index : 709600 
Previous : 311800 

j Tokyo 


Akal Electr 

480 

477 


763 

764 

Asonl Glass 

1230 

1230 

Bonk of Tokyo 

1640 

1420 

Bridges lane 

1530 

1030 


1690 

1700 

Casio 

1280 

1310 

Dal Nlopon Print 

1790 

1790 

Daiwa House 

1500 

1510 

Dalwa Securities 

1640 

1630 

Fanuc 

«*a 

4220 

Full Bank 

73311 

=340 

Full Photo 

2120 

2100 

Fulllsu 


1040 

HIIOC/ll 

1000 

995 

Hitachi caolc 

290 

807 

Hondo 

1740 

1740 

110 Yo* ado 

55W 

5570 

llochu 

700 

710 

Jocan Airlines 

723 

726 

Kalima 

934 

944 

Kansat Power 

2640 

2600 

Kawasaki Steel 

385 

383 

Kirin Brewer* 

1=30 

1250 

V'.amalsu 

925 

933 

Kubota 

Mf 

670 

Kyocera 

6380 

6473 

Malsu Elec inds 


1710 

Aftalsu Elec Wkj 

1120 

1170 

WVll5Ulll!hl Bk 



Mitsubishi Kasel 



MHsuhlshl Elec 



MllsuDIShl Hcv 



Mitsubishi Cara 



Mitsui and Co 

789 

784 

Mllsukovtl 

9*1 


Mitsumi 


1°40 

NEC 

1190 


NGK insulators 

1060 

IDT) 

Nteto Securities 

1280 

1240 

Nlooon r.ogahu 

*77 

1000 

Nlpoon Oil 

75? 

706 

Nippon Steel 

353 

=51 

Nippon Yusen 

6l6 

610 

Nissan 

8*1 


Nomura Sec 

2J90 

7300 

NTT 

090a 0920a 

Otvrnous Optical 

1080 

1080 


-40 

2730 

Ricon 

868 

8*5 


520 

513 

Sharp 

1*90 

1**1 

Shlmozu 

683 

680 

5Mncisu Chem 

Toro 

21W 

Sony 

*000 

5930 

tom Homo Bk 

2250 


Sumlloira) Cticm 

487 

4*7 


1000 

10W 

Sumitomo Metal 

291 

=90 

Talsel Can 

700 

704 

Taisha Marine 

833 

842 

Tokeda Chem 

1730 

1760 

TDK 

4740 

4760 

Teflln 

528 

521 

Tokyo Marine 

13S0 

>150 

ToVvo Elec 

3220 

3220 

Toppan Prlnllno 

1340 

1380 

Torav Ind 

497 

700 

Toshiba 

798 

775 

Tavoia 

1990 

1990 

Yomoichl Sec 

863 

FO 

0: 4 IX. 

Nikkei 325 : HIM 
Previous : 28188 
Toatx Index : 2*36 
Prev krai : 1639 



Torontp 


Ablllbi Price 

17 

17 

Agnlco Eagle 

1SN> 


Air Canada 



Albena Energy 



Am Barriek Res 



BCE 

43'-H 


Bk Ngvg 5«lla 

77Mi 

76*11 

HC Gas 

li’. 

15'. 

BC Teletom 



BF Reairv Hds 

N.T. 

OKI 

Bramaiea 

OJO 


Brunswick 


V- 

CAE 



Ccmdcv 



ClBC 

309v 


Canadian Pacific 

21Sv 

21 ‘m 


Con Tire A 
Cantor 
Cora 

CCL Ind B 
Cineole* 

Comlnco 
Conwesl E»PI 

Denison Min B 

Qatosca 

Dvley A 

Echo Bov Mines 
Eaudv Silver A 

FCA Inll 
Fed ind A 
Reictter Chall 6 
FPI 
Gentra 
Gun Cda Pes 
Hees rnti 
Hernia Gld Mines I3H 
Hohlnger 

Harsbom 
Hudson's Bov 
Imasco 
Inca 

Interarov pine 
Jonnack 
Laban 
Lobiaw Co 
Mackenzie 
Magna inll A 
Maple Leal 
Mon 1 1 me 
Mark Res 
Moison A 
Noma ind A 
Naranda Inc 
Noronoa Forest 
Norcen Energy 
Nlhern Telecom 
Nova Cora 
Ostwwa 
Pogurln A 
Ptocer Dome 
Pore Petroleum 
PWA Coro 
Pcrv rock 
Renaissance 
Pooers B 
Ratnmans 
ROrOl Bank Con 
Scertre Pes 
Scon's Hose 
Seogrcm 
Sears Can 
Snell Can 
Snerrin Gordon 
SHL Svslcmhs* 
Sourtmm 
Soar Aeroseocc 
Strico a 

Talisman Encrg 
Tuck B 

Thomson Core. 

Toronto Damn 
Tors tor B 
Troosalla Util 
TronsCdo Pipe 
Trllon Flnl A 
Trlmac 
Triiec A 
Unicom Energy 


Close Piev. 

177s 

)2’S 

22 

21 Hf 

4’U 

4U 

0 

9Mi 

4 M 

4+0 

=3 

TP-t, 

22*s 

=7>S 



21 

BUS 

007 

0.77 

14^ 

l4Li 

007 

002 

160 

300 

7 

(p* 

19 

I8te 

6'te 

**t 

P04 

007 

405 

405 

15'c 

15’ • 

12*s 

17*6 

15*6 

IS 

18*. 

18 

JJA. 


35A. 


3SA, 


30 V. 

30'. 

181; 

I/'S 

21 

20 ’■t 

2* 

73 V. 

94. 

9% 

61 

SUV* 

12'6 

I2*S 

25 

24' S 

8H 

9 

=3V. 

=3': 

S'; 

5*6 

2*1. 

26' ; 

IJte 

13'+ 

15M: 

IS«* 

43+i 

*2te 

11 

11 

20's 

20 'S 

305 


29*. 

Zr-r. 

lO 1 ^ 

10*6 

001 

003 

1B»6 

19 

31": 

3D'+ 

!■": 








8 

;i-t 

40' » 

39', 


/+> 

43 

4='i 

IPs 

IPS 



lB"-s 


I6>. 

IP. 

B 1 ; 



31* 

24^ 

?3’'i 

17 

I6“l 

211* 

2U'i 


Ji'ft 

15 

I4<S 

181* 


440 


15 

14*. 

OJJ 


N.T. 

P: 


Zurich 


Adla Inti B 

757 

251 


660 

670 

BBC Brwn Bov B 

1275 

1J42 

ClbaGetovB 


915 

C5 Holdings B 

*15 

*08 

Etektraw B 

3*0 

.164 

Fischra B 

1015 

1565 


=120 

2160 

jelmch B 

830 

020 


925 

923 

Morvenpick B 

420 

415 

Nestle R 

112% 

1115 

Cterllk. Buenrte R 

152 

151 

Pnrgeso Hid 3 

16*0 

1*70 

POChe Hdp PC 


*5=1 

Safra ReeualK 


n? 


MA. 

7» 

Sebindter 0 

8600 

8725 

Sulxnr PC 


9.D 

Surveiilonce B 

2171) 

•jiis 

Swiss B"k Coro B 

410 

4IU 

Swiss Reins ur P 



Swiaalr B 

766 

762 




wmieritiur B 


730 

Zurich Ass B 


1350 


5B5 Indes ' 9M.75 
Prev Kws : 9*619 


V« Associated Pirns 


May 17 


Semrai Season 
High Low 


Ooen Hnjn Low Cose Chg Op Int 


Grains 

WHEAT (CBOT) IJniurnwTMr-4iian6«bvyvi 
3.72 1(0 Mav94J.IB<6 322 117 321 9j -0019; 

156 196 All *4 135 321 'fc 133'*: 12* — O OD'.'i 77.10* 

3 57*6 UK Eeo94 329*- JJI* lIS'i JJOVi-d.ol^ >010 

145 10» Ore 94 141 », 3JB"i 3AJ’,-aoi'« 7054 

154”: 327 Mur 95 ICT i 144><, 142', XUVi-OSl'h 6B 

145 H6 , '»Moy95 13BV>— 4)01 'V 50 

111 All *5 1.21‘r 122 121* : 122 -081 129 

Esl. soles 11000 Mon's, sales 120 ID 
Mar's open ini 42,763 up 95 
WHEAT [KBOTl sooobvmiiiwvn. oeurasow Dum** 


Season Season 

Hrjti LOW 


Open High Low Close Cite OF.lnt 


SUGAR-WORLD 11 CNCSE) iiz.ooonv-ramp<r Ai. 

i 11.97 
1101 
11 74 
1123 
IU9 
1105 
1103 

Ed. teles 17085 Man s, sates 11,774 
Man's open int 117059 ail ID10 
COCOA (KCSEJ WramciFivw 


1200 

9.15 Jul 94 

1166 


12JO 

90200 94 

11 ¥0 

1ZJ» 

1180 

9.17 Maris 

HAS 

11-78 

113* 

1007 May 95 

1104 

11»5 

1107 

1007 Jul 95 

1103 

11.10 

1105 

100700 <5 

110) 

11.64 

I1J5 

1008 Mar 96 




3 79«n 

155 

3-SSVi 

1M 

151V. 

124 

174’t 


129 


176”: 324'1-0J)l , i 79 

125 128 V, 13.133 

JJK9iSeo94 32I*'< 13014 127’'i 3J0Vi-aO0Si 3,649 

117HD9C94 135* j 137*4 134*4 33*k.*O0O'. 4011 

325 MOT 95 3 J7 139 S: 337 139 -O.OOW 430 

321'6Mav9S 134 -HOO’/i 17 

122SiJul95 128 — 40O1> 12 

Esl. soles NA Man's, soks 2.755 

Man's open lot 3148* <41 *4 
CORN ICBOT1 SJOVt au iwmpwn, oanar', mw 

IM'-i-OJO'.. 1083 

707 -680'.'. 13J-303 
140>i +0.D0H XL304 
151 W 204L - OJWW 80.948 

212 -0.00*i 8.104 

705 971 

2k*L ■ 080'.. 2435 

1471,— ac '4 2.014 

ESL sides 45J#0 Mon'S, saki 57481 
Man's open im 7CL767 up 730 

SOYBEANS ICHOn S0OO Du mnmum. nous n nniwi 
TJl 59rHMoy*4 *B0'4 *J*V, *799, *85V^ -aOl*; 2.747 
5.941rtA494 *75 6|1 675 600', -002 *0,1*4 



2JB*.-Ma> 94 205 

206' . 

264*. 


7.41 JU194 

2 05 

267': 

7A5 



1S7'6 

201- 

2071: 

2.73*. 

2J6V3DCC94 

201*: 

205 

201V, 


2«'.i«lar95 

209 

262 

209 


203 MOV 95 3.62' . 

204 

262'.', 


204 Jul 95 

2.65 

206*: 

205 

208 Vj 

203 Dec 95 

2J8'. 

209 

247*. 


750 ... 

7.U 628 Aug *4 6*9 6’S 669 

6 899, 617 SCP94 «J4'-i 6571< 6.44 

5559* Now *4 628 6J6L, 670 

670 6.13 Jan 95 6.15' > 64J *JS 

673"', 6.18 Mor95 64I'y 648 64Hi 

6-3 *21 Mov9S*J3 6 48 * 47*.- 

6?5 424 JI4J5 647 651 647 

6i0’.i 541'- Nov 95 611 617 411 

Est. sales 55000 Man's, sates *5-04 
Man's open ml 144.108 up 1.13 
SOYBEAN MEAL I CBOT) ww lUmn, Km 
737 00 184*0 Mov 94 18750 188.1 1(7 40 188 70 

73080 18670 Jlrf »4 187*0 1(920 187 40 IB&9D 

77100 185.00 *U9 94 18*40 I87.«D 18640 I87.*0 

71000 181i0V.g94 185.00 185.80 18400 I8SJO 

180.00 Oct 94 1 83.40 18170 107.00 1 83.80 


624*. • 0.02' . 13.118 
652' . '047V. 7003 
* J* ■ D04'- 45099 
44J*. -045 4.J9Q 

648 • OJW'.n 1075 

*48 -a03 583 

6471, -001 775 

616 • 0.02 V. 1.(54 


■ 0 00 944 

■050 36077 

-0*0 14.787 
>010 6745 
>000 5J77 





18100 

1B06D 



5820 

37 10 MOV 94 

55 SD 

5550 



170 BOJaniJ 

181 JO 

18300 

I8IJ0 

187 ID 

•OBO 


5680 

51 50 Jun 94 





KUtoMar 95 


I84J8 

18330 

1E.7D 




371 DM 94 

556.5 

5600 

SS70 









5900 

37603CP94 

5610 

5650 










577 8 

3800 Dec *4 

5700 

5710 


Esi tee-. 19JH0 Man's, sales 19 JM 




5*4.0 

4010 Jones 











41fc5MPr9S 


SHU 


soybean om- icaarn 





4l»0Mav*5 

5820 

5815 

SQ s 


:iJ0MPr94 

29 A) 

2*05 

2915 

79 63 

-002 

2.093 



5890 

593 0 

5890 



79 J5 

79*3 

79 35 

7*60 



49a03cp95 





Tl 45 Ana 94 

79.10 

793* 

29.13 

29 34 

. 007 13011 


nr 0 Dec 95 





2? 40 lea ej 

Tail 

7177 

7802 

7867 

-0.B7 10,513 


Jot W 




78 05 

22 lOOcl 94 

27 05 

28.05 

27.78 

7802 

•0 05 

7.646 







77 40 7200 Dec 94 7745 77 U 7»40 7 7 JI 

27.18 77 05 Jan 95 7* 80 77 0* 76J» 77 05 

3680 74.70 Mar 95 7*55 7*85 5655 MBO 

7**0 5107Uav95 7635 76*0 76J5 7**0 

26*0 7405 JUTS 3670 76* 3630 7)40 

ESI sates 70.000 Man's sues 74J71 
Mon's open it* 99J91 up 5*53 


■ 0 13 17.155 
■Oil 2.747 
■048 1,330 


TOOURREADHS 
IN GREAT BRITAIN 

It’s never been easier 
to subscribe and save. 
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0 800 895965 


Livestock 

CATTLE (CMERJ a.niBs-ui<Mxe 
75 77 *4 *2 Jun 11 *745 *7.70 t**7 

7107 MOSAuj-u *7 03 *7 30 6*25 

74.10 *6 85 CW 94 *9.77 *9.97 *9.15 

7JJ0 70 I5D«94 70 «5 710? 70 JO 

7425 7U.90FM>»5 71.95 7203 7150 

75.10 7207 Apr 9* 7140 731? 7700 

71 SO **.70.*jn95 76*0 7040 .TWO 

Est sole* 16*61 Mon’s ten 13.0*3 
Man's open 73.452 up 118* 

FEEDER CATTLE <CMER) 1O.0OC t, 

84 « 7542 May »4 71 JO 7143 71 ID 

8300 7*J5 Alia 94 76.90 7*«Q 7fcl5 

81-0 .’650 Sc D ’4 .”00 77 00 ’6JS 

BIJ5 7650 Od 94 77 10 77 10 7i4fl 

88 00 77J0NOU94 T 75 77.73 77.,-fl 

80,95 7457JW196 77.10 77 10 7420 

OJS 7590MOT9* 76 75 "625 75 90 

7685 7630 Apr 6* 

Est. sales 30S7 Man’s Mirs 27J77 
Men's open int 14,10* up 175 
HOGS I CMERJ «**)»-.■ ft-s e— ® 

5*77 4677 Jun 94 50 55 XLJS 5042 

55 J7 45JQ Jul 94 5005 50.10 49.67 

£140 *635*0*94 48 ’0 41.70 4820 

49 75 0.00 Ocl 94 44 15 *415 0.91 

5050 4J05&-C94 44*5 *4 M 44 X 

SOSO 0.10Fe095 44 40 44.40 4420 

4(03 ® 90 Apr 95 43.45 0.4 5 46*0 

5150 47 40 Jun 95 48 05 48.90 1* *5 

48 95 47 JO Jul 95 

ElT.Wtrt 658? Mon'6 teles 5.4*1 
f,lon'50Pcn'"t 31.477 otf 2?9 
PORK BELLIES (CMERJ »*Hk.ii-ni«i 
tin 4303 MO> 9 1 *677 45.27 44 » 

*2M 3» 10 W' 94 *5 75 *5*5 4J-57 

59.M 41 85 Ain 94 4115 4145 42.55 

6115 3910FTBSI 5110 51*5 WW1 

60*90 1800 'Ar 95 

5290 SUM May 95 

51 to 51 50JU1 95 

jori 49.15 Aua« Mil) 5010 50.10 

ESI sales U’5 Mon'L sale*. 7J93 
7-Ln's roefl int 7.912 alt I 


4687 
4*.73 
*9 JO 

mr 

7157 
73.95 
70 40 


7610 
7677 
’*42 
7*40 
7725 
7* 70 
7590 
7180 


50.45 
49.97 
4847 
4417 
44 75 
4*07 
*3.« 
40.77 
MX 


41.49 

46)5 

4J27 

61 47 

5090 
51.75 
M 75 
50.)a 


—0 50 38.371 
-OJ5 '8073 
—047 174197 
— <U5 8.741 
—035 4044 
— 0 30 3.473 
438 


— a?5 2.1M 
-0.58 f.an 
-005 103* 
—0.75 1040 
-000 1071 


147 


—0.17 12.*** 
-ana i.Toi 
—0.13 4.105 
-010 7J87 
— O IS 1*79 

—on ms 
-023 299 

—003 te 

“0.15 5 


— 0.B 
-fl IS 
•0 15 
-015 
•0J5 
OJj 


1087 

241 

74 

II 


Food 

CDFFEEC (NCSE1 3».S«»*. 

r?5Tn 417JMOrMIJ9 0q 1,-9 00 l?J.« I7I» _?» 64 

64,90 Jut 94 13* » | T C - W UOW 130 85 -'20 30,394 
«LI0iFp*J 17175 12415 11000 11850 0J5 IS.28U 

77.10DCC *1 HASP 133 DO IW/5 17JM -flW 9,7*9 

T8.90M4r95 117 05 l»00 IJJOO 11. 15 - 3 70 4 001 

(7MM0.95 lli'i 71ft 50 HOW 110.00 - 325 613 

8iJJ3Ju<« ,m » -0» M 

■ ifiu *9.00 5ep *5 H*0Q —4 CO 

e.i u*- 22074 SOte* 7*043 

&rtS*5l »» P" V! 


179 00 
118.15 
11*00 
II5JS 
urn 
in x 
I13M 


41 


999 Jul 94 1344 1275 126* 1357 

1 030 Sep 94 1392 1303 1285 136 

1041 Dec 94 1330 1334 IJ20 1321 

1 077 Mar 95 1345 13*7 US5 1354 

ICPflMovOS 1393 1393 1393 1X5 

1725 Jul 95 1407 

1 245 Sep 95 1418 

1390 Dec 75 1454 

1 350 Mar 94 1487 

Est. soles 7041 Mon'L sates 10237 
Mm's ooen M 84.522 UP 445 
ORANGE JUICE (NCTN1 ISJiaabv-crmDeres. 
13600 89.00 May 94 97.00 9JJ0 91 J5 9045 

9200 Jul «4 9190 94 75 9155 92.90 

9500 Sep 94 TftWi 97 JO 9620 95J0 

9625 Nov 94 97 JO 911*11 7425 «6B0 
9720 Jon 75 99J» 10025 9850 9f0O 

9925 Mir 95 10025 I0I2S 100 25 I OOJO 

10000 MOV 95 103 JO 

10100 A>l 95 I DUO 

111 JD Sep 95 lOUO 

Est. soles 2JB0 Mon'6 sam 1.513 
Mon'S open H 22012 up 319 


1345 

1377 

1389 

1385 

1400 

1420 

I3X 

1445 

1408 


135.00 
134 JO 
13*00 

132.00 
174J5 
11425 

117.00 
111 JO 


-ail 51020 
*0.14 41.976 
■009 16985 
-8.05 2.914 

■004 10*7 
*0115 513 

,005 39 


-23 36864 
-71 17,709 
-23 6557 
-23 10,710 
-23 *099 
—23 2.795 
-33 5*4 

-a 879 
—a 3 


*005 343 

14000 
•0.10 2,933 
‘OIO 1,246 
-025 2.783 
-020 757 

•070 
-1 20 
-030 


Metals 


10650 

I (E.95 

10130 

10190 

9600 

9900 

io:jo 

wjo 

97 JO 

10075 

9400 

9220 

97.00 
95 75 
«20S 
9225 

94.00 
Esl. sales 


7160 MOV 94 10400 

104 JO 


74 10 Jun 94 

10430 

10425 

10435 

74.70 JUL 94 




74.90 Sep 94 

101 JD 

10270 


7L75Dec94 

9900 

IHL55 

9*00 

76WJOT9S 




7100 Feb 95 




71 00 Mar 95 




7*65 May 95 

97 JO 

97 70 

97 70 


7600 JiH »S 

75 JO Aur 95 10250 102.50 1 0250 
7V.ID5CP95 
7520 Oct 75 
77.75 Nov 95 
88000c 95 
88 JD Jan 9* 
tl nMw9* 

940D Apr 9* 

1 1 JUS Man’s soles JJiiB 
NW-.omnM 61.530 oH *5J 
SILVER (NCMX) UHtnn *L.(Aiiip«rlrffvt 


Esl. sates I9,ooo Mon', sates 77.5** 

Mon's nor int 116-95 UP «04 
PLATINUM (NMER1 USMn-AWvrn 
imov 94 «Hoa 40*00 tern 

437.00 3J7.00JJ94 40150 411500 398a 

43500 J4O0O&J94 *07 50 JO ’50 40700 

47750 37400 Jan95 40800 «8 DO 40450 

47600 39000 Apr 95 

Esl sales 2 590 Man's soles 3.99} 

(Mun's oiten im 27,3+5 up 409 

Gold (ncmxi loomr, « 

39200 J780OMa> 9d 

417.20 319 *0 Jun 94 3KL» J8630 38M0 

Jul 94 

415.00 14IJDAU994 38630 »'J0 384.40 

*1700 34400 Oct 94 39000 39000 38820 

*7650 3430QDK94 39100 194 00 391.40 

41100 363J0FCO95 

41700 3*400 Apr 95 en 10 40010 399.10 

47650 3*120 Jun 95 All DO 40300 4KIJM 

‘1250 38020 Aim 95 

4T3J0 410 70Oet9S 

42900 400J0 Dec 95 41670 41670 41*70 

424.50 412. 50 Fed 9* 

Est. tees 35000 Mon'L sain 37087 

Mon's open int 144.474 up 1114 


-iper B 
10645 
10405 
104.05 
10255 
I00JS 
100 15 
99 Ji 
99JX) 
98 70 
97.58 
103.25 
9690 
101.75 
10128 
9* 10 

n 90 

95 90 

9040 


550. R 
551.6 
5562 
559 3 
5*7 0 
1491 
575 4 
581 J 
E T> 5 
5940 
<xru 
60*8 
*13V 


199*0 

J9940 
40220 
404 40 
40*40 


Ml 40 
10700 
38] SO 
38100 
388 30 
191 BO 
»5 ■ 
199.10 
40700 
4C6.70 
410 80 
414.90 
119 10 


• 10a uni 

• 105 1058 
•2.M 39.231 
-225 8. Ill 
-105 5095 
•100 
-100 

- 1 *5 2.071 
•IOO 729 

• MO 
•2.10 
• 1.10 

•7 05 202 

"700 

-1. 10 474 

■ I 10 

■ I 10 

- I 70 


—5 5 353 

-L5 3 

— 5J 82,387 
-5 4 8.903 
-SJ 11.574 
— 5J 

—S3 5.5*8 
— SJ 3. Ml 
— 53 
-SJ 

— 5J 1.630 
— SJ 
— 5J 


610 1**04 
*'0 X56" 
610 1049 
610 LOSS 


-1 "3 49 *91 
-1 70 

-1 70 2 LK? 
-M0 4.85* 
-1 *0 74,955 
-I JO 4 770 
-I 70 

-I JO S AS! 
-1.73 1.115 
-1 :o 

-I 70 j.jm 


Season Season 
Higti Low 


Open Higti Low Ooso Cite Op.lnl 


95070 9DJ*05ep94 94270 94070 96330 94580 *270431047' 

JS.180 9DJI0Dec94 93070 94100 930*0 94090 ♦ 320415011 ■ 

MJJS 90240 Mar 9J 91*70 93.950 930*0 93900 *240 2610*3 : 

94J30 90710 JUn 95 9J03O 9304O 9X410 93030 ‘2701980*8' 

94-520 91 JIOS01 95 9JJ40 91440 93210 93020 ‘2001810531 

94M0 91.IMfje05 93050 93J20 93020 93230 ‘180142,904 

94020 90.750Mar94 92.990 93 1 60 92.9*0 911*0 4 180119.760' 

ESI. sales 778001 Mon'6 sates *42030 1 

Mon's o pen int 7J65J92 OH 17994 1 

BRITISH POUND (CMER1 snrBaana- locum oovnTiW. 0081 

1-5SS )04740mW 1J022 1J074 1JD04 1J0I4 -4 43.908; 

J-S9S '-5?® ’4758 1 0004 -8 2094: 

10170 1.4500 Dec 94 IJ040 1JD70 10010 1JD0B —10 43 1 

10170 1.46*0 Mar 94 10016 —12 121 

Esl. sates 10.940 Man's. sates 8,954 ■ 

iVton's ooen int 44057 un 1*97 I 

CANADIAN DOLLAR (CMER1 SMf«- InwItPyoteHIIOOl 


38,283 1 
2085 
10*4 ; 
409 1 
104 , 
2 


07805 CL7111JW194 0J744 0 7245 0J23I 072S4 

07740 0JO485ep9* 07220 077X1 0.7213 07228 

0-7*70 ajmaDecS* 0J193 O77l0 OJITO 0J2«S 

0J6O5 07020 Mra 95 0 7114 

07522 0*990 Jun 95 07144 

0-7138 07138 SeP 95 07147 

&. sates 4033 Man's, soles 4047 
Man's open oil 42.727 aU 10*2 
GERMAN MARK (CMER) itmat.inrinuahiugoi 

Bffi 1 . l- 6013 OWM 05989 —21R737 

OaIOI 0J4O0Sep94 05978 00012 ILS947 OlSSOT -3 628* 

OjIOJ OJ590DecW O0O1Z 04020 05990 05982 — * 31* 

0*040 0^900 Junes 00024 —)Q }9 

0.6070 0 J* 1 0 Mar 9* 00001 I 475 

Esl. sates 37,968 Man's, sates 16*15 
/Man's ooen int 171093 up *s 

J APAN E SE YE N (CMER) sper ran. 1 BantauatilAODOOBl 

oomssm 0096 1 «. 007549000901 +1* 57043 

R-SISSIS^S^ 1 ?. M^™-tBT4BaUB942nLQ(W440 - 

000971 PQJ097SaUW7 IOC. 009717 
00101 5OO0O9915Jun 95 0009884 

O01OI2X.OO983OMar94 0 00929* 

Est. sates 71035 Men's sales 16572 
tAani open .m 64.122 up 422 

SWISS FRANC (CMER) I»'n [n -Im‘ nunu i nl , 

07174 00590 Jun 94 07014 07082 0.7007 0 7C» 

0.7040 07099 07039 D.tSS 
07170 0 4885 Dec 94 07130 07130 07085 07081 

_ Jun 95 f. 

Esl. ten 18088 Men's, soles 5018 
Man's open inf 37418 all 170 


>13 


5.9M. 

II 942 
4 67 


-21 36372 
• 20 898 

-16 30 

•21 * 


Industrials 


COTTON * , RCTN) S6Me 9n . rates ora te 

8aJ * m - 30 ^00 aoa ,ojs 22,194 

S' ™ r‘ a 7X25 7 -L33 7407 —03) *,968 

S2i? C «', J2-J0 t *00 nil Bn —0.1119,105 
4— JOAIartJ 740s TABS 74.10 74J5 _J1 n jj«h 

T5J0 7500 7675 Tirc Zjlj 

J 1 Tu 1 75 T i90 7590 7500 7550 —0)5 in* 

ISJ?*.! 5 . T:J0 *** «« TiS lois 


76*5 

74 au 

75 *9 
7*00 
7649 
■14C 


Ej: tees 6 GW Mrai's. sates 5i!9 
Man's openin' J9.704 off 193 
^“TWGOIL (NMER) C-Mite- cenHoe, pc* 


58.00 

STM 

55*0 

S7.lr 

57 JO 

sax 

59 00 
62 71 

58 75 
5? 50 


Financial 

05 T. BILLS (CMER) linw,. aliUinf-i 
9674 740tJun9i 9547 95.19 M47 9fJ8 flir^flu 

9648 *402 Sen 94 9615 9505 9407 95.05 0 71 10 9-a 

94.10 9405 Dec 94 9*07 94*5 9447 9445 -021 MWfl 

95 05 7198 Mar 95 7421 94JU »47l M*1 -023 Ate 

Esl. tees 7098 Man's, sates 2043 
Mon's ooen ml 41.737 Otf 778 

SYP. TREASURY (CBOT) uoainxvM- phazi-u, m ■Mra.i' 
112-05103-0/5 Jun 94 104- 145 10S-OS 104-10 105— 11V 7'5 r*5 4?1 

110-175102-17 5ra9* 10-11 104-09 IU-1* 104-09 ■ - [IVTS 

102-01 101-36 De4 *4 103-21 - X i 

Esl. ten 5D.M0 Man's, sates 19.747 
Man's apcnifn 199 j*i ua 1347 

II YR. TREASURY (CDOT1 lioorao on 5 ':ra,y iaim 
115-71 107-18 Jur 94 134-13 105-17 104-0* 105-11 -101 258.J*: 

115- 01 101-18 Sep 94 1173-11 104-11 103-07 104-10 •:« 38475 

114-71 108-75 Dec 94 102-1* 105-1* 182-11 103-19 -I0; i it, 

III te’ 100-05 Mar’J '<72-77 ■ I C2 V. 

105-22 99-20 Jurt*5 102-10 -)« 1 

Esl. solos HUH Mon’L sates 101.5* 

Man's open ml I97.III otf 784S 

US TREASURY BONDS ICBOT1 lloniiioe acp-nH e isfe.- 

1 19*79 91-04 Jun 94 103-77 105-05 1CMJ lOi^H -115 JC fiu 

118-24 «0-'2 SeP«in-24 104-09 102-14 104-07 - Hi 76*10 

1 10-08 91-10 0*94 UK-04 lflJ-70 101-79 IBJ-19 - I U Jl >4» 

116- 70 99-1* Mgr 95101-if nn-qi ioi-i* iai-oi u* :'i^ ! 

1)5-19 98-15 Jun 95 101 -OJ 102-1* IEI-02 IK-14 114 *23 J 

112-15 n-» SepVS (074)1 • I I* Us ! 

1IJ.I4 98-)? Dec 95 101-23 II* u 

114-06 98-23 Mar94 IJ1-C8 II* j- [ 

Esl. ten 440000 Man's, tec, 37702* 

Man s open im 5046D on Imh 

MUNICIPAL BONDS ICBOT1 lliUii inaei -pn t Jrvn af :CC aci 
104-0." 87-04 Jun 94 90-15 91-29 90-11! 91-29 -117 ■ 

95-1? 06-13 SCP 94 89.18 90-11 1B-I* «-» • I 1? • st; j 

EM. tecs 6500 MonV. votes 4,M5 1 

Man s cun ue 31.111 up *40 ! 

EURODOLLARS (CMER) S ■ n -env? » 8* pf I 

95090 90.400 AVI 94 95 040 »5 1*0 95 00U 95.140 •ISOJ&l.rr. 1 


iJSS-*"’ 4 C.-5. <? -’ 5 4* 45 47 J» —08140012 

47.90 4670 47 40 47.45 ZaflO Sjil 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAY 18, 1994 


Page 13 



EUROPE 


e 5 


Asset Sales Buoy 
Hanson as Profit 


£ ■ 

--- 


*>•» 


Surges by 35% 


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-^,1^ 

^ Ojapsi^ 

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a ?ton Ear 


Bloomberg Business News 
LONDON — Hanson PLC, the 
Bnush conglomerate with opcra- 
tions ranging from coal to consmn- 
* products, saw its pretax profit in 

SfJj rsl half nse by 35 percent, to 
£683 an 11, on (SI. 03 billion). 


buoyedby assets sales and growdi 


1 -;ar 


-- . -, . 




■' c,It V 




; -- "■' • - «'ur- ~ l |t- 

*v Mr- '-taej, * 


rr 


in the U.S. economy. 

The improvement, which was 

largely in line with analysts' expec- 
1 tanons, was strong enough for 
Hanson to announce its first divi- 
dend increase since the third quar- 
ter erf 1992. It raised the payout for 
the second quarter to 3 pence from 
2.85 pence. 

Sales rose 18 percent, to £5.64 
billion. 

Since Hanson makes more than 
half <jf hs sales and profit in the 
United States, that country’s eco- 
nomic recovery provided a strong 
boost to the company’s overall re- 
sults, particularly for its building 
productions divisions. 

The sale of the Beazcr Homes 
units, the fourth-largest builder of 


houses in Britain and a significant 
builder in the United States, made 
the largest contribution to the com- 
pany's campaign to cut debt 
Hanson recorded a one-time 
profit of £331 million from asset 
sales that totaled £898 million. 

Lord Hanson, chairman of die 
company, said that prospects for 
roost of its major activities had im- 
proved in the early part of 1994. 
“Our trading companies are begin- 

S to benefit from this unproved 
>ok and our return to profit 
growth at the operating level is now 
established," be said. 

The company, which opened its 
first office in Asia in March, is 
continuing its push into the Pacific 
Rim with a tobacco trading part- 
nership. Negotiations are also 
“well advanced” for a local manu- 
facturing technology venture in 
China. 


Hanson said that its debt-to-eq- 
to 69 


efawtates Charge 

;7' 7. 7 " ; •; 


West LB Income 
. HitByDedine 
; In Trading Profit 


r.i. 


■■;»C 

' - Hi - 


T_ 


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's 


illapse 


Bloomberg Business News 

DUSSELDORF — West- 
deutsche Landes bank Girozen- 
trale, Germany’s third-] argest 
bank, said its first-quarter operat- 
ing profit declined 9 percent bo- 
cause of a slump in trading income 
that has also hampered earnings at 
the country's other trig banks. 

Profit before loss-from-loans 
provisions and other write-downs 
came in at 142 million Deutsche 
marks ($85 nriffion), said the bank, 
down from 156 millio n DM in the 
first quarter a year ago. 

Last year, as the world’s equity 
and debt marked rose, German 
banks recorded recOTd profits, large- 
ly from trading thdr own portfolios. 
This year, German stocks and bonds 
have been buffeted, along with those 
to other world markets, by the U.S. 
Federal Reserve Board’s interest- 
rate increases. The banks have suf- 
fered accor din gly. 

“The year 1993 was, for the earn- 
ings performance of West LB, an 
exceptional year,” said chief execu- 
tive Friedel Neuber. “This result 
will not be repeated too quickly." 


uity ratio had been reduced 

percent. Net debt in September 
stood at £3.4 billion, with total debt 
of £1 1.4 billion offset by £8 billion 
in cash. Hanson has been striving 
to reduce its ratio* which was calcu- 
lated at 86 percent in September. 

The company’s shares dosed at 
268 J pence on Tuesday after rising 
as high as 271 J pence during tbe 
course of the trading session on the 
London exchange. Tbe shares had 
closed at 264 pence on Monday. 


■ Affiedlyoos Net Up 20% 

Affied-Lyons PLC, the British 
food and beverage conqnny, said 
Monday that it bad weathered a 
slump in the beer *tm! spirits mar- 
kets to post a 20 percent rise in 
pretax profit, to £606 million, ac- 
cording to a dispatch from Bloom- 
berg Business News in London. 

Allied-Lyons, whose brands in- 
clude Dunkin’ D ennis and Baskin- 
Robfaans ice cream as well as Cana- 
dian Cbb whiskey and Beafealer 
gin. said that its profit had been 
buoyed by especially strong results 
at its spirits and retaflmg operations. 

Chairman Michael Jackaman 
said .“the world e n v ir onment re- 
mained challengin g” but pointed 
out that the company’s “Iran spirits 
and re tailing business increased 
both profits and margins.” 

The company said that growth 
had been underpinned as well by 
oost-cuttmg measures, increased 
marketing expenditures and capital 
i m p r ove m ents at its chain of pubs. 


Delta Air Gets a Fix on Europe 

Carrier Works on Fixing Errors and Adjusting Image 


By Edward A. Gargan 

New York Times Service 


ATLANTA — Three years after Ddia Air 
Lines stormed into the trans-Atlantic and 
European air market with the purchase of the 
failed Pan American World Airways, the At- 
lanta-based carrier said it may finally be 
heading toward success in Europe. 

Della acknowledged that it was struggling 


to compete profitably against cutthroat 
rican rivals and heavily subsidized Euro- 


American 

pcan airlines, both across the Atlantic and 
within Europe. 

U 0ur financial improvement over the 
North Atlantic is really impressive," said 
Robert W. Coggin, Delta’s senior vice presi- 
dent for marketing, “but it is not where we 
want it to be.” 

The airline, which had virtually no visibility 

in Europe before acquiring Pan Am and re- 
painting its planes, has battled to establish an 
identity in a market swarming with airlines. 

The company has had particular difficulty 
recognizing that the ways of Atlanta are not 


necessarily best for Frankfurt or Warsaw. 

Delta has advertised aggressively in Eu- 
rope and made agreements with some Euro- 
pean airlines to coordinate flights. It has also 
purchased $150 million wonh of seats on 
Virgin Atlantic Airways to get a toehold at 
Heathrow Airport in London, the busiest in 
Europe. It has been shut out of Heathrow 
under agreements between the United States 
and Britain, which let in American Airlines. 
Continental Airlines and United Airlines. 

Still, in the last three years, Delta has lost 

neatly S13 billion overall; the company does 
not reveal its European losses. The airline 
recently announced that it would slash S2 
billion a year from its operating expenses with- 
in three yean and reduce its work force by 
15,000 jobs, or about 20 percent. 

“Domes tic operations are two-thirds of the 
business," said Hdane Becker, an analyst at 
Lehman Brothers, referring to Delta. “But the 
international problem is the bigger problem." 
She estimated that 60 penxnt of Delta's losses 
could be attributed to its international routes. 

Paul P. Karos, an analyst at CS First Bos- 


Seekmg Trans-Atlantic Cachet 

M&fcat share of Delia, American and United based on the number of 
seats bn flights from file United States to Europe during August, 
theairt&ies* pea* month. Figures refect capacity, not passengers. 

. ■HMlDefta ; • 1 1 American 

ij&w ' 

• , . ; 

kb*: v-. 


GERMANY 


United 

AUL OP EUROPE" 



: Company reports; 


Tbe New Yod Time* 


ton, said. “1 think they dearly have had the 
largest losses internationally of any Ameri- 
can carrier in the last two years on the trans- 
Atlantic, worse than anyone, although there’s 
no data on the European operations." 

Delta recently said its traffic across the 
North Atlantic was up 15 percent in the first 
quarter of the year, with operating revenue 
per available seat-mile — a conventional in- 
dustry measure — up 9 percent. The airline 
also said its costs per seai-mile on those 

routes fell 3 percent. It did not say bow much 

it was losing on routes to and within Europe. 

Like all airlines. Delta has been hurt by the 
recession in Europe, particularly in Germa- 
ny, where Frankfurt is its European hub. 

While Ddta’s visibility in Europe is slowly 
improving, Mr. Coggin said, the airline’s Euro- 
pean service has sunned from a lack of recog- 
nition in tbe United States. He added that the 
home office's own perception of Delta’s quali- 
ty tended to override the realities erf the Euro- 
pean market, creating more problems. 

“Pan Am dealt with so many consolida- 
tors," be said, referring to travel agents who 
buy large Mocks of seats at discount “We 
thought our product would be so superior we 
wouldn't have to deal with the consolidators 
and we would fiD the back of the airplane with 
higher rated traffic. That was naive." 

Delta has fixed many of its problems, but 
one central drawback, to the view of analysts, 
remains: the ferocity or trans-Atlantic compe- 
tition. which is based on low prices that virtu- 
ally preclude profit. 

Delta has tr imm ed tbe number of weekly- 
flights to Europe to 257 from 293, a reduction 
it cushions by offering 21 code-sharing flights. 
Delia can book passengers on those flights, but 
they are opaated by others. 

Mr. Coggin said be expected a significant 
improvement in business this year, particularly 
in the peak summer months. 

Ms. Becker of Lehman Brothers said Ddta 
could succeed overaeas. “With Ddta, if they ‘ 
don’t fix the problem now, they won’t get 
another opportunity,” she said “They think 
they know what the problems are They think 
they’ve identified the solutions.” 


Investor’s Europe 


Frankfurt 
DAX 
2300 


London . parts .: 

FTSE. 100 . Index.:,.;. CAQ 4 G 



1093 

Exchange 

Amsterdan 

wan- ■ J .-■ if” 

1994 103 •: «»« ■ ■ ■ 1893 -f--^S|, 

Index " "Tiiasday; Ptw . . x* ' : 

• Cloae-. 

AEX "■■■-. '"Atm -i‘ 

BruftSdis 

Stock index . 


Frankfurt 



Frankfurt 



Helsinki 

HEX 


London 

Financial Timas.BO 

■2A68JM -+ 0 ^= 

London 

FTSE 100 

3 ,taa»< .a.ii&ea 

Madrid 

Generallndat . 

issAs 

Milan 

MB 

1 , 294 : 00 . ■■ 

Parts 

CAC 40 . . 

' 2 , 193.17 2,107270 : ‘ 

Stockholm 

Afiaetsvaeriden 

1 ^ 64.79 ■ 

Vienna 

■ Stock.lnctet. " ■ 

4 S &00 , . - 46 i«S 1 J 

' Zurich 

sbs • 

g 64 iB. =■■ 

Sources: Reuters. AFP 

iMenabonal Herald Tribune 

Very briefly; 


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Car- 
nda- . 
cm or ■ 

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after 


■ Commerzbank AG is joining a group of Italian and Austrian companies 
in a bid to acquire up to 25 percent of Cretfitansbdt-Bankrerehi, a state- j*** 1 
owned Austrian bank being privatized 

• Astra AB*s pretax profit rose 15 percent in the first quarter, to 2.00 t for 
billion kronor ($257 million), helped by a sales increase led by Losec. an Bill 
anti-ulcer drag. 


s on 


• AxaSA, the French insurance company, said its revenue rose 26 percent 

in the first quarter, to 35.85 billion francs ($6 billion), led by sales of life ‘ rd - 
insurance. 

at 

• The London Financial Futures aid Options Exchange has decided . , 
a g a in st participating in tbe Globex after-hours trading system and wQl 
instead pursue individual deals whh other non-European exchanges. 


call 

Jem 


• BOC Group PLC, winch produces industrial gases, earned a pretax mit- e 

£79.7 million ($120 million) in the first half erf us financial year, a 56 iber c 
percent drop from the comparable year-ago period because of an £85 kmi- *— ’ 
milli on charge to streamline the business. Bloomberg, AFX. afp _. 

kes- , s 


Third- World Eurobonds a Tough Sell 


Bloomberg Business News 
LONDON — Emerging-markets 
Eurobond trading is drying up be- 
cause few investors are willing to sell 

the securities they own at today’s 
depressed prices, analysis say. It is 
now difficult to find anyone in the 
msritrt willing to make a price at 
winch they win sell bonds. 

There is a feeling that tbe mar- 
ket has beoi oversold, and people 
may not be prepared to seD at these 
relatively low prices,” said Philip 
Poole, head of emerging markets 
research at ING Bank. 

The worldwide collapse in bond 


prices which was sparked when the 
U.S. Federal Reserve Board began 
to raise American interest rates on 
Feb. 4 has taken its toll on emerg- 
ingmarket debt. 

The IP. Morgan index, which 
tracks prices erf all Latin American 
Eurobonds, is down 6.8 percent 
this year, after gaining more than 
18 percent in 1993. For investors 
who slocked up on the $26 billion 
of Latin American Eurobonds sold 
last year, that is a problem. 

Analysis stressed that when bond 
prices tumble, investors tend to gel 
rid of their riski est investments first. 



Low-grade bonds like those issued 
by Latin American and Eastern Eu- 
ropean borrowers have been hardest 
hit by the recent collapse. 

At the beginning of last year, for 
example, the Mexican petroleum 
agency PetroIetSs Mexican os sold 
S 125 million of 8.25 percent bonds 
due in 1998, priced at 99.81. At the 
beginning of this year the price was 
bolding steady at about 105.75. Bui 
by last week, that price had 
dropped to 99.75. 

Argentina’s $250 million of 8.25 
percent bonds due in 1997, which 
were sold in September 1992, trad- 


ed at about 102 in Jantuuy but have 
slipped about four points in the 
past few weeks. 

Traders said it was proving diffi- 
cult to find people willing to stale a 
price at which they were prepared 
to sell either of these issues. 

The uncertainty rocking emerg- 
ing-market bonds has also pul a 
block on tbe new- issues market, 
preventing companies and govern- 
ment agencies from borrowing on 
the international markets. 

Eurobond managers say there is 
about $15 bflfion worth of new is- 
sues now in tbe pipeline. 


Surging Greek Rates 
Stabilize the Drachma 


Sec- 

BS 

an 

re- 


B lo omberg Business News 

LONDON — The Greek 
drachma and money market 
stabilized Tuesday as high in- 
terest rates sent the cost of bet- 
ting on a drachma devaluation 
soaring and kepi currency spec- 
ulators at bay. 

Greek interest rates soared as 
high as 70 percent Monday as 
the central bank freed all con- 
trols on short-term capital 
movements. 


Tbe move was part of an ef- 
fort to standi a wave of drach- 
ma selling that pushed down 
tbe currency’s value. Last week, 
speculators sold drachma as 
they bet the currency would be 
devalued. 

The dollar rose to 247.94 
drachmas Tuesday from 247.70* 
Traders said interest rates 
would have to remain high for 
at least a week to maintain cur- 
rency stability. 


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Plage 15 


Japan Defends Surplus 
Before U.S. Trade Talks 


CcmpJed by Or Staff From Dispatch* 

t JP KY0 — Ja P an * s 559 billion 
tf* de surplus with ihe United 
States could actually create rather 
«»n cost American jobs, the Japa- 
nese government said Tuesday. 

fa its annual report, the Ministry 
of International Trade and Industry 
countered U.S. claims that Japan’s 
trade Surplus feeds unemployment- 
The report dies statistics from 
nxxe than 20 other countries in the 

I?«ls to show that countries with 
high, trade deficits do not necessar- 
ily have high unemployment. 

The report also supports the view 
of some economists that Japanese 
companies “recycle" the surplus by 
investing abroad, creating jobs. 

"Investment invites growth and 

growth creates employment,” said 
Midori Tani, one of the report's 
authors. 

The ministry’s report comes just 
two days before negotiators are to 
meet in Washington in an effort to 
revive trade talks, stalled since Feb- 
maiy. The report often has served 
as an indication of how Japan will 
approach trade negotiations with 
the United States. 

Last year, the ministry used it to 
debut a tough stand, trying io show 
faults in U.S. arguments, blaming 
the surplus on forces beyond its 
control and denying U.S. claims 
that Japanese markets were closed. 

U& negotiators have main- 
tained that Japan erects trade bar- 
riers to U.S. goods in certain indus- 
tries, protecting Japanese jobs 
while costing American jobs in 
those same industries. 


The report also says the trade 
imbalance looks big because of the 
way it is counted. 

Trade figures give too much 
weight to American spending on 
ears, cameras and other consumer 
goods that are prime exports of 
Japan, the nunistry said, while Jap- 
anese spending on tourism, trans- 
portation. legal work and other ser- 
vices from the United States are 
cot heavily weighted. 

“In the balance of trade in ser- 
vices, the United Stales has the 


Toyota To Make 

Cars in Vietnam 


largest surplus in the world and 
Japan has the largest deficit.'* the 
report said. 

The report also encouraged a re- 
patriation of funds to Japan, since 
the country’s trade surplus has erod- 
ed the value of investments abroad. 
It said the yield on external assets 
was only 3.8 percent, below theyield 
on Japanese government bonds. 

“We’ve changed our assets from 
yen to dollars, and so have been 
constantly losing money," Ms. 
Tani said. 

The report suggested that Japa- 
nese people invest in domestic ser- 
vices or housing — sectors that lag 
other countries. 


Agrnce France Front 

TOKYO— Toyota Motor Corp. 
plans to produce cars and commer- 
cial vehicles in Vietnam in a joint 
venture, according to a report pub- 
lished Tuesday in the Tokyo Shim- 
bun newpaper 

The joint' venture company will 
first assemble commercial vehicles 
on a knock-down basis with parts 
imported from Japan, beginning in 
1995 at the earliest, and will even- 
tually produce passenger cars, the 
report said. 

A Toyota spokesman denied 
knowledge of the reported plan but 
commented that Vietnam was a 
promising market for Japanese mo- 
tor vehicle manufacturers. Toyota 
established representative offices in 
Hanoi and Ho Chi Mmh City last 
year to collect market information. 


The repatriation of capital is al- 
ready taking place to some extern. 
Japan’s long-term capital surplus, 
measuring net inflows of funds 
mainly from securities transac- 
tions, hit all-time higbs in February 
and March, partly reflecting record 
selling of foreign bonds by Japa- 
nese investors. At the same lime, 
foreign buying of Japanese shares 
soared to record levels. 

But in improving the country’s 
social infrastructure, Japan also 
needs to promote direct investment 
by foreign companies, which, the 
report said, still remains at the low- 
est level among major developed 
countries. 


Chinese Chemical 
Company Makes 
Lukewarm Debut 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dupatthes 
HONG KONG — Waning 
investor interest in stocks is- 
sued by Chinese companies ap* 
nify was not revived by 


uesday’s debut of Tianjin Bo- 
(To. 


hai Chemical Industry 
Shares in the state-run chemi- 
cal producer slumped 8 percent 

below their issue price, dosing 
down 10 cents at 1.10 Hong 


Kong dollars ($14.2 cents). A 
il of 


total of 64.5 million shares 
changed hands. 


‘The price is not particularly 
■tlx the stock 


To increase foreign direct invest- 
ment in Japan, the ministry railed 
for easing of restrictions on setting 
up companies, strengthening of ns 
search and development, and finan- 
cial deregulation. (AP, A FP) 


Aiwa Will Raise Level 
Of Offshore Production 


Compiled by ftr Staff From Dispatches 

TOKYO — Aiwa Cb, the 
Japanese audio and video 
equipment manufacturer. Said 
Tuesday it would raise offshore 
production to 80 percent to 83 
percent of output in the year 
ending March 31, 1995. 

The company produced 715 
percent of its products offshore 
last-year. 

The company also said the 
popularity of its small low-cosi 
stereo systems helped drive prof- 
it up 129 percent, to 6.72 hflHoo 


yen ($64 million) in the year end- 
ed March 31. Sales of mini-ste- 
reo units rose more than 40 per- 
cent, to around 70 billion yen. 

Aiwa has raised offshore pro- 
duction steadily in recent years, 
seeking to offset the adverse ef- 
fect of the high yen on earnings 
and offshore sales- In the year 
to March 1993. Aiwa said h 
expects the yen to average 100 
yen to the (foliar, up from the 
average of 109 JO in the year to 
March 1994, . , 

(AFX Bloomberg) 


attractive, and with 
issue only barely subscribed, 
there was always going to be 
selling pressure." said Dora 

Hung, an analyst at Goldman 
Sachs (Asia) Ltd. 

The Hang Seng index closed 
Tuesday at 9,044.70, down 
208.71. 

Tianjin Bohai sold 340 mil- 
lion class H shares at 1.20 dol- 
lars each to raise funds to ex- 
pand its production capacity 
and reduce debt. H shares are 
special shares issued by Chinese 
state-run companies that are 
listed in Hong Kong. They are 
denominated and pay divi- 
dends in Hong Kong dollars. 

Investor enthusiasm for H 
shares has been fading for some 
time. The first issues, listed last 
year, soared on their debut but 
then lost ground as local slock 


prices declined in genera) and 
concerns grew over China's 
Soaring inflation rate and rising 
debt levels at state enterprises. 

Tianjin Bohai also said it 
planned to issue a further 68.98 
million class A shares for inves- 
tors in China and 43.52 million 
A shares to employees. These 

shares are reserved for Chinese 
investors and are listed only on 
Chinese exchanges. 

Tianjin Bohai uses sea salt as 
a raw material to produce basic 
chemical substances such as 


caustic soda, polyvinyl chloride 
l Those cl 


and soda ash. Those chemicals 
are then used by the glass, 
enamel detergent and other in- 
dustries. 

“The company's technology 
appears outdated," said Anna 
Ho. an analyst with SBCI Fi- 
nance Asia Ltd. “The company 
also relies heavily on subsidies 
and is simply not as good as 
other chemical firms." 

Other analysts said that 
Tianjin Bohai was caught up in 
the debt problems that bedevil 
the Chinese state sector and 
that its old machinery translat- 
ed into high production costs. 

“We’re not keen on the in- 
dustry prospects for this com- 
pany," added Rex Chan, an an- 
alyst with Fidelity Investments. 

( Bloomberg, Reuters) 


Malaysia 
Will Curb 
Telecoms 
Monopoly 


ASEAN Takes Case to ILO 


Compiled by Oie Staff From Dispatches 

SINGAPORE — Labor ministers of the Associa- 
tion of Southeast Asian Nations criticized on Tuesday 
efforts to link workers' rights with trade pacts and 
urged the International Labor Organization to take 
into account “special circumstances’m the labor mar- 
kets of the developing -world. 

The ministers issued a communique expressing 
“grave concern” over moves by some developed coun- 
tries “to introduce soda! clauses into international 
trade agreements, and to use this as a condition for 
gaining market access by developing countries." 

Ministers from Brunei. Indonesia. Malaysia, the 
Philippines, Singapore and Thailan d attacked devel- 
oped countries that try to impose their syst ems of 
labor relations and standards on developing countries. 

The communique said the ministers were commit- 
ted to .improving their workers' well-being, but it said 


some countries “are concerned with the rigid imposi- 
tion of labor standards and the use of rigid standards 
to stifle trade and economic development, which con- 
stitutes a new form of protectionism." 

The communique said such attempts would “under- 
mine competitiveness of developing countries. 

Separately, Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong of Sin- 
gapore said Tuesday that attempts by Western coun- 
tries to check imports from low-wage countries “be- 
tray the West’s Tear of competition from Asia and its 
growing sense of economic insecurity." 

“They show a misguided preoccupation with pre- 
serving law-value jobs when the West should be con- 
centrating on creating high-value jobs." be said. 

He said that Asia was catching up with the West. 
“China’s emergence wifi be the largest phenomenon in 
the world economy over the next few decades." he 
said. (Reuters. AP) 


Compiled fcr ftir SlajJ From Dispatches 

KUALA LUMPUR — Seeking 
to encourage investment in its tele- 
communications industry. Malay- 
sia announced measures Tuesday 
that would erode the monopoly of 

Telekom Malaysia Bhd. 

“To achieve an effective telecoms 
network, huge investments are nec- 
essary. and this burden cannot be 
shouldered by a single firm," Prime 
Minis ter Mahathir bin Mohamad 
said as he announced the National 
Telecommunication Policy. 

He said the government also 
wanted to change the current licens- 
ing system, wtaich is based on com- 
panies* technologies rather than the 
services they provide: “In the future, 
we should approach the licensing 
issue from the point of view of ser- 
vice rather than technology." 

Telekom Malaysia, a publidy list- 
ed company, took over almost the 
entire network of telecommunica- 
tions when it was set up under Ma- 
layan's privatization policy in 1987. 

The government said Binariang 
Sdn., a telecommunications com- 
pany, would effectively become the 
largest competitor to Telekom Ma- 
laysia. Binariang. which is launch- 
ing Malaysia’s communication sat- 
ellite program, would install the 
country’s first fully digital cellular 
telephone and statoof-tbe an fixed 
telephone networks, officials said. 

Binariang is controlled by An- 
anda Krishoan, an investor who 
has interests in gaming and real 
estate. Mr. Krishoan is a friend of 
Mr. Mahathir. 

The news undercut Telekom Ma- 
laysia’s stock, which ended at 18.70 
ringgit (37.16), down 90 sen. 

Hanif Omar, Binariang's chair- 
man, said the company planned to 
invest SI. 34 billion over the next 
five years to set up Malaysia's satel- 
lite system, a digital cellular phone 
network and a national and inter- 
national telephone network. 

Binariang intends to launch the 
first Malaysia East Asia Satellite 
(Measat-1) by the end of 1995. It 


Investor’s Asia 


Hong Kong 

Hang Seng 

13000 


Singapore 
St rafts Times 


Tokyo 

Nikkei 225 



To'J’F’.MAM 

1983 1994 


J D‘ J'F 1 

1993 . 1994 


1903 


IBM 


■Exchange 

.index 

-..Tuesday.'- . Prav, = 

Close Cfose'..-. ."Change 

Bong Kong 

MangSeng' ' 

9JM4J0 :»43S3v4l -2.26 

Singapore - 

Straits Times 

2,304.49 f &290.41 *40.61 

Sydney 

. AS Ordinaries 

2^96.00 • 2,1t$90 ■ -0.71 

Tokyo 

Nikkei 225 . 

20«13&53 20.18&44 1 r0j27' 

[ Koala Lumpur Composite 

891.96 ' 987.84 ■ -039 

Bangkok 

SET 

.1.3P&85 . v1,2S&84 +0,93. 

Seoul 

Composite Stock 

94637 - 841.87 +0.55 

Taipei 

Weighted Price 

6,01853 6,114.78 -1.62 

Manila 

. PSE 

2433643 2.80223 +1.16 

Jakarta 

Stack Index 

471.77 467,86 +0.84 

New Zealand 

NZSE-4Q 

2,11844 2,126^5 ' -0.39 

Bombay 

National index . 

1.8S425 1J871.75 .- ■^.93 

Sources.- Reuters, AFP 

Intcnuurasl Herald Tribune 

Very briefly; 


Shanghai China’s largest city, posted record exports of S146 billion in 
s of 1994, • 


the first four months o? 1994,’ up 26.6 percent from the like period last 
year, said the Chinese official news agency Xinhua. 

• Thai Airways International said its pretax profit for the quarter ended 
March 31 increased 165 percent, to 1.55 billion baht (S61i million), 
compared with the corresponding period a year earlier. 

• Deutsche WeBe Rarfio & TV International, Bonn's official broadcast 
outlet, signed an agreement with the Hong Kong-based Asia Satellite 
Telecommunications Co. to air German-language television programs in 
Asia next year. 

• Orchard Parade Hokfings L i d . , the hotel concern controlled by NgTeng 
Fong of Singapore, has bought a 6.56 percent stake in Yeo Hiap Seng 
Ud, one of the republic’s oldest food and beverage companies. 

• Nation PldtSsfaiiig Group Ox, publisher of Thailand's second-largest 

English-language newspaper, reported a net profit of 30.1 million baht 
($1.2 million) for the quarter ended March 31. up 2.9 percent from the 
like period a year ago. AFP, Bloomberg, Reuters. AFX 


China Focuses on Electronics 


has agreed to buy two HS-376 sat- 


ellites from General Motors 
Corp.'s Hughes Aircraft Co. for 
$423 million each, along with satel- 
lite-control equipment 
The launch schedule for the sec- 
ond satellite has not been set 

(AFP. Reuters. AFX) 


ROCKET: bi Russia, Rocket Makers Are a Rare Economic Success Story Jardine Snubs Hong Kong 

rCa MfoM cd t ro a PageU 


The Associated Press 
BEIJING — China wifi increase 
investment in its electronics indus- 
try and boost imports in an effort 
to catch up with the West an offi- 
cial newspaper said Tuesday. 

In an unusually frank assess- 
ment officials of the Ministry of 
Electronics Industry said China 
lagged 15 years behind world lead- 
ers in the production of integrated 
circuits, the China Daily reported. 

The newspaper said China aimed 
to produce hundreds of millions of 
integrated circuits annually by the 
end of the decade, but did not spec- 
ify ibe amount of investment the 


government planned to channel 
into the sector. 

It said that an electronics devel- 
opment plan issued by the govern- 
ment in 1990 faltered due to lack of 
funding and to Western restrictions 
on the sale of high technology. 

The ministry officials, who were 
not identified, said they hoped im- 
ports would increase now that the 
west has dismantled many Cold 
War-era controls on high- technol- 
ogy exports to socialist countries. 

Many Western companies re- 
main unwilling to transfer technol- 
ogy to China because of its poor 
record in protecting copyrights. 


to charge less in some cases than 
their Western rivals, they expected 
'their share of the space business- to 
grow in coming years, making Rus- 
sia a pivotal player in an industry 
where competition among tbe 
United States, Europe and Asia is 
already intense. 

Fearful that Russia might under- 
cut the prices charged for rocke! 
lau nching by companies like Mc- 
Donnell Douglas Coip. and Martin 
Marietta Corp., the United States 
has imposed quotas and price re- 
strictions on launchings by Russian 
rockets of satellites containing 
American technology. 

Bat the cod of tbe Cold War has 
accelerated cooperation between 
Russia and tbe United States and 
other Western countries in their 
optional space programs, paving 
tbe way for technology exchanges. 

At the same time, the opening up 
of Russia's economy ana the net- 
work of laboratories, design and 
production centers that make up 
tbe country’s space industry has 
drawn widespread interest from 
Western aerospace and technology 
companies looking to do busi ness. 

“They have so many different 
enterprises involved, so many dif- 
ferent capabilities, so many differ- 
ent ways of getting into space, that 
there’s a lot to select from, said 
Bob Berry, the president erf Spaa 
Systems/Loral a division of Loral, 
the aerospace and electronics com- 
pany based in New York. . 

“If we find ways to utilize mar 
people and expertise," be said, its 
g oing to provide a good basis far 
fjonne gs and international trade. 

In' the last several yean therehas 

been a steady flow of deals. Khnm' 

idiev, the maker of Russia s work- 
horse Proton rocket, has sold 
launchings to Inmarsat, the 67- 

ttatk>n telecommunications satet- 


consortium, , and to Iridium, . 
wtadk jrfans to launch 21 small sai- 
eSifres on three .Proton rockets 
starting next year. 

. - Khnnrichev has also spent $40 
nriffion for a 5 percent stake in 
Iridium, rate of the first invest- 
ments by a Russian enterprise in a 
Western company. 

Through a joint venture il devel- 
oped with Lockheed in tbe United 
Sues, Khnmichev, along with En- 
er gia, another rocket bolder, has 
also contracted for launchings to 
the Sod£t£ Europeene des Satel- 
lites, a European satellite-television 
company, and to LoraL 
" Loral having separately discov- 
ered a small Russian enterprise 
producing. innovative lightweight, 
low-cost thrusters used by satellites 
to maneuver in orbit, has also cre- 
ated a joint venture to bring the 
technology to the West, possibly 
even for use in satellites made for 
the Pentagon. • 

Rimsat, a provider of telecom- 
munications satellite services based 
in Fort Wayne, Indiana, has sot 
only contracted lor launchings 
from Russia, but is baying seven 
Russian-made satellites as wdl 

The business opportunities for 
die Russian space industry are not 
limited to the private sector. As 
part of a program of increased co- 
operation between the American 
and Russian space programs, 
NASA plans to spend $400 mfifion 
to buy products and services from 
Russia during the next four years. 

Tbe bulk of the financing will go 
to flights by American astronauts 
on the . Mrr space station, but 
NASA officials said some of tbe 

money would also be used to devel- 
op aod acquire technolopes from 
Russian enterprises in areas like 
solar power systems. 

Ultimately, the United States, 
Russia and Europe plan to cooper- 
ate in budding a staffed space sta- 


tion, and Russian enterprises are 
expected to play a pivotal role in its 
design and manufacturing. “To- 
gether we can do much more than 
separately," said Mr. Medveddu- 
lcov of the Russian Space Agency. 

Khrunicfaev’s prospects rest 
largely on the Proton rocket, which 
was developed in the 1960s. Its rel- 
atively simple de sign has made it 
the world's most reliable launch 
vehicle. In 218 launchings, the Pro- 
ton has achieved a success rate of 
about 96 percent, above tbe rates of 
McDonnell Douglas’ Delta, Mar- 
tin Marietta’s Atlas and Titan, and 
the European Ariane. 

But it is die Proton's potential 
price advantage over western 
launchers that has excited the big- 
gest reaction. Khrunicbev's fust 
big commercial contract with tbe 
west was tbe deal it signed last year 
to latmeh a telecommunications 
satellite fa- Inmarsat for $35.5 mil- 
lion, compared with $60 million or 
more charged by American and Eu- 
ropean competitors. 

Under pressure from the Ameri- 
can launching industry, the United 
States subsequently imposed stiff 
restrictions on Russian launchings. 
Only right Russian launchings or 
American satellites to geostation- 
ary orbits — 22^00 miles above the 
Equator — would be permitted 
through 1999. The Lockheed- 
Khrunicbev joint venture has al- 
ready sold options for nine 
launches. 

In addition, if Rusaa charged 
less than 15 percent below the 
Western launching price, the deal 
would be referred to the U.S. gov- 
ernment for review, a provision 
that would effectively keep the 
inice of a Proton launching close to 
current market rates. 

Khnmichev and Lockheed said 
they expected the demand for 


by the Proton and rockets being 
built by other countries, including 
China and Japan. In tbe end. they 
said, they expect demand pressures 
to result in the loosening or elimi- 
nation of the quotas. 

“If we’re right that the market is 
going to grow, there will be natural 
ways for the quota to be revisited," 
said Md Brash cars, a vice presi- 
dent at Lockheed. 

Moreover, the quota is limited in 
its effect because it does not cover 
■ s a telli te s sent into low-earth orbit, 
about 600 miles op. Low-earth orbit 
satellites are shaping up as tbe big- 
gest growth market in coming years 
as ventures like Iridium begin. 

Whether il is dealing with geosta- 
tionary or low-earth orbit launch- 
ings, Khnmidiev's costs are dearly, 
lower than those of Western com- 
petitors. though Mr. Lebedev said 
the the costs of materials in Russia 
were rising rapidly and (hat any cost 
differentia] was disappearing. 

In the meantime. Khrunicbev 
appears quite happy to charge the 
market price for its launchings and 
avoid a price war and tbe risk that 
the United Slates would impose 
further quotas or price restrictions. 


Reuters 

HONG KONG — Jardine 
Malheson Holdings Ltd-. a trading 
company on tbe China coast for 
more than 130 years, is to hold its 
annual meetings in Bermuda in- 
stead of in Hong Kong starting 
next year. 

Bermuda has been the legal do- 
micile for Jardine Malheson Hold- 
ings and Jardine Strategic Hold- 


ings Ltd., an affiliated investment 
holding company, since 1984. 

In March, both concerns said 
they would de-list their shares from 
the Hong Kong stock exchange at 
the end of this year. The move was 
seen as a way for the Jardine group, 
no favorite of Beijing due to its start 
as an opium peddler, to distance 
itself from tbe territory before its 
reversion to China in 1997. 


launchings to outstrip tbe supply, 
tfrered 


even including the capacity of 


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in i Ln> vi iui>At fcifcttALD TRIBUNE. WEDNESDAY, MA\ 18, 199*1 


NASDAQ 

Tuesday's 4 p.sn. 

This list compiled by the AP. consists of the 1.000 
mast traded securities in terms ot dollar value It is 
updated twice a year. 


13 Mown Sis 

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- II 19U is % 
„ 21 1141 33V, 
1.12 18 9 59 XV, 

22 376 17*i 


h Low Lores! Oi'oe 


Tuesday’s Closing 

Tables include the nationwide prices up lo 
the dosing on Wall Street and do not reflect 
late trades elsewhere. Via The Associated Press 


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fhe Previous 52 wee* 5 olus the current wIST i 

trading day. wrier* o sour or slock 1 

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i ssa'st*''™‘aJaiEa : 

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ww — wllh warrants. 

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, £ — 50 lev in h,K 























































































































































F 


Wednesday, May 18, 1994 

Page IS 


International Herald Tribune 



A Special Report 


implied i 

JEW ^ 

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lar an- 
renew? 
lar res 
unvei 
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ntoie 
strajiaj 
■is fror 

rhego- 




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P ft 

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Is 


eneration 


s Deciine nl Asia Embraces Nuclear Power 


*•**•;. „ -r 


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percen 

and sh 
wih in 
Jut [he 
ciion i 

t siipp 
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■wthoi 
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[he fol 

rhe hi. 
iecied 


H;1 iS 


e o 


r ® 
k & 


volatility at a Minimum 

Prices Stable for Plentiful Fossil Fuels 


World primary energy shares 

Renewable 


i!r.j m '~ 


I ioo%L. v _-=?" ' W 


By Michael Richardson 


^^^^_Hydro 


By Richard E. Smith 


I \ 

II \ 
I I 


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P ARIS — It seems too good to be true 
for a sector like power generation that 
thrives on stability and predictability. 
A sort of Puk Enerpoi has emerged 
in the IWOs that the oil-shocked doomsday 
theorists of the '70s and '80s would have hardly 
dared to hope for. 

Oil. gas and coal are all in plentiful supply. 
Thanks to the determination or Saudi Arabia 
to have OPEC maintain its fragile market share 
rather than force prices higher, oil is selling at 
rates not far above recent five-year lows. Coal 
and gas. meanwhile, are benefiting from major 
technological improvements that are making 
their use in power generation both cheaper and 
cleaner. The word “nuclear" is losing some of 
i[s controversial sting as its share diminishes. 

On the other side of the equation, demand 
for energy is relatively modest with economic 
growth in the 1990s turning out to be signifi- 
cantly weaker than anticipated. Among the 
world’s largest users of power. Japan and Con- 
tinental Europe are showing only faint flicker- 
ing* of recovery from their worst postwar re- 
cessions. while 'North .America's rebound has 
been anything but robust. 

"For all practical purposes, there are plenty 
of resources around and they are increasing.” 
said John Lichtblau. chairman of the Petro- 
leum Industry Research Foundation in New 
York. “You may see a concentration of pro- 
duction in fewer areas, but there is no reason to 
see a major rise in price for a decade or so.” 

The International Energy Agency, in this 
year's update of the world energy outlook it 
compiled Iasi year, said that “the assumed rate 
of economic growth in all three OECD regions 
over the 1990s has been revised downwards 
due to the prolonged recession.” In a notable 
reassessment, the 'agency said that growth in 
Japan was likely to be 0.5 percent in 1994 and 
2.3 percent in 1995. Previously it had projected 
growth of 3.1 percent in 1994 and 4 percent in 
’ 995. 

“What it would really take to unleash a rise 
in energy prices would be a synchronized glob- 
al recovery.” said Vahan Zanoyan. director of 
Petroleum Finance Co., a consultancy in 
Washington. "North America is not enough." 

To be sure, a market as volatile and rumor- 
driven as oil is hardly static. Hie price jumped 
a notch recently when the IEA said it had 
underestimated the surge of oil use in the first 


quarter. In addition, the market has regularly 
been registering reactions to recent political 
tremors in Yemen. Algeria and Nigeria. 

Although correlations are complex, the oil 
price is tracked closely in the power generation 
industry as a broad leading indicator For other 
energy prices. 

Nevertheless the long-term planners of pow- 
er generation, where lead times for infrastruc- 
ture can be exceptionally long, have clearly 
been given a reprieve from the jolts and uncer- 
tainties of the last two decades. 

"The economic situation in many developed 
countries has been revised downwards, and 
this has allowed for a pause in thinking about 
energy projects.” said Malcolm Keay. chief of 
the alternative energy division at the IEA. 

The respite is a welcome one for govern- 
ments and energy planners. German politi- 
cians. for example, can look ahead to this 
autumn’s elections and be grateful that energy 
supplies are secure enough for them to avoid 
the dreaded "79” word. The battle against 
nuclear power was largely waged in the voting 
booth and currently France and Japan are the 
only developed countries still pursuing major 
nuclear programs. 

Of the fuels used for power generation cur- 
rently. coal accounts for over 40 percent with 
the rest of the pie divided between gas. oil. 
nuclear and hydro power. 

The general reprieve has also allowed energy 
planners the luxury of negotiating major con- 
struction projects without worrying that delays 
will lead to serious energy bottlenecks. 

Analysts said governments were able to bar- 
gain for several years longer than might have 
been the case in a tighter market on a project 
now under construction to supply Spain and 
Portugal with Algerian gas. Similarly, banks 
and companies do not find themselves under 
any great pressure as they negotiate an exten- 
sive liquefied natural gas project with Nigeria. 

“They don’t have to rush these things from 
the drawing board now." said one analyst. 

But some energy specialists worry that (bis 
lack of immediate pressure may have also led 
to a dangerous complacency and that not 
enough is being invested in exploration and 
infrastructure. 

“With prices relatively steady, there has 
been a lack of urgency.” said Mr. Keay, adding 
that this could lead to various problems if it 
continued too long. 

"The oil industry is a very conservative in- 
dustry." said Mr. Zanoyan. “The companies 




40 | : -’ •• i'r* i : 


'4-V ^ 


r .' J Gas 


i . v-.-j . v; - ■ 


y Solids 


1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 

Source: IEA 


J AKARTA — Faced with a growing gap 
between electricity supply and demand. 
Asian nations are increasingly turning 
lo nuclear power to fuel Future econom- 
ic growth. 

While the nuclear option has been put on 
hold in many Western countries because of 
safety and environmental concerns, Asia sees 
the atom as a means of gaining greater self- 
sufficiency in commercial energy and cutting 
the pollution associated with burning fossil 
fuels, particularly coal. 

Development of nuclear expertise is also 
seen by some countries — including China, 
India and Indonesia — as a source of national 
prestige and a way of reducing reliance on 
imported technology, mainly from the West 
and Japan. 

Nuclear power is expected to become an 
important source for meeting the region’s long- 
term electricity needs on a sustainable basis, 
said Chuanwen Hu, a staff member of the 
nuclear power division of the International 
Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. 

Asia's emissions of carbon dioxide from fos- 
sil fuels, which contribute to global warming, 
are projected to increase by up to 30 percent by 
the end or the decade while releases of sulfur 
and nitrogen oxides are already causing serious 
pollution and damage to human health in 
many pans of the region. 

"It is imperative to gradually reduce the 
share of fossil fuels and to adopt clean technol- 
ogies for power generation" in Asia, Mr. Hu 
said. 


Soaring growth means 
Asia’s demand for electricity 
will double bv 2000. 


energy, have the most highly developed nuclear 
power programs in Asia- 

Over 43 percent of South Korea’s total elec- 
tricity supply now comes from nuclear plants. 
Comparable figures for Taiwan are 35.4 per- 
cent and for Japan 27.7 percent 

All three Northeast Asian nations have an- 
nounced plans for nugor expansions of their 
nuclear power capacity, as have China and 
India, the region’s two most populous coun- 
tries. 

Within the next 10 years, China plans to 
become a leading exporter of civilian nuclear 
technology and a major producer of nuclear 
power to meet rapidly growing industrial and 
household demand 

“Nuclear industiy and technology are a 
yardstick for measuring the overall strength of 
a country,” said Jiang Xinxiong. head of China 
National Nudear Coip. 

The second 1.000- megawatt reactor at Chi- 
na’s Days Bay nudear power station near 


counted for a scant 0.3 percent of total electric- 
ity output. . Y ■■ • Y - / ■ ■ 

At present, China has only oue other nudear . 

utility, a Chinese-designcri and built Station at •• 
Qinshan in the east coast province <rf-Zhgiang..-. w 
However^ Chinese authorities plan to start con- 
strucuou later this year' of a' third- station; not 
far from Daya BayatLing’ao, also in Guang- , 
dong province apposite Hoag Kong, king’ao .... 
will have twin 900 megawatt 1 reactors and is . . 

due for completion in 2w2. - :- 
A nuclear power plant is abo planned vaF - 
Wafangdian m northeastern liaomng.prov- .. ^ 
ince with two Russian generators, each capable . 


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of producing 1,000 megawatts. ........ . 

India’s tenth nudear plant recently began , - 
commercial operation, pushing the sector’s 
share of total electricity generation to around V. . 
3.5 percent. - . : .t - v 

Mr. Hu said that both India and China had 
“established capabilities, in the nuclear fidd Y 
based on indigenous technology and resources, 
and they have strong potential , for further nu- 
clear power development.” 

Of other Asian countries planning tblhar- 
ness nuclear power, Indonesia and Thailand - - 
seem likely to emerge as major players in the .. 
first couple of decades of the noct- century. £*> 
Both have to meet rapidly growing demand for > ~- 
eleclricity. -,;j 

Indonesia may become a net oD importer by ’T 
the end of the decade and Thailand’s natural 
gas supplies are insufficient to meet long-term 
demand. Both countries have concerns about Y 
coal pollution and the costs of abating iL ’Y 

While a final decision has yet to be an- 
nounced by Jakarta, Prestden t Suharto indicai- '•» ^ 
ed recently that he accepted the case for deyeV- ^ 
oping nuclear power lo make Indonesia, wfrich ^ 
has a population of 180 million, an advanced • - 


Hong Kong recently started to run at full 
power and will soon be connected to the coun- 
try’s electricity grid. The French-designed and 
Hong Kong-financed station’s first reactor be- 
gan commercial production in February. 

Daya Bay is China's largest nuclear plant. 
Officials have said its completion will lead to a 
trebling of nudear power generation this year. 

Output in 1994 will be between 8 billion and 
10 billion kilowatts, up from almost 2.5 billion 
kilowatts in 1993. when nuclear power ac- 


lu'cnuliiirul Herj/tl Tritont' 


like to wail and see prices rise before malting 
major investments. This means that price cy- 
cles are exaggerated, both as they rise and fail. 
But this has been the storv of the industry since 

I860." 

“We're not running out of supply, but the 
chances are extremely low that the industry 
will be able to bring enough oil onto the market 
at low price levels if demand picks up to an 
unexpected degree over the next five years." he 
said 

In the meantime, analysis still doubt that 
near-term price rises are likely enough to spur 
major investment with supply so plentiful at 
current levels of use. The JEA recently said, for 
example, that new oil supply has come on- 
stream in China. Alaska and Uie Gulf of Mexi- 
co. and that this has more than compensated 
for falling production in Russia. 

Gas supplies are even more secure, with vast 
reserves that are easy to tap. notably in the 


Continued on page 20 


Energy demand in the region will rise by 12 
percent annually in the 1990s compared with a 
7 percent rate in the previous decade, accord- 
ing to the International Finance Carp., the 
private-sector arm of the World Bank. 

If .Asia’s economic growth continues to soar, 
demand for electricity will double by the year 
2000, requiring an investment of at least $500 
billion in power systems. 

“The Asia-Pacific region bas the greatest 
market potential in the next decade.” said 
Woodrow Williams, a senior executive of GE 
Nuclear Energy of the United States. “We are 
talking in terms of $160 billion over the next 1 5 
years” in potential sales of nuclear power sys- 
tems. he added. 

In Asia, 70 nuclear power plants were con- 
nected to electricity supply networks and 21 
were under construction at the end of 1992. 

The IAEA says that all of the more than 10 
new nuclear power reactors that started con- 
struction worldwide in 1993 were in Asia. 

Japan. South Korea and Taiwan, which were 
heavily dependent in the past on imported 


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How our technology helps to save raw 
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Environmental protection and cost- 

effactiveness have a common de- 
nominator - the efficiency of ener- 
gy conversion. The less fuel used 
per Kilowatt hour of electricity gen- 
erated. the smaller the amount of 
carbon dioxide and other pollutant 
?m*ssior.s. Our unfired combmed- 
r -.y* 'GUD 1 ) power plants make 
’his possible. They utilize the com- 
custion heal twice, first in a gas 
turbine and then in a downstream 
Steam iurbrne. 


Higher temperatures for greater 

efficiency 

We have developed a new t>oe of 
heat shield lining for inlet casings 
so that gas turbine eificienc. can 
be increased even further by par- 
ticularly high inlet temperatures. 
The attainable inlet temperature of 
around 1300 3 C increases rhe effi- 
ciency potential of our GUD plants 
from today’s 52.59b to over 55 c 0 . 


Clean combustion and flue gas 
containing fewer pollutants 
Nitrogen oxide emissions can be 
reduced even further by using 
state-of-the-art fossil fuel combus- 
tion processes in addition to other 
efficiency- enhancement technigues. 
With our burners the combustion of 
oil and gas. and also gas from coal, 
produces such low pollutant emis- 
sions that gas turbine plants equip- 
ped witn these burners do not re- 
quire any additional exhaust gas 
cleaning equipment - even with the 
most stringent of pollution control 
requirements. 


Only cost-effective, clean power 
generation will be able to meet the 
growing worldwide energy de- 
mand while conserving resources. 
We are committed to putting this 
principle into practice. In all fields 
of oower plant engineering we 
design, develop and supply siaie- 
of-the-art systems, equipment and 
turnkey plants tailored towards 
pollution control and higher cost- 
effectiveness. 


S Committed to the future 

^ Siemens Power Generation 


V;. I r-v.. 










INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. WEDNESDAY. MAY 18, 3994 


Power Generation! A Special Report 


^ U.S. Learns a Lesson From Gasoline Tax 





H E. 

tht: 


By Paul F. Horvitz 


scioiKi^^ 0 ^ American driver's con- 

SSylow^ ^ PUmP pncCS ^ “ e aslonish - 

environmental organizations have 
£f??!^i, Sub * ,antial increases in the gasoline 
rninri^ 0 ^ 6 ^ mencan s more conservation- 
mma«L borne environmentalists and econo- 
mists argued that putting a heavy tax on non- 
K-Mvable soures of energy would encourage 
people to use them more sparingly, favoring 
puWic transpon and renewable sources. 

, notlon received a greater measure of 
pohuca! support with the arrival or President 
tsiu l. L inton and his conservation-minded run- 
ning mate. Vice President A] Gore. 

-ven so, the Democratic president had to 
we,- down from a far more ambitious original 
proposal that would have taxed all types of 
fossil f uels based on their energy content, hit- 
ung energy consumers ranging from virtual] v 
all electric power users, users of oil and gas 
heat and coal-based industries to airline travel' 
ers and motorists. 

After a major political battle. Mr. Clinton 
signed a 4 J-cent-a-gallon gasoline tax increase 
into law last year, a bit less than the 1990 
increase of 5 cents a gallon imposed under i 
President George Bush. Mr. Clinton won back- 
ing for the increase mainly because the govern- 
ment needed fresh revenue, as was the case 
under Mr. Bush, not because of any energy 
conservation or public-transit concerns. Tne 
rise should bring in about $5 billion annually. 

In fact, America remains a transportation 
paradise for the automobile lover (and a trans- 
portation purgatory for partisans of public 
transit). Taken together, federal, state and lo- 
cal gasoline taxes in the United States average 
about 40 cents a gallon. 




es on gasoline typically range from the equiva- 
lent of $1,75 to $2.75 per gallon. Energy De- 
tente, a California-based newsletter, calculates 
taxes in the United States as comprising under 
4U percent of the retail price of regular-grade 
gasoline. In France and Germany, h is about 
SOjpercenL, in Britain about 70 percent 
for American car owners, filling up has 
never been more of a pleasure. In many parts 
of- the United States, regular-grade <87-oo- 
tane), unleaded gas can be found for under $1 a 
gallon. That is less than half tbe average world 
refail gasoline price of $2. LI, as estimated by* 


Enemy Detente: 
Odd: Gas Jon 


OiT& Gas Journal, in a report last month, 
registered regional pump prices that included 
an average 86 cents in Atlanta, 93 cents in 
Iollianfijpolis, 96: cents m Houston, and 90 
cents in St. Louis. And those prices include all 
; .federal, state and iocaa taxes. . ; 
w In the Erst quarter of 1994* the journal said, 
die average price of regular gis in about 50 
major U.S. cities was $1.05, dowoL from the 



[Source: Energy Detente 


1993 full-year average of $1.12. Prices have 
crept up slightly since then. 

; The American Petroleum Institute, an oil 
industry organization, estimates that the raw 
cost of gasoline in the United States is cheaper 
now than it was 30 years ago. 

Consistently low’ U.S. gasoline prices, ac- 
cording to some analysts, have been a key 
factor in Detroit's recent tendency to design 
some car lines that are larger or offer heftier 
engines. 

Two clear trends explain this phenomenon 
of U.S. gasoline economics: First, despite a 
modest increase in recent months, world crude 
oil prices have dropped dramatically since the 
Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Second, and for 
better or worse; American elected officials con- 
sider taxing gasoline so politically invidious as 
to be tantamout to taxing apple pie. 

It has certainly crossed the mind of more 
than one American political leader that falling 
oil prices could be accompanied by a clandes- 
tine tax increase to pump revenues into chroni- 
cally undernourished government coffers. But 
if l&93’s gasoline tax battle in the U.S. Con- 
gress is any guide, future gasoline tax increases 
in the United States will! be minuscule. 

The president’s original plan for a so-called 
BTU tax — which would have taxed the energy 
output of all fuels measured in British Thermal 
Units — was immediately attacked by mem- 
bers of Congress who represent fuel-producing 
states, by legislators in the North who feared 
higher beating oil prices And by every lobbyist 
representing fuel and energy interests, includ- 
ing the aviation industry^ 

The critics called it too complicated and 
raised a now familiar bugjiboo in Washington: 


rise would hurt the economy and employment. 

The narrower gasoline jtax resulted from a 
classic Washington compromise among re- 
gional interests. Lawmakers from farm States 
and the West, where long-distance driving is 
routine, bargained with' urban legislators. 


Int.-nuTi.'ii.I lli.uM 1i imir. 


where many constituents have the option of 
public transportation. 

The lax on diesel fuel also rose 4.5 cents a 
gallon, but the battered airline industry won a 
two-year reprieve; the lax on jet fud does not 
take effect until Oct. 1. 1995. 

When the Clinton tax finally went into effect 
last October, seasonal trends.' weather and en- 
vironmental rules affecting the gasoline whole- 
sale market combined to blunt'its full impact, 
according to industry analysis. 

“No one ever noticed it." one oil industry 
spokesman shrugged. 

In the Midwest, for example, retail gasoline 
prices were affected by regional flooding that 
disrupted barge supplies, so consumers had 
more than just the federal government to 
blame for rising pump prices. According to the 
Lundberg Letter, which tracks gasoline price 
trends, market factors allowed retail prices in 
the Gulf Coast and Rocky Mountain states to 
increase less than the amount of the federal tax 
rise in the first week of October, so consumer- 
did not see the full impact. 

Then, in late October crude oil prices fell to 
their lowest level since 1988. 

The Lundberg Letter's Nov. 24 issue carried 
a headline that captured die trend: “The Mar- 
ket Gives Back." A driver in San Francisco, for 
example, was paying less for gasoline in No- 
vember, after the federal tax hike, than he had 
in late September, just before it went into 
effect. 

In retrospect, Oct. I. the beginning of the 
new federal fiscal year, turned out to be a 
politically smart time to put a new gas tax into 
effect. But the industry sees no such trend for 
the future. 

“That just happened to be the economic 
situation in the world, and that's just not going 
to last,” says Joe Lastelic, a spokesman for the 
American Petroleum Institute. 


PAUL F. aORVlTZ is on the stajf of the 
International Herald Tribune. 



Nuel&c Vctti lKT 


A Brighter Future for Solar Electricity 


By Robert Frank 

T ROV. Michigan — It was Christ- 
mas vacation and most of the 
team of 25 scientist and engineers 
from United Solar S\ stems Corr. 
were Name reliving with their families. 

Tney were taking a hard-earned rest after 
spending more than two >ean working on a 
breakthrough in solar energy. The trick was 
to come up with a better way to u>e an 
inexpensive type of silicon, the element best 
>uited for converting sunlight into energy. 

The result was a "thin, triple-layer amor- 
phous silicon-alloy sandwich manufactured 
quickly on steel foil. Only one big question 
remained: How much of the sunlight hilling 
the panel was actually being transformed 
into electricity? 

The research team’s leader. Subhendu 
Guha. was puttering alone in the laboratory 
during the holiday when the telephone rang. 
The National Renewable Energy Laborato- 
ry was calling to say the company's new 
solar panel tested at a 10.2 percent stable 
conversion efficiency — a new world record. 
When the company started its task in 1991 
the record was only 6 percent. 

“It was like breaking the four-minute 
mile.” said Mr. Guha. a physicist who also 
holds a doctorate in electronic engineering. 

He spread the news, calling his colleagues 
and friends. "We were keeping our fingers 
crossed. We measured the test panel at 10 
percent ourselves,” he said. 

The breakthrough is a product of a three- 
year joint effort between United Solar and 
the U.S. Department of Energy. The new 
technology is expected to bring down the 
costs for solar electricity to about 16 cents 
per kilowatt hour. The rate now ranges from 
25 lo 50 cents per kilowatt hour, the amount 
of electrical energy consumed when 1,000 
watts are used for an hour. 

“This is a significant technical milestone 
which will lead us to low-cosi competitive 
systems." said James Rannek director of 
the photovoltaic technical division of the 
Deportment of Energy. 

Of the 10 or so organizations in the Unit- 
ed States working on improving Lhe efficien- 
cy of these type of solar panels, only half 


have manufacturing capabilities and no oth- 
er has broken the 10 percent efficiency barri- 
er. Mr. Rounds said. 

The Energy Department's goal for ail so- 
lar cells is to produce electricity for 5 to 6 
cents a kwh. he said. Conventional methods 
cost between 6 and 20 cents a kwh. 

■‘Right now. our near-term goal is 12 to 16 
cents a kwh by the year 2000. The technol- 
ogy ( United Solar] is producing will bring us 
very close.” he added. 

The potential market is huge, Mr. Ran- 
nels said. Tbe entire world market for pho- 
tovoltaic energy in 1993 was 60 megawatts. 

Market growth over the past 10 years has 
been between 15 and 25 percent annually, 
and the Department of Energy plans to 
install 1.500 megawatts of solar energy de- 
vices throughout" the coumiy by 2000. "If we 
do that, we wi 11 have created over 20,000 
new jobs.” Mr. Rann ek said. "These are 
highly desirable, dean, high-tech manufac- 
turing and research jobs.” 

United Solar isn't waiting. A plant it is 
building will chum out 10 megawatts of 
amorphous silicon alloy solar panels every 
year. The company new cranks out a loot of 
solar panels every minute on a ribbon of 
steel a half mile, or nearly a kilometer, long. 
The new plant will quadruple that when it 
opens in 1995 in Newport News, Virginia. It 
will be the largest plant of its type in the 
world. 

While other types of solar cells are more 
efficient, but they are prohibitively expen- 
sive and used mainly for research. Those 
used by NASA, the American space agency, 
tend to be in the area of 18 percent efficien- 
cy, and one laboratory test cell scored 24 
percent. Mr. Rannels said. 

In single-crystal silicon, the atoms are 
distributed in a fixed, ordered pattern, like 
the teeth of a comb. In amorphous silicon, 
that atomic distribution is more random, 
like bent teeth on an old comb. Conversion 
efficiency increases tbe more one organizes 
the atoms, like straightening the comb's 
teeth. 

United Solar’s panels, only five thou- 
sandths of an inch thick, are bendable, 
thanks to the stainless steel backing. Ac- 
cording to the Department of Energy, this 


makes them better >uued to replace glass 
panels on commercial buildings. They are 
also being made to look like roof shingles, 
and will be able to provide all the daytime 
electric power needs of a house, providing 
the house is facing the right direction. 

Costs of the Sb-ti million research and 
development project are split evenly be- 
tween United Solar and U.S. taxpayers. 
Since amorphous silicon has other uses as 
the base of hat-panel display screens, in fax 
machines and copiers, “the money being 
in vested is also developing a technology that 
can be used in many other applications.” 
Mr. Guha said. 

United Solar is a joint venture by Energy 
Conversion Devices, of Troy. Michigan, a 
pioneer in amorphous silicon technology, 
and Canon Inc., the Japanese business ma- 
chine and camera maker. The widow of 
author Edwin O. Reischauer. a former U.S. 
ambassador to Japan, also has a stake in 
United Solar. 

Although Canon is a partner in the com- 
pany, United Solar is an .American corpora- 
tion. The technology and the manufacturing 
will stay in the United States. Mr. Guha 
said. 

Over 140 patents have already been issued 
to protect the technology materials, design 
and manufacturing process. In short. Mr. 
Guha said. United Solar will not go the way 
of other U.S. companies who find them- 
selves mere licensing agents, not market 
leaders. 

"We prefer a joint venture over licens- 
ing," Mr. Guha said. “What we believe is 
that we would like to manufacture ourselves 
lhe products we create. Keeping the technol- 
ogy and the know-how are equally impor- 
tant." 

The current Department of Energy con- 
tract ends in August, but United Solar is 
asking for a new three-year contract to con- 
tinue research and development, Mr. Guha 
said. "There are not too many areas in which 
you can do cutting edge science and also do 
what is good for the environment and good 
for the world,” Mr. Guha said. 


ROBERT FSt-iNK k a journalist based in 
lhe Los Angeles area. 



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Can you meet peak 
loads in Germany with 
electricity from 
a Swedish waterfall? 


In Swedea power cascades freely down the mountains. 


while Germany’s power potential lies in the ground 
as fossil fuel. ABB linked these resources by laying 
a single submarine cable beneath the Baltic Sea. 


Now Sweden's abundant hydropower feeds the German electricity 
grid, and the two countries can exchange electricity to offset peak loads 
at different times. ABB pioneered the transmission of High Voltage 
Direct Current (HVDC), which can shift huge amounts of power, 
reducing electrical transmission losses by 1/3, across vast distances. 
HVDC is the key which can unlock the massive environmental 
benefits of renewable, non-polluting hydropower to replace dwindling 


fossil fuel resources. 


As a leader in electrical engineering for power generation, transmission 
and distribution, in industry and transportation, ABB is committed to 
industrial and ecological efficiency worldwide. We transfer know-how 
"Vfes, you can. across borders with ease. But in each country, ABB local operations 

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at * 


add ar««.n Rnueri Ltd.. Reader Services Center. P.O. Box 822, CH-8021 Zurich 


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INTERNA T ! Q> A L :]E?-\Lw TRIBU 


WEDNESDAY. MAY 18. 1994 


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•# £ .* - “ - 


By Joseph Fitchert 



WASHINGTON — When Hu- 
uasi needed a new power planl 
three year> ago. the simplest 
solution seemed initially to be 
a new oil-fired generating installation to be 
added to the six already operating on the 
island. 

But that assumption was overturned by a 
proposal from an outside bidder. AES 
Corp.. which advocated a coal-burning unit 
— the first in the Pacific .stale. 

Up and running for over a year, the new 

station finally selected by the Hawaiian au- 
thorities has lived up i«» initial expectations, 
proving cleaner and cheaper than other gen- 
erating systems in the grid. 

•‘Pan of the calculation was cheap coal 
from Indonesia something you might mu 
think of unless you are constantly worrying 
about now to make a profit." says jn AES 
executive. 

Hawaii's decision to break with the pat- 
tern of its energy investment.- typified the 
way in which a new breed of entrepreneurs 
has shaken up the business of building and 
supplying electricity in ihe United Stales. 

Nearly half of ail the new capacity 
brought on line in the country in the last me 
years has been the wort: of these indepen- 
dent energy producers, who arc supplanting 
traditional utilities in building and operat- 
ing power plant.-. 

1 ntema lion ally . i ndependen t producers 
arc starling to make inroads in nation- as 
different as Britain and Argentina, often 
geiting a foothold when government- start 
privatizing energy monopolies. 

These independent producers >ec their 
opportunities as the beneficial side of the 
new regulatory climate in the energy hu.-i- 
ness in the United Suiesand increasingly in 
other countries. 

“You have to learn to make the rules work 
for you. otherwise they “re going to work for 
vour competitor and against you.” -ays 
Dave Swanson of the Edison Electric Insti- 
tute. the Washington-based trade associa- 
tion of U.S. electric companies. 

Since the Gulf War. American business 
has become confident that there is no fore- 
seeable threat to energy -applies or prices. 
Instead of these classic concents, the main 
force shaping markets for power generation 
has become the regulatory climate, which 
itself is sinning to contain surprise-. 


“Profit pulls energy efficiency, concern 
for ihe environment pushes it. " according to 
Steven Burton, general counsel of the Si- 
the/ Energies Group. 

His tone reflects new enthusiasm in an 
industry that still has many complaints 
about constraints that have mired many 
once- promising energy sources. 

Hydroelectric power, for example, .seems 
to have peaked in the United Suites because 
of ecologists' opposition and uncertainties 
about future policy. 

Even existing hydroelectric facilities face 
problems as they come up for reliccnsing. 


The new wave in power 
production has started to 
alleviate pollution in the 
United States. 


FTEN viewed os the vehicle for 
l} environmentalists to block new 
v* 0 power-generating projects, the 
'w/ regulatory process has also start- 
ed to promote a bigger share for electricity 
in the overall energy market in the Untied 
Suues in the coming decades. 

With the Energy Policy Act of l Q 92. Con- 
gress adopted a philosophy of encouraging 
competition, initially alongside the existing 
monopolies, as a way of meeting ihe often- 
conflicting aims of e'.panding die energy 
supply and meeting demand- hr less pollu- 
tion. 


usually after 50 years in operation. The main 
uncertainty concerns fish that are threat- 
ened by turbines in dams: Some species are 
cui off from their spawning grounds, others 
suffer by getting caught in large numbers in 
the turbine blades as they swim down- 
stream. 

No U.S. dam has yet had its power-gen cr- 
ating license cancelled, but there is scant 
prospect of fresh investment in an energy 
source once touted as clean and renewable 
— and thus environmentally friendly. 

Dam operators are also caught in larger 
uncertainties about wildlife in the United 
Stales. “Suppose a fish gets on the endan- 
gered species Hsl for reasons that don't 
concern your dam: you could .-till have a 
mighty big problem and there's no way you 
can get a guarantee against that." Mr. Swan- 
son said. 

As a result, hydropower's share in the 
overall U.S. energy supply seems bound to 
decline. While important in some states in 
the .American Northwest that are abundant- 
ly endowed with steep, fast-flowing rivers, 
hydroeleclricity accounts for less than 9 per- 
cent of totaf U.S. power consumption. 

in contrast, the independent power pro- 
ducers — which account for about 7 percent 
of U.S. capacity currently — are set to see 
t'neir share of the market grow strongly. 
Currently generating .-lightly more than 51 
gigawatts, these new producers expect to 
ad'd between 37 and 43 gigawatts by 2000. 
according to the National Independent En- 
ergy Producers, their trade association in 
Washington. 

To dale, more than 510° billion has been 
invested in the independent power industry, 
producing roughly S13 billion in annual 
sales at 3.321 installations in the United 
States. Investment in the next five years is 
expected to amount to $50 billion. 

“It’s the biggest entrepreneurial business 
in America these days." according to Irwin 
Steltzer. an energy economist who directs 


regulator/ policy studio ui lit? American 

Enterprise institute. 

By ordering mill;.- conipcnic- «•.• open 
their projects to compstitre bidding. C'.-n- 
grcss started a prorcu oi in the 

energy business, including access ;o iran- 
mission lines — a step coir.rirabk- »<■ the 
dismantling of the oi J Am erica r. Telephone 
& Telegraph Co. monopoh on phono, i hat 
triggered explosive grow th in the telecom- 
munications industry. 

Similarly, the .-pur of c.-mpctitnin i;. dri' - 
ing down prices arm bringing (cchnol.'giiai 
innovation to the r^wcr-cencaiing indu- 
try. 

A Lev technology for the independent.* i> 
gas-combined generatron: ir. Lyniun'- 
lenr.s. a jet engine that drives a turbine to 
generate electricity and a - tent of u. ing the 
jet's heat to make Mean, and generate mere 
power. 

The dominant manufacturer >n this l’icid. 
by far. is General Electric Co., a leading 
builder of aircraft motors. Major non- U.S'. 
manufacturers of this generating vqu'pmcm 
include ABB Asea Brown Bcn.cn. the Swi— 
Swedish group. 




1TH thi- euuioroem, an in Je- 


generating pi-'.-er — anJ prof- 

V its — within i? months of ap- 
proval for a new site. A net. ter aiiraction of 
this system is it- use of natur:-! ga.. a fuel 
that is becoming steadily r.tor; available and 
cheaper in the United States. 

Typically, independent producer- appear 
! than traditional utilities in 


more imaginative tr 


devising solutions f>v environmental objec- 
tions. 

“We are inccniivizM to build clean plants 
fast and cheap: If we can site, build and 
make people happy, v-c mul.e money. “ say ? 
Roger Noill. vice- president of the AES 
group, a leader in ihe U.S. industry. 

The result for AES ‘jnd similar new U.S. 
companies has been rocketing arc-.-: it be- 
cause they manage to provide power at costs 
often only half the i’;vs : - incurred by the 
utilities that still control local markets. 

Faced with thi.- stiff compel it ion. -ontr 
utility companies have irwc&ud in in tier ca- 
dent power producers ir. hopes of getiinc 
share of profitable ventures :'n localities oili- 
side their own market. 

This new wave in power produoii-'si ha- 
already started to alleviate pollution in the 
United Slates. 

While nearly 44.) percent of energy u-oi in 
the United States now soc* into generating 
electricity, the amount of carbon Jio-idc 
emissions per dollar of grow national pn-d- 
Ufc-i ha> been slashed nearly in halt. 

If the trend toward more use of eio. tricity 
continues to accelerate. Mr. Burton >aiJ. the 
United States car. catch up t-:- countries -ueh 
as Japan, which tackled the challenge ol 
environmental efficiency in the mid-i^T’.-. 


JOSEPH FITCH ETT f Ac s*„ 
International Herald Tnruac. 


■» ■< i z 


Power that 


does not disappear 


in thin air. 



773*-. 








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At an airinuiv of 4.400 metres. c\cri breath 


Erivir. 

take-, a uivac deal ■ifolfnrt. Here in rhe .\ndes 

p\Nn 

Mountains, way up in the clouds, the highest 

j 

frficC 

ihc-cT bj-e load pioiu of its npe in die «oriJ. 

ij 

norm 

«ith ten IKY32 VVirnll Dicvel pmsee. 


Oy <;•: 

proituking 44 MW, brearhes cawly as ir beefn 

•‘main 

• per i . 

rhi- rem-ttc copper mine running strong. 

•l.if 

saie* 

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Qurbrada Rbnea, Chile. 

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turbir 






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POWER FOR A CHANGING WORLD 



v orU's biggest nuclear reprocessing plant at Cap La Hague, France. 


i - 


iate Over Reprocessing Plutonil 



iih? 


By Barry James 


HERBOURG. France — The 
. ? ' icheduled review of the 1970 nucle- 

‘ ar nonprobferation treaty next year 

is certain to open a heated interna- 
::c is i debate on the civilian use of plutonium. 

France, which operates the world's biggest 
njclear reprocessing plant at Cap La Hague, 
•• e-t ci Cherb.?urg. is foremost in promoting 
mixed-oxide or Mox fuel, in which 
-rnciici uranium is partly replaced by pluto- 
nl-j;r. -*vide in the core of pressurized water 


93 percent of uranium 238, which is uonfis- 
sionablc. 

Reprocessing is a chemical rather than a 
nuclear procedure to separate the elements in 
spent fuel. Everything can be used again, with 
tne exception of the fissionable wraste, which at 
Cap La Hague is mixed with an obsidian-like 
glass, sealed in steel canisters and stored tem- 
porarily on the ate while awaiting permanent 
disposal. 

The plant at La Hague handles about 1.000 


tons of spent fuel a year, which includes 10 
tons of djuu 


.Vi-. 


iti brings it into conflict with anti-nuclear 
groups, which have focused on plutonium as 


allegedly the deadliest substance known to 
man. This month, hundreds or demonstrators 
o ■-■listed in Paris against the government's 


accisio?. to resume operations — albeit for 
research purposes only — of the highly con- 
tested Superphoenix fast breeder reactor, 
which wav designed to produce more pluioni- 
•am than ;t consumes. 

P.cpnxe--uig and the use of plutonium is 
J-o at the hean of the nuclear debate between 
live United States on the one hand and Europe 
and Japan on the other. 

Japan. Germany. Switzerland. Belgium and 
the Netherlands send depleted fuel ror repro- 
- in France and Bn lain. Japan is nearing 
Hi? completion of its own large-scale commer- 
:ial reprocessing planL similar to the most 
modern one here, and is also developing a fast 
r.recuer reactor. 

The United States, by contrast, stores spent 
fuel in above-ground tanks, leaving 
i arer the decision as to its ultimate dispos- 
al. President Jimmy Carter shelved the U.S. 
:::r -cessing program in 1979. primarily be- 
-■ju. e ;«f concern abv»ui plutonium prolifera- 
3cv.au.ve of this concern, the United Slates 
-cta-r.-. under the .so-called London Directives. 
_ : :.c.v.e c-Ttro! over its exports of uranium 
er.-.-hed nuclear fuels. 

France argues that the directives are incom- 
p.::i!?!c with the nuclear nonproliferation irea- 
i;. guaranteeing commercial exchanges and 
pec line the right of signatory countries to 
develop nuclear technologies. Consequently. 
Paris will he seeking^ relaxation of tae con- 
tr.*l- during the revision of the nonprolifera- 
tion treaty , arguing that they are not applicable 
advanced industrial nations, while beirtg 
ineffective in stopping proliferation by states 
y.m iraq and North Korea. 

.-iuiomum results from the transmutation of 
TU-nfisstenable uranium 238 during a nuclear 
reaction. Typically, when reactor fuel is used 
up. it contains about 5 percent of high-level 
radioactive waste. I percent of unused fission- 
able uranium 235. 1 percent of plutonium and 


plutonium in the form of a greenish- 

gray powdered oxide. The plutonium is packed 
in small sled canisters to avoid a self-reacting 
critical mass, and stored in a tightly guarded 
compound. 

Because less than 10 kilograms (22 pounds) 
of plutonium is needed to make a hydrogen 
bomb, anti-nuclear groups such as Greenpeace 
allege that (0 tons of the substance is enough to 
make hundreds of bombs. 

Officials at Cogem a, the state-owned repro- 
cessing company, maintain that this is a false 
argument because it confuses weapons- grade 
plutonium with the kind that is produced in 
commercial reactors. 

This is heavily contaminated with minor 
isotopes that make it unsuitable for military 
use, although scientists say that in theory it 
could be used to fashion a primitive explosive 
device. 

But the stuff is searing hot, which would 
make it difficult for terrorists to handle, while 
any government wanting to turn it into a bomb 


About 70,000 tons of nudea ifod^ ^fi ave&ecfl 
burned since the beginning of commercial' nn- 
ctear power generation, add f percent of Vt " 
makes 700 tons of plutonium ^ m 

theory to blow the world to straibtreeasTtiany 
times over. ’ . * *•- ' s 

But according to JeaQ-Herrft Lahrtm;;*he~ ' 
jead of Cogeraa’s reprocessing divfefc^-tfie.; 
popular perception of a huge glut ofjghtlbghnn 
is false." ^ 

it is mingled with highly radioactive waste m 
^jent fneL As this fud coola. howe 5 rer, it wiK . 
become easier for future generatkmr Jo /above . 
die plutonium, Mr. LaurentsasL. -y' M 
i As for the -plutomom separated- dtnibg j©- 
orocessing. there is a ready market far itir.ihe- - . 
orm of mixed-oxide' fuels, ‘ be added. ! fn ‘ 
r ranee, the worid’s most nudear-dqjendcnt 
latioo, six reactors already ^ are func^ming- 
Hth Mox.fiieli As predurtion crf tb^Tiid : 
spands, the state ekctridtyoon^iaiiyplazK to - 
?se itin all 28 of its 900 megawatt reactaasl.Tbe 
iiel also is used in Genmmy, Switzedandand 
4dgiiim. • ' 

JlVjuumitn ^y iat. ac- 

Bvp amoantx oT weapons grade material result 
mg from the dismantling of -nuclear weapons, 
fcogema contends that it should be degreed 
(fy. mixing it with tnamum and burning- it m 
t^ower reactors. ’ • '• ? ’ • : 






grilexia: 

iaa®* 
*«hu» ' r 
:8ua; 

ir-irbi. 

spv’siW 

dirt rte 

.TTii^i : 


UJ 



RANCH'S ambitious^ nuHem-:pKfr 
gram was conceived and devdbped 
in the 1960s and 1970s, -imder 'tt 


would require extremely sophisticated engi- impulse of two oU price dibeks tad 


neering knowledge. Scientists at Cogema won- ( it a ^ lt 5 ^^ bkely that.urannim 
der why any potential bomb-maker would ^odcs would eventually beobm&d^leted.FIiir 


warn to use reactor-grade plutonium, when it 
would be easier, cheaper and less obtrusive to 
steal military -grade stuff, or use enriched ura- 
nium. 

Bomb-grade plutonium is made by lightly 
irradiating uranium in a reactor for days or 
weeks, removing it before impure isotopes can 
form. Scientists here argue that Canadian-type 
Candu reactors, in which fud can be inserted 
or removed continuously, are far more suited 
to producing military plutonium than large 
reprocessing plants. 

Louis Francois Durret, Cogema’s vice-presi- 
dent for corporate planning, said ihat the cause 
of nonprotiferation would be better served by 
restricting export of nuclear-capable technol- 
ogy than obstructing the commercial use of 
reactor-grade plutonium. He pointed out that 
Iraq's nuclear program, for example, depended 
on clandestine uranium enrichment rather 
than purloined plutonium. 1 

Officials at Cogema argue that the confusion 
between reacior-^rade and bomb-grade pluto- 
nium is making it difficult to adopt a rational 
policy for tbe management and use of plutoni- 
um stocks. 


'ionium was then seen as a renewable fud that 
would eventually ensure the nation's self-suffi- 
ciency in energy. 

• But the 1970s oil crisis spaiked the develop- 
ment of new energy sources,, and the-price of 
both hydrocarbons and uranism has, plunged. 
Wr. Laurent said, however, that tbedevelopcd 
world is again becoming dangerously depen- 
' Sent on energy imports, while theotpiosiye rise 
pf Asian economies can only make the situa- 
tion worse. 

< < The day is approaching, Mr. Laurent main- 
ins, when plutonium mil be Mtn not as if 
real but as a valuable source of. energy .equal 
one billion limes its weight in oil-Far from 
mributing to proliferation, he addexf, repro- 
ssing reduces it by making plutonium avap- 
le for re-use. 


4 


It is highly likely, however, that this view will 
jbe c«>n tested on politicaL security, economic 
'nd ecological grounds once the non prolif era- 
on talks resume. - 


'JBARRYJAMES is on the staff of the Iniema 
rionai Herald Tribune. 


More Asian Nations Are Taking Tfuclear Option 


Continued from page 18 


industrial and technological pow- 
er in the 21 si century. 

"Nuclear power represents a 
.source of energy with great poten- 
tial." Mr. Suharto said. "Hhiory 
has shown that societies have been 
able to develop, progress and 
prosper far quicker when they 


were able to grasp and command 
science and technology, including 
nuclear power." 

An influential group in the In- 
donesian government led by Jusuf 
Habibie, Lhe research and technol- 
ogy minister, warns to press ahead 
with an ambitious program that 
calls for up to 12 large nuclear 
plants to be built in Java and Bali, 
the country’s two most densely 


Upcoming Special Reports 
on Related Topics 


Infrastructure and Development, .Part I, 

September 2 1 , 1994 

This report, which focuses on developing countries, 
will benefit from special distribution at the World 
Infrastructure Forum, which will take place in 
lak-irla The International Herald Tribune will be the 
official publication at the WIF. 


Infrastructure and Development, Part II, 
NowiwfcrS, 1994 

f? This report, which focuses on Europe and North 
| Anv.-rka. will benefit from special distribution at 
if i h- - international Herald Tribune s conference on 
■Mew Opportunities For Capital Spending,” which 
will lake place in Berlin. 


For information about these reports, 

I tleasr contact: 

pill M,ihdcr, Director. Advertising Supplements Program 
rhonc- <?-! -4037-03 7». Fax: 33- 1-4637- 504d. 




populated islands, over tp next 25 
years. j 

A Japanese consulting firm 
completed a two-year feasibility 
study in January on buiding the 
first 600- mega wall planl! it would 
be on the Muria peninsula on the 
north coast of centra] Jap about 
440 kilometers (275 mild.) east of 
Jakarta. Nearby Mount Huria is a 
dormant volcano. 

The study has not been released. 
Bui according to Indon^ian offi- 
cials. it concluded that construc- 
tion could safely proceed and that 
(he plant, which uojjld cost 
around SU billion, coaid start 
producing electricity by fe004 

Companies from Judin. Tai- 
wan. North America and; Europe 
are competing for the pijijeci and 
executives said that they had been 
advised by Indonesian auhontics 
that tenders might he palled in 
1995. “ j 

Critics contend that ajehain of 
nuclear power plants in pdonesu 
could result in a catastrophic acci- 


denL Concent centers on the abili- 
ty of Indonesian authorities to 
safely operate nuclear plants in a 
country that is prone to frequent 
earthquakes and volcanic erup- 
tions. 


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^aor. 


Environmental groups and a 
number of politicians in Indonesia 
have said that if oil and gas are in 
danger of running out, the coun- g|\] 
try’s need for electricity could be ■ ■ 
met more cheaply and safely by 
using indigenous coal , and geo- 
thermal power. , 


"Panics r 

.jjpwire 

J? firs. 

Hi I TV 

■CSS; 


N udear power is also a sensitive 
issue in Thailand. NonethdesSj 
with demand for electricity exi 
pectcd to triple over the next 20 
years. Oman Leekpai, the Tha] 
prime minister, said recently that 
his government was “interested in 
nuclear power as ooe of a number 
of options for the future” , : 


yilCHA EL RICH A RDSOJV ii 
editor for Asia of the International 


Herald Tribune. 


A Peace Breaks Out 
In Supply and Prices 


Continued from page 18 


Middle East. Economi>Lssaid that 
Nigeria alone bums off more gas 
iix waste than some s maker Euro- 
pean countries use. 

Then: is one wild card that ha> 
entered the deck fairly, recent!;, 
and could introduce s»ii* unwi- 
lling price gviations. HvAcc.t. 

file relatively recent entr. of 
commodity and hedge fundv. .into 
the market been ’ broad! v 
viewed as a plu>. Tne theory is ;hiii 
the entry of a new range o' .-vpht-.- 
ncated players will give companies, 
a way to cover their ri4.> and w»!i 
speed the flow of 
through the market. 

, Skeptics took wuh •omc c.->n- 


cern. however, back to the fate rif 
the .oreign exchange markets litf 
last year when hedge fonds drove 
rome currencies to the wall ' by 
making enormous bets against 
them. Similarly, the hedgers’ con* 
viatun that the dollar would nsd; 
“ J year proved t 0 be wrong, 

and ultimately led to a maj or ^ 
Oir of European bonds. :■» 
"Hedging is a growing and peri 
manent feature of these markets^ 
wid Mr. Lichtblau. “They miSi 

S!2? l !I ws CXJ egwate price mover 
men is but companies cannot n a# 
f l,rd n ^’ 1 'o hedge in mark, 
i nut can be so volatile.’' 




nre 


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TnLZ ^ n,ernati0 *al Hertm 




Ml' 





PageS 



INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAY 18, 1994 


Power Generation/ A Special Report 



Page 21 


East Germany Opens Electricity Market 


ByMkhad KaHeobach 


ERLIN —Whonhc Berlin Wall fell 
and communism collapsed in East 
Germany, it did not take too long 
before toe country’s industrial oui- 




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June 4 •' 

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nsrtaVi 1**5. 

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•down because of the inefficient way industry 
Jad been managed. 

The power market, too, has found itself in a 

'‘state of flux as the demand for efeemrity has 
Htxkca a nosedive; But now. after a series of 

vbititx coon battles and straighten mg out who 
'owns what, the market is slowly beginning to 
Jopen tip, looking attractive to foreign inves- 
•tors. 

Local municipalities in the five new Lander. 
^or federal states, wem to court in order to claim 
rtheir right to independence and self-sufficiency 
Jn the energy seaor, and already 0*^ are beg^ 
* to reap benefits. 

. Earle Young is a senior manager at Price 
^Waterhouse Corporate Finance in Berlin who 
* heads the company’s energy team and has been 
'dosdy involved in a somber of privatization 
~ ects in Eastern Germany since unification, 
spjained: “Over 100 cities have been in 
court with the West Germans to establish their 
own utilities. Although they have won the legal 
arguments, they obviously need help since they 
have neither toe money nor the expertise. 

“Whai they do have, though, is the political 
win to create a utility ... but that's all they 
.have." • 

. Industry analysts pointed out that since elec- 
tricity prices in Germany arc among the high- 
iest in the European Union, the market has 
■always bets attractive from a financial point of 
view. However, for years ii was a dosed and 
-protected industry, with few opportunities for 
•foreign investment. 

, AD that is now changing. And many credit 
the initial impetus to a meeting that Birgit 
'Bread, the head of the coontiVs privatization 
•agency, the Treuhandasstalt, had with former 
*UJS. Secretary of Stale James A. Baker 3d in 
Munich a few years bade. During a formal 
banquet, Mr. Baker, at Mrs. Bread's insis- 
tence, is said to have whispered a word in the 
-ear of Chancellor Helmut Kohl, hunting that 
■outsiders were interested in the Goman energy 
market 

« Mr. KohJ reacted quickly, ordering the TVeu- 
■handanstalt and his F-rainnmigs Ministry not to 
'pat any obstacles in the way. 

' Among the many pangs of anxiety erf grow- 
'iog together has bam irooing out* deal result- 
ing from opposition by Eastern Germany’s 
local coandls to the Stromvertrag, or dectriaty 
contract This was signed in August 1990 be- 


tween the last East German government and 
Boon. 

When the Communists were in power. East 
Germans generally identified more with their 
respective regions than with individual dries. 
Such regional thinking can be seen in this 
contract, which is designed to allow big West 
German utilities to continue generating all 
electric power in regional facilities. 

Although intended to help bring the outdat- 
ed East German power industry up to par with 
the West, it denied local councils in the East 
the right to generate their own power. On the 
other hand, the physical ownership of the gen- 


The market is beginning to 
look attractive to foreign 
investors. 


eration assets and distribution grid were con- 
trolled by the “Big 8” West German compa- 
nies. The two-year court battle involving 164 
dues in the East ended last summer in then- 
favor. 

As Mr. Young said: “Before the court settle- 
ment, it wasn't a very creative way of doing 
things, but it seemed to be the only way to get 
investments going quickly. But the communi- 
ties and cities got upset because of the Basic 
Law [the German constitution], in which there 
is a clause giving them self-sufficiency." 

Thomas Ruddy, an American energy consul- 
tant Irving in Berlin, explained the result of the 
legal wrangle: “The outcome confirmed their 
contention that cities, at least the larger ones 
among them, do have more autonomy in their 
decisions now than they did under commu- 
nism. After 40 years, they woke up to realize 
that they were actually allowed such acts of 
solidarity with other residents of cities 3s that 
inherent eight of setting up their own munici- 
pal utilities.” 

As pan of the court settlement, local coun- 
cils and municipal utilities were given access to 
power generation. Now they are allowed to buy 
30 percent of their electricity needs locally or 
from a foreign supplier, and, if they desire, can 
create partnerships with outride investors. As 
part of this agreement, the cities are strongly 
encouraged to contract 70 percent of their 
demand from the regionals in order to support 
the coal industry in Germany. 

“This is ddhutedy a positive sign," said Mr. 
Young, who sees the creation of mnnicipai 
utilities in Eastern Germany as a “golden op- 
portunity" for those seeking international mar- 
kets to conquer. 

“The industry has finally begun to open up," 


he said. “In the United States, independent 
power producers arc starting to look at Eastern 
Germany. Admittedly, it requires a long-term 
commitment, but now it's easier than n was, 
and 1 think it*s definitely a growth market.” 

"It’s a niche market. It might not be huge 
compared to markets in Asia, but it's low risk 
and hard currency. The tariff approved system 
guarantees a fixed rate of return of 6.5 percent. 
And it's very interesting. Distribution is a more 
direct way to buy into the market than genera- 
tion." 

Rod Gray, chairman of Enron International 
IrtCL. a unit of Enron Group Inc., said the 
Houston-based power equipment company is 
in talks with “a handful" of East German 
municipalities over utility construction pro- 
jects ranging from 100 megawatts to 500 mega- 
watts, all based on natural gas. 

“The municipalities are trying to diversify 
their sources of power " he said, noting the 
nearly monopolistic position of VEAG AG. 
the company that currently supplies electricity 
to East German regions, and predicting a good 
market for gas-fired power plants in the region- 
from Britain, “natural gas is underuii- 
! for power generation throughout Europe, 
so it’s a logical place for its use to grow,” be said. 

Meanwhile, as East Germans turn their 
backs on coal in favor of imported, cleaner- 
burning natural gas and oil there is a fear 
among brown-coal miners, particularly in the 
Lausitz region, that jobs will fall by the way- 
ride. Designated a core industry worthy of 
salvation, with government intervention if nec- 
essary, lignite mining kept 60,000 people in 
jobs in Brandenburg, the state surrounding 
Berlin, before unity. 

Now that the Stromvertrag has been renego- 
tiated, there is little chance that brown coal will 
supply 70 percent of the region’s electricity 
needs. 

“The municipalities will want to supply 
more than their 30 percent share," said Al- 
brecht Schlrich, a spokesman for VEAG AG. 
The 70-30 pact was a declaration of intent, not 
an obligation, however, and is thus not en- 
forceable. he admitted. 

While it is still owned by the TreuhandamtaJt, 
VEAG AG has effectively been sold to West 
Germany’s “Kg 8" electricity distributors. 

Siemens AG. the big German electrical engi- 
neering group that accounts for 40 percent of 
energy production and distribution equipment 
in Eastern Germany, said it is already supply- 
ing five combined-cyde power plants, all fired 
by gas. and expects orders for more. 

“Brown coaf hardly has a chance in commu- 
nal electricity production," a Siemens spokes- 
man said. 

MICHAEL KALLENBACH is a journalist 
based m Berlin. 



MicntaeAwn/OIT 


For New Problems, Old Power Source 


By Laura Colby 


H OW to solve the problems of 
agricultural surpluses, growing 
electric- power demand and en- 
vironmental concerns all at 
once? Biomass, the oldest form of power, 
may be the answer, according to a new study 
published by the Royal Institute of Interna- 
tional Affairs in London. 

Biomass power involves the burning of 
plant matter, whether husks of sugar canes, 
wood or agricultural refuse, to generate elec- 
tricity. It is commonly considered the first 
form of power generation and biofuels in the 
form of wood and animal dung are still 
burned in many developing countries. 

But now, new technology means that bio- 
mass can be used to generate electric power 
more efficiently than before, according to 
the study, “Power from Plants,” which was 
written by Walt Patterson, a senior research 
fellow at the London-based institute. That is 
because power stations using technology 
similar to that used in coal combustion 

S is can now be used to burn biomass 
at an almost economic price. 
According to the US. Department of En- 
ergy, biomass power win be tire most impor- 
tant renewable energy option for the next 25 
years. The United States currently has some 
7,000 megawatts of biomass power stations 
that burn residues from agriculture and for- 
estry. 

The Electric Power Research Institute, a 
private body funded by the utility industry. 


forecasts that biomass-generated power ca- 
pacity will double over the next decade, 
John Farrefl, acting director of the bio- 
fuels systems division at the US. Depart- 
ment of Energy, says that wood and wood 
waste cunouly account for three of the 81 
Quads, or quadrillion British thermal units, 
of energy that the United States consumes 
annually. “There's a push on." to advance 
the use of biomass fuels. Ire says, “but it’s 
still going to have to be economic in order to 
become widespread.” 

The move toward biomass in the United 
States has come from both government in- 
centives and from advances in technology 
that make this form of power generation 
more efficient and attractive than before. 

Under the Eneigy Policy Acl of 1992, 
U.S. electric utilities can claim a tax credit of 
1.5 cents per kilowatt-hour of biomass-gen- 
erated electricity. In areas where waste fuel 
is available, such as the logging stales of the 
Pacific Northwest, such credits are making 
biomass much more economic 
In addition, advanced technology for gas- 
ification of such fuel is making the genera- 
tion of biomass power more efficient, ex- 
perts say. 

One of the drawbacks of biofuels, howev- 
er. is the problem of supply. “If you are 
burning waste, you don’t necessarily have 
control of supply because yoa're not the 
primary user of the product." explains Mr. 
FandLTo help solve that problem, research 
into fnd crops is under way. 

There are currently a dozen different con- 
sortia studying the commercial use of bio- 


fuels with tire DOE In addition, the depart- 
ment expects to have a S25 million test 
facility in Golden, Colorado, up and run- 
ning this year. This plant will look at differ- 
ent technologies for burning ethanol — a 
fuel produced from com that is often mixed 
with gasoline — and other biomass fuels. 

Though the burning of biomass fuels does 
release carbon dioxide into the air. propo- 
nents of the technology argue that while it is 
a growing plant, the eventual biomass fuel 
absorbs from the atmosphere more of the 
gas than it will eventually release when 
burned to create electricity. 

Raising crops exclusively for biomass 
raises other environmental problems, Mr. 
Patterson points out in his report, including 
loss of biodiversity, soQ degradation and 
possible overuse of chemicals. 

The European Union and engineering 
companies and utilities in Brazil, Finland, 
Sweden and Britain, as well as those in the 
United States, are ah looking into biomass 
power. 

In the long run, however, biomass is ex- 
pected to have the greatest impact on power 
needs in tropical and subtropical climates, 
where trees and other plants used as fuel 
grow tire fastest and where demand for elec- 
tricity is also growing the fastest 

The Royal Institute report concludes that 
biomass power won’t really take off until the 
next century. 

LAURA COLBY is on the staff of the Inter- 
national Herald Tribune. 


Wounk 


— <a» 




In U.K., Model Privatizations 


.. - interim 

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International Bmdd Tribune 

ESPITE increasing 
competition in power 
generation in Britain 
that h. eroding their . 
market shares, the prospects for 
Britain’s two former national 
power companies, PowerGen and: 
National Power;, are looking- 
bright, analystssay. ' . ' 

Tbrir experience, in fact, could 
provide a model for other Europe- 
an countries that are contemplat- 
ing privatizations of ekwric-pow- 
erntilitfcs.: . 

Since tire government sold its 
majority stake in PowerGen and 
National Power in 1991 — it re- 
tains a minority of around 40 por- 

jeentinboth — the two companies 
have .beat, facing a steady erosion 
of their market shares as smaller, 
independent companies spring up 
•to compete with them. 

. PowerGen. for instance, now 
■has a market share of about 27 
percent, but that should be re- 
duced to about 22 percent by 
1998, when Britain's plan to com- 
pletely HberaKze power generation 
is fully implemented, according to 
a Lehman Brothers repot 
But despite shrinking market 
share, the two companies have 
made strides in improving effi- 
ciency. They have dosed down ex- 
cess capacity, laid off staff, and 

•followed an industry-wide trend 
’toward gas-fired generating plants 
’rather than coaL 
“The companies have faced 
shareholder pressure to improve 
•earnings for the first time,” says 
IsabeQe Hayen, European utilities 
•analyst at Lehman Brothers. 

| In response, die said, the com- 


panies have begun looking at im- 
porting cheaper coal from abroad, 
rather than buying the more-ex- 
pensive domestic variety from 
state-owned British CoaL 

The move to gas-fired plants 
also should help earnings; Ms. 
Hayen pcplains, because they are 
cheaper to build and. need fewer 
people to nm than coaL Gas-fired 
plants also are more efficient at 
turning fuel into dectriaty, she 
says. 

By budding new, more efficient 
plants even as they shut down old- 
er ones, PowerGen and National 
Power are also investing in their 
future; and mil be to compete ef- 
fectively with the newly arrived 
independent power proracers, an- 
alysts say. 

“By 1997, they should start in- 
creasing their market share 
again,” says Andrew Wheeler, 
British utilities analyst for UBS 
Securities in London. 

. Indeed, he points out that both 
companies’ shares have advanced 
substantially since privatization. 

For PowerGen, Mr. Wheeler is 
p ro jecting pretax earnings will rise 
tins year to £477 rnfflion (5 715 
nriffion) from £425 million in 
1993, and to £492 million in 1993. 

National Power, he projects, 
wffl post pretax profit of £597 mfl- 
lion for 1994 ana £654 rmHian the 
following year, up from £580 mil- 
lion in 1993- 

Mr. Wheeler says the govern- 
ment is Hfcejy to sell off its remain- 
ing stake in the two companies 
early next year as part of apian to 
raise £8 triffian from privatiza- 
tions. 

Ms. Hayen of Lehman Brothers 
said qrnilflr cost cuts could be 


achieved in other European coun- 
tries if there were either political 
or shareholder pressure to do so. 

The European Union has peri- 
odically floated plans for opening 
up the power generation and sap- 
ply market throughout the 12-na- 
tion trading Noe, but such plans 
are currently on bold after Being 
strongly opposed by national 
power companies, many of which 
hove monopoly or near-monopoly 
conditions. Industrial energy us- 
ers, who stand the most to gain 
from increased competition 
among power suppliers in terms of 
more choice and lower rales, have 
been remarkably mute in 
mg more competition, 
say. 

One possible explanation of- 
fered is that state-owned power 
companies have the possibility of 
dispensing disguised stale aid in 
terms of favorable rates for indus- 
try or particular socioeconomic 

groups. 

The fate of the EU deregulation 
will depend on who takes the 
Union’s energy portfolio alia an 
expected reshuffle at the Commis- 
sion lewd this summer, Ms. Hayen 
says. 

Many countries do in theory al- 
low third-party power generators. 
In Italy, for instance, there are 
some regional and independent 
power concents. StiB, ENEL, the 
state-owned company, generates 
83 percent of the nation's power. 

But ENEL, or Ente Naaonale 
sttrica, could face 
in the future 
be privatized. 

Laura Colby 


■ -p 

•a . 





_-.i 
»v - 


...v 


• 4- 

,.I ' 


NEW OPPORTUNITIES 


CAPITAL SPENDING: 

Teletotinniiuiciitims, Tniusporttit'wn & Energy 


Bristol Hotel Kempinski 

Berlin, November 3-4, 1994 




***** 


For farther information on this timely conference co-sponsored 
by the International Herald Tribune and Skadden, Arps, Slate, 
Meagher & Horn, please contact 

. . Jane Benney v 

International Herald Tribune 
63 Long Acre, London WC2E 9JH 

Tel: (44 71) 836 4802 Fax: (44 71) 836 0717 

• SKADDEN 
• ARPS 

■ SLATE ■ 

MEAGHER & 

ROM 


Through Partnership 
to Leadership 



In partnership with our customers 
and suppliers, we are committed to 
providing innovative solutions and 
services of quality and added value 
through talented people, open 
communication, global resources and 
leadership in technology. 

In a word, we are dedicated to 
being more than just your supplier. 

To understanding your needs in depth 
and providing solutions that go 
beyond your request. To giving you - 
together with our subcontractors - 
advanced technology, expertise from 
different fields and cost-effectiveness. 
This partnership approach is an 
option worth considering. 


nrTT 

iT-J 1 

a t t 

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ipjmm 


Headquarters: TAMPELLA POWER INC. 

Laplntie 1. P.O.Box 109, FIN-33101 TAMPERE, Finland 
Tel. +{358 31) 241 3111, Fax +(358 31) 241 3351 



m 

el 

of all (hi 

wed lhai 
■n agains: 
” lowarc 
11 the re 
orwegiar 
lavigate’ 

rited Mr. 
* Oslo tc 
I by Car- 
Founda- 
to honor 

tsleader- 

toward 

Ir. Carter 
the hue 
i Smith, 
ack arch 
uatedoa 
or. 

seated a 
Institute 
the Nor- 
fostered 
negotia- 
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ray's for- 
e. Johan 

ear afier 

ad been 
last Sep- 
tan offi- 
1 out for 
lent Bill 
aders on 
; for the 
accord. 

irafat 
tent said 
at's call 
.Tusalem 

rommit- 

ptember 

>report- 

spokes- 
hatSec- 
Chiislo- 
re U.S. 
seek an 
the ne- 

beli eves 
uted to 
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agreed 
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s future 
■alestin- 

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ssemial 
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C Mr. 








Pjijji 22 


I 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAY 18, 1994 


In Debut, 
Rookie Lilts 
Mangers 
Over A’s 


The Amoautcd Press 

Rusty Greer fell like any anxious 
rookie. Good thing for him and the 
Texas Rangers he didn't hit like 
one. 

Greer, after a sleepless night and 
a full day of traveling, homered and 
drove in three runs in his major- 

AL ROUNDUP 

league debut Monday nighL help- 
ing the Rangers beat the Athletics. 
1 1-7, in 10 innings in Oakland. 

Greer, called up from Triple-A 
Oklahoma City when Gary Redus 
was put on the disabled list, flied 
out during Texas's six-run first in- 
ning. He homered to lead off the 
second against Carlos Reyes and 
added a two-run single in the 10th. 

"The second time up I was still 
scared to death." he said, “1 was 
excited and nervous. I was just try- 
ing to put the bat on the ball" 

Greer’s homer gave the Rangers 
a 7-0 lead, but Lhcy couldn’t hold it: 
The A’s tied it in the ninth on Mike 
Aldrete’s sacrifice fly. 

Bob Welch. 0-5 with a 9.53 ERA 
this season, gave up six runs in the 
first inning and got only two outs. 
It was his shortest start 'since 1982, 
when he pitched for Los Angeles. 

Will Clark, playing in the Bay 
Area for the first time since leaving 
the San Francisco Giants, high- 
lighted the early burst with a two- 
run triple. Ruben Sierra led Oak- 
land's comeback with a homer and 
triple, driving in four runs. 



v vij' . _ ’X s !l : ii. •,•••• • : . -v 

« trtn Aflc&n’ Ajctxr francr'Pnx 

Toronto catcher Pat Borders’s attempt to tag Cedi Fielder at home was high and wide. Fielder scored, but Detroit lost its fourth straight 




Texas won in the 10th when 
Dean Palmer drew a walk from 
Billy Taylor, Ivan Rodriguez sin- 
gled and David Hulse hit an RBI 
single off Edwin Nunez. Greer had 
a two-run single and Jose Canseco 
singled home another run. 

Tom Henke was the winner de- 
spite giving up the tying run in the 
ninth. 

He pitched for the first lime 
since Friday after straining a mus- 
cle in his right shoulder. 


Bine Jays 7, Tigers 2: Joe Carter 
drove in four runs, giving him a 
major- league-leading 45 RBIs. as 
Toronto slopped a five-game losing 
streak and banded visiting Detroit 
its fourth straight defeat. 

Carter had three hits, including a 
double. Juan Guzman gate up four 
hits in 5'/j innings. He had allowed 
13 runs in his last two games, both 
losses. 

Royals 6, Mariners 4: Tom Gor- 


don improved to 7- 1 lifetime at the and Tino Martinez. Jeff Montgom- 
Kingdcme as Kansas City beat Se- ery pitched the ninth for his fifth 
attie. save. 


Ken Griffey Jr. hit his I5th 
homer for the Mariners. Serving as 
the designated hitter a day after 
hyperex tending his right knee run- 
ning out a grounder, he homered 
for the third straight game. 

Gordon struck out eight in 7Vj 
innings. He allowed four hits, in- 
cluding two-run homers by Griffey 


White Sox 8, Angels 5: Robin 
Ventura and Julio Franco each 
drove in three runs and Chicago 
won in California. 

Ventura hit his ninth homer and 
Franco doubled home a run. The 
White Sox scored three unearned 
runs on misplays by outfielders 
Chad Curtis and Dwight Smith. 


x ' o O 

As Astros Stop the Giants, 3-^ 


- The Associated Press 

Dave Veres didn’t have lime to 
get nervous. Good thing. 

Veres, summoned m the' sixth 
inning to face one batter — Matt 
Williams wdth the bases loaded, 
struck out the National League's 
leading home-run hitter and earned 
his first major-league victory Mon- 
day night as the Astros defeated the 
San Francisco Giants, 3-2, in 
Houston. 

: Leading 2-1 thanks to Williams' 
15th homer in the fifth fnnmg, the 
Giants loaded the bases in the axtfa 
against Shane Reynolds. Houston 
manager Terry Collins then called 
ob Veres, a rookie, to pitch to Wil- 
liams. 

"I was more pumped than ner- 
vous,” said Veres. “The first two 
strikes went OJC., but after it got to 
2-2 things slowed down and got 
interesting.” 

Veres, who had never faced Wil- 
liams before, threw a slider for a 
called strike three. 

“1 threw a shder hoping he would 
swing at it,” said the 27-year-old 
right-hander. “I was lucky and he 
took it for a strike." 

Veres lost his major-league debut 
May 10 to Los Angeles with % 
innin g of relief. 

“It’s kind of weard, one- third of 
an mning and I get a loss, and one- 
third of an inning and I get a win,” 
he said. 

Williams offered no excuses. 

“That's the first rime I’ve seen 
some of those young guys, but if 
you're swinging the bat good it 
doesn't matter who you face,” he 
said. 

Jeff Bagwell hit two homos, his 
10th and 1 1th, to help the Astros to 


their second - triumph in seven 


Trailing 2-1 in the- sixth. Craig 
Biggio walked with -pne out and 
Bagwell- hit his .second homer to 
make.ii 3*2. ~ : 

Mitch WUBains gpt two outs for 
his fifth save. 

Pirates 7, Cardinals 2: Tom Fo- 
ley drove in four runs as the Hraics 
roughed up St, Louis's seven-game 
winner Bob Tewksbury in Pitts- 
burgh. . • 

Tewksbury, who had -not' lost 

NL ROUNDUP ; ~ 

since SepL 21, gave up six runs and 
six hits m six mning*. Now 7-1, he" 
faded to become the first Cardinal 
since Bob Gibson in 1965 to start a. 
season 8-0.' 

\ Tewksbury . was outdud£d_by 
Denny Neaglc, who pitched three- 
hit ban over seven innings. Lance 
Parrish was 3-for-3 with a honier 
and two RBk fw to Pirates. . 

Cubs 4, Padres 2: In Chicago, 
Steve Buechde hit a two-nm hornet; 
as Anthony Young and the Cute 
handed Sail Diego its eighth 
straight kiss; • 

Young, who- benefited from 
three double plays, gave up five hits 
and two runs in sewn innings for 
his first win over the Padres in five 
decisions. 

San Diego, which has lost eight 
straight games, has, the worst re- 
cord m the majors at 10-27. 

Chicago took 8, 4-0 lead in the 
six* when Sammy Sosa triple with 

two outs and Buechele homered off 
AndyBenes. 

Expos 4Phffi« I: In PMadd- 
phia. Danin Fletcher drove in two 


runs as Montreal kept Curt Schii 

ling wialtss this season. 

- Jcfaillnig, who was l6-7> n *• ^ 

allowed three. runs and * ** 
fire innings. Schilling, to MVP 

last yrairVNL- playoffs, has not 
won sarice pitching a shutout in 
Game 5 Of to World Sc nes. 

BiddjHemyaDw^toeehn- 
in^inmngsas to Expos stuppeu 

the Phillies four-game winning 
streak. Mel Rojas pitched 2-* hn- 
, less inning? for-hls I0lh save. 

- 1 Henry gave up a home run jo 
nemesis Dave HolUm. in? 
in. the first inning. HoDins is I -"“J 
15 with five homers and nine kbis 
against Henry. 

' Martins 3, Mets 1: Chuck Can- 
doubled three times and scored 
Florida’s go-ahead run in thi 
ri ghth by streaking home on a 
grounder in New York. - _ ■ 

- With to score tied at 1, <-arr 
doubled to lead off to eighth and 
moved to third on a sacrifice. Dave. 
Magadan followed with a grounder 
to first baseman David Segui- 

..whose throw to The plate was loo, 
late to get Carr. 

• -.Robb Nen, who relieved starter 
Dave Weathcas with one but in to 
seventh, retired all four batters be 
faced. 

Bret Saberhagen lost despite, 
striking out 10 tn eight innings. 

Dodge»9, Rockies 2: In Denver. 
Tim Wallach and Mike Piazza each 
homered to lead Los Angeles toils 
seventh straight win and into sole 
'possesskm. Gr first place in to NL 
west fortbe first time since Oct. L- 
1991’. . 

WaUadi drove in four runs, givi 
ing him L000 RBIs in his career. 
Piazza drove in three runs. 



3 Enter Guilty Pleas 
In Kerrigan Case 


Compiled hr Our Staff Firm Dispatches 

PORTLAND. Oregon — In one 
of the last legal chapters of the 
bizarre assault on the figure skater 
Nancy Kerrigan, Shane Slant, Der- 
rick Smith and Shawn Eckardt en- 
tered guilty pleas in court here. 

Slant, the assailant, and Smith, 
his uncle and the getaway-car driv- 
er, admitted to conspiracy to com- 
mit second-degree assault and were 
sentenced to 18 months in prison 
by a judge who decried their at- 
tempt to tamper with the Olympics. 

“One of the purposes of the 
Olympics is to foster peace among 
nations in a peaceful athletic com- 
petition," said the Multnomah 
County Circuit Court judge, Philip 
Abraham. "You gentlemen have 
introduced violence into this re- 
vered tradition." 

Eckardt. the would-be body- 
guard of Kerrigan’s rival Tonya 
Harding, never looked at his for- 
mer cohorts as he pleaded guilty to 
racketeering and had his sentenc- 
ing put off until July 11. 

All three face 18 months in prison 
as pan of a plea agreement 

The guilty pleas bring to an end a 
five-month criminal investigation 
into the conspiracy to bludgeon 
Kerrigan on Jan. 6 at the U.S. 


championships in Detroit. With 
Kerrigan out of the event because 
of the injury, Harding won to tide. 

Kerrigan recovered from her leg 
injuries and went on to win the 
silver medal at the Winter Olym- 
pics in Lillehamoter, Norway. Har- 
ding failed to win a medaL 
Eckardt and Smith took parting 
shots at Harding, whom they said 
was lying when she insisted she 
knew nothing of the assault plot 
until after it was carried out. 

“I fed that if she’s going to con- 
tinue to act in the manner in which 
she has, she should become a belter 
liar,” Eckardt said. 

Smith released a statement that 
did not name Harding but spoke of 
those who “have financially bene- 
fitted from this shameful acL" 
Harding pleaded guilty March 
16 to hindering the prosecution in 
the case and was ordered to pay 
fines and penalties of 5160,000 and 
serve 500 hours of community ser- 
vice but no jail time. 

Her former husband, Jeff Gilloo- 
ly, pleaded guilty in February to a 
slate charge of racketeering in a 
deal that calls for a two-year prison 
term and a 5100,000 fine. His sen- 
tencing is set for July 5. 

(AP. Reuters) 




S'.-'.) 







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S'.*.'#.*.'* Ji'V 






Mite BUciRottn 

Vancouver’s Kirk McLean watched as Peter Zezei's shot sailed into his open net for the winning goal in Toronto’s 3-2 overtime victoiy. 


DENNIS THE MENACE 


PEANUTS 


CALVIN AND HOBBES 


Leais win upener 
On Zezei’s OTGoal 

The Associated Pros SCT&O MOTOCSSO lifted a shot Off 

TORONTO Peter ha- to crossbar in to seventh minute 
bitually gives the Toronto Maple of overtime, and the Toronto goal- 
Leafs a workmanlike effort' * - - tender Felix Potvin stopped.Pavd 

Bare on a breakaway on to next 
hfamtay mgbt, be also gave tom Vancouver rash. -i 

Zezd scored twice - incinding w^ hard aB nighi 

to winner. 16:55 into overtime- Mdraybe he was thinking about 
giving the Maple Leafs a 3-2 vie- hit rather than concronm- 

ioiySver toVaorouver Canucks 3 goaL said to < 

, • • ■ • Leafs defenseman Jamie Macoun. 

STANLEY CUP PLAYOFFS "JSfStUSSSjiSS; 


in to opening game of to Nation- 
al Hockey League WesternConfer- 
ence final 


vacant net " ■< . , • ■ _. 

...Osborne shot : the .jmdt mto a- 
coraer of to'Vancduvia’ zone and* 


“Any goals that line gets are Era- raced after it The Canudcs 

vy(mtomtotoes > n saM to Maple gW%jd** Kirk McLean, dashed 
Leaf/ coach, Pat Boras, referring . °**? °f *“* Q1 “f e to 
to the Zczd-BiD Bog-Made Os- poefc bounced loose and Zteel fired 
borae trio. “It takes some of to " from to faceoff cirde into -to 
pressure off our other guys.” t ^ )ca . nct - 
Thc goals were the first two; oT Linden’s power-play goal with, 
to playoffs fw ZezeL who usually " 29 seconds re m ai n i n g in regulation; 
is known for his rugged defensive forced overtime. McLean bad beeoj 
nlav on Toronto's checkins lint lifted for a sixth skater. Toronto • 


pressure off our other guys.” op™. 1161 - 
Thc goals were the first twp oT Linden’s power-play goal with, 
to playoffs fw Zezd, who usually " 29 seconds remaining in i^ulation* 
is known for his rugged def ensure forced overtime. McLean had beeoj 
play on Toronto's checking lint hfted for -a sixth skater. Toronto 

Dave Andrtychukhad tbe other ™* 

Toranto god. W- Linden aial ^ 

3S±tag2z3.1M£- tatve received, peeal^, no. a goal 
day n^ht at Maple-Leaf Gardens. _ ^Vancouver ootshot Toronto 27- 


day night at 
The Cam 


opener. 


Canucks nearly won the 26 during r^ulatkm, bat to Leafs 
had an il -6 edge in overtime. 



One of my greatest 
thrills was being part 
of a dogsled team. 


YOU WERE 
NEVER PART 
Op A MG5LEC? 
TEAM., y 


Every winter the kid 
next door used to pall 
* me on his sled. 


mm 

9SS5T 

mm 

sSSSsJ 


I mU> MOM AND DAD t£ 
LEFT HOBBES B0UMO. I 
wee TO SET IWM TO TURK 
****** ANOdWt BWt- 
«jo /M/uxu.. uoBBCS vns 

All urtff MSUftDiMa 


(SMIffl VSLL.J TWNK 
ics mil ABLE. 
























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SPORTS 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. WEDNESDAY, MAY 18, 1994 ] 



Page 23 Pa S e 3 


May Barcelona ’$ Risks Pay 


_ //WB " *!*««■ cord beats all Julians. Bui between Rossi and Desail- 

f P a' 0 AlljcnSi with its abundant fishing ly. Milan’s defense has suddenly fallen apart. 

iteh Dutch £ S^Kcf-off Both anto-bacU Alessandro Cosaoim and 
^pions; <*5? 


UnserSr. Quits 
Indy Racing 


Court Overturns Reynolds Award 


The herrings, eaten raw jg buns, are the preinatch 
diet of Johan 


' v^btli. 'C* fc§ a,ei Jonan — — 

SP* «“* * Rob 


Saji'S 


uuyn, coacn « Rob # r» 
F C Barcelona, u,,.- 
“Every lime " u 9^ s l 




Cnryff and bis as- ~~ 

sistant eat herrings, they win,’ 1 said a friend, who was 
otnyiog ihe fish toward Athens on a wing and a 
prayer. 

His hopes — and perhaps the fortunes of Barcelona 
— rest with striking Greek airport workers. 

Sportsmen are such a superstitious breed. They 


rough stuff accumulated too many yellow cards. Bor* 
esi, Italy’s defensive king-pin for a decade, is an 
imperious performer in decline, a competitor who 
lately impeded forwards who exposed his aging legs. 

Capello insists it is unfair, unthinkable, for Milan (o 
take such a stage without these pillars of defense. Yet 
the rule of sport, as written in an dem Greece, is that 
those who infringe the laws forfeit the honor. 

. It is, however, cruel to field a wounded defense 
against Romano, whose 30 league goals won him 
Spain’s top-scorer award, and against Sioichkov, 

whose violent left-foot shooting made him a dose 




— - VI ■■ * ^ " T J VIVIWik twriwsA kHiwiiui: i m mv uuu U VWJV 

. ding to ntuaL No disreSKCt to Greek fishennen, but second to Romano, 

the herrings have to be Dutch. If their charm works, __ , , . 

Barcelona vs. AC MDan for the ultimate Driae in dub 00 ■** ^ l uuid ’ “ M 11311 *** emergency «mer- 

soccer wifi offer a marvelous World Cuo wnnrnm back combinations, the impish Romano will miss 


Barcelona vs. AC MDan for the ultimate prize in club 
soccer wQl offer a marvelous World Cup warmup. 

The protagonists in the Olympic Stadium are 
wealthier and more politically ambitious than others. 
They are also opposites. Barcdona’s style is a compul- 
sion of goal-scoring, the credo of Criiyff being that 
ride is the basic tenet of the game. 

To Milan, trader Coach Fabio Capello, there is 
hardy recognition of a game at all. it is business; the 
end product justifies the means. 

So while Cruyff chews the herring and liberates 
players’ adventure, Capello instills efficiency that 


Baresi as much as anyone. The Brazilian's imagination 
turned Baresi into his personal rabbit a year ago. 


They met in the Champions’ Cup competition, 
aresi in the customary Milan shin, Romano then a 


Yftj* u.] ns* is the base tenet of the game. 

\ '■-'Te ijj. ( To Milan, under Coach Fabio Capello, there is 
tiiT JJfe btwiy recognition or a game at all. h is business; the 
v , . ■ .";ra <q 2 end product justifies the means. 

• So whfle Cruyff chews the herring and liberates 

■ ciiis n phyen’ adventure, Capello instills efficiency that 

" . / squeezes tight as a dam. 

I ' ** ’-irr. ™ ** ! . ™ Tbe records reveal alL Barcelona last Saturday won 
- " ^ . its fourth consecutive Spanish league tide, conning 

~ Sf. from 2-1 down in the last game to overpower Sevilla. 

rtiati ??!*«&■ S* 2 * soaic ti *Be championship on goal differential 

- Typically, Hristo Stoichkov and Romario da Souza 
b - : 5 ihrriuj*, . ' fa™, volatile imports from Bulgaria and Brazil were 


Baresi in the customary Milan shin, Romario then a 
PSV Eindhoven property. Romario beguiled the Ital- 
ian, flicking the ball gently over Barca's shoulder, 
scampering around him, catching the ball on the 
instep of bis other foot, and delivering it into the net 
for one of his matchless goals. 


Thr Associated Press 

■ INDIANAPOLIS — Al 
Unser Sr., a four-time India- 
napolis 500 winner, an- 
nounced his retirement as a 
race driver on Tuesday. 

His son. Al Jr., who won the 
race in 1992, will start this 
month’s race from the pole po- 
sition on his father’s 55th 
birthday. May 29. 

“2 always said if tbe day 
came when 1 wasn’t producing 
the right way, if 1 wasn’t happy. 
I'd get om,” Unser said. “1 
think the time has come.” 

The elder Unser drove at 
Indianapolis 27 years, last 
winning in I9S7 to become the 
oldest Indy winner in history, 
five days before his 48th birth- 
day. That fourth victory tied 
A. J. Foyi's record. 


The duoaacd Press 

CINCINNATI — A federal ap- 


peals court on Tuesday threw out a 
527.4 milli on award that the Amer- 


S27.4 milli on award that the Amer- 
ican runner Butch Reynolds won 
against the international governing 
body of track and field fra - barring 
him after he failed a dreg test. 

The 6th U.S. Circuit Court of 
Appeals ruled that a federal judge 
in idumbus. Ohio, had erred when 
be ruled that he had jurisdiction 
over the International Amateur 
Athletic Federation. 

Tbe IAAF. which moved its 
headquarters last year from Lon- 
don to Monte Carlo, represents 205 
nations and territories. 

U.S. District judge Joseph Kin- 
neary had awarded the money to 
Reynolds in December 1991 Reyn- 
olds, world-record-holder in the 
400 meters, claimed in a lawsuit 
that the IAAFs decision to sus- 
pend him for two years denied him 


due process of law, defamed him 
and interfered with his business re- 
lationships. 

Reynolds's attorney. John Gall 
said Tuesday that he would ask the 
appellate court to rehear the case 
or. f ailing that, appeal it to the U.S. 
Supreme Court. 

“There's no way an international 
governing body should be able to 
come in here and disgrace a citizen 
of the United Stales." said Reyn- 
olds. who lives in Columbus. “It 
shouldn't be that easy.” 

The IAAF president, Prirao Ne- 
IhoIo, welcomed the ruling. 

“We have always been confident 
in the UJ5. judicial system.” Ne- 
biolo said, in a statement released 
at IAAF headquarters. 

The ruling, he said, “is very im- 
portant for trade and fidcL for 
sport in genera] and for tbe Olym- 
pic movement.” 

“In fact, the sentence underlines 


the independence and autonomy of 
international sports bodies in dis- 
putes with athletes in sports mat- 
ters,*' he added. 

"After today’s sentence. I fed 
more at ease for the future of track 
and field, of sport in general and I 
look with greater confidence to the 
great success of the 1996 Olympic 
Games in Atlanta,” Nebiolo said. 

He noted that the Olympic 
movement had recently created the 
International Council for Arbitra- 
tion of Sport to deliberate on dis- 
putes between athletes and interna- 
tional governing bodies. 

Tbe IAAF suspended Reynolds, 
29, in 1990 after he tested positive 
for a performance-enhancing ana- 
bolic steroid after a meet in Monte 
Carlo. Reynolds called tbe test 
faulty and later tested negative. 

But tbe IAAF maintained his 
two-year ban and kept him out of 
the 1992 Barcelona Olympics. 


As of March 10, when the ap- 
peals court heard the case, Reyn- 
olds had not collected any of the 
money fro® the IAAF. 

Kinneary took jurisdiction over 
tbe case because, be said, the IAAF 

suspension affected an Ohio citizen 
and beca use of Reynolds's business 
relationship with several companies, 
inducting some from Ohio. 

But an IAAF lawyer, Eugene 
Gulland, said Kinneary was wrong. 
Gul land argued that Reynolds par- 
ticipated in a May 1992 London 
arbitration that uphdd tbe drug 
testing procedure. 

Gulland said Tuesday's appel- 
late court ruling upheld the federa- 
tion's position that, as an interna- 
tional body, the IAAF should not 
be subject to the authority of courts 
in individual nations. 

Reynolds's lawyer. Gail bad 
urged the appeals court to uphold 
Kmneary's ruling. 


Milan’s probable duo in the hole in defease is Paolo 
MaJdini and Filippo GaHi. Tbe latter is a reserve, and 
in Italy reserves waste away; Maldini is a supreme 
athlete, truly a left back whose speed and anticipation 
may cope admirably, yet whose galvanic runs down 
the flank will be sorely missed. 


Capriati Arrested on Marijuana Charge in Florida 






HE RESOURCES of the Milanese are. neverthe- 




1 38 league 




M ILAN HAS been waiting, dormant for a 
month. Its third consecutive Italian title was 


- --t it: na 


iVil month. Its third consecutive Italian title was 
Secured through pragmatism — a meanness that 
wrung only 36 goals for, less than half as many against, 
in 34 league matches. 


Cup final last year to be top scorer for Milan with 1 1 
goals this season will be offered chances by a Barcelo- 
na side to which defense is almost an aberration. 



"If the system looks boring from the s lands,” said 
san-Piene Papin, Milan's French center-forward, 


That, it seems, is Cruyffs win In his playing prime 
in the 1970s, he was a forward who never believed 
there was a defease capable of holding him; and there 
seldom was. 


in Opener 
I > 0 T Goal 


' - - iiialjiad 
rftflthmi 
' Tdmum; 

_ itopped Pre 
. caifteaaT 


Jean-Pferre Pkpin, Milan's Trench center-forward. ^ ^ ^ playcd ^ ^ ^ 

No'^^y.Stft.lold Papin ihtrcdmswM ^ "?“** '**““* ^! 

ssSS&jSfcSsr Sfisssssssss':: 

thoughts of Papin in Athens. ^ ears a ^°‘ 

CapeDo’s defensive inclination was given ample He learned a lot He gave up nicotine, hi 
excuse by injuries to two players worth almost S40 taste for Dutch herring. But as a coach di 
imllicai. The coach could find no one remotely able to extremes of authoritarianism, yet focused 
fflLthe scoring boots of Marco Van Basten, whose mg his goal-scorers, Cruyff is a friend to i 

ankfc s^ sMtehed smw his season. MDan used to be. In its Dutch period, i 

And head injuries suffered m a car crash by the 
winger Gianhngi Lentim have clouded the issue of 

whether Lenten was ever more than an expensive it was belter team to watch than Cruyff's, 
misfit ai San Sira That is partially acknowledged by the 


He learned a lot He gave up nicotine, he acquired a 
taste for Dutch herring. But as a coach driven to the 
extremes of authoritarianism, yet focused on liberat- 
ing his goal-scor«s, Cruyff is a friend to the game. 

MDan used to be. In its Dutch period, when Ruud 
Gullit, Frank RDgaard and van Baslen were rampant. 


That is partially acknowledged by the return, for 


So MDan went shopping. Mated Desailly, another next season, of Gullit. The comeback is the work not 


: T “ iMppcdta Firahnran,. came from Marseille to perform heroics 
. eaihenf in midfield, a stopper in front of the defense, a 
• -_i powerborsc whose none-sball-pass strength embodies 

. ~ jff - Sfatwist, Demify is seeking to retain the cup that 

. he won last year with Marseille, which defeated his 

i current team in the find. 

'j. ■ P * ‘ Behind Desailly, behind tbe MDan team, is a tower 
• ' mg gaalkeqw; Sebastiano Rosa, whose shutout re- 

'irhPSMi *•?• " • • »' • — .“f.*--. 


of coach Capello, bat of Milan’s president. Prime 
Minister Silvio Berlusconi 


Berlusconi gave an address to Parliament this week 
that embraced the line. “1 have a dream,*' he said, “to 
restore the drive, vitality, and creativity that are the 
real great genetic heritage of the Italian people.” 

Cruyff has the same dream, transmitted to sport. 

Rad //kjAct troa the naff rj The 71mo_ 


Mart Canhrdt/IU’Ulm 

Tbe arrest was tbe second brash wftb the law in six months for 
Jennifer Capriati, shown here after a 1992 ULS. Open loss. 


•; ^ risk amt 

r .fix Cn* 

■t-zdtajb 

■V^Znlfc 


SIDELINES 


-'Z’Zr 3 

"is:?* 

..-ilfS* 

ijs * z i 

in? 


i - . . . 

Sampras and Graf Top Seeds in Pains 

• PARIS(AF) — Pete Sampras and Steffi Gref were top-seeded Tuesday 
for the French Open, in which both will be trying to keep alive Grand 
Slwn tournament streaks. . 

The top 16 seeds, announced by the French Tennis Federation, 
followed the rankings by the men’s ATP Tour and Women’s Tennis 
Association. The tournament begins Monday. 

' Sampras has won die last three Grand Slam tournaments — the 
Australian Open in January, Wimbledon and the UB. Open last year. If 
ljje wixu the French Open, he will become tire first man to win the four 
major tournaments in a row since Rod Laver in 1969. Graf has won the 
last four major events, advantage of Monica Seles’s absence. 


BASEBALL 


Major League Standings 


AMERICAN LEA0UE 
EflmMvMM 

W L Pet 
Nr* York K 10 IB 

Boston U 13 MO 

Bommnrt 21 >3 A\* 

Taranto II W AH 

Detroit 15 2D AS9 

Central Dtvtsio* 


Brazil Tops Germany in Soccer Poll 

KANSAS CITY, Missouri (AP)^ — Brazil has ^knocked Germany out of 
first place in a weekly ranking of the top national teams as selected by 
an international panel of soccer journalists, poll organizers said Tuesday. 

Brazil, winch had only 15 first-place votes, had 450 points. Germany, 
despite 27 first-place votes, had 447 points. Argentina, with six first-place 
votes, hdd on to thud with 362 points, and the Netherlands retained the 
fourth spot with 317 paints. Italy rounded out the top five with 256 prams. 

Colombia, which received one first-place vote; stayed in sixth place 
with 245 points. Nigeria moved up erne spot to seventh with 126 points, 
while Norway dropped one place to eighth with 120. Belgium remained 
ninth with 108 points, followed by Spain with 100 points. 


Ottawa 20 W 554 

Koran CHv 18 T7 JM 

CMVttand 17 17 SOO 

Minnesota 18 W Mb 

Mitwaulwe 17 II ,472 

West Division 

T«wn* It 19 ASJ 

Seattle 15 21 ATT 

Comnmto 1* » 

Oakland 11 27 JOT 

NATIONAL LEABUE 
Eact Division 


A. Sv — MortBoroery <5]. HRs— Kansas CHy, 
Hamlin in. Seattle. Crmev Jr. nsi.T.Mam- 
ran (31, 

CMcow on oie m-i 13 • 

CBBtornta 001 M2 HD— S 12 2 

Sanderson, Cook Ml, McCoskin |71, Assen- 
mocher W, R. Hernandez (f ) and LaVoiliera, 
Karkavk* (8); Uftwicft. B- Patterson to. 
Butcher (71. Leflerts (7). M. Letter (81 and 
Pabresos. Turner (f|. W— cook. 14. 
L — Butcher, 2-1. Sv— R. Hernandez (41. 
HRs — CMcaaa. Venturo (9). Calltomia. D. 
Smith (3). Curth (31. 

Ten 818 880 888 4—11 11 2 

OMdaad 881 888 211 8-7 12 2 

(18 tarings) 

Hailkio. ONver (7). Corpeihr (7). Honev- 
cuti (8), Henke to. Whiteside (101 and Rodri- 
gues; Welch, Raves (1). Horsmon Ik). Acre 
(7). Taylor (9), Nunez (10) and Stelrrtsacfi, 
Hemond (10). W — Hertu), 2-3. L— Tavtar, 0-2. 
HRs— Tewn Greer (I )■ OriUand. Sierra 110). 


The Michael Jordan Watch 


Japanese Leagues 


For the Record 

Bob Weiss, 52. whose team finished 27-55. the worst record in the 
National Basketball Association's Pacific Division, was fired Monday 
after one year as coat* of the Los Angete Clippers 
t Jaws Stewart, spokesman for the Valderrama Golf CJib m Spam, 

k . ^ ^ I,. ■ > 1 Rn KtmK won 


Atlanta 

W 

23 

L 

12 

PeL 

jta 

Montreal 

21 

16 

■568 

Florida 

21 

17 

453 

Hew York 

19 

18 

JM 

PhUattotaNa 

16 

22 

421 

Control Dtvtaton 


Ondnnatl 

23 

13 

■639 

Hwdm 

19 

18 

.514 

PHtsburan 

18 

18 

JM 

SI. Loots 

18 

18 

500 

OiKago 

W 

24 

JSQ 

WKtDtvtatoa 


Los Angeles 

21 

17 

-553 

Son Francisco 

20 

18 

-506 

Colorado 

16 

19 

457 

SanDtago 

10 

27 

-270 



k James Stewart, rookesman for the vaiaerrama uou ^ m 
-T^aid the dub was consderingl^al action against Seve Balleswo&j who 
suggested that the dub had offered him SI milbcm for his support oCthe 
course as the site for the 1997 Ryder Cup. . . , . . J A 

Dick Motta, 62, from 1980 ihrcragh 1987 the first coach . of the National 
BasketbaD^sociation’s Dallas ^^nck^was retored as jte terns 
coat* Tuesday, replacing QrinP Buckno. who was fimi May 3 
Attorneys ter (he Toronto Bine Jays Daro Stewart and Todd Stoitlc- 
myre entered pleas of innocent Tuesday to fdony charts stemming from 
a feb- 20 nightclub scuffle with policemen in Tampa, Florida. { AP) 


Monday’s Line Scores 


AMERICAN LEAGUE 
Damir *w on rm-2 i * 

Taranto w tm M»-7 « 1 

Moora, Ge. Harris 15). CanSnar (8). Groom 

(8) one Kroutar; Guanan. Qntlllo (8), Hall 
(7), Codont (9) aid Banters. W-Guaixm, 4- 
4. L— Moore. 3>L 

KSMOT CttV 822 818 081—4 11 • 

SariTto 882 M 888—4 5 2 

Gonton. Brewer (8). PWmnta (8). ««M- 
Bomerv (9) and MDCtarhjne: BMto.T. Davh 

(9) and a Witten. W-Ganton^-J. L— Baste, l- 


HATK3IIAI. LEAGUE 
SLLMta wo m tm— * s l 

Pt tUlHnwk 881 381 BlK-7 9 2 

TewKsfeury. Murphy (7), Evereoeut (8) and 
Pwm b).' Neoata. Pena (8) md Parrish. 
W Neapta.44. L— TewkaiHirv. W. HR-PlHa- 
buroh. Porrtsh (1). 

MOrtraal 288 ISS 188-4 18 I 

PknodcWala 108 888 880-1 4 8 

Henry, Show (4), Rolas (7) and D.Fietctwr; 
ScMIllno. Wells (8), carter (8) and Day Hon. 
W— Henrv. M. I — Sctilillnv, D-7. Sv-Rotos 
(M). HR— PMUdetoMa. D. Hollins 141. 

Stm nave *88 808 288-3 5 1 

CMcmo l« 812 aa»-4 8 1 

Banes. M. Davis (8). Elliott (81 and Aus- 
nwv A. Young. Crtm (1), Myers (8) and Wil- 
Uns. Parent (7). W— A. Young. H l— B enas. 
M. S»— Myers (81.H R*-S» Dim. Pionflar 
in), cmeaoa. SueeMe (51. 

San Pramdsao 801 818 •#*— 2 ii o 

Hwnten m NS 98»— 3 8 8 

Hkckanoa Burba (8) and Manwarlng; 
Rsvnoldi, Veres (8), Hampton (7). Hudek (8). 
Ml. Williams (9) and servals. w— Veres. 1-1. 
L— Hkiaraon. 7-2. Sv— Ml. win tom* is). 
HRs— San Francisco. Ma. Wllllantt (15). 
Houston. Bamell 2 111). 

PkrWa 190 800 828-3 H 1 

NawYor* 818 HO 880-1 8 8 

Weathers, Men (7). J. Hernandez 19} ond 
Santtaos; Maimm J. MamcanUio (9> and 
Hundley. W-Nca 2-1. L— SaOartiagan, 4-1 
Sw— J. H e r n an dez (?). 

L88 A nge l a 288 132 OOI— 9 17 0 
Catorada ana ni i si — 1 7 t 

R. Martinez. Can 17), DreHort (9) and Ptonn; 


Yomlurl 

Chunlchl 

YOkutt 

HsnsMn 

Hiroshima 

Yokoftama 


Central League 
w L T 
2D 12 0 

18 14 D 

16 16 0 
15 16 0 

13 17 p 

13 18 0 


Pet OB 

A25 — 

533 3 

.500 4 

M* 4 Vi 

ASS 6 

A19 6* 


Tuesday's Results 
Hiroshima 3. Yomlurl 2 
HanshJn 4. Yokohama 1 
Chunlchl A Yakut! A >0 Innings 
PbcWc League 


5eu>u 

w 

» 

L 

II 

Dalrl 

IB 

12 

Ortx 

15 

15 

Lutie 

13 

17 

KJnlelsu 

12 

17 

Nippon Ham 

13 

19 

ToftMtay'S 

Selbo 1. Nippon Ham 0 

Kintetsu 5, DaM 3 

Lotte 1. Orly a 



Pet. OB 

.645 - 

ADD Wt 

■500 iVi 

.433 6* 

•417 7 

AO) 7VS 


Monday’s NHL Final 


Vancouver til 8—2 

Toronto Oil I— I 

Taranto leads series 1-0 

First period— Nam. Pena I lies — Babycn. 
Von I hooking), :44: Lrtebvre, Tor (interfer- 
ence). 12:47. 

Second Period— I. Toronto. Andreychuk 5 
(Mironov. Ellon). 4:24 (pp). Z Vancouver. Bo- 
bven 2 (Graven, Lafayette). 8:52. Penalties- 
— Lafayette. Van (hooking). 2:51: Linden Van 
(hook Inal. 9*2; Elletl. Tor (hOhBna), 11:59. 

Third Period— J. Toronto. Ze«i T I Lefeowre. 


BOOKS 




ONCE UPON A TIME; 
A Floating Opera 


'By John Barth. 408 pages. 
■ 123.95. Little, Brown. 


Reviewed ^>y 
Jteven Moore 




'^4 


rfyi 


-- . m .K 




pvN£ of the many imaginary 
U movies Thomas frodxmpro- 
. rams into his fourth twvd, *^me* 
is “Tbe Robert Mtial Sto- 
a” starring Pee-wce Herm8n.'But 
■ ais account of the great Austrian 
bvdist doesn't hold its audience s 
ttcntkar “It was mostly F»-wce 
. pang- in a foreign accent, or at-, 
ug around in front of some pieces 
/ paper with some word-lo(Aing 
ariter'pen. r Thht is the problem 
ring any novelist's bwjpapher, 
^rit^ difficult to find much drama 
'sitting around in front of some 
sees of paper day in, day out, 
‘ueh is pretiy much what the wnt- 
s fife amounts to. If you are t 
yefisl writing ytw own hiQgra- 

», you caa ; pertiaps liven things 
with a firsthand account of what 
a! did between (hose periods of 
i [mg around k.front of those 

« nf vaneL V vou are I 01 ™ 


Barth, you make a postmodern 
novel out of it. 

Barth calls “Once upon a Trme^ 
“a memoir bottled in a novel’’ but 
cautions that it *is not the story of 
my Bfe, but h is most certainly a 
story thereof.” And here Bart h sets 
out to make his rather humdrum 
fife as interesting a stpiy as he can. 

Al^andnractitiofleroftiwan- 
denl storytellinz device of the frame 
ta le, Barth empfoyg it again. In tins 
book , a prosperous couple set sail 
frtm their Maryland home cm Co- 
hs&bus Day 1992 to see what tap- 
nms. In this book, Barth Hkewwe 

embarks oo a tale to sec where it will 

tfikp him, writing in 1990 of that 
19% voyage {and gradually over- 
coming it in time). For this frame 
tale, he riromventsalfdong friend, 
a “oountersdr nanted Jay Scribner, 
who plays the rote of the helper in 
the standard hero myth that Barth 
has exploited » ingouousiy jh pre- 
viousnovels. After the owigaiory 
dupwreck Qanoviaafy uAA), om 
hero finds himself dsonemed and 
separated fran tts wife, and by way 
afatime-travd device b^ns mek- 
nig'a story of his life. ' 

it’s a st or y that wiD be familiar to 


called “The Friday Book." the 
younger half of a set of twins cutely 
called Jack and JD1, he had a fairly 


Dorchester County, Maryland, 


on a career as a jazz drummer and 
arranger until a semester at Juilliaid 
exposed his shortcomings, then 
went off to Johns Hopkins wtee he 
discovered his vocation as a write 1 . 
He married young andwasthefa- 
therof three by his mW-20s; hepDed 


tiooS creature, a plot device, and 
yw he plays a crucial role at several 
turning points in Barth's life. As a 
charade in this novel, he's an ab- 
sorbing and necessary member of 
the cast; but if be is fictitious, who 


if anyone did help Barth at those 
turning points? 

That's a question for his critics 
and biographers. For the general 
reader, there is this strange yei en- 
joyable hybrid of a book: pan 


BEST SELLERS 


mril Us agent found someone to 
take on Usfinstacwti,^ ‘TheFloating 
Opera," an astonishingly inventive 
debut- His vocation fulfilled, it’s 
been one book after another, a 
grand body of work that is one of 


Tlo: New Yart. Una 

Tibs Eat ii based oo reports from mart than 
2JMb(X)ksoRSiIinng|^iiKUt>i^ Stale* 
Week* oo fist (ft not necessarily axuauriw 


non . The story breaks off around 
1972, the year his National Book 
Award-winning “Chimera" was 


KHlEUUJt _ 

niitfi have read Us bock of essays 


The vocation is the hero of tins 
ooveL Barth is somewhat reticent 
about Us first wife, about tbdr 
children and their divorce, and 
doesn’t reveal much more about his 
second wife than how they met 
the focus is on the books. 
It’s Jay Scribner who complicates 
things. He’s introduced as a fictf- 


ncnoN 

TV» Lu W.'fe 

ffltok Wk aUff 

1 THE CELESTTNE PROPHE- 
CY, by James RedfiekJ I II 

2 REMEMBER ME. by Mary 

HtasunOuk 2 3 

3 “ICTSFOR KILLER. by Sue 

Oiafl DB 3 A 

4 THE BRIDGES OF MADI- 
SON County, by Roben 

James Waller _ 5 

5 INCA GOLD, by Give 

Clgal cr I 

* THE DAY AFTER TOMOR- 
RQW , by Allan Fotsosa , 4 4 

7 the aLENIST. by Caleb 

Casr 6 s 

8 LOVERS, by Judith Krantt „ 7 5 

9 DISCLOSURE, by Mkhad 

Cdchtoo B 17 

M LUCE WATER FOR CHOC- 
OLATE, try Laura Esquivel .. 13 57 
11 ACCIDENT, by Danidlc 
Steel : 9 13 


12 SLOW WALTZ. IN CEDAR 

BEND, by Roben Jamo Wal- 
ler 

13 CHARADE bv Sandra 

Brown 

14 THE FIST OF GOD, by Fred- 
erick Forsyth ... 

15 ON DANGEROUS 

GROUND, by Jack Higgms 


NONFICTION 


1 EMBRACED B> THE 

LIGHT . by Betty J. Eadw with 
Cunii Taylor 

2 R£BA: My Slorv. hv Rcba 
McEnlire with Turn Oner . 

3 THE BOOK OF VIRTUES, 
by WSlizrn 1 Bennen ..... . 

4 MIDNIGHT IN THE GAR 
DEN OF GOOD AND EVIL, 
by John Bcrnkll . . 

SOLD SONGS IN A NEW 
CAFE, bv Robert Jamc< Wal- 
ler — ... ! 

« HOW WE DIE bv S herein B. 
Nulaqd 

7 DIPLOMACY, by Henry K iv 

smger 

8 ZLATA'S DIARY, by Zlara 

Filipovic 


By Robin Finn 

Aw York Tima Service 

NEW YORK — Jennifer Ca- 
priati, the tennis star whose teen- 
age riles of passage continue to 
cake a downward cum, has been 
arrested on a charge of marijua- 
na possession at a motel room in 
Coral Gables, Florida. 

Capriati. 18, absent from the 
tennis circuit since a first-round 
loss at the 1993 U.S. Open, was 
released into the custody of her 
attorney, John Ross. 

This was Capriati's second 
brush with tbe law in six months. 
In December, she was issued a 
citation for shoplifting after she 
allegedly removed several inex- 
pensive silver rings from a ven- 
dor’s kiosk at a Tampa Bay mafl. 

Charged as a juvenile for that 
offense, Capriati, who was 17 at 
the time and bad never been ar- 
rested, received a private repri- 
mand in a family court hearing. 
The charge Monday will man- 
date a coorl appearance, but 
since it is also a misdemeanor, it 
is unifledy that she will receive 
more than probation and an ad- 
monition to attend counseling. 

Capriati was arrested after the 
police went to her motd room 
upon receiving a tip that a 17- 
year-old runaway girl was also 
reading there. 

Although the runaway was not 
in tbe room at the time, tbe po- 


lice received Capriati’s permis- 
sion to search the room and re- 
portedly found a small amount 

pf mar ij uana among her lugga g e. 
Two other teenagers were in the 
room but were not arrested. 

Bui before die police Left the 
scene, Ihe runaway girl arrived in 
the parking lot in Capriati's car 
along with Tom Windand, 19. 
Tbe police said Wineland was 
smoking a mixture of crack and 
cocaine and was arrested. The 
juvenile girl was also arrested, 
the police said, alter they found 
heroin in her possession. 

It was not dear why Capriati, 
who left her family in Tampa and 
moved in with a friend in Boca 
Raton after turning 18 in March, 
was in Coral Gables. 

According to Capriati's youn- 
ger brother, Steven, their par- 
ents. Stefano and Denise, were 
both in Boca Raton on Monday 
and unavailable for commenL 
He said he had spoken with his 
aster by phone Monday and that 
she was “dying a little but OJL** 

Capriati is completing her se- 
nior year of high school at a 
private school in Boca Raton 
and has given no indication 
when or if she will return to com- 
petitive tennis, beyond her agree- 
ment to be an alternate oo the 
Federation Cup squad in July. 

By nuUring that commitment, 
Capriati, who recently said her 


1992 Olympic gold medal was 
the title that made her happiest, 
preserved her Olympic eligibility 
for the 1996 Atlanta Gaines. 

A star and a millionaire by the 
time she was 13, Capriati Durst 
on the professional tennis scene 
in 1990. While her parents’ deri- 
sion to let her turn pro at 13 was 
controversial then and now. her 
immediate results were noL 

In March of 1990 she reached 
tbe final of the first Tour event 
she entered and that June she 
became, at 14t the youngest 
semifinalist in the history of the 
French Open, a feat she followed 


up by becoming the youngest 
player ever to win a mam draw 


player ever to win a mam draw 
match at Wimbledon. In 1991, 
she reached toe semifinals of 
both Wimbledon and (he U.S. 
Open at age 15, and a year later 
she won Olympic gold. 

But beyond her Olympic vic- 
tory, Capriati, who had already 
begun U> sour on tbe spotlight 
and its pressures, described 1992 
as “a waste.” She said she was 
tired of expectations and atten- 
tion and of being a celebrity. 

Last year she struggled with 
her career, her parents and a 
string of coaches. Her unhappi- 
ness was compounded by ten- 
donitis in her right elbow, and 
she derided to take a breather 
from tennis in September. 


Cr. Harris. BattenfleKI (5), Blair at. Moore (9) 
onaGIrartJL w— R.Martlnn,2-l L— Or. Harris, 
M. HR*— Lai Angelas. Pfazza (81. WMiactilll!. 


MONDAY'S GAME: Jordan wall l-tor-4 
wtoi an infteW slngl* hi a 9-3 victory ovar Itie 
Memphis Chicks. He scared once, struck out 
Ifirae times and had three outouts in right Hew. 

SEASON TO DATE: Jordon b Oatflno M 
CKWor-122). wilh 10 runs. « doubles. 18 RBI. 9 
imUcw 36 strikeouts. 10 stolen bases. He Has 50 
pidoutvarto osstal and lour errors InrtgM flettL 


Osborne), :3&- 4. Vancouver, Linden 9 (Ron- 
(tingi Buro), 79:38 (PP). Penalties— Atander- 
vIHe. Tar umldlna). 5:23: Odlh*. Van. mis- 
conduct. 7:53: Gartner. Tor (riokline), 18:18. 

Overtime— 5. Toronto, Zoiei 2,16:15. Perart- 
ttee wane . 

Shots on goal— Vancouver 9^-12-6—33. To- 
ronto 10-11-5-H — 37; pawer-ptoY apportael- 
tlee-J Vancouver I of 4j Toronto T of 2; goalie* 
— Vancouver. McLaon, 8-5 ( 37 snotv34 saves}. 
Taranto. Pofrti 95 (33-31). 


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CHICAGO WHITE SOX— Pul Joe Hall out- 
Holder, on 15-dav dbabled HS>. Recoiled Bob 
Zuocic outfMder. (ram Nastivllie. AA. 

MILWAUKEE— Sent Mark Kiefer. ailcher. 
to NewOrtemAA Recalled Troy O'Leary. 
ouffleMar. from New Orleans. 

N.Y. YANKEES — PltI Mike Stan lev. catch- | 
or. on 15-day disabled list. Colled up Bob Mel- 
vin. catcher, from Columbus. IL. 

OAKLAND— Pul Rickey Henderson, oui- I 
fielder, on ISyJar disabled IW. reiroocilv. lo 
MOV Id. Recollod Mark Acre. Pilcher, tram 
Tacoma, PCI- 

SEATTLE— senl Jim Converse, pitcher, and 
Greg Plrkl. outfielder, to Calgarv. PC1_ Re- 
called Erik Plonienburo,PMtheT, tram JedusoiY 
vlltaiSL. oral Jeff Nelson, rtleher. tram Calgarv. 

TORONTO— signed Dave Rlgnetil, Pilcher, 
la minor -league amtrart ond assigned him lo 
Knoxville, SL Assigned AJex Ganzcdoz. short- 
shin, to Syracuse. lLtw20-dav rehabilitation 
adUgnmenl. 



SSsiwSBfc, 

saeszmh 

nxrm 

5SEOB*f 

SS 

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autobiography, part cxpcrimcutal 
novel, and part voyage of Sin bad. 


Yes, 1 wont to start receiving (he HT. This is the subscription term I prefer 
(check appropriate boxes]: 18-5-94 


Steven Moore, senior editor of the 
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wrote this for The Washington Post. 


G 12 months (364 issues in al with 52 bonus issues). 

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9 HAVING OUR SAY. by Sa- 
rah and A. Elizabeth Detain, 
wilh Amy till Hearth 12 24 

It SOUL MATES, by Thomas 

Moore 10 18 

1 1 MAKES ME WANNA HOL- 
LER, bv Nathan Me CiD 9 9 

12 WOMEN WHO RUN WITH 

THE WOLVES, by Chriisa 
Pinkola Estes 14 91 

13 SAVED BY THE LIGHT, by 

Danniofl Brinklcv wilh Pont 
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14 WOULDN'T Take NOTH- 
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ADVICE. HOW-TO 
AND MISCELLANEOUS 


1 IN THE KITCHEN WITH 
ROSIE, by Rosie Daky ... I 

2 MAGIC II. by N. E 

Thior Enirrprbcs - 3 

3 MAGIC D'E by N E Thing 

Enterprise. - 2 

4 MEN ARE FROM MAKS. 
WOMEN ARE FROM VE- 
NUS, by John Gray — — 4 


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" toward 
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Pase 21 


Pa«<‘ 20 




Secrets of the Trade 


By Russell Baker 

N EW YORK — Do you ever 
wonder what Plato wrote for 
his Saturday column? Not “The 
Republic," I'll beL Column-wise. 
“The Republic” is strictly Sunda> 
stuff: big, serious, double-dome. 

Heavyweight thinking went into 
“The Republic.” Sunday-column 
thinking. Maybe an editor would 
have let Plato get by with “The Re- 
public" as a Wednesday or Friday 
column. Both days can accommo- 
date earnest no-nonsense columns. 

Still, if he'd turned it in as a 
Wednesday column 1 suspect the 
editor would have said: “This ‘Re- 
public' is a natural for Sunday, Pla- 
to. How about giving us a quick 
substitute column for Wednesday 
so we can hold ‘The Republic' for 
Sunday.” 

I can see Plato writing either 
“Meno" or “Protagoras" for Satur- 
day. They both have the solid intel- 
lectual core ihat delights readers of 
Saturday columns, yei they are not 
weighty enough to irritate’ ihe sub- 
way reader. 


Unfortunately, none or Plato’s 
Saturday columns seem to have 
survived, though many professors 
of Greek philosophy" insist that 
"Eu thy demos" was a Saturday col- 
umn. This judgment rests on the 
fact that “uthydemus" includes a 
character named Ctesippus. 

Professor C. B. Kprzlurian. dis- 
playing the academic's usual con- 
tempt for journalism, argues that 
only the “crude standards of Satur- 
d ay-column journalism could have 
templed Plato to strain at humor 
by using such a thunderingly un- 
funny “funny’ name as Ctesippus." 

Professor Kprzlurian betrays nor 
just his contempt for journalism 
but also his ignorance of Saturday 
columns, since no journalist would 
dare discuss virtue and teaching, 
the subjects of “Euihydemus,” in a 
Saturday column. 


Saturday columns must be aimed 
at a s mall audience of lonely news- 
paper addicts. Saturday newspapers 
have the smallest circulation of the 
week. Why? For one thing, because 
many potential readers have been 
too exhausted by Friday night ex- 
cesses to read anything. 

For another, because many oth- 
ers are idling at seashores, moun- 


tains or grandmothers’ houses. 
Americans, who yearn to be profes- 
sionals in everything, work intense- 
ly at idling. This means ostenta- 
tiously refusing the comforts or 
their newspaper to pursue such joy- 
killers as lawn mowing, hiking up 
mountains, tearing ligaments at 
softball and beach games and driv- 
ing the kiddies to somebody's dis- 
mal theme park or cavern. 

□ 

For the small addicted audience 
of newspaper junkies who remain on 
Saturday, something must be pro- 
vided, but nothing loo much. No 
“Republics." Not even a “Eulhyde- 
mus." As a veteran columnist, 1 like 
to put a few million-dollar ideas into 
the minds of the reading few. 

For instance. 1 offer my million- 
dollar idea for a rapid-response 
opening service. It owes a little to 
those fast-delivery pizza chains 
that rush the food to your house 
within 30 minutes, or whatever, or 
the lime you discover there's noth- 
ing to eat in the house and pick up 
the phone. 

As 1 envision it there would be a 
national chain of openers around 
the country so that no house is 
more than IS minutes from an 
openers dispatch center. Each cen- 
ter would be manned day and night 
by highly trained openers capable 
of breaking into the most impene- 
trable package American ingenuity 
can sea). 

A customer phoning for an open- 
er would be asked, “What refuses 
to open?" so the dispatcher would 
know which tools to send out with 
the highly trained opener. 

Cardboard milk containers that 
almost never open as the instruc- 
tions say they will need opening 
tools different from tools needed io 
open a cereal box without ripping 
boxtop and waxed-paper lining to 
shreds. 

Getting into pill containers re- 
quires other skills. Getting a hard- 
ware-store item out of its molded 
plastic container requires one kind 
of tool; gelling the ding-tight plas- 
tic wrapper off a newly purchased 
compact disk, another. 

Thus. I offer a suggestion for 
making American life more tolera- 
ble which could turn a bright young 
Saturday newspaper reader into an 
entrepreneur making millions. 
Could Plato have done that? 

New York Tima Service 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBl N£. WEDNESDAY. MAY 18, 1994 





"S’ "IT* 

Jazz and Lb 


By Peter Wairous 

.Vfn- IVirA Tima Struo: 

N EW YORK — When the jazz >a\o- 
pbooisi and composer Lennie Nie- 
haus read the script For “Lush Life." he 
knew he had io be involved. 

“Lush Life” is about two moderately 
talented jas musicians who cat around 
and make a living by playing whatever 
music they have to. They- live for jazz, hut 
pay the rent by performing at weddings, 
bar mitzvahs, parties and only occasional- 
ly in jazz clubs. ’ 

Niehaus got ihe job. — 
and ihe film with iis re- 
diant jazz score, might * DC S3XOJ] 

as well be his slow, with turned cn \ 

one exception. Niehaus lUTueO CO! 

is actually quite talent- nroduftui 

ed. Now 64, he is one of fl _ « 

the more important fig- «>U to 40 I 

ures to come out of the 

thriving Los Angeles 

jazz scene of the 1950s, 
which included Chet Baker. An Pepper 
and Hampton Hawes. Then along came 
rock V roll and did in his career. 

So Niehaus hung up his alto saxophone 
and. like many West Coast jazzmen in the 
early 1960s. went into the lucrative film 
and television indusny. Since then he has 
become a fixture in Hollywood. haring 
produced scores Tor 30 to 40 films, includ- 
ing Clint Eastwood's ’“Perfect World " 
(1993). “Unforgiven" <1992). “Bird" 

( I98S) and “Pale Rider" (1985). 

He collaborated on the music for tele- 
vision shows like “Hogan's Heroes.” 
“Charlie’s Angels.” “The Incredible 
Hulk.” “Amazing Stories" and “McMil- 
lan and Wife." In the process he has 
mastered idioms, ranging from country 
to hip-hop. 

But with “Lush Life." Niehaus has 
again returned to his first love, jazz- The 
film features lots of it. most of which he 
wrote and arranged. “Doing this movie 
was a real thrill." he said in a recent 
telephone interview from his home in Los 
Angeles. “Other than ‘Bird. - which l did 
for Clint, it was the highlight of my career 
for film scoring, f got to do what I wanted, 
which is rare." 

Niehaus was lucky. In the director Mi- 
chael Elias, he found someone with whom 
he was ampaiico and who appreciated 
jazz and really understood how musicians 
work. An unusual combination indeed, 
judging from the history of disastrous 
movies about jazz from “The Benny 


The saxophonist 
turned composer has 
produced scores for 
30 to 40 films . 




Goodman Story" io Spike Lees ~Mo’ Bet- 
ter Blues.” 

"The relationship was marvelous be- 
cause Michael is a really sharp guy and 
knows about music." sat'd Niehaus’. “I'd 
say a piece of music should sound like 
Sonny Rollins's ‘St. Thomas.' and he'd 
know it. which can't be said about too 
many directors." 

Elias says Niehaus was at the top of the 
list of composers he approached with the 
script. "In one of the drafts I sent out to 
potential composers. I put in an obscure 
West Coast musician. 

” ' Cy Touff. and Lennie 

r « , came in and said he 

jOIHSl loved Cy Touff, which 

'tnACAr tins prelty much sealed iL" 

lpOber nas director said. “.And 

; COrCS for be liked the script. 

. which was a real valida- 

1H1S. tion because Lennie has 

done so much in mu- 
sic." 

As he had done for 
“Bird.” Niehaus trained tor had musicians 
train) the two principal actors. Forest 
Whitaker and Jeff Goldblum. They took 
weekly lessons — Whitaker, trumpet, and 
Goldblum, saxophone. The fingerings for 
Whitaker's pan were worked out tocoin- 
cide with the music. 

“It used to he the rule of thumb that you 
never look ihe horn out of your mouth if 
you were an actor.” said Niehaus. “That 
way the actors wouldn't stop playing in the 
middfeof a line or a phrase. Now we've got 
it oil worked out. and I've never seen a 
movie that looks as authentic as 'Lush 
Life.* ” 

Even mistakes were scripted. When 
Goldblum practiced, he did what musi- 
cians usually do: hit bad notes or grasp for 
some that are a bit out of reach. The 
saxophonist Bob Cooper, who performed 
most of Goldblum's pans, was instructed 
on how to make mistakes, and where. 

Niehaus is best known for his associa- 
tion with Eastwood, who is a jazz fan and 
an occasional pianist. Their relationship 
dates back to a stint in the U. S. Army in 
the early 1950s. when Niehaus was a mem- 
ber of the concert band. 

After his army service, he recorded 
several albums for the Contemporary la- 
bel ihat showed off his orchestral tech- 
nique. And he composed the music for 
three albums for the Stan Kenton orches- 
tra. 

Those albums left little doubt to the 
kind of talent Niehaus possessed. He had 
studied classical music and arranging, and 






-v? ; 


w m ^ 


< for The Ne» Yoit Tire 


In “Lush life," Lennie Niehaus returns to bs jazz roots. 


his music, linear and at times fleetingfy 
dissonant, was literate and swinging. His 
next move was logical. 

In the early 1960s, Eastwood went off to 
do his spaghetti westerns while Niehaus 
started writing for television. 

“I had been out on the road with Stan 
Kenton, and we could tell something was 
happening." said Niehaus. “Audiences 
were drying up, and the musicians, who 
were used to getting gigs the couple of 
months we had off from Kenton each year, 
couldn't find any work. Clubs were closing 
up. It was terrible. 1 put my horn away and 
began writing instead." 

He did sitcoms and started arranging 
for the film composer Jeny Fielding, who 
worked with Eastwood until be died in 
1980. 

“1 did a lot of movies with Jerry, and I 
son of started up my relationship with 
CUnt again," said Niehaus. “In 1984 he 
called me up, and said Td like you to to 
help me out.' From then on. fve done 
almost every movie he's made. He's kept 
me busy for the last 10 years.” 


Eastwood appreciates Niehaus' s sensi- 
tivity to the emotional changes within a 
movie. 

"Lennie is great because when a movie 
dictates something simple, he’ll keep it 
simple or make it complicated when it 
demands it," said Eastwood. “He's so 
versatile and smart about the relation- 
ship of the music to the movie that I've 
used him on almost every project I’ve 
done since.” 

Working on films has kept Niehaus 
abreast of current musical trends. If a 
movie calls for a rock or country score, 
Niehaus has to know how to reproduce it 
idiomatically. He makes regular trips to 
record stores and listens to a wide rar^e of 
performers. 

“To do a movie you can’t be one-dimen- 
sion al" he said. “With my background in 
composition, moving into this sort of work 
was pretty easy. If I see something coming 
that I’m not too up on, I go buy a bunch of 
recordings. So I’m prepared to do any- 
thing that’s called for. 



PEO 


( Sondheim and 
Head-UhHead 

Stephen Sondheim’s 
“Passion'' topped the list dfc. 
nominations with a total of ICCpit 
it against Disney’s firsr/tngi 
into Broadway. “Beauty and the 
Beast,” for Best Musical Rounding 
out. the Best Musical category were 
‘"A Grand Night-far Singing" and 
:-.‘*Cjrtaao.~. , lhe:''Musi^" , afl ex- 

: ^ yfelS^^^becanse 

Of Yfeafc.'lick&- safe. 'Off’tfcldrama 
' side,. Top? Kuftocr^.^Ang^s 
> America; Peostroika * - 

: >it&s^hocmaatKgis 
Play. Other Best 

Arthur MEBdFs 
‘The.Keotjjdqf <_ 

. light: Los! Arrgeles, 19324 

Tom: Arnold, who 
■ scarce, has filed forjfivfliitp^^ 
second time in less ~ ‘ ‘ 

. said he stiD loves *“ 
love her forever.. 4 * 

. beat friends foM2 
her forever," Amo! 
virion interview. T v __ 

have been narried /ot, 
have been separated 

. . n'.'-?,-.-. 

John _ 
old American artist,', 
own. Irish' pub aftt* 
essay, competition 
deatsnmbytii 
A Guinness 
Mulligan would-be a&i 
Connie Doolan pub, in 
take a cash prize of tlOO 

- : • 

The American compos 

Junes and the C- 

doctor NffcofeaL 

beat awarded Sweden’s 
Prize, worth 1 mflli 
(SI 28,000) each. Jones sai 
donate his prize to die A 

tiond Congress in South 

• 

Bronislava Nqindu 
choreographer w ho i 
emizc ballet in the early . 
century, has been indocti 
mously into the w> 

Fame, the Nation- 
Dance in Saratoga 
York, announced. 
ter of Vadav Nijinsky; dii 


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16/BI 

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22/71 

17*62 

pc 


Paro 

17*02 

10*50 


16*04 

10*50 

c 


Prague 

21/70 

12/53 

1 

22/71 

8/48 

/ 



11*52 

409 

■> 

ioreo 

3/37 

pc 


Rom 

24/75 

14/57 

I 

23*73 

11/52 

pc 


Si Ponrstua 13/55 

307 

PC 

13*55 

9/48 

pc 


sudduim 

11*52 

409 

c 

9*48 

8/43 

1 


Smdnvg 

21/70 

11*52 

1 

23/73 

8/46 

Mi 


TaSnn 

11/52 

5/41 

pc 

11/52 

7/44 

PC 


Van 

24/75 

17/82 

1 

24/75 

15*59 

pc 


Vhma 

24/75 

15*50 


23*73 

1 1*52 

ah 


Wwsaw 

24/75 

13*56 

pc 

24/75 

11152 

I 


Zurich 

2 1/70 

12*53 


23/73 

9/48 

pc 


Oceania 








AuddM 

10*04 

12/53 

"F 

10*4 

10*50 

PC 



16/64 

9/48 

c 

20450 

12*53 

pc 


WEATHER 


Forecast for Thursday through Saturday, as provided by Accu-Wealher. 


CROSSWORD 



K^JUnararrviW, 
Jmuraair K^d ^*** 

North America 

Toronto to New York City vdl 
be chilly Thursday into Fri- 
day. A warming trend will 
begin Saturday. Warm 
weather over the Plains will 
eqand nonhwanj from Dal- 
las through Winnipeg Cool 
weather will Invade San 
Francisco and Los Angeles. 
Showers will be scattered 
across the HocVies. 


lAwcvaoiwbly 

HM 


Europe 

Souibeastem Europe l/om 
Athens io Bucharest on 
northeastward to Kiev will 
have sunn*, warm weather 
Thursday' Friday will be 
warm w*h scattered thunder- 
storms The weekend will 
turn cooler. Madrid through 
Some and Vienna will have 
mamly dry and seasonable 
eeaiher later this week 


N Heavy Heavy 

Stoi* 

Asia 

Tokyo will have sunny, 
warmer weather late this 
week Chilly wealner will 
plunge southward nlo north- 
eastern China and northern 
Korea late inis week. Show- 
ers and thunderstorms will 
precede Ihe change io cool 
or weeiher bom Shanghai to 
Seoul Hong Kong will be 
very warm and humid. 


Middle East 


Bwiu 

Ca*p 

PfflIHKUl 

-tennafem 

Lu»t>r 

Ryadh 


Today 
'*n*i Law 
OF OF 


Tomorrow 
High Low W 
OF OF 


ra/es seres * nun ai/ro pc 
asn? am * a*/i<Haz.7i > 
M/w isres > a*ms p m s 

rriBO 17/M 9 2B/B2 18/M ! 

40/ I'M C1/7U s OJ/l[»r3-T3 t 
38/100 W/Td * 41110673/73 s 


Latin America 

Today Tomorrow 

Ugh Low W High Low W 
OF OF OF OF 

Bustos Are 23/73 12«3 pc 71/70 9/48 sh 

CanKsa 3S/W 26/7s pc 3T.W 28/79 pc 

Una 22/71 17*61 pc 21/70 17*62 pc 

Maucociy ze.79 1J«3 I 26.<79 12/W * 

MCeJann 24/75 I9«6 pc 26/79 20/66 pc 

Sarluga 17ft2 3/37 5 18/64 4/39 pc 


Logornt B-aunny. pc -canty dourjy. c-doudy. 3h-shcwcra, Mnundefstnms. r-raln, slsnow Duntcs, 
wvsnow. l-iee. W-Weather. All maps, f occc a w o and dau provided by Accu-Weathor, bit w 1994 


Asia 


Today 


To* narrow 



High 

Low 

W 

High 

Low 



OF 

OF 


OF 

OF 


Bantfc* 

33/91 

24/75 

c 

32.69 

24/75 

1 

B*WHJ 

26.63 

1559 

a 

32/09 

16*61 

pc 

HongKp no 

28B: 

24775 

* 20 /82 

24/75 pc 

Manila 

3S.9S 

25/77 

a 

34.63 

34/75 


ftewDWH 

40/104 20/02 

i 

41*100 29/04 

9 


?9<<M 


9 

S3 .73 

12*53 

c 

Shanqfwi 

26/79 

14.57 

9 

25.7? 

17*62 

PC 

EmgiKW 

31 .66 

22/71 

pc 32*09 

23*73 

PC 

Tojw, 

2962 

19*00 

5*1 

28/® 

21/70 pc 

To*yo 

21 /TJ 

7/44 

P< 

<?«? 

9 '« 4 

Africa 

Aljtars 

20.08 

13*55 


23/73 

17/53 

9 

Trmm 

19/139 

11.52 

9 

21/70 

fl/40 

PC 

CaMMjnci 

1966 

12*53 

5 

22/71 

14*7 pc 

Unar* 

20 W 

10*0 

PC 

24,75 

11/52 

PC 

Lo/tta 

31*89 

25/77 


31/68 

26/79 

BC 

Marob, 

21/70 

1102 


22/71 

I3A5 


Tuna 

22/71 

I3/5S 

pc 

23*73 

15.59 

9 

North America 

Anchcaaga 

14.67 

6/43 

, 

13.55 

3*37 

P7 

Aitirta 

25779 

12/53 

» 

3B*B 

16-61 

a 

8 «IM 

12*53 

7*44 


16*61 

10*0 



22.71 

8/46 

9 

24/75 

17*93 

a 

Dm. or 

29/79 

10*50 


24.75 

7 44 

PC 

Chtrn 

19*08 

6*43 

9 

52/71 

11-53 

9 


28/82 

21*70 

pc 

Z*.V! 

21.70 

PC 

HowBon 

2964 

19/06 

1 

29/M 

19*66 


L35 ArgelfG 

20 *W 

13/55 

FC 

Z2.71 

14/57 


1 *™ 

29 .64 

22/71 

1 

31/96 

71*70 


Mrompcfs 

24775 

13/55 


25/77 

13/55 


MotrlT^al 

15*59 

0*43 

sh 

17.-62 

0*46 

sh 

**BW" 

2964 

22.71 

pc 

J9/B4 

22/71 

3 

NtwVoiIl 

>0/04 

10*0 

c 

19*66 

11/52 


Pfoero 

33*91 

16*4 

8 

31.68 

18/54 

* 

Sot Fmtt 

17/62 

11*2 

* 

10/64 

10*0 


5ean*e 

i?re? 

9/48 

c 

19*6 

p/48 pc 

Ttxirto 

14/57 

6*43 


16*81 

8/46 


Vfj'Junglll 

20.08 

9*46 

c 

31/70 

13*5 

9 


ACROSS 

1 Kind of fair 

7 10 th-century 
English king 

13 Walden Pond 
habuuG 

is One found in 
the stacks 

u Bandit's cry 

i« Fine- waoled 
sheep 


11 Beehives, tor 
Instance 
IB From B to 11 

21 Venison 

22 Alda of 

23 ‘Cheaper by the 

M Basab alter 
Maglte 
28 View 

28 Antique autos 
27 Vain 


Solution to Puzzle of Mav 17 


□□sanna aaaanna 

Baasaas aasasna 

BODDDQQ DQC2DUUG 

□SO QQan □□□□□ 

saaaa aaa 
□□aaa maas aaaa 
Baana aana naan 
□bhhdsq BBaaiuaa 
aaam asaa aaans 
□□□a □□□□ sbobs 
□am aaaaa 
□hhoei □□□□ □□□ 

aBSHDOB aaaasaa 

□□□□□□a BIZJHBHBB 
□BasaBB sGianuQa 


29 Temporary hair 
tinter 

30 Romance with 
the past 

•a Rubberneck 
at Unked 
as Catamount 

40 Thumbs 
through 

«i out (relax) 

43 Not very 
competent 

48 Furry" 
companions 

40 Allocate 
<•7 Leggy one 
48 Passengers 
so Birders' society 
81 Duds 

83 piece 

84 Volunteers 
ss Super buys 
so Expunge 


1 Mademoiselle's 
hat 

2 Short poems 

3 Fire of the mind 

4 Actor Parker 
8 Letter after 

sigma 


• Most timber 
TWftg’s/ur 

• Consider 
o Rose up. In 

daiect 

10 Newspaper part 

11 inhabitant 

12 Dropping 
sounds 

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17 Sixth 

20 Searched 
thoroughly 

22 Old radio 
favorite 

‘Easy ‘ 

as gin 

28 Delight beyond 
measure 
28 Splits 
si Dawdled 

32 Teeth holders 

33 Bright star In 
Virgo 

34 Mechanic’s Job 

35 Revised 
37 Hillary's 

conquest 
3a Political thaw 


«e Shafts out 
43 Hero's 
exploits 


' Y r : „ . l \- 


44SHnbqne ; . MiltoguanNibasL 
4s Actress Van ' 4*Sadefy -. ' 
Doran MOne.tnAbeWayi 

• . 4;. 


nark try EMM R Stall 


O New York Times Edited by Will Shortz. 




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Jr !"‘SP. 

Custic 
_ f!.:r&in- 


Travel in a world without borders, time zones 

or language barriers. 




wm 


0W aaumgcani j Imagine a world where you can call counin - to countn’ 05 easily as you can from home. Afld 

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AT&T 


1994 .JJKT 


A1KT Access Numbers. 

How to call around the world. 

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1 Dial iht; corresponding WiS' Access Number 

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the courno >xw’re in and ask for Qtttomer Service. 


COUNTRY 

Australia 
China. PRC*** 

G uam 

Hong Kong 

India* 

Indonesia* 

Korea 

Koreaaa 

Malaysia* 

New Zealand 
PhUipptngS* 
Saipan* 

Siltg-lpr/Ttf 

Sri Lanka 
Taiwan* 
Thailand* 


Armenia** 

Austria**** 

Belgium* 

Bulgaria 

Croatia** 

Czech Rep 

Denmark* 

Finland* 

F rance 

Germany 

Greece 11 

Hungary* 

IcvlancTe 

Ireland 


ACCESS NUMBER 

ASIA 

1-800-881-011 

-** 10811 



600-1111 

000-117 

001-801-10 

0039-111 

009-11 

ir 

800-0011 

HQU-9M 

105-11 

235-2873 

yuKHii-m 

-tjOnjU 

0080-10288-0 

roi'wi-ini 

EUROPE 

8*14111 

022-903-0 J1 

0800-100-10 

OO-ISMKWIO 

99-38^1011 

00-420-00101 

8001-0010 

9800-100-10 

194.-0011 

01304)010 

00-800-1311 

OOa-800-QIUI 

0994XR 

1-800-550-000 


COUNTRY 

Italy* 

Liechtenstein* 

Lithuania* 

LuXk.mi>'.'urc 


ACCESS NUMBER 

172-1011 

155-00-11 

8*196 

ojsno-om 


Macedonia. F.Y.R. of 99-800 4288 

Malta' nnrxi-»xi.i in 

Monaco* 19*-00l i 

Netherlands* 06-022-91 j j 

Norway 800-190-11 

Poland**** 0*0lO48<Mlu i 

Portugal* 05017-1-28 8 

Romania 01-800-t288 

Rogsia*T31oscow) 155-5042 

Slovakia 00-420-00101 

Spa/na WF'F r-OQ.! i 

Sweden* 02Q-"95-6l j 

Sw-toerkmd* 15 5-00- n 

0500-89-0011 

^Atraiiie* 8*100- 1 1 

midple e ast 

fr-V-KV)/ 

| j80- , AXHM 

l~ r 7-100-272*’ 



426-801 



“ I-80O-1Q 

00-800-12377 

*< ’■0-121 

AHERIC AS 

_ IH| l-tHiO-2^i-tll 1 


Uuhiain 

C\firu-i* 

Israel 

Kuwait 

Ubaaon (Bclrull 

Qatar 

Saudi Arabia 
Turkey* 

L'AE* 


Atgenurw 

Bella.-* 

Bubvtu* 


~Tm : : 

m: 

95-000-462-4?^ •: 
s> :33fr 

.- .-55? 


COUNTRY ACCESS NUMBER ; 

Brazil QQO-801 1> ‘ 

Chile oOa-QJIL 

Colombia 980-11-0010 ^ 

CrsU Rica'a ; lt4~ 

Ecuador ,';ng . 

El Saivadorti : 

CmugnaJa* 190 : ; 

G uyana*** , .. ’ 

Honduras 4 * •. 12J : 

■Memcnaaa 95-600-462-^ ? 

Nicaragua (Mauag ua) 'odSfr 

Pana/naa . '.'^09 v - 

Pera* ~ *■ 

Surina me . ■ .-156 

Vniguay QQTrflO . 

kenezuula-a 

CARIKBEAN 

Bahamas 1-800872-2^ 1 ~ 

Bermuda* 1-800872-2^1 :~ 

Brithh L 1 / 

Cayman Islands 1-800^72-2^.? 

Grenada* 1-800-872-2^ / 

Haiti* 001-800-972-^^'? 

Jamaica** Q-S»872-2881 {. 

Neth. Antfl 001-800-872-2881^ 

St Kins Nevis 1-800-872J8®..: 


1-800*72-3881 ■ 

1-800-872-2881 

1-8008/23881 ; . 

is i-fioo-gn-z^t r - 

I -800-872-2881 ^ 
001-800-972-^% ^' 

001 - 800 - 872-2881 

1-80087336^ . ,? 

AFRICA ! 


Wi.ni; 


Egypt" ( Cairo J 

Gabon* 

Gambio* 

Kem- a* 

Liberia 
South Africa 


'<fl»irCiltBW^Alr»4«rt»‘-*4*uijHmuTOK- XU3 WoHdCmint W -V^’- 
r-.-mtu. itiCTNian' cAim 1 wtwn iwr *jn ts, i .aunt-, ir,.i»».v.4 ir,.', 

World comerr- pro r«ri«t« . 4 ,SkT OSAMkoT rue’ pii*' j-Uk- •'.J , Im/« 

lu.«-d on (hr mmrv iui 4/r v/SbiR 

■IKT UShMrerf w'im; «»*albhle fnwi jH 9ie exmine. Iw^l 

TOT LioyiuFi- Lhk'* turnin' pborinacTTmjta'nsririv' li r, lo 

liuvr* 

‘hirfc p.-prrr' ■ ' 4 p/v ...f.l r.K Jijl rv 

l«-*m m/c * Vjcub. ta *rh 


-.5KMtaap :>-: 

Otu-eol -v 

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797-Wil ! 


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