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When Former Fnemipia 
Turn Business Partners 

Paris, Tuesday, May 24, 1994 

No. 34.596 

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Millions of Arabs Find Themselves . 
Accepting the Israelis as a Fact of Life 

sSh ^IeMurpfay lah, editor of Kuwait’s AJ Siyassah newspaper, 

and Nora Boustany I would like to see this country.'’ 

i % 

By Caryle Murphy 
and Nora Boustany 

Washington Pm Service 

CAIRO-- Ahmed Kadry, an Egyptian, and 
Arraram i Eliasaf, an Israeli, had no idea thev 
once bad tried to kill each other. 

Pin an ex-pilot,” Mr. Eliasaf said while 
chatong at a recent business meeting in Cairo 
I m also an ex-pilot in the air force," Mr. 
Kadry said. 

“What aircraft did you fly?” 

A group of Egyptian Copts, defying the com- 
mand of their religious leader, took off recently 

A Mjg-21, Mr. Kadry replied. "I worked at 

Mansoura air base.” 

'-.-3 5^ * 

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■ ■- » f<: 

"I was one of the pilots who attacked Man- 
soura on the ninth of October 1 973.” Mr. Hia- 
«f disclosed to the rapt attention of everyone 
in the room. 

Mr. Kadry, now 45, was wishing his wife a 
happy anniversary on the phone when Israeli 
i«s btpn the raid, one of the biggest of the 
1973 Arab-Israeii War. After hanSne ud be 
scrambled his jet as bombs felL 
• “1 told him I also attacked his bases, so we 
are equal," joked Mr. Kadry in an interview. 

nrlflina tint Ur E1L...r ■ . 

mand of their religious leader, took off recently 
for Jerusalem to see the Christian holy places 
for the first time in 40 years. Israel was host to 
its first official delegation of Egyptian universi- 
ty professors, and earlier this month 60 Moroc- 
can-torn Israeli Jews revisited their birthplace 
for the first time in four decades. 

In a lew months, it is going to become “fash- 
ionable" to go there, said a Cairo businessman. 
Sammy Eldin. who just made his first nip. 

"Let me tell you something." said Fahmy ol 
Ghazali, 48, who also made his first trip a few 
weeks ago. “From the beginning, all the Israeli 
people were very cooperative and encourag- 

He added, “We like their way of doing busi- 
ness. They are very serious, they don’t waste 
time after introductions. They start directly on 
their plan of action.'’ 

Israel’s transition from pariah to potential 
partner is most evident in the overtures to 
Israelis by Arab governments and businessmen 

Ijj- ■ J ™<w'8vvtiJuucuLa ana Businessmen 

adding that Mr. Eliasaf is returning soon for seeking potentially lucrative deals. Since Ser>- 
another visit to Egypt. “I think we have a lot of t ember, Israeli officials have received VIP Lreat- 
stones to talk about " ™ 



stories to talk about.” 

The transformation, of these enemy pilots 
into business partners is a parable for the 
ground-shaking change taking place in rela- 
tions between Arabs and Israelis — a resigned 
but growing recognition by millions of Arabs 
from Morocco to the Golf that the Jewish state 
has become an accepted part of life in the 
Middle East. 

Signs of momentous change are in the details. 
Israel now has direct telephone links with sever- 
al Arab states, including Qatar and Lebanon. 

Timieift'e a. 

ment in Qatar, Oman, Tunisia and Morocco. 
Qatar is studying how to supply Israel with 
natural gas. Egypt has launched discussions on 
a joint ol refinery, and officials talk of eventu- 
ally linking Arab and Israeli electricity grids. 

Millionaire businessmen from Saudi Arabia, 
Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain are jetting off to 
London, Airis and Cairo to meet Israelis, while 
Jordanians, Egyptians and Lebanese are rush- 
ing to Jerusalem for similar contacts. 

“The name of the game now is business," 
said Raouf Sand, the official in the Egyptian 
Foreign Ministry who organized a ground- 

L-— t-- — — r_ . a m 5 m 

Kohl’s Choice 
Wins Vote 

For President 
In Germany 

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Victory by Herzog Gives 
Chancellor a Boost in 
Tough Re-election Race 

KHEXf - Ja ST Une Kemed > On-** coffin being canied from SL Ignatius uSoSX 

Yorfcafter her fmeral Monday. Her children John F. Kennedy Jr. and Caroline Kennedy SchlSnU are ar m 

Kamedy entegaed the former first lady at rites attended byljDOO people. She 


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Tunisia’s stale-run television sent a crew to f 0 ”?? 11 M““stry who organized a gnound- 
Israd for the first time to do a program on West taking symposium here for Arab and Israeli 

Bank Palestinians, and Arab newspapers are 1011115111 officials. They discussed regional pack- 
sending correspondents to Israel with some i 0 * 11 * possibly “one visa for the region." 

regularity. Many Syrians are also looking forward to the 

1 would like logo there,” said Ahmed Jaral- See MIDEAST, Page 5 

For Seoul, Strong Yen Means Business 

Israel Demands Arafat Restate 
Commitment to Peace Accord 

rffman -. 

JERUSALEM demawfed Mtmday 
that Yasser Arafat, chairman of the Palestine 
Liberation Organization^ recommit. himself in 
writing to the Ga 2 *Jerid» peace accord, and 
senior Israefi leaders warned that the process of 
Palestinian sdf-ruk would be frozen if Mr. 
Arafat could not assert control in those two 

The demands followed continuing 4isanay 
among the Palestinian security forces and the 
disclosure of further excerpts from a speech Mr. 
Arafat delivered May 10 in a Johannesburg 
mosque, in which he appeared to imply he 
would abrogate the accord with Israel. It was 
disclosed earlier that Mr. Arafat had called in 
the same speech for a ^jihad” to liberate Jerusa- 
lem. He said he had been misunderstood. 

Prime Minisier Yitzhak Rabin’s spokesman, 
Odcd Ben-Ami, said Israel would ask Mr. Ara- 

fat “few a written reaffirmation of his commit- 
ntenthvh^it<rf theracecbin Johannesburg.” 

" y A Dghtist gnnqj orrabbis and secular activ- 
ist* disclosed; that in his address, Mr. Arafat 

said the pact with Israel was shmlar to the one 
that Mohammed had signed with the Kuraish 
tribe in 628 B.G 

“This agreement, I am not considering it 
more than the agreement which had been 
signed between our Prophet Mohammed and 
Kuraish,” Mr. Arafat said. 

- Since some scholars have contended that 
Mo hamm ed broke die truce, his statement 
could indicate that Mr. Arafat intends to do the 
same. But Mr. Arafat's loyalists take issue with 
this interpretation, saying that it was the Kur- 
aish who violated the agreement fust. 

Mr. Arafat’s adviser cm Israeli affairs. Ah- 
med Tibi, said Israeli news organizations had 
distorted Islamic history to put Mr. Arafat on 

By Andrew Pollack 

New York Tina Service 

SEOUL — When Mitsubishi Motors Corp. 
said recently that it might buy steel from Po- 
hang Iron and Steel Co. in South Korea, it 
created headlines on both sides of the Sea of 
Japan. Japanese auto companies, as a rule, have 
never bought Korean steel 

But with the rise of the yen, Korean steel is 
now about 20 percent cheaper than Japanese 
steel, Mitsubishi said, a difference too great to 

Even as it squeezes Japan's famous steel, 
auto and electronics companies, the strong yen 
has given new-life to their competitors in South 
Korea and elsewhere in Asia, pushing growth 
throughout what is already the world's fastest 
growing region. 

“It's a tailwind for us.” said Kim Sun Hong, 
the chairman of Kia Motors Corp., Koreans 
second-largest automaker. The company is 

doubling capacity at its main factory in antici- 
pation of grater exports. 

Owing i n part to the yen’s rise, South Korea's 
economy is booming again after two vears of 
sluggishness. Economists expect 7 percent to 8 
percent growth this year, compared with 5.6 
percent last year and 5 percent the vear before 

New factories are going up everywhere and 
the government has decided to allow 20.000 
foreign workers into the country to help fill job 

‘The most important factor is the ven," said 
Lim Dong Sung, president of the Samsung 
Economic Research Institute. “The economic 
recovery is led by heavy industry — cars, ship- 
building, electronics. Most of these industries 
compete with Japan." 

The yen is now worth about 7.7 Korean won. 
a gain of 22 percent from 6.3 won at the end of 
1992. That has given Korean products a price 

advantage of 10 percent to 25 percent over 
Japanese ones, Korean executives say. 

With such an advantage. South Korea’s ship- 
building industry surpassed Japan's in 1993 to 
become the world's largest in terms of orders 
received. Korean auto exports soared 40 per- 
cent in 1993 to 640,000 vehicles and another 
strong gain is expected this year. 

The South Korean consumer electronics in- 
dustry has benefited as welL “The export busi- 
ness is really booming," said Bae Soon Hoon, 
president of Daewoo Electronics Co. Daewoo's 
exports in the first quarter were up 48 percent 
to SSI 1 million. 

Some of these exports are products that are 
sold by Japanese companies under their own 

In most cases. Korean products are displac- 
ing Japanese ones in the United Slates. Europe. 
Asia and Latin America, not in Japan itself. But 

See YEN, Page 5 

U,S. Prepares to Welcome Slower Growth 

See JIHAD, Page 5 

By John M. Berry 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — After months of rapid 
growth that have pushed the American econo- 
my close to the limits of what it can produce 
without straining, a broad array of forecasters 
is predicting that slower growth is on the way. 

But that doesn't mean that hard times are 
ahead. Indeed, to most economists, a slight 
slowdown would be welcome news. 

“Despite a pattern of decelerating growth, 
the next couple of years may very weD be the 
best of the expansion," said Laurence H. Mey- 
er, who heads a forecasting firm in Si. Louis' 

Mr. Meyer’s forecast, which is s imilar to that 
of many other economists, calls for growth to 
fall below a 3 percent annual rate in the second 
half of this year, slowing to about 2J percent in 
1995 and even less in 1996. 

Growth win be slowing this year, the fore- 

casts say, both because of natural forces in an 
economy thai is moving into die fourth year of 
an expansion and because of the Tour increases 
in inleresl rates engineered this year by the 
Federal Reserve Board. 

The Fed. which raised short-term rates by 
half a percentage point last week, has been 
boosting rates precisely to slow growth, which 
reached a 7 percent annual rate in the final 
three months of Iasi year. The Fed hopes that 
higher rales will keep the economy from over- 
heating and generating more inflation down the 

This slightly slower growth is probably good 
news for President Bui Clinton, as it should 
mean the economy will still be reasonably 
strong at the time of the congressional elections 
in November and may still be growing in 1996. 
the next presidential election year. 

For politicians seeking re-election this year. 

economic conditions should be about as good 
as they are likely to get on the national level. 
For instance. Mr. Meyer expects Americans' 
inflation-adjusted after-tax incomes to go up 
2.6 percent this year, which — except for 1992 
— would be the largest increase since 1988. 

While the growth figures in the new forecasts 
may seem low, Mr. Meyer and others said 
growth in that range would continue pushing 
down the unemployment rate, which was 6.4 
percent Last month, into 1996. 

More important, while the economy will be 
growing relatively slowly. It will be operating ai 
or slightly above the level that could cause a 
small, gradual rise in inflation — which is 
regarded by most economists as the measure of 
full employment. 

Of course, economic conditions vary widely 
across the country, with California and parts of 

See RECOVERY, Page 5 

Terror Is Fading in Vietnam 
But Fear Remains Pervasive 


U.S. and Japan Nearing Trade Deal 

WASHINGTON (AP) — Outlines of a 
compromise emeged Monday as n^otia- 
tois from theUnited Stales and Japanstiug- 
gfed to resolve a three-month trade dispute 

between the, two countries. 

They vat said to be dose to a deal in 
which the United States would pledge not to 
seek specific numerical targets for nnporK 
into Japan. In return. Japan would drop its 
Opposition to using various criteria to mea- 
sure progress in opening markets. 

Negotiators met Monday for the fourth 
time m five days, with growing signs that 
agreement was unmmenL ~ _ 

r om m er c e Secretary RonaM ILBrown 
said the fact that the discussions, which had 

originally been scheduled to last only one 
day, were still under way was a “good and 
positive sign." 

The U.S. trade representative, Mickey 
Kantor, said Japan hid responded to pro- 
posals he had put forward a month ago in 
Morocco “in a very positive manner,” tot he 
refused to go ioto specifics about what was 
bong discussed or to predict when the talks 
might be over. ... 

Malcolm W. Browne 

New York Thna Service 

HO CHI MEMH CITY. Vietnam — The 
terror erf arbitrary arrests, secret trials and pe- 
nal servitude that gripped Vietnam in the de- 
cade after the 1975 “liberation" has begun to 
fade against the glare of the country’s economic 
dawn. But fear still casts a subtle shadow. 

By 1988, when Vietnam’s Communis i leaders 
began a struggle to improve their long-suffering 
country’s image and attract desperately needed 
foreign investment, the network of prison 
camps is believed to have freed all but a feu- 
hundred of ihe teas of thousands of political 
prisoners they held. 

suspect can expect to spend up io a vear in jail 
before bring tried. 

Political trials, which are dosed to foreign 
observers, still result in long prison sentences 
for such vaguely defined crimes as "counterrev- 
olutionary propaganda.” Prudent citizens 
choose their words carefully. 

; - 39sw#t sifcto/j > 

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But although overt opposition to the govem- 
roent is quiescent, the police still make mid- 
night calls on sleeping families, and an unluckv 

For some, the stres> of uncertainly has 
proved insuperable. 

The proprietor of a Saigon leather-goods 
store told a visitor that two of his brothers had 
recently committed suicide, fearing that they 
were about to be re-airesied and sent hack to a 
“re-education camp" or one of the "new eco- 
nomic zones” set up immediately after the war 
— Vietnam's equivalent of Siberian gulags. 

The family was friendlv with many American 

Today in our series charting 
the West’s evolving landscape since 
D-Day , two eminent social com- 
mentators address the question of 
ethnicity and muhiculturalism. 
Whereas Europe’s cohesive societies 
defend themselves against immi- 
gration, A merica-the-Haven has al- 
ways looked to successive waves 
of newcomers to reinvigorate the 

Jonathan Eyal director of 
studies at the Ro\'al United Services 

studies at the Rtn'al United Servic 
Institute in London, and Richard 

Reeves, author and syndicated col- 
umnist, argue the value of each 
approach. (Page 4) 

Previous articles in the series 
have dealt with security, economics 

See VIETNAM Page 5 

Book Review 

Page 7. 
Page 7. 
Page 22. 
Page 22. 

For Krakow , McDonald’s Golden Arches Don’t Fit In 

By Jane Perlez 

New York Timet Service 

Mewsslond Prices 

Andorra. — 9.00 FF Uxemtiounj ML Fr 
Antilles — 71.20 FF Morocco.. 
Cameroon-1 .400 CF A AW— WJS 
Eaw>t...-E.P-3M0 R6unIon....llJ®FF 

France .9.00 FF Saudi Arobta^-gR- 

Gabon-.-. .960 CFA Senegal -.3MC.FA 
Greece- - -JOODr. Spain ...—20ttPTA5 


: LebSw*3us$ T30: U-S. Mil- ( 



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0.01% el 

The Dollar. 

NawYwfc. . ■ Mon.dosa 

DM 16436 

. Pound . .. 1.5Q7 

Y«n ; .. 1Q43& 

FF - 5.6263 


mam market square, with its domes and statues and ancient 
not go the way of some of Europe's other 

. ky tjntttnes of city pride that glows ever more fiercely 

smeethe collapM of conmunusm, Krakow is saving "no” to 
McDonald s m the square, known as Rynek Glowny. 

, , T0U “ on 1 a jukebox m a salon," said Sianislau 
Judmowicz, a professor of architecture and one of the city’s 

mnct naccuMar* i **.n ■ J 

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mast^assioQaie defender. “We consider our marketplace our 

J^uffingMcDonald's is hardly unknown in preservation- 
oramwBComnumbcs m the WesL But here in Krakow, a 
pjaceor contemplative rhythms that echo from the Jagellonian 

University and the city’s religious and royal antecedents, ihe 
rebellion against the fast-food chain carries a special meaning. 
The fight is not so much about a particular building, although 
that is pan of n, but about fending off whai many here see as 
(he cult of prosperity. 

Badly abused by the Communist government which built a 
polluting steelworks nearby that scarred priceless statues and 
architecture, the city is now working hard to clean up its air. 
water and art Many Krakovians say they do not want what 
they call another kind of outside vulgarity and will use their 
new-ruund democratic means to stop it. 

"The activities of this firm are symbolic of mass industrial 
civilization and a superficial cosmopolitan way of life.” said 
Mr. Juchnowicz, who is also the chairman of the Polish 
Ecological Club. “Many historic events happened in this place, 
and McDonald’s would be the beginning or the cultural degra- 
dation of this most precious urban area." 

McDonald's, which has 13 restaurants in Poland, savs that 

Krakow is being unfair. The company says it already has one 
outlet in tite city and went to great lengths to ensure that the 
restaurant melded with the facades of Floijanska Street, the 
old Royal Way, where it was built The red and yellow logos 
are indeed discreet no bigger than any erf the myriad new 
commercial signs on the street 

“We have proven that McDonald’s can fit in," said Timothy 
Femott the managing director of McDonald’s Poland. “We- 
took a 14th-century building that was devastated and restored 
it to ns natural beauty." 

Mr. Fenton said McDonald's was being picked on. “They 
have set a precedent by having everything else on the square — 
Adidas, Kodak. Why not us? It is an emotional thing” 

. T5 e S UI ? 5 “ ^company’s plans to open a restaurant 
m a faded but degant bufldmg with 15tiMxat2iyfoundations. 
To temper emotions, McDonald’s agreed to put its entrance on 

Sec KRAKOW, Page 5 


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By Stephen Kinzer 

New York Times Service 

BERLIN — Chancellor Helmut Kohl won 
an important political victory Monday when a 
specialty constituted assembly chose his candi- 
date, Roman Herzog, chief justice of Germa- 
ny s highest court to be the next president 
Mr. Herzog, 60, will take office on Julv 1, 
replacing Richard von Weizsacker, who after 
two five-year terms was ineligible for re-elec- 

Although the German presidency was once 
considered to be above partisan politics, this 
year’s campaign was hard-fought by party lead- 
ers because of its potential impact on the race 
for chanceDor that is under way. Mr. Kohl 
warned delegates from his Christian Democrat- 
ic Union that if Mr. Herzog failed to win, the 
party's chances in the October election would 

The chancellor, who was sitting at Mr. Her- 
zog’s side when the result was announced, is 
facing a tough re-election campaign against 
Rudolf Scharping of the Social Democratic 
Party. The election Monday suggested that Mr. 
Kohl remains strong. 

In the decisive third round of voting, Mr. 
Herzog won the support of the centrist Free 
Democrats, who are Mr. Kohl’s junior coalition 
partners. Their decision was taken as a sign that 
the coalition is firm. 

After the election, Mr. Herzog said in a 
speech that Germany faced an uncer tain and 
difficult future, but expressed confidence that 
“we Germans, we Europeans, can do what must 

be done." 

He also appealed for greater understanding 
between the country’s East and West. 

“To the citizens of the former Federal Re- 
public, of whom much sacrifice is being asked, I 
would say that this is the result of ahistorica] 
injustice which happened to fall on Ihe Elbe 
border,” he said. 

“To those in the new states, please under- 
stand that you are not a burden to us but a 
windfall," he said. “You bring much with you, 
experiences that we in the West did not have, in 
a world where many things were more humane 
than they were with us.” 

Mr. Herzog failed to win the dear majority of 
votes needed for victory in the first two rounds, 
but in the third round he took 696 votes to 605 
for his Sodal Democratic opponent, Johannes 
Rau, governor of North Rhme-Westfalia. 

The vote was taken at the Reichstag, the once 
and future home of the Parliament, by a U24- 
member assembly consisting of all 662 mem- 
bers of Parliament's lower house and an equal 
number of representatives from the 16 state 

Opinion surveys suggested that if the public 
had been allowed to vote, the result would have 
been different, with Mr. Rau easily defeating 
Mr. Herzog, who is relatively unknown. 

Tire president has little formal power, but the 

job became highly visible after Mr. Weizsflcker 
began usng it as a pulpit to denounce terror 
against foreigners and to remind Germans that 
they should not forget negative aspects of their 

Mr. Herzog is a highly respected jurist but a 
puzzle to many Germans. 

He is a native Bavarian, though unlike most 
Bavarians he is Protestant rather than Catholic. 

He favors Brazilian dgars and collects Tommy 
Dorsey recordings. 

While serving as justice minis ter in the west- 
ern state of Baden-Wuntemberg, Mr. Herzog 
earned a hard-line reputation by introducing 

See GERMANY, P&ge 5 ' 

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Compiled by Our Staff From Dupatuta 

CANBERRA — Australia's op- 
position Liberal Party on Monday 
installed a rising young star. Alex- 
ander Downer, as its leader and 
dropped John Hewsoo. who led the 
conservative party to a surprise de- 
feat in elections last year. 

In its eighth leadership ballot in 
12 years, the party chose Mr. 
Downer over Mr. Hewson by 43 
votes to 36. ending divisive specula- 
tion that bad plagued the party 
since its loss to Prime Minister Paul 
Keating’s Labor Party in general 
elections in March 1993. 

Mr. Downer, 42, said alter his 
election: “The Liberal Party has 
made a fresh start. We’ve set a 
course to win the next election." 

Mr. Hewson. 47. who had called 
the ballot as his hold on the job 
slipped last week, said the party 
now had to maintain unity. 

Mr. Downer has been in Parlia- 
ment for 10 years. He favors more 
centrist economic policies than 
does Mr. Hewson. 

( Reuters. AP, AFP 1 

.:»Uw % 



Compiled by Our Staff Fnwr. Diiput. ha 

gSJT TOKYO — North Korea on 
GPFnd_ Monday described scheduled US- 
cAj' ' lad naval exercises in the Pacific as 
eo£v hostile military action that iL was 
prepared to counter. 

cSSIStf Navies from the Um'Lcd States. 
§3 wMb Japan, South Korea. Australia and 
Canada are to take part in six 
weeks of war games starting Tues- 
grmcri day near Hawaii. 
oSS** The ex erases will include a simu- 

o&aSi lated battle between opposing 
flats involving about 50 vessels. 
g°g IHI ,f 200 aircraft and 25.000 personnel. 

The maneuvers, known as Rim- 
g£J|R' pac. which stands for Pacific Rim. 
GngtouJ were first held in 1980 in response 
oncST j to the growing presence of the Sovi- 
gSSSfl et Navy in that region. 
g£gc) This’ year, military analysts say. 
gw**- ex ereise will serve as a prepara- 
Gcn«in, lion for a possible naval blockade 
of North Korea. 

SvSic ■ North Korea is suspected of de- 
gSES, . veloping nuclear weapons. It de- 
nies this but has refused to allow 
ggj international experts to fully in- 
specl its nuclear plants. 
wm The Llnited States has raised the 
prospect of sanctions against the 
§£?■£. North if it continues to deny such 

GtowiG “»S- 

A spokesman for the North Ko- 
gjgsn rean Foreign Ministry said the ma- 
olicaS neuvers were pan of a U.S.-led 
gIctbc campaign of military iniimidaiion. 
gSS “This is a military action that 
gKjf,; must not go unnoticed in view of 
the arms buildup the United StaLcs 
goi»> is forcing in South Korea,” the 
cpdnsv spokesman said. The ministry also 
assailed talk of sanctions over what 
gjfi it called the “fictitious*’ nuclear is- 
£Sro sue ' 

c-o^n The statement was carried by the 
Grew official Korean Central News 
gwb Agency, monitored in Tokyo. 

‘The Korean people are not 
clwt afraid of anyone's military action 
gJSHi and are prepared to counter the 
U.S.-orchest rated multinational 
Grtsa military action.” the statement 

GCITV . . * 

Gel Fn said 

Grttl In an interview published Mon- 

otHci day, a North Korean defector said 
g™ North Korea secretly extracted 12 
g™r kilograms of plutonium from spent 
crenf nuclear fuel in 1983 despite its pub- 
lic denials. 

Australia liberals 
Elect New Leader 
And Stress Unity 

The defector. Kim Dui Ho. a 
former official at a North Korean 
reprocessing plant, told the Tokyo 
newspaper Yomiuri that the fuel 
came from a reactor at Yongbyon. 
which is at the center of the dispute 
between Pyongyang and the Inter- 
national Atomic Energy Agency. 

Plutonium is a key ingredient lor 
a nuclear bomb. North Korea, 
which denies it is trying to develop 
such weapons, insists the only plu- 
tonium it ever produced at Yong- 
byon was "a tiny amount” in 1992. 

So far. however, it has barred 
atomic agency experts from carry- 
ing out checks to determine wheth- 
er it was telling the truth. 

“If you have 12 kilograms of plu- 
tonium. you can make two nuclear 
bombs," said Mr. Kim. who defect- 
ed to South Korea on May 7. 

Mr. Kim also said that North 
Korea's secret nuclear develop- 
ment program was under the per- 
sonal supervision or President Kim 
11 Sung and his son. Kim Jong II. 

(Reuters, AP) 


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which, he said, “have not starred yfct in 
Under the decrees, Mr. Livshits said, base tax rates.f&ppy 
including the profits tax and value-added tax, woaW beJdw&d^jg 
percent to 20 percent, to boost production. 1 At thesame 
will face high Roes for tax evasion, tae-said. The domes UlSd 
the total number of taxes, offer tax advantage tbRos^ 
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JET JUNKYARD — A soldier patrolling Monday among the remains of jet fighters at a base in Baranovichi, Belarus. The planes 
were destroyed in accordance with an agreement on conventional weapons in Europe. About 30 MiGs are to be jimked tins year. 

iusiness Group In Hong Kozag ‘Opposes Patten’s Electoral Plan 

Compiled bi Our Staff Fr.-m Dispatches 
HONG KONG — Hons Kong’s General 
Chamber of Commerce, long a battleground 

businessmen who oppose confronting Beij- 

Mr. Fung said the chamber had told the 

Lfiitil now. electorates for functional con- people leaving Hong Kong ah ead of the 
siituenries have been tinv. At the last elec- colony’s transfer to Chinese sovereignty in 
lions, in onlv about 100.000 people 1997 dropped nearly 20 percent last year, to 

f - * x - i . r . non 

^ ~ ivu . i uiix wiu me LiitiitiL^i utiu lujvj ijic f . - - | nnr\ 

between the pro-democracy and conseira- g 0venunen ° ils vj ewj> on paR5 of ^ biU . ran png from doctors and social workers to *3.000. 
,'imnr ramp .mu no MAnHfU' L‘<?v '.i -l. f r *. -*» . * Chambers til mmmprrr member*. at- Th* t 

tive camps, came out on Monday against key 
parts of Governor Chris. Patten’s reform hill. 

The group's chairman. William Fung, crit- 
icized Mr. Patten’v plan to give all 2.7 million 
workers a second vote in TunciionaJ." or 
ixcupauonal-based constituencies. 

In recent years, the chamber has been the 
stage for a struggle between members favor- 
ing more democracy before the British colo- 
ny returns to Chin.i’in 1997 and conservative 

which the Legislative Council will debate on 
June 29. 

He said, “We felt that the administration’s 
proposals to create new large functional con- 
stituencies. representing an electorate of 
some 2.7 million from nine industrial and 
commercial sectors, to be a major departure 
from the concept and character of the exist- 
ing functional constituencies.” 

chambers of commerce members were al- 
lowed to elect members. 

The spokesman attributed the decrease to 
the lingering recession in many of the West- 

Mr. Patten savs widening the electorate era countries that_ emigrants choose and to 
will make legislators more accountable to reduced immigration quotas in destination 
public opinion but China has accused him of coun tries. 

trying to introduce direct elections by the About 60.000 people left the territory in 
back door. 1991 . and an additional 66,000 departed in 

In a separate development, a government 1992- The government expects about 60.000 
spokesman said Monday that the number emigrants this year. (Reuters, AFP ) 

WASHINGTON (AP) — Stepping into a 
State Warren hi (Christophs notified Ukraine to 


some thing that the United ‘.States' ^has cotekteh ^ 

State Department spokesman, Mike McQifry.Mr. , 
the Ukraine foreign minister, Anatoli Zksiko^ of the Ug 
letter delivered Monday, the UR official raid. ■ 

Crimean and Ukrainian leaders accused' jach'jamer np ~ sti n rtav tjf- 
stockpiling weapons and preparing to battle Crijn-a.^S;' 

aboutTO percemof which is Russian. - ’ 

vs?* 1 ' ■ 

SARAJE VO, Bosnia-Heraegovina (AP) '^x|^4^'-^''eo' ; ease 
tensions in Gorazde failed Monday within T?iiKed : ~ 

Nations officials said Serbian troops refused rosrthdraw froji $etdwn. 
were building new bunkers and were festricdhglJNHBit w^ ^ ^'Vv-- . 

Bosnian Serbian leaders signed an accord 
military commander. Sir Nfidiad Rose, pled^ng’ tp.j^Jvahbut-iS) ; 
militiamen out from a 3-kilometer exclurioa zone 'gK^dGora25la:'T& • 
troops were supposed to leave the town, wiudxis 56 kflomete»^*r«g&A 
southeast of Sarajevo, by Sunday. ’ . . • ’ 

On Sunday, “we all waited, for .the magical boar - 

Rob Anntnk, told journalists Monday. brut “no charges in 
meal of troops” occurred. Serbian soldiers were observed r 

their positions by building bunkers just outside Ure taiduacuLri^^ 
said. ■ . 

BRUSSELS (Reuters) — Sccrclffly-Generai Manfred "WOm 
NATO, who is recovering from operations for cancer of the 
miss a meeting of alliance defense ministers on Tuesday and ^ V/edntMaf 

in the Paris Press 2 The Allies Are Losing 

By Barry' James 

Inwmutten-il ilcralj Trhwie 

PARIS — Hir-v did Lhe Normandy landings 50 years 
ago look from the other side? The pro-German press in 
Paris reported the operation with banner headlines, but 
predicted an early failure for the .Allies. 

Le Matin reported from German official sources that 
the Allies had lost 25.600 men in the first day of fighting — 
the real figure was f 1.000 casualties or more — and had 
been forced to abandon several bridgeheads. It said air- 
borne forces had been effectively wiped out by land mines 
and German fire. 

“The first day of the invasion ended with a complete 
defensive success." the newspaper said, ciung sources in 

The June 7 front page included an appeal from Marshal 
Philippe Pkruin. the chief of state, for the French to remain 
calm and go about their duties normally while the fighting 
look place. 

In an oblique reference to the resistance. Petain warned 
people not to listen to those seeking to exploit the nation's 
distress. They threatened to lead it to disaster, he said. 

A report in the same edition said the information 
minister. Philippe Henriot, had been to Berlin to “render 
homage to the Waffen SS" — Hitlers most fanatical 
troops — which he said were fighting to achieve a “Euro-, 
pean revolution.” 

The following day. June 8, things were looking a little 
clearer for Le Matin, which reported that German resis- 

tance was strengthening along the Norciandv coast and called German “flying robots’^ were seriously disrupting 

that despite “desperate efforts" the .Allies had failed in 
their attempts to occupy Cherbourg and Caen. 

Le Matin reported that American. British and Canadi- 
an prisoners were being taken to Rouen, where it said 
“incidents” had occurred with the local population, an- 
gered by Allied bombing raids on their city. 

Meanwhile. Mr. Henriot continued his visit to Berlin by 
calling on the propaganda minister. Joseph Goebbels. He 
recalled the enthusiastic reception given recently to Retain 
in Paris. This, he said, was proof that the French followed 
a single govern men l that of the marshal. A few weeks 
later, the pec-pie of Paris were to give an equally enthusias- 
tic reception to General Charles de Gaulle’. 

The following week, on June 15. Le Cri du Peupie in 
Paris said the “Anajo-Americans" were vainly attempting 
to enlarge their bridgehead. For once, the newspaper said, 
correspondents from Germany. Britain and America 
could agree on one thing: “The destruction is terrific." 

On June 21, Le Petit Parisien reported the bombard- 
ment of London by a new German weapon described as 
“meteors or dynamite” — the V-l flying bombs. News of 
the fighting in' Normand> was relegated to page 2, where 
the newspaper, in a story datelined from Berlin, said that 
American troops were driving northward toward Cher- 
bourg. But the movement was dismissed as of no impor- 
tance. and German military sources said that the real 
battle of Normandy had not yet begun. 

The following day. June 22. Paris Midi said that the so 

supplies to the “invasion army” in France. Without men- 
tioning German losses, it said 650 American and British 
tanks had been destroyed since the beginning of the 
Normandy fighting. 

Paris-Soir on June 24 led with a warning by Goebbels 
that Germany's new weapon would continue to rain on 
London. The first phase of reprisals, he said, was but a 
prelude and there would be more powerful and effective 

The newspaper also picked up an article from the 
London newspaper News Chronicle explaining why the 
United States had refused to recognize de Gaulle's Free 
French as the legitimate government in France. 

It said America's aim was to defeat Germany while De 
Gaulle's was to achieve the spiritual rebirth of France — 
and “it is first necessary to show that France can be 

The article was accompanied by a statement from de 
Gaulle's representative in Normandy saying that there 
could be no elections in France for several years to allow 
for “ihe detoxification of populations infected by German 

Also on its front page, Paris-Soir reported a major 
.Allied bombing raid on the Paris region, which it said 
killed at least 75 and wounded 171. The head of police in 
the capital bemoaned the “inexplicable imprudence” of 
the Parisians, who he said had flocked to see what was 
happening rather than taking shelter. 

like It or Not 

By Adam Bryant 

(ViT, York Times Service 

NEW YORK — More than 40 
years after jet aircraft first carried 

a comeback in the United States, 
flying more and more passengers 
on routes long served by jets. 
While the smaller airplanes offer 

passengers and 25 years after the some advantages, many comrouni- 
firsi flights of the supersonic Con- ties fret over the idea of whirring 
corde, propeller planes are making propellers on their runways. 


Geneva, since 1755 

im r 

■ . 

Because many travelers board ics." said David A. Swierenaa. chief 
propeller planes" reluctantly, or re- economist for the Air Transport 
fuse to fly on them at all. some Association, a trade group in 
cities that have recently lost all jet Washington. “Carriers are match- 
service say they have become less ing the size of the plane to the 
attractive to outside businesses. number of passengers in a particu- 
"lt is hard to present ourselves as lar market." 
a state-of-the-art, high-tech compa- Airport officials and travel 
ny when you have to geL on a 19- agents in cities that have recently 
seat turboprop to get here," said lost all jet service, like Sioux City: 
Harry Keaims, an executive with a Springfield, Illinois, and Worces- 
computer company in Sioux City. ter. Massachusetts, say many resi- 
lowa. * dents drive to neighboring cities to 

Sioux City officials say contracts board jetliners, 
for conventions planned in the city “A lot of people don’t like the 
were canceled or put on hold after smaller planes because they are 
United Airlines ended jet service slightly less safe," said Michael 
last year. And Mr. Keaims said his Berger, an owner of Premier Trav- 
com’panv occasionally sent driven; el. a travel agency in Sioux City. 

90 miles { 150 kilometers) to Oma- Direct comparisons of the safety 
ha. Nebraska, which has jet service, records of jet ai rcrart and propeller 
to pick up clients who did not w ant planes are not compiled by any 
to lake a propeller flight to Sioux agency or group, but industry exec- 
City. uiives generally agree that the rate 

Last year, more than 50 million of accidents resulting in deaths has 
passengers in the United Slates been two to three limes higher on 
flew on propeller aircraft, mostly propeller planes than on jets. Gen- 
on regional airlines, on nights of erallv. smaller propeller planes 
less than 500 miles or two hours. have a higher accident rate than the 
So common are the propeller larger ones, 
planes that many passengers find The shift toward propeller 
no choice but to use them, w hatever planes is a result of the airline in- 
Iheir feelings about the relative dustry's continuing effort to turn a 
safety, greater turbulence or lack of consistent profit since the industry 
amenities aboard. was deregulated in 1978. 

In the last five year*, airlines In the mid-1980s, airlines started 

Vfichoion Ccnsuniin. I ru* M'lutins. CH 12W G«neve 

amenities aboard. was deregulated in 1^78. 

In the last five year*, airlines In the mid-1980s, airlines started 
have replaced jets with propeller creating "hubs" at airports to 
planes on at least 375 routes, ac- which they Tunneled passengers 
cording to research by Kidder. Pea- f rom nearby cities. The airlines as- 
body & Co. Another 202 routes signed jet aircraft to serve many of 
gained jet service, for a net loss of these feeder routes, thinking they 

jet service on 173 routes. 

“It's a simple matter of econom- 

would be needed as demand grew. 
But after long and steady growth 

in passenger traffic, demand lev- 
eled off. leaving the airlines with 
too much capacity and years of 
billion-dollar losses. Over the last 
four years, the world’s major air- 
lines have lost S15.6 billion. 

Because jet aircraft are more ex- 
pensive to operate on shorter 
fiighis than propeller planes, air- 
lines in the United States and in 
countries throughout the world are 
switching to propeller-driven 
planes, finding they can reduce op- 
erating costs by 20 percent to 40 
percent on a typical route. 

How big a difference does a pro- 
peller aircraft mean to passengers? 
Fares generally do not change with 
a switch to propeller planes, and 
the travel time is not enormously 

Even though jet aircraft have far 
higher top speeds, short routes of- 
ten consist of a long climb and a 
long descent with just a modest 
sprint in between. 

But behind the passenger discon- 
tent are some differences that can- 
not be erased. Propeller aircraft 
generally fly at lower altitudes, 
where turbulence is greater. 

And boarding a propeller craft is 
usually a vivid reminder of what is 
ahead. Rather than walking down a 
covered ramp, impervious to wind 
or precipitation, passengers on a 
propeller plane often walk outside, 
exposed to noise and the elements. 

Some communities are so fearful 
that the loss of jet service will cur- 
tail economic development that 
they have guaranteed profits to air- 
lines that continue to provide jets. 

‘The NATO secretary-general will not be chairing the meeriag etf 
defense ministers on the advice of his doctors not to intezr^Chu 
convalescence,” the spokesman told reporters Monday. It wfflBe &afoji 
high-level NATO meeting that Mr. Warner, 59. has missed sincehefelHBr 
in 1991 ' ■ ■ ’•■ •• ; 

The NATO ministers are to discuss how the Partnerrfiqj for Teat* 
defense cooperation program would apply to Russia. ^ 

Opposition Turns Up Heat onHata 

TOKYO (Reuters) — Prime Minister Tsutomu Hata, hradoOsjJaal 
first minority government since 1955, came under a barrme W aifidsa; 
Monday from an aggressive opposition more determinerfthto evertb 
topple his coalition. •’ .{ .ll. V.’J'tr 

The Liberal Democratic Party, which now bolds more seats; fbmr the 
coalition, denounced Mr. Hata as ineffectual and a mere puppet of h^ 
powerful backroom boss. Ichiro Ozawa. “A person other than t&e prrac 
minister. Ozawa himself, is making all the decisions,” said Takasf& 
Fukuya, a Liberal Democratic lawmaker. “This two-tiered power struc- 
ture is deplorable.” • _ ; 1 v’-t 

Mr. Hata also came under attack for the delay in enacting a budget, 
now seven weeks overdue, which is needed to help finance anti-rwesswi 
measures. Legislators approved a second interim budget last tide 
the government over until the end of June: ■ 

Bomb Ends Colombia Election Peace 

BOGOTA (Reuters) — A bomb blast in Medellin that killed six ptiBi£ 
officers has shattered Colombia's fragile pre-election peace and renewed 
fears among officials that violence may stain the presidential elections 
Sunday. V; ; i i ": 

Police said Monday they thought the 40-kilogram (88-pound) bomk 
which exploded Sunday evening, wrecking a police van returning from 
escort duty at a soccer match, was probably the work of Marxist guetnDas 
opposed to the government . .- i . 

“AD the information we have suggests the guerrillas want to do 
something big before the elections to show their strength." a presidential 
source sard. The bomb Sunday shattered a calm in Medellin that had 
reigned since police shot and killed the drug boss Pablo EscoharGsvira 
there last December. - i . 

U.S. House Acts on Ocean Dumping ^ 

WASHINGTON (AP) — Acceding to an international convention 
signed Iasi year, the House of Representatives approved a ban-Monda) 
on dumping radioactive waste in the ocean. ''\7 ‘A 

The measure, which passed by voice vote, strengthens a 1972 law that 
prohibits the dumping of high-level radioactive wastes into ocean_warers. 
The bill must still be considered by the Senate. • 

The United Slates and most other industrialized nations in 1972 agreed 
to the London Dumping Convention that banned high-level radioactive 
waste dumping. In 1983 those nations also agreed to a voluntarynwrato- 
rium on disposing of low-level radioactive wastes in the ocean. ' The 
voluntary moratorium was formalized in November. 


Tunnel Passenger Service in July 

LONDON (Reuters) — Eurotunnel, operator of the Channel Tonnd 
linking Britain and France, said Monday it expected to start its passage 
service in a limited form in July. - ' 

Through trains will carry passengers between London and.ParisJffif 
shuttle trains will carry cars and other private vehicles between- the - 
coastal towns of Folkestone and Calais. 

A spokesman said the train service, which will take three hours tetwrip 
London and Paris and three hours and 15 minutes between Loralaijfirf 
Brussels, is expected to take 60 percent of the present business airtOTi 
among the three ci lies. - : ‘ 

Fifty-sax cars and motorcycles braking suddenly in die rain slapped 
into each other on Monday, injuring 15 people, on a motorway '-hw 
Rosenheim, south of Munich. ffte&n) 

warm by a coal fire in a frigid shack in Bishop La vis near Cape Town sfiep 
from inhaling fumes while asleep, police said, (Reuters) 

With fares substoitiaSy below those of Iberia and Air France,’ As 
privately owned Air Euiopa plans to start flying between Madrid s® 
Paris next month, the company announced in Madrid. (Readtrs) 
Fog dosed the airport on the Portuguese island of Madeira, strand? 
hundreds of tourists, airport officials said Monday. Flights were hop 
Sunday afternoon, and there was Utile prospect of the weather dearto? 
until Tuesday, they said. .(Rest®? 

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Wfhlte House in a Bind Over California 

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w^^ftjsihemPr! ^ ^ 11,01,0 °f rite Clinton campaign 
Si 5 J?L C «» c «iW. s, np , d-- For the White House aides counting 
Th£2 JSflSL 19 ®^ therae is: “ lli California. *upul" “ 
wmSm iff wh J nihe FederaI *« raiid short- 
*£?* ■ 0unh umc t!us 3WT- xxfcmg 10 brake the 
natgeconomy before its recovery gets loo strong and leads to 

vJ&ilESSifc 1 ? 41 ^bfomia'srecoven' has hardly begun rolling 
!Sm? !h?«« • concerned that higher interest rates are likdv 

» tam the state s economy, especially its huge housing industry. ‘ 

dmras ihehwS 06 ^™ ^ thc5C incrcased rates may dampen or 
”?yv? a housing recoverv in the state." 

Department of* Finance*’ “ a5 “’ aanI dircc,or of lhe CaWornia 
Mmmstrauon offidris have said they regarded higher interest 
a * V| i to ^Sh* inflation, something they must 

^^pt despite the likely harm to California. 

, . , res ?]f a a frustrating situation for the administration, and one 
fraught with some political peril. California is critical to President 
Clinton s re-election prospects in 1996. But however crucial he 
considers the state, there is a limit to how much he can do to help its 
economy separately from the rest of the nation's. (\ YTi 

First Lady Denies Oval Office Ambitions 

■ Yorker magazine reports in its current 

issue that some mends of the first lady sav she may be planning to 
succeed her husband. * 

,, ® ul at least one source for the story says the magazine misquoted 
her, and Mrs. Clinton’s spokeswoman denies (hat anv such conversa- 
tions have occurred. 

The magazine quoted Betsey Wright. President Bill Clinton's chief 
f when be was so — ' ‘ — 

Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Laid to Rest at Eternal Flame 



k -y 
in thi 



By Paul F. Horn 12 

hnrmurioaa} Herald Tribune 

WASHINGTON — ■ Jacqueline Kenne- 
dy Onassis was buried on Monday at Ar- 
lington National Cemetery in Washington 
beside an eternal flame she lighted three 
decades ago at the grave of her assassinated 
husband, the 35th president of the United 

Her two children. John F. Kennedy Jr. 
and Caroline Kennedy Schlossberg, joined 
100 close friends and family members for a 
final good-bye, each kneeling and kissing 
her mahogany casket. Mr. Kennedy leaned 
to louch his father’s gravestone as well. 

The moment was poignant and painful 
for millions of Americans who had strong 
memories of a 34-ytar-old widow escorting 

her two young children during the funeral 
for President John F. Kennedy in 1963. 

American television networks interrupt- 
ed their programming to bring live cover- 
age of the Onassis funeral and burial, inter- 
spersed with historical footage from the 
Kennedy years. Earlier in the day. thou- 
sands of mourners stood behind police 
barricades outside the private funeral in 
New York. 

President Bill Clinton, long an admirer 

of President Kennedy and more recently 

an acquaintance of Mrs. Onassis. offered a 
brief graveside eulogy, saying: “God gave 
her very great gifts and imposed upon her 
great burdens. She bore them all with dig- 
nity and grace and uncommon common 

“May the flame she lit x> long ago bum 

ever brighter here and always brighter in 
our beans. God bless vou friend, and fare- 

Mrs. Onassis was 64 when she died of 
cancer last week at her apartment in New 
York, where she had worked as a book 
editor and doted oo her daughter's three 

She was eulogized by her brother-in-law. 
Senator Edward M. Kennedy, at a funeral 
Mass in the same New York church. St. 
Ignatius Loyola, where she had been chris- 
tened. As be had done so manv times at 
funerals for members of the Kennedy fam- 
ily, the senator mixed humor with somber 

He recalled that Mrs. Onassis had invit- 
ed die Clintons aboard the fa mi ly yacht 
during a vacation at Martha's Vineyard 

last year. She urged the senator to step off 
the boat and greet the president, instead of 
leaving that duty to Maurice Tempelstnan. 
her longtime companion. 

“I said. 'Maurice is already there.' ” the 
senator said. 

“And Jackie answered with a smile: 
Teddy, you do iL Maurice isn’t running for 
re-election.’ ” 

Mr. Kennedy went on to praise his sis- 
ter-in-law as a woman with a strong sense 
of self and an equally strong devotion to 
her children. 

He recounted a remark she had ma de of 
her first husband the month after his assas- 
sination: "They made him a legend, when 
he would have preferred to be a man." 

He explained her struggle for privacy 
this way: “She never wanted public notice 

re thev 


— in part, I think, because it brought back 
painful memories of an unbearable sorrow'^ 
endured in the glare of a million lights.” ^ ^jtebed 

Caroline. 36, and John Jr., 33, read seiec-JJJ^ Qul- 


Ball Starts to Roll 
On Health Costs 

Toughest Foes Be ginning to Soften 

- ::cr\ •;:.: n S£ a H‘ 

die exdtaao,^ 

>> Ministerial'^ 

of staff when be was “ovemor of Arkansas, as saying: “There are a 
great many p eople talking very seriously about her succeeding him." 

Jn December, according to the magazine. Ms. Wright said: “Their 
staff will say ‘We have to do it this way and that way. and then we'll 
be here at least 12 years.’ And it’s not just the staff. Friends. 
Democrats, people out across the country think it is a very viable 
plan of action.” 

- Ms. Wright, now a lobbyist, said after the magazine came out tha t 
she never said anything of the sort Speculation that Mrs. Oimon 
wants to succeed the president after — and if — he is elected to a 
second tenn is “silly." she said (AP) 

Ugjgnjng to Clinton, SUM Mot Liking ft 

I p Heat on Hay 

:zdi' a 


' ’ - - 

■J «"S 
~ j ■->-ri:wec 

PHOENIX, Arizona — When Bill Clinton speaks, Pamela Lopez 
and Bob Lewis listen. “He's smooth, and he’s talking like a man on 
your side," said Mr. Lewis. Ms. Lopez agreed: “He can get up and 
give a talk and actually, you know. I've been caught up in the 
emotional effect." 

That said, the two Phoenix-area residents think less of the presi- 
dent today than when he was elected in 1992. They did not vote for 
him then and cannot imagine doing so now. “He’s a typical politi- 
tian.” said Ms. Lopez, a paralegal. Mr. Lewis, who works in the 
defense industry, said, T see no substance as a leader." 

The Post first interviewed Mr. Lewis, Ms. Lopez and right other 
Phoenix-area residents in 1992, when their disgust with both Repub- 
licans and Democrats drew than to Ross Perot’s fledgling campaign. 
All voted for Mr.- Perot in November 1991 

The Post recently reconvened six of the original group of 10 people 
to ask them how their attitudes toward Mr. Perot, Mr. Clinton. 
Congress. and politicians had changed since the election. Lois 
Crowell, a human resources clerk, pat it succinctly: “Right back 
wherewe started," she said. To which David Ireland, a stockbroker, 
added “Unfortunately!” (WP) 

: ...... 

Quote/ Unquote 

nitsa Election^ 

•: rf.v::«s42s* 

- .---vxaja 

Fanner President George Bush, in a commencement address at 
Colby College in Watervflfe, Maine: “If, as president, I had the 
, poweejto give just one thing to the nation, it would have been the 
I'reteHi » mmaeraand compass. Tm convinced that it is the idea of 
.f&raijyty$erejhe answers toour problems can be foand." (AP) 

By Adam Clymer 

New York Times Serruv 

WASHINGTON —For thefir>i 
lime since President Bill Clinton 
proposed a national health insur- 
ance plan in September, some of 
his opponents are giving ground. 

Not necessarily a lot. “It’s a very 
narrow strip of ground," said Sena- 
tor Daniel R. Coats, Republican of 
Indiana, who has suspended his all- 
out opposition to anything resem- 
bling the Qinton proposal. 

He did so just long enough to 
join a unanimous vote by the Sen- 
ate Labor Committee for a cost- 
control plan that involved major 
concessions by both sides. 

Republicans cm the committee 
who shifted thrir position were 
joined by Senator John B. Breaux, 
a Louisiana Democrat on the Fi- 
nance Committee, who decided 
that be could support requiring 
most employers to pay for their 
workers’ insurance. 

The shifts hardly opened a flood- 
gate. Still, there was important 
movement on the most crurial issue 
of all, how to pay for any universal 
insurance system. 

There was also a meeting of 
minds on cost control, one of doz- 
ens of complicated issues that 
Democrats have committed them- 
selves to clearing away over the 
next few weeks, a necessity if Con- 
gress is to successfully redesign the 
nation’s health care system this 

Republicans on the Labor Com- 
mittee, plainly uncomfortable in 
the role of naysayers assigned by 

thrir pony's leaders, may make 
some more deals this week’on sub- 
jects like the degree of bureaucracy 
needed to supervise a new health 
system. That would be another 
measure of opposition flexibility, 
for until last week it was only Mr. 
Clinton's allies who were offering 
deals as they trolled for votes. 

Republicans wanted any bene- 
fits program defined by an inde- 
idem board, not by Congress. 


which they said would give away 
the store. Democrats said C 

• _ r_r. ••-r.'j-'k 

‘ A'.-: 

■ ?;r Va.-sfr 

Dissent on r Qualified’ Envoy 

j, ....... . 

.Career Officers Seek Showdown on Political Nominees 


t ■ By John M. Goshko 

L ‘ Washmpan Post Service 

WASHINGTON — The American Forrign Service 
Association intends to oppose President Bin Clinton's 
nnfflflin! nomination of a fellow Arkansan, Brady Anderson, to 
55 1 . 1CC3S L'lWUfT he UJS. ambassador in Tanzania. But instead of com- 
■plaining that Mr. Anderson lacks credentials, the 
association acknowledges that he is well qualified to 
serve. as ambassador to Tanzania. 

*1 1 ‘What bothers the professional organization, which 
bets as lhe bar gaining agent for the Foreign Service, is 
.that Mr. Anderson’s nomination is the latest White 
‘House move to replace career-officer ambassadors, 
Vho have been in their embassies only a. short tune. 
'With political appointees. In the association's view, 
S tiris practice threatens the on written but long-s t a n d in g 
rule that a U S. ambassador's normal tour of duty 
should be three years. . 

When Mr. Clinton became president, Secretary of 
State Warren M. Christopher promised that the new 
^administration would not use. ambassadorships as 
payoffs to campaign workers and contributors. 

Accordin g to the association, the ratio of career to 
ooncareer ambassadors now is about 3 to 1, but 
{officials -of' the association fear that the a dmims tra- 
Tjkm’s apparent tendency to ignore the three-year rule 
might begin a trend toward too marry ambassadorial 

stuation, be is heading to the University of New 
Mexico as a diploma t-in-resi deuce, in order to make 
way for Mr. Anderson. 

Mr. Anderson has known Mr. Clinton since the late 
1970s. Mr. Anderson also spent about four years in 
Tanzania and other parts of East Africa as a mission- 
ary and Bible translator. He speaks Swahili, which, 
along with English, is Tanzania's official lan g uage. 

“He is someone who obviously knows and cares a 
lot about Africa, and normally we would have no 
objection if be were given a posting when another 
Amcan embassy became vacant," said the associa- 
tion's president, FA (Tex) Harris. 

“But no matter bow much you know, it still takes 
months at best to become comfortable with an ambas- 

Sarto’s duties and Gt them to a particular country. 


i FDA'S 

3l Is addition, the 
officers say, cb 


, Foreign Service 

m Tanzania now is 

the brutal tribal warfare 

kvra^^bas.wnAa^too d^of t^ges 

down by the fightin g, the embassy in Tanzania has 
t,bqcome Washington's principal outpost for following 

the Rwandan situation. _ . _ 

t v For the past year, the U.S. ambassador m Tanzania 
has been Peter J. DeVos, who eanied a reputation as 
nmartment Africa barean's best crisis man- 

n * in* ambassadorial stints in Mozambique and 

racked by bloody civil war. Now, depait- 

i racked by Woody dyilwar.^ . 

•Jment sources note, instead of bringing Us esqperience 

Tneni sources note, — -r- 

Iwith African refugee problems to bear on the Rwanda 

And in this case it makes absolutely no sense to pull 
the guy best qualified to deal with the biggest crisis in 

Africa and replace him with a rookie ” 

Mr. Andesson, contacted in Ar k ansas, would not 
comment until his confirmation process was complet- 
ed, most hkdy next month. He referred inquiries to 
the State Department, but neither officials there nor at 
the White House personnel office would cotnmenL 

The Anderson nomination was the third time in the 
past year that a career officer was bumped early to 
make way for a political appointee. 

W fltiam L Swing, another of the Africa bureau’s 
star performers, was replaced in Nigeria by Walter 
Carrington, a black officer who had worked on Afri- 
can affairs as a congressional staff member and Carter 
adminis tration official; John C. Kornbhim. the U.S. 
representative to the 53-nation Conference on Securi- 
ty and Cooperation in Europe, was dropped in favor 
of Sam Brown, an anti-war activist and former head of 
Action, the principal U.S. agency for administering 
volunteer service programs. 

The diplomats quickly made their way 

bade to postings. Mr. Swing became ambassador to 
Haiti. Mr. Komblum unexpectedly got an additional 

year in his job because partisan opposition has de- 
layed Mr. Brown’s confirmation. Mr. Komblum has 
been named the special U.S. envoy for Cyprus. 

had to level with the public about 
just what medical care would be 
covered in a new system. So Lhcy 
cut a deal with Congress to estab- 
lish the system and a board having 
a great deal of power to cut it back 
if costs soared. 

Mr. Breaux's shift on employer 
payments was less decisive. He is. 
after all, one senator, not a political 
faction. But he moved on health 
care's toughest political issue, and 
his seal on the Finance Committee 
gives him influence: 

Republicans have been louder, 
but conservative Democrats have 
joined in their antagonism to mak- 
ing employers pay. When Mr. 
Breaux said be could support such 
a requirement if it left employers of 
10 or fewer workers free not to 
insure, that was a major break in 
the opposition ranks. 

Representative Richard A. Gep- 
hardt of Missouri, the House ma- 
jority leader, said Mr. Breaux's 
shift had altered the political situa- 
tion in that body, “I t means conser- 
vative Democrats can start talking 
about ideas lhat embrace universal 
coverage,” he said. 

He also said there was a lot or 
Hoase interest in the bill that the 
Senate Labor Committee was con- 
sidering. That legislation is a modi- 
fication of lhe Clinton plan put 
forward by Senator Edward M. 
Kennedy, Democrat of Massachu- 
setts. It would soften the impact on 
very small businesses and enable 
any American to join the Federal 
Employees Health Benefits Plan, 
and thus be offered the same insur- 
ance choices that members of Con- 
gress and government workers 

In the Senate, too, the movement 
by Mr. Breaux suggested that Dem- 
ocrats could get the bill out of the 
Finance Committee without Re- 
publican help if they have to. If 
they can solidify their own 1 1 votes 
that may be the surest way to at- 
tract some support from the 9 Re- 

On Sunday, one of those Repub- 
licans, Senator John H. Chafee of 
Rhode Island, predicted that the 
committee and Congress would 
adopt a universal insurance bill. He 
insisted, on NBC television, that 
universal coverage and the savings 
it should generate, were unattain- 
able without requiring either indi- 
viduals or employers to buy insur- 

The public shifts were not the 
only important developments in 
Congress. The Finance Committee, 
one member reported, decided not 
to wait until the Congressional 
Budget Office measures Mr. Cha- 
fee’s bill, which would require indi- 
viduals to buy their own insurance, 
before it starts voting. 

But even that decision was a re- 
minder of a failure — the certain 
failure of ah committees except, 
probably, Mr. Kennedy’s, to meet 
the May 30 deadline they had an- 
nounced; perhaps imprudently. 

lions from the Scriptures and their moih-vl_Jle had 
er’s favorite poems at the funeral Mass. 
including “Memory of Cape Cod" bv 
St. Vincent Millay. Mr. Kennedy said «.mne- , 
family had sought to capture “my mother' sIL IT sum- cosi- 
essence” in selecting the readings, “her lovZz Jtjaniic arat J 
of words, the bonds of home and family JS. to jded ^ 
and her spirit of adventure." tizens 1 was spar , 

Jessye Norman, the opera soprano, sang in ^ n ^ told 
“Ave Maria," and Mike Nichols, the movie ^ ®lesof Swi” 
director, read from the Scriptures. tvseesH* Mo^ 
Mrs. Onassis, who married Aristotle Hence 5 * 011 ' dy 
Onassis in 1968. was ill with non-Hodg-J te lcars * 1 y b 
km s lymphoma when she reportedly made ^ on . . 

the decision to buried at Arlington. ** v 

‘£ ul some « 
““{mob. “JJ* 

““‘land ,U,,t 


c wi 

years : 
pto® 1 * litive 
Dinh -nag. 
■ gen- that 
into ined 
1993. ends 
i Mu 

n fire ilan- 
fiery eful. 
nonk she 
i, an tion 
iwidc Sew 
d as 
o so, 

ANOTHER ALASKA SPILL — The tanker Eastern Lion, foreground, chartered by British Petroleum, is moored at Port Valdez 
after leaking 8,000 gallons of erode oB, briefly dosing the marine terminal of the trans-Alaska pipeline. Within 24 horns, dontinp 
crews using fishing boats, booms and skimmers had contained most of the sp3L The cause of the leak has not been determined. 

Away From Politics 

• Federal courts cannot second-guess govern- 
ment decisions on which military installa- 
tions will be closed, the U.S. Supreme Court 
decided ia rejecting Senator Arlen Specter's 
challenge to the dosing of a shipyard in 
Pennsylvania. The Clinton administration 
had argued that letting judges step in would 
make ii impossible to act quickly to achieve a 
leaner post-CoId War military. 

• Times are too hard for the United States to 
welcome immigrants with open arms, nearly 
two of three Americans say. but most do not 
want immigration shut off entirely, according 
to a CBS poll. Thirty-one percent said immi- 
grants took jobs from Americans, but 52 
percent said the jobs taken were the kind 
Americans do not want anyway. 

• Seeking political asytam, six persons who 

said they were relatives of the man charged 
with lolling Mexico's leading presidential 
candidate crossed the U.S. border Sunday, 
officials said. The group included three chil- 
dren and a woman who said she was the 
mother of Mario Aburlo Martinez, accused 
of gunning down the ruling Institutional Rev- 
olutionary Party’s candidate, Luis Donaldo 
Colosio, on March 23. AP. AFP 


* <* 
’S f u 

d i 

Haiti Military Braces for Total Embargo 

By Howard W. French 

.Vrv Yttrk Times Sen- ice 

As a sweeping international embar- 
go lakes effect, Haiti's military 
leaders appear to be resolved to 
ride out the sanctions, convinced 
that the United States will not 
mount an armed intervention to 
unseal them. 

The broadened embargo, pushed 
by a Gin ton administration that 
has been increasingly exasperated 
by the Haitian military, covers all 
trade with the country except for 
medicines and certain foods. 

A United Nations ban on ship- 
ments of fuel and arms has been in 
place since October. 

The action is aimed at forcing 
the military to surrender power and 
make way for the return of the 

exiled president, the Reverend 
Jean- Bertrand Aristide. 

Five American naval vessels and 
a number of Coast Guard cutters 
are patrolling the waters around 

Haiti to enforce the embargo, but 
am the Do- 

the smuggling of fud from 
mini can Republic, which shares the 
Caribbean island of Hispaniola 
with Haiti, has remained active. 

[The United States said Monday 
lhat experts were reviewing with 
the Dominican Republic ways of 
enforcing new sanctions against 
Haiti, but acknowledged it current- 
ly had no way of plugging leaks in 
the embargo. Reuters reported 
from Washington. 

(Asked what would happen if the 
Dominican Republic refused to co- 
operate with the embargo, the State 
Department spokesman. Mike 
McCurry. said: “If they lack the 

will, then they face the resolve of 
the international community to see 
that they live up to their obligations 
and that they know there are conse- 
quences for not living up to those 

Even in backing the wider em- 
bargo. which was enacted by the 
Security Council and went into ef- 
fect at midnight Saturday, the Clin- 
ton administration acknowledged 
that the measure might not be 
enough to bring about Father Aris- 
tide’s return. 

Haiti’s military leaders have de- 
fiantly used the two-week grace pe- 
riod between the Security Council's 
unanimous vote on May 6 and the 
application of the sanctions to put 
together a new civilian govern- 
ment, naming an 8 1 -year-old Su- 
preme Court justice, Emil Jonas- 
saim. as provisional president. 

Fingerprint Fraud Gives Aliens an Open Door 

AV* t’.iri Tmut .Civvj.t- 

WASHINGTON — Convicted criminals 
from oilier countries, or even terrorists, may 
have been yarned residency or other benefits 
in the United States because they were able to 
circumvent background checks with fraudu- 
lent fingerprints Nought front street vendors, 
according to an inspector general s report on 
the Immigration and Naturalization Service. 

The service requires fingerprints from ev- 
ery alien seeking naturalization or other fed- 
eral benefits, but. the Justice Department 
report noted, it is the responsibility of the 
alien to supply the prints because the immi- 
gration service no longer maintains a finger- 
printing operation of its own. 

Once the agency receives a set of prims, it 

sends them io the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation for background checks. 

When an alien applies for naturalization, 
the immigration agency directs him to local 
professional fingerprinting services. But 
when the person submits his prims, the agen- 
cy has no wav of knowing if they are genuine. 

The resulL according to the Inspector Gen- 
eral's Office of the Justice Department, is a 
growing illicit business in raise fingerprints 
that immigrants can buy from vendors, some- 
times for less than SlO. 

If the FBI cannot match the submitted 
prints to those in its records, the immigration 
agency may grant an applicant the benefits he 
is seeking, like residency or refugee status. 
Last year 866.3 1 3 aliens applied for federal 

benefits, and of those, about 9,000 convicted 
felons were turned down based on the FBI's 

Because of the possibility of false prints, 
immigration officials said, they had no idea 
how many more applicants should have been 

The report recommends that the immigra- 
tion agency begin procedures to verify that 
fingerprints submitted by an applicant actu- 
ally belong to that person. 

After terrorists with criminal backgrounds 
exploded a bomb in an underground garage 
at the World Trade Center in New York in 
February 1993, the immigration agency was 
criticized for having let them slip 
the system. 





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5 of 

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People close to the junta say 
Lieutenant General Raoul Cedras, 
the army commander who presided 
over the coup that deposed Father 
Aristide in September 1991, has 
been busy working on plans for 
new elections to beheld in the falL 
Rather than resign to defuse the 
crisis, associates of General C£dras 
say, be is contemplating a run for 
lire presidency himself, and would 
be replaced in the army command 
by his closest aide. General Phi- 
lippe Biamby. 

■ 4 Aristide Backers Slam 
Gunmen shot up part of the pro- 
democracy stronghold of Cit 6 So- 
ldi before dawn on Monday, kill- 
ing four men. The Associated Press 
reported. Neighbors said aQ Tour 
victims had been members of a 
neighborhood committee working 
for Father Aristide’s return. 


a 1 






’age 4 


By Richard Reeves 

Special io ihe Herald Tribune 

The writer is a syndicated columnist whose 
mst recent book is “President Kennedy — Pro- 
ne of Rower.” 

For Americans familiar with D-Day. the 
‘landing" is a potent component of the event 
? n ihe Normandy beaches. It trigger?, flash- 
racp of Qls wading through ihe surf, rifles 
neid high as they splashed into North Africa, 
then Europe at Anzio, onto Japanese-held 
atolls in the Pacific — later even at Inchon in a 
new war, this one in Korea against commu- 

These landings became an icon of America's 
liberating power, incarnating the notion of 
America making the world safe For democracy. 
The boys were bringing freedom to lands that 
had lost it or never known it. 

It remains a peculiarly American image, with 
legs carrying the story unto the tragic mistakes 
at the Bay of Pigs and Cam Ranh Bay and the 
tragicomedies in Grenada, then Somalia. 

For better or worse, it is always a story of an 
American crusade, when our society is sum- 
moned to moral mobilization. Thai makes it an 

S tion in a country that often appears on the 
of meltdown, with so much energy run- 
ning loose in the social reactor. 

Unlike nations that think their citizens be- 
long to them, this country belongs to the people 
who live here, to do something with. As a result, 
every American has a story, 250 million of 
them. But all the stories are the same, only the 
names, the dates and the scenes change. 

We each begin our story with the landing — 
at Plymouth Rock, at Ellis Island, in a slave 
ship from Africa, or at John F. Kennedy Inter- 
national Airport. 

Leaving aside "Native Americans," as we 

Many Americans, some in very high places, 
arc convinced that the United Slates cannot for 
should not) take any more or the new immi- 
grants from Latin America and Asia. 

Maybe these critics are right, though I doubt 
it. Certainly they are in good company. Thomas 
Jefferson wanted a country of honest yeomen, 
different from the denizens of the “’teeming 
cities of Europe." Benjamin Franklin con£ 
plained about the Germans coming to Philadel- 
phia, saying; “Why should Pennsylvania, 
founded by the English, become a Colony of 
Aliens? . . . |Tbey) swarm imo our seitiemenis 
and by herding together establish their lan- 
guage and manners to (he Exclusion of ours." 

Similar current complaints come from our 
modern Franklins, as they would surely like to 

Fifty Years After D-Day 

These are the eigih and ninth articles 
in a series on the future if the 
American- Eu repeat t relatii ms ft ip. 
Subsequent articles will appear 
weekly until June 6. 

pushed them aside a couple of hundred years 
ago when they were railed "Indians " every 
man's and every woman's history begins with 
immigrant landings. All are tales told with 
variations on themes of hope and ambition and 
luck, or fear and suspicion of the new. 

My mother-in-law’s American story began 
with the trip from a tiny farm in the' west of 

Ireland to Ellis Island in 1929. Or so 1 thought, 
until we stood together lour years ago on mat 
island in New York Harbor and I asked her 
whether it was different from the way she 
remembered it. 

'Tve never been here before." said Bridget 
Ruddy Vesey. 


"My boat landed first on the West Side docks 
in Manhattan." she said "The English-speak- 
ing people were let off there. Then they took the 
shawl people to Ellis Island." 

The shawl people. She meant the Poles, the 
Russians, some I talians. Germans, the Jews. 
She went to join her sister in an Immigrant 
neighborhood in Woodside. Queens, a suburb 
of Manhattan. The immigrants living there 
were Irish and some Italians then. 

She still lives there, though her children and 
grandchildren are in Dallas and Los Angeles 
and Chicago. And Woodside is still an immi- 
grant neighborhood, filled with Koreans. Indi- 
ans and Pakistanis — "new” immigrants who 
saved and energized a tired neighborhood for 
the old Irish widows. 

So it goes for America, as it always has. 

see themselves, whose forebears were probably 
German. Probably German, it’s fair to say. 
partly because over the centuries Germany ap- 
pears to have been the origin of more immi- 
grants here than any other country and partly 
because it has always gone this way for Ameri- 
ca, with newcomers challenging earlier groups. 

These modern Franklins complain that the 
Mexicans and Vietnamese and the rest are 
making the United States into a "non-Europe- 
an" country. 

No doubL But at least as many social ana- 
lysis question what it is about Europe that is so 
sacred. Better to have America continuing to 
accept enough of die huddled masses to contin- 
ue to reflect the world as it really is. 

Perhaps it is better, ioo. to join the world by 
receiving exotics rather than send our own 
young people out to Bosnia-Herzegovina. Thai 
terrain is already too familiar. 

Maybe America as microcosm of the w orld is 
the surest way to enact our messianic message. 
Maybe instead of landing our values on others’ 
shores, we can bring the world imo our nation. 
Our movies do it, our cuisine does it — and it 
may be more than just shopping. It may be that 
our ability to manage our territory is’the way 
America goes ahead, h may be that our diversi- 
ty, our ethnic brew, is our source of wealth. 
George Gilder was at feast half right in saying; 
"I don’t know who lost tbe Vietnam War. but 1 
know who won it: We did because we got the 
‘boat people.’ ” 

No European would make that boast, not 
even about the pioneer stock that came home 
with the long tide of receding empire. Not the 
French about pieds noin. not British about 
Asians or Hong Kong Chinese, not Germans 
about their distant Eastern kith. Scandinavians 

see no added value in refugees, no matter how 
much more worldly and cosmopolitan they are 
than their hosts. 

The brawn of immigrant may be unavoid- 
able, but their brains are rarely considered to 
merit full membership in an oligarchy, however 
far democratized, where the rule of seniority is 
never far from people’s minds. In crisis, the 
last-corners can be jettisoned from the Europe- 
an vessel whereas America reacts by ignoring 
social frontiers to tap new energies. That funda- 
mental difference in our reflexes is particularly 
acute right now. 

Even as many Eurocentric Americans com- 
plain about new - manners and languages spoil- 
ing the American grain, they also seetn in many 
cases to be giving up on Europe. A series of 
articles on immigrants in Europe from the 
south and east into Britain, France. Germany 
Italy — "the old country" for us — started the 
month in the San Francisco Chronicle with this 
contempt-tinged headline: "Europe Trembles 
at the Shock of the New." 

America still does not tremble — at least not 
yet — but we do babble about tbe pros and coos 
of “diversity'’ and “multiculturalim’’ 

It’s a debate that Europeans feel they need 
not (or dare not) bother with for themselves. 
Some here agree. That phrase, “the shock of the 
□ew,” is so unwitting tribute to a landmark 
book of art history with the same title by 
Robert Hughes (an eminent American critic 
who immigrated here from Australia). In his 
most recent book, 'The Culture of Complaint," 
Mr. Hughes argues powerfully that American 
deference to the difference rather than to 
emerged excellence is making the fiery melting 
pot, crucible or the American dream, into a 
plastic simulation, mere virtual reality. 

True enough, there is a dynamic at work, 
with groups coalescing in self-idemification 
around a common claim to victimhood. The 
tactic copies the civil rights movement against 
anti-black discrimination, a defining experi- 
ence in the American decades since World War 

The United Stales is not. however, driven by 
philosophy or even sociology, no matter how 
erudite and plausible. Money is our fuel. It is a 
dwpjy ingrained image — society as a level 
pinball table, where newcomers stand practical- 
ly as good a chance as those who have been 
playing for a long time. 

In a casino, the bank is only as big as tbe pot 
provided by players. Americans no longer be- 
lieve that any part of them, as a group, can 
really weather economic havoc that engulfs the 
nation. So. they have generally been readier 
than other countries to gamble, again and 
again, on a big change. Only a new* wave can lift 
all boats. 

“Young Immigrant Wave Lifts New York 
Economy’ was tbe headline over a recent series 
of articles in Tbe New York Times, the domi- 
nant newspaper in a city whose 7J5 million 
inhabitants include 2.6 million foreign-born, 
including tbe new young families in Woodside. 

The truth is that pan of what still makes the 
U.S. flexible and immigration tolerable is that 
many, many business and financial players and 
commentators believe immigration is still prof- 
itable traffic. 

This belief has a respectable face, celebrated ! 

in these terms by Business Week magazine: 
“The U.S. is reaping a bonanza of highly edu- 
cated foreigners . . . [while] low-end immigrants 
provide a hardworking labor force to fill the 
low-paid jobs that make a modern service econ- 
omy run.* 

That quote fits a view in tbe country's leading 
magazine of history. American Heritage, in 
which the author Bernard A. Weisberger con- 
cluded; “We are different. ... Immigration is 
flesh of our flesh, and we need to be reminded 
of that.” 

He could get an argument, of course, particu- 
larly from politicians sincerely scapegoating 
immigration as a principal cause for our most 
recent economic dislocations. 

Pete Wilson, governor of California, is now 
attempting to sue ihe federal government for $3 
billion, his reckoning of the cost his state beam 
as the nation’s largest receiver of the new immi- 
grants from Central and Latin America. 

Indeed, if one is curious to see what ihe 
United States might look like in 50 years, he or 
she might go to UCLA, the University of Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, where I sometimes teach 
— and which a few anti-immigrant thinkers call 
“the University or Caucasians Lost among 

Yes. Americans are going to look different 
from Europeans. 

Here, the new drives out the old. 

The great American difference is in how we 
raise our children — not to serve the family or 
the state or the tribe, but to leave it and move 
on. Americans raise their children to be on their 

On their own, they many whomever they 
please who pleases than. One study showed not 

long ago that more than half of the Gist genera- . 
tion of Asian women in the United States are 
mazrymg outside their race — - which - means 
that they are marrying Caucasian men. - 

The ideas erf Europe Mended to. make die 
good, old U.S.A. Tbe men and women rejected 
by Europe made us a great and energetic nation 
— Puritans, Scots and Irish driven away by the 
English, Protestant Huguenots driven from 
France and Jews from Spain. Italians from 
Calabria and Sicfly and the rest of the south' 
and the men oT learning driven to Harvard 
(along with the artists to Hollywood) by Hitler 
and the Nazis. 

Even if Europeans disdain American mon- 
grdism, Ameriea-tbe-Haven underpins the td-- 
erance Europe boasts, French intellectuals, no 
matter how notorious for anti-American pro- 
nouncements, remember the virtues of a nation 
open to talents when they fall into domestic 

The first .best hope for a Jacques Attali, when 
it seemed the presidency would be lost, was 
Stanford. When Bernard. Kouchner was de- 
nounced by members of the French medical 
establishment hoping to block bis appointment 
in Paris, he announced be would go to Harvard 

Of course, Europe still appeals as a pleasant 
place to live, But, increasingly, Europe seems 
used up, at least by our tights. And fewer 
Europeans want to live where the streets once 
paved with gold are now lined by the homeless, : 

And American attention is elsewhere, look- 
ing west and south. Politically, the North 
American Free Trade Agreement is a self-inter- 
ested commitment to push Third World pover- 
ty bade as far as possible from the Rio Grande. 
The tilt is not absolute: To defuse economic 

frictions, a starifer SratcsaS 
consideration between the United states 


JnleataIievd.Itho^iIgbfllp^ t be ^ , ^^ , 
pan of it. one day m Tokyo m spring. I™ 7 - 1 
Sat the Kridanren, Japan's busuws*-fi- 
Danced economic think tank. Susumu lon- 
egawa had just become ^ 

Japanese to receive tbe Nobd-Prae 
ra re , the young violinist Midon had recently 
made her debut to tbe world's cries of 
What wonied the man I was seems, “J 
Nakazawa, economic director of the msaw 
was that both tbe scientist and the musician, UK 
best of their generations, bad accwnpuswa 

.l _» n JJoiMmAnfe nnf in IftnETl DUt 

in ifae United States- Dr. Tonraawa was doing 
gfi nftir- research ax the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology. Midori was at Lincoln Center in 
New York. 

Both had come to America because that is 
where the young do not have u> defer to their 

ddav-'. v, 

“By the year 2000 and beyond, Mr. Na- 
kazawa said, “our best young people will be 
moving to places like Austin in Texas and 
Richmond in Oregon to have the freedom to do 
their own tiring." . 

For America’s sakelhopc he turns out to be 
right But if they do wine as immigrants, sooner 
or later they , will be complaining that newer 

immig rants an* changing the face of America. 
Already, American orchestras are getting a big- , 
ger Asian intake of Koreans. than. of Japanese, 
who are now the oU wave. 

It was ever thus. Who ewer wanted America 
to look old and tired? 

Liberating Europe From Nationalism Will Not Be Easy 


is proud to announce the establishmentof the 

The Prince of Asturias Chair 
in Spanish Culture and Civilization 


and the appointment of 

as the first holder of this distinguished chair 

on Wednesday, May 18, 1994 


Boston. Medford f Somerville. Grafton 
Massachusetts, USA 
Talloires. France 

By Jonathan Eyal 

Mr. Eyal is dirtxtor of studies at 
the Royal United Services Institute 
in London. 

Soon after the collapse of the 
Berlin Wall, a high-ranking West- 
ern politician privately told his col- 
leagues that, from then on, the 
West's policy would be dictated by 
one major aim: a refusal to either 
export soldiers or import instability 
from the East. Few propositions 
seemed more compelling, yet lew 
were more foolish. 

Less than five years after the 
demise of communism. Western 
soldiers have been exported to Yu- 
goslavia in large numbers and to no 
particular purpose. More impor- 
tant, the disaster in the Balkans is 
now highlighting tbe historic dif- 
ference between .America and Eu- 
rope. For the United States, na- 
tionalism is a disease that must be 
fought at all costs; for the Europe- 
ans, ihe nation-state remains the 
only viable political entity. .And. 
while the Americans view multi cul- 
turalism as a source of strength, the 
Europeans dismiss it as the way to 

To be sure, the distinctions are 
not always so stark; despite de- 
cades of efforts. .America's melting 
pot is still a goal rather than an 
absolute reality. .And. by creating a 
Union, tbe West Europeans have 
indicated a desire to leave their 
□atioaalism behind. Nevertheless, 
while multicuhuralism is the Unit- 
ed States* raison d’etre I being an 

1 t 14 

Invasion On-VIlirsLaivi in Franrr 
As Plane? and Ship- Blast Co»l; 
Mo ntgom ery Leads (hr Advance , 

JUNE 5-11, 1944 


f y 

| Sucewds in fniliaj^im^ j 

.*»a 2 fSg 23 Sa?J 

"Htralti «££s»'a>i b unc •£8’. 
Ailir- Thkr Fir»t To* n in Frauen 
Cut Cherbourg Roail at Bayeuu 
German Rnbtancr H Stiffening 

Imadet* Make .Uodret Advances 
Repel .All Aazj Counter- Attack^ 
Planes Hammer Foes Airfields 

- Tictalft^fibaSinbiBU ‘Si’. 

Umvib. \aiin Vvrr f Vrbourj; fWfc 
.V» Lw2 UrM>m in iDiantirl Betti r. 
Mar-iull WJd kins lnri»e in Imretuo 

The historic week started with the fall 
of pome and continued with the D-Day 
assault and the Allied advance into 

To commemorate these dramatic 
days, we will reproduce the seven front 
pages from the New 'fork Herald Tribune 
which chronicled the first week of the rebirth 
of liberty on the European continent. 

Fifty years later, you’ll follow the 
events day-by-day from the reports of the 
Herald Tribune's award-winning team of war 

Don’t miss the international Herald 
Tribune’s special commemorative series 
starting Saturday, June 4th. 

American is a legal, not an ethnic 
concept). Europons hesitate to try 
similar ideas on their Continent 

In contrast to postwar visions of 
unity transcending old nationalis- 
tic enmities, Europe is experiencing 
two nationalist waves at the same 
time: one in the former Communist 
East and another in the the West. 
Despite their differing levels of in- 
tensity, both are eminently treat- 
able. but only if the West accepts 
that the end of the Cold War re- 
quires profound transformations 
on both sides of the former Iron 

Multiethnic dreams are collaps- 
ing on both sides of Europe, and 
the initial post-Commtnrist opti- 
mism quickly gave way to dark pre- 
dictions about seemingly inevitable 
Darwinian struggles between na- 
tions and cultures. If the conse- 
quences of tbe nationalist challenge 
are ignored for much longer, if dis- 
putes are allowed to fester, the cu- 
mulative effects of impending con- 
flicts could dissolve both Europe’s 
security arrangements and the 
trans-Atlantic connection as welL 

The root of Eastern Europe's 
ethnic problems is dearly historic. 
In the West, the formation of states 
was gradual and lengthy; in the 
East it was sudden and fairly re- 
cent In the West suites were creat- 
ed by tbe progressive enlargement 
of a central government in the 
East countries were born out of the 
collapse of central authority. The 
results of this historic experience 
mode the East Europeans different 
from their Western counterparts. 

While in the West ethnic diversi- 
ty is now at least officially accept- 
ed. the East Europeans, born out of 
the collapse of multiethnic empires, 
still consder it a malaise. 

The differences are more appar- 
ent than real. Eastern Europe is 
doing better than expe c ted and the 
all-pervasive gloom on the Conti- 
nent is exaggerated. Since the end 
of the Cold War. three states, Yu- 
goslavia. the Soviet Union and 
Czechoslovakia, collapsed. Far 
from representing a pattern, they 
were tbe exception in Europe, rep- 
resenting countries in which the 
very ethnic identity of the state 
remained unresolved. Poland and 
the Czech Republic have no signifi- 
cant minorities at all; Romania, 
Bulgaria and Slovakia do, but they 
still are recognizable states for tbe 
Romanians. Bulgarians and Slo- 
vaks. And. despite the occasional 
chauvinist bailing, all have dis- 

that tbe West would do nothing to 
sustain their independence is not a 
strategy but, ratter, a justification 
for lack of vision and an all-perva- 
sive paralysis. The result can only 
be a redefinition of Europe's fron- 
tiers; Gone are the discussions 
about a "community" from Van- 
couver to Vladivostok, and, at least 
for the foreseeable future, Europe 
will end roughly where tbe old So- 
viet Union began. The urgent task 
is not to dither much longer on 
Eastern Europe simply because no- 
body knows wbai to do with Mos- 

Left in its current state of sus- 
pended animation. Eastern Europe 

protecting minorities, a double 
acy from Cold War propaganda 
campaigns and from the domestic 
action 40 years ago abandoning the 
“separate bnt legal” notion in favor 
of the melting pot ideal Few other 
Western governments are prepared 
to countenance such an interna- 
tional protection system either: 
Decrying the fate of ethnic Hun- 
garians or Russians is one thing; 
devising a mechanism that protects 
everyone, including Corsicans, 
Basques or Irish Catholics, is quite 
another matter altogether. Propos- 
als abound, for “confederations,” 
associations and “partnerships,” 
but, in practice, tbe Europeans are 

ans like to think that they have 
reinvented the wheel; in practice, 
they have merely managed to go 
bade to the period before 1914, 
when borders were not so impor- 
tant and population controls barely 

Even after the Maastricht Trea- 

ty, political legitimacy remains 
firmly , entrenched in the nation- 
state, not in the Brussels institu- 
tion, and the trends are becoming 
more, rather than less, accentuat- 
ed: Two-thirds of Community ; citi- 
zens participated in the 1979 Euro- 
pean Parfiament elections; barely 
over half did so a decade later. 

More important, the conduct of 
nationalist policies through the 
guise of internationalist rhetoric is 
no longer working. Western Eu- 
rope successfully assimilated large 
numbers of refugees at the end erf 
World War IL But none of the 
fundamental assumptions behind 
the existence of the nation-state 
have been overturned. To be a Ger- 
man today is still a question of 
blood, not one of residence: A Rus- 
sian dozen from Kazakhstan may 
have a better claim to a German 
passport than a Turk born and. 
bred in Germany. And everyone : 
still believes that only the migrant, 
and not the receiving country, 
benefits from, population - move- 

For tbe United States, nationalism is a 
disease that must be fought at all costs; for 
tbe Europeans, tbe nation-state remains 
the only viable political entity. 

could collapse into anarchy, arid 
borders may still be challenged. 
The answer io all these perils is not 

to throw up one’s hands in despair 
or mutter aarfclv about a “thousand 

played a surprising degree of re- 
sponsibility. Ha vine been terror- 

sponsibiliiy. Having been terror- 
ized by (he Communist regime. 
Bulgarian Turks now hold the bal- 

fVTERV ITtoVti. 

ana of power ia their country's 
Parharoeni, and relations between 
Romania and Hungary, otherwise 
historic enemies, are "particularly 
ckse in the least expected field: 
military cooperation. The idea that 
the states of Central and Eastern 
Europe are about to plunge into 
ethnic violence is a myth. 

Nevertheless, the former Soviet 
empire may well be destined for 
further turmoil and the West still 
has no workable policy on Russia. 
Tbe idea that former Soviet repub- 
lics should remain independent but 

or mutter darkly about a “thousand 
Yugoslavian" for averting these 
dangers is perfectly feasible. Every- 
thing must start from a proper un- 
derstanding of the very nature of 
nationalism. Promising a radiant 
future on the basis of a glorious and 
often fabricated past, nationalism 
is not a disease, and therefore has 
no immediate and miraculous ewe. 
It cannot be wished away by reason 
alone, nor can it be easily distin- 
guished, as many UJS. politicians 
now tend to do, between its “be- 
nign” manifestation (allegedly 
good) and an “aggressive" one (in- 
variably bad). 

The countries of the region need 
additional reassurance: Tbe main 
task in Eastern Europe is to sepa- 
rate the fate of the minorities from 
that of the existing frontiers. Most 
of the problems that inflame na- 
tionalist passions start with seem- 
ingly trivial events, such as the re- 
naming of a street, or ihe closure of 
a minority school in a remote vil- 
lage. A minority supervision sys- 
tem should therefore be pedantic 
enough to tackle such issues, but 
also bold enough to address wider 
and more widespread tensions. Mi- 
norities should be loyal to their 
state of residence, but the authori- 
ties of that state should also accord 
them special group rights ho order 
to safeguard their existence. 

Officially, all Europeans accept 
this notion; in practice, however, 
nobody is willing to accept new 
political commitments. The result 
borders on a fans- On the one 
hand everyone asserts that human 
rights are universal- But. at the 
same time, everyone knows that the 
current human rights protection in- 
struments arc largely. irrelevant for 
Europe’s challenges. 

The East Europeans are told that 
they most “learn " from the West 
Europeans* experience and must 
wait until they have solved their 
problems before they can join a 
Europe “whole and free.” But how? 
The United States recoiled from 
the idea of treaties recognizing and 

doing everything and nothing in 

West Europeans still like to be- 
lieve that nationalism is some thing 
that afflicts only their Eastern 
brethren. Far from it: While it is 
thriving in the East because no 
meaningful cooperation institu- 
tions are present there, nationalism 
is also gaming in the West because 
the present institutions appear to 
lack legitimacy and purpose. 

The European Community was 
created not because its component 
nations genuinely felt united, but 
because their leaders believed that 
the Community would gradually 
draw them dostar together. Given 
the historic circumstances, the tac- 
tic was correct, but tbe Union re- 
mained an exercise from above, a 
classic example of the bureaucratic 
approach to history. It succeeded 
beyond anyone's expectations, but 
its old game is now rip. A Union 
that cheerfully called itself "Euro- 
pean" could remain a club of a few 
rich states on the western tip of the 
Continent only as long as Europe, 
was divided; an organization that 
had on elected Parliament that (te- 
dded nothing and an andected 
commission that ruled on every- 
thing could only operate as long as 
it did not impinge too much on the 
national institutions of its member 

The Community's fathers 
thought that they had banished na- 
tionalism; in fact, ttey only man - 
aged. to render the idea intdkctual- 
ty less respectable, and even then, 
for only a relatively brief period. 

To all intents and purposes; 
those who like to call themselves 
European “federalists” are not 
dre am ing of an American model 
but, ratter, of a European nation- 
state writ large, complete with 
high]}' centralized powers and insti- 
tutions. And, the more their plans 
were derailed by the end of the 
Cold War, ihe more they persisted. 
The result was predictable: a. an-, 
tionaiist backlash: in member- 
states, and a set of -meaningless 
gestures, such as the adoption of a 
joint anthem, color-coordinated' 
customs corridors at airports and a 
angle passport cover, the Enropc- 

iter&js.nothing that would appeal 
to (he East Europeans marc than 
the process of Continental integra- 
tion, and even in tbe West, most of 
todays nationalists accept that 
there is little alternative to dose 
cooperation with neighbors. Euro- 
pean integration is not a zero sum 
game: Tbe question of form and 
substance is a proper and pertment 
subject of debate. - - 
- The Atlantic community that 
came into existence as a insult of 

Europe’* liberation from Nazi tyr- 
anny has reached the eod of history 
in the sense that the values of toler- 
ance and strong, durable democrat- 
ic traditions seem permanently en- 
trenched;, Europe's neo-Nazi 
movements, despite their current 
publicity, may represent nothing 
mere than thexetura of history as a 
comedy. Indeed, the absence of a 
dear scapegoat, such as the Jews, 
who contributed so much to Eu- 

rope’s diversity before the catastro- 
phe of World War n, is likely to 
make such movements merely 
ephemeral: Anti-Semi asm without 
the Jews has been tried before, but 
it is not a long-term proposition. 

However, as the example of Yu- 
goslavia indicates, tte Europeans 
still need US cooperation in tack- 
ling their current problems. Espe- 
cially in the East, the options are 
dean Either the borders are ren- 
dered less important through coop- 
eration and integration into exist- 
ing .structures, or. they will 
ultimately start shifting. And noth- 
ing isguaranieed to separate Amer- 

Publidy denying it all the way, of 
course, Western politicians still be- 
lieve that preserving ethnic purity 
is the test guarantee erf internal 
stability. Not even Germany’s 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl or 
France's President Francois Mit- 
terrand now dare talk about a fed- 
eral Europe. Instead, governments 
either try to introduce a “federal" 
Europe by stealth (usually at the 
price of ignoring tbe needs of the 
East Europeans, especially on 
trade) or pander to nationalism at 
home by sealing frontiers and con- 
trolling immigration, France, 
which prides itself on supporting 
“Europe," stiD claims to represent 
an ethnically pure nation, and, 1 

whfle ratifying the Treaty of Maas- 
tricht has introduced a curious I 
amendment toils constitution pro- 
claiming French as tbe country's 
only official language. And Brit- 
ain s John Major wraps hin rsrf f in 
the flag ervtiy time Brussels is men- 

•_ L-ii 



■*r • 




' " i?1r 


4- - 

9 ' ; 3$ • o>.fv 

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ica from Europe more than an un- 
stoppable debate about the 
importance - of nationalism. In 
short, tte task of liberating Europe 
begun cm D-Day 50 years ago' 
must be completed now. ’ 




* J f- 

The United States was largely 
created by people who, for one rea- I 
son or enoiteft chose to leave their 
nationalism behind. Given their 
unique history, therefore, for the 
Americans ethnic problems are es- 
sentially soda! prolrfemx, not inter- 
national security issues. Question- 
ing existing frontiers is therefore a 
bewildering experience for a US 
administratioa,-and its officials 
usually tend to react by dismissin g 
these as a historic imtevanoe, diffi- 
culties deliberately fomented by. 
unscrupulous leaders. President 
-George Bush's desperate efforts to 
keep the Soviet Union or Yugosla- 
via together at* manifestations of 
The nalfewxlMm og both halves' 
erf the CoBthKtit snot yet a carbon 
copy of the movcincats .that tore 




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Page 5- 

® Aborts Rwanda Mission 

NAIROBI — a ■ \% P \™ The UN has been encountering difficulty in per- 

called nfr a rnnii ,0 *1*5? United Nations envoy suading member-stales to contribute troops for anoth- 
shakv trnrff !! iko' 0 on Monday despite a er African peacektwping venture alter UN and U.S. 
rehek n«r on.. ™ Kwa ? da capital, saying neither forces found themselves unable to end anarchv in 
forc « «"*» guarantee his Somalia. 


A Boost for Kohl 


^Ifhfp 10 "* Md w* JTSS,. 

10 raJelEJvf ^ ?“• *“ 10 "Min* iliscmiions 
to pave the way for the return of UN peacekeeoere to 

“SI S, “'I r«J» Of «hnic 

2J2!S? t ^ bla ? ex P Jicil guarantee from the iuo 

The UN wants to establish a neutral zone at the 
airport to fly in peacekeepers and food and medicine. 
Fighting has prevented relief planes from landing in 
Kigali for four days. 

One erf two UN (lights was again canceled Monday 

parties about his safety " the as^.T i" „ 006 “ two UN faS"* * as a S am canceled Monday hirm** cimnlv bee 

ft said bytelephonefrom K@L He sidMrto *“« WoraStion t 

had returned to Uaanda. h,,. J ni rocnt fonMS m & 1 r,re * military sources said, M « nioK ^ vide: 

... , — Uganda, but would trv to flv into — 

Kigali from the Kenyan capital, Nairobi.' on Tuesday *" e ^ Security Council authorized the deplov- 
Rghting tailed off in the capital Monday desoite ment °* 5,500 bluc heImets dur the UN came under 
sporadic gunfire after a night ofheavy shellin'* and the for withdrawing all but 400 of its 1500 

rapture of the Kigali airport and a key army barracks ccase ’ firc ha month. 

^nday by rebels in their biggest victory in’ six weeks They will not intervene in lighting between rebel 
v!r uPS*- ' and government forces, but will try to end the killings 

Mr. Kabul said both sides had agreed to a two-dav of civilians and will escort relief ’convoys to some 2 

rt nUrtur U. D: i tj . 7. ... . . J. *••• • 

mice to allow Mr. Riza to hold talks with rebel and 
government leaders on plans lo deploy 5,500 UN 
troops to end the slaughter in which up to a half- 
miman people have died. 

"There are oecasional exchanges of fire, but there’s 
a lot less fighting than usual and so we consider that 
the truce is bang respected." Mr. Kabia said. 

million displaced people. 

Up to a half-million people mostly members of the 
minority Tutsi tribe that dominates the rebel Rwanda 
Patriotic Front, and members of the Hutu majority 
who are in opposition to the Hutu-dominated govern- 
ment, have been massacred, many by extremist Hutu 

Continued from Page I 

rubber bullets and forcing arrested 
demonstrators to pay police costs 
as a condition of their release. But 
os a judge on the Constitutional 
Court, where he has served since 
1983. he pleased liberals by ruling 

that demonstrations cannot be 

banned simply because the police 
that some dem- 
onstrators are violence-prone. 

At times during his campaign, 
Mr. Herzog expressed surprisingly 
liberal views, as when he urged re- 
peal of Germany's restrictive citi- 
zenship law, which is based on race. 
But he drew sharp criticism by say- 
ing that foreign residents of Ger- 
many who choose not 10 become 
citizens should he sent borne. Later 
he said his remarks had been misin- 


PEACE: Arabs and Israelis Wake Up to a New Era 

Continued from Page 1 

fruits of peace, which thev hope 
will mean less money to the mili- 
tary and more to economic devel- 
opment, as well as a freer rein for 
Damascus's legendary entrepre- 
neurial spirit, stifled for decades by 
President Hafez Assad’s Soviet- 
style socialist regime. 

"It’s not a monolithic country," 
be said. "It has certain economic 

he said. “If everything is normal 
and we don’t have a peace of vic- 
tors and vanquished. 

“When 1 visit Israel,” he said. “I 
want to visit it with full honor and 

not lo feel my dignity is compro- have the Israelis overrun the Tai- 
mised.” wanese? I think Egyptian textiles 

“But you are going to find it 011(1 oranges are much better." 
extremely difficult to find the per- Walid Tabbah, 56, a Syrian en- 
“SVna is the only country which 500 who will be the first to apply trepreneur who uses his degree 
h as de cided to live by spending 80 for an import license from Israel," from the London School of Eav 
percent of its national income on he said. “This needs bravery," he nomics in his family’s 700-year-old 

added, exploding with laughter. ' 

only traditional conserva- 
tive in the race was Mr. Kohl's first 
choice, Steffen Heitmann, who is 
justice minister in the eastern state 
of Saxony. Mr. Heitmann was 
forced to abandon his campaign 
after voicing provocative views on 
foreigners, the Holocaust and the 
role of women in society. 

The other candidates in the race 
were Jens Reich, a microbiologist 

VIETNAM: Fear’s Subtle Shadow.* 


Continued from Page 1 

customers before the fall of Saigon 
in 1975. and like many Vietnamese 
with American contacts, they were 
subjected by the Communists to 
severe hardships. 

Amnesty International, Human 
Rights Watch. PEN American 
Center, the Roman Catholic and 
Buddhist churches and ttae U.S. 
State Department, among other or- 



ganizations. are sharply critical of 
Vietnai ‘ 

Vietnam’s disregard of Western 
perspectives on human rights, But 
criticism makes Hanoi bristle. 

Le Mai, deputy foreign minister 
for American affairs, said that 
"foreigners who come here to press 
their ideas about human rights on 
Vietnam are not welcome." 

were thrown into the streets, 
their belongings were confiscated 
In some cases they were shipped ty* 
the “new economic zones” -y 
drought-stricken wilderness in the 
scrub jungles of Song Be Provino 
and similar regions — where the) 
were expected to farm and to feet. . , 
themselves. hold ‘ 

Foreign critics of the govern- 
mem acknowledge that some of 5 ™® 
those arrested have been terrorists vjv 
who are not considered “ptisonen" 10 
of conscience." • iffw 

Early last year the police arrested"”® 

18 overseas Vietnamese who re-™^T - 
turned to Vietnam and were c 0 *™ 1 !™ 

cuscd of plotting to set off bombs?? araaiot c j v 
in the country. The defendants?-*” ldec cificsh 
who included several U,S. citizens^ ^ f wv t 

• plan 

Is say 
? tar-, „ 
lacks'. » 



txVct F iti TV V-vukd ftc ■« 

Chancellor Kohl, left, applauding his choice. Mr. Herzog, right 

The Communists 
ciety in South Vietnam 
conquered the country in 1 975, and 
deep scars remain. 

Most of the hundreds of thou- 
sands who had served in South 
Vietnam's armed forces were sen- 
tenced to terms of up to 13 years in 
the re-education camps, where du- 
ties included breaking rocks and 
clearing mine fields. 

Store owners and landholders 

, were sentenced to terms ranging; ‘ „ drenitds 

overturned so- t t0 20 years . * SwQ™ 

i am when they « Mo ian, .fi 

Vietnam's Communist Party sees^LJjJ, ^°p to 'idi 
a much greater potential challenge.™/ Jv le ii 
to its authority from some of the ,w ^ V b 

— , . , — ’ - were Jens Keicn. a micromoiogisL nrin/M 7 1 t « |~l 7 

?ha, SSSS^cSSES RECOVERY: U.S. Set to Welcome Slower Growth 

He added. Where in the world ^ Germany, who withdrew ~ ^ , , „ , .... , , , , 

the military," said Sami Nadhaf, 
57, a prospoous businessman from 
Damascus. “This was not for its 
sdf-interest bat because of its faith 
in Arab causes." He added, “If 

peace takes place, a great pressure 
be lifted c“ 

will be lifted off my country.” 

Once Israel has withdrawn from 
Syria's 'Golan Heights. Ghazi 
Ayyashv a Syrian auto-paris im- 
porter, will have no compunction 
about visiting Israel “Why not?” 

Indicative of tbe challenges to 
the Arab psyche posed by a new 
relationship with Israel are the of- 
ten expressed Arab fears of com- 
peting economically with Israel. 
Such reactions come mainly from 
ignorance, said an Egyptian politi- 
cal analyst, Abdel Maneun Said. 

“To an enemy you make a 
myth,” he said. ‘There is a lot of 
ignorance about Israel" 

JIHAD: Israel Asks Commitment 

Condoned from Page 1 

the spot. Mr. Tibi said that there 
was no need for a clarification and 
that Mr. Arafat had made the com- 
parison to show that Muslims kept 
their commitments. 

But the new disclosure generated 
harsh criticism from Israel’s right- 
ist critics of the peace accord. 

Police Minister Moshe Shahai, 
awaking for the government, told 
Parliament, “If terrorist attacks 
continue and Arafat continues 
making unfortunate statements 
that contradict the peace accord, 
we will continue talking to the Pal- 
estinians, but we will not imple- 
ment the next steps.” 

Environment Minister Yossi 
Sand c? fiie dovish Meretz bloc 
said that Mr. Arafat bad credied a 
“crisis of confidence" and that the 
PLO leader had “to declare that his 



grave and regrettable words in the 
in Johannesbu 

Johannesburg are null 

and void.’ 

“He must declare agam his com- 
mitment to the accord with laud,” 
Mr. Sand said. 

Prime Minister Rabin, ques- 
tioned by reporters about Mr. Ara- 
fat’s statements, snapped, “Let him 
check who is (he stronger ” 

Dan Meridor, a moderate Likud 

member of Parliament, said: 
two or three days after signing tbe 
agreement, and having this ridicu- 
lous ceremony." Mr. Arafat then 
says, “‘I tefl you in advance I am 
_ to keep it,’ the question 
it is left of the government’s 
itions? The government’s 
Ruins. Nothing. I don’t 
how you can go on with the 
agreement if the other side teUs you 
very clearly, outspokenly, that they 
are not going to keep the agree- 
ment.” He added, “Are we really 
out of our minds?” 

Reflecting the concent of Israefs 
security establishment over the 
chaotic early days of the Palestin- 
ian police face deployment, Mr. 
Shahai, the police minister, added 
that the process could , not move 
ahead on the' ground “until the 
PLO proves hs ability to govern 
Gaza and Jericho.” 

According U) both Israeli and 
Palestinian officials, the Palestin- 
ian police in Gaza and Jericho are 
short of food, fuel and equipment 
Nabil Shaath, the chief Palestinian 
negotiator, brought about $300,000 
with him into Gaza last week, but 
Palestinians have said the shortages 
have prevented them from com- 
pletely taking control of Gaza and 
Jericho. ‘ 

KRAKOW: No Golden Arches 

patrons, hs plans al tered the buQd- 

Contmued from Page 1 

tbe side street and offered to sublet 
the.front space to a bookstore so 
that pedestrians on the 
would see literature, not 
era. - 

m^^ucture, he said. 

But there is 5nn resistance from 
the city conservator, Andrzej Gac- 
zri, a 46-year-old architect who 
said that he had read outside opin- 
ions for and against the outlet He 
has twice rejected McDonald's re- 
quest, most recently on April 14. 

. “In' every version they have 
shown me. their plans impmge on 
the structure of the building, Mr. 
Gaczol said. “I told them if they 
Changed their plans and limited it 
to a coffeehouse, we wold proba- 
bly have no objottion-" 

Mr. Gaczol roles on the admissi- 
bility of changes to the city's budd- 
ings according to provisions of a 
national law protecting monu- 
ments and art. He insisted that his 
d erision had bees) made on narrow, 
not cultural, grounds. 

McDonald’s wanted to 

cover a large courtyard to erww a 

bmkfing was once the town 
house of PoHsh beer scions. During 
the Nazi occupation, it was the 
headquarters of the German mili- 
tary. It is now owned by a former 
Communist trading cooperative. 

Because the Germans renovated 
the buildmg, Mr. Gaczol said, it is 
in better structural shape than 
many others in the city. 

“McDonald’s exaggerates the 
contribution it makes to renovn- 
lions,” he said, (Esntisang the com- 

ihe dty by doing op the fa 
“Chi Fin n an ska Street, where they 
have their restaurant, the dty did 
the heavy structural woA of renew- 
ing the foundations and the roof.” 

If McDonald's really wonts to 
contribute to tbe restoration of 
Krakow. Mr. Gaczol said, it should 
consider a more rundown property 
near the railroad station, which he 
described as better for business 
anyway. But he said that McDon- 
ald’s appeared to be interested in 
thejresrige of Krakow's architec- 

The company still can appeal to 

textile business in Damascus’s an- 
cient. arcaded Hamidiya souk, 
agrees. With the right changes in 
the banking structure and the right 
opportunities, he said, “we can 
stand on our own feet" and live 
without being afraid of Israelis. 

The shift in attitude, spreading 
haltingly and quietly since Egypt 
made peace with Israel on its own 
in 1979, crystal zed for all the 
world when Prime Minister Yitz- 
hak Rabin and Yasser Arafat 
shook hands on their agreement for 
limited Palestinian self-rule at tbe 
White House in September. 

In signing their Declaration of 
Principles, Mr. Rabin and Mr. Ara- 
fat symbolized for the world the 
cracks in what for a half -century 
had been a keystone of Arab politi- 
cal, social, cultural and educational 
systems — and the pivot of at- 
tempts at Arab unity. That key- 
stone was the belief that Israel is an 
alien stale in the Middle East that 
usurped Palestinian land and had 
to be defeated to restore justice to 
the Palestinians and dignity to the 
Arab people. 

In the White House ceremony, 
the two reluctant prophets shep- 
herded 250 million Arabs toward a 
new perspective on Israel Israelis 
and themselves. 

“What Arafat did was a relief for 
me," said Fady Ghandour, bead of 
an express mail company in Jor- 
dan’s capital, Amman, where on 
dear nights the lights of Jerusalem 
twinkle on the western horizon. 
“Mentally, I am completely out of 
the mind-set that Israd is a taboo. 
The Declaration of Principles al- 
lowed the people who wanted to 
think this way to think this way 

The Israelis came, be said, “and 
we paid a brutal price.” 

“But we can’t change these 
facts,” he said. “Tbe past is the 
past We should look forward and 
establish a decent rivil society.” 

As Mr. Ghandour, tbe Amm a n 
businessman, suggested, dfctente 
with Israel portends a new dynamic 
within the Arab world. Absent a 
shared struggle against the Zionist 
foe, Arab states must reassess their 
often competitive relations with 
one other. Arab strongmen who 
have flourished as champions 
against the Israeli threat are likdy 
to find, it harder to distract their 
le from one-man rule and 
on personal liberties. 
Although dearly under way in 
peoples’ hearts and minds, the drift 
away from an era of conflict has a 
long way to go. load and Arab 
states, apart from Egypt, are still 
technically at war. 

The Arab League maintains its 
economic boycott, and restrictions 
on trade and travel continue. Radi- 
cal Palestinians and Islamic politi- 
cians still oppose Israel’s existence. 

And the possibility lingers that a 
wild card in Israeli or Arab politics 
could yet appear to sabotage or 
delay this tentative new dawn in 
the Middle East. 

after receiving just 62 votes in the 
first round of voting; Hildegard 
Hamm-Briicherof the centrist Free 
Democrats, who withdrew follow- 
ing the second round after receiv- 
ing 126 votes; and. in a surprise 
candidacy announced Sunday. 
Hans Hirzel of the far-right Repub- 

There were eight Republican del- 
egates at the assembly. Mr. Hind's 
best showing was 12 votes in the 
first round. 

Con tinned from Page 1 
the Northeast still depressed and 

other areas, such as the Rocky 
Mountain area, experiencing 
booming growth. But there have 
been signs of a modest upturn late- 
ly in California, and economists 
expect (he strong national condi- 
tions increasingly to pull along the 
weaker areas. 

If these rosy forecasts prove ac- 
curate — and they basically are 
similar to those of Mr. Clinton’s 

administration and a number of 
Federal Reserve officials — the 
predicted lower growth rates would 
allow Mr. Clinton to run for re- 
election in 1996 with a strong eco- 
nomic record. 

By then, the economy would 
have been dose to full employment 
for three years, corporate profits 
and real after-tax incomes would 
have been rising strongly, accom- 
panied by only moderate inflation. 

Unexpected shocks could of 

course come at any time, but the 
forces currently at work in the 
economy appear likdy to produce 
slower growth rather than another 
recession in the foreseeable future, 
Mr. Meyer and the other forecast- 
ers said. 

One reason growth is going to 
slow is that America is close to 
exhausting one source of economic 
growth: cranking up idle factories 
and other productive facilities and 
hiring unemployed people to oper- 
ate them. 

country’s Buddhist monks, and the^ b on ’ ma 
government las responded vigor- wo 
ously. Hanoi is aware that most . ^ n “ >gle 

Vietnamese are at least nominal ^ \™tei g 1 
Buddhiats, and even under commu- uj-k eem 

nism. Buddhist monks have im^ Ii °Wital 
raense influence. thetelii 

One year ago. exactly 30 yean .hm Z ^no- 
after Buddhist monks began a cam- nicj lau, n’[ Lai 
paign ihai ended ir the overthrow ^^er. nigl 
and death of President Ngo Dinh If. b 

Diem in South Vietnam, a new gen- ? 
era non of monks threw a scare into ined 
the Hanoi government. nev . 

The episode began in May 1993, eu^ 
when a man entered the Linh Mu 
pagoda in Hue, set himself on fire ,|an- 
and burned to death. [or. 

The incident recalled the fiery efuj. 

1963 protest suicide or the monk $fte 
Thich Quang Due in Saigon, an yon 
incident that ignited a nationwide Mew 
wave of unresL d as 

Buddhist Suicide Threat own 

. Ssi- 'My 
* ‘.he surii 
0 . Ot 


tid. acke 
?ag,f loo 
ight e yo 

ml If ' 

o b 
tv u. edea 

Exiled Buddhist activists said ■ A<f *tUe 

.YEN; South Korea Helped by Japan's Strong Currency 

Contumed from Page 1 

even the Japanese market which 
has been tough for Korean compa- 
nies to penetrate, is opening some- 
what. In the first quarter. South 
Korea's exports to Japan rose 12.4 
percent after having fallen for three 
straight years. 

The rise of the yen also has pro- 
duced benefits through other Asian 
countries, most of which have cur- 
rencies that are loosely pegged to 
tbe dollar. 

The mechanism works different- 
ly in different countries. Like South 
Korea, other relatively advanced 
countries, such as Taiwan and Sin- 
gapore, benefit from having their 
products gain a price advantage 
against Japanese ones. 

But the effect is somewhat small- 
er than in South Korea, some econ- 
omists said, because these coun- 
tries have fewer heavy industries 
that compete directly with Japan. 

For the less advanced countries 
of Southeast Asia and for China, 
the benefit of the high yen comes 
from Japanese companies them- 
selves, which are shifting their 
manufacturing to these countries to 
escape the high costs in Japan. 

Still, some economists say the 
importance of the yen’s rise should 
not be exaggerated. “Certainly it 
has had some positive impact, but I 
don’t think that it's a major factor " 
said Nam Sang Woo, senior fellow 
at the Korea Development Insti- 
tute, a governmen (-sponsored re- 
search organization. 

Mr. Nam said that the strong yen 
only helped exports, which account 
for 25 percent to 30 percent of 
South Korea’s economy. Some of 
that increase has resulted from Lhe 
UJ>. economic recovery and fast 
growth in Asia. He said the main 
reason for South Korea's recovery 
was a cyclical resurgence in invest- 
ment by companies m new plam> 
and equipment. 

Others noted that the yen’s rise 
was a mixed blessing. Industry in 
South Korea is highly dependent 
on advanced components and pro- 
duction machinery from Japan — 
such as robots and machine tools, 
wafer steppers for making comput- 
er chips and optical pickups for 
compact disk players. 

With a stronger yen. those Japa- 
nese products, for which there Ls 
often no substitute, become more 

Because of this, as South Korea’s 
overall exports grow, iis imports 
from Japan grow. In the first quar- 

ter of this year, imports from Japan 
rose 21.6 percent, almost twice as 
much as South Korea’s exports to 

In the rest or Asia as well, the 
expansion of manufacturing by 
Japanese companies means greater 
imports of Japanese components 
and production machinery, provid- 
ing what Mr. Kwan called a "built- 
in stabilizer" for Japan's exports. 

yen is that many companies in 
Asia, as well as Asian governments, 
have debts denominated in yen. As 
the yen has gained strength, pay- 
ments erf interest and principal 
have become more onerous in 
terms of tbe local currency. 

In a few parts of the economy, 
such as the steel industry, compa- 
nies have so much business they are 
turning down orders. And there are 
scattered reports of shortages of 
skilled workers in several parts of 
the country. 

Overall, the pool of unemployed 
idle on 

Even though the strong yen hurl 
the competitiveness of Japanese 
products, the volume of Japan’s ex- 
ports to East Asia climbed last 
year, while the volume of expons to 
Europe and the United States de- 

Japan’s trade surplus with East 
Asia exceeded its surplus with the 
United States last year for the first 

Another drawback of the higher 

Korean officials said problems 
still remained in their economy. 
Spurred by the shift toward democ- 
racy in the late 1980s. which gave 
new voice to workers, wages have 
more than doubled in the past five 
years, Mr. Lira said 

workers and idle production facili- 
ties is still large enough to fuel pan 
of the nation’s growth, at least for 
the rest of this year, the forecasters 

An average Korean auto worker 
produces only 20 to 25 cars a year, 
while a Japanese worker produces 
45, according to an analysis by 
Weekly Chosun, a Korean maga- 
zine; Were it not for lower wages 
and cheaper raw materials, Korea 
would not be able to compete with 

But with that pool of unused 
labor and capital so diminished 
the second source of national eco- 
nomic growth — the normal in- 
crease in the size and productivity 
of the U.S. work force — will have 
to provide the additional resources 
needed While there is disagree- 
ment over exactly how much po- 
tential growth the combination of 
an expanding work force and rising 
productivity offers, the estimates 
range from 14 percent to 3 percent 
a year, with most analysts clustered 
at the low end 

Monday that 49 dissident Bud- 
dhists had threatened to commit 
sukade by self-immolation next 
Wednesday but that their leader 
had appealed io them not to do so, 
Reuters reported in Paris. 

The Vietnamese government de- 
nied there had been any suicide 
threat and also denied a report by 
the International Buddhist Infor- 
mation Bureau in Paris that four 
dissident monks were on hunger 
strike in prison. 

The Buddhist information bu- 
reau said 49 Buddhist monks, nuns 
and laypeople had written to their 
leader, Thich Huyen Quang, asking 
for permission to bunt themselves 
to death on Wednesday, anniversa- 
ry of the Buddha’s death. 













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■Page 6 


Coping With Derivatives 

Derivatives have come to symbolize every- 
■hing that Washington finds spooky, incom- 
prehensible and menacing about the financial 
markets. Congress, bruised by die costs of 
cleaning up the S&L fiasco, wonders uneasily 
whether the rapid growth of trading in deriva- 
tives will produce similar grief. At Congress’s 
request, the General Accounting Office has 
published a report that is. on the whole, re- 
assuring. It suggests some improvements in 
regulation but rings no alarm bells. As it says, 
derivatives serve a very useful purpose. 

“Derivative” is the current term for a fam- 
ily of contracts — futures, options, swaps — 
that have been traded for decades. The GAO 
came across one illustration in a bank whose 
customers in Japan wanted to nail down the 
price that they would pay (in yen) for oil some 
months is the fumre First the bank went into 
the commodity markets to buy futures con- 
tracts fin dollars) for the delivery of the oil at 
those future dates. Then it turned to the 
currency market to buy yec futures. Compa- 
nies use derivatives to insulate themselves 
from sudden swings in prices of commodities 
like oil and. more commonly, currency ex- 
change rates and interest rates. 

Derivatives can also be used for pure specu- 
lation. Toe GAO warns that in a crisis, federal 
intervention might be necessary. Does that 

mean that derivatives ought to be discour- 
aged? No. In a crisis — set off by. sav, a leap 
in interest rates — it is better to use the 
financial system as a shock absorber than to 
have the impact fall directly on other indus- 
tries where jobs and production are at stake. 

There is room to improve the regulation. 
This business is carried on mainly by big 
hanks, but also by securities dealers and in- 
surance companies. American banks are regu- 
lated pretty heavily, securities firms less so 
and insurance companies not at ail by the 
federal government, only by the states’. The 
GAO thinks that Congress ought to require 
uniform federal regulation of all the deriva- 
tives dealers. More brcadly. it ought to recog- 
nize that banking, securities dealing and in- 
surance are no longer separate businesses. 
That also raises the question whether banks 
ought to be permitted to use federally insured 
deposits to finance derivatives. If it were not 
permitted, the risks to the taxpayer would be 
reduced — not a bad thing. 

But congressional legislation alone w-ill 
not be effective. The trading in derivatives is 
global. Competent overnight will require. 
like much else in the emerging financial in- 
dustry. cooperation among the governments 
of all the rich countries. 


Welfare Reform Options 

Line up the three major plans for welfare 
reform and they appear, at first, nearly in 
sync. President Bill Clinton, the Mainstream 
Forum of conservative and centrist House 
Democrats and the House Republicans pro- 
pose transforming welfare from a system that 
writes checks to a system that puts recipients 
to work. Look a g ain and note this oddity: The 
centrist Democrats as well as Republicans want 
to spend more money than die president. That 
should require no ideological war to resolve. 

But look more closely and differences 
emerge that cannot be ^sily bridged. The 
president's plan is shaping up as the only one 
of the three that combines compassion with 
sensible obligations. 

The three plans would provide cash assis- 
tance for a temporary period, during which 
recipients would undergo training, education 
and job search. Then the able-bodied would be 
required to work at subsidized private- or pub- 
licrsecior jobs. Key differences arise over how 
tight to make work requirements, bow to cover 
the costs and what support services to provide 
the poor and near-poor. The president’s plan — 
whose final details will not be known until next 
month — would be firm but Fair. The other two 
plans are unacceptably harsh and punitive. 

Limiting subsidized jobs. The Mainstream 
Forum would require, and the Republicans 
would authorize, states to limit the duration 
of government-subsidized jobs. Once the time 
limit expired, recipients would have to fend 
for themselves. President Clinton has not yet 
decided whether to take this misstep. He should 
resist. Parents who train and work faithfully 
should not be abandoned if. for no fault of their 
own, they cannot find unsubsidized work. Re- 
member. young children are at risk. 

Making immigrants pay. The president 
would raise most of the S9.5 billion needed to 
pay for his plan by permanently extending the 
period, from three years to five, during which 
sponsors are financially responsible for keep- 
ing immigrants (hey help bring to the country 
off welfare. That is reasonable. But the Main- 
stream Forum bill (S18 billion) and the Re- 

publican bill (S 12 billion) go much too far — 
stripping legal immigrants of welfare benefits. 
That would be an unconscionable blow to 
immigrants whose sponsors fail by the wayside. 

Paying for child care. The working poor — 
parents who earn barely enough to escape 
poverty — need help paying Tor child care 
while they work. Otherwise they will be 
tempted, if not forced, to go back onto wel- 
fare. The Mainstream Forum faces up to this 
need: the Republicans ignore it; Mr. Clinton’s 
plan lies disappointingly in between. 

Discouraging teen pregnancy. The Main- 
stream Forum would cut off additional aid to 
mothers who give birth while on welfare and 
would require minors receiving cash assis- 
tance to live at borne. The Republicans would- 
impose similar prohibitions and worse; they 
would, for example, cut off cash assistance to 
teenage mothers of illegitimate children (al- 
though states could pass legislation to rein- 
state such benefits) and withhold full benefits 
until paternity was legally established — a 
process that can take a year or more. Mr. 
Clinton favors less onerous conditions, which 
is justified because once welfare rules are 
straightened out. recipients will have all the 
incentive they need to act responsibly. 

Other welfare plans will emerge — includ- 
ing a promising one sponsored by Represen- 
tative Robert Matsu i. Democrat of Califor- 
nia. Whether the differences between the 
plans lie across an unbridgeable divide will 
not be dear until Congress begins debate. 

For evejyone’s sake, the advocates might 
focus less on what drives them apart than on 
their shared conviction, elegantly expressed 
by Professor Christopher Jencks of North- 
western University: “When people cannot 
find steady jobs, they can seldom afford to 
link their self-respect to their work.” 

Each plan seeks to guarantee welfare par- 
ents steady jobs, their children working par- 
ents as role models — and thereby help these 
families bolster the self-respect that lies at the 
core of responsible behavior. 


A Spring to Remember 

It says something about humankind’s natu- 
ral pessimism that blizzards and terrible win- 
ters are long remembered, even by their years. 
buL glorious springs are not. Americans still 
unborn in Northeastern states are likely to 
hear in decades to come about the record 
snowfalls that blew in with winter ’93. But 
what about the sequel? Why not a toast to the 
splendid spring of "94? 

Rarely in memory have bulbs and wild- 
flowcrs, shrubs and fruit trees blazed so 
brightly, or bloomed so long. First came 
purple and saffron crocuses in March, fol- 
lowed by a veritable sunburst of daffodils. 
Next were tulips, mingling with blazing 
plumes of forsythia. Lawns never seemed 
greener, and carpets of periwinkle abounded 
with ingratiating blue flowers. 

By May it was. clear that this was a spring 
with a difference. Dogwoods seemed to jump 
to attention with an effusion of while and 
pink blossoms. Among perennials, bleeding 
hearts are early bloomers, and they seemed 
anxious to keep up with their neighbors. 
Lilacs vied with cherry blossoms not only in 
suburban front yards but in Manhattan’s 
Central Park and in the Bronx’s Hudson 
River showcase. Wave Hill. 

Folk wisdom instructs that snow is the 
poor man’s fertilizer, a carpet that protects 
plants from deep frost. But professionals 
have another explanation. Tins is a “magni- 
ficent spring," says Jean Wells, a landscape 
architect in Easton, Connecticut, because it 
was unusually cool. “That’s why the tulips 
and daffodils lasted so long.” 

The downside is that poued trees on urban 

terraces and broadleaf evergreens suffered 
from the cold and bitter winds. More blooms 
delight the eye, but more pollen means more 
hay fever. And gnats and mosquitoes also 
nourish in wet cool weather. 

There are other quirks in wbat Marco Polo 
Stufano. Wave Hill’s director of horticulture, 
calls an “incredible" spring; “It’s been hit or 
miss in our herb gardens. Some plants that 
don’t winter over surprised us by aiming 
back, but others did very poorly because their 
roots were damaged by frosts.” 

Still judging from the dinner table buzz, 
weekend gardeners are too dazzled by May's 
explosion to worry about the downside. 
Spring ’94 deserves a sparkling cider toast 
and a Memorial Day offering of new plants 
for springs yet to come. 


Other Comment 

A Tide Toward Gan Control 

Americans feel threatened by crime these 
days because their instincts and experiences 
tell them they are not safe. And they are not 
calmed by recent crime statistics that suggest 
a 3 percent drop in serious crimes and a 1 
percent drop in violent crimes. They just do 
not believe the figures; they believe their 
instincts. The tide toward effective gun con- 
trol won’t calm down soon. America has not 
been acting responsibly with guns. Thai ab- 
solutely must change. ' 

— Los Angdez Times. 

International Herald Tribune 



C. I -Chairmen 

RICHARD McCLEAN. fuMtiher a On*f Etf.ulnr 
JOHN V1NOCUR. Eu-mh-.t EiEit 4 VhePrvjakw 


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V IW. IntrnxnhJiaJ tkniid Trdnmr All aghto mmrti ISSN' UN^rt'52 

TUESDAY, MAY 24, 1994 

O P IN 10 N 

Join Germany’s Effort to Widen Europe 

H ELSINKI —The prospect of a widening of 
the European Union to include four new 
members from the beginning of 1995 has intensi- 
fied the debate on decision making in Brussels. 
As in all institutions that have existed for any 
length of time, the insiders want to make sure 
that the newcomers will not be able to upset the 
way the place is run. This effort is what jn 
European Union jargon is called “deepening,” 
More important than institutional arrange- 
ments, however, is the underlying balance of 

There is a crucial difference 
between Germany’s past 
imperialist campaigns and 
Us present Ostpolitik. 

cower. Until now the Union has revolved around 
the Paris- Bonn axis. This functioned well as long 
as Bonn was the capital of a West European state 
— an economic giant but a political dwarf. But 
after unification, Germany no longer is a West 
European state — it is a European power, once 
again at the center of the Continent, with Berlin 
as its future capital. German leaders swear that 
they will remain faithful to their French allies, 
but strains will be inevitable. 

The German role in the recent negotiations on 
the accession treaties with Austria, Finland. Nor- 
way and Sweden was a portent of things to come. 
German diplomats twisted arms mercilessly to 
make sure that agreement would be reached in 
time to enable the new members to enter the 
Union at the start of 1995. Subsequently, insis- 
tent German lobbying was behind the favorable 
vote on the accession treaties in the European 
Parliament in Strasbourg. 

The entry of these four countries will not in 
itself change the fundamental character of the 
European U nion. They are all stable democracies 
and relatively affluent market economies. They 

By Max Jakobson 

will contribute to the Union budget more than 
they will receive from it All have accepted the 
Maastricht treaty without reservations, includ- 
ing its provisions on a common foreign and 
security policy. The former neutrals no longer 
have inhibitions in this regard. 

The reason why the Germans have been so 
anxious to prevent delay in admitting these four 
countries goes beyond the intrinsic importance 
of the new members. Their entry is the neces- 
sary first step in an eastward expansion or the 
Union. The accession of Austria and the three 
Nordic countries will shift the Union’s geopo- 
litical focus in this direction. 

Vienna is the historical center of a region that 
includes the ancient European citiesof ] 

co rn- 
on a 

clear day one can almost see the coastline of 
Estonia. The entire Baltic region will be em- 
braced by the European Union. 

This look at the map reveals what the logical 
next step would have to be: Hungary, Poland, 
the Czech Republic and possibly Slovakia and 
Slovenia, as well as Estonia, Latvia and Lithua- 
nia, will have to be drawn into the Told of the 
European Unioa. Obviously, these countries 
have a long way to go before they will be able to 
assume the economic responsibilities of mem- 
bership. But if the will exists, a way can be 
round to bring them into the framework of 
political integration without much delay. 

The German interest, shared by the four pro- 
spective new members, in such an expansion of 
the Union is obvious. Without it, Germany will 
remain a frontline stale, always exposed to the 
fallout from the turmoil and conflicts in the 
eastern half of Europe. Against this, an enlarge- 
ment of NATO would not provide sufficient 
defense. It would offer the Central and East 
European countries a tranquilizer, not a curl 

Only a gradual extension of the concept of 
economic, social and political integration so sue- _ 
cessfully applied in Western Europe can promote 
stability and prosperity in lbe eastern half of 
Europe and thereby create a reliable and lasting 
basis for the security of both halves. 

Such a vision of the future of the European 
Unioais consistent with its declared purpose. It 
has always claimed to be “Europe.” 

During the Cold War it had no choice bat to : 
remain an exciusrvdy West European institution. 
Now at last it has an opportunity to make good 
the claim implied by its name. 

But on the whole the Unioa remains emo- 
tionally and intellectually unprepared for This ' 
formidable challenge. 

It is one thing To accommodate the Nordic 
countries and Austria; that can be managed 
within the existing system. Letting in a host of 
Central Europeans and Balts would require a 
fundamental restructuring of existing institu- 
tions — an undertaking repugnant to estab- 
lished bureaucracies. 

More important, a further widening would be 
expensive. No new net contributors are in sight. 
Every extra member would compete with the . 
Mediterranean states for a share of EU resources. 
Solidarity would be strained to the utmost. 

Yet stagnation could be worse than the cost of 
expansion. It could endanger the. original pur- 
pose of The European Community, which was to 
tie Germany into a web of interdependence with 
its Western neighbors. 

Germany’s Drang nach Osten understandably 
makes many people in Western Europe fed un- 
easy. There is, however, a crucial difference be- 
tween Germany's past imperialist campaigns and 
its present Ostpoutik: Germany today is acting 
in toe framework of the European Union. . 

It is in the interest of the other member stales 
to make sure that Germany wifi con tinueto do 
so. litis they can best achieve by joining Ger- 
many in an effort to widen the Union into a 
indy European institution. - -' 

International Herald Tribune.' 

Shelve the Federal Dream and Stand Europe Up 

L ONDON — If Rodin were mak- 
t Lag a statue of today’s Europe. 
it would be a crouched figure gazing 
spellbound into its navel, one hand 
frozen in a frenzied scratching of 
the head. This is bow Europe looks 
to outsiders. It will not do, because 
things are happening in the rest of 
the world that require action. 

It especially will not do if Eu- 
rope's self-absorption continues, as 
seems all too likely, right up to 1996, 
when the 12 countries of the Euro- 
pean Union plan another meeting 
to contemplate their future. As it 
approaches next month's election of 
a new European Parliament, Eu- 
rope should start to make up its 
mind what sort of place it is. and 
what it wants to do in the world. In 
short, what it is there for. 

One answer to that question 
should for the moment be pul firm- 
ly back onto the shelf. A surprising 
number of politicians, mostly gen- 
tlemen of a certain age. still want 
the 1996 meeting to move Europe 
yet another stage down the road of 
“ever closer union" toward the Eu- 
ropean federation — the single 
United States of Europe — that 
they have so long dreamed of. 

It has beat dear since the row 
about the Maastricht treaty a cou- 
ple of years ago that this is not a 
workable proposition, because most 
of the people of Europe do not yet 
want that sort of Europe. The elder- 
ly dreamers chose to nay no atten- 
tion. They have now been remind- 
ed, with a jolt. 

In a pod conducted bv MORI and 
published in The European, a 49-to- 
32 percent majority of these asked 
said they were against a European 
federation. Only four countries — 
Belgium and a uio of southern aid- 
reedven. Greece, Italy and Spain — 
produced majorities in favor, and of 

By Brian Beedham 

those probably only the Belgians, 
who no longer have any real sense of 
national identity, honestly meant iL 

The biggest “no" was not, as most 
people would have expected, in is- 
land Britain. The Dutch and the 
Danes were even more hostile. And. 
decisively, both Germany and 
France were in the anti-federation 
camp. The three peoples on whose 
consent any new European struc- 
ture must be built — Germans, 
French, British — are all against a 
federal sort of structure. 

It is astonishing that the Europe- 
an Union's own opinion poll. Euro- 
barometer, has never asked people 
what they ihinic about the federal 
idea. Weil, on second thought, not 
so astonishing. The Buro-poOsters 
presumably did not want to have to 
lake “no” for an answer. 

Let it be repeated that there is 
nothing wrong in principle with a 
federal Europe.. If or when that is 
what a majority of the people in all 
its component parts clearly want, a 
federal Europe there should be. (It 
would be a huge pity if this new 
Europe turned its buck on America, 
thereby destroying the Atlantic 
partnership that could otherwise 
have shaped the 21st cenUiTy, but 
that is another maiter.) 

Without that necessary majority 
among its peoples, a federal Europe 
will not stand. Itwfl] be the artificial 
creation of a group of politicians 
and intellectuals, a superstructure 
without an infrastructure, a house 
built on sand. That sort of thing 
inevitably collapses, to the pain and 
fury of those living in it Yet this is 
what the would-be federalists of 
19% are trying to erect 

If the “ever closer union’’ cannot 
come any closer until the people of 

Europe want it. is time no other 
idea that can send a tingle down 
European spines in the nrid- 1990s? 
Of course there is. It is time for 
Rodin’s crouched figure to stand up 
and face the world. The nonfederal 
Europe that is the only possible sort 
of Europe in the next couple of 
decades needs a foreign policy. 
Here is work that needs to be done, 
a cause to rally people around. 

Europe needs a policy for coping 
with the fanatic distortion of Islam 
that it may soon be confronting in 
North Africa, if Algeria's rebels win 
the war in that country. 

Europe has to do what it can — 
which may not be much —to rescue 
Russia from its threatened social 
explosion, without encouraging 
Russians to think that they can once 
again boss their neighbors around. 

Europe should raise its eyes to 
what is happening in Asia, most ur- 

most certainly inchide.quitealoi of 
currently rather poor countries be- 
tween the present Union and Russia: . 

This in him vriD require great 
changes in some of the policies that 
Euro-dreamers have gram attached 
to. The Common Agricultural Policy 
will not survive the arrival ofPo- 
LamPs fanners. More regional aid for 
the needy East implies less for the. 
outstretched hands of Southern Eu- 
rope. And a burner Europe is less 


i matter. A tighter organization 
is not, we now blow, what, most 
Europeans want And a European 
Union that really believes in full 
Europeanness will not want to tilt, 
its favors toward one lot of Europe- 
ans and away from others. 

Here is a program /or serious Eu- 
ropeans in non month’s election. 
The 1996 Intergovernmental Con* . 
ference — the jargon for that year's 
European get-together — should 
waste no. time on constitutional ag- 

gestly the possibility that North Ko- . piping. The time for That may come - J 

... c ----- — - ' * bade Jaiaftt is'nornowlTheconfer- "* 

cnee should instead concentrate on 
the shaping of a European foreign 
policy: a policy that indodes North 
Africa, Russia, East Asia and, above 
all. the definition of Europe itself. 

rea is about to make “oonprolifa^ 
non” a word for the history books. 

But there is something even more 
basic that Europe has to do. First 
and foremost the European Union 
has to remember what its name 
means. The Union is intended to be 
a craning together in peace of all the 
formerly disputatious peoples of 
Europe, or at any rate as many of 
them as share the belief in a plural- 
ist society (which may be a neces- 
sary condition of being able to work 
smoothly together). It cannot in- 
tend to remain merely a club of one 
part of Europe. Its definition of 
itsdf has to be pan-European. 

This means bang ready to admit 
to membership any European coun- 
try that wants to join and truly 
passes the pluralist tesL That may 
never include Russia, but it will af- 

Not every European is going to 
agree about all of those dungs. That 
is no impediment to what needs to 
be done. We have just been remind- 
ed that the Europe of the 1990s does 
not wish to be- a rigid monolith. 
Those European countries which 
can agree upon joint action in the 
world — and most of them can agree 
about many things —will act togeth- 
er. Those which do not agree will 
stand aside. That is how the foreign 
policy of a nonfederal Europe 
should be. Let us start to make sure 
that that is what 19% produces. 

International HemM -Tribune. ■ ■■ 

Urgent UN Measures Can Abate the Rwa 

G eneva — in the past six 
weeks, the world has witnessed 
in Rwanda a human tragedy of horri- 
fying dimensions.. Hundreds of thou- 
sands of civilians have been killed, 
often after bring tortured. 

Many thousands have disap- 
peared. Perhaps 2 mHiicn have been 
forced tc fiee their homes. Thousands 
more remain trapped between battle 
lines, or have been forcibly detained. 
Many are in hiding, f erring for their 
lives. Disease and famine threaten 
those who have escaped death. 

On Tuesday, the UN Commission 
on Human Rights opens an emergen- 
cy session in Geneva, to respond to 
this tragedy. The meeting only the 
third such special session since the 
commisson was formed in 1946. can 
help step the incessant Tattle of death. 

1 took cilice on April 5. One day 
later, the crisis in Rwanda erupted. 
While peace and security are the re- 
sponsibilities or the Security Council, 
the scale of human rights violations 
in Rwanda was such that there was a 
need for action even before peace and 
security could be fully guaranteed. 

! fell that a monitoring of the hu- 
man rigbis situation in Rwanda with 
the consent of all those in positions of 
authority could help deter further vi- 
olations. or at feast allow the interna- 
tional community >0 monitor individ- 
ual traeedies and establish 
responsibility. 1 viewed Rwanda as a 
litmus test rif the international com- 
munity’.* willingness to act against 
massive humin rights violations. 

After consul ting the secreiary-gen- 
eral. 2 undertook an urges t mission to 
Rwanda early this month. There I 
met representatives of the armed 
forces of the Rwaadan Patriotic 
Front and of the interim gpvernmenL 
I solemnly appealed to both par- 
ties. and. through Rwandan Radio, to 
all those in positions of power to 
immediately stop the massacres and 
other human rights violations. 

I also appealed for dialogue and 
negotiations with a view to a long- 
term settlemo;! of the crisis. I under- 
lined the need for seeps to ensure the 
safe distribution of h uman itarian aid 
1 appealed for the immediate liber- 
ation of the thousands of people held 
hostage in the Hold Milles Collines. 
the stadium and the hospital in Kiga- 

B j Jose Ayala Lasso 

The writer is UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. 

li. I was able to obtain assurances 
from the government army that the 
hostages wOl be freed within days. 

I was able to determine that both 
parties to the conflict would accept 
an international investigation of the 
massacres and would cooperate with 
UN staff sent for that purpose. 

Since April 6. when the plane car- 
rying the presidents of Rwanda and 
Burundi was shot down as it ap- 
proached Kigali, the situation in 
Rwanda has steadily deteriorated. 

• At least 200,000 people are esti- 

mated to have been 

and some 

A cessation of hostilities 
is urgently needed so that 
aid can reach the people. 

well-informed sources pot the num- 
ber as high as 500.000. 

■ Tens of thousands of people axe 
being held in areas controlled by the 
government or the Rwandan Patriot- 
ic From. Many people are trapped in 
the capital at tlx Amahoro Stadium, 
the Sainte Famille Church, a local 
hospital and two hotels. The threat of 
starvation is reaL 

• There has been a massive dis- 
placement of population: An esti- 
mated 2 million Rwandans have 
sought refuge from the violence in 
other areas within the country. More 
than 300,000 arc reported to have 

entered neighboring countries. An es- 
timated 250,000 fled to Tanzania’s 
Ngara region. Tens of thousands 
have entered Burundi. Others are in 
Zaire and Uganda. 

• Health dangers grow daily- Wa- 
ter has been contaminated by corpses 
thrown into rivers and lake; bodies 
lefno rot in the streets or bushes also 
pose a health problem. Food is al- 
ready short and the situation could 
become disastrous if crops are not 
harvested and seeding is prevented. 

Effective international action is ur- 
gently required. What can die UN do? 

The Commission on Human 
Rights is the principal UN body en- 

trusted with the protection of human 
rights. The commission and tire Cot- 
ter for Human Rights have saved 
lives, quietly but effectively, over the 
years. But this new crisis transcends 
anything we have seen. 

When the commissiofl meets here 
Tuesday and Wednesday, it should 
consider appointing a special rappor- 
teur to e xamin e all human rights as- 
pects of the situation, including 
causes and responsibilities. Such a 
rapporteur should be assisted by a 
team of human rights field officers in 
close cooperation with the UN Assis- 
tance Mission in Rwanda and other 
UN agencies and programs. 

The commission should consider 
endorsing the suggestion that future 
UN efforts airbed at conflict resolu- 
tion and peac*-bu3diag in Rwanda 
be accompanied by a strong human 
rights component built on a broad 
program of human rights assistance. 

Every effort must be made to bait 
the human rights violations, or to 
achieve at least a temporary cessation 
of hostilities so. that humanitarian 
assistance can reach the 2 million 
displaced persons, and others in 
need. All those who are trapped or 
detained in places they consider un- 
safe must be able to move to areas of 
safety, with the assistance and pro- 
tection of the United Nations, 

The authors of the atrocities must 
be made aware that they cannot es- 
cape personal responsibility. They 
must be mode to realize that all rele- 
vant international human rights in- 
struments to winch Rwanda Is a par- 
ty. including the Convention on the 
Prevention and Punishment of Geno- ‘ 
ride, mast be fully respected. . ■ 

From the narrow windows of a 
Hercules C-l 30. leaving Kigali for. 
Nairobi. I saw the beany andwsalth - 
of Rwanda. Bui J also remembered’* 
the militiaman who earlier in the day 
searched our armored personnel car- . 
rier, with a live grenade in his hand. 
Knowing bow i frit then, it is almost 
impossible to describe bow those who 
cannot flee Rwanda must fed; 

The receii Security Council deri- 
sion ro dispatch fresh troop $ to • 

Rwanda should bdp- But the interna- 
tional community must do more. 

I befieve that a peace accord for 
Rwanda should indude a separate bu- 
man rights component with a detailed 
series cf human rights xequhrinaits. 

Impartial investigations of human 
rights violations, throqgb the special 
rapporteur and through field 1 moni- 
toring, would, bv establishing the 
facts and rcspoasHUties for the mas- 
sacres, b dp prepare the ground for 
atonement and recondfiadon. . . . 

The reconstruction of Rwanda re- 
quires both poGtical and financial 
support from member states. Qo$e 
coordination- among" UN agencies 
and programs for tins reconstruction 
effort should be based bn the solid 
foundations of' respect for human 
rights, the rights of minorities and tlte 
establishment of - an atmosphere of 
tolerance. Only, this can guarantee 
the long-term success of efforts to 
establish- democracy and economic 
and sorial'devdopment in Rwanda. 

International Herald Tribune 


By James D« Koss 

Cambodian electorate braved the 
threat of Khmer Rouge attacks and 
cast ballots in the country s last 
contested electioti in decades. Tn e 
subsequent formation of a common 
government and introduction ora 
democratic constitution convinced 
the- international community that 
the United Nations peacekeeping 
operation h«i<r been a success. 

The little attention given to Cam- 
bodia. sinc e then has focused on the 
government’s military struggle 
against the Khmer Rouge. Yet there . 
is a deeper malaise in the country s 
politics. A year after the vote. Cam- 
bodians are beginning to wonder 
why they went to the trouble. 

The royalist party under Prince 
Norodom Ranariddh won the dec- 
tions by a small but significant mar- 
gin. After A post-election rebellion 
hy high - ranVin g members of the in- 
cumbent Cambodian People's Par- 
ty, KingNorodom Sihanouk spon- 
sored apolitical “compromise” that 
divided ■ authority . evenly between - 
the two parties. (The then Commu- 
nist CPP was installed in' office in 
Phnom ,Bsnh' in. 1979. by the Viet- 
namese^ed invasion force tltet top-' 
pled the Khmer Rouge regime.) - 

Despite the formal arrangements 
after we 1993 elections, a genuine 
.transfer of power from the CPP to 
the coalition government has yet to 
occur. WhBctossingtbe royalists the 
formes of the Finance Ministry and 
the Foreign Ministry,- the CPP re-, 
tains control of the.lnterior Minis-. 
tiy, witb its abusive State security* 
apgaiatosr and the Justice Ministry, 
which exerts heavy authority over 
' the nationV courts. The CPP also: 
tkmrinatesthfc armed forces and the 
. national bureaucracy. 

In. the provinces the imbalance of 
power is evenisreater.^ The CPP dnti- . 
rally split up. CambcxSaY 2f gover- 
norships, but kfcpt the plum prov- : 
inces-for itsdf. More important, it' 
lias tenaciously hddon jo all local' 
appointments, from powerful district 
chiefs to police and teachers. The 
corruption and human rights^buses 
.that permeated the prcvious L CPP>e- . 
gone continue imder the roafitibn. . . 

Tbe royafists are at least "half re-^ 
sponsjblefor thdrdire predicament." 
Their party wra the 1993 elections,- 
partly on the strength of extravagant - 
campaign promises and a perceived.', 
commitment to good government.", 
Yet Hlias done nothing to earn con- 
tinued support. 

Instead of promoting reforms in 
government, too many royalist offi- 
cials have been content to grab their 
"^’rabse^ Wfib hai« r 

willing to challenge the status 
quo, such as Sam Ramsy. the capa- 
ble finance minister, have been re- 
buked by leaders in thrir own party. ^ 
In thepfovinces. CPP offices bustle 
with activity, legal -be otherwise/ 
while royalist party offices stagnate. 

The tight for control off the Na- 
tional Assembly may prove to be the 
royalists’ last stand. Public debate 
has been avoided for the sake of 
“national reconciliation,'’ and so far 
resolution of key issues has all gone 
the CPFs way.- . ;; 

Th e meet notable; and outrageous, 
is the CPFs unconstitutional quest to 
seal in the assembly two leaders of 
last year's rebdEon. Laws sharply re- 
stricting press freedom mkl judicial! 
independence ore in the offing. These 
issues are not being dedded % votes 
■ or political compromise* but by a 
combination of CPP bullying and . 
royalist appeasement 

A year after the elections, Cam- 
bodians should Ted justly proud of* 
the enormous accomplishments that 
have been achieved. A largely free 
press reports critically -on govern-, 
matt ineptitude and corruption. 

' Numerous social activist groups en-J 
gage in advocacy campaigns that 
would have- been impossible two 
years ago. A half-dozen human' 
rights organizations investigate and 
report on government abuses and 
Khmer Rouge atrocities. 

However, the new openness in 
Cambodia is tenuous and anlikefy to 
survive unless multiparty democra- 
cy does. Should current trends con- 
tinue, the country win probably re- 
' turn, by default, to a one-party state.-* 
.Besides those who live off govern-: 
ment corrapfionra mayor ben did a— 
-ry wOI be the Khmer Rouge. Pol Pot 
and his armed minions are doubtless 
.waiting patiently foe Cambodia’s, 
new democratic system to fall apart. 

The wher is based in Phnom Penh 

with the International Human Rights 

Law Group and travels widely m Cam- 

bodia. He contributed this commem to 
the International Herald Tribune - 


tioa, the Affies show that Germany is 
• fortunate that her provinces have not 

the ravages of war. She has 
tfae^awful dJunMes wrought by t££ 
man anrues m Belgium. Franie. ft>. 

1894c A Master-Stroke 

PARIS — The agreement just en- 
tered into between England and Bel- 
gium in regard to the Congo has 
caused modi excitement. England 

pdd has been very moderate m his 
daims, and it is not easy to see what 
benefit Bdriinn can derive from the 
-treaty, ytfuat is rather one of alliance 
in regard to affairs m Africa than an 
agreement for the. rectification of 
frontiers. The two Powers, _ however, 
in dividing half a continent, have 
eyes infringed on what other Powers 
consider their rights. ' - 

1919: Hie Alfie&Repfy 

PARIS— Thtrewasoffirially issued, 
~ tbe-jqj^bf the 
C onf e ren ce -to.. the: German 
Note oh the economic. conditions of 
pease. Mtfr regard tee food prodoc- 


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-Page Sat 

Everything Seemed Doable 
In Kennedy’s Early 1960s 


By Bob Herbert 


We’ll Miss the Royal Touch ’ 

XT EW YORK — Cameloi? No. there 
■L vas no Camdou And yd 

From the van tage point of 1 994.’amid 
me overwhelming damor of narcissism, 
cynicism, crime and the twisted tales ot 
afternoon television, ft is not thai easy 
to recall the extraordinary innocence 
that prevailed among so many Ameri- 
cans in the early 1960s. 

1 think of the time from I960 w 1963 
as the pre-sixties, a prelude to the hvped 
up. psychedelic years that gave the de- 
cade its identity. It was a cool and rela- 
tively quiet transitional period which 
had stronger ties of kinship to the 1950s 
than to the tumultuous era that lay 
ahead. The president throughout 1960 
was Dwight Eisenhower. 

President John Kennedy took office 
on Jan. 20, 1961, a time when Jack 
Benny and Red Skelton were still major 
prime-time television attractions and 
dreamy songs like “Where the Bow 
Are” and “Moon River” were big hits. 
Who knew that coming around the next 

Of Her Graceful Tutelage 

By Mary McGrory 

ues and 
mi of all 
ve years. 

ed south to march in protests for civil 

rights. Everything seemed possible, giv- 
en enough time, enough effort, enough 
goodwill Bad things could be made 

W ASHINGTON — She was a first 
ladv like no other. She was im- 

goodwill Bad things could be made 
good, and good things wonderful. 

Robert Frost, at the inauguration, 
spoke of “A golden age of poetry and 
power / Of which this noonday 1 s the 
beginning hour.” 

Americans were eager to believe. 

Cameloi, at that moment, did not seem 
out of the question. The Kcnncdys 
were a fairy-tale couple, the perfect 
stand-ins for royalty. And what else is 
royalty for, if not to embody the hopes 
and aspirations, the dreams and fanta- 
sies, of the simple folk? 

How deep was the innocence? A Gal- 
lup Poll in 1961 showed that nearly all 

;J i W 

& ’A* 

scoe-Tq 5 

AR£MiY 2 

yy lady like no other. She was im- 
probably beautiful she rode to hounds, 
did exactly as she pleased and knew just 
what she wanted. 

Jacqueline Kennedy wanted babies 
and fine arts in the While House. She 
would pose with the occasional poster 
child but not with county chairmen. She 
was a perfectionist who pored over his- 
tories and other old tomes to find out 

flame. She walked down the aisle hold- 
ing daughter Caroline’s hand. 

The child felt the sobs and reached 
over and patted her mother's arm. Out- 
side, John, 3, saluted the casket. She had 
taught her children love and manners. 

When it was over, she did something 
else. She put her own spin on the Kenne- 

uted the^ 
C’s plan 
for all.'* 
(elds say 
the tar-, 
m lacks', f. 
housing j? 

ied by 

dy years. Reticence set aside, she sum- nc?l H P u 

moned Teddy White, the romantic arat 

chronicler of presidential 

exactly how the White House was sup- Hyannis Port and told him what it was 5P ai uc tree** u 
posed to be and then set about restoring all about. It had been Cameloi. she told hildren nds 

de free‘1 

■ ■ .I 

Tjrfl’* 'V 
6- aOt 

teenage girls believed they would be 
married (Tor keeps} by age 22, and most 

A Gallup Poll in 1961 
showed that nearly all 
teenage girls believed they 
would be married (for 
keeps) by age 22, and most 
wanted four children. 

married (Tor keeps} by age 22, and most 
wanted four children. Eventually all 
families would be as wonderful as the 
Kennedys, who, with the adorable Caro- 
line and'John-John, were even more per- 
fect than the television sitcom families. 

How widespread were the dreams? 

Despite the atrocious racial prejudice 
of the era, Martin Luther King Jr. 

comer were miniskirts and Vietnam, 
the riots, the Beatles, a so-called sexual 
revolution, hippies, the Black Panthers, 
and what seemed for awhile like (he 
assassination du jour? 

One of the benefits of innocence is 
the belief that it's safe to dream. 
Dreams blossomed everywhere in the 
early ’60s, and they had about them a 
blissful, idealistic quality, especially 
among the young. Thai as much as 

anything made it a perfect time for 
John and Jacqueline Kennedy. 

Young, beautiful brilliant, rich, the 
Kennedys both encouraged and embod- 
ied the dreams of that era. Youngsters 
joined the Peace Ccaps, or went to teach 
among the poor in Appalachia, or bead- 

-".-T? Back to Involvement? 

J OHN Kennedy launched an era of 
personal invorament in soda! change 

J personal involvement in social change 
still fondly remembered by an entire gen- 
eration. Was there something peculiar 
about the times that made posable the 
Peace Craps, the Teacher Carps, Volun- 
teers in Sa\ioe to America? BSQ Clinton 
is trying to ignite a similar explosion of 
can-do optimism to combat the problems 
that gov ernment alone cannot solve. 

— Wiliam Raspberry, commenting 
in The Washington Post 

of the era, Martin Luther King Jr. 
could stir the nation with his profound- 
ly moving expression of his dream for 
ms people, delivered just Lhree months 
before John Kennedy was killed. 

The capacity to dream seemed infi- 
nite. And for so many Americans there 
was no belter place to project those 
dreams than onto the rim Family, 
Exhibit A in the attempt to prove that 
fairy tales came true. 

It was astonishing, reaDy. Jack and 
Jackie had Limitless self-confidence and 
never seemed to get upset over anything. 
They could handle it all and with elan 
— from the threat of nuclear war to the 
challenge of raising two young children 
in the world's brightest spotlight. 

And then, of course, on Nov. 22, 1963, 
it looked as if it had all collapsed in a 
heap. The assassination was a cruel 
breach of faith, and the damage to the 
nation’s psyche was enormous. In fairy 
tales you don’t kill off the hero. 

But nothing dies harder than a dream 
in America. So there was Jackie in the 
immediate aftermath, grief -stricken bul 
as dignified and perfect as ever, provid- 
ing a focus for the nation’s sorrow even 
as she organized the rituals for our 
collective grief. 

The country could not let her go. She 
moved out of the White House but she 
remained the first lady, still charged 
with the safekeeping of the fantasies and 
dreams of so many. 

Was that brief period in the early 
'60s Cameloi? Perhaps not Bat it's the 
closest well ever come. And the fact 
that for more than 30 years we thought 
of Jackie as ever young and invulnera- 
ble is evidence that we held onto a 
dream of something like Camelot right 
up ontil the end. 

The New York Times. 


A Proper Policy on Russia ■ Not So Mysterious nnderiyi 

iL She had the State Dining Room 
painted nine limes before she got the 
right shade of white. 

The country was not sure whai io 
make of her. She was half of the hand- 
somest couple ever sent to the White 
House. Whether to dismiss her as a 



. _ igJe 

fflteig t 
print- tial 

In the weeks since the death of for- 
mer President Richard Nixon, it has 
become fashionable to advocate, as he 
did, a policy toward Russia of dealing 
with political leaders other than Presi- 
dent Boris Yeltsin. The Clinton admin- 
istration has ignored this shift in 
conventional wisdom and has contin- 
ued to work almost exclusively with the 
established regime. 

The correct, answer is neither of these, 
and it is so obvious that it has nearly 
eluded us. We must treat Russia as the 
burgeoning democracy we would like it 
to be. That means dealing primarily with 
the party in power, while fully recogniz- 
ing the legitimacy of other parties that 
have achieved any degree of support 
from the Russian people. 

This middle-of-the-road approach is 
neither naive nor noncommittal. The 
intricacies of another country's domes- 
tic politics are beyond the comprehen- 
sion of the most astute foreign experts; 
giving any one party unqualified sup- 

Regarding “ A Mystery: Less Birth. 
More Death" f Opinion, April 7 1 by Nicho- 
las Eberstadt: 

On the face of it, a 60 percent drop in 
post-Communist East Germany’s birth 
rate does seem mysterious. However, as 
an American Living in the Eastern Ger- 
man city of Jena, the reason seems dear. 

Women here are unhappy. Before the 
Berlin Wall fell most of them were em- 
ployed, and their children were placed in 
any of the numerous day-care centers. 
Today, these women have no work 
(more women than men lost jobs after 
reunification), and they bemoan their 
living conditions in cramped and deteri- 
orating apartments built during the 
Communist era. Moving to a larger 

underlying teenage crime. Moreover, se- 
rious steps must be taken toward stop- 
ping the profusion of handguns. “Liber- 
ty Montesquieu wrote, “can consist 
only in having the power to do what one 
should want to do and in no way be 
constrained to do what one should not 
want to do.” Real solutions will be ex- 
hausting and expensive. But unless what 
we Americans “want to do” is to live 
perpetually in fear, ignoring our prob- 
lems will exact the biggest price of all 
— our freedom. 



— — — ■■ him. And for a generation, while tales of Swi ’^Enant'SS 

MEANWHILE presidential philandering filtered out of Mo 1 “P ,0 , ■ 

. — congressional committees and revision- >jy le 11 

iL She had the State Dining Room ism broke through the vale of tears, jyjj 
painted nine times before sbe got the Cameloi was the theme. m , — 1113 

right shade of white. She was mobbed, revered, pestered by 

The country was not sure what to paparazzi and reckoned a saint by some Q >i . . 'gl* 

make of her. She was half of the hand- who had originally judged her a snob. , ta j -€u€*& t 
soraesi couple ever seat to the White She lived in New York, supported cul- Has eem 
House. Whether to dismiss her as a tural causes, tutored a Harlem high Oi P^ni- 113 ) 
Newport irrelevant or a dotheshorse oc- school student, enjoyed her children and >n the » iu 
cupied much speculation until she went her job as a book editor. veno ■ 

with the president to Europe in June The tranquillity came to a screeching i_ u . can't Lai 
1961 and created a sensation. halt in October 1968, when she married * over- 

In Paris, the French, contemplating the Aristotle Onassis, a somewhat primitive if. bi 

wide-set eyes, luxuriant black hair and and obscenely rich Greek shipping mag- ^7 r PTOi-^y 
delicate nose, forgot to be superior. By naie. People were shocked, furious that 5 “The wra 
the end of the second day. John Kennedy she should step down from her stained d j tiah." • 0r 
was presenting himself as “the man who glass window. She never explained, nev- a 1 mage 7 or 
brought Jackie Kennedy to Paris." er apologized. She was ag ain, her friends leap- »kye 
In Vienna, they lined the streets mur- said, about the business at hand. J? orate 311 

muring “suss" (sweet) in such volume Mr. Onassis died as they were plan- iS: were ie a 

The Magnum Five 

apartment is not feasible, as vacancy 
rates are zero. Without a job, and with 

port can have disastrous repercussions. 
The point is not to vacillate between 

rates are zero. Without a job, and with 
the children at home, what modern 
woman would wish to further crowd 
her small living space? 


Jena. German v. 

The point is not to vacillate between 
different political groups bul to pro- 
vide consistent support for, and snow 
faith in, the democratic process, a con- 
fidence that hopefully will be a self- 
fulfilling prophecy. 

Finally, if this approach is to suc- 
ceed. the United States must refrain 
from claiming any ideological high 
ground. As repulsive as certain extreme 
elements may be, they are present in 
every democratic society, including 
America. We must have faith in the 
ability of the Russian people to discern 
leadership from lunacy, and to make 
their choices accordingly. 

Behind American Violence 

Cambridge, England. 

Regarding “ Young American Crimi- 
nals. A Game, Right? ” ( May 17): 

The article on violent crime by Ameri- 
can teenagers (and even preieens) high- 
lights the sad truth that there will be no 
magic solutions to litis growing problem. 
Lowering the age at wind) people may be 
tried as adults may seem fair, but I am 
skeptical of the abiHiy of young would-be 
criminals to make the sort of calculations 
that give tougher laws preventive power. 
Tougher laws are no substitute for a 
proper sense of right and wrong. 

The time has come for Americans to 
totally commit their resources to long- 
term solutions to the social problems 

Regarding “Cartier-Bresson: A Focus 
on Humor ” f Features, May I3l : 

The article about Henri Cartier-Bres- 
son failed to mention that the founders 
of the Magnum Photo Agency included 
not only Mr. Cartier-Bresson, Robert 
Capa and David Seymour but also Wil- 
liam Vandivert and Geoige Rodger. 
Though the latter two are less well- 
known (Mr. Van divert left the agency 
and Mr. Rodger worked mostly in Afri- 
ca and Asia, not Europe), they nonethe- 
less deserve to be mentioned.' 



with the president to Europe in June 
1961 and created a sensation. 

la Paris, the French, contemplating the 
wide-set eyes, luxuriant black hair and 
delicate nose, forgot to be superior. By 
the end of the second day. John Kennedy 
was presenting himself as “the man who 
brought Jackie Kennedy to Paris.” 

In Vienna, they lined the streets mur- 
muring “suss" (sweet) in such volume 
that it sounded like a giant, enveloping 
hiss. She stood next to Nikita Khru- 
shchev's bulky wife, Nina, on a balcony 
— a referendum on the Cold War. ana 
the West won in a walk. The president 
had a rough time with Mr. Khrushchev, 
but Jackie came home to gloiy — and to 
new respect from her Irish in-laws, hav- 
ing proved herself world-class. 

Jackie Kennedy was not into issues as 
Eleanor Rooseveit was. In her rare pub- 
lic statements she stressed the impor- 
tance of raising one's children welL She 
did not hold press conferences, did not 
give interviews. People told her she had 
to, but she knew better. Her silence 
added to her glamour. She kept her 
children out of camera range ana gave 
elegant parties. Grown men cried if not 
invited. Poets and musicians came to 
dinner. There was waltzing in the foyer. 

In Dallas, the first lady became a 
queen. Her bearing during the traumatic 
weekend when the young president lay 

presi- vzy 

tiah." * Ot 
mage * OT 

orate 311 
were*. a 

ning a divorce. His family Killed a for- n the *d*j 

tunc on her. Her life seemed peaceful. . 
Sbe attended gatherings of the dan. She L* 
observed the scene with the attention JT. 
and wit of another daughter of New ~fr 
York, Edith Wharton. She watched as . “r 
the governor of New York came down ’M' 
the path at Hickory Hill at the wedding 
of Kerry Kennedy and Andrew Cuomo. . 
“Somehow, “ she said, “I think the Cuo- 
mos wil] hold their own as in-laws.” ' AP 

Her suffering during her last illness 

seemed gratuitous, inappropriate for 
someone who had had much trouble. Sbe 
was cheerful through it ah, they say. She 
saw friends and family and adored grand- 
children who called her “Grand Jackie." 

Sbe conversed as long as die could. 

Once again. Jacqueline Kennedy ^ 
Onassis was showing us how to behave. . . 
We shall miss her exquisite tutelage. ^ 

The Washington Post u. 

skof 100 
i eye* 


n JUut 
ical r 

At lhe ,rma 

— ka- rea !' 
tnd. lW ! ver 
cm. V* 1 

A D-Day Exception 

If an exception were to be made to the 
decision not to invite any German offi- 
cial to the D-Day ceremonies in Nor- 
mandy, it should be for President Rich- 
ard von Weizsilcker, a nobleman in the 
truest sense, who represents the best of 
Germany past, present and future. I 
would object strenuously to anyone else, 
but not to the good baron. 



weekend when the young president lay 

in state in the Rotunda and the country jin Inspiration Leaves Us 
sobbed was an above-and-beyond dem- r 

onstration of noblesse oblige, worthy. T ACQUELINE Kennedy Onassis was 
many said at the time, of royalty. J an inspiration to a generation ot 
The 34-year-old socialite understood women, not least because of her stoicism 




aid> r 


ers. — 
for ■ 

that sbe had a shattered country on her 
bunds, and that she had to hold it to- 

gether. She made her tragic rounds with 
dignity and grace. Sbe planned her bus- 

dignity and grace. Sbe planned her bus- 
band’s funeral to the last trumpet and 
piper. Sbe researched the hanging of 
crepe on the White House. She oversaw 
the funeral invitation list to Sl Mat- 
thew’s Cathedral She saw to the eternal 

in the face of mari tal tribulations. Like 
the death ot Richard Nixon, hex passing 
came as a personal blow to milli ons of 
Americans. The most enduring public 
figures of this half-century, the Kennedys 
were part of our lives. As they aged, thdr 
contemporaries aged with them, only to 
be reminded of their own mortality. 

— The Baltimore Sun. 



By Jaroslaw M. Rymkiewicz. 
Translated from Polish by Nina 
Taylor. 327 pages. $27.50. Far- 
rar Straus Giroux. 


Reviewed by 

Abraham Bromberg 

T HIS bode by the Polish writer 
and poet Jaroslaw M. Rym- 
ltiewkz. comes at a time when Po- 
land is going through one of those 
recurrent bouts of hysteria that like 
some bestilcntiaJ plague de scend 
upon me country every few years. 
German for “transfer square," 
Umschlagplatz was the area in War- 
saw whence Jews were dispatched to 
the gas chambers in Treblinka. The 
book, published in Poland in 1988, 
examines, among other things, the 

• Ad Omerod, economist and 
author, is reading “Afodem Snow 
and Ice Techniques” by BiD March. 

“Tt is a good tittiebook on basic 
techniques for winter mountaineer- 
ing and ice climbmg, which I am 
jrading because I just completed a 

(Erik Ipsen. IHT) 

that did not answer to the govero- 
mmt in exile. 

behavior of Poles during that peri 

od. And the current outburst turn 

od. And the current outburst turns 
precisely on this subject. 

The storm was touched off by a 
dngtg line in an article in Poland’s 
largest newspaper. Gazela Wy- 
boreza, which said that dura® the 
Warsaw Uprising many Jewish sur- 
vivors were “finished off by the 

Home Army <AK)>nd the Nalio^. 
Armed Forces (NSZ) — the firat 
was the official underground army 
of the PO&h resistance, whichwuj; 

ated under the aegis of the Polish 

The phrasing was vague and un- 
fortunate. and the author of the re- 
view. a young historian and journal- 
ist by the name of Michal Cidiy, 
apologized- He then produced evi- 
dence showing tinder what circum- 
stances armed units (including some 
at lire AK) were responsible for the 
massacre of about 60 Jews during 
the Uprising — neither ordered nor 
condoned by the AK leadership. 

The correctives were to no avail. 

To suggest that any Home Army 
soldiers murdered Jews was I&se- 
majestt. Furthermore, it chal- 
lenged the received wisdom that 
Poles did whatever they could as 
one author put it. “to help those 
who were dying” — a distortion of 
the historical record, which shows 
that most Poles reacted to the mass 
extermination with stunning indif- 

aiCll UllUWi vwv — _ 

government in exile; the second was 
a rvMaciance eTOUD. but 3 CaBU- 

ference and that many actually ap- 
proved and lent a hand. 

The papers were flooded with let- 
ters and articles asserting that the 
evidence cited by Cichy was fake. A 
well-known historian, Tomasz 
Stizembosz, accused Gchy of “rac- 
ism,” and the editor of Gazeta. the 
prominent intellectual Adam Mich- 
nik, and his entire editorial crew, of 
“anti-PolishiKss and anti-goyism." 

These facts help to explain the 
significance of Rymkiewicz’s book. 
‘'The Final Station.” in addition to 
recreating, in relentless detail the 
place where, as the author writes. 
The history of Polish Jews came to 
an end” also ask s the Polish readers 
IO ponder “what Umschlagplatz sig- 
nifies” m them and to “posterity." 

In fact, Ryrnkjewicz tries to 
come to grips with the nature of 
Polish- Jewish relations before the 
war and the attitude of the Poles to 
Jews during the war. 




By Robert Byrne 

I N the Winter Tooro^t of 
the Marshall Chess Chib, Ilya 
Gurevich went undefeated in 

nftheFreneh Defense with 3 NdZ, 
Klovksy adopted 3..Nf6 wl fore*c 


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overwhelming for White) 23 Qg4! 
Qf7 24 Rdl, there was no defense 
by 24_Re8 because of 25 Ne6 Qe6 
26 Qb4. 

Position after 21 ... Re8 

boldly snatched a pawn with 18 

KJovsky did .not knuckle under 
with 18-ba 19 Rod, nor fall into 
18_Nb4 19 Bh5 Na2 70 Rc8 RbcS 
21 Nc8 Rc8 22 Q*H Nb4 23 Bd7, 
which wins a.dedsiye.pawn and 
sunultaneously ' unhingcs the black 
position, tie struck back 'with 
I8-Nd4 19 Nd4 ba 20 Nc8 RbcS 
21 RcS Red wheat 22 Ne6? would 
be enmehed by 22^Qe5l winning 
a piece. -■ 

Still Gurevich V analysis had 
gone a lot farther, as Iris 22 ReU, 
showed. After 22_JBb4 (22_e5? 23 
NfS! ^ 24 Qd5 Q{7 25 Qd6 is 

On24_Ng725 Ne6! Rdf 26 Nd4 
Nf5, Gurevich coolly forced the 
game into a pawn-ahead ending 
with 27 h3 Rd4 28 Rd4 Nd429 

After 38 Qb7!, there was no use 
for Klovsky to go on: 38-.Qg8 39 f4 
Kh6 40 Qg7 Qg7 41 Bg7 Kg7 42 
KG brings about an elementary 
Idrig-and-pawn ending: 38~d4 39 
Bd4 Qel 40 Kg2 accomplishes 
nothing because Gurevich had pre- 
risdv guarded against 40„Qo4. 
Klovksy gave up. 

His book is not a polemic. Rattier, 
it tries to get to the truth by weaving 
a tapestry that is part history, part 
ruminations, part fiction and pan 
semi-ficlion. It moves back and 
forth between scenes of Poland nf 
the 1930s. during the war. and now. 
then to New York, where many Jew- 
ish survivors found a haven after the 
war. One of the protagonists is very 
much like the Nobel Prize-winner 
Isaac Bashevis Singer. 

Rymkiewicz cites passages from 
the many sources he consulted, two 
particularly striking ones from a 
book wrilten by a Pole who wit- 
nessed the deportation of the Jewish 
population in his small town near 
Warsaw. The reaction of the local 
population, with notable exception, 
was ghastly. Hordes of people, he 
writes, descended on the freshly va- 
cated homes of the Jews, robbing, 
looting, "streaming with sweat, their 
eyes darting nervously about, (look- 
ing] like overladen ants salvaging 
tire treasures of their devastated ant- 
hifl.” Another shattering scene de- 
scribes Jews "squatting in row?,." 
waiting to be deported, with “the 
Germans drinking beer" and 
“groups of slender, pleasantly sun- 
tanned boys and girls standing 
around the ice cream kiosks on the 
nearby beach.” 

Yet on balance “The Final Sta- 
tion," Tor all its merits, does not 
succeed in its objective. Pan of the 
blame rests on the publishers, who 
aocepted a flawed translation con- 
taining references to people, places 
and incidents unknown to most 
Americans. For many Polish read- 
ers this was no problem. But the 
vast majority of American readers 
should have been provided with a 
glossary and footnotes. 

In addition, the fusion of fiction 
and nonfiction, reminiscences, cur- 
rent observations and occasional 
obiter dicta does not quite hold 
together. Some of the observations 
are forced, and the occasional hu- 
mor awkward. 

“The Final Station” is a brave 
attempt to provide an. antidote to 
that malaise of anti<Jewish hatred 
and apologetics that still flourishes 
in Poland half a century after the 
“history of the Polish Jews came to 
an end." Pity the book isn’t better. 


May 1“ - 25* 1994 

Montreal • Sr John's • Marrakech • Istanbul • Dubai • Agra • Ho Chi Minh City 
• Okinawa • Sendai • Petropavlovsk • Anchorage • Calgary • Montreal 

official sponsors 


Jebel All Hotel 

- - VhfytdinifH # * cftheVirU - 

Abraham Brumherg. who writes 
frequently on East European and 
Jewish problems, wrote this fur The 
Washington Post. 





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2 <H 
4 e5 



20 NfS 

21 RcS 

22 Eel 
27 (M 

24 HcU 

25 Net 
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29 M4 

30 KB 

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24 QH 
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17 QU 




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eiee Wave: Fashion Goes Natural 

An American in Japan 

By Suzy Menkes 

International Herald Tribune 

P ARIS — They are calling ii the 
“beige wave." Neutral fashion has 
bled color from upscale shops in 
Manhattan or the Paris Left Bank. 
This focus on pallid shades for the summer 
season might be described as a straw in the 
fashion wind. _ 

Straw, raffia, macrame and all kinds of 

stringy materials are part or the vogue for so- 
called “natural” colors and fibers. In fact, 
nothing expresses better fashion's move 
from major to minor key in the 1990s than 
the use of such ephemeral materials. 

The focus on beige is partly an extension 
into the summer season of winter's preoccu- 
pation with black. It suggests a society where 
to be seen flaunting clothes or expressing 
sartorial optimism goes against the grain. 

The basic suit for summer in the city is in 
beige linen or a similar rough-weave material 
making a simple, understated jacket and 
pants. In casual vein, there are ecru knits in 
crunchy cotton or shinier viscose, with lacy 
stitches or mesh effects compensating for the 
pale colors. The preferred shapes are the 

long, easy tunic, the elongated Nehru jacket 
or cardigan and the string singlet — often all 
layered together over pants. The trousers 
may also be knitted and are often wide and 
(loppy or as soft as jogging pants. 

“Nature" is the key word in the context of 
summer style, for the use of raffia and straw 
forcloibes (and especially accessories) is pan 
of an ecological fashion feeling that has 
pushed aside gilt and glitz. When the signa- 
ture Chanel quilted-leather handbag meta- 
morphoses into a straw basket you know 
that the change is for real. 

Even Giorgio Armani — a designer who 
favors minimal deco radon — found inspira- 
tion in back-to-nature accessories: string 
bags, mesh singlets or open-work crochet 
berets in (you guessed it) beige. His most 
dramatic statement was necklaces decorated 
with circles of straw and macramfe apparent- 
ly strung from string. 

Who is going to pay money for old design- 
er rope? It is an irony of modern Fashion that 
crafts once associated with peasant life are 
now prized by customers who realize that 
only at the summit of haute couture can such 
expensive handwork be kept going in an 
industrial society. 

Christian Lacroix has put an emphasis on 
passementerie — all those Gallic rope tricks 
that are not only used in interior decoration 
for fancy drapes, but also on clothes. Raffia 
embroidery has been shown by Lacroix. Dior 
and other couture houses as a way of empha- 
sizing arts and crafts that are more suited to 
the current fashion climate than pit thread 
and rhinestone beads. 

look like perambulating corn stalks. And in 
his last show Miyake had the ultimate in 

back-to-nature headgear a hut shaped like 
an upturned flower pot coated in soil with 
blades of grass sprouting from the crown. 

The straw hat, symbolic of sunny days in 
lush meadows, is a standbv of the summer 

By Paula Deitz 

Hev York Times Service 

You can find passementerie decorating 

season. Shady brims and deep crowns are 
much in evidence, but once again it is the 


the bodice of an apparently simple summer 
evening dress, or edging a jacket hem to give 
a lacy, feminine effect to a Romeo Gtdi 

a lacy, feminine effect to a Romeo Gigli 
tailored pantsuit. 

Even without obvious decoration, design- 
ers like Calvin Klein in New York and espe- 
cially Armani in Milan give richness and 
interest to predominately beige clothes. Ar- 
mani's clear-as-waier colors are legendary: 
bul his fabric research and development 
mean that texture and weave provide tonal 
differences to clothes that might appear dull 
at first glance on the runway. 

much in evidence, but once again it is the 
texture of the straw rather than any fancy 
decoration that makes the fashion point 

And hats have also taken on s new ethnic 
dimension, for a favorite shape is the coolie 
haL In his summer line. Ralph Lauren was 
inspired by Vietnam — not an easy place for 
an American designer. Lauren's straw pago- 
da hats shaped like a temple roof, were 
shown with khaki clothes in an attempt to 
widen the range of beige. 

Issey Miyake also works imaginatively in 
fabric, re-creating the weaves of Japanese 
peasant culture or subtle grains in manmade 
materials. He has even woven raffia into 
wildly fringed dresses so that the models 

The ultimate in natural fashion came from 
another American designer. Todd Oldham. 
He sent out a dress with woven bodice and 
rustling raffia fringe like a grass skirt. It was 
funny, funky and made an over-the-iop 
statement about modem fashion. It remains 
to be seen whether the customers will buy 
these ecologically correct clothes — or think 
of them as high fashion’s last straw. 

Collier or et brillants 


I { 

“II est des signatures auxqtte lles onj ient . 

OKYO — in her first 
book. "Japan; The An of 
Living." Amy Sylvester 
Katoh recalled the first 
time she invited her new Japanese 
father-in-law to tea. She served him 
freshly baked cakes and cookies 
a bamboo tray traditionally used 
for noodles. He was shocked. 

That was three decades ago, when 
she was new to Japan, and it was 
also the beginning of a long and 
winding turnabout for the vivacious 
American. She is now recognized 
throughout Japan for her dedication 
to preserving and venerating what 
has been rapidly disappearing here: 
traditional rural crafts. 

Katoh has established a link be- 
tween an ancient culture and the 
modern consumer, giving new life 
to designs that were once indige- 
nous to Lhe countryside. 

On a morning last fall, Katoh 
continued her mission, leading a 
small group of friends to a yukata 
workshop on the eastern end of the 
sprawling city of Tokyo. 

Y ukata, the crisp blue-and-while 
cotton fabric used for summer ki 
monos, is one example of a tradi 
lional textile that has contempo- 
rary applications, particularly for 
home furnishings. “There are over 
300 shades of blue in Japan,” said 
Katoh, 52. 

Her mission has become her per- 
sonal style. In her new book. “Ja 
pan. Country Living: Spirit. Tradi- 
tion, Style” (Charles E. Tuttle Co.), 
she elaborates on her experiences 
traveling throughout a countryside 


Bague or et brillants 


where she says the old life is disap- 

This odyssey began in 1963 with 
her marriage to Yidchi Katoh. now a 
businessman. They met when, they 
were counselors at a summer camp 

for the blind in her native Massa- 

chusetts. At the time, he was a stu 

dent at Harvard University and she 
was entering Smith College. 

I have been a special guest in 
Japan for over 30 years," is bow 
Katoh describes her life and the 
confluence of events that has 
moved her along a path she calls “a 
trail of wonder and surprise.” 

Her Blue A White emporium is 
the headquarters for her activities. 
The store is on a side street near the 
Roppongj Crossing subway stop. 
Its wide window jutting out onto 
the street is a festival of die seasons 
that delights children passing by. 

In early spring, branches of cber 
ry blossoms were supported by an 
old door that had decomposed into 
a skeletal lattice bound by rice straw 
rope. Wabi sabi is the term she uses 
to describe this beauty of decay 

Spread out under the branches 
was a picnic setting, the table an 
inverted basket laid with a pink 
ceramic set in a cherry blossom 

Katoh has earned enough re- 
spect that her support is often suffi- 
cient to revive or sustain certain 
Japanese craft industries. The yu 
kata workshop is an example. 

During the tour, individual rolls 
of cotton, bound up in drums like 
giant s ushi, were being unfurled to 
make lenugui. the printed cotton 
hand towels that can also be made 
into the swealbands worn by sushi 

chefs and construe lion workers. 

At Blue A White, the most fetch- 
ing Lenugui have been made in pat- 
terns of seasonal fruits and vegeta- 
bles. Katoh rediscovers traditional 
designs by viewing displays at the 
Mingei Museum or by combing 
flea markets for bits and pieces of 
old textiles. 

Hanging in Katoh ’s 
rungs of old ladders are other 
lional blue and white textiles, 
sashiko, a quilted fabric worn 
farmers in the north, or kastui 
woven from threads dyed into 
arranged patterns. 

Wooden shelves are filled wi 
products made out of old t 
patterns, from notebooks and 
meric bags to cushions and cm 
tea boxes. The printed design on 
one small change purse showed a 
carp swimming up a waterfall, the 
Japanese symbol for courage an4 
determination; it is also part of. the 
shop’s logo. 

“While other countries 

bow exquisite Japanese taste-is£ 
Katoh said, “Japan itself has 
dabbling about in other col; 
tastes and looks. 

HE and artisans whom she 

- rangers, arc seeking to 
establish what she calls “aJa 
sense of aesthetic in living, p 
working, art and decorating. 

But this return to a sensibility 
about rural life also takes great 
leaps in originality, as demonstrate 
ed by an autumnal exhibition of 
baskets and vegetables at Bluaife 
White- last year. " • 

By covering traditional bamboo- 
baskets with mulberry wasta, or" 
handmade paper, made waterproof 
with persimmon tannin, in an art 
called ikkanbari, Hisafco Hagiwara, 
an artist, transformed these coot.. ... 
mon objects into individual sculp* 
hires and embellished them with A 
calligraphy. -y-J 


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filled the baskets and scattered.^ 
among them a tumbling harvest- ■; 
display of turnips, carrots, berries, ; ^ 
nuts and chrysanthemums. 

1 Rasagta. 

j lord's ; :u . 

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The flea market is also a favorite 

Van Clecf & Arpels PARIS 22 , Place Vendome, Tel : 42 61 58 58 - GENEVE 31 , Rue du Rhone. Tel : 311 60 70 “ boutique 


stopping place for one of her 
friends, Joan Mondale, the wife of 

8, me de Sevres, 

Paris 6th 

friends, Joan Mondale, the wife of 
Waller F. Mondale, the U.S. am - 
bassador to Japan. “I love to watch 
her bargain in Japanese.” Mrs. 
Mondale said, “and I realize that 
what she is doing is more than a 
business; it's a way of life.” 

Though Katoh is what tbe Japa- -.'i 
nese call iki. meaning dashing and ~ 
chic, she says that she abhors fash- > 
ion for its own sake, preferring in- 
stead style that derives ultimately - 
from utility. . 

She said, “I love what other pco- / 
pie reject." or what she describes as 
beta, a taste for that imperfection - : 
that adds zest in a country where 

perfection rules. 

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SoTSJS He [? l( ? Tribtjne Wor,d Stock Index 0. composed of 

hu Rw^IS. lKJn D y ,rwestable s,pcks from 25 countries, compiled 

DyBIoomberg Business News Jan. 1. 1992 = 100 
120 — ■ 

100 - 

World Index 

S/23/S4 close: 113.69 
Previous: 1 13.70 




-i i ,.i i 



Asla/PScific T, 


Approx. BifigWng J2\ 
Close 111.72 Prev w.04 

flpero*. weighting- 37% 
Cose. 115 50 Prev.: 11566 






A M 



A M 

North America 

Latin America 


Apprax. weghting. 26% 

dose: 93.76 Prev.: 34.30 


110 ^ 


*£2 Wondtoda 

■■■■>■ --Kit.-' 

D J F M A M 
1993 1994 

77w Infer tracks U S. doBar values of stocks in: Tokyo, New York, London, and 
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chfla, Denmark, Finland, 
Franca, Germany, Hong Kong, My. Mexico, Netherlands, New ZnMid. Norway, 
Singapore, Spain. Sweden, Gwttzerlend end Venezuela. For Tokyo, Now York and 
London, the older Is composed at the PO Op Issues In terms of market copnataation, 
otherwise Bw ten top stocks are tracked- 

1 bulu^tririt Sectors ^ • . 1 

Bon. Pkvl % 




dune dra diange 





}ji2J39 112.58 -0.17 

CiiplW Goode 





119.05 119-33 -023 

Raw Materials 





120.03 119.41 +0.52 

Consumer Goods 





11756 11S53 -050 





For more information aboutthe index, a booklet ® avaftbte free of charge. 

Write to Trib Index. 181 Avenue Charles tteGauffe, 92521 NeufyCedex. Fiance. 

Wary on 
Rate Cuts 

Tietmeyen Hiatus 

For 'Time Being 5 


FRANKFURT — Hans Tict- 
meyer. president of the Bundes- 
bank, said Monday that the Ger- 
man central bank planned no more 
rate cuts in the near future, signal- 
ing at least a temporary hiatus after 
several years of reductions. 

“We are not following a siep-by- 
step cut in interest rates for the 
lime being," be said at a news con- 
ference in Helsinki. 

He was responding to a question 
on whether his comments last week 
in the German magazine Spiegel 
that the rale horizon was dear 
meant that there would not be offi- 
cial rate cuts in the short term 

German financial marked; were 
closed Monday for a public holiday, 
but mark-bond futures on the Lon- 
don International Financial Futures 
Exchange tumbled on the news. 

Analysts interpreted the com- 
ments to mean there would be a 
pause in cuts in the discount and 
Lombard rates, the respective floor 
and ceiling of German rates. The 
analysts noted that the Bundes- 
bank was likely to continue to 
make cuts in its securities repur- 
chase rate, or repo rate, which is the 
leading interest rate for the Ger- 
man money markeL but that the 
pace of the cuts may slow. 

The repo rate declined to 5.23 
percent Iasi week from 5.35 percent 
in the preceding week. 

Repo- rate cuts "will continue 
but at a decelerated pace.” said 
Rolf G Anther Th i iman n . an econo- 
mist at Salomon Brothers Inc. in 
London. “I wouldn't expect the 
magnitude of last week's.” 

The decision to put rate cuts on 
bold apparently reflects in part the 
view that German money supply 
'growth remains higher than the 

Bundesbank's target of 4 to 6 per- 
laid. f 

O JntMnatonal Hard Id TrBune 

cent, analysts said. It grew at a rate 
of 15.4 percent in March. 

Consumer inflation, however, 
continues to recede and stood at 3. 1 
percent in West Germany in April. 

British Airways Is 
Flying High , But 
Troubles Loom 

By Erik Ipsen 

tiuernauomt thraid Tribune 

LONDON — British Air- 
ways PLC is putting miles be- 
tween itself and the rest of the 
airline indusiry in the race for 
the title of the world’s most 
profitable air carrier. 

On Monday. BA announced 
pretax profit for the year ended 
March 31 of £301 million (5454 
million), a 63 percent rise over 
the previous financial year. BA 
itself com rasicd that result with 
the large losses rung up last year 
by many international earners. 

Bui all was not good news. 
The airline's chairman Sir Colin 
Marshall said that his vision or 
creating a truly global airline 
had hit a potentially cost! > snag: 
He said BA may be forced to 
write off the vjjue of its 24.6 
percent stake in .America's sixih- 
iaigcst airline, USAir Inc. 

Key to BA's recent profitabili- 
ty has been its holding of nearly 
40 percent of the takeoff and 
landing slots at London's Headi- 
row Airport, where demand for 
such slots far exceeds supply. 

Only two U.S. Laniers. Unit- 
ed and American, have landing 
rights there, and neither has as 
many slots as it would like. 

"The incumbents at Heath- 
row do enjoy near-monopoly 
profits from their positions at 
what is the leading internation- 
al airport in Europe, if not the 
world," said Guy Kekwick. an 
analyst at Lehman Brothers in 
London. "It is a fortunate posi- 
tion to be in." 

in recent years BA has built 
on that privileged position by 
taking perhaps the most aggres- 
sive approach to cost-cutting of 
any major European airline. 

But USAir's woes arc worri- 
some. Since January 1993. Brit- 
ish Airways has spent £275.3 
million building up its share in 
the troubled American airline 
which has lost money in each of 
the last six years and nearly SI 
billion in the last two years 

Sir Colin said the fate of BA's 
investment now lies in the hands 
or USAir's unions. Those unions 
are currently mulling a reorgani- 
zation plan designed to cut costs 
and boost profits that was put to 
them recently by USAir’s man- 

Analysis in London predicted 
Monday that a failure of those 
talks could lead USAir into 
Chapter 1 1 bankruptcy and 
prompt a write-off for BA of the 
bulk, if not all of its investment 

"If USAir goes into bank- 
ruptcy then I think BA will have 
to wme down all of their invest- 
ment just like KLM did with 
Northwest," said Andrew 
Darke, an airline analyst with 
the Williams de BrC>c' broker- 

Earlier this year. BA put 
plans on hold to invest an addi- 
tional S450 million in USAir by 
1998. citing uncertainty over 
the outcome of USAir's crucial 
restructuring efforts. 

Ironically. BA said its part- 
nership with USAir has paid off 
handsomely. Last year, the 
USAir relationship earned BA 
just under £10 million, a figure 
the airline forecast would climb 
to £70 million this year from a 
combination of revenue gains 
and cost cuts. 

The bulk of those gains have 
come from code-sharing agree- 
ments by which the two amines 
are able’ to book passengers on 
each others flights. BA also said 
it expected a £20 million gain 
from combining the carriers' fre- 
quent-flyer programs. 

Some analysis noted that the 
expected £70 million gain for 
this year would stoke competi- 
tive fires between BA and its 
big American competitors. 

Earlier this year, some U.S. 
carriers sought unsuccessfully 
to block an extension of BA's 
code-sharing deal with USAir 
on the grounds that it gave the 
British carrier an unfair advan- 
tage in the huge U.S. market. 

Sandoz to Buy Gerber 
For $3.7 Billion in Cash 

CurnpfeJ to Ojt Stuff From Diqxutha 

NEW YORK — Sandoz AG. the 
Swiss pharmaceuticals company, 
said Monday it would acquire 
Gerber Products Co. in a S3.7 bil- 
lion cash deal. 

The Swiss company, based in Ba- 
sel, said it will offer S53 a share for 
all Gerber shares, amounting to a 
premium of 53 percent above the 
baby-food maker's Friday closing 
price of 534.625. The company’s 
share price soared 46 percent from 
Friday, to a closing quote of 550.50 
on Monday. 

Earlier this month, Roche Hold- 
ing Ltd., another Basel-based 
chemicals company, purchased 
Syntex Corp„ a U.S. dreg compa- 
ny. for S5.3 billion in cash. 

Sandoz. one of the world’s larg- 
est chemicals concerns, had sales of 
SI0.3 billion last year and net in- 
come of SI.2 billion. It has interests 
in pharmaceuticals, chemicals, nu- 
trition. seeds and the construction 

Gerber Products, based in Fre- 
mont. Michigan, is a developer and 
marketer of baby food and care 
products with sales of about SI.2 
billion. It claims 70 percent of the 
U.S. baby foods markeL 

The Sandoz acquisition of 
Gerber doubles the size of the San- 
doz food products division, which 

includes Ovalline and other con- 
sumer brands. The unit is the fast- 
est-growing pan of the company. It 
also dramatically expands the divi- 
sion’s presence in the United 

Sandoz’s nutrition division had 
sales of SI.2 billion, but only 14 
percent of that was in the United 
States. Gerber had sales of Sl-2 
billion in 1 994 and 89 percen t origi- 
nated in North America. 

Alfred PieigaUini. Gerber chair- 
man and chief executive, said in a 
statement that the company spent 
many months evaluating its best 
course and that joining with San- 
doz would aid it internationally. 

"Sandoz has in place the interna- 
tional structure and presence to cap- 
italize on the Gerber brand and ex- 
pertise in child nutrition." said Rolf 
Schweizer, chief executive of Sandoz 
Ltd. "Gerber's position in North 
America strengthens our existing 
base of nutrition products there.” 

The companies said that the obli- 
gation for Sandoz to purchase 
shares would have to be approved 
by regulators. They said they ex- 
pected to close the’ tender offer in 
three to six months. 

Gerber also reported Monday 
that its profit fell 40.6 percent in 
the fourth quarter of 1994, to $25.6 
million. The latest results included 
a $22.4 million restructuring charge 

to cut labor and overhead cos 
while earnings in the comparat 
period a year earlier had included 
gain from the sale of an appai 

.Analysis in Zurich said the Swi 
market, which was closed on Mo 
day for a holdiay, was likely 
react negatively at first, largely b 
cause of an anticipated dilution 
Sandoz’s earnings. 

"With the general mood in tl 
market, earnings dflutioa isn’t ta 
en up wdl,” said Frederick Has 
la uer. an analyst at Bank SaL O 
penh rimer Jr. in Zurich. ' 

Wondering whether Sandoz ws 
paying too much, Mr. Hasslaw 
said the overall price represente 
about 29 times Gerber’s net incoir 
before restructuring charges c 
S127 million in the company’s f 
nancial year, which ended i 

But he said the companies wer 
likely to benefit from the synergic 
to be had from the merger. “Th 
tactical move is correct,” he said. 

In recent years. Sandoz has ag 
gressively bought marketing right 
to research in the U.S. and expand 
ed its nutritional line. In 1990, talk 
were called off that were meant t< | 
combine Sandoz's agrochemical > 
segment with that of Schering AC a 
of Germany in a joint venture. m 
( Bloomberg. Reuters, AP 2 

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Compiled bi ■ Our Staff From Dispatches 

ATHENS — Greece said Monday it would sell as 
much as 25 percent of the Greek telecommunications 
company OTE this year, a move it hoped would ener- 
gize an Athens bourse reeling from the drachma crisis. 

But analysts warned that the government would 
need to lime the sale carefully to avoid causing more 
problems for the stock exchange. 

The stake in the profitable telecommunications 
company, which has been scheduled for privatization 
since 1990, will also be offered for sale mi stock 
exchanges in the United States and Japan, the national 
economy minister, Yannos Papandoniou, said. He did 
not say exactly how much of the company would be 
sold in" each country. 

The company, whose official name is Greek Tele- 
communications Organization, has shown annual 
profit recently of 150 billion to 200 billion drachmas 
($602 million to $802 million). 

“We’re talking about a c hain reaction — a health} 
bourse and OTE's flotation, which will improve siocki 
further and help more public companies to be listed,’ 
lakovos Diamandopoulos of M. Kyranis Securities said. 

He said a valuation for the company would be 
announced after consultations with financial advisers, 
with the terms of the sale to be contained in a bill foi 

E resen ration in the Parliament, where the government 
as a substantia] majority. 

But if the Socialist government orders the flotation 
when the bourse is still down, it may have trouble 
selling the shares, or the company's listing could cause 
a sell-off in the rest of the market as investors scramble 
for OTE stock. 

“If OTE Is floated when the bourse is down because 
of high interest rates, the market will crash.” Tasos 
Rapakoulias of Katsoulis Securities said. “It's a ques- 
tion of timing." 

(Reuters, AP, AFP) 

illy 80 
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am now. 

— inon 

Thinking Ahead /Commentary 

In This Globalization, Jobs Stay Put 

By Reginald Dale 

httemaanal HmU Tribute 

W ASHINGTON — How global 
is globalization? Not, the an- 
swer appears to be, as global as 
you might think. Rather than 
rasing a threat to the industrial countries, as 
xjmmonly supposed, it may be more danger- 
ms for developing countries. 

Indeed, some economists fear, Large pans of 
he globe — particularly the poorer parts — 
isk exclusion from the globalization process. 

Of course, manv aspects of globalization 
ire genuine. With the triumph of market 
sconoraics, barriers are falling; modern com- 

: It is true that starting in the 1970s, the 
industrial world’s multinational corporations 
started shifting production to low- wage 
countries and exporting the output back to 
their home markets. 

But that trend, says Mr. Oman, is decelerat- 
ing and in some industries actually revering. 

One major reason is that in many indus- 
tries the share of low-skilled labor in produc- 

limitations are shrinking the planet; nnan- 
• J the dock, and 

Fears that work will 
flow to low-wage countries 
are largely misplaced. 

Lai markets are open around _ 

ompanies increasingly operate worldwide. 

As a result, many in the industrial coun- 
ies fear that manufacturing production and 
ibs will disappear en masse to low-wage 
evdoping countries. 

Those fears are largely misplaced. Far from 
^reading around the world, production is m 
ict being regionalized — and much of it is 
eadingto the main advanced regions in 
lorth America. Europe and Asia. 

Al though most mainstream economists 
ave missed it, what we are wtoesangj* 
totalization, but global locahzation, due m 
io new methods of product* on ^nd 
lanagement that are consigning Henry 
tarfs traditional assembly lme to the trash 
cap of history. 

That at any rate is the argument rather 
mvindngly Advanced by Carles Oman m a 
ew study of globalization and regionalization 
v the Oreamziation for Economic Coopera- 
ffilfcSpnmrs Development Center. 

tion costs has been rapidly Tailing — from 
around 25 percent in the 1970s to perhaps 5 
percent or 10 percent today. 

Another is that it is increasingly important 
for producers to be dose to their customers 
and to their suppliers of parts and services. 

Both these trends are reinforced by the new 
flexible production techniques that rely on 
highly trained and motivated labor forces, con- 
tinuous innovation and just-in-time delivery of 
components. They require educated workers 
and good transport mid communications. 

One result is that the move from high -wage 
to low-wage areas, insofar as it continues, wm 
increasingly be within regions rather than 
between them. In Europe, companies will be 
more likely to move operations from Germa- 
ny to Portugal or Eastern Europe than to 
Latin America or Aria. 

Production for the North American mar- 
ket is more likely to move to low-wage areas 
in the United States or Mexico. 

By setting up shop inside each of the three 

major economic areas, companies hope to 
insulate themselves from potential trade wars 
and currency fluctuations. 

The change, says Mr. Oman, is ironic. Not 
only is it happening just as many developing 
countries turn outward and seek to become 
low-wage sites for production to serve global 
markets; it also comes as a rising chorus of 
protectionist voices in some industrial coun- 
tries is mistakenly blaming unemployment 
and declining incomes on a shift of produc- 
tion to developing countries. 

That means that when developing coun- 
tries axe finally Liberalizing their own trade 
policies, they face the threat that the ad- 
vanced counLries will impose higher barriers 
against their exports. 

Most companies from developing coun- 
tries are unlikely’ to be able to afford to set up 
production inside the advanced ecoumic 
blocs, and many developing countries may 
find it hard to attract companies using the 
new post-Fondisl production techniques- 

One result of the new set-up, Mr. Oman 
says, is that the industrialized countries 1 collec- 
tive will to pursue multilateral made liberaliza- 
tion has weakened — as demonstrated by the 
prolonged difficulty in concluding the Uru- 
guay Round. But the developing countries’ 
interest in liberalization is much greater. 

So the developing nations are likely to 
continue to press for closer links with blocs 
such as the North American Free T rade Area 
and the European Union. Their companies 
will seek more tie-ups with companies in the 
industrial countries. 

But, says Mr. Oman, the question remains: 
Will globalization be globalized? At least Hen- 
ty Fond did not have to worry about thaL 

Fox Network Snatches 12 U.S. Affiliates 

Compiled fy Our Staff From Dispuiiher 

NEW YORK - News Corp.’s 
Fox Broadcasting Co. on Monday 
announced a 5500 million joint 
venture with New World Commu- 
nications Group Inc. (hat will give 
the Fox television network 12 sta- 
tions now affiliated with its big 
three rivals. 

Fox and New World, which pro- 
duced "The Wonder Years” and 
"Santa Barbara” television series, 
said the alliance would result in the 
largest network affiliation realign- 
ment in television history. 

At the same time. Fox and New 
World will jointly develop syndi- 
cated programming that will run on 
Fox and New World stations. 

The agreement calls for up to 12 
stations owned or to be acquired by 

New World to change their net- 
work affiliations to Fox from ABC, 
CBS and NBC. 

“This agreement will forever 
change the competitive landscape 
of network television.” said Rupert 
Murdoch, chairman of News Corp. 

Mr. Murdoch launched the Fox 
network seven years ago with the 
52 billion purchase of seven televi- 
sion stations from Metromedia Co. 

The network, seeking to move 
beyond its youth-oriented markeu 
recently shocked its competitors by 
oulbidding them for the rights to 
broadcast the National Football 
League’s National Football Con- 
ference games next season. 

“With this strategic alliance. New 
World emerges- as a leading syndi- 
cated program provider in a highly 

competitive marketplace,” said Wil- 
liam Bevins, the chief executive of 
New World. “That, plus significant 
access to the Fox network for our 
series and movie programs, puls us 
in the leading ranks of television 
production companies." 

New World's five currently 
owned and operated VHF stations 
are switching to Fox affiliations. 
They include WJBK-TV Detroit, 
WJW-TV Geveland. WAGA-TV 
Atlanta, WTVT-TV Tampa and 
WITI-TV Milwaukee. 

New World has an option to ac- 
quire a major stake in Argyle Televi- 
sion Holding Inc., which owns four 
television stations in Texas, Missou- 
ri and Alabama. New World said if 
it were to exercise its option and 
gain control of Argyle. it would af- 

filiate three of the stations with Fox.' 
New World’s acquisition of Argyle 
requires approval from the Federal 
Comm uni cations Commission. 

New World also is in the process 
of buying four stations from Great,' 
American Communications Corp. 
All four of those stations would* 
become Fox affiliates. 

Industry analysts said CBS, cur- 
rently the most popular U.S. televi- 
sion network, had the most to lose' 
from the affiliation shift. Eight of 
the stations that are to switch affili- 
ations with Fox are now affiliated 
with CBS. 

CBS shares fell in heavy trading 
on the New York Stock Exchange, 
while News Corp.’s American de- 
positary receipts rose. 

(Reuters, AP) 

China Banks 
Urged to Aid 
State Firms 


May 23/May 20 

, ojjl Ff. Lira an of. &F- TIB Cl Perta 

* ‘ TS in MW- M2* UM un* US USB* 

S « in vwtuas — xtsi ftxn ms *ui* 

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irk (&) — — L rz .mm. im fl.uc um son* ih» mjb* 

Evooffroney Deposit* 


Dollar Mtork Franc 





May 23 


1 monte 

5¥r5 W. 

4 "v5 >s. 

5 '.-5 


3 mantis 

4 UH. 




5^-5 *n 

j .._2 

4 mantes 

41^4 ■«! 





5 r s-4 







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W* .52? T?* *C UtB n Uff U 7530 MM 

^ M M •» JM5 U07 7US 7530 MM 

1K3S tS* « 71 * M» MM* um IBS- — UJ 4 * 

‘ w '- U5T5 ‘ 

ZZ. .«a 133M UOSI l" 1 * 1Wl 9X1 * am '*? 212 

U* JJjJI aa ussm na ' wi ho. . 

Tokyo rotas uvm Morn Mothers from May X. Oostoos In 
, Milan, Hew York ono '°* llsrlctlj fUinasHi other centers: Toronto rates at 3 nm. 
dam. unaen taw York nbw ^ ^ mu ww; MA.- not 

put one pc^ruf; o. rum. 

Soanes: Reatens, Lloyds Bank. 

Rotas appdcat>te fotn/fftant: deoasttsotSl mtOtoomkilmutn tormivatenii. 

K«y Monny Rates 

United state 

P*r£ Currency Per* 
74110 uuuLtma aa» 
7J24S rtZflCtontfi 1.3W7 
iiojn Morw. krone 7.T»j 
3IJ5 pm. peso 
2l£L» PpOrtetotv 23307 
04734» 170.10 
OHS Rum. rot* MteJO 
nnu Saw* Nw* 

05*1 SI*** 

May 23 

Cflrmjcr Per* 

5. Afr.nmd usts 
S.Kar.tMn K*D0 
Sweet, krone 7M07 

TflhenaS 2UM 

Tboitxrt 2&2S 
TrKMi Bra - 33375. 
UAEcOrixnn UOB 
yttmt-baUv. itiUO 

PftC MBfral B 


Federal WB** 
CeUUH. BflPCf MdBVt 

HWM Timur mu 
Vyeor Treanrv bW 
f-nor Trararv note 
S-rcar Treasury ndc 
Freer TreBnrv b*M 
re-vtar TTMury Mle 













MeimtLVMltSMsv RMdv CdU) 123 


3 'h 

4 M 
7 JO 


Bonk baK rate 
Call money 
i-moutti Muerto*# 
l-raantfc Interbank 

iRtorventtoR raw 

7-owntb Intotxra* 

5 » 

5 1 -. 


5 v 

5.40 hM 
Closed 5*- 






Knoatn McrtMH* 

May 23 

HOT cttnwKV JMw M-Anr JWov 

ayp rnnwflnn ntfrr - -UNO . UB 2 I 1 JB 34 
ia r jamneseven ««•> 

,104.11 uan Knee 

M Bank tBnrtMtt: Banco Comma-dale llatlana 
gut* of Tokyo tToknis Roy Book at Catodo 

UVrtor Goveramwit bood 


Lnmtmrt nrte 
hnult kierbonk 

14* 1H. 

3 1 

2Vk 2h 
2M. 2U 
2% 2*. 
na MB 

*-mr oat — ”-o 

Sources: Srofrrs. Pioompero, Merrill 
Lynch, Bank ot Tokyo. Commri’Oanh. 
OmtnnU MantaOU ■ Credit L yonnaif- 





IHtflT Bnnd 

440 400 

Closed 5 JO 

- S* 

- m 

- 544 

- sat 


386.75 35445 + 3 TO 

N*wVor* 31740 38V.M -*• 780 

UA cttutan per ounce, umtan c*ue<ol 
bias: Zurich (no New York oaealnaandcKK 
kto prices; New York Come* tJunu i 
Source: Reuters. 

A gence France- Tnisc 

BEIJING — Zhu Rongji. Chi- 
na's deputy prime minister, has 
called for banks io make credii 
more freely available to state- 
owned companies hit by the gov- 
ernment's ami-inflation policy as a 
means of preserving social stabil- 
ity. reports said Monday. 

The call by Mr. Zhu. who is also 
governor of China's central bank, 
confirmed recent signs that Tears of 
labor unrest and calls for help from 
the unprofitable state companies 
had prompted (he government to 
loosen its tight credit policy, de- 
spite inflation that continues to run 
at more than 20 percent. 

The stale sector was hit badly by 
the credit clampdown in the first 
quaner. when about half of lhe 
companies reported I«>m:>. com- 
pared with about one- third of them 
a year earlier. 

The newspaper People's Daily 
quoted Mr. Zhu as saving banks 
and local governments should dif- 
ferentiate good companies from 
had and “give their full support to 
those enterprises' that arc able to 
sell their products, can repay their 
debts and arc effluent." 

At the same time, he slid, ■'long- 
term loss-makers that have no hope 
of turning a profit" should be al- 
lowed to go bankrupt, at first on a 
trial basis and then “more hnudb 

But diplomats »aid the remarks 
reflected the government's desire 
for a selective approach u* credit 
loosening rather than -*nv real 
mitmeni to allowing enterprises in 
the slate-owned set lor — which i> 
estimated to have l<‘ aiillioti sur- 
plus' workers ■ — go bankrupt. 

“1 don't sense from other state- 
ments that they're ah.*ut i •• lei njte 
enterprises hanlrupi.” one dip- 
lomat said. 

Omega Seam as re r Professional. 
Self-winding chronomerer 
in stainless steel. 

water-resistant to 300 m/1000 ft. 

Swiss made since 1848. 



The sign of excellence 

& Age, 
k. tyish 

£ seof 
V with 




"ige 10 



nr-piled he Oar Staff Frvn Dupairiu- 

>iEW YORK — Bond prices 
nged Monday as a rise in cum- 
dity prices entered its second 
.*k* raising fears of inflation, 
•locks also fell, although losses 
re not as severe as in the credit 

Hie price of the benchmark ?0- 
ir Treasury bond dropped 1 
’32 point, to 85 31/ 32. while the 

' U.S.SU»cte 

Jd jumped to 7.43 pmem from 
iO percent Friday. 

Weakness in bond prices helped 
sg down slocks. The Dow Jones 
iuscrial 1 average closed do«n 
.94 points, at 3.742.41. while los- 
l issues outpaced gaining ones on 
; New York Stock Exchange by a 
io-3 ratio. 

“You can't be real positive on 
e bond when commodities are 
■ing up." said Edward Yardeni. 
lief economist at C.J. Law- 
nce/ Deutsche Bank Securities. 
That's just the way it is.” 

J 'While recent government data 
; ive offered little evidence of infla- 
an, the rising commodity prices 
mid mean it lies ahead, some 

“People still see longer-term 
Teeters c*f inflation, given the way 
tmmoditv prices are acting.” said 
dward Laux, a trader at Kidder, 
eabody & Co. 

Inflation erodes ihe value of 
xed -income securities and could 
rompt the Federal Reserve Board 
) raise interest rates a fifth time 
ils year to try to reign in inflation. 
Stock and bond prices rallied last 
'eek after the Fed raised interest 
ales by a larger-Uwn-Mpected 
largjn. Pan of that rally was 
toked by sentiment that the cen- 
ral bank was through altering 
nonetary policy for the present. 
But the commodity rally has 
rased that sentiment. 

“The perception is we’re going to 
ee another round or Lightening, 
irobably in July.” said Richard 
Ziardulfo. a trader at Eagle Asset 

Dollar Is Undermined 
By Slumping Stocks 

Bloomberg Business Sews 

NEW YORK — The dollar fell 
Monday against most major cur- 
rencies today after U.S. stocks and 
bonds tumbled and the Bundes- 
bank gave indications it would not 
soon lower rates, raising concern 
about the health of dollar-denomi- 
nated assets. 

“People are still very bearish 
about the dollar ” said Tom Hoge. 

Foreign Exchange 

wee president of coiporate curren- 
cy trading at Bank of New York. 
“Nobody is comfortable holding 
American assets." 

“It looks like there’s a buyers’ 
strike on the dollar right now ." said 
Victor Polce, head of foreign-ex- 
change marketing at Commerz- 
bank. “It’s under pressure.” 

U.S. Treasury bonds sank last 
week after the Commodity Re- 
search Bureau's index, a closely- 
watched gauge of inflation, rose to 
its highest level in three-and-a-half 
years. The benchmark 30-year 
Treasury bond fell by more than a 
point on Friday and by an even 
larger margin on Monday. 



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Stock markets in 1 * 
most of Europe and in ( a 
C anada were closed 1 1 

Mondav for holidavs. 

11.40 n 

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The Commodity Research Bu- 
reau’s index of 21 key commodity 
prices, often considered a leading 
inflation indicator, was pushed to a 
three-and-a-half-year high by gains 
in copper, crude oil, cocoa and cof- 
fee prices. 

Gold prices also rose as investors 
bought the metal as a hedge against 
inflation. On the Commodity Ex- 
change in New York, gold for June 
delivery rose $3.60 an ounce, to 

Rising gold prices gave a lift to 
geld mining companies. Newmont 
Mining rose l*s to 42*. 4 and Ameri- 
can Barrick Resources gained v « to 
25 ,J i in active trading. 

Food companies also bucked the 
stock market's downtrend, gaining 
os Sandoz's plans to buy Gerber 
Products fueled speculation about 
future mergers in the industry. 
Gerber rose 15 'j to 50!i and 
lopped the Big Board's most-active 

Kellogg, the world's largest cere- 
al maker, rose 1 *7 to 52. while Gen- 
eral Mills gained !~n to 53%. 

Eastman Kodak jumped to 
47 in active trading, still benefiting 
from a federal court decision Fri- 
day that lifted a decades-old decree 
that had kept the photographic- 
products maker from selling pri- 
vate-label film. 

CBS dropped 15'.^ to 288 on 
news that the rival Fox Broadcast- 
ing was adding 12 network affili- 
ates. 8 of them now affiliated with 
CBS. The American depositary re- 
ceipts of News Corp., which owns 
Fox. rose '4 to 52'i'*. 

Shares of New World Communi- 
cations, which linked wiLh Fox. 
rose I 13/16 to KM* io active over- 
the-counter trading. 

in over-the-coumer trading, 
Kurzweil Applied Intelligence fell 
2 hi to 3 ' 4 . The company, which is 
active in voice- recognition technol- 
ogy. said it would’ restate recent 
financial results because of dubious 
sales and after several top execu- 
tives resigned. 

I Bloomberg. AP) 

Dow Jones Averages 

Onm Hiatt low LAfl CUB. 

tnQift J741A3 3T6&M 37WX6 ®«.4I -2154 
Trans 1*4365 i«i« 155725 1598.7) —12V 
Ufti IB17S ISIX9 JSI.S5 “I J? 

Cano 1379.47 imi- 7773.72 127TD4 — +31 

Standard & Poor’s Indexes 

Hlqti Low CKhk Ofoa 
53172 52TJ B 528J8 — 140 
320! 38+58 384.75 -M6 
15+5? 15240 153. 11 - 1.46 
1£J0 2404 45.00— 0.W 
454.92 45 1 77 45320 -172 
«H4i 41905 47072—223 


BW Ask 

Oot» PrevK 

Did A sk DM 


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tost UttJO 13*730 IJflJDO 1 

fgrjwro WSM TJ74J0 1 3WJP > 

ingustrl ais 






N. 0 J F M A M 

1993 1994 

NYSE Most Actives 


P JR Nab 














VOL rtch 

106770 51* 
tom 6* 
47683 SS4h 
uw 6IH 
3 nm i02di 
30406 3940 
23771 23 W 
737W 4 74* 
23073 43’ ■ 
703*8 42W 
19991 49V. 

17692 47’. 
I43«3 31*9 
143*2 25'* 
143(5 54*: 

NYSE Indexes 

High Lew Last an. 

Comscvlr 751 SB 250.07 250.78 -060 

InouftrAB 30».*4 308 17 309.16 — 4L7B 

Tram,. 7-1! 61 J44J3 2iJ 37 -<Z7* 

Ultlity M6.® 304.42 20SJM — »AI 

Fnaree 21A77 713.10 213.S7 -0.70 

NASDAQ indexes 

Hlph LOW Last CUB. 

Compact 726J7 723.61 72457 — 2B 

(nearer Ids 745. iff 74iJB »4i« —3-54 

aorws 715.02 71236 7I4J6 -0.M 

inioranoe B93J3 B8*J8 87( 24 —139 

phenol *31.76 *19J3 *70.18 — 3JSB 

Tronso 711 45 7D8J7 710JV -0« 

AMEX Stock Index 

Won Low Last aw. 
4384S6 437 JO 437^4 — 0JJ6 

Dow Jonea Bond Averages 

Soot 2JZBJ» ZZBftM 

Fgjgrt 237 too sznun 

Denars per iseirtc ten 
Spat 484J0 48550 

Hirward 50200 50X00 


Pollen Per mrtrietoa 
Sect 6670.00 6675.00 

Warrant £75100 676AM) 

DM km Mr metric iw 

559000 5600.00 

Forward 566500 S67SOO 

zinc (Special man erode) 
Soot 97150 97150 

Forward 999JB 10004)0 

77210 0 22344)0 

T2TTM zm» 

477 .M 47&0B 
4944)0 495.00 

639500 W9S.00 
6470.00 647100 

SUM 5555X0 
5620.00 56254)0 

KSSO 966X0 

mxa 99oxo 

MIW Law LS» Sams am 

» IJ9J0 I59J0 757 JP 159 Je +075 

tn 16179 161X0 16IJ5 l«lJS. + L0a 

)N 16250 162X0 16225 16225 +1X0 

am UU5 1 63X0 14125 KJJ 9-US 

« N.T. TTr. N.T. 16225 +W0 

tar N.T. N.T. N.T. 16A50 +W5 

Wr N.T. N.T. N.T. ISP-50 +823, 

tar N.T. N.l. N.T. 15BX0 +0X5 

Eat. vaHam 7.7X3B. Open bit. »U76 


U5. dolkiri per CaiTewats o! L«6 Oarrelj 





1061 -+M 





1+31 — 810 





1+23 — +11 





1419 —+77 





1+16 — +12 





1+1+ —+12 





1+15 -+72 




1+14 —0.12 





1+14 —817 


Hlgn Low CWsa Onm 


*500800 -PftMWBPCJ 
Jn 9473 94^9 9*.T1 — 

S«p 9*45 905 909 — OM 

Dec 907 WS 93.99 —CM 

Mar 9158 9145 9U» “ 0X9 

4oo 9109 93X2 WX1 — 0.1Q 

Sea 9259 9254 9253 —8X8 

Dec 92ts 9272 92(3 — OX? 

Mar 9188 91X2 *1X2 —9X8 

JM 914a 9160 9)60 —UK 

Sap *M5 97J1 9361 —005 

Dee 91 JB 91-23 *1-24 — 0« 

Mar 91.15 91X9 *140 — 0X5 

Est- votume; 32276. Open ini.: 497769. 

H mUlkm-ata Mined 
Jan *£2S 9SJS *Jl2S —0X2 

Sea 9473 9472 9466 —IL1Q 

3s N.T. N.T. 94.12 -0.15 

Mor 94X0 94X0 93.91 — B.U 

Jm N.T. N.T. 9161 -0-15 

Sea N.T. N.T. 93J7 — ais 

Ext. volume: 1,107. Onen in*.: 10J3B. 


DM1 raiinaa-ptiotilOPCl 

Sri. 9® lump; 30767 . Onen taL 121.947 

Slock Indexes 

Utah um dose Chanee 

9473 9469 94.71 —0X2 

9465 94J5 909 -OX* 

94X7 KM 9J.W —0X8 

*368 9145 0U9 —0X9 

93.0? f3X2 nxi - 0.10 

9259 9254 9253 —0X8 

*215 9272 92(3 — OX? 

9188 91X2 91X2 —9X8 

10 Inchstrlats 

awe cm 

97.D —0.13 

»29< —MI 

10049 — 07S 

Utah UM Oos8 Chan** 

FTSE 104 (UPFE1 
as per InftziMm 

JOn 21320 3085X 3070.0 — 31X 

S*P 31356 310VS JWSX — SL5 

Dec N.r. N.T. 3T16X — 31 J 

Est. volume: 7.IB2 Open int.: 55,06. 
Stnreta: Motif. XssoeioW Pr*« 

London Inn Ftoanctol Futures Exctionsfc 
inn Petroleum exchamte. 

NASDAQ Most Actives NYSE Diary 







wa s. 




AdobeS s 









a asa 





* 1 n.'n 



Total itoties 


63 VI 








New Lows 




— 0.10 








— 071 















— 020 




— 0J0 




— DJO 




— 079 





Ceawanv F*f A*"! 


CorlmonSACA k XB 

RovolDotch PeM 5 * 26X7 

Torch Energy _ 707 

vtaprox amount per ADR. 


RrsTler Rnemor2WIIL ■ 
Simpson indust 3 tar 2 split, 
vista Bancorp 3 lor i soar. 

Nttikmo Cranber 
Southwest Gas 
ToCbots Inc 

*',1 B^ 
32 V, 31«t 
1949 1B1V 
29 H ZTk. 
45V, 44V, 

174* I7H 
i4v, ir-t 

AMEX Diary 

AMEX Most Actives 

Total issues 
New Lows 

VaL NWi 
7DQ2 11H 
5821 34W 
4787 IV,, 
4624 28Vi 
4354 20», 
3162 754* 
2967 4 n* 
2617 45>"d 

24*0 3H6, 

2398 106, 

Law Last 
ii'w live 
334* 33*9 

IV U !'■« 
2B 28 Vb 

|4>i 104* 

251k 2549 

4V, 4H 
45’Vji CSf.’tt 
3<Vu 3T. 
109, 189k 


u ndiwwtd 
Total issues 
New Highs 
New Lows 

771 305 

327 287 

206 21* 

812 01 1 

12 14 

15 18 

dose Prat. 
1421 1590 

1670 1538 

1931 1BB5 
5022 5021 

49 73 

09 99 

Market Salsa 

in millions. 

TodoK Pre*. 

4 run. cans. 

251X3 346X84 

13X7 11107 

20367 261610 

Spat Comwodltica 

Commodity Today 

Aluminum, lb 061) 

CoHee. Brat, lb 1X4 

Capper etedrolvtlc. lb 1X9 

iron FOB. ion 213X0 

Load, lb 034 

Sliver, tray 01 , S.7D 

Steel (scrap), tan \aao 

nrulb 57667 

Zinc. » 14616 

Est. volume: 100.910. Open lnr.:lX3SX46. 
C5WW - pH « 32nds of IN pel 
Joa 10+05 105-02 105-15 - 0-22 

Sen 105413 10+15 104-14 —0-21 

Est. volume: 47443. Open int: 122.15*. 
DM 3S0XM - MS Of 100 PCI 
Jdd 9565 9465 9460 —0.70 

Sep 94.94 94J1 9+21 — 0J9 

Ext. volume: 75X87. Open Int.: 190,174. 


High Low Lost seme Or*ge 

US. donors per metric tod-»c>7» of IN ton* 
JOB 132X0 15375 15275 1SX00 +1X0 

Jul 153X0 15475 153.75 1M +1X0 

Ab9 15475 15475 15525 1*5X5 +075 

S <3 137X0 15673 137X0 157X0 +1X0 

Certain ofTerinp of Kcoridec. fimocial 
services or ntoesa in ml east paMuted io 
dill newspaper are not urt homed io errtab 
jurisdettmi io which Ae hdenuilam HenM 
Tribooe ki distributed. Ibclnting lbe Unied 
Slates ot America, ted do not comiiniie 
oflamp of loraioes. services or inereza io 
these Jmsdieriau. The bncnntiaaal KenM 
Tribune assumes no rcspousiUtiiy wiuBoever 
far toj-odnstisetoam Sir otbiep at any fad 

4-3 +20 
B-16 9-1 

6+ +20 

+20 +31 
+20 + 3 ) 

Comshc Partnrs A M XS41 

Camstk ParTnrt B M X546 


DanolOsanCon - J7 


Mor gan Keegan a +17 

e -corrected record date. 


O xa +31 +15 
O XS +24 7-6 

Q XS +31 7-1 

.14 +3 +33 

a ,ii +xs +30 
a AS +17 7-12 
Q 35 +24 7-1 S 
Q X8 64 +22 
O 41 +7 +15 

Q J15 +21 7-15 
O .17 +1 +20 

8 .13 +1 +13 

J8 +3 6-30 
a 29 +4 7-1 

S .11 +3 +6 

+1 +15 

Cl X 41 +10 

8 665 +1 +U 

.10 +30 +15 
Q 70 +10 M 
O .17 +1 7-1 

O X* +1 +30 
Q X7 +10 7-1 

Q MS +1 +15 
. m +13 +3ffl 
Q X125 +7 +21 

S .125 +10 +24 
a-awisafi p pg ra Mo I* C n aat B o n Foods, m- 
mc BtMr: sHwartertr; +sctai-aaooal 

State Price Increases a Rude Awakening in Cuba 

The dollar dosed at (.6456 DM 
on Monday, down from a closing 
quote of 1.6465 DM on Friday. 

Trading was less active than usu- 
al because many European markets 
were closed for a holiday. But Lon- 
don. the world’s largest foreign ex- 
change center, was open. 

Dealers said that there were con- 
siderable sales of the dollar for 
marks after it was reported that 
Bundesbank President Hans Tiet- 

3 sr had told journalists in Hel- 
that rates would not fall again 
“for the lime being." 

The Bundesbank last cut interest 
rates on May 11. 

Against other currencies, the 
dollar closed at 1.4048 Swiss 
francs, off slightly from a closing 
rate on Friday at 1.4051 francs, and 
at 5.6263 French francs, little 
changed from Friday. 

The dollar was little changed at 
104.39 yen. slightly higher than a 
closing rale on Friday at 303.87 
yen. It was supported by optimism 
that the United States and Japan 
would toon break an impasse in 
trade relations. U.S. and Japanese 
negotiators met for a fourth day on 
Monday to try and restart formal 
trade negotiations, which broke 
down in February . 

Progress in trade talks would 
help the dollar because .America is 
considered unlikely to call for a 
strong yea if Japan makes conces- 
sions aimed at curbing their trade 
surplus with the United States. The 
dollar fell against the yen last year 
after President Bill Clinton and his 
aides said a strong yen would rrim 
the surplus by making Japan's ex- 
ports more expensive. 

U.S. Trade Representative Mick- 
ey Kantor said the talks were mov- 
ing in a “ver. positive manner." 

CanpM by Our Staff From Dispatches 

HAVANA — The Cuban government on 
Monday announced sharp increases in prices of 
certain goods and services as pari of an effort to 
ran in an expanding budget deficit. 

The executive committee of the Council of 
Ministers decreed rises or at least 50 percent in 
the price of cigarettes, cigars, alcoholic bever- 
ages, gasoline, diesel fuel, electric power, postal 
and telegraphic services and nonurban trans- 

The new prices and fees are to go into effect 
June 1, according to a decree that was pub- 

lished in Trabaj adores, the weekly official pub- 
lication of the state-run labor union. 

Although the increases were steep, prices 
.were still below blade-market costs for the 
goods and services affected, sources said. 

Fares for inter-city buses rose 1 16 percent, 
while domestic air fares were up 80 percent 
and train fares were raised 60 percent Elec- 
tricity, which is severdy rationed, also was 
targeted for big increases proportional to the 
amount consumed. 

Cuba’s communist government is seeking to 
reduce a 42 billion peso (S3. 18 billion) budget 

deficit and an estimated 12 billion peso surplus 
in (he money supply. 

Under a package of measures authorized by 
the National Assembly on May 2. the price 
increases are to be followed by other steps, 
including a progressive income tax and 'reduc- 
tions in subsidies to state enterprises. 

Authorities on the Caribbean island, which is 
battling an economic crisis, have been prepar- 
ing public opinion for months for measures 
viewed as painful but unavoidable. 

(Reuters, AFP, AP) 

The company^ disckwecl the agreement on Sunday. It - f 

after the deal is dosed, die stake employees own would nj*® 
percent. The original proposal set a threshold of S170 a share, 
closed Monday at S120.75, up 51375 from Friday. 

Dresser toBuyOfl-E^iipnifiiit Firm 

DALLAS (Bloomberg) — Dresser liKiustris to: : £gr««i 
acquire Wheatley TXT Corp., a maker of oD-fidd prodjKCOT equpmem- 
m „i vm CUK vmtli/m hr Sl6_25 a share. 

acquire Wheatley TXT Corp n a matter ot ou-oaapiwiwu»« 

in a stock swap valued at about $195 million, or 516-^5 a 
Under terms of the agreement, each lOWfccaiky wnrawn shares^ 
be exchanged for seven Dresser shares, provided that Dresrer 
at an average of 520 to $27 a share before the, transaction is approved oy 
Wbcatley shareholders. 

Motorola, Soros Buy Exelon Stakes 

PALO ALTO, California (Btoombetgj —Echelon Corp. said Monday 
that Motorola Inc. had raised ils stake in the cfpsdy bdd technology 
company to21 percent and that Gemge Sores’ Quantum Fund bought an 

I up company founded by A.C. Maikknia, dfiaifihan erf Apple. Motorola 
has already invested S20 miffion. _ • • 

“W e saw that key companies m buOdiog, home, and industrial automa- 
tion were adopting Ecbelott’s technology,” Gary Gladstcm, managing 
director of Soros Fund Managernart, said. 

U.S. to Challenge GA11 on Tuna 

WASHINGTON (AFP) — The United Stitts will challenge a GATT 
ruling against U.S. embargoes of p™* imports on the grounds that the 
GATT paad did not cany out a fair hcaring^theoffice of tte UJS. Trade 
RcOTWcaitative said Monday. ' 

A panel of the General Agreement on TariSS and Trade ruled Friday 
that ILS. embargoes of tuna, imports on en v ir o n mental grounds were 
inconsistent with US. obtigatiems under GA iT- washingtanhad banned 
some imparts of nma caught using nos that endanger dolphins. 

Ri mningham Steftl ITnil ^Expand 

BIRMINGHAM, Alabania (Btoqmberg) — Birnrin^tam Sted Carp, 
said Monday its American Sted & Wire Co. amt Would bufld a 575 
nriPip p rolling steeLmffl to dcwbte fttejnut’s^pTodia^on, to about 1.1 
tmllkm tons annually. " T ‘ '- J- 

The new mill is expected to begin opaatipn in 1996. The steelmaker 
said it was looking at prospective sites arid expected to select one in the 
next 60 days. Construction will be financedin part fran Ae proceeds ofa 
recent S154 million public offering of 5,750,000 cotmnon shares. 

For the Record 

Lockheed Corp- stud it would invest 5150 nriffion over three years to 
form a cqrqpany, Space Imaging Ino, to enter the commercial saldlite . 
imagery market- - - • j.‘ ‘ (AP) 

Appfe C ae^pim M- £n^ Jntgnarional Busmcss Machines^^^p.^^d 

software for interactive hoiriecdevi^iD sysnins. ^^Mgfit-RuitJ) 
St^erMac Tedmotogy Int’s shares rose as mudi as 23 percerit in eariy 
trading after the graphics company ahnoimc^ plans tobe acquired by 
Radhs Jtac. in a Stock, swap valued at $80^ naHion. ■_ J. - (Bloomberg) 

W aiktndlkttOfflca s : 

The Associated Press 

LOS ANGELES — H Mavendr dominated the U. S. box office with a 
gross of $172 million over the^ weekend. Following- are the-top 10. 
moneymakers, based on Friday ticket sales and estimated sales for 
Saturday and Sunday. . 

i.-Niavertck. p ■ •- ( Warner Bnmni 

1-THeCroiN* tmxunaxj 

3. "Whan o Man Lavas a Woman* mmawtane Pictures! 
A-Creowyn* . ftlnlwsoO • 

S. "FoarlMi«n98omIaFim«rar lOnmererl 

+-W1lti Honors" (Warner Brothers! 

T. -TlnaNtnlas Kick BadC ‘ ■ (Trtslart ,‘ 

& "Ho Excv." • tsqupyptesunsl - 

9."Cleaji5»ata” UMnhOoldiiirvfbtlllarm’t 

10. "Even Cowalrl* The Blwa" (Fine Line Feature*! 

01 million 
016 million 
- 1 '4157 million 


U.S. Acts on Digital Signature 

NEW YORK (NYT) — The UJS. government quietly adopted a stan- 
dard last week for creating digital-electronic signatures that cannot be 
forged, using a method developed by researchers at the National Security 
Agency that has been bitterly opposed by many computer companies. 

A digital signature allows one person to produce a specially encrypted 
number that anyone can later verify could only have been produced by 
that individual Digital signatures are vital in the information age because 
they can authenticate electronic documents and ensure that the docu- 
ments have not been tampered with or altered in any way. 

The decision places Washington at odds with many large hardware and 
software companies, which use a competing approach developed by RSA 
Data Security Inc., a software company in Redwood Gey, California. 
Critics have charged that the government standard is inefficient, that the 
selection process for tlx underlying algorithm was not public, that time 
provided for public analysis was not sufficient and that the algorithm 
chosen by the government may infringe on patents held by RSA and others. 


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Page I 

rfige 3 

Banks Agree 
To Cut Back 
Poland’s Debt 


Tfe Ja;oc2uied Pros 

WARSAW — Poland and its 
Western creditor banks have 
reached agreement on terms to re- 
°f SJ3.2 billion, a Polish official 
said Monday. 

Tie : buyback rate for the princi- 
pal and outstanding interest was 41 
cents to the dollar, Poland’s chief 
negotiator, JCrcysztof Krowacki. 
to the PAP news agency. 

Tie deal concluded over the 
weekend concerns implementation 
w a general agreement reached 
March 1 1 on the reduction of the 
country’s debt to the so-called Lon- 
don Club of commercial banks. 

Mr. Krowacki said the govern- 
ment also proposed the possible 
conversion of some debt into equi- 
ty in Polish companies. 

flunk s are expected to comment 
on the deal by June 29. The govern- 
ment will later sign debt agree- 
ments with each of the creditor 

“The agreement is final and we 
wiD have nothing else to offer to 
banks which will not accept it," Mr. 
Krowacki said. 

The March 11 agreement, 
reached after four years of lalkc , 
had provided for a 45 percent re- 

duction of the debt, and this was 
comparable to conditions negotiat- 
ed with the Paris Guh of creditor 
countries. The creditor countries 
had agreed in 1991 to forgive 50 
percent of Poland’s foreign debt, 

■ Poland Targets Piracy 
Poland cracked down on copy- 
right abuse on Monday, implement- 
ing a law intended to end video and 
music piracy and to strengthen intel- 
lectual properry rights, Reuters re- 
ported from Warsaw. 

The law, passed by Parliament in 
February and taking effect after a 
three-month grace period, is in- 
tended to end piracy that costs the 
stale treasury millions of dollars a 

S tr and to bring Polish laws into 
e with international norms. 
Polish artists welcomed the law 
but said its effectiveness would 
largely depend on bow it is enforced. 

“This is a great day for Polish 
culture and also for the Polish 
economy, “ said Nicholas Garnett, 
dircCTor-gencral of the Internation- 
al Federation of the Phonographic 

The legislation replaces a weak 

and outdated I9S2 copyright law 
lice had limited 

under which the police 1 
ability to make arrests. 

Russia Moves to Make Taxes 
Lower but Harder to Evade 


MOSCOW — Russia announced 
a series of measures Monday de- 
signed to help its ailing economy, 
cranbining the carrot oflower taxes 
with the stick of tough controls on 
companies’ bank accounts. 

Alexander Livshits, economic 
adviser to President Boris N. Yelt- 
sin, raid the moves, outlined in 
presidential decrees, would provide 
the legal base to continue Russia’s 
economic reforms. 

To combat tax evasion, the new 
regulations allow banks to open 
accounts only for companies that 
are registered with Russia’s tax au- 
thorities. Mr. Livshits said. 

In addition, a company can have 
only one bank account, to prevent 

it finom using bank transfers to hide 
money from authorities. 

But, in a move designed to stimu- 
late production, another decree or- 
dered the government to submil a 

■ "ti ■ ! 1 

draft law on reducing the number 
of taxes and scrapping preferential 
tax treatment. 

Taxes, including value-added tax 
and tax on profits, would fall from 
10 percent to 20 percent, and joint 
ventures and foreign-owned com- 
panies would receive tax breaks. 

Russian companies, most of 
them set up by officials of the old 
Soviet Union to fulfill a central 
plan, have been hit hard by Rus- 
sia’s economic transformation. 
Many are dosing or laying off 
workers because they cannot afford 
to pay wages or buy supplies. 

. the decrees in dude a proposal 
to solve companies’ debt problems. 
Mr. Livshits said the decree set a 
firm timetable for paying overdue 

debts and obliged companies to 
withdraw money from hard-cur- 
reacy accounts if they were unable 
to pay bins with money hdd in 
raWe accounts. 

The Derivatives Scramble 

Exchanges Rush to Cash In on Trend 

Btoombrrt; Buunats Newt 

LONDON — Over-the-counter derivatives have 
become the world’s hottest financial instruments 
despite calls for market regulation, and futures and 
options exchanges are scrambling to develop com- 
peting products to cash in on the trend. 

Exchanges in France and Italy began trading 
new derivatives on Friday that are designed to 
muscle in on rivals’ business. Other exchanges in 
Europe and beyond are forging alliances to secure 
market share. 

“It’scannibalistic," said Garv Delanv. a manag- 
ing director of the Philadelphia Stock Exchange, 
where many European corporate treasurers buy 
and sell currency options to hedge their compa- 
nies' foreign exchange risks. 

Derivatives arc financial contracts that derive 
their price from something else — usually phvsical 
commodities, stocks, bonds or currency rates. Some 
derivatives, such as futures and options, are traded 
cm exchanges, which are generally more tighdy 
regulated than the over-the-counter market. 

But because the exchanges have to pay Tor the 
infrastructure of trading floors or computer-based 

opt for the Paris exchange. “We will try MATJFs 
options if we can gel a cheaper price,” he said. 

Many French corporations are adept at using 
some form of currency options because they earn 
most of their profits in currencies other than the 
franc, said Eric Benier. president of PaineWebber 

International SA in Park/' MAT IP's new options 
are bound to succeed," he said. 

Bui MATIF is not the only exchange trying to 
muscle in on rivals’ business. 

Italy's Telematic Options Exchange also 
launched a new product Friday, options on 10* 
year Italian government bond futures that directly 

trading systems and guarantee trades will be 

While exchanges slug it out, 
central bankers and 
lawmakers have voiced 
concern that derivatives could 
destabilize the markets. 

matched through clearing houses, exchange trad- 
ing is more expensive for companies than the less- 
regulated over-the-counter market. 

The OTC market also alow companies to tailor 
products to hedge their individual risks, develop- 
ing contracts such as interest-rate swaps or options 
on currencies that expire at dates set by the cus- 
tomer rather than by an exchange. 

This flexibility has caused the over-ihe-counier 
market to boom and exchanges to rush to develop 
competing products. 

Eyeing the successes of the Philadelphia ex- 
change — where about $2 billion worth of curren- 
cy options trade each day — Marche h Tcrme 
International de France, the French futures and 
options exchange, began trading nearly identical 
options that let buyers lock in exchange rates for 
months to come. 

MATIF officials readily admit they’re after the 
Philadelphia Stock Exchange's business. 

“We hope French corporates will come bock to 
the domestic market" said Patricia Rouast, a 
spokeswoman for MATIF in Paris. 

While the exchanges slug it out many central 
bankers and lawmakers have voiced concern that 
the widespread use of derivatives ultimately could 
destabilize world financial markets. 

For the most part it is OTC derivatives that 
worry regulators. OTC derivatives have been 
blamed for the heavy losses revealed recently by 
such multinational companies as Procter & Gam- 
ble Co. and Air Products & Chemicals Inc. 

Meantime, the prizes in the French and VS. 
exchanges' bans- Atlantic tug-of-war are people 
such as Jean-Claude Coortoes. 

As the treasurer the Paris-based Valeo SA, it is 
Mr. Coortoes’s job to hedge against the currency 
risks the automobile-components maker takes 
wheat it exports products or buys materials from 
abroad. About 44 percent of Valeo’s products are 
sold tn France, with the rest going to other Europe- 
an countries and North and South America. 

Right now, Mr. Coortoes buys and sells options 

in i)» uva-tnc-amin maftd, to; w;2? MATIF 

offering options so dose to borne, he said he might 

compete with options offered by London Interna- 
tional Financial Futures Exchange. 

For their part, officials at L1FFE said they were 
not sweating. “We always welcome competition.” 
said Caroline Denton, a spokeswoman for the 
London exchange. She said L1FFE executives 
thought the rival options would help generate more 
business for both exchanges. 

Yet LIFFE has been unseated before by small er 
rivals that use screen-based systems to trade fu- 
tures and options — just like the Italian upstart. 

Last year. LIFFE took on the four-year-old 
Meff Renta Fiji in Barcelona by copying that 
exchange's 10-year Spanish bond futures. LIFFE 
was forced to' scrap its contract after just five 
months for lack of trading. 

Unlike Meff or the Italian exchange, the 10- 
year-old LIFFE relies on Cbicago-style open-out- 
ary trading, in which traders jostle in trading pits 
to shout buy and sell orders. 

MATIF mixes open-outcry and screen-based 

trading, while most smaller European exchanges. 

and Germany’s Deut- 

suefa as the Italian exchange and i 
sche Terrain borse. use only screens because they're 
cheaper than selling up a floor. 

The German exchange also recently announced 
it would list its contracts on the Globex after-hours 
electronic trading system, which was developed by 
the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, the Chicago 
Board of Trade and Reulers Holdings PLC. 

While the fledgling German exchange is banking 
on Globex offering wider exposure to its contracts, 
the Board of Trad e has already abandoned the 
system and LIFFE recently decided not to join. 

The exchanges appear more concerned with de- 
veloping new ways to attract business than with the 
push toward tighter regulations of derivatives, and 
some central bank officials share that sentiment. 

“Exchange derivatives arc already out in the open 
and supervised." said Chris Bailey, a former men>- 
tor oT D kM of tngisnd's bond ustiine depart- 
ment and now a spokesman for the central bank. 

U.K. Nears 
Award ol 


LONDON — In a dimax to 
months of secret deliberations. 
Britain wiD on Wednesday an- 
nounce the name of the lucky win- 
ner of its national lottery license. 

The first since 1826, the most 
recent in Europe and widely tipped 
to be the biggest in the worid, Brit- 
ain’s lottery will be an expensive 

gamble that is likdy to pay ofr 

richly for the successful bidder. 

Eight groups, including some big 

blue-chip names, are in the running 
but the smart money is billing it as 
a two-horse race between the Cam- 
dot consortium and the Lotco 
group, with Richard Branson, the 
Virgin Group r haiman, viewed as 
an outside possibility. 

Peter Davis, director of the lot- 
tery, will maintain the suspense Up 

to the last moment, notifying win- 
ner and losers alike simultaneously 
by fax on Wednesday morning. He 
has scrutinized their plans in com- 
plete secrecy and judged them ac- 
cording to propriety, security and 
their ability to make the most mon- 
ey for “good causes." 

Leisure analysts predicted the 
lottery, when up and running, 
would be one of Britain’s biggest 
industries, generating up to £4 bil- 
lion (S6 billion) a year in revenue. 

One bidder reckoned that his 
proposal would make £31 billion 
over the seven-year life of the li- 
cense. This would allow profit for 
the operator of £70 to £100 million, 
analysts said. 

Camdot, a group backed by two 
veterans of the gaming business, 
the U.S. corporation GTECH, 

Investor’s Europe 




London Paris 

FTSE 100 frtdex.. CAC40 




Stock Index 


7\923S3. - ' 



CtoMtf . 

2249:65 ‘ 




850.6&-- . 




WU5 --0.03 


Financial Times 30 


2.47280 . -0.53 , 


FTSE 100 •• 


• 3.127.30 • *tL60 ; 




337.59 +0.40 ! 




i,g54.ob : 

Paris . 








Stock Index 


458.05 - - n\s 




957.15 ' - 

Sources: Reuters. AFP 

bitena^aoal Herald Ttiboar 

Very briefly: 

which supplies lottery equipment 
and De la Rue 

in 24 countries, 

PLC, which has been in the busi- 
ness for two decades, has been a 
favorite from the start. 

Lotco was seen more as an out- 
sider, although analysts tend to Hke 
the caliber of its nine partners, 
which include Rank Organization 
PLC, Barclays Bank PLC and 
Schraders PLC. 

Mr. Branson has based his bid 
on a high-profile pledge to give all 
proceeds to charity. 

The government expects to 
spend around a quarter of the reve- 
nue on arts, sports, charities, heri- 
tage and a Millennium Fund to 
celebrate the year 2000. Mr. Davis 
hopes the lottery will he operating 
by (ate tins year or early nest, with 
around ball the volume forming the 
prize fund- 

Bank of Greece’s Support 
Helps Drachma Recover 


ATHENS — The drachma 
gained ground Monday, and Greek 
interbank interest rates eased 
slightly, as the central bank persist- 
ed in its defense of the currency. 

Currency dealers said investors, 
disappointed that the drachma had 
not been devalued ova- the week- 
end. were selling Deutsche marks 
as the governor of the Bank of 
Greece, Ioannis Boutos, said, “We 
wiB proceed with our kard-tiracL- 
raa policy, and we will support it 
with all necessary means." 

Pressure on Greek markets also 
was eased because many other Eu- 
ropean markets were closed for a 

The Bank of Greece had a $30 
miHioo inflow at its dally currency 
fixing, a dealer said, pushing the 
Deutsche mark down by 1.1 per- 
cent. The drachma had declined by 
12 percent against the mark in the 
previous 10 days. 

The one-month Athens inter- 
bank offered rate, an official refer- . 
enoerate, was set at 144.09 percent,- 
down from 160 percent Friday. 


Han4mg'9 ctoafaii 

Tables Include the nationwide prices up to 
the dosing on WaD Street and do not reflect 

the dosing 

late trades elsewhere. Via The Associated Press 

UMonto _ __ Ss 

HlBhLwvaodt W» lure IMS WBh LawLnWMOrtH 

12 Month SIS, 

WUmSBCk DtV YtU P6 IQIfc Hlttft LpwLpffgQl'Br 

This announcement appears as a matter of record only. 

May 1984 


US$ 300,000,000 

Eurodollar Term Facility 

Arrangers/Samor Lead Managers 

A I Bank Al Saudi Al Fransi 
The Bank of Tokyo, Ltd. 
Burgan Bank S.A.K. -Kuwait 
Chemical Bank 
Deutsche Bank Group 
The Saudi British Bank 
Societe Generale 

The Arab Investment Company S.A.A. 
Bankers Trust International PLC 
Chase Investment Bank Limited 
Credit Suisse 
NatWest Capital Markets Limited 
Saudi National Commercial Bank, oBu-Bahrain 

WsstLB Group 

Senior Lead Managers 

Bank of Bahrain and Kuwait B.S.C. 
Banque Paribas 

The Bank of Kuwait and the Middle EastK.S.C. 

Co Lead Managers 

Bank Austria Aktiengesellschaft, Wien 
Kredietbank International Group 

Bank of Scotland 
Lloyds Bank Pic 


Via Banque 

Westland/Utrecht Hypotheekbank N.V. 

Co Managers 

Arab Bank, pic 

Bayerische Vereinsbank Aktiengesellschaft 
Daiwa Europe Bank pic 
Grindlays Bahrain Bank B.S.C. (c) 

Misr International Bank SAE (MIBank) 
Norddeutsche Landesbank Luxembourg S.A. 

Banque et Caisse d'Epargne de I'Etat, Luxembourg 


Emirates Bank International Limited Dubai 
Malayan Banking Berhad 
Nomura Investment Banking (Middle East) E.C. Bahrain 

Hua Nan Commercial Bank, Ltd. New ydi* Agency 
Kleinwort Benson Limited 
Arab American Bank 


The Commercial Bank of Qatar Ltd. (Q.S.C.) 
Okasan International (Middle East) E.G. 
Chiao Tung Bank Europe N.V. 


The Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. 

Providers of Funds 

Al Bank Al Saudi Al Fransi • The Arab Investment Company S.AA • The Bank of Tokyo, Lid. Bahrain Office • Bankers Trust 
Company • Burgan Bank S.A.K. Kuwait • The Chase Manhattan Bank, N A. • Chemical Bank Bahrain Branch • Credit 
Suisse • Deutsche Bank Group • National Westminster Bank Pic • The Saudi British Bank • Saudi National Commercial Bank, 
OBU-Bahram • Socieie Generale • Wesldeulsche Landesbank Girozentrale London Branch ■ Bank of Bahrain and Kuwait B.S.C. 
TheBankoihuwartandiheMiddleEastK.SC. • Banque Paribas * Bank Austria Aktiengesellschaft. Wien • Bank of Scotland 
KB Luxembourg Finance Dublin • Uoyds Bank Pic • Via Banque * Westiand/Utrecht Hypotheekbank N.V. • Arab Bank pic. 
OBU-Bahrain • Banque ei Caisse d'Epargne d& I'Etat, Luxembourg • Bayerische Vereinsbank Aktiengesellschalt • Bikuben 
Daiwa Europe Bank pic • Emirates Bank International Limited Dubai • Grindlays Bahrain Bank B.S.C. (c) * Malayan Banking 
Berhad ■ Misr international Bank SAE (MIBank) • Nomura Investment Banking (Middle East) E.C. Bahrain • Norddeutsche 
Landesbank Luxembourg S.A. • Hua Nan Commercial Bank. Ltd. New York Agency • The Commercial Bank of Qatar Ltd. (Q.S.C.) 
Klemwor i Benson Limned • Okasan International (Middle East) E.C. • Arab American Bank • Chiao Tung Bank Europe N.V. 

uses and 
ent of all 
ive years. 


luted the 
■C’s plan 
for all" 
"lelds say 
' the lar- 


-Tit lacks', 

*. media-;* 
bousin g f £J 



rosata1.£ lv 

specific sh 
ide freed t 
.'hildren nds 
n up io id i 
le i: 

• EmcfiemSpA, the Italian chemical concent, reported a 1993 consolidat 
ed net loss of 2.6 trillion lire (S1.64 billion), compared with a loss of 1 5t 
trillion lire in 1991 

• Istitnto Nazmnale deDe Asskurazkmi SpA. the state-owned ltaliar 

insurance company, has delayed until Tuesday a pivotal meeting sched- 
uled to pass statutes enabling INA to be sold to private investors. 

• Time Warner Inc, the publishing and entertainment giant, and U.S. 

West Inc, the telecommunications concern, are negotiating with the 
Basque government to buy up to a49 percent stake in a planned regional z 
cable television company, according to newspaper reports in the Basque § 
region of Spain. £ 

• Britain's seasonally adjusted trade deficit with countries outside the § 
European Union narrowed to £366 milli on ($855 million) in April from s 
£686 million in March, according to Britain’s central statistics office. 

Bloomberg, AFX. AFP 

. ma 

* ^ ‘S 1 * 

tale ig t 

: print- ital 
3n theielir 

ivc no’ 
e can't Lat 

°' CT " If. 
presi- way 
■•The sum 
isiah." • Oi 
image T or 
leop- >bye 
wale ' 311 
were K a 
in the “te 

rskof 100 
e yoi 


h no n ? 11 
j that ^ 

in the JU* 

|: ihe yrma : 











i tever 
j just 
i and 
te, so 

is be 
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la< Monday's 4 p.m. 

1 -■ 3 list compiled by the AP. consists o( the 1 .000 

ended R 5 t traded securities m ierms ot dollar value it is 

%<ih Low Dr. lie PE IW% HHW L0wL«MiCH - 9e | H«tl LOW 5l«* Dw flfl P£ rOOl H rth LgwLoTSlWgc | HVjn Low Srw 3 i Ov via PE 1 Mb Htai LawU»>W« 0»'W 

updated twice a year. 

Month St. 

n LOW 5I0O- Dnr iM PE IBb KnJh LOwLartCTl 


Mw- YM PC JCOs HrtaiJh*LatwlOt'8t 





as ia% 

75 3S% 
144 23 
444 24 
129 TV, 
148 36 Vj 
471 nv, 
5S7 16% 


25V. _ 

law — % 
25V. _ 

22U> - 

□■Vi, + iVn 

7% _ 

— Vi 

5*4 6 — % 

irv. 13 % -</. 

20 %—% 

EacLv N 

Monday's dosing 

Tables include the nationwide pnees up to 
the closing on Wall Street and do not reflect 
late trades elsewhere. Via The Associated Press 

12 Month 
Htati Low SIOCV 

Oiv no PE 1005 H.Bti LowLolosrCh - ‘W 

C s 


Aib 4,7 




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B*j ’%CIM 


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J2D 2 5 



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JL- .._‘>0{R 


lz. H -.CnWvin 



41 V, 

27% 1 A V. Cask: A 1 














13 4 IO .CddRIwI 





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Nintendo Hqs 
Weak Outlook 
As Profit Falls 

Compiled br Our Staff From Dupatcha 

TOKYO— Nintendo Co. repon- 
“ co Monday a sharp fall in profit 
for us latest financial year, and its 
puUook is weak, according to ana- 
lysts and the video-game maker. 

Risng competition, lack of Eu- 
rop«n demand and the strong yen 
combined to cut consolidated net 
profit by 41 percent, to 5165 bil- 
bon yen ($505 million) from 88.61 
buBoa, while sales fell to 485.61 
biHiofl yen, down 23 percent. 

C urre nt profit, a broad pretax 
measme used by Japanese compa- 
nies that includes investment and 
nonoperating results, fdl 44 per- 
cent, to 92.83 billion yen. 

Nintendo’s weakness mirrored re- 
sult? announced on Thursday by its 
rival Sega Enterprises Ltd..' which 
said its current profit fell 22 percent 
Iastyear, to 4153 billion yen. 

. Theearnings declines come at a 
ume wien Nintendo; creator of the 
Super Mano Brothers characters 
and Sega, which offers Sonic the 
Hedgehog, are being challenged in 
the world game market bv such 
companies as 3DO Corp. ‘of the 
United States, and domestic rivals 
such as Matsushita Electric Indus- 
trial Ctx, Sony Corp. and NEC 
Corp.’s NEC Home Electronics. 

These competitors are taking ad- 
vantage of developments in semi- 
conductor technology that allow 

the weak European economy and by 
currency fluctuations. Nintendo 

currency fluctuations. Nintendo 
said the European economy was 
likely to “stay out of step" with 
economic recovery in seen in the rest 
of the world. 

It said the future movements of 
currency markets remain unclear, 
while the Japanese business environ- 
ment was likely to remain "severe." 

The company said it attempted 
to cut costs in the year to March 
1994 by starting production of its 
"Game Boy" products in China 
and establishing subsidiaries in 
Spain and Australia. 

(Rouen. Bloomberg, AFX) 

Japanese Banks Due to Post 
Faffing Profits for 5th Year 


TOKYO — Japan’s giant com- 
mercial and trust Hanks, which have 
been trying hard to restore their 
asset quality, are expected this week 
to announce declines in profits for 
the fifth year in a row, analysts and 
financial sources said Monday. 

These sources also said earnings 
were likely to r emain poor in the 
current year, ending March 31, 
1995. They said the banks were stiD 
struggling to trim ihdr huge load of 
nonperfomring loans to property 
ventures dating bom the late 1980s, 
although there were signs that 
growth in bad loans was slowing. 

Japan’s 11 top city, or commer- 
cial, Hanks are due to announce 
earning s Thursday, with seven ma- 
jor trust banks and three long-term 
credit banks reporting Friday. 

an average 45 percent decline in 
parent-company c ur re n t profit 

The declines, he said, would re- 
sult mainly from write-offs of 
about 2.4 trillion yen ($23 billion) 
of problem loans in the year ended 
March 3 1, 1994, doable the amount 
written off the previous year. 

Mr. N ishimora said he expected 
the trust banks to post an average 
decline of 30 percent in parent cur- 
rent profit despite increases of 
about that same size in operating 

Operating profit is pretax profit 
from ordinary banking and bond 
business. Current profit, also be- 
fore tax, includes gains and kisses 
on investments and other nonoper- 
ating activities, such as setting 
aside loan-loss reserves. 

Enchiro NMrimnra, analyst at 
Yamakhi Research, institute of Se- 
curities & Economics, predicted 
that the 11 dty banks would post. 

According to a report obtained 
from financial sources, bad loans 
held . by the 21 biggest banks 
amounted to 34 trilBon yea at the 
end of March. 

Hong Kong To Get BBC Back 

HONG KONG — Wharf Cable 
Ltd. is expected to reach an accord 
soon with the British Broadcasting 
Corp. to deliver BBCs World Ser- 
vice Television to Hoag Kong. 

“We are finalizing the agree- 
ment,” said a Wharf Cable spokes- 
man, GOda Cheung, on Monday. 
Mss Cheung said that an official 

a n n ouncem ent would be made lat- 
er this week. 

month. News Corp. Ltd.’s 
STAR TV chann el terminated its 
contract with the BBC on its North 
Asia network, which services Hong 
Kong, China and Taiwan, replac- 
ing it with Mandarin-language 
movies; STAR TV still carries BBC 
Worid Service on its West Asia 

Wharf Cable plans to introduce 
World ServiceTelevision, which of- 
fers primarily news but some enter- 
tainment programmin g, on its new 
International Channel. 


CLaims and Disputes 
Against the 
United States 



1202) 77S-2«W 


ofoi zrr-tooo 


Classified Features 


Summer in France: June 3 

Education . 

International Business Education: May 24 

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In and Around Paris: May 27 
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Is Japan Coyly Controlling Trade? 

Buying Dollars is Pushing Yen Down, Exports Up 

die processing of huge amounts of 
data required to produce realistic, 
three-dimensional images. 

With several of these advanced 
machines due out at the end of this 
year, most game users have been 

holding off purchases, analysts said. 

Sega and Nintendo tints find them- 
selves in the middle of product cy- 
cles at a time when new products are 
needed to stimulate 

Nintendo predicted a partial re- 
covery for its current financial 
year, with current profit rising 19 
percent, to 1 10 billion. But it said it 
expected net income to slip 1 per- 
cent, to 52 billion yen and sales to 
drop 7 percent, to 450 billion. 

The company said earnings this 
year were likely to be pressured by 

By James Stemgold 

Mew York Tuna Service 

TOKYO — Japanese officials 
have contended for months that 
they cannot accept American de- 
mands for guaranteed increases in 
imports because the measures 
would amount to interference with 
the free play of the markets. Yet. 
in another realm, the Japanese 
government has engaged in one of 
the heaviest waves of market inter- 
vention in memory in an attempt 
to manage the value of the yen and 
keep Japan’s exports flowing. 

Data on Japan's foreign-ex- 
change reserves show that since 
the beginning of last year, the 
Bank of Japan has used more 
than $35 billion in an effort to 
brake a sharp rise in the value of 
the yen against the dollar, one of 
the most sustained and costly 
campaigns to control currency 
values ever attempted 

The dollar was fixed Monday 
at 104.94 yen in Tokyo, down 
from 124.35 at the sum of 1993. 
In 1990, a dollar bought 145 yen. 

Some economists say the inter- 
vention amounts to a policy of 
controlling Japan's trade flows, 
since the yen’s rise is expected to 
reduce the huge trade surplus by 
making Japanese goods more ex- 
pensive overseas and by encour- 
aging imports. 

Their concern was underscored 
by the release on Thursday of 
figures that showed the American 
merchandise trade deficit with 

form-minded Japanese govern- 
ments in office since last summer 

have said they share this goal. But 
they have asked for more lime to 
devise a plan. 

Nevertheless, the Bank of Ja- 
pan, which operates under the 
Influence of the Finance Minis- 
try, has consistently sold yen to 
buy dollars, trying to counter 
heavy purchases of the yen by 
investors, corporations and spec- 
ulators, both here and abroad. 

Japanese government officials 
have said the bank's intervention 
has been aimed at calming jittery 
markets or smoothing out the 
many excessively volatile swings 
in trading. 

They nave also said the yen’s 
appreciation does not reflect un- 
derlying economic factors such as 
the anemic economic growth rate 
or low Japanese interest rates. 

Privately, some officials char- 
acterize the heavy intervention as 
a holding action. The logic is that 
if the yen's rise can be halted long 
enough for the government to en- 
act a credible program to reduce 
the surplus, the market will take 
over and push the yen lower. 

The problem has been that the 
previous and current coalition 
governments have been so weak 
that they have been unable to 
push through such a plan. 

In some instances, the Bank of 
Japan has had help from abroad. 
The Federal Reserve Board in the 
United States and other central 
banks acted in concert with the 
Bank of Japan earlier this month, 
spending billions of dollars when 
the yen suddenly lurched and ig- 
nited fears of disruptions in stock 
and bond markets- 

But a number of economists 

say the sustained nature of the 
Japanese intervention and the 
huge amounts involved make 
clear that the effort is an attempt 
to interfere with market forces 
and. ultimately, manage trade in 
Japan's favor. 

“They are spending money like 
water,” said Richard Koo. a se- 
nior economist at the Nomura 
Research Institute. “If you are 
saying you are in favor’ of free 
trade, (hat means that you should 
let the yen go. If you intervene as 
they have, you are saying you 
don't want the price-adjustment 
mechanism to work. You can’t 
have it both ways." 

One of the best measures of a 
central bank's intervention in the 
currency markets is its reserves of 
foreign currencies and gold. Econ- 
omists and Bank of Japan officials 
say that increases generally reflect 
occasions when the hank has been 

Supporting the Yen 

Japan soared to $5.8 billion in 
March, the third-largesl monthly 

March, the third-largesl monthly 
deficit on record, from $4.63 bil- 
lion in February. 

Critics have also said the inter- 
vention flies in the face of a re- 
sponsible interplay of supply and 
demand, a principle to which Ja- 
pan’s government says it adheres. 

“Tins has been a waste of mon- 
ey," said Kazuafci Harada. the 
chief economist at the Sanwa Re- 
search Institute. "The reason for 
.the yen’s rise is tbe trade surplus. 
Ana judging from the continuing 
large size of the surplus, 1 think we 
can expect an even stronger yea” 

G Fred Bergs ten, head of tbe 
Institute for International Eco- 
nomics in Washington, agrees: 
This is tbe most dramatic exam- 
ple of managed trade in the rela- 
tionship between the U.S. and Ja- 
pan over the last year or so. It's 
vay dear that the yen would have 
strengthened weQ beyond 100 in 
the absence of this intervention." 

The issue touches on one of the 
mast sensitive aspects of the Unit- 
ed States’ troubled relationship 
with Japan — not just Japan's 
ga pi n g surplus, but what methods 
are appropriate for tackling it 

Tbe United States has said Ja- 


100 yen 

Kus - 

Yon to the dofer, weekly closes. 

Sc^te inverted to show the yen's rising vatee. 

V.ltipV isaa;. , \ ... 1994 

7"'. F M a- M :j J. A. $ o N D J r 

. « •» ** ^ . • . . • 

.wr. C* :. j- ■ . ■ ■ 



f , .■iLViA* • ' . r 

\ ^-u 

Met Change iq Japan's bard " 
/.currency resaivps'&Qra ti© . 


■■ r. •' ••• 

Fr - *jL i -fcC ] 

pan most cut its trade surplus or 
relations cannot improve. Tbe rc- 

TheNMOaA Time. 

selling yen and buying foreign cur- 
rencies. usually dollars. 

Since February 1993. the value 
of Japan’s reserves has risen from 
S69.15 billion to S104.6 billion 
last month, a record high, accord- 
ing to the Bank of Japan. The 
reserves are likely to increase by 
S5 billion or more this month, 
economists say, because of fur- 
ther intervention. 

In the last decade, the major 
industrial nations acted jointly on 
several occasions to manage ex- 
change rates to achieve their com- 
mon policy objectives. 

During a meeting at the Plaza 
Hotel in New York in September 
1985, tbe governments agreed to 
reduce tbe value of the dollar and 
increase the value of the yea in 
part to lower Japan’s widening 
trade surplus. 

The surplus did decline tempo- 
rarily, but now ii has risen to 
more than SI 30 billion annuall y. 

When President Bill Clinton 
took office, his administration 
vowed to attack the Japanese sur- 
pluses aggressively. After various 
Treasury officials hinted that 
they would not object to an ap- 
preciation of tbe yea traders got 
the message. 

The dollar fell to lows of al- 
most 100 yen in August and was 
again near that level earlier this 

Tbe yen’s rise has hurt Japa- 
nese exporters badly, ma Icing it 
unprofitable for man y of them to 
sell goods overseas. Economists 
here estimate that exporters 
break even at a level of about 1 15 
yen to the dollar and begin to lose 
money below that. 

In addition, the slump in ex- 
ports has slowed the economy, 
which is already in the midst of its 
longest recession since World 

Many economists thus contend 
that Japan should take stronger 
measures to reduce its trade sur- 
plus to avoid the punishment of a 
rising yea This could be date 
with a large increase in public- 
works spending, tax reductions, 
interest-rale cuts or some combi- 
nation of these steps. 

Toshihiro Kiribuchi, a former 
Finance Ministry official and now 
an executive at Omron Corp, an 
electronics manufacturer, said he 
sympathized with tbe Bank of Ja- 
pan’s heavy interventioa 

He contended, however, that 
the ultimate solution is not pour- 
ing money into the currency mar- 
ket but aggressive economic poli- 
cies to reduce the surplus. 

“To stop this, the Japanese 
government has to come forward 
with a very effective package of 
economic stimulus measures, 
lower interest rates and come up 
with more deregulation.*" Mr. 
Kiri bu chi said. 



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Page 5a 

Investor’s Asia 

Hong Kong 

Hang Seng. 

13030- * 


Straits Times 

Nikkei 225 

- ;25»— 

— 2ffl0 -rt-Jl — 
— ■ 23M J Jjpl - 

‘ - 2200 1 ■ I - V 



20000 It. 

19309 i* 

uses and 
ent of oil 
ive years. 

luied ihe w 
IGs plan 
for afl.” 
the tar-, 
at lacks’, „ 

1 0 J F MAM 
5993 1994 


O J F. M.JT& 

5SS3 1994 

; mecha- 


Monday Prev. 

Close'. Close - Change 
9389.78 9,631.63 -0.43 

^339.31 2,337.01 +0.10. 

Z-MM 2,m«0 +081 : 
20,568.71 20^20+1.11 

999.10 1,001.16 -0^1 

1^38^0 1J338.19 +0.03" J 

Hring Kring 
Sydney ■ 

‘Hang Seng 

Straits Tima s 
... Nikkei 225 

Kuala Lumpur Corepo^ta 999.10 

Bangkok SET " 1^38.53 

Seoul ' : Con^osha Stock 9453 0 

TaipeT Wd^ited Price 5,817.60 

ManHa PSE 2^22.17 

Jakarta Stock Index 498.36 

New Zealand NZSE-40 2,138424 

Bombay NationaUndex 1,821.06 

Sources : Heufars. AFP 

h °« fir 







spccifkrsh i 
ide freeii il 
rhildrea ads 
n up to'idu 

94&50 - 

2,870^2 +1.81 


. . igie 

tate ig i 

2,1 3a! 25 

laicnaikiiul HcnidTnhm: 

Very briefly: 

• Komatsu Ltd. said its consolidated pretax earnings fdl 55 percent from I 
the previous year, to 13.9 billion yen (S135 million), in the year ended [ 
March 31. The construction-equipment maker said sales were down 2.8 ! 
percent, to 846 billion yen. 

• NEC Corp. announced an agreement that it said would make it the first 
company to set up a computer software research and development facility 
in China. Tbe new company, NEC-CAS Software Laboratories Ltd, is to 
be capitalized at 150 million yen. with NEC holding 90 percent. 

• Planters Development Bank sought an unspecified amount in govern- 
ment aid after saying it had been affected by a securities scandal, making 
it the second bank in the Philippines to seek help after the collapse of 
Bancapita! Development Corp. 

• Swire Pacific Ltd signed an accord with Zhengzhou General Food 
Factory, a Chinese beverage company, to set up a joint venture producing 
Coca-Cola and Chinese brand soft thinks. 

• MIM Holdings Ltd of Australia said it sold all its 3 J percent stake in 
the German metals producer MetaSgeseOsduft AG over the past few 
months for a total of about 6Z5 minion Australian dollars ($46 million}. 

• Vietnam’s industrial output rose 12.1 percent in the first four months of 
1994 from a year earlier, the government said AFP. Btoomberg, Reuters 

New Pact lor Dow and Asahi 

■ print- nal 
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presi- 'way 
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Ctm^Uedby Our Staff From Dupaidta 

HONG KONG — Two of the 
world's leading chemical companies, 
Asahi Chemical Industry Ca of Ja- 
pan and tbe U^. -based Dow Chem- 
ical Ca said Mtmday they would 
form a venture to sell polystyrene 
products outside Japan. 

The 50-50 joint venture, to be 

based in Hong Kong, would oper- 
ate primarily in China, Hong 
Kong, Thailand, Indonesia. Malay- 
sia and Singapore, the companies 

Under the agreement, which 
must be approved by the boards of 
both concerns, Asahi and Dow 
would jointly develop a polysty- 
rene grade to be sold under the 
trademark Styron. 

A spokesman for Asahi in Tokyo 
said that annual sales of the voh 
rare were forecast to reach 100 bil- 
lion yen ($96 million), and that the 
new company would open offices 
in China, Indonesia and Thailand. 

The venture is planned to begin 
operations in August 

(Bloomberg, AFP) 

I crtp- 

J Ob- 
an DOW. 

— uion 
$ Age, 

S seof 
* with 


Sotittt fcnonymi | 

(formerly IF1PJT) 

Registered Office; Luxembourg - 2, Boulevard Royal 
RC. Luxembourg B-6734 

Our Shareholders are invited to attend on Wednesday, 

June 1, 1994 at 11.00 ajn. 

at 69 route d'Esch in Luxembourg the 

Annual Shareholders' General Meeting 

with the following agenda; 

1. Directors' Reports. 

2. Auditors' Reports. 

3. Approval of the Consolidated and Parent Financial 
Statements for the year ended December 31, 1993. 

4. Appropriation of 1 993 net income. 

5. Discharge of Directors and Auditors. 

6. Directors' and Auditors' fees for the year ended 
December 31. 1993. 

7. Election of the members of the Boart of Directors 
and Auditors. 

a Authorization to the Board of Directors to repurchase 
Company's shares- 

Our Shareholders are also invited to attend on Wednesday. June 1, 
1 994 immedlatety after the close of the AnnuaJ Shareholders' Genera! 
Meeting, at 69 route d'Esch in Luxembourg the 

Extraordinary General Meeting of Shareholders 

with the following agenda: 

To reword article 4 of the company's articles of incorporation as 

4.1 The sole purpose of the company is the acquisition of 

participations In other companies or enterprises as well as the 
purchase, sale, holding and management of all kind of 

42 It may make loans and grant financial assistance and 
guarantees fen any form whatsoever to companies or enter- 
prises in which it has an interest or which are part of its group. 

4.3 It may acquire and resell its own shares m accordance with the 
conditions established by the law. 

4.4 In a general fashion it may cany out any operation which it 
may deem useful in the accomp&shmerrt and development of 
Its purpose, always remaining however within the limits set by 
the law of July 31 , 1929 governing holding companies, and toy 
article 209 Of the law of August 10, 1915 on commercial 
companies, as amended. 

In order to be able to attend the ordinary and/or the extraordinary 
general meetings, holders of bearer shares will have to deposit their 
bearer shares five dear days before the date of the meeting, at the 
Registered Office of the company or with one of the fotowrng banks: 

- In Luxembourg; Banque Internationale A Luxembourg; 

- in Italy: all the leading banks; 

- in Switzerland; Credit Suisse. Banca Commercials ItaUana; 

- in France; Lazanj Fr&res & C«.; 

- in the Federal Republic of Germany: Commerzbank; 

- in Great Britain: S.G. Warburg and Co.. Lazard Brothers and Co.; 

- in the Netherlands: Amsterdam-Rotterdam Bank; 

- in Belgium: Banque Bruxelles Lambert 

Every shareholder may be represented at the shareholders' meetings 
by a proxy, who need not himself (herself} be a shareholder. 

The holders of preferred shares have the right to attend both meetings 

but are entitled to vote only on the agenda item of the extraordinary 
meeting. For the extraordinary meeting of shareholders there is a 

quorum of at least 50% of both the ordinary and preferred shoes of the 

company in issue and outstanding, and the resotution will require the 
concurrence of two thirds of the total number of each ordinary and 
preferred shares represented at the meeting. 

Shareholders may, on and after May 20. 1 994. inspect at the registered 

office of the company the reports of the Board of Erectors, the annual 

financial statements and the text of the proposed resolutions. 





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Bringing the World to the Classroom 

P rospective employers will- 
ing to pay the price for a 
business-school graduate 
expect to get an executive 
who can go into action right away in a 
rapidly changing and increasingly 
complex environment. At the same 
time, European and U.S. schools are 
competing ever more savagely for mar- 
ket share and recognition. This means 
that top schools everywhere are strug- 
gling to adapt their teaching methods To 
meet the new demands. 

“Since we launched our first MBA 
and MSC programs back in the 1960s. 
the aim of these courses has changed 
considerably," says Leo Munav, direc- 
tor of Cranfield School of Management 
in Britain. ‘Today, we concentrate our 
teaching efforts on developing personal 
skills such as problem solving and 

The changes, however, are still less 
than revolutionary. A 1993 survey car- 
ried out among 59 European graduate 
schools by the Brussels-based Euro- 
pean Foundation for Management De- 
velopment. for instance, showed that 
lectures sdll accounted for 40.5 percent 
of total teaching time. Project work, 
case studies and group discussions 
took up 34.6 percent, 1 6.4 percent and 
S.6 percent respectively, while com- 

School in Denmark. The fundamental 
purpose of this association is the cre- 
ation of a common European business 
qualification known as the CEMS 

‘The CEMS Master, awarded to stu- 
dents in addition to the degree granted 
by their home institution, undeniably 
adds value to students' qualifications 
on graduation," says Staffan Buren- 
stam Linder, president of the Stock- 
holm School of Economics and chair- 
man of CEMS. The procedure for set- 
ting up this additional qualification in- 
volves the creation of common stan- 
dards among member schools and the 
progressive harmonization of degree 

“Case studies play a very important 
role both in our degree courses and our 
executive programs." says Jose Maria 
Pons, MBA director at 1ESE (Instituto 
de Estudios Superiores de Empresa) in 
Barcelona. "However, we use them as 
a springboard to collective thinking 
rather than as an illustration of a single 
solution to a problem. Employed in the 
latter way. cases can become quickly 
outdated, and even more importantly. 

puter simulations notched up a mere 
3.8 percent of the total. 

A body of European cases 
is now finally emerging 

Paradoxically, at the same time that 
European business schools are compet- 
ing for students, many are also looking 
for ways to link up in cooperative net- 
works. The main purpose of this is to 
provide more cross-cultural courses at 
the European level by establishing net- 
works and exchanges of students be- 
tween different European countries. 
The procedure also helps to improve 
economies of scale by pooling re- 
sources at a time when the marketplace 
is demanding ever mote sophisticated - 
teaching and research facilities. 

One prominent example of this ap- 
proach is the Community of European 
Management Schools. CEMS compris- 
es 12 universities and business schools 
in different European countries, includ- 
ing Cologne University in Gennany, 
the London School of Economics in 
Britain and die Copenhagen Business 

they fail to convey the complexity of 
real-life situations." 

Originally, most cases were devel- 
oped by American institutions like 
Harvard, but a body of European case 
material is finally emerging. European 
schools making a major input in this 
connection include the Institute for 
Management Development iIMD) in 
Switzerland and INSEAD in France. 
Cranfield coordinates the European 
Case Clearing House (ECCH). 

“The vital point about case teaching 
is that its strength depends as much on 
the quality of the teacher as on the 
quality of the case, 1 " says Gary Edel- 
man, who was recently voted test lec- 
turer by students at the Rotterdam 
School of Management “Many Euro- 
pean professors feel happier with the 
traditional academic-lecture approach. 

ular emphasis on its personal-project 
approach. “The purpose is to identify a 

approach. “The purpose is to identify a 
topic that the student explores over the 
course of the program. This aims at de- 
veloping research skills in a real-life 
American business setting," says RJA 
Professor Jack Forget. 

Many degree courses include a re- 
quirement for students to spend part of 
their course time working in a real-life 
business environment The internation- 
al MBA program run by the Rotterdam 
School of Management provides one 
example. “At the end of their first year. 



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Page 3a* 




q cation 

and ir you force the wrong people to 
adopt the case method, it gives the 
whole procedure a bad name." 

SDA Bocconi in Milan is one of the 
growing number of schools that makes 
use of computer simulations for teach- 
ing purposes. "For example, we have 
devised a model-building simulation 
using a spreadsheet format, which al- 
lows sludenb, to work in small groups 
on different decision models and to 
compete with one another," says MBA 
Program Director Pamela Adams. 
[This helps students to appreciate the 
interactions between different issues 
and to learn how to operate in an inte- 
grated way." 

The simulation might bring together, 
for example, information and issues 
front sectors such as marketing, fi- 
nance and production, and it imitates 
the complex information Hows within 
real businesses. "This approach en- 
courages students to examine both 
quantitative and qualitative considera- 
tions” explains Ms. Adams. 

Other computer-assisted projects 
launched by SDA Bocconi include a fi- 
nance, banking and macroeconomic 
simulation called ArcoFund. Students 
are divided into small groups, and 
each group is given a notional capital 
sum of $100 million to play with. This 
then has to be "invested” in stock-ex- 
change indexes. “The driving force 
behind this game is the competition 
that it generates between the groups.” 
says Ms. Adams. "The simulation con- 
tinues throughout the year, and we see 
who has done test in November.” 

The California-based international 
University of America, which recruits 
MBA students in Europe, places panic- 


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30 percent of all 
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the ANCs plan 
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in both fields sav 
to meet the tar- 
at present lacks’, 
funding mecha- 

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be land rtdistri- 
11 be slowed by a, 
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all our students have to spend three 
weeks analyzing a chosen company on 
a cross-functional basis." says Dean J. 
Wil Foppen. “Further company pro- 
jects form pan of the second year also.” 

At Manchester Business School in 
Britain. MBA students are divided into 
project groups of five or six to work on 
consulting assignments for companies. 
"One project involves advising compa- 
nies on mergers and acquisitions strate- 
gies while another looks at overseas 
market opportunities.” says Manches- 
ter MBA Director Peter Barrar. "Stu- 
dents have to calculate what their costs 
will be to carry out the project, and 
they then submit a bid on this basis to 
the prospective customer company.” 

One example in the mergers and ac- 

quisitions project involved bringing ex- 
ecutives of the Blue Circle group of 
companies to the school, so that they 
could discuss their M&A strategy with 
students. Participants in the course then 
undertook research aimed at identify- 
ing potential target companies. 

‘This project brought students face 
to face with the need in a real-life situa- 
tion to combine analytical skills based 
on logic with softer skills connected 
with handling people situations," Mr. 
Barrar says. "For instance, under the 
first heading, they had to look at issues 
such as valuing businesses in accor- 
dance with their equity bases. The sec- 
ond aspect required them to consider 
factors such as the best way to avoid 
making experienced directors in the 

target company feel they were under 
threat when it would be important to 
retain their services after the takeover." 

IMD runs a scheme called TIE 
(Team Initiative Enterprise). "Students 
work in self-selected groups," says 
MBA Director Kamran Kashani. 
‘Each of these has to come up with a 
basic idea and a precise definition and 
then put it into practice.” 

The Groupe ESC Lyon provides a 
further variant. “One of our projects 
aims at motivating students to create a 
business.” says ESC Lyon Vice Presi- 
dent Philippe Albert. “Getting partici- 
pants to create a working enterprise is 
one of the best teaching methods you 
can devise." 

Michael Rowe 

Xv'hVi"' ■ ‘ ■■ ■ 



I'* *■ f. >• 



Btamectenlcs of Human Movement fn 

Orthopaedics, Rettabaitation, Neuroscience 
and Sports, Neville Hogan June 13 - June 17 

Advances in Controlled Release Technology: 
Polymeric Delivery Systems lor 
Pharmaceuticals, Proteins and Other Agents, 
Robert S. Langer July 18 - July 22 

New Developments in Biotechnology, 

Anthony J. Smskey August 1 - August 5 

Downstream Processing. Charles L Cooney 
August 8 -August 12 

Fermentation Technology, Daniel 1C Wang 
August 15 - August 19 

Analytical Biochemistry m Process Monitoring 
and Validation, Daniel LC. Wang 
August 1 - August 5 

Cardiovascular Pathophysiology tor Engineers 
ami Scientists, Richard J. Cohen 
June 6 - June 10 


Object-Oriented Systems: Technology and 
Applications, Duwuru Sriram 
June6- June 10 

Design and Analysis id Distributed Protocols, 

Nancy A Lynch and Nir Shavit 
July 25 -July 29 

Digital Communications Networks, Robert GaBager 
June 13 -June 17 

A Peek at Parallel Processing, Alan Edelman 
July 11 - July 15 

Parallel Programming and Dataflow Architectures 
(with Programming Laboratory on Monsoon 
Dataflow Machines), Arvtnd 
August 8 ■ August 12 

Parallel Supercomputing: Algorithms, 
Architectures and Systems. F. Thomson 
Leighton and Charles £ Leiserson 
June 6 -June 10 


Tools and Techniques for Collaborative 
Engineering, Domini Sriram 
August 8 -August 12 

Assessing Organic Pollutants In the Environment, 

Philip M.Gschwend 
July 11 -July 15 

Machinery Noise S Diagnostics, Richard H. Lyon 
August 8 -August 12 

The Principles ol Design: Axiomatic Design 
Tteoty & Methodology. Nam P. Suh 
July 25 -July 29 

Neural Networks for Nonlinear Estimation and 
Control, Jean-Jacgues Slonneand 
Robert M. Sanner July 1 8 - July 22 

Human Centered Automation S Supervisory 
Cor&ol of Flight Vehicles, Ground Vehicles & 
Robots, Thomas B. Sheridan 
June 13 -June 17 

Fundamentals ol Internal Combustion Engines: 
Performance, Efficiency and Emissions, 

John B. Heywood. i Vai K Cheng 
June 20 ■ June 24 

Integrated Modeling of Physical System 
Dynamics, Nevtile Hogan 
July 25 -July 29 

Tribology: Friction and Wear, Ernest Rabkmricz 
July 18 -July 22 

New Developments in Muuriacbring Process 
Technology, Timothy Goto wsJd, Emanuel 
Sacks and David Hardt June 20 -June 24 

Mathematical Modeling of Materials Processing 
for Design and Manufacturing. 

Jutian Szete/y August 15 - August 19 

Engineering at Viscoelastic Polymers and 
Composites, David K. Roybsvx 
July 11 -July 15 

Foams and Cellular Materials: Thermal ami 
Mechanical Properties, Leon A GBcksman, 
LomaJ Gibson, Nam P. Suh, July 11 - July 14 
(4 days) 

Design of Analog Integrated Circuits, 

Hae-Settng Lee June 20 - Jura 24 


to Control and Process Electrical Energy, 
JohnG. KassaMan, George C. Verghese, 

Martin F. Schlecht August 15 - August 19 

Fundamental of Detection, Parameter Estimate! 
and Kalman FUtering (with Applications hi 
Tracking, Control and Signal Proces si ng? 
AlanS. WSsky 
July 25 -July 29 

Techniques In High-Speed Photography and 
Video graphy, Charles £ Miller 
June 13- June 17 

Computer-Aided Multivariable Control System 
Design, Afehae/Athans 
June 6 -June 10 

Speech Spectrogram Reading: An Acoustic ol tire 
English Language, Victor Ziie 
June 27 - Ally 1 

Mterosensors and Microactoators, 

Stephen D. Senturia July 25 - July 29 

Modeling, Simulation & Optimization of GhenticaJ 
Processes, Paul Barton and Lawrence B. Evans 
August 1 - August 10 
(8 days) 

Plasma Processing tor Microelectronic 

Fabrication: Plasma Deposition, Etching and 
Spattering of TWn films far VLSI, 

Herbert H. Samn July 18^ - July 22 

Fundamentals of Flight Simulation, 

Laurence R. Young and Walter M. HoMster 
July 25 -July 29 

Lasers, Fiber Optics aodAppflsrtiDRS, » 

ShaoulEskiel July 11 -July 15 \ 

Industrial Rheology for Scientists and Engineer, < 

August 1 *August5 

Nuclear Power Reactor Safety: Part I -Thermal 
Power ReadOR, Ate? £ Tbdreas 
July 18 -July 22 

Nuclear Power Reactor Safety: Part II -General 
Safety issues, Mujid S. Kami 
July 25 -July 29 

Improving Nudes' Power Plant Performance, 

Kent Hansen June 20 - June 24 

Puitilc TranqMxtafflon Service and Operation 
Pfenning, ftigeiHM Wilson 
August 15 -August 19 
Fiber Reinforced Congmlte Materials, 

Frederick J McGarryJuty 25 - July 29 


Demystifying Japan: Its Culture, Society and 
Language, SldgeruMyagawa 
June6- June 10 

Management, Lfleratare and Bte&,AMnC.Kibel 
June 20 -June 24 

The Lfferattme of Leadership. A&fcas/ Kaufman 
August 15 -August 19 

Navel: Taking Poptrlar Culture Seriously, 
Henry Jenkins June 6 - June 10 
Was There Rasdly a Big Bang? A Case Study ta 
Scientific Methodology, Irving Segal 
July 18 -July 22 


Project Management (or Engineers and Managers, 

Robert Logcher 
August 15- August 19 

Design and Analysis of Scientific Experiments. 
Hardd Freeman, PaulD. Berger 
July 11 -July 16 (6 days) 

Individual Choice Behavior Theory and 
Application of Discrete Choice Analysis to 
Canamn Demand and Market Share, 

Moshe BeihAkha Jure 6 - June 10 

Biotechnology Indashy, Sten At ftitefcten 
June 13 -June 17 

June 27- July 1 

Man ag ement of Research, Devtlopmerrt and 

Edward B. Roberts June 6 - June 17 
(10 days) 

August 1- August 3 (3 days) 



CorainmiiafingTediidcad Information (Thhty- 
Efgfafii Edition: Writing and Editing), 
James Paradis June 15 - June 17 
(3 days) 

Technical Japanese for Computer Science and 

Susan S. Sherwood Me 13 - August 5 

Technical Japanese tor Materials Science and 
Related Engineering, David 0. MSs, 
Susan S. Sherwood Jum 13 - August 5 

For further information, contact: MIT Summer Session Office, E19-356, Cambridge, MA 02139; Phone: (617)253-2101; Fax: (617) 253-6042; 


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Schools Take Closer Look at the Bottom Line 

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r i~* '.Hil ay Haskins, di- 
..^^J rector-general of 
... M l ^ c European 
Foundation for 
Management Development 
in Brussels, recently dis- 
cussed the outlook for inter- 
national business education 
with Axel Krause, corporate 
editor of the International 
Herald Tribune. Following 
arc excepts from the inter- 

How many of your nearly 
200 European business- 
school members are now 
tied into some kind of net- 
work. or iiueniiifitjriiil asso- 
ciation. with another busi- 
ness school ? 

The vast majority - with 
at least one other school. 
The strong tendency has 
been privileging internation- 
al links and particularly 
those programs' with conti- 

/\ this a response to the 
apparent end of the Euro- 
pean recession'.’ 

Members are re-evaluat- 

ing their programs, just as 
companies are re-evuluating 
their costs of operating. An- 
other new effect is that some 
companies in similar indus- 
tries are joining together to 
form their own business- 
training schools. This en- 
ables them to be very' prac- 

Is it trite, as some deans 
saw that there are no profits 
in management education 
and that mans schools lose 


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end developped in association with leading U.S. Universities. 

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That may be the case for 
some schools. Most business 
schools are still surviving, 
even though they are also 
going through a cost-cutting, 
cost-evaluafion exercise. 

Does the trend you de- 
scribe also reflect a move 
away from MBAs? 

What everyone is realiz- 
ing today is that we arc talk- 
ing about a continuous 
process in business educa- 
tion. The MBA is just one 
small aspect of management 
development. In fact, most 

EFMD’s Gay Haskins: "The 
strong tendency has been privi- 
leging international links . " 

business schools make most 
of their money thn-ugh ex- 
ecutive programs. 

What is": he \in.v/e most 
important question asked 
about costs if management 

As reflected in demands 
on us by our corporate mem- 
bers for workshop'-, the 
question is: how do you 
measure the cost and ihe ef- 
fectiveness of management 
development? We hope to 
provide a tentative answer 
during a session at our annu- 
al conference in June in 
Copenhagen focused on im- 
pact on the bottom line. 
There will also be a related 
session dealing with impact 
on business performance. 
That is the question. 

Turning to academic rv- 
seaivh in management edu- 
cation. w!u:t tUM" questions 
an' being asked? 

A study was recently done 

in Britain culling for devel- 
oping much more relevance 
of research to business. 
Elsewhere among our mem- 
bers. tlic reaction is the same 
- namely, that business ex- 
ecutives say repeatedly that 
research being conducted to- 
day is not relevant to their 
needs. Others urge a new 
partnership in research. The 
problem is translating con- 
ceptual research, and the 
phrases and words used to 
express it. into something 
that is meaningful and un- 
derstandable to business. 

How many of your mem- 
bers participate in doctoral 

About 40. About one-third 
are university-linked, [in- 
cluding! all our members in 
England - such as Manches- 
ter. Warwick, the London 
Business School. Then there 
is Erasmus Lfniversity in 
Rotterdam. Stockholm 
School of Economics, 
among oihers. all of which 
confer doctoral degrees. 
Keep in mind that the PhD. 
while important, is not the 
only source of research. 

£>i< you consider cases 
part of the research 
pit >cess? 

They are as much part of 
the research as they are of 
the teaching process. Cases 
can give academics entry 
into companies and then 
help bring practical experi- 
ence back into the class- 
room. particularly if the case 
is from one's region of the 
world. So many cases have 
been American, and often 


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France - Belgium - Ireland - Spain 

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S '-IS^^tiqxalTx stiti:Tt: Mvau's of Paris • . I 
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not appropriate for the Euro- 
pean environment, so it is 
good that we are now get- 
ting cases from Eastern and 
Western Europe. This is 
why we sponsor an annual 
case-writing competition. 

How do yon explain the 
success of the use of Euro- 
pean cases ill American 
business schools ? 

There are more and more 
demands in American 
schools to internationalize 
the curricula, and (European 
cases] offer a valuable 
source for doing that. I only 
wish we had more good cas- 
es on Eastern Europe or on 
business in China. 

What is your reaction to 
the establishment in Cer- 

Women still account for less than 10 percent of the managers At Britain's largest organizations* ^ 

many of a two-year execu- 
tive MBA program by 
Deutsche Aerospace and 
Mercedes with Britain's 
Henley management col- 
lege. which uses distance 

It is a trend. British Air- 
ways developed its own 
MBA. and the Danish Man- 
agement Center has a new 
MBA developed by a con- 
sortium of companies. There 
are an increasing number of 
partnerships between com- 
panies and business schools. 
But the ultimate test of the 
success of these will depend 
on the quality of ihe students 

How do you react to re- 
cent surx eys showing that 
only about 5 percent of 
women in European busi- 
ness make it to the top 

There are a lot of success- 
ful women in small busi- 
nesses, and that is where 
much of the growth is. The 
reason is that it is often easi- 
er to set up your ow n busi- 
ness rather than to integrate 
vour stvle and vourself into 

How to Attract Women 

he percentage of women students 
at Europe's major business 
schools continues to rise steadily, 
and many insutuiions are launch- 
ing specific campaigns to attract more 
women to their courses. Manchester Busi- 
ness School, for example, began a special 
recruitment drive just over three years ago 
that features initiatives such os the Guardian 
Women in Management 


Overall, one-third of first- Snerial r 
year Manchester MBA stu- . 
dents are now female, with u7TV€S CIT i 

4S on the pan-rime program 

and 24 percent on the full- 11-1 '" H" 

rime course. Paradoxically, this trend coin- 
cides with the publication of a new report by 
the institute of Management and Remunera- 
tion Economics showing that the percentage 
of women managers in Britain’s largest or- 
ganizations has fallen from 10.2 percent last 
year to 9 A percent currently. 

INSE.4D says that it will more readily 
consider applications from younger candi- 
dates if they are women since they tend to be 
more mature than young men of the same 
age. "At die other end of the spectrum, we 

Special recruitment 
drives are launched 

are also very happy to entertain applications 
from women in their, early : thirties who bi^l? 
earlier interrupted; thfcir careers to start a' 
family." says Helen Henderson,' INSEAD’s 
director of admissions. ; .8 ...... LL..‘ 

A recent survey of its 59 membef schbols; 
carried out by the European^ Toundatiorr for 
Management Development showed, the 
highest percentage of female business suL 
dents in Finland C44 per- : 

■» ■"""-■ -r i- cen j); France (39 percent) :- 

'ruitment ^ Germany (34 percerilX 
• The tb Fee lowest -scores 
launched ■ were Switzerland fl 7 per- 
cent), Britain (2Q percent) ' 
and Ireland (21 percent)., .v? 
Placement experience stiU varies? “Be- 
cause of the uraditkmal role of women.- inter- 
viewers cannot fully accept a self-assertive 
presentation by a woman candidate, whereas ' 
they might consider this a positive attribute; 
in a man," says BonnieMoy. (Erector of the 
Career Planning Office at the Rotterdam. 
School of Management: The Groupe HEC in 
France, however, says it detects .no obvious ; 
discrimination by potential employers, al-. 
though few women graduates go into indus- 
try. MJR. 

Strips New Trends in Recruitment 

volvcment in China? 

We have been managing 
the China Europe Manage- 
ment Institute. After seven 
years of experience in Bei- 

jing. wc are now moving the 
CEMI to Shanghai. The 

CEMI to Shanghai. The 
courses are intended for 
middle and senior manage- 
ment. and they regularly at- 
tract participants from major 
corporations operating in 

The program provides our 
school members the oppor- 
tunity to send their faculty to 
leach in China, a rare learn- 
ing experience. It is pan of 
the service we pro\ ide our 

ith more and 
I!:'-. V m more graduates 

j of U.S. busi- 
nos schools 
competing for fewer and 
fewer jobs, on-site recruit- 
ment is quickly becoming a 
\ ictim of corporate down- 
sizing. Corporate recruiters 
once paid routine annual 
vi«ii* to universities to inter- 
view graduating MBAs: in 
today's seller's market, 
however, student", must seek 
out the recruiters. To make 
their job-seeking easier, uni- 
\ersity placement officers 
are banding together for 
consortium recruiting and 

are also using technology in 
innovative ways to match 
corporate jobs with their stu- 

Consortium recruiting al- 
lows recruiters to cut costs 
by interviewing students 

visit and, ultimately' job of- 
fers.'* ■ -* 

Video interviewing 'pro- 
vides students access to re- 
cruiters from companies' Jo- - 
cated far away from a cam- 
pus. It also allowsjrecruiters 
from foreign companies to. 
meet U.S. students. General- 

Video interviewing 
for job-seekers 

ly, the college rents a 
closed-circuit TV system: 



An intensive nine month 
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Beginning January 1995. 


■ An international Faculty 
with a European scope. 

■ The leading School in Political Science 
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in 1871. 

■ A unique location in the center of Paris. 

■ A limited number of students. 

from several schools at 
once. The most successful 
gathering for consortium re- 
cruiting takes place in At- 
lanta. It began with 20 par- 
ticipating companies in 
1987: this year. 85 compa- 
nies will interview students 
from schools as far away as 
New York. 

The Simon School of the 
University of Rochester, 
which also participates in a 
local consortium that meets 
in New York City, sent 50 
students to Atlanta. Such 
consortia allow' for more in- 
formal discussions between 
students and recruiters. “It 
consolidates campus recruit- 
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vices. "It results in more of a 
relationship, which can re- 
sult in a campus recruiting 

closed-circuit TV system; 
the recruiter travels to a 
nearby studio where the 
satellite signal can - be down-' 
' loaded. The method is. stilf - 
experimental, but it has enr 
abled schools in relatively 
remote areas, such as the 
University of Wisconsin at 
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to Fortune 500 companies. 

As business schools be- 
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dent on computers, disks are 
replacing traditional resume 
books. Recruiters can per- 
form a scan for a particular 
specialty or interest. With 
the more cumbersome 
books, the interviewer 
would have to read each re- 
sume to find a suitable can- 
didate. Although most 
schools still send out the 
books as a back-up. such 
prestigious schools as the 
University of Chicago and 
Columbia University have 
abandoned the “hard copy" 
all together. S.W. 

Admission requirements: a university degree 
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For further inlomi.ition. ple.isc contact: 
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Enquiries for January 1995 entry to. Susan Thornton, Course Administrator, 
International Centre for Management, Law and industrial Relations, University of 
Leicester, Leicester LEI 7RH, United Kingdom, or by telephone (0533) 522346. 
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When Academe 
Goes Corporate 

lTf!"I f n . y , busine * s INSEAD in For 
fl|7j B ,°°* s use d io another example. “ 
fUyfi i ? r /^ e them- cent of our total a 

Selves nn rh^ir 

Page 1 


Page 3^ 

any business 
H I f J s schools used to 
f i Pride them- 
selves on their 
detached and scholarly ap- 
proach to teaching and re- 
s eareh. Today, pushed by 
cash shortages and competi- 
tion. they see their role more 
os eager sellers in the corpo- 
rate marketplace, and all the 
major institutions are strug- 

gling to forge closer rela- 
tionships with business. 

Despite such trends, many 
leading European businesses 

continue to believe that few 
schools are as yet fully at- 
tuned to their precise needs. 
Often a particular difficulty 
is persuading faculty mem- 
bers to change work meth- 
ods to which they have been 
long accustomed. It is gener- 
ally accepted, however, that 
oig management centers are 
making major efforts to get 
closer to the marketplace. 

One example is the way in 
which Ashridge Manage- 
ment College in Britain re- 
cently went about the job of 
tackling the management- 
development needs of the 
Volkswagen company. Key 
Ashridge staff traveled to 
the company to meet all the 
relevant players and to find 
out in detail what Volkswa- 
gen had in mind and what 
was required. On the basis 
of these meetings, the col- 
lege drew up a specially tai- 
lored program. 

INSEAD in France offer* 
another example. “Fifty per- 
cent of our total activity is 
devoted to executive educa- 
tion. and our whole ap- 
proach is based on the idea 
of creating partnerships with 
businesses." says Arnoud 
De Meyer, director of exec- 
utive education at INSEAD. 
“A big part of our company- 
specific work is concerned 
with managing change and 
helping corporations to 
maintain internal cohesion/* 
The school, for instance, or- 
ganized a special program 
for the ABN and AMRO 
banks in the Netherlands at 
the time of their merger, and 
it has also been called in by 
French state-owned opera- 
tions about to be privatized. 

Further examples of this 
approach are provided by 
the company-specific cours- 
es organized by HEC Man- 
agement, the executive- 
training subsidiary of the 
Groupe HEC. “Recent pro- 
jects we have undertaken in- 
clude initial training of the 
marketing work force of a 
European aeronautic compa- 
ny and organizing a general 
management cycle to fit the 
training requirements of 400 
executives in a European 
service company," says 
HEC Management Director 
Olivier Bruei. 

In addition, HEC Manage- 
ment recently assisted a 
French bank organization in 

The Americans Keep Coming 

Major management centers are making big efforts t o get closer to the marketplace. 

opens '.its- ■ handful '-of V -S/. Hdng 
.'feednomy to 'tbe world Kong and Swiss institu- 

the.. country 

* i\ ~ ■ _> ' . ... ■ 

creating a school for top-lev- 
el executives. “This mingled 
Groupe HEC pedagogic and 
technical expertise with the 
professional know-how of 
managers/' says Mr. Brucl. 
“In this way. we were able to 
introduce a modem, efficient 
and dynamic training system 
into the heart of the organi- 
zation's structure." 

Giving companies an ef- 
fective say in the way 
schools are organized and in 
the content of their courses 
is another method that is 
widely adopted to cement 
relations. “Both Spanish and 
multinational companies are 
represented on our govern- 
ing board," says Ignacio de 
la Vega, professor of entre- 
preneurship at the Instituto 
de Empresa in Madrid. “We 
also actively seek corporate 
sponsorship for professorial 
chairs, although Spanish tax 
law does not moo vale com- 
panies in this respect.” * 

IMD in Lausanne is struc- 
tured around some 120 cor- 
porate “stakeholders/’ who 
interact with the faculty on 
teaching and research and 
who receive a package of 
services from the institute in 
return. “We organize bench- 
marking workshops for all 
our stakeholders throughout 
the year," says Paul Adams, 
IMD's director of corporate 
affairs. “Moreover, our ex- 
ecutive courses are angled 
strongly toward tailored ac- 
tivities and consortium pro- 
grams that enable partici- 
pants to dovetail workplace 

learning with their atten- 
dance at IMD." 

Many French business 
schools are connected with 
local chambers of com- 
merce. which provide pan of 
their funding from taxes col- 
lected from in the 

The Groupe ESC Lyon 
provides a particular exam- 
ple. “Our structure is based 
on a partnership between the 
chamber of commerce and 
regional businesses, which 
are strongly represented on 
our executive board." says 
Philippe Albert, the school's 
vice president. 

Another cooperative ven- 
ture between business and 
academe is the Institut du 
Fran^ais dcs Affaires dc 
Reims, created last year at 
the initiative of the local 
chamber of commerce, the 
University of Reims and 
other groups. IDFAR aims 
to educate foreign execu- 
tives in business French and 
in French business proce- 

F'aced with reduced de- 
mand for business gradu- 
ates, schools also have to 
pay closer attention to com- 
panies' recruiting require- 
ments. “Spanish companies 
tell us that they are looking 
for recruits who can think 
and take decisions in a more 
structured fashion,” says 
Carlos Cavall£, dean of 
IESE in Barcelona. “This 
means, for instance, that we 
have to encourage students 
to adopt a more ngorous ap- 

proach when analyzing and 
commenting on cases."" 

The Rotterdam School of 
Management goes one step 
further and brings in compa- 
ny executives fo lecture in 
some of its courses. “We 
have to make sure this does 
not become a simple market- 
ing exercise and that compa- 
nies do not use ihe opportu- 
nity merely to identify high- 
flyers. but it provides a use- 
ful and practical supplement 
to more traditional teach- 
ing," says Kai Peters, the 
school's projects and corpo- 
rate-relations manager. 

Against this background 
of diversity and competition 
among Europe’s business 
school's, the Brussels-bused 
European Foundation for 
Management Development 
offers a meeting point for 
providers and consumers of 
services. “Currently, we 
have 320 business and man- 
agement-school members, 
and we offer a platform for 
dialogue/* says EFMD As- 
sociate Director Bernadette 

The EFMD is also in- 
volved in promoting man- 
agement education in devel- 
oping countries and Eastern 
Europe. Several of these ini- 
tiatives are carried out on an 
agency basis for the Euro- 
pean Commission. M.R. 

ncreased busi- 
ness opportuni- 
ties abroad and 
the globalization 
of U.S. commerce have in- 
fluenced ihe popularity of 
U.S. business schools with 
branches in Europe. These 
schools are continuing to 
seek a foothold in Europe 
largely because they are 
faced with a dwindling pool 
of students at home and be- 
cause a European outpost 
gives an MBA program 
added cachet at home. 

Most U.S. schools operate 

, under a partnership agree- 
ment with a European 
school, which allows stu- 
dents and faculty on both 
campuses to move back and 
forth. Many lesser-known 
colleges are now adding 
studies abroad, following in 
the footsteps of such top/tier 
schools as Boston Universi- 
ty. the University of Hart- 
ford and Webster University 
of St. Louis (which began a 
Geneva campus in 1979). 
Purdue University in Indi- 
ana, for example, has begun 
a joint program with the 
Ecole Superieure de Com- 
merce de Rouen. 

Some schools find a 
niche: The University of 
Pittsburgh, for instance’ has 
concentrated on Eastern Eu- 
rope, and Pittsburgh now 
has programs in Prague. St. 
Petersburg and Budapest. In 
January, the Simon School 
at the University of 
Rochester will open its sec- 
ond Eu5opean executive 
MBA program in Bern. The 
partnership with the Univer- 
sity Bern supplements an 
already existing program in 

According to Dick 
Kwartler, publisher of the 
MBA Newsletter, the 
growth of American pro- 
grams abroad parallels the 
huge increase in Europeans 
studying on U.S. campuses. 
Europeans constitute up to 
30 percent of the student 
body of many colleges; at 
Yale, the figure has reached 
33 percent. This reverse 

trend is reflected in the 
growth in the number of 
once-scarce European sites 
where prospective students 
can take the Graduate Man- 
agement Admission Test. 
"International enrollment is 
a way to counter declining 
domestic enrollment," says 
Mr. Kwartler. 

Perhaps the most closely 
watched European outpost is 
the one to be established on 
July 1 in Barcelona by the 
University of Chicago, one 
of America's most respected 
business schools. The pan- 
time MBA program is 
unique insofar as it repre- 
sents the first time a top-tier 
school has attempted a Euro- 
pean MBA program without 
the assistance of a local uni- 
versity. “It is the first stand- 
alone U.S. executive pro- 
gram," Mr. Kwanler notes. 
“It will be pivotal in terms of 
whether other U.S. schools 
will follow.” 

More important are al- 
liances - “the new buzzword 
in management education,” 
according to Mr. Kwanler - 
between U.S. and European 
schools, as well as with Eu- 
ropean companies. 

In October 1993, the Uni- 
versity of Michigan devel- 
oped a program in Hong 
Kong for Cathay Pacific that 
links professors in Ann Ar- 
bor to students in Hong 
Kong via interactive TV. 
“Interactive TV opens up a 
whole new world," Mr. 
Kwartler says. “It will not 
matter where the student is 

enrolled/' The biggest limi- 
tation on the more tradition- 
al partnership programs be- 
tween U.S. and European 
universities is American stu- 
dents' notorious lack of fa- 
cility in foreign languages. 
Only a few* prestigious 
schools on the Continent, 
such as INSEAD and IMD, 

In Barcelona, a new outpost for 
the University of Chicago. 

conduct classes in English. 

One drawback to the Eu- 
ropean programs is that they 
may draw au-ay registrants 
from the home campus. The 
Massachusetts of Technolo- 
gy, a well-regarded business 
school, had experimented 
with a European program a 
few times, but it decided not 
to continue after the pro- 
gram proved to be too ex- 
pensive and threatened to 
take top-quality students 
away from the Cambridge 

Steve Weinstein 

K The Reims Institute for Business in 

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Further injomolkm am ilobteal 

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L. Madmif. the Union Paironok of the Marne dpt and CHAM PFOR.) ^ 

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j □ Undergraduate programs (BfiA, BIS, BA) 
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1 Name 

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new houses and 
30 percent of all 
ie next live years.. 

s constituted the^ 
the ANCs plan 
ter life for all.” 
a both fields say 
to meet ihe tar- 
at present lacks', 
funding mecha-!; 
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be land redis tri- 
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hat all current!, 
e compensated. £ 

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to provide freed 

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State \ 

and his print- ti 
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We have no'* 
mey. We can'i f 
he can't over- 11 

igo. the presi- ^ 
called “The« 
he Messiah." * 
His image T 
ice — a leop- ^ 
an elaborate 
ane — were w 
rreticy. in the a 
er the desk of 

1L e 

Tading some- 
efevision no Bi 
nomage that a 
>wn from the v 

ising are the ,ra 

newspapers. , 
names like *“ 

nd The Bea- re 
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buy them, 
lengths of Tl 

where they 1X0 
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i|«:e 16 

-j ADVa-e 18 




The Rise of Ethics : 4 A Blood- and-Guts Issue’ 



in Br 
with t- 
are e: 

200 . 
SCh (h 

lied i 


ness » 
at le; 
al iii 
Is ' 

i ippn 


t fZ 

i : 

! ! 

B efore they start 
attending the 
course, my stu- 
dents think it is a 
Mickey Mouse subject." 
says Max Torres, who teach- 
es ethics to international 
MBA students at 1ES£ in 
Barcelona. “By the time they 
finish, they go away saying 
it is a real blood-and-guLs is- 

Business schools' height- 
ened interest in ethics and 

corporate responsibility is 
fueled by a bewildering ar- 
ray of factors. These range 
from public disenchantment 
with seemingly endless rev- 
elations of financial scandals 
and corruption involving 
husincss and guvemmenis to 
the social role of companies 
in countries struggling with 
high unemployment, envi- 
ronmental worries and con- 
flicting development priori- 
ties inlhe Third World. 

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tor Executives 

a Program of the University ot Hartford 
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a Master in Baseless Administration 
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jBSQlJ DB SI \cadcmic VflilLilion With 


PARIS 75116 . 15. AV. DE LA GRANDE ARMEE.Tel. : |311) 45.01. 96.01 . Fax : (33.11 40.67 96.96 
LYON 690B9 . 24. AVEttUEJOAHKES MASSET.B4l5.Tel- : (331 . Fat : |33) 
MARSEILLE 13G06 . 26-26. COtJRS PIERRE PUGET . Til. : (33| . Fax : (33) 97.55^0.73 

Master of Business Administration 
in International Business or 
international Hotel and Tourism Management 


offers the unique opportunity to study for your 
MBA degree in: 

wirb the opportunity to move between centers while working 
toward your degree. The Schiller MBA program combines 
excellent theoretical preparation with practical application 
models under the guidance of a highly qualified faculty. 

* Intensive, full-time, one year program 

Part-time evening programs for worth ng professionals 
~ English is the language of Instruction at alt campuses 

* Optional bilingual MBA programs: 

German/English in Berlin ■ French/English :n Paris 

☆ MBA Preparatory Program for those with a Bachelor's 
degree (or equivalent) In a non-business field 
fr Entry In September, January or May/June 


Dept HT7MBA2 • 51 Waterloo Road- London- SET SIX -England 
Tel: (071) 928 8484- Fax: (071) 620 1226 -Telex: 8812438 SCOL G 
An u n % n n »|r W Jccrwotrd ay in? <«MMg Cxx>n»ioi> ot aoci. DC 

Saint-Xavier University 

The Graham School of Management 

Saint Xavier University of Chicago offers 
its American accredited MBA in Paris, 
Milan and Chicago. 

® Accelerated MBA: 1 year of intensive 
study in Paris, Milan or Chicago. 

• Executive MBA: 2 years of part-time 
study. Evening and Saturday courses. 

20, rue de Saint Petersbourg Piazza del Carmine 2 
75008 Paris, France 20121 Milan, Italy 

Tel.: (33-1) 42 93 13 87 Tel.: (39-2) 861 647 

Fax: (33-1) 45 22 12 65 Fax: (39-2) 861 027 



School — 

Adding Value to Organizations 

A unique I I -month MBA 

A global management perspective. 

Woi p-. on leadership, teamwork. 

7 QM and men • . 

Two-year degree programs m 
inu-rnacionai* business.' ion 
Syitcris, jiiJ 1u:aHh aucumvlration. ; • 

It not bu-fineoo no usual. LW Mail-. pLa.-r 

412-648-1700 Fax 4 12-648- 1693 
Admissions Office 
276 Mervis Hall 
University of Pittsburgh 
Pittsburgh, PA 15260 

Joseph M. K we Graduate School of Business 

University of Pittsburgh 

Tlw I. riirmn ui l‘*f*Lurfh n «a jllirnjiita 41 i»>a •^•nu , ni< piR|*-vr 

"There are two basic ways 
of approaching this subject 
in business teaching." says 
Eric Briys, dean of ISA at 
Jouy-en-Josas in France. 
"The first is to integrate it in- 
directly into the overall 
course, and the second is to 
set up specific seminars in 
which students can examine 
their concerns and percep- 

In pursuit of this second 
idea. ISA has set up a series 
of discussion sessions al a 
center for businesses created 
by the Benedictine Mon- 
astery of Ganagobic in the 
French Alps. 

"Students are surprised to 
discover how close the 
monks are to everyday prob- 
lems." says Mr. Briys. 
“Moreover, the Ganagobie 
center also sen es businesses 
in a very practical .sense. For 
instance, the center was re- 
cently asked to assist the Ac- 
cor hotel group in defining 
the group's approach to the 
, concept of hospitality. This 
is something the Bene- 
dictines know a lot about." 

The Manchester Business 
School in Britain has estab- 
lished a chair in corporate 
responsibility sponsored by 
the Co-operative Bank. 
"One of the central issues 
we have to address Ls the 

fact that business has be- 
come the dominant force in 
modem, advanced societies, 
and that the authority of 
politicians has been corre- 
spondingly downgraded." 
says Brian Harvey, who has 
been appointed to the Co- 
operative Bank Professor- 
ship. "Accordingly, we have 
to ask whether companies 
can act simply like corporate 
‘Daleks/ scanning the social 
environment impassively to 



Swiss and US 

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in English 

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Tel. *41 21 963 7404 
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register trend > that can bring 
them profit, or v. hether they 
have to a^ume a more ac- 
tive role. In the narrower 
perspective of protecting 
corporate reputation, compa- 
nies need to build in a set of 
corporate values without try- 
ing to control everything 
from the center.” 

Business .schools vary in 
their teaching methods and 
objectives, but all agree that 
it ls impossible to lay down 
a 'lingle proper approach to 
ethical dilemma.-, much less 
to propose neat answers. 
This applies even to institu- 
tions with specific religious 
connections such as ESADE 
and iESE. which are linked 
to the Jesuit.- and Opus Det. 

“A major aim of the 

ISA students use 
ti Be necu dine 
business center 

course is to gel students to 
examine what harm they 
cause to themselves as indi- 
viduals by acting unethical- 
ly." says Mr. Torres. “Try- 
ing to decide on the course 
to take on the basis of the 
harm caused to others by a 
specific line of action soon 
leads to inextricable conun- 
drums." Mr. Torres also 
stresses that the task is par- 
ticularly tricky in the case of 
international classes mixing 
students from different 
backgrounds with different 
approaches to business 


“Our students crime from 
many different countries and 
cultures." says Luis M. 
Puses. director-general of 
ESADE. “We try "to identity 
common ground on ethical 
issues." According to Henri - 
Claude de Betiignies. who 
leaches ethics at INSEA D. 
the objective h to provide 
students with the necessary 
tools and models to organize 
a conceptual framework and 
to be aware of ihe conse- 
quences of alternative deci- 

"The American idea of 
drawing up a corporate code 
of conduct is now mov ing to 
Europe, but in my view this 
approach docs "not really 
solve the problem." says Mr. 
de Betiignies. “ir. the United 
States, this type of action is 
based essentially on the be- 
lief that being seen to be eth- 
ical pays off.' which is not an 
ethical response." 

ih;. in:; sn vi ion vi 


*-■; .. •; '.■.i-.-.'SL’.iiMln 


- • i 

ins 1 1 1 u r st i»ERn:uR ot gestjon 


*i>$ fiic Jet. : (> lV.ri* - IRANCl: - TJ. • >> | 

r - E I I C 

/ Er» kuLwieP (tKiHtxffl u 0 -w v.ny 

EH C-Emerson, the internationa] branch of Emerson College 
of Boston, USA, is currently accepting applications for 
September 1994 for its 

Master’s Degree (MA.) Program in: 

- GcgmSA'A 

This 1-year intenave degree program prepares students for 
marketing and advertising careers in the global marketplace. 
The program, taught by international professors, takes place in 
Maastricht, with the option to complete the last semester, 
including the internship, in the United States. 
Accredited by NEASC and IAA. 

For more information contact: Office of Admission 
Brussebestraat 84-6211 PH Maastricht - the Netherlands 
TeL; +31 43 258282 - Fax: +31 43 255550 

The Groupe ESC Lyon re- 
cently launched a study on 
business ethics and Euro- 
pean civilization in the con- 
text of a professorial chair 
sponsored by two French 
companies - Lyonnaise des 
Eaux-Dumez and Groupe 
Schneider. Professor Fred 
Seidel of ESC Lyon exam- 
ined the transposition of a 
code of conduct drawn up by 
a U.S. multinational to its 
French subsidiary. His re- 
port showed that the mere 
process of translating the 
code from English into 
French subtly and signifi- 
cantly changed the meaning 
of several key concepts. 

Joaquin Garratda, who 
teaches on ethical issues at 
the Institute de Empresa in 
Madrid, believes that corpo- 
rate codes of ethics can often 
play a useful role. "One ex- 
ample is the BBV bank, 
which drew up such a code 
in 1990 when the Banco de 
Bilbao and the Banco de 
Vizcaya merged to form the 
BBV." he says. "This helped 
to minimize conflicts and to 
define a new corporate iden- 

Research earned out joint- 
ly bv Ashridge and ethics 
consultants Integrity Works 
in Britain also suggests that 
concrete steps should be tak- 
en. In a report on their re- 
search findings, authors An- 
drew Wilson of Ashridge 
and John Drummond of in- 
tegrity Works advise a four- 
point action plan. This starts 
with an “ethics audit," fol- 
lowed by the creation of a 
code of ethics. Monitoring 
and enforcement procedures 
should then be set up, ac- 
companied by the develop- 
ment of an "ethics index." 


. fotra war mate,. ; ; ; / y'\ * , \ ■ * ■ V-.- 


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■ The foBowing icwfeallwas 

by tbe-EupopeaaT’ipumfet^.MRfa^^ 


dents (and their 

needs and the moss . 

school and pcograin; . y. \\ 

MBA, etc.), 

ttgemen t course be tmjb&Cs tiv. ■: '« ‘k: otw'J 

• Am I esped^ly tptespesieat^ as eddc^E;.'(iWS^#OW; 

don with high-qoaK^cOateJU, Gic&y f $£0. ; 

want a '‘busmess-card 

CNSEAD")? ' ' *v, . 

•How much- tithe can/d© t want; : -to in- 
vest?. ' . ► ;* 

• HoWimbch fna^ycait^^en^? . $ 

. * In winch eeoeFarfBcal aea ^Iwam ter- ■■ 


fotkw die program? ..' = : . 1'' : : l 

• Iq whar langt^ge? ■' ! ' * * ■ . ' po .* !'?'o 

• Do I want a mFtjgte- pTOgigan 

part-time one that can ^-bmiabjoed ' Wffh-.; 
my job? Can' T corabihti my job 
coarse ma'JORtignjnstifti^.? . '. • 

• Based. on my 

and years of jRofesaoo^ ex|>fefic^. vifeat 
are die ptt^rams that meet Tmy.fetowted^V ■ 
and experience level? Whidldo i-Tpo^'m 


ipi 1 

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■ : j+ e :-* •: - 

, ' 

— * •'*.•' v; ' ■■ 

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: S--: ■$:■! -.L 

•W; 1:1 •• 

Boom Is Over, Learning Has Begun 

pCCTECT he great boom in alone - were founded. Soon, business expertise was de- scene,” she sayi 

V - f? r*i Central and Fa«;t ■irhoots existf»d in rived from a nuick readine ' becoming Iiknei 

f vr# Central and East 
European busi- 
aLasaafl ness education 
shows marked signs of 
slowing down. The lessons 
learned from it. however, 
are still being absorbed. 

A simple perception trig- 
gered the business-educa- 
tion boom in 1990. "Every - 
body in Central and Eastern 
Europe saw a personal op- 
portunity in getting a form 
of business education, and 
they all rushed to take ad- 
vantage of it." says Allan 
Gibb, chairman of the Small 
Business Centre at Durham 
University’s Business 
School and a leading expert 
on the East’s nascent corpo- 
rate sectors. The “every- 
body” he refers to comprises 
university students and 
would-be entrepreneurs 
seeking new career opportu- 
nities as well as managers of 
public-sector companies try- 
ing to keep existing posi- 

To handle the rush, thou- 
sands of business schools - 
reportedly 300 in Hungary 

alone - were founded. Soon, 
business schools existed in 
all of the region's 19 coun- 
tries. including Albania and 

Even this sudden abun- 
dance of schools did not sat- 
isfy demand. The overflow 
from the East helped man- 
agement schools in Vienna. 
Munich and Berlin combat a 
recession-caused slump in 
enrollment. In many of these 
schools. Central and East 
European businesspeople 
make up between a third and 
a half of their student bod- 

The abundance of schools 
was accompanied by a rela- 
tive lack of experienced in- 
structors - a shortage that 
Westerners were only too 
happy to fill. A very motley 
crew made its way eastward 
to dispense the gospel of the 
free- mark e; economy. Their 
ranks ranged from S5,000-a- 
dav management experts 
with 20 years of experience 
in rescuing major companies 
to recently graduated mas- 
ters of international eco- 
nomics. whose practical 


Since 1962. the fnstttut Franco- American de Management 
(IFAM) prepaes students with its 4-year program for an MBA 
diploma from a major American university and the IFAM -diploma. 

In additon to IFAM's associate universities. University of Hartford, 
North-eastern University in Boston. Pace University in New York. 
Temple University in Philadelphia, where students study in their 
3rd or 4th year, IFAM also maintains privileged ties with presti- 
gious American graduate schools. IFAM students, therefore, 
complete their MBA at the University of Pennsylvania ( Wharton ). 

University ot Chicago. Indiana U.. University of Wisconsin. Duke 
U. George Washington U.. Mac Gill U. 

In 1986. IFAM’s rapid development led to the creation of the 
program, MBA University. In association with top American busi- 
ness schools, this program offer a 1-year MBA to university 
graduates and executives. 

business expertise was de- 
rived from a quick reading 
of the biographies of 
Nicholas Hayek and George 
Soros. The Westerners’ 
sources of funding were also 
variegated: the European 
Union, private-sector phil- 
anthropy, national foreign- 
aid programs and paid com- 
missions from local govern- 
ments. Their underlying 
message was. however, unr 
varying: Let us (from the 
West) use our models to 
show you (in the East) how 
business is to be done. 

An outbreak of realism 
was responsible for reining 
in the boom. 

"Central and East Euro- 
peans have quickly devel- 
oped an eye for quality, and 
this has checked their unbri- 
dled enthusiasm. They have 
learned to discern which 
schools really offer value- 
for-money education.” says 
Danica Purg, director of the 
International Executive De- 
velopment Center in Brdo 
pro Kranj, Slovenia and 
president of the 
Central/Eastern Europe 
Management Development 
Association (CEEMAN), a 
network of 28 leading insti- 
tutions located in the region 
and in other parts of Europe. 
"The schools have also 
quickly learned that having 
a Western instructor is not 
necessarily a guarantee of 
high-quality education.” 

According to Gay Hask- 
ins, international education 
expert al the Brussels-based 
European Forum for Man- 
agement Development, this 
growing hard-eyed realism 
has produced a consolida- 
tion in Central and East Eu- 
ropean business education. 
"It is still a very volatile 

scene,” she says, ^bof k is. . . 
becoming increasingly £p- 
parent which scbooLs and in-*. > 
stitutes are viable mfenns of - « 
the instruction they .prouder/. J 
on a long-termbasis.” , r •; 

Incre asing this viability is. 
.one of CLBMAN’simajor : 
objectives, says Ms. -Pure A, ± 
To help students select high- • i 
quality institutions, CEE-- 
MAN is working with other 
agencies to establish. Stan-.- . 
dards of accreditation .and 
program evaluation. V , 

“Central and Eastern Eu- : 
rope now constitute a huge 
classroom for all teachers of 
busi ness education/ i riclud- 
ing many on-site experts 
from the West, who have \ 
been learning as much as 
they have been teaching,” 
says Ms. Purg. 

The boom has left Central >, 
and Eastern Europe with a 
great asset - such well-re- yl 
garded schools as the Czech “I 
Management Center - and : - 
some unfinished business. : ; 

Despite the extent of its 
geographic coverage, the re- : : 
gion’s network of business./ ^ 
schools has. hugely fafled to // 
serve one of its main groups fr- 
of customers:' die proprietors 
of small businesses, of ‘ 
which there are now mil- V. 
lions in Central antf Eastern . 2 ; 
Europe. ^ : : 

“These proprietors are of-; 
ten very short on the timer- 1 
and money requisite to sit - , 
and learn In a classroom^-'-' 
and very long on need 'for r. 
very practical instruction: V 
about bow to manage and rj; 
develop their businesses,” . * 
says Mr. Gibb. “There rs a' ^ ■ 
clear need for programs of : ; 
business education tsrgfctetf J' 
especially at their, tinier. / 
frames and needs.” - ' ' r - 

Ten? Swartzberg V j : 

•V ft: 

- . -.L'i- t 


i r ■■■ 

C .Vi.. 



- . *, 
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j*-V • •' :r«o 


J-.=r:V g«— 

• 9 -:. I 

4; 9<^~ 


EtaWissem&nt d’ertseignement supftrieur privfi, 

19, rue cepre- 75015 Paris-France. 

T6L: 33 (1) - Fax: 33 ( 1 ) 


September to April in Paris. Summer on the 300-acre 
Hartford Campus located between New York and Boston 

A 16-course Master of Business Administration Degree 
taught by the faculty of the University of Hartford 

U months of intensive study in English delivered for 
the ninth consecutive year by the University of Hartford 

(established in 1877 - student body of 8000) 

Admission is competitive and selective. The ambiance is 
international (over 20 nationalities per class) 
Achieve substantial Career progression and personal growth 
For our full-color brochure on this challenging 
educational opportunity, contact Pamela Meade, MBA 


S.Terrasse Bellini. Paris-La Defense 11. 92807 Puleeux Cede*. France 
Tel: 49 00 19 61 • Fa*: -17 76 45 13 
taawfctcd by the M** Enfland Asv-oaafwjn of School? and CMefcn. 

If you would like to receive 
further information on any of the 
advertisers in todayfe 
Business Education snppI e m M it, 
simply complete the cotrpon below 
and send it to: 

Brooke PIULEY, 

International Herald Tribune 
181, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, 
92521 NeuHly Cedex, France, 
ikx: (33-1) 46 37 52 12 

[] MBA Programs 

[] Executive Training 

[ ] Language/ Culture Programs 




Page 20 


Knicks Finally Overcome 3 -Time Champion Bulls 

By Michael Wilbon 

HmAugioit Past Senict 

NEW YORK — It took seven 
games, it took 18 second-half 
points from center Patrick Ewing 
after a scoreless first half, it took 2U 
rebounds from forward Charles 
OakJey, it took interior passing 
they didn't even know rhey had. 

But ultimately, before 19,763 zeal- 
ots in Madison Square Garden, the 
New York Knicks beat the Chicago 
Bulls in an Eastern Conference 

playoff series, 87-77, on Judgment 
Day, Game 7 , and advanced to the 

conference championship matchup 
with the Indiana Pacers. 

“!l look hard work. I’ll tell you 
that,” said Oakley, a towel draped 
over his head. 

So it goes in the Eastern Confer- 
ence of die National Basketball As- 
sociation. The Boston Celtics, once 
upon a lime, had to overcome the 
Philadelphia 76ers; the Detroit Pis- 
tons had to overcome the Celtics, 
and the Bulls had to overcome the 
Pistons. It is an evolutionary pro- 
cess to eventually slay the dragon 
Lbai tormented you. The three-lime 
defending champion Bulls had tor- 
mented the Knicks for three years, 
but will do so no more. 

The Knicks coach, Pat Riley, had 
told Ewing and Oakley before ibe 
series that they would have to be at 
their best in the most critical games 
if New York was going to seriously 
stalk an NBA title. 

After picking up two quick fouls 
'and failing to score in the first half, 
.Ewing finished with 18 points and 
i7 rebounds, 14 of those after inter- 
mission. Oakley had 17 points to go 
with his 20 rebounds, and the two 
'big men combined for 10 of New 
York’s 21 assists. 

Scoitie Pippen scored a game- 

high 20 points for the Bulls, Horace 
Gram had 17 and Pete Myers 15. 
But Chicago was beaten too sound- 
ly in rebounding {52-44 overall. 1 S- 
7 on the offensive end) to continue 
its improbable march toward a 
fourth straight championship. 

“When we closed the doors of 
the locker room." said the Bulls' 
coach, Phil Jackson. “I told the 
team, “We haven’t been unem- 
ployed at this point of the season 
for a long time.’ " 

Indeed, the Bulls will be absent 
from the NBA’s Eastern Confer- 
ence Finals for the first time since 
1988. after five straight trips. 

“To do something like this is 
once in a lifetime, and we had a 
great ran.” Gram said. “It was very 
weird walking off the floor and not 
being champs again." 

B. J. Armstrong, who scored 
eight points after averaging 18.2 in 
the series, said: "We have to let it 
go. We worked hard this year. We 
had one little lapse in the third 
quarter and that’s when we blew 
the game." 

That lapse, and the tact that the 
Bulb didn’t build a lead with Ew- 
ing on the bench with foul trouble 
the first half was pretty much the 
story of Game 7. 

Although Ewing had no points at 
intermission and guard John Starks 
had a single free throw, the Bulls 
trailed 38-37 at ihe half, which for 
the defending champions was an 
ominous sign. As the Knicks for- 
ward Anthony Mason said. “When 
your top two scorers aren’t shoot- 
ing and you're up a point, you fig- 
ure it’s a pretty good situation be- 
cause that’s not going to continue." 

Even so. the Bulk opened a 57- 
53 lead on a Pippen basket with 

4:56 left in the third, forcing Riley 
to call time out. 

But Ewing scored on a turn- 
around to get the Knicks within 
two, Pippen missed, and Charles 
Smith's reverse jam on Grant tied 
the game at 57. The Bulk looked 
ready to pull away again, leading 
63-60 after Grani’s jumper. Bur 
Luc Longley couldn’t make a layup 
with no defender between him and 
the rim. 

The Knicks had the only break 
they needed. OakJey scored after 
Longley’s miss and then Greg An- 
thony blocked Armstrong at one 
end. leading to a Ewing bank shot 
at the other to give New York the 
lead for good. 64-63, with 45 sec- 
onds left in the third. 

Riley had written three pregame 
musts on the blackboard: hold the 
Bulls to less than 80 points (check): 
keep them under 45 percent shoot- 
ing (check) and ouirebound them 
by 15 (close enough). He also want- 
ed a complete game of relentless 
aggression, which his team gave 
him for the first lime in the series. 

At the final buzzer, the Bulls 
handed out not only handshakes 
but hugs. To the Knicks. With kind 
words. The Bulls weren't about to 
pass the torch the way the Pistons 
did. walking off the court with sev- 
eral seconds left in a Game 4 Chi- 
cago sweep in Detroit in 1991. 

“You couldn't ask for a greater 
opponent.’* Anthony said of the 
Bulls. “They're a great team, with 
talent and great coaching, poise, 

Riley added: “It's hard to win 
three-in-a-row and then one year 
you don't win it. Despite what has 
been said and been felt between the 
two teams, this has been a great 
bitter rivalry born out of competi- 


Yankees, 6-5, 

The Associated Pres* 

Jack Voigt’s iwo^rnn single 
capped a two-out lOth-Inning rally 
as the Baltimore Orioles defeated 
New York 6-5, snapping The Yan- 
kees' nine-game home winning' 

With two outs in. the 10th. Har- 
old Baines singled off Xavier Her- 


wander, and Leo Gomez doubled. t 
Voigt then singled in pinefa-nmner 
f/mn ie Smith and Gomez. ... ■- 
Mark Williamson allowed a 
homer to Jim Leyritz in the eighth 

but got the victory Sunday. Lee 
Smith gave up Paul O'Neill’s I Oth 

Kedn WfiOb/IV Adeemed 

Patrick Ewing, driving past Scottie Pippen. overcame a scoreless First half to lead the Knicks with 18. 

In Lottery, Bucks 
Win No. 1 Pick 

For NBA Draft 


NEW YORK — The Milwaukee 
Bucks were the big winners of the 
National Basketball Association’s 
annual draft lottery, winning for 
the first time since 1977 the Flo. 1 
pick in the league's draft. 

The Dallas Mavericks, who fin- 
ished with just 13 victories for the 
worst record in the league, won the 
second overall pick Sunday for the 
June 29 draft and the Detroit Pis- 
tons will pick third. The Pistons 
and Bucks tied for the worst record 
in the Eastern Conference at 20-61 

The 1 1 teams that failed to quali- 
fy for the playoffs were eligible for 
the lottery. A new system increased 
the chances of the teams with the 
worst records of getting a top picks. 
The Minnesota Timberwolves, also 
,with a 20-62 record, will get the 
fourth draft selection. 

Glenn Robinson of Purdue, the 
nation’s leading collegiate scorer, is 
considered the top prize of the 
draft- Gram Hill of Duke and Ja- 
son Kidd of California are also 

Canucks Blank Leafs 
For 3-1 Series Lead 

Late Homer Halts Padres’ Skid 

The Associated Press 

VANCOUVER, British Columbia —The Vancouver Canucks’ odd 
couple is performing well again with the help of a castoff from Quebec. 
Cliff Ronning and Sergio Momesso have been making significant 

The Associated Press 

San Diego’s sorry sneak finally ended, while Colo- 
rado's winless woes continued against Atlanta. 

The Padres snapped a club-record. 13-game losing 
streak Sunday, beating the Houston Astros. 7-6. on 
Phil Planner's two-run homer in the eighth inning. 

Colorado fell 10 6-16 lifetime against Atlanta with an 
8-3 loss. Greg Maddux struck out nine batters in seven 



contributions in the playoffs since winger Martin Gelinas. claimed 
on waivers from the Quebec Nordiques. was added to their line. 

The uni t combined for the key goal Sunday night when the 
Canucks blanked the Toronto Maple Leafs. 2-0. to take a 3-1 lead in 
their besi-of-7 Western Conference finaL Game 5 is Tuesday. 

expected to be among the top picks. 
The Seattle SuperSonics. who 

The Seattle SuperSonics. who 
finished ’with the best record in the 
NBA at 63-19. participated in the 
lottery because of a trade with 
Charlotte. They will pick 1 Ith. 

Following the Timberwolves, are 
the Washington Bullets, Philadel- 
phia 76ers. Los Angeles Clippers. 
Sacramento Kings. Boston Celtics 
and Los Angeles Lakers. 

their besi-of-7 Western Conference finaL Game 5 is Tuesday. 

Ronning converted a return pass from Momesso at 17:35 of the 
third period — a play started by Gelinas — to break open a contest 
featuring brilliant goal tending at both ends. 

“Everyone knows Serg is Italian and a little hot-blooded.” Ron- 
ning said. “We do a give-and-gu game that suits him and suits me. 
Our line, we’re definitely not superstars. We work hard whenever we 
get out there. 1 think that’s important.” 

Ronning’s fourth goal of the playoffs ruined a solid but cautious 
Toronto attempt to even the series. 

Pavel Bure, with his 13tb playoff goal, scored into an empty net 
after Felix Potvin was pulled for an extra attacker. 

The Leafs were denied 29 times by goalie Kirk McLean, who tied a 
playoff record with his fourth shutout. It was McLean’s second in a 
row over the Leafs, who have not beaten him for the last 1 35 minutes 
and 23 seconds. 

“Cliff Ronning is probably our most improved player over three 
years." said Canucks coach Pat Quinn. "He’s learned to play the 
other side of the game defensively ” 

McLean and Potvin traded huge saves for 57 minutes, with 
McLean making the more difficult ones. 

Vancouver has won three in a row after an overtime loss tn Game 1 
in Toronto. 

innings as the Braves swept the three games in Denver. 

After the Padres won. San Diego’s Tony Gwynn 
said: "You could just sense that the guys were wonder- 
ing. ‘How are we going to blow it today?’ When 
Plamier hit the home run, it was more just a feeling of 
relief that we had gotten the lead back.” 

Plantier fouled olT several pitches from Mitch Wil- 
liams before hitting a 1-2 pitch deep into the righl- 
cenierfieid pavilion for his 13lh homer of the season. 

San Diego moved ahead 5-3 with four runs in the 
fifth, but Houston came back to take a 6-5 lead on 
Luis Gonzalez’s two-run double in the seventh. 

Braves 8, Rockies 3: Maddux limited Colorado to 
five hits before giving way to Mark WohJers in die 
eighth. He finished off all seven innings with strike- 
outs, including his third in a row of Howard Johnson 
to escape from a bases- loaded jam in the sixth. 

Lance Painter, making his first appearance for the 
Rockies this season after being called up from Class 
AAA Colorado Springs, gave up three runs in the 
third, including Terry Pendleton's two- run homer. 

Cubs 6, Giants 5: Derrick May nude a great catch in 
the top of the 11 th, then hit a lead off homer in the 
bottom to give Chicago its sixth straight victory. 

May slammed into the left-field wall to catch Kirt 
Manwaring’s deep fly ball in the Giants’ U th at Wrigley 
Field. He won it in the bottom of the inning, hitting a 2- 
0 oitefa from Rod Beck into toe left-field bleachers, 

In earlier games, reported Monday in some editions oj 
the Herald Tribune: 

Expos 3, Pirates 2: Pedro Martinez got the victory 
and his first major-league hit, tripling in three runs to 
lead Montreal tn Pittsburgh. 

Martinez was hitless in 22 career at-bats before 
tripling with the bases loaded in the fourth. On the 
mound, Martinez gave up two runs an d six hits is six 
mning s Pittsburgh starter Denny N eagle also got his 
Gist big- league hit, breaking an 0-for-40 slump. 

Dodgers 10, Reds 3: Brett Butler singled, tripled and 
homered, and Mike Piazza hit a three-run homer as 
visi ting Los Ang^des won for the math dme in II games. 

Winner Pedro Astacio gave up seven hits and one 
run in eight inning s. He had a shutout until giving up 
an RBI triple to Hal Morris in the eighth. 

The Dodgers scored their first four runs off Reds’ 
starter Tim Pugh, who has given up 11 runs in the first 
inning in his last five starts. 

Cardinals 10, Marias 9i Gregg Jefferies’s two- run 
double capped a four-run ninth that gave St Lou is the 
victory in a brawl-maned game in Miami. 

Marlins reliever Jeremy Hernandez entered the 
ninth inning with a 9-6 lead, but couldn’t bold iL Die 
Cardinals went ahead on ajputeb-hit double by Mark 
Whiten, Ray Lankford’s RBI single and Jefferies’ 

Four players were ejected following a second-inning 
awL triggered when SL Louis starter Allen Watson hit 

brawl, triggered when SL Louis starter Allen Watson hit 
a batter after giving up three homers in the inning. Lois 
Alicea had five hits for the Cardinals. 

PhtBes 8 , Mets 3; Lenny Dykstra, Pete Incaviglia 
and Darren Daulton ted off innings with home runs as 
Philadelphia completed a three-game sweep of New 
York and an 8-2 bomesood. 

Tommy GTeene allowed three runs on four hits and 
struck out six before leaving after S9i innings. 

Philadelphia's Dave Hollins broke his left hand 
while sliding into first in the third inning, and is 
expected to be out ax weeks. 

Smith gave up Paul Lrixetu s tout 
homer m the 10th but dosed it out 
for bis major-league4dading 17th 
save. • 

O’Neill wtat3-for-4witha dou- 
ble and homer to raise biff major ' 
league-leading average to .475. 

Jim Leyritz hit his seventh homer ' 
in the eighth inning off Mark Wil- 
liamson to tie it al 4-4. 

The Orioles had taken a 4-3 lead 
in the top of the inning whenMike 
Devereaux tripled and scored on 
Gomez’s two-out angle. 

Baltimore outhxt the Yankees IT- . 
3 over the Gist five innings and tariff 
a 3-1 lead behind Mike Mussina. 
Mussina, who threw 128 patches,, 
died in the sixth when the Yankees , 
collected four hits and scorediwice 
cm Leyritz’s two-run single. 

Gomez drove in a run in the 
second with % double off Jimmy; 
Key to give the Orioles a 1-0 lead, 
but Randy Velarde’s second homer 
of the season and second in three 
days against the Orioles tied it. 

- Brady Anderson's RBI double in. 
the fourth put the Orioles back in; 
front, and Chris HoOes run-scoring 
double in the fifth put Baltimore 
ahead 3-1. . .. v ’• . 

HoQes’s double ignited a dispute 
when Cal Ripken was called eutnt 
the (date trying to score..The .Ori- 
oles’ manager, Johnny Oates, was 
qected for the first tune this season 
for arguing with tbe home plate 
umpire, John Shufock. 

. Royals 4, Angels <h In Anabeiin, 
California, David Cone pitdied a 
one-hitter /or his third straight 
shutout. - 

Cone suxreadcred only a leadoff 
single to Chifi Davis in the fifth and 
faced just 29 batters to become the 
AL’s first right-game winner. 

White Sox 5, Athletics 2: Frank 
Thomas drove m two runs to give 
Chicago a sweep of the three-game 
series in Oakland. 

; Jason Berc allowed one run over 
six-plus innings to win his third 
consecutive start for the White Sox. 
who have won six of their last sev- 
en. The' A’s, who were swept for the 
ninth time tins season, have lost six 
straight and 27 of Ibrir last 31. 

Rurineis 8, Ranter, 2: Ken 
Griffey Jr. tied Mickey Mantle’s 
record for most home nms in the 
first two months of the season, hit- 
ting his 20th as theMariners swept 
Texas in Seattle. # ’ 

Griffey's 20 homers in 42 games 
matched Mantle’s 20 homers in 41 
games in the first two months of the 
1956 season when Mantle hit 52. 

The Mariners have eight more 
games left this month. 

- The Mariners oatscored roe 

Rangers 45-10 in the series. 

V In earBer games, reported Mon’ 
day m some editions 4 of rite Imernc- 
tional Herald Tribune: 

Red Sox 9, Twins 2: In Minne- 
apolis, Roger Oemens limbed 
Minne sota to five hits in eight in- 
nings as the Red Sox stopped the 
Twins’ winning streak at seven. 

Clemens, who has allowed eight 
runs in 61 innings over his last eight 
starts,' walked four and struck out 
seven" in handing the Twins their 
first home loss in 10 games. 

bttfiaas 8, Btee Jays 0: Deem* 
Martinez pitched i seven-hit shut- 
out, his first in the AL in nearly u 
years, as Cleveland’ snapped a sev 

- - —Z _ — U.J )/u 4 ivA cJtpqV 

-Martinez struck out. three ana 
walked three for the "24th shutout 
of his career. Martinez, who las 1 
faced Toronto as a Baltimore On- 
ole, allowed only- two runners to 
reach second. . * 

Tigers 9^Brewm 6; Travis Fry- 
man. drove in fotzr hzns-and rookie 
Chris Gomez went-3-fcr-4 as De- 
troit sent visiting Milwaukee to its 
1 1th consecutive loss. 

_ Fryman went 3-for-4 with a two- 
run homer, and Gomez singled, 
doubted aiui hit Ins fifth home run 
in May as the Tigers won their sixth 



Memorial Golf 

_ • , ■ The Associated Press’ 

DUBLIN* Ohio — Tom 
Lehman, in a performance 
deemed “unbelievable’’ by 
Jack Nubians, eased the pain 
- of his Masters loss with a re- 
cord-setting five- stroke tri- 
umph in The Memorial. • 

Just as he (Ed six wtdcs_ago 
in Augusta, Lehman, look a 
lead into the final round Sun- 
day. But instead’ of letting: it 
get away, be built on it, post- 
ing not (»ly his first triumph 
rat the tour but' the most lop- 
sided victory of the season., 

Lehman’s fourth straight 5- 
nnder-par 67 on the Mmrfield 
Village Golf Club produced a 
total of 20-under 268, Three 
strokes better than the course 
and tournament record of 271 
set by Hal Sutton in 1986. 

Nicklaus, the tournament 
host, founder and course do-. . 
signer, paraphrased Bobby 
Jones’s accolade to Nicklaus : 
19 years ago. saying Lehman 
“truly played a game with 
which 1 am not familiar.” 

Greg Norman, wbo birdied 
three of the last four botes to - 
gain second place, dosed with 
a 64. Norman finished at 273. 
John Code was next at 71-276. 





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Early Good-Byes, ' ****** ' " 

But Not Farewell 

By Ian Thomsen 

Iniermutmul Herald Tnkme 

P ARIS — Roland Garrcis was unveiling its newest coun and called on 
Henn Leconte to Open u, the way Los Vegas would hire Tony Bennett 
to -5P en ? new ca ® n p: A choir of schoolchildren old enough to be tennis 
Btomcnanrs was belting oot “La Marseillaise" as loud as they could: 
against their better spirit, the thousands in die audience stood quiet, so as 
not to trample the song. 

r JSS afiainsl Paul KaarbuiS of the Netherlands. 

B J w Anmy Connors. He is only 30 - nothing 

comparedtoMaruna Nawaulova — but there is hemwied-dislc suraerv 
a luspacfcgroand, which be uses like a beggar’s sad story. You knew hi 
among for the possibility of a third-round maud) against the world's 
f . Era?' c e S “ n p ras * Ob this clay that is foreign to Sampras, in 
front of these French fans who are toval to Leconte. 13)611 be lost in 
straight sets to Haarbuis. 6-4. 6-4, 6-2. 

* 1 am Seeing older and the tennis is getting foster, faster every year.' 
said. “Even if I enjoy mvsdf d La vim* tennis vwrvrim 

Leconte said. “Even if I enjoy myself playing tennis sometimes. Tam not 
ante to do the samesboi that 1 am supposed to do before, because the guys 
ane playing faster. The gu.vs are playing better, and me? 1 am slower. And 
when 1 am getting older I am going to be slower a gain, especially with the 
operation I had. 1 feel pain all the time, but I get used to that . . 

A Tew reporters left his impending funeral to go watch Martina. 

Yon didn’t expect Martina to lose on the first dav of the French Open, in 
hg firetappearana: here in six years. She is 37,' or 16 years older than 
Miriam Orcmans, the 54th-ranked Dutchwoman whoso upset her, 6-4, 6-4. 

“This is not a farewell lour." said Navratilova, who will remain in Paris 
to play doubles. “This is my last year on the circuit. 1 just felt I wanted 
more matches going into Wimbledon because I felt last vear I wasn’t 
sharp enough because I hadn’t played enough." 

It was never quite right for her Monday, and to attribute it simply to 
natural causes is to ignore the wonder of her world No. 4 ranking, and the 
fact that she has not finished any of the last 19 seasons ranked lower than 
No. 5. Navratilova won this championship in 1982 and 1984. But clay is 
her least favorite surface, and she bad been advised against returning here 
by her coach, Craig Kardon, as well as by Billie Jean King. “But 1 don’t 
think they were worried about me losing in the first round.” she said. 

Perhaps if she had become angrier sooner — but that’s a tough demand 
for someone who has hit the ball so many hundreds of thousands of times 
and heard people crying “Go Martin a"m so many different languages. 
Yet that is the difference between someone like her and someone like 
Leconte, who reasonably and realistically hopes to make the most of what 
he’s got His is the kind of high life that leads to dogged arteries and other 
ailments; Martina will never be that type. She probably was 
ag of winning the tournament. 

Navratilova Falls, as Graf 
And Sampras Win Easily 

30 percent of all 
ic next five years. 

$ constituted the* 
. the ANCs plan 
ttcr life for all.” 
in both fields say 
to meet the iar- 
at present lacks’. ! 
funding mccha-r. 
100,000 housing 1 ? 

The Allocated Frets 

PARIS — Martina Navratilova 
was ousted from the French Open 
on Monday in a shocking first- 
round upset by Miriam O rcmans of 
the Netherlands. 

Orem an s, a 21-year-old with 
only one victory in eight previous 
events this year, had more energy 
and fewer emus in winning. 6-4. 6- 
4. The fourth-seeded Navratilova, 
37. hadn’t lost in the first round of 
a Grand Siam since the U.S. Open 
in 1976. 

After match point, she slammed 
her racket into a chair on the side- 
line. smashing the frame. 

“At that point 1 was too disap- 
pointed to care about anything." 
she said. “I’ve never done that be- 
fore. I hope 1 never do it again, i 
was too sad to care at the moment" 

In contrast to Navratilova, the 
top seeds Steffi Graf and Pete Sam- 
pras were easy winners. 

Sampras, seeking to become the 
first man since Rod Laver in 1969 
to win four consecutive Grand 
Slam events, overpowered 109th- 

year. 1 really wanted to play one 
last time.’’ she said. “I'm still happy 
1 came — ] just wish I had plaved 

Grafs triumph was never in 
doubt on a bright breezy morning. 
But Sludenikova. a 21-vear-dd 
Slovak ranked only 100th. broke 
service twice in the first set and 
kept the defending champion on 
coun for 57 minutes — longer than 
usual for a Graf first-round match. 

The German, who has won the 

ibe land redisiri- 1 
Jonathan Stark of the United 11 be slowed by a . 
States. Minutes before the start, the that all current' 
I0(h-seeded German withdrew be- w compensated. 

cause of a pulled bade muscle. d make 
seeds advaac- 

French Open three times, is seeking 

icn th 

ranked Alberto Costa of Spain, 6-3, 
e first 

I im.-l * ih-nik-ju The l- ft.- 

Steffi Graf cruised past Katarina Sludenikova in straight sets on Monday as rhe French Open began. 

6-4. 64. Graf took the first step 
toward a fifth straight Grand Slam 
title with a 6-2. 6-2 victory over 
Katarina Sludenikova. 

Navratilova, who said this was 
her last French Open, had readied 
at feast the fourth round in her 1 1 
previous appearances. She won the 
title twice, was runner-up four 
times and before Monday had a 52- 
9 record in the event 

“Seeing that this was my last 

to match the five consecutive 
Grand Slams she won in 19SS-89. 
Margaret Court won six in a row in 
1969-71 and Navratilova did the 
same in 1983-84. 

To equal Coun and Navratilova. 
Graf would have to stay at peak 
level through the end of Wimble- 
don in July. 

“It’s a long stretch." she said. 
"Sometimes I'm excited, sometimes 
Fm not excited. For me. tins is the 
most difficult part of the year." 

Sampras never has reached the 
semifinals in four previous appear- 
ances at Roland Garros stadium. 
Gay has always been his shakiest 
surface, yet he’ is favored to win a 
tide that would assure his place 
among the all- time greats. 

Since Laver, no man has won all 
Tour Grand Slam tournaments, 
even nonconsecutively. For Sam- 
pras. Boris Becker and Stefan Ed- 
berg. the French Open is the one 
missing title. 

Becker never even showed up for 
his Center Coun match against 

zss Statei 

• FT provide freed 

mg were No. 4 Andrei Medvedev ne £iv children m 
of Ukmne.6-2.64, 6-2. over Aus-, d I0 * pKgm \'* 
rakan Waltv Masur: No 5 Goran rfucaura up loic 
Ivanisevic of Croatia. 7-6 (7-5), 7-6 ^jenis le 

(7-5). 6-2. over Joerm Renzen brink 
of Germany, and No. 9 Todd Mar- n 

tin of the United States over 
France's Stephane Simian, 6-2. 7-6 
(7-31. 3-6. 6-1. 

Andre Agassi, a two-time finalist, 
who is unseeded in a Grand Slam . and hls print . ltJ 
for the first tune ana the 1987 US. moncv . On the >e 
Open, beat three-time champion . , 

Mats WUander. 6-2. 7-5. 6-1. ’ 6 * °° ' 

Aside from Navratilova, the only 
women's seed to lose was No. 13 
Magddena Maleeva of Bulgaria, 
who fell to Romania’s Ruxandra 
DragoxmT. 6-3. 7-5. Winners in- 
cluded No. 3 Conchi ta Martinez. 

one?. We can't L 
he can’t over- ni, 

ago. the presi- w 
called “The iUI 
Hie Messiah. - . < 

No. 12 Mary Pierce of France and ’fice ~a leop- >la 
No. 16 Sabine Hack of Germany. ^ elaborate 

Sampras has been so overwhelm- nvre w 

ing this year that Sergi BnJguera. 
the defending champion, and Jim 
Courier, the winner in 1991 and 
’92. arrived at Roland Garros as 

Bruguera, seeded sixth, has been 
bothered by shoulder problems. 

Courier, seeded seventh, hasn’t 
won a title in 10 months. 

Sampras's toughest challenge 
could come from second-seeded 
Michael Such, who beat Bruguera 
on clay Sunday in the World Team 
Cup final in Dfisseldorf. 

“Had I been able to get through the first round. 1 think I would have 
been OJL here," she said. 

She likes to involve the crowd and ride their emotions, but she was 
assigned to Court 1, which on Monday was a shallow, uncrowded bowl 
holding a couple thousand. “I just wish I had got on Crater Coun." 
Navratilova said. “I was disappointed I didn’t play there:" 

There was something more to her disappointment than the inspiration 
of winning a match. She has, after aD, won more than 1,400 of them. In 
the second set, she began to throw tantrums, trying to incite heraelf with 
panic; or perhaps the panic, helpfully, took over on its own. She cursed 
herself and tossed herself around, and it was all decided by the sixth game 
of the second set Orcmans was serving, and it went cm and on, like being 
chased in a dream. It went on fra- 18 pants. Martina had a half-dozen 
chances to break through, and maybe then she would have been O.K.: 
This is not a farewell tour. 

It really isn’t 

The last shot of the crucial game came off her forehand. The net is 
latticed like a racket and the bafl dung to it on her side. She grabbed her 
own racket with both hands like a microphone, turning away, and 
everyone could hear her cry, “Oh God . . 

As fra the foreign day at Roland Garros, it is the shade of a perfect 
sunrise; and the court had been swept to ressemble the beaches on such 
mornings, smooth and firm; at least, Navratilova seems to regard every 
court this way. She looks around as if she wants to always remember the 
moment, not to cash in on it, but to breathe life into it and make it last 

**I tty not to think about it,* she said. “When I do, I get misty eyed. I 
think that is why I was more affected by losing because 1 know this is the 
last tune, and it would have probably been easier on myself if I hadn't 
said this is my last year." 

As she was walking off the court, she slammed her racket down tike an 

will again. 

Previous Drug Rehab 
For Capriati Reported 

The Associated Press 

MIAMI — Jennifer Capriati spent time in drug rehabilitation 
three months before she was arrested on marijuana possession 
charges. Newsweek reported. 

The magazine, reporting Sunday for this week’s editions, said the 
tennis star, 18, bad spent more than a week at The Manors, a S950-a- 
day private psychiatric hospital in Tarpon Springs. Florida. Capriati 
is currently undergoing drug rehabilitation at Mount Sinai Medical 
Center in Miami Beach. 

Newsweek said two girls who spent much of the weekend with 
Capriati before her arrest May 16 at a Coral Gables motel had also 
been treated at the clinic. 

A Capriati spokeswoman would not say whether the player had 
ever been admitted to a shnilar program before her arrest. 

A spokeswoman fra The Manors said Florida law prohibits the 
facility from releasing confidential information about patients. 

Newsweek outlined a series of events leading to the arrest: 

Capriati began a weekend binge Friday, May 13, with the decision 
to dnve from Boca Raton to Miami to meet a 16-year-old girl with 
whom she had become friendly at the clinic 

The girl reportedly introduced Capriati to another girl, Timineet 
, 17, who had also been treated at The Manors. They then 


embarked on three days of partying that ended when Branagan's 
parents sent the police to the motel where Capriati was arrested. 

Nathan Wilson, who partied with the group, told Newsweek he 
had used cocaine and heron with Capriati over the weekend, 
echoing a daim made last week by Tom Wineland, a Connecticut 
drug-offender arrested with Capriati. 

But another man who attended the party. Mart Black. 19, insisted 
to Newsweek that Capriati used no heavy drugs. 

Men’s and Women’s First Round French Open Results 

urrency, in the 
ver the desk of 1 
rat e ! 

fading some- 
television no "6 
montage that “ 
lown from the w 

rising are the ,rt 
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ti names like ^ 
and The Bea- n 
sgulariy and. 
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Monday's Hnl nmna rosalts from It* 
Franco OsM Tennis CbompioasMps at II* 
ftotond Garres Stadium la Forts: 


Lars Jonssarv Sweden, ffet Mikael Pemfors. 
Sweden. 7-5. 6-1 id ret. 

Andrei Olhovsklv. Russia, def Sieve Bryan. 
Oi. 6-1 6-1 61 

Jdcco EltWnoh. Netherlands, del. Cart U«e 
Stead. Germany. 7-A. I7'3>. 62. 61 
Richard Krailcek iiai, Netherlands, del. 
Karel Novocek, Czech. 6l. 7-5. 7-5 
David Wheaton, U.&. del. Thomas Eravhct. 
Sweden. 7*. !7/5>. WX e^J 
Fabric* Santoro. France, del. KenNelher- 
lanas carfsen. Denmark. 7-e . (7/3). 63. 64 
Paul Hoarhuls. Netherlands, del. Henri Le- 
conte. France. HW.H 
Mikael TllistTeem. Sweden, del. Marinis 
Zoecfce. Germany, 64. 3-6, 61 6-4 
Alexander Volkov, Pusslo, det. Marcos On- 
druska South A tried. 67 . (7/3). 61 67. 63 
Nick las Kulii.Sweden.dal. Frederic Foniono. 
France. 6-1 64. 67. <4/». 3-4. vl 
Jonathon Stark. US. del. Brant Larkhom. 
Australia. 6Z 6-1 6-7 . i7/4), 6] 

Andrei Medvedev (4), Ukraine, del. wail v Mo- 
swr. Australia. 62. 6-4. 62 
Slava DoseaeL Czacn. def. Ale* Anionltsctw 
Austria. 61 6-4. 64 

Grwi Rusedski. Canada, def. Marc Goellner. 
Germany. 7-s. «s/i|.6l 7-a. 7«4, Thomas Mus- 

ter 111). Austria del. Andrei Cherkasov , Rus- 
sia 6-0. 7-1 6t 

Jonas Blorkman. Sweden, del. Palrldo Ar- 
nold. Argentina. 67. (5/7). 7-A. 17/41.61. 3-1 P-7 
Magnus L orison. Sweden, def. Brett Steven, 
New Zeotand, 61 61 62 
JeM Tarenoo. U-S.def. Chuck Adams. U.S.64. 
16 61 61 

Pete Sampras (I). ui. def. Alberto Casta. 
Spain, 61 64. 6-4 

Marcela Rios, Chile, del. Joshua eagle. Aus- 
tralia 61 61 62 

Andre Agassi. U-S. def. Mats Wl lander. Swe- 
den. 61 7-i 61 

Thierry Champion, France, def. Jamie Mor- 
gan. Australia 4A 7-5. 36. 7-4. (7/S). 9-7 
Ranald Agenor, Haiti, def. Lionel Barth ez. 
France. 2-6. 1-6 61 6-4. 62 
Bryan Shettoa Ui. del. Martin Blackman, 
Ui. H «. 74 , (7/31. 6d 
Alex Carrel I a Sea In del. Fernando Maim- 
genL Brazil 63. 61. t-4 67. 63 
David Prinosil, Germany, drt. Emilio San- 
ches. Spain, la 7-6 . 0/5), 61 7-6. 0/4) 
Todd Martin (9). U.&. def. Stephane Simian, 
Fronce. 61 7-4 . (7/3). 36. 61 
Goran IvanlsevK (5). Croatia, def. Joem Ron- 
ten brink. Germany. 7-6 (7/S). 7-6 (7/S). 62 


Steffi Graf O). Germany. def- Katarina S*u- 
dentkovo. Stovokta. 61 61 

Saahanle Rultier. Netneriands. del. Natalia 

Medvedeva. Ukraine. 61 3-6 6-3 

Alexandra Fusol France, bai Nicole Mun- 

Joa cr m on . Nelhorlandi 61 7-S 

Joanette Kruger. S Africa, def. Eugenio Man- 

Mtwa. Russia 4-6 64k 63 

Naoko SowamaKu. Japan, rut Laura Gar- 

rone, Holy. 66 6-6 60 

Karin Kschwenat. Germany, del. AnseHoue 

Olivier 67, 6-4. 9-7 

Radko Zrubakova, Slovakia, del. Nathalie 

Harreman. France. 6-0, 61 

Sandra Code, U6. daf. Mona Enda, Japan. 6 


Ludmila RtcMerava Czech, daf. Barbara 
Schell. Austria 61. 7-6 17/31 
Wlltrud Pratat, Germany, def. Carole Lucor- 
ein. France. 66 61 

Am Grossman. U-S-. del. Angeles Montollo. 
Saaln. 61 61 

Mary Pierae 02). Fronce. bat Nicole Pravls. 
Australia 61, 60 

Marla Francesca Bentlvoglfo. Italv. del Po- 
Irldo Hy. Canada. 66 62 ret 
Taml WhUUnoer. UA. def. Kvoko Nagatsuka 
Jooon. 6-6 2-6 4-3 

Klmbertv Pa. US. def. Catherine Matties. 
Franca. 61 61 

Barbara Rittner. Germany, dot Kristine Rod- 
fora Australia 61. 62 
Ruxandra Dragomlr. Romania, dot Magdale- 
na Maleeva (13). Bulgaria. 63. 7-5 

Miriam Oremans. Neiheriands. del. Martina 
Navratilova (4). U-5. 66 64 
Kristie Boogert. Nethertands. def. iwfielie 
Demangeol. France. 61 62 
Clare wood, BrHaln.def. Gigi 
61 26 62 

Sabine Hack (Ml. Germany, def. Marie Jose 
Galdona Araenilna 61 61 
Conch I ta Martinez. Spain, def. Larissa Net- 
land. Lot. 61 63 

Sabina A p oeimona. Belgium, del AmeWe Cos- 
tern. France, 66 61 

Angelico Govokfnn. Mexico, def. Christina 

Singer. G er man y. 76 60 

Katerina Maleeva Bulgaria def. Linda Har- 

vey-Wlkt U-5. 61. 64 

irlna splriea Romania deL Katerina Kruu- 

pova Czech. 61 61 

Marzla Grass! Doty. def. Caroline Kurd man, 
OS. 66 64 ‘ 

Sandra Donfer. Austria def. Laura Golarsa 
Italy. 61 W. 61 

iqia, recently 
epic ting the 
xxv Zairian, 
n cause for 





ft’seosy to: 

0800 2703 

Mansell linked 
To Wiams Spot 


Major League Standings 

LONDON (Combined Dis- 
paicbes) — The V/flliams-Rraauli 
fftttn is trying to coax the former 
world champion Nigel Mansell 
back to Formula One this season to 
replace Ayrton Senna, a British 

newspaper reported Monday. 

- According ro the mass-circula- 
tion Sun tabloid, Williams is pre- 
pared to pay $21 million to buy out 
Mansell's contract with IndyCar 
team Newman-Haas for the rest of 
the Formula One season Mansell 
would race in the Indian apohs 500 
on Sunday but would switch to 
Formula One for the French Grand 
Prix on July 3, the Sun said. 

The paper said the team was 
“desperate" to replace Senna, who 
was killed at the San Marino Grand 
Prix three weeks ago. The New- 
man- Haas chief, Carl Haas, was 
quoted as saying be was aware of 
MansdTs talks on joining Wiliams 
“fra selected races.” (AP, AFP) 


East Division 





New York 








M 3 

















Central DtvhJan 
















Kansas ary 










west Dtvtston 





— ■ 

Co (Horn la 















Bart Division 










Montreal . 










New York 











Denmark's Laudrop 

To Leave Barcelona 



Son Ol«90 

Cootral Ofvtsioa 
26 T4 
29 IB 
23 2D 
19 22 
17 M 
wtjt DJytsJoo 
25 19 
21 22 
17 24 
1) 32 











4 VS 

Sunday’s Line Scores 

BARCELONA (Reuters) —The 
D anish - Internationa midfielder 
Michael La udr up ann ounced on 
Monday that he was qnitting Bar- 
celona, the Spanish soccer dmmpi- 

- :s 


Laudnip,.29' t wfaorawifiy tost 

fe-Cm team place after- differences 

with Coach Johan Cruyff, said he 
had had three offers for next sea- 
son, including one from Real Ma- 
drid. His , announcement follows a 
weekend of reports of changes by 
Cruyff in the Barcelona squad, no- 
tably the dismissal of ZubBaneta 
after agfat years with the dub. 


MnwuuKO* tin 2M NT — 6 t 1 

pSroff^ ni *• ««-7 n 0 

Ektred, Omn (7), Bmrtm W od 
sam Bckfw. Krueger (6), GtHorris (7), 
Cnwm \ 7 LGonfttr- «) uttd Krwrter. FtafmtY 
m. W-Ocfcher, 2-7. L-Ek6e«i 16 Sv-Gai^ 
Cttntr ia. HRg-Mnmavwe. G-VOuchn 2 (6). 
DefroR. Prman M.CGomn (5). 
amtattf - ra » 11 * 

7 I 

BJHurat Howell (4). jjAirst (7), Hanavaitt 
IB) and Radrfauaz; Safkakt Nattan (6). Plan- 
faMiera (6).Gas8aoa (41. Ayala (B) and Howl- 
man. W— SaDcakt 2-2. L — B-HursJ. 61 . 
HRs— Seattle, solo 12). Griffey (2D). 

New York BBS 1B2 BN— 3 7 I 

PHtadeMta' I1B MB ltx-« II I 

Smith. Hillman (S>, Scmtaara (7) and Hund- 
ley; Greene. Munoz (6). Stocumb (9) and 
DauttoA. V9— Grtena 2-a L — Smlttv 2-S. 
HR6-NY. Rivera (2). Philadelphia Dvkstro 
(5), Incavtatla (5). Daultan (9). Dunam <«). 

IS ■ 

« * 

Marttnez, Rotaa (7). w ettehmd (9) and 
Webster; Neaala Mfcell ID. Pena (9) and 
Station t. w — M ortin ez. 3-3. L-Neoaia 4-f. 
Sv-W*tf«latwJ MU HRs-PHtsburoti. v«m 
Sivke (3). Ftdev ao. 

St Louis IN (04 (06-11 12 2 

Florida 3SO M3 WO- » 13 1 

Watson. R-Rodrtawox (2). Habynn ( 6 ), Mur- 
phy (7), M. Perez (9) and TJMcGrHf; Woafh- 
dsELwiBlftJ I N nwd BB (8) ondSctitla- 
ga w— Murahy, 62. L-JJternonde*. 2-X 
Su-Mitarez (9). HB»— St Louts. GJNrna Ml. 
Florida EvenrtMl), Renterio (2),Ccnine (10). 
UlAWetoi til 016 (to— to O o 

cMndi aw m ra~s n » 

AsfocfaOauno (9) and Piazza Co. Hernan- 
dez (•); Pugh, Schotirek (6) and TaubenMa 
W— Astacfa 3-1 L— Pugh, 3-2. HRs — Los An- 
geles. Butler (3), Piazza (9). 

MB Dteua «M S4B (39—7 (2 1 

Houston (21 m 3(9—4 4 • 

asaoden, Elliott («). PAMortfem: (7), Hoff- 
man m ondBJNwoiu Hdfltisdfc Vere» 15). 
Hampton fe). MLWllBam (8), Hudek 19) and 
Servaft. w-pjl Martinez. 1-1. L— Mf.WU- 
Rana 1-6 Sw-HaHman M). HRo— iD. Pkm- 
rter 'nsi. Houstaa Cam MM (BL 
M Franrim SM US lit W—5 

CMCOSS BIB 3» ON #1—4 

HI fcmtegs) 

Torres Burba HJ.M-tadtson (8). Beck (It) 
and Mo n waring; A.Yauna Bautfita (8), Pb- 
IOC IB), trim (», BuWrawr no> andWlKtaL 
W -Buhlnger. 6a. L— Beck. 14. HA— LF. 

aendnser (3). CNcosa May (3). wnklra C2}. 
Altana ««3 Ml IN-i 13 1 

CelaradB ON 20B 1)0-3 ■ 1 

- GJAaddux, WaNers i». Bedraslan IB). 
McMWwtl m and JXomu Painter, Blotr 
ML Moore (4). BdNeflflaM W). BJtaffln (9) 
tmd Gtrardl. W— G Ataddux, 7-2. L-Pobiter.6 
1. HRt A f fanfa Pen dl eton (SI. Justice (S). 

Sunday’s NBA Playoff 

CMcoge 19 It 26 T4-77 

New York 22 14 29 20— B7 

New York erim series 63 
CMcoge: Grant 7-146517, Plpeen 622 6420. 
Cartwright 1-560 Z Armstrong 69 62 B. Myers 
7-BI-l 15, Longin' 621-2 l.Wennlngtan 1-21-1 X 
5. Will lams 60 642. Karr 62 60S Kukoc 6106 
Q 9. English 60 60 0. Totals 32-74 11-21 77. 

Mew York: Oakley 617 m 17. smim *4 63 
1 1. Ewing 7-1765 la, Homer 242-46 Starks 6 
11 *4 ta K williams 62 1-2 1, Mason 67 1-2 •. 
Davts 61# 606 Ant honv 24 24 7. Totals 36B4 
17-2B BJ. 

6 Pelat 900 ta-CMcogo M2 ( Kukac 1 -5. PH> 
o«n V6 Armstrong 61), New York6l7 istartw 
67, E wtow 14 Aidhony 1-6 Davis 61. Hamer 6 
3). Redounds— Chicago 50 (Plpoen Id. New 
York M ( Oakley 26). AssWv-Oilcago UIPIp- 
pan S). New York 21 (Ewtne d. Total tauls- 
— CMcoge 2A New York 21 Technicals— Pin- 
eon. CMceao cooat Jaaucn. Myers. Ewing. 


FWM scares Sunday from tae par-72 Muir- 
Held Vlttanoe awrse ki DahUo. Okie: 

Tam Letunaa <747-4747-2(4 
Grog Normav7D49-7644— 273 
Jem Cook. 0494671—776 
Ocm le Hammond. W49-7669— 277 
David Edwaroa <947-72-70—778 
Robert GemezJ7494fr47— 279 
Ban Crenshaw J246-7A46— 780 
Mark Brooks. A4-7S-7676-2H 
Brad Faxon. 72467346-01 
Jeff MoogerV)-7*44-70— 20 1 


Brand New 
vadfor guck 
USA. Senovo 




on Page 4 


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Tab 41-21-329 00 49. 
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GB ARARTAOI15 •••• Long 

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Tour of Italy 

Magic Johnson Seeks 

- -4. 

To Timberwrfves 

TOKYO (AF) — Earvin(MagiO 
Johnson said Monday he wanted 10 
buy the National Basketball Asso- 
ciation's Minnesota TnnberwoW® 
with a group that indudes tbe smg’ 

ers Prince and Janet Jackson. 

ThcfonsKr Los Angeles Ltfm 



OeJHOrtlna and SAhntor; Ouzmonr Tim- 
l* (41. W.Wllltams (8), Codorri (9) ord Bor- 
W— DeMomntt 64. L— Guzman, *4 
Hjb-ciwekdta. tar* 

Hartaa *B 3#* 213 — 9 U ■ B 

MBMSOta "» » «*-2 4 i 

Ctemens. Harris W and BwryNll; Oe- 
jhnj-a, Gvmtrle (7), mnis (91 ml Wtdtecfc. 
ports («.tv_CJrawrtfcS4U-0a#twl»6i 
HK>— Bfistorw M.VBsdn Ofl. Dcnesoii nB), 
BerrvtiW ««- ^ 

(Hrinmcn ™ m « "t 2 

■m York m ta BTQ t-4 9 • 


M Un ina,TJoneft (7), MfiU UI. Porte (8). 

Williamson (8). LaSmMli’ Htt, and Halles; 
my p.QiMOn ID. Pall (7b WCtalial (BJ, 
hiwkbck (9), XHernondac TO and LevrH*. 
ya^wnnomort, »a b-KMMIHAt 6ft 
Sy-l.ffStnMt (171. HRs— NaarYBrigVttanfc 

aj.orudU (ifl). Leyrdz TO. 

V numl OtT W W Ik ( -W * 

0**"* #M(Wk(6 -4 1 1 

cane rtta MDCterkmw Lanartm. Daasaii (6) 
Mrt F om egas. ff-Qire 6L L-uonaBaivM 
HRs- KC. Shunwerf ml DJtondenoa Q>. 

cucage • ma. m m-t 7 » 

» «.«-* .4 2 

ger*. Sanderson (71." RJtarnaadaz (?) ana 

TTie Michael Jordan Watch 

SUNDAY? GAME: JsrOrti went e-tor-5 
with two sfrikooui* Hosnnmdea out once tart 
noprad out twice in hls amor at -bon. He did 
not have any cftoncej Jn right field. 

SEASON TO DATE: Jordan to botttngjni 
(3J40M4W with 11 rure. seven doubles, 21 
RBls. 12 walks. « strikeout! end 11 stolon 
Bases In tfafiempls. Defen s ive hr. Jordan has 
Si putaufA «n* MU and ttva errors. 


Sunday's NHL Playoff 

Lemttta ptadogs bi The second stage ever 
2B Uomelen from Bologna to Osima. an 
Monday: 1, Moreno ArgOnhn llrty, Gewiss- 
Ballon. (hours 1J mbiutasandJI seconds; i 

Andrea Farrigata, i taty. 2G Mobill. e secants 

behind; ft Davlde Rabriiln. Ifotv, GB MG. I 
BeoeodS befit nC; 6 Francesca Cegasrande. 
lirty.MsftalBM, 12 secandi behfnd; 5. Pascal 
Richard. Swttnriand. GB MG, same lime; 6 
Giorgio Fatten, Italy, GCwiss, Saltan, uj 7, 
MetamOaila Santa, itatv, Maori cm sJ.; A 
Evgeny Benin, Rwsta.OewHs-Brtlwi.sJ.; 9, 
etorml Sun, Italy, PaltLii.; 1A Marco Pan- 
tart. Italy. Carrera, si. 

Stead) BM; LAruanfin# hours 21 minutest 
MOndK 2. Benin 9 seconds behind; X Ar 
mmdae las Cuevas. Franco, Cartgrama 16 
HBBnds behind; 4, Caeagrange. 19 seconds 
belwid; X Mfwei Indurgin. Spain, aanesra, 
21 seconds behind; 6 Bug no, same lime; 7, 
Fn/rtgota, 32 seconds behind; B. Richard. 40 
tacwidB behind; #, WcnJlmlr Belli, Hal*. 
Lampre. 42 seconds behind,- ID, delta sania, 
soma time. 

Reyea. Acre f4),Tavfar(7T. B&- 
a«< SWntxxA. W— Berx, 61 . 

irateuaUlhc ^ 
Timberwolves deal failed. seoftie 


esi m-J 

■ e 

YgncMnw » » 

vooconer tends series 61 
Pint period N one. Portables— Nona, 
second perisd Me w s , Penafllw— Gel teas, 
van (Nan-rthScJne). 2;W; Lefebvre. Tor Un- 
tar ts rence), Sgft 

Third parted— 1, VanouW, Rsmlng 4 
(Montano, Gdfaas). 17:35. 2. Vancouver. 
Sure 13 (Linden. DWueM. 19:27 (on). PsnaL 
ttes— None. 

' • Shots «i goaf— Toronto H-9-F-». Vgneou- 
uer 7-610—21; yu » u i pkn r ww hmltlta' 
— Toraalo Odli Vancouver 4 of 1; Hrilu 
— Toranirt Poftrtn. M f2D ihots-19 saves). 
Vancouver, McLean, 1VS {26TO. 

Help Zeaknd n. Enutand 
Startoy, la UMu 
Mofetied cancelled duo ta rain. 

Enefand wins ik* tafi-nsi vktenr Thursday. 

OaoBfter Match 
Spain ft Wotas 54 


that the International 
Herald Tribune cannot bo 
hold respondble for laa or 

soft of transactions sHm- 

Rimg from odvetiaemtmh 
which appear in ow paper. 
It n tm n hm rooaamwn d- 
ed that read e rs mako ap- 
propriate i n qu iries before 
sending any money or en- 
tering into any bhtdmg 
co nu n ihn eot s . 





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5 Donahue on Death Row 


[IMSHINGTON - l knew it 
tV would come to this sooner or 
-ater — Phil Donahue is asking a 
■forth Carolina court to grant him 
lermissioo to videotape the June 
5 execution of convicted murderer 
David Lawson. 

This would be a first for the talk 
. h hows and Oprah and Geraldo are 
gnashing their 
j”eeih that iheir 
Jooking agents 
“hadn't thought 
"if it first. 

“ I can’t wait to 
^iee the Donahue 
^broadcast be- 
muse the show 

Should set ofr 

The entire 
program will 

uhave to be moved to Death Row 
c Studio A at the prison and the 
caudience will be bused in. 

I D 

t The show will probably go some- 
t thing like this: The condemned 
i man is brought into the room, he 
(hugs Phil ana then takes his seat in 
i the electric chair as everyone ap- 

Phil has control of the mike. 
**How do you feel, David?” 

“What do you mean bow do 1 

Gay Rights Group 
Seeks Pardon 
For Oscar Wilde 


L ONDON — A British gay 
rights group said Monday that 
it had asked for a royal pardon For 
the playwright Oscar Wilde in time 
to mark the 100th anniversary 1 of 
his conviction for homosexuality. 

Wilde, the author of plays such 
as “The Importance of Being Ear- 
nest,” was jailed on May 25. 1895. 

Peter TaicfaelL, a spokesman for 
the gay rights group Outrage, said 
that his group had written to Queen 
Elizabeth 11 asking her to pardon 
the writer, whose plays mocked 
Britain's straitlaced society. “Wilde 
was the victim of unjust laws," Tai- 
chell said. “His imprisonment is a 
stain on the judicial system.'’ 

“Nervous, squeamish, remorse- 
ful — what’s going on with you 
knowing that in less than one hour 
you will fry?" 

“1 didn’i do it." 


Then Phil runs up the stairs. 
“This lady here." 

“1 saw ‘Hard Copy’ and T think 
that David is a skunk. 1 hope he 
gets a thousand volts for each crime 
he committed." 


The audience applauds and Phil 
sticks his mike out. 

“The gentleman over here.” 

The man speaks. Tin against 
capita] punishment and 1 think that 
this whole sbow is a farce.” 

The audience boos. 

Phil runs down the stairs and 
says to Lawson. “Did you ever 
think that you would wind up in 
the hot seat?” 

“Probably when I was a kid, but 
it was just a fantasy.” 

“Maybe you should have lis- 
tened to your mother.” 

“1 know I should have listened to 
her before my lawyer.” 

Phil runs back up the stairs and 
sticks the microphone into a lady's 

“Is it true that they give you a 
good meal before they puli the 

Lawson responds, "That’s what 
they tell you. but I round out that it 
wasn't true. I asked for a medium- 
rare steak and they served it well- 
done. I complained to the warden 
and he said that it was up to the 
governor to decide if I could send it 
back to the kitchen. The governor 
refused. So 1 was stuck with a tough 
steak. The apple pie was pretty 
good, but I passed up the coffee 
because t didn't want it to keep me 


Phil jumps over three rows of 
guests and a man grabs his mike, 
“fs there any chance of you getting 
a pardon?" 

David says, "I hope so. even 
though it might ruin the sweeps for 
Phil’s show.” 

The man says, “Phil do you even 
care if the murderer gets a par- 

“The show goes on whether he 
gels electrocuted or not. David, 
what would you like the governor 
to give you right now?" 

“Oprah’s cookbook.” 

Cowgirl Blues 
By Gus Van Sant 

By Rita Kemp ley 

Washington Post Service 

N EW YORK — Gus Van Sam folds 
his arms, crosses his legs and effec- 
tively retreats into his Own Private Idaho, 
a state adjacent to Catatonia and far re- 
moved from pressing questions about his 
latest film, “ Even Cowgirls Get the Blues. 
Unshaven and unfocused, he seems to 
have drifted off like the narcoleptic hustler 
in his previous odd opus. 

Neither coffee nor coaxing seems to 
rouse the 42-year-old filmmaker. A point- 
ed question is offered as 
a ptefc-me-up. So. how — — — 
did it feel when the first 
cut of “Cowgirls” was 
hogtied. branded and 
docked at the Toronto 
Film Festival? Surely 
i his must hurt? Van 
Sant pulls and twists 
the hairs of his right 
eyebrow, perhaps an 
alerting mechanism: 

“Uh. yeah. I mean, it made us. like, keep 
working on it. yeah." 

The first cut was too episodic, says the 
producer. Laurie Parker, of the adaptation 
of Tom Robbins’s novel. “* , ~“ J ~ r 

ic, the second more coherency.” Though 
he refuses to compare the book with the 
adaptation, he admits to one regret: 
“When Gus and I met, I suggested that he 
change the size of Sissy's thumbs from 
scene to scene. I used 30 or 40 metaphors 
to describe Sissy's thumbs, ranging in size 
from a cucumber to a basebaH bat, so that 
each reader could decide what they looked 
like. If there’s anything 1 don’t like about 
having the book filmed, it’s that the 
thumbs are pinned down to a specific 

In any case, they are a distraction. Peter 
al film writer and professor 
iioa the cast 

Burnett, a local 

The first version of 
'Even Cowgirls Get 
the Blues 9 hit the 
cutting room floor. 

'll was kind of 
like the greatest hits of ‘Even Cowgirls Get 
the Blues.' You'd have to make it like 
‘Berlin Alexanderpiatz’ {which runs more 
than 15 hours) to present all of Robbins’s 
digressions. As it was. we ended up going 
back to our original idea of focusing on 
Sissy and the cowgirls." 

Bora with thumbs like kielbasa. Sissy 
Hankshaw (Uma Thurman) is a beautiful 
hitchhiker whose travels take her to a 
Western spa, the Rubber Rose Ranch. 
There she falls in love with Bonanza Jelly- 
bean (Rain Phoenix), a feminist cowgirl 
who liberates the spa from its sexist-pig 
owner (John Hurt), a cross-dressing manu- 
facturer of feminine hygiene deodorant 

Most everything else lies on the cutting 
room floor. The cosmic timekeepers called 
Oockpeople have vanished along with 
many scenes involving the Chink (Pat 
Moriia), a dippy holy man wbo lives on a 
ridge above the ranch, which is also borne 
to a flock of endangered whooping cranes 
who come under the control of Delores 
Del Ruby (Lorraine Bracco), a whip- 
cracking prophetess. 

Robbins, who narrated both versions, 
says that “the first version had more mag- 

writer and 
who sat behio 
at the Toronto pre- 
miere, remembers 
thinking that the 
thumbs made the movie 
unsalvageablc. "Some- 
thing that worked in a 
novd — like Big Fat 
Thumbs — does not 
work visually.” 

Van Sam's response: 

"A lot of stuff relates to 
thumbs because thumbs were the main 
theme throughout, so no matter what you 
did thumbs were sort of part of itr 

The more Van Sant says, the less we 
know about what makes him tick. Asked if 
he exerts control over all aspects of the 
filmmaking process, he says, “It’s not real- 
ly a matter erf what I da Since Tm doing it, 
it ends up looking like I did il If some- 
body else does it, then it starts to go 

Is it any wonder he's drawn to both 
poetic imagery and laconic protagonists? 

“When f first met Gus, I thought he had 
the personality at a painter,” ventures 
Parker, who began working with him on 
“Drugstore Cowboy." “He’s ruled by the 
imagination, like the characters played by 
Uma and River. Those characters have a 
way of breveting in their imagination that 
is very much luce Gas’s." Bracco gushes 
from her New Jersey home, “Tm such a 
fan of Gus Van Sant. I don’t care if he 
makes a photograph, a commercial or a 
film, I am just totally interested in his 
vision. I loved working with Gus. I felt 
that artistically he was very available, that 
he trusted what I brought to the character. 
The really great directors trust in their cast 
and let them go." 

Robbins, who spent a week and a half 
on location, echoes Bracco. “Gus had a 
dog on the set, a cute black-and-white 
mongrel Tied to the dog’s collar was a 
rope that must have been 30 or 40 feet 

Zoctt MM fw Tfce- Wnhogra P*» 

Moviemaker Van Sank A second round for San based tm Tom RoUpus novd. 

long, h was the longest leash by far that I 
have ever seen, ft was the same with actors 
— be had a rein on them, but it was a 
pretty long leash.” 1 

If critical reaction at a recent screening 
of “Cowgirls” means anything — one re- 
viewer called Branco’s performance ca- 
reer-ending — Van Sant might want to 
consider a choke hold. The film is not only 
a psychedelic retie, it's a politically incor- 
rect disaster. 

Few women will find rote models for 
themselves in “Cowgirls." which was after 
all written with stoned, braless hippie 
chicks in mind. Bracoo's character is cer- 
tainly assertive, but boUwhips aren't your 
ordinary gal's accessory. “It’s difficult to 
find people in Manhattan to teach you 
bow to buD-whip,” says Bracco. “It’s not a 
part of eastern culture, so I went to the 
East Village and got a guy who was into 

Once again we turn to Robbins for elu- 

cidation. “The book is not a feminist work 
in the political sense, it’s a hymn to the 
fenmrine spirit: the values that are associ- 
ated with the lunar sensibility, the more ; 
creative side, a side that tills m ttw direc- 
tion of color as opposed to drabness, to 
dance as opposed to . footbati, . to -night as 
opposed to day, the intmtiveu opposed tp - 
the logical Here's a a important care-desire 
as opposed to reason. - 

“The values that ?m talking about are 
universal and have been attributed to the- 
f eminme throughout history, butihCy are r 
not necessarily limited to the feminine 
gender. They're associated with die male' 
too. I bring fids up, because T wouldn't 
want anybody to get the notion that; 
“Cowgirls’ had a purely female slant lip 
was the '70s, but tiw era we called the ’60s 
was still very much present Those values 
associated with the- universal feminine 
were dominant, among the males as much 
as among the women.” 


fictort’ Awarded 


“Pulp Fiction" by 
dhectorQua** 1 

festival ' Monday-- The 
actor wen t to lheChines® 



film Xtoo-Dano ( 

Hie Duchess of York b« 

missed a newspaper siaryt h?t she 

was considering a film rote as 
adteea, the first -cenrary qttfea w k 
. resisted the Roman occupation ot 
Britain- ‘The offer is genuine but 
sbelust thinks it is fun," an uniden- 
tified friend of Feme was quoted 

as saying in the Daily Ekpr*®- 
“She was vw y flattered but is not 
seriously ednskteriog it” The Sun- 
day Times had repeated that Ferfpe 
was looking at a script for the film- 

makerKwRosscS, in w&K* Boaai- 

cea is “flogged naked and her war 
‘dT warriors marched into battle 
. clad in just woad paint-? 
‘•p; ! .;-‘: □ 

Tooy Beonett, who’s 67, says be 

- has finally teamed bow to sing. He 
said he figured it out by listening to 
Latiro Pwarani. “life just a tech- 
nical riiing , hut I tried it and it was 
-something 1 was. searching for in 
my own yace, n Bennett says m TV 
Guido, “it reminds me of Leonardo 
da Vind, who supposedly said on 
.his deathbed, Tft too bad I’m go- 
ing to die — fm just teaming how 
to paint.’ * 

• O 

- One of Hong Kong's best terved 

■ couples -were spending Monday 
'eight apart — one behind bars for 
. biting a workman, the other at the 
territory's smartest address. WMs- 

•_ ftittetfs Norfolk terrier duo, was 
v taken away ty dm authorities after 
he 1st a wedonaa, while his mate. 
. Soda, waited behind. Whisky will 
.. mend seven days in kennels under 
' observation lor tabiek then, if given 

■ -die aQ dear^will be sent batik home. 



appears on Phges 




Forecast far Wednesday through Friday, as provided by Accu- Weather. 



















O do 

■ Prague 



a Pufc-rjh/ej 






W wno* 


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c 22/71 tl*2 ah 
5h 19/06 9/48 :h 

3 11*2 0'43 pc 

C 20/02 18*4 pc 

pc 13*5.5 3*7 r 
pc 14/57 4 09 pc 
1 23/73 12*3 pc 

a 12/53 S«1 c 

I 25/77 17*2 1 
! 22*71 12*1 | 

c 21/70 0/4C. ah 

ah 23/73 12*3 Bh 


North America 

Shows *5 and ihunaefstorms 
will alien portions ol >he 
Easi Coast Wediesday. w*h 
unwilled weather possibly 
lingering into Thursday. 
Chicago and Detroit win b« 
dry and coal Wednesday 
through Friday. Dallas and 
Los Angeles wilt be dry at 
the end ol the week. 


There wiD be a perk'd ol ram 
m London amj Pans during 
the latter halt of the week. 
Madrid will en|oy dry. sea- 
sonable weather Naples wtf 
be dry through Friday In 
Germany, clouds and sun 
can be ospected with noth- 
ing more than a passing 
shower Friday. 




Much oi the anc ct the week 
mil be tain-lrue across east- 
ern Chna. Including Shang- 
hai There will be a tew 
showers in Seoul and Tokyo 
at the end ol the week In 
Bangkok altenoor thunder- 
storms may drop locally 
heavy rains. Manila mil bo 
hot and humid through the 
end of ihe week 







Low W 








25/77 1 

JTB 0 



Hang Kens 




24/75 pc 





24/75 * 

45 ( 11331*8 

46/113 29/84 pc 


I 0 *M sn 27*0 

1 W 01 pc 





19*8 pc 





23/73 pc 

M /86 



3 X,V> 

22/77 pc 





10*1 pc 






21/70 pe 

Csj<* Town 

17 /C 




9«8 pc 




17*2 pc 


S /48 



11/52 pc 



2 J //7 

31 /ra 

25/77 pc 



1 K 52 


13 / 55 * PC 


3 W 57 



21/70 9 

North America 


1 Razor 
•Health resort 
• More than a 
mere success 
14 Mi/ssaHnfs 
19 Assist 
i« With uneven 

if Mink's poor 
ig Ushered 

IB Truifim 
20 Item to cut for 

23 Late-night star 
2« President 
Manual, ousted 
by Franco 

25 TV rooms 
2fi New Rochelle 
2* Game show - 
30 Princess 
Diana's family 

Middle East 

Latin America 


High Law 
OF Of 
29/04 2Q*a 
JS» 10«4 
32/09 it /61 
20/02 17452 
41*109 25/77 

High Low W 
29/84 21 / 7 U s 
35/97 21/70 a 
? 3/01 17*62 a 
20/02 10/04 5 
40 / 11522/71 

r r*»V 

18*04 12/M afr 18*4 12*53 sc 
24/75 13/55 a JO/M 1355 pc 


Legend: 5 - 3 uiny. pe-paiOy dowry. c-CtovSy. in-^-aews. 1-IMiPyTtorms. /-/wr *Miww ru”W9. 
jiv?oriw. Mco. vz-WMirmr All nuce, toreawu md data provided by Accu-weaihef. sne. .. 

42M07 24.75 pc 42/10724/75 a 

Today Tomoncw 

High Low W High law W 


Bomo-.Aaw 21*73 12-53 pc 13*60 0.40 pc 

Caracas 31/08 25*77 1 32*9 i0/-9 pe 

Una 2I/J0 17/62 a 5 VO 17*62 pc 

Mmh»C4y 24/75 12 53 ' 27*00 13.55 1 

AadeJaorrra 24*75 M*8 pc 25 79 /7*6 pc 

Swtta gj 14/57 5 43 pc 19*6 6*43 pc 












M c- ncapofc 




San Fran 

19 W 


22 71 










21 no 



22 m 







dl 12/5J 
I 31/08 
pc 21/70 
I 22/71 
pe 21*70 
sh 22/71 
PC 29(04 
s 31*00 
pc 24/75 
1 33*1 
pc 22/M 
PC 17*2 
PC 30*0 
pc 20/79 
1 33/91 

s 20*0 
9 21/70 
ah 19*0 
pe 28*2 

3OT pc 
17*2 pe 
12/53 ah 
0/40 pc 
9/40 pc 
9M0 ah 
22/71 pc 
19*08 pc 
16*81 pc 
23/73 pc 
B/48 pc 
6/43 ah 
23/73 I* 
14*7 ah 
22/71 pc 
ri/52 pc 
9/48 c 
7/44 dl 
Ml PC 

Solution lo Puzzle of May 23 

□□0Q0 Eaaas zina 
aaniaaainaaaa ana 
asaanoa aaaaaaa 
hqq anaQa 

d D 13 Q S Q S Q Q E3 HI D 
□anDE3 UQQ3 □□□ 
□ana anaao] aaaa 
qbe) aaaa asuBa 
iiBBaa ana 
□naEiaaa □□□□□□□ 
□□□ EJBBaQ aaaa 

ea Bedecked 


m Get repeated 

value tram 

ae Replaceable 
shoe parts 
40 Agrees 
** Carry on 
45 30‘s end 40's 
actress Anna 
4« Porcine cry 
40 Kind ol system 
si Weakens 
55 Popular poultry 

58 — - hilt (fatty) 
se'Le veau — ■" . 

("Fausf aria) 
eo Roomy dress 

ai Chefs attire 
S 2 Consume 
09 Noted name in 
Bosnian talks 
04 Oceans, fa 
os Season on the 
ns Lawn tool 


1 ‘Bad mood* 

2 Small obligation 

3 Snitch about 

. 4 Entree for a 
soStaty diner 
5 Scrutinize, with 

e Marathoner 
Alberto ' 

7 Michelangelo 

8 Afterthoughts 
e Bridge . • 


io Dialer's dish 

M Amiss's . 

12 Dish’s 
companion- in. - 
ffight - • ■ 

13 Songs of glory 

21 Diminish . 

22 Foray 

Z7 Florida city 

28 Uke Eric the' : ‘ 

so H.S. subject " 

31 So-called ’ 
'lowest form of 
wiT . 

32 Bygone tra/ns . 



as Erhard's 

so Pleines, HI. 

40 Prefer tolkjwer 

4f Letecomertoa 
theater, maybe 

‘saAmaemtenuny of--— -you're BaGoriebic : - 

goddess'- hapw* 1 ’- ■*’. process 

« Suffix with ~ . 

young or old 54 Lip curt 

40 Santa's soSummer so Understwwte . 

reindeer, e.g: . ermine- 07 Pan’s opposite 









ff 1 




” ^ _ 

1 r 






















*01 *4 









. 4 

' l 

6 New York Tunes Edited by Will Shore, 

Tiwel in a world without borders, time zones 

or language barriers. 

ABET Access Numbers . 

How to call around the workl 

1. L'sLog the chan bt^on-. Snd the counby yod are* calling from. ' - 

i Dial the c>pma^ondingAI^A««sNuxii3er. '•;.-*•••• - 

A An Engliih-speaJdng Operator or voice prompt niflosk for (he phone number you wish to call or connect you 10 a 

customer fremce represe n tative. ' 

To receive your free waBei card of ARTS Access Numbers, just tfial^ the access number of '■ 

ASIA my . 172-1011 - toctfl ~ 000-8010 


1-800-881-011 Uechteroaein- 

155-00-11 Chile 

China, P&C**o 

10811 Udxuuxla* 


8 *196 Columbia 


018-S72 Luaetnboutg 

Bong Kong 

0-800-0111. Costa RkaT» 

800-1111 Macedonia, P.YJLof 99-800*4288 Ecuador* - 


000-117 Mater 


OBOWM-no . HSafwadw-B 





001-601-10 ‘ ' Monaco* 
0039-111 ' 

19*-0011 Guatemala'' 



009-H Norway 

0^022-9111 ■■ Guyana— 



800-190-11' Honduras^ 


!!• Poland'*'* 1 

0*010-4800111 - Mexico aa* 



8000011 Portugal' - 


New Zealand 

000-91 Z Ro mania 

01-800-1288 .- panama* 



105-11 RwsiJ^Mascow) 

15 M 042 . Penr 

- 109 

235-2872 Slovakia. 


gOggllj-m Sparine 

.00-42000101 - S urinam*- 

Sn Lanka 

43W30- Sweden* 

■SQ0-99-00-1I . Uruguay 




0080-102880 SWrinerfamd*. 

020-795-611 - Venezuela-* 



at>-on-i 2 ») 


0019-991-1 J1 2 ILK. 


050089-00X1 ariHHm*. 





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convenient Access Numbers on your right. 


Austria* 1 

023-9&-012 Bahrain 

8*100-11 Bemrudg* 
• • British VX 

0800-100-10 Cyprus' 

flPO-OOl Cayman {stands 



00-1*004010 Israel 

080-90010 ••Grenada' 




004204)0101 Lebanon CBdtaQ; 


. 8001-0010 Qatar 


177-100-Z727. HafaT 

fiOO-268 ' • Jamaica** 

• * ,426-801 :- Ntth. Antfl 
■■ 080tKm*;77' . St Kta5,'Nev6 T 




0-^00-872-238 f 

9800-100-10 Saudi Awbia 

• - T-SOO-lO ■ 


l9*-00ll -Iteteey*. 


01300010 UAE?: 

°P^g0rl22?7 . Egypt- fOtiroJ 

<j recce* 

-•800-121 Gabon* 





00i*-80<W>im AtBeotUP*^. '■ 001-800-200-1111 Keep* 

995W»1 BdiZM* 


1-800^50-000 Botiria* 

555 Liberia 

^800-1112 Sooth Africa 








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U/V<ArklV>ApUi09ie - -MfobtinUn/eqnirLKidcMi 

knm jn btepteo fet "' , “' 

• >c^c<itinc4\Aae?you4(eaIlo<i , — ^OtXimrtwalibfrftiooiaa mM 

W(4<UMrc^SrmceH;naa^twmBtiKaMaie>B«&bc"e .' - ..** !?* ? lx ?t t * <,anE 

1904 iOKT 

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