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London, Tuesday, November 29, 1994 


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Gravediggers in Sarajevo after a funeral ceremony for a sla in Bosnia government soldier on Monday. The city remained generally cahn after weekend sniping- 

EU Prospects Look Poor as Norwegians Leave Polls 

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A OSLO — Norwegians voted to inject 
membership in the European Union in a 
referendum Monday, according to two exit 
polls broadcast on television moments af- 
ter polls closed. 

One poll, J>o theT>rivate J V2 , dian ®^- 
forecast a Wafer-thin majority of 5(L2 to 
49.8 percent against membership, while an 
exit poll broadcast on state NRK tdevi- 
sion forecast a more solid majority against 
the EU of 52.6 percent to 47.4 percent. 

John Damton of the New York Times 
reported from Oslo: 

The vote came after a long, hard-fought 

campaign on an issue that has obsessed 
Norway for years, almost since 1972, when 
53.5 percent of the voters rejected mem- 
bership in what was then the European 
Economic Community. 

In that year. Norway became the only 
European country to say “no” definitively 
tp joining the club, which is miendeu to 
knock down the continent’s frontiers. 

Throughout the past months polls had 
placed the “no” vote well ahead of the 
^yes” vote, but the margin narrowed after 
Sweden’s approval of its referendum Nov 
13. Although Norwegians shrink from the 
thought of taking cues from their neighbor. 

the prospect of being the odd man out on 
the Scandinavian peninsula was daunting. 

The signs of ambivalence continued up 
until and beyond, the last moment. “1 
voted ‘no' but I’m not sure." said one 
youna man. Stein Inge Jetnes. **I regret it 
already. But if I had voted ‘yes’ ! would be 
regretting that, toe." 

On the “no” side, the basic argument 
was that Norway, blessed with bountiful 
fishing stocks and Europe’s largest oil and 
gas reserves, is strong enough to go it 
alone. Why pay extra money to subscribe 
to a union whose standards are lower in 
everything from cradle- to- grave welfare 

support to environmental purity, ran the 

The center of the opposition was the 
coastal areas in the north and the country- 
side in the west. Fishermen worried about 
throwing open the rich territorial waters to 
EU countries like Spain and Portugal, and 
fanners were aghast ai the thought of a 
reduction in subsidies for produce, among 
the highest in the world. 

On the “yes" side, the comention was 
that oil and gas would not last forever and 
that Norway must prepare for the future 

See NORWAY, Page 6 

Clinton Makes llth-Hour Appeal for GATT Approval 

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Compiled by Our Staff From Dnpatcha 

WASHINGTON — With crucial voles 
coming this week. President Bill Clinton 
appealed Monday for passage of the world 
tradeagreement, which he said “bulldozes 
differences of party, philosophy and ideol- 

“It is not a Republican agreement or a 
Democratic one,” Mr. Clinton said at a 
White House rally on the eve of the first 
congressional vote on tfce GATT accord. 
“Itis an American agreement designed to 
benefit all the American people in every 
region of our country and from every walk 
of He." 

Imploring lawmakers to approve the 
paOMr. Clinton said, “We have to do it 
now. We can't wait until next year.” 

To underscore bipartisan support for 
the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade, officials from every administration 
since President Eisenhower attended the 
White House ceremony. A pro-GATT let- 
ter signed by Presidents Ford, Carter and 
Bush was released. 

The accord would cut worldwide tanits 
by a third and lower global barriers to the 
sale of intellectual property and services. 

James A. Baker 3d, a Republican and a 
former treasury secretary and secretary of 

state, said those who had opposed the 
North American Free Trade Agreement, 
particularly Ross Perot, were wrong again 
about GATT. . 

“The misguided and misinformed pre- 
dicted a vast sucking sound as American 
jobs went south,” Mr. Baker said. “Today, 
the only sound to be heard is the powerful 
wind of economic freedom raising pros- 
perity on both sides of the border." 

Mr. Clinton also took a jab at GATT 
foes, saying they are playing on people 5 
fears to defeat a measure that wiU help 
Americans in the long run. 

EarKer, the chief U.S. trade representa- 

tive, Mickey Kantor. predicted passage, 
saying the votes this week in the House and 
Senate would be the first test of whether 
Republicans and Democrats can work to- 

The Makings of a Palestinian 'Martyr’ 

From West Bank Village, to Israeli Jaih, to a Bus in Tel Aviv 


By Barton G e l lman 

Washinpon Past Service 

KALKILYA, Israeh-Occupjed West 

Bant For many years they marched in 

st^rwo cousins born ^ same day 
smoldering Palestinian wwn^Israel^^ 

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cells. Both, as people ] ^5? distance, 

enemies but to build their houses in illegal 
construction jobs. Mr. Souwi, the son of 
Mr. Abatli’s mother’s brother, left his 
home and neighborhood and disappeared 
into an underworld. . 

Mr. Souwi surfaced on Oct 19 in Tel 
Aviv’s Dizengoff Square. He had already 
recorded a videotape, calling himself a 
“living martyr” and all ud i n g to the vio- 
lence to come. Now he boarded a rush- 
hour bus and touched off a massive explo- 
sion. Twenty-two people died with him. 

What leads one man to make such a 
choice, and another to turn away? That 
question has preoccupied Israel and espe- 
cially its Shin Bet security service, in the 
weeks since the Dizengoff bombing. 

One day last week, in the early morning 
hours. Israeli soldiers came with bulldoz- 
ers and knocked down the two-room house 
where Mr. Souwi’ s parents lived with their 
nine surviving children. The idea, the army 

said, was to deter future bombers. But even 
here, few claim to grasp why the bombers 
do what they do. 

Shin Bet’s attempt at a “martyr’s pro- 
file,” according to an official who has been 
briefed on it, cites obvious factors. 
‘-They’re young and zealous and probably 
had some member of the family lolled” by 
Israeli forces, the official said. “But what 
brings them to the next step, to deciding to 
become a suicide attacker? Who knows; 

Around the comer from Mr. Souwi’s old 
home, in Kalkilya’s crumbling Naqar 
neighborhood, Mr. Abatli spent two hours 
recently trying to explain. 

"What do you expect from Salah?” he 
demanded finally, grown weary with the 
tale. “His brother was killed, he was de- 
tained five times, he was tortured, he had 
nothing to do with bis life. What do you 

See COUSINS, Page 6 

No. 34,758 

Bosnia Fighting Rages 
As Allies Point Fingers 

Recrimination Kohl Laments 

Has Corroded 
Western Unity 

By Joseph Fitchett 

international Herald Tribune 

PARIS — What makes the crisis over 
Bosnia different from past splits in the 
North Atlantic alliance is that no one 
seems able to call a halt to the blame- 
passing between the United States and 

“We feel very good today that we^can 
accomplish the ratification this week,” he 

Supporters all along have said the Sen- 
ate; where a vote is expected Thursday, 
represents the more difficult hurdle. 

Supporters likely will need 60 of 100 
votes m the Senate to suspend rules that 

See GATT, Page 6 

They are again laying the blame at each 
other's doorsteps for the latest failure in 
Bosnia, a ritual that has marked every 
phase in the breakup of former Yugosla- 

Even if a political pirouette saves the 
allies from an all-out diplomatic confron- 


ration, it will be hard to undo the corrosive 
effect of more than three years of buck- 

Almost every ostensible Western part- 
nership has dissolved into recrimination at 
one time or another: the United Nations 
and NATO; the United States and Eu- 
rope; Germany, Britain and France. Any- 
one seems to be a ripe target for blame 
except the Serbs, who have never lost sight 
of their goal of conquesL 
Allied governments often clashed bitter- 
ly during the Cold War, sometimes over 
urgent issues such as nuclear weapons or 
the 1956 Suez crisis. Invariably, however, 
the tensions would be resolved or papered 
over. In bleak contrast, disarray this time 
has deepened Western paralysis and erod- 
ed NATO’s foundations. 

This basic fracture pits the United 
Slates — idealistically stressing resistance 
to Serbian aggression but declining to pro- 
vide ground forces — against Western Eu- 
rope, whose cynical-sounding policy of 
seeking a settlement on almost any terms 
never succeeded. 

The most flagrant episode occurred m 
May 1993, when the new Clinton adminis- 
tration sent Secretary of State Warren M. 
Christopher to Europe with a proposal to 
lift the arms embargo on Bosnian govern- 
ment forces while protecting them with 
allied air strikes. ... 

The humiliating failure of his mission 
was attributed by Washington to the allies' 
inability to take strong action, even in 
dealing with a problem that European gov- 
ernments had sought to handle themselves. 

Britain and France accused the Clinton 
administration of promoting policies de- 
signed to placate U.S. hard-liners rather 
titan foster negotiations. 

In the current version. U.S. congress- 
men accuse the United Nations of refusing 
to use NATO airpower more aggressively. 

But Europeans reply that U.S. encour- 
agement of the Bosnian Muslims can be 
held responsible for the latest Serbian con- 
quest, insinuating that Washington is hap- 
py to court Arab regimes by promoting 
Muslim ambitions in Europe. 

Similarly, Washington and Europe have 
traded accusations over every partition 
plan for Bosnia advanced by their media- 

Washington finally came around to a 
map, European officials maintain, only 
See BLAME, Page 6 


.Con adairMA 

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6 A Disgrace 
For Europe 9 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

BRUSSELS — With the UN -designated 
“safe haven" of Bihac at the mercy of 
Serbian forces, European Union ministers 
struggled Monday to save a discredited 
policy in the former Yugoslavia from com- 
plete collapse. 

The bickering and finger- pointing 
among the allies was extraordinary. De- 
fense Secretary Malcolm Rifkind of Brit- 
ain said that U.S. congressional critics of 
Britain's Bosnia policy were “behaving 

Of events in the besieged Bosnian town 
of Bihac, Chancellor Helmut Kohl of Ger- 
many said, “What is happening there is a 
disgrace for a civilized Europe.” His Chns- _ 
lian Democratic Union called for the lift- 
ing of the arms embargo on Bosnia's gov- > 
eminent to allow it to defend itself. 

Far from the squabbling and hand-, 
wringing about what to do, Serbian and 
Bosnian government troops fought for a 
sixth day around Bihac. “It’s impossible to 
move the dead or wounded.” said Peter 
Kessler, a refugee official. “They are left 
lying where they felL" {Page 2) 

Three NATO air strikes on Serbian posi- 
tions last week near Bihac were ineffective, 
and repeated international appeals for a 
cease-fire have been ignored. 

Critics in the United States have held 
the United Nations partly responsible for 
the deteriorating situation in Bosnia for 
blocking air strikes against Serbian posi- 
tions. The UN undersecretary-general, 
Kofi Annan, said Monday: “I believe the 
UN is being made a scapegoat, and, of 
course, we do have a scapegoat function." 

But he added, in an apparent reference 
to the United States, that it was "absolute- 
ly unfair when member states do not want 
to take the risk, when they do not want to 
commit the resources but blame the UN 
for failure to acL” 

There was even talk from Russia and 
Ukraine of withdrawing their peacekeep- 
ing troops. “If cur contingent there is 
treated with disrespect, we simply should 
no longer send our soldiers," President 
Leonid Kuchma of Ukraine said in Kiev. 

Mr. Kuchma strongly backed Russia's 
position that an increased role for the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization would 
endanger the lives of United Nations 

Defense Minister Pavel S. Grachev of 
Russia said Moscow may consider with- 
drawing its peacekeepers from the former 

In their meeting here, EU foreign minis- 
ters agreed to step up diplomatic efforts to 
find a negotiated settlement. But they 
failed to come up with any new initiatives. 

“The choice for this week is do we j ust 
sit back and see a new war,” Foreign 
Secretary Douglas Hurd of Britain said as 
be arrived for the meeting, “or do we build 
up pressure again for a negotiated settle- 
ment?” . „ 

Mr. Hurd said it was a “cruel illusion to 

believe heavy NATO air strikes, previously 
advocated by Washington, could stop the 
war. Only a huge allied army could do that. 

See BOSNIA, Page 6 


Serial Killer Slain 
In a U.S. Prison 

Jeffrey Dahmer, the Milwaukee man 
who confessed to murdering 17 men and 
boys and to cannibalizing some of them, 
was killed Monday in prison. 

A fellow inm ate was taken into custo- 
dy, said a state corrections official. A 
bloody broom handle was found at the 
scene, but it was not known if it was used 
to kill Mr. Dahm er- A corrections de- 
partment spokesman said Mr. Dahmer, 
34, had “very severe, extensive head inju- 
ries." fPage 6) 

Cvsuv Nacahno/Rmun 

REPLACEMENT WORKERS — Passengers toting their baggage Mon- 
day at the Barcelona airport after workers of the Spanish national earner 
Iberia walked off the job. Tbe strike, which a JOTeramait 
illegal grounded all Iberia flights and paralyzed Spanish airports. Page 6. 

Book Review 

Page 5. 
Page 5. 
Page 23. 
Page 24. 

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A New Generation Swells the U.S. Work Force: Women Over 50 

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By Louis Uchi telle 

Hew York Tunes Service 

NEW YORK — They were members of the last 
generation to come of ^before the women's move- 
Srot look hold in the 1960s. Manymg early and m 
huge numbers, they had opecled notto work. But 
t£fL Kves have played out much differently. 

* WomS now 50s have piled mto the U.S. 

work force in big numbers m the last decade and a 
S Today the college-educated among them are as 
l^dy to bold jobs as any group of younger women. 

The women’s movement made work a widely ac- 
cented alternative to a life centered on the home. But 
Smany cases, the move into the workplace was not 
the low-pressure choice that these women would have 

pl \!Sa£financial pressures have always pushed some 

women into the labor force, many college-educated 
women now in their 50s took jobs for economic 
reasons largely new to their generation — after divorce 
left them without enough income, or because a hus- 
band could no longer support the family alone. 

Whatever the reasons, many women in their 50s 
who hold jobs say the change has been strikingly 

About 80 percent of the nearly 3 million American 
women between the ages of 50 and 60 who graduated 
from college are now m the work force, according to 
estimates based on new data collected by the Labor 
Department, which has just begun to break down 
employment regularly by age and education. 

Nearly three-quarters of them hold full-time jobs. 
Both figures roughly match those of any group of 
younger college-edu ca ted women. 

Employment among all women in their 50s, educat- 
ed or not, also has risen steeply in the past decade, to 
8.1 million women, or 65 percent of this age group, up 
from 54 potent in 1984. College-educated women 
accounted for most of the gain. Labor Department 
officials said. 

At the same time, while the number of women in 
their 50s in the labor force has risen sharply, the 
participation rate for men in their 50s has fallen over 
the past decade by more than 2 percentage points, to 
about 83 percent. The rate for the college-educated 
among them is higher. 

Ibis age group also was the first to experience a 
high divorce rate — more than 30 percent of all 
marriages — and many divorced women had to work 
to support themselves." 

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men let them have — in personnel, public relations, 
education, real estate, social services, health care, 
government and not-for-profit organizations. 

They have been helped by the fact that the economy 
in recent years has created these types of jobs more 
frequently than other types, in the view of Heidi 
Hartman, director of the Institute for Women’s Policy 
Research in Washington. 

Affirmative-action programs begun in the late 
1960s also helped these women. But many college-' 
educated women in their 50s attributed their gains in 
large part to a flexibility that was forced on them. 
They had trained for the work force, they said, 
through years of juggling children, households, gradu- 
ate school and the occasional work that in many cases 

See WORK, Page 11 


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Underlying Unity of Serbs Is Demonstrated in Bihac Battle 


Units of Croatia and Bosnia 
In Attack on Muslim Haven 

By Roger Cohen 

Nr* York Times Service 

ZAGREB, Croatia — The 
conflict over the Muslim en- 
clave of Bihac has shown the 
enduring unity of Serbian pur- 
pose in establishing a single, 
contiguous homeland stretch- 
ing From Belgrade through 
western Bosnia to the southern 
heartland of Croatia. 

The battle for this small town 
in northwestern Bosnia has also 
Shown that despite endless reso- 


lutions and contortions, the 
United Nations and the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization 
have found no effective means 
and no acceptable peace' plan to 
combat this Serbian nationalist 
vision that lies at the heart of 
the current Balkan war. 

It was in the area of Croatia 
just over the border from Bihac 
that the Yugoslav conflict be- 
gan to take form in 1990. Serbs 
in and around Knin, alarmed 
by the possibility of Croatian 
secession from Yugoslavia, 
started to organize a rebellion. 

Nobody took much notice. 
Serbian complaints about Cro- 
atian nationalist symbols that 
recalled the massacre of Serbs 
in World War II and the loss of 
their status as a constituent 
people of Croatia were abstruse 
and seemingly unimportant- 

Four years later, the same 
Croatian Serbs under the same 
recalcitrant politicians have 
come roaring back. This month, 
they surged over what is sup- 
posedly an international border 
to give decisive help to their 
hard-pressed fellow Serbs in 
Bosnia in crushing the Muslim- 
led government army in Bihac. 

“The involvement of Serbs 
from Croatia in the attack on 
Bihac has been outrageous," 
Michael Williams, a spokesman 
for the UN peacekeeping force 
here, said Sunday. 

This huge intervention in 
Bosnia of the Serbs of Krajina. 
the large swath of Croatia that 
they occupy, has revealed some 
discomforting facts at a time 
when it had become popular 
among Western politicians to 
try to deal with Serbia, the 
Serbs of Bosnia and the Serbs of 
Croatia as distinct political 

Most fundamentally, it has 
shown that when necessary, the 
Bosnian Serbian commander. 
Genera] Ratko Mladic, can lead 
a mixed force of Serbs from 
Bosnia and Croatia in pursuit 
of his conviction that “borders 
are drawn with blood.” With 
his own army stretched, this 
was crucial in Bihac. 

The offensive has also sug- 
gested that President Slobodan 
Milosevic of Serbia, or at least 
his army, may not be as absent 
from the continued pursuit of 
the Serbian nationalist vision as 
he has suggested since breaking 
with the Bosnian Serbs this 
summer over their refusal to ac- 

cept an international peace 

Milan Martic, a former pro- 
vincial policeman who is the 
leader of the Krajina Serbs, vis- 
its Belgrade at the beck and call 
of Mr. Milosevic. He was there 
Wednesday. There is no evi- 
dence that Serbia's president 
tried to hold him back from the 
Bihac assault. 

Moreover, Western military 
analysts said that among the 
impressive array of Serbian sur- 
face-to-air missile systems that 
surround the Bihac pocket on 
Croatian territory, there is a 
modernized SAM-2 system 
whose sophistication suggests 
that it was probably brought 
there recently from Belgrade. 

The buildup of Serbian 
weaponry reflects the impor- 
tance of control of the Bihac 
enclave, or at least the disabling 
of Muslim forces there, to the 
dream or a Greater Serbia. 

A vital but long unusable 
railroad line connecting Knin 
to Banja Luka and Belgrade 
runs through Bihac. If the Bos- 
nian government does not con- 
trol Bihac. western Serbian 
lands are consolidated. 

Beyond this long-term strate- 
gic consideration, it seems clear 
that the Bihac assault has 
served Mr. Milosevic’s immedi- 
ate purposes. 

He has been under increasing 
U.S. pressure to accept a settle- 
ment with Croatia that would 
oblige him to hand back the oil- 
rich and fertile Serb-occupied 
part of Croatia around the town 
of Vukovar. 

This proposed Croatian set- 
tlement, conceived by Washing- 
ton as attainable even as the 
war continued, has been oblit- 
erated by the Bihac atiack. 
which has infuriated Croatia. 

Mr. Milosevic, who would do 
almost anything rather than 
give back the Vukovar area, 
bordering the Danube, has thus 
gained an important political 

He has also watched a star- 
tling demonstration of the pow- 
erlessness of the United Na- 
tions to control the conflict. It 
seems clear that the balance of 
forces on the ground will con- 
tinue to dictate its course. 

it also appears that an inter- 
national peace plan, offering 51 
percent of Bosnia to the Mus- 
lim- Croatian federation and 49 
percent to the Serbs, may be 
dead because the Serbs have 
shown again — this time in Bi- 
hac — that they can dictate pol- 
icy tftrouEh force. 

Under the truce that ended 
the Croatian war in late 1991. 
the Croatian Serbs were sup- 
posed to be disarmed by the 
United Nations. The meager 
extent of that disarmament is 
now as apparent as the absurdi- 
ty of the UN designation of a 
town like Bihac as a “safe area," 
a place that the United Nations 
is technically bound to protect. 

If the unity of Serbian goals 
has been demonstrated by the 
Bihac crisis, so, too, has the 

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Using electric cables and what is left of a destroyed bouse, some Sarajevo children found a way to amuse themselves- 

UN Seeks Cease-Fire at Battered Enclave 

The Associated Press 

SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Herze- 
govina — Heavy artillery, mor- 
tar and machine-gun fire bat- 
tered the Bihac area of 
northwest Bosnia, UN officials 
said Monday. 

The fighting raged as the 
United Nations waited for a re- 
sponse from the Bosnian Serbs 
to a call for a cease-fire. 

Lieutenant Colonel Jan-Dirk 
von Mervddt, a UN military 
spokesman, reported fighting 
east and northeast of the UN- 
declared “safe area” that cen- 
ters on Bihac. He described the 
situation as tense and unstable. 

“Hellish fights are going on 

in the outskirts, while the center 
of town is s haking from artillery 
detonations and infantry fight- 
ing,” Hamdija Kabiljagic, the 
mayor of the Bihac region, said 
over a ham radio link to report- 
ers in Sarajevo. 

Shelling also was reported to 
the north in and around the 
government-held town of Ve- 
uka Kladusa, which has been 
raked by artillery, tank and 
small-arms fire for two weeks. 

Peter Kessler, a UN relief of- 
ficial in Zagreb, Croatia, said 
water had been cut off entirely 
to Velika Kladusa and partially 
to Bihac. 

Colonel von Merveldt, citing 

an overnight field report, said 
two “stray” rounds fell on the 
grounds of Bihac's main hospi- 
tal, where 2.000 patients are 
jammed into an 800-bed facili- 
ty. No injuries were reported. 

Viktor Andreyev, a UN civil 
affairs officer from Russia, was 
reported seeking approval by 
the Bosnian Serbs of a proposed 
cease-fire in the Bihac area. 

While there was no official 
response from Pale, the Bosni- 
an Serbian stronghold east of 
Sarajevo, the official Bosnian 
Serbian press agency indicated 
that the plan was unacceptable 
for the Serbs because they are 
seeking “an agreement on the 

end of the war throughout 
Bosnia, with no time limita- 

The Bosnian government late 
last week proposed a three- 
month cease-fire, but the Serbs 
rejected it because they suspect 
that the weakened Bosnian gov- 
ernment would use the time to 
rally its forces for a fresh offen- 
sive after winter ends. 

Meanwhile. Belgrade media 
quoted an unnamed Bosnian 
Serbian spokesman as saying 
that the detention of more than 
400 UN troops was a “mistake" 
and that they would be freed. 
UN aides could not confirm 
when this would take place. 

ON Says North Korea Froze Reactor 

VIFNNA fReutenn — North Korea has halted its -nuclear 
ii^Zrfhuildin- two nuclear reactors m accordance 
S^Ta^rd^e&States, the United Nations atomic 

safeguards agency Aeencv said that inspectors 

iZ? 6 Korealast week hid visited atomic sites and 


Taedhona^i confirmed that these facilities were not m oration 
and that construction work had stopped, the agency said. . 

Chechnya Eases Ultimatum to Russia 

GROZNY. Russia (AP) — The president of Russia’s break- 
away Chechnya region toned down a threat Monday to execute 
about 70 captured Russians, saying they would be judged acooni- 

^But Se'SrS^ihokar Dudayev, did not lift the ultraam m 

entirely, giving Russia until 6 P.M. Tuesday to admt that «s 
s we involved in a faded attempt Saturday in the Otecfaen 
capital Grozny, to overthrow ibe Dudayev government. If they 
deny it the Chechen Republic has ihenght to treat the pnsoMn 
as mercenaries and criminals," Mr. Dndayev Mid. A^w»t200 
opposition fighters were captured in the assault and about -70 of 

'iem reportedly are Russians. 

Russia’s Security Council planned to discuss the Chechnya 
w ” j «i»> nai-lin mm t sneaker. Ivan Rvbkrn_ “It 

Nepal’s Ruling Party Steps Down 

KATMANDU, Nepal (AP) — The tilling Nepali Congress 
Party bowed out of the race to form a government on Monday and 
paved the way for Nepal’s first Communist government. 

Congress Party leaders met Monday but could not agree on how 
to keep power. A spokesman, Tara Nath Rana Bhal said the 
meeting decided that the party would stay in the opposition since 
talks with the Co mm unists and the pro-monarchy group to form a 
coalition government had failed. 

Turkey Spurns Kurd’s Peace Plan 

EU Patches Over Split on Admitting East 


The loving family and friends of 


regretfully announce his untimely 
passing on November 27ih, 
in Tmuvllle - ilie place where 
John chose 10 live. 

A service will be held on 
November 30ih 3 p m. at 
the EgUse N.P. ties viauires, 
Wvd. d'Hauipuul, in Trouville, 
followed by ihe Initial nemby. 


Since 1854 


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weakness and disorientation of 
the Bosnian government. 

By Tom Buerkle 

ins emotional Herald Tribune 

BRUSSELS — European Union foreign 
ministers agreed Monday on a strategy for 
bringing Eastern European countries into 
the Union, but only after fudging wide 
differences on trade, aid and farm policies 
that threatened to split the community. 

The German -forged compromise looked 
very likely to ensure a smooth summit 
meeting for Chancellor Helmut Kohl in 
Essen next week, when EU leaders are 
supposed to formally endorse the plan for 
expanding to the EasL 

But the debate Monday revealed the 
battle lines already forming within the 
Union. Britain and the Netherlands are 
pushing hard for greater concessions to the 
East, while France, Spain and Portugal are 
pressing bard on the brakes. 

“It was a very disjointed discussion," an 
EU official said of the ministers’ talks 
here. “It wasn't at all clear they were talk- 
ing about the same thing.” 

The most critical part of the discussions 

concerned agriculture. Farm subsidies 
make up half the Union’s annual budget of 
66 billion European currency units (S81 
billion), and extending them to the mil- 
lions of small fanners in Poland. Hungary 
and other Eastern European countries 
would require a huge increase in spending. 

Britain’s foreign secretary, Douglas 
Hurd, argued that the Union should com- 
mit itself now to rethinking its farm subsi- 
dies to facilitate the entry of (he Eastern 

it's a discussion that certainly we 
cannot avoid,” he said. 

Mr. Hurd was strongly supported by 
Hans van Mierlo. the Dutch minister, who 
said the Union also would have to consider 
trimming internal development aid to poor 
pons to make way for the East. 

Jut southern EU countries. led by- 
France and Spain, the biggest beneficiaries 
of existing farm spending, argued success- 
fully against making any commitments on 
agriculture reform now. Instead, the minis- 
ters called on the EU’s Executive Commis- 

sion to study alternative farm strategies 
and report back in a year’s time. 

“It’s too early to say more ” a German 
official said. This official said Bonn was 
determined to avoid a dash over-ihe issue 
at the Essen summit meeting Dec. 9 and 
10 . 

The ministers puijtfLariecision on trade 
concessions in favor of waiting for a com- 
mission proposal, expected Wednesday, 
that would amend rules of origin to allow 
more imports from the East. A commission 
source said the proposal would be “mod- 
est” because of concerns by Portugal that a 
more generous opening would hurt its tex- 
tile industry. 

Similarly, the ministers put off a tough 
debate over balancing EU aid to the East 
with efforts for the Mediterranean region. 

They rejected a commission plan to set 
spending through the end of the decade, 
instead agreeing to bolster aid about 10 
percent next year to 1.1 billion Ecus for the 
East and 492 million Ecus for North Africa 
and the Middle East 

ANKARA (Reuters) — The Kurdish guerrilla leader Abdullah 
Ocalan called for a cease-fire and international mediation to end 
separatist insurgency in Turkey, but the government on Monday 
rejected any talks with the rebels. 

Mr. Ocalan, known within the outlawed Kurdish Workers Part)' 
as Apo, presented his proposals to end the decade-old conflict, 
which has killed 13,000 people, in a weekend letter to world 
leaders. Its contents were published in a pro-Kurdish daily. 


Slow Start lor Belgian Channel Train 

BRUSSELS (Reuters) — Belgium's Eurostar Channel tunnel 
train service is operating at about a quarter full since its launching 
Nov. 14, according to figures released Monday by Belgian rail- 

“We had a load factor of around 28 percent in the first week and 
that fell to around 17 percent in the second week,” a spokesman 
responsible for Eurostar said. 

Passengers also will have to make part of their journey on 
Eurostar by bus on Tuesday because of a 24-hour strike in Belgian 
public service companies. Passengers will be transported from 
Brussels to UUe, France, where they will link up with the train. 
There are two Brussels-London runs a day. 

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines and the Surinam airline SLM are 
lowering most of their fares for flights between the Netherlands 
and Surinam by 10 percent to boost traffic outside peak season. 
The fare change becomes effective Jan. i. ( Bloomberg) 

Bombay was partly paralyzed by a general strike Monday called 
by opposition parties to protest police action blamed for trigger- 
ing the deaths of 113 demonstrators in a stampede last week in 
Nagpur. (Reuters! 

The Australian Embassy in Cambotfia has revised its travel 

advisory, warning that nonessential travel outside the capital 
should be avoided, after the killing of two Australian hostages 
there this year. The warning said air travel in an organized group 
to visit Angkor Wat was possible, but that nationals should first 
contact die embassy for “specific security advice." (Reuters) 

An airport refuelers strike forced the cancel lation of flights and 
caused delays in Sydney on Monday. (Rewers) 

Many of Jamaica's 37.000 dvfl servants began a two-day walkout 
Monday over the government's refusal to pay retroactive raises in 
a lump sum in December. (Reuters) 

In Spain, It’s Been an Exceptional Year — of Sorts — for Embezzlers 

By Barry James 

Inumatlond Herald Tribune 

Even for a country that has lived 
with a sense of the picaresque since 
the time of Cervantes, it has been an 
extraordinary year for Spain. 

The former governor of the nation- 
al bank has been indicted for tax 
evasion, pie chief of the Civil Guard 
is a fugitive from justice. The gover- 
nor of one of the country’s most im- 
portant regions has begun a six-year 
prison sentence for embezzlement. 
Its wealthiest financier is in jaiL And 
the former chairman of one of its 
biggest private banks has just been 
indicted for fraud. 

Cases of venality, large and small, 
have mushroomed to such an extent 
that a senior judge, Baltasar GarzOo, 
said last week that the government of 
Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez had 
become illegitimate in the eyes of 
many citizens. Mr. Garzon, formerly 
Spain's top drugs investigator, 
warned that generalized corruption 
was undermining the democratic sys- 

To make matters worse for Mr. 
Gonzdlez, who has not otherwise 
been the direct target of accusations 

himself in 12 years in office, a Madrid 
newspaper, El Mundo, says that he 
threw a lucrative government con- 
tract in the direction of his brother- 
in-law. Mr. GonzAlez denies it, and El 
Mundo has been unable to substanti- 
ate its accusation. Still the publicity 

Spanish corruption, less 
institutionalized than in 
Italy, and less political 
than in France, has a 
grotesque quality that 
sets it apart. 

has been a further blow to a govern- 
ment that has steadily lost support 
because of the corruption issue. 

Customarily, it has been taken for 
granted in Spain that people will use 
positions of influence or authority to 
feather their nests. Under the Franco 
dictatorship, when corruption was 
even more rampant, the historian Sal- 
vador de Madariaga railed against 

“the unproductive (if not destructive) 
greed of the drones and locusts of the 
regime that are eating the nation’s 

What has changed is that Spain has 
transformed itself in 20 years from a 
rightist dictatorship to a democracy 
with a feisty press that makes venali- 
ty seem more apparent 

Spanish corruption, less institu- 
tionalized than in Italy, and less po- 
litical than in France, has a grotesque 
quality that sets it apart Take the 
example of Luis Roldan Ibanez, a 
taxi driver’s son who rose through 
Socialist Party ranks without qualifi- 
cations to become head of the Civil 
Guard, the 70,000-man paramilitary 
national police force. 

During the eight years be ran the 
force, he amassed conspicuous 
wealth and real estate until the gov- 
ernment removed him and charged 
him with embezzlement The prose- 
cutor said he had taken kickbacks on 
contracts to build Civil Guard bar- 
racks and dipped into the secret slush 
fund the force keeps to pay informers 
and conduct undercover operations. 

Before he could be brought to trial 
however, Mr. Rold&n dropped out of 

sight in April and the police have 
been looking for him at home and 
abroad ever since. Some critics say 
the government is not looking too 
hard, for Mr. Roldan boasted that he 
possessed information that could 
bring down his opponents. 

With Mr. Rolddn's escape un- 
doubtedly in mind, a court this 
month set a 12 billion-peseta (£95 
million) bail for the jet-set former 
banker Mario Conde after indicting 
him for fraud and embezzlement. The 
government also ordered a round- 
the-clock police watch on Mr. Conde. 

He left behind a $4,8 billion hole aL 
Banes to, one of Spain's biggest pri- 
vate banks, which he ran for seven 
yearn before being deposed by the 
Bank of Spain 11 months ago. Mr. 
Conde, 46, once seen as a potential 
rival to Mr. Gonzalez, blamed his fall 
on a political conspiracy. 

Few of the mighty have fallen as 
far and as fast as the Catalan finan- 
cier Javier de la Rosa Marti, who Iasi 
month exchanged his luxury Barcelo- 
na apartment for a tiny jail cell 
which he shares with two other pris- 

The public prosecutor has accused 

him of falsifying commercial docu- 
ments and embezzling the savings of 
9,000 small investors, valued at 30 
billion pesetas, in the Grand Tibi- 
dabo company, part of the financier's 
maze-like Quaff Foundation. 

It is a mystery how Mr. de la Rosa 

Spain has transformed 
itself in 20 years from a 
rightist dictatorship to a 
democracy with a feisty 
press that makes venal- 
ity seem more apparent. 

was able to persuade so many people 
to trust their cash with him, given the 
family history — his father fled the 
country in 1979 after being indicted 
in a property scam — and his own 
association with a string of spectacu- 
lar business failures and bankrupt- 
cies. The Kuwait Investment Office 
lost some 500 billion pesetas in the 
collapse of Mr. de la Rosa's Grupo 

Torras and other disastrous invest- 

A major difference between Spain 
and Italy (and to a lesser extent 
France) is the absence of a crusading 
anti-corruption judiciary with any 
sense of urgency. In Barcelona, Alqo 
Buxeres Pons, 82, is still on trial for 
an alleged stock market swindle for 
which he was indicted 12 years ago. 

The former governor of the Bank 
of Spain, Mariano Rubio, whose sig- 
nature still appears on banknotes, 
was arrested in May and charged 
with evading (axes on speculative 
stock earnings. He spen t two weeks in 
jail before being released on bail 
There is no sign that he or the former 
chairman of the Madrid stock ex- 
change, Manuel de la Concha, who 
was arrested at the same time, will be 
brought to trial any time soon. 

In fact, the only conspicuous suc- 
cess of the judiciary this year has 
been the six-year prison sentence 
passed last month on Juan Honnae- 
chea, the caudillo of the Cantabria 
region. The first regional governor to 
be convicted, the autocratic Mr. Hor- 
maechea threatened not to resign, but 
finally stepped down this month. 

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Balancing the Budget: Possible Theoretically but ‘Painful as Hell’ Politically 

Rv T^axrirl c n * i. 

By David E. Rosenbaum 

Ntw York Times Service 

- W ^^ GTON — In mid- Jan u- 
toe .House of Represen ta ti ves 
l;vote on a constitutional amend- 
ment to require a balanced federal 
budget H will be “our first smashing 
victory, said Representative Newt 
Gingnch 0 f Georgia — a safe politi- 
cal forecast 

But then what? If the Senate also 
passes it and it is ratified by 38 
states and becomes part of the con- 
stitution, can the budget actually be 
balanced early in the next century, 
as the Republicans promise? 

And can they do it as they claim, 
wtOMKit raising taxes or touching So- 
cial Security retirement beneefits 
and with cuts in the military budget 
much smaller than those President 
Bill dm ton has proposed? 

Theoretically, yes. Politically, the 
prospects are daunting. 

In March, Representative Gerald 
BJi. Solomon, a senior Republican 

from upstate New York, proposed 
such a budget in the House. Only 73 
representatives voted for it; 342, in- 
cluding Mr. Gingrich, who will pre- 
sumably be the next speaker of the 
House, voted a gains t it. 

The Solomon budget is important 
because it is the only existing pro- 
gram-by-program, hue- by-line ac- 
counting of how the budget can be 
balanced and meet the Republican 
specifications of no additional taxes, 
no reduction in Social Security and 
military cots only half as deep as the 

An examination of the One prim 
shows what the cuts would entail. 
Beginning in the 1995 fiscal year, 
they would total about 5700 billion 
over five years and well over 51 tril- 
lion over seven. Even more cuLs 
would be needed if Republicans fol- 
lowed through on another promise 
— to reduce taxes. 

"It’s painful as hdLT Mr. Solo- 
mon, who is expected to be the new 
chairman of the Roles Committee, 

said in an interview. “But eventually 
you have to stop talking about it in 
the abstract and begin dealing with 
the details.” 

Under his plan, federal spending 
on environment would be cut by 44' 
percent, on agriculture by 72 per- 
cent, on foreign aid by 32 percent, 
on transportation by 29 percent, on 
co mmuni ty and regional develop- 
ment by 40 percent and on energy by 
65 percent. 

Medicare and Medicaid spending 
would be cut by much more than 
$100 billion over five years, with 

upper-income retirees having to pay 
'eafth if 

much more for their health insur- 
ance than they do now and poor 
people restricted to certain doctors 
and hospitals. 

Spending on income security, a 
budget cates 

Iget category that includes wel- 
fare and almost all other programs 
for the poor, would be reduced by 
$150 billion over five years, or about 
12 percent. 

At the same time, spending on 
job-training would be cut in half. 
And states would have to pick up 
part of the cost of food stamps and a 
larger share of foster-care expenses.' 

Dozens of federal activities would 
be abolished altogether, including 
economic aid to Russia, almost all 
agriculture price supports, construc- 
tion of a space station, grants for 
new sewer systems, subsidies for 
Am Irak operations and air service to 
isolated communities, economic de- 
velopment grants to local govern- 
ments, the national service corps and 
the legal services corporation. 

“This is a radical restructuring of 
government, cutting or eliminating 
wholesale huge swaths of the govern- 
ment as we know it,” said Martha 
Phillips, executive director of the 
Concord Coalition, a bipartisan 
group devoted to eliminating the 
federal budget deficit. 

The Concord Coalition has its 
plan to balance the budget. But it 

would require wealthy Americans to 
sand ft 

pay more in taxes and forgo some of 
their Social Security benefits, provi- 
sions opposed by the Republicans. 

Gene Sperling, a White House 
economic adviser, said the spending 

ample, Mr. Solomon would turn 
over the government’s air traffic op- 
eration to a private corporation, a 
shift Mr. Clinton supports, saving 
the government more than $30 bil- 
lion over five years. 

cuts in the Solomon plan would be 

“Draconian for poor children and go 
far beyond what many Americans 
think would be reasonable." 

But Mr. Spelling said Mr. Solo- 
mon deserved credit for “patting 
forth a line-by-line, item-by-item 
plan like this." 

Mr. Solomon made a few conces- 
sions to practical politics. For exam- 
ple, dairy price supports would be 
retained, while all other agriculture 
subsidies would be abolished. Why? 
Perhaps because Mr. Solomon’s con- 
stituents in the Hudson River Valley 
produce more than a billion pounds 
of milt a year. 

The main opponent of such a step 
is the private plane industry, and as 
long as Bob Dole of Kansas is the 
Senate’s majority leader, the mea- 
sure is bound to face trouble. 

Beech craft, Cessna and Learjet 
aircraft are manufactured in Kansas, 
a state the spokeswoman for the 
General Aviation Manufacturers 
Association calls “the capital of our 

But even Republicans voted 
against the measure by a 2-to- 1 mar- 
gin. Mr. Gingrich said at the time 
that he opposed it because he did not 
want to draw attention from a Re- 
publican alternative budget that 
would have reduced the deficit by 
only a fifth as much as the Soloinon 

The Republican alternative was 
rejected more or less along party 

Many other proposed cuts would 
surely run into roadblocks. For ex- 

When the Solomon budget was 
debated on the House floor in 
March, a supporter, Representative 
Dick Zimmer, Republican of New 
Jersey, declared, “Those of us who 
advocate a balanced budget have a 
moral responsibility to get specific 
and show how it can be done." 

Mr. Solomon said last week that 
many more lawmakers would have 
supported him if his proposal had 
stood any chance of being approved. 
Since it was sure to be defeated. -he 
said, man y colleagues saw little 
point in casting a vote that could be 
used against them by groups of con- 

Bui he said that even next year, 
with Republicans in control of the 
House, he was not sure he would get 
more than about 150 voles on his 


Grooming Mew Congress; Matter of Style 

WASHINGTON — With Republicans eager to charge 
in the first Congress they have controlled in 40 years, senators 
and representatives return to Washington this week to choose 
the leaders who will set the legislative tone for the next two 

Ideology is only minimally involved in the leadership 
fights. The competition is more over styles, conciliatory 
versus combative. But the legislative record of the 104th 
Congress may depend more on such mechanics than on the 
substance of any campaign promises. 

. Formally, it is the outgoing 103rd Congress that will 
convene this week, to vote on an international trade agree- 
ment that it did not want to scare voters with before the 
election. But the 104th Congress, with 1 1 new senators and 87 
new representatives, will be holding organizational meetings. 

Much attention is focused cm contests for leadership posi- 
tions, especially die job of Senator Bob Dole's assistant 
leader, a dose race between Senator Alan K. Simpson of 
Wyoming and Senator Trent Lott of Mississippi. 

Each is quite conservative. But Mr. Simpson, who has held 
the job for 10 years, has stronger connections both to party 
moderates and Senate Democrats, while Mr. Lott boasts of 
his ties to Representative Newt Gingrich, Republican of 
Georgia, the speaker-in- wai ting. The result of that race seems 
likely to influence strongly the approach the new Republican 
majority in die Senate will take, especially if Mr. Dole decides 
to run for president. (Adam Clymer/NYT) 

Mot An Political Promises Created Equal 

WASHINGTON — The opening beD of the 104th Con- 
gress win not ring for another six weeks, but Capitol Hill’s 
bookmakers have already reached one conclusion about the 
odds that the House Republicans* ambitious “Contract with 
America" will be enacted into law: 

. . When it comes to. political contracts, not .all promises are 
created r eqiial/ ; • ' : - * 

The 0-point 'contract commits House Republicans to a 
series of up-or-dowri floor votes on a wide range of tax efits, 
spending reductions, welfare reforms and- constitutional 
changes; in the first 100 days of the new legislative session. 

Drafted by the incoming House speaker, Mr. Gingrich, and 
endorsed by many Republican lawmakers, the contract con- 
tains much that party members agree on. But it is also studded 
with a number of provisions on which there is anything but a 
consensus within Republican ranks. 

Already, some Republicans are talking privately about 
uying to split the contract’s agenda into two parts. 

“Fust, there are the things that we really need to try to pass 
and get enacted into law with Clinton’s signature," said a 
senior Republican source. “And then there are the things that 
we need to vote for, but that some of us won’t be terribly upset 
to see the Democrats loD, or Clinton veto, so they can take 
blame for it” (LAT) 

Making Capital of a Republican Tax Gut 

WASHINGTON — The newly dominant congressional 
Republicans have made cutting taxes on capital gains — 
profits on the sale of stock, bonds, real estate and other assets 
—a priority for the new Congress, and had even threatened to 
hold up the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade pact 
unless President Bill Clinton agreed to go along. These 
Republi c an s — and some Democrats as well — believe that 
cutting capital gains taxes would be good for the economy. 

Treasury Secretary Lloyd Bentsen, interviewed Sunday on 
a CBS new show, said the administration was willing to 
consider a request by Mr. Dole to cut the capital gains tax. 

Mr Bentsen said, however, that it was necessary to find a way 

of compensating for lost federal revenue if the capital gams 
tax were reduced. 

Capital a*"™ 5 ao™ a*® taxed at -a -maximum 28 percent, 
although because deductions and other breaks are phased out 
for high-income people the effective top rate can be higher. 

There are a variety of ways to reduce taxes on capital gains. 
Current law sets a special lower maximum rate for them, and 
Congress could simply reduce that ceflmg further. Previous 
laws allowed regular rates to apply, but let taxpayers exdude 
a portion of their gains from taxable income, effectively 
lowering the rate. 

Another possibility is to adjust the capital guns toaiiowio 

inflation. Proponents argue that part * 

nothing more than inflation, and since that portion does nor 
represent a real increase in value, it is unfair to tax it. 
^^Republican proposal as outlined m to House candi- 
dates* “Contract With America," would allow cojporanoM 
andindi victuals to adjust gains to account for inflation and 
exclude 50 percent of the gams from taxation. (WP) 

note /Unquote 

"A contract is a contract." said William Schneider, a 
jttcal analyst with the American^tei^lDStituij refer^ 

SSblicans’ “Contrart With Ajnwica package of 

dative changes. 1UC wins ^ 011 01611 

te said, and Republicans “must atjeast now toe a 
tcere effort to cany out their promises. (LA T) 

iy From Politics 

^jT^Zwlisbed a honie where 16 people w^attmd- 

Tennessee, kflhng ™ 

Bn *v. 1 HttKrfc Storms across the nation — 

^r^ornia to Mississippi to New Hampshire 
a total of 10 lives and stymied holiday travelers. 

Community College district, mea a icw rag 
» of a severe sore throat and lc$ pains. The 
^iv knoroas necrotizing fascuds, is a virulent, 
S$y strainof streptococcus and other gerna 
<snrce Center has banned tests with toxic 
that turned up a 
mvesti&ation found poor 

.< - DlaiuH Lma/Agroce Fianwftesac 

Mr.iSanguaoetti, right, and Vice President-elect Hugo BateOa celebrating Monday. 

Urug&ay 9 # Ex-President Is Back 

The Assoansed Pros 

MONTEVIDEO — A former president 
and opposition party candidate. Julio Maria 
Sanguinetti, won Uruguay’s closest election 
battle in recent histoiy, the government said 

President Luis Alberto Lacalle of the Na- 
tional Party called Mr. Sanguinetti to con- 
gratulate him for having won and invited him 
to meet to discuss the March 1 transition, an 
official communique said. 

Mr. Sangmnettu 58, an attorney and for- 
mer journalist representing Lbe Colorado Par- 
ty, was first elected president in 1985 to 
oversee Uruguay’s transition to civilian rule 
after 12 years ol military dictatorship. 

Presidents are barred by law from serving 
consecutive terms. 

In his second term Mr. Sanguinetti will 
oversee his nation's role in the Mercosur cus- 
toms union with Argentina. Brazil and Para- 
guay that begins Jan. 1. The pact is known as 
Mercosul in non Spanish- speaking countries. 

Uruguay's businesses, which for decades 
enjoyed protection from foreign competition, 
have been slow to prepare for Mercosur. 

Business leaders say they fear that they will 
be overwhelmed by a flood of goods from 
Argentina and Brazil and the rest of the 

Mr. Sanguinetti said he would seek to in- 
crease Uruguay’s exports: “We can no longer 
tolerate a high trade deficit," he said, refer- 
ring to the 5888 million shortfall for the year 
that ended Sept 30. 

Returns released Monday by the Interior 
Ministry, based on 85 percent of the returns, 
said the Colorados had 586,392 of the votes. 

compared with the National Party’s 566,622 
votes and 554,206 for the leftist Progressive 
Encounter. The nation has 3.2 million inhab- 


“People know what I'm about” he said 
shortly before casting his ballot “I am a 
worker, and I share their values.” 

California City Offers a Test 
Of Religious Right’s Agenda 

By Seth Mydans 

New York Times Service 

VISTA, California — In 
1992, the religious right estab- 
lished a beachhead in this 
Southern California city, win- 
ning control of the school board 
after a rough-and-tumble cam- 
paign that included many of the 
issues that now top the national 

John Shelby Dies, Ex-IHT Executive 

International Herald Tribune 

' PARIS — John Shelby, 55, 
who held a number of manage- 
ment positions on the business 
side of the International Herald 
Tribune, died of cancer Sunday 
in Trouville. France. 

Mr. Shelby was a native of 
Michigan and a 1960 graduate 
of the UJ5. Militaiy Academy 
who earned a master of busi- 
ness administration at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan in 1965. He 
joined the newspaper as a mar- 
keting assistant in 19 69, later 
becoming head of marketing 
and director of classified adver- 

. He left in 1978 to captain a 
charter barge on European ca- 
nals and rivers before returning 
in 1981 to become director of 
research and development, di- 
rector of promotion, marketing 
and pubhc relations and finally 
' assistant to the pu£ 

Mr. Shelby resigned in 1989 
to pursue other interests — 
among them as a restaurateur 
and sculptor — in Trouville. 
Enrique y Tarancon, 87, 

Was Spanish Cardinal 

VALENCIA, Spain (AP) — 
Cardinal Vicente Enrique y 
Tarancon, 87, who led Spam’s 
R oman Catholic Church during 
the country’s transition from 
dictatorship to democracy, died 
of Itmg cancer Monday in Va- 

Although bis outspoken de- 
fense of workers and demands 
for more freedom led to fre- 
quent clashes with the Franco 
government during the waning 

years of the dictators 1939-75 
regime, the cardinal was highly 
respected because of his influ- 
ence at the Vatican and his pop- 
ularity among Spaniards. 

Vida Spotin, 88, whose inno- 
vative dramatic training groups 
gave impetus to two genera- 
tions Of improvisations per- 
formers, died in Los Angeles. 

Harry Abrams, 87, who twice 
ran between Los Angeles and 
New York City in the late 
1920s, died of a brain tumor 
Sunday in Briardiff Manor, 
New York. 

The usual work of a school 
board then took a back seat as 
its 3-to-2 conservative majority 
fought to limit sex education, 
promote the teaching of crea- 
tionism, curtail breakfast pro- 
grams financed by the govern- 
ment and reintroduce prayer to 
the school Systran. 

But in a sharp reversal this 
month, even as much of the rest 
of the country was swinging to 
the right, voters in this generally 
conservative city of 76,000 
turned against the religious 
right, removing two of the new 
board members in a recall vote 
and defeating all five Christian 
conservatives who ran for the 
board’s three vacant seats. 

Opponents of the religious 
right, trumpeted the election re- 
sults ns an object-lesson in the 
unpopularity of its agenda. 
Supporters called the outcome 
an anomaly in a year when like- 
minded candidates swept into 
office throughout the country. 

Another interpretation was 
that Vista was simply trying to 
escape the scrutiny the debate 
had brought the city and was 
voting for “peace at any price." 

Whichever is correct, it was 
clear in Vista that the election 
of Christian conservatives to a 
local school board two years 
ago was not the end but the 
teginning of the battle. School 
board meetings that in the past 
had attracted 30 or so specta- 
tors now drew as many as 600 
noisy partisans, as well as re- 
porters and cameras from 
across the country. 

Urgent questions about the 
budget, school safety and aca- 
demic policy were buried in the 
tumult as meetings became a 
venue for the most elementary 
tug-of-war over the character 
and the direction of society. 

• Conservatives shouted out 
the word “God” at the appro- 
priate moment as the crowds 
recited the Pledge of Allegiance 
to start the meetings, and scien- 
tists from nearby academic in- 
stitutions waved bits of fossils 
to emphasize their opposition 
to biblical creationism. 

“Let’s get on with taking care 
of the real issues facing tins 
board,” one parent, Eric Gold- 
en, pleaded at a braid meeting 
last year, citing the possible 
bankruptcy of the school sys- 
tem. But his voice was lost in 
the uproar over issues like the 
replacement of the sex educa- 
tion course with a program 
stressing abstinence, the one 
piece of its agenda that the 
board was able to institute. 

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voting, newly elected board 
members said they planned to 
roll back the new sex education 
policy, and opponents of the 
religious right are congratulat- 
ing themselves. 

The lesson in Vista, said Ar- 
thur J. Kropp, president of Peo- 
ple for the American Way, a 
liberal group, is not the candi- 
dates’ ability to win but the 
public's reaction to their poli- 
cies once they are in office. 

“Where the rubber hits the 
road and these candidates be- 
come public officials and go 
about the business of enacting 
an agenda, there is almost al- 
ways a backlash,” he said. “Our 
public opinion research shows 
us that as long as these groups 
can talk about these things in 
vague terms, it works, but get 
them talking on specifics, and 

the public moves away.' 

Tom Corny, president of the 
Vista Teachers Association, 
whose members have strongly 
opposed the Christian right, 
said the election made a state- 
ment at a time of renewed dis- 
cussion about prayer in the 

“This election sends a very 
clear message he said, “not 
only to our community but also, 
I think, to our stale and our 
nation, and that is, keep politics 
out of education; keep religion 
out of education.” 

Not so, said Ralph Reed, 
who is head of the Christian 
Coalition, the political organi- 
zation of the television evange- 
list Pat Robertson and the na- 
tion's most powerful electoral 
engine for the religious right. 

“I don’t think you should try 
and draw conclusions about the 
most significant and conse- 
quential by-election in the post- 
war period from a single school 
board election," he said. “I 
could give you the names of 
liberal candidates who were 
elected to school boards, people 
found out what they stood for 
and threw them off.” 

He added, “I would argue 
that what happened in Vista 
was as aberration and that 
throughout the country, reli- 
gious conservatives are run- 
ning. winning and governing ef- 
fect! vdy.” 

<i «* miil 

High Court Allows Suit 
To Ban 4 Joe Camel’ Ads 

The A uociored Pro* 

preme Court refused Monday 
to kiU a lawsuit that accuses a 
cigarette maker of using Joe 
Camel, a suave cartoon charac- 
ter, to entice children to smoke. 

The justices, without com- 
ment, turned away arguments 
by RJ. Reynolds Tobacco Co. 
that federal law preempts any 
such proceeding in a California 
state court. 

Reynolds, which manufac- 
tures Camel cigarettes, was 
sued by a San Francisco lawyer, 
Janet Mangini, in 1992, two 
years after die learned of a re- 
port that said Joe Camel was as 
familiar to children as Mickey- 

She sued in state court, alleg- 
ing that Reynolds, a subsidiary 
of RJR Nabisco Inc., had vio- 
lated a California law barring 
unfair business practices. 

The lawsuit cited figures 
from the American Medical As- 
sociation that said sales of 
Camels to teenagers rose to 
$476 million in 1992 from $6 
million in 1988, when Joe Cam- 
el was introduced. 

A trial judge threw out the 
lawsuit, ruling that state regula- 
tion of smoking was blocked by 
a federal law, the Federal Ciga- 
rette Labeling and Advertising 

A state appeals court rein- 
stated the lawsuit, and its ruling 
was upheld by the California 
Supreme Court in June. 

In other cases, the court: 

• Agreed to use an Oregon 
case lo decide whether school 
districts can require student 
athletes to undergo drug test- 
ing. The court said it would 
hear the Vernonia School Dis- 
trict’s argument that manda- 
tory drug testing “may be the 
only effective way to deal with a 
drug-use epidemic among 

• Refused to reinstate a law- 
suit by a navy reservist who says 
the government should pay her 
because she contracted the 
ArDS vinis by having sex with a 
navy enlisted man. 

Agreed to decide whether 

the Constitution requires police 

with court warrants to knock 
and announce themselves be- 
fore entering a home to conduct 
a search. 




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Page 4 







When Baghdad Complies 

i fe 

There are two ways to contain Iraq. 
One, as the Clinton administration re- 
cently demonstrated, is to deter war. The 
other, which it has neglected, is to en- 
courage moves toward peace. 

■ Washington refuses to acknowledge 
Iraq's progress on arms control — a seri- 
ous and potentially dangerous mistake. It 
may be good domestic politics, but it poor- 
ly serves America’s international interests. 
Refusing to recognize positive Iraqi moves 
discourages further cooperation and drives 
a wedge between America and other mem- 
bers of the UN Security Council 

Baghda d seriously damaged its credibil- 
ity last month by staging menacing mili- 
tary maneuvers near Kuwait. After that 
ploy backfired, it reversed course and re- 
cognized Kuwait’s sovereignty and bor- 
ders. But its earlier threats devalued that 
concession; Iraq must now firm up its 
assurances chat it will never again engage 
in such provocative conduct toward its 
neighbors by agreeing to restrict its troop 
movements, give advance notice of future 
exercises and admit outside observers. 

Still three and a half years after the 
Gulf War it is time to acknowledge that 
Washington is not about to overthrow 
Saddam Hussein. Besides, no better suc- 
cessor is in sight. If Iraq is to be influenced. 
America needs to talk to the present re- 
time. Instead, the Clinton administration 
labels Iraq a “rogue state.” responsive only 
to brute force. Iraq is surely an aggressor 
state, but it can also respond rationally to 
diplomatic incentives. For two yeajs it has 
cooperated with UN arms inspectors, and 
its motive for this cooperation is clear. The 
resolution ending the Gulf War stated that 
by complying with arms control require- 
ments alone, even if it ignored other UN 
resolutions, Iraq could reclaim the right to 
sell oil on the world raarkeL 

That language, promoted by the Bush 
administration, was meant to focus Sad- 
dam Hussein’s attention on the most dan- 
gerous postwar problem, Iraq’s capacity to 
produce and use biological, chemical and, 
potentially, nodear weapons. The resolu- 
tion succeeded: Iraq began cooperating 
with arms inspectors late in 1992. while it 
has still not provided crucial information 
about past suppliers, it has maintained a 
high degree of cooperation ever since. 

But the Bush administration was not 
prepared to live up to America’s side of 
the deal, and neither, it seems, is the 
Clinton administration. 

UN inspectors are now satisfied that 
Iraq’s most dangerous weapons have been 
located and destroyed They are ready to 
begin an aggressive long-term monitoring 
program to assure that Iraq builds no 
more such weapons. A majority of the 
Security Council's permanent members, 
eager to do business with Iraq, are pre- 
pared to lift oil sanctions alter six months 
of successful monitoring, assuming that 
problems like supplier information and 
accounting for missing Kuwaiti nationals 
can be resolved. 

The United States, supported only by 
Britain, will not agree. Washington, al- 
though it never says so directly, has made 
plain that it will aot consider relief so 
long as Saddam Hussein remains in pow- 
er. That is no way to encourage Iraqi 
cooperation on arms control, or to en- 
courage allies to maintain sanctions. 

This is an awkward moment for the 
Clinton administration to reconsider its 
hard line. But if it does noL Washington 
may face even more awkward problems 
from Iraq down the road, and a break- 
down of the allied unity on which con- 
tainment of Baghdad ultimately depends. 


Defend Foreign Aid 

. The prospect of the Senate Foreign Re- 
lations Committee being led by foreign 
aid's most vehement foe is bad enough. 
But the incoming committee chairman. 
Jesse Helms, is not the most serious pro- 
blem confronting the Agency for Interna- 
tional Development In January, foreign 
assistance must navigate a congressional 
gauntlet consisting of a House and Senate 
firmly in the grip of a skeptical, conserva- 
tive Republican majority. That is the real 
challenge to the U.S. foreign aid program. 

Whether AID reaches the end of the 
legislative session in a vanquished or vic- 
torious state depends more on the admin- 
istration’s resolve and skill than on the 
opposition of one outspoken Republican 
extremist. There is a strong case for con- 
tinuing help to the developing world, if the 
Clinton administration wants to spend the 
political chits to make it. Despite stories of 
waste and fraud, foreign aid is not an 
irresponsible giveaway program. On bal- 
ance it has made sense on economic, hu- 
manitarian. security and fiscal grounds. 

Contrary to popular belief, only one- 
half of 1 percent of the total U.S. budget 
is spent by AID. In fact, the administra- 
tion is currently operating on the lowest 
budget in the history of foreign aid. The 
lion’s share of AID’S SI 3 billion budget is 

consumed by countries in the more politi- 
cally potent Middle East and Eastern 
Europe. What is left is shared by develop- 
ing nations, mostly in .Africa, where the 
world’s hungriest and most desperately 
poor are trying to survive. 

Since its inception, foreign aid has man- 
aged to survive despite unrelenting attacks 
from the isolationist wings in both parties. 
Thai is because the basic argument for 
bipartisan aid support is as sound today as 
it was when the effort was launched almost 
50 years ago by Harry Truman. Presidents 
from John Kennedy to Ronald Reagan, 
regardless of their views upon entering 
office, have ended up convinced that for- 
eign aid. even on a limited scale, is an 
indispensable tool of foreign policy. 

That message must be sustained today, 
even in a political climate where basic 
tenets of domestic and foreign policy will 
be subjected to attack on a scale unseen in 
decades. President Bill Clinton does have 
the burden of overcoming Jesse Helms. 
But he faces the larger and more important 
challenge of finding enough common 
ground between himself and members of 
the new Republican order to ensure a 
continuation of America’s role in the 
world. That spells leadership. 


America Betters Britain 

Britain, sometimes romanticized as the 
mother of some American liberties, is 
dismantling its own safeguards against 
compelled self -incrimination — at a time 
when “Miranda rights” seem to enjoy 
new respect in the United States. 

I For years British police have been 
warning arrested suspects: “You do not 
have to say anything unless you wish to 
do so, but what you say may be given in 
evidence.” That seems fair enough, al- 
though not as informative as the U.S. 
version. But Parliament has just changed 
the rules, prescribing a warning that 
seems certain to confuse and coerce sus- 
pects into forfeiting whatever right to 
silence they have. 

. The new warning: “You do not have to 
say anything. But if you do not mention 
now something which you later use in your 
defense, the court may decide (hat your 
failure to mention it now strengthens the 
case against you. A record will be made of 
anything you say and it may be given in 
evidence if you are brought to triaL” 
Thus if an arrested person exercises the 
it to silence, he may suffer for it at trial, 
could cost him the chance to offer a 
credible alibi in his own defense; the judge 
or jury would be free to discount the 
defense because it was originally withheld. 
That defies not only the safeguards against 
sdf-incrimin&tion, but worse; the entire 
criminal justice tradition of demanding 
that government prove the case against a 
defendant presumed innocent 
! Alas, the British have nothing to teach 
their former colonies on this subject Near- 

ly 30 years ago, one year before the famous 
confession cose of Miranda v. Arizona, the 
Supreme Court reversed a California mur- 
der conviction because the prosecutor and 
trial judge commented adversely on the 
defendant's failure to testify. That kind of 
comment it said, “is a penalty imposed by 
courts for exercising a constitutional privi- 
lege. It cues down on the privilege by 
making its assertion costly.” 

The “Miranda warnings” required un- 
der the high court's 1966 ruling compel 
police to tell suspects: “You have the 
right to remain suent and refuse to an- 
swer questions. Anything you do say may 
be used against you in a court of law. You 
have the right to consult an attorney 
before speaking to the police and to have 
an attorney present during any question- 
ing now or id the future. If you cannot 
afford an attorney, one wifi be provided 
for you without cost. If you do not have 
an attorney available, you have the right 
to remain silent until you have bad an 
opportunity to consult with one.” 

Senator Orrin Hatch of Utah, who is 
expected to head the Senate Judiciary 
Committee, has said that be sees no need 
to legislate in this area because the Mir- 
anda safeguards have worked. That is 
broadly true, thanks to the American 
constitutional order with its written char- 
ter of liberties, enforced by an indepen- 
dent judiciary. That enforcement has not 
been uniform, but law enforcement offi- 
cers have responded well to Miranda’s 
restraints because they are clear and fair. 


International Herald Tribune 




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Arm Muslim Fighters and Bomb Serbian Positions 

W ASHINGTON — Sir Michael 
Rose, the reincarnation of Neville 
Chamberlain, has just admitted that his 
United Nations force of 23,000 Europe- 
ans is unable to “deter” Bosnian Serbs 
from destroying cities that the Security 
Council has established as safe havens. 

That is tantamount to surrender, a 
ragtag splinter group of Serbs, with no 
power but the weaponry and willingness 
to kill civilians, has rendered the poseurs 
and pontificators of the United Nations 
helpless and contemptible. 

This proves that as a vehicle for con- 
certed military response to an aggressor 
or violator of human rights, the United 
Nations is worthless. 

Worse, its abuse of NATO’s military 
power — calling for pinprick responses, 
taking out an unmanned tank or bomb- 
ing an airstrip but sparing planes — 
makes a mockery of the Atlantic alli- 
ance’s ability to deter by the threat of 
harsh retaliation. 

The demonstration of UN impotence 
is a plus; we Americans can now stop 
kidding ourselves about a world police 
force, and reduce our financial support 
of the world body to a more equitable 10 
percent of its budget 

By William Safire 

But the willingness of Bri tain and 
France to let NATO be diddled by Unit- 
ed Nations hand-wringers is a big minus. 
The chasm opened within the alliance 
could sharply reduce America’s involve- 
ment in European defense. 

This is precisely what France wants. 
“The conflict in Bosnia,” says Foreign 
Minister Alain Juppfc, “has shown the 
necessity to move beyond NATO and 
American guarantees. French leaders 
have long thought they would more easi- 
ly dominate a European bureaucracy if 
the Americans would go home. 

A UJ5. withdrawal of its remaining 
troops, and the folding of the U.S. nucle- 
ar umbrella, is not what Britain wants. 
But the sustained fecklessness of Prime 
Minister John Major has made unspecial 
the relationship built up by strong British 
leaders through hot and cold wars. Gen- 
eral Rose’s rep ugnance at “war-making” 
when UN havens become war zones sym- 
bolizes Britain’s least fine hour. 

Both France and Britain pretend that 
America has no standing in stopping the 
slaughter in Bosnia because it is unwill- 

ing to commit myriads of ground troops 
to battle. Unless you are willing to lead 
and bleed, they say. you have no right to 
ayiyr the Serbs who could take our 
peacekeepers hostage. . 

Nonsense. The choice between doing 
nothing to stop the Serbs and sending in 
an overwhelming force of hundreds of 
of Americans is a false choice. 

The real choice Is between doing noth- 
ing, with UN peacekeeper-hostages con- 
tinuing to fail to deter the Serbs, and 
putting into action a NATO strategy to 
c hange the course of a war that will be 
l ong and bloody no matter what the West 
does. The peacekeepers have no peace to 
keep; they cannot stop the Serbs or face 
the Muslims to surrender. If they are fear- 
ful of becoming war-makers, then get 
them out of the line of fire. 

At that point. France and Britain will 
have no excuse to avoid helping Muslims 
by Hf ring the arms embargo, or to hurt 
Serbs from the air. 

Give serious bombing a chance. None 
of ibis rmddle-of-th e-night wandering 
around by a few NATO pilots, jerked in 
and out of action by a discredited UN 
commander. Let’s see what sustained de- 
struction of bridges and roads, ammuni- 

tion dumps, oil supplies am* barracks, 
nolitical gatherings and small factories 
can do to send the Serbs a .message. 

This approach is dended by the same 
horde of military experts who Mid that 
Iraq would never be conquered by an, as 
if such a pounding did not greatly soften 
the resistance of Saddam Hussein s forces. 
Ah, but Bosnia is mountainous, say the 
experts, as if modem airpower could not 
detect metal and heal or the movement ^ 
ftmire in snow. The oonnter-ah is that the 
far weaker B osnia n Serbs are untested by 
“incoming” rockets and bombs. 

America’s defeatist defense secretary 
scoffed at air power’s dispostive role on 
Sunday But, combined with arming and 
training the Muslim fighters who want to 
occupy their own country, sustained 
NATO tactical and strategic bombing of 
Serbian positions and supplies could 
help level the field of fire. - 

Yes. it would temporarily raise the levd 
of ferocity. But a rain of unrelenting pun- 
ishment would also be a powerful induce- 
ment to Serbs to end the war on taws 
already accepted by Muslims. That would 
save hundreds of thousands of lives. 

It would save NATO, too. 

The New York Times. . . 

On Bosnia, Washington Should Stop Deferring to London and Paris 

By Adrian Hastings, Norman Stone, Mark Almond, Noel Malcolm, Branka Magas 

EEDS. Eagland — To lift or 

T £ 

Lx not to lift the arms embargo 
is the central decisive question 
facing Western policymakers on 
Bosnia. The American decision to 
stop enforcing the embargo and 
the Serbs' advance on Bihac, 
which depended on their massive 
superiority in heavy weaponry, 
have brought it back into the 
headlines. But in reality this issue 
has been decisive all along. 

The arms embargo has under- 
pinned the entire structure of 
Western policies that have so sig- 
nally failed to halt the war: the 
hamstrung United Nations opera- 
tion, the fiction of “safe areas,” the 
so-called peace process — a pro- 
cess for offering the Serbs more 
and more or what they demand. 

Defenders of the arms embargo, 
such as Britain's defense secretary. 
Malcolm Rilkind. like to say that 
the difference between British 
and American policy arises be- 
cause the British, having troops 
on the ground in Bosnia, have a 
better knowledge of the facts. 

The truth is that those diver- 
gent attitudes to the embargo are 
based not so much on differences 
in knowledge as on different pre- 
ferences about the future of Bos- 
nia itself. Those who defend the 
embargo wish Bosnia to be divid- 
ed: those who call for the lifting 
of the embargo wish Bosnia to 
survive within its historical and 
internationally recognized bor- 
ders as a viable, sovereign state. 

Why have the British and 
French governments pushed so 
hard for a policy that will guaran- 
tee the destruction and permanent 
division of Bosnia? Underlying 
this policy have been three things. 

The first was their belief that 
one large state in the area was 
better than a number of small 
ones. Once it was clear that Yugo- 
slavia could not be preserved, 
their support switched to the es- 
tablishment of a Greater Serbia. 

The second was a traditional 
sympathy with Serbia as an ally 
from two world wars. British dip- 
lomats reacted positively to Ser- 
bia and Belgrade, with which they 
were weD acquainted, and nega- 
tively to Croatia, smeared as 
somehow a continuation of the 

fascist Ustasha state. Bosnia, 
meanwhile, remained unknown. 

The third was the notion, al- 
ready being disseminated in June 
1992, that the Serbs had success- 
fully seized so much of Bosnia in 
the first weeks of the war that a 
fait accompli had been created 
which the international communi- 
ty would never be able to reverse. 
The only nay to achieve peace, 
therefore, was to accept the sub- 
stance of the Serbs’ demands. 

The fatal mistake here was to 
underestimate the tenacity and 
determination of Bosnians to sup- 
port their legitimate government 
and defend the pluralist unity of 
their country. That refusal to ac- 
cept defeat has, from an early 
stage in the war, been the real 
obstacle to the f ulfillm ent of the 
British-French policy in Bosnia. 

And while Lord Owen. Doug- 
las Hurd and Alain Juppe have 
exerted more and more diplomat- 
ic pressure on the Bosnian gov- 
ernment to accept the “realities 
on the ground.” it has become 
more and more important for 
them to maintain the embargo, 
which keeps those realities artifi- 
cially fixed where they are. 


Maintaining this policy has re- 
quired a great effort on the pan of 
the British and French govern- 
ments. They have had to work 
hard to oppose all the legal, moral 
and practical arguments which cry 
out in favor of lifting the embargo. 

The legal arguments are clear. 
This embargo was not imposed 
on Bosnia; it was applied in Sep- 
tember 1991 to the whole of Yu- 
goslavia, which still functioned 
theoretically as a single state. In 
April 1992, Bosnia was recognized 
as an independent country, and in 
May it was admitted to the United 
Nations as a new member state, 
distinct and separate from Yugo- 
slavia. The only basis for continu- 
ing to apply the embargo as if the 
old Yugoslavia still existed was a 
report submitted to the Security 
Council by the UN secretary-gen- 
eral on Jan. 4, 1992, which said 
that in the opinion of Cyrus Vance 
this would be the best thing to do. 

Such a flimsy legal basis can 
hardly prevail against the funda- 

mental right of self-defense of a 
sovereign state — a right which 
the UN embargo dearly violates. 
That right is set out in Article SI 
of the UN Charter, but it is quite 
false to suppose that it is a privi- 
lege handed out to member states 
by the United Nations, which it 
can therefore withdraw when it so 
wishes. Self-defense is a funda- 
mental right in international law. 
predating the United Nations. 

The moral argument is based 
on the view that the Bosnian state 
embodied values — of democra- 
cy', pluralism and legitimacy — 
which are worth defending. Since 
Western governments will not use 
their own troops to preserve the 
Bosnian state, they must allow 
the Bosnian army to act anhin- 
' dered in defense of that state and 
the values it stands for. 

This war is not a clash be- 
tween two mirror images of eth- 
nic hostility. It is 2 conflict be- 
tween two different versions of 
society: one based on the contin- 
uation of a multiethnic and multi- 
religious life through democratic 
institutions, and the other based 
on racial-religious purity, estab- 
lished by murder, mass expul- 
sions and the destruction of reli- 
gious and cultural monuments. 

Spokesmen for the British- 
French policy always fail to men- 
tion that the government of Bos- 
nia has retained Croatian and 
Serbian members throughout the 
war. It is quite false to talk about 
Radovan Karadzic as if he repre- 
sented “the Serbs” en bloc. Of the 
1,300,000 Serbs who lived in Bos- 
nia before the war. only 600.000 
now five in the territory which 
Mr. Karadzic controls — even 
though his forces took over not 
only all the Serb-majority areas, 
but many other areas besides. 

Roughly 200,000 Serbs still live 
in the territory of the Bosnian 
government In Tuzla. Serbs have 
even formed a special brigade of 
Serbs within the Bosnian army. 
And of the hundreds of thou- 
sands of Serbs who have sought 
refuge abroad, a significant pro- 
portion are appalled by what has 
been done in their name. 

In this context, it is particularly 
wrongheaded to argue — as four 

NATO Discredited by Its Members 

N EW YORK —For four de- 
cades the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization kept the 
peace in Europe. It was an ex- 
traordinary achievement of 
trans-Atlantic cooperation. 
Now NATO may be at the end 
of its useful life. Its credibility, 
and very likely its raison d’etre, 
died under Serbian assault on 
the town of Bihac in Bosnia. 

The world’s most powerful 
military alliance was committed 
to forceful action — air attacks 
— to prevent military assaults 
on the declared safe area of Bi- 
hac. But NATO did nothing 
while General Ratko Mladic, 
the Bosnian Serb commander, 
pounded the town with artillery 
and sent his troops into the sup- 
posedly protected zone. 

The excuse for NATO's inac- 
tion was that its aircraft had not 
received a go-ahead from the 
chief of the United Nations 
force in Bosnia. Sir Michael 
Rose, a British lieutenant gener- 
al. No longer bothering to con- 
ceal ids indifference to Serbian 
aggression. Sir Michael vetoed 
proposed raids. 

Many blame the United Na- 
tions for NATO’s inaction, at 

Bihac and elsewhere in Bosnia. 
Senator Robert Dole, soon to be 
the Republican majority leader, 
said: “1 think the UN ought to 
get off of NATO’s back, and let 
NATO take care of the Serbian 

aggression in Bosnia.” 

But that view misses the cen- 
tral political reason for the 
West’s failure in Bosnia: key 
members of NATO, Britain and 
France, did not want to take 
vigorous action. They went along 
with NATO decisions to act 
more forcefully, but with the 
proviso that any step be subject 

By Anthony Lewis 

by tr 

And the UN force, with its “im- 
partial humanitarian mission,” 
tended to object every time. 

“NATO the institution is un- 
rivaled in what it could do,” an 
American official appraising 
the Bihac disaster said. “But 
NATO is only what its member 
governments decide. It’s a ques- 
tion of what they will do.” 

The failure of NATO mem- 
bers goes back more than three 
years, to the beginning of Serbi- 
an aggression in the former Yu- 
avia. That was when the 
bs, led bv members of the 
Yugoslav federal army and with 
its weapons, attacked Croatia 
and seized a large swath of its 

President George Bush decid- 
ed to opt out of a profound 
European security crisis — to 
do nothing, leaving it to the Eu- 
ropeans to act. It was a fatal 
misjudgment, perhaps fatal to 
the alliance itself. 

The alliance had always de- 
pended on American leadership; 
without that, it foundered. The 
Europeans refused to resist ag- 
gression. Instead they called for 
a limited UN “peacekeeping" 
mission to get relief to communi- 
ties besieged by the Seths. 

The mission was a hopeless 
notion from the start. There was 
no peace to keep. The UN com- 
mand became hostage to the 
dominant Serbian forces, obey- 
ing their rules, and even giving 
them part of relief shipments, in 
order to get their permission to 
feed the starving. 

Western governments went 
on with this charade for politi- 

cal reasons. They hoped to de- 
ceive their own publics into be- 
lieving that such a limited 
intervention could be sustained 
and would in due course wind 
down the war. 

The charade is over. It was 
threadbare after the Serbian at- 
tack on the safe area of Gorazde 
last spring, when General Rose 
was too little and too late in 
responding — and then he de- 
nied that the Serbs had really 
done anything bad. 

Europeans complain indig- 
nantly that the united States 
criticizes their performance in 
Bosnia but will not send any 
troops to the UN force. It is a 
fair poinL But then why should 
America supply troops for a 
useless mission, one that treats 
victim and aggressor alike? 

European hypocrisy was per- 
fectly expressed two weeks ago 
in The Times of London, in a 
piece by George Brock. Com- 
plaining of President Bill Clin- 
ton’s compliance with a con- 
gressional act requiring him to 
end the arms embargo on Bos- 
nia, Mr. Brock described the 
law as “congressional pressure 
to back a single ride in Bosnia.” 
The president, he said, chose 
obedience to the law over “the 
long-term importance of trans- 
Atlantic values.” What “values” 
do you suppose be meant? Bow- 
ing to aggression and genocide? 
Not even Neville Chamberlain 
went that far in his supplica- 
tions to Hitler. 

Americans may well begin to 
ask why we have all those troops 
in Europe. If member govern- 
ments do not have the stomach 
to deter Ratko Mladic and his 
thugs, what is NATO's future? 

The New York Tunes. 

writers did in a contribution from 
London in tins space on Nov. 16 
— that establishing Bosnia as an 
independent state was wrong be- 
cause the state was bound to be 
“seen as artificial by so many of 
its inhabitants 

How many is so many? The 
majority of Bosnians voted for 
independence in the referendum, 
and the reason why many Serbi- 
an areas did not vote was that 
Mr. Karadzic’s henchmen had 
stopped the ballot boxes from 
entering those areas. 

Fewer than 100,000 men, main- 
ly soldiers under orders, took part 
in the military operation, directed 
by a neighboring state, which 
carved out the bulk of Mr. Karad- 
zic’s territory in April and May 
1992. Many of them were Serbs 
from outside Bosnia. 

The practical arguments for 
lifting the embargo are also seri- 
ous and compelling. Even Lord 
Owen has begun recently to rec- 
ognize that no “peace plan” will 
be accepted by the Serbs until at 
least a balance of power has been 
created on the ground. If the 
Serbian attack on Croatia in 
1991 ended after six or seven 
months, it was largely because a 
balance of power was developing 
(thanks to unproved supplies of 
weaponry to the Croats) in which 
further aggression had become 
too costly. Mr. Karadzic still has 
no such incentive to come to the 

fenders of the embargo usu- 
ally make two claims: first, that 
lifting it would lead to a terrible 
escalation of the fighting, and sec- 
ond, that the Bosnian army has 
plenty of weapons already. The 
second claim, which blatantly 
contradicts the first, has become 
the favorite line taken by British 
government briefings. 

It is strange to hear an embar- 
go defended above all on the 
grounds that it does not work. 
But the truth is that it does work, 
in the absolutely crucial area of 
heavy weaponry. As the Bosnian 
army breakout round Bihac and 
its subsequent collapse have 
shown, the Serbs may be vulner- 
able to infantry warfare on a 
wide front, and they may nowa- 
days need more time to move 
their heavy weaponry around; 
bui once they bave concentrated 
it in any particular counterattack, 
their massive superiority in fire- 
power virtually ensures success. 

As for the argument that lifting 
the embargo would create a 
bloodbath and “only prolong the 
fighting,” this is radically miscon- 
ceived. The Bosnian government 
is not a mirror image of Mr. Kar- 
adzic's regime: the mass murder 
of civilians is not one of its mili- 
tary objectives. Serbian villages in 
reconquered areas of Herzegovi- 
na live peacefully now under the 
protection of the Bosnian state. 

It is true that, if the embargo 
were lifted, the level of fighting 
between the two armies would 
increase in the short term. But the 
result, after some si gnifican t de- 
feats of the Serbian forces, would 
be to bring long-term peace much 
sooner to all the people of Bosnia. 
When the Bosnian government 

asked in October for a delay in 
implementing any decision to lift 
the embargo, it was not repudiat- 
ing the policy itself. It was merely 
recognizing that, as a direct result 
of the policy pursued by Western 
governments so far, huge practi- 
cal difficulties had been created 
which would necessitate a period 
of preparation. 


The worst problem is that of 
the so-called safe areas, enclaves 
in which tens of thousands of 
civ ilians are kept in effect as hos- 
tages by the Serbs. 

In some cases (Zepa and Sre- 
brenica), the local Bosnian gov- 
ernment forces have had their 
weapons confiscated by the Unit- 
ed Nations. This presents a re- 
markable contrast with the “UN 
Protected Areas” in Croatia, 
where large armed forces were ac- 
tively built up by the Serbs, under 
the noses of the United Nations, 
before bring unleashed in the at- 
tack on the Bihac enclave. 

The West has helped to create 
these “safe areas”; and, having 
helped to prevent the Bosnian j 
army from defending them, it has 
publicly accepted responsibility 
for their protection. 

Security Council Resolution 
836 authorized the UN Protec- 
tion Forceto Use force “in reply 
to bombardments against the 
safe areas by any of the parties 
or armed incursions into mem or 
in the event of any deliberate 
obstruction in or around these 
areas to the freedom of move- 
ment” of the UN force “or of 
protected humanitarian con- 
voys.” On each of these counts, 
the UN Protection force has 
failed consistently to carry out 
its mandate. 

When the embargo is finally 
lifted, it will become more neces- 
sary, not less, for the United Na- 
tions to ensure that this man date 
is enforced. NATO should be en- 
abled to give full and effective 
protection to those safe areas 
from the air. It is both essential 
and entirely right that any policy 
of “lift” should include a policy 
of “strike," as President Bill Clin- 
ton previously proposed. 

The British-French strategy, 
which has dominated Western 
policy for two and a half years, 
has been both unethical and com- 
pletely unsuccessful. Only through 
an enormous exercise in deceit has 
it lasted as long as it has. 

It is time that the US. govern- 
ment ceased to allow either its 
own policy or that of the United 
Nations to be hijacked by Lon- 
don and Paris, and made to serve 
a strategy wholly inconsistent 
with the ideals of democracy and 
pluralism on which the United 
States itself was built. 

Adrian Hastings is professor. of 
theology at Leeds University. Nor- 
man Stone is professor of modem 
history at Oxford University. Mark 
Almond is tutor in modern history 
at Oriel College, Oxford, and au- 
thor of “ Europe's Backyard War. ” 
Noel Malcolm is author of “ Bos- 
nia : A Short History. ” Branka 
Magas is author of “ The Destruc- 
tion of Yugoslavia. ” They contrib- 
uted this comment to the Interna- 
tional Herald Tribune. 

1894: Moustache Artist iJSU . eda 

BERLIN — His Majesty the Em- 
peror greatly admires long and 
stiff moustaches, in the “Reich- 
sier offider” style, with points 
turned up towards the corners of 
the eyes. Having been told that 
the hairdresser Haby had a spe- 
cial treatment for this sort of 
adornment, be sent for him and 
ordered him to dress the Imperial 
moustaches daily in the desired 
style. Haby has since paid a visit 
to the castle daily, sometimes 
twice a day, in order to cultivate 
the Imperial moustaches. The 
event is the talk of all Berlin, and 
it is thought that the artist Haby 
will get ihe appointment of Hof- 
friseur (hair curler to the Court). 

1919: Indecent Dances 

PARIS — [From our New York 
edition:] Cardinal Amette, Arch- 
bishop of Paris, today [Nov. 29] 

issued a pastoral letter protesting 
against the immodest toilet tesof 
women and indecent dances, 
saying that Christian women 
and girls ought to abstain from 
such dressing and amusements. 
The Cardinal affirms that these 
dances are exotic by origin and 
by name. Presumably, he refers 
to _ certain Americas dances 
which bave become the fashion 
in Paris in recent months. 

1944: Casinos Seized 

BUENOS AIRES — [From our 
New York edition:] The mili tary 
government of general Edelxmro 
Farrell staged a sensational com- 
mercial coup yesterday [Nov. 27] 
by taking over one of the largest 
profit-making enterprises in Ar- 
gentina — gambling. The govern- 
ment issued a decree declaring aS 
casinos and gambling houses 
“public utilities” and subject to 
expropriation by the state. 

K '"Cl 

■■ ) -i. 

_.. *4 


• i* >». 

- -,..r s 

... -r; 1 --! 

^• ic ■ 

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Rabin Makes Sense on Syria, the Golan and U.S. Troops 

YITASHINGTON — Yiiz- _ _ " 

▼ 7 kfc Rabin, due in Oslo Hoagland 

SS*** *i»i hit the Ctam 
embryonic p^with^ P^ on Nov. 8, but 

«b0 *0 build suDoort for an 

estmians, was m T~ ^ oaua su PPOrt for an 

SwX^ago layms pres ?>“. on 

vmAfoimi eJLy-i^o^Z. 2tS!? n J , Sl , S “ a »** 

ery-hair-in-place accord 

_ _ . . with 

Syria. This means that a Syrian 
deal has at last become a dear 
and present possibility. 

The ever cautious Mr. Rabin 
was not about to declare that 
peace is at hand. The Israeli 
prime min is t er was instead 
peaking in serious detail about 

what is needed to make the deal 

replicating on the 
ri) u.S. Sinai force 

grwhent in finishing a broad 
Arab- Israeli peace. 

The idea of n 

Golan the small iwivi> 

that monitors the peace treaty 
signed by Anwar Sadat and 
Mena cftem Begin has stirred 
surprisingly strong opposition 
wnong toad’s supporters in 
and in the press. I 

American troops “monitor the 
military annex” of the Camp 
David accord. 

Message to the Likudniks 
who have been rallying Ameri- 
can opposition to Mr. Rabin’s 
Golan efforts: Don't attack me 
for doing what Likud’s only 
great leader has already done. 

American troops on the Go- 
lan would not operate as a po- 
lice force for the international 
border, Mr. Rabin stressed. 
“They would not be there as a 
tripwire.” He portrayed the 

with Hafez Assad happen. Mr. 
Rabin does not waste his 
breath talking to American 
journalists, senators and com- 
munity leaders about things 
that are not going to happen. 

In similar conversations in 
America not long ago he shied 
away from taiipTig qq 

Syria. This time be was here not 

only to raise funds for Israel 
and check 

found the case Mr. Rabm made tasks the Americans would per- 
on ms viat highly persuasive, form as technical, “snperviso- 

out the political 

Pat Moynihan, Bill Safire and 
others (fid not. 

As is often true with political 
leaders, the way Mr. Rabin 
talked was at least as revealing 
as what he had to say. In dinner 
toasts and breakfast interviews, 
he went out of his way to praise 
Mr. Begin, the hard-line Likud 
leader who agreed (in Mr. Ra- 
bin’s words) to let about 1,000 

ry” ernes — checking sensors 
and fences, etc. 

That is what the force in the 
Sinai and a similar UN force 
established by Henry Kissin- 
ger’s 1974 disengagement 
agreement on the Golan have 
done, both without serious in- 
cident, for nearly two decades. 

Mr. Rabin laid heavy em- 
phasis on Mr. Assad's having 

fulfilled his agreements with 
Israel and the United States. 
As would anyone ttying to win 
an argument, he skated past 
other facts, such as Syria’s re- 
peated betrayal of deals with 
fellow Arabs on Lebanon. 

But one reason that peace is 
possible on the Golan now is 
that Mr. Rabin understands 
Syria. Syria is a place of con- 
trolled maiire Syria is more 
than a state; it is a police state, 
and an efficient ana brutal one. 

Mr. Rabin talks about dealing 
with Yasser Arafat and the Pal- 
estinians as if he were talking 
about coping with a high school 
cafeteria food fight. With Syria, 
he is negotiating over a seated 
black-tie banquet that can pro- 
ceed only when all the diners’ 

guns have been checked. Every- 
th the 

thing must be in place before ! 
first couree gets served. 

That means that Mr. Assad 
has to do his part — which he 
hasn't. “Assad has not done 1 
percent of what Sadat did to 
convince the Israeli people that 


Muslims, Serbs, Croats 

Army in the Bihacpocket is entirely justi- 

Vamta Singh (Letters, Nov. 4) gives a 
misleading account of secular, democratic 
and multicultural Bosnia-Herzegovina. 
The criteria set by the European Commu- 
nity for according recognition to the for- 
mer republics of Yugoslavia, together with 
safeguards for the rights of all ethnic com- 
munities enshrined in the referendum held 
in April 1992, foamed the basis on which 
Bosnia was admitted to the United Nations. 

Some elements of the Bosnian Serbs 
who allowed themselves to be used by 
President Slobodan Milosevic of Serbia for 
advancing his designs of a Greater Serbia 
did not participate in the referendum and 
acted as his surrogates to unleash a proxy 
war of aggression with the support of the 
Serbian-led army of former Yugoslavia. 

The harmony maintain ed among the 
ethnic mix of Bosnians who are putting up 
a united struggle against Serbian aggres- 
sion has reflected the true spirit of the 
United Nations. The Bosnian government 
apprises afl three communities. The pres- 
idency is to be held alternately by a Bosni- 
an, a Croat, and a Serb. The current presi- 
dent, AKja Izetbegovic, is due to be 
replaced by Kresumr Zubak, a former 
Croatian judge, as soon as the state of 
emergency created by the war is ended. 



c pock 

fiablc. The 5th Corps poses a serious 
threat to peace in Bosnia and must be 
disarmed. In August, the Stb Corps 
forced 30,000 Muslims to flee their homes 
after defeating the forces of the Muslim 
opposition leader, Fikret Abdic. Three 
weeks ago the 5th Corps attacked and 
destroyed Serbian villages south of Bihac, 
resulting in 10,000 Serbian refugees. 

By defeating the 5th Corps, the Bosni- 
an Serbs will hopefully convince the Bos- 
nian Muslim leaders m Sarajevo that the 
Bosnian conflict can be resolved only by 
negotiation and not by force. 



the PKK and its offshoots are banned in 
France and Germany, and Interpol tracks 
PKK activities across the world. 

The Turkish armed forces in southeastern 
Turkey are working within a framework of 
law to overcome terrorism. It is time that 
democratic countries showed greater sup- 
port and understanding for one another in 
confronting the men of violence. 

Press Counselor. 

Turkish Embassy. 


Who Is Disinterested? 

Turkey and Terrorism 

Regarding the report “ War on Kurds 
uns Turks ’ 

Regarding the editorial on the UN -NATO 
-strike against an air base toed by Serbs m 
Croatia , “A Useful Operation ” (Nov. 23): 

The Bosnian Sob counteroffensive 
against the 5th • Corps of the Bosnian 

Strains Turks ’ Ties to Allies ” (Nov. 18): 

Turkey is not fighting a war against its 
ethnic Kurds, who are an integrated, active 
and central clement in Turkish society. We 
are seeking to defeat a ruthless terrorist 
movement and to protect the great major- 
ity of the Kurdish community in south- 
eastern Turkey from attacks that have 
murdered local civilians by the thousands. 
A spokesman for the PKK terrorists re- 
cently described Kurds who differ from his 
organization's objectives as “not human” 
— which is presumably how they justify 
their atrocities. 

Farmers and teachers, lawyers, men of 
religion and health workers are regularly 
killed in cold blood by the PKK. Its mem- 
bers extort money from Turkish citizens in 
Europe and North America. Thhtris why 

In response to “ Defining the U. S. Inter- 
est m ( Letters, Nov. 15): 

The United States does not have a mo- 
nopoly on “self-interest” when it comes to 
interventions and problem soiling. I can- 
not think of one slate in history which has 
operated solely out of altruism. 


Stonehaven, Scotland. 

Parole for a Terrorist 

-ii«w v. - 

In response to “Red Army Is Now History ; 
So Germany Orders a Parole, ” (Nov. 18): ’ 
She has shown no remorse for her part in 
a 1972 attack on a U.S. base, but Irmgard 
Mdfler is to be freed nevertheless. While 
they’re at it, maybe the German courts 
could make the three slain American ser- 
vicemen “undead.” A life sentence for ran- 
dom terror, right or left, should never be 
anything less than a life sentence. 





The Resurrection of Euro- 
pean Jewry 

By Mark Kurlansky. 409 pages. 
$24. Addison-Wesley. 


Reviewed by Joan Dupont 

TY7HEN tiie war was over in 
VY Europe, survivors from 
the camps headed home, even if 
it took months to get there and 
there was no home left Writers 
like Primo Levi and Etie Wiescl 
have retraced those journeys; 
thdr testimony has been hon- 
ored, their words remembered. 
But what of the others, the un- 
sung heroes who went back to 
the ruins in silenoe? 

After the war, Sal Meijer re- 
turned to Amsterdam where he 

•James Tate, whose “Wor- 
shipful Company of Fletchers” 
won the 1994 National Book 
Award for Poetry, is reading 
“ The Letters of Mrs. Henry Ad- 
ams, 1865-1883." 

“I am usually reading 20 
books at the same time about 
history, or philosophy, or what- 
ever subject you can think of, 
and this is the one that m men- 
tion since you asked me.” 

(Lawrence Malkin, IHT) 

runs a kosher butcher shop. 
Now he spends nights alone m 
his apartment, screaming. 
“Suddenly, in his 80s, be could 
no longer stay silent about the 
Holocaust and what had hap- 


By Robert Byrne 


— wot the 

1994 Unites States Charo- 
>. In Round 8 he beat 
- Kaidanov. 

With 3...Nf6, Kaidanov 
transposed into a gambit that 
also arises in the Center- 
Counter Game after 1 e4 d5 - 
ed Nf6 3 c4c6. Gulko dedmed 
the pawn offer with 4 d4. And 
after4_cd 5 Nc3 e6 6 Nf3, the 
fame settled into a main line of 
the Semi-Tarrasch Defense. 

The chief feature of the posi- 
tion after 7 cdNd5 is the isolat- 
ed d4 pawn. It has always been 
supposed to offer White some 
chances for a mating attack be- 
cause it makes possible superior 

■ — i Mnital marft 

control -r~. ^ - 

The move 10 l.Bi 6 is one of 
the preferred courses of com- 
pleting .Black’s development. 


j H 

Bb7 Kh7 14 Qd4 Nc3 15 Qc3 f6 
16 Be3 does not solve Black’s 
problems: Ins long is a bit ex- 
posed and White remains a lead 
in development. 

The trouble with Kaidanov’s 
11.JEUT7 12Bc2Rc8 13Ne4Be7 
14 Qd3 g6 was its passivity; its 
threat of 15.~Ncb4 16 ab Nb4 
was stopped by 15 Bd2. Gulko’s 
16 b4 seized queenside space 
without diminishing his 
chances for attack against the 
black king. 

While Kaidanov floundered 
about with 2L..Qa7, Gulko 
struck a smashing blow with 22 
hg hg 23 Ne6! fe 24 Re6. 

Kaidanov tried 24...BT7, but 
Gulko tore through that de- 
fense with 25 Rgo! Kaidanov 
could not accept the sacrifice 
with 25_JBg6 because 26 Qg6 
Kh8 27 Bc2 Nf6 28 Ng5 Rf8 29 
Qb6 Kg8 30 Bb3 forces mate. 

On Z6_KeS 27 Rel, Kai- 
danov overstepped the time 
limit and was forfeited. Bat 

there was nothing he could have 

done to ward off Gaiko’s over- 
whelming onslaught The main 

threat was 28 Qf 5 followed by 

29 Rb8 mate. On 27.JCd7 
Qf5 Kc7 29 Qf7, there would 
have been no way to put the 
Humpty-Dumpty of the black 
position together. 




DSt attention has] Kffl£ mto 11 
a xwt 12 Ne5 e6 13 Bho Bg/ 

Position after M ... Bf7 
qoeen-s gambit declined 

■ $£ *a~ 


Ba7 Kg/ win* • 
vantage in freedom ofmove- 


Gulko uses m this 


* •L-SPi 

ie, is suuugw. - - 
,0 reduction of niatenaj 
*ilJW4 12 Nd4.Bd* 13 



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1 04 


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3 ed 

NfS - 


ed ■ ■ 





7 ed 


8 M3 


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11 *3 


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13 He4 


pened to his family,” Mark 
Kurlansky writes in his book 
about Jews in Europe. 

The author, a journalist, lives 
in New Yack and Paris. Choos- 
ing a dozen families who migrat- 
ed back to Berlin, Warsaw, Am- 
sterdam, Paris, Prague and 
Budapest, he revives memories 
50 years old and describes the 
struggle fra: reintegration into 
communities that had been hos- 
tile and, in some cases, have re- 
mained hostile. The ambitious 
undertaking traces family histor- 
ies through the twists and turns 
of the Cold War, the collapse of 
communism, to today’s ex- 
treme-right rerival and the rise 
of fundamentalist movements. 

Many Jews have never fdt 
the need to equate their sense of 
Jewishness with a religious 
identity and, indeed, refuse to 
do so. Most of the people inter- 
viewed in this book are search- 
ing for identity and a sense of 
community through traditional 
Judaism. The most interesting 
stories are about the “bidden 
Jews,” those who discovered 
family secrets late in life, Eke 
Barbara Gruberska, bom in the 
Warsaw ghetto, given up to fos- 
ter parents and raised an athe- 
ist Gruberska wants to give her 
son Andrzei “the Jewish identi- 
ty out of Much she was cheat- 
ed” and sent him to a Jewish 
high school in New Jersey. 

Zoltan Gardes, bora two 
years after the Hungarian upris- 
ing, discovered his father’s pain- 
ful pest: His family had been 
deported to Auschwitz and 
kfiled. Zoltan went on a search 
for identity, with the hdp of a 
rabbi “What did it mean to be 
Jewish? Was ita nationality, like 
being Hungarian? Or a religion 
that they md not know how to 
practice? If it was a national! 

member of the Marxist regime 
who became an outcast over- 
night- After the Wall went down. 
Range lost her university job be- 
cause she had been an informer 
for the Stasl Although she re- 
mained an atheist, she hosts Se- 
der, supervised by “a virulent 
anti -Com r mmis i religious tradi- 
tionalist from the ultra-Ortho- 
dox Lubaritcher sect” The Lu- 
bavitchers with their missionary 
zeal of “near Christian propor- 
tions . . . have found fertile 
ground in Eastern Europe, 
where Jews for the first time in 
thdr lives are trying to learn 
about Judaism.” 

The Pletzl (Yiddish for settle- 
ment) in Paris, better known as 
the Marais, with its mix of cook- 
ing smells from central Europe 
and North Africa, is wonderfully 
described. We get the history of 
the Finkdsztejns. who run the 
best deli on Rne dra Rosiezs, and 
the Naouri brothers who started 
out selling carp and went on to 
make smoked salmon the chic 
dish at Parisian dinner parties. 

The author spends affection- 
ate detail on his chosen few — 
Zionists, .Orthodox, Reformed 
and secular Jews, aD seeking a 
sense of community — be talks 
about the marvels of kosher vod- 
ka in Poland, filmmaking 
Hungary, jazz in Czecboslo' 
Ida. But he hasn’t much to say 
about French culture and is criti- 
cal of tbe assimilated Jews who 
have always been a significant 
part of tbe French scene. Pierre 
Mai dis- France is put down for 
his refusal to show favor to Jew- 
ish causes; there is surely more 
to say about this fascinating man 
who suffered humiliation and 
jail under Vichy. And not a word 
about Claude Lanzmann’s 
“Shoah,” one of tbe most impor- 
tant French films of the last de- 
cade. which takes place on the 
very ground this book explores. 

Kurlansky has written a 
timely and tendentious book, 
almost as provocative for what 
it exdudes as for the territory it 

Inxematanal Herald Tribute 

17 BU 
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KB . 


The author cares for his char- 
acter, never trivializing their 
stories. His own editorial voice is 
strong, at times intrusive; he 
does ikh hide his feelings and he 
does not stop at schmaltz. One 
of his most colorful — and con- 
troversial — characters is the 
East Berliner Irene Range, a 

Arts & Antiques 

Evety Saturday 


(331)46 3793 91 


or your nearest 

IHT office 

or representative 

he wants peace,” the Israeli 
prime minister says. 

Like President Bill Clinto n, 
Mr. Rabin believes that Mr. As- 
sad can be induced to do tins. 
But tbe Israeli leader is 
frustrated over how long 
bard the task is. 

Writing after talking with 
Mr. Rabin, New York Times 
columnist Safire concluded 
that putting American troops 
on the Golan would (1) expose 
those troops unnecessarily to 
terrorist attack; (2) cause 
America to become “neutral” 
between Israel and a state like 
Syria; (3) “compromise” Isra-. 
el’s freedom of action to strike 
Syria; (4) diminish American 
respect for Israel’s self-reliance 
(IHT Opinion, Nov. 25). 

Those fears seem exaggerat- 
ed to me, especially after lis- 
tening to Mr. Rabin. 

For his part, Mr. Rabin 
pointed to tbe consequences if 
America refuses in 1994 to do 
what it did in 1979 in the Sinai 
and 1974 in the Golan. A re- 
fusal he suggested, would pro- 
vide a troubling answer to the 
questions of what role Ameri- 
ca now intends to have in 
world affairs, and whether or 
not America is withdrawing 
into isolationism. 

America can scarcely afford 
that answer. And Mr. Rabin 
knows that it would be a devas- 
tating turn of events for Israel 
as well. That is why he made 
sure the road to Oslo passed 
through Washington first 
The Washington Post 

Fathers Simply Must Make Time 

By William Raspberry 

W formal 


interview is 
winding down, and Henry 
Cisneros gives in to a mo- 
ment’s candor. “One of the 
most important things we 
have to do,” says the secretary 
of housing and urban devd T 
opment, “is to find ways to re- 
engag e fathers in the lives of 
thdr children.” 

If s not what I had expected 
at the end of a conversation 
that focused on the effect of 


a resurgent Republican Party 
on tbe domestic problems con- 
fronting the Clinton adminis- 
tration. But Mr. Cisneros is 
saying he doubts that most of 
the problems bis agency has to 
deal with can be solved if we 
don’t find a way to reconsti- 
tute families and communities. 

“When I gp to the [housing 
projects in the] sooth side of 
Chica g o,” be says, “what I see 
is a building that, if it has 100 
units in it, 95 are headed by 
single women. They just can’t 
keep up with tbeir sons. It’s 
just not in the cards.” 

He recognizes the trickiness 
of what he is saying and 
quickly makes his obeisance 
to the women whose sons 
achieve success and give all 
credit to their strong, often 
single, mothers. 

“There’s beauty and won- 
der in that,” he says, “but 
there are also the boys whose 
mothers, try as they might 
cannot overcome the influ- 
ence of the street, of the male 
group, of the gang.” 

“I believe tbe connection 
between man and child — son 
or daughter — is very, very 
important,” he says. “I s 
herefrom sad personal 
rience. I, as you know, 
some very difficult decisions 
to make about my own per- 
sonal life. My marriage wasn’t 
doing well, wasn’t holding to- 
gether. and there seemed to be 
great reason to, perhaps, break 
it apart. And I finally conclud- 
ed that the most important 
thing in my life was the obliga- 
tion to my children.” 

“Every tune I think about 
what ... other decisions 1 
migh t have made,” he says, “I 
can’t get around tbe question 
of which derision would allow 
me to spend the most time 
with my sot. 1 can’t tell you 
how important that is to me, 
and ... to him. too.” 

What Mr. Cisneros is talk- 
ing about is not just the warm 
fuzzy feelings generated in 
Norman RockweDian father- 
child relationships. He is talk- 
ing about the virtually insur- 
mountable difficulty of 
raising straight and confident 
children — especially boys — 

in fatherless communities. 

What can a secretary of 
hoaxing and urban develop- 
ment hope to do about it? 

“Well, obviously govern- 
ment cannot be in tbe position 
of urging couples to stay to- 
gether who don't belong to- 
gether or want to be together. 
But ... if we’re going to offer 
job training services for men. 
then one of the things we have 
to TtifJwde is a requirement 
that, on Saturdays, they spend 
time with then 1 children.” 

“We also underestimate the 

desire of yonng people to have 
rime with adult males, whether 
they are th«r fathers or noL,^ 

he says. “Jim Banks ^of the 

Ana costia/ Congress Heights 
Partnership in Washington] 
tells me the story of setting up 
a little League program ... 
People said tbe kids wouldn’t 
come. WdL they show up in 
droves — two hours before tbe 
scheduled practices — and 
hang around sites' practice. 
Why? They want to be around 
adult men. They crave the 
adult affirmation. That’s im- 
portant, because we’re not go- 
ing to be able to reach fathers 
in every case." 

Mr. Cisneros has it right: 
We have to re-engage fathers 
and other adult men in the 
lives of our children. Thai’s 
no knock on women, only an 
acknowledgment of the troth 
that we need each other. 

The Washington Post 








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Page 6 


. .......... 

PLO Talks 
To Israel 
On Voting 

Arafat and Peres 
Seek Donors 9 Aid 


. BRUSSELS — Foreign Min- 
lster Shimon Feres of Israel and 
Yasser Arafat, the Palestinian 
reader, discussed prospects for 
elections in the occupied terri- 
tories and urged donors Mon- 
day to pump funds into the re- 
gion to bring stability. 

Flanked by Mr. Peres, Mr. 
Arafat said the two sides hoped 
to overcome “all of the prob- 
lems we had so that we have the 
opportunity to have free elec- 
tions in aS! the Palestinian terri- 

“The Israelis understand our 
need for quick elections.” he 
added at the Brussels news con- 
ference, “but at the same rime 
we also have to understand the 
necessity for security” 

Under the limited self-rule 
accord signed by Israel and the 
Palestine Liberation Organiza- 
tion, elections were to have tak- 
en place in July in the Gaza 
Strip and Jericho and parts of 
the West Bank still adminis- 
tered by Israel. 

But talks bogged down over 
the nature and size of the elect- 
ed assembly and whether Pales- 
tinian groups that rejected the 
self-rule deal should be allowed 
to seek office. 

Fourteen people were killed 
Nov. 18 in clashes between Pal- 
estinian police and demonstra- 
tors in Gaza, the worst internal 
violence since Palestinian self- 
rule began in May. 

Mr. Peres said negotiations 
had reopened in Brussels over 
when voting should take place. 

“Today we have agreed on an 
agenda. I don't think that we 
need to negotiate publicly,” he 
said, adding, “Baacally, what- 
ever is democratic is acceptable 
to us.” 

Mr. Peres and Mr. Arafat 
said they would pressure a 
meeting of donors that starts 
Tuesday in Brussels to provide 
the money they promised to re- 
build the occupied territories. 

The donors* last meeting 
broke down in disagreement 
over the Pales tinians * inclusion 
of Jerusalem in projects that 
should be supported. 

Palestinians consider East Je- 
rusalem, which is mainly Arab, 
to be the capital of a future 
state, bat Israel says that East 
and 1 West Jerusalem are united 
and remain its “eternal capi- 

In 1993, donors pledged 
more than $2 billion over five 
years for projects in the occu- 

6 ied territories, with $700 mil- 
on to be paid out this year. 
“We have only received $60 
mfflion so far because some 
countries did not keep their 
commitments,” Mr. Arafat 

Hong Kong Pott 
Pegs Governor 
As a Lame Duck 


HONG KONG — Nearly 
half of the people of Hong 
Kong believe that Governor 
Chris Patten no longer has a 
useful job in the days before the 
British colony reverts to Chi- 
nese rule in mid- 1997, a local 
newspaper reported on Mon- 

Despite seeing Mr. Patten as 
a bone duck. 68 percent of those 
interviewed said his perfor- 
mance as governor was satisfac- 
tory. compared with 26 percent 
who said it was not, (he newspa- 
per said. Mr. Patten has repeat- 
edly insisted he expects to stay 
until the British flag is lowered 
for the last rime over Hong 
Kong in 1997. 

An opinion poll found (hat 
47 percent of respondents saw 
time role for Mr. Patten, who 
has been involved in a protract- 
ed debate with China over elec- 
tor il changes be secured for the 
cr'~ ay, the South China Morn- 
ing Post reported. 

China, which said Mr, Pat- 
ten's changes violated agree- 
ments London had with Beij- 
ing. has said that when it takes 
over, it will dismantle all three 
tiers of representative govern- 
ment in the territory elected un- 
der the reforms. 

Dissident Spanish Airports 

Detained Paralyzed by Strike 

n m i J * 

ny I enroll CmqMbpOrSiagFrimDbpeuim The walkout was not autho 
J MADRID — Spanish aii^ rized by labor authorities, aw 

•w i ports were paralyzed- Monday Labor Minister Josjjj Aniomi 

Ifi I lpi)/| as woaktas of the national cairi- GriflAn Martinez called it ifie 

AO L/UUU «■ Thmn wbTVmI rff the ioh to sal savin* it “stripped arizen 

BITTER HOMECOMING — Zairian soldiers handing over 38 Rwandan Hutu to troops of Rwanda's Tuta4ed 
army. They were rounded up as part of a crackdown on Hutu militiamen, who control the refugee camps in Zaire. 
The United Nations has protested die forced repatriation of die Hutu, saying it was against international law. 

NORWAY : Exit Potts Show Anti-EU Votes Taking a Wafer-Thin 9 Lead 

Coatimed from Page 1 

by joining the bandwagon for open trade 
ana access to markets. If it did not, it 
would be left b ehin d and isolated in the 
company of Switzerland, Iceland and 

“We would be the only industrial coun- 
try in Europe not to join, except for Swit- 
zerland which has a long history of neu- 
trality while we've been a NATO member 
for 45 years,” said Inge Loaning, a theol- 
ogy professor who heads the European 
Movement, the main group promoting a 
“yes” vote. 

“In 1972, when we ngected membership, 
we wer e at the starting point of our ou. 
Now we’re at the last chapter. Production 
will go down. Gas will stay high but wffl we 
be able to sell it? How about the fisheries? 
If Sweden is in the European Union and 
Norway is out, then fish products sold to 

Sweden would have a tax of 25 percent put 
on them.” 

The “yes” forces also promoted the idea 
that Norway's security would be enhanced 
inside the EU, which could lend its support 
should trouble arise in its northernmost 
province of Franmadc, which borders Rus- 
sia. The concern is for nuclear pollution 
and possible civil unrest across the bound- 

The mam support for joining came from 
intell ectuals, businessmen ?nd profession- 
als, many of them in Oslo and Bergen, the 
second city. That fact alone was enough to 
raise a question mark fa the minds of the 
independent-minded folk in rural areas, 
who bridle under what they view as exces- 
sive interference from the ra pital 

"Already our government is big 
enough,” said Jan Rooming, an agricul- 
ture student who voted no. “Why make it 

bigger? Oslo is already far away. Why go 
all the way to Brussels?” 

Polls have shown that a mainstay of 

women, wno are strong in both the work 
force and the political life. 

Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundt- 
land, who is immensely popular, swung her 
weight decidedly behind the advocates for 
European union, im p lorin g in a final 
broadcast before theeFection: “Be respon- 
sible. Vote “yes’ for Norway's sake.” But 
she has pointedly avoided turning the ref- 
erendum into a vote of confidence in her 
minority government. 

The Labor Party, which she is 

largely in favor or the union, while the 
Center Party, which has a strong agricul- 
tural base, is opposed, along with the 
smaller Socialist Left 

New York Tana Sendee 

TEHRAN — The leading 
dissident writer in Iran has dun 
in detention, eight months after 
bring charged with drug abase 
and espionage. Iranian authori- 
ties said AliAkbarSakHSijani, 
63, died of a heart attack. 

Mr. Sujani was arrested in 
March and had not been al- 
lowed to have a defense attor- 
ney or a trial 

He wrote mac (ban 15 books 
on Iranian history and legend, 
many of than best-sellers, in 
which he analyzed the differ- 
ences between Iran’s heritage 
and Islamic cultures. His con- 
tention that Iranians had a pre- 
Iriamic tradition of respect for 
individual rights and of fighting 
tyranny led to die banning of 
his books in 1991. 

He is the fourth political pris- 
oner to die m custody since the 
1979 I ranian revolution. 

Brigadier General Amir Ra- 
himi, 75, the fanner head of 
Iran's military police after the 
revolution, was arrested this 
month after demanding the re- 
lease of political prisoners. His 
50-year-old son was arrested 
last week after objecting to his 
father's imprisonment 

“The aged Ir anian author, 
Saidi Siq'ani, who was hospital- 
ized last night after a heart at- 
tack, died this m orn i ng.” the 
official Iranian news agency, 
IRNA, said Sunday. 

Sayeh Snjani, the author's 
26-year-old daughter, said hear 
father had no history of heart 
ailments ThefSrjam family had 
datied the allegations that he 
was addicted to drags. 

The allegations a gainst Six- 
jam woe not at all convmcmg.” 
said a Tehran University histo- 

MADRID — Spanish air- 
ports were paralyzed- Monday 
as workers of the national carri- 
er Iberia walked off the job to 
protest the company’s plan to 
slash jobs and sell assets. 

The strike grounded all also ground- 
ed flights from Spain by other 

jntemgrinnal airirnes and SCti- 

ously delayed scheduled fSghts 
from abroad. 

A representative for one of 
tire striking unions said workers 
would return to work at mid- 
night if there were no break- 
down in talks with manage- 
ment. But the chairman of the 
airline, Javier Salas CaUanfes, 
said tbore was little Iberia could 
do tole&seu the austerity -pack- 
age’s impact 

Iberia said the strike affected 

sible for°tfte cancellation of 
1,125 flights. Workers carried 
out no mnumum services. 

Only airlines with their own 
handling facilities, including 
TWA, American Airlines and 
the $pj»ni«h companies Spanair 
and AirEuropa, could maintain 
something dose to normal ser- 
vice during the strike. 

Passengers on incoming 
trans-Atlantic flights were able 
to transfer, but their baggage 
remained in aircraft holds. 

Himdreds of passengers nev- 
ertheless turned up for flights at 
the international airports in 
Madrid and Barcelona. 

Police units patrolled termi- 
nals across the country, but no 
incidents were reported. At 
Barajas Airport in Madrid, 
lmionx held rallies every two 
hours in the raam hall as pas- 
sengers holed up in lounges. 

The walkout was not autho- 
rized by labor authorities, and 
Labor Minister Josfc Antonio 
Griflin Martinez called it ille- 
gal, saying it “stripped citizens 
of their basic rights.” 

The Workers Commissions 
and the General Workers 
Union called the strike after 
Iberia’s management Friday 

announced it would press ahead 

with a plan that entails cutting 
more tivw? 5,000 jobs out of 
some 24*000. The plan also au- 
thorized Iberia management to 
begin procedures to sell off the 
company’s most profitable as- 

. Following a period of profit- 
ability, from 1986 to 1989, Ibe- 
ria has slumped into enormous 
debt. Last year it lost 69 bOHan 
pesetas ($530 million), and this 
year it is expected to lose more, 
than 40 billion pesetas. 

Mr. Salas has said the airline 
would be technically bankrupt' 
by March 1995. 

Iberia said tire emergency 
plan was be bag implemented 
because of lack of union agree- 
ment on a previous restructur- ( 

needed betoT'^^Eu^^n 
Union will allow the Spanish 
government to bail out Iberia. 

The Gist plan called for elim- 
inating 2,100 jobs, freezing 
wages and reducing average pay 
by 15 percent The airline said 
the plan, along with a capital 
injection of 130 billion pesetas 
sought from Madrid, would re- 
turn Iberia to profitability. 

The unions rejected the wage 
conditions, saying Iberia first 
most honor some 15 billion pe- 
setas in back-pay agreements. 

(AP, Reuters) 

— — i ■ .. — - — — ■ ..I ry professor who spoke an con- 

COUSINS: One Became a Palestinian 'Martyr , 9 the Other Struggles On 

J charges; then, they made poltb- 

rnnhmwd fan Flee 1 joined Hamas, an acronym in be driven from all Palestine, throw a bottle when a soldier cal accusations , like espionage. 

Arabic for the Islamic Resis- “from the river to the sea.” shot him in the head. Thc regime has chosen to depict 

expect from him?” Mr. Abatli tancc Movement They also Records obtained from an- Salah helped carry Hussein Iranian intellectuals as atheists 

“Your son is wanted,” the curity violations. 

said he, too, “would also rather knew he had joined the move- 
die for agood cause” than con- meat's qwud-militaiy wing, the 
tmue in his present existence. “I izzedine al Qassam Brigades, 
wish I would be a martyr," he The Shin Bet had some in- 
, , kting about Mr. Souwi. For four 

But Mr. Abatli has not cho- April, it sent soldiers to 

sen to blow himself up, and it is his door, 
difficult to believe that be will “Y^ ^ fc wanted,” the 
— especially difficult when his soldiers told Abdel Rahim 
5-year-old daughter prances up Souwi. 

and hugs him around the knee. It was too late. The old man’s 

Here in KaBrilya, 25 kilonre- first-born child had gone to 
ters (15 miles) northeast of Tel ground. 

Aviv, Mr. Souwi is a famous Of Mr. SouwTs childhood, 
man, maybe the most famous. _____ ^ — 
When the people talk about the 

thing be did, they do not call it r What do YOU expect I 
murder. They call it “the opera- J / .l 

tion,” they account it a COHS1H. HIS Drotbi 

Taymiya mosque, detained five times, h< 
where Mr. Souwi prayed, a knot “ 

of young men gathered around his friends and family produoe 

shot him in the head. 
ftfllah helped cany Hussein 

The regime has chosen to depict 

Iranian intellectuals as atheists 

knew he had joined the move- other cousin, Jamal AbatH, a to his mother, dead. “She had to and traitors instead of e ngaging 
meats quasi -military wing, the local lawyer, show Mr. Souwi see him before they buried in a logical dialogue.” 

was first arrested on Sept. 13. him, ” Mr. Abu Samara said. 
1988. He was held until Sept. 30 From that day, Mr. Abatli 

soldiers told Abdel Rahim Mr. Souwi never st 
Souwi. to friends or relatives 

It was too late. The old man’s bad happened to him. 
first-born child had gone to “He never tried to 

ground. worry,” his father s 

Of Mr. SouwTs childhood, said he was OJL, or 

curity violations.” for life.” 

Mr. Souwi never said much Just once after that, Mr. 
to friends or relatives of what A bath said, Mr. Souwi alluded 

'What do you expect from Salahf asked 
his cousin. His brother was killed, he was 
detained five times, he was tortured.’ 

id happened to him. - to what, would come: “I wish I. ; 

“He never tried to make me would be a martyr," he said. “ "• ;• 
wry," his father said. “He Mr. Abatfi did not know - i 
id he was OJL, or he would whether to believe hfm. " ••• ute 
_ — Mr. Souwi was detained ' 

again for nearly a year begin- 

Q Salahr asked mng in the summer of 1990. In • 

l -il i i detention, he and Mr. Abatli 

tfas killed, he was chose to “become organized.” 

Mr. Snjani had fought the 
ban on his books by writing 
letters to sorior officials and by 
speaking to Western reporters. 

His most celebrated novel, 
“The Serpent-Shouldered Za- 
bak,” was about a foreign con- 
queror whose reign qjLjerroi in 
Iran ended with a popular up- 
rising. It sold more than, 80,000 
copies iir.H£?l. 

a visitor. They gave no names. 
In the occupied West Bank, few 

only ordinary tales. 

As a teenager, Mr. Souwi 

learned tofaznL He learned 
tiact the Shin Bel. But without £n>m Jew ^ ^ Israfi i ^ a ^ 

dissent, in comments echoed laborer outside Netanya. 
from encounter to random en- { . 

counter, they spoke of Mr. He moved m and out of his 
father’s now-destroyed house, 

Souwi with pride and even awe. 

“Everybody in the mosque where he shared a single room 
respected him,” said a bearded with all his siblings. In planting 
man. “1 would say he was a season he borrowed money and 
beloved person. He had good bought seeds for cucumbers 

manners. He never banned any- tomatoes. He built green- 
body ” houses and slept in them with 

Never? Not in Tel Aviv? Ws plants, then sold Ms crop to 
The bearded man stiffened. wholesaler m Kaflolyas 
He did not like the question. He mar * cet square, 
had only one thing more to say. When the intifada began in 
“We lost a good man,” he 1987, Mr. Souwi and Mr. Abatli 
replied, then walked away. joined in the roving bands of 
Another man cut in, a bit youths who ebbed and flowed 

„ . . „ . s again ior neany a year uQjm- ^ Tt _ . r , 

om Salahr asked rung in the Sommer of 1990. In 3 YulsaMown Up in Corsica 

. l i detention, he and Mr. Abatli Ram 

r was killed, he was chose to “become or ganiz ed.” AJACCIO, Corsica — Hood- 

was tortured.’ t £ eir dwice t 1 d ®‘ ed gunmen blew up three vaca- 

hberatety, reading pamphlets villas after ev acuating oc- 

and programs and tal kin g to ni pant; in the beach resort of 
manage. But we know for sure, leaders inside. Lumio during the night, the po- 

mterroganon is not a coffee Mr. AbatH chose the Red Ea- Hce said Monday. No one my 
shOD. He didn’t need to tell us.” glcs, the fighting arm of the left- mediately daimed responsibfl- 
Wajb Abatli, who went ist Popular Front for the Liber- jty for the attack, wSchbore 
through the same detention ation of Palestine. Mr. Souwi, hallmar ks of separatist 
cells as Mr. Souwi some time far more religious, chose Ha- muwnag figuring for the is- 
iater, said he and his cousin mas. land’s independence from 

were held in solitary cells, “They talked about death in p rance 
blindfolded and bound, and left God’s name, and I can imagine 

without food or drink for two how this would appeal to Sa- — — ■■ » — ■ — 

days. They scaled themselves, lah,” Mr. AbatH said. DnClUT A n. ¥ 

hairing no choice, sometime on In the next four years, Mr. JLA.S riQhtQ 

the first day. On other days, Souwi was in and out of deten- 

they were beaten, he said. tion. Even when free, he grew Cariinari from Page 1 
Human rights organizations, mysterious. He went home less he said, adding: “We don’t have 
although not aware of Mr. often, told nearly nothing to his that; we won't have that” 
SouwTs case in particular, said parents of what he did. But he Leading American polili- 
Mr. AbatlTs account fit a com- made time to go to Mr. Abatii’s dans, most notably Senator 

Serial Killer Is Slain 1 
In Wisconsin Prison 

The Associated Prcn just left the basketball court ad- _ 

MADISON, Wisconsin — joining the bathroom when the 
Jeffr ey T hinner who had cOOr frttadr occurred, Mr. SuUivan 
fessed to murdering 17 men and said. 

boys and to cannibalizing some Mr. Dahmer, convicted in all 7 

of them, was attacked and but one of the sex killings in 
killed Monday whDe working in Milwaukee and Ohio, was serv- 
a prison bathroom. ing 16 consecutive life sentences^ 

A corrections department at the prison in Portage, abound 
spokesman, Joe Srislowccz, said 40 miles (65 kilometers) north 
that Mr. Dahmer, 34, had “very of Madison. , fe 

sevei£ ortensrvehead injuries” , said had nidari up d 
and dwsdata hospitaL young men and boys at gay^ 

A 'fellow 'inmate was taken CjT/shootmut malls andofe 
mtocustodym the mason, said pub HcSaSured them to his A 
Michael Sullivan, the state cor- Milwaukee apartment and - 
rections awetaiy. A bloody and dismembered 

broom handle was found at the than . e skulls and other body 
scene, but Mr. SuBwan did n£ ^ found in his apart- 2 
know if it had been used to kill ,? 

M M?r£h£er, 34, was dean- , Mr. Dalunca -admitted that he * 

ing a bathroom at the Columbia 1 

Correctional Institute when he sa'vw^th 6 heart of one “to eat • 

was attacked. Jesse Anderson, a laler ' \ 

fellow inmate who had been IBs activities came to light in * 

convicted of beating bis wife to July 1991, when a handcuffed, , 

death, suffered serious head in- 

was working with them, Mr. 
Sullivan said. 

A guard overseeing the three 
inmate on dean-up duty had 

bloody youth flagged down po- 
lice and led officers to Mr. 
Dahmer’s apartment. They 
found body parts throughout, 
including severed heads in the 

BOSNIA.: Fighting Rages as Allies Blame Each Other 

Cowtmurd from Page 1 and France for the crisis of NA- Envoys of the contact group 

met Monday 

and France for the crisis of NA- Envoys of the contact group 

TO’s credibffity. repeatedly met Monday with j 

Britain and France have op- President Slobodan Milosevic j < 
posed tougher action for fear it of Serbia to try to revive the 
would draw retaliation against peace process, 
their peacekeepers on the Diplomats said the contact 

younger, excited. mto dashes with Israel’s army. 

“We are very happy for him That year, a new funda- 
becausc he was one of the first tnentelis t iwvctm, the Taymiya, 
to be a martyr,” he said. “He was erected in Mr. $ouwi*s 
preceded us to be a martyr. For neighborhood. He went to bear 
sure, he will be an image for the in nnw, and he spent long 
many others. Write it down that hours in the library. 

army spokesman, it declined to vorhe. atej spoke over the weekend of a 

discuss Mr. SouwTs case but “When we told her that he “complete breakdown” of the 
said torture was forbidden. died, 1 explained to her th«t he Atlantic atKanm 

The year after his first arrest, did an operation in Tel Aviv, Mr. Dole, who is to bold 

ground. European officials ri- group mission carried details of 
posted by accusing Washington major incentives to Mr. MHoso- 

two blocks from the home and he 

killed n 

tion in Tel Aviv, Mr. Dole, who is to hold 
many Jews, and I meetings with NATO officials 
L was a good thing at the alliance’s Brussels head- 

we are all Hamas. 

to friends. He learned a radic 

Everyone knew, the young reading of Mmw and a political 
men said, that Mr. Souwi had program saying the Jews must 

where he grew up, Salah Souwi told ber that it was a good thing at the alliance’s Brussels head- 
joined his brother Hussein in that he did,” Mr. AbatH said. 1 ! quarters on Tuesday, said the 
another confrontation with the explained to her that they took United Nations should pull out 
army. According to Riyadh our lands, and she asked why, of Bosnia and blamed Britain 
Abu Samara, who took part in and I said I don’t know, they 

the clash, Hussein was trying to just took iL” "OT A HT7 „ 

of stoking the conflict bat then vie and the Bosnian Scabs to 
refusing to commit troqpsitselL cooperate. Diplomatic sources 
Mr. Hurd suggested the so- saia Bosnian Serbs would be 
called “contact group” — offered the right to confedera- 
Franoe, Britain, Germany, Rns- turn with Serbian-led Yugosla- 
vs and the United States — via, one of their goals, in return 
consider a confederation of for accepting a peace plan they 
Bosnian Serbs and Serbia itself rejected in August 
under the peace plan. (Reuters. AP, AFP) 

GATT: Clinton Mokes llth-Hour Appeal for Approval of Trade Accord 

BLAME: Recriminations Corrode Western Alliance 

Contamed from Page 1 

require all measures to pay for themselves. 
The administration has committed to pay 
for revenues lost in five years of tariff cuts, 
but Senate rules require coverage for 10 
years. (AP, Reuters. AFT) 

Peter Behr of The Washington Post re- 
ported earlier from Washington : 

Not since the birth of the United Na- 
tions has the United States faced a deci- 

sion quite like the one that brings Congress 
bade to Washington this week. 

states and 122 other nations, will be a 
powerful international body, equipped to 
bring down barriers to trade. 

An unlikely coalition of America First 
conservatives and liberal critics of Big 
Business have combined to oppose the 
WTO. To them, it amounts to a surrender 

of U.S. sovereignty and control over the 
nation’s economic destiny to a potentially 
hostile instrument of world government. 

As Mr. Clinton sees it, new rales .ex- 
panding trade opportunities for the stron- 
gest U.S. industries should be a cause for 

“Since the United States has the most 
productive and competitive economy in 
the world, that is good news for our work- 
ers and our future,” he said last week. 

Continued fan Rage l 

because it conceals the diplo- 
matic blnnderingeariy this year 
when President Bill Clinton in- 
sisted on using airpower to pro- 
tect Sarajevo and other UN- 
proclaimed safe “havens.” 

The resulting mlHtaty flare- 
up was defused by letting Rus- 
sia become a full partner in the 
international negotiating ef- 
forts, creating “a new anti- 
American directorate of Russia, 
France and Britain in the Secu- 

rity Council,” the German 
newspaper Die Weft said Mon- 

Germany bore the initial 
brunt of tire blame after it im- 

Croana on its European part- 
ners in January 1992, a step 
criticzzsd as rash by Washing- 
ton and the rest of Europe. 

. When similar recognition 
was extended to Bosnia, the 
Serbian minority there revolted. 

France blamed Britain for 

blocking European militar y ac- 
tion, then watched resentfully 
as U.S. help was sought. 

Gra duall y, European govero- 
ments, stung by toe rhetoric in 
Washington accusing UN 
peacekeepers of passivity about 
genocide, countered that U.S. 
refusal to commit ground 
troops was responsible for the 
international failu re in 

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Versace's plasticized silver suit; DKNY Neoprene dress, and Saint Laurent's sparkling sweater and satin pants. 

The Shining: A Season of Glitter 

By Sazy Menkes 

lmeraatiorud Herald Tribune 

P ARIS — Fashion has taken a 
shine to scintillating fabrics. The 
thread that links the disparate 
styles of the current season is 
gleam and glitter. 

The Shining comes in two categories: 
traditional and futuristic. The first sug- 
gests the conventional glamour of liquid 
savin or sparkling Lurcx. 

For the holiday season, that means a 
simple dress or a knitted tube — or per- 
haps a combination tof two different mate- 

Hot- items-at-an.praceJfflrd& .are glitter 
knits and satin pants — either in shiny 
stretch satin, disco-style, or satiiirstripe 
tuxedo trousers. 

For a refined version of the look, Yves 
Saint Laurent showed satin pants and a 
sparkling sweater. Ralph Lauren teamed 

pastel cashmere knitwear with A-line satin 
skirts. Isaac Mizrahi’s sweater set went 
with a big ball skirt, in the best tradition of 
American sportswear. 

A tougher take on shine comes in the 
revival of patent leather for shoes, boots or 
even for blouson jackets, with Christian 
Lacroix creating a shiny, gilded-leather 
jacket in one glam-slam. 

Futuristic shine depends rather on syn- 
thetic fabrics. Vinyl and plastic — last 
used in the space-age 1960s — give a 
harder and sexually predatory look to the 
basic silhouettes found in softer materi- 
als. . . .... 

• Helmut Langs plastic slip, dress: faces .. 
patterned like a wipe-down tablecloth, and 
the Austrian designer’s shiny T-shirts, Set a 
■ trend for mean-street, urban style. 

You rind the same look at a luxury level 
from Gianni Versace, whose plastic-coated 
silks and leathers are the ultimate in winter 

The Italian designer showed all the es- 
sential items, from die high-gloss belted 
trench coat through wet-look slip dresses, 
jeans and boots. 

His combination of metallic-leather 
skirt and fluffy sweater with snowflakes of 
glitter has been a supennodel favorite off 
the runway. 

Versace also used metal mesh, a byprod- 
uct of the aircraft industry, and sprayed 
leather with metallic paint like a 1950s 

Donna Karan also had techno- vision for 
her ball gown in Neoprene known for 
diving wet suits. 

. The shiny fabrics are a reversal of the 
J^90s enthusiasm for all things ecological, 
"beige and natural As a top-to-toe look it 
may be a short-lived trend. But in 3 holi- 
day season filled with Victorian nostalgia, 
fashion is at least facing up 10 the new 


For Doc 

London Launch 
For Hip Shoes 

International Herald Tribune 

L ONDON — It is a long way 
from the metal-tipped boot of a 
downtown skinhead to the 
height of hip fashion. But Dr. 
Martens — the creator of airy soles in 
heavy shoes — has made that leap. 

When the first Dr. Martens store 
opened in London’s Covent Garden on 
Wednesday, it was not just a new shop- 
ping opportunity, but a fashion event. 

The new- wave music duo Shampoo 
posed in pink (feather boa and boots). 
Simon le Bon checked out the mini- 
footwear for his kids. And an auction of 
autographed boots raised money for a 
children’s charity'. Since the store was 
packed with alternative/coUege groups 
and their fans, Madonna’s bools inevita- 
bly raised more bids than Liz Taylor’s. 
(Does the vintage Hollywood star really 
plod out in Dr. Martens?) 

In keeping with its gritty, industrial 
image, the rive-floor flagship store has 
bare brick walls, exposed metal girders 
and wire-mesh stairway. Downstairs is a 
caffe called Doctor’s Orders and upstairs, 
genuine work wear, the casual clothes 
range, launched in 1993, and a hairdress- 
er (you too can become a punk or skin- 

Goliath-sized boots worn by Elton 
John in the rock-opera film ‘Tommy” 
dominated the entrance. The store's var- 
ied footwear includes not just the clumpy 
boots, universally known as "’Doc Mar- 
tens," but glitter and neo-hippie patterns 
recalling the glam-rock years. 

The fashion show at the launch party 
started with kids rapping down the run- 
way. But the plaid shirts and baggy work 
wear just look like regular youth-culture 
clothes and lack the kick of the footwear. 

T-shirts photoprinted with the famous 
boots fulfill Dr. Martens’s aim to be a 
theme-park tourist attraction, complete 
with streetwise souvenirs. 

1-4 King Street, Covent Garden, Lon- 
don WC2. 

Suzy Menkes 

The pop duo Shampoo, top. and 
Elton John's boots from “ Tommy . " 

The West grew up in levis 


The Story of Jeans and How They Grew 

intemmionai Herald Tribune their own — and which could be in any curvaceous Marilyn Monroe introduc- shirtwaist dresses in jea 

P ARIS — If authenticity is the stylish modern closet. !n S sex-and-dentm. In the 1980s section. 

Holy Grail of style: the a fash- It ends with a torture chamber of The concept of jeans as a symbol of creative, ironic and sut 
ion is its poisoned chalice. What designer takes on denim — a cotton sexual freedom and sartorial rebellion statements — althouj 
designers did to jeans in the fabric that did not even take its name never quite comes across, even if the match punk denim sera’ 

l.iu h '.fc 

Inienunioned Herald Tribune 

P ARIS — If authenticity is the 
Holy Grail of style: then fash- 
ion is its poisoned chalice. What 
designers did to jeans in the 
1980s — like a shocking pink tweed and 
blue denim Chanel jacket — proves how 
wise it is to let classics well alone. 

The “Histoires du Jeans” exhibition 
at the Palais Galliera costume museum 
(until March 12) shows the indestructi- 
ble power of the Real Thing. It opens 
with a chambray work shirt from 1915, 
which, designers from Giorgio Armani to 
Calvin Klem would be proud to claim as 

Levi's ad for jeans in 1950s; cus- 
tomized, tree-of-life embroidered 
1973 jeans, bottom left, and eye- 
let-studded hippie jeans. 

their own — and which could be in any 
stylish modem closet. 

It ends with a torture chamber of 
designer takes on denim — a cotton 
fabric that did not even take its name 
from the French serge de Nimes (woolen 
work wear), but is essentially American. 
The myth of the West on celluloid and in 
reality is shown in blown-up pictures. 
But the jeans themselves hang in a dimly 
lighted display looking as lost and lonely 
as a cowboy without his horse. It may be 
fascinating to compare rivets and studs 
now and then, or to see how early Levi's 
produced the classic blouson jacket (in 
1936), but the pioneer garments in die 
show could do with some fresh prairie 

Photographs show the evolution of 
the Western myth, as a wholesome 
jeans-clad American family with hatch- 
back emerges in the 1950s, along with a 

curvaceous Marilyn Monroe introduc- 
ing sex-and-denim. 

The concept of jeans as a symbol of 
sexual freedom and sartorial rebellion 
never quite comes across, even if the 
exhibits include David Bowie’s denim 
jockstrap flashed with sequins. There is 
a striking image of anti-Vietnam War 
demonstrators in Washington in 1971, 
just as be-jeaned legs were later to 
breach the Berlin Wall. A lively section 
celebrates the hippie era when jeans 
were customized with embroidery, eye- 
lets or a magnificent applique of' a tree 
of life, with roots at the ankles and 
branches sprawling over the hips. 

From a stylish and witty pair of 1973 
platform-soled denim boots, printed 
with the word “jeans,” it is a small step 
to designer denim. That started with the 
American sportswear designer Claire 
McCardeD in 1943, who made graceful 

shirtwaist dresses in jeans fabric. 

In the 1980s section, there are some 
creative, ironic and subversive fashion 
statements — although nothing to 
match punk denim scrawled with angry 
slogans. Franco Moschino’s denim 
priest’s surplice (made for an ad cam- 
paign) has the power to shock: Vivienne 
Westwood’s slash-and-pull jeans is a 
witty lake on the familiar frayed/ tom 

Jean-Paul Gaultier brings the history 
of jeans full circle. The curvy frock coal ' 
he made in denim in 1 994 harks back to 
one of the earliest items in the exhibi- ■> 
tion: a frock coat dating from 1830. : 
when denim was just utilitarian work n . 
wear without the subsequent emotional .? 
and cultural baggage. 

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International Herald Tribune, Tuesday, November 29, 1994 

Page 9 

THE TRIB INDEX: 1 1 1 36£fe 

(ntemnttnnAl ManiH Trik.«. 

W« ©. exposed* 

120 - 


Approx, weighting 32% 

.03 9 J4j 122.tSPrev- 121.14 

Europe i ? ■ 


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eViL- 11356 FYw_ 113.43 

The Index tracks UA Mr vahms at stocks Ik Tokyo. New York, London, and 
AfganUno, A um traBa, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, CWa, Denmark, Finland, 
finance, Germany, Bong Kong, Maly. Mexico, Netharianda. Mew Zealand, Norway, 
Sin ga po r e. Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Venezuela. For Tokyo, Now Yak and 
London, die Max to composed of the 20 top issues n terms of market capkaizntian. 

H| Industrial Sectors • 1 

Hon. ftw. - % 

• 3 PJI do. -dang* 

Mo*. ftw. % 

• 3 Pit do. EMago 

L 6 "™ 

111.70 111.89 -ai7 

Cqdtad Goods 

112.16 111A1 +0.67 


12284 122.43 +0.17 


129.00 -128J>0 +029 


110.74 liaos +062 

Consuoer Goods 

103.01 102^3 +118 


112JZ 11275 -ttlffi 


115j59 11525 +0-30 

For. rnfnWumalionaltntttoo MoKaluoklBtlsavadabtolraeafdarge. 

Wfluto Tip Mat, i&f/HioaiaCtmitn do GoPa, 32521 A feufy Codex, Fiance . . 

JAL Gtes 
Deals in 
Big Loss 


TOKYO — Japan Air Lines 
Co. said Monday it lost. 176 
billion yen (SI. 8 billion) in for- 
eign exchange deals over the 
past 10 years. 

A spokesman for the airline 
said the losses had resulted 
when attempts to hedge risks 
from exchange-rate fluctua- 
tions backfired, and were not 
due to currency speculation. 

Japan Air Lines stock 
plunged 4 percent Monday on 
the Tokyo Stock Exchange, 
dosing at 681 yen, down 29. 

Citing company documents, 
the Asahi newspaper said the 
currency losses stemmed from 
forward contracts valued at 
$3.6 billion that the airline had 
bought between August 1985 
and March 1986. 

Companies entering into for- 
ward contracts agree to buy or 
sell a currency at a fixed price 
over a set period of time. Com- 
panies often use forward con- 
tracts to protect their finances 
against swings in exchange 

The airline's contracts 
obliged the company to buy 
dollars at an average rate of 184 
yen for an 1 1-year period end- 
ing March 31, 1997. The dollar 
finishe d trading in Tokyo on 
Monday at 98.80 yen. 

Kosd Yamada, a spokesman 
for Japan Air Lines, confirmed 
the value and length of the con- 

Spain’s Unsung Olive Oil 

Growers Look to U.S. to Boost Exports 

By John Tagjdabue 

New York Times Service 

• JAEN, Spain — This provincial Spanish 
town, snug at the base of a mountain top 
medieval castle, likes to think of itself as the 
Riyadh of olive oiL 

Fidds 1 hereabouts- that the Spanish poet 
Antonio Machado once described as “a sea of 
olive trees” — there are 52 million of them, 
spread over 1.2 milli on acres (485,000 hect- 
ares) — yield fully 22 percent of the world's 
olive oil So Ja£n*s olive growers cannot un- 
derstand why they are bang pushed around 
by the likes of France, Italy and Greece. 

Though their oil is pure and unblended, 
and buyers laud its body and flavor, Italian. 

olive oil companies purchase more than one- 
; at bulk price 

third the harvest at bulk prices, sometimes as 
low as $1.25 a pint, blend it with thinner 
I talian oils and, packaging it imag inatively, 
sell it as their own at a nice profit. 

So Ja&n has been sending emissaries 
abroad, notably to the United States, where 
in Apnl they visited gourmet shops, food 
distributors and brokers in New York, Phila- 

delphia and Washington, 
the B 

: goal is to cash in on the growing taste 
for olive oil in the United States. A pint of 
Ntifiez de Prado, an extra virgin oil from 
nearby Cdrdoba, can fetch $38 in American 
gourmet shops. 

“We’ve been too laid-back, we waited for 
customers to come to us,” said Josfe Carlos 
Rey, 40, an plive grower. “Now, people are 
tfllVrng about olive oil, so we have to go out 
looking for markets.” 

Like many other farmers trying to prosper 
in an increasingly competitive food business; 
Jafen’s olive growers have invested heavily to 
improve [heir groves. Spending the equivalent 
of $32 million in recent years, they nave set 
the trees farther apart to allow mechanised 
harvesting and upgraded the pressing equip- 
ment that enables them to squeeze the olives 
the day of picking, to avoid losing flavor. 

Yet upgrading the orchards may not help 
much if the growers cannot move their oil; 
With Europe awash in olive ofl as Italy, 
Greece and France continue to produce more 
than saturated local markets can absorb, the 
growers have to go to countries where con- 
sumption is expanding, particularly the Unit- 
ed States. 

The export drive has the full backing of the 
government in Madrid, which is struggling to 
reduce a trade deficit that reached $19.3 bil- 
lion in 1993 and $7.1 billion in the first five 
months of this year, frustrating the efforts of 
Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez to reduce a 
public deficit which, at 6.7 percent of gross 

See OLIVE, Page 10 

Spielberg Group 
Sets Venture 

With CapCities 

Complied by Our Staff From Dispatches 

NEW YORK — Spiribog- 
Katzenberg-Geffen, one of 
Hollywood’s most powerful en- 
tertainment concerns, will de- 
velop television shows with 
Capital Cities/ ABC Inc. under 
an agreement announced Mon- 

least seven years and would be 


and Capital Cities- ABC, parent 
of the ABC network. 

The co-production pact 
marks the first 

Campbell to Buy Pace Foods 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dtsfuadia 

CAMDEN, New Jersey — 

Campbell Soup Co. said Mon- 
it would 

day it would acquire Pace 
Foods Ltd. of San Antonio, 
Texas, a maker of Mexican 
sauces, far $1.1 bfifion. 

The transaction, which is 
subject to regulatory approval, 
is expected to be completed in 

January. Campbell said the 
tula reduce 

But he a d d ed that the. figures 
that appeared as currency 
losses in the Asahi report had 
been included in the company’s 
earnings report under capital 

OMarodonal HmMTribura- 

' “The mon ey w as in tended for-. 

as a porcharing 


purchase would reduce its per- 
share earning ^ by about 7 cents 
for the remainder of its 1995 
fina nc ial year and 7 cents in 
1996 but would begin adding to 
gammy in 1997. 

Pace is the top Mexican- 
sauce brand in the retail and 
foodrservice marfets, but it has 
oqjy limited distribution in the 
Northeastern United States, the 
said. ’ 

No. 1 brand offers a 

wide range of U.S. and global 
potential,” Campbell’s chair- 
man, David W. Johnson, said. 

Sales of Mexican sauces grew 
at an annual rate of 13 percent 
from 1988 to 1993, taking the 
sauces past ketchup as Ameri- 
ca's favorite condiment, ac- 
cording to Campbell. Pace is 
expected to have 1994 sales of 
$220 million and operating 
earnings of $54 million. 

Analysts praised the acquisi- 
tion as a wise strategic move 
despite its r datively high price. 

“Pace has been growing at a 
consistent dip over the past five 
years,” an analyst at NatWest 
Securities Corp., Michael 
Branca, said. “Iicertainlyleveix 
agps their- current purchasing, 
manufacturing and supermar- 
ket strength*” 

“The underlying category 
continues to be very robust, and 
1 don’t think that's going to 
change,” said an analyst with 
CS First Boston, Michael Mau- 

jbeU has tried unsuc- 
ly to develop its own line 
of Mexican sauces. Though the 
acquisition marks Campbell's 
entry into the Mexican-sauce 
business, the line fits nicely 
with its existing products, many 
of which are tomato-based. 

Campbell probably buys 
more of the key ingredients in 
Mexican sauces, including to- 
matoes and onions, than all but 
a few companies, and can pre- 
sumably strike better bargains ■ 
than Pace with suppliers. = • 

(AP, Bloomberg) 

significant ven- 
ture for the director-producer 
Steven Spielberg, the former 
chairman of Walt Disney Stu- 
dios Jeffrey Katzenberg and the 
recording mogul David Geffen 
since the three formed their en- 
tertainment company in Octo- 

The venture will produce 
shows for TV networks, cable 
services and other media and 
will cover all parts of the broad- 
cast day, from prime-time series 
to daytime to off-hours, the 
partners said. 

Robert Iger, Capital Cities' 
president and chief operating 
officer, said the venture would 
combine “ABCs experience in 
programming and distribution 
with Spielberg-Katzenberg- 
Geffen’s unparalleled expertise 
and success in all aspects of the 

He added that the venture 
“affords us the opportunity to 
accomplish an important goal: 
to own more programming.” 

Mr. Spielberg, one of the 
richest and most successful di- 
rectors of all time, called the 
venture “a creative opportunity 
for all of us: Capital Qties- 
ABC, my partners Jeffrey and 
David, and the talented artists 
with whom we look forward to 
making home.” 

Mr. Spidberg has made mil- 
lions through such pictures as 
“Jurassic Park” and “ET.” Mr. 
Katzenberg propelled Disney’s 
animation business to great suc- 
cess; and Mr. Geffen has been a 
respected' entre p rene u r" in -the 
■music industry. - • ■* 

The agreement sets up a part- 
nership that would last for at 

The four broadcast television 
networks are scrambling to lake 
advantage of television syndica- 
tion rules that will take effect by 
year-end and will allow them to 
own more programming. 

In trading Monday on the 
New York Stock Exchange, 
shares of Ca pi tal Cities were 
quoted late in the day at 
$81 J75, down 12.5 cents. 

(AP, Bloomberg) 

Prudential Unit 
To Sell Seat on 
Tokyo Exchange 

Bloomberg Business News 

TOKYO — Prudential Secu- 
rities (Japan) Ltd. said Monday 
it would sell its seat on the To- 
kyo Stock Exchange and cut its 
Japanese equities staff, making 
it one of several foreign broker- 
age houses to reduce its pres- 
ence here. 

Prudential Securities lnc.'s 
Tokyo arm said it would elimi- 
nate as many as 60 jobs in its 
equities operation — more than 
two-thirds of its Tokyo-based 
employees — to slash costs. 

Prudential Securities is the 
brokerage unit of Prudential In- 
surance Co. 

“I want to emphasize that this 
is a strategic decision,” Pruden- 
tial Securities Japan's president. 
Donald Duffy, said. “It was not 
focused specifically on Tokyo.” 

The Tokyo Stock Exchange 
said it would notify 132 foreign 
and domes tk? 'brokerage con- 
-cems Tuesday abbw-tbe avail* 
able membership. Prudential 
Japan will accept offers for the 
seat beginning Dec. 12. 

Thinking Ahead / Commentary 

Why Washington Wants a Strong EU 

By Reginald Dale 

International Herald Tribune 

D ROMOLAND, Ireland — A 
striking dichotomy seems to 
be emerging in Western Eu- 
rope’s relations with the Unit- 
ed States. The political relationship, stiB 
. largely managed by individual govern- . 
meats, appears to be heading into crisis 
amid mounting disagreement ova Bos- 
nia and the future of NATO. 

• Bat economic relations, broadly en- 
trusted to the European Union, are sur- 
prisingly healthy - — at least for no w. Th e 
end of the enervating Uruguay Round 
nego tiatio ns h« brought a temporary, if 
perhaps illusory, lull on the trade front, 
and both sides are congratulating each 
other on having kept protectionist forces 
at bay so far. 

Despite fears that President Bill Clin- 
ton would pay little attention to Europe, 
he has emerged as a strong supporter of 
European integration — the strongest, m 
fact of any US. president, according to 
Stuart E. Ezenstat, U.S. Ambassador to 
th« European Umon. 

What Washington wants, Mr. ESzen- 
stat toldLa conference of European and 
American journalists here, is a deeper 
and wider European Union — Ttot a 
loose-collection of sovereign stales m a 
free trade zone.” „ . 

- In other words, the Clinton adminis- 
tration supports the German, not tne 
British vSwof the future of Europe, 
which is one of the many 
rinr ic tncinff its m Washington. 

Disagreeing with the British govern-, 
meat, Mr. Eizenstat said he expected a 
common European currency by the end 
of the century among a core group of 
countries — although he carcfuSy added 
that was not official US. policy. 

like Germany,, the US. government 
dearly believes that the best way to deal 
- with the power vacuum in Central and 
Fas ft m Europe; especially given the dif- 
ficulties of enlarging the North Atlantic 
Treafy Organization, is to extend a 

The U.S. government 
supports the German, not 
the British, view of the 
future of Europe. 

strengthened European Union eastward 
as quickly as posable. 

A stronger and more unified Europe 
also would be better able to serve as 
America’s “essential partner,” as Mr..E- 
zanstat put it, in promoting Western in- 
terests in areas ranging from the Middle 
East to population controL 

Mr. Ezenstat spoke of a “real sense of 
shared mission” between the United 
States and the EU. “We view the world 
through essentially the same prism , with 
the same set of Western values;” he said. 

It is true that the United States and a 
prritrat Europe acting in tandem would 
be a formidable fence on the world scene. 

But there are dangers ahead. The eco- 
nomic side erf the equation could easily go 
sour as differences arise cm trade issues 
Hire labor and e n v ironm ental standards. 

The new Repnblican-controEled Con- 
gress could add to the tensions — partic- 
ularly if it believes, as soon-to-be Senate 
Majority Leader Robert Dole apparently 
does, that the new World Trade Organi- 
zation . should invariably rule a ga i ns t 
U.S. trading partners and never against 
the United States. 

An even more fundamental challenge 
will came from Europe’s efforts to speak 
with one voice in foreign and security 
policy, as well as on economic issues. 
That, too, is something Washington says 
it welcomes, on the grounds that it 
should be easier to deal with a single 
negotiating partner. 

But what a the angle European voice 
says things Washington does not want to 
hear? If Europe were speaking with one 
voice on Bosnia right now, trans-Atlantic 
relations might well be worse. 

That is no reason for Europe to stay 
divided. On the contrary, a continuing 
clash of interests over Bosnia is more 
likely to hasten the emergence of a dis- 
tinct European voice in political affairs. 
So would any US. relapse into isolation- 
ism. It would be better if that voice was 

But if Washington really wants Europe 
to be united ana strong, it must be pre- 
pared to pay the price: a Europe that may 
disagree more sharply with the United 
States from a position of greater strength 
— both potineafly and economically. 


' Not. 28 

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iDATE - contact : Pascale VITALIS 

institut de I audiovisuel et des telecommunications en europe 
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Page 10 



Stocks Undermined 
By Rate Concerns 

NEW YORK — The stock 
market turned in a mixed per- 
formance Monday as reports of 
strong holiday retail sales were 
offset by lingering fears that 
more money would' desert 
stocks for bonds. 

The Dow Jozies industrial av- 
erage was up 14.13 points at 

U.S. Stock*/ 3 P-M- Snapshot 

3,722.40 in late trading, but on 
the New York Stock Exchange, 
declining issues outnumbered 
advancing ones by a 9-to-8 ratio. 

The price of the benchmark 
30-year Treasury bond was. 
down 18/32 point at 94 17/32, 
taking the yield up to 7.98 per- 
cent from 7.93 percent Friday. 

Bond yields approaching 8 
percent are making stock inves- 
tors nervous that investors 
could decide to buy into a safer 
return in the bond market at the 
expense of stocks, as happened 
last week, sending the stock 
market tumbling. 

As long as interest rates are 
rising, “these rallies were made 
to be sold,' 1 said Todd Clark, 
director of equity trading at 
Mahon Securities Corp. “There 
has been a lot of damage to the 
market last week, and people 
are still nervous." 

But stocks found some sup- 
port from reports of strong 
weekend sales from many re- 
tailers over the weekend, which 
marked the traditional start of 
the Christmas shopping season. 

Specialty retailing stocks 
were particularly strong, with 
Home Depot, Toys *R’ Us and 
Gap rising. 

RJR Nabisco also was 
among the gainers after the 
company said it was developing 
a smokeless cigarette. 

Pfizer rose after its said it 
would form an alliance with To- 
kyo-based Eisai to develop 
treatments for Alzheimer's dis- 
ease and other cognitive disor- 

Kemper rose a day after an- 
nouncing it would consider sell- 
ing segments of its insurance, 
mutual fund and brokerage di- 
virions if it did not find a buyer 
for the entire company. 

Walt Disney rose after the 
company’s film “The Santa 
Clause” was the top money- 
maker at U.S. theaters over the 

Mellon Bank fell after it said 
it planned to take a fourth- 
quarter charge of SI 30 million 
to reduce the exposure of secu- 
rities portfoGos held by clients 
at its Boston Co. division to 
rising interest rates. 

(Bloomberg, AP) 

V5o Auooefed Pnu 

Now. 28 

The Dow 

Dow Jones 
IB ■■ 

1984 ' V?-. 


NYSE Most Actives 

VbL Hfeb 




RJR Nat> 

3347B 4% 




ES iWiVi 


* % 

23297 50 

* 8 % 


— V. 


21383 44% 



+ 1 W 


210*4 38% 



+ % 


19917 57% 



+ % 


18384 37% 








+ % 


15*39 71% 




Compaq 4 

■ t.-l 



— % 

13423 20% 




13470 41 »b 



— % 




— % 


12440 20% 


20 % 

+ % 

NASDAQ Most Actives 










International Investors 
Give the Dollar a Boost 

Cine ssi 



VaL Htoti 




44289 45% 



+ % 

41474 33 

32 Ik 



30617 21% 



— 1% 

22180 23% 



♦ % 

712% 43% 



+ H 

17826 27% 



+ 1% 

17549 19% 




(4513 44% 



+ )% 

16352 15% 



• % 

14904 41% 


+ Vi 

14844 14% 


— % 

14741 41% 




129S4 13% 



10988 38% 



10014 2>Vu 




Compiled by Oar Staff From Dispatch a 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
rose against most other major 
currencies Monday, supported 
by views that international In- 
vestors were not pulling out of 
U.S. investments after last 
week's plunge in stocks. 

The dollar was trading at 
1.5658 Deutsche marks in late 

Foreign Exchange 

New York trading, up from 
1.5602 DM on Friday, and at 
98.665 yen, down from 98.775 

The dollar was also at 5.3745 
French francs, up from 5.3541 

Education Directory 

Every Tuesday 
Contact Fred Rooan 

Td.: 133 1 ) 46 37 93 91 
Fax: (33 \) 46 37 93 70 
or your nearest BIT office 
or representative 

francs, and 13275 Swiss francs, 
up from 13205 francs. The 
pound was at $13613. down 
from 51.5630. 

Last week’s shift of invest- 
ments to bonds from the slock 
market was viewed as a domes- 
tic phenomenon and interna- 
tional investors were still hold- 
ing on to their U.S. 
investments, according to Paul 
Farrell, a dealer with Chose 
Manhattan bank. 

The dollar also received sup- 
port from a belief that the Fed- 
eral Reserve Board may have 
contained U.S. growth and in- 
flation. But that view is likely to 
be reassessed Friday when hew 
employment figures are re- 
leased, Mr. Farrell said. 

In Europe, the' dollar had 
slipped against other major cur- 
rencies after an unexpected 
jump in U.S. home sales 
spurred investors to sell U.S. 
bonds amid inflation concerns. 

Rising U.S. prices erode the 
return investors get on U.S. se- 
curities. (AFP. Bloomberg) 

AMEX Most Actives 











♦ % 




1 % 

1 % 

— Yh 


5*23 30% 





4477 3'»» 



— % 






— % 





V u 

+ Vm 




10 % 

10 % 

— % 






— % 

‘ N abort 





INA Voce 


11 % 

10 % 


— % 

Market Sales 

A men 
i In ml Mem. 

T 1S 






Pov Jones A vera ge s 



Op*n M* Low 31*ra CkS. 

370695 3741.92 3707 J4 3729X7 + 21X0 
1*27X2 U3L54 1*2406 1 <MJ6 —442 
179-00 110,00 17042 179XB —OS3 
1241 36 1249.73 124090 1344*7 tZM 

Standard A Poor’s Indexes 

He low 

Ctase 3:20 




537X4 J3440 
36538 343*5 

151*8 150X7 

41.14 4679 

452X7 449X0 
432*0 419*9 


41 JM 






NYSE Indexes 









30*7 30X4 
313*0 311X1 
226)3 23039 
700X1 199X1 
194*9 193*2 






— UB 

NASDAQ Indaixes 

yeah low 









745.10 743.15 
75655 74644 
465X1 68640 
BB6X7 ESS. 05 
861*6 859*3 
445X3 44330 







+ 1.12 
+ 0*9 
+ 0.94 

Dow Jon 

eo Bond Avera 


20 Bonds 

10 Utilities 

10 industrials 











AMEX Stock Index 

HWi Low 



CAM 433X7 



NYSE Diary 

Unqicn p cd 
Tafol Issues 
New Highs 
New Lows 













AMEX Diary 

U Mtfmn ee d 
Total issues 
New Highs 
New Laws 

222 XI 

245 155 

197 m 

699 644 

S 3 

!> 11 

Previous NASDAQ Diary 



Total tomes 
New Lows 








3 a 

Spot Commod i ti es 

Today Prev. 
Aluminum, lb 0032 a 881 

Cooper electro lytte lb 1J0 Ml 

Iron FOB, ton 21100 71100 

Lead, to 0M QM 

Silver, rrar az £.14 5.17 

Steel (scrap), tan 127.00 127 JO 

Tin, lb 4X195 iul 

Zinc, to 05726 050(2 




Nd Ask 
ALUMINUM [Mob erode) 
Denars per mebrtc ten 

U3UQ 10343)0 
Fo rwar d T*SOi» issue 

Pottery per metric ta n 

teat mini m«enn 

Forward 202350 2B24JD0 


DeUan per metric toe 
Spat 65350 

Forward 0OOO <5713)0 


Ddlms per mMc ton 
Spat 757050 737550 

Forward 769*00 770050 


Dolton per metric toe 
Spot 0*500 60553)0 

Forward <13000 614000 






















1109X0 1110X0 114250 114350 
1137X0 1130X0 1149X0 1170X0 


Mob Low 

cMOXM -ntsef Napa 

Dec 9324 9330 9332 +0X1 

Mar 9X03 9236 9X01 +0X2 

Jut 9X43 9257 92X1 +0X2 

Sep 9137 9131 9134 + 0X4 

Dec 91X0 9154 9150 +0X6 

Mar 9L3S 9U2 3T55 + 005 

Jan 9130 9X17 9130 +0X5 

Sen 91.10 91X5 91X9 +0X6 

Dec 90.97 903 4 9(k9S +0X7 

Mar 9059 9000 9030 + 0X7 

Jua 9X55 9000 9054 +0X7 

SCP 9X00 9050 9052 +0X7 

Ext. volume: Open bit.: 511,981. 


*7 anon - pts of too pef 


HT. HT. 9350 —0X4 

ht. n.t. —axe 

N.T. N.T. 9277 — 0.13 

S«« H.T. ■ N.T. 9231 — 054 

Esl volume: a. Open int.: 4547. 


- Pts ef 1st pet 


































_ __ rSSS 

Est. volume: <1392 Open Inti 7351284. 

FF5 mflQea - Pts Cf Ml PC* 
Dec 94+0 9437 

Mar 94X4 94.10 

Jan 9X74 9X70 

SCP 9351 9336 

Dec 93X0 93X1 

Mar 9239 9237 

Jan 9X2 9248 

9234 9237 

9439 +U1 

94.11 —0X1 

9X71 —0X1 

9X30 +0X1 

93X5 +0X1 

9235 lirxJL 
9251 UnctL 
9231 +0X1 

Est. vatome: 2X817. Open bit: 192324. 
150008 - pcs A 32Pdl of 100 pet 
Dec 10340 10300 103-16 +0-11 

Mar 102-30 102-1 1 1B2-2) +D-12 

Jon HT. N.T. 101-27 +0-72 

fed. volume: 84519. Open tot.: 126399. 
DM 2SSX0t-PtI Of 1 0* PCt 
Dec 9155 9130 9136 — 032 

Mar 90.90 9050 9X3 — XT7 

JUS 9X06 9X08 E950 — CLT7 

Est. volume: 142374. Open tot: 210360. 

Dec 11X00 11256 11174 +032 

M«r 11X20 11)56 111.04 +034 

JOB 11136 11X00 HUM +034 

Sep HT. N.T. 11030 +034 

Est. voAmtw: 160m. Open Inf.: IS&HZ 


Htsa Low Lost Settle Orta 

U5. donors per metric loo-toto etlOB toes 
Dec 15135 151X0 151X5 151X0 —135 

Jon 154X0 15X25 15335 15X50 — 1-g 

Feb 15535 155X0 155-50 155-50 — 0J5 

Mar 15658 15535 15635 15635 — 035 

Apr 155X0 15475 15435 15435 —050 

High lm tost seme art* 


iJ* NT UT St. 157X0 UnA 

42? NT’ EE NX 159X0 UndL 

55 *LT HT. N.T. 1*100 Dock. 

8 S, Hr! hx HT. mi Until. 

bLvobneiMR. OpewW. 94892 

Meh Low Last Seme arte 

Stock Indexes 

Hieti Low Close Cham 


CBPW-tode^t 3042X 3DSSX +2X0 j 

SSn 30645 3069X +200 1 

NX "NX 30KX +2M 

Est. volume: M30S. Open tat.: »3< 4 


195X00 +16X0 1 

g bss isss tss 

§ tig 

Sw NX. N.T. 1969X0 + M0O. 

Est. volume: 36X34 Open lnL 56352, , 

Sources: MaTH, Associated Pres* | 
f lV.+ r i /pH Ftnaadm Futons ErttiMWft 1 
inn Petroleum 


Per Amt Rec 
XerasrapMc Loser 7 tor < reverse split 

ComWest Gicomm Co 7 tar t split. 



J2S C-7 12-28 
.125 M 14 
.10 12-20 1-3 

4m Stratum Port 

Enert lex System 

Home Fed! Bcp 


Avery Demhoa c W;T 12-H 

Am PoWisluno A _ - STS M l-IS 

c-rwtscd payable date. 


F*t Find Bn OM n 
MaKKvDlxoo Bncs 
Mining Svc Inti 


_ 34 12-9 1-3 

. X 1M 12-15 

. XI 12-12 12-27 

. JIS 0-7 12-28 

. 3 Df 12-20 

. 3f 12-7 72-3 

> X7 12-1 12-15 

Nuveen insNYPrnO .> ran noo 

Nuv MO Premlncal - £05 IM exo 

X386 12-8 12-30 

Amor Gav Income 
Am Gov Inca Part 
Am Oppartnn Inaj 

Nm VA Prem loco 2 


ARiank Find 
Amertana Bnc» 
AmOpparl Inca 
Am Set Port 
Am Stmt IncoPt II 
Am StafinarPt in 
Americas Inca Tr 
Baa Ponce Coup 
C omstock Bk 
HWUanber Irjen 
interchange FlnSvs 
Maryland FeB 
Morewan Bncstirs 
Nov »ns«mYPrm2 
Nov md Prem uco 
NuvMD Prro toca2 
Nttv va Prm tnca 
NovVAPrminco n 
Okanagn Sfcae ABB 
P m ir u PQ Bna> 
Patriot Sd Div 
Rival Bncp 
ShoreUne Rnd 
vista Bncp 

Q .10 12-9 1-3 

Q .15 12-16 1-6 

M X633 127 Tja 
M X93 12-7 12-20 

m .1125 12-7 e-a 

M .106 12-7 12-28 
M .106 1W 12-28 
O -3 12-16 13 

JQ&S 12-30 1-16 
,1U 12-7 12-28 
.173 12-20 V-2D 
X625 T2-5 12-19 
J1S 12-1 12+ 
X 7 12-1 12-15 
12-7 TWO 
12-8 13-30 
72-8 12-30 
120 12-30 

124 12-30 

_ XI 12-15 1200 
Q .125 12-9 12-23 

M .1831 12-9 12-23 
a JU 22-1 12-15 
Q .14 t2-l 12-15 
„ .15 12-15 V2 

Q 3 21 04 



O — 
M X615 
M 3615 
M 357 
M -065 
M 357 

For investment information 

every Saturday L". tHT 

OLIVE: Spanish Oil Producers Are Looking for Their Place in the Sun 

Continued from Page 9 


brake on the economy. 

“The perception of Spain is 
Hemingway’s, you 'know, bull- 
fighting, the Civil War,” said 
Juan J. Pin dado, director of the 
Spanish Industry Association s 
export promotion office in 
Washington, which sponsored 
April’s tour by the Jaen grow- 
ers. “Nobody knows the regions 
of Spain or their products, like 

oiL We have to loll the Heming- 
way stereotypes.” 

The Jaen growers arc bank- 
ing on America's increased ap- 
petite for olive o0 since nutri- 
tionists praised - its - value in 
curbing heart ailments and the 
cuisines of the Mediterranean 
became popular in America, 
making it a staple in many 

This year, exports of olive oil 
to the United States are expect- 
ed to reach 122.000 tons, com- 

pared with 35,000 tons 10 years 

But even then, and while 
Spain remains the world's larg- 
est producer of olive oil, with 
one- third of the output, sales of 
Spain's oil in the United Stales 
continue to trail those of Italy 
and Greece, the world’s No. 2 
and 3 producers. 

“J wouldn’t say one is better. 
I would say Spanish oil is differ- 
ent than Italian oil,” said 

Claude Mallinger. a vice presi- 
dent and director of purchasing 
at Sutton Place Gourmet in Be- 
tbesda, Maryland. “It is fruitier, 
and I won't use the word sweet- 
er, but it ha£ihore flavor than, 
say, Frehdi olive oOs.” 

Ernie Lhmemann. of Had- 
don House Products in Med- 
ford, New Jersey, who met the 
growers from Jaen. said they 
had a wonderful product but 
failed to follow up initial con- 
tacts by sending samples. 


Ford Announces Stake 
In South African Motor 

CanpdeJbrOte Staff From Dupaidus 

ES* sSfwrfi sfo? '£ssyf iS« ss 


^rd^bu^mg the stake from Anglo Aratrkan Corp. of Sooti,: 
Africa Ltd. and%iglo Amencan Industrial Corp. 

A ^d and the Ar§o American companies v^Hb^ne^ual 
parrcSstn Samcor, while the Samcor 

lOpcroent stake and maintain representation on toe ^rd^. 

USA Waste to Buy Smaller Rival 

DALLAS (Combined Dispatches) — USA Waste Services In&- 
said Monday it would acquire Chambere Development Compmy 
Ina in a stock swap and debt assumption deal valued at S725 

m Thecombined waste-management company would have arariiaE 
revenue of about S450 million and operations m 21 states. 

USA Waste vnD issue 0.41667 of a share for each Chambers 
common share, or a total of 27.8 million USA Waste toarcs. USA 
Waste stock fell $2,125 to SI 1.875 in late trading. Chambers Bf 
shares rose 87.5 cents to $4.00. (AP. Knighi-Ruider) 

Mellon to Take $130 Million Charge 

PITTSBURGH (Bloomberg) — Mellon Bank Corp. said Mon- 
day it would take a fourth-quarter charge of $130 million related 
to portfolios managed by Boston Co., which Mellon acquired in 

1953. ..... 

Boston Co. is one of the foremost institutional investors in 

“We have initiated this action unilaterally for the benefit of our 
clients because we determined that toe interest-rate sensitivity of 
certain <rii*nt portfolios is not appropriate under current condi- 
tions,” said Frank V. Cahouet, chairman of Mellon. 

Court Says Joe Camel Can Face Trial 

WASHINGTON (Bloomberg) — The Supreme Court on Mon- 
day rejected RJ. Reynolds Tobacco Co.’s attempt to block a 
lawsuit that said the company's "Joe CameT advertising cam- 
paign encouraged minors to smoke. 

The tobacco company was appealing a decision by tbe Califor- 
nia Supreme Court allowing a trial on a San Francisco woman’s 
clnim that — by promoting the illegal activity of smoking by 
minors — tbe campaign constituted an unfair business practice 
under state law. 

KeyCorp to Purchase Financial Firm 

CLEVELAND (Bloomberg) — KeyCorp said Monday it had 
signed a letter of intent to buy Spears, Benza k, Salomon & Farrell 
Incx, a New York-based investment management firm. The com- 
pany did not disclose terms. 

KeyCorp, said tbe purchase would raise its asset-management 
business to more than S37 billion. 

W— k«nd Boar Office p 

The Associated Press 

LOS ANGELES — “Die Santa Clause” dominated toe U.S. 
box office with a gross of S27.5 million over the weekend. 
FoD owipg are the top 10 moneymakers, -based on Friday ticket 
sales and estimated sales for Saturday mid. Sunday. „ ' '• 

L 'The Saala dowss' 

(WOft Disney J 

S27X million 

1 "Star Trek Generations' 

(Paramount! • 

820* million 

X ''interview With ft* VOmpft*' 

(Warner Brothers! 

*17 million 



*14 mutton 

X "A Low Down DWyJtant' 

(Buena Vtato Pictures/ 

Sit* minion 

i. "The uan Kins' 

(Walt Disney! 

58.1 million 

7. ■Storeote’ 


54* million 

8 The Puvct luster" 

(Twentieth Centum Fas! 

155 million 

9. "The PrefBHlanar 


*53 million 

10. "Miracle an 34th StrwT 

(Twentieth Century Fax! 

8£2 mllHon 


Agena E+onca Ptoua No*. 28 



, ABN Amra Hid 
; ACF Hokum 
I Ahold 
■Atao Nobel 


6070 60X0 
3400 3456 
109 A0 10970 
52-10 52 

195 795.80 
74 7260 
M.10 3450 
45X0 6100 
134 13*20 
17X0 17A0 
15.10 1*70 
4580 4*90 

H OO BO Vero 76 7670 

Hunter Dowkii 73.70 75J8 
IHCCatand 37X0 40X0 
inter Mueller 9140 92A0 
inti Nederland 81X0 80X0 
KLM 4*00 4*60 

KNP BT 46X0 49 

KPM 5456 5420 

NMSfttyd 5120 5220 

Oce Grin ten 7250 7278 

PaktKMd 4478 4*50 

PMIIps 5250 S 

Potvaram 74 7 

RoDecQ 111.10 11 

Radarnco .5010 s_. . 
RfHtneo 11150 11220 

Rorento B3J0 8120 

Royal Dutch 10670105X0 
Stork 4370 4280 

Urd layer 19490 19278 

Van Ornmeren *5 4*90 
VNU 176X0 177 

Wolton/Kluwer 12430 12260 


Fortts AG 
ii umu nel 
Pp ou - ll n 

7510 7490 
5190 5200 
3500 2440 
4325 4305 
22775 22900 
12125 121 


1970 1990 
197 190 

NA 1100 
72W 7170 
13ra -1292 
5690 5620 
2980 2070 
2690 2570 
1300 1288 
3910 3910 
92M> msd 

6570 6490 
1*02 1*02 
MOO 9390 1 
2W0 2660 
462 *80| 

5000 ■■■ 
. . 8H+ 1__ 

Belgtou e 2190 ni 


Union Mkitere 

mss**, Bi 729 ^ 



Alikins Hold 

A Ilona 

149X0 ISO 
i 2373 

715 710 

BASF 307X0 307 JO 

Baver 3400 340 

Bov. Hypo Bank 400 40g 
Bay veratosMt 4EX0 *55 
BBC 625 650 

BHF Bank 38B», 306 
BMW 75174^1 

Commerzbank 323X0371 JO 

a a 

gf&k 22M0 23470 
Deutsche Bank 741X0737X0 
Douglas 415 423 

DrudnerBank J57-5J„*Z 

Feldmuetlle 3045030430 
F Knjpp Hoescti 199X0 90 
304 305 

928 900 
846 8S0 
341 343 

163 162 
439 450 

....» 119 110 

KkMCkner werke 131131X0 
Under 882 877 

Lufthansa 198X0197X0 
MAN 422X041650 

Mannesman*! 4I34I3J0 
NMaltamvii 133X012090 
Muondl RueCk 2780 2770 
Porsche m m 

Praussas 430X0 494 
PWA 341 245 


RhetametoU 281 282 
Schertoo 990900X0 

H orpener 
K0II Sab 






VI au 



Claw Prev. 

XO 28650 
305 307- 

373 371 

454 *53 

1005 1000 






96 96 

38X0 3850 
136 13* 

5X8 5X0, 
120 12BJ 
145 146 h 

673 665 
70 74 

90 90X0 
248 250 

Kong Kong 

Bk East Asia 
Cathay PoctHc 

Cheung Kona 

China LWilPwr 
Dolry Form Inn 
Hona Luna Dev 
Hang Seng Bank 

Hend en on Land 

HK Air Ena. 

HK China Gas 
HK Electric 
HK Land 
HK Realty Trust 

HSBC HafcHnss 

HKSnana Htta 
HK Telecomm 
HK Firry 
HutchWhompaa : 
Hyson Dev 
Janhne Str Hid 1 
Kowloon Mater 
ManOartn Orient 

Miramar Hotel 

New World Dev 
SHK Praps 
Swire PacA 
Taldtewnfi Pros 

Wharf Hold 
WtieetocfeCo . 
Wins Dn Co Inti 
Wlneor Ind. 



To Onr Readers 
stock prices were 
not available for this 
edition because of 
technical problems 
at the source. 

Abbey Nan 
Allied Lyons 
Argyll Group 
Ass Brlf Foods 



Sank Scotland 





Blue Circle 
BOC Group 

Brit Airwave 

Bril G* 

Brtt Steel 
Brit Telecom 

BTR . 

Cable Wire 

Cadbury Sth 


Coats Vlvat la 



ECC Group 

Enterprise Oil 




Close Prev. 




Grand Met 











Lana Sec 



Legal Gen Grp 

Hal West 
NitiWst Water 


BBV 3440 3445 

BcoCenlngHlm 3000 xoo 
Banco Santander 5300 SMQ 
BaneslO 953 949 

CEPSA 3115 3to0 

I98S I960 
5980 5920 
154 IS 

079 879 

Repsol M3S 3P5 

zsssssr ™ %% 

f?Si firM" - * 1 "* 


AHeonza 15165 1500 

Assttalto 10460 10210 

Aufostrade nrfv MW 7670 

t Asrlcottura 2750 Z72S 
CommerltM 3425 3415 
NacLavaro 12760 rasoc 
Pop Novara 9380 9000 
adlRama 1595 IMS 
StwAmOrapono 4405 4390 
Bco Napofl rbp 1150 1140 
Benetton 19500 19300 

Credlto itaUano 1573 1442 
Enlctlem Aug 3010 3010 





Flnanz Agrelnd 9290 9140 



■ 1610 

Generali Astfc ®200 3OTq 


1(080 10430 1 


11172 1)631 

1900 1870 
2190 2150 
74900 14950 


MerM o twnca 
Pirelli soa 

RAS , - 

Rlng^eente ^0 W 

San Paolo Torino 9M 9M0 

SIP nss UBS 

SME 3W »« 

Sola bad ,]W 


Slot 4695 4670 

ToroAsalc 23200 230» 

MSSWIP 1 "* 


Bonk Montreal 

141b 14to 
25W 2SAi 

24 239b 

7V% 64b 

10 MU 
N.T. 1746 
12% 12% 
21% 21 
129b 13% 

25 25% 

Close Prev. 
BCE Mobile Cam 44% 46% 
Cdn Tire A llta !!S 

Gai Metro 
Hudson^ Bay Co 
ImoSGo Ltd 39 35% 

invostarsGrp Inc 15% 16 

Labatt (John) 20 20% 

LoWroCaa 21% 20% 

WUXson A 1BVS 1H% 

Nall Bk Canada 9% 10 

A 10 18% 

Petrolm 41% 41% 

Corp 1Mb 18% 

Power Fin 28% 28% 

Ouebecor B 16% 16% 
Rooers Comm B 19% 19% 
Royal BkCdc 29 29% 
Sears Conoda Inc 8 8 

SMICdaA 43% 43% 

Stolen A 7% 7% 

Triton Fin! A iW 3JD 







Banco I re (del 



aments Franc 
Oub Mod 
Ell- Aquitaine 
Euro Disney 
Gen. Ecu* 

507 505 
772 710 

462 661 

— 262 

779 765 

2150 2149 
232X0 229.1 B 
101 782 

1260 1255 

347 243 

447 440 

3*5 369X0 
0X5 US 
510 55- 

442X0 440< 

I metal 524 535 

LotareeCopFee 396X0391X0 

Leorand 6600 <700 

Lvqrv. Eaux 470 462 

Oreo 1 I L‘> 1166 1756 

UVXAH. 870 858 

Mcrtro+tachette 116X0116X8 
MlCfieHflB 205207-50 

Moulinex 111X0110X0 

Paribas 377X0 373JO 

Peciilney Inti 164.10 161X0 


P Inoult print 965 900 

Rodtotoctmique 509 . 4W 

Renault W1 100X0 

RtvPoulencA 13*30136X0 
Raft. St. Louis 1444 1430 

Sonotl 257 JO 236X0 

Sami GobaJn 643 643 

SJLB. 526 511 

Sto Generate 612 MB 

5ue2 261 261 JO 

Thamson-CSF V56X0 158 

Total 333X8 334X0 

Sao Paulo 

Banco do Brasil 




Paranqp on emo 
Sauza Crw* 
Vale RIsDoce 

Nov. 25 





























151 -SO 


3X00 3X0S 


Asia Poc Brew 14 16.10 

CTyD^etopmnf zS 7JB 

Cvde & CorrtoM 12X0 12X0 

8 85 10X0 10X0 

BS Land *58 4 M 

FE Levtnaston 6Xg 6X5 
Fraser & Neeve 1640 16JTi 
Ot Eastn Ltto 27X0 27X0 
Nona Leona Fin *26 tit 

inchctipe 5J0 5J0 

Jurong Sbbnrard 11X0 11X0 
KoYHtanJCanel 176 
Komi 1UD 117? 

Natsleel 3 1W 

Neptune Orient 2 2X2 
OCBCtaretan 7+80 1*80 
O-WKUnlMBfc +90 6X5 
DIM Union Ent 9.10 085 
Smto m anB • ia» ift» 

5/ me Singapore 799 
.Sing Aerospace 2 2Q Ml 

Close Prev. 
Sirs Airlines tarn 13X0 1340 
Sfna Bus Svc US 9 
Sing Land 8X0 8J0 

SlngPetlm 2JB 240 

Slna Press tom 2&40 27 

SlngShlptjMo 247 24S 
Stag Telecomm 29* J 
5 traits Xfeoin 4J8 +8* 
Straits Trading 3X4 XM 
Tat Lee Bank 440 443 
UW Industrial I J6 1 J7 
UtdO'Sca Bktram 15J8 15X0 
Ufa Otoeae Land 2X7 2X9 


Altos ( 


*F ^ £ 

s was 

t B 301X0 OTI 

sselte-A W 9250 

Handel sbontc BF 98X0 97X0 
Investor BF HA. 1B9XD 

Norsk Hydro 25*5025*50 
Pt M TO HXto AF 120119X0 



Amcor 8+5 832 

ANZ 3.M *04 

BHP lejB 1*76 

3 oral A3 7 3X7 

BougoinvUto 090 0.90 

Cotea Mver 

Fosters Brew . 

Goodmon Field 
ICI Australia 

Nat Aust Bank 
Hews Corp 
-N Broken Hill 
Pac Dunlop 
Pioneer Ml -... 
NjnndvPooWdon 190 2 

W _ 53 IS 

Western Minins 7X3 7X6 
Westpac Botkina 4X0 *31 
Waadstde 4X0 4X1 


AkM Etoctr 372 356 

Asohi Chemknl 736 733 

Asohl Glass 1210 121 B 



B M10 1400 

no uno 

Nippon Print 1490 1670 

House 135 vsa 

Securities TOT ISO 

4470 *400 
two 1910 
2220 2220 
1010 ion 

954 *42 

Hitachi Cable 778 810 

Honda 1420 TSOfl 

Ita YofcadO 5130 5TB 

ItatiW 728 725 

Japan Airlines 481 710 

Kallmo 040 JW 

Konsoi tamer S70 2390 

Kawasaki Steel 
Kim Brewery 


jSSSTe taclnds 

muOOT bk 

Nomura Sac 

Olympus Optical 1COO 1970 
Ptaraer 2220 2190 

J B 
§S S. ™ '32 

SMnetsa Chetn 


S umitomo Bk 
Sumitomo Qiem 
Sami Marine 
Sumitomo Metal 
Tatect care 


Tokyo Marine 
Tokyo Elec Pw 
Toppan Printing 
Turay ind. 

a: s loo 

Cine Prev. 
1920 1910 
5148 5140 
1690 1680 
559 554 

812 Bit 
333 325 

598 537 

1200 TOT 
547 546 
1110 1090 
2770 2760 
1450 1440 
733 748 

683 680 

2070 2070 
707 6*5 


AftfftM Price )7% 

Air Conoda 7% 

Alberts Enespy 10% 

Atner bo me* aws 

Avenar _ 2S 

Bk Nova Scotia 2 T*. 

BCE 4* 

BC Telecomm 23% 

BombcnCer B 2T% 

Bramalec 2X7 

Urn icon A 19% 

Cditwco 2B*i 

Cl BC 33% 

Cdn Natural Res 16% 

0*1 QcxMPtl 32% 

Cascades Paper 
Consumers Gas 
Daman ind B 
Du Punt Cog A 
Echo Bay Mines 14% 

Empire Co. A N.T. 

Fletcher Chall 
Franco Nevada 
Gucrtflan Cap A 
Hem to Gold 

imperial Oil 


LakSarr E 

Loewen Gram 

London Insur Go 

MacmUl BioodM 
Aiaena inti A 
MOPteLeuf F«» 






Season Season 
HWi Lav 

Open Hah low Oose Oto Op« 

Wo Assaamea ms 

Nov. 28 

Seaton Season 
Ktfl Low 

Ooen mah Low Close Ctra Or xJte 


WHEAT (G0OTT untumeun-itwiBetaM 

1X7% ,002% 11165 
% *0B3 33X66 

0M2 5X59 

vb *0100% njts 
ox 1 sst 
. 081% 1S3 

jji% t-aars 11 

*16^ 109 Dec 94 1X4 349 

*26% 1X7 Mar»5 3X0% IB 

1WV, l)6hAtay»5SX7 ’ 

3X1% 111 Ji4«5 131% 

3X5 139 5&p95 344 3X4 

175 149 DecfS 3X5% 154 

354% 1X5 Jul 96 

EsLSerieS 12X00 Fr?s-5akt5 7JH 
Rl'iooeninf 45X21 o« 577 

WHEAT OCSOT) MtoSynWe—gt- O oe ai w 
133V, 3.12hDw:M 3X0% 1S3 3X0 

4-27% ITS Xtor95 3J2to 155 182 

*03 UlViMayW 3X9% 171 1*9 

146% 114% Jul 95 145 1X7 344% 

177 139 See ? 5 049% 149% 140 

3X9% 152 Dec 95 354 156% 154 

Est. Sdet . NA. Frl’v safes 2X51 
Ftrsemnits 3SXW a 19 144 
CORN l COOT) IMkimirtmiiiv-etoiprWM 
2.77 LIOfeDecM 112% 2.13% 2.12 2.12% 54,169 

182% 2J0%6fer»S 2X1% 124% 2X3 121% 105JD9 

228 Mav95l31 2J1V> ZJ0 2J0'X-0J0'6 34X43 

232% Xy 95 2JS% 234% 204% 335 45JB1 

2X1 Sep 95 2«% 141 240 IX 3,977 

2X5% Dec 95 245 244 2X5 245% 40X9% 22X03 







Newftrtctae Nefw 
Narando Inc 239b 
Horanda Forest io=% 

Nor Cen Energy >6% 

Nttfern Te l ecom 44% 
Nova i» 

Onex 13 

Petra Canada 1146 
Placer Dome 26% 
Potash Corp Sasic 47 
Proviso 4X5 

PWA 6X9 

Ouebecor Print ]» 
Renaissance Enr 2946 

Rta Atgoro 24 

Seaprara Co 39% 
Star* CansoM 
ToBsmon Eny 

Teroam Bank 

Westerns} Eny 

Xerox Canada B 


AOa Inti B 218 216 

Ahwrtsn B new 646 44S 
BBC Bewn Bay B 1129 1120 

arasA 574 

553 550 
340 344 

1580 1495 

Jelmoll B OT 
Landis QjtR 

imerdlsceunt e 1785 1830 

772 77B 

733 732 

B 430 *03 

Nestle R 7206 7201 . 

Oenik. Buehrta R 13D13TA 
Hid 8 MTU 1478 

tUte PC 576 0 57 40 

Hie 113 114 

715 706 i 

74» 7575 ’ 

SuberPC 802 078 1 

SurvetUancsB 1M0 1830 ■ 

Swiss Bnk Core B 363 364 < 

Swiss Relnsor R 7 70 790 ; 

Swissair R 815 815 . 

UBS a 1138 I us 

Winterthur B 670 675 ' 

Zurich As B 1S7 1230 i 

XSi Mar?* 2X1% 152% 2-51% 253 tOOO'i 981 
155% Jul 96 258% 2J9% 230% 239% *000% 9*1 
esi. sacs sum Fn-s-sotas 35.711 
Fd'sgpan Ini 271336 up 164 







Est sales 

537% Jon 95 649 
5X7% Mar 95 67B% 
556 Mav9S 5X7 
ia%-U95 S«% 
666% Aug 95 695% 
5J1 Sec 95 695 

178% Nov « 6Ur 

199% Jon 94 611 
S.79% Jl* 94 6» 

4X1 Nov 94 4X3 

RTlOWn ini 13*420 
2O9J0 15600 Dec 






646% 673% *6M% 50.952 
67B 613 >005% 30,950 

5X4 5.90% *005 I65D9 

591 SJWj +0JH% 21779 
694% 597% +0X4% 1,905 
694% 69^4 4001% UK3 
60H* 6 0* +0X4 KL3J1 

610% 610%*ILQ3W, 114 

623 633 ,0X3 54 

603 4X7 *0X4% 119 

go up B »1 

((9077 Wm-Mnw 
9* 1S0J0 160X0 15970 


159X0 Jot 95 141.90 152X0 161X0 141.9(1 
ItiXS Mar 75 765X0 16X60 76*40 745X0 


„ 146HI 189.10 

17078 Jul to 17220 17*00 17190 >73 

17100*ub95 175X0 17610 173X0 175 

173J0Sep9S 177X0 17120 I77X» 177. 

175X0 Od 95 179X8 179.90 17690 179. . 

17650D9C95 10230 18110 10210 18250 

^ Ian 96 18620 

0 Frl's. sales 15,140 
B1J46 UB 470 
SOYBSANOO. ICBOT1 (Mtotos- Mars bw fee Iw. 
2637 22X8 Dec 94 26X5 2934 28X7 27.10 







22X5 May 95 26ti 
2274 Jul 95 2617 

Z03AUB9S 3*07 
72-7 4 Sea 9S 2675 

3*9 227500 95 7155 

use 22X0 Dae 93 2*10 

3*15 23X0AS1 94 2240 

Esl. soles 3UM FrTswtes 



R+40P*nir« 114^13 up 3342 























+638 22X52 

♦ 0X9 32J95 
+ 0*4 23X43 
+0J3 16362 
+073 10JC4 
*0-25 ZX44 

♦ 075 1X29 
+073 3,133 




49 JO 

7-20 Dec 94 48X0 4872 67X0 

6685 Feb 96 67*7 4605 67X0 

ajtterK 66X7 49X7 40X2 

66»Jun9S 4*« 4*77 4*37 

43-7S Aug 95 C75 43J0 6275 

43JOOCI95 USD 43,75 43X5 

6*«Dec95 664$ 6673 46H 

i 17*23 FffLiofeS 15748 
6 SH 707X7 M 1341 

1 CATTLE (CMfflO se.geeM.-artii 
71*0 JOT 9 5 72.70 73JO 72X0 
m3SMor95 71X0 71*5 7QJ0 

76« 70.10 Apr 95 7075 71X7 70X2 

MX 49X0 May 95 76K 70X3 70X2 

73X5 49X3 Aug 95 7035 70X5 7020 

71.XJ 49X0 Sep 96 

ESL soles 1J48 Fir 6 safes 1X49 














3620 Feb 95 36U 

4095 jm 95 
39X0 Dec « 





41.18 _ . 

*1-25 4135 40X5 

4131 4130 *70 

39X0 39X0 3875 

41.18 41.10 4075 

41X0 Feb 94 42JO <1-SC 42X0 








J630Fea» 3tW 
35X0 MOT 95 3620 
3690 MCy 95 37 JO 
37X0 -LI W 3835 
3470 AW 95 5738 
39X0 Feb 94 
37X0 MOT 94 

, 1.917 Frl's. sale* IX* 

lH 9,962 up 74 

3620 JUG 
3632 35X0 

37X0 3690 



—0X5 18X57 

+ 033 17X45 
+005 5*97 
+005 l»9 
+ 0X3 <84 


+ 037 6184 
+ 028 1341 
+O.W 799 

♦ 017 504 

♦ O10 196 

+005 35 


— 633 12X54 
-0-27 6. IX 
-Oje 3X32 
—a* 707 

— 0J5 901 
-015 648 

—OX 136 
+ 0.10 21 

—0*0 7311 
-OS 1.292 
—0*2 457 

-075 389 


+ 2X8 1 

+ UP 7 


O0FFB8C (MCSE) S4nu 
31*35 77. 10 Dec 94 1S9XD 

244X0 7090 Mar 95 1(630 


BXPMOyta 167X0 
65X0 Jul 94 14935 
1 65X0 Sep 9$ 17180 
2CX0 01X0 Dec 95 

23 3X3 170X0 Mor» 171X0 

Est.saes 6150 Frr+scies 
Fri'} open ini FAD 
1688 9,l7M0rf5 14X4 

14X4 IOJ7May W 1678 

1638 1DX7JK95 l*S 

13X6 10X70095 1342 

1314 16X9 M(r 96 13X9 

12X7 11.18MOVW 12X7 

1232 11 JO Jul N 1230 

15635 14033 
141*8 14610 

1**25 T 67.40 
«B;.75 170X0 
148X8 ITUS 
171X0 1713S 








11 24* Ik.- esns ew is 
1535 14X7 13,14 

15JI 16J0 15.70 

1*75 1*21 167* 

ISM 1)55 119* 

1334 lit) 1127 
1171 12X3 H«4 

1171 1170 1171 

+ 1X5 540 

+ IJS 17X47 
+W» 4X62 
+ 1X0 13)8 
+2J5 1X0 
+2XS 871 
+ 125 IS 

‘640 23.981 
+ 0*9 28X39 
+ 0*2 18X71 
+ 023 5X78 
*0X7 707 

1 am 458 

1Z2B 13X50096 4LM6 RI'l sates 36806 

Frf s ooen *0 18 3393 
COCOA OK5F3 amrtncKm-SDtrm 
1580 IWIDecM 1365 1287 1241 

T077MOT95 1317 1320 X3T2 

HbBMOy 95 130 130 1298 

1725 Jul 95 1360 1360 1329 

1380 Sep 95 1370 1370 1370 

1290 Dec 95 MU 1*15 1390 

1350 Mar 96 

13X4 +0X1 










1490 J . .. 
ISO Sep 94 

ESL sues 12309 Fn-6 sales 7.140 

Frfsopeojra 71/OB 

_ JUJCE (NCTN) i5X0Btos.-oeeiiw 

131X0 P ‘do ton 95 105X0 10635 105X0 

13625 93X0 Mot 95 109X0 11235 109X0 

126X5 97X0MOV95 112JD 115J0 1T2JC 

T27J0 1D0J0JU9S 115-50 115-50 11650 

13035 10735 Sec 95 119X0 121X8 119X0 

■39X0 1WX0NOV95 119X5 118.10 118.10 

130X0 13625 Mw 96 
EsLSttes 2X00 Frn.s*es 


















—35 9S0 

-41 66216 
-31 9/04 
-33 3X75 
-33 1JB0 
-33 5,135 
—33 4198 
— 33 901 
-33 17 

-33 70 

-i*s awe 

— 1X5 6,123 
— US 1,912 
— 0.9Q 1X30 
—8X0 1,710 
— a?s ijiB 
— tutt 537 
-030 10 




















777S Nov 94 


re jn 

129 JO 



.75 Now 94 13100 133X0 131*0 
7675 Dec 9* 13625 11620 129J0 
7690 Jan VS 130X0 130X0 129X0 
7100 Feb 95 

73X0 Mot 95 12870 129*0 12650 

91 .10 Aw 95 12670 127X0 12600 
76XSMOV95 12610 125.10 17X50 

10*10 Junta 12370 12170 I2X7B 
78X0 Jul 95 122X0 122X0 128X0 


77.10 Sep 95 
1 mo OO 95 

SaxiOecta 112X9 112X0 172X0 
8650 JOT 96 

4X70 Mot 94 107X0 107.00 107X0 
107X3 May W 

10670 Ajl 96 105X0 10650 IB650 
105-25 56P 96 

|AB» 19X00 fir litotes 767142 
F+TS open lie 56174 

sa_irgi (NCMX) uumk-mswim 
B60 niAJtovW 515X 

597X 3860 Dec 64 J14X 

S765 401XJOT9S 5176 

604X 4)4_5 Mot 95 S13X 

4065 <1 8X May 95 SJ1X 

2£5 ■“ 

822.0 ■ 5560 MOT 94 561 J 

299X 530.5 May 94 57 JX 

4000 S760JK94 

EB. sides 360CH Frrt-Bfes 
FiTsopenW 137X84 
PLATINUM (NM8U ■Mra.-emwinB. 
435-53 37180 £wr 95 rfrlJO 412X0 409X0 410X0 

5Z-S9 S* 1 ”*** 93 <152 4,SJ 0 4' 3-50 41650 

439X0 4ieX0X»l9S 419X0 419-50 419X0 41650 

447X0 42M0OCIW 422-50 

47948 *9X0 Jan M *Sl5D 

Ed-satas 3.10 Fri's. safes 1x44 
fin's open JOT 21984 

SH? »yw“+-9*nOT")r« 

387X0 383X0 Nov 94 3(2.90 

343JMDec64 38658 38670 38670 m» 
Jon 95 3844B 

411X0 36340 Feb 95 38610 38658 36*01 38670 

417X0 3MJ0AOT9S WX0 391J0 39070 390*0 

3SlJ0Jun95 39650 394X0 396* 39650 

-, s 399J0 399.20 39670 

*19 JO ClXOOcJta *nm 

i?H2££Z? 4W -* OTJ0 *7X0 *7*0 
*650 «2JWP*to94 411X0 

430JC *1630 Apr 94 414X0 

*51-50 473X0 Junta 421.10 

AllO 94 *5X0 

Ed. wfles 65X00 Fit's, sales 56917 
FtTsepenW 1)3,134 

+2X0 332 

+ 0X5 14,707 
+ 1X5 1X23 
+1JS )M 

* 1X0 20X87 

♦ 1-55 479 

+ 1X8 1M2 
+ 1X5 5H 
+ 1X0 106 
‘1*5 357 

+ 0X0 U35 


® ; 4J 

+ 0X3 1(M 

+ 625 S> 








—47 33*5* 






—41 59*45 



—40 5X32 




—40 9*55 


— IB 3*36 




— 3-7 14*39 


— 3J 














-2X0 16908 
-« 6284 

-630 816 





-1X0 53X111 
— 140 I1M5 
-1-50 14*37 
— IJO 11.158 

—1*0 11X37 
- 1*0 
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V' . 

Bayer Says Cuts 

In Employment 

Helped Net Rise 

CtmvOed by Oar Staff From Ditpattha 

LEVERKUSEN, Ge rman y 
Bayer AG’s • third-quarter 
pretax profitt soared 62 percent 
as job cats and increased invest- 

iuc uaman cnemicais giant 
said profit rose to 630 million 
Deutsche marks ($420 million) 
from 392 million DM a year' 

Sales rose 5.8 percent, to 
10-59 billion DM, with the 
strongest showing coming from 
Latin America and Asia. 

Manfred Schneider, the 
chairman, predicted pretax 
profit for the full year would 

Face Cash Crunch 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dapatckes 

BRUSSELS — The Europe- 
an Union’s ambitious plans to 
build high-speed rail networks 
Unking cities across the 12-na- 
tion bloc faces a cash shortfall, 
EU officials said Monday. 

Spending on the 14 transpor- 
tation projects has been estimat- 
ed to iota! 91 .billion European 
Currency Units ($111 billion), 
according to an EU report. 

The European Commission 
said foil financing had been se- 
emed for only three of the 14 
projects, with most erf the money 
coming from the private sector! 

Loans would be provided by 
the European Investment Rank, 
and the commission has set aside 
450 million Ecus a year in grants. 

But Henning Christophersen, 
the economic affairs commis- 
sioner, urged EU leaders meet- 
ing in Essen, Germany, on Dec. 

9 and 10 to endorse the projects. 

(Bloomberg, Reuters) 

rise about 36 percent from last 
year, to 32 billion DM. He also 
announced that Bayer would 
probably raise its full-year divi- 
fcnd for 1994 from 11 DM a 
share paid in 1993. 

Mr. Schneider also said the 
company would probably 
a major acquisition in the Unit- 
ed States in the first quarter of 

1 995. He refused to give details. 

Bayer shares rose 4 JO DM to 

344 JO. 

The company attributed the 
profit gain to measures taken to 
increase efficiency, as well as 
higher volume safes and rising 
capacity use. 

Since the beginning of 1994, 
Bayer has slashed employment 
by 3,400, to around 147,000. It 
also has invested 22 billion DM 
in factories and equipment and 
plans to invest a total of 3 bil- 
lion DM by the end of the year. 

“Prices are still unsatisfac- 
tory, bnt we nevertheless expect 
the current satisfactory im- 
provement in profits to contin- 
ue,” it said. 

(AP, Bloomberg, AFP) 

■ Rhone on Road to Growth 

The chairman of Rhdne- Pou- 
lenc SA, Jean -Reo 6 Fourtou. 
said he expected significant 
growth in operating profit for 
1994, AFP-Extel News report- 
ed from Paris. 

Mr. Fourtou also said that 
third-quarter results showed the 
company was recovering and 
that no exceptional item would 
affect the results. 

He said the company would 
hold off on acquisitions until 

1996. “I would first prefer to 
complete the restructuring of 
the group, see earnings increase 
and enter the market under 
good conditions,” he said. 

In August, Rhdne-Poulenc 
reported a 69 percent fall in 
first-half profit 

Rebirth of Potsdamer Platz 

Project Aims to Make Berlin One Again Q n QuBook 

By Ferdinand Protzman 

New York Tima Service 

BERLIN — Potsdamer Flatz was the busi- 
est public square in Europe and the heart of 
Beilin before World War II left it in ruins. 
During the Cold War, it became a grassy “no 
man’s land” bisected by the Beilin Wall 

Now the cornerstone has been laid on the 
biggest private-sector construction project in 
German history. 

More than any other construction project 
scattered across Berlin, morfe even than the 
German government's plans to move the cap 
ita] here from Bonn by the end of the decade, 
the Potsdamer Plate project is a symbol of 
Berlin's renewal and its struggle to establish 
an identity as the capital of a united Germa- 

If the reconstruction of Potsdamer Plate’s 
seven hectares (17 acres) succeeds, it will 
create a lively urban center joining the city’s 
still disparate Eastern and Western halves! 

The biggest chunk of the site is being devel- 
oped fay Daimler-Benz AG, Germany’s big- 
gest industrial group, best-known for build- 
ing Mercedes-Benz cars and trucks. The 
project is bring handled by the company's 
real-estate subsidiary. 

Other building projects are planned at the 
site by Sony Corp., the Swiss-Swedish indus- 
trial consortium ABB Asea Brown Boveri 
Ltd. and the Ge rman retailing group Hertie- 
/ Kars tad t AG. Sony hopes to begin work on 
its office complex in 1995, and Hertie/Kar- 
stadt in 1997. 

Hans- Jurgen Ahlbrecht, head of the real- 
estate subsidiary, said the company was well 
aware of the historical significance of its pro- 

“We flew all over the world looking at city 
development projects, studying city planning 
and architecture,” Mr. Ahlbrecht said. “It 
quickly became clear there is nothing compa- 
rable to this project anywhere. Our site is in 
, the middle of a city of 3.7 milli on people, not 
on the edge of town like most developments 
of this size.” 

When completed in 1998, the project will 
have 19 buildings, including three high-rise 
structures and about 100,000 square meters 
(1 .08 million square feet) of space. About half 
will be used for offices and 20 percent for 
apartments. The rest will be a mix of stores, 
restaurants, a conference center, musical and 
variety theaters, a cinema complex and a 
casino. One of the hi g hli g hts will be a 200- 
meter-long, three-story shopping passage 
with a retractable roof. 


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There will also be a five-star hotel managed 
by Hyatt International, with 450 rooms and 
suites. Two parking structures will provide 
2J00 parking places. Daimler officials esti- 
mate that 100,000 people will visit the com- 
plex every day to shop. Perhaps 7.500 will live 
and work there. 

“What we are doing is creating a new urban 
center filled with life and ambience, a place 
where people will want to live, work, shop or 
just come visit.” Mr. Ahlbrecht said. “Even 
before we began. I decided 1 would live here 
when it is completed. So did many of my 
colleagues. That is a powerful incentive to 
make it someplace speriaL” 

The architect Renzo Piano of Genoa. Italy, 
was chosen after an international competition 
in 1992 to direct the design. The primary 
materials used for the buildings’ facades will 
be brick, terra cotta and sandstone. 

Who the future tenants will be is an open 
question. Horst C. Schluter, the director of 
M.M. Warburg-Schluter & Co., an adviser to 
Daimler, said he did not believe the German 
government would rent in the complex. 


DAX : .. . 


32®-- Ti' 

Page II 


• .London . 

•' fTS^imtnd&K I -jj- & 


HANNOVER, Germany — 
Volkswagen AG expects pretax 
profit of around 2 billion Deut- 
sche marks (SI J billion) in 
1996, accelerating to 3.7 billion 
DM by 1999 , its new five-year 
plan says. ' 

Excerpts from the internal 
document said the German com- 
pany expected its return on sales 
to be only 0.7 percent this year. 
This would rise to 3.7 percent by 
1999 but still be below the 4.7 
percent achieved in 1989. 

Volkswagen's share price 
plunged on the outlook. The 
stock finished in Frankfurt at 
44120 DM, down 10.60. Inves- 
tor confidence was further shak- 
en when Deutsche Bank AG 
lowered its profit forecast for 
Europe’s largest automaker. 

The five-year plan was pre- 
sented to VW’s supervisory 
board Friday, and the stock be- 
gin to fall when a portion of the 
document was leaked that in- 
cluded a profit forecast for 1995 
of only 890 million DM — less 
than half of that expected by 

Volkswagen refused to com- 
ment on the report “We do not 
comment on internal plans,” 
said Hans-Peter Blechinger. a 
Volkswagen spokesman. 

Analysts said the report 
showed it would take longer 
than they had expected for the 
company to return to strong 

Analysts said VW shares 
would r emain under pressure. 

“The figures are dismal and 
confirm Friday's poor fore- 
casts,” Philip Aytcm of Barclays 
de Zoete Wedd in London said. 

VW’s plans to set aside an 
average of 5 percent of sales for 
provirions helped to explain the 
fow profit forecasts. Analysts 
said they thought the company 
planned to use the money to 
make staff cuts. 

-Wj ry: 

• ■ *884 ■ v. 199* 

Bcchange. Index 

Amsterdam.-' . AEX 



London, . 
Madrid - 


Paris ■ 

' " Ctoso- : 

■ ' . * 408 Ail >. 

Tl 7.256.23 

. . . T 

77B£0 : ■ 

■ FAZ ■ . .. 77&$6: ■ 

:HEX tmsto 

RriancSal Times 30 2J34.80 
FTSE;10Q r " '■ r '- w!lT 

■ General Index .' 303.69 . 

MISTEL ‘ ‘ . .10013 . 

!CAC40 1,95236 

Vienna- ■ ■ Stock ftx&x 
Zurich V SBS 
Sources: Reuters. AFP 

Very briefly: 

, 7?aig 

St&76 : :^9S»\ 

[ntErruUKHial Herald Trihime 

• The BBC and Pearson PLC plan to launch two satellite televi- 
rion channels in Europe on Jan. 26. BBC Prime, an entertainment 
channel, and BBC World, a news channel, will be distributed by 
European Channel Management 

• Compagm'e de Suez SA said it held 20.01 percent of the voting 
rights in Lyonnalse des Eaux Dumez SA. Suez said it had 14.14 
percent of the shares in Lyonnaise des Eaux and would not rule 
out buying more. 

• The Federation of German Industry elected Hans-Olaf Henkel, 
54, a former president of IBM Germany, as president, succeeding 
Tyll Neck ex, 64, effective Jan. 1. 

• Deutsche Lufthansa AG said it would sell its 20 percent stake in 
Kcmpinkri AG, a hotel chain, to Advanta Management AG, which 
is controlled by Dieter Bock. 

• Israel's central bank announced it would raise its interest rates 
by 1 J percentage points, effective Thursday. The bank said the 
step was designed to reduce inflation, which is estimated to be 
running at 14.5 percent annually. 

• Berliner Handels- & Frankfurter Bank KGaA said a drop in 
trading income and higher risk provisions pushed operating profit 
in the first 10 months of the year down to 265 milli on Deutsche 
marks ($170 million) from 267 million DM a year earlier. 

• The MOau bourse launched its long-awaited equity futures 
contract The contract is based on a basket containing 30 of 
Milan’s roost actively traded shares. AFP. AFX. AF. Bloomberg. Reuters 

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WORK: Large Numbers of U.S. Women Over 50 Who Had Not Manned to Hold a Job Are Finding That Their Plans Have Changed 

Con&med from Page 1 

later became full time and absorbing. 

The women said they were generally 
content in their jobs and that thdr satisfac- 
tion flowing from- work that has social . 
value. They never expected to have the 
careers and promotions that many men 
and younger college-educated women 
struggle for today, they say, and they are 
not driven now by such ambitions. Some- 
times, looking back, they express relief at 
having avoided the pressures experienced 
by younger women who work and raise 
children simultaneously. 

But not everyone accepts without skep- 
ticism so positive an image of women m 
their 50s. “People have ambitions for posi- 
tions they thmk they have a chance of 
getting,” said Cynthia Epstein, a sociolo- 
gist at the City University of New York. 
“And many older women think such ambi- 
tions for them are pie in the sky, so they 
avoid them.” 

What is more, those who went to work 
after divorce often did not earn the in- 
comes their husbands once provided. In 
addition, many women in their 50s lack the 
pensions and Social Security benefits that 
pafD their age anticipate after decades m 
corporate jobs. Women of this age increas- 
ingly find that they are not immune to the 
layoffs that men in their 50s have suffered. 

But for all the problems, many women 
over 50 have made a profound break- 

For Linda Fisher Smith, 56, as for many 
women her age, the experience she had 
accumulated as a volunteer and part-time 
entrepreneur during years of marriage and 
child-rearing paid off in a late-m4ife ca- 

She is not the lawyer she once thought of 
becoming. But hex job as director of devel- 
opment for Historic Deerfield in Deer- 
field, Massachusetts, helps keep alive a 
prominent museum of New England art 
and history. She raises millions of dollars 
widi year. 

Not that Mrs. Smith planned it th^way. 
When her oldest child was boram 1968, i 
did not have a career path,” she 

But in the case of Mrs. Smith, mother- 
hood included writing newsletters! or a lee 
for the Board of Education m Pleasant- 
vilie. New York, in Westduster County- 
She also was president of the Parent 
Teacher Association, president of Uie Ju- 
nior League and president of the board of 

deacons at her church. c -. h 

By 1980. when she was 42, Mrs. Smith 

and two friends had set iy G° lden ^^f 
Tours, which coordinated corporate con- 


^ fc®*- 50 ? »^h c»fege deye^ earn more San younger women, 
tfte median wages io£ women m the early 1390s, broken 
Figures arein 1332 doSars. • 

««!■■ *, . aife 50 to 59 



Source: Institute for Soda! Research, University of Michigan 

-Cba^ '. . - 

The New Yort. Times 

' • v.jaCm-; >,S 

■?: Corps m 



ventions held in W estchcster, among other 

Then Mrs. Smith made the transition to 
a full-time career. Her husband, Hubbard 
Smith, an executive at Time Ino, left the 
oompany and the family moved to Am- 
herst, where he took a job in the alumni 
office at Amherst College, his alma mater, 
at lower pay. Two years ago, after a'heart 
attack, he cut back to three days a week. 

'Mrs. Smith soon found herself on the 
payroll at nearby Smith College, her alma 
mater, helping to raise funds. A friend put 
her in touch with Historic Deerfield, and 
she took her present job, with a jump in 
pay to more than $40,000, more now than 
her husband makes, from $33,000. 

Flexibility became a means of survival 
for Nancy Broadway. At 55, she has expe- 
rienced many of the ups and downs of 
women in her age group: divorce, rearing a 
child alone, a layoff from a good job. 

Now she is struggling to get back to 
work, unwilling to give up on regaining her 
career as a well-paid hospital administra- 
tor — but ready, she sws, to take a lesser 
job, if she is forced to do so. 

Divorced at 30, Ms. Broadway support- 
ed herself with a full-time job while rea ri ng 
a child. Her salary rose through a series of 
administrative positions to $51,000 a year 
as associate director of BeDevue Hospital’s 
AIDS program. But she lost that job in 
February in a management reorganization, 
her first layoff in nearly 30 years of con- 
stant employment. 

I so many college-trained women in 
their 50s, she acted quickly to prepare 
herself for another job. 

Ms- Broadway enrolled for a master's 
degree js public administration, training 
she considers essential in her quest for a' 
new job as a hospital or chnic manager. 

After g aming a bachelor’s degree in 
English in 1961 at Cornell College in Iowa, 
she migrated to New York, where she mar- 
ried an actor, Robert Broadway. They di- 
vorced in 1969. when their daughter was 3. 
Supporting her small family kept her at 
work, first in low-paying theater jobs. 

She joined Bellevue m 1977, at age 38, 
pinning various clinics and programs. By 
then, Ms- Broadway had remaraod, and 
her new husband, who now earns $22,000 a 
year as a receptionist, helped her raise her 
ihild, “taking some of that pressure off, 
che said- 

Having come out of college with a Peace 
Corps mentality, as Ms. Broadway puts it, 
she tries to help others even as she hunts 
for a job for herself. She is the unpaid vice 
nreadent of Forty Plus Inc, a support 
^twp mostly for men over 40 who are out 

of work. 

A ymall number of women in their 50s 
climbed almost to the top in corporations. 
But in most cases, they felt they had to 
make a choice between marriage and ca- 

Nancy Noeske, 57, said she made this 
choice, devoting her energy to a career. 
Even so. she was in her 40s when she 
finally began her corporate climb. 

When she graduated in 1959 with a 
bachelor’s degree in chemistry and a minor 
in education from Marquette University, 
Ms. Noeske tried to land a job as an 
industrial chemist. But like so many wom- 
en ho- age, the job she got was as a teacher. 

But Ms. Noeske advanced quickly, soon 
becoming tire head of a junior high school 
science department arid also a science 
teache r on educational television. 

By 1976, she had taken charge of most 
spedal education programs in the big Mil- 
waukee Public Schools system. Along the 
way. she picked up a doctorate in physics 
and another in education. 

“Every three years I got a new job, and 
each time I had a personal decision wheth- 
er to take the job or get married,” Ms. 
Noeske said. “I thought that if 1 gpt mar- 
ried, that would be my career. It was not 
that I did not want to marry — it was just 
that the decisions came just when better 
jobs came along. And in those days, you 
did not tty to juggle both.” 

In 1,979, Charles McNeer, chairman of 
die Wisconsin Electric Power Co., hired 
ho* at $35,000 as an assistant vice presi- 
dent. He was seeking a woman executive 
with a science background. Her job was to 
improve customer relations at a time when 
rates were rising and customers were an- 
gry. She succeeded and by the mid-1980s 
she had risen to vice president, one of only 
10 among 5,000 employees. Her salary 
reached $130,000. 

Then, in 1991, Mr. McNeer retired, and 
early this year Ms. Noeske also did, after 
dashing, she said, with tite new chief exec- 

“My glass ceiling was that I did not get 
to be a senior vice president or president of 
the company ” Ms. Noeske said. The elec- 
tric company gave her a $73,000 annual 
pension. But unwilling to leave the work 
world, Ms. Noeske soon became a consul- 
tant to the Milwaukee School Board, at 
$80,000 a year. 

Low-level jobs were the lot of many 
women now m then 1 50s who had skipped 
college. So in midlif e some got bachelor’s 
degrees. Carolyn Johnson, 52, was one. 
College, she says, opened the door to a 
career al a living wage. 

She had cone to hate the typing and 
dezical jobs she held after graduating from 

Prospect High School in Brooklyn in 1961. 
Then a break came. She rose a notch to 
become an interviewer of job applicants in 
a hospital personnel department 

“I was let go for lack of experience, and 
that hurt — that. was a trauma,” Ms. John- 
son said. Still, she had glimpsed work that 
pleased her, and soon she was interviewing 
applicants at a small temporary-help agen- 
cy that friends had set up. But the agency 
failed, and Ms. Johnson fell back into 
another typing job. 

“That is when I came to realize that I 
was at a dead end and I needed that piece 
of paper — a college degree — and 1 also 
realized that I would have to work for the 
rest of my life to support myself," Ms. 
Johnson said. She also had a son to sup- 

So she enrolled in college in 1976, when 
she was 34, first at a community college 
and two years later at Hunter College in 

With her degree in hand, at age 38, she 
became a counselor at a Bronx ani£ reha- 
bilitation center, then at an organization 
that counsels women, many of them ad- 
dicts. There were long hours and the pay, 
$14,000 a year, was not much more than, 
she had mule as a typist. But Ms. Johnson 
was in her chosen field, and in 1983, at age 
41, she got an $18,000-a-year job as a 
counselor at a YWCA, where her salary 
rose to $33,000 before she left this year. 

That is what she earns now as senior 
counselor for the Women’s Center for 
Education and Career Advancement, a 

not-for-profit operation in Manhattan. ”1 
counsel women on changing jobs.” she 

A few women in their 50s, pioneers 
really, behaved as younger women now do 
as a matter of practice — juggling mar- 
riage, jobs and children. Ruth Bader Gins- 
berg, the Supreme Court justice who is 
now 61, was in this mold. So was Arlene 
Leibowite, a labor economist at Rand 
Corp. in Los Angeles. 

Mrs. Letbowitz, 52. was married in 1 965, 
at age 23, while earning a doctorate in 
economics at Columbia University. 

Her first job as the holder of a doctorate 
degree was as a researcher and assistant 
professor at Brown University, where her 
husband, Robert Leibowitz, bad become a 
biology professor. Their first child, a 
daughter, came in 1972, and Mrs. 
Leibowitz, then 30, returned to work six 
weeks after the birth. 

Mrs. Leibowitz did give ground to her 
husband’s derision to become a doctor and 

give up teaching. He entered medical 
school at the University of Miami, where 
Mrs. Leibowitz — having given up her 
career track at Brown — secured a full- 
time appointment as a visiting professor 
and researcher. Only after the birth in 1977 
of their second child, also a daughter, did 
she cut back for five years to 20 hours a 

That year, the family moved to Los 
Angeles, where Dr. Leibowitz practiced 
medicine and Mrs. Leibowite joined Rand, 
first as a part-time researcher and since 
1982 as a full-time staff economist, now- 
earning more than S 50,000 a year — 
enough over S50.000, she says, to be com- 
parable to what male economists in her 
field are paid 

The family no longer needed the income 
by the lime Mrs. Leibowitz returned to 
work part time, but Mrs. Leibowitz, having 
acquired so much education and experi- 
ence. could not bring herself to focus “on 
diapers and mundane things.” 

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HANOI — Four Southeast 
Asian nations agreed Monday 
to cooperate in developing the 
lower Mekong River for better 
negation, power generation, 
flood control and tourism. 

' Representatives of Vietnam. 
Cambodia. Laos and Thailand 
pledged to allow freedom of 
navigation on the river they 
share, as well as to protea it 
from pollution and other envi- 
ronmental damage 

But the officials, who spoke 
at a news conference after sign- 
ing the preliminary agreement, 
did not offer any specific mea- 
sures for achieving these goals. 

They said their countries 
planned to reach a formal pact 
. wkhm'90 days. 

V One representative, Praihes 
Sutebatr of Thailand, said the 
four nations would be unable to 
exploit the Mekong fully lmiftss 
China and Burma also signed 
the agreement China and Bur- 
ma share the Mekong farther 
upstream, and Chinese dams 
could hinder the flow of water 
to the other nations, he said. 

r Countries 
ee on Use of 
er Mekong 

^ Devc ^°P“®nt Pro- 
k*our Soiitbeast gram assisted the negotiations. 
a gree« Monday rhc program’s regional direc- 
_deveJ oping the tor. Nay Hum of Burma, said: 
Krver for bater We believe this will ultimately 
rer generation, and we hope very soon — 
id tourism. pong benefits to people whose 
/es of Vietnam, hvelihood depends on the Mo- 
'S and Thailand ko “| River ” 
ow freedom of _ Mekong River flows 
the river they r®*® miles {4,200 kDomelers) 
is to protea it Tibet to the South China 
and other envi- passing through or border- 
age. mg China, Burma and the other 

iais, who spolce fo ? 1 S? un, ?t 
fence after sign- ^ t 5 e a S reement pro- 

lary agreement. Ju® ^ free ^ om of navigation 
iy specific mea- “ J0u S* 7OUi the Mekong, each 

ingthese goals £? ' rel ? in ^ "ght to 
goais. block other nations from hav- 

f ^ r f«2. U ? tnes “ s . ^ 300685 10 river witb- 
n a formal pact m its own borders. 

Vietnam, for example, will 
itative, Praihes maintain its right to require 
ailand. said the Cambodian cargo ships to ob- 
uld be unable to tain approval from its Trade 
ong fully unless Ministry each time they want to 
ma also signed sail through Vietnamese territo- 
China and Bur- ry. 

Mekong farther The agreement will set up a 
Chinese dams means for resolving disputes 
e flow of water among the four nations, Nay 
ions, he said. Htun said. (AP, Reuters) 

The Battle for Rockefeller Center 

Mitsubishi Estate and Mortgage Holders Face Off 


: Straits' 

Page 13 



•••• mke\22$. 

Strong Memory-Chip Sales 
Help NEC Back to Profit 

Bloomberg Business Nem billion yen it posted in the year 

TOKYO — NEC Coip. said l9 ?*- „ 

Monday that surging sp ie s of . NE(7s sales of comiuumca- 
memorydrips and comm uni ca- ^ons equipment including por- 
tions 'equipment helped its ^hble telephones rose 10 percent 
raminge return to the black in on l^ i y ear < .to 472.95 billion 

TOKYO — NEC Coip. said 
Monday that surging sales of 
memory chops and communica- 
tions equipment helped its 
earnings return to the black in 
the first half. 

a first Half yen. Sales-of electronic devices 

including semiconductors rose 
NEC posted group profit of 15 percent, to 36336 billion yen. 
1 1.34 billion yen (SI 15 million) ■ Knmatai Earamra Up 
m the six months ended SepL Komatsu Ltd. stid higher 

By Saul Hansel! 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — The battle has begun 
for Rockefeller Center, that temple of 
commerce, consumption and communica- 
tions that has long symbolized New York. 

Between now and February, Mitsubi- 
shi Estate Co„ which bought control! of 
the complex from the Rockefeller family 
in 1989, will square off against a growing 
group of investment bankers and some 
stock speculators, who could decide to 
play rough because they would not min d 
wresting Rockefeller Centex away from 
Mitsubishi Estate. 

What happens over the next four 
months will depend on how much Mitsu- 
bishi wants to keep the prestigious ad- 
dress and avoid losing face despite the 
millions of dollars in losses it has ab- 
sorbed from Rockefeller Center in the 
last five years. 

But the company's ability to keep the 
property, with the cut in the mortgage 
burden it has already requested, will de- 
pend on its acting ability, it must con- 
vince the management of Rockefeller 
Center Properties Inc., which bolds the 
Rockefeller Center mortgage, that it is 
willing to walk away. 

This month, Rockefeller Center Prop- 
erties said in a government filing that 
Mitsubishi might default on its SI. 3 bil- 
lion mortgage. 

Rockefeller Center Properties' strate- 
gy depends on how confident it is of the 
actual value of the center. If it believes 
the value is well above the current total 
of $800 million in debt that it owes its 
own bondholders, it may hang tough and 
take the RockefeDer jewel. 

Carefully watching Mitsubishi's 
moves from now on are opportunistic 
investors interested in Rockefeller Cen- 
ter Properties, which is a real-estate in- 
vestment trust that was formed with the 
sole purpose of making the mortgage on 
Rockefeller Center. 

In 1985, the company raised the $1.3 
billion for the mortgage by selling stock 
and bonds. The deal was underwritten 
by Goldman, Sachs & Co. and Shearson 
Lehman Brothers Inc. 

But the stock has since fallen from $20 
to as low as $4 last week before dosing at 
$4.75 Friday. Now some of the hedge 
funds that had bet against the stock over 
the last decade are buying both the stock 
and the bonds, in part because they 
would have a chance to own Rockefeller 
Center if Mitsubishi defaults. 

On Monday, the stock was unchanged 
at $4.75 in afternoon New York Stock 
Exchange trading. 

Similarly, a fund controlled by Gold- 
man Sachs two weeks ago agreed to bail 
Rockefeller Center Properties out of a 
cash squeeze unrelated to Mitsubishi and 
its mortgage payments on the Center. 

Mitsubishi has to appear 
willing to default to wring 
any concessions from 
Rockefeller Center 

The Goldman fund lent Rockefeller 
Center Properties $225 million in return 
for options on 19.9 percent of the com- 
pany’s stock. 

Sitting uncomfortably on the sidelines 
is the Rockefeller family, whose reputa- 
tion and fortune would be affected by 
the outcome because the family still 
owns the 20 percent of Rockefeller Cen- 
ter it did not sell to Mitsubishi. 

Right now, both sides are playing 
tough, although a compromise is always 
posable. Mitsubishi's banker, J.P. Mor- 
gan & Co., recently approached Rocke- 
feller Center Properties and demanded 
that the mortgage burden be substantial- 
ly eased, according to people who have 
spoken with participants in the talks. 

The company not only rejected the pro- 
posal quickly, but also forced the center’s 
owners, Mitsubishi and the Rockefeller 
family, to pay a $35 milli on mortgage tax. 
which it had waived in the past- 
ille critical moment for Rockefeller 
Center is the mortgage payment due in 

February, 1995. The importance of that 
date was established when the Rockefel- 
ler family first set up the real-estate trust 
and took out the $13 billion mortgage. 

The family borrowed so much money 
that it was dear that the center would not 
generate enough cash to make the mort- 
gage payments until 1994, when about 
half of the office leases would expire and 
it was assumed that they would be re- 
newed at double the old rents. 

In 1989, when Mitsubishi Estate 
bought what eventually became an 80 
percent stake in Rockefeller Center, it 
assumed its share of the cost of subsidiz- 
ing the Center’s deficits. But rents have 
declined rather than increased. 

And the large group of leases up for 
renewal this year have turned into a 
burden rather than a boon. As a result, 
analysts say that Mitsubishi wQl have to 
put up roughly $250 million over the 
next five years to cover continuing losses. 

In the face or this red ink, other real 
estate developers might simply hand the 
keys of the property back to the mort- 
gage lender. That, in effect, is what Sears 
Roebuck & Co. did recently with its huge 
Chicago skyscraper. 

But Mitsubishi Estate is Japan’s larg- 
est property company, with an avowed 
long-term view on real estate. And 
Rockefeller Center is such a visible tro- 
phy that many observers expea them to 
keep absorbing the losses on the Center's 
rents rather than lose face. 

Regardless of its intentions, Mitsubi- 
shi has to appear willing to default in 
order to wring any concessions from the 
Rockefeller Center Properties. Some real 
estate experts suggest that Mitsubishi 
will only get the attention of the compa- 
ny if it actually goes into default. 

People involved in the recent financ- 
ing provided to Rockefeller Center Prop- 
erties by the Goldman Sachs fund say 
that Goldman figured that Mitsubishi 
probably would pay the mortgage in full 
But if it didn’t. Rockefeller Center Prop- 
erties' own $800 million in debt would be 
easily covered by repossessing the prop- 
erty. Some hedge funds are buying the 
stock, using the same logic. 

. .. i*w 


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Tokyo ; .„ .NfcM 225. . 
Kuala Lumpur Composite 
Bangkok. SET *• ' : ” r ~ 
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1,980.88 -Q<18 ". 

ImenuiKNu] Herald Tribune 

BfatiBa ' „ FSB . 

Jakarta ' ' . • '.3tock index ' : . 
‘ 3tew2»famd : NZSE-40 
Bombay. ' . WaSonti jrietex' 

Sources: Reuters. AFP 

Very briefly: 

• Siam Cement Co. of Thailand reported a 34 percent rise in third- 
quarter profit, to 1.38 billion baht ($55 million), as sales rose in its 
petrochemical, pulp, paper, machine and electronics units. 

• Vietnam has allowed United International Pictures, a U.S. movie 
distributor for Paramount Communications Inc.. Mefro-GoMwyn- 
Mayer Inc. and Universal Corp. to show f ilms in the country. 

• China’s consumer prices rose an average of 27 percent in 35 
major cities last month, compared with October 1993. 

• Walt Disney Co. said it would launch its first overseas pay 
c hann el in Taiwan at the end of March, providing cartoons 
dubbed in Mandarin Chinese and subtitled family-oriented mov- 
ies and specials. 

• Sri Lanka will partly privatize its state-owned telephone compa- 
ny by selling 20 percent of its equity to domestic and foreign 
buyers, its deputy finance minister said. 

■ Coca-Cola Co. will increase production in Sri Lanka through a 
Singapore-based joint venture to fight its global rival PepsiCo Inc. 
and consolidate its position in the local market, its domestic 
bottler in Singapore said. 

b Boeing Co. and Airbus Industrie said they would increase their 
Asian logistics-support operations to cope with rising air cargo 
traffic growth in the region. AFP. afx. Return 

a ycar-fariH* loss s^es in the United Stated 
of 9.33 Miron yen. Southeast Asia helped it nearly 

^ r " 1056 6 double its pretax pit in thi 

percent to 1.74 triUuc iw ^ months to SepL 30. AFP- 

Dverae “ ““frJO Extd News reported. 

_ytcent. to 477 Mhon yen, while Komatsu hadpretaxproDt of 

® tones,ic fS/SS- “P neariy 2 7-2 tfflion yen in the period, up 
percent, at 136 trillion yen. from 3.8 billion yen a year earii- 

For the full year to March er. Sales rose to 437.6 billion 
1995,- NEC said it expected : yen from 401.6 billion yen, with 

Japan’s Insurers Shift Money to Bonds From Stocks 

up net profit to reach 35 
iott yttv up ;from the 6.6I1 


Monday’s 3 p,m. 

Via The Associated Press ■ 

'shore reveoue increasing and 
mestic sales falling. ' . . ■ 

Compiled by Our Staff Fran Dispatches 

TOKYO — Japanese life in- 
surers increased their invest- 
ments in Japanese bonds in the 
six months ended in September, 
moving away from equities and 
foreign securities, company ex- 

The ccnmliy.5 top eight Efe- 

HW> Low Stock 

_ S* 

On VM PE 1004 


iftahLm* Stock 

insurance companies reported to 6.97 trillion yen, exceeding 
that their aggregate premium the rate of rise in premium in- 
incomes rose 14 percent, to comes. 

12.08 trillion yen ($123 billion). Because they are unlisted, the 
in the period ended SepL 30, insurance companies do not re- 
supported by a surge in demand port earnings as most Japanese 
for pension plan polities. companies have been doing this 

Combined claim payments month. Nonetheless, the finan- 
by the insurers rose-22 percent, dal community pays 'close at- 
tention to any financial details 
the life insurers do divulge, as 
they are among Japan's biggest 

£ _ 7: Nippon Life Insurance Co., 

* Japan's largest life insurer, said 
lit it raised bond holdings by 964.9 
" billion yea, to 534 trillion yen, 
in the half while reducing equi- 
la ty holdings by 1 13 million yen, 
to 6.86 trillion yen. 

Nippon Life said it also had 

cut its holdings of foreign secu- to 134.77 trillion yen, from a 
rities in the half to reduce the year earlier. 

effects of the continuing rise in 
the yen's value. 

The global downturn of bond 
prices hurt the insurers’ in- 
comes, while the yen’s rise 
against the dollar cut into the 

Executives of the life insurers 
declined to discuss plans for 
payouts to policyholders in the 
year to March 1995. 

In the year to March 1994. 
life insurers cut payouts for the 

value of their dollar-denomi- fourth consecutive year as a re- 

nated assets. 

suit of the continued deteriora- 

Taken together, these devel- tion of investment returns. 

&v VM PE 100S Hal» LawLateSOroe 

opments explain why the aver- 
age return on assets for the 
eight companies hovered 
around 3 percent to 4 percent 

The eight life insurers are 
Nippon life Insurance Co., Su- 
mitomo Life Insurance Co., 
Dai-Jchi life Insurance Co., 

These companies typically Yasuda Life Insurance Co., 
promise policyholders an aver- Meiji Life Insurance Co., Asahi 
age 5 percent to 5.5 percent re- Life Insurance Co- Mitsui Life 

7° ■ 1— 

turn on existing policies. 

Insurance Co. and Chiyoda 

Even so, the eight companies’ Life Insurance Co. 

aggregate assets grew 7 percent 

(AFX, Bloomberg) 

China Signals 
Shift on Stocks 


SHANGHAI — China's 
top securities regulator, sig- 
naling a cautious new poli- 
cy on stock markets, said 
expansion of the exchanges 
was risky and should not be 
rushed, a Shanghai newspa- 
per repohed Monday. 

“Establishing and devel- 
oping socialist stock mar- 
kets in China is very com- 
plicated,*’ Liu Hongni, 
chairman of the China Se- 
curities Regulatory Com- 
mission, said in the Shang- 
hai Securities News. 

He said markets in 
Shanghai and Shenzhen 
lacked sound regulations. 

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International Herald Tribune 

A Special Report 

Tuesday, November 29, 1994 - 

Page 15 



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companies, w&t -& clear $Msjj6ti 

sendee. Now, as 


S'-' 0 

U.S. Firms Scramble for Partners 

By Lawrence Malkin 





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The New Ytal Time*. 

EW YORK — The railroad 
networks solidified die great in- 
dustrial nations of the 19th cen- 
tury, and the telephone and 
telegraph networks knitted toother their 
markets in the 20tb century. Now a far 
more complex revolution integrating tele- 
communications, television, and comput- 
erization is shaping the world of the 21st 
century, when knowledge truly will be 
power — and profit. 

The commercial prize will be the ability 
to market a single, seamless service deliv- 
ering voice conversations, interactive vid- 
eo images, and high-speed computerized 
data. These huge electronic pipelines, 
which wfl] be the commodity-carrying ca- 
nals of the newest industrial revolution, 
are what is meant by the information 
superhighway, and because no one com- 
pany can do all this yet, the latest industry 
wisecrack calls it the “information super- 

The most authoritative definition 
comes from Reed E. Hundt, who 
out that it will have five lanes: the I 
cast network that already reaches every 
home; an almost universal wire telephone 
network that provides active service to 94 
percent of the population; a third lane of 
cellular telephones; a satellite system that 
also can beam into every home and office, 
and last but not least, a cable network that 
passes virtually every home in the country 
although only about half are hooked up so 

“We are the only country in the world 
that can say we have all five lanes, and 


they run past everybody. All companies 


can compete to deliver all the pr 
said Mr. Hundt, the chairman of the Fed- 
eral f rawrnnwir-at i nns Commission. 

Ibis opportunity to form competitive 
delivery systems explains the elephant- 
like mating dance of telephone, cable tele- 
vision, and entertainment companies 
aaancliing for ap p ropriate partners that 
has shaken the corporate landscape and 
the stock market for the past year, also 
involving Europe’s classic monopolies. Al- 
though some U.S. partnerships were 
quickly put together to bid for new wire- 
less r-harmgl y in a government auction 
next month, that is just the newest fork in 
a long road, and the mere existence of 
technology ensures it will eventually reach 
around the world. 

The alliance that has come closest so far 
to creating its own superhighway is a joint 
venture involving three major U.S. cable 
television companies with Sprint Corp-, 
the third largest U.S. telephone network, 
which targets business customers. Sprint's 
national fiberoptic network will be 
patched into the neighborhood coaxial 
cables of Tde-Commtmications In a, Cox 
Enterprises, and Comcast to reach at least 
one-third of American homes through a 
single wire in the wall that hooks into the 
phone, TV, and computer. 

Time Warner, tire nation’s largest cable 
TV, movie, and magazine company, has 
teamed up with the telephone technology 
of US West, one of the regional Bell com- 
panies, to invade other markets. Its New 
York City cable TV network already cov- 
ers the richest phone market in the nation, 
and this month it announced the con- 

struction of a 22-mile ( 1 3.6-kilometer) 'Jjt- 
beroptic cable in midtown and downtown 
Manha ttan to skim off high-profit bui$- 
ne&s-to-business communications frwn 
the local phone company, Nynex Corp^ 

Time Warner is also trying to acqufae 
cable television companies in other pafjts 
of this region, and if it succeeeds as ex- 
pected, its cable network will parallel 
Nyn ex’s lines in New York State and NWv 
England, a territory half the size of France 
ana richer per capita in telephone big- 
ness. 4 

A bill that would allow these and 
lar consortia to break the local telepl 
monopolies passed the last session of the 
House of Representatives but was beatign 
back in the Senate by heavy lobbying. 
With Republicans controlling Congress 
on a platform of deregulation, the outldtik 
is brighter. >5 

Only in Britain has competetion Ap- 
proached America’s, so it may be hard for 
those accustomed only to monopoly tefe- 
phone service to imagine different high- 
ways offering scores and even hundreds of 
channels, ana it may even harder to imag- 
ine what they might carry. Here are some 

• Ford Motor Co. says it is closer! 
producing a “world car” because its 
sign centers in Europe, America, and Aus- 
tralia can quickly ex change, comment on, 
and modify computerized plans in warts 
that were inefficient less than a decMle 

• BellSouth offered doctors channdslo 
link them with specialists for distant dii£- 
nosis and discovered they wanted news on 





Continued on Page 17 


Privatization Catches On Worldwide 

By Robert Bailey 

T HE idea that the state should 
manage economic enterprises is 
a philosophy fast receding 
throughout both the developing 
world and among industrializing nations. 

As the selling of assets by governments 
has built up the focus of privatization 
more often than not has been on telecom- 
munications. There are particular reason 
for this. One obvious- factor is that the 
process involves a sale of shares, through-, 
private placement or public sale or a 

combination of both. There are few other 
sectors that offer comparable opportuni- 
ties for long-term profits. And there is 
rarely a shortage of potential investors 
for what is considered usually to be a 
blue-chip investment. 

Governments are assured of a success- 
ful divestiture and a boost to revenues. 
The state is also relieved of the increas- 
ingly complex task of managing and 
planning investment strategies in a sector 
characterized by mounting competition 
and a pace of technologi cal chang e great- 
.. er than at any time since ihe telephone 
-was invented. 

As a result there is a growing private- 
sector involvement in the provision of 
telecommunications services around the 
globe. Some 25 percent of Telecom Ma- 
laysia's shares have been traded on the 
Kuala Lampur exchange since 1990. Sin- 
gapore Telecom was partially privatized 
last year and now accounts for 20 percent 
of the local stock exchange's capitaliza- 
tion. Indonesia and Thailand are also 
considering privatization of their tele- 
coms operators while India is planning to 
sell a third share of its international ide- 

Continued on Page 19 

Data ‘Highway’ May Be More Like a Web j 

By Peter H. Lewis 

T HE recent announcements that 
Microsoft Corp. and MCI Com- 
munications Corp. are entering 
the global Internet services busi- 
ness are likely to accelerate the already 
rapid adoption of the Internet as a strate- 
gic medium for international business 

Many experts believe, however, that the 
real furore of international communica- 
tions on the Internet can be found in an 
even faster-growing technology called the 
World Wide Web. 

The World Wide Web — also known as 

WWW, W3 or supply the Web — is a 
multimedia, hypertext-based electronic 
publishing system within the Internet that 
makes it easy for even inexperienced com- 
puter users to navigate through thousands 
of international computer data bases. The 
data bases can consist of text, diagrams, 
color photographs, and even sound and 
video clips. 

The Web was created in 1989 at the 
European Laboratory for Particle Physics, 
cw CERN, in Geneva, as a way for scien- 
tists to publish and search for complex 
documents on the Internet. It is called a 
hypertext system because it allows users to 
jump quickly from one related source of 

information to another at the dick of?a 
mouse button, regardless of whether the 
information resides on a computer in Paflr- 
is, France, or Paris, Texas. *'■ 

It was not until early this year, however, 
with the widespread adoption computer 
program called Mosaic, that the Web cap- 
tured the imaginations of mains tream 
businesses as a way to publish detailed 
product information, electronic brochures 
and catalogues, to offer round-the-do£k 
technical support, and to gather almost 
instant customer feedback. Mosaic hides 
the complexity of navigating the Internet 

Continued on Page 16 




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Page 16 


Telecommunications / A Special Report 

Information ‘Highway’ May Look More Like Web 

Continued from Page 15 

behind a s im ple system of but- 
tons and Highli gh ted objects. 

", “Using Mosaic for the first 
.time tends to produce an 
epiphany," said Ric Shaffer, 
.■editor of the Technologic Part- 
ners Computer Letter, a news- 
letter published in New York. 
;“It’s astonishing to learn 
•what's available on the Inter- 
net and how easily it can be 

Before breakfast on a recent 
day, for example, a personal 
.'computer user Texas dialed a 
j local telephone number and 
used the web to visit London 
.and listen to a speech on infor- 
mation technology by a mem- 
ber of Parliament. 

With a few clicks on under- 
lined phrases on the computer 
'screen, the virtual traveler 
moved easily to a data base 
containing the schedules of ex- 
hibitions at several Parisian 
museums, then to announce- 
ments about business opportu- 
nities in the Netherlands, to a 
'research consortium in Ha- 
'waii, to a travel service that 
helped plan a business trip to 
Germany, and to a map show- 
ing restaurants near Times 
Square in New York. 

According to records kept 
by CERN, businesses are es- 
tablishing Web “server" com- 
puters at a rate of more than 
2 00 new sites a week. On one 
day recently, announcements 
of new Web sites came from 
Tokyo, Amsterdam, Helsinki, 
and Santiago, Chile, as well as 
' dozens from the United Slates. 

Despite the flood of interna- 
tional businesses into the Web, 
analysts caution that it may be 
some time before die technol- 
ogy pays off, except, of course, 
‘ for the growing number of In- 
ternet service providers who 
;sdJ their Web services to busi- 

NCSA Mosaic for MS Windows 

file £dlt 

Options Navigate Annotate Starting Points 

Document Tilfec fle WebLouv^ 

■ ’.'.r . > <’, »-A 

Document URL: iff^://mt$traLestsLfr/~*pioch/fouYre/ 

Le WebLouvre, Paris 

■ M - :? v 

• • ' . >v>; 

their computer systems to a 

• v 


The world-famous art museum is curtes^^st^^ A 

exhibits: visit the French medieval art dembhslraitioo, & c^ctjum {' 

global network where hackers 

Consumers, meanwhile, are 
waxy of sending credit card or 
other financial information 
over the Internet, and there are 
no standards yet for digital se- 
curity, electronic cash or data 

US. government policies re- 
strict the export of data en- 
cryption technologies, which 
could hinder the adoption of 
common standards for inter- 
national electronic commerce. 

Despite such obstacles, the 
Web is attracting throngs of 
new developers. 

The first international 
World Wide Web conference 
was held in Geneva last spring 
and drew more than 400 re- 
searchers, developers and en- 
trepreneurs, double the expec- 
tations of the conference 

A display on the World Wide Web that enables users to visit selected exhibits at 
the Louvre Museum and to tour sites in central Paris including the Eiffel Tower 

“You’re not going to make a 
lot of money in the next six 
months on the Web or on the 
Internet,” said Maiy E S. 
Moms, an Internet consultant 
in Mountain View. California 
“Still, it’s a place you can’t 
afford not to be right now. It’s 
not so much thai you're going 
to make money in the near 
term; rather, you’ll lose money 
in the long term by not being 

Ms. \ljrri: dice w.-cii :Uw- 

tors that will retard, at least 
temporarily, use of the Web for 
commercial transactions. 

First, to take full advantage 
of the graphical nature of the 
Web, one must have either a 
direct Internet connection or a 
special kind of dial-up account 
known as SLIP or PPP. While 
as many as 20 million or 30 
million computer users world- 
wide have access to the Inter- 
net, only 1 in 10 have access to 
the Vr efc, anaJvsts sav. Howev- 

er, all of the major on-line in- 
formation services in the Unit- 
ed States, including 
CompuServe, Prodigy and 
America Online, plus Micro- 
soft, International Business 
Machines Corp. and Apple 
Computer Inc., are planning to 
offer Web access to customers 
next year, which would add 
millions of new users. 

Second, the Internet is 
plagued by security breaches, 
and businesses are of linking 


The second international 
conference, held in Chicago in 
October, swelled 1,300 regis- 
tered participants, and hun- 
dreds more were turned away 
at the door. 

“Some of these people flew 
in from Europe and Japan 
even after we told them the 
conference was sold out, just 
hoping to talk their way in," 
said Donna Esterling of the 
Open Software Foundation in 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, a 
conference coordinator. 

The next Web conference is 
to be held April 10-14* 1995, in 
Darmstadt Germany. More 
information about the 1995 
conference is available via In- 
ternet electronic mail at 
www95 — oi 
via the Web at 
>;// www.iBd.fha- 

PETER B. LEWIS covers cyber- 
space for The New York Times 

Navigating the Internet: Directions Are Required 

By Brad^gevr. 


S easy as it is to crawl 
the Internet Web 
once you’re on-line, 
.it can be a chore to 
find out how to connect in the 
“first place.. 

While there are many wetl- 
- known U.S. companies like 
CompuServe, Prodigy and 
America Online Inc. offering 
on-line services to the public, 
what hard-core Internet junk- 
ies refer to as the net are func- 
tions with names like Gopher. 
Telnet, FTP, WWW. and CU- 
SeeMe (See-you/see-rae). 
Most of these weird-sounding 
services are available not 
through the better known on- 
line companies, but through an 
array of small companies 
sprouting up around the world 
at a dizzying rate. 

As a result, just about any 
book or monthly magazine list- 
ing Internet service providers 
is out of date the day it is 
published. The best way to 
find a dial-up connection, 
ironically, is through the Inter- 
net itself. 

Catch-22? Maybe not As 
Adam Gaffin advises in his be- 
ginner's guide, "EPF’s Guide 
to the Internet," the prime In- 
ternet directive is; “Ask. Peo- 
ple know." 

If you’re living in, say, Oslo, 
and you want to know how to 
subscribe to a local Internet 
services company, find a friend 
anywhere in the world who has 
access to the net. If you know 
someone in Johannesburg, ask 
them to search in Norway by 
clicking their mouse on the 
country on the Web’s map of 
the world, then by clicking on 

oe<u ; : r,g 

nections to the 'A crid 
Web, known as servers. 

Service provider lists may 
also be found through the In- 
ternet by means other than the 
web. “The Public Dialup Inter- 
net Access List (PDIALf by 
Peter Kaminsky provides an 
international list of companies, 
their prices, and physical ad- 
dresses. It may be received via 
electronic mail on the Internet 
by sending a message to: info- 
deli- with 
Jiese words as your order; 
“send PDlAL." 

But before choosing your 
service provider, remember the 
showbiz adage; “Failing to 
prepare is preparing to fail." 

To get on the internet, you 
need a powerful personal com- 

r -:er, v.vj 2 a processor or 
: ;>:or. with Microsoft's Win- 
dows software, or an Apple 
Macintosh computer. 

The faster the modem you 
have the belter — anything 
slower than 9600 bits per sec- 
ond (the rate the information 
travels the telephone line) will 
be too slow, to take advantage 
of all the' action graphics and 
videos show on the net. And if 
your service provider is charg- 
ing you by the minute, the fast- 
er your modem the cheaper 
your bill will be. But powerful 
modems are no use if your 
communications software does 
not match its speed, and you 
must select your service pro- 
vider with the same question: 
some communicate at their end 
only at 9600 bps. 

The next step is to decide if 

you want to be held by the 
hand by your software provid- 
er. or if you can get a little 
more involved. Some service 
providers have all the software 
on their end of the connection 
with fairly easy menus and in- 
structions. With other compa- 
nies the software is on your 

The disadvantage to the first 
method is that you have no 
direct connection to the Inter- 
net It’s as though you’re work- 
ing on a computer on the other 
side of town by remote comrol. 
The second method is faster, 
but you’ve got to know how to 
download and install software. 

Finally, make sure you know 
what kind of technical support 
you’re going to get or need. 

Which brings us to the bot- 
tom line. There are so many 

For Infonnation on the Internet 

A LMOST as rapidly 
growing as service 
providers on the In- 
ternet are new mag- 
azines about the on-line ser- 
vice, such as Britain’s “.neL” 
And far from kilting the book 
industry, the Internet is creat- 
ing a whole new genre, about 

Good books for the begin- 
ner include the Electronic 
Frontier Foundation's guide 
to the Internet, which is avail- 
able as a printed book titled, 
“Everybody's Guide to the 

Another good guide is Greg 
R. Notess’s “Internet Access 

Providers; An International 
Resource Directoiy,” pub- 
lished by Meckler Corp., 
Westport, Connecticut, in 

One of the best books for 
connecting to the Internet 
outride the United States is 
“Internet: Getting Started,” 
edited by April Marine. First 
published by SRI Interna- 
tional, Menlo Park. Califor- 
nia, in 1992, the book was 
updated in 1994. 

Several international orga- 
nizations also provide infor- 
mation about the Internet: 

The Electronic Frontier 

1001 G Street NW, Suite 950E 
Washington, D.C. 20001 
Tel. 1 202 347 5400 

Fax. 1 202 393 5509 

InterNIC Infonnation 

General Atomics 

P.O. Box 85608 

San Diego, California 92186- 


Tel. 1 619 455 4600 
Fax. 1 619 455 4640 

Geneva 23 
TeL 41 22 767 6111 
Fax. 41 22 767 6555 

Brad Spurgeon 

Some companies, such as 
Britain’s Demon Internet Ltd. 
charge a monthly subscription 
fee (theirs is £10. or about SI 5) 
and on-line time is free. But 
most give only a limited 
amount of free time each 
month — maybe an hour a day 
— and you pay for the rest. 

If you’re not living close to a 
dial-up service, but need to 
make a long distance call, ask 
if the provider offers access 
through PDN or PSDN lines 
(Packet Switched Data Net- 
work). This is a phone line that 
you call into locally, and that 
connects with the foreign ser- 
vice provider. But there is usu- 
ally a suffer charge added to 
the provider’s contract for 
charges to the PSDN line. Ire- 
land's EuroKom offers Eu- 
rope-wide access by this meth- 

These are only a small num- 
ber of the routes to getting lists 
of service providers. The best 
way is to get some on-line time 
yourself, and do a tittle Inter- 
net surfing to find the right 
company for you. You might 
have to go to Johannesburg to 
do it, but it could be worth the 

BRAD SPURCEON is on the 
staff of the International Herald 

Chi-Line Teaching Grows 

Many Degree Courses Are Now Offered 

.. .u .mATno in A what Otl-CamDllS StU 

Bv Wendy M. Grossman 

L ondon — when 
David Pierce trans- 
ferred from Paducah, 
Kentucky, to Man- 
chester. England, rwc>-t}drds 
the way through his MBA, ms 
degree program continued un- 
interrupted at Indiana s Pur- 
due University. The reason: 
the use of computer communi- 
cations, which allowed him to 
send and receive assignments 
and correspondence with pro- 
fessors via a modem and a di- 
rect-dialed fink to the univera- 

the difficulties of working m a 
remote, sparsely populated 

The university currently is 
..ring on-line technology in its 
teacher-education pro g ra ms , 
so that student teachers can 
simulate a live class made up of 
students in distant locations. 
The technology is also used to 
broaden the secondary school 
curriculum — a Welsh school 

may have only two pupils who 
want to study some A-levd 

What cyberspace brings to 
distance learning besides speed 
and low-cost distribution of 


Mr. Pierce, now rice presi- 
dent for international sales at 
Miller Group, finished his de- 
gree in 1990. His experience is 
becoming more common as 
more and more universities, 
new and old, start to take ad- 
vantage of computer nerwork- 
to expand their classrooms 

Some of the names are unfa- 
miliar, beginning with the new- 
ly formed Global Network 
Academy and Virtual Online 
University, neither of which 
has a campus outside of cyber- 
space, and including Thoma s 
Edison State College, winch 
has an administration bu i ld in g 
in Trenton, New Jersey, but no 

A course that 
Britain's Open 
advertised on the 
Internet attracted 
students from Fiji 
to Chile. 

what on-campus students are 
getting, and tile University of 
Memphis plans to runtm- and 
off-campus sessions in tandem 
so that the results can be com- 
pared. Such comparisons are' 
an issue for everyone, since 
there are no easily applicable 
standards for accrediting such 
courses and institutions. 

As with any new technology, 
it’s not even dear who is in a 
position to assess such courses, 
as Steven D. Crow, deputy di- 
rector of die North Central As- 
sociation of Colleges and 
Schools, says. 

“There are about three 
groups at work right now try- 
ing to draw up guidelines or 
standards in distance delivery, 
so that means that to a certain 
extent the rules of the road 
have yet to be established," he 
says. In the case of the Univer- 
sity of Phoenix^ which is ac- 
credited by the North Central 
association, but has operations 
in both Phoenix and San Fran- 

service providers now that you 
can afford to shop around for 
the cheapest connection. You 
may be fortunate enough to 
live in an area where there is a 
FreeNet. The state of Illinois 
offers free services to its resi- 
dents in Prairie-Free net. Cana- 
da’s capital. Ottawa, also has a 

P LENTY of main- 
stream institutions are 
going on-line, too: die 
New School for Social 
Research (New York), Emory 
University (Atlanta), Penn 
State, the University of Mem- 
phis, the New Jersey Institute 
of Technology, and the Uni- 
versity of Phoenix. Subjects 
taught this way run the gamut. 

The use of this technology is 
not confined to the United 
States. Some of the most ad- 
vanced use of on-line technol- 
ogy has ban at Britain’s Open 
University, which has used 
electronic conferencing in its 
mix of distance-learning tech- 
niques for the past eight years 
and Iasi summer experimented 
with video conferencing over 
the Internet. A programming 
course it recently advertised 
over the Internet attracted 61 
responses in Four days from 
students fram-Fip ro Gh3e. 

■The Urtiversityor Bangor, in 
Wales, has experimented with 
various technologies using 
Europen Union funding, in- 
cluding direct-broadcast satel- 
lite; in an attempt to overcome 

course materials is the ability 
for off-campus students to in- 
teract with each other instead 
of only with the teacher. 

Bill Brody, a professor at die 
University of Memphis, whose 
on-line graduate-kvel journal- 
ism course begins in January 
on CompuServe, lists that 
among the new system’s ad- 
vantages. In addition, he be- 
lieves the technology win give 

t rofessors added feedback. 
tudeat discussions, for exam- 

, “We had someone visit the 
San Francisco site, out of 
which Online operates,” Mr. 
Crow says. “We look oyer the 
curriculum and the way it’s be- 
ing done, and get on the phone 
and talk to students. The chal- 
lenge for os in the future is that 
every time you get on the cut- 
ting edge of something new, 
you have to ask who's going to 
define quality in that new sce- 

Within the United Stales. 

there’s die additional problem 
s: Typical 

pie, will be held over Compu- 

as live conferences, and 

these can be captured verba- 

“Faculty can go back and 
review it, and do a better job 
than in the classroom of assess- 
ing student performance,” he 
says. “I think this is a major 

The m e dium also lends itself 
to controlling school testing. 
On CompuServe, for example, 
you can ask the service to re- 
turn a rim e- and date-stamped 
receipt when the student picks 
up the test; the student’s fin- 
ished work then has to be simi- 
larly stamped by a specified 
time. This enables schools to 
determine how long the stu- 
dent has spent on. a lest. 

The intention is to make the 
course exactly equivalent to 

of legal boundaries: Typically, 
each state regulates who can 
offer education within its bor- 
ders. Those laws don’t take 
into account the possibility of 
an institution that offers in- 
struction without a local physi- 
cal presence. 

“This is one time that Amer- 
icans would be well-served to 
lode to England and Australia 
and some other countries 
which have turned to distance 
delivery and are experienced in 
this area,” Mr. Crow says. In 
the not-too-distant future, he _ 
adds, “Other than 18- to 22-^ 
year-olds, who are going to go 
to college for rite of passage, 
the bulk of learning will be 
through, technology." . 

journalist based in England who 
specializes 'in computers and 
telecommunications subjects. 

How to Find an On-Line University 



F you are already con- 
nected to an on-line ser- 
vice, there are many re- 
sources available to help 
locate an appropriate 


On CompuServe, the edu- 
cation forum (GO £D- 
FORUM) has an entire sec- 
tion devoted to distance 
learning, and the library there 
keeps a list of American Uni- 
versities offering on-line de- 
gree programs or courses 
(ONLINEJJEG) as well as an 
explanation of the accredita- 
tion process (AC- 

In addition, the Journalism 
and PR forums (GO 
the homes of the on-line jour- 
nalism and PR courses taught 
by Bill Brody from the Uni- 

versity of Memphis: these are 
by dialing the 

also available 
university direct 

If you have interactive In- 
ternet access, you can telnet 
to Kentucky’s Owensboro 
Community College (telnet and login 
as ndlcX where the National 
Distance Learning Center 
maintains an online, search- 
able database of courses and 
contact infonnation. 

On the Web, Britain’s Open 
University runs an informa- 
tion server (http://hcri.ppen- as 
does the University of Bangor 
for its teacher education pro- 
gram (http://147.J43-2.242, 
and click on “Center for In- 
teractive Systems and Tele- 
matics”). The Open Universe 
ty server also has Hnks to 
other distance learning pro- 
grants around Europe and the 
United States. 

In addition, the Open Uni- 
versity has a “gopher” server 
cm the Internet with an entire 
book of papers on distance 

learning (gopher rowan-open- The Globewide Net- 
work Academy also maintains 
a server (http://uu-gna-mit.e- 

Those who aren't on-line 
can get infonnation from sev- 
eral books recently published 
on the subject One useful one 
is “The Electronic University: 
A Guide to Distance Learn- 
ing Programs’^ 1 993, ISBN 1- 
5W79-139-X), published by 
Peterson’s Guides Inc., 
Princeton, N J., and the Na- 
tional University Continuing 
Education Association. “How 
To Earn An Advanced De- 
gree Without Going To Grad- 
uate School,” by James P. 
Duffy, 2nd edition (1994, 
ISBN 0-471-30728-9), pub- 
lished by John Wiley & Sons 
Imx, New York, also includes 
information about on-line 
university courses. 

Wendy M. Grossman 


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Alternatives to Traditional Phone-Service Suppliers Are on the Rise 

By Laura Colby 

I T started out as a cheap- 
er way to call the United 
States from abroad. But 
now the rapidly expand- 
ing industry or alternative 
phone- service suppliers has di- 
versified so much that it offers 
everything from low-cost In- 
ternet access to large-scale 

data transmission to a cloak- 
and-dagger-style service that 
offers a form of telecommuni- 
cations laundering for those 
who want to keep their calls 

Alternate suppliers to the 
existing national telephone 
monopolies in most countries 
were born of the telephone de- 
regulation in the United States 
and Britain that began with the 




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Fax & Data can also be used with ITC’s Direct Dialer. 

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and Prepaid Calling Cards 
International and Domestic. 

International Telephone Company 
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1800-638-5558 ext 111/203-238-9794 
Fax: 203-929-4906 

breakup of America’s Bell mo- 
nopoly in 1984. 

That created a market for 
rival carriers such as MCI and 

Next on the scene were the 
callback services, whereby a 
caller dials a computer in the 
United States, hangs up, and 
then is called back with an 
American dial tone, enabling 
him or her to take advantage of 
the lower American phone rates 
to Europe, Asia and other areas 
of the world. Such companies 
typically offer savings of about 
20 to 50 percent on calls. 

The companies typically buy 

excess phone line capacity 
from AT&T or another suppli- 
er wholesale, then resell it to 
businesses and other users. 

In the early 1990s, the com- 
panies began offering that ser- 
vice on trans-Atlantic calls. 
Some of the services now offer 
intra-European phone calls as 
well, although industry execu- 

tives say there is some question 
the legality of such ser- 


vices before 1998, when Europe 
will completely deregulate tele- 
communications services. 

According to Conrad Vilcek. 
program manager for ad- 
vanced networks and services 

at BIS Strategic Decisions in 
Paris, three of the seven call- 
back companies operating in 
France are now competing 
with France Telecom for intra- 
European calls. 

“The drawback of a callback 
service,” Mr. Vilcek says, “is 
that you are limited to your 
own phone.” 

Some alternative service 
providers are offering ways erf 
calling from anywhere. In ad- 
dition to the MCls and 
AT&Ts, which offer phone 
calling cards, there are services 
like the London-based Ad- 
vanced Business Services Ltd., 

which uses toll-free lines 
throughout Europe. 

ABS is not a callback ser- 
vice, and “we a ren’t out to 
compete with the PTTs,” says 
Lidia Katz, a director of the 
company. In fact, AES’s rates 
are not always cheaper than 
those of the local monopoly, 
but they do enable diems to 
circumvent the often-outra- 
geous mark-ups at hotels and 
to call from virtually anywhere 
without having to pay cash 

With telecommunications 
deregulation coming to the Eu- 
ropean Union in 1998, some 
analysts see the future there as 

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dim for the callback compa- 
nies, which will have to com- 
pete with falling ta riffs 
throughout Europe as the FTT 
monopolies for the first time 
compete with each other in 
their own back yards. 

“There is more of a future 
for callback outside of Europe 
than inside it," concedes How- 
ard Jonas, president of Inter- 
national Discount Telecom- 
munications Corp., a callback 
service based in New York. He 
points out that while European 
rates are likely to fall with de- 
regulation, many nations in the 
developing world still have 
high rates and highly restricted 

_ In many countries, authori- 
ties know the Internet numbers 
and can monitor who uses 
them or restrict access to them, 
he explained. “We can have 
you call one of our callback 
service numbers, and then the 
Internet calls you back.” 

The callback technology 
also allows users to route 
phone calls into and out of 
several countries, so that the 
local authorities won’t know 
the call’s final destination. 
“It’s like phone-call launder- 
ing,” Mr. Jonas said. 

LAVRA COLBY is on the staff 
~ the International Herald Tri - 


'Vv.'r-. ■ 


Page 17 

Telecommunications/ A Special Report 

‘. r - &.S.5J 



1 Ai 


In Asia, Convergence Fever 1 

By Jon Ucten 

H ong kong — 

While most Asians 
are still waiting for 
an ordinary tele- 
pnone line, the telecomm uni- 
catiais companies are prepar- 
mg for advanced multimedia 
services for the next century 
By converging the technol- 
ogy and business interests in- 
volved m development of the 
information superhighway 
telephone services and cable 
television, customers may in 
the future be able to watch a 
myriad of television channels, 
to shop, gamble, surf the Inter- 
net, make phone cads, and 
send faxes and E-mail, all 
through one socket in the waH 
Over the last 18 months, 
“convergence” has become the 
fashionable word of the media' 
and telecommunications in- 
dustry, with several major 
mergers and strategic alliances 
taking place between cable, 
media and telecommunication 
coftapahies in the United 

Closely following the devel- 
opment across the Pacific, 
Asian regional telecommuni- 
cation companies are diversify- 
ing into cable television and 
other multimedia activities to 
enhance the value of their in- 

“One of the great advan- 
tages for Asia is that they will 
be able to leapfrog a lot of the 
technology that can't be used 
for converging these kind of 
services, technology the Unit- 
ed States for e xamp le will be 
trying to write down over the 
next several decades,” said 
Kenneth J. Warnock, executive 
director, marketing and fi- 
nance, in Hong Kong for 
NYNEX Networks System 
Co. “Most telecom administra- 
tions understand that. In 
Bangkok, for example, the en- 
tire system is being installed 
with fiber-optic cable.” 

TdecomAsia Coip., a joint 
venture between the TTiai 
Charoen Pokhpand Group and 
NYNEX, is nearing comple- 
tion of a two Bullion line in- 
stallationproject in Thailan d's 
. capital. TdecomAsia has re- 
yi cently acquired a cable televi- 
sion license through its subsid- 
iary, Thai Cableyision. 

China’s main cities, winch 
are building up their telecom- 
munications network^ almost 
fiord scratch, are also expected 

f® P“t jo large-capacity 
broad-band” systems that 
can handle the volume of sig- 
nals needed to transmit cable 
television and interactive data 
services. In China, as in other 
Asian developing countries, 
the telecommunications com- 
panies are keen to install much 
higher capacity than projected 

r What developing 
countries in Asia 
need is simply 
more telephone 

telephone line growth, and 
then to search for novel ways 
to make use of iL 

Yet, in a Kaon where what 
is new often is equalled with 
what is good, some analysts 
warn about “convergence fe- 
ver,” predicting that the hype 
will have to be replaced by re- 

“Convergence is not going 
to be meaningful in Asia for a 
long time,” cautioned Andrew 
Harrington, a senior research 
analyst at Salomon Brothers in 
Hong Kong. “It will come: It 
will start small and then it will 
eventually get bigger, but it is 
nothing to get so excited about. 
What developing countries in 
Asia need is simply more tele- 
phone lines, and in the foresee- 
able future the vast majority of 
capital wiD be invested in tele- 
phone services.” 

Although business services 
will pose some of the demand, 
the multimedia revolution will 
rely on the home entertain- 
ment market to succeed. Hie 
most common alliances being 
forged or planned are between 
telecommunications compa- 
nies and cable television opera- 
tors. AJthoogh services like 
home shopping, home banking 
and interactive games may be 
added, cable television is ex- 
pected to be the backbone of 
the industry for as long as any- 
body wants to predict. 

In market terms, cable tele- 
vision means urban middle 
class, which in countries like 
Thailand and Indonesia makes 
up less, than 20 percent of the 
population, aqd in China a 
fraction of that small cable 
television company in 

Chengdu, the capital of Chi- 
na’s Sichuan Province, charges 
the equivalent of SO U.S. cents 
for a monthly subscription. 
“That is haTdly a market you 
would be willing to spend a lot 
of money to get into,” com- 
mented a representative for 
one cable television operator. 

Most analysts conclude that 
the major development outside 
Japan over the next decade wiD 
take place in Hong Kong and 
Singapore, with small experi- 
ments in other countries. In 
Hong Kong, Hongkong Tele- 
com is trying out a vjdeo-on- 
deanand facility, which will en- 
able subscribers to select and 
watch videos on their televi- 
sions through their telephone 
lines, as a guard against com- 
petition when it loses its tele- 
phony monopoly in mid-1995. 
Wharf Limited, which has 
been offering cable television 
to Hong Kong for a year, has 
been selected as one of the 
three competitors to Hong- 
kong Telecom. 

Potential broad-band ser- 
vices operators, such as Singa- 
pore Telecom and the Ben- 
press Group in the Philippines, 
will have to expand outside 
their home countries to search 
for larger markets. “There is 
probably not room for more 
than two or three players in 
each market, so you will see 
hard competition,” said Nikhil 
Srinavasan, vice president, me- 
dia and telecommunications at 
Baring Brothers in Hong 

Mr. Srinavasan stresses that 
when the fiber-optic lines fi- 
nally are in die ground, the big 
question is what to send 
through th em. 

“The prog ramming industry 
is underdeveloped in Asia,” he 
said. “It is no use haring 30-40 
channels when there is nothing 
to show. For telecommunica- 
tion companies and cable com- 
panies to diversify into pro- 
gram production is difficult 
and risky. 

Corporations such as the 
Benpress Group, which al- 
ready owns the broadcasting 
units ABS-CBN and Sky-Vi- 
sion and runs a major telecom- 
munications business, are ex- 
pected to have a clear 
advantage over pure telecom- 
munications companies, such 
as TdecomAsia. Pure program 
produce are ajso expected to 
profit from the development of 
broad-band service in Asia. 

“ ri.o*; » 

Europeans Form Alliances 

Asian countries are embracing 

Alim Cbunf/SlpM 

he h’ technologies. 

I N preparation for the 

1998 toppling of Europe- 
an state-run telecom- 
munications monopolies, 
a number of companies are 
rushing to form alliances that 
will offer a range of services 
from data transmission to sim- 
ple voice traffic. But in jockey- 
ing for position, the newly 
formed alliances have also be- 
gun a bout of bickering — led 
m large part by Americans. 

Approval from both (he Eu- 
ropean Commission and the 
the UJS. Federal Communica- 
tions Commission is often re- 
quired before ventures involv- 
ing both American and 
European companies can be- 
gin operating. But in the fight 
for recognition, companies are 
seeking to turn regulators 
against those alliances- they 
deem unfair competition. 

In September, for example, 
the chairman of American 
Telephone & Telegraph Corp., 
Robert Allen, urged the FCC 
to review a proposed joint ven- 
ture between Sprint, America's 
third largest long-distance 
company, the German state 
telephone company Deutsche 
Bundespost Telekom and the 
French phone operator France 
Telecom. The deal, said Mr. 
Alim, “would not fit any rea- 
sonable definition of fuU and 
fair competition as long as 
France and Germany maintain 
their tight grip on competition 
in switched voice services and 

“AT&T’s opposition is hyp- 
ocritical and disingenuous,” 
fired back John Hoffman, 
Sprint’s senior vice president 
for external affairs. “They have 
already entered into an alli- 
ance with companies in some 
of the most locked-up coun- 
tries in the world without any 
regulatory approval at all while 
we’re facing a good deal of 
consternation because we have 
to wait for approval ” 

For their part, regulators say 
they are wary of erasing one 
monopoly only to give approv- 
al to market-dominating alli- 
ances. “As long as there are 
monopolies in place, we don’t 
want to reinforce them.” said 
Helmut von Sydow, spokes- 
man for the European Com- 
mission. “Once access to the 
markets is liberalized, then we 
may be more indulgent in 

granting approval to alli- 

This month, the Commis- 
sion blocked a proposed joint 
venture between three of Ger- 
many’s media giants. Bertels- 
mann, Kirch and state tele- 
phone company Deutsche 
Bundespost Telekom. The alli- 
ance sought entry into the pay 
television market. 

But only a week later. Euro- 
pean Union telecommunica- 
tions ministers made a decision 
to abolish all telecommunica- 
tions monopolies in 1998. Thai 
decision, say analysts, will like- 
ly reassure FCC officials that 
access to Europe exists for U.S. 
companies. It may thus expe- 
dite approval for the Sprint 

Under the Sprint agreement, 
Deutsche Telekom and France 
Telecom will pay a combined 
$4.2 billion for a 20 percent 
stake in Sprint A similar deal, 
in which British Telecom pur- 
chased 20 percent of MCI, has 
already gained regulators' ap- 
proval. Sprint says it antici- 
pates winning FCC approval 
by the first quarter of next 
year, and it expects to file for- 
mal notification with the EU 
next month. 

“Right now the secret of suc- 
cess for both European and 
American companies is to 
form alliances.” said Evan 
Miller, telecommunications 
analyst at Lehman Brothers in 
London. European companies 
benefit from their U.S. part- 
ners' resources and competi- 
tive know-how, he pointed out, 
while American companies 
gain entry into the European 

Indeed, the race for the com- 
ing telecommunications boom 
in Europe is “giving every indi- 
cation of being a three-horse 
race and it's no coincidence 
that the three major alliances 
all have U.S. companies at 
their core,” Mr. Miller said. 

In addition to the Sprint and 
MCI deals, experts cite 
AT&T’s World Partners pro- 
gram as the third major alli- 
ance. In June. AT&T an- 
nounced that Unisource, a 
joint venture between tele- 
phone companies in the Neth- 
erlands, Sweden, Switzerland 
and Spain, would begin offer- 
ing World Partners’ services to 
multinational companies in 
Europe. The partnership is pri- 
marily marketing-based and 
does not involve'joint invest- 
ment in global networks. 

With their sights set on at 
least a part of the 550 billion 
market for international cor- 
porate voice and data services, 
a number of other alliances in 
Europe are working to set up 
private corporate networks or 
cellular phone services. Often, 
an American Baby Bell is pre- 
sent as one of the partners, ’J 

In Italy, for example, me 
computer maker Olivetti SpA 
has created an alliance with 
Bell Atlantic, Pacific Telesis. 
Sweden's Telia and Germany's 
Mannesmann to offer a mobile 
telephone network. In France, 
the construction company 
Bouygues SA is working with 
US West, Cable & Wireless 
PLC and Germany's Veba To 
build a digital cellular net- 

In private, however, some 
European executives fear ti^at 
market liberalization and new 
cross-Atlantic alliances will 
only pave the way for Ameri- 
can companies to dominate the 
European telecommunications 
market X 

“No one wants a trade battle 
but unless this is managed vqjy 
carefully, you could see one 
develop.” said Mr. Miller. 
“For now, political necessities 
dictate that American compa- 
nies gain entry to Europe 
through alliances. When tjbe 
markets really open up, then 
we'll see if American compa- 
nies actually win licenses 4o 
operate on their own.” ^ 

Indeed, that test may occur 
sooner rather than later. Jn 
mid-November, AT&T report- 
edly offered to invest abejul 
$200 million in French stale 
computer maker Cie. des Ma- 
chines Bull in exchange for. a 
French telecommunications Ti- 

At the moment, European 
Commission officials say there 
are no plans to keep U.S. cojb- 
panies out of Europe's tele- 
communications markets as 
long as European operators en- 
joy access to the United States. 

“Liberalization has to do 
with more than just getting nd 
of a monopoly, it has to do 
with helping all European in- 
dustry compete,” said Mr. von 
Sydow in Brussels. “Telecom 
costs are the the most impor- 
tant cost factor for European 
businesses, above wages or 
weather or anything else." ' 

BATE NETZER is a journalist 
who specializes in business aqd 
financial topics. 

Japan Pushes Cable in Bid to Catch Up 

By David Lazarus 

T OKYO— Japan may 
be a world leader in 
electronic wizardry, 
but the country re- 
mains stuck in the slow lane on 
the information superhighway. 

One reason is because of the 
lag hea d start enjoyed by satel- 
lite broadcasting, which has 
put the brakes on growth of a 
fiber-optic cable network nec- 
essary for interactive services. 

Another is that for all the 
advantages of multimedia ca- 
pabilities like home shopping 
and movies on demand, no one 
has yet successfully articulated 
these benefits to Japanese con- 

“The average Japanese per- 
son considers multimedia to be 
something that is given to them 
by a big company, not some- 
thing you use yourself," said 
Masao Kitazawa, who works 
in the multimedia business de- 
partment of Itochu Corp.. a 
trading house. 

Nevertheless, the Japanese 
government has made catching 
np on the infobahn a national 

priority. .. . . 

Japan’s multimedia market 

is expected to be worth more 
than 123 trillion yen ($1.2 tril- 
lion) by -2013 and to create 
some 2.4 million new jobs. 

This is one reason the Clin- 
ton administration made Ja- 
pan’s procurement of telecom- 
munications equipment a main 
focus of recent bilateral trade 

For the average consumer, 
though, all this talk of trade 
and technology does little to 
spark enthusiasm for services 
that are rapidly becoming far 
miliar to American TV view- 
ers. More than 60 percent of 
U.S. households are now wired 
for cable, compared with less 
than 5 percent of Japanese res- 

In a bid to catch up, Nippon 
Telegraph & Telephone is 
spending 50 trillion yen to 
build a nationwide fiber-optic 
cable network. 

The effort, however, has 
been mired in bureaucratic red 
tape and bickering among offi- 
cials over the actual demand 
for sophisticated video ser- 

“Japan’s cable TV industry 
will grow very slowly,” said 
Hiroshi Inoue, deputy general 
manager of the cable TV divi- 

sion of trading house Sumi- 
tomo Coip., which has invest- 
ed in 19 Japanese cable 
ventures. “There is too much 
competition right now from 
satellite broadcasters.” 

While the United Stales was 
gradually building its cable in- 
frastructure, slowly but surely 
bringing more and more homes 
on-line, state-run Japan 
Broadcasting Corp., or NHK, 
launched a pair of satellite 
channels in 1989, and a hand- 
ful of commercial broadcasters 
soon followed. This got the big 
electronics companies making 
dishes, tuners and decoders, 
and soon an entire industry 
was bom. 

Over five million homes now 
receive NHK’s satellite sign a l , 
and five more satellite chan- 
nels are scheduled to hit the air 
waves in 1997. 

“1 don’t think the cable in- 
dustry is going to take off like 
in the U-S-,” said Chuck Goto, 
a telecommunications analyst 
at S.G. Warburg Securities. 
“The problem is that the tech- 
nology is way ahead of the 
market It’s been a very, very 
slow buildup.” 

There are now about 56,000 

regional cable operators in Ja- 
pan, mostly serving small rural 
areas that have no other way of 
receiving clear pictures. These 
companies use older cables 
that would not allow for the 
rapid interchange of informa- 
tion foreseen by multimedia 

Electronics heavyweights 
such as Fujitsu Ltd., Hitachi 
Ltd, NEC Corp. and Toshiba 
Corp. are now developing 
hardware for making movies 
and other programs available 
whenever desired by viewers. 

The video game maker Sega 
Enterprises LtxL, meanwhile, is 
p lanning a gam es-on -demand 

cable service similar to the 
Sega Channel set to be debut 
soon in the United States. 

“They’re taking a long-term 
view ” says Naoko Ito, a Gold- 
man Sachs analyst who follows 
Japan’s video-game industry, 
“when cable services are avail- 
able to more homes — by the 
year 2000 or whatever — Sega 
wants to be the leader in the 

J DAVID LAZARUS is a free- 
lance journalist based in Tokyo. 


Koninklijke PTT Nederland NV 

138,150.000 Ordinary Shares 

Financial Adviser to 
the Company 

DFI 6.9 billion 

US West, Inc. 

22400,000 Shares of Common Stock 

Lead Manager 

In the U.S., Companies Scramble for Partners 

Continue d from Page 15 

the latest developments affect- 
ing them in science, govern- 
ment and finance. 

• Already making huge 
profits in the United States, are 
television networks exclusively 
devoted to shopping at home, 
which eventually will be up- 
graded to permit orders oyer 

- an inter active channel. Airline 
reservation networks can be 

. combined with travel agents 
catalogues to sell tour pack- 

- ages through the home televi- 
sion screen. 

• Advertisers will be able to 
focus their messages tog 
vidnal users via specialized 

news,, sports, entertainment 

and speciality channels, wtued 
helps explain why three region- 
al telephone companies made* 
deaim October with the Holly- 
wood agent Michael Ovitzs 
Creative Artists Agency l <^ 
supply films- which wdus^ 

try calls "software,” for trans- 
mission over their wires. 

' And consider the P^S?! 
of interactive video draining 
away part of the nation s w 
.trillion gambling business 
that’s how much bettors lost 
last year —from race trades 
.sports events lotteries, and 

One specialist believes that 
the biggest losers will be the 
regional U.S. telephone com- 
panies, which are still paying 
off the cost of installing the 
traditional copper wire net- 
works that lack the capacity to 
turn into superhighways. 

Philip J. Serlin, a telecom- 
munications analyst at Werth- 
eim Schroeder & Co., reckons 
that local phone companies 
still owe an average of about 
S700 per subscriber on obso- 
lescent copper wire networks 
that originally cost them 
SI 700 a subscriber. The cable 
companies, although heavily 
indebted, are 

their debt through video f«s 

^calculate that they «n 

grade their networks tocarry 

g^tive phone and co^ute, 

traffic for only about $500 a 

•The only reason the local 
. _ n< » companies look so 
PjSJL istiiat they are collect- 

Sined that although ten- 
ndi companies are 
8“^. ™ to deliver video, 
JSSSI rad other seracestB 

their monopoly on noco*™ 

and from the revenues they 
earn from switching these calls 
onto long-distance networks. 
When Congress permits com- 
petition at the local level, he 
said, “that will drain away the 
cash flow that makes them 
look like such powerful players 

How long this w £0 rake is a 
matter of conjecture and de- 
pends largely on the time and 
money it takes to organize the 
oompeting networks. 

William Bane, vice president 
of Mercer Management Con- 
sulting Imx? which analyzes the 
telephone market, believes that 
the short-term financial re- 
turns will not be sufficient to 
justify investing bifiions in a 
fiber optic-coaxial network. 
But eventually, he concedes, 
the phone companies will lose 
their base and “that poor little 
copper wire will have nothing 
to do.” 

Internationally, this poses a 
fundamental dispute. Mr. 
Hundt has made it dear that 
U.S. policy is grounded in 
competition among all the 
lanes of the information high- 
way, which he argues wiD pro- 
duce the lowest posable price 
levels and expand the industry. 

European governments are 
dragging their beds, especially 

finan ce ministries that want to 
maintain temporary monopo- 
lies for their phone companies 
to boost the price the public 
will pay when they are priva- 
tized. But the French and Ger- 
man state telephone monopo- 
lies are not waiting. They 
invested in Sprint to ensure al- 
ternative trans-Atlantic con- 
nections. Meanwhile. Ameri- 
can companies are trying to 
buy into European telecom- 
munications through the back 
door; AT&T is seeking a share 
in France’s troubled Bull com- 
puter group in return for a tele- 
communications license. 

“The American view is that 
you can never have enough 
competition because that pro- 
duces new applications as each 
network offers different and 
ingenious services,” said Mr. 
Bane. “But the Europeans look 
at this and they see waste, 
waste, waste instead of a sin- 
gle, regulated system that will 
offer all the applications you 
can think of at a lower unit 

Which system will triumph? 
Which idea will prevail? Stay 

New York correspondent of the 
International Herald Tribune. 

U.S. $1 billion 

Iridium, Inc. 

• 800000 Shares of Common Stock 

U.S. $800 million 

Goxftna-: Satfs adaa as trance! astno m 
txtjTi. He andmaRagtftfiapbMrwntQf 
tnrrtaiefcpnvateiy rr*fcjniBnd —— 
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maun irt©«3 

■feteepi ti 

Telecom Corporation of 
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U.S. $1.4 billion 

Tele Danmark AS 

6X229,770 8 Shares 

Joint Global Coordinator 

DKK19.6 billion 

H ) Singapore 
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Singapore Telecommunications 

650 .484 ,800 Ordinary Shares 
byway offender 

International Coordinator 

S $2.3 billion 


Rogers Cantel Mobile 
Communications Inc. 


Class B Subordinate Voting Shares 
Lead Manager 
U.S. $255 million 


Cable & Wireless 

1X07X000 American Depositary Shares 

38£25£00 Ordinary Shares 
Lead Manager 

U.S. $323 million 

Vodafone Group Pic 

200.79l.n0 Ordinary Shares 

Lead Manager 

£341 million 

stouter ISS 9 

Goldman Sachs have long been at the forefront in 
financings for the international telecommunications industry 
and continue to lead and innovate. 


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'tcpiese.'lahvo utfios 

Page 18 


Telecommunications / A Special Report 

Europe Sets the Standard for Mobile Phones 

i c 1<r - Other countries claiming to code known as bits. The signals 

By Robert Bailey 

L ondon — it is rare 

for Western Europe 
to carve out a promi- 
nent technological 
lead over both North America 

that 38 percent of the world’s 
installed cellular telephone 
base will be provided by digital 

technology by the end of 1 998, 
compared with 8.9 percent in 

I" 4 - ... u - 

GSM is steadily being 

adopted as a standard for mo- 

■ -m . * _ _i muaYi rtf tnP 

lead over both Norm /vmcriw aaoptea as a l t r 

and the Far East. But Europe’s bile telephones in much or the 
on n common world including Africa, tne 

decision to agree on a common 
standard for mobile digital 
telecommunications, taken at 

the start of the 1990s, has al- 
lowed a rapid development of 
mobile telephone markets in 
Europe and established the 
standard known as GSM 
Global System for Mobile 

Telecommunications — in 
dozens of countries elsewhere. 

GSM so far has been adopt- 
ed by some 45 countries in ad- 
dition to the initial 18 founder 
members. This has stimulated 
a dynamic market situation 
that has accelerated the rate at 
which GSM infrastructure and 
subscriber terminals have 
evolved and helped reduce 
costs of development. 

world including Africa, the 
Middle East, Far East and 

Other countries pla nnin g to 
open GSM networks include 
Bahrain, Egypt, Hungary, Isra- 
el, Iran, Kuwait, Pakistan. 
Russia and Thailand. 

While the GSM memoran- 
dum was the result of years of 
debate and discussion the fact 
that agreement was reached on 
one digital standard was a 
great step forward for Europe, 

code known as bits. The signals 
produced are not continuous 
in form but made up of pulses 
of electrical current represent- 
ing the voice, fax or data to be 

The frequency adopted (900 
Megahertz) allows a far more 
efficient use of the radio spec- 
trum by operators. It also pro- 
vides a much greater clarity of 
call with the characteristic 

Europe's decision to agree on a 
common standard for mobile digital 
telecommunications has helped make 
GSM the standard in dozens of countries 
elsewhere in the world. 


Bruno Massiet du 
Biest, chairman of 

Societe Fran^aise de 

Radiotelephone and also 
Mi air man of tbe Dublin-based 
GSM Memorandum of Under- 
standing group: “The GSM 
standard is accepted world- 
wide as the basis for new digi- 
tal communications and net- 

Industry consultant BIS 
Strategic Decisions forecasts 

Asia and is expected to domi- 
nate the first generation of dig- 
ital cellular products. 

China's Lian-Tong Commu- 
nications Corp. is due to offer 
GSM services in Beijing. 
Guangzhou, Shanghai and 
Tianjin by the second half of 
next year as pan oF a S3 billion 
investment in a national GSM 
network. , , 

GSM networks are already 
opening in a few Asian coun- 
tries. They are being planned 
in Indonesia, the Philippines, 
Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan 
and in India, where eight city- 
based GSM licenses have been 

according to Dean Eyers, an 
analyst for the consulting Finn 
Dataquest U.K. Ltd 

Shipments of GSM cellular 
telephones will overtake those 
of analog models next year. 
Within three years GSM ship- 
ments are expected to be 10 
times those of analog, Data- 
quest forecasts. 

Digital mobile telephones 
offer subscribers a number of 
improvements over earlier, an- 
alog models. 

With the digital process, 
speech is transmitted as a com- 
puter-coded signal whereby 
voice patterns are converted 
and compressed into a numeric 

mated Because the signal is 
broken up in the digital system 
of transmission, calls are also 
much less susceptible to eaves- 
dropping than analog systems, 
which transmit a continuous 

Initial te ething difficulties 
associated with the introduc- 
tion of digital services have 
now been overcome while pro- 
duction of GSM standard 
handsets is rising and prices 
coming down. These are fac- 
tors likely to boost the growth 
of GSM subscribers, particu- 
larly in mature markets such as 
Europe where mobile tele- 
phones are well established 

GSM has proved popular in 
Germany, where Deutsche Te- 
lekom Mobil’s D1 network and 
Mannesmann MobQfunk’s D2 
system have some 750,000 sub- 

GSM subscribers wherever 
they are can also use their mo- 
bile phones in other countries 
in which “roaming” agree- 
ments have been secured by 
service providers with other 

GSM operators in those states. 

The system works because 
each GSM phone set requires a 
subscriber identity module, 
known as a simeard The cred- 
it-card size module incorpo- 
rates a microprocessor with in- 
formation on the subscriber 
and his billing details. Once 
inserted into the phone, the 
card allows subscribers to 
make and receive calls and be 
charged to a home-based ac- 
count if making calls from 

Handling voice traffic is but 
one aspect of GSM’s versatili- 
ty ^ digital design allows 
phones to integrate easily with 
computerized equipment, 
opening up the possibility of 
voice messaging and data 
transmission services for mo- 
bile users. 

There is likely to be a grow- 
ing impact on markets from 
handset products doubling as 
telephone, fax and personal 

BIS Strategic Decisions ex- 
pects revenue from the trans- 
mission of mobile data to reach 
$1.5 billion within the next 
three years and expects that 
more than 40 percent of this 
will come from digital cellular 

Other industry analysts have 
drawn similar conclusions. 
Frost & Sullivan, the U.S. con- 
sultancy, believes that the next 
two years will be a major peri- 
od of market development of 
GSM as users defect from ana- 

Europe’s mobile phone market has developed rapidly. 

log services and new subscrib- 
ers opt for the GSM standard 
This stage will also witness a 
big development of data and 
messaging services, it predicts. 

A trend is already apparent. 
Britain’s leading cellular ser- 
vice prorider, Vodafone, says 
ib-it connections for the third 
quarter of 1994 show digital 

When it comes to the world of 
global telecommunications, you 
should look past what a company 
says it can do and look at what 
it actually has delivered. And that's 
why you should look at Sprint. 

A facilities-based carrier that 
provides global services, Sprint 
built the first nationwide 100% 
digital, fiber optic network in 
the United States. 

Other Sprint achievements 
include the first multilateral 
Virtual Private Network service 
and the creation of over 1,300 
videoconferencing rooms. 

Today, Sprint is the largest 
provider of international frame 
relay and value-added network 
services with over 800 data 
nodes worldwide. In fact, Sprint 
has over 122,000 kilometers of 

fiber optic network worldwide, 
and is a leading supplier of 
global voice, data, video and 
messaging services. 

But call us and see for your- 
self. We’ll show you a 
world of solutions for 
your global telecom 
needs. And that’s 
a promise we can 
deliver on. Now. 


London: 44-71-930-4300 Frankfurt: 4 9-69^65-390 Pa«: 33- 1 -^3' 
Hong Kong: S52-S10-SS10 Tokyo: 81-3-379.4-0601 United 

-3400 Milan: 39-2-957-952 1 6 
States: 703-689-6000 

subscriptions rising in each 
month of the quarter. _ _ 
There is a growing opinion 
that GSM is destined to re- 
place not only analog mobile 
telephones but also fixed-wire 
services. In Scandinavia, new 
mobile connections are on a 
par with fixed-line connec- 
tions. The same pattern is be- 

ing repeated in Britain and 
elsewhere in Europe. Accord- 
ing to Dataquest's Mr. Eyers: 
“The future is totally with 

ROBERT BAILEY is a journal- 
ist based in London who covers 
technology and. aerospace. 

'sprim C* timiiw'.'V 1 ' "• 

1 I' 

When Phone Service 
And Cable TV Meet 

By John Burgess 


\ \ / For decades, the 
%/V two American in- 

▼ ▼ dus tries lived 
alongside each other, never 
venturing into the other's pre- 
serve. Local telephone compa- 
nies carried talk; cable Tv 
companies carried video. They 
had separate networks that did 
not connect, separate ideas on 
how best to run and finance a 

Today, that long peaceful 
co-existence is near its -.end.- 
New technologies and new 
freedoms granted by regula- 
tors are letting the industries 
confront each other head on. 
Telephone companies are up- 
grading their lines to carry vid- 
eo. Cable firms are revising 
their networks so that custom- 
ers w«i plug in telephones and 
make calls. In the race are vir- 
tually all of the big names of 
the two industries. Companies 
are laying plans to offer entire- 
ly new services as well — inter- 
active home shopping and 
“video on demand," in which 
customers would order a movie 
for instant electronic delivery 
to their sets. 

“Everybody’s trying to ex- 
pand who they are — so they 
can be alive in the future, says 
Larry Plum, a spokesman for 
Beil Atlantic, a regional phone 
company based in Philadel- 

Consumers, competition’s 
advocates promise, will be the 
winners, getting a choice in ser- 
vices that traditionally have 
been offered take-it-or-Jeave-it 
style by monopoly providers. 

But not everyone is so opti- 
mistic. Cable companies say 
they could be squashed by the 
much larger telephone compa- 
nies. Consumer groups wonder 
if the two industries will weak- 
en themselves by spending bil- 
lions of dollars to offer new 
services that may not prove 
hits with consumers. 

Cable-telephone competi- 
tion is just one part of a broad 
deregulation of telecommuni- 
cations in the United States 
that began in earnest with the 
break-up of the monopoly Bell 
Telephone System in 1984. 

Europe, East Asia and much 
of the rest of the world are 
deregulating the industry as 
well, in a few cases faster than 
the United States. In the Brit- 
ain, for instance, many cable 
companies already offer tele- 
phone service. 

Development of flexible new 
technology has accelerated tbe 
trend. Phone companies, for 
instance, have figured out how 
to push a video signal down 
copper wiring, a feat that for 
years was judged impossible. 
Computer companies are de- 
veloping electronic “servers" 
that can store movies in the 
digital language of computers 
and send them out on request. 

The Washington D.C. area 
is becoming a testing ground 
for the two sides. SBC Media 
Ventures, die cable operator in 
Montgomery County, Mary- 
land, a suburb of Washington, 
has applied for permission to 
offer telephone service in com- 
petition with the local phone 
company. Bell Atlantic. In an- 
other suburb, Alexandria, Vir- 
ginia, a cable system owned by 
Jones Intercable is laying fi- 
ber-optic lines to homes and 
experimenting with local tele- 
phone service. 

I . 

Making Gang es Hke these is 
no ■ ymall undertaking. Cable 
systems as they exist today are 
typically one-way pipes. To 
carry phone calls they need 
costly equipment and software 
that allows signals to flow both 
ways and can “switch" them 
around in the network to reach 
a particular destination. Many 
cable companies feel they need 
help. Through mergers and al- 
liances, they are trying to grow 4 
and dose some of the gap that 
exists between them and the 
telephone companies in size 
and resources. 

' They “recognize - that "the - 
only way it will be profitable is 
to have a big geographic area, 
said Victoria Clarke, spoto- 
woman for the National Cable 
Television Association. Some 
cable companies, in fact, be- 
lieve that the best way to go is 
to link up with phone comp a- • 
nies. The biggest such deal 
Bell Atlanticrs proposed $26 
billion acquisition of the coun- 
try’s largest cable operator, 
Tele-Communications Inc., 
fell apart over questions of 

K nee. Other have gone ahead: 
lontgpmery County’s cable 
operator SBC Media Ventures 
is owned by regional phone 
company SBC Communica- 
tions, formerly Southwestern 
Bell Corp. 

Bell Atlantic, meanwhile, 
has Washington-area employ- 
ees test viewing a “rideo-on- 
d enured” service. The compa- 
ny plans to offer video services 
to 2,000 homes in the Washing- 
ton area next year, which it 
rail* stage one of a roll-out that 
will make the services available 
to 8.5 million homes by 2000. 


Realizing that it knows pre- 
dous tittle about movies, Bell - 
A tlan tic joined with two other 
regional telephone companies ■ 
to make a deal with the Holly- 
wood agent Michael Oritz to 
secure and produce program- 
noting for a video service to be 
called Stargazer. (BeU Atlantic . 
chairman Raymond Smith 
likes to joke that no one wants 
to see a movie made by the 
phone company.) 

Phone companies believe 
that to succeed in the competi- 
tive market ahead, they must 
also reform corporate cultures 
that have grown slack under 
years of monopoly protection. 

“You’re seeing technology 
move faster than Bell compa- 
nies are used to moving,” says 
Frank Dzubeck, president of 
Communications Network Ar- 
chitects, a Washington con- 
sulting firm. Companies where 
change was measured in de- 
cades, he says, must deal with 
technology that changes by the 

As competition closes in, the 
sides are feuding over the fine 
print of new rules of competi- 
tion. Cable companies are de- 
manding the right to connect 
to the phone companies' net- 
works, so that cable customers 
could call people who use the 
existing service. The phone in- 
dustry says that if cable com- 
panies are going to offer phone 
service, they should be re- 
quired to serve everyone, as 
phone companies are. 

And many regulatory hur- 
dles remain. “Both sides are 
going to need some go-ahead 
from politicians to be treading 
on each other’s turf,” said 
Robert Wells, senior analyst at 
market research firm Lennox 
Research of Boulder, Colora- 





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Telecommunications / /I Special Report 

Page 19 

Privatiza tion Catches On Phones Bring New Era for Hungarian Village 

axnmunications carder VSN1 
-tomtcTMtional institutions 

aR^tmd Basted™ 
lias also seen i. _ 

Iias also seen capitalism begin 

embrace telccommunica- 

-•>' .vs* 

- ^ 

Jp emDrace teleco mm unj ca - 
.^bons.' Deutsche Telekom to- 

- 55*5? *J* C Americtech of 

^ 7m 5 cd States, paid $875 
^ for a joint 
saarem Hungaiy’s Matav PTT 
.company. The latter is now 
? consaenDg divesting another 
. -10 percent of its stock. 

, ' ; i. ■'U*® ^ ze ^ 1 Republic is plan- 
mpg .to sdl 27 percent of its 
aatlOTal ^i ecommuil icatioiis 
ccmcem SPT Telekom. Various 
. m^national consortia are 
wMingior the stake, which is 
,vahiatat $ 1 bilhon. These in- 
. ctateBefl Atlantic with' France 

- Telecom and a grouping of 
American Telephone & T< 

rp-» the Du 

biggest hurdle of all is recog- 
nizing the need and value of 

British Telecom was at the 
van 8Uard of privatization 10 
years ago when it became a 
pubUc company. A BT official 
adnn t£ that an end to state 
ownership required “a major 
culture change in attitudes to- 
wards customers and quality,” 
buz also provided it with free- 
dom “to crack at the new opor- 
tumties offered by the infor- 
mation revolution.'” 

BT sees itself as having 
changed from being an engi- 
neering-led concern to a ser- 
vice-led company. The next 

g hase erf development will re- 
ect “the vast changes occur- 
riim in information technology 
and communications.” These 
BT identifies as mobile tele- 

& Tde- 

»h Cora, the Dutch PTT 

Swiss tde mm 
• - The path leading toward pri- 
vatization is not always 
smooth. In Argentina, the Erst 

. rramrl nf r—_ . 1 - , 

telephone service provider F.n - 
tej vas declared invalid, lead- 
ing potential bidders to with- 
draw. in exasperation. The 
process was eventually com- 
pleted in 1991 with Entel split 
into a northern section, which 
was sold to Telefonica de Es- 
pafia, and a southern conces- 
sion, sold to a partnershi p 
comprising Italy's STET and 
France Cables & Radio. 

Greece has also experienced, 
protracted delays in the at- 
tempted privatization of its 
HeSauc Telecommunications 
Organization. This month, the 
country's national economy 
minister, lannos Papandonj ou, 
declared that the proposed sale 
of a 25 percent stake in OTE 
bad been pot off “because the 
situation- in world markets did 
not guarantee a satisfactory 
price for OTPs shares.” The 
sale, which was expected to 
raise $L2 billion, is now sched- 

Probably the 
biggest hurdle of 
all is recognizing 
the need and value 
of competition. 

environment is a vital consid- 
eration for alL In the run-up to 
its share issue, Deutsche Tele- 
kom has called for dear regula- 
tory guidelines for Europe’s 
telecommunications industry 
to avoid deterring potential in- 
vestors in its flotation. In a 
significant move this month, 
European Union governments 
agreed *.o end monopolies on 
their telecommunications net- 
works by Jan. 1, 1998. This, 
followed a prior pact to end 
monopolies on provision of 
voice services by the same date. 

Some want thing s to 
nicker and faster thouL— 
Iri tain . the Netherlands and 
France as well as Germany and 
future EU members Sweden 
and Finland are pressing the 
European Commission to 
come forward with proposals 
as quickly as possible to allow 
the use of cable TV, road, rail 
and energy networks for tele- 
communications services, oth- 
er than basic phone calls, by 
next year. 

It is a call for liberalization 
and an opening to competition 
that would have been unheard 
of until recently. 

By Hairy Copeland 


K ISOROSZL, Hungary — In 
their village, Maria Bordos 
and her family are neither 
poor nor rich. Like their 
more affluent neighbors, the Bordos 
family’s cottage has indoor plumbing; 
yet, like many others, the family still 
relies on wood burning stoves for heat. 
What the Bordoses have in common 
with nearly every other family here in 
KisoroszL, a village of 600 dwellings 
souk 40 kilometers up the Danube 
river from Budapest, is the lack of a 

“We applied for telephone in 1985. 
In 1988, we received a notice that said 
we were No. 5 on the waiting list,” says 
the 56-year-old, la ug hing . 

“When we started voice map in the 
States, we were excited when 10 per- 
cent used it,” says Joseph O’Konek, 
deputy managing director for the cellu- 
lar division erf Eurotel, a joint venture 
between US West, Ball Atlantic and 
the Grech national phone company. 
“We launched it here last summer and 
30 percent use it regularly. They didn't 
have answering machines to stop us- 
ing,” he explains. 

Portable phone customers in Poland 
and Hungary use their phones an aver- 
age of more than 400 minutes a month, 
triple the rates in Western Europe. 

phony, multimedia, teleshop- 
ping, home banking and enter- 

tiled for ear ly 199 5. 
my PTT 

For any PTT organization 
however, privatization in itself 
is not a panacea. The follow-up 
demands changed manage- 
ment philosophies and work- 
place attitudes if its full bene- 
fits are to accrue. 

After the merchant bankers 
wave departed from the scene 
the corporate elements of 
change ate often more difficult 
to implement Probably -the 

There is however, a harsh 
social cost involved in the pri- 
vatization process. In the past 
telephone companies have 
been under as much or more 
pressure to maintain jobs as to 
provide competitive services. 
This constraint has lifted. 

In the last four years BT has 
reduced its workforce by more 
than a third, to 138,000 from 
232,000. The target level is be- 
lieved to be 100,000. 

Koninlijke PTT Nederland, 
which flooded 35 percent of its 
shares in June, plans to cut 
3^)00 out of 31,000 jobs over 
the next three years in an effort 
to raise productivity by 20 per- 

Deutsche Telekom, which 
plans a partial privatization in 
two years, has said its work- 
force needs to be reduced by 13 
percent to 200,000 employees, 
while those remaining need to 
double their productivity. 

Company concerns are not 
entirely concentrated on slash- 
ing overheads. The operating 

Fear of being left behind is 
acting as a powerful spur to 
operators who see themselves 
losing ground, and profits, as 
markets open up for enhanced 
telecommunications services. 

Alliances are steadily being 
formed to address cross-border 
opportunities for value-added 
data and private network ser- 

An end to state controls is 
mfllrmg this process easier and 
also encouraging a new type of 
telecommunications concern. 
For instance, Veba AG, the 
Goman energy group, is plan- 
ning a 10 bflbon Deutsche 
mark ($6.5 billion) investment 
targeted at gaining an eventual 
10 percent share of Gomany's 
teleco mmunicati ons market 

French water companies 
such as Gbntrsde d cs Eaux and 
Lyonnais des Eatix-Dumez 
and the British power ccmcem 
Energie are among those mak- 
ing inroads into their domestic 
telecommunications markets. 

It is certain that the world of 
telecommunications is going to 
lock very different by the end 
of this decade from both a us- 
ers and providers point of 
view. In this, privatization is 
proving a major catalyst. 

S OON, her wait will end. Em- 
ployees of Hungary’s national 
telephone company, Matav, are 
working weekends putting up 
telephone poles and ins talling lines in 
KisoroszL Next month, 300 new tele- 
phones will begin to ring, like church 
bells heralding a new era, in cottages 
across the village. 

A year ago. Deutsche Bundespost 
Telekom and Ameritecb International 
paid $875 millioo for a 30.2 percent 
stake in Matav. Directed by the foreign 
partners, Matav will spend $2 billion in 
the next three years to install one mil- 
lion telephone lines, many of them in 
villages like KisoroszL 
The number of phone Hues per in- 
habitant should triple before the end of 
the decade, bringing Hungary up to 
current Western European levels. 

This wQl more than wipe out Hunga- 
ry's current backlog of 735,000 phone 
applicants. Likewise across Eastern 
Europe, faffing technology costs, for- 
eign investment, and deregulation 
should eventually bring telephones to 
the other 22 million people that the 
International Telecommunication 
Union calculates are stiD on telephone 
waiting lists. 

As in KisoroszL, the most rudimenta- 
ry teleco mmuni cations needs will be 
met with digital technology that per- 
mits the century’s most sophisticated 
residential services — itemized phone 
bills, voice mail, call waiting, or call 

Leaping from one end of the century 
to the other. East European societies 
may well somersault, industry partici- 
pants say. 

Some Eastern Europeans are already 
hopping oft of waiting lists for land 
lines and onto cellular phones. At the 
end of 1993, there were 95,000 cellular 
phones in Eastern Europe. Now, Hun- 
gary alone boasts 150.000 cellular sub- 
scribers. These customers are mostly 
entrepreneurs, who are adapting quick- 
ly to the new age. 

telecommunications wffl be more sub- 
tle, but no less substantial Most imme- 
diately, the reservoir of kerchiefed 
women waiting to use the village’s 
three pay phones, long a well of gossip, 
will evaporate. 

And the doctor, teacher, mayor, and 
preacher who were previously privi- 
leged with the village’s only private 
phones may find themselves treated 
with a tittle less deference by neighbors 
who no longer depend on their tines for 
incoming c«ne- 

In the first three quarters of 1994, 
270,000 Hungarians got phone lines, 
but Matav’s waiting list declined by 
only 30,000 names, as people who had 
assumed they could never nave a phone 
suddenly tome hope. 

This apparent enthusias m is bal- 
anced by the fact that “a lot of people 
are going to lake a long time to use 
even the most basic services,” says Tim 
Nulty, manag in g director of the Cen- 
tral European Telecom Investment 
Advisors, a Budapest-based $100 mil- 
lion investment fund. One in 10 Matav 
customers use the phone no more than 
a few minutes a month, company re- 
cords show. 

In part, this reluctance grows out erf 
the region’s political past “Under, 
communism, you knew every phone 
line could be tapped, so you used the 
phone to set np appointments, and that 
was it You certainly didn’t conduct 
business by telephone,” says Mr. 

Telephobia runs even deeper, argues 
Zoltan Pap, head of Matav’s market 
research department “This has been 

an information-hoarding society,” he 
ny, informed 

says. In a market economy, 
consumers choose freely among a vari- 
ety of options. In contrast under the 
command economy, “if you wanted a 
car, there was one firm you went to, 
except h was not really a firm, but an 
office: And you /Died out forms, gave 
them your money and waited, some- 
times for years,” Mr. Pap says. 

Consumers today retain the belief 
that the only way to get ahead in line — 
and in life — is through personal con- 
tacts, which means doing business in 
person. Many clerks who trained in the 

former system also resist the telephone. 

“Businesses are not yet used to doing 
business by phone, and Matav is just as 
guilty,” admits Sharon Brant, a mar- 
keting consultant seconded to Matav 
from Ameritech. 

Ms. Brant notes that Matav custom- 
os with digital Knes still cannot use 
their telephones to request premium 
services like call waiting or call for- 
warding, but must still go into an office, 
and fill out the appropriate paperwork. 
A fax won’t do either. 

And at least one unreformed Matav 
clerk has asked a customer to justify 
her need for call waiting. 

To get Hun garians out of store lines ' 
and canto the phone lines, Matav will 
soon laimeh an ad campaig n suggest- 
ing that by using the telephone to 
duck the price and availability of 
goods, customers can save time and 
money. But, for the time being, Matav 
can gp only so far in promoting its 

“The trick is, because of the limited 
availability, you don’t want to anger 
the public by promoting the luxury, 
services like call waiting when three 
quartos of a million people are waiting 
for phones,” Ms. Brant says. 

Even as Matav struggles to become a 
seller rather than a rationer of tele- 
phone services, usage per line is falling. 
“This is my number one problem to 
understand,” Mr. Pap says. According 
to the International Telecommunica- 
tion Union, that the number of local 

calls per line have dropped from 1,100. 
1990 to 1,000 in 1992 to 9 


to 940 in 1993., 
In part, Mr. Pap attributes falling 
line usage to Hungary's economic ‘ 
slowdown; GDP fell 20 percent be-.'! 
tween 1 990 and 1992. Also, the relative - 
cost of local calls has risen throughout^ 
the same period. Line use may also be ... 
dropping as businesses and govern-. - 
ment offices install systems to track .! 
phone use, thus cur tailing the habit of 
making personal calls — especially in- > 
temational ones — from work. 



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M OST importantly , Matav’s 
widening phone coverage-: 
is chluting the economic;.; 
and social sophistication *-! 
of its core customer base. In 1989, the; J 
600,000 Hungarian homes which had*-*' 
telephone lines housed the country’C/* 
elite. Now, as telephone lines penetrate*^ 
Hungary’s other 3 million households^ 
the average customer is becoming lessor; 
educated, and less well off. These new^J* 
customers tend to use the telephoned 
less, Mr. Pap says. ? 

Maria Bordos may yet turn out to be**; 
a good customer. She looks forward to-< 
nailing her son who lives two hours!*; 
away. Mrs. Bordos also thinks the new-^ 
phone will allow her and her husband?* 
to market their homemade cheese. 

— —5 






HENRY COPELAND contributes to the .« 
International Her aid Tribune from Bu -\*~ 
dapesL « 














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Technology’s limits 

By Jon Ud£n 

1 Bade in 1991, -i* most 
people believed peace 
would soon be de- 
scending cm Cambodia, many 
thought it was time to build a 

full-fledged telecommunica- 
- non system covering the whole 
romay: Together with a reha- 
bilitated .road network, proper 
.. tdecommunicati on facilities 
' would tie the provinces tqgeth- 
ec’smd get the war-ravaged 
epoflpy back to life. Such a 
telecommunications system 
wb^d.rcost S100 million, a 
masterplan made by the Aus- 
tralian telecommunication 

company Telstra (hat year esti- 

Since teen, 20 times that 
amiounthas been spent on get- 
ting peace and democracy in 
Cambodia,-and roughly anoth- 
er. SI billion has been ear- 
qtarkedfor development aid 
between 1993- and 1995, but 
th& r icnd5 are as bad as ever, 
aad you stifl cannot pick up a 
phone, and make a can between 
two Cambodian cities. 

Infact, yoq can bandy make 
a call across town. Most of the 
liherUetwpifc in Phnom Penh 
was put m by die Soviets and 
the^ Vietnamese many years 
agb. Its technology is antique, 
worn put and chronically 
breaking down- In Siam Reap, 
thP country* most important 
tourist-destination, as m most 
otter provincial cities, you 
cannot make a call at afl. 

Cambodia’s case presents 
both the opportunities and 
limitations of modem tcchnol- 
ogy inpoor countries. Building 
an-effective tel ccomxouni ca- 
tions system in . a country of 
eight milKdn people and only 
eijgbf nugor towns is not tech- 
nically dxffkxilt, both the. inter- 
national agencies and telecom- 
munication companies agree. 

Phnom Penh could be linked 
by microwave systems to the 
western towns of Battambang 
and&sophon and to Thailand. 
A similar link could be made to 
eastern towns, to Vietnam and 
to the planned Hang Kong- 
V^tnam-Thailand fiberoptic 
sea cable that is currently be- 
ing | laid. Other Cambodian 
towns could be Jinked bysatd- 
lite and hacked up by radio. ' 

Yet the experience from 
Cambodia shews, that in the 
end it is- not technology but- 

pohtical and economic stabil- 
tQr, realistic planning and gov- 
emm ^nt control that will de- 
termine whether a poor 
country can build up the tele- 
communications system it 
needs to support its economic 
development, industry experts 

Cambodia is a country 
where the normally aggressive 
international telecommunica- 
tions companies have feared to 
tread. They have good reasons 
for their caution. Since most of 
their income stems from main , 
tenance contracts and traffic- 
revenue rather than sales of 
equipment, few would risk in- 
stalling expensive equipment 
in a country with a guerrilla 
anny bent on sabotage and a 
public sector infamous for its 
corruption and negligence. 

With the government an un- 
easy coalition between two for- 
mer enemies, ministries have 
problems planning ahead and 
making fax-reaching decisions 
about the country’s future. 

If the Ministry for Post and 
Telecommunications retains a 
monopoly, it can use the reve- 
nue from international and do- 
mestic trunk systems to build 
the investment-intensive local 
network that will provide the 
estimated 90,000 lines Cambo- 
dia’s post and telecommunica- 
tions minister, So Khun, 
wants. The minister’s aim is to 
increase the Cambodian tele- 
phone density tenfold, to one 
phone per 100 people. But the 
target is not likely to be 
reached this side of the mille n- 

Even the decision to trans- 
form the t ritwmwmrnirarirvna 
system set up to serve the Unit- 
ed Nations peacekeeping force 
into a civilian system took 
more than a year to make. The 
SI 8 million contract was 
awarded in September to Indo- 
nesia's IndosaL 

While the Indosat system 
win provide the country with a 
basic telecommunications sys- 
tem, a long-term, expandable 
system wfll have to replace it as 
demand outstrips capacity in 
two to four years. The govern- 
ment is waiting for yet another 
: master plan for telecommuni- 
cations — the third in a de- 
cade, this time funded by the 
United Nations Development 
Program and the Internationa] 
Telecommunication Union — 
before it proceeds further with 


Luster for French Firm 

By Joseph Fitchett 

P ARIS — State owner- 
ship, once an asset for 
France Telecom, is be- 
coming a burden in the 


The French phone company 
was held up as a dazzling suc- 
cess story in the 1980s as it 
transformed a backward na- 
tional infrastructure into a 
match for the world's top sys- 
tems. In fact, it was its very 
.mum as a stale-owned compa- 
ny that made such a transition 

But as the tdeconununica- 
tions industry worldwide 
moves forw a rd, France Tele- 
com's state ownership prevents 
it from being able to form in- 
ternational alliances as nimbly 
as many of its deregulated 
competitors. The company 
. also risks being limited in the 
*0 alt-impo rt ant U.S. market. 
“Until we are privatized, 
there .are some things we simply 
can't ck^’* said Jean-Yves 

w^lw^^^^^vorks and ser- 
vjuxsi. :/' 

Added another France Tele- 
com executive: “We realize that 
phone services have become a 
key. tool mincrearing the pro- 
ductivity and tte eompetitivity 
of every almost every company 
in our country, so these corpo- 
rate accounts have become a 
national priority as well as the 
bulk of our revenue.” 

- ‘Bat to stay with these mega- 
accounts, the global corpora- 
tions that want the top supplier 
of phoac services, France Tele- 
com now breeds to have the 
market fka rihflity that comes 
with private ownership. 

For the moment, privatiza- 
tion r emains unthinkable po- 
litically in France, where even 
the ruling conservatives hesi- 
tate to evokeiheueed for radi- 
cal c ha n ge in a venerable na- 
tional service.^ With the 
electoral campaign, in f“« 
swing to choose the next presi- 
deat next spring, there can be 
no movement toward even 
tions for privatization. 
fe see grand partnerships 
^ among the key com- 

that intend to operate 

on a worldwide basis, - Mr - 
Gouiffes explained, in a recent 
interview about France Tele- 
com’s long-term strategy. But 
as a state-owned entity^ the 
French company is unable to 
do the kind of share swaps and 

other equity deals that usuaUy 

characterize such deals.. 

France Telecom was able to 
strike a major deal last summer 
by teaming up with. Deutsche 
Telekom, its main European 
partner, to each buy $2 button 
worth of stock in Sprint, the 
third-largest -long-distance 
U.S. carrier. A consolation 
prize, it was still a prize for 
France Telecom because it 
could provide a toehold in the 
United States, which remains 
the world's largest tdecom- 
mumcations market. 

Even though Sprint lacks the 
scope of the top-tier U.S. carri- 
ers — MCI is three times larger 
than Sprint and AT&T is five 
times larger than MCI — tile 
proposed deal would offer the 
ability to give mayor business 
consumers the seamless “end- 
to-end” service they demand 

The main problem for the 
deal, however, is liable to be 
objections, from regulatory 
agencies — mid not only in the 
United Slates. The European 
Commission. in Brussels has 
never been enthusiastic about 
seeing government-controlled 
companies with national mo- 
nopolies expand into interna- 
tional alliances. 

“Nobody Ekes state-owned 
players in markets that have 
become competitive,” an EC 
official said m Brussels. “U.S. 
companies fear that they really 
are government agencies, not 
agil e enough to maneuver in a 
fast-changing marketplace; 
regulators don't like thorn be- 
cause they suspect that their 
govrnunentbadring will dis- 
tort competition.” 

The idea of forming alli- 
ances at aD is a revolutionary 
one for phone companies, 
which used to live by the creed 
that gpod fences make good 
neighbors: Phone companies 

"We so 

mg countries without asking 

what the foreign phone compa- 
ny did once it got ite call. 

The impetus for change has 
come from the big corporate 
clients, Mr. Gouiffes said, ex- 
plaining that they want service 
that ensures a customer the 
same level oF phone facilities in 
a Third World capital that it 
enjoys in Paris. 

^Companies are going to 

have to operate their own glc 1 - 
al networks: otherwise, tees,_ 

lem gets dragged down to low- 
est common denominator of 
the countries it has to operate 
in,” Mr. Gouiffes said 


Page 21 

Telecommunications! A Special Report 

JOSEPH HTCHErt is an the 
staff of the International Herald 


U.S. Auctions Off the Rights to Its Airwaves 

By John Burgess 

’ *»”■<** 



tdecommunica tions develop- 
ment. That plan is due the first 
quarter of next year. 

“The advice to the govern- 
ment will be to retain a monop- 
oly over the basic network and 
develop public-switching sys- 
tems through cooperative 
agreements with commercial 
operators on a subcontract ba- 
sis or some form of buiid-oper- 
ate- transfer agreement,” said 
Peter Booth, who is the ITU's 
advisor to the Cambodian gov- 
ernment. “We stress that com- 
petition should be manag«H t 
and that all basic facilities and 
assets should be retained by 
the ministiy, at least in the 
short and medium term.” 

JON UDEN is a journalist 
based in Hong Kong who travels 
frequently to Southeast Asia. 

1 A / The sums are high- 

Y Y er than anyone ex- 
▼ T pected In a series 
of auctions that began here in 
July, the U.S. government has 
received pledges of more than 

SU5 billion for something 
that since the start of the com- 
munications age it has handed 
out free — rights to use the 
airwaves for commercial pur- 

On sale are licenses to offer 
“personal communications 
services" such as pocket 
phones, advanced paring and 
interactive televirion. The rev- 
enue so far is just the start. In 
December, the first bidding 
begins on the pocket phone li- 
censes, which many experts say 
is what the industry most val- 

It is a clean break with the 
past at the Federal Communi- 
cations Commission. Since the 
agency’s creation in 1934, 
much of its work has revolved 
around assigning licenses with- 
out charge to parties who win 
lotteries or who in tedious, 
courtlike proceedings officials 
judge to be qualified and de- 

Now, searching for ways to 
lower its budget deficit and to 
bring market-force efficiencies 
to the communications indus- 
try, Washington is selling the 
rights. With wireless communi- 
cations already growing by 
leaps and bounds — there are 
now about 19 milli on cellular 
telephones in the United States 
— the industry is proving more 
than willing to bid. 

For instance, American 
Telephone & Telegraph Corp M 
which recently bought the 
country's largest cellular 

phone company, McCaw Cel- 
lular Communications, In July 
won two national paging li- 
censes for $80 million each. 
Now it is mars halling huge re- 
sources to win pocket phone 
licenses. “We’re applying for 
them everywhere we don’t cur- 
rently operate a cellular sys- 
tem,” said Bob Ratiiffe, a com- 
pany spokesman. 

No one knows what the gov- 
ernment's ultimate proceeds 
will be, but $10 billion has 
gained currency in the industry 
as an estimate. 

The bids are running high 
enough that some experts wor- 
ry of a hidden cost: that large, 
established companies will 
take control of the truly valu- 

able licenses, and that the need 
to make brisk the license fees 
will mean high rates that wifi 
slow growth of the new ser- 

Smaller companies, in fact, 
may bid. so high for their li- 
censes that they could get over- 
extended and go broke, says 
Jeny Lucas, president of Te- 
leStrategies Incx, a McLean. 
Virginia, consulting firm. 

Federal officials point out 
that bankruptcies happen in 
any competitive market They 
also note that license auctions 
have long taken place in the 
United States. They were pri- 
vate — the government never 
saw any of tee money. People 
and companies who had won 
free licenses would quickly put 
them up for sale, in many cases 
before offering even a day's 
worth of- service. Speculators 
reaped millions. 

Now the FCC holds the gav- 
el. Companies compete under 
elaborate rules in which round 
after round of electronic bid- 
ding is held until the price 
ceases to go up. Bidders use 
elaborate computer modeling 
and hire “game theorists” to 
try to second-guess what com- 
petitors wDl do. 

Winners are meant to build 

on the wireless revolution that 
began a decade ago with tee 
introduction of cellular 

S hones. Lying ahead, the in- 
ustry promises, arc pagers 
that can send as well as receive, 
pocket phones light and cheap 
enough for virtually everyone 
to carry, perhaps even hand- 
held terminals that can send 
and receive video signals. 

The market is seen as so big 
that officials are taking special 
steps to help small companies 
and ones owned by women and 
minorities win a substantial 
stake in it. 

So far tee results on this pol- 
icy are mixed. In July, compa- 
nies owned by women and mi- 
norities won dose to two- 
thirds of 594 local licenses to 
offer interactive television ser- 
vices for borne shopping. But 
many experts see that type of 
service as having tee most 
questionable future. 

In bidding for national pag- 
ing licenses, the winners were 
all large, familiar names — 
AT&T, BellSouth Core., Pag- 
ing Network Inc, Mobile Tele- 
communications Technology 

Whoever they are, winners 
could find the market they are 
entering to be murderously 

competitive. At present, U.S. 
communities have only two- 
rrfiniar phone services and a 
number of paging services. The 1 
pla n is to double or even triple _ 
the volume of wireless services' 
in each U.S. market The auc-' 
tions would add up to six more 
phone and other wireless ser- 
vices in each. 

In view of these tides, predicts 

David Yedwab, a vice president 
at the t flifc o rnTmimcati ans con- 
sulting company Fas* 6 * -0 Man- 
agement Group, some of the li- 
censes “are going to go unbid, 

unfulfilled and imtaril L” 

Those that are built may 
struggle for customers. Existing 
cellular co m pa n ies, fey insta nc e, 
have full coverage of their com- 
munities. The new co m p ani e s 
wfll start with networks that of- - 
fer only partial coverage, an em- 
barrassing gap for services that 
supposedly let people comm uni- 
cate anytime, anywhere. 

Some analysts conclude that 
the licenses will prove valuable, 
but in many cases not for years. 
Companies that ultimately suc- 
ceed, Mr. Lucas says, will need 
“very deep pockets, patience 
and infrastructure.*’ 

JOHN BURGESS is a reporter 
for The Washington Past. 



re • 





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ic ' 


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D I 



















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CUSIXXKKIZE a a ii^ Con^nutn 

p. : Page 22 



] Kickers’ Duel 


Ends With Bears 
Beating Cards 

The Associated Press 

Kevin Butler kicked the Chi- 
cago Bears right into first place 
in the National Football Con- 
ference Central Division. 

“It coutd have been Greg Da- 
vis or me there at the end; either 
one of us could have done it,"' 
Butler said Sunday after his 
fourth field goal of the day, a 
2 7-yard er with 6:49 left in over- 


time, ended his duel with the 
Arizona kicker and gave Chica- 
go a 19-16 victory oyer the Car- 
dinals in Tempe, Arizona. 

The Bears (8-4), who learned 
during the game that Tampa 
Bay had beaten the Vikings, 
took over sole possession of the 
division lead heading into a 
Thursday game at Minnesota. 

Arizona (5-7) needs to win its 
Iasi four games to finish above 
.500 under its first-year coach. 
Buddy Ryan. 

The Cardinals seemed out of 
it until defensive end Keith 
McCants batted a pass by Steve 
Walsh, pulled it down and lum- 
bered 46 yards to score with 
7:36 left and cut Chicago's lead 
to 16-15. 

After Arizona's defense 
forced a three-and-out. Jay 
Schroeder led a 13-play drive 
that ended in Davis's game-ty- 
ing 47-yard field goal with 58 
seconds left, his thud. 

Davis then squibbed the 
kickoff, it hit Chicago's Bob 
Christian and Teny Irving of 
the Cardinals recovered it on 
his own 45. But the Bears held 
at midfield and time ran out. 

- ’■ •reived the over- 

;:rr.c but had to punt 

after one first down. A pair of 
6-yard passes to Greg 

McMurtxy and Jeff Graham 
preceded a 44-yard Walsh-to- 
Graham bomb that moved the 
ball to the 20. 

Lewis Tillman carried twice 
for 5 yards, and a penalty on 
Arizona's Michael Bankston 
moved the ball to the 10 for 
Butler’s winning field goal. 

He connected from 3S, 52 
and 31 yards earlier, offsetting 
Davis’s field goals of 49 and 22 
yards before the tying kick. 

Chargers 33, Rams 17: San 
Diego's Darrien Gordon had a 
75-yard punt return for a touch- 
down and an acrobatic end- 
zone interception. His fellow 
corner back Sean Vanhorse 
sealed the victory for San Diego 
(9-3) over visiting Los Angeles 
(4-8) with a 50-yard intercep- 
tion return for a touchdown 
with 51 seconds left. 

SteeJers21, Raiders 3: In Los 
Aqgdes, there was no need for 
Pittsburgh's defense to bail out 
its offense. Not even on Gary 
Anderson's worst day. 

Pittsburgh (9-3) scored three 
offensive TDs, equaling the to- 
tal it scored in the previous five 
games, and the defense held Los 
Angeles (6-6) to 179 total yards 
and recorded five sacks. 

Anderson, 20-for-21 on field 
goals ottering the game, missed 
three attempts. 

Seahawks 10, Chiefs 9: The 
Seahawks (5-7) scored all 10 of 
their points in the fourth quar- 
ter against Kansas City (7-5) 
after Joe Montana left the game 
with a foot injury in Seattle. 
The winning points came on 
John Kasa/s 32-yard field goal 
with 1:42 left. 

The Chiefs initially said 
Montana had a sprained left 
foot No update was released 
after X-rays were taken. 


Lsanj [gpctB/Tbc i 

The Rams’ Roman Phifer ftwlclmg the Chargers' Natrone Means, who rushed for 95 yards in die victory in San Diego. 

No Greying of the U.S. 
As B.C. Wins 

Upnpuca ty vw ■ — t- — — 

Ch ^ l ^thiffo < SriSh Columbia, we won it for the city, of 
Vanamvo; we won it for Canada," said the B.C. lineman Ian 

40 who in 19 years in the CFL became the 
league’s afl-time leading scorer. missed a 37-yarder 67 
brands left, but Baltimore regamed the ball on its own two 
yaid line and was forced to punt after a short run and an 
incomplete pass by Tracy Ham. . . t ... • . . ■ 

Baltimore, an expansion team playing with all American 
players, made a mtical error in the fourth quarter when 
quarterback Tracy Ham fumbled at the B.G 1-yard line and 
Tony Collier recovered for the Lions. . 

Baltimore was the first American team to reach the champi- 
onship game. The Lions are the firet team to win champi- 
onship at home since Montreal in 1977. It was the third Grey 
■'"up championship for the Lions. 

Baltimore took a 20-10 lead 4:34 into the second half when 

. t i :1 M 'IjC-iracd OAfll Vlllt K C* 

Donald Igwebuike "kicked a 26-yard field goal but B.C. 
stormed back behind Danny McMantif 

• ! 1 T 7 • A l.i. tLa tirve ho 

ms, who came in for the . 
injured Kent Austin late in the first half. “ 

McManus scored on a one-yard run with just oyer five 
minutes remaining in the third quarter to cut the deficit to 20- 
17 and Passagha added a 42-yard field goal with 52 seconds 
left in the third to tie the game at 20-20. 

A 27-yarder by Passaglia 3:09 into the fourth quarter gave 
B.C a 23-20 lead, but Igwebuike booted a 29-yarder 5: 17 later 
to tie the score for the final time. (Ratters. AP) 

Giants 21, Redskins 19: The 
Giants (5-7) won their second 
straight as Dave Brown passed 
for two TDs and ran for anoth- 
er in the rain in Washington. 

The Redskins (2-10) scored 

on four field goals by Chip Lob- 
60-yard fumble re- 

rnffler and a . 

turn by Martin Bayless. 

Broncos 15, Bengals 13: In 
Denver, John Sway threw a 16- 
yard touchdown pass to Antho- 
ny Miller and Jason Elam 
kicked three field goals as the 
Broncos (6-6) reached .500 for 
the first time this season. 

The test chance ended for the 
Bengals (2-10) when they Tum- 
bled deep in Denver territory 
with 3:36 left. 

Patriots 22, Colts 10: Matt 
Bahr kicked four field goals and 

Drew Bledsoe set a single-sea- 
son team passing-yardage re- 
cord as visiting New England 
(6-6) moved into a three-way tie 
for second in the AFC East. 
Indianapolis fell to 5-7. 

In earlier games ; reported 
Monday in some editions of the 
Herald Tribune: 

Browns 34, Oilers 10: In 
Cleveland, Vinny Testaverde 
played a full game for the first 
time in six weeks and threw two 
TD passes, and Leroy Hoard 
rushed 23 times for 103 yards 
and two touchdowns for the 
Browns (9-3). Houston (Ml) 
lost its eighth straight 
Buccaneers 20, Vikings 17: A 
zreat comeback led bv Warren 

Moon went for naught against 

Tampa Bay in Minneapol 

Moon threw a 40-yard TD 
pass to Qadry Ismail on fourth- 
and-long with 1:27 left, then 
tossed a 2-point pass to Cos 
Carter to tie it. Bnt in overtime, 
Eric Guliford botched a punt 
return and the Bugs recovered 
to set up a 22-yard field goal by 
Michael Husted. Tampa Bay 
(3-9) snapped a six-game losing 
streak and sent Minnesota (7-5) 
to its third loss in a row. 

Falcons 28, Eagles 21: Jeff 
George threw for 364 yards and 
combined with Terance Mathis 
on two touchdown passes, help- 
ing offset a 9 1 -yard TD run by 
Herschd Walker in Atlanta. 

The Falcons (6-6) staved in 
the crowded race for wild-card 
spots. Philadelphia (7-5) lost its 
third straight. 

Dolphins 28, Jets 24: In East 
Rutherford, New Jersey, Dan 
Marino used a new trick in 
leading Miami (8-4) to a come- 
from-behind victory over New 
York (6-6) in the fourth quarter 
for the 29th time in his career. 

T railin g 24-21. the Dolphins 
were moving downfidd behind 
Marino's precision passes. 
When they got to the Jets' 8, the 
Dolphins ran to the line of 
scrimmage and Marino, fight- 
ing the noise at the crowd, gave 
a hand signal that seemed to 
indicate he would spike the ball 
to stop the dock. 

Instead, he fired a pass to the 
from comer of the end zone, 
and Mark. Ingram caught it be- 
fore defensive back Kerry 
Glenn turned around 


Watson Wins Skins Title in Playoff 

PALM DESERT, California (Reuters) — Tom Watson sank a 
20-foot, S 160,000 birdie putt on the first extra hole to capture the 
overall sMna Game title with a two-day total of six skins and 
5210,000 at the Bighorn Golf Cub. 

Watson, who just missed a birdie putt on the par-four 18th bole, 
hit a seven-iron to within 20 feet (6 meters) to the right of the hole 
before knocking in the putt worth four skins on Sunday. Paul 
Arfnggr needed two putts from 20 feet, Payne Stewart left his 
birdie putt 4 feet short and Fred Couples slid his birdie attempt to 
the right of the hole. 

Ski Races May Be Moved to Tignes 

BASEL, Switzerland (Reuters) —Men’s World Cup alpine skiing 
races postponed at the Italian resort of Sestriere during the weekend 
because of lack of snow may be held in the high French resort erf 
Tignes, t he International Skiing Federation said on Monday. 

“The situation in Europe is a 


NFL Standings 

Green Bov 
Tampa Bov 

«01MC*N«bMFER£NCE - 










M3 380227 

N.Y. Jd5 





228 233 






255 253 






745 266 


5 7 



M7 243 2SB 











213 172 






246 148 






201 283 


1 11 



167 245 






t.n Dle«u 





271 209 

— KJJ C'tv 





224 215 

"• -I .W 





247 284 

=»-s der- 





230 262 






227 226 

6 6 
a t 
3 9 

W L 

San Francisco 9 2 

•A Manta .... t> a 

New Orleans 4 7 

LA Rams 4 I 

-500 256214 
300 244 258 
250 165 268 

318 226 213 
JOT 256-279 
264 228 285 
233 223 259 

Sunday's Games 
Cleveland 34. Houston 10 
Miami 28. n.Y. Jets 2* 

Atlanta 28, Philadelphia 21 
Tampa Bov 2a Minnesota IX OT 
Chicago 19, Arizona 16, OT 
Denver 15. Cincinnati 13 
Seattle ML Kansas City 9 
San Dleoa 31. LA Rams 17 
N.Y. Giants 21. Washington 1* 
Pittsburgh 21, LA Raiders 3 
New England 12. Indkmanolls 10 

9. Auburn 




ML Colorado SI. 




11. Kansas SI. 




12. Oreoon 




13. Ohio SI. 




U, Utah 




tl Arizona ■ 

H A 



16. Mteslsslpoi SI. 




17. Virginia Tech 




18. North Carolina 




19. Virginia 




20. Michigan 




21. Southern Cal 




22. BrHtaam Young 




23. N. Carolina SI. 




24. wasMtstan SI. 




25. Duke 




Central Division 

The AP Top 25 

Others receiving vein: Tennessee 67, 
Washington 46, Boston College 43. Notre 
Dame 40. Syracuse 74, West Virginia ML HU- 
notes. Wisconsin 7. Baylor 5, Central Michigan 
3, Texas Terfi 1 Texas 1, Texas Christian I. 


The Toe Twenty Five teams at The Associ- 
ated Frees atone football pea. with first- 
Place voles la Panameses, records through 
Nov. 26, total points based an 25 petals for a 
flrsf-fMace vote through ana point far a 2Stb- 


7 4 



7 5 



7 5 



6 6 


Cnor lotto 

5 4 


.Milwaukee . 

S. 4 .,>S5 


4 8 


Mktwcst DlrlsJan 

W L Pet 


» 3 



B S 



6 4 



6 5 


San Antonia 

5 4 



1 n 

Pacific Division 



9 3 


Golden State 

7 5 


LA Lakers 

7 5 



7 5 



6 S 



5 5 


LA Clippers 

0 12 





2 . 






Rebounds New Jersey 48 (Coleman 151. 
Phoenix S2 (MaJerte.Green 111. assists— N ew 
Jersey 2/ (Andersen 91, Phoenix 31 iPerrv73. 
Utah 1* 22 26 27-94 

Sacrame nt o 27 19 23 26— tf 

u: Motor* 10-225-7 25. Homocelc 7-9 3-S 19; 
S : JVcbmatt) . 924 W. 

RebaoMts— Utah 54 (Benoit, tviatone Ml. Sac- 
ramento 40 (Fotytilce 11). Assists— Utah 20 
(Stockton 9), Sacramento a (Webb 6). 
Indiana 22 19 2t 22— If 

Portland 21 30 29 25-9* 

I : Miller 7-12 2-2 20. Smite 7-11 5-7 19: P: 

C Robinson 6-14 24 17, Williams B-tl 0-2 16. 
Relxxrods— Indiana 40 (DXJovtsM). Port land 
<9 (Dudley 13). Assists — Indiana 21 (McKey 
71, Portland 25 (Drexler SI. 

- Major College Scores 







Consolation Brocket 
: Kinds SI. SZ K. :cwa 72 
Niagara 76. HOwaB-HIlB 71 

First Round 

Neva Mexico 122. Stephen FAostin 105 
.Texas Sauttxnl'ZS. SdhT'.'drMsco B6 
- "" danaptoasbie 
i mnais tSaWtinta Tech 75 
TWnJ Place 

Nebraska 74, Cog, ct Charleston 72 
Cooiolatton Bracket 
Mcnicna si. SO, American U- P.R. 75 
Alc..Birm!cshara BS. NE Louisianu 67 
Hawaii W. Seftm Had as 

Third Place 

S. Illinois 74 St. Banevent w e 72 

den, I;41 58; 9, Lei la Placard. France. 1:41.91; 
10 Aimellse Coberecr. New Zealand. 1:4201. 

Overall World Cup stomUmn: I, vrenl 
Schneider. 160 paints; Z HeWi ZeOer-Baehler. 
SwflierkBKL 100; 3JWarlannr Kloersiad.81 ; 4. 
(tie) Martino Accotc. 80. Sabina FtmamlnL 6. (fte) Krtefloa AndramHiMcr- . 
tina EtU Germany. «; B. (lie) Blrall Haeb.- 
LtochtcnstMn40,PernlIto WBiera, 50:10, (tlel 
Beatrice FWtol 45. Patrleto Chauvet, 45, Leila 
Piccard. 45. 

disaster,” a FIS spokesman 
said. “Tignes is the only resort 
on the Continent that can host 
races in decent conditions. , 

A slalom and giant slalom 
were postponed at Sestriere. If 
weather conditions do not im- 
prove^ he added, tBedrcuft.inay 
move to North America. A 
downhill and a super-g sched- 
uled for next weekend in Val 
d’Isfere, France, alsohave been 


England w Australia. 4th dor 

MiwiilQT in BrtsDaBR 

Australia 2d mninm: 348-8 (doctored! 
England 2d Irnilnaa: ZI1-2 

For the Record 

NBA Standings 

Dallas > 
N.T. Giants 



W L T 

io 2 a 

7 3 D 

5 7 0 

5 7 0 

2 10 0 


W L T 

8 4 0 

7 3 0 

Pc*. PF PA 
533 335 779 

Mace vote, and ranking In the previous pall: 

Recant Pts pv 

Atlantic DtetahM 

583 243 214 

1. Nebraska (38) 








.417 205 249 

Z Perm SI. (231 








417 154 223 

X Alabama (1) 




Now York 





.167 24* 331 

4. Miami 









5. Cofmodp 




New Jersey 





Pd. PF PA 

6. Florida 









467 217 208 

7. Florida SL 









583 262 215 

8 Texas ASM 










GoWon Stale 15 2S 43 13 — 9T 

Detroit 25 M 25 32— IH 

G: Guoliottu 8-15 1-4 18, Hantawav 6-17 3-4 
19; D: Hill 8-16 56 71. Mills 7-18 4-4 20, Dumars 
8-20 3-5 21. Rebounds— Go Men State 60 (Gua- 
Hoha 131. Detroit 61 (Ml l Its 14). AsstefwGoid- 
an State 24 (Jennings 7), Detroll 25 (tiawk his 
8 ). 

New Jersey 28 23 » Z7— JW 

Phoenix 32 « 29 23—115 

N: Coleman 9-20 11-14 30, Anderson 9-17 64 
27; P: Malertc 9-20 5-5 26. Person 11-17 04 26. 


Canhius 80, St. Francis. Pa 62 
New Hampshire 104. Hotetra 97 

Arkansas 97. Georgetown 79 
Temple 6& Southern Cal 54 
Tennessee 74, Tennessee Tech 54 

Ewsvllle 61 w. Michigan 51 
Notre Dame 77, Valparaiso 69 
St Louis 66 Bradley 39 

..-.■i. szr .- in 1: - •■rl 

World Cup Skiing 

Sooth Africa vs. New Zealand, «h dor 
Monday, to Jo hocne shorg 
New Zeatond 2d innings: 194 (all out) 
South Africa 2d Innings: 128-2 



Purdue 88, Iowa St 87, OT 
Third Place 

Va Commanwoatth 65. New Orleans 62 

Results Sunday oftnr the WomenY World 
Cop Slalom, held on the Oemeattae coarse 
with <3 gates on the Hnt ran aoa 0 gates on 
me second ran. srttb name, country and total 
Hum for both runs; 

1. Vrenl Schneider. Switzerland. 1 minute. 
3953 seconds; 2. Mart too Accoia. Switzerland. 
1 :4058.a Krtsttoa Andersson. Sweden. 1 C4KLB7. 
4. Femffla Wtoera. Sweden. !:4E70; £ (He) 
Beatrice FHIW, France, l;4a9£ Patrlda 
Chauvet, Franca, 1 :4US; 7, Marianne Ktoer- 
s tad. Norway, 1:41.42; 6 nttl Rodllng. Sne- 

inter Milan 1, AC Parma 1 
Staudtags: Parma 24 palms. Juventui 23, 
narantfna 22, Lotto Zl, Romo 28, Bart ip, Fog- 
ala 17, CagQatl l65amPdoria ILInter V4, AC 
Milan 13, CremoneM 12. Torino 11. Genoa 11, 
Napoli II- Padova 6 Brescia 1 Reggiona 3 

Peter Scfemeicbel, 31, Man- 
chester United’s goalkeeper, 
will be out of action for up to 
six more weeks with a back in- 
jury. (Reuters) 

The National Hockey League 
and its locked-oui players are 
expected to meet by midweek, 
likely in Boston, although no 
formal communication between 
the two rides has confirmed the 
date and place. Talks ended af- 
ter a half-hour on Saturday 
when the players asked for time 
to regroup. (AP) 










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"HeU, Ben, you catch a few bullets through your 

hat during every holdup, and I'm finally gonna 
say l ain't ever been much impressed.'' 

»-**». S T .?• • '*■ 


' Hoyas Fall 
To Vengeful 

The Associated Press 

MEMPHIS, Tennessee — 
Nolan Richardson is ready to 
make a permanent reservation 
for die Martin Luther King 

His top-ranked Arkansas Ra- 
zorbacks beat No. 14 George- 
town, 97-79, on Sunday in what 
was more tike a home game 
than what the Black Coaches 
Association hopes is an annual 

“m. play this here every 
year,” Richardson said. 

The Razorbacks {]-!), the 
first national champs to return 
five starters since UCLA in 
1967, rebounded from a 104-80 
loss to third-ranked Massachu- 
setts on Friday night. 

. “We looked at this game as a 
blest of our manhood,” said the 
'Arkansas forward Corliss Wil- 
liamson. “There was no sulking 
or a chance for pointing fingers 
after losing to UMass. 

Williamson, who looked out 
of synch against UMass, re- 
hounded with 22 points, 16 re- 
bounds and sis assists. 

“Maybe we needed to gel 
, slapped in the face the way 
UMass did to us." Williamson 
said. “Everybody had been try- 
ing to do it by themselves, and 
that's not what we did last year. 
Now we're playing like a team. 1 
was tentative the other night and 
coach talked to me about that ” 
Scotty Thurman and Clint 
McDaniel had 16 points each 
for Arkansas, while Reggie 
Garrett added IS. 

“Anybody that didn't expect 
Arkansas to come back like they 
did is a fool” said Georgetown’s 
coach, John Thompson. “They 
were national champions and 
are an excellent team. They got 
humbled a bit and came bock. 
When 1 saw Nolan's face yester- 
day I said, * 011 , bell.* I knew." 

The freshman Allen Iverson, 
who averaged 37.5 points in the 
Hoyas* two exhibition games, 
was 5-for-lS from the field with 
eight turnovers against Arkan- 
sas. Iverson had 19 points, 
£hile George Butler added 17. 

Arkansas didn't wait long to 
take control against George- 
town (0-1). The Hoyas led 17-15 
when Garrett keyed a 15-3 run 
that made il30-20 wi th 8:51 left 
in the first half . Garrett, a trans- 
fer from the University of New 
Orleans, hit two jumpers and a 
layup during the run as George- 
town missed five shots and 
turned the ball over twee. 

Top Swimmer Among 11 Chinese 
Said to Fail Asia Games DrugTests 

.. f'Sf.rmz- 

Scull Tinvaiw-w Thr AwHincd Press 

Phoenix's Dan Majerle snatching the ball away front Derrick Coleman of the Nets. With 
Charles Barkley back on the bench, Danny Manning led the Suns to a 115-110 victory. 

Manning Steps In to Lift Suns 

The Associated Press 

The Phoenix Suns didn't 
have Charles Barkley — again. 
Instead, Danny Manning took 
center stage — again. 

“Every night we have some- 
body else step up.** said Man- 
ning. who scored ID of his 18 


points in the fourth quarter of 
the Suns' 115-110 victory over 
New Jersey on Sunday night in 
Phoenix. “We have a lot of guys 
who can go out and play and be 
very versatile. I think we can 
hold the fort until they can 
come back." 

Barkley was back on the 
bench with a sore abdominal 
muscle. No matter. 

'With Manning, averaging 20 
points, leading the fourth-quar- 
ter surge. Phoenix captured its 
third consecutive game. 

Kenny Anderson's layup 
capped a 31-12 run that put 
New Jersey in front 102-101, its 

first lead since the opening min- 
ute of the second quarter. 

That's when Manning took 
over. He converted a three- 
poinl play and sank two more 
free throws, all in a 25-second 
span. That keyed a 7-2 run ibaL 
gave the Suns a 108-104 lead 
with 2:51 to play. 

While he was only 2-for-7 
from the floor in the final quar- 
ter, Manning hit five of seven 
free throws and made up for the 
scoring droughts of Dan Ma- 
jerle and Wesley Person, who 
each scored 26 points in the first 
three periods, but were held 
scoreless in the fourth quarter. 

Derrick Coleman scored 30 
points, while Anderson added 
27 points and nine assists for 
the Nets;- who lost for the.sev- 
enth time in nine road games. 

Pistons 106, Warriors 91: 
Grant Hill and Joe Dumars 
scored 21 points each as Detroit 
handed Golden State its fourth 
straight loss, all on the road. 

The Pistons blew a 21 -point 
lead in the third quarter, then 
outscored the Warriors 32-13 in 
the fourth period, including a 
24-5 streak, to win the game. 

Terry Mills had 20 points and 
14 rebounds for Detroit. Tim 
Hardaway scored 19 and Tom 
Gugilotla* 18 for the Warriors. 

Trail Blazers 99, Pacers 89: 
Clyde Drexler snapped out of a 
game-long shooting slump and 
scored nine fourth-quarter 
points as Portland snapped vis- 
iting Indiana's four-game win- 
ning streak. 

Clifford Robinson led the 
wav with 17 points, while Buck 
Williams bad 16 and Drexler 15 
for the Blazers. 

Reggie Miller scored 20 and 
Rik Smits. despite foul trouble, 
had 19 for the Pacers, who were 
playing the opener of a four- 
game West Coast trip. 

The Pacers, who had 23 turn- 
overs, attempted a team record- 
low of 59 fidd goals. 

FIFA and France at Odds Over ’98 Site 

Compiled tr Chtr Staff From Dispatches 

PARIS — Joao Havdange, president 
of world soccer’s governing body, FIFA, 
suggested Monday that Strasbourg be 
added as a host city for the 1998 world 
Cup. irritating French organizers, who 
have completed their selection of venues 
for the tournament. 

Havelange said after meeting organiz- 
ers that Strasbourg had symbolic impor- 
tance because it bordered Germany and 
was home to the European Parliament 

His comment at a news conference, 
clearly annoyed French officials, who 
after a p ainstaking selection process 
omitted Strasbourg from the final list of 
10 dries to host matches in 1998. 

“For us, the dossier is dosed; there’s 
no question of any changes whatsoever, 
said Francois Kosdusko-Monzet, gov- 
ernment liaison to the organizers. 

“If Strasbourg was added, we'd have 
to eliminate another dty,” he added. 

The dries chosen to host the 64 final- 
round matches are Bordeaux. Lens. 
Lyon, Marseille, Montpellier, Nantes, 
Paris, Saint- Etienne, Toulouse and the 
Paris suburb of Saint-Denis, where a new 
stadium is being built to accommodate 
the opening and dosing matches. 

Havdange suggested that the number 
of host dues could be increased to 12. 

But he failed to convince Michel Pla- 
tini. the former French star who is head 

of the organizing committee. 

“I cannot see how we could go back to 
Strasbourg." Platini said. “For me,- it is 
out of the question. Local politicians 
should have made their decision earlier.” 

Strasbourg dty officials had expressed 
doubts about their ability to raise the 
funds needed to convert the local stadi- 

um to World Cup standards. Mein a u 
Stadium has 17.000 seals and standing 
room for 24,000, while FIFA requires at 
least 40,000 seats for a World Cup venue. 

(AP. Reuters) 

■ FA Extends GrobbeJaar Deadline 
The Zimbabwean goalkeeper Bruce 
Grobbclaar on Monday was granted 
more time by England’s Football Associ- 
ation to answer allegations that he had 
taken bribes to fix Premier League 
matches, Reuters reported from London. 

The FA originally gave the Southamp- 
ton player 14 days, ending on Monday, 
to submit evidence in his defense. 

“Both sides agreed an extension is desir- 
able, partly because of the complexity of 
gatheri ng material.'’ an FA spokesman 
said. “There is no new deadline but obvi- 
ously we would expect something to start 
moving in the next couple of weeks.” 



Ftecord player 
Retrieve. as lly 



»4 The King s 
middle name 

is Deal (with) 

16 Forgo 

17 Bach's ‘ in 

B Minor' 


caram jachf 

ib Place tor Pete? 
20 Part ol a radio 

22 Group ot nine 

23 Blockaded 

24 One-liner 

25 Fraternity tetter 

26 Kind of cue 
26 Con artist's 


32 Thai money 
34 'Easy Aces' 

35 Raps 

36 Annie 



si Doing a rakeofl 

38 Canadian prov. 

39 Upper cut’ 

41 Spirited 

42 Regarding 

43 “Dallas' actor 

44 Dmer sign 

45 “ Doubttire' 

48 Ousted 
4 a Argentine 
51 Seasonal 
5490 arc 
56 Place (or 

59 “ . Brule?” 

59 Like some 

60 Actress Merrill 

61 A whole lot 

62 Make t he air 

S3 Call from the 

' &4 Unnamed onps 


1 Radical Mideast 

2 Shiran native 

3 Place for Jodie 7 

4 Discernment 

5 Young haddock 

6 Ruffian 

7 Semicircular 
church section 

a Si 000. slangily 

9 Ritzy 

to Showing 

11 Noton target 

12 Part ol the eye 

13 Hang m the 

19 Science course 

21 Prefix with 

24 Nightclubs 

26 Port Moresby 

27 Pindar, e.g. 

29 Place for Ben? 

so “ — We Got 


31 Marquand sleuth 

32 Trunk cover 

33 Direction for Softi 

34 Andrew 

40 Carpentry 

42 Antimacassar 

45 Epithet lor 
Anthony Wayne 

47 Malory s'Le 

a Arthur 

48 Hymn of praise 

49 Archnectural 

Pude by Bcmtca Gordon 

York Twites/ Edited hr Will Shortz. 

Solution to Puzzle of Nov. 28 

50 Book-lined 

51 Like Homer's 


52 Missing 

53 Verdon ol "Red 

3*“Jeopardy , "is 


55 Annapolis 

57 Ladies' loom, ot 
a sort 


ana maa assa „ 

seas sans 



EjEianj unwia 

□ana aaa cias 



[□a onaa 


Compiled br Our Staff Ftwh Dispatihcs 

TOKYO — The Chinese swimmer Lu 
Bin, who won four golds and two silvers 
last month at the Asian Games, was one of 
1 1 Chinese athletes who tested positive for 
drugs at the Games, the Kyodo news agen- 
cy reported on Monday. 

Kyodo. quoting sources at the Olympic 
Council of Asia, said eight of the athletes 
who tested positive were swimmers. 

Lu set a world record in Lhe 200-meter 
individual medley at the Games on Oct. 7. 
She also won gold medals in the 50-meter 
freestyle and in two relays, and won silver 
medals in the 100-meter freestyle and 100- 
meter backstroke. 

At the World Championships in Rome 
in September, Lu won the 200 individual 
medley plus two relay golds and finished 
second in the 100- and 200-meter freestyle 

Kyodo said the world 400-meter free- 
style champion, Yang Aihua. who had al- 
ready been banned for two years by FINA. 
the sport’s world governing body, was also 
one of the eight swimmers. 

It said the three other positive tests in- 
volved a track and field athlete, a cyclist 
and a canoeist. 

Dr. Yoshio Kuroda, who supervised the 
final set or tests conducted in Tokyo on 
Saturday, confirmed that high testosterone 

levels were found in both A and B samples 
for some athletes. 

A formal hearing of the Olympic Coun- 
cil of Asia’s medical committee, which 
Kuroda chairs, must be held before results 
of the tests can be made public. Such a 
meeting could come within the next week. 

Earlier Monday, Muttaleb Ahmad, direc- 
tor-general of the council, said he had been 
informed that 1 1 Chinese had tested posi- 
tive but declined to identify the athletes or 
say in which events they had competed. 

He said final tests would be carried out 
to confirm the findings. 

“We expect a final and official report on 
this situation to reach us by the end of 
tomorrow and only then can the OCA 
make an official statement on this matter,” 
he said Monday. 

An official in the information section of 
China’s National Sports Commission in 
Beijing said: “We have not received any 
notification from the Olympic Council of 
Asia, so we cannot make any comment.” 

In Lausanne, FINA said it had no infor- 
mation on any positive tests. 

“We have not received any information 
from the organizers of the Asian Games.” 
said FINA’s director. Cornel Marculeseu. 
“1 1 is up to them to take a decision first and 
then to inform us. but we have no informa- 
tion yet.” 

Last week, FINA banned Yang after she 
tested positive for excessive levels of tes- 
tosterone. She was tested just before the 
Asian Games, on Sept. 30. 

Yang won the 400-meter freestyle at the 
World Championships in September, part 
of a Chinese onslaught that stunned the 
sport. Chinese women won 12 of the 16 
golds at slake and set five world, records. 

Although they did not name China, 
more than a dozen coaches at the champi- 
onships lodged a formal complaint over 
doping in the sport and requested stricter 
tests. That led to the surprise testing just 
before the Asian Games began OcL 2. 

FINA officials said the results of those 
tests indicated possible drug use among 
several other Chinese women swimmers, 
but were inconclusive. 

Chinese authorities said Yang's action 
was an isolated case and denied charges 
that Chinese athletes practiced systematic 
use of performance-enhancing drugs. 

Five Chinese swimmers have failed dop- 
ing tests over the past two years — equal- 
ing the total number of athletes from other 
countries that have tested positive in 
FINA tests over the past 22 years. 

Yang is at least the 34th Chinese athlete 
to flunk a doping test since 1987. Chinese 
officials acknowledge that 24 of their ath- 
letes tested positive last year. 

f Reuters, AP) 





on Page 5 



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Page 24 



Bring On the GuiUotine 




W ASHINGTON — The dif- 
ference between this elec- 
tion and others is that the Re- 
iblicans are threatening to 
}ld war-crime trials against 
the president and members of 
his party. 

The winners — Newt Ging- 
rich, Alfonse D’ Amato and Jes- 
se Helms, 
among others 
— all want to 
bring members 
of the opposi- 
tion to justice 
either by de- 
manding a 
public hanging 
on the Mall or 
a firing squad 
with ammuni- 
tion supplied 
by the National Rifle Associa- 

A GOP law-enforcement of- 
ficer toJd me, M We wish to hold 
the equivalent of the Nurem- 
berg trials and have the Demo- 
crats face charges of increasing 
the budget deficit, pouring 
money down welfare sewers, 
appointing liberal justices to 
the Supreme Court and waf- 
fling on prayer in schools. We 
will not let them get away with 
any crimes committed inside 
the Capital Beltway.” 

“What proof do you have on 
any of this?” 1 asked. 

Picasso Portrait 
Sold at Auction 

A genre France -Prcsse 

P ARIS — An unidentified 
foreign buyer bought a Pi- 
casso canvas. “Le Portrait de 
Madame H. P.,” at auction for 
more than 20 million francs 
(S3.7 million). 

The work, dates from 1952 
and depicts H616ne Parmelin, 
the wife of the painter Edouard 

The oil -on-plywood paint- 
ing was given by Picasso to his 
colleague for his 50th birthday. 

“We have a sample of DNA 
from Teddy Kennedy's stom- 
ach." _ 

“That could be very damag- 
ingj* I admitted. 

The prosecutor said, “X have 
no problem proving that Clin- 
ton was driving a white Bronco 
when he campaigned for Mario 
Cuomo in New York.” 

“That’s aQ Alfonse D’ Amato 
needs,” I told him. 


“This is the first time the Re- 
publican Party seezns so vindic- 
tive about punishing the oppo- 
sition. After all. the GOP won 
— shouldn't they be happy?” 

“You don’t forgive Demo- 
crats who voted in favor of 
abortion rights. Head Stan and 
higher taxes for the upper-in- 
come brackets. If the Republi- 
cans looked the other way, the 
Denis could challenge us in 
1996. The best thing is to cutoff 
their heads — even if it means 
borrowing a guillotine from 

“I know this is a silly ques- 
tion, but if the GOP spends so 
much time avenging themselves 
against the Democrats, bow will 
they fulfill their ‘contract with 

“We’ll sequester both houses 
until the Republican co mmi t-', 
tees find the Democrats guilty. 
The voters don't care about new 
legislation — they want to see 
the GOP bora down the White 


“Besides the political rhetoric , 
of the campaign, what other ev- 
idence do you have that the 
Democrats have committed 
crimes in the same league as 

“Newt Gingrich found a 
glove on the White House lawn 
that could have been dropped 
there on Election Day. If IrA- 
mato can prove that it belongs 
to Hillary Clinton, his case 
_ tinst Whitewater 

The Anatomy of a Suicide Haunts Oxford 

By John Damton 

New York Tima Service 

L ONDON — The sentence could 
have been written by Edgar Allan 
Poe or Fyodor Dostoyevsky, the way 
it summons the unspeakable in a cold- 
ly confessional tone: “But it was clear 
to me by now that Trevor and the 
college must somehow be separated. 
My problem was one which I fed 
compelled to define with brutal can- 
dor. how to kill him without getting 
into trouble.” 

The words were not written by a 
poet trawling the depths of the sub- 
conscious, and they are not fiction. 
They are from a newly published 
autobiography of Sir Kenneth Dover, 
one of the world’s most renowned 
classicists. And they describe a series 
of events that preceded the suicide of 
a troublesome colleague at Oxford 
nine years ago. 

How much responsibility — if any 
— Sir Kenneth bears for the death of 
Trevor Aston, a brilliant but erratic 
historian, is a matter of public debate 
now that Sir Kenneth’s unconvention- 
al autobiography, “Marginal Com- 
ment,” has hit the bookstores. Ex- 
cerpts were carried in Sunday’s British 

The chapter dealing with Aston’s 
suicide from pills and alcohol in Octo- 
ber Z9S5 at the age of 60 stands as a 
modem morality tale. Some see it as 
the stray of Sir Kenneth, who was the 
president of Corpus Chris ti College, 
Oxford, defending his ancient and be- 
loved institution by dealing firmly 
with a don who had become unman- 
ageable because of alcoholism and 
seeming men tal illness. 

Others see it as a case in which the 
president — fed up with all the prob- 
lems and aware of the don’s despon- 
dency and a recent suicide attempt — 
pushed him to the brink by writing a 
letter expressing the college's disap- 
proval of Aston's conduct at a time 
when ins marriage was collapsing and 
he was particularly vulnerable. 

Even those closely involved in the 
problems Aston was causing admit to 
being shocked by the icy detachment 
of the language and, apparently, the 
feelings of Sir Kenneth, a scholar 
whose works on ancient Greece are 
read by students throughout the 

Sir Kenneth Dover’s autobiography has shocked many colleagues. 

world. He has retired and is now 74, 
and lives in Fife, Scotland. 

“The intellectual normally values 
reason above all,” said James How- 
ard- Johnston, a lecturer in Byzantine 
studies at Corpus ChiistL “Dover 
demonstrates that reason divorced 
from emotion becomes cold, clinical, 
and ahum an.” 

The author admits to being aware 
of Aston’s long and troubled psychiat- 
ric history. He admits to fantasizing 
about Aston’s death, consulting a law- 
yer to see if he would be legally at risk 
if he ignored a suicide call, and not 

r ‘ ig to investigate Aston’s room at 
college after a colleague expressed 
concern the night Aston died. Sir Ken- 
neth also admits to a disturbing sense 
of relish the day afterward. 

“The next day I got up from a long, 
sound sleep and looked out of the 
window across the Fellows’ garden,” 
he wrote. “I cannot say for sure that 
the sun was s hinin g, but f certainly felt 
it was. I said to myself, slowly, "Day 
One of Year One of the Post-Astonian 
Era.’ For a little while, I even regretted 
my decision to retire the following 

Aston, a fellow of the oollege who 
began teaching there in 1952, showed 
promise for a distinguished career. He 
was coDege librarian, university ardti- ' 
vist, editor of the official history of 
Oxford University, and editor of a 
journal. Past and Present. 

“He was a central figure in the life 
of the college throughout the *70s and 
’80s," said Howard- Johnston. “He 
didn’t publish enough to be a great 
historian, but he could match any of 
them in conversation. He wasa strong 
personality, a daunting figure.” But 
then problems began with mood 
swings and with drinking. 

To Sir Kenneth, who was president 
of Corpus Christi for 10 years begin- 
ning in 1976 — and to others there — 
Aston was a pest and an embarrass- 
ment There were squabbles over bis 
housing, threats of lawsuits, disrupted 
meetings and drunken scenes at “high 
table,” the nightly dining ritual at Ox- 
ford colleges. “We could not have him 
lurching around the quad in front of 
the undergraduates or using violent 
language in the hearing of guests or 
visitors,” Sir Kenneth wrote. 

“I’m 100 parent behind Kenneth,” 

said Brian Harrison, a history fellow 
and tutor at the college. “It's astonish- 
ing he bore it aQ those years. Even 
knowing that Aston was a manic de- 
pressive, you can’t hold up the opera- 
tions of a college with 300 people in it. 
For Dover to say he wanted Trevor 
dead — weft, it’s like Henry II with 
Beckett You say, ‘Goodness, will no 
one rid me of this man?* and the 
knights went off and did it” 

In his account of his behavior to- 
ward Aston, Sir Kenneth uses the 
word “conscience” only when he is 
fantasizing about what would happen 
if he rejected a plea fra help from 
Aston in die throes of an overdose and 
in wondering what he wonld teD the 
authorities. “1 no qualms about 
causing the death of a fellow from 
whose nonexistence the college would 
benefit; but 2 balked at the prospect of 
misleading; a coroner’s jury, he wrote. 

Sr Kenneth sent Aston a chiding 
letter, and, in a final confrontation, 
informed him that a decision some- 
time earlier to renew his seven-year 
fellowship was not unanimous but 
bad squeaked through by a slim mar- 
gin. Astern was upset and shouted: 
“You’re trying to push me out of the 
college!” Sir Kenneth wrote that he 
did not deny it. 

A few days later, on the night of 
Ocl IS, Sir Kenneth was telephoned 
by a friend who was concerned by 
Ashton’s behavior and warned that he 
might be contemplating suicide. The 
college president telephoned Ashton's 
doctor, but the two of them derided to 
take no action. 

In a telephone interview, Sir Ken- 
neth contended that it was a notice of 
impending divorce proceedings from 
his second wife that drove Aston to 
suicide, not anything Sir Kenneth had 
done. “It wasn’t I who resolved it,” he 
insisted. “What I said in the book was 
that I contemplated the possibility of 
causing his death by an act of omis- 
sion. But that wasn't in fact how 
things turned out” 

The moral, he said, is that “there is 
a dilemma when one is weighing the 
duty of compassion to an individual 
with the well-being of an institution.'’ 

And he said he was surprised at “all 
the fuss” his book has created: "The 
whole point of an autobiography is to 
tell the troth, as far as Tm concerned.” 


ItolumFUmls Winner 

At European Awards 

“Lamerica,” directed by 
Gianni AneGo of Italy, won the 
1994 European Film Academy’s 
Fdix award for best movie, and 
Amefio won the best director 
award for the third time at a 
ceremony in Berlin- The French 
director Robert Bresson was 
honored for ins life work. The 
Fdix awards began seven years 
ago as the European answer to 
the Academy Awards. 


Descendants of the 17th-cen- 
tury physicist Sr base Newton 
are criticizing former Prime 
Minister Margaret Thatcher, 
now a baroness, for including 
the scientist on her new coal of 
arms. Richard Newton, a retired 
gamekeeper who is the family’s 
senior surviving member, told 
the Sunday Times, “It’s a 
damned cheek and very vulgar.” 

The Peruvian novelist Mario 
Vargas Llosa was awarded the 
1994 Cervantes prize for litera- 
ture on Monday, Spam’s highest 
literary award. Vargas Llosa, in- 
ternationally renowned for doz- 
ens of novels, essays and plays^ 
won the prize over a list of candi- 
dates that included the Spanish 
Nobel Prize winner Camino 
Jos6 Ceb and the Chilean writer 
Jos6 Donosou . . . The French 
Development Agency awarded 
its Tropics literary prize to Ca- 
fixtfae Bey ala, a Cameroonian, 
writer, for “Asstze J'Africaine,” 
(Assize, the African woman) 
which tells the stoiy of a young 
Cameroonian woman's prob- 
lems moving from her 
country to clandestine ‘ 
in the crowded outskirts of ] 


The first Beaties record ever 
played on radio fetched £11,000 
($17,200), at auction in London 
at Bonham’s. The disk of “Love 
Me Do,” played by Radio Lux- 
embourg m 1963, was a demo 
copy signed by Paid McCartney 
— whose name was spelled 
“McArtney” on the label 




Forecast for Wednesday through Friday, as provided by Accu-Weattw. Asia 


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then dry wealhw is likely 
Thursday and Friday. Toron- 
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Western Europe trill con Un- 
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second half ol lha week. No 
travel problems «re foreseen 
far London. Peris or Rome. 

Y Cold ak will plunge south- 
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The Czech Artists’ Boxes That Came In Out of the Cold 

By William Grimes 

.Yen' Ycrk Tuna Service 

N EW YORK— In 1984, when the hand 
of government censorship lay heavy on 
art in Czechoslovakia, Joska Skalnik, a 
graphic designer and longtime troublemak- 
er, came up with a very Czech idea. 

If unofficial artists could not exhibit, why 
not create an unofficial salon? The work 
could not be exhibited, of course. But it 
would exist, and its mere existence would be 
intensely annoying to the nation's cultural 

Skalnik invited each of about 300 artists 
to accept delivery of a lidless wooden box 6 
inches square and 2 inches deep. The assign- 
ment was to create a work of art within the 
box. The completed work was to be re- 
turned to Skalnik. 

In all, 244 artists took pan in what Skal- 
nik called the Minisalon. The boxes were 
collected, then hidden in a shed outside 
Prague. There they remained until 1989, 
when the Velvet Revolution brought down 
the Communist regime. 

The boxes, which have been exhibited at 
the World Financial Center as part of its 
Celebrate Prague in New York festival, sug- 
gest that the old regime's hope of getting 
artists Jfimarch in step was a doomed 
- enterprise, within the uniformity imposed 
by the box format, the artists created works 
of startling variety. 

Marie Blabohlova painted hers white and 
placed a row of tan rushes in glass lubes 
inside it Bedrich Dlouhy painted a gray, 
empty room, and placed an actual dead fly 
on a tiny chair. The Gy gazes at a drum set 
and a huge piece of meat on a hook. 

Knit Gebauer transformed his box into a 
rabbit hutch filled to capacity with a fat 
cotton bunny, one ear forlornly sticking out 
through the chicken wire of the cage door. 

Jiri Stamfest took tiny dolls and created 
a frightening tableau: four figures running 
down a flight of stairs and up against a 
blank walL “Joska said he wanted to create 
a collection that documented a certain 
moment,” said Chariot ta Kotik, the cura- 
tor of contemporary art at the Brooklyn 
Museum and an organizer of Celebrate 

Prague in New York “He was ingenioiflr 
because the boxes prevented overpowering 
egos from taking over the whole project” 

Maigjta Titlova, who is working in New 
York on a grant, said that her impulse was 
to fight against the box. which .suggested 
confinement and repression to her. 

“I felt I had to change it, rather than 
create something in it,” she said. “I made a 
fire out in the countryside and placed the 
box on it upside down.” The fire burned a 
hole in the back of the box about the size of 
a quarter, and left the inside charred. “The 
fire is like revolutionary action,” said Tit- 
lova, who had not seen her box since 1984. 

Vladimir Kokolia, too, was seeing his for 
the first timein 10 years. On a recent visit to 
the exhibition, he stepped up to his box, 
readied forward and began riffling the 
pages of a flip-book of drawings contained 
within the wooden frame. A guard inter- 
vened. “Sir, you cannot touch the artwork.” 
he warned. Kokolia smiled benignly. “It's 
O. K_ 1 am the artist,” he said. “Actually, I 
wish everyone would touch it.” 


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