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PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 

Paris, Monday, September 5, 1994 


No. 34,685 


In Cairo, a Chance to Slow the Population Express Train 

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By Boyce Rensberger 

ffteWnpRBj Pat Service 

Birthrates are plummeting in almost ev- 
ery country on earth and are expected to 
continue falling for decades. And yet the 
number of people in the world is now 
growing faster than ever and is likely to 
continue climbing for at least 100 years. 
Those trends may seem contradictory, 
but they are not. In fact, they inspire the 
two feelings likely to drive the nine-day 
United Nations world population and de- 
velopment conference, which opens Mon- 


day m Cairo, 
First, then 


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First, there is confidence that human 
numbers are weD on the way to leveling off 


^Delegates 
Scramble to 
End Divisions 
On Key Issues 

Washington Pm Service 

CAIRO — As thousands of delegates 
gathered here for Monday’s opening of the 
United Nations Conference mi Population 
and Development, U.S. and European en- 
voys privately circulated proposals airnari 
at defusing Vatican and Islamic objections 
to the draft plan slated for adoption at the 
nine-day meeting. 

The proposals center on controversial 
language in the draft dealing with defini- 
tions of “reproductive rights" and the fam- 
ily, sex education and family-planning ser- 
vices for teenagers, and abortion. 

These issues, while constituting less than 
10 percent of the UN draft, have emerged 
as me major stumbling block to consensus 
at the meeting, which is aimed at forging a 
strategy for stabilizing human numbers at 
an environmentally sustainable level. 

- In Rome, Pope John Paul n sounded 
^meiast alarm about the "dangerous short- 
cut” of concentrating all efforts on reduc- 
ing birth rates. 

“I salute the Cairo conference as a his- 
toric occasion to orient international poli- 
tics and economy toward the attainment of 
such an urgent worldwide objective," the 
Pope said, defining the meeting’s supreme 
goal as that of dosing up the “scandalous” 
gap between rich ana poor nations. 

“The bufSahdmg questions are impor- - 
tant, but they should not be allowed to 
overshadow the great progress we. have 


in the foreseeable future, largely as a result 
of previous efforts. 

At the same time, there is fear that if 
these efforts are not redoubled, world pop- 
ulation will reach a plateau later rather 
than sooner, and at a much higher total. 

If such action is not taken, experts say, 
human suffering and environmental deg- 
radation may become catastrophic in larg- 
er parts of the world than would otherwise 
be the case. 

Many population specialists say the 
wide-ranging plan of action developed in 
preparatory meetings could have a dra- 
matic effect. 


If nothing more is done, the world’s 
population of 5.6 billion could rise to be- 
tween 10 billion and 12.5 billion by the 
year 2050, according to UN projections. 
But if the Cairo plan is carried out, there 
may be only 7.8 billion human beings by 
then. 

"This conference," said Nafis Sadik, a 
Pakistani woman who is executive director 
of the UN Population Fund and secretary- 
general of the Cairo meeting, "is about 
choices and responsibilities — for the indi- 
vidual, the community, the nation and the 
world. Its aim is to widen our freedom of 
choice — choice in the matter of f amil y 
size, choice in population policy and pro- 


grams, choice in development philosophy 
and practice.” 

The draft plan of action, details of which 
remain to be debated and adopted in some 
form by delegations from about 170 coun- 
tries, calls on governments not just to 
make family pl annin g services available to 
all but also to take measures to reduce 
illness and poverty, improve educational 
opportunity and work toward environ- 
mentally sustainable economic develop- 
ment. 

Prominent in the plan is a call to im- 
prove health, education and economic op- 
portunity for girls and women, who as a 
group suffer much more than men from 


the effects of rapid population growth and 
frequent pregnancy. 

The Cairo meeting is the third of the 
major UN-sponsored world population 
conferences, which have come to be held 
every 10 years. But it is the first in which 
virtually all the delegations, from rich 
countries and poor, have agreed on a plan 
of action. Only the Vatican, which has 
observer status' because it is an indepen- 
dent state, and a handful of countries have 
dissented. 

“We’re moving,” said Timothy E. Winh, 
undersecretary of state for global affairs 

See ISSUES, Page 4 


Major Bars 
IRA Talks 
Until Truce 
Is Permanent 


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saw mus 

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made," said Nafis Sadik, executive direc- 
tor of the UN Population Fund and secre- 
tary-general of the conference. 

"Thanks to the experience of the past, 
we have a very specific, very candid draft 
document. By the time this conference is 
over, I hope the program of action will be 
part of the future." 

Even before the formal kickoff address- 
es Monday by President Hosni Mubarak 
of Egypt, Vic* President A1 Gore and other 
dignitaries; UN officials were hailing the 
conference as a success. So far, 174 mem- 
ber countries and six nonmembers have 
sent delegations to the meeting, with only 
six — Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Sudan, Mo- 
naco, Liechtenstein and Iraq — staying 
away. 

Security for the meeting was extreme, 
with police and paramilitary forces satu- 
rating Cairo’s traffic-choked downtown, 
jginging major hotels and sealing off the 
area around the gigantic Chinese-built 
conference center. Islamic militants have 
threatened to attack foreigners attending 
what they have termed the "licentious con- 
ference.’ 

In private meetings this weekend, U.S. 
officials urged nonaligned nations to ac- 
cent compromise language drafted over 
the summer by the European Union, par- 
ticipants said. U.S. officials expressed op- 
timism that the EU proposal would emerge 
as the vehicle for breaking the logjam over 
the draft because it enjoys support from a 
broad spectrum of countries, ranging from 

See CAIRO, Page 4 



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COMING SOON — A billboard on a central Zagreb street proclaims the visit to the Croatian capital of Pope John Paul II, scheduled for later this week. 


Chaos in Somalia Overwhelms 
Efforts to Build a Nation-State 


Kiosk 


By Keith B. Richburg 

Washington Pan Service 

MOGADISHU, Somalia — The three 
metal coffins, draped with the flags of 
India and the United Nations, were laid on 
the airport tarmac by stiff-legged pallbear- 
ers marching to mournful bagpipes. Inside 
were the remains of three Indian officers, 
blown apart by a grenade in Baidoa — the 
latest victims in the costliest, bloodiest and 
so far most futile United Nations exercise 
in global peacekeeping. 

As the Indian anthem played and the 
coffins were readied for the flight, the 
three slain officers, all doctors, were post- 
humously awarded the UN service medal. 
According to the brief eulogy, the medals 
were given in the knowledge that the slain 
peacekeepers “helped in bringing stability 
and a sense of hope to Somalia." 

It is difficult to see how. 

After the deaths of more than 100 UN 
peacekeepers here — including 36 Ameri- 
cans — Somalia is as unstable and devoid 
of hope today as at any time since it 
collapsed into anarchy in January 1991. 


Can-based factions are rearming, kidnap- 
ping of foreigners is again commonplace, 
and peacekeepers are dying in record num- 
bers. Just 10 days before the latest attack, 
seven Indian soldiers were killed in an 
ambush. 

Somalia is no closer to forming a nation- 
al government today than it was before the 
1992 U.S.-led military intervention, before 
the elaborate UN attempts at nation- 
building, before marathon rounds of peace 
talks bogged down in ancient animosities. 
Billions of dollars have been spent — 
much of it by American taxpayers, who 
foot 30.4 percent of the UN peacekeeping 
bill — but Somalia is still so dangerous 
that the United States is closing its embas- 
sy this month and advising U.S. citizens to 
leave. 

After more than a year and a half of 
trying to end famine and chaos through 
peace conferences, local councils and dip- 
lomatic pressure, many foreigners here 
have reached the conclusion that Somalia 

See SOMALIA, Page 5 


Israel Holds Officer in Arms Inquiry 


JERUSALEM (AP) — The police 
have arrested an Israeli combat officer 
alleged to have tried to procure weapons 
for Jewish extremists in the West Bank to 
attack Arabs, Israeli radio reports said 
Sunday. 

The officer. Lieutenant Oren Edri, 22, 
of Kiryat Arba, was detained Friday for 
questioning by secret service interroga- 
tors, the radios said. He was brought 
before a judge in Haifa on Sunday so 


that his detention could be extended. 
The judge forbade the publishing of fur- 
ther details of the case. 

Lieutenant Edri’s father, Yitzhak, told 
Israeli radio that his son had been arrest- 
ed while seeking permission to leave the 
country for a vacation. 


othy e. winh, Adams Decries Stand; 

global affairs Car Bowb Explodes at 

§e 4 Sinn Fein Belfast Office 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 
LONDON — The government reiterat- 
ed Sunday that it would not talk to the 
Irish Republican Army until it was con- 
vinced that the guerrilla group's cease-fire 
in Northern Ireland was permanent. 

But Gerry Adams, leader of the IRA's 
political wing, Sinn Fein, accused London 
of playing "word games” and said the time 
for negotiations was now. 

In Belfast, a car bomb exploded Sunday 
evening outside the offices of Sinn Fein. A 
police spokesman said no injuries had 
been reported, but ambulances were at the 
scene. It was the first bomb attack since 
the IRA announced its cease-fire on 
Wednesday. 

Prime Minister John Major, treading a 
cautious path toward peace, said earlier of 
the IRA truce: “I am not sure it is quite 
sufficient yet,” adding: “We need just a 
little more." 

Mr. Major, who wants the IRA to de- 
clare that the cease-fire is permanent, also 
joined Prime Minister Albert Reynolds of 
Ireland in urging Protestant extremists on 
the other side of the sectarian divide to 
follow the IRA’s example and lay down 
their arms. 

Mr. Adams, speaking to BBC Televi- 
sion, said: "I would appeal to John Major 
to seize this moment, to seize this opportu- 
nity. Why can’t talks begin now?” 

But Mr. Major, speaking on the same 
program, said such a meeting was not 
imminent. 

“We would like to be absolutely, cop- 
per-bottomed certain that this end to vio- 
lence is for good," be said. 

Mr. Adams also called on loyalist mili- 
tias to stop “killing Catholics” and on 
British troops to withdraw from "our 
streets.” In his first major speech since the 
cease-fire took effect, he told 3,000 sup- 
porters outside the Sinn Fein headquarters 
in Belfast: "We must keep moving for- 
ward.” 

“We don’t want concessions from the 
British government," he said to a cheering 
crowd. "It is not a concession to be treated 
_ like an Irish person in our own country. 
That is our right” 

nis “Let’s give them a wee bit of time, but 

not too long, to get their troops oft our 

sireels,” be said. "And if they won’t de- 
militarize, well then, we’ll demilitarize for 
them, coolly and calmly.” 

Sinn Fein activists used a bulldozer Sun- 
day to smash down blockades at two 
# closed border roads between Northern Ire- 

|||*y land and the Irish Republic in a symbolic 
J “reopening” of the fron tier. British securi- 

ex tended. See ULSTER, Page 4 


Book Review 
Bridge 


Page 4. 

Page 4. 


Havana Wants U.S. to Accept All Comers 


By Steven Greenhouse 

New York Tunes Service 

NEW YORK — Cuba's chief negotiator 
in the immigration talks with the United 
States says the Clinton administration s 
offer to grant entry rights to at least 20,000 
Cubans a year is inadequate. He suggested 
that this amount would be too small to 
stop Cubans from setting out in rafts for 

Florida. . 

Ricardo Alarcdn. the negotiator, said in 
an interview’ that his government would 
like the United States to admit for a specif- 
ic time, perhaps a year, all Cubans who 
have expressed interest in moving to the 
United States. 

One why to measure this, be said, was 
ihc number of Cubans - 1H00O- who 

applied for travel visas to the United States 

Jflast year. 

According to Mr. Alarcdn, lctung in so 

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j "Andorra- 9.00 FF Luxembourg 60 L. Fr 

AnrWes H.»FF Moroc co .... .... 12 Ph 

1 Comerwi..i.-J00CFA Qatar ......8.00 Riots 

i Egypt......e.P.S000 Reunion ....1 1.20 FF 

! Fmnee 9.00 FF Saudi Arabia JP.00 R. 
gSS::::::™cFA s*«ci... ; «ocfa 
fireece .......300 Dr. Spain ......200 PTAS 

mET-IImUr Tunisia . \.M I Din 
i ivnrvCoosT ,1.120 CFA Turkey ..T.L. 35.000 

Jordan—- 1 U.A.E flJffWrtj 

! Lebanon ...USS 1 JO U.S. Mil. (Eur.) 51.10 


man y people would defuse the pent-up 
pressures for illegal immigration by boat 
people. 

During the first two rounds on Thurs- 
day and Friday, the administration pre- 
sented an offer that would greatly expand 
the number of Cubans gran ted entry rights 
each year — to at least 20,000 — if Presi- 
dent Fidel Castro promised to ball the 
flood of boat people. 

Over the last 12 months, the United 
States granted visas to 2,700 Cubans, caus- 
ing Havana to complain that this was far 
below the ceiling of 27,845 visas allowed 
under U.S. law. 

[Cuba was expected to respond lormaily 
to the U.S. proposal on Sunday as the third 
round of negotiations began in New York, 
Reuters reported.] 

[In an interview with CNN. Mr. Alarcon 
said he thought that "there is still a pretty 
long road to go before we can finalize a 
specific agreement.} 

In an interview Saturday at the Cuban 
miss ion to the United Nations. Mr. A!ar- 
c6n acknowledged that he had not put 
forward a definite number of how many 
Cubans Havana wants the United States to 
allow in each year. 

Mr. Alarcbn declined to predict when 
the t^iks would end, reiterating that they 
should address Washington's three-de- 
cade-old embargo against Cuba. 

“I cannot be optimistic.” he said. "To 


find a real solution you have to deal with 
the causes of the emigration and that re- 
mains the economic embargo. The other 
side has refused to talk about ihe embar- 
go.” 

Nonetheless, Mr. Alarcon, who is presi- 
dent of Cuba's National Assembly, did not 
rule out an agreement that did not address 
the embargo. 

"I’d be prepared to accept something on 
immigration matters even if the economic 

See CUBA, Page 4 



Vmccni B Lalcm HniK» 


HIGH-FLYING SEAHAWKS — Seattle’s defense, mobbing the Wash- 
ington Redskins’ Reggie Brooks as Seattle won, 28-7, during the first 
weekend of regular season action In the National Football League. Page 19. 


Russians Agree 
With Chinese to 
End Tensions 


By Michael Specter 

-Yew York Times Service 

MOSCOW — Formally ending an era of 
tension between two of the world’s most 
powerful countries, Russia and China have 
agreed not to aim nuclear missiles at 
other, never to use force against each oth- 
er, and to sharply limi t the number of 
troops stationed along their border. 

The declaration was signed at the end of 
talks at the Kr emlin between President 
Jiang Zemin of China and President Boris 
N. Yeltsin of Russia. The two men also 
agreed to work harder on developing eco- 
nomic ties. . 

The Russia-China relationship has been 
rocky and traumatic. In the early 1950s 
their leaders dreamed of fashioning a 
world of c ommunis m. Only 40 years ago, 
Mr. Jiang trained as an engineer in Mos- 
cow at the giant Zil automotive factory. 

But by the late 1950s, the two Commu- 
nist giants had entered into such a fierce 
and dogmatic battle for supremacy that 
they became bitter enemies. The bloodv 
clashes along their border in the 1960s led 
many to believe that if there was another 
world war. it would begin there. 

“The signing of these agreements are 
achievements of historic scope,” Mr. Yelt- 

See PACT, Page 4 


In Russia’s North , a Hard Life Even Without the Gulag 


By Margaret Shapiro 

Washington Post Service 

SOLOVETSKY ISLAND, Russia — In 
the huge expanse of Russia, few places 
seem as remote as this windblown north- 
ern island in the White Sea. where the Gulf 
Stream ends and children wear wool hats 
all year round. 

Yet, for cen Luries people have come 
here: medieval monks, w’ho sought isola- 
tion and eventually built a wailed, fairy- 
tale monastery; Bolshevik commissars, 
who made the island a prototype for all the 
brutal prison camps to come: the Soviet 


Navy, which manned a vigilant outpost 
against the West; and now businessmen, 
who have filled the island's small grocery 
with jars of spaghetti sauce and Snickers 
bars. 

Uniting them all have been the unimag- 
inable difficulty of life near the Arctic 
Circle and a seemingly irrational determi- 
nation to live here nonetheless. 

This is an island, after all, with two 
seasons: winter (11 months) and mosquito 


grade), the hardy residents of Solovetsky 
Island ceaselessly chop firewood for the 
coming winter. In December and January, 
the sun never rises; in July, it never sets! 

“For many people this is a very hard 
life,” acknowledged Mikhail Verwald, a 
shaggy-haired guide for the local historical 
museum, who left Moscow four years ago 
for the peace and isolation of Solovki, as 
the island is known. "I like it here.” 

The village that has sprouted here is a 


(30 varieties). In the few weeks of relative threadbare specimen, above which towers 
warmth, when the thermometer climbs the still impressive though crumbling mon- 
in to the low 50s Fahrenheit (10-12 centi- asteiy. Most of Solovki’s 1.300 residents 


live in wooden houses or converted prison- 
camp barracks. The few streets in its center 
arc not paved, and the ones in the outskirts 
are so dusty and rock-strewn that a ride 
over them on the island’s rickety bus is a 
bone-jolting affair. 

People have been living here since the 
15th century, when two solitude-seeking 
monks sailed across the frigid White Sea 
and found exactly what they sought 
Soon it also became a place of political 
exile for those who displeased the czars. 

See CHILL, Page 4 








Page 2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 


** 


Q&A: Two Worlds Collide Over U.S. Abortion Issue 


Keeping the Procedure Available Trying to End ‘Horrible Holocaust’ 


Kale Michelman is president 
of the National Abortion and 
Reproductive Rights Action 
League, or NARAL, which 
seeks to keep abortion legally 
available. She spoke to Paul F. 
Horvtiz of the International 
Herald Tribune before an inter- 
national conference population 
begins this week in Cairo. 


various religions since the be- 
ginning of time. There is no 
one answer. It is a religious 
and moral issue; NARAL does 
not have a position on when 
life begms. That’s an individ- 
ual religious decision. 


Q. Are you comfortable 
with the U.&. ! 


Q. Why does your organiza- 
tion exist? 

A. It was founded in 1969 
for the purpose of the repeal of 
the anti-aoortioQ laws that 
were denying women access to 
safe, legal abortions and that 
were causing the deaths of 
women in back alleys. 

In January, we expanded 
our mission to include work on 
policies that affect the full 
range of reproductive health 
issues, because we believe that 
reproductive health is primary 
health care for women ana 
that abortion is only one of the 
many reproductive health ser- 
vices that women need and 
want Our goal as a nation 
should be to make abortion 


Supreme Court’s 
decision under Roe versus 
Wade, which declared abor- 
tion legal but set certain limi- 
tations? 


A. Roe versus Wade was a 
very careful balancing of the 
needs and rights of women to 
be able to make decisions free- 


f We believe the 
question of when 
life begins is 
very complicated. 
There is no one 


answer. 


less necessary, not more dan- 
is or difficult. We feel 


gerous 

strongly that our responsibil- 


ity is not only to ensure access 
tion to 


to abortion for all women, re- 
gardless of their income, their 
age or their residence, but to 
ensure that preventive repro- 
ductive health services are pri- 
mary. This includes family 
planning, birth control, prena- 
tal care and sex education. 
Fewer pregnancies is the solu- 
tion to fewer abortions. 

We have a responsibility to 
provide some solutions to this 
controversy around abortion, 
to advance an alternative mis- 
sion to those who would take 
away a woman’s right to 
choose, who want to impose 
their moral and religious be- 
liefs. 

Q. When does life begin? 

A. We believe that the ques- 
tion of when life begins is a 
very complicated question, 
one that has been discussed by 


ly in the early stages of preg- 
nancy with the need and right 
of the state to protect potential 
life in the later stages of preg- 
nancy. In the first trimester, 
women are free to make deci- 
sions without state interfer- 
ence. In the later stages. Roe 
versus Wade does not allow 
abortion except when a wom- 
an’s life or health is endan- 
gered. It is a very rare occur- 
rence after 23 weeks of 
pregnancy for a woman to 
have an abortion in this coun- 
try. By and large, Roe versus 
Wade works very well. 


rorism. Do I think it's a set of 
isolated incidents? No. The 
killings and the murders are a 
product of a climate of hostil- 
ity and terror and violence that 
has been at work for a decade 
or more where the anti -choice 
movement and its leaders have 
advanced rhetoric, such as 
calling doctors baby-killers, 
creating a dimate of absolute 
intolerance. 

Q. Do you see your oppo- 
nents as having an underlying 
gtvtl, such as anti-fem inis m or 
anti -secularism? 

A* Many in the anti-choice 
movement really do funda- 
mentally disagree about when 
life begins. Having said that, I 
also believe that underneath a 
lot of the anti-choice activity, 
there is a view of women that is 
hostile and refuses to accept 
that women, in order to have 
self-determination and digni- 
ty, absolutely must have con- 
trol over their reproductive ca- 
pacities. I do think there is 
some strain of anti-woman- 
ness. I don’t think you can 
respect women wholly and 


The Reverend Flip Benham, 
a Methodist minister, is nation- 
al director of Operation Rescue, 
whose members appose abortion 
by picketing outside clinics at 
which abortions are performed 
He spoke with Paul F. Horvitz 
of the International Herald Tri- 
bune, 


deny them access to reproduc- 
v tne 


live health and deny them the 
right to make reproductive 
choices. This isn’t everyone in 
the anti-choice movement; it's 
underneath. 


Q. Why does Operation 
Rescue exist? 

A. Simply because abortion 
is murder. If we axe going to 
say that it is murder with our 
mouths, we need to act like it 
with our lives. In the church of 
Jesus Christ, we axe simply 
called to do exactly what Jesus 
did. He came to rescue us by 
laying his life down for us. So 
Operation Rescue is actually a 
living parable of God’s love 
for these little baby boys and 
girls, as folks from all across 
the nation, catting across all 
Hffnomin a tin g s. including Or- 
thodox Jews, lay their lives 
down at abortion-mill doors 
and interpose on behalf of the 
children. 

Right now God is speaking 


personality, how tall he or she 
will be, are already deter- 
mined. So what we nave is a 
living human being at concep- 
tion. 

When Jesus came to this 
Earth, when did the word of 
God become flesh? Of course, 
that was instantly at concep- 
tion. When the Holy Spirit 
came upon Mary, all of the 
chromosomal pairs were there. 

Q. How do you respond to 
women who argue that they 
have a right to control their 
own bodies? 

A. We agree with the right of 
a mother over her own body. 


'Women are not 
barnyard animals . 
Women actually 
can say no, and 
men actually ca n 
be responsible.’ 



Q. Do you support the use 
of the abortion pill RU-486 in 
the United States? 

A. Absolutely. 


Q. What is your view of the 
recent killing s of abortion doc- 
tors in Florida? 

A. It's a horrific occurrence, 
and it constitutes domestic ter- 


Q. What is the outlook for 
N ARAL’S success? 

A. The most important goal 
is a resolution of this issue of 
who should decide about preg- 
nancy, abortion and matters 
related to childbirth. I think 
the woman should decide. An- 
other important goal is to 
make abortion less necessary. 1 
think the outlook is a little 
bleak at the moment because 
you’ve got a lot of terror and 
violence, and I think that’s go- 
ing to continue. Long term, the 
American public is with us on 
the fact that the woman should 
make the decision and that the 
effort should be aimed at pre- 
venting pregnancy. 1 think the 
outlook is good over the long 
term. 


rfocaust, the kill- 
ing of over 32 milli on precious 
little baby boys and girls wait- 
ing to be born, and we must do 
something about it. 

Finally, now, abortions are 
at their lowest level since 1979. 
There are fewer abortionists 
now willing to ply their evil 
trade and there are fewer abor- 
tion mills. 

We know this: The presi- 
dent isn’t going to change this 
problem, the Supreme Court 
isn’t going to change this prob- 
lem, nor is Congress going to 
legislate out abortion. It is up 
to the church of the living God 
to interpose and stand in the 
gap on behalf of these chil- 
dren. 

Q. When does life begin? 

A. At conception, all of the 
chromosomal pairs are there. 
The color of his or her ey es, the 
cttior of her hair, the kind of 


Does that mean that a woman 
has a right to sell her body into 
prostitution? Does she have a 
right to do drugs with her own 
body? 

what we bran to under- 
stand in the Christian tradi- 
tion is that it’s not a matter of 
my body, my rights, my 
choice, my thing. It’s a matter 
of it is not my body, I was 


bought with a price, and I am 
“ : oown for others. 


to lay my life 
It is my body, and I have a 
responsibility before my 
brothers and sisters to fulfill 
the purpose for which God 
made me. 

Women don’t have a consti- 


tutional right to kill little chil- 

rimply 1 


dren simply because they are 
in their womb. They do have a 
right to choose before they get 
in bed. Women are not barn- 
yard anim als. Women actually 
can say no, and men actually 
can be responsible. 

The crime in abortion is 
this: People say, “It’s my 


body, and because Tm bigger 
and stronger, I can kill the 
voiceless, choiceless, defense- 
less one in my womb because 
that’s going to be an inconve- 
nience to me.” That is child 
sacrifice. 

Q. What is your group’s 
strategy for advancing your 
cause? 

A. Since 1988, in the over 
75,000 arrests that have taken 
place at Operation Rescue 
events, there has not been one 
convicted act of violence. We 
believe that as we lay our lives 
down, in defease of these chil- 
dren, and give moms an in- 
formed choice, that they’ll be- 
gin to choose life; Ana mice 
the heart of a mother is 
changed, the heart of a church 
is changed. And once the heart 
of a church is chang ed, the 
heart of the nation can be 
changed. When the heart of 
thic nation is c han gad, OUT 
laws will begin to reflect that 
change. 

Q. Is civil disobedience a 
worthwhile tool? 

A. Christians are called to 
be biblically obedient, not civ- 
illy disobedient. If there is a 
child drowning in a swimming 
pool and around the pool is a 
fence and on the fence is a no- 
trespassing q gn, and you are 
standing on the other side of 
that fence, you are responsible 
to break a lesser law and save 
the life of a child. 

Q. Do your opponents have 
some underlying goal or do 
they simply disagree with you 
about when life brans? 

A. What you find oat is that 
there are two world views. 
What you have is just a pro- 
found disagreement with 
God’s design. 

Q. What is the outlook for 
the success of your movement? 

A. We have absolutely no 
idea, because the battle has 
been going on since the Gar- 
den of Eden, the battle be- 
tween two seeds: the seed of 
the serpent and the seed of the 
woman. How long the battle? 
Until the Lord takes us home. 


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Schmidt Takes a Shot at Kohl 


After 12 Years, Socialist Ex-Leader Assails His Successor 


Compiled bv Our Stiff From Dtjpauka 

DORTMUND, Germany — 
Former Chancellor Helmut 
Sdhmidt, entering the political 
fray for the first time since be 
was defeated in 1982, opened 
the Serial Democrat Party’s 
election campaign Sunday with 
a bitter attack on Chancellor 
Helmut Kohl’s policies. 

The 75-year-old Mr. 
Schmidt, highly respected but 
only a marginal figure in the 
party since his defeat, is putting 
his weight behind the bid of the 
Social Democrat leader, Rudolf 
Scharping, to defeat Mr. KohL 

“The man has become unsure 
of himself," Mr. Schmidt told 
more than 40,000 cheering sup- 
porters at the Wescphalia soccer 
stadium here in the industrial 
Ruhr Valley at the opening of 
the center-left party’s election 
campaign. 

“At the start of the summer 
he only wanted to be chancellor 
for another two years, now it’s 
four.” He added: “His goal is 
simply to keep power for him- 
self. No less than power and not 
much more." 

“Helmut Kohl’s deeds are 
dearly visible,” Mr. Schmidt 
said. “On the one hand, Ger- 
man unification. On the other 
hand the economic crisis of 


Social Democrats hoping to end 
12 years in the opposition. 

(AFP. Reuters) 


■ Kohl Disputes Gorbachev 

Mr. Kohl said Sunday that 
the Soviet Union had made ac- 
ceptance of Communist land 
seizures a condition for Ger- 
man reunification, contradict- 
ing remarks by the former Sovi- 
et leader, Mikhail S. 
Gorbachev, Reuters reported 
from Bonn. 

Mr. Gorbachev has caused 
confusion in Germany — and 
revived the hopes of former 
owners of confiscated land — 
by denying that Moscow gave 
approval to reunification in 
1990 only after Bonn accepted 
the postwar land seizures. 


property issue during a meeting 
in tbeCa 


Swedish Poll Shows Socialists 
Slipping in Election Challenge 


unification, record on employ- 
ides, the 


men l, record bankruptcies, 
two-fold record of the highest 
state debt and the highest tax 
burden, record crime.” 


Germany is to hold a general 
election on Oct 16, with the 


UNIVERSITY DEGREE 


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EMLUAIMH 


Pacific Western Unirasityi 

2675 a Kino Stro«t. DflCt 23 
Honoluu, HI 06826 


The Associated Press 

STOCKHOLM — The So- 
cial Democrats, seeking to oust 
Sweden’s center-right govern- 
ment, are slipping in popularity 
just two weeks before general 
elections, according to a poll 
released Sunday. 

For weeks, many Swedes 
have assumed that the Social 
Democrats would get enough 
votes to let the party leader, 
Ingvar Carlsson, form a major- 
ity government. 

The poll published Sunday 
by the newspaper Svenska 
Dagbladei said the Social Dem- 
ocrats* strength had slipped 32 
percentage points to 47.4 per- 
cent of likely voters. That still 
puts them ahead of the other 
parties in the race for the Sept. 
18 elections, but would force 
them into a coalition govern- 
ment. 

Mr. Carlsson is seeking to 
capitalize on frustration with 


Prime Minister Carl Bildt’s 
conservatives to bring the So- 
cial Democrats bade to power 
for the first time since 1991. 


WORLD BRIEFS 


Stasi Chiefs Trial to Get Under Way 


FRANKFURT (AP) — Ericb Midke, chief of the former East 
German secret police, or Stasi, is the last of East Gennan^s top 
Communist officials to face trial for the shooting deaths of East 
Germans who tried to flee to the West during the Cold War. . £ 
The 86-year-old defendant, who was dropped from an earlier 
trial on the same charges for health reasons, faces counts of 
manslaughter Monday in the Berlin state court. Although prose- 
cutors say more than 300 people were victims of the East German 
leaders’ shoot-to-kill orders while trying to escape, themdkamfcnt 
was trimmed to speed up the triaL ' ' 

Once the second most powerful official in East Germany, Mr. 
Mielke is already serving a six-vear term for murdering two 
ilicemen in Berlin in 1931. He was convicted in that case on Oct 
1993. 


S 


Carlos to Seek Dropping of Charges 

PARIS (AFP) — Carlos’s lawyers have said t hey w ill call for ah 
charges against him to be dropped when the terrorist goes before 
court authorities Monday. . , _ 

Mourad Oussedik, representing Carlos along with Jacques 
Vergfcs, said the two lawyers had also filed a suit for “kidnappmg," 
“false imprisonment" and “denial of of individual liberties" on 
behalf of tbeir client The suit, filed Friday, cited the manner of his 
arrest in Sudan and his transfer to France, Mr. Oussedik said. 

Curios was arrested by the Sudanese authorities in Khartoum 
on Aug. 13 and handed over to the French police, who flew him to 
Paris. He is to appear Monday before an ex amining magistrate. 
Judge Jean- Louis Brugutere. 

Italy Rejects Speedup ou EU Policy 

FRANKFURT (Bloomberg) — The Italian government has 
rejected German suggestions for a “hard core" of five European 
states to move faster toward political and monetary integration, 
the Frankfurter Aflgemcine Sonntagszejtung reported. 

“If this project represents the official position of the German 
governments, it would be unacceptable, 4 said Foreign Minister 
Antonio Martino, the paper reported. Prime Minister Silvio 
Berlusconi said he was “surprised” at the proposal, which he 
riainwri was in breach of the “spirit of the Maastricht Treaty." 

Las t week. Chancellor Helmut Kohl's Christian Democratic 
Party published its agenda for constitutional reform of the Euro- 
pean Union, including hunting the veto rights of certain individ- 
ual states on EU law. 



Chirac Indicates He’ll Be a Candidate 


BORDEAUX (Reuters) — Jacques Chirac has taken a step 
toward running for the French presidency in 1995 despite criti- 
cism the race was starting too early. 

Mr. Chirac, the mayor of Paris and a former prime ntinister who 
heads the Gaullist Rally for the Republic (RPR), said in a speech 
Saturday that he was ready to use his “passion” in what he called 
the cramng “grand national debate.” 

Many of his audience in Bordeaux, from the youth section of 
the party, took it as an implicit promise to run in the election next 
May. Industry Minister Gerard Longuel had noted that Prime 
Minis ter Edouard Ballad or, also of the Rally for the Republic and 
likely to be the mam conservative rival to Mr. Chirac for the 
presidency, had asked ministers not to discuss the election until 
next year. 




France Holds 11 Muslims as Suspects 


PARIS (AFP) — Eleven Islamic fundamentalists were in custo- 
dy in France on Sunday, suspected of supporting armed extremist 
organizations, notably in Algeria, judicial sources said. 

French police have questioned about 30 people in four days im 
an attempt to break up fun dam entalist networks thought to b£ ' 
supporting armed extremist movements. Judge Jean-Louis Bru- 
guldre must decide Monday whether to charge the 1 1 suspects. 

The nationwide sweep was begun shortly after 20 alleged 
supporters of Algeria's outlawed Islamic Salvation Front were 
deported from France to Burkina Faso on Wednesday. 




“We’ve looked at the re- 
cords," Mr. Kohl told German 
radio, “and there can be abso- 
lutely no doubt that this was the 
opinion of the Soviet Union” 
and of the Soviet leadership. 

Mr. Kohl confirmed a state- 
ment by Mr. Gorbachev to a 
German magazine that the two 
men had not discussed the 


2 Killed in Rocket Attacks on Kabul 


- * 




ISLAMABAD. Pakistan (Reuters) — Two people were killed 

on Kabul, govem- 


Oaucasusin 1990. 

But Mr. Kohl said the Soviet 
property condition had already 
been set in preliminary talks by 
the German and Soviet foreign 
ministers and their delegations. 

About 33 million hectares 
(8.2 million acres) of land, were 
taken by Soviet administrators 
and given to peasants and col- 
lective farms. 


and 23 wounded in overnight rocket attacks on 
mcnt-con trolled Kabul radio said on Sunday. 

The broadcast, monitored in Islamabad, said forces loyal to 
Prime Minister Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and his ally, a northern 
warlord. General Abdul Rashid Dustam, had fired 65 rockets into 
Kabul 

Both sides claimed they had inflicted heavy losses in more 
fighting in Logar Province, about 60 kflometere (37 miles) south of 
Kabul. No independent account of the clashes was available. 


'■* 


TRAVEL UPDATE fee Court Ri 


A Big-Time Vacation Season in U.S. 


NEW YORK (NYT) — Spurred by low air fares, economic 
confidence and the unshakable hire of the road, Americans are 


traveling this summer as never before. Preliminary figures strong- 
ly suggest that the number of summer vacationers will set a record. 


• -jl! 

4 


Even the long-beset airline industry, spurred by a record 89 
million passengers in Jane and July, is headed toward its busiest 
year ever. And the nation’s hotels and motels are reporting their 


* Tv 


highest occupancy rates since at least the early 1980s. 
the first tin 


Many voters are Furious at 
Mr. Budt 


for making cuts in 
Sweden’s welfare programs. 

The poll, conducted by the 
private research institute SIFO, 
showed the four parties in Mr. 
Bildt’s government did not ben- 
efit from Social Democratic 
vote losses. Instead, the small 
Greens environmentalist party 
and the formerly Communist 
Left Party appear to stand a 
good chance of rallying and 
gam mandates in the 351-seat 
Parliament. 

Such a scenario, indicating 
Sweden would not get a major- 
ity government, could cause 
further repercussions in the fi- 
nancial markets, economists 
warned. Sweden is grappling 
with a huge national debt and 


For the first time in a 

snap of pockefbooks and wallets being slammed shut,” said J< 
Cheske, a spokesman for the Automobile Association of America. 
"This summer people were spending again.” 

The first visitors to Japan’s new Kansas International Airport in 
Osaka were surprised by the spectacular teiminal building, color- 
ful opening events and, most erf all, the high taxes and prices to use 
its fadtfties. The passenger tax at the airport, which opened for 
business on Sunday, is 2,600 yen ($26). (Reuters) 

Lured by higher tax-free salaries, 28 pilots have quit India’s 
state-run airline, Air-India, to join private air taxi firms in a move 
that could force the domestic earner to curtail its flights. (AP) 
Sabena Belgian World Airlines reported that over the weekend 
it made the first commercial flight to the Rwandan capital, Kigali, 
since the death of the president in April, which was followed by a 
catastrophic avQ war. (Reuters) 


* 

• si 




Vi-- _ 


This Week’s Holidays 

Banking and government offices will be closed or services 
curtailed in the following countries and their dependencies this 


growing distrust among inter- 
national investors. 


week because of national and religious holidays: 

MONDAY : Bermuda. Ca n ada . Lnxeznbooig. Puerto Rico. United States. 
TUESDAY: Isad, Pakistan, Swaziland. 

WEDNESDAY: Brazil, Israel, Mozambique. 

THURSDAY: Afghanistan, Andorra, Liechtenstein, Malta, Rwanda. 
FRIDAY: Tajikistan. 

SATURDAY: Belize. Maud tins. 

Sources : J.P. Morgan, Reuters. 


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Pen (Oraide of Lima, dM ISO firsL) 001-190 


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Democrats on Defensive as Fall Races Heat Up 


By Richard L. Berke 

St* York Times Service 

WASHINGTON — At the tradition- 
al opening of the fall election campaigns 
over America’s Labor Day weekend, 
politicians of both major parties agree 


The stakes are high. Although no 
leading analysts have predicted that the 
Republicans’ will gain the 7 seats neces- 
sary to win back the Senate or the 40 
seats needed to take control of the 
House after four decades of Democratic 


Tact lose control of the Senate — that he 
wound up scolding them. 

“When everybody gets their moods so 


been marred by personal scandal, sur- 
vive challenges from the Republican 
nominee, Oliver L. North, and an inde- 


down in the dumps, then I think some of pendent bid by his longtime rival, for- 
the doom and gloom may become self- mer Governor L. Douglas Wilder? 


that the prospects for Democrats at all control, they acknowledge that shifts of 


levels are bleak. 

The Democrats held high hopes earli- 


such magnitude are not inconceivable. 
Even if the Democrats retain control 


er this year that they could boast to the of both houses, heavy Democratic losses 


voters of a major overhaul in the health 
care system and maybe even the welfare 
system. At the very’ least, they thought, 
they would be able to point to an econo- 
myon the mend. 


would dramatically affect President Bill 
Clinton’s ability to govern in the second 
half of his term. Despite the Democratic 
majorities he enjoyed in Lbe first half, he 
has been unable to win backing for his 




But two months before election day. centerpiece health care plan and barely 
health care is stuck in congressional marshaled enough votes to win passage 
gridlock, welfare restructuring is still a of his crime and budget proposals, 
dream and voters are in no mood to give Republicans also have high hopes in 
Democrats more than grudging credit the races for governor, where the Demo- 
for tne stronger economy. _ crats, who hold 21 of the 36 seats at 


dream and voters are m no mood to give Republicans also have high he 
Democrats more than grudging credit the races for governor, where the 1 
for me stronger economy. crats, who hold 21 of the 36 s< 

That has left Democratic incumbents ^ m again on a* defensive, 
chnging to the passage of a ciune bill as _ . , . , ^ 

theiT >nlv evidence of late that a Demo- Things are so unsettled that Demo- 
cratic majority in Congress can accom- " atic stalwarts hke Governor Mono 
plish something of lasting significance. ^ omo °*[ New Y ork; Representative 


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■ J David ALe.'Agrncc Fram.pio>< 

THE EARS HAVE IT — Hillary Rodham Clinton seeking the attention of Christine 
Hayes GriHo on Martha’s Vineyard before the beginning of a presidential speech. 


As a result, thev can do little but portray Th° mas & , ^ * Washington the 

.. , f i . * " HiMtcp ervakw ^nn SpnaiiV t-.iwrarn I'Ll 


the Republicans as obstructionists. 

The Republicans, who would have 
had an upper hand anyway because the 
president’s party usually suffers in a 


House speaker; and Senator Edward M. 
Kennedy of Massachusetts face the 
toughest races of their career. 

Senator John Glenn of Ohio said that 


POLITICAL NOTES 


midterm election, now see the Demo- at a recent private luncheon many of his 
cratic problems as their best opponuni- Democratic colleagues were in such de- 


ty in decades to make gains. 


spair — some fretted that they would in 


fulfilling — that’s what I commented 
on,” said Mr. Glenn, who is not up for 
re-election this year. 

Beyond the many crucial races that 
could go either way! the Nov. 8 election 
promises answers to other important po- 
litical questions: 

Just how powerful have religious con- 
servatives become at the ballot box? 

Will the voters who chose Ross Perot 
in 1992 side with one party or another 
this lime? Will they affect the outcome 
of races? 

Will any of the independent candi- 
dates for governor who are waging vig- 
orous races in at least five states change 
the outcome, or even win? 

Will the election produce a leading 
contender for the 1996 Republican pres- 
idential nomination, perhaps Governor 
Pete Wilson of California or Governor 
William F. Weld of Massachusetts? 

Some races arc bound to draw atten- 
tion during the final nine-week sprint of 
campaigning as particularly spirited 
clashes. 

Will Senator Charles S. Robb of Vir- 
ginia. a Democrat whose fust term was 


Will the sons of former President 
George Bush win races for governor in 
Texas and Florida? 

Will Kathleen Brown, a Democrat, 
unseat Mr. Wilson in California and 
follow' her father and brother to the 
slaiehouse? 

The unsettled political environment 
has already affected the intensity with 
which campaigns are being waged. 

Candidates are putting television 
commercials on the air earlier than in 
past years, and they are stockpiling 
more money. 

House and Senate candidates had 
raised $388 million by the end of June, 
compared with $369 million at the corre- 
sponding point in 1990. according to the 
Federal Election Commission. 

“The difference between this year and 
two years ago is like day and night.” said 
Representative Jon L. Kyi. an Arizona 
Republican who is running Tor the Sen- 
ate. 

"The malaise in the Republican Party 
two years ago was palpable.” he said. 
“The’ encouragement this year, by con- 
trast, is equally palpable.” 


'II Be a Canty 


Cjjnton Hits 40%, a Poll Low 

WASHINGTON — President Bill Clin- 
ton’s approval raring with Americans has 
fallen to 40 percent, the lowest for him and 
for any president at this point in his term in 
four decades, according to a Time Magazine- 
CNN polL 

His disapproval rating rose to 52 percent in 
the poll* the highest of his presidency. The 
remaining 8 percent bad no opinion. 

The poll of 800 American adults was taken 
between Aug. 31 and Sept 1 and had a 
margin of error of plus or minus 3.5 percent 
It was taken while Mr. Clinton was on vaca- 
tion in Massachusetts and just after he had 
scored a major legislative victory with Con- 
gress's approval of his anti-crime bQL 

The poll's highest approval rating for Mr. 
Clinton since be became president 20 months 
ago was 54 percent this January. His previous 
low point was a 50 percent disapproval rating 
in June 1993. (Reuters) 


Bairs in Rostenkowskl’s Court 

WASHINGTON — The Justice Depart- 
ment has rejected Representative Dan Ros- 
tenkowski’s c laim that federal corruption 
charges against him were unconstitutional 
and should be dismissed. 

Mr. Rostenkowski, an Illinois Democrat 
and one of the most powerful members of 
Congress, asked District Judge Norma 
HoDoway Johnson last month to dismiss the 
May 31 indictment, arguing it violated the 
constitutional separation of powers giving 
Congress power to make and enforce its own 
rules. 

But federal prosecutors said that the 17- 
count indictment against Mr. Rostenkowski 
was proper. The question, they said, is not 
about constitutional principle but whether 
Mr. Rostenkowski stole money, a question 


not of separation of powers but of “co mm on 
thievery. 

The prosecutors cited Supreme Court cases 
backing up their argument and challenged 
Mr. Rostenkowski to reply. 

Mr. Rostenkowski, 66, has denied all 
charges and is running for re-election in No- 
vember. ( Reuters i 

Help for U.S. Voters Abroad 

WASHINGTON — Free courier service 
will help Americans abroad cast absentee 
election ballots in November. The service will 
be operated by DHL Worldwide Express, 
which has 1,500 offices throughout the world, 
and the Federated League of Americans 
Around the Globe, or FLAAG. 

An estimated 3 milli on civilian Americans 
who are potential voters will be outside the 
United States on Nov. 8, Election Day. To 
vote, they have to be officially registered in 
their home districts and return their absentee 
ballots back to those districts in time. 

Voters were asked to bring Federal Post 
Card Application forms to the nearest DHL 
office before Sept 16. DHL will accept com- 
pleted ballots until Nov. 1. It said it would 
cany the completed ballots to the United 
States and deposit them with the U.S. Postal 
Service for forwarding. 

FLAAG said thousands of voters took ad- 
vantage of a similar offer in 1 992, when it was 
first made. (AP) 

Quote/ Unquote 

Senator Bill Bradley, Democrat of New 
Jersey, arguing that Mr. Clinton had tried to 
do too much too quickly on health care. “You 
can’t do massive changes like that in one and 
a half years. It took four and a half years to 
get tax reform, six years to pass me crime bill; 
eight years to pass banking reforms and four 
years to pass a clean-water bill." (NYT) 


U.S. Readies Invasion, 
Surer Than Ever That 
Haiti Junta Won’t Quit 


A Bush’s ‘Life of Privilege’ 

Ex-First Lady's Memoir Lets Loose a Partisan Edge 


By Eric Schmitt 

New York Times Service 

WASHINGTON — As the 
United States moves down its 
checklist of military and diplo- 
matic preparations for a possi- 
ble invasion of Haiti, senior 
Clinton administration officials 
have concluded that the Haitian 
junta will not be scared into 
leaving by tough talk and eco- 
nomic sanctions. 

Since spring, U.S. policy to- 
ward Haiti has been driven as 
much by the hope that prepara- 
tions for military action would 
persuade the ruling generals to 
step down as by the actual need 
to plan an invasion to restore 
the exiled president, the Rever- 
end Jean-Bertrand Aristide. 

But administration officials 
are more pessimistic than ever 
about avoiding an invasion, es- 
pecially after a week in which a 
Roman Catholic priest and 
close ally of Father Aristide was 
murdered, the junta refused to 
arrange a meeting with UN en- 
voys and U.S. officials made 
their toughest warnings to date. 

“We have to plan for the fact 
they’re not going to respond 
and they’re not going to leave.” 


Quebec Court Rejects U.S. Extradition Bid 


By Anne Swardson 

Washington Post Service 

MONTREAL — A Quebec 


“It is my view that a majority 

KgS 

ft The case, believed to be the science and is simply unaccept- 
first of its kind, has raised fears aye,” j u <jge Morris J. Fish of 
that a wave of U.S. fugitives will ^ Quebec Court of Appeal 
flood Canada. Normally, those wrote in a majority opinion al- 
who escape to Canada are re- {owing Daniel Jamieson, 34, to 
turned to U.S. authorities. In a avoid extradition. He would 
few cases in recent years, Cana- f ace a 20-year minimum sen- 


concerns about stiff minimum The judgment will remain sus- 
sentences south of the border pended until the high court con- 
and highlights the more lenient siders the case and issues a rul- 
approach m Canada, a country ing, which could take a year, 
with far less crime than the 

United States. k 0*“ 10 become a 

“It is my view that a majority haven for fugitives from justice 
of reasonably well-informed m the United States, asked the 
Canadians would consider that Montreal Gazette m an eduon- 
appellant faces a situation in fO. “How would Canadians feel 
Michigan that shocks the con- £ so™? U.S. judges, appalled by 
sriencemd is simolv unaccem- Canadas relatively severe gun- 


Various appeals to avoid ex- 
tradition were denied. In 1992, 
the matter was referred to Kira 
Cam pbell, then justice minister 
and later briefly prime minister. 
Sbe studied the record and met 
with Mr. Jamieson's lawyer. 
Her decision was to surrender 
him to U.S. officials. 

The issue was not that Cana- 
da’s drug penalties were more 
lenient, though they are. Mr. 


dian courts have declined to im- 
mediately extradite accused 


tence in the United States. 

The Supreme Court of Cana- 


murderers wbo might face the responding to a request 
death penalty, a sentence Cana- f rom prosecutors, temporarily 
da abolished 18 years ago. All suspended the judgment just af- 
eventually were extradited. ter it was issued, so Mr. Jamie- 


But this case raises judicial 


ter it was issued, so Mr. Jamie- ai, where he was working as a 
son, remains in a Montreal jafl. doorman in a bar. 


control law, refused to extradite Jainje ^ n wo gj d have souen a 
gun-runners to this country? maxhaum of five years had he 
Mr. Jamieson was arrested in been convicted of his offense in 
1986 for selling 273 grams of a Canada and would have been 
cocaine-containing substance eligible for parole in less than 
to an undercover policeman in two. The issue was whether 
Farmington, Michigan, for Michigan’s 20-year minim um 
$20,000. It was Ms first alleged sentence, the toughest of its 
offense. He escaped in 1987 of- kind in the United States, so 
ter his preliminary bearing but “shocked the Canadian sen si- 
in 1990 was arrested in Montre- bilitv" that to send him back to 


one senior State Department 
official said. 

[Vice President Al Gore kept 
up the drumbeat on Sunday, 
saying the ruling junta would 
have to go, “one wav or anoth- 
er,” Agence France- Pres se re- 
ported. 

[Mr. Gore said in a broadcast 
interview from Cairo that an 
invasion “is not inevitable if the 
illegal dictatorship decides to 
comply with the world commu- 
nity’s wishes" and step down. 
But he added; “We’ve made it 
clear that the regime Lhere ille- 
gally in power is going to leave 
one way or another."] 

In a sense, the amplified 
threats by senior administra- 
tion officials last week merely 
restated Washington’s position 
that the junta must go. A final 
decision to invade rests with 
President Bill Clinton. 

But a growing number of of- 
ficials in the Pentagon, State 
Department. WMte House- and 
intelligence agencies concede 
that recent events have pro- 
duced a momentum that will 
not very likely be stopped. Most 
U.S. officials involved estimate 
that an invasion is most likely 
to take place in early October.’ 

Deputy Secretary of Slate 
Strobe Talbott said last week 
that options other than invasion 
were nearly exhausted. Deputy 
Defense Secretary John M. 
Deutcb said, “The multination- 
al force is going to Haiti.” 

Earlier last week, a navy- pa- 
trol boat zoomed across the 
edge of Port-au-Prince harbor 
and navy P-3 surveillance 
planes hovered off shore. 

“We’re about as committed 
as we can be without actually 
being on the ground.” another 
administration official said. 

While there have been differ- 
ences between the White 
House, Pentagon and State De- 
partment about aspects of poli- 
cy, agreement on the junta’s re- 


By Donnie Radcliffe 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — With no help from her 
dog Millie (she says), Barbara Bush has writ- 
ten her biography. 

More than a half- milli on copies of “Barba- 
ra Bush: A Memoir” quietly appeared in 
bookstores around the United States last 
week, reflecting Scribner’s expectations that 
it will outdo “Millie’s Book.”* the 1990 best- 
seller dictated by the Bush family pooch to 
Barbara Bush (she says) when she was First 
Lady. 

Though there are few surprises. “A Mem- 
oir" is a lively and partisan recollection of “a 
life of privilege” — most of it spent in George 
Bush's shadow — throughout the nearly 50 
years of their peripatetic marriage. 

Through all her years of campaigning, the 
“toughest issue” for her was abortion, she 
writes. “Everyone, it seemed, tried to make 
me say bow I felt about the issue, hoping to 
catch me disagreeing with George. I honestly 
felt, and still feel, the elected person’s opinion 
is the one the public has the right to know." 
She does acknowledge, however, that person- 
ally she is pro-choice. 

At another point, she expresses doubts 
about Anita Hill’s veracity during hearings on 
the Supreme Court nomination of Clarence 


Thomas. “The question is," she says she wrote 
in her diaiy on Oct. 1 1, 1991. “is tMs woman 
telling the truth? It is Clarence's word against 
Anita Hill's. 1 do not mean to sit in judgment, 
but I will never believe that she, a Yale Law- 
School graduate, a woman of the '80s, would 
put up with harassment for one moment, 
much less follow the horasser from job to 
job.” 

Anecdotal, funny and punctuated with oc- 
casional pointed comments, the book is the 
chronicle of a public life during some of 
America's most troubling crises and of a pri- 
vate life as recorded in a diary for more than 
30 years. 

“It will come as no surprise that 1 felt a 
lesser man by far had won the election," she 
writes of Bill Clinton in the prologue, setting 
the record straight about how she took her 
husband’s defeat. 

Of Hillary Rodham Clinton, Mrs. Bush 
writes she “is certainly very much a part of 
her husband’s decision-making process.” 

“She seems much the stronger of the two. 
Does it make him seem weaker? I am afraid 
that when problems or controversy occur, and 
they will, the finger will be pointed at Hillary. 

I am not saying this is right or wrong. It just' 
occurs to me that the American people also ' 
are going through an adjustment.” 


Live- TV Gaffe Shakes Brazil Politics 


Reuters 

BRASILIA — A private chat 
accidentally overheard by tele- 
vision viewers led Economy 
Minister Rubens Ricupero to 
offer his resignation during the 
weekend and has thrown the 
political scene into disauay a 
month before elections. 

Mr. Ricupero offered to quit 
after he boasted to a TV report- 
er that he was using an anti- 
inflation plan to bolster the 
presidential front-runner, Fer- 
nando Henri que Cardoso. 

The gaffe gave fresh hope to 
Mr. Cardoso’s main rival, Luiz 
Indcio da Silva of the Workers 
Party. It also raised the possi- 


bility that Mr. Cardoso could 
be disqualified from the Oct. 3 
elections for getting help from 
the government. 

Mr. Ricupero's comments 
put into question the future of 
the program to stabilize the 
economy. Hie plan was de- 
signed by Mr. Cardoso, Mr. Ri- 
cupero's predecessor, and has 
brought inflation down from 50 
percent in June to 2 percent in 
August. 

The furor stemmed from Mr. 
Ricupero’s conversation Thurs- 
day night with a reporter for 
Globo television. While waiting 
to start an interview via satel- 
lite, he said he was backing Mr. 


Cardoso, candidate of the cen- 
trist Brazilian Social Democrat- 
ic Party, by promoting the eco- 
nomic plan. 

“I have no scruples,” be said, 
according to a transcript pub- 
lished by the Jomal do Brasil. 
“The good things we publicize, 
the bad we hide." 

Unknown to Mr. Ricupero 
and the reporter, the chat was 
transmitted live. 


To subscribe in Germany 

just call, toll free, 

0130 Sa 85 85 


eligible for parole in less than not 10 1 ! ave * widespread. 


two. The issue was whether 
Michigan’s 20-year minimum 
sentence, the toughest of its 
kind in the United States, so 
“shocked the Canadian sensi- 
bility" that to send him back to 
face’ it would violate his rights 
under Canada’s Charter of 
Rights and Freedoms. 

Essentially, Judge Fish found 


The U.S. intelligence com- 
munity, including the CIA, the 
Defense Intelligence Agency 
and the State Department's in- 
telligence branch, first conclud- 
ed more than a year ago that 
sanctions and threats probably 
would not budge the Haitian 
dictators, officials said. 

But to gain public support 




Away From Politics 



• The District of Columbia’s 
164 public .schools may open 
a week or more iate unless a 
city judge decides that 65 
school buildings have correct- 
ed fire code violations, the 
school board president said. 
The fall semester is scheduled 
to begin Wednesday. 

• The emergency room at- 
tendants in a Los Angeles 
area hospital who fell ill last 
February while treating a dy- 
ing cancer patient because of 
so-called "mystery fumes” 
robably succumbed to mass 


students whose violent tem- 
pers and gang involvement 
got in the way of their talent, 
a school coach said. Cragg 
Hardaway, 16, and Derrick 
Hardaway, 14, were charged 
with first-degree murder for 
the execution-style shooting 
of a fellow gang member, 
Robert Sandifer. 

• A 13-year-oW with a sto- 
len gun shot and killed an 1 1- 
year-old who refused to apol- 
ogize during an argument. 
Jacob Tracy, of High Bridge, 
New Jersey, was sitting in his 


bedroom when he was shot 
once in the chest at point- 
blank range by the youth, 
who was not identified. The 
teenager was charged with 
first-degree murder. 

• An 11-year-old boy was 
charged with murder for al- 
legedly slitting the throat of 
Anna Gilvis, an 84-year-old 
widow, during a robbery in 
Chicago last year. Police said 
the boy, who was not identi- 
fied because of his age, con- 
fessed to the crime in an in- 
terview. LAT. AF 


that it would. In his decision, he for a possible invasion, and in 
found that the Michigan laws the hope of that it somehow 
were so harsh they would “of- could be avoided altogether, the 
fend the Canadian sense of administration felt compelled 
what is fair, right and just.” to exhaust all other alternatives. 
Even the dissenting judge in the In doing so, the White House 
2 to 1 decision noted that the followed the model set bv the 




50!h ANNIVERSARY 
LEYTE GULF J AND1NGS 

OCTOBER a.l«W 
FM.O. LEYTE. FrflUPPI'.TS 


Michigan law "reflects an op- 
pressive philosophy." 


Bush administration leading up 
to the Gulf war. 




partmeni of Health Services 
concluded. 

• A dald custody nightmare 

for a California woman end- 
ed when London authorities 
arrested her former husband 
for taking their young son to 
Iraq and demanding that she 
join them. Haitham Khaiid 
Nasseri, 33, was captured at 
Heathrow Airport in a sting 
operation organized by Scot- 
land Yard and the FBI. 
Mother and child were ex- 
pected to return to Southern 
California on Tuesday. 

• Two teenage brothers ac- 
cused of kilting an 11 -year- 
old murder suspect in Chica- 
go were award-winning 


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You are being honored at various 
events commemorating the 
50th Anniversary of the Leyte Gulf Landings 
Palo, Leyte, Philippines 
October 20, 1 994 

DON'T MISS YOUR DAYS OF GLORY 


Receive Your Philippine 
Liberation Medal if you 
served in the Philippines 

☆ Attend The Ceremonies 
in Your Honor 


* Bring Your Family and 
Friends to Events 
Saluting Your Sacrifices 

^ Remember In A 

Candlelight Ceremony 
Those Who Perished 


If you were there . . . 
on land, on sea, or in the air 


(632) 9116561/9116001 loc. 8155/8126 
Manila, Philippines 
or 1-800 Ley te/RP, U.S.A. 


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Please provide your name, address, telephone number 
and the military unit you were with on A-day. 





• ■ ■ •- iVT> >•'=*■»#] 


Pape 4 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 




Rebels in Sri Lanka 
Accept Peace Talks 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

COLOMBO —The Tamil re- 
bel leader has accepted the new 
government's offer for uncondi- 
tional peace talks to end Sri 
Lanka’s ethnic war. according 
to a rebel statement. 

Negotiations could start 
“within a few weeks or a few 
months." a government minis- 
ter said. 

The rebel leader, Velupiliai 
Prabhakaran, said in the state- 
ment that his group was '‘ready 
for a cease-fire and uncondi- 
tional peace talks.” 

The statement was read by an 
c’de at a ceremony Saturday in 
r orthem Sri Lanka where re- 
bels released 10 policemen they 
Md held in captivity for four 
.veal's. The government said it 
would consider releasing some 
rebels. 


A state oF emergency de- 
clared to prevent postelection 
violence was lifted in most areas 
Sunday, but will remain in force 
in the embattled northern and 
eastern regions, officials said. 

The emergency decree gives 
wide powers to security forces 
to arrest and detain suspects. It 
was promulgated at the close of 
the Aug. 16 election, but the 
new government of Prime Min- 
ister CbandriJca Kmoaratunga, 
a Socialist, had opposed it. 

Sri Lanka's 11-year ethnic 
war has killed more than 34,000 
people. The Hindu Tamil mi- 
nority, which demands a home- 
land in the north and east, ac- 
cuses the majority Buddhist 
Sinhalese of discrimination in 
jobs and education. Tamils 
make up 18 percent of Sri Lan- 
ka's 17 milli on people. (AP, 
AFP) 


CHILL: No Gulag , but Hard Life 


Continued from Page 1 

From Ivan the Terrible on. no- 
blemen and others who fell out 
of favor or engaged in plots 
ended up here to uve out their 
lives as monks. It was a perfect 
prison, remote and surrounded 
by a sea that in winter does not 
freeze enough to walk on and in 
summer is too cold to swim in 
and survive. 

But it was under the Soviet 
regime that this island and the 
five smaller ones around it be- 
came a lasting symbol of a more 
barbaric sort. Here the Bolshe- 
viks developed a prototype of 
what the world now knows as 
the Stalinist gulag. 

“It was the camp on which all 


TACT: 

End to Tendons 

Continued from Page 1 
sin said Saturday. He had just 
returned from Germany, where 
he watched the last 'Russian 
troops withdraw from Europe. 

Soviet-Chin ese tensions had 
cooled a while ago. Chinese bal- 
listic missiles are not targeted in 
advance, according to Western 
military officials, so the agree- 
ment is largely symbolic. 

The economic agreements 
the two leaders signed were 
more important than those 
reached on arms control. China 
— despite its stridently Com- 
munist political system — has 
proven far more flexible eco- 
nomically than Russia was un- 
der communism, or Russia is 
today. Many Russians now say 
they look to China as a model of 
how to apply phased economic 
reforms. 

This is an ironic twist for two 
countries that have token such 
divergent paths. Struggling to 
find the right route to a success- 
ful market economy, Mr. Yelt- 
sin and others sometimes seem 
to look wistfully at China’s re- 
markable economic growth 
over the past decade. “We pay 
much attention to studying the 
experience of economic reforms 
in China.” he told Mr. Jiang. 


future norms were designed: 
how much food to give, what 
kind of clothing, how to execute 
people and get rid of their bod- 
ies,” said Yuri Brodsky, a histo- 
rian of the islands. “It was a 
micro-model of the whole horri- 
ble system.” 

In 1923, the new Soviet gov- 
ernment ordered the monastery 
closed and the monks sent 
away. In their place in the 
churches and prayer cells came 
the first “class enemies”: aristo- 
crats, chemists, linguists, mili- 
tary men, lawyers, historians, 
artists. At first, the regimen was 
not that bad. it was cold and 
the prisoners were poorly 
clothed and fed, and many were 
shot, but others were allowed to 
walk freely inside the monas- 
tery and even establish a the- 
ater, a newspaper and study 
groups. 

But by the late 1920s the re- 
gime in Moscow had hardened, 
and so, too, had life on Solovki. 
A children's colony, for “coun- 
terrevolutionaries” age 12 to 16, 
was set up. Thousands of pris- 
oners arrived each day in sum- 
mer and were stuffed into dank, 
airless chambers already 
crammed full. Tortures, such as 
standing a prisoner naked for 
hours in a swarm of mosquitoes 
or pouring cold water over him 
ana letting him freeze in the 
snow, were finely honed to 
break people physically and 
psychologically. Mass execu- 
tions occurred regularly. 

“They were shot in the back 
of their heads,” recalled Dimitri 
Likhachev, a philosopher and 
historian who was imprisoned 
here for four years. “The execu- 
tioner and others were drunk, 
so they did not always manage 
to'shoot people to death right 
away, but they threw them in 
the pit all the same. The pit, 
covered with soil, showed signs 
of movement even on the day 
after the shooting." 

No one knows how many 
died, maybe 10,000 of the 
60,000 to 80,000 who were im- 
prisoned here, many not inside 
the monastery but at remote, 
primitive logging camps scat- 
tered among the islands. 



Murayama Russia Toughens Bosnia Stand 

Gets Party 
To Scrap 
Pacifism 


Kara LxiurcprJ Reuters 

A young picket awaiting a Sinn Fein rally in Belfast 

ULSTER: Major Bars IRA Talks 


Continued from Page I 
ty forces maintained a discreet 
presence, and the protest 
passed without incident. 

Britain’s Northern Ireland 
secretary. Sir Patrick Mayhew, 
was as cautious as Mr. Major, 
saying on Independent Televi- 
sion News: “We want to believe 
this is over for good, but we 
cannot snatch at it and say — 
let’s take a chance.” 

That provoked an angry re- 
tort from Mr. Adams, who said: 
“The momentum for peace 
must not be slowed down.” 

He said he would willingly 
accept an invitation from the 
veteran Labor left-winger Tony 
Bezrn to attend the annual con- 
ference of Britain's main oppo- 
sition party next month. 

But Mr. Major made it clear 
that that was out of the ques- 
tion. The exclusion order ban- 
ning Mr. Adams from the Brit- 
ish mainland will not be lifted 
in the near future, he said. 

Sources dose to the Ulster 
Volunteer Force confirmed that 
file outlawed Protestant group 
was considering its own cease- 


campaign of random sectarian 
attacks against Catholics. 

Martin McGuinness, deputy 
president of Sinn Fein, offered 
words of encouragement to the 
suspicious Protestant commu- 
nity Sunday. He indicated that 
his parly might accept a settle- 
ment far short of the IRA goal 
of a united Ireland. 

(Reuters. AP. AFP ) 


Lee Angeles Times Service 
TOKYO — Prime Minister 
Tomiichi Murayama won ap- 
■pi proval for a historic reversal of 
his Socialist Party's pacifist pol- 
icies. but the victory dealt a 
severe blow to party unity. 

A special party convention 
backed Mr. Murayama’s decla- 
rations supporting the U.S.-Ja- 
pan Security Treaty, recogniz- 
ing Japan's armed forces as 
constitutional, accepting nucle- 
ar power generation and ac- 
knowledging the national an- 
them ana national flag. 

These declarations, which 
Mr. Murayama made in July 
after forming a coalition with 
the Liberal Democrats and the 
splinter New Harbinger Party, 
reversed positions that had 
been the Socialists’ bedrock for 
four decades. The about-face 
eliminates all major policy gaps 
with the Liberal Democrats, 
who during their 195S-93 rule 
had been archenemies of the 
Socialists. 

Approval of the new policies 
came only after 40 percent of 
the party's delegates tried to 
block them with an amendment 
to retain the anti-xmlitaiy poli- 
cies. The amendment was re- 
jected, 222 to 152. 

Two Parliament members re- 
signed during the convention 
Saturday, where widespread 
dissent pointed toward the pos- 
sibility of a party breakup. 

Party divisions could damp- 
en Socialist prospects in an up- 
per-house election in July and a 
lower-house election that must 
be held by 1997. Last year, the 
Socialists lost half their seats in 
a lower-house election. 

“Those who can’t fully un- 
derstand the Socialist Party’s 
new policy developments say 
the party has lost its reason to 
exist, but that will never hap- 
pen,” Mr. Murayama told the 
delegates. 

“The era of ideological con- 
frontation is over,” he said. 
“The time for debating specific 
policies has arrived.” 


By Douglas Jehl 

jVcw York Times Service 

EDGARTOWN, Massachusetts — In a new 
sign of division over the path to peace in Bosnia- 
Herzegovina, Russia has issued a strong private 
message to President Bill Clinton warning him 
not to lift the arms embargo against the Bosnian 
government, according to administration 
officials. 

Mr. Clinton said last month that he would 
press for a lifting of the embargo if the Bosnian 
Serbs had not accepted a peace settlement draft- 
ed by the Western allies and Russia by Oct, 15. 
The embargo bars arms shipments to all sides, 
but hurts the Bosnian government most because 
the Bosnian Serbs are much better armed 

A possible opening of the way to arms ship- 
ments to the Muslim-led Bosnian government is 
among the steps that have been held out since 
early s umm er by the so-called contact group — 
Russia, Britain, France, Germany and the Unit- 
ed States — to induce the Serbs to agree to the 
peace terms. 

But in a diplomatic presentation at the State 
Department on Friday that administration offi- 
cials described as frank, a Russian envoy was 
emphatic in saying his government would never 
agree to that. 

The chargd d'affaires of the Russian Embassy, 
who said he was delivering a message for Mr. 
Clinton, said Russia wanted the president in- 
stead to permit an immediate easing of economic 
sanctions against Serbia as a reward for new 
efforts to persuade the Bosnian Serbs to accept 
the peace terms. 

But administration officials said that Foreign 


Minister Andrei V. Kozyrev of Russia delivered 
an identical message on Wednesday in a meeting 
with Chancellor Helmut Kohl of Germany, and 
that high-level meetings to review the status of 
U.S. policy toward Bosnia would very likely be 
convened by the National Security Council staff^ 

Madeleine K. Albright, the chief U.S. delegate 
to the United Nations, is to meet in Moscow with 
Mr. Kozyrev on Monday, administration offi- 
cials said. On Tuesday there will be a working- 
level meeting of the contact group in Geneva, 
scheduled in large part in response to a Russian 

even as Mr. Clinton and President Boris 
Yeltsin of Russia prepare to hold a summit 
meeting in Washington at the end of the month, 
administration officials said the failure of their 
joint efforts toward peace in Bosnia appears to 
have left the two countries increasingly at odds. 

In Moscow’s diplomatic presentation, and in 
recent appeals to other Western governments, 
Russia has argued that it is time to reward Serbia 
and its president, Slobodan Milosevic, for mov- 
ing at long last to block shipments of arms, fuel 
and food to the Bosnian Serbs. 

But the United States has questioned whether 
Mr. Milosevic and his government have truly 
turned against their former clients. Administra- 
tion officials said they would continue to insist 
that armed monitors be stationed along the Dri- 
na River between Serbia and Bosnian Serb-con- 
trolled areas before any sanctions are eased 
against Belgrade. - 

That is a step that both Russia and Serbia havif^ 
said they would steadfastly resist. 


ISSUES: New Hope on Birthrates 


Continued from Page 1 

Quad a leader of the U.S. delega- 
tion to what formally is called 
the International Conference 
on Population and Develop- 
ment. “The whole world is mov- 
ing, and the political will is get- 
ting stronger to make 
population stabilization hap- 
pen.” 

Mr. Wirth and others from 
the United States played a ma- 
jor role in shapingthe proposed 
plan of action. “There's an ex- 
traordinary level of agreement 
among leaders all over the 
world on recognizing the prob- 
lem and on how to go about 
solving it,” he said. 

It was not always so. 

When the first such confer- 
ence was held in 1974 in Bucha- 
rest, rich and poor countries 
dashed over whether there was 
a population problem at alL 

The rich brandished warn- 
ings of a "population bomb” 
and said the poor were having 
too many babies. 

The poor said that the rich 


CUBA: Negotiator Urges U.S. to Take All Who Want In 

Continued from Page 1 


embargo stays in place — if the 
other side shows flexibility on 
immigration matters,” he said. 

He said Cuba was eager to 
see legal immigration increased 
because Havana was convinced 
this would reduce the pressures 
behind the exodus, which he, 
said was a destabilizing force’ 
for Cuba. 

The Coast Guard picked up 
445 Cuban rafters at sea by 


In what appeared to be a 
veiled warning, Mr. Alarodn 
said Washington should hot ex- 
pect any slackening soon in the 
flow of refugees. He said that 
after three decades of granting 
entry to all Cubans, President 
Bill Clinton's decision to keep 
boat people at the Gua n tAna m o 
Bay Naval Station would not in 
a matter of one or two weeks 
dissuade Cubans from heading 
to Florida by raft. 


dt SC2 

midday Sunday, a spokesman Mr- Alarc6n scoffed at the 

o _ said. The total on Saturday was belief, espoused by many ad- 

fire, which could be called with- 946, putting the number of Cu- ministration officials and Cu- 
in three weeks. But the less- ban boat people picked up at ban-American leaders, that Mr. 
disciplined Ulster Freedom sea over the 30,000 mark for the Castro’s government was on its 
Fighters could keep up their year to date. last legs. 


■ New Camps in Panama 

In a boost to President Clin- 
ton's efforts to deal with the 
refugee crisis, Panama said 
Sunday it would allow up to 
10,000 Cubans to be housed in 
UJ5--con trolled territory along- 
side the Panama Canal, Reuters 
reported from Panama City. 

Foreign Minister Gabriel 
Lewis Galindo said Panama 
would allow the refugees to stay 
in four tent cities being built by 
the U.S. military alongside the 
canal for no longer than six 
months. “This is a humanitar- 
ian gesture to help out our 
brothers in need,” Mr. Lewis 
said. 


were advocating genocide and, 
in any case; that it was the rich 
world's industry and heavy con- 
sumption of natural resources 
that was degrading the planet. 
The poor countries said that 
what they really needed was 
help in developing their econo- 
mies. 

At the second conference, in 
Mexico City 10 years later, the 
dimate shifted dramatically. By 
then, the poor countries had 
recognized that their popula- 
tions were growing too fast and. 
that the growth rate was frus- 
trating efforts to develop eco- 
nomically. 

But the United States — un- 
der President Ronald Reagan, 
who was courting the anti-abor- 
tion vote in his re-election cam- 
paign, reversed its 1974 St: .ce, 
allied itself with the Vatican 
and proclaimed that population 
growth was not a problem. The 
United States, long the major 
supporter of Third World fam- 
ily planning programs, abruptly 
withdrew aid from those that 
provided abortion counseling 
or services. 

So threatening was the U.S. 
position, recalled Joseph Spie- 
dd, head of Population Action 
International, that once when 
officials in Bangladesh were 
confronted with a woman dying 
of a botched, illegal abortion, 
they refused to take her to a 
clinic because they feared it 
might jeopardize the clinic's ac- 
cess to American foreign aid. 

For all the publicity given the 
Vatican's objections to some 
points, the church hierarchy 
does support the bulk of the 
plan. Ninety-two percent of the 
language is agreed on by all 
parties. By comparison, at the 
1992 UN environment confer- 
ence in Rio de Janeiro, only 
about 50 percent of that plan of 
action had been 
countries befoi 


CAIRO: 

Debating Rifts 

Continued from Page 1 
socially conservative Ireland to 
the liberal Scandinavian na- 
tions. 

At the same time, advocates 
of the EU compromise ac- 
knowledged that they stQI must 
overcome stiff resistance from 
the Vatican and Islamic coun- 
tries, whose governments are 
under pressure from religious 
authorities who have criticized 
the document as condoning ho- 
mosexuality and extramarital 
sex, among other things. 

Egypt, for example, was said 
to be seeking Support from Iran 
in removing language that 
man y Islami c leaders see as 
condoning homosexuality, in 
particular a sentence urging an 
end to discrimination against 
“other unions” besides tradi- 
tional marriage. 

In fact, Caribbean nations 
originally sought to indude the 
phrase m the draft to coye^V 
common-law marriages, which 
are an established tradition in 
those countries. 

One of the most controversial 
passages, on reproductive 
health, has been attacked by 
conservative Catholics and Is- 
lamists as advocating a univer- 
sal right to abortioa . 

The EU compromise seeks to 
pre-empt that criticism by stat- 
ing at the outset of that section 
that each country’s polity on 
reproductive matters “is the 
sovereign right of each nation, 
consistent with the national 
laws and in conformity with in- 
ternational human rights stan- 
dards." 

“Everything in the program 
supports the rights of nationsfto 
make law or policy,” said Mr. 
Sadik. “Each country will inter- 
pret the draft program of action 
in tight of its own law, customs 
and culture.” 

— BOYCE RENSBERGER 


BOOKS 


BRIDGE 


DOUBLE LIFE: The Shat- 
lermg Affair Between Chief 
Judge Sol Wachller and So- 
cialite Joy Silverman 

By Linda Wolfe. Illustrated. 2S6 
pages. 522. Pocket Books. 

Reviewed by 
Maureen Dowd 

A LOT or an has been spun 
on the proposition that you 
can never really know anyone 
else. no matter how intimate 
your connection. At any mo- 


Educotion 

Directory 

Every Tuesday 
Contact 
Fred Ronan 
Tel.: (331) 

46 37 93 9] 
Fax: (331) 
46 37 93 70 
or your nearest 
IHT office 
or representative 


menu your wife, your lover, 
your father, your child could 
turn into a maniacal stranger. 
Long before the nation became 
transfixed by O.J. Simpson, 
New York had its own shocking 
Jekyll-and-Hyde tale, starring 
Sol Wachller, the chief judge of 
the state’s highest court, and 
Joy Silverman, a well-connect- 
ed Republican fund-raiser. 

Last year the 63-year-old 
Wachtler went to jail For black- 
mail and extortion after he was 
caught harassing the 46-year- 
old Silverman, who was his 
wife's cousin and his former 
lover. With crude imperson- 
ations and a voice-disguising 
gadget that be bought at a spy 
shop, he made threatening calls. 
He also sent obscene, menacing 
letters to Silverman and to her 
14-year-old daughter. 

As Linda Wolfe explains in 
“Double Life,” there was little 
to presage Wach tier's bizarre 
transformation from a respect- 
ed, popular judge and Republi- 
can gubernatorial prospect. His 
fall was so vertiginous that he 
went from being a board mem- 
ber of Long Island Jewish Hos- 


WHAT THEY'RE READING 


• Gerhard Lestner, professor 
of English at the Free Universi- 
ty in Berlin, is reading “Remem- 
bering Babylon’' by David Ma- 
louf. 

“I have visited Australia 
many times and find the book 
fascinating since it is a descrip- 
tion of how Australians are try- 
ing to integrate into Aborgjnal 
and white history and common 
mythology.” 

(Michael KaQenbach, IHT) 



pital to being a patient under 
psychiatric observation there, 
with his log chained to a bed. 

Wolfe, a crime writer who ex- 
plored sexual dementia in two 
earlier books, zeroes in on the 
notion of repression: “He’d been 
on the Court of Appeals nearly 
10 years now, and a certain 
sameness, a dreadful Harness, 
had crept into his life. . . . Per- 
haps part of his feeling of dull- 
ness had to do with the desicca- 
tion that was his sexual life. He 
and Joan had stopped making 
love.” 

Enter Joy SDverman, a sleek. 


striking brunette obsessed with 
shopping. 

Wachtler had known Stiver- 
man since she was 13. because 
her mother had married his 
wife's uncle, an affluent build- 
er. But he never paid much at- 
tention to her through her first 
two marriages to wealthy men. 
When her mother died, her 
stepfather remarried a woman 
named Honey. And when her 
stepfather died, an agitated Sil- 
verman went to Wachtler to see 
if he could stop Honey from 
being in charge of the trust her 
stepfather left her. He could; he 


took over the job himself. 
“Does Sol Wachtler fool 
around?” she asked a mutual 
friend afterward, Wolfe tells us. 

Now on her third restless 
marriage, to a New York invest- 
ment banker, she began show- 
ing up at Wachtler’s speeches 
and relying on his advice. 

Silverman and her husband 
separated, but Wachtler was 
still balking at leaving Joan. So 
Silverman shopped for a new 
boyfriend, turning up David 
Samson, a successful New York 
lawyer. “David’s handsomer 
than you,” she taunted 
Wachtler. “And he’s richer than 
you.” 

The grand passion ended 
amid quarrels about whether 
Dan Qiiayle was a dork. (Silver- 
man thought dol) Feeling fa- 
tigued Wachtler went to a doc- 
tor, who prescribed Tenuaxe, an 
amphetamine-like drug that set 
his mind racing. 

Wanting to scare Silverman 
into seeking his counsel, 
Wachtler invented a Houston 
private eye named David 
Purdy, who wrote letters, 
threatening to release tapes and 
pictures of Silverman and Sam- 


son mailing love. He even 
brought Purdy to life, showing 
up at Samson's Upper East Side 
apartment building in a Stetson 
hat, string tie and cowboy 
boots. 

Silverman had gotten the FBI 
involved and it was monitoring 
Wacb tier’s threats, as Purdy, 
that she would not see her 
daughter again unless she 
coughed up a ransom of 
S20,000. The FBI arrested 
Wachtler, and a battery of psy- 
chiatrists had at him. 

Wolfe is a pedestrian writer 
who promotes dames to sen- 
tences, and whose analysis runs 
to cliche. But the flatness of her 
account is mitigated by the in- 
herent fascination of the stoty. 

Wachtler was sentenced to 15 
months in a minimum-security 
prison. When he claimed to 
nave been stabbed in prison, 
the FBI decided the wound was 
self-inflicted and Wachtler was 
transferred to a prison with a 
larger psychiatric wing. He was 
put on Prozac and given a job 
leaching creative writing. 


Maureen Dowd is on the staff 
of The New York Times. 


By Alan Truscott 
C OME of the funniest bridge 
O episodes ever described a 
print were about Jackie Moyse, 
the wife of the late Alphonse 
Moyse Jr. He was the editor of 
The Bridge World and his arti- 
cles about her have been col- 
lected by the present editors in 
a booklet, “Bndge With Jackie, 
Book IL” 

On the diagramed deal she 
made her first use of the Texas 
convention. Four hearts in re- 
sponse to one no-trump showed 
spades and required her part- 
ner-husband to bid four spades, 
but he quickly forgot, a com- 
mon development when artifi- 
cial conventions are used for 
the first time. 

Jackie played the hand brisk- 
ly. adding emotion-filled com- 
mentary. She played the heart 
queen, winning the trick, and 
entered her hand with a club to 
the king. She led a trump and 
West put np the leu to force 
dummy’s ace. South cashed 
dummy’s remaining two aces, 
ran four spade tricks and 
played a fifth spade. West had 
to ruff, and whether be ruffed 
low or high dummy's heart nine 


gave South her tenth trick.- She 
did not quite realize she hadj 
now made her contract, stiB 
saying: “Fll never, never, never 
play with you again.” 

The opponents were not 
pleased, particularly when it 
was noted that others might bid 
six spades and go down. TEat 
contract can be made, but- to 
find out bow and get the full 
account of Jackie's inimitable 
conversation, you will have to 
boy the book. 


NORTH (0) 

♦ J93 
9 A Q 9 
O ASS 
+ A842 

WEST EAST 

4 7 3 4 2 A - - ; 

9 K J 10 8 73 983 -.o' 

0 2 OKQJWS 84 

4 Q 109 7 
SOUTH 

4AKQX088 
9 42 ' 

073 
*X33 


* 38 


North and South were vulnerable. 
The bidding: 

North East south Vest 

1 N.T. Pass 4 9 Pass 

Pats Pan 

West led the heart Jack. 





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Africa Facing Life on Its Own 

Historic Changes Help Curb World’s Concern 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 


Page 5 




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By Thomas Lippman 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — When Nelson Mandela 
was sworn in as president of South Africa in 
May, the last of the three great conflicts that 
have shaped the modern history of Africa came 
1 ;/ to an end. 

Apartheid was vanquished. The struggle 
f ' ^ against colonialism ended when Djibouti won 
- : ]; independence from France in 1977 and Briiish- 
l ‘ : controlled Rhodesia became independent Zim- 

1 babwe in 1980. The end of the Cold War also put 
jj'jj,' an end to the proxy conflicts between Moscow 
- ' and Washington that ravaged the continent An- 
■I gola’s war con rinues, but it is no longer a contest 

between Moscow and Washington. 

These historic developments ought to have 
' been unrelieved good news for sub-Saharan Afri- 
•; ca. But in many countries, what loomed as an era 
of promise dissolved into one of drift and disor- 
der as Africa was increasingly left to its own 
. V.’*-* devices. Except for televised disasters, and tri- 
umphs like Mr. Mandela's inauguration, Africa 
, x largely disappear .d from the agenda of the major 
i „ '* ■■ powers: 

.:r , With its limited economic clout and endemic 
'! corruption, and without the moral imperative of 
the movement against apartheid, Africa no long- 
N er commands the same level of international 
' * concern as it did when rivals elsewhere needed 
^African votes in the Unite. * Nations. Now most- 
ly on its own, Africa has entered another period 
of struggle, perhaps more brutal than the first 
three: order against chaos. 

In the gloomiest forecasts, the disintegrations 
of Somalia, Rwanda, Liberia and Sudan project 
Africa’s future, with the centrifugal forces in 
many countries compounded by international 
**' indifference. 

■ “Africa is left adrift at a time of economic 
-v crisis, perpetuating its sense of mar ginalisa tion, 
frustration and anger over its seeming abandon- 
. ment,” scholars John W. Harbeson and Donald 
: RothchiTd wrote in “Africa in World Politics.** 

“The picture that emerged at the end of the 
1 980s was one of increasing African peripherali- 
■?-" zation,” they wrote. “The explanation for this 
phenomenon varied, but it included the end of 
the Cold War, the industrialized countries’ disil- 
' iusionment with the economic and political per- 
; formanceof the African states, ana the growing 
-T preoccupation of the developed countries with 
their own economic problems.” 

•' t The CIA demonstrated this point in June 
when it floated a plan to dose IS stations in 
Africa to save money. “We have never been in 
1' Africa to report on Africa," a CIA official said. 
“We went into Africa as part of the covert 
activity of the Cold War.” It was easier there, he 
explained, to recruit Cuban and East European 
7 agents. 

The British international rdief agency Oxfam, 
in a report last year, complained that the indus- 
trialized nations, “preoccupied with more ‘strate- 
■ gic* concerns elsewhere" have allowed Africa, the 
: 'Itworid’s most impoverished region, to become 
. increasingly marginalized. 

In a speech last May, James Gustave Speth, 

* director of the UN Development Program, ar- 
gued that it was in the developed nations' self- 
interest to help Africa. If they did not. he said. 


Uti;-' 


crime” and other problems from .Africa. But he 
also noted that most nations’ attention is focused 
elsewhere. 

Russia, once a looming military presence in 
the Horn of Africa and patron of leftist regimes 
from Ethiopia to Mozambique, has all but with- 
drawn from Africa. The United States, which 
was heavily engaged in Africa as a counterweight 
to the Soviets, has “no strategic interests in 
Africa,” according to Pentagon doctrine. Among 
industrialized nations, the United States ranks 
last in percentage of gross national product de- 
voted to African aid. 

Except for diplomatic involvement, Britain. 
Belgium and Portugal mostly disappeared from 
Africa when they gave up their colonies. Japa- 
nese investment is minimal- Among the major 
powers, only France remains actively committed 
in Africa, with troops in seven countries, exten- 
sive economic and political ties and effective 
control of the currency of its former colonies in 
West Africa. 

U.S. policymakers and some independent ana- 
lysts say South Africa is capable of vigorous 
economic growth that will also contribute to the 
development of its neighbors. But “whereas 
South Africa and the southern African region 
increasingly command our attention for both 
economic and political reasons, much of the rest 
of the continent is becoming more marginal in 
terms of U.S. national interest priorities.” said 
Walter H. Kansteiner, White House Africa poli- 
cy director in the Bush administration. 

Western thinking about sub-Saharan Africa 
appears generally divided along the lines of opti- 
mism versus pessimism. 

The optimists see a new generation of realistic 
African leaders adopting economic and political 
reforms that could lead to peace and prosperity. 
They also see indigenous peace and human rights 
movements increasingly asserting themselves 
and putting pressure on leaders to abandon re- 
pressive policies. 

The pessimists see an accelerating slide -in to 
the chaos and anarchy tearing apart Somalia, 
Rwanda, Sudan, Liberia and Angola. In both 
views, what happens to Africa in the coming 
decade is largely up to the Africans, not to 
foreign powers. 

The most pessimistic prospect was offered by 
Robert D. Kaplan in an apocalyptic article in the 
Atlantic Monthly, “The Coming Anarchy.” 

According to Mr. Kaplan, overpopulation, 
crime, corruption and the ready availability of 
weapons wOl doom virtually all of West Africa to 
lapse into anarchy. 

Envisioning a lawless era in which the writ of 
government will not extend to the interior, he 
said Africa “faces cataclysms that could make 
the Ethiopian and Somalian famines pale in 
comparison.” 

Optimists about Africa said in interviews that 
it was necessary to distinguish between failed 
states such as Somalia and old-fashioned African 
“big man” dictatorships such as Togo on the one 
hand and the more open, stable countries with 
new pragmatic rulers on the other. This list 
includes Benin, Eritrea, Mall, Zambia and Ugan- 
da as well as South Africa. 

Africans “want the same things everybody else 
wants.” said Vivian Lowery Derryck, president of 
disease, poverty and environmental degradation the African American Institute in New York, and 
in Africa will ensure that “our own shores” will they are throwing their support to leaders and 
be affected by “illegal aliens, refugees, drugs, movements that hold the promise of delivering. 



Pime VcrdyAjicnce Frjncs Prcwc 

TAKING REFUGE — A Rwandan woman and her children registering at a recently opened UN refugee camp at 
Kahindo, north of Goma, in Zaire. Officials say that the new camp is better equipped with water, roads and a hospital. 


SOMALIA: Chaos Defeats Efforts at Building a State 


Continued from Page 1 
is likely to remain a country 
without a government for a long 
time. 

“If you really believe in the 
principle of self-determination, 
then they have the right not to 
have a government,” said Dan- 
iel Simpson, the U.S. ambassa- 
dor. “If they don’t want to have 
a nation-state, that's their 
right.” 

“There’s no more Somalia, 
he added. “Somalia's gone. You 
can call the place where the So- 
mali people live 'Somalia,' but 
Somalia as a state disappeared 
in 1991." What is likely to 
emerge now, he said, “will look 
pretty much like the 19th-cen- 
tury Somali coast when the co- 
lonialists came." a collection of 
city-states and trading posts 
along the coast and some sul- 
tanates in the interior. 

The fragmentation is already 
well advanced, even here in the 
capital. The city's deep-water 
port, chief entry point for inter- 
national aid, has again become 
a focus of looting and banditry. 
Streets around the port are 
ruled by armed gangs who hi- 
jack rdief agency trucks at will, 
even when they have military 
escorts. 

Mogadishu today resembles 
the crazed and chaotic city it 
was before the U.S. interven- 


tion. when armed militiamen 
roamed the si reels and foreign 
aid workers had to hire their 
own gun-toting thugs to protect 
them. The only difference now 
is the presence of more than 
18,000 LIN troops, most of 
them in the capital and mostly 
performing “force protection^ 
roles — meaning they are busy 
securing their own safety. 

There are also hundreds of 
civilians working with the UN 
aid operation here, which seems 
to have become a self-perpetu- 
ating bureaucracy. Most of the 
civilian workers appear to be 
biding their lime in tbe safety of 
the UN compound while wait- 
ing for the Security Council to 
pull the plug on a 'mission that 
costs S2 million a day. 

In any case, the operation is 
scheduled to shut down by next 
March. Even though most aid 
workers here expect the end to 
come sooner rather than later, 
the UN bureaucracy continues 
to grow. The political section, 
for example, has about 50 em- 
ployees. but political officers 
say their only real job is to *‘fa- 
ciQtate" peace talks among the 
Somali factions. This amounts 
to providing meeting space and 
meals for Somali negotiators, 
and, when they meet in neigh- 
boring Kenya or elsewhere, to 
paying their hotel bills. 


The final withdrawal, when- 
ever it comes, will mean the 
elimination of UN-created em- 
ployment and support for thou- 
sands of Somalis under one of 
the world's costliest public jobs 
projects. “What you’ve got here 
is one of the biggest welfare 
programs around,” said John 
Kilkenny of the Irish charity 
Concern. “It’s not only a wel- 
fare state, but welfare in the 
absence of a state.” 

In 1992. Somalia was gripped 
by a cycle of famine and civil 
war that claimed hundreds of 
thousands of lives; today, there 
is no starvation, and farmers 
have even begun to accumulate 
surpluses. There is little doubt 
that intervention saved count- 
less lives, but the mission 
turned sour when its goal shift- 
ed from feeding people to try- 
ing to rebuild a Somali state. 

Mr. Kilkenny, among others, 
agrees that ambitious notions 
of rebuilding the state were 
probably far-fetched. “If you’re 
going to rehabilitate it. don't 
bring all your false. Western no- 
tions about grass-roots, repre- 
sentative democracy." he said. 
“That wasn't here before. It was 
an attempt at nation-building, 
but along somebody dse’s mod- 
el. It was very, very unrealistic." 


At Least 17 Die 
In Clan Clashes 

Reuters 

MOGADISHU', Somalia 
~ At least 17 people were 
killed and an unknown 
number wounded in clash- 
es between rival Somali 
clans, United Nations offi- 
cials said Sunday. 

A woman and a child 
caught in crossfire were 
among 10 dead in fighting 
in the southwestern town of 
Baidoa on Friday. 

In the southern port of 
Kismayu on Saturday, sev- 
en members of the Habre 
Gedir clan were killed 
when members of the 
Luway clan tried to steal a 
truck. 

In another incident at 
Merka, south of Mogadi- 
shu, on Saturday, bandits 
raided a school, detonated 
an explosive device and 
stole money and equip- 
ment. 

UN officials said the raid 
was apparently an attempt 
by Muslim extremists to 
destroy the school, which is 
administered by Italian 
Christian missionaries. 


Oil Unions 
In Nigeria 
Weigh End 
To Strike 


Reuters 

LAGOS — The leaders of 
Nigeria’s striking oil unions 
were divided Sunday on wheth- 
er a two-momh-old walkout in 
support of Moshood K.O. 
Abiola's presidential claims 
had been suspended. 

“There is a meeting tomor- 
row to decide whether or not to 
suspend the strike and until 
then it is wrong for anyone to 
say the strike has been suspend- 
ed," said Milton Dabibi, secre- 
tary-general of the white collar 
oil union Pengassan. 

Earlier, the union’s spokes- 
man. Arthur Onoviran, said ex- 
ecutives of both Pengassan and 
its blue collar partner. Nupeng, 
who were dismissed in mid-Au- 
gust by the military ruler. Gen- 
eral Sani Abacha. met for seven 
hours on Saturday and decided 
to suspend the strike. 

Oil workers have been on 
strike since July 4 to force the 
government to free Mr. Abiola, 
the wealthy businessman wide- 
ly believed to have won last 
year's annulled election. He is 
currently on trial for treason for 
proclaiming himself president. 

“We are still saying the gov- 
ernment should release Abiola 
and all political detainees, in- 
cluding our own members, so as 
to allow for dialogue," Mr. On- 
oviran said. 

Some union members have 
have already resumed work in 
the wake of a broadcast by 
General Abacha last month dis- 
missing the union leaders and 
ordering the rank and file mem- 
bers to go back to their jobs. 

The contradictory claims ap- 
peared to be part of a split 
among union executives over 
whether or not to press ahead 
with a stoppage which in terms 
of impact has started to wane. 

At the height of the strike, 
long lines were visible in many 
Nigerian cities as the strike dis- 
rupted fuel supplies. The lines 
have gradually disappeared as 
fuel supplies improved. 

Nigeria has been in crisis 
since the election was annulled, 
a crisis that appears increasing- 
ly to pit Mr. Abiola's Yoruba 
e’thnic group against the north, 
which has ruled Nigeria for 
most of the time since indepen- 
dence in i960. 



More than that, you trust us. 


Of course we’re glad 28 million of you chose 
to fly with us this year. It must mean you like us 


Lufthansa 








Pa«jr 6 


MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 


OPINION 


Hcralb 


INTERNATIONAL 



tribune 


ftHMSHKU mill TIIK NFW YORK TIMF.N AND THK WAKHIMiTi iX post 


Haiti Isn’t a U.S. Colony 


Unwisely, the Clinton administration 
is sliding slowly toward an invasion of 
Haiti. It has put itself in an awkward 
position. Some time ago it began making 
hints about an invasion in the hope that 
the mere threat would spook the Haitian 
generals and induce them to flee. Instead 
the generals seem to have dug in — wjti 3 
rising numbers of murders and brutalities 
committed by their followers for the pur- 
pose of terrifying and silencing any polit- 
ical opposition. Now the United States 
has said too much to be able to back off. 
Unless there is a sudden change of heart 
among the Haitian generals, the Clinton 
administration will have to carry out its 
threat and invade. 

Last week Deputy Secretary of Sure 
Strobe Talbott and his counterpart from 
the Defense Department, John Deutch, 
went to Jamaica to meet Caribbean lead- 
ers and recruit their support They came 
away with pledges of 266 troops. As an 
indicator of enthusiasm, that scores 
somewhere around C-plus. It means that 
the invasion force will be 10.266 — 
10,000 American troops and the rest from 
the Caribbean countries. But the 266 
would serve, their governments say, as 
military police rather than as combat 
troops, which is to say that they will be 
assigned the dangerous and difficult pan 
of the mission. To land in Haiti ought to 


be easy. It is what comes afterward, the 


day-to-day effort to hold down violence 
id where there are now many 


in a lane 

scores to be settled, that will be hard. 

The- Clinton administration is moving 
toward a position that can only be de- 
scribed as colonialism. It is being done 
with the best of intentions, but the Unit- 
ed States is making itself the arbiter and 
administrator of acceptable political con- 
duct in another country. If it invades 
Haiti, it will shortly find itself refereeing 
the tangled quarrels there over what is 
constitutional and what is not. In a coun- 
try with no tradition of independent 


judges, it will find itself having to set up 
local cour 


courts and supervise them simply to 
make routine police enforcement possi- 
ble. It will have to get to work rebuilding 
an economy that, impoverished to begin 
with, the American-led embargo has 
largely demolished. 

The United States, in short, will be 
doing on a smaller scale what colonialists 
were doing around the world a century 
ago. The justification will be that it is 
ending internecine bloodshed, introduc- 
ing the rule of law and providing better 
lives for its “subjects.” That is what the 
rationale has always been. But it is the 
wrong role Tor the United States in these 
last years of the 20th century. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Republican Partisanship 


In the era of gridlock, there is a new 
Labor Day vacation ritual. Whenever 
members of Congress go home to face the 


public, they raise a mighty, nostalgic 


hymn to the vanished era of bipartisan- 
ship. 


ship. It goes something like this. Back in 
the halcyon days of Ike and L.B J., each 
side fought its comer hard and fair. Then, 
when the hour was late and the need was 
great, a critical centrist majority would 
come together to vote for the “good of the 
country.” Congressional back-benchers 
have always had a natural affinity for 
bipartisanship. Many a mediocre career 
was sustained on platitudinous rum- 
blings about politics “stopping at the 
water's edge” and “putting the needs of 
the people above party loyalty.” 

In fact, bipartisanship has waxed and 
waned. Many grass-roots Republicans 
had their fill of it during the days when 
Everett Dirksen, Charlie Halleck and 
Gerald Ford led their party's pliant mi- 
nority on Capitol HilL In a wise analysis 
last week, R. W. Apple Jr. of Hie New 
York Times cited the Taft-Eisenhower 
nomination battle of 1952 as a defining 
contest between cooperaiionist and die- 
in-lhe-tnmches Republicans. Senator Bob 
Dole was described as being at a fork 
between these two paths. Is there any 
doubt where his instincts will take him!? 
Bobby Rowan, a colorful Georgia politi- 
cian. used to talk about stump orators who 
“know how to carry a pocketknife.” That 
is Mr. Dole right down to the ground. 

But even if he did not relish a good 
fight, Mr. Chile would have no choice. No 
cooperaiionist Republican is going to win 
the party’s nomination in 1996, and with 
the retirement of the affable Representa- 
tive Bob Michel, muscular partisanship 
will not be a disqualifying flaw Tor con- 
gressional leaders for a while. 

Back in 1%4. Barry Goldwater whet- 
ted the Republican Party’s appetite for 
ideology, and 16 years later Ronald Rea- 
gan showed it how to win with it. The 
Reagan formula was an ingenious blend 


of populism and elitism. Attract the av- 
erage white voter with a majoritarian 
social policy that institutionalized a 
bundle of popular yearnings and preju- 
dices. Hold the corporate-financial-in- 
dustrial Republicans with huge new op- 
portunities for profit-taking. 

It is still an open question whether 
Reaganism will sell without Reagan. But 
there is no question that partisanship is 
the ruling fashion in his party. Bill Kris- 
tol, the man once billed as Dan Quayle's 
brain, has become the flavor of the month 
by arguing that George Bush lost the 
White House by being too flexible. (This 
is a refinement of his former, blind-quote 
position that he lost it by being George 
Bush.) Representative Newt Gingrich got 
where he is by arguing that Republicans 
should drop their polite role as “the 
bookkeepers of the welfare state.” 

Mr. Dole, as one of the oldest and 
occasionally wisest members of his party, 
can remember the era of nonideological 
Republicanism. Once he was even willing 
to diagnose the inherent goofmess of the 
Reagan plan to increase the deficit. But 
any recidivist impulse toward bipartisan- 
ship is now clearly gone, a casualty of 
Senator Phil Gramm’s willingness to cast 
himself as the senatorial avatar of Ging- 
rich-Kristol politics. 

Early in his term. President Bill Clin- 
ton had a chance to light the fires of 
bipartisanship, but he killed it when he 
decided to organize the health care task 
force os a closely held family business. 

In addition to being shunned, the Re- 
publicans as a whole nave another reason 
for following the leadership of their most 
bellicose faction. That comes simply 
from looking at the Democrats. In cam- 
paigns as in combat, the appearance of 
weakness always invites aggression. The 
Republicans are betting chat the Demo- 
cratic While House and Congress are so 
rattled and scattered that it is better to 
make a war than a deal. 


— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Other Comment 


The Rule of Law in Ireland 


Once talks begin, London and Dublin 
have to push forward on a joint agenda 
and avoid, at all costs, bickering between 
themselves. The outlines of a possible 
settlement have been clear for years. 

British governments have long recog- 
nized that Northern Ireland is not a fully 
integrated part of the United Kingdom, 
and that most of the province's Catholic 
minority (42 percent of the population) 
want cross-border links with southern 
Ireland as a recognition of their Irish 
identity and a guarantee of their rights. 
Equally, Irish governments, as well as 
most Catholics in Northern Ireland. long 
ago accepted that unification without the 
consent of Ulster’s million Protestants is 
not worth having, and that such consent 
may never come. Both views arc explicitly 
described in the Downing Street Declara- 
tion. The demands of the gunmen on both 
sides of Northern Ireland’s conflict have 
been ruled out for the past two decades. 

So what have they achieved, apart from 
an impressive toll of destroyed lives? They 
have delayed a workable political agree- 
ment and brutalized their own society. The 
social wounds they have inflicted wiil take 
a generation to heal. If the IRA's leaders 
have finally recognized this, and have truly 


chosen another way, reason and the rule of 
law will have prevailed. Democrats might 
find a crumb of comfort in that. 

— The Economist (London). 


Signals to North Korea 


De facto diplomatic recognition is one 
of the carrots the United States has offered 
if North Korea agrees to open its nuclear 
program to full international inspection 
and safeguards. U.S. help in upgrading 
dectrici ty-ge Derating nuclear power plants 
is another carrot. What the United States. 
South Korea, the United Nations and the 
International Atomic Energy Agency 
want from North Korea in return is an 
end to its efforts to build nuclear weap- 
ons and on-site inspections to determine 
whether diversion of nuclear material for 
weapons has already token place. 

So far Pyongyang has said only that it 
would freeze its nuclear program. It has 
yet to allow inspection of two sites that 
could reveal whether it has already devel- 
oped a nuclear device. Meanwhile, Wash- 
ington is signaling a more flexible diplo- 
matic line to the new North Korean 
leadership. That wigwagging is welcome. 
How productive it might prove to be is 
now pretty much up to Pyongyang. 

— Los Angeles Times. 



International Herald Tribune 

ESTABLISHED ISftT 

KATHARINli GRAHAM. ARTHUR OCHS SULZBERGER 
(iklTHIDHM 

RICHARD MeCLEAN, PubtbJier A Chief Exn uritv 
JOHN YINOCUR. Ettudn* fifiw A Vfcf Pn-uloa 

• WALTER WEILS. Mmfifrr • SAMUEL ABT, KATHERINE KNORR and 
CHARI .ES MITCHELMORfi. A/»ia Si&im • CARL GEWIRTZ. Asv«dr 

* ROBERT J. DONAHUE, fi&v ifthf • JWATHAN.GAGE. Btaiiusmnt Finaice Editor 

• RENL BONDY. /*■/«* Pirtnbr • JAMES McLEOD, AdivrtyanR Uimmr 

» JUANITA 1. CASPAKI. Ink-ritiiUiMlDnrliii w#w Dimmr* ROBERT FARRE. CmvbanDorctnr. Emye 
DtrnHvni' It i Puhli, imm: RklumJ l >. Smmmts 
fiiit i wnr.\ifyuU ilr k< ftiMkiBKiK Katharine P. Durmv 


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Ttfl . •ili4h.57.Mtmi l'.n Cut.. 1 ; Adi .. 4M7_Si l L Irtteroi: UTT<3 vumUmk 


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v \ .... ;».|7, II if, I If t\ PCS WiHterre It “O w.V/JA Cmmamh Punhnfr V* 

• i’Hi. hittiniik iitdflviM Tniwr. Ml nuiti nvnjtl ft W t&tNUSl 



Blank- Eyed Children, Tiny Voyagers in a 



K IGALI, Rwanda — When one thinks 
of a refugee in flight, a hundred 
newsreel images come to mind; gaunt 
figures, men and women, moving in inex- 
haustible lines over a barren landscape. 
But I have spent three weeks in Rwanda 
now, and my conventional image of a 
refugee has been turned upside down. 

Here in the gently rolling hillsides of 
this “Switzerland of Africa” where more 
than half a million people have died in 
less than a year, my image of a refugee is 
not of weighted-down figures on a gently 
receding horizon; it is of a child. 

Children are the first victims of war, 
the first victims of disaster. It is estimat- 
ed that at least half the refugees in the 
sprawling camps of Goma in Zaire are 
children. Motherless, fatherless, witnesses 
to unimaginable horror. Victims of it now. 


By Wendy Driscoll 


I drove through Rwanda’s lush Nyun- 
gwe forest last week on my way to Zaire to 
get an idea of the scope of the Rwandan 
exodus out of the southwestern tip of the 
country. The scenic road is excellently 
paved; it winds through a dense rain 
forest of green-black, revealing in each 
turn ever more spectacular vistas. 

The fecundity of the land rises up 
toward you in oversized versions of more 
tepid northern plants; 6-meter-high ferns, 
pine trees descending down 30-meter 


Tiny, ragged voyagers dot. the exodus 
road; Some ace newborn, wrapped in 
their mother's ingobyi, the colorful swath 
of fabric that binds them like a satchel to 
the spine. Many others are blank-eyed 



gorges, bougainvillea spilling wai erf all- 
ad larger tl 


like, with flowers spread larger than my 
outstretched hand. One feels that an) 
could grow in such stupendous ric 
Any thin g, that is, except a child. 


laying thing 
sweetness of their reserve. One crying, 
infant, making his way along the road in 
painful half-steps, stopped and attempt? ' 
ed a smile when he saw my companion, a 
photographer, point a camera at him. 

It wasn't a smile, really. It was more a . 
kind of grimace that said, yes. 1 am tired . 
and hungry and ILL, I have lost my par- 
ents, I don't know where this road is 
taking me, but I will do my best to 
please you. Please you! 

Humanitarian organizations Like 


CARE exist to serve the needy, but look- 
ing at these children one realizes the 
magnitude of the work that confronts us. 
Wc-will give them food, clothing and: 
shelter at .the end of thetr journey, but 
can-we replace all' they have left behind? 

Toward the end of the forest^ we 
stopped aadasked a tihy'gkl, who carried 
on heir back an even 'timer boy, where she 
;can»froiiL Over' ihere^ She replied, point- 
ing to the twisting pavement behind us. 
And wtaere’are you going* we.asked. For- 
ward, she told. us, motioning to the blade 
road stretching before her. : 

'. We didn’udelay her journey with more 
questions. What more was there to ask? 



The writer is a CARE worker, in Rwan- 
da. She contributed this comment to The 
Washington Post 




y* 


Util 



l . 
L.f 


In the Matter of Reproductive Choice, the Vatican Has Already Lost 



W ASHINGTON — Guada- 
lupe was married at age 16.. 
She nodded when the priest said 
it would be her duty to have all 
the children God sent. Two chil- 
dren and years of hardship later, 
she made the most difficult deci- 
sion of her life. After consulting 
her doctor but not her priest, she 
had herself sterilized. 

*T know I’m supposed to do 
what God wants,” she explained 
to a visitor in her tiny Mexican 
village. “But to bring children 
into the world and not to be able 
to give them proper food and 
clOLhing is not right.” 

If the statistics are correct 
Guadalupe is a typical Latin 
American — a Catholic who is 
loyal to the church but has parted 
ways with the Vatican over con- 
traception. For them, the Vati- 
can's intense campaign against 
the UN population conference in 
Cairo this week is largely irrele- 
vant. However forceful its attacks 1 
on U.S. support for the confer- 
ence in recent days. Rome is 
fighting a losing battle. 

The Vatican’s opposition to 
language in the draft “Program of 
Action" — the 20-year blueprint 
for stabilizing world population 
and fostering development, to be 
approved in Cairo — is hardly 
insignificant By keeping the con- 
ference tied up in arguments 


By George Moffett 


about the wording of the docu- 
ment it will divert the delegates 
from adopting strategies to deal 
with population growth. 

• But even that will be a Pyrrhic 
victory. Vatican officials may win 
the battle to alter sections of the 
draft document that they believe 
undermine the traditional family 
and promote abortion. They may 
delay the inevitable by slowing 
the growth of family planning 
programs in some Roman Catho- 
lic countries. But on the issue of 
reproductive choice they have 
lost the larger contest for the 
hearts and minds of many of the 
Catholic faithfuL 

Nor will the Vatican's cam- 
paign to win Muslim allies 
achieve much. Some fundamen- 
talist Islamic leaders have joined 
it in criticizing the Cairo docu- 
ment, but many clerics across 
the Muslim world accept a more 
liberal interpretation of Islamic 
tradition that permits the use of 
contraceptives. 

In militant Iran, concern over 
runaway population growth has 
prompted the government to pro- 
mote smaller families with televi- 
sion ads, sermons and clinics of- 
fering free contraceptives and 
sterilization services. 

The point is. not widely recog- 


Missing the Point in Cairo 


I N FACT, things are getting better for everyone, not just those in the 
richer nations. By almost every measure of human welfare, the 
world has shown steady improvement since Malthus’s day. As for the 


population explosion," fertility rates have been declining for years, 
dramatically in most places. If 1 


we have more of us around today it is 
because fewer of us die at birth and on average we live longer. 

Even the World Bank, which takes a jaundiced view of population 
growth, has let some of the good news slip ouL As a recent report puts 
it: “The average income in the developing world has doubled since 
1960. There has been a dramatic expansion in world trade and a 
worldwide trend toward more open economies . . . Social develop- 
ment has been remarkable: infant mortality has fallen sharply whUe 
literacy and life expectancy have increased substantially.” 

This is not the message from Cairo, where the reigning assumption 
is that more people are by definition bad for development No one 
goes around complaining that there are loo many Dutchmen, though 
with 450 people per square kilometer the Netherlands is more than 
three times as crowded as China. 

Though much remains to be done to seat everyone at the banquet of 
prosperity, we now know what works: free peoples trading freely with 
one another. The problem at Cairo is that they have got the lesson 
backward. Wealth comes from people, not governments. 

— Far Eastern Economic Review ( Hong Kong). 


e Children Have a Right to Be Wanted 9 


A GREAT deal already has been done to tamp down the world’s 
birthrate. Between 195 ~ 


birthrate. Between 1950 and 1 990, the average number of children 
per couple in the developing nations dropped from 6.2 to 3.6. A major 
reason is that contraception is now practiced by roughly half the 
couples in the world, up from one in eight 40 years ago. 

Lest you become complacent, recall a second fact, as reflected in the 
words of Vice President A1 Gore; “It took roughly 10,000 generations 
for the world to reach a population of 2 billion. And yet in my 46 years, 
we have gone from a little over 2 billion to almost 6 billion.’' Around 
the world today, there are a billion teenagers — and if that doesn’t 
make you worry, nothing will 

Whether the population of the globe levels off toward the middle of 
the next century at 8.3 billion or 10 billion or 12 billion — that is the 
range of estimates — could well determine whether our children and 
grandchildren live good lives or struggle for survival 

Through most of the postwar period, the United States has invested 
more funds, talent and expertise In helping expand maternal health, 
child care and family planning facilities and programs around the 
world than any other" nation. Bill Clinton has increased that commit- 
ment, both in dollars and in active leadership. 

There have been times when Mr. Gore in particular has seemed to 
me to overstate the case for population control. When he spoke at the 
National Press Club last month, he suggested that the troubles in 
Rwanda and Somalia and the threat that many Amercans see in 
increased immigration all were aspects of “the population problem." 

No doubt it is relevant, but Robert Cassen’s essay on population 
policy for the Overseas Development Council is probably on sounder 
ground. The case for activist population policies. Mr. Cassen argues, is 
fundamentally “a moral and humanitarian one.’* Individuals and 
couples “should only have the children they want and can support; 
children have a right to be wanted and to enter a family and 
community that values them.” 

That is a sound principle, and it is good to see the United States 
giving it voice once again in the world. 

— David S. Broder. commenting in The Washington Post. 


'In a Free Society, People Are an Asset’ 


A T THE HEART of the Cairo conference on population is the belief 
, that there are too many people on the planet. This is a central 
tenet in “Earth in the Balance;" the book written by the man who 
heads the U.S. delegation to Cairo. But Vice President A1 Gore, like 
others who think our resources are already limited and can’t stand 
more consumers, is wrong. People are a resource, not a problem. 
Governments, particularly those that limit freedom and have econom- 
ic systems that stifle growth, are the problem. . 

Writing in the Sept. 12 issue oT Forbes magazine. Malcolm S. Forbes 
Jr. correctly notes that “the real issue is the assumption that curbing 
population growth is critical for economic development. Hie premise 
is preposterous. A growing population is not a drag on economic 
development When combined, with freedom, it is a stimulant" 

Mr. Forbes cites Hong Kong as an example. What about other 
densely populated nations that arealso rich, including Japan, Germa- 
ny, Britain, Holland, Belgium, Taiwan and South Korea, to name a 
few? If population is the cause of poverty, all of these should be poor. 

Again, Mr. Forbes has it right when he says:. “In a free society 
people are an asset not a liability. Poverty and malnutrition persist 
only in those areas where governments dominate and suffocate eco- 
nomic activity. Birthrates fall as a country's economy expands." 

— Cal Thomas, in a syndicated column. 


nized, but even Roman Catholic 
doctrine allows couples to limit 
the number of children they have 
for legitimate financial and 
health reasons. The controversy is 
over thei means used to do so. 

. Although only “natural” con- 
traception is sanctioned by the 
church — that is, abstinence dur- 
ing fertile periods — Catholics in 
many countries now use contra- 
ceptives at the sam e rate as the 
nest of the population. 

And despite pressure from the. 
Vatican, governments in most 
predominantly Roman Catholic 
countries support family plan- 
ning and have spent large sums 
to make modem contraceptives 
widely available. 

Mexico, for example, which is 
more than 90 percent Catholic, 


has one of the most vigorous 
family planning programs in the 
world. The government has en- 
dorsed the work of private orga- 
nizations that provide contra- 
ceptives and sex education to 
teenagers. 

The defection from church 
doctrine extends even to abor- 
tion. Surveys during the past de- 
cade show that large numbers of 
Catholics — as many as 60 per-, 
cent in Mexico — believe it is 
possible for a woman to be a 
faithful Catholic even if she has 
had an abortion. 

The coincidence of . .Catholic 
teachings and individual repro- 
ductive choices has always been, 
mostly that: a coincidence. 

Since the 1960s, the Vatican’s 
views on reproduction have faced 
increasingly grave challenges — 
not; only the invention, of new 


meains to limit births, such as the' 
pill and the intrauterine device, 
bat also .new motives. Urbamza^^' 
dan, changes in . women’s ; roles 
and profound economic. pressure w . 
have greatly complicated’ deci- !* 
siems an family size. , : 

The simple, truth is that for. ; 
most lay. Roman Catholics, the 
church’s influence over reproduce 
tive . decisions has greatly dimm- 
ished. Today the faithful rive 
greater weight to fhe^respbasmit 
ity of parenthood than to the re- 
vealed wisdom in Rome. That 
fact is unlikely to change, what-, 
ever the outcome in Cairo. 


- t> 


,~«*4 


a 

i 


> i* 1 


The writer, a diplomatic corre- 
spondent for The Christian Science 
Monitor, is author of "Critical 
Masses." The Global Papulation 
Challenge. " He contributed this - 
comment to The New York Timas. 


v‘ 


•V. • ■ 


; 








*r IRF NiJ. 1 * 4 * * 



mym inm 

•*•«*«* 




•- /•* 


Against AIDS, Condoms Are Pro-Life 




W ASHINGTON — Ann is a 
Ugandan mother of seven 
and an AIDS widow. She may 
have escaped infection because 
she and her husband were sepa- 
rated before he became ilL He 
was firing with another woman 
and returned to his family only in 
his last months. Ann, a former 
schoolteacher, is now a full-time 
AIDS counselor. 

“There is too much dying. 
Sometimes it overwhelms you, 
but you still have to go, each day, 
and talk to the sick, to their fam- 
ilies. And then one day you arrive 
and they are dead." 

Her story doesn’t end there. 
“My sister and her husband both 
died of AIDS, they left four or- 
phans. I took the youngest. My 
elderly parents are supporting 
the others." 

As the media reported on the 
melancholy mood permeating the 
recent 10th international confer- 
ence on AIDS in Yokohama, Ja- 
pan. they also informed us of the 
Vatican’s continuing opposition 
to the recommendations of the. 
World Conference on Population 
and Development, next week in' 
Cairo. Perhaps the two meetings 


By Perdita Huston 


7^ 


should have been side by side. 

iced s 


That might have produced an oc- 
casion for discussing the terms 
“sexual health" or “reproductive 
health," terms that Rome con- 
demns for use at the conference. 

HIV infection is an epidemic of 
couples. In study after study, 
from Mexico to Thailand, one 
learns that a majority of women 
infected with the AIDS virus are 
monogamous partners of men 
who have had unprotected sexual 
relations elsewhere. 

It is an epidemic of families. 
Twenty million children will be 
orphaned by the disease in the 
next six years. 

It is an epidemic of youth and 
women. — the single most preva- 
lent cause of death among worn- ' 
en aged 2Q to 40 in many cities in. 
North America and Western Eu- 
rope. In sub-Saharan Africa, one 
in every 20 adult women is 
thought to be infected. 

It is an epidemic of. yes, sexu- 
al health.-HIV infection is pre- 
ventable only by individuals tak- ' 
ing precautions. Women are at 
the mercy of their partners to 
join them in taking those precau- 
tions, by the condom or absti- 
nence. But abstinence is not al- 
i an option; when a husband 


As for the condom, that; too, is 
problematic. In just about every 
culture the use of a condom raises 
suspicions of infidelity, promis- 
cuity or disease, as wdl as com- 
plaints of inconvenience. To ask 
one’s partner to use one is to risk 
conflict Not to ask is to”risk in- 
fection and death. 

Gao, a chubby 18-year-old, 
has returned to her family in 
Chiang Rai, Thailand. She is a 
carrier of Lhe HIV virus, ac- 
quired while working as a prosti- 
tute in the brothels of Bangkok. 
'Most men don't want to use 
condoms and if they don't, there 
was nothing we could do. We 
were forced to service them.” 

The task is to ensure that wom- 
en gain the confidence and bar- 
gaining power to negotiate the 
practice of safe sex, their sexual 
and reproductive rights, with their 
partners. Only well-informed, self- 
assured women who have access to 
condoms can be successful at pro-, 
tecting themselves. Only then will 
we begin to see a slowdown of 
infection rates. 

' But how? The international 
family planning movement. has, 
over the years, distanced itself 
from the sex act in an effort- to 
deliver contraception services. Its ■ 
staff must be trained to counsel 




t «t«nr ft.: 


on sexual health, over and above' 
the “reproductive health" advice 
already dispensed.. Double pro- 
tection is the new watchword:' 
only a contraceptive and the use! 
of a . condom protect, a woman 
from both unwanted pregnancy 
and HTV infection, - 
For years the Vatican has op- 
posed the use of the condom.! 

The centuries-old sheath is conjj’ 
demned for bong a cohtraccpf' 
tive, for denying new life. Surely. 
such arguments are passfe when; 
humanity is confronted with the! 
pace and nature of HIV inf ection, 
when the.condom becomes one of! 
the only ways of protecting life. • 

The Vatican also opposes -the; t 
term “sexual health." But moral! * ^ "t 
leadership requires that it speak' 
up for women’s- sexual health,! **!**-„ 
helping them to protect them-' £ c* . • 

selves and their famili es from the; -w 

greatest plague of our time. ' ~ *2 

These are not, as the Yitiican; * . . . 

might claim, feminist arguments.! ■ • 4 " * 

They are life-giving -arguments. 1 v s^ - ■ • ****•-*» 

based on facts and statistics. HTV ! J:,;.-'' - .- : » .. 

infection is a global affliction that * X.;/ ■ ~ _ " 

should transform Vaticaii fears; "Vjj. 

about birth control into a global- *.*-'/ 

effort for death controL '' :> - ’v - ; 1 ’■** 

. • ■ ' • . . . J ' V'tr-' I.-’ " * 


Vs 


i The writer is preparing a book of 
interviews with families in 12 court- ' 
■ tries around the worid. Shecorurib^ 

' uted this comment to the Interna-.. 
. tianal Herald Tribune. 


UV OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1894: Defending Bali . 

THE HAGUE — ■ In an official 
despatch from Lombok the Gov-' 
eraor General of the Dutch In- 
dies telegraphs today [Sept 4): 
“After conferring with the mili- 
tary and naval commanders and 
the Council of the Netherlands I 
do not consider it necessary to 
send naval reinforcements or a 
further force of marines, but I 
fully approve of a detachment of 
colonial reserve and five hundred 
additional soldiers.” Despatches 
from Batavia state that Captain 
Landgreen, with a detachment, is 
held prisoner by the Balinese. The 
Rajah offers to deliver them on 
the condition that peace is con- 
cluded and the Dutch troops are 
withdrawn. 


bill ■ granting Partiamentary suf=; . s . 

frage to women. The bill accords! is s! 
a vote to all women who have* £ 
attained mtgority. wtfi the except 
tion of prcstiiuteiL . > 



1944: Brussels Taken 


LONDON — The British Army 
Mazed the Belgian capital of ■‘H» 
Brussels and the great; Bell 

.portof Antwerpma.tremend 

sweep yesterday [Sept. 4V and' V. 
the- Dutch said these forces* o 
roared on five miles- into the" 
Netherlands. Antwerp’s fall cut! 1 * 




the last rail tines, from the Bel- 








wa’ 


1919: Female Suffrage 


gian and French Channel coasts! \ ^ 

to Germany. General Dwight D.« $ V, 
Eisenhower called on the_Dutch 4 J* 
to save from German demolition 1 ; 
tie docks, factories and rails of \ V.S? 
Rotterdam, indicating that: the ' 




-V ' 

m ***< 




kes demands, -most women 
are obliged to oblige. 


ROME — The Chamber of Dep- 
uties has accepted a Government 


battle. for tie Netherlands- was- A l 
breaking with the same speed r 

with which Hi*» fnr Hoi- 1 S 


— s 

l ... 


with which the battlt for Bel-! . 
gram was ending. . ^ 
















tPMSvcUicjuv,- * 

l Uurr .1 f wi .; - fr. , 


International Herald Tribune, Monday , September 5 , /PP4 


Page 7 


lwni 

F end at (hen 


Sifl? * »h/v V 


CAPITAL MARKETS 


or,., 


M* iheic. sJ K . 


Money Managers Must Pick 
.S^ Post-Vacation Strategies 

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China Plans 
To Expand 
Domestic 
Automaker 


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By Caii Gewirtz 

Inttmatiofta! Herald Tribune 

AR1S — This is the week to watch for a clue to where bond 
prices are beaded. Professional money managers returning 
from vacation will either start committing cash holdings 
built up over the summer or will remain on the sidelines 
fearing that the risk far outweighs the potential reward. 

The week will get off to a slow start. On Monday, North 
American markets will be closed for the Labor Day holiday and 
Tuesday is the start of the Jewish New Year. But everyone will be 

searching for dues about the in- — 

A dollar recover 

depends on appetite for OfcSKfwK’S 

China Daily said Sunday. 


BELTING — China plans to 
invest $250 million in its only 
wholly domestic-owned car- 
maker to boost output as it 
gears up for a major promotion 
of its fledgling auto industry. 

The money will be used to 
expand several auto plants in 
the northern city of Tianjin, 
more than doubling their ca- 


ly the safest haven because the U.S. Treasury bonds. 
\iS. economy is furthest along J 

The growth curve and assumed to 




mv. 



be the closest to a peak m interest rates. The core European countries, 
(m the other hand, have not yet begun to start fuming growth by 
raising official interest rates. 

But analysts axe sharply divided about whether the U.S. rate rises 
have slowed growth sufficiently to keep infiationary pressures in 
check. Philip Braverman at DKB Securities in New York asserted 
•‘the economy is slowing dramatically” and predicted unwinding 
inflation pressures should keep the Federal Reserve Board on hold 
or, at worst, make one final increase toward die end of the year. 

Albert Wcgnilower, senior adviser at CS First Boston in New 
York, agreed the Fed was likely to hold rates steady until late in the 
year but expected them to “rise substantially” during 1995. He 
concurred with the view at J. P. Morgan & Co. that short-term VS. 
rates will peak next year at 7 percent, up from the current 4.75 
percent, and he predicted the yield on 10-year government paper 
would rise about a percentage point from the current level of 7.27 
percent Rising yields mean falling bond prices. 

The clash in views about the prospects for growth and levels of 
interest rates also has an impact on the outlook for the dollar. 
Christopher Potts at Banque Indosuez in Paris, who said he be- 
lieved VS. growth was slowing and that Nond prices were headed 
higher rather than lower, cannoned that “no buying of Treasury 
bonds means no recovery for the dollar” 

While the Japancsc-U-S. trade talks this month are expected to 
have a major impact on the dollar, John Lipsky at Salomon 
Brothers Inc. in New York warned of a new threat from last week’s 
news that the Senate minority leader, Bob Dole, would oppose 

Roundoff trade* liberalization agreed to by the 123 member coun- 
tries of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. 

Delaying approval of the Uruguay Round agreement until next 
year as proposed by Mr. Dole “is not the same as rejecting it,” Mr. 

See TREND, Page 9 


H- 


Mi 



THE THIS INDEX 


*C Pro-Lift 


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International Herald Tribune 
World Stock Index, composed 
of 280 internationally inves table 
stocks from 25 countries, 
compiled by Bloomberg 
Business News. 

Weekending September 2, 
daily closings. 
Jan. 1992= 100. 


134 


AslaiPacMc 


120 


119 


118 


117 


116 


120 


World Index 

J ": ». -i 


*v<ry- 
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Europe 


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Industrial Sectors/Weekend dose 

ckn don dangt 

9004 BOM* 
GftMM COM 

chengi 


Energy 11633 11139 +2JS9 

Capital Goods 

120.79119.01 

+150 

K1X 5 ■ 

r* tfW-1 ; 

Utilities 13158 13026 +1.01 

Raw Materials 

137.74 13382 

+2.33 

Finance 117.31 117.97 -0.05 

Consumer Goode 1 05.39 103.40 

+1.92 


Sendees 123.48 122X16 +1-15 

Miscellaneous 

137.99132.92 

+3J1 


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A mm Una. Australia. Austria. Bokjlom, Brain, Canada, Chits, pwimric, 
ffl^Fr^G^nany. Hong Koog. Baly. Ifxtco, Mathertan^ Nn> 
Zealand, Norway, Slnpapora. Spain. Ss wden. Swtt zartendj^ V«wiial^_^ 
Tokyo, New Torit and London, me Index <s composed of the 20 lop Issues bi terms 
of market cvxtalUation. otherwise the ten top stocks ere tracked. 


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CURRENCY RATES 


Sept 2 


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industry, the government hopes 
to develop at least six car assem- 
bly plants by the end of 1995 in 
six major Chinese cities. It did 
not name the dries. 

The Tianjin Automobile In- 
dustrial Coip. is a government- 
owned operation that uses tech- 
nology and equipment imported 
from the Japanese automaker 
Daihatsu Motor Co., an affiliate 
of Toyota Motor Corp. 

Toyota has promised to help 
China with additional manageri- 
al expertise and technology as 
the country launches an auto 
promotion policy to begin in 
1996, when a freeze on allowing 
foreign companies to set up fac- 
tories in China is to be lifted. 

China also has been easing 
rules on individual auto owner- 
ship, and many foreign carmak- 
ers have expressed interest in 
tapping that vast market. The 
government said that in 
1996, it would give priority to 
those carmakers who also would 
establish parts factories and oth- 
er support industries in C hina. 

The president of Toyota, Tat- 
smo Toyoda, who visited Beij- 
ing, Tianjin and the northeast- 
ern dry of Shenyang last week, 
said his company hoped to be- 
gin car assembly in China in 
1996 if given the opportunity. 

Mr. Toyoda did not elabo- 
rate. Japanese news reports had 
said the project would involve 
Tianjin Automobile IndustriaL 
However, the China Daily said 
the Tianjin factories would “go 
it alone, backed by China’s 
more than 40 years’ automak- 
ing experience.” 

(AP, AFP, Reuters) 


U.S. Degrees Off Course 

Education Fails to Protect High Wages 


By Barbara Vobgda 

Washington Post Serrict 

WASHINGTON — College-educated 
women are the only group whose real wages 
have not fallen in the early 1990s, while the 
wages of college-educated men are declining 
as fast as less-educated workers, according to 
a new report on the U.S. work force. 

“The State of Working America 1994-95,” 
issued by the Economic Policy Institute, of- 
fers a bleak picture of the continuing econom- 
ic struggle that faces many working families, 
despite an economic expansion that is nearly 
two years old. The report challenges the long- 
held belief that college-educated workers are 
insulated from die wage stagnation that has 
accompanied the sweeping economic changes 
of the past two decades. 

“The economy is in expansion and produc- 
ing jobs at a rate consistent with earlier recov- 
eries. Nevertheless, the economic problems of 
the 1980s continue to be felt,” the report said, 
ci ting the continuing “middle-class squeeze” 
and ongoing wage inequality. 

The report’s analysis of labor-market 
trends “reveals the extent of the problems 
that the Clinton administration has inherited 
and still must overcome,” said Lawrence Mi- 
sheL research director at the Economic Policy 
Institute, a liberal research organization in 
Washington. 

The study comes days after a similarly 


dismal assessment by Labor Secretary Robert 
B. Reich, who described a middle class “most 
of whom hold jobs but who are justifiably 
uneasy about their own standing and fearful 
for their children’s future." 

The Economic Policy Institute report noted 
some bright spots, including the benefits real- 
ized by the working poor as a result of the 
expanded Earned Income Tax Credit and 
changes in the federal tax code that increased 
the share of taxes paid by the richest Ameri- 
cans and eased the tax burden on the poorest 
families. 

While a Labor Department study last week 
showed that most of the nearly 4 million jobs 
added since 1988 are in relatively high-wage 
occupations, that represents only a fraction of 
the country’s labor force and does not neces- 
sarily mean wages for those jobs are keeping 
pace with inflation. 

“The majority of Americans r emain worse 
off in the early 1990s than they were at the 
end of the 1970s,” Mr. Mishel and Jared 
Bernstein, another economist, wrote in the 
Economic Policy Institute's report. 

The authors found that, despite an uptick 
in median family income from 1992 to 1993, 
real, or inflation-adjusted, incomes are still at 
least SI, 500 below their 1989 levels. While 
families have been compensating for declin- 

See JOBS, Page 11 


Tietmeyer Says 
German Rates 
Will Stay Steady 


Son Deposes Haft at Real Estate Firm 


By Kara Swisher 

Washington Post Semce 

WASHINGTON — Herbert 
Haft has been unexpectedly de- 
posed as chairman of the real 
estate company he founded de- 
cades ago by his youngest son, 
Ronald Haft, the company said 
over the weekend. 

The 74-year-old real estate 
and retail tycoon also had his 
stake in Combined Properties 
Inc. reduced to 45 percent from 
66 percent. 

Under the new plan, Ronald 
Haft, 34, will hold 33 percent of 
the company’s shares. He also is 
to continue as chief executive. 

Combined Properties issued a 
statement over the weekend an- 
nouncing the changes. Herbert 
Haft ana Ronald Haft refused to 
comment, but Herbert Haft’s 
lawyers said they would move to 
overturn the actions in court. 

Combined Properties is a pri- 
vate company that manages 


more than 40 prime shopping 
centers and other real estate in 
the Washington region. The 
properties are largely owned by 
Herbert Haft and Ronald Haft 
and are worth hundreds of mil- 
lions of dollars. 

The Haft family also controls 
the publicly traded Dart Group 
Corp., which owns large stakes 
in the retailers Crown Books, 
Trak Auto Corp. and Shoppers 
Food Warehouse Corp. 

[Ronald Haft has said his fa- 
ther was trying to remove him 
from the presidency of Crown 
Books ana also may be trying to 
bounce him from the presiden- 
cy of Dart, Bloomberg Business 
News reported. 

[The dispute comes on the 
heels of reports that Herbert 
Haft borrowed $18 million 
from Dart without the board's 
permission.] 

Before their estrangement, 
Herbert and Ronald were allied 


against Ronald’s siblings, Rob- 
ert and Linda Haft, and Her- 
bert’s ex-wife, Gloria. 

“There was a board meeting 
of Combined Properties and 
Herbal Haft was removed as 
chairman of the board,” said 
Robert Greenberg of Keck, 
Mahin & Cate, Combined Prop- 
erties' new independent counsel 


Compiled fy Our Staff From Dispatches 

BIELEFELD, Germany - 
Hans Tietmeyer, the president 
of the Bundesbank, said over 
the weekend that interest rates 
would stay at current levels for 
several weeks because the Ger- 
man economy is expanding fast 
enough and does not need a 
push from cheaper credit. 

The German economy could 
grow 2 percent in 1994 and is 
firmly on the road to recovery, 
but the central bank must keep 
a wary eye on prices. Mr. Tiet- 
meyer told a business confer- 
ence on Saturday. “We will con- 
tinue the policy of the steady 
hand in coming weeks,” he said. 

Interest-rate reductions will 
depend on a slowdown in Ger- 
many’s rapid money supply 
growth, he said. The M-3 mea- 
sure of the money supply was 
growing at an annualized rate of 
9.9 percent in July, well above 
the range of 4 percent to 6 per- 
cent that the Bundesbank thinks 
will keep inflation subdued. 

“Our central indicator is the 
money supply.” Mr. Tietmeyer 
said. “We have come out of ex- 
treme money supply growth 
and into calmer waters, but we 
are still well above the corridor 
we feel is appropriate. And be- 
cause of that, we’re going to 
wait and see how the money 
supply develops.” 

llie economy is on “a solid 
new growth path,” and infla- 
tion, which is running at around 
3 percent, is unsatisfactorily 
hig h, he said. 


He also said trends to higher 
interest rates in other countries 
made it difficult for German 
rates to break free from the gen- 
eral trend and head lower. He 
said that long-term rates in the 
United States, Britain, Sweden 
and Italy had clearly turned up. 

He also dismissed concern 
that recent rises in French com- 
mercial lending rates might sig- 
nal higher rates across Europe. 

The Bundesbank has cut its 
discount rate, which effectively 
sets a floor under German and 
European interest rates, to 4.5 
percent from a peak of S.75 per- 
cent in September 1992. It last 
cut the discount rate in May, 
when it trimmed the Lombard 
emergency borrowing rate to 6 
percent. Both rates are charged 
on collateralized loans to banks, 
with limited funds available at 
the discount rate. 

“With rates at current levels, 
we have already come down con- 
siderably, thus' setting, from our 
perspective, the conditions for 
the continuation of the recovery. 
But I never say never,” he said. 

He also said there was little 
chance that most European 
Union countries would be ready 
for monetary union by the end 
of 1996. adding that Germany 
did not meet the entrance crite- 
ria. If monetary union began 
without correct economic condi- 
tions the result could be an “in- 
flation community” or a quick 
collapse of the union, he said. 

{Bloomberg, Reuters) 


The Ups and Downs 
Of Bungee Business 


By Michael Richardson 

Fnienxidonal Herald Tribune 

QUEENSTOWN, New 
Zealand — When the newly- 
weds Naoyuki and Yuko 
Futakami of Japan leapt off 
the bridge spanning a gorge 
and plummeted toward the 
icy water of the Kawarau 
River the other day, it was 
business 


SMALL 

BUSINESS 



as usual 
for the 
A. J. 

Hackett 
Bungy 
jumping 
group. 

In the 

past six years, the privately 
owned New Zealand compa- 
ny has developed a thriving 
international operation 
based on the willingness of 
people to throw themselves 
from bridges, viaducts, 
towers and helicopters with 
only a specially fabricated 
cord made of elastic latex 
rubber connected to their 
ankles to halt their falls. 

Mr. Futakami, 27. from 
Saitama. near Tokyo, said 
that he jumped from the 
platform on the bridge 43 
meters (141 feet) above the 
Kawarau river because “I 
wanted to test my nerve.” 
His wife, Yuko, said that for 
ha, taking the plunge was “a 
honeymoon memory.” 

Both agreed that it was a 
scary form of fun but well 
worth the cost of 89 New 
Zealand dollars ($54) each, 
which included transport and 
a commemorative T-shirL 

Henry van Asch. manag- 
ing director, co-founder and 
joint owner of A. J. Hackett 
Bungy, said that since the 
company was established in 
198S, it bad “done nearly 
500,000 jumps without an ac- 
cident.” 

The chairman, A. J. Hack- 
ett, a New Zealander who is 
based in Europe, decided to 
develop a safe, controlled 
method of jumping after 
watching a video in 1986 of 
members of the Oxford Uni- 
versity Dangerous Sports 
Club jumping from the Gold 
Gate bridge in San Francis- 
co using elastic cords. 

With help from scientists 
at Auckland University who 
tested its performance and 


consistency, Mr. Hackett 
used his bungee technology 
to gain worldwide media 
coverage when he dived 1 10 
meters (327 feet) from the 
second story of the Eiffel 
Tower in Paris in 1987, 

Mr. van Asch said getting 
bank loans for expansion 
was difficult for the first few 
years until the group had a 
proven record of safety and 
sound management 

“In the early days, banks 
thought we were a joke,” Mr. 
van Asch said. “Now we are 
in a much better position, but 
our operations are based on 
cash flow rather than tangi- 
ble assets, so it is still quite 
difficult to borrow the 
amounts we need to expand, 
and the interest rates we pay 
are a bit higher than normal.” 

Since 1990 the company 
has opened jump sites in 
Normandy, France, Cai rn s, 
Australia, and I .a s Vegas and 
Orlando in the United States. 

In December, it will open 
the first Asian jump site at 
Kuta Beach on the Indone- 
sian island of Bali at a cost 
of about $550,000. 

The company had revenue 
of $7.5 million in 1993. with 
about 75 percent from bun- 
gee jumping and the rest 
from sales or outdoor adven- 
ture wear. 

Mr. van Asch said the 
company, which has about 
100 employees worldwide, 
operates on a net profit mar- 
gin of between 10 percent 
and 15 percenL 

What is the appeal of bun- 
gee jumping? “It’s a major 
psychological challenge for 
people to push themselves 
beyond what they’ve been 
able to do before," Mr. van 
Asch said. “It gives a massive 
boost to self-esteem and self- 
confidence; for some, its like 
a rebirth.” 

Mr. van Asch said his com- 
pany advertises in the adven- 
ture travel media but relies 
mainly on “word of mouth." 

When properly managed, 
bungee jumping “is such a 
good product that most peo- 
ple go away feeling elated 
with what they’ve done and 
can’t wait to tell others about 
it," he said. 

Articles in this series ap- 
pear every other Monday. 


Russia Bans 
MMMAdsin 
State Media 

Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

MOSCOW — The govern- 
ment has banned the troubled 
MMM investment fund from 
advertising in state-run media, 
ITAR-Tass reported Sunday. 

It said Prime Minister Viktor 
S. Chernomyrdin signed the de- 
cree on Saturday because MMM 
had violated a presidential order 
aimed at protecting consumers 
from unfair advertising. 

The government also instruct- 
ed state-run media to stop adver- 
tising by “organizations attract- 
ing investments from individuals 
and legal entities in violation of 
existing laws.” 

MMM is among dozens of 
get-ricb-quick schemes in Rus- 
sia’s unregulated financial mar- 
kets. (Reuters, AP) 


India to Offer Stakes in 21 Firms 


Agcnce francv-Prase 

NEW DELHI — India will of fa equity in 
21 state-owned companies in the year to 
March 1995 as part of the privatization of the 
giant public sector, an official spokesman 
said in remarks published Sunday. 

The government plans to sell between 10 
percent and 20 percent of its holdings this 
year, either by auction or direct sale of shares, 
according to published reports. 

The spokesman said the 21 companies in- 
cluded the Oil & Natural Gas Commission. 
Indian Oil Corp., Indian Telephone Indus- 
tries, Shipping Corp. of India, and Steel Au- 
thority of India Ltd. 

Prime Minis ter P.V. Narasimha Rao has 
put public-sector restructuring at the top of 


his agenda since starting a program of eco- 
nomic liberalization in July 1991. 

The government’s privatization push has 
triggered protests by trade unions. 

■ Volkswagen Flans Factory in India 
Volkswagen AG plans to set up a car factory 
in India, one of the world’s fastest-growing 
automobile markets. Reuters reported. 

Volkswagen, Europe's biggest and the 
world’s fourth-Iaigest carmaker, has chosen 
the Indian tractor manufacturing giant Eicher 
Motors Ltd. as its partner in conducting a six- 
month feasibility study, according to new spa- , 
pers and domestic news agencies. 

The study will help Volkswagen decide 
which of its models to launch in India, ac- 
cording to the reports. 



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HcralbS^Eribunc: 







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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 


Page 9 


New International Bond Issues 


igw 

jeeoii 

•5***uo 



; 1( li J Compiled by Pad Floren 

Amount 
(mHItora) 


Issuer. 


Mat 


Coup. 

% 


Pries 


Price 

end 

week 


Terms 


£; i$ noting w«f Hotoa 



, ursaav 
^iiip Qrna 
46 37 93 3d 

37 9370 

resf !HT 0 ffj 


46 
resf 
ssenfafive 


r* 


t\ - 
t-"»' 

** t- ■ 

r»** 

Mir*- • 


*** 

u- 


•f * 

U-- 

t' 

Mm - 


Ci:.' 


.pa* 

IN 


ice 


I'iBanco 

j ^Loh'noonwrkxmo de 
? Exportations 

$150 

1995 

Vi 

99.90 

— 

Ov*r 3-month Ubo r Noneallable. Fare 0.10%. Denomnotiera 
$10,000. (Sm» Bonk Coip.1 

EssarGujarat 

$250 

1999 

2.65 

100 

— 

Ovei 6- month Libor. Ncncallable. Increased horn S200 mil- 
ton Fees not dodosad. (Chase Investment Bank.) 

! Krung Thai Bank 
(Singapore) 

$150 

2004 

0.98 

100 

— 

Interest will be 0.Q8 ow b-memti Ltior unri 1999, wtwfiue 
ii callable at par. Thereafter 2'i aver. Fees 055%. Denomina- 
tion! 5500.000. [Goldman Sachs Singapore ) 

Okobatik 

$150 

perpt 

116 

100 

— 

buerait will be 1 “t Over o^nonth Ubor until 1999, when asue a 
callable ai par. Thereafter 300 o>«< Fees 1%. (Goldman 
Sachs Im 1} 

Finland 

DM1,250 

2002 

1/16 

99J6 

— 

Over 3avsnlh Lib Or. Noncoflabie. Fees 070%. (Commere- 
bant.) 

Yokohama Finance 
(Cayman) 

Y 30,000 

2005 

0.275 

100 

— 

Interest wil be 0.275 ever 6-month Libor until April 2000, 
thereafter 050 aver. Noncallabie. Fees no* dadosed (Solo- 
mon Brothers Int i.) 

Fixed-Coupons 

Ford Credit Europe 

$200 

1997 

6% 

101.01 

100.00 

Reoffered at 9Q.B85. t foneaBabte. Fees 1 (Goldman Sochs 

bill.) 

Volvo Group Finance 
Europe 

$150 

1999 

m 

100.97 

99 jo 

E eotfw«J at 99X7. Noncallabie. Fees 1%%. (Merrill Lynch 
Ini'].] 

Sba£f£ Nattonale des 
Chemira de Fer 
Francois 

DM 300 

1999 

QU 

102.04 

— 

Reoffered at 99.79. MoncaBable. Fees 2%. (CSFB Effecten- 
banlc) 

Credit Local de 

France 

FF 500 

2004 

m 

lOO.io 

— 

Interest will be 7fe% until 1999, when issue <s callable ai par. 
Thereafter it will rcue m steps to 10.05% in 2004. Fees not 
dsclosed. (Paribas Capital MorVets.) 

dtBB Finance 

m 150,000 

1997 

11.40 

101 32 

100.10 

Noncallabie. Fees 1 H%. (Barca Comm era ale italiana.) 

Cassa di Risparmio 
delta Provinae 
Lombarde 

m 150,000 

1999 

11K 

100% 

99.00 

t-ioncaflable. Fees 1%%.(Canpto.| 

Morgan Guaranty 
Trust (London) 

m 175,000 

1997 

11% 

»n 

n 

8 

100.25 

NoncaKable. Fees 1H%- (JJ*. Morgan.) 

Nestle Finance 
(France) 

itl 150,000 

1996 

11 

101.275 

100.35 

Noncoflabie, Fees 1 f4V (Swiss Bank Corp.] 

Oesterreichische 

Postsparkasse 

m 150,000 

1996 

11 

101% 

100.10 

Noncallabie. Fees 1W%. (Swiss Baik Corp.) 

Rabobank Nederland 

m 225.000 

1999 

ms 

101.675 

9955 

Noncallabie. Fees 1 5*%. (Swiss Bant Corp.) 

SBC finance 
(Cayman) 

m. 200,000 

1997 

n% 

101 .265 

10057 

Noncallabie. Fees 1 **%. (Swiss Bank Carp.) 

Bayerische 

Landesbank 

Df 250 

1997 

6% 

100.888 

9955 

Reoffered at 9970. Noncallabie. Fees lfe%. (ABN-AMftO 
Bank.) 

Ontario 

DF500 

2004 

7% 

101% 

9955 

Reoffered at 99.95. Nonca fable. Fees 2%. (ABN- AMRO 
Bonk.) 

AT&T 

ECU 150 

1999 

8 

101% 

99.70 

Reoffered at par. Noncallabie. Fees ITtfb. (Paribas Capital 
Markets.) 

Bank Nederlandse 
Gemeenten 

CS250 

2004 

9K 

101515 

9955 

Reoffered at 9984. Noncallabie. Fees 2%. (ABN-AMBRO 
Bank.) 

Bayerische 

Hypotheken und 
Wechsel Bank 

a«s$75 

1997 

8V 

101.325 

9950 

Noncoflabie. Fees 1ft%. (Ham bras Bank.) 

Bayerische 

Vereinsbank 

AiaSlOO 

1998 

9 

101.43 

9970 

Noncallabie. Fees (ABN-AMRO Bank.) 

Commonwealth Bank 
of Australia 

AusSlOO 

1997 

8tt 

101^8 

9950 

Noncoflabie. Fees 1V4%. (Commonwealth Bank of Australia) 

Rabobank Nederland 

Au4125 

1997 

816 

101506 

9970 

Noncoflabie Fees 1WL Increased horn AusSlOO mOJicn. 
(Swiss Bank Carp.) 

T)SL Bank 

Y 35,000 

1999 

4.36 

100.15 

— 

Nonctilable private placement. Fees 075%. Denominations 
100 mtTion yen. (Nomura Ini'L) 

Nikon 

Y 10,000 

2001 

4.85 

100.15 

— 

Noncoflabie private placement. Fees nor disclosed. Denomina- 
tions 100 rnifcon yen. (Mrsubahi Finance.) 

Ontario 

r 10,000 

1999 

4.43 

100 

— 

Noncallabie. Fees not disclosed. Denominations 100 mifion 
yea (Kidder Peabody Infl.) 

Ontario 

Y 10.000 

1999 

4.24 

100 

— 

NoncaHoble Fees not dadosed. Denominations TOO mflkon 
van. (CS first Boston.) 

Swedish Export Credit 

r 20,000 

1997 

3 

99.9 9 

— 

Coloble or par in 1995. Fees 0a0% (Ycmach tart.) 

WestLB Finance 
(Curacao) 

Y 10,000 

1999 

4.22 

100 

— 

Noncallabie private placement. Fees noi dadosed. Denomina 
hare 100 miSon yen. (C5 firv Boston.) 

Equtty-Unkod 

Commerce Asset 
Holding 

$100 

2004 _ 

open 

i 

100 


Semiannual coupon indicated at 1W ro 2%. Redeemable in 
1999 to yield i*> to 050 over Treasuries. Convertible at an 
expected 5 to 9% premium. Fees 2WV Terms to be set Sept. 
14. (Baring Brothers & Co) 


SHORT COYER 


Aeromexico, Mexicana Chief Quits 

MEXICO CITY (Reuter) — Aerovias de Mexico (Aeromexico) 
and Mexicana de Aviacion said Sunday that their chairman, Ger- 
ardo de Prevoisin, had resigned in a move apparently aimed at 
appeasing creditor banks seeking to restructure the financing of the 
troubled airlines. . 

The announcement, which appeared in Mexico City newspapers, 
said Jose Luis Llamosas Portilla, a member of the Aeromexico 
toard, had been named that airline’s new president, but a new 
Mexicana president had not yet been chosen. 

Aeromexico look control of Mexicana in February 1993 and 
owns 55 percent of its former rivaL Mexicana posted a $ 1 15 million 
loss in the first-half of 1994 and Aeromexico lost $136 million. 

Vietnam Says It Needs More Planes 

HANOI (Reuters) — Vietnam Airlines has increased its fore- 
cast for the number of new aircraft needed over the next decade 
and may sell shares to pay for them, an official newspaper 

^^The airline forecasts a need for $3 billion to $5 billion to 


«UU. A uv 

_ _ ^ deputy general di _ . 

"major regional carrier’* in the next decade. 

A Vie tnam Airlines official said six months ago the earner 
planned to more than double its existing fleet, to betw een 30 and 40 
Dianes of all types, by the turn of the century. The new figures 
Sdicateii mighlthen need another 30 to 40 planes by 2004 to 2005. 

Rowland Issues Confident Challenge 

LONDON Roland “Tiny” Rowland, the chief executive of 

Lonrho PLC who survived a potential boardroom coup last week, 
said in a published report that he would outlast Dieter Bock, his 
coOchairman at the conglomerate. , 

The company has refuted reports that it would oust the 76-year- 
old who has led the company for the past 33 years in favor of his 
once-allied joint chief, Mr. Bock. After the toard meeting jast week. 
Mr. Rowland issued a challenge to Mr. Bock, sa wig I have a 
Feeling I am going to see you out, according to the Sunday limes. 

Japan Firm Plans Shanghai Towers 

TOKYO (Reuters) — A leading Japanese real estate developer 
plans to build two high-rise office buildings in Shanghai, one of 
them 90 stories tall, the economic journal Nihon Keizai Shimbun 

said Simdav. ... . 

The plan is part of Shanghai’s drive to increase office space and 
accommodate the influx of foreiffi businessmen. 

The paper said Mori Building Co., a leading supplier of office 
’k'nildinfs in Tokvo, would form a consortium with U.S. and 
'SpallS: financial and trading companies for the 96 billion yen 
($960 million) project. 

Mobile Phone Venture in Singapore 

SINGAPORE (Reuters) — The 
n-.Q, Holdings. Hongkong Telecom and Cable & Wireless rLL 
Slwy had^nned a joint venture to bid for licenses to operate 
public cdlSar mobile telephone and radio paging sendees m 

and Singapore Press Holdings each hold 35 percent of 
ihe new company. Mobile One (Asia) Lid. 

1 Cable & Wireless and Hongkong Telecom hold the remaining 
30 percent through their joint company. Great Eastern Telecom- 
munications Ltd. 


TREND: 

A Crucial Week 

Continued from Page 7 

Lipsky slates- “But the risk for 
financial markets is that inves- 
tors could conclude that delay 
means likely defeat." 

Such an event could have a 
“significant” impact on U.S. 
markets and the dollar because 
financing the U.S. current-ac- 
count deficit requires large in- 
flows of foreign capital to the 
United States. 

Meanwhile, the outlook for 
European bond markets and 
currencies is equally uncertain. 

With recovery now firmly un- 
der way, there is considerable 
doubt whether official European 
rates can decline and some wor- 
ry about how soon they are likely 
to start increasing. Political un- 
certainties also will increase with 
legislative elections in Germany 
in October and the presidential 
election in France in March. 

Analysts said that an upset to 
prospects for Helmut Kohl to 
re tain his position as chancellor 
would dramatically weaken the 
Deutsche mark. 

But at the same time. Den- 
mark and Spain, which also 
face upcoming elections, and 
France and Italy are all labor- 
ing with unbearably high long- 
term interest rates. Real yields, 
or what is left after subtracting 
inflation, are 6 percent in 
France, 6.5 percent in Den- 
mark. 7 percent in Spain and 8 
percent in Italy and Sweden. 

These high real levels of 
course reflect market assess- 
ments of risk. But. observed 
Malcolm Roberts, London- 
based analyst at Union Bank of 
Switzerland, “real yields of 6 
percent and higher cannot be 
sustained.” Ultimately some- 
thing has to give — rates will be 
pushed down by investors rush- 
ing to buy bonds or by official 
w illin gness to tolerate inflation. 

Jan G. Loeys at J- P. Morgan 
in London agreed that European 
bonds currently are a better in- 
vestment than U.S. or Japanese 
debt, but advises moving out of 
Sweden, Italy and Denmark and 
shifting into Switzerland, the 
Netherlands, Germany. France 
and Britain. Among the high- 
yi elders, Mr. Loeys recommend- 
ed Spain “which has the least 
political problems and a relative- 
ly low debt burden.” 


Treasury Bonds Headed for Rare Annual Loss 


Compiled fa Our Staff From Dispatcher 

NEW YORK — The S3 tril- 
lion U.S. Treasury market may 
be headed for its first annual 
loss since man first walked on 
the moon. 

Treasury notes and bonds 
have fallen 3.99 percent so far 
this year, according to Ryan 

U,S. CREDIT MARKETS 

Labs, a New York-based invest- 
ment adviser that specializes in 
the mathematics of bonds. That 
is not counting taxes or infla- 
tion, which currently is running 
at 2.8 percent in America. 

“You have to go back to 1969 
before the Ryan Treasury index 
had a negative return for the 
year.” said Sean F. McShea, a 
Ryan analyst. The Ryan index 
fell 1.32 percent in 1969. 

Negative returns are uncom- 
mon m the world's major bond 
markets. Until this year, there 
had been only one episode since 
1987 — Japan in 1989 — among 
the Group of Seveo industrial- 
ized countries, according to the 
J. P. Morgan Government 
Bond Index. The G-7 consists 
of the Britain, Canada, France, 
Germany, Italy. Japan, and the 
United States. 

Total return is the interest in- 
come on a bond, reinvested in- 
terest, plus or minus any change 
in the bond's price over a given 
period of time. The return is ex- 
pressed as an annualized percent 
of the amount invested. 

The odds the Treasury mar- 
ket will eke out a positive return 
this year are not good, investors 
and analysts said. Bond yields 
would have to plunge for the 
rest of the year for the return to 
be unchanged. As yields rise, 
prices fall. 

“You need a pretty good 
price gain to get this thing back 
to zero," Mr. McShea said. 

This matters most to profes- 
sional investors who must reval- 
ue their portfolio’s worth on a 
daily basis. Individuals who 
buy bonds wiLh the intention of 
holding them to maturity do 
not much care whether the price 
of their bonds changes. They 
are after the semiannual inter- 
est payment, which does not 
change. 

For the professional, though, 
prospects look grim. For the 
Treasury market to achieve a 
positive return this year, the 
yield on the benchmark 30-year 
bond would have to fall 72 basis 
points from the 7.49 percent 
yield posted Friday. 


Even bond bulls do not see 
that happening. 

“If we’re at 7 percent, 7.25 
percent by year end, we’d be 
nappy,” said Robert G. Smith 
3d, executive vice president of 
Smith Affiliated Capital Coip.. 
“If we broke 7 percent, we’d be 
ecstatic." 

Treasury bond prices fin- 
ished the week nearly steady 
with the previous week's level, 
but many analysts said they ex- 
pected prices to forge lower this 
week, especially with more in- 
flation data due. 

The government is scheduled 
10 release its producer price in- 
dex for August on Friday, and 
the new inflation numbers 
“may not be so friendly to the 
bond market,” said Stephen 


Shier, chief financial market 
economist for the fixed-income 
division of Lehman Brothers. 

He said he expected producer 
prices to be reported up 0.4 per- 
cent for the mouth. 

Rising inflation readings 
could cause the market tu re- 
think its assumption that Fed- 
eral Reserve Board’s moneiaiy 
policy is on hold at least 
through the Nov. 15 Federal 
Open Market Committee meet- 
ing. 

“Although evidence of accel- 
erating inflation has not 
emerged yet in consumer prices 
or wages, policymakers cannot 
afford to wait until they do,” 
Salomon Brothers Inc. told cli- 
ents in its weekly commentary. 

So far this vear. the Fed has 


raised overnight bank lending 
rates five times, for a total of 
1.75 points, 10 4.75 percent. If 
rates keep rising, the probability 
of achieving a positive return for 
the year in the bond market will 
be virtually nil. 

‘Tve seen a lot of money' man- 
agers very sanguine about the 
market, and saying maybe yields 
will go to 8 percent," said James 
Bianco, director of fixed-income 
research at Arbor Trading 
Group, in Barrington, Illinois. 
“If you look at the math, that’s 
still a pretty good wallop.” 

The only remedy to rising 
rates this year has been to hold 
short-term securities such as 
Treasury bills, whose dollar 
price does not fluctuate much. 
Many portfolio managers have 


not swallowed that pill yet said 
Martin Jones, with First Asset 
Management in Minneapolis. 

“People tell you they're wor- 
ried about the bond market, but 
market suneys show that peo- 
ple’s portfolios are longer than 
their benchmark index,” Mr. 
Jones said. “People got caught 
in a downdraft but they're say- 
ing: i'll hang in here for the 
recovery.’ ’’ 

The recovery, if it does arrive, 
could be brief, Mr. Jones said. 
That's why he is keeping his 
portfolio’s duration at about 
5.25 years— a little longer than 
the S. 05-year duration of his 
benchmark bond index — to 
lake advantage of any rally in 
the fourth quarter. {NYT. 

Bloomberg, Knight-Ridderl 


The Week Ahead: World Economic Calendar, September 5 - September 9 


a schedule ol m week* economic and 
financial events. c emptied tor the Interna- 
tional Herate) Tribune try Bloomberg Busi- 
ness News. 

Asia-Pacific 

• Sopt. S MafTinnmr Australia ft New 
Zealand Bank job vacancy index tor Au- 
gust. Forecast 2 percent decline. 

Tokyo Machine tool orders lor July. 
Hong Kong China Hongkong Photo 
Products Holdings announces details of 
its initial public mock offering 

Kuala Lumpur Telekom Malaysia Bhd. 
holds special stockholders' meeting 10 
discuss $300 million to S500 million Euro- 
convertible bond. 

Ipoh, Malaysia kib Textiles and. share- 
holders' meeting to discuss proposed 
venture with Pembagunan Jaya Sdn. 
Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Institute of 
Economic Research holds ' Brainstorm, 
mg Meeting on the Trade Agenda of the 
1990s. ” Through Sept 7. 

Singapore Xu Kuang Di. executive dep- 
uty mayor of Shanghai, China, meets with 
Singapore businessmen at luncheon 
hosted by Alan Yeo. chairman of Singa- 
pore's Trade Development Board. 
Earnings expe ct ed First Pacific. Fos- 
ter's. Hopewell Holdings. North Broken 
Hill. Poseidon Gold. Seven Network. 

• Sept. 6 Tokyo Japanese vehicle im- 
ports in August 

Tokyo Bank of Japan to release ns quar- 
terly tankan survey o> corporate senti- 
ment and business conditions. 

Tokyo Shares in Japan Telecom begin 
trading on the second section oi the To- 
kyo Slock Exchange. 

Sydney Reserve Bank of Australia 
monthly board meeting. 

Hong Kong Trade Minister Bob McM Lil- 
ian and 12 Chiel executives from major 
Australian companies begm 1 0-day trade 
trip to Hong Kong and China lo boost 
investment 

Kuala Lianpur 11th Malaysian Interna- 
tional Building and Construction Expose 
non. Through Sept. 9 at the Putra World 
Trade Center 

Tokyo United States to launch its "EMS 
Caravan'' roadshow Ol US. emergency 
medical equipment. An Amencan-buUt 
ambulance equipped with the high-tech 
U.S emergency medical facilities and 
supplies will tour Japan through July 
Singapore Seminar entitled "Shanghai 


m the 2131 Century." led by Xu Kuangdi, 

executive deputy mayor of Shangna at 
the Shangri-La Hotel, 
e Sept. 7 WeUngton Producer price 
Index for June quarter. Forecast: Rise in 
input and output prices. 

Tokyo Bank of japan Governor Yasusm 
LUeno holds press conference. 

Hong Kong Pep si -Col a International 
Asia Pacific holds news conference about 
ihe signing of a contract for Sunonazti 
S.p.A ft Sareml S.p-A. to provide bottling 
and canning line equipment for alt Pepsi's 
new plants in China. 

Singapore Seagate Technology Inc. 
news conference to discuss its expansion 
plans tor Singapore and Asia. 

Bangkok Louis R. Hughes, president of 
General Motors Europe, viols Bangkok 
for talks with executives of Phra Nakom 
Automotive Ltd., the agent tor Opel, on 
the possibility of assembling Opeis m 
Thailand. 

Sydney Robert Joss, managing director 
ol Wastpac Bank, addresses the Securi- 
ties Institute. Topxr. Profiting from cultural 
change. 

Earnings expected Air New Zealand. 
Hong Kong s China Gas. Wool worth, 
e Sept. 8 WeHngton Reserve Bank of 
Now Zealand releases economic tore- 


Sydney Wesipac-Meibourne Institute 
consumer confidence survey. 

Sydney Labor force figures tor August. 
Forecast: Unemployment rate lo rise to 
9.7 percent; employment numbers to de- 
cline by about 30.000. 

Hong Kong Banyan Systems Inc. Chair- 
man David Mahoney speaks at an Ameri- 
can Chamber ol Commerce in Hong Kong 
on "Enterprise Networking.'' 

Earnings expected Briertey Invest- 
ments. BTR Mylex. Century City interna- 
tional Holdings. Nine Network. Wing Shan 
International. 

e Sept. S Rangoon Petroleum Au- 
thority ol Thailand to sign gas purchase 
agreement with Burma tor a gas field in 
the Gull ot Maiuban. The field is operat- 
ed by Total SA and Unocal Corp- is a 
shareholder. 

Tokyo Marine & Fire insurance Associa- 
tion ol Japsn noids annual meeting. 
Prime kireser TomiicN Murayama. Fi- 
nance Minister Masayoshi Takemura. 
Bank ot Japan Gov Yasushi Mieno and 
Federation of Economic Organizations 


(Ketdanren) Charm an Shoichtro Toyed a 
to give speeches. 

E a rnings e xpe c ted Pacific Dunlop. Aus- 
tralian Consolidated Press. 


Europe 

• Expected this week Brutaeta Au- 
gust unemployment. Forecast 14.5 per- 
cent. 

Frankfurt July manulactunng orders 
Forecast: Up 0.5 percent. 

Frankfurt July M-3 money Supply. 
Frankfurt August cast ot living. 

Zurich August unemployment. Fore- 
case 4.5 percent. 

e Sept. 5 London August u-o money 
supply. Forecast: Up 0.3 percent in 
month, up 6 J percent in year. 

Earnings expected Burmah Castro). 
Coats Vryeila 

e Sept. 6 Frankfurt Western German 
August unempioymeni Forecast. Down 
6,000. Also. Eastern German August un- 
employment. Forecast: Up 5.000 
Bonn: Finance Minister Theo WaJgel in- 
troduces 1995 budget to German parlia- 
ment. 

Helsinki Government to propose 19K. 
draft budget. 

London July Industrial production 
Forecast Up 03 percent. 

Earnings expected Bowater, Generate 
de Banque. Royal Ahold. 

• Sept. 7 London Monthly meeting of 
Bank ol England Governor Eddie George 
and Chancellor Kenneth Clarke. 

Parts 2nd-quaner gross domestic prod- 
uct Forecast Up 0.8 percent. 

Earnings expected NFC. RTZ. Total 

• 3 » p t 8 Copenhagen July unem- 
ployment. Forecast 12.1 percent 
Frankfurt Western German 2nd-quarter 
gross domestic product. Forecast: Up 1.0 
percent 

London June global visible trade. Fore- 
cast- £800 million deficit, 
e Sept. 9 Amsterdam August con- 
sumer pnee index. Forecast: Up 0.4 per- 
cent in month, up 2.5 per can! in year. 
Llndsu. Germany Two-day minimal 
meeting of EU finance ministers. 

Oslo August consumer price index. 
Forecast. Down 0 i percent in month, up 
1 5 percent in year. 

Zurich 2nd-quarier gross domestic 
product. Forecast Up 1.7 peroent in year. 


Americas 


• Sept. S Santiago National institute 
ol Statistics releases August inflation rate, 
industrial production for July and unem- 
ployment lor me three months rmaing 
July 31 . Outlook: Consumer pnees io rise 
1 1 percent In August 

Mexico City The central bank an- 
nounces August inflation rate Outlook: 
Pnees to nse between 0 4 percent and 0.5 
percent 

• Sept. 6 Detroit Automakers report 
U.S. sales of new cars and Hghi trucks lor 
August. 

Caracas Shareholders' meeting for 
Stote-owned curl me Aeropostai. Outlook 
Officials are expected io announce the 
company, dosed last week because of a 
lator dispute, win remain closed ana its 
assets will be sold. 

• Sept. 7 Washington Labor Depart- 
ment reports revised productivity ana 
costs for the second quarter. 

Buenos Aires preliminary July trade fig- 
ures. Outlook Exports rise. 

Washington U S Trade Representative 
Mickey Kamor and Japan international 
Trade & industry Minister Ryutaro Husni- 
moro meet la discuss trade. 



e Sept. 8 Washington Federal Re- 
serve Board reports July consumer credit 
Sao Paulo August automobile produc- 
iron. Outlook. Production could set re- 
cord for August 

Brasifle Presidential candidate Fernan- 
do Hennque Cardoso expected to release 
economic program. 

Washington The Labor Department re- 
ports initial weekly stale unemployment 
compensation insurance claims, 
a Sapt. 9 Was hi ngto n August pro- 
ducer pnee mde* 

Ottawa Labor <orce survey for August. 


Copper Price Points to U.S. Growth 


Bloomberg Busina: Vmj 

NEW YORK — Copper 
prices make for an excellent 
economic crystal bail, and ihe 
fortune now showing is for U.S. 
economic growth, manufactur- 
ers say. 

Copper prices are ai three- 
and-a-half-year highs amid de- 
clining world stockpiles and ris- 
ing demand, and that scenario 
looks set lo continue. 

Copper wire and plumbing 
fixtures are found ai every con- 
struction site; the metal "is em- 
ployed throughout the electron- 
ics industry, including in tel- 
evision and computer manufact- 
uring; about 50 pounds (23 kil- 
ograms) of it is used in every car. 

Each category is sensitive to 
economic conditions and de- 
mand shows no signs of slipping. 

“Our sales are very good right 
now, and we expect that to con- 
tinue into next year.” said a cop- 
per buyer with General Motors 
Corp.’s Harrison division in 
Lockpon, New York. “We are 
up dramatically from the reces- 
sionary levels of a year ago.” 

The division's copper pur- 
chases are directly related to 
General Motors's car produc- 
tion levels, the buyer said. 

Copper for September deliv- 
ery on New York's Commodity 
Exchange rose to $1,165 a 
pound last week, the highest the 
con tract nearest expiration has 
settled since January 1991. 

U.S. demand for copper is 


growing even though the Feder- 
al Reserve Board has raised in- 
terest rates five times this year 
in an effort to keep a lid on 
inflation. 

New-home construction rose 
4.7 percent in July, confound- 
ing analysts who predicted that 
rising rates for mortgages and 
construction financing would 
cause a real estate slowdown. 
The housing and construction 
industries, the largest consum- 
ers of copper, account for 42 
percent of total U.S. demand. 

“The overall economy is 
looking better than it has for 
the past two or three years," 
said a buyer with Southwire Co. 
in Atlanta, which makes copper 
wire. “It’s across the board." 

Copper companies in the 
United States have seen their 
share prices soar with the price 


of the metal. Shares of Magma 
Copper Co., which has interests 
in railroads and gold mining in 
addition lo copper, have dou- 
bled since October, closing Fri- 
day at $18375. 

Phelps Dodge Corp., another 
Arizona-based producer, did 
nearly as well, finishing Friday 
at $63.00, up from its low of 
$39.75 hit Sept 30, 1993. 

Warehouse inventories of 
copper in the United States and 
Europe have plunged this year 
as copper demand outstripped 
supply. 

The decline in copper stock- 
piles "means the cupboard’s al- 
most bare," said Richard Hirsch, 
vice president with Deutsche 
Bank's Sharps Pixlev brokerage 
in New York. “It’s being sucked 
out by strong brass, wire and 
export business.” 


MAILED FROM AMERICA 


iuremorts 
At a Glance 


Eurobond Yields 



5epi.2Auo.ta 

Yr high Yrlow 

U.& S, feog terra 

7-fll 

j.n 

74a 

671 

U5.J>mdm terra 

ISi 

IPS 

75< 

SttS 

Uis, short term 

6.63 

&70 

A7B 

m 

Pooaos swung 

L«i 

Ml 

s.n 

US 

Fraai francs 

7«8 

101 

803 

U7 

Italian lire 

11.13 

11.13 

ll.P 

7.91 

Danish krona 

ftjk 

fl At 

Ml 

♦20 

Swedish krona 

KLffl 

11.13 

11.13 

7J>i 

ECU. tans term 

B73 

a^3 

873 

6.13 

ECU.mdoiKnn 

Uk> 

un 

btr> 

34 1 

Coils 

£.W 

100 

IM 

4J8 

An. l 

12b 

e.ir 

14 « 

til 

Hi 5 

IT 7 

L 46 

W 

i.«f 

Yen 

US 

4A5 

us 

IP 


Source: Lv uembeurg Slock E -ctr anpe. 

Weekly Sales s*pi. i 

Enatnmoflm 

CWO EaroeJwr 

i Nani S ItMit 

Strew Ml TOO 61X50 4W.»0 HTtM 

Convert U0 — M.00 1150 

FRHS 114S0 — a»M :«JQ 

ECP 4,10133 177*3) 9J»J0 5330.10 

Tcfof <3CH 187300 HUM. 10 7JMJB 

Swreanm MoiHit 

Creel E unclear 

S Notts * Hons 

StraWBH 9.7UWI 1438440 31.CS xO 37440x0 

Convert. 383 SO 50130 MSI 50 I41Q.90 

FftXl 6.1303 1500 27.2IS.ta UOUO 

ECP LD11W 1032780 7.9&L.D UriMlD 

Total 3U74.M 34407^3 t8JW.W SXS75.B 

Source: Suroclcor, Cede! 


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Ubor Rates 


Sept. 2 


l-month 

3-monlll 

♦^ncirta 

Uil 

A 

J'« 

51- la 

Deutsche muni i IS'U 

5 

SH 

Peund slerltas 

S1.-14 

5^ 

6 

FresBi frooc 

S'l 

S’. 

SIS It 

ECU 

S 11/16 

r i 

6 3 '14 

Yea 

: i -le 


2-^ 

Sources: Lfcmft Bon*. Reuters. 



This week’s topics: 

o Managing By Value At Levi’s 
O Europe’s Media Giants Team Up As The Market Grows 
0 Ron Brown's ‘Lovefesf In Beijing 
0 Europe's Tourist Boom 
o Break A Leg - And Bioceramics May Mend It 

Now available at your newsstand! 


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For subscriptions call UK 44-628-23431 Hong Kong 852-523-2939 


Last Week’s Markets 


All figures ore os of close ol trading Friday 




Stock Indexes 



Money Rates 



United States 

Sept. 2 

Aug. 26 

Cn'qe 

United States 

Sept. 2 

Aug. 26 

DJ Indus. 

388558 

3881X6 

+ai2% 

Discount rale 

480 

480 

DJ urn. 

18x55 

188.44 

— 206 S. 

Prime rale 

7 is 

7^4 

DJ Trans. 

102756 

1614X0 

+ 084% 

Federal funds rale 

4 

4 

S&P100 

434B2 

438.12 

—075% 

Japan 



SIP 500 

S & P ind 
NYSE CP 
Britain 

55458 

55458 

259.93 

47380 

55621 

26082 

—059% 

—029% 

—034% 

Discount 

Call morwv 

3-month interbank 
Germany 

P- 

2 v 
2% 

IV. 

. , 

2 •. 

FTSE 100 

3222.70 

3265.10 

— 130% 

680 


FT 30 

250670 

255220 

— 180% 

Lombard 

680 





Cali money 

495 

4*5 

Nikkei 225 

2065383 

2047189 

+ 089% 

3-monih interbank 

500 

5.00 

Germany 




Britain 



DAX 

220471 

216154 

+ 280% 

Bank base rate 

V* 

S' 4 

Hong Kara 




Call money 

500 

4^4 

Hang Seng 

990156 

939958 

+ 535 % 

3-monlh inlerbank 


5'. 

world 




Gold Seal. 2 

Aug.2e 

Chic 

MSCIP 

64250 

63850 

+ 0x3 % 

Lonoon p.m. ft/5 38670 

38330 

+ 089% 

World /rater From Morgan Stanley Caolrol Inti. 





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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 


Page 11 





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Hong Kong Division Lifts Sime Profit world stocks in review 


• Rmm 

KUALA LUMPUR — Sime 
Darby Bhd. said Sunday that its 
net profit rose nearly 12 percent 
in the year to June 30, led by a 
strong performance from its 
Hoag Kong division. 

The industrial conglomerate 
earned a net 449.7 million ring- 
git {$176 million) in the year on 
sales of 8.21 billion ringgit, up 
from 7.04 billion ringgit 

Hie results were below ana- 
lysts’ expectations, but the com- 
pany said it was satisfied with 
the results and predicted con- 
tinued Strong growth. It said a 


proliferation of infrastructure 
projects across Aria should fos- 
ter strong economic growth 
rates that would work to the 
company’s advantage. 

“In these circumstances the 
board believes that, barring the 
unforeseen, the group will have 
another year of record profit- 
ability in 1994-95 as achieved 
over the past seven years," Sime 
said. 

The company’s Hong Kong 
division accounted for 226.7 mil- 
lion ringgit of the pretax profit 
last year. Sime attributed the 
strong performance to a sharp 


rise in sales of European motor 
vehicles and the continuation of 
a high level of trade with China. 

Sime said its Australia-based 
Hastings Dee ring heavy equip- 
ment division also posted im- 
pressive results, with the 
Queensland and Papua New 
Guinea operations benefiting 
from increased demand from 
the mining sector. 

Profit from the plantations 
division fell to 39.9 million ring- 
git from 59.2 million ringgit in 
die previous year because of re- 
duced palm oil prices and nar- 
rowing margins in the latex 


business, the company said. 

But palm oil prices have 
surged this year and are now at a 
nine-year high, which should 
help the plantations sector this 
year, analysts said. 

Sime said earnings from its 
tractors and property develop- 
ment business improved, while 
its insurance division posted a 
13.1 million ringgit profit 
against a loss of 12.6 million in 
the previous year. 

Profit improved in Sime’s Sin- 
gapore division, but its Malay- 
sian, Philippine and Australian 
units reported failing income. 


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Via Agence Fiance-Preue 

Amsterdam. 

Prices fell slightly last week, sending the 
EOE market index down to 419.14 points 
from 420.83 points the week before. 

But traders said confidence was still 
strong, and the recent rise in the market 
was expected to resume this week. 

Paper companies and banks were 
strong, dealers said. But Akzo Nobel fell to 
219.60 guilders from 220.30 guilders. Roy- 
al Dutch/ Shell slipped to 199 JO guilders. 
Philips was steady at 58.10 guilders and 
Unilever stood at 201.80. 

Frankfurt 

Prices rose 2 percent last week, with the 
DAX 30-share index at 2,204.71. 

Commerzbank said in a weekly report 
that insitulional investors had increased 
blue-chip holdings on stable interest rates, 
a rising dollar and the positive earnings 
reports. 

Daimler-Benz rose 28.50 Deutsche marks 
to 838.50 DM, while MAN fell 5.80 DM to 
437. Bayer fell 10.80 DM to 376.70, and 
Hoechst rose 4.70 DM to 359.50. 

Hong Kong 

Hopes that U.S.-Chinese trade relations 
would normalize after the U.S. commerce 
secretary, Ron Brown, visited China lifted 
the benchmark Hang Seng Index 502.48 
points to close a holiday-shortened week at 
9,901.56. 

Despite a closed market Monday, aver- 
age turnover jumped to 452 billion Hong 
Kong dollars from 3.715 billion dollars the 
week before. 

lardine Matheson jumped 7.00 dollars, 
to 72.75 dollars, and Swire Pacific A 
gained a dollar to 63.25 dollars. 

Cheung Kong gained 3.10 dollars to 
39.50 dollars, while Hongkong Land rose 
2.80 dollars to 21.50 dollars. 

London 

Fears of a slowdown in U.S. economic 
growth eclipsed bullish news on the British 


economic front and pushed the London 
share market lower last week. 

The Financial Times-Stock Exchange 100 
index of leading shares closed Friday at 
3,222.7 points, down 42.4 points on the 
previous week. 

The London market fell in line with 
slumps on "Wall Street after a fall in the 
National Association of Purchasing Man- 
agement's index and a less-than-expected 
drop in U.S. unemployment in August. 
Prices recovered slightly on generally good 
quarterly results at British companies. 

The week’s biggest transaction was 
SmithKline Beecham’s £1.9 billion purchase 
of over-the-counter medicine manufacturer 
Sterling Wimhrop from Eastman Kodak. 
SmilhKline's share price dropped 1 1 pence 
to 448. Other pharmaceuticals also fell, with 
Glaxo down 26 pence at 632 pence. Well- 
come down 22 pence at 702 pence, and 
Zeneca down 28 pence to 824 pence. 

Milan 

Milan shares fell slightly, with the Mib- 
tel index down 0.63 percent from the previ- 
ous week at 10,935 points in low volume. 

The market is awaiting the announce- 
ment of the government's budget, possibly 
by the end of the month, 
political analysts said. 

Olivetti dropped almost 7 percent on the 
week because of a price war among comput- 
er manufacturers. Hat slipped 0.32 percent. 

Paris 

Hit by the general weakening of confi- 
dence in the U.S. economy and the slide in 
the dollar, the CAC-40 fell 2 percent dur- 
ing the week to 2.020.37 points. 

Banks raised their base rates by a quar- 
ter pram, to 7.95 percent, the first rise in 1 8 
months, which unnerved some dealers but 
was seen as of little economic significance. 

Shares in Euro Disney fell sharply after 
a British analyst said the share was worth 
1.60 French francs. The share began trad- 
ing at 36 francs and has since fallen to 
around 8. 


Singapore 

Shares rose in Singapore last week, with 
the Straits Times Industrials index gaining 
37.10 points, to 2,330.61 points. 

Turnover for the week was 870.7 1 million 
shares, down 28 percent compared with the 
previous week, while value dipped by 22 
percent to 2.4 billion Singapore dollars. 

United Industrial was uie most active 
stock of the week, with a turnover of 29.19 
million shares. 

Tokyo 

Stability in dollar-yen exchange rates 
encouraged players to support export-ori- 
ented issues, and the Nikkei 225 index rose 
182.34 points, or 0.9 percent, in the week, 
to 20.653.83 points. 

But brokers said players were skeptical 
about near-term prospects for dollar-yen 
stability before a Sept. 30 deadline for 
Washington to decide whether to impose 
sanctions against Japanese goods under 
the Super 301 law. 

Telecommunication issues rose on re- 
ports that Japanese companies would 
jointly introduce a new plastic fiber that 
would be much cheaper than current glass 
optical fiber. Carmakers closed mixed. 

Electronics makers gained ground, with 
Sony jumping 270 yen to 6.100 yen and 
Matsushita Electric Industrial was up 50 to 
1,780 yen. 

Zurich 

A flurry of orders from institutional 
investors pushed the market up last week, 
with the Swiss Performance Index jum ping 
44.23 points, or 2.5 percent, to 1.761.11 
points. 

Shares in Roche rose 190 Swiss francs to 
6,270 on bullish earnings. Ciba Geigy was 
unchanged at 805, while Sandoz rose 12 
francs to 709. 

Bankers gained ground, with UBS up 73 
francs at 1,199 francs. Nesdi rose eight 
francs to 1,237, while Swissair fell 13 
francs to 875. 


JOBS: Higher Education and High Wages Not Necessarily a Set in U.S. 


Continued from Page 9 

mg wages by working increased 
hours and shifting to two in- 
comes, that is a trend “that may 
be reaching its maximum ca- 
pacity," they said, because most 
women who want to work are 
already doing so. 

The deteriorating wages of 
the 1980s, the report said, "have 
not only deteriorated further in 
the 1990s. they have also 
dragged new groups of workers 
down with them." 

Since 1979. the real wages of 
college-educated men have de- 
clined nearly 3 percent, failings 
percent since 1989 after a small 
rise in the 1980s. The inflation- 
adjusted wages of male high- 


scbool graduates fell 17 percent 
since 1979. 

College-educated women 
have fared much better, enjoy- 
ing a 15 percent increase in real 
wages since 1979 and more than 
a 2 percent increase since 1989. 

Despite the increase, college- 
educated women still earn sig- 
nificantly less than their male 
counterparts: an average of 
$13 51 an hour, compared with 
$17.62. 

The worst effects on wages 
have been felt by entry-level 
workers, those without a college 
degree, young workers and 
blue-collar workers. 

The report offers several ex- 
planations for the shift in 
wages, including deunioniza- 


tion; a “severe*' drop in the val- 
ue of the minimum wage; ex- 
pansion of low-wage, service- 
sector employment: 

globalization of die economy 
and the growth of small busi- 
ness and temporary or part- 
time work arrangements. 

Mr. Mishel said college-edu- 
cated workers clearly fare better 
economically — despite recent 
declines in real income by males 
— and are more successful at 
avoiding unemployment. But 
even though education and 
training are part of the solution 
to the problems of the work 
force, they are “hardly a silver 
bullet.” 

That would seem to counter 
what has been Mr. Reich's ar- 


gument, that the country needs 
to improve the education and 
skill-level of its workers. 

The Economic Policy Insti- 
tute report contended that, “the 
problem is not that a small 
group of ‘unskilled* workers are 
undergoing a painful adjust- 
ment to the new economic or- 
der. Rather, it is the lowering of 
wages, benefits and worlang 
conditions of the three-fourths 
of the workforce without a col- 
lege degree and the consequent 
pressure on family incomes. 
Now that income problems 
have spread upward to the 
white-collar and college-edu- 
cated groups, the beneficiaries 
of the new economic order are 
even harder to find.” 


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"Page 12 


International Herald Tribune 



A Special Report 


Monday, September 5, 1994 


Aviation 


Efficient New Engine: 
A $1.5 Billion Gamble 


By Jacques Neher 


P ARIS — When British Airways 
PLC starts operating the first 
Boeing 777, due for delivery next 
September, it will also be giving 
flight to the CE 90, the first totally new 
commercial aircraft engine in decades. 

Riding on the performance of this tur- 
bo-fan engine, which will be on public 
display for the first lime at the Farabor- 
ough Air Show this week, will be the hopes 
of General Electric Co. of the United 
States, France's state-owned Snecma, Fia- 
tAvio of Italy and Ishikawajima-Haxima 
Heavy Industries of Japan. The four en- 
gine manufacturers have jointly gambled 
$1.5 billion over the past four years to 
develop the behemoth power plant, billed 
as the most powerful, fuel-efficient engine 
the industry has ever offered. 

If the gamble pays off, it could return to 
the partners a good slice of the S50 billion 
engine market that is expected to develop 
over the next 15 years for the 777 ana 
future long-range, wide- body craft. A rev- 
enue-sharing pact, based roughly on the 
four companies' contributions to the en- 
gine's development, calls for GPs Air- 
craft Engines division to receive 60 per- 
cent of the sales proceeds, Snecma 25 
percent, I HI 8 percent and FiatAvia 7 
percent. 

However, if there is no sure thing in 
business, there is even less in the aero- 
space and aviation sector, which, as recall 
years have shown, is subject to sudden 
nosedives in global market demand due to 
economic and political factors. 

For the backers of the GE90, the risks 
are accentuated by the fact that the new 
engine’s fate is essentially tied to the suc- 
cess or failure of only one aircraft — the 
twin-jet Boeing 777, which is designed to 
carry 305 passengers, with a stretched ver- 
sion slated to transport 375 passengers. 
GE officials point out that the engine 
would also be ideal for a future generation 
of four-engine aircraft that would carry 
600 to 800 passengers, which is under 
study by Boring and Airbus Industrie, but 
they are mindful that a green light for such 
a craft could be a long way off. 



Whitney of the United States, which, he 
says, will have to significantly modify 
their current high-power engines — them- 
selves derivations of power plants origi- 
nally designed for much lower power out- 
puts — to meet the industry's future 
power needs. 

A spokesman for Rolls-Royce, howev- 
er, said that “commonality is an argument 
we all make," noting that his company’s 
Trent engine, which is expected to be 
certified at 90,000 pounds of thrust in 
January, will also be able to grow if the 
market requires. 

While a new product generates excite- 

Continued on Page 14 






'!*- 




GE and its partners are also subject to 
advances in technology that could prompt 
the airline industry to abandon turbo-fan 
engines. For example, in a future environ- 
ment of significantly higher fuel prices, 
the industry could come under pressure 
for much higher fuel economy and favor 
more efficient new prop-fan designs. 

“I'd be astonished if the GE90 is still in 
production in 2010,” said Bill Gunston, an 
aircraft engine specialist who writes for 
Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft “All tur- 
bo-fans will lookjibsolete by then." 

But GE and its partners counter that 
the engine will have a far longer life span 
than that because its designers aimed to 
produce up to 90,000 pounds of thrust — 
a much higher power level than existing 
engines — ana will therefore be posi- 
tioned to grow to meet the power require- 
ments of future long-haul aircraft requir- 
ing upwards of 1 15,000 pounds of thrust. 
This power growth, the partners say, will 
not require new components, meaning 
that airlines should be able to economize 
on maintenance crew tr aining and stock- 
age of spare parts as the more powerful 
versions arrive. 

“ Commonality is an issue with airlines, 
as it offers a major life-cycle cost consider- 
ation," said Russ Sparks, general manager 
for the GE90 project. 'To introduce new 
technology would have a significant im- 
pact on an airline's commonality." 


A Boeing 747 in a test flight of the 
GE90 engine, the first totally new 
commercial aircraft engine in de- 
cades, right. Below , a close-up of the 
engine, which will be used on 
Boeing's new 777 craft when they 
are introduced next September. 






WS 






vtr. 


m 








**«. 






?** 


A Jet to Give It Flight 


By Barry James 


P ARIS — The main talking point 
for Boeing Co. at the Fambor- 
ough air show will be its new 777 
twin-jet jumbo, & conventional 
looking plane that incorporates a host of 
technological advances. 

Despite high interest in the plane; how- 
ever. a Boeing official said the aircraft was 
unlikely to put in an appearance at the 
show. He said that diverting one of the 
aircraft to Fam borough would cut into an 
intensive program of testing and evalua- 
tion. 

The 777 took off on its maiden flight on 
June 12. A total of nine aircraft using 
three different engine types will take part 
in the test program. 

The 777 is the first new aircraft to fly 
straight off the drawing board — or, in 
this case, the computer screen — without a 
pre-production prototype to be sure that 
the mflli ons of parts fit together perfectly. 

Engineers say that the electronic design 
system achieved extraordinary accuracy 
in the construction. Major parts varied by 
fractions of a millime ter rather than the 
centimeter or more that can occur using 
conventional design methods. Boeing 
hopes the new system, allied with the test 
program, mil enable it to deliver aircraft 
without the teething troubles that often 
accompany the launch of a new model. 
Boeing has invested about $4 billion to 


develop the aircraft, which is coming onto 
.the market at a time of uncertainty and 
heavy losses in the commercial airline in- 
dustry. Like its closest rivals, the Europe- 
an Airbus A-330 and A-340 models, the 
777 will fill a gap between existing medi- 
um-capacity and mid-range aircraft, and 
the larger Boeing 747 jumbo. 

Typically, airlines will use the plane on 
so-called “long, thin" routes for which the 
747 is too large. With a range of over 4,500 
miles (7,200 kilometers.) for the initial 
model and up to 8,500 miles for projected 
versions, the 777 will be used both for 
intensive medium-range flights and for 
long-range intercontinental services. 

uie standard initial model will cany 
between 375 and 400 passengers in two 
classes, while the longer- range version will 
be capable of carrying 305 to 328 passen- 
gers in three clas ses. In an all-economy 
configuration, the 777 will be capable of 
carrying up to 440 passengers. 

Boeing has to prove to the Federal Avi- 
ation Administration and other regulatory 
bodies that the aircraft can safely fly ex- 
tended distances on one engine, an impor- 
tant consideration on intercontinental 
flights. The 777 is designed for extended- 
range, twin-jet operations of up to three 
hours. 

In attacking the same market sector as 
Boeing, the Airbus consortium has devel- 
oped the four-engined jet, the A-340, ar- 

Contmued on Page 16 


Lessons of a Meganwrger 


P ARIS — By its sheer magnitude, 
the merger of Lockheed and 
Martin Marietta rocked the in- 
ternational defense establish- 
ment like a low-flying jumbo. 

The real significance of the operation 
may lie less in its size than in the shrewd- 
ness displayed by both companies in re- 
cent years as they picked up choice pieces 
of a defense industry in such obvious 
trouble that many people were smart 
enough to look for the exit. 

Instead of forming partnerships to 
carve up a shrinking pool of wort: and 
jobs. Lockheed under Daniel M. Telleo 
and Martin Marietta under Norman R. 
Augustine practiced survival of the fit- 
test, aggressively buying out weaker com- 

E etitors to take commanding positions in 
ey sectors. 

"These are Darwinian times in our 
industry — three full factories are better 
than six half-full factories," said Mr. Au- 
gustine. who is renowned as one of the 
industry's great phrase-makers. 

His emphasis on restructuring reflect- 
ed a widespread mood in the United 
Slates that prompted many one-time de- 
fense giants, including General Dynam- 


ics, General Electric and LTV. to sell off 
miiitaxy divisions while there were eager 
bidders. 

By the time Mr. Augustine and Mr. 
Telleo joined forces, Lockheed had 
bought the fighter division of General 
Dynamics, adding the F-16 to Lock- 
heed’s stable of warplanes. Martin Mari- 
etta had picked up and digested other 
defense- related businesses — involving 
missiles, electronic warfare and space — 
from General Dynamics, General Elec- 
tric and Ford. 

Martin Marietta and Lockheed have 
often cooperated closely during the take- 
over wave in the defense industry, includ- 
ing a joint effort that helped block the 1 
acquisition of LTV by Thomson, the 
state-owned French company. 

After so much tough industrial squeez- , 
mg, it should be comparatively easy sail- 
ing to manage Lockheed Martin as an 
umbrella organization under which the 
divisions operate os separate companies 
— typical in defense industries. 

The lesson, analysts say, is that the { 
lough work of compressing was already 
done. 

Joseph Fltchett , 


i 

The Herculean Task of Stretching Defense Dollars 


By Joseph Fitchett 


P ARIS — Analysts trying to dis- 
cern the direction of military avia- 
tion are studying the career of the 
oldest plane still in service: the 
Hercules C-130, Lockheed’s war-horse, 
which still sells sieadfly more than 40 
years after it was rolled out. 

From the moment it flew in 1952, pilots 
loved the cargo plane that handled almost 
like a fighter and could land and take off 
from tough runways. But the secret of its 
commercial longevity lies elsewhere — 
primarily in the plane's ability to accom- 
modate an almost limitless list of improve- 
ments in weaponry and electronics. 

Reconfigured with different engines, ra- 
dar and armaments, the basic Hercules 
airframe has provided the platform for 
missions ranging from tactical airlift to 
electronic warfare. As a result, Hercules 
have a way of becoming a near-permanent 
fixture in the inventory of many air forces. 

With its long career, the Hercules illus- 
trates the thrust in the overall industry 
these days, with the market emphasizing 
potential ways of stretching out the life 
spans of military aircraft and thereby 
stretching defense dollars. 

While not matching the versatility of a 
converted airlift er such as the C-130, even 
high-performance fighter-bombers are in- 


creasingly viewed as a platform that can 
be upgraded — or in some cases simply 
refurbished — as a cheaper alternative to 
developing brand new models. 

“Planes that are not in production are 
at risk, very much at risk If they are still in 
research, and the converse is true: pro- 
grams that are in production and in inven- 
tory are going to slay in business." says 
Jerrold T. Lundquist, head of the aero- 
space and defense practice at McKinsey & 
Co., the U.S. management consultants. 

An executive at Malra, the French mis- 
sile maker, agrees: “It's a basic trend: 
people stay wuh the same generation of 
aircraft, the same platform, and they add 
more punch with the ordnance or the 
radar or both.” 

As delays mount for the next genera- 
tion, including the U.S.-made F-22, 
France's Rafale and the Eurofighter, the 
sales competition rages around improved 
versions of proven warplanes, notably the 
F-16, the F-18 and the Mirage 2000. 

Once seen as a stop-gap. these older 
warplanes could actually derail some shaky 
development programs. If Bonn bought a 
non-naval version of the F-18, analysts say, 
it could perform so well that Germany 
might decide to skip the Eurofighter. 

Amid scarcer development funds, in- 
dustry executives say. incremental im- 
provements account for a growing share 
of many defease contractors' business. 


The scope for missile manufacturers 
with sophisticated guidance systems and 
for defense electronics is obvious, espe- 
cially for scanning radars — miniaturized, 
versions of ground radars used for anti- 
missile defense — chat are faster and more 
reliable than mechanical radars relying on 
moving parts. 

But aircraft manufacturers profit, too, 
as their production lines turn out planes or 
“reskin" old ones, an operation that in- 
volves replacing any part susceptible to 
metal fatigue. Long confined to commer- 
cial aviation, this radical overhaul is now 
becoming common with warplanes. 

The range of possibilities was highlight- 
ed by Qatar’s purchase last month of Mi- 
rage 2000-5’s — Dassault’s first export 
sale of the improved “Dash 5” multi-role 
version. The three-way deal binged on a 
purchase by the Spanish air force of old 
Mirage F-l’s from Qatar while France 
bought two transport planes from Spain. 

Qatar will significantly boost its air 
power, especially with Matra’s Magic and 
Mica missiles, while Spain — acquiring 
refurbished F-ls — will simply stretch out 
the effective life of its existing fleet of 
Mirages while waiting for the Emrofighier. 

Buying off the shelf in this way offers 
major savings, not just in the purchase 
price alone, but in the logistics, training 
and spare parts that can treble the cost of 
putting a new model into service. 


This procurement approach offers a 
lengthened life for a country’s existing air 
power at comparatively low cost — a 
formula that appeals powerfully to cash- 
strapped defense planners. 

An attractive short-term option, this 
approach has the obvious limitation of 
postponing technological leaps to the 
coming generation of frontline aircraft — 
the F-22 in place of the F-16 and F-18, the 
Eurofighter in place of the Tornado, the 
Rafale in place of the Mirage 2000. 

For the moment, governments seem 
happy to pay the price of Iowa perfor- 
mance. “People don't fed the need right 
now to make those leaps as fast as we used 
to,” says Giovanni de Brigand, European 
editor of the U.S. weekly. Defense News, 
“simply because no one sees a credible 
threat requiring the next generation." 

In practice, analysts say, no country ■ 
likely to be hostile to the West these days 
has an air force or even air defense capa- 
ble of countering U.S. air power. Europe- 
an air forces, once they have acquired 
night-fighting capabilities, should be able 
to command air superiority anywhere in 
the Third World, with stand-off missiles 
reducing casualty risks. 

The sole plausible air-to-air challenge 
would be Russian, but revived militarism 

Continued on Page 15 


A Search for Ways to Improve Safety 


By Sarah Veal 


W HEN Pan Am Flight 103 blew 
up over Lockerbie, Scotland 
in 1988, the image of security 
that airlines had worked hard 
to achieve was shattered. Plastic explo- 
sives, the world learned to its horror, were 
all but invisible to conventional X-ray 
systems and even u tiny amount of plastic 
— in this case, small enough to be hidden 
in a radio — could destroy a jet in midair. 

Six years later, although nothing on the 
scale of Lockerbie has recurred, bow much 
real technological progress has been made? 
Can we rule out another Lockerbie? 

Not much and not really, is the blunt 
assessment of a U,S. General Accounting 
Office report released in May. The report, 
entitled “Aviation Security," examines the 
efforts by the Federal Aviation Authority 
to develop technology and procedures able 
to cope with plastic explosives and other 
threats beyond current airport security. 

In 1990, in response to the attack on 
Pan Am Flight 103, the U.S. Congress 
passed the Aviation Security Improve- 
ment Act to spur research into new tech- 
nologies. The act set the goal of having 
new explosive-detection equipment and 
methods to improve the survivability of 
aircraft, including blast-resistant luggage 
containers, in place by November 1993. 

As the report's subtitle, “Development 
of New Security Technology Has Not Met 
Expectations," indicates, toe deadline has 
been missed- Of toe 40 detection projects 
the Federal Aviation Authority is working 
on, only seven have been submitted to 
laboratory testing and none fully meets 
the authority’s performance requirements. 
The report says that it could take the 
authority another two to five years to 


approve even the most promising of them. 

“Everyone is working on it, but we are 
not seeing the breakthrough we would like 
to have seen at this point" says David 
Stem pier, executive director of the Inter- 
national Airline Passengers Association. 
“Some of the devices have made it to, say, 
50 percent of the way but Congress wants 
them to get to 75 percent and that last 25 
percent requires enormous expenditures 
of money without any guarantee that the 
measures are going to work." 

M ONEY does not ap pear to be 
the only problem. The Gen- 
eral Accounting Office report 
also questions the authority’s 
methodology. First, contrary to recom- 
mendations from toe National Academy 
of Sciences, the FAA does not plan to test 
any of toe new explosive-detection sys- 
tems in airports during the certification 
processes. In effect, its decisions will be 
based solely on laboratory conditions. 

The report also criticizes the authority’s 
failure to conduct software reviews for 
evaluating system designs that depend 
heavily on automation. In addition, al- 
though the authority agrees with other 
experts that no single device will be able to 
meet all of its requirements for screening 
checked bags, the agency has made little 
progress in Unking different technologies 
m total systems. Integration of the differ- 
ent devices mil be left up to toe airlines. 

Finally, the report faults the authority 
for not focusing sufficient attention on the 
people who will use these systems. Al- 
though the new devices will depend heavi- 
ly on automation, human beings subject to 
fatigue and distraction will still be seeded 
to interpret the images. 

What is or coining up on the market will 


be shown to the 500-plus civil aviation 
industry people expected to attend the 
Aviation Security Convention in Chicago 
from Oct. 24 to 26. Organized by the 
International Air Transport Association, 
the convention will bring together the air- 
lines, airports and security manufacturers 
for discussions. A wide range of X-ray 
machines, nitrate- sniffing devices, walk- 
through and hand-held metal detectors 
will be on display. 


“The manufacturers are there to say, 
‘Anything is possible if you want to spend 
$10 million a unit But if you want to come 
down to a more reasonable limit, let us tell 
you what we can do based on what you 
need,’ " says Terry Denny, an LATA 
spokesman. 

One item visitors will be keen to see is 
the new generation of X-ray equipment 
able to produce high-quality images with- 
* ~ jroto- 
sysics 



LtdL has been tested in Heathrow ant 
Other European airports since the begin- 
n ing of toe year. 

Baggage conveyor belts in most airports 
operate at speeds of 0.25 meters (10 inch- 
es) per second. Faster than this, tradition- 
al photodiode-based detectors are unreli- 
able. With the growing congestion in 
airports and toe need to screen all bags, 
either the system has to get faster or long 
delays will result. 

“with some airport operators express- 
ing an interest in eventually operating 
automatic X-ray systems at speeds in ex- 
cess of 1 meter per second, systems with 
optical-fiber detectors may be the only 
viable X-ray technology,” says David S. 
de Moutoied, director of Advanced Sys- 
tems at EG&G. 



The company’s next phase is to develop 
a “ smar t" X-ray system, able to visualize 
toe suitcase in three dimensions and iden- 
tify suspicious areas with a red circle on 
toe screen. A prototype is already being 
tested in British airports. 

But while these systems can identify 
conventional bombs or suspicious objects, 
it is still not easy to detect disguised plas- 
tic explosives. According to Nick Cart- 
wright, chairman of an International Civil 
Aviation Organization committee of spe- 
cialists in explosives, toe best we can hope 
for now is that all toe attention “wfll add a 
degree of uncertainty to the perceived 
problem-free use of these explosives by 
terrorists.” 

The most effective deterrent will likely 
remain a combination of high-tech devices 
and observant staff trained in body lan- 


guage and “profiting" (that is, evaluations 
according to a set of “high risk" character- 
istics^ as well as, in extreme cases, toe 
physical search of bags and passengers. 

To strengthen some of the weaker links 
in toe chain, the International Civil Avia-' 
tkm Organization has urged its wealthier 
member states to provide technical and 
financial assistance to help the airports of 
poorer countries comply with its 22 securi- 
ty procedures. To date, 102 countries have 
requested assistance. 

But developing toe new technology is 
Only pan of toe challenge. Until now, the 
airline s have been responsible for the se- 
curity of their baggage handling. Already 
strapped for cash; toe airlines may be 
paying for the new high-tech devices 
throughout the next decade. 

“It’s difficult because if you scream too 


loudly, you’ll probably end up paying for 
it,” Says Mr. Denny. “User charges might 
be raised to meet these security levels and 
the airlines feel they are already being ' 
taxed too highly and that the money isn’t « 
necessarily going into renewing equip- 
ment and security." 

According to toe US. reports. “FAA 
lacks a strategy to guide its ana the airlines’ 
efforts to implement this equipment- If 
FAA expeditiously develops a strategy, the 
airlines will be in a better position to plan 1 
and budget for future security acquisitions.” ' 

The need for such a strategy is all the ' 
more urgent since Congress is now consid- 
ering legislation that would allow the use . 
of Airport Improvement Grant funds for ; 
purchasing explosive-de tection systems. 

SABAH VEAL is a writer based in Geneva, I 




entity * . 




INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 


Pa^e 13 




tat*?*! ini r..-.v if 






* 


\ 



Technology Changes Thinking. 

Our Thinking Changes Technology. 


W hen man invented the airplane, the 
world shrank. When he invented 
radiocommunications, military 
thinking was revolutionized. When he 
discovered the means to jam the 
signals, it was time to think again. 
Technology has been changing man's 
thinking for a long time. Several 
million years ago necessity drove our 
remote ancestors to make tools. To 
control the complex movements of the 
hand, the brain evolved. With his 
better brain man developed better 
tools - and a still better brain. The 
process was interactive. Technology 
changed his thinking. His thinking 
changed technology. 

At TJiomsoh-CSF we're continually 
stretching our minds to improve the 
tools man uses. Every year we spend 
over 20 percent of our revenue to 
enhance our systems and develop new 
technologies - in both defense and 
civilian electronics. 

A considerable part of our R&D 
efforts goes to creating better 


software, the key component that 
masterminds all our systems. In 
artificial intelligence devebpment, for 
instance, we're doing a lot of hard 
thinking about thinking itself, 
investigating, among other things, 
how the brain recognizes shapes. Just 
one example of the kind of sharply 
focused, product-oriented research 
that’s basic to our determination to 
keep Thomson-CSF on the cutting 
edge. Technologically - and 
competitively. 

The result of our endeavors is pure 
synergism. One advance leads to 
another. The more we improve 
technology, the more technology 
we improve. 

Thomson-CSF: 173, bd H aussmann 
75415 Paris Cedex 08- France 


O THOMSON-CSF 

World-Class Electronics 














Page 14 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 


Aviation! A Special Report 


An Untapped Market for Private Jets 


By Michael Richardson 


S INGAPORE — When 
John H. House surveys 
the Asia-Pacific region, 
he is struck by three 
thing s: the rapid economic 
growth across much of the re- 
gion. the spread of companies 
with operations in many Asian 
countries, and an air travel pat- 
tern that often does not suit the ' 
requirements of a busy chief 
executive. 

And Mr. House, director of 
communications at Falcon Jet 
Corp., the U.S. unit of Das- 
sault Aviation of France, sees 
promising prospects for sales 
in the region. 

“It’s not the El Dorado I 
often read about,** be said in an 
interview. “But it’s a healthy 
market with good long-term 
potential." 

As Asian- Pacific economies 
expand, “the market for busi- 
ness jets will grow as well,” 
said Brian E Barents, presi- 
dent and chief executive officer 
of Leaijet Inc., a unit of the 
Canadian aerospace and trans- 
portation equipment manufac- 
turer Bombardier Inc. 

Of some 7,000 business jets 
in operation around the world, 
about 60 percent are registered 
in the United States and only 
about 5 percent in the Asia- 
Pacific region. 

Sales in Asia of new business 
jets, which can cost anywhere 
from 55 million to more than 
$20 million each, have so far ' 


been limited by a combination 
of physical and cultural fac- 
tors. 

At least until recently, a 
number of countries have 
made it difficult to register pri- 
vately owned jets or have 
banned them altogether. 

When Lcarjet last year made 
the first sale of a business jet to 
Golden Eagle Aviation, a pri- 
vate company in Taipei, the 
company got around the long- 
standing ban by having a plane 
that would serve as a target- 
towing platform for the Tai- 
wanese armed forces, as well as 
an upmarket corporate jet. 

Many of the business jets 
that have been supplied to 
Asia-Pacific countries are do- 
ing noncorporate work, mainly 
for governments, their agencies 
and the military. 

They undertake missions 
that include VIP transport, 
military target towing, radar 
reconnaissance, high-altitude 
photography, electronic war- 
fare, air threat simulation for 
surface ships, medical evacua- 
tion, maritime search and sur- 
veillance, civilian pilot train- 
ing, and flight inspection of air 
route and terminal navigation 
aids. 


Access to airports for pri- 
vate jets in Asia is often expen- 
sive and difficult Commercial 
planes get priority at congested 
Asian airports, while smaller 
airfields lade suitable landing 
and navigational aids. 

The situation is slowly im- 


proving. But Michael Brown, 
media relations manager far 
the American company Rayth- 
eon Corporate Jets said that 
only when “more airfields, air 
management controls and traf- 
fic coordination, systems are up 
win more entrepreneurs and 
government heads think about 
traveling in personal jets.” 

In the United States or Eu- 
rope, operation of a corporate 
aircraft is often regarded as a 
sign of a well-run and success- 
ful company. In Asia, it still 
tends to be associated with ex- 
travagance. 

“A lot of Asian business ty- 
coons and top managers prefer 
to keep a low profile,” said 
Jean Rosanvallon, Dassault’s 
vice president of sales and 
marketing for the Falcon fam- 
ily of business jets. “They do 
not like to show off." 

However, that too is chang- 
ing as more Asian bosses ac- 
knowledge the convenience, 
security and prestige of private 
jet ownership. 

Ting Pek Khhng, a Malay- 
sian construction and timber 
magnate known for the speed 
at which he executes projects, 
bought a Falcon 900B straight 
off the runway at an interna- 
tional air show on the Malay- 
sian island of Langkawi in De- 
cember. 

Mr. Ting, who thinks noth- 
ing of flying to the Middle East 
and bade in a day on business, 
previously owned a smaller, 
shorter-range business jet that 


he was using for about 800 
hours per year, considerably 
higher than the U.S. average of 
500 hours. 

His new Falcon, which cost 


522 million, can fly up to 15 
executives in comfort at high 


executives in comfort at high 
speed for 5,600 kilometers 
(3,500 miles) nonstop. On 
short-range missions, the jet 
can carry a light fuel load and 
land or take off from small 
airports with runways of less 
than 4,000 feet (1,200 meters). 

Mr. Rosanvallon said that 
about half the 130 Falcon 900s 
that have been sold are in the 
Asia-Pacific region. 

Sustained economic growth 
and corporate expansion have 
brought the region “close to 
the point where business jets 
are becoming accepted as a 
good way of doing business," 
he added. 

Several other Malaysian 
business chiefs have recently 
bought corporate jets, joining 
their counterparts in Indone- 
sia, the Philippines and Thai- 
land who use mem regularly. 

The Canadair aircraft com- 
pany, another unit of Bombar- 
dier, sold one of its Challenger 
jets to a South Korean concern 
about 18 months ago. The 
company says it is the first 
business aircraft sale in South 
Korea. Asia represents about 
12 percent of Canadair’s global 
market for Challenger jets. 

In seeking to sell private air- 
craft to corporate and govern- 
ment heads, manufacturers 



Asian demand is growing for craft like the Learjet 60. 


point to the value of being able 
to fly whenever and wherever 
they want without having to 
rely on commercial schedules. 

“In terms of security and 


convenience, corporate jets are 
unbeatable,” said Charles Wil- 
liams, vice-president for inter- 
national sales of Gulf stream 
Aerospace Corp., another 
American supplier. 

He expects the Asia-Pacific 
market for executive jets to 
grow by between 5 percent and 
10 percent over the next five 
years. 

“China could be a huge mar- 
ket," said Theodore J. Forst- 


rr]ann j GulfstTcam’s chairnW T* . 

With the growth potential of 
the Asia-Pacific market and 
the long distances separating 
Asia from America and Eu- 
rope in mind, both Gulf stream 
and Bombardier are develop- 
ing long-range planes that will 
enable business and govern- 


ment leaders to fly nonstop 
from Tokyo to New York, 
Hong Kong to Los Angeles or 
Singapore to London. 


MICHAEL RICHARDSON is 
the editor far Asia of the Inter- 
national Herald Tribune. 







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Record-Setting. Historic. 
But Not Unusual. 


During the past year, we launched, delivered, flew and set world records. 

A few of those accomplishments are celebrated by the photographs above. Just a few. 

Of course, what’s really amazing about this collection of breakthroughs is the message it sends: 
At McDonnell Douglas, breakthroughs may be exceptional, but they aren’t unusual. 


MCD OJV/VEX L DOUGLAS 

Performance Above and Beyond. 





' . - MC 1 ^* 

Chinese Expansion* ff 


Gives Sales a Lift 




By Ted Ptafker 


T AKE a stroll along a 
fashionable Shanghai 
shopping street, or a 
walk through any Beij- 
ing hotel lobby, and it becomes 
immediately dear that a new 
class of Chinese jet-setter is be- 
ing bom. Not surprisingly, the 
world's leading commercial air- 
craft manufacturers are scram- 
bling to provide them with Iheir 
jets. 

China, whose 33 airlines cur- 
rently operate a combined fleet 
of 340 planes, is already among 
the world's largest markets for 
civilian aircraft It is also the 
fastest growing. 

Passenger volume has risen 
nearly 30 percent over each of 
the past three years, while the 
annual increase is expected to 
be about 20 percent for several 
years to come. 

Annual aircraft imports since 
1991 have averaged nearly $2 
billion. According to projec- 
tions by Boeing Co., China will 
over the next two decades be- 
come the world's third-lazgest 
dviHan aircraft market after the 
United States and Japan, 
spending nearly $66 billion on 
new planes. 

Other industry sources agree 
and estimate that 600 to 800 
new aircraft will be purchased 
with that sum. Chinese esti- 
mates are even grander, predict- 
ing purchases of 1,200 airplanes 
by 2010, worth $89.7 billion. 
That sizeable pie in the sky is 


ptare. It appears that die infor- 
mal directive may only prohibit 
the actual placement of newor- 
ders until sometime next year. 

Meanwhile, manufacturers 
will be spending as mu ch time 
working to help China- improve 
its air traffic infrastructure as 
they do setting aircraft ■ 

“We are actively involved in 

trying to help China solve* it* 

pQot training problem, through 
both in-country and overseas 
training,” said Peter Chapman, 
president of Douglas Amfaft 
for the civilian division 

of McDonnell Douglas. - 

kni. Atwinnchr CM- that, ns a 




We obviously see that as a 
te for us to sell more ai rcraf t 


route for us to sell more ai rcraf t 
here.” he added. h 

Boeing has also conducted 
crew training seminars, and 
Airbus Industrie has an- 
nounced plans to do the saute. 


to be split, eventually, by 
Boeing, McDonnell Douglas 


Boeing, McDonnell Douglas 
Corp. and Airbus Industrie. In 
the near term, however, these 
manufacturers are planning for 
the possibility of some minor 
market turbulence in the form 
of a pu rchasing slowdown im- 
plemented by the Civil Aviation 
Adminis tration of China to give 
the country’s air transport in- 
frastructure the breathing space 
it needs to catch up with all the 
recent growth. 

The most serious problem is 
the shortage of trained pilots. 
China says that in order to sus- 
tain its growth, it will need 600 
new pilots each year, but there 
are only 200 graduates per year 
from the country’s single civil 
aviation college. In addition, a 
fifth of China’s 5,000 currently 
serving pilots are due to retire 
within 10 years. 

Equipment and personnel for 
air control, aircraft mainte- 
nance and even passenger tick- 
eting are similarly stretched. 


Far from being able to bring 
ew planes on stream, some of 


new planes on stream, some of 
the country’s regional airlines 
have had to postpone new route 
plans and even ground new air- 
craft because of the shortage of 
flight crews, according to a re- 
port in the newspaper China 
Aero Information. 

La their rush to keep up with 
mushrooming demand, China's 
airlines have suffered a notable 
lapse in safety. Five crashes in 
1992 killed 380 travelers, and 
another half dozen accidents 
have occurred since then, in- 
cluding a midair explosion after 
takeoff from the popular tourist 
city of Xian of a Russian-built 
Tupolev in June that kitted 160. 

Although manufacturers may 
be reluctant to see a purchasing 
slowdown, they ana other in- 
dustry analysts agree that it is 
necessary. The precise toms of 
the moratorium have not been 
dearly stated, and previously 
ordered planes axe still being 
delivered and negotiations on 
new orders continue to take 


cent of our worldwide sales last 
year, and that number may turn ^ 
out to be even higher tins year*?) 
That’s why T m here," said Mike 
7 imwM»rp iap, who was recently 
appointed president of Boeing 
China Inc. 

Boeing has historically-domi- 
nated the Ghina market The 
company got s o mething of *a 
h ep ri start when Richard Nixon, 
arriving in February 1972 at 
Beijing’s Capital Airport forhis ' 
ground-breaking trip to men 

with the Chinese leader Mao 
Zedong, stepped onto the tag- 
mac from a Boeing 707. Chink 
was apparently impressed with 
the aircraft, ordering 10 of them 
before the year was oul Chini 
took delivenr of its lOOtfi 
Boeing in 1992, and plans to 
receive is 200th this year. 

Mc Donnell Douglas has tate 
en a different approach, relying 
on technology transfers ratherl 
than state visits, for its entrjfl 
into the market 1 

The company has cooperated* 
with Chinese suppliers up 
Shanghai and Chengdu, CEK 
abling them to provide a variety 
of components for U.S. assem- 
bly operations, including nose; 
structures, horizontal stabiliz- 
ers, and, most recently, wheel 
well bulkheads. • . . 

McDonnell Douglas’s eartt-w- 
est parts contract with a Chi- 
nese factory was signed in 1979 
for landing -gear doors. 

In 1985, McDonnell Douglas 
concluded an agreement with 
the Shanghai Aviation Industri- 
al Corp. that called for the co- 
production, in Shanghai, of 25 
MD-82 jet transports. Extend- 
ed to 35 aircraft, the co-produc- 
tion project's last unit is sched- 
uled to roll off the Hne this falL 

A new contract, valued at 
$1.2 htttton, calls for co-produc- 
tion in China of 40 additional 
MD-80 arid MD-90 planes, to 
begin in 1996. 

Company executives say that 
with China’s demand expected 
to be so much higher, they also 
hope to sell UE.-made aircraft 
as well Airbus, entering the 
market only in 1985, has 17 
planes in operation in China. 

Russian manufacturers have 
also provided China with 30 
passenger aircraft, most recent-: 
ly a pair of 120-seat Yakovlev 
Yak 42-Ds. 

Many of the Russian craft 
are leased rather than bought* 
complete with Russian flight 
crews. Although these so-called 
“wet leases” offer a viable stop-^ . 
gap solution to the pilot short- 
age, communications problems 
introduce additional dangers. • 


TED PLAFKER is a journalist 
based in Beijing 


Betting on New Engine 


Continued from Page 12 


ment, that very newness also 
creates a sale obstacle in the 
civil aviation market, and GE*s 
competitors are quick to capi- 
talize on the fact that the GE&0 
lades a track record for reli- 
ability and safety. “The one 
thing airlines are looking for is 
reliability and with the GE90 
there's a higher risk,” said the 
Rolls-Royce spokesman, add- 
ing that because its Trent is a- 
derivative of the company’s 
RB-21 1 engine, on the market 
for more than 20 years, “we 
can call on 40 mil li nn hours of 
experience." 

While it is still early days, 
GE says it is satisfied with its 
engine’s progress in the mar- 
ketplace, where seven airlines, 
headed by British Airways, 
have selected the GE90 for 44 
firm Boring 777 aircraft orders 
and 28 options. That accounts 
for roughly one third of the 
777s ordered to date. For more 
powerful “B" versions of the 
aircraft, which are designed to 
fly up to 7,500 nautical miles 
versus 5,500 nautical miles for 
the “A" version, GE claims 
half of the orders. 


pair of the $10 miHion engines 
for 15 of the 777s it ordered,! 
and selecting it on 15 options:' 
While claiming the GE90 is£ 


entirely new, Mr. Sparfcsj 3 
stresses that the key lechndH ‘J 
ogy it inc o rp o rates has been; \ 
proven over the past 20 years 
in various research programs g 
that were jointly funded by the [ 

National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration. 

“The task was to package 
that technology into this en- 
gine,” he said. 



Other customers for the 
GE90 are Continental Air- 
lines, Gulf Air, China South- 
ern, Eurolair, JLFC and Lauda 
Air. Korean Air lines is cur- 
rently weighing a purchase de- 
rision. 


The GE90 is the first com- 
mercial aircraft engine to use 
carbon composite Ian blades, 
which are lighter than titanium 
and “immune to the fatigue 
factor," Mr. Sparks said. The fflh 
blade is significantly larger ™ 
than on existing engines- — 123 > 

inches (312 centimeters) versus o 
110 indies for the Trent — v- 
resulting in 20 percent less \ 
noise. 

The core of the engine, com- 
posed of a high-pressure com- 
pressor, combustor and high- 
pressure turbine, is derived *V,.' 
from the GE/NASA Energy T"' 
Efficient Engine program. ?;• 
Equipped on a 777-B, the en- 
gine will bum 4 percent to 5 
percent less fuel man compet- 
ing engines, Mr. Sparks said, v 
Tfie design alsoproduces lower 
pollution emissions, far below 
cun-oat U.S. and international 
aviation guidelines, be said. 


?}ii 


' In 1991. the British carrier 
signed on as the launch cus- 
tomer for the GE90, selecting a 


JACQUES NEHER writes from 


Paris fun 1 the International Her- 
ald Tribune. 


■vs 






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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. MONDAY. SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 


A viation! A Special Report 



Page \ .i 


Mtan.h,:.- 

"H****^ - 


Despite the Hard Times, 
er Carriers Thrive 


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Ry Robert Bailey 

ON DON— Over ihe 
last 30 years. Eu- 
rope's, charter airlines 
have provided the es- 
link is the creation of a 
mas holiday market for sun- 
staged Northern Europeans. 
Tvp weeks at a Mediterranean 
redrt is now affordable by vir- 


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For most air travelers, carri- 
ed such as LTU, Tran sa via, 
K^tinair, Viva, Air 2000, Ex- 
cajbur, Brittania. Airtours and 
Minardi are not household 
nznes. Yet increasingly they 
’ ai? becoming a force to be 
! i.v iT; rekoned with in Europe's avi- 
aton industry. About half of 
ai in tra- European passengers 
0 ae now carried by the 100 or 
charter airlines operating in 
E£ states. 

Their fleets total some 700 
je aircraft. Charter flights ac- 
count for two thirds of passen- 
^ kilometers flown in Eu- 
rope. In some sectors, the 
industry's presence is even 
pore pronounced — as much 
a 70. percent of. air traffic be- 
tween Britain and Spain result- 
ing from charter flights, 
j Europe is now estimated to 
ccount for two thirds of all 
bartered flights in the world. 
Many European charter com- 
panies are as big as or bigger 
faan scheduled carriers. The 
British charter concern Brit- 
am» has four times the capaci- 
iy (rf Ireland’s Act Lrngus, 
jvhik the Dutch Martin air is 
amilar in size to Greece's 
Olympic Airways and Portu- 
gal's TAP. • 

•, The days are long since over 
when charter carriers operated 
aging airliners unwanted by 
^major carriers.; 

LTU- International Airways, 
Germany’s largest charter car- 
rier, for example, has a fleet of 
• 29 aircraft including Boeing 
; 767s, 757s and McDonnell 
Douglas MD-1 Is as well as 
!|LAckheed TriSlar L-101 Is. 

Since the end of the ]980s, 
most charter carriers have em- 
barked on ambitious invest- 
ment programs aimed at ac- 
quiring modern airliners, 
resulting in fleets that are often 
younger than those of sched- 
uled carriers. 

Danny Bemsteinjoint man- 
aging director of Britain's 
Monarch Airlines, says the 
company has spent about SI 
billion in the last 10 years re- 
equipping its fleet. It now com- 
prises four Airbus A300-600s, 


average 


jeven A320s, eight Being 757s 
ind five 737s. Their avc 
ige is four years. 

The charter carriers' fleets 
lave to be top notch in order to 
nee tin tensive schedules. Their 
lircraft typically will be in ser- 
vice an average of 4,000 ; to 
i.OOO hours a year, compared 
vitb 2,200 hours for scheduled 
Earners. 

Mr. Bernstein says that the 
hdustry has to have service- 
ible aircraft meeting noise 1 ev- 
il requirements enabling them 
d take off and land at night as 
veil as the technolog}' to land 
u poor visibility. 

The expenditure on fleets 
'Has paid off with some pol- 
ihed financial results. The in- 
ternational Air Carrier Associ- 


ation says that while European 
scheduled carriers lost a total 
of $3 5 billion in the last two 
years and received another $3 
billion in state subsidies, its 
members collectively earned 
profits of some S300 "million. 

There are a number of rea- 
sons For the difference in per- 
formance. A major characteris- 
tic of the charter industry Is 
dial it is a wholesale operation 
in which seats are sold to tour 
operators rather than to the 
general public. This gives a 
guaranteed traffic to the carri- 
er. Charter airlines are usually 
vertically integrated with a 
tour operator. For instance. 
Britannia, which claims to be 
the world’s largest charter air- 
line, is owned by holiday group 
International Thomson; Mon- 
arch is linked to Cosmos and 
Air 2000 to Owners Abroad. 
At least 75 percent or British 
charter airline business is gen- 
erated by such integrated holi- 
day industry groups. 

Hugh Collinson, the manag- 
ing director of Airtours, says: 
‘The Airtours philosophy has 
always been that the airline 
was there to service the group’s 
tour operations, being fully 
utilized on Airtours business 
and not dependent on Lhird- 
pany customers. This philoso- 
phy has been extremely suc- 
cessful and is fundamental to 
any future expansion.” 

Charter airlines have also 
proved to be ruthless in apply- 
ing cost-cutting disciplines. 
Apart from flight-deck crew, 
other personnel are kept to a 
minimum during the winter 
while many of the sales, ticket- 
ing and advertising costs asso- 
ciated with scheduled carriers 
are avoided. 

The whole charter sector has 
received a boost with the Euro- 
pean Union's third aviation 
liberalization package, which 
formally ended many of the 
rules inhi biting charter opera- 
tors. Since the beginning of last 
year, it has been legal for char- 
ter carriers to offer just seats 
instead of linking these to ac- 
commodation packages. 

Carriers are also able to 
combine charter and scheduled 
traffic on the same flight in any 
proportion, sell directly to the 
public and cany cargo. They 
also have the right of access to 
almost any route between Eu- 
ropean Union states. 

In regulatory terms, the dis- 
tinction between scheduled 
and charter operators has be- 
come so blurred as to be large- 
ly irrelevant within Europe. 
However, there seems to be no 
move by either category of air- 
line to push into each other's 
mode of operation. 

“One must not be misled by 
the declarations and aspira- 
tions slated by charter airlines 
in the last 10-15 years who 
have talked tough to gain ac- 
cess to scheduled markets and 
which have had to lobby hard 
to gain the freedoms now pro- 
vided," says IACA’s director- 
general. Paul Holubwics. 

“The position now is that 
charter airlines can do what 
they like within the European 
Union. But most charter oper- 
ators are happy to stay within 
their areas of operation. They 
have had to shoot for the stars 
to reach the moon," he adds. 


‘ f*/ if 


w Eniri I,f 


lr.lt 

b.'v 


j- ■ 



f7te Hercules C-130: Stretching defense dollars . 

Cutting Military Costs 


r ** 


Vf 


Continu ed from Page 12 

n Moscow would be no match 
tor U.S. capabilities. 

A question less easily an- 
swered is whether this tenden- 
.7 to idv on proven aircraft 
vill enable Western forces to 
k wjc effectively with more dire 
:ontingencies that could lie 

^ ltrad - _ 

As shown in the Gulf War, 

where allied uir power only 
nanaged to knock out pan of 
jaq’S key facilities, deeply 
iug-in targets will only be- 
.■ome vulnerable from the air 
A'ilh the emergence of expen- 
sive, new technologies such as 
setter earth-penetrating war- 
heads. analysts say. 

For the moment, however, 
mslIy innovations seem un- 
likely to replace the preference 
lor continuing to live within 


the available technology — a 
mood typical of every postwar 
cycle, according to Mr. Luna- 
quisl: “This goes on every time 
until people see a new thresh- 
old." 

No matter how much the 
black boxes are improved, the 
platforms eventually wiU have 
to change. After a similar 
squeeze on military spending 
in the wake of World War II. 
the U.S. air force found itself 
partially unready for the Berlin 
airlift and the Korean war be- 
cause of inadsaquatc military 
transport. Bui the gap was 
quickly filled, partly thanks to 
technologies just entering the 
aviation industry, by Lock- 
heed's new baby, the (T-J30. 


JOSEPH FJTCUETT is on the 
staff of the International Herald 
Tribune. 


As the charter industry 
seems intent to keeping to fa- 
miliar ground, cross-border co- 
operation within Europe is also 
proceeding, albeit at a cautious 
pace. 

Excalibur, one of the youn- 
ger British carriers, has a fleet 
of five A320S and is one of the 
few independents not tied to a 
holiday group. It is one of 
those that sees potential for 
collaboration within Europe in 
the next few years. 

Mr. Bernstein of Monarch 
believes that if more cross-bor- 
der mergers do occur they will 
be slow to evolve. “The indus- 
try is in no rush," he says. 

“The charter area is expand- 
ing rapidly and I have every 
confidence it will continue to 
do so. With Eastern Europe 
opening up as a destination, 
there is exciting new poten- 
tial,” Mr. Kolubowicz said. 

ROBERT B.41LEY is a writer 
based in London who specializes 
in aviation topics. 


How One Airline Cut Costs and Held Onto Profits 


By Sarah Veal 


I F British Airways has been able 
to remain profitable throughout 
the recession, much of the thanks 
goes to its early start in cost cut- 
ting. Its cost-cutting program, which 
was already in effect before the Gulf 
War was on tbe horizon, has cut costs 
by over £500 million annually for the 
past three years. 

Thanks to Lhe savings, which are the 
equivalent of 5765 million annually. 
BA had pretax profit of £301 million 
last year. 

BA launched the Erst phase of its 
cost-cutting plan, a cost review in the 
spring of 1990. Staff met in groups to 
see if any waste could be cut in their 
own departments. Recommendations 
ranged from reducing quantities of 
brochures printed to doing away with 
disposable coffee cups. 

“The approach was to evaluate every 
area of our operation, however small, 
questioning every aspect of established 
procedures and looking for better and 
more efficient ways of doing things," 
according to a BA spokesman, Michael 
Blunt. 

The program, called Sprint, yielded 
savings of £100 million. 


The second phase, “Gap Closure.” 
looked for ways to reduce or abolish 
costs as well as for opportunities to 
increase profits. In its first year, imme- 
diately following the Gulf War. Gap 
Closure saved the company £265 mil- 
lion — some £65 million above target. 

British Airways was also the first 
airline to reschedule deliveries of air- 
craft to take account of the drop in 
passenger numbers. This cut-back 
saved a $1 billion over two years. 

UPPLIERS found that BA's 
determination to cut costs went 
for them as well. BA reduced 
the number of its suppliers 
from 10,000 to 3,500 and let the re- 
maining ones know that automatic 
price increases were out. The airline 
issued targets to improve productivity 
and counteract inflation. 

In 1993, a virtual price-freeze on SO 
percent of aircraft maintenance pans 
went into effect. A hard bargainer. 
British Airways even managed to buy 
two Boeing 777 night simulators for 
the price of one. The airline also intro- 
duced better lifetime cost systems to 
get the best value for purchases, short- 
ened the supply chain using informa- 
tion technology, reduced inventories 
and improved distribution. 


■‘Each year our airline spends over 
£2 billion on .service* ranging from 
jumbo je 1 .* to paper clips." Mr' Blunt 
says. “A savings of just I percent adds 
up to £20 million." 

.Assets were also made to work hard- 
er. Two years aeo. BA increased the 
average number of hours flown by air- 
craft by S percent. Last year, this usage 
went up percent more. With fewer 
but more efficiently used aircraft doing 
the job. some £600 million were saved 
in new aircraft. 

Changes in working practices have 
also boosted productivity by 39 per- 
cent. The key area was greater flexibili- 
ty. In the maintenance of its 747s 
alone, this increased productivity has 
saved the airline £!0 million. 

The airline also attacked co^ts in its 
British and European operations by 
revising its cost structure and basing 
these activities at the cheaper G a '.wick 
.Airport, rather than Heathrow. 

BA’s globalization strategy, includ- 
ing strategic alliances with US Air. 
Qantas. Deutsche BA and TAT, result- 
ed in savings of £10 million last year. 
The airline forecasts that its alliance 
with USAir alone will save it some £70 
million in 1994-95. 

Other airlines were not long in fol- 
lowing British Airways’ cosr-cutting 


crusade, as ihe Gulf War and >ub.»c- 
quent recession began io take Jeer 
bites into their profitability. Over the 
past two or three years, the industry- 
wide battle has been to reduce uni; 
costs and hold capacity steady while 
waiting for traffic to increase. 

Cost-cutting measures have included 
layoffs “ 36,000 jobs have been cut 
among SATA member carriers since 
19^1 — canceled aircraft orders, refi- 
nancing. sales or leasing of aircraft, the 
scrapping or consolidating of routes, 
alliance agreements between carrier., 
the subcontracting of back-office activ - 
ilies and maintenance, and even fran- 
chising, whereby a small regional carri- 
er takes over less lucrative operations 
under a major carrier's name and flight 
numbers. 

But such measures take time to show 
up or the books. Lasi ye.tr. for example, 
average yields fell faster than unit costs. 

“The airlines still have 2 or 3 per- 
centage points to go before they are 
back at the achieved load factor of 
1 9SS when they last made a half-decent 
profit,” says Tim Goodyear, a spokes- 
man for the Internationa! Air Trans- 
port Association in Geneva, which ;; 
now in the process of creating a cost- 
containment database based on the ir.- 
put of 35 of its member carriers. 




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Page 16 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 


Aviation! A Special Report 


*94 May at Last Brim Airline Profits Back 

%/ v I European Commis- smaC-to-m^um-sized airlines 

... ... _ . . • TT .J virlina ml most r>f the wav OH I ; rinn hae tVi»» fK*Mr in the 


Bad? 


By Conrad de AenUe 


who follows the industry for Lehman 
Brothers. But be adds. “I think it may 
actually happen this time.’' 

The reason the industry has been in 
such bad shape, he said, is “the capaci- 

g problem that clearly is now easing. 

iven the level of aircraft orders we've 
seen, the capacity problem is clearly 
over." 

In the first half of the year, 1ATA 
figures show, capacity was up by 5 
percent, while traffic more than kept 
pace, rising by 8 percent 
Looking further out Mr. Kekwick 
said he expected passenger growth of 6 
percent in each of the next four years, 
and an increase in net capacity of 2 
percent "If those statistics do hold 
true, within two and a half years you’ll 
be back at the stage where supply and 
demand will be back in line,” be said. 
"Deeply discounted tickets will be lim- 
ited.” 


T HIS could be the year in 
which the commercial avia- 
tion industry turns itself 
around and begins to run its 
business at a profit 
Nice if it happens. Unfonunately, 


that same forecast, or something like it 
has come ud anytime airline finances 


has come up anytime airline finances 
were mentioned over the last three 
years — a horrific period in which the 
world's air earners bad total operating 
losses of dose to SI 3 billion, according 
to the International Air Transport As- 
sociation in Geneva. 

Even after the recession ended in the 
United States and started to disappear 
elsewhere, the economic downturn still 
haunted the airline industry. Business 
and holiday passengers shopped 
around with rare zeal for the lowest 
fares and until this year, stayed home 
when they couldn't find them. About 
the only bright spot last year was that 
airlines lost less on their operations 
than the year before. Still, they could 
only get within $4.1 billion of breaking 
even. 

This year "is the third time that 
we’ve heard the airlines will turn them- 
selves around,” said Guy Kekwick, 


creased revenue,", said Lee Howard, 
president of the consultancy Airline 
Economics. What has been especially 
frustrating for the airlines is that pas- 
sengers continual to play hard-to-get 
even after the U.S. economy had 
sprung out of its lethargy. 

“We were not in recession, but cus- 
tomers were reacting to fare cuts as if 
we were," Mr. Howard said. “They still 
had concerns that consumers normally 
have about economic security” when a 
recession is in force. 

“Passengers are now reacting more 
to normal times than they did previ- 
ously," he added. “That's the largest 
single factor with regard to what bit of 
recovery has been achieved. The air- 
lines have been a lot more realistic in 
their pricing. They’ve been better able 
to control fare wars." 


airline and go most of the way on 
another," Mr. Howard said. “For Eu- 
ropean carriers, it gives them access to 
an awful lot of U.S. points that they 
could not secure in any other way. The 
same is true of U.S. carriers on the 
European side." 

Not only are airlines beginning to 
shake loose more money from the fly- 
ing public, but their efforts at cutting 
expenses are at last taking hold as well. 
After rising for several years, unit oper- 
ating costs fell by 0.1 percent in 1992 
and by 6.2 percent last year, LATA 
figures show. 

The combination of lower costs and 
higher fares should be enough to put 
the airlines into profit. IATA is fore- 
casting net income of 51 billion this 
year. Mr. Howard is less hopeful. He is 
predicting a break-even year in 1994, 


The discounts made a considerable 
contribution to airlines' losses. While 
earners will slash fares to try to fill 
more seats and preserve their share of 
the market, it usually turns out to be a 
losing proposition. 

“In a recession, history will show, it’s 
very difficult to entice sufficient pas- 
sengers by lower fares to result in in- 


Air lines have also been able to boost 
revenue through a marketing strategy 
code-sharing, in which carriers 
with complementary route systems is- 
sue tickets for each other's flights. This 
is likely to be an increasingly important 
factor in airline operations in years to 
come, those close to the industry be- 
lieve. 

“There are a lot more global alli- 
ances in which you buy a ticket on one 


followed by operating profit of $2 J 
billion to $3.5 billion and net income of 
“possibly up to $1 billion” next year, 
and perhaps a bit more in 1996. 

B ringin g down costs is critical be- 
cause the revenue side of the equation 
depends on economic circumstances 
and is largely out of the airlines' con- 
trol. 


CONRAD DE AENLLE specializes in 
economic and financial topics. 


T HE $6 billion that the 
European Commis- 
sion has allowed the 
French and Greek 
governments to give their 
chronically ill state airlines will 
get them through their imme- 
diate crises, but unless they re- 
form their profligate ways, no 
amount of money is likely to 
transform than into sound, 
money-making businesses. 

While $6 billion ought to 
buy a lot of reform, the prevail- 
ing opinion among many who 
follow the fortunes of Europe- 
an air carriers is that the mon- 
ey will buy time, but not much 
else of value. 

“What's going to happen is 
some of the carriers in a pre- 
carious position, will cojntmue 
to make cosmetic micro- 
changes until the cash runs out, 
then be dismantled or plead 
for mercy,” reckons Brian 
Clancy, a principal at the avia- 
tion consultancy MergeGlo- 
baL “Others will say that if we 
jump the grenade now and 
take the pain, we’re going to 
come out ahead." 

Indeed, many European air- 
lines have been avoiding pain, 
or even telling themselves they 


The A340 has brought Delhi closer to Washington D.C. 


The A340 is the longest range aircraft in civil aviation history. It can fly a full complement of passengers, in true wide-body comfort, for over IB hours non-stop. This opens up a whole new 
route network for the world’s airlines. For example, the A340 can easily fly non-stop aii the way from Frankfurt to Santiago, New York to Cape Town or Delhi to Washington D.C. 


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AIRBUS INDUSTRIE 

TAKING THE WORLD VIEW 







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expanded their fleets in the 
early 1990s at a much faster 
rate than the growth in the 


num ber of passeil; 
One small air! 


ssengers. 
airline that has 


been doing its grenade-jump- 
ing best, Mr. Clancy believes, 
is Act Lingus. The Irish flag 
carrier has taken steps, often 
severe ones, to cut its costs. It 
recently cut its maintenance 
staff to 600 from 1,900, for 
example. 


carry emigrants back bone »1 
visits, “are comributin. noritfrf J 
to the losses." he said. Tie air- y 
line “is stuck with large arcraft , 
that are too big for the outes, , - 
except for two months af the ‘ty 
year." v; 

Kevin Murphy, an ansyst at 
Morgan Stanley, said tbs sub- 
sidies to Olympic and toTran- ^ 
sportes Aereos Portugeses, • 
the Portuguese flag camfl- that c . 


iii»' r 



“If they sit down with every- 
>e and show them where the 


one and show them where the 
writing is on the wall, they’ll 
come to their senses,” he said. 
“It’s a small carrier. It’s easier 
to circle the wagons.” 

' .When Air France tried' to do 
that last year, there were vio- 
lent strikes staged at French 
airport*;, and the government 
backed off its plan to lay off 
several-thousand employees. 

' - “One of the first questions 
you have to askyourself is can 
you separate French culture 
from .French business," Mr. 
Clancy said. The resistance io 
reform “reflects toe country's 
attitude toward corporate gov- 
ernance. In the state-supported 
industries, it has a tremendous 
impact on the way they do 
business " 


Many believe the j 
aid will' buy r 
European 
carriers time, but 
not much else. 



“For Air France to get from 
here to there, to a sustainable 
competitive position, it will 
have to go through serious 
Draconian change;” he said. 

That is what a lot of carriers 


in Europe and the United 
States did, and it explains why 
British and American objec- 
tions to the bailout in July nave 
been the most vehement. 

' The day before the vote, Fe- 
derico Pefia, the American 
transportation' secretary, said 
in a letter to the Commission 
that “access by state enter- 
prises to money of this sort is 
flatly unfair to competing, pri- 
vate airlines, which cannot 
draw from the coffers of gov- 
ernment" 

Likewise, Sir Colin Mar- 
shall, chairman of British Air- 
ways, said it was “a serious 
setback for the development of 
a genuine free market in air 
transport in Europe." 

What worries them is that 
Air France will use its windfall 
of 20 billion francs ($3.8 bil- 
lion), to finance operations 
rather than to cut its cost struc- 
ture. If that’s all it does, then 
the money “may get them 
through last year, this year and 
next year," said Guy Kekwick, 
a Lehman Brothers analyst. 
Then, “as you head for the nexL 
down cycle, we’ll be having the 
same conversation again. They 
have to use it to get costs back 
in line." - 

The diagnosis is the same for 
Olympic, which was allowed to 
wipe .more than $2 billion of 
debt off its books, and the 
prognosis is just as uncertain. 

■ “Olympic has not done any- 
thing because the pilots are op- 
posed to any restructuring," 
said a consultant familiar with 
the company's operations. 
“The pilots are the aristocracy, 
and they are opposed to any 
reduction in service, especially 
in the long-haul market." 
Those flights, which mainly 


was given $1 billion earihr in ' • 

July, may make them takover „ 
candidates. 

“I t hink European airines 
are -prone to mergers anca&v 
quisitions,” he said. “Tli? , “ , 
smaller guys are mcreasingy at ; > 
a disadvantage." / - 

The buyers would likdr-be 
the bigger airlines on the ccnti- 
nent — British Airways, KLM •:.* 

Royal Dutch Airlines andthe • 

German carrier Lufthaisa. £.*■ 

Mr. Murphy said a fourth 
company could join the-radcs 
of the big operators iHt *-/:• , , ^ ^ 

straightens itself out: Vir »*»<•- 

France. 

“If they do achieve ttose # 

ju itwhvom 

larger earner, of a size compt- 5P 
itive with toe bigger airline,'’ . • sit 

hesaid. Jill jf }( it Ul H ** * 

Mr. Clancy offered, a fiw [,1^- ' 
ideas for making Air Fraxas 

work better: “The first thin^I s* * * 

would do is segment (he bui- /• - * 

ness rather than put everythiig 
under toe Air France umbrdh. v r- - 
Give management profit-ant . vg _ 

loss responsibility for each uxit • . ' . \ * 

and conmlete freedom for bul- ' ^ . 

getandTares." # " 

The next step, he said, wouU 
be to unload toe subsidiary . . 

that provide the various and! 
lary services that airlines rel' " ‘ 

on and instead contract witl i 

outside companies. j - '■ 

“I would spin all that stuS t 
off," he said. “It would bring : - 

cato into toe company and ” ; .• 

provide focus for senior mai- » ,« 

agement Can you see trying b M . . , Kvyti 

run an airline and having b ^ 

worry about the catering bu^- 

ness? Who cares?" i 

Iftoe airlines, especially life TT . . , ^ 

smaller ones, don’t play, k &J NATIONAL M 

straight and use their subsidy — 


to remake their businesses 
there is a chance of bankrupt- 
cy. That’s toe economic reahv 
of toe straits they're in, but tte 
pohtical reality is different 
“I don’t know whethtr 
they’ll survive," said toe con- 
sultant who discussed Olym- 
pic’s difficulties. “There's te- 
rn endems pressure to keep 
these airlines going. The El 
says never again, then in fire 
years toeyH come back aii 
say once more, never agai. 
The pressure toward efficiency 
and privatization is there, tit 
the political philosophy in Eu- 
ropean countries works agaiit 

^ Conrad de Aenje 


From Drawing Board 
To the Air lor New Jet 


Continued from Page 12 


gujng that for extended flights. 


two jets are no more economi- 
cal' than four. This is because 
toe high-thrust engines needed 
for take-off are excessively 
powered at cruising speed, Air- 
bus argues. 

Boeing counters that toe 
new high-bypass engines de- 
veloped for the 777 by toe 
three leading engine manufac- 
turers — Pratt & Whitney, 
General Electric Co. and 
Rolls-Royce — are both cost- 
efficient and exceptionally qui- 
et. They are also massive — 
about as wide as the fuselage of 
Boeing 737 aircraft — and will 
enter service at 77,000 pounds 
of thrust. This is some 78 per- 
cent more, efficient than the 
engines used on toe Boeing 747 
jumbo. 

Engines being developed for 
the longer-range 777 will be 
rated at 84,700 pounds of 
thrust Boring says toe engines 
can be developed to even high- 
er thrust ratings to power later 
variants of toe plane, including 
a stretched model planned for 
1998. 

Boeing has 147 firm orders 
for the 777 and 108 options. 
The first delivery, to United 
Airlines, is scheduled for May 
1995. 


toe aircraft to carry full p 
senger loads out of many hi, 
elevation or high-temperat 
airfields. 

Hie aircraft uses a newly i 
veloped light aluminum aL 
in toe upper wing and stii 


era, and weight-saving 
Dosite materials in the fu 


The 777 incorporates radical 
developments in air foil, mate- 
rials and control system tech- 
nology. Boring claims that toe 
wingspan of 200 feet (60 me- 
ters) is toe most aerodynami- 
cally efficient air foil ever de- 
veloped for a . subsonic 
commercial aircraft. 

To enable toe plane to fit in 
toe same.gate space as smaller 
aircraft at crowded airports, 
the Boeing 777 has a hinged 
wingtip, reducing the span to 
1SS feet. Boring claims that toe 
longer, thicker wing will enable 


posite materials in toe fusdae 
and tail surfaces. Compos its ■ 
account for about 9 percents 
toe plane's structural wait 
compared with about 3 pereqt : . 
on other Boring jets. • 

For the control syste , . 
Boeing has adopted the sai e 
kind of computerized “fly-t - 
wire" system as the Airbus, t 
has retained toe traditioril a 
control yoke, which many j - , 
lots prefer to the Airbus-stj s ‘ 
controls, which are placed i \ 
small joysticks on each side E 
toe cabin. I , 

The cabin interior is one f 
toe most spacious ever devq 
oped, allowing airline operi 
tors a wide variety of choice I 
configuration. As with ad 
new aircraft, the 777 has bed 
designed in dose cooperatia ■ 
with toe airlines that intend • 
buy it. j \ 

The plane is a further illuj ' 
nation of toe extent to whia 
toe aircraft industry has b4 
come internationalized. A ' 
American component mand . 
facturers make much of tti 
European Airbus, so do £ur<L • 


pean and Asian companif 
contribute heavily to toe build 


contribute heavily to toe Duilc 
mg of the 777. ■ * 

The largest single oversea 
participant in toe T77 program r 
is toe Japanese aerospace indujj, 
try. Led by Mitsubishi He&v 
Industries, Kawasaki Heavy Is 
dustries and Fuji Heavy Indus 
tries, this group is helping t‘ 
design and build about a fifth q 
toe airframe structure. i - 


BARRY JAMES is on the stay 
of the International Herald Tn 
bune. 


1 

r 





INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 


Pa^e 


MONDAY 

SPORTS 


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, China Divers 
Win 3 Golds 

The Associated Pros 

ROME — Chen LLxia and 
Yu Zbuocheng maintained Chi- 
na’s dominance in the diving 
pool at the World Swimming 
Championships on Sunday, as 
the most powerful team in the 
competition made it three gold 
medals in a row. 

After Chen had produced a 
masterful series of dives to lead 
a Chinese 1-2 in the women’s I- 
raeter springboard. Yu's final 
dive, an inward 3Vi somersault, 
grabbed the gold medal from 
Dmitri Sautm of Russia. 

His point total from 1 1 dives 
was 655.44. Sautin took the sil- 
ver with 646.59 and left another 
Chinese diver. Wang Tianling. 
with the bronze at 638.22. 

The result gave China a total 
of three golds, three silvers and 
ifa bronze from four diving fin- 
als. 

The defending titlist and 
Olympic champion Fu Mingria 
of China produced a stunning 
final dive Saturday on the IO- 
meter highboard to snatch the 
gold from compatriot Chi Bin. 

Needing to score more than 
62 points on her final dive, Fu 
made an inward 3Vfc somersault 
that earned her scores of 8.5 
and four 8.00s for 75.48, easily 
the highest of the competition. 




ersee and Morceli Win Prix Titles 


Era fuctUrd ‘Reiilcr* 

Chen Lixia of China won the 1-meter springboard title. 


By Ian Thomsen 

ln:cnuuipnal Herald Tribune 

PARIS — Here, ai age 32. with three 
Olympic gold medals and four world 
championships already, at that idling, 
reminiscing age when her forerunners 
tended toward retirement, here was 
something Jackie Joyner-Kersee had 
never been able to do. 

But she won the IAAF Mobil Grand 
Prix overall championship Saturday, the 
equivalent of track and field's regular- 
season title. She won it with a winning 
long jump of 7.21 meters in the 52.2 
million Grand Prix Final at the newly 
redone Charfeiy Stadium, a former 
holding area for German tanks and the 
first bit of Paris liberated 50 years and 
10 days before. 

Obviously, Joyner- Kersee. could have 
won this title years ago. had it fitted into 
her schedule. 

But she had always been concentrat- 
ing on heptathlons, which are a whole 
season stuffed into two days, as well as 
the long jump. This year she did only 
one signature heptathlon — winning the 
Goodwill Games last month in an en- 
core — in order to dominate the long 
jump, which is her favorite event any- 
way, and thereby win on the rest of the 
world's terms. 

Her husband and coach. Bob Kersee, 
had begun arranging her tour through 
Europe when the offers came back and 
they realized that her unique success — 
no woman in track can match her — had 
been devalued. 

“At one time we were not going to 


compete over here at all.” Bob Kersee 
said. 

“I think part of ifs that the American 
women athletes don't get the respect of 
the European women athletes. For 
whatever reason, they didn't want to pay 
her as much as Heike (Drechsler). I 
wrote back and said, if you don't want to 
pay her die same and moie in bonuses, 
you can forget about Jackie coming to 
the Golden Four.” 

The Golden Four are the premiere 
events in the European season, and 
Heike Drechsler is Joyner- Kersee's rival 
in the Song jump, as well as her good 
friend. Letters came back from the meet 
directors correcting their oversight, but 
if Joyner-Kersee needed motivation af- 
ter a dozen years at the top, in a season 
lacking an Olympics or World Champi- 
onships. the money gave it to her. 

Her jump of 7.49 meters in New York 
last May was the best in the world this 
year, and she beat Drechsler in five of 
six meetings, including Saturday’s, when 
she won despite a sore right hamstring, 
with Drechsler third in 6.83 meters. 

She finished in a three-way tie in the 
overall standings with Svetlana Dimi- 
trova of Bulgaria and Sonia O'Sullivan, 
the Irish distance runner, but Joyner- 
Kersee beat them io a tiebreaker based 
on the quality of their performances 
over the year. 

“It upset me more, of course.” Bob 
Kersee said of the money. “But this was 
one time where she and I did agree. 
Jackie has never jumped for the money, 
but this was more about her past perfor- 
mances. I think the toughest competi- 


tion all year on the circuit is Heike vs. 
Jackie. They have to go against each 
ether all year, and 1 think Heike and 
Jackie give better performances than 
what they’re paid for.” 

He said that Joyner-Kersee and 
Drechsler earn little more than half of 
the 525.000 to 530.000 in appearance 
fees that Mike Powell. Sergei Bubka or 
Linford Christie receive. On Saturday, 
at least. Joyner-Kersee earned $30,000 
for winning the meet, and SI 00.000 as 
overall ch amp j or.. 

Afterwards she found herself seated 
behind a press table with Noureddine 
.Morceli. the 24-year-old .Algerian who 
surely makes double her bonuses. They 
are the world's greatest athletes today. 
He is smaller than her. and he sat with 
his leg? crossed, breathing carefully and 
trying not to cough. It had been raining 
by the time he came to run the 1.500 
meter?. Or. Friday he had had such a 
bad flu that he was talking about ditch- 
ing this meet and the SI 30.000 in line for 
him as the men's overall Grand Prix 
champion. 

“This morning I was feeling very 
much belter than yesterday. In ray shape 
1 was only 80 percent. 1 was hoping the 
beginning would be slow." Morceli said, 
and then be coughed miserably, over 
and over. Grimacing for him, Joyner- 
Kersee motioned for him to drink more 
water. 

Anyway, to finish his story, the rest of 
the field helped him with a slow 800 
meters of 2 minutes. 7 seconds, which 
allowed Morceli to kick home in 
3:40.89. easily beating his new 20- year- 


old rival. Venuste Niyongabo of Burun- 
di, who was second in 3:4 i. 72. That he 
could win more easily than he could 
speak only confirmed Morceli's domi- 
nance as the world record-holder in the 
mile, 1,500 meters and 3.000 meters. 

Though Marie-Jose Perec wasn't in 
the running for any bonuses since her 
abrupt departure from France to Cali- 
fornia early this year, where she has 
been training with John Smith, she was 
welcomed as a heroine nonetheless. She 
returned home to win the 400 meters m 
49.77 seconds, the fastest in the world 
this year. Next season she is planning to 
devote to the 400- me ter hurdles and a 
likely rivalry with Sally Gunnell of Brit- 
ain. 

The other feature races were the two 
IOO-raeter dashes. At 34. Merlene Ottey 
of Jamaica proved she had recovered 
from injury by equaling her personal 
best of 10.78 seconds, with Gwen Tor- 
rence of the United States second in a 
personal best of 10.82. Later Ottey said 
that Christie, himself 34, had inspired 
her to go on to the 1996 Olympics. “If he 
can do it, 1 can do it,” she said. 

As for Christie, tbe Briton who was 
born in Jamaica, he was second by one 
one-hundredth of a second to Dennis 
Mitchell of the United States, who won 
the men’s 100 in 10.12 seconds. .After- 
ward, Christie, Mitchell and Jon Drum- 
mond of the United States — third in 
10.18 seconds — argued happily over 
which of them had been No. 1 this year. 
They laughed in agreement that it wasn’t 
Carl Lewis. 


1 


Triathlon, Taekwondo Set 
For 2000 Games in Sydney 

The Associated Press 

PARIS — The addition of triathlon and taekwondo as medal 
ts for the 2000 Games in Sydney has been approved by the 
's executive board and sent to the full session for its formal 
nov&L 

JThe addition of the two sports came at a special executive board 
meeting Saturday that followed the week-long Centennial Olym- 
-:.j pic Congress. Previous proposals for eliminating sports were 
- j * scuttled, saving modern pentathlon, synchronized swimming and 
* .4 other events from elimination. 

Samaranc h said the status of beach volleyball and women’s 
softball for Sydney will be decided after the. 1996 Games at 
Atlanta, where those two sports will make their Olympic debuL 
, i He said other minor changes to the Sydney program could be 
jmade at the IOC session in Budapest next June. Ten other sports, 
■ \ ran gin g from bowling to parachuting, are lobbying for inclusion. 

’ Taekwondo will join judo as a martial art on the Olympic 
. - ~ . program. In triathlon, the competitors will swim 1.500 meters, 
cycle 40 kilometers f25 miles) and run 10 kilometers. Men's and 
' women's events in both sports are to be included. 


Samaranch Wins Right to Nominate 10 New IOC Members 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

PARIS — Juan Antonio Samaranch, 
president of the International Olympic 
Committee, was effectively given the 
chance to alter the balance of power 
within the Olympic movement on Sun- 
day when he won the right to nominate 
as many as 10 new IOC members. 

But in what participants said was a 
stormy debate, rank-and-file IOC mem- 
bers forced Samaranch to drop a pro- 
posal (hat would have given him the 
right to appoint the new members with- 
out the approval of his IOC colleagues. 

“It was a bloody, big battle.” one 
IOC member said. 

Under a rewriting of the Olympic 
Charter. Samaranch will be able nomi- 
nate as manv as 10 new members for 
either their “function” or their “partic- 
ular qualifications.” 

The IOCs director-general. Francois 


Carr aid. said it was expected that the 
heads of international sports federa- 
tions would get most of the new places. 

“The president has said time and 
again . . . that it is fundamental to the 
strength of the Olympic movement that 
its major components are represented in 
the heart of the IOC .“ he said. 

Under the compromise rule change. 
Samaranch's nominees have to be ap- 
proved by the existing 88 !OC mem- 
bers. They also have to come from 10 
different countries, avoiding the risk of 
new national or regional power blocs 
on the committee. 

Carrard said a member elected un- 
der the new rule would have to quit the 
IOC if he lost his post as head of a 
federation. 

IOC members said the revolt against 
Samaranch's original proposal was led 


by the doyen of the IOC, Prince Jean. 
73. the grand duke of Luxembourg. 

An IOC member since 1946, he 
gained the support of 27 other mem- 
bers in calling for a secret ballot on the 
change in rules. 

The compromise appeared to be 
reached during a midday break, during 
which Samaranch and his lieutenants 
on the executive board met to discuss 
their tactics. 

Members said that when the session 
resumed, the compromise was proposed 
by Germany’s Thomas B 3 ch — at Sa- 
maranch’s request. The call for a secret 
ballot was dropped and the compro- 
mise was accepted unanimously. 

The biggest winner could be the In- 
ternational Amateur Athletic Federa- 
tion’s Prime Nebiolo. the powerful 
head of world track's governing body. 
He is president of the association of 


Summer Olympic sports federations, 
which will now get more of its leaders 
on the IOC. 

“I wouldn't call it a victory for the 
federations or a defeat for the IOC.” 
Nebiolo said. “1 just think it’s a good 
decision, which will strengthen the 
unity of the Olympic movement and 
make the IOC more efficient. It puis 
the people who run the sports in the 
decision-making role.” 

Traditionally. IOC members repre- 
sent their countries rather than a par- 
ticular athletic constituency. But Sa- 
maranch, pushed by Nebiolo, has long 
wanted to give international federa- 
tions a greater voice within the IOC. 

Nebiolo, w ho has made athletics one 
of the world's most lucrative sports, 
was appointed to the IOC two years 
ago under a special procedure fore- 
shadowing Sunday's decision. He is 


the only current member never to have 
been elected by his IOC colleagues. 

So keen were IOC leaders to pro- 
mote the “unity” of the Olympic 
movement that they decided Friday to 
rename last week's IOC meeting the 
"Congress of Unity.’’ 

The heads of eight major sports fed- 
erations are already members of the 
IOC. including soccer’s Joao Have- 
lange, skiing’s Marc Hodlcr and box- 
ing’s Anwar Chowdhiy. 

Carrard said the 10 new members 
could be nominated immediately, but 
sources said Samaranch would wail 
until an IOC session next June. 

These sources said the IOC leader 
naa a list of more than 20 people he 
wanted to bring into the IOC and was 
hoping some of those would be chosen 
in routine IOC elections scheduled Tot 
M onday. ( Reuters . API 


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Page 18 





O 


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D 

ay ! 


SPORTS 


Date, Sabatini Gain Quarterfinals, 
And Stich Powers Into 4th Round 


The i-iuomzlixf Press 

NEW YORK — Fifth-seeded Kimiko 
Date of Japan struggled, but finally out- 
lasted Leila Meskhi of Georgia on Sunday 
to become the first player to reach the 
quarterfinals of the U.S. Open tennis 
championships. 

The 6-2 . 6-7 (5-7), 7-5 victory put Date 
into the quarterfinals for the second 
straight year. 

Eighth-seeded Gabriel a Sabatini of Ar- 
gentina. the 1990 champion, also advanced 
into the quarterfinals by defeating Elena 
Likhovtseva of Kazakhstan. 6-2, 6-1. 

in third-round men's singles. No. 4 Mi- 
chael Stich of Germany and his compatriot 
Joem Renzenbrink posted straighL-set vic- 
tories. 

Date could have — and should have — 
won in straight sets. After closing out the 
first set. shejumped out to a 3-0 lead in the 
second set and served to go up 4-0. 

Instead, she dropped her next two 
serves, double-faulting at break point both 
rimes. The women battled into a second- 
set tiebreaker, in which Date went up 5-4 
and could have served out the match. 

But she put a forehand into the bottom 
of the net to level the tiebreaker at 5-5, 
then did it again, giving Meskhi a 6-5 
advantage and a set point. The Georgian 
needed only one point, hitting a running 
two-handed backhand passing shot down 
the line. 

Date failed to close out the victory in the 
ninth game of the third set when she 
reached 30-40 for a match point on Mesk- 
hi’s serve. She then held through three 
deuces to take a 6-5 lead, then broke 
Meskhi at 30 to finally win. 

Sabatini didn't show the attacking game 
that took her to die title here four years 


ago. But against Likhovtseva, she didn't 
need to. The Argentine's baseline game 
was good enough to boost her to the quick 
62-minute victory. 

For Stich, it was the first fourth-round 
appearance in a Grand Slam tournament 
since Wimbledon in 1993. In what turned 
out to be an easy victory, he defeated 
Byron Black of Zimbabwe, 7-6 (7-5), 6-2, 
6-1 in 1 hour, 32 minutes. 

Renzenbrink downed Andrea Gaudenzi 
of Italy, who had conquered Jim Courier 
on Friday. 6-4, 6-1. 6-3, in a battle of 
unseeded players. 

Stich, the 1991 Wimbledon champion, 
had 10 aces and six double-faults. 

Renzenbrink, playing on an outside 
show court, also used a big serve to over- 
power his opponent He had 12 aces and 
seven double-faults. 

■ Agassi Surges, Davenport Falters 

While Andre Agassi surfaced, soared 
and happily hurled his used shirts into a 
sea of waiting arms on the Stadium Court 
on Saturday, a flummoxed Lindsay Dav- 
enport sank like a stone, a victim of self- 
sabotage and a speedy challenger who 
made no distinction between favorites and 
floaters. The New York Times reported. 

“1 just think about just watch (he ball, 
don't think about my opponent is seeded 
player, she is top 10. she is Lindsay Daven- 
port,” said the 44th-ranked Mana Endo of 
Japan, whose ground strokes are more flu- 
ent than her English but whose strategy 
proved wise. 

Davenport, seeded sixth and expected to 
leave her mark here in the later rounds, 
instead left the Open crestfallen after her 
game was buffeted by the wind and dis- 
sected in straight sets, 6-3, 7-6 (7-1). by the 


same diminutive underdog who ousted her 
on grass last year at Eastbourne, England. 

Meanwhile, the 20th-ranked Agassi, un- 
seeded and unconcerned by it, persisted in 
surging through the draw at a piranha's 
pace. Agassi's appetite for the validation 
of a second Grand Slam crown has gone 
unsatisfied since his 1992 sleeper run at 
Wimbledon. 

His latest victim was 12th-seeded 
Wayne Ferreira, who seemed surprisingly 
unconcerned himself in the act of being 
devoured, 7-5, 6-1. 7-5, by Agassi's relent- 
less baseline repertory. 

Agassi’s agility projected him straight 
into a fourth-round assignation with one 
of his American peers, Michael Chang. 
The sixth-seeded Chang was the beneficia- 
ry of a truncated workday after his oppo- 
nent, Jim Grabb, surrendered to a chronic 
shoulder injury and bailed out of their 
match with Chang far ahead, 6-1, 4-1, in 
the second set. 

No. 3 Sergi Bruguera, the only player 
left in the Open who still insists he's inca- 
pable of warning it, advanoed to the 
Round of 16 the clay-court way. with an 
arduous five-set battle against Germany's 
Marc Goellner. 

On Friday, Courier’s comeback from an 
eyeblink of a self-imposed exile was cut 
short. From top seed at the Open in 1993 
to second-round Joser, Courier continued 
his year-long plunge when he was eliminat- 
ed by Gaudenzi, 7-5, 6-2, 3-6, 6-3. 

No. 1 1 Courier was not alone among the 
seeds to fall, as the spaghetti connoisseur 
Andrei Medvedev of Ukraine, the eighth- 
seeded man, was bounced by Karel Nova- 
cek of the Czech Republic, 6-3, 6-2, 6-2, 
and Ann Grossman eliminated No. 9 
Mary Joe Fernandez, 6-4, 6-4. 



Mikr Segar/ Renter* 

Michael Stich gained the fourth round by defeating Byron Black of Zimbabwe. 


SIDELINES f} 

— — i 

Romero Wins Golf Title . 

CRANS-SUR-SIERRE, Switzerland • 
(APj — Eduardo Romero of Argentina 1 
shot 4-under-par 68 Sunday to win the 
European Masters golf tournament by one 
stroke over Pierre Fulke of Sweden. 

Romero, who was four shots up with i 
three holes to play, three-putted the 18th, : 
while Fulke birdied the hole for a round of 
67. , 

Jean Van de Velde of France carded 66 1 
to share third place with 1993 champion i 
Barry Lane of England and Sam Torrance ! 
of Scotland. 1 

• Bob Estes, off a 6-under-par 65, took a 1 
one-stroke lead over Marie CaJcavecehia i 
into Sunday's final round of the Greater 
Milwaukee Open. 

Mavericks Sign Kidd 

DALLAS (API —The DaDas Mavericks j 
signed All-America guard Jason Kidd to a > 
nine-year, $60 milli on contract Saturday, ! 
making him the first of the top eight 1994 
draft choices to sign. He was selected see^ ! 
ond overall in tbe June draft. - | 

The Mavericks said second-round draft * 
choice Deon Thomas, a 6-8 forward from 
Illinois, had signed with TDK Manresa in > 
the Spanish Pro League. J 

For the Record 

Billy Wright, 70. the defender who cap- ; 
twined England's national team in 90 of his 
105 international appearances from 1947- 
59 and became the first British soccer play- i 
er to play 100 times for his country, died | 
Saturday at his home in London after a > 
lengthy battle with cancer. (.4?) t 

den Rose, 89. who in 1928 became the | 
first Arkansas basketball player to be 
named an All-American, then later 
coached the Razorbacks to five Southwest 
Conference titles, died in Fayetteville City, 
Arkansas. (AP) \ 


SCOREBOARD 


CFL Standing* 


End era DivMoa 



w 

L 

T 

PF 

PAPtl 

Winnipeg 

6 

2 

0 

318 

251 

12 

Bommore 

6 

3 

0 

264 

237 

12 

Toronto 

1 

5 

0 

225 

301 

6 

Ottawa 

3 

6 

0 

274 

335 

4 

Hamilton 

2 

6 

0 

183 

245 

4 

Shreveport 

0 

9 

0 

163 

351 

0 

Western Dhtistan 




Bm.Colurnbkj 

7 

1 

1 

365 

228 

15 

Calgary 

7 

1 

0 

344 

134 

14 

Edmonton 

6 

2 

0 

245 

167 

12 

Saskatchewan 

4 

4 

0 

199 

229 

8 

Sacramento 

3 

5 

1 

1H2 

262 

7 

Las Vegas 

3 

6 

0 

269 

297 

4 


Friday's oama 

British CohimMa 15, Sacram«nto 15 
BitHikinawn 
Ottawa M. La* Vegas 5ft OT 
Balt I mart 2B. Shreveport is 

Top 25 Collage Results 

How Bm too 35 Inm In mo Associated 
Proa* col loot football port fared I art weak- 
SfMi* 

1. Florida /MM beat Maw Mexico Stare. 7ft 
31. Next : v\ Kentuoy. Saturday ; 2, Nebraska 
11-0) did not okw. Next : ot Texas Tech, Sent. 
I; 3, Notre Dame t1-0> boat Northwestern 4ft 
15. Next: vs. Michigan, Saturday; 4, Florida 
State (MM boat Virol rUa 41-17. Next; at Mary- 
toad. Saturday; 5. Mich loan I MI) Deal Boston 
Col Itoe 34- 36. Nixtr at Notre Da me, Saturday. 

«l Miami (141 beat Georgia Southern 5*4. 
Next; of Arizona State. Saturday, 1 7, Arizona 
(1-01 beat Georgia Tech 1M4, Thursday. 
Noil: vs- Mew Monica State. Saturday, Soot. 
10; L Colorado il-OI boat Northeast Louisiana 
40-11 Next: vs. Not 10 Wisconsin. Soot. 17; 9, 
Penn State t!-0> beet Minnesota 54-1 Next; 
vt.No- 17 Southern COL Saturday; 10, Wiscon- 
sin (04) dks no* Ptav. Meet: Eastern Michi- 
gan. Saturday. 

17. Alabama (1-01 boat Tantmaea-Otatta- 
noooaxi-n. Next: vs. Vanderbilt, Saturday ; 12. 
Auburn <H» neat Mississippi 2S-17. Next: vs. 
Northeast Loafs! ana, Saturday; & Tennessee 
( 0-1} loot la No. 14 UCLA 23-23. New : at Gearala. 
Saturday; 14 UCLA < MU beat No. 13 Tennessee 
25-23. Next; vs. Southern Methodist, Saturday; 


» Texas AIM n-0> boat Louisiana State lS-tl 
Next: us. No. M Oklahoma. Saturday. 

IB Oklahoma (14) beat Syracuse 30-29. 
Nut: at No. IS Texas AAM, Saturday; 17, 
Southern Cal 04) beat No. 23 Washington 2* 
17. Next: at no. 9 Pom Stale, Saturday; is. 
North Carolina (141 beat Texas Christian 27- 
17. Next: vs. Tutor™, Sept. 17; 19, Texas tl4> 
beat Pittsburgh 30-28. Next: vs. Louisville. 
Saturday; 70. Ohio State (14) did not clay. 
Next: ot No. 23 Washington, Saturday. 

21, Virginia Tech (14! beat Arkansas state 
34-7, Next: (rt Southern Mississippi. Saturday; 
22, Illinois (0-1) lost to WasMnflton State 104, 
Thursday. Next: vs. Missouri, Saturday; 23. 
Wosblnston (0-1) loot to N& 17 Southern Cal 
Z: “Next: vs. No. 20 Ohio! ttrte, Saturday; 24, 
CJomacn (141 beat Furman 274. Next: vs. 
North Carolina State, Saturday; 2 ft Stanford 
IM) did not ptay. Next: ot Northwestern, 
Saturday. 

Major College Score* 

EAST 

Cent Florida a. Maine « 

Qatuian 21, St. Fronds, Fa. 0 
iricholis S». lft Connecticut 7 
Robert Morns 2* wavnesburg 19 
Rutters 28. Kent* 
vnitmova 23, Fbrdtam 7 
West Virginia 1*, Ball St. 14 
WIIHom & Mary 3& Rhode (stand 17 
SOUTH 

Alabama St. 27, Ala. -Birmingham 24 
Bettume-Caaiiman 34. Johnson C. Smith 7 
Delaware St. 27, Cheynev 19 
Duke 49, Maryland 16 
Florida ABM 20, Tusfceaee 8 
Georgia 24, South Carolina zi 
Grombiino St. 62. Alcorn St. 5* 

Howard U. 57, Min. Volley St. 25 
James Madison 35, Buffalo 0 
Kentucky 20. Louisville U 
Liberty 5% Concord 0 
Marshall 71, Morotwad 5t. 7 
McNeme St. 31, Illinois St. 17 
MKJdle Tenn. «. Tennessee St. 10 
MJssKjippi si. 17, Memphis * 

N. Carolina A&T 38. NX. Control 9 
Richmond 34, vmi 31 
S. Carolina 51. 41 Winston-Salem 27 
Sam Houston 5t. 17, Jacksonville SI. la 
5amford 28, Bethel. Tenn. 4 
Southern Miss. 25. Tukme 10 
Southern u. 2ft NW Louisiana 0 
Vanderbilt 35. Wok* Forest 14 


MIDWEST 

Dayton 50. Mount St. Joseph 14 
Evansville K Wittenberg 13 
Kofstra 41, Butler 0 
Indiana 28, Oriclnnall 3 
Iowa 52. Cent. Mlchlean 21 
Kansas St. 34. SW Louisiana * 

N. Iowa 28. Iowa St. 14 
Temple 32. Akron 7 
Teim.-Marttn 35, 5. Illinois 2a 
Toledo 2a Indiana St. 17 
Tuba 20. Missouri 17 
Valparaiso 34, St. Ambrose 12 
W. Michigan 28. Miami, Ohio 25 
SOUTHWEST 

Arkansas M Southern Math. 14 
Baylor 44, Louisiana Tech 3 
Texas Southern 20, Prairie View 13 
Texas Tech 37, New Mexico 31 
FAR WEST 
Arizona SI- 22, Oregon St. 1* 

Babe 5t. 36. Northeastern 26 

Brigham Yauno 13, Hawaii 12 

Goiorado St- 34, Air Faroe 21 

Fresno St. 45, San Jos* SI. 13 

Idaho 43, s. Utah 10 

Idaho St. 5*. Adams St. 0 

(Montana 41, Sonoma SL 7 

Montana St. 37, MtarvDuhitn 7 

Nevada 30. N. Arizona 27 

Oregon 58, Portland St. 16 

Pacific 24. UC Davis 7 

San Of ego 57, Menlo • 1 

San Dtepa St. 56, Now 14 

St. Mary's, Cal. 24. San Francisco sr. 0 

UNLV 17, E. Michigan 3 

Utah XL Utah St. 17 

Weber St. 30, W. Montana 12 

Wyoming 36. Texas-EI Paso 13 




l).S.Open 


Men's sinefes. Second Round 
Stefan Edherg (5), Sweden, del. Jeff Tor- 
onao, UJw 6-2, 6-3, 6-2; Michael Stich (4), Ger- 
many. d«t- neve Bryan, uJ.4-l.KM; Todd 
Woodbrktte, Australia, def. Mark Petcney. 
Britain, 6-3, 6-1 6-4; Marcos Ondruska South 
Africa, dot Christian Bergstrom, Sweden 74 
17-31, 6-3, 6b; Joem Renzenbrink, Germany, 
def. Karim Aiaml, Morocco. 64 6-4, 6-7 (7-91,6- 
3; Cedric PkXIne, France, def. Roocrtnhe Gil- 
bert. France, 2-4, 4-1 7-4 (7-4), 63; Byron Black. 


Zlmbabwibdef. Framdsco Clavot.5oaln.7-5, 1- 
6, 3-6, 6-1, 6-4; Karel Novoak-Czed] Republic, 
def. Andrei Medvedev (8), 4-3. 6-1 6-2. 

Javier Frona Argentina def. Vincent Soa- 
dea UJ- 6-4. 6-1. be, 7-5; Jonas Blarkman. 
Sweden, def. Alex O'Brien. US 6-2. 4-3. AA; 
Roaer Smith, Bchamav del Henrik Holm, 
Sweden, 6a I -6. 3-4. 6-1, 6-2; Andrea Gaudenzi, 
Italy, def. Jim Courier lll).U.5,7-S,*-2,3-ft6- 
3; Cartas Caria, Spain, def. Richard Kra I leak, 
Netherlands, 4-6. 7-6 (7-3). 6ft 1-6, 76 (7-4)) 
Jaime yzboo. Porudet. DavM Witt. U-S-6-1,6- 
7 (1-7), 6-4,64; Yevgeny Kafelnikov (14), Rus- 
sia. def . Mortki Domm. Czech Reoubl Ic, W, 7- 
6 17-Si. 7-6 (7-5); Pete Sampras (1). US, def. 
Daniel Vacek. Czech Republic 63, 6-4 6-4. 

Meat Singles. Third Round 

Thomas Muster (13), Austria def. Thomos 
Enavtet, Sweden, 66. AA, 6-2; Son! Bruguera 
(3), Snlrs del Mere Goellner, Germany, 1-6,6- 


Japarwse Leagues 


rjRPJr»7 f , n *'S rn .,T 

ii > 1 ; -f r-c-. 

.tWOc-ev. „ 

European Masters 


•„ Jj*- 


Central League 


Final leading scares Sunday from (tie par- 



w 

L 

T 

Pet. 

OB 

72,4745-yani Crans-sur-SlerTe golf dub: 

Yomlurl 

62 

51 

0 

set 

— 

Eduardo Romero, Argentina 64-48-66-68—266 

Hiroshima 

39 

53 

D 

30 

zw 

Pierre Fulke, Sweden 

70-6545-67—267 

Chunlchl 

56 

5* 

0 

soo 

ste 

Jean Van de Velde. France tB4B+7-4t—M 

Hanshin 

56 

57 

0 

AM 

6 

Barry Lane, England 

6749-46-67 — -269 

Yakult 

52 

SB 

0 

An 

flVj 

Sam Torrance, Scot! arid 

674549-68—249 

Yokohama 

50 

60 

« 

MS 

10M 

Nkk Faldo. England 

694647-68—270 


Scturdoyts Results 
Hanshin 4, Yamiurf 0 
Yakult 2. Hiroshima 1 
Yokohama 5. Chtmlchl 0 

Sunday's Results 
Himhlma 7, Yakult 0 
Chunlchl 9, Yokohama 2 


4,63.6-7 (4-7),6-l i Michael Chang (6), u A, def. 
Jim GrobftUA,6-1,4-t, retired; Gtanluca Pant 


Pacific 

w 

: League 
L T 

Pet. 

GB 

Italy, del. Markus Zoeckc. Germany. 24, 6-4. 62. 

Selbu 

63 

48 

0 

J6S 

_ 

6-2; Andre Agassi, U-5* def. Wayne Ferretro 

Kintetsu 

60 

48 

2 

356 

1M 

(12). South Africa 7-54-1.7-5; Bcred Karbacher. 

Orix 

59 

48 

2 

J51 

2 

Germaiiy,dgLMareRosset(l5).SwltzcriamL4- 

Date! 

58 

52 

1 

.527 

4Vk 

A 6-4, 44 6-1,62; Richey Renebera. Houston, drf. 

Lotte 

46 

*4 

1 

418 

14*5 

Richard Frombern,Aus)rolta,T46-J,?4 f 7-4)4- 

NtoPbn Horn 

41 

67 

4 

JBO 

20Vi 


2s Todd Martin (91, UJ- def. Patrick Rafter, 
Australia, 7-5, 63, 6-7 (3-71, 6ft 

Women’s Slagles, Third Reund 
Elena Ukhovtsevo, Kazakhstan, det. Nato- 
Ua Medvedeva Ukraine. 74 17-3). 7-4 (841); 
Ginger Hetoeson, Uft, det- Conchlla Martinez 
13), Soota 3-6,6-64-1 ; Arantxa Sanchez Vttoria 
17), Spain, del. Sandra CecchM, Italy. 6-1 6-1. 
Gabrleta sabaflnf (BJ, Argentina def. Isabelle 
Demongeat. France, 60, 63; Klmlko Date (5), 
Japan. deL Lisa Raymond, UA. 6-4 62; Ann 
GrossmcsuUJS* def. Mary Joe Fernandez (9), 
U 5-646-4; Gig) Fernandez, UXflef. SW-Tins 
Wane. Tqi wan, 6ft 64; Leila MtskhL Georgia, 
dot. Barbara Rittnor, Austria *4, 6-X 6Z 
iva Maloti, Croatia deL Anna Smashnava 
Israel, 62, 6-3; Amanda Cootzer (11), South 
Africa def. Marfaan de SworcH, South Africa 
6-1.63; (Mono Endo. Japan, dot. Lindsay Dav- 
enport (6), U-5- 63. 7-6 (7-1); Jana Novotna 
(7). CzeOt Re nubile, det. Patricia Hy, Canada 
61, 62; Magdalena Maleeva ll Si. Bulgaria 
def. Shaun Stafford, UJL. 63, 7-6 (7-3). 

Sttffl Graf <11. Gerrmxiy. dot Rodka Bob- 
kova. Czech Republic. 6-2. 4-3; Mary Pierce (4), 
Prance, deL Judith wiesner, Austria 62. 64; 
Zina Garrison Jackson (10), U5. def. Alexto 
Dechaume -Bel tenet, France, 2-4 64 7-6 (7-11. 


Satu r day** Games 
Selbu 2. Orix 1 
Kintetsu 5. Nippon Ham 2 
Lotte 7, Date! 3 

Sunday's Results 
Settxi 6, Orix 5 
Nippon Ham 4 Kintetsu 3 
Dciel 2. Lotts 1. 11 Innings 

The Michael Jordan Watch 

FRIDAY'S GAME: Jordon did not stort as 
(he Huntsville Stars defeated the Birming- 
ham Barons 14. He entered the game as a 
defensive repfacement In the eighth Inning, 
hemdted no chcmcro and did not bat, 

SATURDAY'S GAME: Jordan wgntWofU 
as the Barons ended their season with a 4-2 
victory over the Huntsville Stars. Jordan 
fouled out fo the first baseman In the second 
Innlna struck out In the fourth and sixth, ana 
Wed out to right In ffw ninth. Starting in (eft 
fletd. he hondtad no chances. 

SEASON TALLY; Jordan fMshed at J8Z (88- 
far-434) with 46 romt 17 doubles, one triple three 
home runs. 51 RBIeSlwalln, 114 strikeouts end 
X stolen b ase s In 48 at te mpt s. He has 212 auf- 
outs, six assists and 11 errors In the outffeM. 


Martin Gates. England 09-65-70-66-270 

Bernhard Longer. Germany 69-7664-68— 271 
Adam Hunter. Scotland 65-69-63-69-271 

Par-Ulri k Johansson. Sweden 69-6667-68— 272 
Reflet Goosoa South Alrica 68-69-67-66—272 
Gordon Brand Jnr. Scotland 65-6671-71—277 

-y > 

Pinal overall Standings of the IAAF Mobil 
Grand Prfx: 

MEN 

1, Nourwdine MorcelL Alger la, 78 points- 2. 
Sexnuet Matete. Zambia. 72. 1 Mike Contey. 
US, 72.4. Dennis Mifefwft, US 72 & Javier 
Satamaror, Cuba, 72. s, Andrei Abduvallvev, 
Tallktstan. ml 7. Derrick Adkins, u s m. &. 
Venuste Nlyomxtaa, Burundi. 64 9. Khalld 
Skah. Morocco, 64. 10. Troy KemP.B0hamaa.6C. 

WOMEN 

I, Jackie Joy ner-Kersee. U5.71 Z Svellana 
Dimitrova. Bulgaria, 72. 3. Sonic O’Sullivan, 
Ireland. 72.4 Natal ro Shlkofenka Belarus, 70. 
A Gwen TUrrence. US 64 4 Ilka WVfudda, 
Germany. 64 7, Helke Drechsler, Germany, 
61 & Angelo Chalmers. Canada 62. 9, Trine 
Kattestad, Norway. 62. 10. Yekaterina Poaka- 
Poyeva Russia 61. 

W - . .5.-.- 


-r . . L ■ 

BASEBALL 
American League 

BOSTON— Recalled Gar Flnnvoid, pitch or. 
tram Pawtucket. ii_ 

CHICAGO— Sent Mlk« Robertson, outfield- 
er-firfietaer, from Birmingham. Sl ro Nasti- 
vnie, AA. 

MINNESOTA TWINS— Bought contract of 
Mott Lowtaa outfielder, from Fort Mvers, 
Florida State League. 

TEXAS— Recalled Hector Folardo, Plietwr, 
tram Oklahoma City, AA. 


Natlanai Leagae 

NEW YORK— Agreed to terms with Robert 
BorkawskL pitcher, on mlnor-leaeua con- 
tract 

BASKETBALL 

NattoHOf Basketball Assectatam 

DALLAS— Signed Jason Kidd, guard, hi 9- 
year contract. 

UTAH— Announced Stephen Howard, far- 
ward, was not ottered a contract and Is leav- 
ing la atav for Plstola of the A-l Italian 
League. 

FOOTBALL 

Natkmal Football Leagae 

MINNESOTA— Stoned Sean Salisbury, 
quarterback. Waived Andre Ware. Quarter- 
back. 

DALLAS— Stoned Mark TutneL offensive 
tackle, to 4-year contract. 

DENVER— Re-stoned Kari Mecklenburg, 
linebacker, to 1-y ear contract. Released Tom 
Nolen, of f ensive lineman. 

HOUSTON— Released Sean Salisbury, 
quarterback. Moved Lee WBUarraon. b ato n - 
slve rockie, from practice squad to the active 
roster. 

KANSAS CITY— Signed John Reece, eor- 
Inertxxk, to practice Muad. 

N.Y. GIANTS— Signed Darren Reese, 
guard, to practice squad. 

TAMPA BAY— Re-signed Pete Pierson, 
lockte, to Procter squad. 

HOCKEY 

Nattaaal Hockey League 

NHL— Put Bab Probert, ChKooo Black- 
hawks right wing, on Inactive status. 

ANAH E I M— 5laned Jeremy Stevenson, left 
tv! no. to multiyear contract, and Brhm Sulli- 
van. rlani wing, to 1-year contract. Acquired 
Darren Van I mpe. defenseman, from N.Y. Is- 
landers, for conditional 1995 draft choice and 
than signed him. 

HARTFORD— Signed Sean Burke, goal- 
tender. to 4-rear contract. LOS ANGELES— 
Signed Tray Crowder, right vrina and Dan 
Quinn, center. Stoned Jar) Kurri, right wing, to 
l-year contract. Signed John Druce. right 
wing, and Mike Donnelly, left wins, to 2-year 
contracts with l-vear options. Signed Kellh 
Redmond, left wing, and Kevin Todd, Pot con- 
ocher and Robert Long;, centers, to l-y ear 
contracts with l-veor options. 

MONTREAL— signed Pierre Sevlgny, left 
wing, to a l-vear contract. 

NEW JERSEY— stoned Sergei Brylin, cert- 
rer.and Ben Kontansan, right wtag, to multi- 
year contracts. 


N.Y. ISLANDERS— Dave Votok, tarwera, 

retired. 

N.Y. RANGERS— Signed Scott AAakxw and 
Andy Silverman, deteroamen. Named Mike 
Murphy assistant coach. 

OTTAWA— Signed Dave McLfnaln right 
wing, to 2-year deal. Named Pierre McGuire 

tOMlfe 

PHILADELPHIA— Signed Rw»i sutler, 
left wing, to o muiihrear contract RhM 
Dan Her die. defenseman. 


IS2322 


GERMAN FIRST DIVISION 
M5V Duisburg D, Bayern Munich 3 
SC Freiburg 1, Warder Bremen 3 
Moenchanglndbaeh Z Dynamo Dresden 0 
FC Kalsenloutem X VtB Stuttgart 2 
1868 Munich 0- scftalke 1 
Hamburg 5V 3, Karlsrutw SC 1 
vtL Bochum 1, Bayer Leverkusen 3 
EtatrochT Frankfurt 4 Borussla Dortmund 1 
FC Cotaone 2. Barer uerdlngen 0 
StatMflngs: Warder Bremen 7 points, Bonis- 
sla Dortmund 4 Bayern Munich 4 Karlsruhe 
SC&VfB Stuttgart 5, Hamburg SV 5. FC Kal- 
eerelautem 5. Barer Leverkusen A’SC ■Frei- 
burg 4 Schalkn 4 Elntrucht Frankfurt 4 
Maonchangtadbatai 4 FC Cologne 4 Barer 
Uerdlngen X VtL Bochum 2. A6SV Du Isbura 2, 
Dynamo Dresden 1, IBM Munchen t. 

SPANISH FIRST DIVISION 
Altettco Madrid 2, Valencia 4 
Zaragoza 2. Tenerife 2 
Compostela Ok Real Sochtdod 2 
Esaanol 4 Oviedo S 
Racing S an ta nd e r 0, Valladolid 0 
Sporting Gilon Z Barcelona 1 
Athletic Bilbao & Deporttvo La Canma 2 
Aibacete l, Celta l 
Looranes a Betls 0 
Sevilla 1. Real Madrid 4 

ITALIAN FIRST DIVISION 
(Season openers) 

Serf ft Lazio of Rama l 

Brescia L Jurentus of Turin 1 

Florcntfna Z Cagliari 1 

Naaoll 1. Reggiana 0 

Pam* Z Cremanase 0 

AS Roma 1, Foggta 1 

Sampdorkt of Genoa 5. Padova 0 

Torino ft intenxnlonale of Milan 2 

EUROPEAN CHAMPIONSHIP QUAUP1ER5 

Croatia Z Estonia a 

Israel Z Poland l 


DENNIS THE MENACE 


PEANUTS 


CALVIN AND HOBBES 




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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994. 


Page 19 



MON 


A Y 


EUNis 


SPORTS 


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Giants Hold Off Eagles and Colts 
Upset the Oilers in Season-Openers 


Nenl C. Laurens Knurs 

Derrick Tenner of the Bengals charging over Cleveland defenders to score a touchdown on Sunday in Cincinnati. 


New Season, Old Scenario: 
Hot QB Leads Florida St. 


*» * .f. , 

H.Y a At,. 

w* 1.-.*. 

a* tot. ... . 

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The Associated Pros 

The new season began as the old one 
ended, with -Florida State riding a hot 
quarterback to victory. 

Gone is Charlie Ward, the Heisman 
•> Trophy winner, but no matter. On this first 

full Saturday of college football, Danny 
Kanefl passed for 330 yards and four 
touchdowns as the defending national 
'Champions crushed Virginia, 41-17. 

! In Tallahassee, Florida, fourth-ranked 
«Ezv. t . . j . • , ...7"* 'Florida State played without seveu sus- 
. ■ ‘ V? pended players, including the All-Ameri- 

SZ?: :.r -- college football 

*■ , “ 

, Hi-.-, • - ... • 

—>-• •• . . " can linebacker Derrick Brooks and three 

' '■■■■■. offensive linemen who were penalized for 

• - ■ - • ' -V £ accepting illegal gifts from agents. Florida 
tv>* v-«- T *V .State missed them no more than it missed 

~ ■ ■■ •-=■-* n» Ward. 

' . irX Kanell, who threw five touchdown 
"*•■***- • • : mt. passes against Maryland last season when 

■ . . . Ward was injured, was impressive again in 

■s/v .- leading the Seminoles to their 17th straight 

-* i victory in the Atlantic Coast Conference. 

77 ^ .... Kandl completed 32 of 48 passes, the 

-h, *». ... .. third-highest completion total in school 

history. 

“ ‘ No. I Florida 70, N. Mexico St 21: 

77 . Teny Dean, a fifth-year senior who con- 

— ' ■> sadered transferring when he lost his job to 

•' t " Danny Wuerffd last September, threw for 

: TDs on seven of Florida’s first eight pos- 

»- sessions in Gainsville, Florida. Third- 

„ stringer Eric Kresser added another as 

• . Florida led 56-2 1 at halftime. Jack Jackson 

s *- caught four scoring passes and Ike Hil- 

liard, Aubrey Hill and Sorola Palmer one 
• - • »■;.*.•'< each from Dean, who tied the National 
Collegiate Athletic Association record for 

• TD throws in a half, set by Dennis Shaw of 
S»n niepo State a gain st New Mexico State 

<nrTT1 ^ 1969. Dean was 20-of-30 for 271 yards 

jvith no interceptions. 

.... ? No. 3 Notre Dame 42, Nortfawesteni 15: 

■- In Chicago, Ron Powlus, his debut delayed 

* a year by a broken collarbone, completed 

- 18-of-24 for 291 yards and four toueb- 

#►_* - - downs, tying a school record for TD passes 

T " , - ' hdd by Steve Beuerldn, Daryle Lamomca 

5 and Angelo Bertelli. Powlus hit three of hts 

Am ^ ■ touchdown passes in the second quarter as 

_ ■ - . Notre Dame took control. 


No. 5 Midugan 34, Boston College 26: 
Boston College, in Dan Henning’s debut as 
a college coach, scored on the first play and 
had Michigan down 12-0 before the Wol- 
verines rallied behind Todd Collins and 
Amani Toomer in Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

No. 6 Miami 56, Ga. Southern 0: Miami 
set an NCAA record with its 58th consecu- 
tive home victory, surpassing Alabama’s 
record set from 1962 to 1982. 

No. 8 Colorado 48, NE Louisiana 13: 
Rashaan Salaam ran for 184 yards and 
three touchdowns as Colorado generated 
649 yards at home. Kordell Stewart also 
accounted for three Colorado TDs, run- 
ning for two and passing for one. 

No. 9 Penn State 56, Minnesota 3: Ker- 
ry Collins passed for 260 yards and three 
touchdowns and Ki-Jana Carter rushed for 
210 yards with TD runs of 80, 62 and 2 
yards in Minneapolis. 

No. 11 Alabama 42, Tn-Chattanooga 13: 
In Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Sherman Wil- 
liams rushed for a career-high 153 yards 
and sewed two touchdowns as Alabama 
piled up 343 yards on the ground. 

No. 12 Auburn 22, Mississippi 17: Ste- 
phen Davis, replacing NFL- bound James 
Bostic, rushed for 158 yards and a touch- 
down in Oxford, Mississippi, as Auburn 
extended Division I-A’s longest winning 
streak to 12 games. 

No. 14 UCLA 25, No. 13 Tennessee 23: 
Wayne Cook passed for 295 yards and a TD 
and Bjorn Merten kicked four field goals for 
UCLA. Visiting Tennessee, which lost start- 
ing quarterback Jerry Colquitt to a knee 
injury on the game’s seventh play, scored all 
its points in the fourth quarter. 

No. 15 Texas A&M 18, LSU 13: Lee- 
land McElroy’s second touchdown run of 
the game, a 59-yard er with lVi minutes to 
play, allowed Texas A&M to hold off LSU 
m Baton Rouge, Loudsiana. 

No. 16 Oklahoma 30, Syracuse 29: Scott 
Blanton kicked a 48-yard field goal with 1 1 
seconds to play as visiting Oklahoma came 
back after blowing a 24-paint lead. A 
missed Syracuse extra point gave Oklaho- 
ma the chance to win it with a field goal. 

No. 17 USC 24, No. 23 Washington 17: 
In Los Angeles, Shawn Walters ran for two 
second-half touchdowns, the latter a 3- 
y order to snap a 17-17 tie with 7:14 re- 
maining. Walters's TD was set up by John 


Friday Deadline 
In Strike Talks? 


Compiled by Out Staff From Dupaidta 

NEW YORK — If striking players 
and owners do not reach an agreement 
by Friday, the owners are prepared to 
cancel the rest of the major league 
baseball season and the post-season, 
according to the acting commissioner. 

But Bud Selig's threat of a Sept. 9 
deadline had not led to any new bar- 
gaining as of Sunday, and manage- 
ment’s chief negotiator. Richard Ra- 
vitch, said he would be unavailable for 
talks from sunset Monday to sunset 
Tuesday because of the Jewish New 
Year. 

Selig. in arriving at the date of Sept. 
9. said Friday he took into account 
such matters as the time the players 
would need to get into shape, the time 
needed to “meaningfully’ complete the 
regular season and ihe logtstics of the 
post-season. 

He said the deadline was prelimi- 
nary and that he wanted 10 reach an 
agreement on it with Donald Fehr, the 
players' labor leader. Fehr said Satur- 
day that “if they reach a point where 
they dou’t wain to talk anymore, 
they’ll reach a point they don't want to 
talk anymore.” 

Thirteen more games were canceled 
Saturday, the 23d day of the strike, 
raising the total to 297. Lost income 
for players rose to $101.6 million, 
while the owners’ lost revenue in- 
creased to an estimated $195.5 mil- 
lion. (NYT, AP) 


h" 


CROSSWORD 


ACROSS 

1 Rica 

8 Job lor Perry 
Mason 


10 Career 
summary 
14 Top grade 

IB' We Got 

Fun?" 


A 





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is Son of Seth 

17 Jockey’s 
handful 

18 Govt, agent 

ig Mounties. Abbr. 
so Meaningful 
silence 

23 Prominent 
features of 
Alfred E. 
Neuman 

24 Camaval site 

25 ShrirnfMSh 

27 University of 
Maryland player 
2S Stumble 

32 Antigone’s 
sister 

33 Mongolian 
desert 

38 The Monkees’ 

■ — Believer' 
37 1987 Edward 
James Oimos 
film 

40 Actor Chaney 

41 Miner profits? 

42 Guinea pig or 
groundhog 

43 Emily 
DrcJcmson's 
hometown 

45 Air freshener 
scent 

48 Nucon and 
Schroeder 

47 Black-eyed item 

48 Shows approval 
32 Film In which 

Hayley Mills 
played twins 
sc Ballet leap 
as One of the 
Menendez 
brothers 
58 Gauche gear 
60 Elliptical 
fit Look 
82 Last word of 
fairy tales 


63 Cravings 

64 Flexible Flyer, 
for one 

85 Press secretary 
Dee Dee 


DOWN 

t diem 

(seize the day) 

2 Pucani product 

3 More like a lox 

4 Filament 
material 

sOrg. 

6 Tabby treat 

7 'We 

please" 

B Breeze 

s Mediterranean 
spouter 


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is Venomous viper 

21 LttDTS 

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26 It's south ol 
Saudi Arabia 

28 Sign a check 

2flStyiish,in the 
60's 

30 Basque, e.g. 

31 Hair splitter 

32 Mallorca, par 
ejemplo 

33 Lively dance 

34 whisky- 
vermouth 
cocktail 

35 Mdse 

38 Place to meet 
following a 
tennis match 

39 Pick out ol a 
lineup 


Pupta by JuBan O cr uviwowycfl Amy OoMstafai 

© New Farit Tunes/' Edited bv fTiU Shorts. 


44Mertzand 

Merman 

45 Looked foo 
soon 

47 Cracker Jack 
bonus 

48 Speechify 

50 Library gadget , 

5f Trains, in a way 

59 Cnbbage 
counters 

54 Asia’s - — Sea 

55 Streetcar 

56 "The - — Luck 
Club" 

57 Night belore 


Solution to Puzzle of Sept. 2 


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The Associated Press 

Dave Meggett returned a punt 68 yards 
for a touchdown, ran 26 for another and 
recovered a fumble to set up another as the 
New York Giants capitalized on early er- 
rors by the Eagles to open the post Law- 
rence Taylor-Pml Simms era with a 28-23 
victory over Philadelphia on the first day 
of Lbe National Football League regular 
season on Sunday. 

The key for New York was a 21-3 first- 
half spurt that featured Meggett's recov- 
ery, his punt return and 51-yard scoring 
pass from Brown, starring his first game as 
Simms's replacement, to Chris Calloway. 

The visiting Eagles never got closer than 
the final mar gin when Randall Cunning- 
ham — 20 of 39 for 344 yards — hit Calvin 
Williams on a 10-yard touchdown pass 
with 1:17 to play. 

Cunningham also hit Mark Bavaro on a 
3-yard TD pass and Eddie Murray kicked 
three field goals, but the Eagles (8-8 in 
1993) had trouble scoring a touchdown 
against the Giants new 4-3 defense, which 
had struggled in the preseason. 

Against the Eagles, the defense sacked 
Cu nningham five times and had him scram- 
bling as much as when Taylor was around. 

Meggett, the Giants special teams and a 
couple of foolish mistakes by the Eagles 
allowed New York to take a 21-3 lead early 
in the second quarter. 

Eagles returner Jeff Sydner make the 
first mistake, trying to field a bouncing 
punL Willie Beamon of the- Giants hit him 
and Meggett recovered at the Philadelphia 
20. A 20-yard end around by Calloway got 
the ball to the 1 and Rodney Hampton 
scored two plays later. 

Meggett struck again four plays later, 
fielding a bouncing punt by Mitch Berger 
at the Giants 32 and going all the way 
down the right sideline for the touchdown. 
Jessie Armstead sprung the play with a 
block on the corner on Derrick Oden and 
Meggett went the final 22 yards after 
breaking a Berger tackle. 

After the Eagles settled for a 21-yard 
field goal by Murray despite a first and 
goal from the 1, Brown hit C-allowav with a 
51 -yard touchdown pass on a play in 
which the Philadelphia defense appeared 
to stop after going offsides. Brown finished 
10 of 20 for 171. 

Colts 45, Oilers 21: The new-look Colts 
made quick work of Houston's 11 -game 
regular-season winning streak in Indianap- 
olis. as Marshall Faulk, one of 13 new 


starters, rushed for 143 yards and three 
touchdowns in his NFL debut and the 
Colts shocked the error-plagued Oilers. 

Indianapolis played nothing Eke the 
team that was 4-12 a year ago. The Colts 
scored after each of three Houston turn- 
overs and set a team record for most points 
in a season-opening game. All six India- 
napolis touchdowns were scored by play- 
ers who had joined the team since the end 
of last season. 

Faulk, the second overall pick in the 
draft, ran for touchdowns of 1, 2 and Ii 
yards. Linebacker Tony Bennett, a free 

NFL ROUNDUP 

agent from Green Bay. returned a fumble a 
Colts-record 75 yards for another touch- 
down, and the Bears castoff Jim Harbaugh 
passed for two touchdowns to Floyd 
Turner, a free agent from New Orleans. 

Houston got its only touchdowns on 
fourth-quarter passes of 2 yards to Pat Car- 
ter and 16 and 15 yards to Haywood Jeffires 
from Bucky Richardson, who replaced 
starter Cody Carlson in the third period. 

Seahawks 28, Redskins 7: Rick Mirer's 
passing, the r unnin g and receiving of Chris 
Warren and a bunch of mistakes by Wash- 
ington helped Seattle rout the Redskins in 
Washington. 

Mirer completed 17 of 28 passes for 183 
yards and one touchdown, leading scoring 
drives of 12, 53 and 45 yards. Warren 
rushed for 100 yards and scored two touch- 
downs. He also caught three passes for 42 
yards in marring the head coaching debut 
of Norv Turner. 

The Redskins moved 82 yards behind 
John Friesz after the opening kickoff, scor- 
ing on a 27-yard pass 10 Desmond How- 
ard. They were helped by an 18-yard pass 
interference penally. But the Skins' sloppy 
play soon began. 

Brian Mitchell fumbled a punt return 
and linebacker Terry Wooden recovered 
on the Washington 12-yard line. Warren 
scored on the next play to tie it 7-7. 

The Redskins were moving the ball well 
on their fourth drive, with Friesz complet- 
ing 14 and 21-yard passes to Henry EUard. 
But then Wooden turned the game in Seat- 
tle's favor with an interception he returned 
69 yards for a score. 

Bears 21, Buccaneers 9: In Chicago. 
Erik Kramer made his first opening-game 
start a winning one and Chris Gedney 


caught two touchdown passes os the Bears 
beat Tampa Bay. 

Kramer, signed away from Detroit as a 
free agent, Ira the Lions to the NFC Cen- 
tral ride two of the last three years. But he 
was a third-stringer at the start of both of 
those seasons. 

Kramer completed IS of 25 passes for 
212 yards. Two of those completions went 
to Gedney for the tight end’s first touch- 
downs in the NFL. 

Chiefs 30, Saints 17: Joe Montana, who 
always sizzles in the Superdome, passed 
for 315 yards and two touchdowns as Kan- 
sas City triumphed in New Orleans. 

It was the 36th 300-yard passing game 
for Montana, who completed 24 of 33. was 
not intercepted and was sacked only once. 
Montana's dazzling display was comple- 
mented by the running and receiving of 
Marcus Allen, who started his 14th NFL 
season with 82 yards on 17 carries and a 
touchdown. 

Browns 28, Bengals 20: In Cincinnati, 
the rookie Antonio Langham and the 
Cleveland special t eams got Coach Bill 
Belichick off to a big start, as Randy Bal- 
dwin returned a kickoff S5 yards and Eric 
Metcalf went a club-record 92 yards with a 
punL within a three-minute span of the 
second quarter to set up the victory. 

Packers 16, Vikings 10: In Green Bay. 
Wisconsin, Sterling Sharpe caught a 14- 
yard touchdown one day after threatening 
to sit out the 1994 season in a contract 
dispute, and George Teague intercepted 
two of Warren Moon's passes in the vic- 
tory over Minnesota. 

Moon, making his debut for the Vikings, 
completed 20 of 37 passes for 166 yards 
with three interceptions and no touch- 
downs. He was sacked three times. 

Sharpe caught seven passes for a game- 
high 53 yards. 

Lions 31, Falcons 28: The place-kicker 
Jason Hanson, in obvious pain with a 
cramp, kicked a 37-yard field goal to lift 
Detroit to an overtime victory over visiting 
Atlanta, spoiling the NFL coaching debut 
of the Falcons’ June Jones. 

Pre-game hype had centered on De- 
troit’s Scott Mitchell and Atlanta's Jeff 
George, two of many quarterbacks who 
opened the season with new teams Sunday. 

George completed 29 of 37 passes for 
281 yards and three touchdowns. Andre 
Risen had personal bests with 14 catches 
of George’s bullets for 193 yards, with two 
scores. 


INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFIED 


PERSONALS 


MS ENCORE VU: Bob and Cm ie- 
fcmed to Mexico eorfy. Please cenwet 
• mgp’dn^pcrtjiefi^d^^diriute. 

ANNOLTM CEMENTS 


Herpin's interception of a pass by Wash- 
ington’s Damon Huard at the Huskies 34. 

No. 18 N. Carofina 27, TCU 17: Jason 
Stanicek had 310 yards of offense, 244 in 
the first half, but North Carolina struggled 
against visiting TCU. 

No. 19 Texas 30, Pitt 28: Taje Allen, a 
reserve defensive back, batted away Sean 
Fitzgerald’s 2-point conversion pass with 
36 seconds left as the Longhorns escaped 
at Pitt A missed Pitt extra point earlier 
proved costly, forcing Pitt to go for two 
after Fitzgerald’s 16-yard scoring pass to 
Matt Butler. 


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Page 20 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1994 


LANGUAGE 


Where Have the Fair Maidens Gone? 


By William Safire 

W ASHINGTON — Where are the fair maid- 
ens of yesteryear? The cam, developed 
from an Old English word dating from the year 
950, long ago acquired a poetic or archaic air; a 
maiden was defined as “an unmarried woman," 
with the particular expectation of virginity. The 
maidenhead was the hymen, a membrane unbro- 
ken in many women' who had not had sexual 
intercourse. A maidservant, first used in the 1382 
Wycliffe Bible, was a young woman who served a 

master or mistress; a half- millennium later, 

Thursday became maid's night out 
In today’s language, the maidservant has been 
euphonized; if you want maid service at a hotel, 
you punch “housekeeper,” and if you want to 
hire a maid, you look in the classified ads under 
domestic servant; only in casual speech do you 
wish you could afford to hire a maid. The noun 
hangs on in maid of honor, the chief unmarried 
attendant to the bride at a wedding; the associa- 
tion with “honor” may be preserving the usage, 
as nobody has yet demanded to be railed bride’s 
chief female attendant 

Maiden, as an adjective meaning “first," root- 
ed in the metaphoric loss of virginity, is also 
falling into disuse. A ship's first venture by the 
owner after delivery by the builder is still railed 
the maiden voyage, but how many cruise ships are 
being launched these days? In Britain, the first 
speech by a newly elected member of Parliament 
is still a maiden speech, a vestige of the days when 
new members were expected to be shy and de- 
mure; when Sir Alan Herbert's first address in 
the House of Commons was unusually forth- 
right, Winston Churchill evoked the early mean- 
ing of maiden by calling it “a brazen hussy of a 
speech,” 

The latest assault on the adjectival maiden is in 
its use defining an unmar ried woman's name. 
The French have long used nee to identify the 
last name of a woman, before her marriage, but 
we have since 1689 preferred maiden name. Now 
we are beginning to hear birth name, as if maiden 
were somehow pejorative or sexist, like girl 
Writers of bureaucratic forms are likely to seize 
on the anti-maidenhood trend as Linguistically 
inoffensive. 

Paradoxically, maiden names — 111 stick with 
the untried and true — have never been so 
respected. Many women, especially those who 
have established their names in careers before 
marriage, include their new middle names in 
their married names. Length is not considered an 
obstacle; on the contrary, a mouth-filling or 
column-long moniker has a nice ring to it. 

□ 

After the first Whitewater hearings, the Senate 
tt»nlring Committee chairman, Don Rieglc, pre- 
dicted “follow-on hearings" after the Senate lead- 
ership cnscussed “the scope of &. follow-on resolu- 
tion. 6 Everybody nodded as if this word — freshly 


inserted in most major new dictionaries — were 
not merely voguish but widely understood. 

New it’s not. “He toe and wente and folwede 
on” can be found in biblical exegesis written 
about 12S0, and the compound verb was used in 
an 1884 book about billiards to explain a stroke 
“when you cause your ball to follow on after the 
ball it strikes.” 

But for follow-on's development as a noun and 
adjective, neither exegeses nor hustlers can claim 
credit: that belongs to the aerospace industry. 
“The Bomarc II is a ‘follow-on ' air defense weapon 
for the 200-mile Bomarc missiles” is a citation 
from The New York Times in 1959, supplied to 
me by Jesse Sheidlower of Random House, The 
term was soon seized upon by politicians and is 
now pan of Washington's vogue vocabulary. 

What's the difference between follow-up and 
follow-on? It's roughly analogous to continual 
(“pausing and resuming") and continuous ("with- 
out pausing”): a follow-up is a “re-examination, 
pursuit, review,” and a follow -on is a “continua- 
tion, succession, development," 

Mnemonic: Nothing succeeds like follow-on. 


as? 


For a follow-on to the above, note the way 
co ng ressional hearings have focused attention on 
tualifiers, those weascling words that proride 
e speaker with a way out. 

“At this point, ” the presidential press secretary', 
Dee Dee Myers, told reporters circling the Trea- 
sury Department like vultures, “the president 
has full confidence in his team.” She later real- 
ized that her qualifying phrase, at this point, was 
taken as a broad hint (much as “no present 
plans” means “soon well tell you the plans”). 
She then said: “I should not qualify it The 
president has full confidence." 

A poignant example of unacceptable qualify- 
ing was set forth in the questioning of Joshua 
Steiner, the Treasury aide whose subpoenaed 
diary — written in the expectation of pnvaty — 
was a source of embarrassment for the Clinton 
While House. 

When a Democratic senator, Paul Sarbanes, 
asked if he had any conversations about a dis- 
agreement between Treasury officials over who 
had initiated a controversial White House brief- 
ing, Steiner replied: “I don't believe I’ve had any 
specific conversations." 

“Strike the word specific, ” Sarbanes said to the 
witness. 

“I can’t recall any conversations direct- 
ly . . Steiner began again. 

“Strike the word directfy, n said the senator, 
again going for the qualifier urged on witnesses 
by legal counseL 

“Senator," said the disqualifiered witness, 
flushed out at last, “I have heard 
conversations. . . ." 

What is a springtime without sunshine? What 
is testimony without qualifiers? 

New York Tinas Service 


In Brussels, a Master of Designer Chocolates 


By Barbara Rosen 

B RUSSELS — Paul Wittamer is an 
arbiter of tastes. In deciding 
which pastries and chocolates his fam- 
ily firm will offer the public, many 
palates cany equal weight — ana 
none more equal than his own. 

“You must not please yourself. You 
must please the customers,” Wittamer 
explains. But in the end, he adds, it's 
s tiri his menu. “They must take what I 
say” 

At age 50. Wittamer seems almost 
an overgrown boy as he scoots and 
stoops through the maze of kitchens 
and corridors carved out of the house 
that was his childhood home. Shin 
and tie beneath his Wittamer whites, 





OJ 


crSj 


An occasional series 
about people for whom 
style is a way of life 

% 

£ 


_ forelock on his brow, he con- 
fesses fie can't resist tasting everything 
in his path, as he swallows a bite of 
sole from the catering kitchen, and 
extends a pinkie-shake to a visitor. 

The house of Wittamer, on the cob- 
bled Place du Grand Sablon in the 
heart of Brussels' chic antiques center, 
has an international reputation spread 
largely by word of mouth. Paul Wit- 
tamer is one of just three Belgian 
members of Relais Desserts Interna- 
tional, the Paris-based association of 
Maltres-PStissiers. 

“He was the first in Belgium to 
understand that ‘to make the best you 
must use the very best,' ” says Relais 
Desserts president Girard Bann- 
warth. “Paul's chocolates are superior 
to all other Belgian chocolates ” he 
adds. 

But WIttamer’s own tastes aren’t 
confined to the highbrow. At the mov- 
ies, be goes for gummy mice. 

It’s difficult getting him to sit still. 
But once settled, he obligingly turns to 
the more abstract aspects of his pro- 
fessional life. 

His inspiration comes from many 
sources — experimentation, over- 
heard chitchat, talk among the trade. 
In creating his “Pyramide framboise,” 
for example — a pink bonbon of dark 
chocolate coated in white chocolate 
worked with dried raspberries — he 
lined a newly invented mold with a 
mixture he’d used to decorate a cake. 
What brought them together? 

“My personal feeling,” he explains. 
“I am tike a great couturier.” 


Wittamer introduces about a dozen 
new chocolates and pastries every 
year. M If left alone, I think he'd intro- 
duce 30 a year,” says his sister and 
alter ego on 'the commercial side. Myr- 
iad Wittamer. 

“There are still many innovations, 
many creations” to be done, answers 
Paul. “The bases were all invented 
some time ago. But it’s like music — 
you have do re mi fa sol la ti do, and 
then you can compose many airs.” 

Founded in 1910 by Paul's and. 
Myriam’s grandfather, Wittamer’s re- 
mains very much a traditional, family 
enterprise. They don’t advertise and 
currently sell their chocolates only on 
the Grand Sablon. A new outlet at 
Brussels airport is plannned but air- 
port buyers, like the 600 special orders 
sent overseas every year, win miss out 
on the fresh-cream bonbons.) 

A few years ago Wittamer’s began 
offering its pastries in a handful of 
Brussels tearooms, and it will open its 
own this fall. The catering business 
has also been developing in recent 
years. 

“But we're not going to become 
huge,” says Myriam. The chocolates 
are still made by just five people, 
working primarily by hand. It's a firm 
of “mechanized artisans,” not an in- 
dustrial producer, says Paul. 

For 25 years, Paul sots, Wittamer’s 
has led the way among Belgian makers 
of pastries, chocolates and ice creams. 
(Myriam even saw one Wittamer spe- 
cialty in a well-known Paris patisse- 
rie.) Their Belgian customers alone 
make for a haughty list. Princess As- 
trid is “our most loyal client,” says 
Myriam on a day that also finds Wit- 
tamer’s filling orders for two of Bel- 
gium’s major chocolate-makers — a 
birthday cake for a chieftain of Leoni- 
das and a catering order for Neuhaus. 

But the Wittamers also know 
they're in a touristic area of a city that 
is an international crossroads in a 
small country. Whereas French cho- 
colatiers get stuck in a rut of four- 
cornered bonbons, says Paul he has 
something for all who pass by. 

“The German will take milk choco- 
late,” he says. “The Belgian will take 
one of each. The Dut chman will take 
white chocolate. The Frenchman will 
take bitter, dark chocolate. The Japa- 
nese — they like best whatever^ well- 



Apncc Francc-Prac 

Paul Wittamer at his chocolate shop on Place du Grand Sablon. 


Still, one can cater only so far. Paul 
wrinkles his nose at a recent French 
fancy for chocolates infused with 


herbs. “Gimmicks, fads,” he sniffs. “It 
lasts six months and then it’s done.” 

He reserves a similar grimace for 
the asparagus sorbet he once tasted in 
a French restaurant His own tomato 
sorbet, however — that was excellent, 
as a first course or a dessert, he recalls. 
Wittamer' s offered it for a summer or 
two, till demand dried up. One has to 
be commercial, Paul concedes. 


But even in the realm of made- to- 
order cakes, Paul's tastes — and his 
taste — usually have the last word. He 
wouldn’t, for example, make a carrot 
cake. “I don't particularly tike it,” he 
says. 


Barbara Rosen Is a free-lance jour- 
nalist living in Brussels. 


WEATHER 


Europe 


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Forecast for Tuesday through Thursday, as provided by Accu-Weather. 



North America Europe Asia 

Mostly ay mmw will Iraki Showery mini w<B attomiti Korea and China from 
from Washington. D.C.. lo with Imltad sunjIUns in tha Shanghai to Balling will ba 
Boston. Chicago. Detroit and northorn halt of Europo. aunnyand warm, then mug- 
Toronto will Itavi some wn Wortham Franca, Britain. Ire- glor Thursday with a thun- 
and a law showers. Callfor- land, Belgium, Netherlands darslorm. Japan will begin 
nta win iwnakt settled; rails and much ol Germany wHl steamy with showers in tha 
wll break out Thursday from ba within this ball, sa will south west; mins will rasch 
Portland to Vsncouvsr. southern Scandinavia. Sun- Tokyo Wednesday. Tropical 
Strang winds and mins will shine will warm Spain, downpours will wet South 
hit Atlantic Canada Tuesday, southern Franca and Italy. China, Singapore, Malaysia 

end Bangkok at Umas. 


Middle East 


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OP OF OF Z* 

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Hong Kong 2904 29/77 c 3000 29/77 pc 

Mandt 3006 34/75 rii 3000 24/79 I 

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Tokyo 3209 24/73 pe 3209 24/79 pa 


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POSTCARD ^ 

5 Blocks, $5 — Rolling Along Atlantic City’s Boardwalk 


New York Tuna Service 

A TLANTIC CITY, New Jersey — 
Cloistered in a crumbling garage be* 
low the boardwalk, Larry Belfer is the 
keeper of the rolling chairs. 

As wooden planks creak overhead, 
Belfer sits among dozens of the three- 
wheeled wicker vehicles, as indigenous to 
Atlantic City as saltwater taffy. He dis- 
patches the chairs to operators who spend 
summers pushing tourists around the 
boardwalk, a tradition that has endured 
for more than a century. 

Rolling chairs first appeared in the late 
1800s, for invalids recuperating in the salt 
air. They soon became the most fashion- 
able means of traveling the boardwalk — 
Belfer said 3,000 chairs crowded the prom- 
enade in the 1920s. But their numbers 
dwindled as tourism declined, he said, and 
by 1980 only a handful remained. 

Belfer, 39, was a hotel clerk when he 
discovered 83 ramshackle chairs heaped in 
a warehouse in 1984. He bought them for 


$4,000, refurbished them and started At- 
lantic City Famous Rolling Chairs. 

“I was looking for a business venture 
and I got lucky,” he said, os a steady flow 
of operators wheeled chairs in and out of 
his cavetike office. “Everyone thought the 
days of rolling chairs were long gone.” 

But thanks to Atlantic City's gaming 
industry, Belfer met with immediate suc- 
cess. About 90 percent of his business, he 
said, involves shuttling weary gamblers be- 
tween casinos. 

“It's impossible to compete with them, 
so you have to find a way to complement 
them," he said. “That’s the only reason my 
business has survived." 

Belfer now owns 175 of the swan-shaped 
chairs, salvaged from warehouses, garages 
and other places. The chairs are no longer 
manufactured, but Belfer occasionally re- 
places the wicker. 

He rents the chairs to operators who are 
licensed by the city. They keep the fares 
they collect, which range from $5 for five 
blocks to 520 for 30 blocks. The city issues 


about 100 licenses for the summer, but 
most operators don’t last long. 

“Some guys give it up after a day," 
Belfer said, crouching under a sign that 
read “Drunks Will Be Dismissed." “I go 
‘through a lot of people before I find some- 
one who sticks around for a while." 

At the moment, the senior chair opera- 
tor is Thomas Sderioth, a wiry 54-year-old 
who has pushed chairs since 1984. “It’s a 
vagabond type of life, but I earn enough to 
live comfortably," Sderioth said as he 
hunted for customers one afternoon. “I 
have my own love affair with these chairs." 

During the summer, Belfer said, about 
30 percent of chair operators are foreign 
students who want to perfect their English. 
Only a few chair operators have been 
women, which Belfer attributes to the 
■ physical demands of the job. 

T The best chair operators, Belfer said, are 
free-spirited types with equal stores^ 
charm and endurance. 

“If you can’t handle rejection, it’s not 
the job for you," he said. “You have to get 
out there every morning and sell yourself" 


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COUNTRY 

ACCESS NUMBER 

COUNTRY ACCESS NUMBER 

COUNTRY 

ACCESS NUMBER 


ASIA 

Italy* 

172-1011 

Brazil 

000-8010 

Australia 

1-800-881-011 


15500-11 

Chile 

00*-0312 

China, PRC*«* 10811 

rifliTBHila* 

8*196 

Colombia 

980-11-0010 

Guam 

018-872 

Luxembourg 

0-S00-0111 

Cosu Rica's 

114 

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800-1111 

Macedonia, F.YJL of 99-800-4288 

Ecuador* 

129 

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000-117 

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0800-890-1 10 

El Salvador"* 

190 

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001-801-10 

Monaco* 

19*-0011 

Guatemala" 

190 

Japan- 

0039-111 

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06^)22-9111 

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l65 

Korea 

009-11 

Norway 

800-190-11 

Honduras'* 


Korea** 

11* 

Poland'*” 

0*010-480-01 11 

Mexico*** 

P5-800-M 

Malaysia* 

800-0011 

Portugal* 

05017-1-288 

Nicaragua fManamral 174 

New Zealand 

ooo-qn 

Romania, 

01-8004288 

Panama* 

109 

Philippines* 

105-11 

Russia “{Moscow) 

155-5042 

Pan* 

l91 

Saipan* 

235-2872 

Slovakia 

0042000101 

Suriname 

15* 

Singapore 

800-0111-111 

Spain* 

900-9900-11 

Uruguav 

00-0410 

Sri Lanka 

430-i50 

Sweden* 

020-795-611 

Venezuela"* 

80011-120 

Taiwan* 

0080-10288-0 

Switzerland" 

155-00-11 

CARIBBEAN 

Thailand* 

0019-991-1111 

Ui 

0500-890011 

Bahamas 

1-800-872-2881 


EUROPE 

Ukraine* 

8*100-11 

Bermuda* 

l-aowri-^w 1 

Armenia*- 

8*14111 

MIDDLE EAST 

British VI 

1-800^72-2881 

Austria**** 

022-903-011 

Bahrain 

800-001 

Cavman Wands 

l-800^T2-2SHI 

Belgium* 

0800-100-10 

Cyprus* 

080-90910 

Grenada* 

1-600-872- 1®! 

Bulgaria 

00-1800-0010 

Israel 

177-100-2727 

Haiti* 

OOI-SOO-9?2-»3 

Croatia-* 

99-38-0011 

Kuwjtr 

800-288 

Jamaica** 

(H300-872-28S1 

Czech Rep 

00-420-00101 

Lebanon (Beirut) 

426-801 

Netb-AntO 

001-800372-2881 

Denmark* 

8001-0010 

Qatar 

0800011-77 

Sl Kitts /Nevis 

1^00-872-2881 

Finland* 

9800-100-10 

Saudi Arabia 

1-800-10 

AFRICA 

France 

i9*-oon 

Turkey* 

00-800-12277 

Egypt* (Cairo) 

$10-0200 

Germany 

0130-0010 

UA£.* 

800-121 

Gabon" 

00*401 

Greece* 

00-800-1311 

AMERICAS 

Gambia* 

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00 *-800-01111 

Argentina* 

001400-200-1111 

Kttiva* 

0800-10 

Iceland** 

999-001 

Belize* 

555 

Liberia 

797-797 

Ireland 

1-800-550-000 

Bolivia* 

0000-1112 

Sonth Africa 

0-800-994123 


■ 'MW ijflinpCjnl™»,rt jvj/hHc-io 30 n vatlci JtDO~ World Comma- Vim.? 

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tr.wBUt-VwWh.iu.-k 111 • w ruvn 


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