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'JI+ 4 W INTERNATIONAL M 4 

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PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW' YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


** 


Paris, Tuesday, September 6, 1994 


No. 34.686 



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Hard Road 
Toward an Irish Truce 

A Man of Peace and a Man of War 
Built Trust for a ‘Real’ Cease-Fire 



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By John Daxnton 

New York Timex Service 

LONDON — On an April Saturday in 
1993, ajoomalist was hawking The So- 
cialist Worker along Shipquay Street in 
Londondeny when a neighbor sidled up 
and said, “Here, you’ll never guess who I 
just saw going into John Hume’s house.” 

The journalist pricked up his ears. 
John Home, a large bear of a man of 
uncertain health at 56, a former French 
teacher turned politician, was the most 
respected and influential Catholic leader 
in Northern Ireland. 

An&^hc other man? A slender, darkly 
bearded man who was seen by many as 
one of the most dangerous men in the 
North/— Gerry Adams, the political 
brad of the. outlawed Irish Republican 
Army. , 

And so through the subsequent news- 
paper scoop the world learned about the 
clandestine discussions. Both men were 
Catholics and both nationalists wh o be- 
lieved in a united Ireland. But one was a 
man of peace and the other a man of war. 

Some day historians may point to that 
curious dialogue as more than a footnote 
in the saga ending the 2S years of “trou- 
bles" that have blighted Northern Ire- 
land’s history. 

It ultimately led to “the complete ces- 
sation of military operations” an- 
nounced last week by the Irish Republi- 
can Army, a cease-fire that people 
familiar with the group say is genuine 
and likely to hold for some time . 

“It’s real,” said a person with contacts 
inside the IRA. “No question about it — 
this is a major turning paint.'’ 

How the turning point came about is a 
tale of politicians acting like statesmen. 
of IRA leaders broadening their world 
view, of bombs making people angry as 
well as scared, of unexpected world 
events, like peace in South Africa. And, 
because it involves Ireland, it is also a 
tale of lots of talking. 

The dialogue between Mr. Hume and 
Mr. Adams had begun not months earli- 
er, but as Mr. Hume disclosed in an 
inten&w at the weekend, years earlier.” 

There were other factors, too. 


There was a mysterious British inteili- 
lce agent code-named “Mountain 
iber” who reportedly told the IRA 
that Britain wanted to wash its hands of 
Northern Ireland. There was a secret 
back channel for the British government 
to send and receive messages. 

There was a promoter for peace in the 
form of a boundingiy enthusiastic Irish 
prime minister. And there was a new 
Democratic president in the United 
States, beholden to some extent to Irish- 
American politicians, who promised in 
his campaign to stir the Irish stew. 

Whatever the combination of ingredi- 
ents, people who have for years followed 
the IRA and its political offshoot, Sinn 
Fein, insist that the cease-fire means that 
the guerrilla organization has for now at 
least abandoned the campaign of blood- 
shed and terror for the path of negotia- 
tion and political participation. 

By the spring of 1993. the IRA had 
changed immeas urably from the days 
when it was pursuing its crude “sicken- 
ing” policy — blow up enough buildings, 
kill enough soldiers and eventually Brit- 
ain will throw up its hands in despair and 
leave Northern Ireland. 

Mr. Adams, steeped in Irish national- 
ism growing up in the Falls Road Catho- 
lic slum rtf' Belfast, was a quick thinker, a 
good orator and a remarkably powerful 
short story writer who was given to quot- 
ing Yeats, especially the line “peace 
comes dropping slow.” He was also a 
fighter In the early 1970s. many say. he 
was in charge of an IRA unit in Belfast. 

During the 1 970s be was interned with 
scores of others. Jail served as the IRA's 
think tank and war college. 

In time these younger men from the 
North replaced the old Southern-based 
leaders. By 1986, when Mr. Adams was 
elected head of Sinn Fein, he was pro- 
ducing books and articles arguing that 
political strategy should be given equal 
weight to the military struggle. 

But seven years later, realists recog- 
nized things were at a stalemate. 

Even more, Sinn Fein was not an over- 

Continued on Page 2 



Kevin Lamaiqcc.' Reuters 

British soldiers crouching behind an armored personnel carrier on Monday at a checkpoint in West Belfast 


it 




U.S. to Leave 
Rwanda With 
Several Jobs 
Still Undone 


By R. Jeffrey Smith 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — The emergency 
U.S. military action to stem famine and 
disease in' Rwanda is scheduled to end this 
fnontb after ful filling only some of the 
^asks outlined by President Bill Clinton 
and his top advisers at the height of the 
humanitarian crisis, according to U.S. and 
international relief officials. 

The officials emphasized that the U.S. 
military’s swift ana irreplaceable actions 
had alleviated unspeakable misery and 
saved thousands of fives. But in a senes of 
interviews, they also expressed disappoint- 
ment that the Pentagon, with its unsur- 
passed capability to relieve immens e hu- 
manitarian crises, had shied away from 
doing more in Rwanda or staying longer 
there. 

Last month, an internal administration 
assessment of the military’s response to 
Washington's pledge of assistance to the 
United Nations declared that there seemed 
to be a “big discrepancy” between what 
the government had committed itself to 
and what it had actually supplied. U.S. 
officials said last week, that the conclusion 
remained correct. 

The discrepancy between the White 
House’s promises and the Pentagon’s per- 
formance was due to a combination of the 
adminis tration's reluctance to insist that 
the military meet each UN task and the 
military's judgment that the tasks were 
either too costly, too risky or unnecessary. 
Senior administration officials who would 
ordinarily have closely monitored the mili- 
tary's performance were distracted by ca- 
ses in Cuba and Haiti. 

The Rwanda crisis also points up a con- 
flict in using the Pentagon during humani- 
tarian crises: Its resources^ are 


Kiosk 


Carlos Turns Aside 
Judge’s Questions 

PARIS (Reuters) — The accused 
terrorist Carlos refused to answer a 
magistrate’s barrage of questions 
about a 1982 Paris bombing on Mon- 
day, demanding instead to be freed on 
grounds that he had been kidnapped, 
his lawyers said. 

During a session lasting almost 
three hours, the investigating magis- 
trate, Jean-Louis Bruguiire, tried to 
break Carlos’s silence at the Palace of 
Justice in central Paris. 

The Venezuelan-born guerrilla, 
who shot and bombed his way to glob- 
al notoriety in the 1970s and 1980s, 
would only repeat: “I will not answer 
because I have been illegally kid- 
napped and I demand to be released.” 

Carlos. 44, whose real name is JDlich 
Ramirez Sanchez, bad arrived s milin g 
at Judge Bniguifcre’s offices under 
rig ht security. 



Trib Index 


Closed 

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Yen 


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FF 


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5.335 


Britain Rejects Plans for a Multitiered EU 


Compiled by Our Suit From Dispatches 

LONDON — Britain rejected on Mon- 
day the idea of a “two-speed" European 
Union, as Chancellor Helmut Kohl of 
Germany distanced himself from the idea. 

“We certainly don't think that a two- 
speed Europe is’lhe right way to look at the 
development of the EU,” said a spokes- 
man for Prime Minister John Major of 
Britain. 

France and Germany have proposed a 
“core” of countries that would set the pace 
for closer EU integration, with other na- 
tions lagging behind as politics and eco- 
nomics dictated. 

Mr. Major’s spokesman ruled out any 


suggestion of “first- and second-class citi- 
zens of the EU,” insisting that such an idea 
would be rejected by the majority of mem- 
ber states. 

The Italian and Spanish governments 
last week attacked the proposals, which 
emerged in an interview given by Prime 
Minister Edouard Ballad ur of France and 
in a document from Germany’s governing 
Christian Democratic Union. The propos- 
als detail an EU inner core of France, 
Germany. Belgium, the Netherlands and 
Luxembourg. 

The EU second rank, which would be 
made up of Britain, Italy and Spain, would 
not have to meet all the criteria for Europe- 


an monetary union. Other member slates 
with even weaker economies would belong 
to a third tier. 

Mr. Kohl's spokesman. Dieter Vogel, 
said the chancellor had told Prime Minis- 
ter Silvio Berlusconi of Italy by telephone 
that he had not endorsed the paper. 

“It is not a paper that has been agreed 
with the government.” he said at a press 
conference. “The chancellor told Berlus- 
coni. as he has told others, that this paper 
is a contribution by the CDU parliamenta- 
ry group to the discussion ahead of the 
review conference in 1996.” 

A conference of EU heads of govern- 

See EUROPE, Page 6 


At Summer’s End, Bad News for Europe 


By Brandon Mitchener 

International Herald Tribune 

FRANKFURT — For a politician, 
there is no better way to alienate the elec- 
torate than to welcome it back from vaca- 
tion with talk of raising taxes and cutting 
social benefits. 

That, however, is the unpleasant reality 
that confronts policymakers across Europe 
as they begin the legislative season with an 
agenda dominated bv a search for ways to 
ran in runaway deficits and slash debt 
without jeopardizing their chances for re- 
election. 

At stake are the political, economic and 
financial credibility of governments from 
Rome to Stockholm that face a choice of 


alienating voters with higher taxes and 
spending cuts or risking the wrath of finan- 
cial markets wise to their increasingly du- 
bious lOUs. 

• Italy, which already expected a reve- 
nue shortfall of 45 trillion lire (S28 billion) 
next year, now must come up with 3 tril- 
lion tire more to pay interest on govern- 
ment debt as a result’of the Bank of Italy's 
decision in August to raise the country's 
discount rate half a point, to 7.5 percent. 

• Belgian bond prices are recovering 
from the two-year lows to which they fell 
after a prominent economic research orga- 
nization cast doubt on the government's 
ability to reduce the budget deficit. Bel- 
gium is a debt leader within the 12-nation 
European Union, as its debt last year 


equaled 129 percent of its gross domestic 
product 

• Sweden’s largest insurance company, 
Skandia AB, sent the kronor into a tailspin 
in July by announcing it would boycott 
government bonds until Sweden cut its 
budget deficit. It reaffirmed that ban Fri- 
day, saying the government’s latest pro- 
posals fall short of what is Deeded. 

• Even Germany, which for years had 
one of the lowest levels of public debt as a 
percentage of economic activity, is expect- 
ed to see its debt rise above 60 percent of 
gross domestic product next year, after the 
government assumes responsibility for the 
tiabilities of the German railroads and for 

See DEFICITS, Page 6 


and coveted by relief officials, bul Penta- 
gon officials 


_j*fear that humanitarian mis- 
sons could escalate into fighti ng, a s m 


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Somalia, and that 

ian involvement could aetract from the 
See RELIEF, Page 6 


Newsstand Prices 

Andorra 9.00 FF Luxembourg 60L.Fr 

Antmes 11.20 FF Morocco . ... ■ ■■ *1 2 Dh 

Smew m-.i-aoCFA Qatar S.Mftials 

EavP t E.P. 5000 Reunion ....11 JDFF 

ffSnee 9.00 FF Saudi Arabia ..9,00 R. 

S^::::::«ocfa senwai-^cFA 

?HSrf5£» 

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SSA""u»V^ U.S. MKEurJil.lO 


Belgrade Patriarch Blocks Pope’s Visit 


By Roger Cohen 

New York Tunes Service 

BELGRADE — The Serbian Ortho- 
dox Church, unforgiving of what it sees 
as the Roman Catholic Church’s com- 
plicity in the slaughter of Serbs during 
world War U, quietly blocked plans to 
bring Pope John Paul U here at the same 
time as his planned visits this week to 
Sarajevo and Zagreb. 

Poli ticians and church officials in- 
volved in the negotiations said that Ser- 
bian President Slobodan Milosevic and 
the Vatican both favored the Belgrade 
visit. But Patriarch Pavie, head of the 
Serbian Orthodox Church, rejected the 
plan because it would revive bitter mem- 
ories of the Roman Catholic’s Church’s 
support for Croatia’s puppet Ustase re- 
gime under the Nazis, which embarked 
in 1 941 on a policy of genocide or forced 
religious conversion of Orthodox Serbs 
in Croatia and Bosnia. 

The stance of the Serbian Orthodox 
Church underscores the fact that the 
Pope will be stepping on treacherous 
ground in Sarajevo, not only because of 
the posable danger to his life, but be- 


cause Bosnia's war is also a religious one 
being fought across the lines of the Great 
Schism that divided the Eastern and Ro- 
man churches in 1054 and on territory 
where religious hatreds flared with ex- 
traordinary viciousness during World 
War II. 

Milan Bozic. a Serbian member of 
Parliament, said: “Several of us went to 
see the Patriarch recently to ask him to 
reconsider his stance and accept the idea 
of an ecumenical Mass in Belgrade sym- 
bolizing the reconciliation of the 
churches, but he insisted that in the 
name of all the Serbs killed during World 
War II he would not see ibe Pope.” 

Mario Man-azziti of the Sant'Egidio 
community in Rome, a charitable orga- 
nization close to the Vatican that has 
been involved in planning the Pope's 
visit, confirmed that negotiations for a 
papal visit to Belgrade symbolizing rec- 
onciliation had reached an advanced 
stage. 

He said the Serbian church remained 
unyielding in its anger over the perceived 
role of the Vatican in the breakup of 
Yugoslavia, over statements by Pope 


John Paul II that appeared to call for 
punishment of the Serbs for their acts in 
the Bosnian war and over the Roman 
Catholic Church’s involvement with the 
Ustase. 

The Patriarchate in Belgrade declined 
formal comment. But Bishop Vasilje. 
from the Serbian-held, northeastern Bos- 
nian town of Bjjeljina, said: “I am not 
interested in the Pope. To me, he is not a 
man of God on tnis earth, urging the 
Americans to bombard us." 

The Serbs were angered by a call from 
Pope John Paul II “to disarm the aggres- 
sor” in Bosnia, an appeal many inter- 
preted as Vatican endorsement of mili- 
tary action against them. 

They were also incensed when the Vat- 
ican — which was the last state to estab- 
lish diplomatic relations with the former 
Yugoslavia when it finally did so in 1 966 
— moved quickly to recognize Roman 
Catholic Croatia on Jan. 15, 1992, two 
days before the European Union acted. 

United Nations peacekeepers in Sara- 

See BOSNIA, Page 6 


Conservatives 
At Population 
Meeting Come 
Under Attack 

Strong Applause Greets 
Norway Leader’s Call 
For Legal Abortions 

By Barbara Crossette 

New York Tunes Service 

CAIRO — World leaders opened the 
United Nations Conference on Population 
and Development wiLh unexpectedly sharp 
attacks Monday on religious conservatives 
who have tried to block an international 
agreement because it contains references 
to abortion and the rights of women and 
adolescents to wider choices in reproduc- 
tive health care. 

The response of many of the delegations 
was surprisingly positive, dealing at least a 
temporary psychological setback to the 
Vatican and Islamic religious scholars. 

At the end of the day. Vatican officials 
said that they were still far from agreement 
on several outstanding issues, despite a 
European effort to revise some of the lan- 
guage of an accord intended to establish 
guidelines for population stabilization 
over the next two decades. 

“The game is still wide open," a senior 
Vatican official said Monday nighL add- 
ing that sections on adolescent sexuality 
and the need for sex education had pro- 
gressed but needed “some fine tuning.” 

Vice President A1 Gore, who hobbled to 
the podium on crutches after an operation 
for a tom Achilles tendon, delivered one of 
the more conciliatory speeches. After the 
opening session he told a group of Ameri- 
can reporters that he was confident that 
most disputes with the Vatican would be 
settled. But be also said he was resigned to 
the likelihood that the Vatican would not 
accept the accord. 

“They’re not going to agree to the final 
document in any event,” he said. “No one 
should be surprised about that. They have 
that right. They exercised it in Bucharest 
20 years ago; they exercised it in Mexico 
City 10 years ago. They' have other dis- 
agreements beyond abortion, including on 
issues related to contraception.” 

The toughest language of the day came 
from Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundt- 
land of Norway, who accused opponents 
of the United Nations draft plan of hypoc- 
risy. Stunning the conference, which ex- 
pected a day of conciliatory messages, she 
also called for a general legalization of 
abortion to save women from back-alley 
operations. 

“Morality becomes hypocrisy if it means 
accepting mothers’ suffering or dying in 
connection with unwanted pregnancies 
and illegal abortions and unwanted chil- 
dren." she said. 

Many delegates and members of non- 
governmental organizations, apparently 
ready for bolder action than in the past on 
women’s rights the population problem, 
responded with sustained applause. Later, 
the audience cheered loudly when the 
prime minister said: 

“I have tried in vain to understand how 
the term “reproductive health care’ can be 
read as promoting abortion as a means of 
family planning.” she said. "Rarely if ever 
have so many misrepresentations been 
used to imply a meaning that was never 
there in the lust place." 

Secretary-General Butros Butros Ghali 
opened the session by saying that "the 
future of human society” depended on this 
conference and on its ability to confront 
effectively a population explosion in the 
poorest nations. Mr. Butros Ghali warned 
that “indifference and inaction are the real 
crimes against conscience.’’ 

Before the conference began, it was ap- 
parent that the issue of population control 
will no longer be addressed publicly at (he 
United Nations without acknowledging 
the importance of women and women’s 
rights in malting any family pl anning pro- 
gram work. 

President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, the 
host and conference president, said that 
the battle for development could not be 
waged efficiently without improving the 
living conditions of women. Although un- 
der pressure from Islamic militants here. 

See CAIRO, Page 6 


Miles Apart on Birth Control: 
Two Asian Neighbors’ Policies 


By William Branigin 

Washington Past Service 

MANILA — In the Philippines. Asia’s 
only Roman Catholic country, the UN 
population conference in Cairo has in- 
flamed a caustic feud between church and 
state over birth control 

But in Indonesia, the world’s largest 
Muslim country and a strong backer of the 
conference, the government is holding up 
its family planning program as a model for 
the developing world. 

The contrasting experiences of the two 
countries in trying to limit birthrates illus- 
trate some of the dynamics of population 
growth in Southeast Asia, a vibrant part of 
an Asian region that already accounts for 
60 percent of the world’s population. 

In both countries, government plans to 
attend the Cairo conference have run into 
opposition from some religious leaders. 
But Indonesia’s authoritarian government 
has been able to subdue Muslim foes and 
pursue its widely praised family p lanning 
program. 


The more democratic Philippines has 
had to accommodate strong reservations 
about the conference from the powerful 
Roman Catholic Church and its political 
proteg&s. 

With 189 million people, Indonesia is 
the fourth-most populous nation. Its 24- 
year-old family planning program, consid- 
ered the most successful in the Muslim 
world, has brought annual population 
growth down from 2.5 percent in the 1970s 
to 1.6 percent today. 

In the Philippines, the population of 66 
minion is still growing at 2.5 percent a 
year, one of the highest rates in the region. 
Due largely to the influence of the Catholic 
Church, which counts 85 percent of Filipi- 
nos as adherents, the use of artificial con- 
traception is the lowest in the region. 

In the battle over birth control between 
church and state, the Philippine church 
seems to be ga inin g ground. Fierce attacks 
have forced the government to defend it- 
self against charges that it favors abortion. 

See EXAMPLES, Page 6 




Page 2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1994 



f / 

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Segregating Religions at Hebron Shrine Makes No One Happy 


WORLD BRIEFS 




By Gyde Haberman 

<Vw York Tima Sent cc 


HEBRON, Occupied West Bank — 
More than half a year after the Hebron 
massacre, religious mistrust and na- 
tionalist tension still shroud the site of 
the killings, the shuttered shrine com- 
monly known as the Cave of the Patri- 
archs. 


the army saying that it does not plan to 
reopen the cave until October, and 
then on an experimental basis to test 
new security measures. For now, wor- 
shipers, whether Jewish or Muslim, 
must settle for praying outside the 


to the Jewish people. It has no Jewish 


soul. To have no prayers there on Rosh 
Hashanah is a disgrace for the entire 


walls of a compound that Jews also call 
the Cave of Machpela and that Mus- 


If anything, suspicions ran deeper 
ian usual, on all sides, as Israelis 


than usual, on all sides, as Israelis 
began to celebrate Rosh Hashanah, 
the two-day Jewish New Year holiday, 
which began Monday evening. 

Jewish settlers in Hebron, tired of 
being kept away by soldiers from a 
shrine that is holy to both Jews and 
Muslims, petitioned the courts to let 
them back in for Rosh Hashanah on 
the ground that they were being denied 
religious freedom. The judges, focused 
more on security concerns than civil- 
rights claims, said no. 

Other religious Jews have asked that 
the authorities at least allow a small 
group to enter during the holiday, a 
token gesture but an important nation- 
alist statement for them, to affirm Is- 
raeli control. 

They, too, have been rebuffed, with 


the Cave of Machpela and that Mus- 
lims know as the lbrahimi Mosque. It 
is venerated by both religions as the 
burial place of Abraham, or Ibrahim in 
Arabic. 


Hashanah is a disgrace for the entire 
Jewish people.” 

Palestinian religious and secular 
leaders have tbeir own grievances. 

To them, the shrine is a mosque, arid 
Jews have no right to pray there, let 
alone to install security barriers that a 
senior Palestinian official, Nabil 


Critics cm the Israeli right accuse the 
government of foot-dragging to pla- 
cate the Palestinians. But the army 
insists that it needs more time to com- 
plete security arrangements, including 
a partition of prayer halls, that it hopes 
will prevent another catastrophe like 
the killings last February, in which an 
Israeli settler fired on worshiping Pal- 
estinians, trilling 29 and wo unding 
about 123. 

“If they really wanted to open it, 
they could have done it in a week or 
two.” said Israel Zdra, general manag- 
er of the Shavei Hebron Yeshiva. a few 
dozen yards from the shrine. “But this 
government doesn't understand the 
importance of the Cave of Machpela 


Suspicions ran deeper 
than usual, on all sides, as 
Israelis began to 
celebrate Rosh Hashanah. 


Shaath, described on a visit to Hebron 
as “mutilating this place of God.” The 
new Gaza-based Palestinian Authority 
has lodged a complaint with the Unit- 
ed Nations Security Council, and some 


Islamic groups accuse Israel of trying 
to turn the shrine into a synagogue. 


to turn the shrine into a synagogue. 

“The lbrahimi Mosque has been a 
Muslim holy place for 14 centuries,” 
said Sheikh Abddazim Salhab, head of 
the Waqf, a council that oversees Is- 


lamic rites in the West Bank and East 
Jerusalem. 

“Jews never used it as a synagogue,” 
he said. “We are in charge of that 
place. If we want to make security 
arrangements, it is our right, not that 
of any other people. We consider what 
the Israelis are doing to be an aggres- 
sion.” 

But the Israeli authorities are not 
about to stop making changes in He- 
bron, an ever- turbulent city of roughly 
100,000 Muslims who surround half a 
dozen enclaves of 450 Jews. 

The government dismisses the idea 
that Jews may be barred from praying 
at a site where tradition holds that not 
only die patriarch Abraham and his 
wife, Sarah, are buried but also Isaac 
and his wife, Rebecca, and Jacob and 
his first wife, Leah. Their tombs are in 
three halls inside the shrine, each 
named after a patriarch. Muslims be- 
lieve Joseph, one of Jacob's sons, is 
also buried in the complex. 

But Israeli officials say that if Jews 
and Muslims are to worship in the 
same place, then more must be done to 
keep the groups apart 

No civilians, the army says, will be 


allowed to cany weapons into the 
shrine when it reopens under the su- 
pervision of a new, specially trained 
unit of the Border Police. 

The ban is aimed mainly at Jews 
living in Hebron and the nearby settle- 
ment of Kiryat Arba, home of Baruch 
Goldstein, who carried out the killings 
in February. Settlers routinely walk 
the streets carrying submachine guns, 
which they say they need for security 
but which Palestinians call a provoca- 
tion. 

Waqf officials who recently visited 
the mosque, report, and army officers 
confirm, that video cameras, metal de- 
tectors, and lights are in place, and 
that sliding doors are being put in to 
create separate praying areas for the 
two religions. 

On a few specified Jewish and Mus- 
lim holidays, no one from the other 


Killing 


JERUSALEM (Reuters) — The Islamic Jihad group claimed 
responsibility Monday for killing an Israeli soldier m the Gaza 
Strip. Palestinian officials said they have arrested a suspect 
Gunmen in a car killed the soldier and wounded two others < 
Sunday night near Jewish settlements where Israelis still patroL 
The Palestinian police said the suspect was a Palestinian man. 


Chechen’s Forces Seize Rebel Town 


MOSCOW (Reuters) — Forces loyal to General Dzhbkar 
Dudayev, president of Chechenia, seized the rebel stronghold of 
Argun on Monday after an overnight battle in the breakaway 
region in southern Russia. , „ _ , 

m Moscow, the defense minister. General Pavel S. Grachev, 
announced that Russian armed forces in districts ^neighboring 
Chechenia bad been put on alert to stop the conflict from spilling 
over its borders. Itar-Tass news agency quoted General Grachev 
as raying that tight controls would be imposed on travel in and out 
of the territory. 


will be allowed anywhere inside Chinese Dissident Gets 3-Year Term 


group will be allowed anywhere inside 
the complex. Otherwise, the Isaac 


Hall, where the killings took place, will 
be reserved for Muslims, officials say. 


The Abraham and Jacob halls are to be 
set aside for Jews, a decision that pro- 
duces char gffs from Muslims that they 
have been given less space. 


BEIJING (AP) — A prominent Chinese dissident has been 
given a three-year labor camp sentence. In response, he has gone 
on a hunger strike and says he wants to die rather than labor in a 
coal mining camp, his wife said Monday. 

The dissident, Zhang Lin, is the second political dissident in less 
than a month known to have been given a labor camp sentence. 
His wife. Ji Xiao, said the police informed Mr. Zhang's sister of 
the sentence on Sunday. 


Anti- Semitism Among Germans 
IsFoundataPostwarLowofl5% 




Reuters 

BONN — Anti-Semitism in 
Germany is at a postwar low, 
with about IS patent of the 
population clearly prejudiced 
against Jews, a leading public 
opinion researcher said Mon- 


Older Germans were more 
inclined to anti-Semitism than 
younger ones, and those who 
attacked Jews or Jewish proper- 
ty most probably act out of a 
desire to provoke society, Ren- 
ate KOcber of the ADensbach 
Institute polling group said. 

"It is much less widespread 
than it ever was,” she told Sdd- 
westfunk radio in a discussion 
on anti-Semitism. 


“We started analyzing it in 
1949,” she said. “Every third 
German was at that time really 
massively anti-Jewish. 

“Through the '50s, '60s and 
70s, we saw this get gradually 
weaker. Now we judge the 
range of really clear anti-Jewish 
resentment at about IS percent 
of the population. About 8 per- 
cent of the population is vehe- 
mently anti-Semitic." 

The latest wave of anti-Se- 
mitic acts appeared to be more 
an attempt by youths to break a 
deep-seated taboo than the re- 
sult of a surge in anti-Jewish 
thinking, she argued. 

“One of the few ways this 


society can still be provoked 
and prompted into a very 
strong reaction is to stand out 
with anti-Semitic statements 
and actions or racist acts,” she 
said. 

Germans, because of their 
past and the worldwide atten- 
tion that anti-Semitic acts re- 
ceive, have more inhibitions 
about anti-Semitism than oth- 
ers, the researcher said. Anoth- 
er AQensbach survey, she said, 
found that a large majority of 
Americans would stay Friends 
with someone who said all Jews 
should be deported from their 
country, while a large majority 
of Ge rmans ruled this out She 
gave no figures for this poll. 


Nigerian Oil Workers Back on the Job 


The Associated Press 

LAGOS — Thousands of oil 
workers returned to their jobs 
Monday, abandoning a two- 
month strike for democracy as 
union leaden met to discuss 
suspending the protest for lack 
of public support 

The collapse of the strike sig- 
naled a victory for Genoal Sani 
Abacha’s military regime and 
its hard-line tactics. 

“We are fully back at work 
today," said Dijl Egwaoje, 
spokesman for ShdI-Nigeria, 
which produces more than 30 
percent of Nigeria’s petroleum. 

Hundreds of frustrated oil 
workers returned to work last 
week and reports indicated that 
nearly all of the 100,000-strong 
petroleum work force were at 
their posts Monday morning. 

Mr. Egwaoje said he did not 
know when full production 
would resume. “The engineers 


are moving in to assess our They demanded that General 


equipment after a long state of Abacha surrender power to 


disuse,” he said. 


Moshood K.O. Abiola, the man 


“Wehave done our best,” Ar- widely believed to have won the 
thur Onoviran, spokesman for annulled 1993 presidential elec- 


one of the striking unions, said tion. 

Sunday. “We knew when it Mr. Abiola was arrested June 


started that it was up to all 23 after he declared himself 
Nigerians to save the country president. 

otiA fka nil viinrirapp hIama t * ~w—i m. » . « « j* t * 


and not the oil workers alone.” 

Workers in the oil industry, 
which drives Nigeria’s econo- 
my, went on strike July 4, crip- 
pling this nation of 103 million 
people with fuel shortages. 


The Nigerian Medical Asso- 
ciation said Mr. Abiola was 
critically ill in jail, suffering se- 
vere high-blood pressure and 
pain from neurological and 
muscular-skeletal ailments. 



Sihanouk Calls for Legalizing Rebels 


PHNOM PENH (AFP) — King Norodom Sihanouk called 
on day on the Cambodian government to consider making the : 


Monday on the Cambodian government to consider making the 
Khmer Rouge legal to help secure the release erf three 
foreign hostages. 

In a letter to his son. and co-prime minister Prince Norodom 
Ranari d dh, released by the royal palace Monday, the king sug- 
gested the government consider two conditions put forward by toe 
Khmer Rouge’s nominal leader, Khieu Samphan, for securing the 
hostages' release and earing security risks facin g foreigners in 
Cambodia. . . 

The first was “the repeal of the bill which declared the Khmer 
Rouge outlawed.” The second was the reopening of the Khmer 

n . rr- _ - TM r» .1. T_ Cn<A«nnl. mill 


Rouge office in Phnom Penh. In return, Sihanouk said the 
problem of the three foreign hostages “could be solved in the 
interests of all the world.” Jean-Michel Braque! of France, Mark 
sinter of Britain and David Wilson of Australian were seized July 
26. 


0A illm ' 
i toiwiw lit 


Correction 




Because of an editing error, Nafis Sadik of the UN Population 
Fund was incorrectly identified in the Monday issue as a man. 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


•Zu. ■ 

WO 




Mcnahon Katana/ Agencc Ffancs-PreuC 

NEW YEAR’S BEST — A hoy wearing curlers at Jerusalem's Western Wall so that 
his sidelocks will flow for the Jewish New Year, winch began at sundown Monday. 


Greece Faces Cutbacks in Landings 

ATHENS (AP) — The International Air Transport Association 
has warned Athens that companies may curtail their flights to 
Greece if there is no quick end to the long delays caused by air 
traffic controllers, a newspaper has reported. 

The association also warned that airlines may cut back on !* 
fligh ts through Greek airspace for the same reason, as they wagj. 
losing large amounts of money because of the work-to-rule protest ! 
by Greek air traffic controllers, the newspaper Ta Nea said. 

Swissair, encouraged by impoved security, has become the 2 1st " 
airline to resume flights to Beirut International Airport. Swissair 
halted service II years ago- (AP) 7 

Suburban and regional train services in Portugal were partly . . 
disrupted Monday when engineers started an indefinite overtime " 
ban to support pay demands, a rail spokesman said. (Reuters) '•/ 
Afl Nippon Airways plans to expand its frequent- flier program 
with five airlines, including British Airways. (AFX) 


How Dialogue Between Man of Peace and Man of War Led to a Cease-Fire in Ireland 


Continued from Page 1 

whelming success at the ballot 
box. In fact, in 1992. Mr. Ad- 
ams lost his own seat in Parlia- 


two bombs, including one in Orangeman from outside Bel- been dismissed as “pseudo- 
April 1993 that caused some fast, a 23-year veteran of P&riia- Brits." Were they not Irish loo? 


Irish governments. To some ex- 
tent it served as an impetus to a 


50 million in damages. 


oox. in tact, in lyyz, MX. Ad- And then there was a kind of Molyneaux’s nightmare was have? 

ams lost his own seat in Parha- exhaustion. It was im- that some day a British govern- Perhaps no voice was as insis- 

ment winch he had never possible to live in London with- ment would strike a deal with tent as Mr. Hume's. His secret 
occumed — to the more main- . . ~r . . . . ... , u. a a*™* a:a 


ment Like aD Unionists. Mr. What kinds of rights did they joint peace initiative that they 
Molyneaux’s nightmare was have? would launch in December, 

that some day a British govern- Perhaps no voice was as insis- But before then, in October, 


ing in Londonderry with an sponse to the declaration. It was 
agent of MI6, the British secret widely seen as negative and 


Collection 

In the sponsored Sup;* 
piemen! about Kansai 
that appeared in Sept. 2 
editions, an article on the 
Rokko Island City project 
failed to mention that the 
development oi Rokko Is- 
land has been undertak- 
en jointly by Kobe City 
and the private sector 
and that Sekisui House 
Ltd. is the main developer 
of Rokko Island. 


man wmen ne naa never possj^le to live in London with- ment would strike a deal with tent as Mr. Hume's. His secret something so shocking bap- 
occupiea ^ the more mam- t amerienring the draining the IRA behind the backs of the talks with Mr. Adams did not pened that everything went on 
stream Catholic party, Mr. of the bomb searches at Protestants. start in February 1993, as has hold A 23-year-old North Bd- 

r democratic and department stories and the- Because of him, and because been widely reported, he said m fast man, posing as a delivery 

i-auor ran J r - _ aters, the false alarms that shut of an innate sense of caution, an interview. They actually be- Bum, carried a package into a 

And terrorism itself back- down the Underground at rush Mr. Major had to move slowly, gan earlier in the 1990s, a re- butcher shop on Shankfll Road 

fired from tune to time. In hour, the television images of The end of 1993 and the be- sumption of contacts that start- Some time before, a meeting 

M ‘" ,K ° - ,j - — -- — * •- f iqrs of loyalists above the shop had 


intelligence service. 

Contact with the agent, 
“Mountain Climber,” was bro- 


many assumed the peace initia- 
tive was dead in the water. 

In fact, Sinn Fein has never 


ken off until the early 1990s, accepted the Downing Street 
when the agent told them he declaration — the assertion that 


March 1993 a bomb turned a fri gh te ned soldiers in Belfast, ginning of 1994 was a time of ed and broke off in 1988. 
metal wastebasket into deadly the human rights reports casti- soul-searching for the IRA. Gradually Mr. Hume, like 
shrapnel at a busy mall in War- gating British security forces for There are plenty of self- scholastic theologian debatii 
rington in England killing two their treatment of Irish prison- styled observers of the IRA. But the nature of good and evil wii 
young boys. It caused wide- crs. 


was retiring but introduced a any change in the status of -“OlltlCS 
successor. Northern Ireland could only 

This person, said Sinn Fein, come with the consent of most 
had been feeding them a wealth of its people stuck in the craw of ***?-*. s 
of information, including posi- the nmitant grass-roots fighters, c.; 


Gradually Mr. Hume, like a rti ^handgri. The package ex- 
holastic theologian debating ploded prematurely, killing the 


spread revulsion, especially in 
the Irish Republic. 

At the same time there was 
burgeoning terrorism from the 
other side, the diehard Protes- 
tants loyal to Britain. Setting up 
a mirror structure of small and 
separate cells, hit squads 
roamed the streeLs. killing 
Catholics at random moments. 

The "Provisional" IRA, 
which came into being in Janu- 
ary 1970 to protect Catholic 
neighborhoods, was powerless 
to stop it. 

In reality the British govern- 
ment had reasons for being 
weaiy of the conflict. For one 
thing, the Irish venture was ex- 
pensive: with all (rinds of finan- 
cial subsidies to the province. 
compensation payments and 
the upkeep of security troops 
and supplies, the draw on the 
Treasury amounted to between 
$4.5 billion and $6 billion a 
year. 

The intangible costs were im- 
possible to estimate. London’s 
financial district, known as the 
City, had been decimated by 



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The problem was that succes- 
si vc governments had made it . 
rock-bottom policy not to advo- It 1 
cate any change in Ulster's sta- 
tus that went against the wishes ■ 

of the majority there. And the 

majority among the 1.6 million 
— about 950,000 Protestants the 1R 
and 650,000 Catholics — want- observ 
ed to remain part of Britain. to the 
In the fall of 1993, spokes- bates c 
men for Prime Minister John rulin g 
Major of Britain began quietly “army 
telling journalists that he want- j 

ed to put Northern Ireland at meets, 
the top of his agenda. It was gut 
also true that he needed apotiti- per ed 


f It’& real No question about it — this is a 


major turning point. 


the IRA has never really been a doctrinaire potentate, was 

. i - j •_ - .. i i 


ploded prematurely, killing the 
IRA deliverer and 10 Protestant 
men, women and children. In 
retaliation, loyalist gunmen 
combed the streets for days, as- 
sassinating 13 Catholics. 

The next month, November, 
rumors about surreptitious con- 
tacts between the British gov- 
ernment and republicans were 
floating around; so much so 


tions taken by various British But it did accept the dcaL TaDcs 
Cabinet members. British offi- in exchange for no violence. 


observed No outrider is privy able to broaden Mr. Adams’s thal leaders took steps to 
to the details of its internal de- views and refine the militant squelch them. Mr. Major, for 


dais say that any meetings with 
an agent were unauthorized. 

The much-trumpeted 
“Downing Street declaration,” 
the joint initiative between the 
British and Irish governments 
made public Dec. 15, was not so 
much a peace plan as as enunci- 
ation of baric principles. 

Strip them away and its es- 
sence is a deal: If the IRA re- 


One key person in influenc- 5.- . . 
ing the acceptance was Prime . 
Minister Albert Reynolds of : . 

Ireland. ^ jT . k 

Along with Foreign Minister ;; 
Dick Spring of Ireland, he has J. ; 
held out for language more ac- - 
cep table to the republicans in 0 - 

the documents and statements . ' 
issued by the two governments. ; '• 
And through an adviser, a soft- j-” ' 


to the details of its internal de- views 
bates or the deliberations of its edges, 
rating seven- or eight-member “Ce 


sws and refine the militan t squelch them. Mr. Major, for 
gcs. example, said the very idea of 

“Central to the discussions ta lkin g to Mr. Adams “turns 


nounces violence, then Sinn spoken civil servant named 
Fein can be admitted into nego~ Martin Mansergh, he has 


army council." No outsider from my point of view was vio- my stomach.’ 
ven knows for sure where it lence,” recalled Mr. Hume. “I So it was 


more than a little 


kept asking the reason for it. I embarrassing whe n T he O ti- 


the top of his agenda. It was But by all indications, the up- ha‘d said publicly that the IRA server printed an irrefutable re- 
also true that he needed apoliti- pgj- echelon was plunged into a hpH been dismissed as criminals P°rt tiiat a secret back channel 
cal lift. His popularity had sunk debate for months. On one ride and gangsters. I said I wish they had carried messages between 
to the lowest of any prime min- were Gerry Adams and the No. were. If they were, we could the government to Sinn Fein, 
ister since polling began 2 man in Sinn Fein, Martin have gotten rid of them in a I* aB b^an, the government 

And Mr. Major had another McGuinness, who had influ- fortnight. The problem was said, when Mr. McGumness ap- 
practical consideration. His eoce because of his reputation they believed in what they were proached the authondes with 

n..i A- *l a _• » fronratiw iTfit in Tisitmi vrt cav 


nations about Northern Ire- 
land's future. Each side has to 
give up something. Britain 
abandons its policy of not deal- 
ing with an organization it pub- 
licly denounces as “terrorist" 


played a role in passing along ^ 
information from the Northern ‘ c 
republicans to the British and •*. 
allaying the fears of both rides. >>' * 
i A peace settlement is still a ; 
Jlong way off. If and when the - . 


and the IRA relinquishes the parties actually sit around a ne- 
bomb and the bullet 1 — — ’ * 


margin in Parliament was down 
to 18. For controversial legisla- 


as a military man. On the other sa' 
were “the hard men,” unrecon- 


By^Sep 


tember last .year, the 


tion, like bills to insert Britain s true ted terrorists who felt that views of Mr. Hume and Mr. 


figurative hai in hand to say the 
fighting was all but over and 
Sinn rein wanted advice on 


more deeply into the European to end the aimed struggle be- Adams coincided enough for how to bring it to an end. 
Union, he would need the nine fore Britain withdrew was sui- them to draw up a plan on how Mr. McGuinness stoutly de- 


votes of the Ulster Unionist 
Party. 


peace might came about. The nied doing any such thing And 


Much of the debate centered document, which has never in return Sinn Fein trotted out a 


They were in the grasp of on what to do with the Protes- been published, was given se- tale of its own. Be ginning in 
James Molyneaux, a Protestant tents, who had for years simply cretly to both the British and 1981, it said, it had begun meet- 


bomb and the bullet. “gotiating table, an arrangement ^ 

For right months the IRA that could satisfy both the j:^ 
demanded “clarification.” It in- Catholic republicans and tbeh-J 
sisted on meetings, it wrote let- Protestant Unionists is difficult v 
ters to President Bill Clin ton to envision, 
and Mr. Major. It engaged in And there is always the dan- * 
some spectacular attacks to ger that loyalist gwwmm will uy f - > . 
prove its muscle — such as fir- to provoke retaliation, (hie as- 
mg three dud mortars into Lon- sassinatkm of a Catholic oc- . 
don’s Heathrow Airport — and burred the night after the cease- c . 
it called a three-day cease-fire fire went into effect, and-;:? 
in ApriL Sunday night a bomb went off "■ • 



After a conference in July, outside S inn Fein headquarters ■ 
Sinn Fein finally gave its re- in West Belfast. 



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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1994 


THE AMERICAS/ E SS ITORICAi 


R, w?/ E5® 3F 

& Li; Li J&SZT S£ 


Page3 


Increasingly, Ivory Tower Looks Down on White House Maine Democrats’ 


Bv David S Broder liberal, activist presidents like Mr. moil in the four great departments of trying to teach the country that free- “The presidency has lost its great 

. - P «I ‘ - J . -r nrm rtf nnnn anlu #lu» PaM Wj»r 


NEW YORK — When Charles O. 
Jones saw the TV clip of Bffl Clinton 
pounding the lectern so hard at a 


Mr. Clinton, in the view of virtually 
all the academics, is using the “outsid- 


er. Clinton’s ’almost 


pounding the lectern so hard at a nan and onetime aide to President “the president made those appoint- change jobs without losii 
health-care rally that the seal of the John F. Kennedy, described Mr. Clin- mcnts simply on the basis of what he surance or you can’t go to 
president clattered to the ground, he ton’s free-form White House as “gov- thought were the proper political crite- without bong mugged.” 
took it as a sign that Mr. Clinton is still eminent by bull session." ria and did not ask if they could do the Mr. Clinton, in the viev 

campaig nin g so much he has yet to He the president, “suffering job." all the academics, is using 

move into the constitutional office to from the delusion that he can cany Mr. Clinton got higher marks from approach to the presu 
which he was elected. Florida in 1996,” has given Cuban- two female professors who complained Mr. Reagan and President 

After recounting the anecdote. Mr. Americans more control over foreign ter. “His answer to gov< 

Jones, a University of Wisconsin pro- policy than any domestic interest “ George C. Edwards 3d of 

fessor and president of the American group has exerds^ “since the China din ton’s ’almost **‘ s the perpetual campaig 

Political Science Association, told an lobby m the 1950s. The role of the . , The tactic is natural foi 

association panel in New York that in Congressional Blade Caucus m shap- unnatural energy, started in Arkansas polit 

a real sense, Mr. CUnton “has yet to ing Haiti poKy ia an totally ■ominous np timiem aTI( ) tomey general and gown 

form his presidency .” development, he said. , a two-year term, Mr. Ed* 

“Same verdict as last year," said M r ' 5-l> n ^ on s own work ebullience are Combined was reinforced by const 

Princeton’s Fred Greenstein. “The against his success,some of the profes- ..ip expand the popular base o 

jury is still out." sots suggested. Mr. Greenstein said With an extraordinary his ambitious legislative p 

But the jury of academic experts on lack of self-discipline. ’ “What is ironic,” he sa 

the president is increasinglyCTitical ^umracearecom- V president who seems so sk 

of Mk. Clinton, complaining of a lack Greenstein great difficulty getting 

Of focus in his agenSa and a lack of X, “ port.” 

seriousness in his stewardship of gov- jH<m»oi2S2So^SSi^t^ . , t> , , . . With the notable exce 

emmenL W^House organization is almost an thaa the pandson his pres«dency were Nor th American Free T 

Some are drawing larger lessons, ar- ° TUJring a more upbeat view, Nelson 
gmng that Mr. CUnton s problems sug- p 0 isby of the University of California Beverly Kahn of Fairfield Umverst- m public persuasion have 


Sure Thing Fades 

Mitchell ‘Successor’ Struggles 


“the president made those appoint- change jobs without losing health in- a president takes on is likely to erode 

mcnts simply on the basis of what he surance oryou can’t go to the 7-Eleven his public support by alienating some Qfrilfffl 

thought were the proper political crite- without bong mugged.” constituency group. iTIiluUCu ullClXSoUl OL1 lUIc, 

ria and did not ask if they could do the Mr. Clinton, in the view of virtually Mr. Clmton’s problem m pursuing 

job." all the academics, is using the “outsid- the lfceton^ presidency** is height- AnJ fJiTif-fktl IVfflV TVot TyPTH 

Mr. Clinton got higher marks from approach to the presidency, os did raed » several scholars said, by the huge AUU ULilUU lUUJ llUL UC1|I 

two female professors who complained Mr Reaaan and President Jimmy Car- budget deficits he inherited from the 

ter “Hkanswer to governing,” said Reagan-Bush era, which limit his abili- By R. W. Apple Jr. “In 20 years, I have 

George C Edwards 3d of Texas A&M, ty to pay for programs that measure up Nett York 7W Serrtcc seen a politician in thu 

Mr n in ton’s Almost “is the perpecual campaign.” to his own desenptions of the nation s PORTLAND, Maine — who could transfer pcf 


Of focus in his agenda and a lade of 
seriousness in his stewardship of gov- 
ernment. __ „ r _ — r ^ 

Some are drawing larger lessons, ar- OX Sdng a more upbeat view, Nelson v^Uy monopolized by men 
suing that Mr. Clmton’s problems sug- p 0 isby of the University of California Beveriy Kahn of Fairfield Umversi- 
Vfgest that the “rhetorical presidency,” at Berkeley argued thi Mr. Clinton ^ ***** insufficient attenuon 
oriented to mobilizing public opinion has changed the agenda in Washington 10 *™ emphasis on community and 
to move the levers of power in Wash- ^ muc h as President Ronald Reagan citizenship and altruism m the Clinton 
mgton, may have ended with the Cold did in his first two yeare and has en- agenda,” an approach she said ap- 
War and the disappearance of the per- j oye d greater success with fVingrp-re pealed to women s values but was re- 
petual crisis mentality it engendered, than the press and public acknowl- sis ted ty ±e lar 8 el y nale Washington 
The association was founded by edge. power structure. 

Woodrow Wilson, and academics in But Mr. Polsby also blamed Mr. Barbara Sinclair of the University of 
this field retain a tradition of favoring Clinton for “the unprecedented tur- Calif omia-Riverside said, “Clinton is 


Fred Greenstein 


“is the perpetual campaign.” to ms own nesenpuons 01 me nation 5 

tbe taclic is natiual for a nun who a Mcal 

started in Ar k a n sas politics as an at- nrnr j. “hurMnmw *» “my 
lomey general «nd go vtmor w ithonly 

to ativc overtones, said Michael Rogin of 
the University of California al Berke- 

his ambitious Illative program. iey ‘ _ . , . 

•■^ishonic.-heseM.Jfa Urete 

presdmt who seems so stalled has had of ^ professore said. His ^ 
gtat , difficulty getting public sup- ^ Edwards said, has come 

P° . „ . . from traditional Democrats — older 

With the notable exception of the New Dealers, minorities, labor union- 
North American Free Trade Agree- ^ and liberals — wbo hoped Mr. 
ment, none of Mr. Clinton’s exercises Clinton would fulfill the promise 10 
in public persuasion have had the ef- “reverse the economic policies of the 


feet be hoped for, and he has been 
forced to wheel- and-deal for squeaker 
victories on Capitol HilL 


’80s.” 

But he also campaigned as a “New 
Democrat," ready to produce leaner. 


did in his first two years and has en- agpuaa, an approacn sne said ap- Mr. Edwards and some others put smaller government and “end welfare 
joyed greater success with Congress ^ , ° jvtmre 11 s values but was ro- ^ blame on Mr. Clinton’s lack of “a as we know it.” The public remains 
. than the press and public acknowl- astet * hy the largely male Washington message." But the view that confused about his real goal, Mr. Ed- 

. . . r nnwpr «tnu4iine. > . ■ , i ■ j i_ iu_J. 


edge. 

But Mr. Polsby also blamed Mr. 


power structure. 

Barbara Sinclair of the University of 


Clinton for “the unprecedented tur- Califoroia-Riverside said, “Clinton is kind of “public presidency/ 


drew more attention here was the argu- wards said, so he gets tittle credit when 
ment that time has run out on that Congress acts on either of those agen- 


Brief U.S. - Cuba Talks 
Show Impasse Remains 

Serious Differences on Ending Exodus 


Compiled by Our Staff Fnm Dtyatchef 

NEW YORK — U.S. and 
Cuban officials adjourned their 
talks on stopping the flood of 
boat people to Florida after 50 
minutes Monday, an indication 
they remain deadlocked. 

David Johnson, spokesman 
for the U.S. delegation said he 
expected tfliVs to resume Tues- 
day but cautioned against “pre- 
mature speculation on the out- 
, come.” He said Sunday that the 
-^differences between the two 
Sides were significant 
la Havana, Foreign Minister 
Roberto Robaina said the talks 
were “stalled, with no positive 
signals to note.” 

A first group of Cuban refu- 
gees was expected on Monday 
to reach Panama, which agreed 
the previous day to accept up to 
10,000 Cubans to relieve over- 
crowding at the U.S. base at 
G uan ta n a m o Bay, Cuba. News 
of the agreement led to week- 
end rioting among Haitian ref- 
uges at Guantanamo. 

The United States has pro- 
posed expanding legal Cuban 


Away 

From Politics 


• About 400 defenders of 
the Confederate flag sang 
“Dude” and carried hun- 
dreds of the flags down the 
main street of Hilton Head 
Island, South Carolina, af- 
ter the National Associa- 
tion for the Advancement 
of Colored People brought 
nearly 1,000 people out tbe 
day before to protest the 
flag’s position of honor at 
the state capitoL South 
Carolina is the only state 10 
fly the Confederate flag 
above its statehouse. 

• Seventy percent of tbe 
50 largest school districts in 
the United States have in- 
stalled metal scanners to 
detect firearms, up from 25 
percent two years ago, ac- 
cording to the National 
School Safety Center. But 
preventive measures are be- 
coming the norm. “There is 
no school district now that 
is immune,” said a spokes- 
man for a school safety and 

law enforcement associa- 
tion. 

• In California, every one 
of the 384 men and four 
women awaiting execution 
as of July 1 was too poor to 
hire his own attorney and 
settled for a state-appoint- 
ed lawyer, said a spokes- 
man for the state Judicial 
Council. Nationwide, there 
is no systematic study of 
the 2,700 condemned pris- 
oners' finances, but a resi- 
dent scholar at the Ameri- 
can Enterprise Institute in 
Washington said:“J don’t 
know of any affluent peo- 
ple who have been sen- 
tenced to death.” 

• The space shuttle Dis- 
covery is slated to blast off 
Friday on a nine-day mis- 
sion, during which astro- 
nauts will fly free in space 
with no lifeline to the Shut- 
tle. for the first time in a 
decade. 

• An early-morning 
shooting at an after-hours 
club in Detroit left four 
mcn dead and two injured, 
police said. 


immigration, perhaps to about 

20.000 people a year. 

But Cuba’s chief delegate, 
Ricardo Alaic6n, told the New 
York Times that die U.S. pro- 
posal was inadequate. 

Only about 2,700 Cubans are 
expected to get U.S. immigra- 
tion visas this year. More than 

30.000 have left Cuba aboard 
rafts and boats this year, most 
of than in the past month. 

In recent days, the Coast 
Guard has picked up an average 
of 1.000 Cubans each day. 

The United States reportedly 
rejected a Cuban proposal to 
grant entry to at least 100,000 
Cubans in exchange for Ha- 
vana’s clamping down on the 
Illegal exodus. 

In Panama, work was expect- 
ed to end Monday on the first 
2^00-bed tent block for Cu- 
bans from Guantanamo Bay. It 
will be the United States’ first 
third-country detention center 
to ease crowding among the 
more than 20,000 Cubans de- 
tained at GuantAnamo. 

News of the Panama decision 
to take the Cubans led to Sun- 
day’s rock-throwing demon- 
stration by about 50 Haitians 
refugees at GuantAnamo. 

Refugees broke through the 
perimeter of the camp where 
they are bang detained. Six sol- 
diers were injured, and one Hai- 
tian teenager was flown to Mi- 
ami for treatment of a skull 
fracture, said Major Rick 
Thomas, director of the joint 



•'ll.- - . <I{-* 


mm® 


Marines finishing up a tent city, destined to be home to 10,000 Cuban refugees, at a U.S. base near the Panama CanaL 


By R. W. Apple Jr. 

Ne* York Timer Stnkt 

PORTLAND, Maine 
Maine was supposed to be a 
pushover for the Democrats 
In a year full of electoral 
travail 

Although several of his 
colleagues around the coun- 
try were clearly vulnerable, 
Senator George J- Mitchell, 
the majority leader, looked 
like a sure thing for re-elec- 
tion, having won with 81 
percent of the vote in 1988. 

Then he decided to retire, 
and everything fell apart. He 
endorsol Representative 
Thomas H. Andrews as his 
successor, only to see Mr. 
Andrews fall well behind 
Representative Olympia J. 
Snowe, tbe Republican 
nominee, in the opinion 
polls and the money-raising 
derby. 

Mr. Mitchell turned down 
a Supreme Court nomina- 
tion so he could concentrate 
on shepherding health care 
legislation through Con- 
gress, but that effort stalled, 
further weakening his par- 
ty’s position. 

Now, Mr. Mitchell, who 
assured the White House 
weeks ago that Mr. Andrews 
could hold the seat, is des- 
perately scurrying about, 
seeking cash to help get Mr. 
Andrews’s commercials on 
television. 

Monday. President Bill 
Clinton briefly interrupted 
his vacation to fly to Maine 
for a Labor Day speech at 
the Bath Iron Works, which 
makes Aegis destroyers for 
the navy. In Washington, 
the speech was described as 
a bid, in part, to help Mr. 
Andrews. 

But that is Washington, 
and this is Maine. 

In Maine, people seemed 
surprised, if not miffed, that 
the president was coming. 
Craig Brown, the Andrews 
campaign manager, said Fri- 
day: “We weren’t consulted 
on this. The While House 
didn’t call at all until 20 
minutes ago. They cooked it 
up on their own." 

Christian Potholm, a poll- 
ster at Bowdoin College in 
Brunswick, said that his 
polls showed Ms. Snowe 
about 15 percentage points 
ahead. He, too, expressed 
mystification at the Clinton 
visit. 


“In 20 years, I have never 
seen a politician in this state 

who could transfer populari- 
ty," Mr. Potholm said. "No 
president, no governor, no 
senator. Our tradition is just 
the opposite; stubborn inde- 
pendence.” 

But at least Mr. Andrews 
is riot running away from 
Mr. Clinton, as some candi- 
dates are. In one widely 
quoted comment, Kathy 
Karp an, the Democratic 
candidate for governor in 
Wyoming, told the Casper 
Star-Tribune: “Why be cute 
about it? Of course he's a 
liability.” 

As the fall campaign be- 
gins, with almost three doz- 
en Senate seats on the line, 
the Democrats face the pos- 
sibility of losing a net total 
of seven seats and thereby 
relinquishing their majority. 
And even if they do not do 
that badly on Nov. 8, they 
seem likely to suffer enough 
losses to complicate the 
president's job substantially. 

Mr. Andrews, a brilliant 
organizer who has often 
beaten the odds before, is 
under attack for two things 
he has done in Washington. 
In May, he voted for a ban 
on assault weapons, while 
Ms. Snowe voted against it, 
although she supported the 
crime bill that included the 
provision on a crucial vote 
two weeks ago. 

In 1989, Mr. Andrews 
concluded that it was futile 
to try to block the closing of 
Lormg Air Force Base, in 
depressed northern Maine, 
and said so, when others, in- 
cluding Ms. Snowe and Mr. 
Mitchell, fought on. 

In this year of disenchant- 
ment with politicians, Mr. 
Andrews has fought back 
via a nine-day swing through 
the state by describing those 
actions as signs of courage 
and willingness to defy the 
establishment. 

“Tom may be able to turn 
it around once his television 
gets going,' 1 said Harold C. 
Pachios. a Portland lawyer 
who is one of Mr. Mitchell's 
closest associates, “but right 
now you’d have to say 
Olympia is pretty domi- 
nant.” 

And in a stale where the 
National Rifle Association 
commands a huge following, 
the vote on assault weapons 
dearly hurt Mr. Andrews. 


U.S. Bishop Warns Clinton of Catholic Backlash on Abortion 


By John F. Harris 

Washington Fast Service 

WASHINGTON — The Roman 


ed Nations population conference in erous abortion-rights president, Mr. sponded by i 
Cairo. Gore said. “J respect his beliefs, but we representing 

“This administration has taken the differ on issues" such as contraception ro. 


Thomas, ’director of the joint 9 th0 ! 1 '? £ ierarchy escaJaled ils most forthright stand on behalf of and abortion rights. William Ryan, a spokesman with 

■ • ■ • ^ fhet with President Bill Clinton when a abortion on demand," Bishop Me- Bishop McHugh's sharp words and the U.S. Catholic Conference, said 

leading UJS. bishop warned that unless Hugh said. “I think that Catholics are Mr. Gore’s response echoed previous Bishop McHugh wasn’t offering an 

the administration abandoned its sup- tiring of it,” episodes in a dispute that nas been official position of the church in his 

port of abortion rights, there wifi be “a 0 . , _ brewing for weeks between the Clinton criticism of the Clinton administra- 

powerful incentive to American Cath- M Mc “ u §J s comments, on administration and Catholic leaders, tion. 

olics to walk away from the Democrat- Two weeks 3g° Mr. Gore, in an Even so, Mr. Ryan said, “tbe U.S. 

ic Party as well as the Clinton adminis- /J 0 "! 'effort to defuse tension, praised the bishops certainly think of him as their 

iraiioa" the senior a dim mslrauoD official in Popc wA dedare d emphatically, “The reprcSmativc" in population issues. 

The comment came from Bishop appem-mg 0 n the same pro- united States has not sought, does not While Mr. Gore shied from confron- 

James McHugh, who heads the Cam- seek, and will not seek an international tation Sunday with Catholic leaders, 


1 nomas, director 01 me joint 
information bureau on the base. 

“They were angry that Pana- 
ma was allowing Cuban mi- 
grants to get safe haven there," 
Major Thomas said. 

In Paramaribo, Surinamese 
and U.S. authorities said Mon- 
day that the first of a total 2,500 
Haitian refugees granted asy- 
lum would start arriving Fri- 
day. (Reuters, AP) 


irauon. 


The comment came from Bishop Cairo ' a PP carin S on the P r °- 
James McHugh, who heads the Cam- & ram - 


dea. New Jersey, diocese and is a Vati- “Idon't agree with his characleriza- right to abortion.” 


some other 


lay wnn 
Democrats 


can representative to this week’s Unit- tion" of Mr. Gin ion as the most vocif- The Vatican’s senior spokesman re- gressive in reply. 


Mr. Gore of mis- “These threats aren’t new,” said 
position In Cai- Tony Coehto, a senior adviser to the 
Democratic National Committee, add- 
spokesman with ing. "Most of the leaders of the church 
Conference, said opposed Clinton in the last election,” 

S 55 0x1 issucs ** contraception and 

women’s rights, Mr. Coehlo said, opin- 
iton a dmims tra- i on surveys show that the Catholic 
_ ne “hierarchy has a great deal of prob- 

kdfhimith* lems with its own parishioners.” 
■pulaiion issues. . . Rather than fighting with clerics, he 
ed from confron- said. Democrats will tzy to focus in- 
Zathoiic leaders, stead on areas of agreement with tbe 
ts were more ag- church, such as programs to help the 
poor and elderly. 


POLITICAL NOTES 


President Works Labor Day 

BATH. Maine — With wind and rain 
whipping down on !,000 flag-waving iron 
workers. President Bill Ginton demanded 
stronger alliances between employees, em- 
ployers and government in a Labor Day 
address opening a contentious political sea- 
son. 

’*We cannot afford in a global economy 10 
be divided again — government and business 
and workers fighting each other all the time." 
Mr. Clinton said at the Bath fron Works 
shipyard, a 110-year-old company adapting 
to post-Cold War military cutbacks with the 
help of its unions and the federal govern- 
ment. With a lowering new destroyer provid- 
ing the backdrop, Mr. Clinton declared. “We 
can rebuild this economy on the strength of 
your example." 

Interrupting his Martha’s Vineyard vaca- 
tion, he said Labor Day is a 100-year-old 
tradition designed “to celebrate the dignity of 
work, its importance in our lives, and to have 
that last, long weekend before school starts 
again — and wc ail go back to work full 
time/' 

,AP: 


Clinton ’ s Plaint: It’s the Press 

WASHINGTON — Labor Secretary Rob- 
ert B. Reich is frustrated, and does not mind 
letting off steam when asked why he thinks 
his boss is not getting credit for the nation's 
recovery. 

Mr. Reich cannot understand why Presi- 
dent Clinton's approval ratings are sinking 
even while he presides over a robust econom- 
ic turnaround that has generated 4.1 million 
nou jobs since January 1993. On his second 
Labor Day in office, the president is ahead of 
the pace needed to live up to his promise of 


generating S million jobs in his four-year 
term; that growth has come at a time when 
inflation remains under control and the fed- 
eral budget deficit is plunging. 

“Why isn't he getting credit? You tell me.” 
Mr. Reich demands, adding. "The negative 
press coverage of the president has been at 
the heart of it/' 

f L.4TI 

Federal Unions Hail the Chief 

WASHINGTON - Leaders of the three 
largest federal employee unions have praised 
the Ginton administration for selling a new 
tone in federal labor relations. 

At a briefing, the three union presidents — 
John N. Sturdivant of Ihe American Federa- 
tion of Government Employees. Robert M. 
Tobias of the National T rcusury Employees 
Union and Sheila K. Vclazeo of the National 
Federation of Federal Employees — also 
called for new laws to create a more flexible 
hiring system, to revamp job classifications 
and pay structures and 10 improve c (Torts to 
evaluate employee performance. 

The administration hopes lo have a civil 
service package ready for Congress this year. 
The union leaders said congressional support 
for overhauling civil service laws would be 
necessary to sustain the progress made in the 
first year of Vice President A1 Gore's "rein- 
venting government” initiative. t HP I 

Qu ote/ Unquote 

Mr. Reich, the labor secretary, in an inter- 
view: “The notion that we're creating a boun- 
ty of bad jobs is a myth. Most new jobs are 
good jobs. The problem is that The jobs that 
remain for workers wnboui skills or with the 
wrong skills are becoming grimmer and grim- 
mer/' " " tLATi 


Brazil Swiftly Replaces Finance Minister 


Los Angela Tuna Service 

RIO DE JANEIRO — Hop- 
ing to avoid a major interrup- 
tion in Brazil’s effort to get its 
economy on track, President 
Itamar Franco has named a 
new finance minister a day after 
the former minister resigned af- 
ter statements that he used his 
office to aid a government- 
backed presidential candidate. 

Ciro Gomes, governor of the 
northeastern slate of Ceara and 
the sixth finance minister since 
Mr. Franco took office in 1992, 
said the programs and staff of 
his predecessor. Rubens Ricu- 
pero, would continue un- 
changed. 

M I arrive as an admirer of Mr. 
Ricupero," Mr. Gomes said 
from Fortaleza, the slate capi- 
tal. “Ricupero is a profound ex- 
ample of dignity and how to be 
a Brazilian of great moral stat- 


ure, a man who is devoted to the 
cause of his nation.” 

Mr. Ricupero resigned Satur- 
day after being heard by televi- 
sion viewers, in what be thought 
was an off-microphone com- 
ment, that he slanted economic 
statistics to aid Fernando Hen- 
ri que Cardoso, Mr. Franco’s 
choice as the next president. 

Financial observers greeted 
Mr. Gomes's appointment with 
surprise. Most financial and po- 
litical analysts had expected the 
president to name Pedro Ma- 
lan, the central bank president, 
or Ed mar Bacha, a Cardoso 
economic adviser who helped 
him design the country’s new 
economic plan. 

“It’s a surprise," said Alvanoa 
Augusto YidigaL president of 
the SJo Paulo stock market, 
“but Gomes is a good name, a 
respectable name. 


Mr. Gomes, 36, will be in 
charge of steering the country’s 
two-month-old effort to stop 
tbe runaway inflation that has 
plagued Brazil for nearly two 
decades. Since the introduction 
of the plan and a new currency 
July 1, inflation has fallen from 
50 percent a month in June to 5 
percent in August. 


Opposition candidates, par- 
ticularly l-ni* Znicio da Silva of 
the Workers’ Party, have been 
claiming for weeks that the gov- 
ernment was diverting funds 
and using other measures 10 
help Mr. Cardoso, who has 
gone from 20 points behind! In 
polls to more than 20 points 
ahead in less than two months. 


Diver Survives Faulty Chute 

The Associated Press 

QUEENSVILLE. Ontario — A woman whose parachute 
malfunctioned plunged almost 10,000 feet into a marsh. After 
she landed on her back, she got up and apologized to her 
skydiving instructor, 

Sharon McOelland, 26. of Newmarket was making her 
second parachute jump — her first free-fall — when her chute 
only partly opened. 

Despite the malfunction, the parachute slowed her descent, 
saving her life. 

She was airlifted lo a hospital where she was treated for 
bruises and released. 


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IV IXrERXVtl0tlAL4i9? oi 


n m fun I* ■** M n» M I 









Page 4 


TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1994 

OPINION 


* 


Herald 


INTERNATIONAL 




tribune. 


About What America 


Fl'MJSUED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND T1IE WASHINGTON POST 


Now That Serbia Wants Out 


Bosnia's Serbs have overwhelmingly re- 
jected the Bosnia peace plan put forward 
by the Americans, Russians and Europe- 
ans. Unexpectedly and strikingly, howev- 
er, their erstwhile patrons in Serbia proper 
are tightening the screws of a blockade to 
make them accept it. Serbia wants out, 
International sanctions are hurting it 
deeply. This is why the Communist- 
tumed-nationalist Serbian leader, Slobo- 
dan Milosevic, risks the wrath of Bosnia's 
Serbs and his own hypemationalist oppo- 
sition. To restore a normal national life, he 
is prepared to repudiate the vision of a 
Greater Serbia — all of the former Yugo- 
slavia's Serbs under one roof, led by him 
— that impelled him to gin up the Balkan 
wars in the first place. 

That the Serbian leader now embraces 
the peace plan does not make it any more 
palatable to Bosnia's Muslim-led govern- 
ment But what the Muslims must ask 
themselves now is whether they will ever 
again have an ally so useful as. in these 
circumstances, Slobodan Milosevic. His 
support for the peace plan may be self- 
serving but it contributes to weakening the 
Muslims’ leading foe. For the Muslims to 
ignore his overture is to invite him or 


a successor to return to war-policy ortho- 
doxy in support of the Bosnian Serbs. 

As usual, the United States is a step or 
two behind the Batiran action. Most of 
those Americans still tracking Bosnia’s ag- 
ony appear to be hungup on the Washing- 
ton and allied tug of war over whether and 
under what terms to consider lifting the 
arms embargo on the Bosnian govern- 
ment But the more urgent question is how 
to exploit the window of opportunity 
opened up a crack by Mr. Milosevic’s 
blockade of the Bosnian Serbs. A dear 
view is required: The blockade is a more 
effective lever than any foreseeable Mus- 
lim military surge is likely to be. 

The policy implications of dealing with 
someone like Mr. Milosevic are difficult 
One is that lifting the arms embargo on 
the Muslim-led Bosnian government will 
end up undercutting Serbia’s blockade of 
the Bosnian Serbs. A second is that the 
best way to keep that blockade in force is 
to start lifting the United Nations* eco- 
nomic sanctions on Serbia. These are the 
bitter choices that the Balkan mess 
thrusts, right now, upon others who 
would be constructive. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


W ASHINGTON — The American pub- 
lic, media and political leadership 
seem to be in short supply of perspective. 
We let ourselves be pecked to death by the 
ducks of the urgent instead of admiring the 
soaring eagles of the important. 

Washington obsesses on the minutiae of 
what Roger Altman did not tell A1 D’A- 
barely notices, much less cele- 


mato 


There imperils to actingasif 
things are worse than they are. 

brates, withdrawal of the last Russian and 
American soldiers from Germany, an event 
that ends World War n and the Cold War. 

For five years the world as a whole has 
steadily become more secure, more demo- 
cratic and more prosperous. Yet the news 
and opinion pages in America are Glled 
with accounts of a summer of national 
discontent There is a crisis in race rela- 
tions caused by a double murder in Brent- 
wood, California; a new breakdown of 
cooperative government over crime and 
health care; and whispers of a president’s 
uncontrollable fury at the raw deal he 
thinks he gets from Congress and the press. 

Foreign policy sages warn that the retreat 


By Jim Hoagland 

of the Russian army from Central Europe is 
a trick to sabotage NATO. Wise men in the 
a dminis tration foolishly claim (hat (he fate 
of democracy in the Western Hemisphere 
depends on the ousting of Haiti’s junta. 

Certainly there is do shortage of pro- 
blems at home and abroad: the unsettled 
Caribbean, nuclear proliferation, ethnic 
wars on Russia’s periphery and unforgiv- 
able atrocities in Bosnia and Rwanda. 
They demand sustained attention. 

But they should be measured against the 
amazing positive changes in world affairs 
that still roll out of the collapse of the 
Soviet empire and die terrorist networks it 
supported. The Irish Republican Army’s 
acceptance of a temporary cease-fire, tike 
the Palestini an-Isra eli peace accord is an 
outgrowth of that collapse. 

This week is a good moment For Ameri- 
cans to focus on accomplishments and 
opportunities, however unpredictable the 
future has become. On Thursday, U.S., 
British and French troops will duplicate 
the Aug. 31 Russian withdrawal from Ber- 
lin, en ding the 49-vear occupation begot- 
ten by Hitler’s defeat. 

The Americans. British and French can 


take pride in the role they played in help- 
ing the Germans create a democratic, 
peaceful and highly prosperous republic. 
The Allied troops come home able to re- 
port with honesty: Mission accomplished 

For the Red Army, occupation was the 
continuation of war by other means. Behind 
them the retreating Russian troops leave 
nothing of value; morally or materially. 
Their creation, East Germany, has been 
erased from the map in a blink of history’s 
eye. It lasted longer than Hitler’s promised 
i ,000-year Reich, but it met a similar fate. 

President Boris Yeltsin went to Berlin 
and put the best face he could on this 
h umilia tion. He voiced no apologies for 
the Cold War exploitation of Germany. 
But he did in Russia’s name “rejoice" in 
the country’s unif ication and in a “final 
reconciliation” between the reborn nations 
of Germany and Russia. 

That is a development worth watching as 
well as celebrating Mr. Yeltsin made ex- 
plicit his desire for Germany and Russia “to 
create a new security architecture" in Eu- 
rope through joint diplomacy. His e m phasis 
on Russian-German cooperation in his Ber- 
lin speech matched President BED Clinton’s 
offer in July to make Germany America’s 
primary partner in world affairs. 

There is now an air of competition be- 


tween Washington and Moscow over Ger- 
many, a development that pessimists will 
see as confirming their worst fears about 
Russian neo-imperialism. But that ignores ( 
how profoundly the nature of that compe- 
tition has changed. It no longer involves 
massed armies and nuclear weapons point- 
ed at each other across Germany’s middle. 
It is a political, peaceful competition that 
Germany is mature enough to manage. 

Presidents get in trouble believing that 
things are better than they seem. George 
Bush went through a presidency and a re- 
cession believing that. But there are perils to 
acting. as if things are worse than they are, as 
Mr. Clinton does at times. For one thing, it 
rubs off on the national mood. 

President Clinton came bade from his 
July trip to Germany steaming because it 
bad not been covered fully or adequately by 
the American press. He may be right. But he 
should foots instead on the solid accom- 
plishments of American leadership in end- 
ing the division of Europe, and on what he 
achieved on his own trip, rather than on the 
immediate impression he made back home. 
He should not confuse ducks and eagles. 

A little perspective would do a lot to 
make this white House, and this country, 
feel and perform belter. 

The Washington Past. . 


Congressmen as Curators? 


One troubling legacy of the Reagan 
and Bush a dminis trations was the so- 
called “culture wars,” in which members 
of Congress tried to throttle scholarly 
and artistic expression by politicizing 
government support for the arts and hu- 
manities. The National Endowment for 
the Arts and the National Endowment 
for the Humanities were both severely 
damaged by the partisan tampering. A 
hangover from this period is the pre- 
sumption that Congress should decide 
what art is hung on gallery walls and what 
versions of history are depicted in govern- 
ment-funded films and museum exhibi- 
tions. Some congressmen threaten to with- 
draw government funding for cultural 
activity that becomes controversial or of- 
fends a oven constituency’s point of view. 

The Smithsonian Institution finds it- 
self at just such a juncture owing to 
protests about a proposed exhibition 
marking the 50th anniversary of the 
bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Set 
to open next summer, it is entitled “The 
Last Act: the Atomic Bomb and the End 
of World War II." Veterans’ groups have 
found fault with it, and two dozen mem- 
bers of Congress complained to Robert 
McCormick Adams, the Smithsonian's 
secretary, that it depicts the Americans as 
aggressors and the Japanese as victims 
because it does not give adequate justifi- 
cation for the bombing. That was not the 
exhibition's original purpose; initially it 
focused on what happened when the 
bombs struck the Japanese cities. But 
after the protests it was expanded to 
include the bloody fighting in the Pacific, 
which preceded the decision to bomb. 

That was a good idea. Any treatment 
of the war that includes only the last six 
months, and the nuclear bombing itself, 
is by its very nature far too narrow. Mar- 


tin Harwit, the director of the National 
Air and Space Museum, acknowledges as 
much. But Representative Peter Blute, 
Republican of Massachusetts, is still not 
satisfied. He demands that the exhibition 
"undergo a massive revision or rewrite.” 

The Smithsonian is the premier cultural 
institution in the United States; surely it 
can find a way to incorporate various 
criticisms without line-by-line supervision 
from members of Congress who are nei- 
ther historians nor curators. The problem 
with endless tampering by Congress is that 
some critics wELJ not be satisfied with any- 
thing short of complete vilification of the 
Japanese and uncritical glorification of the 
American war effort What is needed is 
a balanced accounting of the political and 
military considerations that went into 
President Harry Truman's decision. There 
has been an unresolved half-century de- 
bate about the morality of that deration. 
Any fair exhibition should reflect both the 
content of the debate and its unresolved 
nature. To reflect on the brutality of war in 
general and this bombing in particular 
does not detract from the heroism of 
American troops nor the historic impor- 
tance of winning an atomic arms race that 
the United States and its allies had no 
choice but to join and win. 

The Smithsonian would probably have 
worked its way to a more balanced exhi- 
bition without pressure from Congress. 
In fact, months before Congress inter- 
vened, Mr. Harwit wrote to Ms curators 
telling them that the exhibition was one- 
sided. That is bow the process ought to 
work: curators propose, review commit- 
tees advise, the exMbition gradually 
comes into focus. That process was short- 
circuited by the protests, bur it is not too 
late to get it back on track. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


For Everyone 9 s Well-Being , Tackle the Population Crisis Now 


9 


N EW YORK — We must not 
allow controversy to engulf 
this week’s International Con- 
ference on Population and De- 
velopment in Cairo, losing an 
Mstoric opportunity to develop 
ways of tackling the population 
crisis to the benefit of alL 
The draft action program pre- 
pared for the conference could, ■ 
if adopted, reap the fruits of two 
decades of deepening under-’ 
standing of population growth. 
It does not regard population 
problems as merely a question of 
numbers that must be reduced 

through f amil y p lanning It re- 
cognizes that only a holistic ap- 
proach can break the grip of 
poverty on the bottom third to 
half of society and slow popula- 
tion growth while sustaining de- 
mocracy and human ri ghts 
Strategies of development 
that involve rather than margin- 
alize the poor, create productive 
and remunerative work for the 
vast- majority and meet basic hu- 
man needs have become not . 
only a moral minimum for crvili- 


By James? P. Grant 

The writer is executive director of (Jnicef. 


zation but a practical minim um 
for ensuring its survival. 

Aiming population programs 
at peoples needs, especially those 
erf women and children, rather 
than at demographic targets will 
accelerate this new development. 

It is impossible to talk about 
population without talking 
about children. A quarter mil- 
lion will come into the world 
today, and a quarter million will 
die this week from poverty and 
neglect. Improving child surviv- 
al rates slows, rather than accel- 
erates, population growth; as 
child death rates decrease, par- 
ents have become confident that 
their first children will survive 
and have smaller families. 

A draft study presented recent- 
ly at Harvard’s Canter for Popu- 
lation and Development suggests 
that achieving the goals of the 
.1990 World Summit for Chil- 
dren, including a one- third reduc- 


tion in deaths under age 5 by the 
year 2000, would contribute to 
a world population that is lower 
than the lowest UN projections. 

The Cairo conference’s recog- 
nition of the centrality of women 
— their health, education, em- 
ployment and social status — is 
cxutiaL The draft program cap- 
tures the simple truth that there 
will be no sustainable develop- 
ment, no stabilization of popula- 
tion, no solution to environmen- 
tal problems or true democracy 
as Jong as half the world’s popu- 
lation is the subject of gross dis- 
crimination and abuse. 

Most importantly, the emerg- 
ing Cairo consensus avoids blam- 
ing the poor, especially poor 
women, for having too many chil- 
dren. Instead of coercion, any 
new approach to population poli- 
cy must broaden the rights, op- 
portunities and choices of wom- 
en. When women receive proper 


health care, especially di 
pregnancy and childbirth, 
are encouraged to breast-feed, 
fertility rates decline, births are 
spaced, and family size becomes 
a more conscious choice. 

Pursuing opportunities to pro- 
tect the health, nutrition, and 
education erf women and children 
in the developing world is one of 
the most immediately available 
and affordable ways of defeating 
the downward spiral of poverty, 
population growth, and environ- 
mental degradation, which feed 
off each other, leaving strife and 
instability in their wake. 

These actions are achievable 
within a decade or two. They are 
the historic challenge erf the last 
phase of the 20th century, and are 
vital to laying the foundation for 
more balanced development in 
the 21st century. 

To cany them out, the mode : : 
funds required to implement the 
strategies and meet the goals es- 
tablished in the Cairo Program erf 
Action must be made available 
quickly, with no strings attached. 


The 20/20 Initiative promot- 
ed by the UN Development Pro- 
gram, the UN Population Fund, 
and the UN Children’s Fund 
(Umcef) says that governments 
should devote at least 20 percent 
of their domestic budgets to pro- 
viding basic social services — 
primary health care, family 
pl anning , basic education, nutri- 
tion, low cost water and sanita- 
tion for rural and poor urban 
areas — and that donor coun- 
tries should donate a similar 
portion of their official develop- 
ment assistance to such needs. 

Unicef, as it supports efforts 
for children in more than 120 
developing countries, sees sig- 
nificant progress in this direc- 
tion, mostly by developing coun- 
tries. The donor community 
must do its part if these prob- 
lems are to be tackled in time. 
., r . r children and grandchildren, 
anti unborn generations to 
come, depend on those in Cairo 
to make the wise decisions that 
will determine their future. 

International Herald Tribune. 


The UN Needs a Standing Force, and Gurkhas Could Do the Job 


Minority Rights in Quebec 


In a world full of conflicts between 
groups asserting rights to self-determina- 
tion and cultural autonomy, die struggle 
over whether Quebec should remain part 
of Canada or go off as an independent. 
French-speaking country is one of the 
brighter spots. Difficult though the Que- 
bec question is for Quebeckers and Cana- 
dians (and those who regard themselves os 
both), the fact remains that except for a 
brief period of terrorism in the late 1960s, 
this has been a remarkably civilized battle 
carried out through democratic elections. 
Words, arguments and votes, not bullets, 
have been the weapons of choice: This is 
an achievement whose importance should 
not be underrated in light erf the alterna- 
tives presented in Rwanda and Bosnia. 

But the Quebec case is also serving to 
underline how hard it is to adjudicate just 
which minorities have which rights rela- 
tive to whom. The issue was brought 
forward last week by leaders of Quebec's 
native people — among them the Huron, 
the Mohawk and the Cree — who are 
deeply worried about what their future 
would be inside an independent Quebec. 
The native groups inside Quebec worry 
over how their rights might be protected 
in an independent Quebec and also what 
their relationship would be with other 
native people in the rest of Canada. 

Jim Sinclair, the head of the Congress 
of Aboriginal Peoples, put the issue 
starkly at a meeting of provincial pre- 
miers when he declared: “I think Quebec 
is setting up another Berlin Wall and 
we're going to need passports to get in 
and out of Quebec, We've got a real menu 
for civii disobedience — separation." 


The separatist Bloc Qutbecois, which 
has been leading in the polls for Quebec’s 
Sept. 12 provincial elections, would tell 
Mr. Sinclair that his fears are unwarrant- 
ed. The separatists have been careful to 
talk about Ml the ties that they hope to 
keep with the rest of Canada ami of their 
strong inclination toward free trade and 
free movement. Nonetheless, the contro- 
versy underscored the complexity of pro- 
tecting conflicting group rights along 
with individual rights. 

The French speakers of Quebec are 
a minority within Canada but a strong 
majority in Quebec. Quebec's English 
speakers are in the reverse situation, 
a majority in their country but a minority 
in their province. The native people are in 
a minority in the country as a whole but 
have found Canadians relatively well dis- 
posed toward their rights in recent years. 
Would an independent Quebec, asserting 
newly found rights, be less disposed to- 
ward the Huron, the Mohawk and the 
Cree? Would the native groups seek sepa- 
ration from a newly separated Quebec? 
These are just a few of the urgent questions 
that the separatists will fact if they win the 
elections and push forward with plans to 
hold a referendum on independence: 

Quebeckers themselves seem tom by the 
complexities. The separatists have lost 
some ground in the polls, and Quebeckers 
tell the pollsters that even if they do elect 
the separatists to secure change in their 
provincial government, they might still 
vote against independence. The election of 
a separatist government will mark only the 
beginning of a very long argument. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


S INGAPORE — Since the collapse of 
the Soviet Union and the end of the 
Cold War, military forces wearing the blue 
berets of the United Nations have increas- 
ingly been called upon to intervene in 
trouble spots around the world. The seem- 
ingly endless series of crises from Haiti to 
Bosnia-Herzagovina pose a serious chal- 
lenge for the only body with a mandate to 
carry out the will of the global community. 

While there is no shortage of goodwill dr 
strong words in reaction to conflict in 
places such as Rawanda, too often interna- 
tional action is too little or too late. With- 
out a swift and decisive response from the 
outside, a crisis arising from a breakdown 
of civil authority can easily lead to hu- 
manitarian catastrophe. Inaction by the 
world community amounts to appease- 
ment, even though it may be unintentional. 

The problem stems from the lack of a 
standing military force under UN com- 
mand. A solution would be to put together 
a contingent of Gurkha professional sol- 
diers from Nepal who are particularly 
well-suited for such missions. 

Butros Butros Ghali, the UN secretary- 
general, is trying to improve the ability of 
the world body to react to crises that do 
not require commitment of massive forces 
or involve acute geopolitical complica- 
tions. In April 1993, he established a plan- 
ning team made up of seven military offi- 
cers seconded from their national armed 


By Brian Farrell and Christopher Lingle 


forces. Their mandate is to plan and orga- 
nize a UN standby force base on troop 
contributions by member states. 

Twenty-one countries are reported to 
have committed soldiers and/or equip- 
ment to the reserve force and more may 
follow. The aim is to get an accurate idea 
of the units that could be brought together 
in rapid response to a crisis. 

However, the plan is seriously flawed. It 
does not deal with the basic question of 
whether the force will be able to assemble 
and move to wherever it is needed quickly 
enough. Nor does it take account of the 
slow way in which governments involved 
reach agreement on the actual deployment 
of the UN forces or what to do if some of 
the promised national troops are ultimate- 
ly witheld. Most importantly, the United 
Nations must be confident that the troops 
provided will be good enough to do thejob 
and able to work well with each other. 

Instead of trying to assemble a multina- 
tional rapid response contingent, the Unit- 
ed Nations should have a standing force 
trained, armed, equipped and ready to go. 
The ground forces of a major power should 
not be involved, because that raises too 
many political hackles in too many places, 
producing disruptive consequences for any 
peacemaking or peacekeeping effort. 

The Gurkhas are ideally suited to take 


on an emergency reaction role. They are 
superb professional soldiers long accus- 
tomed to service for an authority other 
than the leaders of their homeland. Since 
1816, Gurkhas have served with great dis- 
tinction in the British and later Indian 
armies, and they continue to do so. At 
present, most British Gurkhas are based in 
Hong Kong and the sultanante of Brunei 
With the return of Hong Kong to China in 
1997, the Gurkhas will no longer be re- 
quired in the British Army. 

The legal and diplomatic arrangements 
under which individual Nepalese serve the 
British and Indian governments could eas- 
ily be replicated for the United Nations; 
A minim um of 5,000 troops would be 
needed for the force to be credible and to 
give it the flexibility to answer more than 
one call at a time. Garrisoning costs and 
logistics would probably limit the number 
of troops to a maximum of 15,000. 

Based on past experience, it is unlikely 
that Nepal would try to interfere in the UN 
chain of command for Gurkha troops or 
demand the evacuation erf the force m the 
face of mounting casualties. The presence of 
Nepalese soldiers would also be unlikely to 
provoke antagonistic reactions based on na- 
tionality. Indeed, the formidable reputation 
of Gnxhkas as impartial fighters might well 
help to defuse tense situations. 


Nonetheless, such a proposal raises chal- 
lenges that many governments are reluctant 
to confront. If a Gurkha force is assembled 
and used, the United Nations would be 
taking a large step toward acting as an 
independent, supranational body. The force 
could only be used if the major powers on 
the UN Security Council supported its in- 
tervention. And only the United States is 
capable of providing the airlift the force 
would need to reach trouble spots and oper- 
ate there as long as necessary. 

Once its job was done, the United Na- 
tions would almost certainly have to take 
control of the territory in question for an 
indeterminate time. This raises fundamen- 
tal questions about the role of the United 
Nations in building a new world order. 

It is time these questions were confront- 
ed. Improvised multinational mflitary con- 
tingents are simply too slow to assemble 
and pose too many political and operational 
problems. A viable alternative must be 
found. Pragmatism must be allowed to out- 
weigh cynical objections that Western gov- 
ernments seek the political benefits of put- 
ting Gurkhas at risk in chaotic situations in 
place of their own soldiers. 

0- 

Mr. Farrell is a military historian and 
Mr. Lingle an economist teaching at the 
National University of Singapore. They 
contributed this personal comment to the 
International Herald Tribune. 


The Challenge for a New Phase of America’s Civil Rights Movement 



International Herald Tribune 

ESTABLISHED /S&7 

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N EW YORK — Things are 
not likely to get much 
worse. There isn’t much that’s 
worse chan a society that pre- 
tends to be civilized and free 
while brutalizing its elders and 
slaughtering its young. 

At the end of August came the 
astonishing news that a black 
man had put his hands on Rosa 
Parks. Some moral cipher, reek- 
ing of alcohol, had invaded the 
home of the 8 1 -year-old mother of 
the civil rights movement, had 
pummeied her imtO she gave up 
her money, and then fled, leaving 
her braised and shaken but no less 
stoic and dignified than in 1955 
when a bus driver in Montgomery, 
Alabama, told her to get up and 
give her seat to a white person and 
she softly replied that no, there 
would be no more of that 
Our grief and shame are the 
residue of the lessons we blacks 
have managed not to learn tom 
Mrs. Parks. We bought into her 
defiance. Oh yes, we Hked that so 


By Bob Herbert 


much we made it fashionable. By 
the mid- 1 960s defiance had swept 
the land. But we never mastered 
the inner strength, the core values 
and the self-respect that gave her 
defiance such power. 

The consequences have been 
tragic in the extreme. Last week 
came the news that a 14- year-old 
girl on Chicago's South Side had 
been murdered by an 1 1-year-old 
boy. He was then murdered him- 
self. apparently by members of 
his own gang. 

We are in the dark night of the 
post'd vil rights era. The wars 
against segregation have been 
won, but we are lost With the 
violence and degradation into 
which so many of our people have 
fallen, we have disgraced the lega- 
cy of Rosa Parks. 

“I had never been hit in that 
manner in my life," Mrs. Parks 
said. It was a comment that once 
would have been inconceivable. 


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It is expected that [the Cairo conference on world population] will 
have a consensus approving abortion as a means of birth control, 
denial of the importance of the family as the basic unit of society and 
putting a lot of pressure on the developing nations, like my own, 
Guatemala, to promote population control programs which have 
already proved intrusive, unnecessary and dangerous. 

If the United States had a wonderful example of morality . . . and 
your statistics showed that you have the lowest incidence erf teen births, 
that you have the lowest amount of abortions, that you have the lowest 
amount of venereal disease, then I think it would be fantastic for the 
United States to impose these good values on the rest of the world. 

But if you have the worst record, the highest number of abortions 
per capita, the highest number of divorces, the highest amount of 
venereal diseases, why, for God’s sake, why do you want to expand 
this to the rest of the world? 

— Mercedes Amu Wilson, of the National Committee of the 
Catholic Campaign for America, speaking at a press conference 
in Washington, as quoted by The Washington Past 


“I was screaming,” she said, “and 
trying to ask him not to hit me.” 

On that December afternoon in 
Montgomery nearly 40 years ago, 
Mrs. Parks remained seated in the 
face of the exasperated glare of 
bus driver J. P. Blake. She re- 
mained seated even as three less 
courageous African-Americans 
dutifully rose and shuffled off to 
stand in the rear of the crowded 
bus. She remained seated as the 
nearly apoplectic Blake went off in 
search of a policeman to arrest her. 

Mrs. Parks knew that she, per- 
sonally, would reap only grief 
from her defiance. But she fought 
for the generations who were 
coining behind her. 

Her bequest has been pervert- 
ed. She did not fight so that 
those future generations would 
be free to ingest endless tons of 
dope, to populate the nation's 
streets with armies of all-but- 
abandoned children, or to en- 
gage in a spectacular orgy of kill- 
ing in which the vast majority of 
the victims just happen to be 
other African-Americans, many 
of them infants and children. 

After she was attacked last 
week, Mrs. Parks said: “In these 
times none of os seems to be safe 
from this type of treatment and 
violation by a sick-minded per- 
son . . . We still have a long way 
to go, and so many of our chil- 
dren are going astray.” 

Anyone who believes that vio- 
lence arid-degradation are limited 
to African-Americans is deluded. 
America has searched but never 
yet found a way to confine its 
evils to the ghetto. 


So America has white children 
killmg white children, and it has a 
crazy man with a rifle committing 
murder in New York’s Rockefel- 
ler Center, and in general it has 
a society drenched in violence, 
physical and otherwise. But the 
problems at the moment are most, 
acute and most deadly among Af- 
rican-Americans. The most effec- 
tive solutions will have to come 
from African-Americans. 

When Rosa Parks derided, be- 
neath the looming presence of 
J. P. Blake, that she had had 
enough, she laughi the entire 


country a lesson. Now it is time 
for new leadership to arise and 
say, again, enough. 

It is time to grab the felons and 
the freaks and let than know in 
the most forceful terms possible 
that they will not be allowed to 
capture the soul of black America. 

That is the primary challenge 
of the next phase erf the civil 
rights movement. It is the way to 
recapture the high ground, to sal- 
vage the children, and to teach 
the country once again a great 
and valuable lesson. 

The New York Tones. 


IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1894: Case of Blackmail? 

NEW YORK — Mrs. Glascock 
yesterday [SepL 4], in Court, said 
that Senator Stewart had drugged 
her and then outraged hex in his 
office. The Senator says the wom- 
an is carrying on "“a badger 
game.” Our despatches last re- 
ported that Mr. Charles I. Glas- 
cock was suing for a divorce, 
naming Senator Stewart, to 
whom it was alleged his wife had 
applied for a clerical position, as 
the corrcspondenL Senator Stew- 
art declared that the whole case 
was got up for purposes of black- 
mail, and suggested that Mr. 
Glascock was backed by the 
wicked gold men of the East 

1919: Austrian Question 

PARIS — Despatches from Bale 
indicate that the German Gov- 
ernment has sent to the Peace 
Conference a reply to the ultima- 




tum demanding a modification of 
the clauses in the German Consti- 
tution which open the door to 
future union with Austria. Ger- 
many is prepared to make it dear 
that the clauses in question are 
inapplicable so long as the Coun- 
cil of the League of Nations has 
not approved any modification of 
Austria's status. Germany also de- 
clares that the threat to extend 
oanipation of hex territory, con- 
tamed in the ul timatum, is 
deeply regrettable act of violence.” 

1944: War on Bulgaria ^ 

LONDON — [From our New . N* 
York edition:] Russia tonight . ^ 
[SepL 5] declared war on Bulgar- £ 
ia, bluntly asserting that the so- 
called “neutrality' of the Sofia 
government was only a doak to 


The Soviet declaration was ; 
with the knowledge of Great Brit- 
ain and the United States. 





•* 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1994 




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The Vatican's Spokesman 
Should Mind His Manners 

By William Satire 


•■I,: 


■! 'n. 



X’:l 


WASHINGTON — If there has 
YV-been one unequivocal cam- 
paign promise that the Clinton- 
Gore administration has kepi from 
the start, it is on u woman’s right to 
choose abortion. That applies 
abroad, too. Clintonites have re- 
versed 12 years of Reagan- Bush 
policies denying aid dollars to 
countries where abortion is includ- 
ed in birth control. 

They promised and delivered; 
that’s democracy. But then, in the 
run-up to the UN population con- 
ference in Cairo, advocates of abor- 
tion rights went a bridge too far. 

Trickily avoiding the A- word, U.S. 
sherpas espoused a UN statement 
calling for governments to provide 
“reproductive rights" including “fer- 
tility regulation"’ and "pregnancy ter- 
mination" througliout the world — 
as if new verbal compounds could 
conceal the abortion deed. 

The Vatican wasn’t fooled by 
these euphemisms, and cunningly 
■ enlisted Muslim fundamentalists to 
“reject imposing “a current lifestyle 
of cenain opulent societies" (that’s 
satanic Uncle Sam) on Third World 
rations. 

Fine; brings the battle out in the 
open. But then the Vatican went 
too far: not only did the Pope’s 
spokesman condescendingly refer 
to the U.S. government as “this 
administration," but he publicly at- 
tacked Vice President A1 Gore by 
name. The Pope’s representative 
impugned the sincerity of Mr. 
Gore’s conciliatory assertion that 
the United SLates did not seek an 
international right to abortion. In 
delivering that shot, the papal 
spokesman seemed to suggest that 
the second-highest official elected 
by Americans was a hypocrite. 

That was a personal insult issued 
in the Pope’s name. Unless correct- 
ed. it will stand as unprecedented 
papal meddling in U.S. politics. 

It is overreaching enough for 
a U.S. bishop to predict Lhe political 
behavior of co- religionists, as Bishop 
Janies McHugh did on Sunday with 
his warning of a “powerful incentive 
to American Catholics to walk away 
from the Democratic Party." 

For the Pope himself to permit his 
official spokesman to rail against 
any specific American political fig- 


)<> tifi'Jflil 


Letzers intended for publication 
should be addressed “Letters to the 
Editor ” and contain lhe writer’s si- 
gnature, name and full address. Let- 
ters should be brief and are subject 
to editing. We cannot be responsible 
j for the return of unsolicited ma- 
| nuscripts. 


ure demeans the Vatican — or “this 
papacy,” as spokesman Joaquin Na- 
varro-Valls might put it. 

Reached by telephone in Cairo 
on Sunday, Mr. Gore played it 
cool: “In dealing with those who 
are actually negotiating at this con- 
ference," he soothed, “I’ve found 
people to be constructive and con- 
ciliatory on both sides.” 

He Found Bishop McHugh 
“statesmanlike in saying — even 
though Lhcy will not accept the view 
that contraception is aU right — 
nevertheless signaling they fully un- 
derstand that if other organizations 
wish to make condoms available, 
they won’t strenuously object." 

Understandably, after feminists, 
“greens" and redtsiributiomsts got 
carried away, Mr. Gore has bom 
shifting the focus away from abor- 
tion to contraception, and then to 
a wider area of agreement: educa- 
tion and equality for women. Let’s 
hope he can; Perdita Huston’s semi- 
nal 1979 book, “Third World Wom- 
en Speak Out," showed that to be 
a key to family stability. 

My objection to the new Malthu- 
sians is their insistence that crowd- 
ing is the obstacle to economic 
growth and individual advance- 
ment. Hong Kong and Taiwan show 
that to be as untrue as Thomas Mal- 
thus’s predictions of world starva- 
tion two centuries ago. As nations 
get richer and people get educated, 
families get smaller. 

“Yeah, I’ve heard that "Develop- 
ment is the best contraceptive’ for 
20 years," counters Mr. Gore. 
“We’re adopting a more holistic 
approach here in Cairo. Availabil- 
ity of contraception; increase of 
child survival to encourage smaller 
families; education and empower- 
ment of women; and the economic 
development to make it easier to 
establish the others.” 

Conservatives who put individ- 
ual freedom first can embrace that 
quartet. The danger comes from the 
gender-agenda coercionaries over- 
populating global conferences who 
would make governments the level- 
ers of nations and bureaucrats the 
makers of family decisions. 
A ‘Tight to develop”" is not an enti- 
tlement to a handout. 

The Vatican did well to blow the 
whistle on the power grab of the new 
Malthusians; the result is the cre- 
ative tension of open debate. And 
moral instruction by preachers has 
a traditional place in politics. 

But the Pope should tell his arro- 
gant spokesman that he banned the 
anti-abortion cause by getting po- 
litically mean. 

The New York Times. 



Thr Chfnfag Sdcoce Marnier. 
Las Angela Times Smihcaie. 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


Orphaned East Timor 

Regarding “ Remember The Rape of 
East Timor ” (Opinion, Aug 13}: 

Anthony Lewis writes; “The Ti- 
morese had shown no sympathy for 
co mmunis m. They just wanted in- 
dependence." The first statement is 
for the most part true; but after the 
irresponsible Portuguese pullout in 
1975, the Marxist Fretilin declared 
itself the rightful heir to Lhe colo- 
ny’s administration and was defi- 
nitely thinking otherwise in terms 
of Co mmunis t sympathy. 

Total independence would have 
been unrealistic for this small terri- 
tory, with few resources to support 
itself decently. The intellectuals of 
the region ultimately realized this; 
many joined UDT, a party advo- 
cating commonweal Lh-like status 
for East Timor under Ponugal; a 
smaller fraction created Apodeti, 
whose aims were to gradually join 
Indonesia. Only Fretilin advocated 
total independence, under which it 
could rule dictatorially. 

At the time, instability in South- 
east Asia was widely attributed to 
communism. Even an outsider like 
the United States saw the necessity 
to intervene in the region's affairs, 
in Vietnam. The political chaos 
that broke out in East Timor could 
have spread west to Indonesia in 
the form of refugees and political 
outlaws, not to mention armed guer- 
rillas. All this would have threat- 
ened the relative stability that Indo- 


nesia then had just begun to achieve. 

Pain and suffering occur in every 
situation where a region is aban- 
doned by its colonial overlords like 
an illegitimate child thrown out by 
its guilt-ridden parent. East Timor 
is one of such children, and Ponu- 
gal was its parent. 

MARJO VAU. 

Rome. 

Traditionar Urban Design 

Regarding “ Islands Across America 
Where ‘Do Not’ Is the Law" (Mean- 
while. Aug 23) by Evan McKenzie: 

The writer makes a strong point 
for the insidiousness of “condo law” 
in America, and as a victim of such 
law I heartily agree that somehow 
my rights are being (legally) violat- 
ed. But he implies some judgments 
that bode ill for the future develop- 
ment of housing in America. 

He states, "Developers keep the 
price low by squeezing more people 
onto less land — they build narrow- 
streets and replace large individual 
yards with communal spaces." The 
"implication is that this is an undesir- 
able alternative to what 1 can inter- 
pret only as the typical American 
suburb. But doesn't his description 
also portray Florence. .Amsterdam 
and Georgetown. Washington? The 
famous London squares of the 17th 
and 18th centuries were spatially 
similar, and they were built as semi- 
private “condo" areas. 



Bv Donna Britt 


One of the most important new 
developments in urban design in 
America, “traditional town design,” 
developed by the Florida firm of 
Duany & Plater-Zyberk, advocates 
just such spatial organization. 

THOMAS L SCHUMACHER. 

Florence. 

Liberators of Paris 

As a soldier who fought through 
France and Germany during World 
War EL, I was intensely interested in 
all the hullabaloo about the Norman- 
dy landings and the liberation of Par- 
is. However, I was deeply disappoint- 
ed in the way the French press, 
television and political leaders (Presi- 
dent Francois Mitterrand and Mayor 
Jacques Chirac of Paris) heralded the 
liberation of Paris. One would think 
that the war had been won by the 
French 2d Armored Division. True, 
Mr. Mitterrand in his speech paid 
tribute to the “Allied forces,” but it 
was very scanty. 

In your Aug. 25 issue. John C. 
Ausland CAt That Moment in Paris 
We Were the Finest of All") clearly 
gives a witness’s account of the role 
of the U.S. 4th Division in liberating 
Paris. And, of course, if it had not 
been for the rest of the U.S. divisions 
in the three corps of the 1st U.S. 
Army, the liberation of Paris would 
not even have occurred. 

MILTON HOCHMUTH. 

Colonel. U.S. Array (retired). 

Ciboure, France. 


L OS ANGELES — It was lunch- 
* lime in Los Angeles. The man. 
about 35. was standing in a long, 
slow line at McDonald’s. Thinking 
your usual, waiting-in-line thoughts. 

Suddenly, he noticed a clerk 
opening a new line. He had a choice: 
bolt to the head of the new line, 
placing hims elf before the person 

MEANWHILE ~ 

ahead of him — a pale, fiftyish 
woman immersed in a newspaper — 
or inform her of the new line. 

He tapped the woman's shoul- 
der. “Excuse me.” he said. “That 
line’s open.” 

Immediately, she slid into the 
space. Then she looked at him. 
“Don't you poke me!” she hissed. 
Staring at her, “I felt total, con- 
suming anger,” be later recalled. “In 
that split second, you have a choice 
between ‘Am 1 going to go off. or 
handle this like a gentleman?”’ 

He chose. And hissed a common 
expletive used primarily toward 
women right back at her. ’ 

“What did you say?" she asked. 
Repeating it, he angrily added. “I 
was trying to call your attention to 
the fact that another line was open. 
And here you give me your attitude." 

The woman repeated, “Don't 
you poke me.” She turned away. 
Staring at her back, the man saw 
that she was sh akin g. 

In a split second; within that in- 
finitesimal pin-dot of time exists 
a space immense enough for whole 
lives to be won and lost. In that 
moment, choices both momentous 
and mundane are made: 

In Los Angeles, it was in such 
a space that, three years ago, some 
cops who could have chosen other- 
wise decided that a drunken, unre- 
sponsive man should be beaten 
senseless; that a year later men, wom- 
en and children — who’d seen the 
videotaped bludgeoning and expect- 
ed Lhe police to be punished — went 
collectively crazy when they were not. 

That the media recently chose to 
publicize “facts” about a double- 
murder investigation and famous 
defendant that were not only mis- 
leading, but wrong. 

In these times, either the woman or 
the man at the McDonald's could 
have had a gun and used it. Shootings 
have occurred over less. Instead, each 
ordered lunch and left — she, per- 
haps, with her thoughts of past pok- 
ings, he with rage, and sadness at the 
memory of her trembling shoulders. 

Neither. I suspect, really heard 
what the other was hissing. 

Days later, the man — a soft-spo- 


ken writer known for his humor -.aid 
sensitivity — was still stunned by hi> 
reaction. Tra not at all proud. ’ he 
said. “Everyone deserves respect, 
even people being rude to you.” 

So what happened? 

“After a while, you get tired of 
being nice.” he said. “Sometimes 
1 feel I'm the only one who's aw ine.” 

Who doesn't? Who among u> 
hasn’t suddenly been von fronted 
an act of jaw-dropping rcJene" .::?d 
then lashed out*. 1 s he vvorann in kne. 
said my friend, “sjnihoiized ■he ilo 
who cuts his car it: from of v^trv 
the clerk who ignore. ih’,- per- 
son you hold open a door iV: ■. i;o 
doesn't acknowledge :i.“ 

So what about the vo’ii, W.ui 
did she see in this guy t.ipi-ir.g her 
shoulder? 

He paused. “She col id h.oe ju>: 
seen a black man. She could !i.:\ e 
seen a rapist from her She 

could have seen her abusive : at her. 
... I don’t care what <l:e ■*-•■.. i: 
doesn't give her the right w ahu-e 
every man." 

Another pause, “i don’t 
there’s anything wrong will; tin- 
country that couldn't be sobed b;. 
a revolution of kindness and cour- 
tesy.” he said. 

My friend may never .see the inci- 
dent from that woman’* perspective, 
but he is right in suggoiing that 
politeness never mattered more. It is 
a positive response that con fill the 
split-second space that opens a hun- 
dred times a day. a space too easily 
filled by reflexive rage or cruel t>. 

You have to worry about the gen- 
eral health of count's* in a culture 
where critics sneer at the niceness of 
a “Forrest Gump" and praise “Nat- 
ural Bom Killers” as “over-the-top 
reality." Where girls are pushed to 
be harder and tougher, and boys to 
aspire to a granite-like veneer. In 
which I get so many compliments on 
my sons' good manners that I am 
starting to wonder. “How badiy are 
most kids allowed to behave?” 

Tell me that people are “naturally” 
selfish, hostile and scared, and I'll sav 
sure. Say thev're naturally generous, 
forgiving and loving, and i'll go for 
that too. What we are is a thousand 
things, good and bad. w hich we daily 
manifest in our split-second choices. 

So day after day, we must refuse 
to get tired of being nice. Spiii-sec- 
ond by split-second, we must be as 
diligent about protecting kindness 
as we are about protecting our 
"rights.” If we don't, all of life will 
be a long, slow line, filled with peo- 

E le hissing at each other. And no- 
odv hearing a word. 

The tt'iiib.m-zten /Vs;. 






; n-.-v. : 1 • 

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».yr • 

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Singapore Airlines 


ALL AROUND THE WORLD 








Page 6 


EVTERIVATIOIVAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1994 


DEFICITS: A Threat to Benefits 


Continued from Page 1 
Treubandanstah, the agency 
that was charged with selling 
cff East German state-owned 
companies. 

Some still argue that the Ger- 
man case is different “One 
great difference between Ger- 
many and the other countries is 
that our debt grew mostly be- 
cause of unification, the cost of 
which is slowly declining,' 1 said 
Bodo von Ruden, a bond ana- 
lyst at Trinkaus Capital Man- 
agement in Dusseldorf. "Else- 
where it's largely cyclical and 
structural.*' 

In any case, the problem is 
widespread. AmODg all the 
world's major industrialized 
countries, only Japan and Ire- 
land have managed to reduce 
their debt as a proportion of 
gross domestic product over the 
last four years. 

Among the largest of those 
countries, those making up the 
Group of Seven, a combination 
of cyclical, structural and de- 
mographic factors pushed the 
debt level to on average of 38 
percentof GDP in 1993 from 32 
percent in 1989. 

And wherever the trend has 
not been countered by drastic 
cuts in spending, the result has 
been a combination of rising 
inflation and tighter monetary 
policy, which in turn has exac- 
erbated governments’ problems 
by slowing economic activity 
and making it more expensive 
to raise new cash to pay old 
existing debts. 

Failure to reduce debt/GDP 
ratios “has impaired the credi- 
bility of the fiscal authorities in 
the 'current downturn," the 
Bank of International Settle- 
ments concluded in its 1994 an- 
nual report, published in June, 
“leaving most governments 
with no choice bui to tighten 
fiscal policy in order to prevent 
undesired effects on the finan- 
cial markets." 

“The bond markets are very 
worried," said Paul Horne, se- 
nior international economist 
for Smith Barney, Harris 
Upham & Co. “Today's defi- 
cits. the aging of the European 
population and the worsening 
pension situations are a recipe 
for disaster for long-term inter- 
est rates. If these things aren't 


Russia Names London Envoy 

Reuters 

MOSCOW — President Bo- 
ris N. Yeltsin appointed First 
Deputy Foreign Minister Ana- 
toli Adamishin as Russia's new 
ambassador to Britain, the Rus- 
sian press agency Itar-Tass said 
Monday. 


corrected, they’ll go up and up 
and up." 

Even countries such as 
France and Germany, which 
have made substantial progress 
toward reining in new debt ac- 
cumulation, face enormous dif- 
ficulties in reducing debt al- 
ready outstanding. 

Germany’s and France’s 
debt-to-GDP ratios last year 
amounted to 27.5 percent and 
35.6 percent, respectively. 

"Throughout Europe, the 
productivity of the public sec- 
tor needs to be vigorously im- 
proved,” said a French official 
who spoke on condition of ano- 
nymity. “We must put order in 
centra! government administra- 
tion, local government adminis- 
tration and social security ad- 
ministration.” 

In Italy, interest on the debt 
alone cost the equivalent of 1 1 
percent of GDP in 1 993, almost 
four times the average for de- 
veloped nations of 2.9 percent 
That burden makes its entire 
national budget highly vulnera- 
ble to changes in interest rates. 

After the Bank of Italy's rate 
increase, which many in Italy 
interpreted as a vote of no-con- 
fidence in government fiscal 
policy. Prime Minister Silvio 
Berlusconi warned that pension 
benefits for future generations 
would have to be cut 

Analysts say European gov- 
ernments need to keep m a k i ng 
cuts in spending, not just on 
social benefits but across the 
board, to meet the convergence 
criteria set out in the Treaty on 
European Union signed in 
Maastricht the Netherlands. 

The treaty calls for all Elf 
countries to cut their budget 
deficits to 3 percent of GDP by 
the end of 1996 from an average 
of 6 percent at the end of 1993 
and asks them to cut debt to 60 
percent of GDP before adopt- 
ing a single European currency, 
which is scheduled to be intro- 
duced before January 1999. 





Racuf M<ih The AMOnJlcd Pica 


Sudanese workers, marching in protest of the Cairo conference Monday in Khartoum. 


EXAMPLES: How 2 Asian Nations Differ on Birth Control Programs 


Continued from Page 1 

which is unconstitutional in the Philip- 
pines. 

After a huge demonstration last month, 
the government dropped two leading 
women’s rights advocates from an official 
delegation to the Cairo conference and 
agreed to a joint position paper that 
strongly rejects abortion. 

Much of the church’s rhetoric has been 
directed at the United States, seen here as a 
driving force behind the Cairo conference. 

The population conference has aggra- 
vated a simmering dispute between Cardi- 
nal Jaime L. Sin of Manila, the Roman 


Catholic primate, and Fidel V. Ramos, the 
country’s first Protestant president. In his 
latest broadside, the car dinal accused Pres- 
ident Ramos on Friday of lacking moral 
leadership and preparing to wage "psycho 
war" against the church. 

The cardinal demanded that Manila 
boycott the Cairo conference. 

In denouncing the Cairo conference. 
Cardinal Sin charged in an Aug. 7 pastoral 
letter that powerful "global forces" were 
“out to destroy the family by first destroy- 
ing our children." 

He called on Filipinos to "expel from 
our midst a new type of cultural dictator- 
ship” that would “have us ape the degencr- 



Malaysia to Parade Followers 
Of Deviationist’ Sect on TV 


Reuters 

KUALA LUMPUR — The 
Malaysian government said 
Monday that it would parade 
20 to 30’ followers of the banned 
Islamic sect Al Arqam on state 
television to expose what it says 
are the movement’s deviations 
from the true Islamic faith. 

The move comes as sect offi- 
cials said they would ask the 
courts to release their leader, 
who is being held under Malay- 
sia’s security laws. 

The Al Arqam legal adviser, 
Zabidi Mohamed, said the mes- 
sianic Sufi sect would file a writ 
of habeas corpus for the release 
of Abuya Ashaari Muhammad, 
57, from police custody. Under 
the Internal Security Act, Mr. 
Ashaari can be held for up to 
two years without a trial. 

The state news agency Ber- 
nama quoted Information Min- 
ister Datuk Mohamed Rahmat 
as saying the 20 to 30 people 
had renounced the teachings of 
AJ Arqam. 


The police have declined to 
say where Mr. Ashaari is being 
held. He was arrested Friday 
following his ’ deportation by’ 
T hailan d. 

Mr. Zabidi said the sect 
would also file writs seeking the 
release of Mr. Ashaari’s wife, 
Khatijah Amm, and. chief 
spokesman, Soid Sul aim an,, 
also being held under the -secu- 
rity act. They were deported 
from Thailand oh Saturday, i 
Mr. Zabidi- disputed. a' state-; 
ment on Sunday by the foreign; 
minister, Abdullah. Ahmad' 
Badawi, that the case against Al 
Arqam was. a religious matter 
and not politically motivated. 

“There is no reason to use- the 
ISA or any other laws if it in- 
volves the faith," he said, refer- 
ring to' the security act. “The 
Malaysian government’s move 
is definitely political ” - 
The government denied die 
charge. “There is no political 
motive, but as usual the foreign 


media do not want, to under- 
stand and Want to remain con# j 
fused, about -the truth .affecting 
the country," Bemama quoted 
the Information Mmistiys par- 
liamentary secretary, Fauzi 
Abdul Rahman, as saying Mon- 
day. - ' . 

The. government began a 
campaign against Al -Arqam in 
June, : accusing it of training 
“suicide warriors” in Bangkok. 
The charge was denied by Thai 
authorities. - 

Religious authorities out- 
lawed the sect Aug. 5, branding 
it a “deviationist” cult The gov- 
ernment declared all of its ac- 
tivities illegal and a -threat to 
public order three weeks later. 

Al Arqam. which .claims 
100,000 followers in. Malaysia 
and many more "elsewhere in 
Asia and the Middle East, says 
Mr. Ashaari is destined, to lead 
a great Islamic movement from 
Malaysia throughout Southeast 
Asia. It would herald the arrival 
of an Islamic messiah. 

— T — —-4 


RELIEF: US. to Quit Rwanda With Jobs Stitt Undone 


ate sexual mores prevalent in so-called 
developed countries.” 

In Indonesia, a family pl annin g pro- 
gram has succeeded in part because of the 
strong commitment of President Suharto, 
who has held power for nearly three de- 
cades. 

"What makes it special is that the gov- 
ernment has worked very hard with reli- 
gious leaders to bring them along." a Ja- 
karta-based diplomat said. 

The program has attracted strong sup- 
port from the U.S. Agency for Internation- 
al Development which agreed in March to 
provide 550 million in gram aid over five 
years. 


CAIRO: 

Strong Words 

Continued from Page 1 

he said that the discussion over 
population had to avoid “dog- 
matism and fanaticism." 

Thousands of police pa- 
trolled the streets, alter militant 
Muslims had threatened to dis- 
rupt the conference. 

Mr. Mubarak spoke in Ara- 
bic, Mrs. Brundtland in English 
and Mr. Butros Ghaii in Ara- 
bic, in English and then French. 

Prime Minister Benazir 
Bhutto of Pakistan, who decid- 
ed over the weekend to attend 
the conference after a week of 
reports here that she would 
withdraw because of pressure 
from conservative Muslims at 
home, spoke Monday of a 
world “where every pregnancy 
is planned." 

But. speaking in English, she 
also said that the proposed plan 
of action had “serious flaws” 
that struck at the heart of cul- 
tural values in both industrial- 
ized and developing countries. 
She had harsh criticisms for 
abortion and what appeared to 
her ro be the weakening of fam- 
ily values. 

Two other Islamic women 
who head governments. Prime 
Ministers Tansu Ciller of Tur- 
key and Khalida Zia of Bangla- 
desh, stayed home. 

Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Sudan 
and Lebanon — the last with 
not only a large Islamic popula- 
tion but also a strong Maronite 
Christian community tradition- 
ally close to Rome — are boy- 
cotting the conference. 


Continued from Page 1 
Pentagon's ability to maintain 
combat readiness. 

Many UN officials say they 
are grateful that the Pentagon 
intervened after an unexpected 
migration of Rwandan refugees 
had spun out of UN control. 
But the gap between the Clin- 
ton administration’s public 
promise and the military’s per- 
formance has distressed some 
U.S. aid officials and senior of- 
ficers at the UN High Commis- 
sioner for Refugees. 

“The filing has been that 
the Americans have not deliv- 
ered as much aid as the viewer 
of CNN has been led to be- 
lieve.” said a senior UN relief 
official. 

“The Americans came in full 
of plans and promises to put 
everything right, and as soon as 
they came in, (bey started talk- 
ing about getting out.” said an- 
other relief official, who has 
been deeply involved in arrang- 
ing the U.S. military support 

With the death toll in make- 
shift camps on the Rwanda- 
Zaire border reduced from a 
peak of more than 5,000 refu- 
gees a day to fewer than 500 a 
day, virtually all of the 2,100 
U.S. troops and 57 cargo air- 
craft rushed to the region in 
early August are to be with- 
drawn by the end of this month, 
military officials say. 

That date is earlier than some 
U.S. diplomats and many inter- 
national relief workers favor. 
Moreover, the military plans to 
depart after performing only a 
portion of the four principal hu- 
manitarian tasks Lbat W. An- 
thony Lake, the national securi- 
ty adviser, and other senior U.S. 
officials pledged it would un- 
dertake. 

The White House promised 
in July, for example, that the 


mili tary would essentially take 
on half of the relief burden out- 
lined by the United Nations for 
an estimated 1 2 milli on refu- 
gees. most of whom are still in 
temporary camps. It pledged 
then to provide complete water 
and airport services, establish a 
major hub for airlift operations 
and sustain a ground transport 
system for vital aid. 

Mr. Clinton called it “the 
most difficult and complex" re- 
lief effort that the world had 
faced in decades. 

U.S. and relief officials said, 
however, that the Pentagon had 
provided only partial airport 
services and had declined UN 


Zairian Warns . 
Outsiders to Go 

Reuters 

KINSHASA, Zaire — 
Blaming the expatriate 
community for Zaire’s cri- 
sis. a radical opposition fig- 
ure warned Monday that 
all foreigners should leave 
the country within a week 
or suffer the consequences. 

Joseph Olengankoy, 
head of the Forces: for 
Union and Solidarity, said 
at a press conference that 
all expatriates besides dip- 
lomats should leave tempo* 
rarity to allow the opposi- 
tion to establish "the rule of . 
law" 

"The country is bring 
held hostage by foreigners, 
who are bleeding itdiy,” he 
said. “Zaire is about to en- 
ter its liberation phase.” He 
did not specify what action 
would be taken against 
those who stayed, bnt he 
made it clear that violence 
was being considered. : 


requests to airlift more equip- 
ment ■ for b uilding - roads and 
digging latrines. It also declined 
a series of UN requests to help 
bury bodies at Goma, Zaire, 
and improve the -airfield at Bu- 
kavu, Zaire, near makeshift 
camps now harboring more 
than 230,000 refugees. 

Several U.S. relief officials 
also said the mflitaiy had not 
supplied as much -water as the 
refugees needed, which the Pen- 
tagon disputes. But nvHtary of- 
ficers and relief officials agree 
that the Pentagon was never or- 
dered to mam min a fleet of 
food trades or to provide avia- 
tion and -diesel fuel for the rdief 
operation, as Mr. Lake and UJS. 
diplomats had promised. 

The friction between relief 
officials and U.S. military com- 
manders over the Rwanda oper- 
ation partly reflects a larger dis- 
agreement between the two 
groups about the Pentagon's 
present and . future role in hu- 
manitarian disasters, according 
to U.S. officials. 

Many UN relief officials wjrt 
once worried that working wim 
military forces would compro- 
mise their neutrality now regard 
file Pentagon as a vital partner 
is managing' otherwise insolu- 
ble refugee crises. 

' -Some UN officials said they 
coveted the Pentagon’s superb 
airlift and engineering assets, 
which they cannot hope to 
match. They hope the U.S. mili- 
tary will place some of its 

S ment on permanent 
y for humanitarian-oper- 
ations. 

But many senior UJ5. mili- 
tary officers, while acknowledg- 
ing that joining rdief .opera- 
tions can sow goodwin. look 
warily at transforming their 
current ad hoc involvement into 
a routine task. 


EUROPE: Britain Rejects Plans for a Multitiered EU 


Continued from Page 1 
ment, at which progress toward 
political and economic union 
under the Treaty of European 
Union will be reviewed, is 
scheduled for 19%. 

Umberto Bossi, the leader of 
Italy’s Northern League, bitter- 
ly denounced the proposals, 
saying EU countries had "fallen 
under the heel of the descen- 
dants of the Prussian landown- 
ing aristocracy.” 

Mr. Bossi, whose party is a 
member of Italy’s rightist gov- 
erning coalition, said Europe 
also was “at the mercy of the 
arrogance of a part of the 
puffed-up French political 
classes who pejoratively dismiss 
the Italians as ‘macaronis.' ” 

The Christian Democratic 
paper, which also called for the 
extensive reform of EU institu- 
tions, was presented last week 
by Wolfgang Sch&uble, parlia- 
mentary leader and the second 
most powerful figure in the par- 
ty. 

Mr. Major has called for a 
“multitrack, multispeed" ap- 
proach to Europe, but said be 


wanted Britain at the heart of 
Europe and had no intention of 
allowing the country to be left 

(AFP, Reuters) 

IK Cresson Appointed lo EU 

Edith Cresson, who served a 


stormy 10-month stmt as the . 
first womab to be 'France's 
prime minister, in. 1991 and. 
1992, was nominated Monday 
by President Francois Mitter- 
rand for a seat bn the European 
Commission, The AssociatA 
Press reported from Paris. * 


BOSNIA: Pope Barred in Belgrade * 


Continued from Page 1 
jevo warned on Monday that 
the life of Pope John Paul II 
would be at risk on any visit 
Reuters reported. 

With the Vatican under pres- 
sureto decide whether the "74- 
year-old pontiff should go 
ahead with his visit to the Bos- 
nian capital on Thursday, the 
UN official, -who asked not to 
be named, added that the lives 
of those around.the Pope would 
be airisk as well.’ 

The papal plane will land at 
an airport that has been shelled 
in the past and he will be ex- 
posed to sniper fire in a rity that 


is surrounded by Serbian be-' 
siegers and defended by the 
government army. "Z 

Informed sources said Vati->, 
can officials could wait until tbd. " 
eve. of the wit before making af- 
final announcement. The Pop*,-.-, 
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International Herald Tribune 
Tuesday ; September 6 , 1994 
Page 7 


Bridging the Generation Gap With the Youth of Autumn 


By Suzy Menkes 

International Herald Tribune 


P AWS — A youthquake has shaken fashion — and the 
manged landscape was on view at the exhibitions held 
fast weekend. In lhe offerings for women and men at the 
Porte de V ersailles, there was not so much a gender divide 
as a generation gap. For the first time since the 3960s, kids are 
demanding clothes that their parents, or even their older siblings. 


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unt are easy looks that could be worn by all ages: sportswear 
tracksuits or sleek tailoring. In have come the dreamy long dresses 
and gentle kmts that dominated the prSt-a-porter salon. Or there 
are sharp, shiny Lolita-meets-Barbarella clothes, that are destined 
sot for the office, but the disco. The brat fashion pock wears 
micro-mim-kilts (in candy pink gingham or silver fake leather), 
sex-shop fabrics like vinyJ and rubber, and techno-gi amour (neon- 
bright nylon vests and glossy patent stilettos). 

' Innovations included an urban-style display tent called “Who’s 
Next” filled with rap music, jeans and techno-wear. And a show of 
discomania by Jean-Paul Gaultier, laun chin g a lower-priced line. 

Now that the cyberspace generation is on a different fashion 
planet, with the mass market following, designers and retailers 
have to think of fresh ways to show and sell to an often baffled 
established clientele. Unveiling fall clothes now is the answer for 
Azzedine AJala, who has been working on his line all summer. 
And for Martin Margiela, who has kept his fall collection under 
wraps until he unveils it simultaneously in boutiques in four cities 
on three continents on Wednesday. 


Martin Margiela 

International Herald Tribune 

T HE suit has the stolid style of 25 
years ago. The blouse is like an 
old-fashioned smock. The la- 
bels are more precise: “Men’s 
suit 1970, schoolgirl’s blouse 1920. exact 
reproductions.” 

Martin Margiela, the designer whose 
made-over flea- market clothes put an 
end to the conspicuous consumption of 
the 1980s, is now reproducing period 
clothes. 

“Authenticity is more and more im- 
portant — instead of imitating originals, 
I decided to make complete reproduc- 
tions,” says Margiela, who shows his fall 
collection for the first time Wednesday. 

At Charivari in New York, Joseph in 
London, at the four Paris boutiques and 
in Tokyo, women — sometimes cast 
from the street — will show 12 key out- 
fits to actual and potential clients. It is a 
move by the 37-yearnoId designer to 



iiY.-.lstP* 


Jean-Paul Gaultiers letter-printed JPG separates at his discomania show. 


Picnt flouted 'AFP for ihe IntenurionaJ Herald Tribun 


break the fashion system where a design- 
er's ideas are often watered down by 
buyers and served up to the public six 
months after their conception. 

The designer also said he felt that 
fashion shows for the pros had gone stale 
and that “the whole house wanted a new 
experience — we need that kind of con- 
centration of energy, creativity and 
ideas.” 

Last season, Margiela took a stand 
against fashion novelty by making his 
collection entirely from his creations of 
the last seven years, maybe changing the 
fabric, but stating the original season on 
the label. A few “classics” will appear in 
Wednesday's show, and true to his earli- 
er spirit of turning seams inside out, a 
new dress is reproduced from the lining 
of a 1930s dress and another group is 
based on male and female underwear. 

The most striking idea is the wardrobe 
of Barbie and Ken — the famous doll 


duo — exactly reproduced but blown up 
to adult sizes. That means a double-knit 
sweater set or a fake leather jacket com- 
plete with hand-sewn snaps. The design- 
er said he enjoyed the project because it 
was “completely abstract.” 

Why do all Margiela’s avenues of ex- 
ploration seem to lead backward to fash- 
ion’s past rather than forward to its fu- 
ture? 

He admits to a nostalgia for the anar- 
chic 1970s that he could not join in as a 
child in the small Flanders town of 
Genk- After studying fashion in Ant- 
werp, he came to Paris and worked for 
Jean-Paul Gaultier. 

“Every designer looks to retro stuff,” 
says Margiela. “If you put a blank paper 
in front of me. things come up and on me 
from my own culture. 

“1 think I always look forward. But it 
is a nicer Feeling For myself to go forward 
by looking backwards.” 










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Martin Margiela y s reworked period clothes and Barbie doll wardrobe for his fall collection. 


Azzedine Alaias shearling cowgirls. 


Ifim W in M’V 


flREP 

(•PLACE 


THE KID STAYS EV THE 
PICTURE 

By Robert Evans. Illustrated. 
■; 412 pages. $24.95. Hyperion. 

Reviewed by Janet Maslin 

T HE great age of the Holly- 
wood mogul was over by 
- the time Robert Evans became 
\ Paramount's head of produc- 
: cion in the mid-1960s, but no 
, one let Evans know. So he 
reigned with the shameless exu- 
be ranee of an old-time studio 
czar, living large and attracting 
talent of every stripe. 

He lived in a house with a 
- 2 , 000 -rosebush garden, as he is 
fond of mentioning. And he 
. held weekly at-home sereen- 
■r ings, at which “among the 
mainstays were Warren, Dus- 
. tin. Jack, Roman.” etc. 

Generous to a fault, in 1969 
' he was renting cars for 14 dif- 
ferent aspiring actresses. And 
“today, or the 14 girls, six have 
become internationally famous 
stars, none earn less than a mil- 
lion bucks a year” 


Now Evans’s most brazen 

production turns out to be his ~ — - — 

memoir, a boastful, name-drop- • Mouflda Tlatfi, Tunis i an - 
ping account of high and low born filmmaker, is reading “A 

times in the limelight. (“It's Small Personal Voice: Essays. 

been said that when people stop Reviews Interviews* by Doris 
talking about you, that’s the Lessing, 
time to worry. 1 wouldn’t know “1 have read every word Les- 
— it’s never happened.”) sing has written. There is a lumi- 

“The Kid Stays in the Pic- nous wisdom and seriousness 
mre” is shallow, self-aggrandiz- that flows from her pen. She 
ing and, at crucial moments in blends hard-headed realism with 
Evans’s checkered legal history. compassion For failure. Her 
notably evasive. But don’t even phrases burn themselves into the 
try to put it down. mind.” ( Margaret Kemp, IHT) 

He loves big-name anec- 1 

dotes. On screening “Love Sto- 
ry'’ for the queen mother, and supposed Evans cronies like 
betting Ali MacGraw, who was Mike Todd, Errol Flynn, Henry 
then his wife, that the film Miller. Cary Grant and Porfirio 


BOOKS 


WHAT THEY'RE READING 


his mother's maiden name. Ev- And the snubs began. As an 
ans enjoyed early success as independent producer on “Ur- 
boita a ladykiller and a garment ban Cowboy,” he wrangled 
manufacturer. (“I'm in ladies’ with John Travolta and found 


pants,” he liked to say.) 


himself persona non grata for 


His good looks and take- that film's party, 
charge manner caught the eye More seriously, Evans lost 
of Norma Shearer, who thought conlac i with his‘ brother and 


he could play her husband Ir- 
ving Thai berg, and so he briefly 
became an actor. 

He also attracted the interest 
of Darryl F. Zanuck. who spot- 
ted Evans on the dance floor at 
El Morocco and picked him to 


would make her weep: “A cash- 
mere sweater, the old lady cops 
a tear.” 

On whal Henry Kissinger 
supposedly said, not long after- 
ward, about trying to patch up 
the MacGraw-Evans marriage: 
M If I can negotiate with the 
North Vietnamese, I think I can 
smooth the way with Ali." 

Everyone mentioned here, 
from O. J. Simpson’s lawyer to 


1 play the handsome young bull- 

fighter in “The Sun Also Rises.” 

supposed Evans cronies like asks about ignoring MacGraw. The command that “The kid 
Mike Todd, Errol Flynn, Henry whom he sent to shoot “The stays in the picture,” delivered 
Miller. Cary Grant and Porfirio Getaway” with Steve by "Zanuck to save Evans from 
Rubirosa. happens toJ>e fam- McQueen, while he locked being fired, permanently sold 
ous. “I’m stuck, baby," he says horns with Francis Ford Cop- Evans on the autocratic plea- 
he told Sharon Tate, who e\- pola over “The Godfather." sures of a mogul’s life, 
pected him for dinner on the Evans's own story also has a The story goes beyond Ev- 
night she was murdered. 

“Count me out. Sorry.” 

But he neu tralizes complain is 


Evans on the autocratic plea- 
sures of a mogul’s life. 

The story goes beyond Ev- 


shot at being remembered, ans’ Paramount heyday to de- 
since it incorporates such ex- scribe his laLer existence as a 
travagant ups and downs. Even Hollywood pariah. 


ivagauT ups and downs. Even Hollywood pariah, 
by sounding self-deprecating by Hollywood standards, this is The fall from power is de- 
almost as often. “What do you a melodramatic life. scribed in ripe detail. He lost his 

say about a guy who wants to H e was named Robert Sha- wife and son. He lost his house, 
get rid of his wife so he can fish t pera af ter his birth in 1 930. and ins office, his money and, worst 
full-time with his director?” he later switched to a variation on of all, his cachet. 


brother-in-law after all three 
were implicated in a 1980 drug 
bust. In only a couple of pages, 
he writes off these and several 
other close relationships that 
ended at the same time (includ- 
ing his friendship with Kissin- 
ger), thus making it clear that 
this book's confessional tone 
goes only so far. 

However much score- settling 
and behind-the-scenes gossip 
Evans cares to indulge in, he 
remains a wholehearted, avid 
creature of the movie world. 

At the end of the memoir, he 
has his house and his hopes 
back. It's a Hollywood life, 
complete with a Hollywood 
ending. 


Jean-Paul Gaultier 

IntcmMtowl Herald Tribune 

I T used to be called unisex — when women started to 
wear the pants and Mick Jagger wore a dress. Jean-Paul 
Gauluer harked back to the days when you could act 
tell the chicks from the chaps. But the model duos 
walking out in his new JPG spring collection were anything 
but retro in their identical stretch tunics, gingham sarongs, 
smock shirts and patterns of scattered letters. 

It was vintage Gaultier in the good and the bad sense. There 
were finely tailored pieces like shrunken striped blazers or 
fitted frock coats in sorbet colors. There were saucy kilts and 
innovative dresses, either with neoclassical silhouette or 
I930s-style in soft crepe. But. inevitably, they were subject to 
every possible distraction, from homed hairdos and fright 
makeup to rambling punk accordion players, random graffiti 
artists and manic dancing in a make-shift disco. And a 
predictable hour-and-a-haif delay. 

Was it worth it? Wouldn't the T-shirts in mixes of shiny and 
mat fabrics, the simple dresses and pants hat e looked just as 

f ood on an exhibition stand as slung around with sequined 
tinges and feather boas? Especially as the prices are 20 
percent lower than any previous Gaultier label. Street-style 
fashion shows are gelling to be a bore. Even if they make great 
shake-it-all-aboui photo opportunities for MTV. 


Azzedine Alaia 


Intcrnatmul Herald Tribune 

Y OU have to hand it to a designer who can make tweed 
look super-sexy and give a fresh spin to cowgirl chic. 
Azzedine Alala’s skill is in the cut and thrust of his 
clothes and the way they fit. from the spike-heeled puss- 
in-boots rising to the minuscule knitted dress (with tactfully 
attached underpants) to the buckskin gaucho pants that unfurled 
from a skirt 

The most mouthwatering looks were speckled Donegal tweeds 
in sugared-almond colors for shapely long jackets and fashion’s 
favorite mini-kilts. The sweet pink, blue and almond-green colors 
came too in fluffy knits with a Jong soft pile simulating monkey 
fur. Other knits were on a medieval 3rmor theme, reinforced by 
the thigh-high crusader boots. 

But Alala’s strongest iberne was the cow girl in chaps or jackets, 
made of verdigris leather, perhaps with a mini-apron wrapped 
round the hips. Shearling jackets with the seams articulated rather 
than stitched showed AJaJa’s couture craftsmanship. 

Why does he choose to work to his own rhythm, rather than 
within the framework of the other ready-to-wear showings? 

”1 don't like the word fashion.” and it does not have to have a 
“season,” said Alaia. “Often clients will buy something from last 
summer or from two years ago. If they like it. they buy it — and 
sometimes women need time to get used to it." 


CHESS 


By Robert Byrne 

M ichael adams beat 

Anatoli Karpov in the 
first round of the Dortmund 
International Tournament. 

Against the solid Nimzovich 
Variation, 4...Nd7, in the Caro- 
Kann Defense, Adams chose 
one of the oldest plans. 5 Nf3 
Ngf6 6 Ng3. preventing an ex- 
change of knights to take ad- 
vantage of Black’s slightly 
cramped position. 

After 13 Bc2, Adams’s slight 
superiority derived from his c4 
pawn, which controlled more 
space than the brack center 
pawn at e6. 

His 16 Nf6 Bf6 17 Qd3! 
could not have been met bv 
J7...h6? because 18 Nb7 Nb7 19 
Qh7 Kf8 20 b3! Ke7 21 Ba3 
Kd8 22 Rabl exposes the black 
king in the center. His 17...Bg5 
18 Bg5, however, gave Adams 
the bishop pair in an open posi- 
tion, where it would prove use- 
ful. 

On 19 Racl. Karpov could 
not accept the pawn with 
19...Qc4? because 20 Qc4 Rc4 
21 Bb7! Nh7 22 Rc4 Ng5 23 
Rd7 would have cost him a rook 
for a knight. Also 19...Qa5 20 
Be3 Qa2 21 b3 QaJ 22 Ral Qb4 
23 Ra7 is positionally strong for 
White. 

After 28 Be3. Adams’s a, b 
and c pawns were poised for an 
advance. Accordingly, Karpov 
aimed for counterplay in the 
center with 28...e5 29 Qf2 e4. 

On 33...ba, Adams wasted no 
rime recapturing but kept com- 
ing with 34 c5 a6 35 c6 Ba8 36 
Bd4. 

After 40 Qd3, Karpov could 
not play 40...f5 because 41 Bf2! 
QdJ 42 Bd3 wins at once. Also. 
40...Nf5 41 Bb6 Qd3 (or 
41. ..Qe6 42 Qb5) 42 Bd3 Nd6 
43 Bb5! Rc8 44 Rdl Nb5 45 
Rd8 is hopeless for Black. 

After Adams’s 49 Be5!. Kar- 
pov could not capture with 
49...Re5 because 50 Rd7! ends 
all resistance. And after 49...BI5 
50 RdS Kh7 (or 50... KfS 5 1 Bf6 
gf 52 Bc6) 51 Re8 (51 Bf6 Rel 
52 KI2 Rcl 53 Be5 F6 54 Bd6 b3 


KWPOV/BUV^K 


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Position after 48 . . . Re8 

Bf5 g6 54 Bc7 gf 55 Ba5. Adams 
was a piece ahead. 

AfLer 59 h4, Karpov had the 
choice of 59...Kh4 60 Bf6 mate 
or losing one pawn after anoth- 
er with 59...Kg6 60 Kf4 f6 61 
Bb2. He gave up. 

CARO-KANN DEFENSE 


White 

Black 

WUW 

Black 

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Karpov 

Adams 

Karpov 

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39 Re8 


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41 BI2 

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42 W7 

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47 Be4 

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48 

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49 Bei 

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50 RdS 

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59 hJ 

Resigns 


55 c8/Q BcS 56 Rc8 b2 57 Be4 

Janet Maslin is on the staff of f5 58 Bf5 g6 59 RbS gf 60 Rb2 
The New York Times. also wins) Ne8 52 Be4 NC7 53 


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The program for the conference 
will focus on three key sectors: 
telecommunications, 
transportation and energy. 
















































































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THETRIB INDEX: 116 . 

International Herald Tribune World Stock Index ©. composed of 
280 internationally irwestable stocks from 25 countries, compiled 
by Bloomberg Business News. Jan. 1, 1992 = 1 00 
120 — 



100 ; 


gg -V i «- t ■ . 


World Index 

9/5/94 close 116.92 
Previous: 1 18.11 . 


.•■ 1 •» 


S 

1994 


AsiaJPaciflc 


Approx, weeing: 32% 
CtoSE 131.98 Piew: 133.17 


150 


Approx, wearing: 37% 
CSoss: 11B.3B Prev.: 119.10 


130 


***** 


cv»ffr^ 



World Index 


JTie tKtex tracks U.S. dollar values of stocks it: Tokyo, Now York, London, amt 
Argentina. Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Hntand, 
France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, llexica, Nedtertands, New Zealand, Norway. 
Singapore, Spain, Sweden. Switzerland and Venezuela. For Tokyo. New York and 
London, vie mdex is composed of tite SO top. issues it terms of market capitalization, 
otherwise the ton top stocks are tracked. 


1 Industrial Sectors . ! 


Hod. Prw. % 


ihm. 

Pm. 

% 


daw do» eimg* 


dose 

dost 

etang* 

Enorgy 

115.72 110.33 -0.52 

Capital Goods 

119.84 

120.79 

-0.79 

Unities 

128.46 13158 -257 

Raw Materials 

136.32 

137.74 

-1.03 

Finance 

116.07 117.91 -156 

Consumer Goods 

104.94 

105.39 

-0.43 

Services 

122.36 123.48 -051 

MsceBaneous 

138.00 

137.99 

+0.01 

For more Information about the Index, a booklet is available bee of charge. 


Write lo Trib Index 181 Avenue Charles de Gaulle. 92521 Newly Cedex. France. 


News Channel Sharpens Its Focus 

Asia-Only Business Broadcast Builds a Following 


By Edward A. Gargan 

New York Times Service 

SINGAPORE — Richard Li. an aspir- 
ing tycoon and the son of one of the 
world's richest men, U Ka-shing. keeps a 
bank of seven television sets constantly 
glowing in his Hong Kong office. 

One of them is tuned to the latest 
entrant in the region's wanning satellite- 
television wars: Asia Business News, or 
ABN. 

“It’s a channel for Asia only.” Mr. Li 
said, “and it gives me what l need.” 

With television satellites cluttering the 
heavens above Asia like beer cans strewn 
along a. forest trail, the great need is not 
so much for more orbital litter — al- 
though a wave of new satellites is coming 
— but for something to beam off them, 
particularly something that can appeal 
to a regional, instead of local, audience. 

Paul France, a New Zealander who is 
the chief executive of ABN. said he had 
found a recipe for attracting Asian view- 
ers by capitalizing on the explosive growth 
of Asia's economies, the huge expansion 
of trade and investment wiimn the region 
and the demand for more and faster busi- 
ness news by the legions of executives 
frenetically shuttling around Asia. 

“The potential in Asia is enormous, but 
it’s still only potential." Mr. France said at 
the channel’s headquarters ia a glittering 
office tower in downtown Singapore. "Af- 
ter looking at all the options, we said. 
‘Everybody in this part of the world is 


interested in money. It’s part of their lives. 
Let’s do a business network.' ” 

So in May, from a pristine expanse of 
journalists' cubicles, control rooms filled 
with television monitors, satellite control 
panels, high-powered graphics computers 
and a broadcast studio, Mr. France began 
transmitting the region’s only channel 
dedicated to Asian business news. 

For 18 hours a day. news and analysis 


f We are the only 
regional business network 
in Asia, for Asia, by 
Asians. Everybody's talked 
about it but nobody's 
done it,' 

Pan] France, chief executive of 
Asia Business News 


of the region's multitudinous markets, 
big and small companies, investments 
and politics are showered on millions of 
satellite dishes across Asia, all in English 
except for a short segment in Mandarin. 

“We are the only regional business 
network in Asia, for Asia, by Asians,” 
Mr. France said. “Everybody's talked 
about it, but nobody’s done it.” 

ABN can be received in Japan, much 


of China, all of Southeast Asia and as far 
away as Australia and eastern India. 

The real question for Mr. France's 
venture is whether it can succeed as a 
business. So far, advertising has been 
thin, not only on ABN but also on other 
satellite channels in the region. 

The channel's start-up costs were S20 
million. “The shareholders said from the 
beginning there wasn't any expectation 
of turning a profit for five years.” said 
Mr. France, who declined to discuss 
ABN’s losses so far. 

Nikhil Srmivasan. a vice president at 
Baring Securities in Hong Kong who 
specializes in media and telecommunica- 
tions. said that while there was a need for 
ABN. its success was not assured. 

Critical to ABN’s goal of being regard- 
ed as a regional network, Mr. France 
said, is the need to be seen as an out- 
growth of the region itself. 

“We’re clearly seen as not being 
American,” he said. “It's the feeling that 
there’s noi somebody in New York tell- 
ing us the meaning of life. Our reporters 
come from all over the world, all over the 
region.” 

But American companies are interest- 
ed in the network. Tele-Communications 
Inc., the largest cable operator in the 
United States, and Dow Jones & Co., the 
publisher of the Wall Street Journal and 
the owner of Telerate, a financial news 
service, each own 30 percent of the net- 
work, as does Television New Zealand. 
Mr. France’s former employer. 



Sees Operating 
Profit Next Year 


Compiled bv Our Sufi Fran Onputche 

FRANKFURT — Metallge- 
sellschaft AG said Monday it 
expected to return to operating 
profit next year after success- 
fully selling off several subsid- 
iaries and its downtown Frank- 
furt headquarters. 

But the German metals and 
trading company that almost 
went bankrupt earlier this year 
indicated it probably would 
need more money from share- 
holders and creditors lo avoid 
another cash crisis because of 
the high cost of its ongoing re- 
structuring. 

The company was saved from 
bankruptcy earlier this year by 
a 3.4 billion Deutsche mark 
($2.2 billion) bailout by share- 
holders and major creditors. 

After a meeting of its .supervi- 
sor}’ board on Monday, the com- 
pany announced it agreed to sell 
its complex of office buildings in 
Frankfurt for an unspecified but 
“considerable” extraordinary 
profit. 

It has also “come nearer to a 
sale” of its 47 percent stake in 
Kolbenschmidt AG. a German 
maker of automotive pans. 


European Markets Hit by German Rate Outlook 


<B International Herald Tribune 


Compiled by Our Sioff From Dispatches 

FRANKFURT — The probability 
that German interest rates will remain 
firm drove slocks and bonds lower here, 
casting a bearish tone on markets across 
Europe. 

Hans Tietmeyer. the president of the 
Bundesbank, said over tne weekend that 
the German central bank would keep a 
“steady hand” on interest rates in the 
coming weeks. 

The remark spurred sentiment that 
the cycle of rates reductions across Eu- 
rope had come to an end. 

The DAX index of 30 leading Ger- 
man stocks tumbled 137 percent, to 
2,174.52 points, while yields on 10-year 


government bunds jumped to 6.75 per- 
cent. a 21 -month high. 

“If you look st the fundamentals, the 
German economy’s going great guns." 
said Hans-Dieter’Ruffer, with AXA Eq- 
uity & Law Fondsmanagement Gesell- 
schaft fur Kapitalanlagen Mbh. in Wies- 
baden. “The Bundesbank doesn't need 
to anything and it won’t do anything for 
the foreseeable future.” 

The Bundesbank tends to lead mone- 
tary policy throughout Europe, and 
many analysts said other coumries were 
unlikely to lower rates without leader- 
ship from Germany. 

High bond yields reduce the attrac- 
tiveness of stock dividends, which can 


sap money from equity markets. High 
rales also burden stock markets by mak- 
ing the cost of borrowing to fund expan- 
sion expensive. 

A weak dollar, which could mean ris- 
ing U.S. interest rates in the months 
ahead, also held down European stock 
and bond markets on Monday. 

In Frankfurt, traders said the slide may 
have been exaggerated by the fact that 
volume was thin because of the absence 
of U.S. traders. U.S. markets were dosed 
for the Labor Day holiday. 

in France, theCAC-40 index lost MO 
percent, to 1. 998.20 points, while bond 
prices dropped. 


"There's a sea-change in investors' per- 
ceptions,” said Patrick Langiais. u trader 
at CCF. “They're going from a cycle of 
interest rale cuts lo a new one when 
interest rates are rising or at best steady.” 

Italian stocks were burdened by the 
pending release of the governments 
budget plan for 1995. due before the end 
of the month. The Mibtel index in Milan 
lost 2.12 percent, to 10.703.00 points. 

London was able lo buck the trend of 
lower stocks seen on the Continent, with 
the Finandal Times-Stock Exchange 
100-share index edging up Q.5S percent, 
to 3341.50 points. 

(Bloomberg. Reuters. Knight- Bidder) 


With these two operations 
and others that had been an- 
nounced leave the metals com- 
pany prepared to return to oper- 
ating profitability as soon as the 
fiscal year ending Sept. 30. 1995. 
the company said. 

A spokesman said the 1994- 
1995 fiscal year operating profit 
probably would be in the "mil- 
lions of’ Deutsche marks." but 
he refused Jo give a more specif- 
ic forecast. 

Meiallgcsellsch aft's plans to 
sell its stake in Castle Energy 
Corp. of the United States "re- 
move the major problem and 
source of risk that would have 
automatically led to further 
high losses at MG Corp.,“ the 
U.S. trading subsidiary* the 
company said. 

The company said it would 
need to raise its risk provisions 
beyond the I billion DM it de- 
cided earlier this summer. 

After the company's results 
Tor the current financial y ear are 
tabulated in (he fall, it will also 
ask shareholders and creditors to 
approve an unspecified package 
of measures “to render the com- 
pany's capital base sustainable 
again in the wake of the costly 
restructuring.” it said. 

A spokesman said a rights 
issue was one possible way of 
raising fresh cash, but be re- 
fused to comment further. 

Earlier tnis summer, the com- 
pany warned investors that its 
restructuring efforts carried 
substantial risks and advised 
them to treat its shares as spec- 
ulative investments. 

ee Merck Sees Profit 

Merck AG. the Swiss-based 
division of German pharmaceu- 
tical group E. Merck Che- 
mische Fabrik OHG. said the 
strong Swiss franc limited first- 
half net profit growth, but that 
it expected double-digit profit 
growth in 1994, news agencies 
reported from Zurich. 


INTERNATIONAL STOCKS 


Polls Ignite Brazil Stocks 


S 


By James Brooke 

New York Times Service 

AO PAOLO — With one month to go 
before Brazil's presidential election on 
Oct. 3, a centrist candidate has deci- 
sively overtaken his socialist opponent 
in opinion polls, triggering a frenzy of invest- 
ment and pushing SSo Paulo’s stock index up 
67 percent since the beginning of July. 

This year the Sao Paulo slock exchange has 
risen faster than any other bourse in North or 
South America. Foreign investors pumped SI 
billion into the exchange in August alone. 

Sao Paulo’s market has been driven by 
opinion polls leading up to the election. Back 
in May, when Luis Inacio da Silva — a 
socialist trade unionist — was ahead in the 
polls, the Sao Paulo index lingered near this 
year’s low of $10. The index is valued for 
foreigners at the dollar exchange rate for a 
composite basket of stocks. 

By late AugusC when the polls showed 
Fernando Hemique Cardoso — a Social 
Democratic candidate of Brazil’s establish- 
ment — far ahead of the other candidates, the 
index reached $23. 

The resignation of Economy Minister Ru- 
bens Ricupero over the weekend is likely to 
put only a temporary damper on the market. 
Mr. Ricupero quit after he boasted to a TV 
reporter that he was using an anti-inflation 
plan to bolster Mr. Cardoso's campaign. 

[Paulo de Tarso, a portfolio manager at 
Banco Tendencia in Sao Paulo said President 
Itamar Franco's swift appointment of a new 
minister was likely to lessen the impact on 
stock prices. Mr. Franco appointed Ciro 
Gomes, governor of the state of Ceara, as 


economy minister on Sunday, Bloomberg 
Business News reported. 

[The Bovespa stock index fell more than 10 
percent, to 48,040, on Monday. But market 
analysts noted that events over the weekend 
bad not changed the long-term outlook in 
Brazil. Political scientists said Mr. Cardoso’s 
chances of winning the election bad not been 
damaged.] 

Behind Mr. Cardoso's surge in the polls is 
the short-term success of the economic plan 
be designed as finance minister before step- 
ping down in April to run for president. On 
July 1. Brazilians adopted a new currency, the 
real. Backed by $42 billion in reserves and a 
balanced budget the real appreciated against 
ihe dollar — from parity to SI. 14 ou Friday. 

At the same time, monthly inflation has 
plummeted, from 50 percent in June to 5.5 
percent in August 

The combination of economic and political 
stability has been a boon to investors. 

“Before, people said, ‘I won't invest in a 
country with 50 percent monthly inflation.* ’’ 
recalled Roberto Serwaczak of Baring Securi- 
ties do Brasil Lida. “Then they said, *1 won’t 
invest because of the political risk.’ Now. 
inflation is down, and Cardoso is going to be 
elected.” 

Some fund managers predicted a victory by 
Mr. Cardoso would mean a $5 billion increase 
in foreign investment into Brazil's stock mar- 
kets. 

But Brazil has a history of volatility. “If 
there is an economic disaster, like a violent 
spurt of inflation, the markets will go through 
an earthquake,” Veja, the nation's leading 
□ew&weekly cautioned last week. 

Reginald Dale is on vacation 


China Paper 
Says Prices 
Too High 

Reuters 

BEIJING — China’s annual 
inflation in August was more 
than 20 percent, the official 
China Information daily re- 
ported Monday, calling it intol- 
erable for some people. 

The report did not say wheth- 
er it was referring to the retail 
sales price index in major cities 
or the residents’ consumer price 
index for the whole country. 

Inflation in major cities in 
July stood at an annual 243 
percent and for the whole coun- 
try in June was 20 percent. 

“What China has now is high 
growth, high wages and high in- 
flation. What we hope for next 
year is high growth, a medium 
rise in wages and low inflation.” 
Zhu Rongji, deputy prime minis- 
ter in charge of "the economy, 
was quoted by Hua Shang news- 
paper as saying last month. 

“If we do not stabilize food 
prices, prices wfij go on rising 
and it will be hard for people to 
live." Mr. Zhu reportedly said. 

A Japanese analyst said. “.An- 
nual inflation for the whole year 
is likely to be 20 percent, more 
than double the official target." 
He added: “The best way to cut 
inflation is lo reduce the money 
supply, but this immediately af- 
fects state firms, many of which 
live off bank loans. ” 


CURRENCY & INTEREST RATES 


F.F. 

0JT7* 

Will 

032 

8371 

tWM 

HUS 


IU3 

&HS 

USB 

74UI 


D.fl 
1US2S 

MTU 
laW 
74141 
NWS 
CU5* 

1B3I 
SMS 
Oman 
tW HME 
wui in* 
ma.n ism 


Lira 
0.1 w 
!!*• 
MW 

13" 


MS*3‘ 

tun 


B-F. 

5445 1 


Sept. 5 
CS Pwete 
137 1344- 

Tt*1 JifflS* 

4857a* Lmi isan* i.tar irwr 

4 MU 10IW m«4 21182 

4JBS? w isms* «4is — 

fist 1303 lira VH445 I3.U7 


S.F. 

1JU 

Hil 

Llffll 

mm 


Yen 

17S4S* 

0323 

15485* 

B144 




Cross Rates 

t C DM. 

Amterdflm 1 -'S tern ua: 

Bnnult S1W W£A5 a* 75 

frmtkfort USSJ i®? 

London to) LSU 1 MW 

MO0TO B?.«l moo 

Mima MS* 5 ,M9 ® 

NOB ror* to* 

part* un 4375 l« 

TokW O* *“* 

Toronto 

urtch m tsau cm 

, ECU UUS 

. jnR 1<Ml1 4WI uw 

GcstaastoAmttordam. London and amok, lialmx toother centers; New York**, Toronto 

poumti 0: To tov one doikr; -. Units ot too: n.q. : not noted; NA.: not 

available. 


1 month 
3 months 
(months 
1 year 


Dollar 

4W-4^a 

5 IrS 
S’YrSVt 


QiaU 

MTU 

urn** 

It 4854 
471124 


10728 

7U1 


1*131 

119 


5JM2* 

IJ1M* 

12131 

IttlX 


18147 

naB 

M56* 

1451? 

1JS25 


4.118* 

0J4I 


UWE* 

is»ia 

140JBI 


If Deposits 

Swiss 


French 


Sept. 5 

D-Mark 

Franc 

Sterling 

Frane 

Yen 

ECU 

A >»ir4 

4 V4 >. 

5-5V, 

SSi-S 1 ' 1 : 

V 

£ • • -5 “ . 

4V5 

4 **4V. 

5V S’: 

S'^-5»y 

Sa.-Fe 

yu*5?i 

MVi 

44f4V.> 

5 - Xi 

5 -,S 

■Pn-T - 1 

8 --C '. 

£te-5Vy 

yds Bonn. 

4 y. 

o 

6'a-6\> 

3*t-2V 

e- -5 ' - 


Othsr Dollar Values 

Per* 

OlWW 
1347 
11V 
(MB 

a*» 

3U0 


Currency 
atsm&mm 
Antral t 
Aocrr.KML 
BratU real 
CtriMucyim 
Czech Koruna 


OanUhkreow UW 
EOTrt. pound H6M 
Fin. markka SU2 


currency 
Greek droc 
HotwKowJ 
HuiN-torint 

Indian runee 

lnda rucriab 

true c 

l*raeli«i«L 

KuwoHtOtenr QJT7# 
Mamy- rUV- 1S57 


Peri 
240.40 
7 JOS 
1S»>4 

31.14 
3171 .0J 
04&K 
3.07? 


Currency 
Me x. peso 
H. Zealand S 
Nor*, krone 
PMI. pew 
Roush itor» 
Port, escudo 
suns ruMe 
Saudi rtyal 
StnO.S 


Peri 

7X45 

imti 

ami 

24J0 

77211. 

wu? 

315UH 
175 
I JO 


Sept. 2 
Currancv hers 
S. Afr.rand 3J»5? 
S.Kor.UWn KW-50 
S wed. krone 7.7234 
Taiwan s 3£25 

Thai Dent 3JH 

Turkish m V73B. 
UAE dirham 3472? 
vene:. bollv. WXOO 


«M»r 

IJ40S 

IS7« 

13704 


W-dar 

1X395 

1JS772 

1J292 


Currency 
Canadian dollar 
Japanese yen 


30-aav 

IMS 

94.57 


Sepl.2 

AO-dOV TMay 
IJMl u*tt 
«3J «.1» 


Forward Rates 

Corrmcy ***? 

Pound Start me 
OonMrtenwrK 

sank 1S7!n^cSSSSt ss 


Rates acoticotve to intenonk aeoesits at St million minirpm urmiliswr' 


Key Money Rates 

United States Close Pr*v. Xriicin 

Discount rote 4.00 UA 

Prime rate 7** 

Federal funds Clsd. 4 

3-mofitt CDs — Oi 

Comm, paper 180 days — 5.00 

Steianlh Tressary bill — L5S 

1- yaar Treasury Mil — SZ7 

2- rear Treasury note — *13 

5 - year Treasury note — aJO 

7-reor Treasury tote — aJ 13 

10 -year Treasury ante — 7 Z0 

3*. year Treasury hood — 7.49 

Merrill Lynch JOday Beady asset — IT 

Japan 

Discount rate P* 1-* 

Call money 7X» 7 ", 

l. monin Interbank 7 7 . 

>momn intcrnonk 2'- 7'» 

i^naath Interbank 1*9 

10-year Government bond 4,75 iJt 

Germany 

Lombard rale *00 *00 

Can money 010 4.95 

1 -month interbank 5 JO 

3- mo nth Interbank 100 5.00 

6- monttt Interbank. 510 510 

10-yeor Bund 7-40 IJJ 


Bank base rate 

5'* 

5’j 

Coll money 


5M 

1 -month interbank 

5 ■- 

500 

3-month interbank 


5V: 

i-nwxrfh interbank 

8.00 

0^1 

Id-year GUI 

BftS 

SJS 

France 

Intervention rat* 

5i» 

510 

Call money 

5 

s 

I-montti interbank 

5+1 

Fv 

l-month interbank 

S'-: 

S’- 1 : 

t-month Interbank 

5 •- 

5 ’» 

10-year OAT 

7.W 

7.88 





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700 

Franc# 

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700 

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355 

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t 

210 

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115 

65 

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. as 

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22.000 

Ireland 

at 

230 

37 

125 

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hahi 

Lire 

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so 

275.000 



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14.000 

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7.700 

■3.300 

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770 

40 

420 

230 

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N Kr 

3.500 

36 

1,900 

1.050 


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47.000 

38 

28.000 

14.000 


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34 

26300 

14.500 

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27^00 

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630 

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780 


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Page 10 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1994 




Airbus to Launch 


Heavy Transport 
Military Aircraft 


A Swiss Army Knife Fight 


Rodamco 
Plans to Add 


DAX S .V 


;cao.^ 


M jv ' Altlif. 


Company Hopes to Cut Out Cloning Asian Assets 


Ltnjipiled fry Our Staff From Dispatch? 

FARNBOROUGH. Eng- 
land — Airbus Industrie, the 
European consortium, will ven- 
ture into military aircraft con- 
struction for the First time by 
supervising construction of a 
heavy-lift transport plane, offi- 
cials at Lbe Farn borough air 
show said Monday. 

All four Airbus partners axe 
individually involved in mili- 
tary aircraft construction, but 
the consortium itself has built 
only commercial jets. 

Boeing Co., meanwhile an- 
nounced plans to build a 
stretched, 189-passenger ver- 
sion of its medium-range 737, 
and said it had commitments — 
not firm orders — for 40 of the 
aircraft from four customers, 
which it refused to identify. 

The concept of a European 
military transport, known as 
the Future Large Aircraft, has 
been around for several years. It 
has become a pressing issue 
with increased talk of greater 
European defense cooperation. 

The market is now dominat- 
ed by U.S. manufacturer Lock- 


Every Friday 
Conlotf Fred Ronan 
Tel.: (33 1) 46 37 93 91 
Fax. [33 I } 46 37 93 70 
or your neared IHT office 
or representative 


heed Corp., which is offering a 
modernized version of its veter- 
an Hercules C-130. 

The Airbus partners — Aero- 
-“-fiale of France, British 
Aerospace PLC, Construc- 
ciones Aeronauticas SA of 
Spain and Deutsche Aerospace 
AG of Germany — plus the 
Italian manufacturer Alema, 
propose to build a four-engine 
turbo-prop to compete head on 
with the new Hercules. 

British Aerospace has built a 
full-scale mockup of the aircraft 
for Farn boro ugh. 

It wants the British govern- 
ment. which is considering buy- 
ing either the new Hercules or 
refurbished aircraft, to opt for 
the European plane instead. 
British Aerospace's chief execu- 
tive, Dick Evans, argued that if 
the British order goes to Lock- 
heed, his company will be fro- 
zen out of participation in the 
European transport project. 

Louis Gallois, the chief exec- 
utive of Aerospatiale of France, 
said the recently announced 
merger between Lockheed and 
Martin Marietta Coip. presents 
European manufacturers with a 
powerful challenge. 

“There are many events of this 
kind showing that consolidation 
is going faster and faster and we 
have to be tough and aggressive 
about doing the same in Eu- 
rope,” Mr. Gallois said. 

(Bloomberg, Reuters. AP) 


By John Tagliabue 

,Vm York Tima Service 

IBACH, Switzerland — The burghers of 
this hamlet on the slopes of the Alps have 
been anxiously watching the progress of a 
lawsuit in New York, which is expected to 
determine whether a Swiss Army knife can be 
made in China. 

The lego? test for the red-handled knife — a 
product that is virtually a Swiss institution — 
is crucial for tiny Ibach, population 3,500, an 
hour's drive south of Zurich. 

Ibach is the headquarters of Victorinox, the 
Swiss knifemaker that makes 80 percent of 
Swiss Army knives sold abroad. 

The case’ has also served to focus attention 
on the power of the Swiss Army name as a 
marketing vehicle to sell not only knives, but, 
increasingly, consumer goods such as watches, 
sunglasses and compasses. 

The news that the name Swiss Army is a 
gold mine strikes many Swiss as paradoxical, 
coming as the government in Bem is dramati- 
cally thinning the ranks of the aimed forces, 
the fierce defender of this tiny Alpine coun- 
try’s centuries-old neutrality, as part of a 
general effort to cap government spending. 

The knife was never exactly a mainstay of 
Swiss exports, and deliveries to the United 
States in 1993 totaled $37.6 million, only six- 
tenths of I percent of the manufactured goods 
Swiss companies shipped there. But it is, 
nonetheless, what Waiter Diggelmann, direc- 
tor of the Swiss-American Chamber of Com- 
merce in Zurich, called “another Swiss export 
success in a classical niche market" 

The lawsuit that has captured attention here 
arose two years ago when the American dis- 
tributor for Victorinox, whose factory here 
makes 7 milli on Swiss Army knives a year, 
sued to stop Chinese copies from being sold in 
the United States with the distinctive white 
cross and shield, the Swiss coat of arms. 


James Kennedy, the chairman and chief 
executive of Forschner Group Inc. in Shelton, 
Connecticut, which distributes the genuine 
item, said Chinese exports of bogus Swiss 
knives were “nothing new; it’s been going on 
for 20 years, ever since Washington allowed 
trading with China to commence." 

But Forschner was roused to legal action in 
1 992, Mr. Kennedy said, after Chinese-made 
knives began appearing with the cross and 
shield and the words Swiss Army. 

Last year, a federal district court in Manhat- 
tan accepted Forscbner’s argument that Arrow 
Trading Co. in New York, which distributes 
the Chinese knives, could not use the name 
Swiss Army, since that was tantamount to 
saying the knives were made in Switzerland. 

On July 22, however, an appeals courts in 
New York overturned the rulin g , arguing that 
Swiss Army was no more an indication that a 

g roduct was made in Switzerland than Dutch 
oy meant paint came from the Netherlands, 
and lifted an earlier injunction banning Ar- 
row from using the name. 

Karen Clancy, a lawyer representing 
Forschner in New York, said her hopes were 
buoyed by the appeals court's decision to send 
the case back to the lower court to decide 
whether Arrow was not culpable of deception 
by s elling a Chinese-made knife with the words 
Swiss Army, which have a “strong association" 
with Victorinox and Switzerland. 

The man watching the case most closely 
here in Ibach is the chief executive of Victor- 
inox, Carl Elsener Jr. His great-grandfather 
of the same name returned home from an 
apprenticeship in Germany in 1 884 to begin 
making knives. Building a selection of 400 
knives for use by butchers, restaurateurs and 
home kitchens, in addition to 400 varieties of 
pocket knives, Victorinox with its 970 em- 
ployees is the largest manufacturer of knives 
m Europe, with annual sales of $148 million. 


Reuters 

ROTTERDAM — Rodamco 
NV plans to invest 4.5 billion 
guilders ($3 billion) in Asian and 
European property over the next 
28 months and will finance part 
of that growth with a share issue, 
the company said Monday. 

“Economic growth in the Far 
East is higher than Europe and 
the U.S. and we have to be 
there,” said Wim Dijkema, the 
director of the company. “We 





1 him* 





really believe that by adding the 
Pacific Rim we will benefit our 
shareholders.” 

Rodamco is one of the 
world’s biggest property inves- 
tors, with assets or 11 billion 
guilders. The company's latest 
plan is aimed at evening its geo- 
graphical spread of holdings. 

At the moment, half of its 
investments are concentrated in 
the United States, but by the aid 
of 1996 the proportions will be 
35 percent in the United States, 
40 percent in Europe and 25 
percent in the Pacific Rim. 


: * -,••• , •/ 

London - •• •: Times#) 

■ London- 

•fen. ;r ' ^,'%BsrEb£- ■ 

vy>.CAS 40 . )>• 

-Stockholm •l.^Affeorstedr tden-.-' < jaw? 4 

y&Sick wfe:?- 3SME jjgg aE 

Sources: Reuters. AFP Imonuiwal HeraM Trite 


il k" 




lotanasional Herald Trihrae . 


Very briefly: 


EU Looks Into Fokker Deal 

Reuters 

BRUSSELS — The European 
Commission said Monday it was 
investigating a deal in which 
Dutch aircraft manufacturer 
Fokker NV is to receive 400 mil- 
lion guilders ($229 million) from 
Rabobank Nederland. The com- 
mission will uy to determine 
whether the deal, which involves 
leasebacks and tax write-offs, in- 
volves state aid. 


• WPP Group PLCs bank rescuers made profits of more than 
£100 million pounds ($155 million) profit after selling their stakes 
in the restructured advertising company; the lenders provided 
about than $1 billion in a debfr-for-equity in 1992. 


• Germany’s economy should grow around 3 percent in 1 995 after 
expandin g 2 percent or more this year, chief economists at 
Germany’s five leading economic institutes said. 

• West German drug-company sales rose 5.5 percent in. the first 
seven months, to 10.29 billion Deutsche marks ($7 billion) from 
9.75 billion DM a year earlier, the industry association said. 

• Deutsche Lufthansa AG said first-half sales climbed 8 percent, to 
8.93 billion DM, from 8.26 billion DM a year earlier. 

Reuters, Bloomberg. AFX 




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Dollar Slips Ahead of Data 


Reuters 

LONDON — The dollar 
trickled lower Monday as trad- 
ers held on to positions ahead 
of producer prices data and 
trade talks between the United 
States and Japan. 

Dealers said it was difficult 
to see the dollar moving up 
ahead of U.S. August producer 


round of talks begins Friday in 
Los Angeles. 


EDUCATION DIRECTORY 


The dollar fell to 53252 
French francs from 53350, and 
to 1.3060 Swiss francs from 
1.3080. The pound rose to 
$13479 from $13460. 


prices data due out on Friday. 
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The trade talks also resume on 
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The dollar closed at 13543 
Deutsche marks, down from 
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the yen it fell to 9935 from 
9930. 

Analysts said trade negotia- 
tions between the U.S. and Ja- 
pan would increasingly come 
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“As long as uncertainty over 
the trade position continues, 
the yen is going to be pretty 
firm against the dollar,” said 
Nick Stamenkoyic, economist 
at DKB International. 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1994 


Page ll 



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Reuters 

'•‘SHANGHAI — Prices 
aped in China’s market for so- 
; Sled A shares Monday amid 
! sports that Beijing was pursu- 
• . ng plans to open its domestic 
parkets to foreign investment. 

■ The Shanghai index of shares 
. eserved for Chinese investors 

■ wged 13.7 percent, or 116.98 
- oints, to 973.48, on record 

jmover of 15.49 billion yuan 

■ (2 billion). The A-share index 
. i Shenzhen rose 35.07 points, 

■ r nearly 20 percent, to 212.62. 
: Institutions and private in- 
estors have been waiting ea- 

. prly to find out whether Beij- 
1 ig would meet its pledge to 
.flow Sino-foreigu managed 
tads into the A -snare markets. 

Foreign investors now are 
oniined to the much smaller, 
^krd-currency B share markets. 

The Giina Securities newspa- 
pr said Saturday that regulators 
kd talked about a possible 
oange with foreign brokerage 
buses in China and “they unan- 
iiously expressed great interest, 
t such an extent that the China 
Sanities Regulatory Comnhs- 
s>n was quite surprised." 


Brokers. said Chinese inves- 
tors seemed convinced that for- 
eign cash would be pumped 
into the A-shares market. 

“The news was the trigger for 
a new bull run.” said Zhang Lei. 
a broker with Shanghai Interna- 
tional Securities. 

Beijing said in July it was con- 
sidering drawing in foreign capi- 
tal as pan of a rescue package 
for the then-collapsing A mar- 
kets. But analysts cautioned tha t 
major problems must be re- 
solved and said foreign money 
was unlikely to flood into ihe 
notoriously "speculative and un- 
ci err egulated A markets soon. 

■ Daiwa Investment Plan 

Daiwa Securities Co. and a 
Chinese securities firm have 
signed an agreement to encour- 
age foreign investment in Chi- 
nese companies and Chinese in- 
vestment in overseas .markets. 
Reuters reported from Tokyo. 

A Daiwa spokesman said the 
plan, with China Securities Co_ 
included setting up a joint in- 
vestment trust company to in- 
vest in Chinese domestic shares 
if China allows foreign inves- 
tors to trade Lhe A shares. 


EfflOPEAN FUTURES 


Metals 

Clue Previous 

BH Ask Bid Ask 

AJMINUM (Htgtl Grade) 

Otars, per metric ton 

St - . 153400 153500 1 46200 146300 

Fvvard 1559-00 136000 14VOOO 149140 
C*PER CATHODES CHtStl Grade) 
Ctarsper metric tan 

St _ 247860 2479.50 240800 240900 

Brand 249450 250500 250450 24T2XI0 

LAD 

am per metric ton 

St • • 40900 61 UU 554.00 55)50 

gjgn* 63UW 62200 57500 57530 

nan per metric too 

St 621000 621500 569500 570500 

Fword 630500 631000 578SOO 579500 

Oars Mr metric toe 

St K93O0 530300 517000 51 HUM 

ScUtoMfcnMwf^^" 

Uan Mr metric ton 

S# 974BS 97500 94X00 94400 

Pwacd . 99700 99800 96700 96800 


Financial 

HH* Low Close C honor 

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to 9054 9IL48 


9402 +003 

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9213 — BJ3 

9169 —002 
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9102 — OOl 
9085 — 002 
9075 —OOl 
9055 —OOl 
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9043 —ora 


■« . 9044 9041 - 

Esi. volume: 36454. Open InL: 54X565. 
MOUTH EURODOLLARS (LIFFE) 
RnllllM- Otter IMpct 
So 9457 94.97 

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MONTH PI BOR (MATIF) 

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9498 

900 

— 0J3 

9188 

9180 

9181 

— 212 

9169 

9X41 

920 

— 213 

9X18 

9111 

9X12 

— 113 

9292 

9283 

9285 

— 0.14 

9268 

9260 

9261 

— <U6 

92-52 

9248 

9246 

— aw 

9236 

9223 

9230 

— 0.13 


Est. volume; 3X800 Open InL: 201,144. 


LONGGILTfLIFFE) 

00888 - Ms & 32MI of 180 pet 

Sen 101-18 100-28 101-21 + WM 

Dec 101-81 100-08 .181-00 + (HJ3 

MOT N.T. N.T. 1 DO-12 +0413 

Est. volume: 35577. Open Int.: 119330. 
GERMAN GOVERNMENT BUND fUFFE) 
DM 250000- Ptl of 1M Pd 
Sep 90.94 9039 9030 —024 

Dec 9011 8938 B932 — 040 

Mar N.T. N.T. 89.17 —040 

Est. volume; 149326. Open InL: 146522 
LONG GILT (LIFFE) 

(SUM - pts 8. 33nds oflOO pel 
Sep 101-18 100-28 ier-21 +044 

Dec 101-01 100-OB 101-00 +040 

Mar N.T. N.T. 100-12 +0-03 

Est. volume: 35379. Open Ini.: 119.730 
18-YEAR FRENCH GOV. BONDS (MATIF) 
F rtOO BO B -ptl ollPOpct 



Qantas and Canberra Pressuring Air New Zealand 


By Michael Richardson 

Iruemanpiuil Herald Tribune 

AUCKLAND, New Zealand — Air 
New Zealand Ltd. is expected to report a 
record profit Wednesday, after some rig- 
orous cost-cuiting and a decision to 
spread its wings in Asia. 

But analysts said the carrier's future 
may be clouded by growing competition 
with one of its main shareholders, Qan- 
tas Airways Ltd. of Australia, and the 
reluctance of Australia to grant Air New 
Zealand unlimited rights to pick up and 
drop off passengers in Australia on 
flights to and from Asia. 

These so-called beyond rights are a 
key part of Air New' Zealand's strategy 
for w innin g Asian passengers, who tend 
to take relatively short vacations and 
want to make the most of them by travel- 
ing widely and seeing several places. 

“We have been a market leader in 
offering multidesrinational travel prod- 
ucts,” said James McCrea, Air New Ze- 
land’s managing director. “It allows us to 
be a more attractive carrier.” 

The airline offers direct flights from 
Asia to New Zealand, and it gives passen- 
gers from Japan, South Korea and Tai- 
wan the option of stopping over in Bris- 
bane, a major Australian vacation 
destination for .Asians, on a growing num- 
ber of flights to and from New Zealand 

Expansion of intern ational services — 
especially to Asian passengers seeking 
vacations from congestion and pollution 
to the wide-open spaces of Australasia — 
is the driving force behind Air New Zea- 
land's current growth. 

New Zealand’s population is small, and 
its domestic air service network suffers 
from overcapacity as the local unit of 
An sett Airlines Ltd. of Australia battles 
for market share with .Air New Zealand. 


“Inbound tourism is a powerful earn- 
ings driver" for Air New Zealand, said 
Mary_ Watson, an analyst in the Welling- 
ton office of CS First Boston. After cuts 
in the airline’s work force and other 
measures to improve efficiency, revenue 
per employee had also risen sharply over 
the past five years, she said. 

Analysts predicted Air New Zealand 
would report profit of about 200 million 
New Zealand dollars (S12! million) for 


Unless Australia grants 
Air New Zealand more 
access, its ability to 
grow will be limited. 


the year ended in June, up from 140 
million dollars in 1992-93. on sales of 23 
billion dollars. 

In 1990-91. 1 8 months after the govern- 
ment privatized Air New Zealand and 
allowed Qantas and other parties to hold 
its equity, the carrier had a profit of only 
18 million dollars. 

Qantas now holds just over 19 percent 
of Air New Zealand Japan Air Lines 5 
percent and Brieriey Investments Ltd. of 
New Zealand around 3S percent. 

Robert Bode, director of Hendry Hay 
McIntosh Ltd, said he expected the air- 
line’s net profit to rise to 250 million 
dollars in 1995-96 as its services from Asia 
to New Zealand and Australia expanded. 

But he said that unless Australia 
agreed to give .Air New Zealand addi- 
tional beyond rights over the next two 
years, its ability to grow by offering 
Asian vacationers multiple destinations 
would be limited. 


Those rights were negotiated on a recip- 
rocal basis in 1992 by Australia and New 
. Zealand as part of a phased move toward 
a single aviation market But they are 
considered to have been more helpful to 
Air New Zealand on its way to Asia than 
to Qantas on its way to North America. 

Australia, eager to secure the highest 
possible return from the planned sale of 
its majority holding in Qantas in April or 
May, appears wary of making concessions 
to Air New Zealand lest they erode Qan- 
tas's competitive edge. 

Some Australian media reports sug- 
gest Qantas will sell its interest in Air 
-. New Zealand before the float to improve 
its balance sheet .and prepare for a more 
aggressive relationship between the two 
airlines. 

In addition, Air New Zealand will have 
the right as of November to become a 
domestic carrier in Australia, a far larger 
aviation market than New Zealand. 

“Ultimately, we are interested in having 
a presence in all of that market." Mr. 
McCrea said, without disclosing when Air 
New Zealand would make its entry or 
how it would solve the problem of lack of 
terminal space in Sydney and Melbourne. 

In the meantime, Qantas and Air New 
Zealand are intensifying their internation- 
al competition by largely unwinding an 
agreement made several years ago to oper- 
ate joint flights between Australia and 
New Zealand and to the United States. 

Murray Brown, head of research in the 
Wellington office of Ord Minnett Securi- 
ties NZ Ltd, said privatization of Qantas 
would make it a more formidable compet- 
itor. “Qantas is already about five times 
the size of Air New Zealand as an interna- 
tional earner." he said “So that would 
make it a major potential challenge." 


Investor’s Asia 


Hong Kong 
Hang Seng 
11000 


Singapore 
Straits Times 



Tokyo 

Nikkei 225 

22090 

21000 - 




7553 a'm"j /a’ s' 

"i9S4 - 


‘a* M j' j a'T 

1994 


2D090 - - • - 

19000- 

1SN0 a ITj Ta'S 

1994 


Exchange 

Index 

Monday 

Close 

Prev. 

Dose 

% 

Change 

Hong Kong 

Hang Seng 

9.962.04 

9.901 56 

♦0.61 

Singapore 

Straits Tinas 

2,328.06 

2.330.61 

-0.11 

Sydney 

All Ordinaries 

2,095.50 

2,107.00 

•0.55 

Tokyo 

Nikkei 225 

20,409.1 S 

20,653.63 

-i .13 

Kuala Lumpur 

Composite 

1.159.51 

i. i 60 .ee 

-0.12 

Bangkok 

SET 

1,531.30 

1.539.05 

-Q.50 

Seoul 

Composite Stock 

971,46 

94S.73 


Taipei 

Weighted Price 

6^56.32 

6.781.39 

*1.2F 

Manila 

PSE 

3.104.30 

3.096.26 

+0.26 

Jakarta 

Stock Index 

519.42 

515 56" 

+0.75 

New Zealand 

NZSE-40 

2,176^1 

2,173.75 

-0.10 

Bombay 

National index 

2,135.03 

2.140.10 

-0.24 

Sources. Reuters. AFP 


ImciYi-iimnak Hi 

M Ti'lmiv 


Very briefly: 


• The Philippine Stock Exchange has transferred operations to a 
trading floor patterned after the Hong Kong and Tokyo exchanges, 
seeking to increase volume and build investor confidence. 

■ Indonesia is close to reaching an agreement w ith Exxon Corp. for 
drawing and producing natural gas in the South China Sea. 

a South Korea is considering measures to increase the popularity 
of preferred stocks, which have higher dividends but no voting 
rights, because they have been lagging common shares. 

• Korean stock prices soared 2 percent on reports thjt the Bank «rf 
Korea will expand the money supply about S4 billion to accom- 
modate consumer and corporate spending for a national holiday. 

Rii.:,—... Bi iiifrfv-js. I tf‘ 


SW 

11360 

112-54 

112.76 

— 066 

Dec 

11200 

11160 

11162 

— 068 

Mar 

111J6 

111.22 

111JD 

— 066 

Jan 

N.T. 

N.T. 

11066 

— 066 


Est. volume: KMlt. Open Ini.: 141.741. 


Industrials 

HtoS Low Lost Settle Cn’ge 
GASOIL (IPE) 

us. donors MT metric twHots ef;1Mtm 
Oct 149.25 1035 14835 14MB -150 

Nov 15UB 15035 15225 15X25 —135 

Dee 15625 15335 15425 15435 - 125 

Jon 15650 1552S 15650 15650 —150 

F«B 15735. 15750 15735 157 J5 — T.50 

Mar 15X00 15X00 158B9 15825 — 150 

Apr 15750 156.00 15758 15750 —150 

Mar 15550 15550 15550 15J50 — 150 

JWW 15335 15335 15335 753.73 —135 

July N.T. N.T. N.T. 15X25 —150 

Est. volume: 8246'. Open Int. 103311 
BRENT CRUDE OIL (IPE) 

U5L. dollars per tmret-Ms o» MW barrels 


Oct 

NOV 

Dec 

Jan 

Feb 

Mar 

Anr 

MOV 

Jan 

Jtr 

*09 • 

scp 


16.15 

16.19 


1593 . 15.95 —037 
16.13 16.13 — 02B 


its its iS^ asz & 

!££ SS S3 

16.13 16.13 16.13 


N.T. 

N.T. 

-s* 

N.T. 


N.i't. MX 
N.T' N.T. 
NX, NX 


1628 — M2 
1626 —0.12 
1626 — 0.12 
1626 —XII 
1426 — 0.12 
.... 1626 — 0.12 
NX 1626 — O.II 


Est. volume: 20368 . . Open Int 141,190 


Stock Indexes t- 

„ . HWi Low Close Cbanee 

FTSEMB(UFFE) 1 

05 per index point 

Sep. 32562 32052 32473 +213 

Dec 32693 3221J 32622 + 213 

M«r NX NX 32882 +215 

Est. volume; 1UH0. Opfcn Int.: 62.(40. 

CAC 40 1 MAT IF) 

FF2M per Indai point 

Sep . 201420 198620 200520 -2020 

Oct 2020.50 199620 201520 -2020 

Mov N.T. NX N.T. Unch. 

Dec 303920 203420 201400 -2020 

Mar N.T. N.T. 204400 -28.00 

Jan NX N.T. N.T. Unch. 

Est. volume: 22253. Ooeh Int.: 5X425. 
Sources: Mailt. Associated Press. 
London laPI Financial Futures Exchange. 
Inl'i Petroleum Exchcxsc. 


Foster’s Plans Asia Expansion as Profit Flattens 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dispatches 

MELBOURNE — Fosters 
Brewing Group Ltd. of Australia 
plans to expand in China and 
other parts of Asia, the company 
said Monday, after reporting "a 
slump in its profit. 

Foster’s, the world’s fourth- 
laigest brewer, said net profit 
fell 9 percent, to 281.7 million 
Australian dollars (S209 mil- 
lion), in the year to June 30 as 
weak earnings from Britain and 
Canada soured improved re- 
sults in Australia. 

The result was marred by 
nonrecurring losses related to ’a 
write-down of the value of the 
company's British hotel and 
brewing businesses by almost 
half, to 1.24 billion dollars. 

Foster's said it wrote down 
the value of Courage, the second 
largest brewer in Britain, and-its 
50 percent stake in the British 
hotels concern innlrepeneur Es- 


U.S. Markets Closed 

U.S. financial markets were 
closed Mondav for Labor Dav. 


rates, because of increased risk 
in the British brewing industry. 
Among the factors it cited were 
intense competition, complex 
regulations, rising access to Brit- 
ain for European brewers and 
f allin g sales volumes. 

The company said its invest- 
ments in China and other oppor- 
tunies in .Asia would become 
more prominent in the group’s 
medium-term performance. 

"Expansion in Asia and the 
potential profits from the region 
are a major focus of Foster's 
future expansion and outlook," 
it said, adding, “The Chinese 
beer market grew by approxi- 
mately 20 percent during the 
year and is now clearly the sec- 
ond-largest market in the world 
behind the United States." 

The company predicted. 
“The emergence of Asia as a 
region of growing per capita 
consumption will lead the con- 
tinued growth m world beer 
volumes in the years ahead." 

Foster’s, which is 37.6 per- 
cent owned by Broken Hill Pty. 
has two brewing joint ventures 
in China and plans to spend 400 
million dollars over five years 
developing these interests. 

Revenue droDDed 27 percent. 


to 4.18 billion dollars, reflecting 
falling revenue from the Cour- 
age and Molson breweries and 
the sale of Foster's former farm- 
services business. Elders Ltd. 

Foster’s also increased the 


book value of its Australian 
brand assets by 665 million dol- 
lars after receiving an indepen- 
dent valuation, saving this was 
a conservative figure. 

(Reuters, Bloomberg, AFP) 


Storms Raise Taiwan Prices 

Reuters 

TAIPEI — Inflation in Taiwan soared to a 13-year high of 7.06 
percent in August, but economists blamed the jump on typhoon 
damage and said Monday the rate for the year would be" near a 
government target of 3.8 percent. 

"The 7.06 percent record was mainly caused by several ty- 
phoons," said Daniel Chen, chief economist at ChinaTrust Com- 
mercial Bank. The rise in the consumer price index was measured 
from August 1993. In the first eight months of this year, the CPI 
grew at an average of 3.S7 percent, the Bureau of Statistics said. 

Four typhoons have battered Taiwan so far this year in the 
annual season from June to September. Mr. Chen "added that 
excluding storm damage, overall inflation would “be within a 
bearable 3.8 percent to 4.0 percent. 


Workers Turn to Violence 
As Iron Rice Bowl Cracks 


Reuters 

BEIJING — A report in 
Monday’s Beijing Youth 
Daily gave a rare glimpse of 
violence against factory 
managers and their families 
carried out by workers an- 
gered at the end of comfort- 
able socialist ways. 

The attacks ranged from 
six women workers at a fac- 
tory in the Zhq'iang province 
who hired thugs to beat up 
their managerTto the angry 
worker who slashed to death 
the wife of a textile factory 
manager near Beijing. 

China is in the midst of 
profound economic reforms 
that are cracking the so- 
called iron rice bowl that 
used to provide workers with 


cradle-to-grave job-and-so- 
cial security. 

Workers are paying more 
for housing. mcdicD care 
and other benefits they used 
to expect as their birthright 
in a socialist state. Fierce in- 
flation, set off by economic 
growth, is eating into the Jiv- 
ing standards of the major- 
ity of workers. 

The official press said the 
number of labor disputes 
taken to arbitration in 1993 
rose 50 percent to a record 
12,358. 

President Jiang Zemin re- 
peated last week the govern- 
ment's determination to cor- 
rectly juggle the competing 
strands of development, re- 
form and social stability. 


WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


Join Franca han S«p*. 5 
CtawPrw. 


Amsterdam 


an Amro HM 
AF Heidi no 
,Nwn 
Id 

NOMI 

A1EV 

Bs-Wessonm 

CM 

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H3 

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Hwvtnj 
Huer Douoias 
It- Catena 
Jrr Mueller 
In Nederland 
K« 

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PUPS 
Pwwum 
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Romeo 
Rwico 
Rents 
Rat Dutch 
9Ht 
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VcOmmeren 
Vlt 


60 4020 
3820 3X60 
9950 10030 
4720 47.10 
21820 219.60 

7420 7420 
37.40 37.10 
6X90 69 JO 

145.20 145J30 

170 16950 

16.70 1 6 JO 
4520 4520 

299.50 300 

241 242J80 
79 7920 
82 83 

43.60 4320 
9SJ0 96J0 
*020 8050 

50.70 51 

5120 51-70 
5460 5 AM 
*470 6450 
7556 75 

4820 4850 

SB 5X10 
7720 7EJ0 
120 120.40 
K1S8 54J0 

12120 122.10 

8520 8550 
19X90 1993 

a a 
282 2012ft 
49 JO 4V20 
19720 19X20 


Wfen/KHnwr 121 JO 121.70 

K MOT 


Brussels 

2540 2SSD 
7710 7710 
4790 4830 
2600 2650 
4290 4320 
26575 20825 
12600 12650 

2575 2565 

2050 2080 

211 214 
595® 5920 

?ma 7510 

1308 1310 
5810 5810 
3735 3M5 
1460 1484 
4400 4470 
9*70 9800 
4970 5150 
2920 3000 
*670 6790 
1450 1480 
IC4S0 10625 
3050 3fM0 
544 536 

5130 5230 
aamsann 8110 .8230 
SoGen Be tottue ,»o 2go 


AFIn 
Aianll 
Awf 
Bco 

Bl 

a urn 
CT 

Cacrlll 

GWKi 

COM 

Doaiie 

Eitrotjei 

EUratlna 

Gi 

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Gcrerf 

GVcrttl 

Imottet 

Kdtetbonk 

Mane 

PraHna 

Ptortm 

Wteel 

Rale Betas 
SoGen Bonaue 


Scfla. 

Seav 

Tmxlerlo 

Ttolcbcl 

L» 

UnnMtrftare 
Watts Ut* 


1 4575 1«7S 
16000 15975 
10750 10825 

10700 10700 

74725 249B* 
2695 2715 
NA 7010 


‘ '& Frankfurt 






A 0 
ABM 5EL 
aihvi Hold 
Aina 
A9 
B*F 
Bar 

BtHVPaBO** 

BtVereJnMM 

B* Bank 
MV 

Camerxbaftk 
CSineniai 
Dmltr Beni 

9?“*° ^ 

OtoMack - 

DdscfteBaw 

Dates 

DaanarSank 

FjmutMe 

FrwaHoesch 

HSJCflW 

HAet. . 
HAIM 
Nctut ' 


173J0 17450 
327 330 

3440 2488 

97* 975 
323J5032TJA 
3711037X78 
415 421 

44846PM 
700 735 
39639850 
H7 819 
327332J0 
245J0 251 

83083850 
495 509 

2S1JO 260 

7IW8WLM 

535 540 
404 4» 

30538950 
22X80 7» 
345 345 

621 620 

mi ffifl 

3SLM 35950 
892 900 


OwPm. 


Horten 217 VU 

IWKA 390 394 

Kali Sat 151.50 151 

Karskidt 627 633 

Koulhol 51 536 

KHD 123 123 

Kloedaw Werke 
Unde 920 940 

Lufthansa 2075027250 

MAN 

Monaesmann 43750 439 

MrlaltoeMlI JO? M7 

Muencn Rueck 2845 2900 

Porsche 830 835 

PmejOB 475481 J0 

PWA 2577*050 

RWE 472 47H 

Rhelnmrtall 310 315 

Schorl rw 

Siemens *91^0701^0 

Thvssen 314 318 

Varto 30* 

V»ba 549 M4 

VEW 37550 377 

Vtaa 5155950X50 

V^tewaoen 

mbmrt 


Helsinki 


Amer-Yhrvma 
Enso-GuRelt 
Huntomoki 
K.O.P. 
Kvmmefie 
Metro 
Nokia 
Pohloto 
Recola 
Stocunann 


114 113 

4780 4380 
160 159 

1030 laid 
145 147 

165 165 

560 560 

65 6553 
111 113 

240 235 


NRSmUB" 


Hong Kong 

Bk East Asia 3130 3S80 
Cathay PacHic 




HID 1285 

3950 3950 

41 40.90 


Close Prev. 


China Liam.-- 
DoJlY Form Inf 1 12-41 12 

Hwv Luna pew ^ 

Hong Seng Bank 5725 56J5 
iSS^Land 45.10 44J8 
HK Air Erb. 3420 3450 
HK Chino GOS I4J5 1450 
HK Electric Kjg 

HK Lana . 2180 2150 

HK Realty Trust 21,® 2J.-1S 
HSBC HOKfinaS »1 -M 
HKShariflHtls JJ-W 

HK Telecomm 16,70 IXM 
HK Ferry w l*-^ 

Hutch Whampoa M M.® 
HyomDFv 234 7235 

jZrttoftMK 73^ 

janOne Sir Hid 3t60 3LM 
Kowloon MoW U35 ILK 

s^Sor^ormr iwo ii-40 
NUramar How 21 21.10 
New World Dev ?4J5 

5HK Proas 

Sieuw 

SwtrePOCA 

'<426 Tio 
3140 3 WO 
1110 1755 
1170 1150 
1170 11J0 


5650 5675 
3J0 323 

saw lisa 

Wharf How 
WhedockCo 

wins On Co rnti 
Wbreor Ind. 
n«W Seita in«g.: 

Previous ffOLM 


Johannesburg 


AECl 

Aitedi 

Ansta Amer 

Barlows 

Btwoor 

ButfeH 

Oe Beers 

Driefontthi 

GeMsr 
GFSA 
Hormonv 
HlqtiveW Steel 
Kloof 

NedboAfcGm 

RxmdfonMD 

ftusolot 

SA Brews 

St Helena 

Sosol 

Western Deep 


28 2 X 15 
121 NA 
2 ® 259 

M « 3*01 

1 X 75 1 X 75 
50 46 

106 105 
6950 
1450 1190 
1205012 X 50 
3125 2150 
3275 3250 
6975 68 

3375 3375 
56 SS 
120 121 
16.75 86.75 
4775 48 

34 3125 
214 207 

593578 


London 


Abney Nan 

427 

419 


611 


Arlo Wtooins 

in 


Argyll Grow 

2 «fl 

2 r 




BAA 

5 

sac 

BAe 

S .12 

ill 

Bank Scotland 

210 

201 


5.94 

185 

Bass 

SJ 7 

181 

BAT 

453 

45 C 

BET 

1.15 

1 .H 

Blue Circle 

117 

12 C 

BOC Gr oup 

7 J 3 

7 J 5 

Boots 

568 

149 

Bowater 

471 

466 

BP 

423 

418 

Brit Atmars 

409 


Brlr Gas 

3 

299 





X »0 


BTR 

3 ra 

184 

Cable Wire 

4 JS 9 

467 

Cadbury Scfi 

462 

483 


110 

108 


7.76 

222 


5 J 1 

155 

1 - ,TlB 




198 

190 


192 

190 


282 

290 

Flsons 

1 J? 

160 

Forte 

2 J 7 

236 

GEC 

290 

363 


563 



. 433 

4 J 0 


448 


.GRE 

1.96 

165 


489 

493 

GUS 

535 

565 

Hanson 

HA 

252 


T £2 

160 

HSBC Hittes 

765 

765 

■Cl 





467 

Klmflstwr 

525 

563 

Ladbnrice 

165 

162 

Land Sec 

6.46 

660 


766 

765 


1 J 4 

160 


4 . 7 ? 

4 £ 9 I 


sn 

163 



459 

ME PC 

463 

467 


5.17 

114 

Naiwat 

5.02 

495 

NlhWst Water 

552 

553 


6 J 7 

6 J 0 

P&O 

6,75 

660 

Pllklnsrton 

1.96 

l.W 

PowfrGen 

5.-93 

1«4 

PrwJmtlol 

XS 

XU 


4.17 

4.14 

Reck III Col 

6 J« 

6.13 

Rediamt 

563 

56 V 

Reed inti 

763 

m 


567 

m 

&MC Group 

1203 

moi 


166 

161 

Roitmin limit) 

197 

367 

ftoral Scot 

432 

435 

RTZ 

864 

861 

SalnstKiry 

45 S 

<60 


535 

13 S 

I T ■ 

40 fi 

4 M 


ija 

1 JT 


5 J 9 

173 

Shell 

7 J? 

762 

Sletw 

596 

193 


167 

. 1.57 


45 ft 

468 


497 

108 


153 

148 


468 

4.43 

Tesco 

253 

248 

Thom EMI 

10.16 

mi 5 

Tomkins 

2 J 6 

238 

TSB Group 

232 

227 

Unilever 

1164 

1164 

Utd BSsarita 

133 

I 1 J 

/odotorve 

201 


Wr Loan 3 ta 

41.13 

4141 


597 

7 


563 

17 S 

rSnESSGi^B 

172 

368 

Mills Carroon 

162 

161 

Kr.flBh*x£S 

1226 



Iberdrola 
Reosol 
Tabacolera 
Tele tonka 


3 S 3 863 

4030 4125 
3275 3300 
1755 1785 


S.H. General Index : 391 ra 
Previous : 30 X 95 


Milan 


Aileanza 15 oto 14050 

ASSI tOlla 14070 14200 

Autastrode orlv 1750 1769 
Bco Asrfcolfurc 2880 7*35 
BcaCammer Hal 3550 la7S 

Bca Naz Lnvoro 13015 13290 

Bra Poo Novara 8720 ff/oo 
Banco dl Romo 1875 1 B 60 
Bco Ambrosfano 4253 4355 
Bca Napoli rlsn 1340 13*9 
Benetton 
Credllo nallano 
Enlcnem Aug 
FeriW 
Flat son 
Flnanz Aarolnd 
Flnmecamlca 
Fondlorlasoa 
Generali Assic 
IFIL 


lalcementl 

ItcfBM 
MndtaSanca 
Wanted ban 
Olivetti 
PlreUt apa 
RA 5 

Rlnasconte 


24050 24700 

2755 2205 

3000 3040 

1725 1760 

*375 4500 

10500 10600 

7780 1785 
11050 11250 
407TO417W 
5950 *050 
12120 12400 
5323 5385 

14070 14350 

1345 1379 

5990 2140 

2555 2565 

23950 24900 

9620 9870 


son Paolo Torino 9550 95 t 0 

SIP 4440 4570 

SME 3*30 3700 

snlabod 7 i« 2250 

standa 34000 34200 

Slot 4890 SCB 5 

Toro Assle 7«50 276 J 3 

MiBTEL ; lgrea 
Previews : 19925 


i S 3241 JO 


Madrid 

BBV 3000 2995 

BwCtoitrol Hl». 2550 2565 
Bunco Santander 5010 5020 
Bencste 1015 1030 

CEPSA 3175 3200 . 

Draticdos 2080 2100 

Eiuteso 5430 5590 

Ereros 154 1*0 


Paris 

Accor 657 660 

AlrLIduWc 740 83? 

Alcatel Alsthom 567 572 

Axa . 753 255 

Bancalre (Ctol 497 499^0 

BIC 1280 1290 

BNP 235J0 24180 

30-JTOlies S*2 647 

Danone 797 804 

Ccrrefaur IIM 2154 

CJCF. 207.90 212-50 

Ceros 115116.70 

Cnoroeurs 1494 1503 

CJmenfs Franc 21131680 

CftWWad 43043280 

Ell-Aaultalne 40460 4)080 

Euro Disney 9.70 W5 

Gen. Ebwx 531 540 

Havas 454.90 459.60 

I metal 574 SS? 

LetarseCome *34,70 439^0 

Learand 6480 6S30 

Lyon. Earn 528 534 

Oreal |L') 1180 1201 

L.VJW.H. 845 BSB 

Mctro-Hochelte 114117.10 

Mlchelin B .. »7 23880 
Moulinex 
Parlfiaa 
Pechlney Inti 
Pemod-RIcord 

Peuseoi 

Pinoutr Prim 
RodWechrlaoo 
RthPoulenc A 
Raff. St. Louis 
Sanafl 

Sainl Gooaln 
S.E8. 

SleGenerale 

Thomson -C5F 140^014180 
Total 3098031160 

DAP. 15X80 15QJ0 

Valeo 283 285 JO 

CaC 4* index; WX10 
Previous : 203X37 


Usiminas 1J4 1JS 

vole Rio Dace 13BJ0149.«8 
Varto i2ol2A3T 

Bovespa Index : 48044 
Previous : 53674 


Singapore 

A510 Pac Brew i&JO lwo 
Cere bos XI 5 L25 

City Develonmnt 7.10 7 JO 
Cycle & Zorrlaw? 1170 1150 
DBS II JO 11.10 

DBS Land 4.47 4 j4J 

FE LevhiDstan oaF 955 
Fraser XNeove 17 1740 
Gt Eastn Life 27 SO 2x50 
Hona Leona Fin 4 JO A48 
Inchcopo 5J50 5J0 

Jurona Shiovand 1L60 l-cfio 
Kav Hian j Caael 3.02 tjji 
K ennel 1150 II JO 

Naliteel 126 132 

hemune Orienl 130 133 
0CBC forelen 14 .W) i*jo 
O' secu Union Bk *50 650 
O'seas Union Enl 6.30 XQ5 
SemDawmiB 12 1220 

Slme Slneapare 1.03 1.07 
Sing Aerospace 149 148 
Sing Airlines tom 14J0 u 
Si no Bus Svc 9.40 943 
Sing Lana L30 X20 

Sing Petlm 170 169 

Sing Press Tom 24.40 2x40 
Sing SniPtJldfl 258 170 
Sing Telecomm 350 1*8 
Straits Steam 662 as 8 
Straits Trading 354 350 
Tal Lee Bonk 436 4JS 
Util industrial 155 142 
Utd Ofea Bk lom M.40 14.40 
Uid O'seas Lana 145 136 
Strolls Times Ind. : wwu 
Previous : 233041 


Canon 

Casio 


17*0 1770 
1240 1270 


Dal Nippon Prim 1890 1700 


Dolwo House 


1510 1520 


Daiwa Securities 1530 1550 


Stockholm 




























AGA 
Asea A 
Astro A 
Allas Copco 
E lectrolux B 
Ericsson 
Es»lle-A 
Handel sbcnfcen 
Inysstor B 
Norsk Hvdro 
Procardia AF 
Sandvlk B 
SCa-a 
&-£ Sunken 
Skandla F 
Skansko 
SHF 
Stora 

Trelleborg BF 
Volvo BF 


53 6460 

586 

591 

TBO 

ISO 

9160 

92 

379 

368 

412 

4!0 

95 

99 

8960 

53 

177 

183 

255 

25? 

131 

734 

119 

123 

116 

lit 

43 45 JO 

ni 

11} 

150 

155 

134 

138 

«JT 

<35 

1G3 

1OT 

1« 

147 

: 187221 



Sao Pauk) 


BonoSM 

Braoesca 

Brahma 

Cemlg 

Etotrooras 

Haubanco 

Light 

paronamanema 

Pefrobros 

SouiaCruJ 

TcifDras 

TelcsP 


2220 

2440 

9.10 

I1J? 

760 

140 

251 

280 

95 10760 

324 

256 

230 

958 

791 

32S 

1345 

1110 

14760 

165 

660 

&.OT 

4460 51.70 

<10 

4S0 


Sydney 

Amcor ?^2 9a> 

ANZ 193 3,9; 

BHP 2X24 MJi 

Bora! 338 1<4 

Bougainville 1.10 ijos 

Coles Mver 4.17 Alt 

townalw SJ5 £25 

CRA 1936 1962 

CSR 4-60 458 

Fosters Brew 1.14 1.16 

Goodman Field M2 1,43 

ICI Australia 11.10 11.19 

Maoellan 1 95 125 

MIM 1«7 £99 

Nai A oil Bank la 58 1X7? 

News Carp 934 ?.i: 

Nine NelwrV 455 455 

N Broken Hill 3.92 193 

Pac D union 4J6 A49 

Pioneer Inn 128 jjo 

Nmndv Poseidon 122 234 

QCT Resources 135 137 

Santos 437 jjb 

TNT 157 159 

Western Mining 732 731 

Wrstoac Banking 436 440 

Woods! dr 472 <56 

Ail ordinaries Index : 209550 
Previous ; 2107 


Tokyo 

Aka 1 Elecrr 
Ajahl Chemical 
Asahi Glass 
Bank oi Tokyo 
Bridgestone 


<61 4*2 

897 797 
1250 127D 
1510 1540 
1583 I6W 


Fqnuc 
Full Bonk 
Full Photo 
Futilsu 
Hltactii 
Hliochl Coble 

Honda 

l to Yokodo 
llochu 

Japan Airlines 
Kalima 
Kanscl Power 

KawasaVi Sleei 

Kirin Brewery 

Komatsu 
Kubota 
Kvocera 
Maisu Elec inds 
Matsu Elec Wks 
Mitsubishi Bk 
Mitsubishi Kasel 

Mitsubishi Elec 

Mitsubishi Hev 

Mitsubishi Coro 
Mitsui ana Co 

Mitsui Marine 

Ml tsukasftl 

Mitsumi 

NEC 

NGK insulators 

Mkko Securities 

Nippon KogaVu 

Nippon Oil 
Nippon Steel 

Nippon Yusen 

Nissan 
Nomura Sec 
NTT 

Olvmous Optical 

Pioneer 

Rlcoti 

Sanyo Elec 
Sharp 
Shlmrau 
Shlnelsu them 
Sony 

Sumitomo Bk 
Sumitomo Cttem 
Sum I Marine 
Sumliomo Metal 
Taisei Coro 
Tckeaa cnem 

TDK 
Tell In 

Tohro Mcrlne 
Tokvo Elec Pw 
Tocvan Printing 
Torav ind. 
Toshiba 
Tarota 

Yemoichl Sec 
o: r IOC. 

Nikkei 225 : 2MW 
Prev loos : 1641 


<?<0 44W 
2170 2230 
2240 2250 
1090 1120 
939 ICO 
855 867 

1650 7 660 
5190 5300 

7D6 714 

728 750 

9« 1030 
2530 2590 
<30 430 

IIW 12 W 

908 910 

7» 724 

7370 7400 
1760 1780 
1140 1110 
2510 2550 
S» 550 
680 692 

790 79? 

1240 1270 
845 346 

781 T»3 

10J5 1050 
1540 1560 
1220 1260 
1060 1070 
1170 11": 
997 1070 
735 743 

377 385 

650 662 

760 77] 

2200 2220 
906Oa 9300a 
1120 1150 
2770 5130 
960 <m 
576 591 

1610 1630 
733 TJ, 
2070 2090 
5900 4100 
1930 1970 
S73 STS 
933 W1 
3<0 345 

694 70S 

1240 1250 
4360 4350 
581 507 

1230 1238 
2OT3 3030 
1470 1480 
770 7~o 

7td 7-2 
2149 2169 
857 WJ 


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C5 Holdings B 
EHiTTOW H 
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Intoraiscaum B 
Jclmoll 9 
Landis Qvr P 
rAaovenplck B 
NtSMf R 
Oerlik.Buehrle R 
Porwesa Hid B 
Rome Hdg PC 
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5onaos B 
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Sulier PC 
Surveillance B 

Swiss BnkCoro B 
5«i» RUnsur R 
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SBS index : 547.44 
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BPS BPS 

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729 72! 

408 410 
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940 996 

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Page 12 


ESTERJSATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1994 


J* XM-U*: WW'!,""W« ■ '■ • -f—ttn -■■■ ».!» -..S'#!* .t ** 1 “MNi'irf*"* 1 *! .-::.«>.:>*a, **»• v;*" - ■■■V *«"-'. •”'*' ■■■'■ 


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Brighter Prospects 
For Sea Transport 


Traffic « increasing . in the industry, although rising 
costs continue to be a concern. 


A he end of doom and 
gloom for the shipping in- 
dustry is at hand. Evidence 
comes from the steadily ris- 
ing Baltic Freight Index, the 
annual report of Lloyd's 
Register of Shipping and. 
notably, a Dutch academic 
study calling for change and 
foreseeing a brighter future. 
A spokesman for the ship 
owners has a more re- 
strained optimism. 

Lloyd's Register of Ship- 
ping uses these words: “The 
unpredictability of world 
shipping markets was amply 
demonstrated in 1993 when 
- after a decline of over 50 
percent in new orders during 
the previous two years - an- 
nual new orders rose dra- 
matically by 77 percent on 
the 1992 figures. Another 
significant change took 
place when Korea, previous- 
ly ‘always the bridesmaid,’ 
expanded its 1993 orders al- 
most fourfold, and toppled 
Japan from its seemingly 
permanent position of top 
shipbuilding nation." 


Growth sectors 
“The economic situation of 
the West European shipping 
industry is not as bad as peo- 
ple think.” says Professor 
NiRo Wijnolst of the faculty 
of mechanical engineering 
. and marine technology of 
the Delft University of 
.Technology. “It is true that 
shipbuilding has had a rough 
time since the 1970s. The 
tanker trade has particularly 
declined. But bulk shipping 
hardly suffered. Container 
transport and, for example, 
chemicals and gas shipping 
have grown tremendously." 


The favorable situation in 
the shipping markets does 
not mean that the shipping 
industry can sit still. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Wijnolst, it is 
time for innovation and new 
concepts. In cooperation 
with Swedish and Belgian 
scientists, Mr. Wijnolst has 
launched a plan for what he 
calls Multimodal Short Sea 
Transport. 

(“Short Sea Shipping” is 
the theme of the first day of 
the current Shipbuilding. 
Machinery & Marine Tech- 
nology exhibition and con- 
ference in Hamburg.) 

In a recently published 
study. Mr. Wijnolst and his 
international associates 
plead for “coastal superhigh- 
ways" in Europe. “Short sea 
transport should improve its 
performance in the hard- 
ware, operations and soft- 
ware domains/' they argue. 
“Therefore it should start to 
put into the minds of ship- 
pers and freight forwarders 
the concept that multimodal 
short sea transport is gening 
its act together and is be- 
coming a road transport 
equivalent, i.e.. a real profes- 
sional alternative that can be 
used without headaches like 
a highway.” 



Key 


Technology Is 
T o Higher Profits 


Investing in technology is not a luxury, im; o 


1 here ijut world to be won 
by persuading the shipping 
industry jo invest in technol- 
ogy, according to experts in 
the technological field. The 
industry diisses profits, they 
say, simply by being hesi- 
tant: to use available technol- 
ogy effectively. Whereas 
road haulers see their offices 
arid rolling stock as one inte- 
grated business and invest 
accordingly, ship owners 
tend to Consider their ships 
self-governing, cooperative 
bodies. * 

It is a matter of picking 
suitable innovations. In the 
mailer : of ship-to-shore 
communications, for in- 
stance, Dare K.C. van Ui- 


innovations in the shipping industry could be accelerated by the kind of government subsidies granted to railroads and highways. 


Environmentally friendly 
Mr. Wijnolst says the plan - 
including the development 
of innovative ship-terminal 
concepts - offers a cheap 
and environmentally friend- 
ly .solution for the transport 
of tens of miHibns of ions of 
goods. As well as resulting 
in an improved European 
shipping industry. -the plan 
would have more general fa- 


vorable economic effects. 

The study was financed by 
the Commission of Trans- 
port of the European Union, 
the Swedish Transport and 
Communication Research 
Board and the Dutch Orga- 
nization for the Coordina- 
tion of Maritime Research., ll 
has been sent to to at least 
200 leading people in rele- 
vant organizations. Over 
1.000 copies of the study 
have been issued so far. 


The need for subsidies 
Mr. Wijnolst makes a pica 
for more subsidies/ He 
points out that the shipping 
industry transports larger 


volumes of goods than the 
railroads, but is less subsi- 
dized. “Die problem in gain- 
ing some financial support.” 
he says, “is that short sea 
shipping has too few leading 
players in the field - too 
many relatively small com- 
panies - and consequently 
lacks lobby power.” 

Mr. Wijnolst hopes that 
the Dutch and German gov- 
ernments can he persuaded 
to start subsidizing an exper- 
iment in setting up a net- 
work for short sea shipping. 
“Governments should do 
something fundamental/’ he 
says. “Billions aa* spent in 
subsidizing railways and 


motorways, so why not 
make a gesture and support 
the: shipping industry? They 
have the infrastructure |the 
sea | for free.” 

Meanwhile. Herman De 
Meesier. deputy secretary - 
general of the Brussels- 
based European Community 
Sin powner'.s A.ssi vial i« >ns. 
puis a brake on overentluisi- 
nslic remarks on the ship- 
ping industry'. "We do not 
see a tremendous recovery 
yet." Mr. De Mccslor says. 
“The balance oh the North 
Adamic trades has not yet 
been found, ami the Far Fast 
trade is no money-spinner. 
Ntrtiug the indexes of tariffs. 


you can gather that bulk 
shipping does fairly well, 
but in oil shipping, it is 
doom and gloom.” 


The price of safety 

Costs arc rising, Mr. De 
Meesier notes, partly be- 
cause of growing attention 
to safety amf the environ- 
ment. “In shoii. " Mr. De 
Mcester concludes, “the 
economy is recovering, but 
changes for the heller do not 
happen. overnight. The ship- 
ping imltisliy needs a partic- 
ular form of stability in order 
lo gel funds for justified in- 
vestments.” 

Janny Knk 


teren. communications 
manager of PTT Telecom 
Netherlands, says. "Tele- 
matics 1 can only be applied 
effectively provided the 
whole branch of industry 
commits itself, in' getting 
the shipping industry in- 
volved. two things are es- 
sential. From a : business 
point of view, it is’ necessary 
to reduce tariffs to hove 
ships participate in advanced 
communications systems. In- 
additiqrj. participation has lo 
be compulsory in particular 
cases -jwhen shipping haz- 
ardous. goods, lor example.” 


of fnwjfarvj cevvlvpniem:, 
in technology - Tne tv - , digi- 
tal satellite sen ices made 
this possible. Using ‘he 
brand nnme Station 1 2 . FIT 
Telecom o-fers ?a'.eiiue ser- 
vices relatively cheap." 

The !nmiir*a:-A. inmar-ai- 
B. Inmarsat-C and !r.m:rxas- 
M service* are - ::cc i ng 
to PTT Telecom Nc:her- 
lands - avuiLYole 24 i;«:uis r< 
day throughout the A Liar, lie 
Ocean-East and Indian 
Ocean regions. For maritime 
users, the service covers 
most of the world's busiest 
shipping lanes j::J c r uise 
routes. PTT' Telecom 
Netherlands plans ir. i stake 
Inmarsat service* available 
worldwide e,,rly in 1^95. 

Mr. Van Uitiivn gives an 
example of profitable u«e «<• 
the satellite communicarion-. 
net - aits. A tr:.'.- i:r car re 
port detail'-' on the day’s 
catch of fish by transmitting 
electronic da:u directly :<» :he 
office, in uomg so. ii i* pos- 
sible i».» soli the fish be I ere 
they reach the shore. 


Ports: Joining the Information Seaway 


The times in which ports could offer services as self-governing bodies' are definitely oven 


A oday, pons must be inte- 
grated parts of the logistic 
chain and adapt “chain 
dunking” to their policies. 
At best, ports aqt as inter- 
faces. thus influencing the 
movement of goods. 

Electronic data inter- 
change systems are proving 
to be" crucial in accomplish- 
ing this. Ports are devising 
their own electronic infor- 
mation networks, which can 
interchange data with other 
global networks. 


The competitive edge 
The port of Hamburg can be 
considered a leader in the 
development of advanced 
electronic data interchange 
systems, it started using the 
electronic communications 
system DAKOSY 12 years 
ago. Today. DAKOSY 
GmbH says that the ad- 
vanced network provided by 
the company has given 


Hambuig’s port industry as 
well as the. the city itself a 
distinct advantage. It adds 
that the network has generat- 
ed new jobs. 

Over 240 companies and 
institutions participate in the 
Hamburg electronic data in- 
terchange system. In using 
the DAKOSY facilities, they 
obtain access to the electron- 
ic information system 
HABIS of the German rail- 
roads. port-related compa- 
nies and the Hamburg mu- 
nicipality as well as to 
GEGIS. which is the infor- 
mation system for carriers of 
hazardous goods. DAKOSY 
also exchanges electronic 
data with other international 
specialized networks. 


Central clearinghouses 
On the electronic data inter- 
change chans, Bremen is 
considered the runner-up. 
followed by Antwerp and 


Rotterdam. This' major Eu- 
ropean port has been able to 
benefit from the advantages 
of electronic information 
networks only recently. 
Eight years ago, the port of 
Rotterdam established IN- 
TIS as an electronic data in- 
terchange network. For a 
number of reasons,. the mar- 
ket did not. respond. But it 
has now. as INTIS has de- 
veloped it services. INTIS 
has adapted itself to the role 
of a main post office, assur- 
ing that electronic messages 
in whatever software formal 
reach their destinations. 
When needed, INTIS trans- 
lates data, thus enabling 
sender and receiver to com- 
municate electronically 
without having to adapt their 
computer software. 

Modem ports are develop- 
ing the means to enable their 
information networks to ex- 
change data with other inter- 


national networks. They are 
aware of the need in apply 
the latest developments in 
information technology and 
telecommunications it- 
strengthening their own pt> 
sition in a competitive mar- 
ket. The shipping industry 
judges pons not only on the 
basis of the quality of their 
infrastructure for a particular 
hinterland, but also on their 
capacities for exchanging 
electronic data. By provid- 
ing highly advanced com- 
munication networks togeth- 
er with good infrastructure, 
poris can influence the 
choice of port and hence the 
movement of goods. 

This is why Rotterdam, 
for example, has introduced 
die notion of electronic trade 
and distribution centers, 
electronic food ports and 
electronic container ports as 
marketing tools. The munic- 
ipal department Rotterdam 


It'S 






Return on investment 

According to Mr. Van Ut- 
tercn.al cannot said that 
the shipping industry is to- 
tally unwilling, to invest in 
advanced meat*, of uurnmu- 
hicuriijns. But he adds: 
“Ship owners consider in- 
vestments additional expen- 
diture: rather than being ex- 
penses jthat are’ profitable in 
. lire long run.” ; . . 

' Thai! is nne reason why- 
only £0,000 seagoing ships 
- about 20 percent of the 
world, fleet - . are equ i ppcil 
with titeuns of satellite links 
for telephone com muni ca- 
lions/sending faxes or trans- 
mitting electronic data. 
Costs arc an important fac- 
tor, says Mri Van Utteren. 
"Fortunately/ we have been 
able lu lower fciriffc because 


Design integration 
Innov ation in ship design is 
another way in which tech- 
nological advances can be 
translated into tne l eased 
profits. The letesi cc.n5a.ncr 
carrici. on. which no lashings 
for containers are nceiicd. is 
an example of how to save 
time land thus i:«o,re> < in 
loading ami unloading -.hip-. 

Shipping cnitip.intcs arc 
aware of lire advantages ■»! 
self -loading and -unloading 
systems on bull, carriers. 
Case studies in Swede:, and 
the Netherlands have gener- 
ated further iecf roaieicai 


i 1 


r-4 




innovation-, ».n srup conce|Us, 
which, among w’lnj tliir.gs-. 
will make shins ivss depeu- 


:ps i-ess uc[x.' 
dent on ports. According to 
the scientists involved. "The 
technical study md tit sign 
of the vessel and the trans- 
port system have confirmed 
that it" is feasible to design 
and construct a high-tech 
shipping system that will 
give very iou rota! liasv-- 
pnrfariin e:>-; j.X. 


A, - * ■ 

w:v- -*■ 




«e. 






Shipping Exhibition 


The pert of Hamburg: networking electronically. 


Interna! Logistics is confi- 
dent that its electronic data 
interchange system Smart 
Card will be an effective 
means of interfacing, pro- 
vuling Rotterdam with a 
coinjvJilivo edge. 


The pajKTlcss p«>rt 

The intcdiarioiial markets 
scent lo finally he respond- 
ing to the possibilities ul' a 
paperless system, thus sav- 
ing time and money. Infor- 
mation technology practi- 


tioners agree there is still 
some way to go before elec- 
tronic data interchange is in 
common use. but the provi- 
sions arc there. The hard- 
ware is both available and 
affordable, and the electron- 
ic standards established. 

This makes companies - 
both within the ports and 
shipping industry and out- 
side - willing to use elec- 
tronic data facilities in order 
to gain cost-effectiveness for 
their own services. J.K- 


-The 16th Shipbuilding. Macifir.c 
Technology Exhibition (SMM 
Hamburg Exhibition Center fior.i Sept 
has attracted a record SCO exhibitors 5? 

30toufurie&. 

A two-day international conference 
hibition is divided into two ifrrnwfic ^ 
Sea Shipping" and “Safer ana ra:,;.v 5 
fic/‘ New specialist ships :n . 

rope" will be presented at tf«? vr-rt/cren: 
petition for students is being •••rg.jb.’cu 
“Future Ship Cinux-pts." 

The exhibition catalogue is re-ing n 
ironically this year on a tlnkcUc. cai 
advance for 75 DeuLsclie ".Harks :r> 
Masse imd Congress GmbH. Z1 
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7 










SSt*Wi»# 


Bigger Cruise Ships 
Keep Yards Busy 

Liners art getting bigger, and the competition stiffen 

orkers ai the Monfal- der two years. Fine ant ieri 
cone shipyards, near Trieste, has expanded capacity to 
are cutting steel in prepara- two ships a year, 
tion for the building of a Designers such as Renzo 
new class of mega-cruise Piano have been hired to 
liners of around 100,000 provide a sleeker, Italian 
tons. The ships, destined for look to these giants of the 
Carnival Cruise Lines and sea. They will cater mainly 
P&O s American sub- lo the North American mar- 
si diary, Princess Cruises, ket, which is expected to 
will carry 2,600 passengers, double to 8 million passen- 
compared with 2,000 on to- gers or more by the end of 
day's biggest ships. the decade. 

The intense activity at the The New York-based 
Monfalcone yards of Fin- Cruise Lines Internationa! 
cantieri, Europe s largest Association, which monitors 
shipbuilder, is a reflection of the 130 ships serving the 
the boom in cruises in the North American market, re- 
North American market and ports $6 billion to $7 billion 
in Europe and Asia. The worth of fares last year, with 
Italian yard, experienced in total spending by passengers 
most types of shipbuilding, at around $10 billion, 
returned to the cruise liner Relatively smaller ships, 
business in the mid-1980s in the 50,000-to-60,000-ton 
after a break of 20 years, range, are being built for the 
The market has proved the close to 1 million passengers 
wisdom of this decision. in the European and Pacific 

markets. 

Golf on B-deck 
Today’s speed of construc- 
tion. unheard of a decade or 
so ago, is being maintained 
despite the extra demands of 
cruise line companies, 
which are piling on luxury in 
the cabins, restaurants and 
recreation areas, where re- 
finements such as golf dri- 
ving ranges are being in- 
stalled. There are also strin- 
gent demands for seaworthi- 
ness and near-zoo vibration. 
As ship size grew, Fin- 


Big liners get bigger 
Current demand is for more 
and bigger ships. Japan and 
South Korea are the world's 
biggest shipbuilders, with 70 
percent of total orders be- 
tween them, but European 
yards have strong skills and 
advanced technology for the 
booming cruise market. 

Fincantieri yards at Mon- 
falcone and Venice lead in 
cruise ship orders through a 
combination of experience - 
the company goes back 200 
years - and the wide use of 





• ...... 


■-*. . .1- • .. •_ 

, “ .•••• - - - - tv , - • --- • 


Engineers made sure that the 77,000-ton Sim Princess could still squeeze through the Panama Canal, enabling it to sail from Alaska to the Caribbean. 


protruding upper decks 
would also pass, enabling 
the Sun Princess to move be^ 
tween Alaska in the summer 
to the Caribbean in the win- 
ter. 

The drawback to the new- 
er 100.000-ton ships will be 
their inability to negotiate 
the Panama Canal because 
of their width. But the lines 
say that the Caribbean and 
Bermudan markets can sus- 
tain these floating hotels. 

Heads of other leading 
European shipbuilding com- 


cruise ships for Miami- 
based Royal Caribbean 
Cruise Lines and has two 
more. Legend of the Seas 
and Splendor of the Seas, 
capable of 24 knots, under 
construction. 


■ i; /Hi ' '-'fir::. 

TT 1 ■ II _f~ . ’ .. , r * 

r -. ■ - 


^ ■.*$!& ■5- j 

?>■■■ -n ■ 




■ \ 


- ' V 




■ A .• : • . 




. '** 'i . 

" •» - v 


South Korea shares with Japan 70 percent of total shipbuilding orders worldwide. 


computer-assisted manufac- 
turing techniques and robot- 
ics. Increasingly. large por- 
tions of these big liners are 
being built ashore in covered 
conditions and then swung 
into place for welding. 

Fourteen-deck cruise 
ships of 70,000 to 77,000 
tons, currently the world's 
largest, are being built in un- 


camieri engineers went to 
canals with their tape mea- 
sures to make absolutely 
sure the ships now being 
built could pass through. 
They reported that the 
77,000-ion Sun Princess, 
now under construction at 
Monfalcone, will make it 
through a 32.3-meter (106 
foot) waterway and that its 


panies, such as Jean-No£?l 
Dacremont, chairman of 
Chantiers de l'Atlantique. 
the GEC-Alsthom sub- 
sidiary at Saint-Nazaire. 
France, say they also have 
the technology to build the 
mega-ships. The big French 
yard has already constructed 
a series of ultramodern, 
$300 million. 70,000-ton 


? Competition in Europe 

r “We can build 100,000-ton 
s ships as well or even better 
1 than the Italians," says Mr. 
- Dacremont when talking of 
the strong competition 

1 among European ship- 
builders, including the Finns 
and Germans, for the new 
market of $400 million 
ships. Sophisticated cruise 
ships have higher added val- 
ue than bulk carriers. 

“Decision-making in 
Japan is long and collective. 
We in Europe are better at 
the rapid decision-making 
that is a feature of building 
cruise ships, particularly in 
the first six months of the 
contract,'’ adds Mr. Dacrc- 
mont. 

With Britain, like the 
United States, out of the run- 
ning in building passenger 
ships, the competition for 
the French and Italians 
comes from the German 
yards of Meyer WertL at Pa- 
penburg on the River Ems. 
and ihe Finnish Kvuerner 
£ Masa vunis at Helsinki and 
| Turku.' 

| The 200-year-old German 

2 company will deliver the 
| 67,000-ton Oriana to P&O 

next March. The vessel will 
£ caier lo the British market. 
“ now expanding at between 
15 percent and 20 percent a 
year. The Oriana was built 
in Mever Werft's covered 
dock, which is as big as six 
football fields. 

The German yard also has 
three orders from the Ameri- 
ca line. Celebrity Cruises. 
The first of these 70.000-ton 
ships, the Century, will be 
delivered at the end of next 
year for Bermuda and 
taribbean service. It will 
feature a three-deck grand 
foyer, encircled by a spiral 


-******b'*tmKfim I 


; ‘The Shipping Industry” 

j WHS produced in its entirety by the Advertising Department of the International Herald Tribune. 

Writers: Janny Kok is a free-lance vtriter from Rotterdam. Alan Tillier is the author of ” Guide to Business Trawl Europe ” 
j and a contributor to The Times of London. 

! Section editor: AVji Mackenzie. Program director: William Mahder. 


SEA-TRM TO RUSSIA 

Now, Latvian Shipping Co. offers you a whole new concept of getting your 

containerized goods to or from the former Soviet Union. Its Riga - Russia - 

Riga train service is designed to get your important cargo there on time. It 

is fast, reliable and competitively priced. 

The process is simple. Just ship your 

liVPr container cargo from any of our 

represented ports aboard our vessels to 

. , . , Riga, and we’ll transship it by train to 

lah/icm shipping company Russia, or from Russia to Riga. 


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2 Basteja Blvd., Riga LV-1807, Latvia. Phone:(371-2) 229-423. Fax:(371) 882-0026, Telex: 161121 


staircase to give what the 
line calls “the atmosphere of 
a piazza." 

Full order books 
Under European Union reg- 
ulations. direct aid to yards, 
fixed at 7.5 percent in princi- 
ple. but running higher in 
Germany and Italy. *will be 
phased out in 1996, but 
yards with full order books 
are not unduly worried. 

Finland's Kvaemer Masa 
yards recently delivered the 
Fascination, the latest of a 
series of four luxury ships, 
to Carnival Cruises. Two 
more, the Imagination and 
the Inspiration, are being 
built at Helsinki, and another 
for Crystal Cruises at Turku. 

Orders have also been 
won for two ships for Royal 
Caribbean. Managing Direc- 
tor Martin Saarikunsas says: 
“We have been "making 
profits since 1989 and ob- 
taining a 20 percent return 
on investment." 

Alan Tillier 


International Cooperation 
And Cost-Effectiveness 

.4 new joint service seeks lo provide more efficient sen-ice in Asia and Europe. 

The international shipping Nedlloyd Lines says that the “In the months to < 
world will watch with close partners involved will be we will consider the j 
interest the fortunes ofama- able to “gear up" coopera- bilities of cooperalin 
jor new alliance that starts tion in order to reduce costs land." Mr. Bijvoets . 
on March !, 1995. It in- and provide a highly com- ‘The participants of tl 
volves the TSA group pelitive service. liance could use each ol 

( Nedlloyd. CGM Orient. The service will be operat- terminals, equipment, f 
MISC). Mitsui OK Lines, ed with 17 or 18 ships, of services and block trail 
Orient Overseas Container which Nedlloyd will provide doing so we can exteni 
Line and American Prc*i- nine to I 1. including the services lo the Baltic 
dent Line, and its joint ser- new open-lop container car- Mediterranean. Chin: 
vice will co\er all main rier Nedllovd-Hongkong India.” 
ports in Japan. Asia and and a ship now under con- Nedlloyd Lines also I 
North Europe with a fixed struction in Japan. fits froni another inti 

day service based on two tional agreement. Tog 

sailings per week. Extending the network with 10 other shipping 

The Dutch shipping com- Ncdlloyd's participation in panics. Nedlloyd agree 
panv Nedlloyd Lines is con- the alliance will allow it to fixed tariffs within the 
fident that this international double the frequency of its bound Management A 
cooperation will prove to he sailings and improve the menu EMA"is a regi 
profitable. Managing Direc- company's position in Eu- unit of the Far Euf 
tor Paul V.L. Bijvoets of rope-Far East trade. Freight Conference. 


“In the months to come 
we will consider the possi- 
bilities of cooperating on 
land." Mr. Bijvoets says. 
‘The participants of the al- 
liance could use each others' 
terminals, equipment, feeder 
services and block trains. In 
doing so we can extend our 
services to the Baltic, the 
Mediterranean. China and 
India.” 

Nedlloyd Lines also bene- 
fits from another interna- 
tional agreement. Together 
with 10 other shipping com- 
panies. Nedlloyd agreed on 
fixed tariffs within the East- 
bound Management Agree- 
ment. EMA is a regional 
unit of the Far Eastern 
Freight Conference. J.K. 


v; .-r U" 1 *‘”: fy ■$ 

v . •’ .A ; : ' i 


•'i'/ ° 



’ ■' V ' - -■ - 

;1*L. 

. . ''v " — 






Stulinn 12 ■ prove 1 , ihui wliai goes up 
M*melimes conics down. 


By dnimuiicallv lowering our 
charges for Inmarsat- A and -C services 
this past June. 

Now Station 12 Inmarsat- A user< 
can save up to 1 5".. on standard voice 
and dau charges, and up to 34“.. 
during our extended off-peak period 
flrom 19:31-05:30 GMT everyday s. 

Willi the right timing, your total 
savings can add up to over 40"... 

Station 12 lnmursat-C satellite 
messaging service customer, can save 
up to 3"”... 

Of course, you still gel the crisp 
clear communications you’ve come to 
expect from Station 12. along with the 
special sen-ices of our Customer 
Support Desk. 

h iust costs less. 

And that’s good news however von 
look at it. Station 12. Always reliable. 


Never expensive. 


| ptt telecom 

, .rwn*H*rvd» V 





□ Please tell me more about >our new 
Inmarsat- A and -C charges. 

□ Please send me more infornianon 
about Station 12. 


Announcing new- charges for Station 12. 




ood 


news 

The new charges are lower. 


Posi'Fax to Station 12 Customer Services 

P.O. Box J6S. 1970 AL IJmuidcn 

Netherlands 

Fax +31 2550 62 424 

For more information, please call us at 

+31 2550 62 355. 


pnitiCEJS CRUISES 











Page 14- 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1994 




SPORTS 




I 


Cowboys Rout Steel ers 
In Cbampionship Style 





*»* ■'■f Sfr'Y \. ..se v r-? . - 

life- i i 










.■% 


rs^ 


By Thomas George 

JKw t'wt Times Semcr 

PITTSBURGH — At first 


Chargers 37, Broncos 34: In 
Denver, John El way couldn't 
lift the Broncos to victory and 


glance, the Dallas-Pittsburgh handed San Diego three critical 
matchup was one of running turnovers. 


backs, of Hmniiu Smith vs. Bar- 
ry Foster, of which team could 
run first and run last and even- 
tually trample the opposing de- 
fense. 

But as the game unfolded 
Sunday afternoon before 
60, 1 56 fans at Three Rivers Sia- 


NFL ROUNDUP 


Stan Humphries threw three 
touchdown passes and line- 
backer Junior Seau recovered a 
bizarre fumble by Elway in the 
waning seconds. The San Diego 
defense convened two intercep- 
tions into touchdowns, includ- 
ing safety Stanley Richard’s 99- 
yard return for a score on the 
final play of the first half. 


Randy Baldwin ran a kickoff 
back 85 yards, and Eric Metcalf 
went a dub-record 92 yards 
with a punt within a three-min- 
ute span in the second quarter. 

Giants 28, Eagles 23: David 
Meggeu returned a punt 68 
yards for a touchdown, ran 26 

for a ID and recovered a fumble 
to set up another as New York 
capitalized on early errors by 
Philadelphia at Giants Stadium. 

Bears 21, Buccaneers 9: In 
Chicago. Chris Gedney caught 
his first two NFL touchdown 




IOC Session Ends 
With Election of 
12 New Members 


~ & 
y? 


y 






Reuters 

PARIS — The former Olym- 
pic sprint champion Valeri Bor- 
zov was among 12 new mem- 
bers elected on Monday to the 
International Olympic Com- 
mittee in a vote that brought the 
strength of the organization to 
100 for the first time. 

Borzov, now the Ukrainian 






sports minister, was voted in by 
the IOC session on tbe last of 11 
days of talks marking the cente- 
nary of the modem Olympic 
movement. 

Borzov, winner of gold med- 
als in the 100 and 200 meters at 
tbe Munich Olympics in 1972, 
was one of six nominees for new 
seats on the IOC. The other six 
were replacements for members 
who have retired or died. 

Tbe six replacement members 
were James Easton of the United 


dium, it was clear that this Na- 
tional Football League duel 
would offer so much more. 

It gave Barry Switzer his first 
victory as the" Cowboys’ head 
coach. It confirmed the notion 
that faced with a stiff challenge, 
the Dallas players were capable, 
once again, of "turning a test into 
a joke. And it showed that the 
Dallas defense may not be as full 
of leaks as its peers had hoped. 

Dallas won, 26-9, in such 
controlling, dominating fashion 
that the game was virtually over 
in the first half when Dallas led 
by 16-3. From that point on, it 
was clear that Foster was going 
nowhere, that Smith was rum- 
bling everywhere and that Dal- 
las was the superior team. 

Foster finished with 44 rush- 
ing yards; Smith gained 171. 
Pittsburgh gained 71 passing 
yards; Dallas had a total of 442. 

With eight minutes left. Neil 
O'Donnell finally got Pitts- 
burgh into the end zone on a 2- 
yard scramble and cut the Dal- 
las lead to 19-9. But Smith 


In earlier games, reported passes and Erik Kramer hit 18 


Monday in some editions of ike of 25 passes. 
Herald Tribune: Seahawks 


Herald Tribune: 

Chiefs 30, Saints 17: Joe 
Montana completed 24 of 35 
passes for 3 1 5 yards and touch- 
downs of 1 1 yards to Willie Da- 
vis and 2 yards to Keith Cash in 


Seahawks 28, Redskins 7: In 
Washington, Terry Wooden ran 
an interception back 69 yards 
for a TD and recovered a fum- 
ble, while Chris Warren rushed 
for 100 yards and Seattle 




New Orleans. He is 1 0-0 in the spoiled Norv Turner's debut as 
Superdome building, including the Redskins* coach, 
a Super Bowl victory - after the Colts 45, Oilers 21: In India- 
1989 season. 




Colts 45, Oilers 21: In India- 
napolis, tbe r unnin g back Mar- 


Packers 16, Viking s 10; Sier- shall Faulk had 174 total yards 
ling Sharpe didn’t make good — 143 rushing — and three 


on bis walkout, instead coming touchdowns as the Colts 
to terms on a salary adjustment opened a 42-0 halftime lead and 


and then catching a 14-yard never let Houston back in the 
touchdown pass among his sev- game. 


lehammer Games. There art 
four national Olympic co mmit* ? 
tee presidents among the newl 
comers: Borzov, Pcscante, Re©, 
die and Sealy. £'•••• 

IOC sources stud Pcscante^ 
who has been ordered to stand v 
trial in Italy with 18 others oa’ 
charges of abuse of office con- 
nected with the remodeling 

T1 Alumni/* ctarliiim 


Rome’s Olympic stadium fog-: 
the 1990 World Cup finals, had', 
been asked to agree to resign 


should he be found guilty. * 
fa other elections, Prinol? 
Alexandre de Merode, Belgian 
president of the IOC metnc^ 
commission, was dec ted as one 
of four IOC vice-presidents, rig 
placing Kevan Gosper of Auaj 
tralia. who was due to quit aft® 
four years in the post. j. 

He Zhenliang of China w& 
elected to the IOCs executis& 
board in place of Flor IsavSf 
Fonseca of Venezuela. $ 

None of those elected woti 
their IOC seats through a non 
rule passed on Sunday. The nrife 
allows the IOC president, Juiti 
Antonio Samaranch, to name 
up to 10 new members, subj& 
to a veto by the session. y 
.QamH ranch 15 expected to dp- 
point several international fed- 
eration presidents at the n id 

session in Budapest in June. P 


States, Craig Recdie of Britain, 
Mohamad Hasan of Indonesia. 
Mario Pcscante of Italy, Ger- 
hard Heibexg of Norway and 
Arne ljungqvist of Sweden. 

The other five new seats went 
to Austin Scaly of Barbados, 
Robin Mitchell of Fiji, Alpha 
Ibrahim DiaBo of Guinea, Alex 
Gflady of Israel and Shamil 
Tarpishev of Russia 

Easton is president of the 
world archery federation and 
Heiberg organized the 1994 Lil- 


en receptions for Green Bay 
against visiting Minnesota. 

Browns 28, Bengak 20: In 
Cincinnati, Cleveland bad a 
punt and a kickoff return for 
touchdowns, the first team to 
do that since Hermit in 1977. 


lions 31, Falcons 28: De- 
troit’s Jason Hanson didn't let a 
cramp bother him, kicking a 37- 
yard field goal to defeat visiting 
A tlan ta in overtime. Hanson got 
the cramp when he made a tackle 
on the last kickoff of regulation. 




Dan Levmt/Kaner, 


Emmitt Smith of Dallas scrambling for some of his 170 yards in the victory in Pi t t sb urgh. 



v- J« 


followed with a 2-yard scoring 
run with 3 minutes 48 seconds 
left for the final margin. 

“I know it’s a long season, 
but I'm proud of today and the 


SIDELINES 

No Strike, No Money, Just Baseball in the Bronx 


H V ***>9fe 1 

A- 

. • . : /IN 


. i vt. rw 


By Matthew Purdy 


New York Times Service 


way we played," Switzer said. 
“We ate up the clock. We 


“We ate up the clock. We 
scored like six out of the seven 
times we had the ball, and I 
know there were field goals, but 
still, we were moving the ball 
and getting points." 

■ In other games. Hie Associ- 
ated Press reported: 

Dolphins 39, Patriots 35: In a 
shootout reminiscent of the 
wild American Football League 
days, Dan Marino was the one 
left standing in the end, out- 
dueling New England's Drew 
Bledsoe five touchdowns to 
four in Miami. 

The last one, a 35-yarder to 
Irving Fryar on fourth down 
with 3:19 remaining, gave Fryar 
21 1 yards and three scores. 

Jets 23, Bills 3: In Buffalo, it 
was impossible to tell which 
team bad won tbe last four 
American Football Conference 
titles. The Jets were that domi- 
nant, holding Thurman Thomas 
to 5 yards rushing on seven car- 
ries and constantly harassing 
Jim Kelly, who left with a ban- 
dare on his bruised right hand. 

Rams 14, Cardinals 12: The 
Cardinals outgained the Rams 
230 yards to 152 and had the ball 
for 38:22, but they lost in Buddy 
Ryan's return to head coaching 
:n Anaheim, California. 


NEW YORK — Just as George Steinbrenner so 
often warned might happen, it is baseball season and 
Yankee Stadium is just another vacant building in 
the South Bronx. 

The House That Ruth Built didn't go dark for tbe 
reasons the team’s owner predicted — the fans' fear of 
crime and other urban demons. The player's strike 
shut the stadium, of course. But in a way, the strike 
has cleared the air in the borough of all that yammer- 
ing about the Yankees moving to New Jersey, about 
the players walking, about a salary cap. which had 
muffled the cheers for the team's glorious season. 

Now in the Yankee Stadium neighborhood, sand- 
wiched between the expressway and the elevated 
subway line, there is just baseball, pure and simple. 

Across 161st Street from the creamy-white stadi- 
um is Babe Ruth Field, a public park with a pair of 
chewed-up diamonds that are meager fields of fanta- 
sy for everyone from lazy afternoon fly shaggers to 
spitting-serious leagues of teen-age hardball players 
and agjng softball addicts. 

With the big-league strikers of summer having left 
the game, the crack of the balls being hit by profes- 

-i u... u.... 1 .u. 


It’s owned by people like Wilken Martinez, 16, a 
rangy center fielder fresh from the Dominican Re- 
public, swinging the bat on Babe Ruth Held, power- 
ing one ball after another in graceful arches reaching 
toward the cool blue summer sky. 

And by Feliciano, a bank administrator during 
the week and a semipro player on weekends, keeping 
his arm in tune playing evening softball. 

And by Manuel Rodriguez. 29, a night clerk at a 
supermarket, fielding sharp grounders hit by his 
brother, Luis, while behind him his 12-year-old sou. 


But baseball is a game of bad bops. And just as the 
Yankees' splendid season was so unceremoniously 
shortened by the strike, circumstances also interrupt 
the pore play of the amateurs across the street. 

A player with “Bronx Family Court" emblazoned 
across his shirt was frantically trying to scrounge up 
a new softball on a recent night. The municipal 


softball league requires that each team provide a 
new ball to begin tbe fourth inning and the Family 
Court player needed a ball to continue his team's 
championship game. But he was having no luck. 

“Our coach isn't here, we don't have a ball.” he 
said to some players in another game. “We’re going 
to have to forfeit the game. Great way to go out.” 

And Kennit Middleton, 17, the skinny ace of the 
Orioles, a teen-age team vying for the championship 
of a league sponsored by Columbia University, was 
long-faced because be was going to miss his team's 
playoff games. His family was going to visit relatives 
in North Carolina. 

But he was leaving his team in good hands — at 
least to hear his teammates tell iL 

“We’re somewhat like the Yankees, so I think 
we’re going to sweep it,” said Marlon Christie. 17, 
who plays both third base and catcher. 

Christie is a determined guy. In fact, he's so 
certain he is headed for the big leagues that he has 
picked up some qualities of big leaguers — such as 
granting interviews while changing into his street 
clothes, which he did the other day standing on the 
edge of a field. 

“You’re supposed to play baseball for fun." he 
said, p ulling on a pair of madras shorts. “If you 
don’t play ball for fun, what’s the use of playing?" 

Bragging rights might be one reason. 

“We have power hitters and speed and defense 
and pitching, an all-around bail club," said Christie. 
“We actually have more speed than the Yankees.” 

Not to mention a better shot at the championship. 


This is the game at its essence, 
played in defiance of all the 
moneyed forces that conspired to 
interrupt the professional season. 


sional bats have been replaced by the “tink” of 
amateurs' metal bats. And the crowds for games at 
Babe Ruth Field are obviously smaller than they 
were in Yankee Stadium (but perhaps no less pas- 
sionate; judging by the only spectators at a recent 
teen-age hardball game, a couple necking in the 
comer of the bleachers). 

This is the game at its essence, played in defiance 
of all die monied forces that conspired to interrupt 
the professional season. 

“They don’t own the game," said Angel Feliciano, 
32. who was playing a mean softball shortstop the 
other night “Neither the players nor the owners own 
the game.” 


Jonathan, wails patiently with a big mill for any 
balls that get past his father. 

One afternoon, Rodriguez looked across 161st 
Street. Tbe gates of Yankee Stadium were shuttered 
and a sign on the outside said “Thank You Fans See 
You Soon.” Or maybe not so soon. 

“It's about money," he said. “The owners want 
more money. The owners don’t want to play. They* re 
not supposed to do that They’re supposed to play. 
When 1 play, it’s something different. It’s a game." 

Rodriguez said that he knew the intoxication of 
the crowd. He played Double A ball in Santo Do- 
mingo before he came to the United Slates eight 
years ago. 

“In my country. 1 played in the big stadium,” be 
said. “Thai was my dream. All my life I want to play 
in the major leagues.” 

Instead, he plays pick-up ball by day and at night 
travels to Brooklyn, where he cleans a supermarket. 


MILAN (AP) — Gianni Bugno. a two-time world cycling cham- 
pion from Italy, was suspended on Monday for two years after 
testing positive for the use of caffeine, a tanned substance, the 
Italian Professional Cycling League said. 

Bugno was tested on Aug. 17 after the Agostini Cup race in 
Italy. After news of the positive^test on^the “AJ sample^ Bugno 

any substance banned by the Italian cycling federation. The 
second sample was tested last Friday at the Italian National 


Olympic Committee laboratory in Rome. 

Bugno. who was also fined 3.000 Swiss francs ($2,300), jg 
appeal the suspension. But after news of the failed test emerged S: ^ 
the World Cycling Championships last month, Bugno, 30, had 
said he would retire from racing if he were to be suspended. The **■’ 
Italian cyclist won the Tour of Italy in 1990 and was world raid dp 
champion in 1991 and 1992. 


zr 7 . . ; 

, ’U--’ • 
~- r -• • 


cn 


Springer Wins Milwaukee Open Golf 

MILWAUKEE (AP) — Mike Springer overcame a shot into the 
bleachers to par the 1 8th hole for a 4-under-par 67 and a one-stroke 
victory over Loren Roberts in the Greater Milwaukee Opem. 

Springer finished on Sunday with a 72-hole total of 16 -under 
268. Roberts, who set a course record Friday with a 63, shot a 
final-round 68. Four players finished two shots bade, including 


■ 


I 


Bob Estes (72), the third-round leader, Mark Calcavecchia (71), 
Tom Purtzer (64) and Joey Sindelar (69). 


For ike Record 


A1 Unset Jr. won the IndyCar race in Vancouver, British Colum- 
bia. on Sunday, his third straight victory and eighth of the season. 
Robby Gordon was second, followed by Michael Andretti Nigd 
Mans ell, the defending champion, and Unser's teammate Emerson 
Fittipaldi crashed on the last lap without injury. (Reuters! 

Roberto Baggio, Italy’s World Cup soccer hero, will not play in 
his country’s opening European Championship qualifying match 
against Slovenia on Wednesday because of a thigh strain- (Reuters) 
Michael Carbajal, a former WBC and IBF junior flyweight 
boxing champion, was arrested Sunday in Tempe, Arizona, on 
felony charges after he allegedly fired a dozen shots into the air 
when he was denied entrance to a party. (AP) 


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MAKE THOSE LUNCHES! 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1994 


Page 15 


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SPORTS 


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Graf Gains, 
Joined by 
Novotna 

CanpikA lip Our Staff From ttiquacka 

NEW YORK — Steffi Graf, 
her game primed for the year's 
final Grand S lam tournament, 
buried Zina Garrison Jackson 
under a barrage of winners, $-1, 
6-2, on Monday to grab her 
expected spot hi the U.S. Open 

quarterfinals. 

The top-seeded Graf is seek- 
ing her second straight U.S. 
Open women's singles title and 
her fourth overall. She also won 
in 1988-89. 

Also advancing into the 
quarterfinals were seventh- 
seeded Jana Novotna of the 
Czech Republic, a 6-0, 6-4 win- 
ner over No. IS Magdalena 
Maleeva of Bulgaria, and 
No. 1 1 Amanda Coetzer of 
'Sputh Africa, a 6-3, 6-0 winn er 
wer Japan’s Mana Endo. 

The first man to move into 
the quarterfinals was Berad 
Karbacher of Germany, who 
defeated Italy’s Gianluca PozzL 
6-Z 4-6, 6-3, 6-4. 

Graf, who needed just 52 
minutes to dispatch the 10th- 
seeded Garrison Jackson, still 
hasn’t played an hour-long 
match in this year’s Open. She 
beat Anne Mall in 45 minutes, 
Sandra Cacic in 55 and Radka 
Bobkova in 52. 

After just 15 minutes erf play, 
Graf was already up 5-0 and she 
never allowed Garrison Jackson 
to get into the match. 

When the American tried to 
charge the net, Graf was ready 
with a winning pass. And Gam- 
son Jackson was no match for 
Graf when the German kept her 
back on the baseline. 

Graf was never under pres- 
sure from the service line either. 
She did not face a single break 
point. 

Novotna, the 1993 Wimble- 
don runner-up, won the first 
seven games before Maleeva fi- 
nally got on the scoreboard. 



100-Meter Swim Mark for China 


Tun Cluy/Asrnce F r a nee- Pipk 

No. 7 Jana Novotna, who stopped Magdalena Maleeva on Monday at the U.S. Open. 


drawing polite applause from 
the fans. 

Coetzer breezed past 44th- 
ranked Endo to reach her first 
career Grand Slam quarter-fi- 
naL It was Endo who picked off 
sixth-seeded American Lindsay 
Davenport in the third round. 

But Endo was no match for 
Coetzer on Monday as the 
South African rolled into the 
final eight without dropping a 
set in four matches. 

(AP, Reuters) 

■ A Swede Ousts Edberg 

Jonas Bjorkxnan crept up on 
Stefan Edberg, his fellow 
Swede, and mugged him with a 
vengence on Sunday night, 
eliminating the fifth-ranked, 
two-time U.S. Open winner 
with a 6-4, 6-4, 6-0 third-round 
victory, Reuters reported. 

Edberg, 28, who won the U.S. 
Open in 1991 and 1992, did not 
seem to have a chance against 


his 22-year-old opponent, who 
pushed all over the court with 
powerful groundstrokes and 
pin-point volleys that left Ed- 
berg a hapless observer to his 
own demise. 

Edberg. the fifth seed, was so 
futile that early in the third set 
he raised his bands in victory 
after a ball had merely hit the 
tape and dropped to die other 
side for a point. 

Edberg attempted to alter the 
: late in the match by staying 
on the baseline and trading 
shots with the TinawtaH Bjork- 
man, whose best previous U.S. 
Open showing was a second- 
round appearance last year. 

But Edbexg’s offerings were 
SO unimagina tive an d weak tha t 
Bjorianan was able to plant his 
heavily muscled legs and fire 
the baD bade much harder than 
he had received it 

Edberg fell near the end of 
the first set, apparently jam- 


ming his righL wrist a bit, but he 
said it was not a factor in his 
poor showing 

Earlier, Pete Sampras, the de- 
fending men's champion and 
top-ranked player in the world, 
was admittedly off his game, 
but managed to get it together 
in time to advance to the fourth 
round with a 4-6, 6-Z 6-4, 6-3, 
victory over 187th-ranked Rog- 
er Smith Of the Rahamas 

Yevgeni Kafelnikov of Rus- 
sia, on a tear that has seen him 
jump from I04th to 1 1th in the 
world, beat 26th-ranked Carlos 
Costa of Spain, 6-3. 6-4, 6-Z 

In women’s play on Sunday, 
Gigi Fernandez defeated her 
American compatriot Ginger 
Hdgeson. 6-3, 6-4. in a fourth- 
round match. 

No. 2 Arantxa Sanchez Vi- 
cario, winner of the French 
Open, rolled over the unseeded 
American Ann Grossman, 6-Z 
6-0, in 70 minutes. 


Chinese Win 
3 Titles on 
First Day 

The Associated Press 

ROME — Le Jingyi became 
the first Chinese swimmer to 
break the 100-freestyle world 
record and China won all three 
women’s gold medals Monday 
on the first day of the swim- 
ming competition at the World 
Championships. 

Hungary’s Norbert Rozsa 
edged bis countryman, Karoly 
Guttler, in the men’s 100 
breaststroke, and Antti Kasvio 
became the first Finn to win a 
world title when he upset the 
favorite, Anders Holmertz of 
Sweden, in the 200 freestyle. 

But the day belonged to Chi- 
na’s women. 

Le powered to victory in 
54.01, eclipsing the mark set by 
the American frees tyler Jenny 
Thompson, who was swimming 
in the next lane, by 0.47. 

The second Chinese swimmer 
home, Lu Bin, also beat Thomp- 
son’s 2-year-old mark, clocking 
54.15. The German star Franzi 
Van Almsick won the bronze in 
54.77, with Thompson finishin g 
fourth in 55.16. 

She had set the world mark of 
54.48 in Indianapolis in 1992. 

Lu came back later to win a 
gold medal in the 800-meter 
freestyle relay as China set a 
championship record of 7:59.96. 

Germany took silver, with 
Van Almsick collecting her sec- 
ond medal of the night, in 
8:01.37. The United States, 
with Thompson returning to 
swim the second leg, won the 
bronze in 8:03.16. 

The other Chinese champion 
Monday was Dai Guohong in 
the women's 400 medley, ahead 
of the Americans Allison Wag- 
ner and Kristine Quance. 



r 




Kruno Miv.-.im ’TV Pii^s 


China’s triumphant Le Jingvi after she set the 100-meter 
freestyle record Monday at the world championships. 


Wagner bad the lead at half- 
way but Dai produced a power- 
ful breaststroke leg to charge 
through and leave both Ameri- 
cans trailing. 

Le Jingyi appeared to set a 
trend in assaults on world re- 
cords. After her st unning start to 
the seven-day swimming compe- 
tition. in the men's competition 
Rozsa was only 0.01 off the 
world mark at halfway of the 
next final, the 100 breakstroke. 

Rosza touched in 28.53 
ahead of Guttler and, by half- 
way down the second length, it 


was clear the gold medal was 
between the two Hungarians. 
Rozsa was first in 1:01.24, out- 
side Guttler's world mark but a 
championship record and tying 
the fastest time of the year, 
which he set in April. 

Guttler was second in 1 :01 .44 
and Belgium’s Frederic De- 
burgh gra eve was a surprise 
bronze medalist in 1:01.79. 

Holmertz was inside world 
record pace until the third turn 
of the 200 meters freestyle and 
wound up with the silver medal. 

Kasvio, bronze medalist at 


the 1992 Barcelona Olympics, 
was behind the Swede for three- 
quarters of the race and made 
nis move when Holmertz tired 
down the Tourth length. 

Kasvio’s time of 1 :47.32 was 
well outside the 5-year-old 
world record set by Giorgio 
Lamberti of Italy, and Hol- 
menz finished in 1 :4SZ4, more 
than lft seconds outside it. 

New Zealand's Danyon 
Loader also appeared to be 
catching the Swede near the end 
and won the bronze in 
1:48.49.86. 

The world record in the 800 
meters relay also appeared in 
danger as China and Germany 
swapped the lead. 

Lew Ying had the Chinese 
inside world-record pace with a 
first leg of 1:59.85 before Van 
Almsick made her charge. 

Van Almsick. 16, who won 
two Olympic medals as a 14- 
year-old in Barcelona, hauled 
the Germans from third to first 
on the second leg witb a phe- 
nomenal swim of 1:58.30. She 
covered the first 100 in 57.08 
and. by halfway, the Germans 
were 0.02 inside the world re- 
cord pace. 

It slowed after that, however, 
and the Chinese, through Zhou 
Guanbin and Lu Bin. overtook 
the Germans to win by 3.41 
seconds. 

The other German silver 
medalists were Kerstin Kiel- 
gass, Julia Jung and the veteran 
Dagraar Hase. The American 
swimmers who collected bronze 
were Cristina Teuscher, 
Thompson, the long-distance 
specialist Janet Evans and Ni- 
cole Haisletl. 

Fu Mingxia, the only diver to 
win back-to-back world titles 
from the 10-meter highboard. 
was a surprise flop in the 3- 
meler springboard preliminar- 
ies. The 16-year-old Chinese 
placed 25 ih out of 36 competi- 
tors and failed to make 
Wednesday's final. 


SCOREBOARD 


FOOTBALL 


NFL Standings 


y 


AMERICAN CONFERENCE 


Miami 391 How Enofcmd 35 
Now York Jots 23. Buffalo 3 
San Diego 37. Denver 34 

CFL Standings 


i 



W 

L- 

T 

PM 

PP PA 

Indtonopoda 

1 

0 

B 

UOO 

45 21 

Miami 

.1 

0 

8 

tow 

39 35 

M.Y.MS- . 

l 

a 


1JM0 

23 3 

Buffalo 

V 

1 

■ 

JH0 

3 23 

NewEnstond 

s 

1 

0 

-000 

3S 39 


Central 




W 

L 

T 

Pts 

PF PA 

Cleveland 

1 

D 

8 

14)00 

28 20 

Ctocfrmatf 

0 

1 

0 

4X50 

20 28 

Houston 

0 

1 

0 

4X10 

21 45 

pimiiuran 

0 

1 

0 

jno 

9 26 


west 





w 

L 

T 

pts 

PP PA 

Kfenrodiy 

l 

0 

0 

uoo 

30 17 

SonDtooo 

l 

D 

0 

14M0 

37 34 

Seattle 

i 

0 

8 

14)00 

20 7 

LARoWara 

0 

0 

0 

M0 

0 0 

Oenvar 

0 

1 

0 

MO 

34 37 

MTIONAI. CONFERENCE 




Beal 





w 

L 


Pis 

PF PA 

Cota 

1 

0 


14)00 

26 9 

H.Y. Gtanfa 

1 

0 


1.800 

28 23 

Artzuno 

0 

1 


4M 

12 14 

-PMtadeMiki 

0 

1 


400 

23 28 

Washington 

0 

1 


MO 

7 28 


Central 





W 

L 


Pts 

PP PA 

Qikaw 

1 

a 


14X50 

21 9 

Detroit 

1 

0 


14X30 

31 28 

Omen Bay 

1 

0 


14)00 

M 10 

Mtanesafa 

0 

i 


MO 

10 1* 

Tampa Bav 

0 

i 


jxn 

9 21 


west 





w 

L 


Pts 

PF PA 

LA Rams 

i 

a 


uoo 

14 12 

SanFrandsco 

0 

a 


4M0 

0 0 

Atlanta 

a 

i 


MO 

28 31 

f^rOriersas 

B 

l 

0 

M0 

17 30 

indaVx Oamoi 

i 



Eastern DtvMoa 
W L T 


Wlnnis 
Baltin 
Taranto 
Ottawa 
Hamilton 
Shreveport 


Western DfvVUoe 
Brlt.Coliimbia 7 1 1 


Calgary 
Edmonton 
Sasfcatchewim 
Sacramento 
Las Vegas 


PF PAPts 
349 285 12 

344 337 17 
225 301 i 
374 335 6 
183 345 4 
M3 350 0 

345 330 15 
344 134 14 
244 167 13 
241 360 10 
182 2S2 7 
269 297 6 


S M Bldenai 42, Winnipeg 31 


E 






ITALIAN FIRST DIVISION 
AC Milan 1. Genoa 0 


Milwaukee Open 


* 

V 


Cleveland 3A. Onclmwtl 30 
IncSenoMlia 45, Houston 21 
Koran atv 3a New Orleans 17 
Green Boy 1A Minnesota 10 
New Tort Gtanra 2J. PMtadeWito 23 
StaHle 2a WtaMnatan 7 
Chicago 21. Tempo Bav 9 
Los Angein Rams 14. Arizona 12 
dado* la Pittsburgh 9 


Final leadlog sans and earnings from N»e 
par-71, L716-yard Brawn Deer Goff came: 
Mike Springer, $180000 4W74M7-268 

Loren Roberts, mooo 7BOWB48— 269 
Tam Purber, 4U00 7*4947-64-370 

Joey Stodetor, 48400 4768 66 49 270 

Bob Estos. 40000 67-46M5-72— Z7U 

Mark Coleoveedita, <0000 67-46M4-71— 270 
Marco Dawson, 3US0 4B4M94B-271 
Dave Barr. 32250 6964-7060—271 

Mark O'Meara, SBAOO 684967-60-272 

Steve Pate, aaooa 


Men Singles Faartb Raead 
Bemd Karbocfter. Germany, def. Gtontoca 
PozzL Italy, 

Men, singles. TMrd Round 
Joem Renzenbrlnk, Germany, def. Andrea 
GouaenxL Uolv,«-4. 4-1. 4-3; MkftaelSlIen Ml. 
Germany.def. Byron Block, Zimbabwe, 7-4 17- 


SI. 6-2. 4-1; Karel Novacek. Czech Republic, 
def. Todd Woodbrtdge, Australia 14 5-7. 7-6 
18-61. 6-2,7-6(7-31; Javier Frona Argentina. 
deL Marcus Ondruska South Africa 6-1 6-1.6- 
7 (3-7), 3-46-4; Yevgeny Kafelnikov (14). Ruv 
sladef. Carlos Casta Spain. 63. 6-4. 6-2; Pete 
Sampras (1>. UA, def. Roger Smith. Baha- 
mas. 44, 6-2. 6-4, 6-3; Jaime Yzaga Peru. def. 
Cedric PMliw, France. 96. 5-7. 7-5. 6-1. 64; 
Janas Blorftmoa Swedervdef. Stefan Edberg 
(51, Sweden. W.HMI 

Women, Singles Fourth Round 
jono Novotna (7). Czech Republic def. 
Magdalena Maleeva (15), Bulgaria 64. 64; 
Steffi Graf (1). Germany, dot Zina Garrison 
Jackson (10), Houston. 6-1. 6-7; Amanaa 
Coetzer (11). South Africa del. Mono Enda 
JdpOfV 6-3, 4-0. 

Klmlko Date (5). Japan, def. Leila Mcskhl, 
Georgia 6-Z 6-7 (5-71. 7-5: Gabrleia Sabatmi 
(81. Argentina def. Elena LJkhovtscva Ko- 
mkltstaa 6-2. 6-1; Arantxa Sonchez vtcnrlo 
(2). Spain, def. Ann Grassman. U.S, 4-2. 6-0; 
Gtol Fernandez. U.S. del Ginger Hefgesan. 
UJLMM 


ONE-DAY MATCH 
Sri Lanka vs. India 
Monday, in Cotomba 
India: 125-5 (25 overs) 

Sri Lanka: 126-3 (242 overs) 

Result; Sri Lanka wins by seven wickets 

• “V 91 J *-« ■ L . . . v -:» ; 


BASEBALL 


CHICAGO— Announced a tour-year exten- 
sion of their player devel o pment contract 
with Daytona Florida State League. 

HOCKEY 

National Hockey League 
PITTSBURGH— Signed Len Barrie and De- 
monic Pirns, centers. Announced Mario Le- 
mleax. center, wlU ill out the 199445 season. 

QUEBEC— Stoned Sfephane Flset. goal- 
tender, to 3-year contract; Chris Simon, tor- 
word, to l-vear contract; and Steven Firm, 
defenseman to multiyear con trod. Signed 
Andrei Kovalenko, right wing, and Curtis Les- 
diyshyn, defenseman. 

SAN JOSE — Pe-s toned Shown Crania de- 
fenseman. Signed Jamie Baker, center. 


ST. LOUIS— Signed Craig Johnson and 
Greg Parks. forwards. Acautred Bln Houlder. 
defenseman, tram Anehelm lor Jason Mar- 
shall. de f ens e me n . 

TAMPA BAY — Stoned Jim Cummins and 
Jason Rufl. forwards. 

TORONTO— Signed Mike Gartner, right 
wing, and Kent MandervHle, left wing, to 3- 
year contracts. Agree d to lerms with Mike 
Eastwood, center, an 2-year contract. 

VANCOUVER— Re-signed John McIntyre, 
center, and Brian Glynn, defenseman. 

WASHINGTON— Signed Joe Juneau, cen- 
ter. to 6-year contract 

WINNIPEG— Signed Keith Tkochuk. cen- 
ter, to a l-vear contract. Re-stoned Darrin 
Shannon, left wtog. Stoned Alexei 2hamnov, 
center, to multiyear contract, and Teetnu 5e- 
tanne. la 3-year cantrotf. 

COLLEGE 

BIG EAST— Announced three-person off! el- 
ating crews In women's basketball, beginning 
In toe 199596 season. 

MISSISSIPPI N amed James T. "Pet*- 
Boone athletic director. 

CENTRAL FLORIDA— Oectored OchPH 
Swaby, guard-forward, academical ly Ineligi- 
ble tor 1 st semester. 

FLORIDA STATE — Announced toe suspen- 
sion of Moron Lang, offensive lineman, tor 
h*e> gamesSusacnded Forrest Conoly, offen- 
sive tackle, tor tour games tor taking illegal 
girts from snorts agents. 

FORDHAM— Announced toe resignation of 
Mike Rice, men's assistant basketball coach. 

FRESNO STAT E - Named Johnny Brown 
monk assistant basketball coach. 

HUNTER— Reinstated Ray Amalbert as 
men's basketball coach. Promoted Jockcc 
Meadow to women's basketball coach. 

IOWA— Announced basketball recruit 
J»ne Head forward, has bem denied admis- 
sion tor tolling to meet academic reoulre- 
me nts. 

IOWA ST.— Suspended Calvin Branch, lu- 
ntor running back; James Brooks, senior 
wide receiver; and Russell Johnson, sopho- 
more defensive bock, ter 1 gome tor Ihelr 
Involvement in deck forgery scum. 

KENTUCKY— Oerek Anderson, guard-for- 
ward. has transferred tram Ohio 5t. 

KING'S. N.Y,— Named J Im Alter men's bas- 
ketball cooch and Chuck Srtielde men's assis- 
tant basketball coach. 

LSU— Glover JoOtsoa basketball center, 
will be redshlrted tor o year to concentrate on 
his studies. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE— Named Chris O'Con- 
nor men's assistant basketball coach. 


INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFIED 


PERSONALS 


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turned to Mexico earty. Heme contact 
tayxtkng payment and fol sdwdUe. 


A 

ir*. 


CROSSWORD 


ACROSS • Ra 9 u 

competitor 

i Not fully shut i« Richness 

s Penalty is Irish Rose lover 


4 


- • 


QUALITY THAT LASTS 




CABAN JACHE 


te Prepared 
potatoes, in a 
way 

17 POUND 
ao Denials 

21 Computer insert 

22 Discharges 

23 Earring site 

24 'Ain *t She 
Sweet?" 
composer 

2 S Guarantee 
28 Scottish 
Highlander 

32 RAND 
34 Knock the 
socks off 

39 Away from the 
wind 

as Soronty 

character 

37 Muslim officers 
» Calll. neighbor 

38 SCHILLING 

*3 love-lies- 
bleeding, for 
one 

45 Parsons' places 
4S Inventor Rubik 

47 ‘The Sweetest 
Taboo" singer 

48 Timmy's dog 

51 Pulitzer winner 
Quindfen 

52 Take to court 
55 YEN 

58 Really hurt 
SB Iron or loot 
preceder 
so Singer Pinza 
si Servings of ale 

62 ProWs. 
informally 

63 Antiprohibttion- 
■StS 


DOWN 

1 Wyoming's 
Simpson 

2 O'Casey play 

* and the 

Paycock" 

a Turning point 
4 "Losing My 
Religion' rock 
group 

s Bullet size 
6 More than 
flabby 

T Swim's 

alternative 

8 Gumshoe 
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10 Stairway parts 

11 Old French 
coins 

l 2 Gotdfinger 
portrayer FrObe 

13 Lyric poems 
ib Think the world 

of 

18 Permitted 
43 Time 
co-founder 

24 To whom a 
caliph prays 

25 Turkish city 

26 Western capital 
27 1083 Indy 

winner Tom 

28 Work behind 
the plate 

29 Biblical gift 
bearer 

30 Cognizant 

31 Hornets' homes 
33 Fistfigh! 

37 Bad marks’ 
se Rinds 

40 English novelist 
Hammond 





4 

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8 



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T3 

T3 

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Page 16 


mTERlVATIOIVAL HBBAM TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1994 


ART BUCHWA 1 D 


More Capital Crimes 


The Travel Writer’s Travel Writer Looks Back 


W ASHINGTON — For 
many people, the crown 


▼V many people, the crown 
jewel of the crime bill is how 
many crimes may sow be pun- 
ished by the death penalty. It 
numbers 60, and you would 
think that would be sufficient, 
considering the high cost of 
electricity every lime the switch 
in the death house is pulled. 

I can go either way on capital 
punishment I 


can be per- 
suaded Jt is 
cruel and un- 
usual punish- 
ment but on 
the other hand 
there is some- 
thing in me 
that would 
love certain 



people to fry. 
For exam 


Buchwald 


ror exam- 

pie, I believe all plumbers, elec- 
tricians and any repairmen who 
promise to show up on a certain 
day at a certain time and don’t 
should get capital punishment 
I also want those people who 
make junk calls to my house at 


Britain to Keep 
Three Graces’ 


A gene? Frmce-Pmse 


L ONDON — The 19th-cen- 
tury sculpture “The Three 
Graces” will remain in Britain 
thanks to a last-minute finan- 
cial contribution by Baron 
Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Borne- 
misza de Kaszoo, museum offi- 
cials said. 

The Victoria and Albert Mu- 
seum and the Scottish National 
Galleries announced that with 
the £800,000 (S1.2 million) do- 
nation enough money had been 
raised to counter a £7.6 million 
offer from the Getty Museum 
of California. 

Lord Armstrong, head of the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, 
said he hoped to display the 
work, completed in 1819 by 


Italian sculptor Antonio Cano- 
va, at the Victoria and Albert in 
December and at the Scottish 
National Galleries in Edin- 
burgh * year from now. 


dinner time to go to the death 
house. Fm not saying they 
should get the sentence on the 
first junk call — but three rails 
and they’re out 

I also want those who put me 
on hold and then forget about 
me to walk the last mile. 

It was Shakespeare who first 
came out for capital punish- 
ment when he said, “Let’s kill 
all the lawyers.” He knew what 
he was talking about 

There's more. The death pen- 
alty should be applied to people 
behind me who bonk at me 
when Fm stuck in heavy traffic. 

Tm not electrocuting every- 
one. The death penalty should 
be used only as a very last resort 
— such as when you fill out all 
your forms for a government 
permit for a license or a job. 
Three weeks later, they inform 
you that their records indicate 
that your forms never arrived. I 
am not advocating the electric 
chair for the bureaucrat. But 
why not a hanging, so everyone 
can enjoy it? 

I have just so much patience. 
For example, I see no reason 
why someone who parks in 
front of your driveway so you 
can’t get out should not be riv- 
en the same last rites that Pat 
O'Brien gave to James Cagney. 

O 

Whenever their kids drive 
them crazy, parents are con- 
stantly saying. *Td like to kill 
them.” This is not die same as 
saying you would like to kill the 
person who sold you a lemon of 
a car. 

The truth is, no one wants to 
kill his or her children, but most 
people do mean it when they 
say they want to lrill someone 
who sold them something that 
didn’t work. Whether this 
should be considered a capital 
offense is something the Justice 
Department wfl] have to figure 
out 

I don’t know if capital pun- 
ishment is a surefire deterrent, 
but I suspect that if the person 
who promised to fix your wash- 
ing machine on Tuesday knows 
that if he doesn’t show up he’ll 
get the chair, he wifl be there at 
6:30 in the morning. 


By Roderick Conway Morris 

International Herald Tribune 


S AINT-MALO, France — De- 
scribed by Graham Greene as 


k> scribed by Graham Greene as 
“one of the brat writers of the centu- 
ry,” Norman Lewis prefers to charac- 
terize himself as “probably the only 


person you’ve met with the ability to 
enter a crowded room, remain there 


enter a crowded room, remain there 
for half an hour, and depart without 
anybody knowing I've been there.” 

Lewis’s life has spanned almost the 
entire century, during which he has 
produced a series of outstanding 
travel books, ranging from classic 
accounts of Indochina on the eve of 
the Vietnam War — “A Dragon Ap- 
parent” and “Golden Earth” — to an 
expose of the Sicilian Mafia, “lire 
Honored Society,” an almost halluci- 
natory narrative of his Italian war- 
time experiences, “Naples ’44,” and a 
lyrical memoir of life among the fish- 
omen of a remote Spanish village, 
“Voices of the Old Sea,” — and 13 
novels, plowing an idiosyncratic but 
fertile furrow, and winning a steady 
following all over the globe. 

“I like always to be in the back- 
ground, to watch people and observe 
surroundings — and the lack of any- 
thing dramatic in my personality and 
appearance has stood me in good 
stead,” said Lewis, who, despite a 
natural reserve is splendid company 
and a fund of extraordinary tales, 
which he tends to begin with a dis- 
creet cough and an innocuous “Curi- 
ously enough . . 

His literary style is at one with the 
man: brilliant but subtle and unos- 
tentatious, his works full of sharp, 
often startling observations and in- 
sights. (“Mr. Lewis,” remarked the 
cntic Cyril Connolly of one his early 
books, “can make even a lorry inter- 
esting”), shot through with an inimi- 
table brand of humane, sometimes 
wildly funny, humor. 

Lewis was in Saint-Malo at the 
annual Etonnants Voyageurs (Amaz- 
ing Travelers) literary festival to re- 
ceive this year’s Prix de 1’Astrolabe 
for his oeuvre in general and, in par- 
ticular, his novel “Torre del Mar,” 
published in 1955 as “The Day of the 
Fox,” which has just been issued in 
France, where Lewis’s writings are 
beginning to find an audience. 

The award was presented on the 
eve of publication in Britain of “I 
Came, 2 Saw,” an expanded and en- 
riched version of the first volume of 
his autobiography (first out a decade 


ago under the title “Jackdaw Cake”). 

He was born in 1908 in Enfield, 
then a village on (he northern edge of 
London, to strikingly eccentric 
Welsh parents whose enthusiasm for 
spiritualism he did not share. Lewis 
emerged from the local school into 
the gloom of the Great Depression, 
and with another disconsolate school 
friend (who “had set his sights on 
becoming an airship designer, then 
jettisoning the idea owing to the state 
of the world” had philosophically 
accepted “employment at the Sewage 
Farm in Ponders End”), Lewis began 
to ask himself “if in fact we really 
existed or whether what we took to 
be life could not be a complex illu- 
sion, and endless, low-quality, 
dream." 

And yet, as Lewis relates in “I 
Came, I Saw.” “the experience of 
these years fostered resilience — pos- 
sibly even, of necessity, a sense of 
adventure.” Revealing early his tal- 
ent for falling into bizarre and enter- 
taining company, Lewis presently 
became friendly with a a flamboyant 
group of Central Asian refugees flee- 
ing Stalin’s terror, who baa pitched 


their tents in the enormous rooms of 
the rundown Victorian lodgings they 
had rented, drank “a home-brewed 
Russian beer laced with methylated 


spirits, smoked yellow cigarettes with 
Cyrillic lettering on them, spent their 


Cyrillic lettering on them, spent their 
money on fireworks and kept the 
street awake with their all-night par- 
ties, at which they let off rockets, 
beat tambourines and wept.” 

Having saved enough doing odd 
jobs, including working as a wedding 
photographer, in Ids mid-2Qs Lewis 
managed a trip to southern Arabia. 
“I took a lot of photographs of a kind 
that were unusual in those days,” he 
said, “and. to my absolute amaze- 
ment, I made a book of them. The 
return, in terms of money, wasn’t 
more than £20. But it started me off 
on being able to travel and more or 
less pay for it” 

Consistent with the unpredictable 
progress of Lewis’s career, his mar- 
riage in the late '30s to his first wife, 
Emestina, gave Lewis an entree to a 
Bloomsbury as different from that of 
the eponymous literary coterie as can 
possibly be imagined Emestwa's Si- 
cilian parents had decamped from 
New York on the first possible 
steamer, leaving behind all their pos- 
sessions after a Mafia attempt to as- 
sassinate her father (which he es- 



pans of the world to a life of “semi- 
slave labor for large corporations ” 
Between journeys, Lewis lives with 
his family in “introspective, almost 
monastic ralm is the depths of Es- 
sex,” in an old parsonage with a large 
garden that serves as a kind of local 
nature reserve (and refuge for foxes). 
He has had what he rails “several 
goes” at settling abroad, all of which 
have failed. 

'“On one occasion we tried to live 
near Rome. But there were numerous 
sma ll thi ngs against xl It was very. 


very enjoyable. But, for example, the 
children were sent to an international 


Norman Lewis: U I like always to be in the background.’ 


raped with only his hat being blown 
off). 

Lewis moved in with the family in 
Gordon Street, soon to discover that 
his mother-in-law packed a pistol in 
her handbag, and her husband kept 
“an imposing snub-nosed (and load- 
ed) revolver in the top drawer of Ms 
desk. Thus it was — as Lewis reveals 
for the first time in his autobiogra- 
phy — that he received his fortuitous 
introduction to Sicilian society, and 
uniquely privileged glimpses of the 
inner workings of the Cosa. Nostra, 
which in due course gave rise to his 
still-gripping ’The Honored Soci- 
ety-" 

Though never thinking of hims elf 
as a man with a missi on ,’ Lewis writ- 
ings have sometimes been highly in- 
fluential. “When I first started travel- 
ing I wanted to see the world and to 


have adventures. But later I saw a lot 
of atrocious thing s in South America. 
What 1 saw in those days obviously 
changed me and I became more com- 
mitted to rectifying wrongs. I wrote a 
very long article in the Sunday Times 
on the systematic e limina tion of the 
Indians in Brazil. This led to the 
founding of Survival International. 
changes in Br azilian law, and a lot 
was achieved. 


children were sent to as international 
school, and just before we went there, 
Getty’s grandson had been kid- 
napped and they cut his ear off. We 
lived in a charming small village, in 
the annex of a palazzo with Etruscan 
tombs all round the garden. 

“But the inhabitants bad some ter- 
rifically bad habits. There was a won- 
derful river running through the gar- 
den, and then on into the tillage. The 
trouble was that everybody used to 
dump their rubbish in it There was a 
marvelous ancient bridge — and one 
day some locals turned up with an 
old Flat van, and three or four men 
just tipped it into the river. It was 
obviously going to stay there for ever 
among the roots. By then, Td really 
had enough. After that we made an- , 
other failed attempt to settle in Tan- 
giers — a very great mistake. And so 
we found ourselves bade in Essex, 
which is lamentable in a way, but 
something I know how to cope with 
at least.” 

Lewis's stamina both as a writer 
and a traveler remain prodigious, but 
he admits that he may at last have to 
slow down. “I recently made three 


trips to New Guinea, and 1 felt fear- 
fully exhausted. On the last one com- 


mit was said then that there would 
be no Indians left in Brazil by the 
year 2000, but we were at least suc- 
cessful in slowing down this incredi- 
bly rapid decimation of their num- 
bers, and a reasonable percentage is 
still there,” he said. He added, how- 
ever, that the long-term outlook was 
pessimistic in the face of the vast 
commercial interests that threaten to 
reduce indigenous peoples in many 


fully exhausted. On the last one com- 
ing bade we had 35 hours of misery 
traveling by plane, having lived at a . 
very high altitude without really suit- 
able rood — so we were already 
weakened before the journey start- 
ed.” On this trip Lewis was accompa- 
nied by his great Mend and collabo- 
rator, the photographer Don 
McCuflin. who though a considera- 
bly younger man was by the end, said 
Lems, “feeling pretty ropey too ” 
“So yes, to some extent I shall 
perhaps have to cut down on some of 
those really terrible journeys. But • 
I've no doubt if there’s anything that 
really interests me in a fairly nearby 
situation, like South America, F shall 
go there.’ 


WEATHER 


PEOPLE 


Europe 


Forecast tor Wednesday through Friday, as provided by Accu-Weather. 


AI0W«* 

AmtwmJwn 


CawrtB f 
Cotta IM Sal 


Mantel 

LMPaknaa 

Listen 

London 


Pw** 

Rapjav* 

name 

St. PaWrahog 

Stocww*m 

Snuteuig 


Tod* 
High Law 
Of CJF 
27/M 1DCS 

21.70 1*157 

28/02 13*5 
31 « 2C/E8 
28.% 19/66 
MM 15-53 
IS« 12<» 
22»71 13« 
S4/J5 14/57 
17162 9/48 

28.82 22.71 
17«2 6. *3 

16*1 HIS? 
27*0 18*1 
23/73 12*3 
24C5 13.55 
13*5 9/48 
2882 17*2 
2882 19*5 
27*0 18** 
20*8 10*0 
31*8 16*1 
26.79 16*1 

22.71 11*2 

23*73 13*5 
2780 17*2 
15*8 7H4 

2B.T9 21.70 
2577 14*7 
2271 14*7 
10 50 7*44 

28 82 (6 81 
16*1 11*2 
13*5 9'48 

2373 13.55 
13*5 948 

27*0 19*6 
21.70 13*5 
19*6 7'44 

25.77 14*7 


» 




J tim a n i 


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CoU 


lAnoaaonaUiy 

Hot 


North America 

Boston win have dry. coal 
molhar leu W» wmL nhia 
Chicago lo Pittsburgh will 
have mainly dry, pleasant 
weather. Windy. w« weather 
wilt laiger wer die Canadian 
Maritime! Wednesday. Hot 
weather will extend north- 
ward Irem Dates and Albu- 
querque thrn&i Denver. 


Europe 

London will have breezy, 
coo I weather lata this weefc 
with scattered rains. Peris 
through Geneva will have 
mainly dry. pleasant wearier 
late this weefc. Roma to 
Athens will be sunny and 
very warm. A chilly rain wC 
soak DuMn and Glasgow on 
occasion Oslo wU also have 
cool, damp weather. 


Asia 

The remnants ol Tropical 
Storm Joel wiO bring Meaty 
heavy rains to the intenor ol 
Southeast Asia Wednesday 
and Thursday. Manila to 
Hong Kong will be warm with 
daily afternoon showers. 
Cooler weather and a lew 
thunderstorms wil reach Bel- 
ong late this week. Tokyo wi* 
remain very warm. 


Asia 


Today 


Tomorrow 



Loo 

VII 

Hk* 

Lo* W 


C/F 

OF 


CJF 

C/P 

Banddi 

3006 

24/75 

1 

3108 

24/75 1 


2602 

17/82 

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23/84 

1604 l 


2904 

27/80 Sh 

30/88 

26/78 pc 

Unite 

31/86 

2«/75 


30/88 

23173 1 


3209 

2700 


33/91 

26179 1 

Sect/ 

3108 

20/R* 

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21170 

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28/82 

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Srrasttre 

31 <88 

22171 

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3108 

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Ta^ei 

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3209 

23/73 pc 

T «*vo 

29(84 

21/70 


32 /W 

23C3 l 

Africa 

AJgws 

20/79 

22/71 

a 

29*4 

23-73 pc 

Town 

23/73 

15/56 

Ml 

20 zee 

9/48 pc 

Canwanca 

Z8« 

18/64 

4 

27*0 

18.64 pc 

Maszra 

1906 

10*0 

1 

22/71 

11/57 pc 


2802 

23/73 

1 

2802 

24775 pc 

Nan*. 

3006 

8148 

ttc 

23/73 

11151 DC 

Tim 

3006 

1702 

4 

31 08 

21/70 pc 

North America 


F EW good words. Marion Brando, in 
his autobiography, due out next week. 


Middle East 


Latin America 


Oceania 

Auauana 1fl*l 8 "46 ah 14,57 6'48 r 


c* or 
Bum* 30*8 2475 

GMU 32*9 20*8 

Dvihkus 28*2 17*2 

JwimlBRi 27.80 18*4 

Luxor 37*8 13*8 

F*V»*l 387100 2170 


30*8 2475 « 32*9 2475 a 
32*9 20*8 s 34.W 2271 a 
28*2 17*2 a 32*9 17*2 a 
27.80 18*4 a 23*4 19*6 a 
37*8 13*6 » 39' 102 20*8 s 


Today Tamomm 

M0I Law W Mgh Lew W 

or of of or 

Buenos A. r*a 18*4 7<44 ah 12/53 0/32 pc 

CBiwaa »*4 19*6 pc 28*2 20*8 pc 

Una 18*t 16*1 pc 18*4 15/58 C 

MMteCly 2170 12/S3 ah 22771 12*3 1 

RMdeJa»a«o 27*0 19*6 a 29/84 19/86 a 

Sanaasp 19*e 8K3 C 16*4 6M3 PC 


Crxcago 

Denser 

Daroa 

NonoMki 

Nounon 

Los Anoetea 

loans 


2170 B'46 pc 2170 17*3 a 


Legend: a -sunny, pc-party (Study, c-dowJy, tfi-ehowera. l-tfirderatonna. r-raw. af-snrar Suiries, 
sn-soow.Hce.W-Weem*. Afi maps, foments and data prodded by tecw-Waathar, Inc. £ 1984 


Tcrtero 

WnMnglan 


15*9 5'41 

28*2 19*6 
21/70 13*5 
24/75 12*3 
29*4 12*3 
23/73 12*3 
30*6 2373 
34*3 20*8 
31*8 19*6 
32*B 2475 
2170 H/52 

21/70 11*2 
31*8 2475 
2373 18*4 
36/100 26778 
2475 13*5 
2271 12*3 
2271 11/52 
2475 17*2 


pc i* or pc 

I 30*6 16*1 pc 
Ml 2373 13*5 PC 
PC 2679 12*3 s 
S 31*8 12*3 pc 
sn 23/73 12/SO pc 
PC 31*8 2373 pc 
pc 33/91 2170 pc 
pc 28*2 18*4 pc 
1 32*8 2373 PC 

* 2577 12*3 pt 
PC 19*6 8/46 stl 
PC 32*9 2478 pc 
PC 2679 17*2 pc 

* 38/10027 *0 s 
S 2170 13*5 pc 
pc 2? 71 12*3 3h 
M 21/70 10*0 pc 
PC 28 79 17*2 pc 


IP his autobiography, due out next week, 
says he thinks Marilyn Monroe, with 
whom he had an affair, was murdered, 
according to the New York columnist Liz 
Smith- Smith, who received an advance 
copy of the closely guarded book, also says 
Brando thought that Charlie Chapfin, who 
directed him in a movie, was the crudest 
man he had ever met. that Richard Barton 
was ”a mean drunk” and that Lee Stras- 
berg, the founder of the Actor's Studio, 
was a fraud. The actor was paid $5 million 
to write his memoirs, but the book. 
"Brando: Songs My Mother Taught Me," 
makes no mention of his stormy relation- 
ships with his wives and children. Smith 
said. 

□ 


the winners in the Manila Film Festival. 
Ruffa Gutierrez and three others were ar- 
raigned last week on fraud and related 
charges relating to the festival, in which 
bogus winners for best actor and best ac- 
tress (Gutierrez) were announced- The trial 
starts later this month. 

□ 


The conductor Zubin Mehta is bringing 
his favorite orchestra, the Israeli Philhar- 
monic, to the land of his binh. India, in 
November. “This is one concert I have 
looked forward to for decades,” Mehta 
said. India and Israel did not have full 


diplomatic ties until 1992. The Bombay- 
born Mehta is music director of Israel's 


Suzanne Wyman, wife of former Rolling 
Stone Bill Wyman, has given birth to a 
daughter: Katharine Noe Be. Wyman has a 
31 -year-old son from a previous marriage. 
□ 

The second runner-up in the 1993 Miss 
World pageant asked a Philippines court 
on Monday to allow her to go to London to 
explain to pageant officials the criminal 
charges against her for allegedly rigging 


born Mehta is music director of Israel's 
national orchestra. 

□ 

Kim Basinger’s bank is going on the 
auction block to ease her financial straits. 
The Bank of Braselton. the smallest in the 
state of Georgia, with $625 million in 
assets, will be auctioned Sept. 22 in U. S. 


Bankruptcy Court in Los Angeles. Ba- 
singer declared bankruptcy last year after 


singer declared bankruptcy last year after 
a movie-production company won an $8.1 
million judgment against her. The actress 
paid a reported $20 million in 1989 for 
1,700 acres of Braselton. 


AIKS' Access Numbers. 

How to call around the world. 

1. Using the chan below, find the country you art calling from. 

I Dul the corresponding .MKT Access Number. 

3- An AJXT English-speaking Operator or voice prompt will ask for the phone number you wish to cafl or connect you to 3 
customer service representative. 

To receive your free wallet card of AKTs Access Numbers, just dial the access number of 
the country you're in and ask for Customer Service 


Travel in a world without borders, time zones 

or language barriers. 


Australia 
China, PRO** 

Guana 

Hong Kong 

India# 

Indonesia* 

J apart- 

Korea 

Korea** 

Malaysia - 
. New Zealand 
Philippines* 


1-800-881-011 Liechtenstein* 
108X1 Lithuania* 


018-872 Luxembourg 


000-117 Malta - 
001-801-10 Monaco - 


Singapore 
Sri lanka 
Taiwan* 
Thailand* 


EUROPE 


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Armenia** 

Austria—* 


0039 -U 1 Netherlands - 06 

009*11 Norway 8 

IT Poland - * “ OaOIQ 

80P0011 Portugal' 05 

000-911 Romania 01 

105-11 Russfa’tatoscowQ 

239-2872 Slovakia 00-4 

SOPOHI-rtl Spain* 90 

430-»30 Sweden* 02 

0080-10288-0 Switzerland* 

11019 - 991-1111 UJC- 050 

: Ukraine* 

8*14311 MIDDLE EAST 


COUNTRY 

ACCESS NUMBER 

Brazil 

0008010 

ChOe 

00*0312 

Colombia 

98011-0010 

Costa Rfcrt 

114 

Ecuador - 

119 

E3 Salvador** 190 

Guatemala* 

190 

Guyana** - 

165 

Honduras** 

li3 

MedcoAA* 

95-S00-KJ2-424O 

Nicaragua (Managua) 174 

Panamas 

109 

Suriname 

156 

Venezuela's 

80011-120 


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Camera Pin 

NO-CONTACT ORDER — The pop 
star Whitney Houston has obtained a 
restraining order against a man ac- 
cused of stalking her and her family 
over the last three years. The man, 
Charles Gilberg, has claimed to be the 
father of Houston’s daughter. 


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Bulgaria 

Croatia - * 

Czech Rep 

Denmark - 

Finland* 

France 

Germany 

Greece* 

Hungary* 

Iceland** 

Ireland 


8*14111 MIDDLE EAST British VJ 

022-903-011 Bahrain SOO-OGl Cayman l 

0800-100-10 Cyprus* 080-90010 Grenada* 

00-180IM0I0 Israel 177-100-2727 Hold* 

99-38-0011 Kuivjrt 800-288 Jamaica - * 

00-420-00101 Lebanon (Bei rat) 426-801 Netfe.An 

8001-0010 Qatar 0800-011-77 SUOns/N 

9800-100- 10 Saudi Arabia 1-800-10 

19a- 0011 Turkey' 00-800-12277 Egypt* (C 

01904)010 UA £* 800-121 Gabon* 

00800-1311 AMERICAS flomfrfa- 

00*80001111 Argentina* 001-800-200-1111 Kgnya - 


155-00-11 CARIBBEAN 

0500-89-0011 Bahamas 1-800872-2881 

8*100-11 Bermuda* 1-800872-2881 

1ST British VJ. I -330-872-2881 

SOPOOl Cayman Islands 1-8QQ872-28B1 

080-90010 Grenada - 1-800872-2881 

177-100-2727 Haid* 001-800972-288? 

800-288 Jamaica* - 0800-872-2881 

426-801 . Netfa-Amfl 001-800872-2881 

0800-011-77 St- Kitts/Nevis 1-800-872-2881 

1-800-10 AFRICA 

00-800-12277 Egypt* (Cairo) 51041200 

800-121 Gabon - OOa-OOI 


999-001 Bditt* 
1-800-550-000 Bolivia* 


555 Liberia 

0-800-1112 South Africa 


5100200 

OOa-OOI 

0011Z 

0600-10 

797*797 

0-80099-0123 



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