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INTERNATIONAL 



PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WtfSHlfSGTON POST 


The World’s Daily Newspaper 


London, Tuesday, April 1, 1997 



For Russian Magnates, 
A Rush Toward Media 

Financial Titans Use Power of the Press 
In Search of Profit and Political Capital 


By David Hoffinan 

Washington Post Service 


MOSCOW — Vyacheslav Kuznet- 
sov, a beefy man with large hands anda 
wavy pompadour, bluntly explained 
why Gazprom, Russia's colossal natural 

gas monopoly, has embarked on a drive 

to dominate the Russian mass media. 

“Do you understand what I’ve got in 
my hands, and where I can tarn?" he 
asked, referring to the 29 newspapers 
and television stations Gazprom has sub- 
sidized or invested in. The Russian me- 

^ dia. he said, are involved man epic baafe 

among the financial titans of Russia. 

In Gazprom's gleaming skyscraper, 
Mr. Kuznetsov sits close to the seat of 
power. He is counselor to the chairman, 
Rem Vyakhirev, one of the leading fi- 
nancial oligarchs of the new Russia. 

Mr. Kuznetsov’s job is to make sure 
that Gazprom remains a formidable fi- 
nancial and political em p ir e. “Gazprom 
must be very careful about its image,” 
said Mr. Kuznetsov, referring to its con- 
troversial, and lucrative, monopoly 


In Line for NATO 



General Wesley Clark of the 
U.S. Army was said to be chosen 
for a top post at NATO. Page 6. 


U.S, Scolds 
Other Nations 
Over Trade 

Om-St&Fnm Dupes** 

WASHINGTON — The United 
States on Monday asserted that 50 trad- 
ing partners, including Japan, C hina , 
South Korea and the European Union, 
have erected trade barriers that are cost- 
ing American businesses and farmers 
billions of dollars in lost sales annually 
and could face sanctions if they fail to 
open their markets to U.S. goods and 
services. 

In the annual review of unfair trade 
practices, the Clinton administration 

Japan lashes out on trade. Page 13. 

said that while progress had been made, 
much remained to be done to level the 
playing field for American companies. 

“Many markets around the world re- 
main closed to U.S. exports,’ said 
Charlene Banshefeky, the U.S. trade rep- 
resentative, adding that to the extent the 
US. trade deficit is the result of these 
barriers, “they must be reduced’’ 

Separately, the Commerce Depart- 
ment said Monday that it had ruled that 
NEC Coro, and Fujitsu Ltd. of Japan 
had offered supercomputers to U.S. cus- 
tomers at “dumping ’ prices, or less 
than fair value. , , ... , 

The annual report, called the National 

See BARRIERS, Page 6 


wsstand Price* 


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£0.90 Said Arabia .10.00 R 
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14 



structure. “ That is why we have to work 
with the mass media. Not just work. We 
have to invest in them.” 

In buying up the fledging Russian 
mass media, Gazprom is not alone. Rus- 
sia’s powerful financial and political 
clans have invested heavily in the coun- 
try’s major newspapers mid television 
'c han n e ls in search of profits and polit- 
ical capital. Factories may be shuttered 
across Russia, but media tycoons are 
scrambling for properties from glossy 
entertainment magazines to pay-satel- 
lite television. “Russia's information 
market,” said Mr. Kuznetsov, “is a 
Klondike for : business.” . 

It is also a gold mine for political 
influence. In last year’s presidential 
ca mp aign, two of the most powerful 
media tycoons, Vladimir Gusmsky and 
Boris Berezovsky, played a key role in 
re-electing President Boris Yeltsin, 
dem o nstrating the might of television in 
the young Russian democracy. Now, 
others are striving to follow. 

See RUSSIA, Page 6 



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GOVERNMENT CRISIS IN INDIA — Prime Minister H. D. Deve Gowda addressing supporters at his 
residence in New Delhi on Monday. Mr. Deve Gowda said be would face a confidence vote rather than 
resign after the Congress (I) Party withdrew its support for his minority coalition government Page 4. 


Dollars and Foreign Policy: Practice vs. Preaching 


By John M. Broder 

New York Times Service 


WASHINGTON — Members of both major Amer- 
ican political parties express horror at a«T«n rion j! that 
the Chinese may have tried to use covert campaign 
donations to influence U.S. policy, but the United Stales 
has long meddled in other nations’ internal affairs. 

Congress routinely appropriates tens of millions of 
dollars in covert and oven money to use in influencing 
domestic politics abroad. 

. The National Endowment for Democracy, created 
15 years ago to do in the open what the CIA has done 
surreptitiously for decades, spends $30 miDion a year 
lo support thongs like political parties, labor unions, 
dissident movements and the news media in dozens of 
countries, including China. 


The endowment has financed unions in France, 
Paraguay, the Philippines and Panama. In the mid- 
1980s, it provided $5 million to Polish gmigrtis to keep 
the Solidarity movement alive. It has underwritten 
moderate political parties in Portugal, Costa Rica, 
Bolivia and Northern Ireland. 

It provided a $400,000 grant for political soups in 
Czechoslovakia that backed die election of Vaclav 
Havel as president in 1990. For the Nicaraguan elec- 
tion of 1990, it provided more than $3 million in 
“technical” assistance, some of which was used to 
bolster Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, the presidential 
candidate favored by the United States. 

The endowment spent $1.6 million last year for 
political “institution building” prog r ams in China, 
said Louisa Coan, die endowment’s program officer 
for East Asia. That was in addition to millions of 


dollars spent on Chinese-language broadcasts by the 
Voice of America and cultural exchanges designed to 
improve the image of the United States in Asia. 

Those are among the more benign American efforts 
to intervene in the domestic politics of nations around 
the globe, activities that have been revealed in de- 
classified documents. memoirs and records of con- 
gressional hearings. 

Since the end of World War fl. the United States, 
usually acting covertly through the CIA. has installed 
or toppled leaders on every continent, secretly sup- 
ported political parries of close allies like Japan, 
fomented coups, spread false rumors, bribed political 
figures and spent countless billions of dollars to sway 
public opinion. 

See POLICY, Page 6 


A Gold-Mining Saga of Mystery, Intrigue and Death 


Geologist’s Death Plunge 
Deepens the Bre-X Riddle 

By Anthony DePahna 

New YorkThnes Service 

By all .appearances, it was a golden evening, a 
chance for Michael de Gnzman to have a drink, boast 
a bit and even ring a few verses of “My Way” at a 
smoky Indonesian karaoke bar. 

And why not? The 40-year-cJdHBpino prospector 
had become a millionaire by ignoring detractors and 
doggedly pursuing bis own unorthodox theory about 
how minerals form. That independence of xrund led 
him in 1986 to the forbidding jungles of Borneo, 
where be later helped discover what came to be 
trumpeted as tins century’s greatest gold strike. 

Toa colleague with hun that night two weeks ago, 
Mb', de Guzman seemed on top of die world. 

The next day he was dead. He plummeted 800 feet 
(240 meters! from a helicopter en route to a meeting 
to explain why new tests had come up with hardly a 
trace of the 200 million ounces of gold be and his 
fanmtian employer, Bre-X Minerals Ltd. of Calgary, 
Alberta, had said they had found in a place known as 
Busang in Borneo. 

Searchers took four days to recover Mr. de Guz- 
man’s body. A funeral was held in Jakarta on Friday. 
By then, police had a suicide note that mentioned an 
incurable illness. But family and friends could not 
believe that Mr. de Gnzman had taken his own life. 

That is not the only mystery in this tale of a tiny 
company that had never made a penny of profit and 
that financed its operations solely from the sale of 
stock. Yet it attracted hordes of investors, from 
sophisticated institutions to teachers, shop owners 
and other small -town Canadians. 

- They dreamed of making a killing, but in the last 
month, the empty drilling samples taken by a pro- 
spective American partner sh att e r ed co nfi de nce in 
Bre-X. After the company dropped more than $3 
bfllioD— losing 80 perocotof its value— in jnstafew 
mmirfw of frantic stock trading Thursday, investors 
demanded to know whether there ever had been any 
gold or whether they all had been taken fbraride. 

What is unmistakable is that the unfolding story is 
tubin g the shape of a modern morality playthai book 
and film agents are scrambling to option. Filled wife 



Tbc AFfMUrd Plea 

Mr. de Guzman, right, who fell to his death 
from a helicopter, pictured in Indonesia re- 
cently with a Bre-X official, John Felderhof. 


mystery, power and political intrigue, it shows that 
the glitter of gold still can seduce men into testing the 
limits of greed and gullibility. 

The deeper people have looked, the more riddles 
they have found. Embarrassed brokers who had 
encouraged clients to buy Bre-X stock wondered 
about a recent fire that destroyed Mr. de Guzman’s 
records and about rumors that the company’s core 
samples had been tampered with to appear richer 
than they actually were. Investigators a! die Toronto 
Stock Exchange started asking whether Bre-X bad 
disclosed all the information it had. 

But others countered that the logistics of trying to 
distort the findings would have been daunting. Be- 
sides, they sad, Bre-X’s founder and chairman. 
David Walsh, had pursued the project with a passion 
that suggested deep conviction when he could have 
sold his stake for millions. 

When rumors first emerged suggesting a link 
between the geologist's death and the disappointing 
drilling results, Mr. Walsh said someone was trying 
to destroy Bre-X. 

* ‘I personally believe there’s been a hidden agenda 
coming up for 10 months now,’ ' he said. He has said 
that Bre-X will be vindicated. 

It is expected to take weeks, at least, before 
anything about the case is truly settled. 

There is still a chance, albeit a slim one, that even 
if Bre-X has not stumbled across B Dorado, it may 
have found a valuable deposit. 

But by all accounts, Bre-X’s fortunes could never 
have soared so high nor fallen so low without Mr. 
Walsh. 

A fleshy stock promoter from Montreal with a 
string of busted deals. Mr. Walsh became a legend on 
Toronto's Bay Street, Canada’s equivalent of Wall 
Street, for the way he handled Bre-X. His reputation 
rested primarily on his apparent knack for creating 
millionaires across Canada without ever producing 
an ounce of commercial -grade gold. 

He relied far more on luck than cm science and had 
no real training in mining. As a “junior company.” 
Bre-X had only to find promising sites, selling them 
to bigger companies that would actually do the 
mining. He did not have much luck at the start. Bre- 
X’s stock at one point fell as low as 2 cents a share. 

In 1993, Mr. Walsh and his wife, Jeannette, de- 

See GOLD. Page 15 


Arab States 
Recommend 
Sanctions 
On Israel 


Nonbinding Plan Calls 
For Rollback in Ties 
And Business Boycott 

By John Lancaster 

Washington Post Service 

CAIRO — Arab foreign ministers 
agreed Monday on a recommendation io 
roll back economic, scientific and cul- 
tural ties with Israel in response to its 
decision to move forward with a hous- 
ing project in East Jerusalem. 

'Meeting at the headquarters of the 
Arab League, the ministers called for an 
end to normalization of relations with 
Israel, suspension of multilateral talks 
between Israel and Arab states on such 
regional issues as tourism, arms control 
and (he environment and a renewal of 
the Arab boycott on doing business with 
Israel. 

Although the nonbinding resolution 
still must be approved by each member 
state, it has important symbolic value 
because it marks the first time since 
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu 
took office in June that Arab states have 
outlined specific measures to penalize 
Israel for steps they view as harmful to 
Middle East peace. 

In that regard, the resolution was a 
victory for hard-line Arab stales such as 
Syria, which has argued for an end to 
normalization measures thai have 
evolved in the last three years as a 
consequence of Israel's peace accords 
with the Palestinians and Jordan. 

But its practical impact will be lim- 
ited because it appears largely to exempt 
Egypt and Jordan, key Arab states 
whose diplomatic and economic ties 
with Israel are governed by their sep- 
arate peace treaties with it 

At least for now. (he direct effects of 
the measure will be limited largely to 
Oman, Qatar. Morocco and Tunisia, 
each of which is now theoretically com- 
mitted to severing low-level trade ties 
with Israel that have emerged in the last 
several years. 

“It is a message to Israel and to the 
leaders of Israel,” the Arab League 
secretary-general, Ismat Abdel Maguid, 
said at a news conference in Cairo. 
’ ‘The main thrust of this resolution is to 
save the peace process." 

Mr. Netanyahu, he added, has 
“totally miscalculated, and I underline 
miscalculated, the Arab reaction” to 
Israeli plans to move forward with the 
housing development for up to 30.000 
Jews on a hilltop in East Jerusalem that 
the Israelis call Har Homa and the Arabs 
call Jebal Abu Ghoneim. 

Despite the strong language con- 
tained in the resolution, be acknow- 
ledged that its effectiveness ultimately 
would depend on the willingness of 
Arab government states to cany it out 

“The Arab League is not a super- 
power,” he said. “It cannot dictate to 
sovereign states.” 

In Jerusalem, Mr. Netanyahu accused 
the Arab states of ganging up on Israel, 
but called the notion that they could 
revive the Arab boycott “absurd.” 

Other Israeli officials denounced the 
moves taken in Cairo as a setback to 
peace negotiations and an attempt by 
Arab governments to bring down Mr. 
Netanyahu’s government 

“The peace process doesn't tolerate 
and will not tolerate an atmosphere of 
violence — not on die ground and not in 
diplomatic violence," Foreign Minister 
David Levy said. 

The Arab ministers agreed on the 
final wording of the resolution after a 
two-day meeting. 

It included an angry accusation by the 
Palestinian leader, Yasser Arafat that 
Mr. Netanyahu’s decision on the hous- 
ing project amounted to “a declaration 
of war against an unarmed people.” 

Although the final text of the doc- 
ument was not immediately available, a 
draff of the resolution said that the Arab 
ministers had agreed to increase Israel's 
isolation until it returned to the principle 
of exchanging captured land lor Arab 
commitments on peace and security. 

See ISRAEL, Page 6 


Cult Leader Had a Secret 

His Homosexual Pas t Is Galled Key to Heaven’s Gate 


By Marc Fisher 
and Sue Ann Pressley 

Washington Past Service 

WASHINGTON — For the first four 

decades of his life, Marshall Herff Ap- 
plewhite sought above all to do fas 
fetter proud: . . 

He followed his father,* Presbytraian 
minis ter, into a seminary, devoted him- 
self to his church, married and bad two 
childr en. He taught music at a Catholic 
college, led choruses at Episcopalran 
and Unitarian churches, and sang with 

white, who last week led 38 members of 
Hiscuft to joiahim in a fatal cocktail of 


phenobarbitol and vodka in California, 
could no longer hide fas secret: For 
several years, according to friends and 
former cult members, Mr. Applewhite 
had been engaging in homosexual re- 
lationships. 

In the New Mexico forest, the cuff 
had a staging platform. Page 3. - 

In 197Q, he was fired from his post as 
a music professor at Houston's Uni- 
versity of Sl Thomas, after adminis- 
trators there learned that Mr. Apple- 
white was in a relationship with a male 

See CULT, Page 6 


5 The Doliar l 

NowYort 

Monday 33P.M. 

previous clow 

DM 

1.6763 

1.673 

Pound 

1.6405 

1.6325 

Yen 

123.67 

123575 

FF 

5.639 

5.633 

I The Dow ( 


Monday 3 P.U. 

previous dodfl 

-124.63 

6615.96 

6740.59 

I S&P 500 | 

dung* 

Monday 0 3PM 

previous date 

-12.1 

761.78 

77388 


AGENDA 


Jitters on Wall Street 

U.S. stocks started falling Monday 
at the opening of the market, amid new 
inflationary signs and concern that the 
Federal Reserve might raise interest 
rates again this year. Page 14. 


Train Derails Near Pamplona, Killing 17 

HUARTE ARAQUTL, Spain (AP) 

— A train loaded with families re- 
turning home from Easter holidays 
derailed here Monday, killing at least 
17 people and injuring 60. according 
to news reports. Rescuers were trying 
to extricate trapped passengers, and 
the death toll was likely to climb, 
according to a reporter for Antena 3 
television who was on the scene. Some 
people, including children, were 
trapped under the locomotive, Spanish 
national radio reported. 

The train, carrying about 250 pas- 
sengers, was en route to Inm from 
Barcelona. Rescue crews were bring- 
ing the injured to Pamplona hospitals. 


PAGE TWO 


A Grieving Father's Battle With UAL 

THE AMERICAS 

Pages. 

Where the Cultists Appeared Normal 

EUROPE 

Pegs 5. 

Success and Failure of.issimilation 

Books 



Page 12. 


Pages 8-9. 

Sports 

.... Pages 20-21. 

International Classified 

Page 11. 

| The IHT on-line http: 

//wwvv.ihLcom | 






INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 


PAGE TWO 


A Grieving Father / Crusade for Compensation 


One Man’s Battle for Families of Plane Crash Victims 


By Jan Hoffman 

New York Times Set vice 

N EW YORK — A 75-year-old retired 
businessman with a horseshoe of white 
hair climbed into the witness stand in a 
Long Island, New York, courtroom 
recently to face Korean Air Lines in a lawsuit 
over his daughter's death. It had taken hizn 14 
years to get there. 

In 1 983. Korean Air Lines Right 007 strayed 
into Soviet airspace and was shot down by a 
Soviet fighter pilot. All 269 people aboard died, 
among them Alice Ephraimson-Abt, a 23-year- 
old graduate student in Asian studies from 
Saddle River, New Jersey. 

Her father. Hans Ephraimson-Abt, endured 
the legal marathon that follows international 
aviation crashes, but not just for his benefit 
As chairman of the American KAL 007 as- 
sociation, the first such large-scale crash vic- 
tims’ group, he took on Congress and the airline 
industry, helping to win victories to ensure that 
families of future victims will be compensated 
swiftly and fairly, and that their voices will be 
heard in debates over aviation policy. 

Mr. Ephraimson, as he is called, pursued three 
presidential administrations for information 
about one of the most notorious Cold War at- 
tacks. Families of passengers who had died on 
Pan Am 103. ValuJet 592, and TWA 800 con- 
sidered his group a model for their own or- 
ganizations. 

Two victories have come in the last six 
months. In November, Congress ordered the 
National Transportation Safety Board to com- 
municate with and care for families of victims. In 
die past, an airline assumed that role. 

Then, in February, U.S. airlines agreed to in- 
crease die base compensation customarily made 
to families of victims and to lower the barriers 
preventing speedy resolution of lawsuits. 

Mr. Epnraimson's legal battle was protracted 
because his daughter had been on an inter- 
national flight A longstanding international avi- 
ation treaty limits a carrier's damages to $75,000 
per passenger, unless the family proves that the 
airline's misconduct was willful. That criminal- 
tike standard has been overcome fewer than a 
dozen times. 

Under the February agreement that Mr. Eph- 
raimson helped to broker, the base payment by 
airlines involved in future crashes will increase 
to $139,000. Families seeking more money will 
no longer have to prove willful misconduct 
Instead, the burden will be on die airline to show 
it was not negligent 

Department of Transportation officials and 
industry leaders have publicly thanked Mr. Eph- 
raimson. 

“Because be has tenacity and unbelievable 
patience, he has become terrifically effective," 



you ask your attorney this or that?' as if to say, 
‘We’re really going to blow their socks off!’ ” 

Mr. Ephraimson proved a master at keeping 
the group on track, its members said. 

Since 1983. he has traveled to- Washington 
more than 250 times. 

He charmed his way into offices by mem- 
orizing the birthdays of dozens of receptionists, 
eventually meeting with 149 officials in the Stare 
Department alone. 

“Hans would often open meetings with either 
a small but symbolic gift for someone or an 
announcement that the day happened to be an 
anniversary of a benchmark in nis group’s lit- 
igation, ’ ' said Anne McNamara, general counsel 
to American Airlines. “Or that we should ded- 
icate our work today to one family, ‘so that for 
them we will have a good result.' ” 

By 1989, a federal jury in Washington, before 
which 108 cases had been consolidated, found 
Korean Air Lines liable for willful misconduct; 
two years later, a federal appeals court agreed. It 
was now eight years after the plane went down. 
No American plaintiffs had yet received any 
money. Finally, it seemed as if the plaintiffs 
would be able to be compensated, through set- 
tlements and trials, for more than $75,000. 


Don Hogan OudrinV P4rv YaAHtad 


Hans Emphraimson-Abt endured the legal marathon that follows aviation 
crashes, not only for his benefit, but also for that of families of future victims. 


O VER the years, Mr. Ephraimson ad- 
vised other families afflicted by air 
disasters about forming groups. But he 
found his legislative soul mate in M. 
Victoria (Hummock, whose husband died in the 
explosion of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, 
Scotland. 

Ms. Cummock and Mr. Ephraimson wanted to 
expand carrier liability and to make sure that in 
the aftermath of an air disaster, families would be 
quickly informed. The two loped through the 
balls of Congress, testified before subcommit- 
tees, worked on national aviation commissions, 
and popped up at industry conferences. 

“Hans has somehow ingratiated himself with 
the government so they accept him as a rep- 
resentative of victims* families.” said Lee 
Kreindler, who represented many victims of Pan 
Am 103 and KAL 007. 

This July, at the invitation of the National 
Transportation Safety Board, which investigates 
accidents, the pair spent two weeks on Long 


said Jeffrey Shane, a former assistant secretary 
of transportation. “And he made us better public 
servants. What a monument to a daughter." 

For the first six years after Flight 007 went 
down, lawyers in the United States for 108 
victims* families worked to show that Korean 
Air Lines had willfully erred because the plane, 
en route to Seoul, had gone off course three 
minutes after leaving Anchorage. Alaska. 

Information about the disaster was scant, as 
East and West traded accusations of espionage. 
No government raised the plane, which lies in 
574 feet (175 meters') of international water off 
the coast of Sakhalin Island. 

Bodies were never recovered. 


F ORGOTTEN in the furious political pos- 
turing were the victims' survivors. 
Gradually, the American families 
stumbled toward one another. If then- 
cause was to remain alive in courts and dip- 
lomatic circles, “we would have to do it 
ourselves," said Mr. Ephraimson, who became 
the chairman of the group in 1985. 

He was a logical choice because he had the 
temperament and financial means for a siege. 


Although his family home and fortune in Berlin 
had been plundered by the Nazis, he re-es- 
tablished himself here as an adviser to the West 
German consulate general, developing a cheer- 
ful but gently relentless style of diplomacy. 
Later, he became an international business con- 
sultant Divorced since die 1970s. he seeded in 
Saddle River, where be raised two daughters and 
a son, and cared for his elderly parents. 

Accustomed to fussing over others, he became 
to the Flight 007 families a one-man research 
librarian, therapist, cheerleader and unofficial 
grandfather. Every month, he would send type- 
written newsletters as long as 50 pages to those 
who could not travel to the meetings in one 
family’s New York Gty apartment 

There, a core group of 20 would peruse die 
agenda Mb*. Ephraimson had prepared. Which 
lawmakers could they write to? How could they 
get documents declassified? 

He encouraged members to talk about grief, 
money woes, legal problems. 

“Men in die legal profession tended to in- 
timidate the widows and patronize them,*’ re- 
called Renay Bevins, whose husband was on the 
plane. “So Hans would say to us: ‘Why don’t 


Island helping families of passengers who had 
been on TWA 800. Over the summer, his phone 
bill would include mare than a thousand galls he 
made on behalf of the TWA families. 

“Hans was a very calming influence for die 
European families,” said Peter Goelz, a top 
official at the safety board, who relied on Mr. 
Ephraimson’ s fluent French. 

“He would just sit down at a table and in- 
troduce himself. He’s a great listener and the 
most unruffled guy: he has an amazing capacity 
to listen to anger and handle it” 


Good News for the Elderly: You’re Getting Healthier as You Age 


By Allen R, Myerson 

New York Tuna Service 

NEW YORK — Though inspiration- 
al to some, former President George 
Bush's recent skydiving over the Ari- 
zona desert at age 72 was less on the 
leading edge and more part of a trailing 
afterbum. Many other elder heroes have 
been there ana done that and much 
more. 

Last June, A1 Dietzel. an executive at 
The Limited, the retailing conglomer- 
ate, celebrated his 65th birthday with his 
own parachute jump — which came 
before 18 holes of golf (a 93. with no 
cart) and after two sets of singles tennis, 
a 1 80-pound (80 kilograms) bench press 
and a two-mile run at a nine-minute-a- 
tnile pace. “I’m stronger at 65, 66, than 
I ever was in my life,’’ be says. 

For his 66th birthday he is planning, 
among other feats, a 190-pound-plus 
bench press, three miles at his nine- 
minute pace and a six-mile kayak trip 
ending at the Statue of Liberty. 

Kenneth Cooper, founder of the 
Cooper Aerobics Center in Dallas, re- 
calls being taught back in medical 


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school that vigorous exercise over 40 
increased tbe risk of a heart attack. Hah) 
Now, at 66. he still runs or race-walks 
several times a week, lifts weights, skis 
at least two weeks a year and scales a 
13,000-foot (4,000-meter) peak every 
summer in the Colorado Rockies. 

He says the effects of aging can be not 
only slowed but actually reversed 
through a diet-and-fitness regimen that 
strengthens bones and builds muscle 
mass. “We’re eventually going to re- 
write the textbooks on aging,'’ he 
adds. 

The new-found capabilities of tbe el- 
derly are forcing the revision of a lot 
else: health and demographic studies, 
rules of athletic competition, marketing 
plans and — soon perhaps — assump- 
tions about geezers that permeate pop- 
ular culture. It could be good-bye Wal- 
ter Matthau and hello Walter Mitty in a 
new era of modem immaturity. 

Aging studies have been more apt to 
measure a duffer’s ability to chess him- 
self than clock his performance in a 
triathlon, so as yet it’s hard to gauge 
definitively a trend toward sport and 
risk-taking among the elderly. But even 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


existing surveys suggest a more active 
elderly population, because as a group 
the elderly have become healthier ana 
more functional in daily life. 

The Duke University Center for 
Demographic Studies — whose survey- 
ors periodically sample 20,000 Amer- 
icans over 65 — has noted a 15 percent 
drop from 1982 to 1994 in what it calls 
chronic disability rales — measuring 

It could be good-bye 
Walter Matthau and hello 
Walter Mitty in a new era 
of modern immaturity. 

things like the ability to feed oneself. 
Now the center is beginning to track 
activities like tennis, bicycling and 
long-distance running — although 
“jumping out of airplanes is beyond 
what I would measure.” says Kenneth 
Man ton. the professor who oversees the 
studies. 

He attributes higher activity rates 
more to healthier, smarter living than to 


At Paris Airports, 
Another Strike 

PARIS (AP) — A partial, 
strike Monday by pilots and 
flight attendants had little ef- 
fect on state-owned Air France 
Europe, but aplanned strike by 
Paris airport personnel 
threatened flights Tuesday. 

The walkout Monday came 
one day away from Air 
France Europe’s merger with 


ed. The unions were fighting 
200 planned job cuts. 

British Airways, 
Or Private Jet? 

LONDON (AFP) — A 
British Airways jumbo jet 
flew from New York to Lon- 
don with only one passenger, 
the British press reported 
Monday. 

The flight Sunday had been 


Air France. Smaller unions delayed because of an elec- 
had called for the walkout to meal problem, and all the oth- 
last through Tuesday, but er passengers had chosen to 
traffic was “virtually nor- take another aircraft 


mal” Monday, reported 
France Info radio. 

But unions for ground per- 
sonnel for the Paris airport au- 
thority. which runs Orly and 
Charles de Gaulle, announced 
plans for a one-day strike 
Tuesday, France Info repori- 


Austrian Airlines has re- 
sumed commercial flights to 
Sarajevo after a four-year 
break, becoming the first 
Western European airline to 
offer direct services to the 
Bosnian capital. (Reuters) 


AMERICA ONE" 

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German Passport Holders 
heading for Singapore in 
April. 50% off at the 
stylish boutique hotel in 
Orchard Road, Singapore. 


Eiffel Tower 
Points to 2000 


The Associated Press 

PARIS — The Eiffel 
Tower is getting an early 
start for New Year’s 
2000. with a sign that 
will light up Saturday 
and count down the 
1,000 days to the third 
millennium. 

At midnight Saturday, 
Mayor Jean Tiberi of Par- 
is will throw the switch 
on the sign 33 meters 
(108 feet) long and 12 
meters high, mounted on 
the tower’s second level. 

Built with 1342 
lights, die counter will 
stay lit day and night, of- 
ficials said. A computer 
will adjust the light in- 
tensity according to the 
time of day. 


MEMORIAL NOTICE 


better medical treatment And in fact 
would-be super-seniors are forewarned 
that they are not indestructible. Mr. Bush 
took his doctor along as a precaution. 

And though Mr. Cooper once ran 
marathons, he now says that running 
long distances leaves older people vul- 
nerable to injuries that outweigh the 
added benefits. 

Woe to the elderly who try siding at 
Colorado's high altitudes without hav- 
ing followed an exercise program that 
went beyond hoisting second helpings 
onto then: plates. “You’d be surprised at 
the number of heart attacks that occur in 
Colorado,” Mr. Cooper says. “It's 
' primarily older people who conk out.” 

But many who began exercising 
when young now continue throughout 
their lives, while others who never 
dreamed of bungie-jumping are pon- 
dering the actuarial probabilities and 
thinking, oh, what tbe heck. 

Swimming, track and bodybuilding 
are only some of the sports that have 
strong national programs for older ath- 
letes. Organizers of sven the most chal- 
lenging; downright masochistic events 
are having to add older and older award 
categories. 

Helen Klein, 74, successfully 
hectored the directors of ultramarathons 
like the Western States 100, a 100-mile 
(160-kilometer) jaunt across the Sierra 
Nevada, to add awards far women over 
70. Older athletes like Mrs. Klein are 
gaming a measure of celebrity — ap- 
pearing, for example, on tbe TV net- 
works morning shows — as well as 
profiting from their obsession, is Mrs. 
Klein’s case through sponsorship by an 
outdoors clothing maker. 


Consulting and marketing firms like ' 
Age Wave of Emeryville, California, 
are bringing forth 90-year-old black 
belts and sled-mushexs to help persuade 
clients like American Express, Coca- 
Cola and General Motors that the el- 
derly can be vigorous customers, too. 
The company's stated goal: “To replace 
gerontophobic marketing with a new, 
more positive image of aging.” 

Li me downsizing workplace — at a 
time when courts are holding that dis- 
missing a company’s best-paid workers 
is not age discrimination — some older 
employees appear to have concluded 
that the best defease is a solid marathon 
tune or bench-press mark. 

‘ Tt keeps me competitive in a young 
environment,” Mr. Dietzel says of his 
regimen. Speaking from his office at 
The Limited, he explains: “The average 
age around here is 29- 1 got a young lady 
sitting right across from me who is 24. 
She knows I can work as hard as she 
can.” Four years ago, Mr. Dietzel trad 
surgery to remove a cancerous left kid- 
ney. Now. not even his children can 
keep up with him. “My grandkids, they 
go out jogging with me, or bicycling.” 
Mr. Dietzel said. “Their dads can’t do it 
and their moms can’t do it, but they go 
get the old man.” 

A corporate King Lear of today would 
never sink into senility as his daughters 
arranged for his outplacement. He would 
refresh himself with an Outward Bound 
adventure, then mount a comeback. Any 
jibes about his “ infirm and choleric 
years,” as his daughter Goneril put it, he 
might deal with by inviting his torment- 
ors to keep up with Ins infirmities down 
at the weight room. 


WEATHER 


Haitians Fear ( 
Old Regime 
May Resurface 
As Ban Ends ■■ 


By Larry Rohter 

New York Times Service 

PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti — Ten 
years ago, Haiti approved a new con- 
stitution prohibiting officials of tbe re-^ 
cently deposed Duvalier family dicta* ~ 
orship from seeking public office. But 

with the expiration of that ban. die proa; 
pect that farmer leaders of the Tontops 
Macoutes may soon re-enter public life 
has the Haitian government scrambling 
to take countermeasures. ~ 

An old lawsuit against members of the 
Duvalier family and their entourage has 
been revived, and President Rene Prevdl 
has warned of a renewed threat from the 
Duvaliexs' dreaded private security 
force, die Tontons Macoutes. even as his 
aides seek to reassure the population that 
they have nothing to fear. 

The Duvalier ramily first took pow^r 
here in 1957, when Francois Duvalier; 
known as Papa Doc, was elected pres.? 
ident andinitiated a period of brutal and 
corrupt rule that lasted three decades. '! 

Early in 1986, Jean-Claude Duvaliefc 
the dictator's son. known as Baby DocC Wf 
was overthrown in a popular rebellion 
and fled to France with a huge chunk of 
the state treasury. 

For several weeks now, die country 
has been awash with nervous rumors 
that Jean-Claude Duvalier hmtself plans! 
to come back to Haiti. Diplomats here! 
say that is extremely unlikely: Hie still 
feces criminal charges. V; 

Nevertheless, Mr. Duvalier’s fainter 
father-in-law, Ernest Bennett; returned 
recently. At a restaurant in the uppers 
class suburb of Petionvifle, Mr. Bennefr, j 
who used his ties to theDuvalidrs to reap A 
a fortune, even led a group of diners in m 
cheers of “Long Live Duvalier!" Jj 

Mr. Bennett Is reported to have lj 

Haiti in late February, after the gov^W H 
ernmem filed a suit against Mr. Bennetti f 

his daughter, Michele — now estranges ■ 

from the former dictators and 36 ©the® fl 

former officials and sympathizers of tbe V 

Jean-Claude Duvafier dictatorship; 9 

charging that they had misappr op riated a 

public rands. j 

“This came up because these guys * 
started coming back, which 1 thought M 
was pretty brazen,” said Ira Kurzban- X 
an American lawyer who represents the a 

. Haitian g o ve rn ment in efforts to recoyg T 

assets the Duvalicrs sent abroad. * 

“There was no sense of anyone being 
brought to justice who wks a figure in 
any of tins, which is why tire Bennett 
. Milis.impmtanL” . g 

The Haitian government, which es- ■ 

timates ‘that theDuvalieis arid their as 1 m 
sociates pilfered more than $500 million 
from the treasury during their last' five i 
years in power, has already won judg- j 
meats of $11 million agafost the Duva 1 A 
tier family in American courts. They jf 
have been able to retrieve little of that j 

Wheti»pro-I>iyaBecfoB^ 1 

resent a threat to public security and 1 
political stability in Haiti, however, rs'a v 
subject of considerable debate. In A re- 
cent speech. President Preval evoked the * 

specter of their return to raEy support. *•'. 

“We have a police force that is young, * 
short of equipment and beteagiKiecLd 
Mr. Preval srid. “ff you don’t help them; 
the Tontons Macoutes, who are watch- -*i 
mg from the sidelines, will stage a com) j 
d'6taL iust as they did in 1991. which 




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d'etat, just as they did in 1991, which 
will force us to go into hiding/’ •»* 

But some of Sir. Preval’s supporter? 
atgue that it is important not to overstate 
the possibility of a resurgence of the 
Tontons Macoutes. 

“As a political force, they are com- 
pletely finished,” said Gerard Pierre* 
Charles, leader of the cmer-Jeft political 
party that has the largest bloc in Haiu’-s 
Parliament. “The Duvafierists have no 
leadership, no ideology and no army.’^ 
The director of the United Nations! 
mission in Haiti, Enricpte ter 'Horst, d& 
scribed the neo-Duvalierists as “a spent 
force" politically. But if does not ne- 
cessarily follow, he cautioned, that they 
no longer constitute a threa t - 

“There are still people from tiiat part \ 
of the political spectrum who do meet t 
and have dreams of organizing a coup i 
d’&at, which only shows how gravely 
they are misinterpretingthe new polite 
icaf situation,” Mr. terHorst said. 


to&UST 


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a*- 2 


Forecast for Wednesday through Friday, aa provided by AccuWeather. 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRT. .199 


THE AMERICAS 


By tJarey Goldberg ~ 

York Tunes Ser vis* 

New Mexico ^Twa 
rafles up a rutted red din road here lies » 
quixotic little kingdom of 
was th* Spartan 40-acre (16 fa«SL 
camp in a sdenr r„ 


of Woods, Cultists Were Normal 



^*ed« the final New Meaicoa^ 
^rfonn f 0Tmemte3 of Am Heron-1 
Gate cull, before they set out for the 
luxuty estate in CalifJmia whereaSS 
enose to die. J 


was a designation of praise for the most 
“ijpnt cult members: Early bird. 

Early birds they were, said acquaint* 
ances of the cult members here who, like 
w nany others, were baffled by the 
beliefs that drove these a ppa re n tly 
pleasant, hard-working people to com- 
mit meticulously planned suicides. 

I^hope tiny - caught their space- 
shjpj”Lany Gustin, owner of Gustin’s 
Hardware store in nearby Mountainair, 

«riH nnmvrfhat: II.. 


™ s of piled ares, jumbles of loose 
ores, a large metal warehouse-like 

- a roofless ’ five-room 
abuse built of tires packed with dirt and 
stacked tightly together in an archhec- 1 
tural style not unusual in the area, 
known as an “Earth Ship. ” Many of the 
tees are chalk-marked “EB," which' 
me compound's current owner believes 


In 1995, Mr. Gustin rented three of- 
fices adjacent to his store to the group for 
their computer work, at the same time 
meybuilt and lived in their compound. 

Others recalled some odd encounters 
with the group. Eddie Castillo, owner of 
the EJJM Gold Nugget grocery store, 
just north of Manzano, said that one 
female member had asked him to guide 
her through the Manzano Mountains to 
* crater she said she believed to be the 
site of a spaceship landing. He declined. 
And Mike Dew, the bushy -bearded 


preacher of Prophetic Voices in the Wil- 
derness, a local fundamentalist church, 
said Sunday that he bad once entered 
into a 45-minute scriptural duel with a 
group member known as Brother Logan 
Lahson — whose real name was John 
M. Craig, from New Mexico — and 
become convinced demonic forces were 
influencing tite group. 

Brother Logan Lahson “would look 
over his shoulder as if he were con- 
sulting with a physical entity and then 
he would speak to me as if be were 
taking the words from this being,” Mr. 
Dew said. “It was a pervading form of 
darkness, not a red devil with horns.” 

But in New Mexico's peaks and 
deserts, including these scrubby hills 
and high plains 60 miles (100 kilo- 
meters) southeast of Albuquerque, 
where there are so many alternative 
groups, the cult members struck res- 
idents as essentially normal. 

In the immediate area of Manzano 

and Mountainair alone, residents said. 



POLITICAL NOTES 


IN MEMORIAM — A woman reading one of thousands of memorials to the 168 victims of the bombing of the 
Federal Building in Oklahoma City posted on the fence surrounding the site of the blast. The trial of Timothy 
McVeigh, a former soldier who is accused of carrying out the attack on April 19, 1995, began Monday in a 
courtroom in Boulder, £olpny|o, as lawyersjgggan jury selection, which is expected to last two weeks. 


there has been a Hindu retreat; a center 
for Russian mysticism; at least one sur- 
vivalist enclave; the Sufi Foundation, a 
nearby retreat for those who practice 
Islamic mysticism; and New Age en- 
campments. 

One paramilitary group here has 
sought to secede from the country, res- 
idents said. Among the well-known fig- 
ures in Mountainair (population 1,200). 
is Larry Crow, a militant who pleaded 
guilty last year to knowing about a plot 
to blow up Oklahoma abortion clinics 
and welfare offices in 1995. “To tell the 
truth,” said one longtime Mountainair 
resident, “we’ve got nuttier people in 
town than those people were.” 

“The state has been full of those 
different people for years," said Carlos 
Sanchez, a retired accountant who has a 
weekend cabin at the base of the din 
road up to the compound. “They come 
and they love it in the mountains. No 
one bothers them. The local people keep 
very to themselves.” . 

As did the cult members, building 
their compound in what the current 
owner. Tun Thorsen, has told The Al- 
buquerque Tribune he believes to have 
been planned as an elaborate commune. 
He said the group had sold him the site 
in April 1996, without giving a reason, 
just 10 months after they had bought it. 
He also said they told hun that they had 
planned to construct a bakery, phar- 
macy, lookout tower, “nutrilab’* and 
“consuming area” and had planned to 
live in the “Earth Ship” structure made 
of tires and masonry. 

The compound also includes a mess 
hall, kitchen, showers and bathrooms. 
Once a summer camp for an insurance 
company, it also has a baseball diamond 
and basketball court. 

Though the tire construction may 
look like sinister barricades, it is a form 
of architecture that has caught on some- 
what in the Southwest, which recycles 
the tires that provide the base for thick 
walls that are later plastered over. The 
Heaven’s Gate group left behind a how- 
to book on the style called “Earth Ship: 
How to Build Your Own” (Solar Sur- 
vival Press). 

Leroy Herrera, a neighbor, watched 
the group haul their construction ma- 
terials in a big yellow truck all summer 
in 1995, he said, and though they once 
asked to rent his cement mixer, they 
seemed to do everything on their own. 

“They’d show you what they were 
doing on the computer,” said Mr. 
Gustin's wife, Patsy, referring to the Web 
page designs. “They never were secret- 
ive. They always had the doors open.” 

When the group left, Mr. Gustin said, 
they said they had been called to Cali- 
fornia and that their superior had been 
afraid they would get snowed in at their 
mountain retreat. They said they hoped 
to come back in the spring, he said, but 
never did. 


^Campaign Reform 
Meets Public Apathy 

PHILADELPHIA — Handsomely 
arrayed against the backdrop of Bos- 
ton's historic Faneuil Hal] and this 
city's Liberty Bell, the settings could 
not have been more auspicious for the 
launching of a drive to * ‘renew Amer- 
ican democracy” by overhauling its 
widely abused campaign financing 
system. 

But the rhetoric, sparse crowds and 
deja vu from two decades of false 
stans sent another message: the 
enormousness of the task facing these 
latter-day revolutionaries as they try 
to mobilize the country behind le- 
gislation sponsored by Senators John 
McCain, Republican of Arizona, and 
Russell Feingoid. Democrat of Wis- 
consin, to set new limits on campaign 
contributions and spending. 

So dispiriting are the repons out of 
Washington about prospects for the 
bill that speakers felt compelled io 
deny it is dead before it has had its 
first hearing. 

“You folks don't look like you’re 
here for a wake,' ' Mr. Feingoid said in 
welcoming about 100 supporters in 
Boston, who applauded eagerly, as if to 
celebrate the reported sign of a pulse. 

As the Boston-to-Philadelphia for- 
ay indicated, leaders of the campaign 
finance effort face a kind of political 
Catch 22: Without a public outcry, 
members of Congress are reluctant to 
revamp a system under which incum- 
bents can and usually do raise more 
than their challengers, ensuring their 
re-election in most cases. 

But, with what many lawmakers 
describe as a widespread public cyn- 
icism about prospects for reform, it is 
difficult to arouse voters to bring the 
kind of pressure on Congress that it 
will take to force action. 

“It’s got to come from outside 
Washington,” Mr. McCain said, 
“and it won’t be easy.” 

“People do care,” said Ann 


Away From 
Politics 

■ Three years after the first B-2 
stealth bomber was delivered to its 
Missouri base, the planes will be de- 
clared ready to take on nuclear and 
conventional combat missions. SixB- 
2s will become part of the Pentagon's 
“nuclear war plan” on Tuesday, a 
senior military officer said, speaking 
on condition of anonymity. Air Force 
officials declined to comment on the 
dale, saying it was classified. (AP) 


McBride, president of Common 
Cause, which helped organize the 
drive’s kickoff. 

“They just don't know how their 
voice is going to be heard over the din 
of money in Washington.” 

(Helen Dewar/WP) 

Poll Message: Don't 
Cut Entitlements 

WASHINGTON — President Bill 
Clinton and congressional leaders are 
promising to balance the budget and 
cut taxes, but the message from a vast 
majority of Americans is: Don’t do it 
by reducing spending on Social Se- 
curity and Medicare, according to a 
new survey. 

Moreover, according to the nation- 
wide poll conducted by The Wash- 
ington Post. Harvard University and 
the Kaiser Family Foundation, more 
than three-quarters of Americans be- 
lieve that the federal budget can be 
balanced without touching Social Se- 
curity (retirement) and Medicare ben- 
efits — despite claims to the contrary 
by congressional budget experts. 

The poll shows that most Amer- 
icans believe dire forecasts that Social 
Security and Medicare, the national 
health care program for the elderly, 
will go broke in the next century 
unless Congress takes action soon. 
But the action most favored by re- 
spondents is for Congress to eliminate 
perceived fraud, waste and abuse in 
the programs. (WP) 

Quote I Unquote 

Dan Schnur, a Republican consult- 
ant, on Leon Panetta’s potential chal- 
lenge to Governor Pete Wilson of 
California, while noting the former 
White House chief of staffs con- 
nection to the campaign corruption 
allegations consuming Washington 
and his former colleagues: “Leon 
Panetia Ls a campaign commercial 
waiting to happen.” (EAT) 


• A former Navy intelligence ana- 

lyst accused of spying for his native 
South Korea pleaded not guilty 
Monday in federal court in Arlington, 
Virginia, and was ordered to stand 
trial starting July 14. Robert Kim, 57, 
could face life in prison and a 
$250,000 fine if convicted. (AP) 

• Jury selection was to start 

Monday in the trial of a former 
soldier at Fort Bragg, North Car- 
olina. Malcolm Wright, 22, is 
charged with murder and conspiracy 
to commit murder in die race-related 
killing of a black couple. (AP) 


Nearly Half Who Were Killed Died by Hands of Their Loved Ones 




BvPamBelhick current or former husbands or boy- understanding tne oeams. city neaitn 

NiLterkrmaServicr friends, a mudi highex jTOgonion ton officials say, will help map a pjan for 

expected. Nationally, the figure is 40 hospitals, law enforcement officials, 

NEW YORK — More women in New percent, compared with 6 percent of men clinics and community organizations to 
York City are killed by their husbands or who were ItiQed by wives or girlfriends. identify and protect women at risk, 
boyfriends than in robberies, disputes. More than half the women killed in Two clear patterns that emerged were 

sexual assaults, drug violence, random- the dry during those years died in particularly worrisome to the research- 
attacks or any othercrime in cases where private homes, usually their own. In the era. Two-thirds of the domestic violence 
(he motive for murder is known. majority of the cases in which the killer killings were in the poorest boroughs, 

r~ That conclusion, long suspected by was identified, the murderers were the Bronx and Brooklyn, and three- 
family violence and criminal justice ex- people they knew. quarters of the women killed by hus- 

pftrta. has been confirmed by a study of When they were killed by their hus- bands and boyfriends were black or 
every woman killed in New York City bands, one-third of the time the women Hispanic. These findings run counter to 
over five years, one of the first studies of appeared to be trying to end die re- the long-held public impression that 
its kind io die country. lanonships. In one-quarter of the cases “domestic violence knows no class and 

-• To piece together a portrait of these where husbands or boyfriends were the color boundaries," said Dr. Jeff Fagan, 
women, researchers from the New York killers, children were also killed or hurt, director of die Center for Violence, Re- 
Ghy Department of Health spent nine or they watched the murders or found search and Prevention at Columbia Uni- 
months teasing clues out of the dis- their mothers' bodies. versity’s School of Public Health, 

passionate documents that are the And, unlike men, who are killed most “The myth of the classlessness of 

resxdoe of maiden autopsy findings, often fry guns, women “are very likely domestic violence is one that has per- 
arime scene reports, witness statements, to be punched and hit and burned and sisted since the 1960s,' ’ Dr. Fagan said, 
toxicological and sexual assault tests, thrown out of windows,” said die leader 1 ‘The truth is, it is a problem of poverty, 
ballistics reports, and descriptions of of the study, Susan Wilt, the director of associated with other characteristics 
stab wounds and strangulation marks. epidemiology and survefllance for the like low marriage rales, high unem- 
• Researchers looked at files on each of Health Department’s injury and pre- ployment and social problems. 
t,ihe 1 156 women age 16 and overkilled ventitm program. Whatever we’ve done to prevent do- 

st New York City from 1990 through “What’s very clear is that female mestic violence has been more effective 
±994 In only 4&4 murders could in- homicides are so different from male for white women and we have to figure 


Understanding the deaths, city health 
officials say, will help map a plan for 
hospitals, law enforcement officials, 
clinics and community organizations to 
identify and protect women at risk. 

Two clear patterns that emerged were 
particularly worrisome to the research- 
era. Two-thirds of the domestic violence 
killings were in the poorest boroughs, 
the Bronx and Brooklyn, and three- 
quarters of the women killed by hus- 
bands and boyfriends were black or 
Hispanic. These findings run counter to 
the long-held public impression that 
“domestic violence knows no class and 
color boundaries," said Dr. Jeff Fagan, 
director of the Center for Violence, Re- 
search and Prevention at Columbia Uni- 
versity’s School of Public Health. 

“Tne myth of the classlessness of 
domestic violence is one that has per- 
sisted since die 1960s,' ’ Dr. Fagan said. 
"The truth is, it is a problem of poverty, 
associated with other characteristics 
like low marriage rates, high unem- 
ployment and social problems. 
Whatever we’ve done to prevent do- 
mestic violence has been more effective 
for white woman and we have to figure 


1 JUI.; HU- 1 I II M 1 1 I ' I I 


nensbiu to the victim — friend, stranger, research staff attended monthly support m poor areas . ’ ' Also surprising was that 
OT relative. From that nar- group sessions and deliberately avoided in nearly one-third of the cases where 
rowwoool researchers learned that looking at gruesome autopsy photo- husbands and boyfriends kiUed women, 
nearly half of the women were killed by graphs while studying these deaths. the men also tried to kill themselves. 


AMERICAN 

TOPICS 

How Airplane Tanks 
Powered Hot Rods 

A visitor to Utah's Bonneville salt 
flats, scene of countless land speed 
records, might even today see one of 
the stranger vestiges of World War It 
odd-looking, tear-drop-shaped alu- 
minum hot rods made of war-surplus 
airplane parts. 

- Just as moon flights prompted com- 
puter development, the war spawned - 
serious hot-nod racing, says Air & 
Space magazine. 

“You take a guy who had some 
kind of Ford or Chevy that he*d been 
■ working on and driving to higbscnooL 
: and you throw him into this big an> 
plane” said Pete Chapouris,abot rod 
restorer. 

“All of a sudden, be added, fie 
looks around and goes. ‘Wow, « 
that braided stainless steel oil lme, that 
works. - And what about tips sreenng 
. wheel, this is plenty 

*ese neat switches ... andtoese seat 

belts — man, I could keep from flying 
•out of my car.’” 


Key to the Bonneville hot rods were 
| car bodies made from drop tanks, die 
disposable, streamlined fuel contain- 
ers carried under the wings and bellies 
i of fighters. A navy veteran. Bill 
I Burke, was the first to recognize how 

the old ranks could be used. He had 
; seen a pile of wing tanks on a barge 
being taken ashore at G u ad al ca na l, 
and thought, “My God, what a beau- 
tiful piece of streamlining that is!” He 
measured a tank and, car buff that he 
was, knew that an engine block would 
fit inside. 

“Here was something the govern- 
ment had. designed to have a low coef- 
ficient of drag at 300 mpb in flight,” 
said Dennis Vami, who races a tank at 
Bonneville today, one of three of tire 
vehicles still running. “It was the per- 
fect tiring to cut a hole in so you could 
poke your head out and see, put your 
flathead Ford engine m it, and go. It 
was affordable racing." 

Surplus tanks cost as little as $35 
apiece. (Ranchers snapped up many, 

sawing them in half to use as watering 

troughs.) „ , . 

Within a few years of war s end, 

some of the fastest cars in Bonneville 

were “belly tank lakesters," or just 
“tanks." Ar a time when roadsters, 
most of them bucket-bodied 1 932 
Fords, had top speeds of 126 mph, the 
sudden reduction in frontal area 
offered by (he belly tanks pushed 


speeds to as high as 160 mph. Their 
driver-in-from configuration presaged 
the rear-engine European grand prix 
cans that would later revolutionize ra- 
cing. 

Short Takes 

Talk about frequent fliers. Mike 
Wayne of Rock Springs, Wyoming, 
realized that he was spending so much 
time at Hartsfield International Air- 
port in Atlanta, a major airline hub. 
that he would see his family more if 
they lived there. So two weeks ago he 
packed up his wife and two daughters 
and brought them to live in suburban 
Atlanta. Wayne has logged a half- 
million miles travel in his business as a 
drug- and alcohol-testing specialist. 

The majestic palm trees lining the 
broad boulevards of Beverly Hills 
have long been towering symbols of 
Southern California- But now these 
enormous Canary Island daw p alms 
are threatened by a deadly disease that 
eats at their cores and, in some cases, 
causes their one-ton crowns to snap off 
and plummet to earth. The city has 
hired three arborists to find the cause 
of die tumbling tops, but so far, says 
the Los Angeles Times, they remain 
suimped. 

tmemadonal Herald Tribune 



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PAGE 4 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


Indian Prime Minister 
Faces Crucial Deadline 

Congress Party Forces Confidence Vote 


By Kenneth J. Cooper 

Washington Peat Service 


NEW DELHI — President Shankar 
Dayal Sharma on Monday gave Prime 
Minister H. D. Deve Gowda less than 
two weeks to prove that his 13-party 
coalition could muster a majority in 
Parliament despite losing the support of 
the Congress (D Party. 

Mr. Sharma's decision to set April 1 1 
as the deadline for Mr. Deve Gowda's 
government to face a vote of confidence 
forced an early resolution to India's 
confused political situation, which drew 
leaders of various parties to the capital 
to try to shape the next government. 

The 545-member Parliament, now in 
recess, had not been scheduled to re- 
convene until April 21 . The Congress (I) 
Party, which governed India for roost of 
the 50 years since independence, 
Sunday abandoned the minority coali- 
tion government, which it had backed 
last June to drive out the Bharatiya 
Janata Party after two weeks in power. 
Sitaram Kesri. Hie Congress leader, 
complained that Mr. Deve Gowda's 


government had not done enough to 
deny Bharatiya Janata, a Hindu nation- 


deny Bharatiya Janata, a Hindu nation- 
alist party, a role in a new coalition 
government in Uttar Pradesh. India’s 
most populous state. 

With its government’s leadership un- 
settled, India was unable to resolve any 


Radio Adapts 
In Hong Kong 


Reiners 

HONG KONG — Hong Kong 
on Monday inaugurated a radio ser- 
vice in Mandarin Chinese, the of- 
ficial language of the territory's fu- 
ture rulers in China. 

Most of Hong Kong's 6.4 mil- 
lion people speak Cantonese, the 
Chinese dialect spoken in China's 
Guangdong Province, next to Hong 
Kong. 

But about half a million people 
speak Mandarin, and the number is 
rising as China prepares to resume 
control of Hong Kong on July 1 
after more than 150 years of British 
rule. 

Chan Tak-hay. Hong Kong's 
secretary for broadcasting, culture 
and sport, said the new service of 
the government-financed Radio 
Television Hong Kong would help 
migrants whose mother tongue was 
Mandarin adapt more readily to 
Hong Kong. 


of its differences with Pakistan over the 
disputed Himalayan territory of Kash- 
mir or other issues. 

Salman Haider, the top bureaucrat in 
India’s foreign ministry, said that the 
talks could continue despite the current 
political instability because there have 
been “continuities of policy" in various 
governments' positions. 

He said there was no discussion of a 
proposal for the neighboring nations, 
which are capable of making nuclear 
weapons, to forswear using them 
against each other. 

Mr. Deve Gowda met with coalition 
partners at his residence and afterward 
vowed to resist Congress's move to 
recapture control of the government. He 
also rejected the party's demand that he 
resign as prime minister. 

“The trial of strength will be held on 
the floor of the house," Mr. Deve 
Gowda said. He described the 1 3 parties 
in his United Front coalition as “stand- 
ing together like a rock." 

The political arithmetic does not fa- 
vor Mr. Deve Gowda. To survive, his 
government would have to attract votes 
either from a Congress |I) Party bidding 
for power or from the Bharatiya Janata 
Party, the main opposition since being 
ousted by Mr. Deve Gowda's coalition 
of regional and left-leaning parties. 
L.K. Advani, president of Bharatiya 
Janata, called for a midterm vote. 

Mr. Deve Gowda’s best but slim hope 
is for a split within Congress. A group of 
dissidents was not informed about Mr. 
Kesri's decision to withdraw support 
and believes that their party has not 
recovered enough popularity to face an- 
other election if one is called. 

"Let’s see if Congress remains 
united," said D. Raja, secretary of the 
Communist Party of India, a coalition 
partner. S. Jaipal Reddy, a Untied Front 
spokesman, said that coalition partners 
decided during a four-hour meeting to 
stand behind Mr. Deve Gowda as its 
leader. "At this stage. Congress should 
reconsider" its withdrawal of support. 
Mr. Reddy said. 

The power play by Congress was en- 
gineered by Mr. Kesri. 77, who as party- 
treasurer for almost two decades, has 
also faced the kind of allegations of 
corruption that have cut voter support for 
Congress. Government investigators are 
looking into allegations he accumulated 
assets beyond his income and accepted 
illegal party contributions from foreign 
sources. A government witness this 
mouth said that Mr. Kesri had assured 
minorparty members they would receive 
promised bribes for supporting former 
Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao on a 
1993 vote of confidence. None of the 
allegations have resulted in criminal 
charges being filed against Mr. Kesri. 



I nun Inauye/Thr jtmriaLed ftw 

Mr. Gingrich, left and Mr. Hashimoto sharing a joke Monday at a breakfast meeting in Tokyo. 



Japan Vows 
To Continue 
Leasing Land 
For U.S. Bases 


C&iMbfOirSi&ftrmDtiaicI** 

TOKYO — Prime Minister Ryu taro 
Hashimoto on Monday assured Newt 
Gingrich, the leader of the Republicans 
in the U.S. House, that Japan would 
continue to provide land for the Amer- 
ican bases on Okinawa and vowed to 
extend leases beyond a May deadline. 

“This is a question of whether we 
fulfill our obligation under die UJ5.- 
Japan Security Treaty and so is a matter 
of our nation's existence;" Mr. Ha- 
shimoto told a news conference. 

Mr. Gingrich later told Japanese law- 
makers at a reception that Washington 
was aware of the importance of Japan's 
support on security issues and that the 
United States intended to remain “the 


only superpower." 

Security issues dominated his talks 
with Mr. Hashimoto, who assured Mr. 
Gingrich that Japan would continue to 
provide land for U.S. bases on Oki- 
nawa. 

Residents of Okinawa have been un- 
happy with the large American military 
presence there, and oppose central gov- 
ernment plans to force them to renew 
thousands of leases due to expire next 
month for land used by the U.S. bases. 

It was the first time Mr. Hashimoto 
had formally confirmed be would sub- 
mit a bill to Parliament revising the land 
expropriation laws, an issue that has 
become the most pressing domestic 
headache for his government 

The new legislation will, in effect 
give the Japanese government a tem- 
porary extension of its leases cm land 
occupied by the bases after the current 
contracts expire May 14. 

About 3.000 people are refusing to 
renew the contracts, but 29,000 land- 
owners have agreed to renew them. 

The case is now before an Okinawan 
land expropriation committee, whose 
decision to renew leases was not ex- 
pected before the May deadline because 
of a long hearing process. 

Mr. Hashimoto also said he would not 
ask President Bill Clinton to withdraw 
U.S. troops from Japan because of un- 
certainties in the region's security. Mr. 
Hashimoto is expected to visit Wash- 
ington in late April for talks with Mr. 
Clmton. 

Local authorities cm Okinawa, where 
about half of the 40,000 U.S. troops in 
Japan are stationed, want the bases 
closed by 2015. 

The quarrel between the central and 
Okinawan governments over the bases 
flared up in September 1995, when three 
US. servicemen were arrested for raping 
an Okinawan schoolgirl. (Reuters, AP) 


DEPORTED — Policemen carrying a handicapped 1 0-year-old girl 
off a ship in Bombay on Monday. Twenty-one children were 
deported from Saudi Arabia after being caught begging in Jidda. 


Australia Assures China on Close Ties 


Cimpdalfa>OwSufftnmiDispaidiB 

BEUING — Prime Minister John Howard of 
Australia assured Prime Minister Li Peng of China 
on Monday that Australia wanted close ties with 
China but warned that disagreements over human 
rights could arise. 

Mr. Howard also appealed to the Chinese leader 
to release a jailed Australian businessman, James 
Peng, saying that the move would help relations 
between the two countries. 

“I said inevitably in the area of human rights 
there would be differences." Mr. Howard said 
after his meeting. "I don't think it's realistic to 
imagine that human rights issues are not going to 
crop up." 

Mr. Peng was jailed for 1 8 years in September 
1995 after he was convicted of embezzling about 
$180,000 in a case linked to his publicly listed 


During the talks Monday, Mr. Li accepted an 
invitation to visit Australia, the Xinhua press 
agency said. It did not give a date for the visit, 
which would be his first to Australia since 1988. 

The acceptance was regarded as a sign that 
relations have improved since Mr. Howard in- 
furiated China last September by meeting the Dalai 
Lama, the exiled spiritual leader of Tibet 
“I want to assure you that Australia is com- 
mitted to a very close bilateral relationship," Mr. 
Howard said he had told Mr. Li. 

The Howard-Li meeting coincided with an ac- 


counting by China of prisoners. The deputy justice 
minister, Zhang Xiufu. said Monday that China 
was holding 2,026 prisoners convicted of coun- 
terrevolutionary offenses. 

According to the official figures. 46 of every 
10,000 prisoners are convicted of counterrevolu- 
tionary activity. 

“Counterrevolutionary prisoners are not polit- 
ical prisoners," Mr. Zhang said. 

“They are prisoners who have endangered and 
sabotaged national security, they have conducted 
activities to overthrow the political power of China 
and it is not solely because of their different views 
or thoughts." he said at a briefing. 

(Reuters. AFP. AP) 


company. Champa: gn Industrial, which is based in 
the south China city of Shenzhen. 


the south China city of Shenzhen. 

His family has said he was abducted in the 
Portuguese enclave of Macau and bundled across 
the border into China where he was handed over to 
the authorities. 

Mr. Peng has insisted that the charges are an 
effort by business rivals to gain hold of his com- 
pany. 


triune wBi a low cast, 2 -irxxrfh trial i 
home or office every morning. 


iiiy to tyltetotanxteand Herald 
bwxi av enjoy delivery to your 


1 




BRIEFLY 


Cambodia Dissident 
To Pursue Crusade 


PHNOM PENH — The oppo- J 
sitioti politician Sam Rainsy vowed - 
Monday to pursue his crusade '* 
against government corruption, a ' 
day after a grenade attack killed at - 
least 16 people at a demonstration , 
be organized - 

The two Cambodian prime min - ‘ 
isters agreed to create an independ- ; 
eat commission to investigate the 
attack Sunday outside the national ' . 

assembly, where Supporters of Mr. ; v 5 
Sam Rainsy ’s opposition Khmer * 
Nation Party had gathered. 

Mr. Sam Rainsy. who accused ~ 
one of the prime ministers, Hun 
Sen, of orchestrating the attack, 
said be had little faith the inquiry 
commission would establish the 
guilty parties. (AFP) " 


ilatitt- 


in 


Taipei Rejects Offer 
For Vice Presidency 


TAIPEI — Taiwan on Monday 
brushed aside Beijing's first report- 
ed offer to allow the Taiwan pres- 
ident to serve as the vice-president '. 
of China once the two sides are - 
reunified. » 

Tokyo newspapers reported that „ 
President Jiang Zemin of China had • 
mentioned the offer to Foreign 
Minister Yukihiko Ikeda of Japan. ! 

But an official at the Taiwan 
presidential office said: “Our pres- . 
idem is the president of the Republic 
of China. Why should he only serve ■ 
as the vice president?" (AFP) 


Philippine Rebels . 
Surrender to Army 


ZAMBOANGA. Philippines — 
ven tv-one members of a break - 


Twenty-one members of a break- 
away Muslim insurgent faction sur- 
rendered to Philippine military au- 
thorities Monday in tins southern 
city, a rebel leader said. 

The chief of the southern com- 
mand, Lieutenant General Romeo 
Padiemos, said the remaining Mean 
Islamic Liberation Front rebels num- 
ber between 2^00 and 3,000, and 
not 9,000 as die group has claimed. 

The group broke off from the 
More National Liberation Front, 
which signed a landmark peace ac- 
cord with Manila last year, ending 
24 years of rebellion. (AFP) 


China and Vietnam 
To Resolve Dispute 


. . HANOI. — China has agreed to 
meet, with Vietnam to dismiss' dis- 
puted maritime claims triggered by 
a Chinese oil rig outside die Gulf of 
Tonkin, officials said Monday. 

But observers cautioned that the 
talks would yield tilde progress. 
Officials said a date had not yet 
been set 

The dispute flared March 7 when 
a Chinese oil rig moved into the 
contested area, prompting Hanoi to 
demand that China cease explor- 
ation and move the rig. (AFP) 


For the Record 


Hundreds of Karen refugees 
fled from Burma to Thailand as the 
Rangoon junta swept through 
rebel enclaves, the Thai military 
said. (AFP) 


An East Timorese man has 
been jailed for one year for dis- 
playing a banner insulting Presi- 
dent Suharto of Indonesia in the 
territory last year, the Antara news 
agency reported. - (Reuters) 


A key heroin trafficker, Liu 
Wei Ming, who is also wanted in 
the Unified States, has been attes- 
ted, the Thai police said. (Reuters) 


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PAGE 5 


i ® ro ^d Denounces Italy as Albania Mourns Drowning Victims 


.drowned in a shipwreck^^ ^ 
;genng protests against Rome, whit* is 
poised to lead a multinational force to 
; protect aid to the lawless country 

*• iOUtf£ip« 

■^^f^ b ° at1tRand0Oe0f ^(> 

pprB me force approved by the United 
.Nations is meant to secure, about 3 000 

SSstesassa 

^Albania s president, Sali Berisha. 

>■ 111 *“>• die capital, drivers hooked 

- ;htHm and buses stopped in a main square 

■ as me Balkan nation paused at midday to 


®oum the more than 80 people who died 
alter their Russiaa-built vessel .canl: in a 
collision with an Italian Navy ship. 

Pandeh Pasko, the Albanian ambas- 
sador to Italy, told Italy’s Channel 5 
television that he Had compiled an up- 
dated list of people still missing and that 
the total was 83. Italian authorities have 
said the number is likely to be lower, 
however. There were 121 Albanians an 
me ship; 34 were pulled out of the water 
■in difficult weather conditions, and four 
bodies were found Friday night 

Tbe mounting cast a shadow over 
Italy’s plans to lead a force of about 
2p00 police or troops to protect de- 
liveries of food and medicines. 


Many of the 34 survivors of the sink- 
ing accused the Italian Navy of ram- 
ming their vessel to stem a flood of 
refugees after about 13,000 fled across 
the Adriatic this month. 

Mr. Pasko said, however, that “it was 
only an accident” and added, “You 
have to recall all. the Albanians who 
were rescued by the Italian Navy.” 

On Monday, an Italian helicopter 
overflew the scene of the sinking, while 
a navy vessel crisscrossed the choppy 
seas below. 

As Italy searched for more victims in 
the Adriatic, Rome pushed ahead with 
plans far the force or 2^00. 

Athens said Monday that it would 


contribute about 700 soldiers, and Ro- 
mania said it would send 400. France, 
Spain. Portugal and Turkey also have 
expressed willingness to take part 

Much of southern Albania is in rebel 
hands after protests at the collapse of 
popular sayings schemes this year 
spilled into insurrection in March. Loot- 
ing is rife and most foreign nationals 
have been evacuated. 

' A Dutch diplomat fan de Marc ham et 
d’Ansembourg, the head of a European 
Union mission planning aid and secu- 
rity, said that advance units were “not 
likely before the end of the week.” 

Mr. D'Ansembourg noted that Mr. 
Berisha was firmly in favor of the mul- 


tinational force and that the Parliament 
voted overwhelmingly to accept it 
Sunday, two days after the sinking. 

But he said it would not be a good 
idea to deploy Italians now in Vlore. 

Demonstrators in Vlore chanted ami- 
Berisha slogans in the square by a 
monument marking where Albania de- 
clared independence from the Ottoman 
Empire in 1912. 

“We want the Italian government to 
accept its responsibilities publicly and 
compensate the victims.” said Albert 
Shyti, head of the self-styled salvation 
committee in Vlore. 

He said that Italy also must recover 
all bodies. (Reuters, AP. AFP ) 


Assimilating in France 

Success and Failure in an Immigrant Town 


*■ > • ' a 




By Barry James 

Internationa! Herald Tribune 


■ C3IANTELOUP-LES-VIGNES. 

; France — This new town west of Paris, 
; which is home to people from more than 
;<j 0 nationalities and e thni c groups, ex- 
K ;emplifies France’s efforts as wefl as its 
'% failures in assimilating immigrants. 

! It has all the problems that many 
; French see as being associated with 
areas ofhigh immigration: crime, drugs, 
unemployment But it also offers decent 
schools and provides a relatively broad 
'range of social and health facilities. 

Tile town itself, although defaced 
with graffiti and with the shutters of 
some dwellings welded shut against 
; burglars, seeks to provide a village at- 
mosphere, with low blocks of apart- 
ments and bouses grouped ro und 
-squares. It looks more like a middle- 
class development than other “hot” 
suburbs in which social and racial ten- 
sions are rife. 

. Id contrast to the American melting 
® 'pot, which turns immigrants into hy- 
phenated citizens — African-Americ- 
ans, Mexican-Americans, etc. — 
France’s policy of assimilation has al- 
ways ainfod at turning foreigners into 
Frrachmen and Frenchwomen. 

Assimilation, said the interior min- 
ister, Jean -Louis Debre, is a “cultural 
'choice.” Thus, millions of citizens who 
have Italian, Polish, Spanish and other 
foreign surnames are otherwise entirely 
;French. 

There is in general no such thing as a 
hyphenated Frenchman. 

The transformation is achieved 
mainly through the schools, where for- . 
eigners follow exactly the same cur- 
riculum as French students. And in 
Chanteloup-les-Vignes, which isone of 
about 600 educational^ priority zones 
that receive extra fandmg to deal with 
assimilati on and social problems, e&i- 


cational attainment is high, even if for a 
large proportion of young people school 
leads directly to unemployment. 

“We take in the childre n of squatters 
even if some would like us not to,” 
Jean-Pierre Tilly, the district school su- 
perintendent, said. 

“For me, it is of prime importance 
that all children receive an education. 
When we see children out of school and 
in tbe streets, we go out and get 
them.” 

Because of unemployment and be- 
cause Fiance is coping with a relatively 
new kind of immigration, largely North 
African and Islamic, many fear that the 
assimilation model is breaking down. 
These fears havebeen exacerbated by tbe 
ultrarightist National Front,' which 
threatens to send ntilHons of “foreign- 
os” home and pot French citizens fust in 
line fra jobs, bouses and social benefits. 

The government argues that the real 
problem .today is illegal immigration, 
which makes it mnw diffi cult to as- 
similate tire foreigners already here. 

The government recently proposed a 
series of measures to aid the assim- 
ilation of as many as 4 million for- 
eigners and about 1.7 million of their 
French-bran children, including free tu- 
ition fra French lessons, help with 
homework fra children of parents who 
do not speak Bench, aid in finding jobs 
and a reduction in die .qualifying time 
for natu ralizatio n to six years from sev- 
en. 

Jean- dande fiandin, die minister in 
charge of integration, said the steps had 
been designed to prevent tire existence 
of “self-enclosed communities” out- 
side the mainstream of French life. 

The measures will be taken in con- 



Bonianex/lDKmKMnal Hamid Tnbanr 

Cbantelou p-Les- V ignes, a new town of 10,000, exemplifies tbe challenges facing French assimilation policies. 


immigration that will entail fines fra 
employers who hire foreigners without 
working papers, tighter border controls 
and an increasing number of depor- 


tations. The problem, however, is not 
merely one of people overstaying their 
visitors' visas. France has a large but 
uncounted number of people who can- 
not obtain residence or labor permits but 
cannot be deported either. 

These include people born in France 
who never obtained rmfiTraliyaHnn, 
people with French spouses and those 
with children bom in France. They call 
themselves sons popiers — tbe undoc- 
umented ones. 

With a population of 10,000, more 
than two-thirds of which is under tire 
age of 30, Chanteloup-les-Vignes is 
among the most racially diverse towns 
in France. 

The population is bigger than official 
statistics suggest, because they do not 
take into account fi] 
undocumented people 

The crackdown on illegal immigrants 
has sent shivers of fear running through 
many sectors of the community here. 
Whether or not they have French iden- 
tity papers, local residents say 'they are 
frequently stopped and searched by po- 
lice, apparently on the basis of their 
rarial characteristics. Much of its for- 


eign population is of Algerian, North 
African or sub-Saharan origin, and tbe 
sight of women with veiled heads or 
bright African dresses is common in the 
town's streets. 

But the immigrant community, here 
as elsewhere in France, has largely 
turned in on itself, according to some 
social workers. The community 
struggles with language problems, fric- 
tions with society and the slim chance of 
finding decent jobs. 

Mr. Tilly said: “Tbe illegals are in- 
creasingly becoming marginalized. 
They hesitate to ask for help because 
they are afraid that the authorities might 
find out about their situations.” 

Nevertheless, he said, schools in 
Chanteloup-les-Vignes require only a 
vaccination certificate for a child to be 
enrolled and do not inquire into the 
residence status of parents. 

That was one aspect of French im- 
migration policy that appealed to Philip 
Cohoff. executive director of the U.S. 
Children's Aid Society, who was one of 
several American academics, health ex- 
perts and social workers visiting 
Chanteloup-les-Vignes recently to 


compare French and American methods 
of dealing with immigration. 

In New York, Mr. Coltoff said, “We 
have found more than 1 .000 children in 
just one district who are not going to 
school.” 

With the threat of deportation 
han ging over illegal aliens in the United 
States, he said, many parents ‘ 'are afraid 
that if they send them to school they'll 
be put into the computer system.” — 
and this applies even to children bom in 
tbe United States who are therefore le- 
gal, even if their parents are not. 

As a result, he said, in America “we 
are finding children selling flowers on 
street comers because they are not in 
school and this is the way in which they 
help sustain their families.” 

Mr. Tilly said the young people he 
saw daily in the schools here showed 
relatively few problems with integra- 
tion. Some come from families where 
the parents speak little French and the 
children speak little Arabic, he said. 

Although a nearby high school offers 
Arabic as a foreign-language option. 
Mr. Tilly said.' most of the children in 
Chanteloup-les-Vignes opt for English. 


Blair Vows 
To Be Tough 
On Unions 
In Britain 


Reuters 

LONDON — Tony Blair, the British 
opposition leader, defended his party's 
labor-union policy Monday, saying a 
Labour victory would not mean a return 
to the strike-bound days of the 1 970s. 

He dismissed assertions by the ruling 
Conservatives that a Labour government 
would dismantle hade union laws 
ushered in under former Prime Minister 
Margaret Thatcher and vowed that 
“strikes without ballots, the closed shop 
and all the rest” were things of the past 

“The essential trade elements of the 
trade union legislation of the 1980s wifi 
remain.” he wrote in The Times. "The 
changes that we do propose would leave 
British law the most restrictive on trade 
unions in the Western world." 

Mr. Blair described the Conservatives’ 
attempts to revive fears of union strangle- 
holds on industry' as ludicrous and said 
neither the trade unions nor the Labour 
Party wanted to turn back tbe clock. 

As he campaigned after the long East- 
er holiday dominated by the resignation 
of Sir Michael Hirst, chairman of the 
Scottish Conservatives, over assertions 
that he bad had a homosexual lover, and 
amid calls for two other members of 
Parliament to step down, Mr. Blair said 
Labour would do its best to keep the 
May 1 election positive. 

The Conservatives were also trying to 
change tracks and refocus their cam- 
paign. After party members’ best efforts 
to convince the two Parliament mem- 
bers.Neil Hamilton and Piers Merchant, 
that it was time to go. there were signs 
on Monday of a party retreat after both 
insisted on contesting the election. 

Mr. Hamilton is at the center of ac- 
cusations that the owner of the Harrods 
store, Mohammed al Fayed, paid sev- 
eral members of Parliament generously 
to ask certain questions on the floor of 
the House of Commons. Photographs of 
Mr. Merchant, who is married, kissing a 
17-year-old nightclub hostess in a park 
were splashed across the front pages of 
most of the country’s newspapers. 

Mr. Major had hinted in a letter com- 
mending Sir Michael for stepping down 
that Mr. Hamilton and Mr. Merchant 
should do the same. But after it seemed 
unlikely that either would. Dame Jill 
Knight, the deputy chairwoman of 
powerful Conservative backbench 1922 
Committee, softened the party's pos- 
ition. saying that voters would be more 
interested in the party’s positions on the 
economy and education than on who 
was having an affair. 


BRIEFLY 




4 


Ulster ‘Marching Season’ Starts 

BELFAST — Northern Ireland's “marching season” 

a^Sionist leader warned toattoe^rovince was edging 
back toward sectarian violence. 

“Tbe history of Northern Ireland indicates that when 
one side becomes violent, die other reacts,” David 
Ervine, a leader of the Progressive Unionist Party, told tire 
BBC “Slowly, we arc sliding back to where we were.” 

He was commenting on an attempted car-bomb a ttack 
Sunday on a Belfast office of the Irish Republican Army's 
political wing, Sinn Fein. He said a series of IRA attacks 
had put die truce declared in October 1994 by Protestant 
paramilitary groups under immense strain. (Reuters) 

National Front Issues Program 

STRASBOURG — Tbe far-right National Front un- 
veiled its prog ra m for government Monday, including a 
proposal fbr a "French first” amendment to the con- 
stitution. . . 

At tbe end of a three-day congress, the p arty is sued a 
manifesto for parliamentary elections next spring. Pro- 

fe^foreigneis v^*U^Snrth papers ami taxation of 
employers who hire foreigners. ■ VT 

Up to 100,000 people demonstrated against the Na- 
tional Front in Strasbourg over the weekend, and about 30 

people were arrested after dashes. (Reuters) 

Seth Customs Pact Under Fire 

SARAJEVO, Bosnia-Herzegovina — Bosnian leaders 
and international peace officials lashed out Monday atari 
agreement on a customs umon between the Bosnian herbs 
and their former patrons in Belgrade. 

A spokesman for Carl Bildl, who is ovraseemg the 
civil ianaspects of tbe Dayton peace pact, said the accord 

had been reached but not yet signed. 

"If political secession of the Republika Sipskawasnot 
in the cards, economic secession is not m the cards 
either” said Mi-. Bfldr's spokesman, Cohan Mmpby- 
Foreien Trade Minister Hasan Murattmc said the 
accord would jeopardize adoption of customs legislanOT 
by die joint institutions of Bosnia-Herzegovina. (AFP) 

Yeltsin to Skip NATO Meeting 

L wid. die alliance 

^ sunS^eeting. taa spokesman and 

“t^Lr-Tass news agency iw^dS^daytol!^ 
Ydcsin ^ 

Monrirv that SfrYdtStfidnot plan to attend. He didnot 

Mr/Mrin would sign an 

ilaiians with 
meeting to s 
[in Helsinki 

Attack on German Club Hurts 6 

RFRI IN — About 60 suspected exttemist rightists 

attacked a youto thepolice said Monday. 

Q ? gfli .^' h S££^ ^ddfe anSrers had rampaged 

17 people. 


Yeltsin Forges Ahead on Belarus Pact 


Reuters 

MOSCOW — President Boris Yeltsin 
gave tbe green light Monday to a draft 
treaty that would push Russia into a 
union with Belarus, despite liberals' 
fears that he might be signing away some 
of his powers to a hard-liner. 

Mr. Yeltsin's foreign affairs adviser, 
Dmitri Ryurikov, told the Itar-Tass news 
agency that his boss had approved the 
draft of a document for signing Wed- 
nesday with President Alexander 
Lukashenko of Belarus. 

..Mr. Ryurikov said the agreement 
could still be amended before Wednes- 
day, leaving doubts about just how close 
the ties between Russia and Belarus, a 
former Soviet republic, will be. Previous 
accords on integration have had few 
practical implications. 

The Interfax news agency quoted an 
official as saying that an agreement 
would be signed Wednesday but added: 
“The most recent version of die text of 


the treaty should not be regarded as 
something final and fixed.” 

Mr. Yeltsin appeared to have resisted 
Russian liberals who fear that tbe au- 
thoritarian Mr. Lukashenko could gain a 
slice of power at die Kremlin’s expense, 
posing questions about democracy, sta- 
bility and hitman rights. 

Russia, a nuclear state of nearly 150 
million people, has been working on 
fanning a “community” with its less 
wealthy western neighbor of about 10 
million under an agreement signed by 
Mr. Yeltsin and Mr. Lukashenko on 
April 2 last year. 

Kremlin aides say Russians will not 
wake up Thursday in a new, single state 
but that toe accord has “colossal im- 
portance.” 

A draft of the new treaty was con- 
fusing and left many questions un- 
answered. It provided for a union under 
which the two states would be inde- 
pendent but coordinate their foreign. 


economic and military policies closely. 

The union would develop a joint legal 
system, joint operation of energy, trans- 
port and communications systems, pro- 
mote mutual trade and adhere to a com- 
mon customs policy. It would also 
prepare for the introduction of a single 
currency. 

Liberals fear that Mr. Lukashenko 
could gain jurisdiction over some de- 
cisions affecting Russia under a nine- 
member Supreme Council that will 
oversee toe Russia-Belarus union. 

Mr. Yeltsin, 66, says that forging bet- 
ter ties with Belarus is a popular move 
because many Russians are nostalgic far 
tbe former Soviet Union. 

But Kremlin officials said that lib- 
erals, led by tbe first deputy prime min- 
isters. Anatoli Chubais and Boris Nemt- 
sov. had tried to prevent Mr. Yeltsin 
from approving toe treaty and that di- 
visions had opened in toe government 
over the integration plans. 


Serbs Stone Croatian Candidates 


The Associated Press 

ZAGREB, Croatia — Ser- 
bian protesters threw brides 
and eggs at candidates of the 
ruling Croatian Democratic 
Union party in Vuko var, die 
largest town in Serb-held 
eastern Croatia, on Monday, 
according to a United Nations 
spokesman. 


Tbe assault was tbe most 
serious incident yet in the 
campaign for April 13 elec- 
tions, which are intended to 
usher in the peaceful return of 
toe region to Croatian role. 

In 1 995 , Croatia recaptured 
all toe lands held by the rebel 
Serbs except this sliver of turf 
on its easternmost tip. 



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v 




PAGE 6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 


INTERNATIONAL 


In ‘Good-Faith Signal 9 to North, Seoul Lifts Ban on Rice Donations 


By Kevin Sullivan 

Wushingtvn Past Service 


TOKYO-— South Korea lifted its ban 
on private rice donations to impover- 
ished North Korea on Monday, in a 
move apparently designed to coax the 
North into joining peace talks. 

South Korea has not sent rice to the 
Stalinist North since die summer of 
1995, when the North Koreans detained 
a South Korean aid ship carrying 
150,000 Lons of rice, forced it to fly the 
North Korean flag and arrested crew 
members on spying charges. 

That behavior so incensed President 
Kim Young Sam of South Korea that he 
stopped all government shipments of rice 
and banned all rice donations to the North 
by private humanitarian aid agencies. 

“Until now. rice has been Kim Young 
Sam's most important North Korea 
policy tool," said O Je Shin, director of 


the South Korean office of World Vi- 
sion. a California-based aid group. 
“When it comes to rice, the government 
wants the upper hand.” 

President Kim's decision to soften his 
stand on rice demonstrates bow badly 
Seoul and Washington want North 
Korea to join four-party peace talks 
among the two Koreas. the United States 
and China. Seoul and Washington see 
the talks as the best chance for a per- 
manent peace on the divided peninsula 
— so much so that Mr. Kim apparently 
was willing to set aside the deep, per- 
sonal sense of betrayal he felt over the 
last rice incident, which cost him dearly 
in public opinion polls. 

The decision is also especially sym- 
bolic because of the almost spiritual 
importance rice, die staple of all Korean 
meals, has to people on both sides of the 
Demilitarized Zone. 

One senior government official said 


the decision was partly due to suj . 
tions from the numerous U.S. officials 
who have visited Seoul recently. In the 
past week, Mr. Kim has met with Vice 
President A1 Gore; the House speaker. 
Newt Gingrich, and a bipartisan del- 
egation of five U.S. senators, led by Ted 
Stevens, Republican of Alaska, who also 
visited North Korea. 

“The visits certainly left an impres- 
sion," tbe official said. “That diplo- 
macy is related to today's decision by the 
Korean government ' * 

For the last two years, private aid 
groups bave been free to supply wheat 
flour, powdered milk, potatoes, clothes 
and other assistance to famine-stricken 
North Korea, where as many as a quarter 
of South Korea's 45 million citizens 
bave relatives. But rice was banned. 

In lifting the rice ban, officials of the 
South Korean Unification Ministry said 
they wanted to send a “good-faith sig- 


nal" to North Korea, which has de- 
manded food aid as a condition of at- 
tending proposed four-way peace talks. 
The talks would be aimed at bringing a 
formal end to tbe Korean War, which 
ended 44 years ago with an uneasy 
cease-fire that still bolds. 

U.S. and South Korean officials have 
rejected North Korea’s demand for food 
in advance as a condition for attending 
the talks. But both governments bave 
said they would continue providing food 
aid on humanitarian grounds. The 
United States recently agreed to give S10 
million and South Korea $6 million to 
the UN World Food Program for food 
aid to North Korea. 

While many South Koreans mistrust 
the North Korean leader, Kim Jong D. 
and fear that food aid may be funneled 
directly to the North's military, many in 
South Korea praised the decision. 

“If our long-term strategy is to pre- 


vent a catastrophic collapse in North 
Korea, then providing food aid is the 
prudent thing to do," said Lho Kyong 
Soo. a political science professor at 
Seoul National University. 

Mr. O, the World Vision official, said 
his group would take advantage of the 
government's announcement immedi- 
ately by shipping 1,000 tons of rice 
purchased in Vietnam, worth about 
$250,000, to North Korea. 

Last December. World Vision built a 
$30,000 noodle factory in Pyongwon, 
just north of tbe North Korean capital. 
Pyongyang, to help feed North Koreans. 
Mr. O said World Vision was bringing 
about 50 tons of wheat floor a month 
from China into North Korea to produce 
enough noodles to feed 10,000 people a 
day. 

Byun Jin Heung, director of tbe 
Korean Conference on Religion and 
Peace, a federation of six church groups. 


group to add significantly to the $60,000. 
it had sent for North Korean famine 
relief since 1995. _ 

Tbe South Korean government re- 
quires that all private donations of food 
or goods be m a de to the Sooth Korean 
Red Cross. The Unification Ministry 
spokesman, Kang Ho Yang, said thaT 
would not change. Mr. Kang also said 1 
the government would limit the total 
amount of rice that private groups couIq 
send, but be did not say what the limit: 
would be. *~i 

So far this year, tbe Sooth Korean Re^. 
Cross has sent four shipments to Norfh- 
Korea worth about $23 million, include 
Lag 1300 tons of wheat flour, 15,06ff 
pairs of socks, 8 tons of powdered milk- 
ier infants. In April, the agency plans tc? 
send another $1 million worth of 
powdered milk, potatoes, cabbage arfc? 
radish seeds. 


Clark Reportedly Chosen 
To Command U.S. Forces 
In Europe and Lead NATO 


By Bradley Graham 

Washington Post Service 


WASHINGTON — President Bfll 
Clinton has picked General Wesley 
Clark of the U.S. Army to become the 
next top NATO military commander and 
head of U.S. forces in Europe, according 
to senior defense officials. 

Tbe selection is arguably the second- 
most significant military appointment 
Mr. Clinton will have to make this year, 
after naming a new chairman of the Joint 
Chiefs of Staff, given the issues con- 
fronting the United Stales and its Euro- 
pean allies: NATO expansion, relations 
wife Russia and operations in Bosnia. 

“We wanted someone who's both a 


BARRIERS: 

U.S. Trade Report 

Continued from Page 1 

Trade Estimate Report cm Foreign Trade 
Barriers, will serve as an important com- 
ponent in tbe Clinton administration's 
trade policies this year. It may provide a 
basis for eventual sanctions against coun- 
tries that deny adequate copyright pro- 
tection or impose obstacles to imports. 

While a strong dollar and sluggish 
growth in Europe and Japan are seen as 
the principal reasons behind an expand- 
ing U.S. trade deficit, fee White House 
has mounted an aggressive campaign to 
remove tariff and non-tariff barriers feat 
it says have also contributed. 

The goods and services deficit in 
January widened to $12.7 trillion from 
$103 billion in December. The January 
figure was the largest monthly shortfall 
since 1992. 

Japan led fee list in terms of coverage 
in fee report taking up 46 pages, fol- 
lowed by fee European Union, wife 26 
pages, and China, wife 17. 

No country was removed from fee list 
this year, and four — Ecuador, Ethiopia, 
Panama and Paraguay — were added. 

From this broad report covering ob- 
jectionable trade practices, fee admin- 
istration has 30 days to select a smaller 
list of countries for negotiations about 
improper protection of copyrights and 
patents. 

The White House also faces a Sept 30 
deadline by which it can target countries 
under its what is known as its “Super 
301 " negotiating authority. Super 301 is 
an annual review feat allows the United 
States to intensify pressure on countries 
seen as having particularly onerous trade 
barriers. 

Failure to reach a successful conclu- 
sion to negotiations wife countries in 
either category could result in fee im- 
position of U.S. sanctions. 

While the administration has used the 
threat of the Super 301 designation to 
force countries cede ground, it has yet to 
actually use tbe Soper 301 provisions. 

Monday's report said that while trade 
conflicts with Tokyo had lately lost 
some 
nation 

bilateral negotiations, multilateral ne- 
gotiations and fee application of relevant 
U.S. trade laws to pursue aggressively 
fee e liminati on of remaining or emerg- 
ing trade barriers in Japan." 

Tbe report faulted Japan for “restrict- 
ive" domestic purchasing practices, par- 
ticularly at fee local level, feat hamper 
foreign firms bidding for government 
contracts. Ms. Barshefsky also listed 
problems ranging from the protection of 
copyrights on software to fee opening up 
Japan’s telecommunications market. 

In computers, for example, the report 
said the foreign share of tbe national 
government market had started to de- 
cline after rising to 14 percent in 1994. 

Tbe report asserted that Nippon Tele- 
phone & Telegraph Corp_ which ac- 
counts for half of Japan's $30 billion 

telecommunications -equipment market, 
still favored “family companies" for 
most of its purchases. 

On fee European Union, Ms. Barshef- 
sky said she was “particularly con- 
cerned by the HU’S pervasive discrim- 
ination against U.S. agricultural exports 
— including rice, wheat, wheat flour, 
bananas, beef, dairy products and certain 
fruit." 

On China, she said U.S. companies 
and farmers still faced numerous bar- 
riers. requiring “continued vigilance by 
the administration to ensure China's 
policies and practices are consistent wife 
existing bilateral agreements and are in 
line with international rules,” she said. 


soldier and a statesman, someone wife 
diplomatic and policy experience,” a 
senior Pentagon official said. 

General Clark, 52, brings to the job a 
knowledge of Russian anaex tensive ex- 
perience wife Bosnia. He was tbe senior 
military member on fee diplomatic team 
that brokered the 1995 Dayton peace 
accords feat stopped the fighting in Bos- 
nia. 

Now head of fee U.S. Southern Com- 
mand, which oversees U.S. military op- 
erations in Central and South America, 
Genera] Clark will be following in fee 
footsteps of two other army generals 
who went from there to the post of 
supreme allied commander in Europe; 
John Galvin, who led NATO from 1985 
to 1987, and George JouJwan, the cur- 
rent NATO chief, who is to retire this 
summer. 

A West Point graduate and former 
Rhodes scholar. General Clark has been 
on a fast track throughout his military 
career. After a combat command in Vi- 
etnam where he won Silver and Bronze 
stars, he went on to an instructor's job in 
West Point's social sciences depart- 
ment; a stint on the army chiefs staff 
helping to prepare plans for the all- 
volunteer military; Command and Staff 
College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 
where he was first in his class; a White 
House fellowship; early promotion to 
major; a tour as operations officer of a 
brigade in Germany; a year and a half as 
assistant executive officer to General 
Alexander Haig Jr., then NATO chief; 
and early promotion to lieutenant col- 
onel, becoming the first in his West 
Point class to command a battalion. 

He also served in senior jobs at fee 
National Training Center, Fort Leaven- 
worth and the Training and Doctrine 
Command, commanding fee 1 st Cavalry 
Division, then becoming director of 
strategy on the Pentagon's Joint Staff. 

Defense Secretary William Cohen re- 
commended Genoa! Clark for the 
NATO job after interviewing 1 1 four- 
star officers and two three-star officers, 
according to a defense official. 

According to fee official, Mr. Cohen 
used the interview process to begin 
thinking as well about a replacement for 
fee chairman of fee Joint Chiefs of Staff, 
General John Shalikashvili, who steps 
down in October. 

Like Mr. Clinton, General Clark grew 
up in Arkansas and attended Oxford as a 
Rhodes scholar, leading to a widespread 
impression feat the two have a long- 
standing association. In fact, they did not 
know each other as students in Arkansas, 
and their time at Oxford did not overlap. 



RUSSIA: A Rush to Control the Media 






A Palestinian woman protesting in the village of Surif on Monday as 
Israeli troops with wrecking equipment prepared to destroy her house, 
where a bomber lived before he killed four, including himself, in Tel Aviv. 

ISRAEL: Arab States Seek Sanctions 


Continued from Page 1 

The growth of corporate media em- 
pires is another sign of the power and 
influence wielded fry Russia's ruling ol- 
igarchies, tbe half-dozen clans that have 
taken a dominant role in the country. 
After the Soviet collapse, many news- 
papers and magazines were bequeathed 
to their workers, poorly paid journalists 
who could not provide needed invest- 
ment They were sitting ducks for the 
newly acquisitive media barons. 

In fee broad diversity of media — and 
free speech — available today, Russia is 
light-years beyond Soviet totalitarian 
rule. Hundreds of newspapers, 
magazines, radio and television stations 
bombard Russians wife uncensored 
views. At fee same time, fee idealism of 
tbe early post-Soviet years, in which the 
libera] press blazed new trails in chal- 
lenging authority, has dimmed in the 
shadow of the powerful new owners. 

“Freedom of speech and the inde- 
pendent attitude of the mass media were 
the first gains of perestroika," recalled 
Ludmila Telea, deputy editor of Mos- 
cow News. * Today, disappointment and 
disilln« in nmftn t in fee mass media is 
becoming disappointment in democracy 
itself." 

Last year, many Russian journalists 
backed Mr. Yeltsin because they feared 
a Communist victory would threaten 
their hard-won freedoms. But the dal- 
liance with fee Kremlin did not end 
there. Since then, Mr. Gusinsky and Mr. 
Berezovsky, along with a circle of fin- 
anciers, have continued to support tbe 
Yeltsin government, and Mr. 
Berezovsky serves in it 

Despite their fraternal quarrels, these 
plutocrats are part of am emerging Rus- 
sian establishment, and they have seized 
fee reins of Russia's print and broadcast 
media, vital to the evolution of the coun- 
try’s fledgling democracy and growth of 
its nascent civil society. 

The magnates are not shy about their 
goals. Mr. Kuznetsov said Gazprom en- 
forces one condition; that “these 
magazines, newspapers and television 


Most One reason, an associate said, is’ 
feat the days of “easy money" in bank-J 
mg have passed, but fortunes are still toj 
be made in communications. I 

Mr. Gusinsky 's gamble is that Russia, 1 
is hungry for entertainment and news,) 
despite its economic distress. His empire] 4 
includes a slick television weekly. 7|£ 
Days; a popular Moscow radio station.) 
Echo of Moscow; and a weekly news-) 
magazine called Itogi (published in part-; 
nership wife Newsweek, owned by The. 
Washington Post Co.). 1 

Although Mr. Gusinsky’s flagship) 
newspaper, Sevodnya, has been troubled,, 
his crown jewel is NTV television. He| 
founded it in early 1994 as Russia's first) 
major commercial network. Since then,! 
NTV has grown to become a Russian; 
television powerhouse, one that offers ai 
glimpse of the evolution of fee Russian! 
media from outsider to member of fee; 
establishment \ 

When Mr. Yeltsin went to war against; 
s epa ratists in Chechnya in late 1994 . 
NTV's news broadcasts were hailed q# 
brilliant and courageous, showing that the, 
Kremlin was lying. “In the morning one 
day there was a statement feat Russian 
warplanes were not bombing Grozny." 
recalled Igor Malashenko, president of 
NTV. “This very day, in the evening, we 
showed our piece from Grozny, wife 
Russian warplanes dropping bombs, ft 
had an enormous effect" •*; 

But in the last two years, NTV’s leader^ 
and broadcasts have allied closely wife 
the Kremlin. As Mr. Yeltsin's re-election 
. campaign loomed last year, Mir. Gusinsky 
joined forces with Mr. Berezovsky, a one^ 
tune mathematician who turned his L «£' 
govaz auto-import business into a con- 
glomerate including media, aviating 
banking and o3 businesses. ‘ -l’ 1 

Mr. Berezovsky bought a piece of the; 
largest television channel; ORT, when it 
was privatized. Tbe state owns 51 per- 
cent of fee channel, but sources say ifW 
financed largely by Mr. Berezovsky, ftf 
effect, between them, Mr. Gusinsky arid* 
Mr. Berezovsky controlled tiro of top 
three top television outlets — and be? 
came behind-the-scenes kingmakers for 

a: 




Continued from Page 1 

The so-called land-for-peace prin- 
ciple emerged from the Madrid con- 
ference feat started fee Middle East 
peace process in 1991. 

After Mr. Netanyahu was elected in 
May, Arab heads of state threatened at a 
meeting in Cairo to suspend normal- 
ization if he did not adhere to the prin- 
ciples laid out at Madrid. Moderate Arab 
leaders such as President Hosni 
Mubarak of Egypt and King Hussein of 
Jordan counseled patience, but in recent 
months their patience has worn thin. 

“The council of fee Arab League re- 


commends stopping all normalization 
steps which have been taken wife Israel in 
fee framework of fee peace process and 
Stopping dealing wife it, including clos- 
ing offices and missions," fee draft said. 

Also Monday, an Israeli Army bull- 
dozer demolished fee home of a Pal- 
estinian militant who blew himself u 
a Tel Aviv cafiS two weeks ago, 
three Israeli women and himself. 

And in a 12th successive day of West 
Bank violence spurred by fee settlement 
building, Israeli troops firing rubber bul- 
lets shot and wounded two Palestinians 
during a clash near Jenin wife about 200 
stone-throwing protesters. 


will support the line which is the line of Mr. Yeltsin. 

thepresideiu and the government." “This was not an election,” said Mr, 

The new Russian oligarchs “want to Gusinsky, “but a choice between two- 
try and preserve the i status quo in Russian paths for fee country. It was like a civtS A 
politics and society," said Andrei mitKmit *k« ehnnhna ” — ™ 


politics and society," said 
Richter, a media analyst. “They don't 
mind spending millioos of dollars to do 
that, and they think feat by spending 
millions of dollars they will influence 
public opinion in favor of what they 
believe is a market economy, stable gov- 
ernment, wife Yeltsin as fee guarantor." 

Mr. Gusinsky, 44, a one-time theater 
director who found riches in banking and 
real estate, has recently taken a huge 
gamble. Earlier, he built a lucrative busi- 
ness, Most Bank, closely linked wife 
Moscow's mayor, Yuri Luzhkov. Now, 
Mr. Gusinsky has given up his post as 
bank president and devoted himself to a 
new media-holding company, Media- 


POLICY: With Campaign Funding Abroad, U.S. Doesn 9 t Practice What It Preaches 

is ter Viktor Chernomyrdin 


Continued from Page 1 

“If fee Chinese indeed tried to in- 
fluence tbe election here last year, the 
United States is only getting a taste of its 
own medicine,” said Peter Kombluh. a 
researcher at the National Security 


other countries acknowledge feat it has 
been carried to murderous extremes in the 
past and has to be carefully monitored. 

Presidents from Harzy Truman to Bill 
Clinton have justified American polit- 
ical interference abroad as necessary to 
promote democracy or combat the 


The United States poured millions of 
dollars into both countries to support 
center-rigfrt parties and conservative 
unionists, forestalling the Communist 
advance. 

The CTA grew more ambitions in fee 
1950s, helping to overthrow leaders in 


mid-1970s amid revulsion over revel- 
ations of foreign assassination plots and 
spying on domestic dissidents. 

The committee, led by Senator Frank 
Church, Democrat of Idaho, concluded 


that many of these activities were coun- 

_ . . . . _ teiproductive as well as wrong. The top- 

of their intensity, fee adminis- Archive, an organization affiliated wife spread of communism, totalitarianism or Iran and Guatemala feat the United pling of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran said Mr. Richter, fee media analyst. Mr. I 

, would continue to use “a mix of George Washington University that mon- mere anarchy. States considered too leftist and repla- and Jacobo Arbenz G uzman m Guate- Kuznetsov, the Gazprom executive, who! 

Whon tha f"T A nrae nctaklickti/l nirtli ■ManflKt «-1 «a aamiNi _ J * j -■ - ■ . _ - * 1 - - Luptnoofr i 


war without the shooting.’ 

The tycoons recruited the reformer 
Anatoli Chubais to run fee campaign^' 
Mr. Malashenko joined fee Yeltsin 
election staff, and fee television cot^- 
erage was overwhelmingly pro-YeltsmT 
Sergei Lisovsky, an advertising anif 
entertainment specialist who was part 
fee election team, said fee tycoons wer£ 
defending their fortunes, fearing “acoS-" 
stant threat" to their gains from fee 
Communists. „ 

The alliance wife Mr. Yeltsin camefc£ 
Mr. Gusinsky was preparing to launch 
his biggest gamble yet, a pay satellite 
television network, NTV-Plus. Jg 

Chi June 11, just days before fee fliffi 
round of tbe presidential election, 
wealthy investor appeared. Gazprom,) 
Russia’s largest company, a prospering, 
>oly once headed by Prime Mm-; 
is ter Viktor Chernomyrdin and still par-i 
dally state-owned, announced it woulcf. 
buy 30 percent of NTV. The cost of feel 

deal has never been disclosed. , 

Several outsiders have spec ulated that) 
Gazprom made the investment to hejpi 
Mr. Gusinsky at the behest of the g$v~] 
eminent. “Tney were Raced to do it,”* 


5r- 


hors intelligence and foreign policy. 

Ms. Coan said the endowment's ef- 
forts were not comparable to what China 
is suspected of doing: funneling money 
to one political party in a contested elec- 
tion. 

“We support people who otherwise 
do not have a voice in their political 
system.” she said. “Tbe entire point of 
fee endowment is to aid citizens of coun- 
tries where governments or other social 
forces prevent open and peaceful polit- 
ical processes.” 

Even those who support American ef- 
forts to influence the internal politics of 


When the CIA was established 50 
years ago, Allen Dulles, one of its 
founders, said that the United States and 
other democratic nations must “fight 
fire with fire" to respond to fee threat of 
expansionist communism. 

But over the years, other nations have 
learned from the United States that na- 
tional self-interest can often be used to 
justify ignoble means. 

The CIA's earliest political activities 
were in France and Italy in 1947 and 
1948, when aggressivqand well-financed 
Communist parties and Communist labor 
unions came close to w inning power. 


crag them wife friendly dictators. 

Countries that were supposed to be 
allies were not immune to American 
meddling. Throughout the 1950s and 
1960s, the United States secretly sup- 
ported Japan's Liberal Democratic Party 
and cultivated its rising political fig- 
ures. 

The CIA carried out dozens of covert 
political operations through tbe 1960s 
and early 1970s in Southeast Aria, Latin 
America, the Middle East, Africa and 
Asia. 

The worst abuses were chronicled by 
the Senate's Church committee in fee 


mala in the early 1950s brought decades 
of repression and growing anti-American 
sentiment, the committee found. 

“We’re more than a little hypocritical 
about these issues, " said Frederick A.O. 
Schwarz Jr„ who was staff director of 
the committee. “The United States has 
certainly engaged in these things, bat we 
get all up in arras when someone else 
does." 

“The things the CIA cited as suc- 
cesses really weren’t successes,” added 
Mr. Schwarz, now a lawyer in New York. 


said the investment was purely business.) 

Mr. Gus insk y's empire continued toi 
expand. On Sept. 20, Mr. Yeltsin signed) 
a decree effectively tripling NTV’s aix> 


time from six hours a dayto 18-20 hours. I 
Then in November. NTV-Plas took to[ 
fee airwaves. • 

“NTV today is a rare example of bowj 
television bas become a business,’ ’ said; 
Vsevolod Bogdanov, president of foei 
Union of Journalists. “All this power; 

was turned to fee victory of Yeltsin. As a; 

result, it was not only Yeltsin who wonjA 

u..r .j Miming 


They were an arrogant exercise of our but NTV won, and Gusinsky's empire* 
power to intervene in domestic affairs.” won." ■' 


CULT: Leader of Heaven 9 s Gate Had a Secret - His Homosexual Relationships Before He Founded the Group 


■v 

'4r 

is*. 

V 

'liU 

>i- 
««■ t 

'"S 

JV- 

*T 

V- 

V.r 


Continued from Page 1 

student, according to local news accounts. The 
Catholic university called the reason for fee firing 
“health problems of an emotional narure.” 

Depressed, ashamed and suddenly hearing 
voices, Mr. Applewhite checked into a psychiatric 
hospital the following year and asked to be 
“cured" of his homosexual desires, according to 
James Lewis, the author of a book on cults; Robert 
Balch of tbe University of Montana and former 
members of the cult known most recently as Heav- 
en's Gate. 

Mr. Applewhite felt guilty about his homosexual 
affairs and. according to Mr. Balch, ' ‘confided to at 
least one of his lovers his longing for a meaningful, 
ional rules,” she said, platonic relationship where he could develop his 
\AP. AFP, Bloomberg) full potential without sexual entanglements." 


At the hospital, he met a nurse, Bonnie Lu 
Trousdale Nettles, who would lead him into a new 
kind of spirituality. 

Together, they would renounce all sexuality. In 
1988, Mr. Applewhite wrote of himself and Miss 
Netties that “tbe only relationship they shared, 
certainly having no physical attraction toward each 
other, was the compulsion to discover what had 
brought them together. " 

At some {mini. Mr. Applewhite had himself 
castrated. 

Together, he and Miss Netties would recruit 
hundreds of followers around the country and re- 
quire them to dress alike, cut their hair and repress 
any sexual identity. And together, they would con- 
coct a theology in which the human body was a 
mere vessel for an asexual soul that could find 
salvation only in its home in outer space. 


“Applewhite was so alienated from his ho- 
mosexuality that he was teaching people not to have 
sex,” said Mr. Lewis, of tbe Institute for the Study 
of American Religion, who has studied Mr. Ap- 
plewhite and Miss Nettles ’s group for more fh-m 20 
years. “He would put people of opposite sexes 
together and force them to learn to become neutral, 
oonsexnaL" 

Followers of the cult in the mid-1970s were 
subjected to stria discipline: “No sex, no human- 
level relationships, no socializing.' * said Mr. Balch, 
who infiltrated the group for two months in 1975. 

When fee suicide victims at Rancho Santa Fe, 
California, tamed out to be dressed so much aKir*» 
that fee police at first believed them all to be male. 
Mr. Lewis and other cult experts saw the ultimate 
expression of Mr. Applewhite's renunciation 0 f 
sexuality. “Their idea of perfection was a kind of 


androgyny/’ Mr. Lewis said- “Afr buz? cuts, riE 
dressed to erase any trace of sexuality-”'. 

In fee eariy 1970s, when Ifr.ijpWfc wto 
wrestling wife his secret. sraenceWTrisw of b6- ( 
mosexuality was evolving rapidly ifiSifefiugh some; 
psychologists still believed u possible to “cun?’i 
homosexuality, most concluded 
ation was immutable. In ] 974^ fee^a^erican 
chifflric Association removed bomigejnljality nwp» 
its list of mental disorders. " ■ ) I 

Today, most therapists, pe°P^ e 

accept their sexuality. I 

The videotapes of Mr. Applewhite*? filial state- j 
meats show him to be deJmibnal,- sexually; 
repressed and suffering from a rare case of clinical! i 

. ... _ 'professor of;* 

[onus at Lost 





.■.■■■.si- 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 

INTERNATIONAL 


PAGE 7 


For Zaire, ‘the End of the Comedy 9 

Society Hovers Between the Fall of Mobutu and Rebel Fictory 


i ” Lynne Duke And so Zairians wait to see whether 

J Winston PonSwic* *efrnation, Africa's third largest, is 

7 KINSHASA, Zaire The rWlmi™ to ^P omeavastzone 

4g <* Marshal Moburn ^*^*^V**^y<*>*- 

: Europeans water-ski on fop 7 m ‘Everything created by God has a 
River hereTbringing jW begmning and an end,” said Makambo, 

feodandwinefoSidS^hiSSS zs f er .^ saD ^». “ft is not easy to 
Mk emadatecT^ndL^^^ ^^lorship. There win be much 

■S2 ° f Zanians wait for the ailing and be- 

.Marshal MobXX.cJS 
«n in the cool cocnoo^fAT m a nversi< fc mansion where peacocks 

swankiest hotel In s wa ^ ^ Jawns, to make his next move 

krmis.' the Twvir hawir ^ — Ms 0DCC froo-fisted gov ernmen t now 

J"® 1 fis ° losing its grip after 31 yews. They wait 

^1 leader, to come here. 10 do what 

SSsS??® 1 *!; *• 

band, a foreign worker said. Aak^Xmbcwill^ort.Mtaahal 

U.S. Supreme Court Upholds Law 
Requiring Local Stations on Cable TV 

“ Tl. . • • . . _ 


T7T *** iuouc posrure ana gos- 
*p in the cool cocoon of die capital's 
syrankiest hotel. In . die sweltering 
yrecs, the poor hawk soap, dried fish 
***"*.*+ long-ignored slums now 


I The Associated Press - 

A WASHINGTON— The Supreme 
-Court upheld a 1992 federal law 
"1 Monday that requires cable television 
..systems to carry local broadcasters, a 
derision that could mean survival for 
many small, independent stations. 

The court ruled, 5 to 4, that the 
. measure is a lawful effort to preserve 
' broadcast television and ensure pab- 
. lie access to information from a vari- 
■ ety of sources. The decision rawing 
cable subscribers wifi continue to re- 
ceive, as they currently do, the same 
. lineup of local broadcast stations on 
. their cable systems. 

. The justices rejected the argument 
by cable companies that the law vi- 


olates their constitutionally protected 
right to free speech. 

There is heavy competition for 
space on cable systems because many 
new networks have been created. 

In other cases, the court: 

• Let stand a ruling feat said copy- 
right fees so me tim es must be paid 
when students use large packets of 
photocopies in their class-work. 

• Reinstated a Montana law- that 
requires unmarried girls to notify a 
parent or get a judge's approval be- 
fore undergoing an abortion. 

• Let stand rulings giving public 
school officials the power to prevent 
elementary students from handing out 
leaflets in school hallways. 


Mobutu or Mr. Kabila, a sergeant in the 
civil guard division of Marshal Mobutu's 
army told a kind of parable about his 
motherland. “Theone who take the 

lead will be my father,” said tbe soldier. 
“When there is a divorce between my 
mother and my father, the one who will 
many my mother will be my father.” 

And so Zaire waits, as a new suitor — 
Mb-. Kabila — knocks at the door. 

An outride world waits, too. UJS-, 
French and Belgian troops are poised 
across the river in the Congolese capital, 
Brazzaville, ready to swoop in to rescue 
their nationals from a conflagration that 
many here fear, but that has not yet 
erupted. A U.S. warship, the Nassau, is en 
mate to take up position off the Atlantic 
coast psst in case, U.S. officials say. 

Ail this strikes sozne as ominous, con- 
sidering that this troika of powers has 
intervened several times since Zaire's 
independence from Belgium in 1960. 

In 1991 and 1993, riots broke out 
among disgruntled soldiers a nd citizens 
who trashed several cities, deepening 
the economic woes that sparked their 
original wrath. 

Considering the multiple threats that 
could push tins nation of 45 million over 
the edge, the capital and other parts of 
the country are remarkably calm. Even 
as tiie rebels push farther southwest in 
the rich copper raining region of Shaba 
Province, mere are no reports of major 
battles. Marshal Mobutu's army and his 
mercenaries have put up such a weak 
showing that few take them seriously as 
a defensive force. 

The army still could wreak havoc, 
however, especially since tile lines of 
command and loyalties of some divi- 
sions are unclear. Those units still loyal 
to Marshal Mobutu, such as the special 
presidential division, remain a wild 
card. But Marshal Mobutu's declining 
health, speeded by the prostate cancer 
and attendant surgery last year, make 



DRUG BUST — Thai police escorting a suspected heroin trafficker, Liu Wei Ming, in Bangkok on 
Monday. Mr. Liu, 57, has been wanted in the United States since a New York court indicted him in 1995. 


him a leader who is fading. 

International mediation efforts, to be 
led by South Africa this week, appear 
aimed at forestalling an explosion. 

Much is expected of Mr. Kabila and 
his movement, in part because Marshal 
Mobutu dashed earlier hopes, but also 
because of the rebel leader's perceived 
heroism against a regime whose hold on 
power once had mystical proportion. 

Now, that hold is being broken. When 
a new currency was issued earlier this 
year, sparking hyper-inflation, people 
refused to use it and called it “prostate 
money.” 

A new hefty loaf of bread that has 
gone on the market is known as “Kabila 
bread” because it is rich and satisfying. 
Marshal Mobutu's government 
summoned the baker and roJd him '‘to 
stop people from calling it Kabila 


bread,” said an employee at the bakery, 
but to no avail. 

The fight between Marshal Mobutu 
and Mr. Kabila — and by extension 
between official Zaire and Rwanda, 
Uganda and Burundi, which support Mr. 
Kabila — sprang from the ferment of 
ethnic tensions in eastern Zaire. There, 
Rwandan Hutu refugees took up res- 
idence in camps in 1994 when they fled 
their country in fear of retribution for the 
massacres of hundreds of thousands of 
Rwandan Tutsi by Hutu extremists. 

The presence of the Hutu nettled 
Zairian Tutsi, who joined forces with Mr. 
Kabila, a longtime Mobutu foe, and 
launched the insurgency. The fighting 
forced most of those refugees to return 
home last fall. But about 350.000 of them 
have been marooned in tough eastern 
terrain during the six months of war. 


They are dying at an alarming rate, 
say humanitarian agencies. They need 
food, water and safe passage home. But 
no one has made the refugees a priority. 
There is ambivalence about them in part 
because some were probably perpet- 
rators of the Rwandan genocide. 

* Blast at Kinshasa Airport 

A bomb exploded Monday at Kin- 
shasa airport, killing one person and 
leaving another seriously wounded, 
Agence France-Presse reported. 

The blast occurred ai 3 AM. in a 
building that had housed an office of 
Zaire’s military intelligence services but 
had been closed by airport authorities 
three days before. Defense Ministry of- 
ficials said. People close to the ministry 
said the man who died in the blast had 
apparently carried or placed the bomb. 


'fir . ' 

Otto John Dies; Cold Warrior Strayed 


New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — Otto John, 88, a high 
West German official who was at the 
center of a mysterious Cold War epis- 
ode, died Wednesday in a sanitarium in 
Innsbruck, Austria. He lived at Igls. 
outside Innsbruck. 

.. As a member of the German resistance 
tbthe Naas, Mr. John also played a minor 
role in the unsuccessful plot to kill Hitter 
in 1944 and then escaped to Britain. 

In reporting his death, foe Sud- 
deutsebe Zeitung said: “No resistance- 
fighter against the Nazi regime hpp a wie . 
so entangled in the political disorder of 
Gennady while it was divided.** 

- In 1950, Mr. John reportedly became' 
foe first president of West Germany's 
counterintelligence service, the Office 
fpr the Protection of the Constitution. 

Then, in mid- 1954, he disappeared. 
Not long afterward be turned tip in 
Communist East Berlin, causing shock 
in Boim and friendly capitals. - - 

He stayed in East Germany for more 
than a year, denouncing Konrad Ad- 
i. enauer, who was then West Germany’s 
^chancellor, in public appearances, dar- 
ing which he also asserted that Nazism 
and militari sm were rampant in West 
Germany. Bat he gradually faded out of 
foe limeli ght , and late in 1955, with the 
help of a Danish journalist, be returned 
tq west Germany. For the rest of his life, 
be asserted that be had been drugged 
and kidnapped to East Berlin by East 
German agents. 

- rjSu d d eutsche Zeitung said Satraday 
that “recent discoveries in documents 
from foe archives of the KGB,*’ the 
Soviet intelligence agency, “are said to 


have contradicted his representations.” 

In 1956. Mr. John was convicted of 
treasonable plotting and sentenced to 
four years’ hard labor. He was released 
from prison in 1958 after being 
pardoned by West Germany’s presi- 
dent. Theodor Heuss. In later years, he 
tried repeatedly, and in vain, to have the 
courts exonerate htm_ 

Connt Maurice Coreth, 67, 
Helped Save Black Rhinos 
. LONDON <AP) — Count Maurice 
Rudolf Coreth von undzu Coredo und . 
Stariccn bcgg, 67, a big-game hunter 
turned conservationist who helped save 
Kenya’s Uaclt rhinoceros from extinc- 
tion, has died. 

The Austrian-born count, who lived 
in Suffolk in eastern England, died in 
England on Feb. 11, according to the 
Daily Telegraph. It did not give foe 
cause of death. 

He bought a farm in Kenya in 1954 
and for many years hunted game in the 
African bush mid went on safaris in sub- 
Saharan Africa. 

He returned to England in 1963 when 
Kenya gained independence from Bri- 
tain, and founded Rhino Rescue in 
1985. 

Caroll James, 60, American DJ, 
An Early Boaster of the Beatles 

NEW YORK (NYT) Carroll James 
Jr, 60, a Washington, D.C., disk jockey 
whose promotion of the Beatles on his 
radio program helped make foe group 
famous in foe United States in the weeks 
before its first appearance on foe “Ed 
Sullivan Show” in 1964, died March 24 


BRIEFLY 


in Holy Cross Hospital in Silver Spring, 
Maryland. The cause was cancer. The 
Associated Press reported^ 

As a disk jockey at radio station 
WWDC in December 1963, he asked a 


him a copy of the group’s single. “1 
Want to Hold Your Hand.” 

When be played it. the tremendous 
response helped persuade Capitol Re- 
cords to release the record in the United 
States earlier than it had planned. 

Lael Tucker Wertenbakeiy 87, a 
jo urn alist and anther who report ed from 

1930s to tire early 1950s and was best 
known for “Death of a Man,” her har- 
rowing 1957 book about her husband, 
who had colon cancer, died March 24 of 
lung cancer at her home in Keene, New 
Hampshire. 

Wflbnr Richard Knorr, 51. a pro- 
fessor of philosophy and the classics at 
Stanford University who traced tire birth 
of mathematics in antiquity, died of skin 
cancer an March 18 at the Palo Alto 
Nursing Center in California. 

Lane Dwinell, 90, a two-term Re- 
tire* 1950s and later a mefober^ of the 
Eisenhower and Nixon administrations, 
died of heart failure Thursday at his 
home in Hanover, New Hampshire. 

Paul Denis, 86, a former editor of 
Billboard magazine and an early writer 
about television, died Wednesday at 
Montefiore Hospital in New York City. 


8 Held in England in Jet Protest Rust Downed Russian Plane 

WARTON England — Eight persons were arrested MOSCOW — The fuselage of a passenger j 
w i r ’.i jn,n o Rritich A mm an 1 , facility to crashed March 18 near tire southern city of Stavropol 


WARTON. England — bight persons were arrestee 
V -Monday after they broke into a British Aerospace facility to 
{'• protest tire company’s sale of Hawk military jets to In- 


The protesters included a Catholic priest and four 
■ refugees from East Timor, which has been occupied by 

Indonesia since 1975. , , . . 

• “British Aerospace Hawk jets are being us«i by the 
Indonesian regime to support attacks m East Timor and 
West Papua." said tire pnest, foe Reverend Arthur Fitzger- 
ald, from Liverpool. “This trade in death has » stop. 

• Lancashire police said later that tire eight would probably 
-be charged with criminal trespassing. ( AT) 

Iraq Gets UN Flour to Distribute 

BAGHDAD — After the first of sevo^shi^ caging 
French wheat arrived in an Iraqi part, B^hc^ Radio 
announced Monday foal foe govanmeiit wouldbe^ dis- 
tributing flour in April under foe UN oil-for-food deal . 

’ Iranis will see their monthly quote of wbeal flour m- 

crSfrornT^ogramsflS.ipouDdsitog.tberadJosad. 


MOSCOW — The fuselage of a passenger jet that 
crashed Match 18 near tire southern city of Stavropol was so 
rusted that it fell apart in mid-flight, a news agency reported 
Monday, citing unidentified aviation officials. 

The Interfax news agency said that metal corrosion in 
inaccessible sections of foe fuselage weakened the An-24 
aircraft to the point that it disintegrated 15 minutes after 
raking off from Stavropol, killing all 50 people aboard. 

Russian officials refosed to confirm the Interfax report, 
calling it premature. (AP) 

Islamic Front to Boycott Vote 

ALGIERS — The outlawed Islamic Salvation Front, 
which was poised to win power in 1992 before the military 
canceled elections, will not field any candidates in Algeria's 
general election scheduled June S, one of tire group’s 
leaders said Monday. 

“FIS representatives have absolutely no intention to stand 
in elections — and with no other parties whether they 
share our ideology or not,” tire leader said, referring to foe 
party by its initials in French. He was interviewed by the daily 
paper Al Atexn ai Siyassi, which did not reveal his identity. 

His statement refuted persistent reports* in foe Algerian 
press recently that candidates of the Is iainic Salvation From 
mi g ht. run on tire electoral slates of other parties. (AFP) 


RISING TIDE: 

The Great Mississippi Flood of 
1927 and How It Changed 
America 

By John M. Barry. Illustrated. 524 pages. 
$27 JO. Simon & Schuster. 

Reviewed by Christopher 
Lehnoann-Haupt 

I T'S a great idea for a popular history 
that John M. Barry has come up with 
in “Rising Tide: The Great Mississippi 
Flood of 1927 and How It Changed 
America.” And he gets off to a won- 
derful beguming. 

■ ’ A political reporter whose first book 
was “The Ambition and foe Power,” 
about tire 1989 downfall of House 
Speaker Jim Wright, Bany understands 
well how to create drama through coo- 
flict And in the competition between 
two brilliant 19th-century engineers, 
James Buchanan Eads and Andrew 
Atkinson Humphreys, he has a conflict 
amounting to a duel to tire death with 
slide rules. 

Both of them shaped by an age that 
thought science could solve any problem, 
Eads and Humphreys were determined to 
master the chaotic forces of the Mis- 
sissippi River. Through their separate 
studies they came to disagree with the 
conventional wisdom of the time, which 
held that tire river’s tendency to flood 
could be contained by levees, or earth 
mounded into hills along its banks. 

Eads logically objected that levees 
only exerted their effect when the river 
rose to their high level. Levees would 
therefore not consistently speed up the 
flow of the water and produce the scour- 
ing effect needed to deepen the riverbed, 
ms alternative proposal was to build 
jetties along each bank that would nar- 
row tire river and accelerate its flow — 
and its scouring effect — even when it 
wasn’t flooding. 

To demonstrate. Eads set about in 
1875 to construct jetties in foe mouth of 
tire Mississippi that would cause the 
scouring out of the sandbars that were 
preventing ships from sailing up foe 
river. By this time he had aroused 
Humphreys's enmity, and Humphreys 
had enough political pull to thwart his 
rival's project at every turn. Eads finally 
had to test his jetties’ effect by getting an 
oceangoing steamship to sail between 
them. 

This first section of “Rising Tide,” 
100 pages long, is excitingly told, full of 
breathtaking twists and vivid scenes. Alas 
for posterity. Eads's point didn’t stick, 
and foe organization in charge of con- 
trolling the Mississippi went ahead with a 
Ievees-only system. 

The catastrophic effect of this error 
was shown by the 1927 flood, when it 
washed out the levees in key places, and, 
as Bany writes, “put as much as 30 feet 
of water over lands where 931,159 
people — the nation's total population 
was only 120 milli on — had lived.” 

Unfortunately too, Barry’s narrative 
loses its breakneck momentum when his 
two engineers leave the scene. The focus 


BOOKS 

shifts north to foe Yazoo- Mississippi 
Delta and the story of how four gen- 
erations of a family named Percy foun- 
ded tire city of Greenville. Mississippi, 
and tried to build an agricultural civ- 
ilization around it based on rich cotton 
and cheap labor. There is dramatic con- 
flict here too. particularly between the 
Percy s, who wanted to keep black labor 
in tire South, and the Ku Klux KJan. 
whose purpose was to drive blacks 
away. 

All foe same, “Rising Tide” remains 
worthwhile to read as history. Because of 
the levee system’s failure, two partic- 
ularly disastrous chains of events were 
set in motion. When a levee upriver from 
Greenville was breached, the flooding of 
foe Delta led to a situation in which, as 
Barry describes events, the black pop- 
ulation was betrayed by foe Percy family 
and suffered severe mistreatment. 

Because Commerce Secretary Her- 
bert Hoover had seized the flood as a 


way of promoting his candidacy for the 
presidency in 1928. he got himself ap- 
pointed in charge of relief and, Barry 
argues, exploited foe plight of foe blacks 
for his own ends. 

Meanwhile. New Orleans panicked 
over the rising waters and determined to 
lower them by dynamiting a levee down- 
river from foe city and flooding a com- 
munity of 10.000. 

The upshot of all this was consid- 
erable. as Barry sees it. Hoover won the 
presidency, but betrayed the blacks who 
helped him. As a result, black voters 
began to shift from the Republican to foe 
Democratic Party, and black labor began 
leaving the South in large numbers. The 
arrogant behavior of the New Orleans 
power elite helped get Huey Long elect- 
ed as governor of Louisiana, and sent the 
city into an economic decline. 

Christopher Lehmann-Haupt is on the 
staff of The New York Times. 


CHESS 


By Robert Byrne 


ARRY Kasparov defeated Vladimir 
VJ Kramnik in foe Linares Internation- 
al Tournament in Spain. 

Many players use 4 Qc2 as a vehicle 
for obtaining foe bishop pair without 
permitting doubled pawns in foe Nimzo- 
Tn rfian Defense. Others risk the two- 
edged Leningrad Variation. But foe old 
Rubinstein Variation cannot be scorned 
as an anti-Nirnzo weapon. 

The starting configuration of foe main 
line of foe Rubinstein arises after 

10.. .Qc7. Black has given up his king 
bishop to double the white c pawns with 

8.. .Bc3 be, but then has opened the cen- 
ter with 9-.de J 0 Bc4 and counterattacks 
with 12...e5. 

On 13 e4. Kramnik diverged from 

N2MZIMNDIAN DEFENSE 


wntre 

Stack 

Wldte 

Blade 

Kasp’ov 

Knmnk 

Kasp’ov 

RnuanQc 

1 <M 

2 c4 

NfS 

e6 

29 Qc4 

30 QcS 

QbB 

NdS 

3 Nc3 

BM 

31 Bd3 

Nd7 

4 e3 

04 

32 Qa3 
S3 Kbl 

NTS 

5 Bd3 

cS 

u 

6 NO 

d5 

34 Rcl 

7 04 

Neff 

35 as 

NgB 

8 a3 

Bc3 

36Qc5 
37 O 

Re7 

B be 

dc 

Ne8 

10 Bc4 

g r 

38 Bfl 

RC7 

11 Ba2 

39 Qe3 

40 Kb2 

Rtf7 

12 Rftl 

eS 

Re7 

13 e4 

Bg4 

41 Rc6 

KU7 

14 dc 

be 

42 Qcl 

NC7 

15 b3 

RadB 

43 Qc3 

82 

Nefi 

16 Qe2 

17 QO 

Bfi 

RdB 

44 Rc5 

45 Bf2 

18 Bg5 

hfi 

46 Rd5 

QbB 

19 Bb4 

Rfd8 

47 Rb5 

Q68 

20 Rabl 

Ne7 

48 Rb7 

Nd4 

21 BC4 

Nc8 

49 QM 

50 Qc5 

QfB 

22 Bg3 

Nb6 

Nee 

23 Bb5 

Res 

51 Be3 

Ree 

24 a4 

c4 

52 Bc4 

Re7 

25 Qe2 

Rd3 

53 Bd5 

N&4 

26 a5 

NcS 

54 Ra7 

Ra7 

27 Rb4 

Rc3 

55 Qa7 

Ne7 

28 Rc4 

Rc4 

56 Bc4 

h5 



57Qc5 

Resigns 


13...cd 14 cd ed 15 e5 (or 15 Bg5 Bg4) 
Nd7 in favor of 1 3—Bg4. He was hoping 
to elicit a closing of foe center with 14 
d5. But Kasparov kept a semi-open po- 
sition with 14 del? be. 

Kramnik unhappily parted with his 
remaining bishop by 16...Bf3 17 Qf3, 
but there was no effective post for this 
piece. 

Kasparov's 27 Rb4! forced the ex- 
changes with 27...Rc3 28 Rc4 Rc4 29 
Qc4. There would have been no way out 
with 27...Qa5? 28 Bc4 Rc3 29 Rb5 and 

30 Be6. 

Kramnik fled the exchange of queens 
with 29...Qb8, but he had no chances in 
the middle game either. 

After 3 1 Bd3. Kramnik could not play 

3 1 ...Nde4? because of 32 Re4! i32 Be4? 
Ne4 33 Re4 loses to 33...Qbl ) Ne4 33 
Be4. 

Kasparov's 53 Bd5! pushed Kramnik 
to foe wall. The critical a7 pawn had to be 
lost. 

After 57 Qc5, there was no impeding 
the passed a pawn, so Kramnik gave 
up. 

KHAMNK/BLACK 



KASPAHOV/WHTTE 

Pestthm after 52... Re7 


| Wou 

[Id 

l you ] 

nrefer more time to catch your flight? 

□ Yes □ No 

Avoid me queues aud speed straight to the state to check-in.' 

’L. 

cius av»o»B 

British Airways 

The work5 favourite airline •**+** *+ 


V 







PAGE 8 


TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 


Iferalb 


INTERNATIONAL 



tribune. 


PVBUSHED mni THE ixew tour times a no the Washington rht 


The Baltics’ Case 


What about the countries that seek 
NATO membership but are not ex- 
pected to get it the first time around? 
The discomfort of the left-outs, who 
fear that their perceived rejection will 
unravel their stability and security, is 
acute. So is the embarrassment of the 
existing NATO 16, who sympathize 
with the aspirations of democratic oth- 
ers but don't see the way clear to 
admitting them now. The situation of 
Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania is es- 
pecially painful. Not only were they 
swallowed for 50 years by the Soviet 
Union. They remain exposed to any 
intimidation by the new Russia. 

The United States is now getting to 
the dilemma of the Baltics. Their 
democratic and free-market creden- 
tials qualify them for NATO, but Rus- 
sia objects to having the alliance move 
onto formerly Soviet territory, and the 
West is nervous about the political 
risks and military costs. The Clinton 
administration supports their inclu- 
sion. but later. Meanwhile, it would 
have the alliance offer them assurances 
and joint programs meant to hitch them 
up tighter to NATO and draw them 
closer to other Western economic and 
political institutions. 

The three slates ask if the American 
proposals add up to a credible prelude 
to NATO membership or to a sub- 


stitute for it — a question that only 
events can answer. So they are trying to 
upgrade both the quality of the West's 
commitment to their sovereignty and 
the automatic ity of their early accept- 
ance into the alliance. 

The fear of another “Yalta" — 
meaning a Western sellout — is never 
far from the surface in Central and 
Eastern Europe. Yet the United States 
is owed a certain assumption of good 
faith for its steadiness in the Cold War. 
including its refusal to recognize the 
Soviet grab of the Baltics, ft is only 
sensible that Americans should weigh 
the risks and costs of extending a se- 
curity commitment to three small ex- 
posed states. It would be downright 
foolish to proceed without measuring 
the impact on Russia. 

At the end of die day. nonetheless, 
the Baltics' case is unanswerable. 
They are of the historical democratic 
West. The alliance they would be join- 
ing is defensive to the core. Russia 
can legitimately ask respect for its se- 
curity interests, but its concern for 
fallen pride and status is something 
else. Who is to tell the Balts, just 
emerged from a half-century in the 
belly of the beast, that they must accept 
(ess security so that an un threatened 
Russia may enjoy more pride? 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Saddam Has to Go 


The flaw in U.S policy toward Iraq 
has been the gap between the goal of 
undoing Saddam Hussein and the 
means to make it happen. Pan of that 
gap now has been narrowed by a policy 
statement of Secretary of State 
Madeleine Albright- She has said for 
the first time dial the U.S. intent is to 
see Mr. Saddam out and that America 
will not give up on the economic sanc- 
tions binding him until he is replaced. 
This has been implicit, oral least hoped 
for, in anti-Sadaam circles. Now it is 
explicit. It makes a difference. 

Sanctions that the United Nations 
voted against Iraq for its aggression 
against Kuwait have been tested for 
five years and have failed to bring about 
his ouster by internal armed rebellion or 
by any other route. The failure bas fed a 
“sanctions fatigue" that gnaws on 
countries especially hurt by sanctions 
(Turkey, Jordan) and helps trade- 
hungry Europeans argue that sanctions 
have no good effect Many people have 
been troubled to see the heavy impact 
that sanctions have had on hapless ci- 
vilians — thanks to Mr. Saddam's own 
choices. He has arranged to have pic- 
tures of suffering children reach the 
television screen regularly. 

Something was necessary to keep 


sanctions as a useful lever. Mr. Sad- 
dam finally supplied it under pressure, 
when he agreed to avail himself of a 
humanitarian loophole that the United 
Nations had offered all along and that 
he had disdained. It provides for the 
export of $2 billion of oil over six 
months and the monitored import of 
SI. 3 billion in food and emergency 
supplies; the rest of the money is to go 
for Iraq's victims and the United Na- 
tions* costs. The first food now is ar- 
riving. It sbouJd help nourish hungry 
Iraqis, blunt the suspicion that the 
United States has it in for the Iraqi 
people, allay the sanctions fatigue and 
thereby extend their political life. 

To suggest that the United States is 
pursuing not just Iraq's compliance 
with UN resolutions but also Saddam 
Hussein's departure is a bold step in a 
world of fragile states. But the United 
States is not careening around the 
world looking for independent-minded 
regimes to topple. Saddam Hussein is 
an unrepentant and dangerous ag- 
gressor. Others have suggested indict- 
ing him for war crimes and encour- 
aging his lieutenants to move against 
him by offering them plea bargains. 
Another good idea. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Shell Sees the Light 


A quarter-century ago, businesses 
argued that protecting the environment 
was not their job. Few American 
companies would say so today. A sim- 
ilar change may be developing in cor- 
porate attitudes about human rights. 
Companies are increasingly recogniz- 
ing that their actions can affect human 
rights, and that respecting rights can be 
in their business interest. 

The latest may be Royal Dutch/ 
Shell, the world’s largest ofl company. 
This month it issued a new set of 
business principles that call for respect 
of human rights “in line with the le- 
gitimate role of business. ” Shell says it 
will consult with local groups before 
beginning sensitive projects, it also 
will require managers to report on 
whether operations comply with hu- 
man rights criteria. Given Shell's dis- 
mal record, its promises may be empty. 
But if it acts on its new commitments, it 
can become a better citizen. 

The movement for business in- 
volvement in human rights started in 
America in the early 1990s after a 
wave of clothing and shoe companies 
had begun to use contractors in the 
Third World. These factories fre- 
quently employ children, pay starva- 
tion wages and intimidate union or- 
ganizers. In 1991. Levi Strauss wrote 
the first corporate code of conduct. It 
commits contractors to good labor 
practices and pledges that Levi Strauss 
will assess a nation's human rights 
record before doing business there. 
About 100 American companies now 
have such codes. 

They often go unenforced. Two 
years ago, the Gap became the first 
company to allow local labor, church 
and human rights leaders to monitor a 


notorious contractor plant in San Sal- 
vador. Conditions there have since im- 
proved markedly. The idea is spread- 
ing to other apparel companies. 

Shell, too, should permit independ- 
ent monitors, but that is only a part of 
die solution for oil companies, which 
are often entangled in abuses that go 
beyond their own installations. Oil-rich 
regimes, which can be among the 
world's most oppressive, tend to have 
close and complex relationships with 
companies that produce large chunks of 
their earnings. In Nigeria the line be- 
tween Shell and the local security forces 
was often blurred in Ogoniland. Ni- 
gerian police were lent to Shell, which 
financed the purchase of their weapons. 
In oae incident in 1990, Shell called the 
Mobile Police Force for security. After 
a clash in which a policeman was killed, 
the police massacred 80 villagers and 
burned 495 houses, according to a gov- 
ernment report. Shell's Ogomland pro- 
duction is now suspended. 

Shell’s operations bring in more 
than 40 percent of the Nigerian dic- 
tatorship's revenue. Shell refused calls 
to use its influence in 1995 when the 
government executed Ken Saro-Wiwa 
and eight other activists who fought 
Shell and the government for envi- 
ronmental cleanup and Ogoni rights. 

Consumers and advocacy groups 
must persuade other energy compa- 
nies, some with equally questionable 
records, to join Shell in a human rights 
policy. They should press Shell to live 
up to its new statements. As with the 
environment, the more people are at- 
tuned to human rights, die more cor- 
porations will see a reputation for re- 
sponsibility as a profitable asset. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


4 k CVreBIN«l<lML®» *4 

licral o ^^fcnbun e 

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Co-Chairmen 

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EDITORIALS /OPINION 


- M 



No Mideast Peace Without: Strong Leadership 


N EW YORK — The Arab-Israeli 
peace process is in such dire straits 
today because for die first time it is 
threatened not by extremists but by the 
very leaders who are supposed to be 
doing the negotiating. 

The enemies are all inside the tent. 


By Thomas L. Friedman 


and they are Benjamin Netanyahu, 


Yasser Arafat, Bill Clinton and just 
about every Arab leader. Thanks to 
these gentlemen, the core bargain 
struck at Oslo is being trashed. 

That bargain stipulated that at the 
end of the Oslo road the Palestinians 
would get a homeland in most of the 
West Bank and Gaza, and Israelis 
would get the security and normalcy 
they have craved. 

That bargain also implied that de- 
spite the huge advantage in power that 
Israel holds over Palestinians, Israelis 
would not undertake unilateral acts on 
issues, like Jerusalem or settlements, 
that are reserved for final -status ne- 
gotiations. Unfortunately, Israelis no 
longer feel they are getting security, 
and Palestinians have lost confidence 
that they will get anything near a state. 

Why? First of all, Mr. Netanyahu 
thinks he can have a politically painless 
peace process in which he makes a 
concession in Hebron one day but then. 


so that there will be no political pain, 
starts building in a disputed area of 
Jerusalem the next day to appease some 
right-wing followers. 

Yitzhak Rabin was no less corn- 
mined than Mr. Netanyahu to Israel's 
right to build in East Jerusalem. But he 
tried to avoid doing so in provocative . 
cases so as not to disrupt his higher goal 
of bringing the Arab-Israeli conflict to 
an end. He knew that Israel controlled 
Jerusalem. He did not need to prove it 
over and over. 

Not only does Mr. Netanyahu en- 
gage in provocative building, he does 
so without even saying to Mr. Arafat 
first; “Look Yasser, we’re partners. I 
have to do this to shore up my political 
base. But what can I give you to get us 
through this?" Instead, Mr. Netanyahu 
embarrassed Mr. Arafat, and then had 
the nerve to complain that Mr. Arafat 
would not take his phone calls. That is 
flat out dishonest. 

Still, however maladroitly Mr. Net- 
anyahu handled the Jerusalem case, he 
did withdraw from Hebron a month 
earlier. That was a hard thing, and the 
Arab leaders (except King Hussein) 


have done nothing — zero — hard in 
return to give Mr. Netanyahu some 
credit. That is flat out pathetic. 

As for Mr. Arafat, he responded to 
Mr. Netanyahu's provocation in Je- 
rusalem with his usual one-two punch 
— terrorism, followed by a trip far, far 
away to Bangladesh. There can be no 
place for terrorism in this process. 
None. Israelis will not tolerate a situ- 
ation in which every bump in the road is 
greeted with a suicide bomb. 

But let's not forget one tiring: The 
reason Israel's security chiefs warned 
Mr. Netanyahu that his actions in Je- 
rusalem could trigger violence was be- 
cause they understood that the Pal- 
estinians, having no other means to stop 
Israeli bulldozers, would resort to it 

I still believe that a majority of Is- 
raelis feel that Oslo brought many ben- 
efits. it extracted Israel from a demor- 
alizing occupation in Gaza. It has 
established cooperation between Israeli 
and Palestinian security services, albeit 
rocky at times. It has delivered a peace . 
treaty with Jordan and trade with many 
countries that once shunned Israel, con- 
tributing to Israel's economic boom. 

But none of this will count if the core 
bargain is not restored — if Israelis don't 
get security and the Palestinians a home- 


land. Thar core bargain certainly cannot 

dunks be : 


be restored if Mr. Netanyahu 
can play peacemaker one day and pro- 
vocateur the next: And it certainly can- 
not be restored if the Palestinians behave 
as if bulldozers and suicide bombers 
were moral equivalents. 

The Oslo bargain also cannot be 
restored unless President Clinton and 
Secretary of Stare Madeleine Albright 
start acting as the reality principle for 
the parties, speaking out loudly and 
clearly — not with foe mumbo jumbo 
they have been using to avoid offend- 
ing anyone. 

Mr. President, yon had it easy the 
first four years. You could just walk 
behind Mr. Rabin, let him take all the 
political flak while you provided the 
catering and got the benefits. Well, 
those days are over. 

Yitzhak Rabin was your friend. He 
died for this process, and so far you 
have not been willing to take even an 
ounce of political heat to kero it alive. 
If Oslo goes down, Mr. President, your 
name will also be on the death cer- 
tificate. Be sure of that. If you want to 
be remembered as a peacemaker, then 
you, too, have to pay. Everybody pays, 
or this is the end. 

The New York Tones. 


IP 




■% m. 


As Asia Beckons, the Atlantic Community Risks Decrepitude; 


W ASHINGTON — The 
Helsinki summit and the 
continuing preoccupation with 
expanding NATO miss the 
point. The Atlantic alliance is in 
a steady decline that will not be 
reversed by its enlargement. 

Europe is in the midst of pro- 
longed economic and political 
stagnation. The United Stales 
is. meanwhile, turning its at- 
tention from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, drawn by the inexor- 
able rise of Asia. 

The Atlantic alliance needs a 
far-reaching renovation that 
goes well beyond the addition 
of a few new members. Re- 
viving the Atlantic community 
must begin with Europe's eco- 
nomic and political renewal. 

Europe has to take a series of 
painful steps to restore its com- 
petitiveness. Deregulating its 
economy and scaling back its 
welfare system top the list. The 
European Union also must be- • 
come a more coherent political 
actor, sharing more fully with 
the United States the burdens of 
global leadership. 

Finally, the alliance must 
open its doors to Russia. Bill 
Clinton should stop compens- 
ating Moscow for its exclusion 
from the West, and instead en- 
sure that the Atlantic commu- 
nity embraces Russia as it 
moves down the path of demo- 
cratic reform. 

The erosion of the Atlantic 
link began wben the Soviet Uni- 
on disintegrated, ending the ur- 
gent need for the Western de- 
mocracies to band together 
against communism. But it 
speeded up with the arrival of 
the Clinton administration and 
its decision to elevate econom- 
ics to the top of America's for- 
eign policy agenda. 

America’s new focus on eco- 
nomics does not augur well for 
the Atlantic link. Asia's near- 
term growth rates are projected 
to be twice those of Europe. 
Trade across the Pacific already 
is outpacing commerce across 
the Atlantic, and investment 
flows are heading in the same 
direction. These stark economic 
realities, combined with Pres- 
ident Clinton’s focus on ex- 


ports. necessarily mean a U.S. 
tilt toward Asia. 

To the extent that strategic 
challenges still inform U.S. pri- 
orities. Asia again trumps 
Europe. Deep political and ideo- 
logical fault lines divide Asia’s 
major powers. A strong U.S. 
military presence is needed to 
prevent these fissures from pro- 
voking conflict. And integrating 
a rising China into the inter- 
national system is a premier 
challenge of coming decades. 

In contrast. Europe's major 
powers are at peace. Their level 
of political and economic in- 
tegration historically is unpre- 
cedented. U.S. forces stationed 
in Europe continue to provide 
reassurance, but their task is far 
less onerous than in Asia. 

The U.S. gravitation toward 
the Pacific is understandable. 
But global stability would be 
undermined if the Atlantic link 
withered as a result As its futile 
attempt to bring peace to Bosnia. 
made clear, the European Uni- 
on is not ready to manage Con- 
tinental security on its own. 

A U.S .-European partnership 
was also behind the main suc- 
cesses of the decade: countering 
Iraq, bringing peace to the Bal- 
kans and liberalizing interna- 
tional trade. For the foreseeable 
future, no Asian coalition will 
replace America's European al- 
lies in constructing an interna- 
tional order based on liberal 
multilateralism. If the Atlantic 
Alliance fades, the United 
States will find the worid a far 
more lonely and difficult place. 

Breathing new life into the 
Atlantic community will take 
much more than enlarging 
NATO. If Europe is to avoid 
being eclipsed by an ascendant 
Asia, it must make itself a more 
potent global player. Economic 
revival is the top priority. 


By Roger C. Altman and Charles A. Kupchan 


ives but often leaves it to 
Washington to expend the effort 
and resources needed to bring 
these objectives to fruition. 

Europeans do not like to ad- 
mit it, but key decisions about 
tbeir future already are made in 
Paris and Bonn, not Brussels. If 
that coalition is to guide the Uni- 
on to a new level of global en- 
gagement, Germany must move 
beyond fear of its own past and 
participate fully in European 
and trans-Atlantic militar y op- 
erations. And France must give 
up the illusion that pursuing its 
own course constitutes leader- 
ship. instead guiding Europe to 
share defense burdens more 
equitably with America. 

The final piece of the trans- 
Atlantic puzzle is Russia. Rus- 
sia is falling into a geopolitical 
no-man 's-iand. To its east is a 
rising China and a Pacific Rim 
economy that grows increas- 


ingly dynamic. To its west is an 
Atlantic community that is ex- 
panding to Russia's borders. 
The rhetoric of a united Europe 
notwithstanding, current plans 
for EU and NATO enlargement 
promise to leave Russia alone in 
the heart of Eurasia. To so iso- 
late Moscow is to risk a re- 
divided and weakened Europe. 

Mr. Clinton’s task in the af- 
termath of Helsinki must be not 
just to placate Boris Yeltsin 
about NATO enlargement, but 
to pave Russia’s way into a 
broader Europe — as long as its 
transition to stable democracy 
continues apace. 

Including Russia in Atlantic 
institutions will help reform by 
Strengthening pro-Western pol- 
iticians and exposing Russians to 
the habits and attitudes that un- 
derpin democratic governance. 
It will stabilize Europe by pre- 
venting Russia’s estrangement 


and decreasing the likelihood 
that Moscow reasserts control 
over its neighbors in response to 
NATO's growing might ’ 

Including Russia in a broader 
Europe will raise Europe's strai 
regie and economic importance 
to America, bolstering the Au 
lantic link even as America tilts 
toward the Pacific. 

Putting Europe's economic 
and political house in order id 
largely up to the Europeans 
themselves, but Russia's inclu-^ 
si on in a new Europe is AmerjT 
ica’s job. Only Washington has 
both the political will and the 
geopolitical influence to ensur^ 
that Russia is embraced by the 
Atlantic community. 


Mr. Altman was deputy treas\ 
ury secretary and Mr. KupchaA 
a member of the National Se~- 
curity Council early in the Clin- 
ton administration. They con- 
tributed this comment to the Los 
Angeles Times. 


Time to Build a Cold War Memorial 


By Charles Krauthammer 




ASHINGTON — March 


Arresting Europe’s marginal- 
1 its poh deal 


ization also requires ; 
renewal and a greater willing- 
ness to shoulder the burdens of 
being America's global partner. 
Whether in Asia, Africa or the 
Middle East, the European Uni- 
on shares America’s broader ob- 


vereary of the Truman Doc- 
trine. In a speech before a joint 
session of Congress, Harry Tru- 
man defined the threat posed by 
America's erstwhile World 
War U ally, the U.S.SJL, and 
pledged that (he United States 
would assume the burden that 
Britain could no longer bear as 
ultimate defender of the West 
The speech took 18 minutes. 

And June 5 will bring the 
50th anniversary of the Mar- 
shall Plan, a plan to rebuild 
Europe so farsightedly combin- 
ing altruism and self-interest 
that it deserves to be called an 
act of genius. 

The 12 weeks between those 
two events were the period dur- 
ing which America finally as- 
sumed its great role as the 
world's defender of freedom. 

There was a time when such 
noble talk about America’s role 


The Taiwan Lobby Is Different 


T AIPEI — In the story of 
China's alleged attempt to 
buy influence in Washington, 
the characterization of Taiwan 
that is emerging from U.S. 
media coverage is disturbing. 

It is true that Taiwan puts 
great emphasis on good re- 
lations with the executive and 
legislative branches of the 
U.S. government, but there is 
a huge difference between 
Tai-pei’s lobbying and what 
Bei-jing is accused of doing. 

Taiwan has been careful to 
follow U.S. law. There is no 
evidence that Taiwan author- 
ities have ever funneled cam- 
paign money to members of 
Congress or other politicians. 

As a small country living 
under China’s constant mil- 
itary threat. Taiwan sees U.S. 
support as a matter of survival. 
It cannot afford to sour public 
opinion in America by cross- 
ing the line into illegal lob- 
bying activities. 

While China has lately been 
converted to the efficacy of 
lobbying, it will discover that 
there is a limit to where it can 
get you in Washington. 

In the 1970s and 2980s, 
when Taiwan was under the 
dictatorship of Chiang Kai- 
shek and his son Chiang 
Ching-kuo, Taipei maintained 
a huge network of backers in 
the United States, the so- 
called "Friends of Free 
China." But the huge Taiwan 
lobby failed to prevent Wash- 
ington from breaking drplo- 


By Parris H. Chang 


matic relations with Taipei in 
1978 in favor of Beijing. 

When Taiwan was a re- 
pressive country with a bad 
human rights record, no 
amount of money could main- 
tain American support. China 
will learn that even the best 
lobbyists cannot sell a product 
that offends U.S. ideals. 

In the 1990s. Taiwan has 
enjoyed a great deal of sym- 
pathy in America because it 
has succeeded in making the 
transition from a one-party 
dictatorship to democracy. 
This was reflected in the over- 
whelming congressional sup- 
port for the Clinton admin- 
istration's decision in 1995 to 
allow President Lee Teng-hui 
to visit the United Stares. 

Analysis erroneously cred- 
ited Cassidy and Associates, a 
Washington public relations 
firm hired by the ruling Kuo- 
mintang party, with getting Mr. 
Lee his visa. But to say that 
Cassidy was able to generate an 
almost unanimous vote in Con- 
gress grossly exaggerates the 
firm's effectiveness and over- 
states the impact of lobbyists 
on U.S. foreign policy. 

It is no secret that U.S. con- 
gressmen and their aides con- 
tinue to visit Taiwan at the 
invitation of the ruling and op- 
position parties, as the island 
tries to inform, persuade and 
win support. During foe Chi- 


ang Kai-shek era. visitors to 
Taiwan were given “guided 
tours" that included a barrage 
of Kuomintang propaganda. 
With Taiwan an open society, 
such visitors are now free to 
meet anybody, including 
members of the opposition. 

China has also entered the 
junket game (House speaker 
Newt Gingrich was in Beijing 
last week), but It is unlikely 
that Communist officials will 
put visits with political dis- 
sidents like Wei Jingsheng or 
Wang Dan on the itinerary. 
Several scores of members of 
Congress have visited both 
Taiwan and China and have 
seen the enormous contrasts 
between the two countries. 

As stories of the “China 
connection" gain momentum, 
the press is creating the image 
that the Taiwan and China lob- 
bies are playing the same 
game. There is a big differ- 
ence. Taiwan is a democracy, 
which shares American values 
of freedom and human rights; 
China remains a repressive 
Communist regime with a pen- 
chant for aggression toward 
neighbors and oppression of 
its own people. And China 
views the United States not as 
an ally but as an adversary. 


The writer is the opposition 
Democratic Progressive Par- 
ty's representative in the 
United Slates. He contributed 
this comment to the Interna- 
tional Herald Tribune. 


evoked derision. No longer. 
Both in Truman’s time and in 
ours, the words ring true. With 
die battle won, even liberals 
now declare themselves proud 
veterans of the Cold War. 

The Cold War did not have 
the dramatic intensity of, say. 
Worid War IL But it was just as 
real and just as dangerous. Al- 
though often clandestine and 
subtle, it ranged worldwide, 
cost many lives, evoked much 
heroism, and fasted what 
seemed like forever. 

Perhaps it would receive 
more serious attention if we 
called it the Forty-Five Years 
War. We know its exact dates. 
On March 12, 1947, the United 
Stares entered the fight (late, as 
usual; Stalin had been at it at 
least since V-E Day). And it 
ended at the stroke of midnight, 
Dec. 31, 1991. when the 
U.S.S.R. didn't just surrender, 
it vanished from the map. 

Considering the states, the 
scope and the suffering, this 
was a struggle that surely de- 
serves commemoration. 

For more than a decade now, 
Washington has been busily 
building monuments to Amer- 
ica's great 20th century strug- 
gles. The Vietnam and Korean 
memorials are built The Frank- 
lin Roosevelt memorial opens 
next month. Bob Dole has taken 
charge of a campaign to build a 
World War II memorial. 

The first person to propose a 
Cold War memorial, to my 
knowledge, was Zalmay Khal- 
ilzad, who in the 1980s was one 
of the architects of U.S. assist- 


Washington Post Writers Group. - 


IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGQ. 


1897: A Russian Fete 


ST. PETERSBURG — Prin- 
cess Golitsin, Grand Mistress of 
the Imperial Court, has given an 
enormous reception in the 
Winter Palace. No fewer than 
2,000 people assembled. All the 
Grand Dukes and Grand Duch- 
esses and members of the Im- 
perial Family in St. Petersburg 
were present, the entire official 
world and its wives and daugh- 
ters. The Palace was b rillian t 
with electric light and foil uni- 
form was de rigueur. The Im- 
perial lackeys, in grand Court 
livery, were ranged in an almost 
unbroken tine behind numerous 
buffets, on which stood gor- 
geous samples of foe historic 
Imperial plate. 


exposit 

theories of relativity. The dis- 
tinguished lecturer imparted, 
such lucidity to his subject that" 
he was followed with the 
closest attention even by thos4 
who had only a slight acquaint 
tance with the new theories! 
Both before and after the lecturg 
the audience paid a remarkable 
tribute to the discoverer of re! 
lativity by prolonged cheering.; 


1947: Spanish Law 


1922: Einstein Lesson 


PARIS — Before a crowded 
audience. Professor Albert Ein- 
stein gave yesterday [March 3 1 ] 
at the College de France in Paris 


MADRID — Alaw of success 

sion, which was. read over the 
Spanish radio .'following 4 
broadcast by Generafissimq 
Francisco Franco in Madrid to* 
night [March :31],.atmoiincecJ 
that the “Council of the Kingf 
dom" may set up a king, or a 
chief of state, as a successor td 
Generalissimo Franco. This was 
the most important announce^ 

mentyet made, because it make) 
the admission that the Franco 
regime is a transitory one. 


* 



ance to the Afghan resistance! 
He worked for the Reagan ad- 
ministration, and no doubt fob 
idea will appeal to conservative* 
But how can anyone object? --i 

Rarely has a struggle been 
so vindicated by history — by 
the gratitude of the Poles and 
the Czechs, the Latvians aqd 
tiie Estonians, the Koreans aal 
the Taiwanese and the millions 
of others who owe their free-Jk 
dom today to the great twilight w 
struggle. 

Liberals should welcome 
monument to an enterprise that, 
after all, was launched by Hairy 
Truman and was resoundingly 
reaffirmed by John Kennedy 

Where and what? On the 
Mall or near h_ It need not bs 
grandiose, but it must have^ 
small museum for instruction 
A gallery of heroes: Trumigfe 
Marshall, Churchill, Reagan. A 
hall of the fallen: the seettg 
agents who died in anonymity; 

A- tribute to allies and fineness 
from the Brits to Solidarity to 
the Velvet Revolutionaries. 

Plus a display of confusion: 
the great Western intellectuals 
who, from Sartre on down, pro 
fessed to see no difference be* 
twees the two sides. 

And a Solzhenitsyn room: ,a 
gulag display, so that our chil- 
dren wiff ieam tte nature of the 
evil we faced. 

The Cold War is the story of 
how, as soon as we disposed of 
one inhuman ideology, w§ 
turned to defeat another. Let us 
build a monument to it. 

And let June 5, the 50tb an- 
niversary erf the Marshall Plan, 
be the day to declare iL 




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- '• . - - •- - j- — •■ — __ 


PAGE 9 


OPINION/LETTERS 


! *P t ^Making Billions on the Backs of Hungry Women 

rltn/ C? V 


V r i 




N ew YORK - More 
lh ™ 90 percent of the 
vwiKe worker in Vietnam are 
girls or young women, age 15 
jo 28. Hunger follows many 
or them like a shadow. 

■ They wort full time mak- 
ing *e fabulous footwear that 


By Bob Herbert 

points out, they have other 


ers don’t make enough to eat 
properly is hardly a matter of 
concern to Nike. Tbe com- 
pany set up shop m Vietnam 
precisely because the wages 


v a room costs at 
least $6 a month. Clothing has 
to be purchased. And every 

brings Nike biffions ^buTrh^ **“? ** woricere are so low. If the workers ‘ Even breaks for wa 

aren’t paid enough to eat — ^ ^ a ^ rof soa P become woozy from hunger, visits to the bathroom 

MB^wSSutolv 2?“' t0 ^ Ste ‘ To s*™* *“*« ** Problem. The 
n5SSta» wSSESPl. ^PaychecV roroethinghas beauty of the Akr 


treated little better than 
slaves. Mr. Nguyen said the 
factories are like ’’military 
boot camps” in which work- 
ers are subjected to various 
forms of humiliation and cor- 
poral punishment 
Even breaks for water and 


from 78 to 300 workers, even 
fewer breaks are allowed. 

Discomfort becomes a way 
of life. A worker can be 
hungry, thirsty and driven al- 
most mad with the need to go 
to the bathroom, but she has to 
keep working on those 


SAMtfSSS Nike has raised 

i-iguyen, an Amen- persistent hnnuer it’ciienaihi «... i — ► : , . , .. .. 



isaid it is a matter of “simple 

math.” 

■ A meal consisting of rice, a 
few mouthfuls of a vegetable 
and maybe some tofu costs 
jhe equivalent of 70 cents. 
■Three similarly meager meals 
a day would cost $2.10. But 
the workers make only $1.60 
jft day. And, as Mr. Nguyen 


t week, said: 

Thirty-two out of 35 work- 
ers we interviewed told us 
they had lost weight 
working at Nike factories. AD 
reported not feeling good 
generally since working at the 
factories. They complained of 
frequent headaches as well as 
general fatigue.” 

The idea that factory work- 


ingly high. That’s how the 
athletes-pitchmen Michael 
Jordan and Tiger Woods get 
to make their Nike millions, 
and Phil Knight, the shrewd 
and combative Nike chair- 
man, his billions. 

They thrive on tbe empty 
stomachs and other hardships 
of young women overseas. 

■ The women often are 


spectacularly 
remunerative art 


gidly controlled. One bath- 
room break per eight-hour 
shift is allowed, and two 
drinks of water. Thai’s tbe 
maximum. Sometimes, on as- 
sembly lines thax can range 




LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


The Middle East 

My heart goes out to die family and; 
friends of the women killed in the Tel 
Aviv bomb attack,' an act of needless 
barbarity. But my heart does not go ont 
to Benjamin Netanyahu. ■ 

■ A politician who aims to please and 
appease the more extremist dements of 
ins government, by giving the green 
light on settlement activity, he has pro- 
voked yet another bloody onslaugfat- 


We Americans spent trillions of dol- 
lars on defense over 40 years when the 
Soviet Union was a da ng ero u s adversary. 
The Soviet Unkm.no longer exists and we 
have a cooperative relationship wife fee 
new Russian government. Stilt this situ- 
ation is tenuous and Russian democracy 
fragile. Boris Yeltsin feces serious op- 
position from nationalists in Russia who 
are worried feat their country is being 
humiliated- In this situation. Senator Lott, 
fee majority leader, suggests we harinner 


*" Prime Minister Netanyahu seems more home our advantage, whatever fee re- 
concerned wife holding auto fee reins of ' percussions for Russian democracy. 


power than in doing what is truly in fee 
best interests of those he represents. 

ROBERT IANNONE 

- ‘ Paris. 

America has once again proven its 
hypocrisy concerning fee Palestinian is- 
sue, vetoing two UN Security Council 
resolutions calling on Israel to halt con- 
struction of new Jewish settlements out- 
side Jerusalem. 

■ ' fat tbe Arab world, these U.S. actions 
are arousing feelings of discontent and 
resentment. The Palestinians have 
agreed to peace. Tbe Israeli government 
says it wants security, bur if Israel takes 
away fee Palestinians’ hope for a scale, 
security will not be achieved. Without 
hope for a land to call their own, fee 
Palestinians will have n o t h ing to lose. 

1 * DAUA AHMED EL-NEWEHY. 

Cairo. 

Recently I took a walk through the 
s t reet s of Zurich. At an outdoor cafe I 
stopped to watch bow people were en- 
IjRjoying the beautiful city and the fine 
weather. In the cafe, a father played wife 
his small blonde daughter. 

- No one has the right to blow up that 

little girl, her father and fee other people 

in fee cafe. 

' There is no political cause that jus- 
tifies such an action, in Zurich, Tel Aviv 
or anywhere else. 

YITZHAK KALET. 
Haifa, Israel. 

NATO’s Future 


There is an equally serious consid- 
eration when speaking of NATO ex- 
pansion: Article 5 of the NATO treaty 
explicitly stares feat an armed attack 
against one NATO nation shall be con- 
sidered an attack against all members, 
and consequently every member of the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization will 
assist the party or parties attacked. 

While It is clear to most of ns in 
America that fee security of Western 
Europe’s highly industrialized demo- 
cracies is closely connected wife our 
own, it is not so clear that we Americans 
should be willing to go to war on behalf 
of Estonia, for example. This is a debate 
we need to have before we commit 
ourselves to risking war over fee fate of 
fee Baltic stales. 

There is much we can do to encourage _ 

democracy and stable economic devel- end in the United Stales. 


to overcome legacies of long domination, 
some of them beset by their own or their 
neighbors’ ethnic tensions, might be more 
likely to suck NATO into civil disorders, 
which it is demonstrably unsuccessful at 
handling. Contracting NATO seems to 
make much more practical sense. 

As for fee United States, we could 
perhaps at last begin to trim our defense 
budget by withdrawing our forces from 
Europe. Probably the Canadians would 
welcome a chance to join in such a move. 
There is no longer any need for tbe U.S. 
“trip wire” in Europe. Our military 
power presents a temptation when help 
is needed in regional conflicts that 
should not concern us at all. Let Europe 
police its own neighborhood. 

Farming an ad hoc coalition to meet 
an international threat proved effective 
in the Gulf War. Dragging a NATO 
expedition into Somalia to deal wife a 
local disturbance between warlords was 
a disaster. This should have told us 
something. 

BENIAMIN N. BROWN. 

New York. 

Regarding The Price cf an Enlarged 
NATO ‘on the Cheap’ Is High in Prob- 
lems" (March 13): 

The article did not reflect the strong 
level of support feat exists for NATO 
enlargement among America’s allies 


are ri- shoes. 

1_ Mr. Nguyen said he be- 
lieves corporal punishment is 
widespread. He cited several 
instances: supervisors hitting 
women over fee bead for poor 
workmanship. Workers 
forced to kneel wife their 
hands in tbe air for up to 25 
minutes. Workers having their 
mouths taped for talking. 

Workers being “sun- 
dried” — forced to stand in 
the hot son for extended peri- 
ods while writing their mis- 
takes again and again, like 
schoolchildren. 

There were also cases, 
said Mr. Nguyen, in which 
women were molested by 
supervisors. 

Tbe factories that make 
Nike products are by no 
means the only offenders, in 
Vietnam or elsewhere. There 
is no reason to believe that 
Nike factories 3re fee worst 
offenders. But Nike has 
raised fee exploitation 
of poverty-stricken foreign 
workers to a fine and spec- 
tacularly remunerative art 
Nike is the company wife the 
advertising campaigns feat 
are so slick, so hip and so 
compelling that consumers 
feel that, whatever fee price, 
they must wear the product. 

The company is so widely 
recognized it doesn’t even 
have to put its name in its 
advertising. Its ubiquitous 
symbol, fee swoosh, is iden- 
tification enough. 

Because fee company is so 
high-profile, so successful, so 
admired and envied, it has 
become, like fee swoosh, a 
symbol It’s the ugly multi- 
national, buying and selling 
people almost at will. Nike 
is paying Tiger Woods a 
fortune, but it has also 
slapped its swoosh on his 
head, and Tiger dare not take 

off that cap. 

Nike is important because 
it epitomizes the triumph of 
monetary values over all oth- 
ers, and fee corresponding de- 
valuation of those peculiar in- 
terests and values we once 
thought of as human. 

The New York Times. 


opment in Eastern Europe. We can en- 
courage fee expansion of fee European 
Union, liberalize trade, open markets to 
fee region’s products. Bat a collective 
defense agreement beyond Western 
Europe is something about which Pres- 
ident Bill Clinton should be justifiably 

hesitant 

MARK DUCKENHELD. 

Cologne. 

Although neither a soldier nor apoliti- 
cian. 1 am absolutely unable to under- 
stand fee purpose of expanding NATO. 

It seems clear feat fee Cold War is over. 

Alliances historically have been formed 
to defend their members against per- 
ceived external threats. Who would be 


NATO’s enemy? How would its 
Wfnr Trent Loti’s essay (“End the strength be augmented in fee free of feat 
I l^^^^N/^Elpansionr fbe^Tfee addition* fee fcmrtEast 
cS^MmihS) isanex£$etffee Bloc nations? There are problems 

. ' 4 . • - .Ujhi AvnaneimiCfYl 


Americans, 62 percent of whom en- 
dorse NATO enlargement, recognize 
there will be financial costs but they 
appreciate it as a strategic investment. 
When asked if NATO enlargement were 
to cost the U-S. taxpayer $1 billion a year 
over and above tbe $260 billion defense 
budget, 46 percent said it would be 
worth the cost, 44 percent said it would 
not and 10 percent did not know. (The 
biHioti-dollar figure was purely figur- 
ative, and was some five times higher 
than the administration’s estimate of the 
cost to die United States.) 

NATO brought reconciliation, co- 
operation and peace to Western Europe. 
It has a moral and strategic imperative to 
do tire same in Central and Eastern 
Europe. 

SENATOR WILLIAM V. ROTH JR. 

Washington. 


knee-jerk foreign policy expanaan^m 
that many in the right wmg of the Re- 
publican Party engage in when speaking 
of Russian- American relations. 


enough keeping Greece and Turkey The writer is president cf the North 
(both a long way from the North At- Atlantic Assembly, which contains par- 
lantic !) from one another's throats. Uameniarians from 40 states . including 

Tbe inclusion of new states straggling NATO's 16 nations. 



Reading, ’Riling, Recruiting: 
Today’s Education Industry 

By George F. Will 


W ASHINGTON — Professors, said 
Mencken, do not belong in govern- 
ment. Their proper business is teaching 
sophomores how to hate Their fathers. But 
fee U.S. government is deeply involved in 
highereducation, ’ ‘a remarkably un watched 
industry.” according to Anne Manhews. 
Her new book, which may make educators 
wish she were not watching, should be a 
sobering read for government officials. 

In "Bright College Years: Inside fee 
American Campus Today,” Ms. Mat- 
thews, who reaches in New York Uni- 


MEANWHILE 


versity’s graduate journalism program, 
casts a cool eye on an industry that employs 
2.5 million people (more titan the U.S. auto, 
steel and textile industries combined) and 
constitutes “an archipelago nation-within- 
a-nation, two thousand islands in the social 
sea.” A professor's daughter, she feels 
affection for that nation but paints a mel- 
ancholy picture of it 

Higher education has, she says, grown 
every- year since Harvard’s founding, “a 
three- hundred -sixty -year winning streak. ’ ’ 
In 1946 there were 2.4 million students on 
campuses; in 1960, 3.2 million; in 1970,7.5 
million. Today. 9 million people attend 
2,125 four-year institutions (595 public, 
1 .530 private) full time and several million 
more part time. 

They are taking their time, an average of 
almost six years to earn a baccalaureate 
degree. Half who matriculate will not 
graduate. One in four freshmen will never 
become a sophomore. 

Institutional endowments total more 
than $100 billion — more than Belgium’s 
GDP — but 60 percent of the total belongs 
to 50 schools. 

And all but 50 ex- so elite schools are, Ms. 
Matthews says, increasingly desperate for 
even marginal and unprepared students. 
Only one student in five fits fee stereotype 
of a student — under 22, enrolled full tune 
and living on campus. The student pop- 
ulation is increasingly female, public, adult, 
local (four of five enroll in their home state) 
and in debt. There are $26 billion in college 
loans, and half of all students graduate wife 
significant debts, some of which will last 
until their children are college age. 

Yet so frantic is tbe education industry 
for raw material (students), institutions are 
not only lowering standards (requiring only 
“a pulse in one hand, a check in fee oth- 
er”), they are discounting tuitions, adver- 
tising sushi and waffle bars in fee student 
unions and prime cable service in fee dorms 
where, Ms. Matthews says, some students 
hibernate for days “eating red licorice and 


channel-surfing.” Some institutions send 
bounty hunters abroad in search of wealthy 
foreigners. 

Only 25 percent of undergraduates are 
liberal arts majors. Another 25 percent are 
business majors, and most of fee rest are on 
vocational tracks such as health care, and 
primary and secondary education. The four 
courses with fee highest enrollments are 
American studies, basic composition, re- 
medial math and statistics, the average 
student does about 29 hours a week of 
schoolwork. down from about 60 hours in 
fee early 1960s. 

There is a widening chasm between fac- 
ulty formed in a print culture and students 
produced by a wired world. Ms. Matthews 
says it is shocking to hear undergraduates 
try to read 19th century prose; Elizabethan 
English is like Sanskrit, and “Shakespeare 
courses rely heavily on in-class movies.” 
She tells of an art history professor showing 
students a slide of a Rubens painting. 

Student: “What’s fee story line on this 
thing?" 

Professor. “It doesn't have one. It’s a 
17th-century portrait” 

Student “It doesn’t move at all?” 

Professor: “Unfortunately, no.” 

Student “But 1 can’t see things if they 
don’t move.” 

The market for Ph.D.s is glutted: Only 
two in five get academic jobs. There are a 
million Ph.D.s without academic employ- 
ment and some are in academia only as 
“freeway flyers.” driving between adjunct 
appointments on several campuses, paid 
perhaps $1 .000 per course, wife no benefits 
or faculty prerogatives. Adjunct faculty, 
Ms. Matthews writes, are fee field hands of 
academia and “are thought to account for 
40 or even 50 percent of all face-to-face 
undergraduate teaching now, as opposed to 
22 percent in fee early 1970s." 

But then, fee market for college gradu- 
ates is saturated: An estimated 20 percent 
work in jobs that do not really require a 
degree. A help wanted ad seeking a ware- 
house supervisor for The Gap reads: “Bach- 
elor’s degree required, and fee ability to lift 
50 pounds.” 

Ms. Matthews’s book refutes fee 
premise of President Bill Clinton's plan for 
tuition tax credits and deductions. The 
premise is that higher education's most 
pressing needs are more money and more 
students. 

Even without new inducements, students 
by fee millions will come to campuses full 
of yeanlings like those of the incoming 
freshman who wrote to a college adviser. 
"I want to experience a philosophy or a 
sociology. There are none in Florida." 

Washington Post Writers Croup. 




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PAGE 10 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 


INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION: SPECIAL DIRECTORY 



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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, 
TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 
PAGE 12 


The Velvet Revolution 

A Badge of Power and Privilege 


By Roderick Conway Morris 

laiernaiiooiil Herald Tribune 


C OMO. Italy — The huge quantity of 
the finest silk yam (and often gold 
thread) required, the rarity and cost- 
liness of the dyes employed and the 
exceptionally high level of skill and immense 
labor needed to manufacture it guaranteed 
that from the moment of its first appearance in 
the 14th century, velvet enjoyed a prestige 
unequaled by any other textile. Indeed “Not 
So Much a Textile, More a Way of Life" 
might make a fitting subtitle to “Velvets," a 
fascinating and revelatory exhibition at the 
Fondasaane Antonio Rath that traces the 
story of velvet, its transmutations, 
uses and symbolic significance 
from its beginnings into the 20th 
century. (The show will be at the 
Fondazione until June 22. and ' 

then, from July 1 until Aug. 28, at 
the charming Villa Carlotta at 
Tremezzo. also on the lake shore.) 

“Velvets" is the brainchild of the Milan- 
based textile historian Chiara Buss, who is 
also the author of the sumptuous, lively and 
informative catalogue. Not the least of Buss's 
achievements has been some brilliant de- 
tective work, which has made it possible for 
her to match up surviving pieces of material 
with contemporary paintings and illustra- 
tions, displaying images and textiles side by 
side to stunning effect. 

The origins of velvet are still a matter for 
debate, but it was certainly being woven in 
China. Persia and Europe as early as the 14th 
century. The primacy it gained in the West 
way outstripped its importance elsewhere. 
First the exclusive prerogative of emperors, 
kings and popes, it was soon adopted by the 
aristocracy, and in time by the rising, pros- 
perous mercantile classes. Venice, Genoa and 
Florence dominated its manufacture and de- 
rived enormous incomes from it 
“To appreciate how precious velvets were, 
you have to remember that typically in wills 
valuable textiles came only after land and 
palaces, and before jewelry." said Buss. 
“Velvets were passed down from parents to 
children, sometimes over hundreds of years, 
and this was possible because velvet is ex- 
tremely robust In fact, velvet became the 
symbol par excellence of a family's status and 
roots in the past 

“This is the reason why in so many por- 
traits not only is the sitter dressed in velvet but 
velvet wall hangings and upholstery are so 
prominent, and for a long time there was 
absolutely no distinction between the types of 
velvet used for garments, for men and wo- 
men, adults and children, and those used for 
furnishings." 


E ARLY velvets were characterized by 
large, sculpturally flamboyant pat- 
terns formed by cutting the pile, but 
this began to change around 1580. 
when for the first time velvets were developed 
specifically for clothing, with more compact 
designs, suitable for cutting up into smaller 
sections. Patterns became ever more geo- 
metric in Ae late 16th and early 17th cen- 
tury. 

“Spain controlled a substantial proportion 


of Europe, including the Low Countries, 
Lombardy, Naples and Sicily, and the Span- 
ish court had a specific message to convey to 
the countries it ruled," Buss said. "The im- 
age had to be on the one hand very Catholic, 
and on the other of absolute secular power. 

“Noblemen and women presented them- 
selves as almost divine. Their garments 
covered their entire bodies except their faces 
and hands, and impeded them from movement, 
from work. When dressed, they were emblems 
of absolutely stolid immobility. And so they 
needed velvets that were very precious, ob- 
viously quite unlike any other humbler textile, 
but apparently almost austere and modest.” 

Changes in the type and cut of clothes in the 
mid- 18th century led to further developments 
in velvets. Classic me ns wear now consisted 
of a coat, waistcoat and breeches, with plain 
velvets commonly used for the coat and 
breeches, and more guardedly elaborate, col- 
orful velvets with “miniature" patterns re- 
served for the waistcoat. The ensemble in 
terms of materials could be as expensive as 


CROSSWORD 





ever, but in the Age of Enlightenment, where 
clarity of form and shape became die or- 
thodoxy. the overall aim was to give "an 
illusion of sobriety." 

The Napoleonic era saw the return of vel- 
vets “everywhere and anywhere." on men 



The Frugal Way ^ 
To Feather Your Nest 




■On 


A Dime-Store Guide to Decor 


and women and on furnishings. Napoleon had 
himself painted in his official portrait as 
“Napoleon First Consul" dressed in red vel- 
vet. with accompanying props of table, chair 
and curtains all in green velvet. 

“Napoleon needed signs of his power, but 
something different from those 
of the monarchy 
that 


By Christopher Mason 

New York Tones Service 


N EW YORK — As her black 
limousine idled curbside one 
day last week, Christy Ferer 
was upstairs at Detsh Feather 
and Trading Corp., embroiled in fierce 
negotiations over the cost of a bag of 
black plumes with an asking price of 
$4.25. 

“They went up 25 cents?" asked the 
seemingly incredulous Ferer, who has 
been tailed “the bargain basement 
Martha Stewart" by NBC’s “Today," 
to which she has contributed style seg- 
ments on fashion and decorating for 14 
years. Ferer needed the feathers to adorn 
a lampshade in the can-do spirit of her 
new book, “Decorating on a Dime" 
(Warner Books, $14.95). 

“You want to be grandfathered on 
the old price?" said Jay Dereh, the 
store’s proprietor, looking simulta- 
neously amused and exasperated by 
Ferer’s unrelmring frugality. 


Ft M 




II:* ; *'iii 


• *.N . 


had just been destroyed," Buss said. “He also 
knew that textiles were the foundation of 
France's industrial economy. So. while he 
went back to the Roman Empire for his in- 
signia of authority, he also pushed velvet — 
which brought about a dramatic revival in 
Lyon's textile-malting — had all the palaces 
re-upholstered in velvet, and not only had 
full-dress militaty uniforms made in velvet, 
but also the uniforms of his functionaries, 
such as prefects and mayors, and made vel- 
vets de ngueur in women's court fashion.” 

Velvet's extraordinary adaptability in 
changing social circumstances without losing 
its aura of superiority is again seen in the 
show's section on the 19th century. The in- 
dustrial age saw men's fashions becoming 
increasingly dour, with coat, waistcoat and 
trousers made in the same dark colors and in 
wool. For a time colorful velvet waistcoats 
survived, and indeed became the badge of 
otherness sported by self-conscious bohemi- 
ans. artists and intellectuals, but the majority 
now dressed in a deliberately puritanical uni- 
form. the last remaining possible element of 
color being confined to the necktie — a 
situation that has lasted until today. 

"This meant that all the color, all the 
expensive design bought by a rich and suc- 
cessful man had to be lavished on his woman 
and the furnishings of his house." Buss said. 
“Hence the advent of what has been called 
‘the upholstered woman' and ‘the dressed 
house' — because a rich man's wife came to 
be literally covered with the affirmations of 
his wealth and power." 

This craving for extreme opulence in female 
dress and the rise of haute couture brought 
about a revival of Renaissance types of vel- 
vets. including tisele (chiseled) velvet, where 
the pattern is formed by closely alternating cut 
and uncut pile, and some of the heaviest and 
most expensive velvets ever produced. And, 
ironically, even Art Nouveau, which repre- 
sented a reaction to all revival _______ 

forms that had dominated the [ 

19th century, still frequently - < 

felt constrained to lend its fur- §g?SS • 

nishings the required air of 

luxury, and resorted to velvet, 

demonstrating its perennial 

appeal as the erfrme de la 

cr&me of textiles. 

Fashion cycles in the 20th rjK|gyNKg 
century have become briefer. 
but velvets still keep turning 
up. Buss observed. “There 
was a comeback in the 1930s 
and again in the '60s, and it's 
been in vogue again in haute 
couture for over a decade." 
she said. "The most favored £ 
form now is on a crepe ground. 
which is a very soft, transpar- , 
ent silk, with a pile in viscose, 
which is an artificial fiber and jg tfejS fefr. 
produces a beautiful, luminous 
material. It's also extremely 
expensive, which well meets 
the requirements of the exclusivity of haute 
couture. 

"But then, ever since it appeared, velvet 
has been the textile that most expjicitly rep- 
resents power and privilege, and it seems it 
still does.” 




The vivacious Ferer, 46, was darting 
tween suppliers, gathering dozens of 


rwH 


a— r* N 

v Af ^ 




between suppliers, gathering dozens of 
inexpensive items to decorate a room 
setting at Sotheby’s, die improbable set- 
ting for a party to celebrate die pub- 
lication of the book, ber first. Up- 
holstered in humble burlap, Peter's 
room was a three-dimensional portfolio 
of cost-cutting style tips from the book, 
including the feather lampshade, which 
was trimmed with thick black velvet 
ribbon that cost $1.60 a yard. 

After emerging triumphantly from 
Dersh’s emporium, and 25 cents richer. 
Ferer headed back to ber limousine. 
* ‘Having a car and driver in New York 
saves a lot of time and money because 
you get mote done,' ’ she said, evidently 
mindful of all those dimes. 

Her snappy do-it-yourself guide of- 
fers 86 pages of recipes for done-store 
chic: plaid linoleum floors, bookcase 
doors fronted with chicken-wire mesh, 
homemade scented seashells as pot- 
pourri. There is also an extensive index 
of national resources for craft items like 
Polarfieece, iron-on appliquds. tulle and 
tinsel. 

Despite the modesty of its premise, not 
to mention its slender silhouette. Ferer’s 
book has occasioned no fewer than three 
publication parties. And curiously 
enough, guests have included the sort of 
people who would seem to be unmoved 
by the special joys of ghie-gunning: Wall 
Street's Michael R_ Bloomberg, Calvin 
Klein and Isaac Mizrahi. 


been coaxed out of her after intense 
lobbying. “Christy is certainly persist- 
ent,’ 1 Mudler said. “I got dozens of calls 
bugging me for that quote, and I only 
made it onto the back cover." 

Sills, who said that Ferer affection- 
ately tails ber Big Bev “when she wants 
me to do something for her," added: 
“She’s the most generous, warmhearted 
person 1 know. But you have no idea the 
kind of places she’s dragged me to show 
me a pair of $36 earrings she thinks I 
should buy. It cost me $96 to keep the 
car all day to find the $36 earrings." 

Ferer lives in a vast, nine-room apart- 
ment in a luxury cooperative building 
on Fifth Avenue whose residents in- 
clude Ralph Lauren. Opening the door 
to her home, which overlooks Central 
Park, she said, “I've always had a beer 
pocket book I've stretched to fit my 
Champagne tastes." 

Beerpocketfcook? ‘Tma wise spend- 
er and a wise investor," insisted Ferer, 
who was bom into a prosperous St 
Lotus family and since 1982 has been the 
owner and president of Vidicom, which 
produces video footage for such diverse 



I > A f 

'y-' . H ■ . 1 


Ofunteminm 



Christy Ferer at home. 


clients as the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art ami Hebrew National hot dogs. 

“I only have a fraction of what my 


A T a recent lunch in Ferer’s 
honor at Mortimer's, Bette 
Midler. Beverly Sills and 
Libby Patairi (the author's fre- 
quent tennis partner) joined 11 other 
women at a table decorated with pink 
roses tucked into silver vases, which 
were actually tomato cans, labels re- 
moved, polished to a sterling gleam (a 
detail from the book). 

Seated across the restaurant, the so- 
cialite Nan Kempner was aghast to learn 
that so many famous and famously well- 
off women had gathered to celebrate a 
book called “Decorating on a Dime." 

“Then it’s not for me," said Kemp- 
ner, who has benefited from the min- 
istering hands of top-dollar decorators 
tike Billy Baldwin mid Michael Taylor. 
“1 can’t do it for less than a million." 

During lunch, Midler, a close friend 
of Ferer, confided that the quote she had 
supplied for the book jacket — “This 
hook is Heaven from Pennies” — had 






John Campbell, 
Baron of Cawdor (by 
i Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
! 1778), wearing velvet 
'.coat and breeches and 


? waistcoat in mini- 


• ature” cisele velvet; 
1 top: three-colored, 
figured velvet, Lyon , 


uses. 




1889, and two - 
« colored velvet, made 




in Genoa, 1 700-1725, 
and used in the 
Nymphenburg Palace , 
L Munich . 


“1 only have a fraction of what my 
rich friends have, but I always end up 
getting what I want, whether it's tty 
negotiating or by doing it myself," she 
■ said. • • • • - • - 

Clearly proud of her apartment. Ferer 
is nevertheless eagerto credit others for 
their creative contributions to its decor. 
“Laity Laslo, the designer, helped me a 
lot with this apartment," she said. 

When asked to describe Ferer as a 
client, Laslo, a decorator known for a 
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer sense of glam-! 
our, burst into laughter. . 

“She’s a wonderful, energetic, 
funny, kind friend, and I admire her 
drive and enthusiasm," he said. “Bui 
you really have to love Christy to work’ 
for her. 4 

“I’ve been joking about all the in- 
vitations she sent out for her book party 
at Sotheby's with a dime glued on. I tola 
her she could afford to send die dime 
because she never spent it." ! 

Judging by an invitation sent to one 
reporter, from which the dime had be- 
come detached, it would appear that 
Ferer extends her passion for thrift to 
ber choice of glue. ! 


iking Ahead 


s Time for Uii 


Living Legend of Faberge Eggs 


ACROSS M Village Voice 

award 

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answer goes 


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37 Train storage 


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13 Exude 


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3fW.VV.ll hero 
Murphy 
33 Seas, to 
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N EW YORK — The Russian jeweler Peter Carl 
Faberge never publicized the exquisite Easter eggs 
that he made for clients in turn-of-the-century Su 
Petersburg. 

He shrouded their production in secrecy, even refusing to 
reveal to his royal patrons. Alexander Iff and Nicholas 11, 
which tiny surprises he was 


By Rita Reif 

New York Tones Service 


VimW d* PMck Jonttn 

.Vet r York Timm / Edited 6v tf ill Shorts. 


Solution to Puzzle of March 31 


A Space for Thought- 


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so Veracious 
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campaigns 
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sc Susan of 
'Looker' 


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concealing inside the eggs — 
a thimble-size palace, per- 
haps. or a gilded carriage, or 
an entire train. 

His wizardry worked; 
these bejeweled fantasies en- 
chanted the Empresses Maria 
and Alexandra, to whom the 
eggs were given from 1 885 to 
1916. The Imperial clients 
were secretive, too. They 
never told the Russian people 
about the eggs and kept them 
in their private apartments, 
out of sight of palace visitors. 
The public's glimpses of the 
eggs were mainly at the Ex- 
position Internationale Uni- 
verse! le in Paris in 1900, at 
which Faberge was awarded 
a gold medal and the Legion 
of Honor, and at a 1 902 char- 
ity benefit in Sl Petersburg. 

Indeed, it was not until 
after the Russian Revolution 
and Faberge’s death, in 1920. 


records for Faberge. In 1989, the Kelch Pine Cone Egg 
{nought $3.1 million, and five years later the Imperial Winter 
Egg was sold for $5.6 million. 

Now the Pine Cone Egg is back at Christie’s, this time in 
New York. Enameled in blue and awash with swags of 
diamonds, the egg opens to reveal a walnut-size automaton in 
the shape of a silver elephant with an Indian passenger on its 
back; when wound, it sways, swishes its tail and lumbers 
forward. The Pine Cone Egg is the finest of the seven made a 

century ago for Faberge’s 



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that the eggs came to wider Faberge’s Pine Cone egg, with tiny elephant and rider. 
public attention. Newly avail- 
able documents now show that Faberge made at least 50 What has come to light fro 
Imperial eggs, of which 40 survive. of soap opera. Barbara Kel 

bincc 1987. with the beginnings of glasnost, Faberge’s husband and Russia in 1905, 
works have become increasingly more visible at museums mucb of her fortune was v 
and in the marketplace. Japanese War. In 1 92 0, she s 

"Faberge in America,” the largest such exhibition ever held Alexander Kelch had ahan 
m the United States, opened last year at die Metropolitan he ended up selling cigarette: 
Museum of An before moving on to museums in San Francisco, in 1925. In 1930, he was a 
Richmond, New Orleans and Cleveland, where it will close in sedition by the Communis! 
May. The show has so far drawn about 900.000 viators. former wife in Paris. He w 
Several auctions at Christie’s in Geneva have rewritten the Siberia, where he is believed 


wealthiest clients, Alexander 
Ferdinandovich Kelch, a, 
gold-mining industrialist, and 
his wife, Barbara. > 

It will be auctioned on 
April IS for Joan Kroc, the 
former owner of the San 
Diego Padres and the widow 
of Ray Kroc, who was 
founder of the McDonald’s 
fast-food chain. She had been 
the high bidder in 1989; later 
that year, she exhibited it with 
25 other Easter eggs, mostly 
from the Kremlin and the For- 
bes Magazine Collection, at 
Treasures of the Soviet Uni- 
on, the San Diego arts fest- 
ival. 

Timed to coincide with die 

auction is the publication of 
yet another book on the sub- 
ject, “The Faberge Imperial 
Easter Eggs" (Christie’s, 
$125): It isthe first to in- 

:th tiny elephant and ^r. 

government archives- 

What has come to light from the archives so far is the stuff 
of soap opera. Barbara Kelch, a mining heiress, left her 
husband and Russia in 1905, when she moved to Paris after 
mucb of her fortune was wiped out during the Russian- 
Japanese War. In 1 920, she sold ber Faberge eggs there. 

Alexander Kelch had a harder time; Unemployed for years, 
he ended up selling cigarettes on die streets of St- Petersburg 
in 1925. In 1930, he was arrested, tried and convicted of 
sedition by the Communists for corresponding with his 
former wife in Paris. He was sentenced to hard labor in 


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BUSINESS/FINANCE 


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t 


TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 


PAGE 13 


In Japan, a 6 0ue-Man Trade Barrier 9 


By Sandra Sugawara 

w <vhing1oa Post Servin' 


T i 


^ ^ a first in 
trans-Pacific economic relations, the 
^ UnUfid Steles is targeting the power of a 
single individual. an 83-year-old Jao- 
anese man named ShirooTakashimaTas 
a trade bamer. 

__The bead of an obscure outfit called 
the Japan Harbor Transportation Aa- 
KKaancHU Mr. Takashima has little of- 
ficial power. But shippers say that he is 
*e- effective boss of Japan’s 50,000 
^ t ?^'* ro ^ cers — the one who decides 
which vessels get unloaded by which 
stevedore company, dictates working 
coodm ons and rates and in general runs 
as a nefdom ports that are among the 
largest and most technologically ad- 
vanced in the weald. 

,U.S. shipping tines, fighting to carry a 
bigger share of the more than $180 
billion in annual trade between the two 
countries, would love to escape his grip 
and set up their own dockside oper- 
ations. But they say that unless Mr. 
Takashima’ s influence is reduced, that 
is not possible. Now, after years of quiet 
complaints, the United Stales is press- 
ing for that change by threatening to 
charge ships from Japan’s three biggest 
shipping lines a $100,000 fee every time 
they call in an American port. 

True to his reputation as a waterfront 
boss, the white-haired Mr. Takashima is 
not backing down. 

“We cannot forgive the attitude of the 
' United States,” he said in a rare tele- 
vision interview recently, nwing frawt of 
carefully controlled anger. “We are 
ready to have a fight anytime. If the U.S. 
starts a fight, we can fight too.” 

As with many market-opening fights 



Kjub) 


Shiroo Takashima: Top stevedore. 


£ 


with Japan, this one seeks to nhangp. not 
just official rules but also the web of 
back-door practices that so often have 
enraged to exclude outsiders. But more 
than any other, this fight revolves around 
one man who has hirilt his remarkable 
power over the course of 30 years. 

As it happens, many Japanese of- 
ficials privately are cheering the U.S. 
efforts. They have wanted to curb Mr. 
Takashima's influence for years. 

The prats Mr. Takashima oversees 
are among the world’s most techno- 
logically sophisticated, forming the fife- 
line for the country’s export-oriented 
economy. Last year, about 144 million 
tons of goods moved through Japan’s 
eight largest ports. 

After unsuccessfully urging Japan’s 
Transportation Ministry to act, the UJS. 
Federal Ma ritime Commission has taken 


nnilateralactkm.ItanDomi<^thmunless 
there were changes it would as of April 
14 impose sanctions of $100,000 each 
lime a vessel from Japan’s three major 
shipping fines ottered U.S. ports. 

Stevedores responded with a 24-bour 
strike that idled about half of die coun- 
try’s ports. 

The events jolted Japanese govern- 
ment officials, who until recently had 
refused to get involved. Japanese of- 
ficials are meeting with Japanese and 
foreign shippers and othere to try to find 
a solution. Recently the parties involved 
asked the Federal Mantime Commis- 
sion to delay the sanctions until July to 
give them time to reach a solution. 

For years after World War DL or- 
ganized-crime gangs had a large pres- 
ence on the docks, as depicted in the 
classic American film “On the Wa- 
terfront.” The Japanese container 
protests sometimes became violent 

Shippers decided die best way to pro- 
tect their interest was to refuse face-to- 
face negotiations with unions. Instead, 
they would hire either general contract- 
ors or stevedore companies, which 
would in turn employ the dockworkers. 
When shippers wanted to make changes 
that could affect labor, they would ne- 
gotiate with the Japan Harbor Trans- 
portation Association — the association 
representing the stevedore companies 
and general contractors — which would 
then take the proposal to die unions. 

The system, known as “prior con- 
sultation,” continues today. U.S. offi- 
cials said they did not oppose using the 
system fra 1 major changes that could 
affect labor. 

What the United States and other 




Takeover 
Hits Shares 


Ascend’s Stock SUdes 
On $3.7 BilUon Deal 


CenoiMbyOirSuffFnimDOpiacba 

ALAMEDA, California — Ascend 

Communications Inc., continuing the 
wave of consolidation in the compete! 


networking industry, agreed to acquire 
? Communications Crap, m a 


Cascade 

stock swap valued at $3.7 billion. 

Ascend shares were down 20 percent, 
or $10375 a share, in late trading 
Monday, at $41,625, amid concern that 
the takeover would reduce Ascend 's 
earnings. Cascade shares were down $1, 
at $27,375. 

The takeover plan, which was an- 
nounced late Sunday, comes a month 


after 3Com Corp.’s $6.6 billion acqui- 
sition of U.S. Ro 


* 


See PORT, Page 14 


MnaynOiMlaln 

A customer stocking up on home electronics in Tokyo on Monday, a day 
before Japan's consumption tax was scheduled to increase to 5 percent 


In Counterattack, Japan Blasts Partners for Unfair Trading 


By Velisarios Kattoulas 

International Herald Tribune 


TOKYO — Increasingly under attack 
over its own trade practices again, Japan 
lartied out at its major trading partners 
Monday, accusing the United States and 
Europe as well as some other Asian 
countries of practices inconsistent with 
free trade. 

hi an annual report on trade, Japan 
uqjpd the use of multilateral rather than 
unilateral means of resolving trade prob- 
fems. “ Unilateral measures, in contrast, 
riskjradejwats and discredit the mnl~ 


tilateral trade system.” the report said. 

Japan also called for the World Trade 
Organization, the governing body of 
wand trade, to quickly admit China, 
Taiwan and Russia. Their membership 
has been Mocked largely because some 
WTO members say they have failed to 
tear down enough trade barriers. 

Japan’s criticism came amid signs its 
trade surplus had started to grow again 
and fears that Tokyo and Washington 
could be headed toward another show- 
down over Japanese export s to the 
United-States. In February, ‘Japan's, 
trade * surplus with the United Stales. 


Europe and die rest of Asia grew for the 
first time in two years. 

“All countries, to some extent, em- 
ploy trade policies and measures that 
hail to conform to international norms,’ ’ 
the Ministry of International Trade and 
Industry said in its sixth annual report 
on the practices of Japan’s biggest trad- 
ing partners. The repeat, which acknow- 
ledged anger overseas over some Jap- 
anese trade practices, examined 
practices in the United States, the Euro- 
pean Union, South Korea, Thailand, 
Singapore, Hong Kong, Australia, 
Malaysia; Indonesia and Canada. 


The report attacked the United States, 
Japan’s biggest trading partner, over 
co ntinuing import restrictions on yellow- 
fin tuna and shrimp and eight other trade 
practices. But it raid the United Stales 
was getting better in the area of anti- 
dumping duties, which are levied against 
imports on sale at prices authorities 
judge to be below manufacturing cost 
By contrast, the EU’s anti-dumping 
policies have become less transparent, 
ths report said. Under WTO rules, dump- 
ing is strictly defined. But the report 
insisted that European authorities were 
increasingly using discretionary powers 


to impose duties in violation of WTO 
rules. Brussels launched 32 dumping in- 
vestigations in 1995 and 10 in the first six 
m onths of 1996, the report said. 

“Anti-dumping is an area of hidden 
protectionism m the EU," it said. “Giv- 
en the EU’s past history of rampant 
abuse, there are legitimate fears that 
abuse may continue.” 

Among Japan's Asian trading part- 
ners. South Korea came in for the 
harshest criticism. In particular, the re- 
port criticized South Korea's so-called 
import diversification program, under 
winch Seoul restricts import quantities. 


Robotics Corp. and is 
designed to broaden Ascend’ s arsenal in 
its battle with Cisco Systems Inc., the 
market leader in the rapidly growing 
networking business. Cisco was quoted 
at $5030, down 50 cents. 

The acquisition by 3Com of U.S. 
Robotics and other mergers have in- 
creased pressure on smaller companies 
such as Ascend, with 1996 sales of $549 
million, and Cascade, with revenue of 
$341 million last year. 

“There is a need for breadth of product 
and depth of sales and support services to 
customers,” Eric Buck, an analyst at 
Donaldson. Lufkin & Janette, said. 

Ascend shareholders are to own 65 
percent and Cascade shareholders 35 
percent of the new company, which 
would keep Ascend ’s name and its of- 
fices in Alameda. 

Cascade said it did not expect any 
layoffs at its home base of Westford, 
Massachusetts. 

One executive close to the companies 
said be thought Cisco might have made 
a play for Ascend after 3Com’s ac- 
quisition of U.S. Robotics, but because 
there is no obvious company for Cisco 
to buy now, it will have to move quickly 
to beef up its current offerings. 

Separately. Cascade estimated rev- 
enue for the first quarter of 1997 would 
be $90 million, or 14 to 15 cents a share, 
up from $56 million in 1996. Analysts 
had expected the company Go earn 22 
cents a share. (NYT, AP, Bloomberg) 


i £ 


i 


thinking Ahead /Commentary 


It’s Time for Clinton to Lead on Trade 


By Reginald Dale 

International Herald Tribune 


W ASHINGTON — Less than three months into 
Ms second term. President Bill Clinton risks 
missing his best, perhaps last, chance to re- 
assert flagging American leadership over the 
internati onal trading system. 


Re-establishing that leadership is not just in America’s 
* * If Washington ever 


intere st but in everyone else’s too. 
stopped pressing its traditional case for open markets, the 
dangers of a return to destructive, 1930s-style protectionist 
policies would grow. w . 

There would be little hope of Mr. Clinton achieving Ms 
stated objectives of free-trade areas in Asia and Latin 
America, the world’s two fastest-growing regions, or of 
further multilateral liberalization. 

The problem is that Mr. Clinton cannot continue much 
farther down the free-trade path without congressional 
backing. Specifically, he needs renewed fast-track ne- 
gotiating authority, under which Congress cannot amend 
trade agreements but must quickly vote yes or no. 

Without that procedure, representatives of special in- 
terests in Congress would probably pick apart agreements 


reached by his administration, and other countries would 
decline to negotiate with the United States. 

. But support for freer trade is increasingly tenuous and 
uncertain on Capitol HilL And although Mr. Clinton says he 
wants new fast-track authority, he shows no sign of will- 
ingness to spend the necessary political l capital. 

If he is serious, he will have to act fast. Congressional 
attention will soon nun to the bodges tbsnto &e annual 
renewal of most-favored-nation stains for China, which this 

■ _ L. iinnnnllv rflVICIVP. aftCT BClliOR S 


increase the reluctance of many on ■ 
a limb for trade, especially if Mr. Clinton 
committal. 


According to leaders of the Republican majority, Mr. 
Clinton's choice is effectively now or never. 

It may be never. Vice President A1 Gore is anxious not to 
be outflanked on his left by Richard Gephardt, leader erf tbe 
Democratic minority in the House, in the race to succeed 
Mr. Clinton. 

But Mr. Gephardt has set impossible conditions for fast- 
track approval by insisting that future trade agreements 
contain strict provisions on labor and environmental stan- 
dards, action against drugs and other worthy but irrelevant 
social objectives. 

Mr. Gephardt says this is the way to appeal to blue-collar 
voters, liberals and environmentalists, whose support Mr. 
Gore wants too. But Mr. Gephardt's demands will make 
agreement in Congress even more difficult. A partisan clash 
over labor and environmental standards has already blocked 
renewal of Mr. Chacon's negotiating authority for the past 
two years. 

None of this would matter so much if Mr. Clinton were 
prepared to fight hand for a visionary trade policy — as 
mi ght be expected from someone who has said he would 
look to his place in history during Ms second term. 

But that is not the way he is governing now. Instead, he 
seems to be carrying on as if be were still running for 
election, locking for short-term political advantage cm each 
issue that comes along. 

On the trade front, that approach is particularly dan- 
gerous. Other countries and regions, especially in L atin 
America, are rapidly forming new trade alliances without 
waiting for the United States. Most of these groups are 
espousing trade policies that are much less open than those 
traditionally favored by Washington. American business 
risks being placed at a competitive disadvantage. 

Mr. Clinton is well aware that further liberalization 
favors the United States, which has already abolished most 
t rad* barriers, by obliging other countries to follow suit. He 
knows that rising U.S. exports are needed to stimulate 
growth and create well-paid jobs. He should be brave 
enough to start making dial case more forcefully. 


CURRENCY & INTEREST RATES 


Cross Rates 


March 27.28,31 UbkHJbor Rates 


March 27 


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PAGE 14 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 


R. 


THE AMERICAS 




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Source: Bloomberg, Routers 

loisBsuonal Hcrdd Trihi* 

Very briefly: 


• A Nike Inc. factory supervisor in Vietnam will stand trial for 
allegedly abusing her employees by forcing 56 workers to jog 
twice around the two-kilometer ( 1.2-mile) factory perimeter 
for failing to wear regulation work shoes. 

• Thomson Corp. received clearance from the U.S. Justice 
Department and seven states to sell 52 legal publications to 
Reed Elsevier PLC's Leus-Nexis unit 

• Marriott International Inc. completed its purchase of 
Renaissance Hotel Group NV for about $1 billion in cash 
and assumed debt. 

• Pixar Inc. left the CD-ROM interactive business to focus on 
its joint venture to develop films with Walt Disney Co. The 
computer-animation company will work on its second feature 
film, the Disney joint venture “Bugs." 

• The tobacco industry is the only industry that has lost 

consumer confidence, according to a recent poll by Louis 
Harris & Associates, reflecting "not such how well it provides 
tobacco products to smokers, but public hostility," the polling 
concern said. Reuters. Bloomberg. AP 

Weekend Box Office 

The Associated Press 

LOS ANGELES — “Liar Liar" dominated the U.S. box 
office over the weekend, with a gross of $24.2 million. Fol- 
lowing are the Top 10 moneymakers, based on Friday's ticket 
sales and estimated sales for Saturday and Sunday. 


Is the Bull Market Ending? 

Some See ‘Substantial 9 Hurdles and Risk of 10% Drop 


By David Barboza 

New York Times Service 


NEW YORK — It has been one of the greatest bull 
markets in history, with a run that in February helped 
push die Dow Janes industrial average above 7,000 
points for the first time. 

But in the last few weeks, the stock marker has 
been struggling, partly because of inflation fears and 
worries that the Federal Reserve will push interest 
rates higher. That action, some analysts believe, will 

slow growth and cut into corpo- 

rate profits. 

Many analysts are no longer 
looking beyond a 7.000-point 
Dow. Instead, they see new 
hurdles for the market and the 
possibility of a significant down- 
turn. with the potential to end the 
seemingly miraculous bull run. 

"The market’s teeing its most substantial chal- 
lenge in some time," Eugene Peroni Jr., the director 
of technical research at Janney Montgomery Scott, 
said. “We're seeing an abrupt shift in market psy- 
chology. Investors are beginning to question the bull 
market's underpinnings, such as interest rates, li- 
quidity and earnings prospects." 

Of course, few analysts are willing to venture that 
a bear market like the one in 1973-74, when the Dow 
lost about 45 percent, is on the horizon. But many do 
see the possibility of what Wall Street calls a cor- 
rection. when stocks tell 10 percent to 20 percent after 
a big runup. 

But there are others who say that the outlook for the 
economy and die stock market remains healthy. 
While a minor, near-term setback may be in store, 
they say. nothing more ominous is in the cards. 

"You can have these spike -down types of cor- 
rections, but these are not the conditions of a bear 
market," said Joseph Battipaglia, chief equity 
strategist at Gruntal & Co. "In order to get to a hear 
market, the fundamentals of the economy have to 
break down, and I don’t see that." 

Such a ' 'spike down" occurred last summer, when 
the Dow fell 75 percent and the Nasdaq composite 


A setback may be in 
store, some say, bnt 
nothing more ominous. 


plunged 17 percent, before both indexes roared 
back. 

“We got down to 5340 on the Dow last July.” Mr. 
Battipaglia said. "There was a lot of bearish sen- 
timent at that point, but the Dow went on to 6,400 in 
December and 7,000 last February." 

Since then, the stock market has been stumbling 
along in a trading range, coping with a sharp selloff of 
technology stocks, persistent questions about high 
share prices and, more recently, a significant slow- 
down of cash into mutual funds. 

These factors, along with con- 
cerns about shrinking profit mar-' 
gins and the strong dollar hurting 
exports, continue to raise ques- 
tions about tbe strength of a mar- 
ket that has seen tee Dow rise 
nearly 3,000 points, or about 75 
percent, since January 1995. 

And while tee Dow has now gone about six years 
without a 10 percent correction — the longest such 
period in history — it is now in tbe midst of its biggest 
decline since last summer, down 345 points, or about 
5 percent, since March 11, when it peaked at 
7,085. 16. (It is still up about 4 percent for the year.) 

Much of tee decline has been attributed to worries 
about higher interest rates in tee bond market, which 
makes bonds more attractive relative to stocks. On 
Thursday, when the yield on the 30-year Treasury 
bond rose above 7 percent for the first time in six 
months, stock prices plunged. 

New data suggest an accelerating economy. One 
example is tee government report Friday that sales of 
new homes surpassed an S 00 .000 annual pace for the 
first time in a decade. This raises fears of increased 
inflation. 

“If the Fed tightens again and interest rates keep 
going up. we're in big trouble,’ ' said Charles Prarii 11a. 
a market strategist at Co wen Sc Co. “We could be in 
for a 10 percent correction." 

Last year, each time the yield on the 30-year 
Treasury moved above 7 percent, tire stock market 
tumbled, particularly in early July, when tee yield 
peaked at 7.19. When the yield began telling, the 
Dow soared to new records. 


Rate Jitters Take Toll 
On Nervous Big Board 


V 1 ! 1 

^ Jl 


Cao^Oedbj ftr Sx&Fnm Dnp&cha 

NEW YORK — Stocks tumbled 
Monday for a second day, led by 
JP. Morgan. Procter & Gamble and 
General Electric, amid concern that 
interest rates might be Lifted further 
this year to tame inflation and that 
such a move would hurt tee outlook 
for corporate profits. 

Fears of inflation were fueled by 
a Commerce Department report 

that personal income rose a greater- 
than -expected 0.9 percent last 
month while spending increased 0.3 
percent. Wages posted tee largest 
monthly gain since April 1994. 

Separately, manufacturers in the 
Chicago and New York regions re- 
ported teat their costs of materials 
rose last month in another sign that 
inflation could be on the rise. 

The Dow Jones industrial average 
was down 88.75 points in late trad- 
ing, at 6,651.84, adding to its loss of 
140.11 points Thursday. At that 
level, (be 30-stock average had fallen 
228.86 points since the Fed raised 
the federal funds rate Tuesday. 

The Standard & Poor’s 500 index 
was quoted 8.70 points lower at 
765.18, and tee Nasdaq composite 
index had lost 20.02 points to 
1329.49. 

Losers outnumbered gainers on 
the Big Board by a 5-to-l margin. 

Last week the Federal Reserve 
Board raised interest rates for the 
first time in more than two years. 
Analysts said higher rates also may 
lure investors into bands and other 
fixed-income investments. 

Tbe benchmark 30-year Treas- 
ury bond's yield was steady at 7.08 
percent, near a six -month high amid 
nervousness about interest rates. 

‘‘People are worried about ad- 
ditional rate increases teat may 


throw the economy off course,” ■* 
said Mary Sunderland, a fund man- 
ager at Skandia Investment Man- 
agement Inc. ^ 

"Tbe stock market is very - 
nervous, and rightly so, because ( 
there has been a major change in v 
interest-rate psychology,’ ’ said 
Robert Freedman, chief investment 
officer at John Hancock Funds. 

Among the day's biggest de- 1 
c liners was Columbia/HCA Health- - 
care Corp. The largest U.S. hospital < 

3 RM. SNAPSHOT ~ 

company has been under scrutiny ■ 
for its Medicare hilling and its prac - 1 
tice of giving doctors ownership I 
stakes in hospitals. - 

Bank shares dropped amid con- 
cern that rising rates would make it ">• 
less profitable to make loans. ■' 
Citicorp. BankAmerica, Bank of' 
New York and Mellon Bank all ■ 
posted declines. 

The worst may not be over, ana- 
lysts said. Investors will be presen- " 
ted with economic data this week * 
that will shape their perceptions 
about inflation and interest rates. ; 

On Tuesday they will get the' 
March survey of manufacturing - 
conditions from the National As- 
sociation of Purchasing Manage- • 
meat, and on Friday the Labor De- ' 
partment is to release the March 
employment report. 

Barton Biggs, Morgan Stanley's : 
chief investment strategist, advised 
clients to increase their holdings of 
U.S. Treasury bonds. 

Shares of Be) den & Blake rallied • 
after Texas Pacific Group, an in- 
vestment partnership, sard it would 
bay tbe oil company for about $304 
millio n. ( Bloomberg , AP) 


Wall Street Bears Undermine the Dollar 


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Carded by Om Sujf Fnm Di qxa dtt s 

NEW YORK — The dollar was lower in 
thin volume on Monday, undermined chiefly 
by the sharp decline in the U.S. stock market, 
dealers and analysts said. 

“The only major factor influencing the 
dollar today is the stock market sell -off.” said 
a foreign exchange dealer at a large New York 
money center bank. 

“A lot of foreign investors are liquidating 
their stock positions in order to buy bonds,” 
he said, adding tear the liquidations would 
keep pressure on tbe dollar. 

The U.S. unit was quoted in late trading at 
1 .6763 Deutsche marks, off from 1 .6800 DM 
on Friday, and at 123.67 yen, off from 124.10 


yen. The dealer added that although, stock 
market movements generally were not very 
influential in tee foreign-exchange market, 
the overall share declines on Wall Street and 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE 

elsewhere were having an impact because 
“there just isn't that much other big news." 

Dealers in Japan said the dollar might post 
gains in coming days against the yen. 

“I expect the dollar to eventually rise," 
Susumu Kanazawa, manager for foreign ex- 
change at Bank of T okyo-Mi tsu bishi Ltd., 
said. 

Japanese investors are “ready and waiting 


to buy dollars’ ' after their business year begins 
Tuesday, he said. Financial markets in most 
European countries were closed Monday. 

Mr. Kanazawa said Japanese would want to 
buy dollars when the currency slipped in value 
against the yen but teat he nevertheless ex- 
pected teat tee dollar would trade at about 125 
yen at the end of this week. 

Since the rate increase, several U.S. eco- 
nomic indicators have shown stronger-than- 
expected growth, fueling speculation teat the 
U.S. central bank will raise rates further in 
months ahead to keep inflation from accel- 
erating. 

Tbe Federal Open Market Committee, 
which decides whether to change interest 


To Our Readers 

Because of the seven-hour time dif- 
ference between New York and Paris 
through April 5, the U.S. stock tables, tbe 
U.S. futures and some other items in this 
edition reflect early prices. 

This change is necessary to meet dis- 
tribution requirements. We will revert to 
our usual coverage after April 5, when 
* Pain 


daylight time begins in the 
and Canada. 


Jnired States 


rates, next meets May 20. Against other major-* 
currencies, the dollar slipped to 1.4490 Swiss * 
francs in late trading frum 1.4512 francs and 
to 5.6390 French francs from 5.6580 francs. 
The pound advanced to $1.6405 from/ 
$1.6310. (AFX, Reuters, Bloomberg) 


AMEX 


U. S. STOCK MARKET DIARY 


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Continued from Page 13 

critics object to is that Mr. Takashima 
has come to exercise veto power over 
even the smallest changes, whether in a 
ship’s name or a shift in how a particular 
stevedore company does business. 

The Federal Maritime Commission 
has specifically criticized tee Japan Har- 
bor Transportation Association ’s 1 'auto- 
cratic control of carrier operations, sup- 
pression of competition, allocation of 
work among members, extraction of fees 
and other concessions and retaliation 


against its detractors." 

Fumitoshi Yaraashita, tee associ- 
ation's vice president, said the Federal 
Maritime Commission’s statement had 
been “prepared by those who were not 
informed.” 

He said Mr. Takashima never refused 
applications but merely advised compa- 
nies on what changes he thought the 
unions would insist on. 

“We think tee maritime commis- 
sion's charges are groundless and off the 
mark." Mr. Yamashita said. 

Ryujiro Harada, president of a Yoko- 


hama stevedore company, tells a dif-"' 
ferent story. Mr. Harada said he chal- 
lenged Mr. Takashima’s authority in- 
1990. In response, Mr. Takashima* 
ordered shipping companies and general • 
contractors not to hire Mr. Harada’s’ 
company. Mr. Harada said he survived* 
because some sympathetic executives - 
quietly gave him work. ■ ' 

“Takashima decides which applica- 
tions to accept or reject,” a union leader, : 
Muneo Kishi, said He criticized ex-' 
ecutives of stevedore companies for nor* 
speaking out - 


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Hiffi Lm Latest Chgo OpM 

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Dec 97 150X0 146X0 146X0 3-5K3 

Estsries NA. Thu's, srtes 12.907 

Thu'S open W 3L330 UP 596 

SUGAR-WORLD 11 (NCSE) 

114000 cobs par b. 

May 97 1067 1071 1079 -41X2 SB4S4 

■tot 77 10X3 10J7 10S —0X1 35340 

Od77 1053 10-47 llff -0X2 23,151 

Mcrft 10.53 11X49 1149 — 0X2 14766 

EsL soles NA. Tibi’s, sales 9471 
Thu'S open W I CX92 0fl 460 

0RAN6EJU9CE(NCna 
■SXODlpft-canNsw 9s 

May 97 78X0 76X0 76X5 -320 14M3 

JUI97 80X0 7SJ0 732B -12S 4471 

Sep 97 B2J0 8150 80X0 -320 4X42 

NosfW *5X0 BUD B3X0 -2X5 1773 

ESI. Vries NA Thu's, sales 4746 
Tibi's open tot 27X76 iff m 


Metals 

GOLDOKMX) 

100 InvyooL- ooOm partnry ol 
A pr 97 35L4B 34410 351X0 *0X0 7^*5 

MOV97 351X0 2 

■lull 97 356X0 35TX0 353X0 +1-30 65X54 

AUB97 356X0 3S3J0 3£57* +070 1X228 

Od97 33X0 *0X0 5X52 

Dec 97 362X0 259 Jff 362X0 +1^1 21X67 

non 36178 A26J 

Apr 98 3*401 3X69 

scries NA. Thu's, sues 44612 

Thu'S cswitoa 154339 OR 671 

»GRADE COPPER OKMX) 


Stock Tobies Explained 

Scries figures ar» unofficial Yearfr highs and lours reflect fhe pnutovs 52 weeks plus ftw 
ament week, but not the latest trodtog day - Wtierea sp« or stodc cftridetidamoortbifl la 2S 
percemarraote has beai paid, me lean hlgiMow range and dMdend are stnwn lor tbe new 
stacks only. Unless offierarae noted, isles of dftldends are annual tSsiiuneineiits hosed an 
the Idlest Oedaraflon. 


£8 


OS S 

17b -b 

m» N 

£ 

m ^ 

>9N . -r, 

ISN -N- 

Iffk -*b 

lift * 

149b -+» 

ISJ, t 

15V, -V, 


a - dhrtdend also exna (s). 
b - annual rate of dividend plus stack di- 
vidend. 

c - Bcju testing dividend. 

oc - P6 exceeds W. 

dd -called. 

d - new yearly low. 

dd - toss to Itw tost 12 months. 

«- dividend deduced or paftd In preceding 72 
months. 

9 - annual im Increa se d an k»t dedo- 
lu t ton. 

g - dteMend In CmnSan funds s ubte c* to 
15*4 nen-r es We n ce tab. 

I - dividend deOned alter spBt-up or stock 
dhrkwnd. 

| - Addend paid Ms year, ommed. defened or 
no Kdm trim at UesKMaend nceftig. 
k - Addend deemed at ndd mis yeoc an 
aceunbriatlvB bsueaffli dMdends in ancas. 
■ - amuol rate, reduced on last ded et o- 
IIOII. 

n-ne*dssuelnthepa5J52«ecla.Thelrigr>- 
kw range begtos eritti the sian of iradhig. 
ad - nua da» deUverr- 


p - toffial dhrtdend. orniuol rate unknown. 
P/E - price-aantfngs ratio, 
q-cteed-ead mutual fund. 

r- dividend dedored or paid In preceding 12 

months, plus stock Ovidend. 

s - stock spBL Dhrtdend begins wWi date of 

sent. 


ABT97 UK 66X5 6845 *050 

-ton 97 44X7 6415 65X7 *0X0 

Alb 97 64QJ 6347 61X7 *0X2 

0077 6745 67X0 6747 *(U0 

DK97 8945 04S 89JB iOff 

Peb9B 7040 7545 7048 

Es t- scrips KA. Uni’S, sales H42B 
Thu's ooen « 104740 oil 585 

(CATTLE (CMER) 

69X0 6US 6940 *0X5 

S-S S5 S-S * U7 

7143 72X5 7340 *U5 

7345 Tig 73J0 +0X2 

7430 74X1 7485 +0X0 

TUB 7540 7570 +S3 

n NA. Thu's, scries 1,943 
sen tot 21J98 on 92 


SM0DL 
Aar 97 
Moy97 
Aug 97 
Sep 97 
ocr 97 
Nov 97 
Esr.sc* 
Tlbi’ia 


f - dividend paid to stock to preced to g 12 
months, e st hneted cash value an eb-eff- 
vtdend orex-dShttiutton date, 
u- new treacly high, 
v- trading baited. 

ii - In taikniptey or recetvership at being 
cecii yun tz tol under the Banter pic* Act or 
securities assumed by Midi companies, 
md - when ffshibuled. 

■I -when Issued/ 
ww ■ with wwrants, 
x - e» -tfMdend or ex-cights. 
xdb - ex-efistrtbuhon. 
xw - wffhwT warrants, 

Y- es-dMdend and sates in bin. 

yfd-yieta. 

z- sales in ML 


HOCS-640P (CMER3 
«W*0 Ca.-oro per lx 

Aer97 7105 71X5 7100 +0X2 

ton 97 8245 81X0 CTJ7 +QXS 

MV 81 J7 «X0 81 A) *170 

toff 97 7170 raxo 7SJB «yfle 

OB97 71 XS 71X0 71X5 +200 

Oac97 89X2 8UB 8972 +2X0 

SAtotts >IA._ Tibi'S. sates 1,92s 
Thu's opei nt 30X21 up an 


29483 

22X39 

14197 

74M 


3474 

&90 

5X77 

1402 

2.166 

1X16 


6X92 

13X93 

1UI 

UR 

2.109 

1419 


APT 97 114X5 11275 1142 *1X0 4398 

May 97 11130 111X0 112X5 * 0X0 Z3X31 

-ton 97 1TQJ0 11 043 11 0X0 +0X5 1X74 

-U 97 K»40 107X3 109X0 *1X0 9JS7 

AUB97 M7X0 10740 127.50 +180 703 

5ec97 106X0 105X0 10L20 *030 1954 

CW97 WAS 43 fl 

Nov97 W155 757 

Dec 97 HOXD M23B 182X0 -040 4673 

Estsates NA. Thu’s. soles 6X15 
Thu’s open int su*l alt 1085 

SR.VBtmCMXl 

sxsa tree ae.-can*»par*na, at. 

Aar 97 503X0 583X0 503X0 -940 4 

Mar 97 517X0 50100 505X0 -970 51176 

A* 97 52259 587X0 51050 -930 14395 

S»97 52753 51150 514X0 —10X0 1350 

Dec 97 535X0 521X0 9450 —410 5X03 

Jan 98 527X0 97X0 527.00 —460 a 

Marts 535X0 53100 50X0 -7X0 5X63 

May 98 541X0 535X0 53SXO —11X0 535 

Estsates NA Thu's, scries 11.1*3 
Thu's open W 09X23 up 703 

PLATMUM (NMER) 
sa troy at- Mm pw crew a*. 

Apr 97 375X0 367X0 389X0 -480 146* 

Mav97 mao 

JW97 376X0 37156 93X0 -3X0 HUB 

Oct 97 37970 34X0 37150 —170 2X32 

ton* Alto 1,147 

g»-! Sates NA Thu'S, serial 8400 
Thu's oeen tor WMI art 96* 


Hlgfa Low Latest Cbgo OpM 

5 YR. TREASURY (CSOT) 

S MOXOff prb»- tot A 64SUOI lDQ PCI 
Art* 97 106-28 108-16 NN-25 * 04 227,110 

SEP97 104-05 3 

DSC 97 103-58 5 

Estsates NA Thu's. sates 61^89 
Herts open tot 227,221 up list 

MYR. TREASURY tCSOrn 

*180X00 artn- pis 1, 32nd, Of too PS 

ton 97 185-n 105-13 105-20 + 00 310.113 

Sap 97 105-08 104-31 105-03 11161 

□sc 97 104-23 5D 

paries NA Wi. soles 87^41 

Ttbrt open tot 325X24 off 1057B 

US TREASURY B0M3S (CBOT) 

<i Pto^OUM ft sands ofiDO pert} 

Jun97 HJ7-T9 107-05 187-14 + 02 429X0 

50P 97 107-04 106-23 106-31 +01 32X20 

DOC 97 1Q6-S 106-16 106-16 —02 5X21 

Mix 91 106-00 1449 

cries NA Thu’s-tcrias 320JS7 
Thu's men HI 40X00 OB 23562 

ajRODOLLARS(CMBa 
si maian-atsDi 100 nd 
Marffl 92X7 92X5 92X6 45X25 

tor. 00 92X4 92X1 92X3 +0X1 36455 

SepOO 92X0 9177 9279 +0X1 35J97 

Dec 00 9273 92X9 9272 +0X1 28X11 

McrOl 9272 9270 9270 -0X1 2SJS1 

ton 2 9267 92X6 9266 -0X1 21468 

Sep 01 92X3 92X2 9242 -0X1 14453 

DecOl 97.56 92X5 9255 -0X1 10412 

Ma-02 92X6 92X5 92X5 -0X1 7X05 

ton 07 9252 92X1 925J —0X1 5 J65 

Sep02 9248 4941 

Dec 02 9241 5^0 

Ed. sates NA Thu’s, scries 496X08 

Thu's open M 2404X45 up 1189 
BRIT»POUM>(CMBU 

4?iTW) MmdLinrBDmid 

Aril 97 1X466 1X316 1x378 31X10 

Sec 97 1X420 1X300 LOO 73 

Dec 97 1X131 S3 

Estsates NA Thu'S. series 7 ,ms 
T hu’s open int 22X82 oil 837 

CANADIAN DOLLAR (CMBD 

1S&C0D CWten, * Per CCbL i£r 

jun97 7266 7257 7263 0X50 

S»97 7321 7296 7298 4X93 

Dec 97 7354 7330 7335 1,119 

Mcr« 7405 696 

Est sales NA Tlx/s. series 7.W 
Thu's aren Int 76X9 up 1172 

CB2MAN MARX (CMBO 
125X00 marks, S ocr imk 
ton 97 X055 X97B X0Q3 607B4 

Sep 97 X080 X650 XW4 2,526 

Dec 97 X093 JOB X093 132 

060-98 XI 37 27 

Estsates NA Thu's. series 29.187 
Thu's «5*n ini 6340 00 434 

6APANE5E YBi <CMSO - 
TtS mPOon yen, t tw NO yon 
ton 97 X1W Xlfl axn 71X51 

sen 97 m n xi93 m 

Dec 97 4421 380 

Ettscriss NA Thute-sates 147*4 

Thu's («n kit 73.157 up «6 

SWISS FRANC {CMSO 

128,000 trances Bar trmic 

ton 97 7034 4936 X970 H I 4V 

SfPW 710 7021 7043 TS 

Doc 97 7163 -TVS 7183 417 

EStSCrieS NA Tiki'S. KriK 14851 

Thu's open inf 41X9 iff 139 

Industrials 
COTTON 2 {HCTKJ 
MHOs-ateiagrb. 

May97 7225 7140 71.0 —179 34190 

Art 97 73.90 73« 7270 -171 14611 


High Low Urieit Chge Qptat. 

Aug 97 5&A0 55A5 55J0 -0X0 1.70 

Sep 97 57.10 56JS 56X5 +117 4106 

Oct 97 5775 57X0 577S *0X7 4197 

NOW 97 5645 56X0 5B.M +0X7 8720. 

Dec 97 »J0 5150 5435 -078 9X» 

Jan 98 S9.1D 59X0 SMO +0.12 5X3% 

Est series NA Tn/LHries 34999 
Thu's erwn^iJ 123,188 off <17 
LIGHT SWEET CRUDE j 

1400 bbL-dteten per ML 
Mery 97 20X1 20X6 ‘ 20X3 -0X7 9CIX«1 

Art! 97 20J6 20X3 200 -0.W 61J7)i 

Art 97 2071 20X1 2059 -0X4 29X56' 

AUB97 20X7 20X2 20X5 -0X3 22791 

Sep 97 20X6 20X5 20X2 -0X3 13,916. 

Oct 97 20X1 20X0 2456 +0X4 14X46' 

Novf7 24 ST JttB 24 B +0X6 «JB7r 

Dec 97 2454 20X3 8143 -0X6 2B422 

ton 91 2450 2450 2450 *005 13X01 , i 

Ft*9B 20X4 7X59 <M 

Mens 2455 24K 7040 -0X3 UKw 

Apt 98 3142 3X91. 

May 98 2041 4092- 

Estsates NA TTVs-KriB 81763 
Thu's ocen int 397X99 iff 360 

NATURAL 6AS(NMBQ 
1QX0B mm Mu's. S per tnm Mu 
May 97 1X50 1X90 U05 34773 

Jiff 97 1X80 1745 1755 15X01- 

Art97 1X» 1755 1765 124K 

AUB97 2X00 1770 1790 9708 

SCO 97 2X05 1775 UK 9X66 

CW 97 2X43 2X70 7X55 10X80 

Nov 97 1170 2.150 ZJS 4837 

Dec 97 1315 12 K 1290 14319 

Jm9S 1345 2X30 2730 14582 

F08 1260 2755 H55 4493 

Mar 98 USD 2140 UK 4758 

Estsates NA Thu's.sdes 15X92 
Ttw'sapmtof 201,726 iff 40022 

UILEASEDCA90LME (NMER) 

raxao net rente nwpte 

Asr® 6470 MOO 63X9 —1X2 1401 

May 97 6455 6250 63X9 -070 S5J17 

ton 97 6370 6125 61» -455 71 JC 

Art 97 63.10 62X0 CA -438 10X06 

AOB97 6170 61X0 6L35 -423 4317 

seen <0X4 <03s ora +412 kto 

F$t snips NA Thu'S, safes 5161* 

Thu's OP* W 97726 Off V54 

Stock Indues 

SAP COMP. mCEXtCMBU A 

SOObhbtea W- 

ton 97 777X0 765X8 77120 —3 JO 17S.92S 
Sep97 70470 77340 782X5 -175 4266 

Dec 97 71100 786X0 7fflXB -4TO 1906 ‘ 

MO-90 801 JO —1670 1? 

Estsates NA Tibi's. series 71797 
Thu's open tot 1B3.1M off U36 


Commodity Indexes 

am Previoa* 

Moody's 1X7420 , NA 

Racrtws . , (W. I.9S7.10- 

DJL Futures 2ASS6 

Markets Qosed 

London and Pans Futures 
markets were closed Monday 
for the Faster holiday. 


IICUBn 
40X00 »- Ms rer to. 

May 97 Tltt 7SX0 2US 
Art 97 77X0 7140 76X0 

toff 97 73A5 7150 75X0 

Fob 98 70X5 70X5 70X5 

Mar 58 6610 

May 90 <7X0 65X0 67X8 

Estiffe* NA Thu 1 1 sates 
TtorSOPfflH 8X71 Off 21 


*192 

6X13 

Financial 



+ 2J0 

1061 

UST.BCXS CO4S0 



*242 

4f9 




+2X2 

100 

-ton 97 94X7 9452 94X6 


4*n 


8 

S4P97 9426 9123 9128 


2X03 

-1X0 

2 

OBC97 9448 


847 

1.711 


E$L«OM£ NA TtbYl-MeS 

1,940 



0097 7545 7486 7468 -is 

Dec V 7SXS 73X5 7S.1S —1X9 +1464 

Mar" K& 7645 7B4S -ItoS ~ 

880/91 77X0 77X0 77X0 —093 

BLrts NA UbTi sates &276 
Thu's open pit 77X27 up SB 

HEATSBOL (NMER7 


1J 


SIS 


Thtr^apMtor 9X45 at wn 


terf7 56X0 56X0 56X9 +033 8.M8 

MW 97 55J0 SOS 56*5 -038 jJSo 

API W BAS SUB 5660 -043 UOT 

JWff EO Eli H2J —0.13 


See our 

EdoeatlimlHredorf 
every Tuesday 


LD:fc/ r J • 






• 'ti-.. 

■^4-' 
ii»J" . 

hk~;. 

'itiy.- -. 

■fct. ... 



^V*j, 







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Vs 




SSSw^. 


A. 

PACE 15 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 1. 1997 



Motorola 
Pulls Out 
Of Ukraine 

Phone firm Angered 

% Long Wrangling 

Agatce Franc*~Presse 

™ — Motorola Inc. said 
** it had abandoned an 
antotootu cellular telephone ven- 
“ m Ukraine after a series of 
clashes with the government 
Motorola cannot continue to in- 
vest in Ukraine when the govero- 
rnent is constantly changing the 
raJes of the game," said Victoria 
"Cocar, Motorola's public relations 
director m Kiev. 

Motorola had already injected $2 
million into the venture and was 
prepariM to invest an additional 
$500 million into a 10-year project 
to set up Ukraine’s first national 
cellular phone network. 

The amount would have been the 
biggest foreign investment in 
Ukraine to date. 

■Motorola's decision to pull out 
puts an end to almost two years of 
wrangling with the Ukrainian au- 
thorities. 

_ “The government left us totally 
in the dark about conditions and 
terms of our exploitation license,” 
Ms. Bondar said. 

In October, Motorola had com- 
plained about a sudden and sharp 
escalation in the fees demanded by 
Ukraine to obtain a license. 

Motorola's decision to throw in 
the towel risks farther tarnishing 
Ukraine ’s already shaky reputation 
in international business circles. 

Few foreign investors have ven- 
tured into Ukraine since the fo rmer 
Soviet republic became independent 
in 1991, in spite of the country’s 
huge economic potential. Ukraine, 
which has a population of 51 mil- 
lion, has received only $1.4 billion 
in direct foreign investment. 

Kiev nevertheless chalked up 
some noteworthy successes last 
year. Inflation was brought down to 
80 percemfrom 376 percent in 1995, 
and a new currency, the grivna, was 
introduced with no problems. 

But investors still complain ihar 
Ukrainian laws are often ambiguous 
and sometimes contradictory, that 
there is too much bureaucracy and 
that toe country’s heavy -taxes en- 
courage toe Hack-market economy. 


5» 


Kirch Trips Up in Digital-TV Adventure 


By Edmund L. Andrews 

New York lima Service 

F RANKFURT — Leo Kirch, who dominates 

c<Hnm « T cial-tdcvision p ro gramm ing in Ger- 
many in a way that media moguls elsewhere can 
only envy, has stubbed his toe badly on dig ita l 
television. 

His closely held Kirch Group, based in Mu- 
nich, has invested more than $] billion over toe 
past year to start Germany’s first digital tele- 
vision service, DFI, which offers a broad se- 
lection of pay-per-view movies and other ser- 
vices by satellite 

o toe service has so far attracted only 
30,000 subscribers — a fraction of toe 200,000 
the company bad hoped to r^ynw . — and Mr. 
Kirch lost an important pa rtner f ast month when 
Rupert Murdoch, who controls British Sky 
Broadcasting FLC, decided not to exercise an 
option to acquire 49 percent of DFI. 

Mr. Kirch has in recent weeks been trying to 
line up more than $600 million in fresh bank 
financing, and be had almost closed a big deal 
with Bavaria’s state-owned bank when word of 
toe proposed loan leaked out and the bank was 
accused of handing out subsidized loans to a 
billion -do liar wwiw em pire 

On Friday, rebutting those critics, Mr. Kirch 
let it be known that he was dropping plans to 
borrow the money and did not need it anyway. 

'"This unfair public discussion over an hon- 
orable business affair is not necessary for us," 
Dieter Han, president of Kirch Group, said 
Friday in an interview with the German news 
agency DPA. 

Because Mr. Kirch releases virtually no fi- 


nancial information, almost no one knows 
whether die company h3s a serious financial 
problem. Executives have insisted in the past 
two weeks that they have no problems and that 
toe loan they had been seeking was nothing 
more than a normal refinancing effort 
But there is no question that DFI has been an 
enormously expensive proposition and that Mr. 
Kirch has been caught in a tight spot. 

His problem, in part, is that the success of 
digital television in Germany requires some 

DFI has been an enormously 
expensive proposition, and Me, 
Kirch has been caught in a 
tight spot. 

sort of detente with this country’s two other 
major media powers: Bertelsmann AG, the me- 
dia and publishing conglomerate, and Deutsche 
Telekom AG, the telephone company, which 
also provides cable television service to 16 
million homes. 

Mr. Kirch’s ace card has always been a huge 
library of programming, which includes the 
German-language rights to thousands of epis- 
odes of American television series such as 
"Baywatch" and "Star Trek” as well as thou- 
sands of movies. 

Kirch Group is also a major producer of 
German television programming. 

But Bertelsmann has a decisive grip on 
Premiere, the pay-television channel in which 
Mr. Kirch is also a partner and which has about 


1.4 million subscribers. Mr. Kirch badly wants 
to incorporate Premiere into his DFI service, 
which would give him broadcast rights to Ger- 
man sports programming, an area where DFI is 
weak, as well as ready access to a big pool of 
subscribers. 

But so far, Bertelsmann and Canal Plus SA of 
France, Premiere’s other owner, have balked at 
signing over toe rights — perhaps, analysis 
have speculated, because both companies har- 
bor digital ambitions of their own. 

The other main player, Deutsche Telekom, 
has nothing in toe way of its own programming 
but does have lines into 16 million homes. 

Because cable television is so well estab- 
lished in Germany, many industry executives 
are convinced that digital television ventures 
cannot survive unless they are transmitted over 
cable as well as satellite. 

Negotiations have been under way intermit- 
tently among all three companies for months. 
But despite widespread expectations that they 
would reach some kind of agreement, the three- 
way tug-of-war continues with no end in sight. 

It remains unclear just why Mr. Murdoch 
backed out of the partnership with DFI. Mr. 
Murdoch controls the hugely successful BSkyB 
satellite service in Britain and is poised to 
become a force in digital satellite television in 
the United Stales now that his company has 
teamed up with EchoStar Communications of 
Englewood, Colorado, the country's third- 
largest direct-broadcast company. 

In any case . Mr. Kirch must scramble to line 
up the money and the partners he needs to 
prevent his adventure in digital television from 
turning into a nightmare. 


Moscow to Put Some Giants Up for Sale 


Bloomberg News 

MOSCOW — Russia’s next 
round of state asset sales will offer 
investors controlling stakes in some 
of tile country’s biggest companies, 
according to JosephBlasi, a Rutgers 
University professor who tracks 
Russian corporate ownership. 

Mr. Blast, began examining Rus- 
sian corporate ownership in the 
early 1990s, when he advised the 
government on selling state assets. 
His work, which includes a book 
published tins year, shows that the 
government still holds a controlling 
stake of 20 percent or more in some 
of Russia's 100 largest companies. 

This year, for example, toe gov- 
ernment plans to sell stakes in the oil 
co mp a ny AO Lukoil Holding, the 
utility company Unified Energy 
System and the insurer AO Ros- 


gosstrakh. The sales are part of an 
effort to raise between 4 trillion and 
5 trillion rubles ($698 million to 
$873 million) this year. 

“Whoever buys the 20 percent of 
those shares — whether an outside 
shareholder, financial industrial 
group or a foreign corporation — 
will be a kingmaker for that com- 
pany," Mr. Blasi said. His survey 
covers some of the largest Russian 
companies, such as toe nickel pro- 
ducer RAO Norilsk Nickel, the 
Moscow power company AO 
Mosenergo and toe telecommuni- 
cations company AO Rosteicom. 

So-called insiders, such as man- 
agers and workers, own an average 
of 21.8.percent of such enterprises, 
based on a survey of 24 of the largest 
100 companies, Mr. Blasi said. The 
study is the first part of a four-part 


survey of toe 100 companies. Citing 
the confidentiality of rbe survey, 
Mr. Blasi said he would not discuss 
individual companies. 

The stake held by foreign in- 
vestors averages about 15.7 percent, 
while other Russian companies have 
an average of 10.2 percent, accord- 
ing to toe study. The stake held by 
the state or a state bolding company 
averaged 20.6 percent, and the gov- 
ernment plans to sell some of that 
stake this year. 

The struggle for the remaining 
shares is likely to be fierce because 
Russian managers, who have re- 
tained control for years even as toe 
government has enacted sweeping 
market reforms, have a huge per- 
sonal stake, Mr. Blasi said. 

Many of those managers have 
spent many years at the firms they 


Investor’s Europe 


London 


Paris 



'O N D J’ F M 
1996 1997 


'ONDJFM 
1996 1997 


O'N’D' J F M‘. 


1906 


1997. 


Exchange ‘ 

Index . 

Mohcfey 

<3088 

PtBV. 

Close- . C 

%■ 

flange 

AmSartian 

AEX ■ 

Closed 

■ ,740^9. 

.. * . 

Brussels . 

BEk-20 

Closed 

il4637. 

: - ■ ■ 

Rankfurt 

DAX ■ 

closed 

3,429:05 

' ■ » ■ 

i 'Dopenhagen Stock Market 

Closed 

53&31 • “ 


Helsinki 

HEX Genial 

Closed 

Z8S0S3. 


Oslo 

OSX : 

Cfosod 

59i.0fi . 

- ‘ 

London 

FTSE100 

Closed 

.4,312^) 


Madrid 

Stodc Exchange 

mm 

480.57. “ 

-i£B 

Wan J 

1WBTB.:. 

Or***: 

«D34 ... 

• r .. 

Paris * 

CAC40 

dosed. 

2,^59.68 


Sockholm . 

sx.is .. 

dosed 

.2560.36 


Vienna 

ATX 

dosed 



Zurich 

SP1 

Closed 

'■ 2348.25 


Source: Tetetaws 



Irucnunonai Herald Thbune 

Very briefly: 


oversee; their average age is 50.5 
years, which means "they spent 
more than 30 years working in the 
wrong economic system.'* Mr. 
Blasi said. 

"Senior managers of firms have 
succeeded for two years in prevent- 
ing the residual state stake from 
being sold, and there were a lot of 
reformers in toe government during 
that period," he said. 

Novolipetsk Metallurgy Combine 
is a case in point. Renaissance Cap- 
ital Group’s Sputnik Fund, Cam- 
bridge Capital Management, and 
Moscow Finance Co. are suing die 
combine, saying its managers refuse 
to give them seats on its board even 
though they own about 40 percent of 
the shares. The combine says the 
investors did not follow toe required 
procedures to gain board seats. 


• The European Union would save the equivalent of 0.8 
percent of its economic output annually by using the euro, the 
£FO economic forecasting institute estimated. 

• ITT Corp. sold its remaining 4.5 million Alcatel Alsthora 
shares to an American institutional investor for $530 million. 

• Severalmaz, a Russian diamond-mining company, may 
consider inviting such foreign mining companies as Eastern 
Mining Ltd. and De Beers to help tap the Lomonosov 
diamond field near Arkhangelsk. 

• Israeli stocks rose on stronger-th an -expected earnings and a 
possible partial sale of state-owned Bank Hapoalim. 

• Kimberly-Clark Corp. bought toe Monbebe diaper busi- 

ness in Spain and Portugal from closely held Lhysa/Autex 
Group. Terms were not disclosed. AFP. Bloomberg. Reuters 


Swiss Re Sets a Price 

Bloomberg News 

ZURICH — PartnerRe Ltd. of Bermuda said Monday it 
would buy SA Francaise de Reassurances from Swiss Re- 
insurance Co. for 5.4 billion French francs ($957 million) in 
cash and shares. 

Swiss Re, the world's second-largest reinsurance concern, 
would receive about $800 million in cash and 6.45 million 
PartnerRe common shares. The transaction will raise Swiss 
Re's stake in PartnerRe to 21.8 percent from 1 1 .1 percent. 

Swiss Re said in February it would buy the 78.4 percent of 
the French reinsurer that it did not already own and then sell 
toe company to PartnerRe. 

The announcement Monday was the first indication of what 
Zurich-based PartnerRe would pay for the French concern 
once it was available. 


GOLD: In Indonesia, the Bre-X Saga of Mystery, Power and Political Intrigue Shows That Gold’s Glitter Retains Its Seductive Powers 


■ _ContanuedfromI^e 1 


He had gone to Indonesia in the early 
^-~'~^98Gslotiyto prove bis theory that gold 
bankruptcy. They owed and otherpredousmetals could be found 
along intersecting fault lines in the 


- dared 

S59j50boa 15 credit cards. 

: That same year, an old friend tipped 
him off to a good thing in Indonesia. He 
gambled his last dollars to get there, saw 
enough to be bitten by the gold buj* again . 
andlctumed to Calgary. He and Ins wfie 
raised $80,000 to bay mining rights to 
the land by selling 512,000 Bre-X op- 
tions, some at 10 cents a share. UL 
ornately, they parlayed that stake into 90 
percent ownership of a larger claim. • 
Two years later. Mr. Walsh was living 
in the Bahamas, Bre-X was out of its 
basemem office and into its own boildSng, 
and Mr. Walsh, credit cardspaid off. had 
a net worth of more than $300 million, 
most. of it in Bre-X’s then-surging stock. 
“ At that point, he owed much of his 
good fortune to two jungle-hardened, 
malaria-riddled geologists whose obses- 


mtersectmg taint imes m 
Earth’s crust. 

An Australian mining company, 
Montague Gold Co. of Prato, hired him 
to survey some land around asmafl creek 
called Busang. Mr. Felderbof thought 
the company had a decent strike, more 
than 1 million ounces of gold. But 
Montague passed it up and by 1993 was 
willing to selL 

That’s when Mr. Feldexhof got a call 
from Mr. Walsh, whom he had first met 
in 1983. When Mr. Felderbof mentioned 
what he thought he had found, Mr. 
Walsh got excited. Mr. Walsh was con- 
vinced that the Dutchman still had the 
Midas touch. Working phones in 
Canada, he sold options and raised toe 
money to buy toe stake from Mom 
and begin exploration. Mr. 


sion for volcanic footprints was matched joined toe company and hired Mr. de 
duly by Mr. Walsh's pursuit of gold. Guzman, a veteran geologist, who also 


Only by Mr. _ _ 

• Gold holds a special place in the his- 
tory and lore of Ca nada. At the event that 
gather s together Ca nada ’s “gold bags’ ’ 
once every year, toe Prospectors and 
Developers Convention in Toronto last 
month, everyone wanted to meet John 
Felderbof and Mr. de Guzman. 

Mr. Felderbof, a chain-smoking 
Dutch geologist from Nova Scotia who 
had crane down with malaria more toana 
A dozen times, had been named “Pro- 
f of the Year" for his work in 


had suffered endless bouts of malari a 
and who believed in toe same theory of 
volcanic deposits. 

In early 1994, Mr. de Guzman was 
trekking through toe jungle on Bre-X’s 
concession when a bit of yellow rock on 
a river bank caught his eye. 

He wrote toe words “Check it out,” 

on aplastic strip and tacked it to the rock. 
His assistant, who had been following 
behind, did a more detailed analysis and 
scribbled an addendum: “Check m ate.” 

Early drilling showed promise, ac- 


cording to Bre-X; and ft did not take long 
for bigger players to nose-anxmefc Bar- 
rick Gold Corp., a Toronto-based com- 
pany that is the second-hugest gold pro- 
ducer in toe world, made an eairiy pitch 
for Busang, but Mr. Walsh refused to sell 
Barrick toe controlling interest in the 
project that it wanted. 

Estimates climbed steadily. By Janu- 
ary 1 996, Busang was being described as 
a 30 million-ounce mine, a huge find. A 
month later, an Indonesian mining of- 
ficial said there were 40 million ounces 
to be mined. 

By Maty, Bre-X stock had climbed to 
more than $200 a share. The company 
offered a 10-for-l split, and the stock 
just kept on tiring. 

To the surprise of many inriders who 
had expected Bre-X to take its profit and 
sell, Mr. Walsh bung in. But toe bigger 
players were circling. 

Barrick returned, but this time with a 
different tack. Doing business in In- 
donesia usually means doing business 
with President Suhaito and bis family , so 
Bamck’s chairman, Peter Munk. 
aligned himself with Siti Hardiyanti 
Rukamana, Mr. Suharto’s eldest daugh- 
ter, promising that if Barrick grabbed 


the lucrative contract tor building the 
project’s roads. 

Bre-X sought its own ally in Mr. 
Suharto’s eldest son. Sigit Haijojudanto, 
offering to pay him $1 million a month in 
“consulting fees.” 

In November, Mr. Munk and Mr. 


Walsh were summoned to a meeting 
withlndones&s- mining minister, I.B. 
Sudjana. Mr. Sudjana apparently be- 
lieved that Barrick should have a 75 
percent stake in the Busang project and 
that Bre-X being smaller, should only 
have 25 percent, compared with the 90 
percent it held originally. 

The Canadian companies were 
ordered to come to an agreement. But Mr. 
Walsh would not give in to the pressure. 

Then Mohamad (Bob) Hasan. Mr. 
Suharto’s right hand man. stepped in. He 
bought control of PT Askarindo, Bre- 
X’s Indonesian partner, and made him- 
self toe deal-maker. 

He squeezed Barrick out of the pro- 
ject, and Mr. Walsh, backed into a 
comer, agreed to the deal Mr. Hasan 
proposed: Bre-X's stake would drop to 
45 percent of Busang, while Mr. Hasan 
and the companies he directs would get 
30 percent Freeport-McMoRan Copper 
& Gold Inc. of New Orleans, a big 
investor in Indonesia for 30 years, would 
take 15 
era tor, 

own sampling, the Indonesian govern- 
ment got toe remaining 10 percent 

In a conference call a week later with 
analysts. Mr. Felderbof said estimates 
had risen to 71 million ounces. 

He then made the electrifying pre- 
diction that the final number would ex- 
ceed 200 million. At the market price of 
about $350 an ounce, the value would 
have a value of $70 billion. 

But right from the start, Freeport 



found something amiss. Holes that Bre- 
X indicated should be chock full of gold 
were coming up almost empty. 

David Potter. Freeport's vice pres- 
ident for exploration, wanted an explan- 
ation. One problem seems to have been 
the Jan. 23 fire. Jerry Alo, a Bre-X 
consultant, said the fire engulfed the 
geological office, where Mr. de Guzman 
kept his records, before spreading to 
several other structures. 

The buildings were heavily damaged, 
and much of the contents destroyed, 
presumably including Mr. de Guzman's 
files. Mr. Alo said duplicates were avail- 
able, but in Samariuda. 150 miles (240 
kilometers) away. 

Mr. Potter sent for Mr. de Guzman, 
who hopped aboard a leased AUouette- 
m helicopter to meet with Mr. Potter. 

The helicopter company's director, 
AzharMualim, said that J 7 minutes after 
taking off from Samarinda. heading to- 
ward Busang, the pilot felt a gust of wind 
— and saw that the door was open and 
Mr. de Guzman was gone. But in a 
conflicting version given to police in 
Kalimantan, as Indonesia's part of the 
island of Borneo is called, the pilot said 
he had seen Mr. de Guzman scribble 
notes and remove his Rolex before 
jumping. 

Mr. Mualim said he had seen several 
suicide notes, including one in which 
Mr. de Guzman said he had hepatitis B. 

A search party found the body in a 
remote swamp. An autopsy was con- 
ducted. but results have not yet been 


announced. The combination of Mr. de 
Guzman's death and Freeport's prelim- 
inary findings created a panic. Trading 
in Bre-X stock was suspended for a day 
and a half. 

The Toronto Stock Exchange re- 
sumed trading in it at 3 P.M. on March 
27. and within 15 minutes, more than 7 
million shares changed hands. Its price 
plunged from $11.22 to $1.95 before 
being suspended again. 

The losses hurt the holders of all 219 
million Bre-X shares outstanding. But 
some were hurt worse than others. Mr. 
Walsh. Mr. Felderhof and other Bre-X 
officials had unloaded a lot of stock last 
year, while prices were still high, and 
made millions of dollars on it then. Even 
so, Mr. Walsh said last week he was still 
one of Bre-X’s largest shareholders. 

Much needs to be cleared up before 
any conclusions can be reached about 
what really happened at Busang. Free- 
port has drilled only seven holes, com- 
pared with more than 260 drilled by Bre- 
X over several years. Freeport will con- 
tinue its sampling for several weeks. 

An independent company is cross- 
checking the results from both Freeport 
and Bre-X to explain the conflicting 
results. The company, Strathcona Min- 
eral Services Ltd. of Toronto, will also 
drill new core samples. It is expected to 
complete its audit in about a month. 

In the meantime, the Indonesian gov- 
ernment has suspended work on Bre-X's 
mining contracts pending an investiga- 
tion. 


WORLD STOCK MARKETS 

Monday, Mvch 31 h* u. a*. 

Prices In toert amende*. 22gS*P» 

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979 

990 

10© 

TofchePttOT 

2990 

26© 

TWO 

2880 

TaksdaChero 

2610 


2590 

7990 

TDK 

8560 

8470 

0500 

890 

iMrtiEiPH 

2020 

two 

7070 

TOM 

Toted Bank 

965 

935 

9M 

WO 

TeMa Marine 

17 to 

1738 

12© 

1270 

Tokyo El Parr 

7350 

2210 

22© 

7230 


4130 

4090 

41© 

41© 

Tokyo Gs* 

310 

303 

T10 

m 

TofcyvCorp. 

iff) 

6AI 

582 

609 

Tonen 

M90 

II© 

1180 

11» 

Toppon Print 

146# 

1430 

14© 

14© 

Toraylnd 

TUI 

703 

/IV 

71/ 

Toshiba 

692 

©1 

684 

m 

Tostan 

28© 

2610 

jm 

78© 

Ton Trust 

666 

no 

853 

850 

Toyota Motor 

3130 

3080 

3130 

3110 

YbiMraucN 

26© 

2S50 

25© 

35© 

tcrmkxlM 






The Trib Index 

Proas hs oi 3.00 PM New York time. 

Jar, 1 . 1992 * 100 . 

Level 

Change 

% change 

year to date 
% change 
4 - 13.69 

World index 

149.92 

- 0.56 

- 0.37 

Region© Indexes 

Asia/Paafic 

108.04 

• 0.35 

- 0.32 

- 19.53 

Europe 

163.10 

* 0.63 

40.39 

4 - 17.19 

N. America 

169.87 

- 1.66 

- 0.97 

432.42 

S. America 
industrial fixtaaea 

136.08 

- 3.00 

- 2.16 

4 - 52.83 

Capital goods 

173.68 

- 0.50 

- 0.29 

+ 30.70 

Consumer goods 

158.50 

- 0.83 

- 0.49 

+ 22.04 

Energy 

182.61 

- 0.24 

- 0.13 

+ 34.85 

Finance 

110.20 

- 0.66 

- 0.60 

- 13.39 

Miscellaneous 

155.64 

• 0.39 

- 0.25 

+ 14.60 

Raw Materials 

181.85 

- 0.14 

- 0.08 

+ 28.24 

Service 

140 .% 

- 0.59 

- 0.42 

+ 17.48 

Utilities 

131.63 

- 1.26 

- 0.95 

+ 3.53 

The International HemUThbuno World Stock Mm C tracks the US. dcSar values ol 
290 blemBtonofy InvemUe stocks (mm Z 5 countries. For marv rtomatlon. 8 tree 
bocldal a available by mating to The Trd> Index, 181 Avonu* Charles de Gaufe. 

32521 (Vanity Cedox, Prance. CdmptiedbyBlooitibeig News. 

High 

Low Close Pm. 


Hi## Lew 

dose Piw. 


Toronto 

AOQUPike 
AJbertn Energy 
AtesiAhim 

AnsemnExpl 

Bk Montreal 
Bfernre Scorer 
BtKrtttGoW 
BCE 

BCTatooemm 
BtadremPtam 
Bmba&aB 
BrcaconA 
Bre-x Minerals 


T5E ladaUtWc5B4452 
Pmtew5931JS 


21 19.70 
79 2»4 
4710 442# 
17 1435 
SOte A 660 

suss seas 

3145 3235 

653# «U0 
30*5 SOU 
42*9 57,55 
25U 3688 
31*4 30*4 
N.T. N.T. 


2005 
2445 
4 UK 
1670 
©30 
5685 
3140 
6615 
3030 
5765 
2545 
3135 
N.T. 


28M 

4430 

168S 

5020 

5L40 

3X00 

6695 

3035 

666 # 

2535 

31M 


Can«ca 

OBC 

Cdn Notl RaQ 

MnNaiRts 

CrtiQcddPet 

CdnPodffc 

Comlnco 

Dofasco 

Damr 

Donohue A 

Du PortCda A 

EOper Group 

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f^rinsFU 

Faksobridge 

FletUierOwBA 

FhmNewnto 

GulfCdaRH 

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HManei 

Mam 

Newbridge Na 
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541* 5110 
3714 30V: 

5940 48*4 

3414 3X80 
2530 2680 
3235 
37 
23 


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2385 72.79 


S3V, 54 V: 
3185 31 JO 
48.95 5045 
3340 3314 

25.10 75VS 
33.15 33V5 

37 38.05 
2135 2X10 
I me io.7o 
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2245 mo 

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3535 35.70 
1635 1630 

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. . Continued on Page IS 


VI 

















INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 


PAGE 17 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


4 


Tokyo Presents Plan 




State Witt Buy Some Mortgaged Land 


\ 


TC«CYO — The government an- 
nounced a range <rf measures 
Monday aimed at reviving the 
moribund real-estate maiiet, inctud- 

^ ^ 380 biffion yen 
of mortgaged property 
• from debt-collection institutions/ 3 

A _FMmmg the backbone of tfaepack- 

a»«as an easing of rules that would 
allow real estate held as collateral to 
be canted uito securities to be sold to 
investors. Many analysts say 
unrealized losses on real estate are at 
the awe of Japan’s economic dif- 
ficulties. The changes are aimed at 
helping banks, property owners and 
others write off the losses. 

Other measures include using 
public money to buy land for public 

projects such as old-age homes, day- 
care centers and parks, as well as the 

easing of zoning and other regu- 
lations to promote the projects. 

l, Cu*n rf (tin. 


t 


year slatting April 1, 1998. 



, _ strategist su- 
ntan Brothers Japan, said. “It’$ xto % 
an aid-all solution, but it’s a step in 
the right direction.” 

Analysts and banking sources 
said some elements of the new plan 
such as tax reform, needed to be 
better defined to attract investors to 
securities backed by real estate. 

“There are key areas which are 
still sketchy,’ 1 an official at a lead- 
ing trust bank said- “They have only 
said that taxes on real-estate trust 
certificates and special-purpose 
companies are under review.” 

The Ministry ofRnance said trust 
banks would be allowed to issue se- 
curities linked to real -estate business 
loans immediately and that rules al- 
lowing the establishment of special- 
purpose companies to handle such 
ii securities would be introduced in the 


yen to be set aside to buy land was 
p°t enough to make a si gnifican t 
™pact cm land prices or the problem 
of bad lo ans, - 

Analysts also said that, while se- 
curitization would provide a frame- 
work for channeling funds into die 
land maricet, not much was expected 

to happen until investors believed 
juices had bottomed ouL 

The Finance Ministry, estimates 
that Japan’s banking industry holds 
about 30 trillion yen in bad loans, but 
private analysts say (be figure could 
be double or triple t hat amount 

Financial markets were disap- 
pointed by an early report of die plan. 
The benchmark Nikkei stock index 
fell 1.02 percent to a two-week low 
of 18,003.40, amid expectations the 
plan would not go far enough to help 
Japanese banks with their loan prob- 
lems. ( Bloomberg , Reuters. AFP) 

■ Hokkaido to Buy Rival 

Hokkaido Taknaboku Bank, one 
of Japan’s largest banks, plans to 
buy a rival, Hokkaido Batik, as both 
companies straggle to overcome 
bad loans left over from the late 
1980s, Bloomberg News reported 
from Sapporo. 

A Ministry of Finance official, Sei 
Nakai, said die banks were consid- 
ering a merger of their businesses. 
He could not confirm a final agree- 
ment But Japanese media repotted 
that Hokkaido Taknsbokn fanned 
to complete die acquisition of 
Hokkaido Bank by Apnl 1, 1998. 

Tbe two banks hope the com- 
bination will speed up write-offs of 
bad debts and improve efficiency, 
according to the reports. Hokkaido 
Taknshoku is one of Japan's 20 
biggest banks: 


Chrysler Japan Chief Quits 


Bloomberg News 

TOKYO —The head of Chrysler Corp.’s Japanese 
subsidiary resigned Monday because of differences 
with the parent c omp any over how to sell more cars in 
Japan, where die U.S. carmaker fell far short of 


3 Hohgj, president of Chrysler Japan Sales 
Ltd., resigned after a year on the job. the 
company said. Mr. Hohgi’s vision of how 
to imjjrove sales this -year did not match 

mao^ for Chrysler^teraational ^Corp.. 
Qnyster’s overseas distributor and the par- 
ent of die Japanese sales unit 

Mr. Leestma declined to say what die 
differences were, but he said last year’s 
sales results were nor die reason for Mr. 

Hohgi’s departure. 

“The sales situation -would have been 
the same regardless of who was at the 
helm,” the spokesman said Chrysler sold 
16,170 vehicles in Japan in 1996, a record 
total bat far short of ns target of 25,000, 

“I don’t think it will be a surprise to 
anyone that we are not where we want to 
be,” the spokesman said, adding that Chrysler, the 
No. 3 U.S. automaker, expected a higher sale figure 
this year. Bringing about that increase will be tbe job 
of Keisuke Egashira, 65, the chairman and director of 
Chrysler Japan Sales, who will temporarily take over 
Mr. Hohgi’s post and act as an adviser to Chrysler 
International while Chrysler hunts for a permanent 
successor. Mr. Leestma said tbe company was not 
ready to say how its strategy in Japan might change. 

Mr. Hohgi said this year that Chry sler would reach 
its goal of selling more than 100,000 cars a year in 
Japan by 2000. fie declined to provide a sales f ore- 
cast for 1997. 

Sales of Chrysler’s Neon, which hit the Japanese 
market in June 1996. have been particularly dis- 
appointing. Only 994 of the widely publicized model 



Hideo Hohgi. 


were sold last year, less than one-quarter of 
Chrysler’s forecast, Mr. Hohgi said. Tbe Neon was 
the first passenger automobile Chrysler had attempt- 
ed to sell in Japan. The Jeep Cherokee was the 
company’s top seller in Japan last year. 

Chrysler, General Motors Corp. and Ford Motor 
Co. are all struggling to improve their sales in Japan. 
In recent months, the Big Three auto- 
makers have started to complain that tbe 
relatively weak yen has blunted their pro- 
gress in the Japanese market 

Sales of cars imported from the United 
Stales fell almosr 30 percent last month 
from a year earlier, the Japan Automobile 
Importers Association said. 

Last year, when the yen averaged 
108.80 to the dollar, U.S. automakers sold 
more than 100,000 cars in Japan for the 
first rime ever. The dollar has since 
strengthened further, averaging about 121 
yen so far this year and closing Monday at 
123.95 yen in Tokyo. 

General Motors exported almost 44,000 
cars to Japan from the United Suites last 


year, an increase of63 percent. Including 


its Saab and Opel operations. GM sold about 83. 1 
vehicles here, including commercial vehicles, up 
from about 61,000 in 1995. While that marked a big 
improvement, it was still a drop in the bucket com- 
pared with Japanese auto sales in the United States. 
Toyota Motor Corp. sold 86,000 autos in the United 
States last month alone. 

General Motor's Saturn division is to start selling 
cars in Japan this weekend. But with the yen at its 
current level, the company is unlikely to turn a profit 
on the car. analysts say. Chrysler, on the other hand, 
is profitable in Japan even with the yen at its current 
level. Mr. Leestma said. Chrysler will introduce a 
right-hand drive Voyager minivan here at the end of 
April to try to perk up its sales. It has not announced 
a price for the vehicle yet 



Hong Kong Singapore . ' /; • 

Hang Seng ... ■ Straits Times . • 

14000 - • — 2250 - - - ■ rtV 1‘ 22000 . 

1350D ‘ ‘ AjtJlMn ‘ 2200 ' jftr "A - 21000 Mrfjr 
t 3 «io— nf- M-.aal - - 1 2000 a - •— L- — . 

12500 rJ* - ■ * 2 IO 0 V/ - V 19000 — l-jlf': 

ia«i< aas •» 

' 11500 q- N ' d "j p-y' 2000 b N D 

1996 1997 1996 

Exchange ' Index 

Hong Kong Hang Seng 

J F' M- '»0 T ND7f^ 
1997 1996 1937 

Monday .Fm*« •• M‘ 

Close ' Close: " 

dosed- 12^34.3? 

Singapore Strafe Times •• - 

2.073JJO 2.088.82 

Sydney AS Ordinaries 

dosed' 2,422.85 ■ ... 

Tokyo ' • ! N8dceJ225 ■' 

18,008^0 18,189.72 432 

Kuala Lumpttr Composite - 

1^03,10 1^17.84 4.19 

Bangkok SET 

70643 .. 7QQSX} 4L92. 

Seoul ■ . Composite Index 

677.34 667.18. +*£* 

Taipei . Slock Market Index 8,004.20 8.119.70 -tv*®] 

MahHa PSE - 

3022M. 3#8M. Uridi: 

Jakarta ... Composite index 

dosed 662^4 ... - 

Wellington NZSE-40 

Closed 2^236.74 

Bombay Sensitive Index 

3^&89 3,663.53. -826 

Source : Tetekurs 

lurnuliooil Herald Tnhunc 

Very briefly: 


Credit-Tightening Hits Malaysian Stocks 


Main Index in India Plummets 8% 

Bloomberg News 

BOMBAY — India’s main stock index plunged more than 8 percent 
Monday, the first day of trading since the Congress Party withdrew 
crucial, support from die United Front government of Prime Minister 
H.D. Dcve Gowda. 

. Most stocks fell the m ax i mum 7 percent allowed by the National 
Stock Exchange in a single trading session. On the Mumbai Stock 
Exchange, most benchmark stocks fell by nearly die 10 percent 
aflowedfrom their previous close Friday. 

. The Congress Party’s dedsionwill “hurt international confidence in 
India’s economy,” Shekhar Datta, president of the Confederation of 
Indian Industry, the country’s largest trade body, said. 41 ‘There will once 
again be concerns about toe stability of India’s economic policies.’ * 

- The Mumbai Stock Exchange Sensitive Index fell 302.40 points, or 
8.26 percent, to 3.360.89. At its lowest point oftiie day, the index showed 
z record loss of 9.4 percent ’ - ' 


CtmqM bjrOwStcffFrmPhpBXJia 

KUALA LUMPUR — Malay- 
an’s benchmark stock index plunged 
to a three-month low Monday as 
shares of banks snch as AMMB 
Holdings Bhd. A*rlinpH amid con- 
cern that profits would be hurt by the 
central bank’s move to Kmit le nding 
for property and stock investments. 

“In die short term, banks are go- 
ing to underperform,” Lai Tak 
Heong, head of research at Socgen 
Crosby Research, said. “We’ve 
lowered our estimates on the loans 
growth to the property industry for 
1997. This will translate to a slight 
decrease in profits for die banks.” 

The benchmark Kuala Lumpur 
composite index fell 14.54 points, 
or 1.19 percent, to close at 1.203.10. 
Shares of Malayan Banking Bhd.. 
die country’s biggest banking com- 


pany in terms of assets and 
branches, closed at 28 
($1 1 JO), down 0.50, while 
Holdings Bbd. feU 1.80 to 20.60. 

The Stock Exchange of Singapore 
index, meanwhile, retreated 25.92 
points, to end at 2,073.00, on worries 
over rising U.S. interest rates and the 
actions of Malaysia’s central bank. 
But analysts said they saw a silver 
lining in the long term in Bank Neg- 
ara's action on property loans. 

Tbe centra] bank, they said, was 
trying to avoid a crisis like the one 
that has recently befallen Thailand, 
which has been hit by oversupply in 
the property sector, high interest 
rates and its slowest economic 
growth in a decade. They also said 
memories still lingered of Malay- 
sia’s own property bubble in the 
mid-1980s, which triggered a re- 


cession and led the central bank to 
bail out some commercial banks. 

In its 1996 annual report, released 
Friday, the central bank said it would 
limit banks' lending to the property 
sector to 20 percent of all their loans 
outstanding, starling Tuesday, and it 
imposed restrictions on lending for 
stock purchases as well. 

Analysts said nine years of 
growth of more than 8 percent a year 
in Malaysia had raised expectations 
in the property market that growth 
would be continuous. But they 
warned that a property glut was 
looming in and around Kuala Lum- 
pur, especially in the office sector. 
“There's oversupply in shopping 
malls and offices.'' Phuah Lee Kerk 
of Jupiter Securities said. “Hotels 
are also oversupplied.” 

(AFP. Reuters. Bloomberg i 


• Nippon Credit Bank Lid.'s shares fell 3.1 percent, sig- 
naling concern that an expected restructuring plan would not 
resolve the bank's bad-loan problems, analysts said. 

• Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corp. will participate in a 
$12 billion project to lay an underseas telecommunications 
cable linking China. Japan and the United Stales. 

• Nomura Securities Co.’s scandal has spread to Japan ’s three 
other big brokerages concerns, the Asani Shimbun reported, 
citing unidentified sources. The newspaper said authorities 
were investigating Daiwa Securities Co-, Nikko Securities 
Co. and Yamaichi Securities Co. for links to a racketeer. 

• A Vietnam appeals court upheld death sentences imposed 
on four people in a $40 million corruption case involving the 
trading company Tamexco. 

• South Korea will allow foreigners to invest in local venture- 
capital companies and to buy newly issued shares this year. 

• Maruti Udyog Ltd., India's biggest carmaker, said ner 

profit for the year that ended Monday rose 17 percent, to 5.01 
billion rupees ($142.8 million). AFP. Bloomberg. Reuters 


2 Singapore Marine Firms Merge 

Age rite France-Presse 

SINGAPORE — Sembawang Corp. and Jurong Shipyard 
Ltd. signed a merger agreement Monday that established one 
of the world's largest ship-repair and conversion companies. 

The combined company controls more than 50 percent of 
the Singapore market and is preparing to compete with rivals 
from the Middle East that have taken business away from 
Singapore in the current weak global market. 

Under the agreement, Jurong will pay for Sembawang’s 
shipyard assets by issuing 27.6 million new Jurong shares 
valued at 187 million Singapore dollars ($133.6 million), or 
6.80 dollars a share. The new company, which will operate 
under the Jurong name, has nine drydocks. three of which can 
handle very large crude-oil carriers. 


See our 

Beal Estate Marketplace 

every Friday 


1 


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tf Cwtfvy 

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IN STRACORP 

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69, route dhEnh. Luxembourg 
R.C. Luxembourg 87443 

DIVTOEND ANNOUNCEMENT 

S»«rrhoidere are informed ibalCT INVESTMENT FUND vnB pay 
an interim dividend of USD 0.465 per A share and USD 0.476 
per B share on April 14, 1997 to registered shareholders on 
record on March 3l, 1997. 

Shares are traded ex-dividend as from Apnl L 1997. 

"The dividend is payable to holders of bearer shares against 
presentation of coupon no 10 to the following paying agents: 
Bayerische Vereinsbaak AC: 

KardmaTFaulhaber Strasse 1 

8000 Mnenchen 3 
Germany 

Credit Industrial el Commercial 

66, roe Vktoire 
75009 Paris 
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Banqne Internationale 1 Luxembourg 
69, Route iTEscb 

Luxembourg The Board of Directors. 


r 


i 


Schlumberger 


NOTICE OF ANNUAL 

GENERAL MEETING OF STOCKHOLDERS 

Notice is hereby given that the annual General Meeting ol 
Stockholders of SCHLUMBERGER LIMITED (Schlumberger 
N.V.) wffl be held at the Avto Bead! Hotel, Wfflemstad, Curacao. 
Netherlands Antilles, on Wednesday 9 April. 1997, at 10:30 
o’clock In the morning (Curacao time), far the following purpose: 

L. To elect 11 directors 

2. To report on the course of h isiness during the year ended 
December 31, 1996, to approve the Company's Consolidated 
Balance Sheet as at December 31, 1996, its Consolidated 
Statement of Income for the year ended December 31. 1996 
and the declaration of dividends by the Board of Directors as 
reflected in the Company's 1996 Annual Report to 
Stockholders- 

3. To amed the Deed of Incorporation of the Company to 
increase the authorized Common Stock from 500,000,000 to 
1,000. 000.000 shares. 

4. To approve the appointment of Price Waterhouse LLP as 
Independent pubfic accountants to audft the accounts of the 
Company far 1997. 

Action wtt also be taken upon such other matters as may come 
property before the Meeting. 

Up to 7 Apri, 1897 the holders of Certificates representing 5 or 
100 common shares Schlumberger Limited may give voting 
Instructions to the depositary under deposit of their certificates 
with toe undersigned or by surrender of a deposit advice of their 
banks. 

If no voting Instructions are given the undersigned wB vote for the 
four matters. 

of tbe notice of this Annual Meeting of Stockholders and 
able with 


of the Annuel Report 1996 are avafeble 
Amsterdam, March 27. 1997 
SpuJseraaM72 


i undersigned. 


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PAGE 18 


OfTERiVAT IONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUI 


Monday’s 3 P.M. 

The 1.QQQ most-traded Mntfonal fltake t securities 
In terns of daSorwiue, updated twice a year. 
Tts Assoaasd Press. 


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UW> Ua SSrt 


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PAGE 20 


World Roundup 








Cbtaa BaAeMeu/AP 

Paul ReifFel bowling Monday 
for Australia in South Africa. 


India Collapses 

CMCXJET The West Indies bowled 
India out for just 81 runs Monday to 
snatch an improbable victory in Bar- 
bados in the third test 

India started the day on two runs 
with no wickets down in its second 
innings needing to reach only 120 
to win. Franklyn Rose, a pace bowl- 
er playing only his third Test re- 
moved the first three batsman in 
nine overs. Ian Bishop took four 
wickets for 22 runs and Curtley 
Ambrose took the other three. 
Opener W Laxraan was top scorer 
for fridia with 19. No other batsman 
made more than nine. (AP, AFP) 

• Marie Waugh hit a brilliant 115 
Monday as Australia beat South 
Africa by seven wickets in Port 
Elizabeth in the second one-day 
international. Mark Waugh and his 
twin Steve shared a 107-run stand 
as Australia scored 222 for three. 
Earlier South Africa had made 221 
for eight in its 50 overs. (Reuters) 

• Israel will stay in the Interna- 
tiona] Cricket Council tournament 
in Malaysia although a match was 
disrupted by Muslim fundamental- 
ists, officials said Monday. 

The protesters invaded the 
wrong field by mistake. They lit 
bonfires and smashed advertising 
billboards at die ground where 
Canada was to play the Nether- 
lands. Meanwhile, Israel lost to 
Gibraltar in another Kuala Lumpur 
suburb, guarded by about 100 riot 
police in anticipation of a demon- 
stration. (AP) 

100 Dutch Fans Arrested 

soccer Police arrested about 
100 soccer fans before a match in 
Den Bosch in the Netherlands on 
Monday to prevent a repeat of a 
street fight eight days ago that left 
one man clubbed to death, Dutch 
television reported. 

Police made the arrests after dis- 
that fans of first division 


■ kM rpr. v.y mi 


had arranged to fight each other 
before the match. 

Before the match 68 people were 
arrested for offenses including 
weapons possession and not car- 
rying identification papers. A fur- 
ther 37 fans were arrested in The 
Hague before they could take a 
train to the game. (AP) 

Woozy Boggs May Play 

baseball Wade Boggs re- 
ceived 47 stitches above his left eye 
but plans to play on opening day. 

Boggs was hit by a ground ball 
during batting practice Sunday be- 
fore the New York Yankees played 
at Atlanta He was treated at a hos- 
pital, but hopes to start Tuesday's 
season opener at Seattle. 

“I never passed out,” Boggs 
said. “I was woozy.” 

“It depends on the swelling,” 
said Dr. Stuart Hersbon, the Yan- 
kees' physician. “He’sgottobeaWe 
to put the batting helmet on.” (AP) 


Sports 


TUESDAY, APRIL 1,199^^ 


Tennessee Repeats 
As NCAA Champion 

2d Title Caps a Tough Season 


By Amy Shipley 

Washington Past Service 

CINCINNATI — As the clock con- 
firmed Tennessee’s second consecutive 
NCAA women's basketball title, a 68- 
59 victory over Old Dominion that 
mirrored Tennessee’s excruciatingly 
slow-developing season, coach Plat 
Summit! dropped her bead between 
slumped shoulders. This wasn't revelry. 
It was relief. 

As Tennessee’s players rushed tri- 
umphantly onto Riverfront Coliseum’s 
center court. Summit! headed straight to 
the Lady Monarchs coach, Wendy 
Larry, raising a hand only to acknow- 
ledge the crowd. 

Tennessee lost 10 games this season, 
more than any other tournament finalist 
The Lady Vols twice suffered back-to- 
back losses. They finished behind four 
teams in the Southeastern Conference. 

“Fifth in the SEC and No. 1 in the 
country — doesn’t that sum up this 
team?” Summiti said. “This year was a 
tremendous blessing. We faced a lot of 
adversity.” 

' ‘This championship will always 
stand out They played the toughest 
schedule and didn't fold. I tell you, I was 
tough on them.” 

With nine seconds left, Abby Conk- 
lin, a senior forward, came gleefully to 
the sideline and wrapped her arms 
around Summitt. Summitt, thoroughly 
distracted, did not hug back. She did not 
smile. Her neck craned to die score- 
board, checking to make sure there were 
enough points up there. 

Even after her team had dearly sur- 
vived their opponents' trademark 
comeback — Old Dominion gained a 
one-point advantage with nine minutes 
left after trailing by 16 in the first half — 
Summitt seemed fearful the lead would 
disappear. 

But in the end the Lady Vols became 


Devils’ Rookie 
Gets 22 Saves 
As Kings 'Wilt 


The Associated Press 

Even though goalie Martin Brodeur 
took a day off, it was business as usual 
for die Devils as they beat Los Angeles, 
5-2. 

“I’ve accepted the fact that I’m not 
going to play a lot of games,' ' said Mike 
Dunham, the rookie who stood in for 


the second team to repeat in the 16 years 
the NCAA has held a women's tour- 
nament: Southern California won suc- 
cessive titles in 1983 and 1984. Ten- 
nessee’s titles have come in 1987, ’89. 
’91, ’96. and now, 1997. Summitt. in her 
23d season as coach, trails only UCLA ’s 
John Wooden (10) in Division I national 
basketball championships — men or 
women — after winning her fifth. 

Old Dominion, which lost Sunday 
night for only the second time in 36 
games this season, was the champion in 
1985. 

This victory for Tennessee looked 
much like its season. Neither came to- 
gether quickly. Neither came without 
pain. “You have no idea what we have 
been through,” Summitt said Friday, 
almost in an agonized tone, after her 
team’s defeat of Notre Dame in the 
tournament semifinals. 

The Lady Vols prevailed largely be- 
cause of 24 points by Ghamique Hold- 
sclaw, named the most outstanding play- 
er of the Final Four. Conklin added 12 
points. Tennessee also pressured Old 
Dominion's all-American guard, Ticha 
Penicheiro, who scored 10 points but 
tuned over the ball 1 1 times. 

“Pat’s plan to wear down Ticha was 
brilliant.” saidLany. the Old Dominion 
coach. “She doesn’t turn the ball over 
11 times in three games, let alone one 
game. The pressure took her totally out 
of the first half.” 

Old Do mini on got 16 points from 
forward Clarisse Marhangunna. A tour- 
nament-record eight steals by 
Penicheiro helped bang the Lady Mon- 
archs back from a 12-point halftime 
deficit of 34-22. 

Heart-stopping games became a trend 
in the tournament for Old Dominion, 
which needed overtime to defeat 
Purdue. The Lady Monarchs beat Flor- 
ida by just two points. They needed 
overtime again after trailing by 15 


Brodeur. “I’m backing up one of the top 
three or four goalies in the league. The 
big thing for me this year is to learn a lot 
and be ready to play when I get my 
opportunities.” 

Dunham made 22 saves as the Devils 
moved within two points of the Eastern 
Conference lead behind the Phil- 
adelphia Flyers, who lost The Devils 
have seven games left, the Flyers six. 

Bill Guerin scored twice in the first 
period to lead the Devils over the vis- 
iting Kings. Scott Stevens, Valeri Zele- 
pukin and Kevin Dean also scored for 
New Jersey. 

Kevin Stevens and Glen Murray 
scored for the Kings, who haven’t scored 
more than two goals in eight games and 
are winless in their last four. 

BhM» 3, Flyers 2 In SL Louis, Joe 
Murphy stole the puck and scored un- 
assisted early in the third period as the 
Blues strengthened theirplayoff pos- 
ition with a victory over Philadelphia. 

Mighty Ducks 1, Rad Wings 0 Steve 
Rucchin’s goal with 1:19 left in over- 
time gave Anaheim its first-ever victory 
in Detroit 

Rucchin's goal ended a sparkling 
duel between the Detroit goaltender. 



The Flyers’ Eric Lin tiros con- 
trolling the puck in front of Wash- 
ington’s goal, while Mark Tinordi, 
left, and Bill Ranford defended. 

Mike Vernon, who turned away all bur 
the last of 31 shots, and Anaheim’s 
Mikhail Shtaleukov, who stopped 26. 

Btecfcfaswfc* 3, Sabres 2 In Chicago. 
Ulf Dahlen scored his first goal in six 
weeks to break a tie in the final period as 
the Blackhawks beat Buffalo to move 
into the eighth and final spot in the 
Western Conference playoff race. 

Buffalo lost its fourth straight one- 
goal game and is 1-5 sin ce its stargoalie. 
Donunik Hasek, was sidelined with a 
cracked rib. 

Stars 3, Canucks 2 Mike Modano had 
two assists, and Greg Adams scored die 
deciding goal six minutes into the third 
period as Dallas won in Vancouver. 

The victory extended the Stars’ un- 
beaten streak to nine games and dealt a 
blow to the Canucks’ playoff hopes. 

The loss snapped the Canucks’ four- 
game unbeaten streak. 


Baseball Returns, Seeking Place in Sun 


The Associated Press 

As Frank Thomas steps into the bat- 
ter's box Tuesday to face Pat Hentgen, 
last season’s American League Cy 
Young winner, one of the biggest 
changes in baseball will be obvious. 

Standing in Sky Dome's on-deck 
circle will be Albert Belle ina White Sox 
uniform. The next night, the Blue Jays 
show off their top newcomer when Ro- 


terieague games are scheduled — those 
begin in June. 

This is the 50th anniversary of Jackie 
Robinson breaking die major league col- 
or barrier, and the season is d e dicated to 
his memory. Special commemorative 
halls will be used in every home opener. 

Another change for 1997: Having seen 
a snowout at Fenway Park and freezing 
te mp e ra tures at Tiger Stadium and 
Wrigicy Field early last year, baseball 
adjusted its schedules. All five domes in 
die majors will be in use Tuesday, and 
every west Coast club in both big 

leagues will begin the year at borne. 

Cincinnati aid Baltimore, which tra- 
ditionally play at home on opening day, 
are the only typical cold climate clubs 


playing at their own parks Tuesday. 

“It is in response to last spring/ ’ said 
Katy Feeney, vice president of the Na- 
tional League. “It’s hard to make it a 
100 percent warm weather schedule, but 
we did the best we could.” 

“It’s not perfect A lot of East Coast 
teams don't want to start with nine or 10 
games cm the road, and a lot of West 
Coast teams don’t want to have so many 
home games in April,” Feeney said. 

“we tried this once before in the early 
1980s. We wound up getting some rare 
rainoifls on the West Coast and a blizzard 
in the East Coast on April 15 th,” she 
said. “But you do the best you can.” 

All 14 NL teams play Tuesday. The 
Atlanta Braves, trying to win a record 
sixth straight division title, start the sea- 
son in Houston then return to Atlanta to 
open their new Turner Field on Friday. 

Among the top players in new places 
are Malt Williams. Marquis Grissom 
and David Justice with Cleveland and 
Moises Alou. Bobby Bonilla and Alex 
Fernandez with Florida. Jim Leyland of 
the Marlins is one of six managers with 
new clubs. 

Among the top players who won't be 
mth their teams on opening day are 
Roberto Alomar and Pedro Martinez. 
Alomar, Baltimore’s second baseman. 


will start a five-game suspension im- 
posed for spitting in the face of umpire 
John Hirscnbeck last September. Mar- 
tinez, Montreal’s top pitcher, is fin- 
ishing a suspension for a fight last sea- 
son. 

Umpires, upset that Alomar did not 
have to sit during last year’s playoffs, 
have professed a get-tough policy. They 
say they will not tolerate any lip from 
players or managers, and seemed to 
mean business with several ejections in 
exhibition games, a spring training rar- 
ity. 

Juan Gonzalez of Texas, last season's 
American League MVP, SL Louis ace 
Andy Benes and highly tooted Montreal 
rookie outfielder Vladimir Guerrero 
also will be absent on opening day, all 
because of injuries. 

Jose Mesa, the Cleveland Indians star 
relief pitcher, will start die season s in 
court facing a rape charge. 

Jury selection began Monday in 
Mesa's triaL The Indians will begin the 
season Wednesday at Oakland. 

Mesa faces three to 10 years in prison 
if convicted of rape and two to eight 
years if convicted of assault 

Major League Baseball has given the 
Indians permission to place Mesa on Che 
restricted list indefinitely. 



A^SuBcn/nwAaodMsdlVan 

Chamique Holdsdaw of Tennessee driving past Ticha Penicheiro of Old Dominion in Cincinnati. 


against Stanford cm Friday night 

Old Dominion did not lead until just 
over nme minutes remained, and then 
only briefly. For most of the first half, 
the Lady Monarchs had more turnovers 
than pomts — by halftime, they caug ht 
up with 22 points and 16 turnovers, 
with Tennessee's 15 miscues, the teams 
combined for a whopping 31 turnovers 
in the first half alone. 

Penicheiro led a 1(M run to start the 
second half, bringing Old Dominion to 


within six less than five minutes into the 
period Afterregaining the lead on a four- 
point play by Aubrey Eblin, Old Domin- 
ion would lead three times. The last lead 
was 49-47 with seven minutes left. 

But a 12-2 run by Tennessee gave the 
Lady Vols a 59-5 1 lead with just under 
three minutes left That surge knocked 
out the Lady Monarchs. 

“Fatigue was a factor down the 
stretch,” Larry said. “I don’t think we 
had anything left” 


Tennessee did During the bus ride to 
the game, Summitt replayed a tape of a 1 
locker room speech she gave her tearifc 
after its Jan. 7 loss to Old Dominion:^ 
That loss left the Lady Vols 10-6. After 
the game, Summitt tried to convince a; 
roomful of sobbing players they werg« 
good enough to be playing in March. 

“^ewrJnot going tofet them wiq - 
this game,” Conklin said “We fought 
too bard” 


Sonics Falter as Kemp Riles Coach 


The As s oc i ated Press 

The Phoenix Suns extended their 
winning streak to six games by beating 
the Seattle SuperSonics, 107-106. The 
victory tightened the Suns’ improbable 
grasp on the eighth and final Western 
Conference playoff spot 

What’s more, it moved Phoenix — a 
team that started the season 0-13 — 
within two games of the Minnesota 
Timberwolves for the conference's 
sixth seed 

Phoenix’s victory Sunday was its 
second in five days over tile Sonics, who 
are in danger of losing their hold as the 
West's second playoff seed as they deal 
with a new dilemma concerning Shawn 
Kemp. 

Kemp, who was being punished by 
the Sonics’ coach. George Karl, for 
missing the team flight to Phoenix and a 
practice Saturday, played only 22 
minutes as* a reserve. He missed his first 
four shots and didn’t have a basket until 
tiie foarth quarter Sunday, finishing 
with three points on l-for-5 shooting, 
five rebounds and six turnovers. 

Kemp mil be benched for at least one 
more game as punishment for missing 
the flight and the practice. 

The game came down to the final play 
and ended in controversy. 

Rex Chapman, who scored all 25 of 
his points in the first three quarters, 
purposely missed a free throw with 1.7 
seconds left 

The rebound went to Sam Pterions, 
but as Pteritins raised his hands over- 
head, Chapman touched the ball and 
knocked him backward. 

Perkins fell to the floor and was unable 
to get rid of the ball as time ran out 

“I got all balL” Chapman said. “I 
jumped, he flopped. I don’t think 
they're going to call it that late in the 
game.” 

The Sonics' coach strongly dis- 
agreed. “The referee didn't have the 


courage to make the call on their home 
court,” Kail said. “We’ve lost a couple 
of games like that 

“We managed the game great, put 
ourselves in a position to win, and a call 

like that kills us.” 

Wesley Person had 23 points for the 
Sum, who hit 15 of 28 3-pointers. Jason 
Kidd had 19 points and 16 assists, and 
Hot Rod Williams had 15 points and 1 1 
rebounds. 

p»c«v* 103, cfippwa 96 Indiana 
stretched its winning streak to four 
games with an overtime victory over 
visiting Los Angeles. 

Indiana, which went to the confer- 
ence finals two years ago *ry f has qual- 


ified for tiie playoffs for the past seven 
seasons, stayed two games behind Clev- 
eland in the race for the East’s final 
berth. 

Indiana also must pass Washington, 
which has a four-game winning streak 
going and trails the Cavs by one game. 

“I think the only hope of catching 
Washington, especially die way they are 
playing, is to play evesy game like it’s a 
playoff game,” the Pacers’ coach, Lany 
Brown, said. 

Rik Smite, who is 7-feet 4-inches tall, 
scored eight of his season-high 40 points 
in overtime and shot 17-for-28 against 
shorter defenders — 6-foot- 1 1 Loren- 
zen Wright and fi-foot-9 Loy Vaught. 

Cavaliers 84, Mavwrfeka 80 In Clev- 
eland, Tyrone Hill returned to Clev- 
eland’s lineup after a two-game absence 
and scored 17 points as the Cavaliers 
snapped their three-game losing streak. 

The Mavericks, who played at Wash- 
ington on Saturday night, got back-to- 
back looks at two of the three teams 
vying for the East’s final playoff spot 
and came up on tiie short end twice. 

“We're playing no favorites in this 


tiling. We lost to both of them,” Greg' 
Dreiling, the reserve center, said. 

“I mink Washington is playing a 
little better right now, blit Cleveland' is” 
so well-coached and so disciplined you 
■can’t ever count them out.” _ 

76ara 96, Pistons 92 Philadelphia' 

rookie Allen Iverson sat out with 4' 
sprained ankle but the 76ers still won at 
Detroit * 

Doug Overton filled hi with season ^ 
highs of 19 points and six assists and; 
iced the victory by making two frog;' 
throws with 2.4 seconds left. ->: 

Grant Hill had a triple-double with 22 * 
points, 16 rebounds and 10 assists, butfj, 
missed two free throws in the final 10;' 
seconds that would have tied the game; 

itaiton 102, Hoot 97 Damon Stoud* ■ 
amine tied his career high with 35 porols; 
as Toronto snapped a five-game losing-- 
streak and ended visiting Miami's eighth 
game winning streak. 

The victory gave the Raptors vi<?' 
tones over the league’s top three teams: " 
Chicago, Utah and Miami. ~- 

Knicts ioi. Have 96 In Orlandq£ 
Patrick Ewing was not hampered by a 
pulled tricep muscle that threatened 
keep him out of tiie game. 

Ewing scored 33 points, grabbed 13 
rebounds and blocked four shots, and 
Chris Childs scored 19 for New York* 
which had lost five of its previous eight 


TtmbarwohNMi 1 1 3, Wanton 1 02 Kevi 
in Garnett scored a career-high 3} 
points and Tom Gulgiotta added 31 as, 
Minnesota, after nearly Mowing a 
point third-quarter lead won is San Josqj 
handing Golden State its seventh 
straight loss. “ 

Nuggets 99, Bucks 97 Ih Denver; 
Kenny Smith hit a 3-pointer with 3.1 
seconds left and added a free throw witfi 
less than a second remaining after Glenn 
Robinson mishandled Milwaukee’s *n- ; 
bounds pass. 


The Crack of a Bat 


By Dick Roraback 

International Herald Tribune 


Away on this side of the ocean 
When the chestnuts are hinting of green 
And the first of the cafe commandos 
Are moving outside for a fine 
And the sound of spring beats a bolero 
As Paree sheds her coat and her hat 
The sound that is missed more than any 
Is the sound of the crack of a bat. 

There’s an animal kind of a feeling 
There's a stirring down at Vincennes Zoo 
And the kid down the hall's getting restless 
Taking stairs like a young kangaroo 
Now the dandy is walking his poodle 
And the concierge sunning her cat 
But the heart's with the Cubs and the Tigers 
And the sound of the crack of a bat. 

In the park on tiie comer run schoolboys 
With a couple of cartons for props 
Kicking goals & la Fontaine or Kopa 
While a Grtle guy duckies for caps 
“Goal for us,” “No it's not,” “You're a liar. 
Then the classical shrieks of a spat 
But it’s not like a rhubarb at home plate 
Or the sound of the crack of a bat. 


Here the stadia thrill to the sciumdowns 
And the soccer fans flock to the games 
And the chic punt the nags out at Longchanip. 

Where tire women are dames and not dames 
But ifs different at Forbes and at Griffith 
The homes of the Buc and the Nat 
Where the hotriog and peanut share laurels 
With the sound of the crack of a bat. 

No, a Yank can't describe to a Frenchman 
The rasp of an umpire's call 
The continuing charms of statistics 
Changing hisrry with each strike and bail 
Nor tiie self-conscious jog of tiie slugger 
Rounding third with the tip of his hat 
Nor the half-smothered grace of a hook slide 

Nor the sound of the crack of a bat 

Now the golfer is buffing his niblick 

And tiie tennis buff's tightening his strings •' - 

And the fisherman’s flexing his flyrod 

Like a thousand and one other springs 1 

Ob- the sports on both sides of the ocean ■ 

Have a great deal in common, at 
But the thing that’s not here 
At this time of the year 
Is the sound of the crack of a bat 

• Dick Roraback is a former sports editor-of the Herald 
Tribune. His springtime elegy has appeared, in this space 
since the 1960s. 





EVTERNAnONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 


PACE 21 


SPORTS 



■pwnUBMuster lunging for the ball on bis way to defeating Sergi Brugnera in the Lip ton Championship final 

era for Title 



By Robin Finn 

York Times Service 


■ . 


V 

vi 


r KEY BISCAYNE, Florida — Two 
^langpins of the dirty socks circuit, both 
afiewnados of red clay and both former 
french Open champions, clashed on a 
nonskid hard-coart griddle Sunday to 
decide which of them had the all-court 
ss to claim the men’s title at the 
Championships. 

Thomas Muster and Sergi 
Brugnera attrition is their stock and 
trade. The neady bouriong first set 
seemed to suggest that the five-set final 
would be a daylong battle. 

But in the Florida s unshine , the 106- 
degree court (41 centigrade) smoldering 
underfoot began to boon its way through 



Bruguera's sneakers and into the 
blisters on die soles of his feet After 
giving no ground in the first set. 
Braguera squandered two set points in a 
tie breaker, gave Muster the gift of a set 
point by under-bitting two overheads, 
lost his resolve and surrendered, 7-6 (8- 
6), 6-3, 6-1, in 1 hour 57 minutes. 

“After I lost my big chances in the 
first sat, I got very down in my mind,” 
said Braguera, who mariet 48 unforced 
errors and never had abreak point against 
Muster until the final game of the second 
set, when he bad two and lost both. 

Muster was to have played in the 
Upton final in 1989, when be sustained 
tom ligaments in his left knee after being 
struck by a drunken driver at a down- 
town mall on the eve of die match. 


Of Muster’s 44 tides, 40 have come 
on clay, four on hardcourts. But this was 
his second title on the surface this year. 

“It’s very emotional for me because 
of what happened here eight years ago.’ ’ 
said Muster, who felt mat die freakish 
accident compromised his progress on 
this and every other surface. Muster 
called Sunday’s victory, which carried a 
$360,000 first prize, his most satisfying 
since he won the 1995 French Open. 

Muster said his return to die Lipton 
final was “the biggest justice I could 
have got** 

“Life is sometimes a bit scary," 
Muster said. “But what’s most impor- 
tant is dun I could play a gain, that I’m 
No. 2 and that X have the chance to be 
No. 1 again." 


After a Relapse, Daly Seeks Help 


By Leonard Shapiro 

Washington Post Sen-ice 


PONTE VEDRA, Florida — The pro- 
fessional golfer John Daly said Monday 
dial as part of his “ongoing battle to 
overcome alcoholism," be will enter an 
alcohol rehabilitation program for the 
second time. One of Daly's agents said 
that his client had already checked into 
the Betty Ford Center in Palm Springs, 
California. 

The announcement of Daly’s de- 
cision came three days after be with- 
drew from The Players Championship 
here at the PGA Tour’s national 
headquarters after a night of drinking at 
a local nightspot followed by rowdy 
behavior at his hotel villa late Thursday 
night and early Friday morning. 

In a statement released Sunday by the 
PGA Tour, Daly said, “In August of 
1996, I suffered a setback in dealing 
with my disease. Until that time, I felt I 
bad won the battle alone by simply 
stopping die act of drinking. I’ve come 
to realize this terrible is much 

tougher than I thought and have decided 
with the support, of my family and 
friends to let others help me. I apologize 
to others who straggle with me in fight- 
ing this disease." 

Buddy Martin, one of Daly’s agents 
from Cambridge Sports International, 
said that he was awakened Friday morn- 
ing by a call from Daly’s wife, Paulette, 
saying her husband needed help. Martin 
toid The Associated Press that Daly, who 
previously was in rehab in January 1992, 
already is at die Betty Ford Center. 

The 30-year-old winner of two major 
championships withdrew from the tour- 
nament after shooting 76 in die first 
round Thursday. He told tournament 
officials be was pulling out because of a 
sore right hip, the same reason he cited 
for withdrawing from the Honda Classic 
two weeks ago. 

That night. Daly spent several hours 
at “Sloppy Joe's." a popular Jackson- 
ville Beach bar and restaurant, along 


Elkington Wins Players Championship 


York Tunes Service 

PONTE VEDRA BEACH. Florida 
— Steve Elkington had to marvel at 
what be had just done. 

“I basically blew away the best 
field we’ve ever had, and I didn’t 
know if I was capable,” he said after 
shooting a final-round 69 Sunday to 
win the Players Championship at 
TPC-Sawgrass by a tournament-re- 
cord seven strokes. 

‘ ‘And the thing is, I did h in crucial 
fashion — leading all die way," Elk- 
ingtoru an Australian, added. “There 
is so much danger in the back nine, you 
never know what a good lead is." 

Elkington, 34. finished with a 16- 
under-par 272 and was never chal- 
lenged. His $630,000 prize vaults him 
to tee top of tee PGA money list for 


the year at $984,400. Scott Hoch was 
second at 279. and Loren Roberts was 
third, eight shots back. 

Elkington ’s putting average — less 
than lJ putts a hole ■ — was this 
tournament's low. “I think this was 
probably the best putting perfor- 
mance I’ve ever had. ’ he said. 

Elkington played as if he were in 
full control, but he confessed to a 
mostly sleepless night. 

“1 must say leading all the way is 
the most difficult thing I’ve ever done 
in golf," he said. “You use up a lot of 
energy getting the lead and teen a lot 
more holding on to it I'm drained.” 

He rose at 6 A.M., then stayed id 
his hotel room for three hours prac- 
tice-putting and watching a movie. 
He didn’t tee off until 2:15 P.M. 


with friends and several members of the 
Jacksonville Jaguars football team. Ac- 
cording to Rick Reed, the manager of 
tee bar that night, Daly was drinking 
cocktails, many supplied by other, pat- 
rons, but “was not at all rowdy." 

Early Friday morning, tee St John’s 
County Sheriff s Department was 
summoned to tee Sawgrass Marriott 
Hotel less than a mile from the golf 
course by hotel security officers after 
Daly allegedly did considerable damage 
to some furniture in his villa. According 
to a spokesman for the sheriff’s office. 
Daly was not arrested because tee hotel 
decided nor to file a complaint 

Daly also complained of having chest 
pains while police officers were on the 
scene, and he was transported by am- 
bulance to Beaches Baptist Hospital. A 
hospital spokesman said Daly was not 
admitted. A hotel spokesman said Daly 
and his wife checked out shortly after 5 
AM. Friday. 

In November 1993. Daly was sus- 


pended by the PGA Tour for three 
months after picking up his ball after 
missing a putt m the second round of the 
Kapalua International. In September 
1994, Daly announced he would sit out 
the rest of the year after a scuffle with the 
father of another player at the World 
Series of Golf - in Akron. Ohio. He re- 
turned to the Tour in January 1995 and in 
July won his second major, the British 
l He had previously won the 1991 
Championship. 

Daly spent just over three weeks in an 
alcohol rehabilitation program at a fa- 
cility in Catalina. Arizona, in January 
1992. Last August, while playing at an 
event in Sweden, he said he had started 
drinking “socially" again. 

Hardly anyone on the Tour was sur- 
prised by Daly’s relapse. 

“He’s a sick little boy right now." 
said Fuzzy Zoelier, Daly's best friend 
on die Tour, who rode in tee ambulance 
to die hospital with him Friday. “He 
needs help." 


CSCOREBOARD 


BASEBALL 


Exhibition Baseball 


Toronto 12, MMMpNo 4 
Motereal 4, Ottawa 1 
Mmsato & Chicago Cuba 7 
Florida 2, Miami 1 
Otago Witte Stall, Hickory* 

New Ybr* Yankees 5, Atlanta 3 
OnetaMdil Defrost 
Colorado 1Z Kansas City 3 
SL Louis 1 1 Baflftnon * 

San Diego & Oakland 2 

Houston 2 Teams 4 

MMouftm 2 PBteburgh 6 

Owdcid45Fm wfai o4WWii|»,B*i 

ABoheto) 2 Lon Angeles 0 

Seattle 14, Lancaster 4 

Boston ft New York Mete 7 

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ATLANTIC MVBION 



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Kdtactnd playoff bed* 
ansrn 
New York 23 30 Id 22-191 

Ortnrio 23 23 11 29-86 

N.Y.: Ewing 1523 7-932 CUM* 7-1238191 
Qc Hardaway 82S 1-2 71, Seftoly 6-14 1-317. 
Rebounds— New Yortc 56 (Ewtag TO. 
Oriando 44 (SeBudy. Ancterorox O. 
AaH»-New Ybrt 22 (Oakley 9Z0rtimtol3 


(Hardaway 4). 

ULObpers 29 3d 77 19 5— 96 
IwBata 22 2D 27 22 12-103 

LJL: Serdy 8-1755 24, Vtatghfft-14 0-816; 
fc-Smto 17-20 8-7 42 MOer 18-23 43 28. 
■arieawte— Las Angeles 39 (Rogers Wrigfd 
8X Indiana 64 (IX Doris 12). Assists— Los 
Angeles 25 (Martn. Outlaw 7), Indiana 13 
(JadaonlS. 

23 26 33 15 — n 
2B 29 21 25-192 
Uc Mourning 10-15 7-16 27, Leoard 8-15 3- 
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25 18 17 20-18 
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21 V 27 38- 96 
■ V-.'l* 31 24' 18—92 *" 
■ . p;Stodd»aep6-)07-722, O*e>tei 8-10*4 
19i O: Thorpe 9-16 8-10 24 HB 7-17 8-12 
TMtebimdi PD8ndelphta47(CntawiqnVU. 
Detroit 54 cm id). Aatats— PhtaMpNa 19 
{Stadrboasa Overton 6). Debt* 22 (HD 1®. 

31 21 31 38-113 

27 15 25 35—182 

M:GanieS13-159-ll 31 GagMta 13-175 
5 37; SrWttr 8-18 5-6 22. Atofln 7-13 2-2 

20. Moods— Minnesota 37 (Gugflatta ffl. 
Golden Slate 47 (Smith 12). 

Assisto— Minnesota 32 (Marbury m 
Gotten State 26 (Price, SpraweflTx 

18 38 24 25- 97 
31 18 27 23-99 
M: Robinson 1 331 54 3ft Baker 9-25 7-1 1 
23c D: LEBs 8-27 4-6 24 D.EHte 6-9 55 2ft 
Rfhmi li Mltewntar 64 (Baker 14). 

Denver 54 0-EBIs 12). Astate-Mtomwkee 
22 (Peay 7). Denver 28 (Smith o. 

Seattle 32 25 28 29-186 

Pbeenta 26 39 29 22-187 

■5: HaeMns 12-18 0-031, Payton 1833 3-5 
23) P: Chapman 9-14 1-5 25 Person 8-14 54 
23- Ueberroth Seattte 48 (PertJas 
Mdhatnn Payton W. Phoenix 37 (WHams 
11). Assists— Seanta 28 (Payton 9). Phoenix 
29 (Kidd 16). 


Ncaa Tournament 


Tennessee 64 Old Dominion 59 
T: HoktsCtow 11-20 2-334 CankSn 48 2-2 
12; O-Dj Machonguana 7-132-2 14 Roberts 
88 1-2 IX Rebooeds— Ttemessee 29 (Hofat- 
sdaw 7), OU Dominion 32 (Modmguano 
10). Assists— Tennessee is Uoty HI. OU 
Dominion 15 (PenkMroS). 


HOCKEY 


NHL Stamnnos 


ATLANTIC DIVISION 
W L T PtJ 
43 22 11 
41 21 13 
33 25 18 
35 32 9 
30 38 B 
N.Y. blander* 2B 36 11 
TompoBay ''- W 38T B 

NOfTnCAST DfVStOM 

w l'y pi* 


»-PhBadelphto 
x-New Jersey 
x-Rorido 

N.Y.I 


x*8uffoto 

Pktebwgh 

Montreal 

Haitted 

Ottawa 


38 36 11 
35 33 7 
38 34 le 
29 36 ID 
26 34 15 
24 43 9 


x-DaDas 
x- Detroit 
Phoenix 
St Look 
Chicago 
Toronto 


x- Cotomd o 

Edmantan 

Anahtrin 

Ctegaiy 


Los Angeles 
Son Jose _ . 

xUndied Nayafl berth 


CENTRAL DmWN 

W (T » 

45 23 6 
36 24 15 
•35 35 6 
33 34 9 

31 33 12 
28 41 7 

PACIFIC DIVEBOM 
W L T Pte 

46 21 9 101 

35 34 7 77 

33 33 11 77 

32 36 8 72 
32 40 5 69 
26 41 10 62 
25 43 7 57 


Gf GA 
258 199 
215 171 
204 183 
240 212 
194 216 
219 222 
202 -232 

GF GA 
271 190 
260 254 
234 263 
201 232 
208 221 
217 280 


GF GA 
231 176 

237 181 

215 226 
221 229 
204 196 

216 257 

GF GA 
259 187 
336 226 
226 219 
203 215 

238 258 
198 253 
198 248 


New Jersey 4 8 1-6 

F« Parted: NJ.-Gvefft) 28 (S Stevens. 
Pederson) Z tLL-Decn 2 (L5Tevens. 
ZetepttaO Z NJ.-Guertn 29 (GBmour, Dean) 
(PU). 4 MX* SJtnens 5 CZelepukkv 
Maclean) Second Pwtod: None. TNrd 
Period: NJ.-Zetapukln 14 (MacLecn 
Chambers) 4 LA.-IL5tavens 14 (ShevoSer. 
R-VopaO 7, LJL-Murroy 12 U.Vapat 
LaFoyetta) Skats u gw* LA.- 511-8-34 
NJ^ 8-9-10—27. GaaJtas UL- Darin. NJ.- 
Dunham. 

Beftato 1 • 1—2 

adaigo 1 1 1 — 3 

Frist Psriod C-Camey 3 (Zhamnov, 
Kifoafenroov) Z B-Audrite 28 (Shannon) 
Second Period: C -Craven 7 (Daze. Moreau) 
Third Period: B-SmeltalOCHaizingeri&C- 
Dafttanl4(5yfeora,Samd)5feateengstt:B- 
10-69— 27. C- 7-8-7— 22. G writer B-Shtetts. 
C-Hwtett. 

Anteten 9 0 0 1—1 

Detroit 0 0 0 0-8 

l«st Pwtod; Nora Matt Period: None. 
TfeM Period: Nan*. Overtime: l, A-Ruccttn 
17 (Knrlya, DtegniairiQ Sriotsm goat: A-W 
1552-31. D- 7-128-1—26. Cories: A- 
Slttntonkor. D-vemaK 

1 1 1-3 

1 0 V- 2 

Rist Period: D-Huani 4 Z V-Unden 9 
(Noonan. Getoias) Srrnnd Period: D- 
Lebttnen 13 (Modm Ledyaid) TWrt 
Period: D-Adwns 19 (Lteittneix ModanO) & 
v-ftoberii 10 CLunune) (pp). State m goat 
D- 6-6-10 — 22. V- 5-59—20. Geatero D-lltW. 
V-McLean. 

ndtodtegirin 118-2 

SLlMte 1 1 1-3 

resl Period: P-Oea)sd>fl> 12 (Nllnlmaa 
Llndros) (pp). Z SX-Motftoou 14 (TuibwkO 
Second Perio d. SJ^Pebavkky7 (Moclreils) 
4 P-Undrae 30 (NBnlmna Swboda) Third 
Pectete SJ-rAAuphy 1 7, Stats an gote P- 11- 
510-30L 5L.- 11-9-6-26. GeaBtt: P- 
HofcriLSX-FWr. 


acMitravoKM* 
Oermantl, Nice 2 


Vbkndo 1. Baiccrimal 
SevfltoZ WritadoBd2 
Lawwies 1, AlhleBe BBmo 4 
Compostela 4 ExtremoduiD 0 
ZamgoBD 1. CWta Vigo 1 
Racing Santander 1, Hercules 2 
Espanyol Q> Real Betts 0 
Oviedo a Raya VoDecano 2 
nuBMosi Retri Mairild 72 pants 
Borcelana 63, Real Beils 63: Deporttvo 
Corona 6ft Aitefta Madrid 5Z Rwri Sadedad 
47, Athletic Blboo 47) VdlladaM 45; Tenertte 
44* Vtotando 43- RaOvg ScntanOar 41; CtOa 
Vigo 34 Campasteta 34- Oviedo 35, Sporting 
GQon 3& Zarogoza 3Z Royo VoUecano XL 
Extremadura St Espanyol 31; Logrones 28; 
Sevffla 24 Hercules 25. 


Super 12 


0 0 2-1 Tenertte 1. Real Madrid 1 


M AUCKLAND. tCST ZEALAND 
Auckland 49, Queensland 26 


Players Championship 

Ltadbg M wrorae Suwtey o» ttw 1X5 
mNirP-j — «n — r^n — ^T r 1- ! — * — 
1PC W— or— * <A8 9 yw il ,pw>-739tataum 
Come In Ponte terie Beach. Florid* 

Steve EHdngten 66-69-6869—27? 

Scott Hotlr 69-71-6576-279 

Loren Roberts 78-74-67-69—280 


Brud Faxon 
BlSy Andrade 
Tam Lehman 
Coon Montgomerie 
Tommy Taltos 
Mark Brooks 
Fred Couples 
Russ Cochran 
Ernie Els 
Kirk Triplett 
Paul Atinger 


7869-72-70—281 
68-72-6874—282 
67-71 -73-72-283 
7D- 78 71-73— 284 
7867-73-74—284 
72-68-70-76-284 
71-74-71-69—285 
67-76-72-72-285 
6571-72-76-385 

71 - 687876—285 

72- 72-71-71-286 


TENNIS 


SXniRDArS RESULTS 
Kansas Clly X San Jose Z SO (63) 

Cotumbus 2, Colorado 1, 50(3-2) 
NewEngkmdl, DaBasO 
Tampa BayZ New York-New Jersey 1 
tob sM ngtan 1, L06 Angttesa 50 0-2) 
ITMIWQS. reeTrm risdni nri New 
England 3 points. Tampa B<fy3; Cotom bus V 
WrriNngton 1; NY-MJ ft «wkm Conter- 
enoe- Kansas Chy 1 point San Jose 1; Ctri- 
oraito ft Dates It Las Angeles ft 

mu cup Bwim* 

Hong Kang X ThoBond 2 
Slovakia Z Motto 0 
Israel X LroamboergO 


RUGBY UNION 


M KEY BTSCAYlt FLORIDA 
WEJT3 SINGLES 
FINAL 

Thomas Muster (2), Austria, det Sergi 
Bniguenr. Spain, 76 (86) 53 5l- 


CRICKET 


3ND OM-BAY ■MiaiOlHL 

SOUTH AFRKA VS. AUSTRALIA - 
HONDMT. IN PORT EUZAWTH, ft AFRICA 
South Africa Innings: 221-8 150 overs) 
AushaBo tartngs222-3 (45 overs) 

Resvtt: Australia won by seven wkriets 


TRANSITIONS 


MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL 
AMERICAN LEAGUE 

Baltimore— Assigned C Kris Gresham la 
teelr wtoe r Ho gu e camp. 

Minnesota— P ut OF Roberta Ke9y an 15 
day disabled Bst rehaaOlve to March 24. 

OAKljuiD-aaimed RHP Scott Service of! 
waivers from andnrutt. 

TEXAS — Ckrimed INF Dave SllvesM off 
watvers from Seattle. Optioned RHP Jose 
Albena aid OF Mike Statins to Oklahoma 
aty.AA. 

TOBOMTO — Pul LHP Paul Spoliartc on 15 
day cttsabled list, reriaiclive to Maroh 2X 

NATIONAL LEAGUE 

ATLAKTA-Put LHP Yorkb Perez an 
urotoets for purpose of giving Wmhfcuncon- 
. Optioned INF Ed Gtovanola 


and LHP Dean Hmtgreves to Rkhmand li_ 
Assigned OF Tommy Gregg. C FoustaTejera 
LHP Brad Woodall and LHP Kevta Rogers 10 
their mlnoMeague camp. Sent RHP Scott 
Brew outright to Richmond. Put OF Danny 
Baiflteta on 15-day rfeafaled list letroodlwlD 
March 2Z RHP Bryan Haney an 15day cfls- 
abled list retroactive to Mardt 24; and LHP 
Pedro Borbon on 60-day disabled list 
Colorado— Bought contract of RHP 
Steven Bourgeois tram Phoerrtx. PCUIMrived 
RHP Mate Dyer. Bought ennkoriaf RHP Jett 
hACCurry from Colorado Springs. PCI. 

uos anceles- Announced foot 2B Jeff 
Betbftiger has cleared outright waivers and 
hte contract was tendered back to SL Loub. 
Optioned RHP Antonio Qsuna to Albu- 
querque, PCI- Sent LHP Nartoco EMrn out- 
right to Albuquerque. 

Montreal— Traded OF- 10 Cliff Floyd to 
Florida tar OF Joe Orsulok and RHP Dustin 
Hermanson. 

new YORK— Announced the rettrernent at 
INF Howard Johnson. Placed INF Ahrora 
Esptanjn on vwhfers for the purpose of gluing 
Mm hte Unconrsttanal release. Acquired RHP 
Bony Manuel from Montreal for cosh. 

Philadelphia— Put OF Lenny Dytatru on 
60-day dbbled list and RHP Mark Portugal 
RHP Edgar Ramos, RHP Ken Ryan, RHP 
Mike Grace and RHP Tyler Green an 15-day 
dkabled IteL Sent Green to SaontonlWUbes- 
Barre, IL and Ramos to dearwater, FSL for 
rehab assignments. Optioned C Chris Trerele 
Rearing EL. BDugfit contracts OF Ruben 
Amara OF Derrick Allcry, RHP Reggie Harris 
and LHP Erik Pfontertberg ham Scranton. 
Rearied RHP Ron Bkilzer from Sanrdon and 
apfloned INF Kevin Jonlan to Scmnton. 

Pittsburgh — Traded OF Tier Beaman 
and OF Angelo Encamactan to San Diego for 
OF Mark Smith and RHP Hal Garrett. 

san DiEco— Optioned LHP Joey Lang to 
Las Vegas. PCL Assigned LHP Terry Bur- 
raws. OF Doug Daseenzw INF Rene Gon- 
zata INF Terry Shumpert RHP Pate Smith 
and INF Jim Tatum to their mlnor-teogue 
camp. Bought c onlraOs of C Carlos Hernan- 
dez. RHP Tim Scott and C Dan Staughtfrem 
Los Vegas. 

san mnasoo -Put inf DeU wnson on 
15-day disabled Itet retroactive to March 23 
and 3B AAaik Lewis an 15-day tesabled 
llsL rairaaoive to Match 28. 


DENNIS THE MENACE PEANUTS 


CALVIN AND HOBBES 



YOU KNOW UWAJ 1 P UKE TO DO? 


fPUKf TDTRLVDt/ THAT THE 


LITTLE RED-HAIRED 6KLI5 AT 
THEDOOR^NDTHEMWHENW 
RUN TO 56E H£R,fD lElTAWlFOOL! 


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SK IS QOW&TOM«E(r. 
M0B8B. tSKItl I HWE (T 
WtH THESE 1HM3& HAPKK. 

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-NCtt CNATOlLITA UPSET 
VftCK I STMir TAUflNQ 
TC) YOU... 



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IKWriMW) 

* I jhhk wax MMM cwsa J«eLE 

A'JUOflFWTHEBBOt 


For investment 
imformahok 
Read 

TWMWJfflTRffORr 

every Saturday 
in the 1HT* 













PAGE 22 


ART BUCHWALD 


Oh, the Pain of It 


W ASHINGTON — The 
saddest sight in Wash- 
ington is seeing the Demo- 
cratic National Committee re- 
turning money to suspicious 
donors. The truth is that the 
party is flat 
broke and mil- 
lions of dollars 
in debt. Every 
nickel they 
have to return 
to a Manchuri- 
an candidate 
hurts. 

But for the _ 
moment, the Buchwald 
DNC is withholding its re- 
funds. 

Even the guy manning the 
DNC toil booth in front of the 
White House is reluctant to 
give suspicious donors their 
money back. 

He told one. “We know 
you are with the Peruvian 
storm troopers, but we can’t 
return your donation at this 
time. Why don't you come 
back on Thursday?’ ’ 


The next person was from 
an Asian country and was 
wearing a Sun Moon Jogging 
suit 

“I understand I am entitled 


A Reconstruction 
Of Ancient Egypt 

Age nee France-Presse 

LUXOR, Egypt — A team 
of French and Egyptian ar- 
chaeologists has begun re- 
building brick by brick the red 
chapel of Queen HatshepsuL 
a masterpiece of ancient 
Egyptian architecture. 

The quartzite chapel was 
built by Hatsbepsut (1504- 
1484 B.C.) and dismantled by 
Tuthmosis IQ. who succeeded 
her. The blocks were found 
inside the third pylon of the 
Temple of Kamak. 


to a 5200,000 refund. ” 

The guy in the booth said. 
“I'm prepared to give it to 
you, but first you must return 
the photograph taken with 
you and President Clinton." 

“He took the picture with 
me. It’s been in all the papers 
in South Korea. Why should I 
return it?” 

“Because you are an il- 
legal giver and we are in vi- 
olation of the law for accept- 
ing your money. And we 
cannot have a photograph of 
you with our president cir- 
culated in a foreign coun- 
try-” 


“If 1 give you back the 

S hoto. will you return the 
200,000?" 

“Yes, unless you would 
like to go on a tour of China 
with Vice President Gore." 

“I don't think that is worth 
$'200,000. As you know, my 
original reason for giving the 
donation is that I was prom- 
ised Moon worship would be- 
come the official religion of 
Arkansas." 

“O.K.. we’ll get back to 
you." 

The next man was pretty 
beaten up and wore tom 
trousers and a dirty T-shirt. 

"I suppose you have come 
for a rebate.” 

“That's correct. My name 
is Michael Diggins, and I 
wouldn ’t have given money if 
I knew ir was going to be 
soft.” 

“I don't see your name on 
the list." 

“I’m with the homeless in 
the park across the street You 
probably didn't have time to 
put me in the computer." 

“We're sony, but we can’t 
give your money back if we 
don’t know who you are." 

“That's O.K.. but would 
you have a spare bedroom in 
the White House to put me up 
for a while?" 




INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 1, 1997 


A Poet at Home With Dante and the Internet 


H 


By Ralph Blumenthal 

New Times Service 

N EW YORK — Robert Pinsky. 

who has been named the 
United States’s next poet laureate 
consultant in poetry, is a prize- 
winning poet who bridges Dame 
and the Internet. Like his 38 pre- 
decessors since 1937, 

Pinsky, 56. will have _ 

few statutory duties Thefigur 

for the pay (S3 5. 000) priso 

outside of organizing Over fan 

literary programs, dowr, 

readings and talks. Covered 

The reigning laureate. gnne 

Robert Hass, who ‘ he rema 

bows out with a final gravt 

lecture on May 1. 
crisscrossed the conn- Sluiced b 

try taking the measure conic 

of literacy at citizen °y snow i 

forums and Rotary dropl 

Clubs and, not inci- Even the 
dentally, collecting illust 

snippets of irapromp- Varying t 

tu haiku from passers- 

by- 

Pinsky. a professor 
of graduate writing at Boston Uni- 
versity who propelled Dante onto 
the best-seller lists with his 1994 
verse translation of the “Inferno," 
said in an interview in New York 
that he might cake a tack from his 


power in an age of arts dominated three books of prose (“Landor’s 
by mechanical reproduction,” Poetry,” “The Situation of Po- 

Not that Pinsky has anything ctry, “Poetry and die World") 
against modem technology. He is ana a translation of “The Separate 
the poetry editor of the weekly In- Notebooks" by Czeslaw Milosz, 
temet magazine Slate, and as a cer- He achieved his translation of 
tifiable computer pioneer wrote a Dante without a scholar’s know- 
1984 interactive “text adventure" ledge of Italian. “My work is not a 

i„i 1 1 „i_. • c " i. c 


modeled loosely on the “Inferno.” 


The figured wheel rolls through shopping malls and 
prisons. 

Over farms, small and immense, and the rotten little 
downtowns. 

Covered with symbols, it mills everything alive and 
grinds 

The remains of the dead in the cemeteries, in unmarked 
graves and oceans. 

Sluiced by salt water and fresh, by pure and 
contaminated rivers. 

By snow and sand, it separates and recombines all 
droplets and grains. 

Even the infinite sub-atomic particles crushed under the 
illustrated. 

Varying treads of its wide circumferential track. 

From “The Figured Wheel,” 1987 


“A side of me wants to try any- 
thing," he said. 

In fact, he considers that poetry 
and computers share two key at- 
tributes: speed and memory. 
“They share," he wrote, “the 


work of scholarship," he said. 

“It’s a work of met- 
” rical engineering." 

y ond Poetry gripped him 

from youth m Long 
! Ittde Branch, New Jersey, 

he recalled, although 
ond his was not a literary 

family. His father was 
nmarked an optician, and his 

grandfather. . David 
Pinsky, was a small- 
time prizefighter, tav- 
ern-owner and boot- 
s a “ legger. But even be- 

fore he knew what 
under the poetry was, he said. 

he savored the sounds 
- of words like the con- 

el." 1987 ductor's cry-. “Pas- 

_____] sengers going to 

Hoboken, change 
trains at S ummi t •• 

At Rutgers University he wrote 
out Yeats “Sailing to Byzantium" 


classes and ask a broad spectrum of great human myth of trope, an im- 
Arnericans, including powers that age that could be called the secret 


be in Washington, to read and re- 
cord their favorite poems for the 
library. “What would President 
Clinton or A1 Gore pick?" he 
asked. “Or Jesse Helms?" 

"If people ask in 3,000 years 
who Americans were, this might 
help them figure it out." he said. 
Although poetry seems to be in 
some vogue, cropping up in movies 
and ever more popular public read- 
ings. Pinsky said it was still widely 
manhandled in schools. 

11 ‘Teachers have pedagogically 
treated poems as an occasion to say 
something smart.' ' he said. But po- 
etry, he said, is as simple as art on 
an individual scale, its medium a 
single human voice. That, he said, 
is the secret of poetry's “immense 


passage: the discovery of large, 
manifold c hannels through a small 
ordinary-looking or all but invis- 
ible aperture." 

And anyway, he asked, what is 


and taped it to a wall. Why? “It was 
the speed with which he covered 
the ground," Pinsky said. "Wow: 
‘artifice of eternity!’ ” 

After college, he received a 
graduate fellowship at Stanford 
and taught English at the Uni- 
versity of California at Berkeley 
before moving to Boston Uni- 
versity. He and his wife, Ellen, a 


poetry but technology that uses the clinical psychologist, have three 
human body? He also Likens poetry grown daughters. 


to ice skating with its daring leaps 
and flashing vistas. 

If Pinsky’s translation of the 
“Inferno" popularized his name, 


He takes his poetic inspiration 
from everywhere and anything, he 
said. ’ ‘If you look at this Tropicana 
container," be said, lifting it from 


the work becoming a selection of the table, “when did they start put- 


tfae Book of the Month Club and a 
best seller, he has long been highly 
regarded in literary circles for his 
five books of poetry since 1975 
(“Sadness and Happiness," “An 
Explanation of America." “His- 
tory of My Heart," "The Want 
Bone," “The Figured Wheel"); 


ting paraffin on the carton and the 
fluttering banner here? If you could 
understand that, you might under- 
stand a lot of Western history.” 

His poems seem hard to classify, 
ranging widely over Judeo- Chris- 
tian themes, autobiography and 
genre scenes. "1 like human ar- 





Doo Kcgnmw No- Wk Tm 

Robert Pinsky, the new VS. poet laureate, giving a reading. 


tifacts,” he said. Being used to a 
noisy, crowded household, he says, 
he writes fast and almost anywhere, 
even in airports. “I can easily get a 
mass of clay on the table," he said, 
although he added that the last 20 
percent could entail many drafts. 

He plays the saxophone, and is 
an avia baseball fan and Boston 
Red Sox rooter, by way of the 
Brooklyn Dodgers. “Being a 
Dodger fan is good preparation for 
being a Red Sox fan.’ ’ he said. Both 


teams, he said, exemplify “values 
deeper than success." 

He said he was proud to follow 
many ofhis icons, including Robert 
Lowell, Elizabeth Bishop, Conrad 
Aiken, William Carlos williams. 
Robert Frost and Robert Penn War- 
ren. But he is also glad, he said, that 
the job description has expanded 
from just plain poet laureate to con- 
sultant in poetry as well. “It’s a 
greater distinction to be consulted i 
than to be laureled," be said. 






ireRebfl 

aw? ^ I 

ifife 





PEOPLE 


T HE value of Jerry Garda’s estate 
— which includes comic books, 
fine art and real estate — has been set at 
S9.9 million. The assets of the Grateful 
Dead's leader have been kept secret 
since his death at age 53 in a drug 
treatment center in August 1995. Now 
the question is, who gets how much? 
Lawyers for his widow, third wife De- 
borah Koons Garda, has asked ajudge 
to reverse his decision awarding a $4.6 
million divorce settlement to wife No. 2, 
Carolyn (Mountain Girl) Garda, cit- 
ing legal technicalities. Judge Michael 
Dufficy in San RafaeL, California, who 
approved the settlement in January, said 
he would consider the objections before 
issuing a final derision. Besides his 
widow and ex-wife, an assortment of 
business partners, former lovers and ac- 
quaintances have filed more than $38 
million in claims against the estate. 
Some have been settled and others are 
pending. 

□ 

On April 10. the photographer 
cpr/uindpjM., lamer. Th-.v^ m iTm- isu .1 Richard A redan, the soprano Beverly 
Richard Avedon and Beverly Sills — principals fora day in New York. Sills and the businessman Edgar 


Bronfman Jr., along with about 1 ,000 
other prominent New Yorkers, are plan- 
ning to be principals in New York City 
schools. They will be part of the Prin- 
cipal for a Day program, which was 
started in 1994 to invite prominent New 
Yorkers to spend one day in a school to 
share their experience and expertise 
with the students and to gain an un- 
derstanding of how the public schools 
work and what problems they face. 


Sophia Loren will be honored by her 
native Italy with a theater complex 
named for the film star. The opening is 
set for Sept 20, in her home town of 
Pozzuoli, just outside Naples, on 
Loren’s 63d birthday. 


Martha Stewart's farmer gardener, 
who washed cars and groomed pets be- 
sides tending die grounds, has with- 
drawn his lawsuit claiming the enter- 
taining mogul owed him more than 
$20,000 in back pay. Renaldo Abreu 
lost his battle March 19 when a state trial 
referee ruled against him. Now he has 


dropped his appeal and fired his law- 
yer. 

□ 

When the writer-comedian Dana 
Snow submitted a joke to the World 
Wide Web’s Oscar site, be got more than 
15 seconds of fame. He also got a movie 
deal. “The next morning, die phone was 
ringing off die hook with all sorts of 
offers, asking where they could buy more 
jokes," Snow said. His joke was among 
three selected from 35,000 entries and 
delivered by Billy Crystal during last 
week’s 69th Academy Awards. It went 
like this: “You know I’m expecting to 
win an Oscar next year. I’m making a 
film called ‘Price is Very Sexy and Wa- 
terhouse is a Genius.’ ” (The accounting 
firm Price Waterhouse tallies Oscar har- 
lots. Get it?) Crystal credited the joke to 
“D. Snow.” The next day. Snow said he 
got a call from Sam Longoria of ST 
Productions, offering a deal for a full- 
length film script with the joke as its tide. 
Snow accepted. 


A new British television channel 


opened with a theme tune sung by die 
Spice Girls and a soap opera that at- 
tracted complaints even before it was 
broadcast Channel S is hoping to hook 
viewers by showing a half-hour soap. 
“Family Affairs," at 6.30 each even- 
ing. But a Conservative lawmaker, 
Nicholas Winter-ton, complained in ad- 
vance after hearing of one scene in die 
opening episode in which a tattoo is 
exposed on a man's buttock. "It is un- 
acceptable to have nude scenes on at a 
time when children are watching,” 
Winterton said. 


Barbra Streisand's home has five 
bedrooms, seven baths and 10 parking 
spots, and she wants out of all of them. 
Streisand is asking $7.5 million forthe 
gated. Mediterranean-style home, 
which comes with a pool on slightly 
more chan two acres in the Hounby' 
Hills section of Los Angeles. Streisamj* 
has owned the house for 18 years, bur 
now lives in Malibu, where she created 
a compound in 1995 by buying three 
adjacent homes for about $12.5 mil- 
lion. 


hr-'- 


Every country has its own AT&T Access Number .which 


makes calling home and to other countries really easy. 


Just dial the AT&T Access Number for the country 


you’re calling from and we’ll take it from there. And 


be sure to charge your calls on your AT&T Galling 
Card. It’ll help you avoid outrageous phone charges 
on your hotel bill and save you up to 6Q%* Low rates 


•grie/i \inc 


stays mainly in the plain. 


AT&T Access Numbers 


and the fastest, clearest connections home 24 hours 


a day. Rain or shine. That’s AT&T DirecF Service. 


Please check the list below for AT&T Access Numbers. 


sups to follow for easy calling worldwide: 

1. Jusi dial tiie AT&T Access Number for Uk omulrv ynu 
are calling from. 

2 . Dial the phone number you're calling 

3. Dial Ihe calling cnid number listed ahm* wnr name. 


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inEwfl al Ttoi Ttf* 


EUROPE 

Austria *o 

.822-908-011 

Sweden 

. 020-795-611 
... 0808-89-0011 

Belgium* 

... 8-800-100-10 

United Kfagdam* 

. 0588-89-0811 

Czech Republic*. 

France 

... 00-42-000-101 
0-880-95-0011 

MIDDLE EAST 

8800-89-9811 

Germany 

0130-9010 

Egypf*(Calro)t 

510-8200 

Greece* 

. ...88-880-1311 

Israel - 

. 177-100-2727 

Ira la or) 

1-800-550-eaa 

Saudi Arabia* 

.... 1-800-10 

Ital»* 

. . . ..172-1011 

AFRICA 


Hetbortands* • 

. 0000-022-0111 

Ghana 

0191 

Russia •▲(Moscow)*- — 

755-5042 

Kenya* .. 

MONO 

Spain 

9MW9-«*1t 

Scuft Africa 

5-800-99-9123 


AT&T 


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Cant find the AT&T Access Number for ihe oounjxy you're fiotn? just ask any operator Cor 

AT&T Dtrecr Sctvkx, or Osk our Web site at hn^/www^iLcoin/rnneter 


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* 2%.*;., 

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