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INTERNATIONAL 



Sribune 


PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


The World’s Daily Newspapei 

Russia Joins 


London, Thursday, April 3, 1997 



No. 35,^ 



Watered-Down Treaty 
k Signed in Moscow 
As Liberals Assail It 


By Lee Hockstader 

Washington Post Service 


- MOSCOW — President Boris 
.Yeltsin, offering a sop to Russians nos- 
talgic for Slavic unity and Soviet 
grandeur, took a modest step Wednes- 

repu Wxc of Belarusaito its ItfmSian 
people despite warnings frat it could 
prove a costly meal for Moscow. . 

Mr. Yeltsin and the authoritarian 
it of Belarus, Alexander ' 
signed a blueprinr for 
closer integration between Russia and a 
former Soviet republic that is widely 
considered the most repressive and least 
democratic nation in Europe. 

Belarus's Soviet-style economy, 
nearly untouched by market reforms, is 
also among the most backward on the 
, Continent 

4 fThe accord inflamed Belarussian na- 
' tionalists, who marched through their 
capital, Minsk, under the red and white 
national flag, which has been replaced 
by Mr. Lukashenko, chanting “Inde- 
pendence!” Reuters reposted. 

[Policemen blocked protesters from 
marching on the Russian Embassy and 
then charged into the crowd with riot 
sticks as some protesters started throw- 
ing stones. Witnesses said about 100 
people had been detained. Some po- 
licemen also appeared to be hurt, and at 
least two ambulances sped to the 
scene.} 

The deal signed Wednesday, al- 
though only a watered-down version of - 
earlier proposals, has also caused a 
political uproar in Moscow and exposed 
a deep split in the newly revitalized 
Yeltsin achninistrarion. - 

On one side are ref ormers focused on 
restructuring and modernizing theRgs- 
sian economy and determined fluff Mos- 
cow should not be saddled with the 
financial onus of a union with impov- 
erished Belarus. On the other are Krem- 
lin conservatives, backed by Commu- 
nists and nationalists in Parliament, wbo 
want to salve Russia's injured pride and 
send a tough response to what they see 
as an unfriendly and aggressive West 
bent on expanding its military might 
into Eastern Europe. 

The reformers appear to have won 
this round by watering down earlier 

See UNION, Page 10 



Rx Europe: Bitter Medicine 

Economic Healing Process Is Full of Aches and Pain 


By John Vinocur 

International Herald Tribune 


BRl/SSELS — Europe, the industrial-accident 
patient who fell asleep at the switch, lies in 
traction, attended by scores of squabbling doc- 
tors, tugging on pulleys, plumping pillows, push- 
ing pills and placebos. 

The injured party is not getting well too 
quickly. This Sick Man receives 
much contradictory advice, and his 
full recovery is not expected next 


Bnc F «ftrtexnfAgaKt France- Prate 


French Interns Block Ghamps-Elysees in Protest 

Protesting the French government's reform proposals, which include forcing doctors who 
exceed limits on prescriptions to reimburse the social security system, about 100 hospital 
interns staged a sit-in Wednesday in central Paris, blocking three . avenues, including the 
Champs-Elysees near the presidential palace. Around the country, interns staged sit-ins on 
railroad lines, delaying trains in such major cities as Bordeaux, Lyon, Lille and Montpellier. 


week, maybe not next year or even this mil- 
lennium. The problem is that the pills and the 
pulleys tug in two fundamentally different di- 
rections: This way — get more flexible, slash fat, 
reduce social costs, free up the labor market and 
stare competition in the face — and that way — 
don't dismantle the social model, don't touch 
welfare and health protection, don’t pick at pen- 
sions. and don't, especially don't, allow Amer- 
ican -style hire-fire-expire social precariousness 
to take over European life. 

Pulled in all directions by political expediency, 
strong lobbies, inertia, arrogance, idealism, both 
the desire for and fear of change, and the con- 


viction that it has created decent societies that 
ought to be sustained. Europe's treatment process 
can look remarkably uneven and vague. 

Ad Melken, the Dutch minister for employment 
and social affairs, reflected the problem perfectly 
in an interview. First, he explained, his voice aD 
managerial: "We've just got to say good-bye to 
the status quo all over Europe. And taking your 
distance from the status quo means confronting 
— - workers with enormous insecuri- 

NEWS ANALYSIS v " Bul *en he insisted, a labor 
organizer's tonality taking bold. 


that the social institutions had to remain, albeit 
retooled: “I’m absolutely through with people 
who say social policy is just a cost factor. It’s 
education, motivation, stability — and productiv- 
ity comes out of it!" 

Droopy -eyed with habit, the Europe of the early 
'90s dozed through important early stages of 
economic restructuring and sociological change, 
winding up with 18.5 million unemployed and 9 
million unspecified others who, in the phrasing of 
Euphemisto. the lulling dialect of the European 
Union bureaucracy, "would take a job if one were 

See EUROPE, Page 10 


U.S. Gun Lobby Goes Global to Fight Threats of Restrictions 


By Katharine Q. Seelye 

New York Times Service 


WASHINGTON — The National Rifle As- 
sociation is going global. 

The American gun lobby is worried that mount- 
ing concern over gun violence in the rest of the 
world could result in regulations that would im- 
pinge on gun owners in the United States and on the 
American gun trade. 

- As a result, the rifle association framed an or- 
ganization in mid-March with gun groups and fire- 
arms manufacturers from 11 other countries to 


combat whai it perceives as a new international 
threat The association has also attained special 
advocacy status at the United Nations, allowing it to 
monitor and lobby against seven UN efforts that the 
association says could result in worldwide restric- 
tions on gun manufacturers, exporters and owners. 

Tanya Metaksa, chief lobbyist for the rifle as- 
sociation. said of the new World Forum on the 
Future of Sport Shooting Activities, which is to 
have its headquarters in Belgium: 

“The hope of this organization is that it will 
have the unified voice of the shooting community, 
the gun-owning community. We’re hopeful we can 


have influence at the UN and some influence with 
our own government and preclude some kind of 
treaty*’ that might clamp down on firearms. 

Gun laws in the United States are among the 
least restrictive in the developed world. The FBI 
estimates there are 250 million firearms in the 
country, one for nearly every person. 

Largely as a by-product of the end of the Cold 
War. and because of increasing gun smuggling and 
violence, international disarmament groups, once 
preoccupied with nuclear weapons, are focusing 
more on the proliferation of small arms and hand- 
guns as a major threat to health and safety. 


Increasingly, violence involving guns is being 
viewed as a public health epidemic, with other 
countries determined to keep American violence 
from crossing their borders. The Journal of Amer- 
ican History reported recently that more people axe 
killed with guns in the United States in a typical 
week than in all of Western Europe in a year. 

Even Sean Connery, the Scottish actor whose 
portrayal of James Bond glamorized guns and 
violence for a generation, has become a convert to 
the anti-gun cause. Mr. Connery, outraged by last 

See GUNS, Page 10 


Aides Sought Help for Clinton Friend 

White House Staffers Tried to line Up Work for Whitewater Figure 


AGENDA 


Tories Propose Big Tax Break in Britain 


By Susan Schmidt 

Washington Post Service 


WASHINGTON — Two of Presi- 
dent Bill Clinton’s top political ad- 
visers, Erskine Bowies and Thomas 
McLarty, called business friends to line 
up financial help for Webster Hubbell 
when be was coming under the scrutiny 
of Whitewater investigators, according 
to the White House. 

Mr. McLarty, then White House chief 
of staff, told Mr. Clinton and his wife, 
Hillaiy, that he intended to be “snp- 
ive’* and “to try to help” Mr. Hub- 
i as their longtime friend was resign- 
ing as associate attorney general in 


March 1994, officials said. Mr. HubbeU 
left the Jostice Department post after 
coming under investigation fra defraud- 
ing Ms former law firm and clients of 
nearly $500,000 and later served an 18- 
month prison term. 

Officials said Mr. McLarty ’s recol- 
lection of his conversation about Mr. 
HubbeU with the president is hazy, but 
one said Mr. McLarty recalled that Mis. 
Clinton “acknowledged his comments 
and maybe thanked him ” without say- 
ing much more. 

Mr. McLarty and Mr. Bowles, Mr. 
Clinton’s current chief of staff, made die 
calls in an effort to find work out of 
concern for Mr. HubbeU, said the White 


House spokesman. Lanny Davis. Mr. 
McLarty called an Arkansan, Truman 
Arnold, who hired Mr. HubbeU for un- 
specified duties and prevailed on others 
to do the same. 

“He may have communicated to the 
president and the first lady that Truman 
was going to hire the guy.” said one 
White House aide. 

Mr. Bowles, then chief of the Small 
Business Administration, called an in- 
vestment banker and two lawyers on 
Mr. HubbeU 's behalf after a conver- 
sation with Mickey Kantor, then U.S. 
trade representative, about Mr. Hub- 

See FRIENDS. Page 10 



Way of the Monk Beckons a Titan 


We New Yak Tone*' 

Kanin Inamori, Who is tor€^e at65 

as a Japanese entrepreneur and become a mock- 


Kyoto Entrepreneur Decides, 
At 65, to Enter a Monastery 

By Andrew Pollack 

New York Times Service 

KYOTO, Japan — It’s not every day that a cor- 
porate chieftain calls it quits and becomes a monk. But 
for Kazuo Inamori. tins planned step is not such a big 
change. He already runs his companies like religious 
orders and is revered as almost godlike. 

Mr. Inamori ranks as one of the great Japanese 
entrepreneurs since World War IL along with Akio 
Marita, Sony’s co-founder, and Soichiro Honda. 

But Mr. Inamori did not build just one multibUlion- 
dollar company — be built two. One, Kyocera Corp., is 
a $6 billion company that dominates the world market 
for ceramic casings for computer chips. The other, 
DDI Corp_, is Japan's No. 2 telephone company. 

In a nation desperate for entrepreneurs to revitalize 
its economy, Mr. Inamori has become a rote modeL 

And he has not shrunk from that task, spreading Ms 
religion-laden business philosophy everywhere — 
both to make Japan's closed economic system more 
receptive to iconoclasts like himself and to cement Ms 
place in history. 

Ax Kyocera, the corporate motto is, “Respect die 
divine and love people.” Employees come to weak 


early each morning to study Mr. Inamori 's teachings, a 
mixture of Zen and Zig Ziglar, the motivational speaker. 
Two of his books have been translated into English: “A 
Passion for Success” (McGraw-Hill') and “For People 
and for Profit” (Kodansha International). 

Mr. Inamori also tries to teach entrepreneurialiszn to 
outside executives. His juku. a private school of sorts, 
has about 3,000 members with branches throughout 
Japan and in Brazil and Taiwan. 

In 1984 he donated $80 million to establish the 
Kyoto Prize, wMch is awarded each year to honor 
achievement in science and the humanities. 

The prize amount, now about $500,000, was set in 
1984 at a level just below that of the Nobel prizes, so as 
not to seem an attempt to eclipse those awards. 

Now, Mr. Inamori, 65. plans to retire in June as 
chairman of both Kyocera and DDI and indulge his 
passion for religion by becoming a Zen Buddhist monk 
in a Kyoto temple, one at which Kyocera already 
mam tains a tomb for employees. 

“Everybody gets older and gets senile,” Mr. In- 
amori explained in an interview. ‘ 'The person himself 
is the only one that doesn’t know he’s getting senile. I 
don’t want to be tike that.” 

No one, including Mr. Inamori himself, expects him 
to stay long in the monastic life — shaving his head, 
rising before dawn and eating vegetarian food. He is 
too driven, has too many commitments and will still be 

See MONK, Page 10 


Books ' L 

Crossward 9 s ?? ■ 

Opinion Pa «“ 8 ?' 

Sports Pag* 30-M- 


Russia Reformist Faces Legacy to Undo 


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By Michael R. Gordon 

New York Tunes Service 

NIZHNI NOVGOROD, Russia— In 
more than five years as governor, Boris 
Nemtsov has labored mightily to make 
this Volga River region a bastion of 
free-market reform. 

He and his youthful aides courted 
Western investors. They tried to nurture 
small businesses. They transformed the 
cityscape, which now boasts a trade fair 
and a pedestrian shopping malL 

Now, President Boris Yeltsin has 
turned to the 37-yeawrtd former phys- 
icist and anti-nuclear activist, elevating 
him to the post of first deputy prime 
minis ter in the hope that be can smooth 
Russia’s rocky transition toward cap- 
italism. 

Mr. Nemtsov’s record in Nizhni 
Novgorod suggests his zeal for reform is 


genuine. But Mr. Nemtsov’s tenure as 
governor here was one of frustration as 
well as accomplishment, illustrating the 
obstacles he mil face as he tries to undo 
tiie legacy of co mmunism. 

Small businesses, fra example, have 
grown. But they account for only 11 

IMF pushes Moscow to accelerate 
economic reforms. Page IS. 

percent of the region’s employment, up 
from 5 percent in 1994. 

While Mr. Nemtsov's new post gives 
him farmore power to force the pace of 
change, it is also a journey into un- 
charted territory . 

Mr. Nemtsov's vow to crack down on 
energy and transportation monopolies, 
find ways to pay pensions, and fight 
endemic corruption means he will have 


to confront economic quandaries that 
few in Russia have bad the courage to 
tackle. Moreover, he will have to do so 
without the team of officials he as- 
sembled in Nizhni Novgorod. 

“Many say it is a suicidal job and it 
will be his last political post,” said 
Pavel Chichagov, the director of the 
Epicenter economic consulting firm 
here. “There is something to that. But 
he has often faced resistance. And if 
history repeats itself, you can't exclude 
that he may he quite successful in gov- 
ernment.” 

Mr. Nemtsov is not a stranger to 
adversity. He demonstrated his pen- 
chant for free thinking during the last 
years of the Soviet Union. 

Defying the KGB. he met with An- 
drei Sakharov, the Soviet nuclear phys- 

See NEMTSOV, Page 10 


With promises to double living 
s*ardards in the long term and to offer 
2 million Britons an annual £910 tax 
break here and now, the Conservative 
manifesto launched by Prime Min- 
ister John Major on Wednesday had 
something for everyone — especially 
the opposition. 

In a reaction that speaks volumes 
about a political race that has turned 


long-established norms on their 
heads, the onposition Labour Party 
chastised the Tories for not being con- 
servative enough. The shadow chan- 
cellor. Gordon Brown, branded the 
government’s lax plans as "reckless 
and desperate" and insisted that they 
could lead to higher interest rates and 
ultimately, to a premature end to Bri- 
tain’s economic recovery. Page 5. 



§ The Dollar | 

New York 

Wednesday o 3 pm 

previous dow 

oil 

1 6778 

1.6645 

Pound 

1.643 

1.6546 

Yen 

123.37 

121.535 

FF 

5.648 

5.606 

1 mm The Dow | 

mm 

Wednesday dose 

previous dose 


Frank GmrfTht Awmb ) Prcn 

SEASON’S GREETINGS — Toronto’s Pat Hentgen throwing the first 
pitch of the baseball season to Tony Phillips of the White Sox. Page 20. 

CompuServe Confirms Merger Talks 

CompuServe Inc. confirmed late 
Wednesday that it was in merger 
talks. 

The announcement followed spec- 
ulation by industry sources that 
America Online Inc., the largest com- 
puter on-line service in the United 
Slates, was considering the purchase 
of CompuServe, its biggest rival. 

CompuServe declined to Qame its 
partner, however, and neither of the 
two firms gave details. 

CompuServe shares rose 22 per- 
cent during the past two days after a 
research report said America Online 
might bid for CompuServe. 

Although it was the pioneer of the 
on-line industry. CompuServe has 
posted poor results and has lost cus- 
tomers to AOL and Microsoft Corp. 
CompuServe's stock has fallen 63 per- 
cent since it went public a year ago. 

A deal between CompuServe and 
AOL could expand the capacity of 
AOL’s computer network, helping to 
reduce the busy signals that many on- 
line subscribers encounter when trying 
to connect to the service. Page 13. 


-29.46 


6581.59 


S&P500 


6611.05 


Chengs Wednesday 6 3 P.M. previous doee 


-3.1 


756.54 


759.64 


PAGE TWO 

When Adoption Turns to Heartbreak 

THE AMERICAS Page 3. 

Pentagon Argues for Expansion 

ASIA/PACIFIC Page 4. 

Monks Report 3 Deaths in Burma 

FINANCE Page 13. 

Saudi Prince Buys Stake in Apple 







PAGE TWO 


Agency Promises / Henring to 


Baby Back 


An Adoption That Turned Into Heartbreak 


By Paul Duggan 

Washington Past Service 


W ASHINGTON — This is how their 
story ends: It is dusk in Rockville, 
Maryland, a few minutes before 5 
o'clock, the dead of January, and Bar- 
bara Ship is upstairs in her town house, changing the 
baby’s diaper for what she knows is the last time. 

The boy, a month old, was bom on a December 
afternoon, and Barbara Ship, intent on adopting 
him, was there in the birthing room for the delivery, 
joyous and awestruck. She wept, and so did her 
husband, who was pacing nearby. They named the 
child Aaron and felt blessed. 

But what followed was uncertainty and heartache. 
And now. gazing at him on the changing table, this 
infant who will not be her son, Barbara Ship without 
speaking says good-bye, buttons his powder-blue 
outfit and carries him from the nursery to the woman 
downstairs who has come to take him away. 

The woman is Denise Zuvic. She helps run an 
adoption agency, an agency that ac- 
cepted $27,750 from the Ships, prom- 
ising them a newborn. Now the long- 
awaited adoption has come to dis- 
aster, and the Ships blame the agency. 

As for Aaron, what the Ships feel for 
him is not nearly so simple: They feel 
love, unquestionably, yet they are 
eager, too, for the boy to be gone so 
that their pain at losing him might 
begin to abate. 

The Ships' story is hardly typical 
— most of the tens of thousands of 
adoptions begun each year in the 
United States conclude successfully. 

Rather, it is-a cautionary tale of what 
can happen even to the most educated 
of couples who, in their yearning for 
children, may overlook warning 
signs. For those who aren't careful, 
financial and emotional perils await. 

Two months later, Barbara and An- 
drew Ship — one a doctor, the other a 
graduate student in social work — are 
still trying to get back $22,750 of the 
money they paid to the New Jersey- 
based agency, called Today's Adop- 
tion. Their lawyer and the agency's 
lawyer have been corresponding, but 
tbe issue is unresolved. 

As for Denise Zuvic, neither she 
nor her mother. Patricia Zuvic. 
founder and director of Today's, re- 
turned telephone messages left at the 
agency's Montague, New Jersey, of- 
fice last week, seeking a response to 
the Ships' assertion that the agency 
mishandled their planned adoption of 
Aaron by failing to obtain a signed 
“relinquishment of parental rights" 
from his biological father. Today’s has been the 
subject of dozens of complaints about mishandled 
adoptions in several states, according to regulators. 
In cases in which the agency lus responded, it has 
denied wrongdoing. 

Samuel. Totaro, an adoption lawyer whom the 
Ships consulted after losing Aaron, said he knew of 
no public or private organization that kept statistics 
on failed adoptions. But, Mr. Totaro said: “These 
things occur more often than you would think. You 
have to be aware: It’s a legal risk." 

There are well over 1,000 licensed adoption 
agencies in the United Stales, many of them not 
carefully monitored by the state regulators who 
issued the licenses, said William Pierce, president 
of die National Council for Adoption, a Wash- 
ington-based professional association that offers 
advice to would-be adoptive parents. “Agencies 
pop up all the time — kitchen-table operations, all 
lands of operations," he said. “Licensure means 
very little. There are agencies and attorneys who 


knowledgeable about adoption now than we were 
before," Barbara Ship said. Her husband added, 
“Now we know specifically what questions to ask. 
Before, when we got an answer that everything was 
O JC., we accepted that. Now I want to know, 'Well, 
exactly how is it O.K.?’ ” 

He is 37, a former special education teacher 
studying for a master’s degree at Virginia Com- 
monwealth University. She is 42. an internist on die 
faculty at George Washington University School of 
Medicine, where she goes by her maiden name, 
Barbara Basuk. They married in 1991 and longed to 
conceive children. But neither was able. Two yeans 
ago. after infertility treatments failed, they decided 
to adopt. 

They turned to a social worker, who gave them a 
list of 20 lawyers specializing in adoptions. Andrew 
Ship called them all. 

One. in Virginia, recommended a lawyer who 
might be able to find them a child soon: Stanley 
Michelman. The Ships had heard of Mr. Michel- 
man; they knew, for example, that he had been 



Barbara 

previous 


and Andrew Ship holding the baby they adopted after a 
attempt i vas apparently bungled by an agency they trusted. 


have been in trouble in state after state after state. 

O NE afternoon recently. Andrew and Bar- 
bara Ship sat in the dining room where 
two months earlier she had been forced to 
give up Aaron. On the floor nearby, asleep 
in a baby seat, was Hannah Ship, born in Mississippi 
on March 1 and given to the Ships three days later by 
a Florida-based agency that tbe couple had turned to 
after the earlier debacle, 

Andrew Ship said he did research and was sat- 
isfied that the new agency, the Adoption Centre, had 
a clean business record before he and his wife paid 
$24,000 to adopt Hannah. "We’re so much more 


suspended from practicing law for three years in 
New York after licensing authorities determined 
that he had improperly counseled both sides — the 
biological mothers and would-be parents — in two 
adoption cases. Yet the Virginia lawyer spoke 
highly of Mr. Michelman. So the Ships trailed him. 

That was last June. Mr. Michelman was in Fort 
Lee, New Jersey, working for an agency about 
which the Ships knew little: Today’s Adoption. 

Mr. Michelman 's attorney. Ivan Fischer, said his 
client was “forthright, accurate and caring” in his 
dealings with the Ships and bore no responsibility 
for the failed adoption. “He very much regrets the 
difficulty these people experienced," said Mr. Fisc- 
her. adding that Mr. Michelman was no longer 
associated with Today’s. 

Mr. Michelman sounded optimistic when the 
Ships called, and within a few weeks, after the 
couple had paid the agency $2,500. Mr. Michelman 
faxed them 26 pages of biographical forms filled out 
by a woman who just recently had been in toucb 
with the agency. 

Her name was Lisa. She was 36. twice divorced, 
had lived mostly in Texas and Oklahoma and was 
rearing two boys. She was four months pregnant. 

Overtime, die Ships talked with Lisa frequently on 
the telephone. “We really liked her." Barbara Ship 
said-But the couple knew much less about the father 
of die baby Lisa was canying — only that his name 
was Wayne, he was in his 30s, and he was a traveling 
oil-pipeline worker in Texas and Oklahoma. 

Lisa said she was no longer seeing him. The Ships 
said Mr. Michelman repeatedly assured them that 
the agency would arrange for Wayne to formally 
relinquish his right to the child. 


In July, tbe couple signed a contract with 
Today’s, agreeing to pay an additional $25,250 in 
installments during Lisa’s pregnancy. The agency, 
agreeing to handle the adoption legalities and to pay 
for Lisa ‘s living and medical expenses, arranged for 
her to move into a bouse in Pennsylvania. Tbe 
contract warned “that there is a financial risk in all 
adoption plans which must be realistically accepted 
and known.” But if the adoption failed and the 
Ships were not to blame, according to the contract, 
“the risk of loss to the adoptive parents is max- 
imized at $5,000“ — for which the Ships had an 
insurance policy. 

Not long before the birth, Lisa had contacted 
Wayne to let him know where she was, that she was 
planning to give up their child, and that his per- 
mission would be needed. The Ships don’t know 
what his response was then. But just days after the 
birth, Wayne called Lisa from Oklahoma and told 
her he wanted tbe baby. He had contacted a lawyer 
in Pennsylvania and was prepared to fight 
Barbara Ship called Mr. Michelman, furious. 

Why hadn’t Today’s dealt 
with Wayne much earlier? If 
Wayne wanted tbe baby, why 
hadn’t they been warned long 
ago, before they had poured 
so much emotion and money 
into the adoption effort? 
“And he said, ‘Don’t worry, 
don’t worry,’ " Barbara Ship 
said. But she worried. 

She then called Mr. Totaro, 
the lawyer, in Pennsylvania. 
He could offer her little hope. 
The Ships could fight for 
Aaron in court, be said, but he 
could almost guarantee they 
would lose. Wayne had a 
clear right to his son. All Mr. 
Totaro could suggest was that 
the Ships contact Wayne — 
call him personally — and try 
to persuade him to change his 
mind. 

All that week, Barbara 
Ship tried to work up the 
nerve to contact him. Finally, 
on Friday, she reached him at 
an Oklahoma motel. “He was 
very, very pleasant,’’ she re- 
called. “The first thing be did 
was thank me for taking care 
of his son. And I told him 
about our relationship with 
the baby, how we were there 
when he was bom. and all the 
things we could do for him. 
And he said, *1 want my son.’ 
It was a very short conver- 
sation. I asked him if there 
was anything we could say or 
do to change his mind, and he said, ‘No.’ ’’ 

“I remember when she hung up the phone,” 
Andrew Ship said. “There was dead silence. That 
was when I knew we had no chance. It just wasn’t 
going to..." 

“We loved him,” Barbara Ship said suddenly. 
“We loved him. He was ours.” "* 

After that, “it became really hard to take care of 
Aaron,’ ' she went on. “It was really hard to get up* 
every three hours in the middle of the night and feed 
him and take care of him. It was really painful.” 

Four days later, Lisa, with the Ships' agreement, 
withdrew her adoption petition and asserted her 
right to the baby to prevent Wayne from taking 
custody of him. 


Kobe* A. Kwriwftlw luUopaa Fow 


w: 


- HEN Ms. Zuvic came to take Aaron 
away. Andrew Ship, afraid of what he 
might say or do, left the house. His wife 
could not bring herself to hand Aaron 
to die woman from the agency. Instead, she gave tbe 
child to a friend, Karen Karlin, and Ms. Karlin 
handed the baby to Ms. Zuvic. Barbara Ship turned 
her back as Ms. Karlin escorted Ms. Zuvic and the 
baby outside. Only when the front door was shut and 
be was truly gone did Barbara Ship begin to cry. 

The pain of his leaving, though it persists, has 
faded, much of it erased a month later by the arrival 
of Hannah. ‘ ‘The more time goes by, die less I think 
about tbem," Barbara Ship said, meaning I.i«a and 
Aaron. 

Someone told her they were in Texas now, or 
maybe Oklahoma, and sometimes she finds herself 
wondering about the boy — who be might have 
become, who he’ll become instead. 


DEATH NOTICE 


Before dawn on March 27, 1997, 
in her 95th year, the traveler 
and writer 

ELLA MADLLART 

left us for her 
“Return to the light'. 

A ceremony in Ella's memory 
will take place at the Calvaire 
in Chandolin on 12 April 1997. 
at 2 p.m. 

Family and friends 
“Atchala", CH-3961 Chandolin, 
Switzerland. 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


Sporadic Strikes in Paris 

PARIS (Reuters) — Ground staff and some 
pilots at Air France Europe staged sporadic 
strikes Wednesday, but the state-owned air- 
line said the protests failed to disrupt flights. 

Talks on the dispute over wages and work- 
ing conditions broke down Tuesday night. 

Unions accused management of seeking to 
slow down the negotiations. 

USAirways has laid off several hundred 
workers and scrapped most of its Caribbean 
and Canadian flights from Baltimore- Wash- 
ington International Airport. (API 


Canadian passport holders will not re- 
quire visas for short-term stays in Hong Kong 
lifter the territory reverts to Chinese sov- 
ereignty July 1. (AFP) 

Some taxis in Tokyo are cutting their min- 
imum fare roughly in half, but only for rides 
under two kilometers (1.3 miles). After that, 
the fares are even pricier than the old ones, 
which had a $5.30 minimum charge. (AP) 

Telephone operators in hotels in Shang- 
hai, China's most cosmopolitan city, have 
been advised to use Mandarin, not English, 
when greeting callers. (AFP) 


Low Thames Strands Boats 

The Associated Press 

LONDON — Tourists wanting 
to take tbe boat ride up the Thames 
to Hampton Court Palace are having 
to go by land after an exceptionally 
dry winter. Parts of the river are so 
shallow that it is impossible for 
boats to navigate at low tide. 


Orthodox Jews Tighten 
Their Grip on Israelis 

Proposed Law Wbuld Limit Conversions 


By Barton Gellman 

Washington Post Service 


JERUSALEM — Bending to a 
pivotal voting bloc in the ruling co- 
alition but reviving an emotional dis- 
pute with North American Jews, the 
Israeli Parliament has voted to 
strengthen tbe Orthodox establish- 
ment’s grip on Jewish religious life. 

The bill, which passed its first reading 
Tuesday but is not yet law, would grant 
Orthodox rabbinical courts exclusive 
jurisdiction over those seeking to con- 
vert to Ju daism. If it takes effect, the bill 
would reverse a Supreme Court ruling 
that gave hope of official recognition for 
Jews converted by Reform and Con- 
servative Jewish denominations. 

The return of the struggle over “who 
is a Jew,” which drove a searing wedge 
between Israelis and Diaspora Jews m 
the 198%, is costing Prime Minister 
Benjamin Netanyahu allies at a time 
when be faces diplomatic isolation. Se- 
nior leaders of the Reform and Con- 
servative movements, which together 
represent 3 million of die 3.5 million 
American Jews, are threatening to with- 
hold lobbying support and divert as 
much as half — $150 million — of their 
annual contribution to Israel away from 
the government. 

Mr. Netanyahu, trying to avoid a 
breach with either the overseas Jews or 
the pivotal Orthodox voting bloc, cut a 
deal in which the bill would pass its first 
reading and the Orthodox parties would 
then promise to “freeze” its status in 
committee. That would lock in place the 
Orthodox monopoly here, but would not 
give it the status of law. 

Non-Orthodox Jewish leaders, here 
and abroad, were skeptical that the bar- 
gain for a freeze would last, and they 
focused in any case on die vote’s sym- 
bolic significance. 

“This legislation in effect is a dec- 
laration that Reform rabbis in Israel are 
not rabbis, and Reform Judaism in Israel 
is not Judaism, and that we’re all 
second-class Jews," said Rabbi Eric H. 
Yoffie, president of tbe Union of Amer- 
ican Hebrew Congregations. 

In the days when Israel’s survival was 
at stake. Rabbi Yoffie said, “the Jewish 
community was prepared to put aside 
these sort of issues, and appropriately 
so.” 

But today, be said, “neither Pales- 
tinian leader Yasser Arafat nor Hamas, 
the Islamic Resistance Movement, has 
the capability of destroying the state of 
Israel’ ’ and ‘ ‘we are no longer prepared 
to be silent in the face of this kind of 
insult and slap in the face.” 

Although apparently technical, the 
argument on conversions has practical - 
significance because there is no such 
thing in Israel as civil marriage, divorce 
or buriaL A Jew may be married here, 
for example, only by an Orthodox rabbi, 
and only to another person recorded in 
the Interior Ministry's population re- 
gistry as a Jew. The conversion bill 
would give legal status for die first time 
to this Orthodox monopoly. It specifies 
that “there shall be no legal validity 
given to a conversion performed in Is- 
rael” without the approval of the Or- 
thodox rabbinate. 

Reform and Conservative conver- 
sions abroad would in theory continue 
to be recognized, but Orthodox parlies 
have set their sights on those too. 

Labor Minister Etiabu Yisbai, one of 
two members of die ultra-Orthodox 
Shas party in die cabinet, said that Shas 
would move next to close what he called 
loopholes in overseas conversions. 

“We, God forbid, are not interested 
in conflict, only bringing people to- 
gether," he said, “but today the law is 
full of holes. A foreign worker can get a 
conversion from Cyprus by fax.” 

There is no evidence, in fact, of fax 
conversions or of other horror stories 
reported by Orthodox activists about die 
Reform and Conservative movements. 
Even so, in practice the Interior Ministry 
— also controlled in this government by 
Shas — is refusing to register Israelis 
who return from abroad with Reform or 
Conservative conversion certificates. 

Beneath the power struggle was a 
basic debate on the legitimacy of Re- 
form and Conservative Jewish practice, 
which are modest minorities in Israel. 


The fundamentalist Jews of die Or r 
tbodox Jewish political parties argue 
openly that Reform and Conservative 
rabbis are not in fact Jewish but pur- 
veyors of a kind of religious fraud. 

‘“Whosoever doesn’t accept the ore 
true Judaism, then let him not be a Jew,”^ 
said David Tal. a Shas member of Par-4 
li ament. By offering a false substitute 
for the mandates of Orthodox religious 
law, he said, * ‘Reform and Conservative 
conversions are annihilating the people 
of Israel. It is a form of self-destruction, 
and we cannot allow this to happen.” 

The quasi-government Jewish 
Agency, which is dedicated to bringing 
Jews to Israel, stands to lose tens of 
millions of dollars in revenue if Amer- 
ican Jews go through with their boycott. 

Aviaham Burg, the agency's chair- 
man, said it was obvious that the Or- 
thodox parties would use similar tactics 
to pass the bQJ into law. 

Israelis cannot turn to American Jews 
“with requests for economic and polit- 
ical support,” Mr. Burg said, and “sir 
multaneously cut them off from the 
Jewish people and Israeli society.’ ’ 


- £ 


Israel Spurns 
Talks Until 
Bombings End 


Return 

JERUSALEM — Prime Minister 
Benjamin Netanyahu said Wednesday 
that Israel would not resume peace- 
making as long as Palestinian bombs 
kept exploding. % 

He spoke hours after a firebomb was 
thmwn at an Israeli bus in the West Bank. 
ranging it to overturn and injuring 11 
soldiers, ft was tbe third bombing that 
Israel attributed to Palestinians in two 
days. 

“The peace process can’t be con- 
ducted while buses or cafds are ex- 
ploding or while children are in danger 
of a terrorist blowing them up,” Mr. 
Netanyahu said, as unrest in the West 
Bank, touched off by construction of an 
Israeli settlement, entered a third week. 

His spokesman vowed that settler 
merit budding would continue. Pales- 
tinians complain that Jewish settlement 
on occupied land preempts tbe results of 
final peace talks on the status of Arab 
East Jerusalem, captured by Israel in 
1967 and claimed by both sides. 

*1- The Pales tinians want settlement to 
top tbe agenda when Mr. Netanyahu 
meets President Bill Clinton ret week 
for peace-saving talks, but the Israeli 
leader said that halting die violence was 
the first priority. 

Secretary of State Madeleine Albright 
called the Palestinian leader. President 
Yasser Arafat, twice Wednesday to hear 
his views before Mr. Netanyahu’s visit, 
the Palestinian official news agency , 
Wafa said. Wafa quoted Mr. Arafat as 
telling Mrs. Albright that the Israeli set- 
tlement policy “places the entire peace 
process in real danger.” 

Palestinian stone-throwers early 
Wednesday clashed north of Jersualem 
with soldiers who responded with tear- 
gas and rubber bullets. 

■ UJS. Proposes 3- Way Summit • 

Tbe United States tried Wednesday to 
arrange an urgent Isradi-Palestinian 
summit meeting in hopes of saving tbe 
peace process from ' 
violence, Agence France-I 
from Gaza City, quoting senior 
tinian officials. 

The Clinton arfminigrrarin n invited 
envoys from both tides to Washington to 
prepare for a high-level meeting that 
could involve three-way talks among 
Mr. Arafat, Mr. Netanyahu and Mr. Clin- 
ton. a spokesman for Mr. Arafat said. 

The Palestinians agreed to send ah - 
emissary to Washington. If Israel also 
responds positively, the envoys could 
meet by the weekend, officials said. ■ 

Asked about the U.S. request, Israel’s 
foreign minister, David Levy, declined 
to reply. 



WEATHER 


Europe 


WEEKEND SKI REPORT 


Resort 


own 
L ll 


Pas data Casa 50 us 
Sokteu 3) 135 


Mta. Rk. Snow LbsI 
Pbtw Pistes Stale Snow 


COOMNBtS 


Fafr dusty spring ISO My open, best ti momng 
ft* rfpty spring is/2 ifigi tte open seme goal thing 


Austria 








lachg 

20 

140 

Good 

Aidiy suing 

303 

4t *Cr 3p®i. gnu* spnng 

KBzbuhol 

0 

110 

Far 

dosed 


29/3 

/tor** rhn£ scheorg by maty 

Lech 

100 

210 

Good 

Open 

Vs 

303 

testy spmg dong above 2030 n 

Mayrhoten 

50 

150 

flood 

Ctead 

vm 

303 

28/30 Steepen /asms roosdy good 

Obergurgl 

65 

170 

Good 

riLBty 

varad 

303 

al but tone* nr* n pea dope 

SaafiHKh 

30 

90 

Goad 

ahrfly 

vu'jC 

303 

most Bb open 

SL Anion 

50 

380 

Good 

Stety 

vanaJ 

303 

Jl, ft? ttts open 

Canada 

Lake Louise 

MO 

215 

For 

stety 

waned 

a/3 

at 12 tils ppm. /wvytyaflemoon 

Whistler 

45 

300 

Far 

Opwi 

Vat 

31/3 

My ppm easBm suaig 

France 








Alps tfHuaz 

60 

340 

Good 

dusty oprng 

28ft 

S7-35 Btsopen, gwai strrtg s&ag 

Lea Arcs 

70 

280 

Far 

Open 

strtag 

203 

68/77 ms open, pews mosdy goad 

Avoriaz 

110 

130 

Fir 

dusty spng 

203 

good sAm? despae odd warn patch 

Chamonix 

0 

2S0 

Good 

Ctead 

song 

203 

N Faang ruts grew 

Cowchewel 

95 

200 

fat 

Open 


S3 

uw vb becomng qmg nm 

Lee Deux Aiqes 

30 

290 

Good 

Art 

War 

24/3 

SOBS tits open peer above 220Cln 

Megeve 

0 

140 

rat 

Closed 

heavy 

203 

masonatla fir* ttng 

MSritwH 

15 

170 

Far 

sfcty 

heavy 

203 

most OB open, pew hate* 2200m 

LaPtsgne 

105 

2QS 

Good 

Open 

Vta 

S3 

5flfW HOT pdti8A 

Sene Chevalier 

30 

180 

Good 

worn 

VSr 

193 

at but twesf nn; n pood sta/w 

Tignes 

120 

180 

Good 

Open 

d»ng 

23/3 

eapaca My amtfanf abate ZSOOtr 

VricTlsare 

SO 

190 

Good 

eon spring 

a/3 

857100 Hb open 

Vtf Thomng 

80 

210 

Good 

dusty 

toned 

203 

&&Bs open, pae&nusar goal 

Q eii ii any 

Berchtssgadsn 

0 

EO 

Good 

Cteed 

Vtar 

27/3 

103/0918*0 

Obsrsidort 

0 

150 

Good 

Sow 

VB 

2U3 

2*® Wswsn. (Tsaatatei* 


Resort 

Italy 

Bormto 

Cervtma 

Cortina 

Courmsyeur 

Lhngno 

Msdasano 


Deptt 
L U 


0 1*0 
40 320 
0 55 

20 120 
*0 170 
25 205 


Mtn. Res. Swr Last 
Pistes Pistes State Snow 


Far Art sums 
Good Sidi sjftig 
Fas Ct sue r navy 
Pas Ctead wring 
Pm Open crus 
Fas Same Vat 


SO 1318 Ms open 
28/3 fuS/epm. Etpab abene 2200m 
SO 23/51 tfe open Becoming p*aiy 
28ft 21/22 Bb open, good B/attuda 
?*ft at 30 Skj opart hemf by aSomuui 
203 »517 Ms twin 


Sehra 

0 

50 

Far 

Ait 

V* 

24ft 

5S/8U«* open, naa good 

Norway 

Geito 

35 

50 

Good 

dusty 

heavy 

1*4 

at 18 Bts open, good cover at nm 

Switzerland 

Crane Montana 

0 

145 

Good 

riutyr 

spvmg 

<4ft 

S*r operuws hoary- 

Davos 

X 

230 

Good 

5®ne 

V* 

303 

at 5Stb open, te*y gpmg sting 

Westers 

20 

215 

Good 

sfcsty 

vanad 

303 

OS cpen. pwf **ig 

Murren 

X 

60 

Far 

Open 

VSj 

30-3 

et 12 etts open, nrs good 

SaasFee 

X 

330 

ijfXKl 

Open 

va.- 

reft 

2*26 ilia con good abate SOOOn 

SL Moritz 

20 

« 

Far 

duty 

spmg 

28ft 

50/S Sttsopsn wrngdsn 

Vertner 

15 

160 

Good 

WQfT. 

Vir 

Z&3 

753? Ms ppen. good soring sre* 

Wengen 

5 

80 

Far 

Sane 


24ft 

153) tos open 

Zermatt 

10 

185 

Gsoc 

Cfesn 


2S3 

lotf con at me tea* good 

UX 

Aspen 

145 

165 

Fair 

Own 

epnrg 

1*4 

sons gxd sonrg sting el el levels 

BrecXenridge 

160 

210 

Good 

Hart 

Var 

9ft 

19 Bfe anj t38 pa*C»w 

Crested Buna 

170 

195 

Faff 

Open 

Var 

1.4 

a* >J Bis open, neflycomadpsas 

Mammoth 

280 

370 

Good 

Open 

Var 

31ft 

KSilfts open tab nxxOf good 

Park City 

IS 

250 

Good 

Opan 

Pwdr 

1-4 

a8 14 ty ppen. aywS eaofloore 

Vai 

175 

210 

Good 

Open 

Pm 

1/4 

a2 Wt aid /ins open mesty good 

Winter Parit 

185 

205 

Good 

Cpen 

vs u 

1,4 

1625 B!s cpm "dtoarts*wd nns 




Tri si 1 1 11 


»gh 

LowW 

«Bh 

LowW 



OF 

Of 

OF 

AlQono 

23/73 

14/57 pc 

23/73 14757 £ 

Amswntnn 

1UB 

205 sh 

9*48 

173* e 

Aitea 

13/56 

1/34 pc 

1000 

- 101*1 

A9wre 

13/55 

9/48 pc 

ia*4 

10750 BC 

6aro»n» 

I7J6Z 

W48PC 

17*2 

8/48 4 

b*bw# 

1SB1 

5/43 *1 

10SG 

■4/26 t 

B*Vn 

14/57 

I /34 r 

5/41 

- 101 C 

BruMMa 

1356 

3737 C 

8M8 

104 BO 

fttepe* 

17782 

6/48 s 

11/52 

•405 pc 

CopwVaoen 

8M8 

1734 Wl 

7TS4 

-1/25# 

comma as 2373 

1355o 


DJ*i 

1050 

8/43 e 


8/48 *1 

Ecaturgh 

9K8 

002 pe 

898 

6/43 r 

Ftarwxs 

ZZ 771 

8/481 

18*4 

CKS» 

Faridurt 

16/M 

2/35 r 

11/52 

SOS pc 

Geneva 

14757 

4/38 C 

8*8 

-209 c 


<739 

307 1 

8/43 

104 «n 

tevaa* 

9/48 

408*1 

1305 

7744 pc 

Kiev 

15/69 


1355 

104 r 

LesPames 

19*8 



1355 e 

Ustior 

21/70 

1859c 

22/71 


Lo^oon 

1355 


1102 

77*4 flc 

UfeMd 

24/75 

8743s 



Matorca 

16/61 



awa« 

Wn 

20*8 

7/44 a 


002 DC 

Uoscon 

a/ve 




Ujrae#> 

1958 

-1/31 c 

7744 

-700 an 

Wc*j 

19*8 

117528 

1801 

S*3« 


W*8 

1/34 sh 


-700 c 

Pans 

1355 

4739c 


205* 


18*1 

-028 pe 

7/44 

-3C27 C 

R01*»XV» 

•SZ7 

•5E4pc 

2/35 

205 «n 

fiqa 

1QKO 

5/41 C 

7/44 

-101 am 


19/88 

a>48« 



&P*ws*rt 

6/43 

&43r 



SecSMm 

1HI 

104 Wl 


-472E tn 

Stfasbouq 

M*1 

205 pc 

11/82 

-208 pc 


4/39 

307 r 


205*1 


16*1 

1152c 

21/70 

6143 PC 

vemcd 

18766 

944s 



tfma 

17*2 




Warm 

14757 



-406 pc 

Zievn 

1457 

307 pc 

8/43 

-307 7 


Forecast for Friday through Sunday, as provided by AccuWealher. 



North America 

A powerful storm sriB ex r! 
the Roddee Mo the Plains 
Friday eventuafy re ac hing 
the Greet Lakee Sunday. 
Snow, toe. min and severe 
thunderstorms will better 
the notion's midsection 
with tills s torm. The east- 
ern third ot the nation wOl 
be mainly dry and warm 
ahead ofthte system. 


»o London ,, 

Amsterdam and Paris Sat- 
urday bsfore slowly head- 
tog toward Baffin. Rather 
cool across western 
Europe Friday, than turning 
milder. Stormy and chilly 
ewer Scamtinevia. Cool to 
chilly in Eastern Europe 
with unsettled weather Mo 
Saturday. 


above normal. BaBng and 
Seoul will be mainly dry, 
with milder temperatures In 
Beijing. Warm and humid 
to Hong Kong and Singa- 
pore; e thundershower 
around each day. 


Africa 


North America 


Ware 
Capa Town 


M* LowW H0> Low W 


enfcago 


Middle East 


Kay L.U: Dmm n an on towar aw uppar stapes. Km. Plates UoMnais pews. See. Ptssse An 


teaSng is imm vifioge. Ad. Aflfipal one 


Repots suppie; !y 8 m Stf Cm d Qati Aon 


Mu Dhabi 2700 IHlI 

1702 awas 
cam 2*05 ana s 

OanwKU 1U57 205 pc 

Jama atm 1*57 307 pc 

lw 3V68 048 a 

n »ye» 33/91 1702 a 


2M2 1876* K 
1*57 war 
2070 OMSa 
1501 205 Be 
1*57 307 pc 
3*W SMS a 
3*93 ISO* I 


OF 

3137 402 pa 
2*75 11/52 > 
10SD 002 p 

1702 *OB pa 

180* ISISOt 
SMS 104 pa 
180* 400*1 
2802 21/70 pa 

22771 180*1 

LOSAflgWBE 1008 ton pc 

- — 1 tan a isoe • 


Own* 

HonokAi 

Homan 


7*** -mi e 
22/71 1305 pc 
1QOD 307 a 
1801 8/48*1 

21/70 IOOOd 

8M6 -2/29 c 
1804 77*4 pc 

2802 2008 pc 
23/73 IVKpa 
1MB B/*3 pc 
2700 1808 pc 


New Yak 


SenFren. 


Tororeo 

Vancouver 


Today 

Hty TwW 
OF CO 
11/52 307po 
71*4 307 po 
2W73 1601 pc 

180* awi 
aw » 12*3 * 

1008 040*1 

ISOS 8M6 • 
1203 205 pC 
1102 038*1 
1000 -2Q9 pe 
3am 8/48 e 


1WE 

9/48 

28/77 

1702 

2*79 

2008 

14/57 

1102 

12/53 

10*60 

21/7D 


Of 
8/43 r 
-1/31 PC 
1808 pc 
7/4* pc 
16*1 pc 
awe pc 
8/41 PC 
7/34 BP 
S/41 pc 
-U»PC 
S/*8 pa 


21/70 SMSl 21/JO 7744 a 
21/78 1353 pa. 21/70 8H8P0 
1808 14/5741 180* 1407 r 

27/80 1306*1 2802 
31/88 23/73 pO 31/88 28/73 pa 
2802 1305*1 2802 1407* 
1702 Wl 1806 8*8 4 


Latin America 


IhwrewAPap IMS 3071- 1407 8/49 pc 
CartESt 2904 23/71 PC 2B*4 23/73 pc 

Un* 2*76 IflOBP 28/78 2003 C 

MwdcoCty 28/77 11020- 24/7B 8/48 po 

NodeJamta za/82 21/70 pO -2700 21/70 pB 
SeMago ' 28/82 SMI > 28/78 1000 a . 




Oceania 


2008 14/57* 2808 1 3 0 5 pa 

24/76 ia»l#» .23/73 17782s 


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-JU 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, APRIL 3, 1997 


PAGE 3 


THE AMERICAS 


For Military, New Missions but No New Funds Amid \ Strategic Pause ’ 


By Bradley Graham 

‘t't z&fogton Poa Service 

— American military forces 
viU tern Ugh demand for pea«S^ 
niaiutonan assistance, anti-diS^dE’no^ 
combat operations for the next fo to 15 years but 
ateo must be able to fight two regimSS‘^ 

cloK^xession,'’ acwdingtofS^mtW 

^^entagon 



But the draft report also makes the case for 
mauatammg a “full spectrum” of forces 

*Tbe world remains a dangerous and highly 


uncertain place,” it says, filled noth regional 
aggressors and nontraditional challenges to U.S. 
power such as terrorist attacks, u&e of biological 
or chemical agents and sabotage of American 
computer networks. 

By emphasizing the growing involvement of 
U.S. forces in noncombat operations and the 
heightened danger of unconventional threats, die 
report presents a broader, more complex view of 
the world and of de man ds on American forces 
than the previous Pentagon blueprint in 1993. 
Known as the Bottom- lb Review, that report 
guided military policy (hiring President Bill Clin- 
ton's first term. 

The new.document is essentially an argument 
for expanding the capabilities and flexibility of 
U.S. forces to better handle peacekeeping op- 
erations, fight terrorism, defend against chemical 
and biological weapons and respond to other 
contingencies that have been given less con- 


sideration in the past by the Pentagon. But it is dol 
an argument for a bigger military. As pan of the 
review, the military branches are being pressed 
for fresh cuts in personnel levels lofree up funds 
for jmrcfaases of high-technology equipment. 

Still undecided, and therefore absent from the 
draft, is exactly how forces are to be restructured 
to meet the revised strategy. That determination 
remains the focus of intense internal Pentagon 
debate, with the uniformed chiefs hoping to 
minimize combat-force cuts by looking instead 
to squeeze savings out of various Defense De- 
partment agencies and basing facilities. 

Some defense officials complained that the 
strategy report failed to provide much definitive 
guidance on a central question confronting the 
Pentagon: bow much force structure to samfice 
in raising more money for procurement — which 
is now at a 50-year low — and replace aging 
systems and incorporate new technologies. 


“We’re caught between those wanting to use 
this strategic pause to recapitalize the force and 
those who want to make sure we have the force 
smicmre to meet all our requirements. 1 ’ a senior 
civilian official in one of the military services 
said. 

The draft report was recently circulated among 
participants in the review for comment, and a 
Defense Department spokesman, Ken Bacon, 
stressed Tuesday that it was subject to change. 

But other officials said the document reflected 
the basic thinking of the Pentagon’s top uni- 
formed and civilian leaders and was unlikely to 
undergo much revision, considering the short 
time remaining before the final report is due next 
month. 

The lack of dearer strategic direction from the 
Pentagon's upper echelon has led to an im- 
pression. widespread among members of the 
review *s several dozen panels and subpanels, that 


the reassessment is being driven more by budget 
considerations, despite assertions to the contrary 
by Defense Secretary William Cohen. 

“It's a process with a lot of legs and only a 
rudimentary nervous system," another senior 
civilian Pentagon official said. 

The working budgetary assumption for the 
review is that annual military spending over the 
next decade will at best remain flat at about $250 
billion in current dollars. To ensure sufficient 
funds for modernization. Pentagon officials in- 
structed ail services and agencies to try to find a 
total of S20 billion in annual savings. But so far 
the review has yielded only about half of that, 
according to several participants. 

** We’ve been too unimaginative, and there’s 
been too much rice-bowl protecting, 1 ’ a four-star 
officer involved in the deliberations said. 

The officer said he expected that ultimately, the 
military branches would sacrifice some forces. 


New Crises Are Feared for Cult’s Followers 


By James Brooke 

New York Times Service 


LITTLETON, Colorado — The “first disciple* * 
of Heaven's Gate has watched the UFO cub cut a 
swath through her family. Califor ni a authorities 
have confirmed foal her younger sister was among 
the 39 followers who committed suicide. 

Now, Sharon Walsh, a long-disaffected member, 
forecasts a new crisis — the dozens of surviving 
believers across the nation who find the msel ves 
spiritually adrift 

Although Mrs. Walsh, now a no -nonsen se 53- 
year-old stockbroker, winces at the thought her 
mother, her stepfather and a niece are among 
dozens of Heaven’s Gate believers who still pre- 
pare for the golden day when a UFO win land on 
earth to take them to heaven. 

in 12 minutes," Mrs. Walsh said, recallmg foe 
training undertaken by her mother and stepfather, 
whom she would identify only as a Midwest farm 
couple whose first names are Lorraine and Floyd. 
“They actually would run out of foe house into a 

Alien Abduction Policy 

The Associated Press 

■ LONDON — The company that insured the 39 
members of the Heaven’s Gate cult against ab- 
duction by aliens said Wednesday it had stopped 
writing new policies after the mass suicide. 

The cult members paid $1,000 an Oct 10 for a 
policy that covered up to 50 members and would 
pay $1 million a person for abduction, impreg- 
nation or death caused by aliens. 

“We don’t wish to contribute to a repetition of 
foe Heaven's Gate deaths." said Simon Burgess, of 
GoodfeUow Rebecca Ingrams Pearson brokerage. 
As for whether the firm would pay foe beneficiary, 
die Society of Heaven's Gate, he said, “They would 
have to prove that they were abducted-" 


“There are probably as many as 50 followers 
left" estimated Mrs. Walsh, who spent foe summer 
of 1 974 proselytizing with foe cult’s founders, Mar- 
shall HerfF Applewhite and Bennie Lu Netties. 

San Diego law-enforcement authorities said this 
week that they had “no indication’ ’ that the Heav- 
en’s Gate cult had any members beyond the 39 who 
co mmi tted suicide in their rented house in Rancho 
Santa Fe, California. 

But another former colt member, Aaron Green- 
berg of Eugene, Oregon, estimated Tuesday that 
surviving Heaven's Gate followers numbered in 
the hundreds. 

“I personally know about 60 to 80, but I feel 
there are hundreds," said Mr. Greenberg, who 
keeps up with followers through a loose telephone 
network. “There are about 1,000 people who 
passed through this thing. ' ’ 

He said that on Monday he talked by telephone 
with one man in Canada, who is part of a group of 
40 believers, and with another man in New Yack, 
who is part of a group of 60. Both men, Mr. 
Greenberg said, told him that the cult followers, 
who meet periodically, were converging tins week 
on a secret site in foe Southwest. 

“This is not a good tiring,” warned Mr. Green- 
■ who left the group in 1976 after six months, 
faring to the caltists’ farewell videotape, widely 
aired on television in recent days, be added: “Re- 
member what they say in the videotapes: ‘Come 
join ns. the time is now, the window is small .’ ” 

Mrs. Walsh thinks that her mother and stepfather 
“wanted to go. but were probably turned down 
because HerfF wanted 39." 

She speculated that for Mr. Applewhite, a former 
seminarian who had studied numerology, the num- 
ber 39 may have had special significance because 3 
plus 9 equals 12 — foe number of Christ's dis- 
ciples. 

Mrs. Walsh, reviewing 16 months of letters she 
received from the two cult leaders from February 
1973 to May 1974, the month she left her first 


husband and two young daughters to join the pair’s 
proselytizing work, said Mr. Applewhite and Ms. 
Netties, believed they had a divine mission to 
illuminate humanity. 

■ Similar Suicide Reported in California 

A 58-year-old man found dead under a purple 
shroud in his trailer home in a remote a rea of 
Northern California left behind a suicide note sug- 
gesting that he hoped to join members of the 
Heaven’s Gate cult on a spaceship m the trail of foe 
Hale-Bopp comet. The New York Times reported 
from San Francisco. 

Yuba County sheriff’s deputies said they knew 
of no other link between the man, Robert Nichols, 
and the 39 cult members who committed mass 
suicide last week in Rancho Santa Fe. 

Mr. Nichols was mostly known as a devout fan of 
the Giatefill Dead, and had written a book about one 
of foe rock band's more famous road trips, 
“Trackin’ With The Grateful Dead to Egypt.” 

■ Networks Show Interest in TV Film 

Major television networks have expressed some 
interest in basing a fictionalized movie-of-the- 
week on foe mass cult suicide in Rancho Santa Fe. 
The New York Times reported from Los Angeles. 

A top television agent, speaking on condition of 
anonymity, said that Richard Ford, 43, a former cult 
member known as Rio who notified foe authorities 
about the suicides, was seeking to sell a television 
movie called 1 ‘The 40th Victim." Kushner-Locke. 
a television production company, is handling the 
potential deal. 

Agents said ABC and CBS had expressed in- 
terest in the project, while NBC had rejected it- 

“There's a sqoeamislmess about this story, ” one 
agent said. “Everyone agrees it's fascinating, but 
everyone seems to be sort of holding back. It’s a 
bleak story.” 

The principal movie studios appear to have ex- 
pressed no interest in a feature film about the 
Heaven’s Gate cult 


AMERICAN 


TOPICS 


Utah Isn’t Exactly Wine-Crazy, 
Bat 2 Nondrinkers Make It There 

A winery is not the first thing you expect 
to find in Utah, a state dominated by foe 
Mormon Church, which forbids members 
to drink alcohol. It's son of like finding a 
big-screen TV in an Amish village. 

But there, in foe scenic Moab Valley, 
near the junction of Utah. Colorado, Ari- 
zona and New Mexico, is foe Arches 
winery. 

When Anita and Alan Bradford founded 
it eight years ago. it was the only winery in 
foe state. The economy in their area had 
been hard hit by mine closings, and a uni- 
versity study had found regional soil ideal 
for growing' grapes. 

All in all, things have gone well. Arches 
wines have won 25 national and inter- 
national awards — though the Bradfords, as 
Mormons, have never tasted their wares. 
They rely on a wine-making friend, Ted 
Telford, The Boston Globe reports. 

The winery now sells 36.000 bottles a 
year, and sales have risen 25 percent a year. 
But it hasn't been easy. The state bans 
liquor-related advertising, and foe liquor 
commission opposed low-interest loans for 
foe winery. “It’s been a continuing saga to 
keep the place running.” Mr. Bradford 
said. 

Still, the stale recently granted licenses to 
two more wineries. Utah's strict libation 
laws have even helped spread awareness of 
this new grape-growing region. * ‘For those 
who discover us,” said Mr. Telford, “foe 
shock factor is a positive thing." 


Short Takes 

The Library of Congress, one of the 
largest research libraries in foe world, is 
running out of room. Its 500 miles (800 
kilometers) of shelves hold more than 17 
million books, and 1,000 more are added 
daily. As a result, a plan is being considered 
to shelve books by size — big books with 
big books, medium with medium ...you get 
the idea. By putting 8-inch-high books in 
one place and 14-inch tomes in another, 
some shelves can be lowered, saving 
space. 

Librarians say that placing a book on, 
say, foe mating habits of foe dodo next to 
one on the history of avocado farming 
poses no problem — computers will find 
everything. Still, foe change would be a 
blow to foe tradition of the fine old in- 
stitution, which was started with books 
from Thomas Jefferson's personal library. 

A recent survey of 2,000 households 
found that only 55 percent of American 
dinners included at least one homemade 
item, down from 64 percent 10 years ago. At 
this rate, Americans can dispense with kit- 
chens some time in the next century, except 
as a place to house the microwave oven. 

Shari Lo of Thermal, California, won 
a school science fair trophy for her project 
on condom reliability, but school officials 
disqualified her from a regional contest. ‘ ‘It 
basically encourages safe sex,” Colleen 
Gaynes. the school superintendent, said of 


supennt 

the project. “Our philosophy is abstin- 
ence." 

Ms. Lo, 15, bought six brands of con- 
doms, tested them for strength and en- 
durance and rated them. No human trials 
were involved. Ms. Lo said she was simply 
concerned about AIDS and teen pregnancy. 
She plans to appeal the decision. 

International Herald Tribune 



Away From Politics . . 

• Thousands of American children may have been ex- 
posed to the hepatitis A vims by eating frozen strawberries 
that were shipped to 1 7 stales, with much of foe fruit ending 
up in school cafeterias. So for, the only repeated illnesses 
linked to the tainted berries are in Michigan, where about 
151 students and teachers have been sickened. (AP) 

• Clarence Hannon won a landslide victory in foe St. 

Louis, Missouri, mayoral race. Mr. Harmon, 57, earlier 
defeated tile incumbent. Freeman Bosley ft-., in a bitterly 
contested Democratic primary that divided foe city along 
racial lines, even though both men are black. (AP) 

• The Presbyterian Church (U-S-A.) voted to bar the 

ordination of practicing homosexuals. (NYT) 

• Another instructor at the Army’s Aberdeen Proving 

Ground in Maryland has been charged with sexual mis- 
conduct involving female subordinates, making him the 
llfo man chaxgedin the ongoing sex scandal Staff Sergeant 
Marvin Kelley, 33, had improper relationships with six 
trainees and one female soldier, the army said. (AP) 

•The Supreme Court of New York ruled that a school 
superintendent had acted appropriately in suspending a 15- 
year-old student caught carrying a loaded gun in a Bronx 
high school, even though a judge had ruled the search 
illegal. (NYT) 


by the UJ5. Supreme Court 
sd between New 


• An arbitrator 

has rec<wQ Tnflnd ftfi mar. E1H« Island be divided 1 
York and New Jersey, drawing foe line largely where New 
Jersey wanted h. A dispute over the island has had the two 
states at loggerheads for 200 years. (NYT) 


POLITICAL 


Walking the Tightrope on Ethics 

■ WASHINGTON — When Representative Frank A. Lo- 
Biondo. Republican of New Jersey , was a 

second termlasi foil in his district m southern New Jersey, 
he left foe running of his congressional office m Washington 
to his chief of staff and turned to a paid political consultant 

“ ^ 'SSS** by d* fa* *e 

cooSitand fte chief of staff were the same jwiwn: hfc 
Si's inn prime Close aide and adroer, Maiy Amue 
Hamer From August until November, Ms. Harper drew a 
S'^meSaty while her consnldng <nj»gj 

Snier S Associaics, in Bridgeton, New 
^Sn^Tof Mr. LoBiondo’s campaign funds ln ad- 
fotiomMs. Harper's 73 -y^r-oldmofo^r^vted between 
«nn and 1 000 a month from foe campaign. 

Official 

duties in Congress can ^ members to en- 

Efoics roles P^ 1 ^SSthey do not 

■Kc go vcmm ent raourees ^ ^ do foi. He way die 

^esaasassisrv*" 

Man in t}u! Muldlr on Subpoenas 

.’'““SmiSKsSM’-wS Qmte/Vi iquote 

mittee spent SIWOO fegsme d the Tennessee Re- 
featured him Republican^ntmted 

These want to subpoena for a 

investigation- The semnor who 


most approve these requests: Fred Thompson. 

The issue demonstrates some tough choices the former 
actor and Watergate counsel must make, as his Gov- 
ernmental Affairs Committee prepares for hearings — 
possibly beginning in May. 

The Itemocrats have been negotiating foe subpoenas with 
Mr. Thompson, who does not need full committee approval 
to issue them. Controversial subpoenas, however, can go to 
foe full committee — which has a 9-7 Republican ma- 
jority. (API 

New Rules on Health Insurance 

WASHINGTON — The Clinton administration issued 
rules Tuesday making health insurance more readily avail- 
able to millions of Americans who Jose their jobs or change 
jobs. 

Tbe roles carry out a law pushed through Congress last 
year by Senator Edward Kennedy, Democrat of Mas- 
sachusetts. and Nancy Kassebanm Baker, Republican of 
Kansas, who retired fiom the Senate this year. 

Hie rules generally prevent employers from denying 
health benefits to new employees because of pre-existing 
medical problems. Employers and insurers may, in some 
cases, impose a waiting period up to 12 months for coverage 
of such pre-existing conditions. 

hi addition, foe law generally guarantees that individual 
insurance coverage will be available to people losing jobs 
that provided them with health benefits for 18 months or 
more. - (NYT) 


John Geer, professor of political science at Vanderbilt 
University, on Senator Fred Thompson's craning decisions 
on campaign investigations: “He has foe chance to make a 
great splash or a splash that will take him to foe bottom of the 
ocean.” f AP ) 


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ASIA/PACIFIC 


Beijing Journalist Kills Himself 

Recently Recalled, He Reportedly Had Planned to Defect 


By Patrick E. Tyler 

Ne h- York Times Service 

BEUING — A Chinese journalist 
committed suicide here last weekend 
just days after being recalled from his 
post in Washington, where one col- 
league said he had been discovered pre- 
paring to defect 

The journalist Wei Guoqiang, 47, 
was the Washington bureau chief of 
Xinhua, China's state-run news agency. 
Hie agency also collects information 
overseas for the Chinese government 

Chinese news organizations, includ- 
ing Xinhua, have made no public men- 
tion of his death, bat it was confirmed by 
several of his colleagues. 

Mr. Wei was a well-known figure 
among foreign journalists in Washing- 
ton. He traveled with President Jiang 


Zemin of China during his European 
tour in 1995, visiting Finland, Hungary 
and Germany. 

In August 1996, Mr. Wei attacked 
America's human-rights record in a 
lengthy dispatch, saying that a new im- 
migration law "expressly and unmis- 
takably kicks children of illegal immi- 
grants out of schools and into the streets, 
thoroughly depriving them of the rights 
to receive education." 

In a commentary in December, be 
accused the United States of being 
“more eager to practice power politics" 
and "seek hegemonism" since the col- 
lapse of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Wei's colleagues were reluctant 
to discuss his death but confirmed that he 
had committed suicide over the weekend 
and that a memorial service was planned 
for Thursday. Some of them said his 


Burma Monks Report 3 Deaths 

Reuters 


BANGKOK — Burmese soldiers 
killed at least 3 Buddhist monks and 
arrested 100 during recent sectarian 
unrest, a group of exiled monks 
charged Wednesday in Thailand. 

The All Burma Young Monks' Un- 
ion said its sources had reported that 
"at least three monks were shot dead 
by the SLORC security forces and 
more than 100 monks were arrested.” 
SLORC is die State Law and Order 
Restoration Council, Burma's mili- 
tary junta. 

The monks did not say when the 
killing s took place and their report 
was not independently confirmed. 

Junta officials have said that no one 
was injured in the unrest and denied 
reports of the deaths of imprisoned 


monks. Unrest between Buddhist 
monks and Muslims broke out in mid- 
March in Burma's second city, Man- 
dalay. 

Witnesses reported that several 
mosques had been ransacked and that 
monks staged protests in the streets. 

The unrest, which spread to other 
cities, including Rangoon, the capital, 
led the junta to impose a curfew in 
Mandalay. 

Wimesses in Rangoon, quoted by 
the monks' group in Bangkok, said 
they had seen at least 100 monks 
detained by the authorities. 

The monks were said to have been 
brought in trucks to an unused race 
course that has served as a detention 
center during previous periods of un- 
rest 



MkeZwerin 
Music Editor 


SOUNDS 

The Jazzman who took 
on Bach 
Woody Allen 
The Fugees 

If you missed it in the IHT, look for it 
on our site on the World Wide Web: 


http://www.iht.com 


reappearance in Beijing in late March 
was unexpected, as he had been in the 
Chinese capital in February and he usu- 
ally returned to the agency's headquar- 
ters only once a year. 

"I heard be was back to discuss 
something with his superiors, and I was 
surprised because I had just read one of 
his articles from Washington," one col- 
league said. 

Another colleague said Mr. Wei had 
been discovered late last month by a co- 
woricer in Washington preparing doc- 
uments to support an application for 
political asylum for himself, his wife and 
his 17-year-old daughter. His daughter 
was said by one colleague to be in the 
United Stales; the whereabouts of his 
wife were nor known. 

After Mr. Wei’s preparations for de- 
fection were discovered, the colleague 
said, he was immediately recalled to 
Beijing, where he was said to have been 
kept under close watch at home by a 
relative. Over the weekend, however, 
when briefly left alone, be hanged him- 
self in die bathroom of his apartment, the 
colleague said. 

As a top correspondent for the state 
news agency. Mr. Wei was intimately 
familiar with the operations of the 
Chinese Embassy in Washington and the 
broader information apparatus that 
serves the Chinese leadership. The 
agency receives, translates, condenses 
and analyses news gathered from all 
over the world and presents the results 
daily to China's leaders. 

The agency also is said to provide 
journalistic "cover" overseas for of- 
ficers of the Ministry of State Security, 
China's intelligence agency. 

Xinhua was one of the Chinese agen- 
cies that began to focus greater attention 
on the U.S. Congress last year, appar- 
ently with the goal of improving 
Beijing’s ability to communicate its po- 
sition on a range of contentious issues 
between China and the United States. 

Many Chinese diplomats and jour- 
nalists serving abroad must leave their 
wives and children behind, in part to 
guarantee that the officials or reporters 
will not defect Mr. Wei's case was 
unusual because his wife also traveled 
extensively as the manager of a Chinese 
company based in Singapore. 

Mr. Wei was a specialist on American 
affairs and served. a first tour in Wash- 
ington from the late 198% until 1993. He 
relumed to Beijing as deputy director of 
the international news division and was 
appointed Washington bureau chief in 
early 1996. 



Dylan MMtnezflteauti 

President Le Due Anh of Vietnam, right, and a senior 
party adviser, Pham Van Dong, attending the opening 
session of the National Assembly in Hanoi cm Wednesday. 


Vietnamese Leader 
Slams Individualism 


The Associated Press 

HANOI Individualism threatens to undermine 

Vietnam's socialist goals and doctrines, die Viet- 
namese president told legislators Wednesda y. 

"We cannot allow selfish individual interests to 
interfere with the interests of the community, said 
President Le Due Anh. 

General Anh, 76 and recovering from a stroke, made 
a rare public appearance to deliver a bnef but stem 
speech to the National Assembly, encouraging Vi- 
etnam to stay the course of communism. 

"In the words of our great leader President Ho On 
Mirth, individualism is the enemy of the cause of 
socialism,” said General Anh, fee most vocal advocale 
of conservative politics within the troika leadership. 

General Anh has been reluctant to accept market- 
oriented reforms, cautioning that they could spawn 
corruption. He is among several top leaders who may 
be replaced in fee coming legislative session and 
general elections later this year. 

During his speech. General Anh praised Vietnam s 
efforts strengthen its economy, but emphasized fee need 
to preserve fee militar y and fee Communist Party. 

His liberal counterpart. Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet, 
delivered a call for continued market-oriented reforms. 

"Previously, fee weald knew Vietnam only as a 

. f - ^ i "Utr Viat nM “Nnm 


BRIEFLY 


China Curbs Visits to Hong Kong 

HONG KONG — China will bar its citizens from trav- 
eling to Hong Kong during the two weeks before and after 
its recovery July 1 of fee territoiy from Britain to try to help 
ensure a smooth transition, newspapers quoted officials 
Wednesday as saying. 

Authorities plan to impose strict curbs on visits to the 
territory from June 15 to July 15, a security chief in 
Guangdong Province said, except for essential business 
trips. (Reuters) 

Manila Extends Defector’s Stay 

MANILA — President Fidel Ramos has agreed to extend 
fee stay of fee North Korean defector Hwang Jang Yop in 
the Philippines, according to an announcement from the 
presidential pal»™»- Wednesday. 

Mr. Ramos said South Korea, supported by China, had 
asked the Philippines to allow Mr. Hwang and h is aide, Kim 
Duk Hong, to stay in the country for '‘an additional period 
of time’’ and that he had agreed to fee request. (Reuters) 

Shanghai Police Raid Priest 

BEIJING — The police ransacked the home of a priest of 
China’s undeiground Roman Catholic Church in Shanghai, 
seizing religious articles, cash and electronic equipment, a 


U.S.-based group said Wednesday. The raid occurred Sat- 
urday night and lasted into fee early hours of Easter at the 
home ofthe Reverend Zen Caijun. the Cardi n al Kung 
Fo undati on announced. (AP) 

India Opposition May Abstain 

NEW DELHI — Prime Minister HJ3. Deve Gowda 
might win a helping hand in a vote of confidence next week 
from an unlikely ally, fee Hindu nationalist Bharatiya J anat a 
Patty, politicians said Wednesday. 

Although Janata, fee main opposition party, opposes Mr. 
Deve Gowda's 15-party United Front coalition, it might 
abstain in the confidence vote set for April 11, ensuring 
victory for the prime minister, because it does not want to 
propel fee Congress (I) party into power, they said. 

A senior Janata official said Tuesday his party would 
prefer to face elections, which many analysts say will come 
soon no matter what happens in the confidence vote. 

(Reuters) 

VOICES From Asia 

Khalid Salim, fee Pakistani Foreign Ministry spokes- 
man, announcing Wednesday that India and Pakistan would 
go ahead wife formal talks on ending their estrangement 
despite India's political crisis; "We should tackle fee root 
cause of our problem and not just paper fee cracks." (AP) 


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INTERNATIONA! HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY* APRIL 3, 1997 

EUROPE 


RAGE 5 


‘Si 


, tiA ’ w 


Tories Propose a Big Tax Break in Britain 

Labour Begins Touting Tiscal Responsibility’ c ^,E2S£& l o rais 


By Eriklpsen . 

International HemUTrtbu*, 


of fiscal probity normally dominated by Tories. 


credentials with financial markets. 

Thus far. Labour has held its plans to raise taxes 
to a single proposal — a one-time windfall-profits 
tax on privatized utilities. The party has allocated 


v* AAUVMi UiWJhV UMlimUl J ■ ■ — ' * . I + ~ ■ 

That strategy has won over some of Labour’s the proceeds — expected to total £3 billion to £5 
harahftjtf rririre In thp- finan cial and business com- billion — to programs to reduce long-term and 


IDNmv nr . ; harshest crmcs-ln the financial and business com- ounon — programs ic 

kLuT, Phases to double living munities, people sail bitterly remember the last youth unemployment. 

Labour government of nearly 20 years ago, when The party’s pledge to 

por^^ nnUaI £ ' 1 0 bere and now. the marginal income-tax rates peaked ai 83 percent, wage have ' * *“ J 


j-Lri-l’ i »!■ I \ :ini i?,i ■ 1 1 ».' i u-i v.Y< f tf 1 * :l 


— j— on Wednesday bad something for 
everyone — - especially the opposition. 
to a reaction that speaks volumes about a polit- 
rac® that has turned Jong-established norms on 
their heads the opposition Labour Party chastised 
,she Tones for not being conservative ennng h The 

shadow Ch9n<s>l n -1 ° . . 


would take the reins of economic policy should 
Labour wm the general election on May 1, 
branded the government’s tax plans as “reckless 

and desperate ’and insisted that they could lead to 
higher interest rates and ultimately, to a premature 
end to Britain's econo mi c recovery. 

Even more telling are expectations far La- 
bour’s own manifesto, which & to be unveiled on 
Thursday. “I wouldn’t be at all surprised if it sent 
us to sleep,” said Suzanne Schmidt, a political 
economist at the Daiwa Institute of Research. 

To top the Conservative manifesto’s biggest 
drawing card — its pledge to cut taxes by £17 JO 
(,$28.82) a week for families where one spouse 
stays home caring for childre n or elderiy relatives 
— Labour will very likely offer tittle. Mr. Brown 
wants to keep it that way up to the elections. His 
aim, analysts say, is to take (he high moral ground 


BRIEFLY 


neatly a tenth of grass domestic product. 

“ This of Labour as incompetent just 
doesn’t wash anymore,” said Ian Amstad, an 
economist with Bankers Trust 
Thursday’s manifesto is expected to bury the old 
idea of Labour as die “tax and spend” party. A 


wuutu mouuwiMv 

a firm c ommitment by Labour to keep public 
spending within the tight bounds already set by the 
government for the next two years. The party is also 


keeping inflation ar or below 2_5 percent 
Those pledges, coupled with earlier assurances 
from Mr. Brown that he would not raise income 
taxes for five years, could leave many Britons 
hard pressed to notice that a new government has 
taken office next month, should the polls, in which 
Labour has a substantial lead, prove correct 
“ff Labour wins I do not think we will need to 
make any significant revisions to our economic 
forecasts,” said Nigel Pain, chief economist for 
the National Institute for Economic and Social 
Research. If anything, Mr. Pain anticipates that 
monetary policy under Labour could be tightened 
slightly as the new government establishes its 


s to establish a minimum 
controversy. But Labour’s 


II..H 1 .VlUiW.-l 1 rWIU/Jl in, 1 , lf!',LU 


its minimum wage have deprived opponents of 
any soil of toehold on the issue. 

On die subject of Europe — more specifically 
on economic and monetary union — the Labour 
leader, Tony Blair, on Thursday is expected to 
offer little more than fudge. 

n_. ! l. ■ r 


union only if it serves the national interests and 
only after the cabinet. Parliament and the people 
have had a say in the matter. Me. Blair has again 
positioned his party in the Tory's shadow. 

I Britain* an Island Unto Itself 

Britain lived up to its “little Englander” repu- 
tation on Wednesday when die Conservatives 
banned Europeans from the launching of its elec- 
tion manifesto, Reuters reported. 

The French fumed. The Dutch opted to grin and 
bear it, while weary German journalists blamed 
age-old British xenophobia. 

“This reinforces all the prejudices about Bri- 
tain’s isolationism,’ ’ said Tina van Houts, a Dutch 
journalist. “Obviously the Conservatives’ de- 
fense agains t the rest of Europe starts here and 
now atConservative Central Office.” 



Ian WaJdK/Rcmr< 

The Lab ou r leader Tony Blair working on his manifesto speech on a stairway at 
Labour’s London office Wednesday. He will present the party platform Thursday. 


Rome and Tirana Hold Talks 

TIRANA — Italian and Albanian leaders held surprise 
talks in a rebel-held Albanian town on Wednesday and 
reaffirmed plans for an Italian-led force of about 5,000 
soldiers to protect aid to the chaotic Balkan state. 

Prime Minister Romano Prod! of Italy, braving a wave 
of anti-Italian feeling in Albania after the sinking of a 
refugee ship off Italy, flew in by helicopter to the southern 
town of Gjirokaster, where he met Prime Minister 
Bashkim Fino of Albania. 

Mr. Prodi and Mr. Fino, flanked by guards incindmg 
about 25 Italian marines who flew in Mr. Prodi 's convoy 
of three navy helicopters, reaffirmed they wanted die 
planned UN force to help protect food and medical 
supplies to the country. 

Mr. Prodi, the first foreign leader to visit Albania since 
an insurrection last month left much of die south in rebel 
bands, said Mr. Fino reconfirmed “the Albanian gov- 
ernment's request for multinational forces.” 

Mr. Prodi expressed condolences to families of the 
victims of the sinking of the refugee vessel last week after 
a collision with an Italian vessel that has overshadowed 
preparations for the multinational force. 

Tirana says at least 80 people died and many of the 34 
survivors accused the Italians of ramming, an assertion 
the navy denies. Italy has sought to halt a flow of 13,000 
refugees from the former Communist state. (Reuters) 

Suppliers Cut Gas to Sarajevo 

SARAJEVO, Bosoia-Hezzegovina — Residents of 
Rynja *« capital endured win tnt temperatures^ ifeput gas. 
heating onWednesday after Russian suppliers virtually 
cut off natural gas deliveries, to the city because of a 
dispute over outstanding debts. 

The Bosnian gas company said it was fenced to shut off 


the supply to Sarajevo because Russian suppliers had 
reduced die flow to a minuscule amount. 

The Russian company Gas Export had already scaled 
back deliveries because Bosnia has yet to settle a $12.4 
million debt covering a period dating back to 1995. 


and suffered through much of fee war from 1992 to 

without gas or power. The gas reduction was a grim 
reminder of Sarajevo’s wartime siege, when city residents 
burned furniture or bodes to keep warm wife makeshift 

< Leader s of Bosnia’s Serbian and Mustim-Qoatian 
entities have been arguing for months over bow much 
each territory owes fee Russian company. Western of- 
ficials have urged the Bosnian central government to pay 
off fee debt (Reuters) 

Chirac Gives Czechs Support 

PRAGUE — President Jacques Chirac of France an 

earlier. ., . „ 

“I was able to confirm to the president feat France 
unreservedly supports both fee cnMn -of ■ fejj Grech 
Republic for fee Emopean Union, ^wferch I tokand 
hope it will be a member m the year 2000, and of NATO, 
Mr. Chirac said after talks wife President Vaclav Havel. 

The Czech Republic is one of fee leading candidates to 
be invited to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
at a July summit meeting of the alliance in Madrid. 

Mrrhirac. on the fast day of a twfrday stal e visi t, said 
France wanted a decl aration m Madrid onfee < 
nf the three leading prospects for membership, Czech 
Poland. He also^idRomama 

Bdii —7 coun " es 3dm ' a %ZJT ) 

alliance. 

Poland Launches Constitution 

adopt thejons keeps the state and the powerful 

church separated, after adopting some 

^i^ptoposed by President Alexander Kwas- 
niewski. f a nationwide referendum 

^ Sl wW probably to replace in 
rn*e poU, the charter would take effect 

by the end of the year. 


Oving in the U.S.? 

I^ow printed in New York 
for same day 
delivery in key cities. 

7b subscribe, call 

1-800-882 2884 

(in New York, call 212-752-3890) 



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PAGE 6 


IiYifcKNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, APRIL 3, 1997 


INTERNATIONAL 


Sr 


A Misunderstanding in the U.S. -Mexican Drug War 


By Tim Golden 

Ncn- York Times Service 


NEW YORK — When U.S. officials 
learned recently that a suspected Mexican 
drug trafficker had managed to hold onto tens 
of millions of dollars that had been ordered 
frozen in a money-laundering investigation, 
they wasted no time denouncing what they 
saw as new evidence of corruption south of 
the border. 

Less than a month later, however, the ev- 
idence that Mexican investigators tipped off 
the suspect is evaporating almost as quickly 
as his millions had supposedly disappeared. 

Huge suras of money may well have 
moved in and out of the accounts, but some 
officials in both countries now acknowledge 
that what most clearly went awry was the 
communication between Washington and 
Mexico City. 

Initially, the deputy treasury secretary, 
Lawrence Summers, assured Congress that 
the Clinton administration had delivered a 
“strong protest” to the government of Pres- 


ident Ernesto Zedillo. Justice Department 
officials said they, too, had confronted the 
Mexicans over the affair, demanding that the 
incident be investigated fully. 

Mexican officials have insisted from the 
start that the uproar over the money-laun- 
dering case was a misunderstanding on the 
part of the United States. 

In interviews over the last week, the Mex- 
ican officials, provided some evidence sug- 


gesting that if the drug-trafficking suspect. 
Rigoberto Gaxiola Medina, got wind of the 


Rigoberto Gaxiola Medina, got wind of the 
plan to seize his money, it happened after 
Mexican authorities moved against his bank 
accounts. 

According to Mexican officials, money did 
not flow out of Mr. Gaxiola’s accounts in the 
days after the Mexican government moved to 
freeze them. Instead, more than $15 million 
was deposited. 

“We can see that there was no flight of 
money.” said a senior finance official in the 
Mexican government, who spoke on the con- 
dition that be not be identified. “There was 
more money in the accounts when they were 


seized than there was when we presented the 
complaint to seize them.” 

Clinton administration officials said they 
originally concluded that Mr. Gaxiola had 
probably been tipped off to the money laun- 
dering investigation because officials of the 
Mexican Finance Ministry had notified the 
Mexican Treasury Department on Jan. 8 that 
they were filing a seizure order that cited IS 
of Mr. Gaxiola's accounts and involved more 
than $1 83 million. 

According to two confidential chronolo- 
gies of the affair produced by U.S. officials, 
agents of the Mexican National Institute for 
Combating Drugs did not act on the order 
until Jan. 20. 

Moreover. U.S. officials noted, the Mexican 
official in charge of confiscating the money. 
Colonel Jose Felix Name, the institute's chief 
of investigations, was hims elf charged with 
allowing one of Mexico’s most important al- 
leged money launderers to escape. 

When the Mexican authorities reported 
back to the U.S. Customs Service on the 
Gaxiola case, they said first that the accounts 


in question had been '‘depleted," and then that 
only about $16.7 million had been seized. 

In later interviews, Mexican officials said 
that the Americans had got it wrong from the 
start. The seizure order was for $ 1 83 million, 
the officials said, because that was all the 
money that Mr. Gaxiola was suspected of 
having laundered, the total he had deposited 
in all of the accounts over 30 months. The 
$183 million figure took no account of the 
frequent withdrawals, they said. 

The episode is unlikely to change any 
min ds in the United States about the depth of 
corruption in Mexican law enforcement. But 
it has opened a small window on the Clinton 


Zaire Rebels Vow to Press On 


GOMA Zaire — Zairian rebels said Wednesday that 
the nominktion of Etienne Tshisekedi as prune minister 
made no difference to their goal. . 

The opposition in Parliament nominated Mr. 
Tshisekedi, a foe of President Mobutu Sese Seko, on 
Tuesday to steer Zaire through negotiations with the 
t* _ - ■ onv Tainan nnliticians SOIQ 


Tutsi-dominated rebels. Many Zaman politicians Mid 
they expected Marshall Mobutu to quickly approve Mr. 
Tshisekedi 's appointment. 

“It won’t make any difference, said Mwenze K-on- 
eolo justice commissioner in the rebel alliance. ‘Our 
purpose is to get rid of Mobutu, and we will push until we 
have got him oul” . . 


administration's recent struggle to be tougher 
with Mexico on Canitol Hill while remaining 


with Mexico on Capitol Hill while remaining 
conciliatory with the Mexican government on 
its own turf. 

“We can’t just beat them up eveiy time 
something like this comes to light.” a UJS. 
official involved in the case said of his Mex- 
ican counterparts. “Sniff like this happens all 
the time. We still have to work with these 
people.” 


uavc nut iiuu . . .. 

Aid workers, meanwhile, began repatriating mother 
3 OCX) Rwandan Hum refugees from Karuba. west of Gdma. 


— m • 

On Tuesday. 1,500 refugees were repatriated. Agencies 
also planned to empty camps at Tingi-Tingi and Amisi of 


refugees and fly them to Gotna for repamation. 

In Geneva, a UN human-rights investigator who tod 
just returned from Gotna, Roberto Garret on, asserted mat 
there had been massacres of refugees by the Zainan rebels 
late last year. “There’s an enormous list of allegations of 
m assacr es, but it is impossible to give numbers,” he said 
He urged an inquiry by independent experts for the UN 
Human Rights Commission. (Reuters} 


Africa’s Plague of Rebels 


Peru- Captive Talks in Japan? 


Cold War Over, Insurrections Spring Up, 
And Experts Fear More Are on the Way 


By Stephen Buckley 

Washington Post Service 


NAIROBI — In Zaire, rebels claim as 
much as 20 percent of that enormous 
country. In nearby Burundi, a three-year 
insurgency has taken more than 150,000 
lives. A surreal and brutal conflict in 
West Africa between Liberian rebel 
groups has killed at least as many people 
and displaced hundred of thousands. 

Even in Uganda, where an economic 
boom is erasing memories of past tur- 
moil, a bizarre fundamentalist Christian 
rebel group in the north is tearing at that 
country's stability. 

Rebellions are a powerful and seem- 
ingly ubiquitous menace throughout 
sub-Saharan Africa. They kill tens of 
thousands annuall y, turn millions into 
refugees and often leave countries 
bereft of civil and political order. And 
analysts say they may become even 
more prevalent on the continent in com- 
ing months and years as citizens of 
African countries become increasingly 
impatient with ineffective and corrupt 
regimes. 

“If the seeds that give rise to these 
rebellions — political and economic 
exclusion, social alienation, ethnic he- 
gemony — continue to grow, them it's 
very possible that we’ll continue to see 
more civil conflicts on the continent,” 
said Olara Otunnu. president of the In- 
ternational Peace Academy, a New 
York-based group that promotes con- 
flict resolution. 

Rebellions are nothing new in sub- 
Saharan Africa. Many of die nationalist 
movements that brought independence 
from colonial rule in die late 1950s and 
early '60s bad their roots in violent 
revolts. A civil war in Sudan has 
sputtered on for more than three de- 
cades. Mozambican rebels battled that 
country’s government for nearly 20 
years before laying down their arms in 
1994. Angola's government and former 
rebels are clinging to an apparently 
shaky cease-fire after almost two de- 
cades of war. Insurgencies have flared 
repeatedly in Zaire since its indepen- 
dence in 1960. 

But the end of the Cold War, the 
proliferation of weapons on the con- 
tinent and the yearning of citizens to see 
democracy blossom in their nations 
have revived old conflicts and ignited 
new ones. 

“There has been less and less support 
for single-party systems over the past 
few years, ’ ’ said William Zarunan, head 
of African studies at Johns Hopkins 
University's Nitze School of Advanced 
International Studies. They are “no 
longer seen as a legitimate mechanism 
of authority,” he said. “People want 
democracy.” 

The five-and-a-half-month insur- 
gency in Zaire is typical, analysts said. 
The rebels, who are known as the Al- 


liance of Democratic Forces for the Lib- 
eration of the Congo (Zaire) and now 
control most of eastern Zaire, re- 
peatedly have said that they seek noth- 
ing less than to overthrow President 
Mobutu Sese Seko. 

For more than three decades. Marshal 
Mobutu has plundered the state treasury 
as the per-capita income plunged, un- 
employment raged and corruption be- 
came less a matter of choice than a 
means of survival. 

Analysts say that Zaire’s troubles 
were masked m pan by the support 
Marshal Mobutu had from Western 



LIMA — President Alberto Fujimori is considering a 
trip to Japan to discuss his efforts to end the three- and-a- 
half month hostage crisis at the Japanese ambassador’s 
residence in Peru, a spokeswoman said Wednesday. 

The Lima newspaper Expreso, quoting sources it did 
not identify, said a Japanese diplomat, Terasuke Terada, 
and the Peruvian congressional leader,^ Victor Joy Way. 
tod met to discuss a Fujimori trip to discuss strategy to 

free the 72 hostages held by Tupac Amaru rebels. (AP) 


Argentine High Court Assailed 




powers, especially the United States, 
during the Cold War. During that time, 
Zaire received hundreds of millions of 
dollars in aid from countries that ig- 
nored Marshal Mobutu’s abuses as long 
as he resisted communism. 

Governments in such countries as 
Liberia and Somalia were also protected 
during the Cold War, Mr. Otunnu said. 
Then, after communism fell in Europe, 
both countries became snarled in en- 
ervating civil conflicts that robbed them 
of their central governments, turned 
millions of their citizens into refugees 
and left the rest scrambling to survive. 

In Zaire, “the Cold War superstruc- 
ture’ ’ kept the country from falling prey 
to a successful rebellion, Mr. Otunnu 
said. “Mobutu never really had to come 
to terms with his compatriots or deal 
with the issues facing his country.” 

The extraordinary success of the rebels, 
who captured Zaire's third-largest city 
two weeks ago and appear to be on the 
verge of grabbing the second-largest, has 
come in part because of the easy avail- 
ability of weapons on the continent. 

The rebels have gobbled up thou- 
sands of weapons left behind by fleeing 
Zairian troops, but they also benefit 
from weapons pipelines threading 
through Uganda, Rwanda and Zaire, 
according to Kathi Austin of Human 
Rights Watch/Africa’s Arms Project. 

Meanwhile, in Burundi, Hutu rebels 
who are battling that central African 
country's Tutsi-led military govern- 
ment have kept their insurgency alive by 
procuring thousands of weapons from 
neighboring countries and European na- 
tions, Ms. Austin said. 

Of recent rebel movements, only 
those in Uganda, Ethiopia and Eritrea 
have established long-term stability 
after their victories. But even Uganda, 
blessed with economic and political sta- 
bility since President Yoweri Museveni 
won power in 1986, faces a rebel move- 
ment that has terrorized its northern 
region for three yeans. The group, 
known as the Lord's Resistance Army, 
espouses no clear political agenda and is 
notorious for its brutality. 

Uganda's experience shows that in- 
surgencies that establish stable govern- 
ments may have set an example for rebel 
groups in their countries, analysts said. 






BUENOS AIRES — The Simon Wwsenttol Center 
has accused the Supreme Court of anti-Semitism for 
allegedly harboring a theory that (be 1 992 bombing of the 
Israeli Embassy was the work of a militant Jewish 
group- _ 

“It’s unacceptable that five years after the massacre 
members of the court are hying to turn the victims into 
victimizers,” Sergio Widder, Latin American represen- 
tative for the Los Angeles-based center, wrote in a letter to 
Justice Minister Elias Jassan. 

The newspaper Garin reported that the theory that a 
Jewish group planted die bomb that killed 29 people and 
injured more than 200 was gaining credibility among 
court members. Interior Minister Carlos Corach on Tues- 
day called the theory “nonsense.” (AP) 


Dominican General Arrested 


H :1 ’H i'll 

I&&I- 


Ktti EtttmQpTTbr Amxlmd Presi 

FIGHTERS REMEMBERED — A copy of a sculpture, “Stronger Than Death,’ 1 being 
installed Wednesday at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Germany. The original, 
showing resistance fighters awaiting execution, was created by a Russian artist in 1956. 


SANTO DOMINGO, Dominican Republic — Domin- 
ican police have arrested die former chief of the armed 
forces in connection with the 1975 slaying of a journalist 
who was critical of human rights abuses under former 
President Joaquin Balaguer. 

General Salvador Uuberes Montas is the highest- 
ranking officer arrested since the government of President 
Leonel Fernandez ordered a new inquiry into the March 
17, 1975, shooting death of Orlando Martinez. (AP) 


Lyman Spitzer Jr., Hubble Project’s Catalyst, Dies 


By Wolfgang Saxon 

New York Times Service 


Lyman Spitzer Jr., a visionary the- 
oretician of astrophysics and plasma 


oretician of astrophysics and plasma 
physics who inspired the Hubble Space 
Telescope and an array of orbiting ob- 
servatories now tracking X-ray emis- 
sions and assorted other heavenly phe- 
nomena.. died Monday at his home in 
Princeton, New Jersey. He was 82. 

The cause was heart disease, accord- 
ing to Princeton University, his intel- 
lectual home for five decades. 

Mr. Spitzer shepherded the immense 
Hubble project from its inception, as a 
glimpse in his mind’s eye in 1947. to 
liftoff from Cape Canaveral. Florida, in 
1 990. He similarly served as the catalyst 
and principal investigator of the Co- 
pernicus Orbiting Astronomical Obser- 
vatory, an important ultraviolet precurs- 
or of Hubble that the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration 
launched in 1972. 

And he was a pioneer in the effort, 
unsuccessful so far, to use nuclear fu- 
sion as a clean and limitless source of 
energy. Mr. Spitzer was the founding 
director of the Princeton Plasma Physics 
Laboratory. 

Working in his Princeton office until 
the day he died, Mr. Spitzer concen- 
trated on subjects like interstellar mat- 


ter, the dynamics of stellar systems, 
space astronomy and plasma physics. 
He was appointed the Charles A. Young 
Professor of Astronomy in 1952, a post 
he held until 1982. 

In 1 954, Mr. Spitzer proposed a “lo- 
gical next step” in astronomy, a space 
observation point 500 miles (725 ki- 
lometers) above the earth. But his 
crowning legacy was the Hubble Space 
Telescope, which can peer into the 
deepest reaches of space. His advocacy 
won over his peers and buoyed the $2.1 
billion project through repeated delays. 


Joe Raposo, who became the music 
director, into the “Sesame Street" fam- 


ily when it was assembled by Joan Ganz 
Cooney, a founder of the Children's 


Cooney, a founder of the Children's 
Television Workshop. 

Mr. Stone wrote the pilot script for 
“Sesame -Street” and remained as its 
principal director until last year. 


Tomoyuki Tanaka, 86, Creator 
Of the Godzilla Movie Series 


Jon Stone, 65, Producer 
And Writer of ‘Sesame Street’ 


New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — Jon Stone, 65, the 
Emmy Award-winning writer, producer 
and director who helped create * 'Sesame 
Street” and such beloved characters as 
Cookie Monster, Big Bird and Oscar the 
Grouch, died Sunday of complications 
from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, com- 
monly known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, 
at Mount Sinai Hospital in Manhattan. 

In the course of a career in television 
that began in 1955 in a CBS training 
program, he won 1 8 Emmy Awards for 
his achievements as a producer, director 
and writer. In 1968 be helped bring Jim 
Henson, the creator of the Muppets, and 


Reuters 

TOKYO — Tomoyuki Tanaka, 86, 
the father of the Godzilla monster movie 
series, died of a stroke Wednesday at a 
Tokyo hospital. 

Mr. Tanaka, a former chairman of the 
Toho Co. film production firm, rose to 
fame in 1954 with the film “Godzilla,” 
the story of a lizard-like creature 
awakened from a long slumber by hy- 
drogen bomb testing in the South Pacific. 
Mr. Tanaka produced 22 Godzilla films 
befbre the much-loved lizard met bis 
match at the claws of an equally bizarre 
creation in the December 1995 “Godz- 
illa versus Destroyer.” 

Pupitl Jayakar, 81, Known 
As India’s ‘Czarina’ of Culture 


of culture” when she melded her pas- 
sion for Indian aits and handicrafts with 
a close and influential friendship with 
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, died Fri-' 
day at her home in Bombay, press re- 
ports said. 

Mns. Jayakar was a confidante of 
Jawaharial Nehru, India’s first prime 
minister. But it was her relationship 
with Mr. Nehru’s daughter, Mrs. 
Gandhi, that helped her assume a dom- ^ 
inant role in the nation s cultural affairs 
in the 1970s and early ’80s. She was 
appointed adviser to the prime mimstex- 
on heritage and cultural matters and; 
given the rank of minister of state. . - 

Ernest Goodman, 90, a Detroit law- 
yer specializing in First Amendment 
and civil rights cases who served as 
(Resident of the National Lawyers 
Guild, died March 26 of acerebral hem-; 
orrhage at Harper Hospital in Detroit. ~ : 



Nancy J. Woodhull, 52, (he first 
managing editor for news at USA Today- 
and a champion of women and diversity' 
in the newsroom and in news coverage,* 
died of cancer Tuesday at her home in 
Pittsford, New York. •; 


Nor York Times Service 

NEW DELHI — Pupul Jayakar, 81, 
who became known as India’s “czarina 


Jolie Gabor, 97, mother of Hun- 
garian-born actresses Eva and Zsa Zsif 
Gabor, died Tuesday in Rancho Mirage, ^ 
California. '4 





ht. 



BALLY 


SWI.TZEftLAND 


SINCE 18S1 








INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, APRIL 3. 1997 


PAGE 7 







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EDITORIALS/OPINION 



Zaire’s Fate Counts 


It seems that Zaire's longtime and 
fading dictator. Mobutu Sese Seko. bas 
woa himself at least one more chance to 
cling to some piece of power. He bas 
wangled a seat at peace talks expected to 
open shortly in South Africa. His many 
foes had hoped that he could be deprived 
of a legitimating role in a negotiated 
transition from civil war to democracy 
in a region ar peace. Certainly be does 
not deserve to be given even temporarily 
any share of power that be could not 
earn at the polls. But again — perhaps 
for the last time — his symbolic value in 
representing the territorial integrity of 
his large and ethnically fragmented 
country is recognized. 

Rebel leader Laurent Kabila re- 
mains the man of the hour. Here is an 
African irony for you. It was to put 
down his earlier rebellion that then 
soldier Mobutu got his first Western 
support some 30 years ago. Now Mr. 
Kabila, capitalizing on his old ad- 
versary’s corruption and misrule, is 
widely perceived to have enough polit- 
ical and military momentum to take 
over. Believing so, the African and 
international circles attending Zaire 
thought to slow the Kabila express, the 
better to deter the country’s feared 
disintegration. Some of the consider- 
ations that made President Mobutu a 
Cold War client are still in force. That 
is how this discredited figure becomes 


eligible for the table in South Africa. 

Mr. Kabila himself rales a closer 
look before things go too much further. 
Described as a former Marxist, he is 
being welcomed by desperate citizens 
of Zaire as a liberator and democrat. 
His troops, supported by African states 
that Mr. Mobutu alienated, appear to 
avoid for the most part the trademark 
abuses a gains t civilians of the Mobutu 
forces. He is getting good international 
notices for his administration of “lib- 
erated” areas. Still, complaints are 
heard that his forces are stingy about 
allotting political space even to the 
non-Mobutu opposition parties and to 
Zaire’s civil society as welL His pro- 
mise not to run for president has failed 
to erase the wisp of apprehension over 
thepossibility of another despot 

The United States is not out fronton 
this one. There is no audible public 
calL America has worked with South 
Africa, Zaire's European patrons and 
the international organizations to stop 
the fighting, remove foreign (African) 
forces and create an opening for 
refugee relief, elections and recon- 
struction. The relative U.S. deference 
is taken in some quarters as an evasion 
of a strategic priority. The Clinton ad- 
ministration had better show that this is 
not so. Huge, geopolitically central and 
potentially rich, Zaire counts. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


A Gesture in Gaza 


Rebuilding some mutual confidence 
between Israeli Prime Minister Ben- 
jamin Netanyahu and the Palestinian 
leader Yasser Arafat is an essential 
condition for resuming progress to- 
ward peace in the Middle East. Their 
relationship has been battered by Is- 
raeli construction in East Jerusalem, 
disputes over Israeli withdrawals in the 
West Bank and. most seriously, Mr. 
Arafat's ambiguous attitude toward 
Hamas suicide bomb attacks. But res- 
cuing hopes of a lasting peace from the 
drift coward violence requires rebuild- 
ing broad public confidence on both 
sides as well. 

For Israelis, confidence hinges 
mainly on curbing terrorism. Two ex- 
plosions near Jewish settlements in 
Gaza on Tuesday may have been abort- 
ive suicide bombing attacks. Israel is 
entitled to demand a concerted effort 
by Mr. Arafat to quell terrorism. For 
Palestinians, restoring confidence in 
the peace effort requires translating the 
Oslo agreement’s promises of au- 
tonomy into everyday reality and en- 
hancing economic opportunities to 
build a better life. 

Before the latest breakdown, nego- 
tiations had begun on several measures 
that could make the benefits of self- 
rule more tangible to oidinaty Pal- 
estinians. These include allowing the 
opening of a Palestinian airport and 
seaport in Gaza, and establishing trans- 
portation corridors to let Palestinians 
travel freely through Israeli territory 
between Gaza and the West Bank. 


There has also been talk of relaxing 
other economically p unishing restric- 
tions on Palestinian travel. 

Israel’s main concern in all these 
cases is a reasonable one — protecting 
its security against terrorists or 
smuggled weapons. Both sides agree 
that Israel will continue to control the 
airspace over Gaza. Negotiations have 
focused on ground-security issues at 
ter minals and along land corridors. 

These matters are s imilar to the bor- 
der-crossing questions that were 
among the most difficult in die Oslo 
negotiations. The solution readied then 
allowed Israeli security forces foil 
scrutiny of travelers and their belong- 
ings. But the Israelis agreed to operate 
discreetly, so that many Palestinian 
travelers would directly encounter only 
Palestinian security officers. Israel in- 
sists on applying that same high level of 
scrutiny to airport, seaport and corridor 
operations. The Palestinians acknow- 
ledge Israeli security needs but would 
like to see them met with a smaller and 
less visible Israeli presence. 

The differences between the two 
sides ate reportedly small. A gesture 
by Israel now — for example, a con- 
ditional opening of the airport — could 
help revive the larger negotiating pro- 
cess. It might also pay subtle security 
dividends of its own, by addressing the 
disillusionment and even desperation 
dial have set in among many Pales- 
tinians as the Oslo process stalled dur- 
ing the past year. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Scrubbing at the CIA 


It happens from time to time that an 
intelligence or police informer comes 
into public view, turns out to be a 
scoundrel and is then defended on 
grounds that of course you couldn’t 
expect to recruit Mother Teresa to 
do this nasty job. It happened again 
when Washington Post reporter Jeff 
Smith found out that the CIA had 
“scrubbed’’ its several thousand for- 
eign agents and dropped more than 
a thousand because they were found 
to be deadwood or likely had been 
involved in serious criminal acts or 
human rights abuses. An intelligence 
source was quoted as saying, "Mother 
Teresa is not a helpful person if you 
want to find out about the Indian nu- 
clear program ... ” 

Well, yes, there is surely the dire 
scenario in which a truly bad actor 
might be the only person who can do 
some urgent task. A closely watched 
opening inevitably has to be left for 
these kinds of cases. But of course 
Mother Teresa has little to do with iL 
The duty of intelligence recruiters is 
not to choose between virtuous in- 
formants and vicious ones. To put it 
that way is to trivialize the decision. 
The obligation is to distinguish among 
informants with varying elements 
of knowledge, reliability and national- 
interest suitability — in short to apply 
judgment 

At odd Cold War moments, the pub- 


lic learned of some truly sicko types 
among foreign recruits (and also a few 
homegrown ones). But it was only af- 
terward that the CIA. under former 
Clinton intelligence chiefs R. Janies 
Woolsey and John Deutch, undertook a 
systematic review. Of those informants 
let go as the result of it it seems that 
nine-tenths were not up to post-Soviet 
activities (narcotics, terrorism, wea- 
pons proliferation and tbe like). The 
remaining tenth, including Latin op- 
eratives fielded in the Reagan and Bush 
years, faded under die closer scrutiny 
and left under a cloud of alleged crimes 
and grave human rights abuses. The 
case of tbe Guatemalan informant 
linked to the murders of an American 
innkeeper and the guerrilla husband of 
an American lawyer comes to mind. 

Preventing repeats of this kind of 
misconduct appears to have been the 
focal point of the CIA’s “scrub.” Pro- 
cedures now are said to be in place that 
involve higher-level officials in re- 
viewing the recruitment and mainten- 
ance of informants by American agents 
in the field. Presumably a more dis- 
criminating standard is being enforced 
in weighing the pluses and minuses of 
particular operatives. We assume it 
will not be perfectly applied. Bui at 
least there has been a recognition of 
what was going wrong and a rather 
dramatic effort to fix iL 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 



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Strategic 6 Old Thinking’ Doesn’t Block a Virus 


llV Cahill’s desk in New York sits a 
private medical study of Central 
Africa's armies by a Reach physician. 
The study reports this horrendous stat- 
istic: In seven of the armies surveyed in 
recent months. SO percent or more of 
the troops tested are HIV-positive and 
may already cany AIDS. 

While concern about AIDS in the 
developed world has lessened, an epi- 
demic still spreads through fee Third 
World as new viral subtypes develop. 
That is horrible enough to contemplate. 
But think of the chilhng im plications of 
this finding (which has received serious 
but unpublicized attention from United 
Nations leaders) for African nations at 
the mercy of military establishments 
riven by fee modem plague. 

Dr. Cahill, a leading specialist in 
tropical medicine, goes further. He 
cites the study to support his call for 
new thinking about national security 
and foreign policy strategies for in- 
ternational stability. Tbe threats of dis- 
ease, internal collapse, massive refugee 
flows and famine are overwhelming 
the traditional solutions offered by ma- 
jor power diplomacy. UN peacekeep- 
ing and military intervention. 

His point could not be more timely. 
The deepening disasters of Albania and 


By Jim Hoag) and 


Zaire, coming on tbe heels of fee tra- 
gedies of Somalia, Bosnia, Chechnya 
and Rwanda/Burundi, demonstrate fee 
international community's dismally 
limited ability to respond to fee most 
urgent and characteristic upheavals of 
the post-Cold War world. 

A significant barrier to a more ef- 
fective response is old thinking by gov- 
ernments about national security and 
sovereignty, as this New York-based 
physician observes. Most of the 
world’s diplomats and politicians still 
approach crises like Central Africa’s 
spreading anarchy wife “the idea of 
nation-states dealing wife each other 
on a government to government basis 
wife the help of professions special- 
izing in secret negotiations and polit- 
ical conspiracy,” be says derisively. 

Another barrier is tbe intermittent 
attention span of tbe publics of the 
developed world. They are not yet spe- 
cifically aware of how little protection 
national borders and oceans afford 
them against dangers brought closer to 
home by the global revolution in travel, 
communications and trade. The plague 
and its deadly cousins are not confined 
to Central Africa or Southeast Asia. 


That point is driven home in essays by 
Eom O’Brien and others in a recent 


fear, before fee newly identified sub- 
type of virus travels to America and 
Western Europe to join the more fa- 
miliar strain Sinead by homosexual 


book edited by Dr. Cahill entitled ‘ ’Pre- 
ventive Diplomacy.” Mr. O’Brien, a 
member of Ireland's Royal College of activity and drug use. _ , 

Surgeons, argues feat “fee balance feat This pictrne of penrasivedi^ase and 


swung in mankind's favor in the decade 
or so after World War II has now re- 
verted dramatically in favor of the mi- 
crobe. "There is “now an urgent need to 
prevent an irrevocable upset to the del- 
icate balance” between man and virus. 

This can be accomplished, be con- 
tinues, “only tty globally coordinated 
strategies” mat deal wife the microbe’s 
surprising ability “to adapt and mutate 
in fee face of antibiotic assault." 

That finding has specific relevance to 
tbe problem of AIDS in African armies. 
The Harvard AIDS Institute and other 
organizations have identified a subtype 
of the human immunodeficiency virus 
that is spread to a great extent by het- 
erosexual transmission, a relatively rare 
occurrence in America but common in 
Africa and Southeast Asia. 

The soldiers of Africa, along wife 
the truck drivers and other males wife 
disposable incomes and itinerant life- 
styles, employ prostitutes frequently 
and condoms rarely. Tbe same can be 
said of some tourists in Ada. It is only 
a marter of time, medical professionals 


chaos could be paralyzing. Fortunately, 
Dr. Cahill and others are engaging m 
c reati ve thinking and determined lob- 
bying to get nations to r ethink how they 
deal wife fee spread of disease and 
tin ma nitnri an disaster. Their objective 
is to heighten public awareness and to 

get procedures and resources in place to 

prevent or respond quickly to fee next 
Rwandas and Bosmas as well as to 
global health problems. 

Dr. Cab in , far example, has organ- 
ized a series of three high-level month- 
long training courses in Europe this 
Bi^nmer for relief workers and officials 
of nongovernmental humanitarian or- 
ganizations. He recognizes that these 
volunteers aod professionals have be- 
come important in mobilizing and chan- 
neling governmental response to crisis. 

It is a modest first step on an enor- 
mous journey. It is in any event an 
important statement, a refusal to sur- 
render by i gnoring problems feat afflict 
others today and fee rest of us, in one 
form or another, tomorrow. 

The Washington Post. 


Turn a Country Over to the Market and the Public Turns Off 


P ARIS — The militia move- 
ment which gave rise to the 
Oklahoma City bombing two 
years ago. for which Timothy 
McVeigh has just gone on trial, 
and fee emergence of the Na- 
tional Front as a French polit- 
ical force both reveal a crisis of 
political authority in the two 
countries, a loss of legitimacy 
by two governments. 

That loss is a complex matter, 
and affects other governments 
in Western Europe — quite 
apart from the dangerous situ- 
ation in Russia and fee Balkans. 
It results in part from fee pri- 
ority that has been given to mar- 
ket forces over politics in so- 
ciety’s decisions and direction. 

And feat is something which 
can be reversed. 

To fee extent feat a rigid form 
of market ideology succeeds in 
installing return on investment 
as the principal value in a na- 
tion’s political and social 
choices, democracy tends to be 
subverted and fee mass of 
voters alienated. 

This value choice would 


By William Pfaff 


have horrified fee men who 
wrote fee U.S. Constitution, 
and most of the leaders of the 
European democracies who 
founded tbe European Union 
after the war — as well as 
American leaders of that peri- 
od. Business has certainly al- 
ways been fee business of 
America, but in fee past it has 
not been fee rally business. 

Today, this change Has 
brought Americans to the point 
where everything seems for sale 
in Washington, at poor return to 
the citizenry, most of whom 
have seen their personal situ- 
ations worsened since the early 
1980s. Alan Greenspan, the 
Federal Reserve chairman, has 
just moved interest rates up be- 
cause he sees insufficient job 
insecurity in the labor force. 
The prevailing orthodoxy holds 
feat government should pro- 
mote fee insecurity of workers. 

I understand the rationale for 
that, but it contributes to a polit- 
ical alienation wife serious con- 


sequences. That alienation has 
complex sources, relating to the 
foreign as well as sociopolitical 
dramas of the 1960s. 

The promotion of corporate 
interest over social principle in 
Washington politics is merely a 
part of what has destroyed 
stable social structures and un- 
dermined communities of value 
in the United States. The phe- 
nomena of violent militia 
groups and suicidal sects are 
part of the result 

A sinister aspect of the affair, 
which cannot oe blamed on the 
economic theorists, is tbe ap- 
parently rising influence on 
American society of space-age, 
UFO, New Age and paranoid 

political fantasi es 

When UN Secretary-General 
Kofi Annan went to Washing- 
ton earlier this year and spoke 
wife congressmen and senators, 
some new members of Con- 
gress actuall y challeng ed him in 
ail seriousness about the United 
Nations’ “black helicopters” 


and alleged designs on Amer- 
ican sovereignty. 

People no longer believe feat 
their government is able, or at 
least w illin g, to take charge of 
the forces affecting their lives. 
Many believe that it has de- 
liberately made decisions to 
harm them. Eleven million 
Americans, according to one 
poll, tfamk that their govern- 
ment is then “enemy.” Hence 
political partic ip ation steadily 
falls, and the political space in- 
creasingly is occupied by faeces 
of irresponsibility. 

In France, alienation is not as 
severe as in the United States, 
but the space ceded by the de- 
fault of responsible political ac- 
tion is being occupied by the 
National FronL This move- 
ment’s capture, earlier this year, 
of municipal government in a 
fourth sizable town in the south 
made it a factor in national pol- 
itics that cannot be ignored. 

Last weekend the Front 
staged its national congress in 
Strasbourg, claiming that it hag 
become the national alternative 


Simplifying the China Debate Can Be Dangerous 


W ASHINGTON — China 
policy is again becoming 
a heated domestic political de- 
bate in America, as it was in tbe 
1950s. The consequences are 
likely to be pernicious. 

This time it is not just an 
ideological fault line between 
the left and fee right, although 
that division remains evident 
Both sides are split 
There is an unusual alliance 
between part of fee left, which 
would make human rights the 
primary test for dealing wife 
China supported by various eco- 
nomic and political sanctions, 
and part of the right, which sees 
China as an economic and po- 
tential military fereaL 
They are opposed by an as- 
sertive big business faction fas- 
cinated by a vast future Chinese 
market and by internationalists 
who argue feat China cannot be 


By Flora Lewis 


quarantined and political re- 
form there should be induced by 
drawing it closer into the world 
community. 

Clinton administration stra- 
tegists have decided to abandon 
fee code word "engagement” 
to describe their approach and 
to call it “interest-driven.” The 
idea is to define the various 
American interests at stake, 
identify which ones China 
bolds in common so feat they 
can be pursued, and see what 
can be done to bring change 
where they clash. 

But the intensity of the quar- 
rel reflects a number of other 
issues not necessarily about 
China that have been entangled. 
For one, there is straightfor- 
ward partisanship as party lead- 
ers seek to embarrass or upstage 


Taking Risks in Taiwan 

By Jonathan Mirsky 


T AIPEI — Taiwan’s Pres- 
ident Lee Teng-hui is play- 
ing a dangerous game with 
Beijing, with nationalism as his 
trump raid. But Taiwanese na- 
tionalism feeds the call for in- 
dependence which China has 
sworn would cause it to retake 
fee “rebel province” by force. 

Buoyed by bis thumping vic- 
tory last year in the presidential 
election (held in the face of 
mainlan d missil es fired into the 
Taiwan Strait and invasion ma- 
neuvers just across fee water on 
China's east coast), Mr. Lee 
“wants independence wi thorn 
calling it independence," as 
some analysts here put iL 
This made for last week’s 
awkward meeting wife fee 

Dalai T ama 

The Dalai Lama told me feat 
be would be willing to return to 
Tibet under an arrangement like 
Hong Kong’s “one country, 
two systems.” The mainland 
might learo about tbe links be- 
tween economic progress and 
liberty, he said, when it becomes 
more familiar wife Hong Kong. 
He added that if he could find a 
modus vivendi with Beijing, it 
might encourage Mongolia and 
Xinjiang to follow suiL 

Mr. Lee continues his search 
for ways to keep Taiwan out of 
China’s grasp without provok- 
ing violent reactions. This ex- 
plains his care in dealing wife 
the Dalai Lama. Taiwan's State 
Office of Mongolian and 
Tibetan affairs wanted to con- 
trol tbe visit. This creaking 
body, which funds several hun- 
dred Tibetan refugees in Tazpei, 


insists that Tibet is part of 
C hina. The main B uddhis t as- 
sociation thus did the inviting, 
so that fee Dalai Lama’s visit 
would appear “spiritual.” 

Unlike tbe Dalai Lama, Mr. 
Lee has no wish to find a way to 
exist under a Chinese umbrella. 
He hopes that Beijing runs into 
trouble in Hong Kong after the 
transfer of sovereignty in mid- 
year. He thinks that fee worse 
fee news about Chinese beha- 
vior in Hong Kong, Tibet Xin- 
jiang and Mongolia, fee fewer 
fee Taiwanese who will believe 
in a future for feemsetve§ under 
Beijing’s formula of “one 
country, two systems.” 

No longer aiming at big in- 
ternational sensations like his 
trip to the United States in 1 995, 
Mr. Lee is now concentrating 
on domestic affairs. 

He is encouraging schools to 
emphasize Taiwan 's history and 
geography. “He’d rather stu- 
dents learned about our rivers 
and than about the Yangtze and 
the Yellow River,” noted one 
analyst “The idea is feat when 
today's children grow up, they 
will be Taiwan nationalists and 
vote for independence.” 

Many here regard this as a 
perilous path. In the missile 
crisis last year, the rich sent then- 
sons abroad so that they would 
not be recalled into fee army. 

In the last two years, 50,000 
Taiwanese families have 
moved to Vancouver, where be- 
fore there were only 5,000. 

The writer. East Asia editor 
of The Times (London), con- 
tributed this comment to the In- 
ternational Herald Tribune. 


each other. For another, there is 
a sort of Cold War nostalgia for 
the convenient mobilizing ef- 
fect of having a clearly defined 
enemy and the o pportun ity to 
proclaim America’s dedication 
to high moral principle. 

There is also an impulse to 
shift the focus of American for- 
eign policy from security to 
trade and economics. 

Critics say the administration 
has no China policy, pointing to 
the way its reactions vary from 
time to time and from question 
to question. This is true in tbe 
sense that the policy cannot be 
explained in a single word, such 
as “containmenL” 

Rather, as Secretary of State 
Madeleine Albright repeats, it 
is an effort to address the “mul- 
tifaceted” aspect of American 
relations with China feat re- 
quires a variety of responses. I 
call it the “Kokosan strategy,” 
after fee song in the operetta 
“The Mikado” entitled “Let 
die Punishment Fit the Crime” 
— and it makes good sense. 

Trade issues, which include 
such things as exports made with 
prison labor, should be met wife 
trade sanctions or inducements. 
Military and nonproliferation is- 
sues shouM be dealt with on then- 
own terms, such as forbidding 
certain military sales or even a 
show of force, as when China 
held missile exercises around 
Taiwan last year. And human 
and civil rights issues should 
evoke a political response in- 
cluding widespread public in- 
formation campaigns. No single 
set of measures fits alL 

Tbe most sensitive points on 
fee American side at fee mo- 
ment are the charge that China 
tried to buy influence on Amer- 
ican politics with campaign 
contributions last year, and how 
China behaves in Hong Kong. 
Both issues are inflamed by 
American political rivalries. 

The real campaign scandal is 
the amount of money collected 
and speah about $2 txltion. And 
while tbe United States has 
every right to speak about Hong 
Kong, it hardly has standing to 
be fee enforcer of a Brinsh- 
Ounesc agreement in which it 
played no part. 

Nor is the argument that eco- 
nomic liberalization will inev- 
itably bring tbe political reform 
that America desires, as Vice 
President A1 Gore claimed after 
his controversial trip to Beijing, 
very relevant to current policy 
decisions. The history of fee 
Asian “Ihtie tigers” shows that 
the lintap. is neither au to m atic 
nor speedy, and it is foolish to 
make predictions a generation 


or two ahead when the world is 
changing so fast. 

The sheer fact feat China has 
a veto in the UN Security Coun- 
cil involved it in all kinds of 
matters outside the bilateral re- 
lationship, which are of direct 
concern to fee United States. 
Beijing’s decision to abstain 
rather than veto a European 
force for Albania despite its 
stand against foreign interven- 
tions made a difference. It could 
choose to paralyze the United 
Nations as fee Soviet Union did 
for so many years. 

It has sane, if limited, in- 
fluence on the dangerous re- 
gime in North Korea. Release to 
South Korea of tbe high-rank- 
ing Northern defector Hwang 
Jang Yop was important, al- 
though fee fact that so far Seoul 
has not shared any intelligence 
gained wife the United States 
implies a temporizing and dis- 
criminating deal wife Beijing. 

China’s acceptance of fee 
comprehensive nuclear test ban 
was crucial, although it still re- 
fuses to apply nonproliferation 
constraints in its exports, a se- 
rious dispute with Washington. 

Americans are mesmerized 
by Asia and especially by China 
now, as they were by Europe in 
the Cold War. The relations are 
too important and too complex 
to be reduced to tbe simplicities 
evoked in die U.S. domestic par- 
tisan debate. If fear takes place 
nonetheless, fee prophecy of 
conflict could be self-fulfilling. 

C Flora Lewis. 


“to all the resL” Parties and 
movements mainly from the left 
staged a large demonstration 
against the Root during the 
same weekend, rallying more 
than 35,000 people from all 
around France. 

Whatever else this accom- 
plished. it confirmed that fee 
National Front is no longer a 
marginal force, and can reas- 
onably hope to have members 
in Parliament next year. What is * 
most important is that polls and a] 
interviews demonstrate that its 
support has moved for beyond 
its past constituency of provin- 
cial rightists, skinheads, nostal- 
gias of Vichy and inveterate op- 
positionists. 

The National Front is now 
die most popular party among 
industrial workers. Its leader- 
ship is passing to a younger 
generation of educated and re-, 
latively sophisticated men and 
women. While the immigration 
issue still is most important for 
the Front's voters, they are now 
reacting against what seems a 
larger national stalemate on a 
score of fronts. 

As in tiie United States, fee 
pofiticaT class is gravely cbm- 
prostised by money' scandals. 
There have been huge losses in 
state-owned banks and insur- 
ance companies, wife those re- 
sponsible yet to be held ao= 
countable. The previously tol- 
erated system of payoffs to 
political parties from govern.-; 
ment contractors is under attack 
by judges across the country — 
including in Paris, where fee > 
city government was President - 
Jacques Chirac’s political base. 

Promises made by 'Mr. Chir- 
ac in his presidential campaign 
have not been kept — could not 
be kepL The economy ha£ 
shown only feeble signs of im* 
provemenL The. • Socialist 
Party’s platform for change is 
judged “incredible’ ' by a ma- 
jority of fee electorate- i 

“Europe” now is associate^ 
in the minds of many with un- 
employment — unnecessary 
unemployment, they tiring 
since it follows freon the arbi- 
trarily restrictive monetary 
policy followed by Ranee in 
order to become part of Euro-! 
pean monetary union next year.; 

People see France as the vic- 
tim of international economic 
forces and choices which, in- M 
stead of improving their lives, 
have worsened them. * 

They have been assured by 
the established parties feat nil 
this is necessary to have a ra : 
diant future. They don’t believe 
their government, any more 
than Americans believe theirs; 
They don’t just think they have 
been misled; increasingly they 
t hink they have beat swindled: 

International Harold Tribune. 

© Los Angeles Times Syndicate. 


IN OUR PAGES; 100. 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1897: Bicycling Row 


NEW- YORK - — A big row is 
imminent in international bi- 
cycle affairs. The Union Vd- 
locipedique de France accuses 
the League of American Wheel - 
men of treachery in entering 
into secret agreements wife fee 
Union CycUste de France, the 
bitter enemy of the U.VJF. The 
matter has been laid before the 
International Cyclists’ Associ- Stolen Children 

ation. If the charges are proved 
all the American League men 
may be debarred from enieri 
races in France, England, “ 
giinn and Germany. 


namely, whether the a sp irati ons 
of the Hungarians to have a 
member of the Hapsburg dynas- 
ty as their political head are 
henceforth to cenire about Karl’s 
son, Otto, or about another arch- 
duke, for example Albrecht, who 
for the last three years has been 
the choice of a large section at 
tbe Hungarian public. 


1922: Dynastic Choice 

PAR IS — Important dipl omat ic 
aretes consider tbe death of 
Karl, the former Emperor of 
Ausfro-Himgaiy, wall partially 
solve fee Hungarian problem 4 

it will hasten the elections for the 
future Hungarian royal ruler But 
a grave question wfll develop. 


PARIS — Seventeen of fee 104 
children of Lidice who were 
taken away by the Germans for 
Nazification purposes have 
been found and are now on their 
way borne from the Prien In- 
ternational Children’s Center at 
Chiemsee. The children have 
been located by chil d search 
officers of the United Nations 
Relief and Rehabilitation Ad- 
ministration and tbe Czecboslo 1 
vak Red Cross almost five years - 
After the Nazis murdered their 
fathers and banished their 
mothers to imprisonmenL 






INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, APRIL 3, 1997 


a.tw& v 



OPINION/LETTERS 


iri( s , The Surreal, Tragic Tale 
Si ; Of the Kings and a Killer 


By David J. Garrow 


■ . > 


jVTLANTa - Twenty-nine 
£jVyeas after James Eari Ray 
^ Reverend Dr. Martin 
Lutber King Jr., Dr. King’s^ 
Dexter has shaken Mr. Ray’s very 
hand, looked him in the eye and 
declared Ins belief, whicfa bc as- 
serted is shared by the King fam- 
ily, that James Earl Ray is in- 
. nocent of any involvement in the 
O assassination. 

! Surreal — as well as sad 

hardly even begins to describe this 

scene last week at a state prison in 

Tennessee, where Mr. Ray is 
serving his sentence. Dexter Scott 
Kmg s conduct is so misinformed 
M irresponsible that it threatens 
to betray his father's legacy. 

; For many Americans, includ- 
ing most of Dr. King's former 


re- 


ur 


ns 0| 0 


ive its roots in some large, per- 
tps official, conspiracy. Unfor- 
tunately, an American taste for 
conspiracy theories allows even 
outlandish tales of army intelli- 
gence and Mafia collaboration to 
gain a public airing. 

- In fins case, however, the bizarre 
suggestions are all wrong. James 
Eari Ray murdered Martin Luther 
King because of intense racial 
haired and an expectation of cash 


The evidence of his guilt comes 
hi three pieces: his conduct before 
the killing, his actions on April 4, 
1968, the day of the killing, and 
his behavior from that tirrw to the 
present day. Taken together, the 
evidence is so overwhelming as to 
be beyond any reasonable doubt 

In the days before April 4, Mr. 
Ray, who had escaped from a Mis- 
souri prison, stalked Dr. King 
from city to city across the Deep 
South. In Bir mingham, Alabama, 
•j! using an alias, Mr. Ray purchased 
the rifle he later abandoned near 
the scene of the killing. 

After following Dr. King to 
Memphis, Tennessee, Mr. Ray 
used a different alias to rent a 
bedroom in a flophouse with a 
view of the motel which that 
meaning's newspaper bad iden- 
tified as Dr. King’s lodging. At 
6:01 PAL, from a perch in the 
adjoining bathroom window, Mr. 
Ray fired the one fatal ballet that 
struck Dr. King in die jaw and 
then in the neck. Mr. Ray dropped 
his rifle, along with the morning 
paper and several other identify- 
ing items, in a neighboring door- 


way before fleeing in his car. 

The rifle and the paper had his 
fingerprints on them. (New claims 
Aat Mr. Ray’s rifle did not fire the 

ratal bullet obscure the fact that no 
technology can conclusively link 
such a heavily damagwr bullet to 
one rifle.) 

After driving to Atlanta, Mr. 
Ray took a bus to Canada and flew 
to Europe. His goal was. safe 
haven in then white-ruled 
Rhodesia, bin he was later arrested 
At Heathrow airport in Britain. 

On March 10, 1969, Mr. Ray 
pleaded guilty to Dr. King’s 
murder in exchange for a sentence 
of lifeinrorisonmem. 

In J 978, the House Select Com- 
mittee on Assas sinat io ns conduc- 
ted a painstakingly thoroi 
view of all aspects of Dr. 
assassination, including the FBI’s 
earlier harassment of him and 
every conspiracy theory then ima- 
gined. Die committee's conclu- 
sion; "James Eari Ray was the 
assassin of Dr. King.” 

But the panel further concluded 
that Mr. Ray the triggerman al- 
most certainly acted on behalf of a 
larger conspiracy of race-haters 
who most likely included at least 
one or more of his relatives. 

It found a si gnificant Kk»7ihnrvl 
that Mr. Ray and his relatives be- 
lieved that a Sl Louis- area con- 
spiracy of virulent segregationists 
would pay handsomely for Dr. 
King’s death. 

Mr. Ray does not need a trial to 
choose to tell the full truth about 
the killing of Dr. King. But don't 
hold your breath; 29 years of his- 
tory shows, there’s no reason to 
believe Mr. Ray will ever betray 
his confederates. 

Tragically, the only betrayal 
here involves Dr. King’s own leg- 
acy. For Dexter King to call Mr. 
Ray innocent is to deny what 
white terrorists have done to black 
America for decade after decade. 

Dexter King may have shaken 
James Earl Ray’s hand, but he 
cannot erase die awful record of 
what Mr. Ray and his allies 
wrought. 





New York City to UN: 
Drop the Attitude 


By Clyde Habermas 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


Chinese Labor 

Regarding "US. Policy To- 
ward China Is on the Right Track ” 
(Opinion, March 12) by Laura 
d Andrea Tyson: 

The author's brief for China's 
admission to the World Trade Or- 
ganization fails to acknowledge 
that China's pricing and labor 
policies disqualify it 

The WTO is based on internal 
market prices that reflect supply 
and demand. Setting aside 
China’s subsidies, state-admin- 
istered pricing and other disqual- 
ifiers, one market particularly vi- 
olates WTO standards: die labor 
market Wages are established by 
the state and are not set by market 
forces. Since China's exports are 
labor-intensive, die absence of a 
free labor market amounts to a 
massive hidden subsidy. 

The connection to human rights 
becomes operational here. China 
uses prison labor, bonded labor 
and child labor in its export mar- 
kets. Human rights and free mar- 
kets are linked. 

HOWARD M. WACHTEL. 

Paris. 


Netanyahu's election slogan 
"peace with security” was con- 
tradictory, in that Likud's idea of 
security would not be acceptable 
to the Arabs and that peace would 
thus be a mirage. 

PHILIP BRUTTON. 

Paris. 

Regarding " That ‘Green 
Light’: Did Arafat Truly Flash 
It?" (March 27): 

The news analysis on the cur- 
rent Arab-Israeli tensions men- 
tions a "stirring” speech given by 
a Hamas leader in Gaza. 

Ibrahim Maqadmeh. regarded 
by Israel as the head of a secret 
organization in Hamas, declared, 
among other things, that only 
"holy warriors who carry bombs 
on their body and blow up the 
enemies of God” will stop the 
Israeli bulldozers. 

Stirring? Chilling or blood- 
curdling would be more like iL 
DAVID A. HARRIS. 

New York. 

The writer is executive director 
of the American Jewish Commit- 
tee. 


The writer, a professor at 
Emory University Law School, is 
the author of “The FJ$J. and Mar- 
tin Luther King Jr." and M Bearing 
the Cross," a Pulitzer Prise-win- 
ning biography of Dr. King. He 
contributed this comment to The 
New York Tunes. 


Middle East Violence Using Sanctions 


Regarding “Stop Underestim- 
ating the Netanyahu Factor ” 
(Opinion, March 31) by Jim 
Hoagland: 

It was obvious that Benjamin 


Regarding "US. Sanctions 
Fad Cries for Restraint ” (Think- 
ing Ahead/Commentary, Feb. 25) 
by Reginald Dale: 

The article laments the trend by 


the U.S. federal, state and local 
governments to use economic 
sanctions to achieve political ob- 
jectives. 

Sanctions are indeed a danger- 
ous weapon, but the record is not 
altogether negative. Imposed and 
sustained against South Africa, 
they helped end apartheid. Who 
would begrudge concerned cit- 
izens of Massachusetts or San 
Francisco what the writer con- 
siders the "insidious” choice to 
bar government contracts with 
companies that do business with 
Burma? Citizen engagement, hav- 
ing goaded governments to act 
against apartheid, may again 
make its mark in support of hu- 
man rights and democracy. 

The pressing need is not for 
‘ 'the United States and its allies to 
get together and woik out a real- 
istic common approach to the 
whole question of sanctions.” It is 
rather for the international com- 
munity to formulate new ground 
rules to govern the use of eco- 
nomic coercion in the posl-CoId 
War era. 

These would infuse interna- 
tional economic relationships 
with a greater sense of humanity, 
setting clear limits on the degree 
of human suffering that sanctions 
will be allowed to create in the 
service of broadly agreed upon 
political objectives. 

LARRY M1NEAR. 

Orleans, Massachusetts. 


N EW YORK — Implausible 
question of the day: What 
does Rudolph Giuliani have in 
common with Saddam Hussein 
(other than a tendency to purge his 
ranks of those deemed insuffi- 
ciently loyal)? 

Answer. Both ultimate leaders 
have thumbed their noses at UN 
pronouncements. 

Let’s leave Mr. Saddam aside 
and focus on the mayor, whose 

meanwhile 

ongoing tiff with the international 
community in New York entered 
a new phase on Tuesday when 
tougher city rules went into effect 
to combat the great menace stalk- 
ing Manhattan's streets: the diplo- 
scofflaw. From now on, foreign 
envoys risk having their cars 
towed and special license plates 
removed if they fail to pay their 
parking tickets within a year. 

It is the vehicular equi valent of 
ripping epaulettes and breaking 
swords, and it has stirred more 
passions in the General Assembly 
than almost any issue outside the 
Israeli -Palestinian conflict. 

On Monday, the normally 
phlegmatic Committee on Rela- 
tions with the Host Country met 
for a second day devoted to bash- 
ing City Hall and demanding that 
the full General Assembly deal 
with this latest threat to world 
harmony. That followed a warn- 
ing last week from the UN legal 
office that portions of the new 
policy violated international law 
and the concept of diplomatic im- 
munity. 

The French were particularly 
exercised on Monday. Take away 
their license plates and registra- 
tions? asked the French delegate. 
Hubert Legal. When the subways 
are "a blot” on the city, “most 
taxis are wrecks" and buses are 
fine only “if you have three hours 
to waste”? Sacre bleu! This is 
getting serious. 

City Hall has kept the dispute 
alive by brushing aside the UN 
legal opinion as so much petti- 
foggery. 

One city official said that the 
diplomats were making them- 
selves look foolish. "When New 
Yorkers see what they're doing, it 
looks like they’re just protecting 
their own parking perks.' ’ he said, 
adding; "Do you think it hurts the 
mayor politically to be denounced 


by the General Assembly? I don’t 
think Rudy is sweating this one 
too much.” 

Maybe not. But to borrow from 
that great mediator, Don Vito 
Corleone, how did things get so 
out of hand? 

After all, even if foreign mis- 
sions and consulates were to pay 
all 134,281 tickets issued to them 
in 1996 (at an average of $40 a 
ticket), that money would not 
keep the city government running 
for an hour and a half. 

Understandably, the mayor felt 
moved to action after the recent 
street scrap between police of- 
ficers and envoys from Russia and 
Belarus. Still, he has pursued his 
crackdown with surprising zeal 
for someone who let a similar 
policy die when it carried the 
former administration's label. 

Going after foreign envoys is a 
political no-brainer. Some New 
York officials and editorial 
writers make it a habit to shrug off 
the S3 billion a year that the dip- 
lomatic community contributes to 
the city’s economy, preferring to 
sneer at all UN delegates as ar- 
rogant snobs who spend their days 
looking for fire hydrants to park 
next to. Overlooked is the fact that 
larger delegations, with dozens of 
official cars, really cannot make 
do with the limited parking space 
available to them. 

By contrast, U.S. embassies 
around the world sit on sprawling 
grounds with ample parking for 
entire fleets of vehicles. It is a safe 
bet that if the American Embassy 
in Tokyo. Paris or Rome had to 
put up with New York’s new al- 
lotment of two parking spots per 
foreign mission, people in Wash- 
ington would threaten retaliation. 

"Americans,” a U.S. official 
acknowledged, “may not want to 
hear thaL” 

Then again, you have to ask 
what kind of goodwill foreigners 
think they are creating when they 
park at fire hydrants. Is that not 
considered a safety hazard in 
Moscow, too? 

The Russians, in a league of 
their own, deserve a Ripley’s cita- 
tion: 31388 summonses in 1996, 
or roughly one every 15 rjiinutes. 

North Korea managed to rack 
up 2,297 summonses last year — 
with only five cars! Other big of- 
fenders included Indonesia, Ni- 
geria and Iran. 

The New York Times. 





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INTERNATIONAL 


NEMTSOV: He Faces a Legacy to Undo 


Continued from Page 1 

f cist and dissident who was exiled to this 
region when it was off limits to for- 
eigners and Russians, without permis- 
sion. Mr. Nemtsov later agitated suc- 
cessfully against the construction of a 
nuclear power plant. He ran for Par- 
liament in 1990 and won a seat, de- 
feating a dozen weU-connected candi- 
dates. Mr. Yeltsin appointed him 
governor of Nizhni Novgorod in 1991 
and later he was re-elected. 

In 1992, Mr. Nemtsov joined forces 
with Grigori Yavlinsky, the leader of the 
reformist Yabloko bloc, who came here 
with a master plan to make the province 
a laboratory for economic reform. 

Their stru ggl e to revive Nizhni 
Novgorod was. in a sense, an effort to 
rediscover its pre-Soviet past as a Volga 
River trading center. The young re- 
formers, however, did not inherit a 
strong hand. In the Soviet years, the city, 
then called Gorky, was known for its 
secret military plants and the nearby 
Arzamus-I6 nuclear weapons research 
complex. The collapse of the Soviet Un- 
ion sent the defense sector into a 
taiispin. 

As for agriculture, the region lacks the 
rich soil of southern Russia. 

The skilled military industry work 
force, however, was a plus. The Volga 
River city was also an attractive market 
for foreign investors looking beyond 
Moscow and Sl Petersburg. 

Moving quickly. Mr. Nemtsov was 
among the first to privatize small busi- 
ness and to promote land reform. He 
welcomed Western aid organizations 
and courted foreign investors. 

Gradually, the face of the city began to 
change. It now boasts a fashionable ped- 
estrian shopping mall, a remodeled rail- 
road station, and a glittery trade fair. 

Price Waterhouse & Co., one of the 
“Big Eight' 1 accounting firms, opened 
an office. Lufthansa began flying here, 
reflecting German interest in foreign in- 
vestment. New Russian banks opened. 

As in the rest of Russia, though, over- 
hauling Nizhni Novgorod's economy 
has not been easy. 

Striving to build a middle class, Mr. 
Nemtsov sought to promote small busi- 
nesses. such as bakeries, meal processing 
plants, lumberyards or flour mills. 

The hope is that small-scale capit- 
alism will some day supplant large-scale 
Communist-style industries, brighten- 
ing the economy and building a con- 
stituency for further reforms as has 
happened in Poland. Hungary, and the 
Czech Republic. 

Among other steps, Mr. Nemtsov's 
administration began lending small 
businesses money to buy new equipment 
and cars. Seeking to create jobs. Mr. 
Nemtsov helped lure a Coca-Cola bot- 
tling plant to his region. 


But as in other regions, there are still 
echoes of the old, socialist ways. 

Mr. Nemtsov's supporters say that 
many of die region's ills are not the 
governor's fault. They say that only die 
president and his inner circle can take on 
structural economic issues, such as the 
regulation of monopolies and pension 


igui 

:fon 


reform. 

Mr. Yeltsin’s cabinet shake-up. 
however, has finally given the young 
reformer a chance to attempt more 
sweeping change. 

Forming a policy troika with Prime 
Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin and 
Anatoli Chubais, the Kremlin's top eco- 
nomic strategist, Mr. Nemtsov took his 
post on the condition that he not be 
dismissed for at least two years. 

Reformers hope that Mr. Yeltsin's de- 
sire to secure his place in history will give 
them the backing they need as they take 
on the vested interests. But even the brash 
reformer is expecting rocky times ahead. 

“It is obvious that I will make a huge 
number of enemies among the industrial 
and financial oligarchy that now in many 
respects controls the situation in Rus- 
sia." he said in a recent television in- 
terview. 

“As to what I have to do in Moscow 
now. that is the function of a kami- 
kaze.” 



r 


■ Un/llwMewttifc'lia 

A worker stacking windshields at a glass factory in NizhniNovgorod that is adapting to a competitive market. 


UNION: Russia and Belarus Sign a Watered-Down Pact 


Continued from Page 1 

blueprints for even closer integration with Belarus. But 
the fight may not be over. 

“We are transforming the community between Rus- 
sia and Belarus not into a single country but into a 
union between two independent countries.” Mr. 
Yeltsin said at the signing ceremony Wednesday at the 
Kremlin. 

Politically unstable and financially destitute. Be- 
larus, sandwiched between Russia and Poland, may 
seem an unlikely target for a friendly takeover by 
Russia. Its opposition leaders are beaten and harassed, 
its Parliament is a rubber stamp, its news media tighdy 
muzzled and its coffers empty. 

But both Mr. Yeltsin and Mr. Lukashenko evidently 
see symbolic and political benefits in moving toward 
closer integration. Mr. Yeltsin, reviled by many Rus- 
sians for his role in dismantling the Soviet Union, 
evidently hopes the prospect of a merger with Belarus 
will polish hts image as a steward of Russian power and 
mute his Communist and nationalist enemies. 

By extending Moscow's influence some 500 ki- 
lometers (300 miles) west, it also supplies Mr. Yeltsin 
with a symbolic response to the planned eastern ex- 
pansion of NATO, which Russia ’s political elite sees as 
a humiliation. 

“The unification of die two states into a political - 
military union is entirely justified given the unpar- 
donable expansion of the North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization.” Oleg Rumantsyev, a nationalist former 
lawmaker, wrote m The Moscow Times. 

Mr. Yeltsin has avoided portraying integration with 
Belarus as a response to NATO, the west's main 


security umbrella in Europe. “Life itself is pushing 
both sides toward further integration,” he said 

Mr. Lukashenko, a former collective farm boss who 
has purged opposition Lawmakers from the Parliament 
and spoken admiringly of Hitler and Stalin, pushed hard 
for unification with Russia and was reported by Russian 
news organizations to be angry when his more am- 
bitious proposals were blocked by Moscow reformers. 
He believes closer ties would unite fraternal Slavic 
nations bound by history and give him a say in Russian 
politics as well as easier access to Russian resources. 

Sooner or later, he said Wednesday, the two coun- 
tries will arrive at “a single house where fraternal 
peoples will live.” 

Top reformers in Mr. Yeltsin's government, in- 
cluding his pair of young first deputy prime ministers, 
Anatoli Chubais and Boris Nemtsov, have resisted 
integration as contrary to Russian interests. They have 
been supported by liberals in Parliament. 

“This is a political adventure based neither on eco- 
nomic calculation nor on political rationality.' ' said the 
economist Grigori Yavlinsky, head of a reform bloc in 
Parliament. 

Although Russian news organizations have assailed 
the deal in the last few days, there has been little broad 
public debate about the treaty, which still awaits rat- 
ification by the Parliaments of both countries. Public 
opinion polls suggest that integration is generally 
popular in both countries. 

The deal stops well short of establishing a new 
country, but details about it remain sketchy. Sergei 
Yastrzhembsky, Mr. Yeltsin's spokesman, said the 
agreement would create a union of Russia and Belarus 
and pass some powers to an overarching body called 



Anatoli Chubais, left, and Boris Nemtsov at the 
treaty-signing ceremony Wednesday in Moscow. 

the Supreme Council of the Community between Rus- 
sia and Belarus. But precisely which powers have not 
been spelled out. Mr. Yeltsin made it dear, however, 
that the roost tangible step toward real economic unity 
— a common currency — would be a “rather lengthy” 
process. “There must be no illusion here,” he raid. 


FRIENDS: 

Help for Hubbell 

Continued from Page 1 

bell's financial plight, Mr. Davis said. 
Officials said those efforts resulted in no- 
payments to Mr. Hubbell. 

The independent counsel, Kenneth 
Starr, is investigating the payments 
made to Mr. Hubbell after he left the 
Justice Department. Mr. Starr s inves- 
tigators want to know whether any of the 
payments Clinton associates arranged 
were intended to buy Mr. Hubbeli’s si- 
lence in the Whitewater investigation. 

To date, investigators have learned of, 
more than $500,000 in payments to Mr. * 
Hubbell from a dozen or so entities that 
year, including $100,000 from the In-; 
donesia-based Lippo Grotro. 

The disclosure that the Qintons knew, 
of solicitations on Mr. Hubbell s behalf, 
is likely to fuel an investigation into 
whether the payments constituted hush 
money, officials said. Mr. Hubbell has. 
refused to discuss the payments. 

Mr. Hubbell is a former partner of 
Mis. Clinton's at the Rose law firm in 1 
Little Rock, Arkansas, and would have, 
been familiar with legal work she did 
with the savings and loan owned by the- 
Clintons’ Whitewater partners, James B». 
and Susan McDougai 

Mr. Hubbell is a central figure in- 
several aspects of the Whitewater in-, 
quiry. Both he and Hillary Clinton bad; 
some involvement in Castle Grande, a- 
rcal estate project that bank examiners .• 

said was founded on sham land sales and; ’ • 
phony loans intended to enrich insiders - 
at Madison Guaranty Savings & Loan., 
Investigators are trying to determine 
whether Mrs. Clinton deliberately tried 
to hide her involvement in the project,, 
and whether Mr. Hubbell sought to con- 
ceal the record of her work on Castle 
Grande and other matters in removing 
files on them from the Rose law firm. 

The White House said it was dis- 
closing the information about Mr. 
McLarty and Mr. Bowles in response to' 
questions by news organizations. 

Mr. McLarty, one of the Clintons' 
longtime friends from Arkansas, is now 
an unofficial ambassador at large on 
Larin American issues for the White £ 
House. He recalls having had a con- 
versation during March 1994 about Mr. 
Hubbell ’s dire financial prospects with 
Vernon Jordan, one of the president's 
closest friends, and advisers outride the 
White House, officials said. Mr. Jordan's 
law firm. Akin Gump, represents two 
companies that hired Mr. Hubbell that 
year, Time Warner and the billionaire 
Ronald Pereira an’ s conglomerate, 

Mac Andrews and Forbes Holdings Inc. 

Mr. McLarty and Mr. Bowles, said 
Mr. Davis, “were motivated out of 
friendship and concern for a man about 
to lose ms job.” 


vi 



EUROPE: As It Lies on an Economic Sickbed, Its Doctors Seem Able to Agree Only That the Patient h Ailing GUNS: 


Continued from Page 1 

available. ” About 50 percent offoeEU’s 
gross national product is public spend- 
ing, with social protection programs tak- 
ing up 28 percent. In a new ranking of 
international competitiveness, Germany 
and France come out 14th and 20th re- 
spectively, deep in the second division 
behind the United States, Singapore and 
Hong Kong, the top three finishers. 

It is just now, perhaps because of the 
emotions stirred by the brutal closure 
announcement of the Renault auto plant in 
Wvoorde, Belgium oar the steelworkers' 
and coal miners' protest marches to foe 
stock exchange in Frankfurt or foe Par- 
liament in Bonn, that foe contradictions in 
what is being proposed for Europe's re- 
covery have become so clear. 

These contradictions do not sit easy in 
the soul of continental Europe. Restruc- 
turing, paring foe social model to fit the 
times, can have the feel for many of a 
harsher, meaner Anglo-American cap- 
italism they believe is not their own. 
Cutting work forces, slicing pensions or 
reducing family-support payments take 
on, in this view, foe allure of an ideo- 
logical attack on what is embraced as 
postwar Europe’s most noble human 
achievement 

Like the problem, the response has 
been very European. 

Countries treat themselves to a sig- 
nificant extent with low dosages of all the 
available remedies, reinforcing foe wel- 
fare-state institutions and proposing their 
reduction at the same time, without any 
sense of decision or unanimity. No har- 
monization of social policies is on the 
European Union 's agenda, and regardless 
of foe craning of the euro, die planned EU 
common currency, in 1999, employment 
and foe welfare networks remain the in- 
dividual domain of each member. 

In Germany, for example, Horst See- 
hofer, the health minister, was reported 
last weekend to be preparing a recom- 
mendation that would cut costs by hav- 
ing welfare recipients receive used 
clothing and furniture. 

Regardless of this kind of initiative — 
whatever its worth — Dieter HundL. 
president of foe Federal Union of Ger- 
man Employers' Associations, said last 
week that a joint agreement by gov- 
ernment and unions to reduce social costs 
and employer contributions in order to 
create 2 million jobs by 2000 was failing 
and that foe contributions, state costs and 
unemployment were actually rising. 

Major reforms in the area of retire- 
ment pensions, public health and taxes 
are under way in Germany, but while the 
Christian Democratic Party, the senior 
party in foe government coalition, seeks 
to reduce retirement benefits from 70 
percent to 64 percent of net salary, it has 
ruled out far-reaching proposals to in- 
troduce private pension fluids into foe 
retirement mix and rejected Mr. See- 
hofer's idea of exempting employers and 
leaving entirely to workers the task of 
financing their own health insurance. 

In France, there are similar contra- 
dictions in approach, so that while a law 
hardening employers* obligations to 
workers recently blocked an attempt to 
cut personnel at a large Paris department 
store, the government is trying to limit 


the growth of health costs with a reform 
that would cap foe volume of prescrip- 
tions written by certain categories of 
private physicians. In the background, a 
report last week said social rid had risen 
for foe first time to 60 percent of the 
operating budgets of France's admin- 
istrative districts. 

Even in Britain, where the governing 
Conservative Party's doctrine for 19 
years has aimed, in theory at least, ax foe 
welfare state, there are “no-go” areas of 
social protection. The National Health 
Service, for one. is basically out of 
bounds. In fact, real spending on social 
security has grown 3 J percent annually 
in Britain since 1978-79 and health out- 
lays by 3.4 percent 

More than a trace of incoherence can 
also appear when the EU administrative 
apparatus becomes involved. 

In Belgium, the government sought to 
create jobs and cut labor costs for man- 
agement with a plan giving tax breaks to 
companies hiring manual workers. 

But because the tax concessions con- 
stituted slate aid, the measure was 
brought into the jurisdiction of the Euro- 
pean Commission, foe community's ex- 
ecutive body, which ruled that Belgium 
had to take back $327 million from the 
companies participating because the 
plan had given them an international 
competitive advantage. 

In circumstances that appalled vir- 


tually all factions, when Renault an- 
nounced foe closing of its Belgian plant, 
it totally disregarded two EU rules on 
mass layoffs and consultations with 
workers but faced no sanctions from 
European authorities in Brussels because 
there were none specified in the rules. 

As much as foe installation of the euro 
seems tangible, characterized by precise 
but recondite debt and deficit ceilings, 
the reshaping of foe European social 
model is a fragmented, even amorphous 
process without a dominant spokesman 
or guidelines. 

Sounding grand, the European social 
chapter thai is part of foe Maastricht 
treaty on European union so far totals 
two directives to the membership. 

For individual Europeans, there is the 
clear temptation to conclude foal a uni- 
fied Europe is more about the tech- 
nocratic details of convergence criteria 
for the single currency than about pro- 
tection of jobs or pensions. This was foe 
unmistakable message of the recent 
massive demonstrations protesting both 
die Renault shutdown and merger talks 
in the German steel industry. 

Because foe remedies are not of a 
piece, foe political language supporting 
them appears imprecise, virtually al- 
ways suggesting that Europe is rich and 
resourceful enough to attain a slimmed 
and rejuvenated social model while 
making itself become more competitive 


and productive. Europe’s capacity to do 
both at once is no sure thing. Mr. Melkert 
talks about the necessity to move beyond 
Europe's culture of limited risk-taking, 
which he said was its “social -political 
Achilles heel.” 

Countries such as foe Netherlands, he 
acknowledged, and Finland, which have 
advantages of homogeneity and scale, 
have an easier time achieving reforms 
than France, for example, with its ex- 
tremely rigid public sector. Indeed, foe 
former two countries placed fifth and 
fourth in foe competitiveness rankings in 
which the bigger EU members trailed so 
badly. 

Daniel Gros, deputy director of the 
Center for European Policy Studies, a 
think tank funded in part by the EU, says 
simple demographic pressure and so- 
ciological change — foe aging of foe 
European population, single-parent 
households, impermanent job patterns 
— “will be great enough to create a 
certain level of reform, but no radical 
change in policy, because foe vested 
interests are just so established.” 

The next big EU addenda to foe 
Maastricht social chapter, probably ready 
fora European summit meeting this sum- 
mer, will be “dreamy" in character, Mr. 
Gros said, limited to presenting a frame- 
work of free-market thinking and budget 
constraints. 

If there is a single area where ex- 


tensive change seems at hmid, it is in the 
area of work rules, and it is here that the 
key to Europe's transition may lie. Be- 
cause it often actually fits well into 
people’s lives, put-time and limited- 
contract employment has grown dra- 
matically without vast conflict. 

According to a survey by Capital 
magazine, seven of every 10 hires at 
companies with more than 50 employees 
in France last year involved limited-term 
contracts. In Spain, only about 4 percent 
of foe work contracts signed last year 
were permanent ones, and a third of the 
country’s work force was working on a 
contract or through a temporary 
f, the magazine said. 

In Sweden, a quarter of foe working 
population was reported to be holding 
part-time jobs. In the Netherlands, so 
often held up as an example for a socially 
conscious Europe with its relatively low 
unemployment rate, fully one- third of its 
workers are part-timers. 

Demands have grown for more social 
protection for part-time and limited-con- 
tract workers, but foe trend continues to 
develop, in part because it is experienced 
as gradual and somehow modern. Rather 
like M. Jourdain, the bourgeois gen- 
tilhomme who was amazed to find out he 
was speaking prose. Europe is doing this 
every day without putting a name on it, 
and, under foe circumstances, it con- 
stitutes reform. 


Lobby Goes Global 

Continued from Page 1 


MONK: A Career Change 

Continued from Page 1 

visiting both companies in his new role as honorary 
chairman. 

Still, he is definitely retiring, and that threatens to 
leave both companies without their visionary leader at 
a time of crucial challenges. Even though Mr. Inamori 
has not been chief executive of either company for 
years, there is little doubt about who has been in 
charge. 

“His company was totally controlled by him — still 
is." said Sachio Semmoto, who co- founded DDI. 
“Not day to day. but when ii comes to big issues, 
without him it's still rather bard to make an overall 
strategic decision.” 

Kyocera controls about 65 percent of the world 
market for ceramic casings that insulate and protect 
computer chips. But semiconductor companies, par- 
ticularly foe giant Intel Corp., are shifting to casings 
made of plastic. 

DDI, for its part, must make good on foe bet of more 
than $ 1 J billion it plaoed on the Personal Handyphone 
System, a mobile phone foal is less expensive than 
cellular phones but that cannot be used in moving 
vehicles. The Handyphone is proving popular, but the 
huge investment put DDI into the red for foe fiscal year 
that ended Monday. 

Mr. Inamori 's story is now nearly a legend. His 
father's printing shop was destroyed in an air raid near 
foe end of World War II. At about the same time. 1 3- 
y ear-old Kazuo came down with tuberculosis. While 
he was bedridden, afraid he was going to die. a neigh- 
bor brought him a book about religion that, he says, 
taught him the importance of the human spirit. 

He failed to get into foe prestigious high schools, 
colleges or companies. But with his chemical en- 
gineering degree from backwater Kagoshima Uni- 
versity. he- landed a job in 1955 at Shorn Industries, a 
small manufacturer of insulators based in Kyoto. 

In 1959, when management did not pursue his vision 
of a ceramic business, Mr. Inamori quit in a huff. At 27, 



The New Yw*. Time* 

Kazuo Inaruon spreading hrs gospel of bard work to employees in Vancouver, British Columbia. 


with seven colleagues, he started Kyoto Ceramic Co., 
later shortened to Kyocera, by borrowing about 
SI 0.000. 

Much like Sony and Honda, Kyocera had to succeed 
first in the U.S. market because Japanese companies 
were reluctant to buy from an unproven supplier. 

As Kyocera grew rapidly. Mr. Inamori began 
spreading what has become known as “Lnamori-ism,” 
which stresses hard work. Even in a nation of work- 
aholics, Kyocera employees put in long hours and 
show fanatical devotion to their company — and its 
leader. 

“I felt electricity when he was near,” said Batn- 
osuke Ka warn Lira, a managing director in Kyocera’s 
European operation, shivering visibly as he spoke. 

Mr. Inamori said he makes decisions based on ethics 
not just self-interest- In Europe and the United States, 
he said. * 'They think only about whether they can make 


a profit, so now I think capitalism there is on the 
decline.” 

Mr. Inamori is not always as benevolent as his 
philosophy might suggest He is short-tempered and 
extremely demanding. 

“He treats his management like they’re children,” 
said Rodney Lanthoroe, president of Kyocera Inter- 
national Inc. in San Diego, the main American sub- 
sidiary, referring to Mr. Inamori 's strict discipline and 
tongue-lashings. 

Because of its reputation, Kyocera at times has had 
trouble recruiting employees. 

The philosophy has been pushed overseas as well 
but with mixed results. 

“The real appeal of Dr. Inamori is he’s so positive,” 
Mr. Lanthome said. But foe American unit’s daily' 7 
A.M. meetings to discuss Mr. Inamori ’s philosophy 
have been reduced to once or twice a week. 


year’s killing of 16 students in a Scottish 
school yard, has made an anti-gun com- 
mercial that is being shown in 1.000 
movie theaters across Britain. A few 
weeks ago, Britain banned all guns ex- 
cept -22-caliber firearms. 

Similarly, there has been a chilling 
effect in Australia, where the UJS. Na- 
tional Rifle Association gave $20,000 a 
few years ago to the local shooters’ 
association to help bolster its lobbyists, ' 
and ip New Zealand, where foe rifle 
association gave an undisclosed stun. 

Recent events like the slaughter of 35' 
people in Tasmania in April 1996 by a 
lone gunman prompted the Australian - 
government to ban pump-action shot- 
guns and some kinds of mOxtary-style 
rifles, establish a gun registration system 
and set up a plan for the government to 
buy privately owned guns for c««h- 

In the Fefc 


2/-. 




5*-v 



H 




Hi- 




February American Rifleman, 
the association’s magazine, Ms. Metaksa < 
wrote: “When guns are being confiscated - 
in Australia and Britain — nations whichT 
once shared a tradition of gun ownership; « 
hunting and shooting — NRA members' 
must stand shoulder to shoulder to defend 
the Second Amendment” 

While that constitutional amendment,-- 
which the gun lobby says guarantees the V 
right to bear arms, is uniquely American/ 
the statement reflects how much foe rifle 
association fears any international mo- 
mentum toward regulation. 

Michael Beard, president of the Co-* 
alition to Stop Gun Violence, a lobbying 
group for 47 national organizations that', 
want to ban the sale and possession of 
handguns, said that, in part because of 
foe new focus by disarmament groups on 
firearms, foe National Rifle Association 
was right to be worried about growing; 
international anti-gun efforts. , 

“It’s a logical response,” he said.; V 
“because the entire world is questioning; fjfflta/., 
foe role of firearms in society now. and! "WM 

particularly looking at foe United States; . 7 J 

because we’re so for behind.” • .. 

In a 1995 letter to Senator Jesse! 

Helms, Republican of North Carolina, a. 
strong ally of foe gun lobby, Ms. 

Metaksa said that a UN Disarmament 
Commission had adopted a working pa-, 
per proposing tighter controls on foe 
U.S. gim trade. “The little-noted; 
move, she wrote, “represents the first; 

UN effort to foster regulation of foe- 
multibillion-dollar trade in small! 
aims.” 

Later that year, the General Assembly •’ 
ordered a panel to investigate ways "to . 
prevent and reduce the excessive and 
destabilizing accumulation and transfer! 
of small arms and light weapons.” That ; 
panel plans to issue its report in July. 

Ms. Metaksa said Japan played a ma- ' 
jor role in financing anti-gun efforts: 
through foe United Nations and paid for ; 
a gun buy-back pro g ram in Sooth 
Africa. 

The Japanese have had a terrible re- 
lationship vdth foe American gun lobby 
since 1992, when a man in Louisiana 
shot a Japanese exchange student to ; 
death on Halloween and. was later ac- 
quitted of manslaughter. 


3 






INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, APRIL 3, 1997 


>S: 


— _ HEALTH/SCIENCE 

Breast Cancer: Is It 3 Diseases? i Jk 


PAGE 11. 

.A : 


% 




cer specialists repealed their 
^P^stsasifilWa^ 
^VnttallyaUbrcastcancw 

uas spread by the Ume it is detect iw 


By Gina Kolata 

New York Timex Servis*. 


•r 


1 ^ “ detected Bat 

that prevail- 

mg view of br^st cancer has rfammwt 


— - uuj i yni 

* ** National 


*ongh it was indisputable, 
T *>* breast cancer was reallv rti «Jr 


mat oreast cancer was really three sen- 
Wh ° Se boundaries ^ 


JR* changed view of breast cancerhas 
protoondimpheanons, not only for wom- 
en with the disease but also for worn® 
wornea about developing h. It helps ex- 
gam a puzzling fact about mammograms 
tor women in their 40s: although X-rav 
saeeomg tets can find amcerTin these 
women s breasts, regular mammozrams 
have Uttle or no effect in decreasmg their 
deatfa rate from breast cancer. 

Theeftfect, if any, is so hardto deter- 
mine that an advisory group to tbe Na- 
donal Cancer Institute, recommending 
last week that women in iheir 40s have 
reguter mammograms, had to look at 

coralnned data from seven efiflerebt smd- 

ies s ee eve n a minimal benefit from 
mammograms for younger women. 

The analysis of these studies showed 
a 17 percent reduction in the death rate, 
and tbe group cautioned that “to many, 
but not all experts, this is statistically 
significant,” and added that “this level 


it helps explain why, dyades after 
mammograms were Introduced, die 
“Myography debate continues. . 

Dr. John Wasson of Dartmouth Col- 
Jbge, a member of the panel of expens at 
tbe recent meeting that was held at die 
health institutes to assess mammo- 
graphy, explained the cancer types tins 
way: “There is the mean type that 
spreads so quickly that c m re n t tech- 
nology can’t defect it or treat il 
S omething is wrong at the cellular level 
and the cells spread rapidly throughout 
the body. The second type is one that is 
growing at a rate where it will cause 
trouble and begm to spread within a 
relatively short period erf time: We’re 
talking 5 to 10 years. Then there is a 
third type that may take even longer to 
spread, if it breads at aJL” 

Even mammography does not offer 
much hope for women with tbe fest- 


ive but is difficult to detect with a high 
level of certainty.’ ’ The chanced view 


level of certainty.” The changed view 
also helps explain why the benefits of 
m a mm ograms for women 50 and older, 
while greater than those for younger 
women, are still not overwhelming. And 


Dr. Samuel Heilman, a radiolo gis t at 
the University of Chicago, is a prmcipal 
promoter of the new hypothesis. At age 
62, he says, be has seen breast cancer 
the ories rise and felL This one, be says, 
illustrates how and why notions of dis- 
ease gain adherents and bow treatment 
strategies can be driven by ideologies. 

The first doctrine originated in 1895 
when Dr. W ilBam S. Halstead, a sur- 
geon at Johns Hopkins University in 
Baltimore, argued that all breast cancer 
began as a small tumor indue breast and 
then spread to tbe lymphatic system and 
from mere to the rest of the body. That 
indicated to Dr. Halstead that the way to 
treat breast cancer was to remove the 
breast, the surrounding tissue and the 
lymph nodes nearby. Thousands of 
women underwent the mutilating sur- 
gery that bears his name, the Halstead 
radical mastectomy. 

But many women who had the sur- 


gery survived and those who did not 
survive died of distant metastases — 
remnants of their breast cancer that had 
spread to other organs, like their bones 
or lungs or liver. According to the Hal- 
steadhypothesis, they had seen the sur- 
geon too late. 

. Around 1980, the hypothesis gave 
way Go one propounded by Dr. Bernard 
Fisher, a surgeon at the University of 
Pittsburgh, and a handful of others. 
They theorized that breast cancer had 
already spread by the time it was dis- 
covered, with errant cells swarming 
through the bloodstream and taking root 
throughout the body. At the same time, 
researchers had developed chemother- 
apy and hormonal treatments that could 
attack these metastatic cells, making the 
new hypothesis appealing. 

But now it is Dr. Heilman’s hypoth- 
esis that is ascendant, promoted by ra- 
diologists like himself who ask how 
mammography results can be reconciled 
with the notion that all cancer is meta- 
static from the time it is discovered. 

■ Trigger for Cancer 

Researchers have found an abnor- 
mality in human cells believed to trigger 
breast cancer, a discovery that could 
lead to changes in the way the disease is 
treated, Reuters reported from New 
York. 

Craig Malboa, vice dean of Stony 
Brook’s University Medical Center, said 
in an interview that the discovery of a cell 
“switch” that is “on” in breast cancer 
would have an impact on the largest 
group of patients who have the disease. 
“In terms of much of the research we've 
bad on breast cancer that involves hered- 
itary breast cancer, which is about 5 
percent of the total, we’re looking at the 
pool here that represents the vast majority 
of sporadic cancer,” Dr. Malbon said. 






PMmm 


<:< v: -v3v 0 ^:-^\ 










■ > ?. & , , > 'f ■ 




AW *■ 



Dr. P. Kirk Visscher, left, and his partner. Dr. Scott Camazine. examining a swarm of bees in the desert. 


Humming Along in the Beeline 


C ACTUS CITY, California — 
Partly shaded by tbe slender 
branches of a paloverde tree, 
his face just inches from a 
cluster of 5.000 honeybees. Dr. P. Kirk 
Visscher spoke into a walkie-talkie. “I 
think these bees are going to take off,” be 
told a colleague stationed 1 60 yards west, 
at a wooden nest box that die bees had 
been scouting in search of a new home. 

Indeed, the cluster was becoming 
jumpier by the minute. Worker bees had 
begun “buzz running," plowing furi- 
ously through the masses of their sisters, 
as if prodding them to get ready. The 
buzzing grew louder as the entire cluster 
pulsated and changed shape. “They're 
gonna go!" Dr. Visscher cried. His part- 
ner, Dr. Scott Camazine, came running 
to watch. 

By dozens and then hundreds, the 
bees lifted off into the warm afternoon 
light in the desert 150 miles (240 ki- 
lometers) east of Los Angeles. Within a 
minute, all 5.000 were airborne, zoom- 
ing around in a circular bolding pattern 


By Denise Grady 

New York Times Service 


: Fighting Cancer Patient Fatigue 


By Jane E. Brody 

New York Times Service 


EW YORK — A survey of 
cancer patients has con- 
cluded tint fatigue, not pain, 
is their most common com- 
plaint and the symptom most likely to 
disrupt their lives. 

The survey, released by the Fatigue 
Coalition, a consortium of medical prac- 
titioners and patient advocates who 
want to raise awareness of cancer-re- 
lated fetigue, was conducted among419 
cancer patients, 200 care givers and 1 97 
oncologists. The coalition reported that 
four out of five cancer patients expe- 
rienced life-disrupting fatigue. 

For 61 percent of patients in tfaej»ur~ 


search for treatable physical factors, like 
low thyroid or Mood count, and learning 
to recognize and respect one’s limits.” 

Fatigue in a cancer patient can have 
many causes. A diagnosis of cancer can 
precipitate depression and anxiety, 
causing debilitating fatigue and a seem- 
ing inability to complete the tasks of 
duly life. Then comes the treatment: 
surgery or, as is more common today, 
chemotherapy or radiation therapy, 
either alone or after surgery. All three 
therapies can leave a patient exhausted 
for weeks, months or even years. 

While most people recover within 
weeks from die direct physical stresses 
of surgery and anesthesia, the bed rest 
and lack of regular exercise can result in 
a long-lasting loss of stamina. The ef- 


blood cells and result in anemia. 
Chemotherapy, which may also inhibit 
the production of white blood cells, can 
make a person more susceptible to in- 
fections that drain energy. 

Cancer treatment can sometimes dis- 
turb sleep and often disrupt normal eat- 


had visited the nest box roared westward 
across the circle, signaling the others to 
head that way. A hum filled the dry air. 

Such behavior, known as swarming, 
occurs when pan of a bee colony leaves 
the nest to find a new home, and it has 
been described in detail by various sci- 
entists over the years. But important ele- 
ments remain unexplained, and they are 
on a seemingly endless list of things that 
Dr. Visscher hopes to team about bees. 

An associate professor of entomo- 
logy at Riverside, Dr. Visscher is both a 
honeybee biologist and a lifelong bee- 
keeper. Of the 20,000 known species of 
bees, only about six make hooey, and 
one of them. Apis mellifera, the best 
known and most common, is the focus 
of much of Dr. Visscher’s research. He 
keeps 60 hives — about dime million 
bees — on campus. 


A MONG his colleagues, Dr. 
Visscher is probably known 
best for die unusually broad 
range of his research in- 
terests. but that eclectic approach can 
leave him open to criticism that his 
efforts are too dispersed. 

“He's an enormously creative sci- 
entist who's done research in a broad 
range of areas, and many are the critical 
areas of sociobiology." said Dr. Gene 
Robinson, who went to graduate school 
at Cornell with Dr. Visscher and is now 


mg and exercise habits, sapping people 20 or 30 feet in diameter, just barely 


of their usual stamina. Then, too, people 
undergoing cancer treatment, which is 
at least a part-time job, may have to add 


above the heads of the two entomo- 
logists and Richard Vetter, A Staff re- 
search associate from Dr. Visscher’s 


that stress to the unrelenting demands of laboratory at the University of Califor- 


i r.v-sl vey. fetigue affected thear ability to fectsof chemotherapy Mid rad i ati o n. 


woit; for 57 percent, it inhibited their 
enjoyment of life; for neariy.a third, it 
caused them to doubt their ability to 
conquer tbe illness. Infect, 12 percent 
said they felt so fatigued that they just 
wanted to die. 

Yet cancer-related fatigue is a prob- 
lem rarely addressed by the doctors of 
cancer patients. Both patients and their 
doctors tend to assume that fetigue is an 
inevitable accompaniment of cancer and 
that nothing much can be done about it. 

“The majority of patients we surveyed 
t h'mk fati g ue must be tolerated.' ‘ saidDr. 
Nicholas Vogelzang, a member of the 
Fatigue Coalition and a professor of 
medicine at the University of Chicago. 

That is wrong, said Dr. Wendy S. 
Harpham, who has undergone repeated 
and extensive treatments fora recurring 
cancer since 1990. 

Although the disease forced her to 
relinquish her medical practice, she has 
written four books since her diagnosis 
aboat coping wife cancer while sharing 
the care of three yoong children with her 
husband, Ted. As she has learned from 
personal experience, ‘ ‘There are many 
things that can be done to coun ter ca n- 
cer-related fatigue, starting with a 


which are toxic to both normal and 
cancer cells, can be even more pro- 
longed, especially if they suppress the 
ability of bone marrow to produce red 


their work and families. 

Finally, there is the canceT itself. Con- 
trary to what many patients and their 
doctors think, fetigue is usually not fee 
direct result of fee cancer, unless the 
disease is advanced or fee cancer in- 
volves the bone marrow, depressing the 
formation of oxygen-cattying red blood 
cells and infection-fighting white cells. 

“Many cancer patients are unpre- 


nia at Riverside. “Streaker" bees that 


an associate professor of entomology ar 
the University of Illinois at Urbana- - 
Champaign. “I suppose the flip side of 
this is that you can't say he's made his 
mark in this area or that But his best . 
papers are models of excellence. The ■ 
experimental design is always crisp." : 

Dr. Visscher studies the biology of 
bees, but they also interest him as social . 
insects with cooperative behaviors 
shaped by evolution. His publications 
run from the lofty and theoretical to tbe 
unabashedly practical: He has pondered 
the evolutionary significance of egg lay- . 
ing by worker bees instead of the queen. - 
helped monitor the advance of the no- , 
toriously fierce Africanized bees, or so- 
called killer bees, into California and ; 
studied ways to treat diseases in bees as 
well as the best soap to use to kill un- 
welcome swarms. He has even designed 
a “Take-Out Trap." from a Chinese , 
restaurant take-out carton, which is being ; 
used by California insect-control agen- 
cies to capture Africanized bees. ; 

Last year, with Dr. Camazine and Mr. ; 
Vetter, ne let himself be stung repeatedly ; 
in a study showing that contrary to tra- . 
ditional medical advice, the best thing to ; 
do for a bee sting is to yank out the ■ 
stinger right away. The study may have 
struck entomologists as a bit whimsical, : 
but it was carefully crafted and accepted ; 
by Tbe Lancet, a respected medical jour- : 
nal. 


BOOKS 


SHADRACH MINKINS: 

From Fugitive Slave to Citizen 

By Gary Collison. Illustrated. 294 pages. 


pared for fee sheer exhaustion that often $27.95. Harvard University Press. 


Study Criticizes 
Circumcision 


accompanies cnemomerapy or radiation 
treatments,” said Pearl Moore, a re- 
gistered nurse who is executive director 
of the Oncology Nursing Society. 

Cancer patients wife fetigue should 


Reviewed by Richard Bernstein 

G ARY Collison must have spent a 
lot of time digging into the his- 
tori cal records to reconstruct fee 


tell their doctors, describing in concrete life of Sbadrach Minkins, an obscure 


terms just how tired they are and how figure but an important one in the tor- 


New York Times Service 

N EW YORK— Anew study 
has added to criticism of 
routine dreumdsion, find- 
ing that circumcision does not lead 
to lower rates of sexually trans- 
mitted diseases. The study found 
feat the incidence of two erf those 
diseases was even higher among 
circumcised men. However, sexual 
dysfunction was found to be 
snghtiy more common among un- 
circumdsed men. 

Tbe study was the first systematic 
lode at tbe effects of dreumdsion 
an disease and sexual behavior, ac- 
cording to a report in Tbe Journal of 
fee American Medical Association. 


the fetigue is affecting their lives — for merited middle years of the American 
example, “I can hardly get through the 19th century. 


morning at work,” or, “At dinner time. 
I’m too tired to eat" 

“Many patients try to keep life as 
normal as possible and in the process, 
they overdo it,” said Dr. Harpham. 
When depression or anxiety compound 
canceF-related fatigue, medication can 
be prescribed to alleviate tbe emotional 
distress and enhance the patient’s ability 
to enjoy life and perform essential activ- 
ities. When anemia is a factor in fatigue, 
potentially hazardous transfusions can 
be avoided in most cases. Instead, in 


Minkins was tile first slave to be 
arrested in New England after fee pas- 
sage of the Fugitive Slave Law. That 
was the part of fee Compromise of 1 850 
that was supposed to help save the Un- 
ion by giving Southerners the legal right 
to recapture slaves who had escaped to 
freedom in the nonslave states. 

Within hours of his arrest, however, 
Minkins was rescued by a group of 
black residents of Boston who mounted 
a bold raid on the courthouse where fee 
fugitive was being held, raced him 


patients who do not have bone marrow through the streets of Boston and spir- 
cancer, fee doctor can prescribe a drug ited him away to Montreal. 


through genetic engineering, Collison, who is an associate professor 


Procrit, to step up the body’s production of English at Pennsylvania State Uni- 
of red blood cells. versity, had to comb Canadian census 

records and population registers, local 


CROSSWORD 


ACROSS 


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to Noveist Mario 

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homo 


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is Nicaragua's 
second-largest 

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“Sank Roo Doe Noo’ 


at Common street 
name 
at Part 2o# 

quota 

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sound 

41 Set of beliefs . 
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« Part 3 of the 
quote 

«sJohn> — 


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43 Overhang 



newspaper reports and Boston court tran- 
scripts to pick up the feint traces of 
Minkins 's itinerary and eventually to 
stitch those traces into a real story. 

His “Shadrach Minkins: From Fu- 
gitive Slave to Citizen" is a careful, 
workmanlike piece of historical rescue, 
one that brings to light the facts of a 
fascinating American life. 

Collison ’s many pages of footnotes 
indicate painstaking documentation, but 
his book does not read like the usual 
academic tome. He concentrates not on 
theory or interpretation but on the re- 
markable story he has to tell. Along the 
way, he draws an illuminating portrait 
of black life in three cities: Norfolk, 
Virginia, Boston and Montreal. 

He describes the activities of fugi- 
tives and would-be fugitives, their en- 
counters wife racism and with the kind- 
ness of anti-slavery strangers as well as 
wife slave-catchers, abolitionist law- 


yers and politicians. Not least, be charts 
a subtle map of race relations, of the 
various ways that blacks were perceived 
and received by the different white com- 
munities they encountered. 

The truth is that even after Collison 's 
research, not much is known of Shad- 
rach Minkins himself beyood the basic 
outlines of his life. 

Minkins left no written records. The 
records of courts and government and 
even of private people who met him are 
sketchy and provide almost no infor- 
mation about his personal traits, wheth- 
er he was a kind man or a harsh one, or 
even how and why he undertook the 
main action of his life, which was to 
escape slavery in Norfolk. 

In this sense, Collison in many places 
has to extrapolate from bits and snatches 
of evidence. More important, he as- 
sumes that Minkins was at least in some 
respects typical of others who were in 
similar situations. 

By placing Minkins in his human and 
economic contexts, Collison is able to 
reconstruct fee basic elements of his 
r£sum6 as a slave, fee different people 
who legally owned him in Norfolk and 
whai they did. 

Minkins may have escaped because 
he had strained relations with his master 
at fee time, a certain John DeBree. “But 
it is just as likely," Collison allows, 
“feat Minkins’ relations with fee house- 
hold were entirely amicable and his 
work light and easily borne." 

In any case, when he ‘ ‘decided to flee 
from bondage, he joined himself to the 
great secret northward migration." Col- 
uson describes possible routes and con- 
cludes that Minkins most likely went to 
Boston aboard a ship, possibly as a 
stowaway, possibly protected by a sym- 
pathetic Northern sea captain. 

The heart of Collison ’s tale is fee 
attempt by DeBree to recover Minkins 
in accordance with fee Fugitive Slave 
Law. an effort whose failure is an ex- 
citing and glorious chapter in fee history 
of American civil disobedience. 

The book describes fee makeup of fee 
black community in Boston, which in- 
cluded Robert Morris, the first black 
admitted to the Massachusetts bar, and a 
charismatic clothing merchant, Lewis 


Hayden, who seems to have been most 
directly responsible for carrying out the 
daring rescue of Minkins and his re- 
moval to Montreal. Coltison’s account ; 


demonstrates the complexity of Airier- . 
icon racial history. > 

To be sine, blacks were second-class ; 
citizens even in the proudly antislavery ; 
capital of the country, the city called the . 
Athens of America. But Boston was also . 
a place where “a vigorous black com- 
munity life was nourished by deep roots ’ 
going back to before fee Revolution,” 
and where resistance to slavery had such • 
champions as fee Unitarian minister . 
Theodore Parker, fee lawyer (and 
former seaman) Richard Henry Dana 
Jr., the abolitionist Wendell Phillips and 
fee great black leader Frederick Dou- 
glass. The antislavery forces were 
strong enough so feat several efforts to 
capture fugitive slaves in Boston were 
stymied by determined blacks and their 
white supporters. 


I N fee case of Shadrach Minkins, 
several figures, black and while, i 
were put on trial for helping him to 
escape, but none were convicted. 

In fee trial of oDe, Elizur Wright, a 
pro-abolitionist newspaper editor, one 
juror was a Concord blacksmith named . 
Francis Edwin Bigelow, fee very man 
who had harbored Minkins fee night he 
was rescued and began his journey to 
Canada. 

Once in Canada, fee records show, 
Minkins tried his luck as a restaurant ■ 
owner but ended up a barber, one of the . 
occupations commonly engaged in by ■ 
refugee blacks in Montreal. He married 
an Irish woman named Mary, with 


whom he had several children, two of ■ 
whom survived 

After fee Civil War, many of the 
blacks in Canada returned home. • 
Minkins . however, stayed. He is buried - 
in an unmarked grave in a Protestant 
cemetery in Montreal, which, as Collison 
puts it at the end, testifies both to fee long ■ 
failure of the United States to live up to 
its ideals “and to an equally sustained 
determination and resilience." 


Richard Bernstein is on the staff of 
The New York Times. ‘ 


BRIDGE 


GNeto York Times/ Edited by I VUl Shorts. gy TfUSCOtt 


Solution to Puzzle of April 2 


A Space f or Thought- 


i You may 

assume* 

3 Mom somewhat 
furtively 

a Certain 
fight var. 


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txfrire’a sister 
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ssZenototorwr 

m Restrict 

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■a Pfuma’s source 
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□OQB 3EK3110 aESD 
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floano 33aacjga 
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hoq QQsaasaancia 
SQQQ QHSQQ 3(3313 
□□□□QOQaaiaa aaa 

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QsaaaQQ ziaaaa 
□□ooaaQHHiaaa 
Dsns aasaa aaaa 
eqq □ nasoE aaaa 
□□□a [naans aaaa 


I F the opponents bid three 
suits en route to three no- 
trump, the fourth suit is 
usually the one to lead. So on 
the diagramed deal, one would 

expea West to lead a diamood 

South would win and lead tbe 
heart jack, which West would 
capture with the ace. 

The diamond king would 
be led, and South would wait 
to my* fee ace until the third 
round. He would continue 
hearts, and be in jeopardy 
when the suit failed to break. 
But as it happened, he would 
survive whether he per- 
severed with hearts or hoped 


for good luck in spades. 

No other defense seems to 
offer any hope, so three no- 
trump, apparently, is impreg- 
nable. West has no entry to 
lead diamonds, and the black 
suits are ideally arranged. But 
the contract did fail. 

West decided that South 
was well prepared for a dia- 
mond lead. He decided to at- 
tack dummy’s second suit, 
which is often the weakness 
in such auctions, and selected 
the jack. 

Dummy won with the 
queen, and South led a heart to 
fee jack mid the ace. West con- 
tinued wife fee club two, and 
South was deluded into be- 
lieving that fee ten was on his 


left He played low from 
dummy, and East’s ten gave 
him the lead and permitted him 
to shift to fee diamond jack. 

South won with the ace and 
cashed dummy’s heart win- 
ners. He could still have sur- 
vived by gambling on a fa- 
vorable spade situation, but 
that offered only an 18 per- 
cent chance. He was still de- 
luded about the club position: 
it now seemed that West must 
have led a doubleton jack, and 
that fee defenders might not 
be ableto take the ace. 

So South continued hearts, 
and West produced a heart 
winner, a diamond winner 
and a club winner to defeat 
fee game. 


WEST 

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OA1Q85 

OK63 

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NORTH 

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Bofli sides wen vulnerable. Tbe bid- 
ding; 


Sooth 

West 

North 

East J 

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2 <3 

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West led the dub jack. 

; 


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PAGE 12 


Wednesday’s 3 P.M. 

The Associated Press. 


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BUSINESS/FINANCE 


THURSDAY APRIL 3, 1997 


PAGE 13 





Saudi Prince Acquires 
A 5% Stake in Apple 

A History of Success With Troubled Firms 


near their 52-week low of $15,125, 
Walid ibn Talal V>f received a boost last week when the 

WaduSJ Tw 5f Sau t fi. All bffls il d chief executive of Oracle Coro. Lany 
Wednesday that he had purchased F!li*» 


r purchased 

, 5 percent of Apple Com- 
put^loc. s shares, the latest in a string 
of high-profile international acquisi- 
tions in the past month. 

Tbe prince, one of the world's 
wealthiest men, said he bought 
the beleaguered personal com- 
puter maker’s shares on the 
open market over the past 
weeks. Tbe acquisition cost 
him a total of $115 million, a 
move similar tohispurchase of 
about 5 percent ofTrans World 
Airlines Inc., which he annrt unrwi 
March 19. 

Although the new investments are 
not huge compared with Prince Wal- 
id*s other holdings, they are part of a 
new business trend of diversifying his 
investments away from real estate and 
entertainment, financial sources close 
to die prince said. 

“I have been following the tech- 
nology industry closely for quite some 
time, and Apple in particular for a 
number of months,'* said the -40-year- 
old Prince Walid. “I believe there is 
serious potential for Apple to provide 
large returns to its stockholders once 
again, as it did in the past.’* 

Apple shares, which recently traded 



Ellison, said he was interested in mak- 
ing a bid for a controlling stake in tbe 
company. 

Prince Walid said he would “mon- 
itor events closely’’ to see what steps 
Mr. EUisoo takes. 

A block of 2 million Apple 
shares changed hands 
Thursday for $19, and another 
block of 2.69 million shares 
traded Monday at $19-375. 

Apple traded at $17,813 in 
late New York trading Wed- 
nesday. 

“It’s good to see someone make a 
vote of confidence in the company.” 
said Tim Bajarin, an independent ana- 
lyst with Creative Research Strategies. 
“We knew there were two blocks that 
were purchased recently. That was the 
quandary here in Silicon Valley — 
whether Ellison was behind this or 
someone else.” 

Apple has lost $936 million over tbe 
past five financial quarters, and does 
not expect to make money again «mtil 
the autumn. The company recently an- 
nounced that 4.100 employees, or 30 
percent of its work force, would be laid 
off as part of its efforts to return to 
profitability. 

The financial analysts said die new 



CompuServe Has Suitor , 
But It Won't Say Who 

Industry Sources Say It’s America O nlin e 


JahnScJmlWftraiai 


Prince Walid ibn Talal 


investments were pan of the prince’s 
policy of buying stakes in ailing 
companies and trying to put them back 
on their feet. The prince, a nephew of 
King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, has done 
well with previous investments in fal- 
tering companies including Citicorp 
and Euro Disney SCA. owner of the 
Disneyland Paris theme park. He is 
worth an estimated $10 billion. 

Prince Walid’s other holdings in- 
clude hotels, banks, broadcasters and 
retailers. He owns stakes in Saks Fifth 
Avenue and tbe Canary Wharf office 
development in London. 

{Reuters, Bloomberg ) 


By David S. Hilzenrath 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — America On- 
line Inc., the largest computer on-line 
service in the United States, is ex- 
ploring the purchase of CompuServe 
Inc., its biggest rival, according to in- 
dustry sources. 

CompuServe confirmed late Wed- 
nesday that it was in merger talks, but it 
refused to say with whom. Executives 
at CompuServe and H&R Block Inc., 
its parent, were not available for com- 
ment. A spokesman for America On- 
line declined to comment. 
CompuServe shares rose 22 percent 


said America Online , the No. 1 on-line 
service, might bid for the Columbus. 
Ohio-based company. Both companies 
had refused to comment. 

Trading in H&R Block shares were 
halted briefly but were up 37 5 cents at 
$31 in lare New York trading. Com- 
puServe shares, which also had been 
briefly baited, rose $1-50 to $12.50 
when trading resumed. AOL shares 
were $44.75. down $1. in late New 
York trading. 

* ‘CompuServe is trading up on spec- 
ulation of a buyout, and they will either 
confirm or deny, and then we will all 
know at that same time.” said Michael 
Molnar. head of Nasdaq trading at 


Smith Barney Inc., told Bloombere 
News. “Until then, we can waiL’^ 
CompuServe, the pioneer in the on- 
line industry’, has posted disappointing 
results and lost customers to AOL and 
Microsoft Corp. CompuServe’s stock 
has fallen 63 percent since it went 
public a year ago at $30. 

A CompuServe- AOL deal could ex- 
pand the capacity of AOL's computer 
network, helping alleviate the busy sig- 
nals that many AOL subscribers have 
encountered recently when trying to 
connect to the service. It also could help 
cement AOL's status as the industry 
leader, giving it large numbers of in- 
ternational customers and providing in- 
roads into the corporate market, where 
CompuServe is relatively strong. 

A purchase eventually could also 
spell foe end of the CompuServe brand 
name. The industry pioneer has long 
since been overtaken by foe younger 
AOL, industry analysts said. 

Rumors of a takeover had circulated 
on financial markers Tuesday, the ap- 
parent reason that shares of America 
Online, CompuServe and H&R Block 
rose shaiply then. 

CompuServe could have much to 
offer AOL. For one thing, it has an 
extensive network services business 
that provides corporate computer net- 
works called intranets. It also has a 
sizable presence in Japan and Europe. 


mu 


a 


OECD Chief, Bedeviled by Budget Woes, Tries to Shift Focus 


By Alan Friedman 

International Herald Tribune 


PARIS — It used to be known as foe 
rich man’s 'dab. But these days foe 
OECD is not so mach an opulent talking 
shop as a think tank in transition. 

The Paris-based organization, which 
was formed in 1961 and which now 
unites 29 of foe world's richest indus- 
trial democracies, is wrestling with 
budget cutbacks and something of an 
identity crisis as it attempts to redefine 
its rote to reflect die changing worid 
economy. 

Under the new leadership of Donald 
Johnston, 60, a former Canadian politi- 
cian and an unabashed free marketeer, 
the Organization for Economic Cooper- 
ation and Development has begun tak- 


ing steps to reshape itself. Bat life has 
not been easy for Mr. Johnston. 

The United States, constrained by 
congressional spending strictures, is 
in arrears on its 1996 contribution to 
the OECD. A diplomatic wrangle be- 
tween France and Germany for one of 
the top posts as deputy secretary-gen- 
eral has left Mr. Johnston without 
force of foe top four, aides he is sup- 
posed to have. Staff morale is low 
because of foe need to slash the 
payroll, and mote budget and per- 
sonnel cuts are imminent. 

■ At foe same time. hfr. Johnston is 
trying to redirect foe OECD’s focus, 
from traditional development research 
to a new emphasis mi globalization, on 
foe social implications of new trade and 
investment flows, and, above all, on 


forging links with such emerging eco- 
nomic powers as China, India. Russia, 
Indonesia and Brazil. 

Russia is a special priority for the 
OECD, which already has a string of 
cooperation projects under way. At their 
recent meeting in Helsinki, Presidents 
Bill Clinton and Boris Yeltsin hoped for 
progress in Moscow's application to 
join foe OECD. Next week foe issue is 
sure to come up when Mr. Johnston 
receives a visit from foe Russian foreign 
minister, Yevgeni Primakov. 

But while Russia is being increas- 
ingly integrated into the Group of Sev- 
en, granting OECD membership is not 
so easy. 

“Russia’s application,” said Mr. 
Johnston during an interview here Wed- 
nesday, “has teen acknowledged, but it 


inhernaxional manager 


Giving ‘Business Class 9 the Business 


By Adam Bryant 

New Font Times Service 


N EW YORK — It’s an expens- 
ive anomaly for corporate 

America: They are foe biggest 
customers, yet they pay foe 
highest rates. But when it cranes to the 
airline industry and foe price of most 
last-minute travel, it has long teen the 
normal state of affairs, seemingly im- 
pervious to challenge. 

Just ask Kevin Mitchell, an entre- 
preneur who has spent five years trying 
to get more leverage for big compa- 
nies. ... 

Battling a system that he calls in- 
efficient and dysfunctional,” Mr. 
Mitchell ran into a wall of opposition 
£ from foe airlines and many big travel 
agereifru and appeared at several points 
to be beading for failure. 

But now, Mr. Mitchell finally seems 
to be on foe verge of shaking up foe 
graniK quo. His solution: Give foe 
companies a way to fly without relying 
on foe major airlines. 

: The rationale is clear. The average 
round-trip business fare rose 86 percent 
to $820, over the nearly five-yearpenod 
from May 1992 to January 1997, ac- 
cording to American Express TraveL 
Though business travelers account tor 
more than half of foe major airlines 


revenue, they typically pay two to four 
times as modi for tickets bought on or 
just before foe date of travel as do leisure 
travelers who can make reservations 
well ahead of time. 

Mr. Mitchell, who has the financial 
backing of blue-chip companies such as 
Chrysler Corp., Procter & Gamble Co. 
and Black & Decker Crap., expects to 
announce shortly an agreement with 


a third low-fare carrier that would guar- 
antee them revenue for three years in 
return for starting service in cities sorely 
in need of airline competition. 

Frontier executives said they liked 
foe idea of entering new markets but 
with Tymiimat risk. 

“It’s not a no-brainer, but it’s as close 
as you can get to one in this industry,” 
said Jeff Potter, marketing vice pres- 
ident of the Denver-based carrier. 

The consortium that Mr. Mitchell 
runs — Business Travel Contractors 
Carp, of Lafayette HULL Pennsylvania 
— also has teem negotiating with op- 
erators of corporate jets to start a kind of 
flying car pooL 

Under one plan, a company such as 
Flight Services Group of ■ Stratford, 
Connecticut, would fly small jets on 
routes chosen by the consortium 's 45 
member companies. They would depart 
at certain times each weekday , and seats 


would be available only to those compa- 
nies' employees. 

How much might all this save? The 
frill fare between Philadelphia and 
Chicago is now about $800 round trip, 
although some corporate customers that 
regularly use that route might get dis- 
counts, which are common throughout 
foe industry and typically range from 10 
to 15 percent. 

But by guaranteeing revenue to an 
airline to Stan serving that route, Mr. 
Mitchell anticipates a round-trip fare of 
5220 for last-minute travelers, with a 
further 1 5 percent discount to be offered 
to companies that join the consortium 
for a fee of about $3,000. The fare would 
be guaranteed for tbe term of the con- 
tract, except for adjustments to account 
for contingencies such as a sudden rise 
in the mice of jet frieL 

Mr. Mitchell has become “foe Ralph 
Nadar representing tbe corporations in 
business travel issues,” Peter Buchbeit, 
director of travel and meeting services 
for Black & Decker Corp., said. 

Bui Michael Levine, executive vice 
president for marketing and internation- 
al operations at Northwest Airlines, said 
the plan was doomed because the par- 
ticipating carriers would not be able to 
offer foe volume and frequency of 

See FARES, Page 18 


has not yet teen invited to start foe 
formal membership application pro- 
cess.” 

He said that membership for Russia 
would require “a commitment to lib- 
eralization” and reforms in such areas 
as regulatory transparency, fiscal sys- 
tems, tbe environment, and securities 
markets. If Russia could meet OECD 
standards, said Mr. Johnston, “we 
would all be very happy, but it is going 
to take time to do it.” 

As a hands-on manager, meanwhile, 
diplomats from the United States, 
France, and Germany all give high 
marks to Mr. Johnston. 

“He had a very difficult job when he 
started,” said Werner Kaufmann- 
Buhler, the German ambassador to the 
OECD. “The organization when it was 
founded was mainly directed toward 
members with the same macroeconomic 
philosophy. But now this organization 
is shifting toward exporting its philo- 
sophies.” 

“Mr. Johnston has done well in a 
difficult period,” said Jean-Bemard 
Harth, deputy head of the French del- 
egation. “The organization has a need 
to ad apt itself against a backdrop of a 


changing international environment, 
and especially against the backdrop of 
globalization. 

Mr. Johnston has also had to contend 
with difficult budget problems, mainly 
because of the U.S. position, meaning 
foe arrears and the desire to reduce its 
contribution.' ’ Washington has failed to 
pay 48 million French francs ($8.6 mil- 
lion) of its 1996 commitment. OECD 
officials said. 

Asked about these problems. Mr. 
Johnston did not mince words. He said 
he was committed to cutting foe annual 
1.3 billion franc budget by 10 percent 
over the next three years. He explained 
that 88 staff positions had teen elim- 
inated already and conceded that more 
will need to go. 

“We have to have more staff cuts," 
he said. * ‘Some 85 percent of our budget 
is people, so we are bound to have more 
staff cuts. My own preference is to take 
the difficult cuts sooner rather than 
later." 

Not least among Mr. Johnston's fi- 
nancial headaches is the fact that foe 
OECD's pension fund is not fully fun- 

See OECD, Page 18 


A Dile 

Transfixes 
Wall Street 

The Booming Economy 
Becomes a Liability 


By Mitchell Martin 

Intemaiio nal Herald Tribune 

NEW YORK — After a two-year 
rally, Wall Street stock prices are under 
pressure, caught on foe horns of an 
economic dilemma that is putting pres- 
sure on equities around foe world, ana- 
lysts said Wednesday. 

Since its record close of 7,085.16 
points on March 11, the Dow Jones 
industrial average has fallen 7 percent. 
In 3 P.M. trading Wednesday, foe Dow 
was down 29.46 points, at 6.581.59. 

What is disturbing investors is a no- 
win economic outlook, ai least for the 
near term: If the economy is grouting 
rapidly enough to support record stock 
prices, interest rates will rise so much 
that the market will be pulled lower. 

"The worry obviously is that tbe 
economy is accelerating and foe Federal 
Reserve will need to slow it by raising 
short-term interest rales, and eventually 
that will take its toll on the economy in 
terms of earnings,” Hugh Johnson, 
chief investment officer of First Albany 
Corp.. said. 

The U.S. central bank last week raised 
interest rates for the first time in two 
years, citing “persisting strength in de- 
mand.” The move had been largely 
signaled in advance by Alan Greenspan, 
the Federal Reserve Board chairman, 
who warned earlier against “irrational 
exuberance” in the stock market. 

Economic data released last week and 
Monday fueled the idea dial the Amer- 
ican economy was expanding at a fast 
enough pace to bring about additional 
Fed tightening. Although the Dow man- 
aged a modest gun Monday, the overall 
market was mixed, and prices have been 
in a downward trend for foe past week. 

The first government reading of eco- 
nomic conditions in March is due Fri- 
day, with foe monthly employment re- 
port. Few investors will be willing to 
make aggressive stock purchases before 
the data are released, analysts said. 

European markets rallied initially 
Wednesday, drawing strength from arise 
in foe Dow on Tuesday. But when stock 
index futures began trading in New York 
and showed sharp losses, foe European 
gains evaporated. The CAC-40 index in 
Paris was especially pressured, felling 2 
percent for the session. Tbe German 
DAX index eked out a small rise for the 
day. but Frankfurt trading ends early in 
the New York day. 

Earlier, prices rose on the major 
Asian exchanges, although those mar- 
kets are showing losses for the year to 
date, unlike Europe, where stocks have 
been rising. 

See STOCKS, Page 14 


A 3- Way Race to Buy Thomson-CSF? 


CimpOrdtn Oar Sutf From Daptscha 

PARIS — GEC-Manconi of Britain 
has proposed itself as a bidder for the 
French government's majority stake in 
foe defense-electronics concern Thom- 
son-CSF, an executive of Lagardere 
Groupe said Wednesday. 

Noel Forgeand, chief executive of 
Lagardere’s defense subsidiary, Matra 
Defense Espaoe. said at a news con- 
ference on Lagardere’s earnings that 
reports of GEC-Marconi’s interest were 
correct Officials of General Electric Co. 
PLC, or GEC, refused to comment. 

The prospect of GEC bidding for 
Thomson-CSF fanned speculation that 
its two French suitors could be asked to 
sweeten their offers, and shares of Thom- 
son-CSF jumped nearly 2 percent to 
close at 18850 francs ($33.62). up 3.60. 

The Finance Ministry would not com- 
ment on the report But if it is accurate, it 
would mean that the stage was set for a 


possible restructuring of the European 
defense industry in a way not intended 
by the French government The gov- 
ernment’s clear intent in organizing the 
sale was that Thomson-CSF, under 
French control, dominate an alliance of 
European companies created to compete 
with big U.S. defense concerns. 

Lagardere and a combination of Alc- 
atel Alsthom and Dassault Industries 
have told the government they want to 
be considered bidders for Thomson- 
CSF. The government, which has not 
said whether GEC has done the same, is 
expected to announce by Friday what 
companies it will accept as bidders. 

“We were aware of this because 
GEC consulted us," Mr. Forgeard said 
of the British company's interest. 

“We are very pleased. For 10 years 
GEC-Marconi has been a partner through 
Matra Marconi Space. The bid try GEC 
surprises nobody." Thomson-CSF had 


its first net profit in four years in 1996, 
reflecting higher profit margins from 
cost-cutting. It made 745 million francs, 
reversing a loss of 791 million francs in 
1995. The French government has until 
Monday to say which bids for the com- 
pany comply with its conditions for the 
sale, which stated specifically foal French 
and European bids were welcome. 

In its earnings report, Lagardere, a 
military and media company, said 1996 
net earnings rose 65 percent as orders 
soared in its telecommunication and mil- 
itary division. Net profit was 1.04 billion 
francs, compared with 630 million 
francs in 1995, and the company said 
earnings were likely to rise further. 

Lagardere said it aimed to strengthen 
its position in the media market by mer- 
ging its Hachette media division with 
Filipacchi Medias. creating the world’s 
biggest publisher of magazines. 

I Bloomberg, AFP) 


CURRENCY & INTEREST RATES 


April 2 UbkHJbor Rates 


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(Jim} 

Soane: Revka. 


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PAGE 14 





^ i 4 


THE AMERICAS 


Investor’s America 


The Daw 


30-Year T-Bond Yield 


6900 - 



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€254.44 6321.18 - -1^ 

Source: Bloomberg, Reuters 

tmenunoisal Herald Tribonr 

Very briefly: 


TWA Sees Wider 1st- Quarter Loss 

ST. LOUIS (Bloomberg) — Trans World Airlines Inc. 
expects its first-quarter loss to “significantly exceed" the $37.1 
million loss it baa a year earlier, die company said in a filing with 
the Securities and Exchange Commission on Wednesday. 

The filing also said the airline's cash would fall “sig- 
nificantly" from the $181.6 million it had on hand at the end 
of last year. Airlines need typically at least $200 million in 
cash to survive the slower winter months, analysts estimate. 

TWA said it was pursuing ways to increase its cash balance. 
In February, the airline received about $26 million from Sl 
L ouis businesses as an advance payment for tickets to be used 
for future travel. Its auditors, KPMG Peat Marwick, have 
expressed “substantial doubt" about the airline's ability to 
continue as a going concern. TWA shares were down SO cents 
at $6.50 in afternoon trading. 

• ITT Corp., a takeover target, is delaying plans to begin 
construction on Planet Hollywood hotel-casinos in Las Vegas 
and in Atlantic City, New Jersey. 

• Three former executives of Archer Daniels Midland Co. 
will go on trial May 1. 1998. on charges of conspiring to fix 
prices and sales volume of lysine, a federal judge ruled. 

• AT&T Corp., reflecting a profit slump, cut the pay of its 
chairman, Robert Allen, by 14 percent last year, to $5.5 
milli on, bin promised his designated successor, John Walter, a 
hiring bonus that included $12 million in cash. 

• Chrysler Corp. and Honda Motor Co. said their sales fell 
in the United States last month; Honda's sales slid 7 percent 
and Chiysler's sales were off 3 percent from a year earlier. 

• Sun Microsystems Inc. and Netscape Communications 
Corp. agreed to jointly develop Java Foundation Classes, a set 
of tools to define Java applications. ap. Rouen. Bloomberg 


Chip Maker Planning Challenge to Intel 


By Rajiv Chandrasekaran 

Washington Post Service 


SANTA CLARA. California — Since it start- 
ed supplying the chips that function as the brains 
of IBM personal computers in the early 1980s, 
Intel Corp. has had the lion's share of the PC 
microprocessor market- The company kept im- 
proving its chips and selling new versions months 
— if not years — ahead of its competitors. 

Now, however, one of Intel’s longtime rivals 
hopes to break that cycle. 

The computer-chip maker Advanced Micro 
Devices Inc. planned on Wednesday to unveil a 
microprocessor that one trade publication says is 
nearly as fast as Intel's upcoming Pentium II 
chip, but will cost about 25 percent less. 

“This is the first time that a company is going 
to be able to offer a product that’s contem- 
poraneous with Intel’s top product," said Ben 
Anixter, a vice president at AMD, which is based 
in Sunnyvale, California. “We believe this will 
change the competitive landscape." 

Chip clone makers have long tried to whittle 


down Intel’s market share — estimated by most 
analysts to be between 80 percent and 90 percent 
— but their products typically have been late to 
market and slower than Intel’s. AMD, for ex- 
ample. which had about 9.7 percent of the PC 
chip market last year, was six months late with its 
competitor to Intel's popular Pentium processor. 
When it did come out, AMD did not have ver- 
sions that matched the speed of Intel's products. 

However, a study conducted by PC World 
magazine last month found that the AMD chip, 
called the K6, processed information, nearly as 
fast as the Pentium n, the successor to Intel’s 
Pentium Pro, which is to be released later this 
month. AMD's chip also will fit into the same 
type of circuit board used by today's Pentiums, 
while the Pentium □ will require computer 
makers to modify the design of the board, which 
houses the brains of a PC. 

AMD executives would not comment on the 
prices of its K6 chips until Wednesday’s an- 
nouncement. Analysts expect a 200-megahertz 
version to sell for about $350, about $165 less 
than the wholesale price of Intel's 200 MHz, 


multimedia-enhanced Pentium. The new^ chip 
“might wake up a few people at Intel,” said 
David Wu, a semiconductor analyst at ABN 
AMRO Chicago Corp. in New York. But Mr. Wu 
and other industry watchers said AMD could still 
have a tough time cracking the market. 

“I don't think many corporate information- 
technology managers are going to put their job on 
the line buying a non-Intel product that might 
save them $50 or $100 a machine,” said Ashok 
Kumar, an analyst at Southcoast Capital in Hous- 
ton. “This is a consumer product” 

Mr. Anixter said AMD had lined up several 
computer makers, some of them overseas, to use 
the new chip. He said domestic customers prob- 
ably would see machines with its chip on store 
shelves by the summer. 

In the past chip clone companies, including 
AMD. have had trouble increasing production 
fast enough to meet demand. This tune, AMD 
says it has two factories that will be dedicated to 
producing the new chip. Sales of the new chip are 
crucial to AMD, which lost $91 million last year, 
analysts said. 


Bayer Outlines $9 Billion U.S. Investment 


Cm pAt/ Ty Otm Sag Fnmt OapatWa 

NEW YORK — Bayer Corp.. the 
U.S. subsidiary of the German 
chemical and drug company Bayer 
AG. said Wednesday it would invest 
about $6.65 billion in its U.S. unit by 
2000 for research and development 
and capital improvements. 

With the $2.35 billion that the 
parent company said it had invested 
in the U.S. unit in the past two years, 
the new spending plan would raise 
its total investment in Bayer Corp. to 
$9 billion from 1995 to 2000. Helge 
Wehmeier, the American unit's 
chief executive, said the total would 


include about $4.6 billion in capital 
improvements and S4. 1 billion spent 
on research and development. 

Mr. Wehmeier said the subsidi- 
ary's goal was to increase its share 
of Bayer's worldwide sales to 30 
percent, from 25 percent last year. 
Bayer’s U.S. sales totaled $9 billion 
last year, making the United Stales 
Bayer's biggest market. 

Bayer plans to hire 1.700 addi- 
tional employees, mostly in sales, 
because of the expansion, he said. 
The U.S. unit has about 24,000 
workers. Bayer has budgeted $1.2 
billion for an expansion of its chem- 


icals complex in Baytown, Texas, 
that would make Baytown the 
biggest facility in the world for mak- 
ing diphenyl methylene di -isocy- 
anate, a raw material for polyureth- 
ane, Mr. Wehmeier said. 

The Baytown plant has about 
1 ,300 employees, and the expansion 
will mean the hiring of 400 more, as 
well as of about 3.000 construction 
workers at the height of the ex- 
pansion early in 1998. 

Bayer said life-science invest- 
ments would account for $3.2 bil- 
lion of its $4.1 billion research and 
development budget in 1995-2000. 


Among other spending. Bayer is 
investing more than $850 in its phar- 
maceuticals operations, with expan- 
sionsplanned in Berkeley, Califor- 
nia; West Haven, Connecticut, and 
Clayton, North Carolina. 

Capital expenditures planned for 
its agricultural division total more 
than $330 milli on- They include an 
upgrade of animal health production 
operations in Shawnee, Kansas. 

Bayer AG’s shares closed at 
68.68 Deutsche marks ($41.09) on 
the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, up 
0.98, or 1.4 percent. 

(Bloomberg, Reuters ) 


Japanese Business Survey Gives Dollar a Lift 


Compiled by Our Staff From Dupattha 

NEW YORK — The dollar was firmer against 
other major currencies Wednesday, particularly 
the yen, lifted by the release overseas of the 
quarterly Japanese tankan business sentiment 
survey, traders said. 

Meanwhile. Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin 
reiterated that the U.S. dollar had been strong 
“for some time now" but declined to comment 
further on the state of the U.S. currency. 

Mr. Rubin also credited the strong dollar with 
holding down U.S. interest rates and inflation. 

Mr. Rubin also said he did not believe Japan was 
trying to use its devalued currency to export its way 
out of its economic difficulties. He said he would 
not make any specific policy suggestions to Jap- 


anese officials during his visit to Tokyo on Friday, 
but he added that Japan must keep its current- 
account surplus from growing too large again. 

Japan's quarterly tankan report released Wed- 
nesday registered a rise in manufacturing for the 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE 

past quarter, but not by as much as bad been 
expected, and the nonmanufacturing sectors re- 
mained weak, traders said. 

The dollar was at 123.370 yen in late New 
York trading, up from 121 .635 yen. It was also at 
1 .6778 Deutsche marks, up from 1.6648 DM, at 
1.4450 Swiss francs, up from 1.4395 francs, and 
5.6480 French francs, up from 5.6045 francs. 


The pound was at $1.6430, down from 
$1 .6535. Audrey McNifF of Goldman Sachs said 
activity should be subdued compared with the 
previous two trading sessions. 

“To a certain extent, a lot of risk should have 
been reduced.” she said, as dollar-yen selling 
stepped in from a variety of quarters in advance 
of the tankan survey. 

But the expectations for tankan were too high, 
and the dollar is now poised to gain from what 
was a slightly disappointing report, traders said. 

“The market is soil assessing opportunities.” 
however, and could be quieter through Biday’s 
release of the March U.S. unemployment report, 
as well as Mr. Rubin’s appearance in Tokyo, she 
said. (Market News , Bridge News) 


STOCKS: 

A Growth Dilemma - t 

Continued from Page 13 v 

The Do w and the broader Standard 

& Poor’s 500 index are now up only 
about 1 percent for the year so far. In 
1995, by contrast, the Dow rose 35 
percent, and it followed with a 26 
percent gain last year. In late trading 
Wednesday, the S&P 500 index was 
down 3.1 points, at 756J54. 

The generally smaller stocks that 
make up the Nasdaq composite in- 

3 P.M. SNAPSHOT 

dex are doing even worse. That in- 0 
dex. which contains many technol- 
ogy companies, was down 11.12 
points, at J ,205.81 late Wednesday 
and has fallen more than 7 percent in 
the year to date. 

If Mr. Greenspan's goal has been 
to wring excess from die stock mar- 
ket. be seems to have succeeded, Mr. 
Johnson of Fust Albany raid. As 
recently as January, portfolio man- 
agers put most of their cash to work in 
the stock market as soon as it came in. 
“Having cash in aportfolio felt like a 
ga me of hot potato.” he said. "Every 
manager you talked to was worried 
about having any cash and would 
scramble every morning to buy 
stocks.” Now, he said, there is “vir- 
tually no sense of urgency to buy 
stocks.” Although the manta’s re- 
treat has been orderly, Mr. Johnson 
predicted the Dow would have to fall “ 
to 6^200 before stocks became bar- 
gains. 

Trade Latimer, an independent 
analyst in Charlottesville. Virginia, 
agreed that the market was “vul- 
nerable to 6,200.” Butin the longer 
terra, she said she was worried that 
investors would return to the large 
blue-chip companies that compose 
the Dow and thie S&P 500 instead of 
investing in smaller concerns. 

She also said she feared that smal- 
ler stocks would be ready to rise after 
a conection, hurting many investors 
whose savings are in mutual funds 
that invest in larger companies. 

9 

To Our Readers 

Because of the seven-hour time 
difference between New York and 
Paris this week, the U.S. stock 
tables, the U.S. futures and some 
other items in this edition reflect 
early prices. 

1ms change is necessary to meet 
distribution requirements. We will 
revert to our usual coverage next 
week, after daylight time begins in 
the United States and Canada. 


*• 


** 


WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


Wednesday, April 2 

Prfoes In local amentias. 
Teiekurs 

Nigh Low Oom Pm. 


Amsterdam a bcmwc wxb 

nnwenuo 


AHUAMRO 

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158.90 

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Bangkok 


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736 

218 

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778 

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3720 

338 

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330 

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168 

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4625 

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Mfltanopor Tel 
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PtartauK 210429 


13300 

13075 

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5900 

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5830 

5860 

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7550 

7400 

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7420 

GBR 

3480 

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14050 

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1895 

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7860 

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3550 

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6010 

5870 

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2550 

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GBL 

5060 

4970 

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139/b 

13225 

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12450 

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11775 

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295 

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796 

396 

390 

390 

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HEW 492 492 492 

Hodlflef 71 71 71 

Hoednt 6550 65.10 6570 

Korstodt 562 554 554 

Linde 1130 1118 1133 

Lufthansa 2370 TLS0 23.15 

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SAP pH 275 27170 275 

Sdtwtog 16480 162J0 163JO 

SGLCorixm 232 229 231 

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360 354 358 

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385 37825 38150 38075 
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37675 367 37475 363 

257 251 25625 2*875 

27075 26275 265-50 26175 
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1975 1925 19J0 19 

36675 359 36625 35625 


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76920 

896 

763 

890 

769 

891 

770 

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H EX General tadm: 2744J4 


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40 

40 

42 

Huhtawjtol 

243 

240 

240 

239 

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5420 

51.10 

5120 

5320 

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69 

69 

71 

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1660 

1560 

1520 

16 

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288 

283 

284 78460 

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36 

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1140 

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125 

126 

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793 78220 

289 

790 

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199 19120 

199 

191 

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9020 

89 

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107.40 

10160 

104 

106 

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86 

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195 

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5925 

5900 

5925 

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1775 

1750 

1750 

1800 

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1350 

1325 

1350 

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10475 

10375 

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5100 

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10575 

10800 

10875 

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26820 26BJ0 


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306 301 

27050 24820 

310-50 308 — 

175 17450 17450 17450 
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2675 26 2670 2670 

16025 159 15675 15675 

40.10 3M0 39.90 39.90 
2700 2680 2620 2650 


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2&25 


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19.90 

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104 

104 

53 

5220 

5150 

28 

28 

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367 

147 

58 

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57.75 

323 

329 

329 


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1490 1475 1475 1475 
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1870 1775 1760 1760 
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4725 4675 4650 46J0 
SB S675 5775 5775 
7075 7075 70 70 


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135 

137 

137 

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173 

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46 

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722 

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170 

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122 

116 

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269 

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124 

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130 

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1175 

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620 

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1.71 

160 

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162 

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652 

533 

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622 

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199 

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129 

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166 

224 

226 

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124 

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121 

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118 

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126 

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116 

725 

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602 

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111 

226 

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166 

323 

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133 

134 

136 

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925 

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220 

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131 

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124 

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157 

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193 

189 

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690 

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1069 

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state 

1012 

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7.95 

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665 

625 

655 

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832 

Tate & Lyle 

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430 

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148 

144 

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696 

655 

657 

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664 

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105 

104 

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645 

528 

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140 


168 

163 

263 

265 

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1525 

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740 

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632 

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Bca Centra Hlsp 
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19830 
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5300 
6050 
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9120 

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me no m 

127 127 129 

380.50 38020 37220 
47 4720 4470 


Paris 


CAC-40: 290*8 
PlHfeOK 2581*2 


821 

784 

787 

782 

AGF 

200*0 

19170 

199*0 

199 

AkLtoukJe 

AkaWAisih 

870 

687 

831 

674 

833 

67B 

864 

673 

AkhUAP 

36940 

364J0 

36*30 

366 

Bcncake 

711 

685 

<87 

710 

BtC 

870 

825 

828 

834 

BNP 

24850 

236 

237.90 247 JO 

carat Plus 

1042 

1009 

1010 

1037 

Canefour 

3458 

3343 

3319 

3367 

Casino 

261 

25X60 

254 

Mftqt 

CCF 

270 

258 

260.10 

262.60 

Caetem 


622 

625 

647 

Christian Dior 


817 

B20 

829 

CLF-Oertfa Fiar 


^KTTl 

550 

561 

Credit Agrtcote 

12S2 

1252 

1252 

1260 

Danone 

■*1 

B51 


BO 

Etf-Apultara 

EJ 

531 

532 

55/ 

Eridcr#aBS 

EJ 

842 

SS3 

879 

Eurodbney 

Eurotunnel 

laio 

M0 

9*5 

mas 

160 

6*5 

640 

620 

Gen. Earn 

760 

TU 

734 

no 

Haros 


381.10 38360 39820 

ImetaJ 

BSD 

830 

839 

845 

Lrrfrage 

38110 

3/0*0 

374 381*0 

Leg rand 

LTSwl 

995 

961 

962 

900 

1923 

1862 

1862 

1908 

LVMH 

13SS 

1301 

1301 

1336 

Lyon. Emu 
MkTteSaB 

563 

SI) 

538 

114 

34128 

326 

329*0 

336 

Pcrfeas A 

i*-/| 

365 

365*0 37650 

Pemod Ricaid 

WKr *1 

BIZI 

298 

.105 

Peugeot Qt 


611 

611 

618 

PtaouB-Prtnl 

2360 

2240 

2263 

2314 

Prorxxtes 

■ 1 -1 

1810 

ItO) 

I8S7 

Rauuff 

■to 

1J1 

131.10 

I3<20 


1727 

1650 

16/9 

1715 

Rh-Poulenc A 

BO 

179*0 

17920 

18740 

Sancfl 

545 

522 

524 

531 

Sdtnetaer 

32120 

31*20 317*0 31120 

SEB 

1037 

1017 

1029 

1025 

SGS Thomson 

389 

387 

38X10 

379 

S» Generate 

643 

622 

630 

640 

Sodexho 

2858 

2820 

2836 

2S38 

St Gabo In 

812 

776 

n o 

810 

Suei 

29X90 

276 28X60 28520 

S rgbetabo 

5B5 

194*0 

561 573 566 

18720 18820 18*90 

TwalB 

480 

455.10 

459 

475 

Udnor 

I 

8820 

8920 

90 

Valeo 

372 

356 

364 

3/0 


Sio Paulo 


BrajteseiPM 
Bratm Phi 
CemfePfd 
CESPPhJ 
Copet 
Eletrofcras 
Itoubcnco PM 
Light Servtctos 
LfcMjwr 
Petn*msPtd 
Pouftsta Ua 
51d Nodonct 
Strum C/vz 
T eiebrosPfd 
Teferafg 
Tetel 
TetesaPW 
Unflxmoa 
Usiminas PM 
CVRD PM 


470 
7BS2Q 
4460 
5400 
1522 
*4220 
552-00 
<4400 
32162 
211-00 
147.01 
3400 
9jOO 
11370 
I50M 
14401 
27660 
39 Jri 
172 
2500 


825 
700J0 
*400 
52.00 
'520. 
43640 
5*820 
440J0 
370-00 
2O5J0 
147 JO 
37 JO 
485 
11100 
!<U» 
'42.01 
77X00 
39 JO 
1.19 
2460 


niut 

913431 

865 860 

70001 700-50 
4430 43J0 
5260 52.00 
1520 1X40 
437 JO 43820 
54400 55220 
44000 44520 
32000 32000 
20520 210J0 
147 JO 147 JO 
3730 2779 
825 9.10 

11120 11168 
143J0 14358 
14400 143J0 
27SJ0 27100 
3920 3720 
120 171 

2480 2425 


Seoul 

Occam 


» 

J Matas 
KatoQhe 
Korea End! Bk 
Kama Mata Tel 
LGSenricon 
Pahang I roost 
Samsung Dtstoy 
Samsung Bee 
5hiehanBaik 


composite tades true 
PmhMB 67279 
103000 100000 101000 101000 
4600 4400 4548 4500 

17*06 17000 17800 17900 
T6000 15700 TflJOO 76000 
Z7200 25800 26500 26000 
5778 390 5590 5650 

510000 481 000 *85000 «!00C 
27400 26500 Z7300 26700 
50200 46800 50200 46500 
<2900 *0700 42600 41200 
62900 59503 61900 60000 
10800 1Q2Q0 10400 10500 


Singapore 


AsfaPocBrew 
CereoosPoc 
QtyDevtts 
Cyae Carriage 
Dalrr Fam im * 
DBS toreig n 
CBS Lana 
FraserO Neaee 
HKLand* 
JardMslhan* 
jard Stmtegie ■ 
Keppei 
KeppeiBank 
Keppei Feb 

£&££ 
CTS Union ffli F 
Partaroy Httgs 
Sembanang 
Smu Afrforelgr 
Sing Land 
Smg Press F 
Sing Tech Ind 
Stan Telecomm 
Tor Lee Bank 
Utd industrial 
UMDSeaBkF 
vying Tat Hags 
r*7(/j tioem. 


Stroks Times: 2089J1 
PnriHE 287467 


7*5 

7.10 

7J0 

7*0 

925 

9*0 

9*5 

9 JO 

1140 

13 

1340 

1220 

15J0 

1*90 

15 

1*70 

0J7 

0-77 

077 

0*7 

1770 

17*0 

1720 

17*0 

5 

*92 

5 

*90 

1 X 10 

tl.70 

12 

12*0 

132 

2*5 

2J1 

2*7 

190 

5*5 

5*5 

s*o 

120 

348 

150 

346 

945 

9.10 

9*0 

9*5 

X98 

3*2 

196 

388 

4*0 

448 

420 

*48 

4*2 

*56 

420 

458 

17*0 

17*0 

1720 

17.10 

1040 

9.9S 

1040 

9*5 

5*5 

520 

5*5 

545 

7.10 

6*0 

7 

690 

11*0 

1120 

11 JO 

11J0 

745 

7JS 

740 

720 

27*0 

27 

27*0 

26.90 

328 

X62 

166 

320 

3 

196 

X9B 

X98 

350 

342 

342 

340 

1 .18 

1.14 

1.15 

1.14 

15*0 

1*80 

15.10 

1*60 

*38 

*28 

*JB 

*26 


. EteOqtaxB 
Ericsson B ‘ 
Hermes B 
fncentSwA 
InretfarB • 

MoDoS 

ttordbraken 

PhcraVUplotm 

SandvfkB 

SamtaB 

SCAB 

S-E Bcnkai A 
SteBKflaRw 
SkanstaB 
SKFB 

SpoitankenA 
sfcdstiypotekA 
StoroA 
5* HanrtesA 
VateaB • 


High 

Lew 

dose 

Pray. 

470 

456 

456 

*59 . 

257 JB 

243 247 JO 

25350 

1000 

984 

986 

996 

492 

*38 

490 

*90 

34150 

334 

335 

339 

271 JO 

221 

*22 

227 

255 

244 

244 

252 

275-50 

268 

271 

27550 

19*50 

1B9 

19O50 

19150 

18X50 

180 

181 

182 

161 

153 

156 

160 

80 

7850 

7956 

78 

224 

217 

221 

220-50 

336 

324 

327 

333 

19X50 

186 

IBS 

188 

137 

133 

13*50 

13550 

190 

190 

190 

190 

10350 

98 

98J0 

10X50 

223 

210 

218 

222 

197 

189 JO 189 JO 

19*50 i 


Sydney 


A1 


ANZBUng 

BHP 

B«nl 

Bromirieshtd. 

CEA 

CCA roots 
Cotes Mrer 
Caamtco 
CRA 
CM 

Fasten Brew 
Goodman FW 
KlAustntia 
Lend Lease 
MIMHdjs 
Nat Aast Bank 
Nrt Mutual Hdg 
News Carp 
PocfflcDortop 
Pioneer tnff 
Put Broodcast 
St George Bmk 
WMC 

WestpacBUng 

WowfawePer 


4.17 
823 
16-75 
366 

20.15 
1261 
1112 
< 
625 
1BJS 
47S 
260 
165 
II JS 
21 JJ 

isa 

129 

523 

328 

422 

660 

761 

7J6 

7.17 
922 
327 


8.13 4.17 

728 729 

1660 1668 
3JB 3J9 
1923 1921 
12J9 12J9 
1125 11-95 
551 5.95 
415 6.15 
1861 1868 
466 4JD 
228 262 
162 163 

11.19 71.79 
2128 21.15 
164 166 

1523 1523 
126 127 

525 577 

323 327 

4.15 4.15 
623 625 

720 761 

7 JO 721 
627 627 

9.12 9.15 

121 137 


411 
726 
1622 
360 
202B 
1269 
11.92 
5.95 
6JD 
1022 
470 
229 
121 
77 JD 
21.19 
164 
1SJ1 
126 
5J3 
326 
419 
660 
723 
726 

7.11 

9.12 
3J2 


The Trib Index 

* 

Prtcaa os of 3XX) PM. New York OmQ. 

Jan. 1. ISSCsTCDL ' 

Lev* 

-Chrtigte 

- %uhMHgr 

yebrio dner 
% change 

World Index 

146.98 

-0.63 

-4>.43 

+11.46 

Region* butane 




- . — 

AakVPecUB 

107.81 

-tO-39 

+036 

-19.70 

Europe 

157.41 

-156 

-1Z3 

+13.10 

N. America 

167.24 

-1.41 

-O.B4 

+30.37 

S. America 

138.63 

40.12 

+0.09 

+53.45 

tadurtrirt butane 




•- 

Capital goods 

170.10 

-1.71 

-100 

+28.01 

Consimer goods 

165.98 

-0.89 

-0-53 

+20.21 

Energy 

177.27 

-1.14 

-064 

■ . +sa7i 

Finance 

107.91 

-0-41 

-0.38 

-15.19 

MsceBaneous 

150.77 

-0.28 

-0.19 

*11 JOB 

Raw Materials 

177.18 

+0.1 1 

+0.06 . 

+24-96 

Service 

139.31 

-0-31 

-022. 

+16.09 

IMties 

129.34 

-0-30 

-023 

+2^0 

The Intmnatonal Herakl Tribune Worti Stock Max C tracks the US. doBar values of 
3BP tateiTwltaiafrkTyBWafctegtaate from goottofrmL<=br many* riot mrrttai. a hue 
booftel is BVf&abte by writing to The TrS3tndax.1BtAvanu9 Chariot do GauSa. 

92SZ1 NouayCadoK. Franca. 


COmptad by Bloomberg Name. 

Hfgb Low 

Close Prey. 


High Lew 

Ctora Pre». 


4 


Mitsui Rxhsn 
Mitsui Trust 
MnrtaMfg 
MEC 

Nikon 

NBdeoSec 
Nintendo 


Taipei SteckitoWteoacsan* 

Pmlens;81C3L41 


Colhay Ute bis 
Chong HwaBk 
anno Trnig Bk 
CNna Devrtpnt 
China Steel 
FW 

Formosa Ptasfie 

HuoNanBk 

■trt Cam Bk 

ManYaPtasries 

SMn Kong Lite 

TrtwanSeml 

Tatung 

UM Woo Elec 
Utd World Chin 


166 

172 
77 

110 

2420 

173 
70 

130 

7450 

6320 

10020 

7220 

5620 

5650 

70 


164 

170 

75 

113 

2620 

in 

69 

12820 

73 

6220 

99 

70 
56 
54 
69 


165 165 

170 170 

75 76 

114 115 

28J0 2620 

171 171 

6920 69 

129 128 

73 74 

63 6220 
99 100 

70 72 

56 57 

54 5520 
6920 70 


Tokyo 

Afjnaotete 
A flWpp oqAh 
Amwmr 
AsaH Bank 
AsaWQieri 
AsMGksss 
Bk Tokyo MHSU 
Bk Yokohoma 


Conan 
ChutauEkc 
ChugoiarEJec 
Dai Nlpp Print 
Daiel 

Dcri-idn Kang 
Dotwa 3ar* 
Dotara House 
DahmSec 
DDI 
Denso 

EastJtexwRy 
Ebol 
BJOWC 
Bank 
Photo 


Stockholm 


AGAB 

ABBA 

AssiDaman 

Astra A 
AWE CapCO A 
AuTOSv 


SX 16 tndCEZ7882Z 
Pmtert: 282721 


HocHJurfBk 

Hitachi 

Honda Motor 

ISJ 

IHI 

Itachu 

tto-Yokodo 

JAL 

Japan Tabacco 

Jooco 

Kojtam 

KcmsalEteC 

Koo 

KaacsaHHvy 
KowoSM 
KJnUtOppRy 
KMn Brewery 
Kobe Seel 
Koeaoteu 
Kjwoln 
Kyocera 

MoRtbenl 

Maul 

Matsu Comm 

Matsu See ind 
Matsu Elec Wk 
Mhsubtehi 
MtBubisniai 


no 

105 

105 

110 

MtautrisNEi 


821 

829 

830 

Mttsotustri Esl 

200 JB 

196 

m 

700 

AMRiteflIKW 

349 

342 


34*50 

MBsubHtl Mot 

IBS 

IHI 

182 

IBS 

MBsuttsnl Tr 

316 

300 

30050 

306 

MilS9i 



N8M2SelK37J0 


PravtoUB 1786959 

979 

955 

969 

966 

758 

750 

757 

732 

3450 

3430 

3430 

3450 

757 

733 

750 

743 

636 

620 

635 

626 

1090 

1060 

1090 

1090 

1910 

I860 

1890 

1910 

561 

554 

558 

557 

2380 

2310 

2380 

2310 

2750 

2660 

2750 

2*90 

2140 

2060 

2130 

2090 

2060 

2030 

2050 

3050 

2080 

2030 

2080 

2050 

678 

655 

670 

676 

'52 

1290 

1340 

1310 

497 

446 

*46 

454 

1420 

1380 

1410 

1420 

887 

880 

887 

881 

8060a 

7950O 

8050a 

7950a 

2420 

2390 

2410 

2420 

5310a 

5200a 

5310b 

5140a 

an 

2050 

2080 

2080 

3900 

3860 

3980 

3870 

1440 

1390 

1430 

1400 

<150 

«60 

4150 

4050 

1290 

1250 

1290 

1260 

1090 

1080 

1080 

1090 

1110 

1090 

1110 

1100 

3650 

3600 

3640 

3670 

1260 

1220 

1240 

1230 

430 

417 

428 

430 

604 

587 

595 

599 

5500 

5390 

5480 

5380 

495 

484 

490 

495 

8280a 

eftfttw 

82700 

8260a 

3470 

3350 

3460 

3» 

574 

561 

567 

568 

2200 

2160 

7180 

2170 

1330 

1310 

1330 

1340 


476 

42V 

475 



362 

350 



739 

737 

EZ 1 


25 

1000 

Kq 


228 

223 



875 


525 

7200 

514 

TOO 

7170 


2130 

2108 

2130 

2150 

414 

09 

401 

467 


401 

470 

1820 

1770 

1810 

1780 

3080 

7960 

3080 

2950 

1930 

1910 

1930 

19» 


1140 

1130 

ua 

1110 

1090 

1118 

mo 

an 

■ ■ 

370 

367 

700 

■ M fl 


687 

i £0 

1290 


1320 


817 


810 


m 


916 

1210 

9W 

899 

90S 

902 


iStad 

Nissan Mater 
NKK 

NmataSec 

NTT 

NTT Data 

OOPretw 

Osaka Gas 

Ricoh 

Rohm 

Sahara Bk 

Saikyn 

Same Bank 

SaijeElec 

Secret 

SaBwRwy 

SektsmCheei 

Sridset House 

Sew-EKvai 

Sharp 

ShflcnkuBPwr 

Sftmhv 

SWn-eBuQi 

SWseWa 

SMzuokaBk 

Sotlhank 

Sony 

Sumftorao 

SomtanoBk 

SurrttChem 
SuntteanEtec 
Surad Metal 

Sarah Trust 
TSshoPtrann 
Tatceda Oast 
TDK 

Tatioku El Pwr 
Tokol Bank 
Takto Marine 
TaSqra EIPw 
Tokyo Elecfran 
TOcyaGas 
Tckyu Corp. 
Ttaen 

TappanPihri 
■ tnd 


Tostem 
Taya Trufl 
Tamn Mater 
YOmanoucN 
tcMimcMtaoo 


1250 
712 
4690 
M4J 
1690 
7oe 
9000 
8S0 
503 
363 
745 
271 
1410 
8690a 
3420b 
632 
290 
1430 
9S0 
710 
3460 
1350 
470 
7020 
5600 
1200 
1210 
7600 
1490 
2010 
640 
2370 
1610 
1090 
7770 
8670 
895 
1480 
501 
1710 
. 292 
1010 
X40 
2670 
8800 
2040 
960 
1260 
2300 
4330 
303 
60S 
1160 
1490 
728 
697 
2830 
824 
3180 
2550 


1220 

686 

4640 

7420 

1630 

692 

BBS) 

826 

495 

348 

729 

26T 

1380 

8*900 

3360b 

621 

283 

1400 

9300 

674 

3350 

1320 

458 

6950 

5350 

1170 

1190 

7450 

1480 

1960 

612 

2310 

1580 

1060 

7700 

8610 

847 

7430 

460 

1680 

280 

990 

2930 

2570 

8990 

2000 

920 

1240 

2260 

4190 

298 

577 

1130 

1450 

703 

674 

Z760 

811 

3120 

aeon 


1240 12*0 
712 70S 

4680 4390 
7440 7420 

1690 1650 

707 701 

9000 9060 

846 825 

503 503 

363 3C 
7*5 729 

269 257 

1400 1400 

8680a 8550O 
3410b 3370b 
624 622 

290 290 

1430 1410 

9550 9030 

704 683 

3410 3380 

1350 1320 

467 45B 

7020 4960 
5600 5430 
12B0 1190 

1200 1220 
7600 7500 

1490 1488 

2010 1990 

628 645 

2350 2330 

1600 1590 

1070 1080 

7700 7780 

8660 8680 
885 864 

7460 1450 

498 494 

1710 1700 

292 282 

999 994 

3010 2920 

2650 2570 

8750 8630 

2040 1990 

958 920 

1250 1240 

2300 2260 

4290 4170 

301 301 

605 597 

1160 1140 

1490 1450 

727 720 

695 674 

2300 2820 

815 820 

3160 3140 

2550 2520 


Methane* 

Moore 

Newbridge N« 
Marat* Inc 
Norcen Energy 
intern Teteatm 
Now 
Onex 

Pancdn Pettnt 

Petra Ota 

Placer Dante 

PoatPdbn 

Potash Soft 

Renassaue 

tBoAtgom 

Rogers Cartel B 

SeagmmCo 

ShelCdaA 

Stone ConsoM 

Suncor 

TrttenxmEiiy 

TtCkB 

Tetegtobe 

Taka 


TarDomBatk 

Trartsatto 

TronsCdaPtse 

TrimaricHnl 

TrtzecHahn 

TVXGokf 

WttSUaHEny 

Weston 


1X10 1U5 
2820 271ft 

39M 38* 

30J5 3D4E 
311ft 30JQ 
93 87.60 
1125 11.18 
2420 2420 
5M 5M 
2Wi 1PV 
25W 24H 

13 1220 
10716 106.10 
4120 4CU0 
33V6.33J5 
26 IS* 
53 S3. 

55W 54 

20.10 1920 
61 JO 6020 
42JO 4120 

30V, 2SL65 
4040 40W 

2125 77-25 
27 JO 2629 
35te 34H 
16J0 1625 
2525 24,70 
41.15 41 

31 30* 

70.10 9M 
1 « 33* 

71 69M 


11M 
2725 
3820 
30 M 
XI 

8995 

111 * 

2430 

561* 

1920 

2425 

1225 

10625 

4025 

3110 

25* 

S3 

54» 

19.90 

6025 

4125 

2925 

40* 

31* 

2725 

34* 

1620 

3425 

41 

3025 

10 

34 

69* 


12 

28.10 

3920 

3020 

31 

92 

1120 

2420 

56 

»* 

24* 

1225 

10625 

41.15 
3170 

26 

5170 

55* 

20.19 

61 * 

42* 

301ft 

40.15 
7U5 
Z7JIJ . 
35.10# 
16JD" 1 
25-40 

41 

30J0 

925 

241k 

72 


Vienna 

Boehter-Uddsh 

CradOonsiPM 

EA-GeneraD 

EVN 

Ftoghofen WJ»n 

OmdEleWriz 
VA Stahl 
V A Tech 

Wlenerterg Boo 


ATX tecteto 718329 
PinteuElltU* 

79625 7B7 790 792 

457 45325 45225 457J5 
3Z10 3FI0 3200 3300 

1678166155 1667 '667 

£2620 530 55020 521 

1338131820 im 1330 
8*3 H37.10 . m 840 
477 j® 477 *74 J71« 

MM 1666 167514^.15 
7185 2140 2154 2177 


Toronto 

AbBHPrfca 
ARrate Energy 
AktmAfwn 
Andereon Erat 
BkMotaea 
BkNoruSartr 
Bterfc hQH 
BCE 

BCTetecoara 

Btaehem Phaim 

BanbarrterB 

BftsamA 

BiMMtoams 

Cameeo 

CISC 

CdnlMIRd 

CdnNSRes 

CdnOcddPa 

CdnPedfc 

Camtneo 

Ootasco 

DonCar 

DcnahraA 

DoPantUoA 

Eaper Group 

EuraNevMng 

POMaFU 

RriaoRMdge 

Ftoteher Otafl A 

Franco Hemtto 

Gun Ota Roe 

InpaWOB 

Mae 

iSd %T 

Lowrsn Group 

MaanBBU 

MagnaliflA 


TSE tato !M» 584826 
PiMouk 590027 

S-I5 1M° 1920 20.10 
2820 2Btft 28J0 28* 

w-22 ^ 4650 

14* 16* 

4110 4820 49 JO 
» 5120 sm 

3325 3115 3170 3110 
*« «L90 6130 64J0 
3W 3045 30V. 30* 

60* 591ft <0 60Vft 

M 2145 26.10 
**■» »» 3070 31 JO 
*15 3 3L20 3JH 

S» S2Vft 5220 
M-12 3«S 31 JS 3120 
49 481ft 481ft 49 

33* 3X60 33* 33* 

25.95 2525 2S* 2550 

3340 3X65 32* SS 

37 3X45 

2460 2*30 2425 24* 

’SS 955 1825 

23* 2165 2170 23*ft 

^,31 31* 30 

2^® a.10 2110 2165 
«* 4MD 4020 40* 

S « 29JK 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, APRIL 3,1997 


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1 14 MERRILL LYNCH EQUITY 7 CONVERTIBLE 

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117 MERRILL LYNCH MEXICAN INC PORT 
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111 MILLENNIUM ASSET MANAGEMENT 
re SMI Qaonl Leveraged S 123*36 

n £M: Qaaid Unlevmged S 11145* 

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13P 0FT1G ESTION PANS 
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721 OPTIMA FUND MANAGEMENT 

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StewSrti nwramO-TWaabUY-Yart; 

8 - *rtad + - DNw Pitaen; RA.-teaC (Wa Brtd * 
N£. - Not C mm rtc rt N t » N«r S - 
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Communicator 










INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY APRIL 3, 1997 


PAGE 17 



AMEX 


*®** sd ay , *3P.ii. 

Tne top 3 Q 0 most dcjhe^of^ 


U. S. STOCK MARKET DIARY 


INTERNATIONAL FUTURES 


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8aio Htfi Lot um argt 




Standard & Poore 


mm u* 

TO® B8039 89033 BOX 
5*5® 539.99 54332 543.10 
TSMH IWX3 IWJ9 M 
S6JS 84J8 8634 85.17 

761 >19 751 36 759.64 75106 
761 Jl 731X8 738X3 73480 


Nasdaq 



Hirim 


AMEX 


i t 

S 5- 
£ ft ft 

S r ft 

«S T7» !» 

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W HI HI 
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■nS £ Jff 

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iS % ft 

£ a5 

S n" n* 

s a S 
« £* ft 

MS M M 

£ 3 ft 

1C 17b Mb 

1 f “ 

D340 75b 



Trwfing Activity 

NYSE 


Nasdaq 



AMEX 



1537 

% 

55 


% 


ttft! 

Market Sates 


£n NYSE 
i® Amex 
Nasdaq 

u In masons. 


2027 

2326 

°S 

22 

316 


&S 

im 

*£ 

295 


397.38 1 66028 

1BX3 2635 

66072 58X64 


Dividends 

Corapany 


Per Ant Use Pay Coaptray 


I7M Mb 17b -b 

Ifa» » Jb -b 

II* im im 46 

Mb 4* 4* 4b 

75b M%> Tin 

** A. «* 4b 


IRREGULAR 

_____ _ A) 400 5-14 

Banco CDanlPaitu - >413 4-7 5-5 

SA. . JS21 4-3 

Indus . _ .2451 S6 5-30 

. X 44 44 


Arden Ready 
Banco CaentPartu 

Target LngC 


MancodcJhn 


Per Ant dec pay 
SEDUCED 

MX583 4-11 


4-30 


REGULAR 

Am Vesture Fnd 0 X225 

B4ckRdc200l Tnn 

BfckRck In* Muni 


TattM 


an ii6 

SB lb 

° H 

167 M 

» V* 

“ ft 


ft 


157 

77 

70 

129 


Ob 

a 


ft 


i&gy, 

OS CM 


2316 

£ 

ft 

ftS 

1* 

3S 

9M 

7W 

ft 

ft 


» 

lib 

n» 

Iff D T9b 

460 14b m 

w m n 

UBi 7 61b 

0 II* 

111 
2S7 

713 17 10k 

l» 

MS 

7b 4* 

B Sk 3b 
3116 lib Ml 
3U 25 Im 

h sk in 
3Bk 32b 
IM flb 
Ob * 

■*.n* 

ft ft 
"* ft 


STOCK SPLIT 


sp8L 


OeofedFnd 


STOCK 

_ 10% 6-17 


5-2 


INCREASED 

Mark Turin Q Al 4-18 54 

McGftdtl RenlCotp Q .16 4-15 4-30 

Santa Barbara Bcp 0 33 4-22 5-13 


I Rid 

Fsl Frankbi Cp 
RVMUtBncp 
LCS Indus 
LonaCos 
Mem ry Air 
MedtKxHEIecAB. 
Pdds Operator 
Superior Indus 
Winn-Dixie sirs 
Mm-DIxfesna 
wfao-D«e sns 


nHninoafcb- niqir ra lurt earacaniper 

Stwre/ADR; g po r aMl la r 

rkettn' 



April 2, 1997 

man low lo» aioe opim 

Grains 

CORN tCBCT) 

5000 Ol mHmni- cerw oar OusTM 
*tav9 7 312% X* 38BK -4% 140633 

-M97 311 300 Vi 310 —4 UU62 

Se»97 297% 294 295’A -1 19X55 

Dec97 WH 290 292 1 - -% 9IJ&S 

Ww« 297 % 2M% 396 -tt 9.161 

E9. soles NA Toe's, soles 95.173 
Tub’s noen ml 381,993 up sou 

SOYBEAN MEJtMCBOT) 

100 ions- moors per tsn 
May 97 29670 290X0 2MJD 


Dec 97 222X0 219J0 222X0 rIJS 

Est-JOte NA. Tue’v soles 21^43 
Tiff's open >nt 1D9^S9 up 2163 

SOYBEAN (ML tCBOT] 

40X00*1' eonb oar b 

MOV 97 2U9 2107 24.10 -0.06 36.734 

JB97 2177 M45 24J1 -0.00 31X50 

AUB97 24.94 24X5 26X5 -0.12 7X36 

5t?97 24,97 3474 M74 -0.12 ifltJ 

00 97 25X2 34X0 34X3 —0.14 USB 

Dec 97 2530 1U5 25X5 —0X5 12JDS 

Estsabs NA Tub'w salts 22X83 
Tue’sooenH 96X66 off 636 

SOYBEANS (CBOT) 

UOObu miibmum- ceres per ausnel 
May 97 M B7I «84 *8% 76,007 

Ail 97 892 874% f*g -9V, 65X56 

Aup97 667V, 451V, 465% 9,261 

Sap 97 774 758 767V, *5 5412 

Now 97 703 694 701 *6 35X07 

Est sate NA. Tub’s, sales 67AU 
Toe's open ifd 193X94 up 5445 

WHEAT (CBOT) 

54XD Ou mawnum- am nsrousnd 
MOV97 393% 386 388% — 5*A 27X78 

All 97 392 384 385% -5b 45475 

SepW 394 3K 389 -4% 7X47 

Dec 97 403% 397 398% -4% 7J25 

EsLMes NA. Tub's. ides 21.93® 

Toe's open 're B1JD1 ad 2904 


Livestock 

CATTLE (CMER) 

MXte bt- cents ecr b. 

Apr 97 6SJ5 OJi BSD — OX7 74485 

Jd)97 64X0 64X5 *417 —0X5 32J92 

AU997 6115 61X2 6112 <427 22.750 

Od 97 <7X9 0X0 67X2 <0.10 15X16 

Da: 97 <9i0 69 JO 69X0 +107 7X75 

Feb 9® 70X7 70JS 70X0 *0-17 1276 

Est. sales NA. Tub’s, sales 16.178 
Tub's opal M \BJ02 iff 717 

FEEDS! CATTLE (CMER) 

50X00 bt- cants per fa. 

Apr 97 tfJS 69X5 6972 40X2 

May 97 69X5 4970 69.75 <032 

Aug 97 7125 7270 7197 +0.15 

Sec 97 73X0 7110 73J2 +0.15 

00 97 74X0 73X5 7195 + 020 

Now 97 7160 7525 7135 *110 

Esi. sates NA Tub's, sates 3X53 
Tub’s open W 2U46 off 128 

HOGMxaa (OXER) 

40X00 B&- cents per lb. 

Apr 97 72X5 7175 71J7 -OS 

Jun97 KLBO B0JD 80X2 -037 

AX 97 80X0 30X5 BD_32 -052 

Aug 97 7835 77X0 7775 —020 

00 97 7175 7170 7142 -0.12 

Dec 97 70X0 69X5 6940 *0X5 

Esi. sofas NA Tiff’s, idea 12X93 
Tuffs caen to 30.997 up 415 


H«n Lew Lores.’ Ome Opin' 

ORANGE JUCE (NCTN) 

1SX00 fas. -cams per ip 

MOV 97 77i5 7543 *1J0 17.878 

All 97 8840 78.71 79E ,ija ’755 

500 97 82JS BIJD £1.96 -1.15 1214 

NOW 97 8L5B 8433 8LS3 '1 30 1.776 

Elides NA Tue's-smes 3.675 
Tub’s open i n' 27265 cH 02 


Metals 

GQLDDCMX} 

lOOfror Pi - |Wpj cer he* u 


High LPm l=«bi engo Ooml 

ID-YEAR FRENCH GOV. BONDS CMATIF) 
FF509XQ0 ptsollOupo 
Jim 97 177.73 12726 127X0 — OJM1SL86S 
Sep 97 12A.0o 125.85 1257B — 0JW «JtS 
tKC 97 95.7B 95.78 95^0-0X4 0 

EM. wolume; 126.153 . Open Id- 163.210 Up 
6.321. 

ITALIAN GOVERNMENT BOND IUFFE1 

iTLSOfrm+kC^-pWd'.MpC 

Ju-197 12468 12—22 17*42 *043105.700 

5ep»' 12465 124X0 12A49 - 045 1078 

cs'. soles <4956. Prew-snies AsiM 

Prrv spAnlM- 108.778 Off 735 



Apr 97 

"J5I.W 

3«J3 

MX 

-IX 

7321 

46X63 

MOV 97 



JS'G 


7 

Jun *7 

355.13 

2520 

,f !X0 

-L ffi 


29511 

Aug 77 357® 

2523(1 

25233 

-133 

13.3+5 


0097 

359X3 

S9.C0 

255 X 

— i3J 

2677 

6.154 

□6C97 

362® 

340 a 

3 sta 

-25C 

21 .728 

5X36 

Row 

3£2-3 


5C43 

-233 


10.516 

Aar 99 



ixa 


J.05S 


EURODOLLARS (CMER) 


3.75? 

25J90 

1.J71 

9X31 

749 

2.97s 

17> 

7S7 

6.677 


4 

5* .22? 
'I 

1C.79L 
3 473 
‘.779 

5J47 


U18 
5X55 
6X0 
1X72 
, ?m 
1X21 


6.110 

13.996 

1376 

2X78 

2X65 

IX* 


FORK BELLES (CMQU 


425 

May 97 

79X0 

78.10 

7830 

— 1J7 

4X01 

5-1 

Jul 97 

78X0 

77X5 

77X7 

-1.® 

2X37 

M 

Aug 97 

76JD 

75X5 

7257 

-040 

512 

7-1 

Feb 98 



71X2 

-0X9 

101 


Mr 98 



71® 


8 


May 98 



72® 

+ 2® 

2 


7 

11* 1^ 
n iflk 
4* 4*. 


raw 

H 

mo 

229 


s 


CM H 

ft ft 


Stock Tables Expferioed 

Sde>«gwn aeancAdri^ Ytaty htfis and tows retod f» prewkxisS2w«te plus He araert 
bH®k.h i i li ia lBi R Mt8»lB®inB BBy-Wi— oqMcnlPCkd M B o nd a Rio u nOoog p iiMria nn Bie 
hvbaan patttte yeas IflBlUdv RSige and Addend aestaon fcr the new dodo arty. Unless 
atheraifse irietL iriBafdMdaadt are mnaci ariwneraents based an Ite fated dedairton. 
a - dMdend also extra (s). b - mwal rate o( dMdend plus stack Mdmd. c - Hquldatlng 
dMdend. cc- PE Booeeds99rid -oofled. d > newyeaity low. dd- toss in the last 12 montt®. 
• - dhrtdand declared or paid in pneedng 12 mon1tis.f- annual rats, increased on lost 
dedaraBon. v - dMdefidTn Canadian fund* sub)ecttol5% non-fesklenoe lax. i - dMdend 

dedaied otter spBt-up orstodt dMdend. |- dvfdeiul paid ttils yaac onltted. defenei or no ■ 
odtan token at latest dMdend meeting, k - dMdend declared or paid Ids year, on 
acairamaflve Issue w*ti (MdMlds to aneara. ■- oimuol rat* leduced on last dedaraHon. 
0- now Issue in the past 52 weeks. Tl» lUgMo* rang* begins wltti the slort of tradng. 
■d- nod day dri^. p - Inflkrf Addend, ramuol rale unknown. P/E - pitce-eamlnss ratio. 
q-doaedHHitf aurturafemd-r- dMdend dedraed arpaU ta preceding 18 months, phis stock 
dMdend. s * Hock spIL DMdend begins «kWi date at spBt sis - sales, t - iBufdend paid In 
stack In praceiflngl2 morlhi estimated aohwlue on e*<flWdend or ex-dbtrttuflon date. 
»- new yeratyb I ^.r-tiwlng halted- vl- In bankruptcy or recEMwliip or being raorgari tzed 
tmderthe Bankruptcy Actor scairilies assumed by suck companies, wd- when dtstributed. 
Sri - when IssaeiV isei - wffti monads, x - exrivtdend or ex-iWits. sdb - tewfistriburton. 
s-krihaut wonaris. y- epdMdend and sales in tulL yU - yletd. z - sales In falL 


Est. sties NA Tuff®, sofas 3X57 
Tuffs open Int 6X9 UP 3335 


Pood 


1532 

U93 

150 

-10 

29.7® 

1563 

1223 

1532 

-8 

14X80 

1580 

1544 

1553 

—4 

11.910 

1592 

1575 

1575 

—3 

9,745 

1615 

1599 

1615 

♦ 15 

19X53 


CDOQAOKSE) 

10 metric fans- S Pff fan 


Ad 97 
Sep 97 


EsLstdtS NA TUff*. soles 14953 
Tuffs open irt RBXSD up 1708 

OOFRSCCNCSEJ 
37J00 fas^ arts o»r EL 
Me* 97 20475 192X0 1KLIS —1.15 
Ad 97 190-50 174X0 175X5 —490 

Sep 97 146X0 140X0 14040 -L90 
Dec 97 15450 147J5 M74S +410 
Ed.NSBi NA Tuffs, sties 11X86 
Tuffs open M 37X07 off t2B 

SUGAR-WORLD 1 1 OtCSE) 

1 11X00 faw- eenfa wr fa. 

Mow 27 11X4 1042 1096 —4X4 

4497 1477 1061 1070 —402 

Od 97 10J8 1454 1457 -401 

Marts 1457 1054 1458 +001 

Est sates NA Tuffs, sates 117.679 
Tuffs optnH 145X51 up Mi 


16.962 

9408 

6 AQ 

34 D 5 


Esi. sofas NA Tue’s-ucs Ifl.957 
Tub’s open int U2.«: us re 

HI GRADE COPPER I NCMXI 

Sixseim -fKtKOBra 

Aar 97 11163 llii; ::i63 -175 
May97 172X0 HOC :il“ -413 
JUR97 H4I0 <09.45 7 - XC5 
Jul 97 11440 1C7.75 10455 
Alfa 97 IB7 iS 

Sec 97 IiHjC KS83 IQsXi -410 
0<J97 105X5 -S18 

Now 97 1M.03 —423 

Dec 97 10135 1SL70 1CM5 -425 
Est. sofas NA Tue’s. sates i.’.t 
Tuffs Bffnm HU: 3" lii 

SAVER rNCMXl 

Umoaviu.- cents per raw or. 

Anr»7 495X0 

May 9? Sd55 492X9 49103 -950 

Am 97 fCCl 

A4 97 56850 49525 497 JZ 

Sew 97 51 IS 532X3 95.00 -7i0 
Dee 97 Sl«i3 5ICX0 5»» -9.1 D 
Jan 93 31.33 

Mar 98 5HJ0 

Es.saes NA Tiff’s, sees 2S 
Tue’s aaen ml 91726 up ’jtsi 


PLATINUM (M*ER) 

MraiOL-Minpwimgi 

Apr 97 373X0 370XS J25SO -170 S13 

Mev97 354X3 

AI97 377X0 371.58 371X0 —ISO 12.C5 

0097 37950 TiOO 275X0 — 170 2.178 

JOn 98 38450 3E50 2fiS3 —240 1.15) 

Es.sdK NA Tuffs, sofas 4.790 

Tue'saaenint 17X45 UP 3(9 

Oose Previous 

LONDON METALS CLME) 

DaBan per metnc tut 
(Uuriiewu (Hfah Grade) 

Spat 15«% 1596-1 1603X0 1604X0 

FtrwC 1639X0 1431.00 1637X0 1638.00 
CUiarCattxxles (High Grade) 

Spot 2JJ0X0 22«X0 2405.00 2408X0 
Forward 2355X0 235oXQ 2356.00 2257X0 

l Morf 

5od 698X0 699.00 695.09 697.00 
Forward 688X0 690 09 665.00 684X2 

Mctet 

Spot 7545XO 7555.05 7415X0 7625.00 
Forward 7660X0 7665X3 7730X0 7735.00 
Tin 

Saul 5635X0 5845XO str yiiy 5040x0 
Famord 5S40X0 5865X2 5B60X3 5865.00 
Ztec <5pedsl Hfao Grade) 

Soot 1281X0 1282X0 127B't 1279 ’4 
Forward 1387X0 1234.ro 1297.00 7 fflJM 

High Low Close cage OpHn 

Financial 

US T. BOLLS (CMSO 

SI ma&gn-M*ol 10a ga 

JUn97 944! 9458 9441 -0.0 L4S8 

Sep 97 9428 *42S 942! 2^57 

Dec 97 94(8 847 

Esi. sales NA Tuffs, sales 7<S 

Tub’s open m 9X55 ofl 113 

SYIL TREASURY I CBOT) 
siaaxaoprui- nsi umsoi ioo t>a 
Jun97 104-35 184-21 104-30 < 02 221.101 

Sep 97 101-11 3 

Dec 97 >03-62 5 

EsLsatts NA Tub's sales S7J3B 
Tub's open int 221.104 oil 2592 

II YR. TREASURY (CBOT) 

SlOaXOOnrrtrv-pts6.Dnasol 100 Od __ 

Ail 97 HB-28 105-17 105-25 * 03 318.194 

Sep 97 105-10 105-03 105-07 -01 15X55 

Doc 97 104-24 50 

Est. sties NA Tub's, sates 81X14 
Tue’sopenint 333X99 to 1583 

US TREASURY BONDS (CBOT) 
ti W3-SH0J0B-MS a amds m %o pci> 

Ail 97 107-23 IO7-0B 107-19 * 04 <05*6 

Sep 97 107-00 104-24 107-05 < 04 33X51 

Dec 97 ID6-70 5.521 

Mar 98 104-10 1X50 

Est. sties NA Tub’s, sates 403X22 
Tuffs open id 47X154 UP 4441 


»i milifan-Ph c+ IBK1 

A’jK 

*if? 

“lift 

JUT® 

9786 

STS’ 

Sep’S 

9282 

97.79 

DkD 

9i.?5 

92-72 

rviarsi 

7775 

92.72 

Jur oi 

92 :o 

T2.6K 

4K. 01 

92.6!. 

9264 

D«Cl 

97S 

97J7 

/;.=s 


97.5s 

Jim 01 

97£t 

CK 

Stpc? 

9X4* 

+14* 

DecO 

91*2 

9242 


9X84 

91X2 

9X75 


91 5£ 


-CUB 
<0X2 
-0.02 
• 0X7 

-0.K 
-0X1 
■001 
-0 01 


B. ■<- *4?.«3 

Tuc’SQW-r-l 2 -S I 01 oW 7982 

BWT1SH FOUND (C’.IER) 

41.500 pcundv. » pr* pound 
Jun 97 lASK liOO \JjitA 
Sep'7 1.6*4 113:0 1.6370 
Dec 97 1X478 

E53 sd« NA. Tue’s sales 15.955 
Tje-'sase.imt ui.Jll UP IS 52 

CANADIAN DOLLAR (CMER) 

: 01.030 dollars. 1 per Can. r 
Jun 97 .7256 
5*p97 77S2 

C«T97 TTt 
•Vwrrw 

Est soles t(A Tut s. tabs ’.j.46S 

T«e’?«en»ru 7B,i ? 9 up 1993 

GERMAN MARK (CMERI 

125 BOO marks. S oc+ mers 


44X55 

35/38 

34.335 

27,144 

JL447 

21.SW 

14.119 
10X33 
7«4s5 
5,541 
4. W7 
IrOl 


25.928 

820 

93 


JT25 

ny. 

■2JSS 

KO*9» 

2037 


5 

4.(64 

Dec 97 

»X5 

7255 

730? 

1.143 

Jan*! 

JOT 



716 

Feb® 

J022 


HKjn Lra Ldess Cljge OpM 

sss SS SS 8g :!jf ^ 

gS 8X gS :iS B 

KS. 35£%55 L "S , »ag 1 

Industrials 
COTTON 2 (NCTN) 

50000 IBS.- cents per*. , 

May 97 7Z10 71XJ 

Ju!97 73.65 7X97 7LM -8.05 W 

Co 97 7505 7-L50 744» -JW J-J! 

Dec 97 7A45 7SX0 7543 *0X7 21wS» 

I Aar 95 7L4S 74A) TWO 2JIS 

May 98 77X0 77X0 7?JM -JW 545 

6s sofas NA Tues. sates 9.505 

Tuc'saoeninl 78.133 ON 113 

HEATWGOR. (NMER) 
J2MDaoi.cemBer^ „ , „„ 

May 97 54*5 53.15 5KJ -JXfl 

Jun 9; S4JS SDJD 53.75 —0X9 

Jui«7 5495 5400 5420 -J® 

A UP 97 iiss 54.90 5490 -0.20 

'-»p97 54X3 55-50 SSJ5 -0-10 

OJ9 1 57.30 5440 55X0 

iiow ?7 S7JS 0X0 S7JS - 0.® 

Dec 97 S8L30 57.75 57.90 

Jen *8 53.70 58.10 & 25 -X(B 

Fetira J04S 58-00 5820 J tUO 

Es* sales NA Tub’s, sales 74X93 
Tiuj'sancrtv^ 171X15 up 7977 
L!GH7SW^T CRUDE (NMER) 

I MO BM - «1 IBS pel nu. 
f.’aw« 20 A’ 1»9I 19.92 -036 

Jun 97 2045 19.98 19.99 —027 

All?; 2140 20X3 20X5 —0.1* 

AU397 BL37 3006 3U» -013 

Stp97 ID 31 20X7 20X9 —013 

Da 9; 23 J9 23X0 7023 —0X1 


Jun 97 

0327 

X796 

5m 

6J.C4 

Sep *7 

60M 

609 

JJHB 

2,542 

C«p 

«o*« 

00*9 

um 

732 

Mar* S 



OJ«» 

2 » 


Esl.safat UA Tic’s, sofas 22.545 
Tue’sopenint 65.795 •» 2029 

JAPANESE YEN (CMB?I 

IS5 inllhan won. S por III) yen 

Jun 97 83)6 £705 £30 

Sep 97 84® £133 X333 

Dec 97 £5® JM30 XRD 

Est. sales ’U-. Tubs, sofas 3X66 
Tue’s open mi 48.670 oh 2431 

SWISS FRANC (CMER) 

t}S699ifms sprrtrcnc 


39.51* 
20X19 
16 JK 
8.879 
5X92 
6.974 
5. Im 
9/J1 
5 J« 
2.551 


85,291 
44547 
30^99 
23.02? 
IW 1 < 
14084 
12X05 
-8.05 7B.MJ 
*0X3 1X63) 
-BLU 7.7« 

^ <0X8 XI24 

Apr* 3023 2DJ3 2027 * 0.03 3,71; 

7AOV98 J022 7022 20.22 ^0.03 4<’=: 

Eg. soles N.A tub’s, sofas 75.996 
Tub’s seen id 398.968 up j«7 

NATURAL GAS (NMER) 

lo.aooimTibitb'i.siKY mm Wu 

/.in- 97 I.SW )X» 1.8*0 


67.063 

1X26 

384 


Jun *7 

son 

J9»8 

49U 

M^95 

Sep 97 

■7059 

7050 

-7Ca5 

2.228 

Dec *7 

JUS 

r® 

.71® 

474 

Es - . joik. NA 

Tuf’i. 

self!, 18.627 



Tur scpeniRt 43. il? up ’.331 


3-MO NTH STERLING IUFFE) 
QOOXOO-ptSM 1D0PC 


JirnT-,’ 

SBP97 
Dee*: 
Mo r* 
JtflWB 
Sep98 
DecfB 
Ma99 
Jjn9* 
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DBC99 
MorOIl 


121.631 

87.7+0 

66.730 

46.»B<. 

36.744 

2-L036 

28750 

1122E 

9.137 

4045 

1433 

1.1(9 


Jun 97 62. X 

Jul 47 62.05 

Aug 97 41 £0 
Sep 97 59X0 


‘7X7 f3-'l iCLI7 - 001 

9103 93.00 9JJ.1 , 0X2 

9U0 92.75 12.78 * 0.M 

»2.6l 92,55 92A» -0 05 

9J47 92X2 9245 -0X5 

«137 92X3 9125 -005 

92-78 »2X( 92X6 - 0 04 

91X1 92.19 «2X1 * 0 Q5 

92 If. 92.14 92.15 ♦ 035 

*210 >2iS 92X9 - 0.04 
N.T. N.T. 92X4 < 0.02 
92X2 91 99 91.99 - 0 02 

Esi. sales 33-06 Pn» sofas. 580*9 
Prey open >nt: KU.9 up HIP 


3-MONTH EUNOMAKK IUFFE} 

D.V.l BliSfen-pKof lOOpa 
AorNT10*10 

“ 9t_75 96.75 96J5 - 801 1299 

9*X6 96.7- *6.74 UndL 224339 

9467 9465 9466 - 0X1 183-133 

«4(9 9o*6 «4(7 ♦ 0X1 193-05 

9430 «427 *429 < 802 1+8.722 

9410 96X6 9408 * 0X2 129.172 

*5X7 95X3 95X5 * 0X1 75-5+2 

9560 95X6 91X8 - 802 71.911 

*5X4 9131 95X2 - OX1 56.165 

95.05 95X4 75. CK - 9X1 31X30 

94.77 94.76 *4 76 Unch. 244(8 

*4X1 *4X0 *4X0 UncfL 28741 

94X8 94-27 9A27 —HOI 7.6*5 

94.07 9407 *4X7 —OX2 1X40 

*1X9 93X9 *3X9 -0.03 263* 

9X77 93J2 9X71 -002 1X53 

N.T. N.T. 93X3 -003 7 

Eg. sofas: 105X37. Prew.soles 158715 
PrBW. open Mu 1.219X19 up 18603 


Mcv97 

Jinw7 

5ep97 

Oec97 

Mur*® 

Jun*8 

Sep*6 

DbcSB 

r.for99 

JIM99 

5cp99 

Dec** 

MOtOO 

JunOO 

StpOO 

Dec® 

Marti 



LONG GILT IUFFE) 

£50X00- ptl8 32nmullMpct 
Jun97 108-25 106-13 1M-19 *048 174243 

Sap97 N.T. N.T. 108-09 » 009 

EsLsdes 3X882. Prew. sties: 55.1® 

Pibw. openMu 174262 eh 3X60 

GERMAN GOVERNMENT BUND (UFFE) 
UM250X® - pH oil OO pel 
Jun97 99J2 99^ 9947 -0X2 351258 

Ce P97 9077 9445 98-50 — OSH 2223 

Est ralet 11X374 Pfaw. soles 157X63 
Prew. apwilnL: 255681 up 4X67 


3-MONTH PIBOR (MATIF) 

FF5 million -pts of 100 pd 
Jun 97 56X4 96X1 9462 +0X1 56,805 
Seo 97 5435 96X2 9452 *0X1 47.196 

Dec 97 9441 9437 96X8 * 0X1 31.176 

Mar 98 96X6 9422 9622 — 0X1 23.900 
Jim 98 9409 94W 9ftX4 -0X1 19,152 
Seo 98 95-89 95-85 95X5 — 0X1 18X36 
DOC 98 95X7 95X2 *5X2 - 0X2 12X01 
Mar 99 *SJV 95-35 95 J5 — 0X2 1Z270 
Jun 99 95.14 95X9 *5.09 — 0X3 4661 
Sep 99 9489 9485 94.86 — 0X1 47® 
Dec 99 94X2 94X2 9462 — 0X3 5,725 
Mar 0C 9JM 914X0 94X0-0.02 367 

Est. waliene: 28.108. Open biU 239.196 off 
2X19. 

3-MONTH EUROURA IUFFE1 
nLimiDon-pis on® pa 
Jun97 9277 9271 9276 *0X9 1)2365 

Sep97 93X6 93X£t 93X3 *007 43749 

Dec97 9214 93X9 9211 * 0X7 38X68 

MOt98 *112 93X7 9210 * 407 22974 


_ JUS? 

Jun 97 1345 1.915 1.9® 15,943 

Jul 97 1.965 1.935 1.9U 13.176 

Aug 97 1.985 1.940 1.980 9.74* 

SBP 97 1.770 1.970 1.990 9.99? 

00 97 2030 2X10 1(00 18.771 

NOW97 2170 21® 2.170 5.972 

Dec*/ 2310 2-30 2-305 to.193 

jpn 9k 2350 2335 23U '3.70; 

FN>98 2-780 2265 2.270 Lis'/ 

MurW 2165 2M5 2150 

Est. sdes NA Tue’s. sofas >9.981 
Tub’s Doer jit 165X36 up H89 

UNLEADED GASOLINE (NMER) 

42X00PO). cents BC< oat 
May 97 63 ® 61® tlXfl —027 A..c:J 

ti® 6135 -0.76 : 

6090 60.95 -041 lO.-C. 

6043 60® -004 5.JoS 

59.15 59.15 - 0J9 -XI 

Od 97 58.15 5215 5E15 *0.74 l.LL 

Es. sales NA Tue’*. sales 22X2? 

Tuffs open int 8S.M6 up 1291 

GASOIL (IPE) 

U 5 dollars pet metiic Ion - lots of 1® Ians 
Apt 97 167.00 165X0 165X0 UnCH. 21.025 
May 97 1 68.75 166.75 167X0 Unch. 12.9S5 
Jun 97 170 75 16875 169.00 -0-50 10.?7'. 
Jul 97 172X0 170.75 170.75 —1X0 “.443 
Aug 97 173X0 in. 00 1 72-50 —1^5 2.221 

Sept «7 17S.75 175X0 174X5 —1X0 1.53+ 
00 97 177.75 17725 176J5 -0.75 1.702 
Not! 97 17BJ0 178X0 178X0 -0.75 84? 

Dec 97 179.® 178.00 179X0 — 0J5 6.61? 
Jan 98 N.T. N.T. 179X0 —075 1.318 

EsL sales: 1.150. Open irttjO&IBI oH 178 
BRENT OIL (IPE) 

UX. dollois per Darrel- lots of 1.000 barrels 
//.ay 97 168. 75 166.75 167X0 Unch. 12.959 
June V7 J70.7516a.75W.0Q —050 10826 
July 97 1 72X0 1 70.751 70 J 5 —1X0 4*uO 
Aug 97 173X0 173.® 172X0 -1JS 2.32) 
Sep 97 175.75 175.00 174 J5 -1X0 1. 52* 

Od 97 1 77.75 1 77—5 176.75 —0.75 1 .702 

Nov97 178X0178X0178X0 —0.7$ Hi 
Dec97 179.00178.00179X0 —0.75 (.81” 

Esi. sales: 1.150. Open lnt.%5,181 off 1 78 

Stock indexes 

5&P COMP. INDEX (CMBl) 
sn.Mc, 

Jun97 76585 751.50 761® -020 173,776 
SCP 97 770® 76125 169® -210 4X73 
Dec 97 776X0 769X0 776X0 -2® 2005 
Mar 98 7*0® 76 

Est. sales NA Tuffs, uies 95.963 
Tuffs open im 181X30 on 134? 

FT5E10Q (UFFE) 

E25 per fade* potnl 

Jun»7 «*6a 428IX 4253X — 120 slAjy 
Spp97 (299 X 4299X C77S - 17X 14*5 

Esi. sales: 125*1. Prcv.safav 17.8*1 
Prew. open ML- 64127 up 1X94 
CAC481MATIF) 

FF200PBT Index point 

Apr *7 2602.0 252 7 X 2527.0- SO.® 25^94 
May 972584X 251 8 X 25135-50X0 3XK) 
Jim 97 2565X 2«B9X 24»X- SlCu'.P^.a 
Sep *7 2576X 2535X 25035- 5350 6X42 
Dec 97 N.T. N.T. 25225-5150 0 

Mar 98 2580X 2580X 2552.0- 50.® 7x04 
Sep 98 N.T. N.T. 2525X— 50.00 1510 
EsL volume 77X40. Open infc cAOl aH 
82a 



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Norwegian Insurer Bids 
To Buy Christiania Bank 


* Bloomberg News 

J OSLO — Storebrand A/S, Norway’s 
targe si insurer, offered Wednesday to 
rake over Christiania Bank A/S in the 
fifth major Nordic bank takeover bid in 
four months. 

! Storebrand is offering Christiania's 
Shareholders one Storebrand share for 
dvery two they hold in Norway’s 
second-largest bank, giving the current 
owners of the two companies 50 percent 


Airbus Gets 
U.K. Order 


Bloomberg News 

LONDON — Airbus Industrie 
gained an edge on its arch-rival 
Boeing Co. on Wednesday by win- 
ning a £600 million ($988 million) 
order from British Midland Air- 
ways Ltd., its first from the air- 
line. 

British Midland, the second- 
biggest British airline after British 
Airways PLC, said it bad ordered 
20 twin -engine A3 20 planes from 
Airbus, a consortium of European 
companies. Midland's fleet of 3S 
planes now includes 26 Boeing 
planes and nine Fokkers. The order 
is for eight A321s. which seal 196 
people, and 12 A3 2 0s. which seal 
i 60 passengers each. 

Analysts said Midland's decision 
may have been due to discounts 
offered by Airbus, which is facing 
intense competition with Boeing as 
airlines replace aging fleets. 

“Nobody pays list price, par- 
ticularly the Likes of British Mid- 
land,” one airline consultant said. 


■ Something S mall in Denmark 

Unibank AS, Denmark’s second- 
largest bank, said it had taken over the 
banking activities of Borum 
Sparekasse. a one-man savings bank 
that closed Tuesday, Bloomberg report- 
ed from Copenhagen. 

Ove Hvede Nielsen, 75, who took 
over the small bank in 1 982, said he was 
retiring and could not pass Borum 
Sparekasse on to his sons because ’ ’they 
have jobs, and this is a pensioner's job.” 
Borum Sparekasse ended its 123 years 
in business with 4.7 million kroner 
($739,000) in deposits and 500,000 
kroner in loans, Unibank said. 




IMF Encourages Russians 


■ we* 5 

L I 2650 


each of the new company. The bid was 
valued at 12 3 billion kroner ($1.84 bil- 
lion ) at Tuesday 's closing prices, but the 
news of the bid, which the companies 
described as a “merger of equals." sent 
shares in both companies soaring more 
than 6 percent Wednesday, raising it to 
more than 13 billion kroner. 

Scandinavian banks and insurance 
companies have been scrambling to 
consolidate and cut costs as Europe pre- 
pares to introduce a single currency, 
which would give foreign banks easier 
access to much of the region. In the past 
four months, the Nordic financial in- 
dustry has seen takeover bids valued at 
more than $7 billion. 

Den norske Bank A/S, Norway’s 
largest bank, is battling with Fakus 
Bank A/S, a regional bank, to acquire 
Bolig- og Naeringsbanken A/S. 

A combined Storebrand and Chris- 
tiania Bank, which would be called 
Christiania ASA, would have a market 
value of 26 billion kroner and assets of 
272 billion kroner. It would be the Nor- 
dic region's sixth-biggest financial in- 
stitution. Christiania Bank's shares rose 
1.40 kroner, or 6.1 percent, to close at 
24.50. Storebrand rose 2.80, or 6.3 per- 
cent, to 47 .50. 


Fund Chief Tells Moscow to Push On With Reform 


by Our S&tf From Duparha 

MOSCOW — The International Monetaiy 
Fund's managing director, Michel Camdessus, 
said Wednesday that Russia deserved financial 
support for its next stage of economic reforms. 


though he stopped short of promising to free 
delayed payments of a $10.1 billion loan. 

This is the time “for us, 
in the international commu- 
nity, to go ahead with our ‘Now shoillc 

support for the completion * 

of your reforms,’’ Mr. Cam- a new a 

dess us said at the Moscow start, 9 the O 

State Institute of Interna- 

tional Affairs. 

That support includes “resuming our financ- 
ing and risking our resources once again in 
support of your economic program,” he said. 
Mr. Camdessus said, “Now should be the time 
for anew and decisive start, and this is a moment 
when success is within reach.” 

Improving Russia’s tax system, restarting 
economic growth and rooting out corruption are 
the three major tasks facing the nation now, he 
said- 

Refonns should aim for “a simple and trans- 
parent regulatory system” and “an effective 
legal and judicial system that protects property 


'Now should be the time 
for a new and decisive 
start , 9 the official said. 


rights, enforces contracts and helps create an 
atmosphere of law, order and personal secu- 
rity,” he said. 

Mr. Camdessus also said an important ele- 
ment in the fight against corruption was to 
refocus the state's role in the economy on its 
basic tasks, which he said would eliminate op- 
portunities for corruption. 

_ “This means removing 

be the time unnecessary government 

I , . . regulations and controls, 

decisive strengthening the legal 

icial said. system, and establishing 

" an arms-length relation- 
ship between business and 
government,” he said- 

The IMF chief arrived in Moscow on Monday 
to meet with Russian officials in an effort to 
reach agreement on freeing the delayed pay- 
ments of the IMF's $10.1 billion loan. 

Die IMF has suspended loan disbursals under 
the three-year credit agreed with Russia last year 
because of Moscow's failure to live up to the 
economic conditions set out under the pact. 

Mr. Camdessus stopped short of saying that 
the fund would release the next installments, 
although Russian officials and others expressed 
optimism. {Bloomberg, Reuters) 


1 3600 

l 3400 

\ 3000 ft . 

! 3000 -fL \ 

2800 — ;■ 

i- 1096 1997 - 

i 51 


- -• 4650 

f - 4500 "T 

— _ 4350 " 

— i 4200- -J 

— y 4050 -W*- 

3®‘V r D r j r TM~A‘- 



N bJ F M A 
1996 1997 


- Wednesday Prw. 
■-.Close Close 


TOSjSS ■ 706.60 -0-OT 

IttRSe 2,104 .29 +0.13 
3,301.91 3,295^3 *0.18 

52^27 52S-7? +0.68 

2L744J-4 2,784. 45 -1.43 
5T&39 S73&? -0.10 


4248.1 0 -027 


Source: Tetekum 


465.14 - 0-24 

: . 11,84000 *005 

d^:^a3ai43^ g>8g7Q i 

-U8&4 & -q.59 

InmmxHmi) Herald TnbiiW 


Very briefly: 


German Trade Surplus Narrows 


Bloomberg News 

WIESBADEN. Germany — 
The merchandise trade surplus 
narrowed in January as a falling 
Deutsche mark made imports 
more costly and German exports 
cheaper, but the current-account 


deficit widened sharply, govern- 
ment data showed Wednesday. 


ment data showed Wednesday. 

The trade surplus shrank to 5.6 
billion DM ($335 billion) from 


73 bfliion DM in December, al- 
though it was up from 4.6 billion 
DM in January 1996, the Federal 
Statistics Office said. 

“It's no real decline," Michael 
Clauss, an economist at Credit 
Suisse First Boston, said. “I 
would see it as a one-off event.” 

The current-account deficit, a 
broader measure that reflects 
trade in services and investments 


as well as merchandise, widened 
to 93 billion DM in January from 
a revised 900 million DM a 
month earlier as wage and in- 
vestment costs rose. 

January’s wage and invest- 
ment deficit of 5.4 billion DM 
reversed a surplus of 1.1 billion 
DM the month before. The cur- 
rent-account deficit in January 
1996 was 4.1 billion DM. 


• The European Union’s trade talks with the United States 

about exports of EU meat and poultry have been extended two- 
weeks, delaying any implementation of a threatened ban of 
EU-produced meat by the United States. 1 

• BASF AG cited “improved prospects’] foM997 earnings. * T 
as first-quarter sales grew at a “double-digit” rate; it did not. 
elaborate. The chemical maker said pretax profit rose 13; 
percent in the fourth quarter of 1 996, to 1 .04 billion Deutsche 
marks ($6253 million). 

• Lloyd’s of London said it earned £1.01 billion ($1.66. 
billion) in 1994, its second profitable year in a row. 

• Carlton Co mmunica tions PLC bought Rank Group, 

PLC’s film-distribution business for £65 million, giving the ■ 
British broadcasters library of 740 movies including works by. 
Alfred Hitchcock and David Lean. " 

• Russian consumer prices rose 1.4 percent in March. com- _ 

pared with 13 percent in February. Bloomberg, ap- 






SPAIttrBREAK 


A STOPOVER IN SEVILLE CAN SATISFY A PASSION 
FOR THE MOST PALATIAL OF LIFE’S TREASURES 


The capital of Andalusia is arguably the most beautiful city in Spain. Its hidden 
delighrs and unique character are joys shared by ics people and its visitors. 




OECD: Chief Strives to Shift Think Tank’s Focus 


Continued from Page 13 


ded and is financed out of current income. 
Mr. Johnston agreed with estimates that 
while pension contributions currently ac- 
count for about 15 percent of annual rev- 
enues. these will probably jump to 35 per- 
cent by the year 2000. 

“If no adjustment is made on pensions,” 
Mr. Johnston said, “then this organization 
will be condemned to extinction because ul- 
timately all die OECD revenues will be used 
for pension payments.” He said an inde- 
pendent group of experts was helping him to 
find a solution. 

Asked how he was functioning in the ab- 
sence of three of his four deputies, Mr. John- 
ston admitted that “it is difficult.” Mr. 
Kaufmann-Buhler did not wish to comment 
on reports that France and Germany have 
spent months vetoing each other’s candidates, 
but Mr. Harth of France spoke bluntly: 
“France wants a Frenchman in the job and 
Germany wants a German. These things hap- 
pen, but we will resolve it.” 

On the policy front, Mr. Johnston’s top 
priority is an effort to prepare current and 
future OECD members for the challenges of 
globalization. He said he hoped to focus at the 


v 

annual mee ting of trade and finance ministers 
on May 26 on a new study of globalization - 
that seeks to establish trend-lines from now' 
until the year 2020. 

“Our study points to the evolution of the 
OECD,” he said, “which can no longer be an . 


inward looking group of nations. We have to - 
reorient our thinking toward emerging sov- 


reorient our thinking toward emerging sov- 
ereign states which will have a major geo- 
political influence on the world, like the Big 
Five of China, India, Brazil. Indonesia and 
Russia.” These countries. Mr. Johnston said,- 
would probably bave “major growth out to 
die year 2020” while traditional OECD mem-, 
bers would probably have “slow growth” of 
between 2 and 3 percent in that period. 

The other priority for Mr. Johnston's 
OECD will be to examine the social aspects of- 
economic growth. Asked if Europe's high 
-unemployment worries him because- of the 
risk of social instability. Ml Johnston said; "I 
am very concerned. This is one of our major 
preoccupations. 

All of our prescriptions for economic' 
growth wifi have to be tempered by political: 
judgment about social cohesion. It’s very easy - 
for an economist to prescribe reforms, but we . 
have to take into account the importance of 
social cohesion.” 


FARES: One Firm Gives Others Cut-Rate Travel I 


Continued from Page 13 


flights that companies needed 
to get their people to places at 
the last minute. 

“It is moral and legal and 
well within the spirit of de- 
regulation,” Mr. Levine said 
of Mr. Mitchell’s effort. But 
he added, “I think it's im- 
practical and won’t work." 

It is not the first time that 
companies have tried to gain 
more control over business 
travel. As long ago as 1984. 
Kimberly-Gark Corp. was 
frustrated enough to get into 
the airline business itself, 
founding Midwest Express, a 
low-cost carrier that provided 
the only direct service be- 
tween Appleton, Wisconsin, 
its headquarters at the time, 
and Atlanta, then its most 
heavily traveled route. 

Hie company, a paper- 
products maker now based in 
Dallas, took Midwest public 
in 1995 and sold its final stake 
last year. 

These days, companies are 
trying a number of ways to 
rein in travel costs as part of 
their effort to contain ex- 
penses. Travel budgets are a 
fat target because they are 
more discretionary than many 
other expenses. The efforts 
have ranged from cutting 
back on the number of trips to 
encouraging employees to 
stay at their destinations over 
a Saturday night to get lower 
fares. 


For all his more ambitious 
plans, Mr. Mitchell said there 
were moments when he con- 
sidered folding die consorti- 
um venture, wondering 
whether he had made a mis- 
take by walking away from a 
good job at Ggoa Corp., foe 
Philadelphia-based insurer 
where the idea for foe con- 
sortium was bom. 

Mr. Mitchell's saga began 
in the summer of 1992. Dur- 
ing a meeting with his di- 
vision president, Mr. 
Mitchell, then a Cigna vice 
president responsible for a 
$60 million travel budget, ex- 
plained that because of Amer- 
ican Airlines' widely publi- 
cized “Value Pricing” plan, 
most corporate discounts had 
been wiped ouL 
“What are we going to do 
about this?” he was asked. ■ 
Mr. Mitchell did not know. 
But the more he studied foe 
industry, the more he was 
struck by how money traded 
hands in so many directions. 


tune 100 companies urging 
him on in his research. 

Mr. Mitchell hatched an 
unusual plan — he wanted 
airlines to offer coroorate cus-. 
tomers guaranteed fares that 
had been stripped of all un- 
necessary costs, such as com-, 
missions and fees for com- 
puter reservation systems. He 
also wanted a simplified fare 
structure based on the length 
of trips. He thought compa- 
nies could pay travel agencies, 
flat fees for their services 
rather than airlines paying, 
them commissions. 

By July 1995, the consor- 
tium won foe blessing of the' 
Justice Department, giving if 
a measure of protection. Mr./ 
Mitchell then started devels' 


oping proposals for individu- 
al airlines. 


Airlines were paying extra 
munissions to travel aeen- 


conuxussions to travel agen- 
cies to steer corporate cus- 
tomers their way. for ex- 
ample, and the agencies were 
giving rebate checks to cor- 
porate travel managers in re- 
turn for foe business. 

When he called travel man- 
agers at other large compa- 
nies. Mr. Mitchell heard sim- 
ilar complaints. 

By the spring of 1993, Mr. 
Mitchell said, he had 20 For- 


al airlines. 

Chari es Braswell, manage^ 
of general services for 
Chrysler Corp., said he had! 
already seen benefits in th£ 
form of deeper fare discounts' 
that he attributed to member,-' 
ship in the consortium. 

“I looked at it as a long- 
term initiative from foe! 
start," he said. 

Currently, Mr. Mitchell is! 
talking to operators such as! 
Flight Services to see whether 
foe economics of a corporate- 
jet airline would work. * 

“The market is so big, and; 
the problems are so varied,”! 
Mr. Mitchell said. "There is’ „ 
room for multiple solu-\ 
tions. - ” 






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Very briefly; 

*i’ ^? S ^ 11 ^ > a ^' or P*J S°nj Corp. and other leading consmner- 
tnectromcs manufacturers agreed on a common standard for 

^ drgtal videodisks that can record as well as read data. 

^ Co*’ s shares rose 3 percent to close at 8,000 

VWl f£6*» R41 jrftPT fnmnam. «.«v£l J 




- ___ "i m M .-T MUIMV U pwytbiu IUP 

year ended Monday. Tbe company operates the theme park. 

•Japan’s small companies are pooriy prepared to deal with a 

possible “millennium computer crash” and are about six 
months behind American arm European companies in. efforts 
to rewrite software programs to acc ommodate dates starting 
with 2000, a survey of a 900 companies s ho wed. 

• South Korean automakers sold more cars and tracks over- 
seas than they did at home for the’ first time in March as 

earlier, to 131,261 vehicl^^tdomestic salesfiill 10 percent 
to 119,828. 1 

• Peregrine Investments Holdings Ltd-’s profit last year fell 
IS percent, to 85S.6 milli on Hong Kong dollars ($110.4 

A^nillion), but the previews year's earnings were inflated by a 
•one-time gain of 767 million dollars fro m die sale of a British 
unit. Revenue more than doubled, to 175.5 billion dollars from 
844 trillion dollars. 

• Broken HID Pty., an Australian energy and resources com- 
pany , and its partners in the $236 billion Bayu-Undan gas field 
project in the Timor Sea spelled out terms of the prqjectand 
named BHP as operator. 

• U.S. Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin leaves Thursday 
on a six-day trip to Japan, Vietnam and the Philippines. 

Bloomberg, Reuters 



Cou p H u tly Om- SufFnmt D b pmi ia 

TOKYO — A central bank 
survey that was made public 
Wednesday showed some im- 
provement in the mood of 
corporate Japan but also high- 
lighted insecurity about the 
future, leaving policymakers 
little room to tighten credit. 

The Bank of Japan's 
-quarterly survey, known as 
. vthe ionium, showed that cor- 
porate managers wens more 
optimistic about their pros- 
pects than they were three 
months ago. although they 
also were bracing themselves 
for a slowdown this summer. 

“The tankm data vividly 
illustrate the sluggishness of 
die recovery,” Junji Ohta, an 
economist with Okasan Eco- 
nomic Research Institute, 
said. “Business sentiment of 
no nmanufac turars was partic- 
ularly bad.” He said the sur- 
vey, combined with an in- 
crepqg- jn Japan 's cxxisuruppoo 
tax iM went into effect tins 
week and contiomng bad-debt 
problems at many major 


banks, would probably make 
it difficult far the Bank of Ja- 
pan to “make amove 00 mon- 
etary policy now.” 

Maoyother analysts agreed 
thattbe survey results were not 
strong enough to spur the cen- 
tral book to lift interest rates 
from current rock-bottom 
levels. The survey showed that 
many companies bad seen 
growth during the past two 
quarters but that most feared 
mat higher taxes would hurt 
consumer spending. 

Minister of Finance 
Hiroshi Mitsuzuka said the 
survey strooorCed the govern- 


ment's forecast that japan’s 
gross domestic prodnet would 
grow 25 percent this year. 

The survey’s sentiment in- 
dex for major manufacturers 
was plus 2, improved from 
minns 3 in November. It was 
die first time the index had 
moved into positive territory 

ffiwmmg that Optimistic 

managers outnumbered pes- 
simistic ones — in six years. 

(Bloomberg, Reuters, AFX) 



FL TRUST SWITZERLAND 

Soci6t£ d'lnvestissemeitf a Capital Variable - SICAV 
26, avenue Monterey 
L-2^63 LUXEMBOURG 

RX. Luxembourg B 84446 

Shareholders are hereby convened lo attend the Statutory 
S£ne of the fireholdeia, which will 
the company’s registered officr m Luxembourg on AprJl 5, 
1997 at 15KW for the purpose of considering and voting upon 
the followi np points 

^ pfdnA f ffTffE STATUTORY GENERAL MEBDMfi 

I. Reports ofthe Board ofMreetew mm4 oTihc 
gis J^endrat Auditor, 

X »!«*«« to .k. Dlr.«*.» — 1 *" 
bdepenwn* Auditor. 

4 Statutory a^ppotatoMM** 5 
5. WberDuireoBs. 

w UIiME - * 

-a prow to the rc ^" p ^° registered sbarebdders. Proxy 

Th, own® of f ^ 

dear days before the meeting alflther. 

. * FERB1ER LULUN {LUXEMBOURG S.A, 

BANQUt- ^ L . 21d3 Uaanbomg 

26. ai-enue Monterey, JS f-e peiltot, 

- PERRIER __ LUTTIN * C1E 5-A-, 

- ™iS 5 Bm'o'BPORATION. O.r &d.»og. S,.^ 

25th Floor. 8, Comaujht Pluw, U<»6 K< ®S F _75008 

BBUXELLk ^HE BOARD OF WBECTOKS 


Saga of Singapore Cybersound I Airbus Woos Chirm 


Bloomberg News 

SINGAPORE — Sim Wong Hoo. 
chief executive of Creative Technology 
Ud., is used to skeptics. 

The Singmoxe-based company, 
which created me standard for computer 
sound cards in the 1 980s, feoes a mourn- 
ing challenge as efripmakers worldwide 
start lodring to the computer audio mar- 
ket that it dominates. 

But Mr. Sim, whose love of music led 
him to develop the technology for am- 
ateur musicians, said giants such as Intel 
Corp. were not a real threat to Creative’s 
products, winch enable computers to re- 
cord and play back stereo-quality sound. 

Judging by Creative’s stock perfor- 
mance, investors cannot decide what to 
believe. The shares surged K> a 52-week 
high of 21.70 Singapore dollars ($15.02) 
on Feb. 3 after the company got lid of an 
unprofitable unit. They have since 
tumbled 36 percent, to close Wednesday 
at 13.80. with most of the decline com- 
ing after Cyrix Corp. introduced a 
beefed-up microprocessor that could 
make sound cards redundant. 

“Certainly it’s a possibility that 
sound capability is moving onto the 
computer directly, but that’s not a trend 
that's gaining momentum yet,” Geoff 
Ballew, an analyst at the market-re- 
search concern Dataquest Inc., said. 
“There's still a high number of com- 
puters without sound, and that’s where 
Creative’s market is." Mr. Ballew es- 
timates there are 100 million computers 


in the world without audio capability, 
which can easily be added by insTaiiing a 
sound card. Creative Technology has 
two-thirds of the sound-card market. 
The company has responded to its po- 
tential challengers by going on the of- 
fensive. It won a restraining order this 
week to stop Cyrix and a U.S. retailer, 
TigerDirect Inc., from 
saying that computers w j wggwgsgg ggB 
with Cyrix's MediaGX f ISBIuffiETB 
chips could run soft- SS 
ware written for the 
SoundBlaster standard. " 

Mr. Sim, one of Smga- 

pore’s foremost entre- pj||! 

preneuzs, said the com- 

pany would defend its 7 

niche by listening to its ^ f 

customers. “If they ?*&$ J 

want sound cards, I sell 

sound cards,” be said. ‘96 

“If they want chips, I 

have caps. I sell what fetSSfelS 

the madoet wants.” To 

keep in touch with the 

people who use its products. Creative is 

building a “multimedia corridor" — a 

high-tech games and music arcade for 

students and hobbyists to uy new 

products — at its Singapore headquarters. 

Mr. Sim has been doubted before. When 

Singapore’s stock exchange turned down 

lus request fora public listing, he turned to 

the Nasdaq market in the United States for 

funds in August 1992. The Singapore 

exchange welcomed the prodigal son in 


June 1994, and it is now its biggest elec- 
tronics company. 

Creative used to battle other sound- 
card makers, small companies largely 
ran by entrepreneurs. Now, chip compa- 
nies, which make the basic micropro- 
cessors that power personal computers, 
are adding sound features. Intel, Cyrix, 
Advanced Micro 
g .j Devices Inc. and S3 
Inc. are among the 
world's biggest chip 
companies that are 
; moving in that direc- 

. \ tion. Although their 

KjL •• products will enable 

f ^ H computers to cotne 

1 **- W - with basic audio, that 

" feature will come at a 

— IrHjwCT higher price. But be- 
IttiiiflGflH cause the new chips 
*97 y are typically sold with 

high-end computers, 
it will be difficult to 

■ •* -1 determine the differ- 

017 ence in pice, analysts 
say. Creative's sound-card customers 
typically have a relatively simple per- 
sonal computer at home and buy the card 
and accessories whenever they have the 
money. But that may change when semi- 
conductor companies reduce prices of 
microprocessors with multimedia func- 
tions to a point where it makes sense to 
buy a multimedia PC off the shelf, Eddy 
Tan. an analyst at Vickers Balias In- 
vestment Research, said. 


Officials Say a Major Safe Is Near 

Cmf&dbpOiwSufFmmDiapmcbn 

BEIJING — Airbus Industrie hopes to seize on China’s 
need for planes for its expanding domestic market and to 
sell as many as 75 airliners to Beijing next month, 
industry officials said Wednesday. 

The deal could be signed by President Jacoues Chirac 
of France when he visits Beijing in May, said a Western 
industry official who asked not to be identified further. 

jn addition to buying as many as 75 airliners. Airbus 
hopes China will sign an option on 25 more during Mr. 
Chirac’s visit, the official said. 

“Certainly we'd expect to sell more than 30” during die 
visit. Jonathan Dong, an Airbus spokesman in Beijing, said. 
An order for 30 aircraft, valued at mere than $15 
would exceed recent orders from China announced by 
Boeing Co., the world’s largest corranercial-aiiplane 
maker. 

China's aircraft purchases arc centrally controlled by 


of an immine nt $2 billion Airbus sale “sheer rumor. ’ 
Another Chinese aviation official said a deal was 
expected during Mr. Chirac’s visit but declined to say 
how many aircraft Beijing might decide to purchase or 
which of China's domestic and international airlines 
would use the planes. Four Chinese domestic airlines now 
use Airbus planes. 

Airbus, the European consortium, and Boeing are 
locked in a battle for sales in the world's fastest-growing 
aviation market. 

Boeing forecasts that China’s civil-aviation industry 
will grow about 8 percent annually, twice the world 
average, over the next 20 years. (Reuters, Bloomberg) 


•' %, • > .'V-,/ •<<'»', t ■y'i 

COMBINEDNET' 

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DEXIA - COMBINED, NET INCOME OF 
FRF 3.2 BILLIONitftejLUON 




Dexia-vras o , eafed bv v ' 

• •. • v . **.. . V . - Z 

tite European alliance of , * 
two ban^in^.i-nstitutioiLS. »; . 
Credit local dc France and- 
Credir Cpmhhinal 
5 ;* 5 . de.BeJ§?qw€. - . | 

The grouiv now' has a work 
force of 10.000 total, * 
assets of FRF t ;?oo bj flion . 
‘/BEF 6,7 z\ bUlkH^’ * - 
shareholders^ equity of 
. ! FRf 42 hilhon. 

/BEE 256^.6 billion and . 
market capita fixation of 
' ! FRF 42 billion 

/BE F -256.6 bil tiOn. 

fr ‘ 

Dexia combines 
the competence, and 
fmaitaal resources of 
* its two pai'tnei^: “■* 

Credit local cfe France is T 
the leader in financing 'J 
public service fiFfi titles' . 

/ ..i n T ranee .aitcj 
one the ftyremost isso^rs - 
in tlief interna riorial 
financial' markf'ts; 

, Cred i l C< xm m txria} Be 

* * “ * ' V 

Behpquejs Belgium's 
lead tjf»s T* epos i t hank - 
and ftnxnct^i 90^ of. 
the Belgian lot l sector. 

/ • ^ „ * 

This alliance has allowed 

- „ Dexia tu dcvelopits. . 

. : iittentarional -.strategy'; 

•' ' iiii order to berome fhe 

/ leader m the fitutncii^ 
of .public service facilities ~ 
o in Europe ^and 
. rhi ou^hnut the worjd. T 
; - • <. 




y DEXIA IS A GROUP WITH EXTENSIVE KNOW-HOW 
IN SEVERAL BUSINESSES INVOLVING LIMITED RISK 


The Dexia group concentrates on three main 
activities. 

* Financing public service projects and financial 
services for focal governments. For 1996, the 
new loansby Credit local de France and Crtdit 
Communal de Belgique and their subsidiaries 
attained the record sum of FRF 100 billion 
/BEFfin.i billion. 

■General banking services, especially via Credit 


Communal de Belgique and Banque 
Internationale a Luxembourg (BID. Total 
deposits in this domain rose by 6% in 1996. 

* Asset management, carried out mainly by 
Banque Internationale a Luxembourg ©HJ and 
Credit Communal de Belgique through private 
and fund management. Assets under 
management total are FRF 70 billion 
/BEF 427.7 billion. 


COMBINED NET INCOME FOR 1996 HAS RISEN 
SIGNIFICANTLY, REFLECTING THE DYNAMISM CREATED 
BY THE MERGER AND THE GROUP'S GROWTH POTENTIAL 






Net bankteg Income rose by 10% to FRF 12.6 billion 
and by 12.7% to BEF 76.3 billion, a substantial 
growth rate which is representative of the strong 
activity of ail the group's companies. 

The management of operating expenses (*f>4® 
has resulted in an operating ratio of 51.8X. which 
is one of the best performances in the banking 
industry. 

Gross operating income reached FRF 6.1 billion 


Net income per share 
Dividend per share 

w prppcMW 

^excluding tax credit 


X PROSPECTS 

The Dexia group has acquired a European 
dimension which ensures its expansion. It will 
continue 10 emphasize the complementary 
aspects of its three activities, and to develop 
strong synergies. 

Since the potential for growth exists in Europe. 
Dexia will continue its development in the 
domestic market - now synonymous with Europe 
- particularly in France and Belgium. At the 
same time, the group will accentuate its 
international growth with a view to becoming 


Pierre Richard 
Chairman 


representing a 14.1% increase and BEF 36.8 trillion 
representing a 14% increase. 

Net income rose to FRF 3^ billion and BEF 19.4 
billion, showinga 104 % and a 13. t* increase over 
pro forma net income for 1995. 

The pourcentage are not identical taking to 
accountthe development of currency exchange 
rates. 


x .*.v 




wt' 


increasingly active throughout the world, 
especially in eastern Europe, North and South 
America and Asia, where profitable markets 
and opportunities for financing exist 

The group's objective is to increase profitability 
for its diems, its employees and shareholders. 
The group aims to increase its return on equity, 
which currently stands at n*. to rff> in the middle 
term. It will continue an active dividend 
distribution policy. 


Francois Narmon 

Chairman 


Contact : 

Dexia France 
B.P. 1002 

F-75901 Paris cede* 15 
Tel. : (33> 1 43 92 77 77 
Fax : (33) 1 43 92 70 00 
Internet : 

hnp;// www. dexia.com 

Dexia Belgium 

Bd Pacheco 44 
B-1000 Brussels 
Tel. : Ijz) 2 122 n n 
Fax : (32) 2 222 40 32 
Internet : 

http://www.dexia.com 


1.97 Euro bn 


1.78 Euro bn 



COM B INED.iEiGU RES 

hj-01 Euro pn 


' ■?:- r.y ^r 7 -. • in * -v 


0.35 Euro 




Net banking income 


X '- r: -- 



^Gross operating incpn^E: 







PAGE 20 


Very English lions 


rugby union Martin Johnson, 
an English forward, will captain the 
British Lions on their first tour of 
South Africa in 17 years. The Lions 
select from the four British Isles 
rugby unions. The 35-man party 
contains 1 8 En glish players. The 1 3- 
game tour starts in May and ends 
with three tests against the Spring- 
boks. In eight tours of South Africa 
starting in 1910 the Lions have won 
only eight of 30 tests. ( Reuters ) 


Sheffield’s Record Deal 


basebai L Gary Sheffield 
agreed Wednesday to the largest 
contract package in baseball his- 
tory, a $61 million, six-year ex- 
tension with the Florida Marlins. 

The contract runs from 1998 
through 2003. In total money, it 
surpasses Albert Belle’s $55 mil- 
lion, five-year contract with the 
Chicago White Sox. San Fran- 
cisco’s Barry Bonds is third at 
$43.75 million over six years. (API 


Evidence Against Mesa 


baseball A 26-year-old wom- 
an testified that Cleveland Indians 
pitcher Jose Mesa struck her in the 
mouth with a bathroom door and 
fondled her against her will in a 
motel room. 

Cuyahoga County Judge Thomas 
Curran would not allow die woman 
to testify about what happened to 
ber friend, whom prosecutors say 
was raped by Mesa during a car ride 
from a nightclub. (AP) 


NCAA Ratings Improve 


basketball The NCAA men's 
championship game between Ari- 
zona and Kentucky drew a bigger 
television audience than last year, 
but was the third-lowest of 23 finals 
shown on CBS. the U.S. national 
network. Monday's game, won by 
Arizona in overtime, drew an 18.9 
Nielsen rating. That was up 3 per- 
cent from last year’s 183 rating for 
Kentucky’s victory over Syracuse. 

Tennessee’s victory over Old 
Dominion in the women's cham- 
pionship game Sunday drew a 4.0 
rating on ESPN, the U.S. sports 
network, meaning it was seen in 
2.85 milli on households. 

• Temple center Marc Jackson 
said he would forego his final year 
of eligibility and make himself 
available for the NBA draft (APj 


McCall in Mental Hospital 


boxing Oliver McCall, a former 
heavyweight champion, was 
ordered to a mental hospital over the 
weekend after his wife took out an 
emergency custody order against 
him. McCall was evaluated by a 
mental health expert, who testified 
Saturday that McCall was mentally 
ill and in need of hospitalization. He 
was sail to the Southern Virginia 
Mental Health Institute in Danville. 

In February, McCall broke into 
tears during a WBC title fight 
against Lennox Lews. . (AP) 


Hingis Wins First as No. 1 


tennis Martina Hingis, playing 
ber first match as the No. 1 player in 
the world, beat Barbara Rittoer, 6-0, 
6-4, in the second round of the Fam- 
ily Circle Magazine Cop on Hilton 
Head Island, South Carolina. (AP) 


Tour Will Start in Ireland 


cycling The 1998 Tour de 
France will begin in Ireland, keep- 
ing 



HTEtfUIONALMy *, 


Sports 


THURSDAY, APRIL 3, 1997 


World Roundup 


White Sox Rally 
To Win in Toronto 


Gmydeill? Staff Fm Dapulthn 

TORONTO — Other owners can say 
what they want about the $ 1 1 million a 
year Jerry Reinsdorf forced on Albert 
Belle, but they have to admit that the 
Chicago White Sox's owner believes in 
truth in advertising. 

Belle and Frank Thomas, considered 
die most dreaded duo in any team's 
lineup, fulfilled their preseason buildup 




Tuesday as the White Sox rallied from a 
three-run deficit and edged the Toronto 
Blue Jays, 6-5, in 10 innings. 

They did so before a crowd of 40,299 
that did not fill the Skydome seats with 
bodies or the stadium with noise and 
excitement for the occasion. 

The occasion was opening day. De- 
spite the major leagues' best efforts to 
avoid early-season postponements the 
Orioles decided to play their home 
opener Wednesday against the Kansas 
City Royals, rather than buck the cold 
weather and high winds in Baltimore. 

The season has been dedicated to the 
50th anniversary of Jackie Robinson's 
breaking the color barrier in the major 
leagues, and Robinson commemorative 
baseballs were used in all of the opening 
day games. 

At the Skydome, the White Sox and 
the Blue Jays each drove two of the 
Robinson baseballs over the fences. The 
souvenirs the White Sox gave the fans 
were the most devastating. 

Norberto Martin, who hit only one 
home run all last season, went to bat as a 
pinch-hitter for Chicago at the top of the 
ninth inning and swung at the fust pitch 
Mike Timlin threw in relief of Rat Hent- 


gen, last year’s Cy Young award winner. 
Martin hit the hanging slider over the left- 
center-field fence, tying the game. 5-5. 

The Blue Jays had been coasting with 
a comfortable 5-2 lead until Belle fol- 
lowed a Thomas single in the eighth by 
hitting his first home run of 1997. 

"You can’t afford to blink,” said 
Roger Clemens, who will make his first 
start Wednesday night for the Blue Jays. 
"Those guys will get you quick.” 

Belle gave himself and Thomas an A- 
plus for their first game toother. 

"Frank got a couple hits, scored a 
couple runs, the usual Frank Thomas,” 
Belle said. ‘ ‘I was able to capitalize on a 
few mistakes and hit them around the 
ballpark.” ■ . 

Between them. Belie and Thomas hit 
only one home run in spring training. 

“I looked terrible in the spring.” he 
said. "You go into spring training, you 
just want to get some at-bais in. You get 
in a groove of playing on an everyday 
basis. Once die season starts, everything 
is for keeps. These are the statistics that 
count.” 


One out after Martin tied the game in 
the ninth. Tony Phillips hustled a single 
into a double for his third hit. T imlin 
retired Dave Martinez for the second out, 
putting Thomas at the plate and Belle in 
the on -deck circle. What to do? 

"They pick their own medicine,” 
Phillips said. "They got to go to one of 
them/’ 

Asked if he considered walking 
Thomas and pitching to Belle, Ciio 
Gaston, the Toronto manager, said, 
"You're probably going to do that 
sometime.” 

"Either way you might add a run by 
doing that.” Gaston said. "You might let 
Frank hit one out, then pitch around 
Albert You hope he’s not going to hit one 
out himself. It's either do I want to add a 
run or do I want to take a chance?” 

The key. Gaston said, is to keep the 
hitters before Thomas and Belle off 
base. 

Clemens said a pitcher could walk 
both. 

"You have to take each game as it 
comes,” he said. “If they’re both 
locked in and they’re doing their dam- 
age, you might have to go around both of 
them, which you might see at times.” 

Asked if he understood how a pitcher 
feels facing the dilemma. Belle said: 
“Hopefully, he’s in an uncomfortable 
situation. I wouldn't want to face either 
one of us. It’s good that it’s in the back 
of everyone’s mind.” 

The White Sox won the game in the 
10th inning. 

With two out, Dan Plesac walked Ray 
Durham. Then Tony Pena hit a grounder 
in the bole between short and third that 
rolled under the glove of Alex Gonza- 
lez, the shortstop, into short left field. 
Durham, who was running with the 
pitch, kept running and slid home ahead 
of Shawn Green’s throw. 

Marmara 4, Vfcnlwes 2 Hte New York 
Yankees began the defense of their 1996 
World Series title in the wrong town 
against the wrong team. 

Since the start of (he 1995 season, the 
Yankees had lost 14 of 16 games under 
the Kingdome’s roof, including Game 5 
of the v 95 American League playoffs 
when the Mariners eliminated them in 1 1 
innings. 

The 1997 season opener proved no 
different. 

Ken Griffey homered in his first two 
ai-bats and Jeff Fassero won his AL 
debut as the Mariners beat New York. 


"We’ve got eveiything here,” Grif- 
fey said. "Pitching, offense, speed.” he 
said. "Guys who do different things at 
the plate and in the field.” 

Griffey, who hit a franchise-record 49 
home runs last season despite missing 20 
games because of a broken bone in his 
right hand, homered in the first and third 
innings against David Cone, the loser. 

Hangars 6, Brew e ra 2 In Arlington. 
Texas, the newly acquired John Wette- 
land gave the home crowd a scare in the 
ninth inning . 

Wetteland, the World Series’ most 
valuable player last year for the Yan- 
kees, closed out the Rangers’ first vic- 
tory of ’97 after loading the bases in the 
ninth. But on his 30th pitch of the in- 
ning, he got Dave Nilsson to pop up for 
the final out 

”1 was extremely nervous,” Wette- 
land said. 

Lee Stevens hit a three-run homer, 
and Damon Buford had a two-run homer 
and a run-scoring double for Texas. 

Twins 7, Tigsra 5 Someone forgot to 
tell Detroit’s pitchers it's a new season. 
Detroit, which set an American League 
record with a 6.38 earned run average in 
1996 en route to a 109-loss season, blew 
a five-run lead in Minneapolis by giving 
up three runs in the fifth and four more 
in the eighth, including Pat Meares's 
two- run homer. 

Melvin Nieves hit a three-run homer 
in the fourth and Tony Clark hit a two- 
run double in the fifth to put the Tigers 
ahead, 5-0. { NYT.AP ) 





PiMk CsmVne Atwcuted Pick 


Albert Belle connecting in tbe White 
Sox's opener against the Blue Jays. 


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The Rangers’ Mark McLemore, left, upending Jose Valentin after the Brewers’ shortstop turned a double play. 


Phillies Dominate the Dodgers 

Butler, Back From Cancer, Gets Warm Welcome From LA. Fans 


Ca^Ad by Omr SttfFrom Dopttto 

For 17 seasons, Brett Butler has been 
so nervous during his first at-bat on the 
opening day of the baseball season that 
he has set a rather modest goaL Brett he 
has told himself, don’t strike out 

As the Dodgers' leadoff hitter on 
Tuesday, Butler was intent on not strik- 
ing out — so intent that the standing 
ovation from the sellout crowd of 
53,079 as he entered the batter's box 
didn’t register until his concentration 
was broken by Philadelphia's catcher, 
Mike Lieberthal. 

"Man,” Lieberthal said, "that’s 
awesome.” 

Butler took a step back, out of the 
batter's box. and listened, recognizing 
he was among the few fortunate people 
able to experience the moment of a 
lifetime for a second time. Tbe fans had 
given him the same reception when he 
returned to the field SepL 6 after last 
summer 's surgery to. remove cancer 
from his throaL 

Letting tbe warmth from this Dodger 
Stadium ovation wash over him, he re- 
minded himself that he didn’t want to 
miss anything this season, which he has 
said will be his last as a player. 

“These are memories I’m building 
that will last for a lifetime,” Butler 
said. 

Then he struck out. 

But on this opening day, that was no 
embarrassment The Phillies' pitcher. 
Curt Schilling, was dominating in a 3-0 
victory, throwing 83 strikes in 126 
pitches and striking out 1 1 in eight in- 
nings. 

The Dodgers managed only two hits, 
both infield singles. They got die last 
cme in die third inning, a chopper up the 
middle that Butler legged out “Not bad 
for 39,” Butler said, laughing. 

It wouldn't have been bad for 29 
either. For someone who thought for 
most of tbe winter that he had played his 
last season, it was reinforcement for his 
decision to try one more. 

"You’re hoping yon can still do it,” 
be said. “Then you get a good jump on 
it, get out of the box OJK. and it hits you, 
'Hey, my legs are fine; OIL, I guess I’m 
all right here, after alL*” 

Of course, it was only one game. But 
Butler is optimistic he’ll go the distance, 
legging out another season. 

“I feel good now,’ 'he said. "Ask me 
again in another (61 games.” 

E»pe« 2 , Car cfi nalm 1 Montreal gained 
the first victory of the new season. It 


started its game in die early afternoon 
and won when Tony Fossas forced 
home the w inning run by walking a 
pinch -hitter, Sherman Obando, in the 
ninth. The crowd of 33,437 at Olympic 
Stadium was the fourth-smaUest in 21 
season openers at the ballpark. 

Pmdrmm 12 , Mots 5 San Diego made a 
little bit of history on opening day. 

Trailing the New York Mets, 4-0, the 
Padres tied a modem National League 




opening day record with 11 runs in a 
single mirin g and went on to win. 

Chris Gomez, Rickey Henderson and 


Chris Gomez, Rickey Henderson and 
Quilvio Veras opened the sixth by hit- 
ting three straight homers off New 
York's starter, Pete Hamisch, who also 
allowed homers to three straight batters 
last season. 

“Tbe fans were pumped, we were 

pumped,” Gomez said. _ 

Four Padres scored two runs each in 
the inning, and five drove in two runs 
apiece. 


Tony Gwynn went 3-for-5 for the 
defending NL West champions, who 
drew a sellout crowd of 43.005 to Jack 
Murphy Stadium. Yorkis Perez, ac- 
quired Monday from Atlanta on a 
waiver claim, was the loser. 

Astros 2 , BravM i Shane Reynolds 
shut down the Braves, fanning Kenny 
Lofton three times. Reynolds limited 
the defending NL champions to seven 
hits in eight innings at the Astrodome, 
striking out seven and walking only 
two. 

John Smoltz allowed eight hits, 
struck out six and walked one in the first 
complete game of the 1997 season. He 
lost to San Francisco m his first start last 
year, then won 14 in a row. 

Chipper Jones homered in the third 
for Atlanta, which had won its previous 
five openers. 

Ibrfiiw 4, cte 2 Kevin Brown and 
two relievers combined on a t hre e-hitler 
and made the Marlins’ new manager, 
Jim JLey land, a success in his debut 
Brown allowed one hit and two walks 
while striking oat eight in seven in- 
nings. 

Metises AlotL ooe of Florida ’s six free* 
agent acquisitions in deals totaling $89 
million mis winter, homered off Terry 
Mulholland in his first at-bat and drove 
in another run with a sacrifice fly. 

A sellout crowd of 41,412 at Miami 
cheered the revamped Marlins, who 


were a major-league-best 26-5 during 
spring training. 

Rods 11, RaddM « Cincinnati ob- 
served a moment of silence before its 
home opener against Colorado to com* 
mem orate the death one year ago of 
John McSherry, tbe umpire who died of 
a beat attack seven pitches into last 
year’s opener. 

Deion Sanders opened a four-run first 
inning with a double, then singled and 
stole a pair of bases in his return to 
baseball from football. 

Hal Morris had a pair of run-scoring 
singles and an RBI double, giving him a 
hit in each of his last 30 games. 

Colorado continued to struggle on the 
road, where it was 28-53 last season. Its 
left fielder, Dante Bichette, who is com- 
ing off knee surgery, misplayed 
Sanders’ fly ball into a double in the first 
and misplayed a hit by Reggie Sanders 
into a triple later in the inning. 

_ . jetefllite 5. Gtant* 2 KcviaBstef, Pitts- 
burgh's only major free-agent acqui- 
sition, broke a 2-2 tie in the seventh with 
atwo-nm double off Julian Tavarez after 
Al Martin and Mark Johnson singled off 
the losing pitcher. Rich Rodriguez. A 
crowd of 41,966 — about 22,000 le* 
than capacity in San Francisco — 
watched die Giants lose their third 
straight season opener. (AP. LAT, JVYT) 



Hub DciyfcTIbs AMOCiawi PK*« 

The Marlins’ Moises Aion bi tting 
a solo home run against the Cubs. 


Lakers Get a Crucial Victory in Seattle 


The Associated Press 

In the battle for postseason position, 
the Los Angeles Lakers gained a key 
victory in Seattle. 

Los Angeles got 30 points from Nick 
Van Exei and overcame injuries to cen- 
ters El den Campbell and Travis Knight 
in a 99-97 victory over the SuperSonics. 
The victory gave the Lakers a 3-1 edge 
in the season series, meaning they will 
have tbe tiebreaker advantage if the 
teams finish with the same record. The 
Lakers are now a half-game behind the 
Sorties in the Pacific Division. 

Campbell suffered a bruised a right 
buttock in tbe first half against the Son- 
ics and left in the third quarter. Knight 
suffered a braised, right knee in the first 
quarter and never returned. 

Van Exel’s free throw with 3.1 
seconds left gave the Lakers a 99-95 
lead that clinched the victory. Van Exel 
made 10 of his career-high 28 shots and 
also had six assists, six rebounds and 
five steals. Eddie Jones added 20 points, 
and Jerome Kersey scored 14. 

“We knew coming in that if they 
won, that pretty much gave them die 
division,” Van Exel said. 

Sonics coach George Karl had a 20- 
minute closed-door meeting with Gary 
Payton after the game. When Karl met 
with the media, he was distraught. 

"Why our minds are de-eoetgized at 
this tune is a concern,” Kari said. "This 
is the third or fourth game in a row that 
our beginnings have stunk.’ ’ 

"This was the most important game 
of our season to date and look how we 


played,” Hersey Hawkins said. "We’re 
so-called pros, and we didn't play that 
way.” 

Bteti 104, Pmom » ioo Washington 
stretched its winning streak to five games 
with a victory in Indianapolis. The Bul- 
lets' victory, combined with a loss by 
Cleveland, moved Washington into a tie 
with Cleveland for the eighth and final 
playoff spot in tbe Eastern Conference. 

Washington has die tiebreaker edge 
from having won the season series. In- 


NBAKopndda 


diana. which had its four-game winning 
streak snapped, chopped two games out 
of a postseason spot. 

Rod Strickland had 18 points and 1 1 
assists to lead seven Bullets in double 
figures. Juwan Howard also had 18 
points. Calbert Cbeaney scored 16, and 
Washington’s reserves outscored Indi- 
ana’s, 26-7. 

Bte111. C « I H c« imln gtiragn Mi. 
chael Jordan broke out of a shooting 
slump with 2 1 points, and the Bulls won 
their 29th straight home game. 

Jordan, just 23-of-58 from the field in 
his previous three games, shot 8-for-l I 
as the NBA's best home-court team beat 


die league’s worst road team 
On Wednesday the Bulls si 


OnWednes 
Williams, a fire 
of the season. 


i Bulls signed Brian 
it center, for the zest 

ms, who Hag been 


kOe since playing for the Clippere last 
season, is a replacement for Bui Wen- 
nington who injured a foot on Saturday. 
7Boro 105, Magie 93 Mark Davis 


scored a season-high 27 points; Derrick 
Coleman had 21 points arid 16 re- 
bounds; Jerry Stackhouse scored 22; 
Clarence Weatberspoon grabbed 15 re- 
bounds, and Allen lversaii had 1 5 points 
and 11 assists as Philadelph ia won -at 
Orlando. ; 

Knieks m, cmafion Min Cleveland, 

Patrick Ewing scored 21 points, and 
John Staiks gave New Yorkthe lead for 
good on a 3-pointer with 1:20 left. , 
97 , Cfippora 87 In Miami, Tin* 
Hardaway had 26 points and 13 assists 
as the Hear sent Los Angeles to its fourth 
straight loss. Voshon Lenard «ly> 
scored 26 points, including six 3-point- 
ers, and PJ. Brown was a strong factor 
inside with 13 points and 1 3 rebound;. 

Pistons ioo, fltovsrfefcssa In Dallas, 
Grant Hill had 35 points and 18 re- 
bounds, matching his career highs in 
both categories, as Detroit reached the 
50-victory mark for the first time since 
1990-91. 

Hoduti lie, Nagysto 99 Clyde 
Drexler scored 24 points an 10-for-15 
shooting as the Rockets won in Den- 
ver. 

Utantora 91, Ifcall Btaaoro 82 Portland 
had its nine-game borne winning streak 
come to an end, shooting just .34.8 per- 
Sfj a ga * nst G° lden State after shooting 
50.4 percent over the previous 16. 
games. m 

Buck. 102 , Qrbzfw .91 Glenn Robin- 
son scored 25 points, and Sherman 
Douglas had 21 points and nine assists 
as Milwaukee snapped a five-game road 
losing streak by winning in Vancouver. 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, APRIL $, 1997 

~~ SPORTS 


PAGE 21 




Passionate Greek Drama 

European Champions Only Second-Best in Athens 


International Herald Tribune 

ATHENS — The defending 
European champions looked 


European Ba&ketball / Ian Thomsen 


toed. Balloons. Hie smoky in- 
door sky was ranting pink and 
whine balloons. And die noise 
of the 17,000 celebrating fens 
was loader dian any storm, 
r Altogether it meant that the 
home team in basketball's 
£-* .fiercest nvahy, Oty rapjalco s 
' foe defending Greek chamri- 
;on, bad k n oc k ed its cross-town 
toeany Panafoinaikos out of 
foe EuroLeague quarterfinals. 

Panathinaikos was die cham- 


The 65-57 triumph Tuesday 
gave Olympiakos a2-0 victory 
m the best-of- three series, 
taming the Greek champion a 
place in the European Final 
Four to be held in Rune in 
three weeks. The three other 
European quarterfinalswiO be 
decided by winner-take-all 


turned to die United Stm** 
taking his team’s EuroLeague 
hopes with him. All of them 
had problems with coach Boz- 
idar Maljkovic, the Serb dis- 
ciplinarian who has won four 


1-A.fe 


Panathmaikos put together 
a virtually new, international 
team for this season. Filled 
with star players from Amer- 
ica, Greets, Spain, Italy, Ger- 
' 1 many, England and Nigeria, it 
" was surely the most expensive 
non-NBA chib in die world 
and it entered this series with 
the home coart advantage as a 
result of die best record in the 
EuroLeague (15-3). 

By now Panatfainaikos (fid 
not have its best players. John 
Salley — who replaced Domi- 
nique Wilkins, last season’s 
ex-NBA star — escaped back 
to America in October after 
playing less than two months. 
His ex-NBA replacement, 
Anthony Avent, lasted for a 
month. Finally, another ex- 
NBA forward, die English- 
f inan John Amaecfai, also re- 


Panatbinaikos controlled 
the early stages on Tuesday, 
leading by 34-23 and virtu- 
ally silencing the home crowd 
with four minutes left in the 
trait Then the game began to 
turn against Maljkovic. 

His only inside player was 
the skinny 2.13-meter Span- 
iard, Ferrari Martinez, the 
game’s high scorer with 20 
points, those baskets coming 
mostly after Ms teammates 
drove to die bole and (fisted 
to him for open layups. 

Olympiakos cut off those 
driving lanes. Because 
Maljkovic doesn't HVa his 
teams to nm Panatfainaikos 
coaid scare only seven field 
goals in the final 24 minutes. 

The Olympiakos guard Mi- 
lan Tcarnc (17 points) 
reawakened the crowd with a 
trio of outrageous three-point- 
ers, but the elements were 
size and numbers. Panath- 
rnaikos, still clung wifoin 8 
points down die stretch, suc- 
ceeded in fooling out the 
Olympiakos giant Dragan 
Tadac, who is expected to 
sign with the Chicago Bulls In 
the next year - or two. 
However, Tariac was replaced 
by Panayotis Fassoolas, who 
is the finest Greek center of all 
time. When Fassoolas fouled 
out five minutes later, be was 
replaced by the ex-NBA cen- 
ter Christian Weip. . 

Panatfainaikos had no an- 


‘ swer. Its entire inside game 
was across die Atlantic. 

Rumors of Maljkovic’ s de- 
parture — to Paris, reportedly 
— wfil surely escalate. In the 
meantime Ms Serbian rival, 
coach Dnsan Ivkovic, will 
prepare Olympiakos for die 
trip to Rome after everyone 
has calmed down. 

There is no rivalry in U.S. 
basketball to match the fero- 
city of Olympiakos vs. Panafo- 
inafleos. Thousands of riot po- 
lice were inside foe Peace and 
Friendship Stadium. Fans of 
the visiting club were'not per- 
mitted inside, which helped to 
p re v e nt bloodshed 

The PannftifnarVtv; fawn in 

its forest-green uniforms was 
surrounded by foe derisive 
noise and the red and white 
scarves, banners, flags and 
clothing of foe Olympiakos 
supporters. Of course, the 
conditions were reversed last 
week, when Olympiakos 
went into its rivals’ gym and 
came away with an utterly 
satisfying 69-49 upset in the 
first leg of the quarterfinal. 

The other EuroLeague 
quarterfinals were extended 
by die home teams Tuesday. 

Olimpia Ljubljana beat 
Milan, 73-69; VHleurbanne 
of France claimed an 80-70 
victory over Efes Pilsen 
Istanbul, and Barcelona con- 
troversially beat Teamsystem 
Bologna, 75-73. 

Bologna’s Dan Gay Mt an 
apparen t game-winning 
three-pointer at foe buzzer. 
Gay was celebrating victory 
when foe referees informed 
hfm that he W committed a 
fool before the shot 



6 

£ ' -4 « 


Bosnia Loses 
First World Cup 
Game in Sarajevo 


Hraa Lnkats*y,Thc ftmicaarf Pnaa 


Ian Dowie of Northern Ireland outj limping Ukraine's Sergi Bezhenar in Kiev on 
Wednesday. Dowie scored, bnt Ukraine won the World Cup qualifying game, 2-1. 

Janney Tallies Twice as Coyotes Rout Sharks 

The Associated Press Brind'Amour broke Daren Puppa’s shutout 

While most teams are playing playoff- bid midway though the third period, 
style hockey, with tight checking and few Sabn» i, stampers i Esa Ttkkanen’s 
goals, the Coyotes have started to scare. short-handed goal at 6:28 of the third period 

Phoenix improved its playoff position as lifted the Rangers into foe tie. Dominik 
Craig Janney scored twice and Keith Hasek returned from a cracked rib to stop 37 

- shots as the Sabres snapped a four-game 

NHL Roonddp losing streak. 

Blues 1, Red wings 1 Tim Taylor’s first 

Tkachuk added a goal and two assists in a 7- goal in almost six months helped Detroit 
1 root of the San Jose Sharks on Tuesday, clinch home ice for at least the first round of 
Devils i. Capitals O Martin Brodeur the playoffs. 

Stopped 25 shots for his eighth shutout of Bbckhawfci 3, NBghty Ducks 3 Paul 
foe season. John MacLean scored his 24th Kariya scored his 40th goal on a power play 
goal for the visiting Devils. and assisted on Steve Rucchin’s tying god 

Flyer* i, Lightning 1 In Philadelphia, Rod with 1 1 : 17 left in the third period. 


C-arqtdrd try Our SuffFrm DapercAr! 

Bosnia's first official soccer 
match in Sarajevo ended in a 1 - 
0 loss Wednesday to Greece. 

The substitute Kostantinos 
Franceskos scored foe only 
goal with a aiding free-kick 

World Cop Soccer 

that Mt both goal posts before 
crossing foe line in foe 74fo 
minute. 

Bosnia missed several 
chances in foe World Cup 
Group One qualifying clash, 
including two late in the match 
that fell to star striker Meho 
Kodro of Spain's Tenerife. 

The match, in pouring rain, 
drew a 30.000 crowd. 

IHcnina 2, Northern Imlwn d 

1 1n Kiev, Andriy Shevchenko 
snapped a tie in die 7 1 st minute 
as Ukraine beat Northern Ire- 
land in Group Nine. The mid- 
fielder broke from midfield 
and flicked the ball around a 
charging Tommy Wright, the 
Northern Ireland goalkeeper. 

In a lively game, Ukraine, 
encouraged by an enthusiastic 
crowd of 90,000, was on foe 
attack most of the time and 
missed several good chances. 

Vitali Kosovsky opened 
the scoring in foe third minute 
drilling foe ball past WrighL 

Northern Ireland leveled in 
the 15th minute, when Iain 
Dowie converted a penalty 
kick after Oleg Luzhniy’s 
handled the ball. 

Macedonia 3, Republic o> 
Ireland 2 In Skopje, Mace- 
donia scored twice from pen- 


alties as it beat foe Irish in 
Group Eight. 

Mitko Siojkovski scored 
from the penalty spot in the 
28fo and 44fo minutes after 
first Jason McAieer and then 
Teny Phelan handled. Djordji 
Hristov increased the lead in 
the 60th minute. 

The Irish had taken foe lead 
with an eighth minute header 
by Alan McLoughlin. David 
Kelly scored the second goal 
for Ireland in foe 79th minute. 

McAteer and Siojkovski 
were sent off during a mass 
brawl in the final minutes. 

LHhuanui 0. Romania 1 In 
Vilnius, Dino Moldovan 
scored in foe 75th minute as 
Romania won its fifth straight 
Group Eight game. 

Bulgaria 4, Cyprus 1 Emil 
Kostadinov scored twice to 
help Bulgaria beat Cyprus in a 
Group Five match in Sofia. 

Acarfeagan 1, Finland 2 Fin- 
land gained its first points in 
Group Three with victory in 
Baku. 

Jari Litmanen, of Ajax 
Amsterdam, and Mika-Matti 
Paatelainen, of Bolton Wan- 
derers, gave the Finns a 2-0 
lead before Nazim Suleyman- 
ov scored from a penalty with 
10 minutes left (AP, Reuters) 

■ Tax Break for French 

French soccer players are 
to be given foe same tax status 
as movie stars in a drive to 
halt their emigration to lower- 
tax countries, foe government 
decided on Wednesday. Reu- 
ters reported from Pans. 


Scoreboard 


Major Leaoue •mammas 


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Henderson fl). 

Allaate ' 00] 000 000-1 I I 

H e art— . . lil ooo oqe-z.O.i 

. StmMx and lopes Reynolds Wagner 9) 
andAuemre- W U eynoldfcl-a.t— Sinoltz,0- 
l.Sv WhunerflX HR— Aflado. Jones OX 


NHLSkandmob 


W L T 
a-Goforado 46 21 9 

Anatielai 33 S3 12 

E duM don 35 35 7 

Calgary 32 36 8 

Vancouver 32 40- S 

Loe Angeles 26 41 10 

Son Jose 25 44 7 

(X-dkidiBd ptayeff berti) 


W L T PM GF GA 
46 23 6 96 234 177 

36 24 16 BB 230 182 
36 35 6 78 222 227 

33 34 ID 76 222 230 
3ft 33 13 75 207 199 
28 41 -7 63 216 257 


Pte GF GA 

101 259 187- 
78 229 222 
77 237 229 
77 203 215 
69 238 258 
62 198 253 
57 189 255 


ATLANTIC DIVflIION 


New Jersey . 3- 0 0-1 

WieWQMe 0 0 0-0 

nst Perierk NJ.-MocLeai 24 (Reteton, 
ZszeO Secsad Porte* Nona TMrd PertaA 
NoreSMseepd: NJ.- 9-8-10— 27. W-6-9- 
10 — 25. OenBcn NJ.-Brodeur. W-Ranfant 
TMepa Bay 0 10 0—1 

P OMedi M O M 0 0 10-1 

Rrst Period: None. Second Periefc T- 

Gftritoa 27 (Norton) nfed Period: P- 
Brincf Amour 24 (Renberg) (pp). Online: 
None. PenoBt e * None . SOoM ee pert: T- 8- 
14X4-1 — 23. P- 4-1 4-12-3 — 32 GoaMes; T- 


PfeoteM 1 2 4—7 

F»st Period: SJ.-Sutrer 5 (Donovaa 
Eirey) l Ptoente, Janney 13 (Tkactiuh. 
Gartnert Secoad Period: Phoenix. 
TVentovefcy 10 (Janney, TkodudO 4 
Phoenix, noctark 47 dang) Third Period: 
Phoenb, Roanlng 18 (Roerridu ttumadnen) 
6, Phoenix, Jonney 14 rncoctwk. Garmeri 7. 
Phoenix. Drake 14 [Panning, Madveri A 
Pttoanhb Roenidc 2te Shots ea geefc SJ-- 1(X 
11-12-33. Phoenix 11-6-17-G4. Goalies: 
SJ.-Hhrdey. Phoente KhcbSmBn. 

(Mage 0 2 10-3 

AMfcetai 1110-3 

FM Period: A-Dolgneault 5 (Rucctiln) 
Stead Period: C-Amante4l (CheOns) (pp). 
X A-Kariya 40 (Ruochln. Sekmne) (pp). A C- 
Dcae 18 (Shartz) Third Period: C-Croven 8 
(Chellas, Savard) (pp); & A-RucdVn 18 
(Srtonne, Katya) (pp). Owribee None. 
Shota an goal: C- 94-11-1—29. A- *9-2 (X 

5—38. GoaSes: C-HacketL A^ShtolenkDV. 


S K E T B 


NBA Standi nos 


MBWESTOWISION 



w 

L 

Pet 

GB 

x-Utah 

54 

17 

.761 

— 

x- Houston 

49 

23 

481 

5V4 

Minnesota 

35 

37 

-486 

i9to 

Dodos 

22 

50 

J06 

32to 

Denver 

20 

52 

-278 

34V, 

San Antonio 

18 

S3 

-254 

36 

Vancouver 

12 

63 

.180 

44 

mcmcDnnsioN 



z-Seatlfe 

50 

23 

485 

— 

x-LA. Lakers 

49 

23 

48T 

« 

x- Portland 

43 

31 

581 

7V, 

Phoenbr 

33 

39 

.458 

16to 

LA. diapers 

31 

41 

.431 

ISto 

Suuunwni) 

29 

43 

-403 

20 Vi 

GaUenState 

26 

46 

Ml 

23to 


WBsNaalM 
ttr.isiudw 
Tampa Bay 


x-Buttoto 

PHttbur# 

Montrew 


W L T 

Pta 

GF 

GA 

puppa. P-HenkA. 

ATLANTIC nVWON 



43 22 12 

98 

259 

200 

SLUids 1 0 8 8-1 


i* 

L 

Pd 

GB 

42 21 13 

97 

216 

171 

Detroit 8 10 0-1 

x-MlanJ 

54 

18 

750 

— 

33 26 18 

84 

207 

187 

First Period: SJL-Turgeon 26 (Cmpbeft 

»-NewYark 

52 

21 

-712 

2to 

35 32 10 

80 241 

213 

Modrmts) Soared Period: O-Tcytor 2 

ttkmrio 

40 

32 

-556 

14 

30 39 8 

a 

194 

217 

(Konstantinov, Kocur) TWrd Period: None. 

Vtosnhhpon 

37 

35 

514 

17 

28 35 TT 

47 219 

222 

OrertBae: None: Shots an god: SJ_- 494- 

New Jersey 

23 

48 

J2A 

3 Oto 

29 38 9 

67 

203 

233 

0-21. D- 3-4-14-2 — 25. Goalee SJ_-Fuhr. 

Ptdadeldto 

21 

50 

296 

32H 

fCASTomaxiN 



D-Veman. 

Boston 

13 

<0 

•17B 

41 to 

W L T 

PIS 

GF 

GA 

Bufldo 8 10 0-1 


CENTRAL DflROION 



38 26 12 

88 

222 

191 

M.Y. Raogers 0 8 18-1 

JtChkngo 

63 

9 

.875 

— 

36 33 7 

79 

264 

257 

mt Period: /tone. Soared Pertoeb B- 

*-A Santa 

50 

22 

MA 

13 

28 34 14 

70 

234 

263 

TMtnA 7 (Wotft McKee) Third Period: New 

x- Detroa 

50 

22 

-694 

13 

29 36 10 

68 

201 

232 

York, Tftkcnen 13 (Sundstrom) (*h). 

Chariano 

45 

26 

434 

17to 

26 34 15 

67 

208 

221 

Orerihsec None. Shots on goafe B- 12-8-9- 

Clewland 

37 

35 

-51 4 

26 

24 43 9 

57 

217 

280 

5-34. Now York 0-16-12-2-38. GwAd- B- 

UKftmo 

35 

37 

-486 

28 

m corn 

me 

a 


Hasek. New York. RlcMer. 

Mltwaukee 

29 

43 

403 

34 

ntALOMStON 



Saa Jose 1 0 0-1 

Yon* bo 

26 

47 

-356 

37V4 


Cx-dl netted ptoyod hertfij 


Hearten 2* 30 33 24—116 

Dearer 19 21 26 33- 99 

H: Didder 10-15 1-1 24, EBe 7-14 *~t 19. 
Maloney 8-15 <X0 19; D: McDyess 13-22 1-1 
27, LEWS 10-20 44 2SJtebeceds -Houston 
43 (0ta|uwoix Dfdder 7), Denver 48 
(McDyess 10). Assists— Houston 16 
(Olajuwoa Didder 4), Denver 22 (Gobtuflra 
Thompson 5). 

Detroa 27 23 23 27—100 

DaMos 26 10 16 30- 02 

DejHR 12-1911-1435. Dumars 6-1 13-318, 
Da^Hnfey 6-10 1-1 15. Pock 3-14 910 15. 
Reiineeds— Demril S3 (HIH 18). Dallas S3 
ULCGrew 10). Assists— DetroR 19 (Hffl 6). 
DaDas 16 (Pack 9). 

Golden State 28 22 23 18-91 

PertfOBd 32 17 14 19-82 GJ_- Price 
7-11 9-11 2K Sprewefl 8-204-5 22: P: Rider 
9-Z4 2-2 21, Wonoce 9-16 34 21. 

Rrtwands— Golden Shite 54 (Fuller 9). 
Portland 52 (Wanoee 7). Aretata-Goidn 
State 17 (Price 5X Portland IB (CRoWnson 
7). 

Milwaukee 25 30 31 16-102 

vmcnuver 20 24 17 22—91 

M:GJtoUnson 9-17 6-725, Dauglas8-133- 
4 21; V; Abdur-Rohlm 10-18 6-726 Moybeny 

6-10 0-0 i7Jteftomfe— Mllesiukee 37 (Umg 


9) , Vancouver 42 (Rogers, Leckner 6). 

Assists— Milwaukee 22 [Douglas 9), 
Vancouver 23 [Moybeny, Abdur-Rohim 5). 
PUadriphia 22 27 21 35—105 

Ortando 22 31 23 17— 93 

p. arts 13-25 1-1 27. Coleman 7-13 7-10 21; 
0: Hndaway 10-23 7-8 3A Seftaly 11X25 6-12 
26. Reboaods— PMtadrtpMa 64 (Coleman 
16X Ortando 62 (Selkaly 19). 
Assists— PtdadeipMa 24 (Irerean ID. 
Ortando 19 [Hardaway 6). 

Warttagtaa 30 21 33 20—104 

Inrtaoa 20 28 27 25-100 

W: Howard 6-9 6-8 18, Strickland 6-13 5-7 
18; h MSer 9-17 89 2& Smlts 9-20 3-3 2a 
teehounds— Washington 49 (Webber 10), 
Indiana 47 [AJJcvis 12). 
Assists— MkBMngtan 23 (SMefdDnd 111, 
Indiana 21 (MJocksan 11). 

MewYortf 25 17 25 27— 94 

Qeveknd 24 25 20 19- 88 

N.Y- Ewing 5-16 1 1-12 21. Houston 7-102- 
22ft C Brendan TZ-2B 54 31. Sure J-9 64 

18. Reboawds— New York 39 (Ewing 12). 
Oevekmd 38 (HU 10). Asslsts-New Yorti 24 
(Ewing 7), Oevefcmd 21 (Sura 8). 

UA. Clppers 20 23 19 25- K7 

MJand 30 17 29 21— 97 

LAj Vaught 12-20 0-0 2t PtotkowsU 6-12 
0-0 15r M: Hoidavrey 10-24 4426, Lenord 9- 
14 2-2 26. Rebounds— Los Angeles 42 
(Vau ght UX Miami 55 (Brawn 13). 
Assists— Los Angeles 24 (Marlin B), Miami 
21 (Hardaway 13). 

Boston IS 2B 27 36-106 

C t rico ge 35 23 25 2B-111 

B: Wesley 12-22 5-5 31, Walker 10-21 64 27; 
C JonkmB-1 1 S-921,Cnfley 54 64 16. K«knc 

7-10 1-2 16. Rebounds Bo s ton 48 (Walker 

10) . Chicago 54 (Colley 9). Assists— Boston 
24 (Wesley 7). Chicago 25 (Plppen 7). 

LA. Lakers 26 24 28 21-99 

SoatlU 18 21 34 24-97 

LAj Von Ext* 10-28 7-9 30Jones 7-16 44 
2ft S: Kemp 7-157-11 21. Hawkins 4-13 11-12 

19. Payton 8-20 34 19. R ebo u nds Los 
Angeles 55 (Blount. Koisey 11). Seattle 48 
(Kemp 10). Asstart-Los Angeles 12 (van 
Exo! 6). Seattle 20 (Payton 8). 


EuroLkaouk 

Otymplakas 65, Ponathlnolkos57 
(Olympiakos quality tor Find Four) 

B VBeuibanne 8ft Efes P8sen 70 

(3d deckflng leg to be ployed on Thursday) 

askrtbaff-BamlaM 7S Batagno 73 

(3d deddlng tog to be played an Tltureday) 

Uudbna 73, Statand Mltan 69 

Od deOdng leg to be played Thursday). 


SOCCER 


WORLD COT OOAUFYWO 

Bosnia a Greece 1 
Ukraine 2. N.lnriand 1 
Lithuania ft Romania 1 
Bulgaria ACyprosi 
Macedonia 3, Ireland 2 
Azerbaijani, Finland 2 

DRBMNAnoMAL FHCNDLY 
Austtofla 3, Hungary 1. 


CRICKET 


M ONI DAY INIBRNAnortAL 

SOUTH AFIMCA VS. AUSTRALIA 
WEDMESOAV. W CAPETOWN 
South Africa tadngK 245-8 (SO own). 


TRANSITIONS 


MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL 
AmCAN LEAGUE 

anaheim -Bought oonJrocl of 3B Jack 
Hawed from Vancouver. PCI- OpBonod LHP 
Darreff May and IB Chris PrOdien la Van- 
couver. 

Chicago —Designated RHP Jeffery Oar- 
win tar assignment. 

oevelamd—PuM B Herbert Perry on 60- 
day dsaMad list. 



fi» + 33fO)l«««W 

or your maretf KDjiffice 


I M 

























PAGE 22 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, THURSDAY, APRIL 3, 1997 



ART BUCHWALD 


Gun Addiction 


Arthur Clarke: The Odyssey of a Failed Recluse 


W ASHINGTON — Ev- 
eryone talks about the 


"T eryone talks about the 
smoking gun that has thrown 
the tobacco companies into a 
swiveL Liggett, one of the to- 
bacco companies turned trait- 
or, admitted that nicotine was 
addictive and 
tobacco could 


cause cancer. 

All this hap- 
pened because 
22 states are 
suing the to- 
bacco compa- 
nies saying that 
their products BuchwaJd" 
are costing 
millions of dollars in medical 
bills. 

It was a brave move but my 
friend, Keith Aufhauser, is 
certain that guns kill more 
people than cigarettes, so the 
states ought to sue the gun 
manufacturers as welL 

Keith told me, “The hos- 
pitals and morgues are full of 
people who are vic tims of gun 
violence. It's time that the 
gun industry paid for the dam- 
age they've caused.” 

I said, “The question is not 
whether they kill people but 
whether guns are addictive.” 

Aufhauser explained. 


“The NRA still maintains 
that guns don't kill people. 
All we need is one semi-auto- 
matic company to show us 
their records of how many 
people were killed by gunfire 
and we'li sue for millions of 
dollars.” 

Keith said, “We have to 
find a way to force the gun 
manufacturers to pay for 
everyone who was shot 
Maybe there could be a tax 
penalty for the use of a firearm 
and an extra one for the bullet, 
plus a surcharge on the firing 
of an armor-pi ere mg bullet. 

‘ Td love to see die look on 
the faces of the gun company 
executives when they appear 
before Congress swearing un- 
der oath that guns don't kill 
people.” 


By John F. Bums 

Ne * >■ fork Times Service 


C OLOMBO — Arthur C. 
Clarke, author of ”3001: The 


In New York Show, 
$30 Million Glitter 


Agence Francr-Presse 

NEW YORK — In an ex- 
hibition of 300 items created 
by the French jeweler Louis 
Cartier between 1900 and 
1939 at the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art. visitors can see 
$30 milli on worth of jewels, 
watches and engraved per- 
sonal accessories. 

Tbs exhibition will be at 
the Met until Aug 3, then it 
moves to the British Museum 
in London, where it will be on 
display from early October to 
February 1998. 


Keith told me be had heard 
that the weapon companies 
were prepared to launch a TV 
campaign advertising the 
safety of handguns and the 
advantages of having one. es- 
pecially if you belong to a 
gang. They are also selling 
the idea that while nobody 
needs cigarettes, everyone 
needs a gun." 

“I wonder if the country's 
attorneys general will be will- 
ing to sue the gun manufac- 
turers?” 

“I'm not sure. Almost 
eveiy politician in America is 
afraid of the NRA, but only the 
Southern politicians are afraid 
of the tobacco interests.*' 

I suggested that if the states 
win they could divide their 
sidewalks between shooting 
and nonshooting areas. 

Aufhauser agreed. “It 
would make it safer for the 
people. But no manor what 
we advocate, the gun lobby 
will fight us. They might even 
team up with the tobacco 
lobby on the grounds that 
many people who smoke are 
really addicted to guns." 


Final Odyssey," a chronicle of 
deep-space travel 1 ,000 years hence 
that is pushing its way up best-seller 
lists, chuckles at the friends who 
still puzzle over his decision more 
than 40 years ago to flee the roots of 
his success as a science-fiction 
writer in England, and briefly in the 
United States, for a home on this 
lovely Indian Ocean island. 

He especially savors a remark by 
Stanley Kubrick, the American 
filmmaker with whom be wrote the 
screenplay for the 1968 movie 
"2001: A Space Odyssey." From 
his own place of self-exile, in the 
Hertfordshire countryside outside 
London. Kubrick has joked about 
Clarke, who came to Sn Lanka on a 
scuba-diving trip in 1 955 and settled 
down for good die next year. 

“Arthur Clarke?" Kubrick is 
said to have remarked. “Isn't he a 
nut who lives in a tree in India 
someplace?" 

As be watches CNN trace storms 
across northwestern Europe, 
Clarke, now 79. retorts, “I just 
think of it as 40 English winters 
escaped.' ' He says be has never had 
reason to doubt what he felt on that 
first trip, that he had found paradise 
on this tropical island off India’s 
southeast coast. 

But behind the kibitzing over life 
in the tropics lies something more 
serious. A desire to be celebrated in 
the world left behind may have been 
crucial to Clarke's return to writing, 
after years away, to round out the 
series that began with “2001." 
which as film and book mesmerized 
a generation with the hope and 
dread of deep-space travel. 

In the years when he wasn't writ- 
ing, Clarke seems to have found 
that he was like Frank Poole, the 
astronaut in “2001“ who was 
killed by HAL. his spacecraft's 
renegade computer, when it cut his 
air hose during a space walk and 
sent him spinning off into space. 

“3001 ” begins 1 ,000 years later 





Clarke gazing through a telescope on the roof of his home; for him, “Fame is the ultimate spur. 


as another manned space voyage 
retrieves a piece of space junk thar 
turns out to be the deep-frozen 
Poole, who is revived with fourth- 
millennium technology and goes 
on to become the story s chief prot- 
agonist. And for Clarke, living 
without a recent best-seller turned 
out to be about as grave as a severed 
air hose. 

Matters might have been differ- 
ent had Clarke been living in Lon- 
don or New York. But his life in 
Colombo has been relatively an- 
onymous, and by his own admis- 
sion he is a man with a hunger for 
applause. 

“Fame," he says, “is the ul- 
timate spur.” 

As if to reassure himself that he 
still counts in the world. Clarke 
spends a good part of each day 
scanning Web sites dedicated to 
him ana his books or spinning off 
faxes and e-mail to his famous 


friends and awaiting their replies. 

Meetings with visitors are in- 
terrupted frequently as he scours 
his desktop for choice correspond- 
ence, as if letters from Neil Arm- 
strong, the Dalai Lama and Tom 
Hanks (urging him to press forward 
to the writing of _4001”) are 
stronger testament to his talent than 
tile scores of books and articles 
carrying his name that fill his 
study's bookshelves. 

Clarke acknowledges the para- 
dox of having chosen a distant 
home and then craving approbation 
from afar. “I fear I am a failed 
recluse/' be says. 

But he also insists that praise, like 
futurology, be reality-based. Paging 
through a f^ from an admirer sug- 
gesting that “3001 " has confirmed 
him as the greatest science-fiction 
writer of all time, he furrows his 
brow and motions to a sepia-tinged 
photograph above his desk. “For- 


give me,” be says, “but wasn’t 
there a fellow called H.G. Wells?” 

Already “3001,” the fourth 
novel in the series (the others are 
“2010“ and “2061”), shows signs 
of becoming the greatest success of 
Clarke, who has more than 70 mil- 
lion copies of his novels and short 
stories m print The book. No. 5 on 
The New York Times best-seller 
list is selling strongly in Britain 
and a score of other countries and is 
being translated into more than a 
dozen languages. 

To hear Clarke tell it the main 
reason he stirred himself to write a 
new novel more than a decade after 
“2061” was the advance of as much 
as $2 milli on from his American 
publisher, Del Rey/Ballantine 
Books. The figure, said to have been 
a new benchmark fra* science fic- 
tion, does not include payment for a 
movie version that is under discus- 
sion, possibly again with Kubrick. 


“They waved a lot of green- 
backs ar me until my eyes glazed 
over,” Clarke says. 

He r*n certainly find uses for the 
money- In addition to the house in 
Colombo, he maintains a holiday 
villa down the coast at least nine 
secretaries and valets here and in 
England, and a Sri Lankan family 
piat fras lived with him for many 
years, c a rin g for him in ill health 
and overseeing the scuba-diving 
company they own with him. 
Friends say Clarice suffered major 
financial losses in the 1980s when 
he left his affairs to an associate in 
New York. 

Sun, it is clear from spending 
time with Clarke that som ethin g 
besides money — something 
linbftd to residing far from the 
world that nurtured him — helped 
him break the promise to stop writ- 
ing that he made to himself in the 
early 1990s. 

After publ ishing articles and sto- 
ries almost nonstop since his first 
science-fiction efforts appeared in 
his school FH*g»zine in his native 
Dorset in the early 1930s, Cl arte 
had come to see writing as a form of 
im p rison ment - “When you’re 
wr iting, you’re not living, and I 
wanted to live," be says. 

Clark’s health had also deteri- . 
orated as a result of the polio he 
contracted in Sri Lanka in the 1960s. 
For several , years, he has been un- 
able to walk without help, and his 
labored breathing can cause him to 
move rapidly to the private quarters 
of his home for bursts of oxygen. 

Clarke calls “3001” his last hur- 
rah, but hearing him talk, it is easy 
to imagine that he is already re- 
viewing his vow to close his writ- 
ing days with finality. At moments, 
itis even possible to imagine that 
he may be rehearsing the opening 
passage of another novel, one that 
could top anything he has written. 

“Just imagine/’ he says, leaning 
forward in his chair and narrowing 
his eyes. “IF our radio signals have 
been intercepted, the cops from an 
alien civilization may already be on 
the way, sirens screaming right 
across the universe.” 




'»> r < 


.Juttl* - 


Not t h 


(Bold IVare 





PEOPLE 


CmW/iMJliV' It';- / 


T HE father of Macaulay CuDdn has 
agreed to give up the custody fight for the 


X agreed to give up the custody fight for the 
“Home Alone" star and five of his siblings, 
but a judge will have die last word. Just as 
custody hearings were to begin, Christopher 
(Kit) Culkin surrendered control of the chil- 
dren’s lives and careers to their mother, Pa- 
tricia Brentrup. “Mr. Culkin does not wish 
to contest the proceeding and put the family 


the surgeon. Dr. Wayne Isom, told her that 
“Cronkite was in wonderful physical con- 
dition beforehand. He went through it ex- 
tremely easily and well, and there were no 
surprises.” 


Northern Ireland, releasing all political pris- 
oners and starting immediate and uncondi- 
tional all-party talks on the future of Ulster. 


through any more pain," said his lawyer. The 
hearing, which is now considered a formality , 
was to continue Thursday with testimony from 
the 16-year-old Macaulay, whose estimated 
worth is$17 million. Cullon and Brentrup had 
seven children during their 20-year relation- 
ship. which ended in March 1995. Brentrup 
filed for custody of the six minor children 
three months later, and the couple nearly bank- 
rupted themselves in the ensuing fight 


The British yachtsman Pete Goss has been 
awarded France's Legion of Honor for his 
role in saving die Frenchman Raphael 
Dinelli in the southern Indian Ocean, a sailing 
official said Wednesday. “This distinction is 
in recognition of the courage and spirit of 
solidarity which Pete Goss showed in the 
rescue operation in December/’ said Phil- 
ippe Jeantot, organizer of die Vendee Globe 
solo, nonstop around-the- world race. 


A bus used in the movie “Speed” is 
beaded for Planet Hollywood because the 
woman who won it can't find a permanent 
place to park it. Laurel Garces also wants to 
pay off taxes due on the vehicle. She won the 
40-foot bus last November during a phone-in 
contest conducted when foe film was broad- 
cast on television. Since then, it ’s been parked 
at an airbase, a church parking lot and a golf 
course. She decided in January to sell the 
1967 bus. valued at $16,000, through a silent 
auction. “I got more than the value, which 
was a lot more than I expected,’' she said. 


Carradine.” “April Fool!’’ everyone 
shouted. The real star with the correct name 
was underneath die impostor. “I'm glad 
some people showed up/’ Carradine said. 
“You know it’s April 1, and I thought people 
would think it was a. joke.” 


t>-y 


The guitarist Er|c Clapton is selling his 
collection of 20th-century pictures, drawings 
and sculptures. The collection, with works by 
artists including Degas, Severity and Ma- 
tisse, will go under the hammer ar Christie s, 
London, on May 29. 




Susan WiUtfTbe Aisocicnfc! Pn» 

NOT EVERYONE CAN WHISTLE — Chris Ullman, 
national whistling champ, lets go a tune in Wash- 
ington, where he is practicing up to defend his title at 
the end of the month in Louisborg, North Carolina. 


Walter Cronkite, who underwent quad- 
ruple heart bypass surgery, is doing well, 
according to an assistant “The doctor was 
very pleased,” said Marlene Adler, an aide 
to the 80-year-old Cronkite. The former CBS 
anchorman was found to have clogged heart 
arteries during a regular checkup. Adler said 


Vanessa Redgrave said Wednesday that 
she was founding a new political party ded- 
icated to repealing laws on police, terrorism, 
asylum-seekers and trade unions. The 
Charter for Basic Rights Party will stand one 
candidate for the House of Commons, op- 
posing foe Labour MP for foe south London 
seat of Tooting, the actress said. Her parly 
advocates withdrawing British troops from 


With a show business family like David 
Carradine's, he’s never surprised to be mis- 
taken for one of his brothers. But he was a 
little shocked when his new star on the Hol- 
lywood Walk of Fame had bis brother’s name 
on it. The star of “Kung Fu” simply stared in 
silence when the ceremonial covering was 
lifted to unveil a star that read “Robert 


If Marie Barrow has her way, Bonnie and 
Clyde will be together in death — just as they 
were together in their life of crime. Clyde 
Barrow’s sole surviving sibling is auctioning 
some of bis personal belongings April 14 to 
raise money to fulfill his wish to be buried 
with Bonnie Parker. The two were gunned 
down near Gibsland, Louisiana, in May 1934,*- ’ 
ending a two-year crime spree in which they 
robbed banks across foe Southwest and Mid- 
west They were buried in separate Dallas 
cemeteries. 


j ~.r.: ; . 

- 

/t.M-.y 

•* 

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Ewry country has its own AT&T Access Number which 


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makes calling home and to olher countries really easy; 


Just dial the AT&T Access Number for the country 


you're calling from and we’ll take it from there. And 


by Rising, 

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be sure to change your calls on your AT&T Calling 


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Card. It’Ll help you avoid outrageous phone charges 




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on your hotel bill and save you up to 60%* Low rates;. 






and the fastest, clearest connections home 24 hours 




■ . 


a day. Rain or shine. Thai’s AT&T Direcf Service. 




stays mainly in the plain. 


Please check the list below for jtr&T Access Numbers. 


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Sicps follow for easy calling worldwide 

I. Just dial the , J flY£T Access Number fur the enuniry rou 
are calling from. 

1 Dial the phone number jnu’re calling. 

j. Dial the calling can! number listed above your nan*. 


-• • Wx 

836 OOO G7M 3T|i 


Arabta*o 

Beifllara* 

Czwft RepoMt* ... . 
France. . 

Germany- 

Greece* 

I ret and 

Italy* 

ftothsHandi* 

Russia **(Mosuw}i. 
Spain 


- Sweden . . 

022-903-011 Switzerland* . 


1-800-108-10 Untied (Onodom 4 
UW2-0 BMW 


028-705-611 

B800-88-6B11 

0508-88-8011 

0808484871 


040045H1B11 

8138-0010 Egn»*(Caito)r . 


■IDOU EAST 


... 00-880-1311 Israel 

1 400-550-000 Saadi Arabia© . 


510-0208 
. 177 - 180-2727 
.. 1400-10 


172-1011 ~ 

0380422-9171 G Iran 

755-5042 Kenya*.... 



AT&T 




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. .. 908 - 89 - 00-11 Santa Africa 


0400-10 

8-MM9-6123 


Can’t find die AT&T Access Numbw for the country you’re calling from? Just ask any opemor for 
AT&T DlrecT Service, or visit oor Web site ac hU|r 7 Ank , «Latt 4 XHn/tra?der 






“.mmiwje ijpiiaca won drwnar 


HWtt^flaen wen cmroar