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DiCC tt 



INTERNATIONAL 




eribune 


PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST . 


.Th* World’s Daily Newspaper 


London, Tuesday, April $, 1997 






New German Export: 
Jobs Head to Border 

i Eastern Neighbors See a Mini-Boom 
■ As Firms Flee High Costs at Home 


By William Drozdiak 

Washington Post Service 


- ■ | . BERLIN — For much of the past 
century, the giant electronics com- 

- parry Siemens has taken special pride 
in its role as an emblem of Germany's 
economic prowess. 

As the country’s largest private em- 
ployer, Siemens liked to trumpet the 
label “Made in Germany” as syn- 
j- onymous with top-quality products. 

: : But the identity of Siemens and of 
, Germany has changed in dramatic 
' ways. Europe's economic power- 

- house became pampered by some of 
the world's highest wages and shortest 

" working hours. Confronted by fierce 
competition, companies such as 

- 'Siemens complain that they can no 
longer endure the stratospheric costs 
of doing business in Germany and ate 

’ fleeing their homeland in droves. 

-T The exodus of fla gship enterprises 
helps explain why die number, of job- 
less workers in Germany has risen to 
*4.7 mfllton, or 113 percent of die 
work force. At the sametime, fi rman 

f companies have emerged as extr a or- 
• dinary envoys of influe nce by spawn- 
ing hundreds of thousands of jobs in 
the United States, Asia and Eastern 
Europe, where taxes and labor costs 
are much lower than at home. 

. “One of Germany’s biggest prob- 


lems, and one of its greatest strengths, 
is that we are e xpo r t in g so many jobs 
rather than products,” Hans-Olaf 
He nkel , the head of the Federation of 
German Industry, said. 

Nowhere has Germany's political 
and economic clout grown more 
quickly since its ramification in 1990 


NEWS ANALYSIS 




t ^ 


than in Poland, Hungary and the 
Czech Republic. Even before these 
countries enter NATO or the 
European Union, they have been em- 
braced so ardently by their giant 
neighbor that they are collectwely 
known as “Germany’s backyard.” 

The transformation of Central 
Europe’s economic landscape shows 
bow forces in the private, sector are 
shaping the Continent’s destiny more 
th<m governments or alliances. For 
German companies, die expense of 
doing business at home and die at- 
tractions of some of the fast-growing 
European marirntg have spurred an 
eastward stampede. 

4 Tfyoa wanttobe a global player,” 
said Erich Gerard, a senior executive 
for mfwnarinnyl p pB u irnw at 

Siemens, “you have to go where the 
action is. These places are growing 

. See GERMANY, Ptige 4 


Strikes plague France. Page 4. • Critics assail UJL jobs data. Page 15. 

U.S. Software Barriers 
Make Europeans Smile 



* 


By Edmund L Andrews ... 

Nrw YaetTbnes Strict . ' ■ f 

BOEBUNGBN. Germany — - Bor- - 
is Anderer and hisfoor part ne r s have 
a message for the spymasters in 
America’s national' security estab- 
lishment: Thank you very, very 
much. 

Mr. Anderer is the managing di- 
rector for marketing at Brokat In- 
fonnationssysteme GmbH, a three- 
year-old software company here that 
is growing about as fast as it can hire 
computer programmers. 

When America Online Inc. wanted 



and protects them from hackers and 
on-line bandits. When Netscape 
Communications Carp- and - Mi- 
crosoft Corp. wanted to sell internet 
. software to Germany's biggest banks, 
• they had to team up with Brokat to 
deliver tire security guarantees that 
the banks demaoded. 


'■ But What is most remarkabieis that 
Brofcfltf giap&d powfli stems-in large . 
pari; from ifae Alice^in-Wooderland 
working afTIS. computer policy. 
Ovra- die past two years, Brokat and a 
handful of other European companies 
have made a booming business oat of 
selling powerful encryption technol- 
ogy around the world that the U.S. 
government prohibits American 
companies from exporting. 

Mr.-Andezer cpiud not be happier. 
“The biggest limi tation on our 
growth is finding enough qualified 
people,” he said, as be strode past 
rooms filled with programmers 
dressed in T-shirts and jeans. 

. The company’s work force has 
climbed to 110 from 30 in the past 
year, and the company wants to add 
40 mote by the cod of the year. 

’‘This company has grown so fast 
that X often don’t know whether the 
1 see here have just started 
car are just visitors,” he said. 

See CODE, Page 4 




No. 35,490 


Clinton Sees 
Netanyahu, 



DjUa MxmnaJHanat 

The U.S. Treasury secretary, Robert Robin, left, honoring Vietnam’s finance minister, Nguyen Sinh Hung, 
with a traditional bow Monday, after signing an agreement to reschedule $145 million of Vietnam’s debt. 


Rubin Warns Vietnam 
To Speed Up Reforms 

He Calls for Liberalization of Economy 


sec- 


Qtmp^brOmSMtfFnmDBpadta 

HANOI — The U.S. Treasury 
retary, Robert Rubin, warned Vietnam 
on Monday to speed up economic reform 
and improve its business if it 

wanted to woo foreign investors. 

Mr. Rubin delivered the w arning as 
he signed a pact restructuring debt that 
Hanoi inherited from the Saigon gov- 
ernment after the Vietnam War. He 
hailed the pact, rescheduling payments 
on about 5145 million in debt, as a 
icant step, but he listed 'areas 
red tape is blocking overseas 
investment as Hanoi tries to move to- 
ward a market economy. - 

“Vietnam would make great strides 
in improving its economy and condi- 
tions for local and foreign investors by 
reducing tariffs, eliminating export li- 
censes and simplifying government ap- 
provals,” Mr. Rubin told the U.S.-Yi- 
etnam Trade Council 

Mr. Rubin, the highest-ranking U3. 
economic official to visit Vietnam since 
the war ended in 1975, said market 
reforms also were the surest way far 
Vietnam to win trade concessions and 
financing from Washington. 

He also called for a copyright law to 
protect intellectual property rights and 
for a reduction in “bureaucratic inter- 
ference with the functioning of the 
private sector.” 

His message did not appear to be well 
received by Vietnamese officials. Vi- 
etnam’s deputy foreign minister, Nguyen 
Dinh Bin, said there was a limit to what 
Hanoi could do alone and made clear that 

be felt the United States bore the main 
responsibility far forcing closer ties. 

“It would be unfair to 


set forth re- 


quirements beyond Vietnam’s real abil- 
ity and higher than those for other coun- 
tries,” Mr. Bin said, adding that 
Vietnam hoped the United States would 
“take more positive measures to speed 
up this process.” 

Mr. Rubin, who held separate meet- 
ings with Prime Minister Vo Van Kiel 
and Finance Minister Nguyen Sinh 
Hung, said his visit signified that the 
relationship between the two countries 
had shifted from conflict to cooperation. 

The next step, he said, would be a 
trade agreement But for that to happen, 
Vietnam must make substantial com- 
mitments to open up its markets and 
treat foreign companies the same as 
Vietnamese ones. Mr. Rubin said. 

Vietnam must sign a trade deal before 
it can be granted preferential trade 
status, known as most-favored-nation 
status, by the United States. Mr. Rubin 
said he had discussed die trade status 
with Vietnamese officials, but had not 
focused on the question of when it 
would be granted. Negotiations are 
scheduled to resume next week. 

Mr. Rubin said Vietnamese officials 
had asked if Washington was willing to 
make concessions such as waiving the 
Jackson-Vanick amendment, which 
blocks most-favored-nation staus for 
communist countries that deny their cit- 
izens the right to emigrate. 

The two countries moved toward 
broader economic ties with the si j. 
of the debt pact, which gives Hanoi i 
2019 to repay the loans. 

“This agreement removes an impor- 
tant obstacle to closer ties between the 
United States and Vietnam.’ ’ Mr. Rubin 
said. (Reuters. AFP) 


Hanbo Chief Says Campaign Donations Were Legal 

failed Company’s Founder Gives Testimony From a Seoul Jail 


CtmiMbfOrSa&ProeiDl****** 

SEOUL The founder of South Korea’s Hanbo 


group of companies, in testimouy broad cast 
a Seoul jail, tolda parliamentary mrnny Monday that 
he bad contributed money to President Kim Young 


Public attention was riveted on the hearing after 
media reports that Mr. Chung would reveal a list of 
who had received money from Hanbo, 
newspapers have published a list of 16 law- 


made personal payments to-Mr.-Xnn and kf 

campaign contributions were wxdnn *e _tew. He 
demra paying any lawmakers m return for favors 

Tr E#and mac otojnclutog tec * 

Kim’s closeassodaies in the 

■ trial for bribery in connection with A* j* 3 ®®*? jSShj 
;■ Steel & General Construction Co. under debts of $5.8 

tL* allege tte Mr- f 




makers who allegedly took money from Hanbo. 

All 16 have denied, the allegations, but investigators 
said legal action would be taken against them if 

Political ‘gifts’ common in Asia make the Clinton 
campaign-finance scandal look paltry. Page 6. 

they were found to have taken tire money from Hanbo 
in return for favors. 

The company had been a corporate high-flyer in Mr. 
Kim’S administration. But fee collapse of its steel- 
making flagship in January uncovered a web of cor- 
tbe economy and devastated Mr. 


executives 




£ ton -he ruling party and two 


such money, contradicting what prosecution 
hies said at parliamentary i 


Mr. Chungsaidhe had given as much as 1 billion 
won ($1:1 million) to Mr. Kim’s party, some of it to 
help finance tire 1992 presidential election. But he said 
the contributions had been legitimate. 

Wearing light blue prison garb, Mr. Chung admitted 
having asked Mr. Kim’s dose associate, Hong In Gil, 



AGENDA 

Outlook for Rates 
Bucks Up Dollar 

The dollar strengthened 
Monday, lifted by expectations that 
interest rates in the United States 
will continue to rise at a quicker 
pace than those in Europe or Japan. 
The dollar rose to 1.7125 Deutsche 
marks, up from 1.6841 DM on Fri- 
day. In the U.S. stock market, a 
series of corporate takeover an- 
nouncements helped push up 
prices. The market was also en- 
couraged by falling interest rates in 
fee bond market Page 13. 


The Dollar 


Now York 

Monday • 4 P.M. 

pmious do« 

DM 

1.7125 

1.6841 

Pound 

1.6343 

1.6345 

Yan 

125.58 

124.315 

FF 

5.761 

5.071 

r. 

The Dow 


3SL. 

Monday eta» 

prawtou* dose 

+29.84 

6555.91 

6526.07 

1 S&P 500 I 

change 

Monday 0 4 PM. 

previous cJoae 

*9.14 

762.14 

753.00 


Times and Post 
Win Pulitzers 

John F. Bums of The New York 
Times won the 1997 Pulitzer Prize 
for international reporting for cov- 
erage of fee regime imposed on 
Afghanistan by fee militant Tale- 
ban movement 

The award for criticism went to 
Tim Page, music critic for' The 
Washington Post Newsday won 
fee prize for spot news reporting for 
its coverage of fee explosion of 
TWA Flight 800. Page 4. 

PAGE TWO 

The Life of a US. Wheeler-Dealer 

EUROPE Pag® 5. 

Albania Masks Real Issue in Italy 

Books Page 10. 

Crossword Page II. 

Opinion Pages 8-9. 

Sports Pages 20-21. 

International Classified Page 7. 


The IHT on-line http://v 


President Is Cautious 
On Plan for Intense 
Peace Negotiations 

By Brian Knowlton 

International Herald Tribune 

WASHINGTON — Cautioning that 
it was important not to “put form over 
substance,” President Bill Clinton said 
Monday that he did not want to embrace 
hastily an Israeli proposal for Camp 
David-style talks to rescue the imperiled 
Middle East peace process. 

At the same time, the president said 
that he would not rale out “any rea- 
sonable opportunity for me to make a 
positive contribution” to revive the pro- 
cess. His advisers again mentioned the 
possibility of sending Secretary of Stale 
Madeleine Albright on her first official 
mission to the Middle East 

Mr. Clinton spoke at the outset of a 
meeting wife Prune Minister Benjamin 
Netanyahu of Israel, quickly arranged at 
a time of Israeli-Palestinian tensions. 

But even before he went to the White 
House, Mr. Netanyahu, in a meeting 
Monday with American supporters of 
Israel, said fear there would be no 
change in fee policy of building new 
settlements in areas claimed by 
Palestinians, nor any concessions in the 
face of violence. 

Mr. Clinton said later that he and Mr. 
Netanyahu had a “very specific, frank, 
candid and long talk” but that he could 
say no more until he had spoken wife the 
Palestinians. 

“And now we’re going to talk to the 
Palestinians and see whether there’s 
something we can do to get this thing 
going again,” fee president said at the 
end of a two-hour meeting wife tire 
prime minister. 

Palestinians and other Arabs have 
bitterly criticized Israeli construction in 
East Jerusalem and Israelis are outraged 
by violence feat has followed that con- 
struction. 

Violence continued Monday cm the 
West Bank. Two Palestinians were 
wounded when a Jewish settler in 
Ramaliab fried on them after his van 
was stoned. 

Arab spokesmen have said that con- 
cessions are needed from Israel if the 
troubled peace process is to be revived. 
But Mr. Clinton indicated that be would 
not seek concessions so long as the 
Palestinian leadership failed to curb vi- 
olence. 

“It shouldn't be ever seen as a bar- 
gain to be free from terrorism,” he said. 

* ‘No one should ever have to bargain to 
be free from terrorism.” 

U.S. diplomats have undertaken in- 
tensive efforts to get the peace talks 
back on track. But asked about a Camp 
David-style approach of intensive talks 
between the parties in a secluded set- 
ting, Mr. Clinton replied Monday: “I 
think it’s important not to jump fee gun 
on that. The first thing we have to do is 
get fee process going again.” 

Under heavy pressure from both 
sides, the president showed a preference 
for small steps rather than large ones. 

“We have to have tire conditions and 
understandings necessary to go for- 
ward,” he said. “The important thing is 
to create fee environment in which the 
steps can betaken.” 

King Hussein of Jordan is believed to 
have advised the Clinton administration 
to avoid a move as dramatic as spon- 
soring Camp David-style negotiations 
until the groundwork has been carefully 
laid. Mr. Netanyahu discussed the views 

See ISRAEL, Page 4 


Defying Threat, Denmark 
To Press China on Rights 


See HANBO, Page 4 


Yan 5® BeojSanra 

Chung Tae Soo, founder of the Hanbo group, 
preparing to testify at the hearing Monday. 


Newsstand PriggL 


Bahrain .^...1.000 Din 

Cyprus C.£1.«> 

Denmark „. 1 4.00 D-Kr. — in oo Rate 

FWand —.12.00 FM. reuoo 

SKhtSS 

.1.250 


incivcg rEisiacu ui 

Costly Failure for Shuttle and Science SSS 

%/ ■ «/ Geneva. 


CavUlgfOvarAMflifaUa 

HOUSTON— Astronauts scrambled 
Monday to finish as many experiments 
as they could before getting ready to 
return to Earth 12 days early because of 


years ago. Only a handful of fee 33 



problems with a pcrwttf generator cm the planned ex per im ents could be under- 
space shuttle Columbia. taken on a mission feat cost about $500 

T* 1 % S • — *n* _ _ 


ft was fee potential for an explosion in 
fee generator that forced space agency 
officials to cut short fee {damned 16-day 
science ntisrian and to prepare instead 
for a quick flight hontettaesday. 

- The detasum to abort the 83d shmtie 


— - ne-.Ti" KMWIIHII.'. r<M-1 


flight was a crushing disappointment to The crew was supposed to study fire, 

scores of scientists and engineers who metals, crystals and plants during the 
began planning a complex series of mi- flight, hut the National Aeronautics and 
crogravity experiments more than three Space Administration canceled those 

plans Sunday because fee voltage in one 
offeree electricity-producing reel cells 
continued to drop. The potentially ex- 
plosive unit had to be turned off. 

The crew has been living in near- 
darkness and working wife flashlights 
ctnrff the troublesome generator was 


million. 

Scientists who spent more than three 
years coQr tfinnting the miwdnn hoped to 
get through a few of the tests before the 
seven astronauts were to close fee 
shuttle’s laboratory. . 


See SHUTTLE, Page 4 


Caxpicd by Oar Sufi From Dapaccha 

NOORDWUK, Netherlands — Den- 
mark vowed Monday to press ahead 
wife a United Nations resolution cri- 
ticizing China’s human rights record, 
defying Beijing’s warning feat the move 
would severely damage ties. 

Assured of fee backing of fee United 
States and a majority of European Un- 
ion states. Foreign Minister Niels 
Helveg Petersen of Denmark said his 
country would propose the resolution, 
which is to be presented this week at the 
UN Human Rights Commission in 
Geneva. 

Every year since the 1989 military 
crackdown on democracy protests in 
Tiananmen Square, fee European Union 
has put a motion condemning China's 
human rights record before the UN Hu- 
man Rights Commission. 

This year, France decided to veto the 
resolution and broke fee 15-nation EU 
consensus on a common foreign policy. 
Then Denmark anno unced over the 
weekend that it would sponsor the mo- 
tion. 

Human rights groups accuse France 


of having changed its stance to win a 
major Airbus contract when President 
Jacques Chirac of France visits Beijing 
next month. 

French officials say there has been 
some evolution in China’s human rights 
performance that could justify a less 
confrontational approach. 

Germany. Spam and Italy have since 
adopted a similar attitude, diplomats 
saia. 

* ‘It is more important to achieve spe- 
cific progress than to agree on reso- 
lutions which have no success,” said 
Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel of Ger- 
many. 

The sensitive issue of human rights in 
C hina was debated by EU foreign min- 
isters during a two-day meeting in the 
Dutch coastal town of Noordwijk. 

“I can say that relations between 
China and Denmark will be seriously 
damaged politically and economically 
if Denmark really insists on this res- 
olution,” Shen Guofang, a Foreign 
Ministry spokesman, said in Beijing. 

See EUROPE, Page 4 




INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY APRIL 8, 1997 


PAGE TWO 


A Washington Monument / Jack Kant Cooke 


The High-Flying Career 
Of a Wheeler-Dealer 


By Bait Barnes 

Washington Post Service 

W ASHINGTON — He was a high 
school dropout who began his busi- 
ness career by selling encyclope- 
dias door-to-door during the De- 
pression of the 1930s. 

But before be was done. Jack Kent Cooke was 
a titan of business and professional sports, 
amassing a fortune in c ommuniratinM and real 
estate and owning teams from coast to coast — 
notably his beloved Washington Redskins. 

Mr. Cooke, who was 84 when he died Sunday, 
was a financial wizard who rose to toe highest 
brackets of wealth, with holdings estimated in 
recent years at $700 million to $1-2 billion. 
Those included cable television systems, news- 
papers, the leasehold to toe Chrysler Building in 
Manhattan, extensive holdings in stocks and 
bonds, and a thoroughbred racehorse stable mid 
breeding farm in Kentucky. In Los Angeles, he 
owned the Lakers basketball team and toe Kings 
hockey team, which he sold in 1979. 

As toe hands-on owner of toe Redskins, Mr. 
Cooke presided over a team that won toe Na- 
tional Football League's Super Bowl after the 
1982, 1987 and 1991 seasons. He came East 
from California in 1979 and took operating 
control of toe football team soon after. One of his 
early moves was to hire Joe Gibbs, who coached 
the Redskins to the three championships, as well 
as a loss in a fourth Super Bowl. 

More recently, Mr. Cooke had been a high- 
profile figure on toe Washington political land- 
scape in his highly publicized and controversial 
seven-year quest to build a 78,600-seat stadium 
for toe Redskins. After extensive negotiations 
with local officials in toe District of Columbia, 
Alexandria, Virginia, and Anne Arundel and 
Prince George's counties in Maryland, and with 
the governors of Maryland and Virginia, he 
finally reached an agreement to build rack Kent 
Cooke S tadium in Prince George’s. 

It was once said that Mr. Cooke could “sell 
stoves at a shipwreck.” He was a master wheel- 
er-dealer, and, more than anything else, he loved 
to win. To an author who once sought an in- 
terview for a book mi toe world’s five greatest 
salesmen, be replied indignantly, “Sir, I am not 
one of five anything!” He was a man of limitless 
energy who rarely took vacations or days off, and 
he often said of himself, ‘‘The harder I work, the 
luckier I get.” 

He was pompous, overbearing, rude, impa- 


tient and arrogant, but he also could be charming 
and courtly. He was engaging in conversation, 
self-educated and widely knowledgeable in 
fields as diverse as architecture, music, sports, 
literature and politics. His English was precise, 
and he often corrected others’ grammatical er- 
rors. He read voraciously — newspapers, 
magazines, novels, poetry, biographies, even toe 
Unabridged Oxford English Dictionary. He was 
married five times to four different women. At 
tones, be called women “pets” and men and 
women “darlings.” 

Mr. Cooke, who once smoked up to five packs 
of cigarettes a day, was diagnosed with ar- 
teriosclerotic heart disease in toe 1970s. He had 
frequent angina that was treated with medic- 
ation. “Never bothersome,” he once said of the 
pain, “and 1 wouldn't admit it even if it were.” 

Although grieved by turmoil in his marital 
life. Mr. Cooke often enjoyed a life of caviar and 
champagne. 

One evening in toe early 1980s found him in 
Manhattan with his second wife, Jeanne; dining 
at toe Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, where he stayed in 
the hotel's private towers wing; attending a 
Broadway play (“Woman of toe Year”); then 
dancing in toe Rainbow Room, 65 floors atop toe 
RCA (now General Electric) Building; gazing at 
toe Chrysler Building. His dining companions 
over toe years ranged from TV stars to gov- 
ernment heavyweights. 



Jack Kent Cooke amassed a fortune in communications, real estate and sports. 


A T KENT FARMS, his 640-acre estate 
in Middteburg, in Virginia's hunt 
country. Mr. Cooke presided over his 
business empire. Jack Kent Cooke 
Inc~, while living toe life of a gentleman farmer. 
At a moment's notice, his stable attendant could 
saddle up his Tennessee walking horses should 
he be in the mood for a ride. Two pilots saw to it 
that his private jet was ready for takeoff. 

Claustrophobic all his life, he detested air travel 
and riding in elevators. “When I fly to toe West 
Coast in a private plane, I can fly tor two and a 
half hours or so, so my (rips are punctuated by a 
stop in a little town called Satina, Kansas,” he 
said in a 1988 interview. As for elevators, he said 
he survived by gritting teeth and clenching fists. 

In his later years, Mr. Cooke looked like an 
aging Shakespearean actor, and be customarily 
dressed in expensive tweed jackets and gray 
flaiw. 1 trousers, often sporting kangaroo leather 
boots. At Kent Farms, he worked behind an 1 8th- 
centuxy Chippendale partner’s desk, near a 
boardroom decorated at times with framed trib- 


utes from current and former employees. “An 
honest and compassionate man,” wrote Kareem 
Abdul- Jabbar, toe former Lakers center. “Long 
live the king,” wrote Joe Gibbs, toe former 
Redskins coach. 

A half-mile from his office, Mr. Cooke lived 
in a stucco and glass house that a Washington 
Post writer. Bill Brubaker, once described as 
“post-Reoaissance Malibu with its Bonnard ait, 
Georgian silver, electric beds and all-weather 
sun room.” His household staff had standing 
instructions to be “extremely polite’ ’ when an- 
swering the telephone because “Mr. Cooke has 
many rfigHngnictwd citizens of the country call- 
ing him,” Mr. Brubaker noted in a 1988 profile. 
At various times, Mr. Cooke also had apartments 
in the District of Columbia — one at the Wa- 
tergate — and he lived in recent years in a $2 
million house in Woodley Park. 

Mr. Cooke acquired toe Redskins in stages 
over 25 years, tegmning in November 1960 with 
the purchase of a 25 percent stake for $350,000. 
Only two months earlier, Mr. Cooke, a native of 
Canada, had become a U.S. citizen by a special 
act of Congress, which passed a private law' 
granting him U.S. residency retroactive to 1950, 
thus complying with a requirement for US. 
citizenship. The legislation was sponsored by 
Representative Francis Walter, Democrat of 
Pennsylvania, who told the House Judiciary 
Committee that Mr. Cooke was ready to give op 
his “wealth, status and social position” in 
Canada “to build a new future for himself and 
his family in the United States of America.” 

After the death in 1969 of the Redskins’ 
founder, George Preston Marshall, Mr. Cooke 
acquired more shares in the franchise. By 1979, 


he owned 85 percent of toe team, when he moved 
to northern Virginia, and shortly thereafter he 
took operating control from toe Washington 
lawyerEdward Bennett Williams, who had been 
chief operating officer. In February 1985, he 
became sole owner when he bought toe last 
block of outstanding stock from Mr. Williams. 


H IS TOTAL investment in the franchise 
was believed to have been about $15 
mfllioo, less than lOperceotof what he 
could have reasonably expected to get 
had be put the team np for sale. Bat toe Redskms 
were mare than a business matter, be always 
insisted. He called them “the greatest hobby a 
Ttinn could have.” 

At Mr. Cooke's expense, hundreds of toe 
Washington area’s politically, socially and fi- 
nancially powerful and well-connected traveled 
by chartered jet to the Redskins’ Super Bowls. A 
request to join him in the owner’s box at Robert 
F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium for a Redskins 
home game was among toe most coveted in- 
vitations in the nation's capital. 

On a given game day. Mr. Cooke’s guest list 
might include the governor of Maryland or Vir- 
ginia, the mayor of Washington, leading mem- 
bers of Congress, the director of a federal agency 
or a cabi net member, judges and inflngntfai 
figures of television and the press. Mr. Cooke, a 
Republican, counted high-profile Democrats 


To clear his postgame passage through traffic- 
clogged streets around the lire District 

of Columbia government routinely provided a 
motorcycle police officer to escort his chauffeur- 
driven limousine. 


GmdBotd 

Via Cashmda 

r O 


U.S- May Lift Ban on Latin Arms Sales travel update 


By Calvin Sims 

New York Tarts Service 


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widely viewed as the end of a 
U.S. ban on high-technology 
arms sales to Latin America. 

While administration offi- 
cials say that President Bill 


that while his government the American arms ban, gov- Tf a l v XXTou** nf ^frilrr a 

was still strongly opposed to a ' emment -officials 1 from both fiaws , w ave yi OUU^» 


regional anas buildup, it was 
not concerned whether the 


LIMA — The Clinton ad- While administration offi- not concerned whether ft 
minis tration’s decision last rials say that President Bill United States removed < 
week to allow Lockheed Mar- Clinton has not yet approved maintained the ban, espe- 
tinCorp. to submit a technical any sale of fighter planes to cially since Argentina has no 
bid for sales of F-16 fighter Chile, they acknowledge that conflicts with its neighbors, 
planes to Chile is being permitting Lockheed to dis- Military analysts said that 

cuss technical and pricing in- Argentina initially opposed 
formation on the F-16 with relaxing the U.S. ban as it 


United States removed or Clinton admitnstratiofr not to -what are sefto be two chaotic weeks of stoppages by 


allow the sale to Chile, or at transport workers involved in contract disputes. 


the very least to permit the The eight-hour strike at Bari, Bologna, Cagliari, 
sale of less-advanced F-16s. Catania, Genoa, Milan’s Malpensa, Naples, Ber- 
Indeed, some Chilean mil- gamo, Palermo, Trieste and Turin had little effect on 
itary officials have said that traffic because it was called by smaller unions. But 
they were wooded that in its trig delays were expected as aresult of another eight- 
final derision, the United hour air-traffic controllers 5 strike Wednesday, 
States would sot sell Chile the called by six main labor organizations, 
latest generation of F-16s, a National stoppages by bus, trolley and subway 
move the Chilean military of- drivers were set for Thursday, followed next 
ficials said could force them to Monday by a four-day strike by gasoline station 
take their business elsewhere, attendants. Another strike by air traffic controllers 
Administration officials is planned in Milan for April 18, and a four-day sea 
said that the decision to allow transport strike is to start April 19. 

Lockheed to bid for Chile’s r t p . ^ n 

fighter planes was due mainly rranimirt lfl OTTlflial KftOp WlS 

. FR ANKFUR T (AF) - femkftit international 
aims ban was preventing them reopened one section ofa passenger terminal 

from competmg toapotm- emly Monday after hundreds of travelers were evac- 
tially lucrativemarket drat was u^because ofsr^ke. One woman was treated for 
open to foreign competitors. Thae were no flight delays. • 

Tbp Ammcsn weanon< Most of Section B in toe mam Terminal 1 filled 

contractors rite Fera^nracem 

purchase of a dozen Russian ft suspected that dost bmlt up m an arr-condroooer 




5*. •.« ~v • 
k V. 1 '■ 




toe Chilean government gives could not afford to buy the 
a strong indication that the advanced weapons because 


relaxing the U.S. ban as it they were wooded that in its 
could not afford to buy the final derision, the United 


United States is on the verge 
of relaxing the ban. 

“It is very rare for the gov- 


of sharp budget cutbacks. 

Argentina's military spend- 
ing has declined 75 percent in 


eminent to release this data the last 10 years after the 
and then not allow toe sale to country’sretum to democracy 
go through,” said an admin- from militaiy dictatorship, 
istration official. “The final Meanwhile, Chile, which 
derision is still under review, has the strongest economy in 
but we wanted to allow Amer- Latin America, has increased 


latest generation of F-16s, a 
move die Chilean military of- 
ficials said could force than to 
take their business elsewhere. 


ican companies to submit its military budget, which by 
bids to Chile before its March law receives a substantial per- 


Mean while, Chile, which Lockheed to bid for Chile's 
has toe strongest economy in fighter planes was due mainly 
Latin America, has increased to p res s ur e by U.S. weapons 
its military budget, which by contactors who said that the 


31 deadline.” 

In Santiago, 


General enue 






International 


Recruitment 


Center 



Fernando Rojas Vender, head 
of the Chilean Air Force, ex- 
pressed joy that the United 
States had allowed American 
weapons makers to take part 
in the bidding, saying Lock- 
heed’s technical bid on the F- 
16 was “a very important step 
forward.” 

Chile, which is seeking to 
buy at least 20 advanced fight- 
er planes, has said that it was 
interested in Lockheed’s F-16 
but that it was also consid- 
ering buying planes from oth- 
er countries that have no re- 
strictions, including Swedish 
JAS-39 Gripen and French 
Mirage 2000-5 fighters. 

Even Argentina, which has 
opposed lifting the U.S. 


of the country’s rav- 
in copper. 


The analysts have said that 
toe sale of F-16s would 


change the balance of air contractors cite Fern’s recent 


power in South America in 
favor of Chile, which would 
have technology far superior 
to Argentina’s, unless the Ar- 
gentines also came ire with 
the money to buy F-los. United States. 

“This is about military But critics of relaxing die 
prestige,” said Wendy U.S. arms ban say dial de- 
Hunter, a professor of polit- mocracy is still very fragile in 
ical science at Vanderbftt Uni- Latin America and that many 
versity. “Argentina doesn’t countries do not have full ci- 
tfaink that if toe Chileans get vflian control over their 
new F-16s that they will come armed forces and thus are ill- 
chaiging over the Andean ice equipped to regulate the new 
field and attack them. Argen- military technology, 
tina is embarrassed because 
by comparison it has very 
little money to spend on new 


from competmg in a poten- 
tially lucrative market that was 
open to foreign competitors. 
The American weapons 


weapons ban for fear of a re- weapons and believes that 
gional arms race, has shifted its without superior firepower, it 


purchase of a dozen Russian 11 mai uusi duui up in an arr-conoicooer 

MiG-29s at a cost estimated at ventilation shaft had begun to smolder. 

weapons conwciois say is Deto Air Lines’ Bights to Pans ftom Ailanu, 
nee3ed to preserve jobs in the New YoA and Croannan began rang Charles de 
United States Gaulle airport Monday instead of Orly airport. 

But critics of relaxing toe Delta said .* c f^ge provide better access 

U.S. arms ban say that d&- to international connections. (AP) 

A fire ldM a erw member aboard toe Cunard 
countries do not have full ri- ctmse ship Vistafjord after breaking out in a linen 
vilian control over toeir “ * e T was *x>wd for the island of 

armed forces and thus are ill- fro® Lauderdale, Florida. The ship 

equipped to regulate the new was dlv 5 rted to Freeport, Bahamas, where it was 
mh’tiuvtecbnoloev. expected to remain for two days. (Reuters) 


WEATHER 


coiizUries 'cbnfinned' that At- •* ROME (Reuters) — Air traffic controllers went 
gentina was still lobbying the onstrikeatllfr^anaijportsMcndayatthestaitof 


By Howard W. French 

New York Hines Service ' 


KINSHASA. Zaire — fo perhaps cM 
most drastic setback fartoeZairian gov, 
eminent in a calamitous six-month civil 
war, troops in tire country’s second- 
largest city laid down their a rm s 
Mo nday and declared common cause 
with rebels advancing on the city’s out- 
skirts. ■ 

With rebels of the Alliance of Demo- 
cratic Forces for the Liberation of the 
Congo (Zaire) reported to be less than 
30 kilometers to the west of Lubum- 
bashi, deserting soldiers of toe 21st Bri- 
gade donned white scarves in a sign of 
peace and declared toat they wo uldfigia 
any government forces who attempted 
to stop toe rebels. 

With toe rebels nearing toe city’s 
gates, reports reaching K i n s h asa from 
Lubumbashi late Monday spoke of 
th ousand” of citizens turning out in the 
g tyis^tc of the southern mining capital to 
hail the leader of the rebellion. Lament! 
Kabila. 

Lubumbashi is toe capital of Shaba 
Province, and home of me copper mid 
cobalt industries that have been die his- 
torical mainstays of Zaire’s economy. 

While Lubumbashi was tilting into 
rebel hands without a fight from gov- 
ernment forces, the stieete of the capital, 

Kinshasa, were toe scene of running 
confrontations between units of the 
army still loyal to Zaire’s loogtane 
dictator, Mobutu Sese Sefco, and thou- 
sands of students. 

In scenes reminiscent of the 1989 
T iananmen Square protests in Beijmg, 
hundreds of students surrounded ar- 
mored personnel earners of Marshal; 
Mobutu’s Presidential Guard, immot? 
ilizing the vehicles as they slapped their 
metal sides with bare hands and har- 
angued the soldiers to help them sweep 
Marshal Mobutu from power. 

Many of the soldiers appeared to 
sympathize with the students. 

In other pans of the city, however, 
units of toe Civil Guard and Gendarm- 
erie chased cadoads of students bade 
and forth in their annexed vehicles in a 
vigorous cat-and-mouse game. 

Throughout Zaire’s six-month crisis, 
the students have been the most vocal 
backers of Marshal Mobutu's longest- 
standing civilian o p pon en t. Etienne 
TshiseJkedi* who was named prime min- 
ister last week. 

‘ ' Mr.'Tsbisefcedi- Set off a- political 
crisis in toe capital shortly after .'his 
no minatio n when he named a govern- 
ment that excluded Marshal^ Mobittu ’ s 
allies from any posts and sought! to 

te ginlainr e. ; 

Marshal Mobutu’s allies and even 
some of Mr. Tshisekedi’s parliamentary 
supporters had planned to meet Monday 
to vote to remove the new prime min- 
ister. But late Sunday, Mr. Tshisekfcdi, 
who is deeply popular in tbc capkaf 
called upon his supporters to bar access 
to the People’s Palace, or FariianfatM 
building, effectively preventings his op- * 
ponents from meeting there. 

Gathering early Monday mo rning, 
and moving about in requisitioned pub- 
lic transportation, thousands of Mr. 
Tshisekedi's s upporters did just tjat 
Burning tires and ere c tin g barricades in 
the street, they showed little fear; of 
Marshal Mobutu’s soldiers, wen after 
scattered incidents of gunfire. 

Mr. Tshisekedi's aides have already 
announced thai the new prime minister 
will take office Wednesday, when! he , 
plans a march on toe government ; 
headquarters. ^ j 

By capturing the diamond-mix^ ! 
center and fotnth-laigest city, Mbjrp- 
Mayi, late last week, and Lubumbashi 
imminently, Mr. 56, suddenly 

controls virtually all of Zaire’s readily 


exploitable wealth. 

The rebel leader has already met 1 
representatives of De Bess, toe ~ 


African company that controls, toe gjdbal 
diamond market And he flew into 
Mbuji-Mayi on Monday and announced 
reforms he said would end .the - ootoribes 
corruption in Zaire's dumiobd business. 


that U.S. arms safes to Latin 
America were inevitable. 

A spokesman for Argen- 


doesn’t have prestige.” 
While Argentina, a close 
U.S. ally, is publicly saying 
that it is no longer concerned 


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Printed by Nemfax International London. Registered as a newspaper at the post office. 









PAGE 3 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRILS, 1997 




THE AMERICAS 


The Power of Hidden Prosecutors 

Beno Relies on Career Lawyers in Camp aign-Finance Inquiry 


By Pierre Thomas 

'HtUtongton Post .fr/w. 


WASHINGTON — Once some- 
^es twice a week, Aitaraey General 
l^net Reno picks up the telephone and 
calls a veteran Justice Department law- 

_ yer ^ Marie 

questionable 

^campaign contribotions to toe Demo- 
cratic Party. 

D '* r i®8 the conversations, Ms. Reno 

• uivanably pops the question: Do you 
; “Y* evidence ihat would trigger the 
-■ independent counsel statute? To Haro 

answer has been no. 

“ ■ Ms. Reno has confidently amg nteil 
il1be conclusions of Mr. RichardtmdSe 
carwr department attorneys heading the 
" ‘ “go-profile election inqmiy, despite in- 

* ten&iiying pressure from congressional 
'-Republicans and even some Democrats 
°to do otherwise. 

. She will bave to maliy . ffT K' H w r de- 
cision by Friday, when she must re- 
- n ^ 0l “ to a request by Republicans on 
r ~-the House and Senate judiciary com- 
. mittees that she seek court appointment 
• pf an independent counsel to investi gate 
5* campaign finance practices. 
r ' Ms. Reno’s deference to the judgment 
vi of career lawyers such as Mr. Richard on 
. r ‘ such a critical matter offers in sight into 
h^how she handles divisive criminal m- 
vestigations with high-stakes pnihirai 


imputations. It also illustrates the ex- 
traoidmary power and influence of a few 
longtime Justice Department attorneys, 
all largely unknown to the public. 

Since the allegations about question- 
able Democratic contributions and 
fund-raising efforts first surfaced near 
the end of the presidential campaign last 
year, Ms. Reno has tried to underscore 
the role of her deportment’s career pros- 
ecutors. The message she has tried to 
accentuate is that Ihe career lawyers, not 
political appointees, are playing the 
most critical roles in the investigation. 

Indeed, last November, when the 
Justice Department was required to re- 
spond to calls for an independent coun- 
sel from the watchdog group Common 
Cause, it was Mr. Richard, not Ms. 
Reno, who wrote die reply. 

. “The Department's record over the 
years demonstrates that ca r ee r prose- 
cutors are capable of conducting thor- 
ough and fair investigations and pros- 
ecutions. even of politically powerful 
members of the incumbent party," 
wrote Mr. Richard, a 29-year member of 
die department who is deputy assistant 
attorney general for the criminal di- 
vision. “As die criminal division re- 
views your allegations in depth, we will 
continue to consider whether invocation 
of tins clause is ap propriate." He was 
referring to the independent counsel 
clause. 


Ms. Reno has justified her reliance on 
the career prosecutors based, on the 
breadth of their experience and tradi- 
tion. Senior Justice Department offi- 
cials point out that on the four occasions 
when Ms. Reno has recommended the 
appointment of an independent counsel 
to investigate high administration of- 
ficials, her decisions were based in part 
on ‘die recommendations of career 
Justice Department lawyers or the FBI 
or both. 

In cases in which the career lawyers 
were less certain that an independent 
counsel was necessary, Ms. Reno opted 
for investigatitms overseen by outside 

prosecutors. 

Joining Mr. Richard in overseeing a 
Justice Department task force is Lee 
Radek, the head of the criminal di- 
vision's Public Integrity Section, which 
investigates allegations of corruption by 
public officials. 

Working under Mr. Radek and 
providing specialized legal expertise to 
the task force is Craig Doosanto, di- 
rector of the Public Integrity Section’s 
election crime branch and considered 
tiie Justice Department's guru on elec- 
tion law issues. 

While Ms. Reno bas staked her repu- 
tation cm the work of these faceless 
people, she fully understands the im- 
plications of their deliberations, sources 
said. 




You Can Run, but You Can’t Hide a Gun 




By Fox Butterfield 

New York Times Service 


•?>• NEW YORK — U.S. law-enforce- 
ment authorities have begun installing a 
* l I mew generation of sophisticated secunty 
.2 devices that are expected to lead quickly 
l to technology that win let police officers 
*fl -spot people oq the street canying con- 
■*. sealed guns. 

• •; * Justice Department officials are en- 

couraged by the speed with which die 
new technology is moving from the plan- 
ning stage into use. The first fruits of the 
. ' research are highly sensitive weapons 
detectors being installed for final testing 
..at a federal courthouse in Los Angeles 
- and at a prison in Noth Carolina. 

But the device for which officials 

• -hold the most hope is one that would use 
a camera employing electromagnetism 

-..-to enable the police to detecta weapon 
• : hidden under someone’s clothing from 
* -30 to 60 feet away (9 to 1 8 meters).. 

A version of that might be ready to test 
-- in 18 months and in use in four years. 

"It can save a lot of lives," said 
i v -Jeremy- Travis,' the director of the Na- 
^'Itional Institute of. Justice^the reseajcb -. 


aim of the Justice Department that bas 
- overseen a development prog ra mfor the 
new technologies for two years. 

41 ‘If you think of the situation cops face 
day in and day oat, ihe greatest risk is 
approaching a subject who may be 
aimed," Mr. Travis said. "So to be able 
to know in advance whether the indi- 
vidual is armed gives the officer an enor- 
mous advantage in safety and tactics.” 

Security at airports, counhouses and 
schools could be greatly improved by 
the new technologies, which include 
equipment using ultrasound imaging, a 
innovative type of X-rays ana com- 
puter-aided versions of metal detectors. 
The advanced metal detectors would 
enable officers to screen more people 
more qmcldy and thoroughly with far 
fewer annoying false alarms. 

Some of the equipment is ready to be 
manufactured now, and specialists say 
dial even the most innovative of the 
devices, which draw on technologies 
used by the Defense Department to find 
enemy tanks, trade Russian submarines 
and locate buried nuclear waste, may be 
inf use by police officers within four 
years.'! 


"They are coming to field very 
quickly,’’ Mr. Travis said, “much faster 
than any of us anticipated." 

The devices closest to being oper- 
ational use what is known as a back- 
scattered X-ray imaging system that, 
unlike traditional X-rays, emits a very 
low dosage of radiation, equivalent to 
about five minutes of exposure to the 
sun at sea level, and does not penetrate a 
person’s body. Instead, the rays are re- 
flected off the skin and are used to 
develop, in less than a second, an elec- 
tronic image of the body and everything 
tile person is canying. 

David Boyd, director of ihe insti- 
tute's office of science and technology, 
said tiie equipment had been tested at a 




■V 

I a 


AMERICAN 

TOPICS 

25 Years at Hard Labor — 
And Masterpiece Theater 

Certain political powers in South 
Carolina really want the inmates in 
state prisons to suffer. Their latest 
strategy: take away the right to watch 
socially unredeemmg television pro- 
grams like “Baywateh” (buxom 
blondes in bikinis naming across 
beaches), and replace them with a diet 
of heavier fare, such as Masterpiece 
Theater and Nature Scene. 

“I want than to watch good, 
wholesome, upbeat, positive types of 
programs,” said David Thomas, a 
Republican state senator who has in- 
troduced legislation to ban most net- 
work television from the state’s 32 

prisons. . . 

His move, which is supported by 
the state attorney general and others, 
comes at a time of generally harden- 
ing views toward c riminals — and of 
swelling raison populations and soar- 
ing prison costs. In South Carolina, 
riding lawn mowers used by mmates 
have been replaced by push mowers; 
new prison industries have been es- 
tablished, and prison stores no longer 
sell TV sets for use in nxfividual cells. 
The Atlanta Journal & Constitution 

not everyone favors Mr. 
Thomas’s attempt ^televiaM cc«- 
trol. Taking away Baywateh and 
its ilk, wrote one editorialist, would 


send a "petty, mean-spirited message 
to prisoners." And the state educa- 
tional television network confesses to 
being a brtuncomf ratable at the im- 
plication that having to watch Mas- 
terpiece Theater is a form of pun- 
ishment. 

Short Takes 

' After - tinkering with an idea 
dreamed up years ago at the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology, 
■Eric Begleiter and a company he 
heads are finally marketing holo- 
ic food, b eginning with candy: 
_ technology in the service of toe 
sweet-toothed. A procedure be has 
developed etches micro-grooves into 
toe surfaces of food, creating a 
ghostly, seemingly ftBree-dimensioD- 
al image. Star 1 Trek lollipops, his com- 
pany's first product on the market, 
piqject images of aliens and star 
ships. Mr. Begleiter sees endless pos- 
sibilities- He has had fun with (he 
seaweed on sushi You can make Httle 
shimmering pictures of fish swim- 
ming, he said. 

Cecilia Wolcott of Norton 
Shores, Michigan, got more than the 
fight tan she was planning on when 
she crawled into iter home tanning 
bed recently. When it was time to get 
out, rite found tin lid was stuck. 
Smoke was filling die room and, she 
said, “I knew fd bum to a crisp if I 
didn't get some help." Luckily, she 
had her cellular phone with ber — y ou 
never know — and called 91 1. Police 
and fire fighters rushed to her home 
and freed her, just in time, from the 
clutches of the rogue tanning ma- 
chine. 

International Herald Tribune 


and drugs were lieing smuggled in; he 
would not identify the prison. It worked 
so well, Mr. Boyd said, that people 
stopped trying to sneak in contraband. 

The devices being installed in toe 
prison in North Carolina and the federal 
courthouse in Los Angeles are matte by 
Nicolet Imaging Systems of San Diego. 
They-will be u^ed in tfw courthouse, as 
part of heightened security fra an com- 
ing trial .there of two dozen sus ’ 
.Mexican drug lords, officials sail 


Internet Gives Peek 
At People’s Wages 

The Associated Press 

ARLINGTON, Virginia — The fi- 
nancial status of millions of Americans 
is now available on ihe Internet by look- 
ing up Social Security records, USA 
Today has reported. 

The Social Security Administration 
went on-line a month ago, making it 
easier for taxpayers to look up toeir 
records. But USA Today said the system 
also allows easy snoopmg. 

“As soon as crooks start exploiting 
this service to get other people’s in- 
formation, Social Security is going to 
have a real problem on its hands," said 
Evan Hendricks, chairman of the U.S. 
Privacy Council in Washington- 

Social Security officials told fee news- 
paper that the dangers were minimal. 

The agency said the system could save 
milli ons at dollars it costs to mail fi- 
nancial reports to taxpayers who request 
the information about themselves. 

Beth Givens, manager of the Privacy 
Rights Clearinghouse in San Diego, told 
USA Today it was easy to abuse the 
system by obtaining the Social Security 
numbers of others and using them to 
gain on-line access to the records. 

The newspaper said these woe vari- 
ous types of potential abuse: Prospect- 
ive employers could get the salary his- 
tory of job applicants; co-workers could 
determine how much fellow employees 
are paid; landlords could use the in- 
formation to determine whether 
someone can afford an apartment 

The information raTl be obtained on- 
line at htqj7Avwwjtsa.gov. 


■om 


» SaDdbaggers in the flood- 

r. ravaged northern 

.1 itaSfNa^Dak^^ 

■:taSsotaeio«ind<Jlte» 
■'fortify levees 
- rising rivers, as ot ^ e fi rrm1 „ 
; cleared deep snow from a 
, spring blizzard- 

■; jmd injuring several 
jets. 

' s # a former army drfllser- 

■ scant, Delntar 

• miihv to 11 counts of 


/ fa- 


. m 
r AP) 



VACHERON CONSTANTIN 

* Geneva, since 1755 
Vacharpn Constantin, rue das Moulins 1, CH-1204 Gen&ve 


POLITICAL NOT 


Hatch and Kennedy 
Set Health Initiative 

WASHINGTON — One of flic Sen- 
ale's oddest couples, two longtime 
friends and ideological opposites. Sen- 
ators Edward Kennedy. Democrat of 
Massachusetts, and Orrin Hatch, Re- 
publican of Utah, have proposed ex- 
tending health care to the nation’s un- 
insured children and financing it with a 
tax on cigarettes of 43 cents a pack. 

Mr. Hatch and Mr. Kennedy, on the 
NBC program "Meet the Press,” said 
Sunday that the tax would not only pay 
for health care coverage for 10 million 
children, but also reduce smoking 
among young teenagers and even pro- 
duce excess mosey that could reduce 
the federal deficit. 

* ‘I give Ted Kennedy a lot of credit 
for moving to tiie center,” Mr. Hatch 
said. "I’vehadtomovealittlebittothe 
center, too. When it comes to health 
care for the American people, you 
know, as far as I'm concerned, both of 
os will put politics aside.*’ 

The Hateh-Kennedy health care pro- 
posal joins an array of children’s health 
proposals before Congress. The ad- 
ministration has proposed extending 
coverage to S million children through 
a combination of grants to states, cov- 
ering the families of unemployed 
workers and signing up children 
already eligible for Medicaid. 

Ihe Hateh-Kennedy plan would 
give states block grants to cover chil- 
dren and let the states determine who 
would be eligible for coverage. Thiny- 
one governors have different programs 
in place, Mr. Kennedy said, and his 
plan would allow the states to build on 
this coverage. 

But Trent Lott of Mississippi, the 
leader of the majority Republicans, 
said was he was "probably not" will- 
ing to countenance a tax on cigarettes 
“and certainly not for this." 

"Senator Kennedy and I probably 
agree that we need to look at getting 
more children covered by insurance, ” 
Mr. Lott said. "His answer is always to 
raise more taxes and let the govern- 
ment do iL I'd like to have that problem 
addressed where it really needs to be 
addressed, by toe parents in the com- 
munities.” (WP) 

Discreet Democrats 
Politick in California 

SACRAMENTO, California — 
They came, they saw, they schmoozed. 
But most of toe Democrats who may 
end up running for governor of toe 
largest American state next year stu- 
dionsly refused to tip toeir hands at 



TIME OUT — Tom Hayden, a Democrat, taking a break from his race 
against Richard Riordan to be Los Angeles mayor. Voting is Tuesday. 


their state party's annual convention 
here this past weekend. 

By far the most electricity — and 
curiosity — crackled around a woman 
in red: Senator Dianne Fein stein, who 
whisked up the freeway from her home 
in San Francisco for a brief appearance 
at a Saturday luncheon, charmed the 
crowd and promised a decision "be- 
fore it snows." Many of those who are 
active in the party think she is toe 
Democrats' best hope to end 16 years 
of Republican rule. 

The former White House chief of 
staff, Leon Panetta. was honored at a 
dinner for his years of service as a 
congressman from toe Monterey Pen- 
insula. Mr. Panetta made an impas- 
sioned plea for immigrants’ rights and 
tolerance' and allowed, '‘I’ve always 
felt that it was important to make the 
decision by late spring, summer." 

State Controller Kathleen Connell 
has soft-pedaled a possible candidacy 
and gave no new hunts over the week- 
end. And Alfred A. Checchi, toe mul- 
timillionaire co-chairman of North- 
west Airlines, who has hired a staff and 
begun an exploratory effort, was os- 
tentatiously modest- “I don’t feel I 
have the standing at this tune” to ac- 
cept an invitation to address toe con- 
vention, he said, preferring to work toe 


hallways and cocktail parties inform- 
ally instead. 

Only Lieutenant Governor Gray 
Davis, who has been running hard for 
months and already has a war chest of 
nearly $4 million, made his intentions 
plain, unleashing a blistering attack rat 
the presumptive Republican nominee. 
Attorney General Daniel Lungren. He 
labeled Mr. Lungren an extremist and 
declared, "California will never be 
proud of a governor like that.” 

The party’s new chairman. Art 
Torres, vowed to avoid a nasty primary 
fight. He announced a plan for prep- 
rimary debates next year in the gov- 
ernor's race and other offices that he 
said could let candidates "put forward 
toeir own vision” and do away with 
negative campaigning. (NYT) 

Quote/ Unquote 

Ross Baker, a political scientist at 
Rutgers University in New Jersey, 
commenting on toe sentiment on Cap- 
itol Hill that Congress, back at work 
Monday after a two-week recess, is 
adrift: "The last thing this Congress 
needs, in addition to all toe accusations 
of campaign finance irregularities, is to 
have a session barren of accomplish- 
ment-” (LAT) 


ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES - CONSTRUCTION - COMMUNICATIONS 

LYONNAISE DES EAUX 


wwmft.n, swnniuinBiiK 


NET PROFIT UP 49% 


REVENUES 

FRF 

91,620 

MILLION 

+ 

7 % 

OPERATING PROFIT 

FRF 

5,360 

MILLION 

+ 

26 % 

NET INCOME (group share) 

FRF 

1,349 

MILLION 

+ 

49 % 

CASH FLOW 

FRF 

7,308- 

MILLION 

+ 

21 % 


* Cnjcukanl an a ptofama bash fixture jg exits from amsaSdatioh structure In 1996 

Lyonnaise des Eaux’s 1996 results confirm toe validity toe acquisition of toe Northumbrian Water Group's 


of toe group’s strategic focus on its core business and 
on international development. 


EARNINGS PS SHARE 

( IN fltBtCN FRANCS ) 


CASH FLOW PB SHARE 

( W FRENCH FRANCS | 


+ 46% 


+ 18% 



jgn 


1995 


1996 


1995 


1996 


Strong services performance 

In 1996, the group achieved consolidated revenues 
of FRF 91.6 billion. The revenue share of the 
Environmental Services Division (water, energy and 
waste disposal) amounted to 54 %, attesting to toe 
groupt further strengthening of its core activities. 
The Communications Division (broadcast, cable and 
satellite TV) continued to grow strongly (+ 14 %), 
while the Construction and Infrastructure Concession 
Division held up well in difficult market conditions. 

The positive development of toe key operational 
indicators is due principally to strong performance in 
Environmental Services and Communications, and a 
significant reduction in losses in the real estate sector 

Focus on international 

International operations (39.1% of sales) continue 
to drive the group’s further expansion, aided by 


activities in the U.K. and important new water 
contracts in Manila, Cordoba, Budapest and Maribor 
(signed early 1997). 

The group continued to develop internationally 
its waste disposal activities, mainly in Europe. 
In toe energy sector, new strategic cogeneration 
agreements were concluded by Trigen in North 
America with Hydro-Quebec and Gnergy Corp. 

Property phase-out almost completed 

The group further reduced its property exposure to 
FRF 1.5 billion, and losses from this sector decreased 
com mensu rarely. As a result of provisions existing 
in the accounts at 31 December 1996, group profits 
in the future will no longer be affected by this sector. 

Bright prospects 

The groups strong strategic focus on core activities 
and international development is expected to deliver 
further revenue and profit growth in 1997, 

Proposed merger with Suez 

The group chairman presented a project concerning 
the possibility of merging Lyonnaise des Eaux and 
Compagnie de Suez to the Board of Directors. 
The Board received it favourably and unanimously 
agreed in principle. The subject 
will be discussed during a 
special Board Meeting which will 
take place on 1 1 April 1997. 

JYONNAISE 

Vl!9WthnLii DES EAUX 



Internet : http://mvw.fyonnaise-des-eaux.com 




PAGE 4 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY APRIL 8, 1997 


INTERNATIONAL 


France on Strike: Not for Better Future, but for a Stable Present 


By Craig R. Whitney 

New York Tunes Service 


PARIS — Two years ago. President 
Jacques Chirac of France told the people 
who elected him that he understood what 
they wanted — fundamental change in 
an economy wracked by chronic double- 



Maybe he was wrong. 

These days, unemployment is higher 
than ever, at 12.8 percent, bat every day 
seems to bring a new French strike — 
not to win higher wages or longer va- 
cations, the things workers here deman- 
ded and got in labor disputes in the past, 
but to keep the wages and state-man- 
dated benefits they already have. 

This past week alone, pilots of the 


money-losing, state-owned domestic 
airline, Air Prance Europe, grounded all 
flights to and from Pans for two days 
with a strike protesting a plan to pay 
future new pilots lower salaries after the 
line completes its merger with Air 
France, which is also deep in the red. 

.Hospital interns across die country 
have been occupying railroad stations and 
roads to protest a government plan to try 
to control increases in spending on health 
care, which has been largely reimbursed 
by the Reach social security system. 

Bank employees stayed away from 
work to protest changes in work hours - 
that would let banks open on Saturdays. 

And truck drivers, who tied ctp the 
country last November with a strike to 
win the right to retire at age 55, said they 
would strike again in May because 
companies and onions had been unable 


to agree on how to finance die plan, even 
with government help. 

“With government transfer payments 
amounting to well over SO percent of 
national income, at least one person out 
of two is on die receiving end, directly or 
indirectly,” said Yves-Marie Laulan, 
one of the rare French economists who 
supports cutting back the role of the stale 
in the economy. 

“Any significant change necessarily 
steps on somebody 's feet, and that some- 
body has a vote, so no real reform ever 
has majority support," he said. 

Mr. Chirac, who won the presidency 
with 52 percent of the vote m May of 
1995, now has the support of only 38 
percent of the voters, according to a poll 
by Le Figaro magazine, which found 
Prime Minister Alain Juppe with a pop- 
ularity level of only 32 percent. 


Like Chancellor Helmut Kohl of Ger- pension and health insurance budgets. 

ifficultycon- ^“Today's conflicts are disparate and 

is lipht at the fragmented, but what they have in com- most domestic air routes, ana even me 

of the tunnel leading to a common man is that they are not demanding a biggestbanks 

'Fam=tc^- better tomorrow, wrote the dailyjub- hands despite pnvaozaron projects tin- 


many, Mr. Chirac has had difficulty con- 
vincing voters that there is light at the 
e: 

European currency, which Ranee, 
many, and other countries hope to in- 
troduce in 1999. 

To qualify, each country must reduce 
its government budget deficit to no more 
than 3 percent of Us gross national 
product by die beginning of next year. 
Both France and Germany, with their 
swollen jobless rolls, will have trouble 
meeting this criterion, even if they keep 
a tight lid on spending. 

Both countries have repeatedly 
vowed that they will make it 

This year, the government froze most 
spending at 1 996 levels across the board, 
and set target ceilings for spending on 
health benefits to reduce the deficit in the 


eration, “People don't go to the streets 
‘for’ (a higher salary or more va c a tion ), 
but hit the pavement ‘against' (a pri- 
vatization, the social security plan, a 
shutdown, job cuts). Sacrifices deman- 
ded in the name of economic change are 
no longer accepted.” 

Tbe French say they want change, but 
want to nminmin the social benefits and 
high wage levels they have fought to 
acquire over the last 50 years. 


acquire ov 

French workers in labor unions now- 
only amount to about 10 percent of the 
labor force, bat the unions are willing to 
strike to preserve their benefits. 

Strikes in tbe public sector have a 


der way. 

Repeatedly over the last two years, the 
government has acceded to tbe unions. 
When hospital interns began striking last 
month, for instance, the government 
quickly gave in to their most important 
fVvn anH by allowing new physicians =a 
seven-year exemption from a penalty 
clause in the new health care cost-con^ 
trol plan. . "Mr 

Interns, worried about incurring heavy 
debts as they go into practice after their 
internships, got the exemption but con- 
tinued tbe strike and demonstrations 
aoosstbe country in defense, they said, of 

the integrity of the medical profession. 


GERMANY: Jobs Emigrate 


Continued from Page 1 

fast, unlike a marine industrial 
society like Germany. They 
are not asleep. Pretty soon, 
they will start to produce for 
the German market — and 
then it may be too late for my 
country to change its ways.'* 
“We have become too 
spoiled by our social bene- 
fits,’* be said. "Instead of in- 
vesting in future technologies, 
the government is wasting 
money on subsidies for dying 
industries; and many German 
companies have decided they 
cannot afford to wait for a 
change in attitude and men- 
tality in their homeland.” 

The transfer of production 
facilities to lower-wage 
neighbors has gained speed in 
the past 18 months, business 
leaders say, largely because 
German labor leaders refuse 
to accept cuts in wages or 
entitlements. Tbe decline in 
German jobs has produced a 
windfall of employment for 
the former C ommunist states 
in Eastern Europe. In addi- 
tion. they have collected more 
than $100 billion in aid from 
Bonn since tbe Iroa Curtain 
fell in 1989 and have shifted 
almost the entire focus of their 
economies toward the West 
For Germany, relations with 
Eastern Europe have rarely 
looked brighter. 

Profits from cross-border 
operations are soaring, and 
German capital employs sev- 
eral million workers in the 
country's Eastern neighbors. 
The rising number of plants 
and factories in die East em- 
blazoned with names such as 
Volkswagen. Mannesmann, 
Audi and Henkel, shows that 
the Drang Nach Osten. or al- 
lure of foe East, has never 
been stronger for Germany. 

"The goodwill created by 
German companies that have 
come east offering jobs and 
good income to our people,' ’ 
Andrzej Olechowski, a 
former foreign minister of 
Poland, said, “has done more 
to ease tensions than anything 
else. The worry about becom- 
ing a German colony has dis- 
appeared because these firms 
have proved that Germany 
can be a helpful neighbor, not 
an oppressive one.” 

Still, historical resentments 
linger. Some East European, 
politicians, notably Prime 
Minister Vaclav Klaus of the 
Czech Republic, say they re- 
main wary of befog smothered 
in a benign economic embrace 
by the neighbor that once oc- 


their lands by fame. 
] while, Germany's 

neighbors to foe west worry 
about tbe eastward shift in eco- 
nomic gravity, a process that is 
likely to accelerate when foe 
German capital moves to Ber- 
lin, just 80 kilometer's (50 
miles) from the Polish border, 
at foe end of foe century. 

Most of all, German work- 
ers wonder whether they will 
be able to hold on to the 
dwindling number of jobs at 
home that provide an average 
wage level of $30 an hour 
(neatly twice that of the 
United States and Britain), six- 
week vacations and a month's 
pay as a Christmas bonus. 

A protest strike by German 
construction workers last 
month erupted in violence 
when they marched on a Ber- 
lin site drat was using Polish 
laborers. 

While Germany’s image 
may have improved in Eastern 
Europe, many Germans are 
becoming angry and worried 
about sharing their prosperity 
with neighbors who are clam- 
oring to join the elite circle of 
affluence within the European 
Union. Polls show a majority 
of Germans turning against 
the idea of granting EU mem- 
bership to East European can- 
didates within foe next few 
years because they fear their 
own living standards will suf- 
fer with the co ntinuing out- 
flow of jobs and capital. 

But in many ways, the 
changes that Germans fear 
have already come. National 
loyalties have become almost 
obsolete in an increasingly 
global economy. Within two 
years, Siemens expects that 
the majority of its 379,000 




EUROPE: Danes Defy Beijing 


ERUSALEM 

a 

rtsF^ 

UNDIVIDED 

Lake FrezpiMgcncfl Pnutt-htM 

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel speaking to a Jewish group at a hotel in Washington on Monday. 

ISRAEL: Clinton Calls Talks With Netanyahu ‘Very Specific’ 



[oechst AG, Germany's 
leading chemical company, 
has slashed its number of Ger- 
man workers to 45,000 from 
80,000. 

Figures released by foe 
Bundesbank showed that in- 
vestments abroad by German 
companies nearly doubled in 
A995, to $32 billion, and rose 
an additional 40 percent last 
year. The study by the central 
bank predicted the trend 
would accelerate unless 
drastic measures were taken 
to curtail wage costs. 

Also, a recent survey found 
that 28 percent of Germany’s 
6,000 leading companies 
planned to move production 
abroad over the next three 
years — neady two- thirds 
cited high labor costs as the 
main reason. 


Continued from Page 1 

with King Hussein in a meeting Sunday 
at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Min- 
nesota, where the king is recovering 
from prostate surgery. 

The peace process has stalled as foe 
chief parties face die most sensitive is- 
sues still to be resolved: the final status 
of Jerusalem, a city claimed as capital by 
both sides, and Jewish settlements in foe 
occupied territories. 

Mr. Clinton has condemned the con- 
struction, begun last month, of 6,500 
apartments for Jewish residents in East 
Jerusalem but also ordered a U.S. veto of 
a United Nations Security Council res- 
olution condemning that construction. 

That veto was assailed by many Arab 


spokesmen, some saying that the U.S. 
role as honest broker in peace talks was 
in jeopardy. 

Mr. Clinton's low-key tone Monday 
contrasted to foe vigorous and uncom- 
promising speech (rattier by Mr. Net- 
anyahu, who said to loud applause at a 
pro-Israel breakfast that “We will not 
bend” in the face of terrorism and that 
tbe Palestinian leadership had made ‘ ‘al- 
most zero effort” to curb violence. 

U.S. spokesmen tried to lower hopes 
for Monday’s meeting in the White 
House. 

“Ultimately, tbe parties have to make 
their own decisions," said Dennis Ross, 
the chief U.S. Middle East negotiator. 

Mr. Clinton was expected to ask Mr. 
Netanyahu to halt the construction proj- 


ect that began March 18 in East Jer- 
usalem, sparking almost daily violence 
ever since. 

Failing that, he was expected to sug- 
gest that no new construction begin dur- 
ing peace talks and that Israel build new 
housing for Arabs too in East Jerus- 
alem. 

Mr. Netanyahu was expected to ask 
Mr. Clinton for assurances that foe 
Palestinian leadership would stop ter- 
rorist attacks. 

The president was also expected to 
seek a dear indication from Mr. Net- 
anyahu whether he might agree to join foe 
opposition Labor Party in a government 
of national unity, which would cany 
greater weight and credibility in Palestini- 
an eyes in negotiations. 


Continued from Page 1 

Denmark “will be the 
biggest loser,” he told a me- 
dia briefing, on human rights 
in Cftfo* 

Undeterred, Mr. Petersen 
told the Danish news agency 
R hzans Bureau; “We have 
made our decision.” 

As the EU prepared to in- 
crease the pressure. President 
Jiang Tfetnin was quoted as 
saying that China would sign 
oat of foe two major UN con- 
ventions on human rights this 
year. 

Mr. Jiang committed Grata 
to signing me UN convention 
an economic, social and cul- 
tural rights before the end of 
the year, the French defense 
minis ter, Charles Millon, said 
during a visit to Beijing. 

“Jiang said China is pos- 
itively studying foe UN con- 
vention on civu and political 
rights in the context of 
Chinese legislation,” Mr. 
Millon reported. 

The convention on civil 
and political rights is the 
second of foe two mam UN 
conventions. 

Mr. Millon, who arrived in 
Beijing on Sunday for a land- 
made five day visit to China, 
held a 90-minute meeting 
with Mr. Jiang. 

Previous attempts to con- 

itemn China cm hnman rights 

in a UN resolution following 
Beijing's bloody 1989 crack- 
down cm pro-democracy pro- 
testers have faded. China has 
rallied enough support each 
year to block the move. 

The Chinese fad to 
Denmark from going 
with the resolution came after 
theEU was unable to agree on 
a joint resolution. 

The Dutch EU presidency 
had been expected to present 
the annual faJ-sponsored res- 
olntion on behalf of all 15 
members, but no consensus 
was found. But Foreign Min- 


ister Hans van Mierlo of the 
Netherlands said most E3J 
countries supported the Dan- 
ish-led resolution. 

. “We’re grateful Denmark 
is willing to do this, and en- 
dorse the Danish resolution,” 
he said, adding; “We are not 
targeting China in particular, 
but violations of human . 
rights.” 

Nicholas Burns, UJ5. State 
Department spokesman, sank 
“This decision by Denmark 
reflects its principled com- 
mitment to the universality of 
human rights.” 

The ELTs failure to agree 
on a joint resolution has set 
off concerns about the EU's 
credibility at a time when it 
seeks to strengthen its com- 
mon foreign and security 
policy. Mr. van Mierlo has 
said that faflnre to agree on 
the China motion was a se- 
rious setback for those pros- 
pects. A 

Diplomats in Geneva said 
China had begun a rearguard 
action at the Rights Commis- 

■ sion to head off Denmark's 
resolution. (Reuters, AFP ) 

■ China Thanks Chirac 

Mr. Jiang and Prime Min- 
ister Li Peng thanked Mr. 
Chirac an Monday for not 
supporting foe EU move to 
censure China on human 
rights, Agence France-Presse 
reported from Beijing. 

Mr. Jiang said Paris’s de- 
cision was “very good.” 

Mr. Li bold Mr. Million of 
France that “we appreciate 
this percept iv e and intelligent 
decision” - by Mr. Chirac, 
state television reported. 

He added that China was 
“happy to cooperate and ar- 
range exchanges with 
France” in defense and pro- 
moting hnman rights. 

. In the past year, he said, 
“Ranee and China have 
made great progress and in a 
positive direction.” he said. 


SHUTTLE: A Costly Failure for the Mission and for Science 


?■ 


HANBO: Its Founder Testifies 

could cause harmful side ef- 
fects which might lead to the 
death of the whole body.” 
Mr. Chung denied that 
Hanbo had diverted millions 
of dollars it had officially ear- 
marked for investment in fac- 
tories to lobby politicians or 
enrich his family. 

The Hanbo corruption trial 
has heard evidence that Mr. 
Chong handed out wads of 
cash in briefcases, and even 
hidden in apple crates, to buy 
political influence and ensure 
funding for a massive new 
steel null. 

Mr. Chung said his compa- 
nies had spent nearly 1.5 tril- 
lion won paying interest on 
funds borrowed from b anks 
and other financial institu- 
tions. Hanbo borrowed much 
of tbe money to build a steel 
null that is still uncompleted. 

Opposition politicians 
have charged that Mr. Kim 
received money from Mr. 
Chung before foe 1992 pres- 
idential vote. They have also 
said that the president’s 
second son. Kim Hyun Chul. 
was involved in the scandal 
surrounding Hanbo. 

Kim Hyun Chul will have to 
appear before the pariiamen- 


Continued from Page 1 

to help him obtain bank loans. 
Mr. Hong, one of those on 
trial over foe scandal, has 
been charged with accepting 
bribes from Mr. Chung. 

Mr. Chung also saiahe un- 
derstood that Hanbo execu- 
tives had paid money to Kim 
Deog Ryoog, a member of tbe 
president's inner circle and 
one of nine people mentioned 
as a candidate for tbe New 
Korea Party's nomination in 

the next presidential election. 

Mr. Kim is barred from 
seeking a second term. 

Money was also delivered 
to Kim Sang Hyun, a senior 
lawmaker with the main op- 
position National Congress 
For New Politics, and Kim 
Yong Hwan, secretary -gener- 
al of foe United Liberal 
Democrats, Mr. Chung said. 
He declined to give further 
details on payments to foe 
three politicians. 

The hearing, part of a 45- 
day investigation by Parlia- 
ment into South Korea's 
s failure, was 
the opposition 
attacked a previous investi- 
gation as a whitewash. 

Mr. Chung apologized for 
tbe damage to the economy 
caused by Hanbo's failure bid 
said policymakers and 
bankers should take some 
blame for letting the company 
default on debt payments 
months before a new steel 
mill was due to open. 

“It was like pulling out nor- 
mal teeth." be said m clearly 
angry voice. “I told them this 


Continued from Page 1 

shut off. All nonessential 
equipment, including most of 
foe lighting, was turned off to 
conserve power for the ex- 
periments. 

“Everybody is disappoint- 
ed that we are going to have to 
come home early ,’’ the shuttle 
co mmander , Jim Halsefl. said 
at a news conference Monday. 
Other crew members felt 
“shock and disbelief’ at the 
news, said another astronaut, 
Donald Thomas. 

The decision left foe as- 
tronauts with just two and a 
half days in the. lab before a 
landing Tuesday afternoon. 

The researchers will push 
to get their 33 experiments — 
considered precursors for the 
future international space sta- 
tion — on another shuttle 
mission. 

Flight controllers said the 
crew was in no immediate 
danger. 


The decision is only foe 
third time since space shuttle 
flights began in 1981 that a 
mission has been ended early 
by NASA On foe second 
mission of the program, in 
November 1981, Columbia 
was called back throe days 
early because of a fuel cell 
problem. In December 1991, 
Atlantis also returned three 
days ahead of schedule, on 
foe 44th mission, because of 
malfunctioning navigational 
equipment 

The price of this shuttle 
flight was about $500 million, 
not including the experiments. 
NASA officials said foey did 
not know how much the ex- 
periments cost, but the ex- 
pense of outfitting the labo- 
ratory alone was $35 million. 

The astronauts had planned 
to start as many as 200 fires in 
a dosed container to see how 
flames spread in weightless- 
ness. The tests were intended 
to lead to cleaner and more 


efficient fuels and better fire- 
fighting techniques in space 
and on Earth, 

Other plans included mix- 
ing liquid metals in the ab- 
sence of gravity and exper- 
iments on spinach, clover, 
sage and peri winkle plants 
because space travelers may 
one day need to grow their 
own food. 

The shuttle flight was de- 
railed by a subtle, not-yet- 
understood problem in fuel 
cell No. 2, one of three elec- 
trical generators on the 
shuttle that combine hydro- 
gen and oxygen to produce 
both electricity and the 
crew’s drinking water. 

Shortly after Columbia’s 
launching Friday, engineers 
noticed a slight discrepancy 
in the voltage from one of foie 
substacks in fuel cell No. 2. 
As tiie flight progressed, the 
mismatch increased, indica- 
ting low voltage in a single 
cell. 


Low voltage generates 
heat, and engineers were con- 
cerned that if the fuel cell 
continued to operate, enough 
heat could be generated to 
bum through membranes sep- 
arating hydrogen and oxy- 
gen. 

“That’s considered a 
crossover of our two gases 
and of course, that’s hydro- 
gen and oxygen, and when 
they mix that’s not a nice 
sight,” said Jeff Bantie, a 
mission operations represen- 
tative at tbe Johnson Space 
Center. “By tenninating foe 
operation here, we can pre- 
clude getting close to that 
kind of a situation.” 

While Columbia’s power 
plant never reached the critical 
point at which NASA's rules 
would lave required the flight 
to be ended early, tbe plant's 
performance was such that en- 
gineers were uncomfortable 


N.Y. Times Reporter 
Wins 2d Pulitzer 


(AP, WP, NYT, Reuters) 


he pressured 
banks to extend loans to 
Hanbo Steel for constracticm 
of the steel milL 

Last mouth, an opposition 
lawmaker alleged mat the 
younger Mr. Kim had received 
200 billion won in kickbacks 
for arranging tile import of 
machinery for foe steel plant. 
(Reuters, Bloomberg, AFP) 



The Columbia crew members Greg Lintons, left, Jim Hfllsell, bottom, Susan Still, right, and Donald Thomas, 
top, conducting a press conference Monday. They are scheduled to land Tuesday at Cape Canaveral, Florida. 


Renters 

NEW YORK — John F. 
Bums of The New York 
Times won the Pulitzer Prize 
cm Monday m journalism for 
international reporting. 

The Pulitzer Prize board at 
Columbia University cited 
Mr. Bums “for his cour- 
ageous and insightful cover- 
age of the harrowing regime 
imposed on Afghanistan by 
the Taleban.” 

Mr. Bums was the co-win- 
ner of the 1993 prize for iris 
reporting from Bosnia. 

Tim Page, The Washington 
Post music critic, won the 
award fra criticism. 

Tbe prize for spot news re- 
porting went to Newsday for 
coverage of the explosion of 
TWA Flight 800, and the na- 
tional reporting award went 
to Tbe Wall Street Journal for 
coverage of the struggle with 
AIDS m the scientific and 
business comm unities. 

Michael Gartner of The 
Daily Tribune of Ames, Iowa, 
won the editorial writing 
prize for coverage of local 
issues, and Walt Handelsman 
of The Ttmes-Picayune of 
New Orleans won fra edit- 
orial cartooning. 

The commentary prize was 
awarded to Eileen McNamara 
of The Boston Globe for her 
columns on Massachusetts is- 
sues. 

Byron Acohido of The 
Seattle Times won the bea t 
reporting prize for his cov- 
erage of foe aerospace in- 
dustry, which resulted in new 
federal safety requirements. 

The award for explanatory 
jou rn alism was wan by The 
Philadelphia Inquirer for a 
series on choices confronting 
critically ill patients seeking 
to die with dignify. 

The Seattle Times 


spread corruption in a fed- 
erally sponsored housing 
program for American Indi- 
ans. 


The Times-Picayune of 
New Orleans won the 1997 
Pulitzer Prize for public ser- 
vice journalism Monday fora 
series analyzing conditions 
threatening the world's sup- 
ply offish. 

Wymon Marsalis won the 
1997 Pulitzer Prize for music, 
and Frank McCourt took ‘the 
prize for biography with his 
“Angela's Ashes: A Mem- 
oir” . 

Mr. Marsalis, who plajPE 
the trumpet, won for h£s 
“Blood on the Fields.” 

The Pulitzer for fiction 
went to Steven Mfflhanser for 
“Martin Dresden The Tale 
of an American Dreamer.”: 

There was no award given 
for drama. 

Jack N. Rakoye won a 
Pulitzer in the history cat- 
egory for “Original Mean- 
ings: Politics and Ideas in the 
Miking of the Constitution^’ 
The poetry award went to 
I Mueller for “Alive To- 
New and Selected 


Lisel 


Richard KInger received: 
Pulitzer in general nonfictiq 
for “Ashes to Ashes: Amei 
tea's Hundred- Y ear Cigareti 
War, the Public Health, an 
the Unabashed Triumph c 
Philip Morris.” 

went to Lj^PoU^^f^ 
(Baltimore) Sun. 


Kidnapping ; 
Demolished ; 

The Associated Press 

NIXA, Missouri — A- 
woman whose 6-year-old 
son was abducted from; 
the yard of their home 
gave .pursuit, repeatedly: 
™tnmg foe suspect’s car, 
wife ha- own. 

The bay was . pushed ! 
out of the car, unharmed.' 
An arrest was made later. 



INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY. APRIL 8, 1997 


RAGES 




EUROPE 




Fight Over Albanian Mission Masks the Real Political Issue in Italy 




By Alan Friedman 

■ - • 1 I/Ur rnaional Herald Tribun e 

; ^PARI5 — Prim e ^^ 5 ^. Ro _ 
fhflno Pro ^ 1 of Italy and his eov- 

■ S n SK * ?? center-left were b<s 
-Hig held political hostage Monday 

maids less than 9 percent of. the 
-national vote. 

lf.2f C I isis a V nos P bere in Rome, 
•*ri«h ! 8 f ff rs ** government 
^iignt collapse, is centered on the 

- fesue of whether Italy should send a 
/few thousand troops to lead a hu- 
jjTCuutanan mission to Albania. The 
hostage-taker is a charismatic pop- 

- Sr* — ^austo Bertinotti, 57. l eade r 
■'2 the Refounded Communist 
-■Party. 

’When Parliament votes this week 
,j>n a motion to approve Italy's lead- 
ership of a one-year military mis- 
•A*pn to_ Albania, Mr. Bertinotti’s 
^nty will voce against the motion. 
-That would mark the first time 
IJtJF the government’s majority has 
•spltt on a major policy vote since 
Mr. Prodi took office 11 months 
ago. In theory that could result in 
-■Mr. Prodi 's losing his majority ^ 1 -■ r 
f On Monday, after he was host to a 
nfeeting of coalition politicians, Mr. : 
''Prodi tried to put a brave face on the - 

- Situation. There is, in fact, a good 


fiance that be will be spared a par- 
liamentary defeat, but thanirc to a 
most unlikely savior Silvio Ber- 
lusconi, the crater-right opposition 
leader, is .expected to abstain from 
voting or even support the Albanian 
intervention because Italy’s rightist 
parties approve it. 

Sending a couple of thousand 
troops to Albania mi a mission 
backed by the United Nations is not 
the sort of issue that would normally 
determine an Italian government's 
fete- But the real issue in Italian 
politics is not Albania; it is Mr. 
Bertinotti 's influence. 

Although Mr. Bertinotti is not a 
cabinet member and while he does 
not have many votes, the Prodi gov- 
ernment cannot survive without 
him. As a result, Mr. Bertinotti has 
become a high-profile thorn in Mr. 
Prodi’s side. 

Fair months now, Mr. Bertinotti 
has been able to condition govern- 
ment policies on just about every 
major issue, from privatization to 
the content of deficit-cutting mea- 
sures Deeded to help Italy achieve 
targets to qualify for Europe’s single 
currency project. 

As a result, his role has become a 
primary concern for other European 
leaders as they watch Rome strug- 
gling to push through austerity pro- 


%ir 


grams to meet conditions for 
European monetary union. 

“I think Bertinotti is a saber-rai- 
tler.” said Ros Lifton. a senior econ- 
omist at HSBC Markets in London, 
“but I think he is also very happy to 
act as a power broker and therefore I 
don’t think that on issues from Al- 
bania to pension reform he will really 
pull the rug out from under Prodi’s 
feet 1 think he is quite happy to 
influence policy in the way he wants 
it to move, and for that reason Prodi 
obviously has to listen to him.” 


NEWS ANALYSIS 

Most critics of Mr. Bertinotti — 
inducting Mr. Berlusconi, the Con- 
find ustria employers' federation 
and even such government coalition 
members as Foreign Minister Lam- 
bertoDini— worry that Mr. Prodi’s 
alliance with the Refounded Com- 
munists means that real spending 
cuts and other tough policies will be 
watered down. 

“The alliance with the Refoun- 
ded Communists,” observed Ms. 
lifton, '’has acted as a drag on the 
kind of fiscal policies which should 
have been pursued in Italy, so you 
have not seen meaningful spending 
reforms but rather a senes of one-off 
measures to curb the deficit. " 


She said the risk for Italy is that 
Mr. Bertinotti’s opposition to any 
social spending cuts or real pension 
reform could hinder the country’s 
chances of going into European 
monetary uni cm in the first wave. 

Mr. Drni is concerned. 

“If the Refounded Communists 
vote against the government.” he 
said in an interview Monday, “this 
will create a difficult situation re- 
quiring political clarification. The 
government cannot afford to wait 
and see whar Mr. Bertinotti ’s at- 
titude will be on social security re- 
forms that we need to make ahead of 
a single currency. Otherwise it will 
be too Late to insure that the 1998 
budget will be framed in a way thal 
includes these reforms.” 

Although interest rates have 
come down in recent months and 
inflation was down to just 2.2 per- 
cent Monday, the Prodi government 
is having to contend with budget 
cuts at a time when unemployment 
is at 12.4 percent and 1997 eco- 
nomic growth is forecast at just 1.2 
percent 

As a result, most Italy- watchers 
fear that Mr. Prodi may be left with 
little room to maneuver on welfare 
reform, just when he needs it most 
— the rest of this year. 

Mr. Bertinotti' explained his 


strategy Monday: “Our position is 
to maintain our dissent on the Al- 
banian issue, but to not cause the 
government to collapse in order to 
maintain our influence on the moth- 
er of all issues, which is welfare 
state reform. That will be the key 
issue.” 

Even some trade union leaders 
have said they do not want to sum 
negotiating welfare reforms unless 
the govemmeni already has struck a 
deal with Mr. Bertinotti. Otherwise, 
say the union leaders, it could prove 
a waste of time. 

If the government survives this 
week, then the Bertinotti factor 
looks likely to continue to have a 
disproportionate influence on the 
ruling coalition. 

There is an alternative, but h is a 
political long shot. Mr. Prodi has 
spoken of the possibility of what he 
calk the politics of “variable geo- 
metry,” which is shorthand for 
striking a deal with opposition cen- 
ter-right forces to provide votes on 
such issues as new spending cuts or 
welfare reform. 

Any deal of that sort would, of 
course, send the government rush- 
ing into the arms of the opposition, 
which appears unlikely. This being 
Italy, however, anything can. and 
might still, happen. Fausto Bertinotti, foe of Italy's proposed Albania role. 



ii- . . 1 . 


- -a.- zs 




. - - j 




lepoite 

to 


Jn Shift, Labour Vows 
To Sell State Businesses 


Cir^TibvOurSiaffFnmDapatdtn 

■" * LONDON — Labour's 
■Reader, Tony Blair, pledged 
.Monday to maintain the Con- 
;, §orvative government's 
^policy of selling off state- 
-tiwned enterprises and prop- 
erties. which his party had 
[dong opposed. 

: '- j The pledge by Mr. Blair, 
■ ■front-runner in tine campaign 
-Tdr May 1 national elections, 
''represented the end of La- 

• hour's opposition to privat- 
ization, a practice strenuously 
pursued by the Conservatives 
•through their 18 years in 
power. 

- ■ - Earlier, aides said Labour 
’•was drawing up a list of state 
-'assets worth up to £122 bil- 
lion ($200 billion) for pos- 
sible sale, including the Na- 
tional Air Traffic Control 
System. 

■’ ■The “presumption should 
.-be that economic activity is 
'diest left to ■the* private 1 sector, 
.■xrith market forces bemg'-ea- 
courtaged-to operate,''^**. 

- -Blair said at a -gatbernig of 
■business executives at the 
'iCorn Exchange in London.' 

- - The government’s treasury 
minister. Chancellor of die. 
: £xchequer Kenneth Clarke, 

• heaped scorn on what he 

• called Labour's swift conver- 
sion to privatization. 


■ “You can’t put people who 
are making it up as they go 
along in charge of the national 
economy,” Mr. Clarice said. 

The Conservatives have 
sold off billions of pounds of 
state assets, including the na- 
tional railroads, British Air- 
ways, British Telecom, and 
tiie water and electricity 
companies. 

’ Tne Labour Party opposed 
each sale. 

The Times of London said 
Monday that another candi- 
date for privatization would 
be the Inland Revenue's 450 
tax offices, whose sale could 
raise £2_5 billion. 

Two years ago. Labour 
dropped from its constitution 
aMarxist-style clause. Clause 
IV, that called for public own- 
ership of the means of pro- 
duction. 

" The formal ditching of the 
clause was part of the party’s 
sharp^ftfift i ie f tiie -feed teT idler 
ShtfefeSsftre’reieetidii *de- 

tfew fe 

executives that Labour 
favored a “third way” be- 
tween the ideologies of pri- 
vatization and state control. 

. “There should be no dog- 
matic belief,” he said. “What 
counts is what works.” 

(AP. Reuters) 


■ TV Journalist Joins II.K. Race 

*■;■ Reuters 

* LONDON — Martin Bell, a veteran war correspondent for 
the BBC. said Monday he would run as an independent 
candidate for the parliamentary seat of a Conservative former 
government minister accused of taking cash for asking ques- 
tions in Parliament on behalf of businessmen. 

Candidates of the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats 
-have agreed to stand aside for Mr. Bell unless Neil Hamilton. 
' who denies the accusations against him, withdraws from the 

- .race in bis constituency in Tatton, northwest England. 

-Mr. Beil’s candidacy would allow the opposition to co mpute 
: -they- votes against Mr. Hamilton and appeal for support from 

- Conservatives unhappy with the Tory's refusal to resign. 


BRIEFLY 


\Kohl Ready to Meet on Tax Cut 

,i * ' BONN — Chancellor Helmut Kohl said Monday be was 
ready to talk with the opposition leader about breaking a 
deadlock over a tax cut plan, seen by die German gov- 

' The Social Democrats have made Mr. Kohl s presrace at 
the training table a cohdition for resuming talks with 
■£e ^SZcnt. wbich.they BVtSci off last month m show 
"solidarity with coal miners protesting planned cuts, 
souaamy Lafontaine said be was ready to resume the 

■ ta^ bu. nemcr he nor Mr. Kohl gave . te- Twe 
rounds since February, bodi without Mr. KoW. 
; failed to make headway. fiir; 

Spanish Banker Makes Bail 

- MADRID — Mario Conde, the cmjvicted financier, 
r 7V" 1 lJ^ cv (ri jail Monday after National Court 
.avoided • ^eisataDBoe* in place of the 2 billion 



Mr. Conde was sen- 
One of Sp am s b ^ ^^pp^p^^g 

tencedlast monwro .former bank, the Banco 
rarfhons ^^^fBanesto). Unable, to gather sufficient 
E^janoldeO«Uro( ^ Conde presented the red 
guarantees fof^.^ 1 -^ estimated to value 4 
estate guarantees itn v (AP) 

billion oesetas instead. 

finis Seeks Rmsia-IUTO Link 

new relationship . w when Foreign 

’ -ier^vgenf Russia visits P*ns .tins 

fresh round of talks with 
Mr. Pnf ^^^eraLJavierSolana.mMoscowon 


The trip is ^fcJSons forfoe planned eastward 
torts to ^^^Cwould inflict minimal damage 
pansion of NATum* (Reuters) 

5humiHaU£monR»s«a- 



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PAGE 6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 8, 1997 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


Japan’s Far Rightists Sound Off 

Ultranationalists Use Violence to Emphasize Tatriotic’ Message 


By Kevin Sullivan 

Wjshinglim Past Service 

TOKYO — It was a rainy Saturday 
morning at Yasukuni Shrine, the sym- 
bolic heart of Japanese nationalism, 
where imperial soldiers who led Japan 
into World War □ are enshrined. 

Wearing military fatigues and heavy 
black boots. 180 mock soldiers marched 
in place on the muddy parade ground in 
a grove of dripping cherry trees. They 
were construction workers and engi- 
neers. many with paunches, some in 
their 20s, some past 60, weekend war- 
riors with a fanatical love of their nadon 
and their emperor. 

After singing the national anthem and 
bowing in the direction of the Imperial 
Palace, they climbed aboard 50 armored 
sound trucks and buses and took to the 
Tokyo streets in massive vehicles, circ- 
ling a building where a moderate politi- 
cian they hate was attending a meeting. 

Screeching through loudspeakers 
atop the trucks so loudly that the riot 
police covered their ears, they called the 
politician's name over and over for two 
hours: “Hatoyama! Kill yourself! Hat- 
oyamai Resign! Hatoyama! Kill! Kill! 
Hatoyama! Smash him to death!" 

These men and thousands like them 
across the country are the face of Ja- 
panese nationalist fundamentalism. Like 
the militias in the United States, the 
camouflage- wearing, ultranationalist 

rightists here are fiercely conservative, 
organized in a loose military structure, 
well armed, by Japanese standards, and 
committed to violence to press an 
agenda they equate with patriotism. 

The police say there are nearly 

100.000 of these rightist activists. In 
recent years they have fired shots near a 
prime minister, shot and wounded two 
leading politicians, firebombed the Par- 
liament building and a political party 
headquarters, taken journalists hostage 
and shot at members of religious, polit- 
ical and news media organizations they 
consider enemies. 

To their way of thinking, Japan has 
apologized too much for World War II. 
They believe that Pearl Harbor was a 
natural reaction to U.S. policies in Asia; 
that Chinese estimates that as many as 

300.000 Chinese were slaughtered in 
Nanjing are grossly exaggerated; and 
that Japanese soldiers never forced for- 
eign women into sexual slavery as 
' ‘comfort women.” The women in ques- 
tion were willing prostitutes, they say. 

These views, shared by a small but 
vocal group in Parliament, are a reason 
that Japan so often finds itself on the 
diplomatic ropes with neighbors. 

They are an embarrassment for most 


Japanese and for the Japanese govern- 
ment. But the government's limited ef- 
forts to rein them in have led to a per- 
ception and fear in many Asian capitals 
that the rightists say publicly what many 
Japanese believe privaiely. 

“The things they chant are indicative 
of Japan's unrepentance for its wartime 
record; they glorify and beautify their 
imperial heydays,” said Lee Jung Hoon, 
a professor of political science at Yonsei 
University in Seoul. “This is not com- 
forting for Korea. China and other 
neighbors." 

Mr. Lee said the Japanese govern- 
ment's tolerance of rightist groups is 
“alarming’' but Dot surprising. “Al- 
though Japan professes to be a pacifist 
and progressive society, the undercur- 
rent is that Japan is still a very con- 
servative society," be said. 

Japan's rightists are united by a sense 
thatJapan is not what it used to be. They 
are motivated by their belief that they 
must take up arras to fight to restore 

To the rightists’ way of 
thinking, Japan has 
apologized too much for 
World War II. 

Japan's dignity, which they feel was 
stripped in the constitution written by 
American occupiers after the war. They 
believe the country's dignify has been 
eroded further by Japan's apologies for 
tbe war. and by scandals caused by dis- 
honest politicians and businessmen. 

Shinnosuke Inami, who has written 
extensively about the rightists, said most 
Japanese people think the groups are 
“noisy ana annoying.” But he said that 
a substantial number of Japanese believe 
some of the same, tilings, “including 
that Japan was not single-handedly re- 
sponsible for the war.” 

It is impossible to spend time in 
Tokyo without seeing and hearing the 
nationalists. Tbe sound trucks circle the 
Korean or Russian embassies to com- 
plain about territorial disputes. They 
wail about newspapers or magazines 
that criticize the imperial family. Even in 
upper floors of buildings, tbe blaring of 
the national anthem or marches disrupts 
telephone conversations. 

On a recent day. one rightist. 
Masahide Hosokawa, let a reporter ride 
in his convened tour bus as it rolled 
through Tokyo in a caravan of 50 sound 
trucks. Tbe men, and some women, be- 
hind tiie tinted glass are generally work- 
ing-class people. Some say they joined 
out of frustration for the disappearing 


“old Japan.” or because they feel they 
need to balance the liberal news media. 

“We think the greatest threat to Japan 
is a sense of declining morals. ' ' said Mr. 
Hosokawa, 65, the president of a con- 
struction company. He wore camouflage 
fatigues, sitting next to his 28-year-old 
daughter, identically dressed. 

Mr. Hosokawa said he was concerned 
that Japan has "peace amnesia,” and 
that economic prosperity has caused the 
Japanese to forget that China. Russia and 
South Korea all claim territory for which 
Japan once fought. 

“There is probably a way to say that 
more softly, maybe by writing letters, but 
we think that is not enough,” be said. “It 
is important to send a direct message to 
the people through the sound trucks.” 

The Japanese police consider have 
assigned nearly 1,000 officers to track 
tiie groups fulltime. ‘ ‘The activity of the 
sound trucks is not really a threat per 
se,” said Shinichi Uematsu. a high- 
ranking officer in the National Police 
Agency. But be said crime by rightists is 
increasing and they have been charged 
with nearly 1 00 acts of violence or tenor 
since 1989 — almost half of them per- 
sonal attacks on political or news media 
personalities. 

Tbe March 22 rally was aimed at 
Yultio Hatoyama of tbe Democratic 
Party, who commented on a recent trip to 
South Korea that Japan should take more 
responsibility for tiie ' ‘comfort women” 
issue. That comment, a view shared by 
much of mainstream Japan, was enough 
to mobilize rightists to call for the head of 
“Hatoyama, the disgusting traitor." 
They also claim to have mailed a single 
.22-caliber bullet to Mr. Hatoyama as a 
warning. “Hatoyama should take that 
warning seriously,” said Kenji 
Watanabe, 47, chairman of a group called 
the Great Japan Sincerity Association. 

The motto of another leading ultrana- 
tionalist group. Japan Alliance, is “One 
assassination saves millions of lives.” 
The group's first two presidents were 
both involved in political assassinations 
before World War IL Their successor. 
Hiroki Ooto, 80, said he would not hes- 
itate to do the same. 

Before the march began at the Yas- 
ukuni Shrine, the nationalists met to plan 
strategy in a small noodle shop nearby. 
"I am doing this because I love my 
country, and I like expressing that feel- 
ing,” said Tamotsu Takase, 34, an ex- 
ecutive in a construction materials com- 
pany. “I feel I am correcting things that 
cannot be corrected by law.” 

Others sounded more bitter. “Every- 
body is taking Japan lightly and looking 
down on us. one marcher said. “We 
must build a Japan that is respected.” 



.. Armcc Mctae ~ f1 . 

DELAYED APPRECIATION — Chris Patten, left, the governor of Hong Kong, and Jack Edwards, who-. ‘ 
campaigns for veterans, folding a flag Monday after a group photo with 40 wives and widows of former- 
prisoners of war and servicemen. Britain granted them passports last week, after lobbying by Mr. Edwards. ' v * 

1 £0 

"h 

U.S. Donations: Penny Ante in Asia£ 


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By Sheryl WuDunn 

New York Times Service 

HONG KONG — From Asia, the 
accusations of influence-peddling at the 
White House look a bit different The 
immediate reaction is often not outrage 
but surprise — at the low American 
prices. 

Gift-giving to curry favor is wide- 
spread in most Asian countries. And a 
few highly publicized scandals, includ- 
ing cases that involved former presi- 
dents of South Korea, have highlighted 
what is widely accepted here: The prac- 
tice is entwined with building relation- 
ships and doing business in Asia, and the 
amounts are usually far greater than the 
sums that have sparked an uproar in 
Washington. 

Corruption may be no more wide- 
spread in parts of Asia than in other 
rapidly developing regions, like Latin 
America, but it has come into the spot- 
light because of links to President Bill 
Cl in ton's campaign fund-raising. And it 
is clear that die development boom that 
has transformed East Asian economies 
has sent prices soaring in the business of 
influence.* • 

A result is that some executives here 
are struck mostly by how inexpensive it 
reportedly is to gain 'access to Mr. Clin- 
ton. 

A SI 00.000 contribution will not geta 
visitor a night in the Asian versions of 
the Lincoln Bedroom, or probably even 
a presidential green tea or even a glass of 
water. Indeed, such an amount might be 
regarded as so puny a donation as to be 
insulting. 

Take Yang Chung Mo, a South 
Korean business executive who in the 
1980s was asked to contribute to the 
fund-raising efforts of Chun Doo Hwan. 
then the country’s president According 
to accounts of the episode in the Joong- 
ang Dbo, a major Korean daily news- 
paper, Mr. Yang contributed $386,000. 
which was regarded as a paltry sum. 

Mr. Chun is said to have been furious 
at the offering and at Mr. Yang's dis- 


regard for accepted norms Con other oc- 
casions. Mr. Yang paid by check instead 
of cash). And after all, Mr. Chun had 
dropped hints to him that another ex- 
ecutive had donated $3.8 million. 

So Mr. Chun, who is now in prison for 
corruption and other crimes, was said to 
have punished Mr. Yang by destroying 
his conglomerate, the Ktikje Group, 
which was then one of South Koreans 
largest. At the time, Mr. Chun ruled as a 
dictator, so tiie case was never pros- 
ecuted. ' 

Kukje went bankrupt in 1985, and its 
pieces were scattered among other con- 
glomerates whose executives had dug 
more deeply into their pockets. 

“If they want to influence policy. I 
don't think they would think in terms of 
$100,000." said a prominent Asian- 
American, referring to tycoons in Asia. 
“They would think in much larger 
amounts of money.” 

Politics is as costly a process in much 
of Asia as it is in America, and so 
politicians — with the same distaste as in 
America — feel obliged to turn to 
companies and wealthy individuals. 
Likewise, family members of influential 
figures in Asia, from Thailand to Taiwan , 
and Indoneoato South Korea, some- 
times see their roles as gatekeepers, and 
they take tips at the door. 

In China, the son of a Politburo mem- 
ber confided a few years ago that he was 
accepting a $400,000 share of a com- 
pany in exchange for arranging a few 
meetings and leading his family's sup- 
port far a commercial project. The idea 
was that officials would fevor the com- 
pany if they realized that tire family had 
a stake in it 

Contributions from Asians and Asian- 
Americans have been at tbe center of the 
controversy about White House cam- 
paign financing, but many Asian-Amer- 
icans and Asians complain that the focus 
is misplaced. They say that the uproar is 
a result of bias. One businessman in Asia 
who saw Mr. Clinton said that at bis 
breakfast meeting at the White House 
there were other foreigners, from tbe 


Middle East and elsewhere, but by far 
the greatest scrutiny had been directed at > 
those with Asian names. * w, u > 

“I find a lot of ‘yel low peril* invectiwl ; 
in the way this is reported,” said Eugentfi 
Galb raith, who handles global research 
for HG Asia, a brokerage firm, and wtio> 
spent 16 years in Indonesia before mova, 
ing to Hong Kong last year. Mr. Gaid’ 
braith said the same kind of search for- 
political influence could be seen in oLh&m 
parts of the world without a strong le gal 
tradition. 

In such places, where various laws are. 
interpreted loosely or simply do not e*lg 
ist. relationships have become a crucijK 
means for doing business. . 

“It doesn’t have so much to do wilfL* 
Asia as with political systems in which*; 
tbe rule of law is not sufficient,” he san£- - 
“You’ve got to know the people to get 
things done.” 

Yet the executives acknowledge that_ 
influence-peddling is widespread 
Asia and that tbe custom of spreading H 
around a million dollars here and a mil- 
lion there is hard to shed when dealing 
with the United States. 

Above all, many Asian executives 


in the-thousarids of dollars. 

In South Korea, former President Rdh 
Tae Woo has been imprisoned and con- 
victed for, among other offenses, raising. 
more than $350 million in illegal cop- 7 
nitrations. Of that sum, two companies - 
contributed $31 million each. local 
newspapers say. * . 

In China, a former deputy mayor of 
Beijing, Wang Baosen, committed suja.n 
cide two years ago when he came undpt;, 
scrutiny for having amassed $37 million - 
in payoffs. In Japan, a former political 
boss. Shin Kanemaru. was arrested after ' 

a police raid on his home turned up cash 

and gold bars worth $25 million. 

In Thailand; corruption has been - *" 
main reason for dissatisfaction with se* 7 *J . 
era! Thai leaders, from Chaticbai 
Choonhavan, in the early 1990s, tq 
Prime Minister Banbam Silpa-archa, 
voted out last fall. 


Burmese Army Chief 
Is Mail-Bomb Target 












Cimpikit by Our Saff Fn m Dtipatdtts 

RANGOON — A mail 
bomb exploded in the home 
of a leading member of 
Burma's military govern- 
ment, killing his eldest 
daughter and setting off a re- 
newed security alert in tbe 
capital, the government arid 
diplomats said Monday. 

lire explosion at the home 
of Lieutenant General Tin Oo. 
second secretary of the State 
Law and Order Restoration 
Council and army chief of 
staff, occurred Sunday night. 

A senior military officer 
said that the general was not 
wounded in the explosion, but 
that his eldest daughter, Cho 
Lei Oo, 34, was killed. A gov- 
ernment statement did not say 
if the general had been at 
home at the time. 


General Tin Oo was be- 
lieved to have been the target 
of two bombs that exploded in 
December at a Rangoon pa- 
goda, killing five people. The 
blasts occurred shortly after 
he visited the temple. 

No one immediately 
claimed responsibility for the 
attack Sunday, and the gov- 
ernment did not name any 
suspects. In the past, the gov- 
ernment has attributed bomb- 
ings to Communists, rebel 
groups and the pro-democra- 
cy leader Daw Aung SanSuu 
Kyi. All deny such charges. 

Heightened security was 
apparent Monday . on Ran- 
goon streets, mostly near 
General Tin Oo’s home in a 
residential neighborhood. 
Troops and police stood on 
many streets. (AP. Reuters) 


Cohen Solicits Japan Aid 


BALLY 

SWITZERLAND 
SINCE 1861 


Reuters 

TOKYO — The U.S. de- 
fense secretary. William Co- 
hen. arrived Monday in 
Tokyo to seek assurances of 
I “noncombat" support from 
; Japanese forces in a Korean 
conflict and to urge Japan to 
join Washington's missile de- 
fense initiative. 

Mr. Cohen said that he 
would raise the matters with 
Prime Minister Ryutaro Hash- 
imoto and top officials. 

Mr. Cohen is making his 
first visit to Washington’s 
chief ally in Asia since taking 
over as defense secretary. 

The two countries are ne- 
gotiating an update of their 
1978 joint “defense guide- 


lines” for security coopera- 
tion, a matter that also will be 
discussed by Mr. Hashixnoto 
and President Bill Clinton in 
Washington this month. 

Mr. Cohen was to meet the 
Defense Agency chief, Fumio 
Kyuma, on Monday for talks 
on Japanese participation in 
Washington’s Theater Mis- 
sile Defense effort. Thai pro- 
gram is to develop missiles, 
lasers and other weapons that 
might be used to destroy at- 
tacking missiles in flight. 

Mr. Cohen praised Mr. 
Hasfnmoto’s efforts to main- 
tain support for the presence of 
47,000 U.S. troops in Japan, 
more than half of whom are on 
the island of Okinawa. 


Pakistan Food Stores Looted " 

PESHAWAR, Pakistan — Mobs attacked food stores"^ 
and restaurants here Monday in the worst unrest of a food* 5 "* 
crisis caused by shortages of wheat flour, witnesses said. 

Hundreds of people looted a large government-run 
food store, taking away grain and other items, they-said. 
Other crowds looted food from several restaurants and 1 
shops in Peshawar, capital of North-West Frontier ' 
Province, the witnesses said. 

The police moved into action with batons to disperse 
the crowds, who broke windows and caused other dam- 
age, a police official said. The shortage of flour has lasted 
for more than a month, despite emergency measure s to 
increase supplies. (AFP) 

Hong Kong Shows Confidence 

ITONG KONG — Most Hong Kong residents are* * 
confident that the temtory will stay prosperous and stable 

iTiJinw ^ j^f 0 011 ^ resu ^* s °f a government^} 

The date, released 85 days before Britain hands Hong 
Kong back to China, showed 76 percent of the re-;; 
spoodents were satisfied with the present situation in the " 

■ temtory. The figure, up three points from a survey in 
January, came from a poll conducted by the Home Affairs 
Branch in March, the government said. ' (Reuters) 

Indian Trucker Talks Collapse ^ 

NEW DELHI Talks between India's striking truck”-' 5 
, vers and the government collapsed here Monday,” 
leaving the country’s transportation system paralyzed for 
^Severn* consecutive day, officials said ’ 

^kesinan of the All India Motor Trans- 
f»rt Congress, sard Transport Ministry and Finance Min- 
istry officials had agreed to scrap a controvdftial tax but 
hadset no date for its abolitionTHe said the strike would 
continue until the details were worked out. ( AFP )" 

For the Record 

China has withdrawn an exploratory oil rig in the 
South China Sea in an area disputed wnh Vietnam, a 

SidMcSSy 1 Wth **“ ChiDa Na£ionaI Offshore 

A mudslide derailed a train southwest ofTokvo on 
Jfooday, injuring at least 22 peopSfoe Slice 

about 60 passengers, went off the tracks ■ 

er, the police said Other injuries were minor. (A?). ’ 


..L- ‘ 

f: i.l. 








INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 8, 1997 


PAGE 7 


INTERNATIONAL 


' Lavish U.S. Embt issy in Berlin Still a Dream 


By Alan CoweU 

New York Times Ser vice 

~ At ^ of Berlin’s 
regnaanon — at least as far as the 
2? sfntare poxnp is concerned — is 

fenrf in £? r *5?* *** east of tbe 
Piandtabujg Gate, where today's 
areamera envision tomorrow’s celeb- 

2J**. moguls nibbing 
shoulders with presidents, and pop 
^^ambassadors —just like in 
m 1920s when the place had its hey- 

: Sut one question that Bertinere 
have begun to ask is this: Can the 
United States afford the ticket to the 
show? 

. A new American Embassy is to be 
built on a mime site on Pariser Plata 
were the Berlin wall once ran. But 
toe project is on hold, its architects 
say. because of a shortage of money. 

■ has been to finance the 

embassy s construction from tbe sale 
of other Amen can -owned p rop e rti es 
hi Germany, but money from the oth- 
er transactions has been trickline in 
slowly. 

. Many people had expected that the 
embassy would be ready by. 1999 — 
tbe dale set by the German govern- 
ment for its historic move rack to 
Berlin from the somnolent, Rhineside 
^settlement of Bonn. Naturally 
"enough, tbe idea was that a new 
American Embassy would be open 
for business by the time the gov- 
ernment made its f ormal move — an 
emblem of American commitment to 
a reunified Germany at Europe's 
heart. 

i. The symbolism is enhanced be- 
cause the new embassy is to stand on 
the plot of land that was occupied by 
tbe prewar American Embassy in 
Berlin. 

. But sales of former American con- 
sulates and other real estate have ap- 
parently produced less revenue than 
the $1 20 million to $140 million price 
tag for the new building. No date has 
|ko fixed for the start of construc- 


■tion. American diplomats are reluc- 
tant to hazard a guess as to when tbe 
dcw embassy might, be ready for use 
— even though, they say, ihe embassy 
staffwiUberea^imredraloymenttQ 
Berlin by 1999. 

Some Berliners have written to die 
newspapers here suggesting tbal if tbe 
United States cannot raise the cash, 
maybe die residents of this once-di- 

to helpfui recogmtiM of American 


MW 




support during the Berlin airlift of 
1949. The idea drew skeptical re- 
sponses from other Berimers and 
Americans alike. 

In die face of headlines like one in 
Die Welt recently saying that the new 
embassy would “shine as a construc- 
tion gap” in the Pariser Plate, the 
American Embassy in Bonn has re- 
sponded with a degree of diplomatic 
hamrm phmg. 

“The fact is that we are going 
ahead with the process,” said Elroy 
Carlson, an embassy spokesman in 
Bonn. 

Engineering plans for the building 
are bang drawn op. But, Mr. Colson 
acknowledged, “what will probably 
happen is that people from tbe em- 
bassy and die embassy itself will 
move before, die structure is com- 
pleted” and will use existing U.S.- 


owned buildings — such as the 
former American Embassy in East 
Berlin — until die new building is 
complete. 

Tbe local representatives of the 
California architects who designed 
the building — Moore Ruble Yudell 
of Santa Monica — seemed more 
direct 

“The financing is not sure,” said 
Eva Lunette of tbe architectural firm 
Luneao and Fischer. “Tbe project is 
on hold at the moment. There's no go- 
ahead.” 

Arguably, U.S. diplomats say, die 
affair is just one more spin-off from 
the cuts at the Stare Department over 
the past 10 years that have slashed 
spending and representation abroad 
— the same austerity that underlay the 
plan to generate money for the new 
embassy without a congressional ap- 
propriation. 

Equally, it is one more hiccup in 
Germany’s decision after reunifica- 
tion seven years ago to move its 
capital back to Berlin at a cost of 
spiraling billions in construction 
contracts. 

Even the German Par Hamean, set to 
move to Beilin in 1999. has been 
obliged to admit that its own accom- 
modations will not be ready before 
2000, so that, initially, it will be able 
to carry out only limited business after 
die ceremonies of 1999. 

But ceremony is what the Pariser 
Plate is all about. It ties near the 
Brandenburg Gate at the western end 
of the broad, tree-lined boulevard that 
is tbe famous Unter den linden. It 
looks across to the soaring turrets of 
the Reichstag, or Parliament, build- 
ing. 

It is a place built for parades and 
pomp — as they know very well at the 
337-room Hotel Action, set to reopen 
in June as Germany’s avowedly most 
luxurious hotel. 52 years after it was 
destroyed by fire just after the aid of 
World War H 

“The walls here have steel plating 
to protect celebrities,'’ said Uhike 


Heesch, a spokeswoman for the hotel, 
tbe star-studded history of which is 
embedded in Berlin's prewar image 
as a European capital to rival Pans 
and London. 

The Hotel Action’s address is Par- 
iser Plate 1 . The address of its future 
neighbor, the American Embassy, is 
Pariser Plate 2. 

“The windows are bulletproof.” 
Miss Heesch said during a brief tour 
of the hotel’s first-floor reception 
rooms. 

There is even a small balcony de- 
signed for visiting dignitaries to ac- 
knowledge the crowds below — in a 
city renowned for the kind of pro- 
testers who threw tomatoes at the 
Pope several years ago. 

The two presidential suites, she 
said, include rooms for bodyguards. 

In one way, though, the troubled 
embassy project is not alone. 

Berlin Mitre — as tbe area behind 
tbe Brandenburg Gate in the former 
East Berlin is called — is supposed to 
become a bustling heart of the re- 
unified city, with luxury hotels, of- 
fices, stores, boutiques and restaur- 
ants, not to mention the embassies. 

Here, said Miss Heesch, the in- 
ternational set will jet in for meetings 
and conferences, lobbying and wheel - 

*tiut, while ^man y new buildings 
have gone up apace in Berlin's con- 
struction boom, people have proved 
more resistant to the area. 

Many new office blocks are only 30 
percent to 40 percent occupied, said 
Klaus Kragel, a Berlin real estate ana- 
lyst, although they are expected to fill 
up by tbe time the government gets 
here. 

New, marble-lobbied five-star ho- 
tels are offering discounts to combat 
low occupancy. In the evenings, the 
streets are all but deserted in this 
capital-in-waiting. 

And that same sense of a future not 
yet arrived seems to mark the vacant 
lot where the new embassy is sup- 
posed to stand. 



POLES APART — President Aleksander Kwasniewski of Poland, a former 
leading Communist, meeting with Pope John Paul II at tbe Vatican on Monday. 

17 More Are Butchered in Algeria 


Agence Fraace-Presse 

ALGIERS ■ — Suspected Islamic extremists 
killed 17 more people in two massacres, Al- 
gerian newspapers reported Monday, bring- 
ing to more than 100 the number of civilians 
massacred by extremists since Thursday, ac- 
cording to newspaper estimates. 

In Ain Lehdid, near Tiaret in northwest 
Algeria, 1 5 persons were found dead Sunday, 
the newspaper Liberie reported. Their throais 
had been cut. 

The paper added that 13 fanners in the same 
region were abducted by an armed group the 
same day. 

Another paper. El Watan, said that the head 
of an Islamic religious center in Sidi Ab- 
delkrim, southwest of Algiers, and his neph- 
ew had been killed, their throats cut, 
Thursday. 

On Sunday, newspapers said that more than 
80 civilians had been killed Thursday and 
Friday, including 52 from the same village, by 
suspected Islamic guerrillas. 


Most victims’ throats were slit in the at- 
tacks but some people, including children and 
women, were decapitated with a chainsaw, 
according to witnesses cited by the papers. 

The massacres occurred several weeks be- 
fore the start of campaigning for elections on 
June 5. 

Government forces have mounted a series 
of anti-terrorist sweeps since February. Pres- 
ident Liamine Zeroual pledged the “exter- 
mination” of militants after the holy month of 
Ramadan left about 40 0 people murdered. 

Newspapers have reported that more than 
100 extremists have been killed in police and 
army operations, including several leaders of 
Islamic groups. 

Islamic extremists have been fighting the 
military-backed regime since the cancellation 
in January 1992 of general elections that the 
fundamentalist Islamic Salvation Front ex- 
pected to win. An estimated total of 60,000 
people, mainly civilians, have died in vi- 
olence since then. 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 8, 1997 

OPINION/LETTERS 


Why the West Should Embrace Russia -China Detente 


iLSSSJ* “ M 9*°^ Russian 
for a - Summit meeting 

Isictes wtilbe ernoha^'^ 5 ^^ 1 ' die tw o making it easier topress Pyongyang to die with die norms of international trade and 

'of their vear-olii*^S n8 - un P Qrt * liCe negotiating table. The improvement in re- finance — far more would be achieved. 

iThe West should C Jf rt “ er ^“P‘” lations between Beijing and Moscow has Japan and South Korea would prefer to 

that it should r^n co yCT~ » cool also helped drive Japan closer to the United invest in a more predictable, open and less 
: their d&ente is ^ ossia **>» States, has ensured that Russia tries to re- politicized environment. Given the rising 

(should be deeDened* 0nl ^ we * omc solve iheimpasse in itsrelatiooswith Japan, oil and gas imports of China. South Korea 

■ Western cSirumair ~ “*d has made it possible to enlist Russian and Japan, and die energy projects in the 

'unperturbed Kv 10 be support in encouraging Qm» to be more Russian Far East that arc starved of capital, 

{because h «S^ Russwm . d&ente cooperative in international arms control, the energy sector could be a major area for 
{strained and wousjy sustained, re- for example by signing the international future cooperation. Agreed goals for de- 

^ respective treaty to ban nuclear weapons testing. veloping energy resources would also 
^their Russia. Growth in On balance, Chinese-Russian d6tente provide the kind of stability in Central Asia 

iraKrtn 388 sta ^ e< *» liberali- has been good for stability in Northeast that would make Western firms more con- 

c0 “ ac ’? been Asia. As a result. Western powers tan fident to invest. 

D 7 i taer p^n?try has a con- afford to press Beijing and Moscow to go Ckxser military links between China and 

: Qf *"‘2 m ,K?tw findwrandfiater. But the Westhas a barely Russia would enhance regional stability if 

■ 5* ° oe s have some coherent policy reward Russia, is deeply they were achieved in an open manner 
Russia $ transfer 0 f defense divided about C hina and has no real policy consistent with global arms control stan- 
” un - Th e ^ sod naval toward their bilateral relationship. dards. Unfortunately, the details of the bor- 

St !™L SO .sf 16 not Russia’s most The mam features dirt Western advocacy der demarcation and demilitarization agree- 
ijavmce^, nor are they a threat to Asia- of closer Chinese-Russian ties could seek ments to be signed by the two presidents 
tha L? re aligned' with the would be improved economic links between later tins month are expected to remain 
t, nA ctrre ?* e ° a S^ ns * Taiwan the two countries and greater transparency secret. As a result, they will allow Beijing 

a vital techno- in tbeir defense cooperation. and Moscow to fudge their differences. 

Vm^in “niagereatwiflenhanceitslong- The current economic relationship is Such secrecy will breed public distrust in 

P . ieve self-sufficiency m stagnating because it is seen primarily in both countries, fuel nationalist sentiments 

pnntary production and be able to project bilateral terms, and Russia fears bong within Russia and postpone crucial de- 
^° m hs border^. _ . swamped by Orma If Moscow and Beijing cisions in China about opening its military 

^n^^^^ l ^^^ estera ^ eresl;s ^ ave t “ et l to wo ® bdateral economic deal- affairs more widely to international scni- 
of Orinese-Russian ings, much of it barter, into a wider mul- liny. There would be less international con- 
juvairy tor North Korean favor, thereby tflateral context — mclnHfng complianc e cern about Russian arms sales to China if it 


By Jennifer Anderson and Gerald Segal 


fcheir b.1^1 

P* 30n of cross-braider contacts has been 
Reversed and neither country has a coo- 
ffidem policy m Central Asia. 

■ Of co urse, the West does have some 
jconcem about Russia’s transfer of defense 
■technology to China. The air and naval 
weapons sold so far are not Russia’s most 
{advanced, nor are they a threat to Asia- 
S? C l5^ na S? ns * at . ai « aligned with the 
l j" 8X6 directed a g ai n s t Taiwan 

pnd provide China with a vital techno- 
logical advantage that win enhance its Iong- 

ierm nlanc tn uhim, u cc • “ 


malting it easier to press Pyongyang to the 
negotiating table. The improvement in re- 
lations between Beijing and Moscow has 
also helped drive Japan closer to die United 
States, has ensured that Russia tries to re- 
solve ihe impasse in its relations with Japm, 
and has made it possible to enlist Russian 
support in encouraging China to be more 
cooperative in international arms control, 
for example by signing the international 
treaty to ban nuclear weapons testing. 

On balance, Chinese-Russian detente 
has been good for stability in Northeast 
Aria. As a result. Western powers can 
afford to press Beijing and Moscow to go 
farther and faster. But the West has a barely 
coherent policy toward Russia, is deeply 
divided about Omni and has no real policy 
toward their bilateral relationship. 

The main features that Western advocacy 
of closer Chinese-Russian ties could seek 
would be improved economic links between 
the two countries and greater transparency 
in tbeir defense cooperation. 

The current economic relationship is 


were more generally understood that they 
are no longer cutting-edge technologies. ' 

In advocating closer Chinese-Russian 
ties, the West would be making the rea- 
sonable assumption that Moscow, far more 
than Beijing, is wilting to accept the kind of 
global norms in economics, politics and 
security that the West values. 

The West also assumes that Russia ul- 
timately fears China, worries about poten- 
tial Chinese dominance of the bilateral re- 
lationship and wants to work more closely 
with the West, particularly Japan. Such a 
strategy should include recognition of Rus- 
sia’s claims to membership of the Asia- 
Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. 

If the West shows war it does not fear 
Chinese-Russian collaboration, Moscow 
may also see thai the West does not wish to 
exclude it from international society. Rus- 
sia’s worries about NATO enlargement 
could ease as a result. 

But the most important outcome would 
be that Russia would offer the West a new 
way to meet the challenge of bringing 
China into the international system as a 
more cooperative player. 

Ms. Anderson is a research associate 
and Mr. Segal a senior fellow at the In- 
ternational Institute for Strategic Studies, 
in London. They contributed this comment 
to the International Herald Tribune. 


r - 1 '^ fe, mjm 


market 1 

AIR HUE 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 




Patronizing Attitude Requiem for UPI 




. > \ 


y ^ 






i ^ 

S X: 

; ^ 

;; 


f - ' * g 

"Hus is your captain speaking- we have been 
experiencing a little turbulence . 9 


Regarding “Sorry, You’re Still 
Wrong on NATO Expansion ” 
(Opinion, March 25) by Thomas 
L. Friedman: 

It does not matter that Russia 
“has a cabinet led by economic 
refor m ers,” or that Poland, Hun- 
gary and the Czech Republic think 
NATO has not changed and Rus- 
sia ba» not nhnngpH 

The most important fact is that 
these independent countries want 
to join NATO! Bringing in the 
Russian, and/or American, view 
and opinion only helps reiterate 
the Cold War neocolonial status 
quo. Why should Russians have 
anything to say about these coun- 
tries joining NATO? 

These three countries do not 
even border Russia, except for a 
small strip of land around Ka- 
liningrad. How would Mr. Fried- 
man feel if he was told not to join 
a neighborhood society because a 
guy living two blocks away does 
not like it? We should stop our 
patronizing attitude toward other 
countries. 

RICHARD BALON. 

Troy, Michigan. 


Like thousands of other jour- 
nalists, I am an alumnus of United 
Press International. It marfe me 
weep into my lemonade to read 
(“New UPI Bets on Bite-Sized 
News," April 2) about how the 
latest owners are further emas- 
culating die place where we 
learned the craft of journalism — 
and how to have fun — all those 
years ago. 

That they want to reduce things 
to the lowest common denomin- 
rtoris their own affair, I suppose. 
But if they want to produce 
sound bites instead of journal- 
ism, let them at least have the 
decency to abandon the UPI 
name and rail themselves 
something different. How about 
McNews? 

JOHN PARRY. 

Geneva. 

A Modest Proposal 

Regarding “Making Millions 
on the Backs of Hungry Women " 
(Opinion, April 1) by Bob Her- 
bert: 

Mr. Herbert reports that N ike’s 


young women workers in Viet- 
nam must often go hungry. But he 
fails to recognize the subsequent 
benefits in terms of body image: 
Nike *s workers are slender, and as 
they say, image is everything. Just 
ask Nike. 

I have a modest proposal for 
Nike and other large corporations 
that have an eye to expanding in 
the Third World. Why not open up 
factories in North Korea. Ethiopia 
and Albania? The young women 
of those countries should also be 
able to take advantage of Nike's 
weight-loss program and leant the 
value of discipline and hard 
work. 

Mind you, I would do away 
with those bathroom breaks. 

MAURICE MOULIN. 

Bern. 


Learn intended for publica- 
tion should be addressed ~ Letters 
to the Editor " and contain the 
writer’s signature, name and full 
address. Letters should be brief 
and are subject to editing. We can- 
not be responsible for the return of 
unsolicited manuscripts. 


Learning to Translate 
The Mekong’s Miters 


By Michael Richardson 


P AX BENG. Laos — The 
Mekong River south of 
Houei Sai, the small town where 
we boarded our boat, was a 
broad highway of brown water 
that flowed smoothly between 
Laos and Thailand. 

It was a friendly stretch of 
river. Vegetables grew in pro- 
fusion on its silt-laden banks, 

MEANWHILE 

people fished from canoes dose 
to shore and women in sarongs 
bathed while children played. 

But a couple of hours out of 
Houei Sai. the river turned east 
into the heart of northern Laos, 
leaving Thailand behind. Its 
course narrowed as it entered a 
long valley, and the current 
quickened perceptibly. 

In place of sand cliffs and flat 
alluvial plains on either side 
were densely forested mountains 
and riverbanks of jagged rock. 

Uke the other wooden river- 
boats that plied this section of the 
Mekong, ours had a lucky eye 
painted on either side of the 
prow. Twenty-rate meters, she 
was built for river trading, not 
pleasure cruising. Her normal 
cargo was mulberry tree bark, 
sesame seed, palm sugar, to- 
bacco, vegetables, farm animals, 
inducting water buffaloes, and 
their owners. There were no seats 
for passengers. The most com- 
fortable position was on the tin 
roof of die cabin that ran almost 
the whole length of the boaL 
Not the ideal choice, you 
might think, for traveling with 
your wife, one of your daughters, 
your half brother, a close family 
friend and her two children. We 
were heading for Luang Pra- 
bang, the old Lao royal capital. 
327 kilometers by river, or two 
days’ journey, from Houei Sai. 

Yet if we wanted to see this 
untamed and beautiful part of 
the Mekong, the only other op- 
tion was to go at speeds of more 
than 40 kilometers per hour in 
an open, flat-bottomed boat 
powered by a noisy engine with 
a long propeller shaft extending 
from the stem. As we chugged 
along at a stately 17 kilometers 
per hour, some of these 
“long-tails” would roar past 


from time to time, their pas- 
sengers wearing life jackets 
and motorcycle crash helmets. 

Our boat seemed sturdy by 
comparison. But when we zig- 
zagged through the first major 
rapids, with rocks perilously 
close on either side. I thought it 
was lime to get to know' the cap- 
tain whose boat we had hired. 

Xiang Kaen Chan greeted me 
in friendly fashion but didn’t 
look up when 1 entered his cab- 
in. In fact he seldom too k his 
eyes from the water to glance at 
me during our conversation. 

He explained that on a stretch 
of river that has no navigational 
aids or markers, and where the 
channels can change after heavy 
rain, “the most important thing 
is to watch the water and know 
how to avoid the submerged 
rocks and sandbars. You must 
read this river all the time.” 
Mr. Xiang has a wealth of 
experience on this stretch of the 
Mekong. He began his appren- 
ticeship 39 years ago. at 17. 
becoming a captain in 1962. 

I tried what be told me to do: 
look for the ominous churnings 
and dips in the water that signal 
an obstacle just below the sur- 
face. Yet he headed for parts that 
1 would have avoided and 
avoided sections that 1 would 
have chosen. It seemed like aw- 
fully difficult detective work. 

To avoid disaster, Mr. Xiang 
said, a river captain needed spir- 
itual guidance as well as human 
skill. A framed color photograph 
of a Buddhist monk was pinned 
on a wall of the cabin. 

“This monk is a wise and 
holy man.” Mr. Xiang said. “I 
have visited him three times in 
his monastery in Burma. Now I 
think he helps to guide me on 
the right course.” 

On another wall was a small 
altar with joss sticks, balls of rice, 
knotted string and a piece of rare 
forest wood. “These are offer- 
ings to the spirit of the boat and 
the spirit of the river,” Mr.Xiang 
said. “They, too. have helped me 
to escape a fecal accident” 

A kmd of insurance and re- 
insurance, I thought, as we 
passed harmlessly through an- 
other set of rapids. 

International Herald Tribune. 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY APRILS, 1997 


INTERNATIONAL 


Q Sc A /Guido Di Telia 


Argentina Forges Closer U.S. Ties 


Guido Di Telia has been the Ar- 
gentine minister of foreign relations 
and international trade since 1991. A 
former defense minister, he holds a 
doctorate in economics from the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology and 
has written extensively on economic 
development. During an official visit 
to Washington, he spoke with Brian 
Knowlton of the International Herald 
Tribune. 


Q. Argentina is hoping to negotiate 
with the United States a relationship 
known as Major Non-NATO Ally, 
comparable to U.S. agreements with 
Japan, Israel, South Korea, Australia 
and some other countries. What did 
Secretary of State Madeleine Albright 
mil you about that? 

A. The possibility of our qualifying 
as a major extra-NATO partner is very 
pleasing. There are procedural prob- 
lems that remain to be solved. We are 
interested, but h’s not life or death. 

Q. Some of your neighbors have 
concerns about die possibility of Ar- 
gentina acquiring new weapons, pos- 
sibly fighter jets. 

A. Well, that would be unwarranted, 
because we did not press — on the 
contrary — we pressed the American 
government not to start too quickly die 
sale of sophisticated arms, because we 
don't want them and we don’t need 
them and we don't have the money to 
pay for them. 

We’re not in any plan of weapons- 
building. Annies have to be equipped 
and maintained; we’re not going to go 
crazy about it. The security of our 
country is based fundamentally on the 
very good relations we have with 
Chile, with Brazil. 


has decided on sales of advanced arms 
to Latin American countries? 

A. Mrs. Albright has affirmed that 
no decision has been taken yet. If they 
do so with one country, of course, that 
moves the whole thing to a new ball 
game. 

Q. Your government is still hoping 
to have Argentine flags flying over the 
Falkland Islands, or Malvinas as you 
call them, by the year 2000 — 18 years 
after the war there with Britain. Would 
die arrival of a Labour government in 
Britain give new impetus to the talks 
on sovereignty, oil rights and other 
matters? 

A. No. We don't dunk there's going 
to be a significant difference between 
die Tory government and the Labour 
government on this. Under the Tory 
government, we've been able to ad- 
vance quite a lot, at least with respect 
to understanding the limits. As to the 
elections, we want the person who 
wins, whoever it is. to win by a big 
majority, because then be can nego- 
tiate. 


Q. Did U.S. officials indicate to you 
whether the Clinton administration 


Q. Economic growth in Latin 
America has gone through some tur- 
bulence in recent years. How opti- 
mistic are you that it will continue in 
the long run? 

A. By 2010, U.S. trade with Latin 
America could surpass its trade with 
Europe and Japan. In the next century, 
two regions that were not so important 
before are going to become important 
— the Pacific Rim nations, which have 
been growing by about 8 to 9 percent a 
year, and Latin America, which has 
been growing at a rate of 7 percent. By 
2005. the population of Argentina will 
be the same as that of Spain. We'll 
have a level of importance similar io 
that of Spain. 

Q. Since the Mexican peso crisis. 


BOOKS 


ALBERT EINSTEIN: 

A Biography 

By Albrecht Poising. Translated from 
German by Ewald Osers. 882 pages. 
$3495. Viking. 

Reviewed by Marcia Bartusiak 


T HE intellectual revolutionaries of 
society, according to a new study. 


1 society, according to a new study, 
are more likely to be later-boms. Albert 
Einstein belies that dictum. A first-bom 
son, he was bom to rebel. He apparently 
didn't Calk until the age of 3, stubbornly 
waiting until he could speak in complete 
sentences. Later, he broke all the rules 
(and even a few hearts) on his way to 
refashioning the laws of space and time. 
With this massive biography, ably trans- 
lated from German by Ewald Osers, 


CHESS 


By Robert Byrne 


J OEL Lauder was born in Montreal 
and immigrated to France. He is 


J and immigrated to France. He is 
France's top player. His most recent 
exploit was to win the Ubeda, Spain, 
International Tournament, where he 
wan a hard-fought scrap with his closest 
rival, Alexander Beljavsky. 

Alriba Rubinstein’s 5 Ne2 against tbs 
Nimzo-Indian Defense is an attempt to 
show that 4...BM can be denied its 
motifs of doubling pawns by .. JBc3 be or 
by exerting pressure to prevent White 
mam achieving an aggressive center. 

One of the most spirited counter- 
measures against it, 5...cd 6 ed d5 7 c5 
Ne4 8 Bd2 Nd2 9 Qd2 a5 10a3Bc3Il 
Nc3 a4, received a hard blow in an R. 
Sherbakov-RJL Ramesh game from 
Linares. Spain. 1996. Thus, 12Bd3 Bd7 
13 0-0 Nc6 14 Bc2 Ne7 15 Qg5! gave 
Black serious problems. 

The method that Beljavsky chose 
with 5...b6 6 a3 Ba5 7 Rbl Na6 is an 
elaborate attempt to maintain the ten- 
sion on the queenside. 

Beljavsky, as White played 7 Bd2 O- 
O 8 Ng3 against Oleg Romanishin in the 
Yerevan Olympiad, 1996, and analyzed 
8...Bb7 9 Bd3 Bg2 10 Rgl Bb7 11 b4! cb 
12Nce4Ne4 13Ne4b3 14Baba 15Nd6 
Qc7 16 Bh7! Kh7 17 Qh5 Kg8 18 Rg7! 


Kg7 19 Kd2! as a forced win for White. 
So when Lauder offered a similar gam- 
bit with 7 Rbl Na6 8 Bd2 0-0 9 Ng3 
Bb7 1 0 Bd3, he declined it 

Opening die center with 10— d5 11 cd 
cdl2edBc3 1 3 be Qd5 was reasonable, 
but after 14 Qe2 Nc7 15 f3. he should 
have played 15... Qd6. His bold altern- 
ative. 15...e5?! was a pawn sacrifice that 
he did not succeed in justifying. 

After 19— Ng4, Beljavsky threatened 

20— Qg2! 21 Qg2 Bg2 22 Kg2 Rd2, but 
Lautier’s defense with 20 Rb2 held. If 
19... Qg2 20 Qg2 Bg2, then 21 Kg2 Rd2 
22 Kf3 Nd7 23 Rbdl Rdl 24 Rdl yields 
White endgame superiority. 

Beljavsky had looked forward to 

21— Rd2 22 Rd2 Ne3, but be had not 
seen far enougth. He was not prepared 
for Lautier’s clever counterstroke, 23 
Bf7!, a central point being that after 
23— Kf7 24 Rd7 Re7 25 Re7 Ke7 26 
Qe3! Qe3 27 Nf5. White wins easily. 

After 25 Rgl, Beljavsky could have 
pulled back with 25.„Nc4, but then 26 
Nf5 g6 27 Qg4! would produce a win- 
ning mating attack. So he tried 25—Ng2 
26 Rg2 Qco, but after 27 Qd2 Ne6 28 
Nh5 Ba8 29 Kgl Qc5 30 R£2 Kg8 31 
Ng3 Qb5 32 f5 Nc5 33 Ra7 Nd3 34 f6!, 
Beljavsky gave up. There was no de- 
fense: 34... gf is crushed by 35 Qh6. 


BELJAVSKY/BLACK 


NIMZO-INDIAN DEFENSE 


White 

Block 

White 

Black 

Utffcr 

Beftky 

lWl>r 

Befefcy 

2 di 

MS 

18 M 

RadS 

i c4 

*6 

19 M 

Ng4 

B Nc3 

Bb4 

20 Rb2 

Qc5 

4e3 

CS 

21 Khl 

Rd2 

5 Nge2 

bS 

22 Rd2 

Ne3 

6 83 

Ba5 

23 Bf7 

Kf7 

7 Rbl 

HaS 

24 Rd7 

X28 

8 Bd2 

0-0 

25 Rgl 

Ng2 

9 Ng3 
U B43 

Bb7 

<B 

28 Rs2 
27 Qd2 

83 

11 Od 

cd 

28 Nh5 

Ba8 

12 ed 

13 be 

sr 

Bc3 

e5 

28 Kgl 

30 Rt2 

31 Ng3 

32 S 

Q* 

KgS 

QU6 

NC5 

18 Bc4 

Qc6 

33 Ra7 

Nd3 

17 de 

RfeB 

34 IB 

Resigns 


M 

mm 


e t 
LAUTJEWWHrTE 


Position after 33 . . . Nd3 


the International Monetary Fund has 
been keeping closer tabs on daily eco- 
nomic events in Latin America. Your 
country has an Internet site toward this 
end. Do you feel comfortable that a 
new crisis can be avoided? 

A. We feel very comfortable, and 
very sure dial if there is a crisis, we can 
tackle it much better than before. 
We're not problem-free, but we’re 
very pleased with the way our econ- 
omy is doing. The region in general is 
behaving very well. 

Q. The recent rise in U.S. interest 
rates here caused stocks to drop mo- 
mentarily in Argentina, but they re- 
bounded quickly. The Argentine econ- 
omy has always been closely related to 
the U.S. economy. Is your economic 
base much more independent than a 
few years ago? 


A. Naturally. It’s much stronger. 
We have a different trade situation, a 


different ratio of indebtedness to GDP. 
It’s a completely different story. 


Q. Mercosur, a relatively young 
trade grouping involving Argentina, 
Brazil and some other Latin American 
countries, is mowing. A Mercosur 
meeting with European Union offi- 
cials is coming up. How important is 
the new grouping? 

A. Mercosur has had an absolutely 


spectacular success. The EU meeting 
Monday and Tuesday in Holland, we 


Monday and Tuesday in Holland, we 
hope will be a stepping stone for the 
Southern Cone region toward greater 
freedom of trade. Our goal is mat by 
the year 2005, all the hemisphere 
would be a free-trade zone. 

Q. Won’t this be easier said than 
done? 

A. Getting more than 30 countries to 
agree to a free-trade zone? It's not 
going to be a simple task. 


Albrecht Folsing shows us a man who 
could be outwardly simple, even peas- 
antlike at times, yet remain inwardly 
shrewd and complex. 

In this age of revisionism, the titans of 
both art and science are toppling off their 
pedestals, as historians re-examine old 
evidence and unearth new materials. Ein- 
stein. the physicist who turned formula, 
E=MC 2 , into a trademark, is no excep- 
tion. The prevailing image of Einstein 
has long been that of the venerable elder, 
die Chaplinesque figure with baggy 
sweater aid fright-wig coiffure. Folsing 
offers a provocative portrait less familiar 
to die public: the youthful Einstein at the 
height of his scientific prowess. We see a 
man whose limpid brown eyes, wavy 
hair, sensuous mouth, and virtuosity on 
the violin aroused attention, especially 


Marcia Bartusiak. a contributing ed- 
itor of Discover magazine , wrote this for 
The Washington Post. 



‘Minimal’ Turnout # 

In Haiti Elections : )]\ H ^ j 

*- 


Hints at Discontent 


CmleDcilWMn 

President Rene PrevaJ showing his ink-stained thumb after be voted. 
Foreign monitors said they were surprised by the paucity of the turnout. 


Reuters 

PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti — 
Haitian s stayed away in huge numbers 
from Senate and local electrons m the 
poorest country in the Americas. 

The undeclared boycott Sunday of 
die fifth election in Haiti smceamilnaiy 
regime was ousted in 1994 showed a 
deep disillusionment with tire country s 
politics and frustration that life is be- 
coming even ’more difficult. n V. 

A low turnout had been expected, but 
foreign monitors said they were sur- 
prised by how low it was. One said the 
most voters she had seen in a polling 
place at the same time was 1 1 . 

“Yon could say ‘minimal’ would be 
an accurate description,” said Michael 1 
Magan of the International Republican- 
Institute, a private U.S. organization 
fog* monitored the election. Turnout ajp 
peaied to higher in the countryside, he’ 
added. 

Alexandre Lavaux. secretary-general 
of the Provisional Electoral CounciL did 
not have a total turnout figure, but ite 
said there had been no seriaus otubreafcs 
of violence. 

More than 4 million people were re- 
gistered to vote, according to council 
figures. At stake were two seats in the 
Chamber of Deputies, nine seats in the g 
27-seat Senate, 133 town delegations w . 
and 565 district assemblies. : 

President Rene Preval voted in mid^ 
morning in the capital. Port-au-Prince, 
saying: “This is an important moment' 

It expresses the will of die nation.” 

Much of the anger is focused on his' 
p lans to have state services taken over by 
private companies. Such moves are' 
backed by international donors but could 
cause job losses. About 70 percent of the* 
country’s work force is unemployed!,' 
and average yearly income is S250. 


A Vow to ‘Name Names’ in Guatemala * 


among women. One acquaintance com- 
pared Einstein's demeanor to that of a 
young Beethoven, full of life and 
laughter. Yet. like the great romantic 
composer, this century’s most celebrated 
scientist also had his dark side: He was a 
loner, a sharp-tongued cynic, a self- 
cratered man who rauld serve humanity 
yet express little empathy for the prob- 
lems of those close to him. When the 
younger of his two sons was hospitalized 
for schizophrenia in 1933. Einstein made 
one visit and never saw him again. 

What remains untouched and immut- 
able. amidst these personal revelations, 
is the overwhelming import of Einstein’s 
insi ghts on physics. His key amendments 
to the cosmic code were exceptionally 
perceptive, and Folsing traces their roots 
to Einstein’s childhood musings. 

Albert Einstein was bom in 1 879 into a 
nonreligious Jewish family, ODe well as- 
similated into the culture of southern 
Germany for more than two centuries. 
His lather ran, with mixed success, an 
electrical engineering company, the high- 
tech business of its time.Growmg up with 
his younger sister Maja. little Albeit 
loved doing puzzles, budding structures, 
and most especially solving geometry 
problems, the very key to his later work. 
And he didn't suffer fools gladly: He 
dropped out of school because of con- 
flicts with a teacher, among other rea- 
sons. 

Fortunately, he was able to enroll in a 
Swiss university, Zurich Polytechnic, 
where he met his first wife, Mileva Mar- 
ie, a fellow physics student. Folsing dis- 
cusses the recent disclosure that garnered 
news headlines: the daughter bom to 
Mileva and Einstein before their mar- 
riage and then given away, her fate un- 
known to this day. But be refuses to deal 
with tiie rumors that Mileva contributed 
to Einstein's special theory of relativity. 
Such claims are simply “devoid of any 
foundation.” the author curtly declares 
in a note at the back of die book. 

Einstein turned cold and indifferent 
in wedlock, which drove Mileva to fits 
of melancholia and jealousy. Einstein 
found comfort with his cousin Elsa, who 
became his second wife (but not his last 
romantic fling). While Folsing is not shy 
in airing these domestic episodes, he has 
carefully chosen to stress Einstein’s 
work inkead. “Physics was at the core 
of his identity, ’ ’ contends Folsing, ‘ ‘and 
only through physics can we get close to 
him.” 

Einstein was a man of contradictions. 
He was a humanitarian, yet a lone wolf 
who admitted he lacked “a need to 
attach himself ... to individuals.” He 
was a pacifist who defended the in- 
famous show trials in the Soviet Union 
during Stalin’s reign of terror in the 
1930s and invented a gyrocompass used 
in World War H military ships. 

At times engaging, often challenging. 
Foising’s biography helps us under- 
stand that wisdom. It is Einstein’s phys- 
ics that will live on for millennia. 


By Larry Rohler 

New York Hites Service 


GUATEMALA CITY — Alarmed 
by an amnesty law they regard as a 
whitewash, and skeptical of a new of- 
ficial commission that is supposed to 
look into three decades erf politically 
related massacres, kidnappings and tor- 
ture, human rights groups in G uatem ala 
have undertaken their own parallel ef- 
fort to document such abuses and to 
render a “moral judgment” on those 
responsible. 

The Project to Recover Historical 
Memory, sponsored by the Roman Cath- 
olic Chinch's human rights office, has 
since 1995 been interviewing Victims 
and survivors of some of the worst in- 
cidents in Guatemala's 36-year civil war. 
which formally ended in December. 

The intent was to compile a com- 
prehensive record, and now that peace 
has finally come, those involved are 
more thankful than ever that they did. 

“We are stuck with an amnesty law 
that I consider to be shameful, one that 
wants to pardon evetyone but is afraid to 
say so outright,” said Edgar Gutierrez, 
coordinator of the project. “The pro- 
visions for accountability also look to be 
extremely weak, but we, unlike others, 
intend to name names and allow the 
victims to^ obtain some release for their 
suffering.'’ 

In mid-December, the Guatemalan 
Congress approved a law that calls for 
courts to rule on petitions for amnesty 
by soldiers and guerrillas on a case-by- 
case basis. 

Two weeks later, the government and 
leftist rebels signed a final peace agree- 
ment that includes the establishment of 
a Commission far Historical Clarific- 
ation to produce a definitive account of 
tiie abuses committed during the war. 


But human rights campaigners are 
distressed by what they see as the very 
limited mandate and resources of the 
commission. They say that a three- 
member panel is too small and that the 
tentative six-month deadline . for it to 
finish its investigation and write a report 
is much too rushed. 

“We have more than 150,000 dead 
and missing from a conflict that lasted 
for 36 years,” said Karen Fischer, a 
lawyer and leader of the Alliance 
Against Impunity, a coalition of human 
rights groups. 

“Three people cannot hope to deal 
with all of that in six months,” she said. 

In addition, the oommisaon, at least 
initially, has a budget of only $50,000, 
which is to come not from the. gov- 
ernment but from private, foreign or- 
ganizations. 

But perhaps tiie gravest problem, as 
human rights groups in Guatemala see 
it, is that the commission will not affix 
individual responsibility for crimes be- 
cause its charter does not pennit it to do 
so. 

“We are neither judges nor hang- 
men,*’ said Ot3ia Lux de Coti, a prom- 
inent Mayan educator who is a member 
of the commission, “but a team picked to 
adhere to certain criteria.” Those she 
defined as “bearing historical witness.” 

For Ms. Fischer and many others still 
mourning the loss of relatives or dose 
friends, that is not enough. Her father- 
in-law, Jorge Carpio Nicolle, a prom- 
inent newspaper publisher, member of 
Congress and former presidential can- 
didate, was shot and killed in a highway 
ambush in 1993 by members of a para- 
military squadron that reported to the 
Guatemalan armed forces. 

“It seems ridiculous to me that they 
are going to say that tiie army killed 
Jorge Carpio Nicolle,” Mb. Fischer 


said. “All of Guatemala already knows 
thaL” — 

But Mrs. Coti asserts that the com- 
mission’s broad-brush approach is the 
best way to bring about reconciliation 
while also acknowledging the historical, 
record. 

“There are too many cases, and our, 
resources are few, so we must priory 
itize.” she said. Even without naming- 
names. she said, “we can leant lessor*! 
and reflect.” £ 

But Mr. Gutierrez said bitterness 
would remain until surviving victimfe 
and their relatives saw some sort -rtf 
, justice done. wbete.fqpgsLor synn 


ttf identify the victims 
izers marder to dignify tfrrar victims,” 
be said, while preparing dossiers th$ 
can "he- used in judicial proceedings- 
against human rights abusers. » ■ 

In tie last two years, he said, aboijt 
800 volunteer workers have interviewed 
more tiiao 5,000 people, mostly in small; 
Indian villages scattered across t bp 
country. The taped interviews, about; 
three -quarters of which were conducted 
in Mayan languages, have been trai*- , 
scribed into Spanish and will be collate^ ^ 
into a two-volume document that is eX J 
pected to be published this rammer. 

Thus far, the project, which is fin- 
anced by donations from Scandinavian 
countries, has documented 483 mass 
killings- Ithas also received information 
about the locations of more than 300 
clandestine cemeteries, which has led to 
exhumations in several areas. 

At the same time, a coalition of 27 
human rights groups is pooling files 
from about 10,000 cases of execution, 
forced disappearance and torture col- 
lected over 20 years. It plans to publish 
the information after making it available 
to the official co mmiss ion. ' *- 



BRIEFLY 


Iran to Sue German Companies 


TEHRAN — Iran said Monday it was preparing to sue 24 
German companies for providing Iraq with chemical 
weapons or technology during its 1980-1988 war against 
the Islamic republic. 

Mohammed Reza Abbasi-Fard, deputy head of tiie ju- 
diciary for executive affairs, said the defendants would be 
called to appear in a Tehran court shortly. He did not give a 
date. 

Tbe official Iranian press agency. IRNA, quoted him as 
saying that more than 1,000 relatives of victims of chemical 
attacks had filed complaints against tbe companies. (AFP) 


usually do not last more than a few days. There has-been no 1 A 
definitive explanation of the cause of the current short- - 
age- (Reuters) ■ 


A Way Out for Peruvian Rebels? 

TOKYO — The Peruvian government has- proposed an 1 
escape route to allow leftist rebels holding 72 hostages in : 
the Japanese ambassador’s residence in Ijma to leave the 
country, a Peruvian leader said here Monday/ 

‘ ‘The rebel s know that President Fujimori preparing an ■ 
exit for tbem,” the Peruvian Congress president, victor Joy 1 
Way Rojas, was quoted by the Jiji Press news agency as 
telling Japanese Parliament leaders. (AFP): 


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Nigeria Is Forced to Import Fuel Colombia Oil Executive h freed 


LAGOS — Nigeria was forced Monday to allow fuel 
imports, as much of tiie oil-producing country slowed to a 
near-standstill from a two-week-old fuel shortage. 

An official of tbe state-run Nigerian National Petroleum 
Corp. said tbe military government had given the green 
light for tbe first gasoline imports since September. 


Many people in Lagos, Nigeria's biggest city, stayed 
me or were stranded at bus stops. There were long lutes 


home or were stranded at bus stops. There were long lutes 
at the few filling stations still open in the city. 

Fuel shortages occur frequently in Nigeria, but they 


BOGOTA — Guerrillas freed a top oil exeartive and **- 
friend of President Ernesto Samper after holding him 1 ' 
hostage for 16 months. Radio Caracol reported. 

Alfonso Manrique, an executive of tbe state oil company, ' 
Ecopetrol, was released Sunday evening by guerrillas of the * 
Colombian ^ evo ^ ut * onar y Aimed Forces. It was unclear 


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By Suzy Menkes 


N EWYORK — A a 

S&fS each eyebrow. A share 

K sl ^gged on oVrali 
short, silky jersey dress. Wide, man: 
? wwpancs. slung low from the hips, land in a 

A* ^ to * kteLtikS 

^* f e c ^ cm ™ w ^L« , >c a uita« 

«w* Donatella Versace opened 
tfie New York season with shows that were so 
similar that some pieces — let alone the tribal 
^Sgly, kuKtos —■ were hard to tell 
apart The same soulful black dominated; there 
Was a sunilar punky edge in The penchant for 
eather - So Versace’s Versos line had boot 
shoes nsrng at the ankle-front and Karan's D line 
Vive la Difference J 

■; ™*c shows are third offshoots of the de- 
sigae rs signature Ikes and the clothes am marfa 
^ separates mixed together in a hip way. But 
their visceral connection to the aesthetics of 
Helmut Lang and Ann Demeulemeester — with 
a dash of Gucci’s panache and Jil Sander's 
d*odermsm — raises a question: Even if the 
fashion assimilation is smoothly done, how hat 
is secondhand cool? 

'■The idea that one designer starts a trend and 
others follow to some extent defines what fash- 
ion is. But we are not talking here just sil- 
houettes, colors and fabrics, but a cloning of the 
soul of a show. 

Take Patti Smith, whose powerful, tousled, 
lugubrious femininity has matte her an icon of 
the 1 970s revival. Demeulemeester may not own 
that fashion territory, but the Belgian H«rfgrw»r 
yfas the first to reintroduce the. slouchy mas- 
ouline-c rnbraces-f enninine style. Seeing Versace 
dp not just the baggy pant but the messy hair and 
watching Karan expressing the same sensibility 
Looked like designers in borrowed clothes. 

— The same is true of the presentations, winch 
owe most to Lang. Just as Galvin Klein last 





: America Takes On a European Look 


season had his models walk Lang-style around a 
white art gallery, so did Versace, whose sheer 
silky sweaters, bandeau tops and New Age se- 
quins were also Lang-inspired. 

So these were terrible shows? No. For both 
' designers still have an aura of their own. The 
British rock band Republics blasted away at the 
Versus show, while Gianni Versace sat front row 
wife grange star-turned-actress Courtney Love 
and Donatella led the models out to take a bow. 
Other paparazzi fodder included the artist 
formerly known as Prince, holding his-and-bers 
flower-stenciled hands with his wife, Mayte. 

Familiar clothes were given an edge, wife 
flashes of chrome yellow for brief tailored coats 
or as wasp-like stripes on frizzy mohair knits. 
The back-to-fee-’80's feel meant dresses that 
were thigh-high or spilt and shoulders forming 
right angles, among other asymmetric cues in 
soft jersey fabrics. 

The derivative looks at D were often more in 
the assemblage, like fee sweater tucked in at one 
ride of a hip-slung skirt (the current runway 
clichfi). Strong individual pieces included coats 
with funnel necklines, ankle-length skirts cut 
like cargo pants and leather jackets, worn over 
dresses cut on fee bias. Karan bad worked at the 
fabrics, using ink blot and leaf patterns as arty 
effects. 

“Cool, I love it — and 1 want to be a part of 
it,” Karan said after the show. 


A ND so do they all. Out came fee 
tocked-at-one-lnp sweater at BCBG, a 
Los Angeles company. It was followed 
by takes on fear other cornerstone of 
fashion cool: Prada. Think chiffon dresses under 
tweed coats, geometric color-block patterns and 
fee now inevitable seguined tops mixed wife 
heavier fabrics. Some' of these variations on fee 
original theme may be more accessible and ap- 
pealing to potential customers. But in the early 
shows, American fashion, having recently es- 
tablished a strong, independent identity, seems 
to be bringing on the European clones. 



At left, sweater \ shiny leather skirt and Patti Smith hairdo from Versus, and leather jacket and slouchy pants from D. 


At ‘The Last Party , 5 Sex, Nightlife and the End of ‘Innocent Abandon 9 



J 



Serge and Tatiana Sorokka with photograph of Andy Warhol at " The Last Party ” exhibition. 

Surfing a Wave of Fashion and Art 


International Herald Tribune 

7^ -T-EW YORK — 
IV I ThinkofitasaWeb 
I address: • arLfash. 
JL ^ And imagine surf- 
ing anything from a museum 
exhibition through a photo- 
graphy show to an art gallery 
as fashion venue. 

Not since the 19 60s have 
rt.the links between art and fash- 
ion been so tightly forged. 
And just to reinforce that mes- 
sage, Gianni Versace said 
Saturday that he was in dis- 
cussions wife the Andy War- 
hoi Museum in Pittsburgh 
about contributing to a New 
York show at the Whitney 
Museum of American Art, 
provisionally titled “Andy 
Warhol: Fashion Show. 

; The melding of fashion and 
art is shown in several ways. 
Physically, fashion is en- 
croaching on fee art world m 
New York as designer stores 
take over the once bohemian 
SoHo. Psychologically, there 
js an emph^is on fee artistic 
side by fashion folk who arc 

.whyingtogetoutofftemn- 

f imalist impasse by referen- 
cing cubism, futurism or 

feodemism- . _ . , 

; On the artists’ 
arc exploring the craft of 
ion such as textiles orevra 
knits. And photographers me 
knocking at the doors of fee 






ateliers, expecting that 
their fashion work will 
be accepted as art. 

“Art/Fastaon” is the 
tide of the exhibition 
that opened last week at 
the Guggenheim Mu- 
seum SoHo (until June 
8) — a reprise pf the 
wide-ranging, citywide 
Biennale <£ Firenze, 
held in Florence last 
year. 

This New York sea- 
son also sees fee open- 
ing of exhibitions ex- 
ploring the boundaries 
of fhshiou photography 
— whether it is the 
morphing of wooden 
and flesh-and-blood 
horses by Steven Klein 
(at the downtown Sta- 
ley-Wise Gallary on 
Mercer Street) or fee 
computer-enhanced im- 
ages of Inez Van Lam- 
sweerde and Vjnoodh 
Matafen. 

That show is at the 

Matthew Mmks Galley . „ 

on 24 th Street in Displays in ArtIFashion at the 
Chelsea, the new hot Guggenheim Museum SoHo. 


CtataopfacrMtxn 


spot for art galleries, 
since the SoHo invasion by 


together — and looking back. 


mani throughBanam Repub- interesting mom ent, ’ says In- 
Ucto Bfiu, and Sun- grid Sischy, editor in chief of 
eodyD&G. Intmview magazine and a co- 


ojfiu, and unmin- grid Sischy, editor in chief of 
(j Intraview magazine and a co- 

worlds have cocked curator of the Guggenheim 
_ • ' show. 

The exhibition traces fash- 
1 ion and art from its explosion 


in the 1920s, when Sonia 
Delaunay’s geometric 
Mocks and snipes 
mirrored innovative flat- 
plane clothes, through 
Elsa Schiaparelli's col- 
laborations with Jean 
Cocteau and Salvador 
Dali in the 1930s, to the 
bold and experimental 
cutouts and Pop Art im- 
ages in the 1960s. Mem- 
orable pieces include 
dangling on strings from 
the ceiling Lucio 
Fontana's 1 960s geomet- 
ric cutouts, as well as a 
color-blocked dress by 
Ellsworth Kelly and 
Warhol’s famous “Fra- 
gile, Handle Wife Care" 
wrapping-paper dress. In 
the 1990s, Judith Shea 
re-creates fee Venus de 
Milo trailing a length of 
chintz. 

“It is fascinating feat 
it is happening on both 
sides,” says Sischy. 
“Fashion is finding 
toon, something in art because 
e all its traditional formu- 
las had been depleted. 
Even in terms of pro- 
portion, fashion had got 
stuck, so it has turned to 
asymmetry. - 

“New palettes mean colors 
feat once didn't 'go together. 4 
Real art has always been 
about breaking feat stuff.” 


International Herald Tribune 

N EW YORK — They are fee 
queens — and the drag queens 
— of the night Here is Bianca 
Jagger riding into Studio 54 
on a white horse in 1977 to detonate a 
hedonistic party scene feat celebrates 20 
years in April. There is a bloated Liz 
Taylor, a bleary Liza Minnelli and fee 
doomed designer Halston, caught by the 
camera in an era when people partied 
imtil they dropped. Then they stopped. 

“The Last Party” is fee title of an 
exhibition of arresting images of fee 
night world at the newly opened Serge 
Sorokko Gallery (430 West Broadway, 
until May 3). And also of a book by 
Anthony Hadeu-Guest. “Studio 54, 
Disco and fee Culture of the Night” 
(William Morrow & Co.). 

Both document an era that is over — 
killed by AIDS and destroyed by the loss 
of what Haden -Guest calls “an innocent 
abandon.” Although among the pho- 
tographs is an exuberant 1989 shot of a 
group leaping into a rippling swimming 
pool in Sl Bart’s. Ana also of an S&M 
scene taken in 1990s Berlin. 

“The whole sexual thing has ex- 
ploded in Eastern Europe and Russia, 


and they are doing now what we used to 
do in fee 1970s. ” says fee Russian -bom 
Sorokko, who lives in San Franciso wife 
his wife, fee model Tatiana. 

Sex is at fee heart of nightlife. You can 
hear it throbbing in fee beat of the club- 
scene videos, on show in the gallery and 
pm together as research for the film 
about Jean-Michel Basquiar — another 
doomed soul. Sex is explicit in a vintage 

The night world can 
also be poetic. 

Helmut Newton image: nude woman in 
open fur coal caught in the lights of a 
Paris street. It is blatant in shots of 
leather-strapped males swigging beer or 
Diane Arbus's pathetic 1970s image of 
dancing drag queens in tacky feathers. It 
is sweet and fresh when a couple are 
captured in rapturous laughter at the El 
Morocco club in 1955. The night world 
can also be poetic. In Brassai "s overhead 
shot of fee Folies Bergere in 1932, three 
dancers are spread-eagled on the stage 
like grounded fairies. 


CROSSWORD 


You come to recognize the cast of 
characters: “The Gang of Four” as Bi- 
anca Jagger, Halston. Minnelli and 
Andy Warhol were dubbed by photo- 
grapher Christopher Makos in 1978. 
The ever-present Steve Rubell, cheer- 
leader of Studio 54 and its depravities. 
The perky club owner, Nell Campbell. 
The occasional guest, like Valentino, 
caught in the lens of Roxanne Lowit in 
ringmaster gear in 1978. 

"It’s fee energy of the moment the 
intensity, the fun, fee strangeness, fee 
beauty and fee timelessness — that’s 
whar makes a great party picture,'’ said 
Lowit as she plied her trade at Gianni 
Versace's after-show party. She saw the 
end of die great party era as both the 
rejection of the “free love" philosophy 
and the arrival of fee posed "photo 
opportunity." 

"The Last Party” is a fascinating ex- 
hibition because of the wide variety of its 
60 different photographers and 300 im- 
ages, excellently orchestrated and hung. 
But also because it captures its subjects 
unselfconsciously. In feat, it pinions a 
butterfly moment of social history. 

Suzy Menkes 


ACROSS 19 Stratford -A won 

__ . Hnk 

1 u^ tW ' BCtr8SS RnrfB*ter Red 

17 TV/fitm actor 

B* Mta' Jack 

(19S5 hit) » Comparatively 

• Choreographer modem 

Agnes de aoScott’s* 

14 Watery Roy" 


JGwvtyx 

Esc. 1911, Paris 
'Sank Roo Doe Noo‘ 


A Space for Thought. 


21 Got a move on 

22 Honeybunch 

23 Humdingers 
28 Octave 

followers, in 
sonnets 

am it's hoisted in a 
pub 

am Tal ch'uan 

30 Philips 
University site 

31 Writer Jack 

34 Form 1040 
completer 

35 Scourge 
38 Idolize 
3S Escritoire 

so "Boots Bools’ 
singer 

at Pugilist Jack 
43 Savoir-faire 
48 Skater Midori 
4* Superaggres- 
sive one 
SO Barrow 
residents 
82 Licked boots? 
■4 Grasslands 
as Crash diet 
SO Absorbed, as 
an expense 
57 AOL memos 
os Movie actor 
Jack 

41 Haggard 

82 “Garfieto" dog 

83 Grid coach 

Alonzo Stagg 

8« Loquacious, in 
slang 

es Kind of blocker 

as Sit in the sun 


1 Oscar and Obie 

2 Wisconsin 
college 

a Psycho talk? 

4 Manage to get. 
with 'out* 

9 Doll 


• Church 
recesses 

7 Crucifix 

8 Gloucester's 
cape 

9 Currycombs 
comb them 

10 Imagine 

11 Lyncttt Jack 

« "The check « in 
the mail,' maybe 
13 Blown 
is Kind of wine 
22 Clears for 
takeoff? 

24 Word of 
VaJJsyspeak 
28 High-pitched 

28 Much of a 
waiter's income 

27 Mount 
Rushm ore's 
site: Abbr. 

29 Former New 
York governor 

32 Transmits 

33 ‘Golden Boy' 
dramatist 

as noire 

MGriever's 
exclamation 
37 Gaiter Jack 
3S Twosome 

«2 Sister of 
Calliope 
«4 Some 
commercial 
promotions 

47 Poisonous 
atmosphere 

48 Caused to go 
48 Danish city 
Si Like beer 

82 Unspoken 

83 Actor Milo 

88 Bona 

87 “Rotten" ml&sile 
sa Ewe's sound 

89 San Francisco's 
Hill 

BO Pan Ola 
science class 



PuriaBrftidMKep 


©/Veto York Times/Edited by Wilt Shorts. 


. Solution to Puzzle of April 7 


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A unique medium at a unique location. 






INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 8, 1997 


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ribune 

BUSINESS/FINANCE 


TUESDAY, APRIL 8, 1997 






nion 


\lm Millennium Virus 

4 "? 

^Computers Need Cure for Year 2000 


r. By John M. Broder 

?■:; ' and Laurence Zuckennan 

• Nw York Times Service 

^OBPreWA FALLS, Wisconsin - 
fpey to the heavy footfall of the ap- 
J*oadnng milleiiniuin at Mason Shoe 
£a, and they wish it would fust m 
•a^way. 5 

!*; businesses and government 

sizes in countries around 
ibe wort a. Mason Shoe depends on its 
potnputex systems to manage jfag d»n y 
flow of information and paper. Its bank 
of Hewlett-Packard 9000 computers or- 
ders materials, schedules manufactor- 
mg, pays bills, processes receipts and 
fills mail orders. 

* Neariy every documcau that the com- 
pany creates carries a date — and that’s 
abig problem. 

Unless some thing is done about it 

soo^ on a night at the end of December 

I J999, the clock at Mason Shoe will 
Strike 12, and the calendar will spin 
backward to Jan. 1, 1900— and Mason 
Shoe’s computer, utterly confused, 
Could make business grind to a halt 

This shoemaker with 750 employees 
in northwestern Wisconsin is suffering 
its own small share of a loo ming global 
quagmire known as the “year 2000 
problem” or the “millennium virus.’* 

£ As of Sunday, computer program- 
mers at Mason Shoe and around the 
world had 1,000 days to effect a cure. 
One estimate of the collective cost runs 
Sis higjh *s $600 billion. 

•„*. The software on many computers em- 
ploys a two-digit shorthand for the date, 
r, so that 1982, for example, is written as 
? 82. Unless the date fields are changed to 
reflect the arrival of the new century, 
CongHJtere will interpret “00” as 

r The press has been full of resulting 
disaster scenarios: satellites falling 
from the sky, a global financial crash, 
huclear meltdowns, hospital life-sup- 
port systems shutting down, the col- 
lapse of the air-traffic system, a way- 
ward ballistic missile. 

> But despite such prophecies, com- 
puter specialists expect the life-threat- 
ening problems to be dealt with be- 
forehand. Whole they concede that 
Unanticipated troubles could arise, most 
say the nnUennimn will, probably end 
not with a calamitous computer crash 
but only wife a lot of expensive .and 
disruptive headaches, • *;•_ 

i ; Without proper ' attention now. 


though, mannfacluici&i could grind to a 
halt as their inventory systems break 
down. -Customer orders could go un- 
filled, Government computers could be- 
gin spewing oat millions of false tax 
notices. Bank records of loans mid mort- 
gages could become fouled op. Stock 
transactions could fail to clear. 

Trying to prevent this will be costly. 
Sally Kaizen, the White House official 
responsible for coordinating federal 
computer conversion efforts feu 2000, 
estimates the cost of bringing U.S. gov- 
ernment computers op to date at $2 ? 
billion over the next two and a half years 
— but says it will probably end up 
costing fermcere. 

Gartner Group, a technology con- 
sulting company, estimates the global 
cost at $300 billion to $600 billion, 
based on the overwhelming size of the 
job and the late start most governments 
and businesses are getting. Gartner has 
calculated the U.S. government’s por- 
tion of tire bill at $30 billion. 

John Labs, president of Mason Shoe, 
is reluctantly budgeting $500,000 to re- 
program his computers. 

“We get absolutely nothing out of 
it,” Mr. Lubs said. “We get to stay in 
business; that’s alL” 

How did we reach this Information 
Age impasse? 

Many of the weald’s computers re- 
cord dates in a six-digit format: YYM- 
MDD, or two digits each for year, 

mrmfh and Anti* Sodl fjHHe ay y 

embedded deep in the basic code that 
runs computer operating systems and 
applications softw a re. 

Although newer computers and soft- 
ware have been designed to recognize 
the difference betweea 1900 and 2000, 
much of the wadd’s computer data — 
fully half, by some reckonings — still 
resides in programs that can identify the 
decade but not the centra?. 

No one has yet devised a single “sil- 
ver bullet” solution for the problem, a 
program that would search out and con- 
vert every date field in a computers 
operating system or software; so it ap- 
pears that every c om puter system and 
e very program that is date-sensitive will 
have to be opened up and changed. 

Despite claims from dozens of com- 
puter vendors, there is no single soft- 
ware toed that can be used to find and fix 
fealty date fields, except in fee simplest 
computer applications. One of the 

.' ^ Se^COOTm^Pi^eM 



~w stfggr 



I •<*••• 

* 


INDONESIAN SHAKEUP — Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, a top min- 
ing official, talking to reporters after being fired Monday. Ida Bagus 
Sudjana, minister of mining and energy, said the move bad nothing 
to do with the controversy over the Busang gold deposit in Borneo. 


Takeovers Spark Stocks 

Bonds Also Help Extend Friday’s Rally 


By Mitchell Martin 

Intemcaiondt Herald Tribune 

NEW YORK — A spate of takeover 
announcements Monday combined 
with felling bond yields to rekindle en- 
thusiasm for stocks, but the acquisition 
activity indicated that corporate Amer- 
ica thinks its equity is folly valued at 
current levels. 

Four big deals woe announced 
Sunday and Monday, and all included 
stock swaps. “Companies are looking 
at their stocks and saying they are fully 
valued, tins would make a very attract- 
ive currency,* ’ said Elizabeth Mackay, 
chief investment strategist at Bear, Ste- 
ams & Co. 

Ms. Mackay added,- however, that 
after nearly a month of sharp declines. 


Dollar Makes Gains 
On Expectations for 
Higher U.S. Rates 


the stock market has entered a trading 
range, and she said prices were unlikely 
to deteriorate from current levels. The 
Dow Jones industrial average closed up 
29.84 points, at 6,555.91, extending a 
rally that began Friday with a 49-point 
gain. The broader Standard & Poor's 
500-stock index ended 4.24 points high- 
er, at 762.14. 

Aside from the takeover news, which 
carried mixed implications for equities, 
tire stock market was encouraged by 
felling interest rates in the bond market. 
The yield on the bellwether 30-year 
Treasury issue fell to 7.07 percent from 
7.12 percent on Friday. 

The bond market also was caught in 
crosscurrents. It drew strength on 

See STOCKS, Page 14 


CanpCrd ty (hr Staff Finn Itnpnrhrr 

NEW YORK — The dollar surged 
against other major currencies Monday, 
buoyed by prospects for higher interest 
rales in the United States and steady or 
lower rates elsewhere in the world. 

Signs that European Union countries 
may be willing to accept more flexible 
criteria for the introduction of a single 
currency also bolstered the dollar at the 
expense of the Deutsche mark. The ar- 
rival of a common European currency is 
viewed as a negative for the mark, cur- 
rently Europe's leading currency. 

The dollar rose to 2.7125 Deutsche 
marks in 4 P-M. trading from 1.6841 
DM on Friday, to 125380 yen from 
124.315 yen, to 5.7610 French francs 
from 5.6710 francs and to 1 .4696 Swiss 
francs from 1.4423 francs. The pound 
fell to SI .6278 from $1 .6345. 

The Federal Reserve Board raised 
U.S. interest rates last month, and many 
analysts expect it will do so again soon, 
making deposits and bonds denomin- 
ated in dollars more attractive. 

“People are saying the Fed has to 
raise rates in May, ' said Matthew 
Robertson, a bond portfolio manager at 
Neuberger & Berman. 

Rates in Europe and Japan, mean- 
while, are likely to remain steady or 
perhaps to felL Hans Tietmeyer. the 
president of the Bundesbank, said 
Monday that no continental European 
country had hinted at a meeting of major 
central bank governors in Basel that it 
would raise rates. 

He added, “The Bundesbank is fol- 
lowing a steady policy — you know that 
I don't see any change for the Bundes- 
bank for the foreseeable future.” 

Weekend comments from Ger- 
many’s finance minister, Theo Waigel, 
also bolstered the dollar. 

Mr. Waigel appeared to signal a 
softening of the German insistence on 
strict adherence to the Maastricht 
treaty's economic and budget criteria 
for countries wishing to jom a single 
currency when he said he had "never 
nailed” himself to the “cross” of 
achieving a budget deficit of 3 percent 
of gross domestic product 

Despite several later denials that Ger- 
many favored softening EMU pre- 


requisites, investors read Mr. Waigel ’s 
comments as suggesting a broader EMU 
membership was possible, which 
prompted a flight from marks. 

The dollar continued to gain against 
the yen after Robert Rubin, the U.S. 
Treasury secretary, said Friday that ex- 
change rates should not be used as a 
trade tool. Traders took the statement to 
mean that Washington still favored a 
strong dollar. The U.S. currency has 
risen from a postwar low of just under 
80 yen in the spring of 1995. 

( Bloomberg . Market News, AFP) 

Bank Firm 
To Buy U.S. 
Brokerage 

Compiled by Our Sutf Firm Dxpaxba 

NEW YORK — Bankers Trust 
New York Corp. stud Monday it 
had agreed to buy Alex. Brown & 
Sons Inc., the oldest U.S. stock- 
brokerage firm, for $1 .7 billion. 

The deal removes another brick 
from the wall that has separated U_S. 
banks from the brokerage industry 
since the 1 930s. The division, which 
has been eroded in the past decade, 
crumbled more last year when the 
Federal Reserve Board allowed 
h anks to get more of their revenue 
from securities underwriting and 
other nonlending businesses. 

The purchase also sets the stage 
for what is expected to be a flurry of 
such acquisitions by banks in the 
United States and elsewhere. 

In February, Morgan Stanley, an 
investment bank that serves big 
corporations, merged with Dean 
Witter Discover, a consumer-ori- 
ented brokerage and credit-card 
firm. One reason those companies 
gave for their combination was to 
forestall a takeover by a bank. 

See BANK, Page 14 


Thinking Ahead /Commentary 


PRIVATE BANKING 


China Wants a Successful Hong Kong 


By Reginald Dak 

liti&TUBujaal Berald Tribune _ 

W ASHINGTON — Nobody knows for certain 
what will happen to Hong Kong after it reverts 
to Chinese sovereignty ht midnight on June 30. 
One thing, however, is dean The popular 
imftgp* of a Communist ogre devoming a defenseless out- 
post of Western values is greatly distorted. 

AH the political and economic evidence suggests drat 
China wants Hong Kong’s prosperity - 
to continue. If anything goes wrong, it . 

is more likely to be the result of mis- Mima S lead* 
calculation than of sinister intent. Fo- p™, 

lineally, a smooth takeover of Hong tnal * nc rJ®* 
Kong could help President Jiang are Upon thl 

Zmnin strengthen his position against 

his rivals in Beijing by claiming the 
reformist mantle of Deng Xiaoping, one of whose main 
ambitions was Hong Kong’s successfiri rmatriation. 
financiall y. Beijing has a huge stake in Hong Kong. lire 

_ * . - «i m - - *■■■<! ntnnlrr Atwllinul 


China’s leaders are aware 
that the eyes of the world 
are upon them* 


in Hong Kong, and Hong Kong is Oraa's biggest source of 
foreign investment. Even if China’s leaders may not folly 

* comprehend the way Hong Kong works, they seem to accept 

• that it needs to keep its basic economic freedoms. 

Nothing indicates that Beipng intends to np up the 

'.guarantees of those freedoms, agreed with Britain m 1984, 

* which stipulate that Hong Kocg may continue to conduct its 
own tiadt^ economic and financial policies and keep its 
currency linked to the U.S. dollar. 

" Ax a soecial administrative region of Ouna, Hong Kong 
vriUstitibea member of foe WoridTradeQr^^oMhe 

- WoridBank and the International Monetary Fond— apomt 

- feat the holding of the Rarik/Fund annual meeting m Hong 

• : Von it this fli itHnwi is intended to drive heme. _ 

' China ’s official but flexible Oimmumstdoc^has not 

- encouraged toSp 


Hong Kong’s economy merge with that of the mainland. 

Many in tbe business world see glowing prospects. In a 
new book, “The Investment Opportunity of a Lifetime — 
Hong Kong, 1997 and Beyond* Richard E. McConnell and 
Richard E. McConnell Jr., Hong Kong investment advisers, 
argue that free enterprise and the stock market will flourish 
under Chinese rule — particularly if China's vast pool of 
domestic savings is allowed to flood into Hong Kong. What 
could upset this rosy outlook? One risk is that China’s 
leaders could ignore the extent to which Hong Kong's 
success depends on Western concepts 
■ of fee rule of law and free flow of 
8 are aware information. Serious interference wife 
. , ,, either could threaten Hong Kong’s 

M tne worm unique international role. Political op- 

_ portents of China will almost certainly 

test the attitudes of Hong Kong's new 

rulers — and their degree of subser- 
vience to Beijing — by staging demonstrations. China's 
reaction will be crucial. 

The nightmare scenario is that continued political 
protests could spark a crackdown by die Chinese army 
reminiscent of fee massacre near Tiananmen Square in June 
1989. That, however, seems unlikely. 

China 's leaders are much more aware than they were in 
1989 feat the eyes of fee world are upon them. Beijing is 
especially eager not to ruin the closer relations it is cul- 
tivating wife Washington, and jeopardize China’s chances 
of joining the WTO, rate of its top policy jaicnities. Al- 
though Beijing insists that others not meddle in its internal 
affairs, it is becoming more sensitive to international opin- 
ion. It has, for instance, assured Tokyo that Japanese 
investments in Hong Kong wQl be safe. 

Most of all, China wants to show Taiwan that it too could 
be painlessly reintegrated into the motherland in the same 
way as Hong Kong. To do so, China's leaders need only 
follow a simple rule of thumb: The further they keep their 
hands off Hong Kong, the better it will be for everyone — 
including themselves. 


CURRENCY & INTEREST RATES 


Cross Rates 




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Tt Z&KPOun* *»»*«* 

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Forward Rates 


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VWn.hb. 4700 


Key Money Rates 

UnltodStotot - out 

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PiMarat* 8 to 

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fMoyCnidlMMS SJ2 

18ft4torCPMM 5 M 

3 aooto Tmury bB its 

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14812 14369 14SZ3 




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743 746 


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and dosJag prior «v* WM a*** 
(Jimej 

fronts Status. 


We’re not just on the map. 
We’re all over it 


It’s not only our vast worldwide 
network that keeps us at your 
side at all times. 

It’s our total commitment to serving 
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From the time we opened our 
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Banking based on dialogue and 
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The founder of Credit Lyonnais. 
Henri Germain, expressed it most 
succinctly when he created the 
bank’s motto 



‘Business is people, not just 
figures'. 

This has been the very essence 
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We listen well to our clients' pri- 
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Our Geneva subsidiary, specialized 
In Private Banking since 1876. 

Credit Lyonnais' Private Banking 
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need at your finger tips. Precisely 
when you need it 
The combined strength of these 
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resources - creates something 
unique in Credit Lyonnais Private 
Banking. 

Let’s talk 



CREDIT LYONNAIS 


Private Banking Network: 

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Hong Kong tel 852/28 02 28 88 • Singapore tel 65/535 94 77 





PACE 14 


' /VI** 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL S, 1997 


THE AMERICAS 


30-Year T-Bond Yfefcl 




Knight-Ridder Buys 4 Papers 


STOCKS: Takeovers Give Market a Lift ^ 


Continued from Page 13 


By Rajiv Chandrasekaran 

Washington Pom Service 

WASHINGTON — Knight- 
Ridder Inc. will spend SI. 6S nil- 
lion to buy four newspapers from 


Monday, according to Bloomberg 
News. 

[Standard & Poor’s Corp. said it 
was placing Knight-Ridder on its 
CreditWateh list with negative im- 
plications. the first step toward a 


print costs, increased advertising 
revenue and employee cutbacks. 

Disney said m January rhar it 
was looking to sell the newspa- 


She predicted the Dow would trade 
in a range of 6.300 to 7.100 for the 

Monday from a rising dollar, which rc ^2^. tf 5 r+w <anck 

reflected speculation dial short-term With 

. U.S. intercalates would rise in the wrfljiotn^mJeMrfotoe.l^ 
next few months. Late last month. Madsay said, COTp^omare 
the Federal Reserve Board pushed 

up its target for tije federal funds race buymgup the eqmty of other conna- 
te 55 percent from 525 percent ni^tbey^^ l^too^ 

Many analysts are predicting the The brggest deal ® 

federal funds race, which is charged Monday was Allegheny 
on overnight interbank loans, will be tern’s $4.3 billion takeover of DQE 
increased to 6 percent this year as Imx, the parent of Duquesne Ught 
the central bank carries through on ■ '* " 

its pledge to fight inflation even if ES. STOCKS 

none is visible m the economy. . .... 

Internationally minded investors Co. The stock-swap acquismonwdl 
are being drawn to short-term dol- add 580,000 customers m the PitK- 
Iar-denommated assets, such as burgh area to Allegheny l-4 mll- 
money-maxket accounts, and the re- lion ratepayers m several Mutate 
salting rise in the value of the U.S. Adaxm’cstateaAUeg!iawslii^»d ™ 
currency is longer-term in- to 28% and DQE rose 1 ** to 2JS n. 

strum ents scan like good bets. On The No. 2 deal was Mesa Inch’s 
Monday, there was “a stronger dol- purchase of Parker & Parsley Fet- 
lar, and it looks like we’ve seeing roleum Co. for $15 billion m stoat 
same buying" in the bond and assumed debt. Mcsa is a natural - 

fr o m international buyers such as gas company. Parker & Parsley is an 
Japanese investors. Bill Gamba, . oil exploration and production con- 
head of trading at Cowen& Co., told cem. The merged company is to be 
Bloomberg News. called Pioneer Natural Resources 

Several analysts have that if Co. Mesa shares lost % to 5% and 
the Fed in its fi ght 1 against Parker rose 2 to 31%. 

inflati on, it win slow the economy The third noteworthy deal was 


150*^ 

1996 




-m -TT; 110 ^ 

1997 =; ^ 1996 

frJSfS? -Jssm 


bon to buy four newspapers trom plications, the first step toward a 
Walt Disney Co., including die possible downgrade. Moody’s In- 
Kansas City Star and die Fort vestors Service Inc. said it alk> was 




Worth Star-Telegram. 

Seeking to concentrate fully on 
newspapers, it also will sell its 
commercial on-line information 
business. Those businesses in- 
clude the Dialog and DataStar ser- 


^' i5 «44Cij 


vices, which provide on-line data 
to institutional customers. 

Knight-Ridder newspapers will 
continue to offer electronic ver- 
sions of themselves on the World 
Wide Web. 

[Knigbt-Ridder’s credit ratings 
may be cut after the acquisition, 
two debt-rating companies said 


reviewing the rating fen: a possible 
downgrade. Knight-Ridder has 
about $460 million in long-term 
debt, S&Psaid.] 

Getting out of the electronic- 
m for mati on business represents a 


ide on-line data strategic reversal for Knight-Rid- 


step toward a $19 billion purchase of Capital 
Moody’s In- Cities/ABC Lie. in 1995. Other 
aid it also was large newspaper chains, including 
fen: a possible Tribune Co„ Hearst Coip. tod 
t-Ridder has Times-Muror Co., reportedly also 
in long-term had expressed interest in the pub- 
lications. 

te electronic- Analysts agreed with the com- 
> represents a pany’s decision to get out of the 
r Knight-Rid- on-line information business, say- 
eavUyinsuch ing Dialog had suffered from com- 


der. which invested heavily in such ing Dialog had suffered from coin- 
ventures in the 1980s in the hope of petition with larger services such 
cushioning itself against down- as Lexis-Nexis, which is owned by 
turns in the newspaper industry. Reed Elsevier Inc. 
several analysts said. Knight-Ridder will issue $660 


Recently, the newspaper busi- million in convertible preferred 


ness has been looking more at- 
tractive because of lower news- 


stock and assume $990 milli on in 
debt to pay for the transaction. 


Source: Bloomberg, Reuters laenwiMiai Herald Tribune 

Very brietfiys 

• Qualcomm Inc. said a federal court in California granted a 
temporary restraining order against a rival phone maker. 
Motorola Inc^ that prohibits Motorola from communicating 


COMPUTE: Cure for Millennium Virus Needed by 2000 


iMEimMaa] Herald Tnbuae Continued from Page 13 

^ biggest concerns of date-processing 
managers is that even if one com- 

puter system were fixed to accom- 

!alifomia granted a modate die century change, it could 
val phone maker, easily be contaminated by noncom- 


Peter de Jaggr, a Canadian com- Steven Sheinheit, a senior vice pres- 


puter specialist who in 1993 was one 
g of the first to sound an alarm about 
i- the 2000 problem, recently conduc- 
l- ted a survey of businesses' progress 
d in addressing the problem. He round 
l- that no more than one-third of private 


with Qualcomm customers and suppliers about alleged patent computers 


pliant date imported from other companies knew exactly what they 


infringement on a wireless technology Like Mason Shoe, most co mpute r 

• Integrated Health Services Inc. dropped its $584 million usere W develop^ their y stems 

bid to acquire Coram Healthcare Corp., scuttling plans to SUSS 

create one of the largest U.S. home healte-care wS^nies. JgJ* of ^ to handle 

• Brazil's president, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, said the -^e result is millions of one-of-a- 


had to do to fix their systems and 
when they were going to do it. 

The winners will be the compa- 
nies that started early: They will not 
need to compete later for program- 


buying up the equity of other compa- 
nies they would like to own. 

The biggest deal announced on 


Ixkx, the parent of Duquesne Light 

US. STOCKS 

Co. The stock-swap acquisition will ^ 
add 580,000 customers in the Pitts- 
burgh area to Allegheny's 1.4 mil- 
lion ratepayers in several Middte 
Atlantic states. Allegheny slipped % 
to 28% and DQE rose 1% to 28%. 

The No. 2 deal was Mesa Inc.'s 
purchase of Parker & Parsley Pet- 
roleum Co. for $15 billion in stock 
and assumed debt Mesa is a natural- 
gas company . Parker & Parsley is an 
oil exploration and production con- 
cern. The merged company is to be 
called Pioneer Natural Resources 
Co. Mesa shares lost % to 5% and 
Parker rose 2 to 31%. 

The third noteworthy deal was 


mers whose prices are escalating manually, bank officials said. 


government would spend 8.4 billion reals ($7 .94 billion) fc-jnH computer applications around test their efforts, 
through 1998 to create jobs and counter rising unemployment. ^ worid ^ ^ incredibly labor- "We think ii 
Brazil's unemployment rate rose to 5.4 percent last year from intensive job of fixing them. competitive a 

4.6 percent in 1995, leading critics to accuse the government 
of fighting inflation at the expense of jobs. 

• Ford Motor Co.’s chairman and chief executive officer, ¥> A I\TIZ~» n • rj o n f 

Alex Trotman, was given total compensation of $5,738,976 -DxVJ. v-I\.a DUyiTlg UmOm UTOiCert 
during 1996, a 5.7 percent increase over his 1995 com- ° 

pensation. the automaker said in its annual proxy statement. Continued from Page 13 

• Lockheed Martin Corp. said the company's unit that , , _ 

builds F-16 fighter jets avoided a strike by reaching a three- For more than a decade, Confess has been debating w 

year labor pact with its union. Bloomberg. Reuters to repeal *e 1933 Gl^teagaflAet, wtuefabans bank 


rapidly, and they will have time to 


ident in charge of corporate com- latex this year and set the stage for a Banker TYust’s $1-7 billion all-stodc 
puter systems at Chase Manhattan fail in long-term bond yields toward takeover of Alex . Brow n Ino, a Baj- 
Bank. He said' early completion of the 6 percent level. In the fourth timore-based securities house. It 
the 2000 conversion job could give quarter of last year, the economy followed news Sunday that MI- 
tbe bank an opportunity to acquire expanded at an annual rate of 3J8 crosoft would purchase WebTV 
companies or parts of companies percent, a degree of growth that Networks Inc. for about $425 mu- 
that have been we aken ed by mis- many analysts say is so fast that it will lion in stock and cash, 
bandied conversion projects. force inflationary price increases. Nike was the most active issue cm 

Chase has purchased software Yet a diminished growth rate for the New Y ork Stock Exchange, fall- 
that identifies about 80 percent of the economy would make it hard for ing 3% to 55% on reports mat the 
the date references in computer corporate earnings to grow, limiting footwear maker was cutting pro- 
code; the rest must be sought out the scope for die stock market to duefion in Asia, a sign it expected 
manually, bank officials said advance. Ms. Mackay said she sales to slow. 

"The difficulty is not chan g in g thought that after die market's Technology issues were strong. 


the date references in computer corporate earnings to grow, limiting 
code; the rest must be sought out the scope for die stock market to 


"We think it could become a 
competitive advantage," said 


"The difficulty is not changing 
the code but testing it,” Mr. Shein- 
heit said. "If you change one line, 
you have to test the whole system." 


advance. Ms. Mackay said she 
thought that ■ after foe market's 


tumble from the Dow record close of as indicated by foe Nasdaq Com- 
7,085.16 onMarch 3 1, stocks “in the posateindex’sriseofl4.70points,R> 
short run are extremely oversold.".. 1,25134. Microsoft and Intel rose. 


Weekend Box Office 

The Associated Press 

LOS ANGELES — "liar liar" dominated the U.S. box 
office over the weekend, with a gross of $183 million. Fol- 
lowing are the Top 10 moneymakers, based on Friday's ticket 
sales and estimated sales for Saturday and Sunday. 


l.UorLtar 

fUMcraaO 

SIBJmBBan 

2. The Saint' 

(Paramount) 

SlUmDBan 

X The DgyITs Own 

(Columbia Pictures) 

S7^mlfflan 

4. That Old Fertng 

(Unbend! 

S&2mlHan 

S. Double Team 

(Columbia PfOures) 

SSmfllon 

4. Junq&JunQle 

(Watt Disney) 

SUmtSan 

7. The Stem Man 

(Tbudvtone nsuteO 

S3.1 mBOon 

•.Selena 

(Warner Btb&J 

SUmUon 

9. Return of**eJe<fl 

(nmtUbQmtufPaO 

SZSmman 

10. Inventing trie Abbots 

(nrettbmOseupfM 

S24mH0on 


BANK: Buying U.S. Brokerage 

Continued from Page 13 

For more than a decade. Congress has been debating whether 
to repeal the 1933 Glass-SteagaD Act, which bans banks from 
underwriting stocks. It was enacted in the Depression era to 
prevent banks from taking possibly fatal rides in the markets. In 
recent years. Wall Street Largely withdrew its objections to 
letting hanks onto its turf, ten the repeal of the law has still been 
blocked by insurance-industry objections over diff e re nt issues. 

Bankers Trust’s purchase turns up the heat under J.P. 
Morgan, Chase Manhattan, Deutsche Bank. Credit Suisse and 
other commercial banks that, like Bankers Trust, aspire to be 
world-class investment banks. On paper, the combination 
looks formidable, with Alex. Brown's equity and corporate- 
finance businesses complementing Banters Trust’s substantial 
high-yield, le v eraged-financing and derivatives businesses. 

Alex. Brown had a return of 27 2 percent on its $644 million 
of shareholders* equity last year. Except for a (tip to 19.7 
percent in 1994, it has returned more than 20 percent on its 
capital in each of the past five years. (NTT, AP. Bloomberg) 


AMEX 


Monday's 4 PJfl. Close 

The top 300 nasi active shoes, 
up to the dosing on Wall Sheet 
The Assodstet Press 

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INTERACTIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. TUESDAY, APRIL 8, 1997 


PAGE 15 


EUROPE 


i GEC Fails 
In a 2d Bid 
In France 

Paris Rebuffs Merger 
"With framatome 

Bloomberg News 

«\ — Framatome said 

? : nSfW?.J? planned mer 8 s r with 
.tjKL Alsthom was ‘‘improbable " 
dealingthe second blowm a week to 
..General Electric Co. of Britain’s ef- 
forts to expand in France. 

The merger between Framatome, 
.a state-controlled maker of nuclear 
.reactors, and GEC Alsthom, a joint 

^ v t nture „ 1 0f GEC Alcatel Al- 
stbom SA, failed after GEC refused 
-Jo accept the French government's 
.condition that ii bold less than 50 
.percent in the new company, Fram- 
;atome said. 

1 GEC and Framatome are pursu- 
mg talks over ways to cooperate 
_more closely, and both agree the 
merger makes strategic sense, the 
.French company said. The proposed 
.merger would have created one of 
the world’s biggest electrical en- 

companies, with $13.7 
billion in annual sales, and a po- 
tential competitor for Asea Brown 
fJJoveri LttL, a Swiss-Swedisb con- 
glomerate, and Westingboose Elec- 
tric Coro, of the United States. 

_ On Friday, the French govern- 
^pient, citing security reasons, barred 
the British company from bidding 
for a controlling stake in Thomson- 
CSF, a state-owned defense-elec - 
,trooics maker. 

“The Framatome merger is a 
question of political football, much 
-like Thomson -CSF.’ * Neil Barton, an 
analyst at Merrill Lynch & Co., caid 
“There’ s no mams of guessing from 
" the outside how this could turn out’’ 

, 'GEC declined to comment on the 
talks. Executives of GEC Alsthom 
and Alcatel and gov er n m en t o fficials 
were not available for comment 
*' Framatome is ~51 percent con- 
trolled by state-owned companies, 
‘and Paris wanted its French share- 
holders to retain at least 51 percent 
of the new company. Alcatel. 
Europe’s biggest maker of telecom- 
munications equipment, holds 44 
percent 

. Shares of Alcatel closed at 663 
francs ($1 17.54) in Paris, up Z47 
percent. In London, GEC’s shares 
closed at 385 pence ($632), np 2_ 



People behind the numbers: some of Britain’s unemployed lining up to enter a government office on Tavistock Square in London 


' : A .•*££•■ •* si» i 

nhrr«j] Plilmial hrv 


U.K. Job Data: Tinting the Picture Rosy 


Reuters 

LONDON — The official nnemployznaustat- 
istks are impressive, at least on fim reading. 

Unemployment has fallen for 16 months in 
succession, hitting a six-year low of 62 percent 
of the weak force in February. 

That low level is unrivaled by any of 
Europe’s other major economies, arid the job- 
less total has fallen by a third since the Con- 
servatives won the Last election in 1992. 

But scratch the surface, and cracks soon start to 
appear Five years of economic growth have yiel- 
ded only a tiny increase in employment; job 
creation is patchy, has fallen short of expectations 
and is growing below the rate that toe monthly 
declines in unemployment would suggest. 

Internationally approved calculations used in 
the government’s own quarterly survey of the 
labor force paint a picture of me British jobs 
mflrtrpft that 15 l^sc than re markable 

In tile three months ended in November 
1996, unemployment as recorded by toe labor 
force survey fell by just 32,000 — dramatically 


less than the 114.000 drop seen in claimant 
unemployment, which measures the number of 
people allowed to claim unemployment ben- 
efits, rather than those who would tike a job but 
cannot find one. 

Since 1992, employment has grown by just 
388,000 in a work force of around 25 million, 
according to the survey. This is in sharp contrast 
to the official figures; which showed unem- 
ployment down by 771,400 to stand at 
1 315300 as of January. The quality of the new 
jobs that have been created also has been ques- 
tioned. 

“Of the new jobs created since 1992, two- 
thirds are part-time, and of the full-time jobs, 
around half are temporary,” said Nick Isles, 
director of development ar the Employment 
Policy Institute, an independent research group. 

Another independent report, from Sheffield 
H allam University, calculated that in January, 
unemployment was really more than double toe 
official total of 1.8 million because large num- 
bers of jobless people were “hidden” from toe 


government’s count. The difference was ac- 
counted for by unemployed people ineligible 
for benefits, those on government programs or 
the long-term jobless hidden among those listed 
as having retired early or permanently ill. 

Some statisticians have lost patience with toe 
quality of the data, especially since plans to 
produce monthly data using internationally rec- 
ognized methodology were shelved last year 
because of funding constraints. 

“The claimant count is not trusted, is not 
based on any agreed concept of unemployment, 
is inconsistent over time due to changes' in the 
claimant system and cannot be used for in- 
ternational comparisons.*' the Royal Statistical 
Society said. 

With a general election coming May 1 , voters 
also are questioning toe rosy picture painted by 
the official data. 

A polling concern has found that despite the 
steady foil in the statistics, unemployment is the 
issue voters rate as toe third most important 
facing Britain today, after education and health. 


Fokker’s Hopes ‘Negligible’ as Rescue Collapses 


C&vSedbfOwSuffPtemD ii patchu 

AMSTERDAM — Hopes for the 
survival of the Dutch aircraft maker 
Fakker NV all but evaporated 
Monday after a deal intended to get 
it hack off the ground fell apart 

Fokker’s receivers said the Dutch 
industrial-machinery concern Stork 
NV had polled out of a deal to restart 
tire collapsed company. Similar talks 
with Samsung Co. of South Korea 
fizzled last November. 

“The chance of a possible restart 
definitely seems negligible,” Pot- 


ter's receivers said. Last month, 
Fakker trustees, the Dutch govern- 
ment, Stork NV and Ddeye invest- 
ment Group signed a memorandum 
of understating aimed at restarting 
the company before May 1. 

The parties had hoped for invest- 
ment from Khazanah Holdings BhcL, 
an investment company owned by the 
Malaysian government. But Khaza- 
nah is not ready to invest in a new 
Fakker ar this point, toe receivers 
said. Sunk, which owns the profitable 
Fokker aircraft-maintenance and 


parts units, announced it was no 
longer bound by toe memorandum of 
understanding, which was the blue- 
print far a possible resurrection. 

‘ ‘The Fokker administrators have 
now concluded that any chance of a 
restart seems definitely off the 
cards,” the receivers said. 

They said Stork blamed its pull- 
out on the failure of Khazanah to 
guarantee enough financial support. 
Dutch press reports estimated start- 
up costs at 10 million guilders (S53 
million). When Fokker collapsed 


last year, it closed toe three units that 
made up 90 percent of its activities. 
KLM and other airlines gave Fokker 
several aircraft orders to keep it go- 
ing until a rescuer could be found. 

But its last three planes are nearly 
completed, and many employees 
have (eft in recent weeks, the re- 
ceivers said. Fokker’s aircraft- 
maintenance business was restarted 
under toe name Fokker Aviation B V 
and acquired last year by Stark for 
about 300 million guilders. 

(AP, Bloomberg , Reuters ) 


—■ — 


Frankfurt 

' • ' London ' 

•'Paris' ' . .] 

OAX 

FTSE 100 index . GAG 40 . •••. j 

3600 

4«0 

2850 : 

i " :rr ~a z _ 

3 Oil 

" — 

rv z jl. 

3000 9* 




■ ‘Hw ~iyj 


* 

2600 'n "b j 

- 3Smr , — — 

F M A * UI N D J 

YiTa 2100 n~d j f Wa" 

1996 

1997 1996 

1997 

1896 IW 

Bettoange 

Index 

Monday ' 

Prav. ■■ • % 



Close 

.Close Omge 

Amsterdam 

AEX 

727^9 

798.43 ;.+&? 0 


BEL-20 

2,115^5 

2,08057+1.63 

Frankftat 

DAX 

$31248 

3^44^3 f£03 : 

[ Copenhagen . Stock Market 

HA. 

S 20 #t ■ 

HefsMd 

HEX General 

2JBHJBB 

2,734=35 +320 

Oslo 

OBX 

589.08 

57».i4„ ; i&M 

Londtm 

FTSE100 

■ 4,271.60 

4536 & +0JB3 

Madrid 

■■ Stock. Exdiange 

473J06 

466.12 .. *1-48 

Wten 

MfflTB. 

17^31 M 11683 '-*a.T 2 j 

Paris 

CACAO 

2^77.78 

zju rst.tfum 

Stockhohn 

SX 16 

2375JJ7 

2^00.06 + 2.68 

Vienna 

ATX ' 

1,17829 

1,16730 -rtiid 

Zurich 

SPI 

2,903.15 

2^36.53 


Source . : Tetekius 


luenxtonalHaaMTrihuuc 


Very briefly: 


• Commerzbank AG’s net profit rose 24 percent last year, to 
1.21 billion Deutsche masks ($722.1 million); it cited a 
“dynamic” banking business and strict budget controls. 

• Linke-Hoftnann-Busch GmbH. Siemens AG’s train-mak- 
ing unit, and GEC Alsthom, a British-French venture, won a 
1.6 billion DM order from Denmark’s state-owned railway. 
Danske Statsbaner. to build 1 12 carriages. 

• Glaxo Wellcome PLC’s shares fell 4 pence, to £10.86 
($1 7 .8 1 ), after a U.S. appeals court ruled that Novopharm Inc. 
could sell a generic version of Glaxo’s Zantac ulcer drug. 

• Spain's Labor Ministry posted a March jobless rale of 13.89 
percent, down from 14.11 percent in February; the figures 
reflect unemployment-insurance claims. The National Stat- 
istics Institute, which uses surveys to estimate unempJoymeni. 
put the fourth -quarter rate at 21.8 percent. 

• Italy’s inflation fell to 2.2 percent year-on -year in March, 
less than half its level 1 2 months ago. AFP. Bloomberg. Reuters 

Spanish Rebate Helps Renault 

Bloomberg News 

PARIS — Shares of Renault rose sharply Monday after the 
Spanish government approved a rebate plan aimed at lifting 
auto sales and amid signs that workers at its Belgian plant 
would return to their jobs after a monthlong strike. 

The Spanish government said it would offer new car buyers 
a rebate of 80,000 pesetas ($567) on registration fees if they 
turned in a used car that was more than 1 0 years old. The offer 
mirrors a French plan that ended last year. Separately, workers 
at Renault's Vilvoorde plant near Brussels are expected to 
vote Thursday to resume work after striking since Feb. 27 over 
plans to close the plant, a union official said. Renault shares 
closed at 139 Bench francs ($24.64), up 730. 


WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


Monday, April 7 JU' 

Prices In toad amende*. - - 
refeAws - 

aw* nw. 


tom Owe- Piw. 


m tfh tow 


Amsterdam 


•Jr. Vi 

OwbdNBa* .9005 9050 9050 89 37 
DeotTdetom SMS 3605 VMS 3557 
nwirtwrnmlr saw s&35 5840 5755 
BnaoiiH as MS M 34! 

FnunkaAM 15340 15130 15130 151 JO 
________ FrfwLKlUM) 308306 386 309 

_ Goto 11400 114 1U50 110-5*3 

AEKMkTZTJ* HaklefegZfl* UUSDUMO 14750 14050 
PHMmcTOMS 


SA Breweries 

Sanoncw 

Soso! 

SBJC 

TtoerOoS 


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Low 

Ok» 

Pre*. 


Wtrt 

Low 

Ctae 

138JS 1370$ 137-58 13708 

VendomeUtuts 

S04 

5,18 

5.19 

5135 

512.5 

5175 

5175 

Vodolsw 

2J9 

274 

179 

4900 

4800 

48JS 

4BJ5 

WHUmred 

7J4 

7X2 

7J2 

18405 178-50 

17S 

178 

Wfflkma Hoc* 

3.17 

3.14 

114 

7150 

77.75 

7705 

7705 

Wc4«4ry 

4J5 

4J8 

405 





WPP Group 

351 

1X5 

351 


High Law c lose Pm. 


High law cbu Pm*. I The Trib Index 


Paris 


Kuala Lumpur 

rmwcllJMl 


89 MM 87-40 


BA 


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AkzoNoM 

HoonCa 

Ms Wesson 

CSMcva 

DmttKhePd 

DSM 

Banner 

Fords A4»ev 

GobaNa 

G-Biwara 

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125.10 
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13040 
25740 
92-50 
35X0 
104 
350 
104 
3880 
71 
5050 
6030 
15890 
321 M 
9140 
148 
7190 
Si. 40 
3940 
49 
47 
306 
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B 490 
98 
15050 

1 ftS 

15030 

10B 

33740 

34&70 

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344 

349 

339 

204 

19900 

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230 

226 

227 

322 

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838 

846 

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255 

249 

251 

246 

665 

656 

663 

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284 

275 

284 

272 

368 

363 

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199 

192 

199 

192. 

725 

711 

712 

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184 

181 

183X0 

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875 

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1043 

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219 

213 

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333 

325 

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322 

248X0 

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246X0 

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194 

188 

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24700 

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247 

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136 

133 

135 

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190 

190 

190 

190 

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102X0 

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565 

575 

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222 

225 

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549 

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526 

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10740 101.10 10040 
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11780 11355 11550 1 1325 
3CS 3315 3400 3320 

4330 4190 4330 4225 

1200 1170 1283 1167 

21550 21000 71500 2Tjm 
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8645 8390 8575 8300 

B190 8065 8180 BOM 

5375 5290 5365 SZSD 

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618 604 <12 616 

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498 489 409 494 

363 357 360 360 

738 729 737 733 

964 964 973 981 

224 220 221 ZO 

871 852 8SS 070 

521 504 506 5T 

7410 7320 7360 Tim 
27» 2050 2090 2130 
381 349 353 390 

479 468 461 479 

1830 1730 1750 1830 
3230 3140 3140 3200 
1950 1930 1940 1940 
1300 11B0 1180 1190 
1100 1080 1090 1090 
37S 361 366 380 

703 635 685 694 

1380 1360 1370 1360 
818 HQ 812 815 

915 905 912 915 

11© m 1150 IM0 
937 930 925 928 


Prfees as ot 3.-00 PM. Now York time 


Jan t, 1992s 100. 

Level 

Change 

% change 

year M dadkt 
% change 

World Index 
Regional Indons 

151.70 

+1.15 

•- +0.76- 

+15.04 

Asla/PaaHc 

110.77 

-0.19 

-0.17 

-17.50 

Europe 

100.79 

+2.26 

+1.43 

+15.53 

N. America 

175.96 

+1.43 

+0.81 

+37.17 

S. America 
Industrial Indexes 

138.61 

-050 

-0.65 

+55.87 

Capital goods 

175.76 

+2.94 

♦1.70 

+32J27 

Consumer goods 

170-28 

+1.06 

+O.B3 

+23J33 

Energy 

183-06 

+2.94 

+1.63 

+34.98 

Fmance 

112.83 

+0.31 

+0.28 

-1124 

Miscellaneous 

156.63 

+1.06 

♦0.68 

+15.33 

Raw Materials 

182.19 

+1.28 

+0.71 

+2a48 

Service 

1A2.74 

+0.81 

+0.57 

+18.95 

Utilities 

132.97 

-0.42 

-0.31 

+4.59 


The ImemaOonaJ Horo/d Tntruno WoM Stock taOexO trucks it* U.S. doBer vatuos ot 
28OlMmnanenaByltnmswiMatockslnm2SaauTines.Formoivlnlorma0nn.il free 
booklet is avoBahte tyy writing to The Index. 181 Amove Charles oo GauBe. 

92521 NeuUy Codex, France. CompiM by Ootmbetg News 


Slack Martel tadec 8J17J0 
PrMaas: B36S07 


166 167 

173 174 

79 78 

12430 11&50 
30J2O 2830 
175 175 

69 6930 
13130 13230 
7630 74 

63 6330 
101 102 
78 73 

5730 5630 
6130 5730 
73 7030 



Hfeh 

Law 

Oase 

Pnw. 

Mitsui Fodasn 

1330 

1290 

1310 

1320 

Mitsui Trun 

660 

595 

598 

669 

imuroioMffl 

4730 

4700 

4720 

4758 

NEC 

1490 

1470 

14B0 

1470 

Nikon 

17® 

1710 

1/30 

1710 

NlldtoSec 

660 

609 

616 

655 

Nlrdendo 

9050 

0900 

8900 

9000 

Nlpp Ejoicu 

061 

499 

841 

492 

850 

492 

860 

493 

ns., .pen Sled 

367 

359 

359 

359 

Nissan Motor 

774 

749 

76/ 

745 

NICK 

266 

26! 

262 

265 

NoraunjSeC 

1330 

12® 

1260 

1330 

NTT 

8550a 

845110 

8450a 

8530a 

HIT Data 

3410fa 

33/00 

3390b 

3390b 

Ol Paper 

625 

602 

H 1 

627 

OsakoGas 

287 

283 


284 


14» 

1470 

1480 

1480 


9550 

9420 

9550 

9280 

SokuraBk 

499 

650 

650 

689 


34® 

3390 

3430 

3430 


1350 

1310 

1310 

1320 

Sanyo Elec 

466 

449 

455 

457 


7040 

6960 

78® 

7000 

SeBwRwy 

SekhutOiem 

5710 

56/U 

5710 

5680 

1170 

1130 

It® 

1170 

Sekisul House 

11® 

1160 

1170 

1190 

Seven- Etewsi 

7750 

7630 

/i» 

7730 

Sttara 

1490 

74® 

1470 

1470 

SDAokjj EIPwt 

1980 

1950 

1960 

3000 

Sltimtzu 

616 

58V 

588 

614 

SWn-etsuCh 

2460 

24® 

2460 

24® 

Sh&eWo 

1610 

1600 

1600 

1630 

Sblzuako Bk 

1070 

1060 

1060 

1070 

Sontsmk 

77® 

7628 

7700 

/63U 


9030 

w*ra 

8980 

89® 

Sunrfttffi-D 

880 

861 

860 

B63 

Sumitomo Bk 

1450 

1350 

1360 

1430 

SumttChem 

495 

479 

4/9 

491 

Sumitomo Etec 

7710 

1690 

1690 

I7D0 

Sumti Metal 

299 

293 

799 

rn 

Sumtl Trust 

980 

960 

966 

1000 

Tidsha Pnarm 

31® 

3100 

31® 

3120 


27® 

27® 

2/® 

2720 

TDK 

9030 

8900 

9000 

8890 

TohoMl EJPwr 

1990 

1950 

1970 

2010 

Total Bar* 

HO 

934 

KB 

944 

TolJci Marine 

12® 

1220 

1220 

mo 

Tokyo El Pwr 

2280 

2230 

2230 

2260 

Tokyo Electron 

4630 

4570 

4600 

4600 

Tokyo Gas 

297 

m 

288 

297 

Tokyo Corp. 

592 

581 

585 

5V3 

Tones 

1150 

1120 

II® 

II® 

TEjipon Print 

1550 

1520 

1530 

1510 

Turay Ind 

722 

AM 

AM 

/IS 

Toshiba 

713 

6W 

695 

AK 


2640 

2630 

2660 

26® 

Taya Trust 

797 

/64 

no 

m 

Toyota Mssw 

3280 

3I» 

3280 

3160 

YOmanowW 

2550 

2520 

25® 

2530 


arj Htt tux 1,000 


Toronto 


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A&erta Energy 
Alcan Atom 
Anderson End 
BAManfiwd 
Bk Mow sewn 
BairVJGott 
BCE 

BC Telecomm 
Btochtm Ptktan 
Bombardier B 
Brawwi A 
Bre-UMnerats 
Cameto 

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Crti Mat) RaB 

CdnHal Res 

CehOecWPef 

CdnPprifie 

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Datesco 

Domtor 

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EnraNevAun 

Rjktcn Rnl 

FiSartntoBe 

Befeher QnB A 

Franca Newda 

GuUCdaRes 

imperial CM 

inca 

IPLEneray 
LnkOawB 
Lomren Group 
Maanffl BUI 
Magna InflA 


TSE IMMIlBBc 584002 
Pmfaas: S81709 

21 1MI 19.90 19* 
2 Bxo 28.10 »xo aavi 


46 

16.15 

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4916 49J5 


45.15 45.70 
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5185 51X0 5100 50-85 
3205 32X5 32Vf 3200 
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29 JO 39 29.70 29 


34U 


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31.10 31 31-05 

206 


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34VI 33X5 
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31 


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51X0 5100 5135 


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3120 31X5 31 JO 3100 
4916 48.90 49.10 4800 
32J0 32.15 33J0 31.95 
2500 25 2405 2514 

3205 3200 3280 3235 
3505 35 35 36 

2415 
90S 
2414 2405 
3116 31 'A 


2400 24J5 2460 
1105 10 10 

24fc 24.15 
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29 » 2205 2220 2220 
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298 

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6720 66 

. - 9.95 90S 

6170 6205 62J0 
4315 4170 44.15 
39U 3900 Ml 
1855 1165 1155 
4116 41b 4105 

18b 1800 1190 


Methane* 

Moore 

— I-*— - »■_* 

ncnwuiye net 

Momndnlnc 
Norcen Energy 
NUwrn Telecom 
Nora 
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104X5 iam 
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5330 5360 
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40-30 3900 
29 2805 
39b 39x0 
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27X0 27b 

36X5 3S0S 
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1919 1900 
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52X5 5X70 
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19.90 1900 
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36J0 25V, 

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430 404 404 431 

306 301 X96 397 

M2 102 102 102 

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535 

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142.75 

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725 

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1900 

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298 

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2965 

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784 

927 

917 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 8, 1997 


NASDA 


Monday's 4 P.M. 

Bib liOOO mosHradal NaSond MniW souffle 
In terns of doitar wiue, updated Woe a yea. 
Urn AssocateH Press. 


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WUM Ofr VB 






NYSE 


Monday's 4 P.M. Close 

(Continued) 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. TUESDAY. APRIL 8. 1997 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


China’s New Anti-Piracy Dri ve Brings Results 


By Seth Faison 

^ ^Tunes Service 

><^* n op 1 

' a**— 

: ^ -compact disks until m 

- S^’3 U i C f iCT ) toId local autfa orities, who 
■ came and shut it down in February. 

£. J}** Welding hatchery is still in business, 

- but two compact-disk production lines w <xl 

- confiscated, and three men who ran them 

tlE custody ^ officials Who stud 

plater that they had rarely seen such a well- 
.msguised operation. 

f «Uer was given $36,000, an mor- 
J mous sum in a rural area of southern China 
l; where duck tenders make $25 smooth. 
After years of dragging their feet, and 

* Jgopnng demands from the United States 
-.Mid elsewhere, China’s copyright police are 
«■ nnally pursuing and arresting pirates, even 
»- well-hidden ones. The authorities are also 

* being creative, trying to pierce the shell of 
^ local secrecy by offering informants lance 
2 amounts of cash. 

L, Sin f x * concerted effort began in December 

- here m Guangdong Province, the acknowj- 
J edged center of copyright piracy in China 

* authorities say they have arrested more than 
„ 100 offenders and shut down 28 underground 
" lactones at which each disk-making machine 
^ could copy 10,000 disks a day. 

E Dozens more factories are believed to 

- exist, but many have suspended production. 
■p apparently in the hope that the current cam- 

* paign will subside after a few m onths. After 
J ail, the history of Communist China is a 
'.catalogue of political campaigns, most of 
J; which last just a few months ora year before 
■ r they are overtaken by new ernes. 


Fighting copyright pir- 
acy in Chma, one of the 
world's biggest violators 
of intellectual property 
rights, often looks like an 
unwinnable task. But in- 
dustry specialists say 
Beijing seems serious 
about the current crack- 
down, in part because it is 
beginning to recognize 
the dangers that piracy 
poses to China's own le- 
gitimate music and 
movie industries. 

The stimulus for the 
current crackdown, offi- 
cials here and in Beijing 
say. is a domestic crusade 
for “spiritual civiliza- 
tion” that President Ji- 
ang Zemin is trying to 
make his political signa- 
ture as be consolidates 
his power as the suc- 

the political 2 patnaicL 
who died in February. 

Mr. Jiang is expen ding 
a fair amount of political 
capital on the drive, be- 
cause it has been opposed 
by many local officials. 


CHINA 


Shanghai^; 


GUANGDONG 


Guangzhou 


f TAIWAN i 


HONGKONG 

South 

CHUM 




army officers and mem- :« vV'** i’*' 

bers of the secret police - : 4 

who have profited from e , 

the trade. To overcome 
the opposition, which sty- 
mied previous attempts to enforce laws faciori 
against piracy, Mr. Jiang is framing his cam- now g 
paign as one aimed at pornography, something than ti 
Chinese leaders strongly object to. down i 

Even though so-called dirty movies ac- a cons 
count for only about one-tenth of tire pirated tainmt 
videos in China, the current crackdown is Uni 
called * 'Sweep Away Pornography: Combat acknoi 
Illegal Copying.” pact-d 


? J _ ~* j Although it was devised 
•k jL ■■ I purely as a domestic cam- 
/ s,r* r S 1 paign. Beijing is also using 
L v • • the crackdown to comply 

C‘ j* s. ^ w-'l w * 1 * 1 P 311 * o1 ^ 30 “gfeemeni 
W .# -KOREA ‘s \ signed with the United 
£ •* I States in February 1995. Its 

~ • 58®* ■ 01116111 efforts are winning 

1 guarded approval from 
fiai - • \ those who monitor abuses 

X « . j of intellectual property. 

* ] "Since December, 

j they’ve been doing really 
f Taiwan i well." said Cheng Ching- 
y ' j ming. the representative Tn 
j j China of the International 

y , L , t j Federation of Phonograph- 
r "• _■ : hr Industries, a London- 

WG KONG ! based organization repre- 
Soutft ■ . j senting more than 100 mu- 
' | sic companies. "The ques- 
A J tion is whether they will 
• ■ -» — -■ keep up the pressure . which 

they need io do for a few 
CHW * * j years to succeed.” 
r *** t ~‘ > f 1° perhaps the strongest 
. ■■ . **’• j si? 0 jet of greater eonfi- 

' I dence in Chinese enforce- 

f { • 'y - ment. Warner Brothers re- 

^ Sooth cem] y si £ ned 311 agreement 
Cti£a w ith a Shenzhen- based 
p' ' Sea company that was suspen- 
( JP. ded in 1995 for copyright 

violations to start legally 
V e Km T 5 j producing video compact 
1 disks of! 00 movies owned 
xyt by Warner. Similarly, 
many other compact-disk 
factories that pirated music in the past are 
now gening more legitimate music business 
than they can handle, a sign that the crack- 
down is having an effect, said William Brent, 
a consultant specializing in China's enter- 
tainment industry. 

Until this year, the Guangdong authorities 
acknowledged the existence of only 19 com- 
pact-disk factories in their province because 


r | 

■-c 1 


Vt 


they only counted the legally registered out- 
fits. With most legitimate factories now be- 
having legally, local officiaN now concede 
that there are several dozen underground fac- 
tories that were churning out large quantities 
of illegally copied disks until recently and are 
continuing to do so on a smaller scale. 

“There's so much money to be made, 
people will .continue to take risks.” said 
Chen Jiukui. who heads Guangdong's office 
on copyright violations. "It s not something 
that can be stopped in a Jay. but we’re 
making a difference." 

U.S. trade officials say they deserve at 
least some credit for Beijing’s new resolve. 
But the fact that the Chinese authorities 
began a serious crackdown only in recent 
months, after years of pressure from Wash- 
ington, suggesLs that China's domestic pol- 
itics are the greater influence. 

The decision seems to have been made by 
Communist Pam leaders at a Centra! Com- 
mittee meeting las! September. Even so. Mr. 
Chen said. Guangdong authorities held meet- 
ings for three months before they announced 
a plan of action Dec. 1 1 . 

On that day. officials here publicized new 
efforts to ferret out underground pirates. One 
method is to offer the S36.000 rew ard to any 
caller w hose information leads to the closing 
of an illegal operation. 

Mr. Chen said. "We recognize now that 
we can ’t find all these offenders without help 
from ordinary people." 

More than 20 of the 28 illegally operating 
factories that were shut dow n since last year, 
he said, were identified through information 
from anonymous callers. 

Even so, Mr. Chen conceded that winning 
the fight against piracy would involve far 
more titan arresting the factory managers and 
that backers — often Hong Kong and Tai w an 
businessmen involved in organized crime — 
are more difficult to catch. 

“If you put the workers in jail, that doesn't 
solve ir," Mr. Chen said. "The real problem 
is the big bosses." 



PAGE 1 


Investor’s Asia 


Hong Kong 
Hang Seng 


Singapore 

Straits Times 


Toxyo 
Nikkei 225- 


Exchange 


Monday pwv. '*» 
Close Close Change 

1%287.84 12,294.59 +0-65 


Hong Kong Hang Seng 1%287.84 12,294.59 


Singapore Straits Tunes 2,088.14 2.075.78 +0.60 


AD Ordinaries 

| Tokyo Nikkei 225 17J15.67 17.86 0.59 -0.81 

Kuala Lumpur Composite 1,134.23 1,13 6.78 -0-22 

Bangkok SET Closed 714.09 

Seoul Composite index 694.90 687.42 +TO0 

Taipei Stock Market index 8*517.70 8 , 36757 +1,79 

Manila PSE 2^90.96 2,060.59 -2^8 

Jakarta Composite Index 636.64 637.43 -0.12 

Wellington NZSEAd 2jsn.01 2^2S53 -0.20 

Bombay Sensitive Index 3£20.49 3,550.37 -034 


source- Teles urs 


636.64 637.43 -0.12 

"1221.01 2,225.53 -0.20 

3^20.49 3,550.37 -034 

l'U7mai|i"ul Kci jKJ TiiN'mv 


t 

.Exports Lead the Way as Japan’s Trade Surplus Grows 15% 


JJ. Coaled by OirS/affFnn Dispatcher 

^ TOKYO — Jean’s cuncnt-ac- 
qpunt surplus grew in February for the 
Second month in a row amid mount- 
ing U.S. concern over trade imbal- 
ances, but the data were shrugged off 

fjy financial markets Monday as die 
dollar touched a four-year hi gh, 
ir Tokyo's surplus in its current a c- 
qouni, the broadest measure of trade 


in goods and services, rose 15.4 per- 
&nt from a year earlier, io 865-2 
|Hlion yen ($7.06 bfllion), the Fi- 
nance Mmistry said. 

* Japan’s merchandise-trade sur- 
plus grew 2.9 percent in February, to 


878 billion yen, its first rise since 
November 1994. Exports rose 9.9 
percent from a year earlier, to 3.895 
trillion yen, their 19th consecutive 
monthly increase. 

Japan’s trade surplus with the 
United States widened for the fifth 
consecutive months* the merchan- 
dise-trade figures showed. That 
growing gap has brought criticism 
from me United States. Japan’s 


U.S. Treasury Secretary Robert 
Rubin urged Tokyo to guard against a 
resurgence in the trade surplus during 
his visit to Japan on Friday, saying a 


further rise in the current-account 
surplus would reignite trade friction. 

But the news of the wider surplus 
in February failed to change bullish 
sentiment toward the dollar, which 
hit a 50-month high of 125 yen in 
Tokyo trading. The U.S. currency 
finished the day here at 124.75 yen, 
up from 122.60 yen at the close 
Friday. Currency dealers said the 
tone of Mr. Rubin's warning on the 
surplus had been offset by his prom- 
ise not to use currencies as a tool of 
trade policy, which encouraged 
market participants to continue buy- 
ing dollars. 


Meanwhile. Japan's deputy fi- 
nance minister, Tadashi Ogawa, 
contended that the trade surplus was 
still in a long-term shrinking trend 
reflecting structural economic 
changes in Japan. He said Japanese 
companies were still shifting their 
production bases overseas and in- 
creasing their imports. 

But economists said the surplus 
would continue growing, with cur- 
rent-account data showing that Ja- 
pan’s economic growth owed a great 
deal to strong exports. 

They said Japanese manufactur- 
ers would increase their expons to 


offset slow domestic growth. 
"There is no doubt that Japan’s 
trade surplus will continue expand- 
ing." said Kazutaka Kirishima. an 
economist at Sumitomo Mutual Life 
Research Institute. 

“Currently, exports are almost 
the only boost for the Japanese 
economy." 

Jesper Roll, economist at J.P. 
Morgan & Co., said the data were 
"good evidence that Japanese ex- 
ports benefit from the gain in com- 
petitiveness as well as a pickup in 
global demand.” ( Reuters . 

Bridge News. Bloomberg) 


Very briefl y: 

• Fuji Photo Film Co. began supplying Apple Computer 
Inc. with its new digital cameras equipped with stamp-sized 
memory devices. Apple will sell the cameras under its brand 
name in the United States and Japan. The agreement could be 
part of a broader alliance between the two companies in the 
area of imaging products and software, the Japanese business 
daily Nihon Keizai Shimbun reported. 

• Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. won a 2.8 billion yen 
■ S22.8 million) contract from CBS Inc. for 1.400 digital 
videocassene recorders for use in news reporting, with ad- 
ditional sales of 2.000 units to CBS affiliates expected. 

• North Korea agreed in principle to establish a trade office to 
support South Korean businesses seeking to invest in the 
North, officials said. 

• Tianjin Automotive Industrial (Group) Co.. North 
China Pharmaceutical Corp. and Panjing Ethylene In- 
dustrial Co. are among several big Chinese companies that 
may seek to list on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the official 
China Daily reported. 

• Japan and Israel signed an agreement to provide a frame- 
work for risk insurance for joint ventures in other countries. 

• The World Bank will issue I billion Hong Kong dollars 
(S129.1 million) of 10-vear fixed-rate bonds. 

• Sony Electronics Inc. won a contract to build a direct 

broadcast satellite facility for DirecTV Japan Inc., a new 
company formed by Hughes Electronics Corp. and six 
Japanese companies. AFP. afx. Bh^mberti. Rcuto-. 


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PAGE 18 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 8, 1997 



T.I.I.C. {O.T.C.) JAPAN FUND 

Societe d'fnvestissement d capitcd variable 
Registered Office: 

IS. BoulevanM Royal. L-2449 Luxembourg 
R.G. Luxembourg B INmnfcrr 29215 

Notice is given that the 

Annual General Meeting 

of TJUUG. (O.T.C.) Japnu Fund (the “Fund”) will be held 
a l 16, Boulevard Royal, Luxembourg. on 35th April 1997 at 
1 1.-00 un, with the following agenda: 

I. Submission and approval of the Mana- 
gement report of the Board of Directors: 

DL Submission and approval of the Statutory 
Auditor's reports 

Ul. Submission and approval of the annual 
aecounts for the year ending Slat De- 
cember 1996? 

IV. Allocation of the results; 

V. Discharge to the Directors and the Auditors 
for the performance of their dudes during 
the year ending 31st December 1996; 

VI. Statutory elections; 

VII. Miscellaneous. 

Shareholders are informed that no quorum is required for 
the meeting. Any decisions taken at the meeting must be 
approved by a majority vole of the shares represented at 
the meeting. 

Shareholders who are not able to attend this annual 
general meeting of shareholders ore informed that they can 
act at the meeting by duly executed proxy relumed tn the 
Fund at the latest on the "Luxembourg Bank Business Day 
preceding the date of the meeting. 

Luxembourg, 4th April 1997. 

TJ.LC (O.T.C) JAPAN FUND 


TECHNOLOGY AND MEDIA 


With Acquisition, MicrosOj 

On Monday, Microsoft was set to announce 

SAN FRANCISCO — Microsoft Corp.'s with Intel Corp. and Compaq their, technical 
decision to spend $425 million to acquire plans for digital interactive computer-TV s. 
WebTV Networks Inc. is the software giant’s plans that they hope will become a standard 
most ambitious effort yet to blend the personal adopted by broadcasters, 
computer, the television and the Internet. Sunday’s announcement came just a few 

The announcement, made Sunday at a con- days after die Federal Communications Com- 
vention of television broadcasters in Las Ve- mission set a nine-year timetable for Amer- 


jj ■■ 

9 , * 


om 


— including Compaq Computer Corp. — plan finnan, an analyst at Montgomery Securitiesin founder and a SSL FV? 

to produce m the next few months. San Francisco. “Microsoft believes it needs afremiy r hip-f ex- 

On Mftnrfav MimKAfr u/nK wt rn imnmmrA corns* m nmw iti ni ri anH hiwcpiw* nm rtii> TV sidft- Tmfln. Wefrly S CO-IOUii 


some momcimnh and presence on the TV side, Imaiv We V: J* wo companies dis- 

and they’re doing it through a device that ecunve, said that to Compaq 


and they’re doing it through a device that ecuuve, ‘T,,"T,~T '^rr ibev realizdi 
would move the standards in their direction.” cussed sharing | ^sion. .■* 

Founded 20 months ago by computer en- they had a common Scam j ess fi f 

gineers who are veterans of Apple Computer • Although then . ^ 

Inc. and General Magic Inc.?WebTV began btendmg the computer. 
offering its Internet service last Christmas net, 


gas, is one of a series of maneuvers Microsoft is ica’s transition from analog to digital tele- Sony Corp. and FSrilipsElectromcs 
making to try to extend its reach from the vision. The world’s computer industry hopes 
personal computer, which has found its way to take over a substantial part whar is expected 
into almost 40 percent of American homes, to to be a $150 billion market for digital tele- 
the television, which has pride of place in 98 visions over the next decade. 


Inc. and General Magic Inc.. WebTV began btendmg the compute, 
offering its -Internet service last Onisnnas net, Microsoft ^Lvntra die dl- 

with two consumer-electronics licensees, incorporated WebTV tectaol ogy . 

Sony Corp. and IWlips Ektotronics NV. The giial-tdevision.standard ^ the^ pten^ to pfo 


vision. The world’s computer industry hopes company ’ has been given high marks for pose Monday. The 
to take over a substantial part whar is expected designing a $300 set-top box that connects to WebTV might indicate mat iwctoso 


percent of all bones in the country. 


The FCC in December modified the pro- 


The company also said it was planning to add posed standard for digital television to ease the 


software to permit its Windows operating sys- 
tem to be used in a new hybrid computer-TV, 
called a PC-Theaier, which computer makers 


computer industry's entry into this market. 

“This strikes me as a baccarat-table bet on 
the merger of PC and TV,” said David Read- 


ucaignmg a ww scl-luu uua uuu. whiuclu . -i*, 

a telephone line and allows television users to stiD. groping todefirw its own strategy teP 
explore the World Wide Web and send and emerging mteractrve digital wona. .i 

receive electronic maiL . As eariy as 1993, the company _ exp " 

But retailers have reported disappointing alliances with large cable compaiu« tp aq- 
sales, compared with expectations raised by velop a set-top box standard, but mecam*: 
manufa ctu re rs. industry has been slow to invest m adapting 

Microsoft and Paul Allen, Microsoft's' co- cable networks. • 


CODE: U.S. Export Curbs Are Helping European Software Makers 


Continued from Page 1 

Encryption technology has 
become a big battleground in 
the evolution of electronic 
commerce and die Internet. As 
in the United States, European 
banks and corporations are ra- 


cing to offer on-line financial 
services, and many of these 
services are buDt around In- 
ternet prog ram s sold by such 


U.S. companies as Netscape encryption software is in h- 


means for protecting custom- side the United States. - 
ers and companies from elec- Brokat’s hottest product is the 
tronic eavesdroppers. Xpresso Security Package, a-. 

Although the market feu set of computer programs flat-' 


and Microsoft. 

Cryptography is crucial be- 
cause it provides the only 


self tiny, it is a key to selling 


strengthen - the relatively 
weak encryption power of In-; 


technology in the broader temet browsers from Net- 


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Y market of electronic com- 
merce. Encryption is the first 
TT line of defense against hack- 
ers eager to pry loose credit- 
card information and raid 
bank accounts, so it plays a 
critical role in the sale of In- 
ternet servers and transac- 
tion-processing systems. 

Brokat. which has revenue 
of about 10 million Deutsche 
marks ($6 million) a year, 
uses its cryptography as a 
door-opener to sell much 
more complicated software 
I that securely links conven- 
tional bank computer systems 
. to a bank's Internet gateways 
and on-line services. Net- 
scape, Microsoft and com- 
puter equipment manufactur- 
ers all include encryption in 
the networking systems they 
sell to corporations. 

The reason Washington 
blocks U.S. companies from 
exporting advanced encryp- 
tion programs is that such 
agencies as die Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation and the 
National Security Agency 
: fear they will lose then ability 
| to monitor communications 
of suspected terrorists and 
1 criminals. 

I Far from hindering the 
I spread of powerful encryp- 
tion programs, however, U.S. 
j policy has created a bonanza 
i for alert entrepreneurs out- 


scape and Microsoft. - 
Besides America Online, 
Brokat’s customers include 
more than 30 big banking and . 
financial institutions around 
Europe. Deutsche Bank AG, 
Germany ’s biggest bank, uses 
Brokat’s software at its on- - 
line subsidiary 7 Bank 24. 
Hypo Bank of Munich uses 
Brokat in its on-line discount 
stock brokerage operation. In 
Switzeriand. the national tele- . . 

KaMoc^b^^are customers. - 
Among Brokat’s compet- 
itors, UK Web Ltd., based in • 
London, is marketing an 
equally powerful encryption 
program with a Silicon Val- * 


Bonn to Help Firms j 
Hook Up to Internet i 

Reuters • \ 

■ ‘ BONN — Economics Minister Guenter Re xrodt un- . 
veiled a plan to helpamkll companies use the Interne t^at , 
i - an" jrfectronic-commeroe conference sponsored by die* 
Group of Seven industrialized nations Monday. » 

‘ ‘AH offbeG-7 minister believe that it is of the utmost; 
importance for onr economies that particularly s mall and * 
midsized companies find their way in the information , 

- society in time, " Mr. Rexrodt said! I 

" Mr. Rexrodt, o utlining a German progra m i that wtH « 
" accompany a similar European TJmon effort to be J 
. la unch ed next week, said Boon would offer training and * 
consulting for «miaH companies: « 

Mario Monti, EU comnusaonerfor the single mar ket * 
i . and taxation, said that while 98 percent of large European « 

! corporations were booked up to the Internet, this was true * 
f of just 4 pwipftwnt. nif small and medium-sized enterprises. * 
At the samp, time, . the global electronic marketplace « 

- was' growing by 60 percent a year and could reach a trade * 

l: volume oif 1.5 trillion European currency units ($1.75 « 
I trillion) by die turn of the cejwury, he said. \ 


program with a Silicon Val- _ 

ley company, C2Net Soft- server program that competes • utives, the real mystery is wlty 
ware. Recently, .UK Web and with products from Netscape, the U.S. government con ti n - . 
C2Net boasted of selling Ccmq>anies can download the ues to restrict the export q ft, 
“full-strength”' . crypto- software from Siemens com- encryption technology. J 
graphy developed entndly puters in Iceland. ■ : “The genie is out of the 

outside the United States: - There' is nothing illegal or. - bottle,” said Peter Harter, th£ 
“We don’t believe in using even surprising about -this, global public policy counsel 
codes so weak that foreign The basic building blocks for at Netscape, who complained 
governments, criminals or advanced encryption technol- that U.S. policy thwarted h$ 
bored college students can ogy, a series of mathematical company's ability to corn- 
break diem,” the two compa- ' algorithms or formulas, are all . pete. • 

nies said in a statement, in a publicly available over the In- “I have a good product 
swipe at die ILS. export re- ternet U.S. co mpan ies such and I can sell rt to Citibank, 
strict! om. as Netscape sell strong eh- but I can't sell it to Deutsche 

Bigger com pani es are cryptiou programs in the Bank.'’ Mr. Harter said. “It 
starling to jump into the fray United States, and Brokat and doesn't make any sense. Whjr 
as well Siemens-Nixdorf, the some others are even allowed shouldn’t they be able to buy 
computer arm of Siemens .to export their product to cus- the same product as Citibank? 


strictions. as Netscape sell strong ei 

Bigger companies are cryptiou programs in tb 
starling to jump into the fray United States, and Brokat ar 
as well. Siemens-Nixdorf; the some others are even alio we 
computer arm of Siemens ..to export their product to cu 
AG. recently began market- tomers in the United States. 


doesn't make any sense. WbV 
shouldn't they be able to buy 
the same product as Citibank? 
It makes them mad. and ft 


alert entrepreneurs out- ing a high-security Internet For many computer exec- makes ns mad.” 


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TUESDAY, APRIL R, 


World Roundup 



Agassi Fights Back, Giving U.S. the Victory 


Brad KcspfAP 

Brad Faxon watching as a putt 
fell short on the 18 th hole. 


Faxon Wins at Last 

GOLF Brad Faxon, who set a 
PGA Tour record last season for 
earnings without winning shot a 3- 
under 69 chi Sunday for a three- 
stroke victory in the Freeport-Mc- 
Dermott Classic in New Orleans. 

Faxon, who made $270,000 for 
his firsr victory since the 1992 In- 
ternational, had a 16-under275 total. 
Bill Glasson and Jesper Pamevik 
both shot 66 to tie for second. 

Jose Maria Olazabal shot a 72 to 
tie for seventh at 278 in his first 
U.S. start since 1995. (API 

Rafter Played Drunk 

tennis Patrick Rafter admitted 
that he was drunk when he played 
his reverse singles match for Aus- 
tralia against David Rikl of the 
Czech Republic on Sunday. Aus- 
tralia had taken a winning 3-0 lead 
Saturday and Rafter said be spent 
the night celebrating. 

“I started sobering up halfway 
through the match.'’ said Rafter, 
who won in three sets. * ‘I felt great 
in the third set.” (Reuters) 

Gwynn Stays in San Diego 

BASFBAII Tony Gwynn signed a 
three-year, S1Z6 million contract 
extension that will keep him with die 
San Diego Padres through 2000. 

The outfielder, who has won sev- 
en National League batting titles 
and is a lifetime 337 hitter, was in 
the final year of a two-year ex- 
tension dial included an option for 
1998. The Padres exercised that 
option and added two years. (AP) 

Mesa Charges Reduced 


baseball A judge in Cleveland 
on Monday reduced a rape charge 
and threw out a felony assault 
charge against Jose Mesa, a Clev- 
eland Indians relief pitcher, agreeing 
with the defease that the state failed 
to prove its case an the two counts. 

The charge of rape, which carries 
a 3- to 10-year prison term, was 
reduced to gross sexual imposition, 
which carries a sentence of 6 to 18 
months. 

Mesa faces two other gross sexu- 
al imposition charges that are to go 
to the jury. (AP) 

Sri Lanka Reaches Final 

cricket Aravinda de Silva hit 
134 off 131 balls as Sri Lanka beat 
Pakistan by 51 runs Monday and 
booked their place in the final of the 
triangular Sharjah Cup. 

• India took three West Indian 
wickets before lunch in Antigua as 
the fourth test finally started after 
three days of rain. (Reuters) 


By Robin Finn 

New York Tunes Service 

NEWPORT BEACH, California — 
Andre Agassi went from chump to 
champ in die space of one five-ser 
match. 

Agassi, who was unfit for duty for the 
first round of the Davis Cup in February, 
showed up at Newport Beach for Round 
2 intent on relaunching his falling star. 
He could not have come up with a more 
melodramatic script 

Agassi saved himself and the U.S. 
team Sunday with a nimble escape from 
a two-sets-to-none deficit to secure foe 
all-important third point of the quarter- 
final between foe United Stares and foe 
Netherlands. 

The official score at the end of the day 
was 4-1 for the United Stares, which 
captured all four singles matches. 

Agassi’s methodical 3-6, 3-6, 6-3, 6- 
3, 6-3 victory over Jan Siemerink was 


only his second career recovery from a 
two-set deficit On Friday, Siemerink. 
ranked No. 22 in foe world, had also 
allowed Jim Courier to make bis first- 
ever comeback from two sets. 

“He changed his level and I 
couldn’t,” said Siemerink. who was not 
thrilled about playing foe victim to a 
comeback-minded American for foe 
second straight match. “These guys 
have more ability than other guys; 
they’ve both been No. 1.” 

Siemerink, who played 10 valiant 
sets for naught, is now 0-7 on hardcourts 
in 1997. 

Agassi’s command performance 
against Siemerink allowed Courier, 
who injured his right thigh in practice 
Sunday morning, to beg out of the final 
singles match. Jonathan Stark, a loser 
alongside Rick Leach in Saturday's 
doubles match, replaced Courier for 
what because a 6-4, 6-0 victory against 
Sjeng Schalken. 


“I hate dead rubbers,” Stan Franker, 
foe Dutch Davis Cup coach, said of foe 
meaningless final match. “You have to 
play them, but it’s ridiculous.” 

The United States, which has won foe 
Davis Cup 31 times, will take on Aus- 
tralia in foe semifinal round Sept. 19 to 
21 at an as-yet-unaonounced site along 
the mid-Atlantic seaboard. Australia, 
the runner-up to Ranee in foe 1996 
Davis Cup, leads foe United States by 
24-19 in Davis Cup confrontations and 


'm* ■ 

” V;* " 3. 


** 9* 


1993 quarterfinal. 

‘If I get picked. I’m sure I’ll be 
there,” said Agassi, who is now 24-4 in 
Davis Cup play. 

In addition to clinching this quarterfi- 
nal and sparing Courier the stress of 
playing a fifth and deciding match. 
Agassi, 26. may have turned a comer. 
With his pair of singles victories. Ire 
extended his Davis Cup unbeaten streak 
to 15 matches, one shy of BUI Tilden’s 




U.S. record but far short of Bjom Borg’s 

33 straight victories for Sweden from 
1973 to 1979- 

Agassi had come into the quarterfinal 
in foe worst slump of his career. He had 
lost five matches in a row in foe Iasi five 
ATP events be had played. He ended bis 
losing streak Friday when he dismissed 
Schalken in straight sets. That gave him 
foe confidence necessary to avoid panic 
when he fell behind by two sets 
Sunday. 

“I was very pumped up,” Agassi said 
of a match in which Siemerink sealed a 
two-sets-to-none lead with one of his 24 
aces. “I never really felt like it was an 
emotional t hi ng , like I was down and 
really needed to have things go my way. 

“I felt like it was very mechanical, 
that 1 bad to just start making some 
returns, and once I did, I methodically 
kept foe lead. Focus is a combination of 
discipline and belief, and for me, it*s all 
starting to happen.” 



Andre Agassi celebrating victory. 



m - 

- '% : 

'<* .'V tv 





Bosox Bullpen Stays Cold 
As 2 Mariners Turn Hot 






^1-v , . 



Montreal’s Shane Andrews chasing Colorado’s Vinny Castilla during^ cimrdo wm.Castiila hsftterace. 

or. 

Cardinals Get Off to Worst-Ever Start 


The Associated Press 

The St Louis Cardinals sank to the 
worst start in their 106-year history when 
they lost 3-2, in Houston on pinch -hitter 
Jeff Bagwell’s two-out two-run double 
in the eighth inning. 

St Louis has lost all six of its games. 

A throwing error by shortstop Royce 
Clayton started Houston's rally in foe 
eighth- Bill Spiers drew a two-out walk 
from John Frascatore and Bagwell 
doubled. 

It was foe second time in three games 
that Bagwell had driven home the go- 
ahead run in the Astros’ last at-bat 

rocUm 6, Expo* 2 Last season, Col- 
orado’s longest winning streak away 
from Coots Field was three. On Sunday, 
they won their fourth road game in a 
row. 

Vinny Castilla homered for tire 
second straight day. and Jeff Reed drove 
in two runs for foe Rockies. 


Goose G os sage (1.002) as pitchers to 
reach the mart. 

Ptiiffios a, Padre* 2 Curt Schilling 
made his second strong start as Phil- 
adelphia won in San Diego. Schilling 

gave up a leadoff home run to Quilvio 
Veras, but little else in eight innings. He 
has the Phillies' only two victories this 
season. 

Mats 4, Giants 2 Brian Bohanon, 
pitching for the ailing Pete Hamisch. 
gave New York seven strong innings in 
San Francisco and earned ms first NL 
victory. 

Hamisch has been suffering from in- 
somnia, and was sent back to New York 
earlier in the day. He says the problem 
may be the result of trying to end his 
habit of chewing tobacco, although oth- 
ers think it could be related to foe Lyme 


In games reported in some editions 
Sunday: 

MsrHns 3, Rads 2 Kevin Brown, who 
had the worst run support in the majors 
last season, helped himself with a run- 
scoring single and bases-loaded walk at 
Florida. 

Braves 4, Cubs O Greg Maddux 
pitched the Braves to victory in only T 
hour. 47 minutes, the fastest major 
league game in five years. 


The Associated Press 

Paul Sorrento singled home tire win- 
ning run with one out in foe 10th after 
Norm Chariton blew' his second suc- 
cessive save chance and tire Seattle Mar- 
iners beat tire Boston Red Sox, 8-7. 

“Sometimes you have to outslug a 
team,” So r rento said. 

Ken Griffey Jr. homered Sunday for 
the third successive day, and Alex 
Rodriguez homered, had four hits and 

AL Rounds* . 

scored four runs, including the game- 
winner. 

“Those are two hot guys right now,” 
said the Red Sox starter, John Wasdin, 
who gave up a homer by Rodriguez in 
foe fourth and a two-run drive by Grif- 
fey in foe sixth. 

Rodriguez led off tire 10th with an 
infield single and moved to second on a 
wild pitch by Rick Trlicek. After Grif- 
fey was intentionally walked. Rich Am- 
aral sacrificed. Jay Buhner was inten- 
tionally walked to load foe bases, and 
Sorrento singled. . . 

Chariton allowed Darren Bragg’s ty- 
ingsingle in the ninth. 

The Mariners won despite waQdng.il 
Red Sox and committing two errors. 

.. ' “We weren’t outfoigged,” Griffey 
said. “We just let some guys get on base 
that hurt us.” 

white Sox 5, Tigers 3 Jaime N&vano 
struck out a career-high 1 1 in seven 
innings at windy Comiskey Park, get- 
ting his first American League victory 
since 1994. 

Navarro, who left the Chicago Cubs to 
sign with tire White Sox as a free agent, 
allowed five singles and walked two. 

. The wind, gusting at 43 miles an hour 
(67 kph) as the game started, ripped a 
huge banner off tire scoreboard in center 
ana caused a seven-minute delay in foe 
third. 

Royals 12 , IWn 2 Glendon Rusch 


allowed four hits in eight innings at-ahe 
Metrodome and retired 19 consecutive 
baiters in his victorious major-ieagiie 
debut. M 

The 22-year-old left-hander strgck 
out four and walked noire. He gave up a 
pair of unearned runs in tire first and 
allowed Ron Coonrer's leadoff single in 
tire second, then retired 19 straight until 
Chuck Knoblauch’s two-out singly in 
the eighth. 

Hangars 9, Orioles 3 Dean Palmf r 
drove in three runs, ami Rusty Greer had 
four bits as Texas sent visiting Bal- 
timore to its first loss. ’li m 

Mike Mussina gave up four runs' in 
the first and wound up allowing seven 
runs and eight hits in four innings. ~ 

He was scheduled to pilch the opener, 
but was pushed back because of calci um 
deposits in his right elbow. The Orioles' 
ace. reported later that his elbow gave 
him no trouble during foe game. 

Cal Ripken homered for Baltimore, 
which was tire last unbeaten team in-foe 
majors. 

AtMataos 3, YM*«*a o New York, 
which had not committed an error this 
season, booted two grounders at Oak- 
land in a three-run eighth that gave the 
A’s a shutout victory.. 
i.Tlzind baseman Wade Boggs and first 
•basdman lino Martinez made the mis- 
cues for the Yankees, tire last team in the 
majors to commit an er ror in 1997. - 
hxfiana 10, Bagel* 8 Brian Qiles Mid 
Sandy Alomar homered in the ninth 
inning as visiting Cleveland overcame a 
7-1 deficit. With tire score 8-8, dies 
homered with one out off Troy Percfttal. 
One out later, Alomar hit his third 
homer of the season. 

In a game reported in some editions ■ 
Monday: . . 

P — n aam 4, Blue Jays 2 Jeff CiriUjb 

run-scoring double off Pat Hentgeu 
brake a 2-2 tie in foe seventh inning at 
tire Sky Dome, and John Jaha boosted 
in tire eighth for a cushion run. 


Pointless Mavericks Set a Sad Record : 


Lee Smith, baseball’s career saves -disease he had at the end of the 1995 
leader at 474. pitched tire ninth for season. 


Montreal. It was his 1,000th major 
league game. He joined Hoyt Wilhelm 
(1,070), Kent Tekulve (1,050) and 


season. 

Dodgers 6, Pirates 3 Mike Piazza hit a 
go-ahead single in the seventh inning to 
beat Pittsburgh. 


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The Dallas Mavericks set a dubious 
NBA record in the third period of their 
game against the Los Angeles Lakers. 

The Mavericks led 51-37 at the start 
of the second half, but then scored just 
two points in the third quarter. The 
Lakers scored the first 24 points of the 
quarter before Derek Harper sank two 
free throws with 1:51 left in the period. 
Leading 64-53 going into the final peri- 
od, Los Angeles defeated the Mavericks 
87-80 Sunday. 

The Mavericks missed all 15 field 
goals in tire third period. Their two 
points in the quarter was the worst since 
foe introduction of foe foot dock in 
1954-55. Two other teams had scored 
four, tire Kings against foe Lakers on 
Feb. 4, 1987, and the Buffalo Braves vs. 
die Milwaukee Bucks on Oct 21, 
1972. 

“I came to tire bench with about two 
minutes left and the guys said, They 
haven’t scored yet,’ ’’said Eddie Janes, a 
Laker guard. “I was like, ‘Oh, my God.’ 
I was more amaTwi than any thing ** 

“I don’t know if there is anything to 
say.” said Jim Qeamons, die Dallas 
coach. “I've never seen an exhibition of 
basketball like that in all my years in this 
league.” 

Kfoss its, SuparSonies ioi In Sac- 


ramento, center Olden Polynice scored 
9 of his 15 points in the tfriid quarter of 
Sacramento’s victory. 

Mitch Richmond had 27 points as foe 
Kings snapped a seven-game losing 

streak. Sacramento also. had dropped 
seven in a row and 17 of 20 to the 
SuperS onics. 

Shawn Kemp returned to Seattle’s 
starting lineup following a four-game 
benching for disciplinary reasons. 

Jan 114, Warriors loo 111 San Jose, 
Karl Malone scored 30points and Greg 
Ostertag tied a career high with 21 as 
Utah captured its 12th straight game. 

Jeff Homacek added 18 points, and 
John Stockton had 13 points and 13 as- 
sists for Utah, which has won 17 of 18. 

Buffi* no, Havre 94 In Orlando, Mi- 
chael Jordan scored 24 of his 37 points 
in tire second half and moved into fifth 

J lace on tire NBA’s career scoring list 
ordan has 26,726 points, 16 more than 
Oscar Robertson. 

Jordan scored 13 points in the 21-2 
run foe Bulls used to break open aclose 
game in the third period. 

te e m 94, T i m bam Kii i iaa S3 In Min- 
neapolis, Rik Smits had 27 points and 11 
rebounds as Indiana remained two 


games behind Washington and clqsed 
within 116 of Cleveland in tire race fbFthe 
final Eastern Conference playoff spot 
Antonio Davis added 17 points ;and 
seven rebounds for foe Pacers. Min- 
nesota got 17 points and 11 assists from 
Stephon Marbaiy. > 

Rocfc*ts94, Grizzlies 85 In VancoQver, 
Charles Barkley scored 28 poims in Hou- 
ston's victory to move into 17th place on 
the NBA career scoring list. Playingfx 
raily his third £ame after missinga tnbnm 
wifo a hip injury. Barkley overtoolrHal 
Greer oo the list. The 23-year veteran has 
21,609 points and trails Larry Bird by 
fewer than 200 points. 

Even wifo 22 points andacaieer-fiigh 
16 rebounds from rookie Shareef Ab- 
dur-Rahim, and 23 points from Bryant 
Reeves, tire Grizzlies lost their seventh 
straight . 

In games reported in same editions 
Monday: 

CUppevs 103, Hate 90 - Loy Vaqght 
scored 20 points and grabbed II- re- 
bounds as foe Clippers won their third 
straight road game and dealt New Jersey 
its fourth Joss in a row. « 

Boffieta 120 , Celtic* 114 In Boston, 
Chris Webber and Juwan Howard 
scored 31 points as Washington 
handed Boston its ninth . straM*j~ 
toss- (AP,LAJi) 


Red-Hot New Jersey Gets Another Shutout 


The Associated Press 

Rookie Mike Dunham took the place 
of New Jersey’s star goalkeeper. Marlin 
Brodeur, and made 25 saves in a 2-0 
victory over St Louis on Sunday night 
the Eastern Conference leader’s fourth 
shutout in five games. 

New Jersey, a point ahead of Phil- 
adelphia in the conference standings 
and four behind Stanley Cup champion 
Colorado for the overall lead, has al- 
lowed only two goals during its five- 
game winning sneak. 

The game was Dunham's 25th of the 
season. Under terms of his contract 
reaching that number keeps him f r om 
becoming an unrestricted free agent 
The Devils got him to25 by using him in 
a lot of mop-up duty. 

Jay Pandolfo opened tire scoring for 


New Jersey at 13:34 of tire third period, 
redirecting Denis Pederson's pass from 
the boards past Grant Fuhr. John 
M acLca n added an empty-net goal with 
16 seconds left 

A val a n ch a 2 , Coyote* 1 Patrick Roy 

m ade 24 saves for his career-high 37th 
victory this season as Colorado beat vis- 

MHlKoo waaP 

icing Phoenix to establish team records 
for victories (48) and points (105). 

Roy. who missed foe previous three 
games because of a hurt left shoulder 
lost his shutout at 4:19 of the third 
period, when Keith Tkachuk became the 
NHL's first 50-goal scorer this season. 

Flyer* 2 , Se na tor* 1 In Philadelphia. 
Trent Kbit and Pat Falloon scored as 


Philadelphia beat Ottawa for its second 
straight 100-point season. 

scored for Ottawa, 
which lost its second straight after a 
four-game w inning streak. * '■ 

PanttMia 3, Capital* 3 PetCT Bondra 

sccmwl wifo 49 seconds left in regulation 
as Washington tied visiting Florida to 
keep its playoffhopes dive. 

CaHe Johansson and Dale Hunter also 
scored for Washington, which ended a 
tour-game losing streak. MBke Hough, 
Johan Gazpeniov a»d' Dave Lowry 

scored for Florida. 

Btec fcha y.Kgg. Ftamaa i Chris CheBqi 
scored wifo 7:57 left as Chicago won^' 
key game in Calgary.The vietonr put tire 
Bladchawks four points ahead of ritfb- 
jrface Calgary in tire batik for foe final 
playoff berth in tire Western conference. 






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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL 8, 1997 


PAGE 21 


SPORTS 



bt Ckotttom* Andn) Dm 


■IxirdOtyllene, ridden by Tony Dobbin, passing the winning post at Ainiiee on Monday, watched by some of Ac police 
■ brought in after the race was postponed Saturday following a bomb threat Lord Gyllene, a 14-1 bet, l ead from tbe 
start ®nd fi n is h ed 25 lengths ahead of Sunny Bay, which was 8-1. Camelot K’night t a 100-1 outsider, was third. 


Juventus Humiliates AC Milan 


Scoreboard 


CVa’npdrd by OarSt^SFnm [htpaehrt 

AC Milan crashed to its biggest 
league defeat when it lost 6-1 to arch- 
rivals Juventus at the San Sira stadium 
in Milan. 

Milan's previous heaviest losses in 
the Italian league were 5-1 to Genoa in 
the 1950s and 5-1 to Horennna in die 
early 1930s. 

Ibe five-time European champion 
was three down after 50 minutes on 


Sunday after Vladimir Jugovic scored 
twice and Zinedine Zidane converted a 
penalty. Christian Vieri and Nicola 
Amoruso made it 5-0 before the ho pie 
side finally got a goal from Marco Si- 
mone. Vieri added a sixth for Ju- 
ventus. 

“It was tme of those days when 
everything you do goes wrong,** said 
Anigo Sacchi, the Milan coach. 

BRAZIL Romano converted (me pen- 
alty and missed another as Flaxnengo 
drew 2-2 with Botafogo, which bad won 
all its previous games in this season's 
Rio de Janeiro champio nship . 

Botafogo had won 13 games in a row 
and looked set for another victory as it 
took a 2-0 lead in the first 20 minutes. 

Romano, who on Wednesday scored 
his first goal for Brazil since tbe 1994 
World Cup, started the Flamengo 
comeback when be scored with a penally 
in the 25th mining. Shortly afterward, be 
missed a chance to equalize when his 
second penalty shot bit the post. 


Crowd Crushes 5 in Lagos Stadium 


CcrrpM fci Cfor jfcifFni* Ouruadier 

Five soccer fans were crushed to 
death after a World Cup qualifying 
match in Lagos when stadium officials 
celebrating a Nigerian victory failed to 
open gales for the crowd to exit. 

Only two of the five gates of the 
National Stadium in Lagos were 
opened as the crowd of 40,000 tried to 
get out. several Lagos newspapers re- 


in the second half, defender Junior 
Baxano, dismissed by the German club 
Werder Bremen last year after punching 
a rival defender, scored to give Fla- 
mengo a 2-2 tie. 

Earlier in the season, Botafogo 
fielded its reserve team against Fla- 
mengo and won 1-0. 

world cup Canada stumbled in its 
bid to qualify for tbe 1998 World Cup, 
playing to a scoreless tie Sunday against 
El Salvador in Burnaby. British 
Columbia. 

Canada is tied for last place with El 
Salvador and Jamaica in final qualifying 
for tbe North and Central American and 
Caribbean region. 

In Africa, George Weah scored a rare 
international goal to revive Liberia's 
outside hopes of a first appearance in the 
World Cup finals. He thundered home 
tbe only goal in the game with Egypt to 
give Liberia its first victory of the qual- 


ported. More than a dozen others were 

hospitalized. The Lagos Guardian said 
that when the match ended, crowds 
began heading for the gates, unaware 
they were locked and that people in 
from were being crushed. 

It was the second such stampede at 
National Stadium. Eight fans and a 
player died in 1 989 after a World Cup 
qualifying match against Angola. 


ifying campaign. 

Weah's first goal for his country in 18 
months lifted Liberia above Egypt in 
African Group 2. 

But Tunisia still leads the group. It 
has won all three of its games and woo 
2-1 in Namibia. 

In Nairobi, Mike Okoth Origi scored 
a second-half hat-trick to give Kenya a 
4-3 victory over Burkina Faso after 
trailing 2-0 at halftime. 

In Congo, Macchembe Younga 
struck twice in six minutes Sunday to 
give the hosts an upset 2-0 victory over 
African champions South Africa in 
Points Noire. Younga had played for his 
club, Fortuna Duesseldotf, in the Ger- 
man Bundesliga on Saturday. 

The game between Gabon and Mo- 
rocco in Libreville was abandoned in 
the 55th minute by referee Charles 
Massembe when fans rioted as Mo- 
rocco, tbe visitor, was leading 4-0. 


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38 

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y-dtadiediflvtsloa*tle 
x-cflncfied ptayoff berth 

limuhkiiilio 43 D 23 39-138 

Bosta 34 33 24 23-114 

W: Webber 1440 24 3X Hound 13-17 5-4 
31; B: WfcHey 15411-3 34 Day 8-18 5-6 24. 
BitmiMl IVriiirrtmHm 55 (Wettaar T3X- 
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NMjrncy 38 23 24 19- N 

LA: Vaugt* 10-16 04 2a Rogm 7-1 0 24 
16) N_l_ KBrtet 9-21 3-4 21 GB 7-1924 IB. 
Rahmans— Los Angetn 55 (Oudow 12X 
New Jersey 61 (Atassentxag 12X 
Asskts— Lai Angetn 2B (Rogen A, New 
Jassy 23 (Jackson 10)- 
H00MM 25 25 20 24-94 

irnornwi 23 38 24 IS— B 

H: Baridey 10-17 7-12 2a Onoder 7-w 1-2 
18S V: Reeves 9-21 5021 AbdunOMa 921 
4-622, B llQHOilfi ll miitn n 4B (DtnltViy 11), 
Vancouver 57 (Abdar-Ratitai 169. 
Axdsts — Houstae 23 09a Dmder 5X 
Vancouver 23 (MaytwnyD- 
Indtam 27 15 2B 24- M 

lltaoiiotn 17 28 25 21— B3 

I: Smlts 10-20 7-1027, AJ3aM 4-7 9-11 177 
Ht MortJUfT 8-14 OO 17. MBdwB M 8-8 IX 
ttahaonds— lruBana42CSn*tsl IX Minnesota 
46 (Cmnelt D. Assists— (neflana 22 (Jacksao 
10X Mbmesata 2S (Mahay 11X 
ddcago 29 24 30 27—110 

Oilmdo S 29 21 23-94 

c: Jordan 13-22 0937. Ptppen7-11 3-621; 
(XSetaty 0-157-1 02X Hmtknay 7-1407 21 
RMboomb— Odcago 47 (Caffey, Jonton BX 
CMaruta 42 CSeflmlyV). AMfcts— CMoagoTl 
Uontm B, Ortanao 11 (Anderson. SeikoJy, 
WMna Annskang 2X 
Utflk 33 34 29 IB— 114 

GeUwSIgfe M 29 21 27— in 

U: Makmel0-lB10.il 30 Qaertag 0-11 5- 
821; Gi: Mtdfei 7-13 2-2 16. DMaacq4-7 7- 
10 15. Reboaods — Utah 51 (MMuie 8), 
Gdden State 41 (DeQeioqO). AssWs-UWi 
37 (Stockton 13), Golden Stale 28 (Pifoa 
Booker 0. 

Seattle 23 29 18 31—101 

TnmmeiiH 26 24 31 83-113 

5e: Payton 7-13 5-6 19 Sdimnpf 4.12 8-10 
1ft PertAw 5-116-6 TRSk RUiaand919S8 
27,Wnmsan 8-123-4 19. Ri h — di S e atH e 
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S Bg Hi i w BB27 Smith q. 

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D: Harper 6-155-6 1L OanBavfc 7-13041 15 
LA: FHher 8-U 3-4 2X Jones 5-9 5-6 17. 
m bee u d i D odos 49 (Green 14), Los 
Angeles 40 (Rooks 11). AssMe-Da8as 22 
(Pads 10X Las Angeles 24 (Rooks, PWk 
H enyX 


HOCKEY 


NHLStmhmmos 


ATLANTIC DIVISION 
B IT Pk 
x-New Jenny 44 21 13 101 

x-Ptl B odelphln 44 22 12 100 

X4=lai1da S3 2B 19 85 

x-N-Y. Rangers 36 33 10 82 

TOmpaB&f 30 39 9 69 

Washington 30 40 9 69 

N.Y. btandca 28 38 12 6B 

NORTHEAST DIVtaiON 
W L T Pts 
X-Buffialo 39 27 12 90 

x-PUsbargh 37 33 8 B2 

Madnal 29 35 14 73 

Hnttafd 30 37 11 71 

Ottawa 28 36 15 71 

Boston 25 44 9 59 


2 -OoDbs 
s- Detroit 
x-Phoenlx 
SL Louis 
Chicago 
Ttmnto 


Z-Cotaroda 48 2! 

x-Anafietai 34 x 

*-Etkoonton 36 X 

Calgary 32 31 

Mmeawer 32 4 

Las Angeles 26 4 

SaiJase 26 4> 

ZHdtadwd dMSion flfle 
»dkiched ptayaff berm 


esanu. division 
«r t t Pts 

47 24 7 101 
37 24 17 91 
37 36 6 80 

33 35 11 77 

32 34 13 77 

29 U B 66 

MCMCMVHKM 
W L T PIS 

48 22 9 105 

34 33 13 01 

36 35 8 BO 
32 38 9 73 

32 40 7 71 
26 42 II 63 
26 44 B 60 


11-40-23. W- 13-11-8-3 — 35. Gaa&es: F- 
Fltzpatrtck. W-RankmL 
Chicago 1 0 1—2 

Calgary 0 1 0-1 

Hrsf Period: C-MofHJU 15 (ChcOas. Carney) 
Second period: C-fAclmis23 (TVav. Fleury) 
ThH PorMCOwBoilO (Craven) SbeiiM 
giMC-6-12-6— 24. C- 19-8-7— 34. GadtaC- 
HaeketLC-Udd. 

New Jersey 0 0 2—2 

SL Louts 8 B 0-0 

HrsT Period: None. Second Potted: None. 
ThH period: tLX-Pondaiio 4 (Pedencn. 
McKay) 2. N-L-McLkiii 26 (ZEtepukln, 
Nledemayer) (en). Shots oa goal: NJ.-5-5- 
10—20. SJ-- 7-11-9—25. GoaSes: NJ.- 
Donhom. S.L-Fuhr- 

P&eeobc 0 0 1—1 

Colorado 1 1 0-2 

FM Period: C-Ye8e 9 (Keane, RloeO Second 
Period: C-Saklc 22 (Kamensky. FORbarg) 
(pp). HM Period: P-Tkaduik 5D (Roenkk. 
Jamey) Shots an goid: p- 96-11— 2& c- 12- 
14-12—38. Soafles: P-mahtbuOn. C-Roy. 


CYCLING 


Tour of Flampcrs 

Loading flnWxKs Sunday of the IGi-mHe 

Tour of Randm cyritag doaoto. the second 
avert la Ow 1087 world Ci*r 1. Rolf 
Samoa Denmodt 6 hours 0CL40 nrinutes Z 
nedortc Moncossla Franca 5 seconds be- 
hind; X Franco Brtierini. Italy, SJL' 4 Andrei 
TchmB, Ukratna :17r 5, Deride Casorada 
ttaty, tXi 4 Ctamflo Chtappucd, Italy, sJ j 7 
Michele BortoH, Italy, s JU 8. Peter Van Pe- 
legenv Belgium, si; 9, Jo PkmckaetV flet- 
Iflum. sX; 14 Vkds|esHiv EUmav. Russia s.L 


Kiri Triplett 
Scott McCanon 
Russ Cochran 


72-68-64-72-276 

65-6971-71—276 

70-71-67-69-277 


TENNIS 


Davis Cur 


Ottawa 1 0 0—1 

PhBrinHn 1 1 0-2 

FW parted— l. P-Ittatf 21 marten) (sh). % 
0-2lHBok 12 CDadwiD Second pated-3, P- 
FaBoan 10 CPraspaL BttadAwaor) ThH 
Petted: None. Sham ea boM: O- 10-45-19. 
P- 6-97—22. CertteK O-Tuwwtt P-Heriafl. 
Ftortda D 2 1 0-3 

W rah te gl oa 1110-8 

IW Ported: W-Jobarmon 5 (Tbiordn 
Soceed Period: F-Gmpenkw 11 

(Ntoder m nyeo MoflanfayX X F-Lowry 13 
(Waidibartv Sbeppano 4 W-Hunier 13 (CDta 
MaNWiH (pg)- ThH Period: F-Haugn 9 
(Murphy; Wterenei) 4 W-Bondm 44 (Htuer. 
Mflteri oeeritawi Nona shell on go* F- 8- 


CRICKET 


W6 noPHY fluevuua 

KBIYA VS. RELAND 
MONDAY. M KUALA LUIVUR 
Kenya tattings: 2133 (50 avers) 
lietand buHngs: 208-9 150 overs) 

Result: Kenya won by seven runs 
SHMUAHCOP 
SHLAMCAVS.MIOS 1 AN 
MONDAY. IN BHAHJAH, UAE 
5d Lmka innfcigs: 251-7 (50 overs) 
PtdtWan Innings: 200 afl out (45A avers) 
RaadT: Sri Lanka awn by 51 runs 


Classic 


Landtag final scow Sunday of tha si 5 
mflhM FrtoprvtMdDerawtt Claaata. pteyed 

on thn 7 . 1 14 yart, par -72 EngltahTiYnQoHS 

County dub ooursaln Near Orleans: 

Brad Faxon 606966-69-272 

BHGtasran 71 -72-6466-275 

jesper Poraevfii 72-696066-275 


SOCCER 


Mfion l, Juventus A 

iDu in m Mi Juventus 52 poms; Parma 
46, Hw41BakVM42Sompdoria4lX l rate 
40s Roma 34 AUtan 34 Plorwtlna 3S. Vlconzo 
35 Atatonto 35L Udhwse 35; Napoli 33; PL 
acenm 27, Perugia 27; CogDari 34 Verono 1 9; 
RagghualB. 

rartirw mrrr nnminn 

Gutagamp 1, Coen 1 
Lensl.BasItal 

stMHMNdWi Monaco 6B prints; Ports St 
Germ aln 54 Nantes S3, Bostte 53. Strashourg 
S3; Bordeaux 51; Aimerre 49, L)«n 49; Melz 
47; Guingamp 44 AAontpeUer 43C Mareeflle 
41; Comes 34 Le Havre 35. Rennes 35. Lens 
35; LJBe 33; Caen 29, Nancy 29; Nice 20, 
nMUCMPWUBmUUMSH 
Liverpool 1, Coventry 2 
WEAMDOfaSa Manchester United 63 
prints Arsenal 6a Liverpool 60; Newcastle 
51 Aston vHta 5% Chrism 49, Sheffield 
Wednesday 49c Wimbledon 44 Tottenham 
42; Leeds 41; Leicester 39; Derby 34 B tack- 
bum 34 Everton 34 Sunderland 3* West 
Ham 31 Coventry » Middlesbrough tt Not- 
flngham Faest 31; Southampton 30. 

snua« FUST DtVBION 
Departlvo Coruna 1, Zomgtsa 0 
BTimpwiopi Real Madrid 72 petals 
Barcelona. 64 Real Brits 64 Deportteo 
Corona 6% Aflefico Mound 54 Aihleflc Bilbao 
44 Valtadofld 44 Real Sodedod 47i Tenerife 
44 Vrienda 43; Radng Santander 42 Cetta 
Vigo 39s Oriedo3flf Compostela 34 Sporting 
Gifan 35, Extremadura 35. Etpanmi 34 
Zaimgazn 31 Raya Vri leam 34 Hercules 24 
Logranes 24 Sevtea 26. 
mwmmm f« 

SC FmBwrg 1, VfB Stuttgart 1 
roia>eB» Bayern Munich 55 prints 
Borowta Dortmund 52; Bayer Leverkusen 51; 
VfB Stutlgart 44 Kartsroher SC 34 1860 Mu- 
nich 34 Sdwfte 04 38; VtL Bochum 37; 
Werder Bremen 35; FC Colgne 34 
MoenotengtorBiacii 32, MSV Dutebug 32; 
Hamburger SV 34 Armhila Bieieleld 3fc Ftor- 
tuna Duesseidorf 24 Hanso Rostock 27; FC 
St Paufl 24 SC FreRiwgli 

HMORIMAHSOCfU 
D.C. z New York-New Jersey 1 
Kansas Oty X Los Angela 2 
Cotarado 2, Criumbus 0 
Dados 2, San Jo» 1 
Tampa Bay 4 New England 0 

WOtUCWaOMJFTIM 

Canada 4 El Salvador 0 
Indonesia 4 Cambocia 
Kenya 4. Bmtdna Fa»3 
Liberia 1. Egypt 0 
MBtdhia l. Tunisia 2 
Angola 4 Togo 1 
Morocco 4, Gabon 0 


IN AOELAIM, AUSTRALIA 
8 MBLES 

Pat Rafter. Australia del Matin Doom. 
Czech Republic, 6-1,76 (9-7), 4-6, 44 Mark 
PhlBppouttb. AustraSa. an. David M4 
Czech RepubAc, 6-1. 6-4. 2-6. 6-4. 

DOUBLES 

Todd Waodbrldgo and Mark Woodtorde. 
Austarid. deL Martin Damm and David RteL 
Czech Repubflo 4-4 6-1. 7-4 6-4 


Mart: PftOppauais. Anshafla def. Martti 
Damm, Czech Republic. 64 6-2; 

Pat Rafter. Australia deL Derid rkl 
C zech Republic 76 (15-13), 44 6-1 
AuGtralta def. Czech Republic 56 
MFESADO, ITALY 
REVERSE StNOUES 

Catos Moya Spala deL Manta Marten, 

110*76(7-5X44,6-4 

Omar camparese. Itaty, deL ABtert Cassa 
Spate. 6-1 3-4 66. 

Italy del Spain 4-1 

M NEWPORT BEACH. CA 
REVERSE amOLES 

Andre Agassi, United States, deL Jan 
Slenwhdc, Netherlands, 36. 54 66, 6-1 44 
Jonathan start, United Stares, del. Sfeng 
Schalken, Netherlands. 64 66. 

United States del. Netherlands 4-1 


SECOND ROUND 
OROUP1 

Belgium 1 Denmark 2 
Slovakia X brod I 
Austria X Croatia 2 
Zimbabwe 4 Britain 1 

MUXOriMteMf 

SECOND ROUND 
GROUP 1 

New Zealand 4 Indonesia 0 
South Korea 4 China 1 

ORQUPt 

Pakistan 5, Singapore D 
Imn 4 Taiwan 1 
Lebanon 4 Thailand 0 

PLWOFF 

Hong Kong 4 Saudi Arabia 1 

utuicuizon 
secom ROUND 
anoupi 

ChHea Anmnttna2 
Canoda 4 Venezuela 0 

ORQUPZ 

CriambtaX PeroO 
URiguarX PoraguoyJ 

PLAYOFF 

Cuba 4 Puerto Rlat 1 
HoltlX EISakrador2 

MHEYcacuag 

SUWMY, IN MLTOH HEAD, ac. 

FUML 

MarihH Htegb ni. Swtbertma def. Mon- 
ica Setes C4). UJk, 36 6-3 76 (7-5X 

























PAGE 22 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, APRIL &, 1997 


ART BUCHWALD 


Isolated on the Net 


W ASHINGTON — The 
New York Times says 
more and more students are 
being isolated from the real 
world by computers. 

Instead of our young schol- 
ars communicating with each 
other by voice. 

■they are doing 
it via e-mail, 
through the In- 
ternet and sat- 
ellite network- 
ing. The report 
indicated that a 
great deal of 
me school spir- 
it was being 
lost to the computer. 

It isn't just schools that ate 
losing the fight for human 
contact. I've seen it happen- 
ing in newspaper editorial of- 
fices. Years ago the staff of a 
newspaper was one big happy 
family. We mingled with 
each other, we exchanged 
gossip and we swapped ideas. 
All of this stimulated creativ- 
ity. and we showed each other 
our copy as we tore it out of 
the typewriter. 

Everyone knew everybody 
else’s business. We used each 
other's ashtrays, drank coffee 
from look-alike cups and read 
each other's press releases. It 
was such an intoxicating at- 
mosphere that no one ever 
wanted to go home. 



German Networks 
Open News Chann el 

Renters 

COLOGNE — Germany's 
public TV networks launched 
the Phoenix information 
channel on Monday. 

Phoenix blends CNN -style 
coverage of breaking news 
with live broadcasts of events 
such as parliamentary debates 
in European capitals modeled 
after the C-SPAN channel in 
the United States. 


Then came the computer 
and the lights went out — 
rooms were darkened to make 
it easier for people to read the 
material on their screens. In- 
stead of staff members walk- 
ing up and down the news- 
room exchanging rumors, 
they were locked in their little 
cubicles oblivious to the out- 
side world. Editors who used 
to discuss stories with their 
reporters now sent correc- 
tions on the screen. 

□ 

Occasionally I peeked into 
a cubicle where I saw the back 
of someone's head. My con- 
cern was that he might be dead 
instead of writing a story. 

“Hey. are you O.K.?” 

Instead of replying direct- 
ly, he handed me a piece of 
paper that said, “I'll let you 
know if you hit "www.ff.- 
siefc/ “ 

Doug Wilhite had a thing 
for Sarah Haverty on the city 
desk. She sat just behind him. 
Doug typed a note to Sarah. 

“Will you have dinner 
with me?” 

She typed back. “Maybe." 

4 'What do you say we have 
Chinese?” 

“I have to check with 
Sanda Lujic. I was suppose d 
to have dinner with her and 
Pat Tomak tonight” 

Doug wrote. “I'll take a 
drive on the information 
highway and get back to 
you.” 

“Doug. I just talked to 
Sanda and I'm free.” 

“Good. I'll fax a takeout 
order to the Shanghai 
Palace.” 

“You mean we’re not go- 
ing out for dinner?" 

“We can eat at my desk. 
That way lean finish my story 
on Pierre Salinger.” 

“What are you writing 
about him?” 

“How the Internet did him 

in.” 


True Success: Another Hit With ‘Liar Liar’ 


By James Ryan 

New York Times Service 

L OS ANGELES — In hindsight the risks 
seem justifiable. Bui tbe producer Brian 
Grazer remembers feeling a little nervous 
and out of control more than a few times 
during the making of Jim Carrey’s new com- 
edy hit "Liar Liar." 

Take the day a couple of weeks before 
filming began, when Carrey and his hand- 
picked director, Tom Shady ac, asked per- 
mission to change the ending from a freeway 
chase to an airport chase. “Jim saw it in a 
dream, and then Shadyac ratified it' ' Grazer 
recalled, with a groan that resonated all the 
way to his checkbook. ‘ ‘O.K.. that's an extra 
$2 million. If it's just the star, you can 
usually talk diem out of it But when the 
director falls in — let’s rent part of LAX and 
chase the airplane down the runway on a set 
of stairs — forget it" 

There is no arguing with success, of 
course. “Liar Liar.” the story of a pre- 
varicating lawyer whose son’s birthday wish 
transforms him into a compulsive truth tell- 
er. took in nearly S70 million at the box 
office through its first 10 days, and has since 
topped the magic $100 million mark. 

Following Carrey’s career-making “Ace 
Ventura: Pet Detective” in 1994 and Eddie 
Murphy’s career- reviving “Nutty Profes- 
sor' of last summer. ‘'Liar Liar” will be 
Shadyac's third straight comedy hit, earning 
him a reputation as a comedian's director 
capable of bringing out the best in volatile, 
highly improvisational stars. His next as- 
signment will be working with Robin Wi- 
liams on “Patch Adams/’ the stray of a 
doctor who uses humor to cure patients. 

Frank Capra he is not Shadyac is the first 
to admit that not everyone will tike the broad 
humor of his first two films, which are laced 
with much sophomoric sexual innuendo and 
many scatological references and bodily 
functions. 

His formula for success is simple, Shady- 
ac said, isolate what a comedian does best, 
and showcase it. “If you can cast another 
person in the role, you haven't tailored the 
movie right. If you could walk Jim Carrey 
out and substitute Tom Hanks or Robin 
Williams and they could do it just as well, 
you haven’t done your job properly.” 
Grazer, the producer, said Shadyac did 
just that with Carrey, leading him to hire tbe 
director for “The Nutty Professor.” “When 
I saw ‘Ace Ventura,’ I recognized that Tom 



was the architect figuring out tbe best plan to 
tap Jim Carrey's genius/* 

But just as important, perhaps. Shadyac 
has a talent for managing the high energy of 
improvisational comics tike Carrey. 

“Jim is so intense, so powerful so com- 
mitted, it's almost like being around this 
radioactive machine that's about to ex- 
plode," said the actress Swoosie Kurtz, who 
plays Carrey's courtroom adversary in “Liar 
Liar." “Tom is very sensitive to his rimin g 
and energy, but he’s also firm. He can say, 
‘No, Jim, we’ve got it/ I don’t think very 
many directors could handle him. " 

With “ Liar Liar," Shadyac and Carrey 
agreed that they wanted to show off a kinder, 
gentler, more mature side of the comedian's 
talents while holding on to his following of 
adolescent filmgoers. 

The trick was to channel the actor’s mani c 
energy into a fresh performance. A 38-year- 
old former stand-up comic himself, the di- 
rector seems to have an intuitive under- 
standing of how best to showcase a comic’s 
talent on screen. Shadyac agrees that with 
Carrey it's often a matter of containing rather 
than urging him on. “Jim is like this churn- 


ing. tempestuous sea." he said. “I feel tike 
the funnel for that.” 

The director, who comes from a large, 
close-knit Lebanese family in Falls Church, 
Virginia, said that be and Carrey bad also 
become friends off screen, Shadyac taking 
on the role of big brother helping Carrey 
cope with his startling success. 

Before Shadyac's involvement, several 
other directors attached to “Ace Ventura" 
had refused even to consider Carrey for the 
role. “There was this perception that he was 
just a TV guy/* Shadyac said. (A cast mem- 
ber of “In Living Color” on the Fox Net- 
work, Carrey had failed to shine in several 
lesser film roles in the ‘80s, including 
“Peggy Sue Got Married’ ’ and * ‘Earth Girls 
Are Easy/’) 

But Shadyac. during bis own years as a 
comic, had seen Carrey’s stand-up routine at 
the Improv. “I thought if anyone could tap 
into that, they could hit a home run." be 
said. 

Once “Ace Ventura” was completed, 
nobody was quite sure what they had on their 
hands. 

The first screening for Morgan Creek Pro- 


ductions executives fell “flal 
Shadyac said. “There was, I one 

laugh.” he added- * ‘We were scared. Jim^d 
I didn’t sleep for a couple of weeks. We 
potentially had a bomb that would stink so 
much, reincarnation becomes your only 
hope for revitalizing your career. _ . 

Test screenings with the teenage target 
audience fared better. And the movie became 
a sizable hit. beginning Carrey s meteoric 

IXSC» 

What makes Shadyac’s back-to-teck-to- 

back successes more unusual is *ai he didn t 

even know be wanted to be a director until 
eight years ago. The son of a lawyer and a 
bomemaker,Shadyac, who lives m Beverly 

r . ofror o ra nnafmo 


for Bob Hope. Stand-up and screen writing 

followed. ^ ... 

Then, at the age of 29. after watchmz a 
program of student short films, he decided to 
enroll in the graduate film program at the 
University of California. Los Angeles. 

■ “Nothing had really clicked for me.” he 
said, until the first day of shooting on Ins own 
short. As he crouched out of the camera’s 
range under a sink in a UCLA restroom, it 
came to him: “Oh. my God, this is what I’m 
going to do for the rest of my life.” 

That film. 41 Tom, Dick and Harry /’ about 
a bridegroom-to-be, landed him an agent and 
eve ntually led to an assignment to rewrite 
and direct a Fox television movie “Franken- 
stein: The College Years.” 

S had yac. of course, isn't tbe only director 
to tap Carrey’s abilities successfully. The 
elastic comedian found success with the live- 
action cartoon “The Mask” in 1994, dir- 
ected by Diaries Russell, and shined as the 
Riddler in Joel Schumacher’s “Batman 
Forever." 

But Carrey’s most recent film. “Tbe 
Cable Guy," directed by Ben Stiller ami 
released last year, was a box-office dis- 
appointment, in part, many critics said, be- 
cause of its dark tone and inability to cap- 
italize on the comedian’s strengths. - 

" ‘Cable Guy’ had come and gone by the 
time we started shooting." Shadyac said. 

“It made me personally want to be strong 
with Jim and make sure we brought out the 
guy with the smile. Jim . can remember that 
ever since a Jdd if be walked into tbe room 
and didn’t have a smile on his face people 
would say, ‘What’s wrong with Jim?’ ’ ’ 

“ ‘Cable Guy/ " Shadyac said, “didn’t 
have the smile.” 






PEOPLE 


i'cil Munna/AP 

Elton John in his mile-high wig. 


W ITH not even their parents 
watching. Liam Gallagher, 
star of the rock band Oasis, and the 
actress Patsy Kensit married 
secretly Monday in a civil cere- 
mony, his record company said. 
The wedding — his first and her 
third — followed a false start on 
Feb. 10, when they canceled their 
wedding because of what they 
called “obsessive and intrusive” 
media. “It was totally, totally 
private with just them and the reg- 
istrar,” said Johnny Hopkins, 
spokesman for Creation Records, 
announcing that the couple had 
married at London’s Westminster 
Registry Office. “They don't want 
a party because it will be turned into 
a media circus.” Kensit's second 
wedding, to Jhn Kerr of the group 
Simple Minds, in 1 992. turned into 
a near riot when photographers 
clashed with bodyguards ami guests 
outside the registry office. 

□ 

The poet Allen Ginsberg was 


remembered Monday by several 
hundred mourners — among them 
the punk poet Patti Smith and 
Ginsberg’s longtime companion 
Peter Orlovsky — sitting shoeless 
on tbe floor of a Buddhist med- 
itation center before a shrine of 
candles, fruit and flowers. The 
poet, who died Saturday at age 70. 
was a practicing Buddhist. Gins- 
berg’s body lay in a coffin draped 
with a yellow, red and white silk 
flag bearing the image of the sun. 
Hie memorial service was held at 
the Shambhala Meditation Center 
on the sixth floor of a New York 
City office building. 

□ 

Elton John’s 50th birthday cos- 
tume party caused chaos with its 
long lines of limousines and other 
VIP cars as tbe area near one of west 
London's busiest intersections be- 
came gridlocked. Tbe Rocket Man 
stunned spectators outside Lon- 
don's Hammersmith Palais when he 
arrived in the back of a white gar- 


bage truck, whose interior had been 
decked out with gilt mirrors and rich 
red wallpaper to look like a Res- 
toration drawing room. Hundreds of 
fans shrieked as John, wearing a 
towering silver-white wig, was 
gently lowered to die sidewalk. 

□ 

The Spanish Nobel laureate 
Camflo Jose Cela predicts drat in 
2,000 years the world's population 
will use four languages — Arabic, 
Spanish, English and Chinese — 
while the others survive only as 
regional dialects or in love poetry. 
Cela is in Mexico this week for the 
First International Congress on the 
Spanish Language. 

□ 

Princess Diana is getting richer, 
while her former mother-in-law. 
Queen Elizabeth II, is not Tbe 
Sunday Times doesn’teven include 
Prince Charles, Diana's ex, on its 
annual list of Britain's richest 1,000 
people. To get on the list at alL you 


need about £15 million ($24 mil- 
lion), and Diana just made it — 
debuting at No. 916. Philip Beres- 
ford. who compiles the list from 
media reports, company accounts, 
trust funds and other documents, 
based Diana's estimate on the 
lower end of her divorce settlement 
last year, reportedly $25 milli on to 
$33 million. The queen dropped to 
$400 million from $656 million. 

□ .. 

A German photographer hoping 
to get hundreds of Berliners to pose 
naked in front of the city’s Bran- 
denburg Gate had to settle for a 
more modest project when only 
two volunteers appeared. Manfred 
Schonlau, who was detained and 
fined by police in Cologne recently 
when he attempted a similar project 
in front of the cathedral there, pho- 
tographed a man and a woman 
wearing only fig leaves, while the 
police concentrated on 
some 300 spectators from blc 
traffic. 


correspondent Andrea Mitchell 
the Federal Reserve chairman, arriving at The 
Little Washington, Virginia, before their wedding.. 


1ST? L • 
sals:. - 

. 

3 : 


stays mainly in the plain. 


Steps to follow for easy tailing worldwide 

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