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r-„. 




INTERNATIONAL 



PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


V The World’s Daily Newspaper 


Paris, Friday, April 18, 1997 



No. 35A99 





mart: 


Words Are the Way 

In Year One, Hearing Talk Shapes Mind 


By Sandra Blakeslee 

New York Tima Service 


Scientists have found dim the neur- 
ological foundations for rational 
thinking, problem solving and gen- 
eral reasoning appear to be largely 
established by age 1 — long before 
babies show any signs of knowing an 
abstraction from a pacifier. 

Furthermore, new studies are 
showing that spoken language has an 
astonishing impact on an infant’s 
brain development In fact, some re- 
searchers say the number of words an 
infant hears each day is the single 
most important predictor of later ra- 
te Hi gence. school success and social 
competence. 

There is one catch — ■ the words 
have to come from an attentive, en- 
gaged human being. As fax as anyone 
has been able to determine, radio and 
television do not work. 

“We now know that neural con- 
nections are formed very early in life 
and that the infant’s bram is literally 
waiting for experiences to determine 
how connections are made,’ 1 said Pa- 
tricia Kuhl, a neuroscientist at the 
University of Washington in Seattle. 

“We didn’t realize until very re- 
cently bow early this process be- 
gins,'' she said in a telephone in- 
terview. “For example, infants have 
learned the sounds of their native lan- 
guage by the age of six months. ” 

This relatively new view of infant 


brain development; supported by 
many scientists, has obvious political 
and social implications. It suggests 
that infants and babies need not only a 
loving, bat talkative and articulate 
caretaker, and that a more verbal fam- 
ily will increase an infant’s chances 
for success. 

It challenges some deeply held be- 
liefs — that i nfants will thrive in- 
tellectually if they are simply given 
lots of love and that efforts to pur- 
posely influence the cognitive devel- 
opment of babies are harmful. 

If the period from birth to 3 is 
crucial, parents may assume a more 
critical role in a child’s intellectual 
development than teachers, which is 
sure to provoke new debates about 
parental responsibility, said Irving 
Laz ar, a professor of special edu- 
cation and resident scholar at the Cen- 
ter for Research in Human Devel- 
opment at Vanderbilt University in 
Nashville, Tennessee. 

The idea that early experience 
shapes human potential is not new, 
said Harry Chugani, a pediatric neur- 
ologist at Wayne State University in 
Detroit and rate of the scientists whose 
research has shed light on critical peri- 
ods in child brain development 

What is new is the extent of the 
research in the field known as cog- 
nitive neuroscience and the resulting 
synthesis of findings on the influence 

See BRAIN, Page 6 



V iLl>ir t'Kiiii^ 

Chancellor Helmut Kohl, right, helping President Boris Yeltsin down from the Baden-Baden podium Thursday. 

Yeltsin Signals He’ll Sign NATO Pact 


By Alan Cowell 

New York Tima Service 


AGENDA 


Netanyahu Rejects Calls to Resign 


Prime Minister Benjamin Netan- 
yahu, facing calls to resign because of 
a possible indictment in an influence- 
peddling scandal, said Thursday he 
had no plans to leave office. 

“This government is not going 
anywhere, Mr. Netanyahu told a.- 


here today to tell you we will continue 
' to lead the state of Israel until they ear 
- 2000, and even beyond 2000!*’ 

The police have recommended Mr. 
Netanyahu be charged with fraud and 
breadi of trust The state prosecutor is 
expected todeddeby Monday wheth- 
w te> «tt d io t ki M r.Pa ge» 6. -*£*«*■. 


U.S. Awaits Response From Pyongyang 


WASHINGTON (Reuters*— De- 
spite Pyongyang's demands, no new 
food aid pledges are expected until 
North Korea responds conclusively to 
a proposal for Korean Peninsulapeace 
talks, U.S. officials said Thursday. 

They said the North had begun a 
crucial meeting in New York on Wed- 


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nesday by accepting a U.S. -South 
Korean proposal far peace niks, but 
then conditioned that position with 
new demands for international assist- 
ance to meet severe food shortages. 

As a result, “we don’t have a 
deal,’’ an official said. 

. Earlier article , Page 4. 


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BADEN-BADEN, Germany — Pres- 
ident Boris Yeltsin of Russia gave his 
firmest public commitment to date 
Thursday that he would sign an agree- 
ment with Western leaders in Paris on 
May 27 permitting the eastward ex- 
pansion of NATO into areas once part of 
the defunct Warsaw Pact 
The pledge alleviated uncertainty that 
the signing would be pot off because of 
disputes over military aspects of the 


agreement, and seemed designed to in- 
crease pressure in negotiations between 
Moscow and the Western alliance. 

Mr. Yeltsin also moved Thursday to 
ease the bitter strains between Russia 
and Germany over Brain’s demands for 
the return of priceless an works, archives 
and cultural assets looted by the Red 
Army as Nazi Germany collapsed in 
1945. As a “gesture of friendship,” Mr. 
Yeltsin said ne had brought with him 
part of the archives of Waliher Rathenau, 
a German politician in die 1 920s. 

After a meeting with Chancellor 


Helmut Kohl in this spa rown. Mr. 
Yeltsin and Mr. Kohl said the agreement 
setting out the future security relation- 
ship between Russia and an expanded 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
would be negotiated by the May 27 
target dale. 

Both men indicated, however, that a 
crucial pan of the proposed agreement 
covering military deployments remained 
to be concluded and diat Mr. Kohl had 
pledged to use his influence among 

See YELTSIN, Page 6 


Nazi Plunder Sets Off Fight in Russia 


. Michael R. Gordon , : 

New York Tune* Service ' 

MOSCOW — Id a drab concrete 
building just off the road to Shere- 
metyevo Airport lies a huge trove of 
European history. 

It includes papers seized by the So- 
viet Army from the Nazis, who looted 
Europe’s capitals during World War II. 
Among the papers are everything from 
the French government’s most private 
memorabilia to documents captured 
from the Nads themselves. 

Now, the fate of these archives and 
the “trophy art ’’looted by the Nazis has 
become die focus of a white-hot polit- 


ical debate here, with nationalists de- 
manding that Russia keep the material 
for itself. 

After months of hand-wringing over 
NATO expansion, the issue has 
emerged as one of Russia's most vexing 
foreign policy quandaries. 

Although much of the attention has 
focused on the stolen art, officials at the 
archive said their files had a lasting 
importance to the nations from which 
they were taken. 

“The historical significance is gi- 
gantic,” said Mansur Mukhamedzhan- 
ov, chief archivist of the document col- 
lection. “It is like an excursion to the 
capitals of Western Europe. Just sitting 


here, you can have a complete picture of 
the economic situation, diplomacy and 
culture in these countries during the first 
half of the century." 

Nationalists in Russia’s raucous Par- 
liament appear less interested in 
strengthening ties with Germany than in 
trying to even the score for the Soviet 
property and lives lost in the war. 

“They annihilated 26 million Rus- 
sian citizens and we have to pay them?" 
Vladimir Zhirinovksy. the Russian ul- 
tranationalist leader, exclaimed. 

The issue has a long and tangled 
histoiy . During World War II, Germany 

See LOOT, Page 6 


Dole Lends 
Gingrich 
$300,000 
To Pay Fine 

Speaker Cites ‘ Duty 9 
To Use Personal 
Funds for Penalty 


By Brian Knowlton 

Imernoiionul HrralJ Tribune 

WASHINGTON — Newt Gingrich, 
the speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. said Thursday that he would 
use a persona] loan of $300,000 from 
Bob Dole, the 1996 Republican pres- 
idential candidate, to pay an unprece- 
dented penalty to the House of Rep- 
resentatives. 

He said he hoped by doing so to put a 
lingering ethics case to rest. 

The announcement, made in a na- 
tionally televised session of the House, 
came as a surprise. Mr. Gingrich had 
said that he would raiher quit than use 
his own funds to make the payment. 

The White House carefully avoided 
making any comment. 

Analysts said the announcement 
might bolster Mr. Gingrich's political 
rehabilitation. 

“He’s pretty much put the fine issue 
behind him.” Thomas Mann, director of 
governmental studies at the Brookings 
Institution, said. “By taking respon- 
sibility — even indirectly — for the 
penalty, he's met the immediate threat 
to his leadership.” 

Mr. Gingrich's generally vigorous 
leadership of House Republicans, a 
roller-coaster ride of many peaks and 
valleys, has been roiled since 1995 by 
ethics charges, mostly tied to his en- 
ergetic use of nonprofit foundations to 
fuel his political career. The ethics 
charges, all brought by Democrats, were 
an increasingly serious distraction as he 
sought to push his party's conservative 
agenda and craft a Republican revival. 

He told the House on Thursday that he 
felt a “moral obligation” to pay the 
$300,000 penalty using personal funds, 
rather than campaign funds or donations 
from supporters. He said he did not want 
to be seen as * ‘one more politician shirk- 
ing his duty.” The Georgia Republican 
said he and his wife, Marianne, had de- 
cided that, "whatever the consequences, 
we had to do what was best, what was 
right, morally and spiritually.” 

Much of the Gingriches’ assec are 
held jointly or in Marianne Gingrich’s 
name. She was known to be against die 
use of their personal funds to pay what 
she considered a politically motivated 
fine. “Marianne and I have spent hours 

See GINGRICH, Page 6 


New Hong Kong Editor: 
He Edits What, Exactly? 


By Edward A. Gargan 

New York Tuna Service 

HONG KONG. — As concerns grow 
ver C hina 's intrusion into Hong 
tong's way of life, the territory's lead- 
fig English-language newspaper. The 
louth China Morning Post has quiedy 
ired a senior Chinese editor and in- 
tailed him in an office across from die 
ditor's, a position some at the paper 
escribe as “political commissar.” 

The arrival of the Cbinesejoumalist, 
* a s of- 


paper, who 
identified. “ 


eng Xiliang, founder of 
cial English-language paper, The 
hina Daily, comes at a time of in- 
casing concern among journalists and 
i any in Hong Kong over the rade- 

indence of Hong Kong’s press and the 
rowing practice of self-censorship m 

"vJehave little idea what Mr. Feng is 
Ding to do.” said a senior editor at the 


that he not be 
be pulling strings behind 
the scenes, screening stories, changing 
headlines?” 

The paper’s editor, Jonathan Fenby, 
described Mr. Feng as a consultant. 

“He’s doing various tilings for the 
paper,” Mr. Fenby said, “aid one of 
those things does have to do with ed- 
itorial. But it’s not vetting. I don ’t want to 
give it away for competitive reasons." 

Robert Kwok, a Malaysian tycoon 
who sits on the Beijrng-appointed body 
that is charting Hong Kong’s fixture, 
bought The Morning Post from Rupert 
Murdoch several years ago. 

Last year the paper dismissed a car- 
toonist whose strip satirized Deng 
Xiaoping- The strip, “The World of 
Lily Wong,” was pulled in the middle 


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the sale of organs 
Chinese prisoners. 

Also test year, Mr. Kwok 
onto the paper’s board of (Erectors Sir 
Percy Cradock, a former British Foreign 
Office official and a virulent critic of the 
expansion of democracy undertaken in 
Hong Kong by the test British governor, 
Chris Patten. 

The Morning Post, while consistently 
uncharitable toward Mr. Patten, has not 
been uniformly uncritical of China. Last 
week, when China's appointee to run 
Hong Kong after July 1 announced 
plans to restrict civil liberties. The Post 
questioned tbe move. 

Aiwther, editor at Tbe Post, who de- 
clined to be named, conceded tint the 

See EDITOR, Page 6 


East Germany Sputters 
As West Germany Pays 


By Edmund L. Andrews 

New York Tima Service 

LEIPZIG, Germany — For a place 
that is essentially bankrupt, the former 
East Germany looks, for all the world, 
like it’s booming. 

Since the Berlin Wall fell in late 
1989, half of the homes in Eastern 
Germany have been renovated. 
Schools and museums, parks and play- 
grounds, factories and power plants 
have been showered with money. 

The Trabant, the cramped, smoke- 
belching car that came to symbolize 
everything people hated about the old 
Communist regime, is all but extinct, 
now replaced by millions of shiny 
Volkswagens, BMWs and Mercedes- 
Benzes. 

Eastern Germany — with an eco- 
nomic output last year of $230 billion 
— : now has twice as many malls per 
resident as Western Germany. 

It has 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers) 
of new highways, 2,800 miles of new 
railroad track and one of the world’s 
best telephone systems. 

To pay for all this, tbe German gov- 
ernment and private companies have 
written checks for about SI trillion. 

Nowhere has all that money had 
more impact than in this historic city 
80 miles southwest of Berlin. Smartly 
dressed men and women eat and shop 
in the exquisitely renovated Ait Deco 


downtown district. Gold-painted 
sculptures adorn the renovated 
Baroque facade of the Commerzbank 
branch. 

The once -crumbling skyline now 
blazes with office towers and luxury 
hotels. And just out of town are a 
gleaming new international airport, a 
$1 billion convention center and a $1J 
billion cargo-handling facility. 

Since 1990, the German govern- 
ment in Bonn has given more than 
$600 billion to its former Eastern rival 
through business subsidies, tax breaks 
and support payments for individuals. 
Enticed by the tax breaks and sub- 
sidies, companies have invested $500 
billion more. 

But fra all the cash thrown at Eastern 
Germany, the economy remains fun- 
damentally bankrupt. Even as wages 
have skyrocketed in a rush to catch up 
with those in the West, there are not 
nearly enough real jobs to go around. 
Unemployment is at 25 percent, 
growth has almost ground to a halt, 
output per worker is still half of what it 
is in Western Germany, and exports are 
minuscule. 

“Never before in history has one 
country spent so much money building 
pyramids,” Norbert Walter, chief 
economist at Deutsche Bank in Frank- 
furt. said. “There has been a tremen- 

See EAST, Page 12 



tftot Ne* Yurt Tuna 

Eastern Germany’s new gloss: a shopping mall in former East Berlin. 


U.S. Firms Find Mine of Opportunity in Rebel Zaire 


By Cindy Shiner 

Washington Post Service 


GOMA, Zaire — American companies are leading 
rite race into rebel-held areas of Zaire to exploit the 
country’s mineral wealth and rebuild its collapsed 
infrastructure — a major shift alter years of European 
domination in Africa’s largest French-speaking coun- 
try-. . . 

Miners, bankas, lawyers and communications 
companies have been courting the rebel alliance led by 
Laurent Kabila, a former Marxist who has embraced a 


free-market economy and pledges to overthrow the 
government of President Mobutu Sese Seko. Mr. 
Kabila's forces have captured almost half of Zaire in 
the six mouths since their armed rebellion began. 

The Americans’ inroads into Mr. Kabila’s expand- 

Where did the Treasury’s money go? Page L 

rag domain became particularly apparent Thursday 
when America Mineral Fields Inc. signed a $1 billion 
contract with the rebel alliance. The company, based in 


President Bill Clinton's home town of Hope, Arkan- 
sas, plans to explore southern Zaire's copper and 
cobalt deposits, create the world’s largest zinc smelter 
and build a plant to produce acid for refining. 

Under the deal, deposits and mines controlled by 
Zaire’s state-owned mining company, Gecamines, 
would be upgraded and exploited by the American 
company in a joint venture with the rebels. America 
Mineral Fields would control 51 percent of the ven- 
ture, and Mr. Kabila's Alliance of Democratic Forces 

See MINES, Page 6 







PAGE mo 


Good-Bye , Arranged Marriages /Hello, Dating Agencies 


What’s Love Got to Do With It? Koreans Ask 


By Sheryl WuDunn 

Mm i'pri Times Service 

P UNDANG, South Korea 
— At her Sunday church 
group. Park Sung Hee of- 
ten drew hopeful glances 
from admirers, and at school re- 
unions she would leave with a 
handful of invitations for an even- 
ing out. 

But when it was time to marry, 
she wanted a proper introduction. 
So Miss Park, now a 28-year-old 
teacher, cast aside the name cards 
and turned instead to a dating 
service. 

“I just had a feeling that I 
wanted to get married. ' ’ said Miss 
Park, who now lives in this com- 
fortable bedroom community 
outside Seoul with her husband, 
Koh Hyung. “And I wanted to 
know die profile of the man I 
would meet and what position he 
holds in the family.” 

Many Koreans like Miss Park 
are reluctant to kiss a lot of frogs 
in hopes that one will become a 
prince. It used to be that South 
Korea's marriageable young 
would sit back and wait for their 
parents to strike a union for them 
that would last a lifetime — and 
often the bride and groom did not 
meet until their wedding day. 

Those days of arranged nup- 
tials are now gone and people are 
increasingly turning to marriage 
partners found by daring agencies 
as well as parents and colleagues. 
Of course daring agencies exist all 
over the world, but those in South 
Korea are less about finding ro- 
mance than about discovering the 
perfectly appropriate spouse. 

A ND WHILE Western - 
izarion is influencing 
patterns of courtship in 
South Korea. the 
Shakespearean love tryst is still a 
foreign fantasy for many. Sure 
enough, the heavens do play their 
role, though not in quite the same 
way as in the West, and the dif- 
ferences underscore a distinct vi- 
sion here of what marriage is all 
about. 

For starters, although a little 
more love and expression have 


slipped into the calculations of 
marriage, a match made under the 
stars is still rarely left to chance or 
even just plain love. 

Indeed, only 20 percent of 
South Koreans marry just for 
love, said Lee Kwang Kyu. an 
anthropologist at Seoul National 
University. The rest are “half- 
half' marriages, in which 
couples come to love each other 
after their match has been orches- 
trated through parents, relatives, 
matchmakers or daring services. 

Many South Koreans still be- 
lieve that marriage is not so much 
a union between two individuals 
as it is between two families, so 
that the in-laws have to get along. 

Moreover, among the crucial 
tests for a fortunate marriage are 
matching birth dates, zodiac signs 
and the elemental characteristics 
of a person like wood, fire, water, 
earth, wood and gold. 


F! 


OR INSTANCE, tradi- 
tion warns that a man bom 
in the year of a mouse 
would not warn to marry a 
woman bom in the year of a tiger 
if there is to be harmony in the 
marriage. And if his elemental 
sign is wood, be would not be 
compatible with a woman whose 
sign is fire. 

Then, of course, matching so- 
cial status is crucial to marriages 
in South Korea, particularly 
among this country's stylish pro- 
fessionals. 

So computerized daring ser- 
vices, which take in all sorts of 
data on a candidate's background, 
are doing a booming business, 
luring doctors, lawyers, account- 
ants. engineers and the sons and 
daughters of Korea's prominent 
personalities. 

“In the past, people from the 
village would bring together men 
and women, but ever since apart- 
ment buildings started going up. 
the concept of the village has died 
out and there are no more village 
get-togethers," said Cha II Ho. 
56. who runs Pangbae Matrimo- 
nial Agency. ‘■These days people 
are so busy they hardly have time 
to do introductions. And often 
when thev do. the two sides don't 



Shenl UuDumvTV \rv Wfc 71mm 


Park Sung Hee and the husband she found through a dating agency, Koh Hyung, in their home. 


really know what kind of person 
they are meeting.” 

Mr. Cha's dating agency, 
where more than 4,000 members 
paid 200,000 won (about 5230} to 
join, hires investigators to check 
into people's backgrounds — 
their schooling, work experience 
and family background. Then, if a 
couple gets married through the 
agency, the bride and groom each 
pay him a thank-you fee of about 
51,100. 

By some accounts, daring ser- 
vices still bring to fruition per- 
haps only about 20 percent of 
marriages in South Korea. As for 
the rest, nearly everyone, in ad- 
dition to the professionals, 


dabbles in matchmaking. 

Lee Bum Jun, a 27-year-old 
insurance salesman, recently set 
up his first match between a fel- 
low office worker and a friend of 
his sister's, though he is anxious 
about the results. 

“I try to avoid arranging 
matches,” Mr. Lee said. “If they 
work well, it's O.K. But if it 
doesn't work out, then I feel un- 
comfortable.” 

Traditionally. South Koreans 
often relied on professionals, re- 
ferred to in Korean as “Madame 
Chu.” These busybody socialites 
pair up promising young sons 
with the daughters of socialites 
and wealthy families. 


But recently, Madame Chu 
matchmakers have been suffering 
a blow to their reputation, partly 
because they've been caught 
makin g a few bad matches. 

Cha Yun Jung, Mr. Cha's 26- 
year-old daughter whom he mar- 
ried off to a bright young man who 
approached his dating service, told 
of one trick used by a particular 
Madame Chu: One of Miss Cha’s 
friends was paid by a matchmaker 
to pose as a potential candidate 
and meet a number of suitors, even 
though she bad no intention of 

marry ing at that time. 

“Madame Chu,” Cha Yun 
Jung said, “well, sometimes they 
tell Ties.” 


In Zaire, No Respect for the Rules Governing Corruption 


By Howard W. French 

Ne*- York Times Service 

• KINSHASA, Zaire — Two 
immutable laws seem to have 
governed the behavior of 

K ublic officials throughout 
fobucu Sese Seko’s 31 -year 
hold on power here: First, 
those who make their for- 
tunes in high office shall not 
condemn others who do like- 
wise, and second, ill-gotten 
gains must be generously 
shared with higher-ups. 

But when Zaire's former 
prime minister. Leon Kengo 
wa Dondo, fled this country 
for Switzerland the other day, 
leaving the treasury empty, 
both of those laws were 
broken. 

No one was surprised to 
hear that Mr. Kengo had been 
accused of stealing large 
sums of money, but they were 
shocked to hear that members 


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of Marshal Mobutu’s govern- 
ment were the ones to lodge 
the accusation. Marshal 
Mobutu has long been re- 
puted to be one of the world’s 
richest politicians and theft 
has been a way of life during 
his rule. 

In making the accusation, 
Kin-kiey Mulumba, the infor- 
mation minister, said: “Each 
time a Zairian buys a liter of 
gas, each time he buys a cig- 
arette, be pays something for 
the war effort. There was an 
account where this money 
was supposed to be. This 
money has to be someplace, 
but we haven't seen any of 
it" 

Foreign diplomats and 
former officials say that the 
accusations by Marshal 
Mobutu's latest government 
set the stage for a frenzy of 
score-settling during the col- 
lapse of a system built on 
greed and easy money. 

For his part Mr. Kengo is- 
sued a communique from 
Switzerland on Wednesday, 
denying that he had stolen 
state funds and pledging to 
return home to clear his name 
as soon as he completes a 
health checkup. 

That prospect seems un- 
likely, given lhar the rebels of 
Laurent Kabila seem poised 
to take Kinshasa and since 
Marshal Mobutu himself ap- 
parently approved of the pub- 


lic accusations against Mr. 
Kengo. 

Marshal Mobutu. 66. con- 
tinues to cling to office as 
advanced prostate cancer 
wracks his body and the 
rebels advance toward the 
capital. 

“This comes straight from 
the president, who, figurat- 
ively speaking, has a honor of 
dying alone.” said a senior 
aide to Mr. Kengo, who re- 
mains faithful to him. "They 
say it is not right to shoot at an 
ambulance. But Zaire has 
never been well governed, 
and our disease started at the 
top, with Mobutu, who has 
stolen more money than any- 
one.” 

Mr. Kengo, who, by the 
time be left office last month 
was easily Zaire's least pop- 
ular politician, became prime 
minister in June 1994. The 
West insisted that only by 
naming Mr. Kengo. who was 


K to bringing down the 
jit annual inflation 
rate, restoring civil servants’ 
unpaid salaries and leading 
Zaire into elections, could 
Marshal Mobutu emerge 
from diplomatic quarantine. 

In fact, none of these ob- 
jectives were remotely at- 
tained. Instead, those who de- 
nounce Mr. Kengo say fear he 
grew richer as fee state dis- 
integrated. 

The Kinshasa press is spec- 
ulating about an international 
arrest warrant for Mr. Kengo 
feat would accuse him not 
only of raiding the treasury 
but also of siphoning off tax 
revenues and trafficking in 
currency printed under dubi- 
ous circumstances. 

What is surprising is that 
not only Marshal Mobutu but 
also fee West continued to 
support a man of whom one 
senior Western diplomat here 
once said, “when he steals he 


Mobutu and Zaire Rebel Agree 
To Meet for Talks on Transition 

Reuiers 

CAPE TOWN — President Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire and 
fee rebel leader, Laurent Kabila, have agreed in principle to Even more important, 
meet for talks, fee United Nations’ special envoy on Zaire though, according, to those 


steals big," until Zaire's 
war and fee president's 
cause were obviously 
lost. 

Wednesday, that dip- 
lomat said of Mr. Kengo 
only that in a political 
class wife many dem- 
agogues and hustlers he 
“represented fee best bet 
for fee interim.” 

Kami tarn Etsu. fee 
head of a public opinion 
research group in Kin- 
shasa, said: “ft has been 
two years since people 
began complaining about 
Kengo, but nobody 
wanted to listen. Eveiy 
time Mobutu wanted to 
remove Kengo, in fact, 
the West would raise fee 
prospect of diplomatic 
isolation.” 

To understand the 
bonds feat united Mr. Kengo 
and Marshal Mobutu, 
however, one must go beyond 
diplomatic pressure to look at 
Mr. Kengo s gradual ascen- 
sion. As a man of mixed Pol- 
ish and Rwandan Tutsi origin, 
Mr. Kengo offered Marshal 
Mobutu fee all-important as- 
surance that, as a foreigner, he 
could never seek to replace 
feepresidem. 

Even mo 


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announced Thursday. 

“The outcome we have today is fee agreement in principle 
by the two parties to meet at the highest level” to discuss 
transitional arrangements, Mohammed Sahnoun told a news 
conference. 

Deputy Foreign Affairs Minister Aziz Pahad of South Africa 
said feat President Nelson Mandela had formally invited 
Marshal Mobutu to meet Mr. Kabila for talks in South Africa 
and that these would take place without preconditions set by 
either side. 

It was not clear when the meeting might be held. 

Mr. Sahnoun said fee foes had agreed that fee ultimate goal 
of fee talks process should be elections for Zaire, part of a joint 
declaration issued by fee rivals after talks in South Africa 
earlier this month. 

The invitation was conveyed to Marshal Mobutu on 
Thursday by his envoy. Honore Ngbanda. who returned home 
after talks wife Mr. Mandela on Wednesday, Mr. Pahad said. 

Mr. Kabila also returned to Zaire on Thursday from Cape 
Town after talks in South Africa wife Mr. Mandela. 

Earlier, Mr. Mandela told reporters he was confident of a 
negotiated peace in Zaire, where Mr. Kabila’s rebel alliance 
holds half fee country and has been demanding Marshal 
Mobutu's resignation. 


who know both men, are the 
ties of immense wealth 


Lima Crisis Drags 
Into Its 5th Month 

No Release in Sight for 72 Hostages 


* 


Complied bfOw Stiff FimDiq&dtit 

LIMA — Peru's hostage 
standoff entered its fifth 
month Thursday, wife hopes 
for fee safe release of 72 cap- 
tives pinned on behind-the- 
scenes talks between the main 
players. 


But both Mr. Fujimori and 
Mr. Cerpa say they are will- 
ing to wait as long as possible 
jo get the best deal. 

While the rebel assault on 
the residence on Dec. 17 
astounded the world and 
dominated headlines in its 


More than 17 weeks after a early weeks, fee region and } 

Is interest dissipated as it be- 7 


band of jungle-trained rebels 
burst into a lavish cocktail 
party at fee Japanese ambas- 
sador’s residence in Lima, 
Peru's Episcopal Conference 
described the siege as “an 
open wound that hurts fee 
whole coon try.” 

A three-man ream oversee- 
ing Talks is continuing its 
daily shuttle diplomacy be- 
tween fee government and fee 
rebels from the Tupac Amaru 
Movement. The meetings 
have led to some speculation 
that the announcement of a 
negotiated settlement is im- 
minent 

But a poll published this 
week showed feat most Per- 
uvians thought the standoff 
could drag on for months 
more. 

“It’s idle to bet either 
way," a Western diplomat 
said. “At this stage it’s just 
impossible to say when this 
could end. No one would ever 
have imagined it going on this 
long in fee first place.” 

The main sticking point re- 
mains fee rebels' demand for 
the release of hundreds of 
jailed comrades. President 
Alberto Fujimori has publicly 
ruled out this demand, al- 
though people close to the 
talks suggest fee government 


came clear feat it was in 
neither side's interest to harm 
fee hostages. 

The Tupac Amaru rebels, 
who have mined and booby- 
trapped fee diplomatic com- 
pound, initially seized more 
tfi*n 500 guests at (he party 
but quickly released most. 
They hung onto those they 
considered most valuable, in- 
cluding the Japanese and 
Bolivian ambassadors, two 
dozen Japanese diplomats 
and businessmen, two gov- 
ernment minis ters and Mr. 
Fujimori's younger brother. 

A brief war of brinkman- 
ship, which saw the police 
circle fee property in armored „ 
vehicles and the rebels firing ■ 
warning shots into fee air, has 
long since died down. 

Only a bizarre daily mu- 
sical war remains, wife the 
police drowning out early- 
morning revolutionary an- 
thems broadcast from the res- 
idence wife battle tunes blas- 
ted from speakers 
surrounding fee compound. 

The 72 hostages who re- 
main are all men and are 
mostly middle aged. They 
sleep on thin mattresses on 
the floor, eat food brought 

w twice daily by the Red Cross, 

might be prepared to free read, exercise and play cards* 
some lesser rebel prisoners to and board games. Electricity, 



avoid bloodshed. 

Mr. Fujimori has 
arranged asylum for the 
odd hostage takers in Cuba 
and fee Dominican Republic 
in fee event of a peaceful 
solution. 

The president, who says he 
will not use force to free fee 
hostages unless the rebels 
harm them, has offered to let 
the rebel leader, Nestor 
Cerpa, and his followers go to 
Cuba if they release their cap- 
tives. 

Rumors continue that a 
deal is in fee works to resolve 
the crisis. One rumor suggest 
feat Peru might free a small 
number of prisoners and al- 
low the rebels’ free passage to 
Cuba in exchange for fee I 
tages’ release. 


10 s- 


tele phones and running water 
were cut off to the building at 
the start of the standoff. 

Many hostages are said to 
be suffering from stress-re- 
lated illnesses such as high 
blood pressure, heart and 
stomach problems and re- 
ceive almost daily medical at- 
tention. 

Meanwhile. Bolivia on 
Wednesday denied parole to 
four Tupac Amaru rebels 
jailed there on kidnapping 
and other charges. 

In La Paz, Judge Alberto 
Costa Obregon said their re- 
quest to be released while 
their case is heard in the „ 1 
courts was denied out of con- 
cern they would flee fee conn- • 
try and evade Bolivian law. 

(Reuters, AP) 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


Kengo wa Dondo discussing 
his Swiss stay on Thursday. 


earned and shared through of- 
ficial corruption. 

■ Swiss Guard Assets 

The Swiss government de- 
cided Thursday against 
blocking any assets that Mar- 
shal Mobutu may have in 
Swiss bank accounts. The As- 
sociated Press reported from 
Bern. 

The seven-member Swiss 
Federal Council, or cabinet, 
noted that no other country 
had frozen Marshal Mobutu’s 
assets. 


Toronto Smokers Can Eat Out Again 

TORONTO (Reuters) — Smoking is back in bars and*! 
restaurants in Canada's largest city after Toronto softened one ' 
of North America's most draconian cigarette laws. 

Bar and restaurant owners, who led the fight to amend the 
anti-smoking law, were rejoicing Wednesday at the return of 
tobacco lovers, who had been barred last month from sm o kin g 
in their establishments. 

Weeks after banning smoking in bars and restaurants with- 
out separate smoking rooms, city councilors caved in to the 
restaurant industry, which said the ban killed up to 30 percent 
of their business. The amended law, passed at a raucous city 
council session late Monday, allowed smoking in 10 percent 
of the open seating in bars and restaurants. 

SAS to Cut Domestic Summer Fares 

STOCKHOLM (Reuters) — Scandinavian Airlines System 
plans to cut domestic fares in Sweden this summer. 

SAS said Wednesday that its lowest fares would be cut by 
250 kronor (S32 JO) from June 23 to Aug. 10. Hie airline will 
also let children fry free, as it did last summer. 

Palma, Majorca, has opened an airport terminal with 
capacity of up to 150.000 passengers a day. (AFP) 

BAA said the seven British airports it operates handled a 
record 98 million passengers in the financial year fear ended in 
March, an increase of 4.6 percent ( Bloomberg ) 


WEATHER 


THE WORLD'S DAILV NEWSPAPER 



DINING 


The World’s Top Tables 

Patricia W^lls 

If you missed it in the IHT, look for it 

Food Critic 

on our site on the World Wide Web: 




Europe 


Today 



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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 1997 

THE AMERICAS 


Complex Battlefield in the War Over Smoking 


POLITICAL 


By Bamaby J. Feder 

New York Times Service 


k ^CfflCAGO — Tlwitegotiationsbythe 
totoeoo m^&y for a possiWe settle- 
DKnt of nearly all snaoBne-relaied lit- 
jgaoonare paying out against a complex 

- brakdropof legal disputes. And because 
many of these cases have readied critical 

influence course of 

. »e talks, givmg an upper hand either to 

roe uxtastry or its OTponems. 

. The legal wrangling runs the gamut 
1 from lawsuits filed by individual 
. smokers — as well as by nonsmokers 
. who assert they were hurt by the 
smoking of others — to class actions, to 
lawsuits by states and cities seeking 
compensation for spending on 
smoking-related illnesses on patients in 
. tbe Medicaid health care system for the 
, poor. On Monday, Alaska became the 
23rd state to file such a Medicaid suit. 

] There are also legal battles over new 

- federal regulations; over whether po- 
feudally damaging documents released 

: by Liggett Group after its settlement last 
mouth with some opponents can be used 


in Massachusetts, over whether compa- 
nies can be forced to list the ingredients 
of each brand on djgarette packages. 

Shareholders suing tobacco compa- 
. nies have opened another legal front, 
asserting that the failure to dxsdose 
d am a g i n g information inflated share 

NEWS ANALYSIS" "" 

prices. There are fierce and long-run- 
ning ^personal battles too, like Brown & 
Williamson Tobacco Corp.’s lawsuit 
against Jeffrey Wigand, a former re- 
search executive now cooperating with 
plaintiff's lawyers. The company as- 
serts that Mr. Wigand breached a con- 
fidentiality agreement 

Looming behind these civil cases are 
reported federal criminal and civil in- 
vestigations of the industry for posable 
charges of peijury and other wrong- 
doing. 

The industry is estimated to have 
spent about $600 million last year, em- 
ploying about 350 law firms around tbe 
nation. The industry calculated last year 
that it had spent $100 million in the 
Minnesota Medicaid case alone. 


Wall Street ’s focus is on Jacksonville, 
■ Florida, where- a lawyer, Nofbert Wil- 
ncr. is seeking compensatory and pu- 
nitive damages from KlR Nabisco Hold- 
ings Cop. m the 1995 death of a 49- 
year-old Florida woman, from lung can- 
cer. Last August, in a case that is under 
appeal, Mr. Wilner won a $750,000 ver- 
dict against Brown & Williamson, a 
subsidiary of BAT Industries PIX. 

Another victory by Mr. Wilner would 
seriously undermine Wall Street's con- 
fidence that the tobacco industry is likely 
to continue its decades-old record of 
winning almost every courtroom battle. 

Mary Aronson, a Washington analyst 
who specializes b litigation research, 
said another victory by Mr. Wilner 
"could show that tbe jury pool which 
has tended to blame smokers for 
smoking, has really changed because of 
all the negative publicity.'* 

The Jacksonville case will also test 
whether jurors are willing to conclude 
that companies engaged in a conspiracy 
to hide the addictiveness and dangers of 
smoking from the public. If Mr. wilner 
persuades the jury to accept that argu- 
ment, be result could be a large punitive 


damage award that would probably 
stiffen the resolve of tobacco opponents 
to demand more concessions and larger 
payments in settlement negotiations. 

Several other personal-injury- trials 
are scheduled for this summer, includ- 
ing tests of whether the companies will 
be blamed for injuries from second- 
hand smoke. Broin vs. Philip Moms 
Cos., a class action on behalf of 60.000 
flight attendants exposed to smoke on 
airlines, is scheduled to start on June 2 in 
Florida. On Aug. 18. b Mississippi, the 
estate of Burl Butler, a nonsmoking 
barber who died of lung cancer-, is suing 
all of the major tobacco companies b 
Mr. Butler's death. 

Even before the Jacksonville verdict 
is in, the tobacco landscape could be 
drastically altered by a rulbg from a 
federal court in Greensboro, North Car- 
olina, on whether the Food and Chug 
Administration has the power to reg- 
ulate tobacco. Judge William Osteen 
has said be may rule as early as Monday 
on the industry's arguments for throw- 
ing out the sweepbg drug agency reg- 
ulations issued last year to restrict ad- 
vertising and marketing of tobacco. 


CIA Rejects 
Blame Over 
1991 Release 
Of Nerve Gas 


By Philip Shenon 

New York Times Service 

. WASHINGTON — The Central In- 
telligence Agency says it is being un- 
fairly blamed for an incident in which 
thousands ofU.S. troops may have been 
exposed to nerve gas shortly after the 
1991 Gulf War. 

At a congressional hearing, a CIA 
official, Robert Walpole, said that the 
agency bad "provided multiple warn- 
ings to our military forces in the field" 

■ about the possibility that chemical arms 
were stared in the vicinity of a Iraqi 
ammunition depot that was blown up by 
U.S. soldiers b March 1991. 

The CIA has been widely criticized 
because it efid not pass on evidence it 
had before the war that chemical arms 
had been stored b that particular depot 
in tbe 1 98Gs. The depot, near the south- 
ern Iraqi village of Kami&iyah, was later 
determined to have con tamed tons of 
nerve gas and other chemical weapons. 

Mr. Walpole, the CIA's senior in- 
vestigator on the issue, testified that 
"warnings were given, before demoli- 
tion activities were conducted.’* . 

His testimony reflectedgrowing con- . 
cem among senior CIA officials that the 
agency has been unfairly singled out for 
criticism over the incident, and that mil- 
itary commanders also bear responsi- 
bility for the demolition. 

He conceded that before the war, the 
agency failed to include Kamisiyah on a 
list of possible chemical-warfare sites, 
even though there was evidence that 
chemical arms had been stored there as . 
early as 1 984. But he pointed to several 
newly declassified intelligence reports 
showing that during and shortly after die 
war, the CIA and the Defense Intel- 
ligence Agency provided the military 
with warnings that chemical arms bad 
been stored m tbe vicinity of the dump. 

At the joint bearing of two House 
subcommittees Wednesday, lawmakers 
also heard from an army general who 
oversaw the demolition of the depot in 
1991 and says that he is suffering a sleep 



OcaW Oaok/IV A.uh)nl Pint 


Dr. Bernard Rostker, left, the Pentagon’s point man on Gulf War illnesses, Mr. Walpole of the CIA and 
Colonel Thomas Leavitt of the army’s inspections division, taking oaths before the Veterans’ Affairs panel. 


Breaking Bread 
On Foreign Policy 

WASHINGTON — Faring a series 
of legislative roadblocks to his foreign 
policy. President Bill Clinton has held 
a dinner for more than three dozen 
Democratic and Republican members 
of Congress at Blair House, pressing 
them to support his goals in Europe, 
with China and at the United Nations. 

Mr. Clinton also lobbied the le- 
gislators heavily on the most imme- 
diate test of a bipartisan foreign policy: 
a treaty banning chemical weapons, 
which appears headed fora ratification 
vote b the Senate next week. 

But despite the White House's 
stated goal of a bipartisan meeting, the 
crowd Wednesday night appeared to 
be weighted toward the Democrats. 

The most important Republican 
critic of the chemical weapons ban. 
Senator Jesse Helms of North Car- 
olina. stayed away, reportedly be- 
cause his granddaughter was b town. 
Further undermining bipartisanship, 
the speaker of the House, Newt Gin- 
grich, also pleaded a conflicting en- 
gagement. 

Administration officials said that 
they were uncertain whether the 
treaty, the Chemical Weapons Con- 
vention, would be ratified before the 
deadline of April 29. when it is sched- 
uled to take effecL 

Susan Irby, a spokeswoman for the 
Senate majority leader, Trent Lott, 
said he hoped to hold a vote on the 
treaty Wednesday or Thursday but 
was trying to get unanimous consent 
from the Senate to schedule it. ( NYT) 

Some Budget Hope 

WASHINGTON — Nearing the 
end of what Senator Pete Domeniri 
has declared "the make or break" 
week for budget negotiations, both 
sides b the talks say that bey are still 
separated by a sea of political dif- 
ferences. 

Nevertheless, Senator Domenici. 
Republican of New Mexico and chair- 
man of the Senate Budget Committee, 
offered the rosiest outlook Wednes- 
day since the daily negotiations began 
two weeks ago, saying he believed a 
deal could be reached by next week. 

"I remain positive." Mr. Domenici 
said after he left the budget talks on 
Capitol Hill. "I still think the issues 
that separate us are very big and very 


important, but I am willbg to say 
come next week, we're apt to get a 
budget. Democrats and the White 
House are beginning to understand 
what we need, and we're beginning to 
understand some of their concerns." 

Franklin Raines, director of the Of- 
fice of Management and Budget and 
the chief negotiator for the White 
House, also tried to put the best face 
on the talks with the Republicans. "I 
think that as the process has gone on, 
they have found that the president's 
budget has many features that they 
can find agreeable," he said. (NYT) 

More Donor Uproar 

WASHINGTON — Two business- 
women whose close ties to Alexis 
Herman. President Clinton's choice 
for labor secretary, have raised ques- 
tions about her nomination, gave 
5150.000 to Democratic Party orga- 
nizations in a string of donations last 
fall, party records show. 

The donations were made about the 
time that one of the women, Vanessa 
Weaver, took a Singapore business- 
man seeking approval for a S560 mil- 
lion satellite project to a fund-raising 
event where he met Mr. Clinton. 

The figure is three times what the 
two women, Ms. Weaver and her sis- 
ter. Caryliss Weaver, had previously 
been reported as having donated. 

The Weavers’ involvement b the 
satellite venture has raised new ques- 
tions that could cloud Ms. Hetman's 
chances to win Senate confirmation. 

Officials ai the White House ac- 
knowledged that Ms. Herman, a 
White House aide, last year put some 
satellite executives b touch with an 
administration official who was in- 
volved b setting telecommunications 
policies. (NYT) 

Quote/Unquote 

Attorney General Janet Reno, vig- 
orously defending her decision 
against seeking appointment of an in- 
dependent counsel to investigate 
Democratic campaign fund-raising: 
"I keep in mind what I have on my 
wall. It's what Lincoln said. 'If you 
were to believe all the bad things that 
were said about you, you might as 
well close up shop and go out of 
business.* I'm damned if I do and 
damned if I don't, so the best thing X 
can do is ignore the politics, ignore the 
pressure." (AP) 


We’re No Democrats, Republicans Say in Holding Donor Gala 


By Katharine Q. Seelye 

New York Times Service 


WASHINGTON — Undeterred by the furor over 
campaign fund-raising. Republicans are planning a 
black-ne dinner next month featuring congressional 
leaders in the hope of attracting contributors who 
will give or raise as much as $250,000 each. 

For that amount, donors will get breakfast and 
photographs with the Senate majority leader, Trent 
Lott of Mississippi, and the House speaker, Newt 
Gingrich of Georgia, who will share their "opin- 
ions on our party’s issues rad strategies for the 
105th Congress," the invitation says. 

They are alsojuaranteed a seat atone of the four 
head tables wtoRqpabUcralunBnaries at the dinner, 
to be held May 13 at a Washington hotel. In addition 
to breakfast and dinner, they are invited to lunch with 
Republican leaders b the House and Senate, who 
will talk about “Republican strategies for the up- 
coming 1997-98 elections." Their do n ati o ns earn 
them the tide of "co-cbainnan’’ of the event 
The committee expects a handful of the more 


than 2,000 guests to give or raise $250,000 each. It 
hopes to raise a total- of $11 million. 

A spokeswoman for the Republican committee, 
Mary Crawford, said there was nothing untoward 
about die party’s soliciting large donations and 
offering contributors a chance to rub shoulders 
with congressional leaders. It is the fund-raising 
practices of Democrats, not Republicans, Ms. 
Crawford said, that are being questioned. 

The Republicans are so certain of their ground 
that a pile of “Gala Facts" sheets describing the 
benefits for each level of contributor were openly 
available at tbe committee's spring meeting b Flor- 
ida last weekend. The planners reflected the attitude 
of Mr. Lott, who earlier described tbe solicitation of 
unlimited money as "the American way." 

Critics say the Republicans are demonstrating a 
surprisingly casual approach to the appearance of 
trading money for access. 

“It's the Republican version of your White 
House coffee, where large donors are being sold 
access to tbe leaders of the 105th Congress, ’ said 
Kent Cooper, executive director of the Center for 


Responsive Politics, a public-interest lobby that 
promotes overhauling campaign financing. 

These are the people who set the agenda for 
Congress, he added, "and their time is bebg 
auctioned to the wealthy in the guise of party fund- 
raising." 

According to the fact sheets, those who give or 
raise $ 100,000 are designated “vice chairmen” of 
the event and receive essentially the same treat- 
ment as those who give $250,000, except they are 
not seated at the head tables. Instead they are 
promised "VIP seating." 

Those who give or raise $45,000, dubbed 
“deputy chairman," get no breakfast and only 
“preferential seating" at the gala, while $15,000 
buys a table and gets the giver on the dinner 
committee. The minimum amount accepted is 
$1 ,000, which buys only a general admission ticket 
to the gala and no special appellation. 

The Republican National Committee is soli- 
citing tbe unlimited, unrestricted donations from 
individuals, corporations or political action com- 
mittees — and will distribute the cash to Re- 


publicans running for the House and Senate, gov- 
ernorships and state legislatures across the country 
b the 1997 and 1998 elections. 

The event comes at a time when political dona- 
tions during President Bill Clinton's re-election 
campaign last year, particularly such “soft 
money" contributions to the Democratic National 
Committee, are under fierce scrutiny. News media 
and congressional committees are looking into 
questionable contributions, bcluding whether the 
Chinese government tried to buy influence with the 
White House through large contributions. 

The only sign that Republicans have any concern 
over fmanciaTcontribuDons is a new warning label 
— “contributions from foreign nationals are pro- 
hibited" — on their fund-raising materials. Still, 
Republicans are confident that die public is making 
a distinction between diem and the Democrats. 

"The climate that our country is b right now 
was generated by what was clearly an orchestrated 
effort on the part of the Democrat Party to solicit 
and receive funds from illegal sources, ‘ ’ Ms. Craw- 
ford said. "That is not a bipartisan problem." 


os that have come to be known col- 
dvely as Gulf War Syndrome. 

Fhe officer. Major General Robert 
•went, said be learned only last year 
the possibility that be and his troops 
y have been exposed to nerve gas. 
declassified intelligence reports 
iw that the CXA and military com- 
nders knew that Iraqi chemical 
apons might have been stored b ma- 
rked shdls.Had they known of the 
dligence about Kamisiyah and about 
unmaiked shells, the general said, 
soldiers would have been more care- 

rhere is no proof that chemical 
apons are responsible for any of the 
iltb problems reported by thousands 
Dull War veterans. 

fo well Defends His Actions 

General Colb Powell told lawmakers 
tusday that he and his military coi- 
gn es were fully prepared for the 
le use of chemical weapons by j 
ing the Gulf War, The Assocu 
iss reported from Washington. 

T reject any suggestion that some- 
v we were indifferent to our troops, 

retired general said, 
ratifying before the Senate Veterans 
fairs Committee, be defended his se- 
ns, which included approving thetusn 
3 use of a chemical weapons vaccine, 
lering the air strikes against possible 
mical storage facilities and ensuring 
t the troops had full protective gear. 
‘No item received more attention or 
,f greater concern to us than the 

.k.Tmni anriVWmild US6 



Away From Poliiics 

Two jetliners came within about 300 feet 



Angeles. 


(AP) 


• The word about the April 19 anniversar- 

ies of the Waco, Texas, and Oklahoma City 
tragedies has gone out to Social Security 
administration offices across the country, 
which are quietly taking precautions. In 1993, 
fhe compound of the Branch Davidian re- 
ligious cult burned to the ground near Waco, 
endbg a standoff with authorities. In 1995, a 
bomb exploded outside a federal building in 
Oklahoma City, killbg 168. (AP) 

• To. prevent- a mob informer, Salvatore 
Graven o, from profiting any more from his 
Mafia days. New York state officials have 
moved to confiscate payments he could obtain 
from a book describing his underworld career 
and his reasons for becombg a turncoat 

(NYT) 

■ Governor Fyfe Symington of Arizona 
says be will sign a bill to neutralize a stale 
ballot initiative that allows doctors to pre- 
scribe marijuana, heroin and other generally 
illegal (bugs to sick or dying patients. Tbe 
stare senate voted, 17 to 13. to require that any 
drug dispensed as medicine be approved by 
the Food and Drug Administration. The 
moves will repeal tbe initiative before it has 
had a chance to take effect. (NYT) 

• The number of marriages annulled- with 
the 1 Roman Catholic Church's blessing has 
risen from hundreds to tens of thousands a 
year as church leaders in America have taken 
a more modem view of marriage. (AP) 


Study Points to Drug-Free Blood Pressure Relief 


By Thomas H. Maugji n 

Las Angeles Times 

LOS ANGELES — A diet 
rich in fruits, vegetables and 
low-fat dairy products can re- 
duce blood pressure as much 
as the most commonly used 
hypertension drugs, eliminat- 
ing the need for the expensive 
drugs in many patients with 
mild hypertension, according 
to a study published 
Thursday. 

Previous studies showed 
that reducing weight and salt 
consumption and minimizin g 
alcohol use also could reduce 
blood pressure. But the new 
study, published in the New 
England Journal of Medicine, 
: first to show that chan- 
_ the overall diet will re- 
ice blood pressure independ- 
ently of those other factors. 

Widespread adoption of 
the comb inati on diet, the 
team said, could reduce the 
risk of heart disease by 15 
percent and tbe likelihood of 
stroke by 27 percent 

"With nearly 50 million 
Americans having hyperten- 
sion, and considering the bil- 
lions of dollars spent each 
year on Wood-pressure med- 
ications, these findings have 
important public health con- 


1S 


siderations," George Black- 
bum, president of the Amer- 
ican Society for Clinical 
Nutrition, said. 

“This is one of the best 
pieces of news for people in 
this country in a long tune," 

Fruits, vegetables, 
and low-fat dairy 
products could 
reduce the risk of 
heart disease. 

said David McCarron of the 
Oregon Health Sciences Uni- 
versity. "We’ve never had a 
dietary intervention that gives 
this kind of effect in terms of 
improving life expectancy." 

Tbe study was not de- 
signed to determine which 
components of the diet were 
responsible for its beneficial 
effects, but Mr. McCarron 
and others speculated that tbe 
calcium in milk may offer the 
greatest help in lowering 
blood pressure. Many blood- 
pressure drugs, such as di- 
uretics and calcium-channel 
blockers, work by increasing 
calcium retention. 

"It's reasonable to assume 


that the dairy products in the 
diet are doing the same 
thing," Mr. McCarron said. 

High blood pressure is one 
of the primary risk factors for 
heart attacks rad stroke. Ac- 
cording to the American Heart 
Association, at least 24 per- 
cent of Americans have blood 
pressure greater than tbe ideal 
level of 120/80. Four out of 
every five of those have mod- 
erate hypertension, meaning 
their blood pressure is be- 
tween 120/80 and 160/95. 

The trial, called Dietary 
Approaches to Stop Hyper- 
tension, or DASH, was 
sponsored by the National In- 
stitutes of Health. The team 


enrolled 459 people with 
blood pressures below 160/95 
— about two-thirds of whom 
had moderate hypertension, 
while the rest had borderline 
normal blood pressure — in 
centers in Baltimore, Boston, 
Durham, North Carolina, and 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Al- 
most half were women, and 
59 percent were black. None 
was taking medication to con- 
trol blood pressure. 

Participants received all 
their food from tbe study for 
11 weeks, and on weekdays 
they ate their main meal at the 
clinics to ensure compliance. 
For the first three weeks of the 
study, each participant re- 


ceived a "typical American" 
control diet, then each was 
randomly assigned to one of 
three groups. 

One group continued to re- 
ceive the control diet; one re- 
ceived a diet rich in fruits and 
vegetables; and one received 
the combination diet, rich in 
fruits, vegetables and low-fat 
dairy products and with re- 
duced amounts of saturated 
fat. All diets contained the 
same amount of salt. 

The effects of the diet were 
obvious within one week and 
reached their maximum value 
within two weeks. Blood 
pressures then remained 
stable for the final six weeks. 


To OUR REAPERS IN LUXEMBOURG 

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Geneva, since 1755 

Vacheron Constantin, rue cfes Moulins 7. CH-72D4 Geneve 





INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 1997 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


Stretch 


Amnesty Is Hinted 
As 2 Ex-Presidents 
Lose Korea Appeal 


By Velisarios Kattoulas 

I nternational Herald Tribune 

SEOUL — Two former 
Korean presidents lost their 
final appeals Tliursday 
against convictions for mas- 
terminding a 1979 coup and a 
later massacre amid signs that 
the government might soon 
pardon diem in an attempt to 
set aside South Korea's brutal 
past and bolster its nascent 
democracy. 

South Koreans generally 
embraced the rulings as an 
important step in the nation's 
continuing transition from 
military dictatorship to full 
democracy. 

But there was also some 
anger over suggestions that 
the government should con- 
sider granting amnesties to 
the two men to halt a cycle of 
revenge and rec riminat ion in 
South Korean politics. 

The Supreme Court upheld 
a life sentence against Chun 
Doo Hwan, 66. a former pres- 
ident, and a 17-year sentence 
against his successor, Roh 
Tae Woo, 64. 

They were found guilty of 
treason and mutiny in a coup 
that propelled the two former 
army generals to power in 
1979 and in a massacre of 
some 200 pro-democracy 
protesters in 1980. 

After the rulings, the main 
opposition party, the National 

Pyongyang 
Wants Pledge 
Of Food Aid 

foifiiMlw Our Staff From QjpxAn 

SEOUL — A demand by 
North Korea for American 
and South Korean food aid 
delayed agreement at a cru- 
cial meeting on Pyongyang's 
participation in intra-Korean 
peace talks. South Korean of- 
ficials said Thursday. 

Senior diplomats from the 
three countries held incon- 
clusive negotiations Wednes- 
day in New York, where 
Deputy Foreign Minister Kim 
Gye Gwan was to give North 
Korea's answer to a proposal 
for peace talks. 

“North Korea indicated a 
positive response,” Lee Kyu 
Hyung. a South Korean For- 
eign Ministry spokesman, 
said. “The North said food 
aid was not a precondition for 
the peace talks but neverthe- 
less repeated that it would be 
difficult for them to come to 
the peace table unless food 
aid was assured." 

The three sides agreed to 
continue talks Friday. They 
hope the North Koreans will 
agree to negotiations to end 
the state of war that has ex- 
isted since the 1950-53 
Korean conflict China would 
join those negotiations. 

“We made some encour- 
aging progress,” the U.S. ne- 
gotiator. Charles K airman, 
said after the talks Wednes- 
day. "But there's still more to 
be done. * ' ( Reuters , API 


Congress for New Politics, 
said it could discuss am- 
nesties for the two if they 
showed repentance and if 
public opinion shifted in fa- 
vor of pardons. 

Conservative lawmakers, 
including members of Pres- 
ident Kim Young Sam's 
party, called for the govern- 
ment to consider amnesties 
immediately. Analysts said 
the calls appeared to be a pre- 
lude to pardons in as little as a 
year. 

“Holding on to the past not 
only hurts the management of 
die nation but it also creates 
confusion.” said Chang Dal 
Joong. a professor of political 
science at Seoul National 
University. “So pardons 
would be like moving for- 
ward.” 

But dissidents insisted that 
the governing party had 
opened the amnesty debate 
not to buoy South Korean de- 
mocracy but to divert atten- 
tion from a kickbacks scandal 
involving the Hanbo Group, 
which collapsed in January 
under debts of $5.8 billion. 

The scandal has cast sus- 

S 'cion over President Kim's 
vorite son and has thwarted 
the government’s attempts to 
show that top-level corrup- 
tion is a relic. 

Prosecutors have arrested 
the chairman of Hanbo, three 
lawmakers in the governing 
party, a former cabinet min- 
ister and sue other prominent 
figures in the affair. 

The Supreme Court also 
upheld an appeals court de- 
cision to fine Mr. Chun and 
Mr. Roh heavily for corrup- 
tion. 

It upheld suspended sen- 
tences against seven other de- 
fendants convicted of bribing 
them, including the head of 
the Daewoo business group. 



Across Yalu River > * 


BATTLE OF OKINAWA — Anti-American demonstrators scuffling with the 
police inside the Japanese Parliament in Tokyo on Thursday, where a bill was 
passed allowing the government to extend leases for U.S. bases on Okinawa. 

China Tightens Up on Corruption 

Reuters mumst Party members at levels equal to or 

BEIJING — The Communist Party has above that of a provincial governor or minister 
stepped up its battle against corruption by ban- from r unnin g private businesses or from 
ning senior officials from seeking profits for working at wholly foreign -owned companies 
themselves or for friends, family or staff mem- in the region under die official’s jurisdiction, 
bers, the People's Daily reported Thursday. “This is a major event in the building of a 

The party recently issued a code of conduct clean and honest government,’ ' a commentary 
banning officials from personally engaging in in People's Daily, the party newspaper, said, 
profit-seeking activities or using their po- Corruption, virtually unknown in China in 
sitions or influence to make illicit profits, the the years after the puritanical Communists 
newspaper said. toppled the allegedly corruption-riddled Na- 

The code of conduct also bans officials tionalists and swept to power in 1949. has 
from seeking gains for friends, relatives and made a strong comeback during the country's 
staff members and prohibits extravagance, nearly two decades of market-reform efforts, 
waste and squandering public funds, it said. Chinese leaders have warned that corrop- 
It also bans spouses and children of Com- tion is a virus that could topple the party. 


Tung's Rights Tow Is Welcomed 

HONG KONG — The Democratic Party cautiously 
welcomed Thursday a pledge by the territory’s future 
leader. Tung Chee-hwa. that people would keep their basic 
freedoms after China takes over July 1 . 

On Wednesday. Mr. Tung vigorously defended proposals 
that would ban foreign funding of political parties and give 
the police expanded powers to curb public protests, though 
he said that “peaceful and lawful demonstrations can and 
must be allowed to continue.” 

Anthony Cheung, vice president of the Democratic Party 
told Hong Kong radio: “We welcome this pledge that the 
right to protest, the right to demonstrate, the freedom of 
assembly and association, all of these are people's rights 
and should be part of Hong Kong's political culture.” 

“But we question a lot of the substance of Mr. Tung’s 
proposals on how to amend the Societies Ordinance and the 
Public Order Ordinance,” he said. "Some of these pro- 
posals have in fact infringed the rights that Mr. Tung was 
talking about” f Reuters ) 

Exiled Prince Returning to Paris 

PARIS — Prince Norodom Sirivudh of Cambodia was due 
in Paris late Thursday after an abortive attempt to return home 
to contest charges that he plotted to kill the second prime 
minister. Hun Sen. his sister Norodom Vacheara said. 

Prince Sirivudh flew to Hong Kong on Monday, but 
airlines refused to take him to Phnom Penh after Cambodia 
said he would be arrested on arrival. 

“He is very disappointed, very angry,' ’ the prince's sister 


said, adding, that he would “continue fighting to demand 
that his trial be reviewed." She said he would leave Paris in 
a few days for an undisclosed destination. (Reuters) 

China Seeks Aid After Quakes 

BEUING — China appealed Thursday for international 
aid to help rebuild an area of its northwestern Xinjiang 
region devastated by six major earthquakes this year. 

The Civil Affairs Ministry is seeking aid to rebuild towns 
in Jiashi county that were destroyed by the quakes, state 
radio said. A total of 46 people were killed by the earth- 
quakes and thousands of people were made homeless. 

The radio said 15 million yuan ($1.8 million) had been 
allocated by the Finance Ministry to aid victims. ( Reuters ) 

6 Stumbling Block 5 in India Talks 

NEW DELHI — The ousted United Front coalition asked 
the Congress (I) party on Thursday to withdraw its official 
bid to form a new government ahead of a coalition agree- 
ment on a new prime minister. 

The Congress party president. Sitaram Kesri, wrote to 
President Shankar Dayal Sharma on March 31, staking his 
party's claim to head a new government. 

‘ ‘The letter is proving to be a stumbling block.' ’ a senior 
United Front official said. 

A United Front spokesman. Jaipal Reddy, said the front’s 
steering committee would meet Friday morning to elect a 
new leader to replace H.D. Deve Gowda, the caretaker 
prime minister. It was the insistence of Congress that Mr. 
Deve Gowda be replaced that triggered the crisis! Reuters) 


‘Children Dying f 

Traders See North Korea Famine 


By Steven Mufson 

Washington Post Service 

DANDONG. China ■ — 
About 200 to 300 trucks a day 
cross Friendship Bridge over 
the Yalu River here, hauling 
sacks of food and other des- 
perately needed goods to 
North Korea. When the 
traders and drivers return, 
they cany tales of starvation 
and desperation in the ailing 
Stalinist nation. 

A group of Chinese truck 
drivers waiting at the foot of 
the bridge Wednesday report- 
ed that they had seen starving 
children in North Korea. 

A man. who would only 
give his surname as Re and 
who was waiting to drive con- 
struction supplies to the 
Chinese Embassy in Pyongy- 
ang, the North Korean cap- 
ital, said that on a recent trip 
he saw one dead child and two 
others nearly de ad , appar- 
ently from hunger, who had 
been abandoned by the road- 
side. . 

“I’ve seen schoolchildren 
staggering like drunkards be- 
cause they are so hungry,” 
said a trader named Liu. who 
has a small Chinese medicine 
shop nearby and who said he 
was in North Korea a few 
days ago. 

“Kids are coming to towns 
from the countryside to beg,” 
be said. 

Another Chinese trader 
here, who recently visited 
relatives in North Korean vil- 
lages, said: “People are too 
weak to plant. And even if 
they could plant, they'd be 
too weak to harvest.” 

These are just some of the 
stories told hoe in pandong, a 
Chinese city facing North 
Korea across the Yalu. The 
most important of four major 
routes for the dwindling trade 
across the river boundary. 
Dandong is a listening post for 
measuring just how grave a 
food crisis North Korea faces. 

Many Chinese and Korean 
families have relatives on op- 
posite sides of the river, but 
tihe trade is dominated by 
Chinese citizens who can le- 
gally cross the frontier. North 
Koreans generally are not al- 
lowed to leave their country. 

Judging from reports here, 
the economic situation in 
North Korea is dire and be- 
coming worse. Traders and 
drivers also tell of idle fac- 
tories, collapsing agricultural 
collectives, rampant comip- 
tion and political disillusion- 
ment. Several hungry 
refugees have escaped to Dan- 
dong, residents say, but were 
returned after being caught by 
die Chinese authorities. 

Gauging the depth of North 
Korea’s crisis is a critical issue 
as other countries try to decide 
whether — and how much — 
to help a Communist-style 
dictatorship whose planned 
economy is foiling apart. 

Disastrous floods there in 
the last two years have com- 
pounded woes that have been 
mounting since the 1991 
breakup of the Soviet Union. 
North Korea’s longtime pat- 
ron. 

International aid experts 


who have visited North Korea 
also have reported food short- 
ages and related disease. Last 
month, Arthur Holcombe, the 
Beijing-based head of the UN 
Development Program, re- 
ported seeing cases of rickets 
and scurvy. 

But the personal accounts 
of traders in this Chinese city 
provide more graphic images 
of a nation in crisis. 

“Last year it was bad,” 
said Mr. Liu’s wife. “This 
year it’s worse.” 

Because of the large num- 
bers of ethnic Koreans who 
live in China’s Liaoning and 
Jilin border provinces amt the 
numbers of ethnic Chinese 
who live in North Korea, in- 
terest in North Korean affairs 
runs high in Dandong. Local 
television carries transmis- 
sions from both North and 
South Korea. 

On Tuesday, a North 
Korean broadcast showed 
thousands of people in Py- 
ongyang laying flowers be- 
fore riant statues of the late 
Kim 11 Sung on what would 
have been the 85th birthday of 
the man known there as the 
“Great Leader.” 

“Lies, all lies.” said Wang 
Xianhua, a Chinese trader 
who lived in North Korea un- 
til she was 19 and makes sales 
trips there ranging in duration 
from two weeks to three 
months. “Ordinary people 
don’t believe in the leader- 
ship anymore.” 

She has a shop packed tight 
with low-quality Chinese 
goods that are difficult to sell 
to Chinese consumers — 
cheap rubber boots, sugar- 
coated peanuts, stale crackers 
in large plastic bags, cheap 
clothing and blankets. 

When she crosses the river. 
North Korean customers pay 
with Chinese or U.S. cur- 
rency. Barter, once prevalent, 
has largely ended because the 
North Koreans have litde to 
swap aside from shrimp, 
prawns and crabs. 

Children, her relatives told 
her, have turned to begging, 
roaming markets with metal 
plates in outstretched hands. 

“Children, even at a young 
age when they should be run- 
ning around making mischief, 
are dying of hunger,” she 
said. 

She said that she had not 
seen anyone starving but that 
she had seen children with 
distended bellies that indicate 
severe malnutrition. 

She complained about cor- 
ruption in China but said 
North Korea was even more 
corrupt Officials and factory 
managers are selling factory 
supplies and equipment on 
the side to make money and 
what food there is has been 
hidden and sold on the black 
market, she said. 

“No food is being sold,” 
she said. “And if you have 
some food in your hand, 
someone will steal it” 

She said her relatives in 
North Korea were factory 
workers bat that their facto- 
ries had not operated in more 
than three years because of a 
lack of raw materials, fuel and 
equipment 


l 







r, 






STANLEY KUBRICK: 

A Biography 

By Vincent Lo Bruno. 
Illustrated. 579 pages. $29.95. 
Donald I. Fine. 

Reviewed by 
Michiko Kakutani 

P ERHAPS the most telling 
revelations in this long, 
turgid and not very illumin- 
ating biography occur early 
on in the volume, when the 
author, Vincent LoBrutto, 
tells us about the artists that 
Stanley Kubrick admired or 
studied when he was young: 
die photographer Weegee. the 
jazz musician Gene Knipa. 
the Russian cineaste Sergei 
Eisenstein and the writers 
Dostoyevsky, Kafka. Sartre 
and Camus. 

In these artists’ work can 
be discerned the roots of the 
mature Kubrick’s films: his 
observant, unforgiving eye* 
his virtuosic use of music, his 
innovative mastery of cine- 
matic technique and his Hob- 
besian vision of life as nasty, 
brutish and short. 

The emotional sources for 
Kubrick's artistic vision, 
however, are not examined in 
this volume, nor are his 
movies analyzed in a mean- 
ingful way. Instead, LoBiutto 
— a film historian and editor 
who teaches at the School of 
Visual Arts in Manhattan — 
gives us reams and reams of 
stories and reminiscences 
about Kubrick, culled from 
magazine articles, newspaper 
stories and interviews with 
people who knew or worked 
with him. 


Although it’s clear that 
LoBrutto has done a prodi- 
gious amount of research, 
there is no critical intelli- 
gence at work in this volume. 
In fact, the author writes as a 
film buff — someone who's 
interested in all die minutiae 
of the filmmaker’s life, from 
the type of camera lens he 
used to shoot a particular 
scene to the clothes he wore 
on a particular day. 

LoBrutto cites a numero- 
logist’s analysis of Kubrick’s 
signature (she found him "to 
be a perfectionist, with fears 
and anxieties”) and suggests 
a parallel between the famous 
bone, turning end over end. in 
the prologue to * ‘2001 ” and a 
pickle that the young Kubrick 
once flung in the air in a fit of 
youthful exasperation. 

There is Little effort on 
LoBrutto’ s part to sort out ru- 
mor and speculation from fact 
Instead, we are given lengthy 
accounts of the experiences 
that various actors, writers and 
technicians had with Kubrick 
— accounts that range from 
the rhapsodic (Matthew Med- 
iae: "He’s probably the most 
heartfelt person I ever met.”) 
to the disgruntled (Kirk 
Douglas: “You don’t have to 
be a nice person to be ex- 
tremely talented.”). 

Although LoBrutto writes 
that his book is meant to “both 
shatter and inform the myths” 
that have grown up around the 
reclusive director, this biog- 
raphy sheds little new light on 
“the legend of Stanley 
Kubrick.” that is, the popular 
image of him, in LoBrutto’s 
words, as “an intense, cool. 


misanthropic cinematic geni- 
us who obsesses over every 
detail, a man who lives a her- 
metic existence, doesn’t travel 
and is consumed with phobic 
neuroses.” 

If anything, the book ac- 
tually fuels this simplistic 
myth. LoBrutto not only cites 
numerous examples of Ku- 
brick's eccentric behavior 
(like flying his own New York 
dentist over to England so he 
would not have to see a new 
one) but also dwells, at enor- 
mous length, on the director’s 
obsessive perfectionism. 

One of his assistants is 
quoted saying that the direc- 
tor has precise requirements 
for everything (like wanting 
memo pads to be exactly six 
inches by four), while one of 
his editors is quoted on his 
callous disregard for anything 
not directly connected with 
his work. (When the editor’s 
finger got caught in the edit- 
ing machine, Kubrick is said 
to have ignored the incident, 
arguing. “There’s no point in 
giving you sympathy after it’s 
done.”) 

We’re told about Ku- 
brick's penchant for ordering 
actors to do take after take 
after take (up to 70 to 80 for 
each setup), and the fanatical 
research he does before mak- 
ing a film. In the case of 
“2001,” he supposedly or- 
dered up “every science fic- 
tion book ever written.” 

In the case of an unrealized 
project on Napoleon, several 
hundred books on the subject 
including 19th-century Eng- 
lish and French accounts, 
were read and dissected; foe 


BOOKS 


material was then broken 
down into categories on 
everything from his food 
preferences to the weather on 
the day of a specific battle. 

For all of LoBrutto ’s sim- 
ilarly obsessive research meth- 
ods — his apparent determi- 
nation to give the reader every 
fact and piece of gossip be can 
find on Kubrick — there is no 
wide-angle take on what all of 
this might mean. What palp- 
able effect does Kubrick's 
mania for detail have on his 
movies? Where does his need 
for control come from, and 
why has his paranoia escalat- 
ed, as LoBrutto suggests, with 
each passing year? 

For that matter, what are the 


By Alan Truscoit 

D AN Rotman is the prin- 
cipal author of “A Game 
of Revenge,” published by 
Magnus Books. Those who 
like reading about such 
mundane subjects as 
gambling, arson, wiretaps, 
stock swindles and assassin- 
ations should send $10.95 to 
one of the co-authois. Richard 
Rogers, P.O. Box 2721, Palm 
Desert, California 92261 - 
Rotman has long been one 
of America's best card flay- 
ers and he demonstrated it on 
the diagramed deal. If you 
wish to match your skill with 
his, cover the East-West 
hands and plan the play in 
three no-trump. West has 


roots of the dark, pessimistic 
view of mankind evinced in 
nearly all his films, from 
“Paths of Glory” through 
“Dr. Strangelove” and “A 
Clockwork Orange”? Is it 
simply a philosophical notion 
rooted in the director's youth- 
ful taste for existential novels 
and film noir, or does it spring 
from some more personal ex- 
perience of the world? 

LoBrutto does not grapple 
with such questions. His ac- 
count of Kubrick’s youth and 
apprenticeship reads like a dry 
resume: a recitation of the 
Kubrick family's moves from 
one address in the Bronx to 
another, repeated mentions of 
young Stanley’s poor atten- 


dance record in school and a 
plodding summary of the as- 
signments he took as a pho- 
tographer for Look magazine. 

When it comes to Ku- 
brick’s films, LoBrutto 
proves an equally flat-footed 
tour guide, though the die- 
hard movie buff can glean 
some interesting tidbits from 
this volume. One 1 earns that 
Kubrick removed a farcical 
pie fight from “Dr. Stran- 
gelove” because it did not 
jibe with the satiric tone of the 
rest of die movie, that the 
background voices in die 
“Hail, Crassus!” scene in 
“Spaitacus" were taken 
from a Michigan State-Notre 
Dame football game. 


BRIDGE 


opened three diamonds pre- 
emptively, and led the queen 
of that suit 

Rotman, as declarer, won 
with dummy’s king thinking 
that if West held one entry, u 
was vital to remove it before 
the diamonds were estab- 
lished. The entry could be the 
spade ace, the spade queen or 
the club king, winch made 
^ades a 2-to-l favorite. And 
if West held die club king he 
might also have the jack, 
probably a fatal combination. 

At the second trick Rotman 
therefore led a spade to the 
long. When this held the trick 
he led a second spade, remov- 
ing West’s queen, his potential 
entry. West persevered wife 
the diamond jade, establishing 
his suit, but he had tittle hope 


of regaining fee lead. 

South took his riiamnnij 
ace. confident that E ast had 
no more cards in feat suit, and 

led another spade in the faint 
hope of an even split. East 
took his two spade tricks and 
shifted to the club deuce. 
South finessed fee queen, 
cashed tire ace and played the 
ten, forcing East to win and 
play a bean. 

when the queen was led to 
dummy’s king and fee club 
eight was cashed, there was 
one more hurdle to cross at 
fee 12th trick- Had East made 
a tricky play of the heart 
queen wifeoug fee jack? That 
was certainly possible, but 
Rotman guessed right, finess- 
ing the ten to bring home a 
very-well played game. 


LoBrutto also makes some, ^ 
interesting comparisons be- ® : 
tween Kubrick's use of spe- 
cific cinematic devices like 
long tracking shots, gliding 
camera movements and 
severely angled shots and fee 
pioneering work of Max 
Ophuls and Orson Welles. 
Such technical discussions, 
however, do not communic- 
ate fee overall achievement of 
Kubrick’s movies. There is 
no real assessment of the 
themes feat animate fee film- 
maker’s work, no real appre- 
ciation of his cinematic 
artistry. 

Michiko Kakutani is on the 
Staff of The New York Times. 


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PAGE 5 


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Major Yields to Party Rebels 

He Will Not Enforce Tory Line on Single Currency 





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ejection workers from the Conservative Party’s central office trying to keep the press away from Mr. 
Major on Thursday as he makes a campaign tour of a shopping crater in Elsraere PorC Cheshire. 


Jteurrt 

LONDON — Prime Minister 
John Major on Thursday offered 
a concession to Conservative 
rebels opposed io a European 
single currency in a bid to end 
divisions and get a grip on his 
campaign for the May I elec- 
tion. 

At an impromptu press con- 
ference in northwest England. 
Mr. Major said that allowing 
members of Parliament to vote 
their consciences rather than fol- 
lowing the party line on whether 
to join a single European cur- 
rency was ‘ 'almost certainly the 
right way to handle it.” 

His announcement took 
everyone by surprise — includ- 
ing his own finance minister. 
Kenneth Clarke. The move was 
nevertheless hailed by aides and 
many of the party’s so-called 
Euroskeptics as a dramatic but 
workable solution to a problem 
that has dogged Mr. Major's 
every effort to unite his party 
during almost six and a half 
years in office. 

Opposition leaders greeted 
this development as a sign of 


increasing disarray in the Con- 
servative ranks. 

Labour’s economics spokes- 
man. Gordon Brown, told re- 
porters. “We now have a leader 
who has lost control of his 
party.” 

Menzies Campbell of the 
minority Liberal Democrats said 
that the prime minister was “not 
only abdicating the leadership of 
the warring Tory parr.- but com- 
pletely capitulating to the Tory 
Euro-rebels.” 

The shift over the European 
question came as Mr. Major 
fought to heal divisions in his 
ruling Conservative Party over 
Europe, the same issue that led to 
the ousting of his predecessor. 
Margaret Thatcher, as party 
leader and prime minister in 
November 1 990. 

Mr. Major has been left reel- 
ing by the decision of more than 
200 Conservative candidates, in- 
cluding three junior ministers, to 
campaign against a European 
single currency in defiance of 
government policy, which is to 
wait to see if it is in Britain's 
interest to join. 


Mr. Major said it was "frus- 
trating” that some members of 
his party were "unwisely” step- 
ping out of line on the issue. But 
he repeated his appeal, made 
first in a television broadcast 
Wednesday night and backed up 
in full-page newspaper adver- 
tisements Thursday, for parly 
candidates not to tie his hands 
ahead of negotiations on 
Europe’s future. 

He told reporters on his plane, 
as he carried on a relentless 
schedule of campaigning for re- 
election. that he was delighted 
Europe was at the top of the 
election agenda. 

But he said that he had Little 
choice hut to accept a free vote 
on the single currency project. 

Some of the shine was taken 
off the news by the admission in 
a radio interview by Mr. Clarke, 
the chancellor of the Exchequer, 
that he did not know about Mr. 
Major’s decision or announce- 
ment in advance. 

Asked if he had been con- 
sulted. Mr. Clarke said. "No. I 
wasn't.” before hastily backing ; 
Mr. Major’s line. 


Chirac Lets Rumors Swirl: 
Early Election or Reshuffle? 


BRIEFLY 


Agence France-Presst 

PARIS — Speculation mounted Thursday 
that President Jacques Chirac of France would 
either call early legislative elections or re- 
shuffle his government to ease France’s entry 
into the single European currency and aid his 
program of internal reforms. 

Politicians have repeatedly urged one op- 
tion or the other in recent days, and Mr. Chirac 
and Prime Minister Alain Juppe have been 
consulting. 

Dissolution of the National Assembly and 
early elections appeared the more likely pos- 
sibility Thursday after press revelations that 
French public deficits will be higher than 
expected this year, forcing a tightening of 
austerity measures next year. 

Holding an early vote would enable Mr. 
Chirac to campaign while avoiding the debate 
on European monetary union that could be 
expected if the elections were staged on 
schedule in March 1998, analysts said. 

The center-left dailies Liberation and Le 
Monde both said Budget Ministry experts had 
estimated in an internal document that, in the 
absence of corrective measures, the deficit 
would amount to 3.8 percent of gross do- 
mestic product in 1997, well beyond die limit 
of 3 percent set by the Maastrichf Treaty, 
which governs the monetary union. The fi- 
nance Ministry, however, denied the exist- 
ence of such a document 

Latest opinion polls show that early elec- 
tions will be risky for the right, with a back- 
lash expected after the rout of the left in the 
legislative elections of Man* 1993. The two 
latest surveys were contradictory. One pre- 
dicted a narrow victory for the left, while the 
other indicated the right would prevafl- 

But a victory for the conservative coalition 
would confer increased legitimacy on Mr. 
Chirac at a time when he has failed to reverse 
his deep unpopularity. 

An influential Gaullist deputy, Pierre 
Mazeaud, who held a meeting with Mr. Chirac 
on Wednesday, said Thursday that early elec- 
tions * ‘are indeed among the solutions that are 
currently being considered” by the presi- 
dent. 

Mr. Mazeaud. who heads the Parliament's 
legislative committee, said he was personally 
opposed to early elections, but acknowledged 
that Mr. Chirac, who began his seven-year 
term in 1995, needed to find his “second 
wind.” 

* ‘From October, we shall enter into a new 


. : 



Belgians Study Troop Atrocities S 

BRUSSELS — Miliary training is under review in wake jusl over half Ihe vole. I AFP) 

of new evidence that Belgian paratroopers committed rt ■ ni t? j ,• T\ * *1 
atrocities against Somali civilians during a 1993 l/N peace ijtPlSS llQTl FOUTlCtCltlOTl UOtQllS 
mission, the armed forces chief of staff said Thursday. _ „ . 

Defense Minister Jean-Pol Poncelet said he was con- ZURICH —The Swiss government will unveil this year 
sidering disbanding the paratroop unit at the center of the a detailed plan for its proposed 7 billion Swiss franc ($4.76 
scandal, which came to light after a newspaper published billion) foundation that would use gold sales to finance 
photographs of the atrocities, including one of a paratrooper humanitarian projects, the Finance Ministry said Thursday, 
urinating on a Somali. The ministry said it would present the cabinet by autumn the 

Admiral Willy Herteleer. the chief of staff, said Thursday concept for the foundation s activities, 
that military training was being reviewed lo “see whether The Swiss Foundation for Solidarity, to be financed by 
we don't go too far in creating Ram bos who may have seeing °ff national gold reserves, was proposed by the 
shoved their values aside in an unacceptable manner.” government last month in a bid to restore Switzerland s 
The cases came to light when a former paratrooper spoke humanitarian image following the flood of accusations that 
out anonymously and offered photographs to a newspaper jhe i^utral country was Nazi Germany s wartime banker and 
earlier this month. More pictures were published Wed- is still holding assets of Holocaust victims. (Reuters) 
nesday from a second anonymous witness. (API 

Albanians Set June 29 Election 7 Muslims on Trial in Bosnia 


Je»OraiftrKilnflIcv«n 

Mr. Chirac at a meeting Thursday in 
the presidential Ely see Palace in Paris. 

situation in French politics as far as the debate 
on Europe is concerned," Mr. Mazeaud said. 
“I fully understand that the president is think- 
ing in terms of the difficult months to come” 
when the euro is adopted. 

One senior minister said Wednesday that 
French leaders were considering possibilities 
of either early elections or a reshuffle. 

“The president and the prime minister are 
mulling filings over,” said Education Min- 
ister Francois Bayrou. “Leave them to think 
things through. I am certain that very quickly 
we will see what comes out of their reflec- 
tion.” 

Francois Hollande, spokesman for the op- 
position Socialist Party, said Thursday that 


TIRANA — Albania's political parries have agreed to 
hold general elections June 29. the international mediator to 
Albania. Franz Vranitzky. said Thursday. 

Mr. Vranitzky. in Tirana for talks with politicians and 
officials, said that the date had been agreed on by all 
concerned, but the conditions for the vote had noL 

President Sali Berisha reluctantly agreed in March to 
hold new elections as a concession to rebels in the south 
who seized control of a string of towns and are still 
demanding his resignation. 

The Balkan republic last went to the polls in May 1 996 in 


ZVORNTK. Bosnia-Herzegovina — Seven Muslims de- 
tained by U.S. troops Iasi year and handed over to Bosnian 
Serb police went on trial Thursday, four of them on murder 
charges. The court denied them their choice of lawyers and 
appointed its own. 

The seven say they escaped a massacre in the town of 
Srebrenica after it was captured by Bosnian Serbs in July 
1995. They say they survived in the wild until they spotted 
the U.S. soldiers in May 1996 in eastern Bosnia, and 
surrendered. Officials of the North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization-led peacekeeping force were skeptical of the 
men’s account at the time. (AP) 


Russia Pursues New Bond With China 


the speculation about snap elections or a re- 
shuffle was “a formidable admission of fail- 
ure,” adding that the government bad reached 
“a financial and political dead end.” 

Philippe de Villiers, a maverick opposed to 
the single currency, said early elections would 
be “a maneuver aimed at avoiding debate on 
the essential choices.” 

“By avoiding debate on Europe, the pres- 
ident of the republic would quietly sacrifice 
fiance to Maastricht,” he said. 


Arc nee France- Presse 

MOSCOW — A year after 
announcing a "strategic part- 
nership for the 2 1st century,” 
the leaders of Russia and 
China will sign a key border 
agreement here next week 
and discuss ambitious joint 
projects, as Moscow seeks to 
forge new bonds with its east- 
ern neighbors. 

Russian foreign policy has 
undergone an eastward shift 
since the former spymaster, 
Yevgeni Primakov, an eastern 
expert, was appointed foreign 
minister in January 1996. 

But while it may consol- 
idate the new rapprochement, 
the visit of the Chinese pres- 
ident, Jiang Zemin, from 


Tuesday through April 26 
does not herald an alliance to 
counteract the power of the 
United States and the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization. 
Russian analysts said. 

Mr. Jiang is scheduled to 
sign an agreement reducing 
troop deployments along 
China’s border with Russia 
and the former Soviet stales of 
Kazakstan- Kyrgyzstan and 
Tajikistan in Central Asia. 

Mr. Jiang and President 
Boris Yeltsin are also due to 
sign a joint political declara- 
tion on the “multipolar 
world, ’ ’ setting out their views 
on the optimum global con- 
ditions for their development. 

“Russia is looking for 


To Turks Opposing a Mine , Gold Means Poison 


By Stephen Kinzer 

New forit Times Service 

BERGAMA, Turkey — Built by 
the ancient Greeks, conquered by Al- 
exander the Great and denounced by 
Sl John as “the devil’s throne” be- 
cause of die number of early Chris- 
tians tortured here, this town has been 
the scene of battles and confronta- 
tions for more than 3,000 years. 

Outsiders have once again cast 
their eyes upon Rergama, known to 
the Romans as Per gam um. This time 
they are not interested in its political, 
religious or strategic importance, but 
in lie wealth that they have found 
beneath its soil. Bergama’s latest 
blessing, or curse, is gold. 

“In 1989 a gentleman came to me 
and told me there was gold in our 
earth.” Mayor Sefa Taskin recalled. 
“I was very happy- I supposed mat 
maybe we would become rich. Bui 
then I told him that we bad nor seen 
any gold, and I gently asked him where 
it was and how he was going ; to get it 
He started to mention cyanide. Inal 
was when we began to have doubts. 

Those doubts have grown, and Mr. 
Taskin is now leading an international 
campaign against efforts by a French- 
based company. Eurogold, to open 
Turkey's first modem gold mine here. 
He has rallied many villagers to his 
side, warning that the mine poses 
grave environmental dangers while 
offering little or no benefit 

Eurogold officials say be is wildly 
exaggerating the risks and. by doing 
e “Sg%a potentiafly l^a- 
tive industry. They have ide ntified a 
££d band of Turkish territory 
retching from the Aegean to the 
BlLk Sea that they believe may be 
rich with gold, and want to begin their 


digging here, where geologists say 
subterranean veins hold more than 
three tons of gold. 

In Turkey, where environmental 
consciousness is still relatively low. 
the Bergama conflict has attracted 
national attention. It is novel not only 
because environmentalists are chal- 
lenging a foreign company backed by 

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the state, but also because they have 
managed to mobilize a number of 
poor Anatolian villagers, people who 
have historically been thought of as 
obedient and even docile. 

The mine site is 13 kilometers (8 
miles) southwest of Bergama. just out 
of sight of the commanding hills on 
which stately marble columns stand 
as testament to file great civilization 
that once flourished here. Work began 
five months ago when 2J00 trees 
were cut down. 

More than 200 technicians and 
laborers are now digging a mine pit. 
boring a wide underground passage 
and excavating a pool that will be 
used to store and detoxify the cy- 
anide-based solution that is used to 


separate the gold from other minerals. 
Mining is set to begin in November. 

“I don’t say I’m sure,” said Jack 
Testard. managing director of Euro- 
gold. “But why not? We have every 
permit signed.” 

But in the shabby cafe in Ovacik, 
the village closest to the mine, patrons 
competed with one another in vivid 
promises to prevent the mine from 
opening. 

“Until we die we’ll be against it." 
said Minur Aldar, a retired cotton 
fanner. “We won't let it happen.” 

Mr. Aldar is old enough to remem- 
ber that in 1938, Ovacik moved here 
from a spot several miles away after 
the original village was destroyed in 
an earthquake. This part of Turkey is 
geologically unstable, and the pos- 
sibility of an earthquake that might 
rupture the clay-and-polyethelyne 
sealer beneath the waste poo] is 
among people's fears. 

They also fear that cyanide will 
seep through the sealer even without 
an earthquake, that blasting will dam- 
age their homes and that the large 
amounts of water necessary for the 
mining process will dry up the water 
table and leave their crops parched. 

"Maybe this project could be suc- 
cessful in northern Canada or in 
Brazil or the African desert,” Mr. 
Taskin said. 

‘ ‘Bui here we have 300,000 people 
living around the mine. We don’t 
want this risk. Eurogold will use our 
air and water, get our gold, and when 
they leave after eight years we will be 
stuck with the poison." 

“I have told them, ‘The people 
don’t want you, so you should go 
quietly.’ They don’t want to hear us,’ ’ 
he said. “Maybe they can open the 
mine with 20,000 soldier; and 100 


tanks, but is that really wtaai they 
want?" 

The engineer overseeing the mine 
project here, Chris Power, a 39-year- 
old Scot, views the mayor as a pro- 
pagandist whose main interest is pro- 
moting his political career by playing 
on the fears of uneducated villagers. 

He insists that the mine will operate 
safely and that after it is closed, the 
site will be returned to its natural 
state. 

“But people have cyanide on the 
mind and that’s all they can hear.” he 
said. 

v ’Cyanide is basically the universal 
chemical for the extraction of gold. 
Apart from not being here at all, there 
is nothing more we can do to make it 
cleaner or better." 

He said the mine might actually 
increase the town's attractiveness. 
“There’s an allure to mines,” he said. 
“Why not advertise: ‘We’ve got rains 
that are thousands of years old and 
we’ve got Turkey’s first gold mine. 
Come and see the gold mine.’ ” 

Mr. Power has resisted suggestions 
from government agencies that he 
hire armed guards to protect the mine, 
reasoning that such a move might 
encourage hotheaded opponents of 
the project to find guns and “send the 
whole situation out of control.” 

Mr. Taskin and his allies are count- 
ing on a worldwide publicity cam- 
paign to prevent the mine from open- > 
mg. They have enlisted German 
politicians and environmental groups 
— a German company is to supply the , 
cyanide — as well as members of the | 
European Parliament, British anti- ; 
mining campaigners and even drama 
professors who worry about possible 
damage to Bergama's ancient theat- 
ers. 


strong new partners to main- 
tain a balance of powers in the 
world,” said Irina 
Kobrenskaya, a political ana- 
lyst at the Moscow branch of 
the Carnegie Endowment, an 
international think tank. 

The Chinese-Russian rap- 
prochement “is not just a re- 
sponse to NATO expansion.’ ’ 
she said. “Russia is refocus- 
ing its foreign policy on Asia 
to have room for maneuver.” 

Leonid Moiseyev, deputy 
head of the Russian Foreign 
Ministry’s First Asia Depart- 
ment. said the improvement 
in Chinese-Russian ties 
began with President Mikhail 
Gorbachev’s visit to Beijing 
in May 1989, “when NATO 
expansion was not yet an is- 
sue.” 

He said three major 
obstacles blocking a normal- 
ization of ties had now been 
largely removed: rivalry over 
Vietnam and Cambodia, a 
dispute over border demarc- 


ation and a massive concen- 
tration of military forces 
along China’s 8.000-kilome- 
ter 1 5, 000- mile) border with 
the former Soviet Union. 

“Final border demarcation 
may be completed this year.” 
Mr. Moiseyev said. “At any 
rale. 80 to 90 percent of the 
work will definitely be com- 
pleted." 

Russia has become China’s 
biggest arms supplier since 
the two former rivals for lead- 
ership of the Communist 
world officially patched up 
their ideological nft in 1989. 

Russia has signed contracts 
to supply China with 72 Su- 
27 fighter planes, the S-300 
anti-aircraft missile system 
and two destroyers equipped 
with missile launchers. 

Mr. Moiseyev recalled that 
the Soviet Union built up 
China's armed forces in the , 
1950s, and Moscow and ! 
Beijing had a long history of 
military cooperation. 


CIRCULATION SALES 
DIRECTOR 
SWITZERLAND 

The International Herald Tribune, jointly owned by The New 
York Times and The Washington Post companies, is currently 
printing in 13 locations worldwide for distribution in over 
180 countries daily. With global sales rising and the opening 
of two more print sites this year, the "World's Daily 
Newspaper" continues to exp an a rapidly. 

We are now looking for a Circulation Sales Director for 
Switzerland, based in our Zurich office. The brief is to grow 


one of he IHT’s key markets worldwide This position will 
entail complete responsibility for distribution, marketing and 
sales the newspaper through the various circulation 
channels. 

The ideal candidate will be a highly motivated and results 
oriented professional in his/her late’20' or early 30's. He/she 
will preferably have media sales experience. However; 
marketing ana sales skills along with self-motivation and self 
discipline are more important qualities for this challenging 
position. 

Fluency in both German and English is a must Swiss 
national or Swiss working permit is preferable but not 
essential. 

Applications will be kept in strict confidence. Please write 
mm foil CV and current salary details to: 

Didier Brun 
Circulation Director 

International Herald Tribune. Reh IHT 18 
181, ave Charles^ e-Gaulle, 92521 Neuilly Cedex - France 


our. 


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PAGE 6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 1997 


R 


INTERNATIONAL 


A Defiant Netanyahu 
Says He Won’t Resign 

All Await State Prosecutor’s Decision 
On Whether to Indict Him for Fraud 


By Serge Schmemann 

New York Times Service 

JERUSALEM — Prime Minister 
Benjamin Netanyahu went on the 
counteroffensive Thursday against po- 
lice recommendations that he be in- 
dicted for breach of public trust, de- 
fiantly vowing at a gathering of political 
allies that “this government is not going 
anywhere." 

After his initial shock at the revelation 
that he had been name d in the police 
report — which Mr. Netanyahu first 
learned, according to an aide, from the 
evening television news program Wed- 
nesday — the prime minister rallied his 
senior assistants and ordered a full 
counterattack. 

In a speech to Likud party loyalists, 
originally scheduled as a Passover toast, 
Mr. Netanyahu made no reference to the 
accusations against him. but drew in- 
stead on his trademark skill before mi- 
crophones to cast himself as the ma- 
ligned victim of political intrigue. 

“The truth will win! The truth will be 
victorious. 1 " Mr. Netanyahu thundered. 
“1 came here today to tell you we will 
continue to lead the state of Israel until 
the year 2000, and even beyond 
2000 !” 

The blow that fell on Mr. Netanyahu 
was the disclosure that police officers 
had concluded a 12- week investigation 
into accusations of impropriety in the 
appointment of an attorney general with 
the recommendation that state prose- 
cutors bring charges against the prime 
minister and three other senior politi- 
cians, including two members of his 
government. 

The basic accusation is that the head 
of a major party in Mr. Netanyahu's 
coalition, Aiyeh Deri of the Orthodox 
Shas party, pushed for the appointment 
of a lawyer named Roni Bar-On as at- 
torney general for his own ends, evid- 
ently stemming from Mr. Deri’s cor- 
ruption trial. Mr. Netanyahu named Mr. 
Bar-On, but his lack of qualifications 
roused a storm of protest, and he 
resigned after a day. 

The current attorney general. Elyakim 
Rubinstein, a respected former judge 
and civil servant, and die state attorney, 
Edna ArbeL, spent the day poring over 
the 995-page police report. They said 
they would announce whether they in- 
tended to issue any indictments before 
Passover, which probably meant by 
Monday. 

In the meantime, the initial shock of 


the revelation that Mr. Netanyahu had 
been implicated by the police — 
something that no one had expected — 
was followed by widespread question- 
ing of the seriousness of the charges. 
Senior police officers confirmed that the 
recommendations to charge Mr. Net- 
anyahu were qualified, and that they 
were based on the testimony of only one 
witness, albeit a central one. 

In his cover letter to the state pros- 
ecutors. which was made public 
Thursday, Sando Mazor, the head of the 
investigative unit, wrote. “We are aware 
of the problems of indicting in such a 
sensitive and complex affair while re- 
lying on one central witness who might 
be viewed or presented by the defense as 
unreliable or even as having vested in- 
terest, but, we believe, following a deep 
acquaintance with this witness, that his 
testimony is reliable, at least as far as 
testing it in court." 

Mr. Mazor did not name the witness, 
but there was a general agreement that he 
was probably Dan Avi-Yitzhak, Mr. 
Deri’s former defense lawyer in his cor- 
ruption trial, who is also widely con- 
sidered the source of the original leak 
about Mr. Bar-On's appointment. 

The affair preoccupied Israel’s gov- 
ernment Just as a U.S. envoy, Dennis 
Ross, arrived to try to restart the Middle 
East peace negotiations that have been 
frozen since mid-March. 

No progress was expected on the 
peace front until a decision was made on 
whether to prosecute Mr. Netanyahu, 
which could determine if new elections 
are called. 

“Until the situation is resolved, the 
peace process certainly isn't going to go 
anywhere," said Han an Ashrawi, a 
member of the Palestinian cabinet. 

The Labor Party's leader, Shimon 
Peres, had been pushing for a joint 
Likud-Labor government to negotiate 
with the Arabs. But Labor officials now 
say plans to form a “peace coalition" 
cannot progress while the government is 
under threat of criminal charges. 

■ Circumspect in Washington 

The White House refrained Thursday 
from commenting on Mr. Netanyahu's 
legal woes, calling the Israeli political 
crisis “a domestic legal matter,” The 
Associated Press reported Thursday. 

The White House press secretary, Mi- 
chael McCurry, told reporters, “We 
consider that a domestic legal matter that 
the Israeli government and the people of 
Israel have to resolve." 



MINES: U.S. Companies Make Deals in Rebel Zaire 


Continued from Page 1 

for the Liberation of the Congo 
(Zaire), 49 percent. 

A subsidiary of the firm, Amer- 
ica Diamond Buyers, was the first 
foreign company to sign a com- 
mercial contract with the rebels 
and already has done hundreds of 
thousands of dollars in business 
since it set up two weeks ago. 
When Marshal Mobutu con- 
trolled all of Zaire, and its cobalt, 
copper, diamond and gold depos- 
its. American companies were at a 
disadvantage because the Foreign 
Corrupt Practices Act forbids 
them from paying bribes to state 
officials; in Marshal Mobutu's 
Zaire, bribes were a prerequisite 
to doing business. European 
countries have no such laws. 

American businessmen in 
Africa, however, concede that 
they have paid “fees and taxes" 
both to corrupt government of- 
ficials in Zaire and to less-fean- 
honest rebel leaders in other 
countries, such as Liberia, who 
used the money to finance their 
war efforts. But Joseph Martin of 
America Diamond Buyers said 
that Mr. Kabila's alliance is tak- 
ing a stand against the kind of 
corruption that kept resource-rich 
African countries in poverty 
while leaders lined their pockets. 

“We are told by the rebel al- 


liance, that if anybody does ask 
for a bribe, we are told to turn 
them in and they won’t be al- 
lowed to work for the alliance 
any more, and I find it a breath of 
fresh air for Zaire,” Mr. Martin 
said in an interview in the north- 
ern city of Kisangani. 

When America Diamond Buy- 
ers opened its office, Zairians 
broke windows and nearly broke 
down walls in their eagerness to 
sell diamonds to the Americans, 
said Mr. Martin. Young men 
walk around Kisangani, Zaire's 
third- largest city, wearing T- 
shirts printed with the company’s 
logo. Late last year, as the rebels 
made advances toward Zaire’s 
mineral-production regions, they 
called on anyone involved in 
mining to step forward. 

“Nobody did immediately, 
because they didn't want to be 
fighting with the rebels. But we 
saw that they were doing the right 
thing," Mr. Martin said. “Now 
every mining company in the 
world Ls chasing us in here." 

Miners are not the rally ones 
seeking profits in rebel-held 
Zaire. New Millennium Invest- 
ment Ltd., based in Washington, 
has entered a joint venture with 
the alliance to open the first bank 
here in Goma, the de facto rebel 
capital. The company owns 60 
percent of the Development Bank 


of Goma, and the re maining 40 
belongs to the rebels — nearly all 
of which is tied up in the bank's 
real estate. 

New Mille nnium also has 
signed on to revitalize Goma’s 
telecommunications. In addition, 
businessmen here say Comsat, 
based in Befeesda, Maryland, has 
signed an agreement to sell satel- 
lite telephone equipment in 
Goma. Comsat did not respond to 
requests for comment on the re- 
ported deaL 

Why Americans, along with 
Canadian and South African 
firms, appear to have the jump on 
European companies is not clear, 
but Westerners here say it likely 
has something to do with the 
rebel alliance’s finance commis- 
sioner, Mwana Nanga Mawan- 
panga. He was educated in Ken- 
tucky and spent enough time in 
the United States to make ex- 
tensive business contacts. 

“Everybody is going to profit 
from these a gre eme n ts.” Mr. 
Mawanpanga said Thursday in 
Lubumbashi, the Reuters news 
agency reported. “Above all, in- 
vestment must profit the people 
of this country and especially 
those in the region where re- 
sources are developed." Cash 
would also helppay for the war to 
topple Marshal Mobutu, “which 
is our No. 1 priority," he added. 


Chaim Herzog, 78, 
Former President 
Of Israel, Is Dead 


By Eric Pace 

New York Times Service 

Chaim Herzog, 78, Israel's 
outspoken, sometimes con- 
troversial president from 
2983 to 2993, who was a 
former diplomat and general, 
died Thursday. 

Mr. Herzog suffered heart 
failure afTer contracting pneu- 
monia during a recent visit to 
the United States, said Rachel 
Sofer, spokeswoman of Tel 
Hashomer Hospital in Tel 
Aviv. 

Mr. Herzog was his coun- 
try’s chief delegare to the 
United Nations worn 19 75 to 
1978 after serving as its di- 
rector of military intelligence 
and, in 1967, as the first mil- 
itary governor of the occu- 
pied West Bank. Over the 
years he was also a business- 
man, a lawyer, an author and a 
Labor Party member of the 
Israeli Parliament. 

In his two successive five- 
year terms as Israel’s sixth 
chief of state, be strove to 
enlarge the president’s role, 
which in Israel is largely ce- 
remonial, by making public 
declarations on issues that 
leaders in government would 
not, or could not, discuss. 

By late 1987, as his first 
term was drawing to a dose 
and while a national unity 
government was in power, he 
had probably become more in- 
fluential and popular than any 
previous Israeli president 

His urbane, outgoing 
nature and his earlier roles in 
his country’s life fitted him to 
serve as a symbol of Israeli 
unity during his years as pres- 
ident. A desoendent of rabbis, 
and a witness of Nazi con- 
centration-camp . horrors 
while he was an officer in the 
British Army in World War 
n, he was steeped in the 
splendors and sorrows of 
Jewish history. He was also 
cosmopolitan, with the trace 
of a brogue from bis native 
Belfast, in Northern Ireland, 
and an education gained 
largely in Britain. 

As the chief delegate to (he 
United Nations. Mr. Herzog 
led Israel’s defense against 
Arab attempts to oust it fix. 
1975, when the General As- 


sembly passed a resolution 
equating Zionism wjtfr ra- 
cism, he went to die rostrum 
and defiantly tore a copy of 
the resolution in two. Seven- 
teen years later, the assembly 

repealed the resolution. 

Mr. Herzog was in the Is- 
raeli Defense Force at his 
country's birth in 1948; rose 
to the rank of major general 
and served twice as director 
of military intelligence, from 
1948 to 1950 and from 1959 
to 3962. He then retired, only 
to return as the West Bank's 

mi ti tary governor just after 
the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. 

Mr. Herzog was first elect- 
ed president by the Israeli 
Par liament, die Knesset, in 
1983, in a rebuff to Prime 
Minister Menacbesn Begin 's 
governing coalition of that 
day. 

In 1988, Mr. Herzog was 
elected by the Knesset to a 
second term, the maximum 
permitted by Israeli law. 

He was succeeded on May 
13, 1993, by Ezer Weizman. 

Emilio Azcarraga, 66, 
Mexican Media Chief 

MEXICO CITY (AP) — 
Emili o Azcarraga MUmo, 66, 
one of the world’s major me- 
dia tycoons and a fervent sup- 
porter of Mexico's long-ruling 
Institutional Revolutionary 
Party, died Wednesday after a 
long ailment 

An announcement by the 
giant Televisa chain, which 
he headed fra* decades, said 
Mr. Azcarraga died in Miami, 
but did not give details. He 
left Mexico m March to be 
hospitalized in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Azcarraga looked tired 
when he went on the air last 
month to announce his retire- 
ment as president and chair- 
man of Grupo Televisa SA, 
which produces the most 
Spanish-^anguage television 
prog r a mming in the world. He 
said it was time for a younger 
generation to take over the 
$1.45 billion media empire 
thathe built up from a string of 
radio stations inherited from 
his father, Emilio Azcarraga 
Vidauneta. Televisa is also a 
major player in publishing, ra- 
dio, music recording, cable 
and satellite broadcasts. 


GINGRICH: Dole Lends Speaker Funds for Fine BRAIN : Hearing Words Helps Babies Develop 


BRIEFLY 


Continued from Page 1 

and hours discussing these op- 
tions," Mr. Gingrich said 
Thursday, as she looked on 
from the gallery. He drew 
standing applause from Re- 
publicans in the chamber 
when be added, “I have never 
been prouder of Marianne than 
over the last few months.'' 

But if his announcement 
helps Mr. Gingrich among 
fellow Republicans, Demo- 
crats immediately attacked iL 
Representative David Bonior 
of Michigan, the minority 
whip, reeled off a series of 
questions. “Is this a sweet- 
heart deal for Newt Gin- 
grich,’’ he asked, “or could 
any American get such a 
deal? Is this just another ex- 
ample of business as usual?" 


Like other Democrats, he 
suggested there could be a 
violation of Congress’s pro- 
hibition on gifts and gratu- 
ities. He and others noted that 
Mr. Dole recently had taken a 
position with a law firm that 
lobbies Congress, which Mr. 
Bonior called a potential con- 
flict of interest. Mr. Dole is 
not, however, registered as a 
lobbyist with the firm. 

Mr. Dole can afford the 
loam He will earn more than 
$600,000 a year from his new 
position at the Washington 
law firm, and he made more 
than $500,000 just for a cred- 
it-card ad during professional 
football’s Super Bowl game. 
He also receives several pen- 
sions, and he and his wife, 
Elizabeth, have assets of 
about $4 million. 


And What About Collateral? 
This Is Better Than the Bank 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — Newt Gingrich, in borrowing 
$300,000 from Bob Dole, got a deal better than most 
individuals could get from a bank — unless they could put 
up equity in a house as collateral. 

The eight-year loan bears interest at a current rate of 10 
percent, but it appears to be adjustable, at 1 5 percentage 
points over the prime rate, now 8.5 percent Mr. Gingrich 
does not have to put up collateral and does not have to pay 
anything for eight years, but in that case, interest would 
continue to mount 

Home equity lines of credit are available in the United 
States for an average of 8.4 percent, although that is a teaser 
rate that typically rises to prime plus 15 percent — the 
Gingrich rate — after six or nine months, said Bob Heady, 
the publisher of Bank Rate Monitor, a newsletter based in 
Florida. Such loans typically require monthly interest 
payments but no principal payments for many years. 

Without collateral, rates are generally much higher for 
individuals. The average bank rate for unsecured loans is 
15.2 percent, he said, while the average credit card rate is 
17 percent. Those Joans do not, however, normally in- 
volve this much money. 


The involvement of Mr. 
Dole, who has had a some- 
times turbulent relationship 
with Mr. Gingrich, was a sur- 
prise. But analysts said there 
was concern among Repub- 
licans that if Mr. Gingrich's 
troubles ended up costing him 
his job, there was no strong 
candidate to replace him. 

Mr. Dole said in a state- 
ment, “I consider this not 
only an opportunity to sup- 
port a friend bat a long-term 
investment in the future of our 
party." He is providing an 
eight-year loan with simple 
interest of 10 percent on an 
annual basis. Mr. Gingrich’s 
office said this was compa- 
rable to commercially avail- 
able terms. But it allows the 
entire principal and interest to 
be paid at the very end. 


Continued from Page 1 

of both nature and nurture. 
Before birth, it appears that 
genes predominantly direct 
how the brain establishes ba- 
sic wiring patterns. Neurons 
grow and travel into distinct 
neighborhoods. 

After birth, it seems that en- 
vironmental factors predom- 
inate. The inflowing stream of 
sights, sounds, noises, smells, 
touches — and most import- 
antly, language and eye con- 
tact — literally makes the 
brain take shape. It is a radical 
and shocking concept 

Experience in the first year 
of life lays the basis for net- 
works of neurons that enable 
us to be smart, creative and 
adaptable in all the years that 
follow, said Esther Thelen, a 


neurobiologist at Indiana 
University in Bloomington. 

In later life, what make us 
smart and creative and ad- 
aptable are networks of neur- 
ons which support our ability 
to use abstractions from one 
memory to help form new 
ideas and solve problems, 
said Charles Stevens, a neuro- 
biologist at the Salk Institute 
in La Jolla, California. 

Smarter people may have a 
greater number of neural net- 
works that are more intricately 
woven together, a process that 
starts in the first year. 

Constant patter may be fee 


ly brain development, ac- 
cording to Betty Hart, a pro- 
fessor emeritus of human de- 
velopment at fee University of 
Kansas in Lawrence. Wife her 


colleague, Todd Ridley of the 
University of Alaska, Ms. Hart 
recently studied 42 children 
bran to professional, working- 
class or welfare parents. 

During the first two and 
half years of fee children’s 
lives, tiie scientists spent an 
hour a month recording every 
spoken word and every par- 
ent-child interaction. 

At age 3, the children were 
given standard tests. The chil- 
dren of professional parents 
scored highest Spoken lan- 
guage was tiie key variable, 
Ms. Hart said. 

A child wife professional 
parents heard, on average; 
2,100 words an hour. Chil- 
dren of working-class parents 
heard 1,200 words and those 
wife parents on welfare heard 
only 600 words an hour. 


YELTSIN: Russian Signals He’s Ready to Sign NATO Agreement 


Continued from Page 1 

Western leaders to ensure that 
Russia's concerns were taken 
into account 

“We know that there are 
considerable differences of 
opinion, differences which 
have to be worked out and 
disposed of one by one, ” Mr. 
Kohl told a joint news con- 
ference with Mr. Yeltsin, say- 
ing he was confident feat 
“with goodwill on both 
sides." fee differences could 
be worked out by May 27. 

Mr. Yeltsin was more up- 
beat saying that Mr. Kohl had 
undertaken to use his influ- 
ence to make his Western al- 
lies aware of Russia's con- 
cerns about “the 
nonproliferation not only of 
fee nuclear threat but also of 
conventional weapons in the 
lands to be accepted into 


LOOT: Russians Ponder Fate of Wartime Spoils 


Continued from Page 1 

seized government archives, 
paintings, books and other 
works of art throughout oc- 
cupied Europe. The Soviet 
Union brought much of fee 
treasure home at the end of 
the war, justifying the seizure 
as a form of war reparations. 

For decades Russia’s pos- 
session of much of the cache 
was a close secret. After the 
collapse of fee Soviet Union, 
Russia become more open 
about its collection. 

That did not mean feat Rus- 
sia was prepared to return the 


treasure. Some of Russia’s 
finest museums are still brim- 
ming with the looted art. 

The Pushkin State Museum 
in Moscow has proudly dis- 
played objects known as Pri- 
am ‘s Treasure from fee site of 
ancient Troy. Recovered by 
Heinrich Schliemann in 1873, 
fee collection was stored in 
fee Prussian State Museum 
before the war. 

The Pushkin and the Her- 
mitage in Sl Petersburg are 
rich in trophy art Indeed, the 
list of captured paintings 
amounts to a who's who of 
Old Masters, Impressionists 


and other great Western 
artists. 

At the Center for fee Pre- 
servation of Historical-Docu- 
mentary Collections, Mr. 
Mukhamedzhanov tends a 
collection feat includes 
looted government archives 
from Western and Eastern 
European countries. 

Through the Soviet period, 
the collection was accessible 
only to fee KGB and other 
security forces- But now fee 
archive is open to foreign 
scholars, and it relies on pro- 
ceeds from microfilming to 
help stay afloat. 


NATO.” likely to be initially 
Poland. Hungary and the 
Czech Republic. 

Those three countries are 
expected to be invited to join 
fee alliance ar a NATO sum- 
mit meeting in Madrid in Ju- 
ly- 

"We want to announce 
feat on fee 27fe of May in 
Paris, fee agreement will be 
signed by the leaders of fee 
NATO countries and of Rus- 
sia. So we need to make 
haste," Mr. Yeltsin de- 
clared. 

The remarks seemed de- 
signed to counter growing 
speculation that the signing 
would be postponed because 
of deep differences that have 
emerged this week in nego- 
tiations between Javier Solana 
M a d ariaga, the NATO secre- 
tary-general, and fee Russian 
foreign minister, Yevgeni Pri- 
makov. Mr. Solana himself 
said Wednesday the negoti- 
ations might not be concluded 
by May 27. 

Neither Mr. Yeltsin nor 
Mr. Kohl offered any clue as 
to the basis of their apparent 
optimism. Mr. Kohl said the 
document to be signed in Par- 
is was 90 percent complete, 
but needed urgent work. The 
agreement is supposed to set 
the ground rules for fee future 
security relationship between 
NATO and Russia, which is 
worried that an expanded 
NATO will bring a poten- 
tially threatening force to its 
very frontiers. 

Up to now, Russian nego- 
tiators have a insisted that 
NATO commit itself in the 


proposed charter not to sta- 
tion nuclear weapons on fee 
soil of its new members or 
deploy conventional forces 
there. Neither does Moscow 
want NATO to upgrade mil- 
itary infrastructure like air- 
fields and radar or transfer 
conventional weapons to its 
new members. 

A senior German official 
said the negotiations were “in 
the middle of fee endgame" 
and feat a principle sticking 
point lay in Russia's objection 
to NATO building up military 
infrastructure in Eastern 
Europe so as to maintain flex- 
ibility in fee event of a crisis. 

While NATO says it has no 
intention of stationing nuclear 
weapons or large numbers of 
Western soldiers in die 
former Warsaw Pact coun- 
tries, it insists feat its new 
members have the same rights 
as the 16 existing members. 

Those include protection 
under a stipulation feat an at- 
tack on one NATO country is 
to be viewed by the alliance as 
an attack on all of them. In 
separate negotiations in Vi- 
enna, NATO has made an of- 
fer designed to convince the 
Russians feat it does not plan 
a big military buildup on Rus- 
sia's borders. 

Mr. Yeltsin's remarks 
Thursday contrasted 

markedly wife an assessment 
by his spokesman feat the 
eastward expansion of NATO 
represented fee affiance's 
“biggest mistake since the 
Cold War” — a view reflect- 
ing intense hostility toward 
NATO’s eastward expansion 


among fee Russian military 
establishment and within fee 
Communist-controlled lower 
house of Parliament 

Part of the apparent shift, 
German officials said, related 
to Mr. Kohl’s offer feat, while 
he would not act as Russia’s 
“interpreter" in the West, he 
and other German officials 
would “be helpful" in meet- 
ing Russian concerns. 

The 66-year-old Mr. 
Yeltsin, who underwent heart 
bypass surgery last year, 
looked stiff, pale and tired at 
the news conference, staring 
fixedly ahead as fee German 
chancellor spoke. Mr. Kohl 
repeatedly referred to him as 
‘‘dear Boris," seeking to un- 
derscore what he depicts as a 
close personal relationship 
after many summit meetings. 

Thi s latest encounter was 
held in Germany’s premier 
spa town, a verdant settle- 
ment of luxurious hotels, 
thermal baths, clinics, a 
famed casino and restaurants 
once regarded as fee summer 
playground of Europe's 19fe- 
century aristocracy. 

The negotiations on 
NATO's eastward expansion 
seemed to advance last Feb- 
ruary at a summit meeting be- 
tween Mr. Yeltsin and Pres- 
ident Bill Clinton in 
Helsinki. 

Since then, Mr. Primakov 
has visited Paris, where he 
and President Jacques Chirac 
set the May 27 date for a 
gathering or 16 NATO lead- 
ers and Mr. Yeltsin to co- 
incide with a prearranged vis- 
it by Mr. Clinton. 


Greece Recalls Envoy to Iran 

ATHENS — Greece has recalled its ambassador to Iran 
for “consultations,” a Greek government spokesman said 
Thursday. But fee spokesman. Dimitris Reppas, added 
that Athens maintained good relations wife Tehran. 

Greece was the only European Union country feat did 
not recall its ambassador after a German court last week 
implicated Tehran in fee assassination of political op- 
ponents in Berlin in 1992. 

A Greek official played down the significance of the 
recall- (AFP) 

Iraq Hails UN Reaction to FUgftt 

BAGHDAD — Iraq on Thursday welcomed a United 
Nations Security Council statement that stopped short of 
calling a recent Iraqi flight to Saudi Arabia a violation of 
Gulf War sanctions. 

Baghdad newspapers, which carried fee statement 
matte Wednesday on their frontpages, also issued remarks 
by a Foreign Ministry official reiterating Iraq’s right to 
send civilian planes beyond its borders. (Reuters) 

Mexican Army Major Arrested 

MEXICO CITY — Mexican authorities have arrested 
m am y ma -i° r ^ho *ey ^ alerted the country’s most 
powerful drug kingpin to an operation designed to seize 
him in January, allowing him to escape. 

The army major, who was not identified by name, is the 
third military officer in recent weeks to be formally 
accused of jpotecting notorious drug leads. Military of- 
ficials said 



Fuentes, according to 


Talebon Plans to Destroy Art 

GHORBAND VALLEY, Afghanistan— Afghanista 
2®feha? refers say they will destroy fee 2,000-year- 
Buddhist statues in central Bamyan Province if they m 
ageto capture the province from their Shiite enemies. 

The minority Shiite Muslims, led by Karim. Khal 
control Bamyan Province and the historic treasures, J 
fee^Tateban is nipping at their heels in nearby GfaorfK 

“These statues are not Islamic and we will have 
destroy them," the Taleban’s top frontline command 
Mullah Abdul Wahed, said Wednesday. (/ 


EDITOR: Of What, Exactly? 


Continued from Page I 

appointment of Mr. Feng 
could be more innocent thaw 
invidious. “It is just possible 
that the guy really is genu- 
ine," the editor said, “that 
he’s an old guy and being 
given a retirement job.” 

Mr. Feng, 76, comes from a 
well-off Shanghai family and 
is the son of a silk manu- 
facturer. Purged during fee 
Cultural Revolution of 1966 
to 1976, he was reha bilitate 
to found China’s first official 
En f i^^e newspaper , 

He could not be reached to 


comment about his role at I 
paper. But Mr. Fenby ss 
Mr. Feng would not be < 
crouching on his editoi 

prerogatives. 

“I wasn’t really involv 
to the beginning of the pi 
cess.*' Mr. Fenby said, 
picked it up somewhere don 
fee track. But what I did 
have was sufficiently pol 
feaj antennae to see feat 1 
office is directly across fit 
mine and people would say 
is watching me.” 

“You’ve had people s 
he s going to be a censor 
co mmiss ar. As far as Truce 
cerned, Fm fee editor/ ’ 




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EDITORIALS/OPINION 


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INTERNATIONAL 



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PI BUSHED vuni THE NEW VOBK TOIES AMj THE H MHINCTbK POST 


Balance on China 


Is the Clinton administration restor- 
ing some balance to its China policy in 
the wake of a diplomatic defeat in 
Geneva this week? A few signs give 
reason to hope for a modest shift. The 
most important is President Bill Clin- 
ton's decision to meet with Hong Kong 
democrat Martin Lee this Friday. 

Mr. Lee. chairman of Hong Kong's 
top vote-getting political party, is a 
member of the elected legislature, 
which China plans to abolish as soon as 
it takes over Hong Kong on July 1 . He 
has tirelessly pressed China to keep its 
promise to respect the rule of law in 
Hong Kong, currently a British colony. 

China already has thrown that prom- 
ise in doubt, announcing plans to roll 
back the freedom of assembly and oth- 
er basic liberties. By meeting with Mr. 
Lee. the president sends a strong signal 
that Hong Kong's freedoms matter to 
the United States. 

Mr. Clinton's decision to see Mr. 
Lee comes as China basks in a victory 
at the UN Human Rights Commission 
in Geneva, which voted on Tuesday to 
not even consider a mildly worded 
resolution urging improvement in 
China's human rights record. That re- 
cord is abysmal: thousands are im- 
prisoned for their political views or 
religious beliefs. But the United States, 
hoping for even symbolic promises of 
improvement from China, failed to 
lead an effort on behalf of the res- 
olution. By the time it became clear 
that no improvement would be forth- 


coming. China had succeeded in splin- 
tering a pro-human rights coalition. 

Thai omission, along with Vice 
President Al Gore’s decision to skip 
Hong Kong during his recent China 
visit, has provoked congressional crit- 
icism to the point that extension of 
China's most-favored-nation trading 
status, once thought a sure thing, is 
now in doubL Such political consid- 
erations may have played a role in 
President Clinton's decision: so, per- 
haps. did his desire to meet with Tung 
Chee-hwa. China's handpicked Hong 
Kong leader, if Mr. Tung visits Wash- 
ington later this spring. 

But with the lack of results of its 
policy of forbearance leading up to 
Geneva, the administration also may 
be recalculating the importance of 
standing up for principle. Thai does nor 
mean abandoning a policy of engage- 
ment or swerving toward ‘ 'contain- 
ment": it just means not being afraid to 
speak up for human rights and other 
marrers of U.S. national interest. 

A good chance to put such a bal- 
anced policy into play comes in June at 
die annual meeting of the Group of 
Seven leading industrialized demo- 
cracies. As host, the United States has a 
good chance to promote a unified 
policy and statement on the importance 
to the West of democracy in Hong 
Kong — especially if it learns from the 
Geneva disappointment and begins 
laying the groundwork now. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST 


A Crisis in Israel 


Israel, already shaken by a break- 
down of the Mideast peace effort, now 
faces a political crisis. A long-awaited 
report by Israel's national police has 
recommended to prosecutors that 
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu 
be indicted for fraud and breach of trust 
in a political appointments scandal. 
This is a recommendation only, one 
that prosecutors may ultimately reject. 
The report also recommends charges 
against Netanyahu allies. 

Mr. Netanyahu denies the charges 
and should at this point be presumed 
innocent. If he is actually indicted, he 
would be entitled to the due process of 
law. however long thar may take. Yet 
the political impact of the investigation 
can no longer be easily contained. 

Already, news of the police report 
has ended talk of the opposition Labor 
Party entering a coalition cabinet to 
revitalize the Oslo peace agreements. 

Several members of the cabinet have 
threatened to withdraw their support 
from Mr. Netanyahu if he is indicted. 
That could force new national elec- 
tions less than a year after he and his 
conservative coalition took office. 


The issues underlying this scandal 
bear on one of the most important 
safeguards of democracy and tne rule 
of law — assurance that the impartial 
administration of justice is not deflec- 
ted by political considerations. 

Details of the police report are 
secret But Mr. Netanyahu and key 
political aides are suspected of having 
chosen Roni Bar-On to serve as at- 
torney general earlier this year to in- 
fluence and possibly quash corruption 
cases pending against a key Netanyahu 
political ally. Mr. Bar-On resigned 
after two days in office. 

The political crisis can only com- 
plicate attempts to rescue the troubled 
peace with the Palestinians, which is 
nearer collapse now than at any time 
since the Oslo agreements were signed 
nearly four years ago. The necessary 
decisions for peace can be made only 
by an Israeli government whose own 
legitimacy remains above doubL For 
the good of Israel and in the interests of 
peace, the questions raised by the crim- 
inal investigation need to be resolved 
as quickly and fairlv as possible. 

- THE .N EW YORK TIMES. 


Big Tobacco Gives In 


Big tobacco is desperate for peace. 
The revelation that Philip Moms and 
RJR Nabisco are holding secret set- 
tlement talks with tobacco plaintiffs 
marks a momentous development in 
the struggle to curb America's smoking 
addiction. There could be no more 
promising sign that the tobacco barons 
have finally abandoned their galling 
hubris and are scrambling to cut the 
best deal possible before the combined 
weight of legal, regulatory and public 
pressures beats them into submission. 

As described in Wednesday's Wall 
Street Journal, which broke news of the 
talks, the industry hopes to shelter it- 
self from legal liability for the health 
damage caused by smoking. In ex- 
change the industry would make an 
enormous payment to a smokers' com- 
pensation fund, perhaps as much as 
S300 billion over 25 years, and would 
accept federal regulation and strict lim- 
its on advertising. 

The mere discussion of such con- 
cessions is a measure of the industry's 
collapsing position. The fact that the 
chairmen of both companies attended 
the opening session, and that a key 
White House aide is monitoring the 
proceedings, is proof that this is more 
than a sparring march. 

In retrospect, it is easy to pick out 
key turning points thar have forced the 
industry :o abandon its intransigence. 
Defectors from the industry released 
incriminating documents that made it 
difficult to ignore decades of duplicity 
and increased the likelihood that some 
plaintiff somewhere would finally win 
a big verdict, with huge punitive dam- 
ages attached. The Food and Drug Ad- 
ministration began to move against to- 


bacco. bringing a looming threat of 
regulation. Then the industry created a 
public relations disaster that its worst 
enemies could not have devised, when 
a solemn assemblage of its top ex- 
ecutives swore to Congress that they 
did not believe tobacco was addictive. 
That ludicrous testimony earned the 
ridicule it deserved and convinced the 
public that these businesses respected 
neither facts nor fairness. 

The legal and political scales, long 
weighted in favor of cigarette makers, 
began to tip the other way when the 
attorneys general of 22 states filed suit 
to recover the health costs of smoking. 
Liggett, the industry's smallest com- 
pany, settled out of court and released 
yet more incriminating documents. 
When Liggett acknow ledged that the 
industry' had long sought to target teen- 
agers so as to lure them into a lifetime 
smoking habit, the industry's moral 
position had become indefensible. 
Also, it faced the risk of losing court 
cases and big financial judgments. 

The final shape of any settlement is 
still not clear. Negotiators are said to be 
far apart on some key issues, including 
the sum to be paid by the industry, the 
extent to which the industry will be 
sheltered from liability suits, and the 
degree of regulation it will agree to 
endure. But the startling, heartening 
development is that the tobacco com- 
panies have now moved from the 
bunker to the surrender table. The anti- 
smoking forces have been relentless, 
even when the odds were against them. 
Now the corporate arrogance and tac- 
tical blunders of big tobacco have put 
victory within the crusaders’ grasp. 

— THE .V£» YORK TIMES. 


71 l\TERMTl"V\L^ « f 

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Japan Needs Bold Reform to Star Competitive 

X «/ . -..Ultf ortmn 


T OKYO — Japan finds itself at a 
crossroads. After World War II, 
our country devoted itself to catching 
up with the West. But the social and 
economic systems that enabled success 
in that endeavor are now obsolete, in- 
capable of coping with the competition 
we face internationally and the rapid 
aging of our population at home. 

These changes require us to reform 
our existing systems drastically. 

According to current projections, by 
2025. 27.4 percent of Japan's popu- 
lation will be aged 65 or older, com- 
pared with 18.1 percent of the American 
population. Meanwhile, we have the 
most serious budget deficit of any major 
industrial nation. Last year the com- 
bined national and local government 
deficit came to7 percent of GDP, almost 
triple the U.S. figure of 2J5 percent 
In the private sector, Japanese busi- 
nesses continue to invest huge amounts 
of money overseas, but only a relative 
trickle of foreign money is being in- 
vested in Japan. In 1995, $50.7 billion 
was invested abroad, while just S3 bil- 
lion was invested in Japan — a re- 
flection of our country's overregulation 
and heavy corporate taxes. If this trend 
continues, our domestic economy may 
be reduced to a mere shell before long. 

Japan must shift from an economy 
burdened by regulations and bureau- 
cracy to one in which the private sector 


By Shoichiro Toyoda 


can operate unfettered. We must also 
downsize the public sector and create a 
small, efficient government If these 
goals are accomplished, I believe the 
Japanese economy is capable of sus- 
taining growth at an annual rate av- 
eraging around 3 percent. 

To make this vision come true, bold 
reforms must be earned oul Above ail, 
deregulation holds the key to success. 

First, it would lower the high cost of 
doing business in Japan by promoting 


American experience 
shows deregulation to 
be well worth it 


competition and removing obstacles to 
imports. Second, it would check the 
erosion of the industrial base and create 
new jobs at home by opening up new 
froauers for business and encouraging 
vigorous investment 

The benefits are already apparent in 
areas like telecommunications and pet- 
roleum products, where the old rules 
have been relaxed in the form of lower 
rates and prices. The easing of restric- 


tions on large stores has led to the 
establishment of many new outlets by 
foreign and domestic retailers. 

As estimated by Japan's Economic 
Planning Agency, the deregulatory 
steps taken so for have produced an 
average of 7.9 trillion yen {$66 billion) 
a year in additional demand, creating 
up to 13 million new jobs. 

Deregulation is bound to be painful 
for some industries that have benefited 
from the present system. But it is es- 
sential for us in the business world to 
put aside narrow interests and commit 
ourselves wholeheartedly to reform. 

And we must act fast. 

Our success or failure in deregu- 
lation depends largely on what we can 
accomplish this year. We should take 
encouragement from the American ex- 
perience that shows deregulation to be 
tough but well worth it for the eco- 
nomic vitality it unleashes. 

As a concomitant to deregulation, 
corporations must learn to behave with 
an even stronger sense of ethics and of 
responsibility for their own actions. 
The recent string of business scandals 
involving price fixing and currency 
trading has given us cause for serious 
soul-searching and for taking steps to 
prevent any recurrences. 

Last November. Prime Minister Ry- 
utaro Hashimoto announced his un- 
wavering determination to cany out 


reform in six areas: public adminis- 
tration, public finances, economic 
structure. ^financial systems, social se- 
curity and education. The Adminis- 
trative Reform Council, an advisory 
panel to the prime minister of which 
lam a member, is going to draw up a 
comprehensive proposal for streamlin- 
ing me central bureaucratic organs. 

Progress is already being made. The 
remaining controls on foreign ex- 
change are set to be deregulated, and 
the central bank is going to get greater 
legal autonomy. Japan’s biggest busi- 
ness organization, Keidanren. wel- 
comes these moves, and will do its 
u tmo st to support die prime minister s 
ongoing efforts at reform. 

In the 19th century, under pressure 
from America and other countries to 
end its seclusion, Japan totally rebuilt its 
political, social and economic systems. 
After World War II it again transformed 
itself drastically- Now it is working to 
achieve a third metamorphosis. The 
force of global competition leaves us 
little rime. We must make 1997 the first 
year of structural reform and take big 
strides toward a Japanese revival. 

The writer is chairman of the Toyota 
Motor Corp. and of Keidanren. the 
Japan Federation of Economic Orga- 
nizations. He contributed this comment 
to The New York Tunes. 


I 


Here Comes European Monetary Union, but Will It Work? 


B russels — Would you 

like to be as rich as George 
Soros? Well, thanks to German 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl you 
may have the chance. 

Mr. Soros is a hedge fund 
manager. Hedge fund managers 
flourish by borrowing piles of 
money and making huge cur- 
rency bets with it. What they 
look for are anomalies — a gap 
between the politics and the 
economics, or between percep- 
tions and reality. The killer 
hedge fund managers are those 
who see the gaps early and have 
the guts to make huge bets on 
them before anyone else. 

There is a huge bet out there 
no w just begging to be made, and 
it’s this: Will the 15 members of 
the European Union get their act 
together and actually agree to get 
rid of the Bench franc, the Italian 
lira and the German mark and 
instead have just one single 
Eurocurrency by 1999? 

Monetary union is the most 
ambitious project in political 


By Thomas L. Friedman 


economy in Europe since the 
Bolshevik revolution. Fifteen 
independent countries, led by 
France and Germany, are all in 
the process of trying to get their 
budget deficits down to 3 per- 
cent of GDP in order to create a 
single currency, the euro, and a 
single Alan Greenspan-like 
central bank that will control 
everyone's interest rates. 

For independent states to 
cede such power to a super-bank 
and super-currency is unprece- 
dented. And that creates the 
possibility of a huge gap be- 
tween expectations and reality. 

So the hedge fund wolves are 
gathering. If they suspect that 
EMU will foil, they will go 
"long" on the mark against the 
lira, because everyone m Europe 
will pm money back in the 
strongest currency around, the 
Deutsche mark. If they suspect 
that EMU will succeed, they will 
make just the opposite trade. 


So how should you bet? Too 
soon to say. Because the word 
in Brussels now is: “We think 
the euro will happen. We just 
don't know if it will work." 

It will probably happen be- 
cause of politics. Mr. Kohl, the 
most powerful statesman in 
Europe today, has staked his 
whole career on EMU happen- 
ing. He sees the Eurocurrency 
as the device through which he 
will lock the next generation of 
Germans to Europe and ensure 
that Germany will never, ever 
go it alone again. He is such a 
dominant figure in Europe that 
it is hard to bet against him. 

But it might not work be- 
cause of economics. Mr. Kohl 
wants to have a single Euro- 
currency before there is a single 
Euro-economy. Think of what 
can happen. 

Finland lives off two com- 
modities. cellular phones and 
forest products. What happens 


when the markets for both cell 
phones and paper sag in the 
same year? The Finnish eco- 
nomy tanks, right? So what will 
the Finns want to do? Lower 
interest rates, use fiscal policy 
to pump money into their eco- 
nomy and depreciate their cur- 
rency — all standard remedies. 

What if. as Finland is tanking . 
Germany is booming and is 
worried about inflation? Under 
EMU there is only going to be 
one central bank in Europe with 
one interest rate policy. How is 
that central bank going to deal 
with Finland's desire fora weak 
euro and Germany's desire for a 
strong euro? The Finns will be 
squeezed- The only way Finland 
will remain competitive is if it 
cuts wages and fires people. 

That is why this monetary 
union is such a huge shake of 
the dice. People judge political 
experiments by how they affect 
their wallets, and Europeans are 
not going to grow fonder of 
integration if all it means is that 


they grow poorer together. If 
this works, the European Union 
will be more solid than ever. If 
it doesn’t, the whole Union 
could come apart. 

How? One risk is that some 
countries, like Finland, that join 
the monetary union will im- 
plode under rite pressure of try- 
ing to stay within the strict com- 
mon currency rules. Another 
risk is that the European Union 
will fracture because some 
countries that want to join mon- 
etary union will be stiff-armed 
away (Italy? Spain?) because 
the Germans refuse to share a 
currency with anyone not as 
fiscally disciplined as they are. 

I don't know which it will be. 
but I do know that if these splits 
appear, die hedge fund wolves 
will begin circling the EU camp- 
fire. They will go after the weak- 
er currencies first, dragging 
them away into the forest. It 
won’t be pretty, but you can bet 
on IL Mr. Soros certainly will. 

The New York Times. 


Speak Up for Eastward Expansion of the Atlantic Alliance 


"VTORFOLK, Virginia — The 
IN public debate on the future 
of NATO is just beginning in 
America, despite long and in- 
creasingly shrill arguments 
within the foreign policy es- 
tablishments of various allies. 
A conference here, sponsored 
by Old Dominion University 
and the headquarters for the al- 
liance's Atlantic command, 
gave a foretaste of the issues to 
be faced when the focus shifts to 
ratification of a revised treaty 
admitting new members. It 
won't be easy. 

Because of the setting, most 
of the people here favored both 
NATO enlargement and main- 
tenance of a strong, integrated 
structure. Harsh opponents did 
not participate. Even Russia’s 
ambassador to the United 
States, the astute Yuli Voront- 
sov. was much milder in his 
objections than the threatening 
noises which had been coming 
from Moscow, although he ar- 
gued that the alliance was 
bound to become irrelevant and 
fade away because wars of ag- 
gression to conquer territory are 
obsolete in die age of economic 
globalization. 

He admitted that the Soviet 
Union had given orders to its 
huge tank-led army, based 
mostly in East Germany, to roll 
west automatically in the event 
of a nuclear attack on the So- 
viets. Moscow figured that 
would be a deterrent because 
the West would not use atomic 
arms against East Germany. 

But reality has changed, and 
the threats to world security are 
of a different nature, which Rus- 
sia and the West should address 
together, Mr. Vorontsov said, 
adding that Russia would surely 
refuse if invited to join NATO. 

It is clear now that the al- 
liance will offer new member- 
ships at its Madrid meeting in 
July, probably only to Poland, 
Hungary and the Czech Repub- 
lic despite pressure from France 
to admit Romania and from Italy 
to admit Slovenia. Each will 
then negotiate details, and then 
all 16 of the current allies will be 
asked to ratify the decision. That 
is when it will become a major 
domestic political issue, espe- 
cially in the United States. 

The terms of the special par- 
allel agreement now being 


By Flora Lewis 


worked out with Russia in tense 
final talks will be an important 
factor. It is already evident that 
American critics will argue 
adamantly from two ■ sides, 
some that too many concessions 
have been made to the Russians, 
some that their needs are not 
taken enough into account. 

Zbigniew BrzezinskL Pres- 
ident Timmy Carter’s national 
security adviser, warned that to 
pass political muster in the 
United States the agreement 
will have to observe "the fine 
line between accommodation 
and appeasement. 

Cost, concern that NATO 
will be diluted to ineffective- 
ness, concern that West Eu- 
ropean allies busy reducing 
their aimed forces will leave too 
much of the new burden on the 
United States, concern that the 
United States will now have to 


be ready to go to war for Bud- 
apest as it was for Berlin, will 
also be prominent issues. 

The trouble is that the public 
has been hearing only the neg- 
ative possibilities and none of 
the positive reasons for expan- 
sion. President Bill Clinton will 
have to lead the debate, and 
soon. Mr. Brzezinslti said, if it is 
not to be bogged down in Amer- 
ica’s mood for shucking re- 
sponsibilities abroad. 

So for, the noisiest part of the 
argument has been against 
adding eastern members, al- 
though often on contradictory 
terms. Some say it is dangerous 
because it could undermine 
Russian democrats, or because 
it would offer protection to the 
most secure ana not to die Baltic 
states and Ukraine, which are 
seen to be most at risk. 

Some say it would dilute the 


capacity of an alliance organ- 
ized against a common enemy, 
although that enemy has col- 
lapsed. or that there is no longer 
any need for a robust alliance. 

The replies have been defen- 
sive, failing to explain the ad- 
vantages, which I consider real 
and vital. 

NATO's new enemy is in- 
stability. and the alliance is a 
mighty bolster to uncertain 
democratic regimes. Its insist- 
ence on civilian control of the 
military is effective, as proved in 
Spain, and its flew requirement 
or settling border disputes with 
neighbors is a formidable barrier 
against resurgent historical con- 
flict Too bad that condition was 
not imposed on Greece and Tur- 
key in die early days. . 

The Polish ambassador to the 
United States. Jerzy Kozmin- 
ski. succinctly gave his coun- 
try's basic reasons for wanting 
to join both • NATO and 


The Irksome UN Benefits New York 


N EW YORK — It is easy for 
New Yorkers to be irritated 
with the United Nations, and 
not just because of geopolitics. 
They see high-ranking diplo- 
mats who live in the city’s fan- 
ciest neighborhoods dine out on 
expense accounts and — most 


By Mitchell L. Moss 


visited the complex last year. 

The mayor has suggested that 
the sprawling UN site along the 
East River might be better used 
for other purposes — bousing 


Mr. Giuliani, has become a 
safer place to live and work, it 
would seem that UN delegates 
want to be in our city. Surely the 
parking conflict can lend itself 
to a peaceful resolution. 


annoying of all — park any- . or office buildings, for ex- 
where without worrying about ample. But the complex has 


Letters intended for publi- 
cation should he addressed 
“ Letters to the Editor" and 
contain the writer's signature, 
name and full address. Lerters 
should be brief and are subject 
to editing. We cannot be re- 
sponsible for the return of un- 
solicited manuscripts. 


rules or tickets. 

Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, in a 
war with diplomatic parking 
ticket scofflaws, knows he is on 
politically safe ground when be 
declares that he “wouldn’t 
mind' ' if the United Nations left 
New York City. 

But no matter how New 
Yorkers feel about die United 
Nations, they should be aware 
that it is a vital element in the 
city’s economy. 

About 16,ti00 people (with 
combined salaries of S850 mil- 
lion annually) are employed 
locally by the UN Secretariat, 
specialized agencies, consu- 
lates and foreign missions. The 
United Nations and its related 
organizations put more people 
to work in this city — people 
who spend some of their Hil- 
aries here — than do private 
employers such as Con Edison 
and Citicorp. At the Secretariat 
itself, most of these employees 
are Americans. 

What is more, the stream of 
UN conferences produces $27 
million in visitor spending each 
year. And even if UN headquar- 
ters doesn’t draw as many vis- 
itors as the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Ait or the Broadway 
theaters, some 420.000 people 


already transformed 
around it. 

More than 50 years ago, 
when New York won the right 
to serve as UN headquarters, a 
revitalization began on a de- 
caying portion of the East River 
waterfront in Turtle Bay. For- 
eign consulates, missions and 
international agencies wanted 
to be close to the site, and today 
roughly 30,000 people work in 
the office buildings on First and 
Second Avenues from 40th to 
48th Streets. Many more — res- 
taurant employees, clerical and 
delivery staffs and maintenance 
workers — support the UN 
agencies and missions. 

Besides, in a city that has 
failed to make intelligent use of 
its waterfront, does anyone be- 
lieve that the mayor could im- 
prove on the 


The writer is director of the 
Taub Urban Research Center at 
New York University. He con- 
the area rributed this comment to The 
New York Times. 


European Union in order of pri- 
ority. They are valid for the 
existing members and show 
how foolishly trivial is tile 
claim that Mr. Clinton only de- 
cided on expansion to please 
ethnic political lobbies before 
his re-election. £ 

The reasons: (.1 ) to be solidly 
ensconced in the club of demo- 
cratic Western market econo- 
mies. ( 2 ) to help consolidate 
domestic reform. (3) to fill the 
security vacuum in Eastern 
Europe. (4) to help establish 
peaceful relations within the re- 
gion. as the alliance has done in 
Western Europe. 

To tile fears of being dragged 
into distant wars, it is pointed 
out that the United States has 
sent troops into foreign combat 
both on a major and a minor 
scale many times since World 
War H, but it has never had to 
fight in defense of aNATO ally. 
Alliance deterrence works. 

And that is the underlying an- 
swer m why there is still a need 
for NATO. Twice in this century 
Europe went to war not knowing ^ 
what America would do. With 
NATO, it knows for sure, and no 
country has launched a war 
against a member. 

History is not fatality, but 
European history has brought 
too many tragedies to risk slip- 
ping back into the old ways. 
President Clinton must explain 
clearly what is to be gained by 
regional expansion, and whit 
would be lost without iL 

© Flora Lewis. 


IN OUR PAGES; 100.75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1897: French Cable 

WASHINGTON — The 
French Embassy is assisting the 
French telegraphic and cable 
company inlaying a new cable 
from Brest to Cape Cod to re- 
place the one laid eighteen 
years ago. A Senate bill pro- 
hibiting the landing of new 
cables without the consent of 
Congress stirred protests from 
tiie French company. Official 
French sources reported that if 
the French company is denied 
entrance to America, there is a 


the most animated comment in 
conference circles. The British 
delegation announced that the 
treaty is regarded as a dishon- 
orable action and treachery to 
Europe. Nominally, the treaty is 
of an economic character, but in 
Allied, and especially in French, 
circles, it is looked upon as a 
high political act and one cap- 
able of leading to the withdrawal 
of France from the conference. 

1947: Death Toll Rises 

TEXAS CITY — Three new 


spectacular 

open space and waterfront four American cable companies 

r texas Gull Coast town. Au- 
thoritative estimates placed the 
death toll in one of the nation’s 
worst disasters at 650 or more. 
Two of the blasts occurred 
aboard a freighter loaded with 
thousands of tons of nitrates and 
sulphur. The third explosion 
occurred as another of the 
Monsanto oil tanks which have 
been destroyed blew up. 


promenade? 

Even if the United Nations 
abandonedNew York. the land it 
occupies would revert to the fed- 
eral government not to the city. 
If the mayor thinks it's tough to 
negotiate with the United Na- 
tions, wait until he tries dealing 
with Newt Gingrich. 

Now that New York, under 


entering France. 

1922: Rapallo Treaty 

GENOA — With the unexpec- 
ted suddenness of a bomb ex- 
plosion, it became known rh*r 3 
Russo-German treaty had been 
signed in draft at Rapallo. The 
announcement has given rise to 







What America Must Do: 
Subvert Chinese Regime 


By George Will 


1 ^ ori- 


Y\T ASH1NGT0N — The in- 
▼ V terval between the chal- 
Jenge of coping with the declin- 
ing bear, the Soviet Union, and 
that of coping with the rising 
dragon, China, has been history's 
intermission. The curtain will 
soon rise on the next act of the 
drama of democracy's challenge 
to dictatorship. 

Soon Congress will vote on 
renewal of China's most- 
favored-nation status. And at 
midnight on June 30 an event will 
occur for which there is no his- 
toric parallel: the quiet passage of 
one of the world’s greatest cities, 
Hong Kong, ffom freedom into 
subservience to a dictatorship. 

The problem of modulating 
the turbulence surrounding 
China's emergence as a super- 
power has been ominously 
likened to the problem posed by 
Germany's growing strength and 
confidence 10 decades ago. That 
problem was “solved" by two 
hideous wars, lr would be wise to 
find better ways to break China to 
the saddle and bridle of inter- 
national dealings. How to do that 
may be the largest question of 
American life for a generation. 

Talk of China's emergence as a 
superpower may seem premature. 
Two decades of rapid economic 
growth have not cured the relative 
primitiveness of China’s econ- 
omy. its military (technologically 
backward and outnumbered 2-to- 
1 by the armed forces of China's 
seven largest neighbors) and its 
provisions for modernity, ranging 


from the rule of law to public 
health measures. 

Yes, supposedly one-quarter 
of all die construction cranes 
operating in the world are op- 
erating around the clock in one 
Chinese city, Shanghai Yes, in 
the last 20 years 300 million 
Chinese have been raised above 
the international poverty line. 
But as many remain below it. The 
Economist estimates that the SO 
million ethnic Chinese in the 
Southeast Asian diaspora may 
possess wealth equal to that of 
the 12 billion Chinese in the 
People's Republic. 

China also is sickening: In- 
dustrialization's effect on us air 
can be gauged from the fact that 
one-quarter of all deaths are from . 
lung diseases. 

And much of China's econ- 
omy is feudalism leavened by 
anarchy. Business Week, esti- 
mates that half the 1 1 0,000 state 
enterprises lose money. The Na- 
tional Journal reports dial 50 mil- 
lion of the 120 million employed 
in those enterprises do no useful 
work. 

Still, surely China's ascent to 
great power status is necessary in 
a way that, say. the ascent of 
Philip ITs Spain was noL And the 
fact' that the China market has 
been a beguiling chimera for a 
century (last year China took less 
than 2 percent of U.S. exports, 
one-third as much in dollar value 
as Taiwan j does not mean it must 
always be that 

Aside from an incontinent lust 


EYTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. FRIDAY APRIL 18. 1997 

OPINION /LETTERS 


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PAGE 9 


Dutch Lessons on Life, 
Death and Ambiguity 


9AM KUA 


aunt-up- 

FMtiwr 

\ 


for trade. U.S. policy toward 
China calls to mind Tch- 
aikovsky’s description of 
Brahms's music — "a pedestal 
without a siarue." And the policy 
debate resembles a semantic 
quibble: “engagement" versus 
“containment.'' 

Engagement means a frankly 
de-moralized policy of commer- 
cial and cultural dealings that 
supposedly will, in time, produce 
the sedation and then the lib- 
eralization of China. Contain- 
ment means skepticism about 
any early reform of China's do- 
mestic tyranny, and diplomatic 
and military planning against 
Chin a's expansionist aspirations, 
as they can be inferred from its 
diplomacy and military procure- 
ments. 

What the schematic clarity ot 
the dichotomy between engage- 


Bam s*** •s***' 


y 

apvrnE 


A MSTERDAM — Halfway 
/Ythroush our conversation, 
Gerrit van der Wal gets up to 
consult his dictionary. Surely, he 
says, there must be an English 
equivalent for the Dutch word 
gedogen. 

The medical school professor, 
who conducted the most recent 
research on doctor-assisted death 
in the Netherlands, flips through 


Bv Ellen Goodman 
* 

- Halfway percent of deaths in Holland hap- 
nversation, pen with a physician’s assistance. 

gets up to Nine out of 10 requests are turned 

“Surely, he down. Most of those who had 
an English assisted suicide were not nursing 
lurch word home patients but cancer patients 
in their 60s or 70s. They died m 
I professor, the last days or weeks of their 
nost recent illness, at home, treated by a fam- 
;isted death ily doctor they knew for an av- 


t t f f v. c c C 


ment and containment obscures 
is this fact: Whatever the tactics, 
the strategic aim of U.S. policy 
is. and must be seen to be. the 
subversion of the Chinese re- 
gime. It is China’s turn. 

Since the fall in the 1970s of 
the Greek junta and the two Iberi- 
an dictatorships, authoritarian- 
ism has been in retreat. Today the 
only debate worthy of America 
concerns the optimal mixture of 
contacts, incentives and compe- 
titions — commercial, diplomat- 
ic. military — to hasten the dis- 
solution of China’s apparatus of 
repression. 

President Bill Clinton has re- 
ferred to China as a “former" 
Communist power, but most of 
the people living under Leninism 
in 1987 still are, in China. And 
China's political evolution may 
not be up toward pluralism but 


down toward something like 
early 20th-century fascism. 

So say Richard Bernstein and 
Ross H. Munro in their book 
“The Coming Conflict With 
China." China’s fascist! c attrib- 
utes include a cult of the party 
state, a state dominated by the 
army and allied with financial 
interests dominated by the party, 
and “a powerful sense of 
wounded nationalism ... a belief 
that there are historical griev- 
ances that have to be addressed, 
an intense, brittle, defensive kind 
of national pride, and a powerful 
suspicion of foreigners." 

China shares borders with 14 
nations and currently has land or 
sea disputes with 24 nations. If an 
aggressive China seeks pretexts, 
it can concoct numerous Danzigs 
and Sudetenlands. 

Washington Post Writers Group. 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


Croatia, Then and Now 

“Regarding “ Croatia's Good 
Old Days' ( April 12) and “Why 
Wink at Croatian Fascism ?” 
(Opinion. April 16) by A.M. 
Rosenthal: 

Both of these are excellent 
pieces, but they could have arrived 
earlier. To cite just one example of 
events in Croatia, the son-in-law 
of the World War II dictator Ante 
Pavelic was back in 1992 giving 
speeches about the necessity of 
revising “historical untruths" 
about Croatian fascism. 


That year, he and his wife re- 
gistered their fascist party in 
Croatia, said that had the war- 
time Independent State of Croatia, 
never existed, “we wouldn't have 
what we- have today." 

MIRIAM FLEISCHMAN. 

Paris. 

1 read Mr. Rosenthal’s article 
with interest, but also with con- 
cern. The reader might conclude 
that the Croatian government is 
staffed by fascist sympathizers. 
Nothing could be further from 
the truth. 


Croatian anti-fascist partisans 
were among the most active in 
Central Europe during World War 
IL Clearly, a number of Croats 
during World War II accepted fas- 
cist ideology — but no more and 
no less than some other Europeans 
did during the same period. 

It is worth noting that during 
World War D, President Franjo 
Tudjman actively participated in 
the anti-fascist struggle. Today 
the policy of Croatia and its demo- 
cratically elected officials is con- 
sistent with the principles of other 
Western states. The Croatian gov- 


ernment and its president resol- 
utely reject and denounce all rad- 
ical views and behavior, be it of 
left-wing or right-wing origin. 

TOMISLAV SUNIC. 

- Brussels. 

The writer is a counselor at the 
Croatian Embassy in Brussels. 

Aid Guidelines 

Regarding “Rethinking Human- 
itarian Aid in the New Era" and 
“New' U.S. Guidelines for Pro\id- 
ing Humanitarian Aid ” (Opinion. 


March 12 and! 3) by J. Brian At- 
wood and Leonard Rogers: 

Imagine the class-action and li- 
ability lawsuits if government hu- 
manitarian aid activities in the 
United States led to mass death, 
displacement and starvation. It's 
only a matter of rime before in- 
ternational lawyers begin taking 
relief and development malprac- 
tice suits to The Hague and 
someone establishes a global “li- 
censing” authority for humani- 
tarian organizations. 

BOBBY DEAN. 

Antananarivo, Madagascar. 


MEANWHILE 

the pages until he comes to the 
right place. “Gedogen." he reads 
slowly, “tolerance.’' Then he 
shakes his head and says. “No, 
that isn’t quite right. *’ 

If the word is not easily trans- 
lated. perhaps it is because the 
concept is so Dutch, so not-Amer- 
ican. Gedogen describes a formal 
condition “somewhere between 
forbidden and permitted. It is pari 
of the Dutch dance of principle 
and pragmatism. 

Here, drugs are gedogen. They 
remain illegal, but “soft” drugs 
like marijuana and hash are avail- 
able in duly licensed coffee shops 
that dot this city. And here, too. 
euthanasia is gedogen. The end- 
ing of a life by a doctor remains 
illegal, but doctors who follow 
careful guidelines may grant their 
patients' death wishes. 

I am here in this northern coun- 
try awash with tulips and con- 
troversy because the U.S. Su- 
preme "Court has been asked to 
decide the question of doctor-as- 
sisted suicide. Holland has 
grappled longer and more pub- 
licly with the end-of-iife issues 
that we Americans are only now 
beginning to confront seriously. 

As Ad“Kerkhof. a puckish psy- 
chologist at the Free University, 
says, “Holland has become a 
Rorschach test for euthanasia.” 

In a week of interviewing, 
people bristled at the notion that 
Americans think the Dutch are rid- 
ding themselves of the old and 
handicapped. In fact ' ‘euthanasia’ ’ 
is defined here as the termination 
of life by a doctor at the express 
wish of a patient. Under the 
guidelines, the patient's suffering 
must be unbearable and without 
the possibility of improvement. 
The requests must be persistent and 
confirmed by a second physician. 

Dr. van der Wal, warily leading 
me through his most recent survey 
of doctors, points out that only 2.4 


erase of seven years. 

The Dutch system is not fail- 
safe or without its own ethical 
dilemmas. The most troubling 
discovery is that between 900 and 
1.000 patients a year die from 
“nonvoluntary euthanasia.” 

As doctors here note, a bit de- 
fensively, this is not the result of 
Holland’s euthanasia policies. It 
exists unseen and unreported in 
many countries where doctors de- 
liver lethal painkilling doses of 
medicine without consent. 

In practice, half of those who 
were no longer physically able to 
give consent had expressed the 
wish for euthanasia earlier. Most 
were in the last stages of disease. 

But Dr. van der Wal agrees, 
“It's a weak point in your system 
if you don't know what the patient 
really wants. There is always the 
danger that you are ending life 
against the will of the patient-" 

It's a weak point as well that the 
Dutch laws don’t make a distinc- 
tion between mental and physical 
suffering. Not long ago, a psy- 
chiatrist performed euthanasia on 
a physically healthy woman who 
had lost her children and was in 
despair. He was acquitted in a case 
that left public confidence rattled. 

What is notable is that 71 per- 
cent of the Dutch remain firm in 
their support of euthanasia 
policies. There is a palpable pride 
in doing things "the Dutch way.” 
Pride in a system in which die law 
evolves with public consensus. 

Yet even the strongest support- 
ers of euthanasia told me, as did a 
retired family doctor, Herbert Co- 
hen: "Euthanasia is not for ex- 
port.’' The difference between 
Holland and America, they say. is 
universal health care. No one here 
chooses to die to protect their fam- 
ily finances. 

Perhaps what is exportable, 
, though, is the Dutch tolerance for 
i ambiguity for living in the eth- 
ical gray zone, grappling with 
> complexity' instead of denying it, 
r keeping open to change. 

[ The Boston Globe. 


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international HER-ALD tribune 

FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 1997 




Turkish Delights: The Magnificent Mosques of Edirne 



By Godfrey Goodwin 




DIRNE, Turkey — In foe golden age of 
Suleyman the Magnificent, the verdant 
city of Edirne. founded by the Roman 
Emperor Hadrian, was the second cap- 
ital of the Ottoman Empire and three times its 
present size — its monumental architecture and 
gardens a brilliant setting for grandees and am- 
bassadors on horseback! its stone pavements 
thronged with dervishes and merchants. 

Today, the once major city peters out amid a 
vision of trees and greenery — an appealing 
country town within sight of both the Greek ana 
Bulgarian frontiers. But within its shrunken bor- 
ders are exquisite mosques and public baths, and 
market balls still line its spacious avenues. 

Approaching Edirne on the highway from 
Istanbul, a four-hour trip. I like to stop and look 
down on the center of die city, just beyond the 
immense 16th-century caravansary built by 
Rustem Pasha. The grand vizier of Suleyman the 
Magnificent, he married Suleyman's daughter 
Mihrimah. a woman of ex- 
traordinary ability and 
riches. The caravansary is 
one of the largest ever 
built, with endless domed 
chambers set around two 
courtyards. Above these 
on the skyline ride the 
great cupolas of five 
mosques with their min- 
a rets ranging from delic- 
k 4 **" ately slim to farter brick 
versions. 

Well beyond the city 
center is the island palace of Sultan Suleyman, 
pillaged in the 19th century by Russian invaders 
who destroyed its romantic pavilions and gar- 
dens: all that is left are the ruins of the kitchens. 
The island itself, called Saray, has been deserted 
by the modem Edirne, which has receded behind 
the banks of the Tunca River. 

Although the streets of the city are no longer 
thronged, as they were until the 18th century, 
they are still lively, the bazaars crowded with 
local inhabitants in search of necessities like pots 
and pans, cutlery and sensible clothes. The 
charm of Edime today is in the pleasure of gentle 
walking — from the city's center, with its ca f6s 
and shops, down Talat Pasha Avenue, to the Gazi 
Mihal bridge and the meadows beside the banks 
of the Tunca. where children swim and play. 

favorite WALK I have visited Edime at least 40 
times because of its rich architectural heritage, 
most recently last July, but I like to begin each 
visit with the same walk. Leaving the main road 
just before the modem bridge over the Tunca, I 
park the car in a village, from which a broad dirt 
track reaches the 15th-century double bridge on 
the left From the bridge I can imagine the miles 
of orchards lining the river where, until a century 
ago. the townsfolk came on warm evenings to 


picnic, dance and sing. The bridge leads to the 
high dike that protects the great hospital built by 
Beyazidllinihe 1480s. The dike offers a superb 
view of the hospital — a grand complex that is a 
tribute to Ottoman charity. 

The halls where the patients lodged are on one 
side of a paddock filled with wildflowers. the 
handsome storerooms and kitchens are on the 
other, and the mosque with its courtyard is set 
between. The mosque is no more and no less than 
one astonishing dome over a monumental square 
hall. On each side of it are the quarters for the 
dervishes, one of the mystic sects that were 
responsible for nursing the patients, who were 
fed fresh fruit and vegetables and soothed and 
cheered by musicians three rimes a week. 

Getting back into the car, I cross back over the 
river and proceed down the long Talat Pasha 
Avenue to the great mosque of Selim II. one of 


the noblest of all Ottoman buildings, splendidly 
set on ihe site of the first Ottoman palace built in 
the 1360s. It was from here that Mehraet II set 
out to conquer Constantinople at the age of 21. 
Designed by the greatest of Islamic architects, 
Sinan. the mosque is striking because of its four 
minarets — which at more than 230 feet (about 
75 metere) are the tallest in Islam — and its great 
dome, about 103 feet in diameter, visible long 
before reaching town. 

The proportions within are just as breath- 
taking. Semidomes have given place to eight 
piers that open up the interior. One appreciates 
that this building (1569-74) is brother to the 
masterpieces of the High Renaissance. 

The riles in this mosque hug the windows of 
the mihrab apse where the imam leads the faith- 
ful in prayer. They are panels of the richest color 
and brilliant execution. In the 1 570s the potteries 


at Iznik (Nicaea) reached a perfection that 
achieved a dazzling range of colors and un- 
blemished white grounds. The reds, in partic- 
ular, were the envy of European ceramicists. 
There are unique designs set into the shoulders 
of the many arches, but the glory is indie royal 
box (hunkar mahfile). Having asked the officer 
of the mosque for permission to see them, I made 
a modest donation of about S2 and followed the 
guide up the stairs in the wall. Apart from the 
looted panel now in the Hermitage, all the tiles 
are still there and of pristine beauty, with ima- 
ginative floral designs. The center panel of die 
mihrab is formed of inlaid wooden shutters that 
open magically so that sultans, on their knees, 
could look out on nothing but the heavens. 

There is a small museum in the former teach- 
ing complex of this mosque, but the energetic 
should press on for a little less than a mile up the 




hill to the mosque of Murad H, father 
the Conaucror. which was once the center of a 
Mevlevidervish convent- The higblymteileciual 
and aesthetic order is still famous for the mys- 
tical dance in which seven pamapffltsdDwly 

gyiare like spheres, each wi4om hand pommg 

Sbeavenandthe other toeanfa, Sadly. aU brnthe 
mosque is gone, and die building is often shui at 

plain to the foothills of Bulgaria is still fine, and _ 

S mood of medieval frmtasy strives. f, 

Retu rning down the hill to the center of town. .. 
I visitfoebazaar below the Sehm II mosque, 
where stout country boots, an Edime specialty, 

^Outside the bazaars arc numerous open-air 
one of which has tables on the slope 
beneath the Selim H mosque. Although this cafe is 
cooled by a pool s p ar kl ing with jets of water, the 
umbrellas over the tables are sometimes not 

enough and it is bestto have ahot or iced tea mane 

of the tree-shaded cafes along the mam street oa; 

of my favorites is the caf6 in the piazm formed by 

the caravansary and the Old Mosque (Eski Cairn). 
The r * m ' has an interesting independent 
minare t of monumental proportions built of brick. 

Although the mosque is imder repair, you can SWJ 

see die large inscriptions on the 

walls, added in the 19th century. 


T HE Turks have always been a practical 
people who erect what they need where 
they can without attempting to imitate an 

older style. Nowhere does this work better than 
at the nearby Uc SereftsU Cami (the Mosque of 

the Three Balconies, used by the muezzins who 
mate die call to prayer). In the 16th century — <? ' 
the rime of Suleyman die Magnificent — there 
was not just one singer for each balcony but four, 
at each of the cardinal points. For this mosque, . 
which was die royal mosque of Murad D, foq 
father of the conqueror Menmet n. die first two 
minarets were built at die comers where mosque 
and courtyard meet. t 

■ This is the usual position in a sultan's mosque 
and trad itio nally these minarets should form aq 
identical pair. But here die minaret with die three 
balconies is more than 223 feet tall and its com- 
panion shorter. Both are built of brick like the 
minaret of the Old Mosque, which this one sup 1 A; 
planted as the Friday Mosque of Edime; they were 
joined bv two immarrhing minarets at the other 
comers of the rectangular courtyard. The first 
added is flam boyant, its trunk twisted like barley’ 
sugar, but die last is built in finest cut stone, which* 
is why it is die slimm est with the traditional 
dignity thai became universal after 1500. T 

Built about 1440, Uc Serefeli Cami represents 
the initial step in the evolution of classical Ot- 
toman domes; its dome is almost 79 feet in 
diameter, but is low and built cautiously with 
massive supports. 

Godfrey Goodwin, the author cf several books 
on Ottoman architecture, wrote this for The New 
YorkTimes. ; 


Interior of the great mosque of Selim II. set on the site of the first Ottoman palace built in the 1360s; exterior ; inset far left. 


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Bursa’s Baths and Splendid Tombs Recall Royal Escapades 


By Stephen Kinzer 

Vnr York rimes S?n k< 



URSA. Turkey — When the notorious 
Byzantine empress Theodora was not 
i scandalizing Constantinople with nude 
dances and other outrageous anrics. she 
liked to adjourn to Bursa, a town 60 miles (100 
kilometers) south of Istanbul on the other side of 
the Sea of Marmara, with a retinue of up to 4,000 
attendants and acolytes. She held festivals in the 
hot springs, which bubble continuously from the 
earth, providing just the sort of luxurious sen- 
suality she enjoyed. 

I understand what attracted Theodora. The 
thermal bath I visited, in a wing of the once- 
grand Celik Palace Hotel, is one of half a dozen 
still open to the public in Bursa. It is a circular 
basin about 30 feet < 9 meters) across, illuminated 
in part by hundreds of columns of light stream- 
ing through small holes in the dome overhead. 
The water is almost too hot to enter. Recreants sit 
on one of the wide steps that run around the 
circumference, submerging as much of their 
bodies as they choose. The hall is filled with 
steam, giving visitors the opiated sense of having 
walked into an Andrei Tarkovsky film. 

Attendants suggest limiting a visit to 20 
minutes, and that's just as well. The experience 
dulls the senses so completely that one might 
otherwise drift into blissful unconsciousness and 
slip numbly below the surface. 

Which would be a shame, because so many 
more monuments from Bursa’s glory days re- 
main to be seen. They include rich museums. 


splendid royal tombs, and two of the world’s 
most exquisitely designed mosques. 

Die last decade has not been kind to Bursa. 
The city has grown without much apparent plan- 
ning to a metropolis of 900.000. Two large auto 
factories and dozens of metal fabricating plants 
and textile mills have turned what was once 
known as Green Bursa into a major industrial 
center. Residents say that pollution has raised the 
air temperature so that snows, which used to be 
knee-deep each winter, now rarely reach ankle 
height But in springtime, there are enough trees 
blooming to show how the city won its fame as 
an idyllic retreat. 

pillaged by tamirlame Bursa has been the 
capital of two empires. It was the center of the 
Seljuk monarchy in the 1 1th century, and 400 
years later, the Chtoman sultans established their 
seat there. It was pillaged by Tamerlane's 
hordes, devastated by an earthquake in 1 855. and 
occupied by the Greeks from 1920 to 1922. 
Through it aJL the great monuments that gave it 
world fame have remained more or less intact. 

One of those monuments, the Ulu Mosque in 
the center of the city, owes its grand scale in part 
to the desire of its builder. Sultan Yildirim 
Bayezid, to break a promise. Before setting out 
on a military - campaign, he promised that if God 
gave him victory, he would show his gratitude by 
building 20 mosques in Bursa. 

He did return victorious, but then realized that 
he did not have enough money to keep his vow. 
The solution he conceived would do credit to any 
modem politician. He announced that he would 


build a single mosque with 20 domes. Con- 
struction of the Ulu Mosque began in 1396 and 
look four years. 

Its twin minarets and central glass cupola, the 
three-level fountain that stands in the middle of 
the cavernous main hall and the gold-inlaid 
payer alcoves and exquisite walnut pulpit make 
it a highly unusual combination of late Seljuk 
and early Ottoman architecture. Among its most 
striking features are the sweeping works of cal- 
ligraphy that decorate the walls and the 12 
rectangular pillars that support the domes. 

You need walk only a few steps from the 
mosque to plunge into the jumble of modem 
commerce. Bursa’s market partly covered and 
partly open, is among the most colorful and 
lively to be found anywhere in Turkey, partly 
because this region is one of the most fertile 
agricultural areas in the Middle East. The pro- 
duce of nearby farms overflows from a hundred 
shops and outdoor stands. 

A T the adjacent Koza Han, built 500 years 
ago as a center for silk traders, the upper 
floor is still used for silk retailing. 
Downstairs one of the corridors is lined with 
antiques stores that offer framed examples of 
Arabic calligraphy, silver candlesticks, time- 
pieces. jewelry, faded fabrics, ceramics and a 
host of other bric-a-brac. Of the silk shops. I 
found some of the most original designs at 
Carena. in stall 233. The best selection of an- 
tiques is at Minyatur, stall 10-11. 

A silk blouse or a brightly colored scarf at 
Carena costs S20. At Minyatur, framed ex- 


amples of fine 19th-century calligraphy range 
from S125 to $2,200, and a 1 29-ye3T-old mirror 
framed in handcrafted silver costs $1,550. 

One of the oldest arguments in Bursa is wheth- 
er the Ulu Mosque is the city’s finest or whether 
that honor belongs to the Green Mosque a couple 
of miles away. If you have a weakness for marble 
carvings and ceramic art. the Green Mosque, 
which was completed in 1424. will probably be 
your choice. The stalactite marble porta} over the 
door is a masterly weave of Arabic inscriptions 
and ornamentation, and the equally ornate 
marble fountain inside, carved from a single 
piece of stone, is just as remarkable. The two rear 
alcoves, both under high domes, are paneled 
with spectacular blue-and-green tiles, which 
rank among the finest examples of this great art 
form to be found anywhere. 

Across the street from the Green Mosque is its 
counterpart, the Green Tomb. It houses die re- 
mains of Sultan Mehmed L who expanded and 
unified the Ottoman Empire before his death in 
1421. The building is hexagonal, more Seljuk 
than Ottoman in design, and covered with tur- 
quoise tiles. Intricately carved walnut doors 
guard the sarcophagus, which is encased in deep 
blue riles overlaid with bold calligraphic in- 
scriptions in bright gold. More tiles, some of them 
carrying magnificently artistic transcriptions of 
Muslim proverbs and verses from foe Koran, 
cover the walls and surround foe windows. 

In the same part of town, don’t miss the 
Museum of T urkish and Islamic Arts, which is in 
what was once the Green Mosque's theological 
school. Built around a large quadrangle, it 


houses a richly varied collection of objects* 
including ceramic plates dating from foe 12fo 
canary, elaborate chests inlaid with ivory and 
tortoise shell, silver jewelry studded with rich 
gems, embroidered towels and covers, and silver 
vessels and perfume beakers. Several rooms are 
decorated to give views of life in past centuries, 
including one that is a re-creation of an Ottoman 
coffee house. , W 

Famed Roman Bronzes " 

j 

Perhaps foe most impressive treasures are 
enormous illuminated Korans dating from the 
14th century that recall the Book of Kells and 
other medieval manuscripts. Inside Culture 
Park, foe city’s best remaining place for walking} 
playing and picnicking, foe Archaeological Mu^ 
scum displays fine Hellenic. Roman and Byz- 
antine artifacts. Its most famous prizes are twq 
Roman bronzes from foe second-century B.G 
One is a bust of Athena cloaked in delicately • 
crafted armor, her helmet raised to reveal a 
surprisingly gentle expression. The other is a 
nude statue of the young Apollo, with wavy 
locks falling over his shoulders. 

I also enjoy contemplating the five busts of 
Zeus arranged in a row, each evidently fashioned 
by a different band and all offering different 
interpretations of what divine grandeur might 
look like in human form. . 

There are also several cafes in the park where ^ ' 
you can relax over a glass of tea or cup of Turkish' 
coffee (sode is without sugar, orta is medium 
sweet, sekerli is very sweet). 


A. 






1 -• 


r 3". 

• i-* . 




Heading South for the Spring to See Cordoba in Full Bloom 


r; 


By A1 Goodman 


C ORDOBA. Spain — Sixty buildings in 
old Cordoba will open their doors on a 
secret for two weeks in May: their be- 
guiling flower-filled interior patios, in 
full spring splendor for foe annual patio fes- 
tival. 

It is foe city’s moment, from May 5 to 18, to 
showcase a patio tradition that dates back more 
than a millennium in this former Arab caliphate, 
but that is in danger of succumbing to modem 
pressures. 

Nowadays, many patios are pari of foe homes 
of retired Cordobans, some in their eighties. 
Few younger people can devote an hour or two 
daily to watering foe hundreds of ported roses, 
geraniums or carnations that decorate a single 
patio. 

The plants, usually nurtured with water drawn 
in buckets from each patio’s deep old well, adorn 
foe sun-drenched white patio walls like works of 
art hung closely together in galleries at foe 
Louvre. Framed by Moorish arches and Spanish 
red-tile roofs, the flowerpots fight not to get 
elbowed out by the expansive jasmine and or- 
ange trees. 

The Sights and Smells 

All will be in full bloom and fragrance for foe 
festival. Although Cordoba’s patios are open for 
visits during foe year, foe festival’s handy map 
makes them easy to find, and the imposing 





Splendor in the patios of Cordoba. 

wooden doors that often shutter foe patios be- 
hind high walls are kept open from 9 A.M. to 
midnight daily. ... 

Parios have been a tradition in homes since 


ancient Babylon and Egypt The Greeks and 
Romans extended foe concept across the Medi- 
terranean. In Cordoba, once Europe's largest 
city during foe Middle Ages with a million 
inhabitants, foe former Moorish rulers added 
flowers and wells to their enclosed patios. The 
mosque, now foe city's top tourist attraction, 
opens onto a large rectangular patio containing 
more than 60 orange trees. Locals clearly had a 
goal 10 emulate. 

Nowadays, it is mainly working-class people 
who live around and share foe patios as an 
outdoor living room for as many as seven fam- 
ilies. For them, foe festival opens their com- 
munal space to the public, and they seem to 
relish foe attention and foe compliments. 

* ’ Foreigners come, take me by the arm, snap a 
phorograph of us in the patio and then mail it to 
me.” said Dolores Jimenez, 70, a retired 
hairdresser. “We’re famous all over.” 

She is foe third generation in her family to 
inhabit two 18th-century lodgings on Anqueda 
street, each with a distinctive patio. 

A T 3 ANQUEDA, a narrow, short entry- 
way leads to the interior patio, where the . 
blue-painted flower pots are stuffed into 
every nook and cranny and up to foe balcony, 
giving foe place foe feel of a plant shop- Yet there 
is still room for six turtles to slowly pace foe 
patio floor. 

Directly across the street, at 2 Anqueda. Ji- 
menez and her aunt, age 82, keep watch over a 
much larger patio that includes water lilies, an 
orange tree and olive tree, a dozen caged yellow 


canaries singing noisily, and chickens and cats. 
It is a patio-c urn-mini -farm of which few are left 
in Cordoba. 

From narrow Anqueda street, with foe doors 
closed, there is no hut of what lies behind the 
high walls. That may sound romantic to visitors, 
but it is worrisome to the Friends of the Cordoba 
Parios Association, created in 1974 and now 
with 900 members. The association aims to 
preserve foe patios when older residents are 
unable to, or when families with children opt for 
better housing and leave behind foe cramped 
quarters facing onto a patio. 

* ‘The patios are an all-year effort. You have to 
waier them." said Manuel Garrido, the asso- 
ciation president. ’ 'It’s something intimate far a 
person. 

But so far the association has been able to 
purchase only two of the city’s 170 traditional 
patios. One is foe association’s headquarters, at 
50 San Basilio street, which will be open for the 
festival. 

For the first time, the association this year 
convinced businesses, including a savings and 
loan, an olive oil firm and two supermarket 
chains, to help city hall supply foe prize money 
for the festival’s patio contest. 

Local experts will judge the patios for floral 
arrangement, conservation or illumination 
(some insiders say the best time to see tire patios 
is after dark). The first prize is 400,000 pesetas 
(S2.800). Bui even foe patio owners who don’t 
receive top prizes will be paid 100,000 pesetas 
just for participating and sprucing up their 
premises. 


“Look, we’re old,” said Dolores de la Haba, 

72. “I get up in foe morning and clean my littlft 
apartment. Then what do I do the rest of foe: 
day?” she asked, crossing her arms. The answer j 
she quickly added, was to spend a few hours* 
watering the plants at her patio at 7 Martin de! 
Roa street. j 

Across town at 32 Los Lineros, one of foes 
city’s top restaurants, Bodegas Campos, has five M 
patios on display. Some date from the late 18th f 
century. The best time to see them, without 
waiters rushing about, is from 1 1 AM. to 12:30 
P.M. or from 6 to 730 PM. For a break from 
pauo viewing, foe bar offers a glass of local 
fortified wine and a snack plate of cured ham, 
cheese and olives for 950 pesetas. Full meals can 
cost about 5,500 pesetas per person. I 

LOOK1NO FOR lodoinos Hotels in Cordoba! 
which may be full during foe festival, are not big 
contributor* to preserve foe patios, despite re} 
quests from the pano association. But alternative 
lodging may be found in Seville, a 45-minute 
rtee on foe high-speed train (with frequent de- 
psrfores), or in Madrid. The capital is less than 
twohours away on the high-speed train, making 
Cord ob a a reasonable destination for a day nip. 

Afomssion » foe patios is free. Festival maps 

hS.l^,? V “ la ! )Ie a£ Cordote ’ s tourist officS 
hoteb, foe pano association headquarters at 50 
San Basilio, and at the patios foemieft^ . . $ 

Ynrl *L ho .contributes to The New 

tone times from Spain, wrote this for the In- 
ternational Herald Tribune. 1 






1 








INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 1997 


PAGE 11 



the car column 



eat- and- Potato e s Picnic 





f 5£T 801 cars for? At 
t k eiT . most basic, they 
provide A-to-B transport 

- - . P®°Ple. But there's 

•• m0rc *° 11 thaL In rbe early 

;/• X^.'- cars , we re status symbols and 
V; for the rich. The first horce- 

s Sf^ g %^ wi *crsenable,fast 
jor rebable; if those were your priorities 
r went by tram or horse or ife. Cars 

r. the great equalizers (san^ 

V tane whether you're a royal in a 

P^ge, and not that much difference in 
^ders* 1 ’ WCre **“ social di- 

■ l ii? e 2°*^ ' 30s - H «ny Ford in 
^menca, Herbert Austin in Britain and 
£anous European motor moguls made 
§“* that were cheap and plentiful and. in 
fhose halcyon prewar days, the motor 

- iffi was an A-to-B transport tool, 
note more and usually (breakdowns 
notwithstanding) no less. 

c - l ■ ^fter the war in America, and from 
about die late ’50s in Europe, once 

- prosperity replaced postwar austerity, the 

car became a symbol of sophistication as 

much as an object of utility, 

■ Nowadays, various research has con- 
. firmed, we choose a car on its style more 
t : than any other single quality {apart from 
'.jkjpast experience). Once, the key was 
-• i trustworthiness. But since the Japanese 
i gave the world the assumption of me- 
;• . ehanical reliability, Europe and Amer- 

■ tea were forced to follow, and now 

- : reliability is virtually a given. So is 
. ! comfort. And safety. 

•_ • Toyota, maker of the new Picnic, will 
tell you that this is another "lifestyle” 
vehicle, perfectly atoned to the needs of 
35- to 45-year-olds with children who 
enjoy an active, sporty lifestyle etc., and 
• as if to ram home the point, they've 
; given this car a fun, modem name. One 
of its key ingredients, if you believe the 
publicity blurt), is fun. 

Thi Height of Sensibility ’ 

1 ; Oh, thea^cialgjoss putcnafineif 
ordinary object by the creative minds of 
die mendacious and manipulative mar- 
keteer! Instead of a picnic, this is a meai- 
and-two-vegetables vehicle: a solid, de- 



pendable, unfnvolous machine that harks 
back to the primary function of the car. 
indeed, it is very possibly the most sen- 
sible vehicle in which to cany a family, 
and friends that there has ever been. 

For starters, it is made by Toyota, and 
there's powerful evidence to suggest 
that it is the world's best manufacturer 
of vehicles for everyday consumers. All 
modem cars may be reliable, bur various 
reports suggest that Toyotas are the 
most Second, the Picnic is a clever 
combination of six-seat er practicality 
but without the bulk and cost, which are 
major drawbacks of typical multipur- 
pose vehicles. It is smaller and less 
minibus-like than the Renault Espace or 
Chrysler Voyager. Cheaper too. It may 
only have six seats, but how many times, 
really, do you need the seven or eight 
seals that fell-sized MPVs offer? 

A smaller cabin makes for a smaller 
exterior, and thus the Picnic feels more 
wieldy than MPV rivals. Like more con- 
ventional and larger MPVs, you keep 
the big glass area, so the cabin is very 
airy. The seats are arranged two-by-two. 
over three rows, with a central aisle for 
easy mobility. The individual back seats 
come out and the others fold and swivel 
and perform various engineering gym- 
nastics to increase versatility. 

The test car was an automatic and 
featured a column-mounted gearshift, 
common in America but rare in Europe. 


where we have all been brainwashed 
into preferring big and bulky center con- 
soles replete with gear change. Such 
setups are all very well on sports cars, 
where cabin space is irrelevant. But the 
column shift is far more practical when 
space is the key. 

T HERE is nothing special about the 
way this car drives. Its controls are 
light, it rides well, it handles tidily, 
it sips feel in a miserly fashion, and it 
goes well enough. What more do you 
want? It is a car that enables a pair of 
adults and their three or four children (or 
two children and friends, or children and 
grandparents, or any combination you 
please) to be transported in comfort and 
relative cheapness. There is an anonym- 
ity about it, which is entirely in keeping 
with its true role in life: that of an un- 
pretentious yet pleasing runabout Isn't 
that surely what family cars are for? 

• Toyota Picnic. About $25,000. 
Four-cylinder 1998cc engine, 126 BHP 
at 5,400 rpm. Four-speed automatic 
gearbox (five-speed manual also avail- 
able). Top speed: 175 kpb (.109 mph). 
Acceleration: 0-100 kph in 11.7 
seconds. Average fuel consumption: 9.7 
liters/100 km. 

Next: The Porsche Boxster 


Gavin Green is the editor in chief of 
Car magazine. 


MOVIE GUIDE 


Ir:«a 


THE SAINT moved to America, his Saint CHASINO AMY 

Directed by Phillip Noyce, character became mare Amer- Directed bv Kevin Smith. 
U.S. icanized anyway. Kilmer’s US. 

My first piece of advice about genfleman-rogue in “The The hero of Kevin Smith's 
“The Saint,” an actian-ro- Saint” is hardly cultural sab- third film is smart, confident, 
mance starring Val Kilmer otage. And besides, Kilmer well versed in pop trivia and 
and Elisabeth Shue, is to shed {who drives a red Volvo C70 ready for Socratic discussion 
all expectations. I had to. A Turbo Coupe throughout the of any feasible issue, no mat- 
long time ago — before many movie and operates a mean ter how petty or small. So 
of you were lawyers -r~ I use^Appla ^ower§opk . J530Gce). Holden (Ben Affleck) has a 
to watch "The Saint” when it infuses ms part with such mis- lot in common with the film- 
was a British television series, chievous, comic vigor, he dis- maker, whose "Chasing 
(It also aired by in the United aims you. The motto for this Amy*' re-ignites the energy 
States.) The 1960s show, . movie? Don’t take it serious- of"Cleiks” and puts Smith’s 
based on the books by LesBe ty. Templar (Kilmer) is a career back on track. After the 
Charteris, was about Simon high-priced, free-lance infil- literally sophomoric daw- 
Templar (played by Roger trator currently employed by a dling of his more elaborate 
Moore), a suave, modern-day ruthless Russian mobster who "Mallrals." Smith retrieves 
Robin Hood in a white tur- wants to use a new formula for some of the spare look and 
deneck sweater, who drove a cold fusion to transform basic cleverness of his cel- 
. Classic Volvo P1800 and stole Mother Russia (where a heat- ebrated first feature. He also 
* from ail the right people for all ing-oil shortage has roiled the expands that style to accom- 
the right reasons. As played country), tom a tidy profit and raodaie genuine emotions, 
by Moore, be was effortlessly establish Ivan as a commun- Still showing his touch for 
stylish. And audiences would isric czar for life. But Templar garrulous, hmr-splitting con- 
wail for the Saint’s telltale sig- has to steal -the formula from v creation, Smith engages his 
nals directed at the camera, a Dr- Emma RusseU (Shue), a characters in a bright, spirited 
foised eyebrow, a wink (usu- beautiful, eccentric scientist demonstration of just how dif- 
ally over the shoulder of his who stuffs her scribblings into ficulr modem love can be. As 
latest female conquest) afiid a her bra mtd who gets all giddy played with wonderful ease 
superimposed halo above his • at the thought of serving man- by Affleck, Holden is just the 

followed by the un- kind. Phillip Noyce, who right level-headed man for 

forgettable "Saint” theme, made “Dead Calm,” “Patriot such matters. He is a comic- 
Temfic stuff. The Saint was Games" and "Dear and book aitist. But Holden also 
played by some 19 actors Present Danger,”- keeps seems worldly and self-pos- 
f American. British and even things moving at a kinetic, srssed. Certainly he is the 
Australian) on screen, radio involving pace. And he keeps grown-up in debates with his 
and television — including the cameras named on Kilmer sidekick, Banky (played by 
Georee Sanders (in the and . Shue, probably his Jason Lee, who was the best 
movies) and Vincent Price (on smartest strategy of all. thing in “Malirats" and is 

radio) And when Charteris (Desson Howe, WP) again daridy funny here). And 


he has a cool, contained man- 
ner that suggests he has seen 
everything, though it turns out 
he hasn't seen anything quite 
like Alyssa (Joey Lauren 
Adams) before. This bitsy- 
voiced blond first turns up at a 
lecture, where Holden’s ef- 
feminate and very funny 
friend. Hooper ■ {Dwight 
Ewell), is pretending to be a 
macho black militant as he 
attacks racism in the “Star 
Wars" trilogy. And when 
Holden begins sparring with 
Alyssa, he finds her a quick- 
witted, mischievous intellec- 
tual match. Then, as he starts 
finding himself sexually at- 
tracted to her, he discovers 
there's -a hitch. Alyssa likes 
women and has no sexual in- 
terest in men. The stubborn 
style of "Chasing Amy" 
nukes this a beginning, not an 
end. Holden and Alyssa are 
off and running in a set of 
conversations that artfully 
challenge their basic assump- 
tions about sex and love. As 
"Chasing Amy" redefines 
the boy-meets-girl formula 
for a culture where anything 
goes, it thri ves on Smith 's dry, 
deadpan direction. Smith's 
knowing humor and unruffled 
style make a good antidote to 
gender chaos. Music by David 
Pinier contributes to the 
film’s loose, inviting mood. 
i Janet Maslin, NYT) 


CROSSWORD 



ACROSS 

i Whisk 
"« Comforting 
words Of 
empathy 
ii Sound ai the 
door 


14 Barbara's 
partner in 
cartoons 

is Rover 

ic Pueblo pronoun 

17 Knock for 

18 February 
blrrhstones 


[■** 


*4 5 


Est. 1911, Pans 

“ Sank Roo Doe Noo’ 


A Space for Thought. 


20 Decorates, m a 
way 

2 fl Cork's place . 
-23 Temple of 
Apollo site 
24*1116 Jungle 
Book" setting 
25 Loser's place? 
as Bofta over 
joPuiver.a.g.. In 
"Mister 

Roberts*- Abbr. 
31 Range rovers 
as Terminal activity 
35 Ne plus ultra 
38 Tip 

37 Made a great 
point 

se Piaster's place 

41 Edit 

42 Portmanteau 
431978 Peck- 

Remlck thriller 

45 -Anne- 

do-Beauprd. 

Quebec 

48 Rogers SL 

Johns 

sa Roundabout 
routed 

30 Jaunt 

SI Reacting to. as 
a bad lake 
ss Some Cadillacs 
57 Kind of fairy 
saHlghway 
warning 

5* in — (untidy) 
bo Sharp ridge 
«i Great amount 
ei Beal Picture of 
1955 

aa Copy at trie 
office . 

DOWN 

1 Tobacco wad 

2 Syllables 
meaning *i 
forgot the 
words'* 


3 Hydroxyl 
compound 

4 “You can't 

teach ..." 

8 Siesta lakers 
a Shipshape 
7 Boomerang 
a Foreign office* 
• 'Darnl* 

18 Old English 
fetter 

11 Quarters 

12 Harsh. 

ia Impersonate 
18 Long 

2 i it may come in 
cases 

24 Man. e.g.: Abbr. 
28 MaNa 

28 Slight sin 

27 Decisive conflict 

29 Fun, So to 
speak 

as Like one side of 
tha aisle: Abbr. 
34 cartesian 
conclusion 

MSeatslangDy 
re Presidential 
monogram 

40 Grp. throwing 
art open house 

41 Loathing 
lewes 

4* Minimum 

44* 

HeWenfeben* 
(Strauss opus) 
47 Sign of summer 
4S Overnight 
sensation? 

si Navigator 

1 Vasco de 

tt Attendee 
wOne-quintifffonth. 
PfBfl* 

34 TV’s-—— Files" 
at Farm butter 


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C.Vftt Fort Time*/ Edited by Rill Shorts. 


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ARTS GUIDE 



On show in Berlin; David Bailey's " Jane Birkin. Goodbye Baby and Amen” 


M AUSTRIA 

Vienna 

KunetHaueWten, tel. (1) 712- 
0495, open daily. To Aug. 4: "Karl 
Schmidi-Rottiuff.” The German 
Expressionist (1884-1976) was 
one of the founders of Die Brucke 
in 1905 that advocated simplific- 
ation of form and color. The ex- 
hibition features 1 80 paintings, wa> 
tercolors, drawings, graphics and 
sculptures. 

B BELGIUM 

Antwerp 

KonlnkUJk Museum voor 
Scheme Kunstan, tel: (3) 238-78- 
09. closed Mondays. To June 22: 
‘‘Miniatures Raman des pour 
Princes at Bourgeois. 1475-1550." 
At the time when printing was con- 
quering Europe, miniature painting 
enjoyed its final flowering. Flemish 
illuminated books, often commis- 
sioned by princes, burghers and 
men of the church, became status 
symbols. The exhibition features 
50 music manuscripts, prayer 
books and illuminated books. 

Brussels 

Muses d’Art Anclen, tel: (2) SOS- 
3211. dosed Mondays. Continu- 
ing/ To July 27: Paul Delvaux, 
1897-1994." Paintings and works 
on paper by the Belgian painter. 

■ T1.-ta.h~ — 

London 

Tate Gallery, tel: (171) 887-8732. 
□pen daily. Continuing/To June 8: 
"Hogarth the Painter." Features 
paintings by William Hogarth 
(1697-1764), whose fame mainly 
rests on his engravings. 

■ JMIAnce , Z 

Paris 

Grand Palais, tel: 01-44-13-17- 
17, closed Mondays. Continuing/ 
To May 26: "Angkor et Dlx Siedes 
d’Ait Khmer." Art from Cambodia 
dating back to the 6th century. And 
to July 14: “Pana/BruxeUes - 
Bruxelles/Paris.” The confronta- 
tion between Belgian and French 
art tn the second part of the 19th 
century. 


Fauve paintings, the wale red ore, 
pastels and drawings depict poor 
people, prostitutes and dancers. 
Also exhibited are works by Van 
Dongen’s friends and contempor- 
aries, such as Matisse, Signac and 
Picasso. 

Musee Cemusehl, tel: 01-45-63- 
50-75, closed Mondays. To May 
17: "Linde de Gustave Moreau." 
Traces the influence of India on the 
French painter (1826- 1896) .The 
drawings, watered ore and paint- 
ings are shown together with In- 
dian illustrations, photographs and 
miniatures. 

M PERM A MY ~ 
Berlin 

Camera Work Gallery. To June 6: 
"David Bailey: Photographien." 
Photographs by the British fashion 
artist, who says of his work: “If I 
have to explain my pictures in 
words, it means that my images 
have not worked.” 

Munich 

Kunsthalie der Hypo-Kutturstif- 
tung, tel: (89) 22-44-12, open 
daily. To June 29: "Atoerlo Giac- 
ometti." More than 60 works, most 
of them on loan from the Maeght 
Foundation in Saint- Pad-de- 
Vence, First a representative of 
Surrealist sculpture, Giacometti 
(1901-1966) later translated his 
fears, dreams and obsessions into 
lonely match stick- figures cast in 
bronze or drawn in charcoal. 

■ ITALY 

Venice 

Palazzo Grass!, tel: (41) 522- 
1375. open daily. Continuing/ To 
July 13: "Arte del ’900: La Plttura 


Fiamminge e Olandese " A selec- 
tion of works by 20th-centry Bel- 
gian and Dutch painters, including 
van Gogh. Ensor, Magritte, 
Delvaux and Mondrian. 

U JAPAN 

Afctff 

Toyota Municipal Museum of 
Art tel: (565) 34-66-10. dosed 
Mondays. To June 22: ‘Tony 
Cragg." 20 works by the British 
sculptor (bom 1949) whose sculp- 
ture uses everyday objects and 
street refuse. 


Barcelona 

Museu d’Art Contemporanl, tel: 
(93) 412-08-10. dosed Mondays. 
To June 29: "Josep Uuis Sert: Ar- 
chitect in New Ybrk.” From his exile 
at the end of the Spanish Civil War 
to his becoming dean of the Har- 
vard Graduate School of Design, 
Sert worked m New York and came 
mto contact with Le Corbusier, 
Hans Richter and Marcel Du- 
champ. among others. The exhib- 
ition brings together works from the 
Sert collection at Harvard. 

■ UUlTIft STATES 

New York 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, Id: 
(212) 570-3791, closed Mondays. 
Continuing/ To April 27; “Giam- 
battista Tiepolo." 80 paintings and 
33 etchings by the Venetian paint- 
er. Also, to Aug. 3: “Cartier; 1900- 
1939." Traces the evolution of 
styles since the creation of the 
Maison Cartier in 1647. 

Pittsburgh 

The Frick Art Museum, tel: (412) 
371-0600, closed Mondays. To 
June 29: “Collecting in ihe Gilded 
Age: Art Patronage in Pittsburgh, 
1890-1910." 130 paintings that 
used to be in the collections of 
Pittsburgh industrialists, such as 
Mellon and Frick. Features French 
and French-inspired works as well 
as paintings depicting Pittsburgh 
and its history. 

Washington 

National Museum o I American 
Art, tel: (202) 633-8998. open 
daily. Tb Aug. 3: "Singular Impres- 
sions: The Monotype in America.” 
125 examples of the printmaking 
medium, in which a painted image 
is transferred through pressure to a 
sheet of paper. Features works by 


William Merritt Chase and Maurice 
Prendergast as well as Dieben- 
Horn and Jasper Johns. 

SUMMER FESTIVALS 

Today, the Arts Guide lists ma- 
jor music festivals due to start 
next month in various European 
cities. June festivals will be lis- 
ted on Friday. May J 6. 

Bergen. Norway 

Bergen Internationa/ Festival, 
tel: (47) 55-31-21-70. fax: 31-55- 
31. May 21 to June i: LerfB Ove 
Andsnes. this year's musician in 
residence, performs in five con- 
certs. Also, on the program. 
Schubert's "Winterrelse.” in a Par- 
is Opera Comique production, and 
Tales of Hoffmann" by the Berlin 
Komische Oper. 

Brescia and Bergamo, Italy 
Festival Planistico Inter* 
nazlonale, tel: (39) 30-293-032, 
fax: 240-0771 (Brescia). (39) 35- 
416-0602 (Bergamo). May 3 to 
June 25: The Teatro Donizetti. Ber- 
gamo and the Teatro Grande, 
Brescia feature Brahms's 
"Deutsches Requiem.” Andres 
Schlff plays Schubert In both cities 
and Lorln Maazel conducts the 
London Philharmonic in Brescia. 

Brighton, England 
Brighton international Festival, 
tel: (44)1273-292-592, lax: 622- 
453. (www.brighton.co.uk/festiva)). 
May 3-25: Simon Rattle opens the 
(estival with the City of Birmingham 
Symphony playing Schumann and 
Mahler and Daniels Gatti leads the 
Royal Philharmonic in a Schubert 
and Mendelssohn program at the 
dosing conceit Also on the pro- 
gram. the British premiere of Aus- 
trian composer Gottfried von 
Enem's 1947 “Denton’s Death” 
and Puodni’s "Madame Butterfly.” 

Dresden, Germany 
Dresdner Musikfestspfeie, tei: 
(49) 351-4866-317. fax: 4866-307. 
(http'J/www.dresdner-musikfesi- 
spiele.com). May 17 lo June 1: 
“Italians in Florence on the Elbe'' is 
the theme of the festival, with 57 
events including orchestral and 
choral music concerts (Michel 
Plasson. Gercf Albrecht are on the 
roster of conductors). Opera per- 
formances indude “Si roe" by the 
Dresden court composer Johann 
Adolf Hasse, as well as Donizetti's 
“Roberto Devereux," and Paisi- 


eilo's “King Theodore in Venice.” 
Echternach, Luxembourg 
Festival International, tel: (352) 
728-347, fax: 727-112. May 15 to 
July 8: Peter Schreier, tenor, sings 
Brahms's “Die Schone 
Magelone.” Mstislav Rostropovich 
appears in a Haydn, Boccherini 
and Rossini program, and Vladimir 
Ashkenazy leads the German 
Symphony Orchestra. 

Florence, Italy 
Magglo Musical* Florentine, tel: 
(39) 55-210-804, fax: 277-9410, 
( www.meg^. tt/maggiofiorentino). 
May 3 to July 2: A program that 
features three operas: “Parsifal." 
conducted by Semyon Bychkov; 
"Turandot” (staging and costumes 
are Chinese) and “Arianna a Mas- 
se." both conducted by Zubin Meh- 
ta; and several orchestral concerts 
with Wolfgang Sawallisch, Giu- 
seppe Sinopoli and Mehta as guest 
conductors. 

Glyhdebourne, England 
Glyndeboume Festival Opera, 
tel: (44) 01273-812-321. fax: 
814686. May 18 to Aug. 24: New 
productions of Puccini's “Manor 
Lescaut, " with conductor John Eli- 
ot Gardiner making his Glynde- 
boume debut with Graham Vick 
directing, and Rossini’s "Le Comte 
Ory,” directed by Jerome Savary; 
Britten's “Owen W ingrave”; “Le 
Nozze di Figaro”; Janacek's 'The 
Makropoutos Case”; and a revival 
of ihe 1996 Peter Sellars’s pro- 
duction of Handel's “Theodora.” 

Prague, Czech Republic 
Prague Spring Festival, tel: (42) 
2-532-474. fax: 536-040. May 5 to 
June 2: The four Brahms sym- 
phonies are interpreted by three 
conductors: Michiyoshi Inoue with 
the Kyoto Symphony, Colin Davis 
with the London Symphony and 
Lbor Pesefc with the Prague Radio 
Symphony. Operas Include “Jen- 
ula.” “Don Giovanni.” “Lohen- 
grin.” and “Rosenkavaiier.” 

Vienna, Austria 

Wiener Festwochen, tel: (43) 1- 
589-2222. fax: 589-2249. fhttpJ/ 
www.feslwochen.or.ai). May 8 to 
June 22: Nicho'as Harnoncourt 
conducts Schubert's romantic op- 
era "Alfonso und Estrella" arid 
Handel's “Aldna" and Rlccardo 
Muti conducts “Cosi Fan Tutte.” 
Also, concerts, piano recitals by 
Murray Perahla and Allred Brendei 
and lieder recitals. 


Institut Neertandals, tel: 01-53- 

59-12-40. closed Mondays. To 

June B; "Kees Van Dongen Re- 
trouve.” More than 100 works on 
paper by tha Dutch-bom artist 
(1877-1968). Created before his 


HOLIDAYS & TRAVEL 




Residence Hotels 

HoBday Rentals 

CURIDGE CHAMPS ELYSEES 

Hgn ebss rams & sutts 

Daly, weekly & monthly rates. Paris 

Trt+33 (0)1-44133331 Fffl(01 1-42250468 


Caribbean 

ST. BARTHELEUY. F.W4_ OVER 200 
PRIVATE VACATION VILLAS - be Ben- 
ton) to tunaae wan pools. Cur opens 
have inspecKb aD villas personally. For 
resavanre. on Sl Barts. St Mann. An- 
guia, Baibedos. Mustique. the Vign Is- 
lands.. Call VYlMCOriSISARTH ■ US. 
(401 I&49-B01 2/tax 647-6290. from 
FRANCE 05 90 16 20 • ENGLAND D 
-800-89-0318 


Holidays and Travel 

"SUMMER tN FRANCE 1 

Specie) neadng tor hottay reread 
aril be appeemg a gan or 

Fitay. 23h Apri, l§h 4 30ti May. j 

Bft. 13th & 209i Juie. 1 

For tiettt ortacc irnita MAUVE 
WTERNATTOHAL HSULO TH0JNE 

181 mu CtariM de Qautie 

92200 NauOywr-Setoe, France 

Tei: +33 (SJ1 41 43 82 IB 

Ftoe +33 (0)1 41 43 93 70 

E-tnafl: N/UJVEeiHT.COM 

French Provinces 

PROVENCE / COTES DU RHONE - 
Spams modernized farmhouse. 5 beds. 

4 bafts. Fabulous news Tel: owner 
-33(0)475983177. +44 {0)1712624039. 

French Riviera 

JunMutyfAuguel 3 nw beech. ID mm 
MonanvNiee. bmK by royalty, mountain 
saswews. peaceful Gzmen. vrapnunb 
pent 6 Kiairy suies. Visit Tet +33(0K 

93 80 78 08. owner -44(0171) 4937484 

FIVE STARS REMTAL VB1AS. Eenpe, 
Caribbean. USA. Hamptons. Florida, 

Rent Jane Seymour’s Castle. Overseas 
Connection Tel: 1 -516-725-3308; 
mwjvasauwto coin. 

IflCE-LUXURY CONDO. FURNISHED 

110 s^m.. 2 bedrooms. 2 baths. 2 tar- 
races, Mediterranean vm, dose to 
beach. Avafitte arter Juty 1. Dr. Sues* 

Fax 1-401-331-7429 Tet i-40i-33HQ55 

HAMATUaiE n^ftoftcod. Stedram 
house, pod. sea nre. aa contort, aval- 
able Aiq. owner td -33 (0)142230104 

Hotels 


Greece 

Lebanon 

GHEECE 3 nous Athens. Roraarae, ssa 
Iron Iwteatray, E double bedrooms, 5 
baft's. Stumng sea urns, for spring- 
sunmer. Fax Wy *38 SO BO 33 51 

HOTEL AL BUST AW, East ot Beirut. 

5 gar detoe. Eneptasi tocadon, sacu- 
itf, comton. 8r» cuame, corwemiora. 
business astvees, sateBte Tv. 18 trtn 
tnmrier from airport fr«. UTBL Fax 
ftl) Z1247Bt31 / (+33) (0)147200037 

SANT0RH • VILA. Br&thBfcmg vtw, 

5 bedrooms, 3 baftraoms. lame living, 

200 sq.m, veranda-garden, futy lur- 
nishM. phonefat will or rthouf ser- 
vant heed tor sraner or 15 days mto. 
Tel/Fax -301 - 6070733 

USA 

Italy 

BflEATHTAIQNG VEW0F NEW YORK, 

20 ft glass mlt Centra! Part & City. 
UnnBudy lumahed piano, fax. cade 

For buSin«Si musoan or honeymoon 
coupia- 1 btook to Camwa Hail 2 n 
umerman. S to Lmcoto Center, Muse- 
ums, Theaters. Weekly. Uonftly. 3 day 
weekends (mmmunj or long term. 

Tet 212-262-1561. Fax' 71W8441C 

SARDINIA - CAPO CODA CAVALL0 
BeartW 600 syiv wfla. 75 ton souft d 
Pore Cerw (Cass SmeiMJa). 50 ton 
souft of Porto Rotondo. modem design, 
fufy fumbriad. on sandy beech, 9 double 
bamoontt, B bahraon®, avatata May. 
June, July. September. Teh +39 335 
4734Q5. Fax *39 2 90571117 Mto: Mar- 
za 


YACHTS 



-fer 

STATIC II 

9 O' Supercharming 
Beneto Yacht 

4 Staterooms 8/ 10 guests 
plus 4 crew' home 
port Monte Carlo - Rates ‘97 

SUMMER US$3800 PER DAY 
OTHER USS2800 PER DAY 
FOOD-FUEL NOT INCLUDED 

Contact : Boat Manager - ITALY 
TeL: + 39 424 BU8990 

Fax: + 39 424 80840S 
http:/ /wrww’jisofLit/sta tic/ 


Monaco 

A ISRIC AN LETS flat, own villa, for 
Graft Pir. 12 im Monaco. Steeps 5. 

Tet ,33 «T}4 03 28 « 96 

GRAND PH IX MONACO Formula 1. 
owner tents apartment + Mfrafiftiwf. 4 

Days. 40 people, (treaty or the harbor, 
ante open vow on fte cram. F140.000 

Tel: 3779331)24% Fa 37793302437 

MONACO GRAND PRIX FI. Apartment 
wfft balcony, placed on the best part 

Ql the Circuit (asparture-righi Itne- 
comennj Si Dewtefte Osfenoe din*), 
big screen. Fax' *377 53 50 15 91 

Paris & Suburbs 

UAflAJS: Cfoming 1 Bedroom, near 

Place des Vosges. Terrace, vm. eleva- 
tor. equipped. Jun&Jufy SSOO mo. Call 
+33 (OM 46 04 71 77 unti 4®. 

Israel 


FOR RENT ROOIIIS h Israel, m center 
Tel Am, 3 totek in a (ms house tor 
Etton/taw st ay. Sauna S TV neuxted. 
Cel S72-3-5710621 


DISCOUNT TRAVEL 



HOLIDAY RENTALS 


MenvycUlen 

House 


World Class in Wales 
For a tree brochure on the renal 
oi our very special, neiv 
3ER I'jMjry country noose in ihe 
beautiful Wye v&liey. please wnte 
Sir Alan Cov, RO. Bo\ 27. 

Chepslcw. Monmouinshire 
MP6 6EY. United Kingdom 
FAX -011-44-1291-628436 


Sardinia 


SAHDMA. RENTAL AUGUST: St 5,000. 
SEPT. S7500. Mom star hone, E acres, 
private beach, G double beds, 5 bails, 
pinn-pong terrace, barbecue. Contact: 
P. Gamer Fat +33 10|i <5 56 19 59. 


U.SA 


■UONSGATF 

Lvetea rme 
n histone Kty Watt R«tt 
private gated compound nth pool 
y, ■ along and Mug dWanco tj 
tweries, shoppng & local attractions. 
Exflusw compound usage tv 24 
vhenavaifte 
EvereB Wationa 
Ota Hand Ratty, tot 
Fat 305 294 7501 T& 305 282 5097 
E: otatstindfiaoLcam 


NYC - ELEGANT, LARGE 2 BEDROOM, 
2 baft apernen it L cefinga, 
Braques, huge viftws. sunny, part; 
vim. Exdunve location Many anew- 
let. SIMM JJyMug. Fix 212-799- 
7533 E-nat sjsmererai&prnpam. 


i 








ik'ihim u ( n^r.i n ; i a if A a tii i A i tuici aw alTnj 


INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFIED 


INTERNATIONAL 







TODAY'S 


HOLIDAYS 
& TRAVEL 
SECTION 

Appears on Page 11 


Personals 


THANK YOU SACRED KART 
at Jesus and SL Jude 
lor prayers answered. Amen 


Announcements 


Attention visitors 
from the U.S! 



If you enjoy rearing the IHT 
ttften you travel, why not 
also get it at home? 
Same-day defiveiy available 
in key U.S. dies 


Call (1) 800 882 2884 

_ (In Nw tort call 212 752 3890) 

Hcralb^^^Eribunc. 


w vntuniuiu niuvuii 


Auto Rentals 


RENT AUTO DERGI FRANCE 
WEEKEND: FF5O0. 7 DAYS: FF1500. 
TEL PARIS *33 (0)1 4J G8 55 55- 


Autos Tax Free 


EUROPE AUTO BROKEF 

TeLHdfand 31(0)3M064494 Fi 


Legal Services 


DIVORCE M 1 DAY. No travel. Write 
Bo* 377, Sudbuy, UA 01776 USA. Tet 
508/4434387, Fat 508/4430181 



Rea) Estate 
for Sale 


Belgium 


GENT, RUSTIC STYLE VILLA, 1.600 
sq.m., antique fireplace, tutty equipped 
fcteflen, 3 bedrooms, bathroom, dressing 
room, cellar, new central healing, 2-car 
garage. 3 stales. 2 rtwi tram runway 
and shops Tel *3192305688 ewnmgs 


Canada 


LAKE SIICOE Waterfront Estate. Barrie. 
Ontario. Canada. 196 acres at land, plus 
4 acres ot waiertota. Prorate, secluded 
81X7 ffrferfran wfli sandy beach areas. 
Ideal lor bitty, corporate retreat posa- 
ble hJUB dawtepmenL Home. 2 car ga- 
rage, small ham. Panoramic vtewi. For 
appairtrert or fume uAjmulion comet 
Uel Brass. 12 Diriop area East Barrie. 
Ontario. Canada. L<MlA3 or Fax 
f- 705-726-5230. Phone 1-705-7265025. 
Offered at S2S Mtai Canarfian. 


Caribbean 


SAINT IIAARTEN, Netherlands AnOtes. 
Waterfront Home an Oynqxxtd. 4 bed. 
4 bath, pod, boat dock with 2 m. depth. 
3000+ sqm land, direct ocean access: 
USS650.000. Fax (561) 2725101 USA. 


CAIRO. UNIQUE PENTHOUSE, tfcectff 
overlooking We. 755 6qm retiring su- 
perb terrace, central a* cowHo rin o . pri- 
vtte dnator. n seta high class bttd- 
mg USS 32 mfcn. Fax 203 39 39 362. 


French Provinces 


NUMBER ONE OPPORTUNITY 
CALAIS SEAFRONT ftttf ResHsnce 
110 rooms, ", Z5JM0 sqJL 25% return 
on iweslmeni possWe From £9299 / 
Studos (250 sqA) 1, 2 or 3 tats. 

Tel +33(0)141180481. Fax (0)14^77964 


NORUAfOY, OWIER SELLS renovated 
manor bouse. 300 sqm. hiring space. 
6 bedrooms + guest house. 3 Bedrooms. 
Several outajBdings, stables — Treed 
45 tia. land. pond. FF2.2M. Tel: Pans 
+33 (0)147321321. Fat (0)147140567 


PROVENCE, 20 HNS FROM AVKaNON. 
County bouse in stone, calm. wd bred 
OUL 7 bedrooms, 4 bathrooms, possfate 
2-4 apanmems. Garden, pod. Bordering 
beautiful vflage. FF2, 350,000. Tel/Fax 
*33(0)4 66 57 62 OB 


PROVENCE I COTES DU RHONE - 
Huge spacious modernized farmhouse. 
ALL modem convener*®, 5 bedrooms. 
4 bathrooms. &nwg vans. By owner 
Tel- London. +44 (0)171 282 4039. 


10% NET PROFIT - Rare Townhouse, 
B50 sq.ni. in (Means Zen lb Promote* 
Tel +33(01236420201 Fax (0)238629534 


DIVORCE 1-DAY CERTIFIED 
G * or Fa (714) 9688695. Writer 1S7S7 
Beadi B hut <137. ftntngfcr BasA CA 
92948 U JA- frffltt - ■stcmeimoxsxn 


Telecommunications 


Introducing 

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Where Standard! m Set, not MeE 


Tel: 1J206.589.1991 


Fax: 1.20&599.1981 

Esnafi: MoOkBUndumn 
nrerJgdbacLcom 


Business Opportunities 


LOOKING FOR AGENTS WbrfcMde tor 
Medical Health Center m Switzerland 
Iteming PSORIASIS - Atop* Eczema, 
PoNanivss (PeP) a* Muftple Sdeross. 
Please coreaci TeL +41-24494 25 si or 
Fa +41-24494 11 87. 

I nte n d psoriassneLcom 


JOINT VENTURE W PHIUPPMES to 
Timer Hotel mth 120 rooms. Properties 
18.141 sq.m, m Pasig, 9.842 sq.m, in 
Carta: 2.110 - 4.128 11535 sqm. in 
Valenzuela and Puerto Gatora iritn 18 
ha Tet (6321 525-5985S34302 


OFFSHORE COMPANIES. For free bra- 
due or advice TeL Union 44 161 741 
1224 Fax: 44 181 748 6558/6338 
mvw^pptoten C04* 


Mapufcent RENOVATED FARMHOUSE 
in 150 acres «Bi wondertul views of Vie 
Pyrames 5 beds era*, ire+n ttchen. 
2 farm receptions, gams mom. pooL 6 
states & 60m x 30m parting arena, 
htun trr TaL- +33 (0J4 6S 89 93 7tt 
Fax: +33 (0)4 66 69 9Q 78. 
e-oul 1M71B23B46CompuSer»aaxa 


REIMS-EPERNAY-CHALONS Triangle. 
Luxurious property buth in 1993. 
set m 1172 acres parNAe ground, butter- 
ing lake ispnrider systems). 3500 sqft. 
fang grace 3 recejtoi rooms, 5 doftfe 
bedrooms. 3 bathrooms. 2 ensure i mth 
jacuzzL Indoor pod. sauna, shower, 
double gareqe. wine cedar. Luxury 
liftings. Seflmg price FF5M or nearest 
oOer. Tet Owner +33 (0)3 26 68 56 7& 


SOUTH o( FRANCE, PAYS VAROIS 
I hr Saim Tropez. 2 hrs Monte Carlo 
Ftl charm ot Provence. Vfe on hfcde. 
Ett a ordn a ty nw. 33J sqm. 6 ha tend, 
pod. housekeeper's lodging, sdd ready 
to move m. SILL Fax +33(0)142223784 


BOULOGNE SUR HER Nice vita. 15 
acres, livmg + fireplace. 5 bedrooms, 
mar gofl. sea. Tet +32273110.05 


OWNER SELLS HOUSE in soulh d 
Fiance, near Leucate, JOO sqm redone. 
FF4SO,OOa Tefc +33(0)4 68456492 


French Riviera 


CAP D’AIL 

3 nils away from Morte-Caita 
seataa. channng property. Via or 
3 levels, lovely garter reth swnruixj 
pool and treanW view, evened south. 
Defadied home far stall and garage. 
Needs » be refurtxsbed Urged, 
itay fiteresfing pnce 


AGENCE 


Le Park Palace 
25 avenue de la Costa 
VC 98000 Norte Carta 
Tfit (377) 93 25 15 08 
Far (377) S3 25 35 33 
wwwjnontecarta.ncTeadH/park agence 


NICE. HOLIOAY RESORT 

dlsraJ tor sale. Exriuswe buUng n the 
heart ol Nfae ■ TOO meters tram the 
beach. 21 apartments on 6 floors, ratty 
renovated. Tastehiv equpped wvh nw 
furtture. Devdcsed as bmeshare protect 
ready to go. Contact tafodex ApS. 
Tet Deraar* +45 333 79 331 
ter. +45 449 81 666 
or e-oefl Uidimagqdk. 


NEAR Sophia AnfipaBs, NiceaCannes 
Rare opportunity- Estate with auihsnic 
iBth codny drre oi mdl + antep em ten l 
mas r separate apxtmt losing 650 
sq.m. Siing space. 9.000 sqm land. 
Passfcte txw&rg eaaiaoa Stream bank. 
Pod. PooFhouse Sdd rSracBy by owner 
50% under rahie tor re ar w e nt reasons. 
FR.JOO.OOtt Tet +33 (0(4 33 77 35 57. 


FRANCE 


COTE D’AZUR 


unique 

at one of the most sought after sites 


“LE CAP D’ANTIBES” 


Right near sea and beaches, 
in a privileged quality environment, calm. 
Last superhe lot for construction 
on a 20.000 sq.m, fiat land. 

Ideal for building one to thirteen villas 
with pools and housekeeper's house. 
50 % undervalued 

Exceptional investment opportunitv’ 


Documentation upon request 


Contact owner. M. Yafi 

1, av. du Docteur-Picaud, 06400 CANNES 
Fax +33(0)4 93 99 13 02 


OFFSHORE BANKS 
COMPANIES & TRUSTS 
ASSET PROTECTION 
MRATKWPASSP0RTS 
TRADE-FINANCE 


YOUR OFFICE M LONDON 
Bond Street - Mtt, Phone, Fax. latex 
Tet 44 171 499 9132 Fa* 171 489 7517 


EAST: Bill for German Reunification Soars as Resentments 

rTmfrimuui Fenm Pana i “We blew ir in East Germany. ” said write an IMF pap® 1 il-qom Inn 


Financial Services 


Continued from Page 1 


RMMs PROBLEMS? 


ASTON CORPORATE 


tor 

somnofTS 

Contaa 


dous waste of economic resources.” 

In Leipzig, one-third of the work force 
is unemployed, after accounting for gov- 
ernment-financed make-work jobs and 
eariy-retiiement programs. A third of the 


TRUSTEES LTD 

19 Peel Road, Doughs, Isfe oMIan 
British isles 


office space is vacant, including several 
of tbe fanciest new buildings. Local tax 


BANCOR OF ASIA 


Tefc 01624 626591 


Badsfe aaantees « ream Uring 

nr nttte pojecte- 


Fax: 01624625126 

E Utt No. astDnSenterpris&nrt 


Business Services 


VBiTURE CAPITAL 
EQUITY LOANS 
REAL ESTATE 


of tbe fanciest new buildings. Local tax 
revenue accounts for just 10 percent of 
the city's S 2 billion annual budget. 

The only thing that keeps Eastern 
Germany afloat are the billions of marks 
handed out by -Chancellor Helmut 
Kohl ’s government every year. 

All this is causing big problems not 


just for Germany 1 bur for Europe, too. 
Loaded with $300 billion in debt related 
to the East. Germany as a whole is in 
danger of not being able to meet the 
fiscal requirements to qualify for the 
euro, the single European currency 
planned for 1 999. But without Germany, 
there will be no euro in the near future, 
and that would upset the timetable on 
which Europe's political leaders have 
pinned much of their hope for long-term 
economic recovery. 

The domestic repercussions are just as 
bad. Even as the 60 million West Ger- 
mans become angrier about paying a 75 
percent “solidarity” surtax for rebuild- 
ing the East, which has fewer than 20 
mil) ion people, Mr. Kohl is trying to cut 
health and retirement benefits to reduce 
tbe government's deficit. 

For all the excess, some argue that 
Germany will see a huge payoff from the 
Eastern spending spree if it waits a de- 
cade or more. 

But others contend that Eastern Ger- 
many combines the worst of two worlds: 
the bankrupt legacy of 45 years of Com- 
munist mismanagement and the rigidity 
that has jeopardized Western Germany’s 
own ability to compete on the world 
market 

To the government's chagrin, former 
Eastern bloc countries such as Poland, 
Hungary and tbe Czech Republic, which 
have received only a small fraction of the 
amount of aid Eastern Germany is get- 
ting. are growing more quickly ana at- 
tracting considerable investment from 
Germany’s companies. Those countries 
have also kept wages competitive and 
relied mostly on free -market forces 
since the collapse of the Soviet system. 


Long terra catateral 
Support CuaraYwa 


GENEVA 


Fax: (632) 81M2M 
Tak (632) 8944358 


Fiil Service 


(Commtsswi earned orty upon Ftnfag) 
Brakes Cammsston Assured 


fatenttona) favv and txces 
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tanatm tanofeMn and 
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cortqaiKs 

' f [trusted offices and conference 
rooms lor daily cr monthly rente 



Fufl confidence aid tfsoehon assured. 


Verture C&fal Finance Awfefife 
tor Gcvtrrvnert Projeas ail 
Government Conpantes 
foal are tor sale. 

Lags Projects our Specially 
Also. Long Tom Finance tar 
Lame and Smal ConranteE 
No ccmnfcaon Urtt Fimded 


nus , k ;;w 


SERVICES SJL 

7 Rue Uuzy, 1207 GENEVA 
Tel 736 05 40. TN 413222. Fax 786 06 44 


REPRESENTATIVE 
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tease reply m Engfcn 


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VSmiRE CAPITAL CONSULTANTS 
IwesmatMns 
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Endno, Cafiania 91436 USA 
Fax No.' (818) 905-1688 
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Contact the fhris office: 

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E-mail: dmrfjfi+diS'ibtroin 


"We blew it in East Germany," said 
Herbert Henzler. chairman of the German 
unit of McKinsey & Co., the consulting 
firm. "In terms of economic policy, we 
did almost everything wrong. 

Where did ali the money go? 

In the view of many German econ- 
omists. it's not so much that the money 
was poured down a rat hole as that 
Eastern Germany’s problems boil down 
to one almost ur.'^ehevable statistic: Its 
average hourly wage has soared to more 
than $ 1 6 an hour, actually slightly higher 
than in tile United States. 

In a well-intentioned but damaging 
series of decisions in the early 1990s. the 
German government essentially imposed 
West Germany’s entire structure of high 


we said they shouldntdaMr- Tro- 
mann said, “and then did them. ^ 



Many say the German goyemnm 
had little choice politically. UntikeotJ 
former Soviet-bloc coentr.es. ta 


former Soviet-oioc cwm.u ^ ~ ~ i ^ ; 
many was absorbed into the Westu£ J < 
■ u* lb. rMiHMitx had bten I. ^s ! 


wages and mandaiory social benefits 
onto an ecooomy that had collapsed. 

High labor costs are making it dif- 
ficult enough for Western Germany to 
compete in the global economy; for 
Eastern Germany, where the output per 
worker is only half as high, the wage 
situation is catastrophic. 

"The economy here is comparable to 
that of a Third World country, orperhaps 
Spain or Portugal,” said Joachim Rag- 
nitz, an economist at the Halle Institute 
for Economics; but labor costs, he noted, 
are much lower in Spain and PortugaL 

The only East German business that 
has generated many jobs is the con- 
struction industry, which, thanks to lav- 
ish subsidies, employs about 17 percent 
of all workers in Eastern Germany — a 
share of the work force that is aboutthree 
times as high as it is in most countries. 
But even that segment is now losing 
ground because ofi overbuilding. 

With too many high-priced workers 
chasing too few real jobs, the govern- 
ment has persuaded as many as 800,000 
people a year to leave the work force 
through generous early-retirement pro- 
grams. Several hundred thousand people 
are in training programs and. 200.000 
more are in what officials candidly call 
make-work jobs. 

Germany was warned ahead of time 
about the potential for disaster. 

"It was probably tbe single biggest 
mistake," said Guenter Thumann, an 
economist with Salomon Brothers who 
once worked in Germany’s Ministry of 
Economics and at die International 
Monetary Fund. Mr. Thumann helped 


promised the full benefit of Genian ^1 
citizenship, a promise cracgl to ^ | 

vote for reunification in 1990. i If cat • fl 

German wages and benefits bad 1 

mained far below those in West Gs- ] 

many, the most skilled residents tb of j ( 1 

would have simply moved: we fl. j v 7 | 

"We are 1 suffering today from ®- , 

cisions that were economically wn»E 1 .. ^ 
but politically correct.'* Werner Patztfj, 
a professor of political .science * 

Dresden Technical University, said, tf it \ 
you had told East Germans that fify :< + ■ 
should get reunited with West Germany 
but that they should only have one-thid • 

or one-half of their wages, reumficatip L > - 

would never have happened.’* * K 

Nowhere is die East German jofc |t 
problem more vividly on display than it £ J I 

me monstrous and roxic chemical cor!- y* •• 
plex that Dow Chemical Corp. is takiig 
over near die city of Schkdpau. ’ 

The complex looms over the _su- • • 

roun din g farmland like a film noir visio # - 

of life after the apocalypse, with 50 
crumbling buildings ensnaried by hut 
dreds of miles of resting/ leaky pipe. - 
Yet this she is the German government; 

biggest project aimed at rebuilding Eas- r 

em Germany’s industrial base. 

Tbe government has pledged to spen 
$7 billion tearing down 90 percent of tl 
works, rebuilding it with die latest tecl 
nology and subsidizing its losses fc 
several years. But while 18,000 peopl 
worked titere before the Berlin Wall fell ' 1'-' , 
and 4,000 are working there now, Dov - ■- 
plans to employ no more than 2 . 20 C 
when die plant is restored^ Tbe cost pei 
job: $3^ milli on. . 

Analysts say the problem of high . 

labor costs cannot be fixed quickly. "Do -t.- r 
you keep pouring in more subsidies, or - 4 ^ 
do you cut wages?” Mr. 'Thumann of +rJ- 
Salomon Brothers asked. "You’d really 
have to cut wages, but politically that V 1 +-. • 
impossible.” - : ' 


hi»f 


$s**tgr- Mt# 

j» rMm. 


..Mrt -J» 

. Mom - 3 fc 




***** NnW 


REAL ESTATE MARKETPLACE 



CAMS 

50 sqm flat Av. de Lttra de Tasagny. 
ground floor on garden. 4 be4wxns, 2 
bafis, wastnoom. < ms. 45 sqm. king 
Mft large bey tmXm, owed waiUe 
terace feang soutfo/scutfi-east vie* on 
bay. private 900 sqm. 3-ievsl garden, 
pool, shower, sauna 2-3 car garage. 
FF4U Fax owner +33 (0)1 42 68 47 79 


GOLDEN TRUNGLE » SAWT (2UIAM 
DES PRES 1 - SUPS® PIED-A-TERRE, 
2 rooms hi stunning 17th cent town- 
houea. 24 VR SECURITY /CARETAKER 
sper teaed POOL gym. sauna... 4m 
cttxigs, redene, ARMOURS) door, cur- 
tens, temps, eqrapprt WELF Utfran. 
marble bathroom, wardrobes, dry cetet 
room. FF2.IM + parting. TeWax owner 
+33(0)145491960 or RS4T FF15D0Q/ma 


SHOOTING 
ESTATE 
LA MANCHA 


Holland 


RENTHOtEE MIBSUnONAL 

No 1 inHofand 

tor (son) fanahed fousesAtets. 
Tut 31-20-6448751 tec 31-206465909 
Ntaran 1921. 1083 Am Anstenfam 



BOULOGNE, 45-racmSal 130 sp. we 
tens Grarier. srtendd view on Ita mar 
Seta & Pads Ctow b sdnds, shops, 
nobs, bus. FF10500 donas fadudad. 
Tet +33(0)1 42885002 1 or ($1 48004708 


mJL 

_ 

i jxilupdfc f 


Switzerland 


COTE D'AZUR - VflWranche Sur Mbt. 

Magnificent 3 rooms, terrace, sunny. 
v«w bay St Jean Cap Feral, refined 
decraton. Tet +33(0)4 93 30 SO 10 


ST JEAN CAP FERRAT - Ravttwig prc- 
uenca rife. 3 betfaxms. study. 3 bans. 
1.800 sq.m, garden. Bargain pnce. Tel 
+33 101609534954 or ,377 (0)607332505 


7th, ECOLE H1UTA1RE, B0 sq.m., 5fo 
Boor mttt view d towfcfe s Dome, ertry, 
kvrg. damg, 2 bedrooms, awart-wmng 
fuBy equipped daagner Mden. American 
ban M apprwHd, paiguel 3 fireplaces, 
rnoldngs. smtt terrace, rad’s room. «*■ 
fare, calm and sunny, shoppmg and 
transport in immediate area. Rtolos 
svdbde F 2.450.0® or USS 450500. 
Owner TeL +33(0{T 47 05 32 3D 


FANTASTIC WILD PARTRKX 
SH00TOG. MAGNIFICENT 
HOUSE ON 770 HA. 

Fax; INTL +46-8-6226416 


kfeel accommocteion: stodo-5 bedrooms 
dually and sema assued 
READY TO HOVEM 
Tel +33(0)1 43129800. Fax (0)1 43129608 


VSffCE ZATTERL ELEGANT. FUR- 
wa<ED apartnem (deaf for tea Ter- 
race overtoaUng Gtudeoca. Tet (39-2) 
657177B. 


Greece 


GREECE hJniy vitas A sea tram apart- 
mems tor sale. Hellene Realty. Tel: 
+33(0)450427198 Fax (0)450427824 


PARS - ILE ST LOUS 
95 sqm. aparan e® 3 laipe rooms 
(posstaKy d 5 rooms). ceSng by 
modem artsL groird Itaor, ettn. 

3 fireplaces. USS 380500. 

TM +33(191 43 25 40 61(oflice), (0)1 48 
fl 02 79(tane), ter (0)1 <3 25 S3 86. 


Switzerland 


rTALY-TUSCANV-Naar ClnquBterre 17th 
century sane 2 bedroom home, vistas 
each room, S700rimeL 212382-9470 


ROYAL APAHTIENT oppose Madm/s. 
16b century bnktok apartment m can- 
ter of Paris, bmer gouwbrL queL wry 
sunny. 260 sqm. (280) square feet), 
fame racepfa? areas, mo tettooms, Aw 
bams. 18 foot ceifings, ortgnal panels. 


SMEYA, hoary fan&bed, prodigfOM 
V01A. 5 bedrooms, 4 filings. Bwrnnfog 
pool tsaad, garden, 5 (pages, supertr 
■e view. Posstote tar suimr mOs 
or fuB year, also unfurnished TeL 
+41-22-718 6000 or +41-22-718 8012 
Fax +41-22-718 8010 


KUmrf Li 


flf GUYERE - on protected bistoncal 


chateau grounds, bsslM and doanra 
apartment, 4 V2 rooms. SFr. 1583. 20 . 
rafixeas farm ato resorts and g off ebb. 
Contact Investin. TaL +41-21-320JJ651 
tec +41215200120 • 


F-uBy hmid*d to tafi sfanderd Private 
p&ddng ut caityard. Sl450Q/tao. up to 
12 mode. Tat Pans +33(0)14489 


Paris Area Furnished 


LAKE GENEVA & ALPS 

Sale to tarea-ere authorized 
our specialty since 1975 


VEND0ME HTBMAT10MAL 
fCWU-Y: Japanese style boat 80 


Holland 


AMSTERDAM CANAL HOUSE. Private 
sale d 257 sqm. 7 story house Doeu- 
mentEhtm. ptetures and touts available. 
Asking NLG 990.000 TeL +3120. 
3640075 Fax: +31206246414. 


16TH PASST-KEWCDY. owier safe 
apartnart, tioi dass buftfing. 100 sqm. 
batamy. 4th tom. King. 2 bedrooms. 2 
baths. 3 WCs. equipped krichsn. cetar. 
gym. pool snack Iw & caterer to com- 
pter. FF 26M. Posttttty toga pattog. 
TeL *33 (Ol 46 51 83 01 


Afiradm propertes, overiookmg wees 
1 to 5 bedrooms, (mm SR 200,000. 
REVACSA 

52, Mcnlb flrt CH-1211 GENEVA 2 
Tel 4122-734 15 40 Fix 734 12 20 


sqm. terrace, only hear buds singmgi 
FF1 2,500. PANTHEOR: Fjy equipped, 
2 bedroonB, batoony al around imrting 
the aittm: FF15J00 
Semin alt your Ante! Aba* 

Tefc +33(0)142788330 Fax(0)142788340 


IffiART MONTMARHE. US nner, Uy 
equipped, (foaming 2-rocra apertment 
Cable TV. Fl SO rwrak. F6200 nattna 
tee May. .My & tops to 1SS. Some 
tenants refcxn yeaty. Tefc (1^141 43 S3 
84 alter Warn or home (0)1 42 54 70 82 


GiEHEVA, LUXURY FUDflSHB) apart- - 
menfa. From stodfas to 4 fiatoans. Tet ■ 
+41 22 735 8320 ter +41 22 7362B71 ■ * 


msranCAL artct snmra. Excep- 
flonaf 80 9qnL.gaRte(L caira, figfa, Char- 
acter. aiditBCtLraldesiTv^^equwed. 
tod finen & dealing, posswy parking. 
FFilOOOAnq Tfafiax +33(0)140230430 


NYC, am hbker «m Age. Hgh- 
floor. (peat trie*. 1 bedroom tea. From 
26f4 to 4*. Kddy maid saraa 53000 - 
+ depott. Tel NY 1 212-727-3080 testa 



USA Residential 


TUSCANY- PORTE DB MAFW. 
Famous seaside resort, owner ashes to 
sell directly a 320 sqm. 6 bedroom vda 
seated n 3360 sqm. p me duster park. 
A tor rrwrtss a* tm fie sea. Near 
tbe local goB course. US S2.000.000 
Tefc 0039-585-788689 from 1230 act to 
3rt» pm. Fax: 0039^85-770010. 


PAWS 16th. 3 bedrooms. 3 battwoms 
en suite, huge ertrance and reception 
area, kege tonfoen wnh pantry, dose to 
Seine, metro A shops To indude 3 
rooms on tbe top flow. FF 5 Hfcms. 
Tet 44 (0)175 388 8785 


AGENCE CHAMPS ELYSES 


LOWS) WESTCHESTER, 27 irons, to 
NYC. CO-OP a steal! 2 bedrooms & 
fieafth dub. Views, perfect comfifan. 
S51K. Call Red Estate 914-73^9075. 


Fundbed apartmerds. 3 months or more 
or unhmtehed, restoenfcj areas. 


PARIS Btfi, srttsUa 1597. Ugh dass 
tsfttog. conderoe. 4*iloor,3 roams, al 
comforts Tet -m3 (0)5 58 28 01 71. 


NYC FURNISHED APARTMENTS. 1 
week to 1 year. Great Locations. CsT 
PaKHquc 212-448-3223. tec 212- . 

44G9226 E4tet sthomdwMaofoom. 


TUSCAf*. IQ-rram nro-tow visa dating 
back to foe 1000s in 2 vfllaoe only a taw 
kns away from Pisa and vollerra. Two 
smtt apartments, cellars, atto and a 
farmhouse vntft stable and finked farm 
sheds caiptea Bis p«ot ol real estate. 
Needs restructumg. Negotiable price: 
S7QO.OOO • £435.000. Cafi 39 586 
804383 tor more rKtts 


95, AUm$ SUR QBE ts&rcal viage 
(VAN GOGH). Restored 18th cantruy 
stone house, 120 sq.m.. Iwng. dmtog. 
3 bedrooms, 1 bathroom, 2 vasnroons + 
430 sq.m, garden. S275.000. Tefc +33 
(01134480214. Fax +33 (0)549332237. 


MALIBU. CAUFORMA Architecturai 
masterpiece' Oceanview. 3 bedrooms, 
sauna, gatiens. S1.2M. T31W57-98B1. 


Tefc +33 (0)1 42 25 32 25 

Fax: +33 (Cfl 45 63 37 09 


Paris Area Unfurnished 


NYC 32 Btetann Pbea BeaulM 
fumtfwd shrfo. S1830fcn. tomratoae 
on city's most exeterve Kw*. Tat 
212-755-1996 or 51M25G42Z USA. 


Opens 


Real Estate 
for Rent 


CAHTALE ‘ PARTNB iS 
HandpckBd rjuttty apartoats, aS sizes 
Paris ad suburbs. We tefc you test I 
TbI + 33 (0)1 -4614011. Fn(0}l46148215 


5ft, SORBONNE, 2/3 bedrooms. 80 
sam. apartment, bright high ceiings. 
vc*le beams, fkentxe, wooden floor. 
FF2.5M. Tel/Fax owier (0)1 43540887. 
E-mai 106&430l2$corapifiEivexorn 


French Riviera 


SUPERBLY STTUATED FOUR BED- 
ROOM "VILLA', tolly ar condtooned and 
nested, above Genova New mth (abu- 
bus vistas and 4.000 sqm. fat tease 
write to Th? Nowcens Coracraan, Via 
A GaitEm 28 a 1612b Genova. Italy. 


CCLOHBES, 4-room apartment, 80 
sqm, good corotooa Loggia + squped 
taKften + lift + parking. Near shops & 
sjfocofe (is n*i St lazarej. FF900.000. 
Tefc owner +33 (011 47 B0 87 14 


GRASSE - RENOVATED FARMHOUSE, 
Futy equipped. 1 50 acres, pooL - 5 
Bedrooms • 1 (bring Room - 2 tiring 


8TH-LUXURY DUPLEX, oH Avenue 
Montaigne. New. beauMdly turrisfoed 
faring room, dnng area. 1 bedroom. 
1 1 fe marble bafts, modem custom 
kitchen, finens/ftshes, guardian. 3 
months to 1 yr. USA Tat 212-755-9856. 


NEUftiY- PENTHOUSE 

Bcaptotal 280 sqm + terrace, bentti 
reception. 3(4 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, 
ccmpleteiy Btod iAfoen, rtessng, atom 
KgMy toaatous. Parting. Joned high 
prtta. Tefc +33 (Q1 47 47 45 55i 


SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA, prime, 
location. Shortflong term, fafl EmcdOw- 
Rertals Tefitec 415^6^3651 


SANTA HONCA, CA. Near beech, tote- . 
dor designers tatty house, 4 bedrooms, 
guesthouse msiatte May thru AugasL*- 
§10.000 a mooft. Tet 310^5035- 




4» 
*pm 


Commercial Premises 


Rooms. Morttty rental (Gardener, pool 
service, Gariy woman). TaL USA (773) 
334-4298 - Fax (773) 3344W4. 


Fax (773) 334-0244. 


LE MARAB: LUXIRUOUS 1 BEDROOM 
toAy eqixpped with garage; S250Q/mo. 
TeL (USA): I^IMSMBK. 


VERY CLOSE TO CHAMPS aYSSS 
consitertta nente, 140 sqm, 
Cairo and agreeable, on catyaftfgaden. 
Office - aparesert, *1 pfenid 
Reasonable lease and key money. 
For vista Tefc +33(0)1 43 58 45 43 


OmCE SPACE - Paris: 50-76 aqjn.’’ 
avaflatte for short-tenn tease (iwx. 20 


Am 


merth^ in fte Totr Moctpanasse. ktaalJfc'~ > -i.'-Tj;, 

for BitaK business (2-3 people). OScaT .fijr . 


equtamenf. fwnfasB. phones and other, 
serins ntteUB. Tat +33(0)142794000.' 
V tet Alii 42 79 89 31 u 


AMALFI COAST. 40 sqm. house, 
unique view, private access to beach, 
500 sqm. leman grove. 4000 sqm Med- 
iterranean brasnwood. own spretg. 
S2GO.G00 Ttttax 39 6 6861206 


LIVE IN THE GREEN BELT, dose to 
Pans (50 mms to La Defense). Five 
bed roomed house, garden, dose town. 
COUtay. fares. FFLB50.000. Fax tor 
betas +33 (0)1 30 41 75 37. 


Escorts & Guides 


TUSCANY. NEAR SIENA. Exceptional 
17ft cenrury restored farmhouse ■ 3 
aces - bam - pool. Contact owner April 
to Sep. Tefc 39 578 58201. Fax 39 578 
582S.S8S.00P 


FOR TOO PEOPLE; CHAMPS DE 
MARS 96 sqm., GB3RGS UANDEL 155 
sqm. View • raeweiy. Tri; +33 (0)1 
40 50 88 20 


WTEWATKWAL ESCORTS 

Wortfe Fha I Most Exdusm Sows 


Models, Beauty Quern, Actresses 
UtfiSnguM nurd C uHvanfo n s 


W6HS0CEIY 

EttcuDre Escort S«vlce 


NEAR OPERA, 45 sqm_ apartraaH wti 
characte. eropfional achfceaue, wife 
beams & saxies. T«+ *33 (0)1 42855904 


VEttCE • Apartmert on GRAM) CANAL 
between Aecademia Bridge & Palazzo 
Grassi - 145 sq.m. - Some restoration 
necessary. USS600.00P. Rep/T Bo* 
056. IHT. 32521 Natty Cedex, France. 


PARIS 3rd. srods tor sale. 40 sqm.. 
2nd floor, visible beams. Price: 
FF 750.000. Tet +33 (0)1 48 15 40 60 


BELGRAVIA 

ORCHIDS 

LONDON - PARIS 


Gernsny. Paris, Nw York. London 
Tel: London 0171 266 1033 


HLAITROME^ALY^ONDOrPARIS 1 
BRUSS&JSliJGANO’MADRflT'MUMCH 
DTXW'TWRnWmTIOJNA'Sia *• 
AREASTYOfrGLASeoW* Escort Ser--’ 
rica. Tet 39 (0)336 852 37B8 Carts *' 


( B .. • 


Hdqtrs. 212-765.7896 NY, USA 

oftcaDtoftescoftsxoa 
Rated ‘Boa In Nw York" by Nw York 
Magattre. Semra wottaida. 


HBDTS KGH SOCETTVBffA'PARS 
COTE D'AZUR & ZURICH * GW 
Morakxul Escort i Tratt Santa 
Van ++43-1-S354104 d a«ft cards 


CSHTTAL MODELS ESCORTS Agamy 
of London Ud Leicester Square London- 
Ofto TaL 0990 168 280 


CHLOE BEAUTFUL MODEL 
Private Escort Ssrws 
Tefc 0171 835 0871 Al Owfs 


I... —iii - 

• • • ,i*»i 

SB 

Me/'''” - 


fcjji ■ 

:: ■ 

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mm 

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>k ’ 4 *’ 1 - ' • 

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tm 


SWrSERLAH9GBBlANY-BBjGfUM 


Paris and Suburbs 


14 KM3 FONT ADO LEAU. rare 7 bed- 
room house an pert. FF2.8M. Tel: +33 
(0)609854823 Tito +32 2-7327Q65 


MALLORCA. PRESTIGE PROPERTY. 
Luxury vjfa. TOGO stun, ptot 5 1200 
sqm. of faring spac& Pnce to ifacuss. 
Tel- +34-06-437663 Fax +34-71-713454 


THE RNEST A THE MOST SINCERE 
16 - 38+ KTBWATBNAL 
BEAU1TUL ft ELEGANT STWENTS 
SECRETARIES, Afl HOSTESSES ft 
MODELS + 

AVALABLE AS TOUR COBPAMON 
3OT1S SERVICE WORLDWIDE 
Escort Agency CtwS Cards Welcome 


++31-2MZ7 28 27 

ZurkWswwflnBhBsme- 

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DoonftBseMorfMiaticf+BBBn- 
SRBsateMwrp + A: Vtam 


"EXECUTIVE CLUB" 
LONDON ESCORT SBTWCE 
75L- <7/71 7ZZ5M8 £Mt CMs 


Escort Senka Vienna ++43-i-2i?043i 


SMANUaifS ESCORT SaWE 
"FRENCH SPEAKNG " 

LONDON 0171 262 2886 Afi Cards 


CURftf 


LONDON: 

COSMOS Escort 


71478 6606 

ncy - Crattt Cwfe 


TEL LOfffiON h 44 


ARBTOCATS Escort Servke 

3 StnuMhm St. London W1 
0171 258 0090 


FRAN K F U R T - BUNA 
PRETTY ESCORT SSMCE 
TH: 0172 - 67 28 148 


FRANCE 


SPAIN 


In South-West oi France Oot-ei-CafonnO 

Cnfla, Mi ML, al^ta Buy R 

VW 5Q m fltinc vpace. m*n house entirely 

rrcoraled Ouiscjoding pm+otatic+i Oul- 

bmtdlnes wtlh aebltaq tor v horses and 4 
garages Foot 100 m hen Urge U a little river 
About +aaesaC land 

Price 8 500 000,00 FES 
Tel: 13 tOfi 5741 96 38 
Fax: 33 (0)5 53 41 Ol 07 


/ THE N 

MAGICAL MOUNTAIN 1 
1 VILLAGE OF DETA - \ 
\ MALLORCA \ 


0171 589 5237 


VENUS IN FURS 

24HR WOFEDIMDE ESCORT SEHViCE 


CHRSEA ESCORT SERVICE 
fl Beaudan Ftoce, London SYft 
Tefc OT71-5S4 6S13 


FRANXFURT-COLOGieOUS^i»RF“ 
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Gabfg facort Se rvice +48|(RT71-58118IB : 

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T* 0171 5789 *• 


| Offers beauty and banquiDit 
■■ in an ambiance of culture 


Maule - Yvelines 

35 mini » tens via AI4 

S0P6S LUGS FAJHT HOUSE 

6 beds, man ensttie. seporarc rbs 
& mdepenrtent pmes room, 
swtfmnng pool & tenna oourt 
FF 4.9 MSIBon 
TW Owner ♦ 33 (OJ 4 93 77 16 33 
ft* + 33 (0) 4 V3 77 03 IS 


I y • ftsophis- i 
| tication | 

J limited j 

I offering of • 

w defining \ 

l hand- ] 

I crafted town - houses in the * 

t village setting t 

1 Pnce: about S 4254300 } 

V TeL: **34 71639043 / 

Fac **3471630354 


EUROPEAN W»aS ESCORT 

Semx twriflmde, only mtl top models 
LOMXW+PARIS+MONAaWIADf® 
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DtBAI+GKMANY+VBfNA+USA 
Qtt far Eubpc ++43-1-7S6 21 58 
Cal tor USA: 212 2S7 3983 cards 


LONDON 0171 362 7000 

Alcante. Advance boater^ wekxxre 


IRAN *mrwp CLASS 

Jub Escort Sons 3*034*2257757 


“MM® GLAMOUR- 
BCORT &GUPESgMSEaagf- 
BEFORE MIDNIGHT. Ta 316 10 92 ' 




MAIDENS OF HAYFAH 

London's Eneftarthg Escort Serte 
hbtnatael setecton aged 18 + 
Ww (ftotogsjfts ta Msytar office 
12 noon ® m. 7 dqs. 
Mex/Saa 0171 485 4772. Co* Carts. 


LATINBEAUTY 
CHARMMG FRIENDLY PRIVATE 
ESCORT SERVICE 
LONDON 0956 307 404 


“MADHB HARMONY “ - - v- 
EXCLUSIVE Tcp Escort tin Btfst* 

Tet +34 1 386 35 08Jir9»81 




GENEVA PRETTY WOMAN 
BASS. LAUSANNE. MONTREUX 
Ctt 022 / 346 00 89 Escort Agency 
ZUiWK LUZERN 079 / 441 10 88 


FRANKFURT 

kata! Eecon Service 

En^tfit Spanish spgten. 0172-6822QZ7 


■CHEUE VfflY PRETTT flhUd*? 
Voutg Bfand ffirL Pftttt&rat Stew*? 
timdm Tat 0950 «8 643. 

— —at, 

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Eacort Sevka. tintn Tat «5S 659BB2- 


fcj 1 V ,^'wj; 


BERN, BASS, ZURICH 
Escort Service. 

+41/77*8 SS 05 Afi cadi. 


SILVER STAR 

DISCOUNT ESCORT SERVICE 
LONDON - PARS ■ HER YORK 
REWORK 21 78S T9 IS 
EUROPE: ++ 44 p} 7000 74 57 87 


BUCK BEAUTY ESCORT SBMCE 
Exetosw Begant Educated & Frimdk 
London & H ottiw . CrtSl 9062261, Car* 


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FRAWHJRT 06B ■ 8S 2D 774 


UnSor oSce 0171 835 0005 Ml carts^ S ^ 

'arara “ • . r " ;5s. «■ 

Carofca Escon Sattca. 

Ttt 01-261.49.47 - U .^5 . 






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FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 1997 


PAGE 13 


Leading Franchises 


The largest franchises by number 
of U.S. and international units, as 
of September 1996. 



Infl Dairy Queen 


Saunas Entrapmmr Magazine, international i 
Franchise Association IHT ' 


r f \mn a. i_-j m m ^ ^ Thr Wodflini IW. TW Vs* ^nrl Tinv^. La Vnp^» Ttmr* 

;• uwner-parent relations m franchised businesses — such as this RFC in Tokyo, 7-EIeven in Michigan and McDonald's in Moscow — are c hanging. 

Franchise Owners Strike Back at Parent Firms 


4 . 


By David Segal 

Washington Post Service 


Washington — Carvel ice 

4 . Cream Bakery store owners survived 
die onslaught of Grand Metropolitan 
PLC’s Haagen-Dazs brand and the tie- 
dyed juggernaut of Ben & Jerry’s 
Homemade Inc. 

But they started sweating when their 
j-i- corporate parent began selling its car- 
toon-inspired frozen cakes directly to 
ui; supermarkets. 

I 5 | “We were dropping like flies,” said 
' Stan Sicinski, who has owned a Carvel 
store in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 
since 1976.“Asmanyasl50oftite600 
j- stores across the country went right out 
“ of business.” 

So a group of Carvel owners did 
f” something that would have been un- 
heard of a decade ago: They pooled 
their resources and hired a $250-an- 
hour lawyer to sue Carvel Ice Cream 
Bakery Inc., their Farmington, .Con- 
necticut , franchiser. 

The suit illustrates a momentous 


change in franchising, an industry that 
generates nearly $1 trillion in annual 
revenue and employs 7 million 
people. 

For years, individuals have been 
sinking their savings into franchises, 
looking for six-figure salaries and a life 
without bosses. Evidence of their suc- 
cess is everywhere, as the retail land- 
scape is dominated by the logos and 
storefronts of America’s more than 
2,000 franchised systems. 

But recently, thousands of investors 
have bitterly complained that compa- 
nies have overstated the moneymaking 
potential of die stores, licensed too 
many in a certain area or bound owners 
to contracts that make profits im- 
possible. Now, after years of fighting 
their battles alone, store owners with 
chains such as little Caesars, 7-Eleven, 
Dairy Queen, Meineke Mufflers and 
scores of others are banding together 
and fighting back. 

With war chests of as much as $3 
million, these groups are persuading a 
growing number of top-flight law films 


— many of which formerly specialized 
in defending die opposition — to 
switch sides and sue on their behalf. 

Hie result is a dramatic balance -of- 
power shift. Store owners are nego- 
tiating with added clout, winning 
mulcmiillion-doUar judgments against 
their parent companies and bargaining 
for the right to buy from suppliers of 
their own choosing. 

Meanwhile, a thriving legal niche 
has been bom. 

“An individual franchisee might 
have a valid claim, but for years they 
came to you after they spent their last 
dollar in a business that was failing,” 
said Keith Kanouse, a Boca Raton, 
Florida, attorney who took the Carvel 
store owners' case after years of work- 
ing for franchisers. “Historically, at- 
torneys worked for the 2,000 fran- 
chisers out these and basically ignored 
the country’s 200,000 people who ran 
these small businesses. ’ 

Shelling out for expensive legal ad- 
vice has already paid off in several 
cases. In March, a judge in North Car- 


olina ordered Meineke Muffler Dis- 
count Shops Inc. to pay $60 1 million to 
a group of franchise owners, the largest 
judgment ever in a franchise case. A 
jury concluded that die company had 
fraudulently pocketed money from 
shop owners that had supposedly been 
earmarked for advertising. Meineke is 
appealing. 

In November, Mail Boxes Etc. paid 
close to SS million in cash and stock in 
an out-of-court settlement with 33 ex- 
franchisees who had alleged that the 
company vastly overstated their 
chances of success. The company said 
it settled to avoid the cost of litigation 
and did not admit wrongdoing. 

Franchisers counter that they give 
mom-and-pop investors an unbearable 
opportunity to sell a product with a 
proven track record and that most firms 
have strong relationships with their 
franchisees. 

“Many folks have become astound- 
ingly wealthy through franchising,” 

See FRANCHISES, Page 17 


Trade Data Provide 
A Measure of Relief 


U.S. Court Links Unocal to Burma Rights Abuses 


By Evelyn Iritani 

Los Angeles Times Service 


LOS ANGELES— In a little-noticed 
ruling that could have enormous im- 
plications for U.S. companies operating 
abroad, a federal judge has held that 
Unocal Corp. can be held liable for 
jrumaD-rigbts abuses allegedly commit- 
ted by the government ofBunna. 

Legal and human-rights specialists 
\ay it was the first time a federal court 


had ruled that under international and 
U.S. law, U.S. companies could be li- 
able forhinnan-rights abuses committed 

by therr partners m another country. 

“The implications are huge because 
it would vastly expand the jurisdiction 
of the U.S. court system,” said Gary 
Hufbauer, a senior fellow with the 
Washington -based Institute for Inter- 
national Economics. 

Rights activists said a victory in this 
unusual civil case would put corpo- 


rations on notice that they were an- 
swerable not only for their own overseas 
behavior but for that of the non-U.S. 
companies they align themselves with. 

“If Unocal would not engage in busi- 
ness with the Mafia in California, why 
should it engage in business with 
them?” asked John Bonifaz, referring 
to Burma’s military government. Mr. 
Bonifaz is a human-rights lawyer in- 
volved in another suit against Unocal. 

Although h is being appealed, the nil- 


China Opens Ports to Taiwan Shippers 


CmrMSvOBrStfFnm Dapateha 

TAIPEI — China gave six Taiwan 
shipping firms approval to sail direct 
Taiwan-China routes for the first time in 
48 years, reciprocating for similar per- 
mits issued by Taipei to five mainland 
carriers, the Taiwan Strait Shipping As- 
sociation said Thursday. 

Executives said the crossings could 
"begin in the next few days. But the new 
link will he limited. Cargoes delivered 
are only for transshipment to third coun- 
tries, so Taiwan maintains that the links 
.do not constitute direct shipping, 
f Taiwan's Uniglory Marine Corp. and 
Yangming Marine Transport Corp. con- 
firmed they had received approval. 
Beijing also issued approvals to 
Taiwan's Wan Hai Lines, Nantai Lme. 
Chinese Maritime Transport Ltd. and 
Kieu Hung Shipping. 

Taiwan had banned air, sea and postal 
links with China since the .Nationalists 
fled to the island after tame d» civil 
war to the Communists in 1949, and 
trade and travel go mainly through the 
British colony of Hong Kong. 


itical thaw that began in the late 
1 980s has unleashed a profusion of " ‘in- 
direct” links, including a total of about 
$30 billion in mainland investments by 
some 30,000 Taiwan firms. 

' Investors have pressed Taipei to ease 
its baa, saying direct sea, air and other 
links would pare what they see as need- 
less extra costs of routing business 
through Hong Kong. 

Direct shipping would also fuel hopes 
for direct flights ami other break- 
throughs just when Taipei, waxy of be- 
coming dependent on its rival’s econ- 
omy, las beem trying to cool local firms’ 
interest in China investments. 

The approval Thursday by China’s 
Transport Ministry was a long-awaited 
response to Taiwan’s offer of limited 
shipping links across the Taiwan Strait 
to the Chinese shippers. 

Economics Minister Wang Chih- 
kang said Taiwan regarded the approval 

as a goodwill gesture by Beijing after 
nearly two years of relations strained by 
President Lee Teog Hui’s visit to the 
United States in June 19 95. 


With the approval, the Taiwanese 
shippers will sail between Kaohsiung in 
southern Taiwan and the ports of 
Fuzhou and Xiamen in southern China 
as early as next week, the Taiwan Strait 
Shipping Association said. 

The association said it had been in- 
formed of the Chinese approval by its 
counterpart, the Association for Ship- 
ping Across the Taiwan Strait. 

China's Xiamen Shipping Co. will 
become the first ship to sail directly to 
Taiwan, .with a freighter expected to 
arrive in Kaohsiung on Saturday, ac- 
cording to Taiwan newspapers. 

Taiwan proposed limited shipping 
links two years ago, but China ignored it 
as a result of its displeasure with Mr. 
Lee’s visit to the United States. China 
bad viewed that trip as an effort to break 
its diplomatic embargo of Taiwan. 

The approvals were issued on what 
Taiwan experts said was the final pos- 
sible day under a mainland law man- 
dating that Beijing act on such appli- 
cations within 45 days of receiving 
them. (AP, Reuters) 


ing by U.S. District Judge Richard Paez 
of Los Angeles is considered a crucial 
victory for opponents of die government 
that has ruled Burma since 1 988. 

Unocal is a partner with state-owned 
Myanmar Oil St Gas Enterprise in a 
controversial $1 2 billion pipeline proj- 
ect. Unocal also pays the government to 
provide labor and security on the proj- 
ect The judge also ruled that Unocal’s 
private-sector partner. Total SA of 
France, could be held liable for Burma ’s 
actions as well. 

In denying Unocal's motion to dis- 
miss a lawsuit by opponents of the re- 
pressive government. Judge Paez said 
Unocal's payments to military leaders 
for providing labor and security — in 
spite of widespread allegations of 
forced labor and abuse — would be akin 
to “participation in slave trading” if 
such abuses were proven in court 

John Imle, president of Unocal, said 
the company would fight the “false 
allegations." in court. The company 
repeatedly has defended its role in 
Burma as being in the long-term best 
interests of the Burmese people. 

"I feel there are a lot of people out 
there Dying to smear our image," Mr. 
Imle said. 


In Japan, 
Buying Spree 
Cuts Surplus 

C.wt^lnlh Our fuff F mDnp&itn 

TOKYO — The merchandise-trade 
surplus narrowed sharply in March, 
continuing a three-year slide, the Fi- 
nance Ministry reported Thursday. But 
economists said the surplus was likely 
to expand through the rest of the year as 
exports to the United States and Asia 
surged. 

The Finance Ministry said the overall 
surplus narrowed 27 percent last month 
from a year earlier, to S 18.3 billion yen 
(56.47 million). 

Exports rose 10.5 percent to 4.54 
billion yen. while imports were up 24.4 
percent at 3.72 billion yen, it said. Thai 
included increases in imports of chem- 
icals, lumber, oil and other fuels. 

Economists said the large fall in the 
March surplus was due to a one-time 
jump in imports to satisfy strong con- 
sumer demand before Japan's sales tax 
was raised to 5 percent from 3 percent 
April 1. 

Apart from that one-time jump, they 
said, the trade surplus was clearly on a 
rising trend, with hefty increases ex- 
pected in April. May and June — months 
that showed large declines last year. 

The ministry acknowledged that the 
decline in the surplus would slow in the 
next few months because demand for 
Japanese automobiles and the yen's de- 
preciation against the dollar were swell- 
ing the trade imbalance with the United 
States. 

An economist from Tokyo Research 
Institute. Toshio Sumitani, said the 
March surplus was below his forecast of a 
trade imbalance of 1 trillion yen. ' ‘Crude- 
mi prices have fallen recently, so I did not 
expect strong imports,” he said. 

Figures for the year that ended March 
3 1 , also released Thursday, showed that 
the surplus fell 30 percent from the year 
before, to 6.4 trillion yen. 

But the surplus with the United 
States, Japan's biggest trading partner, 
rose 1 1 percent year-on-year to 379.8 
billion yen as exports rose 14.3 percent 
to 1 .260 trillion yen. 

Economists said that Japan’s surplus 
with the United States was again as 
thorny a political issue as it was in the 
early 1990s. 

Mr. Sumitani also said the continuing 
high level of exports to the United Stales 
was likely to continue to inflate the 
surplus in the coming months. 

“The pace of the movement in the 
trade surplus year-on-year is slowing," 
he said, “because of slowing exports to 
die Asian and European markets." 

Hie surplus with Asia shrank 17.9 
percent to 635 billion yen, with exports 
up 7.6 percent at 1.922 trillion yen and 
imports rising 27 percent to 1 287 tril- 
lion yen. 

With the European Union, the trade 
surplus narrowed 39.2 percent, to 131 
billion yen. Exports to EU countries 
rose 2 j 5 percent to 676 billion yen, with 
imports down 22.8 percent at 545 billion 
yen. 

But Japan posted a trade deficit with 
China, saying the gap had more than 
quadrupled in March from a year earlier, 
backed by an abundant inflow of cloth- 
ing imports. Economists said the trend 
was likely to continue because of 
China's low labor costs. 

Tokyo posted a deficit of 190.94 bil- 
lion yen with China in March, a rise of 
335.9 percent from a year earlier, ac- 
cording to the Finance Ministry. 

( Reuters , AFP. Bloomberg ) 


U.S. Deficit 
Shrank 8.5% 

In February 

C.mpJrJ tv Our ShtfFr-rr ftjjuA h-j 

WASHINGTON — The trade deficit 
narrowed 8.5 percent in February as 
increased demand for civilian aircraft 
and chemicals helped push exports to a 
record high, offsetting a continuing 
flood of imports, the Commerce De- 
partment reported Thursday. 

The U.S. trade deficits with Japan and 
China both declined slightly in the 
month. 

The overall February deficit was SI 1 .6 
billion, compared with a revised deficit 
of $12.7 billion in January. The January 
figure was the largest monthly U.S. trade 
deficit since 1992. Exports of goods and 
services rose 4 percent. 10 S73.5 billion. 
Imports set a record, climbing 2.1 per- 
cent to $85.1 billion. 

On ihe export side, sales of U.S. 
civilian aircraft rose S625 million, to 
SI. 7 billion. Other sizable gains were 
recorded in sales of telecommunications 
equipment, machinery, computer chips 
and chemicals. 

On the import side, demand for for- 
eign cars and parts rose 2.4 percent, to 
$12.3 billion, double the total of U.S. 
automotive exports. 

For February, the politically sensitive 
deficit with Japan narrowed 1 percent, 
to S4.3 billion, but for the first two 
months of the year, the deficit was run- 
ning 11 percent above deficit for the 
same period a year ago. 

The U.S. trade representative, Char- 
lene Barshefsky, said Wednesday the 
rising deficit with Japan was a major 
concern and that President Bill Clinton 
would raise the issue when he met next 
week with Prime Minister Ryutaro 
Hashimolo of Japan. 

America's oil imports were up 14 
percent on a seasonally adjusted basis, 
to $5.7 billion. The volume of oil im- 
ports climbed 12.4 percent as the price 
fell from an average of $21 .99 a barrel in 
January, the highest level since the Gulf 
War in 1991, to $20.21 in February. 

Even with the February's improve- 
ment, the deficit for the year was running 
at an annual rate of $145.6 billion, com- 
pared with $1 143 billion for all of 1996, 
the worst U.S. deficit in eight years. 
Economists predict the deficit will 
widen this year as demand for imports 
rises and the strong dollar makes Amer- 
ican goods more expensive abroad. 

“The strengthening dollar and weak 
economic performance in Europe 
should suppress export growth through 
the remainder of the year." analysts at 
NationsBank Corp." said. Imports, 
meanwhile, are likely to grow, reflect- 
ing the U.S. economy's strength. 

U.S. carmakers have appealed to Mr. 
Clinton's administration to do 
something to contain the dollar’s rise as 
Japanese and other imports take an in- 
creasing share of the U.S. market. 

But Commerce Secretary William 
Daley chose to focus on the strong ex- 
ports rather than on the import side, 
while warning that the government was 
concerned about the persistent deficits 
with Japan and China. 

"China remains the only major mar- 
ket in the world where U.S. exports are 
not growing, and this despite significant 
economic growth in China,” Mr. Daley 
said. 

The deficit with China narrowed 9.6 
percent to $3.4 billion in February. But 
for the first two months of the year, it 
was up 37 percent from a year earlier, 
f AP. Bloomberg I 


Thinking Ahead /Commentary 


A Failure in Atlantic Communications 


By Reginald Dale 

Iniemaiiono! Herald Tribune 


CURRENCY & INTEREST RATES 


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■ASHEMGTON — Many 
Americans have difficulty 
understanding how the 
European Union works, 
generally be forgiven, 
often do not understand it 
either — and the Union's institutions 
have never been good at explaining 
themselves. 

Ignorance in the American policy- 
making community, however, is more 
serious. Id Washington* only a handful of 
specialists know much about the EU, and 
very few of than are in government. 

This blind spot is particularly un- 
fortunate when the economic and polit- 
ical map of Europe is being redrawn and 
vital U.S. interest are at stake. 

As Lamberto Dini, Italy’s foreign 
minister, said recently, most Americans 
mistakenly see the EU “as a trading 
bloc and single market at best, and as a 
cumbersome regulatory bureaucracy at 
worst” 

That one-dimensional view, widely 
shared by the U.S. media, is the modem 
equivalent of believing that the Amer- 
ican revolution two centuries ago was 
just about taxes. 

It is strange that Americans should 
foil to recognize a process of historical 
unification that in important ways — 
such as the debate over European fed- 
eralism — so clearly echoes their own. 

In his State of the Union speech this 
year. President BUI Clinton shocked 
many Europeans by referring to 
European unification solely in terms of 


the North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
and leaving out the EU altogether. Few 
Americans noticed the omission. 

Insofar as they think about the EU, 
American foreign-policy analysts tend 
to see it as a useful counter in the latesr 
East-West board game, the name of 
which is NATO enlargement. 

In the past few days alone, various 
American “experts” on Europe have 
suggested that Washington should ef- 
fectively choose which Central 
European countries join die EU, that 
America should steer Russia toward EU 


The best way for the EU 
to grab America’s 
attention would be to 
introduce its single 
currency on time. 

membership and that the United States 
should participate in EU decision-mak- 
ing — all of which sound absurd, if not 
offensive, to many Europeans. 

What is to be done about this failure 
of communication? Largely to refurbish 
political links, some European leaders 
have called for a trans-Atlantic free- 
trade area. That idea faded once it was 
put under the economic microscope. 

Ellen Frost of Washington's Institute 
for International Economics proposes a 
North Atlantic Economic Community, 
combining trade and business initiatives 
with a NATO-like strategic, political- 
economic orientation and a deadline for 


free and open Atlantic trade. 

That is too ambitious for now. Some 
important joint action can be taken on 
trade: Washington and the EU can com- 
bine to launch wider trade initiatives, to 
help integrate Russia and China into the 
world economy on the right terms and to 
dismantle practical barriers to trans-At- 
1 an tic commerce. 

But if the EU wants to be America's 
equal partner in a broader sense, it will 
have to show it means business by tack- 
ling the many challenges on its own 
agenda, including economic and mon- 
etary union, constitutional reform and 
eastward enlargement. 

Meanwhile, the political dialogue 
should be intensified with more fre- 
quent meetings at the ministerial level. 
The recent narrowing of differences 
over sanctions against Cuba and Iran is a 
good omen. 

Progress on Cuba was made easier 
because the United States employed an 
emissary, Stuart EizenstaL a former am- 
bassador in Brussels, who really un- 
derstands the EU. Washington should 
find more like him. 

But the main onus in educating Amer- 
icans lies on the EU. It will be difficult at 
a time when many U-S. policymakers are 
preoccupied with Asia and Latin Amer- 
ica. and interest in foreign affairs is low. 

The test way for the EU to grab 
America’s attention would be to in- 
troduce the planned single European 
currency on time in 1999. Then, for the 
first time, the Europeans would have an 
international power symbol — a po- 
tential rival to the dollar — that most 
Americans could understand. 




PAGE 14 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 1ft, 1997 


THE AMERICAS 


The Dow 



•635 v— 


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— .£»!, — J 


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3 . Reuters 


The Associated Press 

SAN JOSE, California — His 
company just lost more than $700 
million. So why is Gilbert Amelio 
in an upbeat mood? 

Maybe it’s because the head of 
Apple Computer Inc. thinks the 
worst of die company's troubles 
are over now that it has paid the 
huge bills for a sweeping reor- 
ganization and its purchase of 
Next Software Inc. 

“A painful period, but it’s be- 
hind us,” Mr. Amelio said Wed- 
nesday. after the company posted 
its second-worst quarterly perfor- 
mance ever. 

Apple had a loss of $708 million 
in the quarter, including $530 mil- 
lion in special charges. A year ago. 
the company posted a loss of $740 
million when it took an even bigger 
charge to pay for an earlier attempt 
at renewal Revenue for the latest 
quarter dropped 27 percent, to $ 1 .6 
billion from $2.2 billion. 

Apple reported its results after 
the market closed Wednesday. Its 


shares were up 43.75 cents at $19 
in late trading Thursday. 

Mr. Amelio called the results 
disappointing but was confidem 
that his strategy for turning Apple 
around was working. He said 
Apple had become more focused, 
cut expenses and introduced 
••dazzling'’ new computers. 

Kevin Hause, an analyst with 
International Data Coip., said the 
new line was “by far one of the 
best they’ve had in a long time.” 

But he said Apple soil faced 
daunting challenges: regaining the 
confidence of custoraeis worried 
about Apple's future and persuad- 
ing software developers to write 
programs for its new operating sys- 
tem. which is due out next year. 

“Until people feel confident 
that Apple and the Macintosh ate 
going to be around a year from 
now. they're going to have trou- 
ble.” be said. 

Apple's profit margin was 19 
percent, the same as in the Oc- 
tober- Decem be r quarter. The com- 


pany had a $420 million backlog in 
orders, more than usual even for 
this usually slow time of the year. 

Its software subsidiary saw re- 
cord revenue of $70 million as 
Macintosh users bought an upgrade 
of die current operating system. 

Apple’s latest earnings report 
comes amid renewed speculation 
about a possible sale or takeover. 

Lany Ellison, chairman of Or- 
acle Carp., has said he is consid- 
ering mounting a lakeover bid. In an 
interview this week with Japan’s 
Nihon Keizai Shimbun. he said that 
if he were to take over the company, 
he would turn it into a maker of 
network computers — stripped- 
down, appliance- like machines. 

Mr. Amelio has dismissed Mr. 
Ellison’s plans as “nonsense.” 

This month. Prince Walid ibn 
Talal of Saudi Arabia said he had 
built up a 5 percent stake in Apple at 
a cost of $1 15 million. As an in- 
vestor, the prince is known for tak- 
ing m ailin g companies 

he thinks will regain their health. 


Suit Against Sears 
Brings Down Shares 


# 


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bumulkaal Herald Tribune 


Omfaat m Otr Sttf Fum DupjKhes 

NEW YORK — Stock prices fell 
Thursday, led by Sears Roebuck, 
after the government filed a com- 
plaint seating to make America’s 
second-largest retailer pay restitu- 
tion to credit-card customers. 

Weakness in the oil sector also 
put pressure on stock prices. 

Earlier, stocks drew support from 
the bond market as government re- 
ports suggested the economy was 
slowing enough to keep inflation 
and higher interest rates at bay. 

“Inflation is going to be sub- 
dued, and t his is going to be ex- 
cellent for equities,” said Mary 
Sunderland, a money manager at 
Slcandia Investment Management. 

TbeDow Jones industrial average 
closed 21.27 points lower at 
6,658.60. The Standard & Poor's 
500-share index was down 1.76 to 
761.77. The Nasdaq composite in- 
dex backed tihe trend and rose 6.80 
points to 1217.07. 

Sears fell 2 to 4656 after the com- 
pany was named in a complaint by 
the U.S. attorney’s office in Boston, 


gr Bond prices rose slightly aftertfae 
Labor Department reported thatrew 
claims for unemployment bendns 
rose by 8.000 last week, to 332JD0. 
The benchmark TO-year ^rrastr)' 
bond was priced at 94 17/32, up 




U^, STOCKS 


Very briefly: 


New York Times Profit Soars 58 % 


Lucent Rebounds on Strong Sales 


which is seeking unspecified pen- 
aides and restitution for customers 
who kept paying their credit-card 
bills even though a bankruptcy 
court gave them a clean slate. 

Sears had been lower for most of 
die day after it reported profit from 
operations of 45 cents a share, 2 
cents above expectations. 

The oil sector also lower, with 
Exxon down Vt at 5114, Chevron 
down 1% at 63% and Amoco down 

at 80%. But the country's leading 
oil industry association said Wed- 
nesday domestic gasoline supplies 
were expected to be more than suf- 
ficient to satisfy even the most 
b ullish forecasts for demand 


NEW YORK (AP) — The New York Times Co. said 
Thursday its first-quarter net income rose 58 percent on higher 
advertising revenue and a 33 percent drop in newsprint costs. 

Earnings rose to $51.8 milli on, or 51 cents a share, from 
$32.7 million, or 33 cents a share, a year earlier. Revenue rose 
10 percent, to $692.5 million from $627.6 million. 

In addition to The New York Tunes, die company publishes 
The Boston Globe, 21 regional papers and nine magazines and 
runs eight network-affiliated TV stations. It is a joint owner, 
with The Washington Post, of the International Herald 
Tribune. 


Andreas Cedes CEO Role at ADM 


CoialedtyOirSKfFnm DupoKko 

MURRAY HILL, New Jersey — 
Lucent Technologies Inc. said 
Thursday it earned $66 million in 
the first quarter, rebounding from a 
year-ago loss amid strong sales of 
wireless systems, software and 
switching systems. 

The telecommunications equip- 
ment company posted a loss of $ 103 
million a year ago, when its spin-off 
from AT&T Coro, resulted in re- 
structuring costs. Quarterly revenue 


rose to $5.15 billion from $4.58 
billion. 

On April 3, Lucent’s chief Fi- 
nancial officer, Donald Peterson, 
said he expected net income of $55 
to $66 milli on, more than double 
analysts' consensus estimate at the 
time. 

Lucent said revenue for systems 
for network operators rose 23 3 per- 
cent, to $2.93 billion, microelectron- 
ic products rose 183 percent, to $615 
milli on and business communica- 


tions systems were up 14.1 percent, 
to $13 billion. 

Revenue from consumer 
products decreased 41 percent, to 
$174 minion, which Lucent said 
was expected due to restructuring. 

International revenue rose about 
32 percent and represented about 25 
pe rce nt of total revenue for the 
quarter. The results include higher 
sales of Lucent’s 5ESS core carrier 
network switching systems and 
software in Japan. (Reuters) 


12/32, raking the yield down dree 
basis points, to 7 .07 percent- * 

' Bank shares JJP- Morgan and ?a- w 
tionsBank gained as interest raes 
fell. 

Earnings that beat expectants 
also helped stocks. Technology 
bellwethers rose, with Intel, Ciso 
Systems and Sun Microsystens 
heading higher. With 167 of tie 
S&P 500 reporting, about 75 pr- 
cent of companies posting earning 
so far this quarter have met or sr- 
passed analysts* expectations. A 
year earlier, that was troe of just <6 
percent of companies. 

Bankets Trust New York gaind 
after reporting net income of $ 1 .&a 
share, 5 cents better than forecast. 

Bell Atlantic rose after the r- 
gional BeU telephone company sad 
net income rose to $1.17 a share, i 
line with estimates. 

McDonald's declined after th 0* 
fast-food giant reported firs- 
quarter net income of 49 cents t 
share, a penny below forecasts. 

Digital Equipment climbed afte 
the computer company said third 
quarter profit fell less than expec 
ted. Net income dropped to 27 cent 
a share from 74 cents a year ago. 

Gillette said its first-quarte 
profit rose 14 percent to $283.7 mil 
lion on increased sales of its raze 
blades, batteries and toothbrushes. 

(Bloomberg, AP , 


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NEW YORK (THT) — Dwayne Andreas, the chairman of 
Archer-Danieis-Midland Co., ceded the job of chief executive 
to his nephew. G. Allen Andreas, the company said, after a 
two-month search by the board for a successor. The elder Mr. 
Andreas will remain chair man . 

Michael Andreas, son of Dwayne Andreas and a former 
deputy chairman, had been expected to take over the company, 
but he has been implicated in a price-fixing case and did not 
seek re-election to the board. He is scheduled to stand trial next 
year. In October, the company pleaded guilty to helping fix 
prices of lysine, an animal-food additive, and of citric acid, 
and it agreed to pay a $100 million fine. 

• Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. of India said it had won a $22 
million, four-year contract from Boeing Co. to supply struc- 
tures for its passenger planes. 

• Wait Disney Co.'s Hollywood Records said Bob Pfeifer 
had resigned as president. The company is struggling to find 
its place in the rock music industry. 

• Microsoft Network, the U.S. software giant's on-line ser- 
vice, shut down its worldwide electronic-mail computers until 
Sunday for unexpected maintenance. AFP. Bloomberg. Reuters 


Defending the Mighty Mark, Tietmeyer Deflates the Dollai* 


Bloomberg News 

NEW YORK— The dollar fell against the 
Deutsche mark Thursday after the president 
of the Bundesbank said Germany did not want 
a weaker mark. 

“We are not interested in a further weak- 
ening of the mark on international markets,” 
Hans Tietmeyer said at a news conference. 
“We’re interested in the Deutsche mark re- 
maining a strong currency.” 

The central banker's remarks “took some 
air out of the sails of dollar buyers,” John 
Hazelton, chief currency trader a r Manufac- 
turers & Traders Trust, said. 

The dollar was slightly higher against the 
yen after the Commerce Department said the 


U.S. trade deficit narrowed in February. 

ha 4 PM. trading in New York, the dollar 
was quoted at 1 .7238 DM, down from 1.7288 
DM on Wednesday. It edged op to 125.975 
yen from 125.775 yen. 

Mr. Tietmeyer’ s comments echo recent re- 


FOREIGN EXCHANGE 


marks by Japanese officials who bemoaned 
the weakening of their currency, prompting 
some selling of dollars. 

Mr. Tietmeyer also said again (hat be op- 
posed softening the requirements for the 
European Union's single currency. That re- 
newed doubts that the currency, the euro. 


would be launched as planned in 1 999, because 
many countries are in danger of exceeding the 
deficit limit of 3 percent of gross domestic 
product Signs of a delay generally bolster the 
mark. Europe’s benchmark currency. 

“The more you talk about strict criteria, the 
more you realize EMU may not come together 
on time.’ ’ said Mark Haber, a currency sales- 
man at HSBC Midland Bank, which helps the 
mark and “takes some shine off die dollar.” 

Separately, the Bundesbank’s chief econ- 
omist, Otmar Issing, said it was too soon to 
say whether Germany would reduce its deficit 
enough to qualify. “Our financial situation at 
the beginning of the year was anything but 
good,” he said, and tax revenue was lower 


than expected. Traders said die dollar may be 
restrained against the yen in the next few days 
on concern that leaders of die world's seven 
largest industrialized countries may try to put 
the brakes on its rise when they meet next 
week in Washington. 

“The dollar may remain heavy op to the G- 
7 amid concern die U.S. and others will come 
out with a statement that is hawkish in tone.” 
Mr. Haber said. The Group of Seven is made 
op of Britain, ranaHa, France, Germany, 
Italy, Japan and the United States. 

Against ocher currencies, the dollar slipped 
to 5.8005 French francs from 5.8120 francs 
and to 1.4635 Swiss francs from 1.4720 francs. 
Tie pound rose to $1.6295 from $1.6248. 


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U. S. STOCK MARKET DIARY 


INTERNATIONAL FUTURES 




Thursday’s 4 P.M. Close 

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M7» 


CANADIAN DOLLAR fOUER) 
loojaa dBaws.s per am * 

Am 97 7191 7142 7l« 

Sep 77 7230 7210 72 07 

Dec 77 7261 72S0 7345 

Mr* 7292 

EsL safes HA Wed'S- Sdes A 
Wetfs open W 83742 oft 3D 


HEATWBOR. (NMER> 

*2000 art, cants pw pcs 
ift 0997 5660 5120 517# +022 

Am 97 5340 5235 SLO) 1-007 

All 97 5140 S2J0 5270 +003 

AW 97 5U5 JOTS 5130 +000 

S8P 97 5645 5400 5440 +0.13 

OCf 97 S-S 5505 5505 -fUB 

Ntx 97 5625 5570 5L85 +003 

Dec 97 56J5 SUE 5LB +0.13 
Jan* 5730 5685 5405 +008 

Feb 98 57.18 5660 5600 +078 

Est safes NA Wed’s, safes B715 
Wetfs open int l»,Mt oft 1145 

LtarrswEEr crude cnmbd 
ii ifenhtt L nn B mn a r i m L 
Mny 97 19JB 19.10 1975 -810 

Am 97 19J0 19.10 1970 -0.10 

All 97 19J7 M72 19JS -002 

AUBW 19^ 19-30 1975 -005 

S*P 97 1900 19 JS 1902 

Oct 97 1904 1975 1901 -002 

Nov 97 1903 1903 1903 

Dec* 7905 19M 7903 

Am* 1907 1908 1904 +001 

Feb 98 19 JS 1902 1901 +001 

Mcr98 1908 1901 19JS +0.T7 

Apr* 1909 1906 19-S +OI7 

Moy* I9-ffl 1904 19 JJ +8.17 

Estyfes HA. Watfs. safes *73i 
wstreooenM 41&J09 up 217 

NATURALGAS (NMER) 
lfeaaenhn Mu's, S otr nvnMj 
I* Oy97 20* L996 2057 

1T« 2036 2105 

A897 2150 2065 2125 1 

AWW 2U5 2070 2740 | 

Sw97 1150 2880 2130 1 


4 # 


• feR 

■ j mm- 1-491! at>4 ^1 


L- % 






Nffetfigns 
New Lo« 


1855 7333 

1480 5085 

2414 1*23 

5749 5750 

43 40 

15B 196 


Livestock 


Market Sates 


TdolSiues 

NewHlBK 

New Lews 


wf 

271 

ZB 

192 

700 

NYSE 

«so 

50702 

CMS. 

58900 

19 

7 

Aims 

1703 

2471 

21 

18 

Nasdaq 

56806 

57501 


CATTLE (CMBU 

aumOL-artspar*. 

Apr 97 6900 60J5 6695 +015 5JB6 

Am 97 4S.H S3J0 4627 *037 36964 

Aw 97 6650 4300 SLB +002 25074 

OCt 97 4070 6705 OS +037 16460 

Dec 97 7000 4900 4970 +035 L36S 

Feb 91 7005 7075 7050 +075 SJ27 

EsL safes 18701 Wed’s, sties VOS 
Wetfs apenW 97028 aft 3(17 


FLATMUM (NMEM 
SO tiw mtf deist per trpy a*. 

Apr 97 379J0 37400 37600 +640 4D 

Way 77 386-50 

Am 97 1487 JO 

AH 97 38400 37008 37640 +640 12.728 

Ot»97 386JQ 37500 37970 +5JB 1315 

AW* 377 JO 3773) 39170 +5JP MTS 

Estsofes NA Wetfs. sties 2142 
Wetfs open fer 16394 up is 


GERMAN MARK (CMER3 
n&BBOwiodcs, s pw merit 
JunW J8H 0805 JBS 83030 

SeP 77 JB71 0543 J864 1189 

Dec 97 J9D4 J9D4 3704 281 

Mor98 0937 27 

E»»tes NA Hfetfs.fQfes IJJ* 

WstfsapenM 87,127 up 488 


0097 2190 2095 2170 
Nov97 2310 2750 279S 


Dec 97 2X20 2330 2420 
A»9S Z460 2X20 2450 


. ^ A. 1 


Feb* 2395 2340 23SS 
Mar* 2790 2760 27* 


LONDON METALS OA4E3 
DafianperineMcton 


r ?5^ft 151500 151600 
Forward \5S0JX ISSDft 155000 1OTJ0 


Dividends 

Company Per Ant Rec Pay 

1RREQULAR 

SKFABADR 0833 4-21 54 

STOCK SPUT 
Emenrid Fed Cp3 far 1 stML 
Eneryy Ventures 2 far 1 spflL 
FslAiaerCpSfarl spRL 
FWFetfl ra&KsSfarfepRL 


C a npcny 
Fs# AmerCpn 


Per Aait Rec Pay 


FfeAreercpn 
RrstFedl FncSvc 
Sovereign Bcp n 


- 70 5-15 5-30 

. .11 5-2 5-22 

- 02 4-30 5-15 


FffiDER CATTLE (CMBU 

SBJXia b*.- cents per I* 

AW 97 7)00 7105 71.17 +8JZ 1004 

May 97 71.15 K3) 76B5 +663 6111 

Aw 97 7415 7163 7402 +003 47* 

Sap 97 74 M 7265 7195 +0J5 1707 

Od97 7400 7400 7432 + 007 2077 

Nov 97 7615 7SJ5 7577 +007 1,108 

EAsctes 2X7 WMfLsrtes 6223 
Wed's Open M 17028 oft 244 


rttotfetCHfeft Grade) 

2301ft z£bft 230600 230900 
226600 226700 227100 227200 


JAPANESE YBt (CMBU 

IU mnon yen, s par I* van 

A«*7 JOB 7993 MU 8105B 

5*p97 JI28 J128 JITS 1046 

Dec 97 0249 4D 

EV-srtes NA Wetfs. safes 18.127 

WitfsopenM 83037 off 617 

SWISS FRANC (CMBO 

ISSJBO tmu . Sue* Bane 

•fen 77 0573 0830 0846 <3037 

sep?7 0938 0900 0940 2.101 

Dec 97 JOB 0985 7000 379 

EsL safes NA Wetfs. srtes 9084 

Wetfs open H 45067 up 254 


EfiL safes NA Wetfs. 465S4 
Wetfs open kd 179010 up Ki 

(MLCAOeDSASOLBe OOWER) 
42080006 art* per pal 
?° V *y “+« »■» <030 —008 

if® »40 5950 -0.15 

"’J, SL70 »15 —017 

Aug97 5805 5&J0 5870 —0.12 

SWW 5700 5480 57.70 -002 

Oct 97 

Est-Srtes NA WHfs. Krts HAS 
Wetfsorranlrt 101794 ww 




:!X.. Sfl 


Sort 63400 *a<.aw 63200 63300 

Anrard 53900 64Q0O 64000 64100 




GASOIL (1 PE) 

U0.drftos p ernielrtclo n - fats o4100 tons 
May 97 16X25 16175 16205 — 4L50 24700 
JW97 16625 16300 -OH 10171 
JU97 16600 16675 16500 6418 

Aug97 167 JO 146.75 167^ 6Z7J 


4 

i *ei ;• ' 


Sp« 7 160 00 717000 71 6500 717S0O 
Rwwad 727500 728000 728000 728500 


MaW Carp 2farl spit 
rsBkCT3hr2l. 


AmerFstPrm 
Aitzana PubSvc 


BBkCT3Ar28v-. 
abemr LM 2 farVspBL 
Volt Infer 3 MrZsptt. 

SPECIAL 

Devfetncfes g AJ2S M 

Oppenti CopLp - JO 4-30 5-30 

VwiranBnqi . 07 4-28 5-13 

REDUCED 

RyanSecfcAGa Q 0! 4-25 5-5 

INCREASED 

AstodaFnd Q .U 5-15 6-2 

Bk of Boston 9 Jl M HO 

Crtor+rt Got a 735 500 6-13 

BraryyNortilnc Q 015 5-30 6-13 

GifeJe Co Q 05 91 6-5 


Aitzana PubSvc un 
BardopCADR 
Bodays D ADR 
Bart,& 

Central & So West 


Curffss-Wrfght 
DwtABtadtteer 
Fit Western Bcp 
Harbor FetSSvgs 
In Ferfl5*m 


PPG Indus 
RwcberaCorp 
SC/RnUXA 
5o u tn fu g Bahts 


IS 

TO TO 
6* M 
life 111* 
pi S 
Wfe UU 
29 Mt 
Ml IM 
24* 24fe 
4ft 3*fc 
TV* « 
U ft 
4ft 4* 
4ft 3ft 
16 14H 

life life 
9ft, 9fe 

74* IM 
31H 30ft 
IV 31ft 


PeapfesBkCI, Q 05 5-1 5-15 

WrmeoBocp Q .13 4-28 5-13 

INITIAL 

CufanM BcGrpn _ .15 54 513 


SoudiTiuS Cora 
Stott- NMsar ADS 
Titoowcorp 


O 70 5-9 6-6 

M .1106 4*30 52 

M 70B3 4-29 4-30 
.70 31 4-23 52 

7186 4-23 6-2 

Q .17 4-28 « 

Q .435 5-B 530 

Q 75 7-15 7-31 
Q 32 570 510 
Q 70 528 56 

a 05 52S 520 
A 02 528 52 

Q 75 530 59 

a 08 530 515 
Q 0S 4-30 530 
0 03 512 512 

Q .14 514 511 
M 7604 4-29 400 
Q .125 51 515 

Q 05 530 7-1 

« 05 512 528 

Q 00 515 513 


HOOS-Leaa (CMBU 
40000 faL- anls per E. 

JU1 97 8545 8340 8L6 +200 15007 

JUI97 B.I7 Cb« 007 +1.95 1888 

AW 97 8242 8060 8205 +142 XOI 

Od97 7507 7375 7L95 +107 30E 

Dec 97 7115 71 JO 7187 +072 202S 

Feb* 7145 7005 7172 +04! 532 

Ed.sdes 19.126 Wetfs. sofa* 10417 
Wetfs OPtnM 30788 rtl 22* 


Sprt . 561500 5^00 566500 567500 
Forward SOO0O 567500 571500 572000 


Zinc (Special mob Grade) 

Spot 122900 123000 122400 122500 
ftraart 124700 124800 124700 724800 


HWi Low Close Chge Opbd 


pBorioqpef 

24S + JS 117780 

— 9375 93.18 9120 + 0JB 95704 

S3 74954 

Urft 9246 9278 7242 +005 49434 

JlH* «L7 4 9244 9269 +OQS 4L7ST 

fefl 9244 *46 9249 + 005 27473 

DetSS 9244 9247 9242 + SS 21005 

M»99 9248 9240 72.45 + 007 12.725 

JllBf9 9242 92JS 9209 + 007 9470 

EB. sofas; 197496 Prer. sates: 7)307 
Pier, apoe Int: 464430 an 1105 


!$?■& ,6B - 75 16940 UndL 2077 
Q ° 97 171^ 17100 17140 UndL Z747 
NoeW 17275 17240 17275 +005 866 

MVS, J! 12 ? 173J0 u * ft . 7 ’ 575 

Jan9B 17440 17405 17405 UndL 1,163 
__E3t sates 9.909. - Open Mj 61076 up 


-^C3 ^ 






BRENT OIL OPE) 

U4. dtaon perbami. MsoM0OObQn«b 


lifeW - TO:' 


PORK BELLIES (CttEK) 

40000 ftb- carts MTS. 

May 97 87^ B5J0 8745 +100 1797 

U7) 8405 8L30 8442 +277 1526 

AW 97 811 B 81 J5 83.10 +300 725 

Fob* 7572 7125 7155 +142 155 

Itkr9l 74J0 74JB 7340 + 14) I 

May* 72jo 3 

Est, safes 3427 Wetfs. safes 4791 
Wetfs open irt 7717 up 313 


mto* teapprratnato —o —t per 
Sfenumti B-ffaytfak Cusafia fwtdfc 
m rennWi lyi q uoo rtertri t 1 n i l i wou l 


Financial 
US T. SALS (CMBU 
tl irtBfeft- rt* at 100 POL 
Jwi97 Mil 9LS9 MiO 6021 

S»97 *t34 *31 »4J2 +flffl i7» 

Dec 97 9448 847 

Ea.gtea KA Wetfs. setes 5*2 

wttfsopwifat T0J89 off 339 

5 VR. TREASURY (CBOT) 

SHBJOd win- pi* A AMTOot loond 
Am 97 104-43 186-23 18634 4 13 345712 

S»97 104-15 186-15 106-15 +13 1JB 

DSC 97. 183-53 IB 

aiKt* NA HfetfKjdes 46424 

WetfiopmW 347JM w 246 


MMMTH EUROMARK (UFFE) 

BTWWtu. * 


gtr 96» +O 0 I as« 

*76 9674 *J 6 + 001 226063 

££n NT. *74 + 0 JJ 1 aoo 

rSm N® *71 + 001 19L581 

9+2 ^ 9 0J2 212074 

j£2 ££ * J® 1T ' M 

£££ ffg Sta* + f«3 129082 

ra . wry %?< ^ 

Mm99 9543 9549 MJ3 + i?{S 

Jlffl* 9507 9503 9505 +nQ5 

SV* KM wn 

pl-ftfe* 18S4S5. Pm.Rks 154030 

Pm-opanW: 101830 up 7,87 




June 77 37.95 17^1 

July 97 IB .11 1704 

Alta 97 1805 1804 
SW97 1809 ISL17 
Od97 1803 1B04 
NWW 1805 1808 
DeOT 1840 1809 
■ton* 1841 1BJ5 


^ soles: 41025. 


170? -0.12 79418 
1708 —0.12 32426 

1808- 008 1105a 

1802 -4UQ 4790 

1809 - OD1 5019 

1R04 +402 5206 
1EL38 +005 4503 

1840 +006 7426 
Open fat: 164098 up 


’IS* f#. 




sn 71k 
2M 23ft 
45ft 4A 
111 1ft 
•ft v» 
Sft Sft 


lfe lfe l« 

1 ft 

.ft ft ft 

13 13 13 

Mfe ( 6 ft (Bft 

in 12 ft m 

W ,Wl » 

151h 1B4 ISft 


ISIh !» Uft 

lift lift lift 

m i3*» 13ft 

11 10ft 11 

fe ft lfe 

Ift Ift 1ft 


Stock Tables Explained 

Sdes flgmsam uncdfcM.^ Ytaly Ktfs end b» nflad toe mwfaus 52 «meks plus lhe curort 
HC^butno<g Kfci tosnwtaigdny.WliBBqqiBor5axXtWrtCTdcinounangiD25perCTnla mare 
tm bun patt ffeieon Mgfrtew tango** dMenemshom ter toe new sfcdo only. Untess 
cBiBfwleendetLicdesordMdends at awwiadiunewantB bead enffw fated d ccto uEm 
o - dividend also etna fsl. b • onnud rate of dvMend phd stock dividend. « - HqmdaijRg 
dMdend ec - PE ooul599xu -coOeiLd^ - new yearly low.iH- has in the bit 12 months. 
B • tWdand doctored or pdd to preceding 72 awnfta. f - onnl nta Increased an bat 
(tedarofitm. g - tByWcnd to COmflan tonds. subtea to 15ft non-reddence tac 1 - iMdend 
dedtued ofler spBhw or Mock MdentL | - dteMend paid ffris war. omtted deferred ar no 
atiBai taken at kited dvttend meottag. k - dfaWand dectared or paid tab year, on 
aoeumulolln Ss« wWi dMdends kl oneois. n - annual rate, reduced an last dedaiatkm. 
p - now fane ta lt» pad 52 neeta. The SdgMow range begins wMi the dart at Hading, 
ad - netff day deMry. p - MricJ tMdentL mnudrato unknown. P/E - pNcMominp ratio, 
n -dosed-endimrtualJlmd.r-dMttenddocJoreiJar paid in prwertlnfll2morttis. plus stack 
dMdend. s - stadc spW. DMdend bet^a feWi dale of split, sis - safes, t - dMdena pau in 
stadi in preemflns 12 manliift attantod coEhraiue an a^vfdend ero+«strtaiiitan dale, 
a* new yaartr high- v-liaaig honed. «l-ta bankruplcy wieceiMnMporMng raaqantzBd 
widertlieBankRqitayA4arsecuil8esas9(RiiedtfyaiidicBniparies.wd-wti«iidlsntauted 
wl - wtmn teuetf ww - wlffi waranls. s - ex-tSWdend ar a-thddft A - n^stitavnon, 
xw . wUitwi wanaits.y- ex^Mdend end soles In toff. yM - yield, z - sales in fuL 


CDCMPCS9 

18 mcMcftni-f Parian 


May ta 

1412 

14H) 

1418 

tie 

2044 

JU 97 

U80 

1449 

1*51 

+n 

S0S9 

Ses97 

Mta 

MTS 

MTS 

til 

13071 

Dec 97 

ISIS 

L®3 


+ 10 

15087 

Mar* 

I5» 

1413 

1517 

+18 

19080 


M YE. 1 TREASURY (CBOT) 

IMOTOOTOkl - pm A 3M> or HOpd 

JBM3 ,a - x *" 

Sep 77 IBS- 22 J0S-13 105-17 410 22JSJ 

Dec 97 10605 10505 104-27 1000 

ESL softs NA WtetfS-WtS A1I8 
WWsopenW 35L» off 1981 


EsLsctaa 1109 Wetfs. soles 11,189 
Wetfs open ini 94075 off 1290 


LIB I E E C (NC5E) 

DJB0 fas- certs pm* tL 
Mar 97 211 jO 206.10 209 JO +U5 
Jut 97 WO 1BU0 127 JO +270 
Sop 97 17IJB f»M IflUS +175 
Dec 97 1545) I5U0 U255 +075 
ESL Kin NA Wetfs soles 0752 
Wetfs open M 31089 off 492 


US-nEASURY B0ND5 (CMm 
te BcMiaajoiMs &muso( tmm} 

Jfl 97 HB07 187-14 1B7-2B 413 «9031 

Septa 107-36 187-05 107-D 412 3jSp 

Dec 97 107-08 107-QZ 187-01 *14 US 

(Bar* 105-10 ITS 

EOsata NA Wetf*. jutaSOJB 
Wotfuptnire S0L680 a II MO 


MJOHTH PIBOR (MATIF) 

3WJ97 K^y^^M-O-lO 57,147 

Mar 98 9643 9607 9 fcS— SS 
Jon 98 9605 9601 9601 _aS 104 % 

sg » 9toi 9601-tun ilffln 

2®- 2 K78 +000 1J029 

Mar 99 9556 9553 9504 +000 13.1K 
Jim 99 95J0 « 0 O J&fll 4751 

Sep 99 9507- 9507 9507 +002 tst? 

^wtaae 139085. Open taU24Mtn off 


Stock Indexes 
9KPOOMP.IIffiEX(CMEn 

TM it Vmi*. 

SS 2“® nMB +150 182.178 

2J® ”740 +340 5483 

DkW 7BaJ0 TXLflp 7S7J0 +1ID 2M 

"ww 791/0 ‘Mr 

Wetfs qobiW 191,136 op. 761 




•**«*«■» *»■ 
«-''+* .jC*6 


SMOOTH EUHOURA tLgPEl 

ITL1 mISan-nftrtiiuiivt 


26130 - 500 24^1 

^ volume: 17041 open inti 69090 m 


"!■ 

’Vji 




faro 

- 4pt ... 


I0NC SILT (UFFE3 
CMM-BtS 6,320* 01 100 od 
Junta 1HM0 10909 11005 + 


JUCAA-WW*LDI1(K3EJ 
ilLMOfcv- emTOPer ft. 

May 97 1078 H 86 WM +0J1 

Jul97 1U9 H77 IftA +«B 

{Mta 1070 1044 ILLS +0J1 

Mar* 1045 U41 10J4 

EsL sties KA Wtd’s.sdfes 4SJK 
Wfetfs open mt HUB off !H 


Septa IID02 10907 11MB +8-15 
EtL rafts: 64001. Plrr. safes: SJJft 
PlHLOponMo 17VP9 rtl 3005 


0-15148034 
0-15 14)5 


Pier- open fcte 27L557 U p^LTn " 

Industrials 
cDTnfatiwcnij 
58080 BM+* port* pv fa. 

*51? Jl-5 7aj0 nji —0-11 mm 

A497 7194 7171 7245 —009 *J3S 


m-pfertl«lpei 

na S-’i S 21 H1435 

915* *45 9150 —004 70016 

ns mi -m eSx> 
55 aa -oj>5 5S 

W4S 9150 9341 — QJS ItSo 
”41 KL52 9ia—oS zm 
9150 930 9144 -Im ffrr 
9140 9340 9307 _Sn W? 
5151* 


S 3 ! tiS V 

PiW.taftntaL 61335 ott UB A 

WJ 


QCW4AR COYBBUBBT BUND (UFFE) 


flake 1 loan +029 2504* 
5*97 HXUtf 9904 9952 +009 7084 
§Llrtes 234045. Ptrt.ertes: 224419 
PmgpnthA- 3648H off 4387 


C#B «loditjrlndiM8 


:L_ ; ' 


^.Futote 

CRB 


iAI 

-1044m 1,95001 

15800 1573 

24502 


m i 




- ‘ 

-TJ. 

" twvi* 

T. - - <,;*■» 

n. 

-i+fthfel* 

*" ’ ft 

1 B ftl w 

•’* '""•ft ftrtp- 

- - '"l»* .+*• 

KH ■ . 

M fC 

ifts. 

Jh. 

- - 

’1" 

- N!TO.i. 

a : 



to v 



INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 1997 


PAGE 15 


EUROPE 


id ^ » Confidence Measure 
^ I* 1 Germany Falls 
As Recovery Wavers 


&«V**byC ’*rS*#FmU t paKl KX 

~~ Business confi- 
. “ < * ence ni Western Germany fell un- 

•• expectedly xn March, the Rb eco- 
.;■* -comic .research institute reported 

' HSrS*"*- *"* economic re- 
4 P 0 *® mdicated that weak domestic 
• -deinand was continuing to limit die 
■ . - country s economic recovery. 

. Tpe Bundesbank, meanwhile, left 
1'- ' i 1 ? raterest rates unchanged. 

; Hans Tietineyer, the president or the 

• v . rentral bank, said, “We want to con- 

- \ ■ tonne with our steady^and monetary 

. policy. The discount rate remains at 




Russia Pledges 
Spending Cuts 
And Asset Sales 

Reuters 

MOSCOW — Finance Min- 
ister Anatoli Chubais of Russia 
dismissed the country's 1997 
budget as unrealistic and prom- 
ised Thursday to cut spending 
and raise more than $5 billion 
through privatizations and sales 
of precious metals. 

Mr. Chubais told the upper 
bouse of Parliament that taxes 
brought in a mere 39 percent of 
expected income in the first 
quarter, although increased cus- 
toms revenue had made up some 
of the gap. He said spending 
should be cut across the board. 

The International Monetary 
Fund has delayed paying install- 
ments of a $10 billion loan to 
Russia because it is worried 
about the low revenue. Michel 
Camdessus, the head of the 
fund, said early this month that 
he would recommend that the 
payments continue after an fund 
team comes to “finalize" the 
details later this month. 

The monetary fund has been 
pushing Moscow to simplify its 
tax code and strengthen enforce- 
ment. The new head of the State 
Tax Service, Alexander Poch- 
inok, promised Thursday to be 
tougher than his predecessors. 


2-50 percent and the Lombard emer- 
gency financing rate at 4.50 percent. 

Mr. Tietmeyer said Germany's 
economy was still dependent on ex- 
ports as it picked up from a sluggish 
fourth quarter. He said “structural 
" with high labor costs 
them, were hampering 
discouraging companies 
investing. 

But he also warned against in- 
terpreting the Zfo report on business 
confidence as si gnaling a faltering 
economy. 

“I have seen so many Ifo test 
results that I can teD you. one should 
not look to the outcome of one 
month's Ifo test for forming any 
assessment,” he said. 

Business confidence as measured 
by Ifo slumped to 92.4 in March 
from 93.6 in February, reversing a 
two-month increase. Tlw index is set 
with the 1991 level of business con- 
fidence at 100 and is regarded as a 
major indicator of business expec- 
tations and corporate investment. 

Business confidence in the five 
East German states, which account 
for 10 percent of the economy, was 
unchanged at a reading of 104.1 in 
March. 

“It certainly is surprisingly neg- 
ative,” Josef Wallner, economist at 
Bayerische Hypotheken- & Wech- 
selbank, said of the West Ge rman 
number. “It is really just domestic 
pessimism, though. The upswing 
continues to come from abroad.” 

Separately, retail sales in Ger- 
many rose an inflation-adjusted 0.2 
percent in February from January 
but were down 6.0 percent from a 
year earlier, the Federal Statistics 
Office said. February sales were 
dragged below last year's levels by 
weak sales of mixed goods, food, 
drink and tobacco. 

The statistics office also reported 
that ; corporate bankruptcies rose 73 
percent in January from a year earli- 
er, to 2,004. Bankruptcies filed try 
companies and self-employed indi- 
viduals rose 5.9 percent, to 2,482. 

In another report, revised figures 
from the Bundesbank showed that 
new orders to manufacturers fell 03. 
percent in Febcuaiy rather than 
rising 0.2 percent as tire Economics 
Ministry originally estimated. 

( Bloomberg , Reuters, Bridge News) 


Bucharest Banks on Sell-Offs 

Agency’s New Managers Aim to Speed Privatization 


By Justin Keay 

Special to the Herald Tribune 

BUCHAREST — Since its es- 
tablishment in 1991, the State 
Ownership Fund, Romania's pri- 
vatization body, has been synon- 
ymous with inefficiency. 

For would-be investors frus- 
trated by its byzantine methods 
and lack of transparency, the 
fund’s failure to shake Commu- 
nist-era habits symbolized Ro- 
mania’s own inability to break 
with its past 

But Bogdan Balthazar, the 
fund’s outspoken new deputy vice 
president, is trying to change that 
by makingan effort to simplify and 
redefine Romania’s privatization 
strategy and speed sales of state 
assets. Part of a team appointed in 
January to oversee the organiza- 
tion’s transformation, Mr. 
Balthazar, formerly Romania’s 
representative at the European 
Bank for Reconstruction and De- 
velopment, is leading a road show 
to publicize what he calls a new 


version of the agency. He is also 
highlighting some of the compa- 
nies being offered as pan of the 
government's radical pledge to sell 
50 companies a week in 1997. 

Mr. Balthazar promises that by 
the end of the year, the fond will no 
longer be recognizable as the in- 
stitution that investors love to hale. 

For those who were monitoring 
Romania's glacially slow transition 
under the neo-Communist govern- 
ment that lost power in November, 
the fund was the primary suspect in 
the country's failure to deliver on 
privatization promises. 

Mr. Balthazar said that some of 
that suspicion was justified. 

“In six years, the SOF trans- 
ferred around 15 percent of the 
initial privatizable capital to 
private ownership," he said. “It 
should have shifted 45 percent, 
according to the law. It clearly has 
been a failure." 

According to Mr. Balthazar, the 
fund's failure was that it had too 
many departments, was loo struc- 
and was not open enough to 


privatization projects. Fust, the 
new leadership got rid of the 
agency's old guard, including its 
former chief. Emil Dima, an op- 
ponent of privatization. 

Some in Bucharest do expect 
the team headed by Mr. Dima’s 
successor. Sorin Dimitri u. to be 
much more effective. For one 
thing, they say. the fact that Mr. 
Dimitriu's brother Andrei heads 
the Romanian Development 
Agency, the body responsible for 
attracting foreign investors, 
should lead to better communi- 
cation between the two agencies. 

The fund also has been strug- 
gling to help simplify' and change 
the way negotiations are conduc- 
ted and the way sales are made. 

Mr. Balthazar promised, for ex- 
ample. that the fond's notorious 
lack of transparency, which 
seemed to reach a peak with the 
sale in 1995 of the Intercontinental 
Hotel to a domestic group for a 
lower price than Marriott Inter- 
national Inc. was offering to pay, 
had become a thing of the past. 


Peugeot Profit Tumbled 57% in ’96 


Copied by Our Shtf Fran DnpauJei 

PARIS — PSA Peugeot Gtroen 
SA, France's largest carmaker, said 
Thursday that its profit plunged 57 
percent last year as it cut prices and 
lost market share. 

The automaker also said it was 
preparing another “social plan," 
which could mean more job cuts. 

The company’s chairman, 
Jacques Calvet. would not give de- 
tails of the plan. 

But repots in industry publica- 


tions said it would be similar to a 
current plan that expires in June and 
calls for the elimination of 1,260 
jobs. 

Peugeot had earnings of 734 mil- 
lion French francs ($126.5 million) 
last year, down from 1.7 billion 
francs in 1 995, even though sales rose 
5 percent, to 172.67 billion francs. 

The decline in earnings came 
amid a recession in the French auto 
industry in general. Renault, 
France's second-biggest carmaker. 


Elf and Total Plan to Buy Back Shares 


Bloomberg News 

PARIS — Elf Aquitaine SA and Total SA said 
Thursday they were considering buying back chunks of 
their own stock in the next few years in amove intended 
to increase returns to shareholders that have lagged 
those of other oil companies. 

France’s two biggest oil companies said they would 
ask shareholders to approve plans allowing them to buy 
back stock worth 29.7 billion francs ($5.1 1 billion). Elf 


Investor’s Europe 

Frankfurt 

London 

Paris 

DAX 

FTSE TOO Index 

CAC40 

3600 

- 4650 

2850 

3400 

Ab 4500 * 

2700 

3200 

r ®° /Ar 

2550 

3000 jn 


2400 

m 

m 

2230 Af 

2«»n Oj 

1996 

FMA DJ FMA 

7997 1996 1997 

2100 N 0 
1996 


1997 


Exchange ■ 

Amsterdam 

Index 

AEX 

Thursday 

Close 

73SJ3 

Prev. 

Close 

72958 

% 

Change 

+1.38 

Brussels 

Be.-20 

2,147.34 

2,133.60 

+0.64 

Frankfurt 

DAX 

3,383^5 

3,3S3.'45 

+0.69 

Copenha^fl 

Sted« Market 

530.72 

529^8 

+055 

HeSsudd 

f£X General 

Z807-36 

2,787.16 

+0.72 

Oslo 

08X 

594^5 

594.93 

■0.15 

Condon 

FTSE100 

429SJ0 

AJ234.QQ 

■fO.IO 

Madrid - 

Stock Exchange 

49063 

48729 

+0.69 

Ififan- 

&QSTEL 

12332 

12372 

-0.32 

Pvis ' 

CAC40 

2,615.18 

2,620.97 

-0.22 

Stockholm 

SX 16 

2 r 844.S9 

2,850.65 

■920 

Vienna 

ATX 

1,178.48 

1,170.95 

+0.73 

Zurich 

sm 

Z9SZSS 

2927.32 

+0.85 

Source: Tetekurs 

UiMrnulKwiI Herald Tnbune 

Very briefly: 


posted its first loss in a decade In 
1996. Peugeot predicted the bleak 
market would continue this year. 

It said it expected French auto 
sales this year to fall by 11 percent or 
12 percent, despite a 2 percent rise in 
Western Europe as a whole. 

Auto sales in France were sup- 
ported last year by a government 
cash incentive plan that ended in 
September. 

Peugeot shares closed at 611 
francs, down 28. (AFP, Bloomberg) 


• British Airways PLC plans to sell its in-flight catering unit 
at London's Heathrow Airport, part of the airline's plan to cut 
£1 billion ($1.6 billion) in costs over three years. 

• Norilsk Nickel AO said 10,000 workers who had applied to 
leave their jobs would be let go this year and not be replaced, 
trimming the total work force by 8.3 percent as part of a 
restructuring plan. 

• Banco Bilbao Vizcaya SA. one of Spain's largest com- 
mercial banks, said net profit in the first quarter rose 24.8 
percent, to 24.7 billion pesetas ($169.8 million), helped by 
growing revenue from Latin American operations. 

• British Airways PLC Chief Executive Bob Ayling said he 
was "in the market" for the A3XX. Airbus Industrie's project 
for an exceptionally large plane model. 

• Novartis AG said first-quarter sales rose 22 percent from a 
year ago. to 8.2 billion Swiss francs (55.6 billion), and sales in 
local currencies rose a greater-th an -expected 8 percent 

• House or Fraser PLC posted a pretax loss of £38.4 million 
($62 .5 million) in the year ended Jan. 25. compared with a 
profit of £14.3 million a year ago, as the retailer took a one- 
time charge to shed stock, staff and stores. 

• Newtelco AG. a venture set up to function as Switzerland's 
second telecommunications company, has been cleared to 
operate by the European Commission . Bloomberg. Reuters, afp 


wants to buy 15 percent of its stock by June 2002, and 
Total wants to buy 6.2 percent by the end of 1998. 

The move comes after record 1996 profits for many 
of the world's large oil companies. While Elf s and 
Total's profits also have risen, their shareholders have 
not done as well as other oil investors. 

Elf shares closed 7 francs higher at 562 francs, and 
Total climbed 8.60 francs to 473.90 francs, while most 
French stocks fell. 


Correction 

Because of a programming error, the year-to-date 
figures used in the Trib Index have been calculated on a 
January 1996 base rather than January 1997. Because of 
an additional production error, the calculations in 
Thursday's edition were incorrect. With this issue, the 
calculations have been corrected. 


WORLD STOCK. MARKETS 


High Un dose Prev. 


High Low data Prew. 


High Law dose Pm. 


High Lew One Prw*. 


- Thursday, Apr347 •• 

Prices In toad currencies. 

7&a£tst5 

High Law dm Pre^ 

Amsterdam A K2£*2SS 

naw/aa 


• ABM -AMRO 
Aegon 
Alwld 
Akzo NaboT 
Boon Co. 
BdsWesscva 

. CSMevu 
. DonSSsdwPet 
DSM 
Ehwtar 
• Forts Arne* 
Getronks 

- * G-Biuccw 

• 1 H efiSS* 

• HoagoMnscn 
Hum Douglas 
IMG Group 
KLM 
KMPBT 
KPN 

- 

' Oce Grirrten 
- PMUsEKC 


IHdfl 

Rotaco 
Rntamcs 
RoBncD 
Rondo 
Rows Doteh 
■ Untawrcva 
Verdes ton 
VNU 

Waiters Ki cm 


1 33-90 ra&n 
134 US 
1354) 13370 
266 2SJS0 
92-50 91 

3&2» 35.® 
1TM5 10X50 
■ks *ai 

187.10 18550 
3070 3130 
7040 6&9C 
<502 0 » 

6X40 62-80 
161 15° 

31X50 315-58 
8X90 .8520 
15240 15150 
7350 7250 
57 5550 
3930 3X80 
69.90 6870 
4520 4130 
284 28450 
231 JO 221 

tow stun 
96J0 9470 
1725® 165 

16080 160 
59.TO 59-60 
16330 163 

109.20 1QB.W 
33530 33370 
363 35830 
mo j2jo 
3950 3840 
232 22850 


12&60 12640 
134 13140 
13430 133J0 
265 263 

M 89.38 
36.10 3540 
10949 10940 
35830 353 

186 IDS 
3060 30.10 
6940 6970 
5940 5970 
6370 62-80 
16050 15860 
3W 317 
8550 SMB 
15150 151 JO 
7350 72-40 
57 5Sfl 
3050 3870 
6940 6859 
44JD 45.10 
286 28458 
223 22740 
9040 8850 
9140 95. US 
170150 16550 
16840 159 

5940 5950 
163 163-4) 
109-20 10870 
33540 33070 
363 356 

SO 92 
3940 38.10 
23150 228-30 


Bangkok 

.- AdvlntoSK 
• Bangkok BkF 
- Knng Tied Bk 
-PTTBiplw _ 
. slam Cement F 
Stan Com Bk F 
ftf.TetecomoslD 

UfdCamn 


232 

280 

37 

336 

740 

169 

4775 

4475 

182 

176 


Bombay 

.BoMAulo 
HMnfLewr 
Hindus! Pert" 
Jnd Dev Bk 
■ITC 

MatwnagarTel 
Rekoncelnd 
State Bk Indto 
Sleet Authority 
Tata Eno UM 


959 

3QS5 

39050 

9175 

41750 

28175 

28075 

29775 

2375 

384 


J30 MR 369642 
Prntoos; 344744 

935 94675 
1343 MWU 
WW 388 38850 
89 8950 ft. 
40850 41575 41150 
274 275 Z7775 

26775 280 260 

28775 29675 28675 
3175 2275 2175 
376 382 37675 


Brussels 

- ' Among 

. Borcclnd 
t BBL 

' CBR 

- coftvyl , 

- Ocflw&e Lion 
E redraw 
eiearanna 
Forts AG 
Grown 
GBL 

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l -r KiHSdtonli 


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“ **——■- Bat 

Sac Gen B< 

-Sohav 
■.'Troctebet 
. UCB 


13775 

6020 

7975 

339S 

14250 

7780 

W3 

3480 

6000 

2585 

5110 

13575 

12750 

12800 

4905 

3 

20325 

14875 

93700 


UUttMve 2147.34 

wi —am 

13550 13775 13525 

5900 swo me 

7860 7930 7B70 

3345 3350 3360 

14075 14250 14150 
J76B 1775 IMS 

S3 1 
§3 SS 35 
iSS iSI 3 

12575 12625 2725 

12625 12725 12775 
«5 «fl5 
9130 916® 9190 

2965 2965 3005 

2D250 20275 20275 

Sms lew was 

91900 93500 91730 


. i.V‘ 


-Copenhagen sna 

BGBMft 291 268 291 

- s 381 OT JB9 
B90 870 875 

W » » 

5<1 537 538 

283566380411 283283; 
1953S0 19S0D0 195100 
895 900 

642 640 640 

659 *99-50 654 

BOO 794 799J0 
345 33M6 
337 334 335 

330 32767 389 


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. Dortsca 

DenDan5t*Bk 

WSSwmJWS 8 
CVS 1912 B 
FLSInttB 
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NMNORfekB 

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Frankfurt 

AMBB 

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i£E Hd9 ttM 

BMW* 

sasaa il 
sxzr ,3 $ 


DAX: 338125 
Preview: 335X45 

020 1320 1300 

184 104 106 

3210 3230 316* 
1295 1301 U06 

yni 3140 300 
67J0 67JO 603 
n| l 53-45 53 

if<D 6650 6660 

6W2 

91 JO 9180 n 

VM 14n 

is ’S3 « 
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FmenknMed 
Fried. Kmpp . 
Gan*' 

linrtdhgZmt 
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Deutsche Bank 90 OHM I960 HUB 

DeatTeWsxn 37JO 37.17 37 JS 3640 

□ndnirHank ss.os siio sus 

r ras erius 38860 387 30860 387 

19 157.90 158 157-50 

349 330 342 327 

113 109 112-50 11150 

141 140 141 141 

93 9) JO 97M flOB 
495 495 495 05 

69.20 67 JO 67 JO 69 JO 
66-45 46 664 5 66 

SB 523 524.11! 509 

1167 115D TlflS 1156 
22J0 2250 2250 2258 
501 488 494 500 

660 6515B 65250 653J0 

MetanBeseBKMI3640 3625 3625 3640 
Metro 163 Him 162j» 161 

Munch RueCkR 4020 3960 4000 3950 

PtHOKta 45150 447 4<7 449 

RhetaeMdra no. rut ml iw- 

RWE 67 JO 67 JO 67-65 6627 

SAPpfd 286 28350 284J0 28480 

SdMM 16050 14530 16550 167J0 

SGLCSboo 245 236 230 14690 

Seneae B&80 88J0 B8-40 B7J3 

SpttagerlAxeO 1305 1385 1385 T3S5 

SaMhudav S10 884 005 810 

71msen 396 393 39400 30680 

Veea 94.10 92J5 WS 

VEW 501 49950 O9J0 50258 

77130 ' 762 76450 7St 
1107 ^00109650184550 

•.'k 


SABmwries 

Samancw 


SBfC 

Tiger Dots 


133 131J5 

132 

132 

Vendor* Lx trtl 

5.18 

X13 

5.1 B 

5.13 




EledrahKS 

494 

483 

487 

48140 

51 J5 5080 

52 

52 

Vodntone 

2J0 

167 

2 39 

247 

Paris 



Crfcssons 

255 24940 25I40 

25240 

..S3. SUS 

.53 

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WhButod 

7J2 

—740 — 

741 

-7.70 

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HemesB - 

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1080 


192 18850 

190 

TO 

WWonBHdgs 

XI6 

X12 

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IncenllveA 

515 

510 

511 

514 

7B 7735 

7735 

77 J5 

Wouefev 

492 

488 

488 

486 

Mar 

893 

887 888 889 

tmestorB 

349 

343 

344 

34450 




WPP Group 

330 

2^6 

249 

241 

AGP 

200 

196 199.40 199.40 

MoOoB 

215 

21) 

2 M 

213 


Kuala Lumpur c gwpeste nokM 

PieftaUK 108738 


18 1738 1758 17.90 


U qde 

Lufthansa 


Munnemam 


AMMBHdgs 

Gwrtng 

MdBmklng 

MrtlnflSHpF 

PafranasGax 

Platen 

PtMcBk 

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P«a,yt« UCmM 

WDUUIWVB 

RonmonsPM 

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18 

1430 

2750 

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618 

15L60 

350 

378 

665 

2250 

610 

1750 

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2610 

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1750 

1440 

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755 

1450 

030 

170 

9M 

2230 

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1150 

1950 

1630 


1770 1750 
1450 1440 
2650 2675 
535 5.10 
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1550 15.10 
036 3J2 

172 3J0 

955 930 

2230 2270 
610 7.90 

1750 1730 
1150 1150 
2610 19J0 
1650 1610 


London 


FT-SE1M: <29600 
Pnwfeut: 429440 


Bill 


AagtanMUta 


t^nragai 


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icBr foods 


SETUiaentJi 

pmlew: 71619 

228 230 230 

274 27B 2S0 

36 3625 3650 

326 334 324 

70S 732 748 

163 166 1« 

4535 46 4735 

4250 4250 442S 

179 171 182 

170 170 178 


Helsinki hex 

EasaA 
HuMenaMI 
KMrtra 
Knko 
Merita A 
Metro B 
MHMeriaB 


NoOt A 
Orion- YWymae 
OutakungwA 
UPMKyrame™ 
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42.10 

42 

■C 

41.10 

235 

231 

233 

234 

5410 

5170 

54 

5X10 

71 

7050 

7040 

7040 

16J0 

1570 

15.01 

15-70 

144 

142 1 4240 

141 

37 

36 

36 

36 

125 

122 

122 

122 

300 

296 

297 

294 


:Brf 
BAA 
Baedoia 
Bum 
BAT hid 
BwASmfland 
Blue Ode 
BOC Group 
Boots 
BPBtnd 
BitAerosp 
BrtlAi repay* 
BG 

Bril Land 
BAPMtm 


19450 19350 19450 19250 
91 89 89 09 

11350 111 11330 ^IjO 


88 8750 


88 


Hong Kong 

Anw Props 
Bk rat Aria 
aflhwPDCWc 

SffiSS ss 
SME %% 

OaaHemBk 3B-40 
Hup Land De« 1415 

sasss 1 

HKcSnaGos 1250 
HKEtecMC 27^ 
HKTUtaonin 1330 

WSC'jjJ 

HUWit«»lWb 5735 
KysaaDev 
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755 

26-45 

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5735 
22J5 

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immSEdw xm 

SSSolSS 

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awaTokWte 4.M 
SnoumdCd 730 
S »1 DAM Post 680 
SeriaPocA 60 

vmarfHdps »» 
wtnetock 1650 


Haag SH« 1351 623 
Pmtanul25>Ul 

750 755 75S 

2620 2620 2635 
1158 1150 11.8 
6635 6635 6650 
22.15 2130 22.10 
3430 3450 3490 
3670 3690 39J0 
36 3618 3630 
950 950 . 10 

14 14 1415 

8235 83 8375 

758 750 750 

6425 6435 « 

1250 1255 1250 
2695 2635 2735 
13-30 1X55 1355 
355 698 4 

10650 18650 18658 
5675 5735 57 

22.15 2230 2230 
19-40 19-40 1940 
1750 1?M 1750 
39 2930 39-60 
238 HO 610 

235 238 3 

76 7650 76M 
430 433 433 

7S& 7.15 7.10 

670 675 680 

S8J5 5935 59-/5 
3930 2935 3040 
1620 1625 1620 


Brtf! .. 

Brit Telecom 
BTR 

Bwroah Costnd 
Burton Go 
CoMeVHratass 
niySdM 
ta Ournn 
... otUirion 

8ST 


ForoCotortoi 

GenlAcetdeot 

GEC 

GKN 

Gtato Wefcopne 
Granada Go 
Grand Met 
GRE 

GfeenaflsGp 
Gutraess 
GUS 



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LtoMsTSBGp 

UH3BV0TW 

MoiksSpencer 

M£PC 

MteftoryAWI 
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Bkhmindon 1?^ 
UMoobri WW 

GudangGann 1 0150 
indocemoiri ^ 
lodoiaod ^ 

huhsal 4750 

SmpomaHM 9«S 
Seneo Gre* . 5S5 
TetefawKHdtori 3675 


5800 5800 5M 

1725 1750 1750 

JW JM5 MOO 
9000 10000 9725 
nw MM 3200 
4000 4900 4000 

6700 6700 6635 

9250 «» 9BB 
^ ^5 3625 



Johannesburg 

a 

27750 
302 
ISO 
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49 
2540 
165 
4135 
2500 
1545 
108 
s m 
28 
3.18 
5525 
320 
118 
15 
9935 
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UbertyHcta 

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10050 

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29.15 2935 
262 281-50 
27025 27730 
303 302 

180 180 
1660 1740 
4735 m 
2530 2540 
162 165 

40J5 4135 
29 2600 
1615 1845 
108 108 
£50 5SM 
Z7JD 28 
192 018 
58 5825 
319 320 

117 118 
15.10 15 

99.75 9US 
1830 1820 
8535 8535 
4535 4650 
6650 59JS 
6335 69-50 


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6930 


p|L 

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SeetNewcdstla 

Scot Power 

Secoricor 

SevenTratf^ 

SbMTmnEpR 

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Sadtti NeohHr 
SroWiKfcie 
SmAhslod 
Stent Bk 
Staoeenodi 
StaidCbartw 
Total Lyle 
T0KO 

Thames Wafer 
31 Grom 
T1 Group 
TamUns 
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UMAmrom 
(ltd News 
Utdt 


B.16 

789 

789 

721 

438 

426 

436 

436 

642 

640 

642 

667 

6-47 

640 

641 

642 

1.12 

1.10 

1.11 

1.12 

SJ8 

5.14 

5.19 

512 

5JS 

527 

530 

529 

17.10 

law 

1007 

laid 

7.95 

722 

787 

723 

549 

5-36 

528 

541 

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113 


119 

415 

410 

409 

9.13 

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6-99 

683 

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686 

323 

117 

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3.1B 

1154 

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1X36 

1343 

6-86 

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1^1 

188 

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128 

545 

540 

542 

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635 

680 

626 

523 

585 

589 

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147 

149 

147 

447 

441 

441 

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240 

249 

151 

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10JB 

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141 

146 

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147 

487 

480 

481 

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5J0 

521 

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5J0 

5.10 

527 

527 

645 

640 

655 

644 

6 74 

647 

669 

670 

3J8 

133 

136 

3J7 

5.14 

587 

510 

514 

0*406 

482 

4B4 

4 

12 

1185 

1185 

1120 

5JO 

4» 

427 

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6.17 

686 

612 

616 

142 

140 

142 

121 

844 

728 

883 

801 

405 

147 

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368 

94B 

948 

948 

935 

11X2 

11.13 

1125 

1122 

892 

880 


886 

5-02 

427 

495 

177 

166 

172 

17* 

5.17 

580 

508 

517 

5.17 

583 

5JD 

5J8 

645 

6J6 

629 

649 

522 

5.16 

520 

522 

1468 

1477 

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1421 

748 

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7 26 

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422 

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419 

415 

637 

643 

664 

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2J6 

133 

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135 

7-84 

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7-80 

241 

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138 

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384 

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148 

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122 

127 

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084 

424 

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4-53 

460 

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12J6 

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224 

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542 

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528 

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683 

660 

669 

676 

645 

632 

648 

628 

116 

113 

114 

114 

6.15 

687 

487 

613 

727 

7.18 


726 

122 

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120 

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647 

640 

641 

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582 

423 

5-01 

426 

5J7 

567 

568 

568 

480 

449 

449 

422 

434 

427 

428 

433 

882 

724 

728 

725 

342 

1U7 

323 

1090 

iS 

341 

TUB 

437 

402 

483 

4JB 

553. 

582 

585 

589 

324 

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118 

122 

935 

947 

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249 

146 

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147 

5J3 

525 

531 

9J7 

943 

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446 

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340 

346 

346 

327 

119 

322 

326 

15J5 

lVM 

1528 

Iw 

6-53 

653 

658 


183 

118 

178 

179 

186 

283 

183 

284 

740 

744 

745 

744 

1082 

1033 

1040 

1033 

850 

941 

943 

946 

18! 

9 JO 

1J6 

9,15 

127 

920 

19 

735 

7 JO 

7J2 

7J3 

449 

OS 

426 

445 

620 

688 

612 

518 

8-70 

845 

857 

047 

449 

440 

443 

447 

142 

150 

135 

153 

67? 

665 

670 

675 

583 

490 

5 

501 

547 

520 

551 

548 

170 

265 

247 

167 

1525 

I5J0 

1579 

1583 

470 

463 

463 

469 

727 

7.18 

722 

720 

680 

665 

665 

677 


Madrid 


fietai tatat 49843 


PRMBBK4DJ9 


21700 

21140 

21300 

2W00 

ACESA 

1675 

1640 

1646 

1665 

Atp/m Banxtan 

5530 

5m 

54K 

5500 

A^entotlo 

6390 

9070 

<350 

8900 

6380 

9010 

6350 

8910 

B«*sta 

11X5 

1170 

1125 

ms 

BOTkhuer 

19830 

19700 

IVU30 

19600 

Boo Centro Htcp 

4000 

aes 

3994 

3915 


Z780 

2780 

2780 

2780 

Bco Poputa 

27650 

2/000 

2/400 

27040 

Bed Santander 

10D50 

TOM 

9990 

9900 

CEPSA 

*475 

■080 

MS 

■OW 

CoMinento 

2550 

2515 

7550 

3530 

gsi?" 

7320 

9450 


7310 

9400 

/IB0 

9300 

FECSA 

1230 

1195 

1195 

1220 


32350 

31610 

32100 

31610 

Ibenfeata 

1665 

1610 

1625 

1650 

PTfCB 

RepM* 

2565 

<270 

ass 

2550 

6270 

1275 

2545 

6180 

SnaonaBec 

1205 

1275 

1290 


7390 

7210 

7260 

7110 


3515 

XUS 

3565 

3515 

UntoaFeiasa 

1210 

1175 

IIWI 

1200 

Vahnc Cement 

1775 

1710 

1750 

1740 

Manila 


PSEtadR2f27J7 


Pravtaros 294097 

AyataB 

24 

2X75 

34 

24X5 

Ante Land 
BcPbOtaHI 

36 

2560 

26 

26 

165 

164 

164 

164 

C&PHamet 

11 

I0JS 

1075 

1X75 

Mnr-Sj Sec A 

120 

119 

119 

171 

Metro Baik 

650 

61S 

620 

645 

Potior 

9J0 

960 

9J0 

960 

PQBank 

340 

340 

340 

340 

PM Long DW 

1555 

1540 

1545 

1555 

San 5-. 

W 

UUO 

83-50 

0560 

SM Prime Hdg 

740 

7 JO 

7 JO 

740 

Mexico 


Botet Wet 3141-07 


Piwlew.3 

am 

Alta A 

4580 

4545 

4560 

45.55 

BotKCdB 

1822 

1786 

17.97 

1760 

Grom CPO 

2760 

27 JS 

7/45 

77.25 

CtaaC 

1164 

1142 

1148 

1164 

EropModania 

39 JO 

3940 

39 JO 

3940 


4920 

4865 

4860 

4840 


179 

1J9 

U9 

1J9 

Gao Fkl lnbunc 
Hob dark Mex 

2055 

2840 

2H40 

2X55 

3045 

30.15 

30-45 

3020 

TeleufcaCPO 

10170 10150 

10X70 10400 

TdMttL 

1682 

1668 

1668 

1668 

Milan 

UIBTetaewncro 1233260 


Pmtaen 1237100 

Alfeonn Aerie 

12560 

12260 

17375 

12400 


3630 

3500 

3600 

3585 


4S0 

4455 

4500 

4500 


1279 

17SV 

1274 

law 


22350 

21900 

22100 

21750 


2390 

2KB 

2360 

3374 

Edboa 

9140 

8750 

«V7S 

9010 

ENI 

8945 

8800 

DODD 

8840 

Flat 

5930 

5790 

5W0 

5850 

GensiM Aerie 

30900 


30550 

30750 

(Ml 

15200 

15015 

15100 

15000 

IMA 

2335 

7295 

2295 

2320 

Brt 

60/0 

7170 

5905 

70TO 

5950 

7155 

5965 

7075 

Atariobanea 

10990 

iosio 

raw 

V0805 

Moatedbon 

1175 

1141 

1150 

1158 


514 

495 


520 

Pikotjui 

2600 

2505 

2555 

2545 


3885 

3780 

3790 

3840 

RAS 

15300 

14900 

i4»a 

15135 

RotaBiroea 

17450 

16900 

I6W0 

17010 

S Paeia Torino 

11920 

11UA0 

11/10 

11805 

SM 

7966 


7830 

7BB0 

Tetawitlfc&i 

4500 

4385 

4405 

1455 

TIM 

5200 

5100 

5140 

5090 

Montreal 

lotaBWteteteaMUj 
PravtelG 288121 

BttMcftGnm 

42» 

42W 

42» 

7AS5 

3140 

S!SSa a 

2440 

3130 

2460 
31 JO 

2460 

3160 

rjms 1 


3» 

32k 

32k 

1695 

1680 

16-95 

1660 

Gl-VtefitLifeaJ 

2115 

WHO 

2X15 

23 


36 

W> 

3585 

35.70 

llWRiNOtflm 

2440 

3430 

2440 

2440 

LobkwCne 

17U 

17.20 

17k 

1/ 

NaflBkCDiHdo 

15.15 

14.95 

AJA 

15.10 

SK5SP 

27 JO 
25 

2765 

25 

2/JO 

25 

27 JS 
2490 


2440 

765 

2420 

765 

24k 

765 

24 

7J5 

RoHUBkCdo 

SJJB 

5X0S 

5X60 

5X10 


Oslo 

AkerA 

BenesenDrA 

QnSStaaBk 

□ennemtBBk 

EJtem 

HofSundA 

KvoemerAsa 

NerUtMo 

NookeiteJflA 

NynnedA 

OridoAda A 

PertmG«s*c 

IPettroA 


OBX take 59605 
Preitaas 59493 


TmasoceaaOft 
Storabwid An 


17150 168 

143 141 

3430 2340 
ZT.10 2630 
128 127 

46 45 

355 318 

33030 32730 
231 22850 
106 10450 
575 565 

280 279 

117 11450 
127 125 

440 430 

4620 4450 


170 

142 

23J0 

27 

128 

45 

345 

32456 

231 

10450 

575 

280 

115 

127 


169 

14J 

2190 

27.10 

127 

4556 

337 


23S 

105 

565 

263 

117 

127 

410 

4610 


AfeUqulde 
Alcatel Atam 
AJO-4JAP 
Bauln 

etc 

BNP 

Canid Plus 

Candour 

Casfiw 

ca= 

CBWem 

CJutsflan Dior 

CLF-Deria Fron 

CiedBAflilcote 

Danone 

EtMouttokie 

EiWunfoBS 

Eurodbner 
Eoratunad 
Gen. Earn 

1 1 ram— 
novas 

Irnefed 

Lafaroe 

Lranrod 

LOrod 

LVMH 

LywEan 

MtdwtaiB 

Paribas A 

Period FOcmU 

PeupeoiCB 

PtaouJl-PiW 

Promodc 

Renault 

Reset 

Rb-Pontenc A 
Sanafi 
SdmeWer 
SEB 

SGS Thomson 
Ste Generate 

Sodexho 

SIGeMn 
Suez 


B8B 869 870 883 

696 683 A94 679 

36150 35610 35650 359 .10 
784 768 769 779 

980 875 899 B6B 

243 232 232.80 24040 

1138 1109 1124 1130 

3641 3534 3553 3609 

265 2» 262 35BJ5D 

260 2S 258 255 

<73 674 664 


tanffletabo 
Thomson C 


Total B 

Usbior 

Video 


CSF 


Bit 

570 
1270 

906 

571 
B66 

1(L05 
655 
781 
427 
004 
385 
1019 
2019 
1377 
536 
334 
371.90 
313 
6Z1 
24S2 
1989 
141 
1649 
11850 
551 
329 JO 
1015 
396-40 
654 
2819 
780 
Mi 0 
691 
198 
480 
91 J5 
366 


847 B57 

564 564 

12S5 1255 
885 890 

555 563 

B50 H50 

10 HUB 
650 6-60 

764 771 

41U0 415 

793 802 

37620 38430 
998 1018 
1954 1978 

1348 1363 
537 532 

327.10 330 
36410 36450 
30640 31250 

602 611 
24)7 2448 
1915 1948 

13410 137 JO 
1605 1617 
184 1841 i 
525 530 

319.10 32490 

992 1004 

387 389.10 
638 647 

2770 27?8 

772 774 

282.10 28160 

678 682 

134.10 107 

467 47190 
90-60 9000 
35420 356 


853 

564 

1255 

900 

555 

856 

1005 

6-65 

775 


Nmdbanken 
Ptaire/llpionn 
SandvhB 
Scania B 
SCAB 

S-EBankenA 
SkandlaFors 
SkatskoB 
SKF B 

Spa rtxmken A 
Sradriiypatek A 
StwnA 
Sv Handles A 
VUWB 


tm 25350 
27150 268 


260 25950 
273 271 


192 1B9JS0 19050 188 

1B85D 18750 188 18B5D 

170 1« 17B 16650 

8159 8050 81 81 

218 21550 21750 21650 
340 331 332 336 

16950 16650 167 16650 

13850 13550 13550 138 

m 190 190 190 

9850 97 9750 97 

225 222 22350 223 

ZDQ5C IW 194 J97 


Sydney 


A1 Mamies: 34)330 
PreriMK 2486-40 


42540 


X75 

805 

X23 

9.01 

800 

AN2BUng 

7.93 

IM 

/jo 

7X7 

375 

BMP 

17J4 

1675 

1490 

1482 

1010 


X74 

3J2 

X74 

3J2 

1998 

Hramsiits irri. 

22J3 

22 

22.1/ 

22-32 

1341 

CBA 

1X33 

1X24 

1X26 

1X217 

529 

CCAmeM 

1431 

1415 

1415 

1415 

33X90 

CofetMyw 

6.11 

603 

607 

602 

366 

Coma ICO 

627 

622 

624 

618 

307 JO 

CRA 

1895 

1X75 

1X90 

1X70 

639 

C5R 

*48 

440 

46 J 

459 

2435 


241 

2-58 

241 

149 

1982 

GoadnamFU 

1.75 

149 

1J5 

1J0 

14X40 

laAusnnra 

11J6 

11J0 

11 JS 

1140 

1647 

Lend Loose 

2440 

2410 

2440 

2420 

18340 

MlMHdgs 

NatAiataank 

146 

142 

145 

143 

547 

1634 

1417 

1428 

1611 

327 

Nat Mortal Hdg 

1.93 

l-UV 

L.9Q 

1.93 

1010 

News Carp 

5.94 

585 

586 

694 

394 

Pacific Dunlop 

X24 

XI8 

123 

X18 

646 

Pioneer Inti 

440 

438 

*38 

6M 

2800 


6-70 

665 

A-67 

464 

783 

51 Gunge Bank 

7J9 

7J4 

7J7 

7J2 

283 

WMC 

7J4 

746 

745 

744 

690 
189 JO 

WestpaCBUng 

wo«MdePe» 

673 

937 

669 

670 

945 

671 

9X1 

465-30 

Woatwartta 

X84 

3JB 

X82 


9080 

383 


Sao Paulo Taipei 


Stock MeU Uc 8492.10 
Pmkros: B61478 


BrariescnPtd 

BrotawPM 

CemtaPH 

CESPPfd 

Copet 

Etrirotme 

ItautancoPH 

Ught ServIdOE 

PrtuKsPW 

ProriMOLuz 

SHNodonol 

SoumCiuz 

TektasPtd 

TetemUi 

Tataff 

TeteSpPJd 

UrflMBHA 

UstmtaasPfd 

CVRD PM 


690 

moo 

47JJ0 

5660 

1590 

45600 

99600 

45400 


152J0 

37J0 

8-60 

11850 

16150 

17300 

30000 

3850 

1.16 

2625 


850 850 

now 71750 
4660 4650 
5650 5650 
1SJB 

450.00 45150 
58000 53880 
45800 45X00 
32050 •w q i ta 
20101 20400 
16801 16100 
3750 37 JO 
059 059 

U7J0 11750 
16050 162-00 
17250 17250 
295-01 295.01 
37 JW 37.00 
1.14 US 
2639 25.90 


&9A 
720.00 
47J9 
5&S0 
1551 
459.99 
99X00 
45251 
32X00 
20650 
J6HH 
3750 
850 
11690 
16250 
T 75-50 
30050 
3750 
1.16 
2625 


Seoul 

Dacom 

Daem Heavy 
HgmariEng. 

Kona&Pwr 
Korea ExdiBk 
Karoo Mob Tel 

sSlSS^DfcSy 


Singapore 


GantasPde 



Kcppe) 
KeppetBenfc 
WppetFeN 
I Load 


(75 Union BkF 
Parinny Hdgt 


SkngAirf 

Stag Land 

5tngPR»P 
Hag Tecti Ind 
StagTetecamm 
Tut LM Bank . 
UMrtdusnu 
UMOSeaBkF 
wing Tat Hdss 
‘iflUii 


X85 

mm 

m 

UK) 

1270 

1150 

1240 

1150 

1SJ0 

1480 

1610 

1620 

071 

048 

048 

071 

n-a. 

no. 

IUL 

1X10 

494 

482 

430 

490 

11 

1XM 

w 

1090 

2JB 

123 

224 

125 

5J3 

550 

650 

640 

3 M 

340 

340 

346 

9MS 

890 

895 

8J5 

190 

XBB 

xw 

188 

426 

423 

426 

418 

4« 

408 

408 

4)4 

1X00 

1740 

17J0 

1780 

BA 

IUL 

IUL 

KUO 

435 

615 

630 

620 

650 

4X5 

645 

630 

12JJ0 

11.90 

1100 

1L80 

7 

690 

690 

685 

27 JO 

2680 

27.10 

2720 

348 

342 

342 

370 

2-83 

177 

177 

279 

340 

138 

140 

140 

1.15 

1.12 

1.14 

1.14 

no. 

IhX 

IUL 

1SJ0 

420 

413 

414 

420 


& Stockholm 


AGA8 
ABBA 
AStQamofl 
Astro A 
Allas CapaA 
Autoftr 


10850 10550 107 10650 

883 871 872 871 

194 108 19150 192 

35450 34750 34750 
197 TO 19650 19250 
302 292 29S 300 


CothoyLHs Ins 
Chang Him Bk 
CNuaTimgBk 
China Develpait 
China Stad 
RnJBonk 
Fonaosa Plastic 
Hua Nan Bk 
IndCamaiBk 
Nan Ya Plastics 
Shin Kong Life 
TbtacnSeml 
TOtung 

Utd Micro Sec 
utd WortdCMa 


164 

11350 

7450 

11950 

30J0 

116 

7150 

105 

72 

7150 

103 

9150 

57 

71 

72 


161 

10950 

73 

116 

2950 

110 

WJ0 

101 

70 

700 

89 

5530 

67 

71 


161 163 

11050 1115D 
73 7450 
116 11850 
29.40 30 JO 
110 114 

70 HL5# 
101 10X50 
7050 73 

70 7150 
100 102 

9050 9250 
56 55 

T nm to 

71 72 


CMopadte lldne 69476 
RrmtOOE 702-42 
103000 99800 102000 102000 
4570 4380 4400 <570 

1BS00 17900 18000 1B700 
16000 13700 16808 15500 
27500 26600 27000 27400 
5790 5450 5450 5700 

465000 448000 440000 464000 
28600 27400 28200 78800 
52600 51000 52C® 52CWS 
42000 41200 41500 42000 
61800 60300 61000 61900 
10700 10300 10300 10600 


Tokyo 

Atnumato 
Ak Nippon Air 
Aimny 
AsoM Bans 
AsaWChem 
AseM Glass 
Bk Tokyo Mltsu 
BkYokflmma 


Nttfcet 22fc 1809X41 
PrevtoeslOOSUB 


Stnuriroos: 204X20 
p review: 204619 


bP b 

OaFicMKang 

DahwBank 

MMHoDse 

DahroSw 

DOI 

Demo 

East Japan Ry 
Etad 
Feme 
" ‘IBW* 
l pncaa 

Fu9 
HodiOunl Bk 
Hitachi 
Honda Mata 

IBJ 

IH1 

Itadu 

ttavakada 

JAL 

Japan T sboccs 

Jusco 

Katana 

KmsalElec 

Kao 

KowuSOki Hvy 
K0MH&M 
HnMNippRy 
KlrtnBmiefy 
Kobe Sleet 


Kubota 
Kyoctro 
KfustaEtac 
LTCB 
Afanubenl 
Maul 

Maisu Conan 
MnniSeclnd 
MoBuEtocWk 
MittubiiK 
MUsutnsMCh 
MBsaUsHS 
MteUKAMEst 
MtaubbWHvy 
350 MBsatariUMri 


% 

"S 

660 

1110 

1930 

530 

2510 


2070 


T310 
405 
1410 
775 
8580a 
2500 
5390a 
2220 
4350 
1400 
4290 
1290 
1140 
1140 
3733 
1220 
472 
565 
6170 
461 
821 OB 
3610 
523 
2180 
1340 
500 
366 
714 
97B 
212 
075 
555 
7430 
1980 
360 
445 
1930 
3190 
2000 
mo 
1120 
400 
698 
1500 
BOS 
910 
1240 
925 


9J0 TBS 
TUI 710 
3390 3450 

738 757 

650 660 

W90 1110 

1600 1930 
501 519 

2460 2470 

ms 2740 
2010 2040 

1990 2070 

2190 2190 

579 590 

1270 1386 

389 397 

1390 1410 

740 775 

B6tta 8530(1 
2510 2580 

5270a 5390a 
2170 2200 
4190 4340 

1350 1400 

4240 4260 

1260 1270 

1120 1120 
1110 1130 
3650 3600 

11M 1220 

464 467 

548 550 

5950 6)50 
454 460 

81100 B120a 
3550 3610 

506 520 

2120 2180 
1300 1310 


494 

362 

709 

968 

509 

562 

545 


500 

364 

713 

972 

511 

874 

545 


7360 7300 
1960 I960 
352 3S5 
4S5 465 
1890 1910 
3090 3090 
1970 1980 
1140 7140 
1090 1120 
387 393 
689 697 
1476 1460 
79S 795 
902 910 
1190 1220 
916 924 


977 

707 

3450 

738 

648 

1100 

1900 

500 

2528 

2833 

2040 

2010 

2200 

550 

1250 

380 

1380 

729 

8380a 

2570 

5340a 

2220 

4290 

1360 

OH 

1290 

1130 

1110 

3730 

1160 

467 

559 

5950 

455 

B180a 

3460 

498 
3170 
1330 

499 
364 
710 
MB 
509 
867 
542 
7410 
1990 

357 

455 

1890 

3200 

1980 

1170 

1080 

388 

690 

1480 

004 

903 

1210 

924 


The Trib Index 


Pncws as at 3M P.U. New Vorfc ame. 


Jan. 1. }8SZ= lOO. 

Level 

Cltenge 

%ehangs 

yMrtoda* 
It- change 

World index 
Ragional tndouts 

148.77 

+0.83 

+0.56 

-0.25 

Asa/PadRc 

10891 

+0.72 

+0.68 

-13.38 

Europe 

158.55 

+1.10 

+0.70 

-1.64 

N. America 

171.84 

+1.05 

+0.61 

+6.13 

S. America 
Indusnfal bufexos 

140.39 

-1.08 

-0.76 

+22-69 

Capital goods 

175.82 

+1.38 

+0.79 

+2.75 

Consumer goods 

171.15 

+0.72 

+0.42 

+6.02 

Energy 

174.21 

+0.97 

+0.56 

+2-05 

Finance 

106 96 

+1.07 

+1.01 

-6.16 

MiscoBaneous 

152.82 

+022 

+0.14 

-554 

Raw Materials 

178.10 

+0.96 

+0.54 

+1.00 

Service 

141.40 

+0.13 

+0.09 

+2.97 

umes 

130^4 

+O.B1 

+0.47 

-9.22 


Tho tnkmuUonal Hmakl Ttlbiew World Stock Index C tracks thoU.S doServekmaol 
280 OtfmnaOonaOy Investabk) stocks from 25 couXnos For more tntonrwtton. a hoe 
booktot k nvafcrt*, by nrtOng fn 77m Tnb (nefcue 181 Avenue Charios do Gmjle. 

92521 NeuSty Cade*. Franco. Comptad by Bloomberg Nows. 


MtertFudasn 

Mitsui Truu 

MuanuMfg 

NEC 

Nikon 

NBdroSec 

Miferoto 

nSo^ST* 

Nippon un 


NKK 

Nomura Sec 
NTT 

NTT Data 

OfPtwer 

Osaka Gog 

Rknh 

Rohm 

SakuraBk 

Snntyg 

Saima Bank 

Sanya Bee 

Seem 

SebuRwy 

Seklsuiawm 

Seteul House 

Sewn-Eteven 

5l»p 

SMkakuSPw 
5Mfflbii 
SHn-ettuCh 
sntMido 
Sntmafco Bk 

Soflboni 

Sony 

Sumfkmo 
Sum bow Bk 
SumltOWB 
Sumltamq Elec 
SumDJWeM 
SumB Trust 
Tatrin Ptarm 
TakedaOiem 
TDK 

TahakuBPvir 
Total Bank 
TakJa Marine 
TokiuQPwr 
Tokyo Electron 
Tokyo Gas 
TakyuCMp. 
Tonen 

Toppan Print 
Torayuid 
Tosnfca 
Todem 
Toyo Trod 
Toyota Motor 

Yananuctt 
rcxUntr* MOD 


Hlgb 

Low 

OBM 

Prev. 


High 

Law 

am 

Pm. 

1380 

1350 

1370 

1350 

Methane* 

1X35 

1X10 

12J0 

1X20 

635 

612 

628 

623 

Mode 

2055 

28.10 

2035 

2X10 

4590 

4460 

4490 

4690 

Newbridge Ne* 

41 14 

3TO* 

4X95 

*0 


1460 

1480 

1500 

Noranda Inc 

29 .55 

29.15 

29 «* 

29b 

Kid 

1730 

1740 

1770 

ttoicen Eneag* 

2X40 

28.15 

2X15 

2X40 


623 

636 

618 

Ntosti Telecom 

9316 

9155 

92W 

91.70 

9060 

moo 

mo 

9160 

Norn 

11J0 

1H6 

71J5 

IIU 

821 

BID 

815 

812 


2X30 

2X15 

2X15 

23U 

535 


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:T. 







PAGE 16 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 1997 



Thursday’s 4 P.M. Close 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 1997 


PAGE 17 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


And Shoddy Work 
On Seoul’s TGV Line 


— A $12 billion hjgb- 

speed train line being built in 'South 
Korea was found to be riddled wife 
design flaws and shoddy work, cast- 
ing doubt ever the safety record of 
_„tne country s construction industry, 
study released Thursday swtrf 
The Korea High-Speed Rail Con- 
struction Authority said a study it 
had commissioned found that cme- 
fifth of a 61 -kilometer (38-mile) 
section of the fine between Seoul 
and Taejon was defective. 

. South Korea has chosen France’s 
high-speed Train a Grands Vitesse 
vehicles for the 412-kilometer link 
between Seoul and the southern city 
of Pusan. The trains are mad** by 
GEC Alsthom, a 50-50 joint venture 
of Alcatel Alsthom of France and 
General Electric Co. of Britain. 


* 


Taipei to Sell 
$10 Billion 
In State Assets 


Agence Frunce-Presse 
TAIPEI — Taiwan plans to 
sell 280 billion Taiwan dollars 
($10.4 billion) worth of shares 
in eight government-run banks 
and enterprises ■ in coming 
years, officials said Thursday. 

As part of its privatization 
drive, Taipei is selling 64.1 bil- 
lion shares in six b anking in- 
stitutions, and in two fi™« u 
China Steel Corp. and Chinese 
Petroleum Corp. The govern- 
ment has been pushing for. the 
sale to reduce debt and improve 
management of the companies. 

But analysts said the sales 
would also depress the stock 
market, and were seen as a gov- 
ernment effort to curb specu- 
lation in die bourse. 

The Finance Ministry and the 
central bank have been taking 
measures to curb speculation in 
the market, which has gained 22 
percent this year. Smce late 
fcbniaxy, the ministry has been 
tightening procedures on loans, 
while the central bank has been 
siphoning what it sees as ex- 
cessive liquidity from the bank- 
ing system. 


The authority generally blamed 
poor construction work and a lack of 
technical expertise for the problems. 
But it said more information was 
needed before the authority, archi- 
tects and builders could assign spe- 
cific responsibility. 

The study, by wiss. Janney, El- 
stner Associates Inc. of the United 
States, found that 213 percent of the 
i nspected segment of the project was 
defective and in need of reconstruc- 
tion or repair, the authority said. 

It found that 3.8 percent of the 
work required reconstruction, 17.5 
percent needed renovation and a 
large portion had features missing. 

The authority added that five of 
37 bridges examined had “long- 
term structural and safety prob- 
lems” and might need to be rebuilt. 

Thecommission said the construc- 
tion companies involved in the bridge 
and tunnel work that was reviewed 
were all South Korean ones. They 
included HaHa Engineering & Con- 
struction Co., Hyundai Industrial De- 
velopment & Construction Co. and 
Daewoo Coip. 

They will be ordered to recon- 
struct or repair the faulty bridge 
spans, foundations and culverts, the 
commission said. 

The disclosure of the construction 
study’s finding s prompted the gov- 
ernment to start an investigation into 
the matter and triggered a slide in 
construction stocks traded in Seoul 

The South Korea stock market’s 
construction-sector index fell 2.98 
percent, to 27036 points, compared 
wife a drop of 1.09 percent m the 
broader market’s composite index. 

Analysts said repairs on the proj- 
ect could cost hundreds of billions 
of won and that investors feared this 
could hart the profits of the compa- 
nies involved. 

“It’s too early to say bow much 
fee financial costs will be, but this is 
absolutely bad news in terms of im- 
age,” Park Hong Kyu. an analyst at 
BZW Securities, said. 

But a spokesman for the con- 
struction authority said the schedule 
for building the rail link would not 
be affected. 

About 20 percent of the rail link 
has been built since construction 
began in 1992. The link is scheduled 
for completion by 2001. but fee 
project already has been troubled by 
cost overruns and protests over- 
plans to build near historic sites. 

(Reuters, Bloomberg. AFP) . 


Pyongyang Signals to ADB 

Aid Agency Says North Korea Seeks Talks on Joining 


CaapUfdty Orr S*if Dapaebrs 

SEOUL — North Korea may 


in fee Asian uevejopment 
which offers cheap loans to the 
region's poorest nations, a spokes- 
man for the bank said Thursday. 

“The bank has received indica- 
tions North Korea is interested in 
commencing a dialogue with a view 
to becoming a member of the 
ADB,” fee spokesman, Robert 
Salomon, said as the bank released 
its annual outlook report. 

North Korea is desperate for for- 
eign capital to try to revive its Sta- 
linist economy, which has been in 
ruins since the collapse of the Soviet 
Union robbed the country of a ma- 
jor seance of aid and investment 

According to South Korean fig- 
ures, North Korea’s foreign debt 
exceeds 510 billion. If stopped pay- 
ing interest on that debt in 1984. 

North Korea applied for mem- 
bership in fee -Manila-based insti- 
tution in 1992, but the bank decided 
its entry bid then was premature. 

The institution also issued in- 


dividual studies of more than two 
dozen countries in its annual out- 
look report. 

The report, which also projects 
short-term economic trends in the 
region, called on South Korea to 
make major policy changes to ad- 
just to a new relationship wife fee 
rest of fee world economy. 

“Although various measures 
have already been implemented, 
additional steps are required to 
achieve full financial and trade lib- 
eralization,” fee bank said. 

South Korea’s membership in 
the Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development is 
expected to accelerate adoption of 
policies to restructure the econ- 
omy, it said. 

To minimize the short-term 
costs of trade liberalization, the 
bank said. South Korea needs 
greater flexibility in its labor mar- 
ket. The bank noted that govern- 
ment efforts to enact labor reforms 
had led to unrest. 

Growth in South Korea’s gross 
domestic product is expected to 


fall to 63 percent in 1997 from 7.0 
percent last year, then to recover to 
6.9 percent in 1998. it said. 

The bank attributed this year’s 
decline to sluggish investments 
and a slowdown in exports. 

In its report, the bank said Asia 
was fee world's fastest-growing 
region last year and feat its growth, 
though slowing, should remain 
strong tills year and next. 

“Despite major shocks both in- 
ternal and external, the Asian econ- 
omies as a group and individually 
continued to perform in a very ro- 
bust manner,” Vishvanaih Desai. 
the bank's chief economist said. 

Growth in the region slowed to 
7.4 percent in 1 996 from 83 percent 
the previous year and is expected to 
stabilize at about 7.4 percent in 
1997 and 1998. the bank said. 

But the bank wanted that Asia's 
Ha 77 Unp growth should not blind 
the world to the poverty feat still 
plagued large parts of fee region. 
“Poverty-reduction is a major 
strategic objective of the ADB,” 
Mr. Salaraon said. (Reuters. AFP ) 



Hong Kong 
Hang Seng 

• Singapore Tokyo 

Straits Times Nikkei 225 



i 2250 A 

A ^ 


13500 ftinfal 

J 2200 Mr 

21000/4 


13000 

L 2150 f 

1 20000 \ 


1250H 

V m 

\ 19000 J 

A- 

12000 

* 2050 

\ 18000 W 

/Wy 

11S »N D J F 

1996 

M A N D J 

1997 1996 

F M A 17000 N D J 
1997 1996 

F M A 
1997 

Exchange 

index 

Thursday 

Close 

Prey. 

Close 

% 

Change 

Hong Kong 

Hang Seng 

12JH&23 12381.31 -0.52 

Singapore 

Straits Times 

2043J2O 

2,040.19 

+0.15 

Sydney 

M Ordinaries 

2/H3J2Q 

2,406.40 

-40.28 

Tokyo 

Nikkei 225 

1BJB&41 

18,03130 +035] 

Kuala Lumpur Composes 

■1,10438 

1,087.78 

+1.54 

Bangkok 

SET 

701.78 

71639 

-2.11 

Seoul 

Composite Index 

694.75 

702.42 

-1.09 

Taipei 

Stock Market index 8,492.10 

8,614.78 

-1-42 

ManBa 

PSE 

232737 

2360.37 

-1.12 

Jakarta 

Composite Index 

637.59 

63232 

+0.75 

Wellington 

NZSE-4Q 

225231 

2.253.55 

t0.07 

Bombay 

Sansftfva Indsx 

3,696.52 

3,647.44 

+1.35 


Source: Telekurs 


lnlmulmul Herald Tnl'unr 


Very briefly: 


Profit Outlook Lifts China Shares 


Cotpikd tj Our Slsff Fnm Dopmitn 

SHANGHAI — Chinese stocks 
that are available to foreign in- 
vestors surged to their highest levels 
of the year Thursday on hopes for 
rising corporate earnings and con- 
tinued low inflation. 

The Shanghai stock exchange's 
index of these so-called B shares 
rose 73 percent, to 8239 points. In 
Shenzhen, fee B-share index 
jumped 8.6 percent, to 174.64. 

But government officials warned 
against speculation in the markets 


and called for tougher regulations. 

“In view of fee emerging but 
immature Chinese securities market 
tiie task of establishing a complete 
legal framework becomes all fee 
more urgent" Bian Yaowu of fee 
Standing Committee of fee National 
People's Congress said. He called 
for “severe” penalties far insider 
trading and price manipulation. 

Zhou Zhengqmg, die chairman of 
die Securities Committee of fee 
State Council, lauded the effective- 
ness of the markets in turning China 


into a more open economy. 

The stock exchanges feat opened 
in 1990 in Shanghai and Shenzhen 
have “played a positive role in pool- 
ing funds, transforming fee oper- 
ating mechanism of Chinese enter- 
prises and optimizing fee 
distribution of resources,” he said. 

“Inflation is lower, and corporate 
profits are improving," Than 
Xiaoyun. a fund manager at China 
Guotai Securities, said. “There's no 
reason why shares shouldn’t be 
rising.” (Bloomberg, AFP) 


A U.S.-Vietnam Copyright Pact 


CanpiM ty Our Suff Firm Ohparrhrs 

HANOI — Vietnam and the United States have 
signed a bilateral copyright treaty, officials at the U.S. 
Embassy in Hanoi said Thursday. 

The officials said the agreement would mean that 
U3. copyright owners would have legal protection 
against piracy in Vietnam for the first time, while 
Vietnamese authors and producers would have similar 
protection in the United States. 

The International Intellectual Property Alliance wel- 
comed tiie treaty on behalf of U3. copyright industries. 


saying it meant Vietnam would have to bring its copyright 
laws and enforcement practices closer to world standards 
and treat U.S. and local copyright ownere equally. 

The group, a coalition of associations representing 
U.S. copyright-based industries, said piracy of copy- 
right materials such as movies and software in Vietnam 
was inflicting over $50 million in trade losses annually 
and threatening U.S. export potential to one of fee 
world's fastest-growing markets. 

Hanoi and Washington normalized diplomatic ties in 
1995, without a full bade agreement. (Reuters. AFP) 


• Hanbo Group, which collapsed in January, defaulted on 1 
trillion won (SI. 12 billion) of debt. South Korea's bank su- 
pervisory office reported. Shares of Korea First Bank, a major 
Hanbo creditor, dropped 4 percent, to 3370 won. 

• Mitsui Marine & Fire Insurance Co. is considering swap- 
ping loans to Nippon Credit Bank Ltd. for new shares in fee 
bank. The bank has urged insurance companies to convert 
subordinated loans to new shares as it attempts to restructure. 

• Seven-Eleven Japan Co. said current, or pretax, profit for 
fee year ended Feb. 28 rose 7 percent, to a record 1 05. 1 5 billion 
yen ($832.2 million), buoyed by the introduction of video- 
game sales. Revenue rose 10 percent, to 254.62 billion yen. 

• Softbank Corp.'s president, Masayoshi Son, said Sony 
Corp. was expected to participate in the satellite broadcasting 
venture Japan Sky Broadcasting on an equal basis wife 
Softbank and News Corp. 

• Asia’s Emerging Dragon Corp-, a Philippine company 
owned by Lucio Tan and five other wealthy businessmen, has 
asked a court to nullify fee government's award of a $350 
million contract for a new airport terminal in Manil a to People’s 
Aircargo & Warehousing Co., arguing that the company 
failed to meet the financial requirements for bidding. 

• China said fee United States would suffer along wife China 
if Washington failed to renew Beijing's most-favored-nation 
trading status. Newt Gingrich, the speaker of fee U3. House of 
Representatives, recently proposed that fee government renew 
fee status for only six months at a time instead of a year. 

• Shinawatra Satellite Co/s Thai com 3, which will provide 
voice, data and video services throughout Asia, was launched 
into orbit by fee European company Arianespace. The same 
rocket also launched a BSAT-la satellite for a consortium of 
Japanese broadcasters. The Asia-Pacific region provides more 
than a third of Arianespace’s business. 

• Intel Corp. will double its investment in assembly and test 
operations in Asia over fee next two years; it did not give a 
specific figure. The chipmaker also forecast flax to slightly 
higher revenue from Asia for the rest of this year. 

Bloomberg, AFP. Reuters 


FRANCHISES: Store Choners Fight Back at Parent Companies 


Continued from Page 13 

said James Amos, Mafl Boxes 
Btc.’s president ^We deliver 
a brand name and a logo and 
expertise so you don’t have to 
reinvent the wheel when you 
^startup." 

Others lay the blame for 
this burst of litigation on 
overzealous lawyers looking 
to cash in. “Let’s face it law- 
yers are aggressive about 
marketing themselves, and 
many of them are fostering an 
atmosphere in which associ- 
ations are encouraged to say, 
‘Let's not have a conversa- 
tion; let’s have a lawsuit’ ” 
said Matthew Shay, a spokes- 
man for fee Internatio n al 
Franchise Association. “The 
wars should be between fran- 
chises and other competitors, 
not within systems.” 

Without question, fran- 
chising has retained its enor- 
mous popularity. A new store 
opens every eight minutes, 
and the industry gave birth to 
fr 70,000 jobs in fee past six 
months, according to the In- 
ternational Franchise Associ- 
ation, a Washington-based 
trade group. McDonald’s 
Carp., Subway and Snap-On 
Tools Corp. are among the 

fastest-growing chains. 

Still, franchisees are organ- 
izing to enhance their nego- 
tiating muscle. Since 1992, 
membership in fee American 
Association of Franchisees & 
Dealers of San Diego, for ex- 
ample, has grown from 20 to 
6,000, while the number of 
associations of fr a nchis e 
owners has nearly doubled to 
250. 

“Our goal is that for every 
fran chis e system that exists, 
jhere will be a franchisee as- 
sociation feat bas real lever- 
age,” Bob Purvin, the asso- 
ciation's president, said. 

To academics who study 
the subject, franchise owners 


are amply leveling a playing 
field that for years was dis- 
astrously tilted against them. 
“Contracts In this business 
were terribly one-sided,” 
Ann Dugan, a business pro- 
fessor at the University of 
Pittsburgh, said. “Companies 
would promise franchisees all 
this support when they signed 
up, but none of those prom- 
ises were in fee contracts, and 
many weren’t kept.” 

Franchisers also typically 
left themselves leeway to li- 
cense new stores near ones 
that already were up and run- 
ning — encroaching, in legal 
parlance — which can spell 
doom for both stores, Ms. 
Dugan said. 

Worse, many investors do 
not realize that their chances 
of earning big money are tiny. 
Although high-quality oper- 
ations such as McDonald's 
have created plenty of mil- 
lionaires, Ms. Dugan esti- 
mates that after paying off all 
fee equipment ana being in 
business for three to five 
years, a successful franchisee 
can expect an annual salary of 
about $35,000. Many others 
work for free or make only the 
minim um wage. 

The reason: Profit margins 
in franchised products, such 
as food and services, are typ- 
ically razor-thin, and there are 
high up-front and ongoing ex- 
penses — as much as 
$100,006 in fees to get started 


and a royalty rate as high as 
12 percent of gross sales, paid 
annually to fee franchiser. 

Franchisees also fre- 
quently must buy supplies 
and equipment from sources 
that charge higher-than-aver- 
age prices. Some Little 
Caesars units, far instance, 
have demanded the right to 


buy pizz 
they like, arguing feat buying 
from the sole company-ap- 
proved supplier was wreck- 
ing their profits. 

“The average franchise 
system is way overhyped.” 
Scott Shane, a professor at 
Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, said. 


THE GREEN JACKET 

Trade mark 

for International Class 3 
Perfumery is offered for sale 
Countries where the mark 
Is registered: 

UK, USA. Japan, France, 
Benelux and Germany 

Swindell & Pearson 

TeL: +44 (0) 1332 367 051 
Fax: +44 (0)1332 345 200 


Ck 


ristian 


D 


lor 


1996 Results 


The Christian Dior Group achieved a turnover increase of 5% 
bringing it to FF 32 353 million. At unchanged currency rates, 
fee increase would have been 67%. 

The share of the Group in net income from operations has 
increased from FF 1 647imIKm to FF 1 813 million, an increase 
of 10% resulting mainly from the increased profitability of 
LVMH and Christian Dior Couture and from lower financing 
charges (principally arising from lower interest rates) for 
Christian Dior S.A. 

By contrast with 1995, extraordinary costs were imp ortant and 
amounted to FF 558 million. They arose mainly from the 
redasafeatkxn of assets by LVMH, principally fee effect of its 
sate of Guinness shares. 


(million FF) 

19% 

W95 

Turnover 

Income from operations 

of which - share of the Group 

Net income 

of which -share of the Group 

32353 

4943 

1813 

3576 

1255 

30 796 
4666 
1647 
4657 
1638 


Christian Dire Couture achieved a turnover increase of 18.8 % 
bringing if to FF 1 225 millian; at unchanged exchange rates, the 
increase would have been 195%. 

Hie net income from operations increased by 41% to FF 117 
mOfion. This was mainly due to fee success of the new product 
lines. After extraordinary costs, die share of the Group in net 
income amounted to FF 108 millian. 


It will be proposed at the AGM, which will take place 29 May 
1997, to increase fee dividend by 6 % bringing it to FF 15 20 per 
stare. 

A repaymart of FF 550 having been paid in December 19%, the 
balance of FF 9,40 per share wul be paid 20 June. 


CURRENCY AM) CAPITAL MARKET SERVICES 



International Foreign Exchange Corporation 
YOUR GOAL IS OUR GOAL 

Margin 3 - 5% - 24 hair trading desk 
CaflforinfdfTnation 




1206 Geneva -Swtmrtand 


For further details 
on bow to place your Usthtg contact 
JuHan STAPLES in London 
Tel: (44) 171 8364802 
Fax: (44)171 240 3417 


IBETOUBBUPWIWIMa 


a TRUST ASIA 

Sodftd d'lnvestissement & Capital Variable - SICAV 
26. avenue Monterey 

1^2163 LUXEMBOURG 

Shareholders are hereby convened to attend the Statutory 
General Meeting of the Shareholders, which will take place at 
the company’s registered office in Luxembourg on April 30th, 
1997 at 14:00 for the purpose of considering and voting upon 
the following points: 

AGENDA OF THE STATUTORY GENERAL MEETING 

1. Reports of the Board of Directors and of the Independent 
Auditor. 

2. Approval of the Financial Statements made-up as of 
December 31. 1996. 

3- Discharge to the Directors and to the lndependant Auditor. 

4. Statutory Appointments. 

5- Miscellaneous. 

Resolutions on the agenda of the Statutory General Meeting will 
require no quorum and wfll be taken at die majority of the votes 
expressed by the shareholders present or represented. 
Shareholders who cannot attend the meeting are invited to send 
a proxy to the registered office to arrive not later than April 25, 
1997. Proxy forms will be sent to registered shareholders. Proxy 
forms may also be obtained from the registered office. 

The owners of bearer shares will have to deposit their shares 
five dear days before the meeting at either 

-BAMQUE FERRIER LULUN (LUXEMBOURG) SJL 
26, avenue Monterey, L-2163 Luxembourg 

- FEHUER LUUIN & OE SA. 

15, rue Petkot, CH - 1211 Geneve 11 

- SWISS BANK CORPORATION 

One Exchange Square, 25th floor, 8, Connaught Place, Hong 
Kong 

THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS 


ASIAN CAPITAL HOLDINGS FUND 

2fl, Boulevard Emmanuel Semis, L-2535 Luxembourg 
R.G Luxembourg B 43 100 


NOTICE TO THE SHAREHOLDERS 


Notice is hereby given that an Annual General Wrrtm g of the 
Shareholders of ASIAN CAPITAL HOLDINGS FUND will be 
held at the registered office of the Company on 
28 April 1997 at 3J0 pun. 

AGENDA 

1. Approval of the report of die Board of Directors and the 
report of die Auditor, 

2 Approval of the financial statements for the year ending 
on 31 December 1996; 

3. Retirement of the outgoing Directors and the Auditor from 
their duties for the year ending on 31 December 1996; 

4. Appointment of the Directors and the Auditor of tbe Fund: 

• Re-election of the Directors; 

■ Re-decdon of the Auditor, 

5. Any other business. 

Resolutions of the shareholders will be passed by a simple majority 
of those present and voting and each share is entitled ro one vote. 

A shareholder may act at any meeting by proxy. 

On behalf of the Company, 

BANQUE DB GESTION EDMOND DE ROTHSCHILD 
LUXEMBOURG 
- SodfoS Anacjme - 
'fffqlff Biil Rfinmimvl Scr v iifc 
L-2535 LUXEMBOURG 


In this Saturday’s 



I 


Japan 

& 

Korea 

ndustrial Asia 


INTERNATIONAL 



THE WORLD'S PATTY NEWSPAPER 


LEICOMFUND 

20. Boulevard Emmanuel Sennit, L-2535 Luxembourg 
R.C. Luxembourg B.21 454 


AVIS AUX ACTTONNAIRES 


Messieurs Jcs JCtronnaues soru cwrvoques par le present avis a 

l*assembl£e g£n£rale ordinaire 

DBS ACnONNAIRES 

qui ic usdQ au neg* social a Luxembourg le 28 nd 1997 1 15b30, me 
I'ordre du iour suivanL : 

ORDRE DU JOUR 

1. Cc-mpre Rendu d'actrrire du Consefl d’Adminigrration pour I’exercice 
se rerminant le 31 dccembrc 1996 , 

1 Kjppon du Rmseur etEnacpasa pour Kaetaioe te tamiaantlc 31 decembnrUW; 

3. Adoption de$ oomptes de 1' exer ct c e se oermsunr le 31 dccembrc 1996 ; 

4. Affectation du naultat dc I'ouscke se tnmmsflr le 31 decembts 1996 ; 

5. Ratification de la cooptation de LA CDMPAGNIE FINANQERE 
EDMOND DE ROTHSCHILD BANQLT5, represents par Monsieur 
Roger CUKIERMAN, en remplaccmene de Monsieur Donat 
B RANGER et de Monsieur Samuel PINTO en rem placement de 
Monsieur Obner MAL'MUS ; 

6 Dcchaigc aux Adminutnreurs et au Reviscur d’En (reprises pour 
I'esereice se rerminant le 31 decerabre 1996 ; 

7 Nomination des otganes sooaux : 

- Nomination des Admtnutnlcun : 

- Nomination du Reviseur cfE n tre p rises , 

B. Divers. 

Lcs actiomuire* scan m/orroei qu'aunm quorum n'est reqms pour ante 
assemble* er que les decisions soot prises a la majccite simple des actions 
presenter oti irpiesentret 
Chaquc action a un droit dc rote- 

Tout action naire peur voter par manditiire. A Cette fin, des procurations 
sont disponibles au siege social ei seront envoyeu aux acnonnaires sur 
demande. 

Afm d’etre valablc, les procurations dumtflt signees par !» acnonnaires 
devront cue envoyees au siege social afin d'etre re?ucs le iout precedant 
I'assemblee a 17 beures au plus rard. 

La proptictaina tTacoona su poneue, desiiani pameiper i erne assemblee, 
devront deposer leurs actions rinq jours Durables avani I'assemblee au siege 
sorial de la socieze. 

Les acnonnaires desireux d’obtenir le Rapport Annuel Audits peuvent 
S'adrnser au siege social dc la societe 

four (scoring 

BANQUE DE GESTION EDMOND DE ROTHSCFflLD LUXEMBOURG 
- Societe Anoojrme - 
20, boulevard Emmanuel Sows 
1-2535 LUXEMBOURG 
















PAGE 18 






































































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S'*. 

V ” 

*% 


!'■ 

. • ’ «a •> 
















































































































PAGE 20 


World Roundup 



Becker’s Comeback Is Cut Short 

TENNIS Boris 
Becker, playing 
just his second 
match after return- 
ing from a wrist in- 
jury, pulled a thigh 
muscle in the 
second set Thurs- 
day and lost, 4-6, 6- 
3, 6-1, to Lionel 
Roux in the Japan 
Open. Becker won 
the first set and was 
up 2-0 before hurt- 
ing his right thigh. 
Top seed 

Richard Krajicek 
saved eight of nine 
break points 

against him in the 
first set and beat 
Magnus Norman 
of Sweden 7-5, 6- 
0. 

• Thomas Mus- 
ter, the reigning 

champion. crashed 

KACTtum noji/afp out of the Bar- 
Lionel Raoux serving to Boris celona Open on 
Becker in Tokyo on Thursday. Thursday after 

failing to cope 

with either the wind or his temper against Cedric Pioline. 
Muster broke his racquet on the ground after losing a first 
set de-break and then i esponded to jeers by gesturing back 
to the crowd before finally losing, 7-6 6-4. (Reuters) 

Jamison Stays in School; Thomas Leaves 

basketball North Carolina forward Antawn Jamison 
said he will remain in school and forgo the NBA draft. 

• Tim Thomas is leaving Viiianova after only one 
season to enter the NBA draft, according to repons. The 
forward averaged 16.9 points as a freshman. 

• Darryl Hardy, a junior center for Winston-Salem 
State, said he will make himself available for the NBA 
draft- Hardy averaged 18.S points and 10.6 rebounds-fAPl 

Soccer Causes Brain Damage, Study Says 

soccer Soccer may cause brain damage — even more 
brain damage than American football. Finnish research- 
ers said in a report to be published Friday. 

Eleven out of 15 amateur soccer players showed po- 
tential signs of brain damage, compared to seven out of 17 
American football players, a team from the University of 
Helsinki found. 

The scientists used magnetic resonance imaging to look 
inside the brains of 15 soccer players. 17 football players 
and 20 nonathletes. 

Soccer players run the risk of clashing heads, and 
regularly hit the ball with their heads. 

Brain damage has also been linked with other sports, 
such as riding, in which the brain is shaken. (Reuters) 


COCMTRY/GURRENCY 

2 MONTHS 
NEWSSTAND 
PRICE 

2 MONTHS 

oral 

PWCE 

DISCOUNT 

OFF 

COVER PRICE 

AUSTRIA 

ATS 

\A56 

650 

55% 

BELGIUM 

set 

3.380 

1,350 

60% 

DENMARK 

DKK 

780 

360 

54% 

HNLAND 

RM 

624 

310 

30% 

FRANCE 

FF 

520 

210 

60% 

GERMANY* 

DEM 

182 

n 

60% 

GREAT BRITAN 

C 

47 

22 

53% 

GREECE 

DR 

*18,200 

9,100 

50% 

IRELAND 

IRE 

52 

26 

50% 

ITALY 

m. 

145.600 

58,000 

60% 

LUXEMBOURG 

IFR 

3,3600 

1,350 

60% 

FtfTWERLAACS 

NLG 

195 

78 

60% 

NORWAY 

NOK 

832 

390 

53% 

PORTUGAL 

ESC 

11, M0 

5,000 

58% 

SRMN 

PTAS 

1)700 

5,000 

57% 

SWEDEN 

SEX 

832 

350 

58% 

SWITZERLAND 

Of 

166 

66 

60% 

ELSEWHERE 

s 

— 

50 

— 

' For infermgfon oenevreng Kord Mmy 'n mojor Gannon at* cal toll 
* 01 30-86 B5 85 or fcri|069J 971 2 Mil 

fm HT Germany 


18-4-97 


Hw, I would like to jfcrf receiving ihe I m emaHono i Herald Trixjne. 

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^ HcralbSSnbunc. 

Sports 


FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 1997^ 



Tin fi ug -yM/Tbf A»orletrd ftn* 

Brett Hull of the Blues, left skating away from Kris Draper of the Red Wings in the Blues 7 2-0 playoff victory. 

Roy Picks Up Where He Left Off 

Avalanche Blank Blackhawks to Open Cup Defense 



The Associated Press 

Hie 1997 NHL playoffs started the 
way they ended in 1996: with a shutout 
by Patrick Roy. 

Ten months ago. Roy was flawless in 
the net into a third overtime as Colorado 
beat the Florida Panthers, 1 -0. to win its 
first Stanley Cup. He was perfect again 
Wednesday night in the Avalanche's 
opening playoff game this season, a 6-0 
rout of the Chicago Blackhawks. 

“The shutout is not the big thing — 
it's the win." Roy said. “It was im- 
portant that we played with a lot of 
discipline." 

The host Avalanche took advantage 
of the playoff inexperience of the Black- 
hawks ' goalie. Jeff Hackett, scoring 
four goals in the first period, two by 
Peter Forsberg. 

Roy ran his shutout streak to 213 
minutes. 1 1 seconds. The NHL record is 
248:32 by Detroit’s Norm Smith in 
1936. Roy also posted his 87th playoff 
victory, one shy of the NHL record of 88 
by the former New York Islanders 
goalie, Billy Smith. 

The game was filled with penalties 
and fights, especially in the second and 
third periods. Perhaps the most telling 
statistic in the game was that Chicago 
had as many penalties (22) as shots on 
goal. 

* ‘We had a game plan and we stuck to 
it,” the Avalanche’s captain, Joe Sakic 
said. “They changed their game plan in 
the second and third period. I can't say 
what their goal was, but obviously 
things got a hide out of hand there.” 


The game featured a combined 36 
penalties for 1 24 minutes, including five 
10-minute misconducts. 

Roy finished with 22 saves, including 
consecutive stops on Sergei Krivokra- 
sov early in the third period. 

Hackett, installed as the Blackhawks* 
No. 1 goalie after Ed Bel four was traded 
to San Jose on Jan. 25. had not given up 
more than four goals in any game this 

season. But in his other playoff start. 
Game 2 of last year's second-round 
series, Colorado also scored four goals 
against him in the first period. 

Mighty Ducks 4, Coyotes 2 With most 
of the noisy sellout crowd in Anaheim 
wearing white shirts and frantically 
waving white towels, the Mighty Ducks 
made their playoff debut with a victory 
over Phoenix. 

The white-towel ritual was used by 
the fans in Winnipeg for their Jets, who 
moved to Phoenix and became the 
Coyotes last summer. This is the first 
playoff series for the Coyotes since the 
move, so the fans of the Mighty Ducks, 
who host tiie fust two games of the best- 
of-7 series, beat the Phoenix fans to the 
punch. 

“It’s an incredible feeling thing to see 
all those people going crazy waving 
their towels,’ said Anaheim's goalie, 
Guy Hebeit, who stopped 29 shots and 
shut out the Coyotes in the third period 
to preserve the victory. 

Another acquisition from the Jets 


Bullets Dash Pacers’ Playoff Hopes 


The Associated Press 
The Washington Bullets 
ended Indiana's seven-year 
playoff run and enhanced 
their own chances of qual- 
ifying for postseason play by 
beating the Pacers, 103-90, 
on Wednesday night. 

Rod Strickland had a sea- 


son-] 

sists 


high 34 points and 13 as- 
ter the Bullets, who 


NBA R( 


maintained a one-game lead 
over Cleveland in the race for 
the final playoff spot in the 
Eastern Conference. The 
Cavaliers kept pace by beat- 
ing Orlando, 78-63. 

Washington, trying to end 
an eight-year playoff drought, 
will play host to Orlando on 
Friday before closing its sea- 
son Sunday in Cleveland. 

The loss ended any chance 
the Pacers had to slip into the 
playoffs. Indiana, which 
reached the Eastern Confer- 
ence finals two years ago, was 
seeking a team-record sixth 
straight road win. 

Strickland, who was II- 
for-18 from the field and 
made 12 of 14 free throws, 
just missed matching his ca- 
reer high of 36 points. 

Juwan Howard scored 25 
points for the Bullets, who 
never trailed in the second 
half. Chris Webber, playing 
at center for the injured Ghe- 
orghe Muresan, had 20 points 
and 12 rebounds. 

Dale Davis led Indiana 
with 20 points, and Jalen 
Rose had 17. 

Cnafiera 78, Magic 63 In 
Geveland, Tyrone Hill had 
19 points and 10 rebounds as 
the Cavs held the Magic to 
their second-lowest point 
total of the season. Orlando 
played without center Rony 
Seikaly, who got a chance to 
rest two sprained ankles after 


the Magic clinched the sev- 
enth Eastern Conference 
playoff berth on Monday. Or- 
lando’s other starters sat out 
most of the fourth quarter. 

Heat 102, Bulls 92 In 

Miami, the Heat won their 
60th game and denied Chica- 
go its 70tb victory. Jamal 
Mashbum scored 23 points 
for Miami, while Tun 
Hardaway had 22, and 
Alonzo Mourning scored 21. 
Scottie Pippen scored 28 
points for Chicago, and Mi- 
chael Jordan added 26. 

The Bulls have one more 
chance to reach 70 wins for 
the second straight season. 
They close their regular sea- 
son at home against New 
York on Saturday. 

Homsts 108, Cottle* 102 

Tony Delk scored 17 of his 18 
points in the second half as 
Charlotte won in Boston to set 
a franchise record with its 
ninth straight victory. 

Glen Rice scored 25 points, 
and Anthony Mason had 15 
points and 12 rebounds for the 
Hornets. 

Antoine Walker had 23 
points, 10 rebounds and 10 
assists for Boston's first triple 
double of the season. 

Kntoks 96, Hawks 92 In 
New York, Patrick Ewing 
scored 24 points, including 
his team’s final six, as the 
Knicks moved into a tie with 
Atlanta for the No. 3 seed in 
the East. New York won the 
season series with the Hawks, 
so the Knicks would get the 
third seed if the teams were to 
finish in a tie. 

Pistons 92, Bucks 8S Theo 
Ratliff had a career-high 25 
points and a season-high 12 
rebounds, and Aaron McKie 
just missed a triple double as 
Detroit won without its in- 
jured star Grant Hill. McKie 
finished with a season-high 
18 points, a career-high 12 



Khun* Wiw/Ajsh* ttncF'hnv 

Alonzo Mourning of the Heat shooting over the Bulls. 


rebounds and eight assists. 
Glenn Robinson led the vis- 
iting Bucks with 25 points. 

Mavericks 92, Thnbcr- 
watvss 77 Michael Finley 
scored 16 of his 19 points in 
the second half as Dallas 
ended a two-year losing 
streak against the Timber- 
wolves. 

Kevin Garnett had 16 
points and nine rebounds for 
the Wolves, who lost their 
third straight at home. 

Sixers 113, Nats 109 In 
New Jersey, two Philadelphia 
streaks came to an end: the 
team’s eight-game losing 


streak and Allen Iverson’s 
run of five consecutive games 
scoring 40 or more points. He 
hit 27 against the Nets. 

Itall msisri 107, Nuggets 
83 In Portland, the Trail 
Blazers held Denver to its 
lowest point total ever, break- 
ing the previous low set in a 
105-65 loss to the Blazers this 
season. Kenny Anderson had 
16 points, 10 assists and five 
steals in 27 minutes for the 
Blazers, who set a team re- 
cord for fewest points al- 
lowed. Tom Hammonds 
scored 14 for the Nuggets, 
who lost their ninth straight. 


After Celebration, 

NY (and the Mete) 
Return to Earth 


played a prominent role on the ice for 
the Mighty Ducks: Teetnu Selanne. 
Selanne, who played for Winnipeg from 
1992 until he was traded to Anaheim 14 
months ago, had two goals and an assist 
in the victory over his former team- 
mates. 

Selanne and his linemate, Paul 
Karim one of the league’s highest- 
scoring duos, accounted for all of Ana- 
heim's goals. Kariya also had two goals 
and an assist 

The Mighty Ducks scored twice in the 
first period and led all the way, although 
the Coyotes kept it close until Kariya 
was pulled down from behind and 
awarded an empty-net goal after 
Phoenix pulled its goalie in the final 
minute. 

BUMS 2, Rod Wings o Grant Fuhr 
notched his fourth playoff shutout as SL 
Louis defeated Detroit on first-period 
goals by Geoff Courtnall and Pierre 
Turgeon. 

The Red Wings, hoping to end a 42- 
year Stanley Cup drought — the NHL’s 
longest — staged a mild rally in the third 
period, outshooting the Blues. 15-6, but 
Fuhr aimed away every challenge. 

stars5,OBsrs3MikeModano scored 
the tiebreaker on a rebound with 2:31 
left as Dallas overcame Edmonton. 

Modano, the Stars' leading scorer, 
was held to only two shots before he 
beat Curtis Joseph to break a 3-3 tie. 
Brent Gilchrist followed with an open- 
net goal at 1:03 to put away the Oilers, 
playing in their first playoff game in five 
years. 


Cc^ptMhtOwSufFimDt^hts 

NEW YORK — With the 
dignitaries and a big, emo- 
tional crowd gone from Shea 
Stadium — perhaps for the 
remainder of this already • 
dreary Met season — there 
was little that felt special. 

But the day after the tribute 
to Jackie Robinson, the 
craftsmanship of Pedro As- 
tacio and Brett Butler of die 
Dodgers quickly turned a lazy 
day into something memor- 
able. 

Astacio and three relievers 
held the Mets to one hit, an 
eighth-inning lead off double 
by Carlos Baerga just inside 
the first-base lute, in a 5-2 Los 

Angeles victory on Wednes- 
day. The one-hitter took 
shape because of Astacio’s 
ability to exploit the anxious- 
ness of a team that was ex- 
pected to hit and has not 

Butler had five singles, the 
fifth time in his career that he 
has had that many hits in a 
game. 

Through seven innings, 
Astacio allowed three base- 
runners on two walks and an 
infield error. The first Met to 
reach base, Lance Johnson, 
advanced on a balk and a 
groundnut and scored on 
Bernard Gfikey ’s sacrifice fly 
in the first inning. 

7716 Dodgers built a 5-2 
lead on a pair of two-run 
homers: Wilton Guerrero’s 
first major-league home run 
and a towering shot by Eric 
Karros in the seventh inning 

Rookies 4, cubs o Chicago 
set the mark for the worst start 
in National League history, 
making three more e r ror s as 
they extended their losing 
streak to 12 with a loss to 
Colorado. 

“That is the worst baseball 
: I’ve seen played at this 
si," tiie Cubs’ manager, 
Jim Riggleman said. “We’re 
unhappy about the losing 
streak, but all of . us are totally 
ashamed of the ball game 
today.” 

The Cubs have lost 26 of 
their last 28 going back to last 
season, and have the fourth- 
worst start ever, trailing tiie 
1904 Washington Senators 
and 1920 Detroit Tigers (each 
0-13) and the 1988 Baltimore 
Orioles (0-21). 

Chicago, which has 21 er- 
rors this season, broke the 
modem NL record of 0-10 set 
by Atlanta in 1988 and the 
overall NL record of 0-1 1 by 
the old Detroit Wolverines in 
1884. 

Roger Bailey pitched a 
five-fitter for his first career 
shutout. Colorado won its 
sixth straight road game, ty- 
ing a team record set in 


1 

Giants 6, Phi IBM B Glen- 
all en Hill homered twice and 
drove in four runs, and vis- 
iting San Francisco scored 
twice without getting a hit in 
the 10th inning . 

Pains 7, Pirates 9 
Fernando Valenzuela made 
his second strong start against 
the Pirates in eight days,. al- 
lowing five hits in seven in- 
nings and leaving with a 6-1 
lead at Pittsburgh. 


Uaftins 2 » GanSnals 1 Gary 
Sheffield’s leadoff homer m-V 
the third broke a 1-1 tie. and 
pat Rapp and two relievers 
held visiting St. Louis to five 
hits. Robb Nen pitched a one- 
hit ninth for his fourth save. 

Bravo* 7. Iteda 1 Kenny 

Lofton homered and went 4- 
for-5 to raise his batting av- 
erage to .406. Atlanta stretched 
its winning streak to five. 

Astro* 10, Expos 2 Shane 
Reynolds pitched a three-hit- 
ter for his second complete 
game and added a two-run 
double in a six-run third at the 
Astrodome. 

The Expos’ reliever, 
Dustin Hermanson. hit a two- 
run homer in his first at-bat, 
becoming the first pitcher in 
five years to hit a hotner in his 
first major-league at-bat 

White Sox 9, Oriole* 3 Al- 
bert Belle broke out of a 
slump with his first home run 
since opening day, and Doug 
Drabek got ms first AL vic- 
tory since 1986, as Chicago 
beat Baltimore to snap a 
three-game losing streak. 

Drabek, who won for the 
first time since Sept. 26, al- 
lowed one run and three hits 
in eight innings, walked four 
and struck out three. 

Baltimore’s staffer, Shawn 
Boskie, was pounded for nine 
runs — eight earned — and 
six hits in four innings. “Hejf 
didn’t have a clue where he 
was going to throw it," Bal- 
timore’s manager. Davey 
Johnson, said. 

Belle entered the game in a 
l-for-27 slump mat had 
lowered his average to .163. 

Rod Sox 11, liuttara 6 At 
Fenway Park, fee Red Sox 
won their fourth straight in 
which they have outscored 
opponents by a total of 35-10. 
Cleveland lost its fourth in a 
row. Boston went ahead, 5-2, 
in the fourth on Mo Vaughn’s 
second home run of the sea- 
son. He also hit a three-run 
shot in the sixth. 

Cleveland’s Matt Williams 
hit his first AL homer, a two- 
run blast in the fifth. 

Morlnwa 7, Tigora 3 In De- 
troit, Randy Johnson, went 
seven solid innings in his 
third staff of the season, al- 
lowing three hits and four 
walks with 10 strikeouts. 

Br ow n 7, Yaninas 4 In 
Milwaukee, Fernando Vina 
had three hits, including a tie- 
breaking, two-run single, as. 
the Brewers handed NewJ 
York its fourth straight loss. 

“It’s one of those down- 
side things that is going to 
turn around,” fee Yankees’ 
manager, Joe Tone, said. 
“The only thing that would 
bother me is if fee guys were 
going through fee motions, 
mdlknowl don't see that.’,’ 

Bhn Jays 4, AtMotiea 3 In 

Toronto, Otis Nixon singled 
home the winning run in the 

nin th inning , 

RMtgora 2, Royals 0 In Kan- 
sas City, Lee Stevens 
homered for the second 
straight night, and John Bur- 
kett shut down Kansas City. 

Twtna 4, Angola 2 In Min- 
neapolis, the Twins turned 
five double plays, and Chris 
Latham doubled home a 
wife his first major-1 
Ml (NYT.AP) 




Little League Rules 
Make Taiwan Balk 

The Associated Press 

The crowds in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, used to boo 
when the team from Taiwan took the field for another 
Little League World Series championship run. 

Now, after 12 championships in 23 years and numerous 
blowout victories. Taiwan is quitting Little League base- 
ball over a rule dispute. 

The withdrawal is a big blow to Taiwan, said David Tsai 
of tiie Center for Taiwan International Relations in Wash- 
ington. “ Whichever team made it to the World Series, ithas 

a tot of prestige fra that school or county. This is a loss." 

"iMe League officials said Wednesday that Taiwan 
broke league rules by drawing players from an area with 
too large a population, even though they from a 
single school The Little League World Series is for select 
each of which represents a league. Rules require a 
mmimum of four teams per league and forbid teams to 

wilh * Population larger than 

20,000. In high -density areas, one lea' — 2 — 

1,000 student^ in grades up to sevent 

M Taiwan, single leagues were pulling from schools 
with more than 3,000 children, saidLance Van Auken. a 
spokesman for Little League Baseball. 

OuJJdnesday, feeTaiwan association faxed notice of 
its withdrawal to Williamsport. 

VanAuken said: “ ‘Cultural differences.’ Thoaeare 
feewrads they used. They simply, didn’t want to have 
three leagues m feat roe sdhool. That in itself gives them 

a distinct competitive advantage.” ^ 

Kenny Yang, of the Taiwan association, said. “ We’re 
uni&alrt of pressure from schools about this, wthisyear 
to come. But we'll see.hoi fcinsTgo 







INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 1997 


PAGE 21 


SPORTS 


ih 




V: . ’* 


Fans Chant Fix 
After a Victory 


Fans of Vasco da Gama of 
Brazil chanted "robbery” 
and “it’s a fix” after their 
own team scored in die fourth 
and sixth minute of in jury 
time to beat Volta Redonda 2- 
1 in a Rio de Janeiro cham- 
pionship match. 

At the end of a tumultuous 
.game, referee Carlos Alberto 
Dutra was chased off the field 
by furious Volta Redonda 


■players and officials. One 
unidentified man kicked the 
-referee from behind just before 
'Jbe reached the locker room. 

Volta Redonda, one of the 
competition’s small teams, 
had taken a fifth-minute lead 
’in the game at Vasco’s ground 
.on Wednesday night. 

* The fans’ suspicions were 
aroused in die second half, 
when Volta Redonda had 
Fabinho and Deoils on sent 
off, apparently for arguing. 
‘Volta Redonda still managed 
.to hold on until Vasco’s Ra- 
mon equalized in the fourth 
minute of injury time, 
f The referee was surrounded 
by Volta Redonda players, 
causing the almost inevitable 


invasion, with tire police, re- 
porters and hangers-on all 


eree told reporters on the field 
thathe would add two minutes 
and in tire 96th m frmte of play, 
Ramon struck again. 

omuucd Steve Claridgc 
scored in extra time to give 
Leicester a 1-0 victory in the 
English League Cup final re- 








play over Middlesbrough. 

Claridge, who put Leicester 
into the premier league with a 
last minute goal in a play-off 
last season, volleyed home a 
Steve Walih cross after 99 
minutes of a tight cup tie. 

Emerson squandered a 
chance. to agnail ?<» a 
late - , but Middlesbrough, 
wilting at the end of its third 
two-hour cup tie in 10 days, 
had nothing left to offer. 

Thevietory put Leicester in- 
to next season's UEFA Cup. 

Liverpool missed a chance 
to go top of the premier 
league when- it tied with 
neirfibOT Evertm. 

Jamie Redknapp put Liv- 
erpool ahead but Duncan Fer- 
guson leveled for Everton. 
Robbie Fowler, Liverpool's 
leading goal scorer was sent 
off eight minutes from time 
for fighting with Everton de- 



fender David Unsworth. 
Fowler will be suspended un- 
til the end of the season, but 
his ban will start after Sat- 
urday’s game against league 
leader Manchester United. 

SPAIN Real Madrid took a 
decisive step in pursuit of 
their 27th Spanish league 
crown Wednesday when it 
overturned a 2-0 deficit to 
beat bottom-placed Sevilla 4- 
2 while second-placed Bar- 


celona lost 3-1 at Valladolid. 

France Jean-Piecre Papin 
scored twice in 12 minutes to 
give Bordeaux a2-l home win 
over title-chasing Monaco. 
Papin struck in the 50th and 
fpd minutes. Fnm Scifo 
scored for Monaco with an 
injury-time penalty. 

Germany Stuttgart ad- 
vanced to the German Cup 
final with a tight 2-1 victory 
over Hamburg. Stuttgart, 


Draft Dodger a Hit in Europe 


Oho IIiititiJii j i TIw Aaapaol Ado 

Leicester's Spencer Prior, left, tackling Middlesbrough striker Fabrizio Ravanelli. 


third in the first division, 
meets eastern German region- 
al league side Cottbus Energie 
in the June 14 final in Berlin. 

Greece AEK Athens re- 
tained the Greek Cup when it 
beat Panarhinaikos 5-3 on pen- 
alties in the final after a 04) 
draw after extra tune. The 
match was effectively decided 
when Chryzstof Warzycha of 
panathinaikos missed the first 
spot kick of the shoot-out 


By Mike Carlson 

Spciiol to she Her old Tribune 

The NFL Draft starts Saturday. Teams 
spend millions of dollars researching the tal- 
ents and personalities of players, but still they 
miss potential stars. 

Sam Mills, Carolina's ail-pro linebacker 
was never drafted. He fell through the cracks 
of the NFL’s scouting network. For Jon Kitna. 
quarterback of the World League of American 
Football's Barcelona Dragons, the cracks 
were more like a black hole. 

Kitna completed his first 13 passes and 
threw for three touchdowns to lead the 
Dragons to a 27- 1 2 victory over the Rhein Fire 
last Saturday. 

Kitna was allocated to the WLAF by the 
Seattle Seahawks. and some scouts say he’s a 
good bet to follow Brad Johnson and Scon 
Mitchell, who turned World League success 
into NFL careers. 

Two years ago, at tiny Central Washington 
University. Kima’s senior-year numbers 
looked like Dan Marino's: 576 passes. 364 
completions (63.2 percent 4.616 yards and 
42 touchdowns. The Wildcats went to their 
divisional national-championship game, 
which ended in a draw. 

“This was NALA Division U,” Kitna said. 
‘‘You played to feel good about yourself, so 
everyone thought a tie was the perfect result. 
Nobody lost.” 

Pro scouts pay little attention to what is. in 
effect, college football's sixth division. Kitna 
got lucky. One of his teammates was the 
nephew of Dennis Erickson, (he Seattle 
Seahawks* head coach. Erickson watched a 
couple of games and arranged for a scout to 
test some of the Wildcat players. The nephew 
and Kitna were the only two to show up. 

Kitna went undrafied. Erickson offered him 


a job on the Seahawks’ practice squad last 
season, running opposition plays against the 
Seahawks' defense. “I was John Elway one 
week and Sian Humphries the next." said 
Kitna. “It was a great learning experience." 

Part of the deal was that Kitna would never 
demand playing time. He kepi his pan of the 
bargain, and. after the season. Seattle allocated 
him to the Dragons, where the head coach. 
Jack Bicknell. has a pass-oriented attack. 

Barcelona also had Stoney Case, the No. 2 
quarterback on the Arizona Cardinals' depth 
chan. When Case went back to Arizona to 
have an aching shoulder checked. Kitna 
moved in as number one. Kitna *s performance 
last Saturday clinched the spot, at least for 
now. "We liked Jon's aim and poise,” said 
Bicknell, “but what surprised us was the way 
he moved" 

Kitna scrambled for 43 yards and bought 
time for receivers to get open. “He showed 
the ability to see the open man while he was 
moving,” Bicknell said. * ‘and to throw across 
his body and get the ball there. That's rare." 

“No team in this league used one quar- 
terback last year, and we won't this year.” 
Bicknell said. "1 think Stoney 's as good as 
anyone in the league, and he understands the 
situation." 

Case's main competitor for the backup job 
in Arizona, Chad May, is the starter with the 
WLAF’s Frankfurt Galaxy. But the Frankfurt 
offensive line protects May so poorly that he 
doesn't seem to be gaining an advantage over 
Case. 

Meanwhile, if Kitna is to get a job in 
Seattle, he'll have to beat out Stan Gelbaugh. 
who took the London Monarchs to the first 
WLAF championship in 1991. “I'll deal with 
that when I get back to camp,” with Seattle, 
said Kitna. “Right now. I'm happy to be 
playing in Barcelona." 


* Major League Stmnnnm 


0-2. Sv — DoJoms «. HRs-New York, T. 
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Astada,- Theffwd (8), Guttata- 1 ®, 
Tbriondl (5) md Pdncs Rltoet Babaian 
07, Manuel OT, JaFtanai W and Hundley. 
W— Astocte «L L— R. Reed, 0-1. 
Sw— TaWtorren Mt. HR*-U» Angelas. 
WLGtKfiero 03, Kan* (1). 

Catomdo 100 MQ 100-4 4 1 

Chicago ' 000 OH 000-0 5 3 

RBrftay and JeJtaodr FXaaffite Pamrsan 
U3, Rotas <5) aid Houston. W— R. Boday, 2- 
0. L— F.CaifflteO-3. 

St Lento '100 ON 000—1 5 1 

Florida 101 000 00M 0 0 

Osborne. TJ5IUfMWs <71 and LumpUn; 
Row. Cook C71, Men <91 ond CJotuman. 
W— Ra(^2-aL— asbarne,0-2.S»— Nen(4). 
HR-Horido, Sheffield®. 

Saa Dtoga 100 050 MW 7 0 

p mttoqli 000 on 140-6 u 2 

Vtatenzoete D. VWs ®, Boddkr OD, 
Hctfmati CBS and Fhtoertyr Cooke, 
Wkrinftouse (51. M. WSdns (£), Granger (ffl, 
Labette®, Ruebcl W) and Kendall, Orik 0U- 
W — Valenzuela, VI. L-Oahe. 1-2. 
sw-HaRman CD. HR»-San Dtoga, Gwym 
(31. PStotHirgh, Ehttr CD. AUensworth CD, 
WtamoddD, Rondo CIJ. 

SB a Radia 000 010 120 2-4 0 1 
PhllnrtHeMn M 111 M W 10 I 


DENNIS THE MENACE PEANUTS 


Raetor, Tbvarez to, R. Rtxbfgaez (TV 
Panto 01, Bade Ufl) aid R.W0UI* SdiDDflO, 
Pknleobcrg TO, BonoOa (SX R. Hnnto flM, 
SpndBn (10 ant Uefaerttvd. W— Paata, m 
L— R. Hants. 0-1. Sv— Bede (8). HRs— San 
FiMdsav & HBI 2 CD, R. Mtotos (1). 
PtBatWpWa, Ltaberthol W. 

Meanre ' on wo ooo-a a o 

Hoeston 004 001 3M-10 10 1 

HLVtaMes: Tettad 01, Herraansan (4L 
StiiB (7), Dari (71 ond Ftotoher; Reynaktoond 
Ausmis. W-Reyraldto 2-1. L-M. Vbhta&O- 
X HR— Hennosson 03- 

AME RICAN LEAGUE LEADERS 


Milwaukee. « M. Rivera, Hew York. 3; 
ToJones. Oetreto Sr Pktnrda Kansas Cby, % 
Cbaritan. SeoMto 5 AguBera. Mtnnesoto, X 


Yantai 

Htadibra 

Haashln 

Yokohama 


4 4 0 .500 4 

5 4 0 ^55 4'f, 

A 7 0 3U 5’* 

4 0 0 .333 4 


* 

G 

A8 

R 

H Awl 

THURSDAY'S RESULTS 


LWatlarCal 

13 

49 

19 

24 

390 

Yoaiturf 5, Hiroshima 4 





Blauser Afl 

14 

49 

11 

Z1 

329 

ChunfcMia H arshin 3 





Gurynn SD 

13 

54 

9 

23 

326 

Yotatr 7. Yokohama 6 





Lofton Alt 

14 

44 

13 

24 

3D6 

pAcmcLiAoai 



DScnders On 

14 

59 

7 

22 

373 

w 

L 

T 

Pd 

GB 

Coniae Ra 

12 

43 

4 

16 

372 

Ktatefsu 6 

2 

1 

.722 

— 

Tucker AO 

12 

47 

6 

17 

362 

Ddei 6 

4 

0 

300 

1 

OleradNYM 

14 

58 

10 

21 

362 

Setbu 6 

4 

a 

300 

1 

J Lopez Alt 

12 

42 

5 

15 

357 

Latte 5 

5 

l 

J00 

2 

Seguf Man 

72 

45 

8 

16 

356 

Orix 4 

5 

0 

Mt 

TH 

RUNS — L 

Waiter, 

Cotamte 

19; 

Nippon Ham 2 

9 

0 

.182 

55 



G 

AB 

R 

H 

teg. 

SAtomrOe 

n 

43 

13 

22 

312 

ByAndereon Bal 

12 

41 

9 

19 

363 

BenealMi 

13 

47 

9 

20 

326 

ONedNYY 

14 

53 

7 

22 

.415 

CRJphenBal 

12 

50 

6 

20 

300 

LeyrttzAna 

10 

39 

9 

15 

385 

WhBenNYY 

11 

42 

11 

.16 

381 

Griffey Jr Sea 

13 

48 

17 

18 

375 

JGerNYY 

14 

59 

12 

22 

373 

Fiyman Det 

15 

58 

IS 

21 

362 

Roberts KC 

12 

47 

6 

17 

362 

PhSBpsCliW 

13 

47 

9 

17 

362 


RUNS— Griffey Jc Saaffie. 17: Fryman. 
Detroit IS A. Roddguez, Seaftta 1C 
M. Vaughiw Baetoa 1-os TaQork. Detroit 
IS Hlgglnson, Detroit IS S. Afamac 
Oevetavtix 

RBI— Grtflby Jo Seatfte, IS ToOark, 
DriMt 1 Jr Naehdnfr Bestow T. 
Madfoat New Yoric, 1« S. Atomar. 
Ometonct 1« McGwire, Oaktond 12 C 
Mpkea Baffirnore, 12. 

HITS—JelK, New York, Xt S. Akxnor, 
Oavriard, 7H a 'Neffl, New York, 
2h Ga nJu p ai T u , Boston, 21; ToCtort. 
Demto21;A.Rafeigue2,Seanit;2l;Rytnan. 
Detndt2l. 

DOUBLES— MaWflBams, devstood, to 
ONeBt New York, S A. Rodriguez, Seattle. 7j 
Sfvogue, ToronTa-7; E. Martina, Seattle, 7s 
Mnife Kansas Oty. ft 9 are Bed wlb S 
TRIPLES — JKhc New York, Z Durham. 
CMcoga 2s Vtoquet Qevetomt Z 
OaMaribiez. CMcoga, 2; 22 ae Bed wBh 1. 

HOME RUNS— Griffey Jr. Semite 7s S. 
Ato— to. Q e v e t niit 4 • T. oQotk. Detroit St T. 
Martinez. New York. & NotMng, Boston, & 7 
afelfadwthA 

STOLEN BASES— B. LHunlec DefnrfL to 
Easley, Detroll, to T. Goodvria Kansas CHy, 
to Xnohlaudv Mlnnesdu. to Eutote 
Aflatabn.&4oiettad«tti4. 

PITCHING a Dadrians)— PalRIte New 
York. M lJOOto 14 are tted wttb ML 1 ilOO. 

STRIKEOUTS— Cane, New York, 3Z 
RoJonnsan Seatlte 2Si Alvarez, CMcoga 24i 
Mavanto CMcoga 2 * Appfte Kansas Cffy, 
21; Gadoa, Barton, 1ft BakfwbvOkatoa 14t 
K. HBLTeeas. 1 to Oemeas. Toronto, 14. 

SAVES— RaMyen. BaUtatote to Taylor, 
Oakland, Ss Wntdond. Tema, to DoJonav 


McCracken, Cotomda 13; Lnflon. Altaite 136 
Gdaraga Cotamte Ife nmeiL Cobracte 
12; Biauser, ABanfa 11; V are Bed wim 10 l 

RBI — i- wadeer, Cokwtav 22; Kent San 
Fnndscok 1ft CastOte Catamite ito 
Bagweto Houston U- Bidielte Cotamte 1« 
C. hJanes. AMarta. 1ft Cadnift Sai Diegn 
lft Gakmagn Calomte 12. 

HITS— Lorion, Aflanto. 2to I- Waiter. 
Cctaurte 2to Gwynn. San Dtaga 2 ft D. 
Sandew Ondnncdt 2ft Olenict Ken York 
21; Blausac Aitante 21; ECYoun* Coloraite 
1ft Bogm*. Houston. 18. 

DOUBLES— Oteud. New Ycnk. 7; Oaylan 
SL Laute ft SFMey, S» Dfegnto ECYaung. 
Cotoradn ft H-Rodrigaes, Montreal & Kent. 
San F wn asca 5: Blauser. Atlanta, ft D. 
White Horkte 5. 

TRIPLES— W. Guerrero, Los Angeles, ft 
Ttadaer, Atlanta, ft Wonock. pmsburgh. ft 
Kieskto Ariante ft Ga^te Las Angeles, ft 27 
are fled wbil 

-• HOME RUNS— L Walker. Calamte ft 
CasflOa, Calamte ft Lieberthal 
PtfflodalpWa, * Mondesi Los Angetato to 
Kent, San Frandrcn to Burtw Cotaacte to 1 0 
are tied rikl 

STOLEN BASES-O. Sanders. Onannatl 
11; L CBSttte Floikte 7s L-Waksr, Calomte 
7; McCracken Calamte ft Lofton, Aaante 
ft E. cYoung. Cotorado, Ss Uobnsan 
New Yak, iu 

PITCHING a Dedsiaas3—13are Had wfih 
1 OOP 

STRIKEOUT S R ey n olds. Houston 31; 
SddWifr PMadetpMa. 2ft SmoCz. ABante 
2ft AIBenes, St. Lends. 21; Noma, Las 
Angeles, 2Cc J. HtenOkte San Dlegn 1ft 
KJBrawnRorfda.il 

SAVES— Beck. San Hu n dsc a ft woMets, 
Aflarta, to Britagner, Houston, to Ertete, 
PWsburgh. to Nen Horidn,to ToWarril Las 
Angeles, 4; Banaflav PhBodripWa, ft 
Halimai San Dfegn ft SJiaw, dnckmotl X 

Japanese Leagues 


L T Pa GB 
2 0 .833 - 

4 0 .500 4 


naoniriHfoin 

Kintetsu ft Dale) 5 
Sefiiu ft Nippon Ham 7 
Latte 3, Oft* 1 


NBA Standings 



W 

L 

Pci 

GB 

y-Miami 

40 

20 

350 

— 

jr- New York 

55 

25 

388 

5 

rc-Ortando 

45 

35 

563 

IS 

Washington 

42 

X 

525 

18 

New Jersey 

24 

56 

300 

36 

PhBodeWUa 

22 

58 

375 

3B 

Boston 

14 

66 

.175 

46 

CENTRAL OmSION 



z-OUcogo 

69 

12 

352 

— 

frAflanta _ 

55 

25 

588 

134 

v-Chdrkttte 

54 

26 

575 

144 

x-Detroh 

53 

77 

543 

154 

aeveknd 

41 

39 

513 

Z7H 

Ind tana 

39 

41 

48S 

294 

MOwaukee 

32 

48 

400 

344 

Tororeo 

28 

52 

350 

40"4 

■1SIBBI 

1 COffFUEHCZ 


MMNTEST OtVtttOM 




W 

L 

Pet 

GB 

Z-UWl 

61 

18 

.772 

— 

A-Houskm 

55 

25 

588 

64 

x-Mkmesato 

39 

41 

588 

224 

□altos 

24 

56 

300 

374 

Denrer 

20 

60 

350 

414 

San Antonio 

20 

60 

350 

414 

Vancouver 

13 

67 

.143 

484 

PAcmcomstoN 



x-Seatfle 

55 

25 

588 

— 

x-ULLtteen 

54 

25 

584 

4 

x-Paritand 

47 

33 

588 

8 

x-Phaenix 

39 

41 

588 

16 

x-CA.CHppers 

36 

44 

550 

19 

Sacramento 

33 

46 

518 

214 

GoWen State 

X 

50 

375 

25 


z-eflnehed conference ttfte 
iKlnclted dMstan me 
»dndied ptoyoff berth 

tmwmiri i 


anrtotte 23 32 27 24-IN 

Boston 27 23 24 24—102 

C Rice 1<W4 3-1 25. Pierce 0-16 44 2ft B: 
Wesley 10-1S 4-7 25, Walter 9-21 >4 231 Day 
0-22 2-2 20. Rebaands— Chortatte 50 (Dtrac 
14), Boston 52 {Szobo Ito. Assists— Owrkste 
31 (DNOG Mason 81. Boston 30 (Walker 10). 
Ulan 20 21 2D 22—92 

Nn York 22 24 22 24— M 

AsSrnUt 12-235-733 Mutombo 5-9 7-9 17; 
N.Yj Ewing 10-21 Aa 24. Houston 7-11 2-3 
IB. Rebounrti Aitamo 41 [Mutombo 12), 
New Ytark 46 (Ewing 101. Assists— Atlanta 1 7 
(Biaykidk 7). New Vbrit 24 (CMds 4). 
Pknislrlptikt 31 21 32 29—113 

New Jersey 23 20 30 32-105 

P: Stockhouse 13-24 4-12 34. Iverson 10-23 
ft427,Oa*ts7-161O-lt2toWeatt>erspaonl0- 
20 1 -2 21; N J j KWe. 10-27 2-2 2ft GO 0-21 4- 
9 24. Edwards 8-14 4-4 21. Jadaon 9-21 0-0 
20. Rebeauds— Pfifladelptiki 42 

CWeatherspaon 13), New Jersey 72 
(Monrrass 18). Asstsls— Pti Ba de l p h lo 23 
(hereon II). New Jersey 18 Uockson 8). 
iBdtona 19 24 21 24-90 

WasWngtoe 23 24 31 23-103 

UD.Davts 9-132-4 2a Rose 8-15 0-1 17; Wr 
Strtddand 11-16 12-14 3to Howard 11-18 3-3 
25. Webber 4-15 7-7 2ft Rebounds lAdfewa 
S3 (AJtovls 15). Wtehbiglon 49 (Webber 12). 
Aretato hnOano 17 (Rase. Mltor 5), 
Wtat tito gton 22 (Sbicktond (3). 

Oitando 17 16 15 15-43 

OentaBd U 24 21 13-78 

O: Grain 7-1 3 0-1 ltoHotdaway4-101-21ft 
C Mris 5-12 7-8 lft HDI B-15 39 19. 
Rebounds— OrtondO 45 (Strong 14), 
Cleveland 41 (Sure 12). Assists— Orlando 17 
(HanknMiy 5). Cleveland 20 (Sura 8). 

Ml tame tee » la 17 22- 85 

DetmB 20 34 26 22- 92 

M: RoMnsan 1319 0-1 25. Alien 4-12 3421 . 
O r RaffMt 7-13 11-12 25. Thorpe MS 1-2 19. 
Rebounds— MOwaukee 40 (Baker 9], DMroB 
57 (MctOe. RatOff 12). Assists— MOwaukee 
15 [Douglas St. DetroB 20 (MctOe A. 
Chicago M 9 22 33- 92 

MIOBri 31 19 24 24—102 

C- Ptppen 12-22 04) 2ft Jordan 11-27 2-4 2ft 
M: Mashburn 7-14 6-623, Hadaway 9-20 1-4 
22. Mourning 7-12 7-14 21. 

Refcoanda— CMcoga 49 (Jonlan A. Miami 44 
(Mashbum Mounting 10). Assiris— Chicago 
24 (Langtoy j). MJaml 23 (Hardaway 9). 
Daftm S B 19 23— 92 

MtoMSOta 23 10 22 14- 77 

(ft FMey 7-14 32 19, Brtxfley 0-15 33 lft 
Me Garnett 4-13 *-* 14. Martniry 5-13 33 14. 
mm n un i ta D allas SO (Green 14, Mfenesoto 
43 (Garnett 9). Assists— Darias 19 (Pack, 
Finley 4). Minnesota 19 (Martniry 7). 

Denver 8 14 19 23- 63 

Portland 27 24 SO 24-107 

D: Hammonds 312 8-1014. D.ET* 5-140- 
0 lft P Ttort «-?54 n 5 2ft Anderson 4-14 <44 
16. Rebounds— Denver 42 (AAcDyess 11). 
Ponkmd 73 (Sabonte Dudtay 12). 
Assists — Denver 15 (Smith 5), Portland 21 
(Anderson 1®. 


NHL Playoffs 


(BEST-OF-7) 

St Louts 2 0 0—2 

Detroit 0 0 0-0 

First Period: S.L.- Courtnafl 1 (Hut Demltro) 
2, Si— Twgeon I (Maclnnis. Huri) (pp). 
Second Period: None. TOrd Period: None. 
Shots oo goat S.L.- 6-15-4—77. D- 7-8- 
15-30. Goaflec S-L-Rjhr. D-Vemon. 

(St Loots leaeft series 1-0) 
Edmonton 2 0 1-1 

Darias 2 0 3-5 

First Period: E -Merchant I (Murrey. 
Mironov; (sh). 2, D-Ntauwendyk 1 

(MaMicuM 3 (K Lefdtnen 1 (Adroit Zitoov) 
4, E-Buchbvger 1 (Amari, RUmrdson) 
SecoodPerioft None. T Mn t Perio d: Dtoossen 
1 (Gflchitst UdyortO ft E-Wetad 1 HJfktgrwi. 
Meows) 7. D-Modanol (LeMnen Ledyred) 
ft D-GUnfer 1 (Marsnaft Hatchet) (m>. 
Stats m gate: E-U-54-23. D- 10-139-29. 
Godes: E- Joseph. D-Moog. 

UXdkB leads series 1-0) 

CMcogo 0 ■ 0-0 

Catoradn 4 1 1—4 

Fkst Period: C- Keane 1 (Ye«e. Rhxfl 2. C- 
Ozsllnsh 1 (Sakic, LeratanO (pp). 3. Ct 
Fcnberg 1 (Sakic. OzaBnsld (pp). to C- 
Farsberg 2 (Deadmaralx Kamensky) Second 
Period: C-RlaJ 1 Uones. DeodrocssW TMnl 
Period: C-Lsmieux 1 (OroHnsh, Dead marsh) 
(pp). Shots no goat C- 10-7-5 — 22. C- 16-13 
12-38. Gordies: CrHnctea Terrert. C-Ray. 

(Criorado Nods series 1-0) 

Pboenbt 8 2 0-2 

Anotafen 2 1 1-4 

First Period: A-Sekinne 1 (Datgneoutt, 
Kariya) (pp). 2. A-Kartya 1 (Kurry, Rychel) 
Second Period: P-Roenk* 1 IRarmtng. 
Numminen) to A-Srianne 2 (Van Impe, 
DaHptaauW & P-Tkodwk 1 (Numminen. 
Rmnlng) (pp). TMrd Period: A-Karfyo 2 
(Seiortne) ten). Sfeots on goal: P- 14-10- 
7-31. A- MO-11 — 29. GoaBes: P- 
KhaMrufin. A- Hebert. 

(Aoatebn tends series 1-0) 


Everton I, Liverpool 1 
Newcastle iCbeteeal 
Wimbledon X Leeds 0 

Lttvuncup 

PMAL 

LBkxaet ). Middlesbrough a OT 
Scorer Steve Oaifdge (100th) 


VfB Stuttgart ft Hamburg SV 1 


Scorers: VfB Stuttgart — KressUtUr Balakow 
(15th). Thomas Schneider (Mth); Hamburg 
— Juergen Hartmann (19tt0 

DUTCH COP 

SaWWAL 

Rada JC Kettottde 1, Willem II TBburg 0 
Scoter Gendd Slbon (77th) 

auexettp 

FINAL 

AEK Athens 5, Panathinaikos 3 (SO) 

FRBKH FIRST DIVISI OH 

Rennes ft Lyon 1 
Meet, Lens 2 
Auwne ft Le Havre 0 
MetzftGuIngompO 
Bordeaux ft AAonoca 1 
MarselUe ft MontpetSer 2 
Strasbourg a Nantes 1 
Coen l, Nancy 1 

stammu Monaco 68 points; Paris St 
Germain 57; Nantes 5ft Basila 55; Bordeaux 
54; Strasbourg Sft Autene 52; MeD 50: Lyon 
49; Morfpeffler 44. Guta gamp 4to- Marseille 
4ft- Rennes 38. Lens 38; Cannes 3ft Le Havre 
3ft Line 3* Caen 31; Nancy 30; Nice 2R 
Spanish fsst pnrastoM 
Altdettc Bilbao to Sporting G()on 0 
Real Madrid to SevTta 2 
VoHodo8d 3. Barcelona 1 
Bells ft Zaragoza 2 
Deponhra Coruna l. CompoOela 0 
Raya Vallecono 1. Real Sodedod 0 
Cetta Vigo to Logranes 0 
Hercules 3. Tenerife 1 

STunmos: Real Madrid 79 points; 
Barcelona 69; Real Beds 6& Deporttvo 
Coruna 4ft Alletlco Madrid SS; VaHadaU Sto' 
Alhletic Bilbao 51; Tenerife 47. Real Sodedod 
47; Vtdenda AH Cetta Vigo 4ft Racing San- 
tnnderAZ ContpasMaAtb Kayo VjBecanozr, 
Exftemaduro 39; Oviedo 38; Espanyal 37, 
Zaragoza 37; Sparling Gftm 35; Hercules 31; 
Logrones 28; Sevttta 27. 


MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL 
AMERICAN LEAGUE 

detwwt— D eslgnofed OF Vince Cataman 
for assigninent Activated INF Phil Nevin 
from 15-day disabled 8st. 

Minnesota— A cttvoled OF Roberto Kelly 
from 15-day disabled Bst. Optioned OF Brent 
BredetoSalt Lake. PCL. 

TEXAS— Assigned OF Wmren Newson to 
Tuba. TLon MurY re f iuUN a i l u i i assignment 

TMONTO-AdtuatHf OF Jacob Brumfield 
from 15-day disabled llsl. Optioned OF Shan- 
non Stewart optioned to Syracuse, IL. 
NATIOMAL LEAGUE 

OHCINNATT — Activated RHP Jeff Brantley 
from 15 day rflsobled IW. Sent INF-OF Eric 
Owens and RHP Scort Sendee id Indtanapo- 
9S.AA. 


CALVIN AND HOBBES 


GUESS WHATJN WNPERfiACTEN l THINK f'M PRETTY GOOD 

TOPAY WE LEARNED TO AT IT.J’M A FAST LEARNER 
^ TIE OUR 5H0E5.. ' - 


■mosE aren't 

YOUR SHOES! 


HWT NE'OJGO&fcTO 
TWNSMOSftlPf WTO? j 


UCM ABOUT 
KTIQER.? 


TVWTSKOW) V 

10EX UCW3B0 /JUST TURN 
OH MUMS / TVt AfSOH 


USE MCSTHER 
V HG®. > 


UtMSOK \ 
MOPOSH I 
T^SJTOH. I 

f 


AU-RS®ir. 
HEEE«XJ 
. GO- y 



Bcrt.ryiUdT. 
H0WK)«U 
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ML THIS WR? 


t ^mc 



















PAGE 22 


OBSERVER 


Pushing Up Daisies 


By Russell Baker 

N EW YORK — Mafia 
killers, if we can believe 
“The Godfather." notify the 
higher-ups that someone has 
been bumped off by saying, 
“He sleeps with the fishes.” 
ThU reveals Americans' fas- 
tidious distaste, even among 
our more uncouth citizens, for 
forthright talk about death 
and murder. 

American English is rich in 
such mush-mouth talk. Con- 
sider “bumped off." Though 
not so poetic as “sleeps with 
the fishes." it discloses the 
same prissy reluctance to 
wallow in vulgar reality. 

In reality, the victim may 
have been garroned with pi- 
ano wire or slowly dis- 
mantled with a delicatessen 
salami siicer. How much 
more pleasant to hear that he 
has simply been “bumped 
off." as if some awkward aolt 
had elbowed him off the 
curb. 

Murderers probably don't 
say “bumped off' these 
days. Like most of us. mur- 
derers probably hate to seem 
out of touch with the new 
trends, and “bumped off’ 
sounds as antique as a black- 
and-white movie starring Ed- 
ward G. Robinson. 

In Robinson's day. mur- 
derers didn't confine them- 
selves to the "bump- off." 
Often they took their victims 
for “a little ride.” 

Afterward the deceased 
was said to be “pushing up 
the daisies," not * 'a-moulder- 
ing in his grave" like John 
Brown's body. 

Murderers, incidentally, 
are rarely “murderers” any- 
more. They are “hit men,” 
not precisely like Babe Ruth 
and Hank Aaron but. you 
know, not terribly bad chaps 
either, like — well — mur- 
derers are. “Hit man “sounds 


like an honest craftsman who 
might live next door. Kids 
would probably admire him. 
American entertainment and 
news are deeply dependent on 
death and killing to hold our 
attention. 

Politically motivated kill- 
ers who murder whole groups 
of people for publicity pur- 
poses are dignified as 
claimants. After a massacre, 
the press usually reports that 
this gang or that has * 'claimed 
responsibility” for the deed. 

the squeamishness about 
saying "murder” pushes 
politicians into comically 
grisly expressions. In Argen- 
tina, politically inconvenient 
people were not murdered by 
the government: they were 
“disappeared." 

□ 

During the Vietnam War 
the CIA did not murder in- 
convenient characters. In- 
deed, why should it have done 
so? Why stoop to murder 
when you can “terminate 
with extreme prejudice”? 

In the lasr war our soldiers 
were “greased." or “bought 
the farm.” or just “bought 
iL” With their weapons they 
"wasted” the enemy. 

“Wasting" has become 
such a cute synonym for 
killing that it now turns up 
frequently in movies, with 
murderers ordering their fel- 
low murderers to "waste 


er 


or 


im” or “waste 
“waste 'em all." 

So all our finicky meta- 
phors for death now bring us 
to a moment when we don't 
even allow humans enough 
dignity to be bumped off. but 
treat them as disposable 
garbage unfit to push up the 
daisies, or go for a little ride or 
sleep with the fishes. 

we ought to speak better 
than that of murder. It does so 
much to beguile us. 

N * iv York Times Ss nice 


Roseanne Bows Out of TV to Tackle Land of Oz 


By Bernard Weinraub 

.Viw Yor L Times Senic e 

L OS ANGELES — Nine years 

after the birth of her benchmark 
television scries. Roseanne is ex- 
hausted. The pop culture star who 
created “Roseanne" sat slumped 
on a sofa in her 
manager's office 
the other day, say- 
ing she hoped 10 
take a year off when 
the show ended in 
May. except for a 
three- week engage- 
ment in New York 

City as. of all 

things, the Wicked 

Witch in “The Wizard of Oz.” 

“It's so weird: I never identified 
with that nice girl Dorothy, only 
with the Wicked Witch who has all 
this sinisrer wisdom." said Rose- 
anne. who has already begun re- 
hearsals for her appearance at 
Madison Square Garden from May 
7 to June I. She began laughing. “I 
grew up in Salt Lake City, a dark 
girl among all the blondes. The 
Wicked Witch was so strong and 
outrageous. Oh. I love her.” 

For the moment, the finale of 
“Roseanne" on May 20 — after 
224 episodes and 4 Emmy Awards 
— consumes her. Few television 
shows or stars have blurred the line 
between an and life as does "Rose- 
anne." and few sitcoms have de- 
fined the culture, or at least a part of 
it. as did this series about the work- 
ing-class Connors of Lanford, 
Illinois, whose children weren't 
destined for Harvard, who were 
more anxious about keeping jobs 
than losing weight. 

"The show was about women, 
gender, politics, the working 
class.” Roseanne said emphatic- 
ally. “Did I think it would be suc- 
cessful? I actually did. Because I 
knew it was filling a void.” 

Beyond this , few television stars 
have been as defiant and out- 
rageous as Roseanne. a high school 
dropout who grew up poor in Salt 
Lake City, lived in an artists' col- 
ony near Denver as a teenager, had 


‘It’s so weird: I 
never identified 
with that nice girl 
Dorothy, only with 
the Wicked Witch/ 


four children by her early 20s. 
worked as a cocktail waitress and 
window dresser, became a stand-up 
comic and barely eked out a living 
until she struck gold with “Rose- 
anne." She jokes about being a 
domestic goddess in a trailer park. 

‘ ‘Nobody has really been able to 
replicate the fam- 
ily or class thing 
on television and 
you know why?” 
she said poin- 
tedly. “Because 
none of 'em are 
from there.” 

In recent weeks 
ABC has mined 
down a deal with 
the Carsey- Werner Co., the pro- 
ducers. to bring back “Roseanne.” 
whose ratings have slipped, for an- 
other season. Roseanne shrugs it 
off. “Actually I was relieved.” she 
said. “Everybody started rattling 
my chains. ‘Maybe we’ll do an- 
other season." I said, ‘Make me an 
offer I can't refuse.' And they 
didn’t. So it's over. My heart 
wasn't in it anyway.” 

Roseanne. now- 44, says she has 
been offered numerous proposals 
for a talk show- — and may do one 
— and perhaps a film (she starred 
with Meryl Streep in the poorly 
received “She DeiHl” in 19891. but 
that she plans to take time off after 
“The Wizard of Oz” lo write. 
“I’m so afraid of getting tricked 
into selling out that I've totally 
isolated myself." said Roseanne. 
who says she views herself primar- 
ily as a writer rather than a per- 
former. "So I think I’m going to 
take a year or so to like, recharge 
and open up again, without saying 
anything, figure out what I’m sup- 
posed to say now.” 

Roseanne spoke cautiously at 
first, then bluntly, about the sub- 
jects that engage or annoy her. 
These included what she views as 
the snobbishness of the women's 
movement c 'They’re afraid of 
working-class women, horrified of 
them"), the condescension of male 
television executives f I was the 
lone woman in their lives who 


didn't accommodate 
them, and you could 
see the meltdown")', 
the impact of her 
show ("I see the 
ripples of it every- 
where: on other 
shows, on advertising, 
on politics”), tabloid 
newspapers (“The 
tabloids have treated 
me like royalty — I’m 
always in there, good 
or bad — while the 
critics have generally 
treated me like 
trash”). Jackie Glea- 
son (“my ultimate 
god”) and success 
(“It's, like, isolating, 
and makes you feel 
like an alien from an- 
other planet, totally 
without any kind of 
fellowship'’). 

As for her raucous 
reputation for a- 
bniptiy dismissing 
writers and being ab- 
usive on the set, Rose- 
anne shrugged it off. 

"With some of them 
it was their first or 
second job," she said. 

“I wouldn't take pan- 
dering or garbage and 
I wanted everything to 
have meaning and so. 
like, these people who 
hated me (he most 
went on to become 
millionaires.'’ She 
grinned. 

Roseanne’s life is an open book, 
far too open- said some critics who 
view her with dismay. Once labeled 
“the human tabloid' ’ — in 1989 she 
was on more magazine covers in 
one year than anyone in history — 
she describes a past that sounds like 
the plot of a soap opera. After being 
hit by a car at the age of 16. she was 
sent to a state psychiatric hospital 
for eight months. At 18, she dropped 
out of high school to live a bo- 
hemian lire: gave birth to a daugh- 
ter, Brandi, who was given up for 
adoption and surfaced years larer. 



‘Roseanne 


Bin Barth- it m-fc .‘IV- V* lim*- 

” is priding after 224 episodes and 4 Emmys. 

married young and had three more 
children. Her second marriage, to 
the comedian Tom Arnold, was so 
tumultuous that even the tabloids 
seemed to be saying. “Enough!” 

There were stories about split 
personalities, assertions of child- 
hood sexual abuse, drug and alcohol 
rehabilitation, a scandalous, crotch- 
grabbing rendition of “The Star- 
Spangled Banner." She underwent 
cosmetic surgery and wrote two best 
sellers. Two years ago she married 
her bodyguard. Ben Thomas. They 
have a year-old son. Buck. 


Ytfhat’s obvious is 
that her oversize ego 
masks a shrewd and 
complex personally, 
a woman who reads 
and rereads Virginia 
Woolf and Jane Aus- 
ten. a woman who 
borrowed heavily 
from such television 
shows as "All in the 
Family.” and "The 
Honeymooners" and 
then moved onto en- 
tirely new television 
terrain. 

“She quite simply 

revolutionized the por- 
trayal of gender issues 
on television," Bern- 
ard Welt, chairman of 
the department of aca- 
demic studies at the 
Corcoran School of 
Art. wrote recently in 
Art Issues magazine. 
“Unlike Paul Reiser or 
Jerry Seinfeld, her 
barbs have always 
been aimed at social 
targets: she may be the 
first greai comedian of 
a generation trained to 
see domestic fife in 
political terms.” 

Because she dom- 
inated prime-time tel- 
evision for years and 
dealt with serious is- 
sues like joblessness 
and the problems fa- 
cing working moth- 
ers.” Roseanne made 
plain that she is angry that feminist 
groups have neither honored her 
nor treated her with respect. She 
attributes that to the fact that she 
“didn't go to Vassar" and that she 
never played a victim. 

“L grew up a working-class wom- 
an,” she said “That’s who I was 
around Those women inspired me. 
These women are thousands of times 
stronger and more open and tolerant 
and more filled with personal power 
than those women at the top who 
depend on the working-class women 
to stay where they are." 


r> 



Arnold Schwarzenegger (in Prague in 1996.) has had heart surgery. 


PEOPLE 


T HE action-movie star Arnold 
Schwarzenegger has had elective 
heart surgery to replace a heart valve. 
Schwarzenegger opted to have the aor- 
tic valve replaced even though it wasn't 
causing him any problems, his spokes- 
woman. Catherine Olim, said. ‘Tve 
never felt sick or had any symptoms at 
all. but I knew I'd have to take care of 
this condition sooner or later,” Schwar- 
zenegger said in a statement. “I said to 
the doctors. 'Let’s do it now, while I'm 
young and healthy.’ They agreed this 
was the way to go.” He is not expected 
to need medication or to alter his life- 
style. his doctors said. The star of the 
* 'Terminator' ’ movies plans ro rest until 
the end of May. when he will begin 
promoting “Batman and Robin.” 

□ 

Warner Bros.’ hottest duck just 
turned 60. And for his birthday. Daffy 
Duck got his own Web site. The on-line 
site features a trivia contest and Daffy 
sound bites. Since his 1937 debut in 
“Porky’s Duck Hunt.” Daffy has ap- 
peared in more than 120 cartoons. He 


still has his own Saturday morning TV 
series in the United States, and a week- 
day afternoon show. 

□ 

Dustin Hoffman has two Oscars and 
an Emmy, and soon he’ll have a Bri- 
tannia. He will receive the British 
Academy of Film and Television Arts’ 
highest honor, the Britannia Award, this 
fall for his contribution to the inter- 
national entertainment industry, the 
academy's Los Angeles chapter an- 
nounced. “For over 30 years, Dustin 
Hoffman has created some of the most 
unforgettable characters in the history 
of cinema." the Britannia Award co- 
chairs, Jane Deknatel and Su Lesser, 
said. Previous winners include An- 
thony Hopkins, Peter Ustinov and 
Martin Scorsese. 

□ 

A topless Elizabeth Hurley, the act- 
ress-model girlfriend of Hugh Grant, 
was splashed across two pages of Paris- 
Matcn magazine, a “mysterious un- 
known" applying suntan lotion to her 


back. The magazine said it had pho- 
tographed Hurley — from a distance — 
on April 10 as she lay by thepool of her 
Beverly Hills home. “Liz Haunts Her 
Revenge,” read the headline. In 1995, 
Grant was arrested with a prostitute in 
Los Angeles. The actor pleaded no con- 
test to lewd conduct, was fined and 
placed on two years' probation. 

□ 

Michael Jackson, who was to have 
been die star of the show at the World 
Music Awards this week in Monaco, 
has pulled out. organizers said. Jackson 
was to have been joint guest of honor 
with Jon Bon Jovi ar the televised 
awards ceremony at the Monte Carlo 
Sporting Club on Thursday. The show 
was to bestow prizes for top world sales 
to Celine Dion of Canada and the 
American group the Fugees. No ex- 
planation was given for Jackson's no- 
show. 

□ 

Maxim's plans to auction off 8,000 
bottles from the Paris restaurant’s cellar 


to make room for newer vintages and 
raise a bit of money. The owner of 
Maxim's. Pierce Cardin, noted that he 
was trying to buy more real estate on 
Rue Royale. where Maxim's is situ- 
ated. Some proceeds will go to the 
Claude Pompidou Foundation, which 
cares for elderly and handicapped 
people. 

□ 

The playwright and novelist Thorn- 
ton Wilder was a devoted supporter of 
the MacDowell Colony, a retreat for 
artists, composers and writers in Pe- 
terborough. New Hampshire. So what 
better way do celebrate die 100th an- 
niversary of his birth than with “A 
Wilder Evening,” to benefit the 
colony? During the evening at die Uni- 
versity Club in New York, songs from 
two musicals in the planning. “Grov- 
er's Comers” and “The Skin of Omv 
Teeth,” both based on Wilder plays, $ 
were performed, and a one-act comedy. ' 
“Cement Hands, “ had its world pre^ 
miere, starring Kevin Kline. Wilder 
was bom on April 17, 1897. 



do as the 172 - 1011 's do. 


Every country has its own AT&T Access Number which 
makes calling home and to other countries really east: 
Just dial die AT&T Access Number for the country you're 
calling from and you'll get the fastest, clearest connec- 
tions home. And be sure to charge your calls on your 
AT&T Calling Card. It'll help you avoid outrageous, 
phone charges on your hotel bill and save you up to 
60%* So when in Rome for anywhere else for that 
matter), do as many business travelers do. Use AT&T. 
Please check the list below for AT&T Access Numbers. 


Steps to follow for easy calling worldwide: 

1 .just dial the AT&T Access Number for the country you 
are calling from. 

1 Dial the phone number you're calling. 

5 Dial (he calling card number listed abora -our name 







AT&T Access Numbers 


EUROPE 

Austria *e .. PZZ-W3-011 

Belgium* 0-800-100-10 

Czech Republic* 08-42-080-101 

France O-WD-gWOll 

Germany .. O13JHR10 

Greece* DO-MO-1311 

Ireland . . 1-800-550 -DM 

Italy* 172-1811 

Netherlands* 8800-022-9111 

Russia **{Mdscow)i . .. 7H-SMZ 

Spain BOO-99-BO-11 


SvedBn - 

Switzerland* . ■ 

. ...MB-795411 
. 0888-89-8011 
.. 0600-89-8811 
880MWW11 


MIDDLE EAST 

Egypt* (Calni* 

618-0200 

Israel. - — 

. 1 77-1 DS-Z7Z7 

Saudi AraMa*- 

1-800-18 

AFRICA 

Bfrena 

0191 

Kenya* 

Q-8OT-1Q 

Sot#] Africa 

0-360*89-01 Z3 


Can't find the AT&T .Access Number for foe country yotfre calling from? Jus ask any operator for 
.AT&T DirecT Senke. or ttik out web steac hr^/w^^mmAraveltr 



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