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INTERNATIONAL 



The World’s 


Daily Newspaper 


PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


R Paris, Monday, December 1, 1997 


Forecast for Climate Talks: Storms 


Nation; I Interests 
Clash oh Averting 
Global farming 


By Wilfem K. Stevens 

‘ JWnr H* Times Soviet 


KYOTO, Ja an — In its 4-5 billion 
years of existe re. the Earth has with- 
stood deep col that nearly turned the 
entire planet to a ball of ice and 
blazing heat tl t opened tbe Arctic to 
alligators ant other warm-weather 
creatures. 

Compared > th that, and even with 
far less extrem climatic swings in die 
10.000 years s ce the end of die last 
ice age, today climate — for all its 
sometimes sta > variations — is re- 
markably stabl 

Now, for tht irst time, humans are 
altering the an ^sphere in ways that 
mainstream s endsts believe are 
threatening to shatter that relative 
calm and set o a new round of cG- 


updo an 

Starting Moi iy, representatives of 
more than 150 runtnes will meet in 
Kyoto to take ’ tat they hope will be 
[he first step in !ecades-long effort to 
cope with the aspect of global cli- 
mate change. I ely, if ever, has hu- 
manity made an tempt like this one: to 
exercise delibei e, collective foresight 
on a risk whos till impact is unclear 
and will not be It for decades. 

And rarely 1 any question on the 
global bargain > table been so dif- 
ficulL 

The negotiat s’ task is to agree on 
measures that >uld begin to reduce 
emissions of ’ ste industrial gases 
that trap heat ir ie atmosphere. Chief 
among these gi nhouse gases is car- 
bon dioxide, w :h is spewed into the 
air every day a md the globe by the 
burning of coa il and natural gas in 
power plants, ictories and motor 
vehicles. 

The world n ; on these fuels, and 
any action to c trol their use would 
reverberate in /ery comer of the 
global econom Ibis attempt to ma- 
nipulate the wo '5 energy system has 
set off a comp clash of economic 
and political in ests. 

Among olhi things, it pits rich 
countries again >oor ones, rich coun- 
tries against or mother and the na- 
tions and indus s that produce fossil 
fuels (as well : ome industries that 
use them heavi against much of the 
rest of the wo Even as the great 
majority of plaj ; say they accept the 
need for comnu icrion, each is mak- 
ing its own cj ilation of cost and 
benefit, advant: and disadvantage. 

The panel of endsts from around 
the world who rise the negotiators 
under United lions auspices has 
said that if notion is taken, tbe 
average surfac emperature of the 
globe will rise two to six degrees 
Fahrenheit by ti :nd of the next cen- 
tury and more a r that 

That might nc wnd like much, and 
it is a far cry fro he deepest cold and 


hottest heat of the remote past But it is 
not trivial; the difference between the 
average temperature nowand that at the 
depths of the last ice age. about 20.000 
years ago. is only five to nine degrees. 

It would be more wanning, coining 
more rapidly, than die planet has ex- 
perienced in the last 10.000 years, the 
period in which human civilization 
arose. It could profoundly affect the 
earth’s climate. 

The seas would rise, according to 
tbe panel of scientists, inundating 
many coastal areas and swamping 
small island nations. The world as a 
whole would become rainier, with 
most of tbe increase coming in tbe big 
downpours that cause floods. At the 
same time, drought-prone areas would 
get more droughts. 

Climatic zones would shift away 
from the poles, die scientists predict 
S ince the warming would be unusually 
rapid, many natural ecosystems might 
be unable to adjust end whole forest 
types could disappear. Growing sea- 
sons are already lengthening in north- 
ern latitudes, and temperate-zone ag- 
riculture might benefit in the long run. 
But in dry areas, like much of Africa, 
warming could bring agricultural and 
economic ruin. Tropical diseases like 
malaria and dengue fever could 
spread. And while temperate-zone 
winters would be milder, summer heat 
waves would be more intense and 
deadly. The list goes on. 

Such forecasts, of course, are rife 
with uncertainty. But many scientists 
say they believe that much of the im- 
pact is unavoidable. Tbe implication is 

See CLIMATE, Page 4 


Financial Turmoil 

In Asia Lessening 

Glances of Success 


By Maty Jordan 

Washington Post Service 

KYOTO, Japan — The odds against 
more than 150 countries signing a 
breakthrough climate treaty were al- 
ways long. But an unexpected new 
problem — ■ Asia's financial crisis — 
has deepened the doubt that world 
leaders will endorse a costly plan to 
help stop the Eaith’s warming trend. 

As thousands of government offi- 
cials and environmentalists arrived in 
this ancient Japanese city Sunday for 
the United Nations Framework Con- 
vention on Climate Change, many 
Asian countries were preoccupied 
with bankruptcies, diving stock mar- 
kets and the dwindling value of their 
currencies. 

“The financial crisis is now." said 
Melinda Kimble, the Lead U.S. ne- 
gotiator attending preliminary talks 
for the conference, which officially 
opens Monday. By contrast, she said, 
global warming is “very long-term.” 

She said the region’s financial dif- 
ficulties would affect the mood of tbe 
conference and color its discussions. 

“We raise questions about climate 
change,' ’ she said, “and what we bear 
back is, ‘We have a financial crisis to 
deal with/ “ A top official of Green- 


See FALLOUT, Page 4 


Dutcl Candidate Backed for EU Bank 

Leader of. j therlands Warns Against 'Politicisation 9 of Single Currency 


By Aladri 

IntentunoruMi 


itrtfs 


PARIS — Call 
tion to the con 
become the first , 
European Central 
Wim Kok of the 
"the overwhelm! 

European Union 

backing the can 

enberg. a fellow 
Mr. Kok also 
over tbe central 

by the French mcj 

inate the goverj 
France. Jean-Cla 

growing con sens 

enberg — could 
of Europe's sing 
"We should! 
debate over the 
doesn’t have a 
Kok said in an 
thing we need is 
euro decision- 
“I would . 
solution." he sj 
worsen the clima 


wed 


btfe 




m* 


time is running, 
“the overwhelm 


governments arejport 
enberg *s candidal 


1 ft»*Jona 

Anuta 

Cameroon .. 

Egypt 

Franco 

Gabon 

Italy 

Ivory Coast. 

Jordan 

Kuwait 


...10.00 
...1250 
1.600 
...J3E 5 
. 10.00 
1.100 
2.800 11 
12500 
...1250 
...700 


110132-4°°? 



Kbooi Kmbn/Tfcc AaoMcd 

Mayor Yorikane Masumoto of Kyoto leading a bicycle rally Sunday, the 
eve of the UN conference, to appeal for environmental responsibility. 


edman 

•raid Tribune 


for a quick solu- 
f over who will 
lent of the future 
hk. Prime Minister 
Fberlands said that 
majority” of the 
governments were 
of Wim Duis- 
fchman. 

that the debater 
post — triggered 
ast month to nom- 
of the Bank of 
Trichet, despite a 
il favor of Mr. Duis- 
iage the credibility 
Iprrency project. 

ful that the whole 
$pean central bank 
ing impact.” Mr. 
mew. "The last 
loliticizaiion of the 
process." 
quick and solid 
"We should not 
found the euro, and 
He added that 
majority of EU 
ing Mr. Duis- 


The move by President Jacques Chir- 
ac to nominate Mr. Trichet has created 
bad blood in European diplomatic 
circles and raised fears that France was 
seeking to exert indirect political in- 
fluence over the delicate issue of how 
interest rates would be decided once the 
euro was introduced in 1999. 

The candidacy of Mr. Duisenberg — 
a former central bank chief who now 
heads the European Monetary Institute 
in Frankfurt, the forerunner of the ECB 
— is backed by Chancellor Helmut 
Kohl of Germany and by Hans Tiet- 
roeyer, president of tbe Bundesbank. 

The Dutch prime minister contended 
that when Mr. Duisenberg agreed to 
accept the job as head of the monetary 
institute last year, the governors of each 
of the other 14 EU central banks were 
asked if they would support him as tbe 
future head of the European Central 
Bank. "He got a positive response from 
all of the governors, including Mr. 
Trichet," Mr. Kok said 



Czech Prime Minister Quits 




Economic Jolts 
Weakened Klaus 


By Jane Perlez 

New York Tuna Sen-ire 


PRAGUE — Prime Minister Vaclav 
Klaus was forced to resign Sunday, 


JiTjfaAywFiKi fti— 

Vaclav Klaus, left, handing President Havel his resignation tetter Sunday. 


Pakistan Prime Minister 
Lashes Out at President 

Army Could Intervene Soon , Diplomats Say 


By Raymond Bonner 

New York Tunes Service 


ISLAMABAD. Pakistan — 
Pakistan's prime minister sharpened his 
attacks Sunday on the president and the 
Supreme Court, and with the antag- 
onists showing no sign of compromise. 
Western diplomats said there was an 
increasing likelihood that the army 
would be forced to step in. 

All hope for a peaceful resolution of 
the crises seemed to evaporate Sunday 
evening when Prime Minister Nawaz 
Sharif assailed Pakistan’s president and 
the Supreme Court, blaming them for 
precipitating a crisis that has paralyzed 
the government and caused consider- 
able economic damage. 

Amid tbe turmoil, the visit of a senior 
U.S. military commander here was put 
off. Pakistan’s Army asked late Saturday 
that General Anthony Zinni, bead of the 
Central Command, postpone his visit 
The prime minister has been battling 
die high court for months, ever since the 


Asked to confirm Mr. Kok’s com- 
ment, a spokeswoman for the Bank of 
France declined to comment, but noted 
that the decision over who would head 
die future European Central Bank was 
expected to be made in tbe spring. 

Mr. Kok’s remarks, came amid 
mounting speculation that a compro- 
mise between France and Germany may 
be in the offing. 

The Monday edition of Der Spiegel 
magazine reports that a secret deal has 
been made between Paris and Bonn, un- 
der which Mr. Duisenberg would serve 
only four years of his eight-year term, and 
then hand the post over to Mr. Trichet. . 

Jacques Samer. president of the Euro- 
pean Commission, was quoted as saying 
that any such compromise was “not in 
tine with die spirit of tbe treaty." He 
said that tbe Maastricht Treaty called for 
a long mandate to guarantee tbe bank’s 
independence. 

See BANK, Page 4 


AGENDA 

Seoul and IMF 
Agree on Rescue 

South Korea reached agreement 
wife the International Monetary 
Fund on an aid package. Neither 
Finance Minister Lim Chang Yuel 
nor the IMF negotiator, Herbert 
Neiss, gave details, but sources said 
tbe package would be between $50 
billion and $60 billion. Page LI. 

NASA Drops Solar Mission 

CAPE CANAVERAL, Florida 
(Reuters) — NASA has given up 
’ hope of salvaging the Spartan solar 
science mission because .of dwind- 
ling fuel supplies on tbe space 
shuttle Columbia. Astronauts had 
rescued Spartan after a botched re- 
lease left it spuming in space and 
had hoped to set it free again. 





... Page 9. 


PageS. 

Sports 

Pages 26-28. 

Sponsored Section Pages 18-25. 

ENVIRONMENT: THE CHALLENGE 

The Mermarket 

Page 10. 

1 The IHT on-line 

WVA7.iht.com | 


justices reinstated a corruption inquiry 
against him and blocked a constitutional 
nmftnrlmftnr aime d at Strengthening his 
powers. On Friday, a mob supporting 
Mr. Sharif attacked the court building. 

The prime minister said Sunday that 
during tite two-month-long crisis, the 
country had lost $200 million in foreign 
exchange. “If people look at what has 
been happening in the last few weeks, 
they will see who has been conspiring 
against the interests of the country,’ ’ Mr. 
Sharif said in an address to (be nation. 

He accused ifae court of “tearing the 
constitution into pieces," and said the 
president “does sot help the Parliament 
in its efforts to protect the constitution.’’ 

The political crisis began early in 
November when Mr. Sharif criticized 
the Supreme Court, which is a crime in 
this country. Hie court is now hearing a 
contempt case against the prime min- 
ister, arising out of his verbal attacks. If 
found guilty of contempt, Mr. Sharif 
coaid be removed from office. 

The court also has before it cases in 
which the prime minister has been 
charged with corruption, for allegedly 
awarding a shipping contract to a friend 
in Washington during an earlier team as 
prime minister. Ibis would be a serious 

See PAKISTAN, Page 4 


the international financial community. 

President Vaclav Havel met with 
leaders of the three coalition parties in 
an effort to persuade them to fonn a new 
government and name a new prime min- 
ister. 

His aides said that Mr. Havel would 
urge the three parties to hang together as 
a government until early elections are 
called, probably next spring. If no one 
from among the fractious parties wanted 
to be prime minis to - , Mr. Havel would 
be free to appoint a government of ex- 
perts, they said. 

Mr. Havel later said -that talks on 
forming a. government would be 
delayed until after the Dec. 13 extraor- 
dinary congress of Mr. Klans’s Civic 
Democratic Party. 

- - - One thing appeared certain, politi- 
cians here said: Czech politics has lost 
the stability that had distinguished tbe 
country from the rest of Central 
Europe. 

Once an almost invincible politician, 
whose popularity sometimes rivaled 
that of President Havel, Mr. Klaus has 
been losing support since before par- 
liamentary elections last year. His party 
fared poorly in those elections and he - 
was forced to form a minority coalition 
government 

In the spring, a currency crisis forced 
the government to devalue the koruna, 
after Mir. Klaus had insisted that that 
would not be necessary. 

Mr. Klaus, a disciple of the American 
economist Milton Friedman, only 
grudgingly agreed in the last few 
months. to plans for a securities ex- 
change commission to regulate the 
scandal-ridden stock market. A number 
of small and medium-sized banks have 
collapsed this year, adding to the sense 
of unease in the economy. 

Most Czechs are not feeling richer, as 
Mr. Klaus promised five years ago, and 
many now know they may face un- 
employment as companies are forced to 
restructure. Tbe main opposition politi- 
cian, Milos Zeman, bead of tbe Social 
Democratic Party, was able to muster 
about 80.000 people to an anti-Klaus 
rally in Prague in November. It was the 
largest demonstration since the end of 
communism in 1989. 

The political upheaval had been 
brewing for months, largely because of 
corruption scandals in the stock market 
and the weak performance of the econ- 
omy. But Mr. Klaus’s undoing appeared 
to accelerate with a financial scandal 
within the Civic Democratic Party. 

See PRAGUE, Page 7 


Israeli Cabinet Supports 
Conditional Withdrawal 


By Serge Schmeroann 

New York Tunes Service 

JERUSALEM — The Israeli cabinet 
gave its approval in principle Sunday to 
ceding more territory to the Palestinians 
before a final settlement is reached, 
though tbe decision was coached in 
tough conditions, and it left open how 
much to transfer and when. 

Tbe cabinet also insisted that before 
any concrete withdrawal is discussed. 
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu 
must present his plain for a final set- 
tlement, in which he must specify which 
ureas he intends to retain for Israel, and 
“other vital interests." 

Tbe decision, which was announced 
by the cabinet secretary, Danny Naveh, 
said Mr. Netanyahu and a ministerial 
team composed of Foreign Minister 
David Levy, Defense Minister Yitzhak 
Mordechai and Infrastructures Minister' 
Ariel Sharon were to prepare proposals 


to submit to the cabinet “forthwith." 
Mr. Naveh said ibis could be as early as 
next week. 

While the decision appeared to take a 
step toward toe American and Pales- 
tinian demand that Mr. Netanyahu carry 
out tiie long overdue withdrawals be has 
pledged to make, it was also sufficiently 
noncommittal to satisfy the prime min- 
ister’s rightist constituency. 

Israeli commentators said the lop- 
sided vote in favor of the decision — 16 
to 0 with two abstentions — demon- 
strated the confidence of hard-liners in 
the cabinet that they were not approving 
any territorial concession — nor. in fact, 
any concrete decision. 

In particular, the government’s 
pledge to produce a concrete plan for die 
final settlement before any further with- 
drawals are made satisfied a major de- 
mand of the right, that Mr. Netanyahu 

See ISRAEL, Page 4 


Challenger Puts the Heat on Moi 

Woman Brings Opposition Hope of Victory in Kenyan Vote 


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By Stephen Buckley 

Washington Post Srrvit c 



NAIROBI — Charily Ngilu has promised to 
remain in office as Kenya's president for one term 
only. She has pledged to smother corruption in one 
of the world s most corrupt countries. She has 
implored Kenyans to make ho* their next president 
because of something she is non a traditional. Old 
Guard politician. 

As Kenya's opposition scrambles to prepare for 
presidential elections Dec. 29. a kind of political 
schizophrenia has come over this East African 
country. 

On the one hand, pervasive disunity, disor- 
ganization and lack of resources dog opposition 
politicians here even more so than in 1992. when 


Kenya held its first multiparty elections. On the 
other, there is an increasing sense that if the 
opposition can force a second round of voting it 
may have a shot at removing from office President 
Daniel arap Moi; in power since 1979.. 

The top two vote-getters in the first round — 
virtually certain to include Mr. Moi — will move 
on to the second round if no candidate wins an 
overall majority of the vote and 25 percent of the 
votes in at least five provinces. 

The sliver of optimism about opposition pros- 
pects has crane from Mrs. Ngilu, who would become 
sub-Saharan Africa’s first elected female president 
if she unseals Mr. Moi. A poll taken in late summer 
by the U.S, Agency for International Development 

See KENYA, Page 4 



Mrs. Ngilu, who has challenged Mr. Moi in Kenya's upcoming elections, in"a July*phota ' W 


r-T 

eg 


% 









INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER L, 1997 


PAGE TWO 


Silence Instead of ‘ Taps ’ / 'You Don't Do That to Our Men' 


-r— J'irt* l f* 
asts \ ! ^ '■ llr 1 

* 'l . . ' : 


Military Funerals Fall Victim to Cutbacks Shadow on South Africa 


W ASHINGTON — On a crisp, sunny 
day in late October, Fred Connor’s 
family gathered to bury him. The 56- 
year-old Vietnam veteran recently had 
died of cancer, and his family wanted a proper send- 
off. But after die long, white hearse rolled slowly 
through the gates of Quantico National Cemetery, 


By Eric L. Wee 

KfaxAington Post Service 


things did not unfold as mourners expected. 

Trie military honors team they thought would 


cany die coffin to the grave never showed up. 
Family members and friends finally did it them- 
selves. Then as the service concluded, they waited 
in silence for the rifle salutes and the piercing 
sounds of taps. Nothing. 

Instead, a U.S. Army representative arrived, 
presented a flag to the widow and told the chaplain 
there would be no bugle player or rifle detail Recent 
cutbacks, he said, bad done away with such for- 
malities. 

“I was flabbergasted,” said Imagene Stewart, a 
friend of the Connor family who officiated at the 
funeral ceremony. * 'This man went to Vietnam, and 
you tell me his country can't have someone with a 
bugle out there to give him proper military rites? He 
didn't resist when he was called upon, and that's the 
way he gets treated? 

“You don't do that to our men,” she added. 

For decades, bereaved families of honorably dis- 
charged army veterans in the Washington region 
could count on the 3d U.S. Infantry, known as the 
“Old Guard,’ to help lay their loved ones to rest. But 
18 months ago, local army officials, faced with 
defense downsizing and increasing demands from 
the World War II generation, decided they no longer 
could provide the service. 

The unit, based at Fort Myer, used to send a 10- 
member team to the funeral of any eligible veteran 
in its territory, which includes 25 counties stretch- 
ing from the Washington to West Virginia. 

Under the old procedure, a team would have 
earned Fred Connor's coffin. Later, seven men 
would have lined up with their rifles and fired three 
volleys. A bugle player would have sounded taps 
while a supervisor and an alternate watched. 

But in recent years, the army has been finding it 
increasingly difficult to maintain (he tradition. Staff 
reductions made it more difficult to commit a team 
to travel for hours to a remote area, taking nearly a 
dozen people from other duties. And the number of 
requests kept rising: In 1987, the Old Guard at- 
tended 3,543 funerals, including the ones in Ar- 
lington National Cemetery. This last fiscal year they 
presided over 4,400 ceremonies, and the demand is 



By Lynne Duke. . 

1 Washington Post Service 


- . ~ ,< 


BO QTUaiWTV Widhingwi ft* 


under Department of Defease guidelines — full 
honors for active military members and Medal of 
Honor recipients. Teams also would be sent to the 
funerals of: retirees with 20 years or more of active 
duty. Other veterans would have at least one mil- 
itary representative to present a flag to the family. 

“We saw that we just couldn’t keep up with the 
pace,” said Tom Groppel, director of ceremonies 
and special events for the U.S. Military District of 
Washington. “We wanted to perform the service in 
the worst way. But the reality was the numbers 
wouldn ’t allow us to continue. Our concern was that 
we would allow ourselves to be strung out so thin 
that we wouldn't be able to do a good job.” 


T O VETERANS like George Lus&ier, chair- 
man of the Potomac Region Veterans 
Council, which raises funds for ceremonies 
at Quantico National Cemetery, the change 
is an oatrage. He thinks the military should set up a 
fall-rime squad at Quantico and at other national 
cemeteries to deal solely with funeral services if 
staff shortages are the problem. 

“We're talking about someone who never ques- 
tioned why they went into battle,” Mr. Lussier said. 
“Now it’s coming to die time when they're passing, 
and we're not doing the right thing for them. This is 
their fond farewell, and they just want to know when 
their time comes, they will be honored property for 
their service, ft’s not a lot of money, and even if it 
was a lot, so what?” 

The problem the military faces is largely demo- 
graphic. World War II veterans are a g in g and start- 
ing to pass away in larger numbers. In 1991, ac- 
cording to the Department of Veterans Affairs, 
457,500 veterans died. This year, the number is 
expected to be 537,000, and it will rise to 620,000 in 
10 years. Other branches also are feeling die pinch, 
but the army faces die bulk of the problem. 

Addressing the question last year, the army's 
Casualty and Memorial Affairs Operation Center, 


expected to continue growing. 
The squeeze is being felt n: 


The squeeze is being felt nationwide but is es- 
pecially acute in places with high concentrations of 
veterans, like Washington. 

Under the new policy in the Washington region, 
die army decided it would do what was required 


which handles burial issues nationwide, chose to 
continue allowing local commanders to decide 
whether they could field an honor detail to area 
funerals. But army officials said that increasingly, 
those commanders are deciding they do not have the 
staff. 

A related problem, officials say, is that army 
bands are coming under the budget ax, so bases also 
are losing the people who can play taps. 

Hany Campbell, dispositions chief for the op- 
erations center,, said base commanders sometimes 
have not been able to said an honor team to funerals 
for generals. ‘ ‘They look at someone with two silver 
stars, and they know they have someone that should 
be recognized,” Mr. Campbell said. “They ap- 
preciate the hardship these guys went through, and 
they want to support them. They just can’t do it'’ 

So the armed forces are lookmg more to such 
groups as the Veterans of Foreign Wars and the 
American Legion to fill the void.. The army's Wash- 
ington district in recent years has produced videos 

duties. It bas^ako^ offered the use of rifliTfor 
ceremonies and cassette tapes of taps. . 

But members of these veterans groups are aging 
as well, and some, like Tony Ba&keville, a national 
official with Ae Disabled American Veterans or- 
ganization, wony that well-intentioned senior cit- 
izens can no longer perform the ceremonies with the 
required crispness. Others complain that a canned 
version of taps blaring from a boombox just does not 
cany the right message. 

Another idea is to extend the honor guard func- 
tion to the National Guard and military reserve 
units. In May, Representative Paul Kanjorski, 
Democrat of Pennsylvania, introduced a bill to that 
effect. 

Veterans deserve “all the military honors we can 


JOHANNESBURG — The .cast, of 
characters ranged from the sublime to 
the profane. The kaleidoscope of testi- 
mony spanned fact, fiction and spec- 
tacularly vicious rumor. 

In five days of testimony tty 25 wit- 
nesses, South Africa’s Truth and Re- 
conciliation Commission has attempted 
* to uncover the truth about murders and 
other abuses committed tty the 1980s 
bodyguard squad of Winnie Madfldze- 
la-Mandela and the role that South 
Africa’s most famous woman played in 
those abuses. 

But in plumbing the depths of ihe 
depravity that coursed through the 
squad, the truth commission has un- 
earthed a series of .other truths that 
South Africa is uncomfortable expos- 
ing. 

The Madildzela-Mandela hearings, 
which are to continue this week and 
c ulmin ate with her own testimony, have 
become a window ooto some of the 
deepest weaknesses, compromises and 
moral conflicts inherited from the 
apartheid era of white-minority xule as 
well as from the black struggle against 
it. 

Hundreds of spectators, victims, 
politicos and joarnalists gathered at the 
Johannesburg Institute of Social Ser- 
vices each day last week for the sadly 
sobering spectacle of this truth-seeking 
process. 

Mrs. Madildzela-Mandela ’s charac- 
ter is some of the most contested terrain 
in the nation. People want to know: Did 
she give orders for her bodyguards to 
kill? Did she kill anyone herself? Or is 
she being persecuted for her fire, her 
independence? The truth commission is 
probing these questions, and one day, 
perhaps, the truth will be known. 

But the moral scrutiny to which Mrs. 
Madildzela-Mandela is being subjected 
is being shared far and wide. The truth 
panel has asked hard questions about 


lions. “You were deal 
. ful political leader in 
well as the wife of or 
most revered leaders 
heavily with you to th 
were prepared to acce 
Otto Mbangula, a 1 
man involved in effoi 
one of several crises 
Mrs. Madikizda-Ma 
1980s, was the only c 
. who could or would »-* 
obvious. 

“I think it is true, tl 
described must have t 
Mrs. Madilrizela-P 
ANC’s public face L 
while the party was bi 
during the three de 
1990. 

But another symbt 
late 1980s. His nai 


hgwithapowar- 
poYn right, as 
F of Bbc nation's 
pid that weigh 
point where you 
f her say-so?" 
fethodist clergy- 
s to negotiate in 
that surrounded 
lela in die late 
e of those asked 
nit what seemed 




[ what you have 
in,” he said, 
ndela was the 
ide the country 
aed and in exile 
des ending in 


emerged in the 
■ was Stompie 


Another symb emerged 
In the late 198 s. His 
name was Stoipie Seipei. 


Moekhetsi Seipei. a 
ist, who in death cam 
extent to which son 
terribly awry in the i 

Madildzela-Mandela 
Stompie Seipei ’ 


youths abducted by 
from a Soweto churettnd taken to Mrs. 
Madildzela-Mandela home in late 
1988. Stompie Seipei oundupdead — 
beaten severely, stab' 1 in the neck, his 
body found in e y 1989. Mrs. 
Madikize I a- Mande la 'as convicted in 
1991 for his kidnap ng, with an ac- 
cessory to assaulted ctioDihrown out 
the following year oi ppeal 

Bat in early 1989, fore anyone but 
his killers knew whs sad happened to 
him, rumors course hrough Soweto 
that such an abductir dacLoccmred. A 
crisis committee wa ictivated within 
the United Democr : Root; the in- 
ternal surrogate for i ANC while the 
ANC was banned an riled. 

This week, some the most prom- 
inent political figure >f that era, who 
have become some die most prom- 
inent figures in the w, attempted to 
explain their actions tey spoke in the 
formal language of p< iaans walking a 
tightrope. They exj ne3 their “ne- 
gotiations” wife Mrs [adSknela-Man- 
dela to secure the ase of the ab- 
ducted youths. 

“We had to be as lomatic as pos- 
sible and also be a sertive as pos- 
sible,” said Sydn Mnfamadi, a 
former leader of the nt.and now the 
minister of safety a security. “You 
can understand how i iqultitwas/’he 
told the truth comm mponeL 

But the front com tee was created 
in response to an tier crisis over 
football club violen before the boys 
were abducted. So < itions arose last 
week over whether id 'enough, early 
enough, to try to it a death like 
Stompie Seipei’s. 

When suen a que n was put to the s 
committee in a new inference, Frank 9 
Chikane, a clergyn from the front 
days and now a top e to the nation’s 
deputy president, la d out 

“I did everything isible. I think we 
achieved what we Id achieve," he 
said. “Why should be accused?" 


1-year-old activ- 
to symbolize the 
thing had gone 
J verse that Mrs. 
habited, 
is one of four 
re football club 
nd taken to Mrs. 


din the neck, his 
•y 1989. Mrs. 
tas convicted in 
p& with an ac- 
ctioEthrown out 


powerful figures around her and why 
they could not or did not act more force- 
fully to put a brake on her “Mandela 
United Football Club,” the euphemist- 
ically named bodyguard squad, and the 
extent to which delicate political cal- 
culations impaired their ability to act. 

This scrutiny is being focused on the 
African National Congress, led by Mrs. 
Mflriflrizfi la-Mandela’s former husband. 
President Nelson Mandela, who was 
serving 27 years of imprisonment at the 
time her club’s abuses were committed, 
ft is focused also on the clergy who 
helped in the anti-apartheid struggle, 
and on the law enforcement community 
thru tried to stop black liberation but has 
now, to a large extent, been absorbed 
into the new democratic' order. 

These conflicts cut to Ihe heart of the 
ANC, which, a decade after die events 
in question, is still trying to manage the 
phenomenon known simply as “Win- 
nie.” . 

For several days, a central question 
loomed over the process, ft is the ques- 
tion of how leaders, in trying to manage 
or navigate around Mrs. Madflrizela- 
Mandela, were affected by her stature as 
“Mother of the Nation.” Finally, on 
Thursday, a truth commissioner, Du- 
misa Ntsebeza, put it straight out 

“Even as we ask questions of you, we 
doa’t put it directly to you.” he said in 
prefacing this most delicate of ques- 


provide, ’ ’ Mr. Kanjorski said. “Not doing thatis fee 
last thing I want to have happen. It’s fee last thing 


last thing I want to have happen. It’s fee last thing 
feat should happen.” 


At Children’s Funeral, Iraqis Protest UN Sanctions 


The Associated Press 

BAGHDAD — UN arms inspectors 
went about their business Sunday as 
thousands of Iraqis shouting “Down 
Wife America” took pan in a funeral 
for dozens of children whose deaths Iraq 
blames on United Nations sanctions. 

About 100 wooden caskets were car- 
ried on cars and orange-hnd- white Bagh- 
dad taxis in a government-sponsored 
funeral procession under rainy skies. 

Iraq maintains the children, some less 
than a year old, died for lack of food or 
medicine in fee past two days. They 
blamed the deaths on UN sanctions im- 
posed on Iraq after its 1990 invasion of 


Kuwait The sanctions prevent Iraq 
from exporting its oil and have dev- 
astated tire country's economy. 

It was not possible to independently 
confirm fee number of children dying or 
the cause of their deaths. 

Iraq maintains it has fulfilled the UN 
Security Council resolutions requiring 
it to eliminate its weapons of mass de- 
struction, but fee aims inspectors have 
accused President Saddam Hussein's 
government of hiding weapons or fee 
means to make them. 

The government issued a statement 
late Saturday urging the world to accept 
Iraq's invitation for UN experts and 


diplomats to visit presidential palaces, 
which arms inspectors say may be used 
to hide weapons. The statement defen- 
ded Iraq’s refusal to allow the UN arms 
inspectors now in fee country to take 
paii, saying their presence in fee palaces 
would threaten Iraqi sovereignty. 

The UN inspections were called off for 
three weeks after Iraq refused to allow 
American inspectors to take part, claim- 
ing they were spies. When Iraq threw out 
fee Americans, UN officials withdrew 
other inspectors in protest. The govern- 
ment agreed to the Americans’ return 
Nov. 22 under a Russian-mediated plan. 

Also Sunday, fee UN h umani tarian 


coordinator for Iraq, Denis Hafliday, left 
for New York to take part in fee UN 
debate on renewing fee oil-for-food pro- 
gram for a third six-month period. 

Under the UN-approved program, Iraq 
is allowed to export $2 billion in oil every 
six months to buy food and medkiiie. Mr. 
Halliday has said oil exports should be 
increased becanse fee money coming in 
now does not meet Iraq’s needs. 

On Saturday, Iraq reversed itself and 
said it would not oppose fee renewal of 
fee oil-for-food program. Earlier it had 
atgued for a complete lifting of sanc- 
tions rather than continuation of fee 
limited program. 


fore anyone but 
tad happened to 

hrough Soweto 
lacCoccurred. A 
ictivated within 
• Proni, fee in- 
ANC while the 


[fee roost prom- 
k attempted to 
my spoke in the 
loans walking a 
ned their “ne- 
(adikizela-Man- 
\ ase of fee ab- 


Jsecurity. “You 

iqultitwas,"he 

m panel, 
tee was created 
tier crisis over 


a death like 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


WEATHER 


Egypt Halves Domestic Airfares 


5?eritageof 
yesterday.. .today. 


UNIVERSITY DEGREE 

BACHELOR'S • MASTER'S • DOCTORATE 
Far Work, Life and Academe Experience 
ifrougf? Convened Home Study 

(808) 597-1909 EXT. 23 
Fax: (310) 471-6456 
http://www.pwu-tii.edu 
'Gray' fa or send detafed resume far 


CAIRO (Reuters) — Egypt is slashing domestic airfares by 
50 percent to encourage tourism in fee wake of fee massacre 


by Muslim militants of 58 foreign tourists in Luxor, an 
EgyptAir official said Sunday. 

Hussein Hosni, head of sales at fee state airline, said fee 
reductions would start Monday and stay in force for three 
months. 

The government newspaper A1 Ahram said fee decision to 
halve domestic air fares was made at a meeting Saturday of 
Prime Minister Kamal Ganzouri, Tourism Minister Mamdouh 
Beltagi and tourism industry representatives. 


Hotel Soficel 


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Roads Are Reopened in Colorado 



Are You Prepared ? 

199? & 1998 Will Generate 
Major Currency Moves. 

These movM will directly affect the value of 
your Portfolio Prepare yourself to take 
advantage of these moves by calling today. 


DENVER (AF) — Major highways have been reopened in 
southern Colorado after being blocked by heavy snow, and 
hundreds of travelers hit fee road after spending a night in 
emergency shelters. 

One death was attributed to the storm, which piled up snow 
from Thursday night through Friday, 40 inches (a meter) and 
more in some cases. About 4,500 customers lost power west of 


Pueblo, but service was restored to most places Saturday. 

Interstate 25 was dosed for about 85 miles (135 kilometers) 
from Pueblo to the New Mexico state line. Both southbound 
and northbound lanes were reopened by midday Saturday, the 
authorities said. Other highways also were closed around 
Walsenburg, Kit Carson and T rmnn. 


mmm 


This Week’s Holidays 


For My Complimentary Services Guide. Latest Research Reports. 
Opinions and Performance Records Cali (2~ hours j Toll-Free. 

^ ' mm® l 



Banking and government offices will be closed or services 
curtailed in fee following countries and tbeir dependencies 
this week because of national and religious holidays: 


US-Toll Voice Lino +714-376-5020 US-Toll Fax Line +714-376-3025 


MONDAY: Baitadoa, Ccisml African Republic, Chad. Macou, Portugal, 
Romania. 

TUE SDAY: United Arab Emirates. 

WEDNESDAY: Sudan. 

FRIDAY: Cham. Haiti, Noherl»df Antilles, TbsiLutd. 
SATURDAY: Finland. Spain. Sources: JP. Morgan. Bloomberg 


Europe 






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MH* 

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line 12*3 pc 

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307 

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ora? 

W 10 an 


■406 

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bt/aifari 

14/67 

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1102 

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1053 

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Forecast for Tuesday through Thursday, as provkiad by AccuWeether. 



CitongMal 31/1 
Colombo Mfl 


HoCHMnh 
Hong Kong 


i UnMMomfcly 

Cold 


North America 

Diy and warm across the 
Northwest Tuesday and 


Europe 


Wednesday, but it may 
shower by the ooaat Frf< 


Russia and all of northern 
Europe will remain cold 
with occasional snow and 
flurries. That cold air wffl 
plunge southward into 
western and central 
Europe, bringing a tew flur- 
ries to Paris and London. 
Soaking rain over Italy 
Tuesday win head slowly 
eastward into the Bafcana 
and Greece. 


shower by the ooaat Fit- 
day- Chffly In the Northeast 
with Showers of rain and 
Wgher-fltavsUon mow. The 
Midwest will be mild Tues- 
day. than colder with rein 
changing to snow. Nice In 
theSoumwsL 


Asia 

Dry and cold h EMpng and 
Seoul Tuesday, but tem- 
pewuree wfl moderate by 
Thursday- Tokyo will 


Kwach aan 
KLunsw Jifl 
K. IQrattok, Mfl 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEM^^' ' 1997 

THE AMERICAS 


Gore Wires Up the Vice Presidency 

An E-Mkil Addict, He Uses Laptop as Communications Center 


By Rajiv Chandrasekaran 

• Wavhi Post Service 


s«n p<& Service loaded from the global network and - tic policy adviser. “Youjustcan’tpopin 

configured to work on his machine. One ' ana ask him a question.” But you can 

DN — When President ' included a horizontal map of die world with e-maiL At me same rime , Mr. Gore 
Lvels. a black suitcase that sits in the comer of one’s screen and says he uses e-mail so he won't bother 
odes to launch nuclear shows where it’s daytime and where it's his subordinates, 
lys with him, dark. * ‘It’s like the clocks they have at “I just find e-mail to be a much easier 

it A1 Gore’s sidekick is a the CIA," Mr. Gore said proudly. “Ex- way to communicate because you don’t 
ip computer. cept they use a thousand-doll ar version have to worry about calling your staff on 

Clinton’s suitcase, Mr. that hangs on the wall I got this one for the telephone ai a time when they’re in 


WASHING! ON — When President 
Bill Clinton t Lvels. a black suitcase 
containing the »des to launch nuclear 
weapons is alw ysr with him 
Vice Preside t Al Gore’s sidekick is a 
black IBM lap! p computer. 

| Unlike Mr. Clinton’s suitcase, Mr. 
Gore’s Think! id 560, which cannot 
launch missiles is always in use: on Air 


meetings in hf office, WhiteHouse „ jS. “?S£ cen.communicam with anybody on the 


aides say, he cten has one’ eye on his ^ staff, even the most junior people,’’ said 

computer scree , scanning through new Daniel. Pink, Mr. Gore’s former chief 

arrivals in his nUbox. * speechwriS. ‘‘In many ways, he defies 

He is just as ;yched about the rest of megenerational divide in the White 

the Internet. In a scent interview, the vice Houik” 

president dcma trated his technological if w i“ tSwSh* wh£ Mt Got® “ known for having proper 

prowess, taking reporter on a tour of his “Netiquette." He generally respondito 

favorite World ide Web sites. 5%?^ ad J otpi ?g Q1 f 1 E^ec^ve important messages within 24 hours, of- 


en has one’ eye on his 
> scanning through new 


Corp.’s chairman. Bill Gates, and a co- 
terie of West Coast technology gurus. 
But over the last few years Mr. Gore 


Starting offlith his White House Office Building e-mailing has become 
homepage on tfe screen (http^/www.- “» P™"? 1 ? “ftl ofi communication 
whitehouse- gl/WH/EOP/OVP/htmV ^^espccially with tbe boss^ 


homepage on t ; screen (hi 
whitehouse. g /WH/EOPj 
GORE — Home ltml), he j, 
site called Ma^uest, wui 
whenever his c ldren need 
Then there w > the weal 


People at all levels, fiom young gEfE* m “If™ ™“ 

), he jumped to a " r: X4r « ’ "f, T * from White House staffers and close 

it, which he uses speechwniers lo Mr Gore, men the In- ftioQds011tsi< iefteco m pou««i.hesaidhe 


luest, which he uses 
dren need directions, 
the weather pages, 


£=t f newspapers 

end conduct research. In meetnukMr. about 400 a day M a public address 


which, be said, {usually always fool at 


before I travel." 

Next came th wlitlcs sites, including 
one run by O and Time' m agazin e 
called AJlPoliti *T never use those,” 
he quipped. 

After droppi in on an investment- 
related site an one devoted to tech- 
nology news, N Gore showed off sev- 


“white board" that sends a copy of his 
scribblings to a computer file. 

The result has been one of political 
Washington's most atypical work- 
places. Junior staffers frequently mes- 
sage Mr. Gore directly with questions. 


(vice.presidentwhitehouse.gov). Those 
messages are read by aides, who some- 
times forward particularly thought-pro- 
voking ones to him. 

But there are still some people Mr. 
Gore cannot teach with e-maiL Tne most 
important one is his boss. 

Mr. Clinton “doesn't use e-mail very 


111 0*1 miwuuum' -r. r 1*11. V-UULUU uuraii i use c-uuui y 

devoted to tech- fJJJJ?® nSw nm&h now, but he plans to start,” Mr. 

I Gore showed off sev- He s die vice president said Greg ^ ^ . * 



eral software applications be had down- Simon, Mr. Gore’s former chief domes- 


-Si. 


“I just find e-mail to be a much easier 
way to communicate because you don’t 


u 7 1 **L I ’ ar ' ^union $ suucase, Mr. that hangs on the walL l got this one for the telephone at a time when they're in 
Gores Think! id 560, which cannot something like 25 bucks.” the middle of doing something else or 

launch missiles is always in use: on Air Mr. Gore has long bad a reputation of when the number is busyorwhen they're 
Force Ttoo; ™ 1 e ^ mo ’ ® A* backstage being steeped in the stellar issues of out eating lunch or they really ought to 
• “hddmgrootn" before he gives a speech, technology policy. He popularized the be devoting their time to a higher priority 
Almost any ton and place he maitw than the one I want to 

has a free mime and “se- ” get an answer to,” Mr. Gore 

cure’’ felephor connection. The vice president is known for having said. -“Yet, if I call them, 
he checks his el stronic maiL » i1XT . , they’re going to think, 'This 

Mr. Gore is n e-mail ad- tne proper Iv etiquette. is the top priority right now,’ 

diet, people on lis staff say. — ~ - - rr-r; and it's reallv not” 

Everyday, he r ,ds through mom Hum a Meeting with advises for a substuu- 

hundredmessa sand sends out almost ?! _ live face-to-face convention generally 

as many, som. mes doing it from his sch °° l ?.. l ,°.‘ he -. hlli! ??. * id ” 1 ? , a requires bloddng off time on his cal- 
residence late ir o file nieht Durine staff vepion of the computer net- -with e-maiL he 


get an answer to,” Mr. Gore 
Off said. -“Yet, if I call them, 
they’re going to think, ’This 
is the top priority right now,* 

and it's readly not” 

Meeting with advisers for a substan- 
tive face-to-face conversation generally 
requires blocking off time on his cal- 
endar days in advance. "With e-maiL he 




- ~ / 


■ f - :• ; .. r; 

, m ? %■ f w - 




LariosThhciaJe/llw Wsdnicd ft™ 


NOMAS — TbousaiMfc marching tfarot^bMexico City to protest mcreases in cjrimfi and violence in the capital 


Foreigners Have Rights, Police Advised 


clustered in *e West^mg of die White 

House and the adjoining Old Executive It, nf ® -.u- n c 

a ^ In addition to the 100 to 150 messages 

a day he receives in his private mailbox 


By Sam Howe Verhovek 

New York Tones Service 

HOUSTON — Sparred by com- 
plaints from Mexican officials and by 
controversies over at least two death- 
penalty cases in Texas, the U.S. State 
Department has renewed a campaign to 
remind state and local law-enforcement 
agencies that foreign citizens arrested in 
the United States have the right to con- 
tact their government for help. 

Under the Vienna Convention on- 
Consular. Relations, ratified by the 
United States and more than 160 other 
countries, foreign nationals taken into 
custody in another country must be told 
that they can notify their embassy or 
local consulate. In some cases, em- 


bassies must be notified of such arrests 
automatically. 

While many U.S. embassies rely on 
the treaty as a critical protection for their 
citizens in trouble with foreign Jaw, 
there have been periodic complaints 
from diplomatic officials and defense 
lawyers that many U.S. law-enforce- 
ment agents know little or nothing about 
the treaty. 

More specifically, the execution in 
Texas in June of Irineo Tristan Montoya, 
a Mexican fishennan convicted of a 
1985 murder in Brownsville, cast a new 
spotlight on the issue. Lawyers trying to 
stave off his execution argued that his 
legal rights had been violated because he 
was not informed of his Vienna Con- 
vention rights when he was arrested. 


Mexico lodged a formal complaint with 
foe State Department. 

Though the State Department later 
issued an apology to Mexico, no U.S. 
court had found the lack of notification a 
sufficient cause to overturn Mr. 
Tristan's conviction. The issue was also 
clouded by prosecutors’ contentious that 
he had not identified himself as a foreign 
citizen at the time of his arrest 

Lawyers for another Mexican citizen 
on death row, Cesar Fierro, who was 
convicted of murdering an El Paso cab 
driver in 1978, have also raised the issue 
of lack of notification of the defendant’s 
Vienna Convention rights. Mr. Fierro's 
execution, set in November, was stayed 
when an appeals court gave him more 
time to prepare a new brief on his case. 


BRADFORD - BRISTOL > CARDIFF • CHEPSTOW 


Money S ire's Largesse 
Stalls Ex ensive Rule 

WASHING! M — -To many Republicans 
and Democrats i Washington, the Money 
Store could not ve a better name. 

, it has been not only the 
der of loans guaranteed by 
Business Administration, 
iggest campaign donors in 
mpany and its executives 
and raised more than 
ublicans and Democrats 

vestment Corp. has per- 
and administration offi- 
ulation that senior career 
ministration say would re- 
1 of a huge taxpayer bailout, 
ly turn and with it Money 


Clinton Seeks Renewal 
For Volunteer Programs 

WASHINGTON — President Bill Clinton, 
touting die importance of volunteer citizen 
service to the nation’s future, announced over 
the weekend that he mil propose legislation to 
extend several national programs for five 
more years, including AmeriCorps. 

Mr. Clinton asked Americans in his weekly 
radio address to carry on the Thanksgiving 
spirit and observe the Martin Luther King 
holiday in January by volunteering their time 
to help others. 

“Dr. King once said that everybody can be 
great because anybody can serve,” he said. 

Other programs die president wants to ex- 
tend are Learn and Serve America and the 
National Senior Service Corps. (API 

Quote/Unquote 

Senator Robert Byrd, after Mr. Clinton 
recently canceled 38 pet projects of various 
lawmakers using his line-item veto power; 
which Congress gave the president in 1993 
over the strong objections of the West Vir- 
ginia Democrat: “We handed to the president 
just as the Roman Senate handed to Caesar 
and to Sulla, the control over the purse. When 
the Roman Senate ceded to the dictators and 
later to the emperors the power ova the purse, 
they gave away the Senate's check on toe 
executive power. They gave away toe Sen- 
ate's check on executive tyranny, and that is 
what we have done.” (ATT) 


5 ’ " v -x ■ ’E' 

S . -V P 7 ; . 




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0PAGE4 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1997 


INTERNATIONAL 


Coleman Young, Detroit Mayor 20 Years, Dies at 79 


New York Times Service 

Coleman Young, the combative, tart- 
tongued framer union organizer who 
became the first black mayor of Detroit 
when he was elected in 19.73 and went on 
to ran the city for a record 20 years, died 
Saturday in Detroit of respiratory fail- 
ure. He was 79. 

A popular and streetwise politician, 
Mr. Young became a hero to black 
voters, who saw his victory as a sign of 
their growing power in local govern- 
ment, especially in cities in need of 
healing after race riots in the previous 
decade. 

But Like other black mayors, Mr. 
Young also presided over a city that more 
than once came close to bankruptcy. 
Detroit was already reeling from high 
unemployment in the automobile in- 
dustry, a high crime rate and deteri- 
orating housing whea he was elected. 

Afterward, the city lost even more of 
its factories, stores and jobs as well as 
thousands of its middle-class residents, 
particularly whites who had been mov- 
ing to the suburbs in great numbers since 
Detroit’s 1967 race riots. Mr. Young, in 
his autobiography, “Hard Stuff,’’ noted 
that 1 .6 million whites lived in Detroit at 
the end of World War H and that only 
200,000 were left by 1 990. 

Mr. Young, inaugurated in January 
1974, decided that the city could not 
survive without cooperation among 
business, labor and the state and federal 


Combative Politician Was a Hero to Blacks 


governments. He called together some 
of die leading business and labor lead«*rs 
and got them to approve his plan tor 
reshaping Detroit’s riverfront With 
their help, the office and retail complex 
called Renaissance Center became the 
showpiece of downtown Detroit, and 
Hart Plaza, a riverfront park, became its 
centerpiece. 

The center, built for $350 million by a 
consortium of more than 50 corporate 
investors led by Ford Motor Co., opened 
in 1977, It included four cylindrical of- 
fice towers and a hoteL In May 1 996, the 
Renaissance Center was bought by Gen- 
eral Motors for about $80 million. The 
fact that the complex sold for less than a 
Quarter of the price it cost to build two 
decades earlier was said to reflect the 
real-estate market’s wariness about in- 
vesting in a deteriorated downtown. 

Mr. Young also developed a five-year 
economic plan for Detroit that he presen- 
ted to President Gerald Ford in 1975, but 
the plan failed to gain the support of the 
Republican administration. 

Even so, Mr. Young's efforts led to 
several major construction projects in 
his first and second terms, including 
new plants for General Motors and 
Chrysler Corp. The mayor was also 
credited with keeping Detroit financial- 
ly afloat in the late 1970s and early 


1980s by persuading city workers to 
accept cuts in salaries and fringe ben- 
efits and voters to approve a 596 million 
increase in income taxes. 

But dial was not enough to keep busi- 
nesses and residents from fleeing. Al- 
though the riverfront began to look pros- 
perous, the rest of downtown was often 
compared with a war zone. 

Mr. Young won the election largely 
on his promise to ease tension between 
the police and black residents. He began 
a hiring program that brought the pro- 
portion of blacks in city jobs to more 
than 50 percent in 1993 from less than 10 
percent in 1974. 

Mr. Young won his second term in 
1977 with 60 percent of the vote and 
seemed politically invincible by his third 
term in 1982. That term was marred by 
two federal investigations that grew out 
of his efforts to direct city business to 
black-owned companies, but no charges 
were filed against him in either case. 

Near the end of his fifth term in 1993, 
with his health deteriorating because of 
emphysema, Mr. Young decided not to 
run for re-election. 

Mr. Young was bom in Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama. His family moved to Detroit 
when he was 5. He gr adu ated from high 
school with an excellent academic re- 
cord but went to work on the assembly 




line at a Ford Motor Co. factory 
after he was unable to get ft- ‘ 
nancial aid u attend the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. He became 
a union organizer and then a 
postal worker before being draf- 
ted in World War H. 

He served in the 332d Fighter 
Group, an ail-black Army Air 
Corps unit. 

Mr. Young was considered 
too radical by both labor and' 
management, and it was diffi- 
cult for him to find work in the 
1950s. In 1963 he was elected to 
the stale Senate, where he 
served until becoming mayor. 

Mr. Young was one of the 
first big-city mayors to support 

Jimmy Carter's presidential bid 

in 19/6. Mr. Carter named him T<^spii»m*A«w«^PB» 

vice chairman of the Democrat- Coleman Young, shown in a 1989 photo, 
ic National Committee, a post was elected mayor of Detroit five times, 
he held from 1977 to 1981, and. 

chairman of the Democratic Convention one of some four dozen books that in- 
Platform Committee in 1980. He was troduced young readers to animals in the 
also the president of the U.S . Conference outdoors, died Wednesday at her home 
of Mayors from 198 1 to 1983 and of the in Rancho Santa Fe, California. 


CLIMATE: 

Stormy Talks Likely 

Continued fain Page 1 



National Democratic Conference of 
Mayras in 1980. 

Marguerite Henry, 95, Wrote 
Classic of Children’s Literature 


While much of her work as a pro- 
fessional writer remains popular and in 
prior, it was the tale of “Misty,” first 
published in 1947, that captured the ima- 
gination and took on a life of its own. It 


NEW YORK (NYT) — Marguerite told of two orphaned siblings drawn to a 
jury, 95, the author of the children’s wild horse on Chincoteague Island, off 


Henry. 95, the author of the children’s 
book classic “Misty of Chincoteague,” 


PAKISTAN : Prime Minister Lashes Out 


Continued from Page 1 

matter for Mr. Sharif since the possible 
penalties include imprisonment or ex- 
clusion from politics for seven years. 

The situation is expected to heat up 
Monday, with various politicians saying 
they will call their followers into the 
streets. The Supreme Court is scheduled 
to resume the contempt trial Monday; it 
was interrupted Friday by the mob. 

Anwar Iqbal, a columnist fra The 
News, an English language daily, said he 
thought that Parliament would begin im- 
peachment proceedings against President 
Farooq Leghari, which it threatened to do 
a few weeks ago. 

Thepresident issued a stinging rebuke 
of the prime minister Friday. In a letter 
that was made public, he blamed Mr. 
Sharif for the ‘ ’disgraceful and premed- 
itated mob assault” on the Supreme 
Court, and said it reflected “the dismal 
failure” of his administration. 

Responding in a letter that was also 
made public, the prime minister said (hat 
the “undignified phraseology” was “un- 
precedented for a communication” from 
a head of state to a head of government. 

The army — effectively a fourth 
branch of government here — is also 
likely to be dragged into the turmoil. Until 


now, the military has remained notice- 
ably on the sidelines. The head of the 
armed forces. General Jehangir Karamat, 
-has been widely praised fra the role he has 
played in trying to cool the politicians' 
ardor and mediate an end to the conflict 

If the military steps in now, it would 
not be to impose martial law or even a 
military govemment,’Westem diplomats 
said, but to provide support for a gov- 
ernment of technocrats not politicians. 

The crisis has been brewing almost 
from the day that Mr. Sharif was elected 
last Februaiy with the largest parlia- 
mentary majority in Pakistan’s history. 

Controlling more than two-thirds of 
the 21 7 seats in the legislature, the ruling 
party first passed a law dial stripped the 
president of his power to dis miss the 
prime minister and call new elections. 

Then, in August, Mr. Sharif got into a 
feud with the Supreme Conn when Par- 
liament passed a law giving the police 
extraordinary powers of search and arrest 
of suspected terrorists, and set up special 
courts to try the cases. The chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court, Sajjad AJi Shah, ex- 
pressed disapproval of the law, saying that 
it violated fundamental liberties. 

In August, die prime minister started 
after the court, with a plan to cut the number 
of justices to 12 from 17. When Justice 




Sajjad rejected this, a fight developed be- 
tween hm and the mime minister over 
which of them could name five ’new 
justices. The chief justice, who some say is 
as stubborn as he is honest, prevailed. 

A few weeks later. Justice Sajjad again 
provoked die prime miruster’s wrath after 


ISRAEL: Cabinet Supports Conditioned Handover of More Land to Palestinians 


Continued from Page 1 

present his ultimate intentions to them 
for approval. In effect, die cabinet de- 
cision delayed the battles that Mr. Net- 
anyahu faced at home, and with the 
Americans and Palestinians, while leav- 
ing unclear where he stood. 

The decision was greeted with con- 
siderable skepticism by the Palestinians, 
though in the absence of any formal 
proposal to the Palestinian Authority, 
Yasser Arafat was not expected to issue 
a formal response. The Palestinians have 
rejected all efforts by Mr. Netanyahu to 
delay the three further withdrawals to 
which he committed himself in the 19% 
Hebron agreement, or to put them into 
the context of final status talks. 

*‘I don’t know if the decision was 
made as a result of American pressure. 
European pressure or internal Likud 


problems, or even whether Netanyahu is 
maneuvering or not,” said Saeb Erekat, 
die chief Palestinian negotiator, echoing 
a question also raised by many Amer? 
icans and Israelis. “We hope the Amer- 
ican side, which gave us letters and 
assurances and guarantees, will move, 
now to guarantee the Israeli implemen- 
tation of further redeployments. ’ 

In Washington, senior officials ex- 
pressed satisfaction that Mr. Netanyahu 
had finally acquired cabinet approval, a L 
least in principle, fra a second with- 
drawal before the start of final-status 
talks. But they also noted that it remained 
to be seen whether the prime minister 
would satisfy the demands made of him 
by Washington, which included a * ’sig- 
nificant and credible" withdrawal, and a 
“time-out” in settlement construction. 

The leftist opposition in Israel de- 
picted the cabinet decision as a tactic by 


Mr. Netanyahu to deflect growing anger 
in his constituency, including hrs own 
Likud party, which rose up in open re- 
bellion against him Last month, while in 
the past toe Labor Party has promised to 
support toe prime minister in matters of 
peace talks, this time its leaders said they 
would continue their efforts to unseat 
him. 

“I have to say that after this strange 
decision, which- is only intended to ap- 
pease the radical right, toe ‘peace camp’ 
has no intention of giving the Netanyahu 
government any sort of security net,” stud 
Yossi Beilin, a leading member of the 
Labor Party. ‘This is where it ends.” 

On tbs right, politicians seemed sat- 
isfied at least that Mr. Netanyahu had not 
buckled under what they see as Amer- 
ican pressure. A demonstration called by 
toe right against any further redeploy- . 
ment ended up drawing only a few hun- 


wild horse on Chincoteague Island, off 
the Virginia shore- 


BANK: 

Dutch Bid Is Backed 

Continued from Page 1 

Mr. Kok on Sunday declined to com- 
ment on whether a compromise would 
be acceptable, but other European of- 
ficials, speaking on condition they nor be 
named, nave indicated they believe such 
a deal may be feasible. 

On Monday, European finance min- 
isters will meet in Brussels and discuss a 
related controversy over the future man- 


AvntrOan^ii/Agencc Arnce-Pirne 

Qazi Hussain Ahmed, the leader of Jamaat-Mstami, Pakistan’s main 
Islamic fundamentalist party, telling supporters in Karachi on Sunday 
to be ready for revolution as the nation’s constitutional crisis deepened. 


the ruling party passed a law that ef- 
fectively barred a member of the party in 
Parliament from voting against toe gov- 
ernment The Supreme Court suspended 
toe law. That brought tire outbursts from 
Mr. Sharif that resulted in the contempt 
charges being filed against him. 


died people Saturday night after the 
word spread that no decision was im- 
minent But Jewish settlers and others on 
toe right were also wary that the prime 
minister’s partial step would only lead to 
even more American pressure. 

“I can’t tell you I’m happy,” said 
Pinchas Wallerstein, head of Y esha, toe 
main organization of Jewish settlers in 
the WestBank. ‘Tm disappointed. Ben- 
jamin Netanyahu once again thinks he 
can toy with toe whole world, bat he 
can’t, and I fear we will pay toe price." 

Mr. Wallerstein said he thought toe 
prime minister was trying to lift Wash- 
ington’s pressures by making a proposal 
that toe Palestinians would reject 

“The decision is good if Bibi could 
back it,” he said. “But I don’t think that 
will happen. What I think is that the 
Palestinians will reject toe offer, and pres- 
sure will build on Bibi to give more.” 


A proposal by France and Germany to 
form an exclusive economic policy 
council that would be called die Eoro-X, 
has angered Britain, Sweden, De nmark 
and Greece, none of which is expected to 
join the single currency at its outset in 
1999. 

If toe finance ministers are unable to 
resolve the issue, it could cause tensions 
at the next EU-wide summit meeting, 
which will be held in Luxembourg on 
December 12-13. 

Also on Monday, European finance 
ministers are likely to begin discussing 
another Euro-nomination that could end 
up being linked to toe leadership of the 
European Central Bank — toe question 
of who will take over in February as head 
of toe European Bank for Reconstruc- 
tion and Development in London. - 

The EBRD president, Jacques de 
Larosiere of France, is due to step down 
at the end of January. Although only 
Spain has put forward a nomination — 
former Finance Minister Pedro Solbes 
— die coveted position may turn into a 
contest involving candidates from 
France, Germany, Italy and Belgium. 

■ Belgian Candidate for EBRD 

The Belgian press reported Friday 
that the country's finance minis ter, Phil- 
ippe Maystadt, would succeed Mr. de 
Larosiere at toe EBRD, although his 
office said he was not a candidate, Reu- 
ters reported from London. 

Philippe Lagayette, head of the 
French state bank Caisse des Depots et 
Consignations, has also been expected to 
be nominated for toe job. 

Two other names are also under con- 
sideration, Horst Kohler, bead of the 
German savings bank association, and 
Paolo Savpna, a former industry min- 
ister in Italy, the banking sources said- 


Continued fata Page 1 

that preventive action! to head off 
risk, however uncerc n. should have 

be Bm^Sw?Jt h s been only .two 
decades since 20th-a miry scientists, 
with their computer ant teli, first beg® 11 

to mntffi n ume rical fOf CflStS Of cllfnate 

change, only one deca< ’ since toe issue 
first burst into toe pnbl : consciousness 
and only five years sin e toe nations of 
toe world gathered in R ) de Janeiro and 
signed a treaty aimed a preventing dan- 
gerous climatic change 

. For modi of toe h t two decades, 
scientists have cited a doubling of at- 
mospheric carbon di< ide concentra- 
tions — to 560 parts sr million from 
280 parts per millio n ifore toe Indus- 
trial Revolution begat in toe late 18 to 
century — as a thresh* d of concern. 

If that threshold sbuld be reached, 
they say, toe air at tfi earth’s surface 
would warm by anyv ere from a rel- 
atively moderate tores iegrees to eight 
degrees, a level at wh h toe impact of 
some of the predicted Lunatic changes 
could assume catastroj ic proportions. 

Now many are saying bat it may not be 
possible to prevent a d< filing late in toe 
next century. 

The world’s econo ic and political 
systems cannot tom or dime, they say, 
and they argue that the al task now is to 
prevent concentratior from growing 
beyond a" doubling, possibly even 
tripling or quadruple Those concen- 
trations, they say, wc d bring certain 
r.Hmatir catastrophe, the meantime, 
toe world may have to am to adapt 
N« everyone is so ] aimistic. 
P.nvt mfmwwtn lic tu * a! is to stabilize 
carbon dioxide conce ations at about 
one and a half times te preindustrial 
level, then to begin > reduce them 
gradually. Although at might still 
came some disruptica they believe, it 
would avert the most i naging effects. 

There remain contn ms who say the 
problem has been ovi >lown and may 
not exist Given the un rtainty that per- 
meates climate serene even many ex- 
perts who are not & toes argue for 
modest action until i extent of the 
problem is clearer. 

As has been toe ca all along under 
the 1992 Rio treaty at governs the A 
Kyoto talks, the indus ilized countries -- 
are expected to take i lead in setting 
specific targets for ret ing emissions. 

. The rationale, base argely on con- 
siderations of equity, i rat they got rich 
by burning fossil foe rod are respon- 
sible fra most of the j jlem. 

But developing ca ries are also to 
undertake specific oimitrorats at 
some point because ti emissions will 
probably surpass too of the rich na- 
tions in two decades < ». 

When that will hap i, and how, will 
be a big issue in Kyot possibly a deal- 
breaker. 

If toe talks colla; d, the process 
would not be over bt use discussions 
would certainly zesu at some point 
But proponents of act argue that valu- 
able time would be lc 
At Rio five years a, the rich nations 
adopted the voluntary al of stabilizing 
emissions at 1990 le s by 2000. But 
many nations, inchng the United 
States, will miss that get 
Proposals now on e cable for the 
meeting in Japan call legally binding 
reductions. They rai from reducing 
the rich countries’ issions to 1990 
levels by around 201 iroposed byihe 
United States) to ct ag them to 35 
percent below 1990 li Is by 2020 (pro^ 
posed by the develop countries). 

None of toe propc s would reduce 
emissions enough u eep overall at- 
mospheric concentra s from rising 
But, given the pol al reality, those 
proposals probably c ic toe range of 
what can be achiever »t now. 

At most, Kyoto w re a beginniiw 
not an ending. 


t on e cable for the <■ 
call legally binding - 
’ nu from reducing 
»’ 1 ssions to 199(j 



ng them to 35 
Is by 2020 (pro- 
1 countries), 
s would reduce 
eep overall ai- 
is from rising 
al reality, those 
nc toe range of 
st now, 

be a beginning. 


France Eases Nationality Laws 

Agcnce Fnmce-Presse 

PARIS — The Socialist government has eased nationality 
laws, risking an angry backlash from rightists, who complain 
there are already too many foreigners in the country. 

After a marathon debate, the National Assembly adopted a 
law at dawn Saturday granting automatic nationality to chil- 
dren bom in France of foreign parents once they reach 1 8 and 
allowing them to seek it as early as age 13. 

The new law relaxes tough legislation brought in by the 
previous conservative government in 1993. 

The Parliament voted by 81 to 21 to give citizenship to 
children of foreign parents' once they reached their majority, 
provided they had lived in France for at least five years since 
the age of 1 1 , either continuously or in total. They also can opt 
to become French from age 13, with the residence period 
dating from toe age of 8 . 

The new law also gives teenagers toe right to reject French 
nationality in toe six months leading up to their majority or 
within a year after it, and it allows foreign children to have 
their own identity cards. 


FALLOUT: Finances Overshadq Talks 


Hostage Dies in Tajikistan Egypt Sets Officials’ Trials 


DUSHANBE, Tajikistan — A French hostage 
.was killed Sunday, along with four of her sus- 
pected abductors, in an explosion at a house 
where she was being held, a UN spokesman said. 
Her companion had been freed hours earlier. 

Karine Mane, who worked for the United 
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, was 
seized along with Franck Janier-Dubry od Nov. ' 
18 at their apartment in Dushanbe, the Tajik 
capital. The authorities suspected toe kidnapping 
was carried out by toe forces of an anti-gov- 
ernment warlord. 

Miss Mane died during a confrontation be- 
tween toe kidnappers and Tajik authorities -who 
had surrounded me house where she was held, 
seeking her release. (AP) 


CAIRO — Egypt is to court-martial Major 
General Medhat Shanawany, the former chief of 
police in Luxor, and Major General Abul Atta 
Yousef, his deputy, for negligence in toe recent 
massacre of 62 people by Islamic extremists, toe 
official Middle East news agency reported Sat- 
urday. 

The two will be charged in a police disciplinary 
court Dec. 2 1 fra dereliction ofauty in connection 
with toe Nov. 17 attack at the Temple of Hat- 
shepsut in southern Egypt 
In a related development, toe government has 
decided to upgrade dramatically toe penalties for 
toe unlicensed sale, manufacture or trade in mil- 
itary and police uniforms, the government-run 
newspaper, Al Abram, reported Saturday. (AP ) 


KENYA: Challenger Brings Opposition Hope of Unseating Moi in Upcoming Elections 


Continued from Page I 

suggested that among Mr. Moi’s five 
major challengers, only Mrs. Ngilu would 
defeat the president in a runoff. 

Perhaps Mrs. Ngilu’s strongest asset 
is that, in a country where corruption has 
muddied many politicians — fomenting 
the cynicism of Kenya's 27 million 
people — she boasts of being unscathed 
by scandal. 

“She’s a fresh face." a diplomat said. 
“I think she’s toe only person who’s 
addressing toe issues that people here 
really care about” 

Mrs. Ngilu, however, has numerous 
obstacles. Foremost among them is get- 
ting enough votes to qualify for a second 
round of voting. And if she overcomes 
that obstacle, she must then hope that a 
deeply divided opposition would come 
together long enough to back her. 

Disunity is just one affliction that has 
beset Kenya's opposition. Many parties, 
including some major ones, arc des- 
perate for funds. And many of toe 26 
parties, at least 20 of which are fielding 



presidential candidates, have failed to 
articulate a meaningful agenda. 

It has been an odd year for Kenya’s 
opposition. Earlier this year, it was able 
to unify long enough to goad the gov- 
ernment into crafting a political reforms 
package that Parliament passed into law 
this month. 

Yet the opposition has managed to fall 
into disarray: Dozens of politicians have 
defected to the ruling Kenya African 
National Union as it has become dear 
the party likely will continue its three- 
decade dominance of Kenyan politics 
with at leas! a parliamentary victory. 

“This is even more depressing than 
1992,” said Gibson Karaau Kuna, a 
political activist and human rights lawyer. 
“There is really asense of hopelessness, a 
sense of defeatism among the opposition 
that you did not see five years ago." 

Some of that defeatism comes from 
seeing Mr. Moi masterfully grab political 
momentum in recent weeks after several 
months of protests jolted Kenya’s tour- 
ism-based economy and brought inter- 
national scorn on his regime. 


Mr. Moi and his party seized the mo- 
mentum by pushing through the reforms. 
The reform package — fashioned by a 
group that included politicians from op- 
position parties and toe ruling party — 
adds more members to the electoral 
commission, promises equal media ac- 
cess to opposition parties and makes it 
easier for political parties to register. 

Mr. Moi’s critics have complained 
that the reforms do not carve into toe 
president's sweeping powers nor do 
enough to ensure that the craning vote 
will be freer or more fair than the one in 
1992. Last week, the government reg- 
istered toe Safina Party, led tty Richard 
Leakey, the famed conservationist, after 
a two-year delay. Among other things, 
toe government clearly hoped to show its 
commitment to political reform. But in 
many ways toe delay epitomized Mr. 
Moi’s ability to shackle the opposition 
since 1992. 

The ruling party “has had a chance to 
prepare while toe opposition has been 
locked out of the process,” Mr. Leakey 
said at a press conference. 


Mr. Leakey has become an enthu- 
siastic supporter of Mrs. Ngilu. whom 
many Kenyans had not heard of until a 
few months ago. The former entrepre- 
neur became a member of Parliament in 
1992, but became a presidential can- 
didate only in June. 

Mrs. Ngilu, 45, married with three 
children, says her rising popularity has 
resulted from her message. “Kenyans 
see me as someone who will demystify 
power,” she said at her campaign 
headquarters last week. “I want to give 
them back power. They are used to all 
theperwer being at toe top.” 

The candidate said her top priority, if 
elected, would be further constitutional 
reform. Mr. Moi “has used the con- 
stitution to oppress us,” she said. "Asa 
result, we live lives of fear, wondering if 
we'll be the next one arrested. We can't 
express ourselves, we can’t associate 
freely. I want to free Kenyans.” 

Ngilu Jid make it to /runoff, she would 
win 65.1 percent of the vote; Mr. Moi 
would receive 34.9 percent. 



Continued from Page 1 

peace, the environmental advocacy 
group, said the “explosive issue of the 
meeting" was whether China, India, In- 


tries must participate in toe UN effort to 
curb emissions of greenhouse gases and 
slow or halt global wanning. 

The United States insists they must, 
even though they say such emissions are 
an acceptable price to pay for their eco- 
nomic development. 

But now, because some of those coun- 
tries are in financial chaos, toe prospect 
that they will agree to potentially costly 
measures to reduce carbon-dioxide 
emissions from factories and cars is even 
more remote. 

Prime Minister Ryularo Hashimoto of 
Japan, while concerned that toe con- 
ference be viewed as a success, is deep in 
such economic and political problems as 
whether taxpayer dollars should bail out 
failing financial institutions or be used 
on a wider welfare safety net for toe 
newly unemployed. " 

“These unfortunate economic events 
have clouded the meeting,” a Japanese 
official said. ft The Asian developing 
countries, as toe richest, were expected 
to lead the other developing countries 
into some kind of agreement.” 

In particular, .South Korea, the 
world's 1 1 to -largest economy, had been 
counted on to nudge poorer developing 
countries to reduce toe gases that are 
thought to contribute to heating of the 
Earth, a rising sea level, toe swallowing 
of shorelines and other major climatic 
and environmental changes. 

But South Korea now is in no position 
to lend a band The country is in political 
paralysis after its economic situation be- 
came so bad that its leaders were forced 
to seek a humiliating International Mon- 
etary Fund bailout. 

As some Japanese officials sought 
Sunday to lower expectations for the 
meeting, others said too much time and 
effort had been invested to allow the 


meeting to faiL The 1 
of global warming ha 
most talked-about i 
world for the past si 
part because of the c< 
“There has been a 
to this agreement;” 
Flavin, senior vice p 
watch Institute, an 
search group based ir 
spoke at one of the m 
discussions all around 
“If we don’t seiz 
and we don’t get lega 
it will be a setback of 
Several officials 5 
catastrophe if econo 
vented efforts to solve 
affect millions of pea 
* “We have to be; 
Penehirro LeFale, toe 
Cook Islands. “Glob 
terrible for us." j 
. Mr. LeFale said tod 
its own worries about 
patterns and the effecl 
ing, pointing out that 
rested only three feet] 
above sea level and tf 
already claimed Some] 
us," he said, “this tre 
UN officials had | 
some of the gaps i 

American and Japond 

days leading up to to 
informal talks in receil 
major players clinging 
At preliminary 1 
night, many partitid 
United States for the { 
“There is a growiii 
U.S. is becoming the! 
foresee," said Bill f 
rector of Greenpeace 1 
Because tire Unitl 
largest emitter of gr« 
globe's richest count 
insisting on toe partii 
Oping countries in a K 
say die success or ft 
ference rests largely 4 


e-obscure issue 
come one of the 
es around the 
tenths, in large 
Trace. 

pendous nm-up 
Christopher 
f 601 of World- 
fraoraeutal K . 
psnington, who 
! environmental 
on Sunday. 
?. s opportunity 
finding targets, 
e years.” 
it would be a 
troubles pre- 
£>blem that will 
Or centuries, 
imistic,” said 
fcgate from toe 
vanning is so 

:h country had 
aging weather 
global warm- 
Cook Islands 
quite a meter) 
ising seas had 
s shores. “Foi- 
ls survivaL” 
ed to narrow 
ng European, 
roposals in toe 
xiference. but 

ecks found toe 
heir positions, 
rings Sunday 
5 blamed the 


ifpiing that the 
Uy of the con- 
», political di- 
■mational. 
States is the 

ouse gases, toe 

and the voice 
ation of devel- 
*0 treaty, many 
ure of toe. con- 
h Washington. 









INTERNATIONAL TraRAiJn TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1997 


PAGE 5 




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PAGE 6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1997 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


Odd Alliance : 

In Drug Wars 

The UN Banks on the Taleban 
To Help in Fight Against Opium 




By Raymond Bonner 

iVw Yuri Times Sen-ht 


LASHKARGAH, Afghanistan — This grim, re- 
mote town is the capital of Helmand province, the 
opium-growing capita] of the world. 

Once dubbed Little America because of all the aid 
workers here, the province is now controlled by the 
Taleban, the Islamic fundamentalist movement that 
has been widely condemned for autocratic conduct and 
has been accused of providing a haven for terrorists. 

But last week, the new head of the United Nations' 
drug-control agency sat down with Taleban leaders 
and offered them economic assistance. The reason: 
the group’s religious strictures ban drugs of any kind, 
and it has declared its intention to stamp out the 
cultivation of opium poppy, the base for heroin. 

The United Nations and its top drug fighter, Pino 
Arlacehi, need the Taleban to meet a publicly de- 
clared goal of eliminating drugs around the world 
within a decade. 

Unlike their coca-growing counterparts in Latin 
America, Afghan fanners do not have a long history 
of harvesting poppy; 25 years ago, poppy production 
here was 200 tons: last year, ir was 2.800 tons. So Mr. 
Arlacehi is convinced that he can succeed. Twenty 
years ago. he noted, opium was grown in just about 
every country across Asia, from Turkey to Thailand. 
Now. he said, the war can be concentrated on Af- 
ghanistan and Burma, which account for 90 percent 
of the world’s opium supply. 

Mr. Arlacehi has begun here, where the Taleban’ s 
militancy works in his favor. The Taleban ’s religioas 
fervor clashes, however, with a secular reality — 



ZihrmAfin Ujiiivd ht— 

A Taleban figbter working on a Russian-built rocket launcher Sunday in a village near Kabul. 


opium poppy has been a major source of income. 
There is widespread skepticism among U.S. officials 
and United Nations diplomats over which will win 
out But even the skeptics think it is worth testing the 
Taleban, which controls 90 percent of the poppy- 
growing areas of the country. 

Western governments will also be tested because 
the poppy-eradication project is going to cost at least 
$25 milli on a year for 10 years in Afghanistan. For at 
die core of Mr. Arlacehi 's program are alternative 
development projects. Give farmers the means to 
grow crops other than poppy, the theory goes, and 
they will become law-abiding citizens. 

Wi 11 Congress contribute America’s share for a UN 
project? With the money going to the Taleban, liberal 
human rights activists might unite with conservatives 
to oppose the spending. Anticipating problems. Mr. 
Arlacehi is assembling what be cam a "council of 
wise men," prominent world leaders from govern- 


ment, industry and the arts, to help him raise money. 

The White House has decided to endorse the UN 
program to eliminate drug production, according to a 
U.S. proposal on combating the drug trade. The paper, 
which has not been made public, calls on govern- 
ments "to commit themselves to ending all illicit 
cultivation of opium poppy and coca bush by the year 
2008, using all available means, including alternative 
development, eradication and law enforcement.” 

The U.S. stance is contained in a proposal that it 
will present for adoption by a UN drug control 
committee, which is scheduled to meet in Vienna this 
week. Mr. Arlacehi said he thought it -would be 
accepted by other countries. Still, the question of 
where the money is going to come from for the 
development projects looms. The U.S. proposal calls 
on international financial institutions ana regional 
development banks to provide loans and other as- 
sistance for alternative development projects. 


U.S. Enlists Pakistan in Effort to Bring Afghan Rulers in Line 


By Raymond Bonner 

\or \i<rk Times Scmee 


ISLAMABAD. Pakistan — In the last two 
months, three senior U.S. State Department officials 
have called in here — the assistant secretary of state 
for Asia, the undersecretary of state for political 
affairs, and the secretary of stale herself. 

President Bill Clinton is scheduled to come in the 
spring, the first visit by a U.S. president in 30 years. 

A major reason for ail this American attention is 
actually one of Pakistan's neighbors. Afghanistan. 

The’Whiie House is leaning on Pakistan to use its 
influence to get the Taleban. the Islamic funda- 
mentalist group that controls two-thirds of Afghan- 
istan, to moderate its behavior and negotiate an end to 
the civil war that has raged since the Russian with- 
drawal in 1^89. 

The Clinton administration has been quietly en- 
gaged in roundtable discussions with Russia, and 


Afghanistan’s six neighbors, diplomats here said in 
interviews. Those neighbors include China, as well as 
Iran, which means that Washington and Tehran are 
negotiating face-to-face. The others are Pakistan. 
Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. 

Washington's major concents in Afghanistan are 
human rights, drugs and terrorism. 

Among suspected terrorists living these days in 
Kandahar, the Taleban headquarters, is Usama Lad- 
in. Law enforcement and intelligence officials are 
preparing to indict Mr. Ladin in connection with the 
bombing of the U.S. military base in Dharan, Saudi 
Arabia, according to Western intelligence officials. 

In an interview last week, the governor of Kanda- 
har, Mohammed Hassan, acknowledged that Mr. 
Ladin was there, but answered with a terse "no," 
when asked if he would be handed over to the United . 
Slates or any other government. 

The so-called Contact Group on Afghanistan — 
the six neighbors, plus the United States and Russia 


— has met three times, most recently last week, in 
New York. A senior Western diplomat said the j 
group's first objective is to reduce the external j 
support for the factions in Afghanistan's civil war. 

Iran is the major provider of arms and ammunition : 
for the anti-Taiwan forces. Other military supplies 
come across the border from Uzbekistan and 
Tajikistan, with Russia behind this support, Euro- 
pean and American officials said. 

The Taleban. which is made up of ethnic Pashtun 
and Sunni Muslims, gets money and moral support 
from Saudi Arabia, and military materiel from 
Pakistan, European and U.S. officials said. Pakistani 
military advisers are with the Taleban in Kabul, 
Kandahar and Heart, and this past week Pakistan 
began airlifting winter uniforms to the Taleban sol- 
diers, according to Western intelligence officials. 

To get these outsiders to stop meddling in Af- 
ghanistan will be "quite a difficult piece of di- 
plomacy * ’ said a European ambassador. 



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As Parties 


By John F. Bums 

' ■. New York Tunes Sen ire , ■ ■ 

*' NEW DELHI — India's main polit- 
ical parties maneuvered feverishly over 
the weekend i» cobble together a new 
coalition ! to replace the 14 -party gov- 
ernment drat collapsed Friday. But days 
of horse-trading seemed likely before 
die country would learn the outcome. 

The resignation of Prime Minister 
Inder Komar Gujrttl, the fourth prime 
minister in IS months, set off .a new 
found of gloomy forecasts of a kind that 
have been common iarecem months as 
India celebrated the 50th anniversary of 
its independence in August. 

Outside the political parties them- 
selves. few Indians seemed to see any 
benefit for the country or its 980 million 
people from the political factionalism in 
New Delhi. . 

"This corrupt, polluted city, its res- 
ident leaders and bureaucrats, today 
hold the destiny of the entire nation 
hostage to their greed, their ignorance of 
everything outside the sphere of their 
self-interest, and their lack of vision." 
K.P.S. Gill, a retired police commander, 
wrote in the Saturday issue of The Pi- 
oneer. one of India’s most influential 
English-language newspapers. 

Similar views, most prom Indians 
with less contentious approaches to In- 
dia's problems than Mr. Gill’s, poured 
for* as the. 29 political parties with 
seats in Parliament renewed their efforts 
to stave off a new general election. 

The last election, completed in May 
1996, produced the most fractured Par- 


Voters Hand Taiwan’s Governing Party 
A St unning Defeat in Local Elections 


Deed With Aborigines 
Is Pushed by Howard 

CANBERRA — Prime Minister 
John Howard of Australia made his first 
address to the nation since he won office 
in March 1996 to plead Sunday for 
support for his solution to a land dispute 
between Aborigines and farmers. 

Mr. Howard said his plan struck a 
* ‘fair and decent” balance between Ab- 
origines' rights and farmers' rights to 
work and mine land they have leased 
from the government. 

But while he pushed for parliamen- 
tary approval of his plan by the end of 
the year, a leading aboriginal group 
urged a cooling-off period, warning that 
relations with white Australians could 
be damaged for generations. 

Mr. Howard has come under fire from 
all sides over his plan, which gives 
Aborigines a guaranteed right to some 
pastoral leases, but restricts their ability 
to make claims. 

Aborigines say it strips them of their 
land rights and farmers say it takes away 
their control over how they use their 
land. (Reuters) 

Delhi Bombs Kill 2 

NEW DELHI — Two people were 
killed and 58 were wounded when two 


CooftMtf OttrSkgJFrom Dbftorhn 

TAIPEI — Taiwan’s governing Na- 
tionalists bn Sunday blamed infighting 
and voter anger for their defeat in local 
elections, and warned of a chain of 
possible setbacks leading up to pres- 
idential elections in 2000. 

On Saturday, independents and the 
main opposition Democratic Progres- 
sive Patty handed the Nationalists their 
greatest defeat in 52 years of rule on 
Taiwan, cutting their shore of 23 may- 
oral and county executive seats from 16 
to 8. 

The Democratic Progressive Party 
took 12 seats and bear the Nationalists 
for the first time in total share of the 
vote. Independents won three races. 

Media heralded a “new order” for 
politics in Taiwan, but the result was 
greeted calmly among Taiwanese. 


BRIEFLY 


boiribs exploded within minutes of each 
I other Sunday in the Indian capital, the 
police said. • 

! The blasts occurred near a Sikh 
temple in the congested nonhem district 
I of New Delhi. 

i A police spokesman said no sepa- 
ratist group had claimed responsibility 
for the attacks, the latest in a scries of 
bombings in the capital in the last few 
months.' 

Two earlier bombings were claimed 
by Sikh separatists in the northwestern 
state of Punjab, who want their own 
state, Khalistan. ( Reuters } 

Khmer Rouge Inquiry 

PHNOM PENH — The United Na- 
tions will appoint experts to investigate 
the crimes of the Khmer Rouge guer- 
rillas, who ruled from 1975 to 1979 and 
continue to wage war against the Cam- 
bodian government, a UN official said 
Sunday. 

. The General Assembly adopted a res- 
olution last week that included con- 
demnation of the Khmer Rouge for acts 
of genocide and crimes against human- 
ity The vote also authorized the in- 
vestigation. 

More than a million people are es- 
timated to have been killed by exe- 
cution, starvation or exhaustion during 
the radical communist group’s nearly 
four years in power. (Reuters) 


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liamen t in Indian history, and most 
opinion polls have predicted a similarly 
indecisive outcome in any new ballot. 

Accordingly, the emphasis for most 
of flu? parties Appeared to tie in fash- 
ioning a new coalition government that 
could try to serve out the normal five- 
year parliamentary term. 

partly, this’ reflected the fact that 
. many members of Parliament would be 
unsure of retaining their stats in the 
mu lncandidate contests almost all of 
them would face. Many said they also 
wished to spare the country the cost of 
or ganizin g a new election, which of- 
ficials have estimated at close to $450 
million — about a quarter of what India 
spends each year on health care. 

- But neither of the two main political 
-formations competing for power had 
produced evidence Sunday dial they had 
won enough new support to position 
themselves to form the next govern- 
ment President Kircheri! Narayanan, 
77, has told party leaders that he will 
take time for consultations before de- 
ciding whether any of the groups con- 
tending for power can draw the backing 
necessary for a stable government. 

The contenders, include the departing 
coalition, almost certainly under a leader 
other than Mr. Gujral: the Congress (T) 
Party, a shadow of its former self in terms 
of pariiamentary seats bat still ambitious 
to regain the power it held for 45 of the 50 
years since independence, and the Hindu 
nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party. 

Bharatiya Janata has the most par- 
liamentary seats, 168 in the 545-seat 
lower house of Parliament 


The Nationalist secretary-general. 
Wu Poh-hsiung, stepped down to take 
responsibility for the defeat, and there 
were scattered calls for President Lee 
Teng-hni's resignation as Nationalist 
chair man . 

Mr. Lee called the loss a "setback." 
but pledged to continue moves to reform 
the party. 

FTime Minister Vincent Siew tried to 
put the best face on the defeat, urging 
government to heed the public's man- 
date white hinting at his party's fail- 
ings. 

The loss may speed plans for a cab- 
inet reshuffle. That would allow Mr. 
Siew to consolidate his support and 
make reforms to ease public anger over 
corruption, rising violent crime ami 
wrenching declines in financial mar- 
kets. (AP. Renters) 


j'- J: > • L.f- . .... . . 

China Firm, on Mines 

BEIJING — China said Sunday that 
it needed to use land mines for sclf- 
defense. reaffirming its objection n» a 
treaty banning the weapons. 

Although China said it supported rea- 
sonable restrictions over the use of land 
mines, it reserved the right to use them 
on its own soil to defend its border, the 
Xinhua press agency quoted the foreign 
ministty spokesman. Tang Guoqiang, 
as having said. 

“The general principle of solving the 
land-mine problem should be one that 
takes balanced account of both human- 
itarian concerns and the legitimate mil- 
itary needs of sovereign states for self- 
defense,” Mr. Tang said. 

China and the United States are the 
most prominent of the few countries that 
have objected to an accord reached by 
nearly 100 countries in September to 
ban the use, stockpiling and production 
of anti-personnel land mines. They are 
blamed for killing or maiming more 
than 25,000 people a year. 

A treaty banning land mines is sched- 
uled to be signed at a conference be- 
ginning in Ottawa on Tuesday, but Mr. 
Tang said: “China does not intend to 
sign this convention.” 

For many countries, especially those 
lacking advanced defensive weapons, 
land mines remained an effective means 
of self-defense, he added. { Reuters ) 


'y r 














PAGE 7 


$ 


EUROPE 


Pentagon Chief, a Holdout on Bosnia, Is Said to Conte Around 



WASHINi 
resistance. Deft 
Cohen is rd 
_ the 
item 



i 


— After months of 
Secretary William 
_ moving toward ac- 
of oolleagues in die 
ion that U.S. troops 


a June 1998 deadline, his aides say." 

But Mr. Cooen still declines to say so 
in public. AsJ he prepares to attend a 
meeting of NATO defense ministers In 
Brussels this week. Mr. Cohen con- 
tinues to play the public role of the 
administration’s holdout on Bosnia. 

He suggested in an interview last 
week that Unless European countries 
contribute more to peace — partic- 
ularly in fin ancing and training an ef- 
fective locag police force — be would be 
hard-pressetd to endorse a renewed U.S- 
military mifesioa. 

‘Tve nriver operated on the basis of 
having a clfosed mind,” Mr. Cohen safri 
“I can cfctainiy accept some of die 


positive things that have been achieved 
in Bosnia, and would not want to see 
them unraveled. 

“But by the same token, I also want 
to see a lot more contribution coming 
from others before I would modify my 
own position to accommodate die Euro- 
pean forces, who are there and demand 
that we stay there. So until that time, 
then obviously I'm going to still press 
my own views,” 

Mr. Coben said he would not discuss 
the evolution of his •thinking before 
President Bill Clinton makes a decision 
about whether to extend the U.S. mil- 
itary operation. Aides said Mr. Cohen 
hoped he could use his status as the 
administration’s most public doubter on 
Bosnia as leverage with European al- 
lies. Without a greater European role, 
Mr. Cohen contends it would be dif- 
ficult to persuade Congress to pay for a 
continued military presence in Bosnia. 

When Mr. Cohen took office in Janu- 
ary, he said that prolonging the U.S. 
mission past June 1998 was neither af- 


fordable nor politically sustainable. As 
a rule, he does not want U.S. forces 
doing police work or becoming over- 
extended in peace operations. Still, Mr. 
Cohen’s differences with his follow 
cabinet members have been unusual for 
a foreign-policy team that has rarely 
betrayed signs of internal dissent. 

By all accounts, Mr. Cohen has 
worked hard to make a successful tran- 
sition from a longtime career as a Re- 
publican legislator with a reputation for 


in a Democratic administration. 

Aside from Bosnia, the only major 
issue on which he has stood apart in the 
cabinet involved economic sanctions 
against Burma, which heopposed to little 
avail. He argued for backing the As- 
sociation of South East Asian Nations, 
which objected to sanctions on the 
grounds that they would propel Burma 
further into the arms of foe Chinese. 

Mr. Cohen entered office with strong 
judgments, formed as a senator, about 
the U.S. troop presence in Bosnia. He 


declared during his confirmation hear- 
ing in January — and repeatedly during 
a visit to Bosnia in March — that U.S. 
soldiers wouki be gone by June 1998. 

As a former lawmalcw, fw= «wip*rhi«d 

by members of Congnas^SK^^ 
ton’s decision to lettite original Decem- 
ber 1996 withdrawal deadline pass, ex- 
tending the deployment for 18 months. 

'• ' Mr. Cohen warned from the start that 
U.S. political support for die Bosnia 
mission was eroding, that the Pentagon 
could not afford spending about $2 bil- 
lions year to keep troops m Bosnia, that 
Bosnians had to take responsibility for 
their own fete and that European gov- 
ernments must assinne a greater share of 
the burden. 

But with the Europeans vowing to 
leave if the Americans did. a U.S. pull- 
out has appeared increasingly unlikely. 
U.S -European discussions about a fol- 
low-on force lave focused less on 
whether the Americans will stay and 
more on whether the U.S. contingent of 


8,500 can be reduced, its mission nar- 
rowed and more of its tasks passed to 
Europeans who nuke up the rest .of the 
30.000 or so NATO-ledpe^eteepns.1- 
When Mr. Cohenmeets wifohriEuro- 
pean counterparts in Brussels, he said be 
will make the point that Congress still 
can deny the money for an extension S it 
is dissatisfied with the European con- 
tribution to the Bosnia mission. / 

“I think the Europeans many times 
operate on the assumption that, well, the 
United States will still be. there, 
whatever the circumstances/’ Mr. Co- 
hen said. "What my interest has been Is 
to clissuade them of thautomake it very 
dear as a former member understanding 
bow Congress folnlrii about tins. 

“My view is that there should be an 
international presence to maintain sta- 
bility in Bosnia. What role the United 
States should play will depend a great 
deal on what I see forthcoming out -of 
many countries, before die United 
States makes any kind of a further com- 
mitment.” 


EU Commissioner Presses 
For a Strong Global Court 


By Barry James 

International Herald Tribune 


Bi 


fSSELS — United Nations ne- 
begin a fresh found of prep- 
talks Monday aimed at creating 
Inte rnation al Criminal 
to investigate and judge cases of 
' and other gross crimes against 

fry- 

talks are expected to lead to a 
1-scale diplomatic conference in 
next Jane that will establish the 
lature and competency of the court 

The initiative is backed by the Euro- 
pean Union, whose commissioner for 
humanitarian affair s, F.mwia Bonino, 
flew to New York over the weekend to 
lobby for the court to be made as in- 
dependent as possible. 

She said in an interview here that 
several countries, including die United 
States and France, were pressing for the 
court to be placed cinder the control of 
governments or the UN Security Coun- 
cil — a move that, in her view, would 
seriously weaken the credibility of the 
court 

The European Union has thrown its 
weight behind the conference, which will 
coincide with the 50th anniversary of 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 
and the UN Genocide Convention. 

Mrs. Bonino said she was confident 
that the court would be created. Public 
opinion is swinging behind the Initi- 
ative, she added, just as it did with the 
international campaign to ban land 
mines. 

Her fear now is that the court will be 
limited by a veto power of the Security 
Council, which she said would subject it 
to undue pressure from die major 
powers and limit its effectiveness and 
credibility. 

The United States wants die Security 
Council to be the arbiter of which cases 
go to the courts. It is also concerned that 
if the court has too broad a jurisdiction, 
it could open the way to frivolous com- 
plaints about U.S. global deployment of 
military power. 

But Mrs. Bonino said such concerns 
were without foundation, since the court 
would act only when countries foiled to 
take action. 

France, although also in favor of the 
court, also wants serious limits, on its 
scope. It says cases should only be 
brought with the assent of the states 
where crimes take place, where the vic- 
tims lived and where the alleged per- 
petrators were resident 

At the heart of France's concern is its 
reluctance to see troops involved in del- 
icate peacekeeping operations having to 


Census Keeps 
Turks at Home 


Reuters 

ISTANBUL — Street life in Tur- 
key ground to a halt Sunday as a 
daytime curfew imposed for a 
census kept people at home. 

From early morning until 5 in the 
afternoon, streets were empty ex- 
cept for ledger-carrying census- 
takers, the police and foreign tour- 
ists, frustrated at suddenly finding 
themselves in ghost towns. 

“We cannot buy anything as a 
souvenir,” said Giuseppe Canta- 
lupo, an Italian businessman. 

In Istanbul, tourists were al- 
lowed to leave their hotels after 
receiving an official stamped let- 
ter. 

The Bosphorus suspension bridge 
between Europe and Asia Miner, 
normally packed with traffic even 
on a Sunday, was virtually empty. 

Stores look on extra staff on Sat- 
urday evening as families lined up 
for ‘final shopping before foe 
census, the first in seven years. 

Implementation of the curfew 
began in the early hours. Around 4 
A.M., police patrols began ordering 
nightclubbers in Istanbul's Taksim 
Square to go home. 

**If we catch anyone on these 
streets after five, they’ll be Facing 
legal action,” an officer bellowed 
into a loudspeaker as people fin- 
ished their kebabs at stalls around 
the square and a man washed 
clothes in a fountain. 

The police arrested 100 people 
for breaking the curfew in the east- 
ern town of Erzurum and 30 people 
in the central town , of Kayseri, 
Anatolian news agency said. 


explain their actions to anyone other 
than their senior officers. 

For her part, Mrs. Bonino said that the 
conn would be stillborn if it was 
“loaded with all the problems in the 
world.” The court’s work should be 
confined to “very well-defined crimes' ’ 
covered by conventions signed by most 
of the countries in the world, she said. 

The permanent court would build on 
the experience of foe UN ad hoc 
tribunals set up to investigate and judge 
crimes in foe former Yugoslavia and 
Rwanda. 

Gabrielie Kirk McDonald, president 
of the Hague tribunal, which is judging 
crimes in foe former Yugoslavia, said at 
a Brussels symposium last week that if a 
decision were taken to convert the ad 
hoc tribunal into a permanent court, 
“we could take it on, and I would be 
ready.” 

But she warned that the efficiency of 
a permanent court could be impaired if, 
like foe ad hoc tribunals, it had no power 
to order or make arrests. 

Mrs. Bonino said the Yugoslavia and 
Rwanda tribunals had demonstrated 
that international justice works. “It is 
not as though we are starting from 
scratch, or with only a vague idea or a 
theory,” she said. 

Thm some of the principal war crimes 
suspects — such as Radovan Karadzic, 
the Bosnian-Serb leader — have 
avoided arrest, could not be blamed on 
foe tribunal, which has no police or 
power to enforce indictments. Mire. 
Bonino said. 

She said that it was vital to ensure the 
independence of foe prosecutor, so that 
even if the alleged perpetrators erf 
crimes could not be arrested, evidence 
could be gathered and held far an even- 
tual triaL 

A leading campaigner for establish- 
ing an international court, Gijs de Vries, 
president of foe liberal group in the 
European Parliament, said a permanent 
tribunal with global jurisdiction was 
needed for three reasons: “First, to sat- 
isfy foe fundamental human need for 
dignify and justice; second, to deter 
potential future war criminals, and third, 
to counter the failure of states to bring 
such criminals to justice.” 

He added that foe independence of 
the court’s prosecutor to investigate 
crimes, on foe basis of information sup- 
plied by individuals or humanitarian 
organizations, if necessary, would be 
vital to the credibility of the court. “We 
must not allow foe International Crim- 
inal Court to be made subservient to a 
Security Council which has left Pol Pot 
unpunished,” be said. 



IpawBa n ft — 

Some of the worshipers in the lower basilica of St Francis during a Mass as the church was reopened Sunday. 

Lower Assisi Basilica Reopened to a Weary Public 

inspecting damage from the first quake 
of that day. The second quake brought 
down part of the ceiling decorated'wrtb 
early Renaissance. frescoes. . 

The upper basilica in foe 13th-cen- 
tuty monument to one of Italy’s patron 
saints still remains closed to tounsts as 
restoration work continues. 


The Associated Press 

ASSISI, Italy — Two months after, a 

level of the Basilica of SL Francris/wS 
shiners tamed out in small numbers 
Sunday in the lower level for the first 
public Mass since the disaster. 

The lower basilica escaped devast- 
ation in the Sept 26 quakes, but smaller 
tremors continue to rock the central hill 
region of Umbria, and fear of being one- 
level down from the heavily damaged 
part apparently kept some of foe pews 
empty for foe service. 


About 200 people, including many 
nuns and other faithful who live in foe 
town, turned out for the 9 AJii Mass. 
Another followed in late morning. 

Basilica officials said tourists were 
nowable to visit the lower basilica when 
Masses, which will be held at least once 
daily, ate not being said. The lower 
basilica .is adorned with frescoes 
ascribed to Giotto, Simone Martini and 
Cimabue. 

Two Franciscan monks and two tech- 
nicians were killed on Sept 26 when foe 
second earthquake struck as they were 


■ New Tremor Hits Central Italy 

A new tremor shook central Italy on 
Sunday, but there wete.no reports of 
casualties or damage, Agence 
Presse reported from Rome. 


Blair to Meet 
Adams at 



- - • .. Reuters . 

LONDON — Gerry Adams; foe 
Northern Irish nationalist leader 
once so reviled by Lon don fo at his 
voice was banned from British air- 
waves, is to meet Prime Minister 
Tony Blair at his Downing Street 
office next month. 

The Dec. 11 meeting will be foe 
first in London between an Irish 
.republican reader and a British 
pnnift minis ter since 1921. 

It represents a sea-change in re- 
lations between foe British govern- 
ment and Mr. Adams’s party, Sinn 
Fein, which wants a united Ireland 
and whose IRA guerrilla wing has 
fought a violent campaign a g a i nst 
British rule in Northern Ireland. 

Mr. Blair's spokesman said foe 
prime minister was “determined to 
drive forward foe | 


believes it is vital to keep up mo- 
mentum.” He said Mr. Blair would 
use foe meeting to discuss foe state 
of all-party peace talks in Belfast, to 

which. Sinn Fein was admitted for 

foe first time in September after foe 

Irish Republican Army renewed a 
cease-fire. 

The prime minister will "stress 
once more the absolute necessity of 
a continuing commitment to ex- 
clusively peaceful means,” foe 
spokesman said. 

But the announcement Saturday 
angered the province's Ulster Un- 
ionist Party, foe main group that 
speaks for majority Protestants 
who back rule from Britain. Ken 
Ma ginnis , a senior Unionist leg- 
islator, told Reuters that it was “a 
calculated insult to the families of 
IRA victims.” 

Sinn Fein welcomed the meeting 
and said Mr. Blair would be told 
that British rale over foe province 
was at foe root of conflict. 

'"It will provide us with an op- 
portunity to raise with him those 
issues, particularly the British claim 
to jurisdiction to this part of Ireland, 
which we believe to be at foe heart 
of tins conflict,” said foe Sinn Fein 
chairman, Mitchel McLaughlin. 

The meeting illustrated Mr. 
Blair's determination "to do 
everything in his power to bring 
peace in Northern Ireland'’ and 
would fulfill a promise that Sinn 
Fein would be treated equally with 
other parties because it subscribed 
to foe “Mitchell principles,” a set 
of conditions for participation in the 
peace talks developed by George 
Mitchell, foe former U-S. senator 
who is chairman of the talks. 


BRIEFLY 


Yeltsin Delays a Showdown 

MOSCOW — President Boris Yeltsin postponed 
a day of reckoning for his government for about a 
week on Sunday, amid increasing nervousness over 
Russia’s shaky economy. 

Mr. Yeltsin had threatened a new reshuffle if foe 
cabinet, already reeling from several dismissals, did 
not show it could deliver on a promise to pay off a 
vast sum in overdue wages to public sector workers 
and restore faith in foe ruble. The cabinet meeting 
originally was planned for Monday. 

“President Boris Yeltsin has decided, in agree- 
ment with Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, to 
postpone foe government’s report for a week,” a 
Kremlin statement said, adding that a new date would 
be set in due course. The statement said foe meeting 
had been put off due to a parliamentary debate on 
next year’s budget, scheduled for Friday, a state visit 
by Mr. Yells in to Sweden, to start Tuesday, and a trip 
by Mr. Chernomyrdin to neighboring Belarus. 


The Kremlin said Mr. Yeltsin met Chancellor 
Helmut Kohl for informal talks on Sunday afternoon 
and agreed to hold the first of a planned series of 


human form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, 
or “mad cow disease.” ( AP ) 


mree- way summns wim r ranee m me Kussian ciry or r, »• w r j* Y T • 

Yekaterinburg in the first half of 1998. (Reuters) Italian VOtlJlg IS JLlght 

Transplants Investigated 


LONDON — Scottish health authorities are in- 
vestigating how tissue from foe eyes of a woman who 
had suffered from Creu tzfeldt- J akob Disease was 
transplanted into three other people. 

“We are aware there is a potential infection risk 
from tissue retrieved from a patient in Scotland,” a 
spokesman for foe government Scottish Office said 
Saturday. "We do not know the full facts, but we are 
making urgent inquiries into how this could have 
occurred,” he said. 

The 53-year-old woman suffered from lung can- 
cer, but after she died an examination showed she 
also had foe brain-destroying, disease that is the 


ROME — Turnout was low Sunday as Italians 
went to foe polls in second-round balloting for mu- 
nicipal councils. The ruling center- left coalition won 
a landslide in major cities in foe first round on Nov. 
16 from which (he mayors of Rome, Naples and 
Venice emerged with an absolute majority. (AFP) 

Bums Assumes Athens Post 

ATHENS — Nicholas Burns, foe former State 
Department spokesman, arrived Sunday to take up 
ids position as U.S. ambassador to Greece. He suc- 
ceeds Thomas Niles ata time of increased interest by 
foe United States in helping to resolve disputes 
between Greece and Turkey. (AP) 


PRAGUE: Abandoned by Party , Klaus Is Forced to Resign 


Continued from Page 1 

Finance Minister Ivan Pilzp acknowledged at the end 
of last week that the party held a Swiss bank account with 
$217,000 from private donors. Mr. Klaus insisted that he 
did not know about foe account, bnt members of his party 
asserted that he was one of two party members who knew 
of it from its inception. 

Mr. Pilip was quoted in the Czech newspapers as 
saying that nearly all of the patty’s leaders were told of 
foe account two mouths ago aim. they decided that foe 
money should be contributed to charity. 

Most serious from Mr. Klaus's point of view, Czech 
politicians said, are accusations that the money was 
donated to the party in exchange for insider deals during 
foeprivatization process. 

Tne revelations about the contributions were first 
made by former Foreign Minister Josef Zieleuiec, who 
resigned last month, partly in disgust over what he called 
secrecy surrounding the party’s finances. 

Two years ago Mr. Klaus triumphantly told the nation 
that the transformation of the economy was complete. 

Czechs believed him. Bnt this year, as an economic 
crisis in the spring sent foe currency plunging, they 
watched small and medium-sized banks collapse and the 
unregulated stock market sag under persistent scandals. 
Recent surveys show dial 80 percent of the people are 
concerned about the economy. 

“People thought the transformation was over,” said 
Daniela Stanikova, a 23-year-old film student. “Then 
this year we are told the worst is still to come. I think we 
have 10 bad years ahead.” 

Miss Stanikova said that many people now realized 
that the state-owned companies mat were privatized 
through Mr. Klaus's highly publicized voucher system, 
in which ordinary Czechs were given shares in compa- 
nies that many then sold to investment fends, remained 
overstaffed and unproductive. "People will start losing 
jobs,” she said. 

Foreign investors are disenchanted, too. “The Czech 
economic performance has been relatively discouraging 
compared to its peers in the region,’ ’ said Gabor Bognar, 
an economist in London at Goldman, Sachs, who spe- 
cializes in Central Europe. “Overall, the fundamentals 
arc riot improving — and in some cases deteriorating.” 

Productivity has been consistently low compared with 
Poland and Hungaiy, he said. With foe exception of the 
Skoda car plant, in which Volkswagen acquired a con- 


trolling stake, Czech companies have attracted few for- 
eign strategic partners. Inns, the firms have benefited 
little from outside management know-how, Mr. Bognar 
said. 

Czech banks have been a consistent problem and Mr. 
Klaus was warned in Washington tins month by Treas- 
ury Secretary Robert Rubin that be needed to hurry and 
restructure the sector, officials here said. 

The close relationship between (be banks, the in- 
vestment funds they control -and industrial companies 
has led to embezzlements and lax loan policies. The 
Czech National Bank said in June that 32 percent of the 
loons held by foe stare-controlled banks were substand- 
ard. three and four times foe number in Polish and 
Hungarian banks, respectively. 

Mr. Klans appeared to have started to heed Mr. Rubin, 
and an October memorandum from the International 
Monetary Fund that criticized the government for un- 
derestimating the cost of restructuring the hanks. On 
Nov. 19. the government announced plans to sell large 
stakes in the top three banks to fbrdgn investors. 

The government also took its first steps tins month to 
regulate the stock market Parliament pissed legislation 
for a securities exchange commission. But Western 
investors and diplomats said Mr. Klaus’s heart was not in 
the reforms. They were concerned, they added, that the 
rules for the new body had been so watered down that it 
would lack the teeth it needed. 

The uncertain health of President Havel, who before 
his surgery was a two-pack-a-day smoker, is another 
worry. Mr. Havel has announced he will nm again in 
January for die presidency and there is no expected 
opposition. Czechs have expressed concerns about ins 
candidacy, but not because they don't want him as 
president A survey two weeks ago showed that 54 
percent of those polled felt tire ailing Mr. Havel should 
not run for his own sake. 

Along with their political and economic woes, foe 
Czech image has been shaken by a surge of racial 
violence. An estimated 200,000 to 300,000 Gypsies live 
in the Czech Republic and since 0 k collapse of com- 
munism, the hostility of the majority of the population 
toward Gypsies, who generally have footer skin, has 
become more obvious. 

The European Center for the Rights of Roma in 
Budapest has reported more than 1,250 attacks against 
Gypsies in the Czech Republic since 1990. Ten of the 
attacks resulted in deaths. 



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MONDAY* DECEMBER 1, 199? 

EDITORIALS /OPINION 


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INTERNATIONAL 


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Unlimited Inspection 


Iraq's invitation to let foreign dip- 
lomats stay as guests in Saddam Hus- 
sein's many palaces, while turning 
away UN weapons inspectors, deserves 
the scorn it is gening from the United 
Nations and its member nations. 

Since the UN inspection team began 
trying in 1991 to monitor Iraq’s efforts 
.to make nuclear, chemical and biolo- 
gical weapons, its inspectors have been 
turned away 73 times from government 
buildings arid palaces. With suspicions 
running high that lethal weapons and 
material, possibly including nerve gas, 
may be stashed in the palaces, experts, 
not diplomats, need access. 

The standoff over rhe palaces is one 
of the mosr important conflicts be- 
tween Iraq and the United Nations. 
After the Gulf War. the UN imposed an 
embargo on sales of Iraqi oil abroad 
until inspectors certify that Iraq is free 
of weapons of mass destruction and. 
making no effort to manufacture them. 
While ordinary Iraqis have suffered, 
Saddam lias spent at least $1 billion 
building 48 new residences for himself 
and top officials. One is said to be eight 
times the size of the White House. 


The boom in palace construction has 
accompanied rebuilding of weapons 
factories. Washington and UN officials 
believe that the palaces may house 
documentation of the weapons pro- 
grams, the weapons themselves or even 
laboratories creating lethal germs. 

Baghdad's denial of expert access to 
what it calls “sovereign sites” covers 
palaces and official residences, mil- 
itary intelligence bases, many govern- 
ment ministries and the headquarters 
of the Special Republican Guard, 
which is suspected of hiding and mov- 
ing Iraq's labs and storehouses of leth- 
al weapons. To ensure that inspectors 
eventually get into ail these buildings, 
President Bill Clinton hasproperly de- 
cided to maintain a robust U.S. military 
presence in the Gulf area, including 
two aircraft carriers. 

The UN Security Council, which is 
working on a response to Iraq, must 
maintain unity in demanding that Sad- 
dam Hussein open all sites. UN in- 
spectors cannot assure that the world is 
safe from Saddam's weapons as long 
as he can choose where inspectors go. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


No Free Pass for Kabila 


This is a critical moment in Laurent 
Kabila's Congo, successor country to 
Mobutu Sese Seko’s Zaire. The im- 
mediate focus is on a United Nations 
attempt to investigate the reported 
massacre of nearly a quarter-million 
Rwandan Hutu refugees in eastern 
Zaire on Mr. Kabila's way to power. 
For the much battered United Nations, 
basic credibility is involved. 

Mr. Kabila insists that the inves- 
tigation either be narrowed to avoid a 
damning inquiry or broadened to cover 
the alleged depredations of others; 
either way, he escapes serious solo 
indictment. The United Nations has 
now put him on notice to deliver 
promptly on the terras that will let a UN 
team move into the field. Otherwise the 
team goes home, leaving the charges 
against Mr. Kabila unexamined but 
taking with it os well the possibility 
that he will be cleared. 

In Congo, the United Nations has no 
aimed force or heavy embargo to bring 
to bear, as it theoretically does in Iraq, 
against a stonewalling local object of its 
inspection. It must negotiate its way in, 
ana in some way it must take into ac- 
count Mr. Kabila's complaint that be is 
being unfairly singled out Bill Richard- 
son. die Clinton administration's envoy, 
allowed as much in his seemingly suc- 
cessful effort last month to talk Mr. 
Kabila into the appropriate terms for an 
investigation. Then tilings slipped. 

TheCongo leader cannot reasonably 


expect to order tip a whitewash. He can 
diminish but not prevent the impact of 
an investigation. As grateful as most 
other people were to see the corrupt 
Mobutu reign go, he cannot expect an 
international free pass. No less than 
any other claimant for world accept- 
ance, he must meet the world .body 
at least halfway. 

A finding of Congo's great and un- 
mitigated guilt in the death of the 
Rwandan refugees would create pres- 
sure on the United Nations to abandon 
Mr. Kabila and even to abandon Con- 
go itself. Such an action would leave 
this vast, strategically critical, poten- 
tially rich African country of 45 mil- 
lion people without the rehabilitation 
program or national leadership essen- 
tial to its revival. 

A crucial donors' meeting is sched- 
uled in Brussels next week: it holds the 
future of Congo in its hands. Mr. Kab- 
ila wields the implicit threat of the 
collapse of Africa's keystone country. 
But the donors and the United Nations 
can plausibly warn of denying Con- 
golese development. Nobody likes it 
that way, but that is the way it is. 

This is not a situation where the prin- 
cipals sit down and hammer out a final 
settlement. They sit down and bargain 
out a partial, shifting deaL The nego- 
tiations mi the terms of international 
engagement in Congo will go on for 
years. But they must start, and quickly. 

- THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Nuclear Bookkeeping 


Nuclear weapons are expensive 
companions. The United States has 
spent billions of dollars building and 
improving nuclear bombs since Robert 
Oppenheimer and his team assembled 
the first at Los Alamos more than five 
decades ago. Now that the creation of 
new weapons is suspended, it turns out 
that still more billions are needed to 
keep old weapons ready for use. While 
some spending is required, the pro- 
gram devised by the Clinton admin- 
istration and Congress is extravagant. 

The plan stems from negotiated re- 
ductions in warheads and a new treaty 
that bans test explosions. Warheads 
that were once constantly replaced by 
new designs perfected through under- 
ground tests could now remain in ar- 
senals for 25 years or more. Scientists . 
do not know ’precisely how long the 
slowly decomposing radioactive ele- 
ments in these weapons will remain 
reliable. As long as there ore nuclear 
weapons, the countries that possess 
them must be confident that their war- 
heads are usable and credible to any 
potential foe. 

Washington's answer is the Stock- 
pile Stewardship and Management 
Program, to cost at least S45 billion 
over ID years. It has been larded with 
projects attractive to senators like Pete 
Domenici of New Mexico, whose state 
houses two weapons laboratories, and 
seems partly designed to ensure Senate , 
ratification of the test ban treaty. 

Since I95S. scientists have been re- 
moving a number of warheads each 
year and subjecting them to noncx- 
plosive mechanical analysis, including 
physical disassembly. More recently, 
the weapons labs have been devel- 
oping computer simulation models and 


experimenting with subcritical mini- 
explosions to maintain the stockpile. 

The stewardship program builds on 
these methods, as well as laser-driven 
fusion experiments, and provides fi- 
nancing for advanced scientific re- 
search into the physics of nuclear ex- 
plosions. Its most expensive element is 
a new, $2.2 billion National Ignition 
Facility in Livermore. California, de- 
signed to use precisely tailored laser 
. light to compress a droplet of nuclear 
materials, creating a tiny fusion ex- 
plosion that can be closely studied. It 
will attract a new generation of weapons 
scientists whose skills would be needed 
if the lest bon treaty were to break down 
and a new arms race began. 

Some effort to maintain necessary 
skills is appropriate. So, too, axe com- 
puter simulations and mechanical 
sampling to leant more about what 
happens to bomb trigger mechanisms 
as plutonium decays. Adequate sup- 
plies of tritium must be assured in case 
decaying warheads need to be re- 
placed. But the stewardship program 
must not subsidize unrelated exper- 
imentation or allow any effort to design 
and build more advanced weapons. 

The Congressional Budget Office 
has proposed less expensive ways to 
assure weapons reliability. One ap- 
proach would be to consolidate the 
work at one of the existing labs and do 
without the ignition facility. Another 
would rely on commercial reactors to 
produce tritium instead of calling for a 
new government plant Congress, 
whose budget ax is so keen on social 
programs, owes taxpayers a disinter- 
ested study to determine how far the 
stewardship program can safely be cut 
— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


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W ASHINGTON — The chickens 
of globalization are coming home 
to roost in Asia. Stock and currency 
markets have experienced six months of 
turmoil. Asia's contagion should shake 
many of the glib assumptions formed 
about globalization by investors, politi- 
cians and pundits in this decade. 

But don't bet on it Human nature 
doesn ‘t work that way. 

A more likely outcome is a tinkering 
with assumptions already reached and 
blessed, and a knee-jerk continuation of 
the policies, practices and thinking that 
produced the current mess. 

That mess will over the next year 
reduce U.S. exports to Asia and cut 
U.S. growth by up to an estimated Half 
of 1 percent, dnve America's trade 
■deficit to historic new heights, and 
force American participation in inter- 
national bailouts for Asia. 

The relentless, full -speed-ahead 
opening of markets around the world 
portrayed by President Bill Clinton and 
others as the key to economic growth in 
the 21st century has suddenly been 
shown to have an identifiable down- 
side, as well as benefiL 
Globalization has opened markets — 
and encouraged developing countries 
to mortgage their futures on export- 
driven growth and on attracting foreign 


By Jim Hoagland 


investment inflows that their young, 
uneven economies could not sustain. 

Like Tolstoy's unhappy families, 
Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and 
South Korea are unhappy in their own 
individual ways. But a lack of trans- 
parency in financial dealings, a failure of 
regulation and disinterested government 
supervision of markets, and a get-filthy- 

rich-quick mentality within die national 

elite were evident in each case. 

This contributed to boom, as it did in 
the United States in the 1920s, and then 
to today’s depression-like bust 

From their searing national expe- 
rience. Americans developed the sys- 
tems of market regulation and banking 
supervision and insurance that have 
helped underpin U.S. financial stability 
since. American values, in short, have 
much to offer for financial stability in 
the global economy. 

But don’t expect the demagogues 
who have been preaching about the 
moral and financial superiority of 
“Asian values” to acknowledge that 
any time soon. The recent wave of cur- 
rency devaluations in Asia suggests that 
these smaller countries will continue to 
try to export their way to financial sta- 


bility in the shon term, rather than re- 
examine their growth strategies. 

This will unleash a flood of cheaper 
imports into the flourishing U.S. market, 
while shrinking Asian economies will 
not be able to import more American 
goods. The flood will turn into a tidal 
wave if Japan and China also seek new 
growth by cheapening their currencies 
to increase exports — as is likely. 

China devalued the yuan in 1994 and 
reaped a $30 billion to $40 billion an- 
nual trade surplus with the United 
States as a result But this year's de- 
valuations in Southeast Asia have 
erased much of the Chinese compar- 
ative advantage. 

The Chinese economy, is widely as- 
sumed to be immune to die Asian col- 
lapse. since investment there tends to 
be in brick-and-mortar assets (ike fac- 
tories rather than speculative real estate 
and phony financial companies. Bui 
Chinese business dealings are often 
basal on personal relations and a hand- 
shake rather than binding contracts. 
This lack of transparency suggests that 
Chinese stability is another assumption 
in for serious testing. 

U.S. corporate chieftains who have 
been proclaiming that their companies’ 
futures lie in Asian markets, and es- 
pecially in China, may want to tone 


'down their rhetoric and perhaps their 
investments. 

U.S. policymakers have already 
tinkered with their assumptions be- 
cause of the financial turmoil. 

When trouble first surfaced in Thai- 
land, the U.S. Treasury stood aloof 
from rescue efforts. When Indonesia 
went under, the Treasury wizards 
offered a symbolic $3.5 billion standby 
credit for Indonesia as a political ges- 
ture to show America’s strategic in- 
terest and presence in Asia. South 
Korea's threatened meltdown has 
ended the Treasury 's aloofness. 

The United Stales is now preparing 
to commit energy and resources to an 
effort to contain this financial depres- 
sion to Asia. Among ocher things. 
Washington is urging Tokyo to lead the 
Asian economic rescue by — you 
guessed it — opening it s markets. 

Opening markets has been the one- 
size-fits-all solution offered by those 
who extol the virtues and inevitability 
of a single global economy. But there is 
now a race on to erect walls to contain 
the Asian contagion to that region. • 

The globalizes will no doubt soon 
be exp laining that they knew it would 
turn out this way all along. That's hu- 
man nature, too. 

. The Washington Post 


Ihe Silver Lining Will Be Real Capitalism and a Freer Press 


B OSTON — The Asian 
crisis has demonstrated the 
need for free market capitalism 
of a sort never seep in the re- 
gion, and for an unfettered 
press that can report on Asian 
economic life, warts and alL 
The Asian miracle was built 
on a stunted form of capital- 
ism. The region never fell to 

co mmunism, but the capital- 
ism it accepted grew under an 
authoritarian rule just as dom- 
inant as any Communist re- 
gime and just as resistant to 
bona fide free markets. 

What is more, many author- 
itarian leaders in the region 
showered much of the spoils 
from swift economic develop- 
ment on family and friends. 
Little supervision or regulation 
was imposed. Accounting 
standards were sub-par, cor- 
porate disclosure was often at a 
company’s w him. 

Barely a whiff of any of tills 
ever made it into the local 
press. Is it any wonder that the 


By Steven Levingston 


abuses multiplied until the 
dominoes began falling this 
year? The real wonder is that 
the Asian debacle did not occur 
sooner. 

In the early 1990s, I covered 
the Asian financial markets 
front Hong Kong, traveling to 
the bustling slock exchanges 
throughout the region. Riding 
along the streets of Jakarta, I 
could not help bat marvel at 
this glittering modem hub. At 
the same time, however, I had 
to r emind myself that whenev- 
er! scratched just a little below 
the surface I still found a pain- 
fully undeveloped nation. 

For years the Asian eco- 
nomic miracle blinded the 
world- But it was often the 
mere sheen of capitalism with- 
out its substance. 

In Januaiy 1991 in Bang- 
kok, site of this year's first 
meltdown, the problems were 
the ones that haunt many coun- 


tries in the region today: little 
regulation, poor accounting 
procedures, corporate secrecy. 

“Trying ro find out what a 
company's assets are is next to 
impossible unless they want to 
tell you.” the head of Thai 
research for a British broker- 
age complained at the time. 

In Indonesia, an absence of 
corporate openness and ac- 
countability has rocked the 
economy and forced the clo- 
sure of several books, includ- 
ing some heavily financed by 
President Suharto’s family. 
Companies deliberately with- 
hold financial infor matio n that 
might weaken enthusiasm for a 
proposed public offering. ' 

Many Asian countries made 
strides in recent years to 
counter some of the worst 
abuses. But these moves often 
came at the prodding of foreign 
investors enlightened to the 
problems not by the local me- 


dia but by the foreign press. 
Clearly, as the events of recent 
months show,, these remedies 
did not go far enough, or were 
simply halted in midstride. 

No strong push has ever 
been made to bolster local busi- 
ness media coverage in the in- 
terests of improving corporate 
accountability and openness. 

Wonyingly, in one giant 
Asian country, another brand of 
stunted capitalism persists. 
China has so far escaped the 
gloomy financial trend of its 
neighbors, while strictly adher- 
ing to an economic system that 
leaders in Beijing call social- 
ism with Chinese characterist- 
ics. Tiis unique model allows a 
dubious form of capitalism to 
develop within the narrow con- 
fines or China's rigid political 
and social system. 

Don't expect China’s media 
to dig into the truth of the coun- 
try's economic activity. Few 
press establishments are as ri- 
gidly controlled as China's. 


Until now, most economic 
shocks in the region have been 
confined as isolated events 
within sovereign borders. This 
year, neighbors are peering in- 
to the house next door and real- 
izing that genuine disorder can 
spill regionwide. 

Perhaps recognition of the 
area’s shared problems will 
lead to recognition of a shared 
solution: free market capital- 
ism, backed by a watchful 
business press. 

Real capitalism is built on an 
institutional foundation of reg- 
ulation. oversight and open- 
ness. As Asia is bound to leant, 
these ideals take hold in times 
of need by tire sheer force of 
their irresistibility. 

The writer, a former Wall 
Street Journal reporter, is di- 
rector of the Business and Eco- 
nomics Journalism Program at 
Boston University. He contrib- 
uted this comment to the In- 
ternational Herald Tribune. 


Germany’s Students Have Good Reasons to Complain 


B ONN — Bonn, a town that 
reporters habitually de- 
scribe as snoozy, woke up last 
week. Universities throughout 
Germany shut down, and 
50,000 students invaded Bonn 
to protest the government's 
shrinking financial support for 
German higher education. 

Libraries, the marchers asser- 
ted, were crumbling; class- 
rooms were crammed; profes- 
sors were imperious; Ihe cur- 
riculum was irrelevant to the re- 
quirements of the 21st century. 

There were placards, songs 
and speeches. Even members of 
the Bundestag took notice. 

One of the marchers re- 
marked to me that all this must 
look strange to an American. 
Why? I asked. “Students on 
strike,” she replied. 

1 told her that I, too, had once 


By Richard Bells 


been a student on strike — at 
Harvard in 1968. In that now 
distant year if seemed as if stu- 
dents all over the world were on 
strike. I could almost imagine 
an earlier version of this rally 
taking place in Berlin or Paris, 
Madison or Berkeley. 

Yet there was a strangeness, 
in contrast to the upheavals of 
the late 1960s. Everyone in 
Bonn was incessantly polite. A 
few banners proclaimed that 
“Kohl Must Go,” but this slo- 
gan lacked the fury of “Hey 
Hey LBJ ... How Many Kids 
Did You Kill Today?” 

There were no occupations of 
university buildings, with 
someone shrieking through a 
bullhorn about demolishing the 
educational-industrial com- 


plex. No woddng-class cops, 
aimed with truncheons and tear 
gas, waited to unleash theirrage 
at the children of affluence. 

The Polizei, many of them as 
young as the students, were 
eager to help, pointing out port- 
able bathrooms and directing 
traffic so that the marchers 
would not interfere with ordin- 
ary citizens engaged in their 
daily routines. 

Nor was there the obligatory 
list of non-negotiable demands, 
beginning with amnesty for the 
demonstrators. Professors, ad- 
ministrators and politicians all 
expressed sympathy. Everyone 
seemed ready to bargain. 

No, the student strikers in 
Bonn would not bring down 
Helmut Kohl as their prede- 


Human Rights May Be Coming 


W ASHINGTON — Is it 
possible that there is a 
glimmer of light at the end of 
the human rights tunnel? 

Obdurate governments — 
even ones that go in for barbed 
wire and searchlight surveil- 
lance, beatings, interrogations 
under torture — are beginning 
to get iL 

That is not to say that 
second thoughts or remorse 
are setting in with fiends. It is 
just that from time to time they 
want something other than to 
demonstrate their capacity for 
inhumanity to man. 

The long-sought release of 
China's Olympic-class dissi- 
dent Wei Jingsheng was fi- 
nally accomplished because 
China’s president wanted a 
2 1 -gun salute, a red carpet and 
a state dinner during his recent 
visit to the United States. 

He knew it would cost him. 
U.S. Ambassador James Sas- 
ser presented the tab before 
Jiang Zemin put a foot on the 
plane. Mr. Jiang could have it 
all, Mr. Sasser said, but there 
was a quid pro quo: Spring 
Wei Jingsheng. Such is the 
allure of presidential glamour 
that Mr. Wei was soon on a 
nonstop flight to Detroit. . 

His arrival went through the 
human rights community like 
an electric current. What 
happened is an argument for 
engagement with China. It was 
also an argument for Mr. 
Wei’s central message: Tyr- 
ants understand only pressure. 

In the long and impassioned 
diplomatic debate over how to 
handle bullies, how to lean on 


By Mary McGrory 


them to be decent while not 
threatening their sovereignty 
(they are frightfully sensitive, 
the poor dears). Mr. Wei took 
tiie aggressor's line. 

What most people noticed 
about him — a relentless agit- 
ator who wrote sardonic, in- 
sulting letters to the rulers of his 
country and became a world 
symbol of defiance through his 
cheek and courage — was his 
unquenchable cheerfulness. 
His round face was almost ra- 
diant with purpose and pleas- 
ure. Depend on yourself, was 
his bracing message 

In an era notable for its 
whiners and handwringers, 
his refusal to excuse himself 
from valor beyond the call 
made him a miracle. 

The same week that 
brought Mr. Wei out of his 
dungeon also brought forth 
two award-winning human 
rights activists from Turkey. 
The Robert F. Kennedy Foun- 
dation for Human Rights cited 
them for their bold and prin- 
cipled efforts to find justice 
for Turkey’s Kurds. 

The Turkish government 
feels so strongly, about Kurd- 
ish aspirations for indepen- 
dence — although not for a 
separate state — that it jailed 
the first Kurdish woman ever 
elected to the Turkish Parlia- 
ment, after she and 17 other 
Kurds won seats in 1991. She 
was found guilty of treason 
and sentenced to 15 years. 

Among other things, she 


testified before the U.S. Con- 
gress's Committee on the Hel- 
sinki Commission, where she 
spoke of the aspirations of her 
ancient people and called on 
the Turkish government to 
seek a peaceful solution to an 
old feud. 

Sezgin Tanrikulu, a Kurd- 
ish lawyer, said il never occurs 
to him to give up his dan- 
gerous work for his people. He 
went to see the imprisoned 
parliamentarian. Ley I a 7-ana 
just before be came to Wash- 
ington to collect his prize. 

His fellow winner, Senal 
Sarihan, is 49 and has two 
children. She served three 
years in jail for her opposition. 
She, too, has the ebullience 
that is apparently character- 
istic of civil rights activists. 

In her only show of im- 
patience during an interview, 
she said: “People here are al- 
ways asking me if I’m afraid, 
if 1 wish 1 didn’t have to go 
back. My parents were teach- 
ers, 1 have been an activist all 
my life.” 

The deputy chief of staff of 
the Turkish army has said for 
the first time that die gov- 
ernment should seek a peace- 
ful solution to rhe Turkish- 
Kurdish dispute. Has he begun 
to see the light? 

Probably noL It’s just that 
Ankara wants more: member- 
ship in the European Union. 
Britain, France and Germany 
have let h be known that they 
do not want to admit countries 
that do not treat their own 
people in a civilized way. 

The WiKhlngltm Pva. 


cessors in Paris nearly toppled 
Charles de Gaulle. But the edu- 
cational issues are even more 
serious til an they were in 1968. 

Students march because their 
universities are no longer func- 
tioning. Graduate students 
write seminar papers based on 
scanty research because neither 
libraries nor local bookstores 
stock the necessary books. Un- 
dergraduates attend gigantic 
lecture courses for which they 
get no credit and where they are 
expected to do nothing but 
listen to a lecture read in a 
monotone as if no audience 
were present As the semester 
wears on, the audience stops 
coming to class. 

As governments throughout 
Western Europe try to reduce 
their budgets, students are also 
facing for the first time since 
World War n the prospect of 
paying for their education. 

To an American parent 
shelling out to private or public 
universities an average of 
$20,000 a year per child, the 
notion of asking Goman stu- 
dents to help subsidize their 
own education hardly sounds 
outrageous. Yet German uni- 
versities and departments, run 
by chaired professors who often 
act as if they were feudal lords, 
treat their students more like 
serfs than consumers. 

German universities are hier- 
archies designed to inflate the 
status and prestige of the Hen- 
Professor, who is shielded from 
snideots by a battalion of as- 
sistants and secretaries. Walk 
into any department building 


(tribune East Asia Takes a Time-Out From Globalization 


- ** 

*. •«“ i: 


and you wQI see students wait- 
ing patiently, sometimes for 
hours, for the professor (almost 
always a male) to open his door 
for a few minutes before he 
scurries off to catch a flight to 
his next conference. 

Worst of all, German stu- 
dents are being urged to com- • 
plete their course work quickly, 
although, with an unemploy- 
ment rate in Germany exceed- 
ing 12- percent, many of them 
can look forward upon gradu- 
ation only to years of jobless- 
ness. It is one of the supreme 
ironies of this strike that stu- 
dents will stay in school as long 
as they can, no matter bow de- 
plorable the conditions, be- 
cause life outside the ivory 
tower appears to them even 
more demoralizing. 

The strike will end soon. 
None of the movement’s leaders 
are dreaming, tike their fore- 
runners in the 1960s, of a per- . 
manent revolution. But the 9 
crisis in the universities will per- 
sist until the politicians in Bonn 
and in the Lander are wilting to 
restructure higher education. 

Otherwise, the politicians’ 

■ hopes in 1997 of making Ger- 
many an economic and tech- 
nological rival of America will 
turn put to be as evanescent as 
the dreams of the student re- 
volutionaries in 1968. 

The writer, a historian at the 
University of Texas, is teaching 
in Bonn as the Fulbright pro- 
fessor in American studies. He 
contributed this comment to the 
International Herald Tribune. 






■‘r 


IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AG0~ 

1897: Murder Verdict He said: ''Experts state that if 
i nwr. ic. A Km nnv v. „ ** United States were to open 


LONG ISLAND CITY, N.Y. — 
One of the most remarkable tri- 
als ever witnessed here was con- 
cluded this evening [Nov. 30] 
with the verdict of minder in the 
first degree against Martin 
Thom, who, with bis paramour. 
Mrs. Nack, had been indicted for 
doing away with one Gulden- 
suppe, a former lover of Mrs. 
Nack. Both confessed to having 
together chopped the body into 
fragments and thrown them here 
and there into the river and the 
woods. The murderers and their 
victim were all of German origin 
and of low extraction. 


the gates, it is not the construct- 
ive or productive laborer from 
Western Europe that wc would 
obtain, but a mob of uneducated 
individuals from the Eastern 
European countries, who would 
not be likely to become good 
citizens, and who might bring 
both disease and communist 
principles with them.” 

1947: Basic Needs 


L 


35 KKSr«*- SEKSsKSS 

1(WM c , . _ sabotage has almost engulfed llw 

19*2: selective Entry nation’s industrial and transpor- 
pinic x M . n „ tation systems. Much of Ihe dis- 

- Mr ' James - R ' ? ar_ content which impels the strike . 
hour. Pans representative of the wave in France h beyond the jf 
Farmers Loan and Trust Com- power of the government to al- 
party, told a reporter yesterday lay. It springs from basic sfton- 

INov. _-»0] that general opinion ages of basic commodities. More 

was against the removal of the food, cheaper clothing alone can 
present immigration restrictions, restore peace in France. 



INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER b 1997 


PACE 9 


LANGUAGE 


it: 


i 


r 

i 


BOOKS 


What to Call the Person Who Minds the Kids 


By William Safire 


\y ASHINGTON — “Au Pairs Are 
▼ Y^Not Nannies, Care Givers In- 


sist. 


There was a New York Times head- 
line that covered the linguistic water 
front. It had to do with the trial of 
Louise Woodward, the young British 
woman who was convicted in Mas- 
sachusetts of manslaughter in the death 
of a baby she was hired to watch. 

The reporter, Sara Rimer, explained 
that the French term, au pair, “is the 
designation for young foreigners who 
are brought to this country under a 
program overseen by the United Stales 
Information Agency — a cross be- 
tween a cultural exchange and a rel- 
atively low-cost child-care service.” 

A Concord, Massachusetts, reader 
extended the definition: “Au pair is an 
abbreviation of ‘etre au pair dans une 
mats on,' which the French dictionary 
Larousse defines as ‘free board and 
room without salary.’- Therefore, 
young women who take care of chil- 
dren and receive a salary in addition to 
free room and board are not au- 
pairs.” 

The term originated in 1897 to mean 
one who entered a European school to 
teach English while learning French or 
German. 

Time magazine entered the synon- 
ymy dodge with a more current dif- 
ferentiation: “Americans tend to use 
the terms 'au pair’ and 'nanny' in- 
terchangeably, but there is a difference. 
Nannies are for mall y trained in child 
care and are paid upwards of $300 a 


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week. Au pairs (tbs term roughly trans- 
lates as ‘equal 1 in .Tench) are teenagers 
who receive smal salaries and expect 
to be treated as cuasi family members 
in exchange for some housework and 
child care.” 

An au pair if thought of as a young 
person, from lae teens to mid-20s, who 
is given an “allowance” or stipend 
similar to that p ven a dependent youth 
in a family, a nanny is older and is 
.more often considered a domestic em- 
ployee — a professional instructor as 
well as a milder. The name comes 
from the pe 1 name of a person named 
Ann; perhajs some English child in the 
late 18th cntury had a governess of 

that nam#» 


Women in this set used to be called 
governesses, a word coined in 1483 
about a king who made his daughter 
“maystresse and gouuemesse of moo 
than two hondred Vyrgyns.” Thai 
challenging-task was later reduced to 
caring for children in a single f amily by 
a woman often derogated for her stem ' 
visage. “I think good looks are rather 
out of place in a governess,” wrote 
Mary Hawker in “Mademoiselle he" 
in 1890; a generation later, the French 
author Colette wrote; “I look like a 
molting bird. I look like a governess in 
distress.” 

This unfair physical characteriza- 
tion of governesses helped cause 
the term to fell into disuse; that , and 
-Ihe resistance of children to gov- 
ernance. 

The replacement ranged from the 
1937 baby-sitter (young person hired 
to' ‘ ‘mind’ 1 children but not to instruct 
them) to the more professional nurse- 
maid for taking care of infants. 

Then care took over. In The New 
Yorker last month, Stacy Schiff, writ- 
ing of “the stranger who is looking 
after your children,” toured the ho- 
rizon: “Enter the nanny, the baby-sit- 
' ter, the au pair, the child-care provider, 
the nonbiologic&l care giver. ’ 

Lisbeth B. Schorr, author of the new 
“Common Purpose” (Doubleday), a 
shibboleth-shattering take on ways to 
strengthen families, devotes a chapter 
to child protection, a more active form 
of care. 

How do you advertise creatively for 
someone who shuns labels to look after 
your kids? Wanted: duenna or amah 

New York Times Service 


£ 


McXJBELs . 

Barger Culture on Trial 

By John Vidal. Illustrated. 354 pages. 

The New Press. $24. -• ^ 

Reviewed by Sarah Lyail 

I N December 1991, Helen Steel, one 
of the British anti-McDonald’s cam- ' 
igners who became known as. fire' 
cLibel Two after the hamburger con- 
glomerate sued them for libel, decided 
that the case probably wouldn’t go to 
trial and, even if it did, was unlikely to 
last more than a couple of weeks. So she 
went off to live cm an organic farm ■ — a 
short-lived retreat if there ever was one. 
The case dragged on for seven excru- 
ciating years, generated some 58,000 
pages of documents and trial transcripts 
and took up an astonishing 313 days in 
court, makin g it tine longest trial in Eng- 
lish history. The case, in which .the 
McLibel Two had to defend the ac- 
curacy of statements like “The menus 
of the burger chains are based on the 
torture arid murder of millions of an- • 
imals ” (from a leaflet they had helped 
distribute in the late 1980s), became a 
referendum on Britain’s outdated libel 
laws as much as a referendum on Mc- 
Donald’s itself. - 

Forced by lack of money to serve as 
their own lawyers. Steel, a part-time 
bartender, and her. co-defendant, Dave 
Morris, an out-of-work mailman, im- 
mersed themselves in McDonald’s ar- 
cana. They learned about the effects of 


coffee cups on landfills,- about die lift 
expectancy of cows used to mate'**'" 


and about how Ronald Mcl 
persuades children to boy McNuggets. 
They learned about die nutritional mer- 
it, or lack thereof, of a Coke and large , 
ordra - of fries. Aftra - an inauspicious 
start, in which they couldn't hear what 
die judge was. saying »nd didn’t know 
what to ddabofut it, they learned how to 
cross-examine witnesses, howto 'write, 
briefs and — with the 'help of-Justi.ee 
Rodger Bell, the patient jurist on die 
bench— how to understand die strange 
conventions of the courtroom. 

If Steel and Morris were living arid 
breathing McLibel, then John Vidal, 
environmental editor at The Guardian in 
London, was apparently living -and 
breathing right alongside them. “Me Li- 
bel: Burger Culture on Trial” is a de- 
tailed and at times riveting look at two- 
. ordinary citizens’ long, .strange trip 
through the thickets of the British legal 
system as they fought charges from one 
of the world’s biggest corporations — 
and one of the most pervasive symbols 
of American mass culture. - 
. Vidal’s book, which includes his own 
digs at McDonald’s and other large 
companies, is most interesting when he 
sticks to the story of Steel and Moms, 
who emerge as stubbom and highly 
"principled, if occasionally over- 
whelmed. Despite their handicaps — 
including having to discuss the case on 
the subway en route to court every 
moming, because there was no other 


tune to most — .theynever wavered in 
their determination to' see .the case 
th ynngk "When the two turned down the 
McDonald’s settlement offer, for ea- 
gle, which included a gag clause for- 

i- 1 j 4i. mta m>K_ 


them to discuss the case pub- 
‘ wouldn’t 


Ucly, they insisted that they 

agree to anything that infringed upon 
their freedom of speech. McDonald's 
> replied -that their speech vjouldn’t be 
. restricted, because they would still be 
free to speak privately. ”To point out 
how ridiculous it was- we wrote .back 
saying we would consider that point, if 
they agreed to cease all advertisements 
and promotions of McDonald’s and its 
nets,” Steel told VidaL “And we 
said, ‘Of course this " agreement 
wouldn't prevent you from privately 
recommending McDonald’s to - your 
frieuds and neighbors. ’ ’ 1 


M CDONALD’S never responded. 

Indeed, it never responded to Vid- 
al’s repeated requests to give its side of 
the story for "McLibel.’’ Which suffers 
as a result. But as the case unfolds 
through Vidal’s sharp and observant 
lens — even before the judge delivers a 
mixed verdict, finding Steel and Morris 
guilty of libel but embarrassing Mc- 
Donald’s by saying, among other 
things, the chain was' responsible for 
cnieltyto animals — the reader is given 
a rare look, at two unbowed and un- 
. bloodied campaigners fighting for what 
they believe in. 

New York Times Service 


CROSSWORD 


BRIDGE 


By Alan Truscott 


Goldberg 


i\ 


P LAYERS from the New 
York metropolitan area 
were w inning most of the 
titles at the American Con- 
tract Bridge League’s Fall 
Nationals m St Louis, Mis- 
souri, recently. First, Sylvia 
. Moss of Manhattan was a 
winner in the Women’s Pairs. 
Then Jim Krekorian and Bob 
Blanchard of Manhattan won 
the Open Board- a- Match 
Teams with John Rengstorff, 
also of Manhattan, and Doug 
Doub of West Hartford, Con- 
necticut And the Women’s 
Teams was won by Sue Picus 
of Manhattan, Lisa Rerkowitz 
of Old Tappan, New Jersey, 
Rozanne Pollack of Warren, 
New Jersey, and Connie 
Goldberg of Philadelphia. 


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Both sides tore vulnerable. 


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East Soiii 
3 C Pas 
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West North 
Pass DbL 
Pass Pass 


hearts as South on the dia- 
grammed deal, after East had 
opened three clubs. The open- 
ing lead of the club jack was 
covered with the king and 
won with the ace. Unsure of 
the location of the club nine. 
East Shifted tO a diamond 
South allowed the queen to 
win and a second diamo nd 
was won with dummy’s ace. 

A heart was led to the ace, 
collecting the queen, and 'a 
spade finesse succeeded. A 

diamo nd ruff per mitted an - 

other spade finesse and the 
spade ace was cashed. South 
needed two more tricks in the 
position shown at right. 

When a club was led from 
dummy, East grabbed the 


was now unbeatable whatever 
West did. But if East had 
played low, West would have 
been able to ruff and lead two 
rounds of trump, leaving 
South with a loser in one hand 
or the other. 

In the replay misdefcnse 
p ermi tted Bericowitz, as East, 
to succeed in three clubs. 


ACROSS 

i FBI in at the 
office 
s Manias 
9 Dressed 
13 LA- -based 
. petroleum glam 

14'Dlw ■ 

(hynvi) 

is Salty 

ie Comer square fn 
Monopoly 
17 Lounge 

is Suddenly leap 

(at). 

19 Second of two 
pieces of firo 
buck equipment 
2a Take for granted 


as Paragons 
ae More drenched 
minister, at 
times 

ao One who's oii of 
this world? 

31 Pays attention to 
aa Pie holder 
w Ranges of 
knowledge 
39 Smutty 
37 Ending with 
Cine- or eyefo- 
» Superlative 
suffix 

39 Count & 

His Orchestra 

40 Motive 
questioner 

41 Resentful 
auctfongoer 


43 Lorraine 

{French region) 
48 ‘Relax, 
sokflersl’ 

47 Murmur *8 good 
bad-weather 
race hone” 

si Thrown tor 

ez Footnote abbr. . 
S3 Morsel for Mbs 
Muffs! 

97 Former Sen. 

Samandfamfly 
m Highway hauler 
99 Manipulator 
■o Enzyme aufltxas 
«i Mahogany or 
maple 

as Prepare, as the 
way 


DOWN 


NORTH 
* - 
V J 9 
♦ - 
♦ 10 2 


Solution to Puzzle of Nov. 28 i — 


west 

* K 


EAST 

*- 


queen, having worked out 
that 


West Ici the dub jack 


: South held the nine. She 
was right about that, but the 
play was wrong: the contract 


V K 8 6 ▼- 

□ □ 

anaai 

*- . *Q875 

00 

0D 

□□ 

BH 

BOB 1 

SOUTH 

□□ 

□ 

□□1 

* 10 

BED 

00 

HI 


0001300 

□□□□□□ annnoan 
□00000 00000000 
0000000000 3000 
0003 30000 300 

□00DO 00033 
□000053 OD3DB0 


V 105 
♦ - 

* 9 


00003000 00DO03 
□0QQO03 000030 
□HQ000 □□3003 


i — -Mahal 
2 Period In Malay 
a AT&T alternative 
4 Harms the 
environment 
a Aquarium, 
purifier 

a “I smell T 

7 Stun 

sCtahvoyant 

9 Less refined 

10 Actress Hamitan 
or Hurt 

11 Heavenly host? 

12 Salon 

professionals 

is In-line skates, 
for short 


28 Prayer closer 

21 Nixon staffer G. . 
Gordon . 

21 Conscious 

23 Tennis star wftfi . 
apafindromici 
name 

24 Limited work . 
assignment 

27 Bridge 
precursor 

28 Strange 

29 Discourage from 
acting . 

32 Bear that's not 
reedy a bear 

MGaJHcgMfrtenda . 

SS Mother-of-pasrt 

38 Library gizmo . 

' 37. International golf 
competition 

ae Bodybuilder's . 
bulges 

40 Commend 
officially 

.41 Majorettestwiri 
them 

«2VUaJn, stanglly 

43 Major oven 



QNe ip York Times/Edited by ffill Shorts. 


44 Derates 
48 Rock 

45 Mooting haze 

48 Over, in 
Osterrelch 
88 Bygone phone 
cel cost 


84 Olympics chant 
sa Gun, as an 
engine 

ss Rap’s Dr. — — 


c-.rj 

Giuuano Amaio 


H Giuuano Amato 


/ 


tARLO AZEGUO ClAMN 

' C* l r 


Abdou Dkxjf . 


Richard Goldstone 

it-. 



Serous Kovalev 


Otto Lamsdorff 




Marc Claire Mend& France 
a 


Joseph Rotblat 


/ 


V 


Oscar Arias Sanchez , Lord Ralph Da*b©orf Jos£ Ramos-Hokia 


Feupe Gonzaib 


.Whpwed Martens 


Catherine Laujmere //, /j RnA Levi Monulcn Claudia Roih 


Jean Bertrand Aristide 



For the International Criminal Court in 1998! 


Robert Badinter 



Raymond Barre 



Malcom Frask 


Carl Barn ' 


H.H. THE XIV Dalai Lama 




EmmaBomnJ 


Jacques Doors 




We, the undersigned: 

LAUNCH A SOLEMN APPEAL TO THE MEMBERS OF 
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS 
to renew the mandate of the Preparatory Committee 
and to convene, in 1 998 in Rome, 
a Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries, 
charged with establishing at this occasion 
the International Criminal Court. 


Pierre Mauroy 




Hbmut Schmidt 



Mario Soares 


Tadeusz MAZOWffiCW 

TVtl iWvwulAo iLu, 


Qusn Noor of Jordan 

mJ 



George Soros 



Maroo Panneua 



Adriaan Jos 


Gus deVries 


Boumos Bopios-Ghau 


Lord jAMp Callaghan 




ALUA IZETBEGOVIC 


Pauune Green 


Graca Maocl 


AAiOffl. Rocard 


Shmon Pass 






Gaston Thorn 

4 



SoNtt Gandhi 


Jean-Francois Hory 




Daneile Mjtterjwo 

>1 


A.N.R. Robinson 



Alfonso Poez Esouiva 




Leo Tindcmans 


MakkEysqens 




Alpha Omar KoNARt 


Bknard Kouchnhi 
— - — 


Mart Robinson 


Alonso Puhta 




_ Gore Vidal 


No' Peace Without Justice 


AuLbal Cavaco Siva 

^ • (LM 


New York 

866 United Nation Plaza #408 
New York, NY 1 001 7 
Tel: +1-212-9801031 
Fax: +1-212-9801072 


Roma 

Via di Torre Argentina, 76 
00186Rorha 
Tel: +39-6-6880361 3 
Fax: +39-6-68803609 


Bruxelles Tel: +32-2-28431 81 Fax: +32-2-2303670 


With the contribution of: 


e-rnai'/ np.wj@agora.stm.it 


Union Europ&nne 


§ 


Open Society 
Institute 


NMLMNUC 


tones 




Giy . 

ZbCax 

suit 


Tfl. 

MX 



ML 






Richard von Weeeackb 


(aMa jvlvUl 


www http: //www. a g o ra . s t m . i t/ n p wj 


Eije Wiesq. 


Qi»3UJCTroi»^MUiM»moNSMOi/r*NOI , EACEVVr[HOl/r JUSTICE' 













PAGE 10 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1997 



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The OSCE is now Mtkiiig candidates to fill the post of' ‘ 

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Under die graduoe of the Director for Resources, (be selected candidate viR adnmisKc day te day operadtms or 


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must have la) a n» i« np+i t y degree in Business Administration, Politicd Scroma, besraatiopri Relations, La w or 
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Organhation for Security and i 
Attm Panunuel I 
KSmtner Ring 5-7, A-lO10Vfenna 
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tribune. 

BUSINESS/FINANCE 



MONDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1997 


PAGE 11 


[In Wake of Asian Crisis, China’s Red-Hot Economy Appears to Cool 


By Steven Mufson 

Washington Post Service 

BELTING — China's breakneck eco- 
j nomic growth appears to be slowing 

i Hr> am « J * -*- * «- 


| — ij-v»wiuvswivirftdtaiauauyuu£ 

with currency and stock market crises. 

From idle factories in Sichuan to the 
sparse crowds at pricey retail stores in 
Sha n g h ai, from disappointed farmers in 
* i northern China to anxious textile ex- 
^ | porters in the southern dty of Shenzhen, 

, it looks like China's red-hot economy is 

i cooling off. 


Although at least one billboard urges 
Chinese to “Raise High the Banner of 
Deng Xiaoping Thought,” most signs 
on top of buildings proclaim: .“Space 
for Rent.” 

To be sure, cooling off in China is a 
relative term. Over the past six years, 
China's economy has grown at a blis- 
tering pace of about 11 percent a year. 
This year it is expected to grow about 8 
percent. 

But as Asia’s currencies and stock 
markets collapse .like dominoes, the 
slowing of China's economy is making 


policymakers and r 
mil China be next? 


- Many analysts and investors are wor- 
ried that slower growth will expose the 
flaws in China's economic miracle: the 
troubled banking system, the money-los- 
ing state-owned enterprises, a real estate 
bubble and vulnerability to intensified 
competition from Asian neighbors. 

“The Southeast and East Asian na- 
tions undergoing financial crises are all 
characterized by tbe combination of ini- 
tially overvalued currencies, significant 
external debt and weak banking systems. 


investors wonder. China shares these characteristics,” said 
Nicholas Lardy, an economist and senior 
1 investors are war- fellow at tbe Brookings Institution. 


fellow at tbe Brookings Institution. 

For how, Mr. Lardy and others say, 
China appears to be well-insulated 
against the shocks that have hit the rest 
of Asia in the past month. The Chinese 
currency is not convertible, so people 
cannot withdraw their money and can- 
not bet against it on currency markets. 
Moreover, most of China's investment 
is direct investment in real estate and 
factories, and most of those companies 
are here for the long hauL China’s $1 16 


billion in external debt is mostly long- 
term. In addition, China is holding about 
$130 billion in reserves,* powerful war 
chest for fending off speculators who 
might try to attack the currency of 
Beijing ’s recently retrieved jew d, Hong 

Kong. . 

Still, investor concerns have rattled 
Chinese and Hong Kong markets this 
past week. Shares of Chinese compa- 
nies on the Shanghai and Shenzhen ex- 
changes tumbled to new lows for the 
year. The Hong Kong exchange's index 
of “red-chip” companies connected to 


rhina sank m less than half its peak just 
.five months ago. 

“People are getting worried about me 
rwmwe economy becanse all tbe Asian 
economies axe in trouble and China in a 

way has been excluded from die tur- 
moil,” said Maurien . Yau, a Hong 


nies at Bear Stearns & Co. 1 ‘Given mat 
all Asia is in trouble, how can China 
standalone?-”- 

' “Moreover,” the analyst added,* the 
See CHINA, Page 13 


A Cartoonist Creates 
New Kind of Cyber Pitch 

Plugging Users Right Into Tower Records 


L 


By Brad Spurgeon 

Imenunional HeraldTribttne 

OS ANGELES, California — 
At the end of the George Li- 
quor cartoon show on foe bl- 


ew, Jimmy the Idiot Boy, for showing 
up at breakfast with uncombed hair. 

George then turns to foe computer 
user and says, “You like my show? 
Well you can thank Tower Records. So 
buy a CD, will ya? Keep os oo _ 
foe air. You don’t want to see 
an idiot starve, do you?” 

The browser then automat- 
ically logs the user on to foe 

Tower Records site and a page 

about a band called The Jerky 
Boys. 

While Internet users are known for 
their outspoken resentment of intrus- 
ive advertising, this new kind of cyber 
pitch from foe cartoonist John Krio- 
falusi may even create some fans. 

That's because it brings them a new 
dose of work from foe innovative an- 
imator who created the U.S. television 
hit in foe early 1990’s, “The Ren St 
Stimpy Show.” 

Often considered the most avant 
garde of foe new wave of cartoons like 
“The Simpsons” and “Beavis and 
Butthead,” “Ren & Stimpy” was also 
among foe shortest lived but did create 
a cult following of sorts. 

Now Mr. Kncfalusi is back, and this 
time he's hawking products oo foe 
Internet. 

While he was hying to make a new 
start after selling the nghts to “Ren & 
Stimpy” to Nickelodeon in 199S, he 
discovered Macromedia’s Shockwave 
Flash digital animation technology. 
The software allows animation to be 
viewed over foe Internet with Netscape 
Navigator or Internet Explorer, in a 
quality only slightly less detailed than 
film, but with sharper color. 

Mr. Kncfalusi then realized he 
could produce his George Liquor 
series without foe support of a major 
studio and on his own Web site at 


wwwjjHimco.com (named after his 
animation company). After finanring 
the first two segments himself, he then 
got the Tower sponsorship for his new 
Internet advertising method. 

“The Internet ad business is con- 
stractedaroand banner ads,” Mr. Kric- 
falusi said in his office crowded with 
drawings and dolls of George Liquor, 
Ren & Stimpy and The Three Stooges. 
“Until recently banner ads were just 
stale little battens that nobody would 
look aL What sponsors would 
really like is to get people to 
their Web page.” 

That, he said, is nearly im- 
possible without forcing them. 
“On tbe radio,” be said, “if 
J3 you’re listening to Howard 
Stem, all you really want is to 
listen to Howard Stem. You don’t want 
to hear foe 20 minutes of commercials 
they give you every half hour. But you 
don’t want to miss anything, so you sit 
through them and you wait for Howard 
to come back. Yon’re stuck. You've 
got no choice. Television’s the same: 
No choice.” 

Mr. Kricfalusi turned for inspiration 
to tbe techniques of foe past In foe 
early decades of television and radio, it 
was common to have program s named 
after their sponsors, with the stars of 
tbe programs plugging foe product — 
“The Chase & Sanborn Show,” star- 
ring Edgar Bergen and Charlie Mc- 
Carthy, ynfo W.C. Fields as a frequent 
guest, for example. 

“It’s not some cold commercial that 
is obviously a commercial and that 
makes you get up from the couch and 
go make a sandwich,” Mr. Kncfalusi 
said. “If Jack Benny’s going to do the 
commercial and he’s going to do it 
funny, and use his writers to write foe 
commercial, you stick around for it 
You pay attention to it And you’re 
laughing tbe whole time, so you're 
enjoying foe commercial. And then 
you associate your enjoyable experi- 
ence with the product” 

Tbe concept is similar to die now- 
Dbiquitons “infomercial” shows on 



Th& 

few. 




MSpapm/lnlRMliiiaiBinUl 

The cartoonist John Kricfalusi in his Los Angeles studio. 


American television that combine 
co mmer cial advertising with “pro- 
gramming.” 

These forms of advertising are not 
used for children’s . programming on 
television. Jim Spaeth, president of the 
Advertising Research Foundation, a 
think tank in New York that aims to 
improve advertising methods, said 
studies show that young children are 
incapable of distinguishing between 
when a cartoon character is in a show 
or in a commercial 

Bat it is not regulated on the In- 
ternet, and George Dquor is not aimed 
at children. 

Mike Farrace, vice president of pub- 
lishing and electronic marketing for 
Tower Records, said the company is 
hoping to attract 15- to 30-year-old 
males for the Jerky Boy’s records. He 


likes the ad “because it brings the 
customer tight to us,” but he said they 
decided - to sponsor the show mainly 
because of foe cartoons. 

“It’s an irreverent cartoon and it really 
goes for just the dumb yuks,” he sakL 

But what about those resentful In- 
ternet users? 

“You’d certainly have to be pretty 
repressed to get angry because you're 
oo a free Internet site and looked at a 
free cartoon, and foe guy said, 
‘Brought to you by Tower Records,’ " 
Mr. Farrace said. 

Tower is paying Mr. Kricfalusi ’s 
cartoon company a fiat fee for foe 
advertisement, plus a commission on 
any sales of Jerky Boys records 
ordered from foe site. 

Internet address: 
cyberscape@iht.com 


Seoul and IMF Agree 
On ‘Immediate 5 Payout 

RescueDealto Top $50 Billion, OfficiahSay 


. By Don Kirk 

Special to the Herald Tribune 

SEOUL — South Korea reached 
agreement with the International Mon- 
etary Fund late Sunday oo a package 
that, if approved by foe Fund, would 
immediately start foe flow of rescue 
funds to foe South Korean economy, 
officials said. 

“The final agreement was signed,” 
Finance. Minister Lira Chang Yuel told 
reporters early Monday. “We’ll, an- 
nounce it this morning.” 

Tbe chief negotiator for the IMF, 
Hubert Neiss, was at his side. 

Neither Mr. Lim nor Mr. Neiss elab- 
orated on foe details of the agreement 
But South Korean news services, quot- 
ing government officials, said foe total 
package would be between $50 billion 
and $60 billion, with foe first install- 
ment of $10 billion to come as soon as 
this week. 

The accord must be approved by the 
Fund’s directar-general, Michel Cam- 
dessus, and by the IMF Committee. Mr. 
Camdessus is scheduled to arrive Thurs- 
day in SeouL 

“I did my best to get a good agree- 
ment,” Mr. Lim said, adding that once 
the IMF Committee approved foe deal 
“the money wiO be made available im- 
mediately.” 

In announcing foe speed with jvhich 


tbe funds are to start flowing , foe gov- 
ernment and IMF negotiators signaled 
their agreement that Seoul needed the 
first installm ent of financial aid urgently 
to halt precipitous declines in its stock 
market and currency. Sooth Korean 
stocks finished Friday at their lowest 
level in more than 10 years, and the won 
is trading at historic lows against the 
dollar. 

The IMF is providing the line of 
credit so that the South Korean Treasury 
will be able to replenish its hard-cur- 
rency reserves, assuring foreigners that 
domestic companies and the govern- 
ment will have money to pay their debts. 
The centra] bank will also be able to use 
the funds to buy won in the currency 
markets, limiting damage from spec- 
ulative attacks. 

.' Negotiators for both sides spent most 
of Sunday trying to resolve differences 
in their positions in time for Mr. Lim to 
present the package to President Kim 
Young Sam and the rest of the cabinet 


Monday morning. 

A sticking point was whether to force 
the closure of a -dozen investment banks 
and several commercial banks, as the 
IMF was demanding, or encourage mer- 
gers and acquisitions between weak and 
strong entities, as Seoul wanted. Sources 
close to tbe talks said negotiators had 

See KOREA, Page 13 


Asia Rescue Fund: Delay Seen 


CompOtdbf Onr SttjfFnm Dispatrin 

KUALA LUMPUR — An emer- 
gency rescue fund for ailing Southeast 
Asian economies may not be set up until 
next year because of turmoil in the re- 
gion, Malaysia’s finance minister said 
Sunday. • 

The minister, Anwar Ibrahim, said 
Asian finance ministers would discuss 
the proposed fund in two days of meet- 
ings starting Monday in Koala Lumpur 
but that a decision was likely to be 


postponed. He said there was enthusiasm 
for the proposed fund but that countries 
such as. South Korea needed to address 
complex economic problems before be- 
ing able to make such a decision. 

* ‘There are difficulties faced by many 
member countries,” he said. “They 
need to get their house in order." 

Asked when the facility might be 
approved, Mr. Anwar said, “If it can’t 

See RESCUE, Page 13 


After Japan, Crisis Could Wash Ashore in U.S. 

Troubled Banks and Insurers Will Face Pressure to Cash In Their Trove of Treasury Issues 


By Carl Gewirtz 

International Herald Tribune 

PARIS — The deepening 
financial turmoil in Asia, first 
seen as a containable regional 
crisis, is mutating into a dan- 
gerously contagious threat to 
global stability now that Japan 
has been pulled into the fray. 

In purely economic terms, 
the expected sharp slowdown 

NEWS ANALYSIS 

in growth that is bound to ac- 
company foe forced industrial 
and financial restructuring in 
Southeast Asia and South 
Korea and the reduced pros- 
pects for recovery in Japan 
should have only a small im- 
pact on the rest of the world. 


Global growth next year, 
according to John Llewellyn 
at Lehman Brothers, is likely 
to be 25 percent — 0.5 per- 
centage point less than it 
would otherwise have been. 

Moreover, the Asian prob-' 
Ians are seen as having an 
array of beneficial side effects 
— from keeping a lid on world 
commodity prices and world- 
wide inflation to fostering a 
slowdown in U.S. exports that 
should produce a welcome 
cooling of activity there. 

Bnt tbe threat to global 
well-being is not economic 
but finaprial. 

Just as the upsets in Thai- 
land, Malaysia, Indonesia and 
foe Philippines exposed the 
longstanding ills of financial 
institutions in Japan, the 


CURRENCY RATES 


Cross Rales 

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problems in Japan bare the 
dependency or foe United 
States on capital imports as 
the world's largest debtor. 

The projected $187 billion 
deficftbttw^wbat the United 
States earns and spends abroad 
this year could hit $300 billion 
in 1998, said Brendan Brown of 
Tokyo-Mitsubishi Bank, as 

soar^fxonf Asian countries 
whose currencies have been 
sharply devalued. If foreign 
creditors seek repayment of 
U.S. debt even as n grows, the 
burden could severely strain foe 
United States. 

Analysts at Paribas Capital 
Markets in London estimated 
that Japan alone held $320 
billion of U.S. Treasury se- 
curities, or about one- third of 
the total outstanding. Other 
Asian investors bold a further 
$160 billion. 

Asian central banks that 
depleted their reserves in the 
losing battles to defend their 
currencies have accounted for 
most of foe decline reported 
this year in U.S. securities 
held by the U.S. Federal Re- 
serve System on behalf of 
other central banks. 

'What Japanese insurance 
companies and hanks do with 
their estimated $2 11 billion of 
Treasury securities holds the 
key to whether the turbulence 
in Asia infects the United 
States and, ultimately, mar- 
kets everywhere. An upset in 
the braid market would un- 
nerve the U.S. stock market, 
and foe two set the tone fra: 
markets around foe world. 

Analysts around foe world 
insist that common sense dic- 
tates that Japanese investors 
hold their UA. securities. Tbe 
logic is that with interest rates 
in Japan ranging from 0.5 per- 
cent on overnight money up to 
only 1.96 percent for 10 years, 
the Japanese cannot afford to 
give up foe higher income on 
foeir US. holdings, whose 


rates for comparable periods 
range from 5J5 percent to 5.87 
percent. 

But as long as a sell-off 
cannot be ruled out, it looms 
as a threat and lends itself to 
rumors. U.S. bankers report- 
ed recently seeing moderately 
heavy selling by the Japanese, 
but European bankers insist 
that the sellers were U.S. 
banks apparently acting on 
tbe assumption that the Jap- 
anese would selL 

Major Japanese insurance 
companies, for their pait, say 
they intend to increase their 
holdings of foreign assets. 
Such purchases may have ac- 
counted far the sales of yen 
that drove the dollar to a five- 
year high of 127.97 yen last 
week. It finished tbe week at 
127.85 yen. 

Jesper Roll at JP. Morgan 
& Co. in Tokyo said net in- 
vestment outflows from Ja- 
pan were running at more 
than $6.5 billion a month. 

Bnt it is impossible to mea- 
sure the effect foreign hedge 
funds have had on the ex- 
change rate as they, too, bor- 
row cheap yen and sell them 
to invest in higher-yielding 
foreign assets. Mr. Koll said 
such yea borrowing amoun- 
ted to more than $30 billion. 

The consensus among ana- 
lysts is that the dollar is easily 
beaded to 130 yen, possibly 
as high as 140 yen. But were 
the Japanese to sell their dol- 
lar holdings and repatriate 
profits, foedollar could weak- 
en rather than strengthen. 

“We’re headed for a peri- 
od of heightened volatility,” 
said John Lipsky of Chase 
Manhattan. “Investors see 
foe odds favoring continued 
strength of foe dollar, but this 
is an unsettled, tease period 
where it’s not fundamentals 
that will drive the exchange 
rate but policy actions.” 

Tokyo earned high praise 
for flooding its market with 


cash last week, easing fears 
that a drying-up of short- term 
credit could drive even 
healthy financial institutions 
into difficulties. But it is an 
open question whether finan- 
cial markets in Japan will re- 
main calm until foe govern- 
ment details its plans for 
action and whether that action 
will be deemed sufficient 

The Liberal Democratic 
Party of Prime Minister Ryu- 
taro Hashimoto is to spell out 
its proposal Dec. 10, and tbe 
government is to final iw. its 
plan Dec. 16. - 

The key to the future, said 
Yuan Wang of Caisse des De- 
pots & Consignations, the 
largest French institutional in- 
vestor, is what happens to Jap- 
anese stock paces. If foe 
Nikkei 225 index drops below 

14.000 points, she said, weak 
Japanese insurance compa- 
nies will have no choice but to 

rE The index finished at 
16,636.26 points last -week, , 
but analysts at Deutsche Mor- 
gan Grenfell analysts have' 
forecast that it will be at i 

12.000 by foe end of tbe first 
quarter of 1998. 

Ms. Wang calculated that 
Japanese banks, which in- 
clude unrealized capital gains 
on stocks in their measure of 
capital, would be forced to 
sell domestic shareholdings if 
foe Nikkei were to fall below 

16.000 to meet capital-ad- 
equacy requirements. If such 
selling were to push the index 
below 14,000, which sbe 
labeled “an extremely crit- , 
leal threshold,” tbe insurance 
companies would be sucked 
into tbe turbulence.' 

To meet foe minimum re- 
turn of 5.6 percent foal was 
guaranteed, oa policies sold 
until 1993, she said, the foar 
weakest of the top eight in- 
surers would be obliged to 
sell Treasury bonds and re- 
patriate their profits. 


Martina 

Hingis" Choice 



o* \ 'JU> 






PAGE 12 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 1,1997 


CAPITAL MARKETS ON MONDAY 


.1-itli l t0 ^ 

iF ' - 


Tokyo Traders 6 Are Holding Their Breath’ 


Blaomhers News 

TOKYO — Japanese bonds are 
likely to trade little changed this week 
as uncertainty over the country’s fi- 
nancial system keeps investors from 
placing big bets, traders said. 

A string of corporate failures — 
notably the announcement last Mon- 
day that Yamaichi Securities Co., Ja- 
pan’s fourth-Iargest brokerage, would 
shut down — is shaking confidence in 
the country's financial industry. 

To try to ensure liquidity, the Bank 
of Japan on Friday injected 3 trillion 
yen ($23.6 billion.) into the banking 
system, according to published reports. 
Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashxmoto 
said Saturday that depositors, but not 
ailing financial institutions, would be 
protected with public funds, the Nihon 
Keizai Shimbun reported- 


investors and traders “are holding 
their breath waiting to see what will 
happen to shon-remi interest rates," 
said Akio Makabe, senior vice president 
and head of the capital markets trading 
group at Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank Ltd. 

Last week the price of the benchmark 
No. 182 government bond, maturing in 
September 2005, rose 30 yen for each 
50.000 yen in face value. Its yield fell to 
1.72 percent from 1.73 percent. 

Banks raise funds in the interbank 
market to buy brads. Concern over 
their financial health, however, makes 
it more difficult for them to raise cash, 
tightening lending in the market and 
making it more expensive. 

On Friday, the unsecured overnight 
call rate fell 24 basis points, or hun- 
dredths of a percentage point, to 0.39 
percent after the Bank of Japan’s in- 


fusion of liquidity left a record 3.7 
trillion yen surplus in the banking sys- 
tem, the central bank said. 

The central bank's action followed a 
surge in the rate Thursday to 0.64 per- 
cent, which reflected growing fear over 
banks’ financial health, traders and in- 
vestors said. 

“Concern hasn’t been quelled yet,” 
said Toshiaki KawaL, deputy general 
manager of the treasury department at 
Sumitomo Bank Ltd. 

Masao Kurozumi, a bond dealer at 
Bank of Tokyo-Micsubishi, said short- 
term rates “could be unstable” for a 
while as investors await the release of a 
government rescue plan. 

The governing Liberal Democratic 
Party will propose measures, probably 
Dec. 10, which may include nsing public 
funds to bay preferred shares of banks. 


Most Active International Bonds 


The250 most active international bonds traded 
through the Eurodear system for the week end- 
ing Nov. 28. Prices suppled by Tetekure. 


Qm Maturity Price Ylefcf Rrtt 


Cpn Maturity Price Yield 


Cpn Maturity Price YWid 


Argentine Peso 


1 A0 Argentina FRN 1205 04-01,07 91.3528 15000 
241 Argentina FRN 1203 0401/01 100.8192 11700 


Austrian Schilling 

223 Austria 54* 07/15/07 1004500 5.6000 


Belgian Franc 


IBS Belgium 
249 Belgium 


zero 02A9/98 98.5543 &4500 
m 12/23/00 108.1800 7.1600 


British Pound 


118 EBRO A JO 

14A Britain 7 

177 World Bank A 

I83IFCA 644 

190 Fannie Mae 643 

237 Abbey Nall TS A 


02/14/00 984750 A 4000 
0407/02 100.7500 6.9500 
03/01/00 99.7500 6.0200 
02/17/00 97.7500 64900 
03/2201 974512 66000 
08/10/99 974000 6.1500 


Canadian Dollar 


72 Canada 
79 Canada 
127 Canada 
151 Canada 


7ft 12/01/03 111.0220 67600 
6 03/15/98 1005850 5.9700 
7U 040107 112.1650 64600 
7M OA/OIAH 1094460 66400 


Danish Krone 


7 Denmark 
11 Denmark 
14 Denmark 
20 Denmark 
40 Denmark 
43 Denmark 
46 Denmark 
51 Denmark 

56 Denmark 

57 Denmark 
100 Denmark 
112 Nykredit 
130 NykreCQt 

156 Real Kredit 

157 Denmark TbIHs 
161 Denmark 

164 Denmark 


7 11/10/24 

8 03/15/06 
7 11/15(07 
6 12/1*99 

9 vm SAM 
9 11/15(98 

6 tl/15(02 

7 12/15/04 

8 05/1 SAD 
8 11/15(01 
4 02/15/00 
6 10(01/26 
7 10(01/29 
6 10/01/26 

zero 02/02/98 

6 02/15/99 

7 02/15/98 


1067300 

114.0000 

1077000 

1027100 

1104300 

104.1000 
1038300 
1074500 
111.9800 
109.9400 

984500 

74.1000 
96.9000 
93.7500 
994027 

101.9600 

1004800 


69 Germany 

70 Germany 
7t Germany 

75 Germany 

76 Germany SP 

77 Germany 

82 Treuhand 

83 Germany 

84 Germany 

85 Treuhand 

86 Germany 

87 Treuhand 

.91 Germany Tbflls 
95 Germany 
77 Germany 

98 Treuhand 

99 Germany 

102 Germany 

103 Treuhand 
lllGermany 

115 Germany 
11 A Germany 
117 Germany 
126 Germany 

132 Germany 

133 Germany 

134 Germany 

135 Germany 
138 Treuhand 
140 Germany 
143 Germany FRN 
152 Germany FRN 
167 Germany 

172 Treuftand 
1 75 Germany TbBls 
776 Germany 
182 Germany 
199 Germany 
202 Treti hand 

212 Germany 
213Germany 
27 4 Germany 

221 Germany 

222 Germany 
236 Germany SP 
242 Germany 
250 Treuhand 


7V« 12/20/02 108.9700 
5*6 08/22/00 102.9200 
5 05/21/01 100.7900 
81* 05/21/01 111.1850 
zero 01/04/27 164700 
3ft 12/18/98 969877 

5 12/17/98 100.9400 
5M 11/21/00 1014233 
8*4 05/22/00 109-6700 
6<A 07/29/99 103.0900 
3V, 09/18^8 99.6500 
AW 03/2698 994240 
zero 04/17/98 98.6479 
8*4 07/20/00 110.1500 
6fc 03/15/00 1044650 
5ft 09/24/98 1014900 
6*6 07/1504 108.1000 
7*4 02/21/00 1068700 
6V6 03/04/04 1054500 
6ft 01/02/99 1024225 
6% 12/02/98102.7300 
8Vi 08/21/00 109.7820 
6*6 04/22/03 107-4300 
6ft 05/20/98 101.1300 

6 02/28(98 1004500 
5ft 09/20/16 97.0000 
69 1 02/2499 100.0667 

7 10/2099 101.7206 
6ft 06/2998 7014100 
6ft 05/2099 102.6800 
316 04/06/00 97.4528 

3.048 09/30/04 99.1500 
7W 01/20/00 105^800 

5 01/14/99 984998 
zero 01/16/98 994662 
AW 03(20/98 100.6900 
Sft 02/22/99 1014600 
5*6 05/28/99 102.1500 

6 11/12/03 103.9060 

7 12/22/97 100.1900 
6% 12/21/98 1024400 
614 02/20/98 1004000 
TVs 17/2/0/99 1054100 
51* 08/20/98 1014700 
zero 01/04/24 20.1400 
516 10/20/98 1 014400 
5*4 04/29/99 102.1200 


Irish Punt 


Italian Lira 


Japanese Yen 


Portuguese Escudo 

200 Bco Irw Imobfm 02/28/07 


Swedish Krona 


92 Sweden 
105 Sweden 1037 


107Swadag 1036 10* 


128 Sweden 
154 Sweden 
162 Sweden 
188 Sweden 
208 Sweden 


1 1064210 
’ 1 12-401 0 
i 110.1380 
I 1194260 
! 984Z70 
I 101 4470 
1 1014520 
99.1790 


U.S. Dollar 


2 Brazil Cop S.L 4ft 04/1 S/1 4 817684 5J700 
24 Brazil FRN 6*V» 01 /Dim 960000 74500 

30 Argentina 9*6 09/19/27 91 .5000.10 -6600 

3? Argentina par L 5*0 03/31/23 72.0000 74400 
33 Brazil L FRN 6V* 04/15(06 B61500 74500 
37 Argentina FRN 6>V W 03/29/05 84.9600 7-8700 

44 Russia 10 06/2407 89.6714 11.1500 

53 Brazil 10ft 0Y15/27 87800011.6400 

64 Argentina 119101/3407 99.736411-4100 

66 Mexico lift 05/1506 1154000 94600 

68 Venezuela 9*4 09/15/27 87-5000 105700 

73 Venezuela FRN 6*4 12/1807 88.0000 78700 

78 Venezuela per A 6*4 03/31/20 864000 74500 

80 Mexico FRN 6*4 12/31/19 81.0000 74100 

81 Mydfa FRN . 6V» 09/09/07 724327 94500 

89 Bulgaria FRN 6V» 07/2401 71.1377 9.4000 

90 Mexico 9*1 01/15/07 1034000 94400 

94 Italy 6ft 09/27/23 1024750 64800 

101 Brazil par Zl 5*4 04/15/24 68.0000 74200 

106 Brazil FRN Aft 0415/09 754666 8.9000 

108 Russia 9ft 11/27/01 95.9923 94400 

109 Bulgaria FRN 6V* 07/28(24 754093 84900 

110 Mexico Aft 12/31/19 81.0000 7.7100 

114 CADES zero D7/HV9B 954605 74700 

120 Canada 1 6ft 07/15/02 1004500 6.1100 

121 Brazil FRN Aft 04/15/12 740000 9.1200 

122 Brazil FRN 6<ftt 04/15/24 784250 84100 

123 Poland FRN 10/27/24 95.0310 74400 

125 Korea Dev Bk 7ft OyiSW 914750 74900 

161 ADB 6ft 1IV2S02 100.1250 64400 

l42BayerisdieLB 6ft 06/25(071024000 64600 

147 IndBk Japan 5435 12/04/77 984444 5.7000 

148EIBFRN 5ft 1 1/26/02 99.7000 54400 

149 Mexico lift 09/15/16*11500010.1100 

153 Bco Brasfl FRN 6446 1 VI 4(99 83.1428 74900 

155 Ecuador FRN 3ft 02/28/15 634503 5.1100 

158 Argentina FRN 6ft 03/31/23 804000 84400 

165 Brazil S.L FRN 6ft 04/1 yi 2 73.0700 94400 

166 Mexico A FRN 6493 12/31/19 904500 74200 

173 British Columbia 7ft 06/11(07 105.1250 6.7800 

174 Canada 6ft 08(28/06 1034750 64000 

lBOBayerisdieLB 6ft 11/1 9A11 101.1079 64300 


Dutch Guilder 


Deutsche Mark 


1 Germany 6 

3 Germany 6ft 

4 Germany 4 

5 Germany 4ft 

6 Germary 6 

8 Germany 7ft 

9 Germany 8ft 

10 Germany 8 

12 Germany 94 6ft 

13 Germany Aft 

15 Tieuhand 7ft 

16 Germany 4ft 

17 Germany 3ft 

18 Germany Aft 

19 Germany 8 

21 Bundesobflgattan 4ft 


22 Germany 

23 Germany 

25 Germany 

26 Germany 
27 Germany 

28 Federal Tsy 

29 Germany 
32 Treuhand 

34 Treuhand 

35 Treuhand 

36 Treuhand 

38 Germany 

39 Germany 

41 Germany 

42 Germany 
45 Germany 
47 Germany 

49 Germany 

50 Treuhand 
52 Germany 
5* Treuhand 
55 Germany 

58 Germany 

59 Treuhand 

60 Germany 

61 Germany 

62 Treuhand 
65 Germany 
67 Treuhand 


07/04/07 1024316 
07/04/27 1054500 
09/17/99 994300 
08/19/02 97.9400 
01/04(07 102.0837 
01/03(05 1103874 
08/2001 113.1200 
01/21 02 1114100 
01/04/24 1024080 
05/12(05 1094473 
12/02/02 1054891 
05/17/02 98.1850 
06/18(99 964542 
04/26/06 1054600 
07/22(02 1124667 
02mm 985200 
1 0/2000 1094238 
10/14/05 1034097 
01/05.06 1024799 
09/15(99 1044641 
09/20(01 111.7141 
03/19/99 984309 
02/2001 110.9700 
09/09(04 1094742 
10(01/02 1114300 
07/09/03 1064633 
01/29(03 1089275 
01/22/01 112-1900 
10/21/02 1064523 
02/16(06 1034825 
08(20(01 1004497 
01/13450 105.1950 
11/2801 994038 
09/15/03 104.0300 
06/11/03 1084100 
12/20(00 1114900 
11/25/99 104.9300 
07/15(03 1064000 
06/20/16 1014586 
05/1304 107.9113 
02/21/01 1014200 
05/15(00 103.1150 
070109 103.1700 
11/11(04 1124633 
04/23/03 1064500 


48 Netherlands 
63 Netherlands 
74 Netherlands 
88 Netherlands 
93 Netherlands 
96 Netherlands 
119 Netherlands 
124 Netherlands 
129 Netherlands ' 
131 Netherlands 

136 Netherlands 

137 Netherlands 
150 Netherland s 
163 Netherlands 

170 Netherlands 

171 Netherlands SP 
178Netherfands 
181 Portugal 

192 Netherlands 
198 Netherlands 

209 Netherlands 

210 Netherlands 
218 Netherlands 
220 Netherlands 


5ft 02/15(07 
6 Vi 07/15/90 

9 01/15/01 
8*4 09/15/01 
7ft 01/15(23 
5ft O9/1S02 
6ft 11/15/05 
8ft 03/1501 

6 01/1506 
7% <00105 
5ft 01/1504 
7ft 04/15/10 
8ft 064502 
8ft 094507 
7ft 0745/99 
zero 01/1 5*23 
8ft 024502 
5ft 03(2608 
7ft 06/15/99 

7 06/1505 
6ft 0745/98 
7ft 014500 
Bft 024500 
6ft 044503 


44 Russia 
53 Brazil 
64 Argentina 
66 Mexico 
68 Venezuela 


102.0000 

1014000 

111.9500 
11X0500 
119.1000 
102.9000 
1064500 

110.9500 
10X8000 
1144000 
102.7500 
1164000 
1124000 
1204500 
104>4000 

214000 

11X1500 

100.0000 

1044300 

110.0000 

1014500 

1064600 

1074900 

1064000 


104 France OAT 
159 Italy 

168 France OAT 

169 France BTAN 
179 France OAT 
203 France OAT 
227 France BTAN 
233 France OAT 


5ft 04(2507 
2eto 030741 
6 04/2504 

6 03/1*01 

7 040506 
7ft 04/2505 
4ft 07/1202 
6ft OK 25*2 


98.3600 

434750 

1034000 

1011400 

1084500 

111.9000 

974500 

1064000 


80 Mexico FRN 

81 Mydfa FRN . 

89 Bulgaria FRN 

90 Mexico 
94 Italy 

101 Brazil parZI 
106 Brazil FRN 

108 Russia 

109 Bulgaria FRN 

110 Mexico 
114 CADES 
120Canoda 1 

121 Brazil FRN 

122 Brazil FRN 

123 Poland FRN 
125 Korea Dev Bk 
141 ADB 


Finnish Markka 


1)3 Finland 
193 Finland 


7U 04/1806 1104185 64500 
9ft 03/1504 120.6395 7.8700 


191 Bco Com Ext. 7ft 020204 91.7500 7.9000 

197 Bulgaria 2ft 07/28/12 59.0714 38100 

204 lADBk FRN 6 0*2200 994750 64000 

205 Mexico 9ft 020*01 104.1250 94600 

206 Poland Inter 4 1027/14 864531 44300 

207 Rhein Hypobk Aft «W1807 1034730 64500 

TlSMadcoporB 6ft 12/31/19 81.0000 7-7200 
21 6 Argentina Bft 12(2003 944000 8.9100 

225 Venezuela par B 6ft 03(31/20 84.9688 7.9400 

226 Argentina FRN 5457 040101 1064728 54100 


French Franc 


139Cyberval FRN 3*1477070602 
184 France OAT SP zero 10/25/25 


189 France OAT 

195 France OAT 

196 France BTAN 
219FranceOAT 
232 FranceOAT 
247 France OAT 


5ft 04/2504 
7ft 04/25(06 
4ft 10(12/98 
5ft 10(2507 
5ft 04/2507 
7ft 04/2505 


100.0400 

184900 

101.7700 

1124100 

100.4500 

1004100 

1004800 

1134500 


228 Finland 
229IADB 
231 Peru 


5ft 02/2706 984387 54800 
6ft 030707 10X1250 64200 
4 0307/17 604625 64000 


234 Mexico D FRN 6«Vd 12/28/19 91.0100 7-4900 


235 Argentina 
238FuflRnFRN 


Bft 050902 934250 94500 
12/31/99 974157 


239 Midland Bk Pm 6Vk 12/3109 854800 7.1300 


240 Brazil 

243 CADES 

244 Brazil L FRN 
248 Italy FRN 


4ft M/15/14 854620 54800 
zero 11/24/98 9X7777 64700 
6*ft» 04/1506 82.7550 &0800 
zero 062801 1004200 04000 


The Week Ahead; World Economic Calendar, Dec. 1-5 

A setwama a ns wriS econamc and financial averts. compBedtorfre International HaraU TrtOuneOy BoomOag Business News. 


Asia-Pacific 


Europe 


Americas 


Expected Canberra: Treasurer Peter Costello 
This Week leads meeting of regional finance 


This Week leads meeting of regional finance 
ministers to discuss the Asian "cur- 
rency crisis. Through Tuesday. 
Kuala Lumpur Meeting of Asso- 
■ ciation of South East Asian Nations 
finance ministers. Through Tuesday. 


Madrid: Bank of Spain expected to 
release foreign reserves data for 
October. 

Vienna: Roundtable discussion by 
Austrian business and political lead- 
ers on the inpact of the common 
European currency in everyday life 
and business. 


Toronto: Technology Vision ’97 con- 
ference. Thursday and Friday. 
Washington: Conference on trans- 
portation and traffic safety and 
health. Tuesday and Wednesday. 
Washington: Conference on safety 
and education of children on the 
Internet Through Wednesday. 


Monday 
Dec. 1 


Bangkok: Consumer price index for London: M-0 money supply for 


November. 

Tokyo: Foreign currency reserves 
for end of November; new-car sales 
for November. 

Seoul: Trade balance for Novem- 
ber. 


November net consumer credit for 
October. 

Luxembourg:' European Union fi- 
nance ministers meet 
Earnings expected: Imperial To- 
bacco, Scottish & Newcastle. 


Detroit: General Motors and 
Chrysler to release unit sales for 
November. 

Ottawa: GDP data for September. 
Tempo, Arizona: National Associ- 
ation of Purchasing Management to 
release index for November. 


Tuesday 
Dec. 2 


Sydney: Retail sales and construc- 
tion permits lor October. Reserve 
Bank's monthly board meeting. - 
Earnings expected: Caf. De Coral 
Holdings. 


Oslo: Current-account data for 
September. 

Stockholm: Riksbank to set secu- 
rities repurchase rate. 

Earnings expected: Allied Colloids 
Group, Siebe, Stagecoach Hold- 
ings. 


Buenos Aires: Consumer, whole- 
sale and producer inflation data and 
construction index for November. 
Mexico City: Foreign reserves da- 
ta. 

New York: Leading indicators for 
October. 


Wednesday Tokyo: Gross domestic product for 
Dec. 3 the July-September quarter. 

Sydney: National accounts data for 
third quarter. 

Earnings expected: Far East Con- 
sortium International. 


Dublin: Finance Minister Charlie Mc- 
Creevy to present budget. 

Madrid: Industrial price data tor Oc- 
tober. 

Oslo: Industrial production data for 
October. 

Earnings expected: Bass. 


Buenos Aires: Auto production and 
sales data for November. 

Dearborn, Michigan: Ford to re- 
lease unit sales for November. 
Washington: New-home sales for 
October. 

Earnings expected: Royal Bank. 


Will Japanese Investors Cash Out? 

Fears of Sell-Off Held Back New York and Tokyo Markets Last Month 

V vv — AftM th* r 


By Carl Gewiitz 1 

Imenmiona/ Herald Tribune 


ary 1999. To accommodate die merging 
into a euro issue, all the paper carries me 


PARIS — Fears of a liquidity squeeze 
that could drive Japanese investors to cash 


into a euro issue, all the paper carries me 
same coupon rate of 5 percent and 
identical mamrirv dates in 2008. 


identical maturity dates in 21XJ8. 

Initially, 3 billion French francs 


in their bond holdings prevented both the million) erf paper was launched at an 

Tnl™n rnirt Mmv Ynrlr morlrm fi'wn Ivn. nffinio® nri/v. met over DHT tO V*elu I ‘ 


Tokyo and New York markets from ben- offering price just over par toyieia t / 
efiting from last month's worldwide basis points, or hundredths of a 1^" 
flight to die safety of government bonds, centage point, more than French gov- 
Totid returns in local currency, as eminent bonds of the same maturity- Toe 


A vUM AVMfel WIMkWAili MU Wi l l » w u» UVUUW V* • j 

reported by IP. Morgan in its monthly underwriters, J-P. Morgan & Co. aria 
Government Bond Index, show a neg- Caissedes Depots Si Consignations. said 

_ . a — « r c, ai_ i hnH pnmlir- 


ative 0.3 percent in Japan for the month, 
while the U.S. market eked out an ad- 
vance of only 0.52 percent. 

In contrast, France scored a gain of 1. 14 
percent, and smaller European markets 
fared even better. Italy, with again of l.BS 
percent for the month, remains the best- 


massive oversubscription had encour- 
aged them to increase the issue to 4 bil- 


performing major market so far this year 
— advancing 135 percent — and Den- 


— advancing 135 percent — 
mark, Ireland and Spain also 


jexceni — and Den- 
mark, Ireland and Spain also registered 
sharp gams in November. For Germany, 
with a monthly gain of 0.69 percent, the 
year’s advance totals 522 percent. 


European government 
bonds far outperformed 
Japanese and even U.S. 
ones in November. 


| jon francs. Because demand still had oot 


Cregem finance. After the merger of 
Credit Communal oe Belgique and 
Credit Local dc France into Dexia, the 
Belgians ended up owning more than toe 
50 percent of the French unit Oot they 
intended to own, and Cregem Finance 
was set up to dispose of (he excess 
holding of 1.3 million shares. 

The eight-year notes cany acoupon of 
3 25 percent, below (he 3.8 percent div- 
idend yield on the shares; bat the lead 
manger, Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, 
said the paper was four times oversub- 
scribed, despite a record — for the 
French market — 19 percent premium to 
buy the shores. The firm ascribed the 
heavy demand to the appeal of the 
shares, trading near their record high, 
and to the inherent protection of the 
bond, as holders can choose to redeem 
the bonds for cash if the shares fail to 
perform as expected. 

Investor nervousness was most ap- 
parent in die secondary market. With 


With the international capital market made to place me issue in uannuvi - 

viituaUy shattered as investors sought to where 1-5 billion DM ($850 million) of ra^fOT^ttea^nWMtomAl 


been fully satisfied, the decision was Mobdy’s 
made to place the issue in Germany, lowering South flmgteur- 


186 Wortd Bonk 4ft *2/23(97 1004500 14900 

107 World Bank 4ft 06/2000 1094750 4.1000 

1 94 Auror Gerws Fm 0493 11/14/15 98.9738 07000 

217 Fannie Mae 2ft 1009071004250 X1 100 

224 World Bonk 4ft 03/2003 It 67500 34700 

230 World Bank 5ft O3(2(V02 1174250 44600 


Spanish Peseta 

145 Spain 6ft 04/1500 104.1960 64*0 

201 Spain 10U 110Q0S 1054090 9.7300 

245 Spain 745 03(3107 11X9900 64200 

246 Spain 5 01/3101 994270 5.0200 


avoid risk and looked for shelter in do- 
mestic markets, Belgium used the op- 
portunity to launch its long-planned 
sales of 10-year notes in the French 
domestic market. Buoyed by its success 
there, it launched a similar operation in 
Deutsche marks. 

With Belgium's government bond 
market being among those least pen- 
etrated by nonresidents, the aim of the 
operation was to widen and diversify the 
audience for Belgian paper in prepa- 
ration for the move to a common cur- 
rency in much of Europe. . 

The French franc and mack issues, 
along with domestic Belgian franc paper, 
will become a combined issue denom- 
inated in euros, creating a benchmark at 
the euro’s scheduled launching in Janu- 


paper was ^oldT also at a spread of 17 to A3, the spread on the .Korean De- 
{xasis points over German government velopment Barfs ■* “g* 

^SS^cand^bond, ’wTS/’Ki w<ae in 

ended the week trading at a spread of 15 mid- 1996, they were sold at a spread of 
basis points. An estimated 70 percent of. 74 basis . 

the French franc issue was sold to in- Even the highly rated, 
vestors in France and about 20 percent to Bank of Japan saw the sp 
U.S. offshore investors, underwriters year notes widen to 36 tra 
said, while the mark issue was about 80 25 basis points a month z 
percent placed in Germany, with a sub- By contrast, the spn 
g fantial portion sold in France to a c- Bank paper narrowed si 
commodate investors who were unable points on the week, 
to buy the franc paper. Analysts expect a cent 

More surprising, given the mood in trend of widening spread} 
the market, was the success of the and declining spreads on l 
equity-linked international issue sold by bonds. 


Traders Doubt Japan Will Dump Bonds 


CcerOal by Ow S*f Fnm abodes 

NEW YORK — U.S. bonds, which 
have handed investors 18 percent returns 
since April, are not likely to falter this 
week even if Japan decides to sell some 
of its Treasury securities, traders say. 

With a record $321.2 billion of U.S. 
debt on thetr books at the end of August, 
Japanese investors are the top non-U-S. 
holders of Treasury bonds, caking large 
sales by them a threat to the market Yet 
there are plenty of reasons such a sell-off 
is unlikely — chief among them, in- 
vestors say, the fact that U.S. bonds offer 
some of die highest yields for top-rated 
government securities, even with the risk 
of U.S. inflation as scant as it is. 

“I find it hard to think they would 
sell," said Victor Thompsop of State 
Street Global Advisors in Boston, “and 
if they did, 1 don *t think it makes much of 
an impact.'' Many investors say they see 
no reason Japanese investors or their 
government would unload Treasury 
bonds when they could instead sell their 
lower-yielding Japanese bonds. 

Even if Japanese institutions do need 
to sell some Treasury paper, said Jack 
Ablin, head of fixed-income investing at 
Barnett Capital Advisors, such selling 
would be outweighed by demand from 
investors attracted to U.S. bonds amid 
the turmoil in Asian markets. 

The bond market is “caught between 
this flight-to-quality effect and this con- 
cern about Japanese dumping,” he said. 

U.S. 10-year notes, at 5.85 percent, 
are yielding 3.9 percentage points mare 
than comparable Japanese paper and 
0.41 percentage point, or 4 1 basis points, 
more than 10-year German notes. 

A strengthening dollar gives Japanese 


investors mote incentive to hold Treasury 
bonds. That way, they can reap the ben- 
efits of any further rise in the U.S. cur- 
rency, which, at 127.85 yen Friday, is 
near a five-year high against the Japanese 
currency. Expectations that inflation will 
remain dormant, meanwhile, could spell 
further gains for all U.S. bondholders. 

Low inflation is good for bondholders 
because it means toe securities’ fixed 


US. CAPITAL MARKETS 


payments will hold more of their value. 
The U.S. consumer price index rose just 
1.8 percent in the first 10 months of this 
year, its smallest increase in more than a 
decade. That makes real yields, or interest 
rates minns inflation very attractive. 

. Far these reasons, some analysts say 
U.S- band yields next year may fall below 
toe low of 5.78 percent they hit in Oc- 
tober 1993, which was toe lowest since 
the Treasmy began selling 30-year bonds 
regularly in 1977. 

The benchmark 30-year Treasmy fin- 
ished last week at 6.05 percent, compared 
with 6.04 percent the week before. 

“There is room for bonds to rally,” 
Ken Anderson of Evergreen Asset ftfan- 
agement Carp. said. ‘ ‘If we break though 
6 percent, we could just as quickly be at 
5.75 percent next year.” 

Thirty-year Treasury bonds have 
already gained 14.3 percent this year, 
when price gains and interest income are 
taken into account In yen terms, U.S. 
bonds have posted gains of almost 24 
percent, according to one index of bonds 
due in 10 years or more. Some, however, 
say U.S. bonds’ recent rally offers Japan 
a good chance to capture profits. In 


New International Bend Issues 


Compiled by Laurence Desvfleftes 


Amount Coop. Price 

Oatntoas) Mat. % Pries end 


Floating Rate Notes 

Polaris Funding 
Greece 


2002 ft 10040 — 


Owr 3-month Lfaot NancallaM* Fees 040%. DmmtnoitamsiObOOa. (Men* LmdilirtU 


2002 ft 99.42 — 


Over3*uoriJi Ubor. Nmcaflctafe. Fungfato with auUandUKl teoufc rabtag total amount to 1 45 
WKon mote. Fees 030%. {Dredger ndrmort BenroaJ 


Council of Europe 


HKSLOOO 1999 040 10040 — Betow3-niontaH»w.N«mcafl(*le.FoBsai6%.Den«Trtna1lon5HIC$50ft(»a(HSBCA6«1«Bta.) 


Fixed-Coupons 


Centaur Mining & 

Exploration ' 


20(37 33 l* 30 - 00 Sen^rmuoty.CalloMt at 105ft In 2002. F» nrt dtecta^ fCh^ 


European Investment Bank $250 2002 6ft 100439 100.17 


Fongfate wBti outstanding bsu& raising total amoent to S750 nUBtan. NoncaUh Fees 025%. 
DmonUnoflons naooa (ABN— AMRO Hoara Govett) 


Suedwest Landesbank SI 75 

Belgium DM1400 - 

Merrtl Lynch & Co. ' £200 

Belgium FF40OO 

Argentina ITL300000 

European Investment Bank ITL300000 


2001 340 92.95 — 


2008 5ft 100494 10195 
2007 7ft 99456 — ” 


2008 5ft 100439 10144 
2000 8 100.775 10048 


Semlonmiatty. NonaHabie prtwfte placement. Fees iwflfc. CNBcko EuropeJ 
NoneoOoble. Fees 0325%. CDeutsdieMsfganGrenMJ 

NoneAMe. Fees 045%. (McneUynctilntU 

— 

Reoflsred a: "99 SO. Nonadtabte. Few lVWfc. (Chase Seen rttteij 


12 101475 — 


S SS Si ffiESS g I'***^ 10 anm ' 15Wfc 12-mortti UbwftweoBw. 

RWffet^rtW^Ngxnljafaln. Fung B>lew1taouteta ntflog haoe, rotelnQ total Oiawml to 600 
nwon nro. Fees 1.135%. (CoifpkO 


2007 6ft 100.712 9940 
2003 5ft 101.121 99.40 


Equity- Linked 

Cregem Finance 


Reriftred o> 99.137, NomaBoble. Fees 2%. (ABN-AMRO Hoore GonHt) 
~teoffwe4at99421.Nong»Uoata.Feesm%. (ING Borings!) ~ 


2005 3ft 10000 — 


Co&tate atpar In 200Q.Coawta>ls infc shams o# Dada Frame at 726 francs pashaia a 19% 
pniBium. Fees not OsdmeO. tMoigan StaiOey Dean 


Last Week's Markets Euromarts 


Stock Indexes 


Money Rates 


Eurobond Yields 


Thursday 
Dec. 4 


Sydney: Australian Business Econ- 
omists' forecasting conference. 
Speakers include the governor of 
the Reserve Bank, Ian Macfarfane. 
Annual meeting: Bank of Queens- 
land. 


Oslo: Gross domestic product lor 
third quarter. 

Earnings expected: General Elec- 
tric. Grand Metropolitan, Great Uni- 
versal Stores. Hanson, Stakis. 


Ottawa: Building permits for Octo- 
ber help-wanted index for Novem- 
ber. 

Washington: Productivity and labor 
costs data for third quarter housing 
completions for October. 


Urffad State 
DJ indue. 
DJU1I1. 

DJ Trans. 
S&PIOO 
S&P500 
S&PInd 


NOT.2I % 
7,98147 -074 

25645 +QJS 
016423 +049 


United State Nw.K Nm.2) 

Dtawra rate 540 5 DO 

Prtmen* Bft 8ft 

Federal funds rat* 5V* 5M 


Weekly Sales 


toLZlWrt* vrkra 


Prtmwy Mortal 


NY5ECp 
NoHtaqCp 
Jopcw 
NMai225 
Britain 
FT St 100 
Canada 
TSE Indus, 

£352 

CAC« 


Friday 
Dec. 5 


Sydney: Reserve Bank of Australia 
to release financial aggregates for 
October. 

Annual meeting: Hallenstein GEas- 
son Holdings. 


Bern: Employment data for Novem- 
ber. 

Brussels: European Union Inflation 
data for October. 

Zurich: Leading indicators for Oc- 
tober. 

Earnings expected: Courts. 


Ottawa: Employment data for 
November. 

Washington: Employment data for 
November; factory orders and con- 
sumer credit data for October. 


963.10 -080 
1,12608 -089 

50245 -075 

142077 -145 


U4- O tong term 648 
U.S. & fmtrn tram 6.18 


649 JJ09 648 


Cod money 
3-monmintertxte 


048 050 

044 (MB 

062 0l55 


U4-0 short term 546 
Powte staling 745 
French (tones 5.16 
JWtoiBra 074 
DonWikiwier 56 1 
Swedrtt kronor 5J1 
ECUa jonghym 542 
§ata.«dmtem &47 
CaruS 5 jMJ 

Aus.3 6.12 

Ni* 743 

Yen 14t 


160626 1672148 -051 


4431^0 498680 -349 


Biteta 

Hank base rate 
CoJinwnev 
3-monMt Interbank 


Pa 7ft 

7ft m 

7ft 


651140 6773.90 -085 


1839.19 1861.70 -009 


Ftbiob 

interrenttan rate 
CdfDonsv 
3-flwnth f ntefban fc 


130 3J0 

3ft 3ft 

3ft 3ft 


617 684 689 
692 6wS1 585 
745 7.75 650 
5.19 544 466 
584 779 574 
667 £93 546 
540 543 482 
588 642 676 
651 659 446 
581 651 546 
605 786 589 


Straights 674 1410 ' — 958 

Corarert. — ■ — . — • .09 

Fms 8458 6188 7718 5B&4 
ECP, 98874 7,7762128988 W9SJ 
Total 100008 65394 128698 8.7800 
SgegBggyMgrtjrt 


748 849 696 
148 2.15 148 


» nm * H«ts 
StraigMs2136&I 33L6B4J 707604 27,1224 
Cwrvert. 1,1824 7758 X9B84 28BS8 

FRN* 210674 124477409148 IMIS 
I » >28476 228057 216964 29^874 

ToW 414654 69811/M745B8 66737.1 
Soon Bmdean Cedtl Bant 


WO— 1949.14 3.93)6) -Q77 

3flianfti Inttaftank 

Hang Seng 1052692 1054620 -020 


450 4JD 
450 343 
375 379 


Libor Rates 


No*. 28 Ncw.71 %Oi'g» 


93484 92981 -058 [jnOonpjiLfci 29650 30380 -244 


index from Morgan Sksnf&r CapfaUntl Perspective. 


■ le • I Math 1-4B0M Mndll 4 Mlfltl 

» Y “ * • - * 





J. * - 


Bank of Japan saw the sp^aon its five- 
year notes widen to 36 basis points from 
25 basis points a month ago. 

By contrast, toe spread on World 
Bank paper narrowed some five basis 
points on the week. 

Analysts expect a continuation of this 
trend of widening spreads on risky paper 
and declining spreads on toe most secure 
bonds. 


addition, toe value of Asian securities 
and real estate has fallen so far in recent 
months that unloading those holdings 
might prove tough. 

“You have to take a look at toe asset 
holdings they have on their list,” said Eric 
Cheung of Wilmington Trust Coro, in 
Wilmington, Delaware. “Some of toe 
things cm their books are underwater right 
now, and if they don’t sell US. Treas- 
uries, are they willing to takqa big hit?” 
. But some of those looking for record 
low yields next year predict that toe 
Asian turmoil will curb U.S. growth and 
help keep a lid on prices — making U.S. 
government debt even more attractive. 

As for concerns about Japanese 
selling, some estimates put toe worst- 
case impact at an increase of 0.25 per- 
centogepoint increase in lorig-terrn bcmd 
yields. That would still leave returns for 
theyear at about 10 percent 

While some investors are reluctant to 
drive yields much lower without clear 
signs that the U.S. economy is losing 
steam after growing at a 33 percent an- 
nual pace in the third quarter, others say 
the inflation picture will improve only 
when the effects of the Asian slowdown 
are felt. Josh Feinman of Bankers Trust 
said it might be next year before the 
Treasury market could divorce itself from 
toe Asian turmoil 

“I think it’s going to take a period of 
stability overseas, a period of time when 
people get either bored of looking at 
Asia or else reassured that Asia isn’t 
getting worse.” he said. “Now we’re 
heading into toe holiday season, and I 
just think early *98 is a sensible time for 
people to come back and reevaluate. ’ ’ 

( Bloomberg . Bridge News) 


•V •»». 


‘V’*- V 


M: K”i ll>n l iMttm 





INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1997 


PAGE 13 


Sticking to the Low-Priced Sector: A Little-Traveled Path 


SHORT COVER 


German Parties to Seek 


By Carole Gould 

New York Timor Service 


NEW YORK — Doesn't everyone 
uke to get something cheap?. 

Even m mutual fluids. the idea can be 
“reastihle. Three funds, including one 
that is a bruiser, operate on the premise 
that just a few dollars can buy a lot 
Like penny-pinching shoppers, their 
managers buy a stock only if its price 
does not exceed their stated budget 
They are not choosing stocks that 
appear cheap against some benchmark, 
such as the pnee-to-eamings ratio of 
the overall market; they simply refuse 
to exceed a set dollar limit for any 
single share of stock. It’s like Hegvti^g 
to speed no more than $35 on a pair of 
shoes, even if you find a pair at a 
discount store for $40 that would sell in 
a department store for $75. 

The mutual-fund industry clones suc- 
cessful strategies quickly, so the feet that 
only three funds invest this way may say 
something about the unlikely approach. 

Adopting an arbitrary price cutoff 
“isn’t really a strategy,” said Peter Di 


Teresa, an analyst withMcnningstar, the 
Chicago-based fund research concern. 
“What really matters with low-priced 
stock funds is the stock selection.” 

Exceptional stock selection has been 
a hall marie of Fidelity Low-Priced 


this select threesome but also among all 
funds that buy small stocks. It refuses 
to spend more than $35 a share. 

Royce Low-Priced Stock has been 
plugging along for nearly four years, 
paymg a maximum of $15 each for 
shares, and the newest of the group, 
Robertson Stephens Global Low- 
Priced, keeps its eyes on shares priced 
ai the equivalent of $10 and under in 
the United States and abroad. . 

One byproduct of success — bigness 
— can be a problem for funds that own 
small stocks. As the funds swell, they 
often have difficulty buying a signif- 
icant amount of a small stock without 


out-bumping up agains t this limi t. 

Their managers, therefore, tend to 
drift to medium-sized companies once 
their assets balloon. 

As the king of die group. Fidelity 
Low-Priced Stock knows this all too 
well. Acknowledging that it has had 


Stock, die biggest fond not only among well Acknowledging that it has had 
this select threesome but also among all tremble finding enough cheap stocks to 
funds that buy small stocks. It refuses fill out its $10 billion portfolio, several 


INVESTING 


weeks ago it raised the maximum price 
it would pay to $35 for a share from 
$25: When the fond began in 1989, its 
price limit was $15 a share. 

By way of explanation, Fidelity poin- 


ted to die astounding run-up in the U.S. 
stock market The broad rally of recent 
yeais has pushed up prices of most 
issues, shrinkug the poolof stocks from 
which tbe food's manager, Joel T3Rng- 
hast, can choose, the company argued. 

At the end of September, Mr. 
Tillinghast’s portfolio held more than 
1,100 stocks, but the portion of assets 
in cash had risen to 18 percent 

According to dam compiled by Stan- 


pushing up the price in the process. 
Because funds can generally put no 
more than 5 percent of their assets in 
any one company, they may have trou- 
ble putting all their cash to work with- 


dard & Poor’s Compustat, a division of 
McC5raw-HUl Cos., only 15 percent of 
the sucks on die New Yarik Stock Ex- 
change, American Stock Exchange and 
Nasdaq stock market cost more than 
$35 a share at the end of October. 

The jump to that limit from $25 
yielded an additional 1,151 stocks — 
an 18 percent increase — from which 
Mr. Tillinghast could choose. That 
doesn't count non-U.S. stocks, which 
accounted for about 20 percent of as- 
sets at the end of September. 

Does buying low-priced stocks 
amount to a marketing gimmick? Mr. 
Tillinghast declined to comment, bat 
his supporters say such stocks tend not 
to be covered thoroughly by Wall 
Street stock analysts and that news can 
easily push their prices up or down by 
several percentage points. Eric Kobren, 
editor of the independent newsletter 
Fidelity insight, called the limit a gim- 
mick but not necessarily a bad one. 

Despite its concentration in small 


more mature cwnpaniM, ■ generally Compromiseon Taxes 


the system has worked quite well, as 
the fond has outperf boned most market, 
gauges over the past five years, though 
its recent returns have flagged - 
• Royce Low-Priced Stock, begun- in 
late 1993, buys for less expensive stocks 
than the Fidelity fond. The manager, 
Charles Royoe, refuses to budge above 
$15 a share, bin he has few problems 
fiiKting purchases because of the fond’s 
small size, just $19 millhui in assets. - 

The Royoe fond has had only . av- 
erage performance. It gained 18.8 per-; 
cent a year, on average, from its in- 
ception through October, compared 
with 18.2 percent a year for all smail- 
capitalizafaoo value foods in' that peri- 
od. Mornings tar said. 

Robertson Stephens Global Low- 
Priced Stock, with $23 million in as- 
sets, has a much better record, albeit a 
short one. The fond: began in Novem- 
ber 1995. gained 20 percent a year, bn 
average, for the two years through Oc- 
tober, Momingster said, against 14.6 
percent-far all world stock, funds. 


stocks, Fidelity Low-Priced Stock does . 
not buy higb-flyinc eraereme compa- 


nd buy high-flying emergmj 
nies. Instead, Mr. Tillinghast 


BONN (Reuters) — Government and 
opposition leaders, in remarks released 
Sunday, said a multiparty compromise to 
rcfonn Geraiany’s tax system and contain 
the costs of state pensions was possible. 

Finance Minister Theo Waigel sad in 
an interview for the all-news television 
networkN-TV thanhe slide in the coun- 


try’s tax revalue had “brought both 
sides to tfreir semes.” He added, “As 


I ffflig as negotiations take place without 
verbal asswnits and public spectacle, then 
the chaqces of an agreement are better 
than at the beginning of the year. ” 

A parliamentary budget debate last 
week triggered cahs for compromise by 
both. Chancellor Helmut Kohl's coali- 
tion and the opposition Social Demo- 


tion and the opposition Social Demo- 
crats, who blocked Mr. Waigel’s plan to 

rnt taxes in Parliament in Seutcmbex. 


cut taxes in Parliament in September. 

Social Democrat leaders also said 
they saw. an increased chance of a tax 
and pension compromise. Negotiations 
are expected to begin after the party’s 
conference in Hannover next week- 

“I am more optimistic since the 
budget debate,” Rudolf Scharping, the 
SPDV parliamentary leader, told the 
newspaper BUd am Sonnteg. 


KOREA: 

Seoul and IMF Sign 




Continued from Page 11 


TL— 0H. 


§•^0] 


OPEC’s Quota Rise Shows 
Saudi Primacy in Oil Cartel 


NatWest to Sell Units 


LONDON (Combined Dispatches) 
— National Westminster Bank PLC 
plans this week to sell its European 


equities business to Bankers Trust New 
York Crap, and its equity derivatives 
unit to Deutsche Morgan Grenfell, 
sources familiar with the transactions 
said Sunday. 

Bankers Trust will pay between £200 
miTlirwi and £250 milli on ($338 million 
to $422 million) for the equities business, 
the sources said, and Deutsche Grenfell 
will pay almost £100 million for the 
- derivatives unit. Separately, NatWest de- 
scribed as pore speculation a Sunday 


agreed to postpone a derision on the issue 
and to schedule follow-up meetings. 

But the central issue was whether 
Seoul would accept a sharp cut in eco- 
nomic growth in return for aid. The South 
Korean economy has been growing at an 


average rate 8 percent a year since the 
end of the Korean War in 1953. 


end of the Korean War in 1953. 

The Yoohap news service and the 
state-run Korean Broadcasting Service, 
quoting government sources, reported 
early Monday that the government had 
agreed to raise interest rates to stem 
corporate borrowing and to cut its eco- 
nomic growth target and trade deficit. 

The government agreed to cut its tar- 
get for growth in the gross domestic 
product next year .to 3 percent from 6 
percent, tbe reports said. 

Seoul also accepted a demand that a 
key interest rate rise to between 18 
percent and 20 percent from 15 percent 


©A* 



Iw's':... . ; ■J'M, 



to help discourage overproduction, the 
news services reported. In addition, the 


Pud BmfanltoaiciB 

South Koreans passing an upbeat bank ad Sunday in Seoul as government 
and International Monetary Fund officials readied terms on a bailout 


CampBtetyQvrSKfffWm Dbpatda 

JAKARTA — Saudi Arabia served 
notice at the Organization of Petroleum 
Exporting Countries’ talks here that it is 
returning to center stage on world oil 
markets. 

By periling through the first major 
increase in foe cartel’s oil-production. 
limit in four years, analysts said, Saudi 
Arabia showed it had no intention of 
letting its influence in oil matters wane. 

At their meeting that ended Saturday, 
ministers from OPEC’s 11 members 
approved an agreement aimed at re- 
vitalizing OPEC’s system of production 
quotas and raising its output limit by 10 
percent, to a total of 275 million bands 
a day for the group. 

Although OPEC’s production already 
exceeds that target because many mem- 
bers are pumping all they can, the new 
quota will allow some — notably Saudi 


news services reported. In addition, the 
trade deficit is to be reduced to $5 billion 
a year, or around 1 percent of GDP, from 
$13 billion, and the government is to 
reduce the amount of new money it puts 
in circulation. 

The IMF had asked Seoul to open its 
financial markets to full foreign par- 
ticipation. but it accepted a counter- 
proposal for a partial opening, die re- 
ports said. 

The differences between the two 
sides emerged around midday Sunday 
after the government said it had called 
an emergency cabinet meeting to ap- 
prove the package. The meeting was 
postponed to Monday morning as ne- 
gotiators could not resolve disagree- 
ments over how to shore up foe banking 
system, according to sources familiar 
with the talks. 


Hong Kong’s Yaohan Stores Liquidate Inventory 


Bloomberg News 

HONG KONG — Yaohan Depart- 
ment Stores (Hoag Kong) barely dented 
debts of over I billion Hong Kong dol- 
lars ($129.4 million) as it sold 
everything from vegetables to its cash 
registers at discounts of up to 80 percent 
in a going-out-of-business sale. 

The department-store chain, one of 
foe tenitoiy’s largest retailers, ceased 
operations a week ago after three years 
of losses. 

The two-day liquidation sale at tibe 
nine Yaohan stores in Hong Kong drew 
hundreds of thousands of shoppers, 
some of whom lined up overnight 

Creditors’ return on the dollar “will 


not be .attractive,” said Matthew 
O’Driscoll, a partner with Ernst & 
Young, foe court-appointed liquidator. 
He said the first day of the sale bn 
Saturday brought in at least 10 million 
dollars. In coming weeks, the store 
plans to begin sellmg fixtures and any- 
thing else for which a buyer can be 
found, Mr. O’Driscoll said. 

One outlet closed its doors several 
times while the police restored order, 
and two other stores limited shoppers .to 
30 minutes inside, the South China 
Morning Post reported. 

In the past mouth, Hoag Kong news- 
papers have carried extensive reports 
about foe problems of die economies of 


Hong Kong and its Asian neighbors. 
Hong Kong’s benchmark stock index 
has lost a third of its value since August 
amid concern that devalued currencies 
in countries such as Thailand and 
Malaysia could precipitate a similar 
drop in Hong Kong. 

The Yaohan chain in Hong Kong is a 
subsidiary and the principal asset of 
Yaohan Hong Kong Crap., which had 


its last foil-year profit m 1994. The 
chain is controlled through Yaohan In- 


chain is controlled through Yaohan In- 
ternational Holdings Ltd. by Japan’s 
'Wada family. The Wadas are majority 
shareholders in Yaohan ’s depaitinent 
stores in Japan, which are operating 
under court protection. 


Arabia arid itsr allies — to pump more. 

Despite the higher authorized output, 
by OPEC, which accounts for more man 
oae-thirdoftbe world’s oil, officials said 
the accord would bdp keep die price of 
its oil near $18 a band as demand rose. 

World oil consumption is at record 
levels, and supplies from countries out- 
side OPEC are rising, sending prices 
down 25 percent since January. 

“Maybe prices will drop by $1 a 
barrel for the first two weeks, but then 
prices will recover,'* said Abdullah 
Salim Badri, the oO minister of Libya. 

Saudi - Arabia and its Gulf allies, 
Kuwait and United Arab Emira t e s, are 
foe primary beneficiaries of the higher 
production ceilings. All force have been 
reining in their production -for several 
years. Among the losers are Venezuela 
and Nigeria, whose higher quotas still are 
lower man their current actual output 

The other OPEC members are Al- 
geria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq and Qatar. 

. Saudi Arabia’s aim was to gain 
OPEC’s blessing for an increase in its 
output while restoring some credibility 
to the group’s tattered system of pro- 
duction quotas. 

“We regard this as a wholesale policy 
shift in the thinking and behavior of 
OPEC after foor years of standing by and 
doing nothing,” a Saadi official said. 

“This is an excellent agreement be- 
cause people doubted OPEC could act 
and thought it was no longer influential 
in the market” 

Others saw another significance. 
‘This isn’t just about more oil on the 
market,” said Mohammed Abdnljabbar 
of Washington-based Petroleum Fi- 
nance Co. “This was a political stater 
meat on Saudi Arabia’s part” 

( Reuters, Bloomberg ) 


arm had run 
more than £ 


i million. 

(Reuters, Bloomberg) 


Bezeq’s Profit Falls 

JERUSALEM (Bloomberg) — 
Bezeq Ltd., the state-controlled phone 
company, said Sunday its third-quarter 
net meome fell 8 percent as revenue 
declined 10 percent 

The company earned 148.4 million 
shekels ($41.9 million), compared with 
161.9 milli on shekels in the year-earlier 
period. Revenue dropped to 2 billion 
shekels from 2.2 billion shekels. 


long-distance phone services for the first 
time in July as two new companies 
began providing services. 


Banca di Roma Sale 


ROME (Bloomberg) — Banca di 
Roma SpA, Italy's second-largest bank 
in terms of assets, said its 2.25 trillion lire 
($1.3 billion) share offering, which trans- 
ferred ownership to private investors, 
was almost three times oversubscribed. 

It also said Saturday that a parallel 
offering of foe bank's convertible bonds 


la Ricostruzione Indus tri ale SpA was 
four times oversubscribed. 


CHINA: Red-Hot Economy Seems to Cool in Whke of Asian Crisis r^ON ERNST GLOBAL PORTFOLIO 


Continued from Page 11 


numbers are actually getting less op- 
timistic. It looks like tbe economy is 
slowing down." 

Some of the disturbing numbers in- 
clude: Chinese inventories that ran at 
more than $70 billion, equal to nearly 8 
percent of the gross domestic product; 
stagnant disposable income in foe coun- 
tryside, and a commercial real estate 
glut that shows no sign of abating in 
Shanghai and Beijing. 

Many state enterprises are slashing 
prices to increase sales. Wenfeng Car- 
pet Co., a state firm in Henan Province, 
just cut prices 50 percent, and said it 
would accept installment payments. 
“Call us and we wQl be at your door- 
step,” it says in an ad. 

Some analysts caution against ex- 
aggerating China’s difficulties. 

“It's getting very difficult to read, 
very hazy, but I do think people have 
turned overly gloomy about foe whole 
thing,” said Joe Zhang, an economist 
with Credit Lyonnais. A former official 
at China’s central bank, Mr. Zhang said 
China's economic problems used to be 
much worse. “Things haven't changed 


dramatically,” he said. 

He added that pessimism had risen 
dramatically because “the external en- 
vironment has changed.” 

But China is not completely walled 
off from the outside woria A cooling of 
the domestic economy comes as de- 
valued currencies around Asia mean 
competition for foreign markets and in- 
vestment will beat up. 

Just this month, a Chinese manufac- 
turer barely held onto a contract to sell 
equipment destined for the United States 
to be used to unload containers from 
cargo ships. Just after the deal was 
sealed, Mitsubishi group of Japan tried to. 
snatch foe contract from the Chinese 


company by undercutting foe price 1 
percent with a model made in Malaysia. 

The textile industry, one of tbe biggest 
export engines, is vulnerable to rivals in 
Thailand. The huge television industry 
must compete with Malaysian manufac- 
turers. The growing computer industry is 
straggling against Taiwanese firms. 

That could erode China’s overall 
trade surplus, which was about $30 bil- 
lion in the first nine months of this year, 
and create pressure for China to devalue 


its currency, the yuan. And that could 
set off another round of punishing de- 
valuations across Asia. 

The increased competition from Asia 
coincides with a sharp drop in new in- 
vestment commitments in China by for- 
eigners. During the first nine months of 
this year, the amount of future investment 
pledged by foreigners in new contracts 
dropped by 3 8. 8 percent from last year. 

At times, China’s leaders seem un- 
concerned about potential pitfalls. In a 
recent interview, Shanghai’s mayor, Xu 
Kuangdi, compared his city’s construc- 
tion boom ana office glut to a poor 
person who buys clothes a little too big. 
Pointing to his sleeves, Mr. Xu says 


SIGAV 

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R.C. Luxembourg B 30.1 76 


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declare an Interim dividend of the following sub-funds: 



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“you make them a little too long and 
maybe next year foe clothes will fit.” 


maybe next year foe clothes will fit.” 

This week, President Jiang Zemin did 
not even mention foe economy in a 
speech at the Asia-Pacific Economic 
Cooperation meeting in Vancouver, 
British Columbia. 

“They’re invulnerable at the mo- 
ment,” said Mr. Lardy. “The question 
is, will they use this time to address foe 
underlying problems or will they con- 
tinue with business as usuaL" 

Mr. Lardy said he was particularly 
concerned about foe country's banking 


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be resolved tomorrow, we will have to 
defer it to the next meeting, which will 
probably be held in February 

The proposed Asian assistance fond 
has been resisted by Western nations led 
by the United States, which have insisted 
that foe International Monetary Fund 
play the central role in helping troubled 
economies in foe region and that any 
funds disbursed be used in accordance 
with stringent IMF conditions. 

The u3. fears a separate Asian fund 
could undermine tbe IMF and weaken 
Asian countries’ willingness to adopt 
die tough economic policies advocated 
by die Fund, 

Prime Minister Mahathir bin Moha- 
mad of Malaysia said Friday that foe 
regional assistance fund should be sep- 
arate from the IMF. But Mr. Anwar said 
Sunday, “Whether it is a standby fa- 
cility, as an Asian initiative or not. it will 
have to work in tandem with the IMF.” 

Mr. Anwar added that Southeast Asia 


ic Cooperation forum also shied away 
from die proposed fund at their summit 
meeting last week in Canada. 

Mr. Anwar spoke as senior finance 
and central bank officials from the nine- 
member Association of South East 
Asian Nations were meeting in foe 
Mnlaysian capital. 

Finance ministers from the ASEAN 
members and six other economies — 
Australia, China, Hong Kong, Japan, 
South Korea and foe United States — 
were to arrive later for meetings starting 
Monday. ASEAN comprises Brunei, 
Burma, Indonesia. Laos, Malaysia, the 
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and 
Vietnam. 

Separately, Malaysia's securities reg- 
ulator dismissed speculation that the 


country's stock exchange had restricted 
the trading activities of five brokerages 


would consider accepting money from 
nnv country, including Taiwan, for foe 


any country, including Taiwan, for foe 
regional fund. 

Asian and U.S. officials stopped short 
of endorsing an Asian rescue fund at a 
recent meeting in Manila but called fora 
new “framework for regional cooper- 
ation” that recognized foe central role 
of tbe IMF- 

Leaders of the Asia-Pacific Econom- 


the trading activities of five brokerages 
because of payment defaults. 

“There is absolutely no default no 
settlement failure of any sort,” said 
Munir Majid, chairman of foe Securities 
Commission. "This is purely amove to 
ensure there was better cash-flow man- 
agement on foe pan of these brokers.” 

The stock exchange said Saturday it 
would restrict (he aiding activities of 
five brokerages starting Monday. The 
brokerages are Sime Securities 5dn„ 
Capitalcorp Securities Sdn., MBf 
Northern Securities Sdn., Kin Khoon & 
Co. and Labuan Securities Sdn. 

(Reuters, Bloomberg ) 


Indonesia or South Korea,” he said. As 
a portion of gross’ domestic product, he 
added, Chinese banks' reserves are less 
than half as large as those of Japan’s 
troubled banks. 

Sometimes, China's leaders seem 
aware of foe economic dangers. 

Before leaving for Vancouver, Mr. 
Jiang delivered a speech to Chinese 
banters. In addition to Mr. Jiang's un- 
usual appearance at such a meeting, 
more than half the Communist Party 
Standing Committee attended, includ- 
ing Prime Minister U Peng, Deputy 
Prime Minister Zhu Rongji and the head 
of the Central Party School, Hu Jintao. 

After foe meeting, an editorial in die 
People’s Daily, the official party news- 
paper, warned, “Tbe financial system 
has yet to adapt to foe demands of a 
developing socialist market economy.” 

“The financial system is not sound, 
financial supervision Is weak, financial 
order comparatively confused,” it said, 
adding that “financial crimes” were 
“rampant.” 

The leadership also was worried 
enough about tbe slackening economy 
to cut interest rates to.stimulate demand 
recently just as other governments were 
raising rates to protect their currencies. 

“This economy is full of problems, 
and reform takes a long time to fix all foe 
problems,” said Fan Gang, an econ- 
omist and director of foe National Eco- 
nomic Research Institute. 


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.PAGE 18 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 1 , 1997 


SPONSO RED SEC LION 


S PON SO RED SEC 1 (ON 


ENVIRONMENT: The Challenge of Climate Change 


As monsters from more 


i than 170 countries gather 

I 

\ today in Kyoto for the Third 
1 Conference of Parties to 






: : xyjjgqam/aKg* 


the UN Framework on 


:# And Timetables 

A look at the numbers on the negotiating table. 


CEmate Change, or COP 3, 
they face a major 
challenge. They most seek 
waystoBnutthe 
production of greenhouse 


Possible Targets 




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of global warming, which 
scientists say is already 
effecting the world’s 
weather patterns. 
They hope to Had a 
better consensus than 
was the case at the 
iitconctuswe l&day UN- 
sponsored conference in 
October m Boon. 




MEETINGS OF SUBSIDIARY BODIES 






:In Search of Workable Solutions 


•Must the world choose between protecting the environment and economic growth? 


I n Kyoto, countries from 
across the globe face the 
task of negotiating a 
; treaty to reduce greenhouse 
■gas emissions. With scient- 
ists already reporting mani- 
1 testations of global warming 
.* — including storms and 
; flcxxling, rising sea levels, re- 
ductions in glaciers and 
■snowfalls and die shifting of 
i climatic zones away from the 
; Equator — world leaders 
-must judge the seriousness 
land urgency of the problem 
'and come up with concrete 
‘steps to deal with it 

At the same time, they 
!must balance the impact of 
environmental change on die 
I global economy in order to 
;pave the way for sustainable 
! development. 


For years, scientists have 
been watching with growing 
concern the effects of human 
activities on world climate. 
In 1994, the Intergovern- 
mental Panel on Climate 
Change (IPCC) stated that 
“the balance of evidence 
suggests a discernible human 
influence on global cli- 
mate” 

The faster the climate 
changes, the greater will be 
die risk of damage. Human 
society will face new risks 
and pressures. Food security 
is unlikely to be threatened at 
die global level, but some 
regions are likely to expe- 
rience food shortages and 
hunger. 

Water resources will be af- 
fected as precipitation and 


evaporation patterns change 
around die world. Physical 
infrastructure may be dam- 
aged, particularly by sea- 
level rise and by extreme 
weather events. 

“We are facing a serious 
risk; how serious we just 
don’t know," says Bert Bol- 
in, a Swedish scientist who 
served as chairman of the 
IPCC from its inception in 
1988 until this year. “But we 
had better get moving if we 
want to steer this ship in an- 
other direction." 


The size of It 

Stabilizing atmospheric con- 
centrations of greenhouse 
gas emissions will demand a 
major effort Based on cur- 
rent trends, the total climatic 


Where It s Coming From 

CC: cn;<s:o.-s ; -c> r r- :,s c 2 ~z-iz-.c' ~ c." to c ; CO:. .‘995 


NORTH AMERICA 
.ytONAi. MARIN: BUNKERS 

AFRtCAfV 

MIDDLE EAS' 


North America produces the most man-made CCb, followed by Europe. Aria 
(excluding China). then China Itself. But the regions* figures conceal big differences 
among countries as well as very cBfferem trend lines. From 1990 to 1 995, fcr . example* 
Germany, France, Britain and Liscembourg reduced their emissions, wbfle most other'"' 
Western European countries increased theirs. Although their COt totals remain Jew.-/ ' 
in absolute terms, developing countries saw their emissions rise almost 20 percent ' '• 
over the five-year period, fer more rapkfiyfoan arty developed country. 


Source. Iroxouuwui Energy Agency 


impact of rising greenhouse 
levels will be equal to that 
caused by a doubling of 
preinduslrial CO, concentra- 
tions by 2030, and a tripling 
or more by 2100, according 
to the UN Environment Pro- 
gram. 

Freezing global CO, emis- 
sions at their current level 
would postpone C0 2 doub- 
ling to 2100. Emissions 
would eventually have to tell 
to about 30 percent of their 
current levels for concentra- 
tions to stabilize at doubled 
CO, levels in die future. 

Given an expanding world 
economy and growing pop- 
ulations, this would require 
dramatic improvements in 
energy efficiency and fun- 
damental changes in other 
economic sectors. 

None of the parties to the 
United Nations Framework 
Convention on Climate 
Change, ratified in 1992, are 
suggesting such a dramatic 
reduction. At the table in 
Kyoto are a range of pro- 
posals, from the modest U.S. 
target of stabilization at 1990 
levels by 2010 to the bolder 
EU approach of reductions of 
15 percent below 1990 levels 
by 2010 with an intermediate 
benchmark in 2005. 

Only a few industrialized 
countries are likely to suc- 
ceed in stabilizing CO z emis- 
sions in 2000 at 1990 levels. 
Projections for 2005, 2010 
and 2020 reveal a trend of 
growing emissions for many 
countries. Energy efficiency 
gains in die early 1990s were 
lower than anticipated and 
also lower than in die 
1980s. 

Despite this poor report 
card, many policy makers, 
research institutes and non- 
governmental organizations, 


The Story So Far 


• 2979; The First World CDmato Conference is held. It 
issues a declaration calling on the world's governments “to 
foresee and prevent potential man-made changes in di- 
mate that might be adverse to the well-being of human- 
ity." 

• 1985c The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the 
Ozone Layer is established. 

• 1987: The Montreal Protocol on Substances that De- 
plete the Ozone Layer is sighed by 24 countries in Montreal, 
Quebec, it requires that parties freeze CFG emissions at 
1986 levels and reduce them by 50 percent by 1998, and 
calls for a freeze cm baton production at 1986 levels by 
1992. 

■ 1990: The Intergovernment a l Panel on CBmate Change 

(IPCC) releases its first Assessment Report, it confirms the 
scientific evidence for dimate change and provides the 
basis for negotiations on the Climate Change Convention. 

• 1990: The Second Wold Ctimate Conference calls for a 
framework treaty on climate change. 

- 1992: The UN Framework Convention on CSmate 
Change seeks to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of 
greenhouse gases at safe levels. Some 165 countries have 
become parties. Developed countries are committed to 
returning their emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000. 
No obligation is set at thistimefor developing countries. The 
Conference of the Parties (COP) becomes the Convention's 
ultimate authority. 

• 1995: The IPCC adopts Hs Second Assessment Report. 

It concludes that "the balance of evidence suggests that 
there is a discernible human influence, on global dimate. " 

• 1997: COP 3 is held in Kyoto, Japan. It is expected to 

adopt a "protocol or another legal instrument" committing 
developed countries to redudngtheirgreenhousegasemis- 
sions after the year 2000. A.B. 


as well as some business 
groups, believe that solutions 
are within reach. “This is not 
one of the problems where 
you have to invent the solu- 
tions,” says Delia Vrilagrasa, 
director of Climate Action 
Network Europe. “We have 
the solutions. What is needed 
is the political will to make it 
happen.” 


What can be done 
There are many signals gov- 
ernments can provide to en- 
courage market creation of 
innovative, climate-friendly 
technologies and changed 
consumer behavior. Some 
examples include setting 
binding national targets for 


emission reductions, reform- 
ing government subsidies to 
polluting technologies and 
fossil fuels and introducing 
foil-cost accounting (i.e., 
green GDP, carbon taxation). 
Other government initiatives 
could include adopting per- 
formance-based regulations, 
employing policy instru- 
ments that encourage market 
development in greenhouse 
gas reduction (such as emis- 
sion trading and joint imple- 
mentation), improving infor- 
mation flows to capital 
markets and fostering public- 
private partnerships. 

Business and industry can 


Continued on page 22 






rtCC fSiffi 


I** - 


A'*'"- v*'i 






E nergy’ is a most paradoxical 
commodity. Without an 
abundant supply of it, no 
economic progress is conceivable. 
And yet virtually all the energy 
sources used today present dangers 
that could not only arrest but roll 
back progress altogether. 

We have known for years that the 
combustion of fossil fuels posed 
grove threats ic the environment. 
There is now convincing evidence 
that the carbon dioxide produced in 
burning coal, oil and natural gas can 
alter the very dimate that supports 
human life. Energy is not the only 
source of noxious emissions (an- 
imals and plants arc also sources), 
but it is by far the largest source of 
man-made CO,. 

This paradox will be at the heart 
of the debate when ministers from 
more than 1 7ft countries gather in 
Kyoto today to seek a worldwide 
solution to the threat of undesirable 
and unpredictable climate change. 

While the talk will be of ceilings 
for CO : emissions, climate tech- 
nology' initiatives and "activities 
implemented jointly," the real con- 
cerns will be for keeping and pro- 
ducing jobs and increasing national 


wealth and persona] comfort. Big 
energy users will not wish to cut 
their consumption. Poorer coun- 
tries will not agree to mortgage 
future growth by eschewing energy 
use in the future. Energy, then, is at 
the heart of the problem, and energy 
will inevitably play a critical role in 
any solution. 


Double-edged sword 
To say that does not resolve the 
problem or reduce the paradox. It 
does suggest that a successful out- 
come at Kyoto must deal as folly 
with economic as with environ- 
mental issues. It must be able to 
muster broad political support that 
will lead to ratification by the 
parties. To be credible, the legally 
binding protocol adopted at Kyoto 
must be ambitious — but also real- 
istic, achievable and cost-effective. 
An agreement that appears to dam- 
age important economic interests 
will not meet that test. 

No one knows, of course, pre- 
cisely how serious the climate- 
change threat may be. But the polit- 
ical decision to act has already been 
taken — - notably at the Berlin con- 
ference in 1 995, which set the man- 


date that the negotiators in Kyoto 
will fulfill. 

Whatever the uncertainties sur- 
rounding the meteorological facts, 
those negotiators face the oblig- 
ation to achieve a clear result At a 
minimum, their work must include 
a solid political assessment of risks 
and costs, thereby determining a 
framework. 

The good news in a generally 
gloomy scene is that greenhouse 
gases can be limited by cost-ef- 
fective means. We can alter the 
form in which services are de- 
livered by improving their effi- 
ciency , reducing their energy and 
greenhouse gas content and moving 
to new and cleaner technologies 
and infrastructure. 

If a clear and flexible framework 
is devised, industry and govern- 
ments can design policies and pro- 
grams that will work, such as foe 
development and deployment of 
climate-friendly technologies. 
Many such technologies are avail- 
able today. Yet their deployment 
has slowed significantly over past 
decades. This trend must be re- 
versed. 

Technology deployment is de- 


sirable in the industrialized coun- 
tries. It is vitally uigent in the de- 
veloping world. For while climate 
change is a universal problem, its 
status varies widely among coun- 
tries. 

The highly developed member 
countries of the Internationa] En- 
ergy Agency have produced the 
vast majority of greenhouse gases 
now suspended in foe atmosphere. 
They have, therefore, an obligation 
to lead. 

But it is foe developing countries 
that will account for foe bulk of 
growth in C0 2 and other undesir- 
able emissions, as their rate of eco- 
nomic growth accelerates. It fol- 
lows that neither the rich nor the 
poor countries can deal with foe 
threat separately. The only ap- 
proach with a chance of working is 
a partnership approach. 

Partnerships must be created that 
will engage governments, busi- 
nesses and consumers to act in their 
own interests in sensible ways, to 
reduce emissions while still im- 
proving the quality of their lives. 

That is a tall order — especially 
for a 10-day meeting under intense 
international scrutiny. But I am 


Robert PrMOe,executiimitirectoredte 
International Energy Agency. 


confident that it is achievable. Just 
as in 1974, when the consuming 
countries met a daunting threat to 
energy security, so now,- in foe face 
of an oven sharper challenge, foe 
world's economies can move for- 
ward again. But new progress is 
acutely dependent on a clear out- 
come from the Kyoto conference 
and a flexible framework for im- 
plementing it 

Robert Priddle 
Executive Director 
International Energy Agency 


hat is needed at foe 
Kyoto meeting, 
say observers, is a 
willingness to look beyond 
the numbers to a concrete 
agreement that will turn foe 
tide of current economic, in- 
dustrial. social and environ- 
mental trends. 

The 1992 UN Framework 
Convention on Climate 
Change committed de- 
veloped countries to stabil- 
izing C0 2 emissions to 1990 
levels by foe year 2000 — 
without any legal obligation. 
This voluntary approach has 
foiled; foe task of foe Kyoto 
conference is to provide le- 
gally binding targets and 
dates. 

In March, the EU pro- 
posed emissions reductions 
of 15 percent below 1990 
levels by 2010, applicable 
initially to a basket of three 
gases: carbon dioxide (CO;), 
methane and nitrous oxide. 
The EU proposes that other 
be added later and that 
there be an intermediate 
benchmark, still to be spe- 
cified, in 2005- 
5 Previously, the best- 
known target number on foe 
table had been the proposal 
from the Alliance of Small 
Island States for a 20 percent 
cut in CO; emissions below 
1990 levels by foe year 
2005. 

• In September, the Japa- 
nese proposed 5 percent as a 
base reduction rate, based on 
1990 levels, to be reached 
between 2008 and 2012. The 
Japanese called for flexibility 
and for differentiated targets 
in which each country's goal 
would be based on its emis- 
sions as a function of its gross 
domestic product, per capita 
population and population 
growth. 

The United States was the 
last to come up with a pro- 


posal, and it ‘fell short of th» 
leadership role that environ- 
mental organizations anc? 1 
others hoped it woulc 
demonstrate. In late October, 
president Bill Clinton pro- 
posed binding targets to 
teach 1990 levels by 2008 to' 
2012 and reductions below 
1990 levels within the fol- 
lowing five years. Mr. Clin- 
ton’s plan also includes emis- 
sions trading and joint 
implementation, which 
would allow a company in 
one country to invest in a 
project that reduces emis- 
sions in another country and 
receive credit for those re- 
ductions at home. 

Mr. Clinton also issued an 
ultimatum: Developing 

countries must participate. 
This may mean voluntary ad- 
herence to emissions targets 
by developing countries or a 
commitment by these coun- 
tries to negotiate binding tar- 
gets in the years ahead. 

Yet developing countries 
will not consider limiting 
their emissions, and thus pla- 
cing a new constraint on their 
economic growth, until they 
are convinced that developed 
countries are serious about 
cutting theirs. 

Many questions remain. 
Among them: Will a target 
expressed as a certain level 
be achieved by a specific 
date, or as a “budget" to be 
achieved over a period of 
years? Can overachievement 
be “banked” for future use 
and can a party "borrow” 
(with a penalty charge) from 
the next budget jjeriod to 
cover underacnievement 
during the current one? 

The question of measure- 
ment and verification is also 
unresolved. A legally bind- 
ing target will only work if 
implementation can be veri- 
fied. Amy Brown 






****** 




The Computer Scenario 


The study of climate change is an inexact science, but that 
has not stopped scientists from attempting to arrive at a 
more precise understanding of just how the atmosphere 
works. 

With the help of computer-simulated climate scenarios, 
research institutes around the world have been able to 
supply scientists with convincing evidence that human 
activities, if unchecked, could significantly alter tire earth’s 
climate over the next 50 to 100 years. 

Atthe Hadley Centre tor Climate Prediction and Research 
in Britain, about 100 scientists are busy trying to make 
forecasts of the earth's climate, not only in the rear term, 
but also over the next century. Their work provides a focus 
for national and international research programs on climate 
change and has been useful to the Intergovernmental Panel 
on Climate Change in making Its assessments. 


0.3 degrees per decade 

One of the main tasks of the Hadley Centre, says Geoffrey 
Jenkins, who heads the program, is to understand and 
predict future climate change due to human activities. 

■ its global climate model, driven by estimates of future 
changes in atmospheric composition, predicts a global 
mean warming of 0.3 degrees Celsius per decade, with the 
greatest warming in high northern latitudes in winter and 
little change in the northern North Atlantic and southern 
oceans. 

The model predicts precipitation increases in high north- 
ern latitudes and during the summer monsoon, but pre- 
cipitation decreases In a few areas, such as southern 
Europe in summer. 

“The model is built on mathematical equations that 
govern, for example, the way oceans move.” explains Mr. 
Jenkins. “We inject into that model conditions that will be 
changing over the next 100 years, such as an expected 
increase in carbon dioxide and methane. Then we look at 
what the model totalling us in terms of rainfall, temperature 
and sea level rise.” 

The computer scenarios are helpful to policy makers and 
planners as they look at the effect of climate change on 
agriculture, for example. The models may show how dif- 
ferent types of vegetation will increase or decrease as the 
result of changes in precipitation and how this will affect 
crop yield, food prices and the number of people at risk of 
hunger. 


Variables upon variables 

‘There are great-uncertainties,” says Mr. Jenkins. “We can 
calculate the amount of warming reasonably well. But then 
things happen that can exacerbate or ameliorate the prob- 
lem. For example, when the earth-warms, the atmosphere 
can hold more water vapor, which in itself is a greenhouse 
gas, and that will further increase the temperature change. 
Another example is sea ice, which reflects a lot of solar 
radiation and thus cools the climate. When sea ice melts, 
more radiation is absorbed into the earth's system, causing 
further warming: Changes in clouds could add to or subtract 
from the problem. There’s a whole range of factors." AJB. 


“Environment: TheQlujletk^^ 
was produced in Us entirety by the Adveniting Deportment of the ' 
International Herald Tribune. 

Writers: ■ 

Amy Brown in Sweden. Julia Clerk, in the United Helen 
Cranford hi Belgium, Darryl d’Monte in India. Robert Hendry in 
Sweden. Eric Johnston in Japan, Robert Priddle in France 
Richard Rogers in the Netherlands. Peggy Sah-TYautman in 
Germany and Joseph A Yogerst in the United States . 

Program Director: 

Bill Mahder. 


■ Mr. , C£r^*» 




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PAGE 19 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 


L1997 


advertisement 


AnVF RTISEMENT 


Our Responsibility to Future Generations 

Japan's Official Development Assistance (ODA) is undertaking a worldwide initiative to 
promote the long term well-being of our planet through its sustainable development and 
environmental protection efforts, including efforts to combat climate change. 


JAPAN 


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Serious environmental problems 


More than ever before, serious environmental 
problems are posing a threat to the well-being of 
humans around the world. Various forms of pol- 
lution and destruction of natural terrestrial and 
marine resources are not only creating health 
problems, but are also reducing the possibility of 
achieving long-term economic growth. They ul- 
timately threaten global human security, it is im- 
perative to face these problems together. 

As individuals, each of us bears responsibility 
fbr modifying our lifestyles to reduce the causes of 
these problems. Each country bears the respon- 
sibility of contributing to the financial and technical 
resources necessary to solve them. The govern- 
ment of Japan is taking this responsibility so 
seriously that it makes ail efforts to support en- 
vironmental protection. It is hosting COPIH (the 
Third Session of the Conference of Parties to the 
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change), 
which begins on Dec. 1 in Kyoto. 


Japan's ODA taking the lead 


Japan made serious commitments to promote 
environmental protection and sustainable devel- 
opment during the UNCED (Earth Summit) in 
1992. Since then, it has not only met those 
commitments but has also far surpassed them. 
Japan's environmental ODA has exceeded by 
more than 40 percent the UNCED target of 0.9-1 
trillion ven in the five-year period beginning FY92. 
The graph below shows that Japan's environ- 
mental ODA during this period has in fact grown to 
1,44 tnllion yen (about $13.3 billion). 


But Japan is not stopping there. At a special 
session of the United Nations in June 1997 . Prime 
Minister Hashimoto announced the “Initiatives for 
Sustainable Development toward the 21st Cen- 
tury' * (ISD), which shows a comprehensive picture 
of Japan’s future aid policy for environmental 
protection aid sustainable development 


Impact-oriented activities 


ISD is the latest of numerous ongoing ODA 
environmental initiatives taking place around the 
world, as seen in the map below. Under ISD, a 
more Intensive effort will be launched to counter 
the most insidious of environmental problems 
that threaten global human security in developing 
countries. Under ISD. the following activities will 
be carried out: 

• Global Warming —“The Kyoto Initiative'* 

This is a critical issue that could have a pro- 
foundly severe impact on the existence of hu- 
mankind in the future. Developed countries must 
take the lead in addressing this problem now, and 
must form partnerships with developing countries 
to prevent the problem from being aggravated in 
the future. To achieve this. Japan has announced 
“The Kyoto Initiative” consisting of the following 
three pillars: 

•Japan will support developing countries in the 
battle against the root causes of global warming 
through training programs for 3,000 people, be- 
ginning in FY1998. 

• The use of environmental infrastructure and 
equipment to combat global warming is being 
supported by granting ODA loans with the most 
favorable interest rate available internationally 


(0.75 percent interest rate, 40year repayment 
period). 

• The latest industrial techniques and business 
practices to arrest global warming will be trans- 
ferred to developing countries through Japanese 
technical assistance and workshops. 

• Afar and Water PoPutioii, Waste Disposal 

An Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East 

Asia will be established to assist in pollution 
monitoring through environmental centers and 
human resource development. It will also provide 
financial and technical cooperation for pollution 
control, recycling and development of appropriate 
technologies. 

• Nature Conservation & Afforestation 

ODA will promote the building of a biodiversity 
information network in East Asia, establish a coral 
reef conservation and research center in the Asia 
Pacific region to pursue a regional research net- 
work, promote assistance for social forestry proj- 
ects and large participatory afforestation projects, 
and strengthen its support for the International 
Tropical Timber Organization. 

• Fresh Water 

Japan will continue to extend assistance in the 
area of water supply, sewage systems and well- 
digging. 

• Enhancing Environmental Awareness 
and Strategy Building 

Japan will further promote environmental policy 
dialogue through conferences, assist in environ- 
mental education projects through grant assist- 
ance for grass-roots projects, and build an in- 


Japan’s Environmental ODA by year 

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Bilateral Assistance by Area (FY '92-'96 Cumulative Tbid) 


4. Dis. Red. 
1.622(12.2) 


3. Fores Cans. 
1,060(7.9) 


5. Other 
579(44) 



2.PolLConL 

1447 ( 118 ) 


Notes 

• Figures represent totals Induing 
loans, grant assistance and 
tedmcal HMperafioa 

•Pafentfiesesstowfl&wrsaraents 
tor each aea as a percentage o) 
total Eiwuwnnental ODA. 

•Other items nauiteconsawton 
at natural ennronmenL 
enu a onmem atfnwBSB’ation and 
mame potofort. 


1. tmprcwemert ct living Environments (Water Supply 

arc: sewerage systems, waste tfeposaJ) . 

2. P^'uuon Control (Prevention ot air and water pouutonj 
3 Forest Ccnseivaucn (Alforestaflon) 

4. Disaster Reduction (Flood control) 

5. Conservanon cl Natural Environment 


temstional network for strategy development to 
address global environmental issues through e 
Institute for Global Environmental Strategies." 


Working together to 

CONSTANTLY IMPROVE 

Japan’s ODA seeks to utilize a people-centered 
approach in which all individuals are allowed to 
partake In the process and benefits of sustainable 
development. As such. Japan’s ODA has taken 
many measures to pay more attention to the needs 
of developing countries, support increased par- 
ticipation of local people, and involve NGOs in the 
development process. 

ISD will be carried out in a participatory manner 
with developing countries whose local govern- 
ments, NGOs and citizens assume the primary 
responsibility and role in taking action to counter 
environmental problems. Together with our part- 
ners in developing countries. ODA will continue to 
improve and achieve successes in combating 
these serious environmental threats. 

For FUTURE GENERATIONS 


From the depths of postwar devastation and 
despair. Japan has achieved rapid economic 
growth since the end of World War II. but has 
experienced severe pollution problems in the pro- 
cess. There is perhaps no other country that can 
share both the suffering of a developing country 
and the environmental concerns of a developed 
country to the extent that Japan can. This is why 
Japan makes it a national policy to cooperate in the 
promotion of sustainable development and en- 
vironmental protection. 

The world is now faced with a serious envi- 
ronmental situation that requires a strong re- 
sponse. The government of Japan is meeting this 
challenge through ODA by carrying out activities 
that will address these problems squarely. 

Japan is fulfilling its responsibility and leading 
the effort to promote environmental protection and 
sustainable development around the world. By 
doing so , it hopes to make a significant corrtn bution 
with its partners to protect global human security 
and support the well-being of future generations 
everywhere. 


Major Projects of Japan’s Environmental ODA 


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. • Project for Establishment 

/. of Japan-China Friendship 

■£ ; Environment Protection 
s , Vv-pV "if I Center 

r ;• Dalian Energy 

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‘A 'SvfV- v “C* \fr'- • -- — ■- V - Pr A ••Dalian Energy 

■' .-.■‘v -• — - — -'/■'-v ^ . . •: - :• - '■/ ; /. Conservation Training 

- : ; v 

^ 1 y y t ■ V ' 5 % : ■■■ . “VVv-" Project for Construction of 

7 ^ -fj- Multipurpose Cyclone Shelters (tt 

iE GYPTj \ i— ■bwwii— i Rl,ft Gas Desulfurizi 

T 7 .- 4 \ - •: A N G la D ( or Mae Mon Power 1 

S!/ T VO m \- . r .TH AILAND^ 7 ; - /^PHIUPPINESr^— i r Project for Wat 

M \ ' Mt. Pinatubo H 

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f -rfs T^- 

' . w y-, . : 1 

$ ■ ' i o Monterrey Water Supply 

and Sewerage Project !.\ 
[• Mexico Metropolitan Area{ .1 
* ” ! * Reforestation Project j 


Construction ot . .’mBl/.'/ , ■ 

■ Cyc'ongShel.ers Wj ' .. 

m Rue Gas Desulfurization Plant) *?’■%■ 

i ^ • for Mae Mon Power Plant J • ’ .. . ' = 

\/; .r ITHAILAND* 2 ^- /§PHIUPPINESr^-»— i r Project for Water Supply In rrr ^ ' 

'-^r — ■*' M \’J ■ J ^ Mt pinatubo Resettlement Areas 

, L . — ' ' AYSIA: ‘ IL |_ i -n,= Kill iHi-etnriorl Fnrest 

. ^ :<SA^Z . - • . 

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Guanabara Bay Basin! 
Sewerage System 1 
Construction 


\ 


- Mt, Pina tuoo Meseniernani Miogaf . ; 0 • ^ 

m^„ im awJ The Multi-storied Forest ' " v 

• Bangalore warer : .v.v $ - - " Management Project in Malaysia! " ■ • • •. -J 

and Sewerage Project j ^ . ■ ■ ■ ■ .>■ ' y, . ' ^ Jm 

• Gujarat Aftorestat»n and; J* . 

Development Project T - . 

\ • industrial Pollution : .INDO NESIA) . ■■■ 


Afforestation- 
Cooperation : 
projocJ J 






.‘Wild UfeJ^wwen^tibni 


i ueveiujjmciu I - -'j- — ■ r?a ^ 

]• industrial Pollution • 'Indo nesia! . 
i Control Project !'* i 

!• Afforestation Project J 

j./O | in Aravali Hills — J 


S’The Environmental jgg0^ 

i Management Center . . 

• Project for the Biodiversrty . , 

i Conservation Program / \ 

I# Jakarta Solid Waae / '< 

j Management System ; J 

■ improvement Project / 

!• Upper Crtarum Basin 
Urgent Flood Control ; / 

; Project 




Uma-Callao Metropolitan]’ \ -4 ^ 
Area Water Supply and ; ; 
Sewerage Improvement j 
Project ]{[ 


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Visit our web site on ‘Global Wanning 

httpyAvww.mofa.go.jp/gl obal/home.ntmi 






PAGE 20 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER L 1997 


'ADVERTISEMENT 


WHAT FATE AWAITS OUR 
WORLD’S CHILDREN? 


Universal Peace or Nuclear Annihilation? 


AN OPEN LETTER TO PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON, THE CONGRESS OF 
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND TO THE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD. 


u ffe must be shapers of events, not observers. For if we do not act 
the moment will pass - and we will lose the best possibilities of our future, 

- President Bill Clinton 1 





■'4 i.-sr?** 

v /-V r,., ,■ *- 


P reparing Tor tin* unexpected is the hardest challenge facing any policy 
maker. ’ As a recent article in the ‘“Wall Street Journal" reported, the 
most optimistic Democrats and Republicans of a decade ago would not 
have foreseen that “communism would he dead, the federal budget would he 
virtually balanced, and Americans would he buoyant about (he economy."' All 
these arc happy surprises, but what will the next decade bring'' The shocks of 
the next 10 years — the coming 120 months — may astound us too. but the. 
shocks may he appalling. To me the most sinister potential threat comes from 
that nearly forgotten, rot ling stockpile of nuclear weapons brandished during 
the Cold War. 


..’C.iL -*L- , 1, 


WE, THE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD, CALL ON YOU, MR. PRESIDENT, 
THE LEADER OF THE MOST POWERFUL NATION ON EARTH, AND 
TO THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, TO 
ACCEPT THE CHALLENGE OF LEADING THE WORLD TO 
OVERCOME OUR MOST SINISTER LINGERING THREAT — 
GLOBAL NUCLEAR ANNIHILATION. ■ 


IS I m m A SOLUTION? 


hi 1955 Albert Einstein. Mux Bom and Bert rami Russell, with six other Nobel 
Laureate scientists issued a manifesto warning that an “H-Bomb war might put 
an end to the human race" 1 : and in 1962 it was pointed out to President 
Kennedy in the Cuban nuclear missile crisis that 92 million Americans were 
vulnerable 1 . What is todays' worlds’ exposure? Utter and absolute, global 
dost met ion! 


Thus, in tliis century, both the have and have-not nations have opened the 
Pandora's Box of nuclear fission. AH of us sit atop the ticking time hornb of 
thousands of nuclear warheads and their explosive components (many under 
appallingly poor supervision) and an ever expanding stockpile of weapons- 
grade fissionable material. Why do world leaders remain blind to the terrible 
reality which threatens us all? Why do they drag their feet? Because, very 
simply. WE. THE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD have not raised our voices loudly 
enough in articulate protest. 


Public opinion has concluded — and falsely. I might add — that the principal 
threat to Western and American interests has vanished. It has not. 5 Rather, the 
threat bus stealthily shifted from the finished weapons of colossal destructive 
power to the potential traffic in nuclear tic vices in the sinister marketplaces that 


arm terrorists and rogue nations. 


lit my previous “Open Letters" published in the “New York Times" anil the 
“International Herald Tribune" (ami accessible on our Internet site at: 
\v\vw\ poop lc-of-t lie- vvorld.org 0 ) 1 appealed to world leaders to acl decisively to 
prevent the chilling possibility that even one of these weapons would find its 
way into the hands of a despot. 


The Perfect Terrorist Weapon! 


As horrific as they may he. pipe homhs and poison gas grenades pale beside the 
evil that could be unleashed. According to the news magazine ‘“(>0 Minutes" 
aired on UBS on September 7. 1997. “the jierfccl terrorist weapon... (an*) small 
nuclear devices culled SAD.VIs. which stand for special atomic demolition 
munitions. Designed for sabotage behind enemy lines." these deviees ran 
“pulverize buildings, liuse camps, bridges and caiiuiumd and control centers." 
A SADM “run he carried by one jwrson" in a suitcase — yet just one is 
“jMiwerfnl enough to kill lens of thousands of people." 


Yes, / believe there is. 

* Challenge the scientists of the world to develop alternative technologies to 
prevent the production of weapons-grade materials in existing nuclear power 
plants. I stress my use of the plural “leeiinologies" — because I believe then' 
are multiple solutions and a free-enterprise world economy should he given 
the opportunity to foster the best possible solutions. 

* Stimulate mir best organizational and diplomatic thinkers to find ways which 
ensure strategic nuclear substances are always in the hands of reliable 
authorities, totally committed to world peace. 

* Devise new and more reliable methods to monitor and delin’! existing nuclear 
weapons everywhere. With our overwhelmingly advanced information 
teclujwlogics. why. for example, can't wc pinpoint the location of any dangerous 
mass of nuclear materials? 

* Challenge scientists globally to devise even more cost-effective ways to convert 
. today's nuclear stockpile into harmless substances or beneficial resources. 

We can round up nuclear weapons that have gone astray, and we can 
ELIMINATE the potential for nuclear weapon material production from 
commercial nuclear energy processes in our Children's World of the twenty-first 
century. The nuclear threat can be destroyed forever, and. at the same time, 
our children can be given a future with stable and clean energy. 

ACT NOW; 

President Uliiilou. the Uongress of the United Stales of America and the 
PEOPLE. OF THE WORLD, an irretrievable and historic window of 
opportunity is closing before us. It is closing steadily and silently. The Gold 
War is over, hill we have not yet “won the peace" and cannot do so until we 
invest the lime, energy, ami hard assets to keep the peace safe, by destroying 
the world's vast stockpiles of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. 

I ask VOl again, (lie PEOPLE OF T1 lE WORLD, do you sense the same ominous 
scenario that 1 do? Then echo these sentiments and send E-mail to President 
Uliiilou. and the Uongress of tin- United Stales or America. 7 Send your faxes am! 
letters to other leaders of the world who can advance this proposal. 

THAU I IERS OF T! IE WORLD’S UIHLDRKN. encourage your students to pm 
forward their voices in letters, essays atul postcards to our leaders. ! Iclp them 
to help themselves. It is our responsibility to ensure that their future is protected 
and safe from the ruvuKPs of iiuclcur annihilation. 


God Help Us 


Some insider* have speculated about one-hundred of these weapons of 
destruction ina\ now he floating around the world, desperately sought after by 
terrorist groups and rogue nations who have been trying to buy nuclear 
capability. 


“We cannot, we must not, let Litis moment pass , for an inciftcraied earth 
md a cremated hamanityhewe no further needs. God help us.:.and, 
God can only- help us if we start helping ourselves! " 

. . ’ - Alfred J. fitxicfi 


The Russian Military is in Crisis and the Russian Nation 
Has Asked for Help'in Fixing Its Security Problems: 


According to an expert on the “hO Miniates" report, more than fivr-luiudn*d 
officers from the former Soviet l oiou cornniiiird suicide in 1966. and hundreds 
of officers, including 20 general*, an* under investigation for corruption. “The 
lack of hind, housing atid pay that (has) crippled the cut in* Russian army have 
now spread In die elile units." says “fiO Minutes" “(which) guard the nuclear 
weapons. The. temptation to exchange know-how for hard dollars grows daily. 
Russia has already asked the l oiled Stales of America for help to fix its security, 
problems: and solutions have been proposed, but then* is precious little lime to 
waste. 



Aenitcfiitcinii. HibMiin Academy uf Sii-nris 
Fellow. World Academy of Arts iiud Krirurm 
Trllow. Washington Academy of Sciences 
Melt liter. New York Academy of Sciences 


Founder ,-u id Cfuiintiiiii of Til Industries. Inc. (Telecommunications) 
Founder. ( Minimum and (!K() uf American Biugcnciic Sciences. Inc. 


Visit our Internet »ilc at: www.jn*i»ph*-t»f-ihe.«wiirld,t»rg for prc\ tints articles. 

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SPONSORED SECT ION 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER i, 1997 


PAGE 2X 


SPONSORED SECTION 


ENVIRONMENT: The Challenge of Cum ate Chance 


Balance Sheets 
; Now Seek to Be 
! ‘In the Green’ 

For businesses, long-term concerns are changing . 


! 


\ 


l 

i 


9 


: I 


I ncreasingly, the bottom 
line for businesses must 
not only be financial, but 
also environmental and so- 
cial. In other words, their 
goal should no longer be just 
growth, but also sustainable 
development. 

For the corporations of the 
21st century, key issues will 
include eco-efficiency, eco- 
logical tax reform, environ- 
mental accounting and 
justice, inteigenerational 
equity and human rights. 
Businesses face the chal- 
lenge of weaving these pri- 
orities into their day-to-day 
operations and developing 
management tools to address 
and integrate these issues. 

Holistic accounting 
The members of die World 
Business Council for Sus- 
tainable Development, the 
Business Council for Sus- 
tainable Energy and its Euro- 
pean counterpart the Euro- 
pean Business Council for a 
Sustainable Energy Future, 
are among those already em- 
bracing this new, more hol- 
istic type of accounting. 

“More and more busi- 
nesses are recognizing that 
sound environmental policy 
is not only the right thing to 
do, but the profitable thing to 
do.” says Michael Marvin, 
executive director of die 
Business Council for Sus- 
tainable Energy. 

“What is required is a se- 
rious, unbiased analysis of a 
company's internal activi- 
ties, its day-to-day opera- 


tions, to examine the method 
with which it obtains re- 
sources, the efficiency of the 
processes, die marketing of 
the products — a top-to-bot- 
tom, bottom-to-top review of 
processes and practices.” 

Room to maneuver 
The Business Council for 
Sustainable Energy advo- 
cates market-based policies 
and believes that the most 
efficient way of reaching cli- 
mate change goals is to set an 
international cap on emis- 
sions, with a near-term target, 
and to institute a free emis- 
sions trading program. “Our 
position is, ‘Give us a 
timetable, give us a target, 
and get out of the way.’ We 
can get there more efficiently 
than any government body,” 
says Mr. Marvin. 

Jim Wolf is the vice pres- 
ident of government affairs 
for American. Standards, a 
U.S. manufacturer of plumb- 
ing products and air condi- 
tioners. He is a member of 
the Business Council for 
Sustainable Energy and says 
that his company sees po- 
tential for new and expanded 
business following energy- 
efficiency measures that may 
emerge from Kyoto. 

“Those businesses that are 
emphasizing high-efficiency 
alternatives, such as natural 
gas, renewables and cogen- 
eration, believe that while 
scientific evidence of climate 
change may not be complete, 
it is sufficient for us to move 
ahead — if nothing else, as 



GATs E\fl efectric car 79 mfes to the battery charge. 



ttitsubbhTs GasoBne Dked Engine produces more power 
wtidebunbig less fuel, with 20 percent fewer C0 2 envsshns. 






The chief executive officer of Saab proposes a win-win approach. 

O ver the years, research, and devel- ■ resources that could then be devoted to tech- 
opment in many large companies has . oology development 
provided substantial contributions to Technology development plays a vital part 

foe environment. Saab Automobile is a good in all the voluntary actions that are already 
example. We were the first to use four-valve being taken by foe automotive industry. At 
technology, turbo technology and direct ig- Saab, we know that the environmental ap- 
nitiem in standard production care. These proach to car design has not, up until now, 
innovations made for more efficient com- . been a main issue among the majority of our 
bustioh, lower fuel consumption and lower customers. Nevertheless, we have pursued, 
emissions. .We were also foe first to remove • and still pursue, ourefforts to stay in line with 
asbestos , from brake linings and to exclude What the environment requires 
CFCs from air conditioning systems. Saab 
cars have been equipped with catalytic con- 


77xrae were the days? Industries need a top-toixtfom analysis of Iheb operations. 


an insurance policy,” he 
says. 

Paul Metz is the executive 
director of the European 
Business Council for Sus- 
tainable Energy, which rep- 
resents small, medium-sized 
and multinational companies 
that operate in all sectors of 
foe economy, but especially 
in energy production, hous- 
ing and buildings, appli- 
ances, transport and telecom- 
munication and investment 
services. 

“Our members believe 
that their products and ser- 
vices can not only reduce cli- 
mate change, but also reduce 
structural unemployment 
and dependency on nonre- 
newable fuels, in an efficient 
and profitable way,” says 
Mr. Metz. 

Economic instruments in- 
troduced by governments, 
such as tax reform of sub- 
sidies and trade mechanisms 
for carbon emissions, will 
help achieve foe correct pri- 
cing. “Correct pricing will be 
more inclusive of environ- 
mental impacts, and that 
means that environmental 
accounting becomes a part of 
ordinary accounting.” says 
Mr. Metz. 


In November, at a Busi- 
ness Environment Round- 
table on climate change con.-' 
vened by foe Stockholm 
Environment Institute for foe 
Swedish transport sector, the 
president and chief executive 
officer of Saab Automobile, 
Robert W. Hendry, said in a 
keynote address: “The 
earth's climate is every- 
body’s concern, and as good 
corporate citizens, we are 
deeply involved.” He echoed 
the sentiments of many other 
businesses when he said that 
industry’s voluntary actions 
will work faster than “stiff- 
legged regulations.” 

Realistic targets 
Bjorn, Stigson, president of 
the WBCSD, says, “The 
WBCSD would support tar- 
gets if they are realistic, 
quantifiable and measurable. 
Any targets must include 
deadlines consistent with 
longer-term business invest- 
ment decisions and they must 
take foil advantage of effi- 
cient mechanisms such as 
joint implementation and in- 
ternationally endorsed emis- 
sion reduction trading.” 

About 20 percent of 
today’s global emissions of 


Autos: Bad News 
And Good News 

Transport accounts for a quarter of emissions. 


I f there is truth to the say- 
ing that things have to get 
worse before they get 
better, then the world should 
brace itself for a radical 
change in how decision- 
makers perceive the problem 
of global warming and eval- 
uate possible solutions. 

“The writing is on the wall 
that wc don't have time to 
waste and that we face a po- 
tentially dangerous and cata- 
strophic future,” notes Bill 
Hare, Climate Policy Direc- 
tor at Greenpeace Interna- 
tional in the Netherlands. 

At die same time, Mr. Hare 
says, there is increased op- 
timism that governments and 
companies worldwide are fi- 
nally ready to respond with 
actions rather than words. 
“We aren't just saying we 
have a worrying problem,” 
Mr. Hare notes. “We are 
hearing people say ‘Yes, we 
have a~ problem, but we‘ can 
deal with it.' That's a major 
step.” 


Dutch Industrial Covenants 


Dutch progress ivism is often met with a wry 
smile. Sure, the response goes, its social 
experiments are highly sensible, but Just as 
surely they'll get lost in the translation 
abroad The Dutch economic boom has 
turned that common wisdom on its head. 

One of the secrete of this success lies 
less in experimentation than in progressive 
everyday practice, it's caned ex-post-corv 
sensus-butWing between government and 
industry. 

in the Netherlands, costly direct regu- 
lation is well on the way out. Dutch compa- 
nies rarely are fined for noncompliance. 
Business as usual entails negotiated agree- 
ments between industry and government on 
socially acceptable levels of energy effi- 
ciency and achievable levels of emissions 
output 

Recognition of the greenhouse gas issue 
began in the Netherlands not long after the 
initial international global wanning meeting 
in Toronto in 1988. 

Given that most of Dutch energy pro- 
duction is based on fossil fuels, the steps 


chosen related to decreasing consumption 
and promoting research into renewable en- 
ergy sources. Unlike the majority of Western 
industrialized nations. -the Dutch govern- 
ment , according to Greenpeace, finances 
more renewable energy projects than those 
on fossil fuels and nuclear energy com- 
bined. 

The agreements between government 
and industry, called Long Term Agreements 
on Energy, began in 1992. By Improving 
energy efficiency (from 1989 levels) by 20 
percent by the year 2000, Dutch industries 
not only will save $860 million, but will also 
"live up to their feeling of responsibility for 
the environment,” according to Ton Van Dril 
of the Netherlands Energy Research Foun- 
dation. ECN. 

If, as expected, the Dutch economy con- 
tinues to grow at an EU high of around 3.2 
percent annually, the goal remains to re- 
duce Dutch energy consumption, as current 
consumption is outpacing energy efficiency 
growth by one percentage point of the 
GDP. Richard Rogers 


Most countries, for ex- 
ample, now agree that the 
transport sector represents a 
priority area. Their eyes have 
been opened by recent 
OECD reports that show that 
this sector alone is respon- 
sibly for 25 percent of global 
COj emissions from fossil 
fuel use. OECD projections 
further indicate that without 
new C0 2 mitigation mea- 
sures, road transport CO z 
emissions are likely to grow 
from 2.5 billion tons in 1990 
to 3.5 billion to 5.1 billion 
tons in 2020. 

Galloping consumption 
Perhaps even more startling 
arc recent World Resources 
Institute reports that warn 
that Asia's enthusiasm for 
Western-style consumption 
habits is potentially threat- 
ening to the earth's balance 
and is environmentally un- 
sustainable over foe long 
term. 

China, the world's num- 
ber-three energy consumer, 
contributes 11 percent of 
global CO, emissions. By the 
year 2025. energy consump- 
tion there is projected to 
double or even triple. 

Another concern is India, a 
country that has doubled its 
energy consumption over the 
last 20 years. The country 
currently accounts for 3 per- 
cent of global CO, emissions 
and is projected to increase 
its share six times and raise 
its energy demand fourfold 
by the year 2025. 

Such drastic increases in 
emissions will inevitably 
compound global pollution 
problems, threaten aquatic 
ecosystems and impair foe 
growth of crops, scientists 
say. The result may be hur- 
ricanes, floods, earthquakes 
and other natural disasters 
thought to be caused by glob- 
al wanning and foe green- 
house effect 

But there may be a way out 
of this doomsday scenario. 
“If we can become more pro- 
ductive with our resources, 
wc can extract at least four 
times as much wealth from 


carbon dioxide come from 
the transport sector: The in- 
dustry has a key role to play 
in paving the way for a world 
less dependent on fossil 
fuels. Electric cars, hybrid 
cars and vehicles powered by 
fuel cells arc all in the 
pipeline. Without significant 
market demand for these 
vehicles, however, such ad- 
vancements will have little 
effect on climate change, at 
least in foe short term. 

“Business arc appreciat- 
ing the cost of nonaction 
even more than foe cost of 
action,” comments Nicholas 
Sonntag, executive director 
of the Stockholm Environ- 
ment Institute. “They know 
that their technology must be 
viable in the future. So they 
have to act now so they don't 
run intoa walL The challenge 
is moving the question be- 
yond the Dext and better tech- 
nology to asking, ‘What 
business are we in?' If we 
rephrase die question, the 
solutions available immedi- 
ately broaden. For instance, 
is Mrtvo in the business of 
cars oris it in the business of 
moving people around? That 
is the kind of mind shift drat 
has to occur." A.R. 


verteis since 1976. 

This shows how new technologies , are 
continuously being developed within lire 
automobile industry. Many of them aim at 
reducing impact on foe environment Electric 
cars. like GM's EV-1 and electric pickup, are 
already hitting the. market hybrid cars are in 
the pipeline, and a few years 
from now we'll probably see 
^vehicles powered by fuel 
e cells. 

Saab’s Ecopower engine 
concept combines low fuel 
consumption with low emis- 
sions through refined engine 
management, txnbotedmol- 
ogy, enhanced combustion 
and low friction. In fact, 
already today, we only have 
to make minor adjustments 
on Saab cars to make them 
run on almost any kind of 
fueL This shows that engine 
development is far ahead of the infrastructure 
— alternative fuels are hard to come by all 
over foe globe. 



This goes for our production as welL In the 
last few years, we’ve substantially reduced 
our-eueigy consumption at our main plant in 
Sweden. We’ve also taken part in the ini- 
tiation of a broad-based program for the 
recycling of cars. Furthermore, we've con- 
siderably reduced the amount of waste from 
our production. 

Business' Roundtable Meetings, like die 


Robert W. Hendry, 

CEO; Saab AutomobBer. 
We beSeve that global 
companies should accept 


Creative solutions 

An emphasis on technology development is a 
win-win approach to achieving C0 2 emis- 
sion reductions.' Global technology pro- 
grams, jointly funded by the public and 
private sectors, can stimulate creative solu- 
tions. In addition to this joint effort of foe 
public and private sectors for technical de- 
velopment, one issue that is a roadblock to 
technology diffusion around the globe is the 
lack of harmonization of regulations that 
affect products. 

Currently, many countries have differing 
regulations and testing procedures, for in- 
stance, in the area of safety. We devote 
extensive engineering resources and capital 
to adjust our products for sale in each coun- 
try. 

These differing approaches to achieve the 
same goal are, in fact, a duplication of effort, 
and provide little orno incremental benefit to 
the consumer. Harmonization of regulations 
affecting products would free up engineering 


and propose thou&itfui 

solutions' 


one we had in ‘Stockholm in November, 
show that, many companies are willing to 
take on a leadership role in terms of vol- 
untary action tor the preservation of our 
environment Together, we have tremendous 
know-how and skills, and if we find ways to 
jointly organize our work, it will have great 
impact on the success of our mission. 

Within Saab Automobile we are setting up 
a team of experts that will give special 
attention to environmental issues. As part of 
General Motors operations, we play an active 
role in foe extensive and escalating research 
work of their Global Climate Issue Team, 
comprised of colleagues worldwide. We be- 
lieve that global companies should accept 
global responsibilities and propose thought- 
ful solutions. 

I strongly believe that most actions have to 
be based oh voluntary contributions from 
each and every one of us. It is m foe interest 
of companies, governments, international or- 
ganizations as well as individuals to ensure a 
sustainable environment 

Robert W. Hendry 
Chief Executive Officer 
Saab Automobile 



— Miir w. -f-rurr-jc! iwv:— : . 


J 

■ 


77m* generations front DaMerSenz: The new NECAR3, tight, converts methanol into hydrogen, which bihen muted to fuel ceBs. Its 
preaxsorswKrB the NECAR1, center, developed bi 1994, and NECAR 2, left, developed in 1996. 


foe energy we use,” notes 
Ernst von Weizsacker, pres- 
ident of foe Wuppertal In- 
stitute for Climate. Environ- 
ment amf Energy in 
Germany. “It is not a ques- 
tion of going back — but of 
moving forward to begin a 
new industrial revolution.” 

Mr. Weizsacker; coauthor 
of the environmental best- 
seller “Factor Four,” points 
out that a “severe but curable 
illness called the wasting dis- 
ease” is foe cause of today's 
environmental woes, “ft is 
possible to do more with less 
resources if we stop wasting. 
We already have many of foe 
technologies that can use foe 
world’s resources more ef- 
ficiently. 71 

The transport sector, 
however, is traditional ly “in- 
tractable and slow to 
change,” notes Jack Short, 
deputy secretary-general of 
the European Conference of 
Ministers of Transport 
(ECMT) in Paris. There is 
hope, however, that govern- 
ment resolutions such as foe 
1995 agreement between foe 
ECMT and vehicle manufac- 
turing industry on foe need 
for reducing C0 2 emissions 
will motivate carmakers to 


develop more fuel-efficient 
vehicles. 

“It will take a long time to 
replace the fleet [of cars in 
use],” Mr. Short says. “But 
the consensus on emissions 
has cleared foe way, and cars 
and technologies are coming 
out that represent a major 
step in foe right ’direction.” 

Greener technologies ‘ 
Japanese companies are ag- 
gressively promoting their 
green . credentials. Mit- 
subishi, for example, says it 
has developed an engine 
technology that is more en- 
vironmentally friendly than 
either conventional gasoline 
or diesel engines. 

The Gasoline Direct In- 
jection (GDI) engine features 
new technologies that enable 
it to produce more power 
while burning less fuel than a 
lean-bum engine. It also pro- 
duces 2Q percent fewer CO* 
emissions and consumes 20 
percent less fuel, the com- 
pany says. 

Torotrak, part of foe Brit- 
ish technology conglomerate 
BTG, has a different ap- 
proach. Its Infinitely V&riabte 
Transmission (IVT), has a 
number of advantages over 


manual and automatic trans- 
missions because it can op- 
erate at any engine speed, 
industry analysts say. The 
technology, which is also 
suited for large vehicles and 
buses, promises a 20 percent 
to 30 percent increase in fuel 
economy aid a decrease in 
CO; emissions. 

“We believe we have a 
solution that makes the 
biggest contribution of any 
‘technology in foe automotive 
sector,” notes Maurice Mar- 
tin, Torotrak’s chief execu- 
tive. The technology, he says, 
is at the “concept-readiness 
stage” and has been proto- 
typed into a Tange of pas- 
senger vehicles from car- 
makers that include Ford and 
Rover, 

The revolutionary NE- 
CAR-3 is a fuel cell vehicle 
developed by Daimler Benz. 
Unlike its predecessors, the 
NEC AR-3 runs on methanol, 
which is converted into hy- 
drogen. The hydrpgen gas is 
then fed into the fuel cells, 
where it reacts with atmo- 
spheric Oxygen, to produce 
electrical energy, which is 
used to power foe vehicle. It 
can travel over 400 kilome- 
ters (250 miles) on only 38 


liters (10 gallons) of meth- 
anol. 

Previous fuel cell systems 
could only operate together 
with bulky hydrogen tanks or 
heavy buffer batteries, notes 
Johannes Ebner. a Daimler 
Benz vice president in charge 
of infrastructure for fuel cell 
vehicles. 

“Getting rid oF foe hydro- 
gen tanks means that this 
vehicle is far more practic- 
al,” Mr. Ebner says. “Many 
companies, not just Daimler, 
believe in the potential of this 
technology and are motiv- 
ated by its high [sales] po- 
tential,” Mr, Ebner says. 
“Now foe focus is on ways to 
cut production costs and 
bring foe technology to mar- 
ket.'.’ 

Indeed, competition 
stands to become even 
tougher now that politicians 
are moving closer to a con- 
sensus on emissions reduc- 
tions. Not to be outdone, 
Toyota is also about to launch 
the world’s first hybrid gas- 
plmc/dectric car. Tire car, 
which goes on sale in 
December, travels 66 miles 
on a gallon of gas, Japanese 
tests report. 

Peggy Saiz-Traotman 




r* 

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1 








{ 

f 







PAGE 22 


SPONSORED section 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY DECEMBER 1,1997 


SPONSOR! :D SECT? ON 


ENVIRONMENT: The Challenge of Climate Change 




EU to World: 

It’s Time to Do 
The Right Thing 

'P ie European Union ’s stringent line on emissions 
is backed up by Initiatives in transport and energy. 


T he entire world will be 
the loser if the Kyoto 
conference fails to 
agree to reduce emissions .of 
greenhouse gases, says the 
European Commission. 

“This is not a beauty con- 
test,” says a spokesman for 
Ritt Bjerregaard, the Euro- 
pean Union’s environment 
commissioner. “It is about 
combating global warm- 
ing.” 

The EU is proposing a 7 J 
percent reduction in 1990 
emission levels by 2005 and 
a 15 percent reduction by 
2010. But it is not wilting to 
go it alone. Other industrial 
nations must make similar 
reductions, it says, with 
China, India and other de- 
veloping countries following 
shortly behind, because they 
are among die biggest emit- 
ters of greenhouse gases. 

Across the EU. targets 
would vary from country to 
country because industrial 
standards vary immensely on sponsible for approximately 
this tiny continent. Excep- 80 percent of the impact 
tionaily high standards are when the gases are weighted 


parties, to whatever agree- 
ment is reached, must ensure 
that they meet their commit- 
ments. It also means that they 
must apply foe same methods 
so as to minimize problems 
with competition" 

Burning questions 
The need to reduce green- 
house gases is commonly ac- 
knowledged — nobody dis- 
agrees with it in principle. 
The burning questions are: 
How, by how much and by 
when? 

The EU’s position covers a 
basket of three gases: carbon 
dioxide (COJ methane 
(CHt) and nitrous oxide 
CN 2 0). No stance has been 
made on specific targets for 
these gases. But the EU holds 
that a 15 percent reduction 
jointly is both technically 
feasible and economically 
manageable by 2010. 


7he EU b focusing on raff as an afemsfte means at transport for fraflfc that curanty goes by road. 


only way to reduce emissions 
is by modifying processes, 
equipment and behaviors. 

The long life expectancies 
of investments in foe trans- 


Brussels has already . 
adopted a C0 2 emission tar- ’ 
get that corresponds to a 30 
percent improvement in foe 
average feel economy of new 
cars by 2005, compared with 


applied in Germany, Austria 
and Denmark, for example, 
compared with Portugal, 
where emissions are actually 
rising. 

The EU's bottom line is 
that foe EU as a bloc will 
meet whatever targets are set 
at Kyoto, however. “As 
agreed in Rio de Janeiro in 
1992, the industrial nations 
must take foe lead and pursue 
common policies and mea- 
sures." says Mrs. Bjer- 
regaard. “That means that all 


pat and energy sectors and 

CCX is the most important' foe relatively long lifespan of today’s average. This can be 
of foe three gases, being re- consumer goods such as cas improved still further at low 

and refrigerators mean that 
any CO r emission strategy 
needs a wider horizon in 
terms of implementation 
than most environmental 
problems. 


according to their so-called 
“global wanning potential.” 

CO, emissions, however, 
are also foe most difficult to 
reduce. Yet the very long 
lead-time on phasing out C0 2 
is the best reason of all for 
initiating action sooner rather 
than later, goes the EU ar- 
gument. 

CO, emissions are inher- 
ently linked to the use of 
fossil feels, such as coal, oil 
and gas.Since no economica] 
substitute exists as yet, foe 


Setting an example 
What is technically feasible 
and economically manage- 
able in Europe is equally 
practicable in foe rest of the 
world, says foe EU. The EU’s 
position is that only polit- 
ically acceptable ways of im- 
proving technology and put- 
ting it into practice can be 
considered. 


cost with available technol- 
ogy. 

Tax measures, combined 
with conspicuous labeling of 
every engine’s feel con- 
sumption, could equally in- 
fluence a customer’s choice 
when purchasing a vehicle. 

The EU is also focusing on 
rail as an alternative means of 
transport to attract traffic that 
currently goes by road, it is 
stepping up pressure on the 
transport industry to build 
services that connect with 
one another, such as high- 
speed trains that meet planes 
and ferries. 


Insuring Against 
Financial Risk 
For Stakeholders 

Investors are beginning to factor in the envir- 
onment when it comes to business risk 

T he insurance industry has long voiced concern about 
foe consequences of global -wanning, and now the 
investment community is starting to sit up and take 
notice. . . 

In foe United States, a top credit-rating service warned a 
major American electric utility company that its dependence 
on coal-fired generation was cause for concern in view of 
fixture limits on carbon dioxide emissions. 

In an effort to promote their, customers' commitment to 
sustainable development, financial institutions around the 
world have signed foe UNEP Initiative on Financial In- 
stitutions and theEnvironxnent 

The financial community will find plenty of company 
among foe insurers who are already bong hard hit by foe 
effects of climate change. It is estimated that in foe past six or 
seven years, foe insurance industry has had to cover insured 
claims totaling oyer $50 billion as a result of climate-related 
catastrophes, including storms, hurricanes, floods and fires. 

“This places climate risk. squarely onto insurance com- 
pany agendas,” writes Carlos Joly, senior vice president of 
Storebrand in Norway in the recently published book, “Cli- 
mate Change: Mobilising Global Effort,” published by foe 
OECD’s Environment Directorate. 

“We are experiencing an alarming increase in foe fre- 
quency and severity of climate-related natural catastrophes 
and in foe size of insured losses. Nearly 50 percent of all 
catastrophe-related insurance claims since Worid War JJ have 
been paid out since 1990. This is not just due to inflation or 
Back tp the windnuD balance without increasing increased coverage of riskier policies. Climate change is 
Within foe energy sector, foe taxes oyerali, such as positive hitting foe bottom line of foe reinsurance industry. But foe 
share of renewable Sources is discrimination to promote economic losses to society are for more important” 
currently 6 percent But foe lead-free gasoline. 


To- this end, the mo- 
mentum is building to lib- 
eralize ‘ and revitalize the 
EU’s railroads. This should 
reduce feres and result in bet- 
ter service. 


One reason is low energy 
prices. Another is that up- 
front investment often dis- 
criminates against “greener” 
goods. One easy-to-imple- 
ment solution is to offer fiscal 
incentives for switching foe 
balance without increasing 


EU holds that increasing use 
of renewable energy, such as 
wind and solar power; to 12 
percent by 2010 is realistic, if 
somewhat challenging, tar- 
get 

This has been underlined 
in Denmark, where installed 
wind power capacity is 
nearly J,000 MW and ac- 
counts for around 5 percent 
of electricity consumption. 

So fer, the use of many 
forms of climate-friendly 
technology has been modest 


‘The ways and means for 
cutting greenhouse gases 
without too much pain are 
available to aU of us,” says 
Mrs. BjerreganL “If foe EU 
can make foe effort, surely 
the rest of foe industrial 
world can do the same. Cli- 
mate change recognizes no 
national borders and, ulti- 
mately, whatever efforts we 
make today mil be for all our 
benefit and feat of future gen- 
erations.” 

Helen Cranford 


Official and Grass-Roots 
Calls for Japanese Action 

Companies and citizens will also be having their say over the next 10 days. 


J apan's ancient capital of 
Kyoto is the scene for 
what is expected to be a 
frank exchange of views on 
foe future of the environ- 
ment. as more than 5,000 
people are expected to attend 
the Third Conference of 
Parties to the UN Framework 
on Climate Change, or 
COP3, which takes place 
Dec. I-tO. 

The Japanese govern- 
ment’s proposal is to reduce 
greenhouse gases and emis- 
sions by 5 percent from 1990 
levels by foe year 2012. The 
proposal has drawn heavy 
criticism from the European 
Union as being too low and 
praise from the United States 
as being practical, and 
prudent 

Gases included in this 5 
percent reduction include 
carbon dioxide, methane and 
nitrous oxide. The Japanese 
proposal would also allow 
countries still developing 
economically to tie their re- 
duction rate to gross domes- 
tic product and per capita in- 
come. 

Almost immediately after 
the plan was announced, Jap- 
anese officials found them- 
selves on foe defensive. 
While international critics. 


including German Chancel- 
lor Helmut Kohl, claim that 
foe Japanese proposal is too 
vague and not strict enough, 
government officials at Ja- 
pan’s Ministry of Interna- 
tional Trade and Industry 
(M1T1) said that just keeping 
Japanese greenhouse gas 
levels at 1990 levels would 
be a major challenge. 

Not quite consensus 
Yet, even within the Japanese 
government, there is dis- 
agreement about what sort of 
a proposal would be the most 
effective. While MTTl sup- 
ports foe 5 percent plan, Ja- 
pan's Environmental Agency 
has expressed its concern that 
the plan is not strong enough. 
The Environmental Agency, 
which had locked horns with 
MITI over foe final proposal, 
had originally wanted a 7 
percent cut 

Japan’s response to the EU 
proposal is that, although the 
EU asa whole is offering a 1 5 
percent cut. some countries, 
such as Portugal and Greece, 
could actually raise their 
emissions by at least 30 per- 
cent as long as the EU as a 
whole meets the 15 percent 
reduction. The Japanese gov- 
ernment also questions now 


foe EU will be held account- 
able if some members fail to 
attain their targets. 

Whatever foe govern- 
ments decide will have to be 
implemented by people and 
businesses. In Japan, many 
nongovernmental organiza- 
tions, which run the gamut 
from local activists to leading 
Japanese companies like 
Kyocera, Toyota .and Sony, 
have a range of activities 
planned for die 10-day con- 
ference. 

For example, one of the 
first NGO conferences, 
which takes place Dec. 1, is 
on chlorofl uorocarbons and 
global warming. During foe 
conference, Japanese 

companies specializing in 
CFC-coIIecting equipment 
and ultraviolet-ray measur- 
ing equipment will display 
their latest technological in- 
novations. 

The transport sector will 
be sponsoring its own con- 
ference, which will take 
place throughout the 10-day 
event The panel will explore 
foe commercial potential of 
low-emission cars and 
trucks. The Japanese elec- 
tronics and agricultural in- 
dustries also have their own 
symposiums and workshops 


Kyoto wff also be the sMb of conferences held by nongovernmental organttathns as weBastoe 

hnuumrirf n if ■ ■ Jt — f tmm A 

transport, tm&uKai ana atjKLmura inoustnes. 


Stormy weather 

Me Joly warns that “our solvency as an industry could 
become threatened if we are not careful about what we 
exclude from coverage, if we leave ourselves open to claims 
from damage resulting from climate change phenomena.” 
His company is among 71 insurance companies worldwide 
that have signed foe UNEP initiative to organize their 
industry’s commit m ent to combat climate change. 

It may only be a matter of time before other sectors, such 
as transportation and heavy industry, are hand hit by foe 
consequences of increased regulation on emissions and 
growing market and investor pressure. This phenomenon is 
already occurring in foe UJ3. electric utility industry. 

Fitch Investors Service, ore of the top three U.S. credit 
rating services, issued a report on PSI Energy last December 
that indicates “concern” about its “dependence on coal-fired 
generation.” Fitch warned of foe potential of foe company 
being affected by any future limits on emissions, including 
carbon dioxide. 

The same utility ranked lasttenong foe big suppliers in the 
National Resources Defense Council’s recently released 
environmental liability index of utility companies. The index 
measures utilities' future financial risk from C0 2 emissions. 
Part of a report entitled “Risky Business: Hidden En- 
vironmental Liabilities of Power Plant Ownership,” it ranks 
the 60 biggest U.S. electricity suppliers with 1995 revenues 
exceeding 51 billion and 59 smaller suppliers. 

The report warns that with increased competition in foe 
electric utilities mdustry. U.S. power plants that have been 
“shielded by regulations from many financial risks will soon 
have to survive in an unforgiving marketplace.” 

The American Petroleum Institute and National Asso- 
ciation of Manufacturers estimate that foe total exposure of 
electric generation to CO 2 emissions limits or taxes could 
.exceed $60 billion annually. Says the NRC's Ralph 
[ Cavanagh, one of foe authors of foe report, “The good news 
for foe higher-risk utilities is that much can be done to 
improve their positions.” 


planned, where participants 
will hear what is being done 
to reduce pollution as well as 
view new environmental 
technologies designed to re- 
duce gas emissions. 

Voluntary initiatives 
Peril aps the most ambitious 
NGO event during COP 3 
will be the international con- 
ference on voluntary busi- 
ness initiatives for mitigating 
climate change. Here, busi- 
nesspeople from Japan and 
abroad will have the oppor- 
tunity to meet with high- 
ranking government officials 
and exchange views oh what 
voluntary actions the busi- 
ness community can take to 
reduce greenhouse gases. 

Some Japanese companies 
already have voluntary en- 
vironmental preservation 


programs in effect. This past 
October, Kyocera CoTp. an- 
nounced that all II of its 
manufacturing facilities in 
Japan had attained Interna- 
tional Standards Organiza- 
tion (ISO) 14001 registra- 
tion. Tliis is a voluntary 
international standard that 
promotes the creation, of cor- 
porate structures m support 
of activities that reduce en- 
vironmental burdens caused 
by industry. 

Kyocera itself has estab- 
lished an in-house co m mittee 
on environmental issues and 
has abolished all use of 
fluorocarbons, while carry- 
ing out research on environ- 
mentally friendly products. 

Ordinary citizens are ex- 
pected to play a major role in 
COP 3 as well. Over 200 
Japanese NGOs, ranging 


from antinuclear activists to 
rain-forest preservation ac- 
tivists, have come together 
under foe umbrella o f foe 
Kiko Forum. Led by attorney 
Mie Asaoka, Kiko Forum is 


Where Hie bock stops 

In the European Union and elsewhere, a broad range of 
financial institutions are also starting to pay attention to foe 
financial risks that may have to be shouldered as a result of 
climate change. 

The UNEP Financial Institutions Initiative on the Re- 
calling on foe government to vironmeht was founded in 1992 to engage these players in a 
raise the reduction rate and to constructive dialogue about tire nexus between economic 

development, environmental protection and sustainable de- 
velopment It promotes the integration of environmental 
considerations into all aspects of the financial sector’s op- 
erations and services. It also fosters private-sector investment 
in environmentally sound technologies and services. 

“Joining foe initiative has enhanced foe care with which 
our bank group looks at our own activities as well as the 
activities of our customers, and that in itself is a step in foe 
right direction,” says C.N. Crowe, a legal adviser with HSBC 
Holdings Pic. in Britain. 

“Baltics generally will do their utmost to influence their 
customers,' including their corporate customers, to comply 
with existing laws and regulations aS well as foe spirit of 
forthcoming laws and regulations,” he says. “For example, if 
you know that a ban on CFCs is coming, you tty to persuade 
your customer to get rid of CFCs early so it doesn’t hit them 
all at once. That’s simply good financial planning ” A.R. 


offer stronger measures to 
protect the environment 

Several members of Kiko 
Forum, as well as other 
NGOs, believe that a 20 per- 
cent reduction in greenhouse 
gases is possible. The for- 
um’s leader says that strong 
governmental commitment 
to curbing industrial excesses 
is first needed. 

Japanese living in foe 
Kansai region of Japan have 
formed the Group of 21, 
which supports a 20 percent 
reduction by foe year 2005. 

Eric Johnston 


Solution 


Continued tmm page 18 economists, including six 

... laureates, issued a 

do a great deal to make foerr statement emphasizing tfiqt 
products, processes and well-designed policies rely- 
pJants more energy-efficient ing on market mechanisms 
and to send the right signals can be economically bene- 
to foe market A recent study ficial and may improve pro- 
commissioned by foe Worid ductivity in the long run 
Wide Fund for Nature and Although climate change 
carried out by Tellus Institute is a long-term problem, early 
and the Stockholm Environ- .action to significantly slow 
merit Institute-Boston found its causes makes good eco- 
foat the United States could nomic sense. Waiting de- 
re*"* its annual carbon cades before acting will re- 
emissions to 10 percent be- suit in greater damage to foe 
low 1990 levels by 2005 and env ir o nm e nt from global 
to 22 percent below 1990 warming, analysts say. 
levels by 2010, at a net sav- “Those with an interest in 

ings to the economy. • fossil fuels say that foe costs 
Consumers can take' con- will be astronomical,” says 
crete steps to transform their Richard Moss, head of foe 
lifestyle to one that is more ffCC’s Working Group H on 
energy-efficient . by buying impacts and responses 
foe most energy-efficient ap- “Those with an interest in 
pliances and alternatively alternative fuels say that foe 
fueled cars and, beyond that, costs will be minimal or meg- 
changing foe way they plan alive. We need to stop pos- 
foeir communities and travel turing - and find common 
from place to place. ground, before it’s too late." 

■ Recently, over X500 U.S. . Amy Brown 

• . / 




United States: Caught in the Crossfire 


In the run-up to the Kyoto meeting, 
the U.S. government has faced an 
onslaught of diverse opinions from 
special interest groups on what its 
stance at Kyoto should be. 

The Clinton administration an- 
nounced that its Kyoto agenda 
would include a proposal tor the 
developed world to reduce emis- 
sions to their 1990 level sometime 
between the years 2008 and 2012. 
The summit's other main partic- 
ipants — Japan end the European 
Union — did not think the UJS. 
stance was strong enough- Japan 
seeks a 5 percent reduction from 
1990 within that time frame, white 
the Euro pears urge a 15 percent 
reduction by 2010. 

Moreover, the three proposals do 
not agree on which gases (other 
than carbon dioxide) should be in- 
cluded in foe agreement 

Ritt Bjerregaard. the EU commis- 
sioner responsible tor environment, 
dimate change, sustainable devel- 
opment and foe future of the Euro- 
pean energy industry, made his po- 


sition quite clear, callirg; the White 
House proposal ■‘tantamount to 
promising to stabilize [American] 
emissions 13 years later than foe 
date they promised at foe Rio Sum- 
mit in 1992." 

ft begins at home 
Regardless of the international re- 
sponse to its proposal, foe Clinton 
administration has been caught in 
the crossfire between environment- 
alists and big business at home. 

The Global Climate Information 
Project, sponsored by big business, 
decided to take Its cause to foe 
American people in October with a 
$13 million advertising campaign ar- 
guing that greenhouse warming Is 
not a real threat to global health and 
that limiting emissions would also 
restrict economic growth. 

The sponsors were aiming for a 
result similar to that of the famous 
"Harry and Louise" campaign, 
which is seen as contributing in 
large part to foe failure of President 
Clinton's proposed overhaul of foe 


U.S. healthcare industry during his 
first term. 

Working with far smaller budgets, 
environmental groups have also 
been doing their best to get their 
message across. The Working 
Group on Public Health and Fossil- 
Fuel Combustion — comprising del- 
egates from foe Worid Health Or- 
ganization, Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency and other hearth 
officials, academics and climate 
and pollution experts — recently 
published a report in the Lancet 
medical journal stating that reducing 
greenhouse gases responsible tor 
global warming could save up to 8 
million lives worldwide by 2020. 

Their figures are based on a sce- 
nario that assumes a 15 percent 
reduction in carbon emissions over 
1990 levels for developed countries 
and an additional 10 percent re- 
duction over projected levels for 
2010 in developing countries, com- 
pared to a business-as-usuaJ sce- 
nario that assumes nothing is done 
to reduce carbon emissions In foe 


earth's atmosphere between now 
and then. 

All six greenhouse gases are in- 
cluded the White House proposal for 
Kyoto, which would translate into 
emissions reductions of around 30 
percent from what it is estimated 
they would otherwise be 13 years 
from now. The administration says 
the most important Is carbon di : 
oxide, produced by burning fossil 
fuels like oil, coal and natural gas. 

In public appearances around foe 
globe. Boron Corp.’s chief executive 
officer, Lee Raymond, has defended 
the common energy industry pos- 
itron: that any limiting of fuel emis- 
sions is based on unsound scientific 
assumptions adversely affecting in- 
ternational economic growth. 

“It does not make sense to- 
cripple. foe economy to make 
changes in the environment that 
may prove unnecessary, premature 
or don’t stand foe test of rigorous 
cost-benefit analysis," he says. 

In October, Mr. Raymond told the 
15th Worid Petroleum Congress in 


Beijing that the earth isn't getting 
warmer and that even if it were, oil 
and gas emissions are not to blame. 
Additionally, foe Boron chief said 
that no one can accurately predict 
future temperature rises. 

Environmental groups disagree 
with Mr. Raymond’s stance. Jonath- 
an Lash, president of the World Re- 
sources Institute, says that foe pet- 
roleum Industry "battled regulations 
to remove lead from gasoline, and 
foe iron and steel industry opposed 
laws to limit particulate emissions.” 
He says environmental regulations 
ended up costing these industries 
much less than originally estimated, 
and their tangible effect on pollution 
control is now scientifically docu- 
mented. 

' Robert Eaton, chairman of 
Chrysler Corp., says the creation of 0 
Kyoto pact that limits carbon dioxide 
emissions in industrialized nations, 
white not tmposirg similar limits on 
developing countries, is among the 
biggest problems In U.S. govern- 
ment polity. JuBa Clerk 









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PAGE 24 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE; MONR&& DECEMBER 1, 1997 


ENVIRONMENT: The Challenge of Climate Change 


Turmng a Threat 
Into a Commodity 


Enter the market era of tradable emissions. 


fis. these per capita rates indiace. developed dPURtrfes account for the fergerc part of 
\y~ twttsbrkal'and ttjrasrit V 


B ig business is cultiv- over the Antarctic rather than 
a tiny two market- a major industrial region — 
based solutions to greenhouse gases are thought 
low ering emission standards: to be ideally? suited to in- 
joint implementation and temational emission trading. 


^sassiw 



For Industry, ‘No Regrets’ 
Is the New Modus Operandi 

Western governments’ message to industry is increasingly- Se responsible. 


A ided by economists, mzed “efficiency gap," also least a 35 

government aware- referred to as the “no-re- by^.010 .wl 50 purat b\ 
fess andre^arch and ' grcfs" potential. Comparing 2®. Die AHuncc of Small 
development programs, in- business as' usual with die Island Suit ^ 

th^v '‘economic notenhal for befs. lias joined the i.alLs for 


carbon offset trading. Joint 
implementation is when in- 
dustrialized countries invest 
in emission-reducing proj- 
ects in developing countries 


New trade commodity 
Once national quantified 
emission limitation and re- 
duction objectives (QELRO) 


that do not have binding agreements have been draf- 
eommitments to cut their ted. it is hoped at the Kyoto 



emissions. Carbon offset 
trading is when companies in 
developed countries arc as- 
signed carbon production 
limits and are then able to 
exchange emission variances 
to achieve that limit. 

"Most OECD countries 
have found it too difficult to 
find cost-effective ways to 
reduce their greenhouse gas 
emissions to 1991.1 levels by 
the year 2000.“ Fiona 
Mullins of the OECD En- 
\ ironmcntal Directorate 
stated in a recent report on 
emission trading. “Large 
capital intensive infrastruc- 
ture is in place to support 
fossil fuel use. The lifestyle 
most of us coke for granted is 
dependent on fossil fuels. 
One way to make funda- 
mental changes in intrastruc- 


summit, a new global trade 
commodity will be created: 
greenhouse gas emissions. 
The actual tradable amount 
would be the difference be- 
tween a country's QELRO 
and actual emissions. 

Experts believe that car- 
bon trading will lower the 
cost of reducing greenhouse 
gas emissions by providing 
financial incentives. Partic- 
ipating countries or compa- 
nies could use any means to 
reduce emissions in a low- 
cost way, including environ- 
mental research and devel- 
opment within their own op- 
erations or by buying low- 
cost emission rights from 
other sources. 



development programs, in- business as' usual with me isranu 
dustries arc- findingfoat they “economic potential for bcrs. has joined the calls for 
can ciit costs significantly by positive change, researchers urgent action, 
maximizing their energy ef- have found that industrial en- t 

ficiency, along the way help- ergy demand could be Con hnenta ^progress *. 

ing xcr restore the ‘environ- flowered by an average of 30 The prospects of meeting the 
ment by' reducing* overall percent.' ■ .Moreover, the targets arc better in Europe. 

c urkpm mn'PHliYwnt M ii'cu 


ment by' reducing* overall percent.' - Moreover, the targets arc better in Europe, 
greenhouse • gas emissions, .“technical potential* for re- when? government has a less 
The 'public relations incent- "duction is around 60 percent, ■ spotty record of ensuring 
: : nntm- wniesorcuu industrial uwarc- 


ives alone are enormous. while the “theoretical poten- widespread industrial uwarc- 
Since the UN Intergovem- tial," derived fiom thermo- ness and urging voluntary 
mental Panel on - Climate dynamic laws, amounts. to SO target complianor. 
vCbangs declared Tin- * its percent in savings over cur- . Generally considered 
*S«»ndf Assessment Report rent practice... more “social than its North 

in 1995 that “significant ‘no-- ' ... • - ■ American counterparts, 

regrets' opportunities are * Within reason Northern European industry, 

available in most 001010168 ,” While the theoretical may be like its labor forces, is also 
•there has been wide: - recog- off the tn3p, researchers con- better organized. 
;nitioowifoinTndustry ofnota vincingly argue that at least ■■ In Germany, for instance. 
• problem but an opportunity, the. economic potential ,'is ..a “Joint Declaration of Gcr- 
• • « vvelj within reason. Barriers mail Industry on Climate 

Profitable investments to mjplementing technol- Change' has been issued. 
Profitable, energy-saving in- ogies to realize this potential pledging to reduce emissions 
vestments are being made to include a lack of awareness by 20 percent (from 1990 
meet ever more stringent of energy-saving opportuni- levels) by 2005. The 1996 
emission tercets, set in col- ties. . pledge improves upon an 

laboration Vidi government. That’s where government- . earlier declaration, calling 


Source Adapted from CDiAC ao ated m World Rsoirces 1996-W/UNEP 


tries that participate in green- 
house gas mitigation cost 
savings, foe' greater the ben- 
efits for the entire globe. Yet 
Ms. Mullins of the OECD 
and Richard Baron of the 
International Energy Agency 
point out it may be more 
realistic to include only 
countries with quantified 
emission commitments. To 


Efficiency gains (i.e., cost encourage wider participa- 
rcductions) and implements- tion in the future, they sug- 


flexibility 


tutu and lifestyle that appear achieved through -intema- 
to have been so difficult so tional greenhouse gas emis- 


far. is to use market forces to 
achieve environmental goals 
at the lowest possible cost 
Trading would provide in- 
centives for emission reduc- 
tion. It is sometimes called an 
‘incentive based regula- 
tion.”' 

As global warming does 


sion trading because of dif- mcthodoli 
fe rentes in the cost of countries, 
mitigating them in different 
countries. There is scope for More rea 
cost-effective savings in all Of course 
countries, but models show terns will ! 
that differences in mitigation part of an} 
costs vary widely from place system. B 
to place. This would allow emissions 


gest that trading should be 
kept simple and a compa- 
rable emissions inventory 
methodology used by all 


gas units at the national level. 
International law does not 
currently provide a strong le- 
gal basis for global- monit- 
oring and enforcement, so 
new mechanisms may be 
needed to ensure that trade is 
properly supervised . and to 
maintain the credibility of the 
trading system. 

No one is saying that es- 
tablishing ah international 
emission trading system will 
be simple. 

Ms. Mullins and Mr. Bar- 
on an? quick to point out po- 
tential problems, including 
lack of experience with rn- 


tive emissionroBuction'mea- : problem but an opportunity, 
sures at hpme.. J . , y, ; • • 


In several recent papers on 
emission trading, the OECD 


has described a cumber of vestments are being made to 
successful examples of trad- meet ever more stringent 


able permit systems used to 
address environmental prob- 
lems. Tradable fish quotes in 
New Zealand, for example, 
have helped move commer- 
cial fishing to more sustain- 
able levels. U.S. electric util- 
ity companies have 
established tradable SO, 
(sulfur dioxide) allowances. 
Compared to the cost of im- 
plementing traditional sulfur 


Profitable investments 
Profitable, energy-saving rn- 


emissioh tenets, set in col- 
laboration with government. 


In Germany, at least 71 per- al action comes in. In the 
cent and in the Netherlands United States, for example. 


not correlate with the exact participants to reduce emis- 
1 oca tion of greenhouse gas sion where (and possibly 


production — reflected by a 
thinning of foe ozone layer 


when) it is least expensive. 
In theory, foe more coun- 


More reasons to monitor 

Of course, monitoring sys- 
tems will become an integral 
part of any emissions trading 
system. Being able to trade 
emissions units internation- 
ally will depend on partic- 
ipants* being. able to accur- 
ately account for their 
emissions and greenhouse 


temational emission trading emission regulations without 
systems, lack of confidence trading (estimated at $4.9 bil- 


in national monitoring sys- 
tems, industry opposition to 
government control of and 
involvement in the trading 
process and concern that par- 


lion a year), S0 2 allowance 
trading (estimated to cost $2 
billion a year) has reduced 
the cost of lowering acid- 


90 percent of industrial en- 
ergy consumption is now 
covered by new efficiency 
agreements, according to a 
recent OECD report. 

The urgency of undertak- 
ing such measures is clear. 
According to foe World Wide 
Fund for Nature, industry re- 
leases over cme-third of the 
world’s energy-related CO, 
emissions. If industrial con- 
sumption of energy is 
reckoned, the figure in- 


tic i paring countries, will pur- trading provides also enables 
chase units fiom other coun- electric utilities to comply 


tries while neglecting to 
implement politically sensi- 


ification. The flexibility that creases to 47 percent 

trading provides also enables 

electric utilities to comply Shrinkage potential 


the Department of Energy, 
occasionally in collaboration 
with the Environmental Pro- 
tection Agency, has set up a 
number of programs to en- 
courage awareness and im- 
plement no-regrets mea- 
sures. 

“Climate Wise” partic- 
ipants. including force major 
steel manufacturers, are 
providing technical and fi- 
nancial assistance, amount- 
ing to $3.4 million in public 
money in 1997. “Motor 
Challenge” ($7.4 million) 


Change" has been issued, 
pledging to reduce emissions j 
by 20 percent (fiom 1990 * 
levels) by 2005. The 1996 
. pledge improves upon an 
earlier declaration, calling 
for a reduction of up to 20 
percent by the same year. In 
the Netherlands there is an 
analogous national industrial 
policy for lowering green- 
house gas outputs. 

The next step entails 
adopting widespread indus- 
trial measures to reduce ab- 
solute emission levels. Many 
of the voluntary and binding 
measures in Europe (not to 
mention internationally) are 
specific, or per unit output 
targets. & 

With Hie recent economic • 
upswing, especially in the 
Netherlands, per-unit reduc- 


with commitments at lower 
costs. Joseph R. Yogerst 


The incentive promoted by electric motor systems in the 
governments is foe recog- car industry, “Green Lights” 


promotes the development of tion in emissions is often can- 
electric motor systems m the celled out by growth. In other 
car industry, “Green Lights” words, per unit output emis- 
($ 1 6.3 million) rewards more sion targets may be met. but 


Great Energy Savings Potential From a Modest Technology 


Devetoping new technologies that help limit mous for developing countries like India." 
emissions at their source can in sane cases observes Vikas Garud. a director at Urminus. 
be quite simple. ._* “The use erf energy in other purification mefo- 

Roughly 1 billion people throughout the ods, including its consumption in producing 
world boil their water on cooking stoves to chlorine or potassium permanganate, is tre- 
make it potable. In Indonesia's capital of mendous." The production from caustic soda 
Jakarta, it is estimated that people spend 1 of chlorine, one of the most common pur- 
percent of the city's gross domestic product . ifiers, is one of the most energyintensive 
on boiling drinking water. Many of the poorest processes. 


people still cannot afford to do so, but will 
start as soon as they are able. Collectively, 
the consumption of energy for this basic need 
is tremendous. 


“The technology is in its infancy,” says A 
Subramaniam, another Urminus director. 


“We had earlier had a couple of these devices year. 


may save up to 6-3 tons a 
d?y. or 2,300 tons a year, of 
cartxxvequivaleDt M I -it re- 
places norisustainabV har- 
vested biomass.” 

If the unit replaces boiling 
over wood fuel, which is sus- 
tainably harvested. Mr. 
Greene calculates a saving 
of 2.8 tons of carbon equi- 
valent a day, or 1,000 tons a 


Ultraviolet purification 

An Indian water treatment company. Urminus 
Industries, located in Bombay, has recently 
started manufactunng a 15-liter-perminute 
purifying device at its plant In nearby Pune. 
Called UV Waterworks, the device uses ul- 
traviolet light equivalent to that of a 40-watt 
bulb and was invented by lndian-bom Ashok 
Gadgil at the Lawrence Berkeley National 
Laboratoiy in Berkeley. California. 

“I see the potential as absolutely enor- 


fabricated for us and installed in New Delhi For the 500 million 
and at a village adopted by the beverage Chinese who currently boil 
company Brooke Bond in Uttar Pradesh. We their drinking water, this rep- 
have now begun making these ourselves for resents a potential saving of 
about 30,000 rupees {$8101.” The device 510 million tons a year of 
can even be used in villages without elec- carbon-equivalent . green- 
trierty, with a solar photovoltaic panel, which house gas emissions other 
raises its cost to 100.000 rupees. than carbon dioxide. 

According to David Greene of Lawrence “The energy savings am 
Berkeley. “UV Waterworks uses approximate- equivalent carbon emission: 
ly 20,000 times less energy than boiling over vary with cookstove fuels 
a biomass cookstove. Each unit, which can ciency," says Mr. Greene. Ii 
serve 1,000 people, used in place of boiling, the Kyoto conference, the 



out ; this energyefficient 
method of disinfecting water 
could be a way for a country 
to earn carbon credits. 


carbon-equivalent green- Pure water at 2 cents a ton. 
house gas emissions other 
than carbon dioxide. 

“The energy savings and corresponding 
equivalent carbon emissions reductions will 
vary with cookstove fuels and stove effi- 
ciency," says Mr. Greene. In the context of 
the Kyoto conference, the scientists point 


A smafl thing, but efficient 

Mr. Gadgil admits: “Ultravi- 
olet water disinfection is not 
a new technology. However, 
the small-scale, energyeffi- 
cient and low-maintenance 
design of UV Waterworks 
has created a uniquely af- 
3 fordable and effective 
£ device: disinfecting water us- 
| ing the equivalent of a 40- 
| watt light bulb atthe cost of 2 
| cents per ton of water 
5 treated, treating 15 liters (or 
ntsaton. approximately 4 gallons) per 

minute, enough for 500 to 
1,500 people. As a result, UV Waterworks 
offers foe first practical means of providing 
many communities in developing nations with 
readily accessible, disinfected drinking wa- 
ter.” 

Darryl D’Monte 


($ 1 6.3 million) rewards more 
efficient industrial lighting in 
warehousing and other sec- 
tors, and foe more ambitious 
“Industry of foe Future” 
($74 million) brings together 
seven industries to develop a 
common energy R&D 
agenda and dramatically im- 
prove best practice. 


Sticking points 
Much remains to be done. 
One of the major sticking 
points for any American 
commitments to be made at 
Kyoto is that U.S. CO, emis- 
sions are expected to rise 
some 13 percent by 2000 in 
comparison with 1 990 
levels. 

The generally accepted 
target first set down at the 
Toronto climate meetings in 
1988 and reiterated since 


with greater consumption, at- 
mospheric pollution only 
rises. 

This discrepancy has not 
gone unnoticed by research- 
ers, government and in- 
dusty Each continues to rec- 
ognize what are sometimes 
called foe “soft effects" of 
setting and meeting ever- 
stricter absolute targets. 

In a significant move, 
members of a high level ad- 
visory group on foe envir- 
onment in late November 
called upon the OECD to re- 
define its commitment toft 
“sustained economic - 

growth” by working toward 
development “that sustains 
human and environmental, 
as well as economic, cap- 
ital." 

The group urged the 


then, has been a reduction of OECD to develop a set of 
emissions by 20 percent in indicators that could be used 


2005 fiom 1990 levels. 

“To avoid ecologically 
dangerous climate changes,” 
Greenpeace is calling for at 


to measure progress by gov- 
ernments toward integrating 
economic with environmen- 
tal policy. Richard Rogers 


We made 6 promises to ourselves before 
developing these solar energy cells. 


And one million to the earth. 


O Crv.It -■ the multicryst.il photovoltaic cell with the highest energy conversion efficiency in the world. 

•'••■' :>.■ v.ori-j f. ,. r tty/ cur*->fs l,i. •.•iten-v w,-,:, •■.!,. Sr:!' 1 V m tr.jlhc-y U! 

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O Make solar cells affordable for more households. ■<>< .. ... :| ii- • ...:• } t; >v. ;>r-r! c-; ; roulbco i m 

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O Design the largest photovoltaic cell :n the world S ar.-.v; . nod ; ■; •mp! ... , i.-.q 
. c -:f. moo i.h .Of :j -j : a J .■ >: \ . ,. ■ f . t O ri'c K\ occrj r'nV. produces l!v- 

pax lion-Ji ni Olh.-.lM;; 1 ocm ij\ • vm o Use resources that are plentiful to reduce strain 
on the environment Siuca, !.!><- ''•■v.e' iti^l iogrccSieiV. o' ov.r nva-iicryvta! eel's i> Sound m s-srsci — one of the 
nos; abundant raw materials iioagasaoie <3 Gradually reduce the thickness of the cell. Thinner 
multi-crystal squire- ess resources and are less expensive to produce. Our goal is to make icier cells 

j’ the current ,! judard o Become one of the leading producers of 
. . !jr we pul i-'.fn err jijti >n o-. Ips reduce v arbor d o*»iCl*r emis ions and 
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‘r r.'v •• t ' than onc-lvn 

solar Cells in the world £ -_r 

• 1 U’vbaJ '.Vv'f ;• nr 

■ -d • ■ • .sod • oho: •. at 


Each one wrapped In suruhne. 
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on one mRDon rooftops by the year 201 0. Bringing us much 
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and helping the earth to breath a Sttie easier. 


•V * ' r-r ■ - . t ■ a • . 

:■ ■ ■ o ". .. !• ; . ... i 

: ' -''.or. • gi.-* • it f,. 

j. j! 

Tr SS.,: ’ . • ' ‘ f • i’li. ; • n 

y''. J.,.'. ... ■ • : ,■ ■ ■ :t , • j - • 


Jcaonc-d -vth vigiUn* 
!. a ore v o' rn.j 
Do i " a t - ;i..; 

1 -jo, stretch 



Products for a Clear Future, 


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If 


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If the world 
is warming, 
managed forests 
may be the best 
thermostat. 


Trees produce oxygen by absorbing carbon 
dioxide from the air. 

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fet * '-*■**• * ’ 




INTERNATIONAL PAPER 

We answer to the world. 





www.mternatiODaJpaper.com 


PAGE 26 


JDVTERNATIONAjL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1997 


SPORTS 


Russian Spins His Way 
To Men’s Skating Title 


in 


Cnplri to Our Staff FnmDapaubn 

NAGANO, Japan — Ilia Kulik re- 
gained control after an early lapse and 
earned near-perfect marks for an in- 
tricate and rhythmic program, capturing 
die NHK Trophy men’s title in his first 
victory of the figure skating season. 

Kulik. a former European champion, 
finished ahead of Scott Davis, an Amer- 
ican who gave his best performance in 
two years. Davis moved up to second 
from fifth place after the short program. 

Guo Zhenzxin of China landed a 
le and seven triples to take 


quadruple 

third. 


Kulik. who was runner-up to Elvis 
Stojko last year, turned a triple axel into 
a single axel at the beginning. But he 
quickly recouped with a sharp triple 
axel-triple toe loop combination. Mix- 
ing in spins, spirals and dance steps he 
jumped five more triples. 

For technique, he was awarded one 
5.9 and four 5.8s out of a possible 6.0. 
He won four 5.9s and four 5.8s for 
presentation. 

With the victory Kulik qualified for 
the series finals Dec. 19-2 1 in Munich. 

The NHK Trophy was die last of six 
qualifying events for the final. It also 
served as a rehearsal for the Winter 
Olympics skating events, which will be 
held at Nagano’s White Ring arena in 
February. Even so, Michelle Kwan. Tara 
Lipinski, Todd Eldredge, Stojko and oth- 
er Olympic favorites skipped the event. 


Russia will have just two skaters in 
the men's Olympic event and Kulik still 
has to compete against the world bronze 
champion. Alexei Yagudin, 17. and the 
junior world champion Evgeni Plushen- 
ko. 15. for one of those spots. 

In addition, the defending Olympic 
champion, Alexei Urmanov, is hoping 
to recover from a serious groin injury in 
time to compete in the Russian nationals 
in early January. 

“It will be very tough,” Kulik said. 
"After the final in Munich and the 
Olympics, the Russian nationals will be 
the toughest competition.” 

Davis will be competing with the 
U.S. national champion and world silver 
medalist, Todd Eldredge, and Michael 
Weiss, who has consistently outskated 
Davis recently, for one of two U.S. spots 
in the Olympics. 

In the women's final Saturday, Tanja 
Szewczenko of Germany won her 
second title in a month. After a 19-mouth 
absence because of illness and injuries, 
Szewczenko won the Nations Cup four 
weeks ago. Maria Butyrskaya of Russia, 
who led the short progra m Friday, fin- 
ished second, after making some un- 
steady landings from triple jumps. 

Also Saturday, Shen Xu and Zhao 
Hongbo won the pairs title, becoming 
the first Chinese to win that event in a 
world competition. In ice dancing, the 
Russian pair of Pasha Gritshuk and Ev- 
geni Platov won the gold. (AP, Reuters ) 


German Skier 
Takes Women’s 
Super G Race 

Cumpilrd by Oar Stoff From DafkOrkn 

MAMMOTH MOUNTAIN, Cali- 
fornia — Katja Seizinger of Germany 
won the women’s World Cup SnperG 
race at Mammoth Mountain. 

Seizinger finished in 1 minute 
! 3.23 seconds in Saturday's race. She 
was followed by Isolde Kostner of 
Italy with a time of 1 : 1 3 .87. Third was 
Seizinger’ s teammate Katarina 
Gutensohnin 1:13.89. 

Course officials lowered die starting 
altitude by 400 feet ( 123 meters), after 
five feet of snow fell Wednesday. 

Martina Erti of Germany finished 
eighth and took the lead in the overall 
World Cup standings with 304 points. 

On Friday, Hilde Gerg beat End in 
the parallel slalom. Erti missed a gate 
and failed to complete the second of 
two runs of the final. 

• Officials canceled all the men’s 



On EmmcnjAFP 

Katja Seizinger winding down 
Mammoth Mountain to victory. 

events over the weekend at Whistler 
Mountain, British Columbia, because 
of heavy snow. They hope to make up 
the races next week in Vail, Colorado. 
Gunter Hujara, men's World Cup di- 
rector, said the North American World 
Cup season may be extended because 
there is inadequate snow in Val d’Iscrc, 
France, where the next races after Vail 
are scheduled. ( Reuters, AP) 



Qiirij Twtjip/Tbr Warbled Prgra 


Ilia Kulik performing Sunday to win the men’s trophy in Nagano, Japan. 


Ireland Beats Canada, 33-11 


Reuters 

Ireland beat Canada 33-11 in a rugby 
union international at Lansdowne Road 
on Sunday, but the final score flattered 
the Irish hosts. 

Kevin Nolsun, the Ireland fullback, 
scored two tries. Conor McGuinness, 
Kevin Maggs and Victor Costello also 
crossed the line. 

But although the Irish dominated pos- 
session, their defense often creaked in 


the face of some determined Canadian 
drives. 

Ganariian hooker Mark Cardinal 

S iwered over from a line-out to score 
e visitors’ sole try in the 46th minute, 
adding to Gareth Rees's two successful 
first-half penalties. . 

England If, South Africa 29 A bril- 
liant individual tty from Andre Sny- 
man inspired South Africa to victory 
over England at Twickenham on Sat- 
urday. 

With South Africa trailing 1 1-7 some 


12 minutes into the second half, Sny- 
man, a center, dummied to his left, cut 
through the England back line and 
sprinted 40 meters to score, side-step- 
ping England fullback Man Petty on the 
way. 

Five minutes later, Mark Andrews, a 
South African lock forward, crashed 
over for the Springboks' third tiy in the 
left-hand corner. Scrumhalf Werner 
Swanepoel added another try two 
minutes from the end as South Africa 
put England under intense pressure in 
die final quarter. 

-Matos 7, Now Zealand 42 New Zea- 
land produced another scintillating per- 
formance of high-speed rugby to crush 
Wales in a test at Wembley, London, on 
Saturday. 

Fallback Christian Cullen scored 
three tries. Taine Randell and Justin 
Marshall scored a try each. 

Andrew Mehrtens kicked 14 points, 
and Zanzan Brooke finished things off 
with a drop goal 

Wales replied with a converted Nigel 
Walker try. 


Just Making the Start ^ 
Is a Test in This Race / 1 <* 


By Kimi Puntillo 

Wtfw York Times Serrice 


GORAK SHEEP, Nepal — On the 
world’s highest mountain, 74 runners 
took their marks in an icy snowfall 
shortly after 7 A_M. on Nov. 23. 

The conditions obscured visibility on 
a race course .that featured steep, rock- 
strewn trails hugging precipitous cliffs, 
and primitive bridges traversing swift, 
gia^ml rivers. The challenge before 
them was the sixth Everest Marathon, 
the highest and arguably the most dif- 
ficult marathon in the world. 

Their first challenge had been to get 
to the starting line, just below Everest 
Base Camp, at an altitude of 17,000 feet 
They had come from the United States, 
Britain, Australia, New Zealand and 
Russia to Katmandu, Nepal, and. from 
there they boarded a bus for a nine-hour 
. ride, followed by a three-week trek with 
more than 200 porters, cooks and 
Sherpa guides in tow. 

So, during a time when marathoners 
usually scale back training to rest up 
before a race, these runners hiked at 
least seven hours daily/ at altitudes as 
high as 12,000 feet, gradually making 
their Himalayan ascent. They camped in 
tents, in temperarares that dipped below 
zero at night . but could climb to 70 
degrees during the day. They axe mostly 
bland soups, potato and rice dishes often 
prepared in huts with dirt floors. The 
majority of them experienced altitude 
sickness, dysentery and nausea. 

The day before the race, the runners 
had to pass a medical exam before their 
final three-hour ascent to the starting 
line. Under sonny skies, in a field sur- 
rounded by snowcapp«l mountains, 
doctors checked runners’ lungs for fluid 
and tested their balance, as passing yaks 
occasionally interrupted the proceed- 
' gs. As a result of the exams, 15 of the 
J runners dropped out before the race. 
The morning of the race, runners who 
had spent the night in sleeping bags in 
subfreezing temperatures unzipped 
their tent flaps to find the weather had 
taken a turn for die worse. 

”1 could hardly see for the first three 
miles of the race,’’ said Hari Rokaya, a 
34-year-old Nepali farmer who won the 
race in 4 hours 15 minutes 29 seconds. 
Rokaya competed in the 1992 Olympic 
maratho n in Barcelona. 

Anne Stentiford, a 32-year-old com- 
puter programmer from England, fin- 
ished m 5:16.03, s lashing more than 16 
minutes off the women’s record despite 
a fall in thick mud that nearly sent her 
over the edge of a cliff. 

For the Everest race, average times 
are usually nearly double normal clock- 
ings far the 26.2-mile distance. Rokaya 

*17*3 nMif frtr ifmtAC /llMMff Antwa 


race. “I didn’t want to.iose any rime,’' 1 
he said. “Avoiding yaks " already 
delayed me a couple of minutes. 

The difficulty of breathing the oxy- 
gen-thin air was compounded at one 
point by a continual ascent of more than 
1,100 feet that reduced even the elite 
runners to a fast walk. An ice-covered 
uphill stretch plagued everyone at the 
halfway point, causing runners to slip 
■ and slide backward. 

“I clawed my way up by grabbing 
onto branches and trees*” Stentiford .* 
said. 

“I broke arib when I fell on the ice," 
said Dick Opsahl, 65, of the United 
States. “Deep breathing helped me fin- 
ish. ” He took 9:37.43. . 

Doctors were posted at three-mile 
checkpoints, and runners had to race 
with a backpack including waterproof 
clothing, thermal underwear, a flash- 
light, emergency whistle and bivvy bag 
— a thick, plastic bag - 1 - to help protect 
against extreme weather. 

Runners also attended a seminar on 
altitude sickness and rescue procedures, 
where they were instructed to forfeit 
rime and wait with a disabled runner if 
they encountered one. It would then be 
up to the next runner to go to the nearest 
three-mile checkpoint to alert a doctor. ( 
Luckily, no one required extreme med- v| 
ical assistance. 

The first Everest Marathon was held 
in 1987, organized by Diana Penny 
Sherpani, owner of Bufo Ventures in 
England, a company that organizes 
trekking vacations in Nepal. The race 
has been held every other year since, 
except in 1995 when freak snowstorms 
and avalanches prevented runners from 
reaching the starting tine and only a 
half-marathon could be held. 

Several of the disappointed runners 
returned this year, determined to com- 
plete a full marathon, paying upward of 
$3,500 (the cheapest price from Lon- 
don) for a package that included special 
insurance in case an emergency medical 
evacuation by helicopter was required 

Eckart Lemberg from Colorado, ra- 
cing the course a second time, is the . 
oldest man to complete. the Everest* 
Marathou at 69. He ran it in 8:09.03. 

• John Gluckman, 46, a dairy former 
from New Zealand, entered the race 
after successfully reaching the summit 
of Everest four years ago with a friend, 
Rob Hall, as his guide. Gluckman had 
mixed emotions because Hall died dur- 
ing a climb in May 1996. , 

“The mountain draws a certain type 
of person,” said Gluckman, who fin- 
ished in' 8:11:42. “There's a similar 
temperament to the people who climb 
Everest and compete in the marathon — 
it takes enormous determination, drive 


& 




.011 




Scoreboard 

Rebounds— Miwoutae 48 (HUl Lang B). 


BASKETBALL 


MBA Stam pines 
uunmcommia 

AJVAimC DIVWON 



W 

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GB 

New Jersey 

3 

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UNO 

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Miami 

3 

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New York 

3 

i 

-750 

W 

Washington 

2 

2 

500 

V'J 

Boston 

1 

3 

750 

Th 

Orlando 

1 

3 

750 

2U 

Philadelphia 

0 

4 

500 

TV, 

CENTRAL DIVISION 


Atlanta 

4 

0 

UNO 

— 

Chicago 

3 

1 

.750 

1 

MBwmAce 

3 

1 

.750 

1 

Charlotte 

2 

2 

500 

2 

Detroit 

2 

2 

500 

2 

Indiana 

2 

2 

500 

2 

Cleveland 

1 

2 

733 

2Vi 

Toronto 

1 

3 

750 

3 

orangwi comma 


MIDWEST DtVBKJN 




W 

L 

Pci 

GB 

Data 

3 

I 

750 



Houston 

3 

1 

.750 



San Antonio 

3 

1 

.750 



Minnesota 

2 

1 

567 

V| 

Utah 

1 

3 

750 

2 

Vancouver 

1 

3 

750 

2 

Denver 

0 

3 

500 

2Yj 


nusicDivDuaN 



LA. LAOS 

2 

0 

1.000 



Seattle 

3 

1 

750 



Phoenix 

2 

1 

567 

Hr 

Portland 

2 

1 

567 

■4 

LA. Clippers 

0 

3 

J»0 

2V, 

Sacramento 

0 

3 

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2!S 

Golden State 

0 

4 

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Ptmrix 

22 27 

38 

21 12—111 

Boston 

27 23 

23 

27 1—108 


fcRoblnson 1 MS 34 24 Chapman MS 2- 
2 34: B:Wofter 1 1-25 2-5 27, Mercer 12-31 2-2 
26. Rebounds— Phoenh 57 [Manning 7), 
Boston 47 walker 111. AsasH-Ptroenlx 32 
(Kidd 101, Boston 26 [Bonos 9). 

ULLofeen HUH 27— 9» 

PhBnMpMa 26 29 24 36-105 

L-CampbcU S- 10 9-12 It, Bryant 7-11 2-5 lfc 
P:hmson T2-2I 6-731, Jodoon 5-126-6 16. 
Reboands— LJUakm 35 (Heny 9). 
PftnodefpftfcSI (Mantras T2|. 

Assists— LA. Lakcn 37 (Von Eu4 6), 
PtOknMpMa 27 (Iverson 81. 

Mitmalm 28 26 28 14— » 

Ottando 38 H 22 IB- M 

M:R 0 btnMH) 1 0-22 8-8 29. Alien 5-1 7 4-4 1ft 
O: Price 7-11 4-4 22, Hardaway 6-14 7-8 19. 


OriandaSl (Seamy 11). Assists— Mdwoukee 
14 (Roblnsaiv Brandon 4), Oitando 21 
(Hardaways. 

Cknekmd 30 1 8 23 26-97 

□Mifolte 19 38 18 34-91 

C Person (4-23 3-4 U. nyamSea 6-93-7 IS 
Ch: Wesley 6-12 2-4 17. PWfc MS 3-3 17. 
Rebound*— Cleveland 51 (Kemp 11). 
Charlotte 50 (Mason 12). Assist*— OerHand 
27 (Anderson 14), Charlotte 23 (Wesley 6j. 
Chicago 20 22 22 19- 83 

Indiana 15 36 38 25— 94 

QJordan 11-264426. Langley 6-122-2 U 
l-MBer 9-19 66 24. Smfls 8-19 2-2 IB. 
IMhwimI*— C hicago 56 (Rodman II). 

lndtana62(AOa*lel2).A*slsts-^Mcagol7 
tkukoc 4), Indiana 20 (M Her, Best 5). 

New York 28 19 30 12— 78 

Detroit 19 IS 26 23- 86 

N.Yj Ewing 8-22 11-14 Z7. Bu.wnams 3-4 
7-0 13; DSr.Wilfams 12-22 2-2 2& HOI 6-13 
12-16 24. Rebounds— New York 47 
(Bn-WHfems 123, Detroit S3 (Br.Wimancs 14). 
Assist*— New York 16 (Ward 6). Detroit 19 
(HOI - 7). 

Toronto 24 20 31 16— 91 

Dal to* 21 21 31 20-93 

TiChifclto 11-21 2-3 27. Wallace 10-22 1 4 
21; (Head 8-19 04 21 . Finley 6-13 1-2 15. 
Rofibaods— Taranto 62 (Wallace 10), Data 
54 (Green 14). Assists— Toronto 17 
(Stoudamlre 6). Dallas 24 [Reeves 6). 
Minnesota 20 21 16 27— 84 

Denver 17 19 30 29- 95 

M&ugtiatto 7-12 64 18. Maibuiy'5-166-9 
16: OiNewman 6-13 18-21 31, Jackson 5-143- 
4 14. Rebounds Minnesota S3 (GugHotta 
13. Denver 61 (Garrett 16). 
Assists— Minnesota 17 (Mortality 81, Denver 
12 (Jackson 5). 

-Cobhm State 21 10 35 14- 82 

Utah 37 22 29 23—111 

VApreweU 11-296-7 3a Marshall 7-12 M 
l&LhMrianc 6-1 09-1 2 21, Faster 7-11 3-3 18. 
Rebounds— Golden Slide 43 (Marshall 7). 
U nti 64 (Osteitog 1 0). AstlsJs— Golden Stats 
17 (Coles 41. Utah 36 (J. Vaughn 8). 

Houston 19 28 26 25— 98 

Parti and 23 23 25 18- 89 

hfcDrexter 9-20 65 24, Johnson 6-12 7-8 21t 
P-Jatinson 612 7-8 21. Grant 5-7 54 15. 
Rebound*— Houston 48 (Battdey 13). 
Pordand S2 (Sabonis 131. Assist*— Houston 
21 (Price 51 Portland 21 (Sabonis. Riders). 
Sacramento 31 23 18 24— 94 

Seattle 27 29 35 22-113 

SJOchmond 8-18 3-6 21. Fundertnnke 6-11 
67 lft S: Baker 9-1B 3-6 21, Sdrrempf 7-13 3- 
3 18. Rebound*— Sacramento 54 

(Funderburk* 1(8. Seattle 45 (Baker 101. 
Assists— Sacramento 23 (Dehere 6J. Seattle 
32 (Payton 14). 


Now Jersey 27 29 19 29-104 

UL Cuppers 27 23 21 21- 92 

NJJCttttes 9-176-6 25, CasseBlQ-22 5-525; 
UUBony 5-11 AS 16, Taylor 611 34 15. 
Rebounds — New Jersey 51 (WWams. Cafge 
7). Las Angeles 47 (BariyT). A**bi*— New 
Jersey M (Ckmeff 9), Las Angeles 16 (Bony 
5). 

lAronArsnsoui 
Phoenix 10 17 24 29- 00 

Now York 22 26 20 33-102 

P-McDyes* 4-7 2-3 lft J.WMams 5-7 0-0 
10; N.Yj Storks 9-18 44 22. Ewing 7-16 7-9 
21. Houston 7-13 6-6 21. Rebounds— Phoenix 
43 (McCloud 91. New York S8 (Ewing 11). 
Assists— Phoenb 22 (Kidd ID. Now York 25 
(Ortas 6). Total hub— Phoenix 19 
New York 18. Technicals — Bryant Phoenix 
■legal defense. A— 19 
763 no 
763). 

Chicago 18 31 21 18- 88 

Wa sh ington 33 14 If 17— 83 

C: Jordan 10-21 612 29. Krtoc6-15<H) 1& 
W.-Wobbor 10-22 1-271, Howard 16232422. 
Rebounds— Chicago 61 (Harper 10). 
Wa sh ington 51 (Howard II). 
Assists— Chicago 15 (Harper 7), Washington 
24 (5McMand 13). 

MRwuutoe 26 23 19 25- 93 

Miami 38 20 16 13- B7 

NLAHen 618 65 24, Brandon 613 3-3 1ft 
A/L Rebounds— Mlwoufcee 48 (Johnson TO). 
Miami 38 (Austin 10). Asttsts-MDwaukee 
16 (Brandon 5), Mtamlll (Hardaway 5). 
Omtoltu 14 20 24 22— 80 

Atlanta 24 20 27 27— 98 

C- Mason 3-8 34 9. Dtvnc3-8 66 9s A5mtth 
7-17 7-8 23. Laettner 9-13 2-2 2ft 
Rebounds— Chariotte 52 (Griger 81, Atlanta 
54 (Mutombo 14). Assists— Chaitotte II 
(Mason 31. Alkerto 17 (Blaylock 9). 

Boston 31 17 21 28—97 

Ctereteri 26 24 22 31—103 

BrWaBcor 9-29 65 24. McCarty 69 1-3 15; 
CJCemp 6-9 6-9 lft Ugauskas 65 8-8 16 
Rebounds— Boston 34 (Walker 7), Cleveland 
48 (Kemp 11). Assists— Boston 21 (Edney7), 
Cleveland 22 (Andmoct 9). 

Vancouver 10 20 32 25- 87 

Minnesota 28 34 16 28-104 

VrOanfeb 610 3-6 14 ChBcutt 67 34 12; 
ALGugSotta 9-16 5-6 ZL Coir 612 60 17. 
Rebounds V ancouver 49 (Reeves D, 
Minnesota 56 (Cometh Gagflatta TO). 
Assists—' Vancouver 23 (Daniels Tu 
Minnesota 29 (Mortony 11). 

Deans 19 22 18 28— R7 

Sen Aafoafo 21 20 31 24— 94 

DcFbrfey 13-23 5-6 35, Sard 617 67 16c 
£AcRabtnson 7-12 64 lft Duncan 7-12 34 
17. Rebounds— Dados 44 (Finley 9), San 
Antonio 51 (Ounorni 14). Asskta— DtSkrs 15 


(Reeve* Scott 4), San Antonio 24 (Johnson 

6 ). 

Wtril 25 23 22 24— 94 

LA.CSppen 24 23 21 21-91 

U Malone 1 7-29 610 42. Homocefc 61 2 56 
17; LAJkdtaw BM 7-1746 2ft Ragan 614 
3-2 T9. Rebounds— Utah 58 (Matona (8), Los 
Angeles 49 (PMkowsM 137. Assists— Utah 
21 (Honncek7), Las Angeles 18 (Rtchanlson 
8). 

Houston 21 24 24 34-187 

GoUM State 25 28 14 33-180 

H:BsUey 1620 12-14 43. Dn9der3-13 16 
11 1 7; VMara ban B-1 2 5-724. Sprewel 8-20 5- 
6 22. Rfibomds— Houston 47 (Scridey 15), 
Gahten Stale 58 (Marshall 17). 
Assists— Houston 17 (Dresler 51, Golden 
State 22 (Bogues 7). 


Leading College Scores 



B utter 71 Podflc 67, OT 
Stanford 7ft Valparaiso 65 

oawjujuwiaaoaroaT 

FOUL 

North Carolina 71 Purdue 69 

THIRD PLACE 

Massachusetts 71 Satan Hail 60 
FIFTH PtACe 

UCLA 8ft Ata-B inn tog horn 72 

poano nee shootout 

FOWL 

Georgia Tati 71 Louisville 69 

THRO PLACE 

St. Johns 81 IBna Is 66 

FIFTH PLACE 

Hafstro 64. American U. PJL 59 
SEVENTH PLACE 
Alabama 6ft WlchDa St 58 

SMHMI COCA-COLA CUSSK 

FOUL 

Michigan St 7ft Gonzaga 68 
OTHSRCUUUtl 

Arizona 97, North Caroflna-AEhavflle69 

Kentucky 7ft demsem 61 

New Madco 8ft San Jasa State 57 

Fresno State ft Arkansas 6 

Iowa 101, Lbng Island Unhremtydf 

UMi 81 UC Irvine 45 

Oklahoma 7ft Wisconsin 64 

Louisville 69, Georgia Tech 73 


ICE HOCKEY 


NHL Stjunomnos 


■ACTstN comma 

ATLANTIC DIVISION 

W L T Pts GF GA 
New Jersey 17 0 0 34 73 44 


PModeiphia 

M 

8 

4 

34 

79 

62 

Washington 

13 

10 

4 

30 

80 

71 

N.Y. Istandera 

11 

11 

4 

26 

70 

70 

N.Y. Hansons ■ 

B 

11 

8 

24 

70 

75 

Florida 

B 

13 

4 

20 

60 

76 

Tampa Bay 

4 

17 

4 

12 

50 

86 

NORTHEAST OflntRM 




W 

L 

T 

Pts 

GF 

GA 

Montreal 

15 

9 

3 

33 

85 

67 

Pttlsburgh 

14 

9 

5 

33 

82 

71 

Boston 

11 

11 

5 

27 

66 

75 

Carolina 

10 

13 

4 

24 

72 

76 

Ottawa 

i<r 13 

4 

24 

68 

68 

Buffalo 

7 

12 

5 

19 

63 

73 

WESTERN CONFttDKI 

t 


CQfTRAL DimSKHr 




W 

L 

T 

Pt> 

GF 

GA 

Danas 

18 

7 

4 

40 

95 

65 

Detroit 

17 

6 

4 

38 

90 

60 

St. Louis 

15 

9 

3 

33 

78 

61 

Phoenix 

12 

11 

2 

26 

73 

71 

Chicago 

10 

13 

4 

24 

59 

69 

Toronto 

8 

13 

3 

19 

47 

67 

PACJRC WVWTOW 




W 

L 

T 

Pts 

GF 

GA 

OokmidD 

13 

6 

8 

34 

80 

68 

Los Angeles 

12 

9 

S 

29 

85 

71 

Anoheirn 

11 

12 

5 

27 

65 

76 

Vancouver 

9 

14 

3 

21 

74 

-87 

San Jose 

9 

16 

2 

20 

70 

82 

Edmonton 

7 

13 

6 

20 

58 

81 

Calgary 

5 

15 

7 

17 

67 

8S 


HOMrsustitn 


Vancouver 2 2 1—6 

Boston 1 I 6-2 

First Period- 1, V-Nooaan 6 (MeAfctar) 
Z V-Bure 12 CMagflny, Lumme) 1 B-Donato 

12 lAIQsoa Bourque) ( pp). Second Period: V- 
Stafas 3 (Soatchaid) 5. B-Heinz 2 (Bourque. 
Van I rape) (pp). ft V-» Messier 9 (Burs. 
Mogftiy) (pp). Third Period: V-Bure 13 
(Hcdknn) (en). Shots on gaafcV- 67-10—25. 
6 1669-33. Goalee: V-McLean. 6 
Dafoe. 

N.Y. (Straders a 0 1—1 

PMadetobta 0 1 3—4 

First Period: None. Second Period: P- 
LeCkdr 19 (Zubius, Llndras) Thbd Period: 
Now York, Beraid 8 (Chnsta BartuzaT 1 P- 
LeCJair 20 (Ltadros) (pp). 4. P> Grattan 5 
(BrimfAinoiit) ft P-Gratton 6 (BrindAmoar, 
Fatoon) Shots on foab New York6 168-28. 
P- 61615— 3ft (Manes: New York, Sato. P- 
Hektall, Snow. 

GatorndD 1 2 6-3 

Florida 0 0 3—2 

First Period: C-Kamensky 9 (OzoBratL 
Forebetg). Second Period: C-Kamensky 10 
(Focsbera, Cttoflnsh) (pp). 1 G-SaHe 14 
(Fonbeig, Mesriei) (pp). TIM Period: F- 
Gagnerll (Mutton Nemlmvsky) (pp). ft F- 
Javanovsld 3 (Gagner) Shots en god: C- 11- 

167- 28. F- 67-16-25. Grafles: C4toy- F- 

Ql— uri-lfl. 

rnzpaiTia. 

Ttampa Bay 0 0 6-6 

Corofina 0 8 3—2 

Ftest Period: Nona. Second Period: None. 
Third Period: Carotina, Kraiaien 12 
(Robots. LMdvslqnO.Z Caroano, Kapanen 

13 {Prkrasra, Roberts) Starts on goal: T- 16 

168- 28. Centura 63-6—17. GoaBas: T- 
Sdiwnb. Carofina Burks. 

NX Dragon 2 8 10-2 

BafMa 1116-3 

First Period: New York, Sweeney 6 
(LnFonfalne). 1 New York. La Fontaine 15 
(Udstof) 1 B-ZhitnBc 4 IWooUey, Holzbigeri 
(pp). Second Period: B-PkmSe S-CSakav 
Grasofc) Third Period: New York. Gretzky 8 
(Sundstrona) ft BAudette 6 (Sliomwn, 
Brown) Dwrttaw Norn. Shots oa goal: N.Y-- 
69-11-2-30. 6 667-4-23. GoaBas: NX- 
RkMer. B-Hasefc. 

Moatwri 0 0 6-o 

DeMfl 8 11-2 

Ft« Period: None. Second Period: D- 
Stw notion 12 (Eriksson. Larionov) Third 
Parted: D-Lo potato 6 (Brown. Erfloaon) 
Sfeotl M WH& M- 7-S9-21 . D- 11-611-30. 
GoaBes: M-Maog. D-Osoood. 

Aodakn I 2 5—2 

Edmonton 8 8 1—1 

First Period: A-Se krone 2i (Young, 
Dtagneault) (pp). Second Period: A-Socco X 
(fiti). 1 ftv Stevenson 2 (CoOen Satame) 
TbM Period: E-McGHte ft Shots oageafcA- 
■ 7-63-15. E- 16615-33. GodBes: A- 
Heftert. E- Joseph. 

New Jersey 1 3 6-4 

Sw J«ie 2 8 0-2 

Hrst Period: SJ.-Ffieoen 11 (Storm. 
Ragnarsson) Z 5J.-5toim 5 (Friesen) (pp). 
3. NJrHoflk 12 (NWermayec Guerin) (pp). 
Second Period: NJ. -Guerin 1 Qfiedennaye& 
BombordW ft NJ.^Sykoro 10 (AntmyriwM 
ft NJ.-, Haft 13 (Odeteta. Enas) Third 
Period: None. Shots mt goat NJ.- 7-7-7—21. 
SJ-- 466— 1ft GacEes NJ.-Bredeur. SJ.- 
Verooa 


ADVhRTlShMENT 



h hu m ti mu m 

Anatahn 118 8-2 

Grigory 8 0 2 1-2 

Fbat Period: ArSdama 22 CSandsinra, 
Racxhin) Secowd Parted: A-Sekmne 23, 
Third Parted: CNytander 7 (ABson, Flawy) 
4C4>ury&(slO.Ov*rttine:ftGMcCarl1ry3 
(Sttibnan. Mdmfls) Shall oa goat A- 7-67- 
1-20. C- 61562-23. GoaBas: A- 
Sldaterinv. C-Tabaracd. 

New Jersey 0 1 6-1 

Les Angeles 1 1 2—4 

Hist Parted: LArTsyptrimv 7 (Panrauffi 
Second Period: NJ. -Andreychuk 3 (Gllmoar, 
Nladwmayari (pp). ft LA^RobSrAe 13 
(StompeL Blake) (pp). Thtod Ported: UL- 
PonaouB IS (Murray, TsypMarv) ft LA.- 
La Perriere4 (Murray, Bytaraa) Shots « gori: 
NJ.- 5-67—20. LA.- 1567-26. Godss: 
N J.-Brodour. LA-FIsaL 
Vancoawr t 2 2—4 

Toronto 2 8 6-2 

First Period: T-Koretav 8 (Schnebteb 
DJGng) Z T-Ctark 5 (Johnson. Schneider) 
Second Period: V-Hrastaoar 2 (LedyunL 
SQdctoroO 4 V-OMund 2 (SIEngen 
Broshe®) TMrd Parted: V-Masster 10 
(Nastmft Hedkan) (pp). ft V-Bara 14, W0. 
Starts oa goal: V- 9-7-7—23. T- 12-61 1-21. 
Gorites: V-McLean, litre. T-Pahto. 

Ptroeoix 0 1 1-2 

Data 2 1 2-5 

First Parted: {Mjngen&ranner u (Sydor. 
Zubov) (pp). 2. D-Modano M (Sydor, Zubov) 
(pp). Second Period: D-Modano 15 
(LangcntminnatLoMrwn) (pp). 4. Phoenix, 
RoenkX 9 (ToatwO Third Parted: D- 
Verbaak 10 (Hagm Ntemendyk) ft 
Phoenix, Roerdck la (Ylonen, NaramtaaO 7, 
D> Lnngc nh nmner12 (ModancO (en). Shot* 
on goat: Phomfc 1 1 6-9-26. D- 11-13-7-21 . 
Grata: Phoenix, Waite. D-Belfour. 

Chicago 1 1 1—3 

Ottawa 1 8 1—3 

HtaJ Petted: O-Yashin 9 (Connaywurth) Z 
C Johnson 7 (dKfloft Zhammv) (pp). 
Second Period: C-Amoate 1ft (sh). Third 
ParioXb. e-Johnson 8 (Arnonto) ft &» YasMn 
10 (McEadwnv PtdNps) Shots an goat: 6 
16-610-28. O- 611-6-25. Gaata C- 
HodcetLO-TognutL 

Montreal 11 1—1 

Pi t t sbu r gh 2 3 1— « 

Fhst Petted: P-HaMier 7 (Bams. 
Fronds) IpphZ P-Stralu 7 (Hntdleri (stl). ft 
M-, Stevenson 2 (Cocsorv Ttmnton) (pp). 
Second Parted: P -Barnes 7 (Jogt Fronds) 
(ppL 5. P-Lrag 1 (Brawn) ft M^Crivu 7 
(Bum Canon) (pp). 7, P-Lang 2 (Ofousson. 
Strata) (pp). Tbfcd Period: P-Jagr 10 
(Frtmdft Hateheri % M-Sawped (QairtexO 
Shots in goat M- 7-12-3-22. P- 7-13-7—27. 
Gnota M-Moog, TMbaatt. P-Banassa 
Skodia 

PtritoiMphte 1 2 8 0-3 

Tmnpo Bay 1 1 y g_j 

First Prato* T-Vutata 1 (Vujh*. 
Anderson) 2, P-Rktmdson 1 (Grafton 
ProspaO (pp). Sacoad Period: P-Zutovs 5 
(LaOairt. 4, Tampa Bay, Hamrflk 2 
(Ysebaert SoBvonotf) (pp). ft P-, Podcfri 5 
(Otto Ktott) TIM Ported: T-Zmnuner 9 
(Ulanov. DyktoiW-Ovaritmc: None. Shots on 
goalr P- 15667-35. T- 2-1 613-1— 2ft 
GooSoe P-Sraw. T-Puppa 
Colorado 0 0 3-3 

Oarotino 2 0 6-2 

First Period: CoroSra. Roberts 6 (HU) 

(pp). 2, CtnOna. Chtaram 1 Socoad Poriot 
None. Thbd Potted: C-OznJtnsti 2 (Sakk, 
Faraberg) (pp)-ftC-Knrpp 3 (Fonboig) ftC- 
Deadmanh 7 (OxoBmIl. Lemteux) fop). 
Snb <n goal: C- 1613-16-36. CnraBna 12- 
1610-22. GoaBes: C-Roy. CnaOna KWft 
St. Laois 0 8 2-2 

N.Y. Ishsndws 3 0 1—4 

Hrs! Parted: New York, NemcMnov 3 
(Onnke) 2. New York, Benad 9 (Priffy) ft 
N«v Yota, Green 9 (Paffly, Rektod) (pp). 
secood Period: Nano. Third Parted: ftL-HuU 
13 (Tutgeon, Madnrris) (pp). ft ftL- 
Cnmpbefl 6 (Demltra. Rteen) ft. New York, 
N«ncWnov4 (Lapokde, Owreke) (on). Shots 
art goat: SX.. 9-7-19-36, Now Yak 12-5- 
3-20. GoaBas: SX.-McLennan 3-60. New 
York, Ffchaud. 

188 8—1 
0 0 16-1 
Fhxt Period! W- Bondn 19 (Dates) Stand 
Parted: None. Third Parted: B-Taytor 9 
(Axeknarv DIMato) Oeaflna: None. 
Pneato es N on e. Shots an gout: W- 7-161- 
3 — 25. 6 616126-34. Gaata W-Kotzig, 
6 Dafoe. 


FOOTBALL 


Lbumiw Colleoe Sc owes 

EAST 

Dataware 24, HofsbnM 
Now Havan 49, Slppery Rock 21 
Rowan lft College of NJ. 7 
VBkmaua 4% Colgate 28 
SOUTH 

Catson-lfownuin 2ft Atoany: Go. 22 
Georgia 27, Georgia Tech 24 
Georgia Southern 52, Florida A4M 37 
McNrmse SL 19. Montana 14 
Mississippi lft Mississippi SL 14 
Southern U. 3ft GranMng St. 7 
Syracuse 3ft Miami 13 
Tennessee 17. VoroteWt 10 
VUginfa 34, Vijginta Tech20 
W. Kentucky 42. E- Kentucky 14 
ranmsr 

Michigan ST. 49, Penn St 14 
Mount Union 99, John CarmU 7 
N. Colorado 3ft MW Mtesmrt St 19 
Ofivat Naanane 5ft MU-Am Nazarene42 
Simpson, Iowa 61, Augsburg 21 
W. IBnule 31, Jackson SL 24 
Youngstown ST. 2ft Ha m pto n U. 13 
SOUTHWEST 

UC Davis 50, Angelo 5L 33 

FAR WEST 

E. Washington 4ft NW Louisiana 10 


CRICKET 


HuanMYftwiwmw 

saeoND TBvr, aa my 

SUNDAK W RAWALPWm, PAKISTAN 

Pakistan 122-2. 

West Imta (303). 

now zuuiuaw v*. junrajiLw 

TMBUJ TEST, 4TH MV 
SUNDAY. M HOBART. AURDU1JA 

New Zealand declares at 251 6. 

Australia 400 aU aul 


RUGBY 


MMT ITIHI1 

TEST OH SATURDAY IN IHQLAHD 
New Zeriaad 42, Wales 7 

SOUTH AfMCATOM 
TEST ON BXTURDMr M ENQUMO 
Smrtti Africa 29, England 11 


SKIING 


World Cup 


Boday M rurascmi hountam. cau 
satHRNALS: Erti def. Mstosnttzer by 0J 
seconds; Gerg del Setting®; 0357. 
TMRD PLACE FMAL Mrissnilzar I 
Seizinger, 0.10ft 
HNAL: Gag def. ErtL 0JJI5. 


SATURDAT M HAHMOTH IKHMU 
Louring rasuRs:!. Kalla 5ettzlr 
monv. I 3.21 2. Isolde Kostr 
1:1367) ft Katarina Gutensaha i 
l :133ft 4. Ronate GaetscheL Awtn 
5. HSde Gerg. Germany. 1:1472; ft 
Zeten&kria. Russia. 1:1473; 7. 
Haousl Germany. 1:1474; 8. Mai 
Germany. 1:148a 9. Svatiom G 
Rwsb 1:1470 10. Ateundra Mi 
Austria. MSJDft 
•wo* a STAmxsaas: 
Soitztngu Gemwny, 100 patnte; 
Kosfnec Italy. 8a ft Katarina & 
Gennany, 6tt 4. Rente Goeteche 
Stt 5. HBde Gerg, Gennany. 6ft ft 
Zelenskaia, Russia 40 7. Reglni 
Gennany, 3ft- ft Marttna EriL Gemt 
Svrilana GhuSsMVft Rvsria 28; II 
dra Mefosnltttf, Ainhta. 26 
OVOAU. STANnmas: 1. Ma 
Germany, 304 points; 2* Deba 
pagnnft IUy.24ft-2= Katja Sritzii 
many. 243 4. Alemndra Mrissrdtze 
242; 5. HBde Gerg, Germany, 231 
Nowen, Sweden. 23ft- 7. Leila 
France, 1 81; ft Isolde Kostner, Hg 
Karto Ratea Swtlzerianft lift lo 
Flemmen Norway, 106. 


S 


Would Cup 


A81A/OCUMU ZONKS PUY^n: 
RETURN LEG MHLBOURNE. AUSTRALIA 
AustnBaft Iran 2. 


Iran wan an away gaols alter the aggregate 
score was tied at 3-3. 


n— inn rbstmvision 

Kabersknitem Z Hamburg SV I 

Armlnla Blrieiield 1, Schalke 04 1 

T5V IfldOAtunlcbQ, VtL Bochum 2 

Wetder Bremen 2, VfB Stuttgart 2 _ 

Bonnsto Moencbengtodhodi a VIL Worts- 
burg 2 'll I - » : . - 

Karlsnihe SC ft Hansa Rostock 0 
M5V Dototauig a Hatha Berlin l 
stand mo*: Kalserstautem 39, Bayora 
Munich 3ft VfB Stuttgart 29. Schalke (M 29, 

Bayer Leverkusen 2ft Hansa Rostock 24, 

MSV Duisburg 2ft VfL Wattkbarg 2ft Heritia 
Benin 22 , Werder Bremen 22. Bonissta Dort- 
mund 2T,Korfsnjhe SC 2ftTSV (860 Munich 
2ft Armlnla BiriefoM 19. Hamburg SV lft 
Borussia Moendraigtaitoach lft VIL 
Bochum lft Cologne lft 


■nusHpeuiniiAoui 

Manchester United 4, Blackbum 0 
Arsenal ft Liverpool 1 

Barnsley 2. Leads Untted 3 
Bolton Wanderers I. Wimbledon a 
Chelsea 4 Derby County 0 
Coventry CHy ft Leicester aty 2 
Crystal Palace l , Newcastle United 2 
Everton 0, Tottenham Hotspur 2 
Southampton 2. Sheffield Wednesday 3 
West Ham United 2, Aston VHia l 
snumncsc Manchester United 34;. . 

Chetoea 3W Btockbom NHjeeds 29f Areeiwt S-. 
277 Leicester 26s Newcastle 24; Derby 2ft ’ : ■ 
Lherpoci 2ft Wbnbtodon lft West Ham 19, - 
Asian VRta lft- ShefHdd Wednesday 1ft 
Coventry 17; Southampt on lft Tottenham lft- 
Botton lft Barnsley lft Everton 12. ~ 


HUNCH mm MVBNUI 

Chateaurnux ft Monaco 2 
Toulouse 1, Cannes 0 
Nantes l.MareerieO 
Montpellier 1, Le Havre 1 
Lens ft Strasbourg 2 
Gatngampft BaetfaO 
LyonS. Remes 1 

ST AMO INOSe Moooco 35; Metz 3ft Mot- 
seaie3ftPSG31;Lens31; Bordeaux 3ft Bcs- 
fla 27; Aunrre 2ft Lyon 2ft Toulouse 2ft 
Montperttor 22s Nantes 2ft Gutngamp 2ft 
Srasbawg lft Chateauraox lft Le Havre lft 
Rennes 14 

IIAIUM HftST MVtMOM 

Atalanto Bergamo O Lecce 0 
Bari 2, Brescia 1 
Bologna 2iSampdoito 2 
Empo8 2, Placeiua 3 
Lazto2,Udlnese3 

Napofl 1, Fforenfina 1 
Forma a Romo 2 
Vteernn 1. Inter MDan3 
STwmmas: Inter MBan 2ft Juventos 21; 
AS Roma lft Udtneselft Parma 18; Lazio lft 
Sampdoria 15; Vtoenza lft Ftarontbta 13; AC 
MHan lft Atalanfo 11; Empali 1ft Brescia lft 
Bari lft Lecce lft Bologna ft Pioaeruo 1; 
Nopal 5. 





anunsH rnwramcioei 

Sparlfcig Gflon Z Real Both 3 

Maflonsa ft Zaragoza 2 
Radng de Santander ft Oviedo P 
Reri Madrid 1 Cclta Vigo 1 
Real Sodedod ft Conporieki l 
Vatendo ft Salamanca 1 
Wriadofid 1 Alhlettc BNbao 0 
STAND! MO* Real Madrid 31; BwcokM 
2ft Reri Sododad 26s ABrtfco Madrid 2ft 
Espanyri 24: Celia Vigo 24; Oviedo 2ft AM- V 
te*w» 21; Real Zaragoza 2ft Real Beds 2ft 
Attucflc Bilbao 19) Radng Santander 16; 

IMUa lft Compostefla 14 Oeparttvo LO 
Corona 11- VaUodoDd li Tonedfo lft Va- 
toixdo 11; Salamanca lCtS porting Gijon 2 


Critic 3, Dundee United 0 
Hlbcmtan i. MatiiarweU t 
K8nianiockl Duntonrine AMettc 1 '' 

Rangm3,stJohredoiw2 
"MmWR Hearts 31 Rangm 3Z 
Celllc 31 ; Dundee United 19; Donferndtoe 
Athletic lft 5t Johnstone 18; KKmemeek lft 
Htocnwm iftMriheiweillftAbridecnil 




Davis Cup [ 



SUNDAY. IN (UyntBrSURO, 5WBDEN 
Jones Biorkman def. Jonottan Stork 61 61. 
Sweden lead United States 60 In Davis Cup 
final. 











INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1997 


- PAGE 27 


SPORTS 


Tennessee 
Moves a Step 
Closer to the 
Orange Bowl 

The Associated Press 

This lime, I^ton Maiming will play in 
the Southeastern Conference title game 
instead of watching it on television. 

“I've watched it every year and I've 
always been real envious of die two 
teams playing,” said Manning, who 
threw for 159 yards and one TD and ran 

for another in No. 3 Tennessee's 17-10 
victory over Vanderbilt on Saturday. 

; The Volunteers (1(M, 7-1 SEC) 
barely made it They struggled for the 
third straight year against the Com- 
modores (3-8, 0-8). Tennessee won 14- 
7 last year and 12-7 in 1995, and Man- 
ning's TD pass was his first against 
Vandy. Jamal Lewis picked up the slack 
for Manning, running 37 times for 196 
yards as the Vols beat the Commodores 
for the 15th straight time. ’ 

Manning was 12 of 27 for 159 yards 
with one TD and one interception. After 
the g am e in Knoxville, Tennessee, the 
Vols’ seniors took a victory lap. 

The Vols will play No. 13 Auburn (9- 
2, 6-2) on Saturday, needing a victory to 
move into the Orange Bowl on Jan. 2, 
where the likely opponent will be No. 2 
Nebraska (11-0, 8-0 Big 12). The Husk- 



t: 


To 49ers 9 Critics, 44-9 


- : The Associated Press - 

. Critics who said San Francisco built 
its club-record 1 I 1-game winning streak 
on a succession of softies may be 

right- ... 

The Kansas City Chiefs distnantled 


, 


CobBnbyRw* 

Syracuse's Roland Williams flailing for a pass, which fell incomplete, as Miami's Eugene Ridgley defended. 


handing die 49ers a 44-9 loss for their 
worst regular-season defeat since a 45-3 
loss to Detroit in 1967. The host Chiefs 

(10-3), hoping to overtake Denver for 
the AFC West lead and perhaps the 
-home field advantage in the AFC play- 
offs, stunned the favored 49ens (11-2) 
by taking a 28-6 halftime lead. 

By not allowing a second-half touch- 
down for the eighth straight game, the 
Chiefs put an exclamation matt on the 
lopsided victory with a safety- and a 
touchdown return of an interception in 
the final 8:31. 

Rich Gannon threw three touchdown 
passes and Marcus Allen had another on 
a halfback option, the first time the 
Chiefs had four touchdowns passes in a 
game since December 1983 against San 


era hung on for a 27-24 triumph over 
Colorado on Friday, and must beat No. 
15 Texas A&M (9-2, 6-2) on Saturday 
to advance to Miami. 

No. 4 Penn State (9-2, 6-2 Big Ten) 
knocked itself out of a bowl-alliance spot 
with a 49-14 loss at Michigan State. 


Michigan State’s Sedrick Irvin ran for 
238 yards and three TDs; Marc Renaud 
had 203 yards and a TD. The Nlttany 
Lions appear headed for a Citrus Bowl 
berth against No. 7 Florida (9-2), while 
the Spartans (7-4) accepted an Aloha 
Bowl invite and could play Washington 


Tar Heels Edge Purdue in Alaska Tournament 


The Associated Press 

Sh amm ond Williams made a 3- 
pointer with 1 :24 left and sank two free 
throws with seven seconds re maining 
to give No. 4 North Carolina a 73-69 
victory over No. 6 Purdue in the title 
game of the Great Alaska Shootout in 
Anchorage, Alaska. 

Williams scored eight of the Tar 
Heels' final nine points Saturday as 
North Carolina overcame an 1 1-point 
deficit in the second half. 

Antawn Jamison scored 23 points 


on lQ-of-14 shooting and had nine 
rebounds. Williams also scored 23. 

No. 7 UCLA 88, Alabama-Birainir- 

ham 72 Toby Bailey scored 14 of 
UCLA's final 16 points to lift the 
Bruins to a come-from-behind tri- 
umph in Anchorage. 

Arkansas 70, No. 1 2 Fte*no State 69 

Tank Wallace hit a crucial 3-pointer 
and Nick Davisprovided the margin of 
victory with a nee throw as Arkansas 
beat No. 12 Fresno State in the Premier 
Classic in Phoenix, Arizona. 


No. 8 Kentucky 76, No. 1 3 Cl s m s on 

61 Wayne Tomer started a 15-2 run 
with a baseline jump shot and had nine 
of his 17 points in the second half as 
Kentucky won in die Premier Clas- 
sic. 

Wisconsin 75, No. 18 Oklahoma 84 

Duany Duany scored five of his 13 
points during a 12-0 fourth-quarter run 
to lead Wisconsin to victory in a con- 
solation game at the Big Island In- 
vitational Tournament in Hilo, 
Hawaii. 


Bulls Come Back to Mystify Wizards 


The Associated Press 

Michael Jordan scored 29 points and 
the Bulls tallied from a 17-poirit deficit 
.to beat the Washington Wizards, 88-83, 
in Che final NBA game to be played at 
the US Airways Arena in Landover, 
Maryland. 

The Bulls led by three points in the 
fourth quarter before two straight bas- 
kets by Jason Caffey and a free throw by 
Jordan made it 80-72. After Chris 

NBA Roundup 

Webber scored for Washington, Toni 
Kukoc hit a 3-pointer for an 83-74 
Bulls' lead with 3:48 left. 

A sellout crowd of 18,756 on Sat- 
urday witnessed a halftime ceremony 
that featured 1 1 of the best players ever 
to wear a Washington uniform, and the 
lowering of the team's NBA champi- 
onship banner from the 1 977-78 season. 
The banner will be among those hung 
from the ceiling of the new MCI Center 
in downtown Washington, where the 
Wizards will begin play Tuesday night 

Washington went 576-369 in the 
arena originally named the Capital 
Centre, but is 0-5 at home this season 
■and has lost seven of its last eight 
games. 

The Bullets got 22 points from Juwan 
Howard and 21 from Chris Webber, 
who missed most of the first half with a 
cut eyelid be received when Jordan 
fouled him on a rebound. Rod Strick- 
land had 15 points and 12 assists for 
Washington. 


Knicks 102 , Sms no The Krticks and 
their league-leading defease held vis- 
iting Phoenix to 45 pointe . below their 
average for a road game. The Suns had 
just 10 points in the first quarter. 

John Stadra scored 22 points, includ- 
ing 14 in die second quarter, Patrick 
Ewing added 21 and Allan Houston bad 
a season-high 21 for New York. The 
Knicks completed a sweep of the two- 
game season series between the clubs. 

Buck* 93, H*at 87 Ray Alien scored 
24 points and Terrell Brandon added 19 
as Milwaukee snapped a 17-game los- 
ing streak against host Miami 



Rotaw BmcVAP 

The Wizards' Cafljert Cheaney trying 
to guard the Bulls' Michael Jordan. 


Avalanche Rolls With 3d-Period Rally 


The Assitinr/rd Press 

Adam Deadmarsh scored on a power 
play with 6:35 left to cap a three-goal 
third-period rally as the Avalanche beat 
the Hurricanes, 3-2. 

Colorado, as it has done many times 
this season, came from behind for the 
victory Saturday night. Deadmarsh, 

■ Sandis Ozolinsh and Uwe Krupp scored 

NHL Roundup 

goals in the final 1 1 V5 minutes to erase a 
2-0 Carolina lead in a game tint the 
home team had dominated until midway 
through the. final period. 

Bmina i. Capital* i Tim Taylor 
scored at 9: 1 9 of the third period as host 
1 Boston rallied to tie Washington. Taylor 

■ evened the game with his ninth goal on a 
' backhander from the slot, as the Bruins 

rallied to salvage a draw for the fifth 
lime this season. 

Islandan 4, Blue* 2 Eric Fichaud 
stopped 34 shots and Sergei Nemchinov 
han two goals as host New Y ork beat St. 

■ Louis. . 

Trailing 3-0 in the final period, St. 
Louis got goals from Bren Hull and Jim 
.Campbell. But Fichaud made several 
■’ game-saving stops in the third period to 

■ preserve the victory for New York. 

fty*r* 3 , Lightning 3 Rob Zamuner, 
selected earlier Saturday to the Cana- 
dian Olympic team, continued his po- 

■ tent play with a third-period goal to give 
host Tampa Bay a tie with Phil- 
adelphia. 


Canada Omits Messier From Olympic Teton 


New York Times Service 

OTTAWA — Wayne Gretzky will 
represent Canada at the Winter 
Olympics in Nagano, Japan, in Feb- 
ruary, but Mark Messier wilt not 

Gretzky was part of the 23-player 
roster picked by Bobby Clarke, the 
Team Canada general manager, and 
announced Saturday. The selections 
favor size and defense over speed. 

The other forwards are Shayne 


Panguma 6, Canadian* 3 Roberi Lang 
scored his first two goals of the season 
as Pittsburgh extended its unbeaten 
streak to seven games with a victory 
over visiting Montreal. 

Blaekhawk* 3, Senators 2 Greg John- 
son scored two goals to lift visiting 
Chicago over Ottawa. 

Johnson’s second goal of the game 
and eighth of the season gave Chicago a 
3- 1 lead with 3:03 left in the third period 
when he beat goaltender Ron Tugnult 
off Tony Amonie's rebound. 

Canuck* 4, Maple Leafs. 2 Marie 
Messier scored the winning goal just 
hours after being overlooked for the 
Canadian Olympic team and led Van- 
couver over host Toronto. 

Messier took a pass from Markus 
Naslund on a power play three minutes 
into the third period and scored his i 7th 


Corson, Theoren Fleury, Rob 
Brind* Amour, Paul Kariya, Trevor 
Linden, Joe Nieuwendyk, Keith 
Primes u, Joe Sakic, Brendan Shana- 
han, Steve Yzermaa, Rob Zamuner 
and Erk Lindros the captain. Hie de- 
fense is Rob Blake, Ray Bourque, Eric 
Desjardins, Adam Foote, A1 Macln- 
nis, Chris Pronger and Scott Stevens. 
The goalies are Martin Brodeur, 
Patrick Roy and Curtis Joseph. 


point in the last 14 games to put Van- 
couver ahead, 3-2. 

Star* 5, Coyote* 2 Mike Modkno had 
two of Dallas's three power-play goals 
as the host Stars beat Phoenix for their 
second victory in three nights over the 
Coyotes. Modano scored his 14 th and 
15th goals of the season and Jamie Lan- 
genbrunner scored his 1 1th, all on the 
power play. 

King* 4, Davit* i Luc RobitaiUe 

scored the go-ahead goal on a second- 
period breakaway as host Los Angeles 
completed a two-game season sweep of 
New Jersey. 

Flam** 3, Mighty Ducks 2 Sandy Mc- 
Carthy scored at 1:36 of overtime to cap 
host Calgary’s rally from a two-goal 
deficit against Anaheim. McCarthy took 
a pass from Cory Stillman and snapped a 
wrist shot past Mikhail Shtalenkov. 


Hawks 98, Honwts 80 Steve Smith 
scored 23 points and Christian Laettner 
added 20 for host Atlanta. 

Dikembe Mutombo grabbed 14 re- 
bounds and Mookie Blaylock had nine 
assists as the Hawks improved to 13-2 
overall and 8-1 at home. 

Cavafiara 103, Catties 97 Zydnmas 

Dgauskas had 16 points and host Clev- 
eland won a sloppy game maned by 51 
turnovers and 54 fouls. Shawn Kemp 
had a triple-double — 18 points. II 
rebounds and 10 turnovers — as the 
Cavaliers won their fifth straight 

Ta ub e r wotv— 100, DinfiM 87 Tom 
Gugliotta scored 23 points and grabbed 
10 rebounds as host Minnesota built a 
34-point first-half lead and coasted. 

5pm 98, — a vari c k * 87 In San Ant- 
onio, Avery Johnson scored eight of his 
16pointsduring a 31-15 third-quarter run 
for the Spars. David Robinson scored 18 
points and snatched 12 rebounds against 
an overmatched Samaki Walker. 

•Jazz 94, coppers 91 Karl Malone’s 
10-foot jumper with 23 seconds remain- 
ing Lifted visiting Utah. Malone scored 
16 of his season-high 42 points in the 
fourth quarter and pulled down 18 re- 
bounds. 

Rockets 107, Warriors 100 Charles 
Barkley had 43 points and Houston 
scored 27 straight points late in the j 
second period as host Golden State re- | 
mained winless at home. Barkley had 15 ; 
of his points as the Rockets held Golden 
State scoreless for nearly nine minutes 
during a run that turned an 18-point 
deficit into a nine-point lead. , 


(7-4) or Southern California (6-5). 

While No. 1 Michigan (1 1-0) is set to 
play No. 10 Washington State (10-1) in 
the Rose Bowl, the alliance lineup is far 
from set Here are a few scenarios: 

With victories in their conference 
title games, tire Comhnskers and Vol- 
unteers will play in the Orange. 

The Sugar Bowl, with the third and 
fifth picks in the alliance, probably will 
go for No. 5 Florida State (10-1) against 
No. 9 Ohio State (10-2). while the 
Fiesta, with the fourth and sixth picks, 
might go for No. 1 1 Kansas State (10-1) 
against No. 16 Syracuse (9-3), which 
won die Big East and a guaranteed bowl 
berth by beating Miami on Saturday. 

If the Huskers lose and the Vols win 
ou Saturday, the possible lineup could 
look like this; Florida State vs. Ten- 
nessee in die Orange; Texas A&M vs. 
Ohio State in the Sugar* and Nebraska 
vs. Syracuse in the Fiesta. 

If the Vols lose and the Huskers win, 
look for Nebraska vs. Florida State in the 
Orange; Ohio State vs. Aubuin in the 
Sugar and Kansas State vs. Syracuse in 
the Fiesta. 

•Texas fired its coach, John Mack- 
ovic, on Saturday, aday after the Long- 
horns (4-7) lost 27-16 to No. 15 Texas 
A&M. The Arkansas coach, Danny 
Ford, resigned under pressure, one day 
after the Razorbacks (4-7) lost, 3 1-21, to 
No. 17 Louisiana State. 


The 49ere have failed to score a touch- 
down in a game only twice since 1991 — 
in both of this season’s defeats. They fell 
in the opener at Tampa Bay, 13-6, and 
built their record largely on victories 
over the league’s ksser teams. - 
The Chiefs, keeping the pressure on 
die Broncos, have an easier schedule 
than Denver, which was at San Diego on 
Sunday night The Broncos must travel 
to Pittsburgh and San Francisco, while 


the Chiefs have two of their last three at 
home. _ „ 

• Kansas City - led 14r3 after a 2-yard 
touchdown pass from Gannon to Tony 
Gonzalez. Gonzalez then swept past Za- 
dk Bronson on the right side .to block a 
punt by Tommy Thompson and re- 
turned the ball 12 yards to the 3; Alien 
scored on the next play- 

After Pellom McDaniels sacked 
Steve Young for a 9-yard Joss a & w 

minutes later, the Chiefs drove 57 yards. 
Allen, the short-yardage specialist, took 
a bandofF and drifted right, then flipped 
a 1 -yard touchdown pass to Ted Popson, 
playing bis first game since suffering a 
concussion on Nov. 3. 

Allen's sixth career TD pass and 
second this seasonmade it 28-3 with 26 
seconds left in the half. 

Patriot* 20, Colt* 17 Drew Bledsoe is 
finding his touchdown touch in time to 
another New England Patriots 
stretch run toward the playoffs. 

- He threw two soring passes after 
going two games without one, and the 
Patriots held on few a 20-17 victory over 
the visiting Indianapolis Colts.' 

Jim Hartnngh's second scoring pass, 
an 1 1 -yarder to Sean Dawkins with 1:08 
left, cut the lead to three, but the Patriots 
recovered the o aside kick and ran out 
theclodk. 

The Patriots (8-5), who have six vic- 
tories against teams with losing records, 
. moved into a tie for the AFC East lead 
with the New York Jets, who lost to 
Buffalo. But New England has no soft 
spots, in its remaining games at Jack- 
sonville, at home against Pittsburgh and 
at Miami. 



,WT»)4or/Rrn»rf» 

Andre Rison of the Chiefs, right, beating Rod Woodson to catch a pass. 


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PAGE 28 


World Roundup 


Norman Slips 


golf Lee Westwood beat crowd 
favorite Greg Norman in a sudden- 
death playoff Sunday to win the 
Australian Open in Melbourne. 

The 24-year-old Englishman 
held his nerve to take the title on 
the fourth extra hole. 

Norman, striving to win his 
third Australian Open in succes- 
sion, squandered a two-shot lead 
with two holes to play. 

Norman carded a final-round 
73 to finish the tournament tied 
with Westwood, who closed with 
a 72, at I4-under-par 274. 

On the fourth playoff bole, Nor- 
man missed a putt for par from 
about one yard. {Reuters) 


Le hman Wins Skins 


golf Tom Lehman sank birdie 
putts of 22 and 10 feet on the final 
two holes at La Quinta, California, 
on Saturday to emerge as the big 
winner after the first day of the 
$600,000 Skins Game. 

The two holes were worth five 
skins and $130,000 to Lehman. 
Tiger Woods won three skins 
worth $60,000 by knocking in a 
four-foot birdie putt on the third 
hole. Mark O'Meara earned 
$20,000 by taking the other skin 
with a birdie on the fourth. 

David Duval, a late replace- 
ment for Fred Couples, was shut 
out on the first nine holes. The 
Skins Game was to conclude with 
nine holes Sunday. (AP) 

• Nick Price held off fellow Zi- 
mbabwean Mark McNulty on 
Sunday to win his second Zim- 
babwe Open in three years by two 
shots in Harare. ( Reuters ) 



Greg Norman hitting from 
the rough in Sunday's round. 


Horne Hits Century 


CRICKET Matthew Home 
scored his first lest century Sunday 
to shore up another wobbly New 
Zealand batting effort 

Alter Home’s disciplined 133 
in the third test against Australia in 
Hobart, Tasmania, the tourists 
made a surprise declaration at 25 1 
runs for six wickets half an hour 
before stumps on the fouith day. 
Australia was 14 without loss at 
the close and leads by 163. 

• Pakistan recovered from a 
poor start to reach 122 runs for two 
wickets Sunday in reply to West 
Indies' 303 in the second test in 
Rawalpindi. 

• The second test between India 
and Sri Lanka was abandoned as a 
draw Sunday after rain washed out 
the final day’s play. {Reuters) 


Newest Japanese Signing 


BASEBALL The Boston Red Sox 
on Sunday signed Kenichiro 
Kawobata, an 1 8-year-old Japa- 
nese high school outfielder, to a 
minor- league contract. He became 
the first Japanese player other than 
a pitcher to sign with a major 
league team. The contract re- 
portedly is worth about Si 00.000. 

Last week, the New York Mets 
signed Juei Ushiromaisu. also 18, 
a left-handed pitcher. (AP) 


Sports 


■ ~ r 

.*«*• v- 







Iran Celebrates Trip to World Cup 


Reuters 

MELBOURNE — Valdeir Vieira, the 
coach of Iran’s soccer team, said Sunday 
that his team should delay its return 
borne to allow celebrations to calm 
down after die team's qualification for 
the World Cup finals. 

The Brazilian cook over as coach less 
than a month ago. His team beat Australia 
on Saturday to earn the 3 2d and final 
place in next year's finals in France. Iran 
and Australia’tied, 2-2. having drawn 1-1 
in Tehran a week earlier. Because it had 
scored more goals away from home. Iran 
qualified. 

"I will ask the football authorities to 
consider delaying our return to allow the 


celebrations to slow down a little,” Vie- 
ira said. ''The Iranian people love foot- 
ball. I would be very sad if mere is a crush 


ball. I would be very sad if mere is a crush 
of people to meet us at the airport.” 

He added: “I think 70 million Iranian 
people will gain a great deal from this 
result. People who are happy do not 
think about fighting.” 

Iran trailed 2-0 after 74 minutes when 
Vieira brought on forward Ebrahmi Ta- 
hami for a brief appearance that 
changed the game. 

“Tab ami is a very explosive and pos- 
itive player,” said Vieira, who removed a 
defender to accommodate the change. In 
less than four minutes, midfielder Karim 
Bagheri and Khodadad Azizi had scored. 



Manchester Regains Lead in League 


Reuters 

Manchester United 


when it crushed the third- 
place Blackburn Rovers, 4-0. 

Ole Gunnar Solskjaer 
scored twice. Blackburn 
scored put two goals into its 
own net and finished with 


SPAIN Real Madrid, the 
league leader, bear Celta 
Vigo, 3-1, Sunday in Madrid. 
Predrag Mijatovic scored the 
first goal before halftime, and 
after several missed chances, 
Raul Gonzalez and Clarence 
Seedorf scored in the second 
half. Vladimir Gudelj scored 
for Celta three minutes from 
the end. 


NETHERLANDS Ajax. the 
league leader, beat Forttma 
Sittard, 2-0, Sunday in Am- 
sterdam. Sunday Oliseh 
scored the first in the 78th 
minute and Shota Arveladze 
the second eight minutes 
laier. 

Scotland Celtic won 
only its second trophy of the 
1990s when it beat Dundee 




10 men after Chris Sutton 
was ejected. 

Chelsea had pulled even 
with United on Saturday 
when it beat Derby, 4-0. Gi- 
anfranco Zola scored a hat 
trick for the London club. 

In Manchester, the Rovers 
lost Sutton, their top scorer, in 
the 57th minute for his second 
yellow card, but by then Sol- 
skjaer had scored twice. 

In the 60th minute 
Stephane Henchoz put the ball 
in his own goal underpressure 
from Andy Cole, and five 
minutes from the end of the 
game Jeff Kenna sidefooted 
the ball into the Rovers’ net 

Arsenal, in fifth place, lost 
ground when it fell, 1-0, at 
home to Liverpool. Steve 
McManaman won the game 
with a brilliant goal from the 
edge of the penalty box. 

Italy Inter Milan stretched 
its unbeaten run in Serie A to 
10 matches with a 3-1 victory 
Sunday at Vicenza. The Vi- 
cenza captain, Domenico Di 
Carlo, hit the post with a I2th 
minute penalty before Inter 
took control with two goals in 
five minutes by Diego 
Simeone. First, he tapped the 
ball in from close range in the 
33d minute. Then he fired a 
shot into die roof of the net 
from the edge of the penalty 
area. Ronaldo scored Inter's 
third goal. 


\ v . „ m 

IV- -tms-h * 










United, 3-0, Sunday in the 
Scottish League Cup final. 

A header by Marc Rieper 
in the 21st minute and a long- 
range shot by Henrik Laisson 
three minutes later gave Celt- 
ic an early lead. 

On Saturday, Gennaro 
Gamiso and Marco Negri 
helped the Rangers to an un- 
convincing 3-2 victory over 
SL Johnstone. 

Germany Marian Hristov 
scored in the final minute to 
give Kaiserslautern a 2-1 vic- 
tory over nine-man Ham- 
burg. Kaiserslautern, which 
was promoted last year, now 
leads the Bundesliga at 
halfway stage. 

Hristov headed in a pass 
from Martin Wagner just be- 
fore the final whistle. 

Hamburg's striker Tony 
Yeboah was ejected in the 
41st minute, but Hamburg 
took the lead in the 58m 
minute when Hasan Salih- 
amidzic scored. 

Ratinbo leveled with an 
acrobatic volley in the 75th 
minute. Five minutes later, 
Hamburg midfielder Markus 
Schopp was sent off for han- 
dling me ball. 

FRANCE Metz, which 
would have regained first 

S lace with a victory, tied 2-2 
unday in Bordeaux and is 
second to Monaco on goal 
difference. 

Robert Pires opened the 
scoring for Metz in the filth 
minute. Lilian I -flgtnnHp-C 
scored for Bordeaux in the 
45th and 53d minutes. 
Franck HistiUoles equalized 
with 26 minutes left 


Viktor Ikpeba, a Nigerian 
ho was named the African 


Ihalha^lwn 

United's Gary PalBster going over Rovers' Chris Sutton. 


who was named the African 
Player of the Year on Sun- 
day, scored both goals as 
Monaco won, 2-0, Saturday 
at Chateanroux. 


i 


MONDAY, DECEMBER 1, 1997 


How Swede It Is: 

U.S. Trounced, 5-0 




St 1 ! 


Bjorkman Shines in 3 Matches 
As Davis Cup Finds New Home 




,r sli, . v 


By Christopher Claiey 

International Herald Tribune 


linriiim/tirm Kwrllnr 

Jonas Bjorkman of Sweden serving in his 6-1, 6-1 victory over Jonathan Stark of the U.S. on Sunday. 


GOTHENBURG, Sweden — It was 
slightly after 4 P.M. The sun. had already 
dropped below die, horizon here, but 
Jonas Bjorkman was rising. 

The elastic, enthusiastic Swede with 
the bowed legs and bionic reflexes had 
jast clinched his nation's sixth Davis 
Cup title with an ace, and now he was 
leaping toward the ceiling of the sold- 
out Scan din avium, free of pressure, free 
of the Americans and free of the shado w 
of any other Swedish tennis player. 

This might have been Pete Sampras's 
year, but this was Bjorkman ’s long 
weekend, and as he celebrated on Sat- 
urday afternoon with his doubles part- 
ner Nicklas Kulti, Sampras was 


stretched out in his luxury hotel suite in 


a different part of Gothenburg with his 
tom left can wrapped and elevated. 


Vieira then removed Tahami in favor of 
an extra defender. Despite a late finny, 
Australia failed to add to earlier goals by 
Harry Kewell and Aurelio Vidmar. 


tom left calf wrapped and elevated. 

“The season is too long, way too 
long,” Sam pr as said. ‘Tve always felt 
that way, and I’ve told the tour. When 
you’re sitting around today watching 
the Swedes win, it makes me think l 
should be out there healthy and playing. 
You getalittie bit angry when you think 
about it” 

Tennis historians never will know 
bow this final would have unfolded if 
Sampras had not injured his calf and 
defaulted after two sets and three games 
a gains t Magnus Larsson on Friday. All 
they will know, is that Sweden won as 
convincingly as Davis Cup allows, and 
that in triumphing, 5-0, the Swedes be- 
came the first team to sweep the United 
States in a Cup tie since the 1973 finaL 
Thar year, a pair of all-time greats from 
Australia, Rod Laver and John New- 
combe, vented their frustration at being 


pointlessly excluded from previous 
Cups because they were contract pro- 
fessionals. 


Despite Bjorkman’s remarkable pro- 
gress this year at age 25, it is safe to say 
that there are no all-time greats on this 
Swedish team. No Bjorn Borgs. No 
Mats Wilandexs. No Stefan Edbergs. 
What these Swedes had was unity and 
camaraderie, two nouns frequently in 
short supply in die relentlessly indi- 
vidualistic microcosm of men's tennis. 

If Sampras had been eager and at his 
peak, as he was against the Russians in 
the 1995 Davis Cup final, such synergy 
probably would not have been enough 
to maintain Gothenburg’s reputation as 
a Davis Cup fun house bristling with 
nasty surprises for visiting Americans. 

With Sampras in his hotel room, it 
was much more than enough. 

’ ‘We have had a great team spirit for 
many years,” said the now-retired Ed- 
berg, who came to Sweden for the final 
from his home in London, just as he had 
come to Sweden for the first three 
rounds in his first year of gilded re- 
tirement. “We’ve been brought up 


watching Davis Cup and Wimbledon on 
television. We believe in it, and we 


television. We believe in it, and we 
work hard for it, and we give it more 
priority than other nations do. It is just 
about sacrifice.” 

The Americans have not always made 
such sacrifices in recent years, losing 
early in Australia in 1993 and the Czech 
Republic in 1996 because their best 
players were more interested in chasing 
ranking points. Bnt in this case. Captain 
Tom Guliikson had his strongest singles, 
players willing and available — world 
No. 1 Sampras and world No. 3 Michael 
Chang — and still lost 

“It's very disappointing,” Guliikson 
said. “I came here with the idea of 
exorcising all the ghosts of Gothenburg’s 
past, and we have another nightmare.” 

The Americans were not the only 
would-be exorcists in this final. A year 


ago, in the less talismanic city of 
Malmo, the Swedes lost, 3-2, to the 
French in what was arguably the most 
extraordinary Davis Cup final in his- 
tory: a final in which Kulti squandered 
three match points in the fifth set of the 
decisive rubber in relief of the injured 
Edberg. 

“It seems like me and the boys were 
determined to take the Cup this year,” 
said . Carl-Axel Hageskog, Sweden's 
captain. 


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None more titan Bjorkman. who has j 
long lobbied for a starring role on the 
Swedish ream and finally earned it this 
year. In the semifinal victory over Italy, 
he won three rubbers. Against the 
Americans, he did the same, beating i 
Chang in four sets on Friday, teaming 
with Kulti to beat the makeshift Amer- . 
lean team of Todd Martin and Jonathan •" 
Stark, 6-4, 6-4, 6-4, on Saturday, and 
then obliterating Stark, 6-1, 6-1. in the ; 
meaningless fourth rubber on Sunday.' 
Larsson then completed the sweep with , 
a 7-6 (7-4), 6-7 (6-8), 6-4 victory over 
Chang. 

“I couldn’t feel much better,” said 
Bjorkman, whose ranking has rocketed 
from 69 to four this year. "Everything 
has gone much better than I was hoping ' 
when 1 started this year. 

Bjorkman has improved his ground- 
strokes and fitness and, in the process, ' 
his belief in himself. Always a spec- 
tacular shoemaker, he now seems even ' 
more convinced that he can will small 1 
tennis balls through small gaps. Al- 
though he did not serve superbly in 
Saturday’s decisive doubles match, his 
fast-twitch returns and explosive vol- 
leys were simply a level above what 
Martin and his impromptu partner Stark 
could consistently handle. 

In their last 32 Davis Cup ties, the 
Americans are 19-0 when they win the 
doubles and 7-6 when they do not. 
Clearly, Guliikson, whose contract was 
extended before this loss, needs to find a 
solution. Just as clearly, he should not 
count on his friend Sampras to volunteer 
his finger to plug up the leaky dike. 

The American star said Saturday that 
he planned on playing Less as he grew 
older and that he was highly unlikely to 






play in next year’s potentially thorny 
first-round home tie against the Rus- 


Vo 

Ha 


first-round home tie against the Rus- 
sians. 

“I want to play this game for five or 
seven more years and play it healthy,” 
said Sampras, whose small calf muscle 
tear is expected to take three to four 
weeks to heal. “I think I got this from 
overplaying and not giving myself 
enough time to rest This is my fourth 
trip to Europe in the last month and a 
half. I sort or would like to have five or 


six or seven weeks off to enjoy my year 
and recuperate mentally and physic - 


and recuperate mentally and physic- 
ally." 

Unlike Edberg and the Swedes, 


Unlike Edberg and the Swedes, 
Sampras did not grow up watching Dav- 
is Cup ties and does not have the same 
attachment to it as he does to the Grand 
Slam events. The record will reflect his 
ambivalence because in the last five 
years — the years Sampras has dom- 
inated men’s tennis — the Americans , 
have won the Cup only once. 

The Swedes, who have not had a 
Grand Slam singles titlist since 1992, 
have won the Cup twice during that 
span. 

And from the sound of the celebration 
this weekend in Gothenburg, this north- 
erly tennis nation is not about to stop 
overachieving: “The Davis Cup," said 
Bjorkman. “is already in my schedule 
for next year.” 


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Asomber Michael Chang taking in 
the trophy ceremony on Sunday. 


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