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INTERNATIONAL 



PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


The World’s Da fly Newspaper 


Paris, Tuesday, December 2, 1997 



No. 35,693 


NATO Set 
To Extend 
Force’s Stay 
* In Bosnia 


Defense Chiefs to Keep 
34,000 Troops There, 
Alliance Officials Say 


By Craig R. Whitney 

New York Times Service 


t 


BONN — Senior NATO officials 
here and in Brussels said Monday that 
they expected allied defense ministers 
to commission plans this week for a 
continued alliance peacekeeping mis- 
sion in Bosnia-Herzegovina after the 
middle of next year. 

The U.S. secretary of defense, Wil- 
liam Coheo, and his European colleagues 
are meeting Tuesday in Brussels and are 
also expected to agree to leave the NATO 
force in Bosnia at its current level of 
34,000, including 8,000 Americans, until 
final decisions on what die peacekeep- 
ers' role will be after their mandate ends 
in June, alliance military officials said. 

An officer in Brussels said that allied 
intelligence assessments had concluded 
that peace in Bosnia would collapse if 


the peacekeepers left, a view increas- 
’ tied by senior Clinton admizt- 


: < 


ingiy shared 
istration officials who had once hoped 
to withdraw U.S. troops there for good 
by June. 

“Bill Cohen has been in a difficult 
position because he had told his former 
colleagues in the Senate that American 
troops would be home by next June," a 
European military officer said. A West- 
ern diplomat said that NATO operations 
in Bosnia beyond that date might in- 
volve fewer Americans Nit would still 
be commanded by the U.S. supreme 
allied commander in Europe, General 
Wesley Clark. 

Informed NATO officers said there 
was little prospect of another military 
operation like the one British com- 
mandos carried out in Bosnia last sum- 
mer to arrest two Bosnian Serb officials 
who had been indicted on war crimes 
charges by the international tribunal in 
The Hague. 

The most-wanted alleged war crim- 
inal in the region. Radovan Karadzic, 
the Bosnian Serb who has been indicted 
by die tribunal, is nnHef constant sur- 
veillance by OLA and U.S. military in- 
telligence, NATO officers said, but the 
peacekeepers have no constantly op- 
erational commando squad like the Brit- 
ish one last summer that would be ready 
to move in at short notice to seize Mr. 
Karadzic in an unguarded moment. 

Officials in Washington said last 
summer that action against Mr. Karad- 
zic had been stymied by a reluctance to 
act by die main allied forces in the area 
where he lives — French troops. 

But senior NATO officials here and 
in Paris have repeatedly affirmed that 
the French share the American view that 




I 

Some Optimism 



in Japan 


Not So Fast, Says Seoul, 
Balking at IMF Rescue 

Talks Resume as Stocks and Currency Tumble 


By Andrew Pollack 

New York Tuna Service 


SEOUL — Apparently reluctant to 
swallow some bitter medicine pre- 
scribed by die International Monetary 
Fund, the government of South Korea 
went back into negotiations Monday 
over a plan for a bailout of its economy, 
having previously announced that an 
agreement had been reached. 

Lim Chang Yuel, minister of finance 
and economy, said Monday night that 
negotiations with the IMF might be re- 


See SEOUL, Page 10 


lot pain 

that might lie ahead for the world’s 
llth-largest economy, one that has I 

known little but breakneck growth far UVCI ilald 5 
it three decades. 


peace has no prospect of taking hold as 
lonegu 




long as Mr. Karadzic remains a Bosnian 
Serb power behind the scenes. 

The meeting of North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization defense ministers is also 
expected to endorse a surprisingly low 
estimate of the costs of expanding die 
alliance to include three new countries 
of Eastern Europe in 1999. 

A study by NATO military experts 


See BOSNIA, Page 14 


the 

South Korea's stock marker and cur- 
rency continued to plummet Monday, 
based partly on fears that the conditions 
set by the IMF would provoke a sharp 
economic slowdown, brat also based on 
sentiment that the rescue plan might not 
be strong enough to truly reform the 
financial system that is hobbled by bad 
debts. 

The Korea Stock Exchange's com- 
posite index plunged 14.70 points, or 
3.6 percent, to 393.16, its first close 
below the 400 level in more than 10 
years. The won was at 1,187 to die 
dollar, another record low, after trading 
at about 1,175 in the middle of the 
day. 

Korean press reports said the big 
sticking point in the negotiations was 


Crisis Eases 


By Mitchell Martin 

International Herald Tribune 


Swiss Find Victims’ Gold 
Was a Sixth of Nazi Loot 


By Alan Cowell 

New York Tones Sendee 


LONDON — On the eve of die first 
major international conference on “Nazi 
gold." Swiss historians put a figure for 
the first time Monday on die value of 
gold stolen from concentration camp 
prisoners and others in Germany, con- 
firming that a substantial proportion of 
the bullion used to finance Hitler's war- 
machine was stripped from its victims. 

The Swiss estimated that die amount 
of money taken from individuals totaled 
$146 million at 1945 prices, or $13 
billion at today’s prices. 

The figure was much higher than 
previously thought, although no spe- 
cific total had been advanced before. 

Similar assertions concerning the 
vast value of victims’ gold were made 


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700 F9s U.S. Mfl. (Eur.) $1.20 



last May in a U.S. study, conducted 
under the auspices of Stuart Eizenstat, 
the leading State Department official 
involved m die hunt to track down 
looted gold and use it to benefit Holo- 
caust survivors. 

But, while the Eizenstat repast spoke 
of victims' gold being melted down and 
traded as bullion from the German cen- 
tral bank, it did not quantify it, Amer- 
ican officials said. 

The Swiss report said Monday that a 
much larger proportion of the gold that 
went through Nazi coffers in World War 
II, around a sixth, was stolen or ex- 
propriated from individuals rather than 
looted from central banks or acquired 
from Germany's own reserves. 

And, ‘ while it acknowledged dial 
Switzerland's central bank provided the 
destination for a large proportion of the 
Third Reich's gold, it also said that 
Swiss private banks received three 
times more Nazi bullion — some $61 .2 
million at wartime values, or $550 mil- 
lion in today’s terms — than has been 
previously acknowledged. 

Mr. Eizenstat said in London that the 
Swiss disclosure “goes beyond what 
was in our report” and showed the 
seriousness of Swiss efforts to confront 
a past that was long hidden behind a 
national myth of hostility to the Nazis. 

But the disclosures are certain to 
strengthen assertions by American Jew- 
ish groups and Holocaust survivors that 
efforts over the last year to provide 
restitution have produced far smaller 


NEW YORK — Stock prices rose in 
major markets around the world Mon- 
day, with the Dow Jones industrial av- 
erage topping 8,000 points for the first 
time since its October collapse as worries 
about Asia's financial problems eased. 

Broad stock indexes in the key Asian 
markets of Japan, Hong Kong and Aus- 
tralia rose about 2 percent, and similar 
gains were recorded in Europe and 
North America, although some of the 
smaller Pacific markets weakened. 

On Wall Street, the Dow closed up 
189.98 points at 8,013.11, marking a 
recovery from the Ocl 27 slide in which 
it fell a record 55436 points and putting 
it back cm a inarch toward the record 
, of 835931, set Aug. 6. 

in Asia were encouraged by 
comments from Prime Minister Ryutaro 
Hashimoto of Japan, who said he would 
do “anything necessary*’ to ensure the 
stability of ms country’s financial sys- 
tem. The possibility of an outright col- 
lapse in the Japanese economy has wor- 
ried investors since the Asian economic 
crisis began over the summ er, and the 
recent weakness in South Korea has 
added to the wearies. 

Reports that Seoul had arranged for a 
massive assistance package from the 
International Monetary Fraud initial! 
added to die improved sentiment 
though late in the day it appeared that 
there was disagreement over how 
quickly the Strath Korean economy 
would be allowed to grow. The coun- 
try's stock market was one of those 
posting losses for the day, with die 
composite index down 3.6 percent. 

Slowing economic growth in Asia was 
one of man y anti- infla tinngry factors that 
was aiding die UJS. stock market on 


See MARKETS, Page 10 


The Dollar 


Now Yorit Monday 0 4 P-M. pravtaua dow 


OH 


1.7765 


1.7644 


Pound 


1.685 


1.6685 


Yen 


128.725 


127.85 


FF 


5.9464 


5.8045 




The Dow | 

t 




+18938 


8013.11 


7823.13 


S&P 500 


tfwp wonder O * RM. prevtouadow 


See GOLD, Page 14 


+1937 


874.77 


955^40 


By William K. Stevens 

New York Tunis Service 


A young boy pressing a U£. dollar onto his father’s head in Seoul, where 
protesters demanded a national austerity drive to remedy financial ids. 


the IMF’s request that South Korea liq- 
uidate troubled investment and com- 
mercial hauler 

Seoul, worried about increasing un- 
employment and a possible run on 
banks, has favored allowing these in- 


World Markets 

negotiations with the imf tnignt be re- ^ X%TT 

solved by Tuesday. But the prolong- ^AQ|« oo WorTV 
ation was indicative of the level of pain "" J 

fUftf Iia tUa rr/nrl 


KYOTO, Japan — .The climactic 
round of negotiations bn what to do 
about global warming opened here 
Monday amid widespread concern that 
.too many hard issues remained to allow 
the completion of an effective agree- 
ment before the talks end in nine days. 

“This negotiation hasn't mat ure d; 
it’s like new wine, and I don't know if 
we can ferment it in time,* * said Melinda 
Kimble, die State Department official 
who is leading the U.S. delegation in 
Kyoto nnril the higher-level ministerial 
phase of die talks begins next Monday. 

On Monday, however, Ms. Kim ble 
hinted at some flexibility in' the Amer- 
ican position on setting targets for re- 
duction of gases that trap heat in the 
atmosphere. 

(President Bill Clinton said Monday 
that he was sending Vice President Al 
Gore to the negotiations in Japan, The 
Associated Press' reported from Wash- 
ington. Mr. Gore will outline the U.S. 
position during a one-day visit next 
week, bnt negotiations will be left to 
Stuart Eizenstat. the undersecretary of 
state for economic affairs.] 

After more than two years of bar- 
gaining, delegates f r o m more than 150 
countries are meeting for their final ses- 
sion in the high-tech Kyoto Interna- 
tional Conference Hall in Hits anrienr 

capital and repository of traditional Jap- 
anese culture. 

The negotiators are trying to agree 
not just on the amount by which emis- 
sions of greenhouse gases like carbon 
dioxide should be cut over die next 10 to 
20 years, and on what schedule, but also 
on how to share the harden, what gases 
to include and how to structure die im- 
mensely complex task. 1 

The job has turned out to be more 
complicated and difficult than was en- 
visioned in March 1995 when parties to 
the 1992 Rio treaty on climate change 
decided that stronger action was 
needed, say many who are involved. 

In 1995; it was seen simply as - a 
matter of deciding on a redaction target 
and timetable for the industrialized 
countries. Now it has broadened to in- 
clude the highly contentious role of de- 
veloping nations, as well as a number of 
elaborate mechanisms by which the re- 
ductions might be earned out - 
As a result, many experts say, there is 
a distinct possibility that the talks will 
not be concluded hoe, at least not folly, 
and will have to be extended much as 
were negotiations on setting up the 
World Trade Organization — a task that 
took more than a decade. 


But not everyone is pessimistic, and 
Ms. Kimble sent a signal Monday that 
prompted Michael Zammit Cntajar, the- 
executive secretary of the United. Na- 
tions climate secretariat, to declare that 
"the negotiation is on its way.” 

Ms. Kimble told the opening session 
of the conference of the parties to the 
1992 Rio eiimate treaty, under which 
die talks are bring held, that the United 
States would no longer insist on a ■flat- 
rate, one-size-fits-all reduction target 
for all countries. she said, the 

Americans were “ p rep are d to consider 
the possibility of limited, carefully 
bounded differentiation’’ of targets 


amon g industrializ ed cnnntriex. 

Different targets for different coun- 
tries, tailored to their economic and 
social profiles, have emerged as a pos- 
sible way to get around die impasse 


amo ng rich countries over what targets 
apH Irnrw-tohloft for reductions they 
should adopt 

The European Union, Japan and Rus- 
sia have all proposed variations on the 
theme of differentiation, but the United 
States h ad until Monday declined to join 

in what could ultimately be the key to an 

. agreement on one of the talks’ two cen- 
tral issues. On the other central issue, 
that of how soon developing countries 
should be bound by specific reduction 
targets and timetables, Ms. Kimble said 
they need not take the same form as 
those of rich nations. Rather, she sug- 
gested, the poorer countries might vol- 
untarily — or as a result of future ne- 
gotiations — adopt emissions growth 
targets. 


See CLIMATE, Page 10 


Who Emits Most 


The United States produces more 
heat-trapping gases Sian other ' 
countries, but it reaps a bigger 
economic benefit Figures are for 
1993. 


EMSSiONS OF CARBON GASES 
FROM ENERGY PRODUCTION 

In melons of metric tons ' 



United States 
Former Soviet Union 
China 

Japan . . 291 

Germany . 269 

India - | 164 

Britain ^ 159 


CARBON EMISSIONS RELATIVE 
TO ECONOMC ACTIVITY 

Metric tons of carbon emitted for each 
million dollars of GDP* 


Former Soviet jjrvon 

Germany 

China 

Britain 

United States 

India 

Japan 


'Gross domestic product figures are 
converted to dollars at rates that 
equaHze purchasing power. 

Sow*: Carter for Clean Air Podcy ' 


New Ice Age 
On the Way 
For Europe? 

Scientists See Paradox 
InPUmet 9 s Warming 


By Curt Snplee 

Washington Post Service 


NYT 


s 


Shortchanging the Euro 

National Considerations Coming to the Fore 
In the Fight Over a Leader for New. EU Bank 


By John Vinocur 

International Herald Tribune 


National considerations have come 
to dominate the choice of a president 
of Europe's new central bank, a leader 
whose job is supposed to symbolize 
the bank’s independence from just 
such calculations. 

At the highest level, Europe’s lead- 
ership is tom over finding a person 
who will become the European Un- 
ion’s principal actor in determining 
the worth of its money, interest rates 
and the rest of the world’ s view of the 
role of the euro, its common currency. 
The problem is not one of choosing 
competence, but of perceived nation- 
al loyalties. 

with this complicated backdrop, 
the process is most likely to continue 
through March, and possibly until 
May, when the founding members of 
die European Monetary Union are to 
be officially selected. Tactically, 
neither France nor Germany, die mam 
hands at the levers and pulleys, finds a 


quick solution imperative, and both 
regard remarks by some European 
leaders about keeping politics out of 
the discussion as disingenuous. 

“In fact,’* an official said, “dis- 
cussing who gets the job is far less 
unseemly than some tend to think. The 
job of president of the European Cen- 
tral Bank will be an unprecedented 
adventure, one of historic proportions. 
We should get the right man, no?” 


NEWS ANALYSIS 


The reality is that profound na- 
tional considerations have knocked 
down die premise that the job would 
go to a banker judged essentially on 
his basic skill* instead, die trade-off 
process now under way so reflects 
n a ti o n al interests that Europe seems 
to have provided itself with a new 
dilemma: Eitho- die debate about (he 
bank's president will take place in 
public with full display of nationalist 


See BANKER, Page 10 


WASHINGTON — As the global 
conference on clima te change formally 
opened in Kyoto, Japan, the main focus 
on Monday was on rising worldwide 
temperatures. 

Yet paradoxically, one of die worst 
potential consequences of global wann- 
ing is catastrophic local cooling, spe- 
cifically across Europe. 

A glance at the map puts the threat in.. 
chilling perspective. London is farther 
north than Winnipeg; Denmark has die 
same latitude as the Aleutians. Yet 
European winters are comparatively 
mild. The reason is that the North At- 
lantic is wanned by a mighty ocean 
“conveyor belt” mat transports stu- 
pendous amounts of heat in a mile- deep 
layer of warm water that flows north- 
ward from the Equator. 

If that beneficent sy&tenuwere to stop 
— as it apparently has many times in the 
during glacial periods — Northern 
"oe’s average winter temperatures' 
Lbe 10 or 20 degrees Fahrenheit (5- 
to 11 degrees centigrade) below what 
they are now. 

“If there were a full shutdown,’ ' said 
Wallace Broecker of Colombia Uni- 
versity’s Lamont-Doberty Earth Obser- 
vatory, “Ireland would become like 
Spitsbergen, regardless of global warm- 
ing. Iceland would have gradation right 
down to sea level. People would have to 
abandon it. Northern Europe would be- 
come, not exactly uninhabitable, but 
more like Siberia than New York." 

As a result, dete rmining whether 
global warming could hinder or stop the 
Atlantic “thermohaline circulation’’ 
(or THC, as the conveyor belt is for- 
mally known) and how rapidly it might 
do so are among the most urgent ques- 
tions in climate research. 

la the Nov. 28 issue of the journal 
Science, Mr. Broecker offers a caution- 
ary analysis, arguing that evidence from, 
ice cores and ocean sediments shows 
that past changes in THC-relared cli- 
mate nave been “large, abrupt and glob- 
.al,” occurring “on a time scale of a few 
decades to as little as a few years.” 

Other expats say they dunk die in- 
tervals are considerably longer, perhaps 
entailing centuries of change. 

Either way, because “the con- 
sequences could be devastating," Mr. 
Broecker warns, ‘ ’it behooves us to get a 
better grasp than we now have of this 
phenomenon.” 

Similar sentiments have been ex- 
pressed repeatedly since . the early 
1990s, when researchers at the National 


See CHILL, Page 10 


AGENDA 



Blame Saddam, U.S. Defense Chief Says 


BRUSSELS (Reuters)— President 
Saddam Hussein of Iraq, not the 
.United States or United Nations, 
would bear the responsibility for any 
deaths of Iraqi children as a result of 
UN sanctions, die UJS. defense, sec- 
retary, William Cohen, said Monday. 

On the way to a meeting of defense 
ministers from the North Atlantic 
Treaty -Organization, Mr. Cohen also 
said dial the prospects for a U.S, mil- 
itary confrontation with Iraq had 


opened all potential weapons sites to 
UN aims inspectors. 

Describing the UN inspections, Mr. 
Cohen, saio, “It has been, for six 
years, hide and seek constantly. ' ’ 

Meanwhile, the UN secretary-gen- 
eral, Kofi Annan,, recommended in- 
creasing die $2 billion worth of oil Iraq 
is allowed to sell every six months 
under the . UN_oil-for-food plan, bnt- 
proposed no specific figure. Page 6. 


Lknd OnaneMflh taodtfed taa 

GRAPPELLI DDES — Tht jazz 
musician StephaneGrappefli died 
on Monday in Paris at 89. Page 6. 


Books 


Crossword . 


Opinion PsmmkJUQ 


........ Pazes 22-23. 

The IHT on-line 



PAGE TWO. 

A Life and Death in Scientology 


BUSINESS/FINANCE Page 15 . 

Thailand to Qose 58 Finance Firms 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 


PACE TWO 


I’lirea 


36-Year-Old Woman / 'I Wanted Help,' She Told Paramedic in Florida City 


Police Studying a Life and Death in Scientology 


C LEARWATER. Florida — Late on a 
November afternoon two years ago. a 
36-year-old Scientologist named Lisa 
McPherson was involved in a minor 
traffic accident. She was not injured, but she 
inexplicably stripped off her clothes and began 
to walk naked down the street. A paramedic 
rushed her into an ambulance and asked why 
she had taken off her clothes. Ms. McPherson 
replied: "I warned help. I wanted help." 

She was taken to a nearby hospital for a 
psychiatric examination, but several Scientol- 
ogists arrived and explained that their religion 
opposes psychiatry. Ms. McPherson asked to 
leave and. against medical advice, she was 
released into die care of the Scientologists. 

Seventeen days later, after being kept under 
24-hour watch at a hotel owned by Scientology 
in Clearwater. Ms. McPherson was dead. 

Bv church accounts, she had spit out food, 
banged violently oh the walls of her room and 
hallucinated. The county medical examiner 
said Ms. McPherson was deprived of water for 
at least her last 5 to 1 0 days and died of a blood 
clot brought on by severe dehydration. 

Church officials denied responsibility for 
the death and challenged the medical exam- 
iner’s findings. But the image of a healthy 
young businesswoman slipping into dementia 
and dying inside the Church of Sciemology’s 
landmark building in Clearwater has rekindled 
deep suspicions in this serene retirement com- 
munity. which for two decades has been the 
unlikely spiritual headquarters of one of the 
world's most-debated churches. 


By Douglas Frantz 

New York Times Service 


arrival in Clearwater more than 20 years ago. 
Only later was it discovered that Scientology 
had come here with a written plan to take 
control of the city and silence anyone who got 
in its way. 

Today, although the plan Med, suspicion 


runs so high that the police assist an intel- 
ligence officer to monitor the organization, and 


ligence officer to monitor the organization, and 
detectives are now concluding a two-year crim- 
inal investigation into Ms. McPherson's death. 

Even as it illuminates the church’s rela- 
tionship with this Gulf Coast city, an ex- 
amination of Ms. McPherson’s life and death, 
including a review of church records and other 
documents from a lawsuit filed by her family, 
also offers an unusually rich look into the 
world of one Scientologist It shows how vir- 
tually every aspect of her life — work, friend- 
ships, relationships with family members, 
even choices of vacation spots — was in- 
fluenced by the church. 

It also shows the financial demands Sci- 
entology places on its members, and the tre- 
mendous value to the church of the decision by 
the Internal Revenue Service in 1993 to grant 
tax-exempt status to Scientology. 

Ms. McPherson worked at a business owned 
by Scientologists and spent so much of her 
salary on church courses that she had to borrow 
from her employer to keep up with her studies 
in church doctrine, according to documents 


scribe the church as a cult and money machine 
intended to bilk, the faithful, who pay large 
sums to undergo counseling sessions. This is 
the primary reason given by the German gov- 
ernment for refusing to recognize Scientouigy 
as a religion. 

Beyond the financial issues, die circum- 
stances surrounding Ms. McPherson’s death 
raise questions about whether die church’s 
handling of her medical treatment, particularly 
its failure, for philosophical reasons, to provide 
psychiatric care, contributed to her death. 


over to pay for more Scientology courses. 

Scientology officials and lawyers said it was 
possible to advance within the church without 


&':* t 


paying large sums and they scoffed at the idea 
that there was anything unusual about Ms. 
McPherson’s donations. 

“She was a 36-year-old woman who had 
been a Scientologist for 13 years, and she could 
give whatever she wanted." said Laura 
V aughan, one of 20 lawyers hired by the 
church to deal with the McPherson inves- 
tigation and the wrongful-death suit brought 
by her family. ‘There are a lot of people who 
give a heck of a lot of money to the church." 

Ms. McPherson’s links to the church went 
beyond her donations. Like many Scientol- 
ogists, she made die church her life. 

She was a sales representative for a small 
business owned by Scientologists and operated 
according to the management theories of the 
group's founder, L. Ron Hubbard. 

Many of her co-workers and friends were 
Scientologists and, when she fell behind her 
goals at work, she submitted to Scientology 
techniques aimed at working through her prob- 
lems. 

In keeping with the church’s belief that 
people live many lifetimes, Ms. McPherson 
signed what Scientology calls a "billion-year 
contract," as a member of the Sea Orga- 
nization, Scientology’s elite staff group. Al- 
though she later resigned from the staff, she 
remained a devout Scientologist. And when 
her life began to fall apart, she tamed her back 
on conventional medical treatment and sought 
refuge in Scientology. 

Ms. McPherson’s employer, AMC Publish- 
ing Co., moved its operation from Dallas to 
Clearwater to be closer to Scientology. AM C, 
which sells promotional material to the in- 
surance industry, is one of dozens of busi- 
nesses here that belong to the World Institute 
of Scientology Enterprises, which uses the 
acronym WISE. These businesses operate ac- 
cording to Mr. Hubbard’s management the- 
ories and pay a fee to Scientology, usually 10 
percent or annual earnings. 

Scientology boasts 8 million followers 
worldwide, though critics put the number at far 
less. Its founder, Mr. Hubbard, who died in 
1986. said people were immortal spirits who 
have lived through many lifetimes and.ac.- 


.Pf lando^feb V- ■ 

-Tampa ^ 
iurg FLORIDA 


, , t en* 


. , ■/ 1 


F OR their part, church officials and law- 
yers said the death was accidental, the 
result of an undetected blood clot. 
They accused the police department of 
a vendetta and said the police would not have 
investigated Ms. McPherson's death had she 
not been a Scientologist 
Echoing the same stance they have taken in 
struggles with governments around the world, 
church officials said that the days of coven 
attacks on critics of the church were long over 
and that Scientology simply wanted to be a good 
neighbor. They recite a list of civic projects, 
from sponsoring Boy Scout troop6 to running a 
winter carnival to raise food for the poor. 

Some remain unconvinced, and the details 
surrounding the death of Ms. McPherson have 
fed their anxieties. 

“The death of Lisa McPherson reaffirms that 
what we heard 20 years ago was true and I have 
not heard or seen any thin g to make me think 
they have changed, ’ ’ said Clearwater's mayor, 
Rita Garvey, wbo won a fourth term last year 
over an opponent backed by Scientologists. 

"They may be here, but I’m not going to 
accept it I refuse to meet with them." 

Certainly in her progression within Sci- 
entology, Ms. McPherson gave more to her 
church than average Americans donate to tra- 
ditional churches. In the last two years of her 
life, she paid $97,000 for Scientology courses 
with nam es like “Wall of Fire" and “New 
Life Rundown." The payments amounted to 
40 percent of her earnings. 

Because of the IRS decision, Ms. McPherson 
could deduct her payments as charitable gifts. In 
1994, her payments of$53,767 led to a $17,500 . 
tax refund, which, records turned over in the 
family’s lawsuit show, Ms. McPherson signed ! 


provided to The New York Times by lawyers 
for the family. She was able to deduct the 


S INCE it moved here in 1975, Scien- 
tology has bought $32 million worth of 
property, mostly downtown, and its 
1 ,000 staff members are seen on every 
downtown comer in their distinctive naval- 
type uniforms. Its parishioners own dozens of 
businesses, and devotees come from around the 
world each year to rake upper-level Scien- 
tology courses available only in Clearwater. 

But. despite its efforts to join the main- 
stream here and abroad, the Church of Sci- 
entology has never completely overcome the ■ 
distrust and fear generated by its clandestine 


for the family. She was able to deduct the 
payments for those courses from her taxes, but 
when she got her refund from the federal 
government, it was turned immediately over to 
her employers to pay for more courses. 

Since it received tax-exempt status, Sci- 
entology has waged a campaign to persuade 
members to increase contributions and take 
advantage of the deduction. 

For 25 years, the IRS had considered Sci- 
entology a commercial enterprise and refused 
to give it die tax exemption granted to 
churches. The refusals had been upheld by 
every court The agency reversed its position 
after a campaign by the church dial involved 
lawsuits, the use cif private detectives to in- 


vestigate IRS officials and a meeting between 
the church leader and the IRS commissioner 


the church leader and the IRS commissioner: 

The financial pressure on members of Sci- 
entology is one reason critics worldwide de- 




take " 
Okeechobee 




J: 


cum ulated traumatic memories that are 
obstacles to achieving their full potential. 

Adherents believe that those afflictions can 
be eliminated through a series of counseling 
courses, known as auditing. Most of the 
courses involve detailed questioning about 
Scientology and the members' lives by church 
ministers. The result, after years of courses, is 
an individual who is “clear" of problems. 


T 


HE final year of Ms. McPherson’s life' 
was tumultuous. In Scientology 
terms, she was “roller coastering,” 


M. meaning she was going through emo- 
tional ups and downs. In June 1995, she ap- 
parently suffered a mental breakdown. 

She spent two days recuperating at the Fort 
Harrison Hotel in Clearwater, the church's 


pii!)li< '•* n ' 


^ H ii,l-Rai 


primary retreat. Her payments to the church 
fell sharply, but within a month she had re- 
sumed paying thousands of dollars a week for 
courses. 

Her commissions at work remained low, 
however, and she borrowed from her em- 
ployers to pay for the courses. AMC payroll 
records show that Ms. McPherson borrowed 
more than $33,000 in 1995 and paid the same 
amounts to the church for courses. 

By September, she apparently had recovered 
enough to reach the coveted status of clear. But 
the roller coaster was headed down. 

An aunt said the family thought that Ms. 
McPherson was considering leaving Scien- 
tology. Church lawyers said she had no in- 
tention of leaving the fold. 


Flooding Kills 10 
In Northern Kenya 






The AssiKijied Press 

NAIROBI — At least 10 people 
drowned when Kenya's principal river 
burst its banks and flooded the main 
town in the northeastern part of the coun- 
try, a newspaper reported Monday. 

The Daily Nation said 10 people died 
Sunday night alter the rain-swollen 
Tana River raged into Garissa, about 
350 kilometers i217 miles) northeast of 
Nairobi, sweeping away homes and 
property. 

Terrified residents fled, the news- 
paper said. Many were rescued by vol- 
unteers using canoes and by Kenyan 
army trucks and helicopters. 

About 10,000 people driven from 
their homes were sleeping in schools, 
and local officials have appealed for 
blankets, medicine and clothes, the 
newspaper said. 

Garissa is about 100 kilometers from 
the border with southern Somalia where 
flooding has killed at least 1 ,499 people 
and driven another 230.000 from their 
homes since early October. 


iliSiilllillilplH 



v, 

•• 1 • ... 


Massacre of 29 Is Reported in Algeria 


tis 



MiSpS 

’ ■ 

l-'HgSsiiP 


Villagers from Zawani fleeing flooding along the Tana River in northeastern Kenya. 


Uiibdi Rumlfo it/fWir 


The Associated Press 

ALGIERS — Attackers blew up a bridge 
and penetrated an Algerian village in the 
darkness, slitting the throats of 29 people, 
hospital sources and newspapers said Mon- 
day. 

Government forces said, meanwhile, that 
they bad killed about 50 Islamic militan ts in a 
seven-day operation that also destroyed 35 
fundamentalist bunkers, the daily La Tribune 
reported Monday. 

The newspaper did not say whea the cas- 
ualties were inflicted. 1 

Since regional elections on Oct. 23, at least 
198 civilians have been killed in attacks and 
massacres, and 78 militants have been killed 
by government security forces. Most of the 
violence took place sooth of Algiers and south 
of the port of Oran. 

The losses among Algerian security forces 
have not been made public. Two members of 
a self-defense group were killed near Jijel in 
eastern Algeria. 

The village killings took place Saturday 
night. Attackers blew up a bridge linking the 
villages of Has si Laabed and Daoud, about 
440 kilometera (275 miles) southwest of Al- 
giers. 


Then they moved into Has si Laabed at 
about 10 P.M. and slashed the throats of 29 
people, according to hospital sources, who 
spoke on condition of anonymity, and the 
independent daily La Liberte. 

The bridge was the only link between 
die two villages, and its destruction may have 
delayed the anival of government security 
forces, the newspaper repotted on Mon- 
day. -= j 

Most of the victims were women, old 
people and children, according to nurses at the 


hospital in the nearby town of Saida, where 
the bodies were taken. 


HHII W 


the bodies were taken. 

Nobody claimed responsibility for the mas- 
sacre, which took place on the western edge of 
a region where die Armed Islamic Group, the 
most radical Algerian fundamentalist orga- 
nization, is active. 

In other violence, two people were killed 
and three others were wounded in an attack 
against a cigarette vendor Sunday near the 
Ketchaoua mosque in Algiers. 

According to witnesses, who spoke on con- 
dition of anonymity, the attackers fired sev- 
eral times. 

The wounded included a young girl, the 
daily L’Authentique reported. 



TRAVEL UPDATE 


WEATHER 


Austria Opens Borders to 8 Nations Euro ^ ,,, 


VIENNA (Reuters) — Immigration authorities scrapped 
passport checks Monday for travelers arriving at Vienna 
airport from eight European nations. 

The change marked Austria's first day as a full member of 
a European open borders agreement, the so-called Schengen 
accord. 

Austria is the ninth country to become part of the agree- 
ment, which allows passport-free travel among Germany, 
France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Spain, Por- 
tugal and Italy. 


High LnW 

or of 

AJgarvw 16/94 12 ffi 3 pe 
AmaWnfcm 2/36 002 Wi 

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C/F OF 
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Forecast for Wednesday through Friday, as provided by AccuWeather. 


aua *3? pc 

1050 1/3* ah 
409 2QGri 
205 -Sis si 


Greeks Plan Strike for Dec. 18 


ATHENS (Reuters) — Greek workers have announced a 
nationwide 24-hour walkout for Dec. 18 to protest against the 
Socialist government’s incomes and tax policies. 

The General Confederation of Greek workers, the conn- 


The General Confederation of Greek workers, the coun- 
try’s biggest labor grouping, said it was staging the strike to 
press changes in the government’s 1998 budget and a new 
draft tax law. 


EgyptAir scrapped a decision to slash fares on internal 


flights by 50 percent, four hours after the offer went into 
effect, company officials said. The move was aimed at over- 


effect, company officials said. The move was aimed at over- 
coming the slump in book- 


Peter G. Catranta 
Fora* A Futuna 


SUPERIOR Selection of Managed Accounts 

OUTSTANDING Global Currency Analysis 
EXCEPTIONAL Execution Forex or Futures 
MINIMUMS 510,000 to $5,000,000 (USD) 

COMMISSION 2-5 FX Spreads Fima* s $12*36 


MEMORIAL NOTICE 


Friends 

of 


Australia 1800125044 Belgium 080Q158SQ 

Colombia 080120837 Denmark 80016132 

France 0800902246 Greece 0800119213013 
Hong Kang 800067209 Israel 1771000102 

Japan 0031126809 Korea 0038110243 

Medea 058003784178 /Vrtftrrtou£r06Q220fi37 
Portugal 050112832 jlmnw 8001202501 

Spain 900931007 Sitcdcn 0207 Ml 58 

TttaQand 001WB11921M13 tgM 8009945757 


Brazil 0008110215513 
Finland 08001110064 
Germany 0130829666 
lady 167875928 

Luxembourg DS004552 
IV. Zealand 0800441880 
SAfria, - DM0996337 
S**ertmi 0800897233 
VK 0800968632 


PATRICIA HIGH PAINTON 


are gathering at 
Tbe American Cathedral in Paris, 
23 Avenue George V, Paris, 8* 
for a Memorial Tribute 
Wednesday. December 3, 1997, 
12:30 p.m. 


mgs in the aftermath of the 
Nov. 17 attack in Luxor that 
killed 58 foreign tourists. An 
EgyptAir statement said its 
decision to put tbe discounts 
on hold was “temporary’’ 
and cited " mistakes ” in the 
brief hours during which tick- 
ets were sold at 50 percent of 
their value. (AFP) 


Tbe leaning tower of Pisa 
is to receive a new drainage 
system in a effort to keep the 
tower from collapsing. (AFP) 



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Asia 

Today 

High Lo-W 

Tomorrow 

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OF 

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10/64 

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North America 

Abundant moisture will 
once again approach the 
West Coast o( North Amer- 
ica. The intermountain 
West, the Southwest and 
the wsstBm Plains w3 be 
mild, Cold air we take up 
residence In the eastern 
hail of the n atio n, bringing 
snow SQuaJJs to the Great 
Lakes. 


Europe 

MBder air move Into the 
United Kingdom after some 
chilly weather. A deep. 
ckWMnovIng trough of low 
pressure wm resiA to more 
cold, wet weather tor cen- 
tral ana eastern Europe. A 
chilly rein will continue to 
tell m Greece and the 
Balkans.- snow wflJ toft far- 
ther to north. 


Asia 

A large dome ol cold air 
will result in low tempera- 
tures in southern Sfcena, 


Mongolia, northern China 
and Manch ur ia, as wuB as 
Koran. Colder air wBl also, 
spread across Islands crt 
Japan. A persistent rain 
wfli fail across the moun- 
tains ol Indochina north 
Into southwest China. 


HoCtaUnh 3988 21/70* 
Hong Kong 10(64 14/37 a 

Mamcfead 22/71 307 pc 

Jakarta 30/80 2373* 

Km* 28/84 13/56 e 

K.Luiw 32/89 34/78* 
K.KM3afci 28/82 2373 r 
UMta 2S/B4 20-88 go 

MowDMS 22/71 WAS 
Phnom Penh aoma 20/BSpe 
Phi*«4 30/86 16/04 pc 

teigcon 3KB8 10/64 po 

Sawi -*22 -17/2 a 

Shanghai 7/44 1/34 a 

Shgapora 29/84 23/73 r 

w ism 4 13mm 

Tokyo JOBS MS pc 

Vnnpnna 2C/78 i3B6pc 


81/88 22/71 pc 

ia /68 1*81 C 

19/86 206 pc 
2*84 23/73 1 
28/82 11/32 9 
2MC 22/71 1. 
28-82 32/71 ah 
28-82 20/SB pc 
22/71 6/43 » 

29/94 21/70 pc 
27/80 19-SSc 
29/04 10/64 pc 
-aw -eras 

7/44 4/39 ah 

20-82 29171 r 
18/66 1 7/82 r 
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18/61 7/44 c 

17«2 9/48 pC 

10/50 307 po 
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1090 335B 

8/48 104 pc 


Latin America 


&<anaaAa«a 2677 17762 ah 
Cwacaa 26 <82 10/64 pe 
lam 26/78 10A4 po 

MwdooOy 21/70 7/44 pc 

RfattoJanera 29/84 20/88 a 
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21/70 1V92P 6 
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24.7S (Wl 


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AwNsnd. 2170 17/62 r 2073 IMS!*’ 
sydnw 33B9 20-68 a 21/70 13/89PC 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 

THE AMERICAS 


PAGE 3 


New Threat of Violence Hang s Over Haiti 

UN Peacekeepers Conclude 3-Year Mission With Country Still in e Jhtensive Care 9 


By Serge F. Kovaleski 

Washington Post Service 

TORT-AU-PWNOE, Haiti — A United Nations 
peacekeeping mission undertaken three years ago 


ruuu sou grappling with a pernicious stew of 
problems that nave raised doubts about the ef- 
fectiveness of the international effort 
When international forces led by 20,000 U.S. 
tnx»s came ashore in September 1 994 to dismantle 
a military dictatorship and reinstate Jean-Bertrand 
Aristide, the country’s first freely elected president, 
* hope and jHbilation swept this Caribbean nation. 
But those emotions have been eclipsed by a deep 
sense of pessimism, frustration and anger directed 
at the country's leaders. 

■ Hamstrung by political infighting, the Haitian 
government is lurching toward its seventh month 
without a prime minister, leaving it essentially 
incapable of functioning and s talling a crucial eco- 
nomic recovery program. Peaceful elections have 
been held, but the last major ballot, in April, was 
marred by allegations of irregularities. It is clear 
that until the election dispute is resolved. Par- 
liament will not approve a new prime minister. 

■ The paralysis cost Haiti 5 120 million in foreign 


aid this year and has discouraged foreign invest- 
ment in a countiy where unemployment is rampant. 
Long stretches of toad, many built by the VS. 
military, are crumbling, and most Haitians still 
have no electricity, telephones or clean water. 

But whai is pemaps most unsettling is the specter 
of politically motivated violence after three yeare of 
calm. A particularly serious threat could come from 
former members of the paramilitary groups that 
terrorized Haiti under the dictatorships of Francois 
Duvalier and his son, Jean-Qaude Dnvalier. A' 
number of men who belonged to the Duvaliers 7 
feared Ton-Tons Macoutes said they bad been wait- 
ing for the 1,170 remaining UN troops to leave so 
they could take up arms and challenge the gov- 
ernment of Mr. Aristide's successor. President Rene 
Preval, as well as Mr. Aristide and Parliament. 

“We are organizing again and collecting money 
and guns; we are ready, and you will see Macoute 
violence soon," a former member said. 

Furthermore, law enforcement authorities say 
they have linked a grenade attack in Port-au-Prince 
last month, in which a woman was killed and 14 
people injured, to a plot to assassinate Mr. Preval, 
Mr. Aristide and top government officials. The 
police have arrested a politician, a police officer, 
two former soldiers ana five others in connection 
with the attack. 




; -• -fH-,. .-rru 




' Robert Manuel, secretary of state for public se- j 
curity , said there were a number of ‘ 1 anti-democratic 
interests” — including international drug traffick- . 
ere, who w ere using Ham as a transshipment point to 
smuggle cocaine into die United States — intent on 
destabilizing Hmti'sstmgglu^ democracy. ■' ‘This is . 
a fragile state with a lot of demons out there who 
have a big, big interest in chaos,” he said. 

Observers point out that despite die threats of 
political violence, Haiti is better off today than 
when the army and state-sponsored security groups 
earned out unrelenting campaigns of terror. On the 
other hand, some fear that a new, 5,300 member 
national police force is vulnerable to becoming a 
tool for advancing political agendas. 

A suspect in the alleged assassination plot, Leon 
Jeune, 61, who ran against Mr. Preval in the 1995 
elections, was punched and kicked by police of- 
ficers during his arrest, according to officials. Mr. 
Jeune says be is innocent, and many Haitians do not 
believe the charges against him. 

Enrique ter Horst, chief of the UN mission in 
Haiti, acknowledged last week that the country, 
which is the poorest n the Western Hemisphere, had 
a long way to go. “Haiti is a countiythat still has 
not left the intensive care ward.'* he said. “It will 
continue to need international assistance, both fi- 
nancial and technical, for a long time.” 



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A Canadian soldier loading papers belonging to the United Nations peacekeeping . 
force in Haiti for shipment on Monday. The UN mission officially ended on Sunday.; 



TbW* 

r. ;‘. 


Republicans Are Gloomy 
On Fund-Raising Counsel 


The Associated Press 

WASHINGTON — As Attorney 
General Janet Reno worked on her final 
decision. Republicans said they were 
certain she would reject their demand 
that she seek an independent counsel to 
investigate campaign fund-raising ac- 
tivities by President Bill Clinton and 
Vice President A1 Gore. 

■ Ms. Reno- met with top aides and 
leaders of her task force for two and a 
half hours on Sunday. Leaving a World 
AIDS Day ceremony Monday at the 
Justice Department, she was asked if she 
had reached decision on an independent 
counsel. “No, not yet,” she replied. 

“I think it probably will be” Tuesday 
before a decision is reached, she added. 
Tuesday is the deadline for her to decide 
whether to inform a special court that 
activities by Mr. Clinton and Mr. Gore 
may warrant the appointment of an out- 
side prosecutor. 

Her aides said they anticipated that 
she would follow die recommendation 
of her task force against seeking an 
independent counsel to investigate Mr. 
Clinton. Mr. Gore or Hazel O'Leary, die 
former energy secretary. 


But Republicans used appearances on 
Sunday talk shows to predict that the 
attorney general would opt against an 
in dependent counsel. 

Senator Orrin Hatch of Utah, chair- 
man of the Senate Judiciary Committee, 
saidrhai Justice Department aides were 
“politically advising her not to do this 
rather than advising her to live within the 
law and do what’s right," 

Mr. Gore has acknowledge making 
telephone calls from die White House to 
solicit contributions for the 1996 elec- 
tion campaign. Mr. Clinton has said he 
may have made rails but doesn't recall 
having done so. 

Senator Hatch said he agreed with 
Ms. Reno that phone calls alone were 
not enough to trigger the Independent 
Counsel Act “That’s a false and bogus 
issue," he said. But he said that by 
focusing on that single issue, Ms. Reno 
was ignoring larger reasons for appoint- 
ing an independent counsel. 

He said those include “the misuse of 
soft money, the misuse of hard money, 
the collection of hard money in an im- 
proper way, the influence of foreigners 
in our process." 


Nixon’s Hate 
For Networks 


Washington Pott Service 

WASHINGTON — The best 
way to intimidate the nation’s three 
major television networks. Presi- 
dent Richard Nixon concluded in 
1971. was to keep the threat of an 
antitrust suit hanging over them. 

“If the threat of screwing them is 
going to help us more with their 

ni r ^t r a m mmg lhan fining it, then 

keep the threat," Mr. Nixon said to a 
White House aide in a tape-recorded 
Oval Office conversation that has 
been transcribed' for the first time. 
“Don’t screw them now. Otherwise, 
they’ll figure that we're done." 

Preoccupied with unfavorable 
treatment by the media, he* fre- 
quently sought ways to retaliate or 
at least to counterbalance negative 
portrayals. Tapes transcribed for 
The Washington Post and New- 
sweek reveal a president obsessed 
with efforts to improve his image. 

Speaking of an antitrust case, 
Mr. Nixon said: “Our gain is more 
important than the economic gain. 
We don't give a goddam about die 
economic gain. Our game here is 
solely political.” 


On-Line Industry Offers Its Own Curbs 

Threatened by New Laws, Providers Tout a Child-Safe Internet ' 


By Rajiv Chandrasekaran 

Washington Post Service . 

WASHINGTON — Several of the 
largest American technology and media 
companies, eager to fond off new U.S. 
laws reg ulating the Internet, have de- 
cided to embrace voluntary actions to 
prevent children from accessing adult- 
oriented material on the global com- 
puter network, industry executives say. 

The companies plan a broad public- 
education campaign to encourage parents 
to use filtering software that blocks adult- 
oriented Internet sites. Some of the par- 

Di^^?o., were 
set to release their own tools on Monday 
for parents to screen such content. 

The companies also are promising to 
work more closely with law-enforce- 
ment officials in tracking on-line pe- 
dophiles. 

Those efforts represent a new over- 
ture to U.S. government policymakers 
from an industry that wants to prevent 
die fast-growing Internet from being 
regulated like television and radio. 

Although the U/S. Supreme Court on 
June 26 overturned the Communica- 


tions Decency Act, a law that made it a 
crime to make “indecent" material 
available to minors over the Internet, a 
revised bill has been introduced in the 
Senate and similar measures are pending 
in several state legislatures. “Regula- 
tion is not necessary,” said Steve Case, 
America Online’s chief executive. “We 
want to show that the interactive world 
is being proactive in building a medium 
we can all be prond of.” 

But conservative groups and advo- 
cates of free-speech alike are expected 
to dispute the industry’s approach. Or- 
ganizations such as Enough is Enough, 
an anti-pornography group in Virginia, 
contend that filtering software should 
not substitute for new laws. 

The Electronic Privacy Information 
Center, in Washington, was to release a 
report Monday saying that “filtering 
mechanisms prevent children from ob- 
taining a great deal of useful and ap- 
propriate information.” When its re- 
searchers searched for common phrases 
such as “American Red Cross,” or 
“Bill of Rights” one common filtering 
device blocked access to almost 90 per- 
cent of Internet sites that mentioned the 
phrases, die group said. 


- The screening efforts were to be an-, 
nounced Monday at an on-line industry 
meeting in Washington that has attrac- 
ted the attention of Congress and the 
Clinton administration. The three-day; 
event was conceived in the wake of the 
Supreme Court decision, when Pres-' 
ident Bill Clinton urged the computer: 
industry to find ways to make the global- 
comp uter network “family friendly." ! 
' Screening also has an important busi- 
ness rationale: If parents are fearful of 
foe Internet's content, foe network will 
not grow into a mass medium, industry 
leaders say. Some software companies! 
also would benefit from the sale of 
filtering programs. 

Extending an olive branch to the 
Justice Department, which supported 
foe Communications Decency Act, sev- 
eral large Intranet service providers 
have promised -to assist law-enforce- 
ment personnel who are investigating 
crimes against children, particularly pe- 
dophilia and child pornography. Many 
Internet providers previously had been 
unw illing to block access to discussion 
groups and World Wide Web sites thar 
featured child pornography, citing free- 
speech grounds. 


AMERICAN 

TOPICS 

Speed Thrills 

Overgrown kids face an 
increasing array of tempta- 
tions as video arcades for 
adults sprout across the 
country. Now, those who 
feel a serious need for speed 
can enjoy the realistic 
thrills of fast racing without 
the risk of spills. 

In Bloomington, Min- 
nesota, there is foe N as car 
Silicon Motor Speedway, a 
lineup of 12 stock-car 
mock-ups linked by com- 
puters to each other and to a 


three-dimensional visual 
presentation of the Char- 
lotte Motor Speedway in 
North Carolina, foe Los 
Angeles Times reports. The 
cars race at simulated 
speeds of 200 miles an hour 
(320 kilometers an hour.) 

Or In Las Vegas, the 
Sahara Hotel & Casino has 
Speedworld, a $15 million 
bank of Indianapolis Ra- 
cing League cars also based 
on virtual reality technol- 
ogy. 

And if virtual reality is not 
real enough, try SpeedZone 
park in Industry, California. 
There you can ride in a full- 
size car propelled by a 350- 
cubic-inc±i Chevrolet engine 
that, with its propane-pro- 
pelled 300 horsepower, will 
thunder you. from dead stop 


to 70 in three seconds — 
faster than any street car. 
The difference with a real 
dragster These cars are 
safely on rails. 

Gentlepeople, start your 
engines. 

Short Take 

Officials in New York 
will study how to prevent 
giant balloons at the annual 
Thanksgiving Day parade 
from injuring spectators, 
after a woman was criti- 
cally hurt when high winds 
shoved an enormous Cat in 
foe Hat into a lamppost, 
toppling the post into a 
crowd. Three people were 
injured less seriously. 

Brian Knowlton 


POLITICAL 


Data That Don’t Exist 

WASHINGTON — Complaining that the 
statistics are too difficult to collect, foe Justice 
Department has asked Congress to eliminate a . 
requirement that it produce ad extensive ac- 
counting of threats and violence against gov- 
ernment employees. 

As part of foe 1996 anti-terrorism bill 
adopted in foe wake of the Oklahoma City 
bombing, foe Justice Department was re- 
quired to publish statistics going back to 1990 
on threats or actual crimes against federal, 
state and local employees and their immediate 
families when foe wrongdoing related to the 
workers’ official duties. The numbers were 
then to be kept up to date with an annual 
report. 

“We have sent draft legislative language to 


NASA ’s Spartan Will Have to Wait 

J FBI as part of the Un 

..... Progr a m, the natioi 


The Associated Press • have the Spartan in foe bay," other shuttle mission, Mr. 

CAPE CANAVERAL, Mr. Briscoe said. “It’s a Briscoe added. 

Florida — NASA will decide healthy spacecraft We can Because of either a soft- 
later whether to send foe $10 bring it back. If you were to ware problem or crew error, 
million Spartan satellite into deploy it under these kinds of Spartan failed to receive a cni- 
space on another mission propellant margins, you could cial computer command be- 
after ir is returned to Earth by stand a 40or 50 parent chance ' fore it was ser loose Nov. 21. 
the shuttle Columbia without of not bringing it back" if . “Somehow foe command 
making a single solar obser- there was a problem. didn’t get sent," said Kevin 

vation. NASA has no firm plans Kregel, commander of the 


other shuttle mission, Mr. 
Briscoe added. 

Because of either a soft- 
ware problem or crew error. 


deploy it under these kinds of Spartan failed to receive a cni- 
propellant margins, you could cial computer command be- 


the shuttle Columbia without 
making a single solar obser- 
vation. 


Columbia simply does not yet to send Spartan up on an- Columbia, 
ive enough fuel to go after 


have enough fuel to go after 
the Spartan satellite a second 
rime, officials at the National 
Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration decided after a 
week of analysis. 

N AS Ahad hoped to release 
Spartan for 1 8 hours, less than 
half foe time it was supposed 
to fly free of Columbia, to 
study foe sun’s outer atmo- 
sphere. But mission managers 
concluded that it was not pos- 


Away From Politics 


• Litres are using curlews to 
keep youths off foe streets 
and at home to cut crime and 
truancy and encourage paren- 
tal discipline. A survey re- 


sible to give foe satellite a a daytime one as well. (AP) 
second chance because of foe 


KHNC in Johnstown. 


shuttle's fuel supply. 

. "If you were deploying a 


•The Atlantic hurricane 
season was a lot less windy 


brand new, fresh spacecraft, than usual, with three hur- 
you wouldn’t do it under ricanes blowing in, against 

-v _ ■ tkd nunrmoo civ kofAns it 


those circumstances," said 
Lee Briscoe, director of op- 
erations for foe mission. 


foe average six, before it 
ended Sunday. El Nino, foe 
periodic wanning of the easr- 


“So here’s a case where we era Pacific, instead gave rise I EXAMPt^ww»PfrRfiTTOHFffs 



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to Congress be lifted because it was too hard 
for the FBI to identify bona fide threats,” said 
a department spokesman, John RusselL 

Threats are not among foe crimes that law 
enforcement agencies routinely report to the 
FBI as part of the Uniformed Cnme Reporting 
Prog ram , the nation’s principal system for 
collecting crime data. 

Law enforcement agencies also do not nor- 
mally categorize crimes according to foe em- 
ployment of foe victims. 

“There is simply no Systran in place to 
capture the data, and when Congress created 
the requirement it did not give ns foe means or 
the authority to create such a system,” said a 
senior Justice Department official, who asked 
not to be identified. 

The attorney general does not have the 


authority .to demand information from other 
federal agencies, let alone from state or local 
governments, foe official noted. (WP) 

Core Regrets ‘Big’ Error 

WASHINGTON — Vice President A1 
Gore made “ a very big mistake” in mounting 
an.awkwardly worded public defense of his 
fund-raising phone calls from foe White 
House, he says in an interview. 

Mr. Gore said he regretted calling a news 
continence in March daring which he re- 
peated several times that there was “no con- 
trolling legal authority" that governed his 
fund-raising calls from the White House.. 

“My staff was unanimously against my 
going out there and doing that press- con- 
ference,” Mr. Gore told foe New Yorker in an 
interview published this week. He was al- 
ternately jocular and serious about an episode 
that some say did serious damage to hrs pre- 
sumed run for president in 2000. 

“I wanted to make a clean breast of it and 
tell everything I did, and why, even at the risk 
of making some mistakes,” the vice president 
said, adding, “And that was one very big 
mistake." (AP) 

Quote/Unquote 

Senator Arlen Specter, Republican of 
Pennsylvania, predicting that Attorney Gen- 
eral Janet Reno would aigne against appoint- 
ing a special counsel to investigate White 
House rand-raising: “I think she just has a 
blind spot." (AP) 


• Cities are using curfews to to furious storms off foe Pa- 
keep youths off foe streets cific coast of Mexico. (AP) 


• Fire destroyed a Colorado 
radio station known for 



leased by foe U .S. Conference rightist anti-government pro- 
of Mayors found foot 276 of gramming. No one was injured 
347 responding cities had am foe blaze, which officials 
nighttime curfew, and 76 had called “very suspicious," at 


HARRY WINSTON 

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PAGE 4 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


U.S. and Philippines Split 
Over Bells of Balangiga 




Honored by American Ve terans as War Booty, 
They Are Independence Symbols for Filipinos 


By Janies Brooke 

.\i » llpfi Times i< n-i.v 


Chaves Rabe. has made two pilgrim- 
ages here in southeastern Wyoming, 


CHEYENNE. Wyoming — On a 
wind-whipped military post first occu- 
pied by U.S. .Army Indian fighters. 
Trophy Park is home lo some unusual 
war booty : two Spanish colonial church 
bells from the Philippines, each 
slumped wiih the coat of arms of Fran- 
ciscan missionaries. 

Long ignored by drivers whizzing 
past the park at what is now F. E. War” • 
ren Air Force Base here, the bronze bells 
are at lhe center of an international tug 
of war. and lightning rods for rival 
views of .American military history. 

The bells are a symbol to both sides in 
a violent page of history from the lum of 
the century, known in the United Stares 
as the Balangiga Affair, and in the Phil- 
ippines as the Balangiga Massacre. 

To Wyoming veterans, the bells are a 
reminder of the worst American military 
disaster between Custer's defeat at the 
Little Big Hom and World War I. The 
toiling of the bells on SepL 28. 1901. 
signaled lhe start of a surprise attack by 
Filipino guerrillas that virtually, wiped 
our a U.S. .Army garrison in the village 
of Balangiga. Of 7-4 soldiers in the unit. 
45 were killed and 22 were wounded. 

- To Filipinos, the bells, captured dur- 
ing a counterattack by American forces, 
□re a reminder of reprisals in which 
troops were ordered to kill anyone over 
10 years old. resulting in thousands of 
civilian deaths. 

With the 100th anniversary of the 
Philippines' independence from Spain 
coming in June, the Philippines' am- 
bassador to the United States. Raul 


hoping to soften local public opinion. At 
the recent Asia-Pacific economic con- 


ihc recent Asia-Pacific economic con- 
ference in Vancouver. President Fidel 
Ramos of the Philippines appealed to 
President Bill Clinton to return one of 
the bells and a copy of the other. 

“You have your Liberty Bell in Phil- 
adelphia." argued Mr. Rabe, fresh from 
a visit last month to this city of 50.000 
people. “The Balangiga bells run par- 
allel lo that us symbolic of our inde- 
pendence." 

“The belts signify the heroism of a 
people fighting for its independence and 
sovereignty.” said Angela Mascarenas, 
producer of the Chicago theater com- ■ 
pany. Pintig Cultural Group. “They 
should go back to Balangiga." 

But if it were up to Joe Sestak. a 
retired air force colonel who commands 
the American Legion in Wyoming, both 
bells will stay right where they are. The 
Filipinos can make do with copies, Mr. 
Sestak asserted. 

“We are not involved in the business 
of dismantling memorials to our com- 
rades that have fought in other wars," 
said Mr. Sestak. who recently won a 
unanimous \ ote by leaders of the Le- 
gion across the state to keep the bells in 
Cheyenne. 

Partisans from both sides seem to 
agree on the outlines of the Balangiga 
story. 

After the .American annexation of the 
Philippines in 1898. following the 
Spanish-Ameriean War. the authorities 
in the province of Samar, 300 miles (482 
kilometers i southeast of Manila, invited 
.American soldiers to set up a garrison to 



Pakistani Lawyers Broker 
Pause in Judicial Battle 


, Birth 


kji-iii: l]>iLinr%.*nic Nrn York 

Bells displayed at a Wyoming air force base are the center of a tug-of-war. 


protect the port of Balangiga. 

On a Saturday, Sept. 27, 1901. about 
one month after soldiers from Company 
C of the 9th Infantry arrived, guerrillas 
Infiltrated the town. Disguised as wom- 
en, they carried coffins, saying they 
contained the bodies of children killed 
by cholera. Fearing the plague, the 
Americans did not inspect the coffins as 
they were carried to the town church. 

Early Sunday morning, as the Amer- 
ican commander was at his desk writing 
a memorial service for President Wil- 
liam McKinley, who was assassinated 
three weeks earlier, the church bells 
unexpectedly started to toll. At this sig- 


nal. the “mourners'' tore off their 
dresses, opened the coffins and pulled 
out dozens of machetes. 

Retribution was swift, led by Bri- 
gadier General Jacob Smith, whose sub- 
sequent actions earned him the nick- 
name of “Hell Roaring Jake. 1 ’ 

“1 want no prisoners." he ordered a 
subordinate. “I wish you to kill and 
bum; the more you kill and bam, the 
better it will please me." 

The final death toll is unknown, but 
after the scorched-eanh campaign, 
thousands of civilians were dead and 
many of Samar’s towns, including Bal- 
angiga, were in ashes. 


The Associated Press 

ISLAMABAD, Pakistan — A deeply 
divided supreme court reached an un- 
certain truce Monday in a battle that has 
threatened to topple the government and 
raised fears of an army takeover. 

“There are many silver linings to all 
of this, and one is mat the army has not 
walked in." said Asma Jehangir, an 
official of the Supreme Court Bar As- 
sociation. which brokered a temporary 
truce among the 17 bickering justices. 

The two-week political crisis has 
Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah locked ina 
struggle with Prime Minister Nawaz 
Sharif, who faces co n tempt- a f-court 
charges. Mr. Sharif could be removed 
from power if found guilty. 

. The battle has spiraled, engulfing 
President Farooq Leghari, creating deep 
divisions within the supreme court and 
causing some to fear that the army will 
seize power again. 

The army chief. General Jehangir 
Karamau bad been cast in the role of 
mediator before the truce. 

Mr. Sharif, in a televised address to 
the nation Sunday, accused both Justice 
Shah and the president of conspiring to 
undermine his government Others ac- 
cuse Mr. Sharif of manipulating the 


judiciary' lo prevent Justice Shah from 
hearing’the contempt case. 

At least 10 justices had lined up 
against the chief justice and were pre- 
pared to decide Monday whether he had 
been wrongly promoted ahead of more 
senior judges. Justice Shah’s removal 
had become a possibility- - 
But the Supreme Court Bar Asso- 
ciation. a lobbying group representing 
hundreds of lawyers from around the 
country, stepped in. 

The group brought the 17 justices to 
the negotiating tabic and persuaded 
them to defer, at leasr For the day. all 
cases, including the contempt case 
against the prime minister. ; - 
They agreed "as a gesture of soli- 
darity with the bar and as a gesture of 
solidarity of the institution, to not hold 
court today," said Abid Hasan Minto, 
president of the association. 

Several key cases were to be heard 
Monday, including Mr. Sharif’s con- 
tempt case, as well as a petition to strike 
down a constitutional amendment and 
return to the president his power to 
dismiss the government, something the 
Sharif government wants to avoid. 

Outside the courthouse, hundreds of 
police in riot gear stood guard. 


• i 


Call for Elections in India 

Attempts to Form New Coalition Called Futile 




rt Isrrt* 


Taiwan Victors Vow Prudence Indians Arrest Rebel Leader 


TAIPEI — Taiwan's main opposition party pledged 
Monday to avoid confrontation with either the gov- 
erning Nationalist Pam-, which it crashed in local 
voting over the weekend, or with China. 

* In Saturday’s islandwide elections, the indepen- 
dence-minded Democratic Progressive Partv confoun- 
ded pollsters by garnering a majority of the 23 con- 
tested mavoral and countv magistrate seats in a 


SRINAGAR. India — Indian paramilitary guards 
said Monday they had arrested Ghulam Nabi Baba, a 
senior leader of Harkat-ul- Ansar, a Kashmiri guerrilla 
group accused by India of involvement in the kid- 
napping of six Western tourists. ( Reuters l 


surprise drubbing of the Nationalists. 

! But the Progressives moved quickly to reassure 


Apologize for ’89, China Told 


critics, the dissident, Xu Wenli. also called for free- 
dom for Zhao Ziyang. the former Communist Party 
leader, whose sympathy for student leaders of the pro- 
democracy protests around the square led to his down- 
fall and virtually house arrest. 

Mr. Xu was a prominent member of the .1978-79 
Democracy Wall movement along with Wei Jing- 
sheng. Mr. Wei left China on Nov. 16 after being 
released from jail on medical parole and is now in the 
United States. (Reuters) 


The Associated Press 

NEW DELHI — India’s outgoing 
coalition government called on the pres- 
ident Monday to dissolve Parliament 
and stage new elections, officials said. 

Haxkishan Singh SuijeeL, a Commu- 
nist leader within the United Front co- 
alition that resigned Friday, said Pres- 
ident K. R. Narayanan should end the 
country’s political crisis by ordering 
elections. 

Mr. Suijeet, speaking after the front’s 
leaders met Mr. Narayanan, said the 
struggle between Parliament's two 
main parties. Congress (1) and the Hindu 
nationalists, to try to cobble together a 
coalition was futile. 

“It is very clear that no patty is in a 


position to form a government, so we 
have recommended dissolution to the 
president," he said. 

Congress, which toppled the minority 
coalition of Prime Minister Inder Kumar 
Gujral by withdrawing its backing after 
seven months, met Mr. Narayanan later 
Monday and renewed its demand to be 
given first chance to form a government 


jittery investors that they understood the impor- 
tance’ of fostering a healLhv business environment 


(ance of fostering a healihv business environment 
and would do nothing to escalate tensions with 
China. (Ratters) 


BELTING — A veteran Chinese dissident has called 
on authorities to apologize for the 1989 Tiananmen 
Square crackdown and pay compensation to families 
of the victims. 

In a plea likely to test Beijing's tolerance of its 


For the Record 


Chinese authorities have ended sales erf 1 leaded 
gasoline at Shanghai's more than 700 service stations 
to improve air quality in China's biggest city. (AP) 


It is vying for power with the Hindu 
nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party, 
which called on Congress rebels to split 
and join them. 

There was no indication when Mr. 
Narayanan, who has now consulted all 
major party leaders over the viability of 
a new coalition, would announce his 
decision whether to call for elections or 
the formation of a new alliance. 

Parliament adjourned indefinitely on 
Nov. 24 following several days of 
rowdy confrontations between mem- 
bers. It is due to reconvene Tuesday. 

Mr. Surjeer said the front, a loose 
alliance of more than a dozen parties, 
had thwarted the Congress Party's 
hopes of luring some of its partners to 
switch allegiance to a Congress-led al- 
liance. 

“The United Front has shown its 
strength by being united — no party can 
break us,” he said. 

The 545-seat lower house of Par- 
liament is split three ways between the. 
United Front (177 seats). Congress 
(140) and Bharatiya Janata ( 162). 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY DECEMBER 2,1997 


INTERNATIONAL 


PAGE 5 


Israel’s Birthday Finds No One at the Party 




By James Rupert 

■ Washington Post Service 

* JERUSALEM — Fifty years after die 
wona s Jews erupted in joy at the United 
Nations vote that permitted the creation of 
Israel, few Israelis seemed to notice the an- 
“wrsaty « to feel like celebrating. 

By many measures, one might expect Israel 
to be coolang up a joyous birthday party. The 
country has entered a season of anniversaries 
that will culminate in its 50th independence 
day in May. 

And there is much to celebrate, hi half a 
century, Israel has forged by far one of the 
highest standards of living in the Middle Eas t, 
as well as the region’s most stable democratic 
political system. 

But Israelis aren’t much in the mood to 
celebrate. Their joy at the nation’s success and 
longevity is weighed down by theknowledge 
that the same 50 years measure the intract- 
ability of their war agains t the Palestinians 
over this land. 

Worse, many Israelis say, is a fear that 
chances for peace, strengthened in die early 
1990s, are now dying, leaving the prospect of 
more years of Palestinian uprisings. 

_ Israel’s successes and its insecurities are 
visible around Jerusalem. At a shopping mall 
more typical of wealthy U.S. suburbs, stylishly 
dressed residents browse department stores 
and boutiques — but they must give their naira 
and license number before entering the parking 
lot and be searched with metal detectors at the 
door. 


BRIEFLY 


As Israel approaches its 50th birthday, the 
official committee named to plan celebrations 
has gotten tied up in political wrangling, ac- 
cording to the press here. 

But “the real reason for the downslide in the 
50th anniversary celebrations is that there is no 

C c mood in favor of festivities," Nahum 
sa, a political commentator for the daily 
newspaper Yedioth Ahronoth, wrote in 
September. 

"Not long ago. Jerusalem concluded the 
3,000th anniversary of the founding of the city 
wife a deafening silence,” he wrote. "When 
tile state is in the dumps, perhaps there is no 
choice but to defer celebrations to more aus- 
picious times.” 

Between 1993 and 1995, as the former 
Labor Party government of Prime Minister 
Yitzhak Rabin reached agreements with the 
Palestine Liberation Organization and Jordan, 
"there was a general feeling of optimism’ * in 
Israel, said David Newman, a professor of 
political geography at Ben Gnrion Uni- 
versity. 

In the hopes raised by that progress, "I 
remember writing a couple of years ago, 
‘Wouldn’t it be great if we could achieve a final 
prace with the Palestinians by the 50th an- 
niversary?’ ” 

But events of the last two years — Mir. 
Rabin’s assassination by a Jewish right-wing 
extremist, terrorism by Palestinian militant s 
and the election of Israel's right-wing gov- 
ernment, led by the Likud party — have stalled 
the peace process.' 

"And now, there isn’t that optimism,” Mr. 


iNewman said, roe 30-year anniversary seems ■ 
to suggest instead the OTestion of how long the 
Palestinian-Israeli conflict will continue. . 

The ambivalence and inattention surround- 
ing the anniversary were visible after midnight 
Saturday in central Jerusalem. At that hour in 
1947, Jews here stayed close to their radios 
listening to the news from New York, where 
the -nascent United Nations was voting on 
whether to p ermit Jews to fotm a state called 
Israel in what had been Arab Palestine. 

When the vote was won. Jews poured into 
downtown Jerusalem streets to dance the tra- 
ditional here until dawn and toast the world’s , 
formal proclamation of Israeli statehood- 

But mis weekend, neither Jerusalem nor' the 
Israeli government organized any major re^ 
membrance of that event Only one observ- 
ance, a televised, open-air concert in Tel Aviv 

arranged by Mayor Roni Milo, got broad at- 
tention. Even there, the crowd of 5,000 was . 
smaller than organizers expected. 

In the Jerusalem streets that woe packed 
with revelers 50 years ago, the anniversary was - 
simply forgotten. As usual in this conservative 
city, the nighttime street life wound up early, 
except downtown, near the Ben Yehuda Street 
pedestrian mail 

By 2 AM., waiters were stacking chairs and 
tables at the few restaurants still open there. 
Nobody seemed aware of the anniversary of 
the UN vote, 

"Oh, no kidding. Was that tonight? I didn’t - 
even know,” Elie Tambelio, 24, said as he 
tended to a last diner at the Blues Brothers 
Steak House. 




A P alestinian in the West Bank on Monday. The Israeli 
cabinet’s offer of a cpaditional troop pullback in the 
area was rejected Monday by Palestinian officials. 


Doctor Says Arafat 
Free of Parkinson’s 

7 Tie Associated Press ' 

JERUSALEM — The Palestin- 
ian leader, Yasser Arafat, suffers, 
from depression, but does not have 
Parifmson’s disease, Mr. Arafat’s 
neurologist told an Israeli news- 
paper in an interview Monday. 

Ashraif Khrdi, the Jordanian 
health minister and Mr. Arafat’s 
physician, was responding to recent 
reports by Israeli news organiza- 
tions that the Palestinian leader may 
suffer from Paridnson’s disease. 

Dr. Kurdi said he.bad examined 
Mr. Arafat recently. "I did not de- 
tect Parkinson's,” Dr. Kurd! fold 
the newspaper Ha'aretz. - 
He said Mr. Arafat had been 
showing symptoms of depression, 
but would not elaborate. 

A spokesman for Mr. Arafat, 
Nahil Abourdeneh, refused to com- 
ment Monday when asked about 
Dr. Kuxdi’s assessment 
Rumors that Mir. Arafat’s health 
was deteriorating intensified in 
September when, in an' interview 
with Israeli television's Channel 
Two,. Mr. Arafat was pale, with his 
lower lip trembling uncontrollably. . 
His aides attributed die trembling to 
the late hour of the interview and 
exhaustion after ' a long day of 
wodc. 


Palestinians Reject Israeli Offer 

JERUSALEM — The Pales tinians on Monday rejected an 
Israeli offer of a conditional troop pullback in the West Bank 
as disingenuous, and said it was a ploy to keep foe territory 
under its control. 

“It is like throwing sand in our eyes,” said Tayeb Abdel 
Rahim, secretary-general of the Pales tinian Authority, who 
speaks for Yasser Arafat 

On Sunday, the Israeli cabinet agreed in principle to with- 
draw troops from the West Bank, butitjset no date and attached 
five demands to the Palestinians, including that they crack 
down on Islamic militan ts and hand over Palestinians wanted 
for killing Israelis. (AP) 

J France Expels Congo Diplomat 

PARIS — France on Monday ordered the No. 2 diplomat 
from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to leave in 
retaliation for Kinshasa’s expulsion of his french counterpart 
■ last week. 

The Foreign Ministry said it summoned On’okoko Tadnmi, j 
the Congo’s chargd, and told him that his embassy’s' first j 
counselor must leave France by the end of the week. 

The ministry did not explain the move, which followed the 
expulsion of the French Embassy’s No. 2 in Kinshasa, Eric 
Lubin. Radio France Internationale said the government in 
Kinshasa accused Mr. Lubin of being involved in activities 
* ‘incompatible with his diplomatic status.” (Reuters) 

Flores Wins Honduran Election 

TEGUCIGALPA, Honduras — Carlos Flores of the gov- 
erning Liberal Party has declared victory in the Honduran 
presidential election and promised to form a government of 
national unity. 

The National Electoral Tribunal reported that Mr. Flores 
had won 53.3 percent of the vote in elections Sunday, giving 
him an almost 11-point lead over his Dearest rival, Nora 
-Me Igar of the National Party, who obtained 42. 3 percent of the 

4 ) vote. 

* Candidates from three other parties divided up the re- 
mainder of the vote, election officials reported. 

In a press conference just before midnight Sunday, Mr. 
Flores said he would work toward the construction of the 
"new Honduras that we all dream about' ' 

Mr. Flores, 47, is the speaker of Congress. He also is owner 
of La Tribnna, the biggest newspaper in the country. (AFP) 


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PAGE 6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 


EUROPE 


* 



an Left Embraces Tax Reform 

Social Democrats to Unveil Compromise With Kohl at Party Congress 


By John Schmid 

International Herald Tribune 


FRANKFURT — On the eve of its 
! annual convention, Germany’s main op- 
•' position party has signaled that agree - 
• meat is possible on a series of watered- 
. down changes to the nation's tax system 

: and its deficit-ridden pension program. 

9® 5 P romises by *e Social Demo- 
- crape Party would represent the first polit- 
•'ical movaneni in mote t han a year on 
■. taxes and pensions, two ofthe most urgent 
issu® dial Germany must address to at- 
: tack its record unenroloyment, attract new 
: invest ment and make its economy com- 
; ipetitive, politicians and economists said. 
The measures under consideration, 

■ however, are too small to benefit 
; Europe's biggest economy or solve the 

■ 'problems they are meant to address, 
economists and political observers s aid . 

; ■ The measures also represent a significant 
: . retreat by Chancellor Helmut Kohl from 
; his plans for radical retrenchments in 
f* Germany’s welfare and tax structures. 


"These are not reforms at all/’ said 
Thomas Mayer, senior economist in Ger- 
many for Gtoldman,' Sachs & Co. Such 
stop-gap solutions continue to leave 
doubts in the minds of potential investors 
about Germany’s willingness to restruc- 
ture its economy, Mr. Mayer said. 

Politicians see the current compro- 
mise efforts as the last and best chance 
for any economic reforms before na- 
tional elections next September. The 
proposals make clear that Germany will 
need to wait until after the election on 


attack issues of unemployment and eco- 
nomic competitiveness, effectively post- 
poning the implementation of any re- 
forms until 2000 or later. 

Stung by charges that his party has 
“blockaded" economic reforms through 
its control of die Bondesrat. the upper 
house of Parliament, the Social Demo- 
crats’ fhft f rmag, Oskar Lafontaine, is 
expected to emphasize the compromise 
offers in bis keynote speech at the party’s 
congress in Hannover on Tuesday. 


Led by Mr. Lafontaine, the Social 
Democrats opposed Mr. Kohl’s plans to • 
cut the top rate of income tax to 39 
percent from 53 percent, a move de- - 
signed to align German tax rates with 
those of other nations. Mr. Kohl’s orig- 
inal plan also would have resulted in an 
overall drop in taxes of 30 billion 
Deutsche marks ($17.01 billion) in an 
effort to stimulate the economy. 

Instead, Mr. Lafontaine now says he is 
ready to agree to trim the top tax rate to 
49 percent, but only on the condition that 
Mr. Kohl abandons any tax relief, de- 
priving the economy of a stimulus. 

Both sides also have moved closer to 
an agreement to raise value-added tax by . 
a percentage point to 16 percent next 
April from 15 percent currently to pre- 
vent pensions contributions from rising 
to a record 21 percent of wages next 
year. Facing a general election, politi- 
cians are eager to prevent a new rise in 
mandatory payroll pension contribu- 
tions, which have soared since German 
unification. 




Klaus’s Firgt Goal May Beto Get 
A Loyal Party Core Behind Him 


By PeterS. Green 

Imenuaioiul Herald Tribune 


JodmEckd/Rcan 

The Soda! Democrats’ chairman, Oskar Lafontaine, 
peering through a telescope Monday in Hannover. 


Russia Spy Charge 

American Said to Use Satellite 


By David Hoffman 

Washington Post Service 

MOSCOW — Russian 
authorities arrested two 
Americans on suspicion of 
espionage last week in die 
southern region of Rostov, 
and one, Richard Bliss, re- 
mains in custody, officials 
announced Monday. The 
United States denied he had 
been spying. 

The news agencies In- 
terfax and Itar-Tass report- 
ed that Mr. Bliss and the 
other American, who was 
not identified, were seized 
Nov. 25 while carrying out 
topographic and geodesic 
measurements. 

The news agencies 
quoted officials of the Fed- 
eral Security Service, Rus- 
sia's internal security force, 
as saying the two Americ- 
ans had been nsing ‘'special 
satellite receivers brought 
into Russia illegally.” 

According to die Russi- 
an authorities, Mr. Bliss 


er secret information 
restricted sites in die cities 
of Rostov-on-Don and 
Bataysk. 

American officials said 
Mr. Bliss was a private 
businessman who had no 
connection with the U.S. 
government 

The U.S. officials said 
Mr. Bliss was an engineer 
working under contract with 
Qualcomm Inc., a Califor- 
nia company rankr contract 

to a Russian firm to install a 
wireless communications 
network in the Rostov re- 
gion. They said a U.S. con- 
sular official had flown to 
Rostov-on-Don and met 
with Mr. Bliss, who said be 
was being treated well. 

According to Interfax, 
the Rostov branch of the 
Russian security service 
has opened a criminal case 
against Mr. Bliss. If found 
guilty, he would face 10 to 
20 years in prison, accord- 
ing to news reports. 


Prodi Coalition Fares Well in Elections 


Reuters 

ROME — Italy’s center-left govern- 
ing coalition received a further boost 
Monday when its mayoral candidate took 
a key northern city and early results poin- 
ted to comfortable victories in Sicily. 

In Genoa, the largest of the five key 
mainland cities involved in the runoffs 
Sunday, the center-left candidate Gi- 
useppe Pericu won 51.5 percent, ahead 
of Sa-gio Caste liancta, the candidate of a 
load party, with 48.5 percent. 

The center-left built on successes in 


first-round results two weeks ago, when 
its cflndidflh»« held On as ma yors in 
Rome, Naples and Venice and won con- 
trol of their councils. 

Id the runoffs, candidates from the 
center-right Freedom Alliance, led by 
the media magnate Silvio Berlusconi, 
won in the smalle r southern cities of 
Caserta in the Camp ania region and in 
Vibo Valentia in. the Calabria region. 

Candidates for the sep aratist Northern 
League won in the northern cities of 
Varese and Alessandria. . 


According to a count by state radio, 
tiie center-left Olive Tree coalition that 
supports Prime Minister Romano Prodi 
won in 42 mayoralraces over two rounds 
in towns with populations over 15.000. 

This compared with 25 victories for 
the center-right Freedom Affiance arid 
15 for the Northern League. 

Olive Tree candidates also looked set 
to win in the large Sicilian cities .of 
Palermo aad Catania, where separate 
first-round elections were held on Sun- 
day. ' 


23 Basque Party Leaders Get 7 Years in Prison 


The Associated Press 

MADRID — The Si 
court has found 23 leaders of a Basque 
political party guilty of collaborating with 
the separatist guenilla group ETA and 
sentenced each of diem to seven years in 
prison, court sources said Monday. 

Each of the 23 members of the polit- 
ical party Heni Batasuna was also fined 
500,000 pesetas ($3,500). said a spokes- 
man for the court who asked not to be 
identified. 

A spokesman for Heni Batasuna said 
the party had not yet been notified of the 
sentence, but he said its leadership would 


meet later Monday to discuss the matter. 

. Rafael Larreina of the Basque party 
Eusko Alkartasuna criticized the verdict, 
saying it “will have a negative effect" 
on the process to bring peace to the 
Basque region. . 

In the tnal that ended last mouth — 
the first of its sort in Spain — Hem 
Batasuna’s executive board was charged 
with cooperating with an armed group 
by using a video made by ETA during 
the coalition’s 1996 election campaign. 

In the video, masked ETA members 
with guns on a table before them, pro- 
posed negotiating Basque self-determi- 


nation with tiie government ■ ■ 

ETA — a Basque-language acronym 
for Basque Homeland and Liberty —has 
IriHed about 800 people, mostly mem- 
bers of tiie security fences, since 1968. 

Two statements issued by Heni Bata- 
suna failing to condemn the bloodshed 
after the killings also were used as ev- 
idence. 

The accused argued that the video did 
not promote violence and (hat it did not 
prove that the coalition collaborated 
with the ETA. Defense attorneys 
claimed that the trial was a veiled attack 
on Basque nationalism. 


PRAGUE — Oat but not down, Vaclav Klaus, who was 
forced to resign as the, Czech prime m i ni ster over political 
f inanc e scandals, is preparing for what could be a 
campaign .of guerrilla politics led from the opposition 
benches. _ 

W ithin hrmre of his resignation, Mr. Klaus had won con- 
cessions from President Vaclav HaveL Emerging from talks 
with Mr. Kbais and other coalition leaders on Sunday evening, 
Mr- Havel announced that negotiations on forming a new 
government wouldhegin only after Mr. ‘Klaus's Civic Danp- 
rraHr Party held a special convention Dec. 13. and in the 
iyw»aniwTift t Mr. Klaus and his cabinet would remain in office. 

Mr. Klaus won these concessions as allegations hung over 

ingfevors in ptrathBttiOT had NEWS ANALYSIS 

made hefty donations to a ; ~~ 7 ~ 

secret Swiss b ank account held by die party. The police said 
Monday that an investigation had been opened into tiie dona- 
tions. - • 

“Klaus has resigned but he hasn’t really resigned, said 
Danw-.l Ki i mTn ftn pan^ a ra mnvWwlhr at die leftist newspaper 
' Pravo. Echoing a widely held view. Mr. Kummerlnan said he 
expected Mr. Klaus to spend tiie next two weeks lobbying bis 
party’s grass roots for support ahead of the congress. Once 
there. Mr. Klaus will likely force out the party leaders who led 
the fight against him, and gather a smaller, more loyal party 
around himin opposition. 

“The whole country has to wait a fortnight while Klaus 
regroups his forces. It’s a brilliant move on his part," said a 
Western diplomatherc. _ 

Both the Czech economy and his own party are performing 
poorly, so a spell in opposition would allow him to rebuild a 
party bare and avoid responsibility for some .of the worst 
economic shocks. - . 

Postponed reforms and continued government intervention 
caus ed a stock market collapse and shrank economic growth 
fiom 6 percent last year to an expected 1 percent this year. In 
last year’s elections, Mir. Klaus’s center-right prevailed only 
when some opposition Social Democrats abstained from a 

. - "Klaos is aii average economist and an average politician 
but he’s a natural cult leader,” Mr. Kummerman said. 

The Social Democrats are already drafting an emergency 
amendment to the constitution to hold new elections in early 
spring. 

Polls taken before the weekend’s turmoil showed them 
most likely to win new elections, so Mr. Klaus could lead Ins 
party into opposition. 

Hints of Mr. Klaus’s plans emerged in the hours after he 
agreed to resign. Before meeting tiie president on Sunday, he 
made an extraordinary statement to journalists, effectively 
snubbing appeals by Mr. Havel that be help to resolve the 
crisis.- . 

“I have no concrete plan, for tiie forthcoming political 
meetings about solving the current political crisis, nor about 
the structure of a future government,'* Mr. Klaus said. “The 
people with such a plan are clearly those who dramatically 
escalated tiie situation and furthermore succeeded.” This was 
' an obvious reference to Finance Minister Ivan Pilip and former 
Interior Minister Jan RumJ, who led the revolt against him. 




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Stephana Grappelli, 89, Dies, 





iMA 


Reuters ' 

PARIS — Stephane Grap- 
pelli, 89, the jazz violinist 
whose lively, elegant style 
captivated audiences for 
more than a half a century,, 
died in Paris on Monday. He 
underwent a hernia operation 
last week. 

The New York Tones wrote: 

Stephane Grappelli’s early 
fame as a jazz violinist came 
during his association with 
Django Reinhardt, the Bel- 
gian gypsy guitarist, in the 
Quintet of the Hot Club of 
France in die 1930s, a rela- 
tionship in which Mr. Grap- 
pelli was usually overshad- 
owed by the flamboyant 
playing of Mr. Reinhardt. 

Yet with the quintet, Mr. 
Grappelli established himself 
as a major jazz violinist, foe 
first European to be equated 
with such Americans as Ed- 
die South, Joe Venuti and 
Stuff Smith. 

He quietly grew in esteem 
in later years, culminating in 
an autumnal fling in the /Qs 
when he was rediscovered by 
his old American fans, taken 
up by young rock musicians 
and joined . in enthusiastic 


duets by Yehudi Menuhin. 

He was bom in Paris, the 
son of a professor of philo- 
sophy who had emigrated 
from Italy. Ml Grappelli got 
his first violin when he was 10 
years old and taught himself 
solfeggio from a book. At 14 
he began playing in tiie pit 
band of a movie theater. 

After a period cm piano, he 
returned to foe violin . — he 
also played saxophone and 
accordion — and, m 1933, he 
was the violinist in one of two 
bands in a hotel on the 
Champs-Elysees. Mr. Rein- 
hardt, the rhythm guitarist in 
the other band. . . 

They and three other mu- 
sicians, calling ■ themselves 
the Quintet of the Hot Club of 
France — the first jazz group 
entirely of strings. They in- 
troduced a new sound to jazz, 
made their first records in 
1935 and reached their peak 
by the end of the decade. 

In August 1939, the quintet 
went to London to start a 
world tour, but war broke out, 
Mr. Reinhardt went back to 
France and Mr. Grappelli 
spent foe war in England. 

Mr. Grappelli made his 


BRIEFLY 


first appearance in the United 
States at foe Newport Jazz/ 
Festival in. 1969, but his per- * 
fonnance was tost in a rock 
riot Five years later he made 
a more seemly debut at 
Carnegie Hall, then toured the 
country regularly. 

Toby Lelyveld, 85, 
Shakespeare Scholar 
NEW YORK (NYT) — 
Toby Lelyveld, 85, a teacher' 
of literature who specialized 
in foe stage history of 
Shakespeare’s plays, died 
Sunday at her home here. Her 
book “Shy lock on the Stage" 
traced foe way the 
moneyleader in “The Mer-k 
chant of Venice” was played % 
by great actors. ' 

In the 1960s and ’70s, she 
edited notes for the Theater 
Recording Society, Caedmon 
Records and Spoken Arts Re- 
cordings, and was a consult- 
ant for the Columbia Encyc- 
lopedia. Her marriage to 
Rabbi Arthur Lelyveld of 
Cleveland ended in divorce in 
1964. They had three sons, 
including Joseph, executive 
editor of The New York 
Times. 


Ulster Unionists Rebuke 
Irish Foreign Minister 

BELFAST — Ulster Unionists said Mon- 
day that Ireland’s foreign minister, David 
Andrews, should be replaced in the Northern 
Ireland peace process after he called on the 
weekend for more powers to be given to cross- 
border bodies. 

The Unionist leader, David Trimble, said 
Mr. Andrews’s call for a peace settlement to 
include powerful cross-bc^der bodies with dir- 
ectional and governmental powers smacked of 
an “embryonic all-Ireland government.” . 

Mr.' Trimble was speaking as the parties 
involved in foe peace talks gathered around 
the conference tabtoin Belfast to review pro- 
gress since foe talks opened Sept. 15. He said 
Mr. Andrews’s idea was unacceptable to Prot- 
estants. . (AFP) 

British Electoral Reform 

LONDON — The British government set- 
up an electoral commission Monday to con- 
sider reforming the way the country chooses 
its members of Parliament. 

Its main job will be to decide whether 
Britain should switch to some form of pro- 
portional representation instead of the present 
system in which whoever gets the most votes is 


elected, re gardle ss of whether it is a majority. 

The commission’s recommendations, 
which will be made within one year, will be 
put to the nation in a referendum. ff 

The Liberal Democratic Party favors pro- 
portional representation and believes the elec- 
tion scheduled for mid-2002 can be based on a 
new system. But the Labour government has 
given no guarantees' on this issue and in- 
dicated that it would rather wait until 2007 to 
introduce electoral change. (AFP) 

Neo-Nazi Is Convicted 

. y^EGK. Germany — The extreme 
rightist Kay Dresner was convicted Monday 
of murder and two counts of 
murder, and sentenced to life imprisonment in 
what was believed to be the first neo-Nazi 
slaying of a German police officer. 

Mr. Diesner, 25, belonged to no organized 
neo-Nazi group at the time of his February 
shoo ting sp ree, and his . case increased fears 
that extreme rightists were splinte ring from 
o rg an i zati o ns and going dewier underground 
According to the police, Mr. Diesner con- 
fessed to shooting a leftist bookstore owner V 

Feb. 19 and then opening, fire on two po- £ 
licemen at a highway rest stop on Feb. 23. An 
officer. Stephen Grage, was killed. 

■ Mr. Diesner claimed he was acting in self- 
defense against the police officer, prosecutors 
said before bis Luebeck trial. (AP) 


I - 













PAGES 


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 


EDITORIALS/OPINION 


Jteralh 


INTERNATIONAL 



nitLtSHED WITH THE I*KW> YHRK HMfH AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


SribuUC p or Russians . Iraq and Iran Aren 9 t the Problem 

THE WASHINGTON POST / _£ . 

fmm nmuirine nukeS- 1 QOl 


Progress Against Bribery 


When the United States passed a law 
20 years ago bailing U.S. firms from 
payin g bribes overseas, many decried 
it as the work of hopelessly naive 
goody-goodies. The Foreign Corrupt 
Practices Act. it was said, would ac- 
complish nothing but to help French, 
Japanese and German firms steal con- 
tracts away from Americans. Corrup- 
tion was and always would be an in- 
tegral part of doing business. 

- . Well, it has taken awhile but itseems 
as though die rest of the world is finally 


Catching up with the United States on 
this one. Trie 29 industrialized nations 
of tire OECD, along with five addi- 
tional countries, recently completed a 
tfeaty that will require all signatories to 
£>an overseas bribery — in essence, to 
adopt their own versions of the Foreign 
Corrupt Practices Act This represents 
a victory for the Clinton administra- 
tion, whose officials said it should re- 
move an unfair advantage that other 
nations’ exporters have enjoyed. It was 
also a victory for Transparency In- 
ternational, a one-issue nonprofit or- ' 
ganization that has been preaching the 
endls of corruption for years, with 
branches in many developed and de- 
veloping countries. 

More broadly, ihe new anti-bribery 
treaty represents an acknowledgment 
that corruption is a growing problem 
and one that hurts almost everyone 
involved. Honest and competent com- 
panies. of course, are injured when 
they lose contracts that they should 
have won. But even bribing companies 
end up inefficiently spending too much 
time dealing with public officials and 
ensuring that the terms of a comipt 


equivalent of bribing a government 
official. It also remains for other de- 
veloped nations to make good on their 
word and actually adopt new laws. 

But when you consider that France 
and Germany to this day allow their 
firms to deduct overseas bribes from 
their taxes as legitimate business ex- 
penses, you begin to see what a sig- 
nificant step forward this represents. 
And if developed countries begin hold- 
ing their companies to a minimally 
ethical standard, the World Bank will 
have more credibility in its campaign 
to diminis h corruption among devel- 
oping nations, too. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


For Safer Boeing 747s 


Since federal investigators have 
found no evidence that a bomb or mis- 
sile destroyed TWA Flight 800, the 


bnly plausible explanation is mech- 
anical failure. Investigators from the 
National Transportation Safety Board 


National Transportation Safety Board 
have concluded that the plane was de- 


stroyed when vapors in the near-empty 
center fuel tank ignited. But after 16 
months of inquiry, with more than 95 
percent of the plane retrieved from die 
ocean floor, they still do not know what 
caused the vapor to ignite. 

. Without that crucial piece of in- 
formation, proposed safety changes 
are precautionary, and may not ac- 
tually correct any defect that might 
Jiave been responsible- for the 1996 
crash. Even so, it makes sense to fix 
-mechanical trouble spots uncovered 
during the extensive investigation. 

;• The Federal Aviation Administra- 
tion has issued a prudent call to make 
two changes in Boeing 747s, although 
there is as yet no evidence that the two 
Conditions played a role in the ex- 
plosion. One change, effective imme- 
diately, requires airlines to inspect and 
replace silicone insulation on a fuel 
pump that could disintegrate and cause 
a dangerous fuel leak. 

A second proposed change would 


require airlines to separate wires on 
fuel tank probes from other wires or 
install devices to suppress electrical 
surges that might create sparks in the 
tanks. This change, which is more 
complicated, will be subject to a 90- 
day public-comment period. 

Both FAA proposals are intended to 
eliminate ignition sources around the 
center fuel tank. The board has focused 
on ways to reduce flamm able vapors in 
the tanks . Last December the board 
called on the FAA to reduce explosive 
fuel-air mixtures in die tanks by re- 
quiring airlines to maintain a minim um 


fuel level and to lower temperatures in 
the tanks by adding cooler ground fuel 
when possible. The board also recom- 
mended airplane design changes such 
as fuel temperature monitors and the 
use of inert gases in tanks to prevent 
explosions should a spark occur. 

The FAA is expected to respond to 
the board’s recommendations tills week. 
The board, meanwhile, has scheduled 
public hearings on TWA Flight 800 to 
begin next Monday. Until the explo- 
sion’s cause is found, it is imperative 
that the two agencies work together to 
create apian that deals comprehensively 
with the fuel tank problem. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Herbal Good Sense 


Echinacea to fight off colds, ginkgo 
to increase mental alertness and Saint- 
John’s-wort to relieve depression are 
finding their way into American medi- 
cine cabinets, right next to the aspirin. 
These and hundreds of other botanical 
remedies, along with vitamins, min- 
erals and amino acids, now form a 
dietary-supplement market that has 
reached $8 billion in annual sales. 
Growing consumer interest raises 
questions about how to protect the pub- 
lic from misleading claims and po- 


tentially unsafe products that are es- 
sentially unregulated. 

The FederalCominission on Dietary 
Supplement Labels last week released 
recommendations urging manufactur- 
ers to provide science-based evidence 
to consumers about the effectiveness 
6f their products. But the recommen- 
dations are toothless. Federal regula- 
tors have very little power to ensure 
product safety or to force the industry 
to prove the truth of marketing claims. 
Tie 1994 Dietary Supplement Health 
and Education Act presumes that nu- 
tritional supplements are safe and re- 
lies on the industry to police itself. 

• The law requires manufacturers to 
substantiate nutritional claims bur lets 
them make those claims without prior 
teview or. approval by the Food and 
Drug Administration. They are only 
required to notify the FDA of such 
claims 30 days after the product goes 


on sale, and the FDA does not review 
die evidence supporting the claims. 

As for safety, the burden is on the 
FDA to prove that a product is unsafe. 
With a huge number of supplements on 
the market, that standard means little 
government oversight, if any. 

Another problem is that die law of- 
fers no clear way to separate “nu- 
tritional” claims, which are allowed, 
from medical claims, which are not. For 
example, claiming that a product boosts 
the immune system is allowed, but say- 
ing that it fights sore throats is not. 

The commission tried to clarify the 
distinction. Proposed guidelines would 


permit labels that say that a product 
‘ ‘stimulates” or “promotes” the func- 


‘ ‘stimulates” or “promotes” the func- 
tions of the body, but would prohibit 
words such as “prevent,” “cure” or 
“correct” that suggest treatment of 
specific ailments. Savvy advertising, 
of course, can avoid the prohibited 
words and still create the impression of 
medical effectiveness. 

One solution is to encourage man- 
ufacturers who want to make thera- 
peutic claims to seek approval for their 
products as over-the-counter drugs. 
The commission recommends that the 
FDA form a panel to review botanicals 
used as medicine. That move would at 
least focus attention on herbal rem- 
edies, and cause consumers to look 
more carefully at them. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


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M OSCOW — Sometimes you can 
tell a lot about a country by what 


transaction are upheld — that the bri- 
bee delivers, in other words. 

In developing countries, corruption 
may enrich a small elite, but it dis- 
courages foreign investment and im- 


poverishes the bulk of the population. 
It also may distort policy-making — 


It also may distort policy-making ; — 
encouraging governments to build 
huge Aair»R or buy expensive weapons, 
for example — because it is easier to 
skim bribes from such transactions 
than from the construction of many 
primary schools. In countries making 
the transition front communism, cor- 
ruption retards reform because bureau- 
crats do not want' to privatize gov- 
ernment functions and thereby cede 
their lucrative franchises. 

The new treaty will not end cor- 
ruption, it is sare to say. In a few 
respects, it does not bind other nations 
to go as far as does U.S. law — in 
particular, it does not criminalize pay- 
ments to officials of political parties, 
which in one-party states can be the 


iVJLtell a lot about a country by whai 
is on die front pages of its newspapers. 
Sometimes you can tell even more by 
what is on the back. 

Here is back-page news: Hie pilots of 
a helicopter based in Yessentuki, in 
southern Russia, had not been paid for so 
many months that on Nov. 22 they flew 
their chopper to a secluded spot and hid 
it They said they would return it only 
when they received their back pay. 

Or this: Employees of the Ministry 
of Atomic Energy, the folks respon- 
sible for maintaining nuclear warheads, 
have not been paid in 10 weeks. 

Discovering wbat is back-page news 
in Russia helps one better understand 
(although not accept) why Russia re- 
sponds differently than America to the 
prospects of Iran or Iraq acquiring 
weapons of mass destruction. To put it 
simply: Russia is otherwise engaged. 

It is hard to worry about Iraq’s 
weapons when your nuclear employees 
are going unpaid and crews are hiding 
their helicopters. As the Washington 
Post Moscow correspondent David 
Hoffman remarked to me, “Russia 
today is like a blender with the top off 
and me motor running.” We want them 


By Thomas L. Friedman 




to just flip a switch and sup everything 
from spewing out, but it’s not so easy. 

America and Russia today are in 
different worlds, and that is new. 

During the Cold War, America and 
Russia were playing on the same global 
chessboard, with the same pieces, nu- 
clear weapons, and with the same 
stakes, global controL They took every 
regional crisis equally seriously. 

With the end of the Cold War, two 
changes have occurred. First, the bal- 
ance of power between the United 
States and Russia is no longer meas- 
ured by nukes alone but by economic 
and technological strengths, in which 
the United States is far, far superior. 
Russia is still in its Wild Bill phase and 
America is in its Bill Gates phase. 

Iraq and Iran for America are twin 
evils. For Russia they are sources of 
back pay. Iraq owes Russia $7 billion. 

Second, the United States and Rus- 


sia today are no longer playing on tbe 
same global chessboard. They are each 
playing on many different chessboards. 
Some overlap, some do not. Pot in- 
stance, says the Russian foreign policy 


Muslim fundamentalists the worst 
thing in the world.” 

For Russia, the Saudi fundamental- 
ists are worse because the Saudis sup- 
ported the Chechen separatists. 

For Russia, the second worst are 
the Taleban fundamentalists in Af- 
ghanistan. Since the Iranians oppose 
both the Saudis and Taleban, they are 
good for Russia. 

Also, in the dis pute over how Caspi- 
an Sea oil will be divided. Iran is allied 
with Russia and Turkmenistan, against 
Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. 

The fact that the Russians are not 
with America 100 percent does not 
twain they are against America 100 
percent. This is not the return of the 
Cold War. It is the essence of the post- 
Cold War. That is why we get these 
ambiguous outcomes: Russia per- 
suades Saddam to let the UN weapons 
inspectors back in, but only to hasten 
the day when the sanctions can be lifted 


what Russia s unique interests are. 
This is a global interest. 

To understand this, though, is to 
appreciate that in managing relations 
with Russiafoere will be areas of over- 
lap and areas of discord. And those 
overlap® and -discords will be driven 
not by ideological competition, as in 


the Cold War, but by differences in 
geography, history and income. 


Th^Cold Warriors who waatto treat 
Russia as though it is still and will 
always be an irredeemable foe will be 
blind to the potential benefits of wink- 
ing with Russia in some areas. Rus- 
sophiles who want to treat Russia as a 
fellow Western democracy will be 
hiind to the dangers inherent in Rus- 
sia’s very different circumstances. 

As the Johns Hopkins foreign policy 
expert Michael Mandelbaum points 
out, Russia and China are now the same 
problem — two post-Coramunist 
powers with their own regional in- 
terests, some of which overlap with 
America’s, others of which conflict. 
The only way to manage both is by 
building bridges where possible and 
drawing red lines where necessary. 

The New York Times . 


To understand this is not to excuse it 
Indeed, the United States must hold 
Russia’s feet to the fibre, without mercy, 
when it comes to preventing Iraq or 


To Each National Culture Its Own Form of Capitalism 


P ARIS — The economic 
crash in Asia is not the 
product of “Asian values” but 
of the misapplication of West- 
ern values to Asia. A fallacy 
exists in current Western think- 
ing about capitalism, which the 
Western governments and in- 
ternational development banks 
have passed along to Asia. 

It was expressed by a baffled 
Alan Greenspan last s umme r 
when be said that he had always 
believed that dismantling com- 
munism in Russia and tbe 
former satellites would “auto- 
matically est ab li s h a free mar- 
ket entrepreneurial system.” 

The fallacy is to assume that 
all that is necessary to create a 
modem industrial economy is 
deregulation. Cultural and po- 
litical factors are considered ir- 
relevant to economics or sub- 
ordinate to economic forces. 

This is profoundly untrue. It 
is the national culture that de- 
termines die form that an eco- 
nomy assumes. 

Asia’s crash follows from the 
imposition of a Western market 
model on politico-economic 
cultures in which primacy has 
traditionally been given to the 
collective over the individual, 
where social conformism is* a 


By William Pfaff 


economic expansion unsustain- 
able in a globalized economy. 

Once foe errant investments 
motivated by these relation- 
ships began to fail, investors at 
home and abroad either pulled 
out or speculated against Asian 
currencies and markets. It all 
began to come apart. 

Earlier in this century, Max 
Weber and R_H. Tawney ar- 
gued that capitalism was a 


intimate connection existed be- 
tween the ascetic ethical teach- 
ings of Calvinism and foe de- 


early 19th centuries saw the 
original Colonists' sense of 
America's limitless possibilit- 
ies T ransf orm Puritanism's an- 
guished consciousness of sin 


velopment of tire institutions of. and conviction of predestina- 


product of tbe cultural and re- 
ligious nature ’of Western so- 


ligious nature 'of Western so- 
ciety. The German Weber 
(1864-1920) wrote in 1920, in 
“The Protestant Ethic and foe 
Spirit of Capitalism,” that an 


European ca pita Ifom. 

The En glish Christian social- 
ist Tawney (1880-1962) de- 
veloped a parallel argument in 
“Religion and the Rise of Capi- 
talism” and Other influential 
works. The arguments of 
Weber and Tawney were val- 
idated by the actual develop- 
ment of capitalism in both 
Europe and the United States. 

In foe American case, the pe- 
culiar evolution of Protestant 
Christianity during the 18th and 


tion into a belief that material 
success and earned riches are 
actually evidence of God’s 
blessing on both individuals 
and nation. 

Tbe Gilded 'Age of American 
capitalis m in foe late 19th cen- 

S was rife with social abuse 
v ulg ar display, but func- 
tioned within a powerful code 
of Protestant conviction which 
said that gaining wealth was 
connected to virtue bn t was also 
a trust Hence foe great phil- 


Asians Could Thank Uncle Sam 


L ONDON — The United 
States is beinn asked to do 


Stales is being asked to do 
too much, with insufficient as- 
sistance and even less gratitude. 
The result may be a United 
States less co mmitte d to de- 
fending the global order, and 
therefore a poorer and more 
dangerous East Asia. 


By Gerald Segal 


where social conformism is' a Many of those Southeast 
positive valae, people rely most Asians who used to deride tbe 
on family ana clan relations, ' Ame ricans and Europeans as 
and government is intervention- powers in decline now com- 


ist and characterized by patron- 
client relationships. 

To each society its way of 
life. The error is to think that 
Western capitalism can be in- 
stalled everywhere and work 
the way it does in America or 
Western Europe. 

Asian economies have been 
tumbling because their tradi- 
tional forms of economic and 

duced. by Western standards 
corrupt and speculative form of 


plain that Westerners are not 
doing enough to assist them. 

When help is offered, it is 
quixotically sneered at because 
it is not an “Asian solution to 
Asian problems.” 

The unpalatable truth is that 


tiie region increasingly relies on 
the United States to maintain 


the United States to maintain 
order, all the while complaining 
about tbe consequences. 

When it came time to restrain 
North Korea’s nuclear weapons 
program or to deter China from 


attacking Taiwan, only the 
Americans woe up to foe chal- 
lenge. Most other Asians 
wanted tiie jobs done but did not 
want to help, get in harm's way 
or even publicly applaud. 

The Americans (with .their 
European allies) are also the 
key defenders of the open glob- 
al economy that makes eco- 
nomic growth in East Asia pos- 
sible. The United States and 
Europe drive forward foe effort 
to liberalize trade in financial 
services and information tech- 
nology, providing an open mar- 
ket that will be crucial to sus- 
tained East Asian growth. 

And, of course, it is the 
Americans and Europeans who 
provide open markets for East 
Asian exports. 

Washington does all this in 
part because such behavior is in 


4 One China 9 Loses in Taiwan 


T AIPEI — The threat to 
Taiwan from China has 
been increased by electoral de- 
feat of the governing Nation- 
alists, who had not suffered 
such a blow since the Chinese 
Communist Party and armed 
forces drove them across the 
Taiwan Strait in 1949. 

Beijing will now wait to see 
if a candidate of the victorious 
DPP, the Democratic Progres- 
sive Party, which won a ma- 
jority of seats in foe municipal 
elections on Saturday, be- 
comes president in 2000, 
wholly abandons foe mantra 
of reunification and moves 
Taiwan toward the ultimate 
flash point — independence. 

Always fragile, tbe current 
Beijing -Taipei status quo was 
shaken last month when Pres- 
ident Lee Teng-hui caused a 


By Jonathan MIrsky 


panic in his private office by 
telling The Washington Post 
and The Times of London that 
’Taiwan is an independent 
country,” like Britain or 
France. It is now clear that this 
provocative declaration was a 
key move in the last stages of 
the election campaign. 

Mr. Lee’s spo kesman 
claimed soon after the inter- 
views that the president 
“didn’t mean it.” 

In fact his repeated assur- 
ances of Taiwan's indepen- 
dence — while referring to 
ultimate reunification with 
China' — to two somewhat 
startled journalists was a sign 
that he was risking an angry 
reaction from tbe mainland to 
prevent the Nationalists from 
losing the municipal elections 
to foe DPP, which favors 
genuine independence. 

But the Nationalists did 
lose. It was a humiliation for 
President Lee, who in 1996. in 
die face of intimidating 
Chinese military maneuvers 
in the Taiwan Strait, won a 


resounding victory as foe fust 
directly elected president 

In its unexpected weekend 
triumph, the DPP won 12 of 
the 23 contested municipal 
seats. The Nationalists re- 
tained only eight of their pre- 
vious IS. The remainder of the 
seats were won by independ- 
ents and minority parties. 

Tbe defeat of the Nation- 
alists has profound implica- 
tions for peace in the region. 
Next year there will be' par- 
liamentary elections in Tai- 
wan, in which foe Nationalists 
could well lose their majority. 
It is now possible that in 2000 
Chen Shui-bian, Taipei’s pop- 
ular mayor and the DPP’s 
brightest star, will replace Mr. 
Lee as president 

The DPP’s rallying ay in 
the recent campaign was pub- 
lic order and clean govern- 
ment in contrast to the gang- 
ster-ridden Nationalists. But 
what will cause unease in 
Beijing is the DPP's real ap- 
peal: its opposition to reuni- 
fication with China. 

Questioned about reunifi- 
cation. foe party’s chairman, 
Hsu, Hsin-liang, replied: 
“Never, never, never.” 

If this turns into outright 
calls for independence by a 
DPP government, it would 
challenge China to carry out 
foe late- Deng Xiaoping’s 
threat to "use force” if any 


traditional Taiwanese back- 
ground, and much of what he 
has said for several years 
shows his devotion to foe is- 
land of his birth. 

In our interview, he empha- 
sized foe importance of Tai- 
wan's schoolchildren learning 
“their own” geography first, 
not tire mainland’s. 

As an agricultural engineer 
with a doctorate from Cornell, 

• be spoke proudly of Taiwan’s* 
unique irrigation system, from 
which the mainland could 
learn much. 

He gave me a book which 
underlines foe unique contri- 
bution to China of regions tike 
Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet 
and Xinjiang. 

Beijing had decoded to ig- 
nore Mr. Lee’s flirtation with 
independence as (he cries of a 
desperate and eccentric lame 
duck. It recently offered to 
Taiwan a degree of autonomy 
much exceeding Hong 
Kong’s, including its own 
flag, army and economic 
policies, some foreign deal- 
ings of its own, and possible 
senior positions in Beijing for 
Taiwan’s leaders. 

Refusing such offers, Bei- 
jing calculated, would bring 
Taipei under pressure from 
the United States to be more 
accommodating. 

Now, however, there is. a 
new, possibly critical situ- 
ation in cross-Strait relations 
that could make foe offer of a 
an autonomous Taiwan army 


America’s interest, and in part 
• because it has grown used to 
leadership. But there is a limit 
to how much foe Americans 
will do when they get little sup- 
port, credit or thanks. 

Americans are right to ask 
where the Japanese (or the Eu- 
ropeans) might be when crises 
arise in South Korea or Taiwan: 
Tbe moaners in Southeast Asia 
are the most infuriating — - foe 
biggest free-riders on American 
deterrence of China and defense 
of tbe global economy, and yet 
foequickest to caip. 

The challenge for (he Asians 
is to find a way to keep the 
Americans honestly engaged in 
foe defense of foe open and mul- 
tilateral global . order. The 
United States will certainly be 
waxy of defending Asians 
against a rising China or rogue 
North Korea if it has to do all 
the heavy lifting itself. 

A good place to make a fresh 
start is with the American in- 
sistence that China can join the 
World Trade Organization only 
if it meets tough conditions like 
opening domestic markets and 
cutting state subsidies. This is in 
foe interest of other Asian coun- 
tries, and they should say so. 

They would certainly be foe 
firat to suffer if China could get 
foe benefits of WTO meraber- 


wifo a principled disregard for 
individual claims on social 


ship while still being able to 
undercut their own exports. 


undercut their own exports. 

Asians should also drank 
President Bill din ton for keep- 
ing foe U.S. market open and 
foe dollar strong, even as foe 
American trade deficit grows. 

Expressing gratitude may not 
always be appealing, but Asians 
have a lot to be grateful for. If 
they don’t say so, they should 
not be surprised if Americans 
draw foe natural conclusion. 


justice and with a firm belief in 
a new version of economic de- 
terminism: that the market will 
solve all problems, including 
those of justice and equity. 

This could be called a 
dum bed-down American inver- 
sion of Marxism, but it has be- 
come the national economic 
ethic. It has been exported to 
post-Communist Russia and 
Eastern Europe, and to Asia, 
with a missionary zeal worthy 
of another age and a more edi- 
fying cause. 

Asian capitalism is in crisis in 
part because of a mismatch be- 
tween its inherited culture and 
its imported economic values. 

America has yet to examine 
foe implications for its future of 
a materialistic and hedonist pub- 
lic culture that has, in practice, 
abandoned tbe ethical founda- 
tion of the country’s economic 
as well as political history. 

One may deplore this change 
or welcome it, but it has hap- 


The writer is director qf stud- 
ies at the International Institute 
for Strategic Studies. This com- 
ment is adapted from an article 
in Newsweek. 


pened, and it marks not only the 
United States today, but also 


United States today, but : 
what modem capitalism has 
come everywhere. 

International Herald Tribune. 
Los Angeles Times Syndicate. 


has be- 


IN OUR PAGES: 100,75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1897: Cuban Self-Rule 


leader in Taipei rejected re- .and flag irrelevant 


MADRID — With foe official 
promulgation of foe full decree 
granting foe right of self-rule to 
foe colonies of Cuba and Porto 
Rico, what hitherto was only an 
idea is now an established fact 
In simple, dignified language 
dial is not without a touch of 
pathos, the decree gives central, 
provincial and municipal auto- 
nomy to foe two Antilles; foe 
application of foe Parliamen- 
tary system is extended to them 
“without reservation, equivo- 
cation or double dealing.” 


every Greek, which will have 
resulted in foe removal from 
Turkey since the beginning of 
foe war of nearly two million 
Ottoman Greeks. .There are be- 
tween five and six hundred 
thousand Greeks still in Asia 
Minor, .who were originally 
ordered to quit that country by 
November 30. 


1947: French Success 


unification with the mainland 

The appeal of indepen- 
dence is irresistible to many of 
Taiwan’s 21 million people, 
foe ethnic Taiwanese. They 
vastly outnumber the 3 or 4 
million islanders who regard 
themselves as mainlan d re- 
fugees from communism. 

President Lee comes from a 


If a DPP government comes 
to power in 2000, without foe 
Nationalists* historic ties to 
“one China,” frayed patience 
in Beijing could snap. 


1922: Greek Exodus 


The writer, Asia editor of 
The Times of London, contrib- 
uted this comment to the In- 
ternational Herald Tribune. 


LAUSANNE — Tbe Christian 
nations of Western Europe were 
put in a humiliating position to- 
day [Dec. 1 ] by having to accept 
and condone one of the worst 
compulsory exoduses in his-" 
tory. Hus developed in foe dis- 
cussion with the Turks of the 
Turkish expulsion order against 


SON LA, Tonkin — France has 
unobtrusively regained control 
of rebellious Northwest Tonkin, 
a land peopled by 200.000 Thai 
tribesmen. The stocky Thai 
have allied themselves with 
France against their traditional 
enemies, the Annamites, who 
for twenty-eight months have 
fought to win independence for 
a republic of Viet Nam com- 


posed of Tonkin, Ann am and 
Cochin-China. By granting al- 
most complete local autonomy 
to foe Thai, foe Bench have 
won over foe local population. 


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and 


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anthropic foundations created 
by the industrial barons of the 
age, foe Rockefellers, Game- 
gies. Mellons and Morgans. 

This belief in the moral ob- 
ligations of wealth persisted in- 
to foe 1950s, expressed in foe 
notion of “corporate citizen- 
ship” and a belief that compa- 
nies bad obligations to all their 
“stakeholders" — labor and 
the community, as well as 
stockholders. 

In today’s American capital- 
ism, the idea of stakeholder 
capitalism has all but disap- 
peared, to the benefit of stock- 
holder and manager, and foe 
rational morality within which 
business and industry function 
has changed radically. 

The United States remains 
foe most religious of industrial 
nations in terms of avowed be- 
lief in God, and regular 
churchgoing, but religion has 
lost virtually all serious cultural 
or economic influence. 

Religious influence has been 
driven out in foe name of 
church-state separation, but also 
by the conversion both of elites 
and of the public to versions of 
hedonist individualism. 

Individual freedom, even 
when destructive to common 
life and community, and the aim 
of individual “self-realization’’ 
have become foe dominating 
themes in American life. 

Religion itself has tended to 
become therapeutic rather than 
redemptive. The practices of 
contemporary American capi- 
talism are merely foe economic 
expression of this change. 

American business functions 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 

OPINION/LETTERS ” 


PAGE 9 


America’s Epidemic 
Of Guns and Murder 


By Richard Harwood 


"VXTASHINGTON — Araeri- 
▼ y cans have invested a great 
deal of wealth and effort in this 
century to keep death at bay, and 
“J®y ^ la “. a ^ ot °f success. 
Cholera, smallpox, typhoid have 
been eliminated in America. Oth- 
er diseases .that once killed mil- 
lions now are cured easily or pre- 
vented. The average American 
life span has been extended by 
nearly 30 years. 

But neither money nor science 
has brought the society any closer 
to solving or even moderating one 
epidemic: violence. For a century 
and probably longer, America has 
been the most murderous “de- 
veloped” society on earth. 

Since 1980, nearly 400,000 
Americans have died at the hands 
of fellow citizens — about the 
number of Americans killed in 
World War I and World War H 
combined. 

This propensity to violence 
cannot be explained by the clicW 
that America is a uniquely “law- 
less” society. 

In robberies, the United States 
is second to Poland and similar in 
rate to Italy, Australia, the Czech 
Republic, Canada and England. A 
study in 1992 revealed that Lon- 
don had a higher overall crime rate 
than New York City, including 66 
percent more thefts and 57 percent 
more burglaries. But New York 
has i I times as many murders. 

So it is nor crime that sets 
America apart It has no more 
pickpockets, shoplifters, burglars, 
robbers Or brawlers than Western 
Europe or the British Isles. But it 
has a surplus of killers — a large 
surplus. The homicide rate is 20 
times the rate in England and 
Wales, 10 times the rate in France 
and Germany, and is exceeded 
only by a few Latin American 
countries, notably Colombia, 
Mexico and Brazil. 

Why this is so is a mystery to 
medical scientists (psychiatrists 
and psychologists included) and 
to anthropologists and social sci- 
entists. Politicians, too, have uo 
answers.- 

When 20,000 to 25.000 people 
are being murdered every year, 
you have a problem. It is not a 
huge problem in the context of 
death in America; more than 2.25 
million Americans die every year 
from all causes. 

But murder poisons society with, 
fear and suspicion, turns large areas 


of the cities into combat zones and 
contributes to urban flight 

Still, despite America's cowboy 
image in much of the world, it is 
irrational to assume that a 
propensity for murder is rampant 
in the American character — 99.99 
percent of us Americans never 
murder anyone. 

Some -regions have more vi- 
olent traditions than others, the 
Soath in particular Louisiana's 
murder rate today is 20 times the 
rate in Vermont 

Men are more murderous than 
women. Cities have proportion- 
ately more murders than suburbs 
and rural areas. The 20 lamest 
U.S. cities have 1 1.5 percent of the 
population but account for 34 per- 
cent of the reported homicides. 

African-Americans. heavily 
concentrated in these cities, are at 
far more risk of death by homicide 
than nonblacks. They are 13 per- 
cent of the American population 
but they account for 45 parent of 
homicide victims and 55 percent of 
suspects charged with homicide, 
according to calculations by Frank- 
lin Zimring and Gordon Hawkins 
of foe University of California. 

Whatever the ‘ ‘causal” factors, 
foe percentage of blacks charged 
with homicide in foe age groups 
most prone to violence (15 to 34) 
is tiny, roughly a tenth of T per- 
cent And if black homicides were 
ignored in the calculations, the 
U.S. homicide rate would still be 
three to five times greater than the 
.rates in Europe and Britain. 

Mr. Zimring and Mr. Hawkins 
conclude that the one “causal” 
factor that sets America apart from 
foe rest of the world is. foe huge 
arsenal of handguns, estimated at 
between 50 million and 70 million, 
which makes it possible to settle 
with finality the passionate domes- . 
tic arguments and street disputes 
that produce most homicides. 

People will argue that other 
deadly weapons — knives, blunt 
instruments — will remain avail- 
able to people who want to kilL 
Sure. They are available all over 
foe world, too, but nowhere else is 
murder so commonplace. 

It would take political courage 
to do anything about the gun prob- 
lem, and it is in short supply in 
Washington. But no other remedy 
— medical, chemical, technolo- 
gical or spiritual — is at hand or 
even on foe horizon. 

The Washington Post. 

ADVERTISEMENT 


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MXKraU-ANY'-ONt 
ANY' MPRE- I -HUNK- 
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


■ Removing Land Mines 

Regarding “ A Land-Mine Ban 
Is Just a First Step" (Opinion, 
Nov. 13) by David McCall: 

The award of this year’s Nobel 
Peace Prize to Jody Williams and 
foe International Campaign to 
Ban Land Mines is a welcome 
confirmation of a public and polit- 
ical groundsweu against foe 
mounting loss of civilian lives 
and livelihoods to these insidi- 
ous weapons, as Mr. McCall so 
rightly points out. 

For each of the 2,000 civilians 
maimed or killed by anti-person- 
nel mines globally every month, 
hundreds more live with malnu- 
trition and poverty because their 
fields are littered with these un- 
exploded remnants of war and 
cannot be plowed. 

After 33 years of internal con- 
flict in Angola, some districts are 
virtual islands in a sea of land 
mines and unexploded ordnance. 
The only safe way in and out is 
by. air. 

The Nobel Peace Prize and the 
signing of an international treaty 
this month to ban the manufac- 
ture, sale and use of anti-person- 
nel mines offer a glimmer of hope 
to foe millions of familie s strug- 
gling for survival in more than 60 
mine-infested nations. But with- 
out a major global investment in 
mine clearance, these communi- 
ties are doomed to disarm the 
thousands of tiny bombs lurking 


in their neighborhoods one leg 
or arm at a time. 

The experience of the United 
Nations Development Program in 
supporting mine clearance high- 
lights the woeful inadequacy of 
current detection and clearance 
techniques, which Mr. McCall de- 
scribes. The Development Pro- 
gram has trained thousands of lo- 
cal people for the task in recent 
years, but the average de-miner, 
working at great personal risk 
with hand-held probes, can clear 
only 20 to 50 square meters of 
land a day. 

Complicating things is the ex- 
pense, which is too great for most 
developing countries. One anti- 
personnel mine can be planted for 
only about S3. It can cost as much 
as $1,500 to locate and disarm it. 
Considering that more than 100 
million land mines have been 
planted around the world, the cost 
of clearing them is unfathom- 
able. 

Meanwhile, rival armies con- 
tinue to deploy milli ons of new 
mines every year. A treaty to ban 
foeir deployment will put a crimp 
in this activity, but it will not ease 
foe suffering of communities 
already plagued by foe still-ex- 
plosive legacies of old wars. 

If, as expected, more than 100 
nations sign the land-mine treaty 
this month, we cannot let foe buck 
stop there. As 90,000 amputees in 
Angola alone can testify, wars do 
not end with cease-fires and ne- 


EeTcan clear ^ ree Speech in America 


Pulchritude and Politics: 
Meet the New Barbie 

, By Tina Rosenberg - 

N EW YORK — Few product worse — is expected of them 
specifications have the poHt- by society." 

ical and social import or the . Barbie is not solely response 
ratio of bnstline to w aistline on a for girts' obsession wi th their boo- 
Barbie doll. ' ies, certainly not in a culture tnai 

The average American gni now also brings us “Baywatch . and 
has ei g ht Barbies,; whose mea- Cosmopolitan. . Mattel maintaui^ 
surements would be 38-18-34 that girls do not emulate Barbie* 
inches (9645-86 centimeters! if They just play with her. •* 
- -- ' But even if little, girls make 

MEANWBDDLE thor Barbies into construction 

— — 7— ; workers rather than fashion moo- 

they were adult-sized, a figure not els, they c annot avoid getting 311 
found in nature. early and daily dose of the values 

Mattel Inc. has just announced of large wardrobes and _ smaU 
that next year it will begin mating waistlines, cheerleader notions of 
a Barbie with a wider waist and beauty and boyfriends who can 
smalle r bust, softer features, less buy their girls pink Porsches. 1 
makeup and a. closed mouth. • The message sits like a lateni 
According to- Mattel, foe virus until puberty, when body 


gotiated settlements. Effective 
peace, reconciliation and the re- 
habilitation of war-tom nations 
will be possible only if the -pro- 
tagonists and vendors of war clean 
up after themselves. 

JAMES GUSTAVE SPETH. 

New York. 

- The writer is administrator of 
the UN Development Program. 


a Barbie with a wider waist and beauty and 
smalle r bust, softer features, less buy their g! 
makeup and a. closed mouth. Themes 

According to- Mattel, foe virus until 
change is purely a response to the 
market's demand for a more real- « 
istic doll — one that will need a UettUlt 
whole new wardrobe, others flntiar- 

would add. Nevertheless, Bar- J 
bie's new body will, do the next likely * 
generation a favor, providing girls /.’/*/« a 
with a more realistic modal of AWwe g 

beauty than their mothers and sis- : 

tens have had. image and p 

Barbie was modeled after Lilli, mount, and 
a German doll and racy cartoon ing disorder 


Demand for the 
flatter-chested doll 
likely comes from 
little girls’ mothers. 


mount, and men explodes into eat. 

ing disorders and classroom silence 


character euphemistically de- for fear of showing np the boys. > 


scribed as ah actress between per- 
formances. When she was intro- 


The fact that so many adult 
women still have their Barbies 


ducpd in 1959, Barbie had the and Kens reflects Barbie’s exalted 
perfect 1950s face, with a shy place during foeir formative 


submissive, 


In “Europe's Internet Puzzle, 
Free Speech vs. Laws Against 
Spewing Hare” [Nov. 25), we are 
told that the “divergent histories” 
of Europe and America were ev- 
ident at a conference on regulating 
hate speech on the Internet, with 
Americans insisting that freedom 
of expression be accorded “the 
highest respect.” 

In “Away from Politics” (Nov. 
27), 1 read that Secret Service 
agents searched the apartment of a 
student newspaper, columnist at 
the University of California who 
wrote a satirical article, about 
Chelsea Clinton. 

Neo-Nazis and foeir like on the 
Internet thus are free to express 
their desire to suppress large por- 
tions of humanity while one fool- 
ish university student is subjected 
to a search by Secret Service 
agents for a satire about the pres- 
ident's daughter. 

DONALD HOLZMAN. 

Triel-sur-Seine, France. 


expression and submissive, years. When she talks, children 
'downcast eyes. . listen, and Talking Barbie, even 

A retooling in 1967, in the five years ago, was saying: “Can 
idst of the sexual revolution, we ever have enough clothes?'! 
ive her a direct gaze. In 1977 she and “Math class is tough." 
it her current look, called foe Girls can play with Doctor 


midst of the sexual revolution, we ever have enough clothes? * 
gave her a direct gaze. In 1977 she and “Math class is tough." 
got her current look, called foe Girls can play with Doctor 
“superstar” look, with a wide Barbie and Dentist Barbie, but 


smile and heavy makeup. 

American attitudes have 
shaped Barbie as much as she has 
shaped them. When American 
women invaded male professions. 


they can also dress her in 
dozens of outfits that look as if 
they were made for Oldest Pro- 
fession Barbie. 

In a game called Barbie’s 


Barbie did, too. As Americans Dream Date, released in 1992, 


began to appreciate “dLvers&y,’' 
the California blonde came out in 


each player tries to make Ken 
spend as much money on her as 


various colors! Today, notions of possible before midnight. We have 
female allure are be ginning to not come that far from Lilli’s purr 
value athletic and independent suh of presents from rich men. 
Women, and Mattel is following. The New York Tunes. 

-Barbie is certainly hot being 

forced on little girls, who persist *■ 

In Loving pink plastic high heels. Letters intended for publica- 
tutus and princess Barbies. De- tlon should be addressed ' Letters ' 
maud for me flatter-chested doll to the Editor " and contain the 
likely comes more from their writer's signature, name and full' 

mothers. address. Letters should be brief 

M.G. Lord, a Barbie biogra- andare subject to editing. We can- 

pher, calls Barbie “a toy designed run be responsible for the return or 

by women for womeh to teach unsolicited manuscripts. 

women what — for better or ‘ 

ADVERTISEMENT " 


Letters intended for publica- m 
tlon. should be addressed "Letters 
to the Editor" and contain the 
writer's signature, name and full' 
address. Letters should be brief 
andare subject to editing. We can- 
not be responsible for the return of 
unsolicited manuscripts. 


i; r 

L ; ~ 


International Criminal Court in 1998! 



EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT 

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7b the President and the members of the 52nd United Nations General Assembly; 
To the members of the United Nations Security Council, 

To the Secretary General of the United Nations, 


jut tan sunk Ira m worn bexdol 

llai MEJIA LDPIt Ua Hsira NMU 

nZOO: EAnd Hum JWSNffJCR. Km 
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COSTA RICA 

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WUUM 

CROATIA 

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limra UUICUvto MHAttaa IUBC 
Rata lUEUCfctaM R?t toga ZGKKC 

CZECH REPUBLIC 

hml DOSttL |n IW10T. Junta POM: 

bid amt Fta SHBTRT 

DENMARK 

UnM «>0Ut Fnik UAGMIOL Jotgea 
EDlW.Durir HIUWI.Bata ftSMODt Mtr 
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ECUADOR 


Bara BOCMM ONILImiH Un EfftwB 
WWftka HflMf nERIESimifcjH In 
llUIGVffiUK; Hjgri UMo UKI MKBOt 
Jmp HHTEAO ROOHGDE/: Fsudi Ratal 


No Peace 

Without 

Justice 


NwYbrk, NY 10017 
Tel: + 1-212-980103 
E-md: np.wi@ogora 


9801031; Fax: 9801072 




e,the undersigned ParHamentariaiis of the worM4 


comicfenng the urgent necessrty of ending the state of formal and substantial Jmpunrty for 
those responsible for the genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes that have marked 
this century; 

emphasizing the unquestionable need for the international community to adopt a secure 
deterrent against future wars, massacres, and acts of aggression, as well as to deliver those who are 
responsible for these crimes to the ad hoc Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda; 

considering that the time has arrived for creating the first effective section of international law 
for all of the nations of the world under the aegis of the UN and the concrete possibility of dosing 
this millennium with the banner of impartial and effective international justice; 

emphasizing the significant progress that has been achieved in recent years by the work of the 
UN Preparatory Committee as the predisposition for the project for the Statute of the 
Internationa/ Criminal Court; 

considering the Italian Government's offer to organize and host the Diplomatic Plenipotentiary 
Conference for the establishment of the International Criminal Court scheduled for June 1998; 


S olemnly request that the 52nd UN General Assembly 
and the UN Security Council 


li and the UN Security Council 

-make the proper and formal recommendations of the Preparatory 
Committee, which asks for the convocation of a Diplomatic Conference for the 
establishment of the International Criminal Court in Rome in 1998 a reality, and 
assure that its adequate budget will be included within the ordinary budget of 
the United Nations; 

- to modify the SFOR mandate and to introduce every other useful measure 
possible so that the persons sought for prosecution for war crimes and crimes 
against humanity in the ex-Yugoslavia and Rwanda International Tribunals be 
brought to justice. 


nONOR Bwwto MJtt HTU 
FINLAND 

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FRANCE 

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With foe contribution of: 

Open Society 
mSm' Institute 


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HUNGARY 

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let +32-2-2847198 
Fax: + 32-2-2303670 

B^:pjHTixfi!les@tjgorajlinJ 

wwwGgofiLStnut/pr 







PAGE 10 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 



Winnie Mandela Ordered Slaying, Killer Says 


Coavdnttv Ov Staff fron CHapuKkn 

JOHANNESBURG — Winnie 
Madikizela-Mandela ordered the killing 
of a Soweto doctor and offered 20,000 
rand for the job, one of two men con- 
victed of the slaying claimed Monday. 

Cyril Mbafea, 29, told the Truth and 
Reconciliation Commission that Pres- 
ident Nelson Mandela's former wife had 
hired him and another man to kill Dr. 
Abu-Baker As vat and provided the gun 
that they used. 

“She mentioned an amount of 20,000 


would be paid 20,000 rand and maybe 
even more, and not only will we get 
money for the job but we will be doing it 
for the cause of our country." 

It also said: "1 killed Dr. As vat by 
shooting him with the 9mm gun. This 
was under instructions by Mrs. Mandela, 
and I genuinely believed that I would be 


Democratic Front in its 1980s struggle 
against white rule, denied that Mrs. 
Madikizela-Mandela argued with Dr. 
Asvat in his Soweto office hours before 
he was murdered on Jan. 27, 1989. 

She also denied filling in a medical 
record card a month earlier that, if au- 
thentic, would prove that Mrs. 


benefiting the future political system of Madikizela-Mandela had lied in saying 


rand which she could actually increase if accused Mrs. Madikizela-Mandela of in- 


wc acted according to her instructions," 
Mr. Mbatha said. The sum was equal to 
about $8,000 at the time. 

He said Mrs. Madikizela-Mandela 


our country.” she was out of town when Stornpie 

In a morning of dramatic develop- Moekhetsi Seipei, 14, was murdered in 
men ts, a lawyer for the Truth and Re- or near her bouse near die end of 1989. 
conciliation Commission, Hanif Valiy, It was alleged in earlier testimony that 
Its. Madikizela-Mandela of in- Mrs. Madikizela-Mandela killed 
with witnesses, and a lawyer Stornpie Seipei or ordered him killed and 
id received death threats from then had Dr. Asvat killed after a loud 


terfering with witnesses, and a lawyer 
said he had received death threats from 
her supporters. 

The commission, beaded by Arch- 


Madikize ia-Mandeia and contradicted 
statements she made in a recent tele- 
vision documentary featuring Katiza 
Cebekhulu, a former bodyguard who is 
now a key witness against Mis. 
Madikizela-Mandela. 

Mr. Vally, the lawyer, interrupted 
proceedings to allege that Mrs. 
Madikizela-Mandela had been contact- 
ing witnesses ordered to testify to die 
commission and asked for an assurance 
from her lawyer that this would stop. 

Mrs. Madikizeia-Mandcla 's lawyer, 
Ishmael Semenya, challenged Mr. Vally 
to prosecute her under the law that cre- 
ated the truth commission, but declined 


ax* 

mmrnm 


mmmmm 




had described Dr. Asvat as a “certain bishop Desmond Tutu, is holding a spe- 
male who was disturbing her in her ciai hearing into the activities of Mrs. 


argument in his office a month later to give an assurance that she had not and 
because he had examined Stornpie would not contact witnesses. 

Seipei and could link her to the murder. Peter Soller, a lawyer representing 


i. MadUrizeLa-Mandela was impli-* one of the witnesses against Mrs. 


political work, and she wanted people to 
remove him.” 

In written testimony submitted to the 
commission, Mr. Mbatha said: "Mrs. 
Mandela said if we (tilled Dr. Asvat we 


Madikizela-Mandela and her body- cated in testimony last week in die Madikizela-Mandela. said that he had 
guards, known as the Mandela United murders of Stornpie Seipei, Dr. Asvat received a death threat immediately after 



UN Leader 


Football Club, during the final years of and at least four others. 


white rule. 

Albertina Sisulu. who led the United 


Mrs. Sisulu's evidence undermined 
two pillars of the case against Mrs. 


he accepted the brief and that promised 
police protection of his home had not 
materialized. (AP. Reuters) 


Dm RmtcH/TIw AwKiMri Pic* 

One of Winnie Mandela’s daugh- 
ters passing her a note Monday. 


BANKER: National Considerations First 

Continued from Page I furt — an unchallenged step that was 

widely taken as a signal that Mr. Duis- 
concems or the choice will be made enberg would carry on at his post, witb- 


behind closed doors, giving life to the 
charge that a choice of great significance 
for Europe, in the manner of the 
Maastricht Treaty itself, was being made 
without open discussion. 

The assumption, or pretense, that the 
search could proceed without clash or 
-wide debate vanished last month when 


i put up Jean 
>F the Bank 


of France, as its can- 


out much further discussion, when the 
institute melds into the central b ank. 

The Dutch candidate had the open 
support of the German government and 
the Bundesbank, who have expressed 
the belief that Europe would be well 
served by having a central bank leader 
from one of its smaller countries. 

But the French blocked the process, 
and appear, in doing so, to have suc- 


didate. The move came almost a year cessfiilly maneuvered circumstances to 


after the appointment of Wim Duisen- their advantage. Schematically, as viewed 
berg, a Dutchman, at the bead of the by officials following the discussions, 
European Monetary Institute in Frank- these factors have played an important 

role in driving the French position: 

~ • A desire that Mr. Duisenberg not get 

O’lT'Z'VI’ TT # the job. France was described by an 

O-ILvJ U -Li* official as having “fewer handles on 

Holland’' than virtually any other coun- 
TMFTnllce ftottltma try in the EU, regarding the Netherlands 
ZirZZ XWliw Zit/uUiftc as spiritually allied to the Anglo-Saxon 

Continued from Page 1 world, while a de facto partner of Ger- 

many in the Deutsche mark bloc. Since 
stitutions to be restructured or merged each member state holds a veto over the 
with healthier companies. About 12 of choice of a candidate, nominating Mr. 


SEOUL: 

IMF Talks Resume 

Continued from Page 1 
stitutions to be restructured or merged 


the nation's 30 investment banks and Trichet was essentially France's signal 
three or so commercial banks are can- to the rest of Europe that Mr. Duisenberg 
didates for closure. could not have the job, or at least not 

The two parties were also said to without something highly significant in 
disagree over the target for economic exchange. 

growth next year, although the final fig- •An attempt by President Jacques 
is likely to be about half of this year’s Chirac to assert his political role. Mr. 
ected 6 percent growth. Chirac' s position, at the forefront of the 

outh Korea's corporate retrenchment French effort on the bank, is being re- 
nted Britain on Monday as Samsung garde d as an active attempt by the pres- 
umes Co. put plans for a £450 idem to keep a hold on international 
ion ($758.2 million) investment there affairs in the face of attempts by the 
told. Samsung had planned to expand government of Prime Minister Lionel 



ore is likely to be about half of this year’s 
expected 6 percent growth. 

South Korea's corporate retrenchment 
reached Britain on Monday as Samsung 
Electronics Co. put plans for a £450 
million ($758.2 million) investment there 
on hold. Samsung had planned to expand 


AIDS MARCH IN INDIA — Prostitutes and health workers marching Monday, World AIDS Day, In 
New Delhi’s red light district to demand medical facilities. The UN estimates that-India has 3 million to 5 
million citizens who carry the HIV virus, which makes it the country with the most cases of the disease. 


CHILL: Scientists Warn That Global Warming Could Produce a New Ice Age in Europe 


its factory at Teesside, England, and in- Jospin to marginalize him. Officials 


crease the work force to 3,000 from 1,400 
over the next two years. (Page 17) 
While terms of any bailout have not 
been announced, news media in Seoul 


have noted that French-German ex- 
changes on the nomination have been 
largely through Mr. Chirac. 

•A “no lose" situation for France . 




have said that about $55 billion might be Either in talks on the bank presidency 
made available to South Korea by the itself or downstream, in negotiations on 
International Monetary Fund, nations other personnel decisions, France is likely 
like the United States and Japan, and to gain. The advantage comes, it is felt, at 
other international organizations like the a low price. One official characterized 
World Bank. That would make the res- both Mr. Chirac and Mr. Jospin as having 
cue the largest ever, surpassing the $48 no particular affection for Mr. Trichet, 
billion bailout of Mexico in 1995. who is likely to be a losing candidate, 
Mr. Lira, the finance minister, had although one who does not have to put his 
proclaimed early Monday morning that job at the Bank of France at risk by 
an agreement had been reached. Late seeking the European bank post 


i 

!' “ ■ *. ' ■*. 
|.--- — . — .• 


Monday afternoon, reporters gathered 
for a news conference at which the de- 
tails were to be announced. But Mr. Lim 
never came to the news conference, 
heading back instead to more negoti- 
ations with the IMF. 

It ajppears that Mr. Lim might have 
initially overstated the extent of progress 
in the negotiations, since IMF officials 
said all along that there was no agree- 
ment. It is also possible that Mr. Lim ran 
into opposition from within the South 
Korean government 

The IMF bailout is designed to re- 
assure international financial markets 
that Seoul will be able to pay its foreign 
debts. 

“In the short-term it will help gain 
back international confidence in the 
Korean economy,' ' said Sakong C, a 
former finance minister who is now 


Unlike the Dutch, who regard time as 
working against them, the French and 
the Germans are willing to let the issue 
play out Chancellor Helmut Kohl is 
described, while defending German in- 
terests, as wanting to do nothing to make 
it appear that Germany was choosing 
between France and the Netherlands. 

With the bank's location in Frankfurt, 
the French have occasionally suggested 
that there was a tacit understanding with 
Bonn that the bank president's job would 
be theirs. The Germans have made it 
clear, in turn, that they have no com- 
plaint with Mr. Trichet’s competence. 
But people such as Ottmar Issing, a 
Bundesbank governor, have made the 
link between his nomination and what he 
called “nationalist criteria.’' 

The French nonetheless feel that sup- 
port for Mr. Duisenberg has diminished 


chairman of the Institute for Global Eco- and that in the next six months it will 
□omics. a research organization. “It will dimmish further. 


stabilize the foreign exchange mar- 
ket.” 

But the prospect of the bailout did not 
stabilize the currency market or the stock 


Short of an incalculable element de- 
veloping — public pressure for more 
open debate on the choice of bank pres- 
ident and his role, for example — sub-- 


market on Monday. That could reflect stantial private negotiation on the maner 
the fact that, in return for the bailout, is expected in the next weeks, partic- 


South Korea will likely agree to some 
measures to slow growth, cut govern- 
ment spending and raise interest rates. 
Interest rates on three-year corporate 
bonds rose to dose to 18 percent from 
just above 15 percent. 

“We are all prepared for quite serious 
recession now,” said Park Ungsuh, 
president of the Samsung Economic Re- 
search Institute, part of the nation's 
largest industrial conglomerate. He said 
the unemployment rate might rise to 5 
percent, roughly double the current 
leveL 

But Mr. Park said the bailout, by 
making banks worry about their sur- 
vival, would result in their refusing to 
lend money even to deserving compa- 


is expected in the next weeks, partic- 
ularly during Mr. Chirac’s trip to Ger- 
many to see Mr. Kohl on Friday, and in 
the margins of the end-of-year EU sum- 
mit conference in Luxembourg. ANY LUCK? — A man fishing thr 

Officials acknowledge that there has center of St Petersburg, where tei 
been conversation, but nothing like below zero centigrade (5 degrees 1 
agreraient, on an ictea dial would give autumn cold wave is a sign of a 
Mr. Duisenberg the first four years of the ° 

eight-year presidential term ami then ram . 

the remaining portion over to Mr. TricbeL ]t^T A Cj. I 

Such a step would require revision of the 1* ■ It 1\ Pi JL * otOClZl 
Maastricht treaty. Other considerations 

involve filling the post of president at the Continued from Page 1 

European Bank of Reconstruction and 

Development, currently held by a Monday. Downward pressure on the 



• Continued from Page 1 

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion’s climate modeling center in Prince- 
ton, New Jersey, die Geophysical Fluid 


Antarctica, but it has far less effect on 
our weather.) • 

But if the North Atlantic suffice were 
to become too warm for die incoming 
current to cool and sink, or the sur- 


Dynamics Laboratory, calculated that rounding waters have an abnormally low 
appreciable increases in atmospheric salt content, then the THC system could 


carbon dioxide could possibly ram the grow chaotic or simply slam to a halt 
THC off altogether. That is what many scientists think 

Earlier this year, two Swiss research- happened during a bizarre cold snap 
era reported in the Aug. 28- issue of the called the Younger Dryas about 11,400 
journal Nature that their computer-mod- years ago when the planet was just corn- 
el calculations showed “a permanent ing out of the last ice age. 
shutdown” within 100 years if carbon 

dioxide levels continued to increase at /' r T TM/T A r f 1 X7 , « 
tiie present rate. That poses a risk “that luf-dLLTJLfV J. XLl« 
no nation bordering the North Atlantic rr q pi jtj .j 

would willingly take," Stefan Rahm- • U,jj. iJtlOWS rteXtOllttV 
stoif of the Potsdam Institute for Climate J 

Impact Research in Germany wrote in an Continued from Page 1 


CLIMATE: 


accompanying commentary. 

Unfortunately, no one knows exactly 
what it takes to disrupt the critical 
relationships between heat ‘ (the 


Continued from Page 1 

The Clinton administration, has said 
that it will sign no agreement that does 
not include all countries, and Ms. 


“thermo-’ of THC) and salt content Kimble’s statement was the clearest in- 
(“ -haline”) in the conveyor belt But the dication so far of what sort of partic- 
general principles are well understood ipation by developing countries mig ht 
and involve interconnected events thou- be acceptable to the United States, 
sands of miles apart But the developing countries have in- 

Around the Equator, the ocean is sis ted aQ along, and reiterated Monday, 
heated by strong sunlight The expand- that consideration of specific commit- 
ing mass of water is less dense, ana thus ments for themselves is out of the qaes- 
rises. As this mass drifts north, constant tion until the riches’ nations demonstrate 
surface evaporation makes the upper that they are actually reducing emis- 
water progressively saltier. When it rions. The rationale is that since the rich 
reaches as far north as Iceland and countries got wealthy by burning the 
Greenland, it cools dramatically — hav- cool and oil that emit carbon dioxide and 
ing shed much of its heat into the at- are the biggest emitters of the gas, they 
mosphere, where winds from the west should lead the way. 
blow it toward Europe. The United States insists that the de- 

This incoming current has a much veloping countries should take on ad- 
higher salt content than the surrounding ditional commitments, beyond a very 


local waters, which are constantly being general injunction to take steps to reduce 
diluted by precipitation and runoff from emissions required by the 1992 treaty, 
land masses. So when the saltier im- because their emissions will soon ont- 


sions. The rationale is that since the rich 
countries got wealthy by burning the 
coal and oil that emit carbon dioxide and 
are the biggest emitters of the gas, they 
should lead the way. 

The United States insists that the de- 
veloping countries should take on ad- 
ditional commitments, beyond a very 
general injunction to take steps to reduce 


ANY LUCK? — A man fishing through the ice of the Neva River in the 
center of St Petersburg, where temperatures have fallen to 15 degrees 
below zero centigrade (5 degrees Fahrenheit). Russians are afraid the 


migrant flow cools, it sinks to the ocean 
bottom and begins to run soutivforming 
the lower half of die THC conveyor belt. 


because their emissions will soon out- 
strip those of the rich countries. 

Scientists advising the negotiators say 
that if emissions are not reduced, the 


known as North Atlantic Deep Water. _ average global surface temperature will 
As it plunges toward the abyss, it draws ' rise by 2 to 6 degrees Fahrenheit (up to 


in watra behind it, providing much of the 
driving force for the conveyor. (A cor- 


autumn cold wave is a sign of an especially harsh winter to come, responding heavy-water sink exists near 

MARKETS: Stocks Rise as Concerns of Asian Meltdown Wane 


you separate feet from fiction, there is a and to some extent they benefit from the 


l banks worry about their sur- Frenchman, Jacques de Larostere. 
would result in their refusing to Mr. Kohl has said little in public about 

loney even to deserving compa- the overall subject other man that the 
They want to survive, even at the discussions must conclude with a sito- 


expense of industrial companies,” he afion w 
said. losers. 1 

Richard Samuelson, director of re- ties of 1 
search for SBC Warburg Dillon Read in were to 
Seoul, said the stock market might have position 
dropped not because of die harsh medi- the Eur 
cine of the IMF plan but because of misecaj 
reports that Seoul might not have to shut at some 
down ailing banks, which would delay An oi 
the financial sector cleanup. ram ou 

“The proposals that I 've heard of are Claude 
pretty soft on Korea," he said. He pre- former 
dieted that the stock market would even- many fr 


ation where there are no winners and 
losers. Unless the successive presiden- 


price of oil and other commodities was 
another, and this was joined by economic 
indicators that showed a U.S. economy 
that was not expanding too quickly. 

The National Association of Purchas- 
ing Management said its index fell to 54.4 


tremendous difference between the fi- 
nancial and the real economies in South- 
east Asia — things don't look feat bad.” 
Mr. Battipaglia, who has been bullish 


downward pressure on prices, he said 
Meanwhile, the world's stock markets are 
growing increasingly correlated as de- 
regulation makes economies freer from 


for months, predicted fee Dow would ■ government control and trade barriers. 


reach 9,000 by fee middle of next year, as 


the actively traded issues on 


2.2 degrees centigrade) over the next 
century. This, say the scientists, would 
cause sea levels to rise, many coastal 
ropes to be inundated, c limatic zones to 
shift, rainstorms to become heavier, 
floods and droughts to become worse, 
heat waves to become more lethal and 
some ecosystems to disappear. 

Any agreement in Kyoto on reduc- 
tions would be considered a first' step, 
since none of the proposals now on fee 
table for indust rialize d countries' emis- 
sions reductions would stop overall 
greenhouse gas concentrations from 
continuing to accumulate' in the atmo- 


cies of Mr. Duisenberg and Mr. Trichet in November from 56.0 in October, in- 
were to go ahead against the open op- cheating a moderation in fee manufac- 


Stock Exchange, Citicorp sphere; they would mereirreduce fee 
cent, and that the rally would broaden to rose $9,375 to $129 J 125. The company rSeofacct^ulationabiL 


position of Jacques Santer, president of 

the European Commission, a compro- construction spending rose a scam 0.1 In part because fee recent spate of ac- 
mise candidate would have to be sought percent in October, the government said, quisitions resulted in increased sales, 
ar some point in fee new year. AD of this was good news for bond Michael Holland, a money manager. 

An official said fee ideal man might prices, and fee resulting decline in interest said it was largely the good performance 
ram out to be Prime Minister Jean- rates was positive for stocks, especially in of Wall Street in recent days that allowed 
Claude Juncker of Luxembourg, a fee financial industry. The yield on the other markets to advance: “The reality is 
former finance minister, who has won 30-year Treasury bond fell to 6.04 per- that fee U.S. market is as much a cause as 


include shares in smaller companies. He 
said profit growth could continue to ont- 


Meanwhile, pace the rate of fee economy’s expansion 


is benefiting from fee perception that it is 
a good place for investors in troubled 
economies to do their banking, as well as 


One of the most stringent reduction 
oposals on fee table, advanced by the 
iropean Union, would limit overall 


tually drop to 300 and fee won slide to 
1,400 to the dollar. 

In Washington, the White House 
spokesman, Michael McCurry, de- 


former finance minister, who has won 30-year Treasury bond fell to 6.( 
many friends during his current term as cent from 6.05 percent on Friday, 
president of the European Union. His A rising dollar also made U 
additional strengths, it was noted, are his vestments seem like good bets 
Benelux ties, his comfort in German and temaiiooally oriented investors. 
French, and the fact that Luxembourg's past four weeks, said Joseph Bate 


percent m October, the government said, quisitions resulted in increased sales. 

AD of this was good news for bond Michael Holland a money manager, 
prices, and the resulting decline in interest said it was largely the good performance 
rates was positive for stocks, especially in ofWall Street in recent days that allowed 
the financial industry. The yield on the other markets to advance: “The reality is 


interest rates. Citicorp istfae = X 


only American bank to pursue an ag- 
gressive branch business around fee 
world 

Travelers and Nationsbank were also 
among the rising financial issues. 


and nitrous oxide7^ percent below 1990 
levels by 2005 and 15 percent by 2010. 
The United States has oroposed feat 


The United States has proposed feat 
levels be stabilized at 1990 levels in fee 
period 2008 through 21 12. The admin- 


scribed the U.S. Treasury's role in the geography barely affords it room to 


aid program as "an IMF-led facility with 
proper U.S. participation." 


ju-year treasury Draw reii to o.w per- mat the U.S. market is as much a cause as Among technnlnmr .. 

C “i < r 6 ^r^ t ° n! Snr, ■ s. IBM, AT&T and fern wer^ hJtoS by 30 penremW 

A rising doliar also made U.S. in- market is so coptructi ve simply because the New York exchange, and InteUCom rathe See of 
vestments seem like good bets for in- there is a health and vibrancy not only in and Applied Materials were amonn the 

temationaUy oriented investors. In fee fee U.S. economy but also fee U.S. fi- Nasdad ^e^encanpropwal diverges from 

past four weeks, said Joseph Battipaglia, nanciaisy^” feT^S; others under consideration in that it 

chief of investment noDcv at Grantal & SnecificaHv. rhe American financial via ci u applies to a larger basket ofsixgreert- 



Of Limits on 
Iraqi OU Sales 

CwpfM f* O* SugFnm'Oi^Kkt ’ 

UNITED NATIONS. NewiYock — 
Secretary-General Kofi Annan on Mon- 
day recommended increasing fee $2 bil- 
lion worth of oil Iraq is allowed to aell 
■ every six months under the United Na- 
tions’ oii-for-food plan, but proposed no 

specific figure. 

“Given the scale of urgent- human- 
itarian requirements in Iraq, fee Security 
Council may wish to re-examine fee 
adequacy of the revenues as envisaged 
by resolutions 986 and 1111, and to 
consider the possibility of increasing 
those revenues to meet Iraq’s priority 
humanitarian requirements,” Mr. An- 
nan wrote in a report. 

The program, authorized in. 1995, did 
not go into effect until last December. It 
is designed to enable Iraq to buy food, 
medicine and other humanitarian sup- 
plies to help offset the effects of sanc- 
tions in force since its August 1990 
invasion of Kuwait. The current six- 
month period ends Friday. 

A UN source said Mr. Annan had 
considered recommending an increase in 
oU sales to $3 billion every six months. 
But to the disappointment of aid agen- 
cies, he later decided to leave fee precise 
figure up to the Security Council. 

The recommendation for an unspe- 
cified increase comes as feevepuncif is 
stiD at odds with Baghdad over fee right 
of UN arms inspectors to search all sites 
suspected of housing weapons" of mass 
destruction or related materials, including 
locations designated as sensitive by the 
Iraqi government Sources said the coun- 
cil would probably decide dm week to 
continue the existing program permitting 
$2 billion in oil sales every six months 
while considering increasing it later. 

In separate comments, fee U.S. am- 
bassador to the United Nations, Bill 
Richardson, said the possibility of mil- 
itary conflict wife Iraq remained in the 
background as diplomats play fee lead 
role. 

“I think Saddam Hussein is losing.” 
Mr. Richardson said Monday on NBC 
television. He said the Security Council 
was united in pushing Mr. Saddam, and 
feat President Bill Canton’s diplomacy, 
backed wife a military presence in the 
Gulf, had rased tensions. (Reuters, AP) 


wiggle its toes between the European 
Union’s two biggest players. 


past four weeks, said Joseph Battipaglia, 
chief of investment poDcy at Gnintal & 
Co., “interest rates were meaningfully 
reduced, the dollar was rising, and when 


nancial system.” 

Specifically, fee American financial 
and technology industries have beat 
largely impervious to fee events in Asia, 


r. . . iv/aimgci WKa WSlAgiw 

■ • 4 after Sld e-effects were house gases feat also includes hydro- 
fordiatetics ,tS trog ^ la21one fluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and 



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sulfur hexachloride. 



INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 


PAGE 11 



\hv Palace Hotel in Madrid, always one of the city’s great 
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li has been the most extensive, intricate restoration .project 

in Europe. 

•j jie result is a hotel with a rich past and an exciting future. 

' Rather like ITT Sheraton itself. ITT Sheraton is the fastest 
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In the past three years, we’ve doubled in size to 75 hotels. But 
they're no ordinary hotels. 

Each is special, with its own unique personality. In fact, we have 
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State-of-the-art. ITT Sheraton always strives for the best. So 
it will come as no surprise to know that we’ve chosen as a partner. 


the best telecommunications company in the world, AT&T. 

Many of our rooms throughout Europe will soon be equipped 
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States of America, quickly and dearly via the AT&T Direct Service 
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So wherever you are, you can get in touch with AT&T 
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^^^™nalherald TRIBUNE, 
PACE 1^* DECEMBER 2, 1^97 



The Coolness of Jewels 

The Stars Come Out at Chanel 


By Suzy Menkes 

.. fnrematipnal Heraid Trihu», 

P ARIS — Coco would 
surely have approved 
ror when the stare 
turned out to baptize 
Chanel s new store, they 
proved that jewels are cool— 
but that do one minds whether 
they are real, as long as they 
are worn with style. 

That was the philosophy of 
Chanel when she wore a glor- 
ious mix of her own fake cre- 
ations with the real bijoux 
given to her by her Russian 
lover: And when she followed 
up her success with chains of 
faux pearls by launching fine 
jewelry shaped like comets 
and stars in 1932. 

“I feel incredibly glamor- 
ous," said the actress Kristin 
Scott- Tho mas , who was wear- 
ing the shooting-star necklace 
at a dinner held among the 
Coromandel screens of 
Chanel's new fine- jewelry 
boutique on Place Vendorae. 

. But Anjelica Huston 
looked equally stylish in a 
sparkle of fake diamonds on a 
black sweater — and so did 
Gardner Beilanger, publisher 
of French Vogue, which co- 
hosted the' party. She was 
wearing a Belle Epoque lat- 
tice of “diamonds” created 
by John Galliano for Dior 
from . the Cartier original 
worn by Queen Alexandra of 
England. 

The strongest trend in jew- 
elry is for antique chic — the 
elegance and the workman- 
ship associated with the past, 
but abstracted oat of its es- 
tate-jewels context and worn 
with sleek, modem clothes. 

For Chanel — which has 
opened 16 fine-jewehy stores 
across the world in just four 
years — the inspiration is from 
the past but projected into the 
1990s. In the' new 2200- 
square-foot (205-square-me- 
terl store (a former bank), blue 
and yellow sapphires repre- 
senting the moon and sun, join 
the galaxy of comet-inspired 
jewels. And the ribbon effects 
that were so fashionable at the 
turn of the last century are 
sculpted — like the necklace. 


set with a mighty 43-cant sap- 
phire — according to Made- 
moiselle's own edict. “I like 
my jewels to wrap around a 
woman's finger or neck like a 
ribbon," Chanel said 
A certain delicacy and 
daintiness is part of the neo- 
vintage look, which may ex- 
plain why the auction bouse 
jewelry sales at both Sothe- 
by's and Christie's are cur- 
rently on a roll. As much as 
big stones, coDectors appre- 
ciate the craftsmanship of 
early Boucheron, Chaumet or 
the extraordinary creations of 
Rene Lalique. 

That same expertise is 
shown today on Place Ven- 
dorae in die drop necklaces 
and earrings, in white or 
colored diamonds at Van 
Cleef & Arpels. where rivu- 
lets of gemstones cascade in- 
to graceful shapes. Boucher- 
on has revisited the flower as 
a motif, sculpting a delicate 
floral pin or setting gem- 
stones as petals and leaves. 

The same themes seem to 
apply internationally, for in 
London, Asprey’s chains of 
emeralds or sapphires with 
diamonds have a lightness 
last fashionable in jewelry in 
the 1950s. And in Harrods 
fine-jewelry room, alongside 
famous-name jewels, (he 
store has its own-label Une- 
of-diamonds chains. 


Y OUNG English 
women were the 
first to revive the 
tiara — the ultimate 
symbol of vintage glamour 
that is associated with Rus- 
sian czars and Europe's royal 
families. Now jewelers are 
taking the stuffiness out of the 
diadem. Tiffany has launched 
a sterling-silver tiara with 
dragonfly motifs set with 
moonstones, and the New 
York-based jeweler also has 
other delicate nature motifs, 
using a tracery of leaves and 
flowers. 

True to the idea that paste 
can be as stylish as the real 
thing, flea markets are push- 
ing fake jewels that were cop- 
ies of the fashionable pieces 
of their dines. That means a 


focus on the glass-paste 
pieces from the Edwardian 
era and earlier Victorian cos- 
tume jewelry. 

Butler & Wilson, the fash- 
ion jeweliy store on London’s 
Fulham Road, calls its wide 
range of pieces “antique 
chic.” It includes copies of 
the dramatic dangling sau- 
toirs and pannes of a century 
ago, as well as dainty flower 

necklaces and earrings and 
ribbon-bow broodies. 

Such jewels were original- 
ly designed to disappear into 
fixssy, lacy, high-necked bod- 
ices. Worn today with a plain 
cashmere sweater or on the 
lapel of a tailored suit, the _ , , , 

vintage elegance gives a touch Boucheron s flower clip in pearls and 
of femininity and the antique yellow, green, pink and 


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Van Cleef s pearl and sapphire necklace: 


Antique chic from Huston and Beilanger. 


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to-use Nokia 3110. You will also have the chance to 
win one of ten Nokia promotional sports bags with 
a T-shirt, cap, socks, towel and sweat suit 

This competition runs until December 19, 

1997, covering 10 cities, one on each Tuesday and 
Friday over the five week period. If you miss a city, 
catch up on the competition Web site at 
www.ihtcom. You can participate until January 19, 

1998. 

IWo ani WW" 

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The Web site will run until February 22, 1998, to 
announce the winners. 

At the end of the competition, all of the 
restaurants that were highlighted in the 10 cities 
will be available to all Nokia Communicator owners 
on a specially created International Herald Tribune 
Web site, specifically tailored and designed for use 
on the Nokia Communicator. 

The winners will be drawn out of a hat on 
February 9, 1998, and announced in the International 
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enter, the more chances you have of winning. Enter 
now and enter often with a different restaurant 
each time! 


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Send m- cuuaor. -rj . Iht/Noi.a OTSIO Commun^aroi competition, International Herald Tiibune, Ifll Avenue Charles- De-Gaulle. 925J1 
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□ Check here for defiverv ouiade Europe by registered or 
oeitificd man: £5-75. (U.S J9^0J per package phis postage. 

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37 Lambion Road. London SW200LW UJC Fax: (44 181 j 944 5243 
E-mail paulbaker@btintemeLcom 







From top left: Balmain’s fur-collared paisley jacket: Versace’s fox collar on suede wrap-coat; Fendi’s fisher shawl- 
collar on squirrel coat; Dolce & Gabbana’s fluffy-collared evening coat; Valentino's mongolian lamb shrug- jacket . 


Foxy or Funky: Fur as a Fabric 

In a New Cycle , Fake is Opulent and Real Is Fun 


By Suzy Menkes 

Inienunanel Hnvld Tribune 


P ARIS — Think mink? 
Think pink! And 
whether it is your old 
coat dragged' out of 
die closet, chopped up and 
dyed a fancy color, or a 
spanking new outfit, fur is 
tack on fashion’s agenda. 

To designers, fur is not 
some precious commodity. It 
is the look that is hip. So real or 
fake, it is being treated as just 
another fabric, giving a dash 
of glamour to create high fash- 
ion with all the trimmings. 

Colors are racy, shapes 
funky or fluid and the look 
just blends seamlessly with 
the rest of your wardrobe. 
Call it fur as ready-to-wear. 

Dior’s pastel fur collars on 
sugared-almond tweeds sum 
up die irreverent new atdtnde. 
So did the mink purse swing- 
ing from the fingertips at 


Dolce & Gabtana’s show. 
Not since the 1950s, when the 
funy collars, cuffs and muffs 
created a winter wonderland, 
has fluffy stuff been used so 
nonchalantly as decoration. 

On the streets of Paris, 
manes of acrylic drape die 
hoods and collars of sporty 
jackets, creating a fun. if fa- 
miliar, cold weather look. 
Newer funy effects edge 
lapels ou tailored coats, with 
the colors deliberately 
matched so that brown fiir 
melds with chocolate wool, 
red fox with ginger suede and 
gray flannel with chinchilla. 

As fur creeps in from the 
street to the salon, a similar 
look is served up at the cock- 
tail hour. Dior’s sassy suits bad 
mink-trimmed hems, and at 
R aima in, Oscar de la Renta’s 
couture collection included fur 
hugging the lapels of a paisley 
jacket or edging the deep de- 
collete of a ball gown. 


That might seem opulent, 
but often fur as an accessory 
means just that: a semi- 
detached object that can give 
a touch of couture luxe, like 
Galliano’s dainty Cinderella 
slippers trimmed with mink; 
Gianfranco Ferre’s mink T- 
shirt, or Revillon’s wine-red 
purse and a muff-bag in 
sheared mink. 

For Valentino, there was 
die fur necklet, a fluffy circle, 
patterned with bigger, bolder 
spots than nature intended for 
a leopard. Or there was the 
Mongolian lamb bolero 
shrugged on over jeans as a 
casual jacket 


T HE rising fortunes of 
curly lamb shows a 
Dew growth area for 
“semi-fur” — mean- 
ing an in-between category for 
those women who don’t want 
to wear the real thing, or 
maybe can’t afford it 


: )lCL‘ * ' Croire jseves 

fes ! v:. : e tiffin fptar les re'aJiser. 


Collection "ALHAMBRA" 
a parrir de 4 900 FI- 

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Van Cleef & Arpels 

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All kind of lambskins and 
shearlings are now used to 
give deep-pile effect to col- 
lars and cuffs, with color as 
the key. For Zandra Rhodes 
that meant a fuchsia throw in 
Mongolian lamb, while Yves 
Saint Laurent's fur collection 
used the same curly fur as ink- 
blue lapels on a navy coat or 
as a snow-white collar on 
cream wool. 

There is also a fashion fo- 
cus on recycled fur — not the 
makeovers that a neighbor- 
hood furrier creates out of 
granny's mangy muskrat, but 
designer do-ups. Isaac 
Mizrahi’s fur trims and Mar- 
tin Margiela’s Laplaad- style 
caps were made from flea- 
market finds and fur-vault 
stocks, proving that the re- 
cycling that was so fashion- 
able at the start of the 1990s is 
still at fashion's cutting edge. 

The most dramatic for state- 
ment of the season is bright 
color: from Marc Jacobs’s 
electric-blue fox coat, through 
a wine-red fox stole from 
Christian Lacroix, to G ianni 
Versace’s pimento-red collar. 

That colorful look was det- 
onated by Gucci's fox fur, a 
square-cut “chubbie” in 
screaming chrome yellow, 
guaranteed to look like a 
chemically dyed fake. Thai 
was an ironic take by designer 
Tom Ford on the coats sent 
out by Yves Saini Laurent in 
the early 1970s. Just to com- 
plete the fashion cycle: Saint 
Laurent sent out his 1997 
chubbies in feathers — a ma- 
terial often used inter- 
changabfy with fur for trim- 
mings. 

Alongside the real furs dyed 
to look frankly fake, are the 
real fakes dressed up to seem 
real. The leopard pattern was 
used boldly in tailored stapes 
by Alexander McQueen for 
Givenchy, while Dolce & 
Gabbana gave a big-cat lining 
to a swishing long coat 

I RONICALLY, the fake 
furs tend to look opulent, 
while real pelts are 
downplayed. Although 
the vogue for chinoiserie has 
brought some exotic looks, 
like the “Last Emperor” far- 
trimmed brocade coats from 
Romeo Gigli and Genny, 
mostly fur is used with a cas- 
ual. throwaway style. 

Karl Lagerfeld is the mas- 
ter of the genre. In his col- 
lection for Fendi. the designer 
mingled wool, knit leather, 
suede, fur and fake as though 
all were of equal weight — 
literally and metaphorically. 

That kind of insouciant 
fashion attitude is what makes 
far fit into modem life. 


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PAGE 14 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 


INTERNATIONAL 


U.S. Melted Gold of Holocaust Victims, Declassified Documents Show 


By David E. Sanger 

New York TimesSmice ■ 


it ~ Se v “ years after World 
War n ended, the United States melted gold plates, 
battons. 1 ..(X)uis and smoking-pipe ornaments ap- 
{Wrentjy lpoted from Holer’s victims, and turned 
“ e S°*“^yer to European 'Central banks. 

_ According to long-secret documents that the 
rederal Reserve Bank of New York plans to 
release this week to a conference of historians 
tracking Nazi gold, the personal effects were 
srttelted into gold bars in-1952 by the now-defunct 
U.S. Assay Office, then part of the Treasury. 

It has long been presumed that the gold re- 
turned to European countries on orders of a 
commission set up by the United States, Britain 
and France after World War II was entirely 
composed of “monetary gold” ingots stolen by 
the Nazis from central banks. 

But there were lingering suspicions that per- 
sonal gold was mixed in, and the Federal Reserve 
documents now establish that more than 40 bars 
of gold created by the United States came from 
the homes and pockets of individuals, presum- 
ably including Holocaust victims. 

Jewish groups and the U.S. government plan to 
use the documents to press their case that $54 
million in gold remaining in the possession of the 


Tripartite Commission for the Restitution of 
Monetary Gold — the panel assembled to return 
looted assets to central banks — should be given 
to Holocaust survivors and their heirs. 

Other newly declassified documents from U.S. 
archives, also expected to be presented tit the 
conference, which begins Tuesday in London, 
reveal other bizarre details from recent inves- 
tigations of the trail of wartime assets. 

For instance, it has long been known that the 
United States and Britain paid Switzerland — a 
neutral country in the war — millions of dollars 
for the care of prisoners held by the Japanese. 

But a newly released transcript or a. coded 
message written by Swiss officials in 194S shows 
that a secret deal was reached in August 1944 by 
Japanese and Swiss officials to divert 40 percent 
of those funds to pay off Japan’s debts to Swiss 
businesses. The message was intercepted by the 
United States and declassified last month by the 
National Security Agency. 

At the time of the message, Switzerland was 
providing war materiel to Japan, as well as to 
Germany and the Allies. The secret Swiss cable 
says that the rest of the British and American 
money intended to aid the prisoners was “at the 
free disposal of the Japanese government. ' * 

In another cable discovered by researchers at 
the National Security Agency, the deputy di- 


rector of Germany’s central bank boasts 'to his 
superiors just days before the German surrender 
that Swiss authorities were secretly cooperating, 
with him to smuggle gold but of Germany.- That 
was in direct violation-of an agreement between 
Switzerland and the United -States to block all 
financial transactions with Germany. 

The Germaobanker’s cable to Berlin describes 
the movement of three tons of gold to Bern that 
day and says that Switzerland’s secret cooper- 
ation with the Reichsbank, Germany's central 
bank, “creates a possibility for continuation of 
numerous German-Swiss contractual relation- 
ships of a public and private nature. ” 

Other insights may come from a yet unreleased 
preliminary report of an independent historical 
team organized by Switzerland. It is expected to 
trace what happened to goldpulledirom the teeth 
of victims of the Nazis, which U.S. officials 
believe was later smelted into gold bars. But the 
documents found so far, historians familiar with a 
draft say, do not trace' a paper trail between the 
death camps and the mints that created the gold. 

The Federal Reserve obtained the gold buttons, 
coins and pipe ornaments from the U.S. high 
commissioner for Germany in February 1952, 
records show. It is known that they came in 17 
■ boxes, but a description of the documents sent by 
a Federal Reserve official, James Hennessy, to the 


World Jewish Congress earlier this month says. 
“Our records do not provide any further- infor- 
mation as to the nature or origin of the deposit”- 

The Federal Reserve's role was officially lim- 
ited to acting as a custodian of gold for the 
Tripartite Commission, though records show that 
the Treasury helped to turn the assets into ne- 
gotiable gold that could be distributed to Euro- 
pean countries. 

AT the time the coins, buttons and pipe or- 
naments were smelted, sorting out the pwnersbip 
of private gold was far from Washington’s top 
objective. With the Cold War well under way, all 
of the focus was on the economic stabilization of 
Europe — thus the rush to melt down gold and 
send it back to Europe. ... 

While the origin of the personal gold items is 
not clear, other historical records show that im- 
mediately after the war, American occupation 
forces came across large stores of gold' that were 
seized from Jews and other Nazi victims, often as 
they were driven out of their homes. . 

Other effects were taken from them in the 
concentration camps, including dental gold — 
although no dental gold is listed on the Federal 
Reserve’s inventory. 

The Federal Reserve records prove, though, 
that at least some of die gold returned to Europe 
was not “monetary gold.” The Tripartite Com- 


mission — set up by the Unitd State, France | 
and England — had i 


insisted fa decades that U i 


was. .; ! 

' Most of the nations that receivtd gold from the 
Tripartite Commission have infernally agreed, 
in principle, to let the $54 miEon or so that 
remains in the commission's acctint be used for 
some kind of humanitarian purjjse. But final 
agreement has not . been reached. .. 

One of the- biggest surprises iqthe new doc- 
uments coming . to light was thepseoveiy that 
Switzerland had reached a secret a^ 
some of -the money entrusted to it 
Stares and Britain for its own 
memoirs, the . American arp 



when the war began. Joseph G; 

he Swi 



ntiouse 
United 
In his 
to Japan 
ribed in 

glowing terms how the Swiss pollster looked 
after American interests in Japan dung the war. 

The document describing the agfemem was 
found by a researcher in the Centefor Crypto- 
logic History at the National Searcy Agency, 
the intelligence service thaj conduct electronic 
eavesdropping. 

It is dared Nov. 3, 1945, after thevar ended, 
and was sent from Bern to the Swiss Inbassy in 
Washington in code using a vers ion T the En- 
igma machine. The Swiss, like the Gepans. did 
not know that the Enigma code had ben cracked 
during the war. ii 


$ 


BOOKS 


GOLD: Swiss Put a Figure on Victims 9 Loss 


ECHOES OF A NATIVE LAND: 
Two Centuries of a Russian 
Village 

By Serge Schmemann. Illustrated. 350 
pages. $27 SO. Alfred A. Knopf. 
Reviewed by Richard Pipes 

S EVERAL years ago, while rumma- 
ging through a Moscow antiques 
shop, I chanced on a stack of old family 
photographs. They showed ordinary 
pre-revolutionary Russian families pos- 
ing on the verandas of their estates, 
picnicking, relaxing by the seashore.- 1 
asked the manager who these people 
were, and he responded that he nad no 
idea but that Muscovites Liked to buy 


such old pictures to establish a link with 
the past from which they had been so 
harshly cut off, creating for themselves 
surrogate ancestors. 

Serge Schmemann, bom in Paris and 
brought up in tbe Unite] States, is more 
fortunate in discovering his roots, for he 
has been able to track several generations 
ofhis forebears by delving into family and 
state archives and locating aged residents 
ofhis ancestral estate sooth of Moscow. 

Schmemann, who reported on Russia 
for Tbe New York Tunes on two tours of 
duty, in the early 1980s and die early 
'90s, has set himself die task of recre- 
ating the life of a conservative, patriotic, 
religious and patriarchal family — the 
Osorgins, his mother's ancestors, die 


CHESS 


By Robert Byrne 


I N the fifth round of the Fontys In- 
ternational Tournament, Vladimir 
Kramnik gave a model demonstration of 
the creation and exploitation of a weak 
color-complex against France's leading 
grandmaster. Joel Lautier. 

In the main line of the Rubinstein Vari- 
ation of the Nimzo-Indian Defense, the 
Khasin strategy, 9...Qc7. diverges from 
9...dc 10 Bc4 Qc7, whereby Black gives 
up his sirongpoint at d5 to open the center 
for a counterattack with ...e5. in favor of 
maintaining a strong pawn at d5. 

White's 1 1 Nh4 unblocks his kingside 

E awns for an attack with f3, g4. Ra2 and 
g2. Black's I l...Qa5 aims ro get the 
opponent to commit his queen bishop 
before he knows where it will do the 
most good. And maybe it would really 
be better after 12 Bd2, and if I2...Ne4, 
then 13 Bel. 

Kramnik's 1 3...c4 was the initial step 
in a hemming-in process on the light 
squares. The second step was !6...g5! 17 
Ng2 g4! , seizing the light squares on the 
kingside. The third step was revealed- 
after 18 t? Ng5! 19 fg Nh3! 20 Kfl(20 
Khl? Nf2) Qg5 21 Nf4 Bg4, with a light 
square hammerlock ail over the board. 

KRAMNIK/BLACK 


Kramnik clarified his superiority with 
22...B£5 23 Qg2 Nf4 24 gf Qg2 25 Kg2 
Bc2 26 Rc2 f5, producing a textbook 
illustration of a bad bishop in the op- 
ponents position. 

With 36...h5, the decisive penetration 
of the white formation began. There was 
no stopping the black h5 pawn from 
advancing to h3 and either anchoring the 
black rode at g2 or letting Kramnik 
infiltrate with it to the eighth rank. 

Lautier was struggling stubbornly, 
but the move that broke his resistance 
was Kramnik's 4S...Nc6!, which re- 
turned the extra pawn for a decisive 
attack. After 49 Ra6 Kd7 50 Kf2 Rd3 5 1 
Bc5 f5 1 Rb6 Nb4 52 Rb4 Rc3 53 Rb7 
Kc6 54 Rf7 Rd3 wins easily for Black) 
Rc3 52 Rb6 Rb3 53 Ra6 Rd3. the 
Frenchman gave up. If 54 Rb6. there 
could have followed 54.~Nd4! 55 Rd6 
Kc7! 56 Rd5 Kc6! 57 Re5 (57 Rd4 Kc5 
offers White nothing) c3 58 Ba3 c2 59 
Bb2 Rb3 60 Bel Rbl 61 Rel Nb3, 
winning a piece. 

NIMZO-INDIAN DEFENSE 


r 

ii 

11 

i 


■ 

s 

11 

I 1 


H 


i 

ffl |§ 

111 

fin 

ii 

i 

1 

a 


m 

ji 
I " 

1 

■ 

a 

ill 

h 


L AUTtE R/WHflTE 

Position after 48 Kg2 


White 

Black 

White 

Black 

Lander 

Kramnik 

Lautier 

Kramnik 

l d4 

Nfe 

28 a4 

RgB 

2 C4 

c6 

29 Ba3 

Keft 

3 Nc3 

Bb4 

30 Rbl 

bft 

4 e3 

04) 

31 BM 

Rab8 

5 Bd3 

c5 

32 Rcb2 

Rb7 

6 NF3 

d5 

33 Rg2 

Rg2 

7 0-0 

Ncft 

34 Kg2 

Rg7 

8 a3 

Bc3 

35 Kf3 

Rg8 

9 be 

Qc7 

36 Ral 

hS 

10 cd 

ed 

37 Rbl 

h4 

11 Nh4 

Qa5 

38 a5 

ba 

12 Bb2 

Re8 

39 BcS 

Rg7 

13 Ret 

c4 

40 Ba3 

h3 

14 BC2 

Ne4 

41 Rb5 

a4 

15 Rcl 

Qd8 

42 Rc5 

Nb8 

16 g3 

g5 

43 Ra5 

a6 

17 Ng2 

84 

44 Ra4 

RgZ 

LS F3 

Ng5 

45 Bb4 

Rh2 

19 fg 

Nh3 

46 Kg3 

Re2 

20 kn 

Qfi5 

47 Kh3 

Re3 

21 NM 

Bg4 

48 Kg2 

Nc6 

22 Qd2 

Bf5 

49 Raft 

Kd7 

23 Qg2 

Nf4 

50 Kf2 

Rd3 

24 gf 

Qg2 

51 BcS 

Rc3 

25 Kg2 

Bc2 

52 Rb0 

Rb3 

26 Rc2 

(5 

53 Ra6 

Rd3 

27 Kf3 

Kf7 

54 Resigns 


kind of family that for centuries provided 
the backbone of the czarist regime. 

Although far from affluent, for like 
other Russian nobles they were unable 
to make a decent living from the land, 
the Osorgins produced several high gov- 
ernment officials and enjoyed access to 
the highest strata of the imperial bu- 
reaucracy. After the Communist take- 
over, some of them emigrated; those 
who stayed were first expelled from 
their estates and then subjected to all 
kinds of indignities and persecutions. 

Tbe Soviet authorities persisted in 
denying Schmemann permission to visit 
his ancestral home, once called Ser- 
giyevskoye and then renamed Koltsovo. 
because they did not want him to expose 
its dismal condition. He finally man- 
aged to gain access to it in 1990 and has 
revisited it frequently ever since. 

The picture be paints of Koltsovo is 
devastating. The majestic family manor, 
owned by the Osorgins since 1843, was 
burned; nearly all die other structures 
suffered demolition. Half die men he 
encountered were drunk “and most of 
the others looked as if they would be if 
they had the wherewithal.” And yet un- 
der the nibble of what had once been a 
peaceful rural retreat, Schmemann found 
embers of humanity, 'vitality and even 
continuity. “When I finally gained ac- 
cess. .. I learned that all the extraordinary 
resources of the world's first police state 
had failed to eradicate the past,” he 
writes. “It lived on behind tbe imposed 
ideological formulas and slogans, clan- 
destine little truths cautiously stored in 
closed archives and in the deep recesses 
of people's memories." The village 
smelled of Russia, be says, citing 
Pushkin, and the better Schmemann got 
to know h, the more it enchanted him. 

The book has two parts. Die first, 
based largely on the unpublished mem- 
oirs of his ancestors and assiduously 
researched archival sources, deals with 
Koltsovo as it was before the Revo- 
lution. It is unfortunately too crowded 
with names and shifts too much back 
and forth in time to bring to life the 
personalities and events it describes. 

The second part, which tells die story 
of the village since 1917, is much live- 
lier, in good measure because it rests on 
personal observations and information 
supplied to the author by old inhabitants, 
many of whom left the village long ago. 
These survivors were initially reluctant 
to speak to a foreign journalist, but once 
Schmemann ‘s accounts in The Times 
were favorably reported on in the post- 
glasnost Soviet press, they generously 
shared with him their memories of the 
tragic pasL 

By dint of hard work and by virtue of 
a sensitive, sympathetic eye, Schme- 
mann has succeeded in drawing a mi- 
crocosm of Russia as it was and is, giving 
flesh to such abstractions as “czarism,” 
“revolution,” “totalitarianism" and 
"democratization." The ambivalence 
be feels about his ancestral country ac- 
curately reflects tbe mood of the great 
majority of contemporary Russians. 

New York Times Sen-ices 


Continued Grom Page 1 

sums than victims lost In the only pay- 
ments made to Holocaust survivors so 
far from a special Swiss fiind established 
this year, elderly Latvian Jews received 
'some $400 dach. 

The new figures are also likely to 
revive criticism that Swiss bankers 
showed no scruples in dealing with Ger- 
many in gold known to have been 
stolen. 

The Swiss National Bank acknowl- 
edged more than a decade ago that its 
officers must have known they were 
dealing in gold looted from central 
banks, but Swiss officials have bridled at 
suggestions that Switzerland knowingly 
dealt in victims’ gold, a definition that 
includes gold dental fillings taken from 
Jews is death camps. 

Tbe Swiss study, issued in Bern and 
made available here, was said by its 
authors to be the first to trace gold trans- 
actions by the Reichsbank, the Nazi cen- 
tral bank. 

The 23-page Swiss report was issued 
by a commission of historians appointed 
last year to study the entire range of 
Switzerland’s relationships with Nazi 
Germany. The commission was estab- 
lished under strong pressure on Switzer- 
land, particularly from the World Jewish 
Congress in New York, to acknowledge 
World War H financ ial practices that 
some U.S. specialists believe prolonged 
tbe conflict by permitting Germany to 
trade in looted and other gold and thus 
gain access to vital raw materials. 

■The 41-nation London conference, 
starting Tuesday, is a result of U.S. and 
British pressure on other countries to 
account for their wartime behavior by 
declassifying archives and answering 
some of the questions evoked by the 
Swiss report: Where and how did the 
Nazis obtain their gold and what did they 
do with it? 

Part of that answer is already known. 

In 1946, the United States, Britain and 
France formed the Tripartite Gold Com- 
mission, which gathered some 335 to os 
of gold originally from Germany and 
those parts of conquered Europe where 
Hitlers armies had looted gold 


Most of that has been returned to 
European central banks, even though it 
included gold stolen from Holocaust 
victims, other individuals and busi- 
nesses, .according to recently declassi- 
fied documents in the U.S.- National 
Archives. - 

But some 55. tons of that gold, worth 
around $55 million at today’s prices,- still 
languishes in the vaults of the U.S. Fed- 
eral Reserve and the Bank of England 

The British foreign secretary. Robin 
Cook, announced Friday in Warsaw that 
he wanted the gold to provide the basis 
for a new fund to benefit Holocaust 
survivors. It is expected to be announced 
at this week's conference. 

The dry financ ial details mask tur- 
bulent and violent events In Europe's 
history. • • 

As Hitler’s armies march ed across the 
Continent, occupying one country after 
another, their troops ransacked central 
bank vaults, stole gold from Jews and 
others and used the money in part to buy 
the raw materials of war: tungsten from 
Portugal, oil from Romania, iron ore 
from Sweden. 

The fighting and the genocide of the 
Holocaust left Europe divided and in 
ruins. And, while postwar German gov- 
ernments have paid out something like 
$58 billion in compensation to Holocaust 
survivors, the Cold War prevented hun- 
dreds of thousands of survivors in Eastern 
Europe from claiming any restitution. 

During World War 0, Switzerland, a 
nominally neutral country, was gradu- 
ally encircled by Germany and its allies 
but remained the leading ixaap£ialcetiter'' 
for the Nazis, a place where gold could 
be traded for freely convertible Swiss 
francs. 

The new Swiss report estimated that, 
from September 1939 to June 1945, Ger- 
many’s central bank acquired or dis- 
posal of some $909 million worth of 
gold at wartime prices. 

Of that, more than half was looted 
directly from the central banks of the 
Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, 
Hungary and other occupied countries, 
in addition to gold already taken from 
Austria and Czechoslovakia before the 
war started. 


BOSNIA: NATO Set to Extend Force ’s Stay 


Continued from Page 1 

who surveyed military installations in 
the Czech Republic, Hungary and Po- 
land concluded that the existing 16 allies 
would have to pay $1.3 to $1.5 billion 
over the next 10 years to help bring 
airfields, communications and training 
levels up to alliance standards, officials 
said. 

The United States, Britain, Germany 
and France together pay three-quarters 
of NATO’s annual operating budget of 
$1.8 billion, and the American share of 
the additional cost for new members 
would be at least $364 million over 10 
years, the officials said. 

The new members would be asked to 


pay annual contributions to NATO 
amounting to $44.6 million for Poland, 
$16.2 million for the Czech Republic 
and $1 1.7 million for Hungary. 

In addition, they would have to pay 
much of the cost of extending airfield 
runways, installing- digital, secure com- 
munications networks and upgrading 
air-control radar and operating systems 
to make their defeases more compatible 
with facilities in other NATO countries 
and enable them to receive reinforce- 
ments by air in case they were attacked. 

“We’ve said allalong that most of the 
costs would have to be borne by new 
members themselves, and that the Euro- 
peans are ready to pay their fair share,’ ’ 
a senior German official said Monday. 


Court Decides 
Irish Girl Cai 
Seek Abortim 

New York Times Ven ice 

DUBLIN — After several das of 
emotional national d&ate on Por- 
tion, a volatile issue: in this cer- 
w helming! y Roman Cnbolic cun- 
try, the Supreme Cour appeare to 
have cleared the way Monday ft a 
13-year-old girl who taid she ns 
mad?; pregnant by a rapist to trael 
to Britain for an abortim. 

Abortion is legal in Ireland oiy 
in limited circumstances, not incit- 
ing rape and incest, and lew docks 
are wiling to perforrmthe proc- 
dure. About 5,000 Irish women go » 
Britain for abortions eve y year. 

Jh 1992, tbe govemmeit sought t 
prevent travel to Britain by a 14 
year-old who said her pregiancy wa 
the result of rape by the lather of i 
friend. The case attracted interna- 
tional attention and the- Supreme 
Court ruled that she couldhave the 
abortioa, which she did, io£ngland. 

In tbe current case, the 13-year- 
old girl’s parents said Mojday at a 
hearing in the Supreme Court in 
Dublin that they would notippeal a 
lower court’s decision to alow her 
to travel, but insisted that'hey be 
allowed to speak to her privaely and 
that they wanted her back tome. 

, ^ We Jove you-and vie want you 
back,” said her father, wbo^as not 
identified, on national radio: 

The girl, who was not ideitified; 
is in tbe fourth month of preinancy 
and in the custody of health oncials 
who .said they found her iivng in 
squalor in a Dublin camp q Irish 
itinerants, nomadic people once 
called tinkers, now known offcially 
as travelers. 

On Sunday, the Archbish-p of 
Dublin, Desmond Connell, atteked 
the lower court's decision alloying 
the girl to travel and said the cljrch 
would consider funding an appal. 

He called on the govemmea of 
Prime Minister Bertie Ahem t> in- 
tervene, but Mr. Ahem instead aid 
he would appoint a eommicte to 
study the law. No changes coul>be 
expected for at least another yeaihe 
indicated. 

The rapist, a friend of the faxrfy, 
has reportedly surrendered to ie 
police. The case recalled the 192 
case, which led to a three-part if- 
erendum on abortion. Voters o- 
proved constitutional changes tht 
permit the circulation of inform - 
tion on abortion and the right. >f 
women to travel abroad; for abc- 
tioos. 

But they rejected a provision sp- 
cifying when abortion mould b 
legal in Ireland, where t is voc 
ferously opposed by the Catholi 
Church. 


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BALL' 

swiTzeRLA r it 

SINCE 1801 








Special offer? 

You wish to finance a large-scale International project? 

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BUSINESS/FINANCE 


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 


PAGE 15 


A scooad opiwoa is aiway* smart 
From a major German bank «id> international' experience. 

NORDOB 

. MO*DOmmcH*UU*DM»AI« CmOZMfPM™, 



Ara^Buylng PC hardware 3/105 s<rftware 

In a survey of 300 people Books and music 
who shop on Ime, 

Forrester Research found 
that people are buying ^owcjsandothe 
everything from flBHHH 26 

computers to shoes. Here Tickets for travel 
are the percentages of mmom 
these consumers who say 
they have bought Appare^nd footv 

something from these flHHH 17J 
Categories. Some: FomstarRoaot 


Flowers and oth er gifts 


HHBH 20.0 
Apparel an d footwear 

■■■ MJ3 


Source: Formtar Reaea/eh 



Economy Czar Plans to Alter Investment Law 


' V»\WiTiior« 

Kay urxtti uses her computer to order groceries any tune of the day.‘ Brian Case of Sfioplinfc, right, delivers her order when she chooses. 


By.Thomas Crompton 

, * l/rrentanaftai Herald Tribune 

BANGKOK — - Thafland will an- 
nounce within a week ‘foe ’closure of 
more than half of the country's 58.SHS- 
pended finance companies, Deputy 
prime Minister Suphachai Panitchpakoi 
said Monday, oafoning for foe first tirw 


-1 O _ J /^t „ g T7! - PT . - ftl . j said Monday, oofoning for the fiist time foil foreign owne 

lis the Season to Gaffe the future of internet shops tsr. 

Am>/ M. I XAi CimhoKhai mhn nimmnwrv>mm- talrinsr effox 


try's debt-Iadened financial institutions, 
Mr. Suphacbai said that while some 
Thais might fear foreign domination, 
n^ri/yai interests would be maintained 
partly by government participalion in the 
recapitalization of foe finance sector, 

■ The first step in opensag up to in- 
vestment from, abreact wifi be to allow 
foil foreign ownershipofteokearages, he 


\ By Saul Hansell 

New York Times Service 

NEWYORK — For ali the chat, the 
browsing the waiting and the endless 
hype, rmch of American business has 
stared atbe Internet and thought, skep- 
tically: ‘Show mp the money.*’ 

This Joli day season may finally be 
the firs in which consumers respond 
by shoring businesses that offer goods 
and sffvices on-line a significant 
amour of sales. Many Internet mer- 
chants have found that volume is up 


sharply this year as more consumers 
learn how to find what they want and 
become comfortable that they will not 
be defrauded when they do. 

American Express Co. calculates 
that $4 billion to $6 billion will be 
spent making credit card purchases 
over the Internet this year, with sales 
increasing at more than a 400 percent 
pace annually. More conservatively, 
Forrester Research puts d k figure at 
$2.4 billion, double last year’s total 

“Nineteen ninety-seven has been a 
watershed year for many merchants on- 


line,” said Kate Defhagen, an analyst at 
Forrester Research. The firm’s recent 
survey found that 25 percent of what it 
estimates to be 40 million Internet 
users bad bought something on-line. 

Of course, Internet sales are still only 
a tiny part of the overall economy. 
Many shoppers will always want to see, 
feel and carry home what they bny. 

“Back in the early 1980s, when the 
Horae Shopping Network first came - 
on-line, lean remember people on Wall 
Street said, ‘Retail is dead and every- 
one will be buying on their TVs,' "said 


Nathan Morton, chief executive of 


Nonetheless, Computer City, look- 
ing at the number of technology-sawy 
consumers, is joining the rush to sell on 
the Internet with a site of its own. 

Internet merchants see this holiday 
season as a critical test of the appeal of- 
buying on-line. 

‘ ‘Seventy-eight percent of our mem- 
See INTERNET, Page 19 


ASEAN Adopts ‘Peer Surveillance’ to Monitor Risk 


By Thomas Fuller 

International Herald Tribune 

KUALA LUMPUR — The Asso- 
ciate of South East Asian Nations said 
Moncay that it would begin monitoring 
Southeast Asia’s domestic economies 
in oder to prevent future financial 
crise, modifying its 30-year legacy of 
stayiig out of members’ affairs. 

France canisters from foe nine 
menbers of ASEAN decided on a sys- 
temof “peer surveillance” that would 
evauaie “potential economic and fi- 
narrial risks tf member countries, high- 
liglting policy options and implications 
ant encouraging early action to min- 
imze such risks.” 

\SEAN ilso endorsed a decision 
aide in MaiDa last week for a separate 
recue fund for foe region. 

Although foe notion of peer surveil- 
lsice may seem far from revolutionary 
esewbere, it would be a big step for 
/SEAN numbers, which have prided 


themselves on keeping oat of their 
neighbors’ business. The group's man- 
tra has been so deeply rooted that, sev- 
eral months ago, as choking smog 
blanketed many puts of Southeast Asia, 
neighboring governments were loath to 
publicly criticize Indonesia, foe source 
of the fires causing the pollution. 

“The present circumstances and the- 
contagion and systemic risks facing the 
region [make] it necessary to move for- 
ward to develop a regional surveillance 
mechanism within ASEAN,” foe min- 
isters said in a statement 

Coming just a few weeks before 
ASEAN’s 30fo anniversary — which 
until recent months was slated to be a 
celebration of foe members’ economic 
success stories — foe meeting Monday 
allowed foe group’s finance minis ters to 
discuss the causes of the regional fi- 
nancial crises and possible solutions. 

Malaysia’s finance minister, Anwar 
Ibrahim, said the meeting was “pos- 
itive, open and frank.” It was Mr. An- 


war who suggested in a magazine article 
in July that ASEAN take on a policy of 
“constructive intervention” and evolve 


hathir bin Mohamad. 

Also skeptical of a more proactive 
ASEAN is foe region's other prominent 
statesman, Lee fCnan Yew, Singapore’s 
senior minister. Mr. Lee said last week 
that ASEAN members could have a 
hard time pressuring others into action. 

“Let me put it in a very succinct 
way,” he said. *Td rather foe IMF tell 
foe Thais what they have to do than me 
and my ASEAN neighbors clubbing to- 
gether, putting up $17 billion, and telling 
foe Thais ‘If you don’t do this, we won’t 
give you $17 billion-’ We won’t be 
friends for a very long time.” 

The ASEAN finance ministers 
seemed to take Mr. Lee’s advice to heart 
Monday when they recommended that a 
rescue fund for troubled economies in the 


region be provided “in consultation with 
foe IMF.” 

This contrasted with earlier efforts to 
create an Asia-based fund that would 
have been outside foe purview of foe 
International Monetary Fund. The issue • 
of foe IMF's involvement is important 
because of the strict conditions usually 
attached to IMF money. 

Mr. Mahathir said Monday that IMF 
packages resulted in “a lot of diffi- 
culties for the countries concerned and 
their economies.” 

Mr. Mahathir also seemed to con- 
tradict foe statement issued by the fi- 
nance ministers earlier in foe day when 
he said the Asian standby fund was “not 
necessarily a supplementary fund that 
trill be subject to the same condition- 
alities as foe IMF.” 

Richard Ha, Singapore’s finance 
minister, asked to clarity foe point, said: 
“It is a facility to supplement the IMF 
and it will only be invoked if foe country 
signs up with an IMF program.” 


lion's finance sector. .... 

Mr .Si mhachni, who fs commerce min- 
ister and in charge of the government's 
economic affairs, also vowed to open 
Thailand farther to foreign investors 'and 
said foe government would play a “sub- 
stantial” rote in paying far the recap- 
italization of the finance sector. 

The International MopetajyFnnd has 
given die government until Monday to 
h»lre action on the 58 politically con- 
nected finance companies in order for 
Thailand to continue receiving assist- 
ance through the Fond's bailout. 

Mr. Suphacbai said in an interview that 
Bangkok would divide the companies, 
which it suspended from doing business 
five months ago, into three categories. 

A few com panies will reopen fol- 
lowing recapitalization, Mr. Suphacbai 
said, and a second, larger group will 
include companies that will be either 
taken over or meiged with foe finance 
POTnpany Khnin gmai Thanalrit f!o_ 

Bat mote than half of foe 58 compa- 
nies will be in foe third category ana go 
through a one-year liquidation process, 
either in Wodd Bank-sanctioned auc- 
tions or by operating in a limite d ca- 
pacity to wind down forir own assets. 

Mr. Suphacbai said that given foe 
worsened economic conditions, he 
would fry to extend foe period of time 
allowed for disposing assets. 

He also said he was staking his repa- 
tationon amending foe country’s foreign 
investment law, calling it “a relic.” 

“If we want to salvage the system we 
have to be as liberal as we can, but let’s 
not make it a headline because I do not 
want to arouse nationalistic feelings,” 
he said. “It is a very sensitive issue, and 
I do not want to have it politicized.” 

Thai investment laws were recently 
loosened to allow foreigners to take ma- 
jority stakes of banks in certain cares, 
but remaining restrictions have 
dampened investor interest in the coan- 


- said. The cabinet will consider foe issue 
this month, he added, with legislation 
likely taking effect early next year. 

“This wul-be our test case, because 
we have worked on it for so long,” Me - 

Suphacbai said_ 

The deputy prime minister said he 
would work with foreign Chambers of 
Commerce to draft a foreign business 
law within three months. _ 

- “This wiU put Thailand into the mod- 
em period so we can woric with foreign 
investors as fluently as possible and to 
banish -this Alien Business Law as a 
retie of foe past.” Mr. Supfaacjhu said. 
“We need to-do something drastic to 
regain confidence.” 

Thai stocks fell 2 percent Monday and 
foe currency hit new lows in foe write of 
a downgrade of foe couotxy’s foreign 
debt to a notch above junk-bond leveL 
Mr. Snphachai said foe rating coo- 
firmed events over the past two months 
but did not reflect foe present andfutnre 
condition of foe country’s economy. 

Mr. Suphacbai estimated that more 
than 80 percent of short-term debt dne in 
November had been rolled over. Deeply 
indebted to foreign creditors, Thai 
companies face higher costs of repay- 
ment with foe fell of the baht 

White restating that Thailand plans to 
adhere to all conditions of the IMF res- 
cue, Mr. Snphachai said it would tty to 
negotiate a reduction in foe high interest 
rates in foe first quarter of next year. 

“The IMF p rog ram has reinforced 
the slowing down of the Thai econ- 
omy,” he said. “Yon can just say you 
take die bitter medicine and accept foe 
consequences but, no, we need to dis- 
cuss fosse matters.” 

Tn exchange far si gnificant changes m 
its financial system, tire Fund is provid- 
ingThailaad$17.2 billion to replenish i its 
foreign reserves, tints reassuring foreign 
lenders that foe government and Thai 
c ompani es can pay their debts and giving 
Bangkok the means to defend the baht. 


Utinking Ahead /Commentary 


• PRIVATE BANKING 


Blair Flunks the Single-Currency Test 

Trying to Have It Both Ways on the Euro 9 He Sidesteps Hard Choices 9 


H * : By Reginald Dale 

) 5 | International Herald Tribune 

I QNDON — Like many clever 

I I politicians before him, Tony 

l I Biair is finding that it is easier 

{ fc,. m to win office than to govern. In 
s his stccessful assault on No. 10 Down- 

L ing Street, Mr. Blair radically trans- 
I famed his Labour Party by forcing on 
1 itwbathecalls “hard choices. ’’But his 

\ clain now to be doing foe same for 
Briton is largely a sham. 

Irgovemment, Mr. Blair is showing 
a disconcerting tendency to prefer easy 
choces — and he is falling into a 
conmon trap of the 1990s in thinking 
I he <an change foe world by describing 

it differently. 

r' . Bow here is this more obvious than 

\<l in he government’s naive and am- 
bigious policy toward the rest of 
Euope, the single most important 
chilenge regarding the country's fu- 
tuE that has bedeviled British prime 
nnisters for most of the past 50 
yars. 

While seeking to assert Britain’s 
rce more .strongly as a European 
p>wer, Mr. Blair is suffering from the 
sane delusion as other supposedly 
‘hro-European” British leaders in the 
pst: He thinks he can lead the Euro- 
pan Union simply by declaring that 
cat is his intention. 

Mistakenly, be thinks all it requires 


to be hailed as a great European by 
Britain's partners is to express more 
enthusiasm for Europe than previous 
British governments. The real com- 
parison, of course, should be with Con- 
tinental governments — and partic- 
ularly with France and Germany, 
which have led foe arduous process of 
European integration for almost half a 
century, often in foe teeth of British 
opposition. 

That record of past obstructionism 
makes it even more necessary for Bri- 
tain toput its money where its mouth is 
if it is to make a convincing conversion 
to foe European cause. But that is pre- 
cisely what Mr. Blair is evading as foe 
EU completes its pjans to introduce a 
single currency, foe euro, in 1999 — 
the biggest act of European integration 
since tire 1950s. 

It is true that the government has 
now committed Britain to joining foe 
single currency, at least in principle, in 
perhaps five years' time. But foe an- 
nouncement, at the ead of October, was 
actually more cautious than Labour’s 
position before it won office in May. 

Rather than try to shape Britain’s 
future actively, foe government says 
adoption of the euro will depend on 
economic events over which it has little 
or no control, such as the furore coarse 
of foe British and Continental business 
cycles. 

But political, not economic events 


will determine whether Britain joins 
tire single currency, especially now 
that Mr. Blair has specified that the 
British people will have to approve the 
move in a referendum. Opinion polls 
show majorities ofbetween 2 and 3 to 1 
against foe euro. 

The polls also suggest that many 
people could be susceptible to gov- 
ernment persuasion. But Mr. Blair’s 
government is unlikely to be as pop- 
ular in five years’ time as it is now, 
and the rest of Europe will not stand 
still and wait for Britain. It may well 
be harder, not easier, to join later. 
Britain has consistently faded to un- 
derstand that when it entered the 
European Community in 1973, it 
joined a dynamic, not a static; pro- 
cess. 

While the leaders of France, Ger- 
many, Italy and Spain, among others, 
are staking their political futures on 
qualifying for the single currency at the 
outset, Mr. Blair’s priorities are foe 
other way round. He wants to win the 
next election and then see whether 
joining the euro makes domestic polit- 
ical sense. 

To maintain British influence in the 
meantime, he is telling the Europeans 
he is already folly committed, but to 
win the election he is telling foe British 
that be isn’t, at least not yet “Hard 
choices,” however, shonld mam not 
trying to have it both ways. 


CURRENCY & INTEREST RATES 


f Coss Rales Dec.i 

S 1 Ml FA UN ttfl IF. U. ¥b a MM 

ABtmm US UK 1.127 I3M U151* — USB* 138 U5tt* IM UB* 

Bnuls 114575 as 2U8S 4K3 2.1BT 1US — 15515 B2K2 JO* JUT 

FnttRf IJJH ZTO — 02» VXBT MM US* U» UJM* LIU Lit#* 

L*f*r (a} lOB — IKS H MWIM 3JH am UW 717JO 2JM2SOH 

MdM uun BUM USB 2Ufl ROT BBU USD MM7 U4J91* — 

Mon . 1J3MS fflte CTJJ BUD — W3 USB Uttf 1UU yas IL5U 

N»Y«rfc» — 14 Kb TOO SMS IMSB USX Jitf Uffl UU1 WUI 

Pits m ms — unr inm tiaz u» m »* ura un* 

Tkjra nus fliD 7139 Zlfl U* UM ttltt CTA5 — Rfl UW 

tart* i«za isb im tm UBii* otkd un* am. ijbj* — uc* 

ktdi ua km asm anti urn* an» wns* _ i.iw ijcw us* 

ecu ( im am uj* ua {,ate u» mbs usb* uuo m an uzm 

•sor ua asm uu tm lout im am us ms ua vun 

Outii^lnAntsisaimLantinMaan.PMeaHlIoikKBaifilniiUeeealmiNiw'ntkiBleo 
PM oni Totem rates at 3 PM. 

a 7a tutrooe pottnd txTotxiyaae doBac ‘Un/ta of 7» not qoatmt NA-: nottnoaonk. 


Libid-Ubor Rates Dec. i 

Mm Fnrii 

Dolra D-Mott Pn»c Stottg Rase YM ECU 

1-monm 5W-5VX 3H-3V TVt-lMi 7 Vi*- TV* Vw- V 4H-47X 

3-worth flt-sj 3W-3U 11* -m 7W-714 3VW-3H ft- V 4fe-4ft 

a-rawfc nvsift Vft-rft r*-m 

Wtor 3%-A 4-<ft 2-2W 7*ft-7ift3ift-ift ft-5 wti-A* 

SwicKr Mriu IM Soak. 

Ratos t&p&xtiUi to interbank ctepcr&s of 31 mMten mtoknoai (oreqvtHtutO. 


^tber Dollar Values 

SHrttKf i PW* Ottnaei 
arg«d. vrm emksrac 

BiatrrtWi* 1-4749 HwgKaogJ 

AiB&taML 1150? Hona-tortat 
BmUna 1.109 
ariMMIuM 8J»n Indo.rwtah : 
OMttHtna 3445 IrfshS 
DMttlim 4759 brarfJML 
Egypt. pound 3.4045 KwAMr 
nn.imta 5369ft Matar.itog. 

Forward Rates 


iCinrne im« w+v 

, PBMllwtng 14775 14752 

'CHHtoiMqr 1^207 M190 

1-7732 1-7701 


earner 
Max. get* 

K. Maris 
Norw. krona 
PUL paw 
PstedotT 
ParLascart 
Rannrta . 
SorttrifU 
S»(S 


Jopmesayn 

swtefmc 


Cmaaer 

S. AS. mod 

S.K0r.«an 

saaLtraa 

TetaoaS 

TMbBM 

TirtMiBn 

VAE Often 

VM4Z,bdh. 


3M4V *Mbr M| 

17124 127J4 124.97 

IXB2 1^317 1X212 


Key Money Rates 

UoUrtSWas Oosa 

teKaoatnta SCO 

maw rate m 

r ata rt Wart 5<ft 

90-rty CDs drtan 5A4 

ISMoyCPflrtan sm 

SneatfelVaWayUH Sj09 

l-narlhrtarMI 435 

2^rtcr TrvourT U9 5J5 

SwrTreaswraah 522 

7-fMrTtwsorr sate 5S3 

lB-ywa Traeary aata 5S4 

MhoorTtasHObart 6M 

Marti LyoCl 3Mo9 RA 5.10 

iawai 

B besot rote 050 

Cutaway tUl 

l«ndhktertak 042 

3-osnA btnbeqk 042 

ft-awmiWBifeaak QJO 

lfrfaw Govt tart 155 


BitMa 

Sort, hcoa rota 
CrtOMoay 
luwto MbM 


71* 7» 

TV* 7ft 
7V4 7ft 
7ft 7ft 
7V» 71* 

447 650 


es INC Bank (AnammambCatB imwmetrf Ban* (8rvs%w Bmcn Commentate 
(MHOtili Bosque He Fiona (PeiWt Batik at TeOyoMtisuaM {Tokyo}; Royal Bant of 
(TetonM; >MF {SOM. <*lier dm timmAstecfoto Press. Bbunoevonl Reuters 


LaaiMtfrata 
Crtanrty 
1-eiwift teterftou 
3-BHOtli Maiftaak 
ft-ncaiO Intertask 
IPywrBart 


Hneoth kiterftmk 71* 71* 

lftyawGIt 447 450 

Frapca 

latemattea rata - 130 130 

Cnfraaaer 31* 3ft 

l-waftfahAB* 3ft J 3H 

3-awelfc tetertec* 3ft 3H 

ftwoniMMa* » 31* 

IMnar OAT 445 545 

. 5wr?fsj R?ufef% Sfeeaiftm Mann 

Gold 

AJA. PM Ctf* 

X««» HA 29330 -3J30 

Laodaa 29135 29435 -345 

IteteYcrtt 298150 29170 -1J10 

_UArt Ha>apar«aicE.L fl »iflaBfllMW 

SouaxRHtiea. 


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PAGE 16 


EVTERNAnONAL HERALD TMBUNE, TUESDAS; DECEMBER 2, 1997 

THE AMERICAS 


I Investor’s Ame 


"**• *- A + V&ZSS3SZZ& 


A/y 


30-Year T-Bond Yiefd 


f tiHJ 


8000 

7500 

m 


Dotlann Deutsche marks H Dollar in Yen 


: ,JB /V ha ' 

f 1J5-* V ^ v Av^ / ® 



Dollar Rises 
As Investors 
Shun the Yen 

Cvm&dbyOarSafFnmDnpaein 

NEW YORK — -Lingering con- 
cern about the health of Japan's 
economy and more signs of steadily 
expanding U S. growth lifted the 
dollar strongly Monday. 

Despite strong comments from' 

Japan's prime minister calling for 
stability in the financial system, in- 
vestors shunned die yen as they 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE 

speculated that the leading Liberal 
Democratic Patty will allow trou- 
bled financial institutions to fail 
“Even if the Japanese authorities 
helped the banking system, the eco- 
nomic situation remains bad, all the 
same,” said Eric Fifewick, an econ- Bloomberg News 

omist at Nikko Bank in London. NEW YORK — David Shuiman 

The U.S. economy, meanwhile, is is going down swinging, 
growing steadily with no threat of The chief equity strategist at Sa- 


National City to Buy First of America 



; by $243 million, or 30.uercent of Bret 
rica's operating expenses, by consol- 


co^rd by ow stiff FwBtDkpadn idation hap pened in die Midwest, ” said 

KALAMAZOO, Michigan — National City Douglas Woutouke. afl -analyst at Ohio Co. of "America's operating 
Corp. said Monday that it would buy First of “The market is 
America Bank Corp. for $7.1 billion in stock, see some conso! 

creating the 13tb-largest U.S. bank. only invites outsiue t l t ~ **52 

The combination will have $74.4 billion in First of America shares soared $13.9375 per National City, based in aeveaud,bas>jw 
assets and serve more than 8 million households share to $72-6875, but National City stock fell billion in assets, 845 branch ooces in onto* 
in - Michigan. Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, $4.0625 a share to $62.6875. KentuckyxlBdia^ 

Pennsylvania aud IlUnois. National City will pay 1.2 shares of stock for 27,000 employees. ir fill" 

■ The deal is the latest in a wave of mergers and each share of First of America, worth $80.10 ax-- ■ First .of base d in Kaynazp o, is 

acnashiODS that the; pitmh rj- nf h anks share, a 36 percent premium to Friday's closing $22 billion bank holdi n g companypperating 

' shrink as they try to save money by cutting back- price. That is almost four tunes First ofAmer- Mi ch i ga n, minors andlnd i a n a. n * nnn 

office costs and staff while ? ' *“ 

by acquiring a larger _ 

“If s just a matter of time, before consol- National City estimates it will 


Salomon’s Unbowed Bear Leaves the 



inflation, according to a report from lomon Brothers Inc. lost his job could drop to 815 or even 770 


Mr. Shuiman: 

Industrial Av 

7,000 or even ... 

the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, strategist, works under Mr. Acuff. in stocks. 

Keith Mullins, who tracked “It’s alwayi' hazaiddjs to be a ( 


■m 


1 ■ 

'IS:; 

& 

< ‘ S' . 

}£? 


the National Association of Pur- when his firm was acquired by 


Source: Bloomberg. Reuters 


hwuiamlHenldTnbaic 


chasing Management. 

“The U.S. is still enjoying strong 


Smith Barney Inc. after years in 
which he was incorrectly pessmus- 


growth with low inflati on,” ensuring tk about the U.S. stock market 


Very briefly: 


• Procter & Gamble Co. acquired an additional 59.4 percent 
stake in Ssangjong Paper Co. in one of the first major 
acquisitions ofa South Korean company by a foreign group. 
The acquisition brings Procter & Gamble's stake in Ssangy- 
ong to 84 percent. The terms of the deal were not disclosed. 


that global investors will remain at- In his final Salomon 
traded to U.S. assets, c?id John Me- landed on most clients’ 
Cartby, 

at ING Baring Capital 


which 
Mon- 
day, Mr. Shuiman was unrepentant. 

“This is our last weekly strategy 
note for Salomon Brothers,’’ fee 


ints. He did not say when. On eny^ging growth stocks for Smith bear in Wall Street, generally, un-i 
onday, the Dow closed above Barney, will hold, the same post in less you reafly have a traversal fol- j 
8,000 points, while the S&P 500 was .tire combined firm. lowing,” said William Fcund, head • 

at974points. . ' Mr S huiman said hk departure of the Center for toe St udjo f Equity | 

“As we have noted since early was old news, and he refused to Markets at Pace Universty. “Oth-i 
September, the Asian economies are discuss his future. erwise tfae brokerage finis gener-| 

much worse than what most ob-- “Marshall Acuff. was named ally prefer an upbeat asseament. , 
servers now believe,” he wrote. chief strategist. That was done a _ Mr. Shuiman not wihout his j 

While global companies see their month ago, * said Shuiman, who admirers, tfaough^He wasbne of a’ 


The dollar rose to 128.725 yen in . w w „ . 

4 P.M. trading from 127.850 yen wrote. “Our stance remains the profits cat by weak economies was stiUm his Salomon office Moor handful of analysts invuec.to meet i 

- - , ■ l ii z.i i -i up ; j-.. ««•¥ u.... " - irMi (MiinrpHlfflil Vmmv Rram’ 


Friday. It rose to 1.7765 Deutsche same: bearish.’ 
marks from 1.7644 DM, to 5.9464 The problems 


ong to 84 percent. The terms of the deal were not disclosed, marks from 1.7644 DM, to 5.9464 The problems racu 
• Charles Schwab Corp. named David Pottruck as ctxhief 5 ** 5 market are many, he sai 

executive, effective Jan 1 , making him a contender to one day S ” 85 fra PV£ om ove ?' al P d - A** s ^ 

mn AmniM’chiaaMriicmnnthmtAraof Mr Pnftmpw whn 1.4262 francs. The pound fell to weakening. Congress 


against the mark from expectations 
for German rates to remain steady. 


run America’s biggest discount brokerage. Mr. Pottruck, who 
is the company's president and chief operating officer, will $1^6850 no tn $ 1.68 
share the title with the company’s founder and chairman. The dollar got a - further lift 
Charles Schwab. ■ 

• Axent Technologies Inc. agreed to buy Raptor Systems 
Inc. for about $250 million in stock, combining two providers 
of software that protect the security of computer networks. 

• General Motors Corpus Brazilian unit will introduce a 
compact car in August 1999 to compete with popular cars sold 
by Ford Motor Co. and by Mercedes-Benz AG. a B razilian 
newspaper reported. 

• Coopers & Lybrand and Price Waterhouse partners 


weakening. Congress refused to 
give the administration “fast track’ ’ 
authority to allow Washington an 
easier time in reaching trade agree- 
ments. Profit growth is slowing. Iraq 


abroad, be wrote, U.S. companies day. “I have no comment.’* • wife senior Federal Resere Board J 

the U.S. will suffer from rising wages. Mr. Shuiman attracted attention officials, including Chairnan Alan r 

Stocks are “A profit squeeze will be self- for his bearish outlook throughout Greenspan, on De^. 3, 1 996 Jo share j 
wytnnmiftR are evident,” he said. much of the-buH. market. He recom- their thoughts on stock aid bond, 

40 percent markets. Mr. Greegspan sen world j 


* 


Travelers Group Inc., the parent mends that investors put 40 percent markets. Mr. Greenspan sec world j 
company of Smith Barney, corn- of their assets in stocks, fee second- markets tumbling - . two day Inter t 

S leted its $93 billion acquisition of lowest among 17 equity strategists ' with his musings abbot wheder“ir-; 
alomon Inc. on Friday. tracked by Bloomberg Ne ws. rational exuberance” had hflated j 

The top Smith Barney strategist. Only Michael Metz of C3BC Op- stock and bond pqfces. But hortly i 
(AFP, Bloomberg) . remains a threat in the Middle East A. Marshall Acuff, retained his po- penheuner St Co. is more censor- thereafter, markets teboundet ' 


(Ml Prices Fall After OPEC Move 

The Associated Press 

NEW YORK — Oil prices fell Monday in the first trading 


around fee world overwhelmingly approved plans to merge since (hganirafexi ^Petrole^ porting Countries ministers 


their practices worldwide. 


Weekend Box Office 


afp. B loomberg. Reuurs laised fee cartel’s official production levelby 
Light sweet crude for delivery in January 
cents a barrel, at $18.66, on the New York 


level by 10 percent 

dosed down 49 
Mercantile Ex- 


ist Associated Press 

LOS ANGELES — “Flubber” dominated fee U.S. box 
office over the Thanksgiving weekend, with a gross of $36.4 
million. Following are fee Top 10 mooeymakm. based on 
estimates for Wednesday through Sunday. 


change. 


OPEC officials sought to minimize tire importance 

he Venezue 


of tire 
gfiPWiglfln oil 


1 -Flubber 

(Watt Disney) 

3366 nMon 

2 . Alien Resunedfan 

(n*vaet>Qn6*rF*) 

S27^fnOan 

1 Anastasia 

fTVisMCertbntetsd 

316J nrtSon 

4. Jain Gridmik Ur Rmndre 

(Paramount} 

3145 mflBon 

5. The Jackal 

(UifrersaO 

SUL3mfflton 

6 . MisU Kambte MUn 

(NeufUneCtneamJ 

3925 mflfkHi 

7. MkfnWff In the Golden _ 

(WamerBmsJ 

37* mi Bon 

8 . The Uttte MecmaM 

(Watt Disney} 

347 ml Hon 

9. Beat 

(PotyCrum) 

341 iteUkm 

la Stare hlpTroopw* 

[Tristar) 

S4iteBm 


decline. “We are not concerned,” said the 
minister, Erwin Arrieta. 

OPEC's secretary-general. Rilwann Lukman of Nigeria^ 
said it was too soon to interpret the price drop. 

Even some ministers who had predicted a rapid price drop 
said the decline would be short-lived — even though OPEC 
nations might be pumping up to one miflipn barrels a day over 
their newly increased, official production ceiling. 

“This rise is a very reasonable one,” Isa Mohammad Maz- 
eedi, the Kuwaiti oil minister, said Sanday, the day after OPEC 
minis tent meeting in Jakarta agreed to raise the cartel’s output 
level to 27 J milli on barrels a day from 25 million barrels. 


INTERNATIONAL FUTURES 


Dec. 1,1997 

High ism Lotos! Chg* OpM 

Grains 

COHN (C80T7 

&QOO bu mtatawm- carts par busM 

CtecP7 175 771 VT* + 11 * 466*5 

Mir 98 2B4M 780 2 BZV> + 1 ’* 175410 

May VB 2904 2B6W 289 *m <1^18 

JU1 98 29M W0V, 293 *2 SLKD 

S«p 98 789 2BM 788 +2 5.180 

D+eVB 289 286 2*8 ,1« 31.183 

Jill 99 301 +1* 286 

EH. Soho 6H000 Fit* SQhs 4ASSO 
Rf> Often M35U8& up 317^0* 

SOYBEAN UEALICBOT) 

100 has- (Men per km 

Dec 97 moo 23550 -CM 14780 

Jon 98 22950 226JI0 727.90 -850 31449 

Mar 98 2200 220.70 227.10 * 0.10 34333 

May 98 219.90 21650 21750 unch. 34175 

JUI98 22000 21640 21 7 JO +030 13513 

Aug 98 71850 71400 71700 -OJO 1232 

Ed. spk 2Q4oo rm hik nna 

Frtsafwnfcn 12AM. up TI6 

SOYBEAN OIL (CBOT) 

60400 B»-«xnh park 

Dec 97 2552 2536 2545 442 7330 

Jan 98 2S50 2551 2570 4149 47^3 

Mar 98 2647 2542 2596 4.14 31420 

May 98 26.15 2548 2645 4.17 12461 

Ju)98 2630 25.95 1649 448 11514 

Aug 98 26.15 2S4S 2197 445 14S9 

Ed. 19400 F«t» ulas 21538 
Pin open ht 111241 an 1415 

SOYBEANS (C90T) 

1000 bamMmum- cmfc par buhel 
Jan 98 72316 715 719*! +1U 68334 

Marts 72616 71 BV, 72H6 +1V4 27^1 

May 98 729*; 72W 72» +1 21460 

iufte 731 723M, 728U +1M 22312 

Ana 98 725 719 720VS -16 1.714 

EsL MlH 37400 Fffs Mias 27405 
FM noon M 149A21 . 19 272 

WHEAT (CBOT) 

4000 bu ntWmuTB- conk per bushal 
Dec 97 3J8 341 344'J +2W 7436 

Marts 364 3S7M 360 li *316 S3.972 

M0998 37116 366 W 36BU +» 10.109 

JU98 37SU 37DV5 372M *2W 1M43 

Est saJei 28400 RT* Mes 1B037 
Fm apan M 9A719. ad 1543 


Livestock 
CATTLE KMEM 
411000 Dm,, coals par in 
Dec 97 6*10 66*0 6642 437 22467 

Feb 98 6447 6740 6765 4.97 44321 

Am 98 7235 7132 71-15 4.90 19.131 

JWM 7035 8932 6942 452 12441 

Aug 98 J055 7030 7025 4£ <7jg 

Oct 98 7255 7235 7235 435 1387 

Esi. Idas 24.162 Pm v*n3.790 
Pin open lid 106320. off 499 

FEEDER CATTLE UMEK 
50400 k».-«wilsfaj». 

Jan 90 0040 78J5 7J92 -140 UB0 

M»98 79.92 7845 79^2 445 

8045 7915 7935 4J5 1303 


High Lot Latest Cbga OpM 


□RANGE JUICE (NCTN) 

15400 kt.- ends park. 

Jan 98 8340 7950 8235 +255 22598 Dac97 10134 
MartO 86.10 BUS 8550 +245 UJ15 Mar90 9942 9958 9978 + 042 21331 


HW Lot Latest Chga OpH 

14-YEAR FRENCH COV. BONDS (MATTE) 

FFSnOOQ.pbOllflOpd 

- IOO 36 10030 +042 96385 


May 98 89.10 85.90 8850 +235 UK 
JU98 9145 9040 9140 +240 1459 
Esi. Moa PLA. Pits sate* 

RnapaoM 


JunfS 99.14 99.14 9930 +042 
Eat salat: 68.133. 

Open ML: 138321 «p 2979 


12 


HUh Lot LMaN Q>9» OpU 

Jon 98 9534 9117 7532 +903 115751 

ScptS 9538 9534 9537 +441 69633 

Dec 98 9535 9532 9531 UneA. 59333 

Mar 99 9533 9531 9532 -041 38435 

Est solas; 43441. Pno sites: 52914 
Piaa.apanMj 555349 off 1576 


tTAUAN eoeSRMMBTt BOUD (LIFFO T~’T~^T~r 

rTLTM mHon-cteniOOpd Hiousmais 

Doc 97 11145 11161 11341 +4.17 96498 COTTON 3 (UCTW 

Mar 98 11444 11440 11439 +032 30232 A000 tenants par h. 

Jun98 NT. XT. 11439 +032 8 Dae97 7038 6930 6945 4193 7B 

at aNat:iia775 pm omk 42001 *2 JS 

nav.npankd^ 120330 off 575 W n£ ££ £3 5M lun 

LIBOR 1 -MONTH (CMERJ ** 973 

» 9B 3n90 30140 30140 -340 4905 ids Ollgnd. E*. oaOT HA. ftft ndae 

n 30430 30330 3(030 -100 1.539 Oac97 9402 9440 9441 4141 22125 Bfsepanbd 

mu. wn +W. + Jot 98 9436 9424 9U5 4141 

Feb 98 9423 9422 9422 4141 

E*. ndes4149 Rt» 8*aa 4077 
Prtbapw fed 38)34 off 48 


Metals 

GOLD 0KMX> 

lODtioy Kc doOqn per tray is. 

Dec 97 297 JO 29340 29+30 -260 7.1*4 
Jan 98 29440 -2J0 6 

Fab 98 299.10- 29488. 295JD -290104092 
Apr 98 30140 29640 297-50 -240 11,406 

JwW 30Q70 J93J0 299-50 -100 12213 


Doc 98 30730 30540 30190 -100 13465 
Fab 99 30840 -110 2592 

&L site 2S400 Fite sate 
fit* open W 


7423 

4011 


EURODOLLARS (CMER) 

£1 mSa+ab of 100 pci. 

Dec 97 9410 9449 9410 andu 4X876 

_ __ Fsi98 9415 9CU P4T3 -OUR I4HT 

8140 8230 8290 -2JS 1485 JAM 9412 9413 -041 «2OT 

83JB inis -2JB 30679 J0l»98 9410 9447 9408 undu 3644X8 


HI GRADE COPPER (NCIH0 
25000 Rn.- cents par X 
Dec 97 8130 5160 8165 -260 7365 
Jan 98 8160 8240 8215 -245 2365 

Feb 98 
Mar 98 


Apr 98 8450 8195 095 -268 1^57 »P“ «« 

Min an 8600 B440 84JU -265 4576 DOC98 9176 9333 7195 inch. 214461 

JOT98 8S60 B4J5 UM -165 l5S «»« SS 

JulM 8630 84-55 8465 -265 3361 Jun7? 9191 9189 9191 unch- 1326Z7 

Aaa98 ES 8465 8465 -235 L15B Sap 99 91*9 9187 9188 441 97430 

EsL s*« 16400 Fite ides 
FmepanM 


Doc 99 
Mar 00 
Jan 00 


9183 9381 9U2 441 92381 

9185 9183 93*4 -041 72619 

03*3 9181 9U2 -041 99.111 

ExL «*n 228682 Frh a*on 164639 
PA open bit 2791972 off 7417 


SILVER (NUUO 
5000 ireycB.- cards par tray az. 

Dec 97 52840 51500 527.30 +530 2181 

Jan 98 S29.W J1840 S29.W +540 35 BRITISH POUND MMB 

B* 98 532-20 +4-90 nmix 

Marts S3540 52050 53450 +420 64949 Doc 97 16870 1673 16842-04076 S5M9 

Mayw 537.70 52650 S37J0 +430 SSZ2 H«98 16710 16702 162M-04QM 13^ 

Ju<9B 54040 52740 S4040 +470 3401 16492-04026 1J4S 

Sap 98 5fl40 +470 790 E*. «*H G»7 FrX aOiK 9.987 

Dec 98 54430 53240 54430 +470 4*52 Frit Open M 600921* 21 57 

Est sales 15400 Fits seta 

Fitimnbd CANADIAN DOLLAR (CM ES0 

100000 dutt**. Spar Cite. St 

PLATINUM MMER) OkW JW JOM Jtm+tt80M 62*92 

50 Wo* at- (Worspar troyot 'SSS -2^ 

Jan 98 386 00 38140 38450 +1J0 10559 JvntB -7002 -7068 JOSI+ltOOOl IJ32 

Apr 98 381.10 37740 38140 +1.10 2JS7 Est ndn 12917 Pit* Idas 6»4 

JuJ 9B 37800 +1.10 104 Frfl apan W 77,159, up 29 

gegy unw KCTgo 

L0KO0N METALS 0J6B Pre * ta “ M 5628-04041 65493 

DnSSrplrnSfcton Mar 98 6671 5650 5657^.0041 0070 

ifiSKSw JunW -5684-04041 4110 

156000 156900 158340 158400 Est »Olts 191751 Frfs sales 18492 
159140 1W240 160400 160540 Ffl* apan M 72182 op 9S2 
“ ’ (M^b Grade} 


SU- 


ll EATING OIL (MMER) 

42400 pat carat par 0 * 

Jan 96 544P 5250 5271 -158 52538 

Feb 90 5496 5120 5365 -164 21637 

Mar98 5455 5140 5155 -1.16 12602 

Aorta 5150 52.90 52-90 .«l 7.131 

TtojrSB 5275 5235 S2J25 461 4092 

Jon 98 55-45 5245 5205 -ft 51 50*S 

JldfS 5260 SLID 5210 -466 2518 

Eft solas HA Rh salat 
Firs apan bd 

LIGHT SWEET CRUDE CNMER) 

1400 bbL-deftn par bbL 
Jan 91 1947 1154 1866 -0-0 109425 

Fab 93 19 JS 1180 1 3.94 JWT 54561 

Mar98 1941 18J9 19.12 4135 3L552 

Apr 98 19.27 19.14 19JS 4X30 19400 

May 98 1945 194S 19JS -0*4 19403 

JW98 1969 19 JO I960 -0.1? 29J03 

Eat. BdsaNA. Frts rates 
WiapaiW 

NATURAL GAS (NMER) 

laooo imn Min, S pereara Ma 

Jan 98 UK) 2630 2J70 +0H92 51,170 

Fab 98 2600 2920 2645 +0.158 24015 

Marts 2675 2340 2640+4X103 20JT3 

V 93 2-2K 2225 1270 +0040 11680 

Marts 2*40 2195 2J3S +0450 

Junta 1235 2190 2330+0450 L270 

Est. ndea MJL Rfs sales 

Fits open tat 

UNLEADED GASOLINE (NMER) 

42009 paL rants par oaf 
Jan9t 5420 5SJ5 56*5 4*6 34491 

Fab 98 5480 5405 5454 *82 14733 

Marti 57 JS 5660 5764 -079 9641 

Apr 98 40.10 5955 5*67 4163 7.732 

fttayte 59 JO 5963 5962 -043 7/ 

Jun 90 ’ “ 

JKd9B 

Aug 98 8760 57.12 57.12 -064 1639 

Est. ntaf-HA. Fits solas 
Fife open tal 


39 JO 5870 59 JB -066 494* 

5S60 50.17 5217 -066 3445 


load 

IScra 

wt*n 

Tin 


781460 781560 7SSXQ0 1*5400 JAPANESE YEN KMEIO 
184200 104200 IB79JJ0 1B80JW I25n«anyan Spar 100 yw 

Doc 97 7850 J747 J768 4*074 128*04 

52300 53*00 53200 53300 Mar 90 -7960 7361 J882-00074 4100 GAS OILflP O 

54000 54100 54800 54900 Junta J98S J985 J994-00074 1640 - r-, 

D«c 97 U0J5 16200 16400 +7J5 14540 
607500 600500 609200 610000 nJZ? SS?*" Jin 98 M*60 16348 16500 +6J5 2G885 

617000 617500 618000 4 S3 134*42 up«97 FebM 16900 16L50 171J5 +4JS 14540 

SWISS MAMCIMinm Worre 1*4» +^0 

570200 579000 581000 SB3O00 555*.\5£!l C «21SL “** *45 45! 


Apr 90 «UB 79.15 79*5 JX75 1JIO Spot 578200 579000 5311X00 5830.00 1 Bartmhc iX 

«» 5S SfS snuo S745JK 44*75 {gg Jgg {fig 

Aim 98 8210 8160 81.70 4X52 591 Zlne (SpccM IM Grade) Mint* JP2 7055 JQ62 -00032 4705 ■*“” lius *“ l 

SeptS 81*0 81 JO 81-55 4X35 122 Spot ijSfo llOMJ 114M0 1141*0 Jun9t 7134-0*030 1J09 E«».se8e*3293*. nw.Htra/2103 


Sep98 

Est sales 3700 FH> rates 490 

Fir* apan H 15*71 up 16 
HOGS-lm KMEB 

flSG^SSm 6250 +037 29*5 

Feb 98 6DJJ 59.90 «J2 ^ 'JJg 

Apr 98 57 JS S7.12 57.17 -ttM 4*W 

JIM 98 *567 6562 6 tH -OW 19g 

Jill 98 6440 6 UQ *440 +O.10 1,290 

Est. sates 7*15 Ms sates 19S4 
FltlOpan bd 3W74 up 47 

PORK BELLIES (CMER) 

jarS* 1 ® 56.77 4X25 Um 
Mtarm 5665 5555 5SJU W Wl 

May 98 5660 5560 5565 4W0 

Est. rate* 1,939 Frti ados 74* 

Rts open M W55. afl 34 


Farrami »31*0 1 12200 116100 11*400 

ap u J=«ts men bd3a98a off 16 W 
MEXICAN PESO (CMER) 


High Lot am Ope 


ntsopenbd 

3-MOITTH STERLING CUFFE) 

C502000 -Oil St 100 DU 

OK 97 9131 91JS 9230 +0*2 152725 

Marts 9226 9222 9225 +0*3122284 


555 


Stock Endexfts 

junta 92*1 9226 9230 +OM 108*54 IHDeXlCMHD 

Sip 98 92*1 9237 9140 +003 82293 Z50,m0 ” 

Dec 90 92S9 92-55 9257 +0*3 7&SW 


-23 391 

23 48.198 
-23 18*55 
■25 4659 
-25 473* 

25 9.HM 


R»d 

COCOA (NCSE) 

10 metric tan* JP«fW 

\sn S li? 

IS? IS !«r 
IS IS iSS 

Eri sates 2761 Fits sates 
FiK open lot 

COFFEE CINCSD 

COTW^iS^lSoO 1*920 +820 1*47 
,SSo 5*15 16270 +7*5 11*11 
in« 151*0 15645 +7J0 4£1 

W !** HHS SS 


Financial 

US T BILLS (CMER) Dec97 .12190 .17il2 .12185+60617 14340 

Sltfmxr-BtsCtlVOpO Morn ,1>7SS .1)491} U7SS+JC723 9 JM 

Dec 97 949S 9493 9492 -001 41*7 Jwl 98 .11370 .11320 .11 370+ *0798 2988 

M S S?? •*—«««.— 

Sop 96 94.90 9498 0498 +0*1 23 

Est. sides LSOFif* soles 946 
Rfs open W 1194L up 440 

SYR TREASURY (CBOT) 

SlOROOOprin- pb & 6«iscd IOOpU 
Doc 97 108-11 107-62 1084$ +03130*11 
Ett. iotas *1.244 Ml seta 30334 
Firs open tat 2*7,938, up 1,106 

10 YR TREASURY (CBOT) 

SI0O000 prin- ate A BBS 100 pd 
Dec 97 111-27 111-17 111-22 + 82 101*17 
Mar 98 111-20 111*9 111-14 +02 204533 

Jan 99 111-13 111-13 111-17 +02 256 

EsL steal 134*31 Ms iotas 61661 

Ms open M 407*04 up 5089 

US TREASURY BONDS (CBOT) 

<8 pd TiaaooGph 1 3Md« at ion pen 

Dae 97 119-1* I194Q 119*9 +03 247653 

Mar98 • 119-12 118-28 119-03 * 02 431725 

Jan 98 118*1 11833 11825 *02 14757 


Pm. epon Ml* 91102 M H186 

BRENT OOLDPE) 

U6. dtOans par band - tats el UOObanets 
Jon 98 l£a 17*5 IBM -tX7E 51470 

Fob 9* 1865 18*5 1116 -075 51758 

M«r98 I860 14C8 111* -069 14982 

W39 18*8 Hit —863 8662 

MM 98 3129 1109 lilt -Oi7 7*93 

J«n98 1128 1810 1116 -4*2 12*29 

Est stent 59*00. Pm- rate* :1 1480 
Piev. open taL-T747Zf op 700 


Dec 97 97760 95120 977 JO +2260 360,790 


MorW ^nj6«J7^£S«0 AS? Sg 8M 

Jonty 92*6 92.92 9194 +0*3 55*82 i un ” 998*0 98200 998*0 +2250 2230 

EdeteG Uin Pim ita IU99 Est. solej ff A Rft fietes 32fl44 

Piw. open tat 793601 up 1799 FUsopon M 391729, tefljta 

3-MONTH EURDMARK(UFFE) FTS8 1 08 QJFFg) 

Sk 97 U %^*WM , »J1 UPdL 282®8 gcg d»U «0* +6* 61^5 

Jon 90 9422 UT l 9423 UnA. 10310 Mar 98 4994* 4HM 499*0 +845 7*52 

K-T- XT. 9414 Uncjx 7SI 6st. son.- W.12B. Prw, stem 1374 
Mar 98 9*09 96*7 9608 -0*1 324193 Pm. anon bd.- OXr oo 31* 

JvfO 9489 95*7 95*1 -OOl 294072 V * 

Septl 157] 9S*9 9570 —0*0 216*27 CAC4B EMATIF) 


DOC 98 9451 9569 9450 -0*1 192*29 

Mm 99 9134 * 9433 VJ> -0*2 101769 


2927* +99* 


3*90 118-18 118-1* I IB- 16 +02 20e Jw»g »W K.Ji X.17 -**} Dec 97 gtlU 3896J 2934* +71* 44P1? 


Est «*» 225*00 Fite sates 1)04*1 

Fits open tat 702751 Up 12658 

(JONG GILT IUFFE) 

£50000- 0U6 32MS« 108 pd 
Dec 97 119.11 11127 119-00 -WB 65991 
Mar 98 13M3 119-18 119 24 ~«n 122*18 
JOT 98 19+01 10+08 10407 -Ml Q 
Est Mbs 403)2 PW Idas 92513 

Pm. open W- 19A8U up 7699 

GERMAN COV. BUND fUFFEl 


£p« 14U0 1*300 1*450 +475 
Est. iotas ll«l*3 Frts***** 

FtnopenM 

sugarwtrld it (I*® 

ii9MWRM.Cfl£HrA. btUIUMflWV.BUflUIL 

HHS 1JJB H27 IMf ♦WSl<a?l9 DW5O000 - pH oflH* pci 

!ES ijS IIS * aa 0x97 1W*7 10232 »2W -aw 270911 

'SRb Hll >96 1218 +830 » ,n «*■<• >0137 10313 10129 +003 BIS 

c£« 1190 11.77 11*8 •Ml 21216 Jlfllte NT NT. 10260 +002 « 

7. “*)V 4897 Pm ram 4759 

FrtSjSw Pwr-opentat.. 14*32 tel *47 


S*p 99 9&D6 9402 9SJ03 -41*1 84388 
Ete-steOK 89613. PIW.MH: 101485 
PW open 1SL: 1*61755 OH 3*71 

3-M0ffTH PIB0R CMATTFJ 
FF5HMan -piste 100 pd 
Dec 97 9429 9427 9428 UoCTL 5438* 

Jan 98 9423 9423 9423 + 0*3 53 

Feb 98 AM 0*0 9416 +M] 5 

Mart* 9411 9405 9408 -001 62693 

JOT 98 9488 95*6 95*8-8*1 32607 
EeL talas: 34601. 

Open WJ 270219 OP 762. 


Marts 28*2* 2920* 2951* +44* 1L39S 

Sap 98 2931* 2931* 2934* +6L5 10285 

EsL steas 19615. 

OpOT tat; 74)34 Off 4694 


Commodity Indaxos 


NA LSI 7 JO 

1,79450 L8Q2.70 

1640) 14430 

3-MONTH EUROURA CUFFE) __ TXtM 23555 

iTLlateaon-pnotioopa Somes Matt Associated Press. London 

Dec 97 9400 9194 9400 +800 112*38 MTFmsndot FetWes Exhttm IttH 
Marts 9427 9468 94-77 +003 124511 fttrafcWB Ejutmgc. 


Moody's 

.Ronton 

DJ-Potbrap 

CRB 


AMEX 


Monday’s 4 PJC. Close 

The 300 mrttioded state offee day, 
up to foe dosing on Wol Street 
The Associated Press. 


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U. S. STOCK MARKET DIARY 




IiSdexeS 


Dow Jones 


Most Actives 


NYSE 


Mus 7*63-46 WS .10 783113 801111+109*8 CmpOq* 
T™, aS75 3 hT 3? Ttw.71 CTU9 +81-83 


cm p 

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NYSE 



AMEX 




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Market Sales 



"5Z ‘S 

S67J1 2433 ' 

30*9 

-S32.71 2953 J 


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Cm*nr 


Par Aar R» c Pay Com pany 


Par Amt Rec^oyl 


IRREGULAR 


INITIAL 


15* OdcoBoRteten - .18 12-5 K20- 


J0 12-1? 12-26 

- -J,? 12-15 13-31 

- 6375 3-15 3-1 

_ 6525 M3 3-1 

STOQCSPUT 

STOCK 

Bratre Sags Bk. _ 3% IMS 1-13 

REVBtSE STOCK SPUT 

Jura ConMo) tor lQnwMMapV 

INCREASED 
cor 
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wmkEnennrlls 


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AmBkofCT, Q 

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« *6 12-10 12-20 8 S Sgfia 

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tome r iatam j M *5 12-15 TMl 

Kemper NUriMa M *05 12-15 12-31 


Q .18 12-12 4 /« 
Q -3612-12 12a- 1 " 

Q *85 12-19 8- 

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M *7512-15 12? J 
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US. Stock TaUes Expkuned- 
Sata figures orejmifficM. Ywrty hi 9 h» and lows rafted foo previous 52 weeks- 


percent or nnrehos been patttoeym WflWuvfireigeflnddMjfcniiorr shown 1U 
ttodno tey. Unto d hawfae noted mtoiaTdMdwids ore owwoUteburawnwite 
the tolml J w Juiu Hn n. 

a - dMdand aln «ra to. ft » anautf Rite of dMdend pftn SMdand. c - m, 

•ffffend.ee- PEeaRj8eds996ja-ailled.d-n8Wi)wirtylow.dd-loHln if* in«» in 

« - dMdend dadaiBl or paid in precsifing 12 months, f - amual Me. lna«BM 

dcd(nlien.|-dMdeiKl hi Cundtan funds. suti(edlo 1538 non-resklencp taTiT 

declared after tptf-<ff) or slsdt (fvfdeiNLf-iRvieendpoWttiic year, emttteiLrfeh. 

odkn token oftatest dividend mealing, k - tfvfdaid dwtored or pSj 
ocamiiMtTClsMie with dividends in atrams. ■- amwal in!^ redvoad On Jost^ 
■ • new bsue Jn the past 52 wssia. The high-tow rang* bogim with top stadm 
ad- next day deitefy. p- inffial dMdond arewal iota unknown. WE^ - nrice-mm 

q-dasad-endiwtuoi fund. r+dhtdenddedafedorpakitR preceding 12 montttLinj 
dMdomLs- stock ipB-DMOend begins wHIi date of spBLsb- sates. t-dvMmd 
stock to preceding 12 monttn, estkiwM aatiwiue on n-dMdend orBi^iwit 
o- new yesriytogft-v* trading holtocLvl- In bonlmijdcy or recetvenhlp or btenn, 

onderlh* Bankniplcy Ad arseoMBosnssanodiiYsudi companies: wd-wtiM 

wl - wtien-tawedf ww - arim waittmls. x -eMftvWiiid or n-rfghts. as . es-L 

xw - wMwut wananls. y- BE4SvMsnd cm ados InlUH. pH + ytou. z • soles to toft 






















I r 



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■ t 


l i 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2* 1997 


PAGE 17 


EUROPE 


. . , Demand Boytanfftenua* 

Mario Cfmde leaving criminal 
court in 'Madrid- on Monday. 

Spain Again Tries 
Ex-Banesto Banker 

Agence Fratce-Pnsse 

MADRID — Mario Conde, a 
banker who rose swiftly to the cop 
of. Spanish banking in the 1980s, 
went on trial Monday, accused of 
hand hi the country’s largest hwnk 
failure/ 

Mr. Conde, 4 fanner rimimum 
of the Banco l*spanol de Credito 
SA private bank, and 10 former 
Banesto executives or ag«vriimftg t 
face charges of; fraud, forgery and 
embezzlement.' , 

Prosecutors have said they will 
seek a 44-year term for Mr. Conde 
and sentences of up to 30 years for 
the others, wfco include a former 
Banesto vice nesident, Arturo Ro- 
mani, and a former managing di- 
rector, Fernando Garro. They are 
being tried bySpain's highest crim- 
inal court, the Audiencia National. 

Mr. Conde* who has denied the 
charges, is alleged to be responsible 
for the disappearance of some 600 
billion pesetas ($4.02 billion) from 
Banesto’ s acbounts. 

As a result of the shortfall, the 
Bank of Spain took control of the 
group in December 1993 and fired 
the board o: directors. 

The trial marks the second time 
this year Mr. Conde has appeared 
before die Audiencia National. In 
March be was sentenced to six 
years in jad for embezzlement and 
forgery. Hi was also ordered to pay 
compensation of 600 million pe- 
setas and was fined 18.25 million 
pesetas. He appealed and was re- 
leased on bail pending the second 
trial on related charges. 


British and German Production Rises 


CMftotrQur St^FamDispaKtm 

LONDON — British and Ger- 
man manufacturing .increased in 
November, data released Monday 
showed, with most of the growth 
from domestic demand. 

Purchasing managers in both* 
countries said their indexes had 
i for the month. 

Britain, the purchasing man- 
agers’ index .from die Chartered In- 
stitute of Purchasing and Supply hit 
a seven-month High, rising to 53.9 in 
November from 53.8 in October. 

In Germany, the BME/Rcuters 
purchasing managers’ index rose 
to a seasonally adjusted 57.80 in 
November from 57.49 in October, 
the largest monthly increase since 
the index was inaugurated in April 
1996. 

The compilers of both indexes 
said domestic demand was a driv- 
ing force. 

“Demand was once more prin- 
cipally domestically driven as the 
strength of the pound continued to 


have a negative impact on overseas 
demand,” Chartered Institute said. 

The research group NTC.Pob- 
lications, which compiles the Ger- 
man index from a survey of pur- 
chasing managers, said output rose 
sharply to meet the increased de- 
mand. 

“This growth was achieved 
through tiie' hiring of more 
to boost capacity,” NTC said. 

“It confirms my view that the 
German economy is growing quite 
nicely,” said Jocrg Kraemer of 
LGT Asset Management. “It fur- 
ther confirms our view that the 
Asian crisis will have only a limited 
impact on the German economy.” 

Ranger Teuscher of Deutsche 
Bank Research, said: “It is a very 
strong figure. If it nuns out to reflect 
what is going on in the economy, 
we will have a strong last quarter. 
Bat we have to remain a little skep- 
tical about the export side.” 

Despite increased capacities. 


strip supply, leading to a dwindling 
of inventories. Over a quarter of tire 
purchasing managers surveyed 
said delivery times would increase 
in November. 

Economists said the British data 
demonkrated tberobust state of the 
economy bui were unlikely to 
prompt the Bank of England to 
raise interest rates this week. 

The British central bank's Mon- 
etary Policy Committee has raised 
its base rate by one-quarter of a 
je point five times since 
Ly, leaving the rate last week at 
7.25percenL . 

‘T think it would be quite sur- 
prising if they did move again,” 
said Ian Stewart of .Merrill Lynch 
& Co. “One can’t ever rule it out, 
but I think they will want to see 
particularly how retail sales go 
through the Christmas period be- 
fore moving on rates again.” 

The committee will deliver its 
latest decision on interest rates 
Thursday. (Reuters. Bridge News) 


Iris Technology 
To Get ATM Tests 

Reuters 

LONDON -L Financial 
Solutions Group of NCR Ccap^ 
Nationwide Building Society 
of Britain and Sensar Inc. said' 
Monday that they would jointly 
test iris-recogiiiikm technology 
in automated teller machines. 

' NCR, which manufactures 
die teller machines , or ATMs, 
said the trials with Nation- 
wide, the largest mutually 
owned building society m Bri- 
tain, would be-the first public 
test of the iris security tech- 
nology developed by Sensar, 
of Princeton, New Jersey. . 

The technology captures a 
digitalrtcordofauser'siris — 
the colored part of die eye that, 
like a fingerprint, contains 
characteristics unique to each 
individual — and can verify an 
identity within seconds from a 
central data base. 


GAN Denies Report of Huge Losses in 1990 s 


Bloomberg Neva 

PARIS- — Groupe des Assur- 
ances Nationales SA, which the 
French government is planning to 
sell, denied a report Monday that 
losses accumulated in the 1990s 
would be almost 50 percent higher 
than expected. 

GAN’s share price closed down 
33 percent, or 4.60 francs lower 
Monday, at 133.90 francs 
($22.69). 

The French daily Le Parisian 
said die insurer, in which the state 


owns 80 1 
to 50 bi 

agement incompetence, state neg- 
lect and fraud. The report comes as 
tiie government prepares to sell the 
company to private investors in the 
coming months. 

Le Parisien cited as its source an 
investigation by the Conr des 
Comptes, the French state’s audit- 
ing body. 

Michele Sicard, a spokeswoman 
for GAN, said, “The financial situ- 
ation was made clear at the time of 


the first-half results. There are no 
hidden losses that wiD emerge in 
coming years. Losses will be no 
higher than expected.” 

GAN reiterated that it should 
post a “positive” profit in 1997 

and that its finanrial situation W&S 

sound after the' government’s res- 
cue operation in the autumn. 

The company recorded a loss of 
S.6 billion francs in 1996, its third 
year of losses. Its losses have been 
estimated at about 36 billion francs 
by GAN, including 30 billion 


francs in real-estate losses and 
about6 billion francs in mispricing 
of ' property, and casualty insur- 
ance. 

In July, the European Commis- 
sion authorized the state to give 
GAN aid totaling 24 billion francs. 
In exchange for the aid, the EU 
demanded that France sdllhe in- 
surer and its units by June 1998. 

A spokeswoman for the Com 
des Comptes confirmed that an in- 
vestigation of GAN had begun in 
1996 and was still in progress- 


U.K Bid to Enter Euro ‘Club 9 Rejected 


By Barry James 

International Herat d Tribune 

BRUSSELS — Britain again 
sought acceptance Monday into the 
dub of countries that will set policy 
after a sin gl e European conency is 
adopted 13 months from now. But 
Finance Minister Theo Waigel of 
Germany rejected the bid, saying 
that “you cannot be in and out at 
the same time.” 

The British government says it 
will not enter the single currency in 
tiie li fetime of tiie present Parlia- 


ment, which ends as late as 2002, 
but it wants to be on the coor- 
dinating council that members of 
tiie single currency plan to estab- 
lish next year. 

On present performance, it looks 
as if 1 1 EU countries will adopt the 
single currency when it begins, 
whue four will not Apart from 
Britain, those not joining are likely 
to be Sweden and Denmark, which 
do not want to join, and Greece, 
which cannot meet the admission 
criteria. 

At a meeting erf EU finance min- 


isters, Mr. Waigel said there was 
not much Britain could do to stop 
its neighbors from setting up the 
council. 

“No one can prevent the par- 


an in formal basis,” he said. “They 
need no legal basis for that.” 

The council is being set up at the 
demand of loanee, which wanted a 
political counterweight to the in- 
dependent European central bank. 
Decisions binding on the entire EU 
will continue tobemadeby finance 
ministers of all member countries. 


Samsung Delays 
UJL Expansion 

. Bloomberg News 

LONDON — Samsung 
Electronics Co. pot plans for a 
£450 millio n ($758.2 million) 
investment in Britain on hold 
after a worsening of die fi- 
nancial situation in Sooth 
Korea, the Press Association 
reported Monday. 

The South Korean company 
hadplannedto expand its plant 
at Teesside, En gland, and in- 
crease the staff to 3,000 from 
1,400 in tiie next two years. 



Source: Tetekurs 


InKnmlkaal Herald Tribune 


Very briefly: 


• The European Commission warned the Kirch Group AG 
and Bertelsmann AG that they could be fined if the set-top 
decoder that is to be part of their digital television venture 
con tinued to be marketed before the commission has decided 
whether to approve the venture. 

• Russia’s central h ank ackn owledged pressure on the ruble, 
offerin g to buy the currency at 5,879 per. dollar and sell it at 
5,973, increasing the spread to 94 rubles from 12 on Friday. 
Some analysts saw a currency crisis as foreign, investors sold 
Russian securities, but Sergei Aleksashenko, first deputy 
chairman of the h ank, said Moscow was not seeking emer- 
gency aid from the International Monetary-Fund. 

• Ciba Specialty Chemicals AG of Switzerland said it would 
adopt U.S. accounting standards for its 1997 results, to be 
released March 16. Ciba said it had no plan to seek a listing in 
the United States. 

• Alitalia SpA was accused by the European Union trans- 
portation commissioner, Neil Krnnock, of violating the terms 
of an EU-approved 2.75 trillion lire ($1.6 billion) state fi- 
nancial rescue. The commission is investigating complaints 
about the Italian airline. 

• SKF AB, the world’s largest ball-bearing maker, agreed to 
establish a new company with RevoiveTechnologfes Inc-, a 
Canadian magnetic .bearings company. Under the deal, SKF 
would taka a 40 percent stake in me new company. Revolve 
Magnetic Bearings Inc. 

• Glaxo Wellcome PLC suspended sales of its diabetes drug 
trogtitazone after an increasing number of toxic side effects, 
including six deaths, were reported in the United States, where 
the drug is marketed under' the brand name Rezulin. 

• Zeneca Group PLC announced it had 26 new drugs in 

development that would contribute to “excellent growth 
prospects ” well into the next ceattny. It also plans to merge its 
research and development arms to speed up the process of 
bringing new drugs to market Bloomberg. Reuters 



WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


Morday. Dec.-1 ... . 

Pricetfn locol currencies. 
Telektm 

tffgb. Low Oasa Put*. 


- . - -Hlgk- Low am _ Ptw. 


Amsterdam 


AEX tries 91BJI 
Prates: 81171 


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175 169JD 
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399.50 34948 
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10220 10140 
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34490 33450 
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316 308 310 316 

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102 101 101 102 

1225 1625 1929 22 


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Oriun-YMymae 

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130 

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209 

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7350 

117.50 

115 11549 11450 

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HknMtPefki 

HriQnrBk 

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SMtotaafV 
Tate =ng Loco 


631 25 
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480 
8225 
585 
23725 
16225 
22825 
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315 


59025 62925 609 

1360127925 1391 

465 47725 47450 
8125 1225 86 

57040 58175 580 

22525 73*7* 229 

195 16025 153.75 
31 SSI 22425 220 

1140 1140 1250 
29850 30125 314 


Hong Kong 
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COftay PDCXiC 485 

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DaoHeagBk 1890 
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HKOftraGas U30 
HKEtadric 2785 
HKTetaana 1115 


Brussels 


KlmBtadae 265448 
Pmtaai.- 239280 



HapewaflHdgs 218 
HSBCHdai 


Hdga 191 
tonWli 5450 


BEU IS 
Mr. 


13 

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A a 

SwferPaeA 3980 
& 


Copenhagen 


450 430 44150 06 

376 367 370 OT 

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Conbco 377 ZB W 3» 

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eqaoo 3 9«to g oo w MOTO 
Q&19TCB 2M0002730M KOOMZWW 

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3 

JBSSSa 47948 47S 47471 474 


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tanfaco 


Jakarta 

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BklnflhdRt 

Bk Negara 

GudangGan 

kKtaaaMrt 

tadofcad 

hate ot 

SaeoocnnHM 

SanwiGflSft 

TdekanuiBaai 


Frankfurt 

M5B B 177 80 

IS Sw 24980 

S. . 42880 

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10980 

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247 249 2080 

42680 427 S8J0 

124 12450 12120 
3740 37J3 3785 
6430 64J0 62£ 
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10880 109.10 W4J5 
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7680 79 76 

43 4105 4325 

1358 1177 1317 

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117,0 12770 1MJ0 
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ABSAGnwp 

AngtaAnCoal 

Angk>Aiii4hni 

AntfaAaGcH 

AikOoAiuM 

ABOtoAMPM 

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CJUraBh 
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20 19840 
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127 124 

7680 75JB 
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4410 4540 
21 JO 2078 
1 02 99 

3150 33,18 
41 « 80 
7JD 7 JO 
72 69 

60 5988 
1980 1980 
216 289 

5250 51 JO 
329 328.40 
123 121 

a £ 1645 
8680 85 

1*80 1575 
10940 10740 
9 37 JO 
57.90 5380 


2080 
253 
20040 
190 
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7418 
420 
6580 
21 JO 
MB 
3380 
41 
780 
69 JO 
60 
1980 

214 

5230 

329 

12220 

17 

86 

1440 

IBB 

38 

5740 


HHk Lew QnM Piw». 

SA Breweries 121 1T740 121 119 

Sirancar 2580 25 2575 2525 

Sum 49 4775 4185 48J5 

SBSC 112 218 210J0 Z12 

Tiger Oats 6840 66 6420 69 


High Law CIom Pro*. 


UMUIUes 

IferetameUim 475 448 473 
Vothjfaae 4 189 4 385 


HV> 14W dOM Pl«4 


HM Law One Pro*. 


The Mb Index 


Fra tcnk n 
Fraseatae Mad 
Fited. Knipp 

Gnbt 

HddefcgZmt 
HeriiripM 
HEW 
Had** 

HancM 
Kantadt 
Lahmqfcr 
Unde 

LuritamR 
MAN 

MaaMsmam 

Match Rnackl 
PiramaB 
EWE 
SAP 

SGLQnton 23680 23180 23580 22780 

Stamm 107 JO 18430 10480 10XS 

SpttegerlAxN) UW 1386 1386 1300 

950 91* 950 916 

42490 42180 424.90 420 

10740 10420 WJQ 10480 

5S1 540 550 565 

RZ45B 91450 92450 89420 

1103 1108 ion 1000 


368 Kuala Lumpur cmSTSS 

— PliWm: 59544 


WBBansHdgi 
VMwter 
WPP Group 

Zewa 


780 

741 

786 

475 

448 

473 

4 

189 

4 

840 

840 

8J5 

388 

3.10 

123 

540 

581 

5.17 

248 

164 

X66 


1980 1888 1943 18J0 


AMMBHdgt 
Gertog 
MatSantarg 
MdlnflSMpF 
PtomnasGos 
Pmtan 
PHtdcBk 
Ranaag 
RnartsWOld 
RoBmuPM 
SbneDwtv 
Teletan MU 
U 
UM 
VTL 


112 2J8 
885 770 

R85 840 
488 380 

840 830 

470 436 

189 185 

*20 
3075 2 9J5 
382 IS! 
780 745 

825 595 

*» Sb 


382 3 

770 885 

&5S &J5 
380 486 

830 865 

440 

U6 ms 
Sag 180 

30 31 

334 -1SS 
7M 780 
595 450 

S3 


London 

Abber NaM 
ABodDaiKOq 
Aagta Water 


AmcBr 
BAA 
BaRhiw 
Ban 
BAT ted 


Pmtan: 348881 


Hwf Senf: W73B8I 

Pnvtaui: 1652492 


BtasOrota 
boc Group 
Boats 
BPS lad 

I3SSK5* 


Cobtal 


EMI Group 


lAcchtori 


tteo ei tatadac 39842 
Prone*; 481 71 

1875 1825 1850 1900 

475 425 475 475 

575 550 575 575 

7800 7B5 7659 7750 

1600 1S58 1575 1575 
2359 2©> 2258 2400 
8275 8073 8075 0375 

4850 4725 *0 «58 
2900 2SSD 2800 2575 
2750 26S0 27M 2573 


GKN 


GUS 

wEcHUbi 

brad Tobacco 
KbuBiher 
Lima 
Land Sec 
Lraao 

LmqI Genl Gre 
UrerisTSB^ 
UnnVdrttr 
Maria Spear 
MEPC 

MenmyAnd 

NaBoaaKM 

NadPimr 


nesn nurai 

PfudnM 
RaSnchGii 
(tad: Group 
ReckmCokn 
Rcdtate 
Rood HI 
RarioHUU 
RcdtnHdBs 


Johannesburg AaMmmmAS 


29 J0 

257 

182 

we 

128 

7570 

830 

4410 

71 
1(0 

3110 

41 

735 

72 
6070 
1940 
2.12 

5280 

330 

123 

1670 

87 

16 

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XUS 

5330 


RTZmo 
RMCGmbd 
R oBiRavce 
RotolBkSari 
‘ &SMAI 


Sritaebunr 

Sdnadeo 

SailNaansBn 

SalPMr 

Secariar 

Sevan Tied 

SMTiBttOR 

Seflh Heptiew 
SeriMQBte 
ScMta Ind 
SleriBK 
SUHIfTWUl 
Staid Charter 
Tate&Lgfk 
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ThamraWMer 
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FT-GE 18to 412181 


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985 

982 

975 

937 

589 

585 

586 

533 

190 

7J9 

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8.16 

682 

6.13 

6.16 

6.19 

162 

1J7 

1J9 

1J» 

545 

545 

545 

546 

583 

456 

SOI 

5 

1449 

14J03 

1487 

1488 

885 

846 

879 

830 

548 

585 

546 

532 

5JO 

582 

584 

505 

U6 

387 

353 

Xffl 

9 JO 

985 

943 

931 

9 

847 

BJB 

870 

341 

337 

341 

388 

1689 

14.10 

1423 

16.18 

545 

53B 

585 

541 

289 

275 

283 

271 

7 

645 

*80 

645 

8.19 

006 

8.11 

8.12 

4JJ 

484 

4J2 

440 

143 

188 

189 

188 

475 

451 

464 

4JS 

287 

285 

7M 

24B 

1045 

982 

9JS 

997 

149 

147 

148 

149 

581 

588 

582 

577 

685 

686 

672 

6.13 

474 

452 

465 

442 

880 

8.10 

873 

815 

789 

783 

783 

708 

287 

27S 

277 

275 

678 

685 

672 

674 

is 419 

4.13 

414 

4.16 

445 

440 

448 

446 

642 

684 

437 

686 

588 

577 

578 

585 

146 

184 

145 

135 

10J0 

943 

1030 

972 

190 

183 

386 

188 

1384 

1286 

1U8 

1287 

1374 

1199 

1137 

1375 

859 

840 

849 

844 

549 

571 

548 

589 

103 

28S 

3tn 

386 

384 

378 

383 

382 

558 

533 

547 

537 

780 

687 

70S 

7 

740 

7 

745 

789 

1546 

1442 

1480 

1443 

two 

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887 

837 

196 

376 

194 

393 

840 

BJS 

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873 

280 

249 


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941 

976 

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233 

116 

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505 

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595 

685 

683 

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185 

189 

189 

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425 

6.15 

542 

583 

540 


1683 

1672 

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1483 

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3JW 

299 

574 

584 

548 

336 

8.97 

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880 

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749 

788 

741 

740 

181 

153 

159 

331 

2J4 

350 

353 

232 

6JD 

689 

648 

641 

840 

74S 

840 

ITS 

180 

172 

175 

179 

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7J1 

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73S 

407 

4 

4 

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6J0 

483 

444 

646 

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995 

150 

345 

147 

346 

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843 

883 

833 

345 

380 

343 

341 

645 

485 

443 

689 

154 

243 

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230 

677 

644 

447 

638 

m 

285 

285 

288 

780 

7.12 

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780 

980 

8.90 

9.16 

8.96 

243 

287 

240 

287 

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6JD 

481 

681 

350 

582 

543 

S3» 

385 

118 

370 

384 

498 

485 

4.95 

488 

1841 

1784 

1806 

7706 

782 

694 

7.17 

497 

487 

478 

119 

480 

277 

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277 

ZJB 

978 

986 

9.70 

940 

414 

403 

413 

401 

1188 

1878 

1180 

1075 

171 

149 

170 

171 

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549 

407 

557 

7J9 

749 

771 

774 

iSt 

448 

433 

438 

7 JO 

7J4 

741 

734 

682 

448 

679 

637 

485 

469 

473 

438 

488 

475 

481 

479 

988 

US 

907 

BJ3 

586 

4JA 

506 

489 

491 

475 

487 

480 

310 

301 

307 

301 

473 

443 

473 

467 

5.17 

5.10 

s.n 

5.12 

7JB 

741 

7J5 

747 


Madrid 


BataatariR 42283 


PTtotaej.W 2.12 

Ambre 

24290 

23350 

34250 

23390 

ACESA 

2035 

2000 

2035 

1990 

AgreuBreceton 

4440 

6140 

6430 

6120 

Araentreta 

BBV 

9400 

4600 

9300 

4560 

93B 

4595 

9250 

4505 


1430 

1370 

1430 

1355 


8620 

8350 

8620 

0470 

Bco Centro Hhp 

3090 

2865 

3080 

2 H 0 

BcoPoputar 

9760 

9520 

9708 

9500 

Bco Santander 

4600 

4540 

4608 

4610 

CEPSA 

4666 

4460 

4666 

4626 

CreAiairie 

2925 

2 BM 

2B95 

2825 

ac * 1 

7640 

2890 

7350 

2820 

7300 

2890 

7280 

2805 

FECSA 

1355 

13*1 

1350 

1330 

GasNaiwel 

7600 

7370 

75W 

7J8U 

Dtenhata 

1965 

IV 1 U 

1965 

1905 

Pryca. 

2500 

2408 

2465 

24W 

SmOnaaBK 

6570 

6510 

6550 

6450 

1500 

1465 

1490 

1466 


11600 

11480 

11600 

11400 

Tetaanka 

4515 

4340 

4518 

4300 

UntanFenasa 

1500 

1485 

T500 

1495 

lUenc Cement 

2820 

2765 

3805 

2795 

Manila 


PSE tadK 1777JM 


PmtaK 17718* 


1375 

1375 

1375 

13 

Amo Lund 
BfcPHtoM 

1330 

1330 

1330 

1376 

89 

88 

88 

09 

C&P Homes 

270 

288 

2.10 

2L20 

Mania Boc A 

75 

74 

7460 

73 

Metro Bank 

285 

280 28250 

28S 


375 

380 

125 

380 

PCI Baft 

140 

13/ 

13/ 

137 

PH Lena DM 

855 

845 

846 

840 

SanMtgnetB 

45 

46 

4458 

4330 

SMPrtaeHdg 

530 

580 

540 

530 

Mexico 


Beta) 

tatam 511188 


PmtoaK 497437 

ABriA 

6400 

62.70 

6180 

61.90 


1980 

1880 

19.18 

1880 

Cemex 0*0 

3630 

3SJ0 

3630 

3S3U 

CSnC 

16.10 

1636 

16.98 

1636 


4030 

40.20 

4030 

40X0 

GpoOaaaAl 

GpoFBcomer 

57 jn 

5480 

57 JO 

5470 

117 

3JM 

110 

2 JV 

GpoHntnbuaa 

KnbCtekMK 

3180 

3030 

3180 

3080 


3490 

38.10 

3670 

TeMta.CPO 

12630 15U0 15630 15U0 

TcUAexL 

21-00 

2545 

7140 

2040 

Milan 

Mitt Tllimmira. 1341180 


Preweei. 13365JW 

Aleremi Ante 

16405 

15795 

16235 

15925 

Bco Cam Pal. 

5000 

4V4U 

4960 

4950 

BanHctawsaa 

7400 

7250 

7400 

7200 

Bead Romo 

14« 

1415 

1435 

1425 

E^eflnn 

27200 

268U0 

Z/ 20 U 

24200 

Quito Malta 

4850 

4750 

4RSD 

4739 

ErQson 

9745 

9430 

9740 

9360 

ENJ 

WOO 

18085 

10165 

10085 

Ftot t 

5375 

5070 

5173 

4990 


39200 

38750 

39QSD 

28750 

1 M 1 

18290 

18100 

18220 

18050 

INA 

3085 

3010 

SUM 

3010 

jESSut 

6880 

84S0 

5725 

8525 

6880 

8635 

6665 

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1246U 

12296 

12460 

120 Xi 

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1470 

1435 

1470 

1420 

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9M 

970 

no 

969 

Ponraftrt 

2585 

2 SU 6 

2585 

2415 

PheB 

PP4 

WLl.M 

prj 

prj 

RAS 


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KJtoBreKn 

25200 

74700 

75200 

24850 

SPaaio Torino 

14295 

14310 

14760 

14310 

TrteanltaOa 

10920 

10810 

1097.1 

HJ770 

TIM 

7150 

7025 

7136 

6995 

Montreal 

OteteUaleamcMSM 


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39 

38 

39 

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50 

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1870 

1835 

1165 

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3440 

3496 

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5083 

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3930 

3930 

3960 

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2280 

2130 

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4335 

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2714 

27.45 

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640 

6 JU 

485 

645 

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70S 

7680 

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76.15 


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dOM 

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1350 

1410 

295 

2/6 

280 

3950 

3900 

3920 

1390 

1340 

1200 

1510 

1400 

1480 

458 

400 

445 

13200 

12900 

13100 

704 

663 

703 

446 

439 

445 

248 

238 

244 

555 

550 

5S5 

142 

131 

139 

1640 

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1620 

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29 223 220 
18AM 18930 18630 

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40 464 463 

I2fc0 129 129 

19 12450 122 

360 340 340 

4860 4870 JUQ 



Prices as at 3 DO PM Now York ante. 


Jan.1. 1882= TOO _ 

. Latral_ 

Change 

.. .91 change 

year to date 
%chonga 

World Index 

171.83 

+ 294 

+ 1.74 

+ 15^1 

Ftegtonal bidwcM 

Asb/PadOc 

100^1 

+ 122 

+ 1.33 

-1851 

Europe 

189.61 

+ 294 

+ 157 

+ 17.E 

N. America 

21655 

+ 4.44 

+ 209 

+ 3354 

S. America 

14K36 

+ 291 

- +203 

+ 27.90 

Industrial Maxes 

Capital goods 

219.18 

+ 4.01 

+ 156 

+ 2854 

Consumer goads 

206.11 

+4.36 

+ 216 

+ 27.68 

Energy 

192^8 

+ 0R6 

+ 045 

+ 13.05 

Finance 

120.68 

+ 240 

+ 203 

+ 3.62 

MacallanaouB 

15522 

+ 232 

+ 152 

-4.04 

Raw Materials 

16954 . 

+ 252 

+ 151 

— 3.10 

Service 

17128 

+ 259 

+ 153 

+ 25.17 

UOUob 

163.70 

f203 

+ 126 

+ 14.11 


The International Harakl Tribune Wortd Stock Index O tracks the U.S. rioter value 
ot SBOIntamatianaByknieatabla stocks from 25 countries. Far mam Information, 
a Am booklet to available by mlUig to TheTrib Index, 101 Avenue Charles da 
Gaute. 82321 Notify Codex. Franca. Oompted by Bbatrimrg News. 


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378 3S3 366 

7880 7700 7730 

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929 903 929 

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8940 8770 8830 

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1750 1720 1740 

1260 1180 1250 

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433 

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430 

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820 

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1116 

21350 

550 

7010 

3970 

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2326 

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1800 

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■aii-Mfi/i 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 

ASIAVPACIFIC 


PAGE 19 


Restructuring in Japan: The Good, the Bad and Ugly 




By Sandra Sugawara 

Was&nfiton Post Service 

"T’Th* ^<*8 of economic de- 
regulation and restructuring are making their 
marie on Japan. 

Ontheposhive side, there was evidence here 
Mon °**y economic upheaval can add or 

aive jobs -— . glrfa y ig h from unlikely sources. 

tlectronic^Data Systems Carp., the Amer- 
ican rafonnation-systems company, said it 
would hire tiie entire 600-person work force of 
me mionautoa-systems subsidiary ofYamai- 
ctu [Secorittts Co., which collapsed last week. 

Hughes Electronic Corp. ’s DirecTV, which 
was able to-Iaunch its satellite-television ser- 
vice here -Monday after the government 
opened die business to foreigners, has hired 
f |r 250 employees in Japan. 

“Yamaichi approached us first,” Yoshio 
- Masuda, a spokesman for Electronic Data 
Systems Ltd., a wholly owned unit of the U.S. 
parent company, told Bloomberg News. “We 


agreed to hire them because Yamaichi em- 
ployees are considered top-notch workers.” 

EDS, whose move will raise die number of 
staff here to 1.000, hired Yamaichi employees 
because “we offer high-quality services.” 
said Hiroshi Suoato, a Yamaichi spokesman,' 
Bloomberg repealed. 

But perhaps the more telling tale about the 
Japanese labor market is found at die “re- 
structuring” hot line, operated by the Japan 
Labor Lawyers Organization twice a year. 
Here is where the newly job-impaired vent 
their frustration. 

Last week, the phones rang incessantly at 
the hot line. The callers were dealing with a 
phenomenon well known in the West but only 
now seeping into the Japanese consciousness 
— restructuring, layoffs, and pay cuts. 

A 60-year-old man told of how his bonus 
had been cut by $6,300. When he complained, 
he was told he had been demoted. A woman, 
who was dismissed after 24 years with a hotel, 
said that she received no severance pay be- 


cause the company had mishandled her sev- 
erance money. 

One man said bis original employer, a con- 
struction co m p any, had “lent” him to another 
company 17 years ago. The second company 
went bankrupt this year. He was shinned when 
his first employer told him the move had ac- 
tually been a transfer, meaning he had no job. 

“If businesses are losing money, it is dif- 
ficult for them” to continue a practice thar 
was developed daring a period of high 
growth, a Japanese executive said. 

Many economists predict these, kinds of 
problems will grow more severe in coming 
months. 

“The worst is yet to come,” said Andrew 
Shipley, a Tokyo-based economist with Sch- 
roders Japan Ltd. 

Under Japanese labor laws, companies must 
pass a number of hurdles to lay people off. But 
if a company can prove it cannot survive 
without layoffs, they can be done legally. 

More bankruptcies are expected in die fi- 


nancial sector. That means weaker customers, 
like construction companies, will see their 
credit lines cut off. resulting in more business 
failures. 

Government public-works spending k be- 
ing reduced, which will also hurt Japan’s thou- 
sands of construction companies. Mr. Shipley 
also expects layoffs in the manufacturing sec- 
tor, which will be * hurt by a slowdown in 
domestic demand and exports to Asia. . 

The unemployment rate in Japan is 3-5 
percent, lowby Western standards but a re- 
cord high for Japan. “We predict the un- 
employment rate will rise steadily toclosc to 4 
percent” said Kenji Yumoto, an economist 
with the Japan Research Institute, a private 
research organization. 

Mfiribiro Matsnoka, an economist with 
Daiwa Institute of Research, predicted that the 
unemployment rate could rise above4 percent 
by the end of 1998. 

Special correspondent Akiko Kashiwagi 
contributed to this report . 


2150 — — '-'21=M — - 

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? JA’S.O M s O N D ■ 

|t 1997 i I** 7 


i- 

few"? V’*'. .* 


Finance One’s Creditors Seek 
To Block Takeover of Thai Firm 

Bloomberg News 

BANGKOK — A group made up of most of Finance 
One PCL’s senior creditors said Monday that they would 
rather take over the insolvent Thai leader themselves than 
see Credit Suisse First Boston, another big foreign cred- 
itor, boy it in a debt-for-equity swap. 

The senior creditors’ group and the investment bank 
have submitted restructuring plans for Finance One to a 


government agency, which will announce next Monday the 
fate of 58 insolvent lenders. Finance One was shut June 27 
in the first of closures linked to the Asian financial crisis. 

The creditors’ plan “provides for a properly cap- 
italized and managed company in which profits are 
retained wi thin the company,” the group saicL 
The plan calls for the lenders to become the owners of 
Finance One. They would appoint new management to 
manage a smaller Finance One, after most of its assets 
were sold, said Jan Cherim, general manager in Thailand 
of Internationale Nederlanden Bank NV. a creditor. 

Credit Suisse First Boson’s plan calls for it to pay off 
all creditors . to take sole ownership, a company vice 
president said, without saying how much it would pay. - 


Hong Kong Is Rated Most-Free Market 


Souroe: T&Blairs 


- *2,23 

' . V 395 : 47;>7 

- ■ -3.60 

y ; Vy !!' l ‘' * .'■ * ^ lYiVif - m i ( bm.'i * i ■ — 

ask 

Inbrnuorwul Herald Tnhonc 


CamMb Ow SuffFmm DUpachn 

HONG KONG — Hong Kong was 
voted the freest economy in the world by 
a U.S. research group on Monday, but 
the ranking came with a warning that it 
could slip if China tinkered with the 
territory’s policies. 

The 1998 Index of Economic Free- 
dom, compiled by the Heritage Foun- 
dation, a conservative group in Wash- 
ington, and by the Wall Street Journal, put 
Hong Kong in the top spot fa- the fourth 
year in a row, five months after the ter- 
ritory became part of communist China. 

“Economic f re e d o m in Hong Kong is 
tiie highest in the world largely because 
of the limited role of government in the 
territory to do good or ill, regardless of 
whether sovereignty resides in London 
or Beijing,” the annual report said. 

The -former British colony was fol- 
lowed by Singapore, Bahrain, New Zea- 


land and the United Stales and Switzer- 
land, which tied for fifth place. 

The study rates the freedom of na- 
tional economies on a scale of 1 to 5 in 
several categories: trade, tax, monetary 
and banking policy; government inter- 
vention in the economy; capital flows 
and foreign investment; wage and price 
controls; property rights; regulation; and 
the size of the black market 
Countries were classified into four cat- 
egories according to their average score: 
free, mostly . free, mostly unfree and 
repressed. China, which placed 120th, 
fell into the “mostly unfree” category. 

North Korea, Laos and Cuba bad the 
world’s least-free economies, all scoring 
5 on die analysts’ scale. 

Hong Kong’s chief executive, Tung 
Chee-hwa, who was appointed by Beijing 
when Britain handed back die territory to 
China on July 1, welcomed the report 


Mr. Tung said Hong Kong would 
maintain freedom in trade and sharpen 
die economy’s competitive edge. He 
said the study recognized that the ter- 
ritory’s economic structure had re- 
mained unchanged after the handover. 

“Our economy is as vibrant as ever 
and we are as committed to free trade as 
before,” Mr. Tung said. 

But the Heritage Foundation's China 
policy analyst, Stephen Yates, said thar 
any tinkering with Hong Kong’s polit- 
ical or economic workings could affect 
the territory’s future rankings. 

“The purpose of the index is not to 
measure the political freedom, it is to 
measure economic freedom absent of 
this political influence.” Mr. Yates said. 
“But I think all of us would admit that in 
theory and in practice it’s impossible to 
completely separate politics from eco- 
nomics.” (Reuters, APJ 


Very briefly; 

• Japan’s domestic car sales in November fell 23.5 percent 
from a year earlier to 388^247 units, the biggest drop in more 
than two decades. 

• Japan said its forei gn -exchange reserves in November rose 
$235 million from October, to a record $228.39 billion, the 
58th increase in the past 61 months. 

• Hyundai Motor Co^ South' Korea's largest vehicle pro- 
ducer, said its sales in November bad fallen 13.7 percent to 
1 12,297 units, compared with a year earlier, Daewoo Motor 
Co.’s sales fell 9.7 percent to 74.931 units while Kia Motors 
Corp.’s fell 40.3 percent to 46,221 units. 

• Electrolux Foodservice, a. unit of the Swedish appliance 
maker Electrolux AB, said it wonld set up a base in India for 
making dish washers, ovens and bakery equipment" 

• Vietcombank, Vietnam’s state-owned commercial bank, 

said its deputy director, Bui The Uong, had been arrested and 
im pri soned on charges’ of allowing companies to rack up bad 
loans of several milli on dollars. Bloomberg. Reuters 


Tokyo Pledges Financial Stability 


CmyCultnOnr Staff Fran Dnpaaka 

TOKYO — Prime Minister Ryu taro Ha- 
s him oto said Monday he would do “anything 
necessary” to ensure the stability of Japan's 
financial system, adding that the top priority 
should be to protect depositors. 

His comments gave a lift to the stock mar- 
ket, taking the Nikkei 225 stock index 22 
percent higher, to 17,007.59. 

But analysts warned that deep worries about 
the overall economy would linger, even if a 
plan to shore up the banking system was de- 
vised Rpn Bevacqua, an economist at Merrill 
Lynch, said that once a plan had been devised, 
Japan would face problems in the “real'’ econ- 
omy. “And there the key will be whether all 
this financial turmoil will have a major impact 
on consumption.” he added 

The use of public funds to help the financial 


sector became a political taboo after a huge 
outcry greeted a decision last year to use tax 
money to dose failed mortgage companies. 
But a consensus to use public funds to 








iimi 


“The financial system is the foundation of 
the economy, and to ensure stability we will 
take every possible measure,” Mr. Hashi- 
moto told Parliament on Monday. 

But analysts said politicians from the gov- 
eming Liberal Democratic Party still needed 
to outline what sort of public funds wonld be 
used, and to what end 

“The market must understand that public 
funds are only going to be used as a last resort 
and not broadly and preemptively,” Mr. Be- 
vacqua said ( Reuters . Bloomberg) 








INTERNET: Is On-Line Shopping Taking Off? 


Continued from Page 15 

bers are window-shopping 
on-line,’ ’ but only 1 2 percent 
have made a purchase, said 
Wendy Brown, vice president 
for electronic commerce at 
America Online Inc., which 
offers links to dozens of mer- 
chants that collectively are 
making one million sales a 
month. “Our job this holiday 
is to convert more shoppers to 
buyers.” 

Even without a lift from 
holiday sales, the Internet is 
rapidly growing important to 
certain businesses. Already, 2 
percent to 3 percent of the 
computer hardware in the 
a country is purchased on-line, 
^ Forrester Research estimates. 
Dell Computer Corp., a pi- 
oneer, is selling more than $3 
million worth of personal 
computers a day on its World 
Wide Wpb site, triple the pace 
of eight months ago. 

But on-line shopping is 
rapidly moving beyond the 
obvious appeal of computer 
products. The next biggest 
sellers are airline tickets, 
books and music and gift 
items. Tenpercent of the sales 
of 1 -800-Rowers, the florist 
service, have been on-line 
this year. 

Though some of the initial 
department store efforts to 
sell fashion on-line have been 


flops, some merchants are 
finding that they can tap into 
the same market that buys 
clothes from catalogues. 

“The malls are getting more 
and more crowded,” said 
Robert Fisher, president of 
Gap Inc.’, which started selling 
jeans and gifts on its Web site 
two weeks ago. “Customers 
will come on-line and find an 
easy place to shop.” 

The peak shopping hours 
are late morning to early af- 
ternoon, U.S. time, as buyers 
take advantage of the faster 
Internet access offered ■ on 
many office computers. But 
the Internet caters to night 
owls as well. Forty percent of 
the purchases on America 
Online occur after 9 P.M. 


finding a bargain. With lower 
operating costs, some compa- 
nies are offering significant 
discounts. Amazon.com Inc., 
the on-line bookseller, offers 
some titles at 40 percent off 
the list price. 

A series of searches con- 
ducted by the accounting firm 
Ernst & Young found that for 
90 percent of a basket of gifts 
— ranging from cordless 
drills to cameras to bunches 
of roses — the Internet offers 
better deals than traditional 
stores. 

Yet not everyone can find 


all those bargains. For many, 
on-line shopping is filled with 
all die exasperation that ac- 
companies many of the other 
highly promoted and imper- 
fectly realized features of the 
Internet The most frequent 
complaint from on-line shop- 
pas is that finding and buying 
tilings is slow and complex. 

“Speed is die name of the 
game,” said. Scot Meiland, 
who runs die Net Market In- 
ternet shopping mall for CUC 
International Inc., the con- 
sumer-services company. 
CUC is releasing a new ver- 
sion of the site that removes 
some of the initial fancy fea- 
tures, such as moving mes- 
sages, that slowed shopping. 

Mainstream merchants 
were reluctant to move onto 
the Internet, especially after a 
decade of experiments with 
home shopping and early on- 
line services that proved to be 
expensive flops. But the most 
recent batch of Internet start- 
ups has caught the attention of 
the big chains. 

The largest U.S. retailer. 
Wal-Mart Stores Inc., is rep- 
licating its endless aisles with 
a Web store selling every- 
thing from computers to com 
flakes. 

Sears. Roebuck St Co. is 
going more slowly, starting 
with a site to sell just its 
Craftsman line of tools. 


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■ v.- . > • ? ■ . 

I & 

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ESTRELLA DE ESTEPONA S.A. 

of Erie Otter of Shares oftite Company ESTTREL1A DE ESTEPONA, SA 


ESTREUA DE 
: offer of their 


Notice fe hereby pubtidy given that the shsiefroldets oT trading company ESTRELLA DE 
ESTEPONA, SA, founded according to Spanish regulations, have agreed to the offer of their 
shares, the company’s legal and financial records, presently in the hands of Attesting Notary, Don 
Juan Jose Suarez Losada, Avenkfe Diagonal, n° 458, T Pfcuita, 08006 Barcelona, Spain, Bang 
placed? the disposal of any interested third parry. 

The amount of fifty thousand pesetas (50,000 pis) shall he required in payment for the obtention 
of said legal and financed records. 

The conditbns of said shares offer are laid down in the legal and financial records. 

ACTIVITY OF THE COMPANY: Tourist promotion of construction located in Etepona INtiiaga- 
Spain) 

DATE OF SHARES OFFER- The forthcoming session of the shares offer shaH be held on the tenth 
of December, 1997 at 1200 p.m., in the registered offices of the abovwnentioned Attesting Notay, 
amended by ail bodies, indirauai ex corporate, present and interested in said acquisition. 

SECURITY DEPOSIT: Ail those interested in foe acquisition of said shares shall be required to 
depost foe sura of fifteen million pesetas (15,000,000 pis) at foe registered offices of the Attesting 
Notary. 

MINIMUM PRICE The minimum starting price for foe shares offer shall be three hundred million 
pesetas ( 300 ^ 00,000 

Barcelona, 27 October 1997. D.JonU Catius Uorca, .Attorney. 




On 1st December, 1997 
we are changing our name. 

A new identity to reflect that our shareholders 
are two major European banks: 

BANQUE NATIONALE DE PARIS 
and DRESDNER BANK. 

Our constant aim is to serve our clients with the highest level 
of expertise in international trade finance and 
the best Swiss tradition of private client asset management, 
combined with the unique backing of two major 
international groups. 


u 


UNITED EUROPEAN BANK 

Subsidiary of Banque Nationale de Paris and Dresdner Bank Groups ■ 

QuaJ ties Bwgues 11 - RO. Box - 1211 Geneva 1 - Switzerland - Telephone: (+41 22)908 21 11 - Telefax: (+41 22)73230 02 
GENEVA • LUGANO - ZURICH • MONTEVIDEO • NICOSIA ■ SAQ FftULO - LUXEMBOURG - MONACO • NASSAU 



^ iyo \ 






















































































i-JZ> 




PACE 21'* 



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Sports 


PAGE 22 


TUESDAY DECEMBER 2, 1997 


4$ 


ear i« 


World Roundup 


Jordan Is Richest 


Michael Jordan rej 
spot on the list of 


ained the top 
on cne ust or the world's 
richest athletes, displacing Mike 
Tyson and grabbing the No. 1 spot 
. for the fifth time in six years. 

Jordan will earn $78.3 million in 
1997, Forbes magazine estimated, 
! getting S3 1.3 million from the 
Chicago Bulls and $47 millio n from 
endorsements and other income. 

Forbes put the heavyweight 
champion Evander Holyfield 
second, at $54.3 million. He earned 
$53 million in prize money and 
$13 million in endorsements. 

Another boxer, Oscar De La 
Hoya, was third with $38 million, 
followed by the Formula One driver 
Michael Schumacher ($35 millioa), 
Tyson ($27 million) and the golfer 
Tiger Woods ($26.1 million). 

Eleven NBA players are in the 
top 40, up from nine last year. 
There are seven baseball players 
(up from five), seven boxers, roar 
golfers, three NHL players, three 
tennis players, three race car 
drivers and two NFL players. 

Arnold Palmer, at 68 the oldest 
on the list, was 12th at $16.1 mil- 
lion, but with just $ 100,000 in golf 
winnings. Pete Sampras was the 
best-paid tennis player and 15th on 
the list, with $143 million. (AP) 


Nagano Compromise 
Moves Downhill Up 



l¥"- 


Austrian Is a Yugoslav 


The Associated Press 

TOKYO — It may well have been the 
hardest fought 85 meters in the history 

of Olympic competition. 

After a five-year battle over whereto 
start the men’s downhill, organizers of 
the Nagano Winter Olympics an- 
nounced Monday that they were finally 
. ready to back down — or up. in this case. 
Although maybe not as far as the gov- 
erning body of world skiing had hoped 

Under a plan announced after a meet- 
ing of the Nagano games* top executives, 
the starting point of the downhill course 
on Mount Karamatsu, a rugged peak in 
the central Japan Alps, will be raised to 
an altitude of 1,765 meters (5,825 feet). 

"I think we have not just a good 
course, but a very good course,” said 
YoshiaJri Tsutsumi, a member of the or- 
ganizing committee’s executive paneL 

Organizers had originally set the start 
at 1,680 meters. That would have been 
the shortest downhill in Olympic his- 
tory, a prospect that did not sit well with 
the International Ski Federation, or FIS, 
which wanted the start at 1,800 meters. 

Nagano organizers said they could not 
change the course because they did not 
want to infringe on land protected under 
national park zoning laws. But the com- 
mittee's refusal to seriously consider sev- 
eral compromise proposals offered by the 


ski JUMPING Andrea Goldber- 
ger. who was suspended from the 
Austrian ski jumping team after he 
admitted he once used cocaine in a 
Vienna disco, said he has become a 
citizen of Y ngoslavia and will com- 
pete for his adopted country. 

The three-time World Cap cham- 
pion had been seeking a license to 
compete since May, when the Aus- 
trian- Ski Federation fined him and 
suspended him until October. In 
response, be quit the team. 


FIS was increasingly seen by the general 
s.TlieFIS 


public as mere orneriness, me MS poin- 
ted out that hundreds of thousands of 
recreational skiers use the same area. 

As muds tinging on both sides in- 


creased, organizers decided last month 
dial they had no choice but to give in. 

"This is a sports event, so we must 
cake the opinion of sports experts into 
account,” said Makoto Kobayashi. sec- 
retary-general of the organizing com- 
mittee and — until Monday — a staunch 
opponent of raising the start 
The course crosses national park land 
twice, but Kobayashi said compromises 
had been made oq both sides and "from 
the environmental perspective, I think 
this is the best plan we could have.*’ 
The higher start re mains outside the 
national pork zones, as does all but one- 
sixteenth of the course itself. A jump 
made of snow will keep skiers airborne 
over some of the restricted area. 

During the Olympics, no spectators 
will be allowed above the 1,680-meter 
mark, and if there is not enough suow to 
protect rare local flora, the start will be 
brought to the original 1,680 meters. 

Gian Franco Kasper, head of die FIS, 
said the move was a* ‘good improvement 
in the quality of the downhill” 

"It may not be as long as we wanted, 
Mr. Kasper said, “but it should add 15 
or 16 seconds and a new jump where the 
old starting- line was.” 

Environmental groups expressed out- 
rage at the compromise. The decision 
“was like declaring to the world dial the 
Nagano games are throwing away their 
principle of coexistence with nature,” 
said Y ulrio Murata, a spokesman for the 
World Wildlife Fund fra- Nature, ac- 
cording to the Kyodo news agency. 



I* 






i 


■fTTS 


The New Zealand batsman Roger Twose, grounded after being run out for 2 on Monday against Australia. 


Kiwi Tailenders Hold On Against Aussies 


■■'t 1 1 
-V. i: 

• fi 

I 

tv* 


7 Late Birdies Turn Newcomer 
Into a Legend at Skins Game 


Holdout Makes U.S. Team 


ice hockey Bill Guerin, whose 
initial absence from the U.S. 
Olympic team prompted boycott 
" by some players, was among the 


final six players added to the squad 
farther 


Monday fra the Nagano Games! 

Lou Lamoriello, the U.S. team 
general manager, also chose veteran 
Pat Lafontaine, Shawn McEachem 
of the Ottawa Senators, Keith Car- 
ney of die Chicago Blackhawks, 
Bryan Berard of the New Yoik Is- 
landers and goalie Guy Hebert of 
the Anaheim Mighty Ducks. 

When Lamoriello announced the 
first 17 team members, Guerin and 
was a notable absentee. He was 
involved in a contract dispute with 
the New Jersey Devils, whose gen- 
eral manager is Lamoriello. (AP) 


Los Angeles Times Service 

LA QUINTA, Calif ornia — Tom 
Lehman, who had never been in the 
Skins Game, played die last nine holes 
Sunday as if he had never been away. 

Le hman made seven birdies, shot a 29 
and finished with $300,000 in the golf 
competition. 

‘‘When I putt well, I pun like this," 
Lehman said. “Unfortunately, l don’t 
do it all that often.” 

Mark O’Meara, who sank a four-foot 
pud to win the last bole and make 
$100,000, finished with a total of 
$240,000. 

Tiger Woods had $60,000 and David 
Duval was blanked. 

Lehman won three consecutive skins 
to set a record, bizdied a record five 
consecutive holes and finished with 10 
birdies in two days, another record. 

Woods had several chances to inhibit 
Lehman’s success, but couldn’t get a 

{ lutt to fall. Lehman had no such prob- 
em. 

“Hie guy went berserk out on. us," 
Woods said. 



RcKiik DjanerzunflTic -twd ftui 

Tom Lehman kissing putter that 
brought him Skins Game victory. 


Lehman won $60,000 with an eight- 
footer at the 1 1th, then won $30,000 at 
die 12th with a five-footer, $40,000 at 
the I3th with a nine-footer and $40,000 
at the 17th with a seven-footer. 


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CimpdedbyOir Staff From Mpacbat 

Simon Do nil and Shayne O'Connor, two tailend bats- 
men, defied Shane Warne, the Australian spin bowler, and 
the paceman Paul Reiffel fra 38 minutes on Monday to earn 
New Zealand a draw in the third and last test in-Hobart, 
Tasmania. 

Don 11 and O’Connor, both picked for their bowling 
rather than their batting, survived 10.4 oveis of vicious leg 
spin from and hostile fast bowling from Reiffel to take New 


Zealand to 223 runs fra nine wickets at stumps. Australia, 
which had won the first two tests, won the series. 

Australia had declared at 138 for two wickets to set New 
Zealand a target of 288 runs for victory. Warne took five 
wickets for 88 runs as New Zealand collapsed. 

•In Rawalpindi, Pakistan, Inzamam-ul-Haq made 169 
not ont and Aamir Sohail hit 160. as Pakistan reached 403 
runs for three wickets on the first day of the second test 
against the West Indies. 


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Ravanelli Falls Out of Love With France 


Reuters 

Fabrizio Ravanelli says that he is 
being victimized by French referees and 
the media and that lie is already thinking 
of leaving Olympique Marseille. 

The Italian international said on a 
chat show on Sunday night that he was 
thinking of leaving, saying- he was un- 
happy with die referee in the previous 
day’s game at Nantes, which Marseille 
lost l-O. 

‘*L’ Affair Ravanelli” began when he 
won a dubious penalty that gave Mar- 
seille victory at Paris Sl Germain three 
weeks ago. - 

Ravandli joined Marseille in Septem- 
ber from Middlesbrough and helped it, 

briefly, to the top of the s tandings . 

In Nantes, he gesticulated toward the 
press box when a goal was disallowed 
for offside. He protested every time he 
was whistled by the referee. 

Ravanelli said: “The referee’s beha- 
vior was not professional. Everyone saw 
it After the match in Paris, the refereeing 
on me has been catastrophic. This is 
getting too hard frame here. If it’s like 
this, it proves French football is tittle.” 
He blamed Canal Plus, the cable station 
that also owns Paris SL Germain. 

Xavier. Gravelaine, Ravanelli ’s at- 
tacking partner, said: “The referee did 
not stop showing us up. The plot has 
been well orchestrated. Paris must be 
happy. Canal Plus, too.” 

Rolland Courbis, the Marseille coach, 
said “This evening I discovered an ex- 
tremely serious problem. I ask myself if 
I’m not going to have to transfer Ravan- 


elli at the end of the year. Everywhere he 
is considered a cheat There were de- 
cisions against him that are 
Indirectly, we're losing RavaniellL 
who had become our strong point these 
last weeks is now a problem. ” 

Germany Ulf Kirsten scored a hat- 
trick, including two goals in the final 


Wont Soccii 


minute to give 10-man Bayer Lever- 
kusen a 4-2 home victory over Bayern 
Munich in the Btmdesliga on Sunday. 

Bayern took a 2-0 lead after25 minutes 
and Christian Woems, a Leverkusen de- 
fender was sent off after 37 minutes for 
bringing down Carsten Jancker. 

Jan Heintze scored for Bayer seconds 
before the break, and Kirsten equalized 
in the 69th minute and added two more 
goals in the last seconds. 

Spain The Spanish first and second 
division referees’ struck over the week- 
end to protest abuse the said they were 
receiving in the media from players and 
club officials. But by -common con- 
sensus, their third division, replacements 
filled in admirably. 

- Players and.ctab officials had agreed 
not to commernon the referees, but there 
were few controversial incidents. Sev- 
eral crowds gave the referees ovations. 

“He’s a first, a first division ref- 
eree,” Valladolid fans sang to an em- 
barrassed official after its 3-0 victory 
over Athletic Bilbao. 

Italy Juventns striker Nicola Amor- 
oso broke his leg in the 1-1 draw with 


AC Milan on Sunday. Amoroso was hurt 
in a tackle with Alessandro Costacurta. 
His replacement. Filippo Iazaghi, 

. scored as Amoroso was being carried 
.out of die stadium. Milan goalkeeper 
Massimo Taibi, racing out to grab the 
ball, suddenly realized he was outside 
the penalty area and chested the ball into 
Inzaghi’s path. Milan had taken the lead 
when Giro Ferrara scored an own goaL 
Argentina A match involving 
champion River Plate was abandoned 
because fans who had climbed the fence 
around the field refused to get down. , 

' River Plate was leading, 2-0, at Estii- 
diantes when the match was stopped by 
referee Javier Castrilli, who three weeks 
ago called off a game involving River’s.- 
arch-rivals Boca Juniors al Rosario 
when stones rained onto the field. 

Boca, which beat Huracan, 2-1, is 
atop the table but River will regain the 
lead if it is awarded the three points from 
the. game against Estudiantes. 

brazil Four players were sent off and: 

16 booked as Intemacional beat Santos-, 
in the Brazilian championship, 4-1.. 

Two players were sent off after less- 
than two minutes. Santos' fullback An- 
derson. was dismissed for a two-footed 
challenge on Luciano, who received a 
fed card fra retaliation. 

Santos finished with eight men. Sub- 
stitute Rogerio Ceves was dismissed for- 
a handball leading to a penalty, and a 
defender for two yellow card offenses. 

Santos was also awarded two penalties 
and Scored from tire second in the 84th ^ 


i -3R- 



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Rangers Shoot More, but Tie Panthers, 1-1 


The Associated Press 

The New York Rangers, who have 
had a habit this season of allowing vis- 
iting teams to take the early lead at 
Madison Square Garden, finally outshot 
someone over the first 20 minutes. Un- 
fortunately they did not outscore them. 

The Rangers made a special effort to 
start strongly against Florida on Son- 
day. They outshot the Panthers over the 
first 20 minutes, 14-7, but Florida 
scored first and held for a 1-1 draw. 

The Rangers let a foe score first for 
the 13th time in 14 home games when 
Tom Fitzgerald connected for Florida 
from the slot at 1:47 of the first period. 


But the home team responded quickly 
on a goal by Alexei Kovalev, with the 
Rangers on a power play, ripping a slap 
shot past John Vanbiesbrouck.' 

It was Kovalev's sixth goal in the last 
1 0 games after going without a goal over 


NHL Roundup 


the first 18. It was also his 10th point in 
the 10-game span. 

Although the Rangers shooting op- 
portunities dried up later in the game, 
Vanbiesbronck dia make 26 saves. 

Mike Richter, the Rangers' goalie, 
did his best work late. With less than 


three minutes to go in regulation, he 
thwarted Johan Garpenlov. Then he 
stopped a three-shot blitz by Steve 
Washburn in overtime. 

That preserved the Rangers' league- 
leading ninth tie, but also left them 
winless in five games. The low score 
was indicative of the season for the 
Rangers, whose 70 goals in their first 27 
games tied them with two other teams /- 
fra 14th in the NHL before Sunday. Wf 
oaani e. Shark* i Jason Aruott scored 
two goals and had an assist and Doug 
Weight had four assists for Edmonton 
leading the Oilers to just their fourth 
victory in their last 13 home games. ' 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 


PAGE 23 


SPORTS 


j All tlear in the West, 
l Muddled Back East 

! NFL Playoff Races Begin to Take Shape 


The Associated Press 

San Francisco already was in die 
playoffs and now has a bye, too. Denver 
joined in as a postseason qualifier, and 
Kansas Cityjsolidified its position as a 
contender, f ■ 

818 Wor ^* n S ou t nicely in the 
NrL s western divisions. But they are 
*»■ ® e ^.®i m0re further east. 

A while Denver’s victory Sunday night 

■ at San Diego handed the Broncos a 
wild-card berth at worst, die Chiefs’ 
rout of the 49ers kept them right on 
Denver’s heels in the AFC WestEven 
so, the 4903 were assured of having the 

NFL Roundup 

first round off when the playoffs begin 
later this month because the New York 
Giants lost to Tampa Bay. 

New York’s loss also tightened the 
race in the NFC East, althou gh the Gi- 
ants stayed on top. But Philadelphia's 
shoot-out win over Cincinnati lined it 
within a game .of New York and tied it 
with Washington, which fell at home to 
St Louis. 

; “We’re still "yi this thing ,” sa id 
#;■ Bobby Hoying, the Eagles ’ quarterback 
r. ■ who threw for four touchdowns in tally 
his third start “We still have a good 
chance at getting into the playoffs.” 

Even Dallas, a 27-14 loser to Ten- 
nessee on Thanksgiving Day, remains 
in that race. 

The AFC Bast is not any less un- 
certain. The Jets lost in Buffalo and 
dropped into a tie with Miami and New 
England in first place. 

In the NFC Central, Tampa Bay trails 
Green Bay by a half-game and leads 
Minnesota by that margin, ahead of the 
Packers- Vikings game Monday night in 
Minneapolis. 

Pittsburgh and Jacksonville' stayed 
tied in front of the AFC Central. The 
Steelers edged Arizona in overtime, 
while the Jaguars beat Baltimore. 

Both Tennessee and Detroit, which 
also won Thanksgiving Day , 55-20 over 


Scoreboard 


Chicago, are in the thick of ' the wild- 
card chases. 

Broncos 38, Chwvara 28 John Elway 
threw three TD passes, and the San 
Diego native Terrell Davis ran for 178 
yards and one touchdown. Davis re- 
gained the NFL rushing lead from Barry 
Sanders of Detroit, with 1,647 yards. 

The Chargers’ Eric Metcalf took the 
ball S3 yards to set an NFL record with 
his ninth career jftmt return for a touch- 
down. 

Huccuwwi 20 , ofant» a Tampa Bay 
broke a nine-game losing streak on the 
road a gains t New York teams. It also 
guaranteed its first winning season since 
1982. Mike Alstott scored twice, and 
Warrick Dunn ran for 120 yards and set 
up two TDs for the Bucs, who can clinch 
a playoff berth for die first time in 15 
years with one victory in the three re- 
maining games. 

44, Bansafa 42 In Philadelphia, 
Bobby Hoying guided the Eagles 61 
yards in the final moments to set up Chris 
Boniol’s 31-yard game-winning field 
goal Hoying finished 26-of-42 fin: 313 
yards. 

Rams 23, Hadrians 20 St. Louis ended 
an eight-game slide as Jerald Moore and 
Amp Lee, replacing die released 
Lawrence Phillips, each scored. 

ms 20 , jats io New York's playoff 
express hit a roadblock as three starters 
— the tackles David Williams and Jum- 
bo Elliott and the comerback Aaron . 
Glenn — were lost to injuries. Host 
Buffalo won its sixth straight against the 
Jets as Todd Collins and Lonnie John- 
son combined on a 62-yard fourth- 
quarter touchdown. 

Dolphin* 34, Rridors 16 Miami 

showed balance on offense and got a big 
play on defense against the Raiders, who 
were eliminated from playoff contention 
for the fourth straight year. Bob Marino 
threw scoring passes of 44 and 8 yards to 
Charles Jordan, and Karim Abdul- Jab- 
bar rushed for 85 yards and a TD. 

Staalim 26 , CmiKnri* 20 Pittsburgh 
won when Jerome Bettis ran 10 yards for 



Soaring Hawks Top Off 


Chutn KpiSTbr Atmtanl fft™ 

The Bills* Sean Moran intercepting a pass Grom the Jets’ Neil O’Donnell. 


a touchdown 5:34 into overtime. It was 
his third touchdown of the game. He also 
gained 142 yards on 36 carries. Pitt*- 
buigh had 10 sacks. 

Jake Plummer threw fat 270 yards 
and two touchdowns for host Arizona. 

Jiaww 29* Rawm 27 Jacksonville 
woo its 13th straight home game as 
Mark Brunei! threw for 317 yards and a 
touchdown. 

Falcons 24, SeaKawk* 17 In Seattle. 
Atlanta won its third in a row as rookie 
Byron Hanspard returned a kickoff 93 
yards for a touchdown and the winning 
points. 

tsmiii is, Pu t hws is The Saints 
scored 13 points off turnovers. A 45- 
yard field goal with five seconds left by 
Doug Brien, his third of die game, beat 
host Carolina. 


In games reported in late editions 
Monday: 

Chiefs 44, 49ors 9 Kansas City 
handed San Francisco its worst defeat in 
die regular season since a 59-14 font by 
Dallas in 1980. It also snapped an 11- 
game winning streak for the visitors as 
Steve Young was sacked five times and 
Garrison Hearst, who went over 1,000 
yards nuhipg for the year, was lost for 
4-6 weeks with a broken collarbone. 

Patriots 20 , Colts 17 Drew Bledsoe, 
the New England quarterback who had 
gone two games without a touchdown 
pass, threw a 3-yard TD pass to Sam 
Gasb and an 18-yarder to Troy Brown. 
The Patriots needed a fumble recovery 
and Dave Meggett’s 47-yard punt return 
to set up their two touchdowns and beat 
hapless Indianapolis. 


The Associated Press 

The firstfnll month of the National 
Basketball Association season is over, 
and what a difference a year has - made. 

Instead of everyone looking up at the 
Chicago Bulls, everyone is looking 
around at the change in the landscape. 

Theteams with die two best records, 
the Atlanta Hawks and the Los Angeles 

NBA Roundup 

Lakers, finished the month with some 
flair on Sunday mght-The Hawks ended 
die best November in franchise history 
with a victory over the San Antonio 
Spurs, while die Lakers dispatched the 
Toronto Raptors, the team with the 
league’s worst record- . 

The Lakers, who played their fifth 
straight game without the injured center 
Shaquille O’Neal, have been in first 
place in the Pacific Division throughout 
' the 31 -day-old season. But their strong 
start hasn’t given them as much breath- 
ing room as they might have expected. 
Larking a half-game back in the Pacific 
standings are the SuperSonics, who 
have quietly built a seven-game win- 
ning streak. 

TWo of the three other divisions are 
tight, too. New jereey’s victory at Sac- 
ramento moved the Nets into a three- 
way tie with New York and Miami atop, 
die A tlantic Division, while the Hous- 
ton Rockets and Utah Jazz are neck and . 
neck for the Midwest Division lead 

Hawk* 108 , Spm 96 The only team 
with a clear lead is Atlanta, which in- 
creased its Central Division lead to four 
games. Dikemh e Mutombo scored 22 
points and A tlan ta shot a season-high 57 
percent from the field to bear San Ant- 
onio one night after the Hawks routed 
the Charlotte Hornets by 18 points. 

Lsksrs 109, R ap to rs 96 Eddie Jones 
scored 11 of his 32 points in the first 
quarter as foe Lakers started fast before 
having to hold off the visiting Raptors.. 

, John Wallace led foe Raptors with 25 
points — foe fifth straight game he has 
scored 20 or more. 

SuperSonics 1 03, Magic 81 lo Seattle, 
Vin Baker scored ali 21 of his points in 


m 


foe- first half as the Sonics built a big 
early lead and foiled. ' 

N«ts 67 , Kings 73 In Sacramento, 
Kendall Gill scored 18 of bis 26 points 
■ in foe first half as foe Nets built an early 
lead and coasted. 

' Ghana* 97, Pistons 95 Vancouver 


hit a short running jumper vnm J.i 
seconds left to break a tie, and Shaieef 
Abdor-Rahim then fouled Grant Hill on 
the inbounds pass. But Hill missed foe 
first free throw, and no one could gain 
control after be intentionally missed foe 
second. _ . r 

- Pmri 101 , 76m* 89 Coach Lany 
Brown’s return to Indianapolis was a 
failure for his Philadelphia 76ers. Rik 
Sams had season highs of 25 points and ' 
five blocked shots, and Mark Jackson 
had a season-high 14 assists for Indiana, 
ft was Indiana’s sixth consecutive victory 
over Philadelphia, although Brown was 
on the Pacers* bench for foe first five. 

■ Jordan ‘Disappointed * by Pippen 

- Michael Jordan says Scottie Pippen 
owes his Chicago Bulls t eamm ate s on 
ex planati on for his trade demand. The 
Associated Press reported from Deer- 
field, Illinois. 

. “I’m very disappointed that he basn ’ t 
been able to pat aside his dealings with 
management, ” Jordan said. 

Pippen, claiming management has 
not respected him, went public last week 
with a demand to be traded. Pippen also 
has saidhe is underpaid with a salary of 
$2.7 million in foe final year of a deal he 
signed in 1991. Chosen as one of foe 50 
greatest players in NBA history, Pippen 
is 122d on tins year's salary list. 

He has missed foe first 16 games of 
the season while recovering from pre- 
season foot surgery. But be has said he 
will not play another game for foe Bulls, 
healthy or otherwise. 

Pippen should have announced that 
sooner. Jordan said. “It would have 
made a big difference in terms of me and 
a lot of outer players,” Jordan said. “I 
haven't really had a detailed conver- 
sation with him.” 


BASKETBALL 


NBA Stan dings 


usratM cunnKi 

ATLANTIC DOTSON 


Miami 
New York 
New Jersey 
Orlando 
Boston 
PhDadetoNa 
Washington , 
c 

Atlanta 1 

Charlotte 

Clevetond 

MBwaukee 

Indiana 

Chicago 

Detroit 

Toronto 


Pet GB 
M7 — 
Ml — 
Ml — 


10 , 6 635 


9 438 3ft 

9 .JOB.. S 
11 313 5ft 


CENTRAL DIVISION 

14 2 as 

9 S M3 4 

9 6 .400 4 

9 4 ZOO t 

8 6 571 S 

9 7 .563 5 

6 11 353 B 

I 15 JOBS >3 


M3 4 
MO 4 V, 

ZOO 4ft 
571 S 
-563 5 

353 8W 


wdioh coHmtma 

. MIDWEST DtVtSKJN 

W L Pd GB 
Houston B 5 «s - 

f -Utah 9 6 zoo — 


■Jan Antonio 

9 

7 

563 

Vi 

Minnesota 

7 

8 

447 

2 

Vancourer 

7 

11 

389 

3V4 

Dalas 

4 

11 

367 

5 

Denver 

1 12 

PAanCOtVBKM 

.077 

7 

LALaken 

13 

2 

367 

— 

Seattle 

13 

3 

513 

ft 

pnoenk 

9 

3 

-750 

2ft 

Porttand 

10 

S 

667 

3 

Sacramento 

S 

11 

313 

8ft 

LA. □topers 

2 

14 

.125 

lift 

Golden State 

1 

13 

371 

lift 


SUNDAY'S UKILTS 
PMntotoMa 18 15 24 32- 89 

Indtanfr 30 14 33 24—101 


P£taddiogw9-m-32I. Mfeathenpaon 7- 
144-9 1ft limits 10-16 5-6 2& MIDsr 6-1 02-2 
17. Rebounds— PldaMphta 44 
Wealerspoon 10), Indtono 47 (D-Dcvts 9). 
Assfsts-PtiBadetohta 18 {Iverson 7). 
Indiana 26 (MJadoon 14). 

San Antonie 11 27 22 29- 96 

Atlanta 26 34 29 19— 188 

5A: Robinson 7-169-13 23. Dunam 9-142- 
2 2ftAdMiriotnba 10-12 2-722 Loettner 7-84- 
5 18. Rebounds— Son Antonio 39 (Duncan 
Robtason 8). Atlanta 44 (Mutombo 11). 
Assists— 5 wi Antonia 21 (Johnson 7), 
Atlanta 30 (Btoytocfc 11). 

-Vancouver. 20 33, ,26 . 18- 97, 

Detroit 27 22 22 24- 95 

V: Abdur-Rahim 7-9 56 19. Reeves 5142- 
2 lft DS.Wifltams 11-174626, Hunter 8-16 
44 23-Be bo u nds V rmcnuver 35 (Thorpe 
10], Detroit 37 CB-Wlfflara 9). 
Anbts— Vancouver 30 (Maybeny D. Detroit 
20 (HUB). 

Monde 14 22 21 24- Si 

Seattle 22 26 29 25-103 

05 trang 6-93-4 15, Hardaway 4- 11 44 12 
S: Baton 10-18 1-2 21. Hrotdns 5-10 2-2 16 
Rebounds— Orlando 39 (Anderson 6), Seattle 
55 (Baker 9). Asrtrts— Orlando 25 (Price 7). 
Seattle 26 (Payton 9). 

New Jersey 22 2S 26 13— 87 

Sacramento 15 II If XI— 73 

NJ4 Gffl 12-21 0-0 24 Ktttas 8-11 2-2 1ft 
Sfittimond 5-12 56 14 Owens 5-7 3-7 13. 
Rebanads— New Jersey 67 (WDOams 131, 
Sacramento 58 (Owens 16). Assists— New 
Jersey 24 (Cosset ill, Sauun rente 19 
MAfamsurv Mens 4). 

Toronto 17 24 24 84— 99 

LA Lfdcsts 27 27 24 Z7-40S 

T: WaHace 11-17 34 25* RespertS-11 1-2 
2ft UV£Janes 12-15 58 32 Fan 6-9 56 17. 
Rebo u nds— Toronto 44 (P Jones 9). Las 
Anodes 44 (Hony, Blown 8). 
Assists— Taranto 27 (Stourkanire 11), Las 
Angeles 28 (Von Exd 10). 


ICE HOCKEY 


NHL Standings 


New Jersey 
PldtadeipNa 
Washington 
N.Y. tskmdeis 
N.Y. Ranger; 
Florida 
Tampa Bay 


ATLANTIC DIVISION 

W IT Pb 
17 8 0 34 
I 15 8 4 34 


Montreal 

Pittsburgh 

Boston 

Caroline 

Ottawa 

Bnffato 


n 13 10 4 30 

lets 11 11 4 26 

ns 8 11 9 25 

8 13 5 21 
f 4 17 4 12 

NORTHEAST OVBNM 
W L T Pit 
15 9 3 33 
14 9 5 33 

II 11 5 27 

10 13 4 24 
10 13 4 24 
7 12 5 19 


Murphy) 2. New YMt, Kovalev 6 
(Lo Fontaine, Graves) (pp). Second 
Period-No soaring. Third Period-No 
scoring. Ov ei f iis- No scoring. Shots on 90W: 
F- 7-9-11 -4— 31. New York 14*63-27. 
GccSss F-Vartotesbroock. New York, 

Rktrter. 

SaiJoso 1 0 ft— l 

Edmeaten 3 3 0-6 

FM Period: E-Amctt 4 (Weight 
Mandunenfl. 2, E-Kovalenko 1 (McQBs) ft 
SJ.-Slurm6(SfcaMe9 4 E-Murray 5 CSmyth, 
Weight! (pp). Second Period: E-Smyth 9 
(Weight- Arrxrtt) ft - E-McAmraond - 5- 
(Kowrietdia, Murray) 7, E-Amott 5 (Smyth, 
Weight] TNrd Period-No scoring. Shots on 
geofcSJ^ft-7-5— 20. E- 9-10-11— 30. Sanftts: 
SJ.-Hradey, Vernon. E -Joseph. 


MATT O# 

UK. 004 


BUN 

a 


Ml 

Pts 


CAST 




1. Michigan (69) 

11-0 

1.749 


W L T 

Pet 

PF PA 

2 Nebraska 0) 

11-0 

1680 

NX Hants 

7 5 

l 

577 

226 277 

XTemessee 

■ 10-1 

1574 

PHlatfetoftla 

6 6 

1 

500 

247 286 

'4 Florida St. 

10-1 

1531 

Washington 

6 6 .1 

500 

244 199 

5. UCLA 

9-2 

1385 

Dal Ns 

6 7 

0 

462 

260 240 

6, Florida 

9-2 


Arizona 

310 

0 

331 

216 288 

7. North Carolina 

10-1 

1304 


C&fTTUU. 



8. Washington St 

10-1 

1375 

Green Bay - 

9 3 

a 

350 

316 234 

9-OhfoSt 

10-2 

1338 

Tampa Bay 

9 i 

0 

692 

262 200 

7a Kansas 5k 

10-7 

L198 

Minnesota 

• 4 

0 

667 

274 262 

11. Auburn 

9-2 

1.001 

Detroit 

7 6 

O' 

'538 

322 250 

12 Penn St 

9-2 

990 

Chicago 

211 

0 

.154 

215 377 

11 Georgia 

9-2 

939 


. WEST. 


r • - . - ft-' 

„l4.TensA&M 

9-2 

816 

x-San Fronds® 

11 2 

0 

546 

304 193 

15. Syracuse 

9-3 

726 

Ccroflna 

6 7 

0 

462 

214 240 

16.LSU 

8-3 

656 

Aftopta 

S 8 

0 

385 

260 312 

17. Arizona St 

8-3 

568 

New Orleans 

S 8 

0 

385 

170 258 

18. Purdue 

8-3 

551 

5L Louis 

310 

0 

331 

225 301 

19.Mbsoud 

7-4 

448 


Cafarado 
Las Angeles 
Ann helm 
Erbnonten 
Vancouver 
San Jose 
Ccdgmy 


coithal orvmoei 
W L T PtS 
18 7 4 40 

17 6 4 38 

15 9 3 33 
12 11 2 26 

10 13 4 24 

8 13 3 19 

PACfiC DfVISJON 
W L T Pts 
13 6 8 34 
12 9 5 29 

11 12 5 27 

8 13 6 22 

9 14 3 21 
9 17 2 20 


FOOTBALL 


NFL Standings 


Florida 1 0 0 ft— 1 

N.Y. Ranger* 1 0 0 0-1 

First Period: F-FSzgetald S [Lindsay, 


New England 
Miami 
N.Y. Jets 
BufMo 
Indlancroafis 

PRIsUirgh i 

JadcmnviBe 

Tennessee 

BoWrnore 

□ndnaatl 

y-Oenver 
Kansas OTy 
Seattle 
SanDtogo 
Oakland 


EAST 

WLTPd. 
8 5 0 615 
B 5 0 615 

8 5 0 615 

6 7 0 462 
1 12 0 JJ77 

CENTRAL 

9 4 0 692 
9 4 0 692 

7 6 0 638 
4 8 1 346 
4 9 0 JOB 
WEST 

11 2 0 6*6 
10 3 0 Jtt 
6 7 0 462 
4 9 0 308 
4 9 0 308 


x-won (fivtston tttle 
y-dndied playoff berth. 

S 8 N DAT'S RUMJI 

Jadsonvile 29, BrdBmora 27 
PhBodeiptito 44, Ctoclnnctl 42 
Now England 2ft Hfanaptfi 17 
New (Moors 1ft Ccro8no T3 
Buffalo 2ft New York Jets 10 
SI. Leah 7X Washington 20 
Kansas City 44 San Ft o ndsco 9 
Aflonfcr 24 Seattle IT 
Miami 34 Oakland 16 
PRDbsrah 24 Arizona 2ft 0T . 

Tampa Bay 2ft New Ywfc Giants 8 
Oenver 3ft San Diego 2ft 

TheAP Top 25 

The Ibp Tvronty Five warns In The 
Aooootoied Note aritoge toaDell poB, wbh 
Bru-pton vows bi pw end wefts, records 
through Non 29, Intel points booed on 25 
points tor ■ first place vow ttrauNi ana 
point for ■ 26th piece vote and prevtoua 
rwddng: 


20. Cotorodo SL 9-2 395 20 

21. Mtehtogten 7-4 286 .21 

22. Southern Miss. 8-3 271 23 

21A)rForetf 10-2 192 24 

24.0kfcdwanSt 83 180 25 

2S. Michigan SL • 7-4 104 — 

Others receiving vtdes: Iowa 55, New Mwdco 
5Z Mtetoripp(45 Vbgtoto 42, Wtocenein 3S, 
Marstid 21 Loutelano Tedi 24 Cletwon TS, 
Notre Dome 14 Mbstaippi St Ift Arizona 4 
West Virginia X N. Carolina St. Z Virginia 
TadiX Miami, OMol, Oregon 1. - 


SOCCER 


Africa Champions Cup 

HNAUHRSTLEC 

GokBtolito. Ghana. 1, Rafe Morocat 0 


UtTKtd 1, Rada JC Kerftrade 0 
Sparta Rotterdron ft FeyaMard3 
Twetite EnadMdo 1, Vatendam 1 


Vtfoaw Amhero X PSV Ehdtrovan 2 
Graobdrop DoaBnctwm X NEC NRmegan 2 
WBem H TBbuigZ MAC BredoO 
AJ« Amsterdam X Fartuna Sittoid 0 
NTANDMOas Ajas Amstotdciii 4ft PSV 
Eindhoven 37; Vitesse Arnhem 3ft Feyen> 
ord 31; Hawameen 2ft WBem I! T8buig24j 
Twante Er»schede21; Utrecht20; Qraalbctap 
Doattadwrii 2ft Rada JC Kortoodo 19; NEC 
NBmegen l ft Spam Rotterdam 1ft NAC Bre- 
da lft Foriuno Slttard 17;Grordngon 15t RKC 
Wotdwtpi 1ft MW Moastridit 1* VOiendam 
. 11 . - . . 

nwaPHrarDmamr - 
Bordeaux Z Mott 2 
Parts St Gwinobt 1 , Auxerre 0 
■tawoumos Monaco 3 ft Metz 35; PSG 
34 Manana 3ft Lens 31; Bordeaux 31; Bas- 
♦ta 27i Auxerre 2ft Lyon 2ft Toulouse 23/ 
MontpeOer 2Z Nantes 2ft Guihgorop 2 Z 
StRBbouig lft Chotoaurewr 18r Le Havre lft 
Rermes 1ft Cannes M. • 

Boyer Leverkusen 4 Bayem Munich 2 
•nuiawest Kabentaatoro 3ft Bayem 
Munich 3ft VfB Stuttgart 2ft Bayer Lev- 
erfcMwi 2ft StJxrfkoOJ 2fc Hansa Rostock 24 
MSV Duisburg 23; VIL Wottsburg 21- Heritor 
Berfiii 2ft Wenfer Bremen 23i Bannda Oort- 
mood 21; Kartsruhe SC 2ft TBV I860 Munidi 
2ft Aim Into Bfetefetd Ift Hamburg SV lft 
Borusota Moonchengtodboch lft VfL 
Bachpm lft Cologne 16. • 

nulAH PKOT DIVmoM 

- ACMRanlrJmntosl 

TAi iD w t a at Inter AAflon 2ft Jovantus 2ft 
AS Rama i ft Utfinese Ift Pamro l ft Lario 1 ft 
Sampdotfa lft- Vfaenu T5r Fforgi fflw lft AC 
MBan lft AMonta 11; Empo« lft Bresda 10: 
Bari 10; Lecce lft Bologna ft Piacenza 7; 
NtftoOS. 


TRANSITIONS 


AMERKAN LEAGUE 

BOSTON RED sox— Signed OF tertchko 
Kmrotxda. 


. NAnOHALBABKETBAU. ASSOCIATION 
OHUUtDo— Pot P Horace Grout on topned 
SsL Atflrotod F Johnny Taylor from tajured 
fed. 

paeTLAND-Put F Dontonto WingitaM on 
kifuied Rst Acfivated G-F Vincent Askew 
horn Mured Bst 

Tonotrro-Slgned c OBverMBtor. 
WASHiNcroN-Put G God Shammgad an 
tolurad Dst. Signed G Ledell Eaddas. 

poonAU 

NAT»IAL FOOTBALL L8MUR 
AKOONA-Signed OT Jerome DonteJs. 
NCWEMLAND-Adtoatod WR Tony Gatter 
from pradloe squad. 
new oasANs-SIgned G Isaac Davis. 
TAMPA ur-Wtolved DB Kenny Gant Ac- 
Itvatod WR Brice Hunter from praeflee 
squad. 

■wan 

NATIONAL HtXXflYLEAtMJE 

MLIAS-Asaigiwd C Juba Lind and C Jeff 
MltdieO to MkTUgaa IHL 
Dcnon-Named John Hahn public nsto- 
flans director. 

PfirseueoH'-RaoEslgned □ T nomas 

Gronman to Syracuse, AHL 
SAN J0S6-T«ded RW Shean Donovan 
and 1998 Tst-ruand draft choice to Coloredq 
far C Mike Rkxi and 1998 2nd- round draft- 
chofce. Hired Doug WHson as ft rector of pro 
development 

VANCoaVBt-AssJgnedLW Lorry Courvflle- 
to Syracuse AHL 

COUPON 

NCAA R estor ed aca de mic eBglbftty of- 
Southern Illinois roerto basketbatt F Rashod 
Tucker. 


DENNIS THE MENACE PEANUTS 


r m 


CALVIN AND HOBBES 



ITS THE 5M> TWW. PM). 
NOBOW CABES ABOUT V0UR 
POSITTONS W 
WE JUSI WANT TO KNEW 
ABOUT HOkR. CHARACTER, j 


IF 'taJRt GOtNS T0BEDW 
HERE, BEHWCTOKNCN 
tWVE HE4ER DOME 0RSW0 
ANfWlNS THW WOJLD RSIBT 
RXRtS ONYCURW0GVEMT. 


I WANE TOUR CD11BSE 
VEARSOOk HERE. 

LETS FUP _ ^g-vT 

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SHAU-WE? 


\S THIS KXJ ' 

wim 

AWD THE 

’PAR W NAKED' 

. T-SHIRT? j 


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GARFIELD 


WIZARD of ID 


•You mtr have io rx 

SUPPER- Ht JUSTIDtOittE HFS^Z7£AP 













PAGE 24 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1997 


ART BUCHWALD 


What? Outlaw Bribes? 



Budiwald 


W ASHINGTON — It 
didn't get much public- 
ity, but 34 of the world’s lead- 
ing nations signed a treaty 
outlawing business bribes to 
foreign officials. The treaty 
will change the 
way commerce 
is conducted 
throughout the 
globe. The 
treaty doesn't 
forbid bribes to 
political par- 
ties nor does it 
force countries 
to revoke the 
tax deductibility of bribes that 
European nations permit. 

And it doesn't penalize 
political officeholders who 
receive the bribes. 

Nevertheless, it’s a giant 
step for mankind. 

□ 

Those who will be affected 
rhe most by the treaty will be 
the brothers and brothers-in- 
law of heads of state. Their 
living depends on soliciting 
bribes from anyone who ex- 
pects to do business in their 
respective countries. 

This agreement will have 
an impaefon state officials as 
well ns civil servants who do 
business with foreign compa- 
nies and who expect to be 

The Full Box Office 

Agcnce Fnmce-Prntf 

LONDON — “The Full 
Monty" has become the 
biggest grossing British film 
of all time. The story of a 
group of unemployed men 
who turn to stripping in their 
small town in northern Eng- 
land. has taken in £39.2 mil- 
lion (about S66 million) at the 
British box office to date. It 
has beaten “Four Weddings 
and a Funeral." which pre- 
viously held the record with 
£27.8 million. 


tipped for issuing the correct 
papers to them. 

Here’show it worked in the 
past The Seig Heii Motor 
Company wants to open deal- 
erships all over the country of 
Saltpeter. The president of 
Seig HeiL Hans Schmidt, 
flies in and says to Dum Sum, 
the brother of Big Sum. the 
premier, “I have come to 
your country to make a bet 
with you. I bet you $1 million 
I cannot open 40 Seig Heil 
dealerships in Saltpeter.** 

□ 

“Do you take me for a 
fool? 1’H bet you S2 million 
that you can't." 

"You make a tough bet. 
All right. I will bet you $2 
million I can't do it” 

“O.K.. you win," Dura 
Sum says. “Here's the number 
of my Swiss bank account." 

Occasionally, the wife of a 
head of stale may also be in 
charge of soliciting funds 
from abroad. The most fa- 
mous was Madame Hari of 
the Sweet Potato Islands. 

When a widget company 
executive approached her to 
acquire a monopoly for her 
country and asked her what it 
would take, she replied, 
“Shoes. I want 3,000 pairs of 
shoes. I want diem from Nei- 
man Marcus, Beigdorf Good- 
man, Saks Fifth Avenue and 
Bally. I want them in alligator, 
patent leather, calfskin and 
Gucci suede.” 

“I’m sure that can be ar- 
ranged." 

□ 

The shoes were delivered 
and the widget company runs 
the entire widget industry in 
the country. 

With the new treaty these 
arrangements will be a thing of 
the past Fbr the first time busi- 
ness in 34 countries will be 
honest and above board, just as 
South Korea intended it to be. 


The Getty Center, Distilled From Slices of Time 


By Herbert Muschamp 

New York Times Service 


L OS ANGELES — It is ribbon-cutting 
time at the Getty Center. Los Angeles’s 
stupendous new castle of classical beauty. At 
die end of this week, the Getty Center will- 
lower the drawbridge, raise the portcullis and 
throw open the gates, figuratively speaking. 
At last the public will get to see what 15 
years, a billion dollars and the imagination of 
Richard Meier, the architect, have wrought 
in the name of J. Paul Getty and in the name 
of art. 

A work of this size and complexity is not 
easy to grasp, much less grade. Even a critic 
who has paid regular visits to the site since 
bulldozers began pushing the dirt around in 
1987 can agreeably lose his way among the 

Getty Ce □ terislufo- acre (45- bee care) mo un- 
tain top. 

Still, the basic ingredients of this cultural 
complex can be summarized briefly: 19th- 
century concept, 20th-century design, 21st- 
century city. The Getty Center is distilled 
from these three slices of time. It is an old- 
fashioned radseam, housed within a scru- 
pulously modem set of buildings, pitched 
high above a city that has seldom shown a 
strong inclination to shoulder the weight of 
cultural memory. 

The distillation is not smooth. Should it 
be? Los Angeles is not a smooth city. It is tied 
together by a network of monumental fis- 
sures called freeways. Its citizens contend 
with quakes. They seldom venture into pub- 
lic unless armored by cars against contact 
with others. 

In the last decade, the Geny Center has 
opened up a new set of fissures in the city’s 
cultural hie. It has divided public opinion 
about its mission, site, design and its meaning 
for die future of die city it overlooks. Critics 
say that the place is overbearing. That it’s too 
detached from the city and the cultural needs 
of its population. That it would have been 
better to build it downtown or to apportion its 
various units among different neighbor- 
hoods. That even the crisp abstract geometry 
of its architecture indicates an arrogant re- 
fusal to engage. These issues will not be 
settled anytime soon. Meanwhile, the Getty 
should take pride in arousing discontent By 
doing so, it has already changed die culture of 
Los Angeles. It has given tins culturally laid- 
back city something to fight about 
The Getty Center is the creation of the 


*: 'ir 


:.-5 m- 




■ Abm-wUrnie Nr* loATinm 


Courtyard and pavilions of the J. Paul Getty Museum, overlooking Los Angeles. 


Getty Trust, a foundation created in 1982 
with a $700 million bequest from the oil 
billionaire J. Paul Getty. The center brings 
together on one campus the major divisions 
operated by the trust Of these, tire best known 
is the J. Paul Getty Museum, an institution 
whose power of acquisition has caused cur- 
ators and museum directors worldwide to 
turn green. The original Getty Museum, 
housed in a Roman villa in Malibu, Cali- 
fornia, will continue as a showcase for the 
museum’s collection of classical antiquities. 

In 1984, after an international search, the 
trust hired Richard Meier to design wbar was 
widely called the commission of the century. 
But when dreams like this come true, who • 
needs ni ghtmare s? In his new book, “Build- 
ing the Getty," Meier recounts his 
contretemps with vigilant groups in the Brent- 
wood neighborhood, overbearing trustees, 
stubborn landscape designers as well as other 
tribulations. 

Above all, Meier and Michael J. Pa lla dino, 
the project’s architect, had to deal with a 
fabulous sore thumb of a site. The Getty sits 


atop a western slope of the Sepulveda Pass, 
where the San Diego Freeway plunges 
through the Santa Monica mountains. When 
you’re up there, the site is glorious but, from 
beneath, the complex casts a medieval shad- 
ow. We’re above criticism, the Getty seems 
to 'announce; we're up too high to bear it. 

In place of hillside chaparral, we behold a 
mountain of marble: enough travertine to 
clad a chain of CampidogDos. You never saw 
a more beautifully cut stone, nor a stone that 
proclaims so frankly that it has been installed 
strictly for your viewing pleasure. Mounted 
over concrete, the travertine panels perform 
□o structural function, as you can clearly 
grasp from the gaps between them. Set off by 
contrasting walls of ivory metal panels and 
broad expanses of glass, the rough-surfaced 
stone takes the light like jewelry. 

To the right ascends a marble staircase of 
such monumental splendor that it would be 
uncivil to call it anything but un grand es- 
calier. It rises to the museum's front door. 

We now find ourselves in a garden of 
Euclidean delights, a plot of land dedicated 


to the cultivation of squares, cubes, arcs, 
cylinders and grids, relieved by the occa- 
sional biomorobic curve. These shapes have 
been gathered together in die form o£ six 
buildings, of which the Getty Museum is by 
far the largest. There are also two admin- 
istration buildings: the Research Institute for 
the History of Ait and the Humanities, an 
auditorium and a restaurant. The structures 
are surrounded by gardens, plazas and foun- 
tains. .. 

In theory’, if not in fact, the division of the 
complex into six buildings mitigates the cen- 
ter’s monumental effect. Each of the six 
structures is further fragmented formally by 
balconies, windows, cuts through the walls, 
canopies, subscreens, elevator 'shafts and 
stairs. These strongly sculptured forms con- 
. vey structure and function, while capturing 
and modulating space and light. The result 
resembles three-dimensional collage, recall- 
ing pioneering modernist experiments by El 
Lissitsky and Theo van Doesburg: 

Other whiffs of architectural history filter 
through. The 1930s villas of Le Corbusier. 
Falling Water. Wright’s textile block houses 
of the 1920s. Walter Gropius's Palace of the 
Soviets. The strong geometry of the build- 
ings and the overall grid on which they sit 
may also put us in mind of the plans for ideal 
cities conceived in the climate of Renais- 
sance humanism. 

This lineage is apt. Meier wants to remind 
visitors that southern California architecture is 
not limited to the pop vernacular of Egyptian 
movie palaces, streamlined apartment build- 
ings and coffee shops. Wright, Richard Neut- 
ra, Rudolph Schindler and Charles and Ray 
Eames also worked there, producing build- 
ings whose aesthetic rigor sets them well apart 
from pop stereotypes. Meier wants to extend 
that tradition into the present 

The scale of the galleries is intimate. The 
upper portion of their walls slopes inward to 
form a square funnel shape, like the interior 
of a mans ard roof. Natural light radiates 
softly downward. You have the impression 
that you are not simply stepping up to a 
painting but preparing to walk inside it. 

The collection stops at 1900, at the 
threshold of the century in which abstract art 
nourished. But in the final painting on view, 
James Ensor’s “Christ’s Entry Into Brussels 
1889," figuration is already dissolving and 
faces have become masks. It's an ideal image 
to contemplate before stepping outside to 
confront the 20th century ana the impending 
21st 


T ; ..r 


1, /.'I!-- 


MOVIES 


PEOPLE 


Bringing ‘Bent 9 to the Screen Enhances a Hit Play 


By Alexandra Bandon 

New York Times Service 


N EW YORK — Early on, it seemed that 
“Bent," Martin Shennan’s play about the 
persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany, 
was destined to become a film quickly. Even 
before the play opened In London in 1979, 
starring Ian McKellen, United Artists had op- 
tioned the rights to make it into a movie. 

Later that year, Richard Gere received rave 
reviews for his performance in the Broadway 
production, and he wanted to star in a film 
version; it was only a matter of finding the 
right director. 

But nothing materialized. Rainer Wemer 
Fassbinder and Costa-Gavras expressed and 
then lost interest. Sherman, an American who 
has lived in London since 198 1, began to think 
that a film of “Bent," whose story is largely 
presented in a two-character tableau, was not 
meant to be. 

* ' I thought it was a difficult play to adapt,” 
the 56-year-old playwright said recently in the 
cluttered offices of the Second Stage Theatre 
in Manhattan, where his play “A Madhouse 
in Goa" is being presented. "I never thought 
the directorial sensibilities were right. And 
when I would speak about the problems, I 
never quite felt that people had the right grasp 
of what I said." 

By the time the BBC producer Michael 
Solinger approached Sherman about adapting 
■ ’Bent” two years ago, the playwright was more than 
a little wary. “People would say to me, ’This has to 
be a film.’ " said Sherman. “And I had started to 
think. Well, does it? It has to be a film only under the 
right circumstances. Otherwise, I'd rafter not have it 
done." 

Last Wednesday, nearly two decades after the 
play's premiere. “Bent” the movie opened, largely 
because Solinger and his partner, Sarah Radclyffe, 
provided some of the right circumstances. In ad- 
dition to enlisting Sherman to write the screenplay, 
they persuaded the innovative director Sean Math- 
ias. who had revived the play with McKellen in 1 990 
for the National Theatre in London, to make his film 
debut. 

The cast features the noted young actors Clive 
Owen and Lorhaire Bluieau os Max and Horst, two 
homosexuals who fall in love at Dachau, and in- 
cludes McKellen and Mick Jogger in smaller roles. 

How rhe film “Bent” differs from the stage 
incarnation is primarily the story of how a play- 
wright discovers ihe differences between live per- 



month theatrical workshop on the play with 


i°p i 

the film’s cast After each day’s exercises, 
Sherman went home and wrote the scenes as 
they had beat developed in collaboration. 

“It gave Martin the confidence to be more 
experimental, ’ ’ Mathias said of the workshop, 
“to see th3t if he was making a radical cut 
from the play to the screenplay, he knew why 
he was doing it” 

Bluteau noticed that She rman became quite 
comfortable with slicing away his own words. 
“We would talk about tilings, and sometimes 
he would change it right away,” said the 
actor. “He wouMjust say, *OJKL, I’ll cut it’ It 
was very scary. Cfive and I finally said to each 
other, ‘Let’s not say anything anymore. ’ ’ * . 

A primary challenge in fashioning a screen- 
play of “Bent” was figuring out how to 
integrate the story’s first half, which is set in 
1934 Berlin, and its second half, set at the 
concentration camp. “In ‘Bent,’- 1 use one of 
the great weapons that a playwright can use, 
which is intermission," said Sherman. “The 
play radically changes between Act I and Act 
H, but you don't have that in film. It has to be 
all of one,” 

Here, the playwright was helped by Stepfch 
en Brunson Lewis, who designed the sets for 
the movie, which was filmed in and around an 
abandoned power station outside Glasgow 
and in the offices of an old mine in northern 
England. Expansive yet decrepit structures 
bom halves of the film, linking the 


Jad> Mankg/Tba New Mwk Hon 

Martin Sherman, “Bent” playwright and screenwriter. 


formance and film and turns them to his advantage. 

In recent years, playwrights like Arthur Miller 
(“The Crucible"), Alan Bennett ‘The Madness of 
George ID") and Scott McPherson (“Marvin's 
Room") have found ways to turn their plays into 
successful movies. But when he set out to write the 
fbr Solinger, Sherman had never suc- 
ly adapted his own weak. He had sketched out 
a preliminary treatment of "Bent" for Costa-Gav- 
ras, and had attempted a version of his Isadora 
Duncan piece “When She Danced" to no avail. He 
had also, however, written two other successful 
screenplays, for “The Summer House, " a 1993 film 
that starred Joan Plowright and Jeanne Moreau, and 
“Alive and Kicking," a drama about the dance 
world and_AIDS that was critically praised earlier 

. screen- 

*See 

reduced next ye 

To avoid some of the problems Sherman had 
foreseen in adapting “Bent,’ ’ Mathias suggested an 
unusual approach. The director presided over a one- 


do ruinate 

decadent atmosphere of the Berlin nightclubs to the 
severe atmosphere of the concentration camp. 

These settings also allowed Sherman to escape 
some of the Imitations of a small stage.“Most 
plays are claustrophobic, and that’s why they are so 
card to turn into film," said Shennkn. “Theater is 
by its very nature not real. Whereas film gives the 
illusion of reality," 

Indeed, the movie's concentration-camp scenes 
make use of film’s ability to show vast outdoor 
spaces while maintaining theatrical symbolism: 
These spaces are often peopled by only the two 
central characters. The start: emptiness was in- 
tentional, explained Sherman. 

“Both Sean and I were waiy of making what is 
usually viewed as a concentration-camp film," he 
said. “It would have been untrue to the temperature 
of this piece, which isn’t documentary. *’ 

There was mother, more practical reason for 

The 'film* s budget — less than $5 miUiOT— provided 
only enough money to hire extras for three days. 


PREDIVORCE hearing 



.between Earl spencer 
and his estranged wire was 
adjourned in the High Court in • 

Cape Town on Monday as 
lawyers for the. two parties 
attempted again to reacn a set- 
tlement The brother of the . [• -: 
late Diana, Princess of • 

Wales, has offered his wife. 

■Victoria, a lump sum of 2.4 ' : 
million rand (.$500,000) plus 
20,000 rand a month and a 
luxury car and bouse. She is 
demanding £3.75 million 
($63 million). Meanwhile, in 
London, a former mistress of 
Lord Spencer said he prom- 
ised her marriage but backed 
out just before her divorce be- 
came officiaL Chantal Cd- 
lopy and ihe earl were married 
to other people when they met at a 1994 
birthday party. Collopy was quoted by Sky 
News as saying that her marriage ended after 
her husband taped her telephone calls and 
heard her say “I love you" to Spencer. Just 
before the divorce, however, Spencer had “a 
panic attack" and told her he couldn’t offer her 
a future, she said. Collopy appeared in Cape 
Town last week supporting Lady Spencer 
against tire earl at the predivorce hearing. 

□ 

Camilla Parker Bowles went fox-hunting 
over the weekend, just hours after Parliament 
voted overwhelmingly to ban the sport. On 
Friday, the House of Commons voted, 41 1 to 
151, in favor of a bill to ban hunting with 
hounds, and although the bill has no chance of 
becoming law without government support, 
which has been denied, the vote had been 

taken as the first step in Che sport’s demise, tation films of the 1970s. In her new role, . 
Parker Bowles, the longtime friend of Prince she’s a bagwoman for a crook in the Quentin ^ 
Charles, was pictured with tire Beaufort hunt Tarantino-directed “Jackie Brown." It " 
in Gloucestershire, one of Britain’s most af- turns out that Tarantino is a big fan of Grier. 

He even has a poster in his office of her 1 973 
movie “Coffy," which made the “baddest" ~ 
boast ‘ ‘I was honing my skills for when that 
Quentin Tarantino call would come," she 
said. 


Banv Ralrhrtow Froiirv lYw 

Camilla Parker Bowles taking part in the hunt. ^ 

and “ Stand by Me," said the Independent on" 
Sunday, quoting Q magazine. “Absolutely" he 
said. "I’ve had two songs out of that now. And 
he’s still not sued me yet." 

□ 

Thirty-six of the world's top music stars on . 
Monday released a tribute album to Diana. 
Princess of Wales, that is expected to raise up 
to £50 million ($84 million) for her favorite 
charities. Record shops expect to sell up to 
200,000 copies a week in Britain before 
Christmas for what they expect will be the 
chart- topping album. ' 

□. 

The woman once billed as “The Baddest / 
One-Chick Hit-Squad That Ever Hit Town’^f' 
is back. Pam Grier made her name playing 1 ? 
revenge-minded characters in black exploi- ; 


fluent. British newspapers reported that while 
Charles’s enthusiasm for the sport remained 
undimmed, he had told friends that he may 
have to quit to reflect the public mood. 


□ 

The songwriter for British rock group Oasis 
acknowledged in an interview that he had taken 
some of his best tunes from other bands, ac- 
cording to press reports. Nod Gallagher, the 
guitarist fbr the band, said he had lifted riffs 
from 


□ 

The Australian film “Road to Nhiir ' by the 
director Sue Brooks won the Golden Al- 
exander prize for best film at the Salonika, 
Greece, film festival on Monday. The second ■ 


Bxma David Bowie’s “All the Young Dudes” prize went to the Turkish filmmaker Dervis 
for two songs, “Don’t Look Back in Anger" Zaim ‘ 


im for “Somersault in a Coffin." 



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