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The World’s Daily Newspaper 

R Paris, Monday, December 8, 1997 

Tehran Plays Its Middle East Card 

Iran Breaks Out of Its Isolation 
To Be Host of Muslims ’ Summit 

By John Lancaster 

Washington Post Service 

TEHRAN — To raost'of its Arab neighbors, the Islamic 
Republic of Iran has long been a pariah, an incubator of 
revolution and religious zealotry where one of die capital's 
major boulevards is named after the killer of President 
Anwar Sadat of Egypt 

That may be starting to change. 

On Tuesday, a raiwtty condemned in Washington as fee 
world's leading sponsor of international te r ro rism will be 
host to kings, sheikhs, presidents and ministers from SS 
Islamic countries in Africa, Europe and the Middle East. 
Among diem are such staunch allies of the West as Egypt, 
Jordan, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. 

Although the eighth Islamic summit meeting is likely to 
yield more symbolism than substance, the presence here of 
so many foreign leaders could significantly bolster Iran’s 
international prestige at the expense of die United States, 
which is seeking to isolate the country diplomatically and 
economically. The Islamic meeting, the first hosted by Iran, 
marks the largest diplomatic gathering here since die Is- 
lamic revolution in 1979. 

ft also has provided a platform for Arab and Islamic 
countries, including those close to the West, to express their 
dissatisfaction with American policy toward Israel and 

s Iranian newspapers have noted gleefully in recent days, 
the Tehran meeting has attracted far more Arab states than 
the regional economic conference last month in the Golf 
capital of Doha. Qatar, which was sponsored by the United 
States with the aim of promoting ties between Israel and the 

“It brings a kind of prestige for the regime,” said an 
Iranian academic who is close to the country’s conservative 
clerical leadership. “Now we are the symbol of Islam.” 

Iranian conservatives who hope to use the meeting here to 
promote a radical anti-Western agenda may be disappoint- 
ed. The summit chairman is Iran's new president, Mo- 

See SUMMIT, Page 10 

To Reinvigorate Peace Process, 
U.S. Is Set to Call Israel’s Bluff 

By Steven Ertanger 

Ww York Times Service .■ 

PARIS — After considerable hesitation, the Clinton 
-administration seems finally ready to call the Israeli prime 
minister’s bluff. 

While Benjamin Netanyahu is constantly talking about . 
his desire for a lasting peace with the Palestinians, Wash- 
ington is sincerely confused about whether he means it 
Without criticizing Mr. Netanyahu in public, the U.S. 
secretary of state, Madeleine Albright, is increasingly 
annoyed with his evasive tactics, aides say. 

While she and President Bill Clinton have both called for 
“bold decisions” and “new urgency” in the context of an 


Iraq crisis that is likely to resurface, given Baghdad’s 
(YMifinning restrictions on the movements of weapons in- 
spectors, Mr. Netanyahu appears to be less interested in 
progress with the Palestinians than in delaying politically 
difficult choices. 

It is for that reason that Mis. Albright has given Mr. 
Netanyahu an e x traordinary deadline. — another meeting 
with her around Dec. 17 when she returns from an African 
swing and a NATO conference — to produce the “sig- 
nificant and credible” Israeli withdrawal freon the West 

Rank that W ashington and its nfoar re gional allies demand 

U.S. officials expected Mr. Netanyahu to show up in 
Paris for meetings with Mrs. Albright on Friday with a 
relatively detailed proposal for a long-overdue Israeli with- 
drawal from die West Bank — large enough to put pressure 
on the Palestinian leader, Yasser Arafat to join accelerated 
talks on a permanent settlement 

But Mr. Netanyahu said proudly that he had offered no 
percentages and brought no maps. He said it would take 
^‘several weeks” to produce an offer his cabinet could 
agree upon, and that he wanted a probation period of five 
months before any withdrawal took place, to judge “Pal- 

See MIDEAST, Page 10 

Murdoch’s Global Reach 
Keeps Taxman at Length 

Rivals Pay Far More ThanMogoFs News Corp. ■ 

By Paul Farhi 

Washington Past Sr nice 

WASHINGTON — In the mid-1980s, 
Rupert Murdoch abruptly renounced his 
Australian 'birthright and became an 
American citizen. The move allowed the 
media tycoon to comply with a U.S. law 
that prohibits foreign ownership of tele- 
vision stations and buy the Fox television 
network — which helped Mr. Murdoch 
build a global entertainment empire that 
now includes 22 American television 
stations, TV Guide magazine, Twentieth 
Century-Fox Film Corp. and a huge U.S. 
broadcast network. 

Those subsidiaries provide Mr. Mur- 
doch’s company. News Corp., with the 
vast majority of its revenue and profit 
Bat through the deft use of international 
accounting loopholes and ofiishore tax 
havens, the mogul has paid corporate 
income taxes at one-fifth the rate of his 
chief U.S. rivals throughout the 1990s, 
according to corporate documents and 
- company officials. 

There is no suggestion from the U.S. 
authorities of any i m pro pri ety in the 

way the 66-year-old Mr. Murdoch has 
done business as he has risen from ob- 
scure {ness baron to the global village's 
de facto communications minister. The 
international tax and accounting 
strategies employed by News Corp. 
may, in fact, make Mr. Murdoch a mod- 
el for the 21st-century entrepreneur — a 
captain of industry who operates under 
so many flags at once that it is hard to 
know where bis allegiances lie or bow 
his businesses function. 

News CoTp., in its most recent fi- 
nancial year, reported paying $103 mil- 
lion in worldwide taxes on operating 
income of $132 billion, according to 
company documents, an effective tax 
rate of 7.8 percent 
By contrast, Walt Disney Co.'s ef- 
fective tax rate was 28 percent Viacom 
Inc., parrot of MTV and Paramount Pic- 
tures, paid 22 percent Time Warner Inc., 
a U.S. media and entertainment com- 
ay of roughly the same size as News 
i.. paid taxes at a 17 percentrate. 

1990s. ivet^Gwp/^tax rate has* av- 
eraged 5.7 percent in this decad e , while 

Hopes for a Czech ‘Miracle 9 Evaporate 

Prime Minister’s Fall Highlights Grim Reality: It’s a Long Road to Reform 

By Lee Hocksiader 

Washington Post Service 

PRAGUE — Mark Sanders is an 
American investment fond manager 
who lives in the Czech Republic, is 
married to a Czech and, except for a 
hiatus at Stanford business school, has 
spent most of his time in Prague since 
the collapse of communism in 1989. 

But when he searches Eastern Europe 
looking for places to invest the money 
he manages, there is one place he gen- 
erally avoids: die Czech Republic. Of 
the 532 million in his portfolios, 
scarcely $ 1 million is here. 

“The Czech miracle of low inflation, 
low unemployment and a growing econ- 
omy was illusory,” said Mr. Sanders, 
managing director of Wood & Co. Funds 
here. “The fact is that in many ways 
they've never really begun to reform.” 

For months, analysts have known that 
not all was right in the land that once 
could do no wrong. There were bank 
failures, stock market scams, trade def- 
icits. scandals and stuttering growth. 
But this week it ail came crashing 

borne to ordinary Czechs — not in the 
form of more gloomy statistics but in the 
fall of the man most closely identified 
with one of Eastern Europe’s most cel- 
ebrated success stories: Prime Minister 
Vaclav Klaus. 

Mr. Klaus, who resigned Nov. 30 
amid scandal and a slumping economy, 
was the supremely confident prime min- 
ister adored in the West for his Thaidier- 
ite resolve and homilies dedicated to the 
theology of capitalism. His resignation 
shattered the myth of his political geni- 
us, along with any lingering belief in the 
Czech economic miracle. In its place is a 
grim new realization that die hard work 
of reform has a long way to go. 

So unbending was Mr. Klaus's trust 
in the market’s “invisible hand’ ' that he 
once intimated that as far as he could 
tell, there was no such thing as dirty 
money. More than two years ago, he 

The fail section of the Antonov-124 cargo plane titatcarasted in Irkutsk. 

Toll Rises to 48 in Jet Crash 
Into Apartments in Siberia 

By Daniel Williams 

Washington Pent Service 

Qnfcjoon/Tbr Awaited 

Rupert Murdoch, media moguL 

those of Walt Disney, Time Warner and 
Viacom have averaged from 27 2 per- 
cent to 32.5 percent 
Whereas Mr.' Murdoch became a nat- 
uralized U3. citizen in 1985, News Corp. 
remains incorporated in Australia. Con- 
sequently, it is not clear how moch — if 
any — of News Corp.'s income tax pay- 
ment last year went to the U.S. Treasury, 
despite such highly profitable American 

See MURDOCH, Page 6 

MOSCOW — After battling fire and 
ice all night, rescue workers in the Siberi- 
an city of Irkutsk recovered the bodies of 
48 victims of the crash of a giant caigo 
plane mro an apartment building. 

The death toll from the accident was 
likely to climK to at least 60, Russian 
officials said. They predicted that vic- 
tims who had been buried under the 
nibble might have lived through the ex- 
plosion and fire but probdhly would not 
have survived toe night of temperatures 
that plunged to minus 23 degrees cen- 
tigrade (minus 10 degrees Fahrenheit). 

S team rose from the site of the dis- 
aster as firemen poured water onto toe 
crushed fuselage of the plane and con- 
crete rubble of the five-story building at 
45 Grazhdanskaya Street The tail sec- 
tion leaned menacingly against an ad- 
jacent four story building, the red star 
emblem on the plane blackened by fire. 

The pilots of toe Antonov-124 cargo 

jet reported to afr controllers just before 
the mash that two left side engines had 
died, Intefex news service said. The 
“black box” info rma tion gathering 
equipment on board has been taken to 
Moscow for examination. La the mean- 
time, all Antonov- 124 cargo jets have 
been grounded, Russian officials said. 

Since 1992, five Antonovs, including 
foe plane that crashed Saturday, have 
gone down under differing circum- 
stances. One accident was caused by a 
-bird being sucked into an engine, and 

lot error. 

- Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin 
arrived in Irkutsk to oversee the rescue 

His mission symbolized not only the 
scope of the catastrophe but the evident 
need to reassure a country that is peri- 
odically beset by man-made disasters. 

Just Tuesday, an explosion in a coal 
mine killed 67 workers in foe Siberian 

See CRASH, Page 10 

Link of UBS and SBC 
Would Create World’s 
2d-Biggest Lender 

By John Tagliabue 

• • • NetrYori Times Service 

• ROME — UniroBank of Switzerland 
and Swiss Bank Corp- arc expected to 
announce Monday that they will merge 
through an exchange of shares to create 
what would be the world’s second- 
largest bank in terms of assets, according 
to people at one of the banks. 

The merger- of Switzerland's largest 
and fond-largest banks would be the 
latest of a recent series of major mergers 
and acquisitions in the global market for 

financial services. It would create a 
bank with combined total assets of 
about $592 billion. 

A linkup has also been forced upon, 
the Swiss hank* by foe need to slash 
costs in the domestic Swiss market, 
where foe banks-bave been battered by a 
six-year economic slump. The banks 
have announced dramatic restructuring 
plans in recent years to try to raise 
shareholder value. Average returns (Hi 
equity at major Swiss banks have tra- 
ditionally been less than 10 percent, 
well below the U.S. average. 

The merger, which is expected to be 
announced at a news conference Mon- 
day in Zhrich before foe opening of 
European markets, is expected to leadto 
cuts of as many as 6,000 of foe banks’ 
40,000 domestic jobs and an equal num- 
ber among their 18.000 overseas em- 
ployees. The new bank is expected to be 
calked United Bank of Switzerland. It 
would be foe world's second-largest, in 
assets, after Bank of T oky o-Mi tsu bishi 
Ltd, which has $696 billion. 

Details of the merger remain unclear, 
but according to reports in several Euro- 
pean countries, the chief executive of the 
new bank would be Marcel Ospel, foe 
chief executive of Swiss Bank. 

Neither bank would confirm the re- 
ports, but rumors that foe banks were to 
make an announcement buoyed share 
prices of berth h anks in recent days. 

“Merger negotiations are under way 
between us and SBC,” the Sonntags- 
zeitong, a Swiss newspaper, quoted a 
senior UBS executive as saying. “Only 
with such an approach can we attain 
tremendous advantages on the interna- 
tional leveL” 

See MERGER, Page 10 

declared the Czech free-market tran- 
sition nearly complete. 

ft wasn’t 

To economists, the decline of Mr. 
Klaus and the parallel slump in foe 
Czech economy arc object lessons in the 
perils that persist far Europe’s post-com- 
munist economies. They say Mr. Klaus’s 
error was to embrace an absolutist vision 
of unfettered capitalism, with all the 
f oendant distrust for anything that 
sm a c ked of state inte r ference. 

Yet even as he preached the- gospel of 
foe market Mr. Klaus presided over a 
government that did tittle to see that it 
stayed healthy. Reform proceeded in 
half steps; the unregulated stock market 
was safe sailing for pirates only; wages 
rose three times faster than production, 
and an economy that bad been growing 

See CZECHS, Page 6 


Czech Coalition 
Will Hold Talks 

PRAGUE (Reuters) — President 
Vaclav Havel will call oponDeputy 
Prime Minister Josef Lux on Mon- 
day to lead talks on the formation of 
a new g overn ment, the Czech news 
agency CTK reported Sunday. 

Mr. Lux leads die Christian 
Democratic Union-Czechoslovak 
People's Party, foe junior partner in 
foe governing coalition. The three 
partners in the government of 
Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, who 
resigned Nov. 30 ova a funding 
scandal, have agreed to tty to form 
an administration. But most ana- 
lysts say that, with foe three parties 
deeply divided, any new govern- 
ment will probably be short-lived, 
and that elections are inevitable. 

Mr. Havel acknowledged earlier 
Sunday that the country appeared 
headed for early elections. 

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Clinton Orders Changes 
La Nuclear-War Strategy 

Plan Aims for Deterrence and Not € Victory ’ 

By R. Jeffrey Smith 

Washington Past Service 

WASHINGTON — President Bill 
Clinton issued new guidelines last 
month for the targeting of U.S. nuclear 
weapons, jettisoning’a Cold War dictum 
that foe military must be prepared to win 
a protracted nuclear war that would dev- 
astate foe globe, senior administration 
officials say. 

The orders to the Secretary of Defense 
and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 
require instead . that the militar y aim its 
nuclear forces to deter the use of nuclear 
weapons against U.S. forces or allies 
simply by threatening a devastating re- 
sponse, and drop any planning for a long 
nuclear war, the officials said. 

Mr. Clinton’s highly classified dir- 
ective replaced one signed by President 
Ronald Reagan in 198 1 , and marked the- 
first time since the end of the Cold War 
that nuclear targeting guidance issued at 
the presidential level formally, recog- 
nizes that no nation would emerge as the 
victor in a major nuclear exchange, foe 
officials said. 

reflects a widespread view among mil- 
itary officials in both nations that each 
side still poses a potential unclear threat 
to the other — even though Washington 
has proposed to give Moscow $242 mil- 
lion in foreign aid next year. 

Several officials said the directive’s 
language further allowed targeters to 
broaden foe list of sites that might be 
strode in foe event of a nuclear exchange 
with China. In addition, foe officials 
said, foe directive contained language 
that would permit U.S. nuclear strikes 
after enemy attacks using chemical or 
biological weapons, an idea that has 
been hotly debated by independent 
aims-coHtroL experts. 

Mr. Clinton’s action marks the first 
formal adjustment in 16 years of pres- 
idential policy for foe targeting ofu.S. 
nuclear weapons and could pave the way 
for further reductions in the total number 
of such weapons by requiring that fewer 
be held in reserve for a> protracted war, 
several senior officials said. 

But they added that the directive re- 
flected more continuity than change in 
the military's effort to ensure that its 

But foe directive nonetheless calls for . strategic nuclear weapons were ready to 
U.S. war planners to retain long-stand- use at a moment's notice, an effort foat 

costs an estimated $33 billion a year. 

ing rations for nuclear strikes against 
the military and civilian leadership and 
nuclear forces of Russia. Such planning 

See STRATEGY, Page 10 

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U.S . Airman Still in Iraq? Pentagon Refused to Look 

By Tim Weiner 

Nett York Times Service 

WASHINGTON — Four years ago, 
a hunter looking for wild game in west- 
ern Iraq stumbled across foe ruins qf an 
American jet fighter. 

It was foe missing navy F-18 piloted 

cher, the first American lost in the 
1991 Gulf War and foe only one whose 
fate remains unknown. Tire Pentagon, 
alerted by foe hunter, sent a spy satellite 
over foe sire, ft “detected a man-made 
symbol in foe area of foe qectian seal,” 
Pentagon documents say. 

Some seaior officers thought Com- 
mander S pel cher might have survived 
the crash. They said they had a moral 
obligation to bring him back, dead or 
alive, no matter how long it took. 

Special-operations soldiers planned a 
secret mission to scour foe sue. Their 
dunces of success were high, they said, 
and the risks of an Iraqi response very 
low. But Pentagon leaders balfeed, fearing 
that the risks outweighed the rewards. 

General John Shalikashvili, then 
chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 
vetoed foe plan, saying, “I do not want 
to have to write the parents and tell 
them foat foeii son or daughter died 

for old bones,” according to 
wbo witnessed the general's 
statement in December 1994. 

. General Shalikashvili. now retired, 
confinned his decision and its rationale 
on Friday. “There was no overwhelm- 
ing need to put our soldiers at risk to 
covertly search a three-year-old crash 
site,” be wrote. • 

To advocates of the secret mission, 
his decision reflected foe agonies of an 
army trying to do its duty without risk- 
ing its soldiers. - 

“This mentality of ‘no losses' has 
mare ramifications than people real- 
ize," said oik general officer who re- 

quested anonymity. “The idea we can 
do everything so well that we shouldn’t 
ever suffer a loss or casualty invades 
everything. It keeps you from doing 
what’s necessary. ■ 

The advocates of the mission said foe 
obligation to look for a fallen comrade . 
should have outweighed foe risk of 
ca s ualti e s. 

“The warriors believed they had a 
responsibility,” said Stan Arthur, who 
retired as a four-star admiral after lead- 
ing allied naval forces in the Gulf War. ' 
“You lose one of your own, you go - 

See MIA, Page 10 

Missing: Michael Scott Speicher 


E --r 



‘Golf, Golf, Golf / A President at. Rest? 

A More Mellow Clinton Gives the Impression of Coasting 

By Richard L. Berke 
and John M. Broder 

New York Tuna Service 

W ASHINGTON — President Bill 
Clinton's friends and associates 
marveled for years at the zest with 
which he delved into the minutiae of 
policy and the latest blips of opinion polls. Now, 
major figures in government say they are strode 
by the degree that Mr. Clinton drifts into so- 
liloquies about another longtime passion, golf. 

Thai Mr. Clinton’s restless, voracious mind is 
wandering to the golf course is cited by some of 
his closest associates as a small yet telling ex- 
ample of how the presidency is not engaging him 
in the way it did during his first term. 

In interviews, some of Mr. Clinton’s closest 
friends and advisers inside and outside the White 
House, as well as authorities on presidential 
politics, agreed: Even with three years remain- 
ing. there was a conspicuous sense that Mr. 
Clinton was no longer consumed by big ideas 
and the prospect of major battles ahead. Liberals 
and moderates alike described Mr. Clinton as 
trapped in a risk-averse, aimless a dminis tration 
of Jus own making. . . 

Yet the portrait of a listless, distracted pres- 
ident conceals a more complex reality. Mr. Clin- 
ton is far more in command and comfortable in 
his role. With more than 30 years of elections 
behind him, Mr. Clinton also believes that many 
of his goals have been achieved, and be has less 
of a sense of uigency and is more mindful of the 
realities of divided government. 

In an interview last week, Mr. Clinton 
countered his critics by previewing what he 
described as his ambitious agenda for the next 1 
three years on matters ranging from education to 
health care to the environment to foreign policy. ■ 

Mr. Clinton is embarking on a new, uncharted 
stage of Ins presidency, one that some Democrats 
described as a fourth ram because die past five 
years can be divided into distinct periods: the 
shakedown cruise of 1993-94 in which the White 
House swerved from crisis to crisis, culminating 
in the collapse of the president’s ambitious health 
care proposal and the Republican takeover of 
Congress: die starkly partisan confrontation over 
the budget in the next two yeans, and Mr. CHnion ’s 
political recovery and cooperation with the Re- 
publican-controlled Congress in 1996 and 1997. 

M R. CLINTON is still devising an 
approach for this new fourth term. 
Aides said (he president was con- 
structing a new definition of (he 
term “social security," by trying to stitch to- 
gether a variety of medium-sized policies aimed 
at families into one big thought 
Mr. Clinton said in the interview that “there 
will be a lot to do" — and spoke of several goals 
for the next three years. 

He first cited education, saying he would 

continue to push for national standards in testing, 
rebuilding schools and providing technology to 
schools. He then moved on to describing ways to 
improve family life, like 4 ‘broader family leave’ ’ 
measures, efforts to expand health care cov- 
erage. extend the Social Security system and 
improve race relations. He also previewed an 
agenda on the environment, food safety, bio- 
medical research and a “huge foreign policy 
agenda" designed to “create. a global system 
where the democracies of the world are co- 
operating more with shared markets.” 

Mr. Clinton did not cite any single issue as his 
overriding priority for the next three years. And 
advisers shrugged rather than try to surmise how 
the second term would be remembered. 

Robert Strauss, an elder statesman in the Demo- 
cratic Party who advises Mr. Clinton, said: “I 
think he’s got a lot of problems ahead. Within and 
without the White House he’s not long in talent 
around him. Everybody’s going to want to take a 
shot at him in the next election. With two years to 
go, why not pile on? But he’s not going to be an 
easy this guy’s smart and he's tough." 

Vice President A1 Gore, when asked aboard 

Air Force Two late one night recently to comment 

on the state of the Clinton presidency, did not 
have to be reminded erf the outpouring or criticism 
recently that Mr. Gin ton had become a lame 
duck. Mocking such talk, he flapped his arms and 
squawked, “Quack, quack, quack.”. 

Mr. Gore then re turn ed to his cabin to con- 
template the question. Later, an aide returned with 
Mr. Gore's hand-written response: 

“I remember when some columnists and pun- 
dits decided in late 1994 that the president might 

no longer be ‘relevant’ They even asked him at 
a press conference whether he thought he .had 
any remaining relevance. Less than a year later 
he had single-handedly forced both houses of 
Congress to back down and reopen the gov- 
ernment — twice — abandon most of their 
'Contract With America’ and instead adapt vir- 

tually all of his priority measures. 

“Anyone,” Mr. Gore continued, “who de- 
cides in late 1997 that the president's ‘relevance’ 
is in any doubt is making the same silly mistake 
all over again." 

If the policy question is “a big issue,” he said, 
“I’m just as involved as I ever was." 

The president conceded that anyone in his job 
would be captive to the times. “Presidents are 
the custodians of the time in which they live as 
well as the instruments of the visions and dreams 
they have," Mr. Clinton said, sitting beneath a 

1 | 1 | | j 

portrait of George Washington in the Oval Of- 
fice. “So the first thins I had to start with was. 

rice. “So the first thing I had to start with was, 
you know, we don’t have a war, we don't have a 
depression, we don’t have a Cold War. 

“But," he went on, “what we do have is a 
breathtaking change going on as the economy 
and the societies in which we live become more 
globalized, as the information-technology rev- 
olution continues to accelerate and as the world 
faces a whole new set of security threats as well 
as opportunities.’* 

Others in Mr. Clinton’s circle describe 
something of a second Eisenhower era, an era of 
economic good times and don’t-rock-the-boat 
domestic policy. Indeed, Mr. Clinton has been 
frequently indulging in bouts of syrupy nostalgia 
ana has slowed the pace of his day to allow more 
time for reflection — whether on weighty mat- 
ters or on golf. 

“It’s golf, golf, golf — interspersed with 
politics,” said Senator John Breaux, Democrat 
of Lonsiana. Referring to the president's change 
in focus, he said, “He realizes you can’t do 
everything at once; he’s willing to accept smal- 
ler, incremental victories.” 

Further Waning his focus, Mr. Clinton is dis- 
tracted by a flood of accusations about fund- 
raising abuses in his last campaign that are cer- 
tain to dog him for the remainder of his tenure. 

Another new reality for Mr. Clinton is that he 
is surrounded by a restless staff of aides who 
have either grown bored with their jobs or have 
been at the White House for far shorter tenures 
than the president. Some of his associates de- 
scribed a cautious White House of fewer sharp 
ideological debates than in the first term. 

Dick Morris, the architect of Mr. Clinton's re- 

Mr. Clinton walking 
across the South Lawn of 
the White House. For 
many, the president 
seems to have lost the 
verve of his first term. 
With three years 
remaining in his second 
term, there is a sense that 
he is no longer consumed 
by big ideas and the 
prospect of major battles. 
Many observers describe 
Mr. Clinton as trapped in 
a risk-averse, aimless 
administration. The 
apparent listlessness, 
however, may reflect the 
fact that he is in greater 
command and more 
comfortable in his role. 


Tiring Times on the Fund-Raising Night Shift 

By Peter Baker and Ruth Marcus 

Washington Past Service 

WASHINGTON — By the time President 
Bill Clinton took the microphone at Lino’s res- 
taurant in Chicago, it was already 9:40 P.M and 
he sounded warn out. Waiting were 100 sup- 

for Democrats. By all accounts, no other second- 
term president has matched this relentless pace. 
“At times, I don’t know how he does it,’ ’ said 

Douglas' Sosnik, the presidential counselor who 

accompanies Mr. Clinton on most trips. 

Though Mir. Sosnik insists that Mr. Clinlorr 

attribute to drained donors who either have been 
squeezed for as much as they can provide or who 
are shying away from the publicity that big gifts 
have attracted in the wake of die fund-raising 

porters who paid thousands of dollars each to 
hear the president, and Mr. Clinton dutifully 

Though Mir. Sosnik insists that Mr. dintorr 
thrives on the personal contact, the schedule 


Charles Jones, a profess of at die University of 
Wisconsin who has studied presidents* use of 
their time, said he believed Mr. Clinton was 
-“doing much more than previous presidents” to 
solicit contributions, despite a slow start in his 

Democrats said-Mf. Clinton was responding 
to the increased demand for cash in the modem 
political world, which has made a nonstop fund- 
raising cycle an unfortunate but inevitable fact of 
presidential life. 

“Wake up and see reality.” Michael Mc- 
Crary, the White House press secretary, said last 
week when asked about Mr. Clinton attending 
fund-raisers on the day before and the day after 
Attorney General Janet Reno rejected an outside 
investigation of his fund-raising. ‘ ‘Reality is that 
campaign spending is running somewhat oat of 
control and that Republicans are outspending 
Democrats.5 to 1. So just get used to it because 
the president is going to have to do a lot more of 
it unless we secure campaign finance reform.” 

According to some of his advisers, Mr. Clinton 
feels a responsibility to help the party find a way 
out of its troubles, if for no other reason than self-’ 
interest If Democrats fare poorly in next year’s 
congressional elections, it could make zt nearly 
impossible to push through significant legis- 
lation in the final half of his second term. Should 

election campaign last year, has been more crit- 
ical of the president since Mr. Morrisresigned in 
August 1996 in a scandal involving his re- 
lationship with a prostitute. “Everybody 
wondered after the election whether he’d go to 

the left or to the ri 

“Nobody thought 

e right," 
he’d go to 

Mr. Morris said. 


Asked why several people described a sense 
r aimlessness in the White House, Mr. Clinton 

of aimlessness in the White House, Mr. Clinton 
shrugged and said, “Beats me," and recited a list 
of accomplishments this year, including the bal- 
anced budget agreement, an increase in edu- 
cation aid, reforms at title Food and Drug Ad- 
ministration and the proposed expansion of the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 

Aimless or not, there is wide agreement that 

hear the president, and Mr. Clinton dutifully 
launched into his standard fund-raising spiel. 

But his voice was soft and listless, his 
thoughts rambling. The audience Wednesday 
appeared only mildly interested. Even Mr. Gin- 
ton seemed bored and ready to go home. He had 
just delivered virtually the same speech to an- 
other group of deep-pocketed donors at the 
nearby Navy Pier. Only a few nights before, he 
addressed two other Democratic fund-raisers, 
and he had five raorecoming up in the next week. 
Chi this leg of the money- marathon, the be- 
draggled chief executive would not get back to 
the White House until 2 in the morning. 

For a politician who has run his last campaign, 
Mr. Clinton is devoting an extraordinaiy amount 
of time to the fundraising circuit these days as 
he struggles to lift his party out of a financial 
sinkhole into which it has fallen, in large part 
because of Mr. Clinton’s 1996 re-election race. 
Lately, the president seems like an office worker 
who has taken a second job at the mall to pay off 
the credit card Mils, working the day snift as 
chief executive and the night shift as fund- 

When the president returns from a fund-rais- 
ing swing Thursday, he will have headlined 27 
lunches, dinners and receptions in 13 cities in the 
last six weeks, binging in well over $10 million 

appeals to be getting to. him. 
On his way to Vancouver f 

On his way to Vancouver for the Asia-Pacific 
Ec onomic Cooperation forum meeting last month, 
Mr. Clinton stopped in Denver and Seattle for four 
cash-generating events on the same day. 

“He’s been probably to more fundraisers and 
raised more money than any president I can think 
of," said Harold Ickes, a former White House 
deputy chief of staff, wbo engineered Mr. Clin- 
ton’s money machine for the 1996 campaign. 
“I’m sure he's tired of it, but it comes with the 

In some ways, it is a dilemma of Mr. Clinton’s 
own malting. The pressure for money for party 
advertising that boosted his re-election effort led 
to the fund-raising abuses that ted to the in- 
vestigations that led to the massive attorney fees 
and a demoralized donor base. 

As a result, the president faces the Sisyphean 
task of whittling away at the Democratic Na- 
tional Committee's debt, which has been 
trimmed by about $2 million to $13.2 million, 
even as the legal bills — $11 million so far — 
continue to pile up. 

The situation has been compounded by the 
fact that Mr. Clinton’s appearances hare not 
drawn as much cash as might be expected — 
only an average of $450,000 recently. That is 
about half of what some Democratic fund-raisers 
think Mr. Clinton ought to attract, a shortfall they 

a crippled party doom Vice President A1 Gore’s 
chances of succeeding Mr. Clinton in 2000. it 

chances of succeeding Mr. Clinton in 2000, it 
could tarnish Mr. Clinton’s legacy as weU. 

Are You Prepared ? 

1997 & 1998 Will Generate 
P.lajor Currency Moves. 

The&e moves will directly effect the value of 
your Portfolio. Prepare yourself to take 
advantage of these moves by cadinq today. 


For My Complimentary Services Guide. Latest Research Reports, 
Opinions and Performance Records Call (24 hours) Toll-Free. 

US-Toll Voice Lino +7 14-376-8020 US-Toli Fa* Line +714-376-6025 


BA Won’t Let Drunks on Board 


Race Forum 
Goes Private 
In Dallasfor 

WASHINGTON — An initiative tfe* 
President Bill Clinton has billed as m 
effort to engage the country in a frank 
dialogue on race relations moved to- - 

Dallas in the form of a cluscd-doo^ . 
' meeting with only blacks invited. 

The community forum* among fbtf" 
first in a wave of meetings being used to 
revive on initiative widely criticized as 
lackluster, was moderated by Trans- 
portation Secretary Rodney Slater, ewe 
of the administration’s highest-ranking 
black officials. 

Sylvia Mathews, theJWhiie Hous^ 
deputy chief of staff who oversees' the 
initiative, said: "Based on the facts T 
know, this is an isolatedincident that 

won’t be repeated.” ; 

Mr. Slater’s deputy public affairs di: 
rector, William Schulz, said his boss saw 
the meeting “as an opportunity to have 4 
discussion on the race initiative," 
“Frankly, the secretary views the 
gathering as a missed opportunity to 
widen the discussion to a larger audi- 
ence,” he said. At the time, Mr. Slater 
did not appear to object to the exclu- 
sionary approach. He said In an in- 
terview with The Dallas Morning News 
that he would have welcomed people of 
different races but that 4 ‘from our vant- 
age point, it cou Id be either way. " , 

It was the second time in recent' 
weeks that the Clinton administration’s 
initiative had come under fire for au 
overly narrow approach. After criticism 
from Republicans and others that Mr, 
.Clinton’s advisory commission on race 
included only supporters of affirmative 
action and was reluctant to hear from 

opponents, the White House invited the 
author Abigail Ttaemstrom to offer a 
conservative perspective at a town hah 
meeting led by Mr. Clinton on Wed! 
nesday in Akron, Ohio. 

The exclusion of other racial and ethj 
uic groups from the meeting Friday utthe i 1 
African American Museum of Life andj 
Culture in Dallas sparked similar con- 
cerns. Mr. Schulz said the guest list and 
the private venue hod been determined 

Municipal Court, whom he described a& 
a close friend of Mr. Slater's. 

The meeting was originally planned 
as “an informal gathering,” Mr. Schulz 
said, but in recent days the invitation list 
was expanded, and Mr. Slater decided to 
use the session to discuss die president's, 
race initiative. “That simply didn’t get 
communi cited to the organizers, Mr. 
-Schulz said. 

Judge Hill, however, has described 
the 35 people she invited as ’ ‘community; 
leaders," including elected officials, 
such as Representative Eddie Bernice 
Johnson, Democrat of Texas, business 
executives and educators. As for the 
racial makeup. Judge Hill told The Dal- 
las Morning News: “I don’t believe die 
president has indicated that every dia-! 
logue must start in the same way . ' ’ 

Critics. denounced the decision to ex-. 

elude other racial and ethnic groups. . 
“I'm just flabbergasted,” said Ms.' 

“I'm just flabbergasted,” said Ms.' 
Therastrom, who debated Mr. Clinton 

on affirmative action at the University 
of Akron meeting. “Of course this 
doesn’t help race relations, it poisons 
them. There’s no difference between a! 

meeting that excludes blacks and a 
meeting that excludes whites. It's 
totally unacceptable.” 

It remains unclear why Mr. Slater 
agreed to preside over a blacks-only 
meeting in Dallas, where racial tensions 
have increased in recent months in 
battles involving public housing and 
area schools. Asked several times 
whether Mr. Slater had objected to the- 
invitation list, Mr. Schulz said only thaj 
the secretary regarded it as a lost op- 
portunity and hoped to hold a larger, 
session on race in Texas. \ 

■ Europe 

Forecast torTuesday through Thursday, as provided by AccuWeather. Asia 

LONDON (AFP) — British Airways said Sunday it would 
refuse to let inebriated passengers on board and would limit 

To decrease the number of violent incidents involving 
intoxicated passengers, BA crews will also be allowed to 
confiscate alcohol bought in duty-free shops, the airline said. 

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Flights Decline After Luxor Attack 

CAIRO (AFP) — Flights to Egypt have fallen by a quarter 
since the Luxor massacre, newspapers reported Sunday. Half 
of domestic flights were also canceled after the attack Nov. 17, 
said Abdel Fattah Kato, the civil aviation chief. The daily A1 
Wafd reported an EgyptAir official saying the airline’s losses 
could reach 500 million Egyptian pounds ($150 million). 



H 0 CHUW 1 


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‘Cracking Down on Young Smokers 


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By Bany Meier 

Ww !'•«* Time* SrmVr 

NEW YORK — As Congress prepares 
to consider legislation intended to reduce 
tobacco use by youths in the United 
States, cities, states and schools increas- 
ingly are taking measures to crack down 
on what they sec as a majoT cause of the 
problem: the young people themselves. 1 

Over the past year, Florida, Idaho, 
Minnesota. North Carolina and Texas 
have passed laws that could result in stiff 
penalties for minors who try to buy or 
possess cigarettes or chewing tobacco. 
Those convicted of such offenses could 
lose their driver's licenses, face fines of 

V * asmucbas$l,000oreven be imprisoned 
for as long as six months. 

Some cities, meanwhile, are using un- 
dercover police officers to catch youths 
who smoke, and some schools that test 
students for substances such as marijuana 
are also screening them for nicotine. 

- The new measures follow repeated 
failures in recent years to halt the growth 
in tobacco use among minors through 
. educational programs and other mea- 
sures. But while some opponents of 
smoking support a tougher approach to- 
ward young people, others see the new 
state laws, many of which are backed by 
the tobacco industry, as a draconian re- 
sponse to a custom that was once con- 
sidered a teenage rite of passage. 
"These sound like a fairly stringent 

attack on the problem, 7 ' said Kenneth 
Warner, a professor at the University of 
Michigan School of Public Health and a 
specialist on youth smoking. 

Proponents of a proposed $368.5 bil- 
lion settlement over the health-care costs 
of smoking reached in June between to- 
bacco companies and state attorneys gen- 
eral say the settlement contains several 
measures that would be expected to re- 
duce the number of young people who 

Those include banning tobacco ad- 
vertising on billboards and in some 
magazines, removing cigarette vending 
machines, ending tobacco companies 1 
sponsorships of sporting events and con- 
certs and ending the sale of products 
such as clothing that cany brand names 
of cigarettes or chewing tobacco. 

But many of those opposed to 
smoking also have said that smoking 
among teenagers will decline only if the 
cost of cigarettes rises by far more than 
the additional 70 cents a pack called for 
under die proposed settlement. Some, 
such as Mr. Warner, have called for an 
increase of $2 a pact 

Teenage smoking rates are lower titan 
they were three decades ago. But the 
Centers for Disease Control and Preven- 
tion has es timate d that 35 percent of high 
school students are cigarette smokers, and 
a University of Michigan survey called 
Monitoring the Future, which follows 
teenage smoking trends, has found steady 

increases in recent years in the number of 
minora who regularly use tobacco. 

Every U.S. state and the District of 
Colombia have laws that ban the sale of 
tobacco products to minora, although 
public-health specialists have said that 
such laws are ineffective because they 
are poorly written, rarely enforced or 
both. In the past, cities and states also 
have fined minors caught with cigarettes, 
though die penalties have been small. 

But some of the new state laws, which 
also stiffen penalties on those who sell 
tobacco products to youths, now hold 
young people as responsible as adults for 
violating tobacco laws, said Sarah Perez, 
a policy analyst with the National Con- 
ference of State Legislatures. 

“The laws we have seen this year flip 
thin gs upside down and penalize the 
min or as well as the retailer, 1 1 Ms. Perez 

Some anti-smoking activists argued 
that the tobacco industry, after years of 
makin g cigarettes attractive to youths, 
was supporting the new laws to blame 
young people for using their products. 
But others, while not endorsing the stat- 
utes, say some blame for youth smoking 
must fall on all involved. 

“My personal point of view is that 
there has to be some responsibility on the 
part of the kids,'' said Bill Novell!, pres- 
ident of the National Center for To- 
bacco-Free Kids, an advocacy group 
based in Washington. 

Centrist Democrats 
Angry at Gephardt 

WASHINGTON — When the 
House minority leader, Richard Geph- 
ardt, laid out lus populist vision for the 
Democratic Party last week, he said he 
wanted to begin “a great debate.” 

He appears to have succeeded be- 
yond his wildest dreams. 

The Missouri Democrat's some- 
times caustic speech challenging cen- 
trists, including President Bill Clinton 
and Vice President A1 Gore, has 
sparked angry responses from some 
House Democrats. 

They say Mr. Gephardt is dividing 
the party for his own political am- 
bitions and is threatening Democrats' 
hopes of reclaiming the House next 
year by giving the party a too- liberal 

The speech also triggered a flurry of 
verbal barrages from the White House, 
although Mr. Clinton and Mr. Geph- 
ardt declared a truce in a Thursday- 
night telephone call. 

"If the strategy is one of moving 
further to the left, we’ve had that de- 
bate — it was called the 1994 Re- 
publican landslide." said Representa- 
tive Timothy Roemer of Indiana, a 
leader of the New Democrat Coalition, 
a group of centrist lawmakers. 

“The ‘New Democrats,' as he calls 
them, are precisely the people who 
represent the seats he needs to capture 
in 1998 if he wants to be speaker of the 
house,” Representative James Moran, 

Democrat of Virginia, said of Mr. 

“For Dick Gephardt to seek to em- 
phasize differences within the Demo- 
cratic Party is criminal,” filmed an- 
other House Democrat. “He needs to 
be uniting the party, not dividing it” 

Other, more liberal Democratic law- 
makers, however, who have been frus- 
trated by Mr. Clinton's centrist ap- 
proach, were cheered. “It was a terrific 
speech,” said Representative David 
Obey of Wisconsin. 1 ‘Our party cannot 
win by being bloodless, our party can- 
not win by being tactical.” 

House campaign officials privately 
expressed fears that Mr. Gephardt's 
scorn for the more moderate approach 
. could hurt the party’s hopes of winning 
back the House by alienating and mar- 
ginalizing moderate, suburban law- 
makers — and candidates — in swing 
districts. fWP) 

Brown Wins Election 
For Houston Mayor 

HOUSTON — Lee Brown, the 
former big-city police official who also 

served as the federal drug-fighting 
czar, has become the first black mayor 
of the nation’s fouith-largest city. 

Despite early predictions that Mr. 
Brown would win easily, by as much as 
10 percentage points perhaps, the con- 
test with Rob Mosbacher, a wealthy 
Houston businessman, was exception- 
ally tight. With all the precincts coun- 
ted in 'Saturday’s runoff election, Mr. 
Brown had 53 percent of the vote to 47 
percent for Mr. Mosbacher. 

Mr Brown’s success probably had a 
great deal to do with the Hispanic vote, 
which both candidates admitted was 
crucial. Early estimates were that His- 
p anics were voting for Mr. Brown over 
Mr. Mosbacher by 2-to-l margin. (Wr) 


President Clinton, in effect disavow- 
ing a New York Times report, based on 
an interview with him, that said he was 
considering reducing taxes as part of 
his budget proposal to be unveiled 
early next year “No, 1 don't believe 
that 's a fair interpretation of what 1 said 
yesterday in my comments. I don t 
think I should give you any false ex- 
pectations there. I can’t say yes. I can t 
sav no. I wouldn’t rule out that I might 
find something that I think would 
work, but I don't have an idea on the 
griddle.” ( Reuters ) 

Republicans Keep 
Pressure on Reno 

Bv Brian Knowlion 

Irucrmuu'ndl lltrdU Tribune 

publicans served notice Sun- 
day that they would not let the' 
focus on possible campaign- 
finance abuses fade, despite 
Attorney General Janet Reno’s 
finding that fund-raising calls 
by President Bill Clinton and 
^ Vice President Al Gore did not 
' require investigation by an in- 
dependent counsel. 

The chairman of the Senate 
Judiciary Committee. Orrin 
Hatch of Utah, said that he 
would call on the FBI direc- 
tor, Louis Freeh, to conduct an 
independent investigation of 
possible fund-raising abuses. 

Separately, Representative 
Dan Burton of Indiana said 
that if Ms. Reno did not 
provide a copy of a memor- 
andum from Mr. Freeh, in 
which he argued for an in- 
dependent counsel. Mr. Bur- 
ton might seek a contempt 

The Government Reform 
and Oversight Committee, of 
which Mr. Burton is chair- 
man. subpoenaed the memo 
Friday. Ms. Reno reject^ the 
request, saying it could com- 
promise the department's in- 
^ vestigations, but Mr. Burton 
‘ said Sunday that her refusal 
could trigger a "crisis.’ 

And Senator Fred Thomp- 
son of Tennessee, whose 
Governmental Affairs Com- 
mittee held its own hearings 
on campaign-finance abuses, 
said he would soon send in- 
formation to the Justice De- 
partment that could lead to 

indictments on perjury 

Mr. Hatch and many other 
Republicans have harshly 
criticized Ms. Reno's de- 
cision not to seek the appoint- 
ment of an independent coun- 
sel, saying there were ample 
grounds to investigate a slew 
of allegations up to and in- 
cluding a supposed conspir- 
acy by Democratic and White 
House officials to circumvent 
federal campaign law. 

There was no immediate 
comment from Mr. Freeh 
about Mr. Hatch's call for an 
independent inquiry by the 
FBI. But a ranking Democrat 
in the Senate, Can Levin of 
Michigan, said he was certain 
that Mr. Freeh would resist 
the call. 

"I don’t think that Louis 

Freeh will succumb to the kind 
of pressure that is being put on 

him," Mr. Levin said on 
CNN. “1 just think that Louis 
Freeh is going to resist the 
politicization of die FBL” 

Ms. Reno, appearing an the 
CBS News program “Face 
the Nation,” repeated her as- 
sertion that investigations 
were continuing and that new 
evidence could still trigger the 
independent-counsel statute. 
"No one has been exoner- 
ated," she said, "and 1 think 
it’s important to make that 
message clear to everyone.” 

Mr. Thompson said that 
Ms. Reno had set ‘ ‘such a high 
threshold" that the next pres- 
idential campaign would see 
brazen abuses. “Nothing is 
going to be against the law 
anymore," he said. 

Away From 

• Cleanup crews have re- 
covered nearly 25.000 gal- 
lons 195.000 liters) of luel 
spilled from a Japanese 
freighter that went aground 
near Dutch Harbor. A aska. 
Two crewmen were killed 
when the 368 -foot (1 1-"’ 11 ® - 
ler) vessel ran aground in 
heavy sens on Nov. 26. The 
Ship tad 1 - 2.000 gallons of 
fuel aboard. 

• A homeless man who was 
sleeping inn cardboard box m 
Brooklyn. New York, was 
killed when he was run over 
by a Department ?f Sanitation 
forklift, police smd. fNi 1 1 


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Hong Kong Stews Over English Curb in Schools 

By Edward A. Gargan 

New York Tunes Service 

‘ HONG KONG — A simple letter, 
flimsy on translucent fax paper, shook 
the beige tile walls of St Louis Sec- 
. ondary School this week, and those of 
23 other high schools in Hong Kong. 

“Dear Principal,” the letter on the 
Reverend Simon Lam Chung- wax's 
desk began, “we are not satisfied that 
your school meets the requirements for 
' the effective use of English as a medium 
for instruction. You should therefore 
adopt the mother tongue for teaching all 
" academic subjects.*' 

Mr. t-nm shook his head slowly, hold- 
ing the letter limp in his hands. 

“Seventy years of history,'* he said. 
“Seventy years of history and now the 
school has to change to a Chinese 
school. This is unfair to the school- ” 
Five months after Hong -Kong re- 
verted to China from British colonial 
rule, the territory’s government is mov- 
ing methodically to end the use of Eng- 
lish in high schools and replace it with 
Cantonese. And though 95 percent of 
Hong Kong's 6.5 million people speak 
Cantonese as their first language, the 
government's decision has been met by 
a grounds we 11 of opposition. 

In this heartland of Asian commerce, 
the hails of finance and trade echo less 
with Cantonese than with English, a 
language that is now associated less with 
colonialism than with access to the glob- 
al economy. En g lish remains an official 
language of government; two English-, 
language newspapers are published 
here, and English is the first language of 
Hong Kong University, the territory’s 
premier institute of higher learning. 

So important is Eng lish competence 
considered that an effort is being planned 
to recruit 700 native English-speakers to 
raise the standard of English instruction 
in the upper classes of high school. 

Even so, the Hong Kong government 
insists that Cantonese is the wave of the 
future and the future starts now. 

“The education department is head- 
ing toward a total teaching in the mother 
tongue,** said Moses Cheng Mo-chi, 
chairman of the Hong Kong Board of 
Education. “But Hong Kong, being a 
place that is a free community where 1 
peoples’ choice is respected, we have to 
do it gradually and at a pace that is 
acceptable to the community ” 

In the Sham Shoi Po district, Lee Chi 
Pui, the principal of Maryknoll Fathers’ 
School, also received a faxed letter 
telling Him to begin teaching' in 
Cantonese next September. 

“Our school has been teaching in Eng- 
lish for 40 years,’ ' he said. “Our current 
students and alumni are all really shocked 
by this. They feel really left out 

“I don't disagree that teaching in the 
mother tongue is a good thing,” he 
continued. Here, as in the other schools 
affected, nearly all the students are 
Chinese. * ‘From a patriotic standpoint, I 
think it’s a good thing. But we are not a 
closed society. We cannot develop in- 
wards. We have to open up to the out- 
side world,” 

And at Pope Paul VI College, a high 
school in Kowloon, students hung ban- 
ners along the school’s fence demand- 
ing that the school be allowed to con- 
tinue instruction in English. “Many of 
the girls were in tears when we an- 
nounced the news of it at assembly.” 
said the school supervisor, Sister 
Theresa. “They really do love this 

Of Hong Kong's 424 high schools, 
300 teach in Cantonese and 124 in Eng- 
lish. The education department has 
ordered 24 of the latter to shift to 
Cantonese next fall, while permitting 
die other 100 to continue teaching in 
English for the time being. 

The decision was based, Mr. Cheng 

said, on which schools were attracting 
students with good English, had a fac- 
ulty capable of providing high-level in- 
struction in English and had programs to 
assist students with English difficulties. 
Even parochial schools receive govern- 
ment subsidies in Hong Kong and are 
subject to government regulation. 

Since the 100 schools allowed to con-, 
tinue operating in English include elite 
institutions that have produced many of 
the civic and business leaders who run 
Hong Kong today, the 24 schools that 
have been told to begin teaching in 
Cantonese can hardly avoid a sense of 
public demotion. And the standards 
used to decide which schools have to 
switch have been hotly disputed 

“This decision will hurt the school,' ' 
complained Vincent Chan, a 17-year- 
old who is finishing his final year at SL 
Louis Secondary. 

“People in Hong Kong think good 
students should enter English schools. 
Hong Kong is a business center. If you 
recognize that Chinese is not known 
around the world, how can you do busi- 
ness here if you don’t speak English? If 
you have good English, you can get a 
good job. u you have only Chinese, you 
can only do business with- those 

Even more, insisted a classmate, Si- 
mon Lai, the school would lose face. 

“It is generally accepted that English 
schools are the best schools,” he- said 
during a break from a biology class. “If 
we cannot use English , good students 
will not come here. People will see us 
differently. People will become di- 
vided The rich will speak English and 
become richer and the poor will speak 
Chinese and become poorer." 

The English-language South China 
Morning Post expressed concern about 
the potential schism that could emerge 
in a society that permits fewer and fewer 
English-language schools. 

“Parents will conclude that these 
schools have higher standards than the 
rest, whether it is fair or not,” the paper 
said in an editorial “The rash for plates 
is bound to be heavy, and a new edu- 
cational elite may emerge.” 

But Ming Pao, one of the leading 
Chines e-language dailies, areued that 
the needs of Chinese Hong Kong chil- 
dren would be best served by instruction 
in Chinese, as repeated surveys and 
experiments in the language of instruc- 
tion appear to demonstrate. 

For Mr. Lam at Sl Louis Secondary, 
however, the question of English is more 
complex. “I don't object to Chinese as a 
medium of instruction,” he said, “but 
what I object to is pushing us to use 
Chinese, the parents like (lie kids to be 
taught in Englis h and the kids like to be 
taught in English. This is their right.” 

- Cmsar Yalt/Rca'an J 

Tung Chee-bwa, the Hong Kong leader, was unhurt afty -a tumble. He 
had been addressing a rally to whip up support for legislative elections. 

Sounding the Alarm on New Flu Virus 


HONG KONG — A top health of- 
ficial here said Sunday that he could not 
rule out the risk that a flu virus pre- 
viously unknown in humans could 
spread worldwide after killin g two 
people in Hong Kong. 

Two experts from the federal Centers 
for Disease Control and Prevention in 
Atlanta have flown to Hong Kong to 
help study the H5N1 influenza virus, 
which is usually confined to chickens. 

Hong Kong’s Health Department 
said in a statement late Saturday that it 
had discovered two new cases of the 
virus in humans. A 54-year-old man 
died and a 13-year-old girl was stfil 
hospitalized The discovery of the latest 
cases brings the total to four, all of them 
in Hong Kong. 

Paul Saw, Hoag Kong's deputy di- 

rector of health, said at a news con- 
ference that Hong Kong and the Centers 
for Disease Control were speeding up 
efforts to produce a vaccine. He added 
that the World Health Organization had 
been asked to help develop it 

“ We are hurrying to make the vaccine 
because there is a potential for the virus 
to spread worldwide,” Mir.. Saw said. 

Ken Shortridge, a microbiologist on 
the investigating team, said farmers in 
areas of southern China bordering Hong 
Kong had been found to cany antibodies 
for tbe virus while not displaying symp- 

International experts said similar vir- 
uses in the past had crossed over from 
animal species, including birds and 
pigs. Among humans, who have no im- 
munity to them, they could lead to glob- 
al flu epidemics, or pandemics. 

More than 20 million people died in 
the worse pandemic, the Spanish flu erf 
1918- Nearly 40 years later. 1 million 
succumbed to the Asian flu, and in 2968 
the Hong Kong flu claim e d up to 
700,000 fives. 

Health authorities around the world 
have been alerted to step up surveillance 
and detection of the new virus. But Mr. 
Saw issued a call for calm, saying hu- 
man -to-human transmission of the virus 
had not been proved. jj 

‘‘There is no cause for panic, as avail- ” 
able evidence does not suggest that the 
disease is widespread,” he said. 

People should maintain a good diet, 
exercise and ensure effective ventilation 
to bolster their resistance, Mr. Saw said, 
arfrftng that it was essential for people to 
wash their hands after handling meat, 
poultry and fecal matter. (Reuters, AFP) 

As Gore Heads for Summit on Warming, Expectations Rise With the Risks 

By Joby Warrick 

Washington Post Service 

KYOTO, Japan — Vice President A1 
Gore faced high expectations and even 
. higher risks Monday as he swept into an 
international global warming confer- 
ence here that has cast him both as 
villain and as potential savior. 

Mr. Gore flew to Kyoto early Monday 
' morning on a mission to help cement a 
deal that could help protect the. Earth’s 
climate and fulfill a lifelong ambition 
for a man who has made global warming 
one of the central issues of his political 
career. But the talks, which began Dec. 

1, are at a near standstill, and Mr. Gore 
bears an increasingly heavy burden as 
delegates look to him to achieve what 
seven days of negotiations could not 

The stakes for the vice president rose 
further Sunday. as European minis ters 
publicly challenged Mr. Gore to bring a 
radically new bargaining position to 
Kyoto — something White House of- 
ficials have said he would not do. 

The European Union has criticized 
tbe Clinton administration’s proposals 
for fighting global warming as weak — 
although there were new iunts on Sun- 
day that die Union's ministers were 
prepared to compromise if the United 

States and other key countries would do 

“If A1 Gore had nothing new to offer 
he would not come to Kyoto,” Ritt 
Bjerregaard, the EU environment com- 
missioner, said Sunday. Dismissing 
Washington's plan to stabilize green- 
house emissions at 1990 levels by 2012 
as “unacceptable.” Mrs. Bjerregaard. a 
Dane, said she hoped Mr. Gore “will 
have a new proposal." 

Environmental groups attending die 
conference threw down challenges as 
welL While many activists were 
heartened by Mr. Gore’s decision to 
attend tbe talks, others worried that in- 



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tense international pressure for a treaty 
would result in a weak agreement that 
would do little to protect the envir- 

“The vice president must break the 
logjam in the negotiations," said Fred 
Krupp, executive director of the En- 
vironmental Defense Fund. He added 
that “die treaty cannot just be a piece of 
paper filled with good intentions.” 

After his arrival Monday morning, 
Mr. Gore was scheduled to hold private 
talks with delegation leaders from 
Europe, Asia and several developing 
countries before heading home in the 

He also will address the full assembly 
of the 159 nations participating in the 
United Nations conference on climate 
change, a 10-day meeting scheduled to 
begin Wednesday, when delegates hope 
to sign an international protocol im- 
posing legally binding limits on pol- 
lutants blamed for warming the planet 

Scientists say they believe mat in- 
creasing concentrations of carbon di- 
oxide and other so-called greenhouse 
gases will raise temperatures substan- 
tially over the next century, triggering a 
rise in the sea level that could swamp 
coastal cities and cause potentially dis- 
astrous changes in weather patterns. 

The talks enter a make-or-break 
phase Monday with the arrival of Mr. 
Gore and the start of high-level talks 
among ’other senior government min- 
isters who began arriving over the 

Mr. Gore was not expected to par- 
ticipate directly in the negotiations, al- 
though U.S. delegation members were 
counting on the vice president’s per- 
suasive powers to help resolve many of 
tbe remaining obstacles to a c limat e 

Although Mr. Gore’s views on global 
wanning are well-known, many of tbe 
nations attending tbe conference have 
accused the United States of being the 
primary obstacle to a treaty. Not only is 
die U.S. climate proposal less ambitious 
than the plans proffered by many other 
countries, but it also calls on developing 
countries to play a role in averting glob- 
al warming — a prospect poorer coun- 
tries have stubbornly resisted. While 
industrialized nations are by far the 
biggest emitters of greenhouse gases, 
less developed nations such as China are 
likely to surpass the West in overall 
emissions in die coining decades. 

With less than three days of bar- 
gaining r emaining , negotiators have 
reached agreement on only a handful of 
the dozens of issues contained in the 
proposed treaty. The delegates werestill 
sharply divided on how quickly and 
how extensively to cut greenhouse 
gases, and on how, if at all, to involve 
developing countries in the solution. 

A hopeful sign of possible movement 
on the target question came late Sunday 
in a published report suggesting that 
European delegates were ready to com- 
promise if other countries did the 

Coordinated Attacks on Trains 
Kill 11 and Wound 54 in India 

Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott 
of Britain suggested in an interview 
.with Reuters that the European Union 
was ready to drop an ambitious proposal |J 
to limi t greenhouse gas emissions at 15 *1 
percent below 1990 levels by 2010. 
“We have to find an agreement between 
zero and 10 percent,” Mr. Prescott 

The hints of possible compromise 

by Wednesfay^But Senator Joseph 
Lieberman, Democrat of Connecticut 
and a member of an official Congres- 
sional observer delegation, warned that 
such a pact might not meet the require- 
ments of a Republican-controlled Sen- 
ate that must ratify the treaty for it to 
take effect In a bipartisan resolution 
thatpassed 95 to 0 this summer, senators 
said they would oppose any accord that 
did not include participation by devel- 
oping countries as well as incentive 
programs to ease costs for businesses. 

But Mr. Lieberman said if the Kyoto 
treaty did not meet the Senate’s test mi 
its face, the Clinton administration 
might still be able to win support in the 
Senate by negotiating, bilateral agree- 1| 
meats with key such developing coun- “ 
tries as China and Brazil. Unless these 
rapidly growing economies join the 
West in reigning in pollution, the Kyoto 
accord will ultimately foil to keep 
greenhouse gases in check, be said. 

‘ ‘We ought to lead, but they ought to 
follow,” Mr. Lieberman said. 


New York Times Service 

NEW DELHI — Three 
bombs killed II people and 
wounded 54 others on trains 
in southern India over the 
weekend, raising fears that 
the campaign for a general 
election in February could be 
marred by violence. 

United News of India re- 
ported that the police had 
found a note on one train from 
a previously unknown group, 
the Islamic Defense Force, 
taking responsibility. It was 
said to blame the government 
for failing to punish the lead- 

ers of a Hindu mob that de- 
stroyed a mosque in the north- 
ern town of Ayodhya five 
years ago Saturday. 

Muslims expressed concern 
that the blasts — two in the 
stale of Tamil Nadn and one m 
Kerala — could have been in- 
tended to arouse anti-Muslim 
feelings in the south, which is 
likely to be a crucial electron 
battleground for the Hindu na- 
tionalist Bharatiya Janata 
Party. News agencies said sus- 
pects described as fundamen- 
talists had been arrested in the 
Tamil Nadu explosions. 



Tel: +33 I 41 43 93 61 Tel: (USA toll free) 1-800-882-2834 TH: +852 29 22 11 7 I 

Fax: +33 I 41 43 92 10 Fax: + 1212 755 3785 Fax: +852 29 22 I I 99 

North Korea Health System 
Collapsing ; Aid Workers Say 

HONG KONG — North Korea’s entire health system 
has collapsed, a top international aid official said Sunday, 
with no modem medicine, anesthetic or even soap — and 
no patients as the sick preferred to die at home. 

The bead of Doctors without Borders, Eric Goemaere, 
said at a news conference that North Korea could be 
beading for yet another catastrophe’ unless international 
aid was forthcoming. 

Mr. Goemaere, who headed a s mall team visiting five 
districts in North Hamgyong Province over the last week, 
said hospitals and. clinics be visited had abysmally low 
standards of hygiene and lacked modern medicine. 

“There were doctors and buildings, but no aspirin, no 
anesthetic, no basic medicines, no heating, no soap and no 
milk and therefore no patients,” he said. “The health 
system in North Korea has collapsed. ” (Reuters ) 

Exhausting Battle in Sri Lanka 

COLOMBO — ; Sri Lankan troops and Tamil Tiger 
rebels will need time to recover and regroup after last 
week’s fierce fighting in the north that left scores of 
soldiers and guerrillas dead or wounded, militar y officials 
said Sunday. 

They said casualties on both sides were high after one 
of the fiercest encounters in the military’s six-month 
canmaign to capture a strategic highway connecting the 
northern government-held frontier town, of Vavuniya 
with Kulinochchi, further north. 

The rebels will have a lot of problems, a military 
spokesman said. * ‘After high intensity battles it takes time 
to regroup.” (Reuters) 

100 Hurt in Bangladesh Clash 

DHAKA, Bangladesh — More than 100 people were 
injured in separate clashes between rival activists during 
an opposition-led nationwide strike in Bangladesh on 
Jsunday, witnesses and hospital sources said. 

They iiwluded 24 people wounded by shrapnel from 
home-made bombs and admitted to Dhaka Medical Col- 
lege hospital. 

The ^^to-dusk strike was called by main opposition 
Bangladesh Nationalist Party to protest a recenr peace 

S^®T^s gOV “ Wifll tribal rebeIs “ 

in!? 608 ’ “* tiers cbshfid tribespeople in 

Khagrachhp and Rangamati districts of the HiOTracts, 
injuring at feast 20 people, local officials said. (Reuters) 






Word Gets Out That Mossad Spymaster Made Up Reports About Syria 

By Serge Schmemann 

• >>l 11 )>"’■ l:n:r\SiT \ i.v 

■ JERUSALEM — In ;t case certain to 
turtltcr discredit the Ismeli intelligence 
.service, tcwlaiions have surfare.^ rh*. ^ 

regard the Mossad as a rival, to declare 
that military chiefs never paid much 
heed to Mossad information, hut trusted 
its own. 

h.,.,,, j 3X11 ^PPy to say that at the time I 
Moss* WmwM to ^. dn ' OT > ray Nation.” Defense 

watching Syria apparently invented his 
reports lor several years. ’ 

Military censorship has 

Minister Yitzhak Mordechai declared 
with obvious satisfaction. “We formu- 
lated views about the situation on the 
"mhst ileuils tyf ft-"”' u.r “T* border with the Syrians on the basis of a 

niihlic but wm,. ‘ini n ^de network of information, and not on the 

.public, but some particulars, including basis of the H.mli^konc •* 

•the spy s name. have spread rapidly 


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i ■ 

through Israel since the newspaper 
•Ha'oieiz first published a heavily ccn- 
;«oriI report iIkii unspecified "false in- 
formation had influenced key govern- 
ment decisions on Syria. 

- Since then, various other tidbits have 
-emerged from official statements, as- 
sessments and denials. 

Combined with the secrecy .surround- 
ing the case, these have sent newspapers, 
politicians and retired intelligence of- 
ficials into feverish spcculatfon about 
the potential danger of the false reports, 
Mlie motivations of the Mossad agent. 
1 rivalries among Israel's intelligence ser- 

■ vices, motives of those who were leak- 

• ing the information and of those who 

• were suppressing it. and the effect on the 
future of the intelligence agency. 

i The Mossad is already under inves- 
' ligation oyer a botched assassination at- 

■ tempt against a Palestinian figure in Am- 
man. Jordan, in September, which led to 

' the capture of several agents and their swap 
for the spiritual leader of the Islamic move- 
ment Hamas. Sheikh Ahmed Yassin. 

Late last week, the head of the com- 
mission investigating the operation 

■ warned that the head of the Mossad, 
1 Danny Yatom, and another top official 
. were likely to he harmed by the com- 

• mission's conclusions. 

The basic facts that have been made 

■ public so far arc that, for several years, a 
Mossad officer fed false reports about 
the current thinking of the Syrian lead- 
ership. suggesting Uiat President Hafez 
Assad wjs opposed to making peace 
with Israel. 

Such information might have played a 
role in the late Prime Minister Yitzhak 
Rabin's decision to shift from trying to 
make a deal with Syria to working on a 
peace with the Palestinians. 

• More recently, tensions mounted be- 
tween Israel and Syria when the Syrians 
mm ed their 1 4th .Armored Division from 
Lebanon to Mount Hemton on the Israeli 
bonier. Disinformation about this move 
>ef off an internal debate about whether 
the shift was hostile or defensive. 

The spy’s reports supported the idea 
that this was an aggressive move, al- 
though it was later determined through 
l».S. mediation that the troop transfer 
was defensive. 

That speculation prompted tlie army, 
whose intelligence services are said to 

basis of the duplicitous source.' 

Other newspapers cited a "senior of- 

ficial" on board Prime Minister Ben- 
jamin Netanyahu's flight to Germany on 
Thursday, who also contended that the 
false data ‘ ‘was not of substantial value” 
and that it was always weighed against 
other information received. 

The official also praised Mr. Yatom, 
who took charge of the Mossad only 
within the last year, for his "courage” 
and for having “ expunged the un- 
leavened bread in pur midst." 

The remarks fueled speculation that it 
was Mr. Yatom who leaked the infor- 
mation to deflect attention from the 
botched Amman operation and to por- 
tray himself as a man ready and able to 
clean house. 

Another question was the motive of 
the agent. Both Israeli television stations 
reported Saturday that the man had con- 
fessed and had been charged with es- 
pionage and breach of trust 

The reports said that be had evidently 
acted neither out of political nor finan- 
cial motives, but as a result of some 
psychological problem. The reports 
identified him as an older man who had 
spent several years in retirement before 
returning to active duty. 

Though his exact actions remained 
under censorship, one rumor was that he 
had been responsible for managing an 
agent in Syria who died, and that he 
continued fabricating reports and col- 
lecting the money due the Syrian spy. 

But suspicion 'remained that the cor- 
rupt agent acted out of rightist ideology. 
Israel Radio reported that the man 
worked in the offices of the far-right 
Moledet party for a few months in 1 992- 
93. A former member of Parliament 
from Moledet, Shaul Gutman, told the 
radio (hat he had suspected the agent of 
various acts of internal espionage and 
sent a warning letter to Mr. Rabin. 

The senior official aboard Mr. Net- 
anyahu's plane, though, told reporters 
that "whoever it was dial submitted the 
false information did not act on the basis 
of political motivation .” 

But opposition politicians asserted 
just that 

”1 have difficulty sleeping at night, 
knowing that false information was 


Israeli Workers End Big Strike 

Histadrut Slops Walkout as It Reaches Deal With Ministry 

Mmahcni kahonjMfcnc.' Fiance -P it** 

Strikers arguing Sunday with border guards at a courthouse in 
Jerusalem, just one of many protests during the last day of the strike. 

I'. *>y ft i Oar 5 rim: thfurk 

JERUSALEM — The Histadrut 
labor federation announced Sunday an 
end to a nationwide strike that had para- 
lyzed much of the Israeli economy. 
r About 700.000 public sector workers 
walked out Wednesday in a dispute over 
pensions and privatization. The strike, 
the biggest in Israel in years, shut down 
the main international airport, seaports, 
banks, postal services and the Tel Aviv 
Stock Exchange. The federation an- 
nounced the end of the strike after saying 
ii expected to sign a compromise agree- 
ment with the Treasury' late Sunday. 

Histadrut had demanded that the 
Treasury honor a pension deal signed 
by the Labor government weeks before 
Benjamin Netanyahu of the conserva- 
tive Likud party defeated it in elections 
in May 1 996. 

It was not immediately clear whether 
the government had met the labor 
group’s demands, but Channel One 
television said Histadrut had achieved 
all the goals it had set for itself in 
declaring the strike. 

Tlie leader of Histadrut. .Amir Peretz. 
met Sunday with Finance Minister 
Yaakov Neeman. 

"1 hope that this nightmare for Is- 
raelis ends tonight,” the minister said. 

Hundreds of striking workers 
blocked major intersections in protest 
Sunday. About a third of the country's 
bus drivers joined the strike, and oil 
refineries had threatened to stop sup- 
plying crude oil to the electric com- 
pany. Israel Radio said more than 
60.000 people in Jerusalem and Tel 
Aviv were without phone service be- 
cause repair workers w ere striking. 

Ben Gurion International Airport 
was a scene of confusion Sunday as 
thousands of tourists stranded by the 
strike foughr for seats on flights our of 
the country. The director of the airport. 
Israel Ben-Haim, said too many people 
had come to the airport, hoping to get a 
flight, and overcrowding was becom- 
ing a “ critical problem.” 

"Army Radio said crowding was so 
bad that the airport, renowned For its 
extensive security checks, was forgo- 
ing baggage searches to get people onto 
flights more quickly. 

Avi Coteles. head of the Airport Au- 
thority. estimated that 15.000 Israelis 
traveling overseas could not get home 
because" of the strike. (Renters. API 

U.S. to Keep Up to 500 Troops in Haiti 

By Bradley Graham 

Woshin^ion Posi Srni «■ 

WASHINGTON — President Bill 
Clinton has decided to keep U.S. troops 
in Haiti, even as the last United Nations 
peacekeepers withdrew this week amid 
signs the country is sliding back into 
political paralysis and economic decay. 

Mr. Clinton stressed that the U.S. mil- 
itary mission would continue to focus on 
public-works projects, not security and 
law enforcement. 

But the decision to exiend the Amer- 
ican troop presence for an indefinite 
period came over the objections of Sen- 
ator Jesse Helms. Republican of North 
Carolina, and other members of Con- 
gress. who have warned that such a 
move would be futile and risky. 

More than 20,000 U.S. troops led an 
international force into Haiti three years 

but has continued to rotate up to 500 
active-duty and reserve soldiers into 
Haiti for civil affairs work such as build- 
ing roads, digging wells, repairing 
schools and providing medical assist- 

The UN operation formally expired 
on Nov. 30, and the last contingents of 
Canadian and Pakistani peacekeepers 
began departing last week. Authoriza- 
tion for the U.S. mission in Haiti had 
been due to expire Dec. 3 1 . 

Mr. Clinton, speaking to reporters on 
the White House lawn, disclosed his 
decision to extend the mission when 
asked if he intended to keep troops in 
Haiti indefinitely. 

"Have I made an indefinite commit- 
ment? No.” the president said. “But I 
have made a definite commitment to 
continue to be involved there in ways 
that I think are appropriate. 

"We are doing some public-works 

ago to dismantle a military dictatorship 
passed on by this person as a result of and reinstate Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the projects there, which we’ve been asked 
ideological-political considerations,” country’s first freely elected president, to continue and to finish, try to ac- 

said Binyamin Ben-Eliezer of the op- The’U.S. military pulled out of the UN celerate,’ ’ he went on. "And, of course, 
position Labor Party. peacekeeping operation early last year I think it does contribute to die stability 

of the area.” He said the U.S. presence 
"will not be indefinite.” adding that 
withdrawals would occur “in a staged 

But a Pentagon spokesman said that 
Mr. Clinton had placed no time limit on 
(he extension. 

Defense officials said the force would 
continue to consist of up to 500 soldiers 
drawn largely from engineering and 
medical units, with a substantial combat 
element responsible for protecting the 
contingent. The number of combat 
troops could increase if security in Haiti 
erodes, the officials said. 

“We don't expect any change in the 
threat on the ground to U.S. forces after 
the UN leaves.” a spokesman for the 
National Security Council said. 

In addition to the troops, the United 
States is committed to providing up to 50 
civilian police officers as part of a 300- 
member multinational force charged by 
the Uni led Nations to work with the two- 
year-old Haitian national police. But that 
mandate is scheduled to expire in a 

3 Skydivers Killed 
In South Pole Jump 

The tXssiK’iufciI Prvsi 

SYDNEY — Three people plunged to 
their deaths Sunday when their parachutes 
failed to open, in what was believed to be 
the first skydive at the South Pole. 

They were among six skydivers on the 
jump, organized by Adventure Network 
International, a private company that has 
been flying tourists to the South Pole 
since 198S. 

The names and nationalities of the vic- 
tims and survivors were not released by 
U.S. Antarctic officials. It was not im- 
mediately known why the chutes failed. 

A notice circulated to U.S. Antarctic 
staff by Dwight Fisher, the U.S. National 
Science Foundation representative at 
McMurdo Station, confirmed that the 
deaths occurred during what was be- 
lieved to be the first private skydiving 
jump ever made at the South Pole. 

The notice said the skydivers made 
iheir jump Sunday morning. Three 
chutes failed to open, and a doctor and 
emergency team found the bodies after a 
short search. 




W)rld-beating switch 
for the information age 

Deep in the heart of every telecom net- 
work are the switches that route traffic 
through the network, and also provide 
the ’brains' tor more sophisticated net- 
work operation techniques, and new 
services for end users. 

These switches are invisMe to i users, 
but they are critical to the flexibility, eff>- 

cfency aid economy with which end-user 
services can be marketed. 

It's a specialist field in which Ericsson 
has a uniquely strong position. On a 
world scale, fixed teiecom networks in 
120 countries and mobile networks in 

some 95 countries are built on Ericsson 


The system that has given Ericsson 
such a world lead is called AXE. ft is the 
most widely-deployed switching system 
in the world today, supporting over 130 
million fixed fines and over 60 million 
mobile subscribers. 

Continuous evolution 

As tho needs c& the fixed and wireless 
tetecoms industry sectors have evolved, 
so the AXE system has proved ItseH ca- 
pable of constant evolution, to offer the 
right network and service capabilities at 
the right time. 

Bight now. the A)® system is going 
through another significant development 
phase, and being readied for the infor- 
mation age, where it win support such 
new telecom and datacom applications 

as global mobile sateffite networte, mutti- 
metfia communications, and nexbgenera- 
tion wireless networks. 

As part of tills latest phase of develop- 
ments, the processing power of an AXE 
switch has been pushed up again. Mean- 
while, the physical size, the electrical 
power consunption and the maintenance 
needs have all beat significantly reduced. 
These aid other system enhancements 
wiR aHow networks to be operated more 

Switch into an 
open architecture. 

Over and above afl these specific tech- 
nical developments, however, is the tact 
that the AXE system has moved on tar 
beyond its original function of a switch. It 
is increasing ty becoming an open archi- 
tecture, containing a growing range of 
industry-standard hardware and software, 
with open-standard access Interfaces. 

Development work on AXE is a con- 
tinuing process, and over the next few 
years the company expects to aitroduce 
further Increases In processor capacity, 
throughput, and switching capacity. 

The goal is to ensure that the AXE sys- 
tem stays at the heart of network devel- 
opments as the information era takes 
shape, defivering afl types of voice, data 
erfonwttimecSa service for wired and wire- 
less users, and fitting into alt types of r»t- 
work Infrastructure, large or small 


Stylish new 
for trendsetters 

This new GF 768 phone for GSM networks 
not only looks good, with its bright colours 
and optional carry cases, but also offers 
some exciting new functions that will 
appeal to people who enjoy an active 

Measuring just 105 mm x 49 mm x 23 
mm, it has a singfe-levai menu for speed 
of use, and simple YES and NO keys. The 
Alternate Line sendee lots users have two 
lines with different numbers; while the 
Scratch Pad feature lets them key in a 
number whfle they are talking, avofrSng the 
need for pen and paper. 

New laser source for 
optical networks 

Am ImrwM 

An important sector for Ericsson 
Components is the development and 
production of optoelectronic devices such 
as lasers and detectors, as well as fully 
integrated IfonMjptic modules for use in 
digital transport networks. 

A recent new product that hlghfights 
tills activity is this laser module for use in 
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing 
(DWDM) telecom systems. 

The PGT 20108 is designed for use in 
optical fore t ran sm i s s ion finks of up to 600 
km, with in-line amplifiers, ft ads as the 
source for an Optical Supervisory 
Channel, transmitting monitoring and 
alarm signals between the in-line 


New record for 
quarterly earnings 

Ericsson’s results for ft© first nine 
rr&nths of 1997 show onto bookings, 
net sales and income all sharply 


Order bookings wem up by 41% at 
SEK 134,740m; net safes up by 44 % 
at SEK 1 12JS1 7m; and pre-tax income 
up to 65% at SEK 10 J25m. 

These results signal the 24th con- 
secutive quarter in which the compa- 
ny's order bookings have increased. 
Income for the third quarter of 1997 
a feoseta new record for the company 

This has been acfnev&J against a 
market background to wbtt competi- 
tors are becoming more active and 
more aggressive. In countering the 
Increased competition. Ericsson is 
focusing on sho rter l ead times for 
time-to-customer (T7C), end timeAo- 
market (TTM), as well as higher 
quality and increased BeribBty Meas- 
ures that include cost control, rafion- 
aBsation and efficiency have 

enabled the company to maintain 

grossm &yii T S&id lmprovktethe profit 

Commenting on the results, 
Bfosson CEO Dr Ears Bamqvfetssfo: 
’Gfoba/ (ywthinthe number of mobSe 
telephone subscriber continues, with 
the system standards supplied by 
Ericsson stre n gthening their postiion. 
Ericsson has thus been able to con- 
SoGdate its tearing market position. 
The Mobile Phones end Terminals 
Business Area continues to 
develop very strongly with a doubting 
o /safes.' 

BT selects Ericsson optical 
networking technology 

In theory, the information capacity of 
optical fibre transmission systems is 
virtually unlimited. In practice, the capacity 
is limited by the performance of the 
transmitting and receiving equpment at 
either end of the fibre. 

If technical solutions can be developed 
to allow optical fibres already in the 
ground to carry more information, it win 
allow telecom operators to handle traffic 
growth without needing to lay down more 
optical cables. 

This is why a recent announcement 
from the UK is interesting. The Ericsson 
Optical Network (ERION) system is to be 
used by BT in a Dense Wavelength 
Division Multiplexing (DWDM) pilot 

ERK3N optical networking technology 
allows the information capacity of current 
generations of transmission equipment to 
be maximised, and provides a migration 
path to future transport systems based on 
ATM and fast IP interconnect 

Towards the 
third generation 

Ericsson, Alcatel. Nokia and Siemens 
have announced their support for 
standardisation of a future third- 
generation mobile system - known as 
Universal Mobile Tel ecommurt-i cations 
System (UMTS) - to be based on an 
evolved core GSM network. 

Commercia] services based on UMTS 
are expected to be launched in the year 
2002, in the 2 GHz frequency range. The 
technology will be able to deliver high 
data rates for applications such as high- 
speed InlemeJ/lntranst access, electronic 

multimedia mail, and full-motion video. 

The four 
companies say that 
wideband wireless 
applications would 
use a Generic Radio 
Access Network 
(GRAM) interfaced to 
GSM networks. 

Because the 2 GHz 
frequency band has 
also been designated 
by the ITU for global, 
next-generation mobile 
services (IMT-2000), the 
companies also support 
alignment of the international 
standaid-fsafion of UMTS and 
IMT-2000 network interfaces. 

Internet access to 
mobile phone service 

In a pioneering application of the 
Internet as a mainstream business 
communication channel, a Swedish 
digital mobile phone operator has 
become the first in the world to use the 
Internet as a way for subscribers to 
request information, and configure how 
their phone service works. 

Using Ericsson’s Consono Cali Centre 
solution, the new EuroManager sewice 
concept introduced by Europolitan 
provides a WWW site that subscribers can 
access. They can retrieve information 
from it, and control how their call diversion 
should operate. This information is 
automatically transferred to the mobile 
switching system. The subscriber can 
also request information from the 
customer care centre, and specify how 
(and when) this information should be 
supplied: either by fax, e-mail, short 
message service or phone call. 

This same technology could also be 
used by businesses such as banks and 
commercial organisations that seek to 
introduce innovative ways of building 
closer relationships with customers. 

Ericsson first with enhanced 
GSM voice quality 

Ericsson has become the first GSM 
network equipment supplier to put into 
commercial service the latest Enhanced 
Full Rate (EFR) technology that delivers 
wireline voice quality in GSM mobile 
phone networks. 

ft was introduced into Hong Kong's 
GSM 900 SmarTone network in early 
September. SmarTone has Hong Hong’s 
largest GSM network, with more than 
400,000 subscribers. 

Commenlxng on the development, 
SmarTone Chief Executive Officer Mr 
Hubert Ng said: “The launch of EFR is an 
important milestone in tee development 
of our network.’ 

As well as being the only network 
supplier to support EFR, Ericsson also 
offers the GH 688 mobile telephone - the 
only one on the market today that meets 
aH EFR requirements. 

World round-up 

Internal investment Ericsson has taken a 
minority side in Juniper Netmorte. a high- 

Mountain View. California. Ericsson's 
Cybertab in Merto Paik, Cfififcxnia, wifl work 
together with Juniper Networks to create 
sotutkXB tor lEBpe IP networks. 

GSM dual-band phones: Early in 1968, 
GSM wirdess network oper^ors vdi be 
to otter their aieerfoers extended marring 
possibilities, thanks to a new Ericsson 
portable phone trial offers both GSM 900 and 
DCS 1800 access. The SH 888 end SF B88 
phones have buB-in modems kx connection 
to Personal Computers, and standards 
based infra-red connection to a range ol 
peripherals. Users do not have to select a 
particular frequency band. The phone 
automatical searches tor and ccmecfe to 

ihe most appropriate network. 

USA: Fou Personal Comnuiicdian Sendees 
(PCS) infrastructure orders lustrtee the range 
of technology Ericsson offers tor the latest 
phase oi wireless network mBout. BefiSouih 
Mobility has signed a letter of intent with 
Ericsson to supply a DAMPS 1900 OS-136 
TDMA) wireless netwk infrastructure as the 

baas of Poreoroi Communication Services 
(PCS) covering 34 Basic Trading Areas 
(ETAs) in Boston and Warri, Ericsson is to 
supply GSM 1900 PCS network 
infrastnxfcres worth up to USD 250 rnOon 
lor Omnipoirt Cornmurications Services toe. 
tn Kentucky and Tennessee, Ericsson is to 
supply PCS networks based on the GSM 
system to Powerfel Inc. And for the 
Washington/Baltimore area Ericsson has 
signed a three-year contract with APC 
covering etensiond the GSM-based Sprint 
Spectom network. 

Turkey: Turkcell, Turkey's largest GSM 
network operator, wBh 890.000 subsonbers. 
has awarded Ericsson a turnkey contract 

worft USD ItorriEon to expand the network. 
CMtoStarteL CHe’s togastwiretess network 
operator, has placed orders wih Ericsson 
totalng USD 82 mffion lhta year. The latest, 
worth USD 38 rrfioa is to tocrease capacity 
and coverage, and Includes the latest 
Ericsson I 
base stations. 

Japan: Ericsson has received its second 
order tor an tstpenmeml wideband CDMA 
system to support nexf^jeneration wireless 
mulimecfia services. ltts latest order is from 
Japan Telephone Co. Ud. Initially; the system 

wffl support daa transfer rates njto384 tops, 
with possfole later expansion to 2 Mbps. 
Ericsson has also signed ihrae-year frame 
agreements w«h the three companies in the 
Digital Phone Group, which operate PDC 
1500 MHz networks. 

Oeeh Republic: Ericsson has won hs first 
order to supply a DAMPS IS- 136 weiess 
network in central Euope, with a USD 5b 
mBon order lor a ‘feed wireless' system to 
bring telephone services to the Czech 
axrtrysde. and later to utban aeas. 
Argentina: PCS sendees bared on the d&lal 
DAMPS (1S-13Q and anatog AMPS standards 
wi he buthed in Argentina by the end of 
1997, Mowing a USD 193 rriKon network 
expansion programme tor Ihe three useless 
o perators Mriphone. Tete rom Ras onal and 
Teietonica Ca iu ■cabones Personates. 

TeJefonakbeboteget LM Ericsson, 
S-12B25, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Ericsson's tnf onnation-on-demam] detebPfte 
can be addressed at wwwr^ricasonxom 
Ericsson^ WO, 000 employees are active in more 
than 130 countries. Their combined expertise at 
Gxed and mottfe ntnworks, mobile phones and 
irtbcom systems nates Ericsson the woritf- 
Jeeding supplier in ralecammunicadons. 




One-Man Global Village: 
Murdoch’s Vast Reach 

tKuAugfOR Post Service 

WASHINGTON — If information is 
power, then News Corp. easily ranks as 
one of the most powerful entities on the 

No other media company can make the 
claim that Rupert Murdoch's company 
does: that it wul soon have the means to 
address more than 75 percent of the 
world's population simultaneously 
through satellite, broadcast and cable- 
television entities it owns wholly or in 

That is in addition to News Corp.’s 
print properties such as the book pub- 
lisher HarperColIins, its highly profit- 
able British newspapers — principally 
The Tunes of London and the tabloid 
Sun — and The Sun’s American cousin, 
tbs New York Post 

This collection of media properties is 
the handiwork of one man, Mr, Murdoch, 
who has spent the past 45 years relent- 
lessly acquiring, building and risking. 

Today. Mr. Murdoch and his family 
control just over 30 percent of News 
Carp., though for all practical purposes 
Murdoch is the company. 

Richard Searby, a prep-school friend of 
Mr. Murdoch’s in Australia and later a 
director of the company, ooce observed 
that, whereas most corporate boards meet 
to make decisions. News Corp.'s board 
meets to ratify Mr. Murdoch's decisions. 

Based in Sydney, News Corp. traces 
its ancestry to companies that were es- 
tablished in Australia in the late 1920s. 

Mr. Murdoch himself took over the 
company in 1953, shortly after his fa- 
ther’s death. His entrepreneurial begin- 

S were modest; the young Mr. Mur- 
began with a single newspaper, the 
Adelaide News, in a relatively small city 
in South Australia. 

Brash and ambitious, he struck out 
across die country, adapting and refining 
his formula for newspaper success along 
the way: labloid journalism mixed with 
big-money reader contests, heavy pro- 
motion and frequent photos of bore- 
breasted young women on Page 3. 

Mr. Murdoch repeatedly plowed the 
profits from these newspapers into big- 
ger properties. 

He expanded into the British news- 
paper market in the late 1960s and made 
the leap to the United States with his 
purchase of the San Antonio Express in 
Texas in 1973 and the Village Voice and 
New York magazine in 1977. 

All three properties have since been 

Mr. Murdoch’s first major foray into 
the entertainment business came in 
1985, with his purchase of the ailing 
Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp. 
movie studio. 

Station 13 la a msmOor of Hi* KPN Group 

The next year, after becoming a U.S. 
citizen, be bought his first six U.S- tele- 
vision stations from Metromedia. Those 
stations formed the nucleus of die Fox 
broadcasting network, which eventually 
challenged the long-standing dominance 
of the three main U.S. commercial net- 
works ABC, NBC and CBS. 

Lately, Mr. Murdoch has turned his 
acquisitive gaze to the heavens. 

With the recent success of his British 
Sky Broadcasting PLC's Sky Television 
system — whose immense start-np costs 
nearly drove News Corp. into insolv- 
ency in 1990 — Mr. Murdoch has as- 
sembled a planet-girdliqg ring of satel- 
lite-television systems that nearly 
fulfills the 1967 prophecy of die media 
theorist Marshall McLuhan that tele- 
vision would create a “global village.” 

Through joint ventures or direct in- 
vestments, News Corp. has a stake in 
satellite-TV systems in Japan, contin- 
ental Asia, Britain, continental Europe 
and Latin America. 

It also has an agreement pending to 
join with five major cable- television 
companies in a U.S. -based satellite-tele- 
vision venture known as Primes tar. 


.•W' . v .„.y • • ••• * 

AbdmAbdd NrtgftaMi 

ON GUARD IN CAIRO — Guards near the interior minister’s residence Sunday, where the police shot a 
car thief who had driven through a roadblock. The ministry said the police were investigating the incident,. 

MURDOCH: Usinglts Worldwide Wkb, News Corp . Pays For Less in Taxes Than Rivals 

Continued from Page 1 

operations as its Fox TV station group. 

“Each country has its own rules and 
regulations, and Murdoch has the or- 
ganization and talent to figure oat the 
best way to work all of them,” said 
William Markell, former c hairman of the 
University of Delaware’s accounting de- 
partment and an expert on international 
accounting. “He’s an operator. If there 
are advantages, he can find them.” 

While Aylining to provide specifics 
on News Corp.’s U.S. taxes, Arthur Sis- 
kind, the company's general counsel, said 
in an interview, “We had a lot of start-up 
businesses in foe U.S. that lost money. 
He said such, losses created deductions 
and credits that offset taxation. 

Mr. Murdoch declined to be inter- 
viewed for this article. 

Some other irmlrinarinnals adopt sim- 
ilar tax strategies, of course. For ex- 
ample, American drug companies for 
years reduced their U.S. taxes by as- 
signing huge research costs to their 
American operations — and huge tax- 
able profits to tax-exempt subsidiaries in 
Puerto Rico and Ireland, said Bob 
McIntyre of Citizens for Tax Justice, a 
Washington-based advocacy group. 

Officials of the Internal Revenue Ser- 
vice point out font U.S.-based compa- 

nies face U.S. taxes on their offshore 
subsidiaries in the Caymans and else- 
where if more than 50 percent of the 
subsidiary is controlled by American 
shareholders. But that does not apply to 
News Coro., an Australian company. 

As for playing by Australian account- 
ing rules, foe IRS says it would treat any 
effort by a U.S. company to reincor- 
porate in Australia as a taxable trans- 
action, exposing foe company to a 
massive tax bill. 

Two features particularly stand out in 
News Corp.’s operation, with regards to 
its financial picture. First, by remaining 
Australian, foe company is able to utilize 
arcane accounting rales that have pumped 
up reported profits and greatly aided Mr. 
Murdoch’s periodic acquisition sprees. 

Under Australian accounting prac- 
tices, for example. News Corp. legit- 
imately reported that it earned $561 mil- 
lion last year. Under foe tougher rules 
required of U.S.-based corporations, 
however. News Corp. would have lost 
$155 mill i nn, according to documents 
the company filed with the Securities and 
Exchange Commission. The Australian 
difference helps portray News Cozp. in a 
more favorable light to investors — par- 
ticularly when the company is stacked 
next to its American-based competition. 

Second, News Crap, has mastered foe 

use of foe offshore tax haven. It reduces its 

annual tax bill by c hannelin g profit s 

through dozens of subsidiaries in such 
low-tax or no- tax places as foe Cayman 
Islands and Bermuda. Overseas profits 
from movies made by Twentieth Century- 
Fox, for instance, flow into a News Corp.- 
con trolled company in foe Caymans, 
where they are not taxed, according to an 
executive familiar with foe operation. 

Figuring out how News Corp. arrives 
at its taxes is difficult because of the 
sheer sprawl and complexity of the com- 
pany. That may be, as some analysts 
nave suggested, the very reason for foe 
company's convoluted structure. News 
Corp.’s organizational chart consists of 
no less than 789 business units incor- 
porated in 52 countries, including Maur- 
itius, Fiji and even Cuba. 

News Corp. does not reveal much 
about these businesses. It is impossible 
to tell from public documents, for in- 
stance, how much profit or revenue each 
unit generated, even in such major op- 
erations as Twentieth Century-Fox and 
the Fox broadcasting network. 

The overall financial picture is further 
muddied by complex intercompany bor- 
rowings and finunrings and by compli- 
cated joint ventures. Mr. Murdoch Iran- 
self once conceded that the company’s 
intricate financial interior confused even 

some of his most senior executives. 

‘ “One of the things I would never 
attempt to calculate is how News' Corp. 
arrives at its tax rate, or why,” said Joan 
Reidy, a Wall Street analyst who has 
followed the company for years. 

. But News Cbtp.’s tax structure has 
drawn interest from governments on at 
least two continents in recent years. 

A 1989 report by a Parliament com- 
mittee — apparently the only govern- 
ment accounting of News Corp.’s taxes 
mu dp public — found that the company 
earned all of its total annual profit 
through subsidiaries in such low-tax 
countries as the Netherlands Antilles 
anH Bermuda. In contrast, foe main sub- 
sidiaries in Australia, Great Britain and-' 
the United States, all relatively high-tax- 
countries, recorded losses that year. 

Israeli officials late last year went 
beyond merely studying News Corp. 
Tax authorities in Jerusalem and Haifa 
raided a News Coro, subsidiary in an 
Investigation into whether foe company 
had schemed to evade taxes on $150 
million in income, according to pub- 
lished accounts. News Corp. has vig- 
orously denied any wrongdoing. 

Spokesmen for Disney, Viacom and 
Time Warner declined to comment on 
Mr. Murdoch or News Corp.'s tax struc- 

John Moss Dies at 84; Architect 
Of Freedom of Information Act 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — John Moss. 84, foe 
dogged California congressman whose 
long, lonely fight against government 
secrecy led to foe landmark Freedom of 
Information Act in 1966, died early Fri- 
day at a hospital in San Francisco. 

His family said the cause was com- 
plications of pneumonia and asthma. 

Mr. Moss, a Democrat who repre- 
sented Sacramento in the U.S. House of 
Representatives from 1953 to 1978, left 
an eye-catching legislative legacy. 

In addition to his work on the Free- 
dom of Information Act, which gave 
individual U.S. citizens access to frui- 
tions of government documents on de- 
mand. he played a major role in foe 
enactment of the Toy Safety Act of 
1970, foe Poison Package Control Act of 
1970, foe Consumer Product Safety Act 
of 1972 and the Federal Privacy Act of 

He was also co-author of the first U.S. 
automobile lemon law in 1974. The Se- 
curities Act amendments he helped push 
through Congress in 1975 blunted foe 
New York Stock Exchange’s domina- 
tion of trading, opening foe way for 
competitive pricing by abolishing fixed 

commissions and laying foe groundwork 
for foe development of electronic mar- 

Michael Hedges, 43, Guitarist 

NEW YORK (NYT) — Michael 
Hedges, 43, a guitarist whose distinctive 
style meshed folk music, jazz and an 
exploration of foe guitar’s sonic capa- 
city. was found dead on Tuesday of 
injuries suffered in an car accident near 
Boonville, California, in Mendocino 

Mr. Hedges made seven albums for 
Windham Hill Records, a label known 
for placid New Age music. But unlike 
most of tiie label's roster, be was a 
flamboyant virtuoso whose music 
pushed against boundaries. His solos 
were full of intricate counterpoint cre- 
ated with techniques from classical gui- 
tar, rock and jazz: unconventional guitar 
tunings, fusillades of harmonics, two- 
handed tapping of foe fret board and 
percussive string-snapping. 

He was a guest musician on albums by 
David Crosby and Pat Martino, among 
others. His 1990 album “Taproot” was 
no m i n a te d for a Grammy Award as best 
New Age album. 


Robinson Critical 
Of Rwandans 

KIGALI, Rwanda — Mary 
Robinson, the United Nations High 
Commissioner for Human Rights, 
left Rwanda on Sunday after a fact- 
finding visit that she said left her 
disappointed at attitudes to human 
rights and national reconciliation. 

She acknowledged an upsurge in 
violence on the part of Hutu ex- 
tremists. but said she had also noted 
an increasing number of abuses-by 
the Rwandan Patriotic Anny. 

“Political power and' decision- 
making have become more and 
more concentrated.” the former 
president of Ireland said in a state- 
ment released as she left for 

"There appears to be an absence 
of a committed policy of recon- 
ciliation and there arc a number of 
very serious human rights viola- 
tions,” she said in the statement.' 

Abuses included arbitrary arrests, 
prolonged arbitrary detentions and 
serious overcrowding resulting in 
inhumane conditions in foe prisons, 
she said. 

Rwandan authorities reacted with 
surprise to her straight-talking state- 
ment. saying foe remarks were ‘ ‘un- 
fair.” But a diplomat in Kigali wel- 
comed the comments for drawing 
attention to serious problems that he 
said required a response from the 
international community. (AFP) 

Extradition Bid 
Weighed in Israel 

JERUSALEM — Israeli author- 
ities initiated extradition proceed- 
ings Sunday against a Jewish Amer- 
ican teenager wanted in the United 
States on a murder charge, officials 

Justice Minister Tsahi Hanegbi 
forwarded a formal request to the 
Jerusalem district court to examine 
and respond favorably to five U.S. 
demand for the extradition of 
Samuel Sheinbein, 17, a ministry 
spokesman said. 

Mr. Sheinbein was arrested by 
the Israeli police in September after 
he fled the United States, where he 
was accused of murdering and dis- 
membering a young Hispanic man 
in a Washington suburb. 

The United States sent a formal 
extradition request for Mr. Shein- 
bein late last month, shortly after 
Attorney General Eliakim Rubin- 
stein of Israel ruled that the youth 
could not claim Israeli citizenship. 
Israeli nationals cannot be extra- 
dited. * .'(AFP) 

Pakistan Detains 
Iranians in Killings 

KARACHI, Pakistan — 
Pakistani security agencies have de- 
tained eight Iranian nationals in 
connection with the killings of four 
U.S. oil company employees in 
Karachi last month, police officials 
said Sunday. 

The detainees included two 
people suspected of involvement in 
the theft of the car the assailants 
used in foe Nov. 12 slayings, they 
said. The car, stolen two days before 
the attack, was later found aban- 
doned in the port city. 

Saud Mirza, senior superintend- 
ent of the Karachi police, said three 
people were taken into custody fol- 
lowing a report by an informer earli- 
er in the week. Five more were 
detained Saturday. 

He said investigators were work- 
ing on a number of theories, in- 
cluding suspicions of an Iranian 
connection in the murders. The po- 

lice are questioning foe I ranians but 
none has admitted involvement in 
foe crime, Mr. Mirza said. 

An FBI team also arrived here 
last month to join foe investigation. 
The slain Americans were auditors 
for the Houston-based Union Texas 
• Petroleum Co.. (AFP) 

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work i\’o. he doiisn t have- the longest modem cable on the planet. 

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from Station 12 And that moans he cm dial into The world s tele 
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With :i lop-top terminal the Altos service can be used to 
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For more information On Altos, return the form or call Station 12 
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Alton from Station 12 If you can get then:, you can call from there. 

CZECHS: Klaus’s Fall Shatters Hopes for an Economic Miracle 

Typo of business 



Continued from Page 1 

at an annual rate of 4 percent or more 
suddenly was struggling to grow at afl. 

‘ ‘The government called itself liberal, 
but it wasn’t,” said Evzen Kocenda, an 
economist at foe Cento - for Economic 
Research at Charles University in 
Prague. “What they did was permit the 
state not to intervene and not to enforce 
the law. But in a very illiberal way the 
government was keeping control of 
companies and not restructuring them.” 

At the heart of foe economic malaise is 
the cornerstone of Mr. Klaus’s economic 

W »« w post or fax ttiia , 

i to Station 12 Custommr Sarvtoam. PO Box ABB. 1B70AL UmuMsn. Tho HWmfmb. 

yy> M 


Station f 2* 
Tho ultimata 


For inform* fion c mil +31 255 B*S 111 

or fax +31 2GB BAB 1O0 of s-moll to StaOonl2Bpl.nBt 

hailed as a success in the early 1990s. 

The vouchers, which represented a 
stake in corporate ownership and were 
available to aU Czechs atthe equivalent of 
a little mare than a week’s salary, turned 
four-fifths of foe country’s c i tizen s into 
shareholders — the highest percentage in 
foe world, as Mr. Klaus liked to boast. 

But the vouchers quickly were bought 
up by investment funds, most of them 
owned by a handful of large banks that 
are still controlled by foe state. Op- 
erating through the funds, foe banks 
propped up industrial dinosaurs with 
easy loans, refusing to cut off foe flow of 
cash or demand restructuring for fear of 
bankruptcies and loan write-offs. 

Because of this, hundreds of compa- 
nies operate much as they did in foe 
Communist era, with bloated payrolls, 
incompetent management and substand- 
ard production facilities. Exports 
slumped while Czechs went on a buying 

spree, snapping op West European con- 
sumer goods at a ferocious rate. The 
trade deficit swelled last year to $6 bil- 
lion — a huge figure in a country of just 
103 million people. And 35 percent of 
all the bank loans are believed to have 
little chance of being repaid. 

Mr. Klaus and his government did 
little to attract foreign direct investment, 
refusing to offer tax . breaks and other 
incentives that other East European coun- 
tries were lavishing an rich multinational 
co mpa ni e s. Western portfolio investors 
who came into the market, in many cases, 
got burned and vowed not to return. 

“I’ve heard Western portfolio in- 
vestors say, ‘Give me one good reason to 
be in foe Czech Republic,’ ” said Mr. 
Sanders, die American fund manager. 
“If foe Czech Republic wants its share 
of global funds, it has to compete for 
them and create an attractive environ- 
ment And you don’t see a lot of that. In 
feet, you see a lot of arrogance.” 

No one set the tone for that arrogance 
more than Mr. Klaus. For a time, many 
Czechs loved him, and most credited 
him with foe boom that transformed 
Prague into one of foe region’s most 
attractive and lively cities. 

Pouring scorn on his critics and dis- 
daining foe advice of foreign specialists, 
he balked at establishing a watchdog 
agency to clean up foe stock market and 
at legislation to cut the ties among the 
banks, foe investment funds and the 
companies they controlled. 

Meanwhile, scandals engulfed his 
Civic Democratic Party, including re- 

ports that investors had channeled 
money into foe party’s secret Swiss hank 
accounts in return for favorable treat- 
ment in privatization deals. Mr. Klaus 
said be would consider resigning if only * 
there were anyone who could take his 
place. However, he said, there was not > 

Politically weakened for more than a 1 
year, he finally was forced to resign 
when one of the three governing co- 
alition parties withdrew its support. 

“This is a political and moral crisis ■ 
that's been compounded by economic 
problems,” said Michael Zamovsky, a ■ 
former Czech ambassador to the United ' 
States. “We were bound to come to a • 
rough spot sooner or later — we had ‘ 
none for foe last five years. But it's not a 
structural problem.” 

Analysis say foe Czech economy can 
be treated, with the right medicine — 
tighter government spending, bank sell- 
offs, deregulation of rents, utilities and 
other consumer services, tighter capital 
market regulation and laws to encourage 
the restructuring of industry. 

Mr. Klaus has refused to go quietly. 
He has vowed to run again for his party’s 
leadership, a move that probably will 
split the party and make any attempt to ■ 
reform the government with the existing 
coalition impossible. 

“He’s a Bolshevik of the right,” said 
Jonathan Stein of the Institute for East- 
West Studies, a think tank in Prague. Mr. ‘ 
Klaus and his party “never redefined 
themselves to deal with issues other than , 
foe grand questions of social transfor- 
mation," he added 


PAGE 7- 




With New Evidence, Catholics Want 

Warren Hoge 

Nck York Tones .WvW 

Londonderry, Northern freiaxid 

^ less belligerent part of 
• ^elaad, an old dty in the 

related west more famous for storied 
distance to sieges, lilting folk music 
and municipal architecture than for the 
jfctfanan violence that has scaxred much 
ot the province. 

For a long time the biggest fight in 
Londonderry, Northern Ireland’s 
second-largest city, has been over what 
the place should be called, a dispute that 
is almost quaint by the turbulent stan- 
jMands of this conflicted part of die 
vUnited Kingdom. 

Roman Catholics, the majority here, 
say they live in Deny — the name 
comes from “doire," the Gaelic word 
for oak grove. The city was known as 
Deny until i613, when Londoners sent 
money and master builders to restore a 
medieval town 1 destroyed by fire and 
asked that its name be prefixed to reflect 
their contribution. Protestants cling to 

Disputes between Protestants and 

Catholics here center on patronage and 
politics rather than terrorism and 
Inning , The Catholic leadership prides 
itself on putting projects like factories, a 
hospital, a deep-water port and The air- 
port in Protestant neighborhoods, al- 
though Gregory Campbell, 44, the most 
prominent Protestant on the city coun- 
cil, dismissed the claim of benevolent 
treatment as “nice PR packaging.” 

But the relatively benign state of this 
community of 103,000 harbors a hurt 
from the memory of an outbreak of vi- 
olence 25 years ago and a deep suspicion 
that the fuU story has not been told. On 
Jan. 30, 1972,, a day known since as 
Bloody Sunday, British paratroopers 
killed 14 marcbos protesting the British 
policy of internment without trial on the 
main street of the city's working-class 
Catholic community, the Bogside. 

The Catholic leadership of the city 
and the government of the Irish Republic 
are pressing the British government of 
Prime Minister Tony Blair to reopen a 
hasty and widely denounced investiga- 
tion of the episode by Lord Widgeiy, 
then (he Loro Chief Justice of Britain. 

His report, issued less than three 

Larger NATO Seen 
i As Lid on Germany 

Brzeziiiski Predicts Gain for Poland 

months after the event, exonerated the 
troops and faulted tire protesters, paying 
“there is no reason to suppose that the 
soldiers would have opened fire if they 
bad not been fired upon.” It said there 
was a “strong suspicion” that the 
marchers had handledborabs and fired 
weapons even though none woe ever 
recovered or detected in the many pho- 
tographs of the episode. 

Campaigners believe the moment is 
crucial because hundreds of accounts by 
witnesses, recordings of army and po- 
lice messages and forensic evidence mat 
were not taken into account tty Lord 
Widgery have just come to light and 
because Mr. Blair has shown himself 
amenable to confidence-building mea- 
sures to keep tiie momentum of the 
peace talks now under way in Belfast 

“We talk so much about the peace 
process, but as well as a peace process we 
must have a healing process," Mayor 
Martin Bradley, 33, said in his neo-Goth- 
ic office in die waterfront Guildhall. 

The leader of the campaign is John 
Hume, head of the Social Democratic 
and Labor Party, a member of tire Brit- 
ish and European parliaments and the 


most widel; 
the peace effort: 

“All we want is the truth of what 
happened on Bloody Sunday,” he said. 
“ We on the sheets of Deny know what 

The shock and anger of that day pro- 
voked hundreds of young Catholic men 
to enlist in tire Irish Republican Army, 
and join in tire fight to end British con- 
trol Mitcbel McLaughlin, 52, a member 
of the city council and a negotiator in the 
present talks in Belfast as a member of 
Sinn Fein, the IRA’s political wing, said 
there was little tradition of republic- 
anism here before Bloody Sunday. 

Edward Daly, 64, a retired bishop, 
said, ‘ ‘Many young people (have talked 
to in prison have told me they would 
have never joined the IRA had it not 
been for what they witnessed on Bloody 

Bishop Daly was himself a witness, 
in photographs that have in- 
murals now on Bogside walls 
him helping to cany a fatally 
wounded teenager and waving a bloody 
handkerchief attire troops to make them 
stop firing. . 

in . “X know what happened, 1 saw it, : I 

was there,” he said. “Innocent people 
were murdered without justification by 

ThaTthe indSem^Jtib^tiie power to.' 
divide the Irish and the British became 
clear recently with a promise from Ber- 
tie Ahem, tee Irish prime minister, to 
publish new conclusions his govern- 
ment has. . • ... 

“_We have given tire British' govern- 
ment a great, nwii of time and apace in 
which to consider the matter,” hesaid in 
a speech in Dublin. 

The closest a British government has 
ever come to a reconsideration was a 
letter from Prime Minister John Major 
to Mr. Hume in 1992, saying that “those 
who were killed should be regarded as 
innocent of any allegation. they were 
shot whilst handling firearms or ex- 
plosives.” ‘ 

The expression was seen here as eva- 
sive because it left unchallenged the 
“strong suspicion" put forth in the for- 
mal investigation that the marchers 
might have been handling weapons or 
bombs earlier.. 

On a recent raw day, Tony Doherty, 

- 34, a community worker whose father, 
Patrick, then 3 1, was killed in the shoot- 
ing, visited the stark gray Bloody Sun- 
day monument in tire Bogside accom- 
panied by Joe Friel, 46, who was 
wounded with a bullet in his chest, and 
Linda Roddy, 39, whose brother Wil- 
liam Nash, 19, was shot dead. A new 
piece of eviderice,based on tire direction 
of fire and the trajectory of the bullets, 
suggests Mr. Nash and two others 
were trilled not by the advancing para- 
troopers but by soldiers above on the . 

. city watts who picked them off as they 
tried to flee. 

- ‘T never come here unless I have to, 

; Mrs. Roddy said with a shudder, look- 
ing at tire bleak landscape with the 
w hite washed wall from a demolished 
tenement that proclaims, “Now You 
AreEntering Free Deny.” 

Twenty-five years later, she grows: 
tearful and bites her lip as she thinks 
about the official verdict of her broth- 
er’s death. 

“You. know what they’re saying?” 
she said. “They are saying that my 
brother was responsible for his own 
trifling ” 

By Jane Perlez 

New York Times Ser vice 

WARSAW — Using an ar- 
gument little heard in the de- 
bate in the United States over 
_ NATO expansion, Zbigniew 
‘Brzezmski, the former na- 
tional security adviser to 
President Jimmy Carter, has 
said that the absorption of 
three Central European na- 
tions into the alliance re- 
solved a problem that was 
A1 considered “impolite" to 
•J mention: the “disproportion- 
ate power” of Germany. 

Mr. Brzezinski argued that 
the eastward expansion of the 
alliance placed Germany in a 
wider European framework, 
allowing it to be a ‘ ‘good cit- 
izen” toward Poland rather 
than a threatening neighbor. 

Speaking Saturday at a 
conference on German-Pol- 
ish relations and the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization, 
Mr. Brzezinski said that Pol- 
ish-German reconciliation, 
which began soon after the 
collapse of communism in 
1989, had assumed the geo- 
political importance of the re- 
conciliation of France and 
Germany after World War 

“Involving Germany in a 
wider framework,” Mr. 
Brzezinski said, “allows us to 
« cope with Europe's central se- 
f. / curity problem of the 20th cen- 
tury: how to cope with tire 
reality of Germany’s power." 

Mr. Brzezinski and former 
Secretary of State Henry Kis- 
singer were joined here by the 
German defense minister, 
Volker Ruehe, and top Polish 
officials in a debate about the 
role of an expanded NATO. 
The conference was sponsored 
by the German Marshall Fund, 
an organization in Washington 
that promotes trans-Atlantic 

The basic reasons for ex- 
panding NATO have been ex- 
plained by the Clinton admin- 
(■' istnuion during Senate 
hearings in grand terms of 
promoting a more secure and 
democratic Europe. 

The idea of taking three of 
the Soviet Union’s former 
Central European satellites 
— the Czech Republic, Hun- 
gary and Poland — out of the 

Russian 6phere of influence 
has also been mentioned 

But Mr. Brzeziiiski and 
several German officials 
were more blunt They said 
that containing a united Ger- 
wi thin an enlarged NATO ex- 
plained much of the German 
and Polish enthusiasm fra: the 
move eastward 

A member of tire German 
Parliament, Voigt Karetea, 
who was involved with Mr. 
Ruehe in shaping the Ger- 
many advocacy fra a wider 
NATO, said that much of the 
motivation came from pre- 
venting the power and influ- 
ence of a ttnitftd Germany 
from being used in a “de- 
structive way.” 

“We wanted to bind Ger- 
many into a structure that- 
practically obliges Germany 
to take the interests of its 
neighbors into considera- 
tion," Mr. Karsten said “We 
wanted to give our neighbors 
assurances that we won’t do 
what we don't intend to do 

After tire reunification of 
Germany in 1990, Chancellor 
Helmut Kohl took a number 
of steps, starting with the for- 
mal recognition of the Polish- 
German border, long a source 
of dispute, to reconcile the 
two countries. 

The growth in trust and co- 
operation and tire explosion 
in trade and investment be- 
tween tiie countries in tire last 
seven years have surprised 
many. Germany is now Po- 
land's biggest trading part- 

As a sign of the new trust, a 
Polish-Gennan-Danish mili- 
tary corps is being framed 
that will work within NATO 
once Poland formally joins 
the alliance in 1999, said the 
Polish defense minister, 
Janusz Onyszkiewicz. 

The new Polish foreign 
minister, Bronislaw Gere- 
mek, a dissident during the 
communist era who is Jewish 
and a historian by profession, 
described the new relation- 
ship between Germany and 
Poland as a “historic trans- 

“Fra a man with my bi- 
ography, it is a miracle,” he 


Mb HefaM/TOo Aandaed Pm 

Farmers manning a picket at the port of Plymouth in southwest England on 
Sunday as they tried to block beef from France arriving on a ferry. 

Kohl Asked to Explain UJL Farmers Urged 
Speech by a Neo-Nazi To Not Impede Public 

LONDON — British fanners blockading 
ports in anger at sanctions related to “mad 
cow” disease were urged Sunday by a 
union leader not to impede tire public, or 
face losing public support. 

David Naish, tire head of tiie National 
Farmers Union, told the BBC: “I’m asking 
them not to block the roads. The dispute is 
between ourselves and the government , not 
with the public, and not with the shops, and 
not with anybody else.’ ’ 

Thousands of farmers who say an in- 
ternational ban on British beef threatens 
their livelihood have extended a weeklong 
protest to include southern and eastern 
pons, where they have stopped tracks car- 
rying beef imports. (AFP) 

2 More Truffle Dogs Die 

PERUGIA, Italy — Two highly skilled 
truffle dogs have been killed tty poisoning 
as a vicious war between hunters of the 
pungent funghi in central Italy intensified, 
the ANSA news agency reported Sunday. 

More than 30 dogs, which sniff out the 
expensive black and white truffles, have 
brain killed by strychnine poison since the 
start of tire season in October. 

ANSA said the new victims, two pointers 
owned by a truffle hunter from Perugia, 
died suddenly Saturday. A third dog man- 
aged to survive a poison attack. ( Reuters ) 

For the Record 

France’s justice minister. Elisabeth 
Guigou, was hospitalized Sunday after fall- 
ing ill Friday at a campaign rally, officials 
said. Mrs. Guigou, 51, is believed to be 
suffering from exhaustion. (Reuters) 

BONN — Opposition politicians called 
on Chancellor Helmut Kohl’s government 
Sunday to explain to Parliament how a 
convicted neo-Nazi leader was invited to 
give a speech to a training course for Ger- 
man Army officers. 

The Defense Ministry said it had begun 
an investigation to determine how Manfred 
Roeder, a former lawyer who spent eight 
years in prison for a racist bomb attack, had 
been able to speak at the araiy’s prestigious 
staff college in Hamburg in 1993. 

The revelation is to bepublished Monday 
in the newsmagazine Der Spiegel, and fol- 
lows other cases linking tire Goman Army 
with rightist radicalism. 

Mr. Roeder, 68, was jailed in 1982 for 
leading a group that carried out attacks ou 
immigrant hostels in which two Viet- 
namese people were killed and several were 
wounded. (Reuters) 

Millionaires Pass Hat 
For Juan Carlos Yacht 

MADRID — As a token of their gratitude 
to Spain’s royal family, 25 millionaires 
from the Balearic Islands are chipping in to 
buy King Juan Carlos I a new $20 million 
yacht, El Pais newspaper reported Sunday. 

The newspaper reported m a t the million- 
aires from tire islands of Majorca, Menorca 
and Ibiza hope to collect the funds to replace 
the king's dilapidated yacht 

“If is a way of thanking Juan Carlos and 
the royal family,” said one of the donors, 
Gabriel Barcelo. “It is to thank them for 
their, enormous contribution and for the 
good image their constant presence here 
gives these islands.” The millionaires hope 
to give the king the yacht in 1999. (AFP) 

As Turkey Bends on Pardon, 
Activist Says She’ll Refuse It 

By Stephen Kinzer 

New York Times Service 

ISTANBUL — Less. than 
two weeks before Prime Min- 
ister Mesut Yihnaz is sched- 
uled to visit Washington, the 
Turkish government seems to 
be moving toward freeing the 
country’s most prominent 
prisoner, but she says she will 
not accept a pardon. 

The prisoner, Ley la Zana, 
36, was a member of Parlia- 
ment in 1994 when she was 
convicted of supporting Kurd- 
ish terrorism and sentenced to 
a 15-year prison term. Since 
then her case has often been 
cited by critics of Turkey’s 
human-rights record. 

According to reports pub- 
lished in several' 1 Turkish pa- 
pers, Mr. Yilmaz would like 
to see Ms. Zana freed before 
he arrives in the United States 
on Dec. 17 for meetings with 
President Bill Clinton and 
other top American officials. 

But last week, Ms. 7-ana 
wrote letters to Mr. Yihnaz 
and Mr. Clin too asserting that 
-she was determined to stay in 
prison until laws that ban sep-' 
aratist speech are repealed 

“Being in prison is an in- 
evitable, unavoidable and 
necessary price to be paid for 

5 ,* brotherhood and a 
Turkey,” she 
wrote to Mr. Clinton. . 

In her letter to Mr. Yilmaz, 
Ms. Zana reminded him that 
he had voted fra the bill lifting 
her parliamentary immuni ty 
in 1994 so she could be pros- 
ecuted She urged him “to 
solve tire Kurdish problem 
with dialogue and create a 
democratic Turkey that is at 
peace with its own people.” 

The government is re- 
portedly seeking to arrange 
Ms. Zana’s release by tem- 
porarily suspending her sen- 
tence for health reasons. The 
same formula was recently 
used to free a blind lawyer, 
Esber Yagmurdereli, whose 
cause was supported by sev- 
eral European governments. 
Like Ms. Zana, Mr. Yag- 
murdereli had said that he did 
not want to be freed until tiie 
laws under which he was im- 
prisoned were repealed. - 

The warden of the Ankara 
prison in which Ms. Zana is 
held has stud her health prob- 
lems were not serious enough 
to require her release. But the 
justice minis ter, Ol tan Sim 
giuiu, has said he will submit 
her case to a board that con- 
siders medical discharges 
from prison. “Postponing a 

sentence for health reasons 
does, not depend on an ap- 
plication from the person con- 
cerned," Mr. Sungurlu said. 

In her letters to Mr. Yilmaz : 
and Mr. Clinton, Ms. Zana 
said she suffered from “no 
illness that would justify or 
necessitate a release from 
prison.” She has reportedly 
been treated fra digestive 
problems and a bone ailment. 

Ms. Zana is known in 
Europe as a symbol of Kurdish 
nationalists who are working 
fra an autonomous or inde- 
state in southeastern 
Dozens of private 
groups and many officials 
have supported her cause, and 
they have been so effective, 
that in several countries she is 
one of the best-known living 
citizens of Turkey. 

Partly through their efforts, 
she has won a series of prizes 
and has been nominated for 
tire Nobel Peace Prize. 

But many Turkish officials 
say that support fra Ms. Zana 
is based on misguided ideal- 
ism and ignorance of what 
they call her militant com- 
mitment to separatism and 
clandestine support for terror. 
They say her political party, 
which is now banned, was a 
front for separatist guerrillas. 

Serbs Go to the Polls Again 

CoapBailriQwSlttfFmm Dupadm 

BELGRADE — Votes in 
Serbia on Sunday made their 
third attempt to choose a new 
president, in an election being 
contested by seven candi- 
dates seeking to replace 
Slobodan Milosevic. 

Mr. Milosevic took tire pres- 
idency of Yugoslavia last surar 
mer because he was consti- 
tutionally barred from a third 
term as president of Serbia. 

Opinion polls show Vojis- 
lav Seselj, the former leader 
of Serbian paramilitary, 
groups in Bosnia- Herzegovi- 
na and Croatia, as the likely 
winner, if enough people vote 
to make the election valid. Re- 
sults are expected Thursday. 

In tire last election, Mr. Ses- 
elj won a runoff, but authorities 
said only 49.7 percent of 7 2 
million eligible voters had 

voted — shy of die 50 percent 
needed for a valid vote. This 
time, Mr. Milosevic is r unning 
an ally from his framer Com- 
munist Party, tire Socialists — 
tire Yugoslav foreign minister . 
Milan Mila tino vie. (AFP, AP ) 

■ Bosnian Serb Election 

International poll super- 
visors said Sunday that Bos- 
nian Serb nationalists failed 
to obtain a majority in par- 
liamentary elections held last 
month, Reuters reported Sun- 

day from Sarajevo. 

The Organization for Se- 
curity ana Cooperation in 
Europe, which organized the 
Nov. 22-23 vote, issued re- 
sults showing the hard-liners 
in tire Serbian Democratic 
Party and their allies with 39 
seats, three short of a majority 
in the 83-seat P arliam ent 

The elections pitted hard- 
liners loyal to Radovan 
Karadzic against the West- 
ern-backed Bosnian Serb 
president, Biljana Plavsic. 

Chirac’s Apology for Persecution of Jews Raises a Tempest 


PARIS — France’s leftist 
interior minister criticized the 
conservative President 
Jacques Chirac on Sunday for 
blaming the French people 
for the persecution or Jews 
/ * during the Nazi occupation of 
■ World War II. 

Jean-Picrre Chevenement 
also accused the head of state 
of allowing fellow conserva- 
tives to reach out to support- 
ers of the extreme-righr Na- 
tional Front party during 
parliamentary debate on leg- 
islation to ease France's hard- 

line immigration laws. 

Mr. Chirac, in focusing on 
the war era, “is .trying to 
make us forget that in the de- 
bate on immigration, spokes- 
men fra the RPR and UDFare 
singing a song whose melody 
sounds strangely like that of 
the National Front,” Mr. 
Chevenement said on France 
2 television. 

Mr. Chirac’s Gaullist Rally 
for the Republic, or RPR, and 
the Union fra French Democ- 
racy, or UDF, make up the 
rightist opposition to the gov- 
erning three-party coalition 

of Socialists, Communists 
and Greens. 

Mr. Chevenement drafted 
the immigration legislation 
for the government. 

Mr. Chirac in 1995 became 
the first French leader to ac- 
knowledge France’s guilt in 
tiie persecution of Jews dur- 
ing the Nazi occupation, 
which stretched from 1940 
until 1944. 

On Friday. Mr. Chirac re- 
iterated that the state was 
guilty of “moral abdication” 
during the _ Vichy era. He 
made the remarks at a cer- 

emony putting on public dis- 
play a list of names, compiled 
during the occupation, of 
Jews to be deported to Nazi 
death camps. 

The list “testifies to the 
moral abdication of the state, 
the Vichy state, which, in be- 
traying the ideas of the re- 
public ami in breaking with 
our traditions, helped the oc- 
cupier and expelled the Jews 
from our national communi- 
ty,” Mr. Chirac said. 

Mir. Chevenement said it 
was not France “but the 
Vichy state that was respon- 

sible fra the crimes of 1940- 
44 and was in part guilty of 
the extermination of tire 

Tension has mounted in re- 
cent weeks between France’s 
leftist government and its 
conservative president The 
two have been obliged to 
share power since an upset 
June parliamentary election. 

During emotional parlia- 
mentary debate on the immi- 
gration reform legislation, 
both the right and the left have 
accused each other of reach- 
ing out to the National Front, 

which typically gets about 15 
percent of the vote in national 

The left has accused .the 
right of battling the immigra- 
tion bid to win over National 
Front voters. 

The right counters that the 
left, by pushing the immigra- 
tion measure, is trying to fur- 
ther weaken it by stirring up 
racist sentiment, driving 
mainstream rightist voters to 
the National Front. 

Debate on the immigration 
bill resumes in the National 
Assembly rat Tuesday. 

Russians Release American Charged as Spy, but Keep Him in Country 


By David Hoffman 

Bizriiinjiton Post Senic* 

MOSCOW — The Russian 
internal security service has 
released Richard Bliss, the 
telephone technician charged 
with espionage Friday for us- 
ing electronic land-surveying 
equipment near a secret Rus- 
sian military installation. 

Mr. Bliss, freed after sharp 
proresis from Washington, 
must remain in the south- 

ern city of Rostov-na-Donu 
pending trial, the Federal Se- 
curity Service said. 

He was arrested there Nov. 
25 while helping to install a 
local wireless telephone net- 

The security service state- 
ment Saturday said nothing 
about dropping the charges. 
Rather,' it said the restrictions 
on Mr. Bliss, who was kept in 
solitary confinement, were 
being “eased.” 

He was freed after the U.S. 
ambassador to Russia, James 
Collins, appealed for bis free- 
dom, and after Qualcomm 
Inc., die San Diego-based 
company that employs him, 
provided a written guarantee, 
according to the Russian 
news agency Itar-Tass. 

The nature of tire guarantee 
was unspecified. Qualcomm 
said late Friday that Russian 
authorities were bolding Mr. 
Bliss on a $5 million bond and 

that it was negotiating to trans- 
fer money for hail. It was un- 
clear if the money was paid. 

The company and the U.S. 
government have denied that 
Mr. Bliss was a spy. 

The Russian security ser- 
vice made no mention of the 
bond. It said Mr. Bliss, 29. 
was freed “respecting the 
principles of humanity and 
the character of relations be- 
tween our countries.” 

Mr. Bliss's detention and 

the subsequent charges of es- 
pionage drew high-level 
protests from the State De- 
partment and from Vice Pres- 
ident A1 Gore. 

The Russian ambassador in 
Washington was called ro the 
State Department and wanted 
Biday that “this incident 
could have negative con- 
sequences” for U.S.-Russian 
commercial relations and for 
Moscow’s attempts to inte- 
grate with the international 

community. Mr. Gore also 
spoke to Prime Minister Vikt- 
or Chernomyrdin about the 
case, his office said. 

Mr. Bliss's employer has 
said That the equipment he 
brought into the country was 
legal and dial he was not spy- 
ing. Rather, it. said, .he was 
simply working to build acel- 
lular telephone network un- 
der Qualcomm’s contract 
with the local phone com- 
pany, Elekrrosvyaz. 

The Spirit Of 

r *\ 

r- -■ 

r * ' 



w v**>*fi*r*>-i y »»-• 







The Kyoto Challenge 

ribunt Liberal Democracy Is About More Than Voting 


W ASHINGTON — Democracy 
was supposed to be the great 

The United States faces an extra- 
ordinarily difficult challenge as it seeks 
this week to negotiate, an international 
treaty on climate change with the rest of 
the world's nations in Kyoto, Japan. 

This is so not only because the Clin- 
ton administration’s standard bearer on 
this issue. Undersecretary of State Tim 
Wirth, bailed out to accept a job in die 
private sector just before this climactic 
conference was to begin. Nor are we 
referring here to the administration’s 
last-minute decision to send Vice Pres- 
ident A1 Gore to Kyoto to deliver a 10- 
minute speech, hold a few meetings 
and then fly home, a contribution of 
uncertain value but one that will, as one 
White House wag put it, at . least 
demonstrate that Mr. Gore is willing to 
“go the extra 27,000 miles” for the' 
cause. Even the administration’s long 
delay in coming up with a position is 
not the chief stumbling block here. 

No. the real difficulty lies in the 
issue itself. Global warming presents a 
long-term challenge. It is serious but 
not urgent, it has been said, while 
politicians excel at problems that are 
urgent but not serious. 

There is no question that human 
activity — particularly the burning of 
oil, gas and coal — will affect Earth’s 
climate, increasingly so over the com- 
ing decades. There is no question, 
either, that the -risks of this unprece- 
dented human impact on climate in- 
clude flooding, severe storms, 
droughts, pestilence and more. These 
risks are not imminent, however, and 
they cannot be quantified or predicted 
with any reliability. And therein lies die 
quandary. If we wait to take action until 
the risks are clearer, we may well be too 
late to avoid harm. But the alternative is 
to act before knowing whether the ac- 
tions are worth the, cost 

And that, of course, leads to die 
second great difficulty: There are costs 
associated with most measures aimed 
at curbing the emission of greenhouse 
gases that cause global wanning. 
These costs are likely to include a 
slowing of economic growth and job 
creation; even if the most optimistic 


In perhaps the saddest testimony yet 
heard by South Africa's Truth and Re- 
conciliation Commission, 30 people 
have given evidence of serious crimes, 
including several murders, allegedly 
condoned or ordered by Winnie 
Madikizela-Mandela. Virtually every 
victim’s statement to the commission 
has been heartbreaking, but there is spe- 
cial sorrow in credible testimony dial a 
hero of the anti-apartheid struggle used 
her power against her own people. 

Some of the testimony has been con- 
tradictory. A few witnesses have lent 
limited support to Ms. Madikizela- 
Mandela’s contention that she had no 
involvement in crimes committed by 
her entourage. But over the course of 
eight days the case grew against her. 
(She added her maiden name. to her 
married one after her divorce from 
Nelson Mandela last year.) 

Among other witnesses, members of 
the gang of thugs who surrounded her, 
known as the Mandela United Football 
Club, testified that she had ordered 
people tortured, kidnapped and iriUed, 
and even participated directly in beat- 
ings and a murder. In 1991 she was 
convicted of instigating the kidnap- 
ping and assault of 14-year-old 
Stompie Seipei, who was later lolled, 
and three outers. A six-year sentence 
was later reduced to a $3,200 fine. 

Her response has been inadequate. 
Some witnesses reported that her sup- 
porters tried to intimidate them out of 

testifying. At the closing bearing on 
Thursday, Ms. Madikizela-Mandela 
said that her accusers were of such bad 
character that they could not be be- 
lieved. Asked why she surrounded her- 
self with them, she replied that former 
apartheid leaders also murdered chil- 
dren. When Archbishop Desmond 
Tutu pressed her to apologize, she said 
to Stompie’s mother and the family of 
a doctor whose death she allegedly 
ordered that she was sorry “things 
went horribly wrong.” 

Ms. Madikizela-Mandela’s case is 
particularly important because she is 
still an African National Congress of- 
ficial with a wide following. She is a 
candidate for the party’s deputy pres- 
idency. and if she wins election to that 
post she could become deputy pres- 
ident of the country in 1999. Her can- 
didacy is opposed by mainstream ANC 
leaders but supported by the Women’s 
League, which she beads, and by many 
poor people. The kidnapping convic- 
tion should have been enough to keep 
her off the ballot, but die hearing 
should remove all doubt 

She has a following today in part 
because she argues forcefully that the 
government her former husband leads 
has not brought enough progress to 
poor blacks. This message is one that 
the party must take seriously. But Ms. 
Madikizela-Mandela is not the person 
to deliver it 


Other Comment 

A World Criminal Court 

Prosecution of German and Japanese 
leaders was meant to show that the 
world would not countenanoe genocide, 
massacres, enslavement and torture as 
merely the unfortunate side-effects of 
war. Treaties outlawing such barbarities 
were signed soon after the Nuremberg 
and Tokyo trials. A permanent inter- 
national criminal court was supposed to 
follow. But the Cold War intervened, 
and the court was never set up. 

For millions of people caught up in 
fighting since then, or tyrannized by 
their governments, the stack of human 
rights treaties have remained a dead 
letter, a mockery of those who had 
claimed that Nuremberg was a turning 
point. Now, more than 50 years on, the 

world is about to try again. This time, it 
deserves to succeed. 

Delegates from over 100 countries 
are meeting this week at the United 
Nations to negotiate foe details of a 
new international criminal court, a per- 
manent version of the ad hoc tribunals 
set up to try those accused of atrocities 
in ex-Yugoslavia and Rwanda. After 
three years of quiet diplomacy, most 
countries believe that such a court will 
be established. The United States and 
Britain have strongly backed the idea, 
and the other three permanent mem- 
bers of the UN Security Council also 
support it in principle. A conference to 
agree on the final text of a treaty es- 
tablishing the court is scheduled for 
next June in Rome. 

— The Economist (London). 

■Tlfr K WTSSMA11CB4AL « 4 

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scenarios come true and there is no 
overall economic injury, some coun- 
tries. regions and companies will pay. 

Yet in the face of inaction the cost of 
climate change would not be shared 
equally, either — start with the low- 
lying island nations that could, quite 
literally, disappear. That is why an oil 
producer like Saudi Arabia is in Kyoto 
lobbying against any effective treaty, 
while a small island state like Antigua 
is desperate for results. 

The United States bears a special 
responsibility. With less than one-20th 
of foe world’s population, it produces 
more than one-fifth of foe world’s 
greenhouse gas. It promised, bade in 
1992, to rein in the growth in its emis- 
sions and wrestle them back down to 
1990 levels by foe year 2000. Instead, 
the graph points steadily up: U.S. emis- 
sions will be, if current trends persist, 
12 percent higher than 1990 levels by 
the year 2000 — and 34 percent higher 
by foe year 2010. 

It is true that China, with its huge 
population and rapid economic 
growth, will overtake foe United States 
in annual emission totals by foe year 
2013, and that it must eventually be 
part of any global solution. But China 
and other poor countries have a le- 
gitimate claim to see real signs of U-S. 
commitment before they agree to com- 
promise or slow their own economic 

It was never realistic to expect that 
Kyoto would solve all problems and 
end this conversation. The world needs 
time to test and evaluate foe best meth- 
ods. technological and political, to 
slow greenhouse gas emission. But 
even modest progress is not assured, 
given foe rots still separating de- 
veloped world from developing world, 
Europe from the United States. 

Tire responsibility to compromise 
lies on all the parties. But whatever 
emerges or does not emerge from 
Kyoto, foe responsibility to move be- 
yond rhetoric and failed voluntary 
measures lies most heavily on the 
world's biggest polluter. 


American gift to, foe post- Cold War 
world. So it comes as no mean em- 
barrassment that less than a decade 
later many find that democracy is not 
what it was cracked up to be. 

In many places, democracy is less 
• the solution than foe problem: the new 
problem of the illiberal content of de- 
mocracy — people choosing bad things 
like racism and selfish power. 

As foe Cold War wound down, many 
Americans felt that democratic values 
had trium phed , that America had a rimy 
and opp ort u nity to usher others into the 
charmed circle, and that American re- 
sources and their readiness made the 
project feasible. But that was before 
Sudan, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Pakistan, 
Turkey, Peru, Singapore, Azerbaijan 
and foe dozens of other cases in which; 
in the ’90s, democratic electoral pro- 
cedures were used to gather up power 
that was then applied in what most of us 
would call an undemocratic way. 

In Russia, Boris Yeltsin, waving the 
democratic banner, literally shot up (a 
rogue) Parliament. In Yugoslavia, de- 
mocracy became foe tool. of mass 
murder. In Rwanda, a Western-backed 
multiparty election separated out foe 
tribes and contributed to genocide. 

Fareed Zakaria in Foreign Affairs 
(“The Rise of Illiberal Democracy’’) 
and Robert D. Kaplan in the Atlantic 
Monthly (“Was Democracy Just a Mo- 
ment?”) remind us that democracy as 
electoral choice, even competitive mul- 
tiparty choice, exposes a society to its 
worst judgments as well as to its best 

Without a system that protects in- 
dividual rights and puts institutional 
limitations on central power, demo- 
cracy can become a ticket to a crude 
anyfoing-goes majoritarianism, to an- 
archy and to the tyranny that fills the 
vacuum created by anarchy. 

Since we live in a democratic age, 
Mr. Zakaria notes, there is no getting 
away from democracy. He thinks that 
foe problems pf governance in the next 
century will likely be problems within 
democracy. “Thu makes them more 
difficult to handle, wrapped as they are 
in the mantle of legitimacy.” 

America must better understand and 
explain the true nature of its own de- 
mocracy. It is Dot simply a doctrine of 
direct popular expression. The Amer- 
ican model comes with many checks 
and balances on executive power. It 
comes also with foe sort of prope r tied 
professional middle class that it takes a 

By Stephen S. RosenfeW • 

cennny or two to shape up. And with 3 
commitment to civil liberties, foe rule 
of law and the separation of powers. 

These are foe building blocks of foe 
requisite constitutional liberalism. 
They cannot be found in most Third 
World places, although fortunately 
they do exist in much of formerly Com- 
munist-con trolied Central Europe, a re- 
gion sharing foe Western class struc- 
ture and political tradition. 

It follows thai America must exercise 
a little humility and prudence. Instead 
of “searching for new lands to de- 
mocratize and new places to bold elec- 
tions,” Mr. Zakaria suggests, it would 
be better to “consolidate democracy 
where U has taken root and to encourage 
foe gradual development of constitu- 
tional liberalism across the globe.” 

Democracy without constitutional 
liberalism “is not simp ly inadequate, 
but dangerous, bringing with it foe 

erosion of liberty, the abuse of power, 
ethnic divisions, and even war. ’ ' 

Mr. I f apian maintains & shOFtef-tGnn 

focus on dealing with tilings as they are. ■ 
He would come to political terms with 
foe existing collection of “pragmatic, 
hybrid” regimes poised somewhere 
between , democratic and authoritarian 
poles: the “military paternalism” of 
Turkey, the “subtle authoritarianism." 
of Alberto Fujimori's Peru, even the 
“neo-authoritarianism” of Singapore. 

His favorite regime is that of foe 
unelected army-backed Pakistani 
prime minister of 1993, the World 
Bank technocrat Moeen.A. Qureshi: 
“Because Ore] had no voters to please, 
he made bold moves that res tored po lit- 
ical stability and economic growth.” 

The two writers plainly doubt that 
foe familiar levers available to Amer- 
ican policy — public reprimands, eco- 
nomic penalties and the like — will do 
much to make faltering governments 
more democratic. Mr. Kaplan thirties 
that growth requires the sort of social 

UUliUUlAn UMt J ' — 

This is bound to be a continuing 
dilemma for America, which is accuse 
tomed to speaking of democracy and 
development in tire same breath. You 
canlraveit alleys Washington Maybe 
not, say these students of real choices. ■ 
Look at my program, says Cart 
Gershman, head of foe National En- . 
dowmeat for Democracy, foe publicly 
financ ed, privately administered 
American agency for strengthening 
would-be ttenocracies. He sees foe 
global pro-democracy movement, 
^ failing out of fashion” and urges oth- 
er "3 firms to open up democracy-build- 
ing foundations tike his-own.- 
. That is a bureaucrat’s response, which 
cots across Mr. Kaplan's belief font de- 
mocracies are nourished not by moral 
fiat but by “organic outgrowth. ” But the 
agenda of the National Endowment for 
Democracy for promoting free markets, 
political parties and independent labor 
movements points a way. 

The Washington Post '■ 

Constitutional Liberalism Ought to Be the Coal 

F ROM Pera to foe Palestinian Au- 
thority, from Slovakia to Sri Lanka, 
from Pakistan to the Philippmes, we 
see foe rise of a disturbing phenomenon 
— illiberal democracy. 

It has been difficult to recognize this 
problem because for almost a century 
in foe West democracy has meant lib- 
sal democracy — a political system 
marked not only by free and fair elec- 
tions but also by the rule of law, a 
separation of powers, and tire protect 
tion of basic liberties of speech, as- 
sembly, religion and property. 

In fact, this latter bundle of freedoms 
— what migh t lx termed constitutional 
liberalism — is theoretically d i ff er en t 
and historically distinct from demo- 
cracy. Today foe two strands of liberal 
democracy, interwoven in foe Western 
political fabric, are coming apart in the 
rest of the world. Democracy is flour- 
ishing; constitutional liberalism is not 
Popular leaders such as Russia’s 
Boris Yeltsin and Pan’s Alberto 
Fujimori bypass their parliament* and 
rule by decree, eroding baric consti- 
tutional practices. Ethiopia's elected 
government rams its security forces on 
journalists and political opponents. 

Naturally there is a spectrum of il- 
liberal democracy, from modest of- 
fenders such as Argentina to near tyr- 

By Fareed Zakaria 

armies like Kazakhstan and Belarus, 
with countries such as Romania and 
Bangladesh in between. 

Along 'much of the spectrum, elec- 
tions are rardy as fair as in foe West 
today, but they do reflect the reality of 
popular participation in politics and 
support for "those elected. 

Freedom House’s 1996-97 survey, 
“Freexiomifl foe World,” has separate 
rankings for political liberties ana civil 
liberties, which correspond roughly 
with democracy and constitutional lib- 
eralism. Of the countries that lie be- 
tween confirmed dictatorship and con- 
solidated democracy, half do better on 
political liberties than on civil ones. 

In other words, half of the “de- 
mocratizing" countries in the world 
today are illiberal democracies. 

During the last two decades in Latin 
America, Africa and parts of Asia, dic- 
tatorships have given way to demo- 
cracy with no intervening liberaliza- 
tion. The results are not encouraging. 

Elections have been held in most of 
foe 45 sub-Saharan states of Africa 
since 1991, and there have been many 
setbacks for freedom. 

In. foe Islamic world, democratiz- 

ation has led to an increasing role for 
theocratic politics, eroding long-stand- 
ing traditions of seculhnsm and tol- 
erance. In many parts of that world, 
such as T unisia- Morocco. Egypt and 
some of foe Gulf states, were elections 
to be held tomorrow, the resulting re- 
gimes would almost certainly be more 
illiberal than foe ones now in place. 

Elections are an important virtue of 
governance, but they are not foe only 
virtue. Economic, civil and religious 
liberties are at foe core of human au- 
tonomy and dignity. If a government 
with limited democracy steadily ex- 
pands these freedoms, it should not be 
branded a dictatorship. . 

The pressures of global capitalism 
can push the process of liberalization 
forward. Markets and morals con work 
together. Even China; which remains 
deeply repressive, has given its citizens . 
more autonomy and economic liberty 
than they have had in generations. 

The international community should 
consolidate democracy where it has 
t?ken root and encourage the gradual 
development of constitutional liberal- 
ism across foe globe. 

The writer is 

editor of 

Foreign Affairs, from which this com- 
ment has been adapted. 

Caring for the World’s Refugees Keeps Getting Harder 

G ENEVA— The 1990s have 
witnessed a succession of 
brutal civil wars and communal 
conflicts in which millions of 
people have had to flee for their 
lives — Burundi, Chechnya, 
Colombia, Liberia and Sri 
Lanka, to give a few examples. 

.Elsewhere, particularly in 
framer Yugoslavia, the Caucas- 
us and the Great Lakes region of 
Africa, masses of women, chil- 
dren and men have been de- 
liberately forced to abandon 
their homes so that their land 
and property could be occupied 
by others. 

In foe post-Cold War years, 
mass population displacements 
have become both an objective 
and a tactic of war. 

An equally disturbing trend is 

By Sadako Ogata 

to be seen in foe growing num- 
ber of people around the world 
who are stateless and have been 
deprived of citizenship rights in 
foe country they consider to be 
their home. Recent experience 
in the former Soviet Union, the 
Middle East, Central Africa and 
South Asia has demonstrated 
that stateless people are partic- 
ularly vulnerable to harassment, 
persecution and expulsion. 

While large numbers of 
people continue to suffer the 
trauma of displacement, it is in- 
creasingly difficult fix' them to 

nations alike are closing doors 
to refugees and forcing them to 
return to situations where their 

life and liberty are at risk. 

The office of the UN high 
commissioner for refugees, 
UNHCR, has a particular re- 
sponsibility to safeguard foe se- 
curity of people who have been 
unrooted or threatened with dis- 
placement That task has be- 
come increasingly difficult. 

In foe past decade, the 
world’s most powerful states 
have placed progressively high- 
er expectations on UNHCR and 
other humanitarian organiza- 
tions, largely as a result of re- 
luctance to take more decisive 
forms of action when civil wars, 
c rimes against humanity and 
even genocides occur. 

H umanitarian organizations 

Back to Angry Voters in India 

N EW YORK — The 
pillared building that 
houses India’s Parliament is a 
vast sandstone circle embra- 
cing the competing aspira- 
tions of nearly a billion 
people. Inside, foe real power 
lies with 543 directly elected 
members of the lower house. 

Visitors who cross their 
legs are brusquely admon- 
ished by marshals to sit cor- 
rectly. It is illegal to cross your 
knees in foe visitors' gallery. 

During the past three 
weeks, such insistence on 
eti q uett e seemed misplaced 
when the members them- 
selves indulged in such dis- 
ruptive behavior that foe . 
speaker was forced to adjourn 
foe house. Lawmakers prayed 
that somehow, despite foeir 
conduct, another election 
could be avoided. 

The situation was created 
by foe Congress Party, which 
in one form or another has 
ruled for 45 of India’s SO years 
of independence; Last month 
it whimsically withdrew sup- 
port from the governing 
United Front coalition Led by 
Prime Minister L K. GujraL 
Seven months earlier, in a 
previous bout of Congress 
Party muscle-flexing, foe 
United Front coalition was 
forced to change its prime 
minister. This time, foe exas- 
perated prime minister chose 
to resign, forcing President 
K. R. Narayanan to invite any 
party able to master a majority 
to form a new government. 

Now, 18 months into what 
should have been a five-year 
Parliament, new elections 
have been called f<x February. 
The dissolution of yet another 
government has encouraged 
pessimists to again predict foe 
demise of Indian democracy. 

By Gila Mehta 

. But appearances are de- 
ceptive. If anything, foe fact 
that India’s political system 
has withstood such upheaval 
is further evidence of foe 

Before the president was 
forced to call an election, a 
bemused nation watched 
politicians somersault from 
one self-justifying position to 
another in a transparent at- 
tempt to cobble together any 
majority that would permit 
Parliament to continue. 

The Congress Party was un- 
able to engineer enough de- 
fections and alliances to gain a 
majority. The Hindu-revival- 
ist Bharatiya Janata Party, foe 
largest party in foe lower 
house, also foiled, despite foe 
h lafqn f nsenf w hat Indiana nail 

“money power” — financial 
induceme n ts to defect 

Editorials in foe newspapers 
excoriated foe Congress Party 
for pointlessly precipitating 
foe crisis. After all, even as the 
economies of Southeast Asia 
were beginning to c rack, In- 
dia's economy was strength- 
ening — until recent political 
instability led to plummeting 
exchange rates. 

Suddenly, scheduled visits 
from foe presidents of Russia, 
France and the United States 
were in jeopardy. And pros- 
pects for an international con- 
ference in Calcutta, intended 
to attract' major investment, 
appeared dimmed. 

Vital bills scheduled for foe 
current session — including 
reserving one-third of parlia- 
mentary seats for women, and 
further liberalization of- foe 
economy — will most likely 
be delayed. 

Paradoxically, this chaos 
has revealed the strength of 
Indian democracy. Stretched 
to the limit, the constitution 
has held. And serious debate 
has begun on ensuring stabil- 
ity in whar promises to be an* 
era of coalition governments. 

The president has conduc- 
ted himself with perfect pro- 
priety. The use of “money 
power’ ’ to influence members 
of Parliament has proved in- 
effective. And the election 
commission seems deter- 
mined to weed out candidates 
with criminal records. 

Most important, the bal- 
ance of power has visibly shif- 
ted. The strutting politician is 
no longer confident of suc- 
cess. Voters have become in- 
creasingly impatient ' with 
their representatives’ antics. 

The captive vote is captive 
no longer. The minority com- 
munities have shifted foeir al- 
legiance. The lower castes 
now vote for their own lead- 
ers. and regional parties are 

Fearing the electorate’s 
rage, every party is now plead- 
ing that it was not responsible 
for forcing another general 
election. Early polls indicate 
that the election’s defining is- 
sues will be health care, edu- 
cation, clean drinking water 
and electricity. 

This is democracy indeed, 
and I am glad X am not stand- 
ing for election. I would not 
want 600 million Indian 
voters pointing their ballots 
threateningly at me and hiss- 
ing “Stand and deliver!” 

The writer, author af- 

"Snakes and Ladders 

Glimpses of Modem India." 
contnbuied this comment to 
The New York Times. 

have been obliged to weak in the 
heart of conflict zones, where tiie 
laws of war are systematically 
flouted by the combatants. 

In Afghanistan, Bosnia, 
Congo, Liberia and Somalia, aid 
agencies have seen foeir relief 
supplies plundered, their ve- 
hicles and cn rnmnnirarinns 
equipment stolen and their staff 
members singled out for attack. 

hi foe worst instances, armies 
and militia groups have gone so 
for as to manipulate foe dis- 
tribution of food and other re lief 
items so that the intended be- 
neficiaries can be robbed or 
even massacred. 

Despite such terrible inci- 
dents, we most not lose sight of 
the fact that humanitarian action 
continues to play an important 
role in safeguarding the security 
of people threatened by armed 
conflict How many mare peo- 
ple would have suffixed and 
died had it not been for the airlift 
into Sarajevo, for example, or 
the emergency relief operations 
that the UrntBoNations and oth- 
ers have established in war-tom 
societies such as Liberia, So- 
malia and Sudan? 

In situations where armed 
conflicts have come to an end or 
diminished in intensity, human- 
itarian organizations can con- 
tribute to foe peacebuilding pro- 
cess by helping displaced peo- 
ple to go back to their homes, to 
re-establish their livelihoods 
and. reconstruct their commu- 
nities. UNHCR’s recent pro- 
grams in Bosnia, Cambo dia. 
Guatemala and Mozambique 
have been designed with this 
purpose in mind. 

Ultimately, the tools avail- 
able to UNHCR and other hu- 
manitarian organizations are 

limited. However proficiently 
such agencies are managed and 
however smoothly foeir work is 
coordinated, they cannot bring 
civil wars to an end, oblige gov- 
ernments to respect the human 
rights of their citizens or pre- 
vent foe deliberate displace- 
ment of civilian.populations. 

If foe state of the world's 
refugees and displaced people 
is to be improved, therefore, 
humanitarian action must be 'k 
combined with an effective T 
political and economic agenda. 

Poverty must be eliminated 
and income differentials re- 
duced. The aims trade must be 
curtailed. Longer-term efforts 
must be made to consolidate 
peace and promote human i 
rights in societies which have 
experienced long periods of 
conflict or authoritarian gov- 
ernment. And those individuals 
who wield power over the lives; 
of others must be held account' 
able for their actions. 

As recent experience has 
demonstrated in foe Balkans 
and Central Africa, mass pop- j 
ulation displacements can have T 
an important impact on national 
and regional stability, especially 
when they involve countries 
with weak economies, fragile 
political systems and a delicate 
balance of ethnic groups. 

So resolving the refugee 
problem is not just a question of 
charity or humanitarian concern. 

It also forms an integral part of 
foe United Nations’ efforts to 
establish a more peaceful, pros- 
perous and secure world. 

The writer is the UN high 
commissioner for refugees. She 
contributed this comment to the 
International Herald Tribune. 


1897: China Complies cipl&s. The Turks declared that 

? K** 0 ^**, «ve togefoerrarid that it was 
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Germany s demands — peace to deport these Greeks, 
namely, compensation for the 

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ssars agau* 

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looo r« i. * r, man ’. s P eati «g at foe official 

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protest rf who wonid deplete national re- 
tain ^ orced . sources “for private gain." He 

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stantinonS P S?°A °- f WIth foe country’s future inter- 

stantmople. The American. ob- national position. He said: 

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sentSS^Sf rfwIU ? “ortts" is pan of foe nation's 

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aeakSf’ ^ to ,,worId 0r der. world peace 

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y4 Day of Infamy ■ a Speech to Remember 

By William Safire 

N EW YORK — This is a good day 
to take a close look at a famous 
speech. The day after die Japanese 
attacked P«rl Harbor, President 
Franklin u. Roosevelt — who could 
have turned to his great speechwriters 
Robert Sherwood and Samuel Rosen- 
man. for his speech to Congress calling 
for a recognition that “a state of war 
has existed*' — chose to write the 
message himself. He dictated this to 
Grace Tully. his secretary: 

“Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a 
date which will live in world history,” 
went the first draft of his six-minute 
message, “the United Stales was si- 
multaneously and deliberately at- 
tacked by naval and air forces of the 
Empire of Japan." 

FDR was not satisfied with that 
Simultaneously dealt with fire naval 

and air forces operating as a unit, which 

was not his central point; besides, it 
was a six-syllable word. He changed 
simultaneously to the more dramatic 
suddenly, which went to the surprise 
nature of the combined attack. 

What about “a date which will live in 
world history”? That seemed to credit 
the Japanese with an historic act and 
carried with it no condemnation. He 
reached for a word that expressed 
“shame, disgrace, evil reputation, ob- 
loquy, opprobrium.’’ His choice: in- 
famy. Because the adjective infamous is 
within the periphery of understanding of 
roost English speakers, the noun infamv 

was a better choice than, say, obloquy or 
the more bookish opprobrium. 

History has a way of editing phrases 
to make them more memorable. Just as 
Churchill’s “blood, toil, tears and 
sweat” has been shortened in memory 
to “blood, sweat and tears,” FDR's 
“date which will live in infamy ” has 
been cut to “FDR’s* day of inform 

Looking over the drafts supplied by 
the archivist Raymond Tedchman at the 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 
chose to write the 
message himself! 

Franklin D. Roosevelt Library in Hyde 
Park, New York, I note that the pres- 
ident added and then crossed oat 
“without warning” — why should ah 
attacker give warning? — and handled 
the duplicity of Japanese negotiations 
with “was continuing the conversa- 
tions,” which he shortened to “was 
still in conversation.” 

FDR, reading what he had dictated, 
evidently felt the message needed a lift. 
He wrote an insert: “No matter how 
long it may take us to overcome (his 
premeditated invasion, die American 
people will in their righteous might win 
through to absolute victory.” 

Every president can make use of 
good writing help. Lincoln used a sug- 
gestion of bus secretary of state, Wil- 
liam Seward, in developing “the mys- 

tic chords of memory” peroration to 
his first Inaugural address. In the final 
draft of FDR's war message, the stu- 
dent of perorations in speech writing 
can see the handwriting of Harry Hop- 
kins, die president's closest adviser. 
Under the word Deity, he suggested an 
insertion, reminding' the president that 
a reference to God was called for. 

To lift the spirit of a stunned nation, 
Hopkins, not noted for his writing skill, 
wrote in the line that subtly evoked 
Lincoln's wartime “with firmness in 
the right,” and combined it with an 
adaptation of the final few words of the 
presidential oath: “With confidence in 
our aimed forces — with faith in our 
people — we will gain the inevitable 
triumph — so help us God. ” FDR then 
escalated “faith in our people” to 
“with the unbounded determination of 
oor people." 

Sherwood, the dramatist who bad 
won a Pulitzer Prize for “Abe Lincoln 
in Illinois,” might have been under- 
standably grumpy at being shut out of 
such an historic speech. He did not hear 
the echo of Lincoln’s triple- with con- 
struction in his second Inaugural 
(“With malice toward none, with char- 
ity for all, with firmness in the right") 
in Hopkins’s insertion. 

FDR scrapped his own insertion 
about winning through to victory and, 
making emendations, chose Hopkins's 
line instead. AU this is why. as Amer- 
icans remember Pearl Harbor, speech- 
writers remember the Pearl Harbor 

New York Tunes Sen-ice 


By David Freeman. 278 pages. $23. 
Carroll & Gref. 

Reviewed by Richard Bernstein 

id Freeman puts one in mind of 
“The Alexandria Quartet” by 
Lawrence Darrell, not because of its 
style or story but because of its intensely 
flavored sense of place, the voluptu- 
ousness of an Egypt that has- disap- 

Like Durrell, Freeman lusciously 
evokes a world of exoticism and sen- 
suality and its clash with European in- 
hibition. ‘ The Empire is about avoiding 
the monotony at home,” Freeman has 
one of his Englishmen in Egypt say near 
the end of “One of Us." Tbe book 
suggests an identical motivation, a kind 
of literary escape from the here and 

‘ ‘One of Us' * takes place between the 
mid- 1 930$ and 1942 in Alexandria and 
Cairo (there is also an affecting present- 
day epilogue), and Freeman fully ex- 
ploits the richness of that time and those 

Britain does not run Egypt as pan of 
tbe Empire in these years; it runs it 
indirectly as a crucial sphere of influ- 
ence. Or as the young King Farouk, in 
many ways tbe story’s central character, 
succinctly puts it, “The canal, tbe canal, 
always our canal, isn’t it?” 

The second most influential man in 

the country in this sense is Sir Malcolm 
Cheyne, who is fictional but is modeled 
on tbe British ambassador at tbe time. 
As the novel opens, Malcolm is pur- 
suing one of his main projects, which is 
to make Farouk, not yet king but heir to 
tbe throne of Tutankhamen, as British as 
possible. Hence the ironic title, “One of 

As part of his effort, Malcolm brings 
a young scholar named Jimmy Peel 
from England to tutor Farouk, but 

Jimmy soon finds that Farouk has a 
boyish resistance to Malcolm's pedago- 
gical plans and to most ofhis other plans 
as welL Matters become personal as 
.well as imperial when Malcolm marries 
a much younger woman named Vera. 
Napier, a coquettish beauty who quickly 
becomes tbe object of a sexual fas- 
cination on die pan of Farouk, now the 
king. Meanwhile, World War II looms. 
Tbe Germans and the British vie for 
Egypt’s and Farouk ’s allegiance. “One 
of Us” turns into a savory tale of pol- 
itics, romance, betrayal and revenge. 

That might make Freeman's book 
sound like an exotic melodrama, but in 
fact it i$ told with such quiet restraint 
and delicacy that what emerges is more 
poignant titan theatrical. Jimmy and 
Vera alternate as narrators, sometimes 
relating the same events from their dif- 
ferent points of view. 

Jimmy's first experience with Egypt 
is in Alexandria, “the cerebral and li- 
bidinous city of excess,” where the 
court spends' die summer to avoid the 
desert heat of Cairo. There Jimmy falls 
away from his Englishness, or perhaps 
more accurately, he takes on a second 
identity distinct from that of the well- 
born and well-bred Englishman he is in 
his other life. He goes to brothels; he 
smokes opium; he has a good time. 

The theme here, similar again to one 
of DuirelTs, is temptation by the gor- 
geously subversive East, to which V era, 
unlike her commandingly able husband, 
falls prey as well. Freeman's well- 
drawn characters are not postcolonial 
caricatures with no ear for toe strains of 
moral and political ambiguity that they 
hear around them. For Malcolm. Egypt 
is a British interest pure and simple. For 
Jimmy and Vera and Freeman’s readers, 
it is a domain of the spirit and of the 
senses to be feared and appreciated. 

“One of Us” is a delicious novel, full 
of understated eroticism and intellect and 
able to make you feel a vicarious nos- 
talgia for a world that has been swept 

New York Times Service 



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W INNING the Reisinger 
Board-a-Match Teams 
at the end of the American 
Contract Bridge League's Fall 
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ard Sr. of New Orleans, Bart 
Bromley and Howard Wein- 
stein of Chicago and Steve 
Gamer of Northbrook, 
Illinois. All four have won 
many titles, and Lazaid won 
the same title as far back as 
1 960. His younger teammates 
are all options traders in 

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slight bidding misunderstand- 
ing on the diagramed deal. 
Luzon! and Bramley, as East- 
West, brought home four 
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After the best lead of a trump. 
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suit. If he doesn’t, a club niff 
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diamond from the dummy. 
East won and led a heart but 
was helpless when South won 
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37 anions of years 
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PAGE 10 




Moscow Debates Increasing Reliance on Nuclear Deterrent 

By Walter Pincus 

Washington Past Service 

WASHINCTON — Military and ci- 
vilian leaders in Russia are debating 
whether to increase reliance on nuclear 
weapons to deter attacks from neigh- 
boring nations, enabling Moscow to 
make further cuts in its large and costly 
army, navy and air force, the CIA has 

“At present,* ’ the CIA told Congress 
in malarial released last week by the 
Senate intelligence committee, “a num- 
ber of Russian observers advocate pla- 
cing greater reliance on nuclear weapons 
to compensate for the deficiencies'* of 
conventional forces. 

Some Russian officials, the agency 
added, even “have called for developing 

first-use and limited-use nuclear options 
to prevent a regional conflict from ex- 
' pawling into a broader war.” 

The new Russian mflitny doctrine 

weapons and restructured the Russian 
military into a mobile force with a stra- 
tegic reserve capable of handling “local 
and regional wars along Russia's peri- 

n a., nr a ..ij 

pbery,:’ die QA said. 
The State Departme 

was “still under active debate.* 1 

A senior administration foreign 
policy official described die potential 
movement within the Russian govern- 
ment toward greater reliance on nuclear 
weapons as “a serious downside of 
NATO enlargement*’ that is not getting 
a hearing before U-S. policymakers and 
the public. 

with little publicity, Moscow in 1993 
adopted what was described as a tran- 
sitional military doctrine that eliminated 
a “no first use” pledge on nuclear 

The State Department, in describing 
its view of Moscow's 1993 doctrine to 
the Senate panel, said the Russian gov- 
ernment described any future conven- 
tional attack against its nuclear forces 
or early warning systems “as tan- 
tamount to a crossing of die nuclear 
threshold," the committee materials 

And in a reference to the fanner 
Warsaw Pact countries now in line to 
join NATO, State Department analysts 
said: 1 ‘The 1993 doctrine also stated that 
Russia reserved the right to initiate the 
use of nuclear weapons if it is attacked 

by a nonnuclear weapons state allied 
with or supported by a nuclear weapons 
state." This change brought Russian 
policy in line with long-standing U.S. 
nuclear policy. 

■ Delay on START-2 Vote 

David Hoffman of The Washington 
Post reported from Moscow: 

A senior Russian legislator said that 
the lower house of Parfiament, the State 
Duma, was unlikely to ratify the 
START-2 nuclear weapons reduction 
treaty this year because of widespread 
opposition from Communists and na- 

Vladimir Ijkin, chairman of the 
Duma foreign affairs committee who 
has been a supporter of the treaty and is a 
leader of the centrist Yabloko bloc, said 

the treaty had become “over-politi- 
cized,” especially by the Communist 

Party- _ ....*•. 

The 450-member Duma is dominated 
by Communists and nationalists. ^ - 

hi remarks quoted by the Interfax 
news agency, Mr. Lukin urged Parlia- 
ment to realize that Russia would benefit 
from ratification if it was acconroanied 
by the “speedy conclusion'* of a follow- 
on treaty, START-3, to cut nuclear ar- 
senals even further. 

Viktor Ilyukhin, chairman of the 
Duma security committee and a Com- 
munist, reiterated the faction’s oppo- 
sition to ratification. START-2, he said, 
is 1 ‘beneficial only for the United S t ates 
and NATO, bnt not for Russia, which 
may lose its last defense shield if this 
document is ratified. ’ ' 

Continued from Plage I 

estinian fulfillment of their obbga- 
tions.” . ; 

Those obligations, stated in die same 
Oslo accords that require the Israeli re- 
deployments, largely have to do with 
security cooperation and .the battle 
against terro rism . But they can also be a 
pretext, »ndw Mr. Netanyahu’s constant 
refrain of *' ‘reciprocity, ■’ for .not carrying 
out Israel’s obligations under Oslo. 

Mr. Netanyahu, when he chooses, 
tends to give all obligations equal weight 
— even other, arguably lesser matters. 

While Palestinian security coopera- 
tion is vital to restoring Israeli con- 
fidence in- the peace process, U.S: of-. 

ficdals say, Israel alone .cannot be the', 
arbiter of when that : cooperation has ” 
impr oved enough to justify asigoificam 
Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank. 

Last week, the diplomatic correspon- 
dent of the liberal Israeli newspaper 
Ha’aretz. David Makovsky, wrote, 
“Netanyahu counts on Yasser Arafat’s 
noncompliance with certain aspects of , 
the Oslo accords to avoid having to take 
difficult decisions aboutthe peace pro- ■ 

In Mr. Netanyahu’s game of “ liar’s* J 
poker," as the French newspaper Lib- 
eration called it, the United States is now i 
trying to call Mr. Netanyahu’s bluff and 1 
F Pfrkc him reveal his cams. 

- “It is this period between the cabinet 
decision in principle to withdraw and the 
real decision, about the details, that lends ; 
itself to American pressure," an Israeli j 
official said. “That's what we’re getting > 

Israel argues that first it must agree 
upon its own bottom lines for final A 
boundaries, and then on that basis, make j 
a withdrawal proposal. The size of that' 
withdrawal is likely to depend on wheth- 
er Mr. Arafat is willing to enter ac- 
celerated final-status talks before a ihin) ( 
withdrawal is due in mid- 1998. « 

But U.S. officials said that despite all f 
Mr. Netanyahu’s assertions that he*; 
wanted peace and could not be rushed 1 ; 1 
into a fateful decision on Israel's bound- A 
aries, there was no evidence that he wa* - 
engaged in studying a further withdrawal * • 
u n ti l the Clint on administration starting 

STRATEGY: Change in Nuclear Doctrine 

Continued from Page 1 

The document affirms, for example, 
that the United Stares will continue to 
rely on nuclear weapons as a cornerst o ne 
of its national security for the “ indef- 
inite future, "and that it will rmin a triad 
of nuclear forces consisting of bombers, 
land-based missiles and submarine- 
based missiles, said Robert Bell, a spe- 
cial assistant to die president and senior 
director for defense policy at the Na- 
tional Security Council. 

Critics of U.S. nuclear policy have 
suggested that Washington consider fol- 
lowing the example of France, which 
gave up its vulnerable force of land- 
based strategic missiles, partly to save 
money and partly to undercut incentives 
for an enemy first-strike against such 
missiles. France and England rely solely 
on nudear-equipped bombers and sub- 
marine weapons for deterrence. 

Several officials said the “presiden- 
tial decision directive,” known inform- 
ally as a PDD, was prepared within an 
extraordinarily restricted circle of senior 
policymakers — numbering no more 
than two dozen people — from the Na- 
tional Security Council, tire Defense De- 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the 
iteUigeoce Agency, the State 
Department and the office of Vice Pres- 
ident A1 Gore. 

The document set only broad target- 
ing policy and will be translated over the 
next 10 months into more concrete mil- 
itary requirements — such as prepa- 
rations to strike specific targets — by the 
military staff of the Strategic Command, 
the officials said. 

Mr. Bell of the National Security 
Council declined in an interview Friday to 
specify the length of die directive, the date 
it was signed or its formal tide; he also 
declined to answer questions about the 

miwnies it namari as targets. He Said that 
the secret deliberations were warranted 
by their extreme sensitivity and that the 
adminis tration had not p lanned to make a 
public statement about the directive or 
discuss it with foreign governments. He 
said the White House agreed to comment 
only because The Washington Post was 
preparing an article on the directive. 

“The presidential directive describes 
in general fashion the purposes U.S. 
nuclear weapons serve .and provides 
broad guidance for military planners 
who prepare the actual operations plans 
and targeting plans fen 1 our nuclear 
forces,’ ’ Mr. Bell said. 

He said the directive recognized that 
because the Cold War had ended and 
many changes had occurred in Russia 
and elsewhere over the past seven years, 
“nuclear weapons now play a smaller 
role in our nuclear security strategy than 
at any point during the nuclear era." 

“Most notably, the PDD removes 
from presidential guidance all previous 
references to being able to wage anuclear 
war successfully or to prevail in a nuclear 
war,” Mr. Bell said. “The «nphagis in 
this PDD is therefore on deterring nu- 
clear wars or the use of nuclear weapons 
at any level, not fighting” with them. 

At the same time, Mr. Bell added, “it 
would be a mistake to think that nuclear 
weapons no longer matter, or that they no 
longer matter to this administration. 1 ’ 

Such weapons are still needed to deter 
“aggression and coercion” by threat- 
ening a response (hat “would be certain 
and overwhelming and devastating.” He 
noted that the directive still allowed the 
United States to launch its weapons after 
receiving warning of attack — but be- 
fore incoming warheads detonated — 
and also to be the first to employ nuclear 
weapons in a conflict. 

The directive was prepared in part at 

By MqlApn finoceftawc 

PRIMA DONNA OF A PARTNER — Russian cadets dancing with ballet school students Sunday in Moscow 
during a ball devoted to the youths’ enlistment. Their coDege specializes in military tradition and history. 

the urging of General John Shalikasbvili, 
chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff at 
the time, and General Eugene Habiger. 
commander of the Strategic Command, 
who told Mr. Clinton last February that 
the requirements of Mr. Reagan’s dir- 
ective could not be met if the U.S. ar- 
senal was reduced much below die ced- 
ing of 3,000 to 3,500 weapons set by the 
1993 START-2 treaty with Russia. ' 

. When Mr. Clinton and President Bor- 
is Yeltsin of Russia agreed Iasi March to 
seek a new, lower ceding of 2,000 to 
2^)00 weapons, the new guidance 
already was being drafted, Mr. Bed and 
other officials said. 

The policy shift that Mr. Bell high- 
lighted involves (me of the most con- 

troversial features of Mr. Reagan’s 1981 
directive, which the Pentagon summar- 
ized in a 1982 classified document as 
requiring that US. nuclear forces ‘ ‘must 
prevail even under the condition of a 
prolonged war.” 

Many critics contended then that pre- 
paring to fight such a war was ludicrous, 
given the certain destruction of U.S. and 
Soviet societies in a nuclear exchange; 
they also predicted that fee military would 
squander huge sums trying to develop 
weaponry and communications systems : 
capable of outiastins such a war. 

Partly to quiet fee controversy, Mr. 
Reagan signed a joint statement with 
President Mikhail Gorbachev at a 1985 
summit meeting pledging that “a nu- 

clear war cannot be won and must never 
be fought.” 

But Mr. Bell said that until now, U.S. 
targetmg policy did not reflect this rhet- 
oric, because neither Mr. Reagan nor 
President George Bush had sought to 
amend fee secret presidential directive. 

Another senior administration official, 
who spoke on condition be not be named, 
said the policy shift was “ significan t" 
because it would enable the Pentagon to 
trim fee number of nuclear weapons held 
in reserve for possible use after an initial 
nuclear exchange or two — a force es- 
timated at more than 1 ,000 warheads, out 
of the roughly 8,000 nuclear weapons 
now deployed on U.S. bombers and in- 
tercontinental-range ballistic missiles: 

turning up fee pressure in November anc 
denied him a visit to the White House. 


CRASH: At Least 48 Die After Cargo Jet Comes Down in the Siberian City of Irkutsk 



Continued from Page 1 build was. Nearby buildings were also collateral e 

charred; two childr en died when flames moment of 
city of Knzbass and for that tragedy, penetrated Orphanage No. 1. is a time wl 

President Boris Yeltsin ordered a na- One woman from a neighboring streets doin 

President Boris Yeltsin ordered a na- 

collateral explosions and fires. And the field. It had picked up a pair of Sukhoi- 
moment of fee crash — about 2 P.M. — 27 fighter jets andwasto deliver them to 
is a time when many Russians are on fee Vietnam. 

streets doing weekend shopping. 

Russian reporters are be] 

tional day of mourning. Last year alone, building gave testimony to television About 200 fire rescuers were flown question fee circumstances o: 

more than 200 people died in 43 air cameras; “I looked outside and saw the from Moscow to Irkutsk Saturday; on port of the Sukhoi jets to Vietnam. Re- 

Three weeks ago. a senior State De- 
partment official said, “The Israeli gov- .? 
eminent was signaling that it fed not /, 
intend to do any further redeploy-., 
ments.” Now Israel is committed to one " 
and is discussing its size, nature and . 
timin g- “In the peace process business,” 1 
he said, “that is a significant change.” 

Bnt it also demonstrates die hard, de- 
-tailed work required at the Middle East * 
coal face to get anything dra», which is 
another argument for Mrs. Albright to:/, 
have finally committed herself to the task,. /■ 
however unpleasant or time-consuming. 1 < v 

“Madeleine Albright does not 'have 
the reputation for wearing kid gloves or . ; 
holding her tongue,” the French news- 
paper Le Figaro said Saturday. ‘ ‘But like 
Warren Christopher, she has encountered ; 
an unavoidable reality. Between the stub- ' ' ' 
boniness of Benjamin Netanyahu and the 
indecision of Bill Clinton, it is difficult to 


“We have just finished mourning 

mg down, getting lower and 
hen I heard tins ‘tmk’ sound 

across fee country for fee miners who and wondered, what’s happening. 

Sunday, their trained dogs sniffed the ceatly, Vietnam and Russia signed a 
wreckage for bodies. Three hundred ser- military cooperation agreement, al- 

set a course for American policy." 

While she insists she will not “tread ^ 

died in Kuzbass. This was a national “I felt a tremor go through me and I 

vicemen from the Irkutsk garrison 

, Moscow -w 


icemen from the Irkutsk garrison though no jet sales were announced, 
rovided bulldozers, cranes, trucks. The Anotov cargo jet was leased by a 

uses, radio equipment and hot meals for private company called Cargo Service, 

provided bulldozers, cranes, trucks, 

tragedy, but you see, they happen one felt awfuL Then I heard a bang and all buses, radio equipment and hot meals for private company rallied Cargo Service, 
after fee other,” Mr. Chernomyrdin said my doors and windows flew open. I was the 1,400 rescuers on hand, fee Tass raising the question of whether the trans- 

‘‘fW 1 " .’J £ .1 J. .1 __ 

in televised remarks. “Of course, there really frightened.* 


are no words to calm people. It is bard to She and hex family grabb 

find wards today, and they will not fled to the street 
help." Two coincidences pnoba 

Survivors and neighbors gathered at death toll down, Russian o: 
the scene of fee crash to search for friends First, for yet unexplained reasons, fee 

news agency said. 

fer of the jets was a government deal or 

She and her family grabbed coats and The Antonov-124 cargo plane is one part of a smuggling operation. 

vl tr » tliA ctnaat rsfc fKa if ir nlwnf *7 f\ W 

of tire world’s largest; it is about 70 
meters long. Damage from fee crash was 

Over the months, there have been 
numerous reports of smuggled Russian 

multiplied because the vessel carried a weapons and technology to a variety of 

and relatives and to stare at the billows of neighborhood gas lines were cut off Sat- 

fbll load of fuel. 
It fell from ah 

steam rising from where fee apartment urday morning, reducing the chances for just after taking 

countries, as controls have become loose 
ght of only 60 meters, in Russia’s decentralized and underfin-: 
■from an industrial air anced military. 

water” in fee Middle East, it is becoming:!. 1 
clear to her staff that conservative Israeli-.; 
governments do not move without vis- # 
ible and constant U.S. pressure. 

But fee level of her engagement now v 
means that Mrs. Albright’s own repu- , 
Cation is increasingly on fee line. Given, ' 
the deep political reluctance of Mr. Clin- 
ton and Vice President A1 Gore to take a^ 
confrontational route, there must be a'* 
part of Mr. Netanyahu that is tempted to ■* 
raise the stakes again and cal! Mrs. Al- 
bright’s hand. 

MIA: Pentagon Rejected Search Mission for Airman Lost in Iraq 

SUMMIT: Islamic Leaders Set to Meet 

Continued from Page 1 

back and find him. The more modern 
concept was feat you can’t take the risk 
of a loss.” 

Those who opposed the secret mis- 
sion to Iraq recalled the searing televised 
images of fee army Rangers who were 
killed in Somalia in 1993 tying to re- 
cover fallen comrades — and the public 

pillorying that their commanders took 
from Congress and the news media. 

from Congress and the news media. 

They knew fee costs of failure on a 
mission in Iraq would be high, and they 
thought the mission too dangerous, even 
though the Pentagon’s Joint Special Op- 
erations Command had assessed the 
risks as “low” or “very low." Their 
idea was safer and, they argued, smarten 
wodring wife fee Red Crass to enter Iraq 
wife a team of skilled forensic experts. 

In the end, the Pentagon took the least 
risky route. Two yean after fee dis- 
covery of fee wreckage, and a year after 
General ShalikashvUi's decision, a 
Pentagon team entered Iraq openly, with 
Saddam Hussein’s permission, under fee 
banner of fee Red Cross. 

The searchers still do not know 
whether Commander Speicber bailed 
out successfully or whether he conld 
have survived the crash. 

They found to their dismay that, just 
as the advocates of a secret military 
mission had feared, fee crash site had 
been excavated, most likely by Iraqis, 

On Jan. 17, 1991, Commander 
Speicher, 33, went down in a dogfight 
over western Iraq. The navy spent 
months trying to understand why. It 
might have been an Iraqi air-to-air mis- 
sile, but no one knows for sure. 

His father, Wallace, had hopes that he 
might have survived. “Scotty’s coming 
home,” he said three days later. But he 
was listed as “killed in action — body 
not recovered.” Commander Speicher's 
wife, who has since remarried, has said 
she wants to preserve her privacy. 

When the war was over, “fee Iraqis 
returned 1.5 pounds of human flesh they 
claimed belonged to a pilot named ‘Mi- 
chael,’ ” Pentagon documents say. 

’ ‘Subsequent DNA tests determined fee 
remains were not Speicher.” 

Thehunting party that found his plane 
wa s led by a senior military officer from 
the emirate of Qatar, in the Gulf. The 
Qatari officer brought home pictures of 
fee plane’s canopy, a shard of metal wife 
serial numbers, and said be had seen an 
ejection seat He gave the evidence to 
officials at fee U.S. Embassy in Qatar. 
The numbers on the shard were proof. 

Moral codes and military traditions 
compelled the Pentagon to look for Com- 
mander Speicher’s remains — or some 
evidence that he might have lived. 

On April IS, 1994, officials from the 
office or the secretary of defense, the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff, fee navy, fee Stale 
Department and fee CIA discussed “a 
covert/clandestine military action to in- 
vestigate fee crash site,” the Pentagon 
documents say. 

That was a better idea than “openly 
approaching Baghdad” to request per- 
mission for a search, the group agreed. 
They said that an open approach could 
reveal fee location to fee Iraqis, which 
“would likely jeopardize the site's in- 
tegrity." The Iraqis had scavenged 
every other Desert Storm crash site. 

A separate nrilitacy intelligence analysis 
warned the Joint Chiefs feat “the location 
of the site would be divulged and sub- 
sequent investigations thwarted by Iraqi 
intelligence exploitation” if the United 
States openly approached Baghdad,. 

The issue was clear, said Admiral Ar- 
thur. then fee vice chief of naval op- 
erations: “Did we or did we not have a 
lost pilot?” He said he believed there was 
a chance that Commander Spefcher had 
ejected successfully and survived. “We 

the military mission. Four helicopters 
carrying a special-operations .team 
would cross the Iraqi border from Saudi 
Arabia at night. The team would return 
wife everything it could find — black 
boxes, bones, wiring from the cockpit, 
fragments of metal and any other clues. 

Mr. Smith and others favored the dip- 
lomatic course: openly approaching 
Baghdad through the International Com- 
mittee of fee Red Cross. The Red Cross 
would ask Baghdad for permission to go 
to fee crash site wife a forensic team 
from the Pentagon. The team could work 
at length, without danger. 

Mr. Connolly said he warned that fee . 

Continued from Page 1 


; AtRSpn*/ Vs- 

*■ 1 wtwWit. ■■■ ■■ v 


and ultimately fail. The choice 

mately lay with Mr. Perry, and a final 
decision did not come until March 1995. 

know there was an ejection attempt,” he 
said. “I thought he bailed exit I was 

adamant that we get back in there.” 

But for six months, the nation’s mil- 
itary leaders maintained what the doc- 
uments call “a holding pattern.” 

On Dec. 23, 1994, Defense Secretary 
William Perry, General Shatikashyili 
and other Pentagon officials, including 
Frederick Smith, fee assistant secretary 
for international security affairs, dis- 
cussed their options. 

Timothy Connolly, then principal as- 
sistant deputy secretary of defense for 
special operations, and others favored 

decision did not come until March 1995. 
But the military option effectively died 
when General Shalikashvili opposed it 
with his statement about old bones. 

Mr. Connolly, who left the Pentagon 
hist year, raid last week: “Our senior 
civilian and military leaders were simply 
too afraid of fee possibility of failure, 
however remote, and refused to allow this 
pilot's comrades to go into Iraq and bring 
trim home. I wish I could tell you it was 
more complex than feat, but it wasn’t.” 

On Jan. 4, 1995, Mr. Perry told Sec- 
retary of State Warren Christopher feat 
they should ask the "Red Cross to ap- 
proach the Iraqis. The Red Gross was 
amenable. On Feb. 14, its Middle East 
director, Michel Cagneaux, met wife 
Iraqi officials in Baghdad. “Iraqis 
listened intently, took copious notes," 
Mr. Smith wrote that day after talking to 
fee Red Cross. 

Throughout fee spring, a Pentagon 
spy satellite photographed the crash site 
every three days. The wreckage was 
undisturbed, military intelligence ana- 
lysts reported in ApnL 

“Our team is ready to go,” Mr. Smith 
told his superiors on May 2, 1995. But a 
report to General Shalikashvili from his 
staff three weeks later warned of un- 
foreseen delays, “due to ‘bureaucratic 
problems' within the Iraqi government." 

It would be six more mouths before 
fee team entered Iraq. In December 
1995, two years after the Qatari officer's 

discovery and one year after General 
Shahkashvili’s decision, the team ar- 
rived at the crash site, winch had been 
scavenged. There was no ejection seat 
There were no bones. 

Bedouin nomads handed the team a 
tattered flight uniform. Mr. Smith would 
not discuss what a subsequent analysis 
of the suit showed. An officer familiar 
wife the team’s findings said feat it had 
recovered one of the plane’s dam re- 
corders from the Bedouins. 

“The evidence showed the pilot suc- 
cessfully ejected from fee aircraft,” he 

Mr. Smith and J. Alan Liotta, chief of 
fee Pentagon's prisoner of watfmissing 
in action office, would not confirm or 
deny that. They said only that the team 
had emerged with a clearer picture of 
what had happened. That picture, like 
everything else about fee rase, remains 
officially secret 

Could fee pilot have survived fee 

“We don’t know,” Mr. Liotta said 
The investigation continues. Command- 
er Speicher is still listed as “killed in 
action — body not recovered” The first 
American to fell in fee Persian Gulf war 
remains tire last to be accounted for. 

hammed Khatami, a moderate cleric who 
favors greater openness toward the West 
And the presence in Tehran ofhigh-level 
representatives from countries such as 
Kn wait, Egypt ami Saudi Arabia is likely 
to prevent an outbreak of unbridled 
Amerira-bashing, analysts say. 

The summit meeting will inevitably 
produce its share of resolutions con- 
demning Israel and railing for the res- 
toration of Jerusalem to fee Palestinians. 
On the other hand, Ir anian organizers are 
also emphasizing benign themes such as 
the promotion of trade among Muslim 
counties and the need for a unified sys- 
tem of Islamic banking regulations. 

“This conference has not been con- 
vened to send a message to anyone,” 
Deputy Foreign Minister Mohammed 
JavadJZarif said Saturday. “It was con- 
vened to bring about closer ties among 
Islamic countries." 

The meeting brings together members 
of the Organization of the Islamic Con- 
ference, which was founded in 1969 and 
meets every three years- The meeting 
rarely elicits much interest in the West 
The conference this year, however, has 
become a kind of coming-out party for 
Iran, which is seeking to assert its lead- 
ership both regionally and among fee 
world’s 1 billion Muslims. 

In particular, Iran is seeking better ties 
wife Arab countries have long ac- 
cused its clerical leaders of packaging 
th eir r evolution for export Cairo, for 
example, still has no diplomatic ties wife 
Tehran, which it accuses of involvement 

m fee 1995 assassination anesmx on Pres- 
ident Hosni Mubarak by Egyptian Is- 
lamrc radicals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 

And some Saudi officials have 
pnraidy accused Iran of orchestrating 
fee June I996hombingofaU.S.mmtaty 
housing complex in Khobar, Saudi Ara- 
bia, that killed 19 American service per- 

fa a sign of the importance feat Iran 
attaches to fee conference, senior officials 
haye toured the region fa recent months to 
nmte Arab heads of state to Tehran, fa 
toatregard they were only partly suc- 
cessful. Mr. Mubarak, King Hussein of 

Jordan ami Morocco’s King Hassan II 1 
apparently have elected to stay home. 

But a number of Arab leaders havefcj 
accepted the Iranian invitation, among, ■ 
than Sheikh Hamad ibn Khalifa al Thanu/ 

it. j « - * 1 * 

the emir of Qatar, and his counterpart ■ 
from Kuwait, Sheikh Jaber al Ahmad asy ■ 
Sabah. Egypt will' be represented by its> 
foreign minister, Amr Moussa, and Sandi- 
Arabia by Crown Prince Abdullah ibn. 
Abdulaziz. Iraq, which fought ah eight- 
year war wife Iran in the 1980s, is ex-, 
peered to send Vice President Taha 
YaSsin Ramadan. Others to attend are the' 
United Nations secretary-general, Kofi, 
Annan, and Louis Fanakhan of fee> 
Chicago-based Nation of Islam. 


A Swiss Rank Plan 

e >v. 

— '• -yt 

tooniutioo w 

Continued from Page 1 

Swiss banks have been struggling in 
recent years, wife fee economy slowed 
by recession. They also suffered as tra- 
ditional fortresses of fee Swiss in asset 
management and international invest- 
ment banking were assailed by revital- 
ized American institutions such Merrill 
Lynch & Co. , J.P. Morgan & Co., 
Goldman, Sachs & Co. and others. 

Reports of a possible merger have 
swirled through the world of interna- 
tional finance sines last year, when Cred- 
it Suisse, the No. 2. Swiss hanking group, 
unsuccessfully broached fee idea of a 
merger with Union Bank. Undaunted, 
Credit Suisse announced an $8.8 billion 
takeover of fee big Winterthur Insurance 
Co. in August. 

Jhis regrouping and a surge in net 
profit fels year have caused Swiss bank; 
stocks to catch fire recently, rebounding 
after several years of weak performance. 

Analysts said such a deal could trigger 
more consolidation, including job losses, 
in the competitive global banking sector. 

* TKie tiimifri Ln 1- — * - - 11 £ 

“This would be the beginning of in- 
creased concentration of the capital-mar- 
kets industry in Europe,” an economist 
at a U.S. bank in London told Reuters. 


PAGE 11 



f $®pub§c research 
on France's 

tto forefront of 
transport networks. 

Clockwise from top left 
^ hoBcoptor at tbe Cannes- 
MandoBee airport; the 
AcmpoBs Convention 
Center SufBcep 
students; the Patels des 
Festivals In Cannes. 

Gray Matter in 
Green Vaixeys . 

There is a high level jf interaction among 
businesses, schools and research institutions. 

i Creativity and Connectivity 


A ll economic development agencies 
promise attractive sites, a welcoming 
climate for business, modem infra- 
structure, an international airport,” says 
Francois Kester, director-general of Cote 
d’Azur D^veloppement (CAD), foe econom- 
ic development agency for foe Riviera region 
of France. 

“What makes us unique are foe quality 
and content of our offer and foe creativity we 
supply.” He explains that the lack of a man- 
t fecturing legacy has made foe CSte d'Azur 
ible and forward-thinking, in keeping 
with the needs of information technology 
companies today. 

Another advantage is what Christian 
Tordo calls “cultural proximity.” Mr. Tordo 
is both head ofTexas Instruments France and 
president of the Telecom Valley Association. 
He is referring to foe advantage for compa- 
nies whose customers may be European, 
Asian or American of having products de- 
signed by an engineering team drawn from 
all over foe world. 

Texas Instruments was one of the very first 
to set up a research facility cm foe Cote 
d’Azur back in 1961, and today one-fourth of 
its 500-person workforce (of whom 400 are 
engineers) is non-French. , 

T1 was followed a year later by IBM, 
which- set up its own research center in La 
Gaude and currently employs more than 
1,00ft' people. Jacques Gros, director of 
IBM i Telecommunications Solution Center 
, .for Europe, foe Middle East and Africa, 
[{■<bin|5 out that the La Gaude facility an- 
ticipated the changing direction of the parent 
corabany. “Here on foe Cote d’Azur, we are 
a software and solutions business, and that is 
now! true of our parent company as well. This 
yeai for foe first time, hardware represented 
less than 50 percent of IBM’s worldwide 

h 1991, these two companies and five 
otters — Aerospatiale. AT&T Paradyne, Di- 

gital Equipment, foe European Telecommu- 
nications Standards Institute and France 
Telecom — joined together to form the Tele- 
com Valley Association. 

Telecom Valley 

The evocation of Silicon Valley was- no ac- 
cident The Cote d'Azur boasts perhaps foe 
densest concentration of high-technology 
companies outside of its California coun- 
terpart: 350 enterprises and a skilled work- 
force of 10,000 employees. The Telecom 
Valley Association's 40- some members ac- 
count for 6,500 of these workers, from 
dozens of countries, all engaged in some area 
of telecommunications. 

Last month, foe association hosted foe 
13th International Conference on Computer 
Communication. The conference sponsor, 
the International Council for Computer 
Communication, celebrated its silver an- 
niversary while meeting in Cannes. One of 
foe sessions introduced foe region's IT ad- 
vantages to participants. 

High on foe list is foe quality and potential 
of foe French Riviera’s educational and re- 
search institutions. The development ofthese 
resources is one of Telecom Valley’s major 
initiatives. Laurent Nicq, director of Clip 
Technologies, explains why: “Here we find 
young professionals with a world view. They 
are better employees because they are more 
independent, creative and flexible, all qual- 
ities important to a research center.” 

Physical and electronic connections 
Another important factor is connectivity — 
understood iri several ways. Physical con- 
nectivity is provided by Nice Airport, 
France's second busiest, with well over 100 
million passengers to date. The nearby 
Cannes-Mandelieu Airport is the second- 
busiest business airport in the country. The 
helicopter service linking Monaco to Cannes 
is the most-traveled in Europe. 

Joseph Spatari directs LC1 Vision, a com- 
pany specializing in video applications, with 
clients in Europe and foe United States. 
“Because our work is customized,” he ex- 
plains, “it doesn’t matter where we are lo- 
cated in relation to our customers. What we 
need is an international airport — and here 
we have it” 

Molly Foeister, director of business de- 
velopment for Qualcomm Europe, also men- 
tions foe importance of foe airport “Our 
target market is not France or Europe but the 
world itself,” she says, so international con- 
nections from Nice were a prerequisite for 
setting up a local office. 

Connectivity through a sophisticated tele- 
communications infrastructure is essential 
for companies operating in information tech- 
nology. The Sophia Antipolis science park 
has an advanced fiber-optics network, “in- 
telligent buildings” and — equally important 
— foe service and local know-how to keep 
them running. 

Conveniently located poles of economic 
activity house such services. The Carros/Le 
Broc pole hosts 450 businesses on its 200 
hectares (500 acres). A planned expansion 
will add 17 more hertares. The Arenas busi- 
ness center is a 17-hectare site lacing Nice 
Airport with 300 businesses, 1,500 employ- 
ees and a seven-hectare arboretum with dis- 
plays that change by foe season. 

Connectivity through informal networks 
among companies, customers, suppliers, lo- 
cal institutions and government is also im- 
portant The Telecom Valley Association is 
one of dozens of professional clubs and 
organizations, many of them based right in 
Sophia Antipolis. 

International, tech-literate workforce 
Connectivity is facilitated in a location where 
people want to be. That is one of foe major 
assets of a Cdte d’Azur address — for re- 
cruitment and retention. Twelve percent of 

foe region’s 1 million residents are foreign, 
and in France foe rate of workforce growth is 
■second only to that of Paris. Jeremy Scanlan, ' 
director of human resources for VLSI Tech- 
nology, confesses that it is easy to recruit 
here, “and the retention rate is evenbettec In ; 
foe last two years, we have hired 100 people 
and lost two. Compare that to Silicon Valley, 
where turnover is 20 percent or more.” 

Ascend Communications located its Tech- 
nical Assistance Cotter serving Europe, the 
Middle East and Africa in Sophia Antipolis 
for foe same, reason. Edgardo da Fonseca, 
head of foe newly formed center, explains, 
“We produce wi de-area-networking solu- 
tions for telecommunications carriers, In- 
ternet service providers and corporate cus- 
tomers worldwide. We needed technically 
qualified people speaking all the major lan- 
guages in Europe, and we knew we could 
attract them to.this area.” 

■ Employees are not foe only ones who want 
to come to foe Riviera. The Cote d' Azur has 
the greatest concentration of convention cen- • 
ters in Europe. Nice's Acropolis was named 
foe “Best Convention Center in Europe" for 
three years in a row between 1993 and 1996 
and has hosted Microsoft’s Tech. Ed for the 
last two years. 

The Palais des Congres in Cannes is foe site 
of conferences such as the Gartner Group’s IT 
Expo, the World GSM Conference and the 
MDJA multimedia conference. Monaco has 
hosted foe multimedia show Imagina every 
year since its inception. 

While foe economic-development author- 
ities are making every effect to assist compa- 
nies in relocating their facilities in foe area, 
Mr. Tordo ofTexas Instruments believes that 
Telecom Valley also has a role to play in 
attracting new companies, research labora- 
tories and talent to the region. “We want to 
promote foe French Riviera as a desirable 
place to be,” he says. A native Nfoois, he 
adds, “That isn't so hard to do.” • 

ur locatiQb. is. a frig 
ptasforus > M .saysAh- 
met Ayka?, director 
of Theseus Institute, an in- 
ternational management 
school located in Sophia An- 
tipolis. “Around us axe more 
titan 1,000 companies at foe 
cutting in information- 
intensive activities -r: not just 
computers but also informa- 
tion processing in the broad- 
’est sense." 

■Because both its MBA 
piogtam and its executive 
devel o pment courses ’focus 
oh foe implications of tech- 
nology fra: management, 
Theseus is well-positioned to 
“weave research into the 
educational process,’.’ says 
Mr. Ayka$. - 

Vbrtually all of the edu- 
cational and research insti- 
tutions in the region take sim- 
ilar advantage of - the 
intellectual resources found 
foere. The Provence-Alpes- 
Maritimes-Cote .d'Azur 
(PACA) region has foe 
second-largest concentration 
of public research in France 
after Paris. 

New research labs 
In recent weeks, France’s 
prestigious National Center, 
for Scientific Research 
opened two new research 
laboratories in Sophia An- 
tipolis. One facility, 
CRHEA, will conduct re- 
search in tiie field of semi- . 
conductor materials for new 
applications, while the other, 
IDEFL, will focus on eco- 
nomic, legal and manage- 
ment issues. 

IDEFI is run in conjunc- 
tion with tiie University of 
Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 
which has 27,000 students 
(10 percent of whom are for- 
eign). It ranks among foe best 
mterdisciplinary universities 
in France and is the youngest 
It boasts 200 specialized re- 
search centers and 1,200 
teachers, and ambitious plans 
are under way to double its 
size in the next 10 to 15 

The Center for Teaching 
and Research Applied to 
Mathematics (CERAM) has 
almost 1,000 students fix- its 
scientific and commercial 
courses of study, plus another 
12S students in specialized 
masters programs in data- 
base and systems integration, 
back-office technology, mul- 
timedia, economy and man- 
agement, and international 

With one-fourth of its stu- 
dent b ody coming from 
abroad, CERAM is already 

international, but it continues 
to strengthen this dimension. 
Last year, it established part- 
nerships with the Shanghai 
Institute of Foreign Trade 
and -the University of 
Phoenix in Arizona, and this 
year it signed an agreement 
with the Nariyang Polytech- 
nic University of Singapore. 

Interaction between aca- 
demia and enterprise is en- 
couraged through a series of 
local and regional govern- 
ment initiatives, as. are pro- 
grams for advanced educa- 
tion, One of the latter is 
Irrstitut EunScom, a five-year- 
old joint venture between 
‘ France’s Ecole Sup6rieure 
Nationale des Telecommu- 
nications and the Swiss- 
based Ecole Polytechrrique 
de Lausanne. 

Straight to work 
Institut EunScom is the first 
international institution for 
training engineers in the field 
of communications systems, 
and its success can be meas- 
ured by the 100 percent ca- . 
reer placement of its 100 
graduates each year. Director 
Claude Gueguen reports, 
“We made a mistake in 
scheduling our graduation 
ceremony in early July be- 
cause many of our students 
can’t come. They start work- 
ing as soon as they graduate 
in June.” 

The research activities 
conducted at foe European 
Telecommunications Stan- 
dards Institute (ETSI), locat- 
ed in. Sophia, draw foe pro- 
fessional interest of many 
Telecom Valley companies. 

1 ETSI is the reason some of 
them have come to foe area, 
especially with next-gener- 
ation standards for wireless 
• communications in the off- 

ETSl’s some 90 full-time 
employees and more than 
2^00 voluntary experts work 
to facilitate foe integration of 
telecommunications infra- 
structures in Europe, assure 
foe interworking of future 
services, achieve compatib- 
ility of terminal equipment 
and create pan-European 
telecom networks. 

Personal contacts at all 
levels are a big plus for foe 
area’s students, researchers, 
professors and employees, 
say many of the Cote 
d’Azur’s residents. As Mr. 
Ayka? of foe Theseus Insti- 
tute points out, “In the final 
analysis, we are talking about 
foe relationships between 
peopie and organizations, 
people and each other.” • 

■■■ ■ ■■ 2 

EjT.V-w «** ^ “• ” | 

For More Information or Assistance 

Cdte d'Azur Developpement 

Economic Development Agency 
10, rue de la Prefecture 
B.P. 4147 

06303 Nice Cedex 4. France 

Tel.: +33 4 92 17 51 51: fax: +33 4 93 80 05 76 


On the Web: 

• CAD (French and English): 

• CAD (Japanese): rittoy/ 

• CAD business and news: 

• Sophia Antipolis: http://www.saem-sophia- 

• Telecom Valley http://www.telecorrwall^.fr 

• Institut Eutecom: 

• institut Theseus: 


• University of Nice, Sophia Antipolis: ■ 

The Millennium 

Newcomers to the Cote d’Azur tend to be smaller, 
more youthful companies. 


“COte d’Azi r: Where Information 
Technology Floitusues” 

h os produced in its entirety in' the Advertising Department 
l if the International Herald Tribute It mis sponsored 
by Cote d Vlzwr Developpement. 
i Writer: Claudia FlisL based in the South of France. 

I Program Director: Bill Mahder. 

L ast year, more than 8p 
percent of the compa- 
nies arriving in foe 
Cote d'Azur through CSte 
d’Azur Developpement 
could be classified as infor- 
mation technology/telecom- 
munications specialists. 

Like their predecessors, 
they have been drawn by the 
exceptional quality of the 
area's infrastructure as well 
as foe international environ- 
ment, but their profiles are 
strikingly different. They are 
newer and smaller, and their 
growth is foe result of both 
changes in foe telecommu- 
nications industry globally 
and the catalyzing effect of 
foe resources they -have 
found on the French Rivi- 

Among foe generation of 
arrivals in the 1980s and 
early 1990s were Amadeus, 
Andersen Cons ulting, Bay 
Networks, ETSI and VLSI 

Amadeus, foe world's 
largest travel reservation sys-i 
tern, is also foe largest em- 
ployer, in Sophia Antipolis, 
with 750 currently on staff 
and another 150 to be added 
within two years. 

Employment at Bay Net- 
works, a leader in telecom 
connectivity, grew by 50 per- 
cent last year in Sophia, and 
foe deregulation of European 
telecommunications in 1998 
bodes well for the firm’s con- 
tinued expansion in the area. 

VLSI Technology, a de- 
veloper of applications for 
wireless communication, ar- 
rived in 1986. VLSI has 
tripled its size, to 1 55, over 
the last two years. 

“Although one-third of 
our employees are not 
French, almost everyone is a 
local hire,” explains Jeremy 
Scanlan, director of human 
resources. “That was a com- 
pany decision; we didn't 
want this to be a place of 
expat contracts.” 

Among the distinguishing 
features of foe region’s IT 
e n terprises today are their 
youth and size. One out of 
every two IT companies on 
foe Cdte d’Azur today ar- 
rived after 1991, and foe 
1996 arrivals — wbat might 
be called foe millennium 
generation — include an ex- 
plosion of companies with 
fewer than five employees. 

The small giants include 
Qualcomm Europe, a five- 
person outpost oi'an 8,000- 
strong California company, 
and Clip Technologies, a 
German firm that opened last ■ 
spring with force employees 

Molly Foerster, director of 
business development for 
Qualcomm Europe, de- 
scribes her mission as focus- 
ing on foe next generation of 
wireless standards. 

“Qualcomm Europe 
chose foe Sophia Antipolis 
science park as foe headquar- 

Success Hasn’t Spoiled Sophia Antipolis 

Telecom Valley’s precise geographical boundaries may be 
difficult to define. Those of Sophia Antipolis, the first and best- 
known of Europe's science parks, are a lot easier. Sophia 
Antipolis, 28 years old, is a 5,700-acre (2,300hectare) cam- 
pus of modem buildings set amid lush greenery sprawling 
across six municipalities be- 
tween Nice and Cannes. 

Almost 1,100 companies 
call Sophia Antipolis their 
home, and the majority of 
them operate In hlghfech- 
notogy industries. 

Engineers, technicians 
and managers drawn from 
50 countries farm a large 
percentage of the science 
park's 17,000 employees. 

More than 10 percent of the 
firms in Sophia Antipolis are 
subsidiaries of foreign op- 
erations, with the m^ority of 
them from the United 
States. The park attracts 40 
percent of all the Inftxma- 
fkxrtechnology and tele- 
coms companies coming to the Cote d’Azur, more than twice 
as many as Nice (19 percent), which is second In popularity. 

Both Sophia Antipolis and foe Principality of Monaco have 

Fiance Telecom's “AgorS* bwk&ng in Sophia AntipoBs. 

teleports with sophisticated fiber optics, high-speed networks 
and direct satellite access to the United States. 

Last year, France Telecom chose the Sophia Antipolis 
technopole as the first site in Fiance for its experimental ATM 
network, which provides high-speed transmissions for voice. 

images and data. 

The science park's ap- 
peal Is based on more than 
fiber optics, however. Site 
development is geared to 
keeping employees happy 
and productive. Twothirds 
of the park is set aside as a 
nature preserve. 

There are 370 acres ded- 
icated to sports and leisure, 
32 tennis courts, three golf 
courses, wooded paths for 
hiking and bicycling and 
more than 300 days of sun- 
shine a year to enjoy these 

Pierre Laffitte, founder of 
Sophia Antip&fis, under- 
stood that human relations 
underpin technological achievement The park's very name, 
Sophia, is a fitting reminder It is named after Laffitte’s wife. 
Equally fitting is the meaning of the word in Greek — wisdom. 

ters for our European activ- 
ities to allow our company to 
participate -with the local 
companies, universities and 
public research centers, 
which have considerable ex- 
pertise in advanced wireless 
telecommunications technol- 
ogy,” Ms. Foerster says. 
“Also, it is centrally located 
to support our thrust into foe 
European and African mar- 

Laurent Nicq, head of foe 
Clip Technologies office, 
points out that his co m p any . 

which specializes in embed- 
ded systems for electronic 
cards, does not work directly 
in telecommunications. 

“But this area’s strengths- 
in telecoms were considered 
a long-term advantage by our 
management, and we have 
made a lot of.contacts since 
coming here.” - 

A lajger operation is LCI 
Vision, specializing in digital 
video, which was bought by 
LCI of Holland last summer. 
Joseph Spatari, who had 
started the company three 

years earlier/says that the 
company has more than 
tripled its size since then and 
has expanded internationally. 
Ascend Communication’s 
Technical Assistance Center, 
which currently has 25 em- 
ployees, will expand to 150 
in the next couple of years. 
Says foe center’s manager, 
Edgardo da Fonseca, “We 
will be developing a research 
facility eventually —and this 
is foe right place for that kind - 
of activity.” 

One thing foe millennium 

generation shares with its 
predecessors is foe youthful 
enthusiasm of its workforce. 
Christian Tordo, head of 
Texas Instruments France, 
reports that 30 percent of his 
employees have less than 
forte years’ seniority. Says 
Mr. Scanlan of VLSI, “-The 
average age here is 30, and 
80 percent of our employees 
are under 30.” 

He adds, “There is amaz- 
ing energy here, with people 
willing to rake- on respon- 
sibility at an early age.” • 

- * 

>! ■■ 



Pace University 

One Great University 
Two Great Options 



A Established in 1906, P*ce is a My accredited, coedoaoooal, 
comprehensive umvetsity. 

A Campus options offer a choice of an nrbai or srfxnbm environment. 
Our New York Cby campus ofas all tbe catena* of The % Apple.’ 

Our Westchester campuses (just 55 minutes from New York Gif) offer 
a traditional coik-gfare campus experience. 

A UndagradnaK ^Gtadiate programs are o&rcdtfarougfa the 

tWveraty's fivfe schools: Dyson College of Ans & Sciences, Inbia School 
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1 1, u r ii M -T i l-fi, 1 1 - 1 Ml 1 1 U 

Institute (EU). 

i Outsaixfing&wpcratiYeEdncaboapr^ 

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enrolled to school. 

A Total student body of approximately 14,102, induing 666 students 
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A ttoofltasggemakxal student advisors, active mtomatkaalgudenf 

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Foe farther hUbnaatioa, call or write: 
free University, Student infonnation Center, 

1 Pace Ptaa, New York, NY 10038-1598 USA 
(212) 346-1927, extenskjfl 1804 Fresnofe (212)3*6-1821 

(please include ext. 1804 in youre-oufl message) 






The education is American. 

M Stanford 


S‘. ... T- * V. C ^ 

*• . •” w i*> v »i “'L? 

*.v .\ ■* & -V. A A *li ■A'Vi 

June 23 - August 1 6 , 1998 

The mix is international. 

• v tr. j-\ 9 ,\- & jl 

The location is Paris. 

Undergrads + Grads 

♦ Fulfill a distribution or 
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♦ Over 200 classes offered in 
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High School Students 

♦ Take undergraduate courses 
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♦ live oo campus-40 miles 
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2 ; ->J“ * * ■% 

Courses in .- Intensive Languages. 
Physics, Economics, Biology, Com- 
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+ Open to advanced students 
who will have completed their 
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♦ ^wcm/SAT ftepaud.-C- n — — 



Contact Lee Anders. Paris: (33/1) 
31 avenue Bosquet. 7 5007 Paris. France t 2 






for foreign 

the year. 
All levels 


47, rue des Eeoies, 
75005 Parte 
TfcL (33 1)40 46 22 11 
fine (33 1)40 46 32 29 

l a |im M l m MM Ml 





A. A. Interdisciplinary Studies 
A.A.A. Business Administration 

B. S. Business Administration 
BA- International Relations 

B.A. Italian Studies 
BA. Interdisciplinary Studies 
BA. Communications 


Center For 
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The American Unwerdy of Rome is acoredted 
by the Accretfiting Camel 
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and is affifiated with major U.S. institutions. 

fir drifter nfimaftri cotact 
Anarfcan Unhenty of Rome 
□apt an, Vh Mo Warn +00153 Rom. kafy 
TeL 06/583 30919 -Fax: 06/583 30992 


Marymount School, founded in 1923,1s a 

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challenging American curriculum from nursery school through 
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offer a strong French language program. 

Marymount also offers an extensive program to children with 
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Headmistress: Sr Genevfeoe Mitrpbv j/<&> ^ 


92200 NEULLY-5UR5EINE, FRANCE rjWgggja 
Teb 01 46 24 10 51 * Ffon 01 46 37 07 50 

he best choice for 

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he ultimate to 

CENTRE FABCTT anchhrt 75N7P«rii tfl. +33 (8)1 45 55 42 25 
fax +33 (8)1 47 #5 65 61 E-mail :EdMrt@dnb-Intane(ir 

A multilingual school 

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^ fnxmkfaderfflnten thiwg fo ht^ school 

7"~* Balance between studies, sports and arts 

Daily mntriKngmd teac hing : 

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TeL: 01 40 70 12 81 - Fax: 01 40 70 91 07 
5, rue de Lobeck, 75116 PARIS - FRANCE 


The International School of Paris 

“Where the world goes to school' 

L ne«(rEa{EA-lupi{(idMliriiktalk(dQiiri l tabvldi 

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Master of IffiHMUkno] Susmess Adniinistradon, M1BA 
Bachelor of Sdence in Bbsukss Admiaistialian. BSBA 




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Qumm Road, Box IHT 
Richmond, Svrqr TWIQ 4JP UK 
ToL +44-18 1-332-9000 
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wmoll: mroU Q i lc h mond. ar .iir 





5!o9 students per 

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TEL: +44 (0) 171 24025 81 - FAX: +44 (0) 171 379 5793 



Wyoming, USA 


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1 Also on-catnpus programs at Cheyenne campus in (JSA, 
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Dept [HTI297, 1204 Airport Parkway. Cheyenne. WY 82001. USA 
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or Phone: 44 181 9478924 

John F. Kennedy 
International School >(]* 



Three magnificent campuses in Europe 
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AISR • VortKdsUaan 21 • 3055 WJ Rotterdam • Tha Nethoriands 
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ior-iht Lcywn ^vvitz^-r^ ^ 

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St George's University is an international center for higher education 
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PAGE 12 





Building Boom 
In Dar es Salaam 

Is Sign of Progress 

Privatization and foreign investment are driving 
Tanzania s push to realize its vast potential. 

T he slow and dusty 
streets of the Indian 
Ocean port city of Dar 
es Salaam are beginning to 
come to new life. The traffic 
is a noisy combination of 
overcrowded buses, or data 
data, and the fashionable 
four-wheel-drive vehicles of 
the city's wealthier inhabit- 

But die occasional traffic 
jam is never a cause for bad 
temper — in the intense trop- 
ical heat, few people are in a 

- The slow pace of life in 
Tanzania goes some way to- 
ward explaining its low pro- 
file in world affairs, but this 
does not mean that nothing 
happens here. 

Indeed, this vast country is 
undergoing a transformation 
that many believe could 
make it into one of Africa's 
most successful economies 
within die next decade. 

Massive potential 
Perhaps the most striking 
physical evidence of Tan- 
zania's transformation is the 
building boom taking place 
in Dar es Salaam, where 
modem office blocks are be- 
ginning to tower above die 
city's leafy avenues. But the 
more meaningful evidence of 
change can be found in die 
expanding ambitions of gov- 
ernment and business leaders 
alike. The talk is of com- 
pleting the transition from 
public to private sector lead- 
ership and of opening up die 
country to harness its exten- 
sive mineral and agricultural 

Next year, Tanzania will 
sec the start of production at 
its fust modem gold mine, 
and this will be followed by 

production from other valu- 
able mineral projects, includ- 
ing nickel, gemstones and 

The country also has 
massive potential in agricul- 
ture, with an expanding out- 
put of crops such as tea, cof- 
fee, cotton. sisaL, flowers and 
vegetables, and is undergo- 
ing a serious revival of its 
best-known industry, tour- 
ism, based on its spectacular 
game parks and exclusive 
beach resorts. 

There may be no limit to 
the country's ultimate poten- 
tial, but both government and 
business recognize that Tan- 
zania still needs time to com- 
plete its transition. Since tak- 
ing office after die country's 

first multi-party elections 

two years ago, the govern- Tanzania's prir 
ment of President Benjamin 
Mkapa has worked hard to torfbrTanzar 
consolidate economic reform who commei 
and to provide encourage- government! 
ment to the private sector. sustain a he: 

Following a tradition set performance, 
by die country's first pres- 
ident, Julius Nyerere, Mr. Strong perfo 
Mkapa still couches his eco- Real GDP gr 

Listening Hard 

To Investors 

The governments commitment to dialogue is 
lauded by domestic and international corporations. 

W e do not. have die 
means to turn Tan- 
zania into an in^ 
vestors' paradise overnight," 
president Benjamin Mkapa 
recently confided to 8 meet- 
ing of private investors. 

“But through dialogue we 
can get to know each other 
better, to appreciate the ef- 
forts and circumstances of 
each side and to enrich each 
other with positive ideas and 

The president 's openness 
to advice from international 
companies has already been 
productive on a number of 
fronts, especially in this year’s 
enactment of a new invest- 
ment law and recent revisions 
| to taxes applying to new in- 
! vestments — changes that are 
[especially welcome to zn- 
| vestors in die mineral sector: 

! The commitment to dia- 
logue is also appreciated by 
longer-established investors. 
“Whenever we have had is- 
sues to rsuse, we have found 
die president and his min- 
isters to be attentive to our 
concerns, ” says the chief ex- 
ecutive officer of a prominent 
foreign-owned agricultural 
company. “What we want to 
see now is the government 
turning its good intentions in- 
to action,” he adds. 

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Tanzania's principal p <*1 and conmerc ia l capital, Bar e$Salaan\ is {pxywiwrapkRy as a vtial center of trade for East and Central Afiica 

tor for Tanzania, Jim Adams, 
who commends the Mkapa 
government for its efforts to 

eral aid partners such as Ger- that “the process cannot be 
many and the UK, both of frozen to wait until such a 

sustain a healthy economic priority for aid receipts, 
performance. Backed by positive reports 

from the International Mon- 

Strong performance 
Real GDP grew last year by 

which regard Tanzania as a time when Tanzanians will 
pri o ri ty for aid receipts. have sufficient capital to be 
Backed by positive reports more active . participants in 
from the International Mem- the privatization proass.” 
etary Fund and die World In the current circum- 

nomic priorities in familiar more than 4 percent; and 
phrases such as “self-devel- there was solid progress to- 
opment through self-re b- ward reducing the budgetary 

etary Fund and the World 
Bank, the government hopes 
for increased financial 

there was solid progress to- pledges and debt relief. The 
ward reducing the budgetary donors will be looking for 

stances of low national sav- 
ings, it is perhaps inevitable 
that the lead in private in- 

Sustainabte growth 
But while the terminology is 
familiar, the content is en- 
tirely new. • 

The thrust of policy is to 

deficit and lowering inflation 
toward a single digit target in 
the coming financial year. 
Despite recurring drought, 
both agriculture and industry 
have performed strongly. 

Donors will meet with the 

donors will be looking for vestment is coming from out- 
closer interaction on matters side the country. 

provide encouragement for government in Dares Salaam 
entrepreneurship at all levels this week (Dec. 10-1 lVin a 

of society and to sell off as 
rapidly as possible, the state's 
remaining interests in in- 
dustry. commerce, banking 
and vital utilities.' 

“Robust growth is now a 
realistic prospect,” says (be 
World Bank's country direc- 

consultative group meeting 
chaired by the World Bank in 
hopes of deepening dialogue 
on a wide range of issues. 
The principal donors of fi- 
nance to Tanzania are the 
World Bank, the IMF, the 
European Union, and bilat- 

of economic management 
There may not be total 
agreement between die two 
sides, but there is little doubt 
that all share a concern to 
move Tanzania from its tran- 
sitional economic status into 
a phase of more substantial 
and sustainable growth. 

Foreign investors have be- 
gun to bring private capital 
into gold mining, farming, 
manufacturing, tourism and 
other services. 

In laying the groundwork 
for foreign investors, the au- 
thorities are beginning to at- 
tend to the kind of problems 

President Benjamin Mope. 

ical stability is not seriously 
in doubt, although a political 

Foreign investment 
For the government, it is a 
matter of principle that Tan- 
zania should be in die fore- 
front of private sector devel- 
opment but Mr. Mkapa says 

that have deterred foreign in-, dispute over fee 1995 elec- 
vestors in the past including tion results in Zanzibar has 

the heavy tax burden on 
companies and bureaucratic 

The private sector is ur- 
ging policy-makers to im- 
prove fee capacity and dis- 
cipline of the administration 
at the lower levels. 

It was in this context that 
Mr. Mkapa recently • an- 

resuhed in a long-running 
suspension of aid to the off- 
shore islands. 

On the mainland, there is 
both stability and continuity. 
In their adjustment from pub- 
lic to private sector orient- 
ation, says Ibrahim Seushi, 
one of the country's leading 

?rwnmtant^ “ Tanzan ians 

nounced the dismissal of are learning very fast' 

NBC (1997) LTD 

United Republic of Tanzania 

1 more than 1.500 civil ser- 
vants for corruption and dis- 

Both donors and investors 
are cautiously optimistic. 
The country's overall polit- 

Says a senior representa- 
tive of the donor community 
“The reforms are irreversible 
and the direction is right The 
pace may be slow, but the 
momentum is sufficient” • 

Raising confidence 
Confidence has dearly been 
raised by the government's 
commitment to strong mac- 
roeconomic management 
and to tighter control of its 
own revenues and expendit- 

What companies now ask 
for is greater efficiency in fee 
delivery of vital services, 
particularly in telecommuni- 
cations, energy andtransport 
Some entertain fee hope feat 
such services may soon be 
handed over entirely to 
private-sector management 

After years of holding 
back, companies throughout 
the economy are gaining in 
confidence and beginning to 
broaden their horizons. 

The financial sector, 
which until recently was the 
preserve of fee state-owned 
National Bank of Commerce 
(NBC) and a handful of other 
nationalized institutions, is 

FtmxM&er Daniel AN. Yana. 

Open for discussion 
Different investors frame 
their priorities according to 
fee markets in which they 
operate. For example, ex- 
porters Of Tanzania ’s prin- 
cipal cash crops, such as cof- 
fee, tea and cotton, are 
beginning to argue in favorof 
some depreciation of the 
Tanzanian shilling if their 
crops are to re main compet- 
itive on world markets. 

Importers and producers 
for fee domestic market, 
however, would be hurt by 
slippage in fee currency’s 

The key point is that such 
issues are now openly and 
freely aired. • 

0/cfin 9 you to prosp®^ 

Energy Sector: Torn on the Power 

Opinions differ on the best way to harness Tanzania 's plentiful energy resources. 

For the newly established National Bank of Commerce (1997) 
Ltd., our clients are number one. 

Focusing our banking services on corporate, large business 
and larger personal clients, we are committed to providing fast 
service, high levels of efficiency, competitive prices - everything 
we think that you deserve when you put your trust in us. 

And that commitment to the client and your financial interests 
goes a long way beyond just promises. 

NBC (1997) Ltd. is the largest commercial bank in the country 
and with a reorganised system of branches, which will result in 
much more personal services for all our clients and our person- 
nel are on hand to gauge customer reaction to the changes tak- 
ing place and ensure that what you have to say gets heard. 

With a network of 34 branches, strategically located in major 
towns and regional centers across the country; from the capital 
Dar es Salaam to Arusha and Mwanza; NBC (1997) Ltd. pro- 
vides the solution to all your banking needs. 

In addition to our nationwide branch network, NBC (1997) Ltd. 
has established links with some of the leading correspondent 
banks in the major financial centres of the world. 

P lagued by power cuts 
in recent months, Tan- 
zania’s electricity con- 
sumers are hoping feat a 
long-running difference of 
opinion between their gov- 
ernment and fee World Bank 
over management of the 
country’s electric power sec- 
tor will soon be resolved. 

Central to the dispute is fee 
operating independence of 
the state-owned Tanzania 
Electric Supply Company 
(Tanesco) — which often 
lacks the necessary funds to 
buy the fuel and spare parts it 
needs to keep generating 

The long-term energy po- 
tential of Tanzania is not in 
question. Although drought 
1 has recently reduced output 
I from a major hydroelectric 
1 dam at Mtera, other sites are 
| being developed where water 
supply is more reliable; a 
new dam under construction 
on the Rufiji river at Kihansi 
will. generate 180 megawatts 
of power when it is com- 
pleted in the year 2000. 

Lbuigo Power Plant util produce up to ISOmepmBsof electricity. 

Diverging views . 

There is also unlimited po- 
tential to use Tanzania's 
plentiful offshore natural gas 
to fuel thermal power sta- 

tions. A new company. Son- 
gas, has just been established 

For further information please contact: 

The Managing Director 
NBC (1997) Ltd. P.O. Box 1863 

Tel: (255 51) 112082/113914 
Fax: (255 51) 112887 

I gas, has just been established 
wife Canadian energy 
companies for fee purpose of 
building and managing a 
j 232-kflometer gas pipeline to 
Dares Salaam. - 

Where views diverge is on 
how best to restore electricity 
supplies in fee immediate fu- 
ture. The World Bank and 
other donors say that Tan- 
esco’s problems would be 
solved overnight if govern- 
ment ministries and compa- 
nies simply paid their elec- 
tricity bills. 

They add feat the govern- 
ment's plans to build expens- 
ive emergency generating 

capacity are unwarranted. 
Studies have shown feat a 
Malaysian-financed project 
being built in Dar es Salaam 
for diesel generation of 100 
megawatts of power will put 
additional financial burdens 
on Tanesco and could un- 
dermine its capacity to de- 
velop fee rest of fee elec- 
tricity grid. 

The government, wife its 
eye on a short-term solution 
to fee power crisis, argues 
feat the Malaysian project, 
operating under the name In- 
dependent Power Tanzania 
Limited (IPTL), is justified 
by the feet that it wflt be fee 
firstoffee planned projects to 
go into production, with a 
completion date scheduled 
for next August President 
Benjamin Mkapa says, “To 
talk of excess capacity when 
we are rationing power is a 

should soon be forthcoming. 
A new consultant has been 
appointed to cost fee differ- 
ent solutions proposed, in- 
cluding fee financial penal- 
ties to fee government of 
canceling either of the com- 
peting Songas and ITPL 

New solutions 
It may be some relief to Dar 
es Salaam residents to know 
feat answers to fee problem 

Private-sector partners 
If Songas should eventually 
be favored, its development 
would go a lon§ way to open- 
ing up Tanzania’s hydrocar- 
bon potential for the first time 

since natural gas was dis- 
covered offshore at Songo 
Songo. more than 20 years 

Its developers say that the 
$350 million project would 
be fee first step in helping 
Ta nz a n ia becoming a hydro- 
carbon exporter. 

Tfiat more gas and oil is 
waiting to be found is not in 
doubt The Tanzania Petro- 
leum Development Corpora- 
tion (TPDC) recently Held a 
new licensing round, in 
which six foreign companies' 

* V* 01 

i n ... 

#* ni/A! 

no w fully open to private op- 
erators. The money maikct is 
working efficiently. And die 
launch of a stock exchange, 
promised for early next year, 
will be yet another signif- 
icant Landmark in Tanzania’s 

■ To match the arrival of for- 
eign banks such- as Citibank 
and Standard Chartered, 
many small institutions 
owned by Tanzanian citizens 
have opened for business. 

Most significantly, the 
NBC itself has been re- 
launched as a conventional 
commercial bank, wife its mi- 
cro-finance functions hived 
off into a new institution. 

If, as is expected, the new 
NBC is to be opened up to 
private capital, there is cer- 
tain tobe strong interest from 
international banking groups 
attracted tty fee bank's 
branch network in some of 

the most productive regions " » 
of Tanzania. 


were awarded acreage for oil 
and gas exploration. 

It is a sign of Tanzania’s 
new commitment to private 
sector leadership in the econ- 
omy featfee TPDC, although 
still wholly owned by fee 
government is now becom- 
ing one of fee most active 
agents of the government’s 
policy of privatization. In re- 
cent months it has handed 
over the import of oil 
products entirely, to private . 
oil marketing companies and 
has entered further negoti- 
ations wife them on prices 
and guarantees. 

Another area of energy po- 
tential lies in coal. Large de- 
posits in fee south of the 
country were identified by 
Chinese geologists at the 
time when China was help- 
ing Tanzania to build its rail- 
way to Zambia. 

The energy sector, perhaps 
more than any other, sym- 
bolizes Tanzania's latent po- 
tential. The destination is 
clear, but the route maps still 
being drawn up. # 

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In the Gold Mines: 


ITte arrival nf foreign mining companies will 
encourage technological innovation and the 
development of modem infrastructure , . 

O rfJ* n ^i thr V' c yp 31 ?’ al ^ four gold mines will 
' l V production m ihe region south of Mwanza, a 
P«rt city on Lake Victoria Each will use the latest 
lecnnology to maximize the rate of extraction. 

The arrival of mining companies from Australia, Canada, 

ShjS^i.Sk 1 * e . x ** cclcd to spell the end of the 

tniuiuonjl to. hmques of digging tunnels and extracting small 
1 quantities ot gold by hand. ® 

The companies will also seek to demonstrate that capital- 
intensive projects can contribute to wider development in a 
region that largely lacks modem infrastructure. 

Rich deposits 

The north-central regions of Tanzania are situated on one of 
the world s most ancient continental cnists, known to geo- 
logists as an Archaean Craton. which is likely to coutain 
some of the nchest base and precious metals in the world. 

■ , . j ^ been mined here since tune immemorial and was 
exploited by Arab traders, who have been present in the 
region since the 1 6th century. 

Even now, at least 500,000 Tanzanians are thought to earn 
a living from gold mining and trading, although the gov- 
ernment receives no revenue from this source. 


Minister of Mines Abdallah Kigoda hopes that foe arrival of 
a new generation of foreign companies will encourage the 
traditional mining communities to update their methods and 
to join formal associations that can modernize them with the 
help of technology and credit facilities. 

The efforts of the first two of the new companies, Sarnax/ 
Resolute and Sutton Resources Ltd., will be closely watched. 
Both companies arc already well advanced toward their goal 
of intensive production, having been encouraged to invest not 
just by the favorable geology but also by recent Changes to the 
Tanzanian investment code. 

*'Thc new investment act is very attractive and compares 
favorably to other mining investment acts in Africa," says 
Sarnax.- Resolute's resident managing director, Chris Dav- 

The president of Canada's Sutton Resources. Michael 
Kenyon, agrees: **lt is refreshing to see a nation with 
Tanzania's w illingness to update its mining act" 

From Kilimanjaro and Serengeti 
To Lake Victoria and Zanzibar 

Tanzania is working on making it easier to get to its legendary tourist sites . 

Joint ventures 

■ The Sarnax. Resolute project, known as Golden Pride, 
evolved from a discovery by Canadian-registered Sarnax in 
1 990 near the town of Nzega in an area that had not been 


nvs pnkluvai in its entirety by the Advertising Department of 
the International Herald Tribune. 

Writer: Richard Synge, based in Cambridge. England, 
reporting from Dor es Salaam and Mwunsa. 
Program Director: BillMahder. 

The presence of S£ mdSon ounces of gold is htcMcried at BUfyanfiufc 

known to contain gold. Last year, the company entered a 50/ 
50 joint venture with Australian gold producer Resolute, 
which acts as operator, using its experience in developing 
similar deposits in Western Australia. Resolute recently 
reported that Golden Pride's resource base has increased 
from 2.4 million ounces to 2.7 million ounces of gold. Gold 
will be recovered 1 from an open pit using a carbon-in-leach 
processing facility. 

Starting from September 1998, Samax/Resolute’s $50 
million investment is scheduled to go into production at a rate 
of not less than 1 50,000 ounces of refined gold per year, at an 
operating cost of $235 per ounce. 

Even more substantial is Sutton Resource's project at 
Bulyanhulu, where the presence of 5.6 million ounces is 
indicated. The company's $20 million exploration devel- 
opment program includes deep drilling to establish un- 
derground mining operations. 

The company anticipates investing at least $200 million 
before going into production in two years' time, with an 
operating cost currently estimated at only $150 per ounce. 

Sparring exploration 

Other gold projects will not be far behind The leading 
projects are those at Buckreef, Golden Ridge and Geita. 

The companies involved include Australia's East African 
Gold Corporation. South Africa's Randgold and Ghana's 
Ashanti Goldfields. 

A further potentially rich mining project could soon be 
developed around a nickel and cobalt deposit at Kabanga, 
west of Lake Victoria. 

The recent decision of South Africa’s Anglo American 
Corporation to enter the project as operator, alongside Sutton s 
Resources! has given rise to hopes that a mine will be in | 
production by 200 1 . g 

Anglo has already brought in drilling machinery with a & 
view to adding to foe known reserves within a matter of $ 
months, and foe company already predicts that Kabanga | 
could produce at least 35 million pounds per year of nickel. | 

“Success will spur more exploration." says Sutton's Mr. | 
Kenyon, “and with the development of new mines will come e 
infrastructure.” • 

B esides being home to 
Africa’s highest 
mbuntain — Kili- 
manjaro — and its largest 
game park' — Serengeti - 1 - 
Tanzapia has a long list of 
attractions, ranging from foe 
beaches and ancient winding 
streets of Zanzibar to the rare 
wildlife reserve of Selous 
and the great lakes of Tan- 
ganyika, Victoria and 

Tourism has not been cul- 
tivated with the energy 
shown by neighboring 
Kenya, but now that is chan- 
ging as hoteliers and tour op- 
erators prepare for expan- 
sion. Increasing numbers of 
visitors to Kenya are includ- 
ing Tanzania in their itiner- 
ary, and others are taking 
their vacations exclusively in 
Tanzani a, This is expected to 
stimulate foe development of 
more hotel capacity in all 
parts of foe country. 

The number of visitors 
each year has already risen 
markedly, from 200,000 in 

1992 to 326,000 last year, at 
which rate there could be 
500,000 by the year 2000. 

But for Tanzania, the em- 
phasis is on quality rather foam 
quantity, not least because of 
foe potential environmental 
impact of too many visitors 
on the rare and vulnerable 
wildlife that is foe country's 
principal attraction. 

World Heritage Sites 
Serena Hotels, one of the 
leading hotel developers in 
foe country, manages some 
of the famous lodges, includ- 
ing those at Serengeti and 
Ngorongoro. These are 
World Heritage Sites con- 
trolled by foe Tanzania Na- 
tional Parks Authority, which 
insists on foe highest envi- 
ronmental standards. 

“We have done everything 
possible to ensure that all of 
the properties blend into their 
environments," says Tun 
Barrasford, director of Serena. 
Water and sewage supplies 
are strictly managed so as not 


* « 

Stone Town bone of the many afflac&ns art the island of Zanzbar. 

You can teke a baBoon safari at dawn In fhe Serengeti National Park. 

to interfere with foe needs of 
people and wildlife in foe 
area. Buildings are carefully 
landscaped, and consideration 
is given to light pollution, 
which occurs when lodge 
lights interfere with the clarity 
of foe African night sky. 

Improving access 
However fast foe world 
travel market continues to 
grow, Tanzania will probably 
resist being lured into mass 
tourism. It is perhaps for this 
reason that there are as yet so 
few charter airlines with di- 
rect flights to foe country. 

Tour operators specializ- 
ing in East Africa say that 
Tanzania still does not attract 
foe volumes of visitors that 
would justify a switch by foe 
airlines from their main re- 
gional destinations of 
Nairobi and Mombasa. 

Most visitors to Tanzania 
still travel overland from 
these Kenyan cities. Even 
Zanzibar is often reached via 
a flight change in Nairobi. 
The Tanzanian airport most 

used by foreign visitors L 
Kilimanjaro, and there arc re- 
latively few regular scheduled 
flights to Dor es Salaam, de- 
spite its importance as foe na- 
tional commercial capital. A 
perceptible change is expec- 
ted after the delay-prone na- 
tional operator Air Tanzania is 
sold to an international com- 
pany in the coming months. 

The pressure for easier and 
more regular access to Tan- 
zania is mounting. The Euro- 
pean tour operators who tra- 
ditionally dominated the 
travel market in the country 
have in recent years been 
joined by counterparts in 
Australia. South Africa. Ja- 
pan and foe United States. 

“Considering Tanzania's 
potential, we are still just 
scratching foe surface," says 
a tour operator specializing 
in East Africa. “Things arc 
already better than they used 
to be. and we are becoming 
more comfortable with send- 
ing foe first-time visitor to 
Tanzania rather than 
Kenya" • 


The hydrocarbon potential of Tanzania was realized more than 40 years ago. However, the exploration for this can best be described as sporadic, as shown below. 



' • • . • • ; ; •: ; ; _ f • : : >• ' ;,;/•" j )i V“ j >' : V V • " ' ■” : 

'■ ' l r: . ■ X ■" -:-C - V--; J V ' 

• ; AQP later jpi^^ ^.'A|^QCO • 

•• • . • s »*■ . '• . \ ^ ‘ r» >:*■**•' '-f . ' 't'' ■ . ■» 

• - /-• ' ^ .v! / 

y i^{iant»yy and 


Other licences are being negotiated in the Ruvu, Ruvuma, Kimbiji, Lake Rukwa and Mnazi 
Bay areas. There is open acreage in the Selous, Offshore Indian Ocean, Lake Tanganyika, 
Lake Nyasa, Lake Eyasi and Ruhuhu Basins. 

The Songo Songo gas to electricity project will soon enter implementation stage after 
negotiations are finalized between the Government of Tanzania and Investors group and the 
World Bank. This project will initially produce 146MW of electricity by late 1998/99. The 
project consists of a gas processing plant on the Songo Songo Island; 235 km gas 
transmission pipeline, 25 km of which is marine,- and a power plant in Dar es Salaam. The 
project will also supply gas to other consumers such as the Cement Factory. 

The attached map summarizes the licence situation by October 1997. 

Incentives to investors 

Attractive Geology: 

Source rads which appear to have generated substanhal quantiues of oil 
arc outcropping within the basin matgins and have been encountered in 
^•era veils There are two gas discoveries at Songo Songo and Mnaz. Bay 
k -MfPiable reserves ofaround ITCF each. There are numerous oil 
„.,rh reLOverabJe reseae 'show in the deep wells drilled 

arS-SSJSi e 4 " 

__i l< -vu-t i n Tanzania s sedimentary basins. 

Thcrare^cellent carbonate and sandstone potential reservoir units 
There ate exce . Th stnJCt ural movements due to faulting 

W “t!oki,"ra^ of sediments over horat blocks, etc. have created 
and halokmesis P turbidile channel sands, etc. have been 

toenXd in 4'mic sections. Ml these point to high chances of making oil 

discoveries in drilling density of only about one 

remw of oil exploration. 

Attractive Contract Terms (Commercial & Fiscal): 

Below are some of the incentives available for companies investing in oil 
exploration fn Tanzania. 

• Long exploration periods of 4 (initial), 4 (finst extension! and 3 
(second extension) years, totalling 1 1 years. 

• Relatively large exploration areas. Normally, a licence consists of 
60 blocks (a block being 5x5 minutes!; however, each PSA can consist of 
more than one exploration licence. 

• Flexible Work Program and economic terms (Cost Oil Recovery, 
Profit Oil split and Additional Profits Tax thresholds). 

• Exemption from import duties anchsales tax on all equipment and 
materials for use in petroleum exploration. 

• Maximum TP DC participation is capped at 20% from former 50% 

• Corporate Income Tax and Royalty, paid for by TPDC. 

• Thresholds RORs for Additional Profit Tax raised from former 15% 
to current 20% for the first tranche and from 20% to 30% for the second 
tranche. The taxation rate for these rates are negotiable and quite low. 

• No front-end bonus such as signature or production bonus. 

Interested companies, p tease contact t 

• Full allowance for unrecovered exploration costs incurred under 
earlier PSAs in any Contract Area by the same companies that make a 
discovery in a subsequent PSA (no ring-fencing). 

• No foreign exchange restrictions. 

• ' Recourse to international arbitration is provided for. 

• Economic basement interpretation allowed for determination of 
exploration wetf total depth fn case of termination of a well due to 
mechanical problems. 

We believe that these incentives are quite generous for the investors in this 
sector. Of equally Important consideration to investors is that Tanzania is 
one of the most politically stable countries which now practices a multi- 
party democratic system. The President of Tanzania is elected from one of 
several parties as are the Members of Parliament 
Separate incentives in order to encourage deep-sea (greater than 200 m 
water depth) are under consideration by the Government and TPDC. A plan 
is also underway to acquire non-exclusive seismic data in the deep sea. 
Comprehensive and accessible data can be reviewed in TPDC archives in 
Dar es Salaam or ordered from the undersigned. 

The Managing Director 
Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation 
P.O, Box 2774, Dar es Salaam 
Tel: 255-51-190045/6. 180145/6- Fax.- 255-51-180047 

Mobile-. 255-81 2-78069 1 

The Director of Exploration and Production 
P.O. Box 5233, Dar es Salaam 
Teh 255-51-29661/36990/36086/ 

Mobile: 255-812-781227 - Inmarsat fax: 873-682341561 


PAGE 14 


•• a 


UNDP/Worfd Bank 

Regional Water and Sanitation Group 


TTw World Bank managed Water and Sanitation Program t$ seek- 
mg an Urban Envinwmental Sanitation Engineer for its regknal 
office in Abidjan. 


♦ Review environmental sanitation services involving the improved 
management of fecal and liquid wastes as well as storm drainage 
\ and solid wastes; help develop strategies and action plans; 

participate in the preparation and supervision of community based 
! urban sanitation projects; develop systematic documentation and 
learning from innovative pilot projects and help disseminate oew 
, approaches and the best practices. 

Selection Criteria 

> Advanced degree as Environmental Sanitation Engineer. 5-10 years 
of westing experience in water supply and sanitation sector; 
! particularly in the design and implementation of urban sanitation 
projects in developing countries; Fluency in both French and 
English, with excellent written and verbal communication skills. 

The assignment is for an initial period of two years (renewable). 

Please send CV and three references to: 
Manager, Regional Water and Sanitation Group 
The World Bank 

01 BP 1850 Abidjan 01, Cote d’Ivoire 

Application deadline: December 31, 1997 

Specialist in financial information 
and decision fool systems 
is seeking 






for the expansion of its business 
in the UK and US markets. 

The successful candidates will have at 
least three years of proven experience 
in sales, knowledge of financial 
markets and English as their mother 

Compensation will include fixed salary 
plus commission. 

Extensive training will be provided on 
our advanced models and databases. 
Positions will be located in Paris 
headquarters, London or the USA. 

Send yourresume and appfoatm letter to: 

Jacques ChahineRnancei rue de Chatenidun, 
75009 ftuis, France. 



Business Opportunities 

0 HOLY ST JUDE, axfife and martyr 
a! great in vimre ana rift in mtades, 
near l awman at Jesus Christ. feflMui 
ttrecessar of at do kweta your special 
patronage bi lines of need. To you I 
have recourse bum the depth of my 
Iran and lurtfy beg you, to whom God 
has given such great power, to come to 
■my assistance. He$ me in ray presets 
urgent petition. In return, I 
prana to rake you- ram Iran and 
cause you to be nwiad. Sr Juja. pray 
lor me and al who invoke your aid. 
HumHy In need oivnur intrecassm 
Amen. Thank you for answering ray 
prayers. Anon. 


Services WouMde 


Aston Corporate Trustees 

Aston Howe, DougfeB, Isle of Mn 
Tel: +<4(0)104 828591 . 

foe +44 HB 1624 625126 



Tel: +44 W 171 233 1302 
foe +44 (0) 171 233 1519 

For quesbare or queries texM the defr- 
ay d you newspaper, the status of your 
s u b se ction tr atm onkringisubup 

E Mail: astontienterpriseiiet 


ton. please al the Mowing mutes: 
TOLL FREE ■ Austria 0660 8120 Bet 

S ' 1 17538 France 0000 437437 
3130 048585 Greece 00800 
Italy 167 780040 Uaentoxn 
0600 2703 Netherlands 0800 022 5758 
Sweden 020 797039 Switzerland 0800 
555757 UK 0800 895965 Elsewhere 
(+33) 1 41439381 THE AMERICAS: 
USA (Wheel 1-800-8822084 Bsntae 
(+1) 212 7523890 ASIA: Bra Kong 
2922 1171 Indonesia 809 1328 Japan 
(kMee) 0120 484 027 
Korea 3872 0044 Malaysia 221 7055 
PMfcjiras 895 4948 Singapore 325 
0835 Taiwan 7753456 Thailand 277 
4485 Ebewtae (+852) 29221171 









2402 Bank of America Tower 
12 Harcout Ftoad. Central Hong Kt 
Tat +852 25220172 Far +852 25215 

Auto Rentals 


1905 Shanghai Overseas Cfrese Mansion 
i29YanAn Road West, Shanghai 200040 
Tat +8621 62484355 Far 6621 62481421 

FF500 7 days FF1500. Tet Parts +33 
(0)1 4368 5555. Fax (0)1 4353 9529. 

E-malt 0CRA60CRA.C0MJK 
Web pages: IWYW.OCRA.COM 

Legal Services 

Cal or Fax (714) 9688825. Wrte 16787 
Beach BM. H37. Hrategon Beam, CA 
92648 USA- a-rral - waamOfcmaxn 

Business Services 

Bn 377, Sudbury, UA 01776 USA Tat 
97M4383B7. foe 9754430181 

IWnes A Spirits 



(0)1 47 30 30 58 Fat (0)1 47 37 94 20 
waai DMNORDOconpusemam 

hi Service 
is our Business 


Piuu iciBnc r . Vocabulary. Qrannar and 

Sereence Generator on wur compute 
from our Read and Spade / CO ROM. 
Derate £ N$i!feww,anoBiLcam 

' manattaaMaw and tares 

* **** te lephone. tote ail 

tetemp te services 

* Tradatoi and secreted services 

* fa nn a kin. domcBaflon aat 
aftteD a ti a i 0( S+nss and taagn 

■ Ftirtsfied offices and oonfresncB 
looms hr daly ar rnonddy rental 

fid centers and dsaebon assraeti 


Business Opportunities 

OFFSHOK COWAJES. For free ho- 
due or advice Tet London 44 iBI 741 
1224 Fax; 44 1ST 748 6S6/B338 


7 Rue May. 1207 GENEVA 
Tet 73B 05 40, 1b 413222. Fax 7B6 06 44 

HONG KONG CO. S820. Annual cost 
saso. Sfi in 701. 35 Gear's Rd, C, 
HK. Tet B5M52H275 Fax 2B4M217 

Bond Srrea - Matt, Phone, fox, Tata 
Tet 44 171 2» 9000 Rb 171 4S9 7517 


S' +44 171 420 U 34 S 

Assistant — 

de direction 



(English mother tongue) 

5 yeare experience required, preferably in a consulfing firm, 
well organized, excellent computer skills. - 
Stable position. FF195,OOu/year. 

CV to LIC. Conse3 - 22 bis, rue Jouffroy d'Abbon 73017.MHS 
TeL: +33 (0) 1 47 66 83 H - Fox: 43 (O) 1 46 32 41 27 

Executive Positions Avsilsbli Seastsrisl Pod&m A«Ss We 



General Positions Wanted 

General Positions Available 

Vous assuicz la communica- 

tion interne ec ext emc 
er 1c secretariat de la 
Direction gdndralc. 

Vous etablissez « mertez 
en oeuvre le plan de commu- 
nication interne, consciUez 
La Direction g&n&ale dans 
ses decisions de communi- 
cation ext erne er realisez 
Its actions de l’enrreprise 
dans cc domainc, ainsi que 
les relations avec la presse. 
Sac + 2 ou 3, de Languc 
matemeile anglaise, vous 
maicrisez par&i remen r 
la Langue fran^alse. 

Auto no me er aixnam 
travail] cr cn cquipe, vous 
avezdes capacity relation' 
nedles. Maltrise de Word, 
Excel ec Power [taint. 
Rjfmundration morivanre. 

bMoguel French lady, prateestona! 
coot petty chet and firansed detain 
«S INK you 9 at yow cdiay and 
hounfiQH needs. Al ft* behest level. 
Seeks postern. tong or start irem. 
Paris - Cota d'Azur. WV bovel Ratar- 
ances. T* foris +33 0)1 53 94 04 39 
or a&wflfcalfflK cai 


Lmtar riu tinrtH Bt afctfrf 
recruta tsivetataia ksnoopheras 

passfcms tfWtote « dan pow 
gulttar ponctoBtoneni des ctato 

' 27, m da Haneaa, 73715 Parle * 
foe +33 gip 48 42 00 2D 
&«db gaoataMduJr 

Tie Jadamft Bww* Omdomei 
Cormtesion (JSX3 Is.saattiga Ohcte 
of tnramaJcral ftaness Darekpan. W 
prawUo overt dtefioo, admkwhteoo 
and ccortnahon d the ppgraBB and 
sente fmrided by fte CtovW* are 
Ijcsad on international m ateOy. raft 
uvsn and acmofl* davtapcatTne 

Dkedor of htandhoflal BusktaH DawF 


# £ndsh retfiar tmpja sacretsw, " 
Knovdeda of French required 
422 Rue Sib* Honor* 

75008 Park, France 
Tot ( 0 ) 1 42 81 75 76 



Educational Poatthns AvaHaNa 

opmm wfl report Sm*/ b *e Execu- 
M Dkacior d the JEDC. an wtono- 

r. . fc : Pte 

M Dteior d the JEDC. an aAwo- 
mous body wKii tie Execute Braich 
d the Of gcwrrraert M krden as 
toe ays isnbreta ergartzahen owtsee- 
hg economic devetoprwt 

Pane 6as4 en +t^rnn 
pensiennt a pourvoir 

A Zero' d'mivyer 
letrre nutiuscrite, CV 
et photo sous rtf. 56267 
& Press EmploL 
26 rue Salomon-de- 
RothsehiU. 92150 Susrsnes. 
qui mmsmettnL 

TIflLOIGUAL French taao. (Engftto- 
5pHW& 24. DHtotoe to W) donas. 

Sta WO, 24. g ratoae to HI busnese. 
good compete 1 ridfe, ready CSzrel stl 
d wok domed, seeks a job a* an asab- 
tat In Wl taBtoaw. Tot ftanca +33 
(0)2 3865 6369. Fat +33 (0)2 3852 7447 



fene aettn writ to to forts Deewwxn. 
Pteasa send hrid date d {atteaalo nal 
operienee kr Fax +33p}i 43807362 or 
6 +nai! yJrawariOlnafltoaUr 

Tte posftm reqtte toa attty to mrie- 
mere, u a ununlca l e and eoonSnatt I he 
coranaitys shaegtt ptan tar jfoore 
axqjaibreneas. The pcadon « deSgned 
to sene as toe faeon among alomn- 




kr Bustosa Prato. 
DynaoK. FhantHy nan. 

knwabve Teeetwn ttatoods. 
Pans-Sutarts YteUnfopere. 
Coote* dee Ungoaop) <6 61 S3 56 

zaiOK and moms to the dy kwotred in 
atomaboral iteons; ooonlnaSng gtobd 
nortrefing arategies and huswss dmd- 

oprart efiorts. Ad«on*, this postOn 
wfl be aagned to wrt dto toe Inema- 
ttorantotattas and Martafing Develop- 
mere Corerotafcn (KUDC). a vdumaer 
btud choged wti the ntoakm d fastar- 
ku rtemtanal trade and Uhemg 
JaeksomMr butoess. 

Aaasrican ban. U&Fmch ctozsaslUp. 
Srepogn tastes tar dnw / 

Lmel apertance ii fianoa i USA. 
Seda pcwSfoq wtt law Era to Paris. 

Executives Available 

Domestit Posflfons AvaflaWe 

Reply ta Box 461, LRT, 
92521 Needy Cedn, Ftanca 


International Consulting Co in Petroleum 
Engineering seeks personnel 


General Positions Amiable 

1) Instrumentation Engineer, 2) Electrical Engineer (power), 
3) Quality Control Engineer, 4) Harmer/Scheduleis. 

All positions must have a Degree, at least 10 years 
experience, and international experience. Must-be willing to 
work 2 months on/one month off. All portions are located in 
West Africa 

Mail ndsumd and salary requirements to: 
The Ma nager, Dept. LHT-002, 

PO Box 570728-253, Houston, Texas 77257 
FAX to: 713/961-3845 USA 
e-mail to: 

Find A JohFast! 




New Lower 


To the U.S. from 

Belgium 310 

France... ....... 27<t 

Netherlands.. 230 
Switzerland... 270 
UK. 17( 

strata, botany, vary suit FF7.000 
14ft, METRO ALESJA: BeeutM frat- 
stone bukttog, 2-3 tons, batcony, fee- 
piaco, paiqireL vary sunny: FFHL000. 
7ft, METRO SOLFEflftO: Freestone 

bultSna 5 icons. 2 baths, F15^00. 
Sft, NEAR HOTRE DAME: In teton. 

• NO Set Up Fees 
■ NO Minanums 
•NO Deposit 

• Instant Activation 

• Six-Second Billing 

• AT&T Quality 

• 24-hour MuttHJnguaJ 
Customer Service 

5ft, NEAR HOTRE DAME: in tontoouae. 
2 rams, ktttoen, baft, refined decora- 
taa- FF12.000. In sane buWicg: 5 
rans, <tytax. top tar,2 baths, batany. 
fireplace, character, poriong: F32jX». 
T«t +33 (m 42 25 32 25 
Fax: +33 (0)1 45 63 37 09 

The Original 


m :• 

bli A 

Ideal acranmortaMt aufc-5 bedraxrs 

Tel: 1 ^ 06 ^ 99.1991 
Fax: 1 . 206 . 599.1 981 

OiaBy and ravice assued 

Tel +33(0)1 43129600. Fax (0)143129806 

417 Second Avenue West 
Seattle, WA 98119 USA 



Rxnlshed apaflroarts, 3 raorths or more 
cr untarnished, raddosal saas. 

Financial Services 

Tel: +33 (0)1 42 25 32 S 

Far +33 mi 6 63 37 09 


Vafcre Ctaptel Ftanca Avstahfe 
tar Govemnen Prefects and 
Gmmert Comanlea 
tore are tar sale, 
lag* Pwjaas ora SpedaBy 


ApartnxnB to rart hnched or m 
Soles Si Propoty Management Sentass. 
25 Av Hodts 75006 Pate FgrOI-45611020 

Also, Lone Tara Ftanca lor 
Lane and Sreal Cornpanos 

Tel: +33 (0)1 45 63 25 60 

Needed to ad as Liaison 
Reese reply In En^sh 


16311 Vtatraa BM. Suite 998 
Entire, CaRxrix 91438 USA 
Fax Noj (818) 905-1688 
TeL (Bin 7884422 
Hdand Sr. Assoc. Data O.G Lelysad 

Hradpfcfced quaRy ap ara erto, 
all stss Paris and stubs. 
Tat +S3 ran 42 68 36 60 
Fee +33 (0)1 42 68 35 61 
We beta no bnU 

Real Estate 
for Sale 


y's Intemnirket 

Paris and Suburbs 

M ghd ass Iptad a wre". FRJOOflOO. 
UTTHE (0)1 4S 44 44 45 

for Banun Qpportapitka. 
Franchisee. Cmw <mI Beal 
Ickoonumiatiaca, Amomodvc 
ad EmcrtaimxKBi. 

To adeerllaa contact Sarah Werahof 
on -+44 171 420 0326 
or (kc +44 171 420 0338 


modem buHng, rotting In front, on 

i, veiy srarjf, targa 45 sqm 
strata plus 10 nun. terrace, pamna. 
PI 4225 3225. Far +33 pi 4583 3709. 

Real Estate 
for Rent 


Herald Tribune 
ads work 

resna Fran stedbs to 4 badnoms. Tet 
+41 22 735 8320 fox +41 22 7S 2671 

report and reset atone - Old are hid- 
ings- DC/PA area - Previous job tfeby 
mired - Gamps ermxaged to reply • 

USA 410-547-2700 Far 410547-2778 

German Natanat 41 m oU,.miMngual 
inctadtog Russian, Mi bankteg and unF 
versity oagraoi, 14 yean expotence In 
Ml sales and trade of raw materials, 
management rapertere, set reader, ma- 
ture and flrefttenl if developed sales/ 
ra rteang tatfrtjuas. Looking tar a se- 
nfcr postkxi cr amy in Inn ntatriai 
sales/traitag to me ce rerrf or Ea stern 
Eurcpasi inrkBL Prime rtierenoes horn 
lerge foopean Iretatel-oagaRln on 
request Reply Bax 482, Mr FriaiMsr 
15, Dte323 FrarMuri / ktato. Germany 

Tlnou^i knowledge of several sadon 
is racasaiy (nduang bade devehp- 
mat gtaal invesbnani nereis, financing, 
estabfishnrert of )oM vertores and da- 
vekpnwrd ol commercial and toorism 
sedras Adtaonay, the eanfttte 
raua possess a Borough raxtoratantag 
ol mrenretonri Bade mreeanante such 
as MERCOSUR and NAFTA and Hub 
anpaci to Honda's and toe cay's acono- 
ttif and toek western integration (FTAA). 

We8 ReapKted WnWogtoa D.C. 
laniy is Wang tar a nks ecu* to heto 
IMra to late care ol 3 boys and the 
horse. A woman 8 expected to take 
cars of lids, pattern as tan-kaepor 
and cook. A man to perfara as driver, 
keep eye on garden and do toe oftet 
necessary house-work. Boftmust low 
didren and have acetani maimers. 
FuHma LivHi VBfd US driver's 
fcenseand^raatKanrraqutarL French 


. J+- 1w. 

... : ..i h 

.1 r** ■-->+- 

sBrfa Binguel MedW Wires: StientBti 
Madcai bativowd & strong conratri- 
oben Ms are easendte tor toll prema- 
nart hMne posian. C.V.ta Or.Cretato, 
ASTER, 35 rue Woa 75015 PARS. 

50 YR OJD EXECUTIVE, 12 yre bnrf- 
edge in torecl seHng in sneal oambtes, 
toots tor iw taste, quack h ta cptoka 
BuHtag toamnodc. creteM. Tet +49 P) 
6171 &406 foe +49 (D) 8171 580432. 




The idee) anohtea shotid have the W- 

sente level experience and a ratriain 
ol 10 yares In totemadonal economic de- 
vetapreari. seriating andto ywernrwv 
M or husress atas; a war docunfflB- 
sd tack recota a toonM^i inteF- 
sterefng of dpkxrrtfc sensMviy end b- 
d$tii protocol taowtedge ti fcjrakjn a#- 
tees: and extansve experience wlh co- 
ordtoamg delegations and bade mis- 
sions. Candidates shotid also poraess 
OEcataM conmunicalion, or mn c a iional 
and taerpresonrf sUs. Candtates musi 
bare toe abBy to btiU consensts and 
to develop and martata good reiatfcn- 
difs ftto business and coinnnty lead- 
en and local and Hematoma] merfia. 
lAdHtogual and experience Bring and 
wortangw toe We ttBltaral anna k ateo 

Wafl Respected Washington. D.C. 
tenBy is kmMng tar MMrennesIhoute- 
iceepers to beta them to (ate care ol 
tbek SchWren, as w» as perform as 
cook and house-keeper. Must km Hds 
and have excatant maimers. French 
Mptut, but not required. VaM US 
driver's license and "vm canf ie- 
qured. FriMhP Lsrato. References «l 
be required. Sort ASAP. Fax (1 202) 
789-0835/(1 202) B86+JS7, or caB 
(1 202) 364-6673. 

Domestic Positions Wanted 


1M.: (OH 41 -O 93 85, 
foe PI) 41 43 937a 
E-mo4 Oe rtifa dffikcoai 


kL (852) 2922-1188. 
Un 61170 FHIHX 
foe {852] 2922-1 19Q 

Satey Is conraerautee «rih aqHHBe. 
Wb ahr an aMactora oonpanstekn end 
benrib package. Heese cand nraane to 
Mchul a-Wefetein. Esq. Execute 
Director of fte Jactoonvlte Economic 
DevetopBHf Corimisstoa 220 fost Bay 
State, 14th Ibor, JedsoMk. 

Florida, 32202. 

Hka- Make d'hote! aid Duller, speaks 
sane English. Boft good references, 
seek Job hi prate household -coofctog 
- waltaKing - chauffeuring, ale. Prefer 
USA, west coast Reply to: Box 478, 
IRT, 92S21 Nofiy Cedar France 

• : ;u4* 

T«L |069) 971250Q. 
foe 059) 971 25020. 

foe 3250642. 

Hoc 28749. HI SB4 

The Cly of Jadsaivfa Is an Eqioi 
C^toortonkjrtthrretfrt Adon Emptayet 

Applcadon Deadtae: Deosmber 31, 1897 

NURSPS AS, English speaking French 
man, 36. seeks job (be+n) gwg n#t 
reid RDiire care lo I or aged person. 
T* Paris +33 (0)6 85 89 89 20 & TatoO 
(0)8 36 60 33 33 or (0)6 57 68 90 57 

i'is IVar ] 

Free STUDENT VISA GUIDE With Every Response 

if you would like to receive further information on the advertisers who appeared in our 
International Education: Special Directory 
oil tJecember 8, 1997, please complete this coupon & send it to: 

The International Herald tribune c/ogabumsrbetingltd. 

St Mary’s Mill, Ghalfard, Stroud, Gloucestershire, GL6 8HX, England 
Fax: 44 0 450 886 082 E-mail a dd r es 

EmkoHw Education 

U.SJL Tickbox 

1. Touro lew Center □ 

2. Tftnversitf ofCaKfomia/ 

Riverside O 



3. Am e ric an U a r v e mly in Paris □ 

4. LaSpxbonne □ 

20. EcotesNDceraon □ 

21. Institntdeftancais □ 


22. DehreceniNyaiiEgyetein □ 


23. Eritiah Institute of Ftorence □ 


24. Hufficm College □ 


25. Salzburg Seminar □ 

flit and D esign Schools 


38. Harvard Grad School 
of Design 

38. San Praudsco Academy 
of Ait College 

fan (’ousid 

5. Seb College □ 

6. Ric hm ond College □ 

7. College Ancillary Services □ 

8. Ekxrida State University □ 


9. Adam Smith University □ 

10. George W ashington 

Ttevaraiiy Q 

11. Harvard Univexsty Sommer 

School □ 

22. Pace University □ 

13. Paestor Uni v eraiiy □ 

14. Standford University □ 


26. Eurecole □ 

27.. Ftocymount School □ 

28. Fabeit Editions D 

29. International Scluxd of Paris □ 


qngaqgg Schooh 


15. BIS 

16. Madison International 

17. EcoleZSfel 

18. IFG languages 

19. Qnai d'Oxsay Language 


School □ 


31. A m e ri c an Inter national 

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From Penthouse to Rice Paddy, Thais Feel Pain 

Middle Class Does With Less 

By Thomas Crampton 

Intern, iiturul Herald Tribune 

~ ** “A ' . 

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BA ^jP KOK — Viewed from the 
tranquillity of the exclusive Bangkok 
Club, Thailand’s economic troubles 
seem a world away. 

High above the city’s polluted 
streets. in a penthouse with sweeping 
views and a private elevator, club 
members nod with approval at the 
latesi acquisitions for the wine r*»ar 
and monitor the stock market on a real- 
time terminal. 

Filled with captains of industry and 
g overn ment ministers, the club dir- 
ectory reads like an inventory of na- 
tional affluence. But over the disaeet 
piano music, some sour notes can be 

1 ‘ I had 1 80 employees last week, but 
from tomorrow we will have just 65,” 
the president of Bangkok Finance, 
Pakom BoonyakurkuL, said over lurch 

Mr. Pakom’s finance company was 
one of 58 whose operations were sus- 
pended by the authorities this year. On 
Monday, the government will an- 
nounce which finance and securities 
companies will be shut for good. 

The closures will bring die country's 
spiraling economic crisis home to the 
new middle class, a group that during 
the ’’bubble" years, enjoyed annnal 
bonuses of four or five months’ salary 
and acquired a taste for fine French 

Few of the companies are expected 
to reopen, forcing many of the 20,000 
highly qualified workers in the finance 
sector to search for new jobs. But Mr. 
Pakom is more concerned about his 

"There are a lot of entrepreneurs 
who cannot get to their money to run 
their businesses,*' he said, adding that 

funds frozen in the accounts of the 
Suspended finance companies amoun- 
ted to about 17 percent of the country’s 
total financial assets. 

“These entrepreneurs upgraded thor 
lifestyle over the last 10 yeans and be- 
came Thailand's middle and upper- 
middle class, ’ * Ik said. ‘‘Now they must 
sell their cars, condominiums and rail 
their children back home from studying 
abroad, ft will be tough for them.” 

While Thailand’s contracting econ- 
omy has laid low once-mighty natir>p«l 
institutions, on a personal level the 
slowdown can be felt through the 
plight of the emerging middle class as 
well as urban rich. 

Having enjoyed a decade of rising 
stocks and salaries, as well as easy 
credit, the affluent are now shedding 
excess goods, cutting back on foreign 
studies and simply hoping to keep a 

Was on Panon understands the pain 
of the newly poor and has managed to 
capitalize on it Mr. Wasun, the pres- 
ident of Benz Thonglor, helped build 
Thailand into one of the world’s largest 
markets forMercedes-Benzes. Now he 
also sells used cars and luxury goods at 
his wildly popular “ market for the 
formerly rice. 

”1 am trying to give a message to 
Thai people,” Mr. wasun said. “Now 
is the time to sell excess luxury 

The multistory parking garage from 
which he does business has a carnival- 
like atmosphere as customers inspect 
rows of used cars with mobile-phone 
numbers scrawled chi the windshields. 
Owners mingle in the crowd waiting 
for a call, which usually comes from 
Thailand ’s recently rich expatriate em- 
ployees with their dollar-denominated 

Not all die shoppers are foreign. One 

Thw* Ciw*wwVbncj»*fc»l JkaJdTl2*mr 

Art Wichiencharoen and Walliwan Varavam have had to postpone 
schooling in the United States for their son, Ed, in the foreground. 

Thai woman wearing diamond-encrus- 
ted Jacqueline . Onassis-style 
sunglasses said she was looking for a 
newer model Mercedes to replace her 
old one. 

When Thailand’s economic bubble 
burst, traders and bankers were the first 
to fed the shock. In the last several 
weeks, however, members of the 
middle class have become painfully 
aware that they will be forced to down- 
grade Iheir dreams. 

“All my friends are scared,” said 
Don Watanasak. 27, a photographic 
imager who lost his job m July when 
the company be worked for collapsed. 
"They go to work every day worried 
that the big boss will tell diem their 
salary has been cut or people will lose 
their jobs.” Following a three-month 
search, Mr. Don found a new job, but 
be said dial he and his friends had cut 
back on spending and changed their 

At the peak of its consumption 
binge, in the early 1990s, Thailand was 
the seventh- largest market far Mer- 
cedes Benz cars and the largest con- 
sumer of 12-year-old premium Scotch 
whiskey in the world 

Mr. Don, the son of a policeman, 
was the first member of his family Co 
study at a university in the United 
States, bat the collapse of Thailand’s 
currency will keep him from attending 
this year’s class reunion. 

The speed of T hailand ’s fall seems 
to have taken virtually everyone by 

Art Wichiencharoen and his wife, 
Walliwan Varavam, made a costly 
mistake with their son’s education in 
the United States. 

Even upon hearing the news that the 
baht would float as he got dressed on 
die morning of July 2. Mr. Art said, he 

See URBAN, Page 17 

iVf* — 

ft!B Every Res?: 


Farmers Fear Rising Costs 

By Thomas Crampton 

tnivnutuHuil Hcmid Tribm * 

SUPHANBUR1, Thailand — Bang 
Yai village has 137 wooden homes, 
two temples, a famed Buddha image 
and one worried mayor. 

“Everyone in the village has debts 
here, apart from two farmers,” the 
mayor, Wanchai Chamnandi, said “If 
the prices keep going up, it will get 
difficult to pay for fertilizer in the next 
planting season.” 

Roads crunch with drying rice at 
harvest time in Suphanburi Province, 
where Thailand’s economic boom and 
a generation of bountiful exports have 
allowed farmers such as Niwat Rup- 
nam to buy a television and trade his 
water buffalo for a tractor. 

While the country’s economic j 
tans started in Bangkok-based 

dal institutions, echoes of die crisis 
can be heard down on the farm, where 
the past decade has brought depend- 
ence on credit and imported chem- 

“Compared to 10 years ago, things 
are much better” Mr. Niwat said. 
“There are refrigerators in almost 
every house, and many people have 
motorcycles. In the past we didn't have 
any money to spend at die market” 

While farmers could abandon self- 
suffidency and get a taste of consumer 
culture, their incomes increased just a 
small fraction compared to those of 
nonagricultural sectors. 

Farmers did, however, leam the 
ways of easy credit and deferred pay- 
ment Mr. Wanchai said most farmers 
in Bang Yai earned less from rice each 

See RURAL, Page 17 

Sathien Mangkhang, a rice farmer who drives a motorcycle cab In 
Bangkok between plantings, has seen his taxi income fall sharply. 

Daewoo Is Said to Seek 
Ssangyong’s Car Unit 

Reports of Deal Follow New Chaebol Failure 

By Don Kirk 

Special to the Herald Trihunt 

SEOUL — Daewoo Carp, has agreed 
in principle to purchase debt-ridden 
Ssangyong Motor Co., South Korean 
media reported Sunday. 

Word of a possible deal followed the 
news Saturday that Halla Group, South 
Korea’s I2th-(argest chaebol , or con- 
glomerate — and one closely allied with 
Hyundai Group, the country’s largest 
chaebol in terms of assets — bad col- 
lapsed after defaulting on $220 million 
in loans. 

Daewoo’s chairman, Kim Woo 
Choong, reportedly has almost com- 
pleted talks with Ssangyong Group's 
chairman, Kim Suk Joon, according ro 
Chosun Dbo, Seoul's leading daily 
newspaper. Daewoo and Ssangyong 
would not confirm the deal.' 

“Yes, we've been negotiating, and 
we’d like to sell the company.” a man 
identified as a senior Ssangyong ex- 
ecutive said in an interview Sunday on 
the state-owned Korea Broadcasting 
System’s main news program. 

The Ssangyong executive said the 
reason for the sale was the debt incurred 
during Ssangyong Motor's effort to 
enter the auto business in competition 
with South Korea’s three major motor 
vehicle manufacturers, Hyundai, Dae- 
woo and Kia Group. Kia declared bank- 
ruptcy last summer. A senior Daewoo 
official told Korean Broadcasting that 
Daewoo was less heavily in debt than 
other Korean chaebol. Ssangyong’s 
debt is estimated at about $2 billion. 

Rumors of Daewoo’s plan to pur- 
chase Ssangyong Motor began swirling 
Saturday when share prices of Ssangy- 
ong’s listed companies suddenly shot up 
nearly 8 percent, the maximum rise per- 
mitted in one day, before the exchange 
closed for the weekend at midday. 

Daewoo, South Korea's fourth-largest 
conglomerate in terms of sales and assets 
after Hyundai, Samsung Group and LG 
Group, has sharply increased its motor- 
vehicle production, expanding facilities 
in South Korea while buying plants in 
former Soviet-bloc countries. 

Ssangyong, the country’s sixth-largest 
group, has been producing buses, trucks 
and vans for 11 years and was just start- 
ing to make passenger cars with tech- 
nology from Mercedes-Benz AG. The 
first Ssangyong car, a luxury vehicle 
called the Chairman, with a Mercedes 
engine and a Ssangyong logo, entered die 
market about a month ago. 

Daewoo, by acquiring Ssangyong, 
hoped to enter the American market 
with jeeps and vans now produced by 
Ssangyong, industry sources said. 

Ssangyong has long been negotiating 
with Daimler-Benz AG, which owns 5 
percent of Ssangyong Motor’s stock, for 
the sale of its motor-vehicle company. 
The talks with Daimler-Benz reportedly 
foundered on the question of Ssangyong 
Motor’s debt 

Daimler-Benz, however, must still 
approve any deal between Daewoo and 

Ssangyong, according to Chosun Dbo. 
Ssangyong became widely talked about 
as the next chaebol likely to go bankrupt 
after Halla said Saturday it had had to 
apply for court receivership for two of 
its most important companies, Halla En- 
gineering & Heavy Industries Co. and 
Halla Merchant Marine Co. 

Halla also sought coutl protection to 
reschedule debts of three other compa- 
nies: Mando Machinery. Halla Cement 
Manufacturing and Halla Engineering 
& Construction. 

■ Halla Bankrupt^ Raises Fears 

Andrew Pollack of The New York 
Times reported earlier from Seoul; 

The collapse of Halla Group spurred 
new fears of a wave of corporate bank- 
ruptcies under the strict financial rules 
dictated by the International Monetary 

Halla is the sixth of South Korea’s 30 
largest chaebol to fail this year after 
borrowing huge amounts of money to 
finance unsuccessful expansions. 

The collapse of the conglomerates has - 
saddled b anks with huge amounts of bad 
debt, crippling the financial system and 
helping to force Seoul into seeking the 
IMF bailout announced last Wednesday. 
Although Halla fell into bankruptcy 
after failing to repay about $220 million 
in debt, according to its creditor banks, 
its overall debt totals $5.3 billion. 

Holla’s bankruptcy could in turn bun 
Hyundai Group, which lent Halla money. 
It could also cripple Korea's automobile 
industry, because a Halla subsidiary is a 
major supplier of car parts. 

Halla's troubles began well before the 
IMF announced the program to lend 
South Korea $57 billion or more. In the 
past, however, Haifa might have been 
kept alive by its banks, which would 
have lent it more money. 

But under terms set by the IMF for the 
bailout, banks must become healthy to 
survive. They can no longer afford to 
lend good money after bad, and many are 
seeking immediate payment of loans 
from high-risk clients. Analysts say, 
therefore, drat other indebted companies 
could fall into bankruptcy under similar 

Halla, which is involved in shipbuild- 
ing, paper, construction and other in? 
dustnes in addition to auto parts, said six 
of its subsidiaries were filing for either 
court receivership or court mediation to 
reschedule debt payments. 

The biggest problem is with Halla 
Engineering & Heavy Industries, one of 
South Korea's leading shipbuilders. 
Halla spent billions of dollars on a new 
shipyard, only to face overcapacity. 

Halla was founded by Chung In 
Yung, the younger brother of Chung Ju 
Yung, who started Hyundai Group. 

Hyundai has been lending money to 
Halla to help keep it going, and there is 
speculation that Hyundai will rescue 
Halla or buy some of its subsidiaries. 
But the state-owned news agency Yon- 
bap quoted an anonymous Hyundai of- 
ficial Saturday as denying this. 

W's-fc. ---- 

Japan Considers Tighter Definition of ‘Bad Loan 9 


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TOKYO — The Ministry of Fi- 
nance said Sunday it was considering 
a stricter definition of “unrecover- 
able loans,” a move that could soothe 
investors’ concerns about hidden 
losses but could also triple the de- 
i e fared value of banks’ baa loans. 

The collapse Nov. 24 of Yamaichi 
Securities Co., which admitted to 2. 1 
billion veil ($16.1 million) in hidden 
losses * on stock transactions, 
heightened concents that other Jap- 
anese financial companies may have 
understated their debts. 

"Wc'rc now discussing changing 
the definition of bad loans with the 
major banks." said Sci Nalcai, deputy 
director of the Ministry of Finance s 
banking bureau. "The debate on the 
appropriateness of Japan’s definition 
is one reason I here has been anxiety m 
the market-' * Japanese banks may hold 
79 trillion yen in unrecoverable loans, 
more than’ three times the value of 
loans that banks officially repotted as 

next performing as of the end of March, 
the Nihon Keizai reported Saturday. 

The amount, worth 14 percent of 
the total loans extended, may reflect a 
broader definition of a bad loan. The 
Ministry of Finance said it would 
declare the amount of banks’ bad 
loans by mid-December; that number 
will include, for the first time, loans 
that banks think may eventually mm 
out to be unrecoverable. 

By U.S. standards, bad loans in- 
clude those more than three months 
past doe or those on which interest 
payments lave been waived or 
lowered to help borrowers. By Jap- 
anese standards, the default period 
has to be more dan six months, or the 
interest rate cut to below the official 
discount rate, which is 0.5 percent 

The Ministry of Finance will set 
tough standards for bad loans held by 
Japanese banks as part of a plan to 
promote information disclosure by 
banks, the paper reported Saturday. 

The standard is likely to label loans 

as nonperforming when principal 
payments are delayed for more than 
three months, the standard used by 
the U.S. Securities Exchange Com- 
mission, the report said. 

The Ministry of Finance and the 
Bank of Japan estimate that nation- 
wide banks accounted for 573 trillion 
yea of the industry’s possibly unre- 
coverable loans, while regional banks 
probably accounted for 21.7 trillion 
yen, the Nihon Keizai report said 

The finance committee of Japan’s 
lower house of Parliament passed 
legislation Friday allowing the semi- 
public Deposit Insurance Coip., a 
banking-system safety net, to provide 
money to banks that agree to merge. 

Separately, Hokoriku Bank Ltd, a 
regional bank based in central Japan, 
said Saturday it would cease its over- 
seas banking business, while restruc- 
turing domestic operations. 

Hokoriku Bank’s president, Kenso 
Yashinas, said his bank planned to 
write off all its bad loans in the year 

ending in March, Kyodo news agency 
reported The move is aimed at en- 
hancing its financial standing before 
the Finance Ministry gets tough an 
management of hanks as pan of 
Tokyo’s “Big Bang” plan to dereg- 
ulate financial markets. 

Hokoriku Bank will shut its 
branches in New York, London and 
Hong Kong and a subsidiary in Hong 
Kong, Mr. Yashima told the Kyodo 
news service. The New York and 
Hong Kong branches will be down- 
graded to representative offices, 
while the representative offices in 
Shanghai ana Singapore will be un- 
touched As for domestic operations, 
the bank has drawn np a three-year 
plan to close or merge 20 outlets and 
cut its work force by 15 percent start- 
ing in April as it aims to specialize in 
retail banking for indiviaual clients, 
he said The bank’s bad loans totaled 
286.2 billion yen as of the end of 
September, or 5-5 percent of total 
lending volume. (Bloomberg, AFP) 


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Kodak Ruling: Risk to New Pact? 



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GENEVA — The United States, stung by 
the loss of a major market-access case against 
Japan in the World Trade Organization, could 
decide to sink a new WTO pact to liberalize 
financial services, diplomats said Sunday: 

With only five days to go before a self- 
imposed deadline for agreem e nt, senior of- 
ficials from around 70 countries actively in- 
volved in die negotiations are to meet Mon- 
day. A pact would bring banking, insurance 
and securities dealing worldwide under en- 
forceable WTO open-trading rules, injecting 
competition into many countries where all 
three activities have been long protected. 

U.S. officials, including Trade Represen- 
tative Charlene Barshefsky, have deplored a 
decision by a panel of die global trade body 
against a U.S. complaint alleging that Japan 
had rigged its domestic market to favor Fuji 
Photo Film Co. against Eastman Kodak Co. 

“The panel’s findings simply do not ad- 
dress market realities.” Ms. Barshefsky said. 
* ‘Even within Japan, it is common knowledge 
that Japan's market is overregulated, its dis- 
tribution system is closed and exclusionary 
business practices are prevalent.” 

But any unilateral p unish ment would not 

only risk aggravating already frayed U.S.- 
Japanese trade relations but also smack of 
hypocrisy, as Washington had agreed to abide 
by the panel’s findings. 

Diplomats said the anger in Congress over 
the finding, released Friday but yet to be con- 
firmed in a formal piling, could only harden the 
U.S. position on financial services. 

“After the Kodak-Fuji debacle, the White 
House will need to show that it is nor giving 
away too much, even if Congress does not have 
to approve a financial services agreement,’’ 
one envoy involved in the negotiations said. 

The banking federation of the European 
Union's 15 member states — urging final 
efforts to reach a deal — said Sunday that 
collapse of the talks could bring more turmoil 
to financial markets already rocked by the 
Asian crisis and affect the global economy. 

The Union, which salvaged a partial pact 
when the United States walked away from 
talks in 1995 because it felt developing coun- 
tries were holding too much back, is believed 
to be ready to sign up now, as are Japan and 
Canada. The EU itself, like the United States, 
has offered to effectively open up its fi- 
nancial-sendees industry to all comers under 
an accord. (Reuters, NYT) 

Oames Bond* 


Automatic chronometer. 

Water- ras itt to joom/iooeft. 

OMEGA — Swiss made since 184B. 

The sign of excellence 

PAGE 16 



' i • 

Investors, Seeing Asia Crisis as Tamed, Look to Keep the U.S 


Omf/M trs Our Staff Fmrx Dujua'ii** 

NEW YORK — As some optimism 
returns to Asia, investors will be scan- 
ning economic data this week for signs 
that the rally in U.S. stocks and bonds 
can continue amid expectations of low 

on the benchmark 30-year Treasury 
bond finis hed at 6.08 percent, up from 
6.05 percent from the previous week. 

Investors will get more clues on the 
economy and inflation when the gov- 
ernment r^xnts on November retail sales 
Thursday and producer prices Biday. 

stock market to rally and the bond mar- 
ket to rebound seem to be based on a 
newly optimistic view of Asia. A month 
ago, Asian financial shocks were caus- 
ing stocks to plunge and many investors 
to seek a haven in the bond market 
Now, many investors appear to think 

ston&Co. "It may be the best number cm 
employment we are going to see for a 
long time because Asia will slow down 
growth here next year,” be said. 

The strong jobs report stored concern 
that the Federal Reserve willbepressed to 
increase bank lending rates in the next 

now. 1 .’ In this picture, the biggest ques- 
tion remains whether economic growth 
will stay moderate. The economy grew 
at a 3.9 percent pace in die 12 months 
through September, well above the 
Fed’s goal of 2 percent to 25 percent 
A senior Fed official told Bloomberg 

inflation and inflows of foreign capital Thursday and producer prices Friday. Now, many investors appear to trunk increase bank lending rates in the next a senior rea omcuu ww 
The stock and bond markets broke Frequently this year, bullish econom- the International Monetary Fluid’s res- few months to slow (he U.S. economy News m an interview betore tnejoos 
with convention Friday as they both ic news pushed bond prices lower as cue packages for troubled economies and ward off inflation. Fed officials are report Friday that the central Daoic ex- 

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traders and investors woiried about 
rising inflation and an Interest-rate in- 
crease by the Federal Reserve Board. 

shrugged off unexpectedly strong' Stock prices usually followed suit, eves 
November employment H^ta though a robust economy should be 

November employment data. 

Bond prices, which fell sharply just 
after the Labor Department announced 
that nonfarm payroll jobs jumped 
404,000 last month, trimmed their 
losses by the end of the day. The yield 

though a robust economy should be 
good for corporate earnings. 

But the financial turmoil in Asia 
seemed to have changed the equation. 

The optimistic interpretations of the 
strong jobs report that prompted the 

such as South Korea, Indonesia and 
Thailand are containing the problems 
and that the drag on the American econ- 
omy from any Asia slowdown will be a 
benefit, especially because it could keep 
the Fed from raising rates. 

The late rally in bonds Friday was led 
by investors who felt that die employ- 
ment report was old news, said David 
Jones, chief economist at Aubrey G. Lan- 

Most Active International Bends 

The 250 most active international bonds traded 
through the Eurodear system for the week end- 
ing Dec. 5. Prises supplied by Telekuis. 

Cpfi Maturity Pria* Yield 

Cpn Maturity Price Ytetd 

cpn Maturity Price View 

Argentine Peso 

249 Argentina FRN '3305204/01/91 10 Ij6992 3.1500 

Austrian Schilling 

60 Germany 
62 Trcuhand 
64 Germany 

69 Germany 

70 Germany SP 

71 Germany 

72 Treuhand 

73 Germany 
76 Germany 
79 Germany 
81 Germany 

B2 Trcuhand . 

5U 08/221*01024600 55900 
6V 05713/04 108.1 775 42400 
6Vi 07/15/03 1065900 6.1000 
6 . 720/16 102.6517 53500 

wo 07/04/27 157700 62200 
5 05/21/01 1008500 45600 
65* 0^11/03 1084200 63500 
5ft 05/15/00 103.0400 5.7000 
7ft 11/11/041127600 6^500 
6ft 03/15/00 1043600 63300 
716 01/20/00 105.5700 64700 
6ft 04/23/03 1065700 6.1100 

Irish Punt 

oanam 1143000 7moo 

scheduled to meet Dec. 16 and again Feb. 
3 and 4. 

“If we keep getting numbers Like 
this,” Jim McDonald of T. Rowe Price 
Associates Inc. in Baltimore said, 
“eventually we’ve got to see” stronger 

There is little evidence so far, 
however, that inflation is picking up. 
The U.S. consumer price index rose at a 
1.8 percent annual rate in the first 10 
months of the year, the slowest in a 

‘The picture hasn’t changed all that 
- much/’ saidHugh Whelan, a manager at 
Aeltns Investment Management in Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. “There is no reason 
to be worried about U.5. inflation right 

pects the fallout from. Asia’s financial 
decline to slow the U.S. economy to a 
“reasonable" growth rate next year 
with low inflation. 

The Fed forecasts that gross domestic 

product will expand at a slower rate of 
2.25 percent to 25 percent in 1998, 
compared with 3.6 percent this year. 

“Anyone who thought we needed a 
quarter or half a percentage point of 
ti ghtening will think again," said the 
Fed official, who spoke oo condition 
that he not be named. 

Steve Gu teaman, a manager at Sa- 
lomon Asset Management, said, “What 
really counts is the unpact Asia is going 
to have on the U.S. and when we are 
going to see that." 

Sung Won Sohn, chief econo mi s t at 
Norwest Corp„ said many market par- 
ticipants saw the bond market’s initial 
self-offafter the jote report Friday as fii - 
opportunity to buy, gi vm the strong mar- 
ket fundamentals, including low infra. J 
tion. a shrinking budget deficit and high 
real, or after-inflation, interest rates. 

1 ‘The bond market has been so strong 
for so long, and many portfolio man* 
agera thought it was too expensive to 
buy. so today was an opportunity.'* he 

said Friday. . . . 

Participants are also looking to the: 
release Wednesday of a plan by Japan’s V 

Participants are aiso loosing to me 
release Wednesday of a plan by Japa n’s ■ 
governing Liberal Democratic Party to} 
ease the crisis in the country's financial 


“The government needs to come up . 
with some money to take bad loans on 
die books of commercial banks and stun- : 
uiate consumer spending," Mr. Sohn . 
said. If the plan is credible, he said, U.S. 
Treasury bonds will benefit, because Ja- 
pan then would be less likely to sell the! 
bonds to bail out its financial system 
(NYT, Bloomberg, Bridge News) 

Italian Lira 

10ft 07/15/98 1024200 10.2300 

Japanese Yen 

5* 07/15/07 100.9000 53700 K S!!!!22 Tb,fc WW8 90.7119 33900 

Belgian Franc 

224 Belgium . 7* 12/22/00 1083000 7.1600 

225 Belgium TOILS zero 02/05/98 99.3823 35900 

British Pound 

145 World Bank 6.10000^17/30 98.1250 6JZ200 
150 Fannie MceW8 69k 06/07/02 99.5000 6.9100 

153 World Bank zero 07/17/00 B252S0 7.5600 

185 Fannie Mae 6430Q03/22M1 96.7293 65500 

186 EIB FRN 7Vi 11/19/02 995500 73000 

790 Denmark 64 a 08/24/98 99.1250 64100 

213 Aire Valley FRN 7.474311/04/39 997500 7X900 
215 World Bank 7 06/07/02 994750 7 j0700 

21 9 Abbey National 6 QVUV99 973229 6.1300 

246 Sakura Bank 8460002/25/98 99.0177 8.1400 

Canadian Dollar 

85 Germany 

86 Trcuhand 
B7 Germany 
89 Trcuhand 
91 Germany 

94 Germany 

95 GemKHiy 
98 Germany 

103 Trcuhand 
106 Germany 
109 Germany 

115 Germany 

116 Germany 
123 Trcuhand 

125 Germany 

126 Germany 
133 Germany 
140 Trcuhand 
142 Germ any 

3ft 12/18/98 994700 15200 
6ft 03/2£/n 994289 6.1400 
6 ¥ i 07/1 MM 1084040 65300 

5 12/17/98 100.9666 4.9500 

7 12/22/97 100.1300 63900 

*8ft 05/21/01 111.1600 73300 
6* 04/22/03 107.6837 &27UQ 
m 02/21/00 1067600 74600 
6te 07/29/99 1034600 64600 
6ft 06/28/98 101.1700 6.0500 
BM 05/22/00 1093300 7.9900 
6ft 02/24/99 1 03.1300 6.6700 
8ft 07/20/00 109.9900 7.9600 

6 02/20/98 1004100 5.9800 
8 ft 08/21/00 1093100 77500 
69k 12/02/98 1025800 67000 
5 01/14/99 100.9533 4.9500 

6ft 05/20/96 100.1735 64600 
616 O1A209 1024600 64400 
5ft 10W98 1014500 57000 
614 03/04/04 1056800 5.9100 
5ft 08/20/98 1017500 54800 

180 World Bank 4ft 0^20/00 1094250 4.1000 
206 N.U. Invest FRN 0481 301/1 8/99 1004901 04800 

228 Ibm 44500060^0 108.1559 47000 

229 World Bank 4ft 12/22/77 100.1250 44900 

244 World Bonk 4ft CMM 116ft 34600 

Old-Fashioned Overlending Gets Blame 

Report Finds Banks Still Expanding Credits to Asia as Crisis Broke Out 

Portuguese Escudo 

By Carl Gewirtz 

International Herald Tribune 

136 Boo Invtmob Fm zero 02/28/37 1004303 0.0000 

Spanish Peseta 

797 Spain 
195 Spam 
197 Spun 
232 Spain Bones U 
243 Spain 

7.900002/28/02 1097490 7.1900 
7-3500KV31/D7 1114430 64000 
1014 11/30198 1053200 97400 
5 01/31/DI 994431 5-0200 

614 04/1 M» 99-55B0 6JBW 

Swedish Krona 

143 Germany FRN 3648009/30/04 99.1700 3.0700 

113 Canada 
137 Canada 

7ft 12/01/03 1104670 67600 
714 06/01/07 1177335 6.1500 

Danish Krone 

9 Denmark 
13 Denmark 
19 Denmark 
25 Denmark 
43 Denmark 
50 Denmark 
52 Denmark 

65 Nykredll 

66 Denmark 
68 Denmark 
75 Real Kredit 
78 Nykredll 
88 Denmark 

107 Reaiknedit Dan 
. 122 Denmark 
163 Denmark 
174 Denmark 
184 Unlkredlt 

7 11/10/34 108.1000 64800 

8 03/1 MM 1144000 6.9800 

7 11/15/07 1084300 64600 

6 12/1Q/99 1024000 54500 

9 11/15/00 1104000 8.1400 

8 11/15/01 1094900 77800 

7 12/15(04 1077000 64000 
7 1IV01/29 987500 7.1200 
6 11/1502 1037500 54100 

9 11/15/98 1044000 84500 

6 1041/26 944500 64500 
6 1001/26 944100 64600 

148 Germany 

149 Germany 
152 Germany 
166 Germany 
.m Germany 
189 Germany 
199 Germany 
201 Ge rmany SP 
205 KFW 

212 German Slates 
218 Russia 

6Vk 05/20/99 1024400 5.9700 
646 01/20/98 1004200 64000 
5ft 02/22/99 1014200 54000 
6 11/12/03 1844500 57500 
6ft 12/21/98 1024800 64300 
54% 09/24/98 1017600 54600 
6U, 02/20/98 1004600 64200 
5** 09/20/16 98.1880 5.7300 
5V 05/28/99 102.1300 54300 
zero 01/04/07 614000 54400 
6Vk 03/20/98 1004400 6.0900 
56% 11/27/071004000 54100 
6 01/29/07 1034000 54300 

9 03/25/04 994500 94400 

B3 Sweden 1036 
120 Sweden 
139 Sweden 1037 
157 Sweden 
171 Sweden 
188 Sweden 
227 Sweden 

10ft 05/05/00 1113. 1330 94100 
6 02/09/05 99.7480 64200 
B 08/15/07 1134300 74700 
516 04/12/02 984930 54700 
11 01/21/99 106.1210 104700 
616 1Q/25/W 1025920 64400 
13 04/15/01 1224430 104300 

5 Brazil Cap S.L 4Vk 04/15/14 894732 54100 

PARIS — It Looks like the banks have 
done it again. 

Never mind the forebodings about 
how the misuse of complex and highly 
leveraged new financial instruments 
could endanger the global financial sys- 
tem. Apparently, according to a report 
released over the weekend, it was an 
old-fashioned banking crisis of mis- 
guided lending that triggered the tur- 
moil engulfing most of Asia. 

As in the blow-up of T-atin American 
debt in (he early 1980s, commercial 
banks in the industrialized countries 
were increasing their loans until the last 

Although die overall pace of bank- 

nancial turmoil building in the region. 

The report ask* why the evidence of 
growing economic and financial im- 
balances in Southeast Asia was ignored 
for so long. And it cites, by way of 

• The firm co mmitme nt by national 
authorities to preserve the external 
value of their domestic currencies. 

• The process of market deregula- 
tion, which acted as an incentive to 
further capital inflows. 

new credits during the third qoaitec. 
Loans to South Korea came to S 23 
billion, and those to Indonesia,- $1:5 

All three of those countries have had 
to turn to the International Monetary 
Fund for massive loans to avert finan- 
cial disaster. 

' The figures on actual bank lending 
through the second quarter show that 
lending to Asia slowed by almost a third 

247 Hellenic FRN 4.136711/27/02 994000 4.1600 

! 88 Sweden 616 maws 1025920 64400 debt in the early 1980s, commercial • The lack of adequate consideration lion to South Korea and 52.8 billion to 

227 Sweden ?3 o&is/Di 1224430 104300 h anks in the indust rializ ed countries of actual foreign-exchange exposures. - Indonesia. __ j - 

- - - - — were increasing their loans until the last The report also said, the large ex- Overall, South Korea is the largest* 

U.S. Dollar minute. posure of Japanese hanks — which at debtor, with $117 billion owed to in- 

5 Brazil Cap s.L 4Vk 04/15/14 894732 54100 Although foe overall pace of bank- the end of 1996 accounted for 35 percent teraational banks at the end of the 
26 Argentina par l 516 03/31/B 734000 74800 armnawi syndicated loans slowed in the of inter natio nal h ankin g claims on Asia second quarter, followed by Thailand, 
mSilfr ? 1 8 £ Sh»S 844059 74900 c I uarter * tiie credits available to and for 53 percent of those on Thailand with a debt of $99 billion, and China. | 

35 Brazil 1016 05/15/27 914000114800 developing countries rose to a record alone — ^suggests broader repercus- with $87 billion. \ 

m 21 £121 .^-SSSS £13“ $303 billion and funds extended to bor- sions" in propagating the crisis. For the first nine months of the year. 

aer capital inflows. from the fust quarter but, according to 

The progressive broadening of the the report, remained “high by historical 
;e.of investors in a context of ample standards " at $ 15 billion, 
tal liquidity. This included an increase of $4 bil- 

Thelack of adequate consideration lion to South Korea and $2.8 billion to 
ctual foreign-exchange exposures. ■ Indonesia. 

he report also said, the large ex- Overall, South Korea is the largest - 
tie of Japanese hanks — which at debtor, with $117 billion owed to in-' 
rad of 1996 accounted for 35 percent teraational banks at the end of the 

Dutch Guilder 

36 Brazfl FRN 
39 Mexico 
49 Russia 
61 Argentina 

63 Argentina 

67 Venezuela 

6<yii 01/01/01 954000 7.1100 

Vo* 06/26/07 1 95 ^ 7 104400 rowers in Asia hit a high of $14 billion, 
9 ? 21/15V27 ’SJSS 104400 * e ® an ^ f OT International Settlements 
9 M 09/15/27 904496101700 said in its November quarterly report on 
61i 12/10/1 914322 74000 international hnnkinor and financial - 
61* 12/31/19 834000 74300 ma ,W 

07/28/11 74.6543 84600 maiKet aeveiopments. 

9% 01/15/07 106.1583 94000 In this context credits are a com- 
4 JS g-JSS? 54 M 0 mitment to lend. Although no figures 

0 * 07/28/24 774001 84400 are available as to whether the money 

St was actually drawn in the third quarter 

6i* oyi9/n 997500 67700 — bank lending figures are only avail - 
7u 05/1406 934000 77SD0 able through the second quarter, before 
1 J ovSra 77 . Sow iraio the Thai crisis began in July — the fact 
3i* 0200/15 634871 5.1100 that banks continued to extend credit 
9 ?? rfrnm ww? in di c ate s a certain disregard for the fi- 

8 05/15/03112.1400 7.1300 

KV0T/29 984500 7.1200 
02/15/00 984500 44500 
02/15/98 T 0041 00 64600 
08/15/991017300 54000 
KV01/29 984000 7.1200 
10/01/26 944000 64500 

Deutsche Mark 

1 Germany 

2 Germany 

3 Get many 

4 Germany 

6 Germany 

7 Trcuhand 

8 Germany 

10 Germany 

11 Germany 

12 Germany 

14 Germany 

15 Germany 
18 Germany 

6 07/04/07 1044800 57500 
6 01/04/07 1044200 57600 
4 09/17/99 994546 44400 
06/19/02 984400 44900 
616 07/04/271074117 64600 
m 12/02/02 110.1634 64900 
8 01/21/02 1114133 7.1900 
7% 01/03/05112.1300 64800 
8U 09/20/01 1114700 74900 
416 05/17/02 984700 44800 
8V 0800/01 1134833 7.7400 
696 03/1205 1094067 64800 
6« 09/15/99 104.1200 64800 
61* 01/04/24 1044843 64000 
8 07/22/02 112.1467 7.1300 

51 Netherlands 

53 Netherlands 

54 Netherlands 
74 Netherlands 
80 Netherlands 
97 Netherlands 

104 Netherlands 
110 Netherlands 
117 Netherlands 
132 Netherlands 
151 Netherlands 
154 Nettntfands 
156 Netherlands 
161 Netherlands 
165 Netherlands 
170 Netherlands 
173 Netherlands 
176 Netherlands 
178 Netherlands 
181 Netherlands 
183 Netherlands 
192 Netherlands 

5V 02/1 S/07 1027500 54000 
9 01/15/01 112 84400 

61* 07/15/98 T014500 6.1700 
816 0V15/O1 111 74600 

54* 09/15/02 103.1500 54700 

6 01/15/06 1044000 5.7400 

7» 04/15/101174000 64800 
716 01/15/23 1214000 64000 
81* 06/15/32 113 74000 

7¥ 01/15/00 1063500 74900 
81* 02/15/00 1074500 74700 
71* 1001/04 11145 64100 

6K 11/15/05 1094500 6.1800 
6Vi 07/15198 1014000 64100 
53* 01/15/04 1034000 54700 
8M 02/15/021124000 74500 
616 04/15/031064500 6.0900 
81* 09/15/01 1111000 7.7400 

7 DV5/99 1 03J3000 6.7800 
7Yi 06/1 S/99 1044900 7.1700 

7 06/15/05 1104500 64300 
m 02/15/99 1024200 64600 

77 Venezuela FRN 61* 12/1&07 914322 74000 

114 Korea DeBk 
lIBBrazil par 21 
121 BrazDSXFRN 
124 Ecuador FRN 

127 CADES zero 07/10/98 95.9466 7.1400 

128 Russia 91* 11/27/01 984097 94100 

129 Argentina BHi 12/20/03 974422 84900 
. 130MexfcoB FRN <1* 12/31/19 830000 74300 

131 Depth Bk FRN 5415701/22/99 974035 54800 

134 Argentina FRN 691 03/31/23 824127 84000 

135 Brazil SJD FRN 6k6t 04/1504 804700 84700 

138 Argentina FRN SV» 04/01/01 105.1170 54100 
141 Mydfa FRN 6Vu 09/09/07 804212 84300 
144 Italy m 09/27/23 104.1250 64000 

146 SEK 616 10/024)0 1004000 6.1300 

147 Credit Local 616 02/18/04 1014000 64400 

159 Arg Bontes m 05/09/02 954000 9.1600 
T60PWBp*rinesFh 81* 1 04)7/16 934000 94600 
162 Austro la BkFm 64750 01/21/08 1004000 62700 
167 ADB 61* 10/28412 1004750 64300 

168 Brazil L FRN 6 Vm 04/154K 854954 74000 

169 EIB 616 10/28/02 1004280 64900 

177 Canada 616 07/1 V02 101.1469 64600 

187 Mexico 9tf 02/06/01 105.0000 93900. 

193 Mexico B FRN 6417212/31/19 934835 7.1100 
200 Bco BrosB FRN 644581W14/99 834485 74600 

90 Medea 61* 12/31/19 834000 75300 

92 Bulgaria FRN 6Vii 07/26/11 74.6543 84600 

93 Mexico par A 99k 01/15/07 106.1583 94000 
96 Venezuela par A 6M 03/31/20 874000 74600 
99 Brazil CbandS.L M 04/1 Y14 89.9101 54000 
101 Bulgorta FRN 6V* 07/28/24 774001 84400 
lOSBreaH 54. FRN 61* 04/15/09 814938 84500 
105 Poland FRN m 10/27 04 955793 74000 

Given the wide spectrum of actors 
and instruments” caught up in the tur- 
moil, tire Bank for International Set- 
tlements said, “it will be increasingly 
difficult for official financial assistance ■ 
to tnsnlate. creditors and debtors from 

the adverse consequences of poor in- 
vestment decisions. 

108 BgbHn Ireland 61* 03/19/01 997500 67700 

714 05/\5fl6 935000 7J500 
51* 04/1504 724000 72900 

196 Nethedands SP zero 01/15/23 217500 62600 

20 BundesabllgaHan 416 02/22/02 985725 45700 

21 Germany 

22 Germany 

23 Trcuhand 

24 Trcuhand 
27 Germany 

29 Germany 

30 Germany 

31 Germany 

32 Germany 
34 Trcuhand 

37 Germany 

38 Germany 

40 Trcuhand 

41 Germany 

42 Germany 

43 Germany 

44 Germany 

45 Germany 

46 Germany 

47 Germany 

55 Germany 

56 Trcuhand 

57 Trcuhand 

58 Germany 

59 Germany 

616 10/14/051072967 64600 
6 01/05/06 104.1040 57600 
716 09/09/04 1125600 65600 
7Vl 01/29/03 109.1050 65300 
316 06/18/99 98.9400 35400 
41* 11/2Q4N 974654 44500 
61* 04/26/06 1054800 5.9000 

5 08/20/01 1005100 4.9700 

9 10/2800 1112640 84800 

7lk 10/01/02 1114800 6.9600 
7U IQ/21/02 1094100 65300 
816 02/20/01 110.9350 75600 
6*k 07/09/03 107.1300 6.1800 

6 09/15/03 1045300 5.7400 
3M 03/19/99 995134 37700 
516 11/21 AM 1014380 5.0600 

6 02/16/06 104.1900 57600 

81k 12/20/00 1115600 7.9600 

9 01/22/01 11Z17D0 84200 
5Vi 02/21/01 1015550 5.1700 
7)6 12/20/02 109.1100 65300 

7 11/25/99 1044200 65800 
6U 07/01/99 103.1100 6.1800 
316 03/1998 995500 35100 

7 01/13/00 1054833 65600 

207 Netherlands 
221 Netherlands 
231 Netherlands 
242 Nethedands 
248 Nett) TM Is 

m O3/J1/05 1144500 6.7500 
7 02/1903 1084000 64300 
BVi 06/01/06 121.1500 -74200 
81* 02/15/07 1205000 64500 
zero 06/30/98 974793 34000 

155 France OAT 
164 France BTAN 
172 France OAT 
210 France OAT 
250 France BTAN 

5V6 04/2907 98.9600 55600 
416 07/12/02 974500 45200 
04/25/02 1064500 64600 
6 04/25/04 1037000 5.7900 
6 0366/01 1034500 5.8100 

One- third of (he Asian lending cited 
by the BIS, which monitors interna- 
tional banting markets, was targeted at 
China, which was not affected by the 
regional turmoil, the studynoted. 

But Thailand received $2:3 billion in 

For the first nine months of the year, 
the newly released November issue of 
Financial Market Trends published by 
the Organization for Economic Cooper- 
ation and Development showed that 
emerging-market countries accounted 
for 11.5 percent of total international 
borrowing, from 7.8 percent in the 
like period a year earlier. 

The bulk of this was money raised in 
the international bond market, with Lat- 
in countries taking $38.4 billion and 
Asian nations raising $21 billion. 

Eastern Europe came in a distant third, 
with $1.9 billion in bond financing. 

141 Mydfa FRN 
144 Italy 

146 SEK 

147 Credit Local 
159 Atb Bantu 
TfiOPKHpplnes Fix 

New International Bond Issues 

Compiled by CharioHe Sector 




Floating Rate Notes 

Ambroveneto Inti Bank 

2008 0.85 99775 — OverlmorrttiLtoOf.NoncollBWa. FnslSb. (Barclays deZo^eWeddJ 

BGB Finance 

1998 0.08 10040 — 

Baku unontti Libor. NoncoHaMe. FongRtto with outstandng Issue raising total annul Id S40Q 
ndSon. Feu 043%. Denominations Site, 000. (Banque ParibasJ 

Finnish Maridka 

217 Finland Softals 71* 04/18A6 1104140 65400 
239 FMmd TUBS zero 0914/98 965263 54600 

French Franc 

111 France BTAN 4M 04/12/99 10Q.7BM 4.7100 

198 France OAT 516 04/25/04 1024400 54800 

203 France BTAN 4 01/12/00 99.1800 44300 

223 France OAT SP zero 1W2925 19.1900 6.0900 

204 Poland Inter 4 1927/14 855878 45700 

208 Ontario 6 02/21/06 985000 64900 

209 Raty Resist. 5 06/26/01 1104375 45300 

211 Mexico 1U6 09/15/16 1165535 9.7600 

214AXDU0P FRN 6506312/31/99 1004000 65100 
216 Brazil 8ft 11/0S/OT 99.9491 84800 

220 Sweden 6ft 12/03/02 1005169 6.1000 

226 Sakura Cay Fm 6518812/31/99 955B0Q 6.9200 
230 Brazil Si FRN 6% 04/15/12 764250 87900 

234 Canada 6% 08/2SG6 1044750 64700 

235Bco Cam ExL 71* 08/02/04 934500 77700 
236Eneigie Beheer 61* 11/04/02 1004054 64300 
237 Ecuador FRN GY* 02/28/25 744500 94100 
238 Medea A FRN 6592512/31/19 934000 74000 

240 ExImBk Japan 6ft 11/07/12 100.7500 64300 

241 Loop Fund Fm zero Oi/W 1004000 0.0000 
245 Venezuela par B 6ft 03/31/20 864750 74100 

ft 99.964 — Below 3-awntft Ubm. NonasHable. Feu 045%. (Deutahe Morgan GrenMLl 

Calsse Cenlrale du Credit 

2004 0.05 9956 — 

Owr3-m«ilti Ubor. RodeemaWe ot par In 2002. Fungible wBh outstanding Issue, raising total 
amount to SI WBton. Feu 0.10%. (Nomura Irtl) 

Parma fat Capital Finance 

perpt 2ft 10040 — 

2007 049 100.00 - 

Over 3-mon8i Ubor. Redeemable at par In 201 7. Feu andsdased. (Menfll Lynch Inti) 
Over 6-montti Ubor. Average life 54 yean. Feu 0.12%. (Chase Manhattan IrtfU 

Over3-m«iin Ubor. NonaiBabto Fungible w»h outstanding bsua raising MU omoont to 15 
MBon marks. Feu 040%. (Drcsdner KMnwort BeraoaJ 

Parmalat Capitol Finance 



perpt 2ft 100.00 — Over3-mantt Lftwr. Redeemable at parln 2017. Feu umflsdosed. (Menfll Lynch IntL) 

. . ,■ 

NoncanoMe. Feu 1A%. (CrcdRSuisse First BostonJ 

DSL Bank - 

100.975 9941 

The Week Ahead s World Economic Calendar, Dec. 8-12 

A scMdUls oT ITmc MWirls econcvn/e snd ftwids/ oventSi compiled far the intimiaiianaJHarakjTrixjna by Btoombarj; BustoassN&ws. 

Telefonica de Espana 
World Bank 

RaoHered of 9945. NancababJe. Feu l ft%. (SBC WubwgJ 
Reoftaed at 9973. Noncaltabte. Feu i W16. (J.P. Morgon liST 

101435 9957 Reoffercd of 9971. NoncoSoMe.FungBilewWi outstanding bsoev ratslng total amount to S500 : 
mflSon. Feu 1M*. CSBC WadMinU 


101487 9955 

Asia- Pacific 


Expected Beijing: Rfth China International En- Luxembourg: Eurc^ean Union 

This Week vironmental Protection Exhibition 
and Conference. Through Tuesday. 
Manila: University of Asia and the 

heads of state and government 
meet Friday and Saturday. 

Madrid: Labor Ministry expected to 

Pacific's year-end business and eco- release November unemployment 

nomic briefing. Through Tuesday. 
Shanghai: China Tax Conference. 
Through Tuesday. 

data; Bank of Spain expected to 
release money-supply data for 


Miami: Caribbean/Latin American 
Action's conference on economic de- 
velopment and trade. 

Montreal: United Steelworkers of 
America union’s national, policy con- 
ference. Through Thursday. 

New York: PaineWebber's annual 
media conference. Through Friday. 


5ft 99503 

CE Electric UK Funding 
Parmalat Qqjital Finance 
PH F Seal rifles 

perpt 9ft 10040 
2025 7¥* 99591 

Reaffcrcd at 99537. Nonallabfe. F«s 2%. (ABN-AMRO Hoorn GawAU 
Nonoa0abM.F^0^5%.CCo mi rie«banlO ' 

NonccBaU^FiMs 0^25%. (CnKfil Suisse RixtBoshmO 
Reaeemableatpa , ln2017. Fee* undisclosed. CMentt Lynch Inti} 

NomMlo bfe Abo a B0 tranche ilue 2027 at 1 0043 payk)g8W%.F«g 0525%. OwiontliBitlons' 

t1 OOOOa (Drcsdner KMnwort Bamoa} 

□rasetaer R nance 

ITL200000 2008 

Menfll Lynch 


Rsoffisred at 99J4. Interast wB be a (bud 7% until 1999,ttwr«iBw5J0%. issue may ba 
redenominatBd in «m» alter EMU. Ffeu 2%. (Banco Commerdale ItoJkmaJ 

13 10150 — 

Dec. 8 

Bangkok: Finance Ministry to an- 
nounce the fates of 58 closed fi- 
nance companies. 

Taipei: Trade data for November. 
Tokyo: Wholesale Inflation data for 
November, industrial machinery or- 
ders data for October. 

Brussels: EU foreign ministers and 
energy ministers to meet. 

Madrid: Final share price for Ac- 
eralia expected to be set with trad- 
ing to start Tuesday. ‘ 

Ottawa: Industrial capacity utilize- . 
tion for third quarter. 

Boston: President Cathy Mlnehan of 
the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 
speaks on the central bank’s role. 

N ^’ 0gb ^ l . ltfOT5t ^ ^ ° 13^ ^ 1W8 men 8% umCJOOl. be 

Ubor. Funglbto wtih outstanding Issue robing Mai amount to 
juu mum btb. red jn {Canpnj 


12 101.425 9950 

Albert Hefln 

Earnings expected: Celltoch, CRT. Washington: Weekly report on 

planting progress for seven crops. 

Bonk NeOsrtanOse 

5ft 101.735 10046 
"5ft 701ft 9940 

“*? 1 ** ** »»■ ttwreaftar M«awai»15« 
Iwa twice Ihe 12-morth LjMr. Feu notguoTlobte. IBanca CommewdnU, Hn inm j 

Reoffere6 at 100.16. NoncnBobte. Fees 2%. (ABN-AMRO Hoarc GovettJ 
Rooflered ot99^S- NoncaUahte. Few 2%. 1ABN-AMRO HooreGov^U 

Deutscfie Ausgtelctisbank 
Dutch MBS 97 " 

5ft 10157 — ReoflfercdafW.97.N0ncoOable.FBu 1911%. (ABN-AMRO HoarcGouBllJ 

Dec. 9 

Tokyo: Economic Planning Agency London: Retail price index for 
to issue monthly outlook on the econ- November, 
omy and machinery orders data for Nuremberg: Unemployment data 
October. for November. 

Wellington: Job ads survey data Stockholm: Inflation data and fore- 
for November; government financial cast for state borrowing require- 
statements for July to October. merits. 

Buenos Aires: Companies whose 
financial year ended SepL 30 must 
report earnings. 

Mexico City: Inflation data for 
November; foreign reserves data. 
Ottawa: New-vehlcle sales for Oc- 

KonlnkUpce Ahold 
1NG Bank 

Dexia France 

5% 101.185 9951 
6 102485 “ 

5ft 10145 10047 

WJ93. Nancaflable. Fms 050%. (Bear Steams Irtl) 

SAR2400 202 B zero 

terf*ercdrt9951.NqrieiiBoble. Fws2% . (ABUFAMRQ Haare GcwdtJ 
ReoffweJatnxLTi. NonartteMe. Fees 2%. {ING Bming«.)~ ■ 

NoncoBnum. Feu 1W%. fBonq ue Infercattanaleo LuxantiowgJ 
YW6^11%. Reoffiired at 240. Nanallable. Proceeds 58 rrHHtan rand. Feu 040%. OTD 

a|l, »' I* lllld, • 

World Bank 

Wednesday Manila: Unionbank begins selling 


De& 10 

new shares, and Bank of Commu- 
nications begins rights issue for 6.5 
million shares. 

Sydney: Housing finance data for 

London: Economic trends data for 

Oslo: Consumer price data for 

Rome: Trade data with the EU for 
September and with the rest of the 

Ottawa: New-housing price index 
for October. 

Washington: Wholesale trade data 
for October. 

Yluhi 1zq3%-NnreaBable. Proceeds 59 mOTon rand. Fogs 025%. (Homfena BonJO 

Last Week's Markets Euromarts 

Stock Indexes 

Tokyo: Current account for October, word for October. 

.Money Ratos 


Dec. 11 

Sydney: Labor force data for 

Tokyo: Finance Ministry to issue 

Brussels: West European car reg- 
istrations for November. 

Helsinki: Unemployment data. 

data on corporate profits in the July- Rome: Industrial sales and orders 

Mexico City: Revised trade bal- 
ance for October. 

Washington: Retail sales for 


DJ Trans. 





Oec.5 Not. 28 %Ch'ge United States 

^ 7 ffi2 :ts ssp 

98379 95540 +277 jOPM 

1,14047 1.1 1442 +234 Dbawnf 

51441 499.10 

153340 15WL5S 

Eurobond Yiekta 

September quarter. 

Wellington: Manufacturing sales 
tor the July-September quarter. 

for September. 

Voorburg, Netherlands: Industrial 
prediction data for October. 

Dec. 12 

Tokyo: Coiporate bankruptcy data 
for November. 

Annual meeting: Esprit Holdings. 
Earnings expected: Fraser & 

Madrid: Inflation data for Novem- 

Rome: Retail sales for September. 
Vborburg: Consumer price index 
for November. 

Annual meeting: MAN. 

Buenos Airas: Companies whose 
first, second or third quarter ended 
Oct 31 must report earnings. 
Washington: Producer price index 
for November. 


Nikkei 225 






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7% Yen 


PAGE 17 



Rally \|j * Asia Has Rebounded Before; but Are the ’ 90 s Different? 

By Nicholas D. Kristof 

_ycw’ Fort Tim vs Service 

J - 

this period of adjustment, these economies will 
emerge stronger than ever.” 

The crisis has had some beneficial effects. 
Among the major problems in the region were 
speculative bubbles and unsustainable exchange 

A xf, 

r »V :>t i 

■' ?.!• IVI 


TOKYO •— Shattered by a financial crisis 

wT A U ton W | helbcrthcirhisWric b 00 ™ 
wnms ? P J apan ? SC 20vemment official 

55 Sl^ S CCMOn?y ^ “ com - 

is b “ suiess rates and trade deficits, but the panic has ob- 

thc barf wortand oroe^ n FT?* much of picked the bubbles and sent currencies 

decades ." a V0imo ^ P^ 1 two plummeting to levels that will increase exports 

tion I ask mvrelf if wShUr 3 ? 0m2es ’ ™ ^ reduce or eliminate the trade deficits. 

^fofo?99rT 15 whether Japancansurvive.” Other challenges have been business secrecy 

No that was Asia in ton .and hidden accounts, crony capitalism that op- 

curbed exoMtc infill \! 4 ,’ after 01 counlnes eraies «i connections rather than rules and bankers 
to nroduce'i olnhal i , nt .P e ?° 1 f u ^ l Pf lces soaring wbo pass out loans to ibeirbest buddies rather than 

^ fc^brarowers. These days, pressure from the 

Asm ffdqiSL Fnnd and from overseas 

lifeblood of their economies. 

The despair back then was nearly universal 
yet in retrospect it looks ridiculous. Asia's best 

"This leads me to agree with those in the high-growth years were over. Countries such as 
region who see this crisis not as a blight on the Malaysia and Singapore sank into a trough and 
future, but as a blessing in disguise. Indeed, after despaired in the mid-1980s. 

investors is whittling away at these problems and 
encouraging more open and efficient markets. 

The stiff rise by the currencies of Japan and 
Taiwan in the late 1 980s seemed to herald the end 
of the export boom in those countries, and in- 
vestors fled Hong Kong and China in panic after 
die crackdown in Tiananmen Square m 1989. 

In retrospect, what those episodes underscored 
is how agile Asian economies are and how 
nimbly they can adjust to adversity. Each time, 
governments scrambled to mend their policies, 
businesses desperately pared their costs and 
fought for new markets, and the boom returned. 

Based on those experiences, the current crisis 
might seem a tonic for the region, depreciating 
currencies so that exports can be sustained and 
forcing the development of sturdier capital mar- 
kets and banks so that Asia can emerge stronger 
from its ordeal. 

£l$d7£ SLSr'to citin s P 331 ahocks ’ "V i* 3 economies will emerge stronger 


ig Gcli 

A*ia as IrUi 



. - economic growth 

rates in the world. 

That has been something of a pattern in Asia 
over the past 25 years. An unexpected crisis sets 
off profound anxieties that the party is over, and 
gloom spreads as countries focus on what seem 
insoluble challenges to their systems. Then, with- 
in a couple of years, they bounce back. 

Will that happen again? Will Asia’s tigers and 
tiger cubs come roaring back, more formidable 
than before? 

than ever: But skeptics cite the example of Japan’s prolonged slump. 

There are broad disagreements among econ- 
omists about how long it will take for Asia to 
recover and how much spring there will be in the 
eventual bounce, but the consensus is that the 
long-run prospects look rosy if only die region 
can stagger through the short run. 

1 ‘Asia has tremendous long-t 
pects,” said Jeffrey Sachs, die director 

Everybody s asking, ‘Is the Asian century Institute far International Development at Har- 
over before it began?’ said John Neuffer, an vard University. 

* L- -r ■ 

i? 2 

1- I";;.? 

analyst at a research institute in Tokyo. “I think 
the patient is in the hospital with the flu, but he’ll 
bounce back. All these countries will be back in a 
couple of years.” 

That is a common though not universal con- 
clusion among Asia analysts, and some think that 
the present crisis is in a perverse way the best 
thing that could happen to the region. 

The idea is char if the crisis forces banks and 
markets to modernize so as to allocate capita] 
more efficiently, then this trauma could be re- 
membered as a boon to Asia. 

*‘As these adjustments take place, each of 
these countries will have seized the opportunity 
to strengthen their economies in fundamental 
ways." Michel Camdessus, the managing di- 
rector of the International Monetary Fund, said in 
a recent speech in Singapore. 

“Asia has some problems, but it also has a 
great many economic strengths, the kind that 
everyone saw two or three months ago,” he 
added. “What we’re really in the midst of right 
now is aa extremely acute financial panic. A 
financial panic is a situation where everybody is 
running oat the doors because everybody else is 
running out the doors." 

One risk, as Mr. Sachs noted, is that the 
pessimism becomes self-fulfilling. A confidence 
crisis and correction, poorly managed, can be- 
come something more far-reaching, and drat is 
one of the explanations for the Great Depression 
of the 1930s. 

But Asia has had plenty of experience in 

The oil shocks of 1973-74 and 1979 left the oil- 
importing countries of Asia fearful that their 

The problem is that there is another example 
drawn from the past, one far more sobering: 
Japan in the 1990s. 

in the past, Japan had shown extraordinary 
resilience, but since 1990 it has lost air like a 
steadily deflating tire, as government officials 
stand about kicking the tire and forming com- 
mittees to try to locate the puncture. 

The optimists who bought Japanese stocks 
after they dipped in 1990, on the assumption that 
Asia always bounces back, made a big mistake. 

So those in a pessimistic mood can argue that 
the parallel for Asia now is not its rapid re- 
coveries from the oil shocks but rather Japan’s 
stagnation of the past seven years. 

Yoshihide Soeya, a scholar of international 
relations at Keio University in Tokyo, suggests 
that it may take longer for Asia to bounce back 
this time. 

He says the past resiliency came in reaction to 
external shocks, while the current troubles — like 
those that have plagued Japan since 1990 — are 
in part a result of home-grown inefficiencies that 
will take longer to root out. 

‘ ‘This adjustment is destined to be a long-term 
process, involving a rethinking of Cold War 
assumptions and structures," he said. In the case 
of Japan, be and other scholars say, what is 

needed is nothing less than a “third 
revolution" comparable to the first 
two: the opening up of Japan in the 
19th century and the national re- 
structuring after World War II. 

They speak of the need for a slim- 
mer, less centralized, less interven- 
tionist government, for far-reaching 
deregulation, for schools that pro- 
mote creativity as well as calculus, 
for venture capital and entrepre- 
neurs, and for the “creative destruc- 
tion" that comes from allowing 
banks and businesses to fail. 

Some of this prescription also ap - 
plies to other countries in Asia, par- 
ticularly South Korea. But many 
analysts say that the Japanese com- 
parison with the rest of Asia is not 
appropriate in that Japan is unique in 
the region as a mature industrialized 
country whose “catch-up" phase is 

Another distinction is that in the 
case of Japan, there is a widespread 
feeling that the government is the 
essential problem. 

Elsewhere in Asia, while there are 
complaints about governments, fun- 
damentally most leaders adopted 
reasonably prudent fiscal and mon- 
etary policies, and the main worries 
are in the private sector. 

That should make the adjust- 
ments easier, for die credit for the 
rapid recoveries after the oil and currency shocks 
goes mostly to the survival instinct of private 
business in Asia. 

Some government action will still be needed 
this time to put insolvent bulks out of their 
misery, to make labor more flexible and to open 
up markets to foreign goods and investment. 

One essential question is whether Asia has 
changed structurally in ways that make gov- 
ernments and industry less able to act decisively 
than in the past. 

“Countries dealt with crises very decisively in 
the past because they were scared," said William 
Overholt, a managing director of Bankers Trust 
Co. “South Koreans were scared of North 
Koreans. Taiwan and Hong Kong were scared of 
China. Thailand was scared of Vietnam. The 
difference this time around is that They’re not so 
scared anymore. The emphasis is on politics." 

Z«i Onp/Agmre Fnat-PW* 

Many analysts and economists expect Asia to recover 
from* its current financial turmoil. New financial cen- 
ters such as the Shanghai Stock Exchange in the 
Pudong New Area, above, could benefit as a result 

Michel Oksenberg, a scholar at Stanford Uni- 
versity, says a broad political transition in Asia is 
complicating the region’s economic response to 
crisis. Several Asian countries, he said, have been 
independent of former colonial rulers for only 
about half a century, and their first-generation 
leaders were the country’s founders or inde- 
pendence leaders, who typically won their le- 
gitimacy as nationalists. 

The second-generation leaders came from the 
military or the bureaucracy and won their au- 
thority by their economic performance. 

Now die third generation, still establishing 
itself, is made up of democratic leaders who 
depend in part upon support from the voters. 

“In many of these regimes, the transition has 
just been made, and you have politicians in 
power, and their ability to deal with a crisis is 
perhaps more constrained." he said. 

* . 

URBAN: Thai Middle Class Makes Do With Less 

-> *- » • •• 

•sA ■-« 

*• V- 

i “v »'» • ■ ■ 

•i —. . — . . 






£2 ^ : ' 
Ci : ■h. =-r- •• 

m ■ . r 

M • 

far ■. . Amte rr - 

sr . 

Continued from Page 15 

J L was not too worried. “We committed to send- 
ing our son to an American boarding school a 
month before the baht devalued," he said. “It 
was at 25 baht per dollar, so at our most 
pessimistic, we thought 

it would hit 30. 

“Unfortunately we 
didn’t pay tuition until 
well after devalu- 
ation.” — 

The currency recently 

reached a record low of 41 baht to the dollar. 

Their son. Oat, 14, adores eighth grade at 
Hawaii Preparatory Academy, particularly 
kayaking and camping. 

But the dollar cost of his education has gone 
up more than 30 percent and forced the post- 
ponement of plans for his brother Ed, 11 , to go 
to school in die United States. 

‘I had 180 employees last 
week; now we’ll have 65.’ 

The fallen currency has required Thailand 
to cut back on government scholarship pro- 
grams for foreign study and may force home 
some of the ten of thousands of students 
studying in the United States and elsewhere 
abroad. But the plight of Thailand’s newly 
poor has not been com- 
pletely ignored by those 
who catered to them be- 
fore their fall. The 
Hilton Hotel’s Davidoff 
cigar shop has set aside 
cheaper stock bought 
before the currency fell, for sale exclusively to 
Thai people. And many of Bangkok’s luxury 
hotels offer discount rales to residents of 

A room in the five-star Grand Hyatt 
Era wan, for example, costs S160 when 
booked from abroad but only about the equiv- 
alent of $100 when reserved in Thailand. 

RURAL: Farmers With Debt Fear Rising Costs 

Continued from Page 15 teals cost more than the price ployed — in Bangkok. 


i _• •: 

-**.*=> lk-- : ' 

<e r v - 

■ymi «*i' Vb-.t**-* ■ 

fjpUT* *=. V • 

WXf ‘ r 9 

Vi., snfe,-'— 

year than the 50,000 baht 
($1,200) debt that is typically 
owed to the government 
bank. Loan sharks, at hefty 
interest rates, help the farmers 
bridge the seven-day interim 
before the bank extends the 
renewable annual loan. 

Much of the borrowed 
money is spent on tract- 
ors, fuel and a yield- in- 
creasing cocktail of 
chemicals that helps 
Thailand grow the 
largest crop ot' export 
rice in the world. All 

of rice, I am going to Bangkok 
to protest. I just want things to 
be fair.” 

The increased baht price 
for rice will not be efficiently 
passed on to farmers at har- 
vest time, said Day-Cha Siri- 
patra, an organic forming ac- 
tivist and president of 
Technology for Rural and 

Bangkok dominates Thai- 
land’s economy, and workers 
migrate there from all 
provinces of the country. 
Many of the workers are 
formers who take on casual 
work at factories and con- 
struction sites or operate taxis 
during the off-season to sup- 
plement their income. 


years ago 

Sathien Mangkhang, 3 1 . 

Many farmers learned the a rice former, started 

• . leaving the five-hectare 

ways ot easy credit. (1 2-acre) family farm 

— — between rice-planting 

these items arc imjwned, so. Ecolc^ E«n„ 
with the 40 percent fall of the Fanners don I expc 

baht, their costs will increase 
dramatically for the January 
planting season. 

Analysts dispute the extent 
to which the economic crisis 
will hurt farmers, but the 
rising cost of imports is 
already being felt in Bang 
Yai. Snail-killing solution, 
for example, which is applied 
twice per crop, now costs 200 
baht per bottle, up 50 baht 
from before the fall of the 
currency, when rice crops 
were last planted. 

* T have not yet bought any- 
thing at the new prices be- 
cause I am waiting for the 

export di- 
rectly," he said, “and in 
Thailand there are so many 
middlemen that the farmers 
will not see die increased 
value of tiie rice.” 

But Ammar Siamwalla of 
the Thailand Development 
Research Institute said that 
while farmers would lose 
supplementary sources of in- 
come in tire economic crisis, 
they stood to gain overall 
from the falling baht 

‘ ‘The price of exports goes 
up at the same time as im- 
ports." Mr. Ammar said. 

The greatest source of eco- 

seasons to earn extra 
money in Bangkok with his 
new motorcycle. 

Mr. Sathien joined some 
friends who had a motorcycle 
taxi stand along the river near 
a busy express boat pier. 

He' earned as much as 
15,000 baht a month taking 
passengers on his motorcycle 
through the capital’s pollu- 
tion - and traffic-cnoked 

For the past few months, 
however, things have not 
been so bright. 

“Compared with last year, 
people don’t take so many 
motorcycle taxis: they prefer 
the bus." Mr. Sathien said. 
“Last month I earned 

nomic pain for formers, he - 

cause i am w»u« — said, w6uld be the loss of in- around9,000babt.Ifiny eam- 
plantmg season. come sent home by relatives ings foil to 5,000 baht, I caanot 

er. Samai Suntan, .said, come sent nom y unem- afford to stav in Bangkok." 

:: ‘ 

U tsj fr'j W * r ’ " 


j i^vV ' r • • 

7 ‘ - •’ ' 

‘But. if fertilizers and chero- — now 

suddenly unem- afford to stay in Bangkok.’ 

Mahathir Endorses Austerity Plan 

yi&'ik %• 

-,V rw. ; • 1 ’ 


Prime Minister Mahathir bin 
Mohamad gave his backing 
Sunday to the economic 
policy measures announced 
by his deputy last week to 
restore investor confidence 
and cool the economy. 

“We have decided on 
these measures," Mr. Ma- 
hathir said. 

They are necessary * to re- 
store confidence in the econ- 
omv." he said at a news con- 
ference at the end of the six- 
dav Langkawi International 
Maritime and Aerospace ex- 

Finance Minister Anwar 
Ibrahim said Friday font the 
government had slashed its 
growth forecast for IW5. 
tightened credit and cut 
spending across the board. 

Economists had lauded tire 
package of austerity measures 

but said they wanted Mr. Ma- 
hathir to endorse iL 

“They have at least ac- 
knowledged the problems. 
Now the recovery would be 

faster than if they had con- 
tinued to deny the problem," 
saidNg Bok Eng, senior econ- 
omist at the Dai wa Institute of 
Research in Singapore. 

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forecasters See a Dollar Surge in 1998, After a Year-End Lull 

By Carl Gewiitz 

Herald Tribune 

thi* J F °f *ose who like life in 
. ow ^ an .©» the end of the year is 
Fj^nirig just in time. The reluctance of 
sno a « tiieir year-end bonuses 

Feeding the caution is uncer ta i n ty 
about what Japan’s Liberal Democratic 
£arty will say Wednesday, when it is 
scheduled to spell out its long-awaited 
support package for the country’s ailing 
banking sector. And next week; die gov- 
ernment is to unveil its latest tax-reform 

a . , . reform package, Mineko Sa- 

^^ki-Smith at Credit Suisse First Bos- 
mon m Tokyo expects more drift — 
enough public funds to prevent a 
collapse of the stock market, but not 
enough to quickly resolve the under- 
lying problems.” 

The fudging, she added, will be 
aimed at not committing so much 
money as to risk signaling big problems 

still to come but not so little as to be 
ridiculed as unconvincing.- 

Given the government's long-stand- 
ing reluctance to commit public money 
to rescue the banks. 1 ’the risk is high that 
it will c ontin ue to fiddle,” said John 
Llewellyn at t .rhm.m Brothers in Lon- 
don, even though * * the time is past when 
it is appropriate to worry about the eth- 
ics of using public-sector money to bail 
out private banks.” 

Moreover, even if die details are dis- 
appointing, the weakness .of the yen 
a gains t the dollar is likely to be limited 
by feats of central-bank intervention. 

Huge amounts of money were lost 
last spring when official suggestions of 
a possible change in interest rates drove 
the dollar down from 127 yen to 11 1 
yen. and traders are wary that jawboning 
or actual intervention in the cash market 
with a small part of the S230 billion the 
Bank of Japan holds in reserves could 
temporarily stop the dollar’s advance. 

'Die dollar ended last week at a five- 
year high of 130.20 yen. Although ana- 
lysts are reluctant to make forecasts 
about where it will end die year, there is 

widespread agreement that the currency 
will be trading at least at 135 yen in the • 
first quarter of next year. Neil MacKin- 
non at Citibank, a self-declared “dollar 
bulk” sees a move to 140 yen as “not 
mo demanding.’’ 

For Mark Cliffe at HSBC Markets 
in London, a new danger looms if, as 
he fears, the cause for the yen’s weak- 
ness shifts. Until now, he said, weak- 
ness in domestic markets has been . 
driving Japanese institutions to invest 
abroad — in other words, the weak 
Japanese stock market weakness 
causing the currency to fall. 

That could change, he said, if the 
currency’s weakness causes a further 
loss of confidence and foreign in- 
vestors, “who in the 1990s have been 
the only buyers,” bail out of the Jap- 
anese stock market 

While the dollar has made most of the 
recent gains among major currencies 
against the yen, analysts expect the 
Deutsche mark to take over between 
now and year-end. The mark ended last 
week at 73.07 yen, up 2 percent over the 
past month, compared with a 5.8 percent 

gain for the dollar. “We’ll see more 
action taking die mark to 78 yen,” Mir. 
Cliffe forecast. 

Also over the past month, die dollar 

a move that will run into some resistance 
as the dollar threatens to rise above 1.80 
DM. The dollar ended last week at a six- 
week high of 1.7826 DM, prompting 
some Bundesbank officials to comment 
on the undesirability of a surge in the 

The Bundesbank effectively capped 
the dollar’s rally in October by hinting 
that Goman short-term interest rates 
would have to rise ahead of the Euro- 
pean monetary union planned for the 
end of next year, then backed away from 
such talk os the dollar retreated. . 

As a result, analysts at Deutsche 
Morgan Grenfell in London urge that 
investors remain 1 'cautious of the risks 
associated with further Bundesbank 
rhetoric surrounding DM weakness.” 

Further, there is tremendous uncer- 
tainty about whether U.S. interest rates 
are headed up. Last week’s stronger- 
than-expected employment data, signal- 

Will Moscow’s Gain Be a Loss for U.S . Investors? 

By Edward Wyatt 

New York Times Service 

S A Lenin must be spinning in his tomb. 

[ The city of Moscow, once the capital of 
global communism, could soon be the 
parent of an American mutual fundi 
And it is no ordinary mutual fund, at 
that. Lexington Troika Dialog Russia 
has been, for much of this year, the best 
performer among ail U.S. mutual funds. 
Before Russia caught the contagion that 


swept from Asia to other emerging mar- 
kets in October, the fund had gained 
more than 130 percent in 1997. 

But the market turmoil of the past two 
months has slashed the fund's value by 
more than a third. Although Lexington 
Troika is still up 64 percent for the year, 
most shareholders have lost money be- 

r cause they bought their shares after the 
fund had run up most of its gains. 

The turmoil extends to Troika Dialog 
Asset Management, part of the Moscow- 
based brokerage firm that co- manages 
the fund ’s portfolio along with Lexington 
Management Corp.. a mutual-fund com- 
pany based in New Jersey. 

Troika Dialog is to be sold early next 
year to Bank of Moscow, whose ma- 
jority owner is the municipal govern- 
ment of Russia's capital city. Share- 
holders of the Lexington Troika fund 
are scheduled to vote on one aspect of 
the transaction Dec. 19. 

Why should investors care? The city 
is in the midst of privatizing hundreds of 
municipaUy owned enterprises. While 
such deals in Russia have been marked 
by cronyism, the U.S. regulators who 
oversee Lexington Troika can be ex- 
pected to take a harsh stance on in- 
vestments by the fund that are done at 
anything less than arm’s 

length. If Russia is like the ~ 

Wild West, the U.S. Secu- Russia 

rides and Exchange Com- . I 
mission can play the tough ltal c ° l 
sheriff, even from afar. And buying 

there are the unanswered j 

questions about the future mutua 

involvement of the fund’s 

founder, Peter Derby, who 

over seven years has built Troika Dialog 

into Russia’s biggest brokerage firm. 

He will not disclose what he is getting 
from the Bank of Moscow for selling, 
and he is noncommittal when asked 
what his continuing relationship with 
Troika Dialog and the fund will be. 

But it is difficult to see how the fund's 
shareholders can win. To the extent that 
Mr. Derby distances himself from the 
fund, they will lose the benefits of his 
investing skills; to the extent that he 
remains involved, his motives will be 
transformed. As a merchant banker, he 
would profit by promoting investments 
to the fond, rather than by making the 
fond perform well for its shareholders. 

For investors who bought shares of the 
Lexington Troika fund early, 1997 has 
been a successful year. But for the ma- 

Russia’s cap- 
ital could be 
buying a U.S. 
mutual fund. 

jority of shareholders, the recent upheav- 
al offers a cautionary tale about me haz- 
ards of investing in emerging m^rte-ts . 
Recent drops in stock markets in Asia, 
South America and Eastern Europe 
show that the strategy of spreading assets 
across the globe in the hope that sov- 
ereign markets will act independently 
remains a theory at besL 

Despite the global com- 

; cap- muni cations revolution that 

, r can instantly link an investor 

[fl tie in Iowa with an executive in 

a TT 6 Irkutsk, there remain vast 

' * differences between West 

fund. and East in securities reg- 

alations, accounting meth- 
ods and the simple realities 
of doing honest business — differences 
that make investing in emerging markets 
far more risky than some fund companies 
would have investors believe. 

‘ ’These issues get raised in emerging 
markets all the time,’ ' said Julie Allecta, 
a specialist in mutual-fund law at the 
San Francisco firm of Paul, Hastings, 
Janofsky & Walker and formerly a law- 
yer at the Securities and Exchange 
Commission. “But they seem to exist u 
Russia to an inordinate degree. In a 
place like Moscow or Russia, where 
cronyism is vital, the issues become 
much more substantial.” 

Few entrepreneurs, if any, have been 
more successful in negotiating a path 
through Russia's fledgling sec unties 
business than Mr. Derby, 37. who moved 
to Moscow in 1990. He has since created 

ing still-strong U.S. growth, raised ex- 
pectations of a rate increase ‘soon. Bnt 
many analysts agree that until the mar- 
ket turmoil in Asia subsides and a clear- 
er picture of the global damage emerges, 
die FederalReserve Board ts unlikely to 
raise U.S. rates. • 

Nevertheless, the dollar’s interest- 
rate advantage oyer the mark and other 
core European currencies, and more 
substantially over the yen, will remain 
intact and, many analysts assert, will 
inevitably pull die currency higher. 

Paul Cnertkow at UBS in London 
sees a likely bounce to 1.85 DM. Ravi 
Bulchandani at Morgan Stanley expects 
the dollar to advance through next year 
to above 1.90 DM. . 

But the view at J j. Morgan is that the 
dollar will have difficulty holding above 
1.80 DM. 

These differences are based, on con- 
flicting views over the level of German 
interest rates and whether, as Morgan 
Stanley argues, growth is poised to slow 
or whether, as JJ*. Morgan sees it, Ger- 
man rates are set to rise more than is 
currently expected. 

Positions Harden 
In EU Bank Feud 

Bloomberg News 

BRUSSELS — European Union 
politicians have clashed again over 
who should be head of the future 
European central bank, amid con- 
tinued concern about political in- 
terference in EU monetary policy. 

In interviews released Saturday, Fi- 
nance Ministe r Dominique Strauss- 
Kahn of France said he was deter- 
mined to support Jean-Qaude Tncbet, 

governor or me Bank of France, while 
Prime Minister Wim Kok of toe Neth- 
erlands Mid he expected Germany to 
support Wim Dinsenberg, a Dutch 
banter who heads the European Mon- 
etary Institute. The interviews are to 
appear Monday in the German 
ma g flrine Der SpiegeL 

Meanwhile, Yves-Thibault dc 
Silguy, the EU’s monetary affairs 
commissioner, told the Belgian 
newspaper L’Echo the decision 
was taking too k mg. “It isn’t 
healthy to wait for the last moment, 
that is May 2, to nominate the can- 
didate.” he said. 

a one-man finan cial conglomerate com- 
prising Dialog Bank, a commercial bank; 
Development & Restructuring Bank, a 
merchant bank; a related insurance com-’ 
pany. Troika Dialog, die brokerage and 
investment banking firm, and its sub- 
sidiary that is co-manager of the fund. 

Yet some participants in die dose-, 
knit Moscow brokerage community are 
still shaking their heads in wonder at 
Mr. Derby's decision in July to sell a 
portion of Troika Dialog — which, giv- 
en die explosion of underwriting busi- 
ness in Russia, is one of his most at- 
tractive businesses. 

At a Russian investment conference 
recently in New York, several people 
expressed surprise when informed of 
Mr. Derby’s sale of the remainder of 
Troika Dialog in the pending deal, 
which was disclosed only when the Lex- 
ington Troika fond filed a proxy state- 
ment in the United States hut month. 

To some rivals, his decision to choose 
the Bank of Moscow over a foreign part- 
ner is the deal’s most curious aspect. 

Tbe bank's most promising asset is its 
link with the city or Moscow, which is 
essentially the realm of Mayor Yuri 
Luzhkov. Executives in the Russian se- 
curities industry say a relationship with 
the mayor is as important to getting busi- 
ness as any link with a foreign partner. 

One executive, who spoke on con- 
dition of anonymity, likened Mr. 
Luzhkov’s influence to the power wiel- 
ded in the 1950s and 1960s by Chicago's 
legendary mayor, die late Richard Daley. 

Maripn t Yo/Tt* New Yorit Than 

Gavin Rankin, left, is the head stock-picker for the fund that is due to be 
sold to Bank of Moscow, and Richard Hisey oversees its broad strategy. 

“Like Daley, Luzhkov has got his fingers 
in a lot of pies,” die executive said. 

Mr. Luzhkov was traveling and could 
not be reached for comment. But Mr. 
Derby said of him; “Troika Dialog’s 
honesty and integrity are its main assets, 
as he sees it He wants to make sure the 
firm grows properly.” 

Moscow’s mayor is not likely to be 
picking stocks for the fond. But the 
food’s managers clearly heme to benefit 
from its new ties. “The bank’s rela- 

tionship with the city of Moscow places 
Troika Dialog in an excellent invest- 
ment-banking position for the compa- 
nies yet to be privatized by the city of 
Moscow,” the Lexington Troika fund’s 
latestproxy statement says. 

“That’s troublesome.” Ms. Allecta, 
die lawyer, said. “They seem to be say- 
ing they have access to inside infor- 
mation, that they can mani pulate the 
market because they can control the tim- 
ing of certain entities being privatized.” 

Some Mutual Funds Ask Investors to Sit Still 

By Carole Gould 

New York Times Service 

A Mutual-fond shareholders who fine- 
ly juently jump in and out of funds do not 
do themselves or their fellow share- 
holders any good, a recent study found. 
Constant trading increases the costs of a 
fund, it said, and that means lower re- 
turns all around. 

Tiring of these fickle shareholders, 
funds are starting to devise ways to 
handcuff them. 

Noting that its funds are meant to be 
long-term investments. Dreyfus Corp. has 
announced policies, to take effect Jan. 15. 
aimed at discouraging excessive trading. 

The new rules will apply to investors 
who make more than four exchanges of 
mutual funds in a calendar year or 
whose trading smacks of market-liming 
— that is. if ft disrupts the management 
si of a portfolio and ultimately affects the 
U fund's performance. Dreyfus said. 

In these cases. Dreyfus is reserving 
the right to keep investors from making 
subsequent fond exchanges: to rejectany 
purchase or exchange request, or to pro- 
hibit purchases of other Dreyfus funds. It 
also might delay forwarding a sale's 
proceeds for as long as seven days. 

In addition. Dreyfus is aiming to min- 
imize portfolio disruptions during a 

Firms Devise Barriers 
To ‘Excessive 5 Trading 

severe market correction by suspending 
the exchange privilege or treating ex- 
changes as separate sale and purchase 
requests. In such a case, a purchase could 
be delayed until the next day or later. 

Fidelity Investment Co., a unit of 
FMR Corp., also reserves the right to 
rein in frequent traders. Lite Dreyfus, it 
may temporarily or permanently revoke 
exchange privileges of investors who 
make more than four exchanges out of a 
fund in a calendar year. 

Such recriminations are within mu- 
tual-fund rules as long as they are prop- 
erly disclosed to investors, said John 
Heine, a spokesman for the Securities 
and Exchange Commission. 

Still, the fond industry is not rushing to 
follow these leaders, said Laura Lallos, a 
senior analyst at Mornings tar Inc., a mu- 
tual-fund research concern. 

“It’s difficult to do without antag- 
onizing shareholders,” she said. 

But. like castor oil, penalties would 
actually be good for investors, a recent 
study by Ms. Lallos found. 

“Unstable cash flows can put a sig- 
nificant dent in returns." she wrote in 
Momingstar Mutual Funds, the firm’s 


newsletter. To figure the cost of investor 
fickleness. Ms. Lallos compared rates of 
return based on actual cash flows with 
theoretical results from dollar-cost av- 

She found that over three years, stock- 
fund investors earned 0.8 of a percent- 
age point less in annual returns than they 
would have if all their investments had 
been made monthly, in set amounts. 

In general, the earnings shortfalls 
were largest for riskier growth funds. 
Ms. Lallos surmised that investors in 
such funds were more likely to sell on 
the way down and jump back in when an 
upswing was well under way. 

Small-capitalization growth in- 
vestors lost three percentage points in 
annual returns from frequent trading in 
their funds, according to the study, 
while those in mid-capitalization 
growth funds lost 1.24 percentage 
points and those in large growth funds 
lost nearly 0.9 of a percentage point 

Ms. Lallos says risky small-capit- 
alization growth and emerging-markets 
foods should levy fees, payable to the 
fond instead of to the fund’s sponsor, on 
investors who cash out their shares less 
than five years after buying them. 

That way. “shareholders who stick 
around are compensated by those who 
opt out,” she wrote. 

Renault Warns Paris on Toyota Aid 

TOKYO (Bloomberg ) — The chief executive of the French 
carmaker Renault Louis Schweitzer, has warned the French 
government against giving excessive subsidies to Toyota 
Motor Corp.. which is considering building an auto plant in 

fjt Hiroshi Okuda. president of the Japanese automaker, is to 
” meet with President Jacques Chirac on Monday ahead of an 
expected announcement on the site of the factory’. News 
repons have said that Valenciennes, in northern France, will 
be the site. Toyota has declined to comment. 

“I have a "concern that one does not give Toyota un- 
deserved advantages compared with its competitors,” Mr. 
Schweitzer said over the weekend on French radio. 

DFS Expected to Bid for Barney’s 

NEW YORK iNYTi — DFS Group, the world's largest 
chain of duty-free shops, is preparing to make a bid for 
Barney’s Inc’, the bankrupt New York luxury retailer, ac- 
cording to executives involved in the negotiations. 

An offer, should one materialize, would come on the heels 
of strong sales ami better cost controls at Barney’s. Dickson 
Concepts Inc. of Hone Kong offered in August to buy 
Barney's for S2U5 million and a 49 percent equity slake. The 
retailer's creditor committee rejected the bid as inadequate. 

Hoechst to Shed Chemicals Units 

FRANKFURT (Bloomberg) — Hoechst AG is trying to 
sell all of its chemicals and synthetic-materials operations in 
the next two or three years and cut staff. 

TTie sales would be followed by acquisitions in the phar- 
maceuticals and biotechnology areas, in line with die plans of 
the chief executive. Juergen Dormann. to turn Hoechst into a 
life-science business concentrating on pharmaceuticals and 
biotechnology, a spokesman said over the weekend. 

He added that Hoechst, which employs 140,000 people, 
probably would seek to reduce its work force to fewer than 

For the Record 

Sumitomo Bank Ltd. and Societe Generate will buy a 
Yamal chi Securities Co. money-management subsidiary, a 
newspaper reported, without citing sources. ( Bloomberg ) 

Sumitomo Bank is considering selling Sumitomo Bank 
of California, the fifrh-Iargest California bank. (Bloomberg ) 



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De la Hoya 
Keeps His 
Title; Rival 
Loses His 

. Reuvrs 

Jersey — Oscar de la Hoya 
survived a night of upsets at 
the Atlantic City Convention 
Center by pummeling Wil- 
fredo Rivera ro retain his 
World Boxing Council wel- 
terweight title. 

! “I thought this was like the 
house of upsets,’ ’ said the pop- 
ular de la Hoya, who improved 
his record to 27-0 on Saturday 
after a pair of champions lost 
their titles on the undercard. 

De la Hoya had turned the 
Piuerto Rican challenger's 
face into a lumpy and bloody 
mess when the referee Joe 
Cortez asked the ringside 
doctor, Howard Taylor, for a 

. Dr. Taylor saw blood 
streaming from cuts around 
both of Rivera’s eyes and ad- 
vised Cortez to stop the pun- 
ishment at 2:48 of the eighth 

* ‘When a fighter sees blood, 
they go for it,” de la Hoya said 
of Rivera’s blood-smeared 
face. ”1 got excited bat I 
calmed down and thought that 
the KO would come.” - 
, The card was intended to 
showcase de la Hoya and the 
WBC super welterweight 
champion Terry Norris ahead 
of a planned showdown early 
next year. 

But Norris was stunned by 
an unheralded fellow Amer- 
ican, Keith Mullings, who 
knocked the champion down 
in the eighth round and took 
his title when the fight was 
stopped at 51 seconds of the 

. In the card’s first cham- 
pionship fight, Yory Boy 
pampas of Mexico upset 
Raul Marquez of the United 
States to seize his Internation- 
al Boxing Federation junior 
middleweight title. 

Don EmmtMpBKB ft n 

Hermann Maier sailing past a gate on his way to winning the Super-G race in Beaver Creek, Colorado. 

Austrian Dilemma: Too Much Success 

By Amy Shipley 

Wuhiitgton Post Service 

BEAVER CREEK, Colorado — 
After Stefan Eberharter finished in 
second place in the World Cup Super-G. 
less than four-tenths of a second behind 
the Austrian team’s star, Hermann 
Maier, it seemed sensible to ask Eber- 
harter about his chances for this winter’s 
Olympics in Nagano, Japan. 

The subject, however, drew a look of 


alarm from Eberharter, as he stood 
among teammates in die finish area. 

*‘I don’t want to talk about qualifying 
for the Olympics,” he said. “That’s a 
horror for us.” 

The honor is a result of the dominating 
and daunting success of the Austrian 
skiers, who swept the first four places in 
the season-opening Super-G- at the new 
Birds of Prey coarse bans Saturday. 

The Aust rians also dominated the 
events Thursday and Friday. In the first 
three days of this season's World Cup, 
die Austrian men’s team took 22 of the 
top 35 places. In the dow nhill race Fri- 
day, they swept the top five places. 

On Saturday, Maier, the overall World 

Cup points leader, finished in l minute 
16.20 seconds, and Eberharter followed 
in 1:1656. Two other Austrians, Hans 
Knaus and Josef StrobL were next. 

The Austrians are so competitive that 
top skiers are routinely left watching 
World Cup events because they cannot 
make the team. In die Olympics, Austria 
has only four spots in each event 

Andreas Stutterer, who won Friday’s 
downhill but did not finish Saturday's 
race, joked that Austrian coaches will 
play cards, to determine the Olympic 
team. There is no formal selection pro- 

”We have to be constantly fast the 
whole winter,” Knaus said. “If in the 
last two or three races before the 
Olympics you are very slow, you will 
fall out and can’t go to the Olympics. It’s 
very, very hard.” 

Austria has won dght straight Nation’s 
Cup titles, awarded to the country with 
the highest World Cup point totals com- 
piled by the men's and women’s teams. 

Last year, nine Austrian skiers won 
16 of the 37 World Cup races. France 
got six World Cnp victories from Luc 
Alp hand, the overall champion. Four 
Norwegians won five individual titles 
and two Swiss skiers won five between 

The Austrian team’s problem is get- 
ting any one skier enough races and 
victories to win the coveted World Cap 
overall title. No Austrian has done that 
since 1970. 

“There are five or six guys sitting at 
home who could win a gold medal,'* 
said Christian Mayer, who did not finish 
Saturday. ‘ ‘Especially for young skiers, 
it’s very hard. I tell them to look for a 
new job." 

■ Seizinger Wins 3 Straight Races 

Katja Seizinger won her third straight 
race at Lake Louise in Alberta, Canada, 
on Saturday — this time a Super-G 
event — after victories on Thursday and 
Friday in separate downhill events. The 
Associated Press reported. 

She skied the rock-hard 6294-yard 
(57-meter) , 3 1 -gate Super-G course in 1 
minute, 14.71 seconds. Her German 
t eammate Hilde Gerg was second in 
1: 15.04, and Isolde KLostner of Italy was 
third at 1:15.09. 

In all, Seizinger has won three down- 
hill and three Super-G events at Lake 

She has four victories after just two 
weeks of competition to take a com- 
manding eariy-season lead atop die 
overall women’s standings. 

Training Camp Comes First for Rising Star 

By Samuel Ajbt 

International Herald Tribune 

PARIS — Where Bobby Mich wanted to 

he this weekend was VaiL Colorado, where the 

U5. bicycling crowd was having its annual 
awards banquet add where he was joing to be 

honored as North American rider of the year. 

“For toe first time in my career. I’ve been 
nominated for an award,” he said, “invited to 
go, all expenses paid, it’s 45 minutes from 
where I grew up, all my friends and family are 
still there. 

“I’ve been in this sport a long time,” he 
continued. “A lot of people have helped me. 

been able to shake hands with them. To be 
honored before all those people. ...” : 

The sentence trailed off. He looked up, a 
little jet-lagged, from his cup of coffee. 

Bobby Julich was speaking at Terminal 2D 
at Roissy-Charles de Gaulle Airport outside 
Paris, where he was waiting for his flight to 
Bordeaux. He had arrived by plane a few horn 
before from his new home in Philadelphia and 
was heading to a five-day tr aining camp with 
the Cofidis racing team, based in France. 

The team will have 22 riders next season, 
and the ramp was broken into two parts of 11 
riders each, with overlapping days over the 
weekend for publicity photographs and a 
chance to meet new teammates. 

For Cofidis, which was a first-year term 
this season, there will be a lot of new faces. 
Most prominently gone axe Lance Armstrong, 
the American star, who will make his 
comeback from testicular cancer with toe U.S. 
Postal Service team, and Tony Romiuger, toe 
Swiss star, who has retired arid will become a 
public relations spokesman for the team. 

Gone also is Cyrille Guimard, the directeur 
sportif who is facing criminal charges in 
another bicycle matter. Cofidis, which guar- 
antees credit to consumers, thought it better 
not to have a coach accused of fraud. 

The most prominent newcomers are 
Francesco Casagrande, an Italian who was 
sixth in this year’s Tour de France, and — in 
a rnaimw of speaking — Julich himself. He 
started rtw* year for Onfirffa as just another 
face, a low-paid domestique, or worker bee, 
and rode so strongly in toe Tourde France — 
finishing 17th and excelling in the last of its 
three weeks — that to many be now ranks as a 
co-leader with Casagrande. 

Co-leaders do not skip training camp, of 
course, not even to reoeive an award they 
yearn for. 

“I’m disappointed,” Jolich said softly. 

tearing ataraisin bun. “But there was nothing 
I could do. No way I can skip toe camp. 

“I would have liked to be there, ' ’ he said of . 
the Korbel Night of Champions in Vail. “To 
shake hands and say ‘Thank you’ to the 

people who have helped me. 

“It’s that one night when everyone in eye- 
ling is there and it’s fabulous if you've won 
that award, especially to be associated with the 
guys who have won that award in the past.” • 

He ran down the list since 19 89, when the 
awards were begum among others, Greg 
LeMond, Andy Hampsten and Armstrong;.- 
the cream of American bicycle racers. Arm- 
strong, now 26 like Julich, has won toe award i 
three times. . ' 

“Lance has always been Lance,” said Ju-7 
lich, his longtime teammate on U.S. national 
squads. Motorola and Cofidis. “He’s just so. 
massively strong, a superman. With me, I 
thinir I’ve had to work a lot more for what I’ve 
accomplished — nothing compared to what 
Tanoehas; but I’m starting to.’ 

His start began more than a year ago, when 
he finished ninth in toe esteemed Vuelta ar 
Espana and wore the lea ding climber’s jersey 
for half the race. Until then JuIkhJfciad been# 
young and overlooked rider with Motorola, a 
racer so dogged by bad luck that he had tp 
spend 1993 as an independent when his team 
folded and he could not land another job. 

Those were bad times for a rider who fin- 
ished fifth in toe 1991 Tour DuPont at age 19 

and seemed to have a shining future. Two years 
at Motorola added nothing to his reputation 
until the Vuelta and an 1 lth place a month later 
in the world championship road race. 

Cofidis, just starting in toe sport took him 
aboard at a minim um salary. Although tins' 
year does not quite rank as a breakout season, 
he began to show his potential: victory in the 1 
mino r Tour de l’ Ain, two stage victories in the 
Route du Sud and then his impressive per- 
formance in toe mountains of toe Tour anda 
splendid fourth place in the final time trial. 

Suddenly, teams were calling -him. After 
talking primarily with Telekom and U.S. Postal 
Service, Julich decided to sign for two mere 
years with Cofidis, which raised bis salary 
considerably and assigned turn a leading role. 

“It’s always fun to be the dark horse or 
come out of nowhere and perform,” Julich 
sa i d as toe airport loudspeaker announced his' 
ghr to Bordeaux. “Its going to be totally 
Eferent to be expected to perform welL 
“That’s how world champions are bomr 
When you’re expected to come through with 
the goods, you do. Nobody was better at that 
than Lance. When the pressure was on, he was 
ready. That’s what I’ve got to do — take it up 
another level. I'm comfortable with that." 



NBA Standings 



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Golden State 






PhitaMpUn 16 24 M 22—68 

Nfrw Jersey 40 21 Z 3 23-107 

P; Thomas 6-8 3-5 16 Cummings 7-14 2-2 
1* NJ.-Gfll 8-14 6-6 24. J.waBams 8-11 4-5 
20. Rebounds — PfiBodetphia 49 (Cummings 
n). Now Career 43 U.WUHams 111. Assists. 
— PhUadetohla 14 (Jackson 5). New Jeraey 
30 (Cassell 12). 

Boston 24 17 28 28— 77 

Miami 29 30 32 24-117 

B: Walter 11-2A4-10 24 McCarty 3-10 10- 

11 17,- AfcSfrfcUand 7-1044 zaMashbumO- 
13 6-6 14 Hardaway 6-12 44 IB 
Rebounds— Boston 60 (Wofcer 1 2), Miami 59 
(Brown 12). A s sis t s— Boston 14 (McCarty O. 
Miami 29 [Hardaway 10). 

Startle 31 27 17 19— 94 

Detroit 23 23 22 21- 89 

S: Baker 12-22 7-11 31. Payton 417 34 17; 
P. HB 10-23 7-8 27. B.Wflfioms 11-17 4-5 26. 
Rebounds— Seattle 57 (Schrempf 12). Detroit 
S& HLWHtams 20). Assists — Seattle 20 
(Payton %, Detroit 19 (HM8). 

Sacramento 25 22 19 24—70 

Minnesota 27 22 21 31-101 

& Richmond 11-25 7 429. Abdul-Rauf 9-17 
04) tfc M: Morbury 9-15 44 22, Garnett 8- 10 
2-2 16. Rebo u nds— Soa um e nlu 44 iPotynlce 
11), Minnesota a (Garnett 12). Assfsts- 
— Sacramento 20 (Johnson 6). Minnesota 19 
(Gugfiotta 7). 

Utah 23 13 25 16- 77 

Portland 25 23 27 19— 94 

U: Malone 9-18 6-9 24, Homacek 4-12 8-9 

1*P: Grant 5-10 56 lft Sabonta 684* lft 
WBOoms 6-9 14 IX Rebounds— Utah 46 
(Mtoane 12). Portland 50 (Grant 9). 
Assists — Utah 21 (Hamaoek B), Portkmd 20 
(Sobonfa. Rider 4). 

MAwaukee 14 22 9 17- <2 

Chicago 27 12 21 24- 84 

M: GQtkua 7-11 44 IX Peeiae 3-6 6-7 12:0 
Kuknc 8-12 3-5 lfc Lengtay 7-17 24 14. 
Rebounds— Mlhrautae 52 (Gfllam 13), CW- 
ago 71 (Rodman 14). Assists— MBwuakee 
12 (Robtasan 3), Chicago 26 (Rodman 5)- 

ImHana 23 20 26 27— 96 

Denver 22 26 18 19— 15 

I: 1ft D: 
8 Jadcson4-12 46 22, Washington 6-13 0-0 
IX Re b iniuds — Indiana 51 WJockson 71. 
Denver 58 (GairettlO). Assists— Indiana 19 
(MJackson 10), Denver 17 (B Jocksorv Ellis 

Toronto 21 22 27 21— 71 

Phoenix 32 18 28 32-410 

T; Wa lace 9-16 2-4 23 Stouda mire 7-161-1 
1 ft P: McDyess 69 7-7 19, RaNnson6-l 1 54 
17. Rebounds—' Toronto 41 (Miller 9), 

Phoenix 43 (Manntog 7). Assists— Toronto 
.15 (Stoudamire 4), Plwrtx 35 (Kidd 14). 
Cleveland 27 24 24 22-407 

Vancouver 26 26 31 15- 98 

O Person 11-14 1-1 30. Kemp 11 -22 3-5 2& 
V: Abdur-Rohtm 8-17 11-13 27, Edwards 614 
3-414. Rebound*— Cleveland 59 QUoauskas), 
Vancouver 50 (Thorpe 11). Assists— dove- 
land 22 (Knight 10), Vancouver 20 (Reeves 

San Antonio 17 26 22 23-18 

LA. Lakers 24 21 27 24-98 

SJL: Robinson 612 7-7 19, Dunam 613 2- 
3 1ft LA. Later* Van Bud 7-16 7-7 25, 
CampbaB 7-19 74 21. Rebacnds-San 
Antonio 46 (Robinson 10), Los Angeles 47 
(Blount 10). Assists— San Antonio 18 
(Johnson. Alexander 4L Las Angeles 23 (Vkm 
End 6). 

Orlando 18 29 21 21— 89 

Golden Stats 28 28 23 25-104 

a Seikaty 10-18 9-13 29, WBdns 614 04 
1 Z GXiMaish ofll 1-20 4-5 2X5nuth 1621 6 
5 24. RsbouDds— Oikmdo 49 (Scanty ll). 
Golden State 60 (MarehalL Dampler 11). 
Assists— Orlando 17 [Wilkins. Armstrong 41, 
Golden State 32 (Bogues 81. 

Saturday's inatra 

Owriotto 21 23 17 18- 79 

New York 24 28 17 21— 98 

C: Mason 612 4-7 16 Rice 3-13 9-11 IS 
N.Y. Starke 616 69 27, Ewtng 614 7-10 T7. 
Rebounds — Charlotte 41 (Mason 14), New 
York 60 (Odder nj. Asstafs-CharMte 14 
(Wesley S), New York 24 (Wart. Starks 6). 
Minnesota 27 24 26 26—103 

Washington 23 27 26 36- 114 

M: Morbury 1 1-20 65 27, Gugtatfo 7-11 16 
11 24i W: Webber 11-19 9-10 3X Howard 9-15 
610 26. Rebounds— Minnesota 46 (GogBotto 
11), Washington 42 (Webber 12). Assists- 
— Minnesota 18 (Morbury 7h Washington 26 
(Strickland 10). 

Houston 2* ZB 24 3b— 108 

Dados 27 24 25 28-106 

H: Bartday 613 7-11 19, Wife 610 7-7 17, 
Dmler617 67 17; D: Finley 1619 11-12 35. 
SbkMcnd 615 65 19. Rebounds— Houston 
57 (Barkley 17), Dallas 49 (Finley 7). Anfcts- 
-H. 22 (Barkley 6), D. l3(RfHey6). 

Octenda 26 13 26 16- a 

LA. dippers 24 30 31 14— 79 

ftGrant 1619 5-5 2ft WDklns 616 62 21; 
LA. CUPPERS: Pkrftowski 611 34 lft 
Murray 611 3-4 14. Rebounds— Orlando 53 
(Schayes 11), Los Angelas 52 (Mutiny 9). 
Assists— Orlando 21 (Price 9), Lai Ang el e s 
16 (Pkdtawski. Richardson 4). 

Major Coiuoe S cones 

Duke 101 Virgin la 59 
North Carolina 78. VkgMa Tech 57 
Arizona 8& Texas 81 
South Caraftna 67, Chattanooga 55 
Purdue (62) beat Louisville 87-69 
Kentucky (6-1) beat Indiana 7672 
Xavier 91 Western Kentucky 60 
Weber State 81, Iowa 56 
Utah 62. 24 Wake Forest 53 
Stanford 7& Gaaigkr74 
Bat State 71 Mtestasfcpi 66 
UCLA 6ft New Meria 58 
Ctemsan 71, Furman 62 
Arkansas 7ft Missouri 45 
Florida State 74 Jacksonville 44 
Temple 59, Wisconsin 4 9 
Georgia Tech 84. Oelawan Sfpte 63 
Princeton 7X Lafayette 48 




































Los Angeles 




















San Jose 





















muri mum 


1 0 




0 1 




Nebraska Eft GrarabSng St. 48 



Mwguettn 6ft SL Bonaventure 61 


BaB St 7ft Mississippi 66 

PIZZA HUT ajunc 
SW Missouri St 84 Bowing Green 71 

lonaSI, WeberSt 56 


Southern Miss. 6ft Art. -Utile Rock f7 

Colorado St. 74 E. Washtogtan 65 

Jacksonville SL 63, Thomas. Ga 49 


San Francisco 64 ffldsnand 60 


NHL Standings 

New Jersey 

ITSJL — I ,.L | *- T — 

N.Y. Islanders 
N.Y. Rangers 

■ rwiHJU 

Tampa Bay 







St Louis 


W L T Pts GF 
19 9 0 
15 9 6 
15 10 4 
12 13 4 
8 12 11 
8 15 5 
5 19 4 


W L T Pts GF GA 







W L T Pts GF 

20 7 4 44 103 

18 7 5 41 98 

IB 9 3 39 89 

16 10 
16 10 
13 12 
13 13 
12 14 
9 13 














FW Ported; F- Washburn 4 (Law, 
Woawieri Second Period: Washington, 
ZednlkS (Konomdchiik, Buis) TOW Period: 
Washtogtorv 5 knar 7 (Juneau, Hocstey) 
(PP). 4 F-Svehla 3 (Sheppard Whitney) 
(pp). Overtime: 5. Washington, Toms X Shots 
ongwdF- 11-7-8-2-28. W- 3-12-166-30. 
Gardes: F-VanbJestxauck. W-Kolzfg. 

Tampa Bay 0 0 8-0 

BuMo 2 1 1—4 

First Period: B-Wbaa 1 (Satan) Z B> 
Woolley 1 (Bu nidge, Bamaby) Second 
Period: Buffiaks Satan 12 (Burridga WHsan) 
Third Period: B-Boughner 1 (Woolley) Shots 
oa get!: Ttampa Bay 11-11-16— 3X B- 68- 
5—14 GoiAk T-Puppa Schwab. B- 

PbbadelpMa 2 2 0 6-4 

N.Y.Rangen 12 18-4 

FM Period: PMadelphla, BrimrAmau r 12 
(Kkrtt, Svubodal. Z New York. Sweeney 7 
(Udster) X PMadelphia LeOair21, Second 
Period: Phitadeiphia, Proepal 4 (Coder. 
Nftdmaa) (pp). X P-LeCkifr 22 (Zubrus. 
Gnrttan) 83X 4 New Yart. Sknidkmd 1 
(Keanev Saroueteson) 7, New York. LoetchS 
(Voroblev, La Fontaine) (pp). Third Period: 
New York, Leeteh 6 (Gretzky, SundstronO 
(pp). Overtime: None. Shots on goal: 
PhUadelphla 1612-163— 4X New Yort 612- 
161—31. Gmdtes: P-Sirow. Non York. 
Rkhtoh MuzzaHL 

ctemr 0 0 1—1 

Dallas 1 l 3-4 

Fkst Period: D-Langenbnjnnerl4 Second 
Period: D-Bassen 2 (Haney) Thhd Period: 
D-Hrtac 1 (SydK Vabeeft) 2:17 (pp). 4 C- 
NytanderB ISfrnpsorvTBov) 5. D-Verbeek 12 
(Nteuwendyk. Ludwig) I&41 shots oa gold: 
C- 9-7-5 — 21. D- 611-5—25. Goaltes: C- 
Ratoson. D- Balfour. 

Detroit g B i— i 

Edmoaton 1 0 2-3 

Ftest Period: Edmonton Undgten 4 
CMardiont do Vries) (sh). Soamd Period: 
None. TOrd Period: Edmonton, Hutdlg 1. X 
D-Murphy X 4 E-Buchberger 2 {Marchant) 
(HI). Shots an gold: D- 615-8-24 E- 86 
9 — ZX Gotten: D-Osgood. E-Essmsa 





OauGna I 9 9—1 

Boston 2 1 1—4 

First Parted: B-Hefrae 4 (DonokvASson) 
X33 (pp).X B-Alfeon 9 (Donativ Hrirae) X 
CaroOna, Grimson 2 (Mandervflle, Westey) 
16:15. Second Parted: B-Hekue 5 (Allison, 
McLaren] 1735. Third Period— B-Hetozo 6 
(Anson McLaren) X09. Shots n goat 
Gorotaa 7.11-7—25. B- 6611-26. GoaSes: 
Camfina KJdd B-Dofoe. 

Anoheta 1 1 6-2 

Pittsburgh 2 2 1-4 



Written with Richard Simmons. Draped & Bhutmbed by Dorr F Smith 0 Intermimai Hemld Tribune 

First Period: AnSefqim* 24 (Prangec 
Mironov) (pp). Z P-Slegr 3 (Hatcher, 
F [raids) X P Johansson 4 (Manzav, 
KasparaitM 1339. Second Period: 
Pittsburgh, Jagr 12 (Froncb. Otousson)5, P- 
Fnuicis 9 (Maraun Jagr) & An S«fstrom6 
(Setorme) 1&S8 (riO. Third Prated: 
Pittsburgh Jogr13 (Franks Barnes) Shalt 
on god: A- 81 2-7-27. P-4-9-4-17. Goalies: 
A- Hebert P-SkiMfca. 

Phoradx 8 0 8-8 

tLY. tstendsrt 1 2 1-4 

First Period: New Yart. Lopotta 6 
(Betangw, DuuitD Second Patted: New 
Yort. Befuzzi 4 (SmaBnskL Houda) X New 
York. ReJdiri 13 CPalffy, Nomddnov) TWrd 
Period: New York, PaWy 15 (ReJcheJ) 1*40. 
Siots oa goat: Ptwailx6167— 21 Now Yart 
667-24. GoaHos: Phaenbt, Wide. New 

Buffdo 0 0 6-8 

Ottawa 1 ] 1-3 

FW Period: (Mtolgle 6 (Yashin. 
Atfredsson) (pp). Secoad Parted: Ottawa, 
McEachern II (Kravchuk. YaslttO (pp). 
Third Period: O-Cumeyworih Z (en). Shots 
oa god: B- 6116-25. O- 6166-34. 
GaaBos: B-Hasek. DTugnutL 
NT Rangers 110 6-3 

Mrartrad 2 10 6-8 

First Prato* New Ybrt. Stand land 2 
(KavoteK Baukoboara) Z A6Cbrswi 12 
(Kotva, Bond (pp). X M-Rudiaky 9 
(Damphouso^ Brtsebois) 19:16 (pp). Second 
Period: Mr-Mdkddnr 6 (Heart* Canon) 5, 
New York, Sknidkmd 3 (Undbom) Third 
Period— Now York, Graves 6 (Gretzky, 
Kovalev) 1237. Ovraltae: None. 
PonaBles— I None. State on got* New Yort6 
T611-1 — 27. Aft- 61636-22. Geales: New 
York. Richter. Aft-Thlbault. 

Tampa Bay I 0 1—2 

Now Jersey 0 2 2-4 

First Period: Tampa Bay, Homrift 3 

(Ulanov. Andaman) Second Porto* New 
Jersey. Guerin 3 (OdeWa HoBW X NJ.- 
Rotation 2 (Carpenter; Stevens) ThH Parte* 
New Jersey; Ho Bk 14 (NledaRioyeoOdeletaO 
(pp). S. NJ.-Rohton 3 (McKay. 
Ntedermayer) & T-Oykhute 3 (Vuffek, 
DcGrusk) Shots oa god: Tampa Bay 164- 
8—22. NJL- 2369—40. Godtes: T-Schwab. 

Las Angeles 1 0 1—2 

Toronto 2 2 3-7 

Hrst Period: Jjo* Angeles, CoorttraR 1 
(Lapeirton GaHey) Z T-5undta 8 (Korolev, 
Johnson) X T-> AAcCoutey 3 (5mUh Macoun) 
Second Perio* T-Oarfc 6 (AAodn. McCauley) 
ft -T- Johnson 6 {Korolev, Tremblay) Third 
Period: T-Berezin 7 (SoHtvarb DJOng) 2 vSL 
7. T-5untHn 9 (Johnson. Korolev) ft T- 
Berartn 8 (Macron) ft Los Angelas, 
Pemauff 16 (Tsypiakov Nardram) Shots oa 
goat LOS Angeles 686-22. T- 1611- 
13-39. Geaflec LJLFiiet Chabot T- 

Cdgray 111 6-3 

SL Loots. 011 1—4 

First Porte* C-5Hllman 11, Secoral Petto* 
Calgary, Cossets 5 (tfrtnta Sffflman) X SJ_- 
DemBra 10 (Yoke) 4. XL-Atdieyuum 6 
(Conroy, Prongeri Third Period: SJ_-Uufl 15 
(Aftadrotift TurgeerO 6d)5 (pp). ft C-TTtoV ft 
11:15 (pp). Overtime: 7. SJLCoortnati 12 
(Hnft TUrgBan) A3& Shots on goat: C- 7-76 
3 — 25. SJ_- 86176-36. GoaBesi C- 
TabanxcL XL-Fuhr. 

Vancouver 1 2 1—4 

Colorado 2 2 2-4 

Hnd Porte* Vancouver, Bure 16 
(AftMessier) M. Z OOonovon 4 (So kfc 
□dgers) X Coloraiter Deodmmh 9 
(Fovsbrag) Second Period: Vancouver; 
Lomme3 (Bure, MogBny) (ppJ.iC-LoaotaS 
rSdkJc Foote) 4 Catorada Lnerobi 6 
(Forsbrag, Knrpp) 7, V- Bure 17 (MMessiert 
C*W- TMtd Parte* Cotorodo, Kamensky 11 
(Yelks Donovan) 9. C-Gusarov 1 iftgB (oh- 
en). ift V-Bwe 18 (MogBny, OHund) (pp). 
Slots an get* V- 13-136-35. C- 1616 
9-40. Godtes: V-McLean. Irbe. C-Roy. 



India: 512 and 181-9 
Sri Lento: 3S1 and 166:7 
Tost wasabandoned due to'drtzzie and bad 
IkBit Series drawn. 

West Indies: 216 
Pakistan: 327-1 

Australian TPC 

Find seorat after Simdoy'S fourth rorad 
of S 51X000 AuBtraKonTburnranem Ptayera 
ChompianaMp at the pra^Tft BJBfrmaur 
(6^81 -yard) Royal Queensland Golt CM) 
course h Brisbane: 

Greg Chobnen AoshL 
Peter LonanLAusbl. 

Robert AHenby, Austrl 
Stuart Appleby, AustrL 
Scott WbarasAusM. 

R. Swanson. Ausht 

Stephen ScatdL Mi 

Craig Spence, Aastri. 
Andrew Qdtart Scot 
CHoweft Ausht. 

R. Stephen* AuatiL 

71 -70-67-68—276 
76267670— 280 
76766768— 2B1 
74696671— 282' 

Hitachi Cup 

Hnd scone Sunday in 100 miOton yen 
(ST7SJW0) Nippon Series Hitachi Cup on. 
ftSBS-yrad, jnr-71 Tokyo Tbndurl Country 
CU> course In frragl, Jeprar: 

XMarvyrana Jap. 
Eduardo Hemra, Col. 
Cnrig Pony, AastrL 
AAttsuo Harada Jap. 
Nobohito Sato Jap. 
Ktraysld FuJIto Jap. 

S. Kuvrabara Jap. 

6863-71-70— 271 
686866-71— 273 
68- 70-6866 — 274 
6969-7168— 277 

Mpmri4 1. 
StHngnb 2D0 paints: XKactner, 14ft X Gerg, 
12&4. Goetsdft 9ft X Erft 8ft ft HaeusL 76; 
7. Kathmtna Gutensatav Germany, 6Gb 8. 
Atanndni AMssnHzK Austria, 5ft 9. 
Suhodolc 5ft 10. Zurbrtrgen, 46. 
overall (I — n raii l. Selitagec 543 
--potats X Em 37ft X GeSg, 349; 4 'A^taf 
nltar, 340c XKostnw 327»'6. Godscht 24ft 7. 
Deborah 'Campagnmft Italy, 24ft ft Ylva 
Novren, Sweden 233; 9. Zutbriggea. 184 ' IOl 
L alta PtoonL Fra n ce) 181. 

1. Andreas Sddffarw. Austria, 1 nu41.17s_ 
X Hermann Mater, Austria, 1^1X4. 

3. Stefan Eberbartor, Austria, 1:41 45. 

4 . Frttz StroW, Autrfria ldU6- 

5. Homes Trfnlft Austria 1*1.57. 

6. iqetn Andre Aamodt Norway, 1*1 JU. 

7. Roland Asdngeo Arabia, 1*224 
ft Lasse KJos, Norway, 1*227. 

9. FredrikNytieig. Sweden, 1*2*7. 
ia Nicolas Burtln. France, 1*2*9. 

Schnerro Krtettan Ghedrev Italy# 122; X 
Motor, 10ft 4. KJus, 9ft 5. FrB* StrobL 9& 6. 
Ebestirater, 8ft- 7. Asetngnb 81; ft Jeon- Luc 
CraBar, Fr. 8*9. Aomodtsa 1ft TrinklSI. 
1 , Hermann Mater, Audjta. l m. 1620 s. 

X Stston Eberharter, Austria, 1:1656. 

X Hans Knou* Arabia 1:1ft5ft 
4 Jaeef Slrobl Austria I:lft7ft 
X Stow Locher, Swttrartand, 1:1498. 

6 Frederic Martn-Codroz. France, 1:1 7*ft 
7. Dider Cuctia SwBzertan* 1:1765. 
ft Werner Franz, Austria 1:1767. 

9. Fradrfk Nyberg, Swedea 1:17JT. 

10. Luca Cattonea Italy, 1:1729. 
■UPBLAWTAKDOeaSd twalk 1.MO- 

ien 1 00 paints X Ebertiratar, 8ft X Knaus. 6ft 
4 Strobl 5ft ft Locher, 4ft 4 Mrain-Cadraz, 
4* 7.Cochcv 3ft ft Fra ia,32r9. Nyberg, 2ft ID. 
Cattonea 24 

OV0UUL C7 wntri: 1. Mater, 429 
paints ft Aamadt 297) X Ebwharteb 26ft 4 
StrobL 26(k 4 Andreas ScWenx Austria 
20ft 4 Mkhael Vbn Grwdgen, Switzerland. 
174- 7. Ghedtaa 16ft ft Locher, 154 9. Khis. 
13ft IX Accota, 127. 

bbhluow Poujih Cmaiajewoe 

Scorae Sunday dtor the fora* ratmd el 
MilBon Dote Challenge golf Mumraoent at 
Ute 7^87-yrad. (6,844 mom) par-72 Gary 
Player Counby Club course In Swi CttK 
South Africa: 

Nk* Prtca Zbnbabm 

Davis ’Love III. U.S. 

Emte Eta, South Africa 

Phtl Mkrtetson. U^. 

Bomhord Langen Ger. 

Justin Leonard, U£. 

Tom Lehman. UJ. 

C. Montgomsta, SaoL 
Jesper Panavlft, Swa. 

Nk* Fataa England 
Mart OTHeara UX. 
Ian Wbosaam, Wdes 

69- 70-7067-276 
79 TO- 79 70-289 
7671 6975-291 



England 24 New Zealand 26 


Seofland 1ft South Africa 68 


World Cup 


Major College Scores 

■» uaUMRomraouii 

Nebraska 54 Texas A&M 15 

Tennessee 3a Aobum29 


Colorado St 41, New M«fco 13 

Marshall 34 Tatertk 14 

Navy 39, Army? 

Youngstown State 37. VBkmava 34 
Delaware 1 6, Georgia South-em 7 

McNeeseStata 14 Western IBfrioit U 
Eratera Washi ngto n 3ft West Kentad» 21 
DWMMMin sisommuj 
Nrathem Cotando3ft Canon-Newmrai 29 
New Haven 27, Utflavta 2925. 

Mounruntefl 54 Simraon (lowaT? 
Ly-coming (Pa) 2ft Rowon (New Jenny) 2ft 



1 . Ktrtte SeMnget Gemraiy, l nt, 3ft86 a 

X Metante Sudiet Ftonea lOIXH 

XtsabteKosbiec Holy, ld9 J8 
4 MJdneia Kostaet Austria 139*4 
5L Brigitte Obemaser, Aostrta, 1^9*4 
4 Renata Goetsdil Austria 13954 
7. Hefifi Zubriggen, Swliwtafld, 1-JP71 
ft Atessandra AAerfia Italy, 1 *(UM 
9. RegliraCavagnwa Franca 1*005 
ia COMeMofinH Frarus, 1*004 

SsUnges SX) points: z Kastnec GaatsdiL 
5^ ^ ,! < ^^ s u^^06ataoaeo 
8ft7. KothratinGatinMbivGer.aaiftMetes- 

rttM6 6ft 9. ZuMggen, 65: 10. Merfa .54 


, „®J?™* lr ' L * l «‘-OUI8ftALfl£frDk 

i. Kaqa aaringec Germany, l nu 1471 a. 

Z HBde Gerg, Germany, 1:1 SM. 

X to oftte K ostner, IWy, 1:15,09. 

AMraflna ErtlGamnny, 1:15.17. 

5. RenateG«facf)i Austria 1:1529. 


7.&WOTW Peru, ttotyi 1:J5J9. 

ft M<ta Suhodolc, Stovonta, 1:1567. 

5 - Atemd ra Mdisnfftac Autota 1:1574 
1ft Karen Puttee Italy. 1:1591. 

Bresda X Empofl 1 
Lecce ft Vicenza i 
AC Milan 2, Bari 0 , 

Ptacennl, Nopal 0 
AS Rama X Atatanto Bergamo 0 
J uveites Z Lada 1 
Sampdortrl, Inter MHonl 

Inter Mian 27 potato: Ju- 
ventus 2» AS Roma Udlnese 2ft Parma, 
Vtoena 1ft AC Mllim, Sampdario 1ft Lazio 
Tft FterarrBna Bresda 1ft Atatanto Tlj Em- 
j»ft P locrana Lucce, Bari lft Botogno ft 


Mete 2, Chateau max D 
Rennes ft Gkoraflns Bordeaux 0 
Cannes a Prate StGermdn 1 
Le Havre ft Lensl 
Monaco Z Otympkiue Lyon I 
Strasbourg ft En Avail Guingamp l 

Mete 38 points; 
Prato SI Gramotir 3ft Lens 34 Maraeflte 3ft 
BoraeauK32; Auxrare 29f Bastta 27/ Lyon 2ft 
Gutog rang Toulouse 2S MantpeUler 2ft 
Nantes 2ft Sbasbowg, Chataauroux 1ft 
Hemes 17; Le Havre 1ft Cannes U 

toM MHHWrblllTWOW 

satemancaA Depofflw Coruna 1 
Real Betts X Tenerife 0 
Merida 1, Rodng Sariimder2 
Espanyal l.MaltoreaD 
Oviedo L Rent Madridl 
Mtotos Madrid ft 5porflngG<7en1 
Rtot Zaragoza 1, Barcelona 2 
•femwtefc Bacetena 34 points Real 

Catto Vtoo^ Reol Soctedad 2* Root Betts. 

B8boa Rodng Santander 1 ft Merida 1ft De- 
Mrtlvu Coruna Compostela i* SakHnanca 
VMadoM 1 ft- Vblenda 1 1: Sporting 

DMUSM HDUii tlMtft 

Wtaibtedon I, Southampton 0 
Aston V»oX Coventry 0 
Btackbuna Bolton 1 
Derby ft West Ham 0 

LefewterL Crystal Palace 1 
. Uvetpool 1, Manchester Ulttfed 3 
Newcastle a Arorawn 
Tottenlwm 1,Qiebnd 

Manchester United 37 
Btacfcbuin 31- Arsenal 
Leeds 3ft Leicester 2ft Derby 2 ft Uwpaal 
^ crystal Ptrtoce 2ft Bolton lft 

S*^W«ta«d0y ift Covenby ift 

gJtajPtoa TWtenham Id, Etorin 

sconsM reuiin division 

Aberdeen 1. SL Johnstone 1 
Dundee United ft Dunfermflne ft 
Hearts ft Mutherwea 0 
KHraamadc ft Celtic 0 
Rangers 1, HtaemianO 

taBiwiin irnrm urn 
FC Kotoeratautenift Bayern Munich 0 . 
Armhria Bieiefeld ft VfL Bochum 2 
Werder Bremen ft KrahraherSC 4 
1860 Munktl 1, V1B Stuttoat 3 
Bayer Leverkusen ft Scharte 0 
MSV Duisburg ft FC Cologne 2 
Bor. Maonchengladbodl 1, Hamburger 1 
VfLWatofaarg 1, Hama Rostock t 
■tamemncur FC Katoetslautem 42 
points; Bayern Muricb 35; VIB Stuttgart 3ft 
Bayer Leverkusen. Sdmke 3ft Hansa Re- 
stock 2ft MSV Duisburg. VfL WoHsburg 24 
KartsraherSC23; Hertha Berttav WenlerBre- 
men 2ft Borussta Dortmund 21,- Hamburger 
SV, 1860'MufdCh 2ft Maenchengkrdbacti 
Armtnta Bletetekt VIL Bochum lft FC', 
Cologne 17. 


UtrecM ft Vitesse Arnhem 3 
Groningen ft MW Maastricht 3 
NEC Nijmegen ft Feyenoairi 2 
WVerall Tilburg 4 PSV Eindhoven 1 
Fortune SHtrari I, Tteente Enschede 0 
Afcn Amsterdam 1, Rodo JC Kertrade 0 
NAC Breda 1, Sparta Rotterdam 2 
Heeienveen ft Grrarisdiqi Doethichem 0 
«T*H« i naa i Ak» AmHifdam S2 pothfcs- 
PSV Eindhoven 37; Vttesse Arnhem 3& 
He ra env een 3ft F eyenoord 31; WHem II 
TRbwg 3ft Sparta R otterdam 24- Utrecht . 
Fortune Stttord 23; NEC Nijmegen 2ft 
Twente Ensdieda NAC Breda, Graabchap 
Doatodrem 21; Roda JC Kertrade 19; MW 
MaasblcM 17; Gronlngea RKC Waatwtlk lft 


JubBo Iwato ft KasMma Antlers 2 


South Africa I, Brazil 2 
RAF, Morocco I, EtoBo SaheL Tunis. 0 
Etote Sahel, won on 2-1 aggregate. 



Martina Hingis, Switzerland, del. Lindsay 
Davenport U A. 66, 64L 
Aidra Huber, Germany; riel. Iva Niajoft 


Huber del. Hkrgit 2-4 6-12-4 62, 7-5. 



nu— F fned Toronto coadi Darren Walker 
S&000 for making obscene gesture at tan 
during Dec. 3 game. 

Dallas— N o med F Kurt Thomas asstafant 

NEW JCBSHY-Woivod G Stave Henson. Put 
F-C Jock Haley on tntaredHst. 

VANCOUVER— PuTG Anthony Pcatef on In- 
lured BsL Activated G Chris Robinson from 
In |a red Bst 


Indiana polis— P ut OB Paul Justin and 
DB Dedrlc Mathis cm Iniarad reserve. Signed 
WR Chris Daering raid RB Loon Neaf from 
prodlco squad. 

SAN disco— Put ob Stan Humphries on - 
inivred reserve. 

national hockey league 
m hi— S uspended Edmonton D Bryan 
Mardunenf tor 3 games wtttuul oay and 
fined WmSl^OQ hr hbhtt on Dallas C Mike 
Madana to Doc 3 gaae. 

uosTon— A nnounce q corny ctearod 

watvers and was osslgnsd to Ptwridenca 
AHL Recaaod O Rob Taira from Pro*- 

DA LLA S -Put c Mlto Modano and LW Bf 
nob Hoguean tolured reserve. RecaMF Tony 
Hrtnc and FJahUnd hum MIchlgotvIHL 
NEW jersey— R acnttod C Brendan IMF 
risen tram Albany; AHL 
M-Y, BUhDBKi As s ig n ed DZdenoOioro 
to Kentucky, AHL 

..WTAWA-dfesignod O Rodim Bieanok to 

Manitoba IHL • 

PHiLAbELPHiA-Amgtted D Chrtt Joseph 
ph HN pfr-Recoltod C Chad Kflafr and S> 
BlPd TBeyfrom SprtngflekL AHL and lWM 
Ortfian fhom Los Vegas, IHL PuiLW Dop 
rei Sharmon on toiured Sst. 


sasron UHiYswrrr-SuspondfdtonlorO 
Lrtto- Falk from, merit basketball team W 

“PTaws-Sussaniled ( re sh men F MW; 
^Bicwn indefinitely hum moffsboskeftdl 
ream tor crimtoql Charges. 





Jis Di nile 

1 r «wKKi 1|(>Sl 

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PAGE 23 

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f> Huskers Storm 
Aggies for Title 

No. 2 Nebraska Captures Big 12 

By Dennis Dodd 

Washutg/<m Post Service 

Second-ranked Nebraska un- 
leashed a year’s worth of frus- 
tration on No. 1 4 Texas A&M. 
; winning the Big 12 Confer- 
ence championship gamp., 54- 

15 , at the AJamodome. 

^ Forced to live a year with 
memories of an upset loss to 
Texas in the first Big 12 

championship game last year 
in St. Louis, the Cornhuskers 
left no room for error — or 
success by Texas A&M. 

Nebraska scored cm its first 
seven possessions tr> tnW* a 37- 
3 halftime lead. The quarter- 
back Scon Frost and the I-back 
Ahman Green each had two 
first-half scoring runs. The 
freshman wing back Bobby 
Newcombe set up 13 of Neb- 
raska’s 16 first-quarter points. 

But the Huskens (12-0) 
} were mostly a dour group, 
realizing that their margin of 
victoiy may not translate into 
more first-place votes in the 
polls. Top-ranked Michigan, 
which did not play Saturday, 
has far more first-place votes 
in both polls. 

“What frustrates us is that 
we’ve done everything we 
need to,” Frost said. “I can 
make a million points in our 
favor. I think we have com- 
parable defenses. On offense I 
don’t think it’s even close at 
all. People are kind of in a love 
relationship with a team that 
hasn't been there in a while." 

Michigan can win the na- 
tional championship if it beats 
. Washington State on Jan. 1 in 
* the Rose Bowl But Nebraska 
finds itself undefeated and 
unfulfilled, trapped in the Or- 
ange Bowl where a victory 
might mean very little. 

Nebraska rrfade what state- 

ment it could against the ont- 
maaned Aggies. R became 
evident that Nebraska had 
stored up lots of frustration 
after the stunning loss to the 
Longhorns a year ago. 

Frost ran for 79 yards and 
threw for 201 against the Ag- 
gies. who woo the Big 12 
South Division. Green added 
179 yards and three touch- 
downs in his 31th straight 
100-yard rushing game. 

Kris Brown kicked four 
field goals for the Conahusk- 
ers, who surpassed 50 points 
for the sixth time in 12 games. 
Texas A&M was held to 13 
net yards rushing ! ' and 
suffered six sacks. 

“Until someone else 
proves differently Fd have to 
say they’ve got my vote” for 
No. 1, the Aggies’ coach, 
R.C. Slocum, said. “I voted 
far them last week and I voted 

for than every week. ” 

In other games. The As- 
sociated Press reported: 

No. 3 TmuwssM 30, Anbwn 

29 Tennessee beat Auburn in 
the Southeastern Conference 
title game Saturday in At- 
lanta, but the narrowness of 
the victory may mean -that the 
Volunteers (11-1) lose third 
place in the polls to No. 4 
Florida State (10-1) in the fi- 
nal regular-season rankings. 

n X II ; 

In Sprewell Affair , ; 
The Issue of Race 
Is a Bogus One 

By Michael Wilbon 

Washington Post Service 


373 yards and four touch- 
downs in a final Heisman 
Trophy bid, bat the Vols still 
bad to overcome six turnovers 
and at- least a half-dozen 
dropped passes for their first 
SBC title since 1990. 

With Auburn (9-3) leading, 
29-23, Manning hooked up 
with Marcus Nash on a 73- 

score wit 

No. 2D Colorado State 41, 
NowHwdoois In Las Vegas, 
Kevin McDougal ran for 255 
yards and scored oq runs of 42, 

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In a Sellout Game in Mexico, 
Rockets Outshine Mavericks 

Bowl Bids: It’s Nail-Biting Time 

Wren LnH/Rrmm 

Nebraska’s quarterback Scott Jfrost, left, losing Texas A&M defender Warrick Holdman — and part of his shirt 

44 and 66 yards in the Westem 
Athletic Conference game. 

The Rams piled up 345 
yards rushing and scored 24 
foarA~quarteT points to break 
open a close game. 

Navy 39, Army 7 At Gia&tS 
Stadium in Rutherford, New 
Jersey, Chris McCoy made 
certain this class of Midship- 
men wouldn't leave without a 
victory over the Cadets. The 
Navy quarterback ran for 205 
yards and three TDs and 
passed for another as Navy 
ended a five-game losing 
streak against Army. 

McCoy led Navy (7-4) to 
scores on six of its first seven 
possessions with three ID 

Navy, which lost the pre- 
vious five games against 
Army by a total of 10 points, 
won by the most lopsided 
margin since 1973, when the 
Midshipmen prevailed. 5 1-0. 

The Associated Press 

The bowl alliance was scheduled to make 
its selections for die Orange, Sugar and 
Fiesta bowls Sunday afternoon, bnt even so 
the possible range of choices was reduced 
by Saturday’s game results and Sunday's 
revised poll rankings. 

Michigan remained No.l, ahead of Neb- 
raska, in both the AP and the USA Today/ 
ESPN coaches polls Sunday. Tennessee re- 
mained No3 ahead of Florida Stale, which 
should mean the Vols are invited play in the 
Orange Bowl, against Nebraska, leaving 
Florida State to meet Ohio State in the Sugar 

“We’re very excited to go to the Orange 
Bowl," Peyton Manning, the Tennessee 
quarterback, said Saturday — before coach 
Phillip Fulmer interrupted: 

“Of course, there’s no invitation yet," 
he saidL * ‘Let’s just hold on.'* 

Nebraska and its Orange Bowl opponent 
will be rooting for No. 8 Washington State 
to upset No.l Michigan in the Rose Bowl 
on Jan. 1. If that happens, the Orange Bowl 
on Jan. 2 would become a game for the 
national title. 

Aubum, which lost to Tennessee on Sat- 
urday, will go to the Outback or Peach bowl. 
Texas A&M (9-3), which lost Saturday to 
Nebraska, will probably play No. 5 UCLA 
(9-2) in the Cotton Bowl. Kansas State will 
play Syracuse in the Fiesta BowL 

Colorado State's victory over New Mex- 
ico in the Western Athletic Conference title 
game Saturday clinched a berth in the Hol- 
iday Bowl most likely against Missouri (7- 
4). The Lobos (9-3) are set for the In- 
sigbLcom Bowl, probably against Arizona 

Oklahoma State will meet Purdue (8-3) 
in die Alamo Bowl on Dec. 30. 

p. •.-* --»« 

.I.*" 4 * 

The Associated Press 

National Basketball Associ- 
ation’s first regular-season 
game in Mexico was a suc- 
cess for (he league — and the 
Houston Rockets. 

Charles Barkley scored 19 
^points and grabbed 17 re- 


bounds as the Rockets beat 
the Dallas Mavericks, 1 OS- 
106, on Saturday night before 
a crowd of 20,000 at the 
Sports Palace. 

The game was sold out two 
days in advance and scalpers 
were selling S 1 1 rickets for up 
to $38. 

The Mavericks officially 
were the home team, but the 
crowd rooted for the Rockets. 
Fans stood and cheered every 
time Houston scored. They 
. whistled every rime Dallas at- 
I tempted a free throw. 

“I’m here to see Barkley, 
said Fabiola Rivera, a 23- 
year-old elementary school 
teacher. "I’ve been a fan of 
his for the last 10" years. See- 
ing him here today is a dream 
come true.” 

Michael Finley scored a ca- 
reer-high 35 points for Dallas, 

which was playing its second 
game under Don Nelson, who 
toc^over as coach Wednesday 
after he fixed Jim Oeamons. 

Finley’s 3-pointer with SL5 
seconds left put Houston’s 
lead to 107-103. After Matt 
Maloney of the Rockets was 
called for traveling, Finley 
was fouled by Clyde Drexler 
while shooting a 3-pointer. 

Finley made all three free 
throws to make it 107-106 
with five seconds remaining. 
He then fouled Mario EHe, 
who made one of two foul 
shots with 3.1 seconds left to 
put Houston up 108-106. 

Dallas had one last chance, 
but Elie stole a pass by Erick 
Strickland to clinch the vic- 
tory. Drexler scored 17 points 
for the Rockets, who led by 10 
points early in the fourth peri- 

Knfcto 90, Hamate 79 John 
Stories scored 27 points and 
Charlie Ward sparked a third- 
uarter surge mar gave New 
‘ ork its sixth straight home 

Starks had 16 of his points 
in the second quarter and 
Ward scored all 10 of his in 
the third, including a pair of 3- 
po inters and a lay-up that al- 
lowed the Knicks to break 


open a close game. 

The victory snapped a two- 
game losing streak for New 
York that included a dreadful 
performance in a 105-91 loss 
Thursday night at Dallas. 

Die Knicks righted them- 
selves by overcoming 24 
turnovers and holding the Hor- 
nets to 35 percent shooting. 

Anthony Mason led Char- 
lotte with 16 points and 14 
rebounds. Die Hornets have 
lost four of their last five after 
starting the season 9-3. 

Maeic as, efippora 79 Hor- 
ace Grant, just off the injured 
list, scored 25 points and Ger- 
ald Wilkins added 21 as Or- 
lando beat the Clippers in Los 

Eric Piatkowriri, coming 
off a career-high 24 points in 
an overtime victory Thursday 
over Ban Antonio, led the 
Clippers with 15 points in his 
third start of the season. 

The Magic dominated the 
fourth quarter with an 11-0 

Wizards 114, Timbarwofves 

103 Chris Webber had 33 
points and 12 rebounds as 
Washington remained perfect 
in die team’s new home. 

J Erevan Howard added 26 
points for the Wizards, who 

Sun Honk/Agone r nnac- IVw 

The Knicks* John Starks, right, charging to the net past Charlotte's Bobby Phils. 

EW things in the culture 
these days spark a 
firestorm like a profes- 
sional athlete in trouble. The 
discussion of the NBA’s one- 
year suspension of Latrell 
Sprewell has quickly moved 
from sports channels to gen- 
eral talk radio, from sports 
agents to Johnnie Cochran, 
from the seemingly simple is- 
sue of the conflict between a 
player and his coach to a com- 
plex examination that has in- 
troduced race. 

After the NBA announced 
its decision Thursday, 1 wrote 
a column saving the league 
did exactly the right thing in 
suspending .Sprewell for 
choking his coach, P J. Car- 
lesimo, then coming back 20 

Vahtaoe Point 

minutes later to resume the 
attack. The calls streamed in, 
usually — and unfortunately 
— along predictable lines. 
Most of the white callers said 
they saw an out-of-control 
punk who in any walk of life 
would have been fired for as- 
saulting his superior. About 
half the black callers said a 
coach has no business scream- 
ing in the face of a grown man 
and that the suspension, 
which will cost Sprewell $25 
million, is grossly unfair and 
in some way prejudiced. 

What worries me more than 
the predictable 
reactions is the 
on-race subplot that may take 
over the Sprewell-Carlesimo 

A few months ago, U.S. 
News & World Report had a 
cover story asking whether 
ofessional sports were bad 
or black America. Issues 
such as the one now involving 
Sprewell are why I can't just 
kiss off the question with an 
unequivocal, “No." 

It’s frightening to me, as a 
black man who makes a living 
in the sports industry, that any 
behavior demonstrated by a 
black athlete — no matter 
how criminal or immoral — is 
so easily excused by a large 
segment of my community. 
Black athletes now have 
reached the status formerly 
accorded only black preach- 
ers: They don’t have to be 
accountable to anyone. 

Grant Hill says players in 
his sport need to be tested for 
marijuana, and you don’t hear 
two hands clapping. Sprewell 
assaults a white coach and 
there's a national black posse 
riding to the rescue. 

When I was growing up 
playing various sports, there 
was always some responsible 
figure — a black figure, by the 
way — there to say, “Son. you 
can’t do that" I don’t mean 
my father — I mean a coach, a 
neighbor, a bystander. 

But what’s the message 
now? “Kid, you got so much 
game and so much money you 
can do whatever you want to. 
We’ll support you.” 

That’s not support, it’s 

We’ve neglected to tell a 
generation of ballplayers that 


their ability to shoot or tackle 
" and run doesn’t preclude 
them from being civiL There 
are fewer and fewer brothers 
out there with the guts to tell 
these kids, ' * Son, you can’t do 
that.” Fewer leaders, more 
apologists. The whole world 

is a groupie-in- w aiting . You 

might be .perceived as an 
Uncle Tom - if you tell a 
youngster to mind authority 1 , 
shut us mouth and play ball. 1 

Every kid in America, 
black and white, knows the us' 
and outs and all the subtleties 
of the culture of basketball 
Coaches get in your face. It's a 
law. You think Bill Russell 
and John Havlicek didn’t 
want to choke Red Auerbach 
until his eyes fell out? You 1 
think Grant Hill and Lindsey 
Hunter wouldn’t like to dump 
Doug Collins into the Detroit 
River this very second? If' 
screaming in a player's face ! 
was a crime, John Thompson - 
and Bob Knight woold be on ' 
death row. Would Carles- 
imo’s behavior be tolerated in ' 
the corporate workplace? Of 
course not 

But the NBA isn’t the typ- ' 
ical workplace. Everyday 
folks don't make $7.7 milli on 
a year, as Sprewell did. When 
you cash that paycheck, it’s 
clearly understood you've sold 
yourself into the culture of 1 
sports, in this case basketball. ' 
You take the booing, the news- 
paper’s criticism, the coach’s 
maniacal screaming. Period. 
And you don’t choke or fight ' 

Every time there's a con- 
frontation or dispute in sports 1 
these days, I find myself hop- 
ing it's between people of the - 
same race so we don’t have to 
deal with this foolishness. If a ■ 
white player had assaulted a. 1 
black coach, the player would 
have deserved the same sus- • 
pension, plain and simple. 

To say Sprewell doesn’t- 
deserve to be suspended is to„ 
tell our youngsters any be-. 
havior can be excused as long ; 
as they can play ball. You can 
assault a woman, a coach, act* 
like a thug, do anything you' 
want and we’ll keep coming 
up with the alibis, as loin as 
you keep dunking that balL Is 
that the message we want to , 
send our kids? 

If die Washington Wizards ; 
are seriously interested inJ 
signing Sprewell, they’d better 
be prepared to deal with the. 
consequences of taking on a- 
player who has probably been - ; 
convinced by far too many • 
people thatrules don’t apply to 
him. If he believes it, it's be- 
cause the culture has proved to 
him that it’s true. Yeah, 
Sprewell has incredible has- - 
ketball talent In 1993, the sea- ; 
son Michael Jordan missed en- 
tirely, 1 thought Sprewell was 
the best off-guard in the NBA. • 
He matte himself one of the 
league's best offensive play-, 
ers, one of its best defenders. - 

That makes you a good bas- . 
ketball player, and it makes 
you wealthy. It shouldn’t 
make you worthy of national 
debate, it shouldn’t make you 
unaccountable for your ac- 
tions and it sure shouldn’t di- 
vot the emotional outrage of 
black America that is so des- 
perately needed elsewhere. 

are 3-0 at the MCI Center 
after opening the season 0-5 
in their former building, US- 
Air Arena. 

Stephen Maibwy had 27 
its and seven assists for 

Blues Blow Out Flan les in Overtime 


* ?! 
%.^-S ttfc-W 


Vi-.- — 

The -iated Press 

Geoff Courtnall scored with 22 
seconds left in overtime to lift foe Sl 
L ouis Blues over the visiting Calgary 
Flames, 4-3. 

, Courtnall scored from a pueup in 
from of the ncr after taking a pass from 

Bren Hull. ^ 

The game went into overtime jUto* 
Calgary 'sGerman Titov scored with less 
than nine minutes remaining ro ne the 

score. . 

The Blues had overcome a two-goal 
deficit to lead, 3-2, when Titov scored 
on a power play at 1 1:15 ©f *e .“J™; 
The Flames had not scored m their last 
47 power plavs before Titov s goal. 

Bnm 4, HumcwiM i In Boston, 
Steve Heinze had three goals and an 
assist to lead the Bruins to victory over 

Ca ^onAIHson finished with a gwla^d 
three assists. Kyle McLaren and Ted 
Donato each had a pair of assists. 

The Bruins' goalteudcr, Byrwi jlm- 
foe. stopped 24 shots for Boston s first 
back-to-back victories in a month. . 

lalandtr* 4, 

New York, Tommy Salo stopped 22 
shots for his second shutout this season 
to lead the Wander? o«f . 

Claude Lapointe, Todd 
Robert Kekrhel and Zigmund Paiffy 
scared for the Islanders. - 

The Covotes, who got 20 saves from 
backup goalie Jimmy Waite, played 

their fourth game in six nights during a 
seven-game road trip. The Coyotes, 1-3- 
1 , on the trip so for, were playing without 
center Jeremy Roenick, who suffered a 
concussion in’a game Friday night 
pwwmi s. uiohty Ducks 2 Jaromir 
Jagr scored twice and Ron Francis had a 

NHL Roundup 


ing aheffthanded during eight v 
managed to prevent all but one power- 
play goal ana beat visiting Anaheim. 

The Penguins rebounded from a 4-0 
home lossTbursday to New Jersey that 
ended their 7-0-1 streak. 

pwils 4, Ushtang 2 In East Ruther- 
ford, New Jersey, Brian Rolston scored 
two goals to leadNew Jersey overTampa 
Bay, the NHL’s worst road team. 

Bill Guerin and Bobby Holik also 
scored for the Devils. 1 1-4-0 in their last 
15 games. 

DefensemenRooian Haxnrlik and Kaxi 
Dykhuis scored for the Lightning, who 
lout their 10th straight road game and 
extended theft road winless streak to IS. 

Tnumri 3, Ss fcra s 0 Ron Tugnutt 
stopped 25 shots and earned his first 
shutout of the season as Ottawa defeated 
visiting Buffalo in Kanata, Ontario. 

Alexandre Daigle and Shawn 
McEachern scored power-play goals as 
the Senators snapped Buffalo's four- 
game unbeaten streak. Randy Cunney- 

worth added a goal, shooting into an 
empty net with 48 seconds left in the 
game. It was his first goal in 24 games. 

Hingtn 3, Canadians 3 £n Montreal. 
Adam Graves scored with 5:23 left in 
the third period to give the struggling 
Rangers a tie with Montreal, extending 
New York’s winless streak to eight 

It was the 11th tie of the season for the 
Rangers, who played Philadelphia to a 
4-4 draw Friday night. 

Brian Skrudland had two goals for 
New York, which is 13 ties short of the 
NHL record for a season. 

Uaphft Lwafa 7, Kings 2 Mats Sundm 
and Sergei Berezin each scored rwo 
goals as Toronto recorded its largest 
margin of victory this season with a 
home victory over Los Angeles. 

Alya McCauley, Wendel Clark and 
Mike Johnson also scored for the Maple 
l ^afs while Igor Korolev had three as- 

Russ Courtnall and Yanic Perreault, 
who are former Maple Leafs, scored 
goals for the Kings. 

Anlucba &, Ca no cte 4 In Denver, 
Eric Lacroix scored two goals, andPeter 
Forsberg and Joe Saldc had a pair of 
assists each as Colorado remained un- 
beaten in six games with a victory over 

Paval Bure had a hat trick and an 
assist for the Canucks. Bure has 12 goals 
and 14 assises in his last 16, games. 


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^ KenlbXMxtome 




World Roundup 

Anke Huber serving to Mar- 
tina Hmgis |n Sunday's final . 

Huber Stops Hingis 

tennis Anke Huber survived a 
match point before beating Mar- 
tina Hingis on Sunday in the five- 
set final of the inaugural Masters 
of Champions tournament. 

Huber, a German, was roared 
on by 4,500 fans at the Frankfurt 
exhibition tournament as she won 

2-6, 6-3, 2-6, 6-2, 7-5. 

Hingis reached match point at 
5-4 in the fifth, but Huber's nerve 
held and she fonght back to win 
the $380,000 first prize. 

• John McEnroe took the ATP 
Senior Tourof Champions’ title in 
London on Sunday, but not before 
swearing at a line judge at Albert 

Under the unusual scoring sys- 
tem, be beat Henri Leconte 6-2, 3- 
6 (10-5). 

One British newspaper said that 
McEnroe’s outbursts during the 
tournament had been “utterly 
contrived. ’’ ( Reuters ) 

Pakis tan Dominates 

cricket Sohail and Ijaz 
Ahmed shared a record 298-run 
partnership as Pakistan reached 
327 runs for one wicket on die 
second day of the third test against 
the West indies in Karachi. The 
visitors had made 2 16 in their first 

• Rain and poor light Sunday 
forced India to settle for a draw in 
the third and final test against Sri 
Lanka ' in Bombay. Sri Lanka, 
chasinga victory target of 333. was 
tottering at 166 for seven wickets, 
with 12 overs to be bowled, when 
drizzle stopped play. The first two 
tests also ended in a draw. 

• Mark Waugh hit 104 Sunday 

to help Australia to overhaul New 
Zealand's total of 260 for seven 
with two balls to spare in a World 
Series one-day game in Ad- 
elaide. (Reuters) 

Point-Shaving Pleas 

basketball Former Arizona 
State basketball players S levin 
(Hedake) Smith and Isaac Burton 
Jr. pleaded guilty to charges of con- 
spiracy to commit sports bribery in 
a point-shaving scheme. 

Smith and Burton admitted tak- 
ing payoffs for shaving points on 
four Arizona State home games in 
the 1993-94 season. 

Indictments were issued against 
four men accused of paying the 
players, and the FBI expects fur- 
ther indictments. 

Smith, the school's No. 2 career 
scorer, admitted he agreed to fix 
games in part to repay gambling 
debts owed to a bookmaker, Benny 
S i l man. He said Silman paid him 
$20,000 for each game. ( AP) 

Price Reaches $1 Million 

golf Nick Price made up three 
strokes on Phil Mickelson on Sun- 
day and held oft Ernie Els and 
Davis Love on the final green to 
win the Million Dollar Challenge 
in Sun City, South Africa. Price 
carded a four-under final round of 
68 for a 14- under-par total. Mick- 
elson, who led for three days, bo- 

C ed the last for a 73 to drop to 
nh. {Reuters) 

PSV’s Dreams Fade 
With Loss to Tilburg 

Tottenham Suffers Worst Home Loss 
In 62 Years as Chelsea Cruises, 6-1 

Cun^aai by Our Staff FwmDUptxka 

its mki-wiate^b^c, but already PSV 
Eindhoven's chances of holding onto its 
title appear to be melting. 

PSv, the champion, lost to Willem II 
Tilburg, 4-2. Although PSV remains in 
second place, it is 1 5 points behind Ajax 

European Soccer 

Amsterdam, which has won all but one 
of its 18 league matches. It was Willem 
IPs seventh straight league victory and 
lifted Tilburg into sixth place. 

Gilles de BfldegavePsV (he lead after 
19 minutes. Tilburg hit back with two 
counterattack goals in 10 minutes from 
Clyde Wijnhard and Oosmane Sanou. 
Between those, Luc Nilis missed a pen- 
alty for PSV in the 26th minute. 

Wijnhard scored his second with 17 
minutes to go, and Amo Arts rounded of 

The Norwegian Tore Andre Flo 
scored a hat-trick, his first in English' 
soccer, as the Spurs conceded five 
second-half goals after a determined 
showing in the first half. 

United beat Liverpool at Anfield, 3-1. 
Andy Cole scored twice for United, tak- 
ing his season’s tally to 15 goals in all 
competitions, while David Beckham 
scored the second goal with a free kick. 

Spain A first-half bar-trick by the 
striker Finidi George gave Real Beds a 

3- 0 victory over Tenerife in the Spanish 
first division Sunday. 

Deportivo Coruna suffered a surprise 

4- 1 defeat by Salamanca. After scoring 
only six times in 14 games, Salamanca 
found die net four times in the last 25 

The leading teams played Saturday, 
aid 1-1 at ~ 

with Real Madrid hel 


give Ajax 
home victory over Roda JC Kerkrade. 

Italy Roma swept aside Atalanta 
Bergamo on Sunday with three first-half 
goals, and Udinese beat Bologna, 4*3. to 
keep in touch with Serie A pacesetters 
Inter Milan and Juventus. 

The results kept Roma and Udinese 
tied for third, five-points adrift of league 
leaders Inter and two behind the reign- 
ing champion Juventus. Those two 
clubs played ' Saturday because they 
have European matches this week. Inter 
was held to a 1-1 draw at Sampdoria, 
and Juve beat Lazio, 2-1. 

- In Milan, Patrick Klirivert scored his 
first goal since September as AC Milan 
beat Bari on Sunday, 2-0. 

England The Jamaican internation- 
al ' Robbie Earle on Sunday ended 
Wimbledon's losing run in the Premier 
League with a gift of a goal at home to 

On Saturday, Chelsea won at Tot- 
tenham Hotspur, 6-1. It was Totten- 
ham’s worst home defeat in 62 years 
and kept Chelsea second behind 
Manchester United. 

It was the first time since 1935, when 
Tottenham lost, 6-0, to local rivals Ar- 
senal, that they had conceded six goals 
in the league at home. 

spot with a 2-1 victory at Zaragoza. 

Real Madrid conceded a goal in the 
88th minu te at Oviedo to surrender a 
victory and with it first place in tire 

fear the end of the match, Roberto 
Carlos of Real, who had four yellow 
cards this ses&on, made a heavy chal- 
lenge apparently with the intention of 
earning another. He succeeded, gaining 
Ids fifth yellow card, which means an 
automatic one-game suspension. But 
that will coincide with a match he would 
have missed anyway because he will be 
playing for Brazil. 1 

SCOTLAND The Italian striker Marco 
Negri scored his 30th goal of the season 
for Rangers on Sunday, but was carried 
off on a stretcher with an ankle injury that 
could sideline him for several weeks. 

The 1-0 victory at home to Hibernian 
kept Rangers second, a point behind 
Hearts, which won Saturday. 

Negri’s goal in the 51st minute fol- 
lowed his own penalty miss. The Hi- 
bernian goalkeeper. Chris Reid, pulled 
off an excellent save from Negri’s weak 
shot and then blocked the follow-up as 
well. But the ball spun up off his hands, 
onto the crossbar and rebounded to 

C«rioPmag»fll/T!h« ftvai 

Bari defender Luigi Sala, left, putting pressure on AC Milan's Leonardo. 

Billy Bremner, Scots’ Captain 
And Leeds Player, Dies at 54 

GERMANY Champ ion Bayern Mu- 
nich lost to leader Kaiserslautern on 
Friday, 2-0. The gap between the two is 
now seven points. 


Billy Bremner, the former captain of 
Scotland’s national soccer team, died 
Sunday after a heart attack in Doncaster, 
England. He would have been 55 on 

The flame-haired midfielder played 
in the 1974 World Cup and was chosen 
to play for Scotland’s national team 54 
times. He became a manager in Don- 
caster in 1978 after 585 league games 
for Leeds United and 61 for Hull. 

Bremner joined Leeds in December 
1959 after being rejected by both Ar- 
senal and Chelsea,' which felt fhat at 
1 .65 meters (5-feet-5-inches) tall he was 
too small. While Bremner played with 
Leeds, the team won two English 
League titles and the Football Asso- 
ciation Cup and finishari a s the Euro-. 

> runner-up in 1975 after losing, 
), to Bayern Munich in Paris. 

Bremner was a capable tackier and - 
possessed natural passing and shooting 
skills. In 1970, he was voted England's 
soccer player of the year. 

‘“That little man should have a halo 
around his head when he plays because, 
he has a talent which comes from heav- 
en,’' said Bill Shankly, the Liverpool, 

Bremner played against Brazil in tiie 

1974 World Cup and rated the 
rience as one of the -hi ghlig hts of 
career, though Scotland lost die game. 
The next year, he was dropped by the 
team after a nightclub brawl following a 
match in Copenhagen. He moved to 
Hull in 1976 but retained to Leeds as 
manager in 1985 for three seasons. 

s iampa 
To Secure 
First Place 

' The Associated Pms 
The Green Bay Packers clinched their i 
third straight NFC Central title, as well 
as a first-round bye in the playoffs, with 
a 17-6 victory, over the Buccaneers in 
Tampa on Sunday. Tbe second-place 
Bucs had needed a. victory to earn their 
first playoff berth since 1982. 

Brett Favre threw two touchdown 
passes to become the first quarterback in 
NFL history to throw for. 30 TDs in four 
consecutive seasons. 

Favre threw 43 yards to Robert 
Brooks and 8 yards to Dorsey Levons 

for scores before leading an 88-yard 
field goal drive that lasted more than 10 
minutes to put the game out of reach 
with 6:24 to go. 

Tampa Bay’s offense spattered all day, 
" ' after Trent Dilfer sprained 


his right ankle late in the first half. The 
Bucs quarterback was not effective when 
be returned in the .third quarter and was 
replaced by Steve Walsh. 

Favre completed 25 of 33 passes for 
280 yards and was intercepted once. 
.Dilfer was 6-of-I7 for 67 yarns and was 
injured when Reggie White dropped 
him oh one of Green Bay’s four sacks. 

' The Bucs can stfil.cliixh a playoff 
berth by winning one of their remaining 
two games, against the New York Jets 
and Chicago Bears. 

Chiefs so. Raiders o In Kansas City, 
the Chiefs 111-3) outgained the Raiders 
41&93 and piled up 27 first downs to 
five for Oakland (4-10). While beating 
their old rivals for the 15th time in 17 
meetings, the Chiefs amassed 21 4 yards 
rushing and allowed 36. 

The victory was especially sweet for 
Kansas City because halfway across the 
country. Pittsburgh was beating Den- 
ver, 35-24. That pot the Broncos and tbe 
Chiefs in a tie far- the AFC-West lead, 
with Kansas City owning the tiebreaker 
advantage for home-field advantage in 
the playoffs, with two games to play. 

• Other results: New York Giants 31, 
Philadelphia 21; Baltimore 31, Seattle 
24; Pittsburgh 35, Denver 24; Chicago 
20, Buffalo 3; New England 26, Jack- 
sonville 20. 

. ““it 

: ‘L4 



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In a Tense Thriller, England Holds All Blacks to a 26-26 Draw 

By Peter Berlin 

International Herald Tribune 

TWICKENHAM. England — The 
greatest rugby ream in the history of the 
universe had its crown of stars knocked 
askew in the exhilarating final match of 
its previously triumphal tour of the Brit- 
ish Isles. 

The New Zealand All Blacks drew 
with England, 26-26, in a compelling test 
Saturday af Twickenham near London. It 
was a match of nerve-stretching ten- 

Buoit Union 

sion, played throughout at a blinding 
pace in which both teams displayed 
great creativity in attack and utterly 
ruthless tackling on defense. 

The New Zealand team bad won all 
1 1 of its internationals this year and all 
eight of its matches on its visit to Wales, 
Ireland and England. 

Its dazzling play had drawn favorable 
comparisons with tbe best teams in the 
history of rugby union. The comeback 
Saturday, after England had scored 
three early tries, showed what a resilient 
and resourceful team New Zealand is. 

The final result, however, combined 
with its defeat in the 1995 World Cup 
final against South Africa in Johan- 
nesburg, means that this team still fells 
short of the claims being math: by mar- 
keting men and by some beaten op- 

Over the last few years the All Blacks 
have responded to changes in tbe laws 
and reinvented their rugby. The most 
remarkable aspect of the game was that 
England seems, in the last month, to 

Mmt Badrr/’nie AaodomJ fta 

New Zealand's Jonah Lomu leaping over England’s Richard Hill. 

have learned to play the same way. 

“England played as well as I have 
seen them play." said John Hart, the All 
Blacks’ coach. "They never played that 
way before. It was a different attitude 
and they scored tries." 

The last time New Zealand visited 
Twickenham, England built its strategy 
around its rambling pack of forwards. 
All the points came from kicks. Jeff 
Wilson, men a 19-year-old playing only 
his second test for New Zealand, missed 
several penalties. England won, 15-9. 

Changes in the laws have undermined 

the effectiveness of huge packs of for- 
wards. The All Blade pack is relatively 
light, but every member can run and aU 
are comfortable with the ball in their 
hands. The team also Has a Axrrl ing 
generation of backs: the halfbacks, 
Justin Marshall and Andrew Mehrtens 
are 24 as is Wilson Jonah Lomu, the 
giant wing, is 22, and Christian Cullen, 
the fullback who averages one touch- 
down per- test is 21. 

New Zealand beat South Africa twice 
and Australia three times in the Southern 
Hemisphere winter. Those three nations 

have been rampaging round Europe for 
the past four weeks. South Africa beat 
France twice, England mice and finished 
off its visit by hammering Scotland. 68- 
10, on Saturday in Edmbtngh. New Zea- 
land had crushed Ireland and Wales. Two 
weeks ago it beat England in Manchester. 
Australia also beat Scotland, 'but it drew, 
15-15, with F.ngland in a lacklus t er 
match at Twickenham a month ago, on 
the opening weekend pf this sequence of 
inter-hemisphere matches. 

England’s performance against Aus- 
tralia that day bore no resemblance to its 
play Saturday. The first 16 minutes were 
one of those dream sequences in sports 
when everything goes right. To the as- 
tonishment of the 75,000 fans and prob- 
ably tiie players themselves, England — 
playing a high-risk handling game . 
against the most ferocious defense in the 
world — scored three touchdowns. 

First, David Rees ran half the length 
of the field beating three defenders to 
touch down in the comer. Then Will- 
Greenwood cut through the NewZea- 
land defense and setup a try for Richard 
Hill Finally, New Zealand's Walter 
Little dropped the ball after a crunching 
tackle, and Lawrence Dallagho booted 
the ball over tbe New Zealand line and 
fell on it to score. / 

“I had to pinch myself after die third 
try," said Clive Woodward, the Eng- 
land coach. “I thought I was going to 
wake up.” 

New Zealand launched a series of 
coruscating attacks. A combination of 
unyielding goal line defense by England 
and uncharacteristic Handling errors 
close to the line kept New Zealand from 
scoring a touchdown before halftime. 

But each sustained sequence of play left 
several white-shirted bodies lying on 
tiie ground or reeling groggily. 

- The halftime break seemed to calm » 
the New Zealanders.- They cut down*? 
their mistakes, and pounded away at the 
heart of the England defense. Lomu, 
who weighs 266 pounds (121 kilo- 
grams), often came into the middle to 
act as a battering ram. Little started 
making dangerous quick breaks. 

Mehrtens burst over from close 
range. Then, after Tim Stimpson, Eng- 
land's substitute fallback, bad dropped 
a high kick, Little scampraed over and 
New Zealand led 26-23 with 17 minutes 
to play. England, it seemed, was done. 

Again tiie momentum swung. Lomu, 
in particular, seemed chained by his 
■ effort to haul New Zealand back into tiie 
game. Paul Grayson kicked a close- 
range penalty to even the score. The 
tension tightened another notch. Both $ 
teams knewtiiat one error could lose the “ 
Tna tcfc - 

They looked like two heavyweight 
boxers on the edge of collapse, neither 
of whom could not quite summon the 
knock-out punch. 

Strangely, England's captain seemed 
more disappointed. His team played at 
its very limit, and perhaps be sensed that 
it will be fortunate to have such a chance 

"It was a fantastic game," said 
Dallagho. “There’s nobody laughing or 
celebrating in the England dressing 
room. We definitely should have won 
the match-" 

Marshall said “It was a tough game 
and we were very lucky to manage a 

all the tea in 10811. 

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