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Herald 


INTERNATIONAL 



PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


l{ The World’s Daily Newspaper 


London, Tuesday, December 9, 1997 



No. 35.699 


Swiss Banks Set the Ball Rolling 

•Ij,. w gyj < ", " — — — - ^ O 

Bv HI rj Competitors Forecast a Flurry 

Of Mergers in Europe for ’98 



By Tom Bueikte 

International Herald Tribune 


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Mareel Ospel, left, duef of Swiss Bank, and Maths 
CabiaUavetta. head of UBS, announcing tfae deaL 


IMF Takes On 
More Authority 
And New Risks 

World’s Financial Turmoil 
Turns Fund Into Regulator 

By Richard W. Stevenson and Jeff Gerth 

■Vfif York Times Sen-ice 

WASHINGTON — For more than 50 years, 
the International Monetary Fund has been im- 
posing austerity plans on countries in crisis. But 
with the bailout package it agreed to with South 
Korea last week, the Fund is pushing far more 
deeply than ever before into the day-to-day op- 
erations of one of the world's largest economies. 

The program will include many of the usual IMF 
prescriptions, including raising interest rates and 
taxes, to deal with financial problems that were 
more dire than the South Korean government had 

Thailand closes 56 finance firms. Page 13. 


acknowledged. But the program will tiy to go much 
further to overcome stiff resistance within South 
Korea and bring sweeping changes to a business 
culture built on close coordination and cronyism 
between the government and crucial industries 
such as automotive, shipbuilding and steel. 

As the rescue of South Korea suggests, the 
financial crisis that has spread across East Asia has 
marked a turning point in die role of the IMF. Long 
a stem monitor of general economic probity in 
developing nations, it has been forced, along with 
the World Bank and other institutions, to take on 
bigger, more complex and riskier roles in recent 

See IMF. Page 4 


LONDON — By agreeing Monday to merge and 
form the world’s second-largest bank. Union Bank of 
Switzerland and Swiss Bank Corp. set a new standard 
for f i n a ncia l concentration that increases the pressure 
on other European banks to combine forces. 

The $59 billion deal culminates a year of increas- 
ingly large mergers in die financial services industry, 
primarily involving U.S. investment hank* and Euro- 
pean banks. Analysts predicted that the deal-making 
will heat up, especially in Europe, because the power- 
ful forces behind die mergers are intensifying. 

Financial deregulation and the growth of securities 
markets and mutual funds have eroded die special 
status of banks and forced diem to find new ways to 
generate profits. 

Technology is revolutionizing the industry as the 
spread of automated teller machines and home bank- 

Swiss Bank veteran to meld the staffs. Page 13. 

ing allow banks to reach more customers with fewer 
branches and employees. The logic of globalization 
demands that banks grow to a size that would have 
been unthinkable only a few years ago in order to 
compete in offering loans, securities underwriting and 
trading and investment advice around the world. 

In Europe, the pressure on banks is acute because 
the planned 1999 introduction of (he single currency is 
expected to erode barriers between national markets 
and fester the growth of a handful of giants operating 
on a pan-European basis. 

‘‘This is foe fuse being lit in foe real consolidation of 
European banking and financial services,’ ’ said Philip 
Middleton, chief hanking analyst at KPMG. “There's 
going to be a real upheaval.'* 

The merger will cause a true upheaval in Switzer- 
land, where the two banks plan to eliminate 7,000 jobs 
over three to four years, an unprecedented mass layoff 
for a country in its seventh straight year of virtually 
zero economic growth. The potential to cut costs in the 
Swiss market was a main reason for the deaL 

The announcement also jolted London's financial 
district, where the two banks plan to eliminate as many 
as 3.000 high-priced investment banking employees. 
Only last week, bankers were celebrating news that 
employee bonuses in the City of London's financial 
services industry this year would lop a record £1 
billion ($1.66 billion). 

Ail told, the new bank expects to shed 1 3,000 of its 
combined 56,000 employees worldwide. 

Marcel Ospel, the Swiss Bank chief executive who 
will occupy the same position at the combined com- 
pany. to oe called United Bank of Switzerland, ex- 
plained the rationale behind the deal, which could be 
described as merge or he submerged. 

' ‘We want to be in the top third of the top 30 global 
banks because we're convinced that the bottom third is 
going to disappear,” Mr. Ospel said. 

Particularly in investment banking, where the U.S. 
mergers this year that created Morgan Stanley Dean 
Witter and Salomon Smith Barney have raised the ante 
dramatically in the global competition, ''critical mass 
is moving north at a rapid pace.” he said. 

See BANKS, Page 4 



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Gore Leaves Climate Talks in a Blur 

His Unfulfilled Vow of Flexibility Breeds Puzzlement and Anger 


By Kevin Sullivan and Joby Warrick 

Wjrttwjctow Pfst Senm 

KYOTO, Japan — Vice President A1 Gore's one- 
day whirl through the global climate conference here 
cheered some people, enraged others, but left most 
confused about his message and whether ir would have 
any significant impact on the remaining two days of 
negotiations on a treaty to combat global waroting. 

By the time a visibly jet-lagged Mr. Gore headed for 
the "airport Monday night, a lop European Umon 
official had rebuked him. Congressional Republicans 
had lambasted him. China had ignored him and a 
deeply divided environmental community was Jett 
wondering whether their longtime ally had helped or 
hindered the complex negotiations. 

- "A1 Gore flew all this way, and we see no change at 
all in the U S. position.” said Gary Cook, a spokesman 


for Greenpeace. “He raised a lot of hopes, but so far 
there’s been no action.” 

In a speech Monday morning. Mi. Gore promised 
more “flexibility” from American negotiators, but 
did not offer specifics. After nonstop meetings with 
officials from the European Union, Japan, developing 
nations, environmentalists, industry representatives 
and journalists, Mr. Gore offered few clues about what 
flexibility he had in mind. 

“We have no numbers, no text,” said Pierre 
Gramegna of Luxembourg, a key official of the EU 
delegation, which has proposed the deepest cuts in 
emissions of the 1 ‘greenhouse gases” thai are thought 
to cause global warming. 

The harshest criticism of Mr. Core came from Rin 
Bjerregaard, the EU environment commissioner, who 

See KYOTO, Page 10 


ISLAMIC SUMMIT — President Hafez Assad, left, and Mohammad 
Khatami of Iran at a welcoming ceremony Monday for the Syrian leader 
as Muslim heads of state arrived in Tehran for a conference. Page 4. 


Ousting Iranian, Russia 
Signaled U.S. on Arms 

Yeltsin Cooperates in Curbing Tehran’s Drive 


By Joseph Fitchett 

lr.u-monor.al Tribune 


PARIS — With Iraq occupying 
center stage last month, it passed al- 
most unnoticed when Moscow an- 
nounced the expulsion of an Iranian 
diplomat for trying to buy Russian 
missile engine blueprints. 

But the news caused jubilation in 
the Clinton administration's foreign 
policy team. “He was their top guy,” 
a U.S. official said, characterizing the 
Iranian — whose name has not been 
published — as the point man in Rus- 
sia for Tehran’s drive for weapons. 

“Looks like we finally got 
Yeltsin’s ear,” said a State Depart- 
ment official. For Washington, it was 
a down payment on pledges from 
President Boris Yeltsin that he would 
stop Russians from helping Iran de- 
velop weapons of mass destruction. 

China has given the Clinton ad- 
ministration similar assurances about 
suspending nuclear cooperation with 
Iran and cutting sales of conventional 
missiles. In reward, as foreshadowed 
during a U.S. -Chinese summit meet- 
ing in October, the White House will 
announce, perhaps as early as this 
week, that it has decided to authorize 
exports of U.S. nuclear technology to 
China for the first time. 

For more than a year, the Iranian 
diplomat had shopped in military fa- 
cilities, research labs and defense 
companies for plans, components and 
people. He was so successful that 
Russians ended up supplying most of 
the outside help necessary for Iran’s 


efforts to develop chemical, biolo- 
gical and even nuclear warheads and 
’crilisti? .missiles to deliver them. 

Indicating a crackdown on this 
traffic, U.S. intelligence reported, the 
Russians singled out “the hot com- 
ponent” — meaning the key tech- 
nology needed by the Iranians as the 
next step in developing their ad- 
vanced armaments. 

For Tehran, the hot component 
these days is an engine for ballistic 
missiles capable of targeting Bagh- 
dad, Riyadh or Tel Aviv and perhaps 
even cities in southern Europe. Help 
with sophisticated motors is precisely 
what the Iranian diplomat was shop- 
ping for, U.S. officials said. • 

By terminating his purchases, 
Moscow sent an unmistakable mes- 
sage to insiders — in Tehran, in Rus- 
sian armaments circles and in Wash- 
ington — that Russia's most 
dangerous technologies were off-lim- 
its for Iran. 

The Yeltsin commitment seemed 
to augur success for a major U.S. 
initiative to stop the flow of know- 
how and equipment from Russia's 
shadowy military-industrial com- 
plex, parts of which may still be col- 
luding with Iran. 

In still largely secret diplomacy 
over the last nine months, culmin- 
ating in ultra-sensitive intelligence 
exchanges, the Clinton administra- 
tion has sought to convince Moscow 
that the Iranian question had to be 
solved or U.S.-Russian relations, in- 

See POLICY, Page 4 


For Toyota, France’s Pull 
Outweighs Its Reputation 


By Gregory Viscusi 

{tlt'cmbrri .Vrwj 


PARIS — If France is a hostile place 
to invest, as many French business lead- 
ers say. somebody must have forgotten 
to tell Tovota Motor Corp. 

French industrialists are battling wi* 
the government over its plan to cut foe 
workweek, claiming it will . make : it 
harder for them ro compete with foreign 

companies. On Tuesday. iboughJapMS 

Toyota is expected to announce details of 
a new car plant it will build m ftMCe. 

The plant is widely expected to be 
built in the northern city of Valenciennes 




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and is thought to , . 

investment ever in France. It follows 
Si milar moves recently by International 
Business Machines Corp., Motorola 
Inc., Federal Express Corp. and Daimler- 
Benz AG’s Mercedes-Benz unit 

Since 1991. only the United States 
and China have attracted more than the 
$120 billion in foreign investment that 
has gone to France. Foreign companies 
account for 24 percent of French in- 
dustrial output and 33 percent of its 
exports. In the first eight months of this 
year, overseas investment in France 
reached 73.5 billion francs ($1239 bil- 
lion). up from 70.1 billion francs in the 
comparable period last year. Toyota is 
expected to invest 33 billion francs. 

Industrialists say any decision on 
where to invest is based on a variety of 
factors. In France’s case, the good points 
outweigh high taxes, high salaries and 
sometimes inflexible labor regulation. 

‘‘France has lots of things going foe 
it: geography, the size of its market and 
ihe strength of the French economy and 
work force.” said Reed Feldman, an 
American lawyer in Paris who wrote a 
study for the American Chamber of 
Commerce in Ranee on barriers to in- 
vestment here. “There are things that 

See TOYOTA, Page 10 


AGENDA 

Winnie Mandela 
Fails in Political Bid 

President Nelson Mandela's 
former wife, Winnie Madikizela- 
Mandela, has failed to win formal 
nomination a s deputy leader of the 
governing African National Con- 
gress. The failure to gain the nom- 
ination followed her nine-day appear- 
ance before the Truth Commission, 
where she was accused of kidnap- 
ping, assault and murder. Page 2. 


N— i Yak 

DM 


The Dollar 


itavay e < p.h. 
1.7B97 


fcewxcdwe 

1.7826 


Pound 


1.6477 


1.659 


Yen 


130 525 


130.20 


5.9685 


5.9653 



-3&29 


ehonga 


8110.64 


S&P 500 


9140.13 


Monday O s P.M. pmwoifi dose 


962.37 


983 79 



Books 

Crossword 

Opinion — — 

Sports 


Page 10. 

— Pages. 

Pages 8-9. 

- Pages 24-25. 


The !HT on-line mvw.ihtcom 


*'• 

OktN&MfctflkAM 

SEARCH FOR A CHILD IN SIBERIA — A woman 
looking Monday for the body of her 13-year-old son in the 
rubble caused by the crash of a cargo jet in Irkutsk. The 
authorities said that they did not expect to find any more 
survivors of the crash, which killed at least 48 people. 


Clinton Meets 
With Dissident 
Despite Chinese 
Denunciations 

Wei Reportedly Tells President 
That Release of One Prisoner 
By Beijing Ts Not Enough 5 

By Brian Knowlton 

In ternational Herald Tribune 

WASHINGTON — Wei Jingsheng, the recently- 
released Chinese dissident, met Monday with President 
Bill Clinton at the White House, four days after the 
Beijing authorities demanded that U.S. officials not 
grant an audience to a man they consider a common 
criminal. 

‘‘The president has heard a lot about him and is 
anxious to meet him to exchange views.” the White 
House spokesman. Michael McCurry, said before the 
afternoon meeting. 

Mr. Clinton had said shortly alter China released 
Mr. Wei, ostensibly on grounds of ill health, that he 
wanted to meet with him. But the meeting was not 
announced until just hours before it took place, ap- 
parently to avoid offending Beijing unnecessarily. 

On Thursday, the Foreign Ministry in Beijing de- 
nounced any meeting between Mr. Wei and U.S. 
officials. 

“We are opposed to U.S. government officials 
meeting Wei Jingsheng and we are opposed ro making 
use of Wei Jingsheng in anti-Chinese activities,” said 
die ministry spokesman. Tang Guoqiang. * 'Wei Jing- 
sheng is a criminal.” 

His release Nov. 16 came amid a dramatic nor- 
malization of U.S.-Chinese ties that hadbeen crowned 
in late October by the state visit of President Jiang 
Zemin to Washington. 

In addition, China trade relationship with the United 
States is becoming increasingly tightly wound. A 
centerpiece of the Clinton-liang meeting — China's 
promise to stop nuclear assistance to Iran in exchange 
for being allowed to purchase U.S. civilian nuclear 
technology — provides further incentive for both sides 
to maintain a productive relationship, analysts say. 

Chinese objections to the meeting with Mr. Wei were 
shrugged off by foe White House. Some human rights 
groups wrote off foe Chinese objection as pro forma. 

“I think the two governments have established a 
framework, and clearly there is an understanding that it 
is in both governments’ interests to be able to point to 
some progress in human rights." said Michael Jendrze- 
jezyk of Human Rights Watch/Asia, a group that has 
worked with Mr. Wei since, his arrival in foe United 
States last month. 

Any concerns thai Beijing may have about foe meet- 
ing, Mr. Jendizejczyk added, will be far overshadowed 
by a desire not to upset plans for a state visit by Mr. 
Clinton next year. Mr. Wei’s release was believed to 
have been a quid pro quo for the Jiang visit 

The dissident, who is 47. arrived in Detroit on Nov. 
18 for medical treatment. After 18 years in and out of 

See DISSIDENT, Page 6 


Ailing North Korea 
Is Hanging on Tight 
As Peace Talks Open 


By Sonni Efron 

Los Angeles Times Service 

TOKYO — North Korea may be a seriously ailing 
nation, but in characteristic defiance of foreign pre- 
dictions, it is refusing to die. 

Now, conventional wisdom in Japan and foe United 
States is shifting. Instead of preparing for imminent 
collapse. North Korea-walchers in Tokyo, Washing- 
ton and other capitals are trying to work out foe best 
way — if any — to deal with a Kim Jong n regime that 
could survive for an unknowable time to come. 

“Back in March, people were ready to write North 
Korea's obimary, but now, since the victim refused to 
die in foe time period allocated, there's been some 
revision.” said Nicholas Eberstadi of the American 
Enterprise Institute in Washington. 

U.S. officials are braced for a diplomatic marathon 
scheduled to begin Tuesday, when, after a 44-year 
hiatus, the combatants in foe Korean War — North and 
South Korea, China and foe United States — will sit 
down in Geneva to try to negotiate a peace treaiy to 
replace the armistice that ended the war. The stated 
agenda is “foe establishment of a peace regime on the 
Korean Peninsula and issues concerning tension re- 
duction there.” 

Mindful of foe militarized enmity that now prevails, 
a senior U.S. official predicted that the t alks could last 
• *at least a few years. ’ ’ Others believe they could take 
a decade. 

The cynical view is that the North Koreans will 
engage only in "meetings for money” and will try to 
play Washington and Beijing against each other to the 
North’s benefit. 


most opti 
; — in Gee 


process — in ueneva or at other talks — could lead to 
a pullback of troops on both sides of the Demilitarized 
Zone, more progress on locating American MlAs, and 
even foe scrapping of North Korea’s suspected chem- 
ical, biological and long-range missile arsenals in 
exchange for trade and investment 

Russia — which is now supplying arms to North and 
South Korea — and Japan eventually will want to be 
included in the talks and should be guarantors of any 
final pact said Hajime Izumi of Shizuoka Uni- 
versity. 

To some observers. North Korea’s survival up to 
now seems nothing short of miraculous. It has been 
seven years since the Soviet Union abruptly pulled the 
foreign aid plug on foe client regime of foe late 
President Kim n Sung. 

The Seoul-based Bank of Korea estimates that the 
North Korean economy shrank about 30 percent be- 
tween 1991 and 1996, and three years of floods and 
drought have gutted foe North's food supply, which 
was already meager. Nevertheless, Kim Jong II has 

See KOREA, Page 6 




INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1997 


* Friendly 9 Barrier / U.S.-Moxleo Division 


Hoping Good Fences 
Make Good Neighbors 


By Sam Howe Verfaovek 

New York Times Service 


N OGALES, Arizona — When the U.S. 
government decided to build a barrier 
against the flow of illegal immigrants 
and drugs across the border between 
Mexico and this Arizona desert town, it drew up 
a list of official specifications. 

The barrier, it said, must be resistant to “re- 
peated physical assault by means such as weld- 
ing torches, chisels, hammers, firearms, climb- 
ing over or penetration with vehicles.” 

And one other thing, the government said: 
Make the barrier absolutely as friencfly-looking 
as possible, something that will evoke me friend- 
ship between the two nations. 

As the specifications put it, “Means shall be 
provided to allow light and a feeling of openness 
to be present along the perimeter of the barrier.” 

The 14-foot-high (4.2-meter) result, to which 
workers here are just now putting the final 
touches, is a most unusual piece of architecture. 


steel landing mats used by U.S. 
forces in Vietnam 30 years ago, a 
fence with edges so sharp that several 
Mexican citizens who' have tried to 
scale it have lost their fingers. 

The concrete is steel-reinforced, 
but it is also salmon-colored, inlaid 
with multicolored stone chips and 


with tiles that eventually may be dec- 
orated with children’s art. The struc- 


orated with children’s art. The struc- 
ture has large blue-trimmed open- 



Her Bid for No* 2 Job 
In ANC Is Said to Fail 


mgs built into it, covered with steel 


grating that has small boles, through 
which people may look across the 


intended to be forbidding yet friendly, inim ical 
but somehow inviting all at the same time. 


but somehow inviting all at the same time. 

Federal officials hope the structure will serve 
as a prototype as the United States, which already 
has 62 miles (100 kilometers) of steel walls and 
chain-link and barbed-wire fences along its bor- 
der with Mexico, replaces those barriers and adds 
more along other puts of the border. 

Here at the Dennis DeConcini Port of Entry in 
Nogales, the new quarter-mile concrete struc- 
ture, which officials prefer to call a fence rather 
than a wall, separates the downtowns of the 
Nogales in Arizona and its sister city of Nogales 
in the Mexican state of Sonora. 


which people may look across the 
border and even talk to each other. 

“When we started, the design 
problem seemed to us an almost im- 
possible contradiction in terms,*’ 
said Peter Dubin, a principal in the 
Chicago-based architectural design 
firm that got the contract far the 
$750,000 barrier project. 

The project is being paid for by the 
United States; the Mexican govern- 
ment is no fan of the barriers. 

'‘Tire idea was, on the one hand, 
make it an impenetrable barrier," 
Mr. Dubin said. "On the other hand, 
it was, make it some grand piece of 
architecture that opens up the borders 
between north and south. Make it 
light and open and airy and 
friendly." 

Delighted government officials 
say the new barrier achieves their 
aims. 


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The structure, which officials prefer to call a fence rather than a wall, runs along the 
thin line that separates the downtowns of the Nogales in Arizona and its sister city of 
Nogales in the Mexican state of Sonora. People on either side can peer through. ~ 


F EDERAL officials insist the barrier is 
necessary to deter illegal immigration 
and drug smuggling and, most impor- 
tant, to protect federal agents and cus- 
toms inspectors who have been shot at in several 
episodes along the border in recent years. 

The structure, which took six months to erect 
under the supervision of the U.S. Customs Ser- 
vice, replaces an ugly, rusting fence built from 


“It works," said Joe Lafaia, deputy port di- 
rector with the Customs Service here. And it 


really did come out very pleasing, as far as the 
color and texture are concerned" 

Whether the structure will be judged to be a 
success by architecture critics and by the res- 
idents on both sides, rerriains to be seen. 

On the Mexican side, especially, many people 
wish there were no barriers between the two 
countries. With the Berlin Wall having come 
crashing down in Europe and with the United 


States promoting free trade with its Latin neigh- 
bors, they ask why walls and fences are going up 
at all? “I would prefer no wall.** said Fabio 
Monroy, 36, who runs a popular hangout on the 
Mexican side. 

“It all seems very inconsistent" Mr. Monroy 


said “We have NAFTA, we’re supposed to be 
friends, but we have this big wall dividing us." 

And yet, if there must be a barrio-, there seems 
to be almost universal agreement that the new 
structure is infini tely more ap pealing fan the 
military landing mats. ‘ ‘It is more aesthetic." said 


Wenceslao Cota Montoya, mayor of the Mexican 
city of Nogales. He described the new structure 
with the Spanish word digno, which loosely trans- 
lates to “worthy" or “meritorious.” 

On the American side, Paul Bracker, owner of 
a department store a block from the border, 
helped lobby for the new fence. He said it was a 
vast improvement over the landing-mat struc- 
ture. 

‘ ‘It was an affront to die people, our neighbors 
to die south, as well as ourselves,’’ Mr. Bracker 
said. 


Congo’s President Keeps the Door Closed to Political Opposition 


By Howard W. French 

New York Times Service 


KINSHASA, Congo — When Arthur 
Z’Ahidi Ngoma decided last week to 
test the waters in the new Congo to see 
just how much space there was for op- 
* position polmcj^, (i £p. rawer hp.gpt 
was as swift as it was brutal 
- - On the second day of a political for- 
um organized by Mr. Ngoma, a former 
United Nations official and leader of a 
small political group called the Forces 
of the Future, Congolese security forces 
cordoned off the area around the city- 
center hotel where the event was being 
held. 

Warned by associates not to approach 


portedly stripped and beaten, some re- 
ceiving as many as 40 lashes. 

According to Kitwanga Ngoma, Ar- 
thur Ngoma’s brother and one of those 
beaten, a police officer said; “You 
people want to take power and make us 
go back into the forest Why are you 


these again. “We have been subjected 
to illegal detention, physical and moral 
torture, and inhumane conditions of de- 
tention,” he wrote. “But if this is the 
mice we must pay, it is worth it for 
democracy.” 

In one of his first acts after over- 


o^the^O or^ people 


the area, Mr. Ngoma tried to continue 
the meeting at his house. But heavily 
armed police officers burst into his com- 
pound. spewing tear gas and firing live 
rounds into the air, arresting all who 
were gathered there. 

Once in detention, Mr. Ngoma and 
those in attendance, including foreign 
and Congolese journalists, were re- 


who were arrested have been released^ 
Arthur Ngoma remains in detention un- 
der the new government of Laurent 
Kabila. 

Before Mr. Kabila overthrew the dic- 
tator, Mobutu Sese Seko, Mr. Ngoma 
was a relatively obscure member of die 
political class that forced Marshal 
Mobutu to accept multiparty politics 
although it paid the price of arrests, 
beatings, exile and occasional execu- 
tions. 

From his jail cell, Mr. Ngoma man- 
aged to have smuggled out a defiant 
note, scribbled on a scrap of paper and 
sent to a foreign journalist, saying that 
his country's opposition politicians 
must be willing to make sacrifices like 


activity by any party but his own. -the - 
Alliance of Democratic Forces for the 
Liberation of Congo. Six months later, 
there is little sign that Mr. Kabila's 
government intends to loosen its hold on 
the country’s politics. 

One week before Mr. Ngoma’s arrest, 
the police broke up a meeting in the 
capital called by the largest opposition 
party, tiie Union for Social Democracy 
and Progress. 

Under Mr. Kabila's government, sev- 
eral members of the party have spent 
months in jail. And members of that 
party and others have been turned away 
at the airport, denied the right to travel 
abroad, or had their houses and offices 
ransacked. Critical Congolese journa- 


lists have been repeatedly arrested. 

Congo has the unusual distinction of 
having been the home of one of Africa’s 
longest-running dictatorships — that of 
Marshal Mobutu, who ran the country 
under the name of Zaire — and having a 
tradition of energetic pluralism. 

Jtam. I990kto.the.thne of Marshal 


senior Interior Ministry official who 
spoke on condition of anonymity. * 'You 
people can complain about democracy, 
but what we need most is peace.” 

Mr. Kabila has promised multiparty 
elections in two years. Until then, his 
alliance is the only political party al- 
„ lowed to organize openly. - - . - , 


Reuters 

JOHANNESBURG — Ptesidem 
Nelson Mandela's farmer wife, Winnie 
Madflrizela-Mandela, has failed to wfa ~ 
formal nomination as deputy leader or 
the governing African National CptiHit 
gress, state radio and party sources'sap" 
Monday. ; y 

State radio said the ANC Women^g 
League, of which Mrs. Madikizete- 
Mandela is president, decided over- tie 
weekend not to make any proposals fgr 
senior positions when the party holds hs 
50th national conference next week, 

The decision followed Mtt. 

Madflozela-Mandela's nine-day ap- 
pearance before the Truth, and Recon- 
ciliation Commission, where she wfe 
accused of kidnapping, assault add 
murder. . *- 

Mrs. Madi kize la- Mandela. . who w*. 
divorced by Mr. Mandela last year, 
denied all the allegations. 

A party spokesman, Ronnie 
Mamoepa, confirmed that the Women’s 
League was not entitled to make a direct . 
nomination for the post and said Jacob- flj 
Zuma, the ANC’s leader in KwaZulti- < 
Natal Province, was the only formal 
candidate for the post. 

He said, however, he was not an 
au thorized spokesman for the W omen's 
League, which was expected to make a 
statement on the matter soon. 

Women's League officials were un- 
available for comment, but a party 
source confirmed that the league bad 
decided over the weekend to withdraw 
its support for Mrs. Madikizela-Marv- 
dela’s nomination. 

Mrs. Madikize la- Mandela. 63. is 
presidenr of the Women's League and 
had been named by the organization as • 
their choice for the post of deputy leader i 
of- the ANC, which ousted South 
Africa's white rulers in elections in 
1994. 

Mr. Mandela, 79, will step down as 
party leader at the conference and 
Deputy President Thabo Mbeki cur- 
rently is the only candidate for the po- 
sition. 

ANC leaders have identified Mr. 
Zuma as their preferred candidate for 
the position of deputy leader, which will 
become vacant when Mr. Mbeki takes 
control. 


I Testimony on Bike's Death 


the rme of Marshal lowed.to erganizo-openly. < 

]X)]itid]SBs , fT 7 me^orlr apparently- aimed cal’’ 
4g6ma^and the Trader of the 1 ' odeling* dora“es&e-“-dKsent, r ' placating 


chip away at Marshal Mobutu's sweep- 
ing powers to the point where he was 
forced to allow open opposition. 

Mr. Tshisekedi served briefly three 
times as prime minister, but was unable 
to wrest power from Marshal Mobutu. 

Many here hoped that Mr. Kabila 
would cooperate with the established 
opposition, but die new president, who 


some second-tier members of the op- 
position into his government, where 
they occupy secondary roles, but has 
insisted that they drop any party af- 
filiation. 

Many in the opposition say dial they 
have no intention of submitting to Mr. 
Kabila's transition plan. 

“Our margin of maneuver is nil,” 


for years operated an obscure guerrilla said Joseph Kapika, a senior member of 
movement in the country's far east, de- the Union for Social Progress and De- 


cided almost immediately to govern 
with his parly alone. 

“What we want in this country is 
peace, so that we can develop,” said a 


the Union for Social Progress and De- 
mocracy. “But we must dare to speak 
up, whatever die cost. The price of not 
doing so -is seeing another dictatorship 
take root.” 


An araitheid policeman testified 
Motiday/ Jhatife dro&ea gfetraeoAscious, 
' naked - Steve - Bikfr T.tQfJ kilometers 
from Port Elizabeth 1 t&Ftatofid in 1977, 
tired lied -ro prison medical officials 
about Biko’s condition. The Associated 
Press reported from Port El izabeth. 

- “I told the men,” the former po- 
liceman, Brigadier General Daniel 
Siebert said to the Truth commission, 
“that there was an assumption he was 
making as if he was sick” and that Mr. 
Biko was on a hunger strike. 

Mr. Biko, a major anti-apartheid fig- 
ure in South Africa, died Sept. 1 2, 1977. 
of brain injuries. His death came several 
days after he was beaten by police dur- 
ing an interrogation, then driven in the 
back of a police pickup truck from Port 
Elizabeth to Pretoria. 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


WEATHER 


Johannesburg’s Carlton Shrinks 

JOHANNESBURG (Reuters) — The Carlton Hotel, now a 
modem skyscraper but with a history linked to Johannesburg 's 
19th-century gold rush, closed all its bedrooms in the main 
hotel ai,the end of last week, managers said Monday. 

That leaves just 63 rooms open in an annex out of the 
original 600 rooms, a result of plummeting trade related to 


rampant street crime that over the last decade has caused an 
exodus of shops, offices, hotels, theaters and restaurants to the 
mails of the more affluent suburbs. 


.Europe 


Today 
«ti UmV 


Forecast for Wednesday through Friday, as provided by AccuWea trier 


The Hard Rock Cafe in Tel Aviv — sandwiched between 
the sites of two gruesome suicide bombings — has closed 
down, a casualty of slumping tourism to Israel, a spokesman 
for a group of foreign investors said Monday. (Reuters) 




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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1997 

THE AMERICAS 


PAGE 3 


A 50- Year Consensus Bends as U.S. Increasingly Looks Inward on Trade 


-.4' 

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in-*-*.-* 

1 . Vi ,, 


By Steven Pearlstein 

MishiqtumPkufSmm 

WASHINGTON — Last mnmfr ^ 
economic turmoil in Asia threatened to 
spread to South Korea and Japan, the 
Federal Reserve Board's chairman, Alan 
Greenspan, and the deputy Treasury sec- 
retary, Lawrence Summers, went to Cap- 
itol Hill to explain why it was happening 
and what could be done to slop a. 

Around the world, financial markets 
waited nervously for their testimony. 
But for an hour, the two men sat silently 
as members of the House Banking Com- 
* mittee lectured them about human rights 
,1 violations in Indonesia, the declining 
wages of blue-collar workers and the 
folly of using money from U.S. tax- 
payers to bail out foreign countries that 
were stealing American jobs. 

When they finally got a chance to 
speak, Mr. Greenspan and Mr. Sum- 
mers pleaded with committee members 
to increase the U.S. contribution to the 
International Monetary Fund as the best 
way to contain the Asian contagion. But 
their pleas fell on deaf ears: Congress 
adjourned for a two-month holiday after 


stripping the new IMF money from die 
annual appropriations bill as a result of 
an unrelated dispute over abortion. 

This episode is the latest illustration 
of what many observers view as a retreat 
from die internationalist consensus that 
has governed U.S. economic policy for 
50 years. No longer, it seems, is there an 
unchallenged belief that Americans are 
better off when their economy is open 
and their government assumes the bur- 
dens of leadership in world affairs. 

The recent defeat of “fast-trade” 
trade authority in Congress was the 
most dramatic evidence that thi s con- 
sensus may be unwinding, but there are 
other indications as weH 

The public remains largely opposed to 
U.S.-funded financial rescues for foreign 
economies. Opposition to the Mexican 
bailout two years ago was so intense that 
the Clinton administration was reluctant 
to take part in the lust of this year’s 
Asian rescues in Thailand. Congress’s 
recent refusal to approve IMF funding 
led a top Fund official to warn Friday that 
the agency could find itself strapped for 
resources if it was called upon to deal 
with other looming crises. There also is 


widespread concern that the United 
States has handed over too much au- 
thority to international organizations ^ 
the World Trade Organization, which 
last week ruled against Eastman Kodak 
Co. in its effort to open Japanese markets 
to Amadcan products. 

Impatience with the old internation- 
alism also is reflected in recent attempts 
by Congress to impose economic sanc- 
tions cm allies who refuse to follow the 
U.S. lead on foreign policy issues. 

To Washington veterans, these are 
signs that the United States has become 
increasingly isolationist, protectionist 
and nationalistic in its economic affairs. 
They even have a name for the phe- 
nomenon: globalphobia. 

*' This is a period of unparalleled lack 
of understanding and inte rest in inter- 
national economic matters,” said Arden 
Judd, a lobbyist for Dresser Industries 
Inc. “You don’t seem to have the ap- 
preciation of the importance of U.S. 
actions on the world scene.” 

James Baker, a former Republican 
secretary of state and Treasury, said the 
past six months have evidenced “a re- 
grettable retreat from the country’s in- 


ternationalist tradition.” 

One reason the old internationalist 
consensus lasted as long as it did is that 
policy-maJriag was left to an £Iite group 
of Americans — public officials, econ- 
omists, corporate executives and ed- 
itorial writers — who cared deeply 
about multilateral institutions, em- 
braced free trade and never doubted that 
the world was better off when tite 
United States took the lead. 

But as the globalization of finance 
and the dramatic increase in trade 
touched nearly every American as a 
worker, consumer and investor, the pub- 
lic has become less willing to defer to 
policy Elites. 

A large number of Americans blame 
that globalization for slow economic 
growth or a decline in their standard of 
living, even as they flock to imported 
goods and shift their retirement money 
to overseas investments. . 

At the same time, a wide range of 
special interest groups — from labor 
unions, environmentalists and human 
rights activists on the political left to 
Christian fundamentalists, anti-abor- 
tion activists and isolationists on the 


right — have become unlikely bedfel- 
lows in an emerging coalition that re- 
jects the old consensus. 

In addressing Mr. Summers and Mr. 
Greenspan last month. Representative 
Barney Frank, Democrat of Massachu- 
setts, complained that, is the past, con- 
cerns about human rights or growing 
inequality were treated as mere dis- 
tractions by policymakers. 

"When adults sit down to serious 
business, other concerns get brushed 
off," Mr. Frank said. ‘ ’All that counts in 
the end is the mobility of capital. Well, 
let me tell you, that’s about to end.” 

A similar warning was issued last 
week at Harvard University by the 
House minority leader, Richard Geph- 
ardt, Democrat of Missouri, who called 
for a “new internationalism” that ad- 
heres as much to American values as it 
does to the dictates of die marketplace. 

“In a new era of globalization, the 
forces of commerce and technology are 
weaving the world closer together” but 
was “pulling our own people further 
part,” Mr. Gephardt said. “Our chal- 
lenge is once again to link capitalism 
with values and standards.” 


Such populist rhetoric on internation- 
al economic issues has now become 
commonplace, used with equal effect by 
liberals such as Mr. Frank and Mr. 
Gephardt and conservatives such as die 
commentator Patrick Buchanan, the 
Senate Banking Committee's chairman, 
Alfonse D’ Amato. Republican of New 
York, and the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee's chairman, Jesse Helms, 
Republican of North Carolina. 

In the past, presidents and congres- 
sional leaders could justify internation- 
alist policies as a necessary step to shore 
up the anti-Communist fire wall during 
the Cold War, said Pietro Nivola, a 
scholar at the Brookings Institution. 
“Now, however, that large strategic ar- 
chitecture is gone, and things like free 
trade and support for (he IMF are cas- 
ualties of that,” he said. 

Erik Peterson, director of the project 
on the new global economy at the Cen- 
ter for Strategic and International Stud- 
ies, notes that because of retirements 
and elections. Congress has lost most of 
the centrist Democrats and Republicans 
who formed die nucleus of the inter- 
nationalist diite. 


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POLITICAL 


^ Convention Whirl Opens 

WASHINGTON — — In the “it is never 

• too early” category, the national political 
parties are beginning to scope out locations 
for their conventions in 2000. 

The Democratic National Committee 
sent letters to officials in 27 cities last week 
inviting them to submit proposals to hold 
the event. Having the convention in their 
. city could mean “economic benefits, na- 
. ■ tional and international attention and polit- 
ical exposure." said the letter from the co- 
chairmen of the Democratic National Com- 
mittee, Steve Grossman and Governor Roy 
Romer of Colorado. “Based on Chicago’s 
estimates, the 1996 convention generated 
more than $ 1 30 million for the city in direct 
economic benefits.” 

Among the cities invited are two in Vice 

■ President A1 Gore’s home state of Ten- 
. /lessee and two in Missouri, the state of 

Richard Gephardt, the House minority lead- 
. er and one of Mr. Gore’s potential rivals. 

The Republicans named a Wyoming 
woman to run their site-selection commit- 
tee: Jan Larimer, vice chairwoman of die 

■ Republican National Committee for the 

Western slates. (WP) 

Angry Porsche Driver 

WASHINGTON — First came the anon- 
ymous letter. 

’ ‘On Dec. 2, Rep. Bill Thomas, driving 

• his black Porsche 928, cut off a Department 
of Defense van picking up four DoD em- 

. ployees at a crosswalk in front of die Ray- 
: • bum House Office Building.” The letter 
said Mr. Thomas “verbally assaulted the 
DoD driver for stopping in front of him.” 

They thought Mr. Thomas was “a pos- 
. sible terrorist,” but “all five DoD em- 
ployees escaped unharmed.” 

Then a House source called two days 
later to say she was “walking behind a 
i . . group of four men” right around lunch time 
v ' Tuesday when 3 van stopped in die cross- 
, walk to pick them up. The van blocked 

• someone in a Porsche who learned on the 
■ horn “loudly and for a long time,” then 

drove around the van and cut it off in the 
front on a 45-degree angle. “It was right 
out of ‘Magnum, P-l..' a totally ’70s cop 


Clinton’s Record: Accumulation of Small Ideas 


,*~-**r 



CiCf CDsam/IV Amculed Pna 

President Bill Clinton at a church in 
Washington, where he said he was de- 
termined to make the capital a “shin- 
ing city on the hill for all America.'” 

show driving maneuver.” The Porsche 
driver ran into a nearby Capitol Police 
substation in the Longworth House Office 
Building and “came back with three cops, 
pointing his finger and yelling” at the 
people in the van, she said. 

An aide, after verifying tbai Mr. Thomas 
was driving the Porsche that day, not his 
usual BMW, said the van was stopped in 
the middle of the street Mr. Thomas, a 
California Republican who is chairman the 
House Oversight Committee, is thinking of 
“putting up a sign that the middle of the 
road is not a pickup spot — use the curb,” 
die aide joked. (WP) 

Quote /Unquote 

President Bill Clinton pledging to work 
more closely with officials in the District of 
Columbia: “I don’t believe our national 
government has always been the best 
neighbor to the city of Washington. Bat we 
are committed to becoming a better neigh- 
bor." (WP) 


By James Bennet 
and Robert Pear 

New for* Tunes Service 

WASHINGTON — By 
legislation, regulation and ex- 
hortation, President Bill Clin- 
ton has generated a remark- 
able number of seemingly 
modest initiatives. 

Though often derided as 
political gestures, some of the 
little ideas, from advocating 
school uniforms to insuring 
overnight hospital stays for 
new mothers, have had sig- 
nificant influence around the 
country. Taken together, Mr. 
Clinton’s initiatives have pro- 
duced coherent and substan- 
tial changes in health care, 
and to a lesser extent in edu- 
cation and social services. 

His ideas are screened by 
pollsters and picked in part to 
enhance his popularity. But 
brick by brick, Mr. Clinton is 
proving himself to be the in- 
cremental president, accom- 
plishing piecemeal some of 
what he cannot do all at 
once. 

Having defeated him in 
some head-on fights, the pres- 
ident's political opponents 
now wony that he is achiev- 
ing his goals by other means. | 

“President Clinton is still 
trying to get his health care | 
plan into law, piece by 
piece,” said Representative i 
Dick Armey, Republican of 
Texas, who is House majority , 
leader. “President Clinton 
would like nothing more than 
a triumph of incrementalism 1 
whereby he enacts his entire 
Health Security Act before he 1 
leaves office.” 

In an interview Thursday, 
the president became most 
animated when it was sug- 
gested that many of his policy 
initiatives seemed small- 




Away From 

' Pgjjjjgg 

• A construction project 
gave way and nearly a ton of 
bricks fell off the side of a 40- 
story office building in New 

* York City. Most of them were 

* caught by a safety net, but 

debris fell onto a crowded 
street in Manhattan, injuring a 
3-year-old girl. (AP) 

•A woman who gained 
prominence for cutting off 
her husband's penis but was 
acquitted in 1994 for reason 
of insanity was arraigned on 
charges of assault, the police 
in Woodhrid ge. Virginia, 
said. Lorcna Gallo, formerly 
Lorena Bobbitt, allegedly 
struck her mother. (Reuters) 

• An 1 1-year-old boy was 
arrested on suspicion of ar- 
son after a fins that caused 
$175,000 in damage at a Dal- 
las elementary school. (AP) 

| •Two private planes col- 
lided in the air near Bozeman, 

Montana. killing three 
people. < AP} 


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bore. Leaning forward in his 
yellow armchair, he began 
scooping the air with his 
hands as he repeatedly 
stretched out the word “bi-i- 
ig” to describe his sup- 
posedly little notions. 

“A lot of these so-called 
small ideas make a big dif- 
ference,” Mr. Clinton said. 
He and his aides maintain 
that, while many of their ini- 
tiatives are ridiculed as pid- 
dling by politicians in Wash- 
ington, they loom large in 
classrooms and at dinner 
tables everywhere else. 

Dealt a series of legislative 
defeats at the end of Con- 
gress’s last session, belittled 
as a lame duck and beset by 
campaign finance charges, 
Mr. Clinton is trying to retain 
the political initiative in 
Washington and his grip on 
the public's attention. To do 
so, he is relying on an ap- 
proach he developed from 
hard experience in his first 
term. 

In September 1993. Mr. 
Clinton brandished a red, 
white and blue “health se- 
curity card” before Congress 


and proposed to reshape one- 
seventh of the nation's econ- 
omy. But after the crushing 
defeat of his health care pro- 
posal, Mr. Clinton found him- 
self the first Democratic pres- 
ident since Hany Truman 
facing Republican majorities 
in both houses of Congress. 
His commitment to reducing 
the federal budget deficit — 
which his aides are coming to 
view as one of his foremost 
accomplishments — further 
restricted his freedom to pro- 
pose costly programs. 

But Mr. Clinton remained 
absorbed by domestic policy 
and eager to prove his polit- 
ical relevance by making it, 
his associates say. As a result, 
since 1995 the president has 
continuously experimented 
with die powers of his office 
to generate initiatives, relying 
more on executive orders and 
the bully pulpit. 

“We developed a process 
by necessity in the wake of 
the '94 elections where we 
had to spend a lot more time 
focusing on executive ac- 
tion,” said Bruce Reed, di- 
rector of Mr. Clinton’s Do- 


mestic Policy Council. "And 
1 think , you know, we have 
the drill down now.” 

Many outside the admin- 
istration mock the slender 
ideas, and they have become 
fat political targets. In a 
speech Tuesday, Representa- 
tive Dick Gephardt, the 
House minority leader, who 
has been positioning himself 
as a Democratic alternative to 
Vice President A1 Gore in the 
next presidential race, de- 
clared, “Too often, our lead- 
ers seem enamored with 
small ideas that nibble around 
the edges of big problems.” ■ 

Charles Jones, a political 
scientist at the University of 
Wisconsin, offered a more 
nuanced view. He said that 
the “trivialization of presi- 
dential power” under Mr. 
Clinton had enabled the pres- 
ident to define a role for him- 
self when, by his own ad- 
mission. the era of big 
government is over. 

‘ ‘Here is a guy on a lifetime 
search for issues, a policy- 
ambitious president who 
would like to see himself in 
the tradition of great Demo- 


cratic presidents,” Mr. Jones 
said. “But he is hemmed in 
politically. Clinton has found 
a way to be an activist pres- 
ident in political conditions 
that would suggest inactivity 
by the government.” 

’ ’Why should the president 
be interested in these com- 
mon, ordinary household is- 
sues?” Mr. Jones asked. 
“They show his empathetic 
quality, his understanding of 
die little problems that people 
truly face. And they show 
there is still a critical role for 
national political leaders to 
play when we don't have 
great big thundering econom- 
ic or international crises.” 

His final campaign is be- 
hind them, but the president's 
' aides still seize ideas for polit- 
ical purposes, to advance his 
chosen themes: community, 
opportunity and responsibil- 
ity. They still commission 
polls to test the popularity of 
new ideas. But Mr. Clinton's 
aides argue that the ideas also 
make good policy, furthering 
his efforts to improve edu- 
cation and training, cut crime 
and protect children. 


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INTERNATIONAL 


1 


EU to Open 
Talks With 
Six Nations 

Enlargement Won't Add 
Turkey for This Round 

By Barry James 

International Heraid Tribune 

BRUSSELS — European Union for- 
eign ministers Monday night upheld a 
decision Co open enlargement negoti- 
ations with six nations next year, while 
leaving formal talks with an additional 
five for lata. . 

The ministers’ decision will form the 
basis for formal invitations to the can- 
didate nations at the European summit 
meeting in Luxembourg on Friday and 
Saturday. The talks would begin in 
April. 

The ministers, however, arrived at no 
decision on Turkey’s request to join die 
Union. 

Foreign Minister Jacques Poos of 
Luxembourg said a special process 
would be established for Turkey that 
“will involve specific meetings with 
that country with a view to discussing 
various problems." 

Doe diplomat put it this way, “We are 
fudging, we are fudging, we are 
fudging.” 

The ministers, in effect, accepted the 
recommendation of the European Com- 
mission, the EU executive body, that 
only six countries are able to comply 
with foe Union’s 80.000 pages of laws, 
directives and other membership re- 
quirements. The countries are Cyprus, 
tbe Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, 
Poland and Slovenia. 

Mr. Poos said tbe five other countries 
— Bulgaria. Latvia, Lithuania, Rumania 
and Slovakia — would be closely as- 
sociated with die enlargement process, 
and that negotiations for them to join 
could open at any time if they could meet 
the political and economic conditions. In 
the meantime, they will receive 100 mil- 
lion European Currency Units in ad- 
ditional aid in 1998 and 1999 to help 
diem catch up with die more advanced 
candidates in such areas as privatization 
and modernization of their economies, 
combating fraud and absorbing foreign 
direct investment. 

The ministers also recommended es- 
tablishing a conference to include all 
candidates for entry, including Turkey. 
But this may fall short of the demand that 
Turkey has been making for membership 
for more than a quarter of a century. 

Ankara’s record on human rights and 
press freedom, the backwardness of its 
-economy and tbe fact that most of the 
nation is in Asia make it an unlikely 
candidate for Union membership. 

But it is also the linchpin of Europe’s 
southern flank as a member of the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization, which 
analysts said was one reason why the EU 
has never been able to rale ont eventual 
membership. 

Theodores Pangalos, the Greek for- 
eign minister, indicated that Athens 
might veto an attempt to set up a con- 
ference dial included Turkey. He said 
there was no sense in setting up yet 
another body when there was nothing of 
substance to discuss. “It is aimed at 
creating impressions,’ ’ he said. “It would 
simply be a structured dialogue." 

Before Turkey could engage in mean- 
ingful talks with the EU, he said, it should 
improve its record on human rights and 
accept the jurisdiction of the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice in its territorial 
with Greece. Above all, he ad- 
there could be no closer relations 



speaking pan of the island since 1974 in 
defiance of UN resolutions. Mr. Pan- 
galos said he hoped that Turkish-Cyp- 
riots would be represented in the talks 
for EU accession. 

Mr. Pangalos also maintained that 
Turkey did not meet a single criterion for 
EU membership. 

“Tbe trouble is that Turkey is too 
big,” be said. “It bas too much territory, 
too many people and too tittle money. 
Let’s work on getting more money for 
Turkey." 


Shipley lakes Oath 
In New Zealand 

CanpM be OtrSuffFnm DbpaKbts 

WELLINGTON, New Zealand 
— Jenny Shipley formally took of- 
fice Monday as prime minister, be- 
coming New Zealand’s first woman 
to hold tbe post. 

At a pros conference, the new 
prime minister announced a five- 
point agenda, including enhance- 
ment of famil y and community val- 
ues, cutting government operating 
costs, improving education and 
children health, and possibly cutting 
taxes. 

“Many people have high expec- 
tations of me,' Mrs. Shipley said. 

Mrs. Shipley, who received 
Queen Elizabeth ITs official ap- 
proval to govern this Common- 
wealth nation, took power in a short 
ceremony at Government House. 
After the ceremony, she returned to. 
Parliament to preside at her first 
cabinet meeting. 

“It seems to me that women and 
men, when they work together, are 
extremely effective, and I hope that 
by my leadership." she said, “we 
may see things (tone differently." 

Mrs. Shipley appointed her cab- 
inet Friday, naming a group of eco- 
nomic hard-liners to the ministries 
of health, welfare, education and 
commerce. Mis. Shipley said she 
planned to focus on social’ 
policy. (AP, Reuters) 



Laic fnznJAfaa: Fracc-Prenc 


Hearing Opens on Crash of TWA Flight 800 

Ana Cremades of France conferring Monday with her husband, Jose Cremades, president of the European Association of 
TWA Victims, at the opening of a weekbng National Transportation Safety Board hearing in Baltimore. The panel has 
released papas suggesting that fuel vapors or bad wiring caused the crash off New York in which 230 people were killed. 


Iran Welcomes Ex-Foes 

Saudi, Kuwaiti and Iraqi Officials at Talks 


The Associated Press 

TEHRAN — Sane of Iran’s former 
foes arrived with other Muslim heads of 
state Monday for an Islamic conference 
rhai demonstrates Iran’s growing ac- 
ceptance. 

The leaders will attend a tfaiee-dw 
meeting, beginning Tuesday, of the 55- 
member Organization of the Islamic 
Conference. Itis the biggest gathering of 
foreign leaders in bran since the 1979 
revolution. 

Crown Prince Abdullah ibn Ab- 
itnlaTiT of Saudi Arabia was among (he 
early anrivals atMehrabad Airport in the 
first visit by a high-ranking Saudi of- 
ficial since the revolution. The visit fol- 
lows almost a year of diplomatic efforts 
to improve ties between Iran and Saudi 
Arabia, a key U.S. ally and tbe world’s 
largest oil exporter. 

President Mohammad Khatami of 
Iran kissed Prince Abdullah on both 
cheeks in a traditional greeting and es- 
corted him along a red carpet to a stand 
where (he Saudi anthem was played. 

Other arrivals included Sheikh Jaber 
al Ahmad as Sabah of Kuwait, a foe of 
Iran during its war with Iraq from 1980 
to 1988. 

In those years. Kuwait served as one 
of Iraq’s biggest financial backers while 


Iran’s revolutionary government regu- 
larly derided Gulf Arab leaders and 
vowed to export the Iranian revolution. 

It was tbe emir’s first visit to Iran and 
came amid efforts by Iran to improve its 
ties wife most of its neighbors. * 

Iraq, too, sent a delegation to the 
conference. Vice President Thha Yassin 
Ramadan left Baghdad by car for the 
Iraqi border, where be was transported in 
an Iran Air plane to Tehran . He is the 
tegbest-ranlong Iraqi to visit Tehran 

since the Gulf War in 199 1 . 

President Elian Hrawi of Lebanon^* 
the only Christian head of state at the * 
summit meeting — ■ landed with his 
countiy’s delegation, which includes 
Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. Looking 
frail, Mr. Hrawi was helped onto a plat- 
form at die airport by Mr. Khatami. ; 

The only hitch cameduring the arrival 
of tbe Palestinian leader. Yasser Arafa)L 
When Ir anian security men tried to step 
Mr. Arafat’s bodyguard from getting 
into a car with him, the guard shovqd 
them and was pushed back. The Iranians 
then relented, allowing the bodyguard to 
get in. 

The summit follows a two-day meet- 
ing of Muslim foreign ministers, who 
approved 140 resolutions feat will kje 
considered at the top. * 


POLICY: Russian Ouster of Iranian Sent U.S. a Signal of Cooperation on Arms Policy 


Continued from Page 1 

eluding U.S. financial aid, would suffer 
severe damage. 

Spurred by congressional demands 
for an international quarantine on Iran’s 
coven weapons program, tbe Clinton 
administration bas pursued parallel ini- 
tiatives with die two key suppliers: Mos- 
cow and Beijing, 

Both now appear close to being pub- 
licly declared successes. Things “seem 
co be working out* ’ with Moscow, aU.S. 
official acknowledged this weekend in 
Washington. 

Signaling success with Beijing, too, 

tito Clin tOn admin is fr arinn fias decided 

to certify China as a country with which 
the United States can do peaceful nu- 
clear business. Tbe U.S. decision, in- 
dicated during the visit of President Ji- 
ang Zemin this fell, was finalized after 
review of tbe Chinese leader's pledges to 
cat off transfers of conventionally aimed 
cruise missiles and nuclear technology 
to Iran after the completion of current 
rhinfigp assistance. 

Tn approaching Congress, the admin- 
istration has taken a cautious line about 
tbe results so far. In a classified report to 
congressional leaders late last month, 
according to an aide who read it, the 

adminis tration explained that intelli- 
gence about Iran over the coming 
months should enable the White House 
and Congress to determine whether Mr. 
Yeltsin bas delivered. China's status as a 
nuclearpartner will be subject to review, 
too, officials said. 

Already, however, diplomats feel that 
the talks have been an unusually sustained 
initiative by the Clinton administration. 
The State Department, with an inter- 
agency team, managed simultaneously to 
probe for a deal with Russia and work 
with an assertive Congress, an energetic 


performance that the Clinton adminis- 
tration has mustered only for major 
causes, according to insiders’ accounts. 

“It ranks right up there with NATO 
enlargement in terms of how much dip- 
lomatic energy has been invested," ac- 
cording to a State Department official 

Washington sold the NATO initiative 
to Russian officials essentially with the 
same arguments that five years earlier 
won Soviet acceptance of German re- 
unification: roughly, that the change was 
coming anyway, so Moscow needed to 
accept it and focus on getting the best 
terms it could. 

In contrast, there were few diplomatic 
precedents for getting Russian and 
Chinese help in quarantining Iran’s arms 
drive. Washington has never achieved an 
accord with Moscow a Beijing on curb- 
ing the arms race in the Middle East, so if 
a first step succeeds now. the impli- 
cations reach far beyond Gulf stability. 

It could be a milestone noticing re- 
cognition by die United States, Russia and 
China that while they may be rivals, they 
also share emerging strategic interests — 
in this case, nonproliferation of destabil- 
izing weapons of mass destruction. 

A broad overview of the process 
emerged in a series of recent interviews 
with offi cials , all of whom asked for 


under U.S. pressure, vetoed a Russian 
sale of weapons- related equipment. 

This time concern focused on ballistic 
missiles powerful and accurate enough 
to enable Iran to cast an intimidating 
shadow over the entire region. 

“Missiles are the key bottleneck for 
proliferators," a Pentagon specialist 
said. Iran’s surge, according to tbe in- 
telligence, was foeled by Russian help, 
including machine tools, weapons parts, 
gyroscopes for in-flight guidance, spe- 
cial metals, propellants, maintenance 

manuals and te chnic al perso nnel. 

But as evidence piled up, so did ques- 
tions about bow to handle me situation: If 
Russian officials were involved, they 


they probably were powerless to stop it. 

The intelligence reporting on sources 
was unclear. Who exactly was selling 
the materiel? Cabinet ministers in ca- 
hoots with KGB survivors? Factory 
managers and laboratory heads desper- 
ate for export sales to keep their busi- 
nesses alive? Or demoralized army units 
in possession of weapons never recorded 
in official inventories? Individual sci- 
entists turned mercenaries? 

In Russia’s armaments industry, a 
sprawling, opaque world that could be 
anonymity, from, tbe White House^the . leaking in a thousand places, was it 


State Department, the Pentagon and the 
Central Intelligence Agency along with 
congressional and Israeli sources. 

In their account, the Iranian weapons 
program became a major headache for 
the White House last winter when in- 
telligence reporting — much of it Israeli, 
but confirmed in large part by U.S. agen- 
cies — disclosed a shar p acceleration in 
Iranian covert weapons research. 

The threat was not nuclear weapons. 
Tehran seems to have shelved that pro- 
gram two years ago after Mr. Yeltsin, 


feasible to expect that the Russian bu- 
reancracy could spot and stop every 
renegade operation? 

The evidence added up to a troubling 
pattern. But it was not conclusive and it 
gave Washington no handle on what to do 


dubbed “tbe Wisner channel," referring 
to Bank Wisner, a diplomat brought back 
fnnnri recent reti rement as ambassador to 
Tnriia to head tbe U.S. team 

Mr. Wisner, 59, was known in Con- 
gress and had experience negotiating 
arms issues, especially proliferation, 
outside the traditional NATO context of 
arms control in Europe. 

His opposite n amber, Yuri K< 
beaded me Russian space agency, w) 
future depended heavily on U.S. funding 
and thus was a prime target for con- 
gressional cuts if negotiations failed. So 
he had an incentive to cooperate. 

Even so, the talks started badly. “The 
Russians would quickly come clean about 
some cases, like one involving gyro- 
scopes, where they had an explanation, 
but they would stonewall about cases they 
didn’t know we knew about or thought 
were too damaging to acknowledge," 
according to a U.S. intelligence analyst 
Sometimes Russian denials were con- 
vincing. On one occasion, officials 
laughed off CIA accusations, explaining 
that the deal was a swindle, that the 
Russian company was simply a shell with 
no equipment or products and only two 
employees, confidence men now injafl. 

Such detailed refutations were the ex- 
ception; often Russian negotiators 
simply took note of U.Sl allegations. - 
But tbe U.S. negotiators were getting* 
encouraging signs on one point: Russian 
officials seemed to know a lot about 
what was going on everywhere in the 
defense sector. “Russia is still the kind 


of place where the authorities have ways 
— unless Moscow was ready to help. of stopping anything they don’t like," a 

leHel- U.S. official recalls thinking. 


Confronted by Mr. Clinton at tbe . 
sinki summit meeting in March, Mr. 
Yeltsin agreed feat not even he could 
answer all tbe questions. To probe fee 
issue and negotiate on remedies, be and 
Mr. Clinton set up what diplomats quickly 


IMF: World Financial Upheavals Give Fund New Tasks and Risks 


Continued from Page 1 

years, starting with Mexico in 199S. 

“These international institutions, built 
for tbe days of sheltered national econ- 
omies, must now meet the challenges of 
fee new world of global markets, where 
no economy can or should shelter for long 
behind national controls and purely na- 
tional barriers,* ’ Gordon Brown, Britain’s 
chancellor of tbe Exchequer, has said. 

So heavy h3s been the demand on the 
Fbndoverfeepast few months that for tbe 
first time some analysts are raising ques- 
tions about whether it has enough money 
left to cope wife future crises, a concern 
that IMF officials say is premature. 

In the past few months, the Fund has 
had to come to the rescue of three coun- 
tries that had beat models for economic 
development: Thailand, Indonesia and 
South Korea. It has also had to attempt to 
keep tbe upheaval from destabilizing Ja- 
pan, Russia, Brazil — indeed, fee entire 
world economy. Under its leadership, 
international institutions and individual 
countries have pledged more than $100 
billion in aid to propping up Asia. 

As dentils emerge of how the South 
Korea bailout will work — and of how 
tbe country’s financial condition deteri- 
orated at a frightening pace over the past 


Tbe IMF feces avariety of other issues, 
including whether it can spot developing 
problems early enough to address mem 
before they reach a crisis point. 

Fa the past few years, the Fund has 
had only modest success in imposing 
sane financial discipline on one of the 
largest of its new breed of clients, Russia. 
In Asia, the Fund has grown increasingly 
frustrated wife Indonesia, in particular, 
fa wavering in its commitment to whip 
itself into shape. As a result, officials 
from the IMF and fee United States ap- 
proached the South Korea bailout intent 
on winning agreement to as many spe- 
cific, detailed provisions as possible. 

So adamant was Treasury Secretary 
Robert Rubin that tbe plan have teem, 
people involved in the talks said, that fee 
deal was held op fa 10 hours before 
Seoul agreed to such relatively arcane 
points as accounting standards trau would 
force companies to provide a clearer view 
of their financial condition. 

“The only thing fee United States did 
— Secretary Rubin — was to say, look, 
Korea has no stronger supporter than tbe 
United States, and we believe in its eco- 
nomic potential and its economic fu- 
ture," Mr. Clinton said in an interview 


with The New Yoik Times. “But we 
want fee plan to be reaL And that’s what 
the IMF said they wanted, and that's 
what we got" 

Almost by default, fee Fund has be- 
come tbe closest thing the world has to a 
global financial regulator, prodding coun- 
tries to make sure their banking systems 
are sufficiently strong and sophisticated 
to deal wife the risks that accompany the 
huge capital pools that race around the 
wold in search of higher returns. 

“What’s different about the last three 
programs — and different from Mexico 
— is feat banking- and financial-sector 
restructuring is absolutely at fee heart of 
theprogram,” said Stanley Fischer, fee 
IMF's No. 2 officiaL 

Whether fee IMF can effectively play 
the role of regulator remains a question. 
“The problem is that the IMF, even when 
it suspects major problems in a country, 
has no way of making fear country do the 
right thing until there is a crisis,’’ said 
John Heimann. head of global financial 
for Merrill 


What was needed, according to an 
official involved in shaping fee U.S. 
negotiating approach, was to get the 
Russians to want to help manage fee 
problem — in their own interest and fa 
the sake of fending off U.S. sanctions. 

Russian strategists did not want a nu- 
clear-armed Iran, but they had con- 
cluded feat Moscow needed an Iranian 
policy that emphasized long-term sta- 
bility in relations. Iran was too close and 
potentially too powerful fa Moscow to 
risk feverish swings in relations. 

So, even if Moscow decided to crack 
down on Russian help to Iran’s missile 
program, it was not going to join the 
Clinton administration in publicly vi- 
tuperating bran as a rogue state. 

As 

toeo 

month, daring a third round of talks, the 
Rossi ati negotiators put on fee table an 
offer from Mr. Yeltsin. 

Government agencies, businesses and 
even private citizens in Russia would be 
prohibited from helping Iran develop 
weapons of mass destruction, the pres- 
idential message promised New leg- 
islation would be forthcoming to enforce 
these restrictions. 

The talks adjourned to evaluate tbe 
Russian commitment, and fee negoti- 
ators had barely been debriefed when the 
Iranian dipkxnal’s ouster was an- 
nounced in Moscow. 

In Washington, fee Clinton admin- 
istration will want more proof before 


Egyptian Group 
Asserts It’ll Stop 
Attacking Tourists 


Reuters * 

CAIRO — The Muslim militant 
group that claimed responsibility 
for me massacre last month of 58 
foreign tourists said it would no 
longer target tourists as a way to 
weaken the government 

The Islamic Group “has decided 
to stop targeting either fee tourism 
industry or foreign tourists," it said 
in a statement Monday. 

Six gunmen shot and knifed to 
rie-ath 58 tourists and four Egyptians 
in the southern town of Luxor on 
Nov. 17 in the bloodiest attack since 
the Islamic Group started a cam- 
paign in 1992 to overthrow Pres- 
ident Hosni Mubarak. 

The Islamic Group said that 
young members had acted on their 
own and “were not assigned to 
carry out any wok connected to 
tourism." The admission was an- 
other sign feat die group seemed to 
lack central authority and had frag- 
mented into smaller; more violent 
-dements. • • 

The statement said that exiled 
leaders of the group “were sur- ' 
prised by what happened at Luxor 
and were shocked by the large num- 
ber of victims and the mutilation of 
some of fee dead." 

The Islamic Group said a state- 
ment feat had been issued in its . 
name shortly after fee Luxor attack 
was not genuine. That statement 
said 15 members had intended to ' 
take tourists hostage to secure the 
release of fee group’s spiritual lead- 1 
er. Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, 
from jail in New York. Sheikh Rah- 
man is serving a sentence in con- 
nection with the World Trade Cen- 
ter bombing in 1993. 


Albright Leans 

raring juan as a rogue state. w-* | « » 

s the political dynamic improved, I tfl Pq IpctlTHQllG 
verall pace accelerated. Finally last u mvo milfiliH 

And Israelis 


institutions for Merrill Lynch. “Pre- 
crisis, tbe IMF has a lot of carrots but not 
sticks. Once fee crisis happens, then fee trying to roll back Congress's threat of 
IMF can tie conditionality — fee stick — sanctions. But a U.S. official said: “I 
'wife money — fee carrot." think we’re heading our of fee woods." 


month — officials in fee United States C* • TkA . n ii n >*• 

and around fee world are focusing again JXrLIl SWISS JjlCT&er otCLTlS Hall ixOlllTlg 

on the capabilities and limitations of the 07 ° 


IMF, tbe 181-nation organization based 
in Washington feat is fee lender of last 
resort to tonering economies. 

The Fond’s emphasis has long been 
on lending to countries whose econ- 
omies have gotten in trouble because of 
currency and trade imbalances. Its pre- 
scriptions. developed largely by profes- 
sional economists operating in effect 
under fee authority of the richest coun- 
tries, have tended to focus on austerity, 
an approach that makes it less than wel- 
come in many developing countries. 

After accounting for fee cost of the 
South Korea bailout, of winch $21 billion 
will come directly from the IMF, fee 
Fund will have immediate access to abait 
$44 billion to cope with future crises. In 
addition, it can gain fairly quick access to 
$25 billion in backup 
by a group of 11 industrialized nations, 
including the United Stares. 

By virtue of its financial contribu- 
tions, tire United Stares is fee IMF’s 
shareholder, at IS percent, and 
ctivety wields a veto-over mqiapro- 


Continued from Page 1 

By any standards, fee new United 
Bank of Switzerland will be a colossus in 
many fields. The bank will have assets of 
922.3 billion Swiss francs ($640.71 bil- 
lion), second only to Bank of Tokyo- 
Mitsubishi, tbe Japanese giant that itself 


Ospel predicted that the merger would 
not face antitrust problems except in 
selected parts of the Swiss market, where 
United Bank would dominate wife a 
market share of about 40 percent. 

Thanks to cost savings. UBS and SBC 
executives predicted feat tbe new bank 
would have a return on equity of 15 


is fee product of an April 1996 merger, percent to 20 percent, slightly below the 
United Bank will vault into first place 21 percent average for U.S. banks but 

above fee level of most Continental 


as an asset manager, controlling a stun- 
ning $920 billion of investment funds. 
That amount is equal to the combined 
economic output of Canada and Mexico, 
or nearly -90 percent of fee size of Bri- 
tain’s economy. 

While fee global banking market re- 
mains highly competitive an H f ragmen- 


banks. 

The weak spot of tbe merger was 
investment banking. Although UBS and 
SBC have built major investment bank- 
ing operations in Europe, their com- 
bination will not help them on Wall 
Street, where both banks foiled to corn- 



asset management 

“We’re going to get dozens of mer- 
gers in tire years ahead,” said Robin 
Monro-Davies, chief executive of Fitch 
IBCA, a bank-rating agency. “I’m sure 


grams and policies. But officials within one of fee main issues feat’s going to 
fee Fund and President Bill Clinton’s come up is cartelization.” 
administration have become increas- In Brussels, the European Commis- 
ingly concerned about the willingness of sion’s competition regulator annnnnreyi 
Congress to provide more financing. that it would review the deal But Mr. 


should have as much as 13 billion Swiss 
francs in spare capital on hand by 2000 
because of the merger. 

Analysts said Continental Europe re- 
mains ripe fa banking mergers. Ger- 
many has more than 600 bank brandies 
for every 1 million inhabitants, France 
has 445 and Italy has around 400. By 
comparison, Britain has 339 and fee 
United States just 277. 


Jewish Leader Sets 
Payment Conditions 

Reuters 

NEW YORK — The head of the 
Wald Jewish Congress said Mon- 
day that be wanted Swiss officials to 
condemn anti-Semitism unequivoc- 
ally as a condition for a global set- 
tlement of compensation claims fa 
Holocaust-era claims. 

• Secretary-General Israel Singer 
was speaking at a meeting of more 
than 200 U.S. public finance of- 
ficials attending a conference on 
Holocaust-era Swiss bank accounts 
organized by the New York City 
comptroller, Alan Hevesi. 

Mr. Singer also said “total and 
transparency” was 
i in any payouts to Holocaust 
victims from dormant bank ac- 
counts to ensure they were properly 
monitored. He said some payments 
that started last week were not con- 
ducted under fee auspices of the 
Volker commission, a body headed 
by a former Federal Reserve chair- 
man, Paul Volker, feat is examining 
dormant Swiss bank accounts of 
Holocaust victims. 


$ 


'3 


Reuters 

PARIS — The U.S. secretary of state, 
Madeleine Albright, put pressure oo Is- 
raeli and Palestinian leaders to make key 
decisions on peace, but said Monday fear 
Washington would not dictate the terms 
of an Israeli troop withdrawal from fee 
West Bank. 

Following a meeting wife Prime Min- 
ister Lionel Jospin of France at the end of 
a four-day visit here, Mrs. Albright said: 

‘We are not asking the Israelis for a 
percentage now.” 

But Mrs. Albright, who has been 
meeting Israeli and Palestinian leaders 
for three days, said that both sides “must 
do a lot” to revive the peace process. 

v™, Albnght is demanding from Is- 
rael a “credible" new troop pullback in 
fee West Bank and a freeze on Jewish 
settlements there. From the Palestinians 
she wants a finner commitment to protect 
brad from attack by Muslim extremists. 

I think feat both sides must do a lot.' " 

Mrs. Albright said. “One hundred per- 
cent effort on security matters is ab- 
solutely necessary for fee situation to 
improve in die region.” 

Mrs. Albright, who later set off for a 
seyen-nation tour of Africa, met Prime 
Mimster Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel 
m Fans on Friday and again Saturday, 
houra after meeting the Palestinian lead- 
^Yasser Arafat, in Geneva. 

hJt kb government 

raw approved the principle of a pullback 
but would need several more weeks to 
the ^Is. He had previously 
s^even then fee pullback would 
rapure five months of security cooper- 
ation from fee Palestinians. ; 

ne ^! s organizations have fe- 
ZXt** ■ Mr * Netan yahu might offer 
afunher 6 percent to* 8 
pweem of the West Bank, while the 

U 'r‘ have said they V 

toped to roht fee difference. * ' 





| f JdbjJl v> 


‘■ s Kv-V 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 9. 1997 

EUROPE 


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French Effort to Come to Terms With Wartime Deeds Gets Bogged Down 

Bordeaux Trial Hits Stone Wall as Papon Insists on His Innocence Le Pen Sends a Political Message With Repeat of ‘Detail’ Remark 


r,g\|rtian Group * 

\ Asserts It'll Stop 
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. By Craig R. Whitney 

, K'rfc- 71mo Servic e 

■■ BORDEAUX, France — The trial of 
Maunce Papon, a French civil servant 
here during the . German occupation in 
World War 0, wns expected to be a rite of 
cleansing and enlightenment for France. 
• It began two months ago and was 
meant to be over by the end of the year 
with France finally putting a dark side of 
■its past behind it and moving on. 

Classes of schoolchildren anend, as 
did one from the Lycee Jean Monnet in 
Montpellier on Friday. 

1 But it now seems likely that die trhl 
will continue until March, drawn out by 
•suspensions made necessary by the pre- 
carious health of the 87-year-old de- 
fendant and marked by Ids absolute re- 
: *usal to take any of the blame for the 
deportation to Nazi death camps of 
fnore than 1300 Jews from Bordeaux, 
despite numerous written orders to the 
- police bearing his signature. 

" “When you find a signature like this, 

' there's no doubt that 1 am relaying a 
decision of the prefect,” Mr. Papon, 
hlert and vigorous despite his age and a 
'recent bout with pneumonia, toH die 
: presiding judge, Jean-Louis 
Castagnede, when the trial resumed 
Thursday after a two^week recess called 
because of the illness. - 

That be did not give such orders on 
his own has been Mr. Papon's defense 
consistently since the charges against 
; him surfaced in 1981, when he was 
; budget minister of the government in 
Paris and an acknowledged member of 
; the wartime French Resistance. 


As secretary-general of the Gironde 
prefecture, the regional administrative 
arm of the regime set up in Vichy after 
the French defeat in 1940, Mr. Papon 
has said over and over that he had no 
authority to order the police to arrest 
anybody. 

Only the prefect, Maurice Sabatier, 
now long dead, had that authority. Mr. 
Papon says, and what Mir. Sabatier did, 
the German occupiers made him do. Mr. 
Papon describes himself and the Office 
of Jewish Questions that was under his 
direct supervision as mere transmission 
belts, faced by die tragedy of wax to 
relay “terrible 1 ” orders — Mr. Papon’s 
word — that they tried to use ‘their 
limited powers to water down, or even 
sabotage. 

Two days of intense questioning last 
week by Judge Castagnede and Pros- 
ecutor-General Henri Desclanx could 
not shake Mr. Papon from that defense. 

What about the files kept on Jews in 
. the Bordeaux region by the Office of 
Jewish Questions, which the Germans 
used to decide who should be sent to the 
transit camp at Drancy, France, and on 
to die concentration camp at Auschwitz 
in 1942 and 1943, Judge Castagnede 
asked. 

“They were a force for good,” Mr. 
Papon insisted. ‘ ‘The files helped prove 
that this person should be exempted 
because of his ancestry, or that one for 
some other reason.” Most of the Jews 
deported by rail from Bordeaux to Aus- 
chwitz during the war, 6,000 in all. were 
foreign-bom, not French. 

And the seizure of factories and valu- 
ables owned by those Jews? “That was 


BRIEFLY 



FrU JiMriXtcaim 


PRAGUE. TALKS — President Vaclay HaveL. left, speaking Mon-, 
day with Jostf Lux. the Christian Democrat leader whom Mr. Havel 
has chosen to conduct negotiations on forming a new government: 

: ini! mi.. ■ . ■ "• - f • 

o, W” - ri •i*‘ state pensions: The talks were "ab- 

ot m rrancis ISOS llica Bolutety serious,’ * Mr. Kohl said as he 

n • • j • • arrived for a meeting of Christian 

lieopens in ASSISI Democratic leaders. (Reuters) 


I Aibrteht l** 

* On Pal *"-*' 11 '* 11 

* Anil Israeli' • 


ASSISI. Italy — The Sl Francis of 
Assisi basilica*, damaged in Italy’s 
devusting September earthquake, of- 
ficially reopened its doors Monday. 

Invaluable 13th and 14th century 
frescoes by Giotto and Cimabue. lo- 
cated in the upper church, suffered the 
worst damage in the quakes on Sept- 
26. when the ceiling of the basibca 
partly collapsed. 

Expens who have checked the 
walls, vaults and columns of the lower 
church have found no damage, and the 
crypt below the lower church where 
the founder of the Franciscan order is 
buried will be open again to visitors. 

About 4.5 million people visit the 
basilica each year. (AFP) 

Kohl Is ‘ Serious ’ 
About Reform Talks 

BONN — Chancellor Helmut Kohl 
said Monday dial his talks with the 
opposition Social Democrats on tax 
and pension reforms were "abso- 
lutely serious.” but declined to pre- 
dict their outcome. t 

Negotiators from Mr. Kohl s cen- 
ter- ncht coalition and the Social 
Democrats met over the weekend to 
try to find a compromise on scaled- 
b.ick plans to cut income and cor- 
porate taxes and contain the cost of 


2d Round in Serbia 

BELGRADE — Foreign Minister 
Milan MHutinovic of Serbia and the 
Radical Parly leader, Vojislav ScseJj, 
will fight a second round in elections 
this month for Serbia’s presidency, 
their parties said Monday . 

Mr. Milutinovic, the candidate of 
the governing Socialist Party of Pres- 
ident Slobodan Milosevic of 
Yugoslavia, won the largest share in 
the first round Sunday but failed to 
gain a majority. 

The Radical Party estimated that 
Mr. Milutinovic won about 43 percent 
of the vote, compared with 323 per- 
cenr for Mr. Seselj. (R rulers) 

Russia Firm on ‘Spy’ 

MOSCOW — Russia’s intelli- 
gence agency dismissed speculation 
Monday that charges against an 
American accused of spying will be 
reduced, saying the investigation of 
the case against him continues. 

Richard Bliss was released Satur- 
day on his U.S. employer’s written 
guarantee that he will not leave the 
southern Russian city of Rostov-on- 
Don, where he was detained Nov. 25. 
He faces espionage charges for mak- 
ing land surveys. (AP) 


CROSSWORD 


a way of guaranteeing that they could 
eventually be returned to their rishtftd 
possessors,” Mr, Papon answered. 

' Indeed, to hear him tell it, wirhourihe 
Office of Jewish Questions, the Nazi 
ravages would have been much worse 
than they actually were, with far more 
than 74,721 of the 330,000 Jews living 
in France suffering deportation to Aus- 
chwitz. “My orders were, ‘Hold 
back.’ ” Mr. Papon said. 

His articulate and forceful self-de- 
fense has exasperated not only members 
of the survivors 1 families but also, ap- 
parently, Judge Castagnede, who asked 
Thursday: 

“There are documents, arrest orders, 
transfer orders, carrying your signature, 
signed ‘by ibe secretary-general for the 
regional prefect,’ followed by your sig- 
nature, Maurice Papon. You say, ‘I had 
no police power, even by delegation.’ 
But when you sign an arrest order or an 
order for a transfer from one camp to 
another, by what authority did you 
sign?” 

“Only in rare exceptions by dele- 
gation,’’ Mr. Papon responded 

“I’m trying to discover who, in fact, 
had the authority to get the police to 
act.” the judge tried again. 

“The prefect,” came the response. 

Amo Klarsfeld, representing a dozen 
survivors of victims of the deportations, 
said some of them would be called to 
testify when the court starts examining 
how Jews were rounded up in Bordeaux 
and sent by train to Drancy and then to 
Auschwitz when the Germans deman- 
ded action by the Vichy authorities 
starting in 1942. 


By John Vinocur 

btiernautmal Herald Tribun e 

PARIS — Jean-Marie Le Pen’s latest 
and-Semitic outburst, repeating his 
statement that Nazi gas chambers were a 
“detail” of history, appears to reflect 
' internal political maneuvering more 
than any substantial development in 
French public opinion. 

Although there was no way of es- 
tablishing a clear connection, two can- 
didates from the rightist extremist's Na- 
tional Front party were eliminated 
Sunday night from continuing to the 
runoff rounds of two special legislative 
elections in eastern France. Both Na- 
tional Front candidates lost ground in 
comparison with their previous vote 
totals and, amid heavy abstentions, were 
dropped from the ballot when they 
failed win the requisite 123 percent of 
total registered voters. 

Alongside Franz Schoenhuber, one- 
time leader of the extreme-rightist Re- 
publican Party, and a former Waffen SS 
member, Mr. Le Pen on Friday in Mu- 
nich repeated the remark be made 10 
years ago deriding the gas chambers, a 
statement for which he had already been 
convicted by a court under France’s 
anti-racism laws. 

The place, the circumstances, and the 
fact that remarks were made on the same 
day President Jacques Chirac chose for a 
speech underscoring his view on French 
responsibility in tbe deportation of Jew’s, 
seemed well short of coincidence. 

A poll published last week, based on a 
canvass by the newsmagazine Le Point, 
reported that 83 percent of a test group 


of French voters said they did not feel 
close to the National From, an increase 
of two points in 10 months. About 48 
percent said they disapproved of all of 
the party’s ideas, while 35 percent said 
they approved of some of them. Other 
polls have suggested the party can count 
on about 13 percent of the* vote pro- 
jected on a national basis. 

Following the speech', anti-racist or- 
ganizations said they would take Mr. Le 

‘No voter can pretend 
that he is unaware of the 
sordid deal that’s being 
proposed him: rendering 
the Holocaust 
insignificant. 5 


Pen to court for his remarks and demand 
he be deterred from making them again. 

The outburst cranes in the particular 
context of a National Assembly debate 
on a new election law. w’ide discussion 
of the French role in the persecution of 
Jews centering on the trial of the one- 
time Vichy' government official 
Maurice Papon, and preparations for 
regional and local elections on a na- 
tional scale in March 1998. 

These elements converge awkwardly 
for virtually all of the country's major 
political parties, although in particular 
for the groupings of the democratic 
right. 

“The Socialists have chosen to take a 


line on immigration tougher than their 
election promises, closer to Gauilist for- 
mulations than expected, ana in con- 
tradiction with the more permissive ap- 
proach of both their coalition partners, 
tbe Greens and the Communists. 

At the same time, some members of 
the rightist parties have seen the im- 
migration debate as a sounding board 
for positions that could win them back a 
number of National Front votes in 
March, while creating a leftist charge 
that they are colluding with racists. 

The Papon trial, while educating 
many on the Vichy government’s role 
during the Nazi occupation, has also 
created defensive reactions and some 
insistence that the French people do not 
have to answer for Vichy's fascists. 

In this context, Mr. Le Pen’s will- 
ingness to create a new anti-Semitic 
scandal was described as a signal aimed 
at both people in his party who would 
blur its message in an attempt at mod- 
eration, and to members of the par- 
liamentary rightist parties who thought 
there were votes to be traded through 
low-cost, one-time tactical alliances 
with the Front. 

Le Monde, in an editorial, said the 
incident left another clear message: 
“Those who already voted for the ex- 
treme right have to know that they are 
identified, like it or not, with those who 
support Mr. Le Pen’s anti-Semitic theses. 
Those who are tempted to vote for tbe 
extreme right now must know the entry 
fee: accepting these theses. No voter can 
pretend that he is unaware of tbe sordid 
deal that’s being proposed him: render- 
ing the Holocaust insignificant.” 


Blair Offers a Pro gram for Britain’s Disadvantaged 


By Warren Hoge 

iVf»« York Times Srnice 

LONDON — The government of 
Prime Minister Tony Blair went on the 
offensive Monday to convince doubters 
that in pushing for tight spending re- 
straints and toughened welfare standards 
it was not ignoring the disadvantaged. 

In a launching ceremony in a run- 
down South London housing project. 
Mr. Blair announced the creation of the 
Social Exclusion Unit, a new coordi- 
nating body aimed at focusing govern- 
ment efforts on the poorest members of 
society and forestalling the growth of a 
permanem underclass. 

Mr. Blair said the new. unfunded ad- 
visory unit would shape the govern- 
ment's strategies cm how to open routes 
out of poverty by creating opportunities 
ior work, improving housing and . raising 
school attendance aaieducation achieve- 
ment among poor children without, as he 
has promised, exceeding the spending 
limits of the predecessor Conservatives. , 

He acknowledged that be was acting j 
with “necessary prudence” but argued ( 
that ir “reflected the values of a new 
government.” 

He warned. “Do not let anyone fall I 
for that nonsense that Labour priorities 
are Ton- ones or that we have done just 
the same as them.’ * 

Across town. Gordon Brown, the 
chancellor of the Exchequer and the 
second most powerful person in the 
government, told a conference of busi- 
ness and labor leaders that a program 
called the New Deal to be started in the 
spring would help 200,000 youths under 
25 find work or training. Also Monday, 
David Blunketi. the education secretary, 
unveiled a plan to establish 8.000 after- 
school “homework clubs” to help chil- 
dren unable to study at home. 

Mr. Blair has adopted a strict stance 
toward government spending and what 
he has called an attitude of * ‘ tough com- 
passion" toward the country’s social 
needs. The policies have gained him 
favor with people who have customarily 
faulted Labour governments for their 
lack of discipline but have left the party ’s 
more traditional constituencies restive. 

He faces his first minor rebellion in 
Parliament on Wednesday over his de- 
cision to cut benefits to single parents 
who do not work. More than 100 Labour 
legislators have signed letters express- 
ing their dismay over tbe issue and some 
25 of them say they will vote against it 
and 50 others that they will abstain 
despite party entreaties to fall into line. 

It is not enough to defeat the measure 


since Labour holds a 1 79-seat majority, 
but it is the first sign of dissension in the 
ranks since the May 1 national election. 

“I don’t think there’s any Labour MP 
or party member who thinks it is right to 
go ahead with these cuts.” said Selly, 
Oak, a lawmaker from Birmingham. 

Mr. Brown defended the action, saying 
that the govemmeat had decided to spend 
money ou opportunities for work and 
training rather than on simple subsidies. 

“Instead of paying out more benefits. 
I want to reduce unemployment and 
reduce the cost of failure.” he said. 

The stance is important to Britain’s 
position within Europe, where it argues 
that its enviable unemployment, infla- 
tion and job creation rates stem from a 
more limited notion of government’s 
welfare role and a greater stress . on 


individual initiative. At the same time. 
Britain shows the greatest gap between 
the veiy rich and the very poor, a point 
made by government officials from the 
Continent, whose economies, while less 
robust, distribute income more evenly 
among their populations. 

Since it came to power, the Blair 
government has been criticized for be- 
ing more interested in consolidating its 
new acceptance by the business and 
financial communities and the “aspir- 
ational” middle class than in turning its 
attention to the needs of the country’s 
most desperate citizens. 

It was this perception that Mr. Blah- 
sought to dispel Monday, calling his 
announcement “one of the most im- 
portant and defining things the gov- 
ernment wj 11 do.” 


He said that “social exclusion” did 
not stem just from low income but was 
“about prospects and networks and life 
chances. Britain cannot be a strong com- 
munity. cannot be one nation when there 
are so many families experiencing a third 
generation of unemployment, when so 
many pensioners live on crime-ridden 
housing estates, are afraid to go out and 
when thousands of children play truant, 
spending their days hanging around on 
street comers with nothing to do.” 

The Social Exclusion Unit is a task 
force that will be charged with merging 
the efforts of individual agencies that he 
said too often “work at cross purposes 
with far too little coordination and co- 
operation.” Its first targets. Mr. Blau- 
said, would be schools, housing and 
homelessness. 


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sirtg-awnolune 

- at 1525 


a* picked at. 
pined at. 

picked oi 
27 Hubbub 
.30 fill with focling 
uLitaraiymts ■ 
os Minor dents 
»7 What a chapeau 
covers 
9 » Art Deco 
pioneer 

39 1954 song with 
a repeating tide 

42 'O K..why 
nori’ 

43 8egeiorbialy 

44 Type typo 
44 Prefix with 

sphere or 
disaster 



■Solution w Puzrie of Dec. 8 


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00BD0 Linaa gaga 
nmsnia hqqs 

QQ00 

Qsaan aaaaaa 

sscaaDH aoasa 

aaB SB n !B a iJ§i 

QDQii EiQaa gagsej 

GQ00 BOOB SPJPJPiR 
□qbb asaa_gQPGijg 


44 VlSitS 

44 Kind of school 
4 « Clog 

Si min&ate 

53 1954 #1 hit by 
theChordettes 
eo Meager 
59 Foolish feKow 
84 Mustachioed 
artel 

« Postal wafe unit 
bs Revolutionary 
hero Nathan 
siPrez 

«7 Beautician's 
donee 
88 Scent 
88 -Casablanca" 
rote 


1 Goalie flear 

2 Face’s shape, 
approximately 

a Nap 

4 Win all the. 

• games 

h One of a wi of 

84. maybe 

• FTufl 

7 Home of the 
Hawks, with 
-tna- 

■ Hawks or 
Seahawks. eg- 
■DeU meat 
offering 
io Notions 


11 Grain grinder's 
power source 
« timed 

is Actress Susan 
3i Color separator 
2 Z Violinist 
Zimbatist 

as Home in the 
Country 

28 Considered 

27 Confounds 

28 Hun the show 
28 Drinker's 

excess 

31 Sen. Thurmond 
32 -The Old Wives’ 
Tale" dramas 
33 Biased writing?: 
Ad tv. 

38 Bromo target 
38 Bit of work 
eo Let fall, in 
poetiy 

*i lsraeJ*sM05be 
4« General called 
■YoHowdair* 

47 Kitchen gadget 

90 MB 

59 Milk source 
54 Hollow reply? 
*8 way to go 
seFtylikelJndy 
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5« Novettst Waugh 
sa Shaver's woa 
40 Green cover 
ei Junkyard dog 




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PiageT „ m 

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Id u v 


New Protocole gold on gold. 


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PAGE 6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1997 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


Ramos Anoints 
His ‘Successor 5 

Philippines Leader Picks Old AUy 
As Party’s Presidential Candidate 


The Associated Press 

MANILA — Ending 
months of speculation. Pres- 
ident Fidel Ramos announced 
Monday that he would sup- 
port his political lieutenant to 
become his successor in 
May's presidential election. 

Mr. Ramos, who is forbid- 
den by the constitution to run 
for a second term, announced 
the decision after summoning 
all eight presidential aspirants 
from his governing Lakas- 
NUCD party to the presiden- 
tial palace, where be appealed 
for party unity. 

flis endorsement of the 
speaker of Congress, the 
lower house of Parliament, 
Jose de Venecia Jr., which 
was termed an “anointment" 
by the media here, bestows 
the backing of the governing 
party's powerful nationwide 
political machinery — if the 
party remains united. 

Mr. de Venecia, regarded 
as a traditional politician ac- 
customed to wheeling and 
dealing, backed Mr. Ramos’s 
presidential run in 199Z He 
then helped Mr. Ramos as- 
semble a political coalition in 
Congress that allowed the 
passage of economic reforms 
that opened up domestic 
monopolies to competition. 

“We’re going to carry out 
the successful Ramos reforms 
into the 2 1st century," Mr. de 
Venecia said after his selec- 
tion. The speaker commands 
a large following among 
party members and re- 
portedly has made extensive 
preparations and financial in- 
vestments for his candidacy. 

Speculation over Mr. 
Ramos's choice had been in- 
tense. Mr. de Venecia’s 
biggest rival for the endorse- 
ment, former Defense Secre- 
tary Renato de Villa, is a close 
Ramos confidant who 
resigned his cabinet post to 
pursue his presidential bid 
Before being defense secre- 


tary, he was the chief of the 
armed forces and head of the 
Philippine Constabulary — 
posts previously held by Mr. 
Ramos, a former general. 

But all eight hopefuls from 
the Ramos camp have wily 
tepid support among voters. 
And two opposition candi- 
dates — Vice President 
Joseph Estrada and Senator 
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo — 
have consistently placed far 
ahead in the polls. 

Mr. de Venecia had warned 
that he would run even if he 
did not win Mr. Ramos's en- 
dorsement, in effect threat- 
ening to split the party. 

Mr. Ramos called on the 
other aspirants to '‘support 
speaker ae Venecia, stay with 
the party and stay with me,” 
the party said in a statement ‘ 

In a party convention last 
month, hundreds of regional 
delegates voted to empower 
Mr. Ramos to pick the party’s 
presidential candidate from 
among the contenders. 

■ Tax Reform Is Cleared 

The Philippine Congress, 
after weeks of wrangling, ap- 
proved a tax reform bill Mon- 
day, one of two new laws that 
are needed to end more than 
three decades of supervision 
by the International Monetary 
Fund, Reuters reported. 

The Philippines hopes to 
dispense with the IMF's poli- 
cing al a time whoa its more 
successful neighbors are turn- 
ing to the fund for help to deal 
with the financial turmoil of 
East Asia. 

Legislators said the tax law 
would help the government 

K i budget surplus in 1998 
e fifth successive year. 
The second measure is an 
oil deregulation law to replace 
one that the Supreme Court 
quashed in October on the 
grounds it was constitutionally 
flawed. Congress is working 
on a new version of that law. 



Director, Division of Eadtemal Relations 


The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEAI. an intergovernmental organisa- 
tion for scientific and technical co-operation hi die peaceful utilization of nuclear 
energy, invites applications from qualified candidates for the position of 
Director (DI/D2), Division of External Relations. The successful candidate will 
be based at the Vienna Headquarters and have overall responsibility for the: 

• co-ordination of die Agency's non-proliferation and safeguards policies 
and the negotiation of safeguards agreements,- 

• coordination of Agency's policies of an inter-disdplinary nature; 

• general Batson with, inter alia. Member States, United Nations system 
organizations, and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations, 

• coordination of Agency participation in conferences and symposia 

• preparation and coordination of papers and reports relevant lo Agency 
activities, and 

■ protocol affairs 

Refitted qttalifkaUens 

Candidates lot the position should have 

• an advanced university degrees in political science, law or international 
attain 

■ at least 15 years of international policy management experience at a senior 
level 

• experience In international organizations, multilateral negotiations and 
international cooperation in the nuclear field with particular emphasis on 
non-proliferation and safeguards issues. 

■ excellent communication skids In general, both oral and In writing, and in 
English in pantculai, 

• strong organizational and negotiation skills, and 

• administrative and supervisory experience 

The contract will be (or an Initial, period ol three years The successful candi- 
date will be offered a competitive compensation package and excellent ben- 
efits The IAEA provides a culture and geflder-sensifive work environment aid 
applications horn women and Irom developing countries will be partial la ry 
welcome 

Applicants should send a detailed curriculum vitae quoting 
Vacancy Notice <>7WI to the Division of Personnel. 

International Atomic Energy Agency PO Box 100 Wagramtrstrasse 5. 

A- 1400 Vienna. Austria no later than Jl December too?. 



Antarctic Skydiving Deaths 


Rnnul Kmin-IW 


A police helicopter pouring water Monday on the Bank Indonesia high-rise- 

Fatal Fire at Central Bank 

15 Killed in Top Stories of New Jakarta Tower 


The Associated Press 

JAKARTA — Flames raced through the 
top of a glistening new office tower of the 
Indonesian central bank Monday, lolling at 
least IS people and injuring five. 

At least six victims died in an elevator in 
the 25-story Bank Indonesia building in 
central Jakarta. 

A police helicopter lifted four workers 
from the roof and landed in a nearby plaza. 

Shattered by the heat, glass panes fell 
and smashed in the street as smoke gushed 


and smashed in the street as smol 
from the gutted top three floors. 


200 people were evacuated down the 
smoke-filled stairs of the twin lower. 

Fire officials suspect faulty electrical 
wiring sparked the blaze. 

It was another crisis for the central bank, 
which has beeh at the center of efforts to 
prop up the ailing Indonesian currency. 
Bank Indonesia intervened in currency 
markets again Monday but could not pre- 
vent the dollar from rising to a record high 
against the rupiah. 

Among those killed were a central bank 
employee, a security guard, cleaners and 
three workers who were inst allin g elevators 
in the building, which was still under con- 
struction. 


Fire trucks trained hoses on the building, 
but the jets of water failed to reach the 
flames. Police helicopters flew over the 
building, dumping water from big con- 
tainers suspended by cables. 

Dozens of fire fighters moved from floor 
to floor, dousing the flames by afternoon. 
The top of the building was blackened. 

It was not known whether bank doc- 
uments had been damaged, although se- 
curity officials removed strongboxes and 
large canvas bags for safekeeping from a 
neighboring bank building. 

The damaged building houses a depart- 
ment that monitors the performance of 
private banks. Sixteen banks were closed 
Nov. I as part of economic reforms to 
comply with a $40 billion economic rescue 
package set up by the International Mon- 
etary Fund to reassure foreign investors and 
give Jakarta funds to support the rupiah. 

“Clearly, the central bank going up in 
flames is an unfortunate symbolic circum- 
stance,” said William Keeling, an analyst 
with the local brokerage Moshill Jay a Se- 
curities. 

He said the rupiah slide was not promp- 
ted by the fire in the partly occupied build- 
ing, which is next to the bank's main office 
and headquarters of Governor Soedradjad 

Djiwandono. 


C«»rM hr 0*r SmgFaw OJjwftn 

WELLINGTON — An adventure tour 
company on Monday flew out the bodies of 
three sky divers who were Jailed at the South 
Pole when their parachutes failed to open, and 
officials said the accident again underlined 
the danger for tourists seeking thrills in the icy 
wastes of Antarctica. 

The tour company. Adventure Network 
International, flew the bodies back to its base 
camp at Patriot Hills in the Ellsworth Moun- 
tains on the South American side of Ant- 
arctica. 

The U.S. base at the South Pole discour- 
ages private visits to. the area, but can do 
nothing about those who show up. 

It was the first time Adventure Network 
International had flown skydivers ro the Ant- 
arctic, but the company has operated in the area 
since 1 988 and is highly experienced, Dwight 
Fisber, senior representative for the U.S. Na- 
tional Science Foundation, said by telephone 
from McMurdo base in. the Antarctic. 

“There are a lot of people they drop off at 
Patriot Hills and they ski to the South Pole and 
do other adventurous things,” Mr. Fisher 
said. 

The company had informed U.S. author- 
ities of its plan to organize three skydiving 
expeditions to the South Pole. 

. “They coordinated that morning,” Mr. 
Fisber said. “Much earlier, they called South 
Pole lo coordinate the tuning so that we did 
not have flights in the air around South Pole at 
the time. 

The U.S. concern was whether it should be 
involved in search and rescue efforts, Mr. 
Fisher said. 

“Thai’s the fear for us,” he said. ‘‘That 
we 'll get involved in having to do search and 
rescue and use resources that are pretty tight 
fix- doing our science program, and divert 
those.” 

Another official said that it was not clear 
who had the legal responsibility to deal with 
the deaths of the parachutists. 

Seven countries with conflicting territorial 
claims in the area of the deaths suspended 
their claims by the Antarctic Treaty of 1958. 

Sources said a U.S. medical team had at- 
tended the bodies of the three skydivers and 
declared them dead. 

But the sources said that death certificates 
had not been issued because no one had 
responsibility for issuing diem. 

Only New Zealand issue* Antarctic death 
certificates; — and only at its Scott Base. 

The three skydivers woe par of a group of 
six making the jump. A spokesman for Ad- 
venture Network International said that 
equipment had failed. 

-‘For still unknown reasons, the parachutes 


KOREA: Ailing North Hangs On as Talks Open DISSIDENT: 


■' Continued from Page I . . V 

. . W. ■■ - if..’- 

managed to get humanitarian aid out of na- 
tions he brands as enemies to ride out the food 
shortages without straying from his father’s 
ideology of self-reliance. 

North Korea has a perennial shortfall, es- 
timated at about 2 million tons of grain a year, 
and next year it could be worse. 

But for the moment, according to Norman 
Levin, a Rand Corp. scholar. North Koreans 
— thanks to the international aid to stem a 
famine whose true dimensions are still un- 
clear — were probably better fed this fall than 
in autumns past 

“They have more food available now than 
they have had most years,” said Mr. Levin, 
author of a new article titled ‘ ‘What If North 
Korea Survives?” 

Energy shortages are deemed even more 
severe in the North than the food problems, 
but the government is trying to secure sup- 
plies, he said. 

Moscow is talking to the North about the 
possibility of restarting an old Russianrbullt 
oil refinery in a Sea of Japan seaport. Sun- 
bong, a Russian Foreign Ministry official 
confirmed. 

Meanwhile, the United States continues to 
deliver heavy fuel oil each month as part of a 
1993 deal in which North Korea abandoned its 
plutonium program in exchange for inter- 
national construction of two light-water nu- 
clear reactors on its temtoxy. 

Hong Kwan Hee, a researcher at the Korean 
Institute for National Unification in Seoul, 
notes that although Beijing is supplying a 
huge amount of food aid that may well be 
going directly to the North Korean military, 
the Chinese government’s efforts to encour- 
age Chinese- style economic reforms have 
gone nowhere. 


. Thus, Kim Jong IP's 'day.of reckoning may 
yer arrive andthesudaertooflapse.of Umh 
N orth cannot be ruled out.. : . .... 

Still, recent events have reminded outsiders 
of how little they know about what goes on 
inside the North Korea. 

According to an analysis by Gordon Flake, 
director of research at the Korea Economic 
Institute, a straw poll of 40 international North 
Korea experts assembled for a conference in 
Washington in September found that 25 per- 
cent believed that North Korea would be 
fundamentally unchanged in five years. 40 
percent predicted that North Korea would 
adopt reforms. 26 percent thought the North 
would be under foreign or South Korean 
control, and 9 percent foresaw internal chaos 
but no foreign control. 

Nevertheless, experts in the United States 
and Japan agree, a consensus has emerged that 
the desirability of change in repressive North 
Korea is outweighed by the need for stability. 
For the moment, the buzzword "reunifica- 
tion” has been replaced by "reconcili- 
ation." 

One reason for the shift is fear that a 
cornered North Korea could send starving 
refugees flooding over its borders or could lob 
shells at Seoul. Another may be that its neigh- 
bors are secretly mare comfortable with the 
status quo, economist Marcus Noland argued 
in a recent article in. Foreign Affairs 
magazine. 

“China. Japan. Russia and arguably even 
South Korea may well prefer a muddling, . 
domesticated North Korea to a capitalist and . 
possibly nuclear-armed unified state on the 
Korean Peninsula,” Mr. Noland said, con- 
cluding: “North Korea may muddle through 
for years before turning toward reform or 
chaos, especially if external powers find this 
solution to be in their inrerests.” 


CUnton Meets With Wfai 

Continued froin Bagel . . 

Chinese prisons, he was suffering from high 
blood pressure, gastrointestinal problems and 
arthritis. 

Now a visiting scholar at the Columbia 
University School of International and Public 
Affairs in New york, Mr. Wei is still under 
almost daily medical supervision. 

Mr. Clinton raised the case of Mr. Wei and 
other dissidents in talks with Mr. Jiang on 
Ocl 29. 

Human rights officials said that Mr. Clin- 
ton was believed to be keenly interested in the 
dissident's life and that the president re- 
portedly had read a book. by Mr. Wet A White 
House spokesman could not confirm that 
report early Monday. 

At Lhe meeting Monday, Mr. Wei was 
expected to tell Mr. Clinton that the release of 
one dissident “is not enough,” said William 
Schulz, executive director of Amnesty In- 
ternational USA. aind that the president 
“ought not think that bis release vindicates 
what has essentially been a hands-off policy 
by the United Stales on China.” 

Amnesty International hopes China will 
make further gesture* in connection with the 
Clinton visit, including releases of dissidents 
and permission to the International Com- 
mittee of the Red Cross for regular visits to 
Chinese prisons. 

Mr. Wei. an electrician, was first jailed in 
1979 for advocating democratic reform. He 
was released in 1993, when Beijing was an 
applicant to be host of the 2000 Olympics. 

After Mr. Wei met with a U.S. diplomat in 
Beijing in 1994, he was arrested again. In 
1995, he was sentenced ro 14 years in pris- 
on. 


of two of them did not open at all and that of; 
a third failed to open properly,” Mike Mc- 
Dowell, the spokesman, said. 

Antarctica had attracted only scientists 
a few adventurers until the 1970s when tour- 
ism started growing. - * ' 

The worst single accident occurred on Nov/ 

2S, 1979, when an Air New Zealand DC- ICC 
on'a sightseeing flight over McMurdo Sounc£ 
struck Mount Erebus, killing all 257 people 

aboard. . * 

A New Zealand Foreign Affairs report sai<t 
that about 1 1 .000 tourists, most of them on 15 * 
ships, are expected to visit the continent this 
southern summer. J . 

Most will visit the Antarctic Peiunsul* 

area, south of Chile. . . . » 

Stuart Prior, head of the Antarctic Divisipsf 
of New Zealand’s Ministry of Foreign Affair* 
said polar tourism was largely a pri vute mai-C 
ter, although New Zealand companies and 
nationals had to comply with environmental* . 
medical and safely controls. « 

“There is no way of stopping people fronf 
doing what they like there,” he said. Bui Newi 
preaches “caution and awareness.”; 

He noted that when people got in trouble 
only the United States had transcontinental 
aviation capability, and that New Zealand icd 
experts often had to risk their lives in search 
and rescue. '(A FP, Reuters} 



2 Rivals in Cambodia 
Reach Reconciliation 

. TAKMAU, Cambodia Two of 
Cambodia’s most bitter political rivals., 
shook hands Monday and vowed to end 
their differences in the name of peace. 

“I’m very happy to have the Chance to 
have a discussion with Hun Sen,” Sam 
Rainsy, an opposition leader, said after a 
three-hour meeting with Second Prime 
Minister Hun Sen. the country's most 
powerful leader. 

It was their first encounter in more 
than three years. 

Mr. Sam Rainsy, who has been Mr. ~ 
Hun Sen’s harshest public critic, said 
after, the meeting that he had agreed to- 
"cooperate” withvMr. Hun Sen, who i 
took uncontested power in a coup in July 
against First Prime Minister Norodom 
Ranariddh. 

- -“We have agreed that the most im- 
portant issue is the national interest.”- 
Mr. Sam. Rainsy said. - (AP ) . 

Hong Kong Election j 

HONG KONG — Hong 
36 deputies to China’s 
lature Monday. ‘ \uj 

Jiang Enzhu, 58, head ofthe Hong j 
Kongfrranch of Beijing's Xinhua news ' 
• agency, received 397 votes from the 424- 
member election committee, which was 
composed of Hong Kong’s political and 
business elite. 

Among those chosen were eight mem- 
bers of the provisional legislature in- 
stalled by China after it took over Hong 
Kong because it objected to the rules that 
elected the previous one. 

A dozen pro-democracy campaigners 
staged a noisy protest outside the build- 
ing where the election was held. 

“We deplore this disgraceful pro- 
cess,” said Emily Lau, who was ousted 
from the Hong Kong legislature that was 
elected under British rule in 1995. (AP) 

Taleban Visits Texas 

ISLAMABAD, Pakistan — Three 
ministers of Afghanistan's ruling bloc, 
the Taleban, are in the United States to 
meet with officials of the oil giant Un- \ 
ocaL which wants to run a gas pipeline * 
through Afghan territory lo -Pakistan. 

No final agreements are expected dur- 
ing the trip, Muoa Wakii, a spokesman 
for the- Taleban, said in Afghanistan. 

“They are just going to Tfecas to talk, ” j 
he said. "If any agreements are reached, J 
they will be signed in Afghanistan.” I 

The Taleban .is being wooed by Un-- j 
ocal and the Argentine oil company Bri- J 
das over rich gas reserves in the former « 
Soviet republic of Turkmenistan- (AP) S 



n't . 



BALLY 

9 W 1 T Z E R L A N O 

S'NCe 18 31 



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EDITORIALS/OPINION 


HeraUt 


INTERNATIONAL 



tribune 


PUBLISHED WITH THK NEW YORK TIMKS AND TUB WASHINGTON POST 


In India and Pakistan 


Four months after celebrating the 
50th anniversary of their independence 
and partition, India and Pakistan are in 
political chaos. India’s third govern- 
ment in the last two years has col- 
lapsed, forcing new elections. In 
Pakistan, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif 
has won a constitutional battle with die 
presidem and Supreme Court chief 
justice, but he had to get the army’s 
support to prevaiL 

The common theme in both coun- 
tries is that the political leaders are not 
yet accustomed to sharing power with 
others in a system of constitutionally 
protected checks and balances. 

The political crises are dishearten- 
ing because they have dampened in- 
vestor confidence in India and Pakistan 
and set back their efforts to reach a 
political rapprochement. As a result, 
both countries are likely to continue 
spending too much money on arms, 
leaving scant resources for schools, 
infrastructure and public health. 

Also damaged is the American ef- 
fort to enlist the help of two countries 
representing nearly one-sixth of the 
world’s population in the global drive 
against nuclear proliferation, drugs 
and greenhouse gases. 

But the most immediate danger is 
the possibility of some old demons 
gaining new strength. In India, the 
threat comes from the rising strength of 


the Bharatiya Janata Party, a Hindu 

chauvinist or ganizati on that would 
transform the nation's Muslims into 
second-class citizens. 

A coalition of parties representing 
different ideological, regional and 
caste groupings has tried without suc- 
cess to govern India. The squabbling 
and corruption charges that wrecked 
the coalition could now persuade some 
Indians hungering for stability to turn 
to the Bharatiya Janata Party’s dan- 
gerous prescriptions in the next elec- 
tions, due in February. 

Since 1988, Pakistan has managed 
to keep its principal demon, the mil- 
itary, on the sidelines. But in the last 
week the army sided with Mr. Sharif in 
his battle with the Supreme Court chief 
justice and the president, who was 
threatening to dismiss him. The army 
behaved responsibly by ensuring the 
continuation of an elected government 
Still, it is discouraging to see the army 
remain such a powerful arbiter. 

Mr. Sharif becomes the most power- 
ful elected leader of Pakistan since 
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who was ousted in 
a military coup in 1977 and executed in 
1979. History should teach Mr. Sharif 
not to capitalize on his triumph and turn 
dictatorial. His main challenges will be 
to work with his domestic adversaries 
and keep the army out of politics. 

—THE NEW VORK TIMES. 


Policing for Bosnia 


Through a series of suggestive hints, 
the Clinton administration is sidling 
toward a decision to keep American 
forces in Bosnia beyond their sched- 
uled June 1998 departure date. 

The latest pronouncement came 
from Defense Secretary William Co- 
hen, who met with other NATO de- 
fense ministers in Brussels last week. 
He chose his words on Bosnia more 
carefully, and wisely, than Secretary of 
State Madeleine Albright and the na- 
tional security adviser, Sandy Berger, 
have in the recent past. 

Mr. Cohen recognized America's 
con tinuing interest in maintaining 
peace in ^Bosnia, but he emphasized 
two important conditions for a con- 
tinued American presence. 

He wants planning for any NATO 
military involvement beyond June to 
include a gradual shift of security re- 
sponsibilities from regular soldiers to 
a strengthened international police 
force. Also, knowing that Congress 
will not tolerate American soldiers re- 
maining in Bosnia indefinitely, he. 
wants Europe to assume a greater share 
of the effort. 

As the emphasis in Bosnia has shif- 
ted from disengaging rival armies to 
securing public order, the 30,000 
NATO troops remaining in Bosnia are 
being called on to assume tasks that are 
more police than military in nature. But 
the only alternative international force 
now available consists of the 1,700 or 
so unarmed police trainers. Hemmed in 
by a weak mandate and faulty UN re- 
cruiting procedures, they have not been 


able to provide much security or train 
many reliable local police officers. 

What is needed is an international 
force to fill the gap between heavily 
armed NATO soldiers and unarmed 
police trainers. That can be partly 
provided by upgrading the unarmed 
police. But a new armed international 
police force is also needed. It could 
begin with a few thousand participants 
from the large, armed paramilitary po- 
lice forces existing in many west 
European countries. 

At first, the armed police would 
work alongside NATO troops. But as 
they grow in numbers and the security 
issues in Bosnia become increasingly 
civilian in nature, they could even- 
tually replace NATO forces. Sending 
European paramilitary police units to 
Bosnia would be a good way to in- 
crease Europe's share of the overall 
security burden. 

European countries are already 
grumbling about Mr. Cohen's propos- 
als on reapportioning costs and cre- 
ating an armed police force. Europe 
should respond, more constructively 
on these issues. 

It must also understand that &e U.S. 
Congress and the American people 
have not yet signed on to a continued 
American military presence in Bosnia 
beyond next June. They should not do 
so unless a compelling need for Amer- 
ican troops has been established and a 
clear strategy leading to their early 
replacement by an armed police force 
has been put in place. 

—THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


When Lots of Young Arabs Start Going On-Line 

... ■ a etiulAvi 


W ASHINGTON — Watching the 
latest go-round with Saddam 
Hussein, it would be easy to conclude 
that in the Middle East nothing ever 
changes. Things just go round and 
round. In fact, though, just beyond the 
headlines there are some intriguing 
forces at work. Saddam is not the only 
agent of change. 

Consider three conversations I had 
recently in the Gulf region. 

The first was with Kholoud Feeli, a 
Kuwaiti woman reporter, who re- 
marked to me: 

“My brother just got married to a 
Kuwaiti wo man be met on the Internet 
in a Kuwaiti chat room. They kept ex- 
changing messages and finally met in 
person, and it was love at first 
They got married here. Their 
cake was a computer and a keyboard." 

■ A few days later I met another Gulf 
Arab woman journalist, who told me 
she regularly, but anonymously, files 
news about her country for a Gulf Web 
site — “and my government doesn’t 
know I’m doing it" 

The third conversation was with 
Ibrahim Dabdoub, bead of the National 
Bank of Kuwait: “You wouldn't be- 
lieve what just happened here," he 
said. "Kuwait Airways Deeded to fi- 


By Thomas L. Friedman 


s the purchase of two new Boeing 
ft we bid on it the way we always 


nanrj* ' 

aircraft' 

do. But some regional American bank 
called Nationsbank, which no one had 
ever heard of here, came in and won tire 
contract [by offering a super low rate]. 
You don’t have to go to the States — 
the States is coming to you." 

What do these conversations have in 
common? For years the Arab world has 
been walled off from the information 
and financial-market revolutions that 
have transformed Asia and other parts 
of the globe. Oil allowed the Arab 
states to escape many of the pressures 
for downsizing, streamlining and 
privatizing their economies. Well, die 
walls are coming down. For techno- 
logical and economic reasons the Arabs 
can’t maintain those w alls anymore. 

One sees several responses. First, 
there are those who are trying to adapt 
Take Fatima Abdali, a Kuwaiti en- 
vironmental health scientist who owns 
one of the most popular Internet cafes 
in Kuwait Coffee Valley, where you 
can sip latte and surf die Net 

Educated in America, Ms. Abdali 
wears a ve3, as a sign of Islamic piety. 


but is a total Web-head underneath. “I 
had this idea three years ago for an 
Internet cafd,” she told me. "I (mew it 
was coming and that if I didn’t open 
one, someone else would. 

“I realized we can have some con- 
trol over it so let’s teach people the 
good parts and make it consistent with 
our own culture, rather than wait to be 
invaded by it 1 adopted it and adapted 
it and on our Web page new we are 
slowly introducing some women's 
rights issues." 

Another response is the pop □ list - 
Islamist backlash, manifested in the 
Kuwaiti press and Parliament where 
globalization is often depicted as a 
new form of colonialism, secularism 
or imperialism. 

Workers, government employees 
and merchants who relied on govern- 
ment monopolies and subsidies are all 
organizing against the first tentative 
steps by the Kuwaiti government to 
privatize some services that it can't 
afford to keep subsidizing. 

What is intriguing, though, is that in 
the latest student elections at Kuwait 
University, always a bellwether, Is- 
lamist candidates got wiped out by the 
independent, liberal and secular 
parties. I asked Abdnlaziz Sahli, a 21- 


y ear-old communications student, why. 
die Islamists may have stalled. 

“Hie Islamists are not that impres- 
sive anymore,” he said. The secular 
parties are helping the students more 
with the small things that students care 
about now — Xeroxing, e-mail prob- 
lems, library books, parking. The so- 
ciety is less ideological now. We need 
to look for a job." 

Indeedrwith 60 percent of Kuwait s 
population under age 20, die govern- 
ment has got to unleash the private 
sector to create more jobs. It ain’t 
afford the subsidies any longer. It is the 
same across the Arab world. 

Saddam temporarily upset the Middle 
East when he invaded Kuwait. Then 
there was a cease-fire. Saddam might 
still do something crazy that would ex- 
plode the whole region. Butin the mean- 
time there is another, silent invasion in 
the Middle East — the invasion of in- 
formation and private capital. 

How Arab societies respond to -this 
invasion — whether by adapting it, . 
adopting it or rejecting it — will def- 
initely have a huge impact on the future 
of this region. 

And be advised: With this silent in- 
vasion, there will be no cease-fire. 

The New YorL Times. 


Take Account of Arab Opinion and Keep Cool Which on Saddam 


W ASHINGTON — It is 
true that Arabs are re- 
sentful about the Netanyahu 
government’s failure to move 
forward in the peace process. 
This has created an Arab view 
of a‘U.S. “double standard,’’ 
whereby America punishes 
Saddam Hussein for flouting 
UN resolutions, but not Israel. 

The result is an Arab world 
seeching with bitterness and 
deeply concerned by stories of 
the sanctions- induced impov- 
erishment of the Iraqi people. 

Arab public opinion has an 
effect on Arab leaders on this 
issue, and that serves as a real 
constraint on Arab cooperation 
in schemes for the violent re- 
moval of Saddam Hussein. 

While there is no love lost 
for the Iraqi leader, both the 
Arab elite and popular opinion 
strongly oppose military inter- 
vention in Iraq. 

It is to their credit that Sec- 
retary of State Madeleine Al- 
bright reported this fact after her 


By Roscoe S. Suddarth 


recent trip to the Middle East 
and that President Bill Clinton 
reiterated those findings. 

But the main reason why 
America's Arab allies have 
largely failed to cooperate with 
previous attempts to undertake 
political or militaiy action 
against Saddam is that they 
judge (correctly) that the cost 
outweighs potential benefit 

Almost all serious analysts 
of Iraqi politics agree that there 
is no opposition group within 
or outside Iraq that stands a 
chance as an alternative to Sad- 
dam. Even Jordan's King Hus- 
sein dropped the idea when he 
discovered that toe defection 
of Saddam’s sons-in-law was 
not linked to an effective op- 
position effort inside Iraq. 

Regarding military action, 
massive air att acks against 
Iraq's core security apparatus 
will not cause his overthrow. 

That option rests on the du- 


bious logic that the units most 
attached to Saddam somehow 
magically would turn on him if 
attacked Some military ana- 
lysts estimate that such a cam- 
paign would require more than 
1 ,000 sorties over several days 
and would cause considerable 
collateral civilian casualties, to 
say nothing of lose and hostage . 
UJ5. airmen. 

Given Saddam’s obsessive 
efforts to protect his regime, he 
is capable, as was shown in the 
Gulf War, of sustaining 
massive casualties without 
abandoning power or surren- 
dering his major objectives. 

America’s Arab allies ap- 
parently know that better than 
America does, and it is a major 
constraint on their coopera- 
tion. They have ample reason 
to fear a revanchist people and 
regime in Iraq. 

Arab leaders know that the 
United States is unwilling to 


commit to a massive ground 
assault — the only option with 
a chance of toppling Saddam. 

Regarding economic mea- 
sures, the only one I can think 
of not being applied already 
would be a cutoff of the oil-for- 
food resolution that blessedly 
gives some relief to the suf- 
fering Iraqi people. 

Provided that we can main- 
tain an effective system to en- 
sure that these supplies get to 
the people, I cannot imagine 
the United States wishing to 
discontinue this policy. 

Yes, Saddam* s attempt to 
conosal weapons of. mass de- 
struction is deeply worrisome 
and requires vigorous interna- 
tional action, through, the UN 
Security Council. Washington 
has a strong consensus against 
weapons of mass destruction. 

If the inspection regime is 
not totally successful, it is nev- 
ertheless inhibiting Saddam's 
program. The sanctions regime 
has contained bis military ca- 


pabilities and restrained his re- 
gional ambitions. ; He cannot 
threaten his neighbors as he did 
in the past. 

Moreover, America retains 
a massive deterrent. If there is 
one action to be taken now, it is 
to make it crystal clear to Sad- 
darn and his cohorts thar any 
attempt to use any of Iraq's 
weapons of mass destruction 
would provoke a violent and 


massive response, 
this was effective in 


the 


Gulf War, and there is no rea- 
son to believe that it wOl not 
remain so into the future. 

So why panic into advoc- 
ating a major political and mil- 
itary campaign that is not only 
unn ecessary but could set back 
rather than enhance U.S. in- 
terests in the area? 


The writer, a former US. am- 
bassador to Jordan , is president 
of the Middle East Institute. He 
contributed this comment to 
The Washington Post. 


Another Task for Kyoto: Strengthen Data- Gathering 


i 


Basketball Scandal 


Suppose that, fed up with your 
boss’s nagging, you suddenly jumped 
him in the middle of an argument, 
closed your fingers around bus neck 
and threatened to kill him. before being 
pulled off by your fellow employees. 
Suppose further that you then returned 
about 20 minutes later and went after 
him again until being restrained. You 
would, at the vexy least, expect to be 
fired. You might also expect to be 
going into another line of work, per- 
haps a less lucrative one if yourcunent 
salary was around S8 million a year. 

According to largely uncontested ac- 
counts, that is pretty much what Larrell 
S prewell, a standout basketball player 
for the Golden State Warriors, did on 
Dec. 1 in a rather one-sided altercation 
with his coach, P.J. Carles imo. Af- 
terward. the Warriors ordered Mr. 
SprewcH suspended for 10 games. 
Then, when he showed little or no 
remorse and refused to cooperate with 
a league investigation into the incident, 
they terminated his four-year, $32 mil- 
lion contract an action that is roughly 
the National Basketball Association 
equivalent of the death penalty. 

On Thursday the NBA's commis- 
sioner, David Stem, took things a step 
further, announcing that Mr. Sprewell 
would be banned for a year — by far 
the longest suspension in the league's 


history. The head of the players ' union. 
Billy Hunter, with predictable but 
nonetheless disheartening promptness, 
labeled die action “excessive and un- 
reasonable” punishment, 

“We previously stated that we 
would not contest a 10-game suspen- 
sion even though it would cost Latreil 
a million dollars in salary," Mr. 
Hunter said. “Now it seems as if some 
other agenda is driving the Warriors 
and die NBA. A $25 million forfeiture 
of salary and one-year expulsion is 
staggering." 

It is also staggering how out of roach 
many NBA players and their union 
seem to be with the people who make 
their ever rising salaries possible. From 
the cheapest seats to the luxury suites 
to the kids watching at home, no one 
who committed such an act of violence 
himself would expect any lesser pun- 
ishment than Latreil Sprewell's. what 
are the standards of accountability that 
the, players and their onion are willing 
to acknowledge for someone making 
nearly $ 100,000 a game? 

Commissioner Stem, in announcing 
the suspension, said, “A sports league 
does not have to condone or accept 
behavior that would not be tolerated in 
any other segment of society. " He got 
that exactly right. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


T EMPE. Arizona — Ai the 
current meeting in Kyoto,- it 
is vital that governments reach 
agreements about the future of 
“greenhouse" gas emissions. 
But they also need to use this 
meeting as a platform for action 
and public education on all as- 
pects of die climate agenda. 

At an intergovernmental 
meeting in Geneva in 1993 on 
the scientific, technical and 
practical aspects of climate 
change, everyone agreed that 
national climate programs are 
essential, and that these should 
be broadly based, with nongov- 
ernmental organizations mak- 
ing their contributions as welL 
Rather little has been heard 
about that since then. Yet there 
is even more to do now, as cli- 
mate-related activities move on 


from measurements and predic- 
of study- 


tions to the next stage 
ing the impacts on our lives and 
of detemuning how people and 
organizations should respond to 
the challenge of a changing 
global environment 

The first major task for such 
programs was to ensure con- 
tinuation of the international in- 
frastructure for measuring and 
studying the climate. In a num- 
ber of developing and East 
European countries, measure- 
ment systems have deteriorated 
and valuable data are no longer 
being stored and transmitted. 

The scientists working on the 
Intergovernmental Panel on 
Climate Change could not have 
come to their conclusions about 


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By JjflU. lffnn t'QJ ?:rl! !?r*c s'jh liapposk^ahyrgovemmentaTlc*/! reptesdritatives kxfrsamc! couiw 

J _ . ; -iioo ;;i faw.u*;i?LM: u tion toiiimit activities- that. ad-...triessay-theywillibertik»dtaBttd 

likely future changes to climate veisely affect the environment support the “scientific^ pro- 
without such date, which are They appear to be well funded 


now under threat unless there is 
a renewed effort to arrest this 
deterioration. 

Any decisions at Kyoto on 
reduction of greenhouse gas 
emissions are likely to be im- 
plemented only if there is a very 
broad awareness and under- 
standing about climatic and en- 
vironmental changes, and their 
practical consequences. 

This requires national and in- 
ternational climate-related pro- 
grams to involve many more 
groups and organizations than 
are currently engaged. 

Many committed groups are 
waiting for leadership. By con- 
trast, one observes other groups 


Beware of Popular Enthusiasms 


By Charles Krauthammer 


4 V INTERN VTKWU. mi 

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W ASHINGTON — The 
world is meeting in Kyoto 
to decide how much wreckage to 
visit upon Western economies to 
prevent global warming. 

Kyoto aims to seriously re- 
duce greenhouse gas emissions, 
which would seriously curtail 
energy use and, with it, eco- 
nomic growth. All under the 
premise that humans produce 
global warming and that global 
wanning will produce a human 
catastrophe. Is this true? 

There has been a very slight 
wanning of the earth’s atmo- 
sphere in this century (although 
one still has to explain why 
satellite and balloon data show 
no net temperature rise in the 
past 19 years). But first, it is not 
clear how much is caused by 
natural variation only. 

Second, even assuming a sub- 
stantial human contribution, it is 
not clear what, say, a doubling 
of carbon dioxide emissions 
would do to tem p er amres- 
You can get answers by mod- 
eling. But scientific models are 
notoriously subject to the 
tweaking of underlying as- 
sumptions. The predictions of 
the Intergovernmental Panel on 
Climate Change have already 
been significantly modified. 

In 1990 it predicted a 3-de- 
(centigrade) rise by 2100. 

: prediction now is down to a 
2-degree rise. And there is a 
hugerangeof uncertainly — the 
lower-end estimate is 1 degree. 

But uncertainty is a feeling 
foreign to global wanning fun- 
damentalists. Take that great 
American evangelist. Vice 
President Ai Gore, a last- 
minute attendee in Kyoto. 

Mr. Gore may turn out to be 
the envfronmentalists’ villain 
because he fears infuriating his 


labor allies at home if he agrees 
to serious curbs on U.S. carbon 
dioxide production. 

But two months ago he 
likened those who question 
global wanning to tobacco ex- 
ecutives who with a “straight 
face" deny that smoking causes 
cancer. This is a serious charge: 
not just error, tut bad faith. 

This attitude is echoed by 
many scientists. Stephen 
Schneider, a Stanford scientist 
and participant at Bill Clinton 
and AI Gore’s Global Climate 
Change Roundtable last July, 
has said that when it comes to 
global warming, it is “journ- 
alistically irresponsible to 
present both sides." 

It is worth noting that 25 
years ago this same Schneider 
was vociferously denying glob- 
al warming. Even a tenfold in- 
crease in human production of 
carbon dioxide, be wrote, 
“which ai the present rate of 
input is not expected within the 
next several thousand years," is 
“unlikely to produce a runaway 
greenhouse meet on Earth." 

Indeed, ‘ ‘the doubling of car- 
bon dioxide’ ’ — which is what 
Kyoto is trying so desperately 
to prevent — “would produce a 
temperature change of less than 
1 draree centigrade.” 

Mr. Schneider argued then 
that the real threat was global 
cooling. The production of aer- 
osols screening Earth from the 
sun could produce “a decrease 
of the mean surface temperature 
by as much as 3-5 degrees cen- 
tigrade." That, if sustained over 
a period of several years, could 
“trigger an ice age." 

This is nuclear winter with- 
out the nukes. And (his was no 
offhand comment It was in a 
paper in the journal Science, 


complete with equations con- 
taining a gaudy excess of ex- 
ponents and Greek subscripts. 

In the 1970s, which were 
(surprise!) cold, global cooling 
was the vogue. Nigel Calder, 
former editor of New Scientist 
said in 1975 that "the threat of a 
new ice age most now stand 
alongside nuclear war as a 
likely source of wholesale death 
and misery far mankind. " 

Science Digest declared that 
“how carefully we monitor our 
atmospheric pollution will have 
direct bearing on the arrival and 
nature of this weathercrisis" — 
Le., a new “ice age.” 

All this doomsaying pro- 
voked J. Murray Mitchell of the 
National Oceanic and Atmo- 
spheric Administration to re- 
mark in 1976 that “whenever 
there is a cold wave, [the media] 
seek out a proponent of the ice- 
age-is-conimg school and put 
ms theories on page one. ... 
Whenever there is a heat wave 
... they turn to his opposite num- 
ber” for a prediction of “a kind 
of heat death of the earth," 

It is one thing to change your 
mind. It is another to then write 
the view dial yon have just aban- 
doned out of polite society. 

Ironically, as climate change 
predictions become more mal- 
leable and contingent, climate 
■change activists become more 
inflexible and intolerant. 

The ease with which politi- 
cians, popularizes and even 
scientists can be caught up in 
popular enthusiasms for one 
doomsday or another should 
give us pause. 

This is not a call for ignoring 
climate change. It is a call fora 
modicum of humility before- we 
go ahead and wreck the good 

life we have developed over 200 

years; in the name of a theory. 

Washington Post Writers Group. 


and are increasingly effective in 
publicizing their position. 

The UN agencies and the In- 
ternational Council of Scientific 
Unions (TCSU) have a special 
role in helping international and 
national activities. They regu- 
larly monitor how observational 
and related infrastructure sys- 
tems are performing, and their 
statements on global climate 
change are well accepted aa be- 
ing objective and comprehen- 
sive — for example, thoseof the 
World Meteorological Organi- 
zation on weather and climate, 
those of the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization on food 
security, and those of the 1CSU 
member organizations on the 
scientific issues. 

However, there are problems 
in tbe effectiveness and con- 
tinued funding of some parts of 
this international coordination. 
Their identification at the cli- 
mate meeting in 1993 led to 
several UN agencies and the 
ICSU agreeing in 1995-96 on a 
common “Climate Agenda." 

Some of us hoped that this 
would strengthen the successful 
infrastructure programs of ob- 
servation and research, while 
revitalizing, and perhaps reor- 
ganizing, the weaker inter- 
agency programs, especially 
those that are applying climate 
science and technology to im- 
prove agriculture, living con- 
ditions and economies of the 
developing countries. 

Unless these applications 
programs are strengthened, the 


grams. Thus, the Ctimatei 
Agenda requires an integrated! 
approach. Selective supportj 
favored by some scientists who* 
do not understand the UN sys- 
tem, is not a practical option. I 

It has been a source of frus- 
tration to the staff of the UN* 
agencies and the ICSU that 
there has been so little support 
by national governments to per- 
suade their delegations to the' 
UN agencies about the benefits; 
of a coordinated approach. ' 

Perhaps there has not been 
enough publicity, or perhaps 
governments do not understand 
that technical work also ben- 
efits from this approach. 1 

A recent investigation by the 
Science and Technology Com-, 
mi rtee of the British Parliament,’ 
which endorsed the concept, 
might be of interest to ocher, 
countries. 

So, if the governments af 
Kyoto are serious about their in-! 
tendons, they should emphasize! 
and broaden the scope of their* 
national climate and environ-; 
ment programs, both govern -j 
mental and nongovernmental. 
The international organizations? 
should be involved as effectively 
as possible. . 


The writer, a former chief ex- 
ecutive of the U.K. Meteorolo- 
gical Office and member of the 
executive council of the World 
Meteorological Organisation, is 
now u visiting professor, as Arif 
zona State University. He con- 
tributed this comment to the In- 
ternational Herald Tribune. 


IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 
1897: Strange Visitor 


PARIS — A strange visitor 
called yesterday morning [Dec. 
8] at the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs and asked to see Mr. 
Hanotaux. His name is M. Fun 
du Klein, and in his belt was 
sticking a formidable^Iooking 
revolver, which tbe huissier who 
received him fortunately saw in 
ti me. B efore the Police Com- 
missary, Klein stated he was a 
law student at the faculty of 
Geneva. There was no need to be 
alarmed, he said, at the fact that 
he carried a revolver. He simply 
dki so because it was the custom 
of /us country. As there is a great 
probability Klein is not in full 

rvuvann a. L:. £. . . 


i retained in custody. 

1922; Premiers Meet 

LONDON — Everybody who is 
m London to-night [Dec. 8] for 
me meeting of Premiers tomor- 
row has a plan for saving Ger- 


many and Europe. Nobodyi 
knows whether anyone's plan; 
will suit anyone else within 
miles. It is fair 10 say that na 
international gathering, not 
even those of the last two years,* 
has ever found the participants 
so definitely committed to pre- 
conceived and divergent atti-< 
tudes. All the Americans insist 
that their presence here is a pure 
coi ncide nce and that they nave 
no official mission. "1 came 
here to get a couple of pairs of 
London trousers,’ ’ Ambassador 
Houghton told the correspon-l 
dent of The New York Herald ! 

i 

1947: Palestine Unrest; 

JERUSALEM — Jewish-Arab 
fighting continued without let- 
up today [Dec. 8] in a half-dozen 
trouble spots in Palestine. Ai 
least ninety-nine Jews and Arabs 
have been killed in nine days iff 
Knifing, shooting and other in- 
cidents, principally in Jerusa- 
lem, JafFa-Tel Aviv and Haifa. 1 


l 


■5 


m 


ivT 



? ’ 






6® 




INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1997 

OPINION/LETTERS 


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U.S, Should Refrain From Lecturing East Asia 

rAKin VAvm . . t/ 


H ONG KONG ^ Asian D w 

hubris is dead. American *v *™ip Bowring the high debt to equity ratios 

hubris is rapidly replacing iL hw ik- i «. . of KoreaT) chaebol were any- 

If the West ih e United inc ^ St 5V s ^ own contribution to Asia’s thing new. Likewise, for the 

Slates in particular — could of P roWeras and the fragile state past four years ar least, a cujs- 

cm its mW hackto hwit 5S Monetory Fund of its own house. ay glanSe at the Bangkok 

felt in the days of Japanese 1050,11110,15 *° «*- 11 ^ clear to many in East skyline suggested trouble 

UI ■* a P ane se vance its own economic m- Asia that' thw r>f chr«rt_ r n,* 


and later Scmtest Asian tri- leTeSs Into ff" SS tf 
uraphalism, 11 might under- helping Asia. Sfflj ot££ s« 
stand how East Asia feels neither ideology nor plot, 
now. Out of humiliation has merely hypocrisv 
snruna resentment «t 


vance its own economic in- Asia that the surge of short- ahead. The 1 
terests under the guise of term capital into the region failed to sec it 
wiping Asia. Still others see was toe work of Weston and Now. the IN 


skyline suggested trouble 
a he ad. The foreign banks 


SSLSrSlSi-rfS! wem Vw«t5n'W^ 

Ameiicm economic w w ^ s” 08 *^ home " grown: excess- tence that reducing barriers to 
Some merelv a lve - uives0n e n t grandiose capital flows was desirable in 

PtVJ ^ tSl ?* SSiye *** fi - as weU as a necessary 

-ffif « ■ «y*s ssrs^^esja or 

ra^vt™ ^ filar Kt “ y - ” sssLfipsi £ 

otW^nl^ ^ k However, the United States cent months was what caused 

. darkly, be- should remember both its toe crisis. It is not as though 


Japanese bankers. At toe fi- 
nancial policy level, it was 
enhanced by Western insis- 
tence that reducing barriers to 


Now, the IMF is prescrib- 
ing yet more liberalization as 
toe cure for the region’s ills. 
It may be right. Bat toe or- 


No wonder toe United 
Statos takes a frosty view of 
toe euro, which just might un- 
dermine its ability to use dol- 
lar supremacy to finance un- 
ending U.S. deficits. 

The country that insists on 
the merits of open markets 
reacts like a moiled child 
when toe World Trade Or- 
ganization roles against it — 
as in the Kodak case — and 


In a Polish City With a Dark Past, 
A Visit With One of the ‘Rescuers’ 


By Ari L. Goldman 


only one path to heaven. 
Others, more darkly, be- 


ltseir as well as a necessary cynical a not openly hostile 
adjunct to freer trade. and nationalistic stance to- 

Tbe sudden actual or ward it 
threatened withdrawal of There is justifiable suspi- 
mach of that capital over re- don that toe IMF is there not 


gani z afi on should be aware of attempts to dqprive other 
why many in Asia take a countries of their freedom to 
cynical if not openly hostile trade with Iran and Cuba, 
and nationalistic stance to- Is Asia going to respond 


toe crisis. It is not as though 




to help the troubled countries 
but to hail out international 
banks. It is indeed curious 
that toe fund (rightly) insists 
on local banks’ being forced 


with anything more than sul- 
len resentment? Tbe answer is 
“no.” It is too divided, par- 
ticularly over the role of Ja- 
pan. The Japanese are so in- 
decisive that they are unlikely 
to take any bold initiatives. 
But just imagine what, if they 



to admit losses, close down or were ruthless, they could do: 
be recapitalized. But why not Stage one: Use their sav- 
let market forces work their ings excess to establish stra- 
znagic in toll? regie stakes positions in the 

Why not let toe Japanese, region’s major, bat now very 
European and U.S. banks face cheap, public companies, 
toe consequences of their Japanese banks could also 
own follies? Let them try call- swap Korean and Thai debt 
mg in their foreign currency for equity. 
loans to hopelessly indebted 
enterprises in Korea, Thail- 
and and elsewhere. 

Tbe IMF may help global 
financial stability. But who 


Stage two: Dump their ex- 
cessive dollar holdings. The 
weaker the dollar, the lower 
toe effective debt of Asia’s 
troubled economies will be 


should pay for that? IMF and toe larger tbe net worth of 
funds are seen in Asia primar- its companies. 


A Challenge Gore Can’t Ignore 


ily as a bailout of foreign 
banks, to be paid tor by Local 
taxpayers, shareholders and 
workers. 

Meanwhile, IMF condi- 
tions have become an effective 
way of forcing Asian countries 
to accept market opening. 

Again, this may be of long- 
run benefit to these nations 
and to world trade. But do not 
be surprised if they are met 
grudgingly and with bitler- 


Result Japan would 
emerge with a huge portfolio 
of cheap Asian equity and a 
reduced portfolio of exposure 
to the world’s most indebted 
nation. Tokyo after its Big 
Bang would finally emerge as 
toe region’s financial center. 

If this sounds fanciful, re- 
member when a small piece 
of central Tokyo was worth 
more than California and the 
Nomura brokerage was worth 


By David S. Broder 


W ASHINGTON — On a single day last have flamed in partnership with the leaders oi 
week, A1 Gore’s legal problems were toe Republican Congress represent an aban- 
greatly reduced — and his political challenge donment of basic Democratic values, 
increased. A weak spot in his case was his contention 

Entirely overshadowed by the news of At- that he has not shifted his stance since he came 
torney General Janet Reno’s derision that lo Washington 20 years ago. 

President Bill Clinton and Vice President Gore The Dick Gephardt who scuttled President 

would not have to Jace an independent counsel Jimmy Carter’s hospital cost-containment 
investigation of their campaign fund-raising, a plan in the Ways and Means Committee in the 
speech by Mr. Gore’s likeliest challenger for late 1970s and who was one of only 41 
the 2000 nomination. House Minority Leader Democrats to vote in 198S for reducing the 
Dick Gephardt, defined a choice for the Demo- deficit by eliminating that year's Social Se- 
cratic Party that Mr. Gore cannot ignore. curity cost-of-living adjustment is not the 
On the money front. Republicans are cer- same man who in 1994 led the fight for 
lain to keep toe heat cm Mr. Gore for the way national health insurance and this year op- 
he and Mr. Clinton used the White House posed any downward adjustment in the con- 


re L.an r ignore ssmsaSS £ 

dec law the Asian tigers. 

3. Broder The West’s preachiness 

would be better received if it 
have framed in partnership with the leaders of were more soundly based, 
toe Republican Congress represent an aban- The very U.S. economy that 
donment of basic Democratic values. boasts of endless growth is 

A weak spot in his case was his contention being supported by toe excess 
that he has not shifted his stance since he came savings or East Asia. 
lo Washington 20 years aga Where would U.S. interest 

Tire Dick Gephardt who scuttled President rates, the dollar and inflation 
Jimmy Carter’s hospital cost-containment be without Japanese and 
plan in the Ways and Means Committee in the Chinese purchases of Treas- 
late 1970s and who was one of only 41 ury bonds? The country that 
Democrats to vote in 198S for reducing the most insists that others reduce 
deficit by eliminating that year's Social Se- their debt is the most indebted 
of all. 


ness, basal on a belief that toe more than the top 10 U.S. 
West was using a crisis to banks combined? Those days 


banks combined? Those days 
are here again — in a new 
context 

The whole Thai stock mar- 
ket is now, capitalized at less 
than half of the Hong Kong 
and Shanghai Bank’s 580 bil- 
lion and one-fifth of Coca- 
Cola and Microsoft. All of 
quoted Korea is worth just 
$70 billion, a fraction of Ja- 
pan's holdings of T-bonds. 

It is to be hoped that U.S. 
hubris, like the dollar and 
stock market, will peak be- 
fore it does as much damage 
as Japan’s did. 

International Herald Tribune. 


W ARSAW — “Are you going to the 
death camps?” 

That was the ouestion everyone in Israel 
asked me when \ told them I was taking a 
trip to Poland. It was a strange and chilling 
question, but one that in many ways reflects 
the attitude of Israelis in particular and Jews 
in general to tbe country where the 
Nazis killed 3 million Jews during World 
WarBL 

There are many death camps to choose 
from in Poland — Auschwitz-Birkenau, Ma~ 
“jdanek, Belzek, Sobibor and Treblinka. 
They’re all accessible and m the guidebooks. 
Companies can arrange a tour, coach or 
deluxe, to any number of camps. 

I came to Warsaw to give a paper at an 
academic conference and had one day free to 
explore. Was I going to the death camps? 
Before I left Israel, I called a friend in 
Warsaw, a rabbi who has been working for 

MEANVIHLE 

several years to revive the small Jewish 
community in Poland. He proposed an al- 
ternative itinerary: a visit with him to the 
home of a rescuer, one of the thousands of 
quiet heroes of toe Holocaust who risked 
everything to save toe life of a Jew. 

“I’m going to visit her on Sunday,” he 
said. “I’ve got an unusual mission. I’m 
bringing her a gift from the Pope.” 

Intrigued, I took him up on the offer. It 
turned out to be a journey that included 
reminders of both toe best and toe worst of 
Poland and, in some small way, of the 
Vatican’s efforts to come to terms with its 
silence during the Holocaust 

No one knows exactly how many res- 
cuers there were. Thousands never lived to 
tell their story, let alone be recognized for 
their deeds. Yad Vashem, toe Holocaust 
memorial in Israel, has documented toe 
cases of 14.954 of what it calls “righteous 
among the nations,” of which roughly one- 
third, or 4,954. were from Poland. 

I met one of them, an 89-year-old widow 
named Genowefa Mazurkiewicz, on a 
cold and rainy November day in the Polish 
city of Kielce after a two- and-a-half -hour 
train ride from Warsaw. 

Kielce is as unlikely as any place in 
Poland to be toe home of a rescuer, for toe 
city is known for one of toe ugliest acts of 
postwar anti-Semitism. After toe Nazi de- 
feat in 1945. thousands of surviving Polish 
Jews returned, battered and bereaved, to 
their homes. In Kielce. the survivors were 
welcomed back with a bloody pogrom that 
took 42 lives. The date was July 4, 1946. 
Within months some 100,000 Jews had fled 
the country. Today there are about 15.000 
Jews left in Poland. 


My rabbi friend, Michael Schtidrich, 
showed roe the small plaque commem- 
orating toe massacre on a pleasant Kielce 
street of homes and shops. We then visited 
the cemetery where toe Jewish victims were 
buried in a mass grave. 

We eventually made our way to the neat 
but drafty two-room cottage where Mrs. 
Mazurkiewicz lives. For Rabbi Schudrich, 
who works in Poland for the Ronald S. 
Lander Foundation, this was a second visit. 
He first came here in 1993 to reunite Mrs. 
Mazurkiewicz with Monique Bronstein, 
who was 10 years old and alone in toe world 
when, in 1941, Mrs. Mazurkiewicz opened 
her door to leT the girl in. The child had seen 
her father, mother and brother shot to death 
by Nazis rounding up Jews. 

Monique lived like a member of toe 
Mazurkiewicz family until after the war, 
when she made her way to Paris and was 
reunited with distant relatives. 

Like other rescuers, Mrs. Mazurkiewicz 
did not see her actions as anything out of toe 
ordinary. When 1 asked her why she had 
risked ner life for the youngster, she said 
simply, “It was toe right thing to do.” 

Her daughter, Maria, who sat close by 
and held her mother’s hand, said. “My 
mother always taught us. if you share bread 
unto a stranger, you’ll never go hungry.” 

Another characteristic that Mrs. 
Mazurkiewicz shares with many other res- 
cuers is her faith. She is a devout Christian. 
All of the art in her apartment is religious, 
including pictures of the Virgin Maty and of 
Jesus performing miracles. Every day she 
goes to Mass. 

“I brought something for you,” Rabbi 
Schudrich announced at the end of our visit 
He held up a leather pouch embossed with 
the official seal of Pope John Paul □. 
Through a Polish priest he knows. Rabbi 
Schudrich arranged to have a set of rosary 
beads blessed by the Pope to honor Mrs. 
Mazurkiewicz as a rescuer. 

Rabbi Schudrich handed toe pouch to toe 
old woman, who took out toe ivory beads 
and lovingly ran them through her fingers. 
She then clenched them to her breast and 
smiled. 

“I don’t think I could have made you 
happier if 1 brought you a new car,” toe 
rabbi joked. 

“A car can break down,” toe rescuer 
said, hugging toe beads, “but these — these 
are toe pathway to heaven.” 

The writer, currently a visiting Futbrighi 
professor at Hebrew University in Jerusa- 
lem, is an assistant professor at the Columbia 
University Graduate School of Journalism in 
New York. He contributed this comment to 
the International Herald Tribune. 


apparatus to rake in millions of dollars for 
their campaign. But most of the pols I talked to 
after Ms. Reno's decision said they thought 
toe continuing clamor would likely be dis- 
missed as die usual Washington partisanship. 

“Republicans will continue to say there has 
been favoritism and politics,” saidD.J. Leary, 

Inequality is Gephardt’s 
major theme ; 

a veteran Minnesota Democrat, “and Gore 
won’t come into 2000 looking as squeaky- 
clean as he would have liked.' 

But as Jeffrey Tulis, toe University of 
Texas presidential scholar, pointed out, 
"People are not convinced that there have 
been particular policies bought by contribu- 
tions or that the scale of fund-raising has been 
so different from other administrations that it 
warrants this one being called corrupt” 
Barring future bombshells. Mr. Gore 
should enter the 2000 contest as the favored 
White House candidate for toe nomination. 
WLat Mr. Gephardt demonstrated — ; in a 
Harvard speech delivered on toe evening of 
Ms. Rentj s announcement — is that at least 
one Democratic leader is able and willing to 
challenge toe case for Democrats continuing 
down the Clinton-Gore road. 

Mr. Gephardt ’s address was a strong effort 

. . • ■ j! Auor (Ka Ia«t 


sumer pnee index for retirement benefits. 

Voters are tolerant of changed positions, 
and Mr. Gephardt ought to abandon the cam- 
ouflage game and focus on what he articulates 
extremely well — the concerns and frus- 
trations of working Americans. 

He Is dead right, my reporting says, when 
he contends that “toe average voter feels 
that toe debate in Washington is a mean- 
ingless argument between political adversar- 
ies — a debate that is irrelevant to their daily 
lives and dearest values.” 

Inequality is his major theme. The “New 
Economy” that Mr. Gore likes to hail is 
working wonderfully for toe skilled and the 
educated, Mr. Gephardt concedes, bat “con- 
trary to what John Kennedy said, a rising tide 
has not lifted all boats.” Tbe Democrats’ 
historic mission has been to seek social justice 
for those who need help, not simply to grease 
toe way for those already enjoying success. 

When he says that the current recovery has 
“widened the gap between the wealthy and the 
working middle class,” he is raising a valid 
issue. And when he says. “There are mere 
jobs, but average income languishes; there is 
less health coverage, with lower benefits,” he 
is talking reality for millions of Americans. 

Mr. Gore has declined to join the dehaie for 
now, and his friends are whispering that Mr. 
Gephardt blundered by seeming to attack the 
policies of a president supported by the vast 
majority of Democrats. But even Mr. Gore’s 




AMERICAS 

BOGOTA 

BUENOS AIRES 

CAU 

CAiecuN 

CARACAS 

CARTAGENA 

CHICAGO 

CIUDAD GUAYaNA 

COZUMEL 

GUADALAJARA 

1XTAPA 

LOS ANGELES 

LOSCABOS 

MANAGUA 

MARACAIBO 

MEDELLIN 

MEXICO CITY 

MIAMI 

MONTREAL 

NEW ORLEANS 

NEW YORK 

PANAMA CITY 

PUERTO VALlARTA 

RIO DE JANEIRO 

RIO NEGRO* 

SAN FRANCISCO 
SANTO DOMINGO 
SAD PAULO 
TORONTO 
VALENCIA 
WASHINGTON. D C. 


1 8 months do noi reflect personal pique but a Gephardt — and those arguments before 
SmmSIi. budget^ tax he can be Mr. Clinton’s m r. ; 

and trade policies Mr. Clinton and Mr. Gore The Wathmgum Post. I 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


#.»• * • *?- 
vft\. * f' fc 


On Turkey 

Regarding "A Warning for 
Turkey’s Generals" (Opinion. 
Nov. ill by Philip Taubman : 

Mr. Taubman presents Tur- 
key’s generals as illogical, 
paranoid doomsayers while 
painting toe Islamists as a 
crowd that wants "to build a 
more prosnaous Turkey and 3 
more efficient government, 
not a fundamentalist state. 

In 1995. 37 leftist demo- 
cratic intellectuals wens 
burned alive in toe town of 
Sivas by Islamists. The pro- 
Islamist media wrote hun- 
dreds of articles defending 
the assassins, and a Welfare 
Party official in the govern- 
ment at the time offered to be 
toeir lawj’cr. 

The leader of toe Welfare 
Parry. Nccmemn Erbakan, 
has been open about his 
party’s intentions- He once 
announced: “We will come 
to power anyway. The qiw»- 
tion is will it be with or with- 
out bloodshed." . 

After winning elections in 
late 1995, Welfare started re- 


guns, toe party’s members- 
marcbed in the streets calling 
for a jihad and insulting Aia- 
turk’s republic. 

It is among toe army ’s writ- 
ten duties to protect the coun- 
try and its democratic char- 
acter. Earlier this year, the 
army asked toe Welfare-led 
coalition to rein in Islamists. 
The government, opposed by 
toe president, the army and an 

..IuImImi mninritv rtf thA 


WC1C >UCU| 

were denied and the press was 
harassed. While deepening 
tics with Iran and amassing 


If toe araiy hadn’t believed in 
democracy it would have 
found an excuse to stage a 
coup d’&at. 

BEDRIBAYKAM. 

Istanbul. 

The author writes for the 
Cumhuriyet and Aydinhk 
new spapers in Istanbul. 

Denmark’s Benefits 

Regarding "A. Xenophobic 
Weed Is Growing in Den- 
mark’s Tidy Little Garden 
(Nov. 17): 

It is hardly a fair outcome 

that because of many old laws 

still in force in West European 
countries such as Denmark, 
whose definition of welfare 

state” is different from Amer- 
ica’s less generous oncu 
refugees should be showered 


with benefits even beyond 
those accruing to those na- 
tives of Denmark who have 
contributed a lifetime of earn- 
ings to their pensions. 

One would be hard-pressed 
to find a Dane burdening the 
state with Ms two wives and 
11 children. 

It is unfortunate that pop- 
ular discourse tends to con- 
flate criticism of foreigner 
with racism. 

In America we love to 
point a finger at others, cast- 
ing ourselves in the process as 
knights in shining armor. But 
self-righteous finger-pointing 
makes us all look bad. 

OSCAR ZAMBRANO. 

Philadelphia. 

Fun in the Skies 

Regarding 14 The Skies cf 
Europe: Haw Open?" (Fea- 
tures, Nov. 2 1): 

Deregulation has many 
benefits, for toe airlines. Pas- 
sengers, however, must pay 
for trips canceled ax toe last 
minute; no refund, no credit. 
They must pay a S100 fee for 
a change of date. And tall 
people’s kneecaps are mutil- 
ated because mere is not 
enough legroom. 

DARRIL HUDSON. 

Sam Francisco. 


% 


VC 

lpi| * 


ip 



^illanl In ter- Continental, ^Ki s iii n gton D-C. 


WLile everyone was debating tbe idea of 
tbe Global Village, we were building it. 


One World. One Hotel. 
Uniquely Inter-Continental. 


INTER- CONTINENTAL , 

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MANILA 

NEW DELHI 

WWOMPENH 

QINGDAO 

SEOUL 

SHENZHEN- 

SINGAPORE 

SYDNEY 

TAIPEI 

TOKYO 

YOKOHAMA 

MIDDLE HAST 

ABHA 

ABU DHABI 

ALAIN 

AL1UBAQ. 

AMMAN 

BAHRAIN 

BEIRUT 

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DU&AT 

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JEDDAH 

MAKKAH 

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'FORUM HOTEL 








PAGE 10 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY DECEMBER 9, 1997 


INTERNATIONAL 


KYOTO: Gore Leaves Climate Talks Cold 


Continued from Page 1 

said his statement amounted to “virtual 
reality": promising rhetoric filled with 
“dangerous loopholes." 

“We in the EU are disappointed the 
rhetoric was not met by die reality,” she 
said, adding: “We most agree now — 
before it is too late — on early and 
significant reductions of emissions or 
face the disastrous consequences of 
global wanning.” 

Still, even other EU members said 
they were willing to give U.S. nego- 
tiators a chance to flesh out Mr. Gore's 
rhetoric, reflecting the confusion caused 
by his visit and the deep desire to see a 
treaty signed this week- 

“Mr. Gore has given us a window of 
opportunity, and we don’t get many of 
those,” said Peter Jorgensen, the EU 
spokesman here. “We have a moral re- 
sponsibility to explore iL” 

Many scientists say they believe that 
increasing concentrations of carbon di- 
oxide and other gases will raise tem- 
peratures substantially over the next cen- 
tury, triggering a rise in the sea level that 
could swamp coastal cities and cause 
disastrous changes in weather patterns. 

Top officials from the 1S9 countries 
participating took over the negotiations 
Monday from bureaucrats who had failed 
to achieve much progress toward an 
agreement in the conference’s first week. 
With just two days left, major issues are 
still far from resolved — especially the 
question of how much individual nations 
will be required to cut their gas emis- 
sions, and how much, or whether, China 
and other developing nations will be re- 
quired to take part. 

The United States has argued that 
developing nations, which wifi soon sur- 
pass the industrialized world as the lead- 
ing emitters of greenhouse gases, must 
agree to some participation in any treaty 
agreed to here. The Senate, which must 
ratify any treaty signed by the United 
States, supported that position in a 95-to- 
0 vote last summer. 

In his speech Monday, Mr. Gore 
promised developing countries that the 
United States was not seeking to deny 
them the right to modernize their econ- 
omies. But in a news conference later, he 
reiterated his statement that any treaty 
must include “meaningful participation 
by key developing countries.” But he 
offered no further specifics. 

Bakari Mbonde of Tanzania, chair- 
man of an alliance of the 130-plus de- 
veloping nations represented in Kyoto, 
called Mr. Gore's speech “just a re- 
statement of the U.S. position." 

Mr. Mbonde said the developing na- 
tions remained strongly opposed to any 
treaty that required them to cut their 
emissions of greenhouse gases. “We are 
the most vulnerable,” he said. “Some of 
our members stand to lose everything.” 

Officials from China, which is second 
only to the United States in the production 


of greenhouse gases, did not directly ad- 
dress Mr. Gore's proposals. But they re- 
iterated their opposition to bang included 
in any regimen of emissions cuts. 

“Poverty eradication and developing 
the economy are still the overriding pri- 
orities of China,” said Chen Yacbang of 
the Chinese delegation. “It’s not possible 
for the Chinese government to undertake 
the obligation of reducing greenhouse 
gases until the country develops.” 

While representatives of developing 
countries said they would not consider 
any treaty that required them to make 
emissions cuts, several members of Con- 
gress who have been observing the talks 
said they would not consider any treaty 
that did not include such requirements. 

“We will not support any treaty that 
will result in economic harm and the loss 
of jobs in the United States, ” said Senator 
Chuck Hagel, Republican of Nebraska. 

Mr. Gore noted that no treaty yet 
existed and said it was premature to 
judge how Congress mi gh t react to iL 
“The vast majority of both Democrats 
and Republicans in the United States 
would like to see a treaty,” he said. But 
he also predicted a “real knock-down, 
drag-out debate” in the Senate, and said 
it would be “good for the country.” 

Senator John Kerry, a Massachusetts 
Democrat who is one of six senators 
observing the process here, said he be- 
lieved the Senate might consider an 
agreement under which the developing 
countries agreed to “a reasonable set of 
targets and goals,” but not necessarily 
the kind of strict cuts Senator Hagel and 
others were seeking. 

“There's huge capacity for them to 
grow,” Mr. Kerry said of the developing 
nations. “Ail we ask is dial as they grow 
they don't make the same mistakes we 
did.” 



TOYOTA: France Draws Foreign Capital 


GiUg VatabWTV AMUakd fatt 

Police officers patrolling the site of the climate talks in Kyoto on Monday. 


BRIEFLY 


Continued from Page 1 

give investors pause, but decisions are 
made oh a case -by-case basis, and die 
structural constraints by a long shot 
don't make it prohibitive to make in- 
vestments in France.” 

Some companies, however, have de- 
cided to avoid France altogether or re- 
locate part of their business out of die 
country because of government policies 
that could raise the cost of investing in 
the world’s fburth-biggest economy. 

Daewoo Corp. oiSouth Korea, for 
example, has abandoned its plans to open 
a factory to manufacture cathode-ray 
tabes in (he Lorraine region of eastern 
France, according to French press re- 
ports. 

But on Tuesday, Toyota will hold 
simultaneous press confenmces in 
Tokyo and Paris to announce its new 
plant. Toyota's president, Hiroshi Ok- 
uda, met Monday evening with Pres- 
ident Jacques Chirac and was scheduled 
to meet Tuesday morning with Prime 
Minister Lionel Jospin. 

Analysts said Toyota decided to in- 
vest in France because it needed to break 
into the French market. It also wanted to 
set up a base in one of the founding 
members of the European Union’s 
planned single currency, the euro. 

“Toyota has a plant in the UJC, but 
they are concerned they could be at a 
competitive disadvantage since the U.K. 
has made it clear it won’t join the euro at 
the start,” said John. Buckland, a car- 
industry analyst at Dahva Europe. “In 
addition, there is a resistance to buying 
foreign cars in France, and Toyota seems 
to think that becoming sort of French 
will help.” 

Toyota says it has just 1 percent of the 
French market, Europe’s third-laigest. 


Israeli-Turkish Army Talks 

ANKARA — Defense Minister Yitzhak Mor- 
dechai of Israel held talks Monday on broadening 
Israel's military ties with Turkey. 

Israeli officials said Mr. Mordechai discussed 
arms projects and planned joint naval exercises in 
meetings with Turkish civilian and military leaders. 

‘ The relationship between Turkey and Israel is a 
strategic relationship aimed at strengthening Turkey 
and Israel and it is not targeted ag ains t anyone,' ' Mr. 
Mordechai said. • 

But die minister used tough language in a meeting 
with the head of the Turkish Army, the second-largest 
in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 

“When we lock hands, we form a powerful grip, 1 ’ 
an Israeli security official quoted Mr. Mordechai as 
celling Ismail H akki Karadayi. the Turkish armed 
forces chief. 

Iran and Arab countries have criticized Turkey for 
its closeness to Israel. Syria attacked Turkey's mil- 


itary links with Israel in a resolution to be presented 
at die summit of Muslim leaders due to start in 
Tehran on Tnesday. (Reuters) 

Top Comoros Aide Named 

MORONI, Comoros — President Mohammed 
Taki has named a new prime minister, Nourdine 
Bourhane, who comes from the breakaway island of 
Anjouan, official sources said Monday. 

in a related decision Sunday, Mr. Taki trans- 
formed the transitional committee of state he formed 
in September to deal with the separatist crisis in the 
Indian Ocean archipelago into a government 
Both moves come before a reconciliation con- 
ference due to open in Addis Ababa on Wednesday 
that brings together Grande Comore government 
representatives and delegates from the islands of 
Anjouan and Moheli. 

The transitional committee was set up on Sept 12 
after Mr. Taki dissolved the government and as- 


sumed emergency powers in the wake of a foiled 
military intervention on Anjouan on Sept 3. (AFP) 

$1 Million Mexican Reward 

MEXICO CITY — Mexico is offering a $1 mil- 
lion reward for information leading to the capture of 
three brothers who head a drug cartel and allegedly 
ordered the recent shooting of a well-known Mex- 
ican journalist 

The attorney general's office said in statement it 
would pay 8 million pesos to anyone who helped 

S slice capture any of the Arellano Felix brothers: 
enjamin, Ramon and Francisco Javier. 

The Arellano Felix family heads the so-called 
Tijuana cartel, known for its violence in drug wars. 
On Nov. 27, cartel gunmen attacked Jesus Blan- 
comelas, editor of a newsweekly that regularly cov- 
ers the drug trade. Hit by as many as four bullets, Mr. 
Blancomelas is still recovering in the hospital nearly 
two weeks after the attack. w (Reuters) 


after Germany and Italy, and wants to 
increase that to 3 percent early in the next 
century. The automaker 12,000 cars 
in Europe last year, about 3 percent of the 
market, and wants to capture 5 percent of 
the market within a few years. 

The euro is not France’s only ad- 
vantage, industrialists said. France also 
offers a location at the heart of Europe, 
excellent transportation, a welMe- 
ve loped network of industrial suppliers 
and services, and, above all, a well- 
trained work force. 

“Why was France chosen even with 
its high taxes and high salaries for our 
new European microelectronic plant?” 

said Yves Ravez, chief spokesman in 
France for IBM, which decided in 1995 
to spend $1 billion to upgrade a factory 
south of Paris. “We looked at many 
options, but it came down to know-how. 
There is an ability to produce very high 
technology goods here that we didn’t 
find anywhere else.” - - 

Mr. Feldman said that when American 
companies were asked about the advant- 
ages ofFrance they cited most frequently 
its geographical position and the quality 
of its workers arid suppliers. They com- 
plained most about salary costs, me cost 
of firings, rigid work structures and the 
country’s professional tax. 

- It is those complaints that get the most 

attention from nance’s own industri- 
alists. Erncst-Antolne Seflliere, who is 
expected to take over as head of the 
French employers' association, the 
CNPF, has called on businesses to 
“destabilize” the government over its 
plane to cut the workweek to 35 hours to 
reduce unemployment. 

Jean- Daniel Tordjman, a Finance Min-: 
istry official in charge of luring overseas 
investment, said he aid not expect toe 35- 
hour plan to hurt foreign investment. 

“A decision won’t be made until 
1999, but no one will be forced to work 
just 35 hours,” Mr. Tordjman said.' 
“The question is how we treat toe four 
hours between 35 and 39. They will be 
treated as supplemental hours but the 
differential could be just 10-25 percent, 
so you are talking less than the cost of 
one extra hour.” 

Toyota’s factory would create 2,000 
new jobs by 2001, adding 1,000 more 
workers by 2005, when capacity is ex- 
pected to rise to 200,000 vehicles a year, 
from 100,000, the business daily La 
Tribune reported last Thursday. 

The government agency in charge of 
attracting capital said overseas invest- 
ment created 22,814 new jobs in France 
last year, up from 19,818 in 1995. 

While trying the route of a shorter 
workweek, toe government also 
provides tax relief and other incentives' 
to lure overseas investors to create jobs. 
Government subsidies could represent 
as much as 10 percent of Toyota’s 35 
billion franc investment. La Tribune re- 
ported, citing government sources it did 
not identify by name. 



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BOOKS 


MY BROTHER 

By Jamaica Kincaid. 198 pages. $19. 
Farrar. Straus and Giroux. 

Reviewed by Carolyn See 

A T the end of her memoir, Jamaica 
Kincaid laments having lost her 
‘‘perfect reader,” William Shawn, the 
former editor of The New Yorker. But 
you can look at the writer-reader trans- 
action from the other direction. We read, 
most of us, in a perpetual state of hope 
peppered by irritation. Why isn’t this 
book better? we ask so often. Why 
doesn't the author think a little more 
before he/she starts to write? Why is this 
book boring me? Why does some fa- 
mous critic use “quotidian ” six times in 
187 pages? They say that toe publishing 
business is hanging by a thread. If that's 
tree, then how did this turkey or that 
ever get published? Put plainly, writers 
wish for perfect readers, bnt readers 
wish even harder for perfect writers and 
rarely find them. 

As she writes this memoir, Kincaid is 
about as perfect as it's possible to be. 


Although the two books are completely 
different in form and content, “My 
Brother” recalls Pete Dexter’s ‘Tans 
Trout”; the authors hit a clear, hectic 
tone at the beginning of each book, and 
toe reader follows along with trepid- 
ation and fascination, fearful that toe 
tone wifi falter, but it doesn’L In both 
cases, the authors make it through, 
“perfect writers” for at least toe dur- 
■ ation of two amazing books. 

Kincaid is living in Vermont as toe 
book begins. She has built an ordered 
and contented life with her husband and 
children; she’s a writer and an impas- 
sioned gardener who has escaped about 
as far as possible from her hard, dis- 
ordered childhood in Antigua. Then she 
gets a phone call; her youngest brother is 
dying — of AIDS. 

Because family is everything and the 
past rules the present (although toe au- 
thor is much too cool to say so ex- 
plicitly), Kincaid goes back to the island 
to see what she can do. By now toe gulf 
between what she was and what she is 
yawns as an abyss. She can’t .even un- 
derstand much of what people say to her 


CHESS 


By Robert Byrne 


A T toe VAM Tournament in Hoo- 
geveen, the Netherlands, Emil 
Sutovskij of Israel showed off his pre- 
cise tactical slriU at the expense of Judh 
Poigar of Hungary in their game. 

The Taimanov Variation of toe Si- 
cilian Defense, with 3.. JSTcfi and 5...Qc7, 
keeps a low pawn profile to avoid giving 
White any early targets. Since this en- 
emy is elusive. White often, as here, 
aims for a conservative, solid buildup in 
the center with 6 g3 and 7 Bg2. 

The aggressive development, 9. _Bc5. 
was answered by the equally aggressive 
10 Bf4, one point being that 10- JBd4?l 
would be a positional mistake in view of 
11 Bc7 d5 12 ed Bc3 13bcNdS 14Be5 
fB 15 c4! Nb4 16 Bc3 Nc6 17 Rabl, with 
a superior endgame for White. 

Tnc venture of toe black king into the 
center with 13..JKe7 is all part of the 



strategy of this splinter of the Taimanov. 
If Black can survive Into an endgame, 
eveiything will be quite all right, bnt if 
not ... 

Black cannot well eliminate his back- 
ward d6 pawn with 14. -dc because IS 
f4! is very strong for White. After 16 f4, 
toe threat was 17 Qb4 followed by 18 fe. 
Poigar stopped that with 16...a5, but 
after 17 Qd3!, Sutovskij threatened to 
carry out toe same theme with I8Qa3!If 
17„.b5 18 Nc3 Ba6, then 19 Nd5 Nd5 20 
ed Qc5 21 R£2 ef 22 Qe4 Kf8 23 Qf4 
gives Black a bad king position. 

But Polgar's 17..JRa6 was no im- 
provement; after 18 fe de 19 Qa3 Ke8, 
her king was stiO stuck in the center. 

' Sutovskij's 20 Rf3! powerfully brought 
a new piece into action. If 20...Bg4, then 
21 Rc3 Bdl 22 Rc6 Rc6 23 Bfl ! Nd7 24 
Bb5 Rc7 25 Qd6 wins. If 20...Qc2, then 
21 Rfd3 Bd7 22 Bh3! cleans up. 

After 20.:.b5, he bored in with 2 1 Rc3 
Qb7 22 Qc5 Bd7 23 Qe5 Re6 24 Qd4! ba 
25 e5 Qb6 26 efgf27 Bh3! Qd428 Rd4, 
when Poigar had to lose rook for bishop. 
After 32 Rd2, Poigar gave up the hope- 
less endgame. 


abed e T g h 
SUTOVEKLtiWHITE 

Position after 23 ... Re® 



SICILIAN DEFENSE 


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aS 

22 QcS 

Bd7 

7 Bg2 

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Nf6 

Nd4 

23 Qe5 

24 Qd4 

25 

26 ef 

Refi 

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9 Qd4 

10 Bf4 

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dfi 

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27 Bh3 

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85 

28 Rd4 

KC7 ' 

13 Be3 

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29 Rc7 

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14 BcS 

$ 

30 Be6 

fe 


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85 

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aS 


Resigns 


in their strong dialect; their poverty it 
overwhelming and terribly sad (al- 
though, again, she would never say so). 
Her distaste and distress are met by a 
kind of reverse scorn; she’s the one 
who’s left and written books about this 
cruel, rough life; her family has had to — 
or chosen to — stick here on the island 
and live it They turn what might have 
been their own lack of imagination 01 
ambition into perverse virtue. In theii 
eyes, she’s toe freak and toe wimp. 

Her brother, as far as she knows, does 
drugs — but only cocaine and 
marijuana. He's had many sexual part- 
ners — but only women, as far as she 
knows. He lies, dying, in the worst hos- 
pital on the island, his body rotting from 
within. Outside it's not too much to say 
that the island and its people are living 
out corresponding forms of disorder and 
civic decay. “On Antigua,” she writes, 
‘ ‘people never arrive when they say they 
will; they never do what they say tody 
will do.” 

In opposition to this thou gh tless 
chaos, Kincaid arrives, bringing AZT 
(and going into debt to do it), and mi-! 
raculously her brother recovers for a 
while, the only man on the island ever to 
do so. When he does get better, he begins; 
to have unprotected sex with as many 
women as he can, maintaining that he 
doesn’t have AIDS. The author is left to 
consider the consequences of her good 
deed. ; 

But her hrother turns out be a minor 
player in this drama, only one of three 
brothers and a sister raised by a mother 

who is operatic in her fiendish scope and 

stale. And it’s possible that this book 
wifi be “perfect” only for people who 
understand up front what toe author is 
talking about, what she is getting at, 
trying to uncover “I wifi not add a 
t l ua ~? er . to . . . her hatred toward me, or 
modify it, this was just so: my mother 
bates her children.” Kincaid may rail at 
Ore poverty and careless malice of people- 
on toe island, but all that pales against toe' 
viciousness of her mother. 

Her mother has done — and still does 
. .“? e ve Q r she can to destroy her 
children. Family stories of betrayal and 
destruction accumulate and accrue 
ttoough toe second half of toe book ' 
aftwSat brother, mot young man, dies 
in terrible agony. So this is a story of 
escaping from a dreadful family and vet 
never being able to escape entirely. 

Ki JAfJE? 1 wron 8:” Smother tells- 
Kincaid during a visit to Vermont, “f 

■PdogiM for.” And 
afterherroother leaves, toe author has 

dose to a nervous break- 

AIDS it? n^ 0t «'s not 

J t s hot ambition that is at the 

mcmoir - lVs growing up in 
me murderous presence of withemm 

5“ Using themSS 

hcr toother ascrazed, 
destructive gardener) Kincaid wriS 

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MERALD tribune, 

I’AUE i '' DECtMBER 9. 19« 



The Verve and Vivacity of Versace in Met Retrospective 


B y Suzy Menkes 

tahnunmd HitjU Tribune 


N EW YORK — “WH/\AM!” 
rwd ihe letters on a crans^ 
parent lemon-yellow dress. 
And that sums tip the spirit of 
the exhibition celebrating the verve and 
vivacity of Gianni Versace. 

fa homage to ihe late designer, the 
plastic dress in which Madonna posed 
^ fat ihe flashbulbs. Courtney Love’s 
. J ? stinky white Oscar gown, a duck-egg- 
blue creation for Diana, Princess of 
Wales, the cover shot and the safety-pin 
dress that rocketed Liz Hurley to her 15 
minutes of fame are all gathered to- 
gether at the Metropolitan Museum. 

The Costume Institute has devoted its 
blockbuster December show to “Gianni 
Versace' * t until March 22), and it 
launched the event Monday with a 
$2,00G-a-pIaie frock ’n’ roll gala, 
co-hosted by Donatella Versace and 
Elion John and held in the museum's 
white marble sculpture court Classic 
versus funk. Very cool. Very now. Very 
Versace. 

The effect of the instant retrospect- 
ive, put together in the four months 
since the designer was slain, is to un- 
derline Versace’s image as a maestro of 
r glitz and to reinforce certain prejudices: 
that he raised vulgarity to an art form 
and reveled in making brash fashion 
heroines. Bur if does scant justice to 
Versace's pioneering luxury sportswear 
in the early 1 9S0s and only touches on 
his flamboyant contribution to 
menswear. 

Richard Martin, the curator of the 
Costume Institute, lays out his thesis in 
the first of the wall texts, each intro- 
duced with a quotation from Marcel 
Proust, apparently Versace's favorite 
reading. Marlin contends that the de- 
signer “chose the prostitute as his ex- 
emplum,” developing that image as a 
(992 black wool dress with bondage 
straps or a sexy caricature of a draped 
neoclassical gown. 

“In a feat worthy of literature, Ver- 
t s.ice seized the streetwalker’s bravado 
f and conspicuous wardrobe, along with 
her blatant, brandished sexuality, and 
introduced them to high fashion, Mar- 
tin claims. In other words, whereas the 
history of 20th-century fashion is 
littered with loose women whom artful 
couturiers remodeled for high society, 
Versace is presumed to have made so- 
ciety women dress as happy hookers. 

. If this were true, the most spectac- 
ular outfits in the show — say the 
animal-print, bare-midriff pantsuit or 
the boudoir corsct-and-lace dresses — 
would acknowledge a loan or donation : 
from particular clients. Instead. 95 per- 

.■sweeping wool bridal coat worn by 
Francesca von Habsburg — are cour- 


tesy of the Gianni Versace archives or a 
gift of the designer. In a foreword to the 
catalogue, Philippe de Montebello, di- 
rector of the Metropolitan, hails Ver- 
sace as a- “generous patron” of the 
Costume Institute. 

But if you let the subject of a show 
make his own posthumous movie 
through personally selected archives, 
something is lost in this case, the strong 
sportswear pieces on which Versace 
built his reputation. Where are the bold- 
shouldered, narrow-hipped coats that 
were Versace’s contribution to luxuri- 
ous Italian style? Or the curvy leather 
pants and dolman-sleeve sweaters that 
were a fashion unif orm on Milan’s Via 
della Spiga in the early 1980s? Where 
even are the recent pastel suits as worn 
by Diana and the international jet set? 

In the testosterone-raising collection 
of flirtatious evening frocks, there is not 
one single outfit from the 1970s, when 
Versace’s designs for Complice and 
Ca ll ag h an created die feminized andro- 
gyny that was seminal to the following 
fashion decade. There is nothing even 
from the debut women’s collection in 
1978. 

Martin says that the early pieces were 
bard to find and that the reason that there 
are so few client loans is that “Versace 
didn’t take the rich people of New York 
in his lifetime — they didn't get it, 
because they saw it as too aggressive, 
too vulgar and too bright” 

But the suspicion remains that the 
show is as it is because Martin wants to 
propose a particular thesis about Ver- 
sace’s skill as a dressmaker and role as 
“Pygmalion to the prostitute,” rather 
than make a chronological assessment 
of the designer's development and eval- 
uate his contribution to fashion. 

Taken on its own terms, the show is a 
lively spectacle, especially when theater 
designs are shown in a darkened room, 
where a panniered gown designed in 
1989 for Richard Strauss's “Capric- 
cio” morphs into another costume pro- 
jected on a slide. 

O NE vitrine is dedicated to 
Versace’s landmarks, like the 
Hurley safety-pin dress. Such 
is the power of media images, 
that, abstracted from the celebrity con- 
text, the outfits still seem to bear the 
imprint of their famous wearers — even 
though the mannequins faces are wittily 
wrapped in printed scarves. 

Another subject is Versace and mod- 

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Gianni Versace ball gown at the Costume Institute's restrospective Of the designer's work. 


Ptwugnph by Irons ten 


em art, a major inspiration of the 1990s. 
Outfits includes Warhol prints, elab- 
orate Sonia Delaunay embroidery and 
light-handed chiffon dresses fluttering 
with the silhouettes of Alexander Calder 
mobiles. 

c BTffie ftfit&iy SertionTire Versace’s 
eclectic borrowings:" a gladiator tunic 
here, a Byzantine cross there, a 1930s 


gown h la Madame Gres and an 18th- 
century ball gown with a jean jacket. 
Fabric innovations include Versace's 
slinky metal-mesh dresses. 

Some of the claims Martin makes 
seem absurd. Surely it is not “ r a surprise 
J m fashion Kstory" 1 hat Versacemade a' 
design feature out of studs, when they 
were a staple of customized denim jack- 


ets in the 1970s? And what was so “con- 
troversial” about using plastic in the 
1990s, when designers had played with 
vinyls and PVCs throughout the 1960s? 

It would have been interesting to see 
Martin discuss Versace’s innovations in 
Iduher fahdT his sexpot silhouette) in 
relation to Azzedine Alaia, a neglected 
fashion genius, who is coincidentally 


the subject of an exhibition that opened 
on Saturday at the Groninger Museum, 
in Groningen, the Netherlands. 

Menswear also gets very short shrift 
— with a couple of printed shirts and 
rock gear. Yet Versace’s peacock, male 
flamboyance was nor only sociologic- 
ally significant, in that it reflected the 
gay pride and bravado of 1980s, it also 


influenced the course of mainstream 
male dressing by breaking down bour- 
geois barriers. 

The Costume Institute is commend- 
ably energetic and prolific with its ex- 
hibitions. But Versace needs a cooler 
and more complete assessment than this' 
dramatic presentation of glamorous but 
evanescent dresses. 


A Gem of a Show: The Ice and Fire of Diamonds 



Inurmuional Herald Tribune 

N EW YORK — The faces were 
pressed so close to the glass that it 
steamed up with misty breath. This 
was Tiffany’s holiday windows, 
where frosty Mozartian tableaux are created 
out of icing sugar cookies? Or maybe Berg- 
dorfs window display of a manic Marie 
Antoinette, with trinkets on the shelves inside 
her crinoline skirt? 

No. The jewel -decked crowd in evening 
dress was gazing at an exhibition of dia- 
monds: the Krupp rock that Richard Burton 
bought for Liz Taylor, the bouquet-of- 
flowers pin that belonged to Jacqueline 
Kennedy: the glacial tiara, worn by Princess 
Grace of Monaco to her daughter Caroline's 
wedding, and the gems encrusting the sable- 
trimmed crown of Peter the Great. 

The annual ball at the American Museum 
of Natural History last week offered a private 




peek at a crowd-pulling show; “The Nature 
of Diamonds” (until April 26). 

The exhibition was conceived as an edu- 
cational tool to explain the geological for- 
mation of diamonds and how they are trans- 
formed by nature and by man. Multimedia 
effects, from a re-created mine tunnel to a 
simulated volcanic explosion, explain how 
diamonds develop and their application to 
industry and technology. 

Bui the myth-making that has surrounded 
the stones for centuries still holds. People 
inevitably gravitate towards the central dis- 
play, where Marilyn Monroe sings “Dia- 
monds Are a Girl ’s Best Friend,” interspersed 
with clips of Mae West, Rita Haywoith and 
other sparkling Hollywood moments. In con- 
trast to that all-out glamour, another film 
shows the painstaking needie-in-a -haystack 
search for diamonds in the wilds of Canada. 

To celebrate 50 years of the slogan “A 


diamond is forever,” the exhibition is being 
sponsored by the Diamond Information Cen- 
ter on behalf of De Beers. And the famous 
jewels that have been rallied for the event are 
so exceptional that some are housed in a 
walk-in vault. 

Having studied the crystal structure of the 
diamond in its natural state, the effects 
achieved by cutting, polishing and setting 
seem the more remarkable: The 128.54-carat 
Tiffany yellow diamond, with a bird perched 
on top, created by Jean Schlumberger in the 
1960s; or the stars en tremblant on an 1863 
tiara from the Portuguese crown jewels. 
Against the lacy Cartier bow brooch and Van 
Cleef s geometric Art Deco pin, the modem 


designs seem kitsch — especially the pink 
diamond rabbit on a sugar-pink Bakelite 
bangle. 

As well as gems for adornment, rhe ex- 
hibition includes the jeweled Gospel cover of 
Catherine the Great, set with more than 2,000 
gems, one of several exceptional loans from 
the Kremlin. 

“Diamonds always seem so cold to me — 
they have no warmth, no soul,” Cary Grant 
says on screen as he gazes at Mae West's 
glittering bosom. But the orgy of opulence 
and glamour represented by this exhibition of 
gems makes it the hottest show in town. 

Suzy Menkes 



MmmcI SlwaiRMnw/PHS 

linun h with suspended 31 .93 -carat yellow diamond. 


I Maiqz tfer Cfiristrnas 

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‘PiUpietb.' 'Diamond l^trnity 
^ :.06 Cants each 




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9 G? 
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Vft your business website « 

Portugal 

IfaalhSBBrilnmt 

BUSINESS/FINANCE 

pcrtusalcffer.ccm 

R TUESDAY, DECEMBERS, 1997 . PAGE 13 


Progress Seen 
In WTO Talks 
On Opening 
Finance Sector 


By Alan Friedman 

/ nternmional Herald Tribune 

PARIS — - With a deadline fast ap- 
proaching, diplomats reported substan- 
tial progress MoQday toward a global 
financial-services deal that would lib- 
eralize billions of dollars worth of trade 
in the banking, insurance and brokerage 
sectors by lowering tariff and invest- 
ment barriers. 

But the United States is expected to 
maintain a tough line right up until the 
Friday deadline, demanding better mar- 
ket-opening measures from Asian and 
Latin American countries. “Until last 
week the chances of a deal were 50-50/ ’ 
a U.S. official said Monday. “Now they 
are a little belter than 50-50." 

Non-U.S. officials meeting at the 
World Trade Organization in Geneva, 
meanwhile, argued that the chances of 
achieving a pact by the deadline were 
improving steadily. On Monday, the 
negotiators welcomed an offer from 
Brazil, whose market-opening proposal 
was expected to be followed by pro- 
posals from other Latin American coun- 
tries such as Argentina, Paraguay, Uru- 
guay and Colombia. 

Trade officials involved in the long- 
running talks also said that by Tuesday 
they expected key East Asian countries 
such as Thailand and Indonesia to make 
offers to allow foreign investors to buy 
majority stakes in some finance firms. 

“With the news of today’s offers we 
now have submissions from 60 coun- 
tries,” said Renato Ruggiero, director- 
general of the WTO. “We will have a 
substantial harvest on the table, one 
which we cannot afford to lose." 

The U.S. officiaL who declined to be 
identified, said the prospect of new of- 
fers was “unquestionably a step for- 
ward" but he stressed that there were 
“still 10 more offers outstanding which 
we view as part of the critical mass 
needed to achieve an agreement ' ' 

The official said that the deputy U.S. 
trade representative. Jeffrey Lang, was 
expected to arrive in Geneva late Mon- 
day, and would review the offers. 

Although Mr. Ruggiero said Monday 

See TRADE, Page 14 


SBC Calls On a Bridge-Builder 




Bloomberg News 

BASEL — When Swiss Bank Corp. bought S.G. 
Warburg Inc. two years ago, it chose Marcel Ospel to 
find a way to bridge the cultural gap between denim- 
clad Swiss bankers and pinstripe-suited Britisb 
brokers. 

Then the senior vice president of Swiss Bank, Mr. 
Ospel succeeded largely by making swift changes 
that included cutting duplicated jobs, such as those 
of U.S. Treasury bond traders. After the acquisition 
this year of the U.S. investment bank Dillon Read & 
Co., Swiss Bank counts Warburg Dillon Read as one 
of its most profitable units. 

Now, the bank is calling on Mr. Ospel again. This 
time, the 47-year-old is chief executive of Swiss 
Bank Corp., and the job he faces is bigger — com- 
bining Swiss Bank ana its larger rival, Union Bank of 
Switzerland, into United Bank of Switzerland, which 
would be the world's second-largest bank in terms of 
assets, after Bank of Tokyo- Mitsubishi Ltd. 

As chief executive of the merged bank, Mr. Ospel 
will have to be tough enough to dismiss nearly a 
quarter of the banks' 56,000 workers and diplomatic 
enough to avoid being blocked by unions or gov- 
ernment officials. People who know him say be is the 
man for the job. 

“He comes across as an easy-going, charming 
person/ ’ said Hons Kaufmann, an analyst and fund 
manager at Bank Julius Baer & Co., “but in reality 
he’s very tough. If he sets his mind on something, he 
normally sees it through." 


Swiss Bank’s then-chief executive, Gemge^fllum, 
concluded an £860 million ($1.42 billion) takeover 
of S.G. Warburg Group in 1995 and promptly defied 
those who said Warburg’s employees could not 
work with the Swiss. - 

He faces a similar task in knitting together United 
Bank of Switzerland: Swiss Bank's meritocratic 
culture may dash with the more military-style man- 
agement of UBS. which only last year broke with 
tradition by appointing as chief executive someone 
who was not an officer in the Swiss Army, Mathis 
Cabiallavetta. 

Combining Basel-based Swiss Bank with Zurich- 
based UBS will lead to 13,000 job losses — about 
7,000 of them in Switzerland — after Swiss Bank 
already has cut 1,700 jobs in a reorganization and 
UBS has trimmed 1 ,100. Analysts said the job losses 
were necessary if Mr. Ospel wanted to improve die 
bank’s performance and cement his reputation as 
one of Switzerland’s most dynamic bankers. 

"Ospel is a man of vision," said Madeleine 
Ho fmann, an analyst at Credit Suisse. “Undo: him, 
SBC's performance has improved dramatically." 

Mr. Ospel, a graduate of the School of Economics 
and Business Administration in Basel, joined Swiss 
Bank’s marketing department in 1977. He spent five 
years at Swiss Bank m New York and London and 
two years at Merrill Lynch in Zorich before rejoining 
Swiss Bank as senior vice president in 1987. 

He is tire framer head of global markets at Swiss 



. •* 
-r.A 

•• ..f ' h 



Ad 4 j Uwflo/Rflin, 

Marcel Ospel, who melded SBC Warburg. 

Bank and ran its international and finance division 
before becoming head of SBC Warburg. 

Investor amndence in him is reflected in Swiss 
Bank’s shares, which had surged 76 percent this year 
before the merger announcement, outperforming 
UBS stock, which gained 64 percent. 

On Monday, Swiss Bank's shares rose 25 francs to 
close at 47230, and UBS gained 215 to 2,145. 


Netscape -Microsoft Browser War Limits Web Access 


By Steve Lohr 

New York Times Service 


NEW YORK — A browsing program 
is intended to be a kind of universal 
viewer, a technological passport to see 
all that the World Wide Web has to offer. 
It has been called the Internet's software 
equivalent of a telephone dial tone. 

But, because of the spirited com- 
petition between Netscape Communi- 
cations Corp. and Microsoft Corp., a 
single browser is no longer a window 
onto the entire Web, and many Internet 
experts predict that the problem will 
worsen over the next year or so. 

In a handful of cases, sites are blacked 
out entirely to one browser or another. 
Use Netscape's Navigator browser to tap 
into the W'amer Brothers entertainment 
site, called Entertaindom. and you get die 
message: “You must first download Mi- 
crosoft Internet Explorer 4.0." 

Microsoft's own on-line gaming site, 
called the Zone, is similarly unavailable 
to those using Netscape's browser. An 


apologetic message appears on the 
screen saying that Microsoft is working 
to add access fra Netscape users. 

“In the meantime/ the message 
adds, “we invite you to download Mi- 
crosoft Internet Explorer for free.’ ’ 
More common is something that can 
be thought of as a Web brownout, with 
some features of a site, perhaps 10 per- 
cent to 30 percent, not working properly 
with a certain browser. 

“It will be an increasing problem for 


Internet users over the next year or 18 
months," said David Smith, an analyst 
for the research firm Gartner Group. 

Brownout troubles are partly a 
byproduct of innovation. Seeking a com- 

rajpidly adding capabilities frab^^ing 
video, audio and data on their browsers. 
As they push ahead, they take different 
technological paths. 

If a Web developer wants to take 
advantage of some cutting-edge feature, 


the site often must choose to tailor its 
software to work best with Navigator or 


Explorer. 
To see ; 


Interner Explore* 4 

OutlookExpress 


Jwwe 


Welcome To Warner Bros. 

i ou ;>: 'Hvia: 

Y-'-u rvo'st firn itovRl-Ml n tf-rr-t llrv’orr-r -1 it 

(SflOJ riZ'-ZW'- \v h3w aOOSOM '"'^t ur.-.r.j ic> tm'i*'-’ *<> jr.vt 
Oozp !£•? i; irrctiliT-J, viii ’r-: w vrwitv .be tVic-vta-.' cb-asci: 


To see all of the Web, some experts 
advise users to load both browsers onto 
their personal computers. 

If part of a site is not coming through 
with Navigator, try Explorer, they say, 
and vice versa. . 

Michael Miller, editor in chief of PC 
Magazine, gave the magazine's million- 
plus subscribers precisely that advice 
recently. In the Nov. 18 issue, after test- 
ing both browsers, he wrote, ‘ ' 1 often ran 
into sites that support Netscape’s latest 
features and don't look right m the Mi- 
cro softbrowser. And now that Microsoft 
1ms more supporters. I’m more often 
running into sites that look great in LE. 
but don’t work right in Navigator. ’ 1 
The extra cost of having two browsers 
is minuscule. Microsoft gives its browser 
away, while Netscape allows people to 
use its without charge for a trial period. 

See WEB, Page 14 


In Finance 

Only 2 of 58 Companies 
Are Cleared to Reopen 

• . By Thomas Crampton 

International Herald Tribune 

BANGKOK — The government per- 
manently closed more than half of the 
country’s finance companies Monday 
in a bold move that surprised analysts 
with its severity. 

The action sends about 6,000 of the 
country's most qualified professionals 
to the ranks of the unemployed and 
opens the way for a 930 billion baht 
($2236 billion) asset auction. But ana- 
lysts said it was just the first step for 
Thailand to sort out its debt-burdened 
finance sector. 

‘This was a medical amputation, 
now we have to see whether the cancer 
already spread to the rest of the sys- 
tem," said Barry Yates, head of re- 
gional research at Seamico Securities. 
“It is critical fra the remaining finance 
companies and commercial banks to 
increase their capital and hook up with 
strategic partners.' ’ 

Just two of the 58 finance companies 
suspended by authorities over the past 
five months — Bangkok Investment 
PLC and Kiamakin Finance & Secu- 
rities PLC — will reopen. Finance Min- 
ister Tania Wimmanahawwinriii said in 
announcing die long-awaited closures. 
Analysts had expected as many as seven 
companies to survive. 

The main Bangkok stock market in- 
dex closed 3.35 percent higher at 40 1 .80 
points, and the Thai currency finned 
slightly as .the dollar slipped to 41.30 
baht from 41.60 baht 

While not unexpected, the company 
closures still came as a shock to their 
employees. 

‘ ’I just don ’t know what to do. Should 
I go home now, or should I wait for 
somebody to fire me?" an analyst from 
T haime x Finance & Securities PLC 
said. "Most people are waiting around 
to be officially fired because then we 
can get full compensation." 

Police had been placed on alert for 
clashes, but Twatchai Yongkittikul, 
chairman of the Financial Restructuring 

See THAILAND, Page 17 


\ / 

i ' • -Y 


Thinking Ahead /Commentary 

Asia’s Crisis: A Blessing in Disguise? 


PRIVATE BANKING 


By Reginald Dale 

laicmuiunul Herald Tribune 


W ASHINGTON — With 
dire warnings of the 
dangers of the Asian fi- 
nancial crisis echoing 
around the globe, it seems unfashion- 
able. if not callous, to suggest that the 
whole thing could be a blessing in 
disguise. 

Precisely such a thought, however, 
has been voiced by Michel Camdessus, 
the managing director of the Interna- 
tional Monetary Fund, the man who is at 
the center of international efforts to save 
Thailand. Indonesia and now South 
Korea from largely self-inflicted ruin. 

The idea that the Asian debacle 
might in some sense be welcome is, to 
put it mildly, not a popular view in the 
once high-flying Asian countries that 
now face severe economic retrench- 
ment. unprecedented bankruptcies and 
mounting unemployment, not to men- 
tion huge loss of face. But. provided 
the main actors in the crisis now play 
their ports as they should, which is 
admittedly a big proviso, Mr. Cam- 
dessus may well rum out to be right. 

The outcome will be salutary, both 
for Asia and the world at large, if the 
crisis finally forces Asian countries to 
undertake major and long-overdue 
changes in the way they conduct their 
economic, financial and even political 
affairs — the more so if. thanks to 
international support and IMF super- 
vision. the reforms con be undertaken in 


an orderly manner. The key question is 
whether Asian governments have be- 
come too set in their ways to change. 

But there is now no excuse for fail- 
ing to understand that the government- 
run “crony capitalism" so widely 
practiced in Asia has become a recipe 
for disaster. In many countries, eco- 
nomic and financial resources have 
been severely misused, and proper dis- 
closure and supervision of financial 
operations has been sadly lacking. 

If the Asian disease is to be cured, 
companies, banks and governments all 
must open themselves to genuine com- 
petition and fuller public scrutiny. That 

The turmoil could 
finally force major and ' 
long-overdue changes in 
the countries affected. 

not only will help to ensure a return to 
healthy economic growth but also 
should pave the way to fairer and more 
democratic societies, underpinned by 
greater governmental and corporate 
accountability. 

Another big blessing would be if the 
crisis were to speed change in Japan. 
Although Tokyo's problems are quite 
different from those of Thailand, In- 
donesia and South Korea, Japan ur- 
gently needs to deregulate and revamp 
its economy and loosen the grip of the 
country's notorious bureaucrats on the 


levers of power. 

The catalyst for change could be 
Japan's long-simmering financial and 
banking crisis, which is about to 
achieve critical mass after seven years 
of neglect If Japan’s political leaders 
fail to resolve the problem quickly, the 
prophets of doom for the world econ- 
omy could be right 
But if the politicians succeed in stav- 
ing off disaster, as now certainly seems 
possible, it would be a clear sign that 
Japan can muster the political will to 
introduce other necessary economic 
and regulatory reforms. 

It is already clear that a solution to 
Asia's crisis will require more than the 
kind of immediate economic and fi- 
nancial measures prescribed by the 
IMF. In some countries, a longer-term 
process of cultural and political change 
will be needed if economies are to 
become more efficient 
It is important not to mistake the 
origins of the crisis. It is simply not true, 
as some have said, that the upheaval 
was caused by too much globalization 
— or by the West forcing its values on 
the East — and that the remedy should 
therefore be less globalization. 

If anything, the crisis is due to in- 
sufficient globalization. The whole aim 
of some Asian countries has been to 
take advantage of other people's mar- 
kets without opening their own. Liberal 
Western-style rules and practices are 
often conspicuous by ±eir absence. 

One undisguised blessing of the crisis 
is that it is helping to make that clearer. 


CURRENCY & INTEREST RATES 


Cross Rates oee.a 

s i u u lb m u a. n e fen 

AMStwMm ;0MS 12 112* 03347 ansi 1 — . 5*2 ‘ 13H74 1SM5- 141? 13ft ■ 

Bms«b jmi mm auj *m 21®:- ima — cm ora< 3.3 jjuiv 

Frankfort tffi — 09 6 1C 03574 IUK‘ 1 23 U&T iJM IIH3J - 

Loader In) wn — IttJl 1£tfi U&9 tXfM UJm Jilts Zisn ten 

Madrid Oasei' 

MM 

NtwYnkCb] — 14CT0 1TR 4<SS5 l.TtliS ZC113 J\91 I tu IES3 WW 15C.JJ 

Parts safe LU5S — 02411" 1U CI&Z7 4IJH 44776' 120H mi* 

Tokyo IWJ5J ?un irn us? ism pa — mi aetu 

Toronto HJTC BCR* ITUs CJ35* US7* — 0?4* 

Zurich 1452 13P! CfflM OS OSS* OIK UN' - IMS* 10 5W r ' 

1 ECU 1UW 1*65 \3K 6ilM 1,954* USl 405 14CS U1517 15738 leJCffi 

1 JOB IJH 11812 ;«I6 !W ft 3 UltS 4?Jli M&» 17116 T9l« *U 

dosings In Amsterdam. London. fAJcn Parts OHtZurieJi fangs a oilier centers New YeitetJ 
PM. and Toronto rales at 3 PM. 

it To bey one pound. &' To buv me dollar; •Umh of ICO: N O. net qvoied: NJL. nor ovmwste 


Ubld-Libor Rates Dec. a 

Swiss 

Defer D-Mark Franc Storing Fraoc Yon ECU 

1-nwntti t’-o-d*. lTo-VM, 34ft -3Vj ft- 1 4VM-4IV, 

3-mditf) S’Vo-m )Vn-H* 7^-7% dVb.jf* ft-i 4ft- 

frroodh 5“V-F. »-3li lld-lft 7V.-7>Vk 3*4-3 < fti ft-1 

1 ycor 4 lft-2 7ft - to* yv» - 4V* v - 4*k - 4*v*o 

Sources: Reuters. Uants Sank. 

Pates applicable to MerbarA deposits of SI mltttm mMmam (oreqvtoatcnt}. 


Key Money Rates 


Other Dollar Values 

Cw rroci Pits Comroqr P*r» Currency PerS bnrtocy Perl 

Anool.poss 09999 Greek droc. 279.74 Mu.pna 3.177 S.Afr.re»d -571 

AnMfcroS 1.4943 HangKongS 7.7365 N.ZoiriandS 14731 S.Kor.vnn 1U25( 

Austrian sdv 11550 Hang-forM MP41 Nerw. krone 72055 SwaLkrooa 7.7362 

Bimflraal I.IIOI ImDanropoe 58.9 Ptdl.peso 15.10 TonranS 31.90 

CMaewyaflfl U1 !mta. rupiah J025.0 PeKlnfoif 355 Ttwlbohl 41 JO 

Czech karona 3449 Irish £ 06877 Poft.eKada 182.07 Tnridshltra 19*475 

Dart** ben* 4.J96 Israelistak. 3isu RmnMo 59255 UAEfirtwn 3471 

EgraLpowd 1400 Kmrdtar 03024 Soudi riyat 3.75 VenetbeSv. 501.75 

Rn.maridH 53883 Mtfay.nng. 346S sng.j UI47 

Forward Rates 

CMNMy Tartar 6Wor W-doy canon ty iMay 404oy 9Woy 

Pound 5ferfe9 , - £JW Japanese yen 129.96 12926 170*5 

CmmsfaSt feUer i-*UM J-™ 7 Swiss franc 14J6S 1J440 14455 

MKlHlMrt 1.7818 1 77B7 1 7759 

Saunrc INOBenk (Amsterdam): Cera Imestmeni Bonn (BmssaH: Banco Cammerdate 
UpBano tMHon): Banana He France (Perish Bant at Tokyo- Mitsubishi t Tokyo). Para! Bank of 
Canada t Tamale): IMFfSDR). Ortvntaafmn ine Associated Press. Blscmaergard Perl ‘ms 


nyrkTf ifrday W4ay 

129.96 12926 170*9 

14465 1.4440 14455 


Umftd Skrin 

Oos® 

Pre* 

Briteft 


Dfccourtroft 

S.0Q 

5.00 

Barit bast raft 

7ft 

Pi Inn raft 

8W 

8L; 

Calnamy 

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Fcdand hirob 

55H 

5ft 

l-mocttiiolertiaak 

TV* 

90-dsf CDs darim 

• SJU 

i81 

3-aHan taftrbaak 

7*» 

180-dor CP demon 

557 

557 


7ft 

3-nonfli Tieaiwy M 

520 

5.15 

l&ywarGSt 

650 

1-fecr Treasury tdl 

553 

SJ6 



2-roar Trocsorr ha 

552 

5.77 

Ffg 


S-ypor Treasury note 

5.91 

s& 

laftmnHwi raft 

130 

7-rom Treasury non 

S.93 

£.87 

Coll Donoy 

3ft 

lft-Wor Treasury Mh 

5.94 

5« 

liBMltalaftrtnmk 

75 

3»fear Treasury Mad 

6.13 

we 


3ft 

MorrH Lynch 30-day RA 

6.10 

5.10 

6-mwfB kntertxarii 

3ft 

Japan 



10-VNf OAT 

504 


Dbanmtnite 
CaH money 
l-aioath atoihank 
l^noatfi te tortoro k 
6-moirth Hrtortiank 
llHearnwl hand 
Germany 
Lombard raft 
Cal manor 
1 -month Interbank 
Mil fateitank 
4-monlh interbank 
10-rtcr Bwni 


050 050 

039 0.41 

0.90 1.10 

090 0.95 

0.90 0.9S 

1.81 \JB 


450 450 

146 144 

3.74 3.74 

175 IK 
306 306 

539 5.44 


. Smjjgm: Roman. Bhmmbm Mnrffl 
Lynch, flank of Takyo-Mllsoblfhl, 
Coaminbeak , Crodd kjanofe- 


AJfL PM . aria 

Zurich NA 28&05 -020 

London 288.10 28750 +0.10 

New York 29050 29000 -050 

„ U.S. daBoK per ounce. London ofBctat 


md aotdhg prices/ Now Ycrtt Comar 
(Fehj 

Soiree: Reuters. 


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PACE 14 


s America 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 9 ? 1997 


THE AMERICAS 




Dollar Maintains 
Highs Against Yen 

Bloomberg New 

NEW YORK — The dollar held at a five-and-a-balf- 
yearhigh against die yen Monday on concern dial a bail out 



iced by Japan’s debt-sc 
The U.S. currency cli 


1 financials 
against the 


tsche marie 


Source: Bloomberg. Reuter s 

Very briefly: 

• First American Corp. will pay $2.7 billion in stock to buy 
Deposit Guaranty Corp. of Jackson, Mississippi. The com- 
bined company will have about $17.4 hi 1 1 kin in assets nnd 
shareholders’ equity of $1.65 billion and will conduct busi- 
ness in Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, Ar kans as, Virginia 
and Kentucky. 

• Procter & Gamble Co. agreed to sell its Duncan Hines 
baking-mix business, which has annual sales of about $250 
million, to MBW Investors LLC, an investor group that owns 
Aurora Foods Inc. Terms of the deal were not disclosed. 

■ The New York Stock Exchange said it expected to begin 
listing Indian shares in the next 1 2 to 1 8 months, adding that at 
least 10 Indian companies would be listed within two years. 

• Apple Computer Inc. paid its former chair man and chief 
executive officer, Gilbert Amelio, a severance package of 
about $6.7 million in connection with his resignation. 

• Wool worth Corp. announced the sale of Wool worth Mex- 

icans, its Mexican unit, to the Mexican retailing corporation 
Control Dinamico, completing Wool worth's withdrawal 
from its North American general-merchandise business. 
Terms were not disclosed. Bloomberg, Reuters. AFP. NYT 


Weekend Box Office 

The Associated Press 

LOS ANGELES — “Flubber" dominated the U.S. box 
office over the weekend, with a gross of $1 1.8 million. Fol- 
lowing are the Top 10 moneymakers, based on Saturday’s ticket 
sales and estimates for Sundry. • 


Han$ Tietmeyer, who said he did not mind current rates, 
also lifted the dollar. “There is no special concem as far 
as inflation and exchange rates are concerned, though 
monetary authorities have to be vi gilant, ” he said. 

Weakness in Japan’s finance industry is bad for the yen 
because it makes investors reloctant to hold Japanese 

finan cial assets. 

“There’s some concemthatthe package is not going to 
bring batiks out of their slide fast enough — that it T s going 
to be too conservative,’ ’ said Ben Strauss, a currency 
trader at Bank Julius Baer. 

In 4 P.M. trading, the dollar rose to 130.525 yen from 
130.200 yen on Friday, 1.7897 DM from 1.7826 DM, 
5.9885 French francs from 5.9653 francs and 1.4560 
Swiss francs from 1.4400 francs. The pound was quoted 
at $1.6477, off from $1.6590. 

The dollar also got a lift from speculation that Japanese 
officials would not act to keep the dollar from rising 
further. The deputy finance minister for international 
affairs, Eisuke Sakakibara, who last week bemoaned the 
yen’s weakness, refrained from malting yen-supporting 
comments Monday. 


CeafBotbj/&eS^FnmDuptBbo 

NEW YORK— Stocks ended mixed 
Monday, with technology issues rising 
but blue-chip shares dragged down by 
worries about Coca-Cola's profit 

The Dow Jones industrial average 
closed down 38.29 points at 8,110.84, 
mostly because of a sharp drop in Coke's 
shares, which fell 2 9/16 to wV5. 

Analysts at Morgan Stanley, Dean 
Witter, Discover & Co. find Salomon 
Smith Barney cut their earnings estimates 
for the soft-drink maker, citing slower 
sales in Asia. PepsiCo fell % to 36 7/16. 

The comments shook investors’ faith 
in other multinationals, causing them to 
move funds intn smaller companies and 
technology stocks. 

Boeing fdl 15/16 to 51 7A6 after 
world's Ingest aircraft maker said the 
Asian financial may delay die de- 
livery of as many as 60 of its jetimerc over 
the next three years because of slower 
growth in the airline traffic in die region. 

“You’re seeing a rotation from the 


more stable companies that have led the 
S&P to new highs to small and mid-cap 
stocks,'* Said Bill CYHeam, amoney. 
manager.. with McKinley. Capital Man- 
agement Inc. 

Weakne$s in the Treasury bond market 
also kept adamperon stocks. Theprice of 

- •• US. STOCKS •- ■- 

the benchmark 30-year issue fell 22/32 
point, to 9929/32, taking the yield np to 
6.13 percent from 6.08 percent Friday. 

In the broader stock market, the Stan- 
dard & Poor’s 500 index fell- 1.42 point 
to 98237, . but gaining issues outnum- 
bering tosing.toes by a 5-to4 ratio on 
the New York Stock Exchange. 

The Nasdaq composite index closed 


up 17.64 points at 1,651.54, led by Intel, 
which rose 13/16 to 78% after agreeing 
to take a stake in CMG Information 
Services, a marketing concem that in- 
vests in Internet companies. CMG rose 
414 to 28%. 


- 3Com rose 1 to 37 7/16 as the com- 
pany and rival modem makers said they 
expected companies in the computer- 
networking industry to. agree on a sta$- . .. 
daid for.56-kilobit modems as early as 
nextmomh. The company also benefited 
from a buy recommendation from J.P. 
Morgan Securities. . . . ■ • 

Compaq Computer was the most ac- 
tive issue on the Big Board, rising W to 
65% after the company's chief financial 
officer said global demand for personal 
computers was not slowing down, even 
with the economic troubles in Asia. Deli 
Computer rose 2.3/16 to. 95 15/16. r. 

KLA-Tcncor rose 15/16 to 41%. The 
board of die microchip assembly-equip- 
ment maker authorized ihe buyback ^ A 
many as 200.000 shares. . •**• - 

MicroProse fell 2% to a 52 -week 3o}p 
of 2 5/16 after the educational-software 
developer said it would post a loss in the 
quarter ending Dec. 28 because of IP 
terminated plan to acquire GT Inter- 
active Software. (AP, Bloomberg i 


WEB: Netscape-Microsoft Clash Over Browsers Limits User Access 


Continued from Page 13 

Analysts estimate that only 20 percent of 
Navigator users pay for iL But having to 
load two browsers is inconvenient, in-, 
efficient and takes np space on a PC’s 
hard disk that could be used for other 


TRADE: WTO Talks Advance Pn jEtesides,fe’ 


I.Flubbor 

(Wait Disney) 

SllJmeim 

2. Allen Resumcfion 

(Tneri&fiCeriuryfisO 

S&25mflflon 

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(PanmKHJn!) 

J5.7mraofl 

4. Anastasia 

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$4J5mffllon 

5. The Jackal 

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(New Line Cmvnm) 

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8. 1 Know IMti You Od Ltasumw 

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susmuBM 

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11 79 ml Son 

10. SlnsNp Timpen 

(Tristar) 

51.25 mlfllon 


Continued from Page 13 

that “we have reached the 
point where fee decisions on 
this deal will be mainly polit- 
ical,” Mr. Lang is likely to 


me last minute. 

In June 1995, the United 
States rejected as inadequate 
the market-opening measures 
from other countries involved 
in fee talks. Washington is 
expected to have the final 
word because fee United 
States is fee world’s biggest 
financial-services market 

Brazil’s offer included a 
key provision that would 
phase out over the next two 
years a state monopoly on its 
reinsurance market while im- 
proving foreign banks’ access 
to its domestic markets. 

The improved offers ex- 
pected from Thailand and In- 
donesia, officials said, reflec- 
ted fee growing realization 
among East Asian nations hit 
by fee current financial crisis 
that their best hopes of re- 
constructing their banking 
systems would lie in attract- . 


ing foreign partners wife 
fresh capital. 

The Thai offer, for ex- 
ample, is expected to contain 
“grandfathering” clauses, 
m eaning guarantees fear will 
protect existing majority for- 
eign ownership of financial 
institutions even if future laws 
might lower fee limits on fee 
stakes foreigners can possess. 

Indonesia’s new offer is 
also likely to protect foreign 
investors that own up to 100 
percent of fund managers and 
insurance com panies . 

Among U.S. priorities at 
•fee WTO talks is a demand 
for Malaysia, which allows 
foreigners to own only 51 per- 
cent of insurance companies, 
to “grandfather” ihe rights of 
existing shareholders of 100 
percent stakes. 

This is widely believed to 

fee divestiture of sharehold- 
ings by two U.S. groups — 
American International 
Group Inc. and Aetna Life & 
Casualty Co. — both of which 
have large 100 percent- 
owned Malaysian insurers. ■- 


Besides, few sites clearly inform users 
feat they are best viewed in one browser 
or another. So Internet surfers are re- 
duced to trial and error, switching 
browsers if there are problems. 

“Using two browsers is an answer, but 
feat is a lousy answer,” Mr. Miller said. 

The Microsoft-Netscape split, he and 
others say, is slowing fee process by 
which fee Web could become a richer. 


more interactive entertainment medium 
for fee mass market The slowdown re- 
sults because Web developers delay 
adding cutting-edge technology to their 
sites until Microsoft and Netscape agree 
to make their browser technologies com- 
patible, under pressure from users and the 
world Wide Web Consortium, the in- 
dustry’s standards-setting organization. 

“Both companies are taking their own 
paths and only being compatible where 
necessary,” said Patrick Naughton, 
chief technology officer of Starwave 
Corp. “It's not good for consumers.” 

Starwave is fee uew-media company 
that serves as fee technological engine 
behind some of fee Internet’s popular 
Web sites, such as ESPN Sporozoite. 


AMEX 


The Microsoft-Netscape split dR 
browser technology, Mr. Naughton said, 
tends to freeze fee flow of new features 
into those sites because Starwave do$ 
not want to discriminate against the 
users of one browser or another. 

Where Microsoft and Netscape di- 
verge is on seemingly arcane program- 
ming protocols such as enhancements to 
fee Web’s basic hypertext markup lan- 
guage (html), which controls the way 
information is organized and displayed, 
or the technical ground rules for handling 
Java, fee Intemerprogramming language 
created by Sun Microsystems Inc. 

■ r 

• Recent technology articles: ■> * 

wwvc.iht.comllHTITECHl f 


Monday’s 4 PM. Close 

The 300 most traded stocks of the day, 
up to the closing on Wafl Sheet. 
The Associated Press. 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1997 


RAGE 15 


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1 ,f French Theme Park Priced to Sell 


Under a Cloud 


Mwmlvr* Nrti-j 

PARIS — Parc Asterix SA’s in- 
vestor* hove had little to be amused 
about since shares in the French 
theme park based on a cartoon char- 
acter were first sold six weeks ago 

The stock has slid 32 percent 
since its initial trading day Oct. 27 
while Paris's Second Marche Index 
of small companies has risen 6.6 
percent. Now. many analysts say the 
stock is so cheap it can only rise. 

The stock s troubles began with 
an unfortunate choice of date for its 
market debut — four days after a 10 
percent slump in Hcmg Kong stocks 
sparked a global market meltdown, 
, and the same day that the Dow Jones 
industrial average in New York 
plummeted 7.2 percent Its associ- 
ation in the public mind with an- 
other French theme park that has 
disappointed investors. Euro Disney 
SCA, also has hurt, analysts said. 

“Not only did Parc Asterix have 
bad timing, it's been tainted by Euro 
Disney,” said Jean-Michei Iribarae, 
an analyst at CDC Bourse in Paris. 
“It's totally unjustified.” 


Parc Asterix, which opened its 
park about 30 miles (48 kilometers) 
north of Paris in 1989, sold 2.1 mil- 
hon new shares at 153 francs 
($25.79) each, raising about 320 
million francs. The shares, traded on 
France s small-company market, 
closed Monday at 104.50 francs, 
down 1.70. ' 

Euro Disney’s shares have fallen 
from a high of 73.02 francs in Oc- 
tober 1992 to 7.5 francs Monday. 

“Euro Disney's profit, share per- 
formance and debt probl ems left a 
nasty taste in peoples* mouths,*’ Mr, 
jribame said. “Now they simply 
don’t trust these types of stocks/* 

Mr. Iribame has a “strong buy” 
recommendation on Parc Asterix, 
however, based on one key factor If 
Parc Asterix closed tomorrow, sold 
its assets and distributed the pro- 
ceeds to shareholders, die payout 
would be about 30 percent more per 
share than die current stock price. 

“It’s very, very rare that any 
stock on any exchange quotes at 30 
percent below book value,” Mr. 
Iribame said. 


In addition, Euro Disney ’s debt is 
equal to 126 percent of its equity, 
while Parc Asterix *s debt stands at 
just 10 percent of equity. 

Rue Asterix’s main shareholders 
are Generate des Eaux SA. with 8.3 
percent; Accor SA, with 7.4 percent, 
and Barclays PLC of Britain, with 6 
percent The companies sold about 
two-thirds of their shares in the of- 
fering and agreed not to sell more for 
18 months. 

“We said we’d keep our stake, 
and I see no reason to sell it right 
now,” said Benjamin Cohen, a 
member of Accor's executive 
board. “It was a case of had timing - 
the share is surely worth more than it 
is now. We agree with manage- 
ment’s outlook for the future. ’ ’ 

The park’s new roller-coaster, 
Zeus’s Thunder, helped the com- 
pany attract 12.4 percent more vis- 
itors last season, pushing sales up 14 
percent in die first nine months of 
theyear, to 328 million francs. 

The park’s earnings are expected 
to rise to 10 francs a share in 1997, 
113 francs a share in 1998 and 14 


Parc Asterix’s share price 
in French francs 



Vvy- 


1 1 j 


Oct. 27 ‘97 Nov. 14 


Dec. 8 


Sauce; Bloomberg 


IHT 


francs a share in 1999, according to 
Mr. Iribame. The company’s earn- 
ings will be released at the end of 
February. 

In 1996, profit slumped 50 per- 
cent, to 15_5 million francs, or 5.94 
francs per share, as France’s eco- 
nomic growth slowed to 13 percent 
from 2.1 percent in 1995. The econ- 
omy is expected to grow about 2.3 
percent this year and as much as 3 
percent in 1998. 

“Leisure spending is very sen- 
sitive to the speed of the economy,” 
said Mr. Iribarne. 


Czech Republic Delays Bank Sale 


By Peter S. Green 

\ International Herald Trib une 

PRAGUE — In the first fallout 
from the Czech Republic's political 
finance scandals. Finance Minister 
Ivan Pilip said Monday that he was 
prepared to open the files on a num- 
ber of privatizations, and he con- 
firmed that he would delay the sale 
of the troubled Investicni a Po&tovni 
Banka, the country's third- largest 
bank known as IPB, to Nomura In- 
ternational of Japan. 

But Mr. Pilip said that three 
other large bank privatizations 
would not be stopped, despite a 
call by Parliament last week de- 
manding a halt until a new gov- 
ernment is named. 

“Privatization has to go on. de- 
spite the resolution by Parlia- 
i mem.” Mr. Pilip said at a press 


conference. The resolution 
last week after Prime Minister 
Vaclav Klaus resigned amid al- 
legations that businessmen seek- 
ing government favors in privat- 
ization had made handsome 
contributions to his party. 

“We are ready to continue with 
IPB’s privatization.'* Mr. Pilip said, 
“but we cannot accept conditions 
that are inadequate for the Czech 
Republic.” 

Analysts applauded Mr. Pilip’s 
plans to allow a review of important 
privatizations, saying it would boost 
investor confidence in a country 
with a growing reputation for cor- 
ruption. 

Among the privatizations Mr. 
Pilip said would be reopened were 
the $1 .45 billion sale of a 27 per- 
cent stake in the telephone com- 
pany SPT Telecom to Swiss and 


Dutch telephone companies, and 
the sales of the glassmaker 
Crystalex, the liqueur maker Jan 
Becher, and Trinecke Zelezamy, a 
steel mill. 

The incident that brought down 
Mr. Klaus was the admission by a 
Czech entrepreneur, Milan Srejber, 
that he was behind two donations 
valued at 73 million koruny 
($215,000) to Mr. Klaus’s Civic 
Democratic Party. 

A month before the donations, 
Mr. Srejber had won the privatiza- 
tion tender for Trinecke. 

Mr. Pilip said Monday that it was 
too early to begin a formal review of 
suspect privatizations and that it was 
unlikely that major privatization 
sales would be reversed. But he said 
that if anyone illegally influenced 
privatization, they should be pun- 
ished. 


A Christmas Story: 
Holliday for Yule 

Cumptlrd tn Our Suff Frmi Dupartm 

LONDON — Yule Catto & 
Co., a specialty-chemicals 
maker, said Monday it had 
agreed to buy Holliday Chem- 
ical PLC to tiy to gain econ- 
omies of scale in the specialty- 
chemicals market. 

Yule said the £255.6 million 
($424 million! transaction 
would increase its earnings next 
year, expand its reach and tap 
into Holliday’s sales of rani- 
tidine, a component of the best- 
selling ulcer drug Zantac. 

The combined company 
would develop Holliday's phar- 
maceutical and organic fine- 
chemicals businesses and Yule 
Carlo’s flavors and fragrances 
units, the companies said. 

( Bloomberg, Reuters ) 


Dow Jones 
Weighs Link 
With NBC 


By Geraldine Fabrikanr 

New tort Tunes Service 


NEW YORK — After months of 
talks. Dow Jones & Co. and the NBC 
television network are close to a deal 
that would merge the overseas op- 
erations of the business and enter- 
tainment cable channel CNBC with 
Dow Jones’s Asia Business News 
and European Business News, ac- 
cording to an executive with know- 
ledge of the talks. 

The merger, which could be an- 
nounced early this week, would 
bring together the brand name of 
Dow Jones's Wall Street Journal 
with that of CNBC and would be 
intended to cut overseas losses at 
both companies. Besides merging 
operations abroad, the two compa- 
nies also hope to combine some 
domestic operations, with Dow 
Jones providing news to CNBC. 

CNBC has expanded to both 
Europe and Asia, where it competes 
directly with Dow Jones's cable ser- 
vices. Under the new arrangement, 
the two companies would combine 
those services, keeping the CNBC 
logo but tapping The Wall Street 
Journal for journalistic resources. 

Under the deal. NBC would pay 
Dow Jones a license fee related to 
advertising and revenue, according 
to aperson close to the talks. 

The arrangement would help re- 
duce some Dow Jones divisions* 
losses. The company’s television 
businesses are expected to lose 
about $48 million this year, accord- 
ing to a company spokesman. 

Its rival and prospective partner in 
those areas is losing money, too. 
NBC. a unit of General Electric Co.. 
is losing about $25 million in Asia 
and $ 15 million in Europe, according 
to a person close to the network. 

If the deal is completed, the two 
companies expect that Asia Busi- 
ness News will break even in two to 
three years and that European Busi- 
ness News, a newer venture, will do 
the same in three to four years. 


Investor’s Europe 



London 

•FTSE 100 Index 

.5500 - - " 

5300 
5100- 


Paris 

CAC40 


N 0 



4700 

4500 


J A S O N D 
1997 


J A BOND 
1997 


Exchange 

Amsterdam 

‘ index 

AEX. 

Mpnday 

.. Close . 

925.47 

Prev. 

Close 

920.50 

% 

Change 

+0.65 

Brussels 

BEL-20 

2,511.74 

2,soai9 

+0.31 

Frankfurt - 

DAX- 1 .. 

4,223^36 

4,i7at» 

+1.28 

I Copenhagen Stock Market 

658.19 

650.36 

+1.20 

Helsinki 

HEX General 

3,456^8 

3,422.96 

+0.97 

Oslo 

OBX 

685.93 

673.52 

+1.99 

London. 

FTSE 100 

5.187,40 

5.175.00 

+0.22 

.Madrid 

Stock Exchange 

Closed 

626.73 

- 

Milan 

•MIBTEL 

Closed 

15754 

- 

Parte 

CAC 40 

2,932.47 

2,910.09 

+0.7 7 

Stockholm 

SX.16 

3,352.93 

3,310.74 

+1.27 

Vferma 

ATX . 

Closed 

1. 303.26 

- 

Zurich 

SPI 

3.BOOJBT 

3.7S1 .85 

+1.03 

Source: Tetekurs 


InL: nuu. mol Herald Tnl’uiu* 

Very briefly: 


• Tesco PLC is withdrawing from France, as the British food 
retailer confirmed it was negotiating to sell its Catteau SA 
subsidiary to a French counterpart. Promodes SA. 

• Airbus Industrie’s board approved investing $2.9 billion in 
two models intended to challenge Boeing Co. in (he field of 
large long-range jetliners. Britain, France and Germany are 
likely to start considering Airbus’s restructuring by the end of 
the week. Defense Minister Alain Richard of France said. 

• The Stockholm Stock Exchange suspended the head of the 
trading department at the bank Foreningssparbanken for 
alleged manipulation of share prices and criticized the bank 
over trading irregularities. 

• The European Union's trade surplus in goods with the 
United States was 1.6 billion European currency units ($1.78 
billion) in 1996, reversing a deficit of 1.4 billion Ecus in 1995. 

• Karel van Miert, the EU's commissioner for competition, 
said the European Commission was unlikely to rule on three 
proposed trans-Atlantic airline pacts, including British Air- 
ways' alliance with American Airlines, before February. 

• Large European companies face an average cost of S 30 
million to prepare for monetary union, for a total cost of S5 1 
billion. KPMG Management Consulting said. 

• Waterford Wedgwood PLC offered 200 Deutsche marks 

($112,911 each for shares in another maker of glass and 
ceramics, Rosenthal AG. a-mct<. Bhnmhcrv. ,\r. af\ 


WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


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Monday, Doc. 8 

Prices In local currencies. 
Telekurs 

High Lam dm Pra*. 


Amsterdam abcmk^c 

pnriwiKttaja 


ABM- AMRO 
Aegon 
Ahold 
AOo Nobel 
Boon Co. 

Boft Wnacw 

CSM CHI 

OnnihdwPet 

DSM 

Bisnicr 

ForJsAffM 

Genomes 

G-Bmcnn 


HtHncWcn 

Hoogownsno 

KunfDou0M 
ING Group 
KIM 
KNP8T 
KPN 

w* 

Occ Gordon 
PMlps Eire 

iSSSSh* 

• Hobeco 
KHttnco 
Rofinco 
Rorcnto 
Rnd Dutch 

iMfewrcwr 
Vender Ml 
VMU 

Woden Worn 


42.10 41J50 4150 
178 JO 17440 177 JO 
SM0 55.30 55J0 
35440 3S1 3S1 

150 153.80 154 

31.90 31J0 31 JO 
■aSJO 84.10 8410 
10740 105 JO 107 
107 JO. 11450 11450 

34 33.70 33J0 
88 JO 8430 0730 
4530 43 40 4430 
54JD 5330 5340 
94J0 92 JO 9330 
349.70 344 349 

97 95.20 % 

mss n n 

89 JO B4X atoo 
74JD 7430 7430 
4190 J330 4X30 
8340 8230 B230 
46J0 44.10 4430 

61.90 61 6130 

232 72930 230 

13730 134.70 13630 
104J0 10130 102 

76 74.10 75J0 
19330 19X30 193 JO 
5730 5630 57 JO 
T».W 180.70 18070 
12030 119.00 119.90 
10930 108 10830 

72230 12130 1»1D 
113 111.50 112.90 
51.40 50.90 5130 
767J0 265.10 26430 


41.40 

17430 

55 

3S4 

152.70 

31J0 

84S0 

ItM 


3270 
87 JO 
6330 
5230 
7170 
347 
94JD 
78J0 
88.10 
74.10 
4140 
8330 
45 
6080 
229.70 
13110 
10130 
7430 
191 
57 
17830 
11930 
106JO 
12090 

,n s? 

266 


Bangkok 


AdvInloSvc 

8on0*r*a*/ 

Krum Thai Bk 

PtfEwtor 

5romCMienlF 

Sara Cara BA F 

hlccunisto 

ThotAJnKop 

Thai Farm B6 F 

UUCanwi 


SET Mac 481 JO 
Pterion; 3UJ7 

272 198 220 194 

738 119 179 114 

1335 12 1230 lire 

402 390 398 372 

396 334 394 334 

75 JO 6130 70JO 6030 
12JS 1125 1125 11 

SO MSI SO 44 
176 103 11* im 

25 2130 25 31.75 


Bombay 

> Baja Auto 
Hindus! Lem 
T Hindus! Petal 
indOevBh 
I1C 

VaMnocnrTcl 
IM wnM 
Stoto BA MU 
Mrd Authority 
Tata Enp loch 


Smmx 30 Mae 3448.19 
Praetors; MAM 

AM 591 59430 ansi 
1350132225133225134625 
454 450 45030 45X75 

S3 75 8225 83 £ 

642 75 61435 61930 633 

21375 21735 221 217.25 

7*830 16*34 166 741.75 

J16 75 309 216.75 311 JS 

11 1025 1035 1035 
:B130 J7A.TS 279 279 


Brussels 

Alraan^ 

Barromd 

BBL 

COR 

Cuboid 

DdhoueLnn 

t w o 

Eta J wBn g 

fertHAC 

own 

GW. 

Cm SoKue 
KicdMbanfc 
Prtottia 

Rwarih 

RnrcrieBdOr 
SacGai Bela 
SolWT 

rrncfcbri 

OC8 


BEL-28 M«b 251174 
PtWtaf*-. 258174 


1750 1720 

4880 6840 

10175 J00C0 
JS00 MIS 
20000 19900 
1925 1900 

8310 8280 

3500 3450 

7fl» 74W 
1690 1635 

5630 S5» 
15735 

15*75 15200 
14575 14450 
5190 5170 
10500 10200 
3S*0 1515 

3475 3370 

3135 3«J 
131000 129100 


17J5 1730 

6840 6650 

10100 1012S 
3495 3450 

20000 19975 
1925 1905 

8310 8290 

3*90 3480 

7600 7430 

1690 1630 

5590 5420 
15450 15553 
15300 13315 
1417S 14450 
5190 51?0 

W3M 1C200 
3545 K30 

2400 7350 

3120 3105 
139500 130000 


Copenhagen 


BCBsnh 4H 

CarhOdfoB 

Cndon Fon Jm 

UBMKO 373 

DcnDonsbrBk 8e3 

tMJwmtaoB 

Dbl913B 30MW 

FLSIndB 1W 

Lab LuntawiQ -92 

NveNonfeik 6 
Jophn Btt B HOC 

i*08WT*n aw 

f(Y0 431 

UM9MW9kA 513 


StortMwWJw 

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480 490 «3 

372 378 Vt 

965 9d5 960 

364 368 368 

8*5 846 845 

424468 425000 42 5000 
297000 297000 293000 
ir 1B6 174 

7BJ 79? 785 

no 907 
1080 1«0 1079 
414 428 A14 

d!9 430 419 

*82 07 500 490 


Frankfurt 

A.YIB B 17A.20 

XHU 746 

Attar; 443 

Albino lin 

BkSMm 38 JO 

HASP 6A» 

BafftriyooBk O 
Bm Vnnimbonk 1 lag 
beret *£» 

Brirndoff 

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BMW 1*0 

4X1 Cats' Id 1 71 
ClMMIW* MjO 
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OCQUUB 

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l -rtartn l m 
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386 
115 
358 
102 J! 
142 
115 
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1155 


DAX 42036 
Pwrten; 4178J* 

173 17190 17JJ0 
26430 ?63J0 _2« 
J34S0 43 

123.20 12W0 J** 
37 90 37 « 37 AS 

m3 6*35 wt 
9435 BMS ,83-g 
117 11730 Ilian 
67J5 67JS «M 
77 77 JO JE30 
43d 46.15 
1*45 14431*1730 

16* !« 

6530 #4.35 63.20 
1 S 7 S 12630 12710 
91 JO 91.78 W*5 
121.25 »71*5 iif-ig 

SS S| 

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357 357 358 

98.S1 9SW W»j* 
141 1*2 , lg 

11330 11330 IrtJO 

-4 J6S 

H.1D JiW 7 
6410 6*35 #110 
W* 45? «A 
tijo 7730 77J5 
1149 MS» 1»» 


fflgft Lour Odm Pra*. 
LuAhonsoR 3680 3430 3650 3675 

MAN SS3J0 546 546 54X9 

Mramesrami 887 879 881 88* 

MeMlgese8ichaK3610 3170 3335 3630 
Metre 8380 H2 8320 82 

AtundiRuectR 606 598 fOi SX 

PreosSOfl 5Z4 515 519 523 

RWE 9730 97.10 “97.65 9775 

SAP 565 562 563 55650 

Sdicdna 18X90 179_50 18X80 177.90 

SGLCarton 24030 238 23930 239.90 

sieam 113 nan nus nan 

Springer (Aaei) 1380 1380 1380 1330 

Soedn**er 920 920 9*> 930 

ThfUni *2130 419J0 41930 414 

Vttt 117 115-50 71530 1 1535 

VEW 560 560 569 570 

99* 967 98930 90AJ0 

W2 1036 1037103730 


Helsinki 

EnsoA 

KWtenoUl 

Kendra 

Kesko 

MrrfloA 

Metre B 

Nktoo-SaiaB 

Nesie 

NoktaA 

Onon-YMyorae 

QuMunn 

UPMKyw metre 

VWmet 


HEX B — w nodacHMJI 

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215 

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129 JO 
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12430 
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228 232 

51.90 51 

81 84 

27 2650 
129 JO 130 
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128 124 

435 *27 

2U 210 
7X90 73 

112 1TX70 
79 7870 


BAA 
Bantoyj 
Buss 
BAT M 
Bank Scotland 
BHie Cifde 
BOCfrottp 
Beats 
BPS Ind 
BrJAerc sp 
Bril Akuray* 

BG 

Brit Land 
Bril Petal 
BSky8 
Bril Steel 
BriT TMeani 
BTR 

Burned com 

BumCp 

CattoWlreteB 

Codbwy Sdm 

CnrtlonCoiwn 

Comet! Unkfi 

CodbosiGp 

Courtoukl* 

Otare 

EtoehoccBipooe 
EMJ Group 

iSS&SS 

FemCoienU 
GerriAcddaM 
GEC 
GKN 


Hong Kong 

Cottny PPdfc 
ChewgKong 

aontaftred 

SME 

Duo Heno Bk 

HndPoeftc 

HangLsngOav 

Hrag SengBk 

Henoenoolw 

HendereoriLd 

HKCMmGos 

HKElecfric 

HK Telecom* 

HrintePHtlB* 

HSBC HUB* 

HuKhtsonWh 
NwonDgi 
Johnson El HdQ 

nSom 

Onerdol Press 
Peori OrtenW 
SHK Props 
SftwiTskHdp 
Slno LondCo. 
SOiCMvPast 
SktePocA 
WhortHdqs 
wneeiock 


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Hoag Saag: 1172X94 


Prepare; 11537 Jfl 

7.15 

6.W 

70S 

4® 

1965 

19X5 

19® 

1945 

7J5 

705 

7.10 

7.15 

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S6JS 

S7J4 

5735 

nsa 

IMS 

73.10 

2130 

4X30 

*180 

*1 

47.70 

3440 

3X30 

31® 

XL® 

22J0 

27J5 

2X55 


5J0 

530 

5*5 

535 

11 90 

11J5 

11.® 

11JS 

79.25 

77 

7B® 

77® 

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1530 

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16.95 

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209 

203 

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5540 

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Grand Met 
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Load Gen! Gre 
LWOl TSB Gp 
LucosVrattjr 
Maries Spencer 
MEPC 

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HonriUr Unkm 
Orange 

n o 


Jakarta 

Astra Infl 
Bklrtllndw 

BkNertaJ 

GudanoGorm 

Indoccewnt 

Indofaod 

Mom! 

SompocreaHM 
Semen Greta , 
Tetekomuntasi 


Cnrap ratteMdw glAl 

Prrrio«v4KJ« 

217S 2B0 2gS 2fflS 

525 475 S2S *75 

62S 575 600 600 

noo 8650 8675 9000 

1575 1500 1500 1*75 

2725 2450 2600 2*00 

9275 8650 9250 8575 

51 SO 4975 5100 *975 

3350 3000 3000 3150 

3100 2900 3075 2900 


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RoBtredtGp 
Rook Group 
RedtB Cota 
RtriSnd 
ted ltd 
RentokfllnlU 

Reuter* Hriga 

Reoom 

RAKGraop 

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AB5AGWUP 

AnoloAraCoal 

ssgs&ss 

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AVMIN 

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CG.Snm 
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GctKsr 

GF5A 

tiWWfWHdgs 

IngweCoal 

lKXtf 

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M moral 
Nanpak 
Ncdcor 
RcrdMmrifGp 

RWwwrt 

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Samcor 
Sasol 
SBtC 

r«eftw* 


Prariotek- 4140.74 
» 2775 27 JO 27 JO 
225 225 235 235 

19670 191 195 1 96 

172 147 1W JJ4 

112 103 107 W7 

7680 71 SO 7430 7*80 
4 5.90 4 6 

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10080 09 JO 9980 9980 
31.95 3185 3130 3130 
4170 4070 41^ 41^ 
7 JO 735 7 JO 780 

44 6110 42 42 

5870 57 SB 3 

Ss 17.15 !2J5 17JS 
105 I JO 281 2J1 

» *975 4930 4930 
329 JO 328 32930 329J0 
121 120 1» 120 
14 IS 1S.W 15JS 
BAM SSJ0 P 87 
1580 15 1520 1SJ0 

I OB 10440 10580 10580 
3AJ5 3630 3630 3630 
54 S2 53 53 

130 11680 118 UB 

36* 2*30 2430 2*50 
3030 49 JB 49 49 

21130 20340 31130 211*0 
4830 4730 68 *8 


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ToteMjrie 

T«tco 

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31 Group 
T1 Group 
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WdWews 
VtdlffiHks , 

Vantaraf Uofc 

Vodrione 

WtdferaaO 

WBtaitf H 891 

WotsotoT 

WPP Group 

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548 

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55* 

5JQ 

506 

113 

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15® 

1553 

1572 

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545 

545 

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3® 

333 

234 

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902 

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325 

338 

131 

16.95 

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548 

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557 

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241 

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856 

843 

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440 

442 

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144 

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633 

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302 

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175 

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243 

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Markets Closed 

Markets in Madrid, Milan 
and Vienna were dosed Mon- 
day for a holiday. 


Kuala Lumpur 

AMMSHd** 1» 

Gcdtflg 5, -S 

MotBonura .U 

Mel inn SWo F tJO 

PtamsGot W 

Prehd S* 5 

PuMcBk 


CeoceriMc 676*7 

pBftoS: 4*739 

104 334 199 

965 1070 930 

1050 1230 1MJ 
530 535 575 

970 980 930 

*78 575 672 

XIO 273 139 

^7 liS 

32 - 32 35 

614 632 196 

'ft'® ^ 

>» “a ™ 


Manila 

Ajnlo 

AwloUmd 
UPlflMW 
CAP Homes 
MonfloEltcA 
Metre Bank 


Pa Bonk 
PMlMOlM 
StnM^wlB 
SM Prime Hdg 


PSBWeei957J» 
Pwrieta T960J6 

15 1675 UTS 162S 
1625 UTS 1475 1575 
9030 « 90 88 

230 230 280 23B 

81 3D 80 80 B0 

280 275 27730 

iX 330 340 330 

140 TO 139 136 

920 OS 9» 890 

5330 » 53 4930 

610 5.90 4 5J0 


London 

MbnrW* 

AWedDamecti 
ArajWn Wota 

A^Gnup 



FTSE 10*518748 
pyfftOUK 514X90 

9® 1032 1082 

Mexico 

Aha A , 

BonocdB 

<1® 

21® 

560 

8® 

632 

I® 

543 

814 

<» 

171 

IS 834 

IS M 

CmeKQPO 

□free 

Enp Modems 
GfloCartoAl 

17® 

4025 

SiS? 


Bahakntae 511X87 
PwrisessSiMLi* 

61 JO 61JD 61 3D 
7170 2170 21 3D 
3630 3630 
1730 16.9* 


High Law CtoM Prw. 


GpoFScoreer 374 104 XU 118 

GcoRnmtorao 3330 3130 3110 32J0 

KtabOakMex 3830 3770 37.90 387Q 

TetateCPO 161 30 16030 16100 16130 


TetMexL 


2130 21 JO 2130 2US 




Montreal 

ladastrtas tedn; 30*53 
Prevtarv' 329145 

Bee AWj Corn 

399, 

39U 

3P<^ 

3B.15 

CdnTtaA 

31® 

m 

30.90 

3040 

Ok USA 

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4UV. 

».9S 

CTFitrlSrc 

S3 

5X50 

53® 

5340 

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18® 

1845 

1845 

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Gt-WeslUfeco 

3SW 

» 

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3520 


57 

5140 

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43<a 

4780 

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2*65 

24J0 

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NaOBkCanodo 

2185 

712fl 

23U 

73*.-. 

sss 

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4645 

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46.1S 

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451. 

46® 

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2790 

37® 

27.90 

27® 


445 

4JS 

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taw 

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81 

8045 


High Low Out Prw. 

StGobdn 845 B31 834 827 

Siw;(Ce) 7340 ISM 7540 7575 

Suer Lyon Ecu* M0 643 650 644 

SpiitiefBbo 788 772 784 780 

TnofntonCSF 16680 16X10 165 16570 

Total B 626 614 614 614 

Utaor 91 91.10 9X35 91.90 

Vatea *21 *0140 *12 *19.10 


High Law Close Prw. 


Sao Paulo 


Oslo 

AtarA 


DunnorskeBk 

Own 

HOUMA 

txaemr 

NockHTta 

NonkeSkzig A 

NycomedAner 

Oita A 

MtraGeoSK 


1 32 
19230 
77 JO 
3X40 
100 

£ 

s 

187 

6*3 

*71 


OBXiadBC 61631 
Preriotes: 67132 

130 170 12730 

188 168 1B6 

2640 2640 2630 
3140 3140 3130 
98 100 98 

45 4470 
381 378 

3 75 372 

220 319 

186 18930 
640 634 

465 455 


BredescoPM 
BntaHt Ptt 
Cerolj Pfd 
CESPPM 
Copel 
De &ptiras 

rttjutanco Ptd 
UgU SavidtH 

Li^trtpar 

PeffohnaPtd 
Ppufislo Lur 
Std National 
SrxnnCnn 
Tetehms PW 
Tetomig 
Teferi 
TetespPfd 
Unibona) 
Uiiranos Ptd 
CVRD PW 


931 
7X30 
5130 
7530 
1335 
54000 
9BO tn 
4*0 00 

300.00 

267.® 

149.99 

2230 

0*5 

12097 

12000 

117® 

326® 

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725® 

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532® 

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290® 

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1*731 

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126.10 

12539 

11530 

321® 

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VM 


1007477 
100*005 

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725® 730® 
50® 51® 
7230 75 30 
1374 1377 
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507.® 500® 
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290® 29400 
265® 26139 
14731 150.99 
3230 71® 
045 8ri0 
12630 12650 
126® 12530 
11330117310 
324® 325® 
39® 39.11 
690 7® 

2075 20® 


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AutoOe 
Electrotax B 

Eria^an B 
HeanesB 
tnasnflve A 
kivestsrB 
MoOoB 

Horttomken 

Ptotnrttpiotm 

Samo 8 
SCAB 

5-EBankenA 
SkondkiFoc 
5kansfeoB 
5KFB 
Fewnkms 
Stora A 
WHendetsA 
Volvo 0 


258 

2» 

638 

319® 

367 

715 

390 

222 

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256 
7f2 
630 
314 
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709 
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217 

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25330 

m 
179® 

95 
414 
328 
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99® 

MB 
226 


246 

185 

173® 

93 

4® 

324 

178 

199 

97® 

287 

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256® ocseft 
293 290® 
633 628 

315 310 

360 364® 
715 715 

381 382® 
221 221® 
Sir®. 255 
Ml 282® 
251® 245 

185 189 

179 175 

93® 93® 
408® 404® 
324 326 

17X50 184 

2® 204® 
99 98® 
290 ?M® 
222 222 


44 

381 

375 

220 

186 

439 

465 


Seoul 

Daooni 

Daewoo Heavy 
Hyundai Eng. 
Nla Melon 


CarapeUteMo: 41483 
PrevtoUfc435J3 

66600 61700 65000 57200 
62® 5490 5490 5940 

9800 B610 9®0 8*80 

61® 5700 61® 53® 


Sydney 

Amcor 

ANZBking 

BHP 

Bml 

Brambles ind. 
CBA 

CCArocH 

CotesMrw 

CotooIcd 

CSR 

Pastas Brew 
Goodman Rd 
K3 Australia 
Lend Loose 
MUUHdgs 


All OrtSaartac 2587® 



PlWte«te25S7® 

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1092 

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1048 

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348 

2855 

27.90 

2845 

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17.19 

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11.17 

11® 

11.10 

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741 

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509 

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180 

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2.78 

170 

245 

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HOLDING A CONFERENCE AT A 
CONRAD INTERNATIONAL HOTEL 
IS IMMEDIATELY REWARDING. 


All ( Ujjr.ii.1 Imc; n.nion.'.l "licr .’.i; cicx.tsicc •■ii'.i 'i\ ic rl:,t; i'. scvoiul to 

none. Niii to mention conference i.Kilitic, that .r.c in of their own. 


Bill now they offer more. The 1 Ilium il Honors 
Meeting I’l.mnci Humis I’roe.r.un. 


Wttrkiw ide 


\m meeting pl.imtcr who Smke .i iju.ilip. ruu meciiiiit .it .i jv.rt ieip.it iiiti 
t oi'.r.ut Inicrn.uion.i: hold with ,n !e.t-i ten oeciipteJ itnev-l loi-nv. c.in c.trn 
thonsanti'- of H Honors bonus points ih.it car. then tie csch.mucd lor tree niplus 
at H Honors lutiels. Or e.irn airiinc niiie- wiih p.iriieip.iiinu .lirline partners. 

file rewards are yours. So nial.c the most . >i iheiil. 

/-«»; /j.-/i up i>t’u!.' i ;/iiy i tud ;:!ihr;in::ic:!. picnic . n! ! the i .onnur lutcrriatu^ani 
,/i/V.s of f ice :u i on •imt nt —r~ / ~i S~0 -r.V -V>’ s r- ;;i at -• . J -it’- -iV <V5 

CONRAD 
I NTERNATIONAL 


PBfknA 139 134 136® 134 

130 129 IX 129 

TratnoceanOfi so IS so 3*5 

Slmbrni 50® 48® 49 *a® 


Paris 

ACM 

AGP 

ArLjquide 
AWdAWti 
AM-UAP 
B on ct ta 
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CunolPka 
Correfsor 
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Christo Dtof 
Crt^t A^icole 
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EHJtgotonc 
EridonloBS 
Einritow* 

Euwtunne} 

Fro ntaTriccora 

KffVBS 
troeta 
Loiow 

Lmond 13W Jl« II® 1M6 

Lflred 73*S 2260 2299 2308 

LVMH 1058 1030 1030 1025 

MkSe&iB 338® 32610 SX20 33110 

Paribas A 461.90 448.10 461® 444® 

Petaed Kauri 328 3Z3 323 326 

Peugeot Gt 722 704 n9 703 

PfaooirPrjnl 3191 3T2T 3T® 3IZ1 

Prtanodes 235S 2310 2329 2285 

HctXJUB 181 177 JO T79.10 177 JO 

Itata 18® 1820 1850 1838 

Rh-PootaKA 269.70 264® 363JQ 266® 

Sojwfi 612 599 610 606 

5cftM#«r 339® 330 330 m» 

SEB 825 SOI 811 815 

SGJTteoaon 42X90 402 *D7 *01.90 

Sic Generate 331 818 825 ®6 

5o4taJa 3*2 3362 3*05 3385 



CAC-* 293247 


Prertous: 2910J9 

1179 

ms 

1157 

1150 

33130 329® 329® 33340 

930 

920 

930 

927 

770 

747 

764 

/*/ 

*51.90 46*50 

449 4*7® 

9*2 

919 

9*1 

915 

4450 

*32 

435 *3X10 

317 

309 

31X60 301® 

1014 

1006 

1010 

1008 

3089 

30*1 

3064 

3070 

337® 33450 

135 

338 

405 

39* 

400 

38V 

80* 

786 

804 

782 

635 

6U 

632 

*74 

1125 

1175 

1125 

113* 

99* 

975 

99* 

988 

682 

6*5 

682 

Mil 

<8* 

477 

m 

681 

970 

TO 

970 

9*41 

745 

7,35 

745 

745 

<35 

<20 

<35 

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Korea El Par 1B1® 
Korea Each Bk 4780 
LG Staton 19500 

Pohowlrenst 57200 
Samsung Dtftey 401® 
SamnmaEtec 49900 
ShWmBank 5300 
SKTesecora 5050® 


15700 163® 16900 
4010 *010 44® 
16700 17500 181® 
sum 503® 56200 
350® 350® 401® 
*24® *24® 48000 
7430 7430 74® 

4685® 5000® 4340® 


Hat Aust Bate 
NaiMutud Hdg 
News Cap 
Potife Dunlop 
Pioneer Infl 
PubBmadaKl 
Rio TWo 
StGwrgeBank 
WMC 


217® 2I&® 217® 216J0 



786 

797 

7V5 

420 

*11 

*1/ 

*15 

713 

700 

713 

700 

389 

38* 

B7.10 383® 


Singapore 


Asia Poc Brea 
CerebosPoc 
OyOwtts 
CydeCdirtooe 
OmV F0«i lid ■ 
DBSfareten 
DBS Land 
Fraser & Heme 
HK Lari' 
JOriMothesn' 
Jard Strategic* 
KemelA 
KeppdBank 
KepgeiFds 
KeMHLond 
OCSC tore ton 
OS Union BkF 
PariniarHdgs 
Setabawong 
Sng Air foreign 
Sing Land 
SingpmsF 
SingTadilnd 
Sing T uHco t un 
Tot Lee Bank 
UW Industrial 
UtdOSeaBkF 
WngTalHrigs 

•.■rnUS.tmn. 


StroBs Ttaes; 17SX63 
Piwrteas: 171X27 


. .-—JM 

WOotenrihs 


21J5 

ua 

847 

U6 

AOS 

8*0 

1745 

&82 

S12 

947 

II® 

AM 


»-» 

2J8 

8J1 

1 ® 

193 

840 

1699 

8J0 

494 

942 

IMS 

4® 


3045 2045 
2J8 236 

838 8J6 

333 128 

198 195 

849 840 

1740 1630 

8J1 177 

5.12 5 

948 939 

1IJ5 11.19 
481 432 


<70 

*66 

*70 

4® 

5® 

4.96 

5 

4.90 

8JS 

8JO 

845 

8® 

7® 

7® 

7® 

7® 

0.94 

0.93 

Q.M 

094 

)<7D 

16.10 

16® 

XIO 

106 

181 

193 

181 

9.40 

B® 

9® 

8® 

129 

212 

125 

224 

540 

515 

515 

545 

2J3 

175 

2® 

2.90 

<10 

5*5 

575 

5® 

190 

2® 

XU 

276 

<74 

*60 

*72 

<60 

219 

266 

180 

1*4 

11® 

TO® 

IT.70 

10® 

7® 

<85 

*15 

7 

IB* 

171 

17* 

160 

565 

545 

5® 

5*5 

12® 

11® 

12 

11® 

<76 

<66 

*72 

*68 

23® 

2X70 

23.10 

2X70 

1J7 

166 

175 

1® 

3® 

112 

122 

X14 

270 

1*7 

1*7 

26* 

175 

0® 

074 

071 

11® 

10® 

11® 

10.70 

2J5 

1W 

X1B 

XU 


Taipei 


Slade Mow index: 8MXH 
ProriWt: 834326 


The Trib Index 

Pnojs as ol 3 00 PM New Von, rime 

Jan. 1. 19BZ = IOO 

Level 

Change 

% change 

year to date 
% change 

+ 16.72 

World Index 

174.09 

-010 

-0.06 

Rogjorai indexes 
Asia.'Pedfrc 

99.68 

-0.15 

-0.15 

— 19.24 

Europe 

192.59 

+ 0.64 

+ 0.33 

+ 19.47 

N. America 

220.17 

-1.15 

— 0.52 

+ 35.93 

S. America 
Industrial Indexes 

151.83 

+ 0.16 

+ 0.11 

+ 32.68 

Capital goods 

218.97 

+ 0.98 

+ 0.45 

+ 28.11 

Consumer goods 

206.77 

-1.95 

— 0.94 

+ 28.09 

Energy 

197.39 

-0.91 

-0.46 

+ 15.63 

Finance 

124.37 

+ 1.13 

+ 0.92 

+ 6.79 

Miscellaneous 

159.92 

+ 1.61 

+ 1.02 

— 1.14 

Raw Materials 

17£95 

+ 1.11 

+ 0.65 

-1.39 

Service 

174.11 

-0.67 

-0.38 

+ 26.79 

Donnes 

163.87 

-1.48 

-0.90 

+ 1423 

T7w International Herald Tnbuna World Stock Index © tracks trie US doBai value 
of 280 rttemanonaUy mvestabie Slocks from 25 countries For more mfomanon. 
a tree booklet is avaHaOle by wnmg 10 The Tnb index, 181 Avenue Charles de 

Gaulle. 92521 A loudly Cede*. France. CcmpBad by Bloomberg News 



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Law 

Claw 

Prw. 

Damn Bank 

325 

307 

311 

317 

Dahw house 

955 

92e 

927 

945 

Data Sec 

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*03 

405 

411 


High Low Chne Pm. 


DDI 

Denso 


3570a 3390a 3410a 3520a 
2*20 23® 24® 7410 


East JopoiRy 5830a 5780o 5800a 5800a 


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1920 

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666 

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965 

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11 ® 

263 

310 

5990 

384 


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Honda Mata 
IBJ 
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JAL 

Japan Tobacco 9600a 
JUSCD 
Ml mo 
KansalEloc 
Kao 

KowotnU Hta 
Kawa Steel 
Nrtei Nipg Ry 
WrinBreaMy 
Kobe Steal 
Komatsu 
Kubota 
Kyocera 
Kyushu Elec 
LTCB 
Marubeni 
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Matsu Comm 
Matsu Elec 2nd 
Matsu Elec WK 
Mfeubrshr 
MftytaeWCh 
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9*0 9*0 960 

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292 292 327 

59® 5900 S9W 

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410 

414 

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2110 

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2100 

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17® 

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272 

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172 

176 

196 

700 

695 

699 

700 

980 

932 

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113 

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106 

111 

749 

716 

737 

730 

420 

400 

401 

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6200 

6070 

6090 

6190 

1900 

1870 

1890 

1910 

215 

205 

213 

208 

298 

265 

766 

783 

1980 

19X 

19*0 

1950 

3860 

3780 

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18*0 

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19® 

1970 

1900 

1040 

1000 

1000 

1040 

10*0 

1010 

1010 

1010 

21B 

203 

214 

240 

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328 

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15*0 

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1360 

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258 

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251 

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3910 

3910 

3910 

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1370 

13® 

1360 

1370 

1*80 

1430 

1*40 

1450 

409 

395 

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Nippon Steel 
Nissan Motor 
NKK 

Nomura Sk 
NTT 

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□atea Gas 
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Sgima Bank 
Sanyo Elec 
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SeftuRwv 
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Sekixui House 
Sewn-Etaen 
Sharp 

Shftoku El Par 

5Wrei7U 

ShhvctsuOi 

Shberio 

Shizuoka Bk 

SoRbank 

Sunrntomo 
Sumitomo Bk 
SvndtChem 
SumOomo Elec 
Sum* Metal 


132® 133® 133® 
621 
387 
219 
527 
127 


479 

295 


133® 133® 133® 13400 


638 

619 

621 

395 

3SS 

387 

215 

199 

201 

516 

489 

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114 

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1600 

1620 

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10806 

1080b 

70105 

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6070b 

497 

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297 

285 

285 

1630 

1610 

1620 



451 

425 

426 

449 

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3120 

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1380 

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874 

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B34 

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1830 

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2970 

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1230 

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796 

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AGAB 10b 103 10450 106 

ABBA 99 JO 77 JO 97 JO 99 

Anfflanon 208 205 2to 206 

Astra A 1 39 JO I35JD 1 39 SI I3S 


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Astal Bank 
AsoftiOwm 
Asahi Glass 
Bk Tokyo Mttsu 
Bk Yokohama 
Bridgestone 
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Duron Elec 
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3630 3660 3660 
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Athena Energy 
AlorniAhim 
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Bocnbardtef B 
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Cdn No< Res 
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Cdn Poafic 
Comlnco 
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EuroNevMng 

Farias Fini 
Rtonhndge 
FtelcherOraM 
Franco NewMO 
GuttCda Res 
Imperial Oil 
Inco 

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LnldtawB 

Loemn Group 

Moomn Bkn 

MamoinltA 

Mcnianex 

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Newbridge Net 
NomnJaliK 
Narnn Energy 

Nthrrn TeiKom 

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Pnncdn Petim 
PelroCdo 
Placer Dane 
Poca Pettai 
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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY- DECEMBER 9, 1997 

ASIA/PACIFIC 


PAGE 17 


Ssangyong, a t Risk of Collapse, Leaves Auto Business 


I By Andrew Pollack ' 

| ft' 111 ' >'< 'ri Times Sen-ice 

I SEOUL — In a move that once might have 
bjx'n unthinkable among South Korea’s 
proud business families, the Ssaneyone 
Group sold its automobile company to rival 
Qaewoo Group Monday in what executives 
described as the hrst friendly takeover amons 
the country s* largest conglomerates. 

! ssl* 5 * tbe next step in the consolidation 
of South Korea s crowded automobile in- 
dustry, capped a swirl of activity as the coun- 
qy continued the makeover spurred! by the 
nation s economic crisis and its rescue by the 
International Monetary Fund last week. 

• The giant Hyundai Group, after an arm- 
pimping rally in its auditorium, said it would 


slash its capital investment next year by 40 
percent, to 3.8 trillion won ($3. 1 billion), and 
mount a massive export drive. 

Meanwhile, officials at the Ministry of Fi- 
nance and Economy said they were preparing 
to pnmp what could be about $1 billion in 
government money into two of the nation’s 
sickest commercial banks — effectively na- 
tionalizing them, according to some analysts. 

Fears about more failures of financial and 
industrial companies helped send the Korean 
won to another all-time low. only days after 
the IMF rescue that was supposed to stabilize 
the currency. 

The dollar closed at 1 342.50 won Monday, 
up from 1J30 won Friday. The Seoul stock 
market's main index plummeted 4.8 percent 
to4l4.83 points, giving up some of the gains it 


made after the IMF package was announced. 

The sale of control of Ssangyong Motor 
Company to Daewoo, which probably saved 
Ssangyong Group from collapse, could set a 
precedent for restructuring of the family-run 
conglomerates, known as chaebol , that dom- 
inate the economy here. Now highly diver- 
sified, they might focus on fewer industries 
and sell the rest — either to other chaebol or 
to foreign companies. 

Six of the nation’s top 30 chaebol have 
already failed this year, including Halla Group, 
which was declared bankrupt Saturday. 

Many analysts thought Ssangyong would be 
No. 7. “We were understandably on the short 
list, bar this should cake us off it." Mr. Kim 
said. 'Tt gives us a huge breathing space.” 

The purchase price for Ssangyong Group's 


53.5 percent share of publicly traded Ssangy- 
ong Motor was not announced, but it is ex- 
pected to be small. What is more important, 
analysts said, is that Daewoo will relieve the 
Ssangyong group of 2 trillion won of the 3.4 
trillion won in debt of Ssangyong Motor. 

On the banking front Ministry of Finance 
officials said the government would inject 
new equity Tuesday into Korea First Bank 
and Se ou IBank, two commercial banks that 
are basically insolvent from their heavy loans 
to now-collapsed chaebol . 

While ministry officials said the amount of 
the infnsion had not been decided, news re- 
ports indicated Seou IBank would get 1.1 tril- 
lion won and that Korea First Bulk, which 
was given 800 billion won more than a month 
ago, would be given 300 billion won. 


Hong Kong 
Hang Seng 

16500 A - 


Singapore 

• Straits Time 


Tokyo 

Nikkei 225 


2150 - 
2000 ^ 
1650 ' 

1700 
1550 



'J ASOND 
19S7 


SOND 


Monday Prev. % 
Close - Close ChpaQG 
•W,EjBJ4 •n,5Z7.eO *1.69 

VS3^3 1,713.77 +2-33 

2^87.00 2,557.20 ' +1.17 

16,131 J& 16,424.48 -1.78 


S'O N' D 


Hong Kong ' Hang. Seng 
Singapore . ’ Streets Times 
Sydney AH Ordinaries 
Tokyo Nikkei 225 

Kuala Lumpur Composite 
Bangkok SET. 

Seoul Composite 

Taipei Stock Marti 

Marrite PSE 


THAILAND: 

Firms Shut Down 


Malaysian Stocks Leap on Austerity Measures 


. Continued from Page 13 By Thomas Fuller 

Authority, said there had been no International Herald Tribune 

ripoitt of resistance when officials KUALA LUMPUR — The stock 
seized the headquarters and regional market rose 11 percent Monday 
tranches of the closed firms. after Finance Minister Anwar 

. The companies were shut down Ibrahim announced further austerity 
t^spite their powerful backers and measures and scaled back expansion 


numerous attempted rehabilitation 
pilans. Mr. Twatchoi said. 

* Many of the companies had been 
built up by Thai-Chinese families 
v^ho used easy credit for pet projects 
as wed as stock-market and real- 
». estate speculation. 

| On Monday Mr. Twatchai said 
the closed companies' assets would 
tie auctioned off within a year to pay 
off depositors and creditors, as re- 
quired by the International Mon- 
etary Fund. 

• f Mr. Tarrin said some of the high- 
quality assets from the closed 
companies would be used to create 
ope or two new banks. 

■ The two companies that survived 
fcfcgan preparing recapitalization 
pilans that must be submitted to au- 
thorities within 90 days. 

[ Kiatnakin officials said the com- 
pany would raise its capital by at least 
1133 billion haht through new share 
issues and private placements. Its 
managing director, Vichien Jiakjerm, 
shid 1.000 clients with deposits val- 
ircd at a total of 23 billion baht had 
agreed not to withdraw their money 
and Kiatnakin 's 12 foreign creditors 
tad agreed to roll over 2 billion baht 


By Thomas Fuller take a 10 percent pay cut and that 

International Herald Tribune SalaneS WOllld be frozen for civil 

servants in other government sec- 

KU ALA LUMPUR — The stock tors, 
marked: rose 11 percent Monday The moves follow an 18 percent 
after Finance Minister Anwar cut in government expenditure an- 
Ibrahim announced further austerity nounced by Mr. Anwar on Friday, 
measures and scaled back expansion ’"It’s a good signal to investors 
plans for the country’s national car that they’re trying to recognize the 


company. 

The benchmark Composite Index 
gained 11.37 percent, or 69.07 
points, to close ac 676.47. 

Mr. Anwar said in Parliament on 
Monday that cabinet ministers would 


problems,” Chong Sui San, a fund 
manager in Kuala Lumpur, told 
Bloomberg News. "That has eased 
investor concern.” 

Mr. Anwar also said the govern- 
ment might suspend part of a project 


aimed at expanding production ca- 
pacity at Perusahaan Otomobil Na- 
sionaJ Bhd„ the company that pro- 
duces Malaysia's national car. 
known as Proton. 

The expansion, a large portion of 
which was to have been for export 
production, would have doubled the 
capacity of the carmaker. 

But with many Asian countries 
now counting on increasing exports 
to emerge from their financial crisis, 
analysts say there will be tough com- 
petition from other countries whose 
currencies have been devalued. 


Tokyo Officials Play Down Bond-Sale Talk 


GwftitdbyOm-SufFrtmDuparlia 

TOKYO — The government is 
unlikely to sell its U.S. Treasury 
bond holdings to help raise dollars 
for troubled banks, a source at the 
Ministry of Finance said Monday. 

The source said that if Tokyo 
were to take measures to raise cash 
dollars, the bonds would be used as 
collateral in transactions with U.S. 
monetary authorities. 

Taku Y amasaki , a top policy- 
making official of the governing 
Liberal Democratic Party, sugges- 
ted Sunday that the government 
might sell some of its huge Treasury 
holdings to help Japanese commer- 


1km in U.S. Treasury bonds, and with 
its frail financial system, a big ques- 
tion among market players has been 
whether it would sell some of its 
holdings to bail out weaker banks. 


extremely low in Japan, making the 
U.S. bonds about the highest-yield- 
ing asset that institutional investors 
here have. Finally, regulations that 
have long curbed purchases of in- 


But the ministry source and other vestments denominated in currencies 


officials, including Eisuke 
Sakakibara, the deputy finance min- 
ister for international affairs, played 
down die possibility. Mr. Sakakibara 


other than yen will change April 1. 

“Even if Japan does sell Treas- 
uries,” said Eiji Nakaone of MMS 
International, “Japanese investors 


down die possibility. Mr. Sakakibara International, "Japanese investors 
said Japan had enough funds to solve aren't going to follow suin they are 
its economic problems, suggesting it still interested in buying Treasuries." 


is debt for 18 to 24 months after the cial banks raise dollars abroad, 
company resumed operations. Banks have been struggling 

» Bangkok Investment said it would obtain such funds because of wor- 
sen an 80 percent stake in an ex- ries about their health since the col- 
(finded company capitalized at 1.31 lapse of three major Japanese fi- 
tallion baht to American Intemation- nandal institutions last month, 
aj Group for 1 .05 billion baht. Japan holds more than $300 bil- 


did not need to raise money by 
selling Treasury bonds. 

Although a huge bond sale by 
Japan has long been regarded as a 
potential nightmare in global finan- 
cial circles, there are reasons the Jap- 


Banks have been struggling to anese would be unlikely to cash out 


their holdings, even in the current 
financial conditions: For one, they 
have historically held on to U.S. 
bonds in times of distress. In ad- 
dition, domestic interest rates remain 


Sonja Gibbs of Nomura Interna- 
tional added, "We would discount 
Yamasaki's hints that the govern- 
ment may sell U.S. Treasuries." Re- 
purchase agreements with the U.S. 
Federal Reserve System would be 
"more likely," she said 
In such an arrangement, Tokyo 
would sell Treasury bonds to the Fed 
for a set period, promising to buy 
them back at the end of that period. 

(NYT, Reuters. AP. Bloomberg! 


"Proton can't compete against the 
Koreans." said Neil Saker. head of 
regional economic research at Soc- 
Gen Crosby Securities in Singapore. 
“They have to cut back capacity." 

On Monday, investors bought the 
blue-chip stocks that were sold off 
two weeks ago on fears that relatively 
healthy cash-rich companies could 
be asked to help rescue ailing ones. 

Telekom Malaysia Bhd.. the 
former telephone monopoly, 
Tenaga Nasional Bhd, an electric 
company, and the country's biggest 
bank. Malayan Banking' Bhd., led 
the gains. 

"Those are defensive stocks." 
Mr. Saker said "They can’t really 
go bankrupL” 

Traders said most of the buying in 
the market Monday bad been done 
by Malaysian institutions but that 
foreigners seemed to be trickling 
back into the market as well. 

Craig Hodge, a partner at Caspian 
Securities Ltd. in London, said his 
office had received orders to buy 
about $30 million of Malaysian 
stocks Monday. 

"People are still cautious, but 
they’re worried about being loo cau- 
tious." Mr. Hodge said. Several 
pension funds had" bought shares in 
the market with an investment ho- 
rizon of at least a year, he said. 
“These guys aren't going in think- 
ing things will be rosy in two 
months’ time." 

Mr. Anwar also said Monday that 
hotels would be exempted from cer- 
tain sales taxes to uy to increase 
tourism revenue and that ministers 
and civil servants would not be al- 
lowed to use travel and holiday al- 
lowances to take vacations outside 
the country. 


Jakarta 

Wellington 

Bombay 

Source: Telekurs 


SET. .. 401.80 

Composite Index 414.83 

Stock Market index 8,402.17 

PSE “ 1,957.21 

Composite Index 423.01 

NZS&40 ~ 2,402.49 

Sensitive Index 3468.19 


435.73 -4.80 

f 8*243/76 +1.92 
I 1,900.06 +3-01 
414.78 .+2.13 

> 2.394.29 +0.34 

I 3,469-08 -0.03 

Inh-rnaliKlijI H.T jW Tribune 


Very briefly; 

• India was warned by Commerce Secretary William Daley 
Df the United States not to reverse free-market reforms be- 
cause of the Asian currency crisis: Inder Kumar Gujral, the 
outgoing prime minister, said the country’s six-year-old mar- 
kei^oriented campaign had broad support and would be con- 
tinued by any government formed al ter elections in 1998. 

■ China launched two Iridium satellites owned by Motorola 
Corp. and has been contracted to put 20 more into orbit for the 
company, the Xinhua news agency said. 

• Hopewell Holdings Ltd. of Hong Kong will not make a 
scheduled payment of 600 million baht ($14.4 million) to 
State Railway of Thailand as part of an elevated- rail project; 
the company cited Bangkok's threats to cancel the project. 

• Toyota Motor Corp. will shift some of its manufacturing 
from Japan to two plants in Thailand. 

• Daiwa Securities Co. will spend as much as 25 billion yen 

($192 million) to buy back 50 million of its shares, which have 
fallen 35 percent in value since the collapse of Yamaichi 
Securities Co. on Nov. 24. Bltnmhrrg. AFP. Reuters 


Business Opportunities 

Appears rverv Wednesday in Tire Imermurkel. 
To advertise rontael Nina Nielr 
in our London « dlier 
Tel.: + 44 1 71 420 0325 
Fax: + 44 1 71 420 0338 
or \our nearest 1HT office 
or representative. 

Htralb^Snbunc 

1HI •■■IIIKMIUU NIISIWUI 


Australia Offers Tax Reforms ; 

* 

• ■ CfnvMf*0»Sb&rnMtDupiJ*ltt 

• SYDNEY — The government of Prime Minister John 

toward pledged Monday to widen its exemption of a tax 
earned by investors on securities denominated in Australian j 
dollars, potentially raising the international appeal of do- 1 
rpcMic investments such as bonds. i 

j The 10 percent tax, known as interest withholding tax, has 
Jbng been seen as a deterrent to investment. The government 
spid it would "widen the interest withholding tax exemption 
tb encourage the domestic corporate debt market." 

V The change is part of a 1.26 billion Australian dollar ($846 
trillion) package of reforms designed to lift economic growth 
and build Australia’s position as a financial center. 

J The package includes more aid for research and dcvel- 
tiuneM, an expanded program for venture capital and an 
export market development plan. f Bloomberg . Reuters) 


. ■ HoniareJrave! .cpmpsnies 

using the Web to. expand their business? 

■ How are smart cards 
changing travel? 

Don\ raiw the fourth in a onic* of npunsorwf pagi> in the II IT im 
electronic btNimft. 1 ram the m» and «*fls of on-Dnc tnMuXioiu. 

December 16 

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h. i,|.wm Ik +J3 1 41 43 M I) / K-M«t a|ffoMMjihuw 


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PAGE 18 


Monday’s 4 PJI. 

ThEyTOim^1rmMNota^>f(^5eoKlte 

&i ferns of dotarvotw updotedMce a jwr. 

The Associated Pkss. 


INTERNATIONAL WBRAT.1> TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1997 


NASDAQ _ 




























































A Special Report 


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 9. 1997 
PAGE 19 


Germany 


.. i: 

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-J *3^ 



— Ail the cliches about the German 
economy are connect Payroll taxes — about 80 
percent on top of wages — are too high. So are 
income taxes, so are government expenditures, 
as snare of the total economy, the latter have risen to 52 
percent, which is almost twice as much as in 1950 
* Wages are only upwardly flexible; there are no “give- 
backs and no significant differentials between poor ancfrich 
regions, as in the United States. Labor markets are more rigid 
than icebergs; German entrepreneurs can hire but they can't 

_! NEWS ANALYSIS 

fire — unless they go to court, where they lose more often than 

« not, or pay handsome severance fees. 

,• 1 Hence, there is a built-in incentive for underemployment. 
Why buy trouble if you can pay overtime? 

■■ German workers don’t move from areas where the jobs 
t^ave departed. Lavish subsidies for de clining industries 

a shipbuilding, coal or agriculture, keep 
dead jobs alive. An all-provi ding state 
hands out enough welfare to keep 
people comfortably on the dole. Hence, 
a rational player would rather stay at 
home than work for, say, 15 Deutsche 
marks an hour ($8 JO). 

This has bequeathed to the German 
economy an unemployment rate of 
around 11 percent The real rate is closer 
to 14 percent if retraining programs and 
Nkvjar ak,u/iht slate-subsidized jobs are counted. 
Hence taxes keep rising, and unemployment too. This is the 
vicious cycle of the munificent welfare state. 

And yet all these truisms require a second look. Go to 
Germany, and you will not find visible poverty as in the slums 
Of Detroit Paris or Liverpool. The paradox is not hard to crack. 
Germany is by no means a frill-employment economy. But it is 
d frill-income society. If you add welfare for a family of four to 
what mom and dad can earn pan-time in the growing “shadow 
economy/* the sum total could easily reach 4,500 DM 
iponthly, or 54,000 DM a year. That is take-home, mind you. 

■ Thai explains the absence of real poverty as well as the crucial 
Stability of aggregate demand. And so, growing unemployment 
does not engender a snowballing economic crisis. 

- But there is more. Let’s call it “the secret of the camel.' 1 ’This 
double-humped creature is ungainly, with a lumbering gait and 
a screechy voice; it smells ana seems always to be dozing off. 
Bur it is die fastest animal in the desert, with an incredible 
endurance, and it delivers meat, milk, leather and wooL 
The camel is a useful metaphor for the German economy, or 

-uinL.^:.L - — U. «VI 


Riigcr-Yiullct 

At left, Dresden's Frauenkirehe as it was just before World War f; at right. in 1994. after reconstruction work had begun. The cathedral will be reconsecrated in 2006. 

In Spirit of Reconciliation, Dresden Recasts Its Past 


By John Schmid 


D 


cathedral-sized scaffolding, masons are building a 
bold new national symbol here. Stone by hand- 
chiseled stone, they are creating a replica of die 


The cathedral will be reconsecrated in 2006, the 800th 
anniversary of the founding of Dresden. 

The decision to undertake the restoration was deeply con- 
troversial. Some Germans objected that any manipulation of 


RESDEN, Germany — Concealed behind veiled troversial. Some Germans objected that any manipul; 
cathedral-sized scaffolding, masons are building a the bombed cathedral’s stones would desecrate them. 


In fact, in the early years of unification, the majority of 
Dresden's burghers refused to let anyone touch them, Mr. 


majestic Frauenkirehe, the Church of Our Lady, in the heart of Burger said. Removal of the nibble was considered by some as 


this once-resplendent city. a failure to confront history. 

During world War u, Dresden was almost completely German writers and thinkers were divided by the question 
destroyed in American and British bombing raids that began in of what to do with die Frauenkirehe. Vehement appeals were 
the night of Feb. 13-14, 1945, in an effort by the Allies to break made to conserve the ruins just as Berliners after the war had 


German morale. The cathedral withstood the impact of the conservi 
first raids and the huge conflagrations they unleashed but on At th 
Feb. 15, it fell At 10:15 A.M., witnesses testified, the sand- Frauenk 
aiow-doino-CBaghoA-QvwaHght, -the-shaaered Fiauegkincbe -. ■ — , — 
became a blackened symbol of destruction and suffering. 

Today, many Germans are hoping that a reconstructed 

Frauenkirehe will join the Brandenburg Gate and the ruins of 
* Or look at it this way: After the friendly takeover of East Berlin's Gedaecbmiskirche as an internationally recognized 
Germany in 1 990, aka reunification, the federal government symbol of their peacefully reunified nation. 

I . Hie church is meant to reflect the end of division, both in 

Continued on Page 21 Germany and across Europe, and the dawning of a new era of 

i European unifi cation. Gennans see their country as thelinch- 

" pin in a democratic continent, as a country that worked 

if • T} steadily throughout the second half of the century to unity 

fl'f’Yl'I’RQCQffc If! 1)01111 Europe after the conflicts of the firet half of the century. 

J-IX.1. -*-*-*- M-n-J m-M ■ ■«. It will stand as a testimony to the dark stains of the past since 

- * tile black stones of its rains will be deliberately reset into the 

| _ ■ jira. new warm ochre sandstone walls, leaving visible imper- 

I .OlOfft \ fractions. “We will avoid any illusions that this church was 

° ever destroyed," said Eberhard Burger, the project’s cou- 

' . , nl i 17 in n / struction director. 

(jDDOSltlOn Blocks Kohl S Keforms “We are not just rebuilding a church,” said Hartwin Haas, 

*_ rr J an official from Dresdner Bank in Frankfurt, which is the main 


conserved the rains of tbeir church, the Gedaecbmiskirche. 

At the very most, many wanted merely to reinforce the 
Frauenkirche’s ruins, which were in danger of collapsing. 


Others insisted that the 250 million Deutsche marks ($147 
million) needed for the restoration would be better spent in 
subsidizing new jobs after unification had wasted East Ger- 
many’s industrial landscape. Yet another group, dizzy with 
too much postunification change, wanted to keep the ruins for 
the sake of nostalgia. 

Even the Communists, who had first cleared the city's 
postwar rubble, had dared not touch the stones. In a prickly 
reminder to lay off, the church’s first preservationists just after 
the war had planted rosebushes all over the ruins. 

The long preservationist fight ended with an agreement to 
incorporate as much of the old stonework as possible into the 
new church. Each stone has been painstakingly excavated. 

Continued on Page 22 


Dealing effectively with the accelerating 
pace of change in European markets has 
become one of the major challenges of 
ouffitfie. Although change often leads to 


on a European scale, DGZ serves a select, 
demanding clientele of corporations and 
financial institutions as well as govern- 
ments and government agencies. 


By John Schmid 

J ENA. Germany — In a global economy chat can move 
with digital speed, Gennans increasingly wony that then- 
nation’s analog pace of economic change plods per- 
ilously slowly. , . 

• With 10 months until September’s national elections, the 
political debate is centering almost exclusively on der Still- 
itand , the political paralysis in Bonn that repeatedly thwarts 

economic change. . , „ 

’ "The ability to resist in our society is highly developed, 
complained Wolfgang Schaeuble, parliamentary leader of 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl's center-right Christian Democratic 
. "It is ridiculously difficult to push through change. 


: 11 M. ■ ,1 77 A i • v . iVf 1 1 1 » »-.*J *.»1 


the legislative logjam and usher in the sort of radical re- 
trenchment in Germany’s postwar political structures that has 
eluded Mr. Kohl for two years. ... 

Mr, Kohl, who is seeking a record fifth term, is less mighty 
4t home than his international reputation might suggest His 
opponents seem to have multiplied during \he Kanzlerdaem- 
owning, the newspaper clich! for the twilight years of his 

political career. , . ... _ 

• A hard front of resistance from unions, opposition and 
social activists has defeated his main legislative agenda to 
overhaul the nation’s tax system; cur welfare programs; 
restructure financing for deficit-ridden state pensions, and 
Charne fees at the nation’s underfunded, nee universities. 

Mr Kohl has accused ifte opposition 
the party of “blockade,” and says they are 
mi, Seacond chamber of Parliament which is controlled by 
a leftist majority. 1 ‘as a weapon m apowerbaoje. 


MOTTO «7TH iT'‘i vwi*)! 


they are too minimal to solve any of the problems they are 
“"■facial politicians “think in prindpte |tey ctm 

MW3sa«.*i£; 


SaraHEr-S- of the German Industry 

~ mKtaconco 5-E.MSS 




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GERMANY / A SPECIAL REPORT 



ed Forces Surpass Expectations 


While Other Europeans Downsize, German Military Moves Into Lead 


By Joseph Fitchett 


B ONN — Germany’s aimed 
forces continue evolving to ful- 
fill their role as Europe's 
largest army, perhaps faster 
than most observers had expected. 

“But I suppose normalcy is not news, 
or at least not considered newsworthy 
these days,” a German diplomat at 
NATO headquarters said in a slightly 
caustic tone apparently designed as a re- 
minder that foreign correspondents used 
to press stethoscopes constantly to die 
fianfc* of the Bundeswehr, as the military 
is known, to find troubling symptoms. 

Those close check-ups now seem re- 
mote after several years in which the 
German forces — and Yolker Rohe, the 
activist defense minister — have con- 
sistently beaten their own timetables in 
makin g the military strength of reunited 
Germany into a reliable, increasingly 
“normal,” part of Europe's arsenal. 

When Mr. Ruhe sain recently in the 
German Parliament that, “If there is 
another war now in the Gulf, the 
Bundeswehr will be involved in an ac- 
tive role,” the announcement was 
greeted with mild applause. Five years 
ago, at the time of the last Gulf war, 
ordinary Germans were banging white 
sheets out their windows to protest 
against Western violence. The govern- 
ment felt it prudent to hide die dimen- 
sions of how much logistical help Ger- 
many was giving the U.S.-led coalition 
— which in fact was almost a NATO 
operation. 

Significantly, Mr. Riihe’s own nation- 


al stature is rocketing now, according to 
diplomats in Bonn. His hard-charging 
tactics, which initially raised many 
hackles, are now credited with accel- 
erating political acceptance of an ex- 
panded military role, something that 72 
percent of German public opinion now 
likes, according to a recent polL 

Bnt this “normalcy” can be slightly 
deceptive unless it is examined against 
the background of military trends in other 
European countries. Hie news is usually 
less upbeat, more likely to center on 
problems — ebbing public support, polit- 
ical confusion, downsizing of forces. 

As a result, Germany, with its normal 
behavior, is moving steadily into the 
position of Europe’s leading military 
force — a role congruent with the coun- 
try’s size and weight in most national 
dimensions. Nonetheless, it is instruct- 
ive, officials of the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization said, to take note of some 
trends. They include: 

• Germany will keep its current 
3,000-man contingent in Bosnia next 
year if, as seems likely, the present op- 
eration is extended. The United States 
and other coalition members will prob- 
ably stay but with fewer troops. The 
effect will be to increase the proportional 
strength and therefore authority of Ger- 
many's unit in the new phase, to be 
called DFOR, the Deterrent Force, that 
would succeed SFOR, the now-ending 
Stabilization Force. 

• The political context about Ger- 
many’s military role is changing faster 
and faster. Just this month, both the 
center-left Social Democrats and the 
Greens decided to rewrite their plat- 


forms, ahead of next year’s parliamen- 
tary elections, in order to expunge most 
of their remaining qualifications on for- 
eign missions by Goman armed forces. 
Both parties had been expected even- 
tually to fall in behind Chancellor 
Helmut Kohl’s Christian Democrats, but 
the timing surprised many observers in 
Bonn.' It reflects these opposition 
parties’ sense that public opinion is 
changing. 

• The . defense budget in Germany, 
while still being held down In order to 
meet the criteria for the European single 
currency, continues to support a Large 
conscript army — 350,000 men, dwarf- 
ing other European members of NATO. 
It also still finds the money for purchases 
like the Eurofighter, the fighter-bomber 
approved this month. In contrast, most 
other European countries, especially 
France, have seen their defense spending 
fall drastically. As a result Germany has 
large well-equipped forces that can bal- 
loon to one million men if reserves are 
used. Its military budge twill start to rise, 
according to officials in Bonn, as soon as 
the monetary hurdle has been cleared 

Inevitably, these treads in military 
power and budget strength are expand- 
ing Germany’s stature in NATO. That 
prospect has been dramatically en- 
hanced in the last year as France 
stumbled in its bid to return to NATO in 
a lending role. Going farther than any 
other ally in practicing NATO's plan for 
multinational organizations, Germany' 
has now distributed all its divisions 
among multinational corps, Inclu ding 
the French-German one, a German- 
American one and a Dutch-German one. 





A German armored personnel carrier on a bridge in Bosnia . Germany’s stature in NATO has grown steadily. 


Next will be a Gennan-Danish-Polish 
unit to be headquartered in Stettin, Po- 
land, the first NATO unit to cross the old 
division of Europe. 

Certainly, it is Germany that is taking 
the European lead in the arguments with 


Washington over who is and who is not 
doing enough. Bosnia is the cutting edge 
in that discussion these days. 

Along with Britain, Germany still 
seems to be the European country cam- 
paigning most effectively to convince the 


U.S. Congress of the need for a con-. - k 
tiniiing strong U.S. presence and role in; j 
Europe. ; 

JOSEPH FTTCUETT is on the staff of * / 
the International Herald Tribune. 


Euro Skepticism Aside, Germans Stake Identity on European Integration 


By Barry James 


B RUSSELS — To a greater ex- 
tent perhaps than anywhere 
else on the Continent, Ger- 
many has built its policies and 
its very identity around the idea of Euro- 
pean integration. 

The successive developments leading 
to the present 15-member European Un- 
ion — the European Coal and Steel 
Community, the Common Market and 
the European Economic Community — 
have all been viewed in Germany as 
positive elements in the nation’s postwar 
reintegration and economic recovery. 

The creation of a united and pros- 
perous Continent has been as central to 
the policies of Chancellor Helmut Kohl 
as it was for his predecessors. Mr. Kohl 
has pat his prestige and his political 


survival behind the proposed European The sense of many Germans that their difficult for people to accept unless its expected to join the single currency. Germans take the longer, more philo-- . 

single currency. economy was superior toothers has taken introduction is accompanied by the However, Germany has insisted that all sophical view. For them, the EU is much . 

Older Germans are haunted by the several hard knocks recently. The much boil ding of a “'social Europe” that pays economic decisions must be made by the more than a utilitarian trade bloc. Nev- .. 

memory of rampant inflation, and per- maligned “Club Med" countries, Italy, greater attention to the need for jobs and finance ministers of all 15 EU states. ertheless, Germany wants Britain to be 

snading them to give up the mi gh ty Spain and Portugal, have made prodi- security. The main outstanding issue between an effective partner within the EU, form- . • 

Deutsche mark in favor of an untested gious efforts to meet the criteria for join- France has accepted that the European Paris and Bonn is France’s demand that ing a strategic triangle between Bonn, 

new currency has not been easy. There is ing the euro. At the same time, Germany Central Bank should be at least as in- the president of its national bank, Jean- Paris and London, 

still considerable skepticism about the has had considerable difficulty in meet- dependent as the Bundesbank. This Claude Trichet, should bead the Euro- On the incorporation of Eastern and - 

euro, which will become the official ing the key target that the public deficit in means that the bank will determine in- pean Central Bank, rather than the Central European countries into the EU,—^ 

currency of q ualif ying countries in Janu- 1997 should not exceed 3 percent of gross terest rates and, in effect, dictate man- Dutchman, Wim Duisenbexg, who had Germany views enlargement as vitally . 

ary 1999. But no Goman politician of domestic product Its unemployment rate etary policy, leaving budgetary policy as been expected to get the job. necessary to secure markets and export ; - 

any stature opposes the currency, and r emains high and intractable. As a result, the only economic lever in national Although Mr. Trichet is hig hly qual- stability toward the east, and thus avoid • 

public acceptance of the idea is slowly the countries adopting the euro next year hands. ified, there is a risk that his appointment damaging economic and political prob- . 

gaining ground. will do so on much more equal terms than Germany, however, has with some would be seen as a political concession lems on its doorstep. Wim its own sys- 

This is largely due to the fact that the would have been thought possible only a reluctance accepted France's long- that could be interpreted as a dilution of tern of highly autonomous lander, Ger- - _ 

euro will be introduced on German few months ago. stan ding demand for some form of eco- the guarantee that die European Bank many has no problem with a certain, - 

terms, with a powerful and independent The move toward the new currency nomic government to be set up as a will be independent. federalizing idea of a European Union 

European Bank in Frankfurt replacing has required a high degree of skill in counterweight to the central bank, under Germany also views its relationship that could within a generation contain as > . 

the Bundesbank, buttressed by a stability handling the relationship with France, the terms of the Maastricht treaty on with Britain as being particularly im- many as 26 members. 

pact designed to ensure that countries Germany’s key partner within the EU. European union. portant. The British prefer to wait and — 

adopting the euro stay on the path of The Socialist-led French government The result mil be an informal Euro see whether an initiative, such as the Hd/tR}* JAMES is on the stiff of the 

fiscal rectitude and low inflation. takes die view that the euro will be Council confined to the 11 countries - euro, is useful before taking part The International Herald Tribune. . • 



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Reassessing U.S. -German Friendship 

Behind Facade of Harmony, Nations Are Far Apart on Some Basic Issues * j 


By John Domberg 


M unich — 

Judging from the 
photo opportuni- 
ties and what the 
spin doctors say, thugs have 
never been better in the re- 
lationship between Bonn and 
Washington — thanks to the 
close personal ties between 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl and 
President Bill Clinton. 

The two, despite the lack of 
a common language in which 
to communicate, have bonded. 
And the adhesive seems to be 
more than their lusty appetite 
and heaping platters of veal 
and fettucdne that they share 
at Filomena, a popular Wash- 
ington eatery. The word is that 
they actually like each other, 
and the reason may be that 
they have a lot in common. 
Both spent years earning their 
political spurs in the provinces 
before becoming national 


leaders; they are political an- 
imals to the core, and both are 
repeatedly underestimated by 
their opponents and rivals. 
The chemistry is right 

Compared with the personal 
acrimony between American 
presidents and German chan- 
cellors of tunes and admin- 
istrations past — Konrad Ad- 
enauer and John Kennedy, 
Ludwig Erhard and Lyndon 
Johnson or Helmut Schmidt 
and Jimmy Carter — that is a 
salutary development 

Bnt is that enough to keep 
the German-Amencan rela- 
tionship trouble-free? Appar- 
ently not, to judge from some 
of the behind-the-scenes ram- 
bling "and gnashing of te et h 
during the past year or so. 

Root cause is that some of 
the fundamentals which used 
to be the glue between Bonn 
and Washington have 
changed since the be ginning 
of the decade. 

One fundamental was the 


security interdependence of 
the Cold War. There has been 
no need for that since the col- 
lapse of communism, the end 
of the Cold War and Ger- 
many’s reunification. Ger- 
many is no longer the front- 
line state of the Western alli- 
ance, as evidenced by the 
withdrawal of more than 
250,000 U.S. troops and the 
disappearance of the Amer- 
ican military presence in 
former garrison cities such as 
Munich, Frankfurt and Berlin, 
It happened gradually over 
several years but it mariced the 
end of a 50-year era. 

Moreover, both countries 
have developed a different 
self-perception. 

Germany is no longer con- 
tent with being “an economic 
giant and diplomatic-political 
dwarf,” but has begun assert- 
ing itself as the most powerful 
European country, with na- 
tional interests of its own. 
Bonn expects to be treated as 



a major player. Permanent., 
membership on the UN Se-. 
curity Council, presumably* 
with a veto, is a priority for- > 
eign policy goal of the Kohl 
administration. • 

The United States, on the., 
other hand, as the remaining - 
global superpower, has also 
become more assertive, either 
looking out for its national 
interests or at least the do- 
mestic political interests of; 
the Clinton White House in 
permanent confrontation with 
a Republican Congress. 

Moreover, as U.S. prior- 
ities have shifted to Asia and 
Latin America, the American 
foreign policy establish- 
ment's interest in Europe, es- 
pecially Germany, has 
waned. 

Among the symptoms are 
the decline in parliamentary 
exchanges and, although 
budgetary restraints are given 
as the reason, the closure 
within recent years of nearly 
every “Amerika Haas." 

Against this background, 
minor irritations in relations 
can quickly escalate. 

Some of them are tempests 
in teapots. The most ludicrous 
is tacit State Department 
backing of the c laim that 
Bonn is discriminating 
against the Church of Scien- 
tology, and the recent House 
International Relations Com- 
mittee draft resolution calling 
on the White House to cen- 
sure Bonn fen* its stance on 
Scientology. It was only 
when the House as a whole 
voted against the measure 
that the air cleared. 

“But there are a number of 
major issues on which we are 
far apart,’ ’ as Foreign Minister 
Klaus Kinkel put it following 
meetings with Mr. Clinton. 
Secretary of State Madeleine 
Albright and Defense Secre- 
tary William Cohen in Wash- 
ington early in November. 

Among them are the U.S. 
position on the abolition of 
land mines; reduction of 
greenhouse emissions at the 
Kyoto world climate confer- 
ence; trade and the so-called 
critical dialogue’ ’ with Iran; 
relations with Cuba and im- 
plementation of the Helms- 
Burton Act; extending the 
mandate of the NATO-led 
Stabilization Force .in Bosnia 
beyond the summit meeting. 


ft 


JOHN DORNBERG is < 
journalist based in Cer 
many. 







GERMANY / A SPECIAL REPORT 


New Generation, Casting Aside Traditional Mistrust, Plunges Into Equities 



By Rick Smith 


A S the world's markets get 
choppy and challenging, the 
behavior ot novice investors is 
crucial — and in Germany 
there arc plenty of novice investors. 

According to the Federal Association 
of German Investment Companies, the 
amount managed in equity funds surged 
90 percent over the past 12 months, io 
115.5 billion Deutsche marks ($66 bil- 
lion). Many of these investors are se- 
riously dipping into equities for the first 

time, analysts say. 

p With fund flows of this magnitude at 
stake, not only banks ana finance 
companies but the government itself is in 
the process of taking a hard look at ways 
to make investment as flexible and re- 
sponsible as possible. 

Whether or not the new investor has 


the mettle to sit tight through market 
downdrafts, it is clear that major tectonic 
plates are shifting in Europe's largest and 
richest market that could charnel a steady 
flow of new funds into German equities. 

Some of the shifts are variations of 
ones that are also transforming the 
United States, Japan and the rest of 
Europe. 

Most conspicuously, there is the ex- 
plosion in choice ana efficiency of in- 
vestment vehicles that has been made 
possible by the microchip. And, in the 
background, in Germany as elsewhere, 
there is the growing fear that cash- 
strapped governments will cut retire- 
ment benefits in the coming decades and 
that a failure to invest now could le ad to 
personal financing problems in the fu- 
ture. 

But one key shift is peculiarly Ger- 
man. 

The country is now being run by the 


Erbengeneration, the so-called “gen- 
eration of heirs" and Germany’s first 
generation in this century that has had 
die luxury of inheriting money. Two 
wars and a bout of hyperinflation ef- 
fectively wiped out the middle class and 
dispersed most wealth to the point that 
the survivors of World War II were 
mostly starting from scratch. 

Among that generation’s many scars, 
there was a deep-seated association be- 
tween inflation and broader social chaos. 
The result was a central bank with a near 
phobia of inflation and, as a result, it has 
created and nurtured one of the world’s 
bedrock currencies. 

But the experience also left a pop- 
ulation distrustful of markets in general 
and a legal system and financial in- 
frastructure highly geared toward pro- 
tecting investors rather than giving them 
flexibility or choice. 

That reflex was heightened in the 


1970s when Germany became a prime 
marketing target for Bernard Corof eld's 
Investors Overseas Services, known as 
IOS, the mutual fund group that col- 
lapsed and took with it the savings of 
many small investors throughout the 
world. 

“German legislation is terribly pro- 
tective as a result of the IOS scandal," 
said a manager at Robeco. the Dutch 
fund group that is active throughout 
Europe. 

The impressive savings of the postwar 
generation have now passed to a gen- 
eration that also finds itself in prime 
earning years — and in charge of the 
country. 

Not coincidentally, some of the coun- 
try's most extensive changes in legis- 
lation affecting investment have oc- 
curred in the last few years or are in the 
process of being put into effect. 

On April 1. 1998, for example, in a 


major innovation, the government will 
give its final green light to a new cat- 
egory of investment fund designed for 
retirement savings. 

Such funds in the past reflected the 
country's general caution, especially 
when it concerns retirement, and were 
largely focused on bonds or savings. But 
the new funds will have over half of their 
assets in stocks and real estate. They will 
be allowed to hold as much as 75 percent 
of assets in stocks and wilt also be al- 
lowed to use derivatives in some cir- 
cumstances. 

“They will have the effect of provid- 
ing support for the German market and 
encourage a broader public to have a 
stake in the country's productive cap- 
ital.” said Guenter Schardt, an official 
with the Federal Association of German 
Investment companies. 

They will also be tailor-made to fit 
individual needs and will be designed to 


encourage investors to make steady if 
small contributions. 

To be sure, the idea of exposing long- . 
term savings to the greater rewards and 
risks of stock markets is still not ac- 
quired overnight. What is motivating 
most savers, and even wealthy ones, is 
genuine fear about retirement income. 

“It is inevitable that the German gov- * 
eminent will have to trim benefits and it 
is already looking at possible cuts,” said ’ 
Eckhard Bergmann, a spokesman for ; 
DWS, the retail fund-management arm 
of Deutsche Bank AG in Frankfurt. 

The bank has calculated that the av- j 
erage German should raise his savings by 
3 percent to 5 percent if the government \ 
cuts benefits, as has been recommended, • 
io 64 percent of one's last salary level 
from the current 70 percent. * 


RICK SMITH is on the staff of the 
International Herald Tribune . 


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Leaner Volkswagen Has Last Laugh 

Automaker Confounds Its Critics by Streamlining and Making Money 


By John Schmid ® row mor ® strori Sly than world trade for and earnings in the first half of 1997. 

J the first time in a long time,” said the Daimler's half-year operating profit 

_ BGA president, Michael Fuchs. more than doubled to 1.85 billion 

; i U — Few companies Leading the export boom are the Deutsche marks ($1.05 billion); BMW's 

l_J have been shackled with as many freighters steaming out of Hamburg and six-month net profit rose 30 percent to 
I 1 of the disadvantages of operat- Bremen with German-built cars. Pas- 435 million DM while net profit at the 
A ing a business in Germany as senger car exports are up 7 percent in the Volkswagen group leapt 73 percent to 
Volkswagen AG. year through October, based on figures 488 milli on DM. 

Its flagship Wolfsburg autoworks, from die VDA German Automobile As* The most dramatic turnaround came 
built in 1938 for the original Beetle, are sociation, the main industry trade group, at Volkswagen, led by its chairman 
among the oldest in use in Europe. It has even as new car registrations in Germany Ferdinand Piech. who started his career 
a bleared work force and a “no dis- have stagnated. Since die start of last as designer of the original Porsche 9il 
missals" policy, thanks to a majority of year, Mercedes-Benz and Volkswagen engine. Under Mr. Piech, Volkswagen 
unionists and Social Democratic politi- have seen exports surge 25 percent avoided mass layoffs in 1993 with a 
cians on its supervisory board. The 1993 The Mercedes-Benz auto operations four-day workweek. Without reducing 
recession laid bare its inefficient op- at Daimler-Benz AG last year woo die staff, as Daimler did by the thousands, 
erations. leading ro jokes that Volks- prize of Europe's most profitable auto- few expected the company to attack its 
wagen could not make both cars and maker with Bayerische Motoren Werke high costs. 

money ni the same time. AG in second place. Today, VW's factories may be still 

Today. Volkswagen has disproved its "German industry, primarily VW, overstaffed but costs are falling, even as 
critics, it is leaner, meaner ana it makes BMW and Mercedes, have surprised VW adds 3 percent more workers in 
money. everyone with their ability to change and Germany. Volkswagen used its natural 

Along with other German automakers their reaction to market forces.” said advantages as a multinational: it forced 
. and much of Germany's once-struggling Earl Hesterberg, vice president of sales flexibility on local management and un- 
ftnanufacluring industry. Volkswagen in Amsterdam at the Japanese rival Nis- ions by threatening to move assembly of 
has undergone a quiet revolution. Cynics san Europe NV. new models to its low-wage plants in the 

who dismissed Germany's high-wage. The renewed export confidence came Czech Republic, China or Mexico, 
high -cost industry only a few years ago only after a painful restructuring that 

are no longer so quick to scoff. cost one in every seven German auto- MT AN AGEMENT squeezed 

Stung by low- wage competition worker jobs since 1993. Throughout (% /■ per-car production hours in- 
. abroad. Germans increasingly have Western Germany, nearly 2 million in- I %/ I to what VW calls “effi- 
-- mastered the new rules of the global dus trial jobs have disappeared since -1- ▼ -JLciency perimeters." The 
economy: cut costs relentlessly, decent- 1 991 , driving national unemployment to new generation Coif IV, launched this 
ralize, rewrite labor contracts, introduce record levels. year, can be produced in 20 hours, down 

performance-linked pay. step up foreign According to the VDA trade group, from 32 hours for the current model, 
investment and streamline assembly. layoffs in the auto industry have finally With fewer man-hours, the cost for the 

This was accomplished, analysts said, bottomed out. For the first time since stripped-down version is 25,700 DM, 
without forfeiting Germany's reputation 1993. German carmakers this year are 360 DM less than the outgoing gen- 
^ for premium craftsmanship. adding jobs at home again, although erationGolf. 

■ 'Germany has restructured, no doubt only a fraction of those lost, Volkswagen Streamlining operations further, VW 
about it.” saiB Hjfhs-Petcr Wodniok, an canceled its traditional summer factory standardized the undercarriages for all 
analyst in Frankfurt at Credit Lyonnais holidays and kept plants open in August its brands — VW, Skoda, SEAT and 
Securities. "Industry is in much better to meet demand rather than idle them for Audi — to four from 1 0. With only four 
shape than it was in five years ago.” The annual monthlong vacations. Porsche is platforms, the company needs only four 
industrial revival extends beyond auto- operating at capacity at its Stuttgart plant kinds of clutches, whittling costs and 
makers. Chemicals group Hoechsr AG, and has licensed extra assembly-line sweetening terms on supplier contracts, 
steelmaker Krupp Hoesch AG. electrical volume in Finland and Mexico. Costs will fall 30 percent in the pro- 

conglomerate S icmens AG and lire man- cess. 

ufaclurcr Continental AG can point to f I'^O be sure, German autoworkers As a result, Volkswagen plans to add 

radical retrenchments that extend from I remain the highest-paid in the new models and extend its range beyond 

line simp floor to the boardroom. I world, corporate taxes are steep its core fleet of hatchback and mid-range 

• • The retooling has allowed Germany A and regulations unwieldy. But passenger cars. By 2001, Mr. Piech 

this year to reclaim its title as a world based on market share, production, earn- plans to offer 51 new models, up from 
cmw r c hampiort. After several years of ings and sales, the Germans measurably the current 38, including such novelties 
declining world market share, total Ger- have managed to move to the front of the as a two-seat sport scar and a 12-cylinder 
man exports arc expected to grow 10 pack compared to other European com- super-luxury limousine, 
percent this year, outpacing the expan- pernors. ^ “We certainly make no mirtake that 

sion uf world trade, according to the BMW, Daimler-Benz, Porsche AG, the Germans are very powerful com- 
Bonn-bnsed BGA German Trade and Volkswagen and Volkswagen’s Audi petition, and if you do not respect them. 
Wholesaling Industry group. “In 1997, AG performance car subsidiary have all then I think you are foolish.’ said Mr. 
Germany's world market share will reported increases in sales, production Hesterberg at Nissan. 



tt'irffpanp flbcrnc/Agcm Fmof-Plow 

Workers at Volkswagen’s plant in Zwickau, eastern Germany. Per-car production hours have been cut back. 


Decoding Secret of German Success 


Continued from Page 19 


has been pumping about $80 billion an- 
nually into the East. That is what the 
entire Marshall Plan bestowed on 15 
West European countries over three 
years. An economy capable of so gar- 
gantuan a handout year after year must 
produce a lot of “surplus value," as 
Marx would have put it. 

German workers work fewer hours 
than anybody else in the OECD world. 
And yet. when they do, they probably 
work harder than anybody else, too. Pro- 
ductivity in Germany grows at about the 
American rate — not great, but not dis- 
mal, either. 

Let's look at the stock market which 
doubted in the last 18 months, and at 
corporate profits that keep soaring, too. 
Surely, this twin rise reflects the same 
fundamental trends as in the rest of the 
West: downsizing, “lean production," 
ruthless modernization, outsourcing at 
home and abroad. In Germany, though. 


you don’t see the fallout so clearly be- 
cause the losers enjoy a soft landing in a 
tight-meshed welfare net. 

How about the * ‘concentration of cap- 
ital," to use another Marxian shib- 
boleth? “Hostile takeovers” are ver- 
boten by habit and tradition, so when 
Krupp tried to grab Thyssen earlier this 
year, the nation rose up in arms. Now 
that the merger is "friendly,” there is 
only one issue left: Who gets to be the 
boss of the fused duo. the guy from 
Krupp or from Thyssen? 

The German banks are lazy and fau 
right? Look again. Though they slept 
through the 1 980s, when Wall Street went 
through an orgy of mergers and acqui- 
sitions, takeovers and restructuring, there 
isn’t one German megubauk left now 
which hasn't acquired a U.S. or British 
investment house in order to catch up. 

The camel always requires a second 
look, and so does “Rhenish capital- 
ism.” On the surface, Germany never 
moves, and it seems to obey an unwritten 
social contract that says: “Nothing must 


change — social peace uber alles .” But 
how the country really works is nicely 
illustrated by the following true story, 

A visitor, arriving after 5 P.M. at 
BMW headquarters in Munich to visit a 
highly placed personage on the pent- 
house level, rises in his elevator through 
floor after floor cast in darkness and 
eerie silence. His host explains: “The 
Betriebsrat (works council) has nixed 
after-hour work and overtime.” 

So how did BMW manage to compete 
so well with U.S. and Japanese car- 
makers if its engineers have to shut their 
computers at 5 P.M. sharp? “They take 
their disks home and continue there, 
which no Betriebsrat can forbid. Be- 
cause i hey know that the health of the 
company, and Their jobs, depend on 
iL” 

The moral of the story? The camel is 
smarter than it looks, and ii is wise about 
the ways of the desen. 


JOSEF JOFFE is editorial page editor 
of the Siiddeutschc Zcitung in Munich. 


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PAGE 22 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1997 

GERMANY / A SPECIAL REPORT 


Subsidy Cuts Threaten 
To Darken Opera Houses 


iKSsSr 11 '' tf'* 8 .- 




By Roderick Conway Moms 

M UNICH — A high regard 
for music in general and 
opera in particular runs 
clear across the political 
spectrum in Germany, and both sides of 
the once-divided nation used to spend 
very substantial sums subsidizing con- 
cert halls and opera houses. Opera 
companies could routinely expect 80 
percent or more of their budgets to come 
from government subsidies. 

But the worsening economic situ- 
ation and cuts in public spending since 
ramification now threaten many of the 
country’s 90 or so houses with drastic 
reductions in their programs or even 
closure — holding out the prospect that 
in many places the typical well-attended 
evening at the local opera house, and all 
the cultural and social ritual surround- 
ing it, may become a rarity or thing of 
the past. 

' ‘There's still a broad consensus here 
that opera is really something that 
makes life worth living, and that far 
from being a luxury, it is one of the 
cornerstones of the German cultural tra- 
dition,'* said Peter Jonas, former di- 
rector of the English National Opera and 
now artistic and administrative director 
of the Bavarian State Opera. “So, 
whereas if a politician in Britain gets up 
and says grants for the ENO or Covent 
Garden should be cut. there are plenty of 
people who will say: ‘Jolly good thing, 
too, why should we subsidize seats for 
toffs?' in Germany the majority still 
think, it's right and proper for the state to 
support opera.” 

Mr. Jonas added. “And as taxation is 
very high here, people also feel that if 
they do go to the opera, they have to a 
large degree already paid for it. And this 


makes it extremely difficult to raise the 
prices of seats to compensate for the loss 
of help from the state.” 

Aland von Rohr, director of opera at 
the Deutsche Oper in Berlin, also said 
there was very strong resistance to price 
rises. “We have already put them up, 
but if we put them up more we will have 
empty seats and lose revenue. We have 
the additional problem in Berlin that 
people from the former GDR were used 
to paying 5 to 10 Deutsche marks for a 
seat at the opera and now have to pay 10 
times more,” he said. 

The Deutsche Oper presently has a 
budget of 90 million DM, about 10 mil- 
lion DM of which comes from the box 
office. Their subsidy has been cut by 3 
million to 4 million DM a year since 
1994, and the total reduction will be at 
least 20 million DM for 1999. “We have 
tried everything possible to reduce our 
costs, including hiring less expensive 
singers and spending less on produc- 
tions, and so on, but it is very difficult lo 
see how we are going to manage in the 
future,” said Mr. von Rohr. 

The crisis is, if anything, more acute 
at the Deutsche Staatsoper in Berlin. 
Once the Royal Opera, it was the leading 
house in East Germany. With Daniel 
Barenboim as its artistic and general 
musical director, the house and its or- 
chestra continue to enjoy an outstanding 
international reputation. Its total budget 
is about 114 milli on DM, 90 million DM 
of which is received in subsidies. Sub- 
sidy cuts between 1994 and 1999 are 
expected to amount to 55 million DM. 

“We have balanced our books for 
this year, but to do so we have had to 
cancel three important new produc- 
tions,” said Stephan Adam, the- Staat- 
soper’s assistant director. “We have 
already cut 137 staff and, regretfully, 
scrapping new work was the only way 



Berlin’s Still Out of Tun 
In Quest for New Image 


By Joseph Fitchett 


The Munich opera house, where an evening out is a popular social ritual. 


we could make ends meet without sac- 
rificing the quality on which our name 
depends. We have already increased 
seat pices, but don’t want to create a 
situation where only the rich can afford 
to go to opera.” 

As the cuts have bitten deeper, Mr. 
Jonas and his colleagues in Munich 
have adopted a strategy of offering their 
own derailed cost-reducing package 
rather than waiting for cuts imposed 
from above. 

“The general edict from the Finance 
Ministry is that every area of the public 
sector must cut its spending by 10 per- 
cent by the year 2000. But how do you 
cut 10 percent of two harpists or a bom 


group?” Mr. Jonas 
Mr. Jonas said that the Bavarian State 
Opera was in an unusual position be- 
cause it was written into the Constitution 
that one of the primary objectives of the 
Bavarian state is to promote culture. 
Nonetheless, its subsidies were cut by 2 
million DM in 1995 and 25 millio n DM 
In 1996. Mr. Jonas said they had pro- 
posed to make their own cuts of 2.8 
milli on to 3.8 million DM. losing 22 jobs 


over the next 3 years. Bavarian State 
Opera’s case has been helped by an ex-, 
rationally healthy box office. He said, 
“During the 31 days of oar opera festival 
alone we took 8.3 million DM, a rise of 
1.5 million over the record festival tak- 
ings of the year before. We also have the 
advantage of having 2, 1 00 seats, whereas 
the Deutsche Staatsoper, for example, 
has only 1,225. So we're on course to hit 
40 millio n DM in revenue this year, out 
of a total budget of 128 nnQion.” 

“Our package has been accepted by 
the Bavarian cabinet,” Mr. Jonas ad- 
ded, “but something of a tussle has 
developed between them and the Fi- 
nance Ministry, which' argues that there 
should be no exceptions to the 10 per 
cent across the board target. -But we’re 
cautiously optimistic that.our-aolutioQ 
will be accepted as reasonable.!* v < 

“To our minds there is nothing worse 
than letting the opera house go dark,” 
said Mr. von Rohr at the Deutsche Oper 
in Berlin. 

RODERICK CONJfAY. MORRIS is 
based in Venice . 


B ERLIN — As construction 
thunders ahead, Berlin seems 
confident of having a colossal 
new skyline ready lo welcome 
the German government when it arrives 
in two years. 

But Berlin, haunted by its history, 
still seems deeply uncertain about how 
to visualize its own future as the capital 
of a new Germany and a major me- 
1 ■ oils in a united Europe. 

any intellectuals and politicians op- 
sweeping architectural ambitions 
fi t they fear will erase the traces of e vil 
in the ex-Nazi capital. But an assertive 
new generation insists that the nation 
has paid for. its crimes. It believes that 
Berun should be a new frontier, a capital 
for Germans no longer burdened by 
historical'guijt; developers and builders 
often claim to represent these views. 

These quarrels, which have occupied 
Germany for five years, are becoming 
irrelevant as builders work to meet the 
1999 deadline. Shouldering aside ques- 
tions about, foecity ’s historical memory, 
the developers have imposed kitschy 
treatments of the monuments of old 
Beilin and framed a hew Berlin with 
sterile concrete-and-glass skyscrapers. 

Witb-Germans still in flax about their 
future self-image,. the nation seems un- 
ready anytime soon to stamp political 
symbolism, oh Berlin. But (hen: is an 
obvious potential cornerstone in Ber- 
lin’s widely acknowledged reputation 
as the world capital of classical music. 

It is only' a small leap to imagine 
Berlin thinking about itself as a capital 
based oh the idea of meshing politics and 
culture. The idea comes to mind among a 
group of people who often think of them- 
selves as honorary Berliners: classical 


musicians. Their views are rarely 
in public. Bui some candid exchanges 
about Berlin and its international image 
emerged behind the scenes during the 
annual festival organized by Berlin's 
Staatsoper. which invited the participa. 
tion of a leading French symphony or- 
chestra, the Ofdiesire de Paris. 

For musicians. Berlin is already "the 
world capital of classical music,” ac- 
cording to Daniel Barenboim, the pi- 
anisi and conductor, cuirentlv musical 
director of the Chicago Symphony or- 
chestra and the Staatsoper. 

Berlin remains unmatched in musical 
richness, even by New York or Vienna, 
musicians say. pointing oui that Berlin 
rose to the top run in classical music ia 
the decade before World War II and 
never lost its commitment to musical 
greatness, even during the city’s most 
terrible hours. 

The encounter in Berlin also promp- 
ted prominent Europeans and Amer- 
icans lo talk candidly — and sometimes 
heatedlv — about international views 
on Berlin. When asked whether the 
city's role os musical capital could 
provide a basis for Berlin to become a 
self-confident, magnetic European cap- 
ital, some musicians, such as Mr. 
Boulez, were gently skeptical. 

In private, another virtuoso was vehe- 
ment in rejecting suggestions that could 
command international loyalty, even in 
music. “No one can ever really want to 
perform in Berlin after what this city 
stood for,” he snapped. “I’m here out 
of formal respect for reconciliation, but 
1 never buy anything German if I can 
help it.” 

In contrast, Mr. Barenboim, an Israeli 
citizen bom in .Argentina, predicted that 
Berlin will command international 
homage if it sets the pace in classical 
music. 



n 


In a Spirit of Reconciliation and Unity, Dresden Reconstructs Its Cathedral 


Continued from Page 19 

tested and then stored. Up to 20 percent 
of the stonework will be original. Re- 
construction work began in 1993. 

The black-sooted stones cany much 
symbolic weight. In the 1980s, they came 
to represent East Germany's pro-democ- 
racy movement. Beginning on Feb. 13, 
1982, rat the anniversary of Dresden’s 
1945 firebombing, pro-democracy dem- 
onstrators distributed illegal pamphlets 
in front of die church. The event was 
repealed every year until die 1989 rev- 
olution which led to the downfall of the 


Qxmnmists. “ ‘They laid die cornerstone 
for the first peaceful and successful freer 
dom movement in German history, in a 
nation that is truly poor in terms of 
successful freedom movements,” said 
Professor Klaus-Dieter Henke, a histor- 
ian at Dresden University. 

Reinforcing the cathedral’s symbolic 
place in German hearts. Chancellor 
Helmut Kohl, in December 1989, one 
month after the fall of the Berlin Wall, 
chose the runs as the site for his first 
visit to East Germany and addressed a 
crowd from a makeshift platform in 
front of the rubble. 

“This was the first occasion when 


Kohl, the politician, could feel, instinct- 
ively. that a rapid unification was within 
his grasp.” said Professor Henke. 

On Feb. 13, 1990, a group ofDresden 
residents launched the appeal for the 
reconstruction of the church. 

Significantly, the church’s 18th-cen- 
tury roots are linked to a democratic 
groundswell of sorts. The citizens of 
Dresden, in defiance of the city’s Cath- 
olic king, Augustus die Strong, initiated 
the construed on of what was to become 
Europe’s biggest Lutheran church. Con- 
struction began in 1722 and ended in 
1743. 

Inspired by Martin Luther’s defiance 


of papal aufoority, ihe church’s architect 
Gong Baehr rejected conventional 
“longship” cathedral 'design that thrust 
churchgoers to the rear. Instead, Baehr 
built an airy temple with an elevated 
central pulpit surrounded by four massive 
pillars that supported a rounded interior 
with curved tiers of balcoay like an opera 
house. He wanted all the benches to be as 


equidistant to the center as possible. 

The cathedral witnessed -the golden 
age of German culture. Johann Sebasti- 
an Bach routinely came from Leipzig to 
play the organ,' one of the biggest in 
Europe. The rich acoustics lured 
Richard Wagner, who composed an ora- 
tio-for the Erauenkirche. His “Feast of 
the Apostles” was first performed in 


T 843. Dresden's reputation as the “Par- 
is of the East” or “Venice on the Elbe” 
owes 'much to this masterpiece or 
baroque architecture and its lurreicd 
Italian-inspired. 97-meter dome. 

JOHN SCHMID is the International 
Herald Tribune's Germany correspon- 
dent. 


Social Democrats Divided by 2 Visions 



By. William Drozdiak 

B ERLTN 7 '-~After "i5^w. : o£ 
languishing in the political 
desert, Germany’s Social 
Democrats would like to be- 
lieve they stand a strong chance of re- 
capturing power at the national level in 
next September’s elections and de- 
priving Chancellor Helmut Kohl of an 
unprecedented fifth term in office'. 

On the surface, the omens appear 
promising. At 67, Mr. Kohl is looking 
tired and may have difficulty persuad- 
ing voters he can provide the dynamic 
leadership required to cany out a press- 
ing agenda of social and ecunomic in- 
forms and invigorate Europe’s biggest 
nation for the challenges of the 2lst 
century. 

With joblessness reaching 'levels not 
seen since Adolf Hitler rose to power in 
1933, the Social Democrats are con- 
fident they can deliver a more con- 
vincing message of hope than Mr. 
Kohl's Christian Democrats. After this 
year’s successes by' 'Britain’s New La- 
bour and France’s Socialists, the Ger- 
man left thinks the electoral tide in 
Europe has turned and its own moment 
of triumph cannot be far behind. 

But the path back to power is strewn 
with tricky obstacles, not least those of 
the party’s own making. The Social 
Democrats have always been tom be- 
tween ideological purists and moderate 
pragmatists. The emotional debate is 
gathering new intensity ahead of a fate- 
ful decision in April as to who will be the 
party’s candidate for chancellor its left- 
leaning leader Oskar Lafontaine or the 
charismatic pro-business prime minister 
of Lower Saxony, Gerhard Schroeder. 

Opinion polls show that Mr. 
Schroeder enjoys broad support among 
voters and would easily defeat Mr. Kohl 
in a head-to-head race while Mr. La- 
fontaine would come up shore. Mr. 
Schroeder wants to encourage greater 
economic innovation, which has won 


strong endorsement from the entrepre- 
neurial class. But his centrist views re- 


Mr. Lafontaine has already won great 
admiration within the partyfor restoring 
a sense of relative harmony and dis- 
cipline. In contrast to Mr. Schroeder. he 
represents the party’s traditional back- 
ing for greater income distribution and 
other labor interests. He has consis- 
tently advocated higher wages and 
shorter working weeks. 

Mr. Schroeder has declared he will 
not run for chancellor if tus share of the 
vote slips by more than two percent in 
next March’s state elections. Party 
strategists .say the decision to postpone 
the choice of candidates until after the 
Lower Saxony vote allows Mr. 
Schroeder to test his support and pre- 
vents Mr. Kohl from targeting his future 
foe. But die delay also risks inflaming 
tiie .personal rivalry between Mr. 
Schroeder and Mr. Lafontaine. 

While both have struggled to keep 
their relationship on an amicable basis, 
they cannot conceal their fiercely com- 
petitive ambitions to win the top job. 
Mr. Lafontaine lost the 1990 elections 
just' as Mr. Kohl was reaping the div- 
idends of steering Germany toward re- 
unification. He also suffered a near-fatal 
stabbing by a deranged attacker, that all 
but ended his campaign. Now that his 
health is restored and Mr. Kohl appears 
vulnerable, Mr. Lafontaine’s friends say 
he feels a special destiny to lead his 
party back to national power in 1998. 

But Mr. Schroeder is equally deter- 
mined to become chancellor and take the 
country, along with his party, in a new 
direction. He eagerly invites compar- 
isons wi fo Britain 's Prime Minister Tony 
Blair with his plans to revamp Social 
Democratic policies by emphasizing 
new technologies and discarding Marx- 
ist principles. While critics question 
whether he can ever control the party’s 
inveterate leftists, Mr. Schroeder and his 
allies .insist the Social Democrats have 


no hope of expanding their appeal and 
winning the election without his blend of 
•persoffitf charm and centrist vision. 

While Mr. Kohl and his center-right 
ruling coalition have been weakened by 
their failure to make any headway in 
solving the unemployment crisis, the 
Social Democrats will have a hard time 
escaping a measure of blame regardless 
of who becomes their candidate. They 
control a majority of the 16 state gov- 
ernments and the upper house of Par- 
liament known as the Bundesrai. and 
they have used that clout to block tax- 
and pension reforms that Mr. Kohl's* 1 
government has been trying to enact. 

T HE tactical decision to thwart 
the passage of reforms ahead of 
next year's election has also 
contributed to tensions be- 
tween Mr. Lafontaine and Mr. 
Schroeder. As party leader. Mr. La- 
fontaine is loathe to concede any leg- 
islative breakthrough to Mr. Kohl that 
he could trumpet during the campaign. 
But Mr. Schroeder believes that unless 
the Social Democrats display greater 
cooperation in addressing the nation's 
problems they could become victims of 
a voter backlash. 

The different visions they represent- ^ 
ed also extend to their preferred gov -#' , 
eming partners. Mr. Lafontaine seems" 
most comfortable with a “red-green" 
tandem that would link the Social 
Democrats with the environmentalist 
Greens, who could displace Mr. Kohl's 
junior partner, the Free Democrats, as 
the country's third largest party. 

Mr. Schroeder seems more attracted lo 
a “grand coalition" with die Christian 
Democrats. But Mr. Kohl has given no- 
tice thar he would withdraw from politics 
rather than govern with the Social Demo- 
crats, leaving his party's leadership to his 
anointed heir. Wolfgang Schaeuble. - 

fflLLLtM DROZDIAK is Central 
Europe correspondent for The Wash- 
ington Post 


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Continued from Page 19 

benefits. Since then, the unions have 
joined forces with the opposition and 
social activists in rejecting further 
changes in' social benefits. 

Globalization — the in visible hand of 
1990s economics — has been partic- 
ularly brutal in reunified Germany. As 
Eastern Germany snuggles to make the 
same transition as other former Com- 
munist economies like Poland and Hun- 
gary, Western Germany smiggjesito ad- 
apt its West European socialmodeL 
. Unification stretched Western Ger- 
many's social net to its. limits by ex- 
tending social benefitsito the 18 million 
Easterners. That hastened Bonn’s fiscal 
crisis. Without the costs of Eastern Ger- 
many, foe Finance Ministry reckons that' 
Germany would be Europe’s .leanest 
and best-managed economy, at least ac- 
cording to foe European Union’s strict 
budget benchmarks for foe single cur- 
rency. Germany’s deficit would amount 
to only 2 percent of gross domestic 
product. Germany and other EU nations 


are expected to overshoot foe EU's 3 
percent deficit-to-GDP ratio. 

Waves -of mass layoffs since 1993 
have been an embarrassment to Mr. 
Kohl, who has tried to tackle foe na- 
tion’s joblessness, already at postwar 
record levels above foui million. The 
number of unemployed is expected to 
approach or exceed five million this 
Winter, economists say. Mr. Kohl’s crit- 
ics question how Germany can adapt to 
foe global economy if it cannot create 
jobs. 

Germany has lapsed into crisis, ac- 
cording to its president, Roman Herzog. 
Last May, he said Germany faced its 
“biggest challenge in 50 years” and 
needed a “jolt” to free itself from a 
cycle of "resignation, blocked reforms 
and lost economic dynamism." 

Voters wonder whether Mr. Kohl will 
enjoy any greater success- if next year’s 
elections return foe same, parties to their 
current roles of government and op- 
position, Mr. Spaeth said. 

On foe left, can foe opposition Social 
Democrats do any better? So far, signals 
are mixed. The obvious alternative to 


Mr. Kohl would be a left-leaning co- 
alition led by the Social Democrats. 
However, the Social Democrats them- 
selves are split over any structural re- 
forms, with a pro-union camp led by 
Oskar Lafontaine that has led the block- 
ade against Mr. Kohl and a pro-reform 
camp headed by Gerhard Schroeder. 

A victory for Mr. Kohl’s center-right 
alliance — his Christian Democratic 
Party, the Bavarian Christian Social Un- 
ion and foe small Free Democratic Party 
— would be record-setring. Having out- 
served his mentor, postwar Chancellor 
Konrad Adenauer, Mr. Kohl hopes to ■ 
break Bismarck’s 19-year record, at- 
tamable for Mr. Kohl in October 2001. 

But his future is tied to foe survival of 
the Free Democratic Party, foe pro-busi- 
ness junior coalition partners that are 
struggUng to meet foe 5 percent min- 
unum for representation in Parliament. 

1 net act that so few voters support the u. 
Free Democrats is seen bv some as v 
uirtlter evidence that Germans want to 
avoid necessary restructuring. 

* a cSan Se. then who do I vote 

for? Who? asked Mr. Spaeth. 


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Sports 


PAGE 24 


TUESDAY, DECEMBER 9, 19*7 


World Roundup 


; ;; "■ v ; 

K. . .* . .J ' ■>. -I'.:', r.... 

r* a. ”"v. •. 


Hooper Hits Out 


cricket Pakistan moved to the 
brink of victoiy Monday on the third 
day of the third test against the West 
Indies in Karachi At the close, the 
visitors were on 19S runs for seven 
wickets in their second innings and 
still needed three runs to make 
Pakistan bat again. Cart Hooper 
made 106 off just 80 balls for the 
West Indies, but only Brian Lara, 
with a resolute 37, offered any sup- 



Punks of the Slopes 
Search for Respect 


„ |(M» 

Mil*’ ‘ .1 

'j (, r 

'r‘ . 

■jw* 


Snowboarders Are Heading for the Olympics 


kyx:- i.». s •v'/'Jwi'ii. 


By Amy Shipley 

Washington PoB Service 


C Pakistani off-spinner Saqlarn 
htaq took four wickets. 


Musbtaq took four wickets. 

Earlier in the day, Pakistan lost 
its last nine wickets for 90 runs as it 
made 417 in its first innings to cake 
a 201-run lead. (AP) 








A Black and White Issue 


BASKETBALL The agent for the 
suspended All-Star Latrell Sprewell 
said he thought race might have 
been a factor in the confrontation 
between the player and PJ. Car- 
les imo, the Golden State coach. 

Am Tellem said on ABC tele- 
vision Sunday: “I think when you 
look at it, I don't think the issue of 
race can be ignored. I think that’s 
the best way to answer. I think it 
must be looked into.” 

However, Billy Hunter, execu- 
tive director of the players union, 
said on NBC: ”1 don't think that 
that's the issue at all” 

Sprewell who is black, was sus- 
pended by the NBA for one year 
after attacking Carlesimo. (AP) 




• W 

s 




CUd&o hfi/Hcvto 

Snowboarders like these practicing in Sestriere, Italy, at the World Cup are preparing to descend on Japan. 


S ALT LAKE CITY — Todd 
Richards’s bleached hair shoots up 
like sturdy blades of short grass. 
He is wearing sleek, aerodynamic 
sunglasses in a hotel conference room 
illuminated by artificial light Richards i£ 
a prospective 1998 Winter Games ath- 
lete in snowboarding, a sport making its 
Olympic debut, and he has a message 
about acceptance. 

For years, Richards and his fellow 
snowboarders were treated like inter- 
lopers on the slopes. Frequently per- 
ceived as daredevil adolescents who 
posed a threat to skiers, snowboarders 
were barred from most ski areas in the 
early 1980s. They are still barred from a 
handful of resorts. 

We have been on this crazy quest for 
legitimac y for so long,” said Richards, 
27, the 1997 U.S. Open winner in free- 
style. 4 The Olympics axe going to bring 
a legitimacy into this sport like no one 
can comprehend. I'm still as much of a 


Hot Cavaliers Break Lakers 9 Streak 


Anderson Stays Pol 


baseball Brady Anderson, Paul 
Molitor and Gary Gaetti were 
among 10 free agents who stayed 
with their teams S unda y, agreeing to 
contracts before the midnight dead- 
line to offer players arbitration. 

Anderson and Baltimore agreed 
to a S3 1 million, five-year contract 
Molitor, 41, agreed just before the 
deadline to a $4.15 million one- 
year contract with Minnesota. 
Gaetti, a 39-year-old third base- 
man. agreed to a $1 million, one- 
year contract with St. Louis. 

Arizona signed a free-agent 
pitcher, Willie Blair, to a $11.5 mil- 
lion, three-year contract Blair was 
16-8 last season for Detroit. (AP) 


The Associated Press 

The Cleveland Cavaliers withstood a 
furious fourth quarter assault in Los 
Angeles to end die Lakers unbeaten 
home streak while extending their own 
winning run to eight games. 

Wesley Person scored 22' points for 
Cleveland on Sunday night as it beat die 




Lakers, 94-84. Los Angeles had not lost 
at home this season. 

Kobe Bryant almost brought the 
Lakers back, scoring 14 of his 21 points 
in the first six minutes of die fourth 
quarter as Los Angeles cut into a 19- 
point deficit Eddie Jones made two free 
throws to cut Cleveland's lead to 83-79 


a three-game losing streak. 

Allan Houston scored 27 points for 
the Knicks, who have lost three of their 
last four and four straight road games. 

Pistons 93, Raptors B3 Reserve 
Jerome W illiams had 20 points and 11 
rebounds as Detroit snapped a four- 
game road losing streak. 

John Wallace scored 23 points for the 
Raptors, who extended their franchise- 
recoid losing streak to 16 games. 

Bucks 97, SvporSonics 91 Terrell 
Brandon, who came to the Bucks in a 


three-way trade that sent Vin Baker to 
Seattle, scored 20 points and the Bucks 
overcame Baker’s 29 points on his re- 
turn to Milwaukee. 

Nuggets 100 , Cfippcn B 2 In Denver, 
LaPhonso Ellis scored 21 points, and die 
Nuggets ontscored Los Angeles 30-14 
in the final period and won for only the 
second time in 17 games. 

Kings 99, Warriors 94 In Sacramento, 

Mitch Richmond and Corliss William- 
son each scored 24 points as the Kings 
snapped a six-game losing streak. 


dork as fve always been, yet I'm going 
to be at the Olympics.” 

Snowboarding gets under way in 
Nagano on Feb. 7, the second day of 
competition. An air of vindication hov- 
ers as Richards and Mike Jacoby, Son- 
dra Van Ert and lisa Kosglow discuss 
their sport, which was bom in 1965, 
when a man named Sherman Poppen 
fastened two pairs of skis together for 
his children to surf on die snow. He 
called the contraption a Snurf. 

Many snowboarders consider skiing 
the stuffy uncle to their sport, and sports 
such as the biathlon even more dreary. 

‘‘With no disrespect to any Other 
sport in the Winter Olympics,” Kos- 
glow, 24, said, “I think snowboarding 


will liven things up a bit.” 

Snowboarding can best be describes 
as a cross between surfing and skate!* 1 
boarding, with the difference dint snow, 
boarders wear boots that clamp sccungy 
to their boards. Olympic competition in 
snowboarding will feature both an alpine 
event — giant slalom — and a freestyle 
event — the halfpipe competition. - 
Giant slalom involves racing down a 
course for speed. Halfpipe refers to. a 
giant snow trough that launches skiers 
into the air, the skiers are judged on the 
acrobatic maneuvers they perform. - 
“The freestyle parr of snowboarding 
I know draws a lot of skateboarders.’ 
Richards said. ‘‘We’ve integrated the 
skateboard style into the freestyle aspect 
of it.” • 

Snowboarding appeals to a young, 
largely male audience that also enjoys 
mountain h iking . A computer poll of 
16,000 snowboarders showed 83 per- ■: 
cent were male and 84 percent were 12 
to 24 years old, said Lee Crane, editorof 
SOUSnowboarding Online. Ninety 
percent are single and 48 percent also 
take part in mountain biking, he said. 

4 'Skiing has always been a rich kid’s 
sport,” Kosglow said. “You get a more 
urban group of kids coming to the 
mountains” to snowboard. 

“I don't see snowboarding overtak- 
ing skiing,'* Richards said. “It's such 
the alternative thing. ' ’ 

Van Erf, 33, last year’s International 
Ski Federation giant slalom snowboard- 


t- 


it 






ing world champion, is a former mem- 
ber of the U.S. alpine ski team. ‘ 
“Being a world class skier,” she 
said, “all you do is eat, drink and sle€p 
skiing.” The lifestyle lost its appeal so , 
Van Ert quit skiing and went to the)' ; 
University of Utah for a degree in fi- ‘ 
nance. When she graduated, she dis- 
covered snowboarding. 

Kosglow, the '97 International 
Snowboard Federation world champi- 
onship silver medalist in giant slalom, 
got her scan in the sport nine years ago 
by mounting a snowboard with tennis 
shoes. Painful falls marked her first few 
days, but she was hooked anyway. 

Last year, Americans won eight of 39 
medals at the FIS and ISF world cham- 
pionships. 

The dominant snowboarder, however, 
is the halfpipe specialist Terje Haakon- 
sen of Norway. whottY 'CJthar Tiders dis- 
cuss in hushed tones. He is considered the 
runaway gold medal favorite in toe men's 
halfpipe, but Richards finished just be- 
hind him at the ’97 ISF world cham- 
pionships. Powers won toe 1996 halfpipe 
world championships on the FIS tour. • 
Whatever happens, you can bet that 
the Americans will enjoy their ride. ; 

“I still don’t really consider ita job,” 
Richards said. “I get up every day ai& ' 
all I want to do is go snowboard. ’ * 


With Luck, the Referee Will Be From Iraq 


Devils Trade Top Scorer 


ice hockey John MacLean. the 
New Jersey Devils’ career points 
leader, joined toe San Jose Shades in 
a four-player trade. MacLean. who 
requested a trade, had 347 goals and 
354 assists in 15 seasons with toe 
Devils. San Jose also obtained de- 
fenseman Ken Sutton in return for 
defenseman Doug Bodger and wing 
Dody Wood. (AP) 


with 2:18 left before Person hit a clutch 
3-pointer. 

paean 99, Sun 97 Indiana extended 
its w inning streak to six when Reggie 
Miller hit a baseline jumper at the over- 
time buzzer for vic toiy in Phoenix. 
r * ‘ I always HKfto silence the crowd on 
the road,” Miller said. “That’s what 
separates the good players from the 
great players. It was me against 19,000 
people screaming and clapping. When I 
hit the shot, it was so quiet” 

Miller, who did not score in the first 
half, finished with 19 points as Indiana 
woo its fifth straight on the toad on 
coach Larry Bird's 41st birthday. 

79ats 93, Kmcfcs 78 In Philadelphia, 
Allen Iverson scored 27 points and Jerry 
Stackhouse scored 20 as the 76ers ended 


Los Angeles Times Service 

It’s more than six months before the 
United States plays Iran in the World 
Cup, in Lyon on June 21, but already 
the two sides are warming up. 

Hank Steinbrecher, U.S. Soccer’s 
executive" "director, ' foaddled his 
Middle East adversaries when he re- 
ferred to it as “the mother of all 


games. 

The U.S. and Iran have had strained 
relations ever since toe Islamic Rev- 
olution and subsequent hostage crisis 
almost two decades ago. 

“When we got Iran,” said U.S. 
midfielder Claudio Reyna, ‘ ‘it kind of 
gave us more hope, in all honesty, 
because we needed a team we felt we 


could definitely beat” 

Countered Akbar Torkan, head of 
toe Iranian Wrestling Association and 
a former government minister: “The 
level of U.5. soccer is not ata level that 
we could lose to toon.” 

’ Others are frying fo calm the *nr : 
ters. 

“The meaning of FIFA ispeaceand 
unity,” said Darius Mostafavi, pres- 
ident of Iran ’s soccer federation. “We 


are thinking only of soccer, not pol- 
itics. We are friends of the people of 


itics. We are friends of the people of 
the USA.” 

Which prompted Alan Rothenbeig, 
president of UJS. Soccer, to add, 
“Maybe we can have soccer diplo- 
macy like we had Ping-Pong diplo- 


macy with China.” 

4 ‘For Iran to beat the U.S. would be 
like winning the World Cup.” said 
Alexi Lulas, a defender in toe U.S. 
team. “Soccer and toe World Cup 
reflects a nation's personality and his- 
■ tojry, something that will be seta dor- 1 ' 
ing the game. And that’s what toe 
World Cup is all about. It will show 
that we can put politics aside and play 
a good and fair game.” 

“At toe World Cap, we will get 
what is pur right, and help our nation 
hold its head up high,” said Ali Dale, 
one of Iran's most dangerous strikers. 

“Hie only thing missing is if FIFA 
assigns an Iraqi referee,” said Rothen- 
berg. 


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The Associated Press 

The Edmonton Oilers scared on three 

Hackett but toad to settle a tie against 
toe struggling Blackhawks in Chicago. 

Sunday night’s game ended 3-3 after 
Andrei Kovalenko, whose goal for Ed- 
monton at 7:49 of toe second period tied 
the game, hit a post at 2:10 of overtime. 

“Inconsistency, that’s why we’re be- 
low .500,“ said Chris Chelios, the 
Blackhawks captain. “Some nights we 
can beat anybody. Some nights we 
couldn't beat a minor league team.” 

Eric Daze, who has bear inconsistent 
in his third NHL season, broke through 
for his eighth and ninth goals of the 
seasom 11 k Blackhawks also got a timely 


tally from defenseman Keith Carney. 

But the Oilers although outshot 29- 
22, had the better scoring chances as the 
game progressed. 

“I was surprised we played as well as 
we did,” said Edmonton coach Ron 


NHL Robndbb 


Low, whose team played its fifth game 
in eight nights. “I thoaght we had quite 
a bit of jump. 

“F m surprised we generated so many 
scoring chances tonight We had a load 
of thhm, the most in two weeks. ” 

Greg DeVries opened the scoring 
with a screened power-play goal at 4:15 
of the first period. But goals by Daze 


and Carney 43 seconds apart gaye 
Chicago a 2-1 lead after 20 minutes. * 

Mats Lindgren made it 2-2 at 2:06 of 
the second period on just the Oilecs* 
seventh shot 

Daze’s second goal, a power-play 
goalmouth tip-in, gave Chicago a 3-2 
lead at 6:19 just 90 seconds before Ko- 
valenko tied it up again. 

Panriwfi s. Capit al* 4 In Miami, both 
Steve Washburn and Dave Gagner, 
scored twice in Florida's victory. Join#/ 
Vanbiesbrouck had 24 saves to move 


f-- 

■Ti-v. -V 


I A VI 


[ ;Tf qt* 


past Mike Liut into 15 th place in NHL 
career victories with 29^ It was only 
Florida’s second victory since general 
manager Bryan Murray replaced Doug 
MacLean as coach Nov. 24. 


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PAGE 25 


4 


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Giants Join 
Usual Crowd 
In Race for 
Playoff Spot 

Tlie Associated Press 

. The NFL playoff picture is co ming 
into sharper focus as the old standbys 
Green Bay, Pittsburgh and Kansas City 
and, yes, even the upstart New York 
^Giants, took giant steps in Week 15. 

The defending Super Bowl champion 
Packers clinched their third straightNFC 
■Central title Sunday with a victory over 
iTampa Bay. Pittsburgh is on die verge of 

NFL Roundup 



Bowls Filled With Muddy Water 

A National Championship Game Still Eludes the Alliance 


'its fifth AFC Central crown in six years 
■after besting Denver. 

• The Broncos’ loss and the Chiefs’ root 
‘of Oakland put Kansas City intn a tie 
with Denver for first in the AFC West 
; The Giants, who won at Philadelphia 
on Sunday, would clinch the NFC East 
.with a victory at home against Wash- 
"Higton on Saturday, regardless of how 
defending champion Dallas finishes. 

'■ StMiart 35, Broncos 24 Kordell 
■ Stewart of Pittsburgh threw three touch- 
‘ ‘down passes to Yancey Thigpen in the 
P first half and ran for two scores. 

' I Suits at, Eagles 21 Tiki Barber ran 
'.for 1 14 yards in relief of Tyrone Wheat- 
ley. and Danny Kartell threw three 
•touchdown passes for die Giants. The 
Giants' defense had three interceptions, - 
-two fumble recoveries and four sacks. 

• * Redskins 38, CanHnals 28 Jeff 
.Hostetler threw for 226 yards and three 
touchdowns in his first start in relief of 
-Gus Frerotte. Brian Mitchell returned a 
.punt 63 yards for a score and Cris Dish- 
man scored on a 29-yard interception 
; return as Washington stayed a game 
behind the Giants in the NFC East. 


Lmiqi l^ntM/Tbr 4**onalnJ Hvm 

San Diego’s John ParreQa taking out Atlanta quarterback Chris Chandler. 


P a triotn 28 , j a g u a r * ao Drew Bledsoe 
was 26-of-35 for 234 yards and two 
touchdowns, with no interceptions, as 
the Patriots stayed tied for first with 
Miami in the AFC East Before a record 
crowd of 73,466, the Jaguars lost for the 
first time in 13 borne games. 

Dolphins 34, Lions 31 Dan Marino 
threw for 310 yards and two touch- 
downs and set up Olindo Mare’s game- 
winning 42-yard field goal at Miami. 

Colts 22 , J«ts 14 Marshall Faulk ran 
for' a season-high 133 yards and In- 
dianapolis bad a season-high eight sacks 
as it won for the eighth time in nine 
games on the road. 

48a rs 28 , votings ir Steve Young 
threw for two touchdowns and ran for a 
third as the 49ers finally beat a team 
with a winning record. 

Ravens 31, Soahawks 24 Jermaine 
Lewis returned punts 89 and 66 yards 
for touchdowns in the second quarter 
and later caught a 29-yard scoring pass 
from Eric Zeier for the Ravens, who 
broke a five-game winless streak. 


Falcons 14, Chargors 3 In San Diego, 
the rookie Byron Hanspard returned the 
second-half kickoff 99 yards for a 
touchdown as the Falcons increased 
their winning streak to four. 

B«m 20 , Bills 3 Erik Kramer passed 
for 270 yards and two touchdowns, as 
Buffalo could not manage a touchdown 
against the porous Chicago defense. 

Rams 34, S a ints 27 Tony Banks en- 
gineered three fourth-quarter touch- 
down drives, two of them concluding 
with passes to Isaac Bruce, as the Rams 
overcame a 27 - 1 3 deficit 

In gomes reported in late editions 
Monday: 

Chiefs 30, Raiders oRicb Gannon, the 
Kansas City quarterback, ran for a 
touchdown ana threw for another, wi- 
ring his record to 4-1 in relief of 
; Grbac. 

Packers 17, Sues 8 In Tampa, Brett 
Favre threw two TD passes to become 
die first quarterback in NFL history to 
throw for 30 touchdowns in four con- 
secutive seasons. 


By Steve Berko witz 

Washington Post Sen-ice 

The Orange Bowl officials 
knew they would not be able 
to match the nation’s two top- 
ranked college football 
teams, so they held their 
breath until the final regular 
season polls were released, 
then selected solidly No. 2 
Nebraska and barely No. 3 
Tennessee to play Jan. 2 at 
Pro Player Stadium in 

Miami. 

Within hours, Keith 
Tribble, the Orange Bowl ex- 
ecutive director, was saying 
that even if No. 1 Michigan 
beats No. 8 Washington State 
in the Rose Bowl on Jan. 1, 
the winner of his game “of 
course” should be voted a 
share of the national cham- 
pionship. 

‘‘We’re h illin g this as the 
aHianr** nati onal champion- 
ship, which it is, ” Tribble said. 
“Obviously if Michigan loses, 
it becomes die national cham- 
pionship. If they win, we’re 
hoping for a split in the polls. 
We’re proceeding as if it’s a 
championship-type game.” 

As the rest of the bowl 
matchups fell into place Sun- 
day evening, there was plenty 
for everyone in college foot- 
ball to disagree about. 

For openers, there were the 
selections made by officials 
from the other two games in 
the Bowl Alliance once the 
Orange Bowl had exercised its 
privilege of taking the top two 
teams available. (The Pacific- 
10 and Big Ten conferences 
send their champions to die 
Rose Bowl, but will join the 


Schedule of College Bowl Games 

8ATUTOAV.DEC.2B 

uKorrr«owL 

LAS no AS BOWL 

At Memphis Tenn. 

Air Fores (10-2) w Oregon [6-5),6pJO. 

P31 (6-5) vs. S. Miss. [8-3), MOpjn. 

TWftSDAV.KC.3S 

FIESTA BOWL 

BLU 1-OKAY CLASSIC 

At Tempo Artz. 

AtMontomnery, Aio. 

Ken. St. (181) vs. Syracuse 19-3), 7 pjn. 

Blue w. Gray, Noon 

THURSDAY. JAN. 1 

4IOUIOWL 

OOnACKBOWL 

Ai Honolulu 

AlTompaFto. 

Mfchkxn St O-C vs. Wash. (7-41, 130 pJh. 

Wisconsin (84) vs. Georgia (9-2), ) l a jtl 

FnOAV.DEC.2S 

OATDCAOWL 

Moiaiarrtowi 

At Jadrsonvlfift Fla. 

At Pontiac. Mkh. 

N. CoroL no-l) VS. Va Tech {76). 12:30. 

Marshall no-23 vs. Miss. (7-41, 8 pja. 

emus bowl 


AtOftontift Fla. 

Hmnoieowi 

Perm State (9-2) ve. Florida (9-2), 1 pjn. 

At Atlanta 

COTTON BOWL 

South Confirm SL (9-2) vs. Southern (10-1), 

At Dallas 

fttt pm. 

Tex. A&M (9-3) vs. UCLA (9-2). 130 pjn. 

nuwitMoN 10 m 

Ron BOWL 


At Pasadena, Coflf. 

Arizona (4-59 vs. N. Mexico (9-3), 8 pjn. 

Midi (11-0) vs. Wash. SL (181), 5. p m. 


9WOABBOWL 


At New Orleans 

At Shreveport La. 

Ftondo SL DD-D vs. Orta SL (1 0-2), 8 p.m. 

LSU CB-31 vs. Notre Dame (7-5), Bpra. 

FIUDAV. JAN. S 

HON DAY, DEC. 29 

PUCK BOWL 


At Atlanta 

At Boise, Idaho 

Clemson (76) vs. Auburn (9-3). 3 pjn. 

Utah SL (4-5) vs. Gnd- D-4), ft30 pm. 

OBJUIBB BOWL 

unouriowi 


At Miami 

NeamsVa (12-01 vs. Tenn (ll-l).Bp.m. 

G«arg.Tedi(4-5)vs.W. Vo. !7-0.7JOpjTV. 

BATUROAV.JAN.1D 

HOUDZTIOin 

IAT-WLST wizna tunc 

Ai Son Diego 

AtStontonLCaCf. 

Missouri (7-4) vs. Colo. SL (10-2). B pm. 

East vs. West 4 p.m. 

TUESDAY. DEC 30 

SATURDAY, JAN. 17 

MAMOIOWL 

MNIOl BOWL 

At San Antonio 

At Mohfle. Ala. 

Okla SL (83) vs. Purtve (8-3). B p jil 

North vs. South. 2i30 pjn. 

WEDNESDAY. DEC. Jl 

SUNDAY. JAN. IS 

KHtlOWl 

HULA BOWL 

At El Posts Texas 

At Woiluku, Maui 

Arizona State (B-3) vs. Iowa (76), 2 pjn. 

Southvs.Morth.4pjn. 


Bowl Alliance next season. ) 
The Sugar Bowl chose No. 
4 Florida State and No. 9 Ohio 
State. The Fiesta Bowl chose 
No. 10 Kansas State and No. 
14 Syracuse. Like the Orange 
Bowl, those games will pay 
each participating school be- 
tween $8 million and $8.5 
million, money the schools 
will share with the other uni- 
versities in their conferences. 


The Bowl Alliance in- 
cludes the champions of the 
Atlantic Coast, Big East. Big 
12 and Southeastern confer- 
ences: that accounts for the 
Seminoles, Orangemen, 
Comhuskers and Volunteers. 
The alliance also allows two 
at-large selections: these were 
Ohio Stare (10-2) and Kansas 
State (10-1) leaving No. 5 
UCLA (9-2) and No. 7 North 


Carolina (10-1) unhappy. The 
Bruins will play Texas A&M 
in the Cotton Bowl. 

Dick Baddour. the North 
Carolina athletic director, 
said the Tar Heels were 
“pleased and excited” to be 
going to the Gaior Bowl, 
which matches teams from 
the ACC and Big East. But, a 
North Carolina spokesman 
said: “It's disappointing 
when you’re 10-1 and ranked 
as high as fifth in the country 
and you’re not going to the 
alliance, and there’s another 
team that’s 10-1 and ranked 
lower than you that is.” 

Paul Hoolahan, the Sugar 
Bowl executive direcror, Mid 
his game's choice came down 
to what he called “the six 
R's” — records, rankings, po- 
tential television ratings, re- 
warding deserving reams, 
avoiding a rematch of a reg- 
ular season game, and reven- 
ue. “Then you have to weight 
those variables,’ ' he said. Sev- 
eral of Hoolahan 's variables 
were in North Carolina's and 
UCLA's favor. But Kansas 
State had more than 40,000 
fans at last season's Cotton 
Bowl, and Ohio State is a na- 
tional television favorite. 

“We got selected for an 
alliance bowl over a couple of 
teams that were ranked high- 
er,” said Andy Geiger, Ohio 
State ’s athletic director. ‘ ‘Not 
everybody will be pleased.” 

Pac- 1 0 officials had offered 
to use as much as $4 million of 
their Sugar Bowl revenue to 
help subsidize the cost of a trip 
to New Orleans for UCLA 
fans. It wasn't enough to entice 
the bowl to take the Bruins. 


mj- 


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Scoreboard 


BASKETBALL 


NBA Sr*Httiwas 

■ACTUM (OHRUa 

ATLANTIC mvmoN 






Blwkliiwk: 


f 

W 

L 

Pd 

Gfl 

Miami 

driamto 

12 

13 

5 

7 

.706 

650 

to 

New Jersey 

11 

7 

All 

1» 

^ New York 

11 

8 

579 

2 

Washington 

8 

11 

621 

5 

.Boston 

7 

11 

J89 

5V, 

, PhBadetphto 

5 

11 

JI3 

4to 

CEMVRAL MvmoN 


AHanto 

15 

3 

-833 

— 

'Cievetand 

12 

6 

667 

3 

Indiana 

11 

6 

■647 

3to 

Chicago 

11 

7 

611 

4 

Cnartottr 

10 

7 

-588 


Milwaukee. 


8 

-579 

4V5 

■ Detroit „ 

-■ '-'i 

12 

600 

8 

-Toronto 


18 

.053 

wa 

- huctb* eowenmci 


■nwEXTomtaON 



*i 

w 

L 

Pd 

GB 

r Houston 

n 

5 

688 

— 

ttfah 

n 

7 

611 

1 

Son Antonia 

10 

9 

526 

VA 

Minnesota 

8 

10 

644 

4 

Vancouver 

7 

13 

J50 

6 

* Dates 

5 

13 

278 

7 

Denver 

7 

15 

.7)8 

9*4 

i _ 

mane DmsiON 

833 


LA. Lotam 

15 

3 

1 

Seattle 

Phorniv 

15 

5 

J50 

11 

5 

688 

3 

oDprtkmd 

11 

4 

647 

3 to 

PSociamerto 

6 

14 

J00 

10 

LA Clippers 

3 

16 

.158 

12 !v 

Goktoti State 

2 

15 

.118 

12to 

MMBAY'B BBMWH 


Datntt 

23 

25 

18 27 

— 93 

Tnrenlo 

28 

22 

26 15-83 


14; P:hrerer»M67-8 27. Stackhouse 7-155- 

5 20. IMiiwOt Nw Yort 51 (Qakky 8), 
Ptdoddphki 47 (Weattttispoan 9). A»fc^ 
—New York IS (Wort 8, PModelpMo 26 
(Jocksoa htisofl 7). 

Scat** 0 21 22 20-71 

MRmofeM 18 M » 74-77 

S: BoWr 12-23 5-7 29, Payton 5-17 M 1ft 
M: Men 7-17 2-3 20. Brandon 8-19 44 20. 
Roftomctt— Sealfe 45 (Baker II), MB- 
wmitae 53 (Johnson 14). Asristo-Seaffle 16 
(Payton Si. AlUhn«rieefr22 (Brandon 13). 
(msutt 24 12 76 14 9— 77 

PtMMix 23 II 26 23 7- 77 

I: Minor B-20 1-3 17, Srattt 5-18 LA 16; P-. 
Manning 11-71 3-7 25. McOood 7-17 (M> 1& 
RobeuNtt— Inflcaia 60 (ODmfe ID, 

Phoenix 61 (MatmtaiB m. AMfctt-Urttano 
26 thxdaoa 10. Phoe«ik26 (Kidd 12). 
LA-CBspoO 8 8 8 14-72 

Oeovor 34 17 17 31-100 

LA CUPPERS: Rogers 6-12 46 Ift 
PtafltowsU 7-17 CWJ lftO Efts 0-15 M 2L 
Jaqaon 7-143-4 17. R oDooo di L oeAixnaco 
51 (Vronimic O Donrar 57 Uadscn 91. 
Atristt-Los Aagofts 16 (Rkhanmn 71 
Demw 18 (Em. JadMi*}. 

Cotdoa State 17 18 24 23- M 

SuaraMlo 73 16 30 30-97 

Vi SfflM) 9-304824 Dflfflpter 7-11 4-7 1ft 

6 wntaman 7-13 10-1324 Rkhmond 7-15 

10-11 24 l tatammh -Grtdon Stale 66 
(ManhoB IQ. Soaanoata 59 (PolynkBlS). 
Antata-GaMon State 20 (Show ft. 
Soaranento 18 (Rktanend Johnson 4. . 
CtOWtalrt 76 22 20 18-74 

ULLrttm IS 26 16 77— 8* 

C: Penon 8-14 M 22, Hendeooa S9 4-6 
Us LA LAKERS: Biyaitf 5-15 M0 2), 
CampbaB 4-8 56 11 Ro b o un dx Cteratairt 
58 (Kemp 13). Lm Angeto 54 <Hony 1«. 
Aulsta— dwraiand 17 (Krttfd 7), La» 
Angeles 16 {VtanExrt. 


N.Y.Jeta 

Bofialo 

lndtanapoOs 

y- Pitta burgh 

JacfDonvtne 

Tennessee 

Bcftfmm 

Ondnnatt 

y-KBOasOty 
y-Defww 
Seattle 
Oakland 
San Diego 


8 6 0 
6 8 0 
212 0 
CEN77ML 

10 4 0 
9 5 0 
7 7 0 
5 8 1 

5 9 0 
WEST 

11 3 0 
11 3 0 

6 8 0 
410 0 
4 10 0 


-571 

429 

.143 

-714 

443 

-500 

393 

357 

.786 

J86 

-429 

-286 

386 


307 274 
220 316 
244 362 

342 270 
354 295 
298 283 
291 310 

308 367 

321 212 
417 250 
305 332 
294 377 
256 3S8 


TheAP Top 25 


Tha Top twenty R*e terns In The 
Associated Asm cottage football poft wM) 
fbst-placo votes In parentheses, records 
through Dec. 5, total points bssstl on 25 
polnta tar s first-ptac* vote through one 
point tar s 25ttvpiaee vote and previous 
ranking: 

Record 

11-0 


BAST 


N.Y. Giants 
Washington 
Philadelphia 

Do 9m 
Afttono : 

x-Green Bay 

TanpaBay 

Minnesota 

Ddrafl 

Chicago 

x-San Franduo 
Canffna 


pa 

I S 1 607 

7 6 1 -536 
6 7 1 -464 

6 . 7 O .462 
--3 11-0 -314 

CENTRAL 
11 3 0 
9 5 0 

8 6 0 

7 7 0 
311 0 


386 

443 

371 

300 

314 


PF PA 
257 248 
2S2 227 
268 317 
360 340 
244. 32S- 

360 251 
268 217 
302 317 
352 283 
235 380 


1. Michigan (691 

2. Nebraska (1) 
1 Tennessee 

4. Florida SL 

5. UCLA 

6. Florida 

7. North Conlino 
ftWtBMngtonSt. 

9. Ohio St. 

1 0. Kansas 51. 

11. Penn SL 
1Z Georgia 
13. Auburn 
-IkSyrtKiae .- 
15.LSU 

Arizona SL 


1241 

JM 

10-1 

9-2 

9- 2 

10- 1 
10-1 
10-2 
10-1 
7-2 
9-2 
9-3 

-7-3 

B-3 

B-3 


Pis Pvs 
1,749 1 

1381 
1370 
1336 
1386 
1-356 
1373 
1392 
1,246 
1.194 
974 
966 
952 
-775 
715 
610 


17. Purtue 

8-3 

578 

18 

1& Cotorado St. 

10-2 

510 

20 

19. Missouri 

76 

471 

19 

20. Texas A&M 

9-3 

440 

14 

21. Washington 

76 

304 

21 

22. Southern Miss. 

A3 

277 

22 

23. Air Force 

10-2 

216 

23 

24. Oktohomo SL 

B-3 

184 

24 

25. Michigan St. 

76 

140 

25 

Others receMng 

votes 

Iowa 

59, 


San Jose 

10 

18 

2 

22 

76 

93 

Roman Franca Pam 

69-7266-73-280 

Vancouver 

9 

16 

4 

22 

83 

99 

Miguel Guzman Arg. 

74-726469— 281 

Cotoory 

6 

18 

7 

19 

77 

99 

Jorge Berendt. Arg. 

74 71 66-70-281 

SUNDAY'S USULTS 



F. Mansson. Swe. 

69-4869-75— 2B 1 

Washington 




1 

2 

1-4 

Hong Kong Open 

Florida 




2 

2 

1—5 




Mississippi 45, MarshoO 44 Wisconsin 38. 
Virginia 37, Louisiana Tech 25, Ctemsan 16, 
Nahe Dane U Mtosfeslppi 5L 7, New 
Males 4 N. ConOna St. Z Miami, Ohio 1, 
Virginia Tech 1. 


ICE HOCKEY 


NHL Standings 


NewOrtaam 
SL Laois 


12 2 
6 7 
6 8 
5 9 
410 


357 332 210 
M2 214 240 
A29 274 31S 
357 197 27! 
356 259 328 


s-won division Wte 
jMffnched pkyaff berth 


i~ ?or. Mi- - • 

tt-' i 


L>;nw ri/ dw wiwwi» r— » * ■ ■ 

vranocr 11 -20 l-r 23. StaottamlrtM8 04) 21. 
Reb«i«»tf»-OeiraB 57 twmwms l lL Toronto 
36 CAMtcr 7). Assktfr-DetroB 25 <HH 5), 
Toronto 22 (Staudamiro 91. 

Now York » 17 18 23- 78 

.PMsMpMa » 23 22 19- 91 

■Nv-MmicSm ii-M 3.2 21 Starks 6-18 1-1 


NFL Standings 


EAST 

W L T Pet PF PA 
9 5 0 343 334 253 
9 5 0 343 227 272 


Chtatflo 2a Buffalo 3 

Pittsburgh 3& Den*w24 
Green Bay 17. Tampa Bay 6 
New England 26. Jadcssnvaie 20 
NewYorVOIonts31. PtiBodelphia 21 
Kansas CNy 3ft Oakland 0 
St Lode 34 New Orisons 27 
BcMmore 31. Seattle 24 
AttoataU SanD»ego3 
Indhinapaks 22, New Yotic Jds 14 
San Frartdsce 2& Mlmoorto 17 
Wmhington 3& Arizona 28 
Miami 3& Data* 30 


VBA announcement: 


Official complete-game videos 
ot NBA games are available by 
priority mail anywhere in the 
world. Four-hour videos cover 
the best two games ot your 
favorite team, week after 
week, throughout the season. 
Quality and personal service. 
20 games ot your team on to 
weekfy videos, anywhere in the 
world: SI 60. Special Offer 
mis week First video FREE 
Guaranteed. Afl Credit Cards. 
Footei NBA Videos 
Zurich, Switzerland 
Teb +41 1 202 0024 
Fax: +41 1 202 0031 
V www.ponte L co m j 


New Jersey 
Ptr&adetahkr 
Washington 
N.Y. I danders 
N.Y. Rangers 
Florida 
Tampa Bay 


Pittsburgh 

Montreal 

Barton 

Ottawa 

Carolina 

Buffalo 


Dallas 

Detroit 

SL Louis 

Phoonbi 

Chicago 

Toronto 


Colorado 


AtlANnC DIVISION 
■ W L T Pb 
19 9 0 
15 7 6 

15 11 4 

12 13 4 
I 12 II 
9 15 5 
5 19 4 

NORTHEAST OmSKDI 
W L T Pts 

16 10 
16 10 

13 12 
13 13 
12 14 

9 13 


CENTRAL DhnSKM 

W L T Pts 
20 7 4 44 

18 7 5 41 
18 9 3 37 
13 13 3 29 

10 14 5 25 

7 14 4 22 

PRCIHC DfVUBON 
W L T Pts 
16 6 8 40 
Los Angeles 12 12 5 27 

Anaheim 11 14 6 28 

Edmonton 9 IS 7 25 


GF GA 

82 51 
84 70 
90 80 

79 79 

80 86 

70 87 

54 95 

GF GA 
88 77 
90 71 

74 79 

78 72 

83 85 
72 77 


GF GA 
KB 67 
98 69 
89 68 
79 81 
63 74 

60 76 

GF GA 
92 75 
89 83 
70 88 

73 94 


Fkft Period: F-Gagner 12 (Nernirnvsky. 
Muller) Z F-Washhurr 5 [Whitney. 
Sheppard) (pp). 3. W-Zednlk 9 [Simon. 
Oates) Sacond Parted: F-Nemiravsky 5 
(WhOney. Johnson) 5. W-Junecu * (Simon. 
Doles) (pp). 6. W-. Zednft 10 (Huntec Minor) 
7, F-Gagner 13 (Dvorak, Mutter) TDM 
Pe riod : W-Toms 4 (TlncnOT 9. F-, Washburn 
6 (SheppanL Lous) Shots an gad: W-6-12- 
10—28. F- 11-66—23. Gostev W-Ronford. 
F-MmOfeshrouck. 

E tta r onto n 1 2 0 0—3 

CNcogo 2 1 0 0-3 

First Period: E-deVries 1 (Murray) (pp).2. 
C-Dare 8 (Moreou) X C -Carney 3 (Johnsaiv 
Araorte) Soeoad Period: E-Undgren 5 
(Berehowsky) 5, C-Dare 9 (Suter, CheOas) 
(po). . 6, E-Kovalenko 3 (McAmmoncL 
Murray) Tldnl Period: Nor*. Owrt mfe 
None. Shots on god: E-S- 11-60-22. C- 10- 
12-sG— 29. GotfeK E- Joseph. C-Hadwlt 


CRICKET 


Final Isadora Sunday In S350JHX) 
Andonen Consulting Hong Kang Open god 
tournament on Sjm-yard, par-71 Com- 
poatta Courao of Hong Kong Golf Club: 
Frank Nob&o. N. Zed. 67666668-267 
Kang Woo SoonS-Kor. 

Tim Straub, U.5. 

Lin Keng-ChL Taiwan 
Zhang Uan Wes China 
Lu Wen-lah Taivran 
Choi Own ng Soft S JCor. 

Jbn Rutledge, Canada 
Wayne Bradley, SAtr. 

Mike Cunning, U.S. 

Scott Rowe, Canada 


MEXICAN LlAOtn 

rim 

Lean 1, Cruz AzuL Mexico Qty, 1 
Cruz Azul won an 2-1 aggregate. 


TRANSITIONS 


67696769-272 

6864-70-72-274 

67-7066-73-275 

686868-71-275 

70-716768-276 

72686968-277 

7269-7067-278 

716869-71-279 

7166-71-71-279 

72-70-7265-279 


THUD TEST 

MONDAY IN KARACHI. PAKISTAN 
West Indies 216 raid 198-7 
Pakistan 417. 


Argentina Open 


dPAMtM nasr divkmn 

Compostela 1, Athletic Bilbao 4 
Red Sodedad 1. Valencia 1 
stamnnosi Barcelona 34 paints Real 
Madrid 32? AtlsHw Madrid EspanyU2ft 
Real Sodedod. Certo Vigo 27; Real Betts. 
Oviedo 2ft Athletic Bilbao XL Maitorca 21; 
Zaragaza 2ft Racing Sontonder lft Merida 
tie Deporflvo Coruna Compostela 14; Sato- 
monca Tenerife 1ft Valia dofid 1ft Valencia 
lft Sparling Gl)on 1 


Ftad leaders Sunday of 5340,000 
Argentina Opan. pteyod on EAl-yarti. par- 
70 Jordray Ckdi courae In Buanoa AbOK 
Jim Fury*. U.S. 47-706870-275 

M. Grenberg, Swe. 73-686869— 278 

Cris Dima raft U^. 75-676769-278 

Tim Hegnu, Ui. 7164-70-71-278 

Rjcordo Gonzalez. Arg. 726768-72— 279 

Angal Franca Para. 72-746965— 280 

Crdg Stabler. U.S. 7069-7269-280 


Ftorentina l Parma l 

iruDwas inter MBan 27 paints; Ju- 
ventws 2S; AS Roma Udinese 22; Parma 19: 
Vicenza ift AC Milan, Sampdoria 16; Lazio 
15,- FlorenTIna 14; Brescia 1ft Atotonto 11; 
EaipaTb Piacenza, Lecce. Bari Tft Eotognaft- 
Nopal 5. 

PUMOinaST MVfHOM 

Otympkjue Marseille 0 MontpeBier 0 
BastlaO Toulouse 0 

ruNDlMCS: Manners Men 38 points; 
Ports SI Germain 37; MaisetBa Lens 3* Bor- 
deaux 32; Ausene 2fc Bastio 78; Lynn 36c 
Toulouse 24 Montpelier, Gutapomp. Nantes 
20; Strasbourg. Qtateauroux 14 Rennes 17; 
Le Havre 14; Cannes 14. 


American league 

ANAHBlfS— Agreed to terms with RHP Rich 
DeLuda and RHP Mark Gubkza on 1-year 
contraris. 

Baltimore —A greed to terms with RHP 
ScDflKcmiientecki on 2-year contract and with 
OF Brady Anderson on 5-year contract. 

Cleveland— S igned RHP Rich Batchelor 
tol-yearcMitracL 

Minnesota— A greed to terms wtth OH 
Paul Mofitw an 1-year comrad. 

Texas— A greed to terms with LHP Scott 
BaOesan 1 -year contract. 

Toronto— N amed Jack Hubbard first 
base coadi and Jim Lett bench cooch. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE 

. Arizona— N amed Gtonn Shertodf bullpen 
and catching coadi. Agreed to terms with 
RHP WHIe Blair an 3-year contract. 

Florida — Q aimed INF Brandon Cramer 
off waivers from Pittsburgh. Designa te d INF 
Ale« Arias far assignment 
new TORB-Agreed to terms wtth RHP 
Marie Fyhrift LHP Marie Mimbs. OF Brent 
Bowen. INF Todd Haney and C Pedro Grttol 
on T-vearaurirads. 

sr. Loins— Signed OF Wfflie McGee to I- 
year contrad. Agreed to terms wtth 3B Gary 
Gaettton 1 -year contract 
San rRANOSCO-Agreed to terms wtth LHP 

Rich Rodriguez on 2-year contrad and RHP 
Danny Darerin on 1-year contract 

BASKETBALL 

NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION 
orlando— A ctivated F Horace Grant from 
kihiieri IW and pul F DereN Strong on It- 
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PAGE 26 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY DECEMBER 9, 1997 


ART BUCHWALD 


A Christmas Bargain 


An Actor’s Journey From Africa to ‘Amistad’ 


BuchwaJd 


W ashington — iam 

one of those Christmas 
shoppers who are constantly 
looking fcnr a bargain. So I 
was really pleased when I 
went to the Sangfroid depart- 
ment store to 
find that every- 
thing had been 
marked down 
25 percent. 

I picked up a 
sports coat 
with a price tag 
of $259.30. 

That had been 
crossed out and 
someone had written $200 
alongside. As I took it ofF the 
banger, I spotted a sign on the 
rack, “Take another 50 per- 
cent off the tag price." This 
brought It down to $100, but I 
was sure this wasn’t the bot- 
tom line. 


Sure enough, when I tried 
the jacket on and placed my 
hand in the pocket, there was 
a note from the owner of the 
store saying, “Take 15 per- 
cent more off the 50 percent 
reduction of the sales price." 

I took out my calculator. 
Now the coat was starting to 

California Wines 
Set Record at Auction 

The Associated Press 

NEW YORK— California 
wines proved more valuable 
than expected at an auction 
that raised $6.47 million — 
the highest total ever for a 
wine sale in the United 
States. 

The auction was held by 
Christie's auction house and 
the Bordeaux retailer Zachys. 

Twenty-five cases of 1994 
Napa Valley Dominus sold 
for $77,300. That amount was 
more than double the low pre- 
sale estimate of $38,000. 


make sense. Bnt as I stood in 
front of the mirror, a sales- 
clerk rushed over and said, 
“You get 10 percent off for 
looking in the mirror after you 
deduct the sales price and the 
50 percent deduction, plus the 
IS percent bonus ana a pear 
tree.” 

I pointed out that at Christ- 
mas a customer expects a little 
more in price deductions than 
a mere 75 percent on a coat. 

The salesclerk said, “Wait 
a minute. I'll call upstairs.” 
He called someone in top 
management and then said, 
“My boss said you can have 
the coat for nothing, but we'll 
have to charge you for al- 
terations.” 

I told him, “Macy’s will 
give you a sports coat where 
you can deduct 100 percent of 
the sales price and throw in a 
quart of Brookstone Shaving 
Lotion." 

By this time the merchan- 
dising manager had arrived 
on the floor. “What seems to 
be the problem?” 

“I am a good customer of 
Sangfroid and I expect good 
buys at Christmas. What 1 
consider a good buy is if you 
give me the coat for no thin g 
and throw in a pair of gray 
flannel pants.” 

“If we do that we’ll lose 
money on our Christmas 
sales." 


“That’s not my problem. 
This is a very competitive 
world and if you can’t cut the 
mustard, J.C. Penney can.” 

“All right. You can have 
the coat, and we’ll throw in 
die pants and give you a gift 
certificate for $10." 

“Now you’re talking my 
language. You can put me 
down as another happy cus- 
tomer if you take 50 percent 
off the leather jacket over 
there now selling for 75 per- 
cent of its cost." 


By Daniel J. Sharf stein 

New Yort Times Service 

L OS ANGELES — In the early 1970s, 
Wednesday was movie day for thousands 
of children at die Vogue Theater in Cotenou, 
Benin. School let out at noon, and students 
could trade five empty sacks of Otno laundry 
detergent for a free ticket. Ail week, children 
rooted through garbage and went door to door 
to collect the precious bags. 

The payoff was often a Gary Cooper west- 
ern. “It was amazing,” recalled the actor 
Djimon Hounsou. “When I think back — 
we'd climb the walls to get in, and you’d see 
people packed in the bathrooms and the 
courtyard. Here, people refuse to sit in the 
first row of the theater. In Cotenou, there 
were kids pressed up against the screen.” 

At 33, twenty years after be left West 
Africa for France, Djimon Hounsou is on the 
screen, not pressed up against it After a 
successful career as a fashion model, during 
which he became a familiar sight in the sleek 


and after supporting appearances in several 
films and music videos, he has a starring role 
in Steven Spielberg’s “Amistad.” 

(The film is to open in the United States on 
Wednesday unless it is delayed after a hear- Djimon Ho 
ing on a lawsuit brought by the author Bar- 
bara Chase-Riboud, who says that the screenplay borrows 
from “Echo of Lions,*’ her 1989 novel) 

“Amistad” is a drama based on a telling chapter of 19th- 
century history that has become better known this year as the 
much-anticipated movie has been written and talked about. 
In 1839. a group of West Africans aboard the Amistad, a 
Cuban slave ship, rebelled against their captors, killed much 
of the crew and instructed the survivors to sail them back to 
what is now Sierra Leone. 

Instead, the Cubans guided the ship up the eastern coast of 
the United States, and it ended up at Mon tank, on the tip of 
Long Island, where the Africans were arrested. They were 
imprisoned in New Haven, then went through a series of 
trials in which they were represented by Roger Baldwin, a 
lawyer enlisted by abolitionists, and eventually John Quincy 
Adams, the former president. Citing international bans on 
trans-Atlantic slave trading, the Supreme Court ruled in the 
Africans’ favor in 1841, freeing them to return home. 



Djimon Hounsou as the slave leader Cinque in Spielberg’s “Amistad. 

ilay borrows not my destiny. This is not my fate. My destiny is not in the 

hull of rhis ship.’ ” ’Wi 

pter of 1 9th- The story of Hounsou’s journey from Benin to France to Is 

is year as the Hollywood is just as much an old-fashioned tale of hard- th 
alked about, won success as it is a tale of charmed opportunity. 

: Amistad, a “Cinque is an ordinary man.” he said. “He never in- ai 
killed much tended to lead this whole thing in the first place. He only did sa 
hem back to what he did to free himself." in 

It is hard to describe Cinque or Hounsou as merely to 
;tem coast of ordinary. At one point, the 6-foot-2-inch (188-centimeter) he 


ordinary. At one point, the 6-foot-2-inch (188-centimeter) 
actor casually unzipped his sweatshirt, revealing his cel- 
ebrared shoulders, chest and stomach. He had grown his hair 
and a scraggly beard for the movie, but he still radiated the 
sort of dazzle that he did, with shaved head and luminous dark 
skin, in photographs on the pages of glossy magazines. 

Ritts, who in addition to photographing Hounsou directed 
him in a Janet Jackson video, described him as a favorite 
model “I just loved his inner soul in combination with his 


Ashamed, he left for Paris and spent more than 
a year living on the streets mere. In Paris, 
Hounsou often slept on a bendiby the Pomp- 
idou Center and bathed in a nearby fountain. 

. One day, a stranger praised his physique and 
gave him a photographer’s business card. The 
photographer turned out to be legitimate, and 
Ms pictures found their way to -the designer 
Thierry Mugler, who enlisted Hounsou for 
runway shows and advertising cam p aigns. 

Hounsou's mother couldn’t see that mod- 
eling may be respectable. 

- ‘The first time! sent her a picture of me as 

a model, she cried,” he said. “She didn’t 
know it was a real job. She thought: *My 
trhfld wearing bizarre earrings/ what is this? 
What are they doing with tny child?’ Because 
I grew up in France, I understood the fashion 
industry. The only shock for me was having 
people see you as so beautiful, because 1 , 
never really see myself like that.” 

Although photographers and designers 
created him with respect, Hounsou said, he 
wanted more of an intellectual challenge. Xn 
1990, he moved to Los Angeles and taught 
himself English by watching documentaries 
on cable television. He started acting classes 
and phased out lucrative modeling jobs. 
After bit parts in “Without You I’m Noth- 
ing" and” Stargate,” he had featured roles in 

two movies that failed to find distributors, 
for “Amistad” took place on three continents. 
Wfll Smith, Cuba Gooding Jr. and the West African actor ‘ 
Isaach de Bankole (“Chocolat”) were also considered for 

Fo^Spielberg, the choice was simple. “Djimon just has 
an enduring quality, a real sense of destiny,*’ the d irect or 
said. “He’s extremely powerful and charismatic and charm- 
ing. I saw him, and he was just like how I imagined C i n q ue 
to look and sound. Having seen ISO candidates for Cinque, 
he was Cinque at first sight ” 

In the interests of authenticity, the African characters in 


inngunpwe and French, had to learn a sixth language. 

. “African people will see the film,” he said. “My [duty is 
to make it possible so they don't have to question Cinque. I 
went throuch mv hell with that language. ... You could say 


fricans’ favor in 1 841, freeing them to return home. model “I just loved his inner soul in combination with his went through my hell with that language. . . . You could say 

“Amistad’ ’ also stars Matthew McConaughey as Bald- physical stature,” he said. “He has an incredible sensitivity. . something one way and it could mean 4 10 years. You say it 
in. Anthony Hopkins as Adams and Morgan Freeman as The way he mak es shapes — he really understands his body, with a different inflection, and it is 4 10 days. 

. tt.. a t i n .. t i p rv— c : vi Uahma/mi mh-mi cove Ha ic in l #vc AnomK 


an abolitionist, Theodore Joadson. But as Cinque the leader 
of die Africans, Hounsou is the movie’s emotional center, 
even though his role is spoken almost entirely in Mende, a 
Sierra Leonean language he had to learn. 

“Djimon’s perfect," said Freeman. “He’ll be on 
people's minds for a while. What he’s personifying is the 
strength and conviction of a person who’s decided ‘This is . 


Thai comes from an inner sense." 

Hounsou may have this inner sense because, as a youth, 
he didn't realize that his looks would open doors. His 
middle-class family viewed education as the key to success'. 
The youngest of five children. Hounsou was sent to Lyon at 
13 to live with an older brother and study medicine. 

But he quit school at 21 and was kicked out of the bouse. 


Hounsou, an American citizen, says be is in Los Angeles 
for good. He visits his family in Benin every year or two and 
sends bade money to support his father (his mother died in 
1989), but he lives alone m a Beverly Hills apartment. 

“This is whatl want to do. and this is where 1 have to be,” 
he said “1 will go back often, butl don’t know if 1 will live 
there again. I’ve experienced too different a world" 


MUSIC 


PEOPLE 


Ex-Cat Stevens Sings for Bosnia 


By Steven Kinzer 

New York Times Service 

I STANBUL — Music on 
Yusuf Islam’s new album 
is nothing like the music his. 
old fans might have hoped for 
when he was the pop star 
known as Cat Stevens and not 
the Muslim educator and 
spokesman he is today. ' 

The new style comes out of 
Bosnia's long musical tradi- 
tion, with most lyrics written 
and performed by Bosnians. 

Only two were written by Is- 
lam, and he sings just one. 

They could not be inter- 

prated as any son of attempt 
at a musical comeback, but Yusuf Islam 
since many fans had des- 
paired of ever hearing his singing voice again, 
they are something of a breakthrough in that 
he sings his first new song in nearly 20 
years. 

The album marked the second unexpected 
step recently for Islam, who adopted Islam in 
1977 and renounced the celebrity life he 
enjoyed while churning out hits and selling 25 
million albums in the 1960s and ’70s. 

On Nov. 15 he appeared in concert for the 
first time since his conversion. The place was 
Sarajevo, Bosnia, and the audience included 
many prominent Bosnians, among them Pres- 
ident Alija Izetbegovic. A recording was 
made, perhaps to be released next year. 

The new album, the concert and the pros- 
pect of a live concert album do not mark a 
reversal of Islam’s decision to retire from the 
pop life, instead they reflect his desire to do 
what he can for die Bosnian cause without 
returning to stardom or dredging up the 
catchy, introspective songs that made him 
famous. 

The new song Islam chants is called “The 
Little Ones (of Sarajevo and Dunblane),” the 
latter a reference to the Scottish town iq which 
a gunman massacred 16 schoolchildren in 
1996. Like many songs on the album, it has a 
religious overtone: "They’ll be raising the 
little ones / With no sin to atone / In the light 
of high Heaven / They will sit on tall 
thrones.” 

“I’ve been writing in my head and on 
pieces of paper off and on since I became a 


Muslim, but nothing came out 
of it until this last song,” Is- 
lam said in a telephone in- 
terview daring a visit to Istan- 
bul to promote the new 
album. “I sort of gave . up. 
recording as a profession. 
Those lime songs I’ve written 
in the past, I’ve sung only 
privately or at meetings, with 
no accompaniment It’s not as 
if I completely ceased mel- 
odizing. 

“If you look at the way I 
recorded this new song. I’ve 
still used a very conservative 
approach. You only hear my 

own voice, a slight choral ac- 

Aff-xrnmc-tw companiment and drums, 
in Sarajevo. Let’s say that’s the safest op- 
tion according to certain Is- 
lamic schools of thought I’ve made minimal 
use of musical instruments, and in some 
schools of thought in Islam musical instru- 
ments are disapproved of. That hasn’t stopped 
me from making this contribution, and also 
from being associated with an album which 
does contain instrumentation.'' 

He added: “It’s a very beautiful album. I 
think it will be very interesting for many 
people as they try to relate to this whole 
genocidal episode, which cannot be forgot- 
ten. It’s a reminder of the cause for which so 
many Bosnians died and for which they’re 
still suffering today, which is to maintain their . 
culture.” 

Islam said the new album idea grew from 
his meeting in London with Irfan Ljubijankic, 
tee Bosnian foreign minister who died when 
his helicopter was shot down over the war 
zone in 1995. 

4 ‘He had written a song called ‘X Have No 
Cannons That Roar,' ” Islam said. “It was a 
tremendously moving song. He gave it to me 
in my hand and said. ‘Please do something 
with this.’ Later he was killed when traveling 
to Bihac, his hometown in Bosnia. That ob- 
ligated me to do something to honor that 
moment, and for tee general cause.” 

Ljubijankic’s song is included on tee new 
album. Like most of the other songs, it is sung . 
in the Bosnian language, with an English 
translation on tee imer notes. “I Have No 
Cannons That Roar” is also tee tide of tee 
album. 


C LEARLY relishing the contro- 
versy his Nobel Prize has pro- 
voked, Dario Fo. the Italian comic 
actor-playwright, delivered an off- 
the-cuff performance before the 
Swedish Academy in Stockholm, 
trumpeting tee virtues of jesters 
through the ages. Instead of a formal 
lecture, tee /I -year-old satirist dis- 
tributed 25. pages of caricatures and 
doodles, lampooning critics who had 
derided tee academy for bestowing its 
Nobel Prize in Literature this year on 
a trouble-making iconoclast. Fo took 
obvious delight in the criticism, 
mocking tee “sublime poets and 
thinkers” who were tumbled from 
their Parnassian heights by the whirl- 
wind let loose by his prize. 4 ‘In re- 
action to this typhoon, insults are 
hurled at tee Swedish Academy,” he 
said in a written summary of his re- 
marks released after his talk. 
“You’ve overdone it this time: tee 
Nobel Prize to a comedian-play- 
wright-actor! Who’s ever heard of 
such a thing?” 


Living up to its tradition of attract- 
ing demonstrations. La Scala opened 
its season amid the protests of animal 
rights activists and striking Milan po- 
licemen. Inside, another tradition also 
held true: VIPs. Among those attend- 
ing were John F. Kennedy Jr. and his 
wife, Carolyn Bessette Kennedy. 
Kennedy and his wife were mobbed 
by photographers, cameramen and the 
curious as they arrived at tee theater 
and barely reached their box seats tty 
the time tee curtain rose. 


The car heiress Helena Ford has no 
claim on the estate of her estranged 
father, the shipping tycoon Stavros 
Niarchos, an Athens court has ruled. It 
said Ford, who was claiming 10 per- 
cent of hex father’s estate, had no in- 
heritance rights because Niarchos ’s 
1965 marriage to Charlotte Ford, her 
mother, was annulled in Greece at his 
request Niarchos, who died last year in 
Switzerland, left a fortune estimated at 
about $2 J billion to tee four children 




.. \ 




*P* . 

jloHlM 1 

* . j ... ;r i .*«/•'/ 

. if . ■ 


Ellen DeGeneres, left, and her 
friend, the actress Anne Heche. 


he had with Eugenia Livanos, and to 
other relatives and friends. Helena 
Ford was not mentioned in his will. 


Topping the Boring Institute's an- 
nual fist of most boring personalities 
was the actress Ellen DeGeneres, 
who was the subject of countless ar- 
ticles and interviews lMren the char- 
acter she plays in the U.S. television 
show “Euen” came out as a lesbian. 
The British royal family came..in 
second, and Paula Jones — who has 
accused President Bill Clinton of 
sexual harassment — came in third. 
Vice President Al Gore was eighth 
on the list. 


The rock group Oasis walked off, ■' 
stage in the middle of a concert 
Glasgow after a spectator threw V 
plastic bottle on stage. The audience 
first thought it was a joke but began to 
boo when they realized tee group had 
left for good. 


Bob Dylan et al. Take a Bow at Whshington Honors Ceremony 


By Ken Ringle 

Washington Post Service 

W ASHINGTON — It’s not easy to upstage 
Lauren Bacall, much less Jessye Norman, 
Edward Villella and Moses himself, Charlton He- 
, 5 ton. But Bob Dylan did so as tee Kennedy Center 
Honors glitterfest crossed a generational divide 
into tee rock roll era in moving style. 

With tee first baby boom president looking on in 
tee Kennedy Center Opera House and a black-tie 
audience cheering, tee usually scraggly-bearded 
son of Hibbing, Minnesota — clean-shaven for tee 
evening — was formally ushered into the social 
and cultural establishment he once questioned with 
such stormy eloquence. 

Walter Cronkite praised him as “the rolling 
thunder of American music.” Gregory Peck — 
who turns out to be a longtime Dylan admirer and 
friend — compared him to Walt Whitman and 
Mark Twain. In the 1960s, recalled Bruce Spring- 
steen from tee Opera House stage, “tee yearning in 
America for an open and just society just exploded. 
Bob Dylan had the courage to stand in teat fire and 
capture tee sound of that explosion. It was a 
beautiful call to aims." 

More than 200 people thronged the stage for the 


triumphant finale, including the U.S. Army Herald 
Trumpets, the Marine Drum and Bugle Corps, tee 
U.S. Army Chorus, the U.S. Naval Academy Glee 
Club, and past Jhonorees such as the opera diva 
Leontyne Price and ballet legend Maria TaUchief. 

If the tribute to Dylan was the climax of tee 
three-hour show, it was far from the only high- 
light There was an almost tangible wave of 
affection for Bacall, whom emcee Cronkite de- 
scribed as “a sassy blonde with a trombone voice 
whose unforgettable performances . . . moved one 
critic to say, ‘She mast have had a panther in her 
family tree.’ ” 

The actor Sam Waterston said Bacall had “taught 
an entire generation how to whistle. And she can 
utter a profanity ami make it sound like she’s r eading 
from the menu at an expensive French restaurant” 

The actress Christine Baranski led a trio of Tony 
Award winners in musical tributes that included 
“Razzle Dazzle” from the musical “Chicago” 
and “Applause” from the musical of the aa ny» 
name that crowned Bacall's theatrical comeback 
with a Tony in 1970. 

Lynn Redgrave reminded the audience that 
while best known for his epic movie roles — “Ben 
Hut,” “0 Cid,” “The Ten Commandments,” et 
aL — Heston was not only a classically trained 


actor but he had returned repeatedly to the theater 
to hone the skills that have made him one of the 
greatest craftsmen of tee dramatic stage. 

“Your wardrobe’s run the gamut from skirts to 
togas to capes,” said singers Gregg Edelman and 
Tony Robots in a rapping salute, 4 4 And you hardly 
wore anything in “Planet of tee Apes.’ ’’ 

Joanne Woodward, a 1992 bonoree and self* 
described “Eddie Villella groupie,” told of sneak? 
ing away from movie sets while filming in New 
York in the 1950s to attend Villella’ s ballet per- 
formances, but never wholly understanding tee 
muscular magnetism that drew her to him/Years 
later, Woodward told the audience, her 6- year-old 
daughter, after seeing Villella dance, finally ex : 
plained it: “He’s like Peter Pan — he can fly!” ; 

None of the honorees has soared further in her 
career than soprano Norman, a onetime Augusta, 
Georgia, choir girl who has captured the world's 
ope ratic stage as dramatic soprano of danttng 
strength and versatility. Her voice, Sidney Poitiet 
told tee audience, “spans the skies, lifts the earth 
and creates its own universe.” 

While Norman, regal in a towering midnight 
blue headdress, looked on with a radiant smile; 
Poitier told how “she has lifted up her voice and 

beautified this land.” 









Not 


all the tea in 10811 . 


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