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INTERNATIONAL 



PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


The World’s Daily Newspaper 


R . 


I 


By Thomas Fuller 

International Herald Tribune 


KUALA LUMPUR — Top officials 
. of East Asia's shaken . economies 
stepped up their criticism of the In- 
ternational Monetary Fund’s rescue 
packages Sunday, saying that CSC 7 pre- 
scriptions did not appear to be working 
as well in Asia as they did in 
America. 

Reflating growing concern that sev- 
eral major regional economies have not 
yet polled out of a downward spiral, 
Malaysia's foreign minister, Abdullah 
Ahmad Badawi, said that there was con- 
sensus among the Southeast Asian coun- 
tries gathered here for a summit meeting 
that “the- answer that we want to see is 



World Pact 
In Finance 
Is Reached 

Deal Could Increase 
Capital Flow to Asia 

By Alan Friedman 

International Herald Tribune 

PARIS — In a move that could 
stimulate more capital flows back 
into the troubled region of East Asia, 
negotiators from 102 countries have 
sealed a global financial-services ' 
pact that will liberalize trillions of 
dollars worth oftradeinthe hanking , 
insurance and brokerage sectors. 

The deal, which was hailed by 
President Bill Clinton, will lower 
investment barriers around the 
world, allowing more foreign own- 
ership of banks, insurance compa- 
nies and 9eoirities firms in markets 
that until now had been heavily 
protected. ‘ 

which applies to all 132 members 
of the World Trade Organization, 
covers $10 trillion worth of global 
securities assets, $40 trillion of 
world banking assets and $2 trillion 
in worldwide insurance premiums, 
said Renato Ruggiero, director- 
general of the WTO in Geneva. 

■ The biggest irrmact of die deal, 
which has been under negotiation for 
seven years, will be felt in Asia and 
Latin America, where there are still 
many restrictions on the role foreign 
companies can play in domestic 
markets. The United States refused 
to sign on to a first draft of the accord 
in June 1995 because it said market- 
opening measures presented by 
Asian and Latin American countries 
remained inadequate. 

On Saturday, just hours after the 
deal was reached in Geneva,. Mr. 
Clinton welcomed the prospect of 
more free- market competition in an 
industry that is dominated by the 
United States. 

“In the wake of recent financial 
instability, it is particularly encour- 
aging that so many countries have 
chosen to move forward rather 


See TRADE, Page 10 


lit a Seoul Suburb, Gloom 

Middle- Class Bastion Blames IMF for Troubles 


By Don Kirk 

Seeciol 10 the Herald Tribune 


PUNDANG. Sou* Korea — In the 
midst of this new city of high-rise apart- 
ment buildings, glittering shopping 
plazas and carefully planned parks and 
playgrounds. Ahn Hyo Hee, a real estate 
agent, sits in her office and waits for 
calk that never come. 

“My last sale was in November, 
said Mrs. Ahn, whose clients include 
mainly young couples looking for safe 
and comfortable homes within about 30 
kilometers (20 miles) commuting dis- 
tance south of central Seoul. 

But since the Smith Korean govern- 
ment announced this month mat the 


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International Monetary Fund would 

have to bail out the economy, property is 

not selling. 

Mrs. Ahn can diink of no reason why 
flic news of the IMF package of $60 
billion in funds for debt-ridden South 
Korean banks and companies should 
have suddenly stifled the mood to buy 
and spend in a community that epi- 
tomizes the nation’s newly affluent 
middle class. 

. “It is the IMF influence," is all she 
can say, relaxing in one of several com- 
fortable armchairs beneath a detailed 
map of the city, whose population has 
soared to about 400,000 in just five 
years. 1 ‘People are not comfortable with 

the IMF." _ j 

Mrs. Ahn, whose husband owns a 

once-prosperous automobile repair 
company, can hardly imagine how low 
the economic downturn will go, much 
less when it will end. She believes, 
however, the worstis yet to come — and 

S °“The shock will be in January and 
February,’ 1 she said. “So far prices are 
steady. Then oil prices will go up. 
Everybody will have to pay much more. 
Nobody will be able to buy anything.’’ 

In three or four months, Mrs. Anh 
fears, she will have to close ha office 
while her husband’s garage scrapes .by 
on almost no business. “People are not 

See IMPACT, Page 13 


Paris, Monday, December 15, 1997 



No. 35.704 


IMF’s Asia Plan Draws 
Ever Louder Complaints 

'The Answer We Want Is Not Yet Emerging , 9 
Malaysian Says , Citing Consensus at Summit 


not yet emerging.” Three of the coun- 
tries attending the meeting — Indonesia, 
Thailand and Sooth Korea — have in 
recent months been forced to turn to the 
IMF for emergency rescue packages 
totaling more than $100 billion. 

“In spite of the IMF coming and 
helping sane of (hose countries, the 
situation has not improved.” Mr. Ab- 
■ dnllah said. 

The discussions in Kuala Lumpur, 
which precede the official opening of 
the meeting Monday, took place against 
a backdrop of other developments: 

• Finance Minister Theo Waigel of 
Germany was scheduled to arrive Sun- 
day in the United States for several days 
of talks with officials, including Pres- 
ident Bill Clinton and the Federal Re- 

Concern over Asia Is rising in the 

U.S. • But the effects on business . 

there are still small. • Sooth Korean 

conglomerates want to export their 

way out of the crisis. Page 1L 

serve Board chairman, Alan Greenspan, 
on the turbulence in Asian finan cial 
markets. Mr. Waigel also is to meet with 
Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin and 
Michel Camdessus, managing director 
of die IMF. 

• The Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development, in an 
economic forecast made public Sunday 
ahead of publication, predicted that die 
current turmoil in Asian markets could 
cut growth in the world’s major de- 
veloped economies by as much as one 
percentage point, with Japan and others 
in the region bearing twice as much of 
the pain as the United Stales. 

• South Korea’s three leading pres- 
idential candidates abruptly reversed 

pot into effecta^60 million bailout 
agreement. 

The candidates’ agreement was de- 
signed to raise the confidence of foreign 
investors and bankers, stabilize financial 
markets and reduce the risk of default 
South Korea must pay $10 billion in 
foreign debt by thfc^nd of the month: 

A growing number of officials and 
business leaders across East Asia have 
complained in recent weeks that con- 
ditions often attached to IMF money — 
which require countries to raise interest 
rates, cut their budgets and open thdr 
financial-services sector to mo re fo reign 
participation — are too harsh and could 
be doing more damage than good. 

China on Sunday echoed that sen- 
timent 

“First and foremost, such assistance 
should have no strings attached,” said 
Shen Guofang. spokesman for the 
Chinese Foreign Ministry. 

The IMF has disputed this view, say- 
ing that in Aria, as in Ameri ca, 
tight monetary policy is necessary to 
stabilize financial markets and restore 
confidence. 

The three-day summit meeting was 
initially intended as a 30th anniversary 
party for the Association of Sooth East 
Asian Nations, known as ASEAN. But 
it has evolved into a crisis meeting, with 
the region’s financial turmoil at the top 
of the agenda. 

Leaders from Japan, China and South 
Korea arrived Sunday to join ASEAN’s 
nine members — Brunei, Burma, In- 
donesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philip- 
pines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet- 
nam — for the summit meeting. 

Jt marks the first time that ASEAN 
will meet with its three Northeast Asian 

See ASEAN, Page 13 




Iran Leader Extends 
Hand to Americans 

He Calls Them 
‘Great People 9 

By Douglas Jehl 

N« Yurt Times Service 


David Uavna yn* AmtcuKd Pkm 

SEOUL RALLY — A supporter holding a poster Sunday of a minor 
candidate in the South Korean presidential election. Analysts said the 
main opposition candidate stood a good chance of winning. Page 6. 


TEHRAN — President Mohammed 
Khatami of Iran on Sunday aimed an 
unusual conciliatory message at the 
United States, saying that he hoped soon 
to re-establish a dialogue with the 
American people that for all practical 
purposes has been halted since the Is- 
lamic revolution of 1979. 

Speaking at a news conference for 
only the second time since his election 
in May, Mr. Khatami was restrained 
even in his criticism of the U.S. gov- 
ernment, which he said was preventing a 
possible rapprochement. 

“I hope the American politicians 
would understand their time better, un- 
derstand the realities, and move for- 
ward,” Mr. Khatami said. He declared 
his “great respect” for the “great 
people of the United States.” 

“At the appropriate time, I will present 
my words to the American people,” the 
Iranian president said. “I would hope for 
a thoughtful dialogue with the American 
people and through tins thoughtful dia- 
logue we could get closer to peace and 
security and tranquillity. ” 

[The Clinton administration on Sun- 



Turkey Is Rejected for EU Membership 

Amid Signs of Showdown on Cyprus, Ankara Ends Political Dialogue 


By Bany James 

International Herald Tribune 


. LUXEMBOURG — Furious over its 
rejection as a candidate for membership 
in die European Union, Turkey spumed 
on Sunday an offer to take part in a pan- 
European conference next year and set 
the scene for a possible showdown oyer 
divided Cyprus. 

At their meeting here over the week- 
end, European Leaders agreed on the 


future conference as a means of keeping 
Turkey within its enlargement process. 

In a move that will change the face of 
Europe, the participants at the summit 

Britain's euro squabble. Page 11. 

talks invited 10 countries in Eastern and 
Central Europe plus Cyprus to join the 
existing 15 EU members, ending the 
postwar division of Europe and adding 



about 100 million people to the Union’s 
population. 

. But they did not accept Turkey, 
which has been seeking membership for 
34 years, as an official candidate, even 
though they did not rule out its can- 
didacy in tiie future. 

The Turkish government, which had 
seen the move toward Europe as a bul- 
wark against militant Islam, said the 
offer was insufficient and declared that 
political dialogue was at an end. 

“There wifi not be a political dia- 
logue between Turkey and the European 
Union,’ ’ Prime Minister Mesut Yilmaz 
said at the end of a cabinet meeting 
Sunday in Ankara. 

He added that Turkey, which illegally 
occupies northern Cyprus, would “in- 
tegrate” tiie territory if the EU went 
ahead wijh plans to open membership 
negotiations with the internationally 
recognized Greek-Cypriot government. 

See EUROPE, Page 10 


Irahiil Bun-ni/Afcmr tian-hr* 

President Mohammed Khatami at 
a Tehran press conference Sunday. 

day responded to Mr. Khatami's com- 
ments with a restatement of existing 
American policy, Reuters reported. 
“The United States is interested in 
deeds, not words.” said a White House 
spokesman, Barry Toiv. Describing the 
deeds the United States was awaiting, 
Mr. Toiv said: “Iran needs to stop the 
development of weapons of mass de- 
struction. Iran needs to stop supporting 
terrorism, and it needs to stop impeding 
the Middle East peace process.”] 

The overall thrust or Mr. Khatami's 
message was both wanner and more 
specific than anything he has had to say 
in the past, and it appeared to mark a 
new phase in Iranian efforts to mend 
fences with old foes. 

Mr. Khatami, 55, a Shiite Muslim 
cleric who won a landslide victory over 
a candidate supported by the religious 
establishment, is generally regarded as 
the most moderate official to emerge in 
Iran’s top echelons of power since 
shortly after the revolution that over- 
threw Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. 

U.S. officials have said they have 
been watching closely for signs that Mr. 
Khatami's triumph might mark a 
change in orientation, and his remarks 
were certain to be scrutinized by the 
State Department and other agencies 
that have been reviewing U.S. policy 
toward Iran. 

Mr. Khatami has not spoken out much 
in public since be took office in August, 
and his more conciliatory approach was 
somewhat overshadowed last week by 
tiie fiercely anti-Western tone of an ad- 
dress delivered to an Islamic summit 
meeting here by Ayatollah Ali Khame- 
nei. Iran’s supreme leader. 

See IRAN, Page 10 


EC ‘Amazed’ as U.S. Expands 
Its ‘Mad Cow’ Ban in Europe 


The Associated Press 

LUXEMBOURG — The European 
Commission has expressed 
“amazement” at the news that tiie 
United States has banned imports of 
cattle, sbeep and related products from 
Europe because of fears over “mad 
cow" disease. 

Hans van den Broek. foreign affairs 
commissioner of the European Union, 
said he was still studying the issue, 
adding, “Obviously it is of great con- 


AGENDA 


Iraq Promises More Weapons Data to UN ZZuLa 


Reuters 

BAGHDAD — The chief UN 
weapons inspector, Richard Butler, 
said Sunday that Iraq had promised to 
offer more information on its missile 
and warhead arsenal, and that he would 
bold high-level talks later Sunday re- 
garding biological and chemical arms. 

“This morning focused on missiles 
and warheads,” Mr. Butler said at a 
news conference after talks between a 
Russian weapons inspector, Nikita 
Smidovich, and an Iraqi presidential 
adviser. 


Mr. Butler said that it appeared 
some progress was being made and 
that be welcomed a request by the 
deputy prime minister. Tariq Aziz, for 
talks later Sunday on Iraq's biological 
and chemical weapons programs. 

Mr. Butler and Mr. Aziz are ex- 
pected to move to the most difficult 
part of their talks Monday, when they 
discuss Mr. Butler's demands for un- 
restricted access throughout Iraq fra- his 
inspection teams. Iraq has blocked the 
inspectors from a number of sites thai it 
contends are vital to its .security. 


THE AMERICAS 

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cera." Klaus van der Pas, a commission 
spokesman, said the EU had not been 
formally told of the decision, an- 
nounced late Friday in Washington. 

Asked for a reaction, he said: 
“Amazement. We heard about this 
through the press.” 

Washington said it was banning the 
imports until the risk of spreading mad 
cow disease in America was frilly ex- 
amined. Previously, the Agriculture De- 
partment had restricted imports of cattle, 
sheep and many products such as fresh 
meat and bonemeaj, from nine Euro- 
pean countries where the disease was 
known to exist The new action expands 
that ban to most of die rest of Europe. 

“We made this decision to protect 
human and animal health, to protect the 
security of our export markets and to 
protect the safety and integrity of our 
food supply/’ said Michael Dunn, as- 
sistant agriculture secretary for mar- 
keting and regulatory programs. 

No case of bovine 1 spongiform 
encephalopathy — the neurological dis- 
order fatal in cattle — has ever been 
reported in the United States. Eating 
meat from cattle tainted by the 
disease is believed to cause the brain- 
wasting Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease 
in humans, which has killed more than 

See BEEF, Page 10 


New Take on Retirement: He Stops Work, She Doesn’t 


By Louis Uchitelle 

New York Times Service 


NEW YORK — After a career as a salesman, Ruth 
Cambron’s husband retired, and she thought she might 
too. She look a leave from her job as a health care 
specialist in California, and the couple traveled on 
cruise ships. 

“That convinced me not to retire,” Mrs. Cambron 
said. “I did not want to feel useless.” 

She also wanted to build her pension. And 12 years 
later, at 73, she still draws a paycheck — a stalwart in 
tiie growing ranks of older women who continue to 
work alter their husbands stop. 

Sandra Kaul, an art gallery director and consultant, 
is just entering those ranks. Her husband, lured by the 


offer of a sweetened pension, retired in June at 58. after 
30 years as a college art professor in Minnesota. 

“I encouraged him,” sail Mrs. Kaul, who is 55. “I 
knew he really wanted to stay home and paint, while I 
have a career 10 pursue.” 

Helena Genovese, 63. stays at her job out of both 
necessity and desire. Her husband, a professional 
hypnotist, now 68, retired seven years ago, worried 
that if he did not ease up he might suffer a fatal heart 
attack, as a friend had. 

But his $850 in monthly retirement benefits, mostly 
fro m Social Security, is insufficient to maintain the 
couple's suburban lifestyle without Mrs. Genovese’s 
$l, 900 -a-month salary as a manager of the parking 
facility at Buffalo's airporL 

“Besides, what would I do all day ai home?” she 


asked. “He plays with the dog. builds model planes 
and visits our children. I think that if two people are 
home together constantly, they could end up killing 
each other.” 

Having distinguished themselves as the first gen- 
eration of American women to leave the house to work 
in large numbers, women in their late 50s and early 60s 
are now in retirement range. If they are single, di- 
vorced or widowed, they often keep working, surveys 
show, because they lack the Social Security credits or 
pension savings of men their age. who earned more 
and worked more years. 

But in growing numbers, married women in this age 
group are also staying on the job — breaking with the 

See WORK, Page 10 


r 






INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1997 



PAGE TWO 




Aisha Awaits Her Fate /Tradition of TyraAny 


When Puberty Is Shackled to a Forced Marriage Lawyers Flight Path 


By Stephen Buckley 

Washington Post Service 


K ORHOGO, Ivory Coast — The griots are 
wailing. They howl into a squealing mi- 
crophone as fellow storytellers, in a storm 
of sunflower golds and indigos and teals 
and cornflower blues, dip, leap, shake, stomp, twirl 
and shudder in fierce, ecstatic dancing. 

It is just after noon, and inside, in a steamy square 
room no larger than a prison cell, Aisha Camara is 
covered in a pink-and- white striped blanket. She 
briefly lifts a veil that hides her angular featmes- 
The griots and her neighbors are celebrating her 
wedding day, but she is not smiting. 

She is 14 years old, and in this town in northern 
Ivory Coast, and throughout sub-Saharan Africa, 
such ceremonies are common. It does not matter 
that in numerous countries on this continent, such 
early marriages have been illegal for years. 

Aisha’s family will not publicly discuss this 
tradition, but people in her community eagerly 
defend it. People such as Boubacar Maiga, a neigh- 
bor .who did not attend Aisha’s wedding, say forcing 
girls to marry at such ages protects them from 
immorality, strengthens clan relationships and hon- 
ors Islam 

“If a girl doesn’t marry at an early age, she’ll 
sleep with many men. Nobody would want to marry 
her later,’’ said Mr. Maiga, 55. Such marriages, he 
said; keep girls from “adventures.” 

He married his first wife when she was 11. He 
forced his oldest daughter to marry last year when 
she was 12. His next daughter, age 7, is scheduled to 
wed next year. 

Constance Yai, a prominent women’s rights ac- 
tivist in this West African country, sees only 
tyranny in the tradition. Her battle to eradicate 
childhood marriage is. for her, a struggle between 
an oppressive Africa tied blindly to traditions versus 
one urgently seeking to embrace the modem 1 
world. 

“Pedophilia is a phrase that’s only recently be- 
come popular in the developed world,’ * she said in ; 
her office in Abidjan, die capital of Ivory Coast, i 
“But in Africa, it’s been around a long time.” 

The practice of forcing girls into marriage took 
hold 'decades ago throughout sub-Saharan Africa 
and is especially widespread in countries there with 
large Muslim populations. 

The marriages typically occur within clans, the 
girl compelled to wed a distant relative — often two 
or three tunes her age — who sometimes has chosen 
her long before puberty. 

Experts on Islamic law say the Koran teaches that 
a girl can be married as soon as she can conceive, but 
they say the religion does not condone forcing girls 
into wedlock. 

Sociologists and teachers of Islamic law say that 
West African Muslims have accepted the tradition 
because it ostensibly promotes social stability, ce- 
menting ties between clans and preventing promis- 
cuity. 

Activists and medical professionals say pread- ' 
descent marriage is partly responsible for Africa’s 
maternal mortality rates, among the highest in the 
world. Miss Yai says it is not unusual for both 
mother and child to die during birth. 

“Often the girls are pulled from school and 
forced to drop their education and become a wife 
overnight,” she said. ‘ ‘These young women cannot 
turn to anyone to say no or to seek help.” The real 
reason the practice has prevailed is that families 
often receive hundreds, even thousands of dollars as 
dowry, she said. “It is what keeps this practice 
alive.” 

But the practice has come under increasing as- 
sault since last year, when Fanta Keita, then 12, 
killed her 30-year-old husband. Fanta has a heart- 
shaped face, a simple, sweet anile, bright, almond- 
shaped eyes and a tiny voice. You cannot imagine 
her slitting someone’s throat. 

But that is what she did in April 1996. She killed 
her husband of three weeks, was arrested the next 




As the griots dance and 
sing to the accompan- 
iment of drums , Aisha 
"Camara, 14, peers 
through her veil as she 
awaits her wedding. 


day and, largely because of Miss 
Yai’s Ivorian Association, for the 
Defense of Women, almost imme- 
diately became a cause. 

Fanta 's parents had forced her to 
many a distant cousin she bad nev- 
er heard of or seen. Fanta and her husband lived 
together in Abidjan. 

Every night, she said, he asked her for sex. Every 
night she said no. He would then batter her on the 
face and bead. Then, every ni gh t, he would rape 
her. 

One Saturday night, he came into their house and 
asked her to draw water for a bath. She said no. He 
asked why. She said she just did not want to. He 
left 


H E HAD TOLD Fanta that if she refused to 
draw his water, she could not go to a 
neighbor’s house. She went anyway, 
watched television and ate dinner, and 
when she returned, he was waiting for her. 

After he beat her and raped her again, he went to 
sleep. She slipped into the kitchen and — she put her 
head on. the table, covering up with her arms as she, 
said this — “I. took the knife and I cut him.” '' 

The police held her in the women’s section of the 
Abidjan prison for nearly a year before women’s 
rights groups prevailed on President Henri Konan 
Bedie to free her, at least until her trial. 

Now activists from Miss Yai's group shelter her 
during the week, and on weekends she fives at Miss 
Yai’s house. Fanta ’s case has galvanized women’s 
rights activists to press the government to publicize 
a 30-year-old law that outlaws early and forced 
marriage. 

“We have to let these young girls know they have 
die right to refuse this type of practice,” said Miss 
Yai who sat next to Fanta during the interview. This 
month, another campaign is designed to let the 
police know that “when a young girl comes to the 


police, they must help her instead of 
saying. That’s a family problem.* ” 
Mr. Maiga had not heard of Fanta 
Keita until recently. He does not hold 
much sympathy for her. “In Islam, 
when the gni is married, her husband 
is just under God,” he said. “You 
should obey him, no marter what.” 

Mr. Maiga, a short, square- 
shouldered man with a trimmed 
white beard, defends early marriage 
without shame or self-consciousness. 
In an ideal world, a woman would not 
be married until 18. he says, but we 
do not live in an ideal world. 

It is a world in which girls chase 
boys, have sex, produce babies, earn 
reputations, shame families, he said. “Your neigh- 
bors won’t respect you," he said in Fulanl his tribal 
language. “They will say I failed to fulfill my duties 
as a father.” 

He said Azara, his daughter who married last year 
at age 12, frequently would leave the house and 
retain hours later, and he would not know where she 
had been. Once he tied hex up, burned her back with 
a piece of iron, then locked tier in-a room for three 
days without food. He laughed as he told this story, 
so did the men nearby. 

He never sent Azara to school because if girls 
went to “modem” school they might meet people 
who would drive them from their traditions. Edu- 
cated girls “argue with their parents,” he said, 
adding: “They stazt asking questions. They want to 
have a say in everything in their life.” . 

And educated girls, be said, do not want to marry 
until they are 19 or 20. # 

As soon as he married off Azara. “I got peace of 
mind,” Mr. Maiga said. “She was no longer my 
problem.” 

She became Ibrahim Haidara’s “problem.” Mr. 
Haidara, 41, has known Mr. Maiga for years, and he 
first saw Azara. at Mr. Maiga’s house. He says he 
picked her to be his bride when she was 6 years old. 

Mr. Haidara, a fisherman and farmer, is an edu- 
cated man who speaks fluent French and gives 
instruction in the Koran. Asked about the case of 
Fanta Keita, he said her husband “deserved what he 
got” 

Yet he defended the tradition that Fanta struck 
out against. He said marrying a 12-year-old is fine 
because “it’s the parents" — both the man’s and 
the girl’s — who make the decision. 


By. Andrew C. Revkin 

. Nc» York nmn Srrrirc 

BALTIMORE — In 6,000 pages of 
documents and more than 35 hours of 
testimony presented last week, dozens 
of aviation engineers and scientists laid 
out their analysis of the explosion that 
destroyed Trans World Airlines Flight 

800, seeking to assign a cause to the 

catastrophe. 

And do one listened mare carefully 
du ri ng the National Transportation 
Safety Administration hearings than the 
bevy of lawyers who are trying to assign 
blame for the crash more than 17 
months ago that killed 230 people. 

Just as aviation investigators are 
seeking ways to guard against fuel-tank 
explosions without knowing precisely 
what ignited the one on Flight 800. the 
lawyers are trying to assess liability 
despite this critical gap in evidence. 

With 150 lawsuits already filed by 
victim’s relatives, amounting to SI bil- 
lion in potential claims against TWA, 
Boeing and others, it was hardly sur- 

{ i rising that on most days of the hearing 
ast week, lawyers occupied as many 
seats as scientists and engineers in the 
cavernous, dimly lighted baUroom of 
die Baltimore Convention Center. 

The plaintiffs’ lawyers and their aides 
studiously took notes in laptop com- 
puters or on legal pads, sitting just be- 
hind the three long sets of tables oc- 
cupied by relatives of those who died. 

In die final hours of the hearing, the 
meeting halls became a hive of dis- 
cussions and strategy sessions as law- 
yers, victims’ relatives and officials of 
TWA and Boeing girded for would 
could be years of legal and financial 
wran g lin g . 

The lawyers representing the families 
have two challenges if they are to suc- 
ceed; They must first prove that the 
companies are to blame and then must 
find ways around an international treat)’ 
and a law that limit damages in cases in 
which a jet crashes while on an in- 
ternational route or over -international 
•waters. 

Neither will be easy, aviation lawyers 
say, even though die only possible 
causes of die crash that might absolve 
the airline and the manufacturer — a 
c riminal act or an act of God, like a 
meteorite — have been ruled out. To 
overcome a $75,000 limit on damages 
under an international treaty on crashes 
of overseas flights, die lawyers must 
prove willful misconduct on die part of 
TWA 

And then there is the challenge of 
proving a case for a particular cause of 
the crash. Several aviation lawyers who 
have represented airlines in similar suits 
said that the absence of elites to what 
ignited die blast in the center feel tank 
on Flight 800, which has proved ex- 
asperating to investigators, may also 
prove so to lawyers for the families as 
they try to build convincing cases. 

“It’s a basic concept from Law 101: 
the party with the burden of proof has 
got to prove something,” said Bonnie 
Cohen, a lawyer from San Francisco 
who for more than 15 years has rep- 
resented airlines in suits resulting from 
plane crashes. 

“Suppose it tamed out to be bad feel 
or something else?” Ms. Cohen said. 
“Wouldn’t it be unfair for the share- 
holders of TWA .to pay for something 
that wasn’t their fault?’ ’ 


But Lee Kreindler. a Manhattan law. 
yer whose firm is representing families 
of 80 of the 230 victims, says, the case is 
as basic as the ancient phrase of law: Res 
ipsa loquitur. The dung speaks for it- 
self. 

The Boeing 747 exploded when one 
of many potential sources of a s-paxi 
ignited fuel vapor in its overheated ecu* 


FamiUes have until July 17,twoy«& 
after the crash, to initiate wits. 

Frank Granite Jr., a New York lawyer 
whose firm is representing the fomiues 
of 54 victims, said the hearings also 
provided a kind of casting call tor wit- 
nesses. He and the other lawyers were 
stole to ohserve the style and commu- 
nications skills of dozens of experts, 
many of whom might be called to testify 
in coming liability and damage trials. 

Lawyers generally advise against any 
contact between family members and 
executives of the airline and manufac- 
turer for fear that it might weaken legal 
cases later on. 

In a significant shift last week, Boe- 
ing and the families quietly broke down 
that wall, meeting for two hours to dis- 
cuss various issues, ranging from the 
design of the plane to toe need for some 
short-term financial aid for families or 
orphaned children with financial prob- 
lems.. 

Family members asked TWA add 
Boeing to contribute to a family as- 
sistance fund that would be maintained 
by the safety board. “The litigation 
could take years, but in the meantime 
some people are in a terrific squeeze," 
said John Seaman, a resident of Clifton 
Park, New York, whose niece. Michele 
Becker. 19, died in the crash. 

Mr. Seaman said that the families 
planned to shift $21,000 from a fond 
established after the crash to start the 
account and that they would approach 
other airlines, as well as groups rep- 
resenting airline employees, to contrib- 
ute. Boeing and TWA officials agreed to 
make donations but did not set 
amounts. 

Perhaps the biggest challenge of all 
would be to find ways to make sure that 
there are no limits to damages that can 
be levied against the companies, par- 
ticularly the airline. 

Because the plane was on an inter- 
national route and crashed in interna- 
tional waters, the accident could be gov- 
erned by international treaties and a 11- 
year-old law called the Death on the 
High Seas Act, which could limit how- 
much money can be recouped from the 
airline. 

The House has passed legislation that 
would exempt airline accidents from the 
old maritime law, which was intended to 
provide benefits to the widows and 
orphans of merchant seamen. The law 
would apply to any Flight 800 lawsuits. 
But the Senate has put off consideration 
of its version of the bill at least until 
January: 

Because of the international pact, the 
Warsaw Treaty, the families can collect 
only a maximum of $75,000 from the 
airline unless they can prove the crash 
was the result of “willful misconduct.’ ’ 
Mr. Kreindler said. But he added that he 
had been able to win a S500 million case 
on those grounds against Pan American 
after the bombing of a Boeing 747 over 
Scotland in 1989. 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


Strike Threatens Thalys Se'SKS" “ “ *3283 


WEATHER 


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yesterday...today. 


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BRUSSELS (AFP) — The new high-speed 
rail link between Paris and Brussels carried its 
first passengers Sunday, just as trade union 
leaders predicted widespread disruption with 
a strikfe the following day. 

The Thalys rail sendee nips 33 minutes off 
travel time between the two capitals and im- 
proves links from France to northern Europe. 

But a Belgian union covering rail workers 
called a strike for Monday, sayingno Thalys 
or TGV trains heading for Lille, Disneyland 
Paris or the south of France should be all owed 
to leave Brussels. 

The French airline Corsair will suspend 
its weekly flights to the Comoro Islands on 
January. Local businessmen said there had not 


As a flood watch was posted for most of 
central Florida, heavy rain fell across parts of 
the state, flooding streets and threatening to 
push streams out of their banks. (AF) 

This Week’s Holidays 

Banking and government offices will be 
closed or services curtailed in the following 
countries and their dependencies this week 
because of national and religious holidays: 

TUESDAY: Bahrain. Bangladesh. Kazakhstan. 
South Africa. 

WEDNESDAY: Bimtta 
THURSDAY: Niger, South Korea. 

Sources: JJ*. Morgan. Reuurs, Bloomberg 



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Getty Center Set to Open in L.A. 

The Associated Press 

LOS ANGELES — The Getty Center, a $1 billion hilltop 
monument to ait and architecture, is set to open Tuesday, with 
its supporters hoping the complex will refute the notion that 
Los Angeles has second-rate culture. 

Governor Pete Wilson said at a ribbon-cutting ceremony 
Saturday, “There is no way we can estimate the value of this 
gift to Los Angeles.” 

Planned, designed and constructed over 13 years, the cen- 
ter's 24-acre (10-hectare) campus on a 1 10-acre site is both a 
museum and an aits complex. 

Most of the estimated 1.5 million annual visitors will spend 
their time in the museum's 50 galleries. The collection is 
tightly focused, mostly on pre-20th century European paint- 
ings, drawings, manuscripts, sculpture and decorative arts. 

Staff and scholars will use the Getty’s research facility, 
conservation institute and arts education wings. 


Europe 


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Forecast for Tuesday through Thu reday. as provided by AccuWeether. 




North America 

VWh the northern brand of 
tfio Jetstream over northern 
Canada, the Plains will 
continue to be warmer than 
normal Tuesday through 
Thursday. Another storm, 
spawned by the southern 
branch of the the jet- 
otrooni, wffl bring more rain 
to the already wet south- 
eastern U S. 


Europe 

Very cold air will move 
westward across northern 
and central Russia Tues- 
day through Thursday. An 
acti ve sou thern branch of 
Bie Jetstream wffl bring an 
intense storm- and locally 
heavy rain to the eastern 
Mediterranean. The 
remainder of Europe will 
swage near nomiai. ' 


Asia 

Very cold air will remain 
over Siberia and Mongolia 
Tuaeday through Thurs- 
day. Temperatures and 
precipitation win average 
near normal for the ramaftv 
dar ot the continent. 
Clouds will continue to 
Ahroud southern China and 
Indochina. Rain wm damp- 
en Japan on Wednesday. 


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THE AMERICAS 


RACE 3 


Pentagon Takes First Steps to Prevent Any Germ Attacks by Terrorists 


By Bradley Graham 

Pm Service 

DUGWAY PROVING GROUND, 

U ■ JT A P loneerin S Marine Corps unit, 
trained to respond toeerm and poison gas 

- 5?™*; showing up beside- tra- 
ditional law enforcement organizations 

. at some major events in the United Slates 
recently a sign of the government’s 
, growing concern about the throat from 

- biological and chemical weapons. 

‘ eam made its quiet debut at die 

- Simuner Olympics in Atlanta. 

■ Banked in a wine warehouse, the elite 
group suited up when an explosion 
shook Centennial Park, bracing for 
mass casualties before the blast was 

- traced to a small conventional bomb. 

Since then, the Marine unit, as well as 

■ a special army detachment similarly 
equipped with biochemical protective 

-gear and detection devices, monitored 
President Bill Clinton’s second inau- 
guration in January and hovered near a 
meeting of the industrialized nations* 
' leaders in Denver last June. 

Despite these and other precautions. 
.' however, U.S. officials acknowledge 
that efforts to protect the country against 
.. germ weapons are in their infancy and 


that military resources are inadequate to 
cope with attacks involving lethal sub- 
stances capable of killing tens of thou- 
sands of people. 

“We are not currently equipped to 
handle a widespread terrorist attack that 
would involve biological weapons,” 
said John Harare, the deputy secretary 
of defense. “We*re beginning to bring 
together the pieces, but we're not there 
yet.” 

The specter of annihilation by killer 
pathogens or toxins has replaced the 
Cold War nightmare of extermination 
by massive nuclear anark 

Defense Secretary William Cohen 
held up a five-pound bag of sugar on 
national television last month to dram- 
atize how, with an equivalent amount of 
anthrax. 2.2 kilograms, Iraq could elim- 
inate at least half the population of 
Washington. 

Recent defense studies have warned 
that the spread of information about 
how to produce and deliver poisonous 
agents, coupled with efforts by hostile 
states and terrorist groups to find less 
conventional means to challenge the 
United States, has raised the risk of 
biological or chemical attack. 

For the military, the heightened threat 


provides new missions and the prospect 
of billions of dollars for added equip- 
ment, much of it still in development. 

While the increased emphasis on this 
problem coincides with the waning of 
the old Soviet nuclear threat and efforts 
to stave off further defense cuts. 
Pentagon officials and specialists in the 
field say they are not inventing a new 
threat or exaggerating its urgency. 

Defense experts raise particular 
alarm in the case of biological weapons. 
They say that while U.S. military forces 
have made advances in defending 
against chemical attack, American 
troops remain inadequately equipped, 
poorly trained and insufficiently im- 
munized to confront germ warfare. 
American cities are even more vulner- 
able to the sneak release of biological 
agents in subway systems or outside the 
unguarded vents of office buildings. 

A report due to be issued, next month 
by the Defense Science Board, an in- 
dependent advisory panel to Pentagon 
leaders, faults existing military capa- 
bilities to detect and respond to bio- 
logical attack and says efforts to im- 
prove defenses have “stretched thin” 
current personnel and capabilities. 

The report urges a tenfold increase in 


intelligence funding to track the germ 
warfare threat, the expansion of medical 
and other military response teams, 
greater cooperation with civilian bio- 
technology experts, and a new program 
with Moscow to keep displaced Russian 
experts from selling their germ warfare 
know-how to foreign bidders. 

Here at the military’s only facility for 
field resting of biological and chemical 
defenses, 60 miles (about 95 kilome- 
ters! west of Salt Lake City. U.S. mil- 
itary forces experimented last week 
with new devices for analyzing airborne 
germ agents. Air detection is crucial to 
confirming an attack is under way and 
identifying the agent because the fastest 
way to infect large populations is 
through the lungs. 

It was only in October last year that 
the army fielded its first biological de- 
tection unit, a heavy Humvee all-terrain 
vehicle with a two-person crew oper- 
ating a medical diagnostic lab. That 
detection system is too big and cum- 
bersome for rapid deployment to a U.S. 
city under biological attack, so the mil- 
itary is researching smaller, lighter and 
more mobile units for domestic emer- 
gencies. 

Even the most sophisticated military 


germ detectors rely on placing air 
samples in wet solutions to identify 
barmftil substances, a process that can 
tvke 45 minutes or more. Immediate, 
analysis of airborne agents will require 
an electronic system, yet to be per- 
fected, according to Brigadier General 
John Doesburg of the army, who over- 
sees Pentagon development of battle- 
field detectors. 

Both the army and the Marine Corps 
have emergency response teams on 24- 
hour alert to assist law enforcement and 
public health officials around the coun- 
try in die event of a domestic germ 
attack. But in combined exercises here 
over the past week, these units still were 
learning how to coordinate their some- 
times overlapping responsibilities. 

Numbering only several hundred in 
all. members of the army's Technical 
Escort Unit and the Marine Corps’ 
Chemical Biological Incident Response 
Force conceded they would be easily 
overwhelmed in a real attack involving 
massive casualties. Without advance 
warning, defense officials said, the mil- 
itary groups could take up to four hours 
just getting to an airport before Hying to 
the crisis zone. 

Following a review this year, Mr. 


Cohen added about S500 million to 
chemical and biological defense pro- 
grams over the next five years, an in- 
crease of roughly 20 percent over what 
had been planned. Much of the money is 
to go for the purchase of lighter-weight 
protection suits, improved detection 
devices, better decontamination solu- 
tions and new vaccines. 

For all the worry about the potential 
of germ altack. defense officials and 
civilian specialists say that making and 
delivering a biological weapon is not 
easy. Microscopic" anthrax spores, for 
instance, require a high degree ot tech- 
nical sophistication to separate and col- 
lect and then disseminate using an aer- 
osol system. 

A Pentagon report on weapons pro- 
liferation observed last month that 
“most terrorist organizations have 
shown little proclivity to develop and 
use" biological and chemical weapons. 

Bui the March 1995 release of the 
nerve agent sarin in Tokyo's subway 
system by Aum Shinrikyo. a religious 
group, was alarming. The attack, which 
killed 12 people and injured about 
5.500. demonstrated that terrorist 
groups have resources comparable to 
some foreign governments. 



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AMERICAN 


TOPICS 


An "Epidemic of Incivility’ 
Rages in Local Politics 1 

The words “civility” and “poli- 
tics” have never fit veiy comfortably 
in the same phrase, and a good polit- 
ical fight is a time-honored American 
tradition. But in recent years a rise in 
incivility in town and county council 
meetings and school board assemblies 
has become so grave as to raise na- 
tional concerns. 

At a meeting in Rockford. Illinois, 
the angry school board president 
grabbed a fellow member by the 
throat; in normally placid Cedar Rap- 
ids. Iowa, disgruntled voters some- 
times disturb City* Council meetings 
with loud humming; in Gilbert, Ari- 
zona, an outraged crowd had one city 
councilman nervously looking for the 
exit. 

The rise in boorish and even violent 
behavior by angry citizens led the Na- 
tional League of Cities to make the 
phenomenon its top focus this year, 
reports The New York Times. Gov- 
erning Magazine has deplored an 
"epidemic of incivility.” 

Analysts cited several • factors: 
Washington has pushed several issues 
back to local governments for financ- 
ing and decision making; open-meet- 
ing laws are exposing previously hid- 
den dissent; die mobility of Americans 
means that town meetings are often a 
collection of strangers, not old friends, 
and society a* a whole has become 
more impatient, quicker to cry foul. 

But some local boards have had 
enough. In Lake Forest. Illinois, which 
is famous for irs fairy-tale estates, an- 
ger at the Town Council led to 
smashed mailboxes and obscene tele- 
phone calls. 

The town is now circulating a paper 
on “Civility and Public Discourse,” 
urging public officials to lead by ex- 
ample. In Scottsdale. Arizona, offi- 
cials are creating laminated seat cards 
to offer tips on good manners to those 
attending meetings. 



SfiffTJIj 

HERE 

TODAY! 


GmUTV Wcuk-I Pi— • 

FLORIDA SANTA — Scott Davis escaping the rain in Daytona Beach. 


Short Takes 

Educators report a dramatic 
surge in the number of Jewish schools. 
At least 10 Jewish high schools 
opened across the country in Septem- 
ber, reports The- Boston Globe. The 
largest, in Waltham, Massachusetts, 
already has a long waiting list In the 
last six years, at least 40 Jewish 
schools have opened in cities from 
Atlanta to New York. A force behind 
the trend apparently is a growing fear 
that the religious foundations of 
American Jewry are being under- 
mined by assimilation. “There is a 
great deal of hand-wringing about the 
perils of creating a generation of Jews 
who axe Jews in name only,” said 
Ethan Abrams, a Jewish education 
consultant in Chicago. 

New Jersey might have the answer 
to the problem of what to do with all 
the personal computers, video-cassette 
recorders and televisions stashed in 
people’s closets or thrown away. Un- 
ion County has opened a recycling 
center for consumer electronics, a first 
in the country, according to Popular. 
Mechanics. Garbage collectors bring 
the discarded equipment to die center. 


where it is tested Depending on its 
condition, it is sold to used equipment 
dealers or dismantled for parts and 
scrap. The center hopes to become self- 
supporting within two years. 

Childhood researchers at the Uni- 
versity of Buffalo, in New York, say 
that when a parent places a young child 
on the lap of a department-store Santa 
Claus, the child can suffer from 
something called separation anxiety, 
when he or she loses sight of the 
parent, even briefly. For a child, that 
anxiety — even more than the scratchy 
beard and the sea of red velour — can 
be wrenching. 

“I’ve seen so many terrified chil- 
dren thrust upon Santa's lap,” said 
James Hoot, a professor at the uni- 
versity who has studied the matter. 
One mother spent 45 minutes waiting 
for her child to stop crying long 
enough to take a picture. 

Mr. Hoot calls that “abusive.” He t 
suggests that until achild is old enough’ 
to understand, a parent might consider 
sitting on Santa's other knee. 

Perhaps someone should warn 
Santa. 


Brian Knowlton 


Climate Treaty Faces Political Battle 


By Dan Balz 

Washington Post Sense? 

WASHINGTON — In the 
crudest of terms, the battle 
over the new global wanning 
treaty pits die politics of 
gloom — eventual environ- 
mental catastrophe — against 
the politics of fear — the ruin 
of the U.S. economy. 

Or at least that may seem 
like the argument as support- 
ers and opponents of the 
treaty negotiated in Kyoto 
last week begin what prom- 
ises to be a contentious and 
protracted struggle. 

The reality is more com- 
plex and subtle. What looms 
is a lengthy political debate 
over science and sover- 
eignty. economics and the 
environment, and America's 
role as a global leader. It is a 
debate that may cut across 
traditional coalitions even as 
it confronts politicians and 
the political parties with dif- 
ficult choices. 

For President Bill Clinton 
and Vice President A1 Gore, 
the challenge is enormous. 
They must persuade the coun- 
oy to begin to move aggress- 
ively to reduce emissions of 
greenhouse gases even as 
they acknowledge they haVe 
brought back a treaty flawed 
by the exclusion of many of 
the biggest future polluters. 

For Republicans, the chal- 
lenge is different. They will 
try to- sink the treaty on 
grounds of economics and in- 
ternational sovereignty with- 
out reinforcing public percep- 
tions that they are the anti- 
environment party. 

Already, it is clear that both 
sides recognize the dangers 
they face. Mr. Clinton and 
Mr. Gore have emphasized 
that they will not send the 
Kyoto treaty to tbe Senate for 
ratification, where it faces al- 


most certain defeat right now. 
unless they gain the cooper- 
ation of such major develop- 
ing nations as China, Mexico 
and Brazil in the fight to re- 
duce emissions. 

The Republican strategy 
appears to hinge on attacking 
the shortcomings of the 
Kyoto process and the details 
of the agreement without hav- 
ing to take a clear position on 


NEWS ANALYSIS 

whether global warming 
threatens the planet and, if it 
does, what they may be pre- 
pared to do to reduce that 
threat. 

* ‘Tbe particular question of a 
global wanning treaty is com- 
pletely undefined in the public 
mind.’' said Geoff Garin, a 
Democratic pollster. “So die 
ultimate battle is a battle to 
define the fight. Tbe proponents 
will try to define it over en- 
vironmental concerns. Tbe op- 
ponents will have both an eco- 
nomic definition and the idea of 
internationalism to pick at ” 

Mr. Clinton and Mr. Gore 
will have the bully pulpit of 
the White House; the treaty’s 
opponents will have millions 
and millions of dollars for 
television ads, and each side 
will attempt to claim a piece 
of the moral high ground. 

But it is quite possible that 
the two sides will be talking 
past one another in the coming 
debate. In that sense, this en- 
vironmental fight may be dif- 
ferent than past battles of clean 
air or clean waier legislation. 

Administration officials say 
they see the issue very much in 
foreign policy terms — as the 
beginning stage of what they 
expect could be a decade-long 
series of international nego- 
tiations that, step by step, will 
lead tbe world’s countries to ■ 
agree on collective action to 


safeguard the planet 

Judged from that perspec- 
tive, the choice U.S. nego- 
tiators at Kyoto had was clear: 
They could either help broker 
a flawed deal that nonetheless 
locked in potentially signif- 
icant changes and preserved 
U.S. influence for future ne- 
gotiations. or walk away from 
the table, see the entire effon 
collapse and turn the United 
States into an outcast in future 
discussions. 

"It's the difference be- 
tween being an international 
leader on climate .change, 
with considerable leverage, 
and being an international 
outlier who would have had 
little credibility to keep push- 
ing the process forward.” 
said Gene Sperling, the head 
of the White House National 
Economic Council. 

International considera- 
tions weighed heavily on ad- 
ministration officials. Before 
the Kyoto conference, the 
U.S. position calling for bold- 
ing emissions to. 1990 stan- 
dards had drawn sharp crit- 
icism from European allies. 

“A couple of months ago 
when a lot of countries 
doubted we were serious, we 
couldn’t get people to listen to 
us or talk to us,” a senior 
administration official said. 
‘ ‘By Kyoto we were able to be 
a broker to the agreement, so 
it’s hard to say that showing 
some commitment doesn ’t in- 
crease your leverage.” 

Another senior official said 
the U.S. strategy all along was 
to see what could be achieved 
at Kyoto, delay sending the 
treaty to the Senate for rat- 
ification, and attempt to cor- 
ral the developing countries 
into the process through later 
negotiations. 

“We had in mind this two- 
step process: Get agodd agree- 
ment in Kyoto, make clear it 


was a partial solution and not 
try for ratification immedi- 
ately, and then try to get agree- 
ment from the developing 
countries.” the official said. 

But industry officials and 
Republican leaders take issue 
with the administration’s 
contention that what they 
achieved in Kyoto was a good 
agreement. 

"“We sacrificed the future 
well-being of the country 
based on environmental cor- 
rectness and inconclusive sci- 
ence.” the House speaker. 
Newt Gingrich. Republican 
of Georgia, said in a letter to 
the president. 

Saying “the very future of 
the United States is at stake.” 
Mr. Gingrich argued that the 
costs of the agreement were 
“an outrage” that could 
“cripple our economy.” 

He urged Mr. Clinton to 
“safeguard America’s in- 
terests” and not sign the 
treaty until he had consulted 
further with Congress. 


Offshore 

Companies, Trusts 
Tax Planning 


EXAMPLE INCORPORATION FHS 


OFFSHORE TRUSTS • BANKS 
INSURANCE COMPANIES 
Far immediate service contact: 

INTERNATIONAL COMPANY 
SERVICES i IRELAND) LTD 
The Offih,irt Profrutmilf 

IN Lower Baggot SUM, 

Duhfai 2. Inland. 

Tel: + 353 1 661 8490 
Fax: + 353 1 661 B493 
E-Mai t M@ic3l.coa] 


h tt p ://w ww.lCSL.com 





r.. 














Republicans Draw 
In Battle Over Lee 

WASHINGTON — Senate Repub- 
lican* are threatening to block nom- 
inees from the Clinton administration 
and freeze money for its programs if the 
president makes' a temporary appoint- 
ment this week without Senate approv- 
al to name Bill Lann Lee to the nation s 
top civil rights enforcement post 

Senator Orrin Hatch. Republican of 
Utah, who heads the Judiciary Com- 
mittee and is the leading opponent of 
Mr. Lee's nomination, said in an in- 
terview Friday that Bill Clinton would 
suffer “all kinds of problems” on 
Capitol Hill if he appointed Mr. Lee 
early this week, as expected. 

Senator Trent Lon of Mississippi, the 


majority leader, has repeatedly warned 
President Clinton against bypassing the 
confirmation process to appoint Mr. 
Lee assistant attorney general few civil 
rights. As recently as Friday. Mr. Loti 
told the White House that such an ap- 
pointment would “poison the relation- 
ship ’’ between the White House and the 
Senate, an aide to Mr. Lott said. 

Senate Republican leaders have ac- 
cused Mr. Lee, who is a Chinese- 
American son of immigrants, of hold- 
ing unconstitutional views on race- 
based preferences. (NYT) 

Child-Care Proposals 

WASHINGTON — President Bill 
Clinton will soon propose a major ini- 
tiative to help working families obtain 
child care, with a variety of new fed- 


eral subsidies and tax breaks, admin- 
istration officials say. 

The purpose of the proposals, to be 
included in tbe president’s Sate of the 
Union message in January and in his 
budget request, is to increase the sup- 
ply of child care and to improve its 
quality. 

Although some details are not yet 
final, officials said Mr. Clinton had 
decided not to propose national child- 
care standards. (NYT) 

Quote /Unquote 

President Bill Clinton, wrapping up 
a hectic season of campaign fund-rais- 
ing before a home state crowd, liken- 
ing Republican opponents to a swarm 
of Arkansas mosquitoes: “You just 
swat ’em and go on. ” (API 


Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh 
JAMUNA MULTIPURPOSE BRIDGE AUTHORITY 

BANGABANDHU BRIDGE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 


SSISSt *££*** tffc Bangabandhu Bridge, a graceful 48 km long bridge 
spanning the mighty 10 km wide Jamuna River. .... K ... . . , 

TMR A nnw wishes to develop part of the extensive areas of land redamahon and the housing and 

implement the project, for teuton and recreagonal 
““ J a venue for holding national and international conferences. Companies or 
“ hi !i a inSed% bidding for an exclusive concession to develop, finance, imple- 
consortia \^ho commercial enterprise are invited to submit a Letter of Interest to 

ESfc S todemonstrate to JM&A in their Letters of Interest that they have the 

e^riSice and financial backing to undertake such an enterprise wifl be issued with a 
CcwJp7l>x^iem setting out the framework and programme for progressing the Bangabandhu 
Bridge Tourism Development Project 



Away From Politics 

• Most Americans support racial diversity in schools and 

Che workplace but are against some of tbe methods used to 
achieve it, a New York Times -CBS News poll indicated. Of 
those surveyed, most were against ending affirmative action 
immediately, but disapproved of using race as a factor in 
hiring and school admissions. \AP) 

• Citing an internal audit, the Internal Revenue Service has 
admitted that taxpayers’ rights are abused by a systemwide 
climate of high pressure that encourages [RS auditors to go to 
improper lengths to meet statistical benchmarks. {NYT) 

• In a blow to environmentalists, a federal judge in Wyom- 

ing has ruled that the Clinton administration's reintroduction 
of gray wolves into Yellowstone National Park and central 
Idaho three years ago was unlawful and has ordered federal 
biologists to remove the two populations, which now number 
more than 150 animals. (WP) 




Aerospace 


BREITLING SA 
P.O. Box 11 32 

SWITZERLAND - 2540 CRENCHEN 

Tel.: 41 32 / 654 54 5J 
Fax,: 41 52 / 654 54 00 


INSTRUMENTS 
FOR PROFESSIONALS 



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PAGE 4 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1997 


• • a 


THE INTERMARKET 






RECRUITMENT 


■B* +44 171 420 0348 




Digital Sound 


Ex&xtive PosUhnsAvaBalri^ General PosRions AvaSabla Gsnsnl Position* Atmfbbk 



founded in i 990, VVofld Space, a ' 

braadasttog company has opportunities m its International Business Development . 
organization! Vltelit$acewmmiwier crystal dear audio reception, unprecedented 
programming 000 + program stations) and personal mooflfty (new, portable receivers) 
to tfte emerging markets of the worid(the Mtddfe East, Africa; the Mediterranean 
Basm, Asia, Carfl&ean and. Latin America). 

International Sales 

Applications from Proven Sales Profession ts with demonstrable success 
?. in senior level sales are being accepted by our Internationa Business 
| Development division. This n an exceptional position in a young, 
emerging industry for an energetic, goal oriented professional. 

|| Considerable travel b involved. This career opportunity requites ' 
experience in the following areas; 

H ■ Dynamic sales growth from multi-miSon dollar transactions in an extended 
£ sales cyde environment 

H • Negotiation, management and dosing of an in tangible; conceptual 
It. sales process 

«£■ • Ability to define and fulfill cfient needs through a flexible product or 

SS service offering 

m- •Aptitudeii developing complex proposals through qiantitztitfe and 

X qualitative analysis 

M' • frUemational media expenaxE with an emp ha sis in cfaital Technologig 

*AfaiEty and desoe to succeed In a growing and rapidly changing company 
m • MBA degree preferred from a highly respected restitution 
W Prior experience in sales organization devdopment and . 

p leadershipdesirabte . - . 



Regional Sales 


Positions are also avaibbfe to our offices in the Middle East, Afrkai Asia, aid South 
America. The above feted experience is also required for these posnorts. 

Wb offer competitive compensation and comprehensive benefits. For. “. 
consideiation please forward your resume; cover letter, and salary history to 


World Spac e 



. Human Resource • Dept TAN/IHT 1275 
2400 N Street; NW • Washington/ • DC 20037 
Fax:(202)969-6875- ■ 


Fax:(202)969-6875- 
E-mail: jbbsinfb@worldspace.oom • 

For mare In f orm ati on on WoridSpace, wait us at, ww*y.wor1dspace.com 


Regional Sales 
& Marketing Manager 

RASED DUBAI 

Estbe Lauder International has a high profile 
opportunity in its regional office in Dubai covering 
Middle East and Africa for an exceptional 
communicator to be responsible for sales, advertising 
and promotional expenses, and image of Estfe Lauder 
for the entire area. 

Particular responsibilities will include development 
of regional strategies and programmes as well as 
lending guidance and assistance to Distributors in 
their implementation of these plans. This will require 
extensive travel throughout the region. 

This exciting and dhallenghg career opportunity is ideally 
suited to a graduate with a minimum of five years' 
experience and a proven record of achievement in sales 
and marketing management within a competitive 
consumer good^&aitfashion or related 'environment 
You must be willing to relocate to the U A.E. and be 
fluent in written / oral English. Fluency in Arabic is 
an advantage but not essential. 

Please submit your CV to Sue Rout, 

Est& LAUDER Companies, 71/73 Grosvenor Street 
London W1X 0BH or telephone for an application 
form on 0171 409 6897 (24 hour ansMeiphone). 


SCHNBiaSA 

Offers Portion of 
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Director, Division of External Relations 


The Imematxxia! Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an intergovernmental orgamsa- 
rionforsrienti/Kand technical cooperatkxi in the peaoefu I utilization of nudeaf 
energy, invites applkatrons bom quab'&ed candidates for die portion of 
Director (DI/D2J, Division of External Relations. The successful candidate will 
be based at the Vienna Headquarters and have overall nespoosabtifty far the 

• co-ordination of the Agency’s non-proliferation and safeguards policies 
and die negotiation of safeguards agreements; 

• co-ordination of Agency's policies of an inter-disdpHnary nature; 

• general liaison with, inter alia. Member States. United Nations system 
organizations, and other governmental and non-governmental orgmizations; 

• co-ordination of Agency participation In conferences and symposia: 

• preparation and co-ordination of papers and reports relevant to Agency 
activities; and 

■ protocol affairs. 

Rcqmbei quatlflutioaa 

Candidates for the position should have: 

■ an advanced university degrees in political science, law or International 
affairs 

• at least 15 years of international policy management experience at a senior 
level 

• experience in international organizations, multilateral negotiations and 
international co-operation in the nudear Geld with particular emphasis on 
non-proliferation and safeguards issues: 

• excellent communication skills in general, both oral and in writing, and In i 
English in particular. 

■ strong organizational and negotiation skills,- and 

• administrative and supervisory experience. 

The contract will be for an initial, period of three years. The successful candi- 
date will be offered a competitive compensation package and excellent ben- 
efits. The IAEA provides a culture and gender-sensitive work environment and 
applications from women and from developing countries will be particutary 
welcome. 

Applicants should send a detailed curriculum vitae quoting 
Vacancy Notice 97/051 to the Division of Personnel, 

International Atomic Energy Agency. PO Box 100. Wagrameretrasse 5, 
A-1400 Vienna, Austria no later than 31 December 1997. 


$n«tttui ffiwtcur 

PARIS I5&me 

A private foundation of public utility 
employing 3000 individuals is seeking 

RESEARCH fflfD DEVELOPMENT SCIENTIST 
FOR ONE OF ITS SERVICE IR B ORRTORIES 

Which cooperates with the pharmaceutical 
Industry, providing expertise In virology. 

The selected individual will be in charge of : 

- developing new services for evaluation of viral safety 
(particularly for gene therapy), 

-developing new research projects with a view to 
improving the viral safety of biological products, 

- promoting the activities of the laboratory by attending 
international meetings. 

Applicants should hold a PhD (or equivalent) In virology 
and have experience in the pharmaceutical Industry. 

Please send letter of motivation, CV, photograph, 
in detailing statement of claim, to service : 
Recrutement et Carri&res - 28 rue du Docteur Roux 
75724 Paris Codex 15 - FRANCE 


SECRETARIAL 


INTERNATIONAL COMPANY Based in Paris seeks 

BILINGUAL EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 

(English mother tongue} 

5 years experience required, preferably in a consulting firm, 
well oraanized, excellenf computer skills. • 

Stable position. FF 1 95,000/year. 

CV to LT.C Cornea - 22 bk, rue Jonffrey <PAbbans 75017 RAWS 

TieL: +33 (0J 1 47 66 83 84 -Fax: +33 (0)1 46 22 41 27 


EDUCATIONAL POSITIONS 


SEEK BUSINESS ENGLISH TEACHER 

Liiiingu.il French. English mother tongue 
Excellent jppe.i ranee Organization and initiative qualities. 

Jt ib pmfile- AninutiiHi and adniiniarjiicm of a Linguistic Resources 
Centre, near Neuf Hrisac. Full-time, starting from Janua ry 1 I W8. 
Complete training in Pans assured. 

• 

Send CV and motivation letter to: WESTMHX S.A., 

P. Richardson. 13 roe Yvon Vfflareean, 75016 Paris 


unicef 0 

United Nations Children's Fund 

CHIEF, CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND NUTRITION 
Duty Station: New Delhi, India (Level L-5) 

JOIN ONE OF THE WORLD'S 
OUTSTANDING SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS 

The United Nations Children's Fund. wMi Headquarters in New York, 130 offices 
ftrau^wor the worfd and an annual budget of a pp ro x i ma tely SI bSon, b the UN 
agency that worts in over 130 eounatef to ensure the survival protection and devd- 
Ofment of children. We seek tagNy quaKed candidates tor the position of OnL 
Child Development and Nutrition. Under the general guidance of the 
R apw ramve / Prind pa l Officer ■ Fi ugia i mu es, the Incurebme w» be iwponaMe tor : 
the ptanrfcig, devefapnent implementation, management and monitoring of nuqMuv 
cMd developm e nt and dlsabBlycomp uu ena within the country progmn w i n ; of coots- 
oration as well as development of a hnjiitg base tor these aspects. 
ry-lUn t inn . ' 

• Advanced unJvwdty degree in nutrtikxi public bealtiv or dhid development. 
Spectabzed tteWng in progw nu e mat— em eni ln a devel op ing cotaiiryand 
experience in nutrition antVor ddd develop me nt progi an urtotg. 

• Ten yean of professional wortc experience at national and international levels In 
development wort: in fields related to UNICEF In t e r ea s. with enqthmii on social 
development, particubiiy in the areas of cMd development, nuMfan and ch4d 
dbabfify activities. 

• Proven ability to ctmoeivv and develop policies and design praffiarames. creative 
prograinming sfctos and taain buldbtg competence. 

- Cuient knowtodge of chdd and VMomen rights tssues. 

-' Penioitf UJ iBd lead e r sh ip aMt i an dyocacy and ar a iyricalsfcfc are essemblamtoutas. 

• High degree of computer hemey. 

- Good manag ement. Interperso na l and communication stub. 

- Abitryio advocate and mtonakepoficydologuewith senior olfitiais in govenvnenf 
deparamte. rational and hnmBdorel deretotmem ageides, donors and Mama wtfi 
correnunMu and health functionaries. 

- Abtoty to work bran International and multi culiurel environment. 

- Fluency to Engfeh and another U4 working hnguafe Knowiedge of Hindi mi asset. 
Apptctetons by female canrfcfale are espedafly welcome. Flnaea send det a fcd nesunw in 
EhgfWv quoting refeenaa nuntoer VhW 7-2 1 7 ax Reauftmoit Placemen* Section CSPl 
UMCEF, 3 UN Pfaoa (H5f) New Yktrli. NT 10017, USA. Appficattoni far this petition must 
be reotind by Deoember 29th. 1997. AcknowMfamm w* be wnt only U shorlksted 
candidates. 

. UMCBF fa a smoke-free envfconmenL 


RndflJoWast! 

http://www.washingtonpost.com 


©jetoosfjingtmipiiM 

Careernnst 


International Consulting Co in Petroleum 
Engineering seeks personnel 
WITH THE FOLLOWING QUALIFICATIONS: 

1) Instrumentation Engineer, 2) Electrical Engineer (power), 
3) Quality Control Engineer, 4) Hanner/Scheduiers: 

AO positions must have a Degree, at least 10 years 
experience, and international experience. Must be willing to 
work 2 months on/one month off. All positions are located in 
West Africa. 

Mar/ nesuintf and salary requirements to: 

The Manager, Dept. DHT-002, 

PO Box 57072S-2S3, Houston, Texas 772S7 
FAX to: 713/961-3845 USA 
e-maii to: 75102.15706cotnpuserve.com 


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Giovanni Agnelli, Fiat Heir, 33, Dies 


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By Alan Friedman 

* fafr rnflfhwhrf Herald Tribune 

PARIS ! — - Italy went into mourning 
Sunday after the death over the weekend 
o f Gtovannt Alberto Agnelli, the 3S- 
year-ola heir apparent and designated 
future chairman of the Fiat group/ 

Mr. Agnelli, an immensely popular 
national figure who was the nephew of 

mat S nnnnnni r*- __ ■ ■ 


nelli, died Saturday after a nine-month 
battle against a rare form of stomach 
cancer. 

Mr. Agnelli was buried early Sunday 
morning at a private ceremony in Turin 
attended by close family members, in- 
cluding Avery Howe Agnelli, his Amer- 
ican wife of 13 months. He also left 
behind a baby daughter. Virginia Asia, 
who was bom in September. 

Giovanni Alberto Agnelli was bom in 
Milan on April 19,1964. His father was 
Umberto Agnelli, grandson of die 
founder of Fiat, Giovanni Agnelli, and 
the younger brother of Gianni. His 
mother was Antonella Piaggio, of the 
eponymous motor scooter company that 
is based in Tuscany. 

Mr. Agnelli, who was educated at 
McCallie Academy in Chattanooga, 
Tennessee, and at Brown University in 
Providence, Rhode Island, was chair- 
man of Piaggio. In recent years he had 
turned the company around and built it 
into die European market leader and the 
fourth-biggest scooter maker in the 
w odd. after Honda. Suzuki and Y amaha 
of Japan. 

The Italian public, and the media, 
loved the young Agnelli and considered 
him an Italian version of John F. 
Kennedy Jr. He was rich, strikingly 
handsome, always smiling and the lead- 
ing voice of his generation. 

The death of Mr. Agnelli will re- 
ignite speculation about who will take 
over the chairmanship of Fiat when 
Cesare Romiti, 74. steps down this year 
or next. In 1995, the young Mr. Agnelli 
became known as the “crown prince of 


Fiat” when he was publicly anointed as 
die successor.by his unde Gianni, who 
called him “die most qualified” -mem- 
ber of the family to take over. 

In national terms, fee k&$ of : Mr. 
Agnelli is a setback for millions of Itali- 
ans who saw him as a symbol of gen- 
erational change, as a spokesmainfpr the . 
need to reform Italy’s dnbby.'aod ol- 
igarchic system of.capitalism andasao 



an outspoken critic of old-stytearac- 
rices in Italian and European capitalism. 
In an interview in 1996 with fee. In- ’ 
temational Herald Tribune, he warned 
that the Italian economy would. suffer 
unless there was soot a “ generational 
change” among its top managers and 
“more of a free-market approach” in, 
finance and industry. - . f-. ! ; ’ 

Unusually . Mr. Agnelli extended fee 
criticism to his own famil y. . saying, 
“The establishment should foDov/. fee 
rales of the market more because more 
competition -is good for. ccmsumers^ in- 
dustry and investors.” Many Italians 
were struck when Mr. Agnelli, a mem- 
ber of the Rat board, , said: “That esr 
ta.btisbmeotinclude&, of coarse, my own 
family. I cannot exempt Rat fro m what 
I am saying.” 

Mr. Agnelli, who lived. in &.i6fe 
century villa not far from fee Piaggio 
headquarters near Pisa in Tuscany, an- 
nounced last April that he had been . 
diagnosed- wife cancer. He underwent 
several months of chemotherapy at Me- 
morial SIoan-Kettering Hospital in New 
York, before returning home to Turip in 
August. ' 

Italy’s business and political elite 
offered condolences as soonaktbetiews . 
of Mr. Agnelli’s death broke Saturday^ 

“He was fee symbol of youth,” said 
Prime Minister Romano Prodi, while 
attending a summit meetmgof Euro- 
pean Union leaders in Luxanbourg. 
:< He died just as he was begwiiing to 
coUect the fruits of life.” 


Claude Roy, 82, Writer and Poet 
: . PARIS (AP) — The French poet and 
journalist Claude Roy, S2, a prolific 
writer of humorous and optimistic prose 
and verse, died Saturday, the Culture 
Ministry announced. 

: Mr. Roy, who had just released his 
latest book, ‘Treasury of French Po- 
. eayf ’ an anthology, had been battling 
lung -cancer far several years. 

Prime Munster Lionel Jospin said 


moving collection of poetry and ro- 
mance.” 

The writer Octavio Paz once called 
Mr; Roy’s humor “a bet in favor of 
life.” 

.: Afrequent collaborator of fee current 
affairs- magazine, Nouvel Observateur, 
Mr. Roy was also an ait critic who wrote 
about Rembrandt; Picasso, Balfens and 
fee Chinese painter. Zap Wou-KjL 
- He was known as well for Iris travel 
pieces on fee Soviet Union, fee United 

Stairs and Phina. 

, Among his most famous works were 
“li’Enfance de l’art” (1942), “Le 
Sotefl snr la Terre” (1956), “Leone et 
les siens” (1963), “La traversee du 
Pontdes Arts” (1979) and “Les Pas du 
.silence” (1993). 

He also wrote three autobiographies, 
“Moije” (1969), “Nous” (1972) and 
“Somme route” (1976), and, although 
iHin recent years, turned out ‘ ‘Poemes a 
pas de-loup 1992-1996,” and “Che- 
mmscroiscs 1994-1 995” 

He was bom in Paris Aug. 28, 1915, 
fee' sot of a painter and a postal work- 
er. 

Francis Paudras, 62, Artist 

. ' New York Tunes Service 

■ ’Tprands Pandras, 62, a commercial 
artist,; author, collector of jazz-related 
artifacts and patron of jazz musicians, 
inefnrfihg fee pianist Bud Powell, died 
Not.-. = 26 ai ms castle in Antigny, 
Ranee; 

He committed suicide, the newspaper 
Le Figaro reported- The story of tris 



Mexican State 
Blocks a Labor 
Breakthrough 

The Associated Preu 

SAN DIEGO — A small group of 
factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico, be-, 
lieved they had won the right to form an 
independent union, but Ibe government 
of fee state of Baja California dealt a 
blow to the labor activists' struggle. 


I V iT-J > r- r •* V 1 • 


ruarlW 

Giovanni Alberto Agnelli, right, in 1994 with his uncle, Gianni Agnelli. 


friendship wife Mr. Powell was adapted 
by the director Bertrand Tavernier for 
the 1986 film “’Round Midnight,” 
which starred Francois CJazet as a char- 
acter based on Mr. Paudras and Dexter 
Gordon as a composite portrait of Pow- 
ell and Lester Young. He had been, 
since his early 20s, an eager follower of 
die Parisian jazz scene. 

Jorge Castaneda, 76, Diplomat 

MEXICO CITY (NYT) — Jorge 
Castaneda de la Rosa, 76. who as fee 
Mexican foreign minister from 1979 to 
1982 led his country into an assertively 
independent posture toward the United 
States and sought to strengthen ties with 
Central America and Cuba, died here 
Thursday of complications from dia- 
betes. 

A career diplomat, Mr. Castaneda 
was appointed foreign minister in May 
1979 by President Jose Lopez Portillo at 
a time when Mexico was flexing new 


geopolitical power as a result of its 
extensive new petroleum discoveries. 
To the south in Nicaragua, fee Sandi- 
nista insurrection was about to triumph, 
upsetting long-standing power relation- 
ships. 

Three days after Mr. Castaneda's ap- 
pointment, Mexico broke diplomatic re- 
lations wife fee right-wing Nicaraguan 
government of Anaslasio Somoza. It 
was a step not entirely of Mr. Casta- 
neda’s making, but it set a tone for his' 
three years in office. 


Carlos Rafael Rodriguez, 84, a 
Communist intellectual who forged a 
crucial alliance between Fidel Castro’s 
followers and Cuba’s hard-line Com- 
munists. whose political career spanned 
more than six decades and who served 
on the Politburo and as deputy pres- 
ident, died Dec. 8 in Havana. He had 
been suffering from Parkinson's disease 
and heart problems. 


to recognize the union, became 
of fee estimated 2.700 factories along 
fee U.S. -Mexican border to agree to 
more democratic labor negotiations' 
Most labor unions in Mexico are af- 
filiated wife fee governing Institutional 
Revolutionary Party. 

But fee Baja California government 
refused to affirm fee deal Saturday, a day 
after management agreed to fee estab- 
lishment of i union free from control by 
the governing party. The pact contained a 
provision requiring the state to officially' 
acknowledge the union's right to exist. 

After four hours of negotiations Sat- 
urday, Ricardo Gonzalez Cruz, repre- 
senting the governor of Baja California, 
Hector Teran, refused to sign. The Sari 
Diego Union-Tribune reported Sunday 

Enrique Hernandez, an independent, 
organizer who assisted fee workers, said 
he would take the agreement to fee Baja 
California labor board Monday. B ut last 
month tile board rejected a vote by work- 
era to establish fee independent union. ' 

Under fee agreement announced Fri- 
day. fee workers for Han Young de 
Mexico SA also won a 30 percent raise, 
and employees who had been dismissed 
for labor activity were to be reinstated 
with full back pay, said Mary Tong; 
director of the San Diego Support Com- 
mittee for Maquiladora Workers. 

The Han Young plant makes tractor- 
trailer parts for Hyundai Precision 
America. The workers complained of 
low wages and dangerous conditions. In ■ 
October, they voted, 58 to 32. to ap-; 
prove an independent union. 


Israelis Divided Over Pullout 

Cabinet Team Argues Over Map While Albright Waits 


tip tv#** 

t |W|tnilr m S'*" 

e ultimate '« 

~-V: 


By Serge Schmemann 

' Nc* Yurt Tinus Service 

JERUSALEM — Two weeks after the Is- 
raeli cabinet gave its conditional approval to a 
further withdrawal in the West Bank, senior 
ministers still disagree on how to approach the 
matter, making it unlikely feat Prime Minister 
Benjamin Netanyahu will have a detailed plan 
to show Secretary of State Madeleine Al- 
bright this week. 

Although Mr. Netanyahu said on Nov. 30 
that a plan would be presented to tin: cabinet 
within one or two weekMfeeteam set up to 
draft it — Mr. Netanyahu, Defense Minister 
Yitzhak Mordechai, Infrastructures Minister 
Ariel Sharon and foreign Minister David 
Levy — has failed to reaOTxjonseaspjs. - ■ V 
TTie continuing disagipeaifiiiiirevMDofftne 
now-familiar image of Mr. Netanyahfttod Iris 
ministers arguing heatedly among feejpselves 
while the Palestinians and Amencana wait m 
frustration. 

[ Netanyahu Lashes Out | 

. Reuters 

JERUSALEM — A furious Prime . 
Minister Benjamin Netanyahu canceled 
his subscription to fee newspaper Ye- - 
dioth Ahronofe on Saturday, the day after 
it published an extended exposri on his 
wife’s behavior. 

Israelis thronged newsstands Friday,;.- 
. snapping up copies of fee paper to read 
allegations that Sara Netanyahu had 
abused her position and tormented sub- • 
ordinates, hurling shoes and curses at one 
employee and forcing others to taste wine 
to make certain it was not poisoned. 

Late Saturday, Mr. Netanyahu fired 
off a letter to editors of fee paper. 

“You have burst all bounds of fair- " 
ness, humanity and morality.” he wrote. 
“In general, I have passed over in silence 

fee repeated attacks on my family in fee 

last year and a half, but this wicked attack 
is unprecedented, aimed at trampling her 
honor and carrying out a character as- 
sassination on her.” 


Since her visit to laaef in Sq3ttember, MD5. 
Aifeight has mcreasmgty leaned on Isr&iel to 
move ahead, indirectly threatening to crank 
up the pressure even more: if Mr. Netanyahu 
does not present a concrete proposal by 
month’s end for the further withdrawals re- 


states has called for a “ signifi cant and cred- 
ible” withdrawal 

But Mr. Sharon and' Mr. Mordechai have 

cede many agreement ^^tSpresented his 
-« ' ■- ■■■■■ 



fee longtime, hard-hoar Mr. Sharon, who 
would essentially Jeaye; fee.-RiJestmians a 
patch wark ofJaiWs. samjundedoy Israeli se- 
cut&y zooe^roatbj^settlements. Mr. Sbar- 
ou&nd Mf. Morifeiqhai fiew pyer ftp' West 
Ba& orfe* riday in annthrt- effort to nairbw 
tSqfrtfiffhroybes: ; ; 

Me^whsfc; Mr. Levy, apparently wife Mr. 
Nsfapy&fm^ support, has, argued feat it is 
iinpq&ttiVetto preserit a concrete' withdrawal 
plan to Mrs. Aifeight^ infailtiriTliufedayib 
avoid worsening already. -Shamed reflations 
wtth the Clinton adimite&tiea. . 










li *!»■ j l s.i l»l Id ii l 1 #*’- 1 W I 

ssIbBSB 


BRIEFLY 


Message to Jailed Spy 

Is Sent by Netanyanu - 

JERUSALEM — Prime Minister Ben- 
iamin Netanyahu on Sunday sent a personal 
message of support for fee first tune to 
Jonathan Pollard, who is serving a life sen- 
tence in a U.S. prison for spying for IsraeL 
The Israeli leader told Mr. Pollard m the 
message that he was “concerned about 
the fate of the spy. who has been imprisoned 
since 1987, and expressed hope that Israeft 
efforts would win his release soon, tas 
office said in a statement. I*rn 

Algeria Convicts 17 
In Oil Field Arson Plot 

PARIS — An Algerian court has con- 
victed 17 men of plotting to set ablaze giant 
Hassi Messaoud oil field, Algeria s mafl. 
source of the country s crude output, an 

Algerian daily said Sunday. . . , 

Le Maun newspaper said fee 
court in the eastern city of Annato had 
sentenced the 1 7 men to jail terms of up to 
15 years after it found them guilty ofan 
“aiion plan” to set fee Add .onj Tire. -The 
newspaper said fee court 1{ J® 
as members of the radical Armed fetamc 

Group. ‘ 


Cholera in Zanzibar 

DAR ES SALAAM, Tanzania — Med- 
ical personnel in Zanzibar haye been re- 
called from leave on fee island becanse of a 
cholera outbreak, Tanzania’s semi-official 
Sunday-News. repwted. Radio Z an ziba r 
said 20 people had died in the outbreak, first 
publicized a week ago. {Reuters) 

Christmas in Cuba 

HAVANA — President Fidel Castro on 
Sunday declared Christmas Day 1997 a 
holiday as a gesture to fee country’s Chris- 
tians, and to Pope John Paul II,- who is to 
make his first visit here next month. But bc 
stressed that tile holidaywas an exception 
for this year only, the official news agency 
fo»nsg Latina reported. . • (AFP)- 

Snowstorms Hii Mexico 

MEXICO CITY — Freak snowstorms 
and bitter cold have struck most of sorfeezn 
Mexico, leaving at least 12peoplbdead.and 
paralyzing highways and ports, media re- 
ports said over fee weekend.- =' 

souS^as Gi^alajara, where :if 
snowed for fee first tune since 1881 , radio 
reports there raid. (Rearers) 


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*AGE 6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1997 




ASIA/PACIFIC 


Korea Opposition Just May Win It 


By Mary Jordan 

■ — Washington Post Service • 

JEOUL — For the first time in mod- 
m J- j Qth Korean Wstory, an opposition 
candidate could win the presidency here 
week, earning die job of putting this 
“npoitant and economically stricken 
Asian nation back on its feet. 

Many analysts say the election Thurs- 
“ay is too close to rail, but President 
•i! ^ oun S Sam, who by law cannot 
see k a second five-year term, and the 
candidates increasingly are asked to dis- 
puss how they would transfer power 
between parties, something never done 
before. That is taken as a sign of how 
good the opposition’s chances are. 

Changing political parties this month, 
when South Korea is in a financial crisis 
that has forced it to seek a bailout, or line 
of credit to replenish depleted govern- 
ment reserves, from the International 
Monetary Fund, worries some who say a 
leadership change is the last thing the 
country's unstable markets need. 

But the opposition candidate, Kim 
Dae Jung, said over the weekend that 
that was exactly what the economy 
needed. If the governing party is re- 
elected, “there will be no improve- 
ment" in the economic chaos that 
threatens to wipe out the gains of a 
generation, he said. “On the other hand, 
I have been working," he said, for re- 
structuring * * the economy for 30 years. I 
amprepared” 

The candidate of the majority party, 
Lee Hoi C hang — and even many who 
are not enamored with him — insists 
that this is hardly the time to add polit- 
ical instability to economic instability. 

"Many people are looking for sta- 


bility. not change." said a political sci- 
entist, Park Jai Chang. 

* Korea’s 45 million people are not 
alone in worrying about the outcome. 
The world's financial community is fol- 
lowing the campaign closely because 
Seoul is receiving $60 billion from the 
IMF, the United States and Japan; be- 
cause the country's economic crisis is 
causing rippling effects in Houg Kong 
and on Wall Street; and because the next 
president will preside over peace ne- 
gotiations with communist North 
Korea. 

“If the opposition wins, it is a historic 
moment.” Mr. Park said. “The vested 
interests will change for the first time in 
modem Korean history.” 

No matter who wins Thursday, many 
wish the victor could assume respon- 
sibilities before the Feb. 25 inaugu- 
ration. The election has caused political 
paralysis in die country with uo strong 
leader calling the shots, and this has 
added to the economic havoc. 

“We cannot let things go rudderless 
till Feb. 25 in view of the grave situation 
of the economy," Kim Dae Jung said. 

Some newspaper editorials have 
asked President Kim to step down pre- 
maturely to hasten the transition, or at 
least to share power over the next two 
months. And some are even calling for a 
constitutional revision to allow the new 
president to take over before the end of 
February. 

The economic crisis has rocked 
Korea. Many Koreans are not happy 
about the IMF intervention or about 
painful austerity programs to help get 
die economy on track. 

Efforts to restore confidence have 
been undermined. Officials previously 


have raised the specter of a debt default, 
or at least a backlash against foreigners 
and the IMF. 

On Saturday, President Kim and the 
three presidential candidates reaffirmed 
support for the IMF bailout. 

“We will do our best to bolster in- 
ternational confidence by . honoring the 
terms of the agreement," said a state- 
ment by the president and the candi- 
dates, including an independent, Rhee 
In Je. 

Korean presidents have had enor- 
mous influence in determining how 
private- sector money, as well as gov- 
ernment money, is spent In the past, the 
president decided which industrial gi- 
ants expanded into producing automo- 
biles or small appliances. That arrange- 
ment, which often meant lending vast 
sums regardless of die investment's 
soundness, is being blamed for mnch of 
the economic collapse. 

“We have no support from big busi- 
ness, not a penny," said Lee Jong Chan, 
Kim Dae Jung's campaign manager. 

That is exactly what entices many — 
and worries many others. 

Voters say they are tired of cronyism 
and want to throw out those responsible 
for the financial crisis, with its rising 
prices and falling salaries. But they also 
don't know if Mr. Kim, who is seen as a 
maverick with tenuous ties to big money 
and business, is the answer. 

A victory by Mr. Kim. 73. would be 
astonishing. During the 30 years he has 
sought the presidency, the governing 
party has cast him as a radical He still 
limps from an assassination attempt. If 
he assumes die same office of those who 
have jailed and tried to kill him, it would 
be seen as nothing short of a miracle. 


CitnptlnJ by Our .tuff From Dapatim 

NANJING, China — An air of 
mourning hung over Nanjing on Sunday 
after residents of the city in eastern 
China flocked to a memorial to honor 
the tens of thousands of people who 
were slaughtered by Japanese soldiers 
60 years ago. 

A memorial at the site of a mass grave 
was the focal point for remembrance of 
the 1937 massacre unleashed when the 
Japanese Army entered what was then 
the Chinese capital, Nanking. 

Citizens walked silently past exhibits 
that included a sunken display of the 
buried skulls and limbs of victims of the 
“Rape of Nanking." 

Japanese troops captured the city on 
Dec. 13, 1937. The rampage of murder 
and rape against a defenseless city con- 


tinued for three months, claiming at 
least 1 50.000 lives — and perhaps twice 
that number. 

For the Chinese, it became an en- 
during symbol of the savagery of Jap- 
anese occupation. Even as old age claims 
the last survivors, the massacre resonates 
with younger Chinese, who resent what 
they say is Japan 's reluctance to come to 
terms with its wartime past 

Behind the flags of their colleges, 
students marched to the site Sunday, 
bowed their heads before a stone obelisk 
engraved with the words “300,000 Vic- 
tims.” and chanted patriotic slogans. 

Huge floral “mourning wheels," 
bearing the Chinese characters similar 
in meaning to “Lest We Forget," stood 
at the gates of the site and dotted in- 
tersections around the city. 


More than 10,000 people are believed 
buried at the Jiangdong Men sice, one of 
many around the city where mass be- 
headings and executions by firing 
squads were carried out. 

While Nanjing paused for three 
minutes of remembrance Saturday, 
Beijing officials stayed away, reflecting 
political sensitivities. 

President Jiang Zemin, in comments 
in the official media, urged Japan to 
draw a lesson from aggression that 
brought “disaster for the Chinese and 
suffering for die Japanese." 

Mr. Jiang balanced his comments 
with positive words about economic co- 
operation before a meeting with Prime 
Minister Ryu taro Hashimoto this week 
at talks by die Association of South East 
Asian Nations. (Reuters, AP) 


BRIEFLY 



BANGLADESH VETERANS — Men who fought against Pakistan 
in the 1971 war gathering Sunday in Dhaka before independence day. 

o j . rvrwr A public hot line will also be 

dunarto IxOGS Oil 1 V opened for those worried about the 
rjn r ■ i it j »r , I 7 f bird flu, so called because it is hor- 
lO InSISt MiG S IVOt 111 mally confined to chickens. ( Reuters ) 


5 37 ‘ Rape of Nanking 5 Commemorated 


JAKARTA — In an attempt to re- 
assure the nation that he was not ill. 
President Suharto appeared on nation- 
al television over the weekend and 
said be was in good health. 

“I had been advised by doctors to 
rest, but dow I am healthy and in good 
condition," Mr. Suharto, 76, said in 
the five-minute broadcast Saturday 
night 

Mr. Suharto had canceled a visit to 
Kuala Lumpur to attend a summit 
meeting of the Association of South 
East Asian Nations after he was 
ordered by doctors on Dec. 5 to take 
10 days' rest 

The hews set off strong rumors that 
he was critically ill. The rupiah 
plunged to a historic low of 5,383 to 
the dollar on Friday after starting the 
week at about 4,000. (Reuters) 


Papua Leader Ousts 
Party From Coalition 

SYDNEY — Prime Minister Bill 
Skate of Papua New Guinea has ex- 
pelled the Pangu Pati party from the 
governing coalition ana named a new 
deputy in fallout from corruption al- 
legations a gains t him, Australian 
Broadcasting Crap. radio said Sunday. 

Trade ana Tourism Minister Mi- 
chael Nali, newly installed leader of 
the People’s Progress Party, has been 


Hong Kong Steps Up 
6 Bird Flu 9 Measures 

HONG KONG — Hong Kong is 
stepping up the battle against a “bind 
flu” that has killed two people and 
caused widespread alarm, a spokes- 
man for the government said Sunday. 

But critics put pressure on the gov- 
ernment to order more vigorous action 
against the virus, which has so far 
killed a 3-year-old and an adult 

The spokesman quoted Chief Sec- 
retary Anson Chan as saying Saturday 
that the government mil create an 
interdepartmental task force to fight 
the bug, known as influenza H5N1. 


This followed the sacking on Nov. 
30 of Chris Haiveta, leader of Pangu 
Pati, for disloyalty after the release of 
secretly recorded videos showing Mr. 
Skate boasting he was a “godfather” 
of crime in the South Pacific nation. 

ABC said Pangu Pati had been ex- 
pelled from the coalition for failing to 
dump Mr. Haiveta as leader. (Reuters) 

For the Record 

Prime Minister Mahathir bin 
Mohamad of Malaysia on Sunday 
met General Than Sbwe, leader of the 
military government of Burma, in Ku- 
ala Lumpur and conveyed concern 
over the situation in that country, 
Malaysia's foreign minister. Minister 
Abdullah Badawi, said. He said the 
general informed Mr. Mahathir of re- 
cent changes in the Burmese gov- 
ernment. (Reuters) 


At Cambodian 
Party Meeting, 
Criticizes Coup 


Reuters 

PHNOM PENH — Cambodia’s lead- 
ing dissident, Sam Rainsy; on Sunday 
condemned the July takeover by Hun 
Sen and said be would wait and see it 
elections planned for May could be fair 
before deciding whether to take part 

Mr. Sam Rainsy, a former finance 
minister, also told a congress of his 
political party that legislation outlawing 
the Khmer Rouge guerrilla group was 
divisive and should be scrapped. 

“I don’t understand why they staged 
a coup," he told about 2,000 clapping 
supporters of his unrecognized Khmer 
Nation Party in the first purely political 
mass opposition rally in Cambodia in 
more than six months. * ‘ People lost their 
lives, their jobs.’* 

The meeting was the largest oppo- 
sition party gathering since Mr. Hun 
Sen, the second prime minister, deposed 
Prince Norodom Ranariddh, the first 
prime minister, in early July, plunging 
the country into renewed conflict and 
political crisis. 

‘ ‘There was no reason for the coup.' ’ 
Mr. Sam Rainsy said." We -could have 
just waited a few months and had an 
ejection.’ ' The party congress adopted a 
resolution condemning the coup and 
subsequent human-rights abuses. 

Also on Sunday, about 200 members 
of a Khmer Nation Party splinter group 
held a brief rally at a Phnom Penh 
stadium. The party rebels, who broke 
with Mr. Sam Rainsy some time ago 
after various disagreements, burned an 
effigy of him before dispersing. 

Prince Ranariddh and Mr. Sam 
Rainsy were out of the country at the 
time of the coup and campaigned 
against Mr. Hun Sen from abroad. But 
Mr. Sam Rainsy returned to Phnom 
Penh in late November and agreed to 
cooperate with Mr. Hun Sen's govern- 
ment and work toward peace and a free 
and fair election in May. 

On Friday, Mr. Sam Rainsy, a former 
member of Prince Ranariddh's royalist 
party, anno unced that a formula had been 
worked out to allow the prince to return 
home and take part in the election. 

Under the plan, the prince would be 
tried in his absence on security-related 
charges that were filed against him after 
he was deposed. He would then be im- 
mediately pardoned by bis father. King 
Norodom Sihanouk, and would return 
to Cambodia. Mr. Sam Rainsy said that 
the prince would accept the formula. 


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Rioti 




***** Franeefmse 

BELFAST — Protestants and Cath- 
olics appeared determined Sunday to 
continue the talks to bring peace to 
Northern Ireland despite weekend vi- 
olence m Londonderry feat left six 
people hurt after a Protestant march. 

The violence was the worst Northern 
Ireland had seen since the Irish Re- 
publican Anny declared a cease-fire in 
July. 

to Londonderry on Saturday and 
early Sunday, Catholics enraged by the 
parade of Protestant loyalists past their 
neighborhood threw firebombs ard 
clashed with security forces. 

The Royal Ulster Constabulary said 
the more than 1,000 Molotov cocktails 
had been thrown by nationalist dem- 
onstrators. 

Five police officers were slightly 
wounded and an 11 -year-old .boy was 



to Halt Talks 


hospitalized with serious injuries after 
being hit by a stone, die constabulary 
said - ' 

Thirteen demonstrators- were arres- 
ted, die police said, adding that a retail 
store, a. dozen cars and two buses were 
set on fire. . . ;j 

The Royal Ulster Constabulary Said 
that its officers had fired a total of 169 
mb ber bullets in attempts to disperse the 
crowds. 

A large police presence remained in 
die refuse-strewn streets Sunday, after 
the British Army was called out on 
patrol for the first time in six months. 

Both sides were careful not to fan the 
flumes of die violence, however, and 
observers saw that as a sign of progress 
in the peace process In recent months. 

In an interview with Irish television 
laie Saturday, David Trimble, the head 
of the Ulster Unionist Party, said he did 


g with Gerry 
leader, as Mr. 


not rule out a meed 
Adams,, the Sinn Fein 
Adams had suggested. 

“So many things are possible,” Mr. 
Trimble said. “We have seen actually in 
the past people who have forsaken ter- 
rorism and genuinely changed into 
democrats.” 

“It is perfectly possible dial Gory 
Adams can follow that path,” Mr. 
Trimble added. A day earlier, he had 
dismissed Mr. Adams’s offer of tatw as 
“aafilylinfcstnnt” 

On Thursday, Mr. Adams and other 
leaders of Sinn Fein, the political wing 
of the Irish Republican Army, met at 
No. 10 Downing Stoset with Pnra Min- 
ister Tony Blair of Britain. 

Mr. Adams said the taflrs had been 
more chan an exchange of “stock po- 
sitions.” Mr. Blair described the meet- 
ing as “positive and constructive.” 



Mima McCdBpuphMjytic^ B t IW 

A Londonderry man passing a burned bus. Six people were hurt in rioting. 


A Priest’s Hate Radio Station Wields Political Clout in Poland 


By Jane Perlez 

Aten- York Tunrs Service 


■ ' WARSAW — One of the most po- 
litically potent mass media outlets in 
Poland is a populist radio station directed 
by a Roman Catholic priest whose daily 
outpourings of hate and rage are inter- 
mingled with lengthy prayer sessions. 

The radio's founder, the Reverend 
Tadeusz Rydzyk, says politicians who 
favor liberalizing the nation's abortion 
law should have their heads shaved, just 
as Poles shaved the heads of .w omen 
who slept with German soldiers during 
World War EL He accused a famous 
Solidarity leader of be ing a tool of Stal- 
in. Expressions of anti-Semitism are 
regular fare. 

As Radio Maryja blossomed from a 


BRIEFLY 


small listener-financed station in 1991 
to a social movement of 5 million sub- 
scribers that successfully backs candi- 
dates for P arliament, the Ro man Cath- 
olic hierarchy remained silent 

But after a move by a provincial 
■prosecutor's office against Father Ry- 
dzyk and bints from the Vatican, the 
church’s highest official in Poland, Car- 
dinal Jozef Glemp, chastised the priest 
on Dec. 3 for going too far. 

In a public letter. Cardinal Glemp 
admonished die priest for stirring “hos- 
tility” and for being insubordinate to 
the church hierarchy. The car dinal ad- 
vised Father Rydzyk to stop being so 
brazenly political and asked the bead erf' 
his oder, the Reverend Edward Nocun 
of the Redcmptorists Order, to. super- 
vise the priest more closely. 


The reaction of the cardinal, who is 
Viewed as a conservative force in Po- 
land’s pdwerihl Roman Catholic Church, 
was interpreted here as a major political 
- event Newspapers devoted full pages to 
tire issue ann to the cardinal’s letter. 

Father Rydzyk has not formally com- 
mented on the letter, which appears to 
have had little effect so far. Rather than 
control Father Rydzyk, as the cardinal 
asked. Father Nocun, the priest’s su : 
perior, expressed his solidarity with Ra- 
dio Maryja and its boss. 

Political commentators noted that tire 
car dinal ’s rebuke came shortly after tire 
church made one of its most notable 
modernizing moves. After severs 1 years 
of keeping their distance, a group of 
Polish bishops visited die headquarters 
of the European Union in Brussels last 


month to show their support for Polish 
membership in the institutional heart of 
Western Europe. 

During Pope John Paul n’s visit to 
Poland in June, the Pope’s spokesman 
expressed bis displeasure with Radio 
Maryja, stressing that the views of the 
station’s correspondent at the Vatican 
were personal views and not those of the 
Vatican. 

Then, the invective from Radio Maryja 
became too modi for fee prosecutor’s 
office in Tprun, where fee radio is based. 
The prosecutor charged Father Rydzyk 
wife slandering public figures. That was 
later reduced to a lesser charge. 

The priest turned up for an interview 
at the prosecutor’s office this month 
accompanied by a member of Parlia- 
ment mom tiie center-right Solidarity 


Election Action party, which won the 
national elections this falL 

Father Rydzyk, who fields calls firm 
listeners and lets them talk at length, 
showed his political influence in the elec- 
tions. At least 18 members of Parliament 
from the Solidarity group said they won 
because the radio station endorsed them. 
Several of these politicians now control 
the culture and media committees in the 
lower and upper houses of Parti ament. 

Surveys snow that Radio Maryja is 
fee fourth most popular station in Po- 
_ land. It is fiercely anti-urban and draws 
'most of its 5 ‘million listeners from 
among older and religiously observant 
women. 

Many of those women live on meager 
pensions, and they draw solace from the 
lengthy religious progr amming . 



France Challenges Judge on Bosnia Atrocities 


Remers • 

PARIS — France was involved 
Sunday in a bitter fight wife fee 
prosecutor at the International 
Criminal Tribunal for the former 
Yugoslavia after she accused 
French troops of faffing to act 
against war criminals in Bosnia- 
Hozegovina. 

The angry exchanges preceded a 
meeting Monday between fee 
United Nations prosecutor, Louise 
Arbour, and Foreign Minister 
Hubert Vedrine of {ounce. 

“Most of fee indicted war crim- 
inals, a large number of them, are 


living in the French sector,” Judge 
Arbour told French television LO 
in an interview Sunday. 

She maria her charge after Ld 
showed a film of a suspected Bos- 
nian Serb war criminal, Janie 
Janko, in a bar in the French sector 
offering for $3,000 to tell a.jour- 
nalist how he “slit throats and 
gouged eyes out” 

The film also showed two of- 
ficers in the UN peacekeeping force 
emeying a drink on the bar’s terrace. 
“Some pictures are rather damning, 
setf-explanaicny,” the judge said. 
“There is no doubt that this man 


is in the French sector,” said a 
French Foreign Ministry spokes- 
woman, Anne Gazeau-Secret. 
“But Mrs. Arbour's allegation that 
a vast majority of those indicted are 
living in fee French sector is, in our 
opinion, absolutely baseless.” 

The Foreign Ministry said that 
France was folly participating in 
efforts to bring indicted war crim- 
inals to justice, but that French 
troops in Bosnia served under fee 
chief NATO commander, an 
American, and abided by fee rules 
set by the alliance for arrests. 

Recalling that British troops de- 


tained a suspected war c riminal, 
Milan Kovacevic„ in Bosnia in Ju- 
ly, Judge Arbour told LCI that 
peacekeeping troops enjoyed wide 
autonomy to mount operations. 

Id an interview in the newspaper 
Le Monde, she accused France Of 
hampering the tribunal’s work by 
refusing to allow French officers 
who served in Bosnia to testify and 
of dragging its feet in passing on 
their written testimonies. 

The ministry retorted that about 
30 French officials, including gen- 
erals, had been heard by Judge Ar- 
bour. 


German Army 
Comes Under 
New Fire Over 
Neo-Nazi Link 


Reuters 

‘ BONN — New allegations in a neo- 
Nazi scandal in the Gorman Army put 
further .pressure on Defense Minister 
Volker Ruehe over the weekend. 

The News magazine Focus reported 
that a group of 30 young German sol- 
diers' on a peace mission in Croatia 
broke into chants of “Sieg Heil” and 
“Heil Hitler” during a party there last 
autumn. Both Nazi slogans are banned 
under German law. 

Citing U.S. and German officers who 
had wafted into the soldiers’ barracks 
party by chance. Focus said the incident 
happeaed in September in the Croatian 
town of Trogir just after the unit bad 
been praised for its efforts in NATO’s 
peacekeeping mission in the region. 

“1 was totally shocked.” the 
magazine quoted the U.S. officer as 
saying. 

The magazine Der Spiegel reported 
another incident in which an elite of- 
ficers’ academy in Hamburg had rented 
out its pre mises for an event organized 
by a faction of extreme-right students 
known as Group 164. 

Last week, Mr. Ruehe punished two 
senior officers for fedr roles in allowing 
a convicted neo-Nazi to address soldiers 
at fee academy. 

He suspended a lieutenant general 
and ordered disciplinary proceedings 
against a colonel for inviting Manfred 
Roeder, a former lawyer who served 
eighty ears in prison for racist bombings 
against immigrants, to speak la 1995 ata 
leadership seminar. • 

Mr. Ruehe, who Is due to visit fee 
Hamburg academy on Monday, rejected 
fee Focus report as speculation. 

“This is a time for rumor-mongers 
and provocateurs,” he said to reporters 
outside a meeting with Beniamino An- 
dreatta, his Italian counterpart, in the 
German Alpine town of Bad Reichen- 
halL 

The Defense Ministry swiftly issued 
a statement saying it had no evidence of 
any such incident taking place in Ger- 
man units within fee North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization’s peacekeeping 
force, but said it would investigate. 

Mr. Ruehe admitted in public last 
week that a string of incidents linking 
German soldiers with racist behavior or 
neo-Nazi tendencies were not simply a 
series of isolated incidents. 

The army has been linked this year 
wife rightist extremism, involving videos 


ing fee Hitler salute, surrounded by 
swastikas or staging mock executions. 





\ ? « <= 



tom 


^anePqiez 

’ New Tork Tbna Service 


'Russian TV showing Mr. Y 

Yeltsin Says He’s Sti 

MOSCOW — President Boris Yeltsinof Russia, con- 


I MUgtll 4 unw* ovi liwwui-v, -W* 

said in a hoarse voice after he cast his vote in a sanitarium 
Tiffin election for the Moscow city council- “I’m a bit 
weak. On fee whole I don’t fcel too good.” ■ 

• It was the first time Ite to spoken in OTbhc since he was 
taken to fee Barvikha sanitarium on Wednesday, diag- 
nosed wife an acute viral respiratory infection. 

“The doctors say it is a normal virus," Mr. Yeltsin 
said. “It’s nothing special, it’s the one going around in 
Moscow.” He added that it would take about 10 days to 
char up. . (Reuters) 

Havel Is Dubious on Cabinet 

‘ PRAGUE — President Vaclav Havel of the Czech 
Republic said Sunday feat fee reflection of Vaclav Klaus, 
■ fee departing prime minister, as leader of his party would 
make it difficult to form a new government quickly. 

Mr. Klaus brushed off a challenge to win 72 percent of 
the votes Sunday in a first-round ballot at a special 
con gross of the Civic Democratic Party. Hiswas tiwmain 
party in the center-right coalition feat couapsedlast 
month amid accusations feat it received illegal fimdmg. 

In his weekly radio program, Mr. Havel said that Mr. 
Klaus's re-election and the ambiguity of fee party s 
position on participation in fee government had com- 
plicated” plans to name a new-cabinet this weds. 

Mr. Klaus refused to say Sunday whether his party 
members would join fee cabinet. ( ArPJ 

Talks Begin on ‘Nazi Gold’ 

ZURICH Tafts began in Zurich on Sunday to seek 

a settlement in Holocaust victims; suits tot chaise Swiss 
banks with secretly hoarding their wealth, a senior U.S. 

° f Sn^Bsenstat, undersecretary of state for eronomic 
affairs, brought t 
land’s three bigf 

representing; plaintiffs in mree suns mw u. v 

was purely an exploratory. 

began today and we hope that those will lead to further 
discussions in the future,” Mr. Eizaistat said. 

No comment was availablefrotn to three 
in ibe suits: Union Bank. of Switzerland, Sms Bank 
Corporation and Credit Suisse Group. ( Reuters) 

Portugal Elects Local Officials 

LISBON — Portugal went to fee polls Sunday in 
municipal elections tot wexe 

government of Prime Minister Antomo Guterres, now 
midway through its term. vying for 

fee votesof an etoSterfnearly 9 

control fee country’s 305 municipal councils antWOO 

smaller councils. ' J 


SJU WARSAWS— A g roup oaf large 
■ iStais ofDavidand Christian crosses 
fe&ve been removed from the main 
burial-ground at fee Auschwitz and 

hiiiyn jqi 4 f»lfr«mip |i| *prting aidis- 

vpute.that has held up plans to pre- 
serve fee sites where more than a 
. million Jews- were killed during 
. World War U. 

The symbols were put up by Pol- 
ish Boy Scotds- in 1983 in what 
international Jewish groups have ar- 
gued was an inappropriate gesture. 

■ They were the most visible de- 
mons on a lame swath of land, 
known as the field of ashes, tor 
stretches behind the gas chambers at 


fee ^irkenau camp. The fidd was 
used by the Nazis to bary fee 
cremated remains of their victims. 

More than 90 percent of fee es- 
timated 1.1 million people lolled at 
to adjacent camps "were Jews.Last 
year, Eli Wiesel, to Nobel. Prize 
winner and author who survived fee 
de at h camp, complained again dur- 
ing a speech in Poland tot to pres- 
ence of crosses on ground covering 
Jewish victims was an “insult” 

The symbols, crudely made from 
painted white wood, were removed 
by workers of to Auschwitz state 
museum Dec. 3 after the new Polish 
minister of culture, Joanna Wnuk- 
Nazaipwa. completed negotiations 
that had been dragging for years. 

“We felt strongly that the sym- 


bols placed by fee Boy Scouts were 
done so with good intentions but 
tot they shouldn’t be there,” Miles 
Lerman, to rhamnan of the U.S. 
Holocaust Memorial Council, said 
in a telephone interview from Wash- 
ington. * ‘If I were to son of a Chris- 
tian prisoner of war who was killed 
there, I wouldn’t want to have a Star 
of David on my father’s grave. Sim- 
ilarly few Jewfc — and many who 
died there were deeply religious — 
to crosses are a desecration.” 

The long discussions preceding 
fee removal of to symbols were 
delicate because of- the different 
meanings ' that Auschwitz and 
Bixkeoao have for different people. 

Many Poles regard the site, fee 
largest Nazi death camp, as a na- 


tional ferine for fee suffering that 
Poland suffered at fee hands of to 
Nazis. These Poles stress that during 
World War H, 3 million non- Jewish 
Poles, as well as the 3 million Polish 
Jews who were killed by fee Nazis, 
died from disease or exhaustion or 
in Nazi death camps. 

Thus, the negotiations to remove the 
religious symbols involved fee hier- 
archy of to Roman Catholic Church 
in Poland as well as fee govennnent- 
financed Auschwitz Museum and in- 
ternational Jewish groups. 

Mr. Lerman said Mrs. Wnuk-Naz- 
arowa understood to importance of 
restoring fee field of ashes to its 
“very own holiness” and was eager 
to abide by an agreement signed with 
Unesco 18 years ago, dedicating to 


two camps as a “world heritage” 
site and calling for a surrounding 
500-yard buffer zone. 

Since too, a number of encroach- 
ments have been made, including a 
Roman Catholic convent, removed 
after much debate in the early 1990s. 
Last year, a Polish entrepreneur 
started to build a supermarket near 
the entrance to to camps. 

In an effort to settle to question 
of how Auschwitz and Birkenau 
should bepreserved, fee Polish pres- 
ident, Aleksander Kwasniewski, 
presented a plan to the Holocaust 
Memorial Council in Washington 
18 months ago. It included ideas for 
building improved roads to to com- 
plex, which has attracted more than 
500.000 visitors annually. 


Bonn’s Nuclear B unke r Now Just War Surplus 


. New York Times Service 

BONN — With a 12-line statement 
and without pomp or circumstance, the 
German authorities have announced 
fee closing of fee Cold War-era bunker 
outside Bonn to which fee great and to 
privileged would have retreated in the 
event of nuclear war. 

Considering to megaton angst feat 
justified its construction, though, fee 
’official reasOn for the shutdown 
seemed oddly bathetic: the place was 

not fireproof and would have cost too 
much to fix.' 


For decades, the bunker — 19 ki- 
lometers (12 miles) west of Bonn — 
had* inspired Tumor, resentment and 
puzzlement among ordinary people — 
anyone excluded from to guest list of 
3,000 politicians and officials entitled 
to take refoge in h. 

There, every two years, and under an 
oath of secrecy, some of those officials 
would congregate to practice for fee 
worst, led by a stand-in for fee chan- 
cellor. They would take refoge in 32 
kilometers of tunnels and caverns un- 
derneath what looks like an ordinary 


vineyard — an ordinary vineyard, feat 
is, wife a huge concrete waichtower 
jutting from its rows of vines. 

The end was prosaic. “The install- 
ation no longer meets today’s techno- 
logical standards,” the Interior Ministry 
said. “That is particularly true of fire- 
proofing.” 

One reason for the decision to close 
the bunker is that most of to gov- 
ernment is scheduled to complete its 
move to Berlin in 1999 or 2000, so 
there will no longer be any officials 
here to protect 


British Break With UN Council on Court 


By John M. Gosbko 

Washing ion Post Service 


UNITED NATIONS, New York — 
Britain has signaled that it favors giving 
considerable 'independent prosecution 
powers toa proposed international crmi- 
inal cooil a position that puts the British 
government at odds with to United 
States and to ctor per m a nen t mentors 
of fee United Nations Security Council. 

The British position, outlined at a 
meeting in New York of legal experts 
trying to define to court’s powers, in- 
voives the contentious question of 
whether to court should have to in- 
dependence to assert jurisdiction over 

- war crimes cases or whether it should be 

subject to the authority of the 15-nation 
Security Council.- 

Many human rights -activists com- 
g bunrthflT subordinating the court to fee 

its on to tribunal's independence and 
effectiveness- 

Critics charge feat fee United States, 
although it is a leading advocate for es- 
tabliriung such aconn, also wants to finrit 
its powess by making it answer to a body 


in which fee United Stares has a veto. 

If fee views of China, France, Russia 
and fee United! States — all permanent 
council members with veto powers — 
prevail, fee court could initiate ‘inves- 
tigations only if authorized to do so by 
an individual government or by the 
council. 

Citing fee council’s responsibility 
under the UN Charter far maintaining 
international peace and security, these 
countries contend feat to court, as a 
rule, should not pursue crimes arising 
from conflicts That fee council is. trying 
to resolve. 

The United Stales also wants to limit 
to court's jurisdiction to violations of 

internati onal h umani tarian law and keep 

investigations ctf narcotics trafficking, , 
terrorism’ and other international crim- 
inal conspiracies under the control of 
national governments. 

The U.S. position is driven to a con- 
siderable extent by acknowledgment 
that to Senate would never accept to 
jurisdiction of a court whose powers 
appear to infringe on U.S- law and sov- 
ereignty. The U.S. demand for safe- 
guards against what the Clinton adnrin- 


\ 


istration regards as politically motivated 
prosecutions also is fueled by memories 
of fee Vietnam War period, when op- 
ponents of U.S. policy demanded that 
senior American officials be tried for 
alleged war crimes. 

At a news conference here, William 
Pace, representing a nongovernmental 
coalition of lawyers and human rights 
advocates, said feat Britain, which pre- 
viously sided wife fee other permanent 
members, had told the experts’ meeting 
feat it could no longer support giving to 
Security Council blanket veto power 
over fee court. 

Officials of fee British delegation 
subsequently confirmed feat tins is the 
case. 

Hie Security Council established a 
special court to deal wife fee atrocities 
spawned by “ethnic cleansing” canv 
— in fee former Yugoslavia and 


But to aim now is to establish a 
permanent judicial body to investigate 
and prosecute such crimes worldwide, 
following, the example of the Nurem- 
berg war crimes tribunals feat tried Ger- 
man war criminals after World War IL 


The Spirit Of 
Christmas 



i 





EDITORIALS/OPINION 


Heralb 


INTERNATIONAL 



tribune 


niBl.tSHCD WITH THK t»K\V VIHK T1MKS IND THU WASHINGTON POST 


Nation-Building 


As the United Nations peacekeeping 
force puUed out of Haiti this month, die 
mood was one of frustration at the dif- 
ficulties of making a failed state work. 
The mission's problems, however, of- 
fer lessons for future programs and for 
the multinational police trainers and 
civilian advisers still in Haiti They can 
see progress if they avoid unrealistic 
promises and cosmetic solutions. 

The military mission was successful 
in its core effort to give Haiti a more 
democratic government. It removed a 
thuggish dictatorship that killed thou- 
sands of people a year. The once 
hellish prisons are much improved 
The new Haitian national police is 
far less brutal than the old one, and is 
improving as police gain experience. A 
new inspector general's office has led 
to the arrest or dismissal of more than 
150 violent officers. 

The culture of brutality remains, 
however. The new police have killed at 
least 75 people. One reason is that 
rookies get only four months of training 
— a political choice made to get police 
on the ground quickly so that American 
and UN troops could depart 
Another such choice, to hold repeated 
elections, may have shown that demo- 
cracy was working. But the elections 


bad dwindling turnout and exacerbated 
a split in the major political party that 
has led to governmental paralysis. 

Haiti shows why outsiders should 
not count on rapidly changing a polit- 
ical culture deformed by centuries of 
dictatorship. The country has had no 
working government for months. -Be- 
cause it has not carried out necessary 
privatizations, it cannot get access to 
some $600 million in aid from abroad. 

Haiti desperately needs a better 
trained bureaucracy, but meanwhile 
international programs will be mote 
effective if they count less on the gov- 
ernment and more on civil society. 

The virtually fruitless justice re- 
forms. for example, should 'shift away 
from the hapless Justice Ministry to- 
ward changing court practices and 
training groups that will press for 
justice after outsiders leave. 

Outsiders cannot build a working 
Haiti. They can. and have, established a 
more secure and free atmosphere, a 
necessary prerequisite. They can also 
help Haitians build civil groups, schools 
and institutions that will, over time, 
make the government more efficient 
and accountable. Selling this as a short- 
term project simply guarantees failure. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


The Cisneros Case 


The indictment of former housing 
and urban development secretary Henry 
Cisneros may increase the American 
public's confidence in two key insti- 
tutions at work in the investigation: the 
independent counsel statute and the at- 
torney general who invoked it 

David Barren, the special counsel in 
the Cisneros case, has been something 
of a mystery among independent coun- 
sels, operating almost entirely below 
the public radar. He was named to probe 
what many considered a small question, 
whether Mr. Cisneros had committed a 
crime by lying to the FBI about the 
magnitude of payments he made to his 
former mistress, Linda Medlar. The 
Justice Department had already con- 
cluded that the statements had been 
false: the key question remaining was 
whether those falsehoods bad been 
“material" to Mr. Cisneros's nomi- 
nation and confirmation proceedings. 

For two and a half years Mr. Barrett 
did not publicly resolve this ostensibly 
simple matter. The delay in his probe 
gave rise to complaints that his in- 
vestigation was another disappointing 
performance by an independent coun- 
sel. and some regarded the Cisneros 
case as particularly troubling given the 
simplicity of the questions Mr. Barrett 
was being asked to answer. 

, Now Mr. Barrett has spoken, and his . 
allegations do not seem trivial Mr. 
Cisneros, of course, is innocent until 
proved guilty, and making a charge, 
which Mr. Cisneros’s lawyer says will 
be vigorously contested, is not the 
same as proving it But Mr. Barrett’s 
indictment accuses Mr. Cisneros not 
merely of lying to the FBI but also of 
promising jobs to others if they lied. 

to Ms. Medlar “in orSer to ensure her 
public silence regarding, among other 
things, their relationship and the 
nature, purpose and extent of his pay- 


ments to her and to another woman, so 
that he could be nominated, confirmed, 
and serve as Secretary of HUD.” 

If these allegations are true, then Mr. 
Cisneros engaged in a systematic effort 
to obstruct the FBI from learning more 
about the considerable skeletons hid- 
ing in his closet. 

This is not in any sense a small 
matter, one that is interesting for rea- 
sons of mere prurience. If a nominee to 
a high position is paying substantial 
amounts of hush money, where might 
that money continue to come from 
while he is a government employee? 
That is hardly an idle question, and 
given Mr. Cisneros’s position in the 
administration it was only appropriate 
that the probe be handled outside the 
Department of Justice. For all the time 
Mr. Barrett’s probe has required, it 
could well prove an example of die 
independent counsel statute working 
more or less as it should. 

This'brings us to Attorney General 
Janet Reno. Those Republican and oth- 
er critics who, after years of opposing 
the independent counsel statute, have 
suddenly discovered that its Democrat- 
ic supporters were right all along had 
no objection to the standard Ms. Reno 
applied in calling for an independent 
counsel to probe Mr. Cisneros. 

She required credible and specific 
evidence of a violation of a law whose 
meaning was clear, and she triggered 
the statute even though she suspected 
that violation then seemed relatively 
insignificant Yet many of these same 
critics become furious when Ms. Reno 
applies this same nitpicking standard 
to the campaign finance mess and con- 
cludes that there is no apparent vi- 
olation of a clear criminal statute by a 
covered official. It seems to us that she 
was right both times. The act has fared 
pretty well in her hands. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Neglected Filipinos 


In 1941, as Japan prepared for war, 
the United States folded the armed 
forces of its then territory the Phil- 
ippines into its own. Promises of gen- 
erous individual military benefits fol- 
lowed. Fighting to liberate their 
homeland, the Filipinos conducted 
themselves, it is established, with val- 
or. But no sooner was the war over and 
independence bestowed than Congress 
reneged on important benefits. 

Now some of the American citizens 
among the 70,000 aging survivors of 
those Filipino forces are petitioning for 
review. Considerations of equity and 
honor commend their cause, but the 
benefits remain frozen. 

As it happens, a couple of American 
Pacific war veterans loom over die 
Washington political terrain on which 
this issue is being fought. Chairman 
Ben Gilman (Republican of New 
York), of International Relations, in- 
troduced the Filipino Veterans Equity 
Act. Chairman Bob Stump (Republican 
of Arizona), of Veterans' Affairs, 
thinks it costs too much. Foe one thing, 
the new congressional pay-as-you-go 
rule would require his committee to 
make up the nearly half-billion -dollar 


annual cost of pensions matching those 
given American servicemen. 

The Filipino former soldiers swore 
an oath to American authority and 
fought side by side with American 
solders, but Mr. Stump questions 
whether they are American veterans. 
So as not to raise their expectations, he 
has resisted the bearings they seek to 
promote their appeal. 

It is demeaning to Americans as well 
as to Filipinos for the United States to 
continue denying benefits that were 
pledged at die highest level, abundantly 
earned on die battlefield, denied, then 
withheld through decades of Filipino 
entreaty. Surely this is an issue begging 
for a consensus financial resolution. 
Such an outcome would preserve a 
modicum of obligation to full-fledged 
comrades who fought under die Amer- 
ican flag. It would ease the declining 
years of survivors’ ranks. 

A Senate version of this bill would 
leave the Filipino veterans with funeral 
and burial expenses only. We would 
not tike to be the ones to tell these 
fading old soldiers they must die for 
die government they served to pay. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 



If the IMF Didn’t Put Out the Fire, Who Would? 


W ASHINGTON — If a neighbor's 
house is burning down, do you 
begrudge the fire department spending 
your tax dollars to put out die fire, even 
if the neighbor caused die ftre_ hims elf 
by throwing a cigarette in a trash can? 

Odds are you don't mind at all, per- 
haps because the neighbor is a friend, 
and certainly because you don't want 
the fire to spread to yoor property. 

Americans should keep this analogy 
in mind in the coming months. Un- 
fortunately,- they will be hearing a lot 
about die International Monetary Fund 
and its plans to bail out various econo- 
mies around the globe. The IMF is part 
of the world economy’s fire department, 
trying to stop panics and economic ca- 
tastrophes before they engulf us alL 
South Korea faces a mess, and the 
IMF already has pledges of more than 
$55 billion to help keep the place afloat 
It is not at all clear if that win be enough, 
or if the bailout will work. There is a 
good chance of other bailouts — in 
Brazil, perhaps, and elsewhere in Asia.. 

American attacks on the IMF are 
common these days, and they will get 
louder as it is forced to do more bailing. 
The criticisms come from all over the 
political map. 

Notionalists like Pat Buchanan 


By E. J. Dionne Jr. 


simply don't like the idea of spending 
American money to prop up foreign 
economies. They worry that the IMF 
violates the sovereignty of nations. 
Libertarian-minded conservatives don’t 
like any international body ever messing 
with the workings of the free market. 

Some on the left see the IMF as the 
agent of international banks and big 
capitalists, as do some of Mr. Buchan- 
anrs followers. And a fair number of 
economists, left, right and center, worry 
that the IMF imposes austerity plans that 
actually slow economic recovery. 

There is something to every single 
one of these criticisms. The IMF does 
operate against national sovereignty — 
it dictates policies to countries that bor- 
row its money. Yes, the United States 
puis some American money at risk. 

There is a “moral hazard” problem, 
as economists call it, when govern- 
ments and investors know they will be 
bailed ont if they get in trouble. The 
IMF thus does interfere with the pure 
operation of the market. 

It is entirely true that the IMF has 
more of a Wail Street than a Main 
Street mentality. It is more concerned 


with keeping big financial institutions Eastern Euro^Itw aba |trueihal when 
from collapsing than with saving mom- Dr. IMF prescribes an ckows of aus- 


And AM*:' S&g £ « SaStata 


sis on austerity may well slow eco- 
nomic recovery in some places, aus- 
terity that tends to be borne most 
heavily by people at the bottom. 

But if the IMF and its sister eco- 
nomic institutions did not exist, we 
would create something like them. 


have to be. And the IMF has shown, at 
best, sporadic concern for democracy, 
human rights and labor rights. 

But all these are arguments for fixing 
the IMF, not junking f 
There arc moves in the U.S. Congress 
The big lessons of“ the global ca- to push the IMF to condition loom not 
tastrophe of the Great Depression and only on economic perf ormanc e but also 
the global economic success that fol- on respect for basic democratic 


lowed World War H are (1) that it is 
better to have some checks and bal- 
ances on the free market than to let it fly 
off into panics, bank runs and ruin, ana 
(2) that you cannot have economic 
growth, in your own country or around 
the world, without international' rules 
and institutions. 

Tbe genius of the architects of the 
economic arrangements built during 
Harry Truman’s administration after 
World War n is that they understood 
th e se thing s. They wanted stability, 
growth and no more cataclysms. With 
all the ups and downs of the last 50 
years, that is what they bequeathed us. 

It is true that the world is very dif- 
ferent now with the rapid industrial- 
ization of Asia. Latin America and 


When governments embark on auster- 
ity programs, it is especially important 

that the most vulnerable people on the 
farms and in the factories have a chance 
to voice their grievances and push lor a 
fairer apportionment of the pain. 

Supporters of global institutions 
take note: Opposition to. them will 
grow if taxpayers see their dollars used 
regularly to prop up oligarchies amt 
dictatorships. 

Americans might consider taking 
pride in the United States' leadership in 
creating institutions such as the IMF, 
which may not have solved all eco- 
nomic problems but have done fairly 
well in resisting the worst catastrophes. 
It is an amazing achievement 
Washington Post Hritrrj. Gr,<up 


South Africa: Reconciliation, Yes, but Justice as Well 


K ERNERSVILLE, North 

Carolina — Is it humanly 
possible to forgive someone 
who attaches a power generator 
, to the chained hands and feet of 
other human beings, calmly 
tutus on the switch and then 
watches them writhe and foam 
blood at the mouth and ears as 
bursts of electricity fry every 
pan of their bodies? 

This year when the Truth and 
Reconciliation Commission 
began its investigation of hu- 
man rights abuses during the 
apartheid era in South Africa, 
I was among those who be- 
lieved that it was the ideal way 
to heal my homeland's deep ra- 
cial wounds. But in the past few 
months that belief has been 
severely tested. 

I have been sickened and en- 
raged by what has surfaced dur- 
ing the testimony. Once again 
I have felt hatred, an emotion 
I fought hand to purge from my 
heart because it corrodes the 
soul and ossifies empathy. 

I have wept without restraint 


By Mark Mathahane 


at finally learning die fate 
suffered by friends, classmates, 
teachers, neighbors and com- 
rades with whom I came of age 
after the Soweto student rebel- 
lion of June 16, 1976. That was 
the day when black South Af- 
ricans finally threw down die 
gauntlet and dared the apartheid 
regime to do its worst, because 
we could no longer be denied 
freedom in our own country. 

I have grappled with guilt 
Guilt at re callin g that two of my 
brothers-in-law were gunned 
down shortly after I published 
‘‘Kaffir Boy” and began speak- 
ing out in the United States 
against apartheid. 

Sometimes the guilt I feel is 
more generalized. Why did J 
survive when so many township 
youths, armed only with bricks, 
gasoline bombs and shields 
made fr o m the dented lids of 
trash cans, died fighting the 
mightiest army in Africa? How 
did I escape when so many guer- 


rilla figh ters, who infiltrated the 
countryside, were betrayed by 
Askaris (former guerrillas 
turned informers) and (hen tor- 
tured and brutally murdered? 

My generation was not afraid 
to die. That is what makes the 
stories revealed in testimony to 
the Truth Commission so 
wrenching. 

Take the example of Harold 
Sefola. a member of Umkonto 
We Sizwe, tbe military wing of 
the African National Congress. 
After he was betrayed by in- 
formers. the notorious Vlakp- 
laas police unit took him to an 
open veld, where two of his 
comrades were already bound, 
awaiting their fate. An inter- 
rogator shoved a knife into his 
nose, and Mr. Sefola admitted 
to masterminding several bomb 
explosions and planting mines. 

He then pleaded for his life. 
When his pleas were ignored, 
he asked his interrogators .if he 
could say something. He was 


Climate: Why Take the Chance? 


C ANBERRA — As the 
dost settles on the climate 
conference in Kyoto, tbe pub- 
lic could be forgiven for feel- 
ing a little confused about the 
likely extent and significance 
of global wanning. 

The conference often de- 
scended into arcane argu- 
ments over carbon .dioxide 
“sinks,” “Russian bubbles” 
and calculations for determin- 
ing desirable greenhouse gas 
emission targets. Environ- 
mentalists sought to conjure 
up apocalyptic visions of im- 
pending climatic disaster. 
.Skeptics hotly contested the 
scientific evidence. 

Yet there is considerable 
agreement among scientists 
that the level of greenhouse 
gases has increased substan- 
tially since pre industrial 
times, mainl y due to h uman 
activities including the burn- 
ing of fossil fuels. 

Under dispute is whether 
the rising level of greenhouse 
gases is of sufficient mag- 
nitude to cause a fundamental 
change in global weather pat- 
terns, ana in particular to 
cause sea level rises. 

Skeptics have a point Cli- 
matology is a far from an ex- 
act science, and the models on 
which the climatologists base 
their predictions remain im- 
perfect instruments. 

But climate models are be- 
coming much more effective 
in helping scientists to trader- 
stand the underlying dynam- 
ics of the earth’s climate. 

There is a growing con- 
sensus among mainstream cli- 
matologists about an “emerg- 
ing pattern” of • climate 
change at the global leveL 
This consensus first became 
evident when the International 
Panel on Climate Change 
tabled its findings in 1995. 

The panel’s study was con- 
ducted by more than 1,000 of 
the world's foremost clima- 
tologists and scientists. A key 
conclusion was that Earth is 
clearly wanning. 

The panel found dial tem- 
peratures will continue to rise 
beyond 2100, even if concen- 
trations of greenhouse gases 
are stabilized by then. Hence 
the attempt in Kyoto, by the 
Europeans, to reduce green- 
house gases by 201,0. . 

Another important conclu- 
sion was that sea levels axe 
expected to rise by from 15 to 
95 centimeters by 2100. 

That may not seem much. 
But to pot the figures in per- 
spective, the Chinese govern- 
ment and the World Bank 
have estimated that rises of 


By Alan Dupont 

this order, magnified by storm 
singes and spring tides, could 
mandate dozens of coastal cit- 
ies in China, including Shang- 
hai. Without expensive re- 
medial action, this would 
result in massive destruction 
and foe displaceme n t of up to 
76 million people. , 

For East Asia the panel pre- 
dicted more intense summer 
monsoons, changes in rainfall 
distribution, and decreasing 
availability of fresh water. 
Virtually all East Asian states 
would experience flooding 
from sea level rise. 

The areas most at risk in- 
clude the Yellow and Yangtse 
river deltas in China, Manila. 
Bay in foe Philippines, foe 
low-lying coastal areas of 
Sumatra, Kalimantan ■ and 


Java in Indonesia, and the 
Mekong, Chao Phraya and Ir- 
rawaddy river deltas in Vi- 
etnam, Thailand and Burma 
respectively. Most of these 
areas are densely populated, 
and contain either foe national 
capital or major administra- 
tive and port facilities. 

Climate change could also 
reshape foe productive land- 
scape of East Asia by exacer- 
bating foe scarcity of food, 
water aijd other resources. 
And it could do so in a rel- 
atively short time. 

We may hope that the fore- 
casts prove inaccurate, but can 
we afford to take foe chance? 


The writer, a fellow at the 
Strategic and Defense Studies 
Center at the Australian Na- 
tional University , contributed 
this comment to the Interna- 
tional Herald Tribune. 


An Unfamiliar America 

By Stephan Schmidheiny 


Z URICH — We Europeans 
find it incredible to hear 
that a nation capable of land- 
ing a robot on Mars does not 
believe it can master foe tech- 
nological challenge of pro- 
tecting the environment. 

Has America’s superior 
growth really been achieved 
through an indiscriminate 
willingness to pollute the en- 
vironment? We would be sur- 
prised indeed if any self-re- 
specting American business 
leader agreed with such a pro- 
position, and yet it is the un- 
stated premise behind much of 
foe opposition’s thinking on 
global wanning. 

Europeans are equally as- 
tonished at the simpleminded 
business model apparently still 
nsed in at least some American 
companies. Based on their 
statements in the run-up to foe 
Kyoto conference, some util- 
ity executives still seem to be- 
lieve that corporate earnings 
depend on linear increases in 
energy consumption. 

Many European utilities 
have already realized that the 
best path to higher profitab- 
ility is not more production 
but smarter production. 

Americans who oppose foe 
Kyoto compromise will no 
doubt die the alleged unfair- 
ness of a deal that gives some 
countries, such as China and 
India, more room to increase 
their greenhouse gas emis- 
sions, while foe United States 
Is cutting its own. • 


But it simply cannot be 
denied foal America is foe 
world’s largest polluter in 
both relative and absolute 
tenns, and that it will hold that 
title for some years to come. 
Nothing can relieve .it of its 
responsibility in this regard. 

. Finally, while foe Americ- 
an auto industry clamors for 
time, and yet more time, to 
make its cars more energy- 
efficient, European leaders in 
industry and government have 
a simple response: “Let there 
be competition!” 

If it toms out that foe Big* 
Three automakers cannot de- 
velop clean technologies such 
as battery-powered cars rap- 
idly enough, we Europeans, at 
Least, are confident that Euro- 
pean automakers can. 

It is not written in stone that 
every world matter must be 
dominated by Americans, and 
through licensing agreements 
with Europe foe Big Three 
could make op for their lack of 
technological innovation. 

After all. they are not likely 
to want to repeat their 1970s 
mistake of shrugging off 
Europe’s smaller, more fuel- 
efficient cars. 


The writer is chairman of 
Anova AC, a diversified Swiss 
holding company, and foun- 
der of the Business Council 
for Sustainable Development. 
This comment is adapted from 
a longer article in The New 
York Times. 


permitted last rites. They untied 
him, and he stood up and began 
singing “Nkosi Sikeleli 
Afnka,” the ANC anthem. 

He then told his torturers that 
they could go ahead and kill 
• him, but prophetically pre- 
dicted that someday the African 
National Congress would rule 
South Africa. 

He resumed singing foe an- 
them as he watched his two 
comrades being electrocuted. 
When his turn came to die, he 
thrust his clenched fist defiantly 
into foe air and saluted his dead 
comrades in foe name of foe 
struggle. He met his fate like a 
true African warrior. 

The three torturers who are 
now asking for amnesty did not 
even have the decency to buy 
Mr. Sefola and his comrades. 
Instead they loaded foe stiff 
bodies into a minibus, took 
them to a remote dirt road in foe 
homeland of Bophufoatswana, 
placed them on a land mine and 
then detonated it to make it ap- 
pear as if they had ineptly blown 
themselves up. 

After listening to accounts 
of such atrocities, I found my- 
self asking: What about foe vic- 
tims? What about foe mothers 
who have lost their sons and 
daughters and husbands? What 
about foe orphaned children I 
recently saw wandering in my 
hometown, Alexandra, dressed 
in rags, sleeping in shacks with- 
out heat, scavenging for food in 
garbage heaps? 

What about Given and An- 
te, my niece and nephew, who 
ost their fathers to an assassin's 
bullets? What about the youths 
seamed for life by torture? How 
can they be expected to accept 
that torturers and murderers are 
being set free, and that many 
sometimes return to their old 
jobs as policemen and receive 
pensions for “honorable ser- 
vice to foe country”? 

The commission promised to 
grant amnesty to security force 
members who can prove that in 
torturing and murdering they 
were following orders. 

But in much of foe testimony 
I have beard, even from those 
whose motives for confessing 
have more to do with foe cow- 
ardly urge to escape justice than 
to save their souls, few have 
proved that they were following 
specific orders. 

Murderers and torturers 
should not be allowed to blame 
apartheid as their only excuse 
for criminaTbehavior. The com- 
mission should grant amnesty 
only to those who name exactly 
who gave than orders. So far, 
most have refused to do so. We 
must break their code of silence 
by refusing them amnesty. 

Granting it to people who 
have not fingered then super- 
iors, as the commission has (tone 
many times so far, protects these 


The writer, author of "Kaffir 
Boy, a South African memoir, 
contributed this comment to 
The New York Times. 


IN OUR PAGES: 100. 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 


1897: ‘Jingo Fever 9 

P ARIS — [The Herald says in 
an Editorial:]. Is the blight of 
“yellow journalism” extending 
to our London contemporaries, 
who pride themselves, as a rule, 
on their freedom from foe 
“Jingo” fever? The Daily 
Chronicle is trying, as usual, to 
get up an “atrocity” scare for 
Cuba. But how came foe Con- 
servative Morning Post and 
Globe “ dans cctte galereV' It is 
inexplicable that they should 
publish sensational “war scare” 
despatches from the United 
States at a time when the feeling 
in foe country is for peace. 

1922: Turks Parry 

LAUSANNE — The Turks 
played a clever stroke of di- 
plomacy by formally agreeing 
to join foe League of Nations on 
foe conclusion of peace. They 
thus averted a breakdown of the 
conference and successfully 


parried the plan of foe Western 
H^ons. backed by the Christian 
world, for a commission in Con- 
stantinople that would ivateh 
ova foe safety of Christians 
within the Turkish boundaries. 

1947: Italy's Security 

WASHINGTON - President 
Truman said thai although 
American troops are bernst 
withdrawn from Italy, the 
- United States will consider 
measures for maintaining peace 
foere tf Italy's independence is 
threatened m the funire. Ap- 
proximately 1,600 American 
froops are due to sail from Leg- 
The statement coincided 
with repons thal the United 
g °, vernnicnt » eonsidcr- 
fof iWW mtx,ern;, mww 

^ forccs smutted to . 
Italy by foe peace treaty. Five 

mSf 30 ? troops re- 

BJN, with British and 
f0 - Ccs IO 

me Free Territory of Trieste. 


suspects from being tried in 
criminal court or being sued by 
survivors or families of victims. 

Many of these survivors and 
. families feel that justice has not 
been served, they are not 
saints; they can forgive only 
where it is humanly possible to 
forgive — and where forgive- 
ness is truly deserved. 

Someone must be held re- 
sponsible for these crimes. If a 
person proves that superiors 
gave him specific orders, then 
the superiors would he respon- 
sible and can be tried. There- 
fore, the Mandela government 
should prosecute to the fullest 
extent of foe law those who are M 
clearly guilty and unrepentant. . 

This may prove difficult The 
ANC, which I support, tortured 
people in its camps. And I was 
outraged and sickened by the 
testimony in the case against 
Winnie Madtirizrta-Mandela. 

No one’s hands are clean. 
Eighteen years of living under 
apartheid taught me that there 
are no easy answers. 

But foe commission can set 
an example for South Africans 
and the world if. in the final 
report it plans to release next 
year, it strikes a balance be- 
tween foe search for the truth 
and foe need for personal 
justice. Survivors and families 
of victims should have foe 
prerogative ro decide whether to 
forgive — which, remarkably, 
many of them choose to do. 

There was a woman who 
spent years searching for those 
who had tortured and murdered 
her son. When the perpetrators, 
were finally found, brought to 
trial and found guilty, the wom- 
an was asked by the judge what 
kind of punishment she wanted 
them to suffer. 

“Punishment?” foe woman 
asked, perplexed. 

“Yes. punishment,” the 
judge said. “We now have the 
power to punish such people.” 

“Oh, no,” she said. “1 was 
searching for these men for a 
different reason, Your Honor.” 

“What reason?” 

“I wanted to know whom to 
jive." foe woman said, 
liading foe truth helped her 
forgive her son’s murderers and 
uphold her integrity as a human 
being, rather than seek revenge 
and contaminate her soul. 

Reconciliation is possible,' 
provided the families of victims 
do not believe that in the pursuit 
of truth, they are being denied 
justice. South Africans have 
shown a willingness to take the 
path toward national healing. 

Ler us hope that the Truth Com- 
mission is brave enough to do 
so as well. 





PAGE 9 






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LANGUAGE 


BOOKS 


o/ Gab for the Holiday Season 


By W illiam Safin* 

W ashington — > How best to 

•uturulaie yum fed inns of re- 
spect and aJ feel ion in the holidav sea- 
son'. Let a book about words speak for 

do<K CTe S WhaI * new ln fhe ,an cUage 

“SpeakinjLj Freely: A Guided Tour 
of American English From Plymouth 
Rock to Silicon Valiev," by Sluart B 
Flexner and Anne H. Soukh'anov (Ox- 
ford University Press. $39 .95) Strictly 
speaking, it's, not new; Soukhanov. a 
slam-bang Icxic. has telescoped and 
updated the kite Flexner's easv°oine 
bui scholarly "1 Hear Amenca' Talk- 
ing and "Listening to .America.’ ‘The 
result is a languastTbrowser's dream. 

The chapter on bot>zc. for example 
(from the Middle Dutch hnsen. “to 
drink or tipple" — "tipple" back- 
formed from ihe Middle English 
ripe far. “tavern-keeper";. notes (hat 
drunk “has more synonyms (2.000) 
than almost any other English word.” 
Benjamin Franklin was the first to 
compile a list of more than 200, in- 
cluding oiled, sieved, stiff, soaked, 
cherry-merr y. and nimptopiscal. 
(Blotto arrived this century, along with 
crocked, sloshed and smashed. An ex- 
tended loot is a header, i ' 

‘‘The Random House Historical 
Dictionary of American Slang, Voi. 
II. H-0 (736 pages. $65), by J.E. 
Lighter with J. Ball and J. O’Connor, 
and Jesse SheidJower as project editor, 
is to slang what the Oxford English 
Dictionary is to Standard English; that 
is, the slanguist's bibie. If you invest in 
H.D.A.S.. along with the Dictionary of 


American Regional English (DARE) 

— three volumes down, one to go — 
you'll have a handle on the lingo that 
will take you cruising through our lin- 
guistic history. 

The nine scholarly pages on the slur 
nigger, for example (from the Latin 
n, S c y “black,” and not a mispronun- 
ciation of Negro), show the steady -in- 
crease in offensiveness over three cen- 
turies from “a racial designation 
apparently without rancorous intent" 
to one used by whites "with dis- 
missive, abusive, or contemptuous 
force." The hundreds of citations in a 

“Drunk,’ for example, 
has more synonyms 
(2,000) than almost any 
other English word. 

dozen senses bring the nuanced history 
of the slang term, and through it the 
history of American race relations, into 
focus. 

Despising the use of a word we 
consider “hate speech” does not ob- 
literate it from the langua ge. j»nd a 
dictionary must be a faithful reporter. I 
looked up kike in Merriam-Webster’s 
superb 10th collegiate edition and 
found “n (origin unknown) ( 1904) Jew 

— usually taken to be offensive." 
That’s accurate. Same warning, with 
‘ ‘often” substituted for "usually, ’ ' lis- 
ted for nick- Take offense at the users, 
not the dictionaries. 

“The American Heritage Diction- 
ary of Idioms" ($30), with no fash- 
ionably lengthy subtitle, by Christine 


Ammer, takes a flier od some spec- 
ulative etymologies. Dead as a door- 
nail , usually shrugged off as "origin 
obscure.’ ’ gets this guess: * ‘Most likely 
it referred to the costly metal nails 
hammered into the outer doors of the 
wealthy (most people used the much 
cheaper wooden pegs), which were 
clinched on the inside of the door and 
therefore were ‘dead,' that is, could nor 
be used again." 

•‘America in So Many Words" 
($18, Houghton Mifflin), by David K. 
Barnhart and Allan A. Metcalf, 
matches a series of years with the 
words coined in them (1744: ice cream ; 
1932: hopefully). The 1991 entry, 
about about, noted how the vogue 
phrase what it s all about spawned the 
practice of putting messages in nouns. 
"Hair is about power. . . . Perhaps 

breasts were always aboui power. 

The Nineties are about survival.” Hu- 
mor is “not about telling jokes. It's 
about the absurdity of' life.” 

“The Oxford Dictionary of New 
Words." (Guess which publisher, and I 
can't say what the price is because 
there's only a barcode on the flap.) This 
is a "new edition” (publisherese for 
"second edition”), edited by El izab eth 
Knowles, with Julia Elliott, and though it 
has a British tilt and no coinage is sought, 
the extensive use of citations makes this 
collection of neologisms fun to peruse. 
Surfing has had a nice ride, from the 
dangerous train surfing by youngsters in 
Rio, to channel surfing by grazing TV 
viewers, to net surfing on die Internet, to 
shoulder surfing by criminals who look 
over the shoulders of phone -card users to 
steal their numbers. 

Sr»' York Times Service 


THE CONQUEST OF COOL 
Business Culture, Counterculture, 
and the Rise of Hip Consumerism 

By Thomas Frank. 287 pages. 5 22.95. 
University of Chicago Press. 

Reviewed by Michiko Kakutani 

I T’S no secret that the appurtenances 
of the counterculture have lone since 
been co-opted by advertisers: that the 
once avant-garde notion of "hip” has 
long since gone mainstream. Wood- 
stock D. after all, was sponsored by 
Pepsi and Apple computers, and the 
likes of William Burroughs and lggy 
Pop have helped push Nike sneakers. 
Transgression is no longer considered a 
threauo the Establishment; it's a terrific 
selling device. 

In his uneven new book, “The Con- 
quest of Cool,” the journalist Thomas 
Frank argues that popular co-optation 
theory, which depicts businessman cyn- 
ically ripping off Lite counterculture to 
cash in od the huge youth market, is too 
simplistic. He argues, instead, that many 
businessmen, particularly in tile fields of 
advertising and men’s wear, embraced 
(and in some cases even anticipated i the 
counterculture’s adversarial stance back 
in the early and middle ‘60s. 

He contends that they saw the coun- 
terculture as “a symbolic ally in their 
own struggles against the mountains of 
dead-weight procedure and hierarchy" 
that had begun to suffocate their own 
businesses in the '50s. and that they also 


regarded the counterculture’s repudi- 
ation of conformity as a wonderful high- 
powered motor for a new consumerism 
based on instant gratification. 

For the United Stares ad industry. 
Frank writes, "the counterculture 
seemed to have it all: the unconnec- 
redness which w ould allow consumers to 
indulge transitory whims; the imever- 



biiun i>uo.-nrrTn 1 lin 


ence that would allow them to defy mor- 
al puriionism. and the contempt for es- 
tablished social rules that would free 
them from the slow-moving, bunoned- 
down conformity of their abstemious 
ancestors.” As for the men’s wear in- 
dustry. he says it saw the revolt against 
establishment dress codes as a perfect 
opportunity to spread the gospel of fash- 
ion obsolescence and the continuing 
need for hip new clothes. 

Frank does a solid job of showing 
how the advertising world's celeb ration 
of youth and rebellion began decades 
before Woodstock D: die youth-ori- 
ented “Pepsi Generation" campaign 


made its debut in 1 963; the Dodge Chal- 
lenger campaign, pining a likable hip- 
ster against aa intolerant policeman, in 
1969. He's also persuasive in showing 
how tbe ad industry recognized the roots 
of the Me Generation’s consumerism in 
the counterculture's insistence on self- 
expression. 

Yet a! the same time, he lends to 
mistake defiant gestures on the pan of 
admen, like wearing flamboyant clothes 
or making ironic ads. for real rebellion, 
while confusing advertising’s adoption 
of a counterculture vocabulary (for the 
sole purpose of selling us stuff) with 
genuine revolt against the status quo. 

When Frank turns from theorizing — 
which he does clumsily, repeating the 
same points over and over — to simple 
reporting, the results are considerably 
better. He provides the reader, for in- 
stance. with a wide-ranging, and often 
hilarious, overview of ads that attempt- 
ed to adopt the language, pose or style of 
the youth and counterculture move- 
ments. Buick advertised iis J970 mod- 
els as cars that "light your fire. “ while 
S&H Green Stamps’ announced that 
"with this tittle square, you swing.” 

Frank notes that the would-be rebel, 
the transgressive rule breaker, has not 
only become "the paramount cliche of 
our popular entertainment,” but also 
"the preeminent symbol of the system 
he is supposed to be subverting.” "In 
advertising, especially, he rules su- 
preme." Just ask Dennis Rodman. 

.Vnr liirl Times Serum 


CROSSWORD 


BRIDGE 


By Alan Truscott 

O NE of Amenta's greatest 
bridge platers, forgotten 
by the younger generation, 
died on Saturday in Manhanan 
at the age of 82. Peter 
Leventritt. a lifelong New- 
Yorker. had a g linering bridge 
career that took an unusual 
course: His results as a p Liver 
boomed after he had been a 
successful administrator. 

He made four appearances 
as a member of the North 
.American team in the World 
Championship. finishing 
second each time behind the 
celebrated Italian Blue Team. 

In Argentina in 1965. 
Leventritt seemed about to 
finish third rather than 
second, but the fates inter- 


vened. The British team, on 
course to finish second, was 
withdrawn as the result of a 
cheating episode. 

In 1961, also in Argentina, 
Leventritt's defense as East 
on the diagramed deal helped 
his team to defeat France. The 
French North-South bid to the 
sound contract of six spades, 
which would have been easy 
if both black suits had split 
normally. With tbe actual dis- 
tribution. the slam was un- 
beatable at doublet-dummy. 
but Leventritt was able to take 
advantage of the fact that 
South could not see through 
the cards' backs. 

A diamond was led to the 
ace. and the declarer would 
have had an easy time after a 
passive return, since tire heart 
ace was an entry to the closed 


hand. But East made a chal- 
lenging shift to the bean eight. 
He knew, of course, that South 
held the ace, but he also knew 
that South would be reluctant 
to duck and face immediate 
defeat. 

Lacking a periscope. South 
made the normal play of the 
ace and played the spade king 
and then the queen. He 
planned to overtake on the 
second round but was frus- 
trated by seeing a discard on 
his right. The best he could do 
was to leave the lead in 
dummy and play club win- 
ners. discarding heart losers. 
West scored a trump trick to 
defeat the slam, and the 
Americans gained 13 imps. 
They would have lost that 
amount but for Leventritt’s 
fine defense. In the replay, the 


Americans rested cautiously 
in four spades. 

NORTH 
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ACROSS 

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gunslinger 
iff Out-of-focus 
picture 

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is Country road 
it Evasive answer 

#1 

so Have a feeling 

21 Prefix with linear 

22 .Swiss peak 
25 Twain's ‘The 

Grided ‘ 


25 Wailing woman, 
in folklore 

28 Tell 

so Insertion 
symbol 

31 Race track 
shape 

32 Haymg machine 

33 Droop 

as Evasive answer 

#2 

«o gratia arlis 

«i Nonsecular 
types 

42 Jason's ship 

43 Members of a 
chess line 

44 Rough, as 
terrain 


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0 ED 00 B 0 B 0 dEOIim 

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45 "Thank you for 

49 Author Rare 

50 Golfer Eirne 

51 Founder ot the 
Soviet Union 

52 Plot ol land 

54 Evasive answer 
#3 

60 Capn. eg. 

61 Detroit products 

62 Florida city 

53 do-weli 

64 Overpublicae 
65*1 understand 1 ' 


DOWN 

1 "Bali * 

2 Entirely 

3 TV actor Geraro 

4 Does film work 
3 Warm up. as 

food 

6 Thick 

7 Garden tool 

■ White 

ghost 
9 Internet 
to Deepest azure 
'll Gate holder 

12 Knot 

13 Knot again 

is ’Picnic" planner 
is Obstinate 
22 Scent 


23 TV actor Burton 

24 "Hamlet" and 
"Macbeth' 

26 Mild, as weather 

27 Neighborhood 

29 Pnestly gam 

30 Playbill listings 

32 Existence 

33 Suit matenal 

34 Broadway 
backer 

35 Merchandise 
37 ’Seinfeld' lady 
3S Open wide 

39 Base in 
baseball 

43 Pirsi-qrade 
book’ 

44 Pitcher Nofan 

45 Clear, as a drain 
45 Killed 

47 German 
Hermann 
45 Leg |Oint 
49 Get up 

52 Canvas cover 

53 Mexican 
sandwich 

55 Oh. in 
Heidelberg 

58 Men’s 

Health Crisis 

57 Td lor 

SBYalie 
99 Stinker 



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© Neic York Times/Edited by IFiTJ Shorts. 


ADVERTISEMENT 


ADVERTISEMENT 



Full Steam Ahead: Shipowners Meet Competition 


Greek cruise companies, 
which for decatfes have en- 
joyed a privileged monopoly on 
the island studded holiday 
playgrounds of the Aegean 
Sea. ate bracing themselves 
for soine international com- 
petition. European Union le- 
gislation requires member 
countries to open their mar- 
kets to competition. The wake- 
up call to Greek companies is 
compounded by a second 
challenge facing the current 
generation of Greek shipown- 
ers, namely the improved 
standards demanded by new 
SOLAS {Safety of life at Sea) 
regulations. 

The shipowners say that, 
although tliese are some of 
the greatest challenges they 
have ever faced, they will 
weather the stonn. They have 
devised six measures to ad- 
apt to the heightened com- 
petition and standards. 

“New entrants no doubt will 
be entering or will try to enter 
this popular market.” says An- 
dreas Potanuanos, president 
of the Greek Passenger 
Shipowners Association and 
director of Royal Olympic 
Cruises, the country's largest 
cruise company- “However, 
this is not necessarily a bad 
thing. It will help enlarge the 
cruise market and will lead 
companies around the world 
to launch promotion cam- 
paigns for their vessels , which 
will draw even greater atten- 
tion to this unique part of the 


Mediterranean. Ultimately, as 
already proved, such in- 
creased competition and the 
new SOLAS regulations may 
well have similar long-term 
benefits." 

Increased international 
competition aside, concern 
among cruise ship operators 
stems from a recent state- 
ment on SOLAS by the Inter- 
national Maritime Organiza- 
tion. It said that “for ships built 
after 1976. it might be con- 
sidered that a major overhaul 
will be viable, while vessels 
constructed before that date 
will need careful review." 
What's more, a proposed 
European Union directive says 
that any passenger vessel 
more than 35 years old should 

be taken out of service by the 

year 2000. 

Industry assessments are 
that as much as 30 percent of 
the total world passenger and 
cargo tonnage could suddenly 
be taken out of operation. This 
could amount to quite a scare 
for the clan of Greek shipping 
magnates, whose ships ac- 
count for a massive 51 per- 
cent of.tota! EU tonnage. Yet 
Mr. Potamlanos predicts that 
few Greek ships will be retired 
because they follow the prac- 
tice of continual upgrading. 

The Greek magnates are 
not being complacent. They 
have long been fighting EU 
pressure and have gained ex- 
tensions on protecting their 
monopoly up to the year 


— pts t i.x i no* GfO-RfF: Cri>ise» 

«» / W ( « cl ,u „s curing by the Arising Deportment of 
t/iC /fttcrnalii mol Herald Tribune. 

It I, * sinjinurd In- tile (kn* Tourism OrgfVuMion 
WKTTf.Ki John Btga*. basal m wens. 

Pucx.k DiWCTO**: Bill Mukden 


20(30, on the grounds that this 
massive Greek industry 
should be helped and the 
crews protected from large- 
scale unemployment. With the' 
inevitable competition now on 
their doorstep and expected 
to start on certain routes as 
early as next year, however, 
the shipowners have been 
preparing for the tussle 
through their six-point 
strategy. 

Last year, ISO fiOO 

passengers from more 

than 90 countries 

enjoyed Greek cruises 

The first major move has 
been to attempt mergers and 
consolidations among the 
fragmented cruise compa- 
nies. Three years ago. the 
country’s two leading enter- 
prises, Epirotiki and Sun 
Lines, merged to form the 
nowdomirrant Royal Olympic 
Cruises consortium. This 
cruise line, which specializes 
in three- to 14day cruises 
(rather than the popular one- 
day tours), will be a hard 
match even for the largest for- 
eign competitors. Royal 
Olympic is gradually convin- 
cing some of the two dozen 
smaller companies, which 
compete on oneday smaller 
cruises to highly popular 
Greek islands and coastal re- 
sorts, to join its umbrella sub- 
sidiary, Olympic Short 
Cruises. Epirotiki has already 
purchased the large and small 
vessels of the nowdefunct 
Thomas Lines. 

Greek companies compet- 
ing in the daycruise market 
that are considering Royal 


Olympic's proposal, as well as 
possible mergers of their own, 
include Attika Shipping, Dam- 
arion Shipping, Daphne 
Cruises, Golden Beach Mari- 
time, Hydrodynamic Cruises. 
Minoan Cruises, Mount Athos 
Lines, Pleasure Cruises, Sea 
Cruises M.C. and White Sea 
Bird Maritime. Also worth not- 
ing is the Athens- and Cyprus- 
based Louis Cruise Lines. 

The second step in the plan 
is modernization. 

* Both Royal Olympic and oth- 
er companies will acquire new 
ships before the new millen- 
nium,' says Mr. Potamianos. 
'Not mega-ships, but ones that 
are suitable for Greek island 
cruising, around the l.OOOpas- 
senger capacity.* 

Royal Olympic has ordered 
two new vessels, each with a 
960 passenger capacity. 
Martolis Methimakis of 
Minoan cruises says his com- 
pany will also place new ships 
on routes “in the long term." 
Since the Greeks can no 
longer hope for the generous 
government subsidies of the 
past, they are negotiating 
loans and EU financing for 
their initiatives. 

The third front on which the 
Greek magnates are taking ac- 
tion involves pressunng the 
government to improve legis- 
lation in order to make Greek 
ships more competitive. This 
requires a delicate balancing 
act, since it could mean hiring 
more crews from developing 
countries — which could in- 
crease Greek unemployment. 

The fourth move is a drive to 
lure clients from the develop- 
ing markets of Eastern 
Europe. An emerging class of 
Eastern Europeans are taking 
advantage of Greek cruises. 
Greece has the advantages of. 


geographic proximity, cultural 
affinity pnd cheaper prices 
compared with other West 
European countries. These 
factors have indeed drawn a 
significant number’of Eastern 
Europeans, who started tak- 
ing one-day cruises and are 
now steadily increasing to 
three-dey ones. 

Predictions vary, however, 
as to how important a market 
this will be in the longer term. 

'We'll definitely see new 
vessels after next year, and I 
see new markets for cruises 
opening up in Russia and later 
even in China." says Alina 
Dritsa of Hydrodynamic. Va- 
silis Panayotopoulos of 
Daphne Cruises Shipping 
Company also predicts that 
more Greek and foreign ships 
will enter the popular one-day 
cruise market and that more 
passengers will come from 
Russia, Ukraine, Poland, the 
Czech Republic and Slovakia. 

Nikos Vouloumanos of Sea 
Cruises Is less optimistic. 

“The situation is not good." 
he says. "Ships are just too 
expensive to maintain, so I 
believe we'll just see ships 
changing hands. Markets are 
not good, with fewer and fewer 
passengers coming from Ja- 
pan and new markets in East- 
ern Europe not materializing to 
the extent expected.’ 

Antonis Priovolos of Attika 
Shipping has a similar atti- 
tude. 

'New companies with new 
ships will soon enter the mar- 
ketplace, but I don't see any 
new markets opening up with- 
in the next couple of years. 
Eastern Europe has opened 
already, while it will take a long 
time before we see an influx 
from such places as China 
and India." 



The Olympic, fte fergest shfc in Vie Royal Olympic Cruise fleet can cany up to 900 passengers. 


The fifth part of the plan 
calls on shipowners to turn to 
the local market, just as they 
turned to the Eastern Euro- 
peans when tourism dropped 
in the 1993-96 penod. Even 
before that period, when North 
Americans — by far the Medi- 
terranean market's biggest 
clients — stayed away, cruise 
operators enticed the local 
market with cheaper prices to 
fill the empty cabins. As a re- 
sult, well over 15 percent of 
today’s Aegean cruise pas- 
sengers are Greek, compared 
with only 1 percent in the mid- 
1980s. They are now the 
second-largest national group 
after U.S. citizens. 

Accommodating both the 
Greeks and Eastern Euro- 
peans wiil be a result of the 
sixth part of the strategy to 
prepare for the competitive 
years ahead. Cruise operators 


have lowered their prices, de- 
veloping packages that make 
cruises of a few days com- 
parable in price to staying at 
seaside resort hotels. Cruises 
are no longer a luxury for the 
privileged few. 

Such competitive mea- 
sures in the competitive mar- 
ket of the lucrative Aegean 
and Mediterranean cruise 
market we not difficult to un- 
derstand if one looks at the 
figures. The Cruise Line Inter- 
national Association reports 
that until the year 2001. the 
cruise industry will grow about 
10 percent annually. Joanna 
Despotopoulou, Royal 
Olympic's director of public re- 
lations, says that last year 
alone the company’s clients 
totaled 130,000, coming 
from 92 countries around the 
world. Almost half were North 
Americans, followed by 9 per- 


cent from Greece, another 9 
percent from Spain. 14 per- 
cent from other European 
countries and the rest from a 
smattering of people from 80 
other countries. Ms. Despo- 
topoulou says that the num- 
ber of passengers increased 
30 percent this year from 
1996. 

■ The implication from these 
figures is clear to the majority 
of Greek cruise ship owners: 
in the next decade, they say. 
business will continue to grow 
at a modest but firm pace, 
with the Noth American and 
European' — both Western 
and Eastern — markets as the 
main drivers of the expan- 
sion. . 

For more information, 
please contact the Greek Na- 
tional Tourism Organization at 
(30 1) 331 1528: fax : 323 
6849. • 


ij# if* 






In Tour of Africa, U.S. Pulls Its Punches on Human Rights 


By Thomas W. Lippman 

Washington Past Service 


Albright Appears to Accept the Need for Some Authoritarianism 


PRETORIA — All around Africa last 
week. Secretary of State Madeleine Al- 
bright pulled her punches a bit on die 
subjects of democracy and human 
rights. 

It was not that she had (ailed to em- 
phasize U.S. support lor individual 
rights and political freedom — she had, 
at every stop, urging the leaders she had 
met to turn away from the repressive 
practices of Africa's brutal past and em- 
brace international standards of beha- 


some of those problems, especially in 
Congo, where Washington for years 
supported the dictator Mobutu Sese 
Seiko while he bankrupted the country 
and destroyed its public institutions. 

In addition, she stressed that Wash- 
ington now seeks “partnership” wife 
African leaders it regards as progressive 
— a relationship in which “I talk less 
and listen more,” as Mrs. Albright said 


NEWS ANALYSIS 


wor. 


But that message was tempered by an 
acknowledgment that even fee most for- 
ward-looking African leaders are fight- 
ing for political and economic survival, 
and that Washington is willing to cut 
them some slack. 

• Those who would build democratic 
institutions and market based econo- 
mies,” she said in fee keynote speech of 
her seven-nation tour, “free tremendous 
obstacles.” She called them “societies 
weakened by protracted and brutal con- 
flicts, devastated government institu- 
tions and fee legacies of authoritarian 
rule.” 

At several stops, she said fee United 
States must accept responsibility for 


several tunes. That means allowing na- 
tional leaders whose security forces may 
seem excessively vigorous an oppor- 
tunity to explain fee need for force, 
rather than lecturing them about their 
tactics, senior aides to Mrs. Albright 
said. 

As one member of Iter party put it in 
Rwanda, “We don't do Mary Robin- 
son" — an allusion to fee UN High 
Commissioner for Homan Rights, who 
has no other agenda. In Africa today, the 
United States has many other interests, 
including fee promotion of stability and 
security, which often means the nse of 
methods not appreciated by human 
rights groups. 

In a way, fee Clinton administration is 


revisiting in Africa fee policy shift it 
went through wife regard to China in 
President Bill Clinton’s first term. Faced 
with fee need to dealwith China as a 
strategic and economic partner, fee pres- 
ident decided he would not allow those 
ties to be held hostage by Beijing's dis- 
mal rights record. 

Similarly, the administration has rec- 
ognized that much of Africa simply can- 
not be fairly judged by Western stan- 
dards of personal and political freedom, 
senior officials said. Mrs. Albright re- 
peatedly emphasized fee U.S. desire for 
movement toward those standards, but 
did not insis t tha t they be met imme- 
diately. 


Thu policy of engagement without 
it has 


judgment has manifested itself 
throughout her first trip to Africa as 
secretary of state. Mrs. Albright has 
hailed fee national leaders she has met as 
advocates of a new era, even though 
some of them have been around for more 
than 20 years and most of them have 
never been elected to anything. 

In Uganda, which the State Depart- 
ment describes as a “uniparty democ- 
racy” where President Yoweri Musev- 
eni has held nnelected power for 12 
years, Mrs. Albright called fee country 


“a beacon of hope.” She said she em- 
phasized io Mr. Museveni “America's 
constant concent with respect to human 
lights,” but also noted feat Uganda is 
basiling insurgencies in its north and 
west and must defend itself. 

In Rwanda, where a military -backed 
“transition” government is still fighting 
elements of the militias responsible for 
the 1994 genocide erf more than 500,000 
Tutsi ana where there have been wide- 
spread reports of abuses by the security 
forces, Mrs. Albright said blandly that 
fee “discussed wife Rwanda's leader 
the importance of providing security 
without harm to noncombatants.” 

“We understand the context” in 
Rwanda, a senior U.S. official said. 
“There are attacks against schools and 
markets," the official said, and “she 
urged continued vigilance against ex- 
cesses by the army.” 

This “benefit of the doubt” approach 
was on clear display in Mrs. Albright's 
nwmig wife President Laurent Kabila 
of Congo, who came topower last spring 
after a seve n - month militar y uprising 
that ousted Marshal Mobutu. 

Mr. Kabila is widdy regarded as hav- 
ing a dubious commitment to democracy 
at best, and has been described by some 


critics as just another African “big 
man” of the type Mrs. Albright is trying 
to consign to fee past ' 

At a joint news conference wife Mrs. 


Albright, he responded sieeringlyto a 
question about a jailed political, oppo- 


nent saying the man was not a legitimate 
political figure frit a radical who incites 
violence. 

“Those who incite violence must be 
prepared to go to prison.” Mr. Kabila 
said “Long live democracy.” 

■Mrs. Albright, however, stuck to her 

non confrontational approach. 

. “Decades of misrule have left the 
Congo wife grave economic and polit- 
ical problems,” she said “But today, 
fee Congolese people are clearly ready 
and eager to their country's long 
isolation and stagnation. We want to do 
all we can to help. The new government, 
under President Kabila, has exp resse d a 
commitment to constitutional reform, 
democratic elections and economic re- 
covery. There is a long way to go to 
reach these goals, but I am encouraged 
by a number of positive steps.” 

She said rebuilding Congo “requires 
a commitment to open markets, honest 
government and fee role of law. Pres- 
ident Kabila has tnade a strong start 
toward these goals wife his govern- 
ment's stabilization plan.” 


EUROPE: Rejected, by Union, Turkey Ends Political Dialogue 


Continued from Page 1 


Diplomats here said they feared Tur- 
key might also seek to block the eastward 
expansion of fee North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization, of wbich.it is a key mem- 
ber wife fee largest army in fee region. 

Mr. Yilmaz boycotted a dinner Sat- 
urday for leaders of fee candidate coun- 
tries in Luxembourg, and later accused 
fee EU of treating Turkey in a biased, 
exaggerated and discriminatory fashion. 

Anger boiled up in Ankara after Prime 
Minister Jean-Claude Juncker of Lux- 
embourg said fee Union could not allow 
“torturers” at its conference table, and 
suggested it would take decades before 
Turkey could fulfill its “European vo- 
cation.” .Mr. Juncker and other leaders 
said that there was no discrimination 


against Turkey, to which they were ap- 

the 


plying fee same standards as to all 
candidate nations When Turkey met 
those standards, Mr. Juncker said, it 
could be considered for membership. 

“Europe does not reject Turkey. We 
are not a club of Christians, but we are a 
club wife high standards.” Mr. Juncker 
said, rejecting a suggestion that the EU 
had turned its back on a moderate Is- 
lamic ally. 

The EU leaders said Turkey's human 
rights record, its campaign against fee 
Kurds, its failure to resolve disputes wife 


Greece peacefully and its obstructive 
attitude on Cyprus ruled out candidacy at 
this time. 

Chancellor Helmut Kohl of Germany, 
which has 2.3 milli on Turkish residents, 
said that h was “totally erroneous” to 
say his country was nervous about Turk- 
ish membership and feat it was “par- 
ticularly wrong to say that we have an 
anti- Islamic position.” 

But he added, “A dramatic change in 
the number of Turks in Germany would 
not be tolerable u> German pabUc opin- 
ion nor to those in fee rest of fee Euro- 
pean Union.” 

■ In Nicosia, meanwhile, the Tiukish- 
Cypriot leader, Rauf Denkta&h, said the 
Elf’s invitation to Cyprus to start mem- 
bership negotiations could end inter- 
communal talks on fee island. He s aid 
fee Union bad “helped destroy fee es- 
tablished framework for a settlement in 




ie EU has said it wants to open talks 
with the entire island, but if Turkey or the 


Turkish Cypriots prevent fee occupied 

it will ne- 


norfeem sector from joining, it 
gotiate wife fee Greek Cypriots alone. 


Mr. Yilmaz said that if it opened talks 
Elbe res 


with Cyprus, “fee EU will be respon- 
sible for all possible negative devel- 
opments.” ha January, Turkey and fee 
Turirish-Cypriot state, which is recog- 
nized only by Ankara, said they would 


integrate their state structures if EU- 
Cyprus accession talks went ahead. 

Since Turkey invaded fee island in 
1974, about 80,000 T urkish citizens 
have moved to northern Cyprus. 

Greece spearheaded the opposition to 
Turkish membership in the EU. It in- 
sisted feat its territorial dispute wife 
Turkey, which nearly led to war last year 
over an uninhabited Aegean island, 
should be submitted to the international 
court of justice in The Hague. 

Prime Minister fy«ta« Simitis said to 
reporters at fee summit meeting that 
Greece was bracing for a possible con- 
frontation wife Turkey. 

Mr. Yilmaz stopped short of saying 
that Turkey had withdrawn its formal 
1987 application to join fee EU. He said 
the conn try would seek to build up its 
contacts with individual EU states. 

The pan-European conference sched- 
uled for March “has lost its meaning for 
us,” Mr. Yilmaz added. 

In addition to Cyprus, fee EU leaders 
invited Estonia, die Czech Republic, 
Hungary, Poland and Slovenia to begin 
membership negotiations early next 
year. 

Five other nations — Bulgaria, Latvia, 
Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia — 
were placed on a slower negotiating 
track. They will be given special aid to 
help them meet entry conditions. 



Prime Minister Mesut Yilmaz speaking to the press Sunday in Ankara. 


TRADE: World Agreement to Liberalize Financial Services Could Help Increme the Flow of Capital to Asia 


Continued from Page 1 


than backward.” Mr. Clinton said. 


Lawrence Summers, deputy U.S. 

f. said in Washington 


Treasury secretary, 
that fee accord was an “important re- 
sponse” to fee financial crisis feat has 
shaken Asian markets. “The agreement 
here and fee commitment embodied in it 
should be an important contributor to 
confidence feat will catalyze fee flow of 
private capital,” Mr. Summers said.' 

“We have seen a recognition by more 
than 100 countries of fee important ben- 
efits feat global financial markets can 
bring and of the reality that participation 
of foreign financial institutions can bring 
know-how, can raise capital base and that 
global institutions can provide important 
services to local businesses,” be added. 

In Geneva, Mr. Ruggiero said Sunday 
that “one of the most important benefits 
from this breakthrough accord is that it 
should help new capital flows to Asia 
and thus strengthen fee financial insti- 
tutions in fee region.’ ’ 

Mr. Ruggiero added feat this was one 
of fee reasons why negotiators were 
keen to complete fee deal. He also said 
that Robert Rubin, fee U.S. Treasury 
secretary, * ‘wrote me a letter recently in 
which he described this accord as part of 
fee solution to Asia's crisis.” 

The WTO chief added feat the pact 
would bring “more competition and 
thus better financial services at lower 
costs to ordinary citizens everywhere.” 

The deal was delayed because fee 
United States, which already has open 


markets, had held out for better offers 
from Asian countries. Several develop- 
ing countries, led by Malaysia, feared 
that the trade liberalization pact would 
result in a colonization of then domestic 
financial services sectors by major 
American players. 

But at fee same time, diplomats in 
Geneva said there was a growing real- 


ization among East Asian nations hit by 


fee current financial crisis and by alacl 
of access to fresh money feat their best 
hopes of reconstructing their banking 
systems would lie in improving foreign 
banks’ access to their domestic markets. 
Some Asian trade officials have con- 
ceded that a deal would send a positive 
signal to international investors and re- 
store confidence in the troubled region. 

The accord was held up two hours 
after its deadline at midnight Friday in 


Geneva because of adispute between the 
United States and Malaysia over Kuala 
Lumpur’s refusal to allow foreign in- 
surers to own more than 51 percent of 
local companies. 

Many Asian diplomats accused 
Washington of patting the entire deal at 
risk to protect fed interests of American 
International Group, a big U.S. insurer 
feat owns 100 percent of a Malaysian 
operation and which could still be forced 
to divest up to 49 percent of its shares. 

The deadlock was broken by a polit- 
ical compromise under which Wash- 
ington reserved fee right to impose sanc- 
tions against Malaysia if it continued its 
practice of forced divestiture of foreign 
insurance holdings to the 51 percent 
ieveL 

• On Sunday, Rafidah Aziz. Malaysia’s 
minister of international trade and in- 


dustry, said she had no details about the 
case of New York-based American In- 
ternational Group. “Whoever is here 
operating will have to subscribe to 
Malaysia’s current policy,” she said. 

Wife U.S. financial services industry 
lobbyists in close contact wife the U.S. 
delegation in Geneva, fee Malaysian 
compromise was one of fee last three 
items to be negotiated in fee early hours 
of Saturday morning. The others con- 
cerned Japan and Korea. 

At the last minute Japan agreed to 
extend market-opening measures in fee 
insurance sector from a bilateral accord 
wife die United States to all WTO mem- 
bers. South Korea, meanwhile, declined 
to allow foreign investors to own con- 
trolling stakes in its banks, even though 
some South Korean banks are on fee 
brink of insolvency. 


BEEF: Acting on 6 Mad Cote 9 Scare, U.S . Expands European Ban 


In Washington, Mr. Summers denied 
that fee Asian crisis had caused the 
United Stares to accept a watered-down 
agreement But he said the United States 
would ask South Korea “to provide ex- 
tra measures” toward fee liberalization 
of its financial markets next year. 

The WTO accord, which is scheduled 
to go into effect in March 1999, does not 
require new action by fee U.S. Congress 
because American financial services 
markets are already open. 

The accord could nonetheless come 
under fire on Capitol Hill because of 
anger at a recent WTO ruling feat re- 
jected a complaint by Eastman Kodak 
about restrictions in the Japanese film 
market 

Mr. Ruggiero said one of fee next big 
priorities for fee WTO would be com- 
pleting talks aimed at admitting China to 
fee organization- The U.S. trade rep- 
resentative, Charlene Barshefsky, ap- 
peared to signal progress on this front 
over fee weekend when she acknowl- 


Contmued from Page 1 


20 people, most of them in Britain. 
Mr. Dunn 


said fee decision to expand 
fee import restrictions came after two 
animals diagnosed wife the disease in 
Belgium and Luxembourg went into fee 
animal food processing system. In ad- 
dition, British scientists this month dis- 
covered feat fee disease can infect ad- 
ditional parts of fee animals, including 
bone marrow. 

“This import policy is science-based 


and consistent” with international 
guidelines, Mr. Dunn said. 

The Agriculture Department will lift 
fee import restrictions for any country 
that shows it has a mad cow surveillance 
pro gr am that conforms to international 
standards and contains adequate con- 
trols for imports, Mr. Dunn added. 

According to fee American Meat In- 
stitute, fee United States imported about 
381,000 metric tons of beef and veal 
from Europe in 1996, and about 1 14,000 
metric tons of lamb and mutton. 


Infected Blood in Transfusions 


edged a new offer from Beijing that 
Chinese 


Nearly 270 people in Ireland have 
received blood from a British donor who 
turned out to be infected wife fee 
Creutzfeldt-Jakob virus, according to the 
Irish Health Ministry, Agence Fraace- 
Presse reported from Dubun on Sunday. 

Blood products from fee doom- were 
transfused into patients in nine hospitals 
before it was learned that fee donor had 
died of fee disease. The products were 
destroyed, the ministry said. 


would “substantially reduce 
tariff barriers. 

“China has evidenced a will to try to 
move negotiations forward, and feat is 
very welcome indeed,” she said 

The financial services accord marked 
fee third big trade liberalization accord 
of 1997. In February fee WTO achieved 
a global telecommunications deal, and in 
March countries accounting for 95 per- 
cent of world trade in information tech- 


nology products agreed to phase out all 
tariffs by 2000. 


Scientist Dies 
From Virus 
Transmitted 


By Monkey 


By Rick Bragg 

Not Kv* Tmts Smtot 


ATLANTA — - Elizabeth Griffin. 
22, a primate researcher, was care- 
fill to follow the- precautions in- 
tended to shield her from fee dis- 
eased animals she handled. She 
always wore gloves and a mask, and 
she was usually separated from the 
primates by a mesh cage. 

Death found its way past her de- 
fenses, literally in fee blink of aa 


eye. 


Six weeks ago. Miss Griffin, 
who planned to be a doctor, was 
helping to move a caged rhesus 
monkey infected wife the herpes B 
vims at the Yerkes Regional Prim- 
ate Research Center here, when fee 
animal flung a tiny drop of fluid — 
■japs urine or feces — at her. 


It struck her in fee eye. On Wed- 
nesday. paralyzed and weakened, 
she died of complications from 
herpes B, which is common in prim- 
ates but rare and deadly, 70 percent 
of fee time, in humans. 

The consequences of that aniroal- 
to-human contact, and the almost 
freakish way it caused Miss 
Griffin's death, seem lifted from 
Hollywood. Unlike the movies, 
however, there is no public health 
risk here, researchers said, just a 
single misfortune. 

Only 40 cases of primaie-to-hu- 
man transmission of the virus have 
been reported since 1933, when the 
first case of human exposure was 
seen. Almost all were the result of 
bites and scratches. 

Miss Griffin, from Kingsport, 
Georgia, probably never thought 
site was at risk. 

“This was an* extraordinarily 
low-risk activity by any measure we 
have,” said Dr. Thomas Gordon, 
associate director for scientific pro- 
grams at fee Yerkes center, which is 
an arm of Emory University’s med- 
ical school. 

The center conducts research in 
AIDS, neuroscience, gene therapy 
and other areas, and is a frequent 
target of animal rights protesters. 

On the day she was infected. Miss 
Griffin was dressed as usual, wear- 
ing a mask, gloves and lab coat The 
monkey’s cage was covered by a 
fine wire mesh to protect her and 
others from fee animal's teeth and 
claws. 

Health regulations require re- 
searchers to wear goggles or safety 
glasses when there is a risk of con- 
tact with an animal's fluids, like 
when an animal is removed from its 
cage. But feat was not required in 
this case because Miss Griffin was 
holding the cage at arm's length, 
officials said. 

4 ‘ During this transfer, as she tried 
to look into the cage to check fee 
status of the monkey, something 
came out,” Dr. Gordon said. “Be- 
cause it was so minor an event, it 


was not even viewed by fee in- 
dividual as serious. ’ ’ 


Two weeks after she felt the tiny 
drop hit her eye, he said. Miss 
Griffin developed a headache and 
eye infection. Miss Griffin, who 
graduated this year wife a degree in 
biology from Agnes Scott College, 
was admitted to Emory University 
Hospital, and at first responded well 
to anti-viral medication. She even 
went home. But about 20 days later, 
her legs became weak and she went 
back to the hospiial. 

By that time, fee disease had rav- 

r her. Herpes B, which has few 
treatment guidelines because 
there have been so few cases, causes 
encephalomyelitis, an inflamma- 
tion of fee brain and spinal cord, 
which leads to paralysis. 

. Miss Griffin, breathing wife the 
aid of a respirator, was unable to 
move. Dr. Gordon said, but was 

alert until just before her death from 

bacterial infections and respiratory 
distress syndrome. 


WORK: He Retires; She Continues Career 


The Rewards of Working 
A Little Longer 


A few extra years of work can 
substantially increase a woman's 
monthly Social Security benefits. For 
example, a woman who started 
working in 1931 at age 45 and is 
earning S 30,000 annually at the time 
she retires could double her benefit 
by working to age 70. 


K she retires at 62 in January 
1998, her benefit would be... 



If she retires at 65 In 
January 2001 ... 



If she retires at 70 In 
January 2006 ... 


$ 1 , 102 ' 


‘In today's dollars. 

Source: Soaal Security Adnvnistrstson 


NYT 


Continued from Page 1 


practice of sharing their husbands’ re- 
tirement 

Surveys are just beginning to catch die 
shift and the reasons for it across fee 
United States. A big one is fee promise 
of an independent pension to avoid the 
poverty that often comes to widows who 
rely on their husbands* benefits. Social 
Security, the main ingredient in most 
cases, is reduced after- a husband’s 
death. 

41 4 Older women keep working to secure 
. their economic survival," said Heidi Hart- 
mann. director of the Institute for Wom- 
en’s Policy Research in Washington. 

What is more, the extra income earned 
by fee women helps maintain family 
living standards, particularly if a husband 
has been pushed out of fee labor force 
before he had planned to retire. 

Whatever fee reasons, women’s per- 
sistence in working could have broad 
implications for fee economy. It could, 
for example, relieve some of fee fi- 
nancial pressure on fee Social Security 
system, which will be stretched thin 
when fee baby boomers — those bom 
between 1946 and 1964 — retire. 

The statistical evidence is still sparse, 
but the shift appears to apply mainly to 
those 55 to 64 and nor to those 65 and 
older. 



IRAN. Leader Extends Hand to Americans 


Continued from Page 1 


Da PteUa/Thc New YuKUmn 

Ruth Cambron, 73, of Sacramento, California, took a leave but returned 
to her job as a health care specialist after her husband's retirement. 


The University of Michigan, which is 
tracking people in their 50s and 60s in a 
federally financed study feat is just be- 
ginning to produce data, found that of 
813 married women whose husbands 
had retired. 45 percent still worked, most 
of them full-time. 

Labor Department surveys also sug- 
gest that married women are working in 
increasing numbers after their husbands 
stop, or at least that married women aged 
55 to 64 are staying in the labor force in 
rising percentages while men are not 
Nearly 35 million women in this 


group were in the labor force last year, or 
48.6 percent of all married women 55 to 
64, up from 41.3 percent in 1989 and 
363 percent in 1980. But the percentage 
of married men in feat age group in fee 
labor force has fallen to 70.2 percent, 
from 75.4 percent in 1980. 

“Women are beginning to realize fear 
by working just a few more years, they 
become eligible for* good pensions,” 
said Olivia Mitchell, a Labor economist 
at the University of Pennsylvania. “The 
benefit of those few extra years can be 
quite high.” 


Aides to Mr. Khatami say he has been 
wary of saying anything dial might pro- 
mote a backlash among Iranian con- 
servatives, They also concede that it 
remains undear how much influence the 
new president can wield wi thin Iran's 
complicated power structure in shaping 
fee country’s future course, particularly 
in foreign policy. 

But as he took center stage to answer 
' reporters’ questions for more than an 
hour Sunday, Mr. Khatami sounded a 
new tone, even suggesting feat it was “a 
source of sorrow” to him feat fee United 
Srates and Iran had not done more to 
patch up their differences in fee nearly 
19 years since the revolution. 

The Iranian president stopped short of 
saying feat he expected renewed con- 
acts between the two governments, and 
be did not spell out how he intended to 
re-establish a dialogue wife the Amer- 
ican people. He said instead feat the 
“first step” would be for American 
politicians to “understand their own 

time” andrecognize feat it was a mistake 

to ma i ntain their efforts to isolate Iran. 

"Instead of talking wife forked 
tongues, we want to have a rational 
dialogue.” Mr. Khatami said. “We want 
to have a dialogue of civilizations.” 

Mr. Khatami’s message might help to 


mute U.S. objections to closer ties, but 


there was 



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Uncharted Waters: Lessons of the Past Fail to Explain Asia Turmoil 


fi y Sl even Pearlstein . 
and Tim Smart 

WasHilWm Post Service 


The Asian financial crisis, which 
only weeks ago was being shrugged off 
as a miid irritant to the U.S. economy 
has now sent investors, executives and 
economists scrambling to revise their 
forecasts and strategies. Few are w illing 
to predict when or how the Asian mess 
will end. 

“Most people right now, if they are 
being at all honest, have got to be a bit 
scared," said David Hale, chief econ- 
omist at Zurich Kemper Securities in 
Chicago. 

“We re in the midst of a global crisis 
of confidence that is more serious than 
any we have had in the modem era. 
Nobody can tell you how h is going to 


turn out or what die full economic and 
political consequences will be. We’re in 
uncharted waters right now." 

Preliminary forecasts showed that 
troubles in Asia should have only a mod- 
est impart on the U.S. economy next 
year. But even those who make such 
predictions now concede that psycho- 
logical factors — not econ o mic and hnci- 
ness fundamentals — are driving Asia’s 
problems. And no economic mode] ex- 
ists that can predict when bankers will 
lend, investors invest or central bankers 
expand the money supply. 

Up to now, the direct impact on the 
U.S. economy has been a mix of lost 
business and new opportunities. Many 
companies have reported minor losses 
from currency trading and modest ef- 
forts to redirect purchases and sales 
from one region to another. 


On Wall Street, analysts and in- 
vestors spent much of Iasi week mark- 
ing down die stock of global power- 
houses such as Coca Cota Co., J.P. 
Morgan & Co., Texaco Inc. and Oracle 
Core, after die companies lined op to 
confess that profit growth would slow as 
a result of Asia woes. 

At the same time, though, the rush of 
lobal investors seeking a safe haven in 
T.S. Treasury securities sparked a bond 
market rally that drove long-term in- 
terest rates below 6 percent 
At the Houston headquarters of En- 
ron Corp., executives spent the week 
recalculating the odds that natural gas 
projects they are involved with in the 
Philippines and Indonesia, might be 
delayed, hurting sales. But they are also 
considering whether to buy mere of 
their pipes and valves from Asia rather 


g 


than Europe or the United States be- 
cause the plummeting currency values 
have made things cheaper there. 

And even as Citicorp stock was being 
hammered because of expected trading 
losses in Asia, its executives were bar- 
gain hunting in Bangkok, buying a ma- 
jority stake in an ailin g bank there. 

Officials at Xerox Core, say the 
Asian turmoil should not affect its bot- 
tom line but could well change the mix 
of what it sells. While die company is 
likely to sell fewer of its high-end copi- 
ers in Asian markets, lower costs for its 
Asian-made ink-jet primers are expec- 
ted to boost sales is the United States. 

This is the way that markets are sup- 
posed to adjust to new conditions and 
stabilize crises before they get out of 
control: One investor's loss becomes 
another’s buying opportunity. The eco- 


nomic drag from fewer exports is offset 
by more and cheaper imports. Lower 
interest rates offset lower operating 
profits. 

Bui economists warned last week that 
die Asian crisis could overwhelm these 
stabilizers because of the shocks it has 
inflicted on die world’s financial system 
— : the increasingly interdependent net- 
work of banks and stock markets that 
provide businesses and consumers with 
capital they need to operate from day to 
day. In the last month. South Korea dis- 
covered that even a basically sound econ- 
omy can be brought to its knees if pan- 
icked investors and lenders all demand 
their money back at the same time. 

And this week, all eyes will turn to 
Japan, where the government is expec- 
ted to unveil a rescue package for ailing 
banks whose refusal to make loans has 


effectively brought the world's second- 
largest economy to a standstill. 

As recently as last month, most econ- 
omists predicted that the Asian crisis 
would, at most, shave half a percentage 
point off the U.S. gross domestic 
product next year, leaving the country 
with a still-healthy growth rate of 2 to 
2.5 percent. But the economists concede 
that just as their models missed the 
outbreak of the Asian crisis because 
they do not consider dramatic changes 
in the flow of capital, so they cannot 
predict how far the Asian economies 
will fall and when they will stabilize. 

Likewise, they cannot anticipate 
what a possible default by South Korea 
would do to the economies of India and 
Russia, or even Brazil, as investors pull 

See ASIA, Page 13 


In Crisis, Rubin Sticks Calmly to Basics 


By Clay Chandler 

Washington Post Service 


WASHINGTON — If anyone in 
Washington had forgotten that Treasury 
Secretary Robert Rubin earned his pin-^ 
stripes as a top trader at one of the most 
powerful investment banks on Wall 
Street, the past few weeks have been a 
reminder. 

With South Korea struggling to avoid 
the collapse of its banking system, the 
Japanese economy faltering, and stock 
and currency values throughout the rest 
of Asia gyrating wildly. Mr. Rubin has 
maintained an almost eerie c alm. 

Invisibility in times of crisis has be- 
come a hallmark of Mr. Rubin’s man-'' 
agement style. He has said almost noth- 
ing publicly about the turmoil raging 
through Asia. The few statements he has 
made have been worded carefully. He 


has kept to his regular schedule — even 
when it took him far away from foe 
Treasury Department — to avoid con- 
veying the slightest hint of panic. 1 

Mr. Rubin, according to former Wall 
Street colleagues and officials who have 
worked with him in die Clinto n ad- 
ministration, brings to his duties at the 

ofmodern capital markers. *** 
“Bob is market person,” said W. 
Bowman Cutter, who worked as Mr. 
Rubin’s deputy at the National Eco- 
nomic Council dnring President Bill 
Clinton’s first term in office. “He 
knows what markets will find convin- 
cing and what they want" 

Perhaps most telling has been Mr. 
Rubin's refusal to support any easy bail- 
outs for borrowers that have failed to 
honor their financial obligations. 

As Seoul's troubles mount, some 


analysts have argued that a financial 
meltdown there could reverberate 
throughout the global economy and 
therefore must be prevented at all costs. 
But if Mr. Rubin snares this view, he has 
given little sign of it so far. 

If anything, Mr. Rubin's remarks in 
public and to some of the market players 
he has consulted in recent days have 
highlighted his refusal to budge from 
the economic reform plan prescribed by 
the International Monetary Fund. He 
has appeared annoyed with attempts by 
South Korean officials’ efforts to 
wriggle free from the IMF's strictures. 

Mr. Rubin’s low public profile in the 
face of the spreading crises Has some 
market players concerned. Stephen 
Roach, economist at Morgan Stanley 
Dean Witter in New York, said, ‘ ‘Silence 
is a recipe for further uncertainty, and 
more uncertainty could mean disaster.’' 



Corporate America Feels 
The Pinch of Asian Crisis 

Some Firms Fret os Others Are Able to Cut Costs 


By Louis Uchitelle 

No* - >'•«■! Tunes Service 


lbtln Inoqr/^m lilMr-hnar 

Robert Rubin, Treasury secretary. 


Korean Conglomerates See Exports as Holy Grail 


By Don Kirk 

Special to the Herald Tribune 


SEOUL — “Exports are the power of 
the country,’’ the late President Park 
Chung Hee said, and South Korea's 
sprawling chaebol , or conglomerates, 
subscribe to that maxim more strongly 
now than ever. 

“To overcome this crisis, export pro- 
motion is the most important policy of 
the country," Kim Chang Ro, director 
of the export division of foe ministry of 
trade, industry and energy, said last 
week. “We are going to try to have the 
foreign capital investment to support 
our industry and support exports. 

His comments reflected how foe in- 
fluence of President Park — a 'former 
general who seized power in 1961 and 
ruled with a dictatorial hand until 1979 
— lives on in the basic structure of the 
chaebol and the banks, and this coun- 
try's almost instinctive drive to export at 
any price. 

The impression is the chaebol are pay- 
ing little more than lip service to the need 
for fundamental transformation — often 
in the form of downsizing — of their 


groups, “it’s pretty hard for them to 
change ovanirfu," said Park Nei Hei, an 
adviser to the Boston Consulting Group. 

Exporting is “one way to get some 
hard cash," he said. 

Only from experience in the coming 
months, Mr. Park thinks, will the chae- 
bol come to accept the need for change 
beyond cuts in bemuses and salaries and 
dissolution of money-losing lines. 

“They've got to show some drastic 
change, “said Mr. Paik^who has written 
10 books on Sooth Korea’s economic 
problems. “Eventually they have to do 
that. They cannot resist. They should 
have done much more than they are 
doing now." 

But foe chaebol may not be getting 
foe point Instead they, seem intent on 
employing foe old paradigm of export- 
ing their way out of trouble. 

But South Koreans in the government 
and tiie chaebol seemed oblivious to foe 
implication in Seoul’s bailout agree- 
ment with foe International Monetary 
Fund that the government should d&- 
emphasize exports if only because they 
often require massive infusions in fac- 
tory investment 


Nor did they appear aware of a re- 
newal of complaints that South Korea, 
after accepting the $60 billion bailout 
package, might arouse resentment from 
its trading partners for dumping low- 
priced goods into foreign markets, while 
importing very tittle into their own pro- 
tected market. 

Meanwhile, U.S. and European Un- 
ion manufacturer associations, which 
were already embroiled in disputes with 
South Koreans before the financial 
crisis, are hinting foal they expect to 
renew their offensive to open South 
Korean markets, possibly through the 
IMF. as exports keep rising. 

One example of the kind of dispute 
the export push is likely to arouse is in 
the domestic motor vehicle market. 
Since the won's sudden descent in value, 
foreign car sales have plummeted. Mer- 
cedes Benz AG, Ford Motor Co. and 
Chrysler Corp. reported having sold 10 
cars each here last month, while Bay- 
erisefae Motoren Werke AG has sold no 
cars at all. South Korean automakers 
control nearly the entire market. 

If there is rare bright side to the daily 
precipitous decline of foe won, as far as 


bureau crais and business people are 
concerned, it is that the price of South 
Korean goods will fall sharply on world 
markets. 

“Now it’s about 1,700 to foe dollar,” 
Finance Minister Lim Chang Yuel said 
last week. “Can you imagine foe impact 
of this exchange rate on our compet- 
itiveness?" 

The Korea Trade Association pre- 
dicted that exports for 1997 would reach 
■ $136.8 billion, up from $129.7 billion in 
1996, and would soar to $144 billion in 
1998. 

A sign of foe lack of foreign exchange 
or access to credit is that South Korea's 
trade deficit is steadily declining from 
1996, when imports reached $1502 bil- 
lion, to J997, with imports likely to be at 
$146.5 billion, to 1998. when imports 
are projected to be about foe same as 


exports. 
But S 


lot South Korean officials say that 
the almost desperate desire to produce 
products at htxne and sell them abroad is 
not quite the same as it was in foe 1960s 
and 1970s when President Park told the 

See CHAEBOL, Page 13 


Two freighters carrying logs from the 
Weyerhaeuser Corp. in foe Pacific 
Northwest steam idly at sea near South 
Korea, their cargoes undelivered — per- 
haps undeliverable. Just as foe ships 
approached port, the Korean buyers re- 
fused to pay for wood they no longer 
needed to build homes and furniture 
they can no longer sell while Asia's 
financial crisis spreads. 

Tiffany, enjoying brisk jewelry sales 
on Fifth Avenue, is hurting in Hawaii. 
The Japanese tourists who normally vis- 
it and buy there are doing neither lately. 
And Reebok International, foe shoe gi- 
ant, reports that its sales to Asia's con- 
sumers are way off. 

Take foe Rockpon shoe boutique, a 
Reebok subsidiary, in Seoul’s upscale 
Myondong neighborhood. 

“People come in here and they real- 
ize this is an American brand and they 
don’t buy," said Kim Myung Chal, the 
store manager. 

Hundreds of stories like these are 
bringing foe Asian financial crisis home 
to corporate America. So for, the effects 
have been small for most companies. 

Weyerhaeuser, Tiffany and Reebok 
may be hurting in foe Pacific, but their 
sales worldwide are still rising. And 
added together, all the setbacks at worst 
only seem to be nibbling at the overall 
U.S. economy. Some companies even 
expect to profit from the turmoil by 
selling products in America that are ever 
cheaper to make in Asia with the re- 
gion s felling currencies. 

The U.S. economy, in foe view of 
many experts, is simply too big and too 
complex to be brought down by what 
has happened so for in Asia. 

“My line is always ‘America has 130 
million workers.’ ’ ’ said Paul Knigman, 
an economist at foe Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology. 

“You can go out there and find sto- 
ries that affect a thousand companies 


and a million workers, and it is still not 
important in the larger picture." 

But while the effect thus far appears 
to be marginal for most American 
companies — a Weyerhaeuser official, 
for example, says foe undelivered logs 
might cost foe company several hundred 
thousand dollars, a pittance for a com- 
pany with more than Si 1 billion in an- 
nual reveaue — the cumulative effect 
on foe U.S. economy as a whole could 
be harsh. 

Some of the damage might show up at 
first as good news for consumers in foe 
form of falling prices for Asian goods 
sold in America. But more Asian im- 
ports could swell foe U.S. trade deficit 
to a damaging level and shrink Amer- 
ican operations that make similar goods 
— textiles, electronics, furniture and 
auto parts, for instance — or push 
companies to move operations abroad. 

“It accelerates foe move offshore; that 
is foe bad news," said Jay Meltzer, di- 
rector of Johnson Redbook Service, 
which compiles retail data. “And foe 
good news is that it puts the kibosh on 
inflation. Every apparel company foal I 
speak to talks of doing more sourcing 
offshore, and particularly now in Asia." 

Many forecasters expea foe Asian 
crisis to slow the growth of the Amer- 
ican economy by only half a percentage 
point, to about 15 percent in 1998. But 
a few are talking about a decline of one 
percentage point, enough to cot back job 
creation and make foe low unemploy- 
ment rate edge up gradually. 

There is a more dire scenario — that 
the panic in Asia becomes infectious, 
scaring American investors sufficiently 
to bring down stock prices. That would 
make millions of Americans feel less 
wealthy, undermining the consumer 
confidence that has sustained two years 
of strong economic growth. 

“The Asian crisis, although a small 
thing, becomes the pin that pricks foe 
stock market bubble in America, as- 
suming there is a bubble," Mr. King- 
man said 


CYBERSCAPE 


Norwegian Browser Does Without Frills 


By Barry James 

International Herald Tribune 


B russels— while 
foe fat cats butt 
heads in the browser 
war, a little Norwe- 
■ gian mouse is nibbling at their 
‘turf. 

• No one at Opera Software 
AS of Oslo — which has only 
11 full-time employees — 
pretends that the company will 
topple the mighty Microsoft 
Corp* OT I* 5 rival for Internet 
supremacy, Netscape Com- 
munications Coip- 
But the founders of Opera, 
Jen Stephenson vonTetzchner 
and Geir Ivarsoy, both former 
researchers at foe Norwegian 


telephone company Telenor, 
said they had identified a mar- 
ket among people who want a 
fast and simple browser with- 
out the cutting-edge bells and 
whistles of foe Internet giants. 

They developed a program 
that fits on a single floppy 
disk, runs on virtually any PC 
including 386 PCs with only 
four megabytes of random- 
access memory — prehistoric 
in computer terms — and re- 
trieves World Wide Web 
pages quickly, even with rel- 
atively slow modems. At 
about 1.2 megabytes it can be 
downloaded is a few- minutes 
( http://operajtta.no ), and it 
installs in less than a minute. 

In foe experience of this 


CURRENCY RATES 


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■nfliM 1 . 11 V twBa nn y^ > rnSjhrVnTT X 54 IMboM A 25 

gr* s E— SB sas^s: 
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R*.n«Ua una Matef-rtw- 18073 *"■* 

Forward Bates 

-—Isl asSr ussas 


technologically challenged 
reporter. Opera runs notice- 
ably faster than either Net- 
scape or Microsoft's Internet 
Explorer. The graphics-laden 
lHT home page, for example, 
pops np within seconds with a 
slow 14,400-baud modem. 
On an elderly laptop, Opera 
crashes occasionally, but no 
more than Netscape 3. 

According to Mecklerme- 
dia Carp., foe on-line pub- 
lisher, Opera has an estimated 
0.65 percent of foe browser 
market, compared with 58 
percent far Netscape and 32 
percent for Internet Explorer. 

With no budget for mar- 
keting, Opera relies on word of 
moufo arm Internet serendipity 
to promote the program, and 
the company works to win foe 
loyalty of its users. E-mail 
messages get a personal reply, 
and reported bugs are quickly 
fibred. The program is written 
in a n umb er of languages, in- 
cluding both dialects of Nor- 
wegian and separate Spanish- 
language versions for Spain 
and Latin America. Judging 
from Opera's bulletin board, 
many customers have tamed 
their backs on Netscape and 
Microsoft Explorer beca u se 
they found foetr latest version 
4 editions to be too cumber- 
some and too loaded with fea- 
tures they don’t heed. 

Opera 3 is still in the Beta 
stage, with the definitive ver- 
sion expected to be released 
early next year, along with 
full Java capability. The pro- 
gram does not yet have a 
proper E-mail attachment, al- 
though it links easily with ex- 
ternal mail applications such 
as Eudora. And it does not 
have its own dialer, which 
means it tan be tricky to set 
□p unless you know about 
things like Windsocks. 

If Opera lacks some of the 
features of its bigger rivals, it 


can do some things foal they 
can’t. You can retrieve several 
Web pages simultaneously, 
reading one while otters load 
in foe background. Or you can 
clone a window so that you 
can have several simultaneous 
links to foe same Web site. The 
hot list, where you save your 
favorite Web links, is organ- 
ized Kke a directory tree — 
very handy for classifying 
work as you go. You can open 
up to 1 0 links and save them all 
simultaneously to die hot list 

The program loads in- 
stantly, and if you wish, it will 
automatically return to foe 
way it was before being 
switched off. Screen text and 
pictures can be magnified, 
and all the functions are avail- 
able through foe keyboard. 

Opera began as an internal 
network or intranet at Telenor 
before the two founders left to 
set up their own company in 
1994. An early version of the 
program is used by the Nor- 
wegian unemployment 
agency to list job openings on 
ter minals all over foe country. 
The company also found a 
market among schools that 
wanted to get on line, but 
could not afford to replace 
their old computers. 

Opera runs on all versions 
of Windows, but not yet on 
Macintosh operating sys- 
tems. Unlike its bigger rivals, 
which give away their pro- 
grams to build market share. 
Opera charges for its browser 
($30). but allows a three- 
moflfo trial period. It unin- 
stalls completely, leaving no 
trace on foe hard disk. Which 
is more than you can say 
about Internet Explorer. 

Internet address: 

CyberScape@iht.com 

* Recent technology articles: 

* wwwJht.com/IHT/TECW 



I jumn KrlMin/Thr Viwmird 1V*» 

Prime Minister Tony Blair gesturing during a press conference at the EU summit meeting in Luxembourg. 

Blair’s EU 6 Victory’ Invisible to Others 


By Barry James 

International Herald Tribune 


LUXEMBOURG — Prime Minister 
Tony Blair went away claiming victory 
in his demand for a voice in decision- 
making on foe proposed European 
single currency, foe euro, but the final 
conference document Sunday showed 
that he achieved virtually zero. 

Many European journalists here asked 

NEWS ANALYSIS 

why foe British leader wasted so much 
goodwill on an issue he could not win. 

A possible answer is foe continuing 
gap in perception between Britain and 
foe rest of Europe. The Labour Party 
talks more enthusiastically about play- 
fog a leading role in foe heart of Europe 
than its predecessor, and British of- 
ficials sometimes appear to think that 
this entitles them to special favors. 

At foe same time, they are mindful of 
an influential section of foe British press 
that treats every foray into Europe as if it 
were St George facmg foe dragon. 

And if Mr. Blair comes across like 
Margaret Thatcher, that does not nec- 
essarily do him any harm at home. 

’ For other leaders, the British have yet 
to prove their sincerity by deeds. Labour 
stifi is fence-sitting on the single currency, 
and will not consider joining during the 
five years of foe current Parliament. 


TTie other countries said this was not 
enough to give Britain a place on foe 
informal council that they intend to set 
up to coordinate euro policies. It is called 
Euro-X because foe exact number of 
“ins." or countries that will join the 
single currency next year, is not known. 

Leaders of 11 possible “ins” were 
unanimous in lellfog Mr. Blair that 
countries sharing foe same money had 
foe right to meet privately. Mr. Blair had 
to concede this, so instead he demanded 
that decisions of common interest must 
be made by foe finance ministers of all 
15 European Union countries. Chan- 
cellor Helmut Kohl of Germany could 
not understand foe fuss, since that re- 
quirement is already in the EU treaty. 

The leaders agreed, however, to re- 
affirm the principle in foe final doc- 
ument, and on this basis Mr. Blair pro- 
claimed victory. That was all he got. 

The other leaders said they would let 
foe “outs,” which also include Den- 
mark, Sweden and Greece, have a look 
at foe agenda for ibeir informal gef- 
logeibers, but even this promise was 
omitted from foe final text 
A British spokesman had some dif- 
ficulty explaining how being rejected by 
a dub Britain said it didn’t want to join 
was a victory. One briefing became so 
incoherent that foe spokesman might as 
well have given the rules of crickeL 
“You have two sides, one out in the 
field and one in. Each man foar’s in foe 


side that’s in goes out, and when he’s 
out he comes in and the next man goes in 
until he’s out When they are all out the 
side that's out comes in and foe side 
that’s been in goes out and tries to get 
those coming in out" 

The french couldn't have wished for 
more had they planned it They pushed 
for foe Euro-X council as an “informal" 
political counterpart to foe future central 
bank, and gained reluctant German assent 
in exchange for guaranteeing foe bank's 
total independence. Thanks to the fuss the 
British made about foe council, it has 
emerged as a serious political forum for 
foe Euro countries, which one suspects is 
what foe French wanted all along. 

The pity about this squabble, many 
said, was that it cast a shadow over one 
of united Europe’s milestones — the 
summit decision to admit 10 countries 
of Eastern and Central Europe and end 
the postwar division of foe Continent. 

ft is a truism that foe smallest coun- 
tries often have the widest vision. Prime 
Minister Jean-Claude Juncker of Lux- 
embourg worked valiantly and effi- 
ciently for foe enlargement, which will 
be remembered long after Euro-X is 
forgotten. At a final news conference, 
he was in term pied by protesters of whar 
they called the corporate takeover of 
Europe. Mr. Juncker visibly exhausted, 
muttered something about having heard 
enough shouting in foe previous two 
days to be immune to any more. 


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PAGE 12 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, MONDAY DECEMBER 15, 1997 


CAPITAL MARKETS ON MONDAY 


World Financiers Reassured as 


to 


By Carl Gewirtz 

imenuinorul HenjlJ Tribune 


“My guess/* said John Lipsky at 
tiase Manhattan Bank inNew xoik, “is 


PARIS. — Financial markets are 
breathing a little easier now that South 
Korean politicians have backed off their 
threat to challenge the International 
Monetary Fund over the conditions for 
its loan. 

But in fact, analysts and economists 
say. Seoul had little choice but to com- 
ply. With the free market making South 
Korea's currency and debt a '‘sell” at 
almost any price, these observers say, 
loan guarantees and foreign capital are 
the only way the country "can stave off 
default. 

The promised $60 billion in IMF 
loans, the largest rescue package ever 
arranged by the fund, were not in ev- 
idence last week as Korea's financial 
crisis worsened and its currency shed 
another 28 percent in value. 


Chase Manhattan Book in New Y oik, “is 
that the lenders were concerned about 
sending a message that could have been 
read to mean that stabilizing the situation, 
in Korea was more important to the rest 
of the world than it was to Korea." 

On Saturday. . die South Koreans 


sought to dispel such a notion as Pres- 
ident Kim Young Sam and three can- 


idem Kim Young Sam and three can- 
didates in Thursday's [Residential elec- 
tion pledged they would honor the 
commitments given to secure the loans. 

Last week's loss left the dollar trad- 
ing at 1 .702.5 won. Over the past mouth, 
the won has plunged 42 percent — 
knocking Korea down in the world 
rankings of most important economies 
from the 1 1 ih largest to 20th. 

“As Uie dollar rises against the won, 
the problems get worse, implying fur- 
ther need for IMF money,” Troy Bowl- 
er, regional fixed income analyst at 


Deutsche Morgan Grenfell Securities 
Ltd., told Bloomberg News. 

The refusal of the United States and 
Japan to speed up disbursement of the 
combined $15 billion they had pledged 
to lend exacerbated the panic. So did the 
failed attempt by die country's leading 
borrower, Korea Development Bank, to 
raise $2 billion in the international cap- 
ital market. KDB bonds, introduced 19 
months ago at a spread of 74 basis points 
(nearly 3/4 percentage point) over com- 
parably dated U.S. government paper, 
was quoted last week at a spread of 675 
basis points. 

The currency’s downward spiral be- 
comes self-perpetuating as private 
companies, which borrowed in foreign 
currency, need to sell ever more won to 
service their debt, and as local investors 
lose confidence and dump the won. 

“Korea is in the second phase of 
crisis," observed John Llewellyn at 


Lehman Brothers in London. “Phase duewithinoneyear. of which some $15 ' jnsTsucLed i 

one is where genuine economic prob- billion is. due this- month unless banks nr 8 

ferns drive (he market Phase _ two is voluntarily roll over <3eb® and weu enlwined # 


lems drive the market Phase two is 

where the market drives the fundament- ...... nnn 

ais. where the market decides it wants not writable and the -loans- not rolled ^ loading industrialized «'; 

out at any price and the further decline over, default looms. . ___ 'jj™ »u e finance asser v 

of tije currency worsens the financial The currency weakness is another <»jinM of private (mostly ^ 

^^■■ C ° mpan, " t,ymgt0S ' rV ' Ce < *^Jtorea is to Jaoan wtai Canada is to USjUstors in Mexico's. l-W-sk 
TteUSy way to arrest such irrational (he United Sate^tplained Brendan financial cnas 
behavior - which Mr. Llewellyn com- Brown at Tokyo-Mitsutahi fomna- brar the co^ue^ oittie dem'Mst 
pares to an old-fashioned ran on a local tional in London. The decline of the community toTEsc^ them o 

bank — “is to provide a massive won has serious implications for Japan, . „, verE jm limiidirv crisis. '' 

amount of foreign exchange so rfmt the world’s second- largest economy, when the ne S® Q Vf 

everyone realizes the liquidity is there which.is suffering its own problems/’ comes. nhrjKi , s.__ vp _, ian „ 

and can them afford to consider whether _And always _ present _ is the fear that ' The opera e * J/LS £ = 


extend the maturities. If the money is 

tirtr available and. theloansnotroued 


perfectly well-managed financial iosn- ij 
Elions could get sucked into a crisis as* 

well. • , ...... ' 

Further entwined m this dispute is4 
who gets hurt in the Korean mess. The,'! 
Group of Ten. the leading industrialized 
countries providing the finance, asser- v 
ted after the bailout of private (mostly, 
U.S.) investors in Mexico’s 1994-%. 
financial crisis that '‘investors must Z 
bear the consequences of (he decisions* 


Most Active International Bonds 


The 250 most active international bonds traded 
through the Euroctear system for the week end- 
ing Dec. 12. Prices supplied by TeJekure. 


Rnk Name 


Cpn Maturity Pries YieM 


Cpn Maturity Price YMd 


RrA Name 


Cpn Maturity Price Yield 


Australian Dollar 

207 Queensland Tsy 6ft (W14/05 1 MA 820 6-1600 


Austrian Schn ling 


159 Austria 
214 Austria 


5*k 04/11/07 102.1000 5-6300 
5V» 07H5/07 1013000 55500 


67 Germany 5P 
66 Germany 
69 Germany 
71 Germany 

73 Germany 

74 Treuhand 

78 Treuhand 

79 Germany 
81 Germany 
82 -Treuhand 

88 Germany 

89 Germany 

90 Germany 

91 Treuhand 


zero 07/04/27 17.0000 6.1700 

514 06/22/00 103.0025 55800 

51 5 05/15/00 103.0900 5.7000 
7ft 12/20/02 1093700 65100 
51* 1 1/2T/D0 101X600 5.0500 
6% 05/13/04 1085000 63200 
6>6 04/23/03 1067322 65900 

5 0521/01 100.9900 4.9500 

61* 01/02/99 102X600 6.3400 
5 12/17/98 100.9400 4.9500 

Vo 11/11/04 112.9957 65400 
7U 01/2000 1055600 65600 
6*i 07/15/04 108.7850 63000 
6U 07/29/99 103.1200 6.0600 


and can then afford to consider whether 
they really want to sell the won at such a 
low price.” 

While analysts assume that the prom- 
ised liquidity has not been forthcoming 
because of apparent political reluctance 
within Korea about complying with the 
IMF conditions, the experts also warn 
that the situation is fraught with 
danger. 

The most obvious channel of dis- 
turbance is via the banking system. An 
estimated 80 percent of the country’s 
110 billion foreign currency debt falls 


China will be dragged into the turmoil, 
thr eatening new currency devaluations, 
including that of the Hong “Kong dollar. 

As potentially damaging, although 
much less clear, is (he contagion effect if 
money is pulled back from other emerg- 
ing markets. Such a flight to quality is 
already evident The risk premiums on 
all emerging -mark et debt have risen and 
the flight- to quality has contributed 
greatly to driving down bond yields in 
New York and Frankfurt. The danger is 
that viable developing countries and 


comes. 

The operative phrase is “sovereign* 
liquidity crises." In Korea, the problem-* ' 


is not an overload of government in--i 
rfehredness but rather financial market ■? 


de tiredness but rather financial market *\ 
instability. 

For Willem Buiter at Cambridge Uni- r" 
versity, the “no bailout should apply f. 
even more strongly in a market crisis ’ 11 
because the government is not directly i 
involved. Private investors haver 
suffered from the dramatic declines' in :. 
Korean stock prices and die currency : . 
yalue. “But these are the ordinary mar--, 
ket risks investors take." v 


Japanese Yen 


194 ExlmBlt Japan 2 ft 07/26/05 108X000 25600 
213 Mexico 5 WJ7/9S 101.T625 45400 

230 ExImBk Japan 44k ltyoi/03 116.1250 3.7700 
232 NTT 216 07/2507103X000 24300 

245 CCC1 3 03/1 8A)9 104.0924 25800 


Spanish Peseta 

186 Spain 5W 01/31/03 993210 53900 


Asia’s Pain Helps the Bond Market Rise 


Belgian Franc 


93 Exim BK Japan 5* 12/10/07 1013000 5.6800 


Swedish Krona 


By Jonathan Fuerbringer 

New York Tones Service 


155 Belgium Tbllls 
238 Belgium 


zero 03/05/98 985543 6.4500 
7li 12'22/DO 108.3500- 7.1500 


British Pound 


138 World Bank 6 03/01/00 99.7500 6X200 

169 Canary Wharf 723 10/22/27 102X750 7X200 

1 92 AM: Valley FRN 7XJ4 11/04/39 995300 75700 

211 EIB 74* 12/07/07 106.9141 7.1300 

237 Aire Valley FRN 7474 11/04/39 99.7500 75900 

242 World Bank 4’j 09,10(02 995654 4X700 


96 Treuhand 

97 Treuhand 
TOO Germany 
101 Treuhand 
102Saxonyanholl 

104 Germany 

105 Treuhand 

106 Germany 

108 Treuhand 

109 Germany 

110 Germany 


6ft 03/26/98 100.7541 6X800 

5 01/14/99 100X550 4.9500 

7 01/13/00 105.1200 65600 
7 11/25/99 184.8975 6 5700 

4*1 12/11/17 99.7593 4X900 
6ft 05/20/99 1025400 5.9700 

6 11/12/03 1045575 5.7400 
8ft 08/21/00 1097200 7.7500 
6ft 06/25/98 101.1400 6.0600 

7 11/22/97 100X600 7X000 


87 Sweden 
94 Sweden 
158 Sweden 
222 Sweden 
227 Sweden 


iow as/reoo 1105737 9 x 800 

8 08/15/07 1 145081 6X900 
6 02/09/05 100X770 5.9800 

9 04/20*09 123X880 7X000 


11 01/21/99 106.1540 1 0X600 


U.S, Dollar 


4Vi 04/15/14 87X080 5.1500 


6*4 04/22/03 107.9380 6X500 


5 Viveshcnmbkfm 6.719 12AK/15 69X000 9.7400 


111 Germany TbMs zero 04/17/98 98X220 3X600 


Canadian Dollar 


107 Canada 
141 Canada 
175 Canada 
246 Canada 


714 12/01/03 1 09.6700 6X400 
6 03/15/98 1005100 5.9700 

Ti 06/01/07 110X500 65400 
711 06411/03 107.9770 6.7100 


Danish Krone 


10 Denmark 
16 Denmark 
27 Denmark 
29 Denmark 
40 Denmark 
44 Denmark 
52 Denmark 
62 Denmark 
64 Denmark 
75 Denmark 
84 Nykredll 
98 Nykredil 
149 Denmark 
153Unlkredil 
173 Denmark 
176Realkredil . 
1S7 Denmark 
231 Real Kredlt 
249Danske Krodit 


11/10/24 109X400 64100 
11/15/07 108.9700 64200 
OyiSAM 114X800 6.9700 
12/10/99 1024000 5X600 
11/15/02 103.1500 5X200 
11/15/00 110.7500 8.1300 
12/1 5AM 108X000 64700 
11/15/01 110X800 7X700 
11/15/98 104.1500 8.6400 
05/15/03 112X000 7.1200 
10/01/29 99X000 7X700 
10/01/26 95X500 6X000 
02/15/99 101X600 5.9000 
10/01/29 984000 7.1100 
02/1900 98X100 4X500 
10/01/29 98X000 7.1300 
02/1998 1004800 6.9700 
1QA11/26 95X000 6X000 
10/01/29 98X500 7.0800 


113Germany 
115 Germany 
117Germany 
121 Germany 
126 Germany 
129Treuhond 

130 Germany 

131 Germany 
134 Treuhand 
142 Germany 
148 Germany 
157 Germany 
174 Germany 
179 Germany 

196 Germany 

197 Germany 

205 Germany FRN 
209 Germany 
223 Germany 
226 Belgium 
239 Germany SP 
241 Germany 


814 05/22/00 1 09X600 7.9900 
6% 12/02/98 1 02.6400 6X000 
314 12/18/98 99X100 3X200 
6ft 12/21/98 102X000 6X300 
8% 0921/01 111X075 7X200 
S’* 09/24/98101X600 5X600 
5*3 02/22/99 1014500 5X000 
6lk 02/24/99 1011200 6X700 
6W 03/04/04 1 05.9450 5.9000 

6 02/20/98 100X800 5.9800 
64k 05/20/98 101X600 6X100 
TV- 02/21/00 106X200 7X600 
5(4 02/25/98 100X700 5X400 
6W 02/20/98 1004225 6X200 
SVl 05/28/99 102.1200 5X300 
B*> 07/20/00 110X333 7.9500 

3.048 09/3904 99.1500 3X700 
6% 01/2998 100X767 6X100 

7 09/2999 104X000 6.7000 
5U 03/28/08101.9217 5.6400 
zero 01AM/07 61.9500 54200 
5W 0920/98 101X200 5X800 


20 Brazil 1 Oh 05/15/27 92.1833 10.9800 

31 Argenlfto gar L 5tt .03/31/23 70X500 7X300 

32 Argentina FRN 6% 0929/05 84.7960 7X900 

33 Brazil FRN 6<Vit 01/01/01 94.9375 7.1800 

38 Brazil L FRN SVn 04/15/06 80X563 8X000 

45 Argentina 9* 09/19/27 93.7647 104000 

49 Mexico 11 VS 05 / 15/26 113.9358 10X900 

50 Russia. 10 06/26/07 1004111 9.9600 

54 Argentina TIM 01/3917 1024563 11.1000 

56 Depth FRN 5.716 01/22999 99.9580 5.7200 

58 Venezuela 9W 09/15/27 84X240 10.9800 

66 Brazil par 2 5(4 04/15/24 66X750 7X500 

70 Bulgaria FRN 6 M 1 07/28/11 72X000 9X200 

72 Brazil 5J_ FRN 64* 04/15/12 744400 9.0700 


77 Venezuela FRN <M 12/18/07 874400 7X200 


83 Italy 
86 Maria* 


6% 09/27/23 1029037 6X800 
616 12/31/19 80X000 7.7600 


92 Venezuela par A 6 ft 03/31/20 83.0000 8.1300 

95 MmkO FRN 616 12/31/19 80X000 7X600 

99 1CI FRN 6 03/05/99 99X900 6X100 

103 Mexico 99k 01/T5A17 101.7942 99000 

112 Poland FRN 6Vn 1 0/27/24 96X500 6.9500 

118 Brazil S-ZJ FRN 6*VW 04/1924 769500 89100 

119 Brazil SX. FRN 641 04/15/12 76X441 BX500 

120 IB J Rn 6X56 01A5/98 98X151 69600 

123 Brazil Si. FRN 646 04/15/W 759500 89700 

125BGB Fin Ireland 616 0^19/01 100.1250 6X400 

133 Bulgaria FRN 6Vu 07/20/24 73X210 9.1200 

135 Mexico lift 09/15/16 1109500 10X700 

136 Bulgaria 216 07/28/12 60.1250 39400 

139 Quebec 5ft 00/27/98 98X195 5X100 

140 FEK 6 VS 00/06/02 99X831 6X200 

144 Russia 916 11/27/01 93.1451 99300 

145ADB 616 ia/2tyD2 100X750 6X300 

146 Ecuador FRN 316 02/28/15 63X239 5.1200 

147 Denmark 5.90 04/20/00 994300 59300 

150SEK 6ft 1 Q/02/00 100X000 6.1300 

152GoWman S FRN 6X88 12/1QAB 99X800 6X300 

154 Ontario 5Vfe - 08/27/98 98X344 5X100 

160 Korea DevtBk 716 05/15/06 87X605 8X500 

161 Sweden 6ft 12/03/02 100X750 6.1000 

162 Brazil CbandS.L 416 04/15/14 87X149 5.1400 

163 Argentina FRN 5V» 04/01/01 102.9496 5X200 

164 Argentina FRN 64k 03/31/23 82X500 8X600 


Dutch Guilder 


120IBJ Rn 
123 Brazil SJ- FRN 


43 Netherlands 
46 Netherlands 
76 Netherlands 
85 Netherlands 
114 Netherlands 


616 07/15/98 101X600 6.1700 
51* 02/15/07 103X000 5X700 
9 01/15/01 11X1000 8X300 
8V5 03/15/01 111.1000 7X500 
7 Vx 04/15/10118X000 6X400 


116 Netherlands SP zero 01/15/23 22X500 6.1700 


Deutsche Mark 


1 Germany 

2 Germany 

3 Germany 

6 Germany 

7 Germany 

8 Germany 
{■Germany 

11 Germany 

12 Germany 

13 Germany 

14 Germany 

15 Treuhand 

17 Germany 94 

18 Germany 

19 Germany 


07/04/07 104X200 59400 
01/04/07 104X300 59400 


BU 0920/01 113.1250 7.7300 


4 09/17/99 99X100 4.0200 
6W 07/04/27 107X500 6X300 
BU 09/20/01 111X895 7X900 
8 01/21/02 111X000 7.1700 
6'A 04/26AJ6 1 06X000 5X900 
4 U? 0fl/19/02 98X200 4X800 
TV* 01AH/05 11ZX50Q 4X600 
8 07/22/02 112X200 7.1200 
7*» T2/QZ/02 110.0905 6.7000 
6 1 -* 01/0404 1049033 5.9700 
A'* 05/1 7A» 94X911 4X700 
6 01/D5A34 104X900 5.7400 


122 NeShertands 
124 Netherlands 

127 Netherlands 

128 Netherlands 
132 Netherlands 
137 Netherlands 
143 Netherlands 
151 Netherlands 
156 Netherlands 

166 Netherlands 

167 Netherlands 
172 Netherlands 
184 Netherlands 
189 Netherlands 
206 Netherlands 
234 Netherlands 
236 Netherlands 


Th 01/15/23 122.1000 6.1400 
6V6 04/15/03 106X500 6.0800 
Th 06AS/99 104X000 7.1800 

6 01/1 V06 104.9500 5.7200 
aw 02/15/02112X500 7X400 
6/1 07/15/98 101X500 6X100 
5W 01/15/04 103X500 5X600 

7 02/15AH 108.9500 6X200 
61* 11/15/05 109.7000 6.1500 
7W 10*01/04 111X000 6X800 
84* 09/15/01 113X500 7.7300 
7V 01/15/00 106X000- 79800 
7M 03/01/05 115X000 69300 

7 03/15/99 103X000 6.7800 

8 Vi 06/15/02 113.1000 7X900 
614 02/15/99 102X000 6X700 
8 'h 04/01/06 121.7000 69800 


NEW YORK — There is ojuch de- 
bate over the ■ impact of the Asian fi- 
nancial turmoil on the stock market. 
Some analysts are worried, others are 
not. But for bonds, there is no debate. 
The Asian turmoil is great for bonds. 

This is not just because of the flight of 
foreign investors to the haven they see in 
U.S. government securities. More im- 
portant, it is because of the drag that Asia 
is expected to have on inflation here, as 
slow Asian growth moderates U.S. 
growth andthe strong dollar cuts the price 
level of goods imported from Asia. 

“The reason drat it is good for bonds 
is .that the No. 1 enemy of bonds is 
inflation," said Robert Barbera, the 
chief economist at Hoemg & Co. “And 
it is impossible to stand up and tell an 
inflation story when one-third of the 
world is going to be cutting the dollar 
price of its products.” 

The power of the Asian impact — 
combined with an unexpected fell in 
prices at the producer level in November 


think .that rates can hold at these lower 
levels, w hil e the previous two dips below 
6 percent, in late 1995 to early 1996 and 
in 1993, lasted only a matter of months. 

The bond rally this year, which has 
brought long-term rates down from 7.17 
percent in April has also reduced mort- 
gage rates to their lowest level since 
February 1996. 

But while long rates have fallen, 
short-term interest races have not come 


U.S. CREDIT MARKETS 


down nearly as much, which means that 
the prime rate, which sets lending rates 
for many consumers and small; busi- 
nesses. has not budged from 8 J percent 
since March. The stubbornness of short- 
term rates has also limited any savings 
for large companies with loans tied to 
other bench mark short-term rates. 

The assault Friday on 6 percent was 
bolstered by the Labor Department re- 
port that producer prices fell 0.2 percent 
and are now down to an annual rate of 1 .2 
percent through the first 1 1 months of the 
year. It is likely that the producer price 


135 Maxim 

136 Bulgaria 

139 Quebec 

140 FEK 

144 Russia 

145 ADB 

146 Ecuador FRN 

147 Denmark 
150 SEK 


percent a week earner, and its lowest 
level in more than four years. 

What makes this decline potentially 


mote important than the previous move 
below 6 percent is that many economists 


Despite the good inflation news, 
man y analysts are still marve ling at the 
decline in interest rates. They say there 
are other economic signals out there 


flashing red, but they are being ignored, 
mostly because investors are convinced 
that the slower growth and lower in- •- 
flation fallout from the Asian turmoil i 
will turn those signals to green. 

The economy is growing near a 4 b 
percent annual rate and there are signs of l. 
wage pressures building with the un- r 
employment rate at a 24-year low of 4.6-1 : 
percent All these factors would nor- 
mally be worrying bond investors, said • 
Robert DiCIemente, the chief U.S. I 
economist at Salomon Smith Barney. ^ 
They probably would have forced Fed- k 
eral Reserve Board policymakers to’; 
raise short-term interest rates, either at ’> 
its meeting in November or at its policy^' 
making session Tuesday. 

But no such move is expected. “The J 
fact that interest rates are declining in <- 
the face of a strong economy tells me ' 
that people are putting a lot of weight on 
foe shock that is taking place" in Asia, 
Mr. DiCIemente said. f 

. In assessing the impact of Asia, Mr. ' 
DiCIemente said the value of the dollar 
against its trading partners has risen 7 c 
percent since mid-October and 4 percent *■ 
in the past 30 days. This means that the 
prices of imports have already fallen n 
significantly, which cuts inflation. 

He also said his 1998 forecast.showed • 
a decline in U.S. exports of about $80 
billion, which cuts more than a full per- • 
centage point off his growth estimate. r 


New International Bond Issues 


Compiled by Laurence Desvilettes 


164 Argentina FRN 


148 Argentina FRN 5X88 09/01/02 113X000 5.0300 


Amount 

(romans) 


21 Bundesobligatkm A'h 02/22/02 98.7585 4X600 


22 Germany 

23 Federal Tsy 

24 Germany 

25 Treuhand 
2a Tnjunand 
2S Germany 
10 Germany 
a: Treuhand 
35 Treuhand 
3t> Germany 
3' Treuhand 
35 Germany 

41 Germany 

42 Germany 
47 Germany 
4S Germany 
51 Germany 
S3 Germany 
55 Germany 
57 Germany 
59 Treuhand 
id Germany 
el Germany 
63 Germany 
65 Germany 


6*i 09/15/99 104.1000 6X800 
3>i 0 VI 9/99 99X405 3.7700 
6 l » 05/12/05 109X800 6X700 
Tt 01/29/03 109X233 6X100 
7Vj 09/09/04 112.7933 6X500 
9 10/2000 111X533 8X800 
6h 1004/05 107X233 6.0400 
7’j 10/01/02 1 11.4600 6.9500 
6U 07/09/03 107X900 6.1700 
Vi 02/2001 111.0000 7X600 
04/11.03 108X533 6.3300 
6 02/1406 104X100 5.7400 
B’« 12/2000 111X500 7.9500 

5 08/2001 100.7800 4.9600 
3>t 06/18(99 99.0100 3X300 

11/2001 99X567 4.7600 

6 09/1503 104X080 5.7200 
S'* 02/21.01 101X195 5.1700 
6’? 07/1 5/03 106X900 6.0800 
6 06/20/16 103.1500 5X200 

6*a 0701/99 103.1400 6.1800 
7i. IMMH 109.7125 6X100 
3 l J 09(18/98 99X700 3X100 
9 01/2201 112X400 8.0200 
6'.' 03/1500 104.3200 6X300 


170 Argentina 

177 Argentina 

178 Peru PtU 

181 Ecuador FRN 

182 Mexico D FRN 

183 Brazil 


1009/06 103X75010X400 
050902 95X000 9.1900 
0V07/17 62X500 6X700 


6V* 02/28/25 74.1900 9.0100 
61i 12/28/19 91X113 7X500 


Floating Rate Notes 

Aames Mortgage Trust 


09/15/13 81.0000 7X100 


188 Venezuela FRN 6tt 03/1807 89X125 7X200 


Issue sfM lata 11 tnmdwc, due 201 2 to 2029 and paying 5X75 to 7X4%. Average Ufa OX la 9.99 \ 
years. Fees W0 to 0X0%. Payable In Jan. (LeMnm Bremen Inti) „ 


171 France OAT 
195 France OAT 
198 France OAT 
235 France B TAN 


5Vi 040507 99X000 5X300 
6 V. 04/25/02 106X000 4X500 
4 04/25/04 103.9500 5.7700 
6 03/1601 1014100 5X000 


191 Poland par 
193 Credit Local 
200 Canada 


3 1 Q/27/24 60X500 4.9800 

616 02/1804 101.1947 6X200 
6)6 05/301/00 101X494 6X000 


Crestur Student Loan Trust 


0.16 100X0 - 


201 Energle Beheer 616 11/0402 100X000 6X200 


Over 1-<nanth LBmt. Average IHe 1X8 years. Aba S84 mfllon. due 2017 and paytng 0X2 aver 
Libor, and 0.9 mMon, due 201 7 and paying 0X5 over Libor. Fees nor (flsdosed. Payable In Jan... 
(Salomon Smith Barney J 


204 Argentina 


OH 12/2003 92X147 9X600 


Finnish Markka 

185 Finland 71. 04/18/06 111X150 6X200 


208 Medea A FRN 6X93 12/31/19 91X000 7X100 


Hong Kong Mortgage 
FurKflng 


0X5 100.00 - 


210 NAB FRN 
21 5 World Bank 


6X75 01/21/08 100.0000 6X700 
716 01/19/23 115.7500 6X900 


Interest will be 0X5 over 1 -month Libor until 2001 thereafter 0.75 over. Average life 2.9 yeas. 
Abo *26 minion due 2004, paying 0.90 aver Libor. Fees 0X02*. Denamlnatiartt II 0000. (U BS.I 


Westpac Banking 


fiber 99.784 — 


216 Mexico B FRN 6XT7 12/31/19 92X469 7.19C0 


Interest wfll be the3-monlh Ubor. Noncadabte. Fee 115%. Denominations J 100X00. Payable 
in Jan. (HSBC MaiketsJ 


French Franc 


80 France OAT 
l65Cy0ervalFRN 
190 France OAT 


7L 04/25/06 113X900 6X800 
3X48 07/06X2 97.0874 3X500 
716 04(25/05 114X500 6X600 


217 Canada 
21B Brazil L FRN 

220 Panama FRN 

221 SEK 

224 Brazil S.L FRN 


616 07/rSTO 100X000 6X900 
6Mi 04/15/06 82.9785 8X600 


Groupe Andre 


4 07/17/16 80X000 4.9700 
516 08/26/98 98X604 5X000 
6tt 04/15109 83X194 10900 


TV* 100.00 — % Over 3-marth Ptoor. Noncollabte. Fees 2%. Denominations KK1000 francs. (Credit LyormobJ 


Rheinische 

Hypattiekenbank 


0.70 10T J A — 


199 France OAT 5P zero 04/2V23 21X500 6X300 


203 France OAT 
212 France OAT 
219FranceOAT 


6 10/25/25101.7800 5.9000 
71* 10/25/05 116X300 6X600 
516 10/25/07 101X400 5X300 


Italian Lira 


180 Mediobanca 
202 Italy 


3V, 01/02/01 105X500 3X300 
T.1 1001/99 104.0100 7X100 


225 Argentina FRN 6<Vu 03/29/05 83X913 8X000 

228 Mexico FRN 0.977 06/27/02 98.0000 7.1200 

229 Brazil 8*S 11/05/01 95.6681 9X800 

233 Poland Inter 4 10/27/14 84X250 4X300 

240 Panama 8b 09/20/77 94X835 9X800 

243 Ontario 6V 04/28/00 100X242 6X700 

244 Ecuador par 3W 02/28/25 52X750 6X800 

247 Bayer) sche LB Mb 04(25/07 103.1250 6X200 
248 Brazil L 416 04/15/09 71X833 6X300 

250 Credit Local 6ft 07/16/DI 100X750 6X400 


Below TEC- 10 Index. Reoffaed at 100.10. Noncallable. Aha 300 minion francs due 2008 and 
paying 57094. Fees 2%. Denominations 100X00 francs. (Calsse d« Depots et Consignations) 


.Fixed-Coupons 

CE Electric U.K. Funding 
CE Electric U.K. Funding 


2004 6X53 100X0 — 


GE Capital Canada ReluBer 
Financial Services 


2007 6.995 100X0 — 

2002 6 55 101X85 10051 


Semtannualy. Noncoltabte. Fees 0X25%. (Credit Suisse First Basfrmj 
SemtarmuaBy. Noncallable. Fees 0X5%. (Credit Subse Fast BosronJ 
Realtered at 99X4- NoncoUabte. Fees IWA,. (Goldman Sodv. Infl.l 


The Week Ahead: World Economic Calendar, Dec. 15-19 


A m- ' j.t j uup* -j i wiots J.U t.nanaal events. camp<A9cJ ‘O’ rv International Herald T&una by Boornbtug Business News. 


Asia-Pacific 


Europe 


Americas 


Expected Shenzhen, China: IDT International Madrid: Bank of Spain is expected 


This Week Ltd. holds conference. Monday to 
Tuesday. 

Tokyo: Japan and the United 
States hold aviation talks. Monday 
to Thursday. 


to release November money supply 
figures. 

Earnings expected: MFI Furniture 
Group PLC, Wolford AG. 


New York: Council of the Americas 
holds conference on the telecom- 
munications industry in Latin Amer- 
ica. Keynote address toy GTE 
Corp.'s senior vice president for in- 
ternational business development 
Ignacio Santi liana. Wednesday and 
Thursday. 


Israel Electric Corp. 
Israel Electric Carp. 
Sweden 


World Bonk 
Air Canada 

European Investment Bank 
LB Schleswig -Hoisldn 


7.10 99.90 — Noncnllafcte- Foes 0X5%. (Lehman Brother; intL) 

734 99.826 ~ NocKaflable. Rws 0X75%. (Lehman Brothere rn«.) ' 

6Vk 100.615 99.86 ■ Reoffend at 99X65. NancaJMte. Fees 2%. Payable In Jan. (Satomoa Brothers IntLl 


Abbey National Treasury 
Sen/ices 


tiVb 99X96 100X0 Noncnttabte. F«ms 0X25%. (Gatdnwi Sachs IntlJ 

6»ii IQZlt) 10ai5 Rgotfered at 99X5. NoocaBofate. Foea 2V^ PoyofaM In lan. (BqywtecJw LowlesbankJ 

6 95X87 96.65 Noocallohte. Fvs 0X0%. (ABN— AMRO Hoqre GowlfJ 

VA 100.80 99.90 ReaffBriedat99X0.NonaillQftte.Fbas IWrfc. Payable In Jan. (Harnbros BankJ 


6ft 100.615 


European Investment Bank ITLXOOOOO 2010 1Z10 101X0 — 


MPUhaertlar 15-6% tern twice Ifte 12-mouth 

Ut>of. Rcoffered al MoftcoQqhle. FeesZSfe.Paimblcin Jan. (Credit Sutese FlrelBoshmJ 


Worid Bank 


ITL1 50X00 


ZU1U 12 101X75 - ^2001, ,5% te« tv^me ,2Wh L*or. 

20TO 5ft 101.135 100.08 Reofttofid ot99Xfi. NorreoflaWe. Fees 2%. (ING Barings.) 


1 ^ ^ ^ n* i**™ mub«. 

waotiPwimTymitenarikibte. Fees 1W6. Payable hi Jon. (Sanwn litfU 


Monday 
Dec. 15 


Bangkok: Bank of Thailand releas- 
es the country's most recent foreign 
reserve figures.- 


Helsinki: November consumer 
price index. 

London: Hans Tietmeyer, president 


Tokyo: Bank of Japan releases qua r- of the Bundesbank speaks at the 


lerty survey ol business sentiment. 
Annual meetings: China Light & 
Power, infratil Australia. 


German/British forum. 


Ottawa: November existing home 
sales figures. 

Washington: Federal Reserve re- 
leases industrial production and fac- 
tory-use data for November Agri- 


Nedertand 

Waferscftapsbank 


Rabobank Nederland 
DSL Finance 
World Bank 


Madrid: October retail sales figures, culture Department releases weekly 


DF500 
ECU! 00 
SAR1X00 


5ft 101X0 
zero 2-94 


Oslo: November trade balance. 


report on planting progress. 


European Investment Bank 


Tuesday 
Dec. 16 


Tokyo: Bank of Japan releases fig- 
ures on money supply in November, 
October industrial production; busi- 
ness trends for regional economies 
in December November sales fig- 
ures for Tokyo-area department 
stores. 


Munich: Ifo economic research in- 
stitute to publish survey of the 
November business dimate. 


New York: UR Redbook Re- 
search’s report on U.S. retail sales. 
Washington: November consumer 


5wedlsh Export Cirdit 

European Investment Bonk 


Y40.000 

HKSIXOO 


Rome: October producer and whole- price index; November housing 


teofte^tot9935. Noncnloble. Fees 2%. Payoble ta j^. [Bobobon'kmiii r ""*‘ 

ReoHa^qt ltXUI7! LrioiTO»al>^ Fees 1 Wfe. p [ ry p fafe^'j oni f Bqrxiwi Pnr»*t» ) r ' 

^^^ S ioanMi p. Wle , Hsac - 


sale prices. 

Wiesbaden, Germany: November 
wholesale prices. 


starts. Federal Open Market Com- 
mittee meets to set Interest rate pol- 
icy. 


Equity- Linked 

Cregem Finance 


2U 100X0 — 




Wednesday Tokyo: Bank of Japan releases 
Dec. 17 wholesale price indexlor early De- 
cember Daiwa Institute of Re- 
search Ltd. releases forecasts for 
the Japanese economy in fiscal 
1998. 

Wellington: October retail sales. 


Frankfurt: Bundesbank to publish 
December monthly report 
London: Provisional data on labor. 
Madrid: Aiitel SA holds a meeting 
to sell up to 30 percent of the com- 
pany; third-quarter gross domestic 
product. . 


Arlington, Virginia: American Gas 
Association releases weekly U.S. 
natural gas Inventory report. 
Buenos Aires: Latin American Eco- 
nomic Research Foundation releas- 
es preliminary estimate erf Argentine 
industrial production In November. 


las* Week's Markets Euromarts 


Stock Indexes 


Money Rates 


Thursday 
Dec. 18 


Tokyo: November merchandise 
trade balance. 

Wellington: Final figures for hous- 
ing permits in October. 

Annual meetings: Westpac Bank- 
ing. National Australia Bank, City 
Telecom (Hong Kong), Kai Peng. 


Frankfort: Bundesbank's policy 
council meets to set interest rales; 
November M-3 money supply 
growth to be released. 

Oslo: December jobless figures. 
Voorburg, Netherlands: Expected 
1998 industrial investment figure. 


Philadelphia: Federal Resen/e 
Bank releases monthly survey of 
area manufacturers for December. 
Washington: October trade bal- 
ance in goods and services; initial 
weekly stale unemployment com- 
pensation Insurance claims. 


linked Slates 
tu Indue. 
DJU1B. 

DJ Tram. 
S&P100 
5B.P5W 
S&PInd 
NYSECa , 
Nasdaq Cp 


Dee.12 D«.S ttOTBe 
7838X0 M 49.13 -3X1 

261X7 258X9 +092 

686X1 131SS4 —2X2 

454X8 473X3 -4X2 

952.90 96179 -3.14 

1.10098 1.14007 -3X3 

49978 514X1 — 183 

1X36X5 1X3190 -fils 


Eurobond Yields 


Prime rate 
Federal foods rate 


D-e.12 DocnfMejfcVrto. 


Weekly Sales 

Primciy Marta 


^tWr 1 6.18 6X2 7X9 si a 

f-B Hi 554 !.’0§ 


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Call money 
3-maflth interbank 


Friday 
Dec. 19 


Wellington: Labor costs for the Ju- 
!y -September quarter, preliminary 
figures for housing permits in 
November. 

Annual meetings: Balt ra ns Hold- 
ings Ltd., Safeguard Corp-, Texas 
Instruments- Acer Inc. 


Rome: Quarterly unemployment fig- 
ures. 


Mexico Crty: October's export-as- 
sembly industry output 


TSE Indus. 

France 

CAC40 


4631X0 4733X0 


2X3026 291009 


France 

UdHVkiTMi rate 
CaS money 
34tanth liriertwnk 


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Voorburg, Netherlands: December Washington: Treasury Department 


consumer confidence figures. 
Wiesbaden, Germany: October 
trade figures. 


releases November budget state- 
ment; Federal Reserve System re- 
leases report on commercial and in- 
dustrial loans at U.S. banks. 


408260 417008 


rm 1X8 1X4 SJ S 

Source: Luxembourg slack txclvmw. 


■ il’Ss-r ix3i2 linn,? mis : 

ECP <a^40 01849 

Total JtSH U-2«e5.?VB407 29.701 J r 


10614X6 1L5Z7X0 


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3-morfti interbank 


* owns ^raefcar. Cede# Bunk, 


Libor Rates 


92LB1 ' 643X8 -ZOfi ^ Det .“ D * CS%Ql ^ 

2,06 London pjuftLS 287X0 - 1^3 

World Index frwn Morgan Stanley CopAtf Inti Peapecttie.' 


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PAGE 13 





Prime Minister Ryu taro Hashimoto of Japan pi 


1 * 0 I Uncertainty About How It WillEnd 

* * Continued from Pane 1 1 _ . . 


Continued from Page 11 

iheir money from emerging markets 
v Au uwse green-eyeshade calcu'la- 
***»» ^ »y we’ll lose half a point off 
economic growth — those are going to 
miss the mark by a mile,” said C Fred 
’• Betgsten. director of the Instimte for 
International Economics. “If Korea de- 
•s ftults and if the Japanese bank crisis 
woreens, the effect on our economy 
: , could be widespread.’* 

How widespread? Nobody knows. 
But Mr. Bergsten and other economists 
do not expect the Asian situation to 
degenerate into a I930s-style global de- 
V pression, despite some outward sim- 
ilarities. 

One such similarity is the steady drop 

in prices for many goods around the 
world — deflation — which can be even 
* jj more dangerous and difficult to stop than 
!? inflation, its more familiar opposite. 

In a deflationary economy, busi- 
. nesses with loans to repay are often 

mtn KonUnmi-. . • 


depression to occur would require there 
to be a series of major policy mistakes 
°y the Federal Reserve and other central 
“nks," said Allan Meltzer, an ecoa- 
omrst at Carnegie Mellon University 
who is writing a history of the Great 
Depression.. 

The current members of the Fed 
know better, he said, and in a pinch 
could flood the economy with enough 
freshly printed dollars to stop any de- 
flationary cycle. 

Bnt Mr. Meltzer and a number of 
other economists and government of- 
ficials fear that Japan is not taking suf- 
ficiently aggressive steps to halt de- 
flation. Economists contend tbar the 
Japanese government should cut taxes 
while injecting massive funds into ail- 
ing banks in an effort to induce them to 
resume lendiog- 

“The Japanese are still in denial,” 
said Rudiger Dombusch, an interna- 
tional economist at die Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. “And if Japan 


arkci 


JriuM intn ^.UILUIC ui iCGmXMOgy. ADO U japan 

Wbde “ vestors ' can T solve its problems quickly, I dunk 
find they can get a better return on their you are looking at a further drop in die 

11 “ a .**?* (or in a Japanese stock market, anotberround of 
mattress) than investing it m ongoing depreciations.” 

businesses. Fading prices, falling in- if that happens. Mr. Dombusch said, 
comes, falling asset values and falling the result will be a “lasting, 
employment all feed on each other in a cession throughout Asia.” 

l • “We shouldn’t kid ourselves about 

Because ot excess production capacity how this plays out in the United States ” 
around the world, prices are failing for he said. f Tt could take some time but 
such key components as computer chips, the impacts could be very very 
steel, food and energy as well as finished large ” 


goods ranging from low-end clothing to 
high-end computers. The Asian crisis is 
likely to make the problem worse. 

While business executives fret about 
this collapse of pricing power, econ- 
omists say it is unlikely to result in the 
kind of dangerous deflationary cycle 
that led to the Depression. They note 
that there are still as many prices going 
up as there are going down — par- 
ticularly the price of labor in the in- 
dustrialized world. 

But perhaps most significantly, econ- 
omists say that even the deflation of the 
1930s would not have led to a world- 
wide depression had the central banks of 
the world not made a bad situation 
worse by contracting the supply of 
money in circulation. “For a global 


clearance Sunday as ne arrived in Malaysia lor the A 

ASEAN: IMF Rescue Plans Continue to Draw Asians’ Complaints 

Continued from Page 11 


neighbors without the United States or 
European Union countries present 

Chinese officials have played up the 
importance of the meeting, with the 
assistant foreign minister, Chen Jian, 
saying that it would have a far-reaching 
impact on East Asian development in 
die next century. 

Beijing sweetened the event for 
ASEAN by hinting that territorial dis- 
putes it has with several of the group’s 
members could be resolved on a mul- 


tilateral level, which would allow the 
members to wield more clout 
' But Western diplomats based in Ku- 
ala Lumpur privately questioned the 
economic underpinnings of closer re- 
lations between China and ASEAN. 

Trade flows between the two are rel- 
atively small compared with China's 
and ASEAN's respective trade with the 
United States and Europe. 

Indeed, with many Southeast Asian 
countries now able to export goods 40 
percent cheaper because of their de- 
valued currencies, analysts point out that 


Talk of Bank Merger Hits 
Wall of Swiss Opposition 

Critics Assail Job Cuts in UBS and SBC Link-Up 


China may well see ASEAN countries 
more as competitors than allies. 

A possible dissenting voice at the 
summit meeting could be Japan. Dip- 
lomats are watching for signs of Japanese 
participation in regional aid packages. 

Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto 
said Sunday that any assistance would 
be within an international framework in 
conjunction with the IMF. 

But several Southeast Asian leaders 
have expressed skepticism about Ja- 
pan’s willingness and ability to take on a 
leadership role during the crisis. 


Reuters 

ZURICH — Two Swiss banks are 
running into a wall of popular oppo- 
sition. (o their plan to merge into the 
world’s second-largest bank at the cost 
of 13,000 jobs — 7,000 of them in 
Switzerland. 

The intended combination of Union 
Bank of Switzerland and Swiss Bank 
Corp., announced last Monday, has 
triggered a nationwide sense of angst 
that big business is running wild over 
the interests of citizens. 

Bankers have defended the plan as a 
necessary step to build a global power- 
house able to survive and prosper amid 
ferocious international competition. But 
critics say it reflects sheer greed and the 
shirking of companies' obligations to 
workers. 

“People are already speaking of the 
20-80 society,” the daily Berner Zei- 
tung said in a weekend commentary on 
the merger. “Twenty percent of the 
people are doing well, the rest are doing 
worse and worse. 

“The only thing that will counter this 
development is a departure from de- 
structive Anglo-Saxon turbo-capital- 
ism, which has become increasingly 
fashionable in recent years, and thus a 
return to the primacy of politics over 
business.” 

It printed a cartoon showing a fierce 
pig gy bank labeled UBS driving smaller 
panic-stricken pigs and people through 
a desolate landscape. 

A Soon tagszei rung cartoon showed a 
shocked couple watching an overinflated 
and laughing Mathis Cabiallavetta, set to 
be chairman of the merged United Bank 
of Switzerland, bounding past their win- 
dow as their furniture tipped over. 

Two members of Parliament called 
for a national jobs summit to help re- 
assure Swiss citizens that business’s 
drive to become more efficient and prof- 
itable would not leave workers in the 
cold. 


Mr. Cabiallavetta and Marcel Ospel, 
the SBC chief executive who will have 
the same job with die new megabank, 
also faced grilling by representatives of 
bank workers, labor unions and leftist 
parties on a television show called 
“Arena." 

“This shows how powerless the 
political process is.” Alexander 
Tschaeppat, a member of Parliament, 
said of the merger. “Two bankers stand 
here and speak of money and profits, but 
they are forgetting that this is about 
people.” 

He and others were especially upset 
that two relatively strong and healthy 
banks would decide not only to £hase 
out thousands of jobs through attrition, 
but also to dismiss as many as 1,800 
bankers. 

Mr. Cabiallavetta, however, said on 
Swiss radio that if the banks did not 
merge, he was “not so sure that UBS or 
SBC would exist in their present form in 
five years time. ” He stressed that Swiss 
banks had to bolster profits to survive in 
a dog-ear-dog world. 

Bankers said that financial institu- 
tions needed such action to ensure that 
they would not be taken over by another 
bank, with the possible loss of thou- 
sands of other Swiss jobs. 

“Today’s earnings are far too low in 
relation to costs for both banks,” Mr. 
Ospel of SBC told the SonntagsBlick 
weekly newspaper. “If we do not do 
something about it, in five years we will 
be where some industrial companies 
were about five years ago. This is out of 
the question for us." 

He said that officials would avoid 
layoffs if at all possible but that he was 
not sure it could be done. 

Bankets wondering if they would still 
have ajob after the merger have resorted 
to black humor. They joke that the banks 
have come to be known as UBS — 
You’ve Been Sacked — and SBC — 
Sacked Before Christinas. 


IMPACT: In a Suburb of Seoul, All Is Gloom 


Continued from Page 11 


happy." she said. “We don’t expect any 
future in our business.” 

A stroll along the wide streets beside the 
park reveals shopping centers and office 
towers dominated by Samsung Plaza, an ar- 
chitectural wonder of atriums and glass and 
marble arches, all providing the setting for 
stores bearing fashion brands from around the 
world. 

Samsung Plaza was opened just a month 
ago on a day of speechmaking, ribbon-cutting 
and firecracker explosions. Clerks in neat 
uniforms smile from behind the counters, bat 
almost no one is buying. . 

* ‘Our country is now under 
the IMF system," said Yum 
Seok Shin, a part-time service 
assistant, standing at a 
counter where Christmas gift 
certificates are on sale. The 
certificates lie in neat stacks 
under glass, beside boxes in 
which clerks will gladly gift-wrap them in 
ribbons and bows. 

The trouble is, the numbers on the cer- 
} tifi cates are fast losing allure to customers 
who either do not have the money to buy them 
or view them as bad investments that are 
quickly depreciating in real value. 

“It’s all because of the IMF,” said Choi 
Yeun Hee, who works for Samsung Plaza as 
an advertising designer. “People don’t have 
money. A lot of people are just window- 
shopping.” 

Mrs. Choi’s husband works as an engineer 
for Samsung Electronics, a major company in 
the group that owns Samsung Plaza. The 
couple moved recently into a two-bedroom 
apartment that is located just a few-minutes 
from Samsung Plaza, from which a new ex- 
tension of one of Seoul’s subway lines shoots 
thousands of commuters into the city center 


are 


Teopk don’t have 
money. A lot are 
just window- 
shopping.’ 


every day. 
“Many 


jy young people are living here,” 
Mrs. Choi said. “It is a place for the young” 
— as evidenced by mothers with babies and 
children playing in the nearby park as well as 


a brightly lit district of bars and restaurants a 
few blocks away. 

“We all have the same problem. The econ- 
omy is going down, down, down," she said. 
“People are stocking up on sugar and flour 
before prices go np.’ 

She does not know exactly why, bnt she has 
a suspicion: “Maybe the IMF and our pres- 
ident did not do a good job." 

Not everyone, of course, suffers equally. 
The fast depreciation of the won is hardly bad 
news to the few foreigners who have settled 
out here for the commute into Seoul and who 
in dollars. 

’s a great rime to be shopping,” says 
Edwin Stikeleather, a retired 
U.S. Army officer who is now 
woriring as a consultant for an 
American company in SeouL 
“It’s as if everything is half 
price. Everything's a bar- 
grin.” 

Mr. Stikeleather’s wife, 
Kim Chong Cha, finds “die 
whole atmosphere depressing” despite the 
prices. 

. “Yon see smaB businesses losing every 
day,” she says. “Land prices and real estate 
were so high when the city was building op 
around the time of the Seoul Olympics in 
1988. It was real quiet Everybody started 
moving here.” 

The couple, with two daughters in school in 
SeouL are bracing themselves, like everyone 
else, for tbe day when prices shoot up. 

“What we haven't noticed yet is significant 
inflationary pressure," Mr. S t ike l ear h er said. 
“Sometime everything will increase. This 
place is already an expensive neighborhood.” 

The tension mounts every time tbe stock 
market and currency decline and another big 
company goes 


and try to make op 
said. “They try not to buy foreign goods." 

Meanwhile, long lines form in a super- 
market at Samsung Plaza. “People are buying ' 
whatever they think they’ll need before juices 

go up," a dak said. "Nobody knows whether 

they can buy any thing a month from now." 



CHAEBOL: Korean Industry Banks on Exports 


Continued from Page 11 


enter the American car maricet this year as part 
of an overall Daewoo Group plan to increase 

-> to $17 billion next year from $15 

this year. 


chaebol what to manufacture and ordered the 

when asted globntahon ~.” 

bSf^dES ifflervration." South Korea faced eMrwmk difficulties: 

«ri>i are universally seared short-term foreign exchange, noncompet- 

to^fo^^^S.ESdenied itiveness.and.the trade ^deficit” For all those 
the rules -of the reasons, he said. “Wehave toe^mt mwe. ^ 

World Trade Organization or the Organi- Daewoo 


zation for Economic Cooper- 
ation and Development ban- 
ning subsidies and 
government loans. 

“We have no export drive 
policy like in the 1 9o0s," said 
Park Chen Ho. deputy re- 
search director at tire feder- 
ation of Korean Industries, an 


For chaebols, 
exporting is ‘one 
way to get some 
hard cash. 9 


by buying a controlling in- 
terest in Ssangyong Motor 
Co. after agreeing to take on 
$2 billion of the company's 
crippling debt 

While Ssangyong's ven- 
ture into motor vehicles epi- 
tomized the overinvestment 
of some of (he chaebol, Dae- 



auon of Korean Inmwnes, presidents woo's move dramatized the determination of 
OfgamzOTon °f the chairmen rafl presioen chaeb0 , „ jgainsr all odds. 

of the 30 largest chaebol. ^ ^ economic situation affects all Korean 

•* I**™ 1 ^SlIL^&SSSmSSi companies, but export is aU-imbartmr for 
this situauon. Exports o ^ Korea/'said Moon Ki H wan, a spokesman for 

he increased by policy, or on go Dacwoo Co r p^ the trading arm of the group, 

eminent. • . ^ He said Daewoo, besides promoting motor 

membership in vehicles, a top priority for Daewoo Chairman 
Kim Woe Cboong, also planned to increase 
the WTO and OECD nen woof exports of hone appliances, television sets and 

that South Korea has oJvef* vSeocassette recorders and microwave ovens, 

of nscoming^jf-ageas unodustn ‘ “The total atmosphere in exports is veiy 

sept “ 

Chang 
the exj 

also b., «. ,, jiiiuiti __ 

accepted by cyeiy country f mines 0 f ^rtion isT very small portion of our busi- 

. EE” J- -^About hfttfour cv, are for 


the country’s chaebol, while 
ductions in new investment ana ^Krk Hong Kyu, a manager with Hyundai 

nuses and salaries. Soutii K °{^ h MX 5 and CorpTsaid: “Well do our utmost to increase 
Hirers just os eagerly talk up the* hopes and Exports might be tire best way to 

Pi*™ “ ■« onr “« oin * •"* cn,nch -” 



On 1st December, 1997 
we are changing our name. 

A new identity to reflect that our shareholders 
are two major European banks: 

BANQUE NATIONALE DE PARIS 
and DRESDNER BANK. 

Our constant aim is to serve our clients with the highest level 
of expertise in international trade finance and 
the best Swiss tradition of private client asset management 
combined with the unique backing of two major 
international groups. 



UNITED EUROPEAN BANK 


Subsidiary of Banque Nationale de Paris and Dresdnsr Bank Groups 

Ouai deg Rerauas 1 1 - P.O. Box - 121 1 Geneva 1 -Switzerland -Telephone: Ml 22)906 21 11 - Teletax: (+41 22) 732 3c 
GENEVA • LUGANO • ZURICH • MONTEVIDEO - NICOSIA • SAO PAULO - LUXEMBOURG - MONACO - NASSAU 


s 


0 

0 

I 

3 
0 
0 
D 
0 
0 
1 

4 
0 
3 
B 
» 





































PAGE 15 


t Brinson Funds Break Into the Big Leagues 




By Edward Wyan 

Nnr >i.irt Times Se rvice 

CHICAGO — He watches over 
Ihe nest eggs of auto workers at 
General Motors and engineers at 
United Technologies, of actors in 
Hollywood and fire fighters in San 
Antonio, even for priests in the arch- 
diocese here in Chicago. 

Yet, at a time when dozens of 
money managers are as recogniz- 
able as rock stare, Gary Brinson has 
remained virtually unknown outside 
of the clubby world of Wall Street, 

INVESTING 

despite being one of the world's 
^ largest managers of pension plans as 
r well as an innovator in financial 
management 

With the announcement last week 
of the merger of Swiss Bank Corp. 
and Union Bank of Switzerland, 
.. however, Mr. Brinson and his firm] 
Brinson Partners, are unlikely to re- 
main anonymous for long. 

The merger will more than 
- double, to $340 billion, the assets 
overseen by the firm. Barely two 
years after being acquired by Swiss 
Bank, Brinson Partners is now mov- 
ing into an echelon dominated by far 
more familiar companies like Fidel- 
ity Investments and Merrill Lynch. 

And if Mr. Brinson stays true to 
form, be is likely soon to be in 
charge of much more. Already, he is 
slated to offer in vestment advice to 
some of the wealthiest clients of the 
new, giant United Bank of Switzer- 


SBC Unit to Bid 
For Christie’s? 

Bloomberg News 

LONDON — SBC Warburg 
Dillon Read, the investment 
hanking arm of Swiss Bank 
Corp., will make a bid for the art 
auction house Christie’s Inter- 
national PLC, a source familiar 
with the situation said Sunday. 

Directors of the 231-year-old 
Christie's were to meet Sunday 
in London to discuss the offer 
of £500 million ($825 million), 
the source said. The company 
said last week that it was en- 
gaged in talks with an unnamed 
buyer after takeover specula- 
tion pushed its shares up 33 
percent in four days. 

The bid would give the auc- 
tion house access to Warburg's 
financial resources while War- 
burg would be able to offer 
Christie’s expertise to its private 
clients wishing to invest in arL 


land, whose "private banking” 
group will control $400 billion in 
additional assets. If other, nonin- 
stitutional assets wi thin die new 
bank come his way, Mr. Brinson 
could soon be holding sway over 
close to $1 trillion, more than any 
asset manager on the planet. 

Perhaps some of Mr. Brinson’s 
inability to penetrate the conscious- 
ness of the man on the street stems 
from the mediocre performance of 
his family of seven Brinson mutual 
funds. For much of the last year, Mr. 
Brinson has been adamant that the 
American stock market is over- 
priced, a stance that has hurt the 
funds’ recent returns. 

In the last decade, however. Mr. 
Brinson’ s firm has produced annual 
equity returns of nearly 19 perceot 
on his general U.S. equity ponfolios, 
roughly 1.5 percentage points better 
than the Standard & Poor's 500 in- 
dex. And in his full, 27-year career 
as an investment manager, he has 
had an enormous impact on the way 
professionals and individuals alivp. 
view their investment portfolios. 

For years, Mr. Brinson's theories 
about the importance of spreading 
assets across the globe and among 
various classes of assets — stocks, 
bonds, cash, real estate, venture cap- 
ital and more — drew little attention 
outside of academic circles. 

He often recites the sroty of giv- 
ing a seminar on global investing in 
New York in the early 1980s for 
which three people showed up. 

Now, his theories are the con- 
ventional wisdom among money 


managers around the world. And 
whilemost other investment compa- 
nies have grown by concentrating 
on doing one thing well at a time — 
picking growth stocks, say. or un- 
raveling the vagaries of foreign 
bonds — Mr. Brinson's firm juggles 
all that and more. 

“Gaiy’s approach has always 
been designed to manage a large 
amount of money in all asset classes 
across die globe,” said Matthew Bar- 
ger. the managing partner of Heilman 
& Friedman, a San Francisco venture 
capital firm that was an early investor 
in Brinson Partners. “It was a very 
ambitious undertaking.” 

Mr. Brinson's recollection of 
how he built his firm can be de- 
ceivingly mundane. “1 believe a lot 
of things in life are serendipitous,” 
he said in an interview at the firm’s 
headquarters in Chicago. “I was the 
right person in the right place at the 
right time.” 

Swiss Bank thought enough of his 
ability that it paid $750 million two 
years ago to acquire Brinson Part- 
ners, an astounding sum for a firm 
that, at the time, managed only $36 
billion. Five years earlier, Mr. Brin- 
son had led a $ 1 00 million buyout of 
the company from First Chicago 
Corp.; he and about 100 other, smal- 
ler partners, as owners of 75 percent 
of die firm, cleared more than $460 
million on the deal. 

A key to Mr. Brinson’s success 
lies in the fact that he is, at heart, an 
academic. 

“Gary is a very quantitative in- 
dividual who understands the the- 


ories and the fundamentals of in- 
vesting,” said Ronald Peyton, chief 
executive of Callan Associates, the 
pension consulting firm. 

“But he also is a very good busi- 
nessman who can attract and retain 
good people." 

Mr. Brinson demonstrated his 
studied approach in starting a fund 
to invest in emerging markets; He 
had staff members research the busi- 
ness for nearly two years before 
offering an emerging-market port- 
folio to pension cheats last year. 

“We have lo fully understand, 
absorb and analyze every potential 
type of investment activity," he 
said. "Only then are we able to go to 
clients ana say that we truly un-. 
derstand the investments we are 
making.” 

That discipline allowed Brinson 
Partners io avoid the derivative de- 
bacle that caught a lot of pension 
managers in 1994, when interest 
rates shot up unexpectedly. It also, 
however, can cause the firm to make 
some bets that only later seem wise. 

Ih mid- 1987, for example, he 
sharply cut back on stock holdings 
in his pension clients' U.S. equity 
portfolio and sold short the market 
using stock index futures. As stock 
prices continued to rise to record 
heights thaL August, the stance drew 
heat from clients. But after the mar- 
ket crashed in October, and Mr. 
Brinson's portfolios performed far 
better than those of his peers, new 
pension clients flocked in 

Asked what inspired his meas- 
ured approach, Mr. Brinson points 



Ll"Ml DrfirancrTbt VwL Thnr- 

Gary Brinson, funds manager, 
is a firm believer in serendipity. 

to his father, who. he said, "never 
had a dime to invest.” 

“My parents were the product of 
rhe Depression.” said Mr. Brinson, 
who is 54. Before he was bom. his 
father, Albert, worked for a railroad 
company in Washington State, liv- 
ing in a boxcar while building snow 
sheds to house coal being shipped to 
Seattle. Later, his father drove a bus 
for the Seattle transit system. 

"In that environment, you had to 
be extraordinarily careful in finan- 
cial matters," he" said . 

Thai philosophy followed Mr. 
Brinson as he finished a master's 
degree and began teaching. "The 
process of researching and writing 
tilings to get them published in aca- 
demic journals just became part of 
the fabric of how 1 thought and how 
I looked at things,” he said. 


International Fund Banks on Star Stock Pickers 


By Carole Gould 

New York Times Service 

NEW YORK — Ask five highly 
regarded international investment 
managers to pick eight to 15 of their 
favorite stocks. Ensure diversity by 
choosing managers who use differ- 
ent approaches topicking stocks and 
who work with companies of dif- 
ferent sizes. The product of their 
efforts: the Masters' Select Inter- 
national fund. 

Only two weeks old, this no-load 
fund has already collected $39 mil- 
lion from investors. If it performs as 
well as its nearly year-oid domestic 
sibling. Masters' Select Equity, 
those eager investors are not likely 
to be disappointed. 

The original Masters' fund, 
which started in January and was 
fully invested by the end of that 
month, gained 23.4 percent from 
Jan. 31 through Thursday. That was 


better than the 17.3 percent gain for 
its peer group of large growth funds, 
according to Momingstar Inc., the 
fund research firm in Chicago, and 
the 23.3 percent gain of the Standard 
& Poor’s 500-siock index. 

It was also better than four of the 
six primary portfolios run by the 
"masters" themselves. The man- 
agers of the original fund are six 
superb stock pickers; Jean-Marie 
Eveifiard of Sogen International, 
Foster Friess of Brandywine, O. 
Mason Hawkins of Longleaf Part- 
ners. Spiros Segaias of Harbor Cap- 
ital Appreciation, Richard Weiss of 
Strong Common Stock, and Shelby 
Davis, a former manager of Davis 
New York Venture. 

But only the Davis fund, now run 
by Mr. Davis's son Christopher, and 
Longleaf Partners, which is closed to 
new investors, bested the Masters' 
Select performance, although not by 
much: Davis New York Venture had 


a total return of 23.7 percent in the 
period and Longleaf, 23.8 percent. 

The performance of the Masters' 
fund only underscores its basic 
concept: that combining experi- 
enced managers' best ideas will pro- 
duce superior results. 

That concept may work even bet- 
ter in the overseas arena, said Ken 
Gregory, president of the funds’ 
sponsor, Litman/Gregory Fund Ad- 
visors in Orinda. California. 

"We believe companies in for- 
eign markets are less intensively re- 
searched, so that good stock pickers 
have the potential to add more 
value,” he said. 

Unlike its domestic counterpart. 
Masters’ Select International will not 
be directed by managers from other 
mutual funds. So about one-third of 
assets will be managed by jprivate 
money managers. To avoid, over- 
weighting in the riskier emerging 
markets, the fund bypassed even the 


sonable price style. 

Limiting the funds' size will let the 
managers keep a sharp focus on their ' 
favorite stocks, Mr. Gregory said. He 
expeers io close Masters’ Select 
Equity, which holds $280 million, 
when assets reach $500 million to 
$750 million. Masters' Select Inter- 
national will close when assets reach 
$600 million to $1 billion, he said. 


SHORT COVER 
China’s Trade Deficit Widens 

BEUING (AFP) — China's trade deficit expanded by more 
than S40 billion In the first 1 1 months of 1997. the official 
People's Daily said Sunday. 

Exports jumped 23.2 percent from a year earlier to Sl o.O- 
billion, while imports grew just 3.7 percent to S123.29 billion, 
the paper said, citing customs figures. 

The overall trade volume amounted io a 1 4 percent increase 
from a year earlier. 

Beijing to Ease Rules on Banks 

BEUING (AFP) — Beijing has pledged to allow more 
foreign banks to do local -currency business as part of an ofter 
aimed at securing membership in the World Trade Orga- 
nization, the official China Daily Business Weekly reported 
Sunday. 

Foreign banks would be allowed to freely conduct local- 
currency operations first in Shanghai and. two years after 
China joins the WTO. in the country’s five special economic 
zones under the services liberalization offer, presented in 
Geneva on Dec. 5 by Deputy Trade Minister Long Yongru. 

The zones include Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou in 
Guangdong Province, the southeastern port of Xiamen and the 
entire southern island province of Hainan. 

Core Pacific to Buy Yamaicki Unit 

HONG KONG (Bloomberg) — Core Pacific Securities 
Corp.. one of Taiwan's largest brokerage and fund man- 
agement companies, said it would buy the Hong Kong op- 
erations of Japan's bankrupt Yantaichi Securities Co. 

Core Pacific said the final price remains dependent on the 
release of year-end audited results. 

In Tokyo, Yamaichi Securities, formerly Japan's founh- 
largest brokerage, will fire nearly all of its 7,500 employees 
and return assets to its customers by the end of March. 
President Shohei Nozawa said. 

Israel Sets Panel on Central Bank 

JERUSALEM (Reuters) — Israel’s cabinet approved Sun- 
day the appointment of a public committee to make proposals 
on revising the law governing the Bank of Israel. Prime 
Minister Benjamin Nentanyahu's office said. 

The committee wili be headed by a retired judge and Mr. 
Netanyahu will appoint its members over the next few days, a 
spokesman in Mr. Netanyahu's office said. 


respected managers in that area. 

The five managers of Masters' 
Select International are; Helen 
Young Hayes, who runs Janus 
Worldwide and Janus Overseas; 
David Herro. manager of Oakmark 
International and Oakmark Interna- 
tional Small Cap: Mark Yockey. 
who started Artisan International in 
1996 and managed United Interna- I 
tional Growth before that. Daniel 
Jaworski. chief investment officer 
of BPI Global Asset Management; ! 
Bruce Bee, a money manager in 
Denver who uses a growth-at-a-rea - 1 



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PACE 18 


SPORTS 


Even Without Ronaldo, 
Inter Wins Comfortably 

His Replacement , Zamorano , Is Among the Scorers 


' C*i>Mb?OvS*&FmDiip*Kto 

' Inter Milan, the Italian league leader, made 
light of the enforced absence of its star striker, 
Ronaldo, and thrashed Roma, 3-0, on Sunday. 

Juventus, the reigning champion, drew 1-1 at 
Piacenza, while Udinese drew, 0-0, at Bari. 
Parma thrashed last-place Napoli, 4-0, in 
1 Naples to move up to fourth, one point behind 


* With Ronaldo, the world player of the year, 
'playing for Brazil in the Confederation Cup, 
'Inter's other international stars brushed aside 
' Roma, which started the day in third place. 

Youri Djorkaeff converted a penalty in die 
41st minute after Roma’s goalkeeper, Michel 
Konsel, tripped Diego Simeone. the Argen- 
tine midfielder then set up Marco Branca fora 
second goal eight minutes later before Ivan 
‘ Zamorano, a Chilean playing in place of Ron- 
aldo, turned in a third in me 71sl By then 
, Roma was playing with nine men. Matteo 
Pivotio and Francesco Toni were ejected 
, early in the second half. 

Juventus struggled a gains t Piacenza until 
'Daniel Fonseca, a second-half substitute, 

‘ scored following a brilliant run and shot in the 
77th minute. But three points became just one 
’ when a rare handling error by Angelo Peruzzd, 
Italy’s national goalkeeper, presented Gian 
Pietro Piovani with an equalizer two minutes 
. later. 

' Like Inter, AC Milan, which won at Aralanta 

; Bergamo, was also missing a former world 
player of the year, George Weah. But the 
. injured Weah was hardly missed as Patrick 
Kluivert finally showed glimpses of his Ajax 
form. 

In die second minute, Kluivert met a Zvon- 
imir Boban cross with a firm header that hit the 
' bar and cannoned into the net Marco Sgro 
equalized in the 17th mining but another 
Kluivert header in the 58th minute lifted Milan 
into sixth, its highest placing of the season. 

England Boltoa came from 3-1 down oa 
Sunday to draw, 3-3, at home against Derby. 

- Boltoa went ahead with a 50th-minute penalty 
by AknTh(xnpson.StefiuK)Eramo leveled five 
minutes later. Then, an impressive spell of neat 

; passing by Derby created goals for Francesco 
Baiano in die 64th and 69th minu tes. 

Nathan Blake’s header reduced the deficit, 

' and Jamie Pollock slammed in the equalizer in 
the 77th minute. 

On Saturday, Leeds United offered a fitting 

- tribute to its former captain, Billy Bremner, 

, with a snarling, aggressive assault on Chelsea. 

The match at Stamfoid Bridge, which ended 0- 
0 , was preceded by a minute’s silence for 
Bremner, a tough-tackling midfielder, who 
died of a heart attack Dec. 7 at age 54. 

Within minutes of the kickoff, Leeds, 
which has the worst disciplinary record in the 
division, had made it clear that it would 
counter Chelsea's creativity with aggression. 
The tactics worked, but Leeds played a heavy 
■price. 

Gary Kelly received a yellow card after just 
30 seconds. By halftime, Leeds had three 


more players on a yellow card and had lost 
Kelly and Alf-Inge Haaiand to red cards. 
Three Chelsea players also received yellow 
cards in the first half, in which neither team 
managed a shot on target 

Graham Poll, the referee, said the first half 
was "the most remarkable I’ve ever been 
.involved with. The yellow card seemed to 
have no effect on the players." 

The second pesiod was the opposite. There 
were no yellow cards, and only seven fouls, as 
Leeds reheated into a defensive posture that the 
home team never really breached. 

“We deserved some of the bookings, but 
there was a lot of diving around out there 
today,’ ’ said George Graham, the Leeds man- 
ager. “It’s creeping more into our game and 
it's terrible to see fellow professionals trying 
to get people booked. I don’t want our team to 
become thugs, but I didn't see many Chelsea 
players come off the pitch injured. I think it’s 
sad.” 

Graeme Le Saux, a Chelsea defender, said: 
“You didn’t know which direction the next 
tackle was coming from. It was ferocious. 
They came to unsettle us and to a certain 
extent it worked. 

David Hopkins, the Leeds captain, said: “It 
was a passionate game, but we didn't come here 
to do it that way.” On Friday, Hopkins mid he 
planned to “hassle Chelsea all the way.” 

METtERUums Ajax Amsterdam took an- 
other stop in what is becoming a comfortable 
stroll to its 27th Dutch-league tide on Sunday 
when it beat Volendam, die last-place team, 3- 
0. Ajax is 18 points ahead of P5V Eindhoven. 
In 19 games, Ajax has scored 59 goals and 
conceded just four. PS V, which did not play, 
visits Amsterdam next weekend. ■ 

In a lackluster match on Sunday, Jari Lit- 
manen opened the scoring with a free kick in 
the 38to minute. On the hour, a Ronald de 
Boer comer was knocked in by his brother, 
Rank. Five minima later, litmanen scared 
again from a de Boer coiner. 

SttUN Real Madrid kept pace with the 
leader. Barcelona, with a drab 1-0 victory over 
Merida. Real had help from Mexida's Mariano 
and Marcos. Davor Suker’s curving comer in 
the 30th minute appeared to deflect off Mari- 
ano into the Merida net Marcos blasted a 
penalty over the bar. 

On Saturday, a blunder by Espanyol’s goal- 
keeper, Toni Jimenez, set Barcelona on its 
way to a 3-1 victory over its near neighbor. 

The game was scoreless until Jimenez hit a 
clearance that rebounded off Luis Enrique 
into the net midway through die first half. 
Barcelona then took control with fine goals by 
Giovanni.and Sergj Baijuan. 

France Thierry Henry scored after 54 
minutes as Monaco beat visiting Rennes, 1-0, 
to regain first place. 

Marseilles bad moved into first cm Saturday 
when it won, 1-0, at Lens. Xavier Gravelaine 
scored with a volley after nine minutes Lens 
had not lost at borne this season. 

Germany Bayern Munich broke its losing 
streak with a 3-2 victory over Bornssia . 
Moenchenglaribach on Saturday and gained 
ground on Kaiserslautern, which lost. 2-0, to 



All- Out Sailing: 




Ivan Zamorano celebrating his goal for Inter in its 3-0 victory Sunday over Roma. 


Hertba. Berlin oo Friday. 

Carsten Jancker scared twice for Bayern, 
which ended a run of three defeats. 

Bayern moved ahead, 3-0, with Jancker's 
efforts in the 20th and 50th minutes and a goal 
from a defensive midfielder, Christian Ner- 


linger, in the 5 2d minute. 
Stefan Effenberg scored 


Stefan Effeuberg scored for Borussia in toe 
63d minute and Jorgen Pettersson scared with 
three minutes remaining. 


Bayer Leverkusen, last season’s runner-up, 
drew 0-0 at VfL Bochum to climb into fourth 
place. 

Scotland The fight for first place 
tightened Saturday as leaders Hearts lost; 1-0, 
to Celtic and Rangers was held to a scoreless 
draw at Dunfermline. 

Hearts lost to a goal by Craig Burley but it 
remains one point ahead of Rangers and two 
ahead of Celtic. (Reuters. AP ) . 


OI ID 

Pamevik Prevails in Asia Super Tour 


The Associated Press 

TAIPEI — Jesper Pamevik shot a 2-un- 
der-par 70 in soggy conditions Sunday, for 
a four-shot victory in a tournament played 
over six days in four countries. 

Pamevik put together a 12-under 276 
total on courses in Indonesia. Thailand, the 


Phili ppines and Taiwan. 
Nick Faldo, who stnie 


Nick Faldo, who struggled with his put- 
ting earlier, also shot a 70 and finished 
second at 280 in the eight-man Johnnie 
Walker Super Tour. 

Pamevik won $100,000. 

Rain and cool temperatures made for 


slow greens at the 6,807- yard Ta Shee Gold 
and Country Club outside Taipei. 

Booncho Ruangkit of Thailand topped 
the four Asians in tne fi e ld, finishing third at 
282 after a -70 in the final round. Felix 
Casas, a Filipino, finished fifth at 285, and 
Hong Chia-ynh of Taiwan was next at 1 1- 
over 299, after both shot 73. MaanNasimof 
Indonesia shot a 75 and finish ed at 304. 

Last year’s winner, Ernie Els, was fourth . 
at 283 aftera 72 ou Sunday. Ian Woosoam 
dropped out of the tournament in the Phil- 
ippines, suffering from heat exhaustion, but 
played an exhibition round Sunday. 


By Barbara Lloyd 

far York Tones Servkt 

Not many people get the 
chance to go swimming in the 
Southern Ocean, nor would 
they want to. But Jeny Kirby, 
a can-do sailor who seems 
immune to fear, has taken die 
dive. 

It's a cold and forsaken 
place, a stretch of ocean that 
skins the globe unfettered 
from sea to sea. But Kirby 
knew that someone on 
Chessie. Racing had to g o 
overboard in toe Whitbread 
Round the Wodd Race. The 
64-foot (29.5-meter) sailboat 
bad hit something hard, prob- 
ably a whale, and seemed to 
have lost a fraction of speed. 

“I just dived in to take a 
look at the keel,” Kirby said 
by telephone last week from 
Fremantle, Australia. “I pot 
on a dry suit, but it had a leak 
in one seaL So 1 put foul- 
weather gear over it and 
jumped into toe 40 -degree 
water.” At 4.5 degrees cen- 
tigrade, “it was cold.” 

He found that thepotty used 
to smooth toe keel’s edges had 
been knocked off in clumps. 
The crew couldn’t do much 
about it, cut off from shore in 
their 4,600-mile (7,300-kilo- 
meter) voyage from Cape 
Town to Fremantle. 

But repairs have now been 
made. The boat set out again 
Saturday, having left Fre- 
mantle alongside eight other 
Whitbread teams in toe third 
fog of .toe global competition. 
The hext port-of-cafl is 
Sydney, a 2£50mile stage 
that is likely to be a pleasant 
cruise compared to the long, 

hard and fing w-n nmhing days 

of the second leg. 

At tins point, the Norwe- 
gian team aboard Innovation 
Kvaemer .II is leading with 
207 points compared with 
197 points for EF Education, 
the boat with Paul Cayard of 
San Francisco in charge. 

Aboard Chessie, a boat 
from Baltimore, Kirby is tire 
crew boss. As one of two U.S. 
entries in the competition, toe. 
yacht rotates some of its crew 
members. But Kirby has been 
there from the start. 

He is a 42-year-old sailor 
from Newport, Rhode Island, 
competing in the Whitbread 
race for the first time. He has 


three America’s Cup can*. 
pa i g ns to his credit; and in- 
numerable international regat- 
tas. But Kitby thought it .Was 
about time for a Whitbread. 

. “He h?s toe utmost respect 
from every man cm that 
crew,” said Kathy Alexan- 
der, a spokeswoman for the 
Chessie crew in Baltimore. 
“Jeny is. always upbeat, so 
capable, and loyal to the end. 
They think he’s wonderful.’’ 

It is that kind of camarader- 
ie that any crew yearns for. 

Crammed as each team is 
— a dozen sailors within toe 
confines of an all-out rating 
machine — creature comforts 
are scarce. During the first' 
teg, the Toshiba team 
splintered in a personality 
clash that contributed to a de- 
cision by Chris Dickson, the ■ 
boat’s skipper, to resign, in 
Cape Town. And crew shake- 
ups are still going on. 

The decision to devote eight 
months to a Whitbread race.is 
difficult for any sailor, but es- 
pecially one with a young flun- 
lly. Back in Newport, Kirby 
left behind his wife, Kim, and 


hie family business, Kirby 
Construction, in toe hands of a 
brother-in-law. __ 

Kirby says he hasn’t re- 
gretted the move. 

“I've never had as much 
adrenaline running through 
my blood in my life as I have 
in this race,” he said. 

* Chessie Racing is seventh 
overall. But a system of 
points for each of nine tegs 
W made the Whitoread more 
of an endurance contest than 
ever before. While Swedish 
Match won toe last leg, toe 
team is in fourth place over all 
with 167 points. 

Gunnar Krantz, skipper of 
Swedish Match, said in a tele- 
phone interview dial he did 
not expect big differences in 
toe finish time at Sydney. 

■ Norwegians at Risk 

Innovation Kvaemerllwas 
limping back to toe Australian 
coast Sunday, little more than 
24 hours after the start of the 
third leg, Reuters reported. 

Knot Frostad, the skipper 
of the Norwegian entiy,' re- 
ported buckling and denting 
at the base of toe mast and 
asked for a helicopter to drop 
a repair kit to the boat 


Scoreboard 


NBA Standings 


ATLANTIC HVKIOH 



W 

L 

Pet 

GB 

iBtomt 

15 

6 

Mi 

— 

Orlando 

16 

8 

-667 

ft 

New York 

13 

9 

-991 

2ft 

New Jersey 

12 

10 

-545 

3ft 

Boston 

9 

12 

429 

6 

Washington 

9 

14 

391 

7 

PhQoddphia 

6 14 

CENTRAL HVretON 

300 

Bft 

Atlanta 

16 

S 

362 



Charlotte 

14 

7 

,667 

2 

Cleveland 

14 

7 

■667 

2 

Indiana 

13 

8 

619 

3 

Chicago 

13 

9 

-591 

3ft 

Milwaukee 

11 

11 

•500 

5ft 

Detroit 

IT 

17 

478 

6 

Toronto 

2 

20 

-091 

14ft 

WBiirtHCPissffBjmr 

NBJWEST OtVaWN 



W 

L 

Pet 

68 

Houston 

12 

6 

*67 



Utah 

13 

8 

419 

ft 

Srm Antonto 

12 

TO 

445 

2 

Mtonesota 

9 

12 

429 

4ft 

Vancouver 

8 

14 

364 

6 

Daks 

5 

16 

338 

8ft 

Denver 

2 19 

MPncoromt 

-095 

lift 

Seattle 

17 

5 

.773 

_ 

LA. Latere 

16 

5 

362 

ft 

Phoenix 

13 

6 

484 

2ft 

PorBrevJ 

13 

7 

450 

3 

Sacramento 

7 

15 

318 

10 

Golden State 

4 

16 

300 

13 

LJLOppcn 

4 

18 

.182 

13 


nmUmths 28 29 21 10- It 

iMtaa U U 17 2B— T7 

W: Howard 4-1 2 10-12 21 Webber 10-190- 


(BtaylocfclO). Lob AngeteslS (Bony. Mumr 

3)- 

H Boston M 27 21 30-102 

LJLLriun 23 26 34 34-119 

H: Droder 8-16 1-1 21, BarMey 5-14 6-6 1ft 
LA. Lakers Fax 12-153-330. Bryant 8-1 5 9-10 
27. Reb swniK H ouston 39 (Barter >4), Las 
Anodes 53 (Kerry ». ftrtsb-Kcaston 21 
(Distort. Las Angeles 26 Wan Bed 8). 

MTBSMTSHWin 
WasMngten 27 21 20 19—92 

Indiana 25 21 29 34—109 

9ft Webber 12-30 7-10 31. Howard 6-176-8 
1ft b Smite 9-21 7-7 25. MBfar A-M 7-7 22. 
Re t i re— h — ' Wta li b gton 51 (Hawred, 

Webber. WBorh. Sttddand 6L Infiana 52 
(Smfls 13). Assisi* Washi ngton 21 
(StricMond 9), Indiana 23 (Jackson 6). 
Delator 20 25 10 32-95 

New Jersey 29 40 34 39-133 

Dt Kewmrei 7-12 7-921. Jadson 7-13 4-4 
1ft NJjVbfl Horn 8-11 1I-I53& DoWtfcn9- 
14 1-3 19. Ro tun da D enver 40 (Gantt 13). 
New Jersey 65 (WHams 22). MsWs- 
— Denser 13 (Jadson 4), New Jersey 32 
(Cassrt 9). Total fools— Denver 26 
New Jersey 21. 

PMmMpWa 26 19 16 22— <3 

New York 23 27 17 as — *5 

P hereon 8-20 13-13 29. Jackson 5-12 (Ml 
1 1, Thomas 5-60-011; N.Y-- Stories 10-156-8 
Zft Houston 9-19 2-2 23. Robeunds 
PhOodriphla 47 (YKatheapoon, Mattress 
8). New Ydr* 52 (Ewing 131. 
Assists— PhDmM pitta ll (Stockhovse a. 
New York 25 (Word A. 

Chorion? 9 29 26 21— IS 

Qe re l oad 25 21 18 20^-04 

Chartane: Rice 9-23 9-9 32. Oteoc 6-10 (M) 
12jOevetond:Keinp9-147-82& Ilgausfcas6- 
123-3 15. Rebounds— Charlotte <2 (Rice 91. 
Cleveland so (Person 9). Asstets— Charfafle 
21 (Wesley 5), Cleveland 22 (Knight 7). 
Bctston 22 17 21 17- 77 

OefreB 19 24 36 SB— 93 

B: McCarty 7-154-6 1SI Walker 8-23 M 1ft 


02ft B: Writer 9-16 3-4 21 Bllto|)6 5-73-4 15. q : B-WTOann 15-22 1-1 31. HOI 5-149-10 19. 


R efu ses Was rtnoion 53 (Webber 173, 
Boston 49 (Walker 12). Assists — Washington 


Rebounds— Boston 43 (Matter TlLOeRoO 47 
(B.WB0emsl5). AssMs— Boston 23 (MfltK 


19 (SMcMonftWMneyS). Boston 28 (Writer Baupsdj.Detra07Q(HNQ. 


Denser 27 23 19 22- 91 

P W to d stab ta 34 22 25 25-106 

t): Wash in gton A-1S 1-2 14. Newman 3-6 1 
«14rP.SiacldiDMel2-206432JJae)aon6- 
136619. Rebounds— Denver 54 (Ganeft 12), 
Phaadafphta 48 (Weathsspoon 12). 
Amish— Denser 18 (Gridwire 7k 
PhiiadrfpMa 27 tl-ladaon Iverson 8). 
CNcago 29 14 13 21- 77 

OMttaOe II 22 S 15-79 

ChkDgo: Jordan 12-244-628. Ko hoc 4-11 4- 


Phoenix 31 23 » 19-101 

Mtamseta 31 28 22 31—112 

P: CeboJtas 9-13 (Ml 2ft KUd 7-133-4 2ft M: 
MbCheO 9-14 54 2 * Gamut B-13 44 20. 
Rebounds— Phoenix 46 (Mamtag ffl, 
MbtfMMto 45 (GameA 6). Assists— Phoenbc 
23 (POdd B). Minnesota 34 (Martrary 14). 
QrtaAds 18 10 20 22— 78 

SaAatonk 34 18 31 24-107 

a Grant 7-16 0-0 14, Seftaty 6-12 0-1 Tft 
SAj Oman 15-202-3 32 Robbenn 9-13 0-0 
IS. Reboen di Morto 41 (Onflow San 


414: Chartone Rlc*MDWJl.Dlwie4.11 J- 

i la Rebanmte— Odengo 54 (Rodman 19L 

Chariot's 44 (Mason. Rice 7). i*oper31. son Antoata 26 (Johnson 

^ 9 20 22 19— 70 

imanxi oj . rw — ■ n n •> — 


MM 29 17 24 19- 09 

m a i n 24 23 32 25-104 

M: Honkiwor 10-185-7 2ft MosMURl 6-12 
Jh8 1ft I; Smite 14-23 1-1 2ft M*er8-HM28. 
BtbrtH fc W Uflw U l [AosBn 8). Indhmo 47 


9). 

Toronto 9 20 22 19- 70 

CMCOBO 24 U 29 38- 97 

T: Mtaoa 70S 0-2 14 Camby 4-11 3-5 II. 
Stated S-10 1-2 11; CS Harper ft-U 64 2ft 
Kekoc 6-7 2-6 15. Robeerts— Toronto 4S> 
(WoBoce Yu Chicago 70 (Rodman 14). 


(DCmris 12). AasWs— Miami 2o’(Hnnlaway W { ?*** w * ft Gomef ^ 


10). indtono25(Jadaon 14). 

Drtas 19 IS 19 13-66 

Utah 19 17 17 15—68 

D: Sa« 7-10 2-4 21. Holey 8-14 5-S 21; U: 
Matone 10-15 34 23. Anrieson 54 34 IX 
Reb oa mh Doto 29 (Green 7k Utah 46 
(Keefe 11). Aaststs— OaUas 16 (Reems 6L 
Utah 15 (Motam, Stockton 4). 

Pantand 21 31 23 23- 98 

SaaTtto 34 28 23 26-1)1 

P: Rider 7-172-321. Anderson 5-15 5-6 17; 
5; Hmrtte 8-16 34 21. Bator M j 6-9 20. 


Oikago 27 (Rodman 14). 

Mfari 25 15 2? 18-87 

M M ra a toa 28 13 23 IB— 84 

MMmi: Aujlin 8-176-1022, Hardaway 7-18 
7-12 21, Lcnard S-9 99 21; AABwaakee 
RoWnsan 13-22 2-2 2& Perry 68 2-2 15. 
Rehoonds— Mtami 42 (Hontowey 9). 
MRwavtoo49 UohnsaA 14).A«tab- Mtart 
14 (Hosdowoy 111. MSnsnriice 16 (ABen 9L 
Sacramento 22 19 23 17 19-91 

Golden Stale 22 23 19 17 14 — 95 

XRJcftmort 10-23 7430, Polyntoe 8-15 2- 


Montand 104 Maiytand-Balinton Col dd 
Temple It, DePaal 43 
Mtastestapi 71, WkMta StMe48 
Georgia 5& Eat Caroflno 54 


PunJue 107, Son Fraodsco 82 

»aii— *AMM€ 

Syracuse 72 Miami. (Mo S3 

coecuOAssic 
Brigham Young S3. Peppenflne52 
DtOUMOAISK 
Indkav 6A Sooth Atabmna 56 


Bebauuiii Paittarid «1 (WaHua. jotiairfi 61fcCA:SmMi 11-18 342&M0Khal 6-Id 

SS dTS m-SKitarttand « 


31 (WadaaSLSeaMe 24 (Payton ». 

GeMnSMa 35 22 IS 38- 88 -4ocramart2! (Rkhmand6l.GaUei«Staie 

IWmMr 25 22 26 22-95 22(Bogwa81. 

G5; Sradh 10-21 34 23. Marttafl 6-152-2 __ 

14, Oomo)cr4-7 6-10 !4i vt Abdar4tahiM9- MAJOR C OLLEQE SCOHES 

VanconerSO (Dariete 7). Kentotkra &Georalc Ted rn 

29 15 » 19UD Arteom9S,CopphiS(nfe82 
LA-CSppch 15 26 14 19-74 XmrieraftOndnmifld8 

A Smflh 8-lfi 68 22, Loettwr 7-15 74 2L- Punhiel07.SmRmid*aa2 
LA Cflopen: Qoss 7-13 14 15, WrigM 5-11 town town Stato59 
2-2 1Z Murray 6-lft M 12. Rebaods- UCLA 120. Cd Stoto-FuHtrion 91 
—Anarto49 (Mntombo 151, Los Angeles 48 (gtwte71.0ermon6) 

(Wright Murray 9). AssWs-Alkrto 19 PotMCK. Fiona State 74 


i Christian 99. Baytar75 


NHLStanmmqs 


New Jersey 

PhfltafeJphta 

Wasbbrton 

N.Y.btanden 

N.Y. Rangers 

Florida 

Tampa Bay 


Pittsburgh 

Montreal 

Boston 

Ottawa 

CaroOna 

Buffalo 


AlUNTWOMtaON 

W LTPbCFSt 
7 22 9 0 44 94 55 

ta 17 9 6 40 91 75 

i» 15 12 6 36 99 91 

«s 13 15 4 30 87 87 

« 9 14 11 29 87 95 

II 16 5 27 80 96 

r 6 20 4 16 57 99 

NORTHEAST DIVISION 

W L T PU CF M 

18 10 6 42 95 8Q 

18 12 4 40 102 85 

15 12 '5 35 BO 82 

13 15 4 30 80 77 

17 16 5 29 87 94 

10 14 6 26 76 81 

CENTRAL MVWOH 

W LT to CF C* 

21 9 4 46 106 71 

20 11 3 43 100 78 

19 8 5 43 107 77 

13 M 5 31 85 89 

10 15 6 26 68 80 

10 15 5 25 65 81 


ffdnmqfr l 

Anaheim 
Los Angeles 
Edmonton 

Son Jews 

CrdgoiY 

Vancouver 


« L T Pis GF GA 

17 8 9 43 102 86 

12 IS 6 30 76 95 

12 13 6 30 92 87 

11 16 7 29 82 101 

11 18 3 25 BO 96 

9 18 7 25 07 102 

9 IP 4 22 91 116 


saws unms 

Canine 6 8 2 0-2 

BefMa 1-8 1 1—3. 

ftat (tartofc B-Pew 5 CSmehtt. PtaM 
(pp). Second Farted: None. TMrd Period: 
Caxafim Otaeen 5 (Ranhetaw Gocane) X 
CaraBna (TNeta 7 (Sanderson. Wesley) (pp). 
< Sate 13 (Wbofley) Oiattoa: & B- 
Baraafayl (SaeMk) Shots engoACoiaana 

7-9-18-3—37. B- 10-7-34—28. ffsifflar 

Caalna Burts. B-Hrsek. 

Ftortda 2 2 8-1 

N.Y. Rangm 1 1 1-3 

First Pariad: New York, Olivers (Stevens. 
Uf etaaine) 2, F-Ovornk ) (Wafe) CshJ.lF- 
Dvamk 7 (WOshbam) (shj. Sacead Period: 
F*emhevsfcy 6 (WUhwy. Write) ft New 
Ytafc SIomib 7 (Lafentatae) ft PCstarar 1 
(Jehnsaa) TIM Period: New York. Swwney 
-8(LoFonhrineiSfeven5)Shote*ofeotF-12- 
13-6-29. New Yorttl 09-12— 31. Cedes; F- 
vanUesbraock. New Yrift RIeMar. 

Montre al 8 2 0-2 

B*w Jersey I 1 W 

Fttsr Period: Nj^Rsttu 5 (Corpentoc 
ZriegaUn) Z N J.-Gurtn 4 (Metteranyec 
Odetein] X New Jersey. Thomas 3 
(Nietfermayec Goerin) Second Period: M- 
RKfrtcy 10 atompbouuft Bifsebate) ft 
NJ^taOi 16 CZetedridn. Stoma) ft M- 
Reechi lft TIM Period: NJ.-E8as 12 {Hen, 
Ctawoar] (pp).Staatoaagarf:M- 1 0-13-8-01. 
NJ.- 10-10-13— 3L Mhs M-ThfcauJL 
NJ.-Bradew 

CtfOwntoB 0 0 3-3 

□aterif 8 l i— g 

Fast Period: None: Secort Pwtoft D- 
Sbanataai 15 (GMetat LapgbM Thrt 
Partota E-Ltodgesn 6 (Bvdftergeri X E- 
LMgren 7 (Budibergeo Mmdwd) ft EX 
Gadirtet 8 (Lapointe Shanahan) ft E- 
McdEsftShatiwi goat: E- 10-8-8—26. 0-8- 
U-U-36. GartetE-Esseraa. O-Osgooft 
Fb lta dripOta l 0 2-3 

Qdraga I 0 1—2 


Rst Period: C-Zhamnae 4 COKto). I P- 
LeQoir 24 (Grattan) Secon d Period: None. 
TIM period: P-Gratton 7 (Zubroft LoCh ft) 
4. P-Farbes2 (Otto) ft C-D<ae l0(Weinitdd 
Shots oa goal: P- 8^9-2ft C- I&&4-32. 
GooSss: P-Srxtor. C-Trefltor. 

SaaJasa 1 0 6-1 

Deltas. 8 I 8-0 

nst Parted: SJ .-Craven 6 (GA Motor) 
(pp). Sacwid Period: None Third Period: 
None. Shots on goat $J, 5*5-15. D- 88- 
8-34. GaaSas: SJ.-Hradoy. D-Britour. 
Pttishsrsh oil g—3 

Pboaata 0 2 18—2 

Hrst Ported: Nona. Secort Period: 
Phoenix, Gartner 3 (Romtag. KhabfteDn) l 
Phoenb, More 4 (Corkunv Ylooon) ft 
Pttbbaigh Barnes 9 (Brevm Jagr) (pp). 
UM Period: PMsbaigh Fronds 10 (Banes. 
Hatcher) Shots oo go* P- 6-7-4-2-19. 
Ptwridx 3-7-1 -2— IX Ceaier PBanasso. 
Phoertx. KhriAaEn. 

Colorado 0 8 1—1 

Calgary 1 I 2-3 

FW Pariad: Catgary Slttbnon 12 
(Mdnnte) Secort Ported: None. TMrd 
Period: Colorado Dead march ?o (Forabero, 
KtamaB ft Calgmy Igtata 10 (Floury) a. 
Calgary Titov 8 (Ftoery) (erd- Shots oa gota: 
Qdorado 13-9-12—34. Calgmr 11-4-10-25. 
Gedese Cotorada. BBbsjton. Catpory, 
Tobo roccS. 

WasMagtsa 3 l S-< 

I 3 2—6 

First Period: W-Janeau 6 (Dote. Toms) ft 
W-MUerS (Bate Tlnonffl ft W-Bendrn 21 
(GondKK Oates) (pp). ft A-Sotanne 25 
PCmtya Mironov] Secort Period: AAeaeMn 
4 CMboaow DeigneoulO ft W-Gondwr 2 
(Howstay. Bandra) (pp). 7, A-, Oatamaut2 
CMhanow Kartya) (pp). ft A-Kratyo 1 
(Setanae) ThM Period: A-Setaw 26 
{Mtonev} lftA-Kartya ft (eh). Shots aagoab 
W- 14-9-11—34. A- 6-21-9—36. Power-ptay 
OpporiuaMea-W- 2 at ft A- 2 of X Garitos: 
W-KoUg.A-HeherL 


Florida 10 0—1 

N.Y. btondtra ) 1 2— < 

Phst Period: New York. Lapeinto 7 (Krasw 
Lachance) % Pslowonavski 4 (Nwn ft pwh ft 
Motor) (pp). Second Period: New York. 
Behmger 1 (Greet Hough) TMrd Period: 
Now Yorh, BeriKQ} 5 (Cbonfce) ft New York. 
SROdkaM ft Shots aa goal: F- 8-106-24. 
New York 5-10-12—27. GoafleS: F- 
Fttzpatrfck. New York. Solo. 

Montre al 0 i 1 — 2 

Boston 2 11—4 

Fhst Parted: B- S ams o nov4 (Carter) (pp). 
ft B-Catter 3 (KMsttdt Sweeney) (pp). 
Second Period: B-Donate 13 (Hrinzta 
Ateon) ft M-StmnMrt X Thhd Period: B- 
Boorfloe 8 (ACson) ft M-, Banieieau 2 
(MansoaDainphousse)StiotsangoabM-V- 
1M1-21 B- ll-ftft-2ft GocSas; AftMOOg. 
B-Datae. 

TarapoBay 1 1 1—3 

Ottawa 0 g v— 1 

first Period: T-Uksnv 2 (Ysebaert 
HamflU (pp). Second Parted: T-Zanumer 10 
(Pwdnv Anderson) TMrd Parted: O- 
Ganftwr, 3 (ZhoHob. AreedssenJ ft T- 
Wfemw 6, (en). Shot* on goat T- 10-7-5-22. 
O- 7-9-7—23. Gartass T-Schwab. O 
Tugrwn, 

NtaJtnay 1 2 9-3 

Tonata 0 8 8-8 

fint Period: NJ.-G8meur 7 (Badger) 
Secort Parted: N-L- P edi n od 5 (Mdtoy) X 
Now Jersey: Hank 17 (Andnydwh. E to) 
TWrt Parted: Norte. Stetson goat NJ.-9-16- 

11- 36. T- 1 0-5-10— 2ft Mhos NJ.- 
Bnxkur.T-Potrin. 

ErtMatoa 1 1 2—4 

SL Louts 8 I ft-) 

First Period: E-MeGBM 7 (Wright) (pp). 
Second Parte* $^-TurcetM 4 (Twist 
PoasdKh) X E-Urtgren ft (Mbanav, 
Merchant) (pp). Third Ported: E-Mirenw ft 
(Mantaent WrigM) (ppj.ft E-Budiberger 
X (an). Shota on goat E- 3-13-11-27. li_- 

12- 15-10-37. Cartes: E-Joseph. SJ^Fahr. 

Cri et rte 4 0 1—5 

YteKBarer 1 0 1-3 

first Period: Mtorsberg 10 (GraBnsiv 
Sakio (po).XOCtntaK&4 (FMrttaaSoKe) 
(ppJ-X&Rnsbarg 11 OComensky, Gasarar) 
ft V-> MJHessiar 12 (Udyard. Bara) ft C- 
Yrte 5 (Krapp. Laen»o Second Period: 
None. ThH Parted: V-Munyn 4 (5addnnl) 
7,C-Kurt3 Rated (en). Shota on gnd: C-15. 
6-7—38. V- 145-12-31. Gorttx C- 
BBmgton. V-McLesralrhe. 


Wira hte jln g 2 8 0 6-2 

lAS Aogries 0 1 I 0-2 

first Petod: W-Gondnr 3 (Oates. 
Bandra) 1 W-Reride Z Stcoad Period: UL- 
Tsyptotov 9 (Manny, Lapentera) TMrd 
Petted: UL-McKwma 2 (RobWte B total) 
Overtime: None. Shota oa go* W- 9-14-11- 
2—36. LA^ ft-12-9-2-31. GaaBtft- W-KoWg. 
LX-Ftart 


NFL Standings 


EAST 

* LT Pd. PF PA 
9 S 0 443 327 272 
9 6 0 MO 355 277 

8 4 0 571 307 274 

6 8 0 X29 220 316 
2 12 0 .143 244 362 

cernuu. 

11 4 0 JXI 366 291 

9 5 0 .643 354 295 

7 7 0 .500 298 283 
5 B 1 393 291 310 

5 9 0 357 308 367 
, WEST 

11 3 0 .784 321 212 
11 3 0 J86 417 250 

6 8 0 429 305 332 
4 10 0 286 294 377 
4 10 D 386 256 358 


Miami 

New England 
N.Y. Jets 
Buffalo 
Indianapolis 

y-Patabugli 

-TOacSDfmBe 

Tennessee 

Bettjme ra 

Qrrinrd 

yXaraasQty 
yUenvar 
Seattle 
Oakland 
San Otago 


Manor 

UAcosn 

EAST 

Iff L T 

Pet. 

CB 

PF 

X-N.Y. Gfards 

9 5 1 

433 

287 

•TOSraiqHJJI 

7 7 1 

400 

292 

PhitodeipWo 

6 7 1 

464 

268 

Dados 

6 8 0 

429 

273 

Arizona 

3 11 0 
CENTRAL 

314 

244 

x-GreenBay 

11 3 0 

JB6 

360 

Tampa Boy 

9 5 0 

443 

268 

Mhi»*sata 

8 6 0 

477 

302 

DriraB 

7 7 0 

sn 

352 

Qduvyu 

311 0 

WEST 

314 

235 

»4on Frandsco 

12 2 0 

457 

332 

Carofina 

7 7 0 

400 

237 

Attonta 

6 8 0 

429 

274 

NewQriaaos 

5 9 0 

457 

197 

St Louts 4 10 a 

X-wun dhrfstan Ale 
y-cSnchedptayoffberitE 

riuvMrm 

386 

sain 

259 

1 


New York Grams 3a Washtegfon 10 
Ptttetangh 2ft New England 21, OT 


OI SHARJAH, HAS 

aswranuasiM 
llrtcc 239-7 to Stows 
Pokhbm 243-6. 

PntMan wonlir few wkfeeta. 

EHOurra in. west ones 
West Indies: 197-7 in 50onn 
England: 1984 la 455 avers 
Engtand won by tour wickets. 
smHDaiota EngteiddpaintaWtstln- 
dlesx Pakistan % India 0. 

AUATIUUJA YS. AUSTRALIA # A r 
aUHDAVBI SYDNEY 

AariraBa 'AY 20M Innings dosed 
Austin Ira 206*7 in 49 asets 
Anriirta won 19 Itomiricheh. 
MtaHMattiou 
TASKAKA *ft SOUTH ARBCA 
6 OAT, ta) DAY 

SWAT M OGUOWW, AlMlJlAUA 
TasmonkcSaStorRve 
SbuttiAiffcKT32ferffTC 


PahcyoOpen 

Wnrites tto i jn i u ra rt hs al s y biiaOmasoo 
yen (mrs ssftooq) Myo open m the 6308- 
ywrd (5,740 war ), pap-71' Dtakyo Cowtay 
Ckta cmna In Kiad^d. Japan: 
KnktdKuboyaJap. 6664-6845—263 
lCXuwabara,Jap. 6568-7061—264 
Bilan YMKUft. 66-666666-264 

Toni Suzuki, Jap. 71-66-61-69— 267 

Wrntonri Miya5& Jap. 6666-7067—268 


□arid tehft lift. 416669-70-268 

MJCusakobe. Jr®. 606667-69-269 

5-H(gmftJap. 6065-67-69-269 

KmN AAaUmb Jap. 6669-6966-270 

YhbChang-tlng. Tatar. 71656668- 2 70 

' Mew Zealand Open 

Laadtng se nse s s tta rS wdayisthrtrawnd 
of 5300JM new M e nd Open wt par-72, 
ftlTT-amar (B ja^iWrd ) Auektend Goff 
Ckdi Ittocflemora coma: 

Greg Tumac N. ZeaL 6969-7169— 278 

Lucas Parsons, Austri 7265-73-75-285 

Andrew Cohort Scot 71-707569-285 

Jam-Louts GuepftFr. 7667-7867-285 

Brett Partridge, AusM. 72-7169-74-286 

Frank Nabte N. ZeaL 72-71 -7270-286 

Craig Parry, AusM. 73-71-70-73-287 

Paid Gove, Australia 73-7668-70-287 

P. Tataurangt N.Zeol 71-73-7469—287 

P. Devon part N. ZeaL 74-7*69-71—288 

NeB Kerry, Aurtt 73-73-71-71—288 


World Cup 


- SIMMY KVALOTBOIE. FRANCE 
L Michael Von Gruadgea, Ssritzertand. 2 
mimrtefc 29^8 seconds (WX48- 1 :hUX» 

Z Stephan Ebcrtrata Austria, 23041 
n:1ft90-l:lft51) 

X Hans Kaaasft Anstria . 23057 (1:16.19 - 
1:1438) 

ft Urs Kaefcv S wifa wlmft 23080(1:16.15 - 
1:1449 

5. Steve Lactiaa Swttzertand.231 JJ3 (1:1351 
-3:15.12) 

ft Moron Buedwt UecMaRstriib 23U34 
(1:1633-1:1691) 

7. Christian Mayan Aestate 23136 (1:1634 - 
1:1532) 

B. Alberta Tamba Italy, 23lft5 0:16.18 - 
1:153)7) 

9. Past AttoiaSwfeertand 23134 (1:1680- 
1:1454) 

1ft Ian Recent Franca 23139 (1:16.15 - 
1:1534 

(HASTY SLALOM STSStPIWag. 7. Von 

Gmanieca 20ft Z Ebertote u 18ft 3. Her- 
morm Motor, Austria 16ft ft Loctwr, Ul; 
SKaettn and IQefil Aadra Asaradt Norway, 
10ft 7. Horn Knoaa I Oft ftOrdtatan Mayer. 
9ft 9 Thomas GranA Canodo and Mama 
BuedreL UetWen s l rin , 6ft 

OVERALL; !. Motor, -09 potots Z. Ebcr- 
hartBft 34ft- X AanodL 297; 4. Jaraf Strata, 
MKhto. OHs'S. Von Groertgea 274; 6. Aiv 
draas Sctdftorac Austria, 22b 7. LocJw 19ft 

8. Kn0us,175r9.KitsAonGhecfinaOtaM 16fc 

it). A«rBal 56, 


^omfederatiohs’ Cup 

FIRST ROUND 
OROUPA 

ttUMMY MnYAOH.SAua ARABIA 
Metaco 5. Sood Arabic 0 
AasfraGa ft Braa 0 

aTANTinwii, Brozfi 4 points Austrafa4i 
Meuco X Saud Arabia ft 

GROUP B 

SATOnwr M mVAOK, SAUDI ARABIA 
Ura^uy Z. UidtodArOhErtralesO 
South AMca x Cietfi Repuliac2 

Uraguoy 3 points Sotffl, 
Africa I; Czech RepubBc UUAE ft 

*™*AM ffl AB H BI U ’ mwiKBp 

RETURN LK 

R ^5 BMU «Ka l. GotaBrite ChBB, 6 
l^o won 56 on penotHes oiler 1-1 ag- 
gregate. 

^nTinniaa eiw ■ ■ 


RETURN LEO 

Knhima Adton ft juNa hBida 1 

Jabso iwata ansi ftj on aggragate. 

— t-rinmrinnsuip 

FOUL. 

Qmo X North Korea 0 

Cedfc 1, Hearts o 
Dunte 7 BB, *a Rongasa 
Hibernian 2. Aberdeen 2 
Mdlhawril i, Dundee lAOted g 
St Jatmstane i, KBmamodl 1 


> Atakmta Brngamo l,ACMBan2 
[ Bari ft Udinese 0 
Bologna 2, LacceO 
EmpaEft Sampdaria 1 
Inter Milan X AS Roma 0 
■ Lazto 1, Bresria 0 
I Napoli ft Parma 4 
Pfocanaa l, Jinwrius 1 

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ANAHEIM— Agreed to terms with RHP 
OmarOSvorw on 1-ywar contract 
Baltimore— A greed to terms with RHP 
Doug Dmbek raid OF Joe Carter on l-yoor 
contracta. Wohred RHP Brian Wiftain. 

BasToN-Agneed to terms wtth RHP Pedro 
MarttoB on 6 -yeor c on tract. 

DETnorr— Agreed to terms with RHP 
Frank CastBo and OF Blp Roberts on 1 .yen 
contract*. Designated RHP Fernando Her- 
nander and IB Bab Hamefln for assignment. 
Re-signed RfckAdato pitching coach; Larry 
Herndon, Mtllng caadu Peny Hlft thH base 
coach: Fred Kendal buflpen cooctv Lorry 
Pantstv bench ooadi and Jeny Whitb fbst 
base cooctv through 1998 season. Placed 
RHP Kevin Jarvis on wafvera. • 
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year contract wtfli art opflan yea r. 

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cortrad. Named Jesse BafieM Wring to- 
strudor. Agreedto terms wWilBDavtdSegul 
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year contract. 

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and INF Jeff Patrice for aasignmenL Traded 
C Sandy Martinez to CWcogo tor ptayerta be 
named taler. 

NATIONAL LfiAtare 

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waulBe tor OF Gerald WflOams. 

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Rodriguez on 1 -year contract 
MUJOAUKSC-Agreed to tonrai wltti C AAlee 
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Montreal— T raded OF Henry Rodriguez 
to Chicago far RHP Miguel Batbto. 

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WnLADKLPHMv-signed Teny Francona. 
raonogee fo i-yw contract extension 
ftraugh 1999. Named Lee Etta scout and 
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PAGE 19 



1 filing. ■ 

Ortrl,,* Cavs’ Streak 

» l| i f,f( ^ Halted at 10 

As Hornets 


If. 


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Sting, 85-84 

Til* Associated Press 

Glen Rice scored 32 points and David 
Wesley bit a decisive 3-pointer in the 
final two minutes as Charlotte ended 
Cleveland's 10-game w innin g streak 
with an 85-84 victory. 

The Hornets followed Friday's vic- 
tory over the Chicago Bulls by knocking 
off the NBA’s hottest team. They over- 
came a 25-9 deficit at the end of the first 

NBA Roun dup 


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quarter and kept the host Cavs from 
tying Atlanta and the Lakers fra- the 
longest winning streak in the league this 
season. Shawn Kemp led Cleveland 
with 25 points. 

Pacers 109, wizards 92 In Indiana- 
polis, Rik Smiis scored 25 points, in- 
cluding 10 in the final seven minutes, as 
the Pacers defeated Washington 

Smiis added 13 rebounds for the 
Pacers, who made 31 of 32 free- throw 
attempts. Chris Webber led the Wizards 
with 31 points. 

Pistons 93, Coities 7T Brian Williams 
scored 29 of his season-high 31 points in 
the second half as host Detroit won its 
fourth straight Williams also had 15 
rebounds. 

Knieks 95, 76ms 83 In New York, 
John Starks scored 28 points and took 
over down the stretch to help the Knieks 
avenge a recent defeat 

Starks scored 12 points in the final 
period and come up with a steal, a key 
loose ball and a fast-break dunk ro help 
New York get even with the Sixers for a 
1 5-poim loss at Philadelphia on Dec. 7. 

Nets 133, Nuggets 95 Keith Van Horn 
scored 21 of his season-high 30 points in 
the decisive first half as New Jersey 
routed visiting Denver. 

The Nets, who led by 24 at halftime, 
had their highest point total of the sea- 
son and snapped a three-game losing 
streak. The Nuggets lost their fourth in a 
row and remained winless in 12 road 
games this year. 

TSmbmwoluos 112 , Suns 101 Stephon 
Marbuxy scored six straight points in the 
final 2:16 as Minnesota beat visiting 
Phoenix. Danny Ainge, the Suns’ 
coach, was ejected after receiving his 
second technical foul from referee Ron 
Olesiak with 8:59 left. After the call, 
Ainge charged onto the floor and had to 
be restrained by players and assistant 
coaches before exiting calmly. 

Spurs 107, Magic 78 In San Antonio, 
Tim. Duncan scored, a season-high 32 
points and grabbed II rebounds as the 
Spurs ended Orlando's four-game win- 
ning streak. 

Bull* 97, Ruptor* 70 In Chicago, Ron 
Harper scored 20 points and die Bolls 
. snapped a two-game losing streak de- 


4 


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, • » X •V r - ' . 



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, i % 


Michael Jordan putting pressure on Marcus Cam by of the Raptors. 


spite getting only 11 points from Mi- 
chael Jordan. Toni Kukoc added 15 
points and Dennis Rodman grabbed 14 
rebounds for the Bulls. 

Heat 87, Buck* 84 Voshon Lenard 
made two free throws in the final 
seconds and Tim Hardaway scored 11 
of his 21 points m the final quarter as 
Miami beat host Milwaukee. 


Warriors 95, Kings 91 In Oakland, Joe 
Smith had 25 points and the Golden 
State Warriors screed the first seven 
points in overtime to beat the Sacra- 
mento Kings. 

After a 1-13 start, the Warriors are 3- 
3 since the suspension of their star 
guard, Latrell Sprewell, for assaulting 
die team's coach, PJ. Carles imo. 


Michigan Upsets No. 1 Duke 


The Associated Press 

Robert Traylor scored 24 points 
and Louis Bullock added 23 as 
Michigan overcame a 1 7-point deficit 
to defeat No. 1 Duke, 81-73. 

Duke (9-1 ) opened the second half 
Saturday with 3-pointers by Mike 
Chappell and Trajan Langdoo for a 
52-35 lead. But the Blue Devils soon 

Coutsi Baskitmu 

endured a 4:39 stretch without a field 
goal, and scored just two baskets over 
me final 7:46, the last with less than a 
second to play. Bullock scored 17 
points in die second half and Traylor 
bad 15 over die final 20 minutes for 
Michigan (6-2). 

No. 2 North Carotin* 50, No. 22 

prinoaton42TheTar Heels, idle for a 


playing ti 
game since Nov. 22, fell behind 1 1-4 
and trailed the Tigers (7-1 ) for all but 
minutes of the first half. • 

The second half wasn 't much better 
for the Tar Heels until Vince Carter's 
follow shot with 7:16 left gave North 
Carolina the lead for good at 37-35. 

No. 4 Kentucky 85, No. 24 Georgia 
ifcch 71 Heshimu Evans scored the 
first six points of a 16-5 ran that helped 
Kentucky erase an 1 1-point deficit and 
go on to beat Georgia Tech. 

No. 7 Xavier 88, Cincinnati 68 In 
Cincinnati, guards Lenny Brown and 
Gary Lumpkin each scored 23 points 
and wore down a wilting defense as 
Xavier (6-1) finished with its most 
lopsided victory over Cincinnati in 4 1 
years. The Musketeers have won the 
last two games between the rivals. 


■nnn® »• Gilmour Enjoys His Return to Toronto 


*.» •* *■ ■' t 


•-t— - 


MOO* 


The Associated Press . 

Doug Gilmour scored on his first shift 
in Maple Leaf Gardens since being 
traded from Toronto to New Jersey in 
■February, and Martin Brodeur stopped 
all 25 shots he faced as the Devils won, 
3-0. to extend their winning screak to 
five games. 

Denis Pederson and Bobby Holik ad- 
ded goals for the Eastern Conference 
leaders Saturday night, who improved 
their record to 22-9-0. Brodeur, in post- 
ing his fourth shuiout of the season, 
lowered his goals-against average to 
1.63. . . 

Gilmour. who was honored by the 
Leafs in a pregame ceremony, scored 
his seventh goal of the season 80 
seconds after the opening faceoff: 

Brains 4, Canadians 2 In Boston, An- 
son Carter set up Sergei Samsonov’s 
first-period power-pJay goal and also 
scored one as the Bruins beat Mon- 
treal. 


.Ted Donato and Ray Bourque added 
the other Boston goals as the streaking 
Bruins won their fourth straight. 

Mandora 4, Panthers 1 Tommy Salo 
stopped 23 shots and Ken Belanger 
broke a tie with his first NHL goal as 
host New York beat Florida. Claude 

NHl Rounpup 

Lapointe, Todd Bertuzzi and Bryan 
Smolinski also scored for the Islanders, 
who broke a two-game losing streak. 

Lig ht ning 3, Senators 1 Tampa Bay 
ended a J 6-game road winless streak by 
beating Ottawa. 

Igor Ulanov, Rob Zamunez and Jason 
Wiemer screed for the Lightning, who 
last won away from home in Chicago on 
Oct 9. The triumph was Corey 
Schwab's first of the season as Tampa 
Bay’s goalie. 

OHers 4, BiHMi Boris Mironov had a 

goal and an assist and Edmonton 'vic- 


timized the NHL’s No. 2 penalty-killing 
unit by scoring three goals on the power 
play in St Louis. 

Mironov assisted on a second- period 
goal, a breakaway by Mats Lindgren 
that snapped a 1-1 tie. He slapped in the 
rebound of his own shot at 3:02 of the 
second period fora two-goal lead. 

AvaUmdwi 5, Canucks z Peter Fors- 
berg scored twice and assisted on an- 
other goal as Colorado ended a three- 
game winless streak with a victory over 
host Vancouver. 

Forsberg, the NHL’s scoring leader 
with 11 goals and 32 assists, keyed a 
four-goal outburst by the Avalanche in 
the first period in handing Vancouver its 
fifth straight loss. 

Capitals 2 , Kings 2 Steve McKenna 
scored with 29 seconds left in regulation 
time, helping Los Angeles tie visiting 
Washington. Sergei Gonchar and Joe 
Reekie scored first-period goals for the 
Capitals. 


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From 7th Stringer to 7th Heaven 

On Eve of Tribute, Pundits Recall Career of Joe Montana 


By Lowell Cohnn 

Wr*i' York Times Service 


_ 

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S AN FRANCISCO — The San 
Francisco 49ers on Monday night 
will honor one of the greatest 
quarterbacks who ever lived. . 

Joe Montana, who orchestrated' 31 
fourth -quarter comebacks in the Na- 
tional Football League, will see his No. 
16 retired at halftime of the 49ers’ game 
against the Denver Broncos. 

In the heat of a big game, nothing 
seemed to bother Montana. No situation 
seemed too large or insurmountable. 
Indeed, his gift as a quarterback was not 
so much his raw athletic ability, but his 
unflappable poise. 

A former 49ers’ guard, Randy Cross, 
once said of him: “He's not so far into 
the game that he loses perspective. He's 
rather detached. It's like he's able to do 
it in the third person. *’ 

Montana always had the ability to 
step back and somehow watch himself 
play. Ir*s just that, until he met Bill 
Walsh, his coach in San Francisco, few 
could identity that quality, much less 
appreciate it. In the 1 979 draft, Montana 
was taken in the third round. He was the 
fourth quarterback selected, chosen be- 
hind Jack Thompson, Phil Simms and 
Steve Fuller. 

Montana, 41. who retired after the 
1994 season, grew up in Monongahela, 
Pennsylvania. He was set to go to North 
Carolina State University as a basketball 
player until Notre Dame came through 
with a football scholarship. He was a 
seventh-string freshman quarterback in 
a field of seven. By the time he was a 
sophomore, in 1976, he was second on 
the varsity. But he chipped a bone in his 
finger and separated his shoulder, and 
bad to sit our the entire season. 

In 1977. he had sunk to third string, a 
skinny nobody without a great arm. 
When Rusty Lisch, the starter, was suf- 
fering a bad day in the third game of the 
year, against Purdue, Coach Dan Devine 
brought in Gary Forystek. who 
promptly suffered a fractured clavicle. 
Montana assumed he was next Sorry, 
Joe. To his amazement, Montana saw 
Lisch again making his way to the 
huddle. Bat Lisch still couldn't move 
die team. 

Enter Montana. Finally. 

One minute remained in the third 
quarter, with Purdue leading, 24- 10. So 
what did Montana do? He completed 9 
of 14 passes for 154 yards and 21 points. 
The Irish won, 3 2 -24. Under Montana's 
leadership the rest of the season — yes, 
Devine got the message — Notre Dame 
wound up No. 1 in the final polls. 

Montana’s great collegiate moment 
came in die 1979 Cotton Bowl against 


the University of Houston . It was the last 
college game he ever played, and it was 
frigid in Dallas with gusting winds. 
Montana was cut and bleeding from the 
rock salt that had been thrown on the 
field to melt the ice that had accumu- 
lated, After each offensive series, he ran 
to the sideline and huddled near the 
heaters. 

When he went to the locker room at 
halftime, he got chills and couldn't stop 
shaking. The doctor took his temper- 
ature and found that it had plunged by 
more than 2 degrees Fahrenheit. 
Montana was covered with blankets and 
made to drink chicken soup until his 
temperature returned to normal. By that 
time, it was late in the third quarter with 
Houston ahead. 34-12. Montana took 
the Irish to a 35-34 victory, completing 
his last touchdown pass with no time 
remaining. 

In hindsight, that Conon Bowl was a 
typical all-in-a-day's-work Montana 
situation. But when the draft took place, 
few seemed to remember that game. 

Looking back on that draft. George 
Young, still the New York Giants' gen- 
eral manager, said: “The best thing that 
I remember about Montana was the Cot- 
ton Bowl. It was his signature game. 

“I don't think the personnel com- 
munity was too bright, because if you go 
back and look at that game, he did all the 
great things that he exhibited in his 
career in the National Football League. 
He got hurt, he came back, he made all 
the big plays and he brought his team 
back from behind and won. 

“A lot of people worried about him 
because he didn't have big legs and a big 
arm. All he did was move tiie ball and 
get touchdowns. He is a guy who was 
taken in the third round and said: 'I don’t 
care. They are all wrong. 1 am as good as 
any first-rounder.' " 

I N 1979. pro scouts accused Montana 
of having a poor arm and a tod at- 
titude. But after working oat Montana 
in Los Angeles two days before the draft, 
Walsh decided to take a chance on him. 

“I can't find any negatives about Joe 
Montana’s arm,” Walsh said early in 
the quarterback's career. “Maybe the 
so-called experts can. People who say 
it's only an average ami are mistaken. 
Because his delivery is not a flick of the 
wrist like Terry Bradshaw's, they think 
it’s not strong. He throws on the run 
while avoiding a pass rush, and he does 
not have to be totally set. He is not a 
moving platform like some others who 
are mechanical and can only do well 
when everything is just right Joe per- 
forms just as well under stress.” 

According to Walsh, one of 
Montana's great assets was his ability to 


wait. Montana refused to throw a 
until precisely the right moment. Un- 
fortunately, this patience was, at first, 
perceived as a flaw. 

The 49ers intentionally brought 
Montana along slowly. In 1979, his 
rookie year, he threw only 23 passes. 

He started the 1980 season behind 
Steve DeBerg, who repea redly threw 
interceptions when pressured. Begin- 
ning in mid-October, Montana started 
three games in a row. Bui his next start 
did not come until four weeks later. 

4 *J was trying ro ser die stage,’ ’ Walsh 
said, “it wasn't for me to go public with 
my thoughts. I was preparing Joe to be 
our starting quarterback, so I put him in 
certain situations or against certain 
teams to give him a taste of success. 
Then I’d pull him back." 

Before the 1 98 1 season, Walsh traded 
DeBerg to Denver and gave Montana 
the starting job. DeBerg was a dom- 
inating leader and. with him there, 
Montana felt overshadowed. 

“Steve was always telling people 
how to run their routes, " Montana said. 
“It was tough for me to do that when he 
was around, because he always jumped 
in first." 

Left on his own, Montana developed 
into a fierce leader. This came as 
something of a surprise to his team- 
mates. There was the time in 198 1 when 
his wide receivers, Dwight Clark and 
Freddie Solomon, were running long 
patterns down the field, with Clark the 
primary target. 

Suddenly. Solomon became open and 
yelled. "Joel Joel” Montana dumped 
off the ball to a third receiver, then waited 
for Solomon to get back to the huddle. 
"Don’t ever yell my name again, and I'll 
tell you why "later,” he snapped. 

Montana was worked up because 
when someone screams a quarterback's 
name, he flinches: Is he going ro be 
sacked? Is he about to throw an in- 
terception? 

With journalists. Montana was usu- 
ally unable to say no to an interview, 
although he sometimes wanted to. 

"I don’t know if it’s from respecting 
people too much.” he explained once, 
“but sometimes I find myself overly 
nice — even to people who are rude. I 
keep things inside I should say. I wish I 
could say them, and I keep telling my- 
self that next time, I will. But I never 
do.” 

"Which is the real Joe?" be was 
asked. "Is he the quiet man off the field, 
or the brave quarterback?" 

"The quiet one feels like the real 
me," Montana said, 

"Who is the man on die field, 
then?" 

"He’s a release." Montana said. 


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PAGE 20 


licralb i a^&Sribunc 

Sports 


R 


MONDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1997 


World Roundup 



Two Danish handball fans 
stand- mg for a minute's silence 
Sunday in Berlin for two com- 
patriots killed the day before. 

2 Danish Fans 
Are Killed at Game 

handball Two Danish men 
were stabbed to death in a fight with 
a drunken German fan during the 
women's world handball champi- 
onships in Berlin on Saturday, the 
Germanpolice said. 

The incident happened while 
Denmark was beating Russia, 32- 
22, in a semi-final match. The po- 
lice said an argument broke out 
involving a 48-year-old German 
who was sitting in the Danish fans’ 
enclosure at Berlin’s Max-Schmel- 
ingstadium. 

The victims were aged 34 and 39. 
One died instantly and the other 
died later at a hospital 

The police could not say im- 
mediately what the argument had 
been about 

The authorities said they had de- 
tained the German, a Berlin res- 
ident who had been drinking. 

Tournament organizers decided 
to play the final as scheduled on 
Sunday. Denmark beat Norway 33- 
20 in the final. (AP, Reuters ) 

Pakistan Beats India 

cricket Saeed Anwar scored 
104 as Pakistan beat India by four 
wickets Sunday in a one-day match 
in die Champions Trophy in Shar- 
jah. 

India batted first and made 239 
for seven in its SO overs. Saniav 
Ganguly was top scorer with 90. 

On Saturday, Dougie Brown, an 
England fast bowler, dismissed 
Brian Lara for naught, and Graham 
Thorpe hit a timely 57 as England 
beat west Indies by four wickets in 
the Champions’ Trophy. 

England made 198 for six wick- 
ets off 453 overs after restricting 
West Indies to 197 for seven in its 
50 overs. Carl Hooper held the 
West Indies innings together with 
100 not opt. (Reuters ) 

Orioles Acquire Carter 

baseball In a hastily arranged 
deal, Joe Carter, a five-time All- 
Star. and die Baltimore Orioles 
agreed Friday to a S3.3 million, 
one-year contract. 

Carter, who spent the last seven 
years with the Blue Jays, said his 
agent was contacted Thun day by 
Pat Gillick, the Orioles general 
manager. Gillick was Toronto's 
GM when the Blue Jays acquired 
Carter, a first baseman-outfielder, 
from San Diego. 

“I wanted to go out with a bang. 
This is a way to go OQt with a 
bang,” Carter said. 

Carter, who will mm 38 in 
March, hinted that this season, his 
ISth, might be his last. 

He said Minnesota and Anaheim 
also expressed interest in signing 
him. 

The Orioles, who lost in the 
American League championship 
series die last two years, intend to 
use Carter as a designated hitter, 
left fielder and right fielder. He also 
hopes to get in a game or two at first 
base on days when Rafael Palmeiro 
needs a break. (AP) 



Michigan Cornerback Is First Primarily Defensive Player to Win Trophy 


By Josh Barr 

WeaMtiigton Past Service 


Charles Woodson, a cornerback ax the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, became die first player whose 
primary position was on defense to win the Heis- 
man Trophy, college football's most prestigious 
individual honor. 

Woodson, a two-time All-America cornerback, 
also retained punts and occasionally played wide 
receiver for me top-ranked Wolverines. He led 
Michigan to an 1 1-0 record and a berth in the Rose 
Bowl against Washington State on Jan. 1 . A victory 
will probably give the Wolverines their first na- 
tional championship since 1948. 

Woodson received 1,815 points in the balloting 
by media and former Heisman winners, earning 
433 of the 921 first-place votes. Peyton Manning, 
the University of Tennessee’s senior quarterback 
who was considered by many the favorite to win 
the award, finished second with 1,543 points and 
281 firstrplace votes. 

Ryan Leaf, die Washington State quarterback, 
and Randy Moss, a wide receiver at Marshall 
University, were the other two finalists for the 
trophy, finishing third and four th . 


In a voting process that sometimes turns into a 
regional competition, Woodson was the leading 
vote-getter in five of six geographic areas. Only in 
the South did Manning receive more votes than 
Woodson. 

*' T used to always tell people when I was younger 
dial 1 was going to win me Heisman," said Wood- 
son, the third Wolverine to win the award following 
Tom Hannon in 1940 and Desmond Howard in 
1991. ’‘This is the biggest day of my life." 

Woodson finished the regular season wito 43 
tackles and seven Interceptions, 11 receptions for 
231 yards and two touchdowns. He averaged 8.6 
yards per punt return. He also had one rushing 
touchdown. 

He turned in his best performance of the season in 
the Wolverines’ biggest game. With Michigan 
needing a victory over then-No. 4 Ohio State in its 
regular season finale on Nov. 22 to secure a berth in 
die Rose Bowl, Woodson had an interception, re- 
turned a punt 78 yards for a touchdown 1 and had a 
37-yard reception to set up Michigan's only of- 
fensive touchdown of the game. 

Manning bad been favorite to win the award 
since last spring, when he decided to buck the trend 
and return to Tennessee for his senior year instead 


of turning pro, as many top collegiate players do 
before graduating. * - ■; ' 

Even if Manning was not the best college player, 

some had argued (hat he should win foe awSrd 
based on what be had done for college football He 
earned his undergraduate degree in three years and 
is a fan favorite. On one occasion, be bought SlOO 
worth of pizza for fens waiting to buy tickets for a 
gamp. On another, he 'directed foe school band 
following a victory. 

Manning also performed well on the field, 
passing for 3,819 yards and 36 touchdowns, lead- 
ing the Volunteers (11-1) to their first Southeastern 
Conference championship since 1990. Tennessee 
will play Nebraska in foe Orange Bowl on Jan. 2. 

Leaf, a junior, has been likened to a famous 
former Washington State quarterback. Drew Bled- 
soe, who is now with the New England Patriots. 
Leaf led the Cougars (10-1) to foeir first Rose Bowl 
bid since foe 1930 season. 

Moss, a sophomore, sec an NCAA Division I 
record with 25tx>adidowncatdies this season. Last 
week he won the Biletnikoff Award, given to the' 
nation’s top receiver. He has caught at least one 
touchdown pass in all 27 college games he . has 
played. ’ 



Adam NadcUThr Araociifcil tea 

Charles Woodson reacting to his selection in 
New York as the Heisman Trophy whiner. 



Jets Rocket Over Buccaneers, 31-0 

Colts Drub the Dolphins ; Cowboys Lose Again and Will Miss Playoffs 


Mm...,. 

Chris Calloway of the Giants diving for a pass that fell incomplete. 


The Associated Press 

Who needs an offense when you're 
busy naming interceptions and kickoffs 
into the aid zone? 

Otis Smith returned interceptions 45 
aqd 51 yards for touchdowns <m Sun- 
day, leading the New York Jets past the 
Tampa Bay Buccaneers, 31-0. 

Lean Johnson added a 101 -yard kick- 
off return to open foe second half as foe 
host Jets (9-6) stay ed alive in the playoff 
race with a stunning victory one week 
after their worst performance of the 
season, a 22-14 loss to Indianapolis. 

With those same Colts shocking 
Miami on Sunday, foe Jets can make die 
playoffe with a victory at Detroit in their 
regular-season finale. TheBucs (9-6) can 
clinch a playoff berth with a win at home 
□ext week against the Bern or a loss by 
Carolina in one of its two final games. ■ 

The Bugs looked like anything but foe 
team that led Pro Bowl voting with 
seven selections. They couldn’t pen- 
etrate New York’s makeshift offensive 
line and generated only 111 yards on 
offense, 21 passing. 

Colts 41, Doipfara o Jim Harbasgh 
for 255 yards and a career-best 
touchdowns, three of them to tight 
end. Ken Dtigex, as foe Indianapolis 
Colts romped over the Miami -Dol- 
phins. 

Miami (9-6) can still clinch the AFC 
East Division title with a victory next 
week over New England, but this game 
belonged to Indianapolis (3-12) from 
foe beginning. 

The host Colts scored on every first- 
half possession, sacked Dan Marino 
twice and forced- him to fumble twice 
deep in Miami territory. Both turnovers 
led to Indianapolis scores. 

Marino managed only 71 yards 
passing, the second-worst game of his 


15-year NFL career, and the shutout was 
foe Dolphins’ first since a 27-0 loss at 
Buffalo in 1987; a span of 162 games. 

ffarhsmg h, who two weeks ago said 
he accepted responsibility for his part in 
the Colls’ dismal season, was 15-ior-24 
for 173 yards in a 22-14 victory over tire 
Jets last week. 

Against foe Dolphins, he was even 
.better, going 16-for-20 for 218 yards in 


ini’. 


the first half and 20-for-26 for the game. 
But he had some help from an inef- 
fective Miami defense that repeatedly 
left his receivers open. 

Bu ga h 31, Cowboy* 24 The Dallas 
Cowboys were efiminated from playoff 
contention with a game that mirrored 
their season; a good start, a quick fade 
and a comeback that wasn’t nearly good 
enough. 

Boomer Esiason threw two touch- 
down passes as the Cincinnati Bengals 
overcame a Dallas-dominated first 
quarter by scoring 31 consecutive points 
and holding on for a 31-24 victory. 

Dallas- (6-9) let a 10-point first- 
quarter lead slip away. With it went the 
Cowboys’ already minuscule chance of 
making foe playoffs for a seventh con- 
secutive season. 

The Cowboys have lost foeir last four 
games, foear longest skid once 1989, 
when quarterback Troy Aikman was a. 
rookie and the team went 1-15. 

Esiason threw touchdown passes of 
48 and 32 yqrds to mark the comeback 
and complied 13 or 25 passes overall 
few 269 yards. 

Corey Dillon, who set a rookie record 
by rushing frw 246 yards in the Bengals’ 
last game, picked up 127 yards on 26 
carries. 


20, BID* 14 Mark Brunell 
threw for 317 yards and ran for a 13- 
yard touchdown as Jacksonville 
clinched a postseason spot with a vie- 
tray over foe Buffalo Bills. 

The visiting' Jaguars had a 17-3 lead 
before Buffalo cut foe margin to 17-14 
in the fourth quarter. Backup Alex Van 
Pelt led the Bills on an 80-yard drive that 
ended in Anrowain Smith’s 1-yard 
touchdown with 8:03 remaining and a 2- 
point conversion pass to Eric Moulds. 

Natrona Means gained 74 yards rush- 
ing and scored another touchdown, and 
Hollis also had a 19-yard field goal for 
foe Jaguars (10-5). Brunell completed 
24 of 32 passes and matched his season- 
best in yardage. 

Falcon* 20, Bastes 17 Atlanta re- 
mained one of foe league’s hottest teams 
over the second half of the season, beat- 
ing the Philadelphia Eagles on Morten 
Andersen's 33-yard field goal as time 
ran out Atlanta needed Carolina to lose 
to Green Bay in a game later Sunday to 
go into final week of the season still in 
playoff contention. At foe very least, the 
Falcons have a chance to become foe . 
only team other than the 1984 Packers to 
finish with a .500 record after starting 
out foe season at 1-7. 

In another game played on Sunday, 
the Detroit Lions beat the Minnesota 
Vikings, 14-13. 

In games played Saturday, The New 
York Tunes reported : 

QiM i U 3Q, nw i iilrin iioThe New York 
Giants converted five turnovers into 20 
as they clinched their first NFC 
tide since 1990 with a victory over 
the Washington Redskins. 

Pittsburgh 24, Patriots 21 Norm John- 
son’s 31-yard field goal in Overtime 
lifted visiting Pittsburgh to an unlikely 
victory over New England. 


Maier Is Disqualified 
In Giant Slalom Victory 


The Associated Press 

VAL DTSERE, France — Hermann 
Maier stopped too soon after an ap- 
parent victory Sunday and was disqual- 
ified in the men's World Cup pant 
slalom. Michael Von Gruemgen of 
Switzerland was awarded the victory. 

Maier. the newest star of the ski cir- 
cuit. had the best time of the two runs, 2 
minutes 29.08 seconds, better than Von 
Gruenigen’s 2:29.48. 

But Maier, an Austrian, stopped too 
soon after the finish to take off his skis 
and display them, short of a tine set by 
the International Ski Federation to avoid 
skiers making too much of a show of the 
sponsor's skis. 

' “Asamembtf of toe jury, Idon’t tike 
to disqualify someone who has per- 
formed on such a winning level,’’ said 
Guenther Hujara, a World Cop referee. 


“But we have to stick to the rules. If a 
racer steps out of his skis before foe red 
line, he most be disqualified." 

Atone time it was up to 90 meters past 
foe finish line. But recently it has been an 
arbitrary decision by the organizers de- 
pending on foe size of foe finish area. 

After Maier finished, the Swiss team 
immediately lodged an appeal against 
Maicr's action and skti federation of- 
ficials disqualified him about half an 
hour after the race. • 

“We checked foe videos of it and it 
was obvious it was a mistake," Hujara 
said. 

It was foe first time that a World Cup 
winner had his victory taken away be- 
cause of the rule. 

“I am only in my second year in the. 
World Cap," Maier said. “Maybe 
someone has used that to stop me." 



Australian Defense Stops 
Brazil- s Relentless Assault 


A Jrtgn d m DdJ, VafcAgcox ftspee-heor 

Hermann Maier showing off his 
ski after the finish in Vai d’lsere- 


Reuters 

RIYADH — Brazil attacked and at- 
tacked against Australia on Sundry, but 
could not score. The game, in Group A 
of the FIFA Confederation Cup, fin- 
ished in a 0-0 draw. 

Id the evening’s opening mat c h 
Mexico scored four second-half goals as 

Inter Doesn’t Miss Ronaldo. Page 18. 

it th r ashed Saudi Arabia, the host, 5-0. 
Francisco Paleztcia and Cuauhtemoc 
Blanco each scored twice. BraulioLuna 
scored the other goaL The victory gave 
Mexico a chance of finishing in the. top 
two of group A and reaching foe semi- 
finals. 

Mexico, which lost 3-1 to Australia 
on Friday, will have to beat Brazil in its 


final game unless Australia loses to to 
Saudis. 

The home fens turned agains t tfa 
demoralized Saudi team in tnesecon 
half and cheered as Blanco scored to 
fifth goal. 

On Saturday, two teenage striker 
Nicolas Olivers and , Antonio Pachea 
scored to give a young Uru| 
a 24) victory over the 
Emirates in Group B. 

Olivers scored com a rebound to gv% 
Uruguay the lead just before halftime 
Pacheco, a substitute, added a secoc 
in injury time for toe Uruguayans, wi 
have selected several under-20 playei 
following a disappointing World Ci 
qualifying campaign. 

South Africa came from two goa 
down to draw, 2-2, with the Czech R< 
public in the day’s second match. 



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