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PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


The World’s Daily Newspaper 


** 


London, Tuesday, December 31, 199 6- Wednesday, January 1, 1997 


No. 35,407 




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Bomb Derails 
Express Train 
In East India 

250 May Be Dead; 
Separatists Suspected 

OmidedbfOrSwffFmmDiipm&a 

NEW DELHI — Railroad officials said 
Monday that 250 people may have died when 
a bomb t o re through an express train carrying 
at least 1,200 passengers in eastern India. 

The blastripped apart three cats of the New 
Defln-boand Brahmaputra Express in Assam 
state aod derailed many other carriages, news 
agencies and state officials reported. Some 
local officials put the death ton as low as 
“several dozen,” but Reuters quoted others 
as saying that up to 300 had died. 

No one has claimed responsibility for the 
attack in Kokrajhar, but the area near die 
Bangladesh border is rife with insurgents 
seeking independence from India. Five of 
the seven northeastern stales have separatist 
insurgencies and rebels often cany out at- 
tacks to dramatize their campaigns. 

Tapan Das, a state official m Assam’s 
capital, Gauhati, said rescue efforts were 
hampered because separatist rebels New up 
a bridge Monday that links Gauhati with the 
area where the blast occurred.- “We don’t 
know if the incidents are related," be said. 

In Assam state, two rebel groups are active. 
A separatist group known by its acronym, 
ULFA, has teen fighting far independence 
since 1979, accusing New Delhi of eco-. 
nomfcahy exploiting the state. TheBodo tribe 
also has been stmggfing fcr a separate home- 
land for 20 years. - {AP, Reuters) 



Seoul Returns Remains 
Of Northern Infiltrators 

Pyongyang Agrees to Join in Talks 


By Nicholas D. Kristof 

■Vm York Times Service 


Pad Batff.Kcstcn 


Members of a United Nations honor guard at Pamnunjom picking op the cremated remains 
of North Korean infiltrators killed after their submarine was grounded in the South. 


SEOUL — In another sign of improving re- 
lations on the Korean Peninsula, die Seoul gov- 
ernment on Monday handed over to North Korea 
the remains of 24 infiltrators who were killed 
after they slipped ashore from a North Korean 
submarine in September. 

The return of the remains marked a quick 
reward to North Korea for its landmark statement 
of *‘deep regret" a day earlier for having sent the 
submarine into South Korean waters. Hie state- 
ment. by far the most contrite that North Korea 
has ever issued, is leading to a series of moves in 
the coming weeks to ease tensions. 

Clinton administration officials said in Wash- 
ington that the government in Pyongyang agreed 


for the first time to enter talks with South Korea 
and the United States, the details of which are 
expected to be announced within a few days. 

The purpose of that briefing, as officials called 
it, would be to draw the North Koreans into 
broader talks with South Korea, as well as China 

Unrest in South Korea may be the growing 
pains of a democratic culture. Page 4. 

and the United States, for a formal peace agree- 
ment to replace the armistice that ended the 
Korean War in 1953. 

North Korea also agreed to resume storing 
spent nuclear fuel rods in keeping with an agree- 

See KOREA, Page 4 


At Home and Abroad, World Trade Benefits Asians 

Nike’s Story Shows Progress of Nations The New British Empire Is South Korea’s 


By/ 

anaS 


andra Sugawara 

Washington Post Service 


JJ* 


Britons Bristle 
At Voting Dps 
FromKinkel 


Lounging in a Japanese- style conference 
room overlooking the leafy campus of Nike 
Inc.’s headquarters in Beaverton, Oregon, Philip 
Knight does not look old enough to be one of die 
first entrepreneurs to discover the profits to be 
made from manufacturing consumer goods far 
Americans in low-wage foreign countries. Clad 
in bine jeans, a T-shirt and Air Max running 
shoes — no socks — Nike’s chairman finds it 
difficult to explain what Jed him to order the first 
1,000 pairs of track shoes from a Japanese 
company after he first visited Japan in 1963. 

As a graduate student at the Stanford school of 
business, Knight had written a paper about die 
potential for manufacturing low-cost running 


investors have helped raise wages and living 
standards, even as they have prompted com- 
plaints about worker exploitation and environ- 
mental degradation. 

In the last decade, as developing countries 
opened their economies to trade and investment, 
hundreds of companies have followed Nike’s 
path, and foreign investment by private compa- 
nies has become die most powerful, most sought 
after engine of growth in die world. 

Once pariahs in much of the Third World, 

See TRADE, Page 3 


By Fred Barbash 

Washington Post Service 


SUNDERLAND, England — Ask a middle- 
aged working man in the north of England what 
he and his friends contemplated doing when they 
left school 20 years ago and you get only two 
answers: They would work in the shipyards or 
the coal pits, for companies with names like 
Swan Hunter. British Shipbuilders, Cammed 
Laird and British Coal. 

Ask a secondary-school graduate now where 
he or she is likely to wind up working and you 


Second of a series 


".hi A; 


. ByEricIpsen 

International Herald Tribune 




r-i" 


LONDON — In a rare show of unity. British 
politicians of all stripes reacted angrily Monday 
to a call from Hans Kinkel for Britons to back 
closer ties to Europe. 

The German foreign minister had urged Bri- 
tons to seize the opportunity of the general 
election that must take place by May to vote for 
candidates favoring closer ties to Europe. 

“The country must reach a clear decision on 
its Eujropeaapoiicy,’ ’ said Mr. Kinkel in his New 
Year’s message, made public Sunday night, in 
reference to a British election he termed one of 
"Europe’s fateful decisions" for the coming 
year. 

In Germany, observers noted that Mr. 
Kink el’s appeal to British voters contrasted 
starkly with signs that voters in his own country 
increasingly oppose some aspects of closer uni- 
on. Polls for instance, show that the majority of 
German voters fear that the planned high-water 
mark, of closer integration — Europe’s single 
currency planned in two years’ time — will only 
succeed in replacing a strong and stable 
Deutsche mark with a weak and untried euro. 

In Britain, the unusually strong plea by a 
senior European .official directly to the, v oters o f 
another country was greeted with widespread 
condemnation. 

The Liberal Democrats* leader, Paddy Ash- 
down, called it “unhelpful and almost certainly 

unwise. 1 ' ... . 

He also insisted that “die British people arc 
perfectly capable of making up their own 

minds.” . : 

; to cool the con- 


— — ahoesin a Japan diar was then relatively poor. He- : 

— sold the shoes he ordered out of the trunk of his 
car, and the rest of the story of this S6-5 billion 

— company is legend. 

But did Mr. Knight. 58. have any idea that he 

would help launch a wave of investment that 
would enneb not only his fledgling company, 
but the poor nations that produced its shoes? 

"It was exactly unplanned," he says now. 

No company symbolizes the mobilization of 
American companies overseas more than Nike. 
Its 30-year history in Asia is as close as any one 
company's story can be to the history of glob- 
alization. to the spread of dollars — - and marks 
and yen — into die poor comers of the earth. 

From Japan through South Korea and Taiwan 
and then into China, Indonesia and Vietnam, h is 
a story of restless and ruthless capital, con- 
tinually moving from country to country in 
search of new markets and untapped low-wage 
labor. Almost everywhere they landed, the Nike 



Mi d a rl Wiflmmonfn*' Wafanpm M 

Workers leaving the export processing zone in Cavite, Philippines, at the end of their 
sfrift New jobs at foreign -owned factories have lifted many Asians out of poverty. 


will hear very different-sounding names: 
companies called Samsung. Daewoo. LG Elec- 
tronics, Cbunghwa Picture Tubes, Woo One, 
Tatung or maybe Poong Jeon or Sung Kwang. 

It is a sign of one of the most dramatic changes 
in modern industrial history: the growing de- 
pendence of Britain, a rich country that once 
ruled a great empire, on South Korea and 
Taiwan, once poor, developing countries, to 
solve the chronic problems of unemployment 
left behind when the coal mines and the 
shipyards closed. 

Those British industries were vanquished by 
foreign competition beginning in the 1 960s and 
their decline continued as Britain in the 1980s 
began deregulating and privatizing its economy 
and integrating with world markets. 

The new jobs, in turn, were created by another 
phenomenon of globalization: the rapid growth 
of developing countries in Asia into industrial 
powers thai not only can put factories in the 
developed world out of business, but also are rich 
enough to make their own foreign investments. 

Since the late 1980s, South Korean and 
Taiwanese companies have sought depressed 
regions of Britain where they could do what 
multinational companies are doing in devel- 
oping countries around the world. They built 
factories to assemble consumer products for the 
local market and for export, tapping an ample 
supply of educated, unemployed workers. Their 
multibill ion-dollar investment now stretches 
west to Wales, north to Scotland and to the 
region around Newcastle in northeast England. 

Encouraged by an assortment of quasi -gov- 
ernmental regional industrial development agen- 
cies, which compete with each other for foreign- 
owned factories, the trend is proving mutually 
rewarding — the Korean and Taiwanese busi- 
nesses get lucrative incentives, low-cost labor 
and a European base for their expanding mar- 

See EMPIRE, Page 5 


Blunt Message Sets Scene for Singapore’s Election 


By Mich*** Richardson 

■ twtoniJtkmal Herald Tribune 


The apartments in the high-rise blocks of Bulat 
Batok are being upgraded and enlarged. The build- 
ing facades, landscaping, walkways and other 
amenities for residents are also being improved. 

The program is being paid for by money from a 
huge budget surplus that the governing party has 
accumulated through prudent economic manage- 
ment since it came to power in 1959. 

But there is a catch that concerns many of Singa- 


SINGAPt^E — Residents of the Bukit 
public estatc hi the central pan of 

jslaru* of Singapore have a powerful indud 
cud their support for toe opposition and vote 
candidate of toe governing party in generJ elec- 
tions Thursday. . . 

They only have to look across at toe nean>\Buiat pore’s 3 million people, 86 percent of whom live in 
Batok estate, which has been in a ward conroUed high-rise estates built and sold at much less than a choice, he said, would have a result: “Your estate. 


that it would spend 20 billion Singapore dollars 
($143 billion) over 20 years to upgrade public 
housing, it was assumed that the olderestates would 
be chosen first. 

But shortly before candidate nominations for this 
year’s parliamentary elections closed on Dec. 23, 
Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong delivered a blunt 
message to voters. 

He told them that be would respect their choice if 
they elected someone from the opposition. But such 


V: 


Subsequent German attempts to coot t^con- rating People’s Action Party since tie last free-market rates by the government’s Housing and through your 

rroversy may only have added to Bntisn tears or e j^ons in 1991 ,. to see the tangible benelts of Development Board. 

going with toe government. 


See EUROPE, Page 5 


When the government announced four years ago 


own choice, will be left behind. 


See SINGAPORE, Page 4 


For Milosevic , an End 
That Is Not So Near? 


3 

V 

■ tar 


..a 


By Michael Dobbs 

WasiangUM Past Service 


S* 


BELGRADE — Serbian opposition 
leaders may be right when they msist 
jtbat their six-week-long Pfc*est mc T^ _ 
xnent against President Slobodan Mi- 
losevic marks toe beginning of the end 
for the last Communist regime m 
Europe. The catch is that toe final act m 
toe drama may lsst a long time. 

**¥ hsn»> no illusion that street demon- 


jeadex. Zoran Djindjic, referring to the 

dail y rallies he has organized to protest 
the regime's “stealing” of local elections 
on Nov. 17. "This is all part of a much 
longer historical process. We cannol 
thmkfoai the government will fall wittiin 
a trtnnth, or even two or three months. 

A political counteroffensive by_the 
Milosevic government in. the last few 

NEWS ANALYSIS 


Jtewsstand Prices 


$ 


. “I have no illusion . including toe mobilization of tens 

stratiocs alone will be G f thousands of not police on toe sweets 

ofMikwevic.” said the Democratic Party _ Belgrade, has served as a reminder 

that toe Serbian strongman still has con- 
siderable resources at his disposal. 

Many observers say they suspect that, 
in the long nm, his fete is more Ktefy to 

£ detemuned by ^ ru ^ es . wlUu °^! 
own government and a bleakeconoi^ 

^ook tfrm by the street protests that 
have captured the attention of the world. 

while some commentators have 
drawn parallels between Mr. Milosevic 
and EasfEuropean Communist leaders 
££ flleolae cSusescu of Romania and 
SavHnsak of Czechoslovakia, who 

^overthrown by popular ugeavda 

in 1989, tlte contrasts are even more 


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See 


BELGRADE, PageS 



AGENDA 

UN Accuses Iraq 
On Missile Parts 

UNITED NATIONS. New York 
( AP) — Fearing Iraq may have hidden 
missile engines and parts that could 
be used to build prohibited weapons, 
toe Security Council condemned Iraq 
on Monday for not cooperating with 
UN inspectors. Iraq refused to take 
about 1 30 Russian-made missiles to a 
U.S. lab to see if it had substituted 
lower-grade Iraqi engines and key 
parts. 


Dow Jones 


Down 

11.54 


Kntm 

SIR PAUL — lueen Elizabeth II earlier in 1996 with Paul Mc- 
Cartney, who \s awarded a knighthood in the New Year’s honors 
list. Mr. McCarey dedicated it to his fellow former Beatles. Page 18. 


9^' Up 

» % 0.15% E 

teZZklS a... " I 

The Dollar 

Wat Voile. Mon, dooo tmncnai dnm 


DM 


1.555 


1.5545 


Pound 


1.6905 


1.692 


Yon 


116.145 


115.30 


PAGE TWO 

Serbia’s Elastic btiectnal 


AStAJPACfFIC Page 4. 

Complex Unrest in South Korea 


52415 


52435 


THE AMERICAS PageS. EUROPE Pages. 

Republican TeUs Grich to Quit Yugoslav Army Denies Political Split 

Books Page 8. Opinion Pages 6-7. 

Crossword Page 8. Sports Pages 16-17. 


Happy New Year 

Because of the New Year’s holiday, 
this is a combined issue of die IHT. 
Regular publication resumes with 
Thursday's paper. 


Snows Keep 
300 Trapped 
In Caucasus 


Reusers 

MOSCOW — Up to 300 people 
remained trapped by avalanches in 
a tunnel m toe Caucasus Mountains 
on Monday and it will take at least 
two more days to rescue them, a 
spokesman for toe Russian Emer- 
gencies Ministry said. 

Several dozen people and their 
vehicles were freed Sunday after 
being trapped for days inside toe 
four-kilometer (.two-and-a-half- 
mile) Roksky tunnel linking Rus- 
sia's North Ossetia region with the 
breakaway Georgian province of 
South Ossetia. 

But after rescue workers had 
cleared away snow blocking some 

Europe's cold wave has killed 
more than 100 people. Page 2. 

19 kilometers of the highway, fresh 
snowfalls started avalanches Mon- 
day. 

“Strong winds are hampering the 
evacuation." the ministry spokes- 
man said. “Rescue teams will blow 
up the snow and it will take two 
more days to free the people.” 

The Itar-Tass news agency said 
that two women had given both 
while trapped in the tunnel and that 
a newborn child had died of toe 
cold. Two other people were re- 
ported to have died in the area dur- 
ing toe weekend. 

Rescue teams and doctors, en- 
tering the tunnel by foot, have man- 
aged to deliver food, medicine and 
warm clothing. Some of the trapped 
motorists have refused to leave in 
case their cars are stolen or looted, 
agencies said. 

Overall in Russia, Tass reported 
toai 10 people had died of cold in 
the last week and that 245 had been 
hospitalized with frostbite. 










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PAGE TWO 


Opposition Leader/ A Political Chameleon 

Serbia’s Elastic Intellectual 


By John Pomfret 

Washington Post Service 


B ELGRADE — Zoran Djindjic spent the 
night of Feb. 21. 1994, in tfie mountain 
stronghold of the Bosnian Serbs. He skied 
the lily-white slopes of Mount Jahorina, 
illuminated by floodlights. Later he feasted on oxen, 
roasted on a spit under the open sky. 

It was the last day of the first NATO ultimatum. 
After a Serbian shell killed 68 people in downtown 
Sarajevo early that month. NATO ordered the Bos- 
nian Serbs to remove the heavy weapons encircling 
the city or face air strikes. 

Mr. Djindjic said he had gone to Pale, Bosnia- 
Herzegovina, to “express solidarity with the people 
of the Bosnian Serb republic.” He spent eight hours 
huddling with the uluanationaiist Serbian leader 
Radovan Karadzic. 

Nearly three years later, Mr. Djindjic has 
emerged somewhat incongruously as the next great 
hope for democracy in Seroio. the mastermind of the 
most significant challenge to the nine-year rule of 
President Slobodan Milosevic. 

With his good looks, his smooth patois, his sig- 
nature black turtleneck and gray Hugo Boss jackets, 
Mr. Djindjic has cajoled his way to the cop of the 
fractious pile of dissidents. He may be just the man to 
yank Yugoslavia into modem times arid rouse it from 
its hangover of too much nationalism and too much 
communism. Then again, he may not 
For the past month, the 44-year-old philosophy 
professor turned businessman turned politician has 
been at the forefront of an unprecedented string of 
demonstrations — the biggest and longest in Bel- 
grade since the Communist takeover in 1945. The 
supporters of Zajedno, a coalition of five opposition 
ponies, are protesting Mr. Milosevic's Socialist 
Party , which they charge rigged elections in 14 
Serbian cities. Mr. Djindjic. the main strategist of 
the movement, would have become the first non- 
socialist mayor of Belgrade since 1945. 

With his polished statements on democracy, hu- 
man rights and economic reform, Mr. Djindjic could 
be a politician from any other European country. But 
friends and foes say he is a riddle, and a stone-cold 
pragma: isL Once he was a ponytailed anarchist; as 
recently as September he was stumping for Mr. 
Karadzic's party as a calculating nationalist. On the 
political map. he's everywhere, he’s nowhere. 

Desimir Tosic, a co-founder of die Democratic 
Party with Mr. Djindjic. who quit when the party 
veered to the right, called him “a demagogue 
without scniples." but quickly added, “that is not a 
bad thing necessarily. He is a completely pragmatic 
man. Maybe that's what we need. * 

Mr. Djindjic acknowledges his dizzying shifts. 
His remarkable string of transformations from stu- 
dent anarchist in the 1970s to liberal in the 1980b to 
nationalist in the early 1990s to democrat today puts 
him in line to become the first of the Teflon Serbs. 
“If you want honesty, " he said, repeating one of his 
favorite quips, “go to church." 

Given these changes, it should be easy to find 
people who hate the man. But another remarkable 
thing about Mr. Djindjic is that even his political 
opponents fifce him. 


“Do I like him? Absolutely,” saidLjubisa Ristic, 
president of the Yugoslav United Left, 
closely allied with Mr. Milosevic and a target of 


a patty 


opposition abuse. “He is so charming." 

Mr. Djindjic excelled as a student at Belgrade 
University. Like the student demonstrators who fill 
the streets every day, he also protested- In 1974 his 
aim, tike theirs today, was to establish a student union 
outside the control of the Communist Party. He was 
arrested and sentenced to several months in jail. 

Out of prison, Mr. Djindjic won a scholarship to 
study in Germany. He attached himself to the famed 
left-wing philosopher Juergen Habermas, who 
urged his students not simply to contemplate but 
also to act. 

Mr. Djindjic returned to Yugoslavia in 1979, a 
year before the death of Tito, to teach ar the Uni- 
versity of Novi Sad. In the 1980s he wrote often for 
the Literary Review, an influential Yugoslav peri- 
odical. Almost alone among the passionate scrib- 
blers, Mr. Djindjic argued calmly against the na- 
tionalist machine. When the writer Dobrica Cosic, 
who later became president of Yugoslavia, called 
for Serbia’s region of Kosovo — and its majority 
Albanian population — to lose its autonomous 
status, Mr. Djindjic reasoned against the plan. 


I 


F KOSOVO is annexed by Serbia, he wrote in 
June 1988, “we will be able to declare with 
considerable certainty that in every future Ser- 
bian state Kosovo will be a permanent source 
of repression." Today Kosovo's 1.2 million Al- 
banians live under what effectively is a Serbian 
police state, and it remains one of Yugoslavia's 
great unsolved problems. 

Drinka Gojkovic, a scholar who has charted the 
growth of Serbian ultranationalism, said she re- 
membered the respect she had for Mr. Djindjic's 
views and for his courage to speak out against the 
insanity then entangling Serbian society. 

“While everyone was screaming, using shocking 
language to fan hatred, Zoran was writing these 
beautiful essays, arguing thar nationalism was not 
the way.” she said. 

In 1990, Mr. Djindjic and 11 other men founded 
the Democratic Party. A year later Mr. Mi lose vie and 
his foe, Fran jo Tudjman. the ultranationalist Croatian 
president, stinted war in Croatia. By mid- 1992. the 
Serbian president bad spread the conflict to Bosnia. 

As nationalism's gnp tightened on Yugoslavia, 
Mr. Djindjic began to change, moving with stun- 
ning speed to rioe the right-wing wave. 

Miss Gojkovic remembers the feeling she had 
when Mr. Djindjic began to back nationalist aims: 
“It was very. veTy astonishing when he shifted. It 
was like something moved underneath all of us. It 
was a sign that our society was going mad." 

In 1993. Mr. Djindjic rewrote die platform of the 
Democratic Party to reflect his new views. He no 
longer backed autonomy for Kosovo. The party even 
called for measures to limi t the birth rate of the 
Albanian majority. It demanded a referendum on the 
restoration of Yugoslavia’s monarchy — a view 
favored by Mr. Karadzic and other ultranationalists. 
It called for the unity of all Serbs in one stale. These 
positions remain on the party platform today. 

Mr. Djindjic *s friends and even his opponents say 



tmJ \WRrnlii* 


Zoran Djindjic. a leader of the 
Belgrade demonstrations* teas a 
student anarchist in the 1970s* a 
liberal in the 80s and a calculating 
nationalist as recently as September. 

they believe the shifts have more to do with Mr. 
Milosevic than with Mr. Djindjic’s beliefs. 

Some explain it as a psychological problem typ- 
ical of Serbian opposition figures. For the past six 
years, since a semblance of mulripvty democracy 
has come lo Yugoslavia, ihe opposition has defined 
itself almost solely in terms of its relationship to Mr. 
Milosevic — a political puppet master, the arch 
dissembler of Yugoslavia's collapse. Opposition 
leaders like Mr. Djindjic are still too politically 
immature to set the terms for political debate. So 
they follow Mr. Milosevic's twists and turns. That 
has made it almost impossible for them to be for 
anything: they are simply against him. 

So when Mr. Milosevic switched his policy to 
embrace peace. Mr. Djindjic coddled the Bosnian 
Serb warriors. When Mr. Milosevic signed the 
treaty ending the conflict in Bosnia. Mr. Djindjic 
gave it only half-hearted support. 

Recently, as the protests mounted. Miss Gojkovic 
it Mr. Djindjic. "I said. ‘Zoran. you are my open 


met 

wound, why <fid you do the 
recalled. “He replied, *1 still thi 
always did.* ” 

“But what is that?" she asked. 


ou did?' ” she 
the same as I 


An Iranian Exile Chief 
Adored by Her Troops 




By Douglas Jehl 

lie*' York Times Service 


CAMP ASHRAF, Iraq — In this en- 
clave of Iraq, the road signs are in Per- 
sian and the soldiers pay tribute not to 
President Saddam Hussein of Iraq but to 
an Iranian woman they call Maryam- 

“She is the symbol of our struggle,” 
veiled young women chanted after 
storming into a fortified bunker in a 
military tr ainin g exercise. 

“She is the tip of the arrow,” pro- 
claimed another, a gunner in a Soviet- 
made tank. 

By the map, Camp Ashraf lies in Iraq, 
1 00 kilometers (60 miles) north of Bagh- 
dad But a more accurate description 
would be the military headquarters of 
Iran-in -exile, and a place unto itself. The 
sprawling camp is home to the lead- 
ership of the National Liberation Army, 
a formidable Iranian opposition force. 

It is also home to unfathomable de- 
votion toward the 43-year-old woman 
her followers say should be Iran's next 
leader. 

"We love Maryam Rajavi,” men in 
camouflage dress chanted after braving 
a pool of fire in an exercise. “And we 
promise to take her to Tehran.” 

Built up on a barren salt plain be- 
ginning about a decade ago, the army, 
now about 30,000 strong, is by any 
measure the best-armed opposition force 
poised outside any country's borders. 

With raids deep into ban in 1988, in 
the closing months of the eight -year Iran- 
Iraq War, it equipped itself with about £2 
billion worth of weapons, including 
American-made armored personnel car- 
riers and British-made Chieftain tanks. 

And while Iran and Iraq have me- 
ticulously observed a cease-fire since 
then, the presence of the opposition 
force reflects the enmity that the secular 
government in Baghdad still feels to- 
ward Tehran and its muUahs' power. 

Twice a day. at noon and midnight. 
Iraqi television broadcasts a one-hour 
program prepared by tee Iranian op- 
position group, which pays neither for 
thar service nor for its land at Camp 
Ashraf and four other camps within 90 
kilometers of the Iranian border. 

But to hear its members tell it, the real 
strength of the National Liberation 
Army derives from faith in Mrs. Rajavi 
and her husband, Massoud architects of 
a force so highly motivated and dis- 
ciplined thar it borders on the bizarre. 

Uniforms display neither rank nor in- 
signia. in an effort to promote “ca- 
maraderie and fraternity in our struggle,” 
said Kobra Tahmasbi, 39, a division com- 
mander. Mrs. Tahmasbi and most other 
top officers are women, who exercise an 
authority unimaginable arhomc. 



.mi: 




Europe’s Cold Kills 100 
And Causes Travel Chaos 


CuUfm W ►•• Our Staff Fnm [tvjutrhn 

Europe headed into the New Year on 
Monday huddled against a Continent- 
wide cold snap that has killed more than 
100 people in the last week and brought 
chaos to highways and airports. 

Deaths have been reported in nearly 
every country in Europe, from Russia to 
Spain, with the homeless and elderly the 
hardest hit. 

In Romania alone, 43 people have 
died, many of them homeless or elderly 
living in insufficiently heated homes. 
Vladimr Belis. the director of 
Bucharest's morgue, said Monday. 
Temperatures there have hovered 
around minus-20 degrees centigrade 
• minus-4 Fahrenheit). 

While some countries enjoyed 
slightly milder temperatures on 
Monday, forecasters predicted the relief 
would be short-lived, with heavy snow- 
fall and more freezing weather expected 
through the week. 

In \Vesiem Europe, snow has fallen 
from Britain to the Mediterranean. 

British newspapers reported that a 
married couple died after falling 
through the ice on a frozen lake in the 
county of Essex in an effort to rescue 
their dog. 

At least nine people have died of 
exposure in France and four in Austria. 


Six people were killed by an ava- 
lanche ai a ski resort in Turkey over the 
weekend. 

In Germany, six cold-related deaths 
have been reported since Christmas 
Eve. 

Scandinavia and Russia have seen 
colder weather and heavier snow than in 
recent years. Tass news agency reported 
a total of 10 deaths in Russia and 245 
hospitalized with frostbite. 

The harsh conditions extended as far 
south as the Valencia region, near Spain's 
Mediterranean coast, where a 54-year- 
old man was found dead from the cold in 
a makeshift shack over the weekend. 

Heavy snows across the region have 
stranded motorists, closed air and sea 
pons, delayed bus and rail traffic and led 
to many weather-related accidents. 

In Italy's Alpine north, temperatures 
were down to minus-30 degrees cen- 
tigrade although tempered by bright 
sunshine. The Adriatic resorts of Rimini 
and Ancona saw snow for the first time 
in years. Snow and ice also paralyzed 
much of central and southern Italy. 

Roads, including the main highway 
north from Rome, were blocked by 
snow and flights from the capital's Fi- 
umicino Airport were delayed by freez- 
ing rain and snow. 

Some 40 flights had to be canceled 


Hong Kong Pilots 
Buzzed by Phones 

Reusers 

HONG KONG — Pilots flying to 
and from Hong Kong's airport have 
been bothered by interference com- 
ing from mobile phones in China's 
Guangdong province, but wiurces 
said Monday that efforts to solve the 
problem appeared to be working. 

The Hong Kong Aircrew “Of- 
ficers’ Association said pilots bad 
been complaining of a loud buzzing 
in their ears that forced them ro 
quickly change ro another fre- 
quency to maintain contact with 
air-traffic control. 

Mobile phones and pagers being 
used on illegal frequencies in 
Guangdong province are blamed 
for the problem, which pilots say is 
a safety concern. 


Massive Walkouts in Israel 
Place Economy in Turmoil 


Monday morning from Frankfurt’s air- 
port, one of Europe 's busiest, because of 
snow on the runways. 

In Bulgaria, the death toll rose to 19, 
including a father, mother and child who 
froze to death in their car after it got stuck 
in snow near Varna, where snow has 
drifted up to tw o meters 16-6 feet) high. 

Weather-related power outages were 
reported in Ukraine's Crimean Penin- 
sula. northeastern Bulgaria and south- 
eastern Romania. {Reusers, AFP. AP) 


Cmpiiejtn Our Suff F*m CKguachn 

JERUSALEM — In the 
ular protest against Prime Minister Ben- 
jamin Netanyahu's government, hun- 
dreds of thousands of workers walked 
off rbeir jobs Monday, crippling large 
sectors or u«*» ‘•ronorny. 

The strike was called by the Histadrut 
Trade Union Federation to protest tax 
increases, budget cuts and privatization 
plans that the organize rsifear will lead to 
large-scale layoffs. The h^tadrut fed- 
eration said 283.000 public-^ior em- 
ployees went on strike Monday, in the 
largest of four days of strikes. 

The strike shut the stock market, util- 
ity' companies, day' care, postal services, 
banks and seaports. The job action also 
hampered public transportation and 
health care, with hospitals operating on 
a Sabbath schedule. Broadcasts on 
state-owned radio and televi 
scaled back. 

Ben Gurion Airport, 
wildcat strike Sunday, was 
by the action Monday. 

On Thursday, the His; 
a series of gradually wideni 
planned to culminate in a g 
on Tuesday, when Parliam l 
vote the 1997 budget 

Mr. Netanyahu, a projxfient of de- 
regulation and a free-marijt economy. 


were 

by a 
: affected 

launched 
walkouts 
era! strike 
t is set to 


complained that the strike was politically 
motivated — a reference to the strong ties 
between the Histadrut and the opposition 
Labor Party. He has called the strikes 
“irresponsible” and “baseless.” 

"The country isn’t yours, and you 
cannot do with it as you please.” Mr. 
Netanyahu said. “The workers them- 
selves have no idea what the strike is all 
about'’ 

The strike Monday ostensibly was 
sparked by the government’s decision to 
try to sell off dozens of state-owned 
companies, to reduce spending on social 
services, to impose new taxes on gas and 
cigarettes and to reduce tax deductions 
fot-o^rried working women. 

Amiri Peretz, the Histadrut chief, said 
e v«y workv would lose 2.500 to 3.000 
shekels ($765 tt»^9 1 8) a year because of 
the tax increases aivj budget cuts. 

But there also appea»»d to be a grow- 
ing anger among lower-irtea me Israelis 
against Mr. Netanyahu’s policy of 
restoring subsidies for Jewish settlers in 
the West Bank and Gaza Strip — amove 
that would cost hundreds of millions of 
shekels a year. 

The opposition Labor Party has es- 
timated that government subsidies to the 
Jewish settlements would cost the tax- 
payers the equivalent of $300 million a 
year- (AP. Reuters) 


rm 


Soldiers live communally, bunking as 
many as 20 to a sex-segregated room. 

Since 1991. even the marned couples . 
among them have lived apart. Their chil- 
dren have been sent abroad. 

All rise promptly at 7 AM. to begin ^ ; 

their day with outdoor ceremonies that 
feature revolutionary hymns, oaths “in ' ; : ;j( 
the name of God and in the name of the ' 
people of Tehran” and honor guards 
who stiffly bear the red, white and green 
Iranian colors. And there, as in most 
public rooms, they operate under the 
eyes of the Rajavis, whose photographs 
are displayed from and center. The lead- 
ers’ images have even been affixed to 
some tank turrets, and crew members 
like Azadeh Salamet, 32, describe their 
leaders as a source of inspiration. 

“As the years go on,” said Ms. 
Salamet, who abandoned her marriage 
and studies at the University of Wash- 
ington to take up arms in Iraq in 1988, 

“my faith in both of them grows more 
and more.” 

Massoud Rajavi, a former student of 
political science at the University of 
Tehran, was long a prominent figure in 
the People’s Mujahidin of Iran, formed in 
the early 1960s in opposition to Shah 
Riza Pahlevi. After the 1979 Islamic re- 
volution, it broke with Ayatollah Ruholy ’ 
lah Khomeini over his ouster of President’ 
AboTHassan Banisadr, endorsed armed 
struggle and became a powerful voice of 
anti-theocratic dissent 

After fleeing to Paris in 1982, Mr. 

Rajavi married Maryam, a metallurgical 
engineer who had been a student leader 
in Tehran, and together they established 
the National Liberation Army, the mil- 
itary wing of the National Council of 
Resistance, a coalition of Iranian op- 
position groups abroad. 

Only twice since its formation has tire 
opposition army fought head-to-head 
against Jinan, in (he operations of 1 988, 
when it once pushed more than 160 
kilometers miles into lran, and in 1991. 
when Iran’s Revolutionary Guards in- 
vaded Iraq in an attempt to crush the 
resistance at the end of the Gulf War. By 
most accounts, the force has acquitted 
itself well, demonstrating an ability to 
confront and defeat some of Iran's best 
armored units. It has been well-fin- 
anced, mostly by contributions from 
inside Iran, its top officials say. 

In a report two years ago, the U.S. : 
State Department cited the organiza : 
lion’s past Marxist leanings and silo- 
gallons that elements of the council took 
part in violent attacks against Americans 
in the early 1970s, and concluded that it 
did not represent an acceptable altern- 
ative to the current government of Iran. 

But such criticism appears to have 
done nothing to di mmish the adulation 
shown in Camp Ashraf, where followers 
say they dream of the day that Mrs. 

Rajavi assumes a role the organization 
voted her in 1993: transitional prescient 
who would wield power after the foil of 
the Iranian government As soldiers and 
officers filed into a (fining hall for lunch 
recently, a huge photograph of her, smil- 
ing beatifically, stood on an easel at the 
head of the room. Around the room, 
television sets were stowing videotapes 
of Mrs. Rajavi's triumphal return this 
month to Iraq after three years in Paris, 
the organization’s political headquarters, 
and there were throaty cheers. 

“I have found my final answer in 
Maryam Rajavi," said Mohammed 
Tastimi, 46, a political prisoner under 
the Shah who is the camp's chief of 
logistics. “Maryam Rajavi is anathema - ; 
to the Khomeinr ideology, and that’s 
why she is the cure.” 






- 




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TRAVEL UPDATE 


WEATHER 


Blizzard Surprises Vancouver 

VANCOUVER (Reuters) — British Columbia, which is 
known for its temperate winters, was shoveling itself out 
Monday from under its worst blizzard in decades. 

The snowstorm dumped 27 inches (70 centimeters) on the* 
province’s capital. Victoria, and 18 inches on Vancouver over 
the weekend, paralyzing public transportation and stretching 
the capacity of the few snowplows to the limit. 

Vancouver International Afrport operated at only 10 per- 
cent capacity Sunday and was struggling to get planes moving 
Monday. National Railway trains were at a standstill, ac- 
cording to the Canadian Wheat Board, which sends most of its 
grain by train to the port of Vancouver. 

Tricky Search for the Best Airfare 

WASHINGTON (API — Some air travelers in the United 
States may pay 5 1 .000 more than other passengers, even though 
they asked for the “lowest” fare, a consumer group says. 

Much depends on how hard a travel agent searches for the best 
fare, and dial can depend on how hard the customer pushes them, 
said Janice Shields of the U.S. Public Interest Research Group. 

Chris Privett of the American Society of Travel Agents, 
blamed airline pricing policies for the wide range of prices. 
saying“theremaybeupto 100,000 fare changesaday.So. from 
moment to moment, depending on how quickly seats are filling, 
there will be fare changes and they can be substantial.'' 

Airlines try to limit the number of seats sold at low prices. 
Mr. Privett explained. "They have a certain inventory of 
cheaper seats. As the last seat at that price gets filled, the fare 
will jump. So prices can change substantially over the course 
of a day.” 


Europe 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUES DAY, DECEMBER 31, 1996-WEDNESD‘Y, JANUARY 1, 1997 

THE AMERICAS 


PAGE 3 



A Republican Defects on Gingrich 

t Former Supporter Says Speaker Should Step Aside 


POLITICAL 




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By Melinda Henneberger 

New Ryj Times S ervice 

■ WASHINGTON —r One of Newt 
Gingrich’s most enthusiastic supporters 
has become the first Republican to an- 
nounce feat he. would not vote for Mr. 
Gingrich for a second term as speaker of 
fee House, saying feat his explanations 
for admitted ethical lapses simply did 
not ring true. 

The announcement came Sunday 
from Representative Michael Forties of 
New York, who said he had pored over 
the ethics committee documents re- 
leased on Dec. 21, and decided feat Mr. 
Gingrich should step aside, both as a 
matter of conscience and for tie good of 
feeparty. •' 

The- Republican, leadership minim- 
ized fee importance of a single defec- 
tion. but Democrats said it could signal 
serious trouble for Mr. Gingrich because 
at least a half-dozen other Republicans 
had said they were still undecided. Mr. 
Forbes said feat “as many as 20 or 30” 


Republican colleagues might well fol- 
low suit. If 20 Republicans vote 
“present.” as Mr. Forbes plans to do, 
Mr. Gingrich would not be re-elected. 

“I’m physically sick over it. and I’m 
sick he’s m akin g us do this, but he'll be 
a speaker who’s weighed down,” said 
Mr. Forbes, who represents fee eastern 
part of Suffolk County on Long Island. 
He also said Mr. Gingrich bad gone 
“underground” in the last year as a 
result of ethics charges against him and 
was no longer in a position to lead 
Congress. 

“We need leadership that will not be 
cowering, contrite or biding from the 
media so we can aggressively pursue a 
balanced budget and tax reform,” he 
said, adding feat Mr. Gingrich "let us 
(town” and “took his eye off the ball.” 

But Tony Blank! ey, Mr. Gingrich's 
press secretary, said Sunday evening 
that Mr. Forbes did not understand the 
charges and that his defection was no 
cause for concern. “When he has a 
chance to folly review fee facts, he’ll 


reach the conclusion that if you're a 
Republican you should support Newt 
for speaker." 

Mr. Gingrich acknowledged Dec. 21 
that he had provided the committee with 
“inaccurate. Incomplete and unreliable 
statements” about a course fear he had 
taught at two small colleges in Georgia. 
At issue is whether he improperly used 
tax-exempt programs for partisan pur- 
poses — a charge he had denied until a 
week ago. He has said fee bad infor- 
mation passed on to the committee was 
the fault of his former lawyer. 

Referring to a section of the law deal- 
ing wife tax-exempt organizations. Mr. 
Forbes said: “Anybody who has even 
passing understanding of 501(c)(3) 
knows you are not to mix political ad- 
vocacy wife tax-exempt foundation 
activities. He's created tax-exempt 
foundations! Then he hires an attorney 
and for two years they go on the of- 
fensive and say there was no co- ming- 
ling, and now lie says he didn’t know fee 
attorney had said that?” 







Pan Hyra/Thc Am'iinl IW» 

A driver scraping his ice-encrusted automobile in Portland, Oregon. 


Away From 
Politics 

A powerful snowstorm followed by 
rain paralyzed Seattle wife slush, 
blocked major Northwest highways 
wife avalanches and brought mud- 
slides and die threat of flooding to 
western Washington and Oregon. Hie 
second major storm to churn through 
the regiaa in four days brought up to 
14 inches (35 centimeters) of snow, 
heavy rain and high winds. (AP) 

Americans are less alienated than a 
year ago, according to an annual poll 
published Sunday. The Hams Ali- 
enation Index, which has. tracked a 
remorseless rise in public alienation 


since 1966, fell to 62 percent in 1996 
from a record high 67 percent last 
year. ( Reuters ) 

Jordan Reardon, a 10-year-old girl 
who was injured when a package 
bomb exploded in her face on Christ- 
mas Eve, returned home in Clifton 
Park, New York. She sustained bums 
over 27 percent of her body. (AP) 

A rental car carrying three Korean 
tourists plunged into the Merced 
River near Yosemite National Park on 
Sunday, killing fee driver. (AP) 

Earl Pitts, an FBI agent, pleaded not 
guilty on Monday to charges of spying 
for Moscow. A federal judge set April 
21 for trial after Mr. Pitts waived his 
right to a speedy trial. (Reuters) 


Social Security Battle Gears Up 

NEW YORK — With Congress and fee nation gearing 
up for a huge debate on fee future of Social Security, labor. 
Wall Street, corporate America and organizations of the old 
and fee young are quietly marshaling their forces for one of 
the biggest lobbying battles in decades. 

There is a broad consensus that the Social Security 
system needs reform, but little agreement on what should be 
done, and many of the important organizations in the debate 
are formulating their strategies. 

Wall Street’s big brokerage firms are, inescapably, at fee 
center of the debate. They view changes in Social Security 
as an opportunity to sell billions of dollars in financial 
products directly to fee government or to individuals. 

The AFL-CIO, which has focused on Wall Street as an 
adversary in the campaign ahead, is seeking to protect a 
financial safety net for low-income workers, as well as to 
maintain a central role for government in public benefit 
programs. Even the AFL-CIO, however, favors investing 
Social Security money in the stock and bond markets, 
although it wants fee money controlled by the government, 
and not put in the hands of private investors. (NTT) 

Lipstick Color? A Political Ruse 

WASHINGTON — The bulging files of John Huang, the 
former Democratic fund-raiser, contain a raft of crystalline 
answers to political puzzlers, like what color lipstick a 


candidate should wear on television; how to root out 
embarrassing personal details about an opponent, and, more 
poignantly, now to abide by the fund-raising rules of fee 
Federal Election Commission. 

Mr. Huang filed away political primers that the Demo- 
cratic Party distributes to its operatives, guides on 
everything from scheduling candidates' time to stuffing 
their war chests to placating their meddlesome friends. 

When the Democratic National Committee released 
3,000 pages of records last week, the guides were there, 
among the business cards and canceled checks. 

The primers combine fee attention to niceties of Emily 
Post — “Lipstick should match the color of the inside of 
your mouth* — with a Machiavellian focus on opponents' 
soft spots. 

“To find out about your opponent's selective service 
status during the Vietnam War,” reads one, reflecting 
painful lessons recently drilled into the Democrats. “caS 
the Selective Service System at 703-235-2272.’ ’ (NYT) 


Quote /Unquote 


General Barry McCaffrey. President Bill Clinton’s drug 
policy chief, cm plans to undercut resolutions adopted by 
California and Arizona voters that amount to quasi-legal- 
ization of drugs: “In essence we see them as a violation of he 
scientific process that has brought America the safest and 
most effective medicines in the world. And we’re enormously 
concerned because of fee potential for increased drug abuse in 
these two states.” (AP) 


Pressure Mounts on U.S. to Pay Dues to the UN 


By Steven Lee Myers 

New Kyat’ Times Service 

WASHINGTON — Having orches- 
trated the ouster of Boutros Boutros 
Ghali as secretary-general of fee United 
Nations, die Clinton administration is 
facing increased diplomatic pressure to 
pay America’s o utstan ding UN dues. 
But the Republicans who control Con- 
gress are resisting. 

As fee administration worked u> 
block Mr. Boutros Ghali’s re-election 
this month, it argued feat only the pres- 
ence of a new secretary-general could 
persuade Congress to pay fee hundreds 
of millions of dollars that the United 
States has owed for three years. 

But some Republicans say they have 
no intention of repaying the debt until 
they are convinced feat the newly elect- 
ed secretary-general, Kofi Annan, will 
make a difference. Mr. Annan, they say, 
must persuade them in a way his pre- 
decessor never did that he is determined 
to streamline fee organization’s budget 
and bureaucracy. 

As Marc Thiessen, fee spokesman for 
Jesse Helms, chairman of the Senate 
Foreign Relations Committee, put iu 
“They thought if they just brought us 
Boutros Ghali’s bead on a platter, feat it 


would satiate us and we’d pay up. Our 
concern is not Boutros Ghali. but wheth- 
er the United Nations reforms itself.” 

For the United States, the back dues 
have become a nagging diplomatic em- 
barrassment. Even administration offi- 
cials acknowledge that fee issue has un- 
dercut American credibility at die United 
Nations, while pushing the organization 
to the brink of fiscal disarray. 

As President Bill Clinton prepared to 
submit his budget recommendations to 
Congress next month, officials said the 
administration would propose paying 
fee debt in installments. But the proposal 
is similar to one that Congress rejected 
last year, to pay over five years. 

Difficult negotiations remain, not 
only with Congress but also wife the 
United Nations. Even fee extent of fee 
debt remains in dispute, with the United 
Nations insisting that fee United States 
owes $13 billion, while fee adminis- 
tration argues that the amount is less 
than SI bill ion. 

The administration’s handling of the 
search for a secretary-general, which 
many diplomats considered unabashed 
bullying, stoked a bitterness fear has 
been simmering at fee United Nations 
for years. It has also created a feeling 
that now more than ever, fee United 


States is obliged to pay its foil dues. 

UN budget officials say the U.S. debt 
constitutes mote than half of its $23 
billion in outstanding dues. 

Joseph Connor, an American who is 
the UN under secretary-general for ad- 
ministration and management, said 
Washington 's failure to pay its dues bad 
strained fee organization to the brink, 
forcing it to borrow from the peace- 
keeping funds for operating expenses. 

to pay an assessment that totals^ per- 
cent of the organization’s operating 
budget. In the current fiscal year, this 
came to $321 million of fee total of $13 
billion. The United Nations also assesses 
fee United States a 31 percent share of 
fee peacekeeping budget, which this year 
is $434 million of a total of $14 billion, 
according to the United Nations. 

But since the 1980s, the United States 
has] 
ing 

In some cases, it simply fell behind 
because Congress failed to appropriate 
enough money. In others, it deliberately 
withheld dues for programs ft considered 
unacceptable, like negotiating a treaty on 
the Law of the Sea and building a con- 
ference center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 

In recent years the United States has 


> periodically built up back dues total - 
; hundreds of millions of dollars. 


attached conditions to payments, giving 
itself leverage to extract pledges of re- 
form from the organization. It has, 
among other things, required fee United 
Nations to hire Mr. Connor as a sort of 
chief financial officer, to reduce fee 
staff and to create an inspector general's 
office for ferreting out waste. 

In part because of dismay at the 
peacekeeping operations, Congress 
voted last year to reduce the American 
share of peacekeeping costs to 25 per- 
cent, even though fee United Nations 
continues to assess it 31 percent under a 
complex formula based on gross na- 
tional product of member states. 

UN diplomats view the unilateral de- 
mands as hypocrisy on fee part of the 
organization's biggest deadbeat But in 
Washington they reflect deep animosity 
toward the United Nations, especially 
among conservatives in Congress. 

But for all of the attacks on the or- 
ganization and Mr. Boutros Ghali. die 
United Nations b as carried oat many of 
the changes demanded by fee Amer- 
icans. It has reduced the number of 
employees at its headquarters in New 
York to 8300, from 12,000 a decade 
ago. And for the last two years, it has 
held its operating budget steady at $13 
billion a year. 


In Peru, Spotlight Is on an Unconventional Diplomat 


By Clifford Krauss 

New York Times Service 


LIMA — Michel Minnig had only 
recently arrived in Peru and had not had 
time to finish unpacking his boxes when 
he was suddenly thrust into the biggest 
crisis in his 11 years at the Red Cross. 

Now, as fee senior Red Cross rep- 
resentative in Peru, the 44-year-old 
Swiss aid worker is serving as a ne- 
gotiator between the Peruvian govern- 
ment and Marxist rebels who are hold- 
ing 83 hostages in fee residence of fee 
Japanese ambassador — an effort feat 
has begun to bear the first tentative 
fruits of success. 

Largely due to Mr. Mmnig’s efforts, a 
Peruvian cabinet minister met with the 


TRADE: Multinationals Seeking Profits Sow Prosperity in Asia 


Continued from Page 1 

multinational companies now find 
themselves tipping fee balance of eco- 
nomic power in Asia, Africa, Latin 
America and Eastern Europe, propelling 
some countries rapidly out of poverty 
wife lens of billions of dollars in in- 
vestments while leaving others behind. 

“Accidental ambassadors” is what 
Debora Spar, a professor at Harvard 
Business School, calls these companies 
That seek profit and, virtually as a side 
effect, sow prosperity. . 

Company executives say that fee 
.search for low-wage labor is only part of 
what (hives decisions on where to in- 
vest. Wife countries everywhere beck- 
oning, investment in the 1990s has be- 
come a complex, high -stakes game in 
which companies seek to discover fee 
perfect mix of stability, infrastructure, 
educated labor and nascent consumer- 
ism — before competitors leap in. 

In principle, they say. a single suc- 
cessful formula can apply anywhere. 
“You go in, you aurt small, you train 
the work force,” says Alex Trotman, 
chairman of Ford Motor Co. ‘‘Prosper- 
ity grows, the size of the business 
grows. You become a major booster of 

the economy , creator of a middle class, a 

provider of jobs.” 

Much of the new spending in de- 
veloping countries during fee 1990s has 
goacio build or buy factories; last year, 
such direct investment totaled $100 bil- 
lion, up from $34 billion in 1990, ac- 
cording to fee Organization for Eco- 
nomic Cooperation and Development. 

But the accidental ambassadors take 
maty forms. Sometimes they own and 
operate factories in the country they in- 
vest in. as is fee case with the major auto 

companies. Sometimes they sign con- 
tracts wife suppliers, promising to buy 
fear goods, as do shoe manufac turers 
like Mkc and Reebok. Or they license 
companies to make goods that cany their 
brand names, as does foe designer Calvin 
Klein. Or they simply buy goods from 

chain Wal-Mart does. 

In an, more than $400 billion in 


private capital went into developing 
countries from 1988 to 1995, according 
to the United Nations. 

Many American companies began to 
see the advantages of foreign invest- 
ment and manufacturing in fee years 
after Nike began to flourish in what was 
then Japan’s low-cost economy. The 
electronics and auto parts industries, 
among others, began building factories 
in Asia, Latin America and the Carib- 
bean; the sporting goods, toy and cloth- 
ing industries began buying from local 
manufacturers in those regions. In 
nearly all cases, the goods came bock to 
the United States as imports. 

This process of expansion began to 
slow down in the 1980s, contrary to 
popular perception. But something else 
unexpectedly began mushrooming. 

The countries that had reaped foreign 
investment began baying the products 
themselves. Newly salaried workers in 
Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea and else- 
where bought cars, VCRs, running 
shoes and designer jeans. 

And as fee salaries required to sup- 
port that kind of consumerism kept 
rising, the companies that had begun me 
process moved on, looking for new 
countries whore wages were still low. 

Throughout Asia, the “needle 
trade, "as Mr. KnigbtcaJ Is shoemaking, 

has often been one of the first industries 
to move in, fee first to teach manu- 
facturing skills — and fee first to feel the 
need to move on as wages rise. 

Working in a shoe factory “doesn’t 
mice much education and is very labor 
intensive,” Mr. Knight said. Countries 
“grow that way until they get to in- 
dividual worker wages of somewhere 
around $3 0.000 a year, and by that time 
feere is a basic infrastructure built, and 
fee workers go across fee street and start 
making computers and cars* and fee 
shoe industry begins to fade,” he said. 
Shoe companies then move on to other, 
poorer countries, where the process is 


.like, , ; . . , 

a wave on the map, beginning m Japan, 
washing through South Korea and 
Taiwan, then on to Indonesia, China and 


now Vietnam. Company figures trace 
die progress of shoes, and nations: In the 
late 1980s, about 80 percent of Nike 
shoes were made in Korea or Taiwan, 
but by 1996 — after those countries had 
joined the world's middle class and 
wages had risen — their share of Nike 
production had fallen to just 22 percent 
China and Indonesia, which 20 years 
ago lacked the infrastructure or invest- 
ment climate to attract foreign compa- 
nies, now make 62 percent of N ike's 
total output 

The result of this process has been fee 
creation of an Asian middle class. Wages 
in Asia have grown phenomenally in 
recent years. In China, manufacturing 
wages rose by more than 27 percent in 
1993 and 1994, and by 143 percent in 
1995, according to a study by the Hong 
Kong office of Crosby Securities. 

Likewise, average wages in Thailand 
have risen by more than 7 percent an- 
nually over the last three years; and in 
the Philippines, which only recently 
began attracting foreign investment 
wages rose 22.9 percent in 1994 and 16 
percent in 1995. In Indonesia, wages 
rose at double-digit rates in 1995. 

Improving workers' living condi- 
tions, of course, is not what motivates 
companies to invest in poor countries. If 
that happens, it is a byproduct of the 
search for profits. 

For all the stories in which workers 
somehow benefit of course, there have 
been many cases in which foreign fac- 
tories have abused workers. 

Labor unions and social critics in the 
United States recently singled out 
Nike’s factories in Indonesia, where 
120,000 workers produce Nike shoes 
for a typical salary of $2.28 a day. 

To executives of multinational 
companies, such criticism is irrelevant. 
Despite fee poor working conditions, 
countries all over the world are des- 
perately seeking foreign investors, and 
people are eager to work, wife applic- 
ants lining up outside plant gates. 

NEXT: Sub-Saharan Africa has been 
left out erf the global boom and its people 
have grown poorer in the 1990s. 


top guerrilla leader Saturday, in fee first 
face-to-face talks since the hostage 
crisis began Dec. 17. 

The meeting was followed by the 
release of the ambassadors of the 
Dominican Republic and Malaysia and 
18 otheT hostages. Now Mr. Minnig is 
attempting to persuade fee government 
to resume Red Cross inspections of its 
prisons, where hundreds of guerrillas 
are being held. 

Mr. Minnig had previously attended 
to war victims in Iraq, Nicaragua, Le- 
banon, Rwanda, Burundi, Azerbaijan 
and Bosnia-Herzegovina, where he sur- 
vived driving over a land mine wife 
barely a scratch. Bur this is the first time 
he has been thrust into the role of me- 
diator in a hostage crisis. 

When rebels of fee Tupac Amaru 
Revolutionary Movement stormed the 
diplomatic party at fee residence of the 
Japanese ambassador, taking hundreds 
of hostages, it fell to Mr. Minnig to 
negotiate arrangements for deliveries of 
food to the captives. But as one me- 
diation effort after another by Canada. 
Greece, Germany and several other 
countries collapsed. Mr. Minnig, a 
Swiss, flicked up the diplomatic 
pieces. 

A lanky man wife a dry sense of 
humor, Mr. Minnig often does not look 
like a conventional diplomat. Though 
he has been constantly followed around 
by cameramen since the hostage affair 
began, his tie is more often than not 
untied and attunes his Red Cross smock 
is disheveled. 

Still, all he has to do is pick up his 
bullhorn to talk wife crowds of report- 
ers, and Peruvian television goes live to 
broadcast his every comment. 

He finds his new celebrity almost 
amusing. He grins as he makes the 
simplest statement. “1 am leaving to go 
to meet wife government officials,” 
knowing that even something so ped- 
estrian would be considered worthy of 
breaking into whatever cartoon or soap 
opera is on the air. 

‘ ’The world is tragic, but it is also foil 
of humor,” Mr. Minnig said in an in- 
terview Sunday. “You must keep a dis- 
tance and not take everything too se- 
riously.” But he quickly added feat 
there was nothing funny about armed 
men taking hostages. 

Day after day, as he has shuttled 
between fee rebel-occupied compound 
and government offices, Mr. Minnig has 
carrred messages back and forth — 
some written, others verbal. 

He pressed Education Minister 
Domingo Palermo, President Alberto 
Fujimori’s appointed representative, to 
meet wife fee rebels directly. 

That finally happened Saturday after 
fee rebels gave Mr. Minnig assurances 
feat they would not take Mr. Palermo 
hostage. 

In the potential breakthrough, Mr. 
Minnig accompanied Mr. Palermo into 
the residence to meet wife Nestor Cerpa 
Cartolini, fee Tupac Amaru command- 
er, for more than three hours. When fee 
two came out, along wife Bishop Juan 
Luis Cipriani, who served as a witness 


to fee talks, they brought wife them 20 
captives. 

Mr. Minnig did not join Mr. Palermo, 
Mr. Cerpa and Bishop Cipriani in their 
meeting, but he said be would push for 
more such direct interchanges. 

“I don’t know if they were smiling at 
each other," Mr. Minnig said of Mr. 
Cerpa and Mr. Palermo. “But they were 
shaking hands and talking.” He added: 
“You cannot start a conversation when 
tension is at the maximum. That was not 
the case. The ambiance was favor- 
able.” 

Still. Mr. Minnig warned that fee 
situation was “still volatile, wife armed 
people inside and armed people out- 
side.” 

Having arrived in Peru on Oct. 1 , Mr. 
Minnig said that finishing his unpacking 
and decorating his new home would 
have to wait until the standoff was 
over. 

“This is not a priority right now," he 
said, smiling. 


Mr. Minnig circumvented questions 
about how be felt about his new func- 
tions, saying that the Red Cross was 
accustomed to serving as go-between in 
such situations. But he said he was 
coping with his new high-stakes dip- 
lomatic role as best as he could, in part 
by relying on his sense of humor. 

He said he recently wrote a comic 
novel just for his friends about a Swiss 
mountaineer traveling around the world 
— which he said he nude comparable in 
tone to Voltaire’s Candide. Writing it 
helped to take fee edge off his starkly 
demanding missions, he said. 

As for fee hostages, Mr. Minnig de- 
scribed the embattled residence as 
“hardly a guest house,” but said the 
situation had become far less dire in the 
last week. 

“Their basic needs are taken care 
of,” he said. “The situation inside is 
calm, and there is no torture. These 
people are hostages, but we are able to 
maintain a situation of respect." 


Guerrillas Allow 
Hostages to Connect 
To Outside World 

The Associated Press 

LIMA — For nearly two weeks, diplomats and 
other hostages held by leftist rebels have been cut 
off from the world, trapped in the Japanese am- 
bassador's residence with rare chances to contact 
worried relatives or friends. 

On Monday, however, the Red Cross was col- 
lecting letters from friends and relatives of the 
hostages to bring inside Tuesday, when they 
planned to gather and take out messages from the 
remaining 83 captives. 

It is the fourth time the guerrillas have permitted 
an exchange of mail. TTiis time, the hostages will be 
permitted to send 200 letters and to receive 500, the 
Red Cross said Monday. 

The move was sure to lift the hostages’ spirits, 
along with fee fresh clothes, shoes, candles, in- 
secticide, cigarettes and disinfectant fee Red Cross 
was preparing to bring in Monday. 

“The emotional stress on the hostages and their 
families is tremendous,” said Luis Walanabe, a 
Peruvian museum director who was released after 
five days in captivity. “Their only link has been 
mutual suffering and uncertainty. ” 


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PAGE 4 


EVTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 31, 1996- WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 1, 1997 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


Unrest in South Korea: the Growing Pains of Democracy 



By Nicholas D. Kristof 

New York Times Service 

SEOUL ■ — When workers demanded 
unioa rights a decade ago and denounced 
repression by an authoritarian president, 
they were championed by a longtime 
campaigner for democracy named Kira 
Young Sam. 

These days, tear gas again stings the 
eyes as tens of thousands of workers 
once more take to the streets to demand 
union rights and denounce what they 
describe as repression by an authorit- 
arian president — Kim Young Sam. 

Why does a democratically elected 
president like Mr. Kira rely on the riot 
police and armored tear gas vehicles that 
were once used against him? 

The answers are complex, but they 
may have less to do with the specific 
issues that provoked the latest unrest in 
Seoul and more to do with the broad 
challenges of creating a democratic 
political culture. Many countries in Asia 
and around the world are wrestling with 
the difficulties of transition to demo- 
cracy and — like South Korea — are 
finding that pluralism needs to be based 
on attitudes as well as on institutions. 

“To create democratic institutions is 
easy." said Kang Tae Hoon, a professor 
of political science at Dankook Uni- 
versity in Seoul. “But to create a demo- 
cratic process and political culture takes 


longer. It is hard to change old habits." 

Perhaps as many as several hundred 
thousand workers are on an indefinite 
general strike in South Korea, demand- 
rag die nullification of new labor laws 
passed by a secret session of Parliament 
on Thursday. 

The laws make ft easier for companies 
to lay off workers, and they delay for 
three years the authorization of labor 
unions, which are now technically 
banned. 

Another law passed in the session 
broadens the powers of the domestic spy 

NEWS ANALYSIS 

agency, and many strikers say Mr. Kim 
has betrayed the democratic movement 
and become almost as authoritarian as 
his predecessors. 

“As a union member, I don’t see 
much difference between Kim Young 
Sam and the old military dictators," said 
Cbo Chul, 36, a hotel cook who carried a 
banner at a labor rally Sunday. “There's 
physical oppression, as there was before, 
and now in addition there’s legal and 
economic repression as well. So it's 
tougher than before." 

Such assertions seem vastly over- 
stated. There is far more democracy now 
than there was under the dictators, and 
the best evidence for that is that people 
like Mr. Cho cheerfully give their names 


to a reporter. A decade ago almost 
nobody dared excoriate the president 
directly, and those few who did often 
ended up being tortured in prison. 

Still, the comparison between Mr. 
Kira and his predecessors is made by 
many strikers. One quoted a Korean 
proverb about how a woman may hate 
being bullied by her mother-in-law but 
will also learn to do the same to her own 
daughter-in-law. The point is .that Mr. 
Kim may have chafed at dictatorship 
when he was its victim, but he learned 
the methods and now applies them to his 
critics. 

But if Mr. Kim has an intolerant 
streak, much the same could be said of 
the opposition. 

The present crisis erupted when the 
governing party approved new labor 
laws at a secret session of Parliament 
with no opposition members present 
The party took that step because op- 
position parties were physically block- 
ing Parliament from meeting, in part 
because they knew that they would lose a 
vote. 

Song Yon Hyong. 27, a factory work- 
er on strike, looked a bit flummoxed 
when she was asked if it was not un- 
democratic of the opposition to use force 
to prevent the enactment of laws by a 
majority of legislators. 

“Well, it's true that both sides are 
undemocratic.” she said finally. But she 


added that it was acceptable for the 
opposition to use undemocratic steps 
because the governing party had gained 
a majority only by manipulating cov- 
erage of politics in the press. 

Conflicts like the present one are 
sometimes difficult to resolve because 
Korean politics are so deeply rooted in 
principles that compromise becomes al- 
most impossible. 

In the present dispute, union leaders, 
women included, have shaved their 
heads to express their anger at the new 
labor legislation. That is at least a milder 
step than that of the 28-year-old union 
worker who last year expressed his frus- 
tration with his employer by setting him- 
self (xi tire and burning himself to death 
on company property. 

Nothing so horrific has happened in 
the present confrontation, but the im- 
passe looks difficult to resolve. The 
strikers say the first step must be for the 
government to cave in. 

“This strike will end only when the 
laws are nullified," said Park Moon Jin, 
head of a hospital workers’ union. 

“Negotiations are impossible until 
then," she said. “After the laws are 
revoked, then labor and the government 
can have a dialogue." 

The government, for its part, is de- 
nouncing the strike as illegal and sug- 
gesting that it might use force to smash 
the unrest. 


While the focus of the confrontation is 
on the government’s policies toward 
unions, critics also charge that Mr. Kim 
is undemocratic in a broader sense. They 
say his government puts pressure on the 
news media to curb unfriendly coverage, 
uses the tax authorities to punish its 
enemies' and uses security forces to tap 
the phones of opposition leaders. . . . 

“Democratic institutions are being 
manipulated by the ruling party," said 
Lee Dong Bok. a member of a con- 
servative opposition parry in Parliament. 
Commenting on Mr. Kirn’s years as a 
democracy campaigner, Mr. Lee added, 
“If he fought for democracy, he seems 
to have fought for his own version of 
democracy, not a universal one.” 

' To be sure, the government denies 
that it abuses the legal process in these 
ways. And some of the roost obvious 
authoritarian policies of Mr. Kim — like 
the ban on anyone saying nice things 
about Communist North Korea — have 
broad popular support. 

There is also no question that South . 
Korea, for all its political hiccups, is a 
functioning democracy. 

Indeed, the vigor of the political de- 
bate shows that South Korea is becom- 
ing more open. 

A government official said the new 
labor laws had been carefully, drafted 
over many months and were simply the 
product of an honest desire to make the 


Tibetan Exiles Deny Role in Blast 

China May Increase Repression, Dalai Lama’s Office Warns 


Reuters 

NEW DELHI — Tibet's government- 
in -exile on Monday denied responsi- 
bility for a bombing in Lhasa last week 
and said it feared that China would use 
the explosion as an excuse to increase 
repression in its Himalayan homeland. 

“We are concerned that the Chinese 
authorities may use the latest incident of 
a bomb blast in Lhasa as a pretext for 
increasing political repression in Tibet." 
said a statement by the exiled govern- 
ment, headquartered in India's Himalay- 
an foothills. 

China launched a manhunt across the 
mountainous region after the Christmas 
Day explosion outside city government 
offices in the Tibetan capital. The gov- 


ernment has also announced a reward of 
one million yuan ($120,000) for infor- 
mation leading to the arrest of those 
responsible for the bomb. 

Regional government officials have 
vowed to retaliate, signaling a possible 
renewed crackdown on anti-Chinese un- 
rest in the region. 

Tibet's spiritual leader, the Dalai 
I-imn. has been based in Dharamsala in 
the northern Indian stale of Himachal 
Pradesh since he fled there in 1959 fol- 
lowing a failed anti-Chinese uprising. 

Chinese officials have said there was 
little doubt that the blast was politically 
motivated and carried out by followers 
of the Dalai Lama. 

Denying this, Kalon Tashi Wangdi, 


KOREA: Ashes of Infiltrators Returned 


Continued from Page 1 

mem reached with Washington in 1994 
not to develop nuclear weapons and to 
cooperate again in the attempt to locate 
and identify the remains of Americans 
still missing from the war. The United 
Stales, for its part, agreed to once again 
consider a deal by an American com- 
pany to deliver grain to the North, which 
has suffered severe shortages of food. 

All of those issues had been the sub- 
ject of negotiations between the United 
States and the Koreas for months, but 
they came to a dead halt after the sub- 
marine ran aground in what the South 
Koreans consider virtually an act of war, 
heightening tensions on the peninsula to 
levels not seen in years. 

“The negative atomospbere that has 
hung over us for nearly two months has 
been cleared away so that there is a real 
possibility now for moving forward on 
the ideas that we have, that the South 
has, that the North has." Sandra Kris- 
toff, senior director for Asian affairs at 
the National Security Council, said at a 
press conference at the State Department 
on Monday. 

Although the statement of regret 
Sunday was, by North Korean standards, 
a model of humility and contrition, the 
acceptance of the remains Monday was 
less gracious. 

North Korean honor guards came to 
the border at Panmunjom, the “truce 
village" and occasional crossing point 
between the two Koreas, to accept 24 
small wooden boxes containing the 
ashes of the infiltrators. They then held a 
ceremony on the North Korean side and 
denounced South Korean troops for 
hunting down their comrades. 

“The South Korean puppets mobil- 
ized several hundred thousand troops 
and committed the barbarous act of mer- 
cilessly killing our soldiers," a North 
Korean officer declared. The ceremony 
was shown on South Korean television, 
but South Korean officials, still beaming 


over the North Korean statement of re- 
gret. took it in stride. 

After the submarine ran aground, and 
the armed crew of 26 came ashore, the 
South Koreans launched a hunt for the 
infiltrators. The commandos killed some 
South Korean civilians who stumbled on 
their hiding places. 

Of the 26 infiltrators, one was caught 
alive and has cooperated with his South 
Korean captors. Another is still missing. 
Thirteen were killed by South Korean 
troops and 1 1 were found dead, appar- 
ently executed by their own comrades. 

The submarine's mission is still un- 
clear, intelligence experts say, although 
they believe from the size of the crew 
and the rank of the officers that it was not 
atypical intelligence-gathering mission. 
Some of the commandos were disguised 
with South Korean uniforms and ma- 
chine guns. One theory is that they were 
planning to set up some kind of moun- 
tain hideout or future base. 

Another mystery is the killing two 
weeks after the submarine incident of a 
South Korean diplomat in Russia. The 
killers did not take money and were 
described by witnesses as East Asians, 
and so diplomats suspect that the slaying 
may have been a retaliation by North 
Korea for the killing of the infiltrators. 

South Korean officials said Monday 
that the North Korean apology would 
allow Washington and Seoul to end a rift 
over policy toward North Korea and 
cooperate more closely in easing ten- 
sions on the peninsula. South Korea has 
complained that the United States does 
not always consult it adequately in deal- 
ing with the North. 

President Kim thanked the United 
States Monday for helping to elicit the 
North Korean statement of regret and 
called for further close cooperation. 

“Korea-United States cooperation is 
most crucial to the success of a policy 
toward North Korea, and it conforms 
with the interests of our two countries," 
Mr. Kim said. 


the exiled government’s information 
minister, said in the statement: “We 
would like to categorically point out that 
Dharamsala has absolutely nothing to do 
with this bomb blast or all the previous 
blasts which the Chinese authorities 
have accused us of." 

Chinese officials have said that no one 
was hurt in the explosion, but the state- 
ment from Dharamsala put the number 
of wounded at five. 

“We are sad that five people have 
been injured," the information minister 
said. 

“His Holiness the Dalai Lama has 
publicly stated on numerous occasions 
that he would abdicate his leadership of 
the Tibetan people if the Tibetan free- 
dom struggle turns violent" 

Mr. Wangdi added that the exiled 
government remained committed to a 
negotiated political settlement 
The Dalai Lama, who won the Nobel 
Peace Prize in 1989 for his nonviolent 
campaign to win autonomy for his 
homeland, says, he wants selfgovem- 
ment and freedom of worship in the 
deeply religious Buddhist region. 

Several much smaller bombs have 
been set off in Lhasa in the last two 
years, including one In 1995 that caused 
slight damage to a plaque donated by 
Beijing and another last March outside 
the headquarters of the Tibet regional 
government 



RaacDGnlMinRl 

HONORING A HERO — Children in Manila watching through 
barriers during a parade in honor of the reform leader Jose RizaL His 
execution on Dec. 30, 1896, sparked a revolution against Spanish rule. 


SINGAPORE: Blunt Message to Voters Sets Scene for Election 


More Rwandan Trials Signaled 


Reuters 

KIGALI. Rwanda — Two 
Rwandans appeared in court on 
Monday for the first genocide trials in 
the Rwandan capital but their cases 
were immediately adjourned. 

Deputy Justice Minister Gerard 
Gahima later announced that more 
genocide trials would take place on 
Tuesday in the northeastern city of 
Byumba. 

One of the suspects was named as 
Francois Bizimana while the other 
was said to be a former speaker of 


Rwanda’s Parliament whose name 
was not immediately known. 

A court in Kigali adjourned the trial 
of Silas Munyageshali, a former pros- 
ecutor in Kigali, to an unfixed date. 

A three-roan panel of judges headed 
by Judge Juriel Rutaremara ruled that 
it would be unfair to try Mr. Mun- 
yageshali in the same court he pre- 
viously served as prosecutor. 

The trial of Theodomir Ruzirab- 
woba. a 50-year-old former admin- 
istrator in Kigali, was adjourned until 
Jan. 3. 


International Recrnitment 

Appears every Monday. 

To advertise contact Fred Ronan 
TeL: + 33 1 41 43 93 91 Fax: + 33 1 41 43 93 70 
or your nearest IHT office or representative. 


Continued from Page 1 

They Tl become slums. Thai’s my mes- 
sage.” 

In a subsequent open letter to Singa- 
poreans. the governing party, known by 
its initials as the PAP, noted that the flats 
would increase in value after upgrading. 

“Please remember that the PAP gov- 
ernment cannot upgrade all estates at the 
same time," the letter said. “Our re- 
sources are limited Which ones to up- 
grade first will depend on you. If you give 
strong support, you will be first in line." 

Opposition candidates protest that the 
party's decision to link the upgrading 
program to political affiliation amounts 
to vote-buying. 

Chia Shi Teck, a businessman running 
as an independent, said that though the 
government rationalized its action by 
saying that the upgrading was a gov- 
ernment program, the “flaw here is that 
the money comes from all taxpayers." 

In Washington, a State Department 
spokeswoman also criticized the move 
last week, saying. “We believe that 
voters everywhere should be able to vote 
without fear of repercussions from gov- 
ernment as a result of their responsi- 
bilities as citizens." 

The U.S. comment drew an official 
protest from Singapore, which de- 
nounced it as “undisguised interference" 
in the country's domestic politics. 

Information Minister George Yeo, 
noting that “pork-barrel politics has a 
veiy long tradition " in the United Slates, 
commented: “So I find it quite strange 
that the Americans should be enunci-" 
ating a principle which clearly doesn't 
apply in America itself." 

Many Western officials and analysts 
find it equally strange that the Singapore 
government is so concerned about the 
possible growth of a credible political 
opposition in the island-state. 

Opposition parties held four seats in 
the old 81 -member Parliament. In the 
current elections, weak and fragmented 
opposition groups and independents are 
running for only 36 of the 83 parlia- 
mentary seats being contested, thus pos- 
ing no challenge to the People's Action 
Party’s hold on power. Since die gov- 
erning party is contesting all seats, it is 
guaranteed ja comfortable majority. 

While critics complain that dissent in 
Singapore is systematically discour- 
aged, even some opposition members 
concede that the governing party's dom- 
inance is largely a result or its achieve- 
ments in delivering economic growth, 
full employment and better bousing, 
health care, education, living standards 
and quality of life for an overwhelming 
majority of Singaporeans. 

Singapore’s average per capita in- 
come was $22,400 in 1995, the ninth 


highest in the world. Still, many Singa- 
poreans grumble about high costs of 
goods and services, an issue that the 
opposition is seeking to exploit. 

J. B. Jeyaretnam, a lawyer and veteran 
leader of the opposition Workers’ Party, 
said that as Singaporeans became in- 
creasingly well-educated and affluent, 
they wanted more say in government 

“The people's desire at the moment,' ' 
he said, “is that some checks, some 
brakes, must now come into place in 
Singapore to stop the PAP from be- 
having autocratically in any way it 
pleases without consulting the people." 

Yet ahead of the elections, Ihe gov- 
ernment changed the voting system to 
increase the number of multimernber 
constituencies at the expense of single- 
seat wards. The opposition charged that 
this would make it harder for its can- 
didates to win seats in Parliament. 

As a result of the changes, almost nine 
out of 10 members of Parliament will 
come from Group Representation Con- 
stituencies. each having between four 


and six members of Parliament headed 
by a minister. In the Parliament elected 
in 1 99 1. just over seven out of 10 mem- 
bers were from such constituencies. 

Prime Minister Goh said that enlar- 
ging the group constituencies would 
give more authority and responsibility to 
residents to manage their own public 
housing estates. But analysts say that 
such constituencies favor large, well- 
established parties, such as the People's 
Action Party. 

Candidates chi a multimernber slate 
must either be from the same party or 
each must be an independent One mem- 
ber of the team must be from Singa- 
pore's non-Chinese ethnic minorities. 

In 1991, the People’s Action Party’s 
share of the vote was just over 59 per- 
cent, down from 7 5.5 percent in 1980. 

The government is concerned that if 
its vote share goes down again or the 
opposition gains more seats, thus could 
start to undermine the business and in- 
vestment confidence that it considers 
critical to the nation's prosperity. 



Seoul Strikers 
Take a Break 


fie*' York Tunes Service 

SEOUL — Tirade unions suspen- 
ded their five-day-old general strike 
Monday for the New Year's hoi-.: 
idays. but they threatened to resume » 
with more force titan ever at the . 
beginning of next week. 

A clash between strikers and non- 
strikers left several people injured . 
Monday, but by and large the day:} 
was peaceful as. striking subway, 
workers in Seoul returned to the job .. 
and hospitals returned to fttU op-.; ; 
eration. The streets of Seoul were-, 
filled with shoppers. 

The strike is the biggest in the. 
nation's history, with perhaps as », 
many as several hundred thousand 
people joining in for the last few _ 
days. While the strike has not come 
close to paralyzing the nation’s econ- . . 
oray as a whole, it has shut down 7 
many factories in the atnomolrile •* 
man ufacturing and ship-building 
sectors, and disrupted some hospitals 
and subway systems. 


§ 




■(* . 
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ts>V 

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r. 




Singapore’s prime minister, Goh Chok Tong, at an eledtiocrall^rad^ 


China Cautions 
On Spratly Airstrip 

MANILA ; — China on Monday 
criticized the Philippines for open- 
ing an airat^ on oik of the disputed 
Spratly Islands, but Manila said it 
was merely upgrading supply lines 
to its troops tune and not building a 
new garrison. 

The Chinese Embassy said in a 
statement that Hhim “enjoys indis- 
putable sovereignty" over the South 
China Sea Islands and urged the Phil- 
ippines not to take any action that 
would harm relations. 

The chief of PhlUppme armed 
forces. .General Amulfo Acedera. 
inaugurated the 13 kilometer-long 
(0.8 mile) airstrip on one of the 
islands in the Kalayaan island group 
during a visit Dec. 25 to Filipino 
soldiers in the area. 

General Acedera said in a state- 
ment Monday drat he went to Kalay- 
aan mainly "to bring Christmas, 
cheers to the troops" and also to 
reopen an existing out renovated air- 
. strip. He denied newspaper reports 
that Manila-planned to seuip a. new. 
garrison in Kalayaan. (Reu ters) 

Subversion Trial Set 
For Union Leader 

JAKARTA — An Indonesian 
court Monday ordered a prominent 
labor leader to stand trial on sub- 
version charges. 

Muchtar Pakpahan, chairman of 
die illegal Indonesian Welfare 
Labor Union, is accused of express- 
ing hatred for the government of 
President Suharto. If convicted, be 
could be sentenced to death. 

Mr. Pakpahan originally was ac : 
cased of mating anti-government 
protests that broke out July 27. But 
prosecutors have not referred to the 
riots in court, since they apparently" 
cannot link him to the violence. Mr.% 
Pakpahan says he is innocent. ■ 

The three-judge panel scheduled 
a hearing Jan. 9 for prosecution wit- 
nesses to testify. (AP) 

Prayers for Peace 
At Islamic . Conclave 

TONGL Bangladesh — An es- 
timated 2 million Muslims from 
around the world ended a three-day 
annual gathering Monday with 
mass prayers calling for peace, 
through the practice of Islamic ten- 
ets, organizers said. 

Islamic scholars urged devotees 
10 shun luxuries, follow the teach- 
ings of Islam and seek blessings 
from Allah. 

Bangladesh's . prime minister, 
Ha s ina Wazed and her arch-rival, 
Khalida. Zia, chief of the main op- . 
position Bangladesh Nationalist ■ 
Party, attended the annual cere- 
mony at Tongi. 18 kilometers (12 *| 
miles) north of Dhaka. 

Nearly 80 couples were married 
ax the event, called Biswa Ijtema, . 
which is believed to have been held 1 
at the same she for more than 100 ■ 
years. {Reuters) .: 

War on Pollution 
At the Taj Mahal 

NEW DELHI — India' s Supreme 
Court, cracking down on chemical ' 
and carbon fumes threatening the 
Taj Mahal, on Monday ordered 292 
coal-based industries ra its vicinity 
to close by the end of 1997. the 
UmtedNews of India said . 

It said the court set Dec. 31, 1997, 
as the deadline for coke or coal-based 
industries to leave the Taj Trapea- 
unu the area within a 70-kilometer 
(44-mfle)xadhis of the famed mauki- 
leum at Agra, about 200 kilometers 
south of New Delhi The court also 
ordered officials to cut off coke and 
coal supplies to the industries in the , 
area around the monument by April 
30, the news agency sakL 

Environmentalists say the monu- 
ment has already been severely dam- 
aged by carbon smoke trad; sulfur 
dioxide fumes that cause a decaying 
of the rock, -. . / * (Reuters) 


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INTERNATIO NAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 31, 1996- WEDNESDAYS JANUARY 1, 1997 

Europe 


PAGE 5 





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y Insists It Is Not Divided 

Rowing to Defend Stability 9 It Disowns Support for Demonstrators 




fimpCi'd bp OwrSiq&Fnjm Dijpalctici 

BELGRADE — The Yugoslav Army 


fire on demonstrators if ordered to do so. 
The letter also warned the opposition Za- 


led Yugoslavia. Although Sneezing cold and 
a thick cover of snow limited their numbers. 


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spiff ovCTroppcHt jedno coalition feat tolled ^7^000 

ror rresidentiloDodan Milosevic m his dis- m its turn if it hwanw aummiHp in nnuiar n»>vh «Ka c<»n oiua. 


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Ipute with the opposition as demonstrators 
marched in Belgrade for the 43d day. 

In a statement carried by the official Tan- 
Jug news agency,, the army chief of staff, 
General Momcilo Perisic, vowed to defend 
'Serbia's stability. He also criticized state- 
frients, apparently by army units, supporting 
■the continuing and huge anti-government 
■rallies. 

Buoyed by a statement of support that was 
;said to be from dissident army officers, the 
demonstrators renewed their demands that 
Mr. Mfiosevic recognize opposition victor- 
ies in local elections last month. 

An unsigned and imautiy » nrirgu»^ letter, 
^ead before 50,000 apposition supporters on 
Sunday, warned Mr. Milosevic that its au- 
thors, which apparently included men of the 
[elite 63d Paratroop Brigade, would refuse to 


in its turn if it became autocratic in power. 

But an official army statement later 
stressed the service's unity, although it made 
no pledge of loyalty to Mr. Milosevic. He has 
struggled for six weeks to contain fee 
protests that have paralyzed Belgrade for 
more than six hours every day. 

The army - leadership’s statement on 
Monday denounced any “interpretation of 
the army’s role” that “does not reflect its 
official position. 

“The chief of staff and the army as a 
whole are unanimous about achieving to the 
letter their set tasks. Any other interpretation 
of the army’s role does not reflect its official 
position,'' the statement said. 

Despite police moves to drive demon- 
strators off main streets, the protest wave is 
the most sustained push for democratization 
in 50 years of leftist, one-party rule in Serbia- 


ns arch across the Sava River bridge on 
Monday but were blocked by the police and 
forced to retreat into a pedestrian mall. 

Later, tens of thousands of people backing 
the Zajedno coalition .massed in Republic 
Square as riot police packed adjacent streets 
to prevent protesters from swarming into 
traffic zones. 

Dejan Bulatovic, a Zajedno activist who 
was beaten while in police custody , appeared 
at the rally after he was released Monday. He 
served 25 days in jail for carrying an effigy of 
Mr. Milosevic in prison garb. 

“They are wrong if they think we have 
achieved nothing in these 41 days," ore of 
Zajedno's leaders. Zoran Djindjic, told fee 
crowd. 

“We began by chasing a fox that stole our 
votes and ended up driving a dinosaur out of 
its lair.’’ , (Reuters. AFP) 




INTERNATIONAL 


Mbdcn. 

Emir Kusturica, the Yugoslav film director of “Under- 
ground,” telling demonstrators Monday he supported them. 


BRIEFLY E U ROP 


Hebron Accord Is Reported Close 

Agreement Could Be Signed on Tuesday, Negotiators Say 


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Ccnpdid by Otv Stitf From Dbpatdn 

JERUSALEM — Israeli and Pales- 
tinian officials said Monday that Prime 
Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was poised 
to hand over the occupied Wesr Bank 
town of Hebron to Palestinian self-rule. 

Both sides said that some obstacles 
remained, but feat the elusive agreement 
on turning most of Hebron over to Pal- 
estinian control was finally within reach. 

An aide to Yasser Arafat said die deal 
to transfer 80 percent of Hebron would 
be signed at a meeting on Tuesday be- 
tween the Palestinian leader and Mr. 
Netanyahu if negotiators wrapped up 
unresolved issues by then, 
v * ‘Otherwise, negotiations will contin- 
■■ ue and the agreement will be signed 
either Thursday or Friday," the aide to 
Mr. Arafat stiff 

The U.S. special envoy, Dennis Ross, 
who pushed and pulled the sides to- 
gether. flew in from Washington on 
Monday to mediate any last-minute 
snags. He met wife Mr. Netanyahu in 
Jerusalem soon after his arrival. 

“We expect to conclude today all fee 
subjects," Defense Minister Yitzhak 
Mordechti of Israel said earlier when he 
joined talks with Palestinian officials. 
“After signing, in a very short time 
redeployment wtD take place.*,'. ..... . 


* Trials i 

I.cmlvr 




Jewish Settler Kills Palestinian 


Reuters 

GAZA — A Jewish settler shot and 
killed a Palestinian who entered a set- 
tlement area in the Gaza Strip on 
Monday, the Israeli Army said. 

Security sources said the shooting 
— which coincided wife a critical 
stage in negotiations over a long- 
delayed toot pullout in the West 
Bank town of Hebron — took place in 
the KfarDarom settlement, a frequent 
target of guerrilla attacks. 

The Israeli Army confirmed the 
killing, first reported by the security 


Under the Israeli-Pal es tinian accords, rael's closest ally. Mr. Netanyahu stayed 

in fee negotiations while emphasizing 
that 20 percent of the town would remain 
under Israeli control. 

According to Palestinian officials, 
one major issue was fee Palestinian de- 
mand for joint Palestinian-Israeli secu- 
rity arrangements around the Tomb of 
die Patriarchs, a site sacred to Jews and 
Muslims. 

At present, Israeli forces alone police 
a strictly segregated schedule of worship 
for Jews ana Muslims, and Israel wants 
to maintain the arrangement 
Palestinian concerns about security at 
the site have heightened since a Jewish 
settler from nearby Qiryar Arba mas- 
sacred 29 Palestinians worshipping 
therein 1994. 

Other issues reportedly still in dispute 
include how and when to open to Pal- 
estinians a street feat runs past fee Jew- 
ish enclaves, the width of the proposed 
buffer zones around fee Jewish areas, 
and the number of police officers in fee 
joint Palestinian-Israeli patrols. 

Also unresolved is an Israeli demand 
to build freely in Jewish enclaves; the 
Palestinians insist that fee Jews must 
seek Palestinian permission. 

Underscoring tensions in Hebron, Is- 
IJnder. pressure from Washington. Is- . raeK troops ajested several, Palestinian 

construction workers Monday after Jew- 
ish settlers complained they were work- 
ing dose to a Jewish enclave in fee 
town. 

hi Parliament, Mr. Netanyahu's co- 
alition handily defeated a motion of no 
confidence in the government proposed 
by the far-right Moledet party in protest 
at the Hebron deal. 

But several coalition members stayed 
away during the vote to show they op- 
posed the agreement Four of fee 18 
cabinet members say they will oppose 
the deal in a cabinet vote. 

Defending fee accord to Likud Party 
colleagues, Mr. Netanyahu said the draft 
agreement contained at least 10 “sig- 
nificant changes" from that signed by 
Labor a year ago. ( Reuters , NYT, AP) 


Israel was to have pulled out of most of 
Hebron by last March, retaining a se- 
curity force around several enclaves of 
Jewish settlers who believe that they are 
staking a biblical claim to Hebron 
through- their presence there among 
150,000 Palestinians. 

But fee pullout was delayed after a 
series of terror attacks in Israel last spring, 
and on taking office in June. Mr. Net- 
anyahu reopened negotiations to try to 
stiffen the security arrangements. 

Mr. Arafat has used the renewed ne- 
gotiations to press demands of his own, 
including a detailed schedule for fee 
f ulfillm ent of other Jsraeli commitments 
under fee peace agreements, such as the 
release of Palestinian prisoners and a 
transit road between fee Gaza Strip and 
the West Bank. 

Mr. Netanyahu ran an election cam- 
paign against the self-rule accords that 
Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, his 
Nobel Peace Prize-winning prede- 
cessors, signed wife fee Palestine Lib- 
eration Organization. 

Hebron, long a flashpoint of violence 
between Arabs and Jews, is die last of 
seven West Bank towns scheduled for 
self-rule under a 1995 agreement 


sources, but said that the circum- 
stances were still under investigation. 

The army radio quoted fee settler as 
saying he opened fire when die Pal- 
estinian attacked him. The settler was 
detained for questioning, it said. 

It was not immediately known if the 
dead man had been armed, an army 
spokeswoman said. 

Witnesses said large numbers of 
Israeli soldiers and other security 
forces closed off the Kfar Darom area, 
an enclave near Palestinian refugee 
camps. 


Ihtican Condemns Slovenian Seeks End 
Anti-Semitic Raid To Political Impasse 


ROME — The Vatican on Monday 
condemned a desecration of Jewish 
graves in Rome, calling it “an offense 
against history," while Jewish leaders 
said they were worried about die 
growth of anti-Semitism in Italy. 

Vandals attacked the graves early 
Sunday, breaking tombstones and rip- 
ping the names and Stars of David off 
others. Jewish leaders blamed fee at- 
tack on skinheads. 

The Vatican spokesman. Joaquin 
Navarro Vails, called the attack “an 
offense to the memory of fee dead and 
an offense to history." 

One tomb was surrounded with 
barbed wire and swastikas with fee 
words "Arbeit macht frei." or work 
brings freedom, fee slogan at the en- 
trance to the Auschwitz death camp in 
Poland. 

Shimon Samuels, director for in- 
ternational affairs for the Simon 
Wiesenthal Center, a Paris-based 
Jewish rights group, said in a tele- 
phone interview he believed a neo- 
Nazi group with international contacts 
had carried out die attack. 

Judicial sources said Rome mag- 
istrates were investigating the pos- 
able involvement in the attack of 
rightist sympathizers linked to a group 
known as the “Western Political 
Movement." (Reuters) 

Blair Aims to Bring 
Government Down 

LONDON — The Labour Party 
leader, Tony Blair, called Monday for 
national elections as soon as possible, 
pledging to use all means to bring 
down the government before the May 
1997 deadline for the voting. 

In a New Year's message, Mr. Blair 
said Prime Minister John Major's 
government — now a minority ad- 
ministration — had been drifting aim- 
lessly for more than a year. "As the 
government staggers on, we will seek 
to bring it down in any way we can, in 
accordance wife the national interest 
and proper parliamentary proce- 
dure.’ 5 be said. { Reuters ) 


LJUBLJANA. Slovenia — Pres- 
ident Milan Kucan gave the acting 
prime minister, Janez Dmovsek, the 
task of forming a new government on 
Monday, but fee center-left leader ac- 
knowledged he faced an uphill 
struggle. 

Mr. Kucan urged all party leaders to 
try to break a political deadlock that 
arose from inconclusive general elec- 
tions on Nov. 10. 

Mr. Dmovsek's Libera] Democrats 
emerged as the strongest party, with 
25 of 90 parliamentary seats. But Mr. 
Dmovsek is pined against an alliance 
made up of the conservative People’s 
Party and the center-right Social 
Democrats and Christian Democrats. 

Together, they won 45 seats, one 
short of a majority. (Reuters) 

Eurostar Train Needs 
A Tow Out of Tunnel 

LONDON — A Eurostar passenger 
train traveling from London to Paris 
became stranded in the Channel tun- 
nel Monday and had to be towed out, 
the police said. 

“It would appear that the train was 
stuck due to an electronic systems 
failure." said a spokeswoman for fee 
Kent police, the local force on the 
English side of fee rail link. 

‘.'The train had to be dragged out of 
fee tunnel wife another unit," the 
spokeswoman said. 

She said there had not been an 
emergency situation, but there had 
been short delays in service. (AFP) 

Spanish Train Crash 
Kills 3 and Hurts 16 

BRESCIA, Italy — Riding along 
the same icy track, two commuter 
trains collided near this northern city 
Monday, killing three people and in- 
juring 16 others. fee authorities said. 

Some of the injured were in critical 
condition, said Luca Argentieri chief 
of staff in fee prefect's office in Bres- 
cia. (API 




. '*r.V 


EMPIRE: Asians Provide Jobs in Britain 


Contiaued from Page 1 


#' ' 4 


;r/V ace 

1 uni'll 




keis. The regions get jobs. While the jobs 
do not compare in pay or benefits or 
security wife fee ones they had in the 
shipyards and mines, the workers are 
grateful nonetheless, because for most of 
them the alternative is worse. 

■ ■ Consider, for example. Kenneth 

Chapman, who used to weak at a coal pit 

■ ~ — which was closed during the Thatcher 

era — hauHrtg huge steel girders to shore 
• r - up the mine’s walls. Now he works on 
’ - fee assembly line at an ultra-modern 
microwave-oven factory near here 
owned by LG Electronics, better known 
by its brand name. Lucky Goldstar. 

‘ ) Mr. Chapman knew the work would 
be different from fee moment he went 
•- r for his job interview . He reported not to 
some grubby foreman’s offic e, bu t to a 
. ' clean, modular building sprawling 
• across an industrial park. No shop stew- 

ard. No smokestacks. No smoking. And 
something called “quality assurance. 

To get the job, the man who used to 
. .•> haul steel girders took, and passed, a 
dexterity test — he was timed as be stuck 
, • little pieces of metal into printed circuit 

- 1 boards. He now works on a modem 

everything 


. I 

In 


UrM 


unsteady, ranging fro m about $ 200 to 
about $230 a week, insufficiently pre- 
dictable for her to rent her own place and 
move out of her parents’ home. 

The new job carries a regular weekly 
check of about $240. When it is combined 
wife fee nights she works at The Lazy Pig 
pab, her earnings have allowed her to rent 
a bouse wife a friend. She’s got a new car, 
a subcompact Seat Ibiza, and she is 
spending money redecorating her house. 

Her job consists of making perfor- 
mance checks on television sets as they 
move down the assembly line. She 
fee color and the quality of fee 
image cm each channel for about 1,000 
screens a day . Asked whether she had any 
gripes about work, she thought of only 
one: She would like permission to play a 
radio at work, to help pass fee time. 

“In an English factory, that’s the first 
dung you hear, a radio,” she said. “My 
little heart would be content if I just' had 
a radio." She has heard nothing back on 
her request and cannot figure out why. 

The only miners left around here are 
little carved figurines made of “genuine 
Newcastle coal" that cost a few dollars 
at souvenir shops. Every now and then. 
Mr. Chapman and his buddies — men 
who work wife him at fee Korean-owned 
factory and used to work at fee mines — 
■ and talk about old 



1 Role Reversal I 

As jobs In the shipyards and coal mines of Britain disappeared, foreign investors from South Korea and Taiwan-once 
considered Third World countries- built factories and created employment in toe depressed areas of Britain-considered 
a rich country. Here are some of toe larger investments. In order of jobs created. 

!■ Company i 

[ Location 

1 Product 1 No. of jobs created 

1 Completion date M 

LG Electronics 

Wales 

PC chips.TV components 

6,100 

1996 

Chungwa Picture 
Tubes Co. Ltd. 

Scotland 

Cathode ray tubes 

3,300 

1995 

Daewoo Electronics Ltd. 

N. Ireland 

VCR's 

1,030 

1988/96 

Lite-On Group 

Scotland 

Computer monitors 

1,000 

1997 

LG Electronics 

England 

Microwave ovens, TVs 

535 

1988/94 

Tatung Co. 

England 

TVs, satellite receivers 

500 

1984 

Dae Ryung Group 

N. Ireland 

Satellite receivers 

500 

1995 

Mrtac International Corp. 

England 

Computers 

400 

1987 

Haifa Business Group 

Wales 

Excavators, forfdrfts 

309 

1996 

CMC Magnetics Corp. 

England 

Floppy disks 

300 

1993 

Shin Ho Tech 

Scotland 

PC monitors 

300 

1996 

Sourca; Department of Trade and Industry 



The W*>hjnguin Pi*u 


BELGRADE: 

Beginning of the End? 

Continued from Page 1 

striking. The Communist system in 
Serb-led Yugoslavia has proved both 
more flexible and more entrenched fear 
the governments that fell in 19S9 as soon 
as it became clear feat they were no 
longer backed by fee Soviet Union. 

“This is a homegrown Communist 
regime that carried out its own revolution, 
and was answerable to its own people." 
said a Western diplomat here. “In that 
sense , Milosevic has more legitimacy 
than the other Communist leaders." 

In contrast to the rest of Eastern 
Europe, which was freed from German 
rule during World War U by the Red 
Army, Yugoslavia largely liberated it- 
self. Having borne the brunt of the fight- 
ing againsi the Nazi occupiers. Tito’s 
Communist partisans found themselves 
in a privileged position at fee end of fee 
war. Alone among East European Com- 
munist parties, they refused to passively 
take orders from Stalin, and were ex- 
pelled from the Moscow-led interna- 
tional Communist movement in 1948. 

After Mikhail Gorbachev began to 
liberalize fee Soviet Union, the EasL 
European regimes were swept away. In 
Yugoslavia, however, the one-party 
mentality proved much more tenacious. 

Mr. Milosevic was able to preserve 
his power base in Serbia, the largest of 
six former Yugoslav republics, by tap- 
ping into a rich vein of Serbian na- 
tionalism. His political transformation 
led to the rise of countemationalisms in 
fee other republics. Then came the vi- 
olent destruction first of Yugoslavia and 
then of Bosnia, where all the nation- 
alisms ultimately collided. 

Almost a decade later, Mr. Milosevic 
is witnessing the bitter fruits of his suc- 
cessful power grab. His dream of a single 
Serbian state, stretching from the Danube 
almost to the Adriatic, ties in ruins. 

More than 600.000 refugees from 
Serb-inhabited areas of Croatia and Bos- 
nia have fled to Serbia proper. Serbia is 
economically devastated and interna- 
tionally isolated 

The fact that Mr. Milosevic has man- 
aged not only to remain in power, but 
also to shift much of the blame for the 
disaster orttb^ others, shows his ability to 
feanipulaie.Serbki’s political culture. 

“He is a political genius,” said an 
East European diplomat “He lost 
everything, but somehow emerged a 
winner." 

Paradoxically. Serbia's poverty and 
international pariah status may actually 
have contributed to Mr. Milosevic's 
longevity. The Serbian leader has posed 
as the guarantor of a minimum standard 
of living for ordinary people that could 
be imperiled by radical economic re- 
forms. At the same time, he has been 
able ro convince a significant portion of 
Serbia's 10 million population that the 
rest of the world is againstiL. 

‘ ‘The big powers do not want a strong 
Serbia," Mr. Milosevic said ai a rally 
last week in Belgrade. “That is why they 
are attempting to destabilize the country 
through the creation of a fifth column." 

Such rhetoric does not impress fee 
urbanized elite, but.it plays well in the 
countryside, which has always been the 
backbone of support for Mr. Milosevic. 

Even in fee cities, public opinion is 
divided. For every citizen of Belgrade 
who has taken part in the demonstrations, 
at least five or six have stayed home. 

At the height of fee demonstrations, 
about 200, (XX) of Belgrade's two million 
residents may have been on the streets. 
Over the past few days, daily attendance 
has dropped ro 10,000 or so, partly be- 
cause of bitterly cold weather and partly 
because of police intimidation. 

While talk of Mr. Milosevic's im- 
minent demise seems premature, he has 
suffered a major political setback. The 
opposition has been reinvigorated. The 
process of normalizing relations with the 
West, which would allow Yugoslavia to 
regain access to international credit mar- 
kets. has been set back by many months. 
Cracks have begun to appear in the 
hitherto monolithic regime. 

The leaders of Montenegro, a moun- 
tainous republic which is Serbia’s junior 
partner in the rump Yugoslavia, are also 
distancing themselves from fee Milo- 
sevic regime. If the Montenegrins were 
to withdraw support from Mr. Milosevic 
in the federal Parliament, his political 
position would be gravely weakened 

“There are two superpowers that can 
affect fee situation in Serbia," joked 
Vuk Draskovic, a leader of the oppo- 
sition coalition. “The United States and 
Montenegro." 

Serbians economic situation is un- 
likely to improve so long as Mr. Mi- 
losevic is in power. 

“He has no intention of embarking on 
reforms, and this is what is ultimately 
going to destroy him," said Mr. 
Djindjic, fee Democratic Parry leader. 
“He has created a system which is not 
able to survive over fee long term." 


assembly line where everything is 

timed: So many ovens get made in so . . . _ 

many seconds, wife just so much in- get together at a pub and talk i 
ventioiy waiting for fee next batch — fee times, nostalgically, men only, 
“just-in-time system.” 

At 38, Mr. Chapman earns less now 
than he did almost 20 years ago in the 
mine -—$240 a week now vers us $3 00 a 

week then — and there are no extras, no 

system of bonuses that gave him a little 
more money for a little more coal. 

‘“The methods are strange,* ’ Mr. Giap- 
xnan said ‘The British method is more 
easygomg. The Koreans, Japanese, they 
put a time Kmit” on every step in the 


UJW, UUOUU^VMIJ, 

They know they have become what 

they used to call “cheap labor, " the term 

J — . — j countries use 
beingputoutof 
in such 


process. a 

BmtKrtaUfeewoEfcflrsarLGseefeezr 
jobs as a. step down. For Mandy Little, 
25. it w*S a step up. 


Her memory of ; coal mining starts 
where Mr. Chapman's ends , when 


the 

mining company laid off her father. As a 
girl, she watched the area deteriorate. 
When she Jgft school at 16, she and most 


workers in devel 
when complaining 
work by low-wage 
places as Taiwan and Korea. 

“It’s like all Korean and Japanese and 
that type of company” in fee area now, 
they say. These companies know they 
can offer a lower rate of pay “because 
jobs are hard ro geL 

Those whose job it is to attract in- 
vestment say fee issue of national pride is 

outmoded It no longer matters which 
nation makes what, says Andrew Fraser, 
executive director of the Invest in Bncun 
Bureau, a government agency. “Astoey 
say, ‘Toyota is made in Toyota, he 


^Some of the workers, oa lt,e other 

here, went to wok in a gamentfact^y ^^^^ewoos fflid the LGs of fee 
where feeyroade dofee s for Mark s and songs. feeDaew^; Something went 
Spencer, the British d^artment store world They tans ^ 6 

chain, It was piecework and fee pay was wrong bens. 


Kohl Seeks Support 
On Welfare Cuts 

Reuters 

BONN — Chancellor Helmut 
Kohl in a New Year's message, is 
calling on Germans to accept cuts in 
fee comprehensive welfare system 
and meet new economic challenges 
if they want to maintain prosperity. 

The text of Mr. Kohl’s televised 
address was released in advance on 
Monday. 

“We Germans can’t just go on 
doing what we always have," the 
address said “Anyone who tries to 
do this is gambling away oar fu- 
ture." 

Mr. Kohl urged unions, employ- 
ers and politicians to work together 
to secure economic recovery, espe- 
cially in fee interests of the 4 million 
Germans who are out of work. 

And he made clear that the scope 
of the welfare system would con- 
tinue to be narrowed 


EUROPE: British Politicians Bristle at KinkeVs Advice on Voting 


Continued from Page 1 

a future dominated by bossy Germans — 
Europe 's largest economy and presumed 
loudest voice. 

Bonn’s Foreign Ministry spokesman. 
Martin Erdmann, said at a news con- 
ference diet his boss had “certainly not 
intended" to interfere in fee domestic 
political affairs of a fellow EU nation. 

But fear denial came only after be had 
underscored every Euroskeptic’s worst 
fears of a loss of sovereignty by saying, 
“In a European Union which aspires to 
become a political union, interference in 
internal affairs is by definition hardly 
possible." 

Mr. Kinkel's comments come at fee 
end of one of the worst years in Britain's 
relationship wife Europe since it joined 
the then European Community nearly 25 
years ago. It has been a year marked by 
heated and repealed disputes oyer 
everything from European fishing 
quotas to Britain’s handling of the out- 
break of so-called mad cow disease. 


Those battles have transformed what 
has long been Europe's least enthusi- 
astic backer of closer ties into a nation 
making fitful tries at fee role of party 
wrecker — at fee darkest of times 
pledging to hold to a policy of “non- 
cooperation" wife its Continental part- 
ners, and at fee best of times insisting 
that closer European ties and an ex- 
panded EU must not mean the loss of 
such precious national prerogatives as 
Britain’s veto over important decisions. 

What Mr. Kinkel has done is to throw 
fee focus of Britain's forthcoming elec- 
tion back on a subject — Europe — that 
has already almost ruined fee ruling 
Conservative Party and shows potential 
to sow divisiveness in the ranks of fee 
opposition parties as well. 

Britain's Labour Party, with its com- 
manding 20 percent lead in the polls, has 
long been seen on the Continent as fee 
best hope of bringing Britain back into 
fee heart of European affairs. 

Labour's ardor for Europe may be 
cooling off. however. New evidence of 


feat came Monday wife the response Mr. 
Kinkel’s comments received from the 
party's foreign affairs spokesman. 
Robin Cook. 

* * We have stressed that a Labour gov- 
ernment could only join a single cur- 
rency wife fee consent of the British 
people." he said. 

with Britain's economic recovery in its 
fourth year, wife unemployment now be- 
low 7 percent versus fee stumbling eco- 
nomic revivals in Europe and still-rising, 
double-digit joblessness, fee appeal of 
closer ties to fee Continent is limited — 
for voters as well as politicians. 

Tun Melville-Ross, for instance, the 
director-general of fee Institute of Di- 
rectors, a group representing 40,000 ex- 
ecutives from mostly small- and me- 
dium-sized companies issued his own 
New Year’s message Monday. In it he 
urged the government to reject fee single 
currency, saying that joining up “would 
so constrain our economic freedom as to 
make it virtually impossible for us io 
compete successfully." 





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INTERNATIONAL 



tribune 


PUBLISHED WITH THE NFW YOBX Tuns Aim THU WMWWTTttV FW5T 


Post-Oslo Challenge 


Hebron is a special case. It is die lost 
West Bank city still under Israeli oc- 
cupation: a few hundred Jews, reli- 
gious-minded settlers, live downtown 
surrounded by more than 100,000 Ar- 
abs. In tranquil times, a security pack- 
age for the settlers would be hard 
enough to arrange. In the current ten- 
sion, it is hellishly difficult. The tension, 
though, is not so much over Hebron. It is 
about what is to come afterward. 

In the Oslo accords for an interim 
settlement with Yasser Arafat’s Pal- 
estinian Authority, Israel agreed to 
conduct four successive Hebron and 
post-Hebron West Bank redeploy- 
ments, or limited withdrawals. Had 
Labor won in May. it presumably 
would have acted on that obligation. 
Labor was moving to explicit accept- 
ance of a Palestinian state, and the 
three further redeployments would 
have foreshadowed that state's territ- 
orial boundaries. But Labor lost. 

Likud, which had campaigned 
against Oslo, won. Thus did Benjamin 
Netanyahu come to power legally 
committed as prime minister to respect 
Oslo's terms but politically committed 
as party leader to repudiate them. 
Likud realizes that Hebron puts it on 
the slippery slope to Labor's Pales- 
tinian state. No wonder, despite prodi- 


gious American prodding, that die 
Hebron talks go so slowly. 

In Israel it is being debated whether 
the government should skip Oslo or at 
least the redeployments that Oslo re- 
quires beyond Hebron, and instead pro- 
ceed directly to “final status” nego- 
tiations on borders, settlers, Jerusalem 
and so on. Not that these talks would 
have a snowball’s chance in July. But 
deadlock both on Oslo implementation 
and on final-status negotiation may 
have a certain appeal for an Israeli 
government that rejects the notion of a 
Palestinian state and is prepared to 
favor the holding of territory over the 
reaching of agreement and peace. 

The kraeli-Palestinian negotiations 
are at a dangerous place. The Israelis 
are reluctant to surrender territory, and 
the Palestinians are reluctant to 
provide the security that is the in ar- 
guable quid pro quo. The old formulas 
of land for peace and a state for security 
are fading. In these circumstances h is 
not enough for President Bill Clinton 
to send ms negotiators back for one 
after another session on Hebron. His 
administration must accept the large 
new post-Oslo dimension of the prob- 
lem and engage Israeli and Palestinian 
leaders directly on iL 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Copyright Treaties 


The passage of two new global treat- 
ies on copyright in Geneva — one on 
written material one on sound record- 
ings — goes a long step toward laying 
the groundwork for applying interna- 
tional law to the Internet's interna- 
tional activity. The 160 countries that 
agreed to the treaties still must pass 
legislation of their own to implement 
and enforce them, so their actual effect 
on the Net is hard to gauge. But the 
action taken at the World Intellectual 
Property Organization meeting was 
notable also for the degree to which 
domestic interest groups — nonprofit 
and educational groups as well as 
companies — were able to influence a 
process that many had feared would 
turn out to be an end run around op- 
position at home. 

One question going into the Geneva 
meeting was whether the voices of U.S. 
domestic interests would be adequately 
heard there. The answer seems to be a 
tentative “yes.” with no small role 
being played in the trans-Atlantic lob- 
bying by the Internet itself. 

The conference's best decision was 
to table indefinitely an ill-advised pro- 
posal for a treaty to create a new in- 
tellectual property right in electronic 
databases. Critics also blocked several 
clauses that might have criminalized 
types of copying that are considered 
legal when done on paper — for in- 
stance. photocopying an article to send 


to a friend. (The delegates adopted 
language that protects the right to “fair 
use” of copyright material, a turn- 
around from earlier drafts.) These 
moves are signs that lobbying has be- 
gun making the transition from do- 
mestic to global. 

That the critics* worst feats did not 
materialize is good news for the thriv- 
ing U.S. information and telecommu- 
nications industries, not to mention 
commercial and noncommercial users 
of the new medium. 

Many of the more interesting and 
hard-fought questions about the future 
shape of electronic property rights re- 
main to be worked out at home. Many 
service providers particularly are con- 
cerned about the treaties’ refusal to 
protect them from liability for infringe- 
ments by people using their services; 
they argue, with considerable logic, 
that a service provider forced to vet all 
e-mail messages or electronic trans- 
actions would have to charge prohib- 
itive prices for the service. As usual, 
this is a matter of what parallels or 
definitions lawmakers choose to adopL 
Are these providers entitled to phone- 
company-style protection, or are they a 
new kind of beast altogether? 

The Geneva treaties did not, as 
feared, close off those questions before 
they could be asked. There is room, 
and need, for scrutiny to continue. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


‘Hidden Epidemic’ 


Even without counting AIDS or HIV 
infections, the United States has a high- 
er rate of sexually transmitted diseases 
than any other developed country. That 
is the finding of a distinguished panel 
of health care expats assembled by the 
Institute of Medicine, a branch of the 
National Academy of Sciences. In a 
recent report, the panel recommends a 
national public education and aware- 
ness campaign to combat what it calls a 
“hidden epidemic.” 

Last year half of the 10 most com- 
mon diseases reported to the Centers 
for Disease Control and Prevention 
were sexually transmitted diseases, in- 
cluding chlamydial infection, syphilis 
and gonorrhea. Most of these diseases 
are curable, but without treatment they 
can cause infertility, cancer, birth de- 
fects and even death. 

They cost taxpayers $10 billion a 
year in direct costs like Medicaid and 
indirect costs like higher health premi- 
ums. The panel calculated that for every 
SI spent by the government to prevent 
sexually transmitted diseases. $43 is 
spent on treatment and other costs. The 
inattention to prevention has been fed 
by a general reluctance to talk about 
diseases related to sexual activity. 

The persistence of these diseases un- 
derscores a need for new strategies, 
including more prevention efforts dir- 
ected toward teenagers and women. Ad- 
olescents account for 25 percent of the 
12 million new cases of sexually trans- 
mitted diseases each year. Women suf- 
fer disproportionately from complica- 
tions associated with sexually trans- 
mitted diseases, from chronic pelvic 
pain to infertility and cervical cancer. 


While the panel would like more 
funding for prevention of these dis- 
eases. it places even greater emphasis 
on the need for more open discussion 
of sexual activity and its con- 
sequences. Doctors would profit from 
forthright talks with patients about 
sexual behavior as part of routine 
health examinations, and patients 
would benefit from more screening for 
diseases like chlamydia. In addition, 
the report suggests, while teenagers 
should be encouraged to delay sexual 
activity, those who engage in sex ought 
to be told how to avoid diseases. The 
report makes clear that reducing the 
rate of infection means bringing this 
epidemic out in the open. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 

. _ Other Comment 

A Priority for the Red Cross 

The debate presently under way in 
the International Committee of the Red 
Cross on the future of humanitarian 
interventions is of crucial importance. 
Although of little consequence in the 
short term, proposals aimed at pre- 
venting conflict, such as on what the 
ICRC can do to hinder the international 
arms trade or prevent the use of land 
mines, will be at the heart of the 
ICRC’s future efforts. If the Red Cross 
movement is to be successful in its 
mission, it cannot continue merely to 
respond passively to crises, but must 
take the initiative to at least try to 
prevent them. 

— Neue Ziircher Zeitung {Zurich). 


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Europe Isn’t Russia and Shouldn’t Be Bullied 

A ravMVinM 


W ASHINGTON — The issue of 
NATO’s enlargement, arguably 
die most important with which Bill 
Clinton will have to deal as his second 
term begins, deserves to be taken to a 
higher plane. It is not an arcane technical 
question but an emotionally and cul- 
turally insistent one. In Central Europe, 
it is about a quest for comfort in a region 
that has known much pain. In the demo- 
cratic West, it is about core identity. 

Arriving in Budapest in 1988, 1 be- 
came the latest traveler to note “the 
pervasive Westem-ness of Hungary, 
evident in the Viennese look of Bud- 
apest — hauntingly beautiful even in 
the March grayness, in its church and 
intellectual traditions and the ironic 
cast of mind, in the history, including 
the recent history ( 1944-1947, 1 956) of 
democratic experience, in the flashes of 
resentment that the West abandoned 
Hungary at Versailles and later.” 

The Holocaust memoirist Primo Levi 
wrote of arriving in Hungary on his way 
home from Auschwitz; “We now felt 
ourselves in Europe, protected by a civ- 
ilization which was ours.” This state- 
ment seems to me to pierce to the heart 
of a NATO debate that has got hung up 
on abstract concepts of “security ar- 
chitecture” and "drawing a line.** 


By Stephen S. Rosenfeld 


Yes, we should be talking about se- 
curity. But first we should be talking 
about Primo Levi’s dvflization of 
Europe, the ideas and institutions that, 
however imperfectly applied, define 
what needs most to be defined and 
favored in the West. 

A line already is drawn in Europe —a 

line of culture and tradition, the abiding 
realities. Chi one side is Europe, and on 
the other is Russia. The drawing of (his 
line is not something that diplomats have 
DcwJy undertaken. It was done over cen- 
turies by the people who lived there. 

It is not simply a hostility to Russia 
that makes the Central Europeans long 
for a political place matching their un- 
deniable historical place in the West, 
although there is a hostility to Russia, 
and it has its reasons. & is a craving to 
correct the cruel acts by which the Cen- 
tral European and other non-Russian 
parts of the Soviet empire were forcibly 
isolated from their authentic roots. 

The West’s Russia-fiisters are re- 
luctant to acknowledge that history has 
drawn a tine between Europe and Rus- 
sia. To ray so burdens the democrats in 
Russia. This is reason enough to justify 


a certain discretion. But it is not reason 
enough to make others pay heavily and 
indefinitely to polish the pale image of 
Russia as a Western n&tion. 

You do not have to be a cultural 
deteoninist, or to believe that civil- 
izations! clash is the dynamic of con- 
temporary politics, in order to have a 
healthy respect for the factors that make 
Europe Europe and Russia Russia. 

Hils is what is lost down die memory 
hole when the experts talk of not over- 
loading Russia’s psychological and 
political circ uits by moving NATO too 
far and too fast to the east, of not 
pressing Russia at a time when its his- 
torical fears of invasion and en- 
circlement have been aggravated by its 
recent loss of great-power parity, em- 
pire, aiiinnrw and buffer. 

These are among the currents play- 
ing in Moscow. They also play in toe 
minds of the West’s Russia-firsters. 
Considerations of prudence require us 
to be attentive to the churning in a state 
whose partnership it is still imperative 
to cultivate in a variety of ways. 

But considerations of a higher order 


experience — compel us to be attentive 
to the calls from Central Europe. 

Is it hysteria or some devious form of 


revenge-seeking that prompts the 
Poles, the Hungarians, the Czechs and 
others — not least the Balts— to seek 
the comforts of an open association 
with the West? No. I would say it is a 
well-honed sense of history and a prag- 
matic effort to take advantage of cur- 
rent circumstances — meaning the 
lingering but not forever ensured 
American post-Cold War presence in 
Europe — to lock in security. 

The Russia-first school tends to posit 
an eifoer-or choice between the separate 
appeals of Russia and Central Europe. 
In feet, American diplomacy ought to 
have flte suppleness to blur fee choice. 

You always can argue tactics, but the 
Clinton administration has been stra- 
tegically right in offering something to 
both parties: NATO membership to 
those meeting alliance standards, a 
Apiguf. measure of strategic cooper- 
ation to tire Russians. American-Rus- 
siaa cooperation in Bosnia has pro- 
vided a suggestive taste of the available 
mutual benefits. 

It is a mockery to expe ct Cen tral 
Europeans to emerge from protracted 
datamation by Moscow into anew phase 
of incipient intimidation. The Cold War 
was not fought, and won, f or that. 

The Washington Post. 



High Time to Scrap the Nuclear Legacy of the Cold War 


W ASHINGTON — Five 
years after the Soviet 
Union broke up. the old su- 
perpower nuclear standoff re- 
mains almost unchanged. 

Yes, the number of missiles 
and warheads is down, and 
bombers are no longer on 24- 
hour alert, but otherwise the 
nature of the relationship is ex- 
actly the same. Two huge ar- 
senals still confront each other; 
the strategy of each side is still 
to be able to respond over- 
whelmingly to a first strike, 
and the only way to carry out 
the strategy is still to mod- 
ernize weapons ai hand so as to 
be able to use them if it ever 
becomes necessary to do so. 

Russian generals now 
routinely say that the role of 
nuclear weapons in their na- 
tional security is actually in- 
creasing. The Pentagon, mean- 
while. discusses how many 
upgraded submarine-launched 
missiles it needs. 

This is not where we should 
have ended up. 

It may seem to do no harm 
simply to chip away slowly at 


By Stephen Sestanovich 

This is the second of two articles. 


these antiquated arsenals, but 
nuclear inertia does not serve 
either side’s interests. 

A Brookings study last year 
put the annual cost of the U.S. 
nuclear deterrent at more than 
$20 billion; the Pentagon says 
the number is Jess. Even so. and 
even if we could save only half 
of it (and that might be hard — 
dismantlement costs a lot, too), 
both we and the Russians could 
put the money to more effective 
military use. 

A more pressing reason to 
break our nuclear inertia is tile 
help we would get in dealing 
with the “loose nukes” prob- 
lem. If the entire Russian and 
U.S. nuclear weapons invent- 
ory were only a new hundred 
warheads on each side, at afew 
controlled locations, the for- 
midable task of tracking 
weapons across Russian ter- 
ritory would be made much 
more manageable. 

A third reason for avoiding a 


business-as-usual approach is 
that if Russian-American re- 
lations become more conten- 
tious, nuclear weapons are not 
likely to remain a sleepy area 
of agreement fin: long. 

Already Russian generals 
buzz with talk about deploying 
tactical nuclear weapons once 
more in neighboring Belarus if 
NATO expands. And rejecting 
the START-2 treaty has come 
to be seen as one of the few 
ways for Russia to express its 
frustration at bang isolated 
from NATO’s grand design. 

There is a final reason, by far 
the most important, for reject- 
ing the strategic nuclear legacy 
handed down to us by the Cold 
War. These weapons may have 
been a useful form of power in 
the past, but they are not likely 
to be so in tite future, and we 
should not want them to be. 

If, for example, the United 
States ends up with the very 
same nuclear relationship wife 


China feat it had wife the So- 
viet Union — growing strategic 
arsenals poised to destroy each 
other — we will have to con- 
sider this result a foil ure. But it 
seems by far the most likely 
outcome if we do nothing 
whatever to refashion our nu- 
clear relationship wife Russia. 

One obviously better altern- 
ative is to greatly reduce of- 
fensive forces while steadily 
increasing our reliance mi 
technologies for defending 
against ballistic missiles. 

Over time, wife a number of 
possible rising nuclear powers 
on their borders, the Russians 
themselves are likely to see the 
advantages of such an ap- 
proach- But if they have a bet- 
ter idea, let’s hear iL And if the 
Clinton administration has 
rate, let’s hear that, too. ' 

Instead, the administration 
has been evasive. When a large 
group of former generals and 
admirals from adozen countries 
called for abolition of nuclear 
weapons recently, we should 
have heard from the Pentagon 
that zero is fee wrong number 


(these weapons can’t be dis- 
in vented) but that radically re- 
ducing their place in interna- 
tional security is the right goaL 
Similarly, the administra- 
tion has to work much harder at 
showing Congress that it does 
not oppose the Republican 
plan to create a nationwide 
** shield” against ballistic mis- 
siles simply because it prefers 
to rely for all time on 


offensive arsenals. It should 
show that it is ready to deploy 
missile defenses where they 
are most practical today, to 
protect our friends and forces 
m regional conflicts. 

Because of the contentious 
new tone of Russian-TLS. re- 
lations, the administration is go- 
ing to find it hard to resolve 
nuclear issues with Moscow un- 
less it can say more about fee 
place these weapons will have 
m oar own military strategy. 

The i writer is vice president 
for Russian and Eurasian af- 
fairs at the Carnegie Endow- 
ment. He contributed this com- 
ment to The Hew York Times. 


Scientists Have a Civic Duty to Hear and Address the Public 


W ASHINGTON — Carl 
Sagan was a brilliant re- 
searcher whose insights trans- 
formed planetary science, a ded- 
icated and innovative teacher 
who made students full partners 
in the process of discovery, a 
gifted author and novelist and 
perhaps fee most effective “pop- 
ularizer” of science in history. 

Mr. Sagan, who died on Dec. 
20 at 62, unlocked the doors to 
the halls of science. As George 
Tibbits of The Associated Press 
noted in bis appreciation, he 
“helped to transport an ivory 
tower into the living rooms of 
ordinary people, enthralling 


By Neal Lane 


millions wife his vivid writing 
and flamboyant television so- 
liloquies.” 

This was no mean feat and 
Mr. Sagan took his share of heat 
for it from the exalted scientific 
establishment. Fortunately, he 
persisted and prevailed. Now it 
is up to us, particularly scient- 
ists and engineers, to finish 
what he started. 

In recent months I have had 
conversations and debates wife 
many groups of my scientist 
colleagues in which 1 suggested 
both fee opportunity and the 


responsibility for a new rede as 
scientists — a role that could be 
termed the “civic scientist.” In 
this new capacity, scientists, en- 
gineers and other technical pro- 
fessionals would take some 
time to get away from their 
computers, out of their labs, off 
their campuses and into a dia- 
logue wife die public. 

A predictable response from 
many of my colleagues has 
been: We’re not very good at 
talking to the public about 
something they know little or 
nothing about. That in fact, is a 


But Our ‘Experts’ Tend to Bicker 


W ASHINGTON — A met- 
eorite labeled Allen Hills 
84001, one of adozen collected 
on the ice sheet of Antarctica, 
was analyzed by a group of sci- 
entists employed by the U.S. 
National Aeronautic and Space 
Administration. They reported 
last August that it provided 
“compelling" evidence of 
primitive life on early Mars. 

The report was published in 
the journal Science, was widely 
publicized and has led to new 
enthusiasm for missions to that 
cold planet to search for ev- 
idence of life. 

But The New York Times 
subsequently reported that “in- 
dependent studies conducted 
since the meteorite announce- 
ment ... have shown that the 
supposed evidence for Martian 


life can be explained away in 
nonbiologica] terms.” What 
had been detected in the potato- 
sized rock * ’could well be 
neither animal nor vegetable, 
but strictly mineral.” 

Whom are we to believe, the 
NASA group or the dissenters? 

We encounter these “ex- 
pert” conflicts constantly. Do 
70.000 veterans of the Gulf War 
suffer poor health because of 
exposure to nerve gas in the 
desert? Did exposure to the de- 
foliant Agent Orange in Viet- 
nam do harm to thousands of 
American soidieis? Did toxic 
waste at Love Canal cause birth 
defects and other health prob- 
lems? Does the global popu- 
lation explosion condemn mil- 
lions to starvation? 

Countless important ques- 
tions of this kind are unsettled 
because of disagreements 
among “experts.” 

“Ever) complicated soci- 
ety.” Walter Lippmann wrote 
many years ago. “has sought 
fee assistance of special men. of 
augurs, priests and elders.” la 


By Richard Harwood 


the modem era, “experts” have 
come to fill that role. 

“The statesman, the execu- 
tive, fee party leader, the head 
of a voluntary association,” 
Lippmann noted, “found that 
he had to discuss two dozen 
different subjects in the course 
of the day, someone bad to 
coach him. He began to clamor 
for memorandums ... He de- 
manded summaries ... He found 
that be didn't know one ma- 
chine from another. He hired 
engineers to pick them, and tell 
him how much they cost and 
what they could do.” 

Today our industrial, com- 
mercial and financial structures 
rest oo the inventiveness and 
talent of “experts.” Medicine, 
law, universities and the new 
information industry have fee 
same foundations. And in this 
age of nuclear weapons, our 
very lives are, to a great extent, 
in their hands. 

That may even be true of the 
environmental scientists and 
other expens concerned with 
fee degradation and potential 
destruction of life-supporting 
means on our fragile planet. 

The problem is that as vast 
numbers of “expens” were 
trained in the universities and 
credential ed by peers and gov- 
ernment agencies, we dis- 
covered belatedly that they fre- 
quently disagreed about the 
most fundamental issues. 

How, for example, during the 
Cold War should America de- 
ploy nuclear weapons so as to 
ensure its security and minim- 
ize the risk of conflict? There is 
disagreement today over the se- 
riousness of global warming. 

We have Teamed, in short 
that the "scientific method” 
does not guarantee the produc- 


tion of identical or even similar 
results at any given time, and 
feat brilliant hypotheses are 
sometimes as easily discredited 
as they are validated. 

In science as in other fields, 
the physicist Lawrence Gran- 
burg has written, “there are al- 
ways hidden foots, and truths 
are elusive in every do main of 
human inquiry.” 

Thomas McCarty, a law pro- 
fessor at fee University of 
Texas, has put it more harshly in 
connection wife breast im pfanr 
litigation: “You can get a panel 
of experts, that will reach any 
result you want — it’s just a 
question of stacking it one way 
or die other.” 

The dilemma for journalists 
is obvious. We rely heavily on 
“ experts’ * for much of what we 
write about society and the state 
of the world. How do we decide 
which “expert” opinion to pass 
on to the public? We can hedge 
by giving “both sides” of an 
argument, leaving things un- 
settled. But our tendency is to 
follow fee man-bites -dog prin- 
ciple.* News is the unexpected. 

The hypothesis that apples 
cause cancer or that there ls life 
on Mars is far more interesting 
than the reverse. The possibility 
that troops were harmed by 
nerve gas is not merely inter- 
esting but, if true, relevant to a 
great many people. 

Expertise has not been the 
religion of journalists in die 
past, but there are those who 
think we-should convert. That is 
a useful idea so long as we 
realize the limitati ons. 

A wise man once said that 
experts should always be on tap 
but never on top. Journalists 
should be as skeptical, recog- 
nizing that '‘e x p er t” opinion is 
not necessarily “truth” and of- 
ten has a short shelf life. 

The Washington Past. 


primary reason why this needs 
to be done. 

At the National Science 
Foundation, all of our surveys 
show that more than two-thirds 
of fee American public believes 
that science is important None- 
theless, of those surveyed only 
one in nine believes feat he or 
she is well informed about sci- 
ence and technology, and only 
one in four demonstrates any 
level of science literacy. 

These survey results 
volumes and probably ten us 
more about the scientific com- 
munity than about the public. 
This disconnect between people 
being interested in science yet 
feeling feat their knowledge is 
seriously lacking should give 
an scientists mid engineers 

All sctmlar^^^s, whether 
in fee arts or fee sciences, are 
subject to this sense of sepa- 
ration and detachment. Science 
may be different in that its case 
is perhaps more extreme. Yet 
science and the technology it 
spawns pervade fee very struc- 
ture of our lives, from our health 
to our comfort and retreation, 
from our mobility to our work. 

fit his recent best-seller “The 
Demon-Haunted World: Sci- 
ence as a Candle in fee Dark,” 
Mr. Sagan exposed fee danger 
underlying Society’s current di- 
chotomy: 

"We’ve arranged a global 
civilization in winch most cru- 
cial elements profoundly de- 
pend on science and techno- 


IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 
1896: Historic Year 


PARIS — The year 1896 will go 
down to History as one of fee 
most eventful of fee century, and 
one of war in every continent. 
The old order is changing, lead- 
ing to disintegration and fee cre- 
ation of new groupings of na- 
tions. In South Africa, fee Dutch 
have rebelled after the action of 
Rhodesia's ^-administrator. fix 
America, fee extension of the 
Monroe < doctrine in fee 
Venezuelan and Cuban ques- 
tions is regarded by European 
Powers as dangerous to their 
rights. The Franco-Russian al- 
liance divided Europe into two 
war camps, while the 
question & Orient was thrown 
to it as a bone of contention. 

1921: Economic Plan 

PARIS — ’Die British plan for 
fee economic reorganisation of 
Europe was accepted at the 
meeting of representative in- 


dustrialists and statesmen of the 
four Allied countries — Great 
B ritain, France, Italy and Bel- 
gium. Tbe plan promotes, mKkr 
government anspjees, a vast in- 
ternational consortium of fee 
private commercial, financial 
and industrial interests of each 
counny for making an exchange 
of commodities possible be- 
tween producing and impover- 
ished consuming countries. 

1946: Atomic Accord 

LAKE SUCCESS — TbeAtom- 
ic Energy Commission overrode 


fee US. program for interna- 
tional control of atomic energy. 
The approved version bans me 
use of fee veto to block fee pun- 
t s him ait of violator natious. Un- 
der fee plan, fee United Nations 
would establish an atomic en- 
ergy authority to enforce fee 
treaty • by sending agents 
feroughout fee world to burnt 

down illicit atontic activities. ' 


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logy. We have also arranged 
things so that almost no one 
undo-stands science and tech- 
nology. This is a prescription 
for disaster. We might get away 
with it for a while, but sooner or 
later this mixture of ignorance 
and power is going to mow up in 
our faces.” 

Society today requires a sci- 
entifically and technologically 
literate population. We know 
that growing numbers of high- 
value, high-wage jobs rely oo 
technical knowledge. We know 
that as voters in a representative 
democracy and as community 
and family members, we have 
to make judgments on nuclear 
power plants, landfill facilities, 
drinking water purity, medical 
procedures, workplace safely 
and the tike. 

We also know that science 
literacy must begin at home and 
in school, where students lean 
best through inquiry and ana- 
lysis and not by rote and driti. 

Most of alL we must follow 
Carl Sagan’s lead and recognize 
that fee concept of the civic 
scientist is not a one-way pro- 
position. While it is necessary 
to increase public understand- 
ing of science, it is equally nec- 
essary for scientists to increase 
their understanding of fee pub- 
tic. Communicating means 
listening as much as speaking. 

The writer, director of the 
If-S. National Science Found- 
ation, contributed this comment 
to the Los Angeles Times. 



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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIB UNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 31. 1996- WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 

OPINION/LETTERS 


1, 1997 


PAGE 7 


m. 


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Startling New Police Bill 
Meets Yawns in Britain 


By Anthony Lewis 


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L ONDON — - For all their 
democratic similarities, tire 
political societies of Britain, and 
the United States differ in a pro- 
found respect. It is a "difference 
that goes back to the American 
Revolution. 

Americans fear die power of 
die state. The framers of the con- 
stitution wrote in. devices to 
check power, divide it, defend 
individuals, against it. And the 
instinctive fear of a centralized 
state remains as strong today. 

No such instinct is detectable 
in Britain. There is. rather, what 
must seem to Americans an ex- 
traordinary public indifference to 
encroachments of state power on 
individual rights. 

A current example, a startling 
one, is the Police Bill proposed by 
the Conservative government and 
now malting its way through Par- 
liament It. would give die police 
broad power to enter, anyone's 
home or office without a warrant 
rummage through papers and 
plant bugs. They could do so with 
no restraint except the goodwill 
of the chief constable in each 
police district, who would be die 
authorizing power. The bill 
would allow such warrantless 
searches and electronic surveil- 
lance to deal with any “serious” 
crime. Any crime punishable by a 
sentence of three years or more 
would qualify as “serious.” 

Not only a suspected crimin- 
al's home or office would be vul- . 
nerable to those new powers. Hie 
police could search and bug any- 
where — including the offices of 
the target’s lawyer. The privacy 
of legal consultations, hitherto re- 
garded as sacrosanct in Britain 
and o ther European countries as it 
is under American constitutional 
law, could be breached at will. 

All this is a sharp break with 
what die British call their unwrit- 
ten constitution: concepts of free- 
dom that have tradition hrfrinH 
them though they are not enforce- 
able as law. The maxim dwt “a 
man's heme is his castle'-' arose in 
the English courts. 

In 1763 William Pitt the Elder 
said: “The poorest man may in 
his cottage bid defiance to all the 
force of die Crown. It may be 
frail, its roof may shake, the rain 
may enter, but the king of Eng- 
land cannot enter; all his force 
dares not cross the threshold of 
the ruined tenement.” 


When the bill was debated 
. month in (he House of Lords, an 
amendment was offered to re- 
. quire a judicial warrant for 
searches and surveillance. Hie 
government defeated the amend- 
ment, opposing item the puzzling 
ground that it would threaten ‘ ‘ vh*> 
traditional impartiality of judges, 
placing them too firmly in the law 
enforcement camp.” Judges have 
been issuing warra n ts here and in 
other countries for centuries with- 
out any such result 

A highly regarded judge. Lord 
Browne- Wilkinson, supported the 
unsuccessful amendment in the 
debate. He noted that- individuals 
would have no remedy if the police 
abused their new powers. 

The bill was proposed by 
the home secretary, Mi chael 
Howard, who has been much cri- 
ticized for disregarding civil 
liberties. 

Surprisingly, die Labour op- 
position supported him on this 
bill. Jack Straw, Labour's shad- 
ow home secretary, said there 
would be “greater accountabil- 
ity” if a chief constable, rather 
dun a judge, had the duty “to 
ensure compliance with the law.*' 
Hugo Young, a columnist in The 
Guardian, scorned the notion that 
a police official was '‘the rightful 
custodian'' of individuals’ pri- 
vacy. He said Mr. Straw had 
“plumbed the depths of intellec- 
tual chicanery.” 

- It seems especially odd that the 
leader of the Labour Party, Tony 
Blair, would let it take such an 
illiberal stance. He is a lawyer, 
and he has worked with great 
success to give Labour a more 
modem image. But die explan- 
ation is obvious. There will be an 
election here in 1997, and Mr. 
Blair does not want to look soft on 
crime. He is reminiscent of the 
Bill Clinton who allowed much 
illiberal legislation to become 
law despite civil liberties objec- 
tions before the U«S. election. 

Fifty years ago Justice Hugo L. 
Black replied to an argument that 
die U.S. Supreme Court should 
follow English practice in a par- 
ticular matter. Those who wrote 
the American constitution, he 
said, wanted Americans to have 
far greater protection against of- 
ficial abuse than the En glis h had 
ever had. The example of the Po- 
lice Bill makes his point. 

The New York Tunes. 


guess mo 

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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


Sudeten Claims 

Regarding “50 Years On. Ex- 
pulsion Rankles for Sudeten Ger- 
mans’' (Dec. 9): 

Yes, the Sudeten Germans 
were treated harshly for a brief 
time after World War II, when 
most of diem were expelled from 
Czechoslovakia. Compared with 
what the Germans did to the 
Czechs, however, these acts of 
revenge were relatively modest. 

This dispute is not about re- 
conciliation; it is about the resti- 
tution of property seized by the 
then non-Communist Czech stare 
from expelled Germans. The ar- 
guments about “apology” are 
just platitudes. 

To generalize, die expelled 
Germans became rich in West 
Germany while the Czechs that 
remained became poor under the 
Communists. If the Czech Re- 
public is to recover from 40 yeans 
of communism, it will need all the 
capital it has. 

HARVEY M. SCHUSTER. 

Prague. 


Gifts to Colleges 

The article on the consequences 
of foreign gifts to universities 
( “Warned: Gifts to Colleges, With 
Few Questions Asked," Dec. 10) 
was an informative portrayal of 
the major issues at stake in this 
matter. However, it failed to men- 
tion the extensive involvement of 
Arab countries in this area. 

In 1977, Georgetown Uni- 
versity first accepted, then re- 
turned. a $750,000 pledge from the 
government of Libya that ^ was to 

ter on the Middle East. As recently 
as 1994, the Saudi Arabian gov- 
ernment donated S20 million to tbe 
University of Arkansas to start a 
Middle Eastern studies program. 

In 1984, the Anti-Defamation 
League hailed the signing of le- 
gislation that required institutions 
of higher education to disclose 
gifts over $100,000 from foreign 
sources. Today, the ADL is just as 
concerned about the possibility 
that donations from foreign in- 
terests may bring undue influence 


over a university's academic free- 
dom and integrity. 

ABRAHAM H. FOXMAN. 

New York. 

The writer is national director 
of the Anti-Defamation League. 

Just Terrorists 

Hie leftist fanatics who have 
taken hostages in Lima should not 
be called “rebels" or "guerril- 
las.'' They are terrorists, plain and 
simple. 

JORGE PA YET. 

Lima. 


Correction 

Due to an editing error in “To 
Help His Party, Nation and Ca- 
reer, Gingrich Must Resign as 
Speaker” (Opinion. Dec. 27) by 
William Satire, the Republican 
leader who urged Richard Nixon 
to quit the Eisenhower ticket in 
1952 was incorrectly identified. 
He was Thomas E. Dewey. 


Faith and Public Office, 
Keeping Duties Apart 


Bv Jimmy Garter 


A tlanta — i grew up in a 

conservative Baptist family 
in which we honored some basic 
premises that had defined 
Baptists for more than three and 
a half centuries. 

One of the most fundamental 
was the separation of church and 
stale, based on Jesus's admon- 
ition to “render to Caesar the 
things that are Caesar’s and to 
God the things that are God's.” 
We considered it proper for 
citizens to influence public policy 

MEANWHILE 

but not for a religious group to 
attempt to control the processes 
of a democratic government or 
for public officials to interfere in 
religious affairs. 

During the last two decades, 
these principles have been chal- 
lenged, often successfully, by 
Christian fundamentalists. Under 
the banner of the Christian Co- 
alition. they have merged with the 
conservative wing of the Repub- 
lican Party, becoming an active 
force in politics and enjoying a 
series of election successes. 

They had their first serious set- 
back this year when Bill Clinton 
was re-elected, and "only" 62 
percent of born-again Christians 
voted against him. In a New York 
Times interview, Pat Robertson, 
die Christian Coalition's presi- 
dent, condemned Republican 
campaign leaders as “incompe- 
tent' and vowed to play a more 
active role in upcoming elections. 

As a presidential candidate in 
1 976, 1 tried to avoid any religious 
subject, but when questioned one 
April night at the home of a North 
Carolina supporter, I said I was a 
“bom-again Christian.” From 
then until the end of the campaign, 
reporters made a big deal of what 
to me seemed natural, making 
clear to me that injecting religion 
into politics was a mistake. 

This and other incidents made 
me extra careful to separate my 
official status as president from 
the private worship habits of my 
family. I never permitted reli- 
gious services to be held in the 
White House. We worshiped at 
the nearest Baptist church when 
we were in Washington, and ar 
Camp David the chaplain from a 
nearby army base conducted 
private services for us and a few 
navy families stationed there. 


Yet 1 prayed more during those 
four years than ar any other time, 
primarily for patience, courage 
and the wisdom to make good 
decisions. 1 also prayed for peace. 

Since publication of ray new 
book, “Living Faith," 1 have 
been asked whether my Christian 
beliefs ever differed from my du- 
ties as president. There were a 
few such conflicts but 1 always 
honored my oath to “preserve, 
protect and defend the constitu- 
tion of the United States." 

For instance, I have never be- 
lieved that Jesus Christ would 
agree with Supreme Court de- 
cisions approving abortion or the 
dealh penalty, but I honored such 
rulings to the best of my ability, at 
the same time attempting to min- 
imize what I considered to be 
their adverse impacts. 

Jesus proclaimed that his min- 
istry was to "bring good news to 
the poor, to proclaim freedom for 
the prisoners, recovery of sight 
for the blind and to release the 
oppressed." 

But I believe that it is usually 
government officeholders and 
not religious leaders who are in 
the forefront of this struggle to 
alleviate suffering, provide 
homes for the homeless, elim- 
inate the stigma of poverty or 
racial discrimination. preserve 
peace and rehabilitate prisoners. 

There is little doubt that many 
church members are more self- 
satisfied, committed to the status 
quo and exclusive of dissimilar 
people than most political office- 
holders are. because officehold- 
ers face intense competition from 
challengers in dealing success-' 
fully with human problems. 

There is a subtle but important 
difference between the highest 
commitments of religious faith 
and public office. Most great re- 
ligions espouse tbe golden rule, 
based on agape — love or self- 
sacrifice. for the benefit of others. 
A government's ultimate goals 
are to preserve security and to 
ensure justice: to treat people 
fairly, to guarantee their rights, to 
alleviate suffering and to try to 
resolve disputes peacefully. 

Both are worthy ideas, but 
neither is easy to reach. 

Jimmy Carter, chairman ofThe 
Carter Center at Emory Uni- 
versity, contributed this comment 
to The New. York Times. 


the Public 


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1997 


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UNL 


1997 


For tfiaBSt time. New Year in the 
worldSEgding cities comes to your 
home ^satellite and cable. A great 
TV celebration that starts in Rome with 
a welcome from Renzo Arbore, Artistic 
Director of RAI International. In the 
studio, along with three orchestras, we 
shall have Antonella Clerici, Giulia 
Fossa, Emilio Jje^Giannl MinS, ’llaria 
Moscato, Pagi§^eg <^ Daniela Poggl 
Maria Ter^|%%a. Pai^alu zzi and 
many otfl^gue$Es^ v :^g^. . 

Twenty Ji oyr* 
show V 't*jT vV; < ■ 

from 1 .OO p.m; (Rome time) on 
December 31, f996 (midnight in 
Sydney) 

to 9*30 time) on 

Jamta&y* in Los 

Angel^i^. ’ £\ ^ ; 


'RAI international is the Italian public 
tv channel providing viewers around 
. the world witfva comprehensive 
schedule ‘of news, sport, entertainment 
and a high quality range of movies, 
documentaries, current affairs and 
magazine programmes. 



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www.rai.it 

www.mix.it/raiintemational 


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The coUiit-db^vfftb 1 997 will start 
from Sydney, the first city illfiminated 
by the dawn of the New Year, and RAI 
International will be there^^ 

The Merry-go-round to eetebfate the 
birth of the New Year, all: of us 
togheter, will start there and follow the 
sun from Sydney to Beijing, to 
Bethelehem/ Berlin, Rome. New York, 
Sao Paolo, Buenos Aires and 
Los Angeles. .. 

An unprecedent tv show, a 
spectacle to celebrate the * 

dawn of 1 997 with Italians in ali part 
of the world. 




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international herald tribune, 

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 31, 1996 
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 1, 1997 
PAGE 8 



The Popcorn Premise: When Culture Becomes Trendiness 

-L . . . 


By Edward Roths tein 

Nrt' York Times Sen ice 

N EW YORK — This week, 
with the coming of the New 
Year, there may be a spirit of 
rebirth at large, a sense of 
something new about to begin. But if so, 
the feeling will be all too familiar. The 
displacement of the old and the cel- 
ebration of the new has become a year- 
round habit. In fact, we are always re- 
setting our clocks. recalibrating our 
sense of newness, ringing out and 
ringing in at ever faster rates. We have 
created a culture founded almost en- 
tirely on trends. 

In newsrooms, boardrooms and 
classrooms, we “Braille the culture/’ 
as one professional trend spotter. Faith 
Popcorn has famously put it. We run our 
fingertips along trend-bumps as they 
speed past. Sales of snoring remedies 
are up. Sales of exotic fruit drinks are 
down. Nineteenth-century novels are 
big on screen (last year. Jane Austen: 
this year. Henry James). Television sit- 
coms celebrate chattering friendships 
(“Seinfeld.” “Friends” and various 
imitators). Things are moving so fast 
thar some fashion gurus declared the 
“Evita” look dead even before the 
Madonna film opened. 


We give everything a name — de- 
cades. styles, movements generations — 
in attention-getting capital letters. The 
Me Decade was named by Tom Wolfe in 
1976. after it was more than half over. 
The ’80s were slurred as the Decade of 
Greed. The Beats begat the Baby 
Boomers who begat the Punks who now 
await newly named suocessors. 

In advanced intellectual life, trend- 
spotring is becoming just as frenetic, 
with ideas and arguments taking on 
many of the characteristics of fashion. 
Structuralism was superseded by Se- 
miology. which joined forces with 
Lacanianism. which was displaced by 
Deconstruction, which was superseded 
by Cultural Studies. Now everything is 
engulfed by Po-Mo — post-modernism 
— which sometimes seems to be de- 
claring that all trends are created 
equal. 

Nowhere is the swirl more frenzied 
than in pop culture, which hasn’t even 
got time for names or seasons. A gen- 
eration in pop-culture terms seems to 
measure about two years, and a trend 
can come and go seemingly in a matter 
of weeks. Funk, hip-hop. house music 
and gangsta rap jostle for attention, with 
their variations competing for new re- 
vised monikers. In television, the ’50s 
and ’60s are joined by the '70s and ’80s 


as trends were created out of recycled 
nostalgia. It seems as if we are always 
racing to catch up with these changes in 
taste and style, learning the new names 
and constantly seeking to find newer 
ones. We want to ride the crest of these 
waves: we hope we never float help- 
lessly while the action is elsewhere. We 
are trend addicts, seeking to be on top, 
ahead, beyond or on the brink. In fact, 
the trendiest trend in culture right now is 
trend-spotting. 

Culture is almost haphazardly strewn 
about us, on screens, billboards, in con- 
cert halls and art galleries, filtered 
through millions of minds, executed with 
thousands of techniques. It's there in 
advertising and in serious music, in the 
latest Hollywood blockbuster and in the 
dumbest television sitcom, in university 
classrooms and in political rallies. 

But culture is increasingly difficult to 
decipher, so we seek the supposed es- 
sences in the midst of chaos, trends that 
give a semblance of order and con- - 
nection in a world we are partly con- 
structing. partly being swept away in. 
There is an element of anxiety in this 
quest, but somewhere in this mess — 
and much of it is a mess — there seems 
to be a message, or at least a mirror, 
offering some explanation of ourselves 
we cannot find elsewhere. 


Ashtrays Going Way of Cuspidor 


By Trip Gabriel 

Ne «■ York Times Sen ice 


N EW YORK — Where are 
they now. the ashtrays of 
yesteryear? Glass or porcel- 
ain. copper or melamine. 
$ 1 .49 from Wool worth’s or $410 from 
Hermes, their fading images linger in 
the memories of hosts and hostesses. 

Once they adorned linen-topped 
dining tables and gleaming mahogany 
board rooms. There were the heavy- 
squares of amber glass with sluice- 
ways cut deeply into the four comers. 
Or the tin receptacles set cunningly 
into bean-bag bases. Or the oblongs 
and moons of crystal, as much a pan of 
a bride's registry as the silver por- 
ringer nut dish. 

Gone now. all gone — banished in 
an increasingly smoke-free society. 

Ashtrays, once commonplace, have 
entered a kind of twilight realm where 
they seem on the verge of becoming 
artifacts, as obsolete as 19th-century 
snuff bottles. 


“It seems they are becoming relics 
of the 20th century and may not live on 
into the 21sl/' said Deborah Shinn, a 
curator of applied arts at the Cooper- 
Hewitt National Design Museum in 
New York. 

That is nor to say thar smoking itself 
is on the verge of extinction. Despite a 
gradual decrease in the number of 
Americans who smoke — from 40 
percent of the adult population in the 
early 1960s to about 25 percent today 
— 45 million people still puff away. 

But smoking has become increas- 
ingly furtive, no longer welcome or 
acceptable in public, and the ashtray 
has all but disappeared as a visible 
accessory of modem life. Smoking is 
banned from most offices, restaurants 
and stores. In private homes, the 
smoker is often asked to step outside, 
where he or she huddles in driving 
sleek then miserably grinds out the 
butt in the garden. No ashtray needed. 
The same scene is repeated in front of 
office buildings, where butts are 
flicked onto sidewalks. 


In homes, ashtrays, if they are kept 
at all, are hidden away in drawers and 
kitchen cabinets. Detroit dropped 
them as standard equipment in some 
car models two years ago. the first time 
since the Model T. Many stores, in- 
cluding the houseware chains Crate 
and Barrel and Pottery Bam. no longer 
sell them. 

Crate and Barrel, with 68 stores 
nationwide, stopped carrying ashtrays 
several years ago when Barbara Turf, 
then the head of merchandising and 
today the company’s president, made 
the decision on principle. 

“It was proven that smoking was 
detrimental to your health, and she 
didn't feel good about having ash- 
trays.” said Bette Kahn, a company 
spokeswoman. “Don’t ask me why we 
have martini glasses. That's another 
story.” 

Pottery Bam. which has more than 
70 stores, was simply responding to 
lack of demand, said W. Howard 
Lester, chief executive of Williams- 
Sonoma. the-parenr company. ■ - 


BOOKS 


THE FATE OF A GESTURE 
Jackson Pollock and Postwar 
American Art 

By Carter Ratcliff. Illustrated. 352 pages. 
$35. Farrar. Straus & Giroux. 

Reviewed by Michiko Kakutani 

T O the public. Jackson Pollock was 
the avant-garde’s cowboy existen- 
tialist. the brawling action painter whose 
famous drip paintings had been immor- 
talized in Life magazine and whose 
death in an auto accident at age 44 
Forever sealed his fame. To his colleague 
and rival Willem de Kooning, he was the 
American who “broke the ice”: the 
artist who opened the floodgates of in- 
novation that then swept the New York 


art world in the 1940s and ’50s. Pollock 
was typically more taciturn — and gran- 
diose — when it came to describing 
himself: “I am nature.” he declared. 

In deciding to tackle the question of 
Pollock’s achievement and legacy in 
“The Fate of a Gesture,” the art critic 
Carter Ratcliff has taken on a huge sub- 
ject. a subject that turns out to be un- 
wieldy for him. Pollock's influence, after 
all, is both breathtakingly wide and 
strangely amorphous. 

Artists as diverse as Helen Franken- 
thaler and "Walter De Maria. Claes Olden- 
burg and Richard Sena can claim him as 
an ancestor. Color Reid painters. Min- 
imalists. environmental sculptors and 
even performance artists can all cite him 
as an inspiration. 


CHESS 


By Robert Byrne 


A NATOLI Karpov won the European 
Quickplay Championship in Cap 
d'Agde, Ranee, by defeating the Dutch 


grandmaster Lock Van Wely in the final, 
a mini-match. 

Using the Bobby Fischer clock in 30- 
minute games with a 20-second bonus 
for each move. Karpov drew two games 
then won the two tie-break games of 3 
minutes w ith a 2-second bonus for each 
move. 

Here is blitz Game i. 

The Torre Attack. 3 Bg5. merely de- 
velops the white queen bishop outside 
of the main body of white pawns. Kar- 
pov probably chose it because in be- 
cause in Game f of their series, he used 
the more intense 3 g3 Bg7 4 Bg2 0-0 5 
0-0 d6 6 c4 Nbd7 7 Nc3 e5 and dis- 
covered that Van Wely was comfortably 
up on it. 

Placing the pawns with 4 e3 and 5 c3 
gives maximum protection to the d4 
pawn and thus virtually eliminates pres- 
sure on the center from the fianchenoed 
black king bishop. 

Karpov’s 10 Na3!. was an improve- 
ment over the more common 10 Nbd2. 
The positional point was to bring in the 
motif of pressure, against the queenside 

VANWELYfilACK 


with a later Nfd2, Ndc4 and Nb5. 

In Novgorod. 1995. Gariy Kasparov 
reached a similar situation as Black 
against Artur Yusupov. But instead of 
developing with I0...Nc6, be played 
10-.-Nbd7. which is more appropriate to 
keeping the b6 pawn guarded. 

In place of I2...cd 13 ed Nd5. putting 
the f6 knight into a somewhat insecure 
location, 12.. JMd7 would have been more 
flexible. 

On 14 Nb5, Van Wely should have 
played I4...Rfc8 and if 15 BG. then 

15.. .g5 16 Bg3 Na7. His alternative, 

14.. .f5?!. was too ambitious and after 15 
f4. his 15...Nf4? was a fatal miscalcu- 
lation. After 16 Rf4 g5 17 Rffl gh 18 
Nc7. Van Wely had to part with a rook for 
Karpov’s knight. 

On 25...FCi7. Karpov shattered the 
black position with 26d5! ed 27 B£5 d4 
28 Nc6 dc 29 Nf8 Kf8 30 Bg6 Ke7 31 
BeS cb. It is not dear why Van Wely 
played 31 ...cb. Either he was so shon of 
time that he did not realize he was losing 
even more material, or Karpov was so 
short of time that Van Wely was trying to 
get him to overstep. In any case, it did not 
work and. with Karpov ready to run his a 
pawn forward and compel the gain of the 
last black piece for it. Van Wely gave up 
at Move 43. 



Position after 25 . . . KI7 



TORRE ATTACK 


Itoite 

Stack 

Whke 

Block 

Karpov 

V. wely 

Karpov 

V. Wely 

1 44 

Nffi 

22 NC4 

Rfg 

2 Nf3 

g« 

23 NbS 

BeS 

3 Bg5 

Bg7 

24 NdS 

€6 

4 e3 

6-0 

25 Nf4 

KI7 

5 C3 

dfi 

26 45 

ed 

6 Be2 

C5 

27 Bf5 

44 

7tMJ 

QM 

28 Ne6 

dc 

8 Qb3 

BeS 

29 Nt8 

KfS 

9 Qb6 

10 Na3 

ab 

Nc6 

30 Bg8 

31 BeS 

Ke7 

cb 

11 Nd2 

h6 

32 Rael 

Ne5 

12 BIH 

ed 

33 Bg6 

BfG 

13 ed 

NdS 

34 B&l 

45 

14 Nb5 

15 

35 1U2 

b5 

IS M 

NM 

36 Rb2 

K46 

16RT4 

g5 

37 Rb5 

NC4 

17 sun 

gh 

38 Rfl 

B44 

18 Nd7 

Bd7 

391311 

Ne3 

19 Bc4 

Kh7 

40 Rcl 

» 

20 NaS 

Rag 

41 Rtl 

21 Bd3 

Kg8 

42 Rf2 

B12 


43 >4 

Resigns 


U is Ratcliff’s contention that Pol- 
lock's best work evoked a feeling of 
* 'limitless possibility/ * a ‘ * pictorial equi- 
valent to the American infinite that 
through Wait Whitman's 
aves of Grass/ ” and that this sense of 
the infinite can be traced through the 
work of many American artists after him. 
This is not a terribly new idea; Robert 
Hughes astutely made the Whitman ana- 
logy some two decades ago. But it ini- 
tially seems like a useful prism through 
which to examine Pollock's convoluted 

fegacy- . .... 

Describing the grandiosity lhai an- 
imates the paintings of Pollock and his 
friend Clyfford Still. Ratcliff writes: “It 
is an idea of losing one’s tiresome, or- 
dinary self in the unbounded promise of 
the New World; liberated from history, 
one is reborn with primordial strength 
and integrity.” 

It is an expansive impulse with roots 
in the American landscape tradition, and 
an impulse. Ratcliff suggests, that 
would be picked up, in Pollock’s wake, 
by artists as varied as Michael Keizer 
(who drew tracks in the Nevada desert 
with a motorcycle) and Sol LeWitt (who 
stacked groups of cubes in different 
combinations, a process that in itself 
implied a sense of the infinite). 

In the course of this book. Ratcliff tries 
to formulate several dialectics, contrast- 
ing Pollock's expansiveness with 
Rothko’s peaceful sense of containment, 
and Pollock's fiery introspection with the 
Pop artists' cool-eyed observation of the 
outer world. These contrasts are not new 
either: nor are they fleshed out in any 
new or meaningful way. “The Fate of a 
Gesture” quickly devolves into a series 
of chapters that read like individual es- 
says. cobbled together thematically in 
only the most perfunctory way. 

Once again, we are created to an over- 
view of Pollock’s short, intense life: his 
childhood in the West, his stabs at rep-J 
resentational drawing, his struggles to 
make ends meet, his meeting with Lee 
Krasner. his drunken high jinks, his em- 
brace of die drip technique, his accel- 
erating fame. 

And whaiof the thesis advanced in the 
controversial 1 990 biography of Pollock 
by Steven Naifeh and Gregoiy White 
Smith that Pollock's drip technique was 
associated with his childhood memories 
of watching his hither urinate on a stone? 
Instead of putting this highly reductive 
argument into some sort of perspective. 
Ratcliff simply writes that "we should 
expand it until intimations of all the 
body's processes appear in Pollock's 
stained, smeared, encrusted canvases.” 

Elsewhere in the book. Ratcliff 
wildly inflates Andy Warhol's achieve- 
ment. arguing that he ‘‘was as authentic 
an artist as Jackson Pollock” and that 
his work "unfurled an image of Amer- 
ica as boundless as Pollock's.” Such 
assessments do a serious injustice to 
Pollock, and they ultimately undermine 
the more compelling arguments in this 
messy and prosaic bode 


Michiko Kakutani is on the stiff of 
The New York Times. 



And if we, the consumers, seek trends, 
how* much keener are the producers of 
our entertainment, (he marketers who bet 
millions of dollars on whether a par- 
ticular star is “hot" or a particular book 
will "take off.” There is money to be 
made out of our obsessions. 

Faith Popcorn, for example, whose 
invented name promises the snap and 
crackle of instant satisfaction along with 
the reliability and confidence of 
homespun religion, is a professional 
trend reader. Among her credentials, 
she notes that she correctly predicted the 
demise of wine coolers and the rise of 
gourmet coffees and that major cor- 
porations like American Express and 
PepsiCo have paid her to reveal trends 
still hidden to their competitors. 


necessary partly because of something 
now quaintly known as tradition. Tra- 
dition was once an imposing, if porous 

and amorphous, presence, a sense of past 
achievement that provided the context 
within which new artworks were created. 

The tradition — or traditions — invoked • — • - - -- — . . , , . . 

artwork partly provided its man philosopher Hegel used the word 
^ - -• its - i ‘Zwtgefsti he was trying to outline the, 

course of world history as a senes of • 
systematic transformations in human 


crucial as the image of the body in West- 
ern ait, the nature of die sports fan as ■ 
central as the education of a scientist. 

There is something amiss in these 
efforts to treat a tradition with no more 
seriousness than the latest passing fash- ' 
ion. When the early- 19 th-century Ger- 


T! 


| HE problem is that this restless 
search for trends can never 
come up with the kinds of an- 
swers we hope to find. If we say 
buddy movies are in one season, or 
action thrillers the next, this is not a 
matter of progress, bringing us greater 
understanding; it is just a change in 
preferences. Every trend is just addi- 
tional evidence of change rather than 
another step toward stability. 

This was not always the case. Such 
extreme quests for trends were once un- 


m an 

premises, partly its style, partly even 
subject matter. 

Listeners could comprehend Bee- 
thoven because they had come to know 
the music of Haydn, Mozart and lesser 
talents who had similar ideas about mu- 
sical structure and drama. French Im- 
pressionism achieved its impact partly 
by rejecting a tradition of academic 
painting. 

The early development of opera, for 
example, was related to Renaissance 
conceptions of Greek drama and to die 
notion that a link existed between the 
meanings of words and their sounds. 

In fact, a developing academic dis- 
cipline known as “cultural studies” is 
partly a study of trends and their mean- 
ings. Few distinctions are made be- 
tween a Braille-like bump in popular 
culture or an imposing achievement in a 
highly developed tradition; for some 
scholars, both contain equally important 
information. 

The appeal of shopping centers is as 



consciousness. , _ 

At any given time any Zeit — -types of ; 
government, the kinds of art being ere- 
ared, aspects of religious belief — , 
would all be reflections of something; 
Hegel called the Spirit, the Geist. 

pqy-h stage along history's way was . 
seen as an. embodiment of Spirit, con-; 
raining tensions and contradictions that 
would be resolved in a succeeding era. 
that would in turn fall prey to tensions _ 
would give birth to yet another age. 

■ The shared experience of fashion. . 
television shows, hit movies and best’ 
sellers provide immediate bonds in a 
world without traditional ones. But . 
those are fragile bonds, having little • 
authority or significance. Instead of Eli- 
ot’s “presence” of the past, we are left . 
with the lingering ache of absence.; 
Every day becomes a new year, every , 
tradition little more than a trend. 


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Basketball coach Pat Riley sporting Armani, and the rock group the Fugees warbling at Armani’s party . 

Designer-Celebrity Symbiosis 


By Roger D. Friedman 

Meie Y'vi Times Senicre 

N EW YORK — ‘Thanks for 
giving a bunch of kids from 
the gherto some new suits,” a 
member of the Fugees said as 
they ended their performance at Giorgio 
Armani's extravaganza birthday party 
last fall. 

It turned out the Fugees had received 
“boxes and boxes and boxes” of new 
Armani clothing, a record-company of- 
ficial said. The group also received a fee 
for playing ai the designer’s party. 

When the actresses Mira Sorvino and 
Ashley Judd leaped onto the stage to 
declare their love for Armani, they 
weren’t just having an endorphin over- 
load. Armani has been filling their closets 


for some time, saidWilfredo Rosado, the 
fashion director for die designer. 

Designers are increasingly using im- 
plicit endorsements — gening famous 
people to wear their clothing — asaway 
to increase their sales. Fashion design- 
ers in particular have taken die concept 
to new levels this fall, according to 
fashion insiders and officials at design 
houses. 

Elton John was recently seen in pho- 
tographs with Gianni Versace in a Van- 
ity Fair layout featuring die designer's 
new town house. 

Donna Karan has lined up Demi 
Moore for photo opportunities as well as 
advertisements. 

Not joining the parade is Prada. The 
designer will only give 30 percent dis- 
counts to its models and does not en- 


courage free-for-all shopping sprees 
even for such regular customers as the 
actress Uma Thurman. 

“They’ll loan you a dress for the 
Oscars/ ‘ an executive at Rogers & Co- 
hen public relations that works with- 
designers said, “but dial’s about it” 

Here are a few examples of who got ? 
what this fall: . 

Mira Sorvino: Armani wasn ’t enough’ 
for her. She did appearances for Ver-^ 
sace. too, and added to her collection. 

Pat Riley: The head coach of the’ 
Miami Heat basketball team wouldn’t 
be caught m anything but Armani. 

Eric Clapton: In addition to die sing J . 
er’s regular performance fee of $100,000 : 
for corporate performances, he received.- 
clothes from Armani for singing at the 
birthday bash. 


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ACROSS 

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ia Prefix with 
business 
14 Like Nash s 
lama 


is Waters of song 
is Amorphous 
mass 

17 1935 Cole 
Porter song 

20 Pundit 

21 OUo 


$e wtifd 

Est. 19li, Paris 
*Sank Roo Doe Noo ' 


A Space for Thought. 


22 Disney's" 

and the 
Detectives' 

23 Vietnam's Ngo 
Diem 

26 No longer hofd 
up 

29 F. Scon 
Fitzgerald had 
one - Abbr. 

31 New York’s 

Island 

39 Swellhead's 
problem 
as Number of 
mousquetaires 
38 Invited 

30 Unofficial 

Australian 

“anthem" 

43 Anon's partner 

44 objection 

(go along) 

49 Nurse's bag 
46 Lax 

48 Garden tool 
90 Mo By Bloom's 
Iasi word in 
"Ulysses" 
si Pot builder 
53 Torture 
chamber item 
ss war to do 
99 Gut wrenching 

feeling 

63 1939 Andrews 
Sisters hit 
. — ideal 
(perfect model) 
6T "Cametot" 
tunesmfth 

68 Manner Encson 

69 Memo abbr 
TO Wimer hazard 
7i Advanced 

DOWN 

1 Steven of Apple 
computers 

2 Once more . 


66 — 


3 Prefix with 
phone 

4 Ooze 

5 Encountered 

6 Biblical verb 
ending 

7 'Beg your 
pardon" 
a Bridge action 
e One of the 
Carringtons, on 
"Dynasty" 

10 Largest of the 
United Arab 
Emirates 

11 Fluent 

w Author Jaffe 

13" — to differ I" 
18 Pacific Fleet 
admiral of 
W.W 1l 

1 * Lady's partner 
aa Letters from 
Calvary 
a* Den fathers 

26 Dram 

27 Century plant 

28 Automaton 
ao Go-gener 

32 Loquacious 

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3« fOOt Oil 

37 Daub 

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test 

41 Singer Paul 

42 Cobbler's tip 
47 Slight 

« Base runner's 
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TUESDAY. DECEMBER 31, 1996-WEDNESDAY. X4NUARY 1, 1997 


Sparks New 


A Clear Signal ... 


Border War 


WhBe the United States and Canada sort out their differences, 
more than 20,000 Canadian consumers each month join those 
already taking advantage of legal loopholes to purchase 
American satellite TV programming, which reaches over go 
percent of Canada's residents. 


World Markets Rally 
As U.S. Stocks Slide 


Canada and Mexico 
Take Opposite Paths 


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But ’97 Outlook Remains Upbeat 


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By Anthony DePahna 

Hew fork Tones Service 


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TORONTO ■ — Television programs 
beamed' from space to .the United 
States are spilling into home satellite 
dishes in Canada and Mexico, pro- 
voking a modem-day border conflict 
In the past few years, hundreds of 
thousands of otherwise law-abiding Ca- 
nadians and Mexicans have i nstall e d 
.sa tel li te dishes and subscribed to pirated 
services that being in American programs, 
from “SeanffekT" to.'TTie Simpsons.” 
The legality of these signals has 
been in doubt, and both countries have 
tried to use regulations to keep than 
out Last month, however, Mexico 
threw in the towel. 


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an agreement that 
allows services from the United States 
' to come openly inlo Mexico and vice 
versa, with only limited restrictions to 
keep out obscenity and require some 
public-interest broadcasting. 

But op the northern border, Canada 
and the United States are far from 
signing any agreement Washington 
wants the same type of unfettered ac- 
cess for satellite signals as for auto 
parts and other free-trade products. For 
cultural reasons, Ottawa insists that at 
least half the programming on a satel- 
lite service be Canadian, even though 
Canada so far has been unable to offer 
its own satellite service. 

So. for now. there are no legal satel- 
lite services in Canada, either imported 
or domestic. But some 200,000 Ca- 
nadians have already bought dishes 
and are paying for programming from 
the Unitea. States that die government 
wains is illegal. 

The Royal Canadian Mounted Po- 
lice have raided dozens of electronics 
stores across Canada, seizing dishes 
and pressing charges against owneis. It 
is not clear if. they were after “gray- 
market”- suppliers or descrambling 
dura tint are clearly illegal. 

■ These .border wire- have: implica- 
tions far beyomi Canada and Mexico. 

In many parts of the world, gov- 
ernments have bad to recognize that 


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Yellow Pages, newspaper ‘ from a retailer who is custom package for $20 monthly fee to the dealer, 

ads or by asking a friend unconcerned with the to $150 a month who pays the U.S. 

who boasts about aH the possbility that such a sale and assigns the customer satellite TV provider on 

American football he is illegal. (The cost is a billing address in Buffalo his behalf, 

watches. about $727.) or another U.S. border 

The New York Time 

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technology is leapfrogging ahead of 
their ability to regulate services that 


were not even imagined when current 
laws were written. 

“Regulations will catch up with 
technology in the fullness of time,” 


technology m the fullness at time, 
said David Buber, a professor of tele- 
communications at me University of 


Pennsylvania, “but we will go through 
a lot of pain in the process." 

The great indiscriminate range of 
satellite transmissions is causing fric- 
tion in culturally defensive places like 
Singapore and the Middle East In 
many parts of the world, countries are 
being forced to decide between a prag- 
matic response like that of Mexico, 

which tries to get a-piece of the market 
for itself, and an insistent Canada 
willing to forgo market share for 
some degree of cultural protection. 


ReedHundt, chairman of the Federal 
Communications Commission, said be 
recognized that satellite broadcasts 
were almost always iu different to na- 
tional borders, which is why the United 
States considered the agreement with 
Mexico “a sign and symbol of good 
faith” that should help set the course of 
the satellite television industry. 

The agreement with Mexico is 
simple enough in concept. The Mex- 
ican government essentially declared 


that because it could not prevent Amer- 
ican satellite signals from entering 


Mexican space, it wanted to make sure 
Mexican broadcasters enjoyed full ac- 
cess to the lucrative Spanish-speaking 

-market in the United-States. - - 

The issue of the content of satellite 
broadcasts complicated negotiations 
because of Mexico's long-standing 


suspicions of the United Stales. But 
eventually. Washington and Mexico 
City agreed upon a broad and flexible 
clause to keep content restrictions to 
“a modicum,” a word expressing 
moderation in Spanish and English. 

In addition to restrictions on trans- 
mitting pornography on either side of 
the border, the united States expects 
Mexican broadcasters to reserve 7 per- 
cent of airtime for public interest broad- 
casting. perhaps in English, Mr. Hundt 
said. Hie Mexican standard, not yet 
defined, should be roughly equal, and 


require some programs in Spanish. 
Two companies are already ease 


Two companies are already eager to 
exploit the agreement- the first. 
Galaxy Latin America, a consortium 
of Hughes Comm uni calioas Inc., a 


See SATELLITE, Page 13 


by Our St-4T From Dupotthrs 

World stock markets climbed 
Monday, many of them buoyed into 
record territory, but U.S. stocks ended 
mixed, driven lower after early gains by 
two series of computer-guided “sell** 
orders in the final half-hour of trading. 

The Dow Jones industrial average 
finished at 6,549.37 points, down 1 1 .54. 
its first decline in two weeks. 

Advancing issues led declarers by a 
14-to-10 ratio on the New York Stock 
Exchange, where trading volume was 
light. 

Despite the late slide, investors said 
the outlook for next year called for both 
the U.S. economy and corporate earn- 
ings to keep growing. Cash is also sur- 
ging into stock mutual funds, analysts 
said. 

“A lot of people are starting to look to 
more of the same in 1997: benign in- 
flation and controlled growth," said 
Tracy Chester, a money manager at 
Zurich Kemper Investments in Chicago, 
which oversees assets of $45 billion. 
“Unless you're calling for a recession, 
or some son of blow-off on inflation, 
which we're not. it's hard to make a 
negative case for the stock market.” 

European stocks followed Wall 
Sheet's early lead, with several bourses 
posting record gains Monday. 

In Frankfurt, German stocks celeb- 
rated a record 1996, with the DAX-30 
share index closed the last trading ses- 
sion of the year at 2,883.69 points, 28 
percent above its level at the end of 
1995. 

Traders said the German market got a 
lift from low interest rates and the suc- 
cessful flotation of Deutsche Telekom 
AG, Europe's biggest-ever initial public 
offering, in November. 

In London, shares closed firmly high- 
er, with gains on Wall Street and a sharp 
rise on the futures market leading the 
Financial Times-Stock Exchange 100 
share index to an all-time peak of 
4,1 15.7 points, up 24.7. 

Swiss stock indexes rose to a record 
as dnigmakers Novartis AG and Roche 
Holding AG advanced, lifted by a strong 
dollar. 

The Swiss Market Index of 22 stocks 
rose 26.1 points, or 0-7 percent, to 
3J94S30. The broader Swiss Perfor- 
mance Index of about 330 shares rose 
14.38 points, or 0.6 percent, to 23 1 5.46. 
The Zurich market closes Tuesday af- 
ternoon and reopens Friday. 


In Oslo, stocks ended 1 996 trading at 


a record high, reflecting the health of the 
Norwegian economy. The OBX index 


ended at 968.37 points, up 0.8 percent 
for the day and a 32. 1 percent rise for the 


year. 

The Madrid Stock Exchange, buoyed 
by gains in bonds, set its seventh straight 
record Monday, with the general index 
rising 2.91 points, or 0.66 percent, to 
end at 443.42. 

Shares also closed higher in Paris and 
Milan, although analysts attributed die 
gains more to investors' desire to show 
year-end portfolio gains than to fun- 
damental strength. 

U.S. stocks found little direction in 
the bond market, which was trading 


The dollar continued to rise against 
the yen. Page 10 


nearly unchanged despite some poten- 
tially inflationary indications in the 
day's economic news. 

The National Association of Realtors 
reported that sales of existing homes 
unexpectedly rose 1.8 percent in 
November, the first increase in six 
months, as mortgage rates continued to 
fall. Many analysts had expected the 
tally to dip last month. 

The Conference Board research 
group reported that its gauge of future 
economic growth rose 0.1 percent in 
November. 

It was the 10th straight month without 
a drop in the Index of Leading Eco- 
nomic Indicators and the latest piece of 
evidence pointing to moderate growth 
with little inflation. 

The price of the benchmark 30-year 
Treasury bond fell just 2/32 to 99 l(y32, 
pushing the yield up slightly to 634 
percent from 633 percent Friday. 

An early Treasury rally fizzled as 
investors declined to place bets until the 
New Year, said Gerald Thunelius. a 
bond manager at the Dreyfus Corp. 
“We had some favorable events today 
but have to wait before making many 
decisions,” he said. 

Bond trading ends at 2 P.M. Eastern 
time Tuesday, under a recommendation 
from PSA The Bond Market Trade As- 
sociation. 

On Wall Street, traders said the in-’ 
dications of moderate growth in the U.S. 


See STOCKS, Page 10 


TiM 4 =i k 


CURRENCY AND CAPITAL MARKET SERVICES 


i ■ 

m! Mi »>i? 


A New Boss Tries to Keep HBO on Top 


By Geraldine Fabrikant 

New York Times Service 


N 


EW YORK — After a recent 
screening of Home Box Of- 
fice’s “If These Walls Could 
Talk,” a three-part film about 


N? 


— — o 

dinner at die Museum of Modem Art 

Tire crowd included the film’s stars — 
Demi Moore, Sissy Spacek and Cher — 
as well as die designer Domra Karan, the 
author Mary Higgins Clark and the 
former network anchor Walter Cronkite. 

Jeffrey Bewkes, chairman and pres- 
ident of HBO, tbe oldest and most suc- 
cessful premium UJS. cable channel and 
a small jewel in Time Warner Inc.’s 
crown, worked the room, his 6 foot 1 
inch (1.85 meter) frame bent over as he 
moved from one table to another. 

Mr. Bewkes may not have quite tire 
flair for publicity that set apart his pre- 
decessor and former boss, Michael Fuchs 
— who was widely credited with build- 
ing HBO into the most popular premium 
movie service — but ms goal is clearly 
the same. 

In the confused landscape of cable 
and satellite TV, companies need to 
convince consumers every month that 
their programming is worth the fee. 
HBO’s original two-hour movies such 
as “If These Walls,” have helped dis- 
tinguish the channel from its rivals. 

“You’re. paying a lot for Home Box 


Office every month." Mr. Bewkes, 44, 
said in a recent interview. “Home Box 
Office has to be different than everything 
else, and people have to know that." 

HBO is pushing ahead abroad, where 
long-term growth opportunities are 
greatest Though HBO races formidable 
competition in Europe, with Canal Phis 


SA of France dominating the Contin- 
ental pay-TV market and News Corp.'s 
British Sky Broadcasting PLC leading 


in Britain, HBO has been forging ahead 
in Asia in a joint venture with other 
movie studios. In Latin America, HBO 
and Sony Corp. are partners in HBO 
Ole, which began broadcasting five 
years ago. 

The recent merger of Time Warner 
and Turner Broadcasting System should 
also help HBO abroad. As John Tinker, 


an analyst at Montgomery Securities, 
pointed our: “Now Time Warner owns 
HBO, Cable News Network and Turner 
Network Television. That gives it more 
clout with foreign cable companies.” 

Over tbe past 12 years under Mr. 
Fuchs. HBO became known as the cable 
network that created unusual programs, 
from tbe story of Simon Wiesenthab the 
well-known Nazi hunter, and “The 
Josephine Baker Story,” about the 
singing star of tbe 1920s and 1930s. 

When Mr. Bewkes took over, it was 
not clear how well he would maintain 
HBO’s momentum. “Bewkes has al- 
ways been known as a solid executive 


with a good grasp of the business,” Mr. 
Tinker said. ‘The question was whether 
he had the programming flair.” 

There are already strong indications 
that Mr. Bewkes, a veteran HBO ex- 
ecutive of 17 years, is keeping the com - 1 
pony on track. “Gotti,” a recent HBO I 
film, received record ratings for cable 1 
TV. Though the movie was initially 
developed under Mr. Fuchs, it was com- 
pleted under Mr. Bewkes. 

In addition, he said, this year the 
network received a record 19 Golden 
Globe nominations. “We are having a 
record year,” Mr. Bewkes said. Hie 
number of HBO subscribers has in- 
creased by 2.7 million. That brine the 
total for HBO and Cinemax, Time 
Warner’s smaller movie service, to 
roughly 323 million subscribers. 

Tbe company's final 1996 earnings 
have not yet been released, but David 
Londoner, an analyst for Schroder Wer- 
theim & Co., anticipates that HBO and 
its affiliates will report revenue of about 
$1.75 billion for 1996, up from $1.61 
billion in 1995. Earnings before interest, 
taxes, depreciation and amortization — 
a rough measure of cash flow — will be 
about $342 million, up from $293 mil- 
lion last year, Mr. Londoner estimated. 

Thar rough cash-flow figure is grow- 
ing almost twice as fast as it did between 
1992 and 1993. For example, Mr. Be- 
wkes said, it grew 9 percent in 1 993, and 
about 18 percent in 1996. 



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Investor’s America 


30-Year T-Sond YieSd 


End to Mexico Phone Monopoly 

Unhappy Customers and U.S. Firms May Benefit 


Dollar. in Deutsche marks | Dohar in Yen 


Exchange 

Index 

' Monday:- 9m."' ' 

.‘ Ctose.., .C*as& . ,<2ia age 

NYSE 

Tha ttaw • 

• 654&3? : 0580^1... ’-0.1& 

NYSE 

S&P 500 ■ 

••'-.mas 7S6-79 ■■ -039 

NYSE 

S&P100 ‘ 

• 73840 73B.64 : rO.47 

NYSE 

Compo^te 

mjQ 388.10 . ♦ *01l7 r 

US. 

Nasdaq Composite 1291.19: 1291.38 -CjDI 

AMEX 

Market Vaim 

503.4& $Bi£3 ;*Q2S 

Toronto 

TSE index 

59S42S 590231. . 

SSoPaido 

Qovaspa 

703S9J5Q .7006S30 ^7 

Mexico City 

Bated . ■ 

334&9S 33Z7S0 . -*4SSO 

! Buenos Aires Mawal 

B49JJ? ■ ...650^3 .. . • ~0J3 

Santiago 

IPSA Genera/ ■ 

4902^9 4&1&7T -0.3 6 

' Caracas 

CapSaJ GsneraJ 

€62348 6607.78 -+OJ24 

Source: Bloomberg. Reuters 

Intcn+akwjl Herakl Tribune 

Very briefly; 


• Brooklyn Union Gas Co. agreed to merge with the Long 
Island Lighting Co. in a $3 billion deal that will create one 
utility serving 22 million customers in the New York area 
with revenue of more than $4.5 billion. 

• James Quelle. 82, will leave the Federal Communications 
Commission in June, after serving the agency for 23 years. 
Daily Variety reported. 

• Banc One Corp. agreed to acquire Liberty Bancorp for 
S546 million in stock, adding 29 branches and $2.9 billion in 
assets, making Banc One the largest bank in Oklahoma City 
and one of the top three banks in Oklahoma. 

• Humana Inc. the operator of managed health-care plans, 
based in Louisville. Kentucky, said it would cut 700 to 900 
jobs, in 1 997 as it struggles to reduce costs and stem declining 
earnings. 

• Shareholders of C res tar Financial Coni, and Citizens 
Bancorp approved C res tar’s purchase of Citizens for about 
$916 million in stock, the companies said. The acquisition, 
which creates the biggest bank in Washington, will result in a 
pretax charge of about $50 million. Crestar said. AP. Bloomberg 


Weekend Box Office 

The Associated Pren 

LOS ANGELES — “Michael” dominated the U.S. box 
office over the weekend, with a gross of $17.8 million. 
Following are the Top 10 moneymakers, based on Friday’s 
ticket sales and estimated sales for Saturday and Sunday. 


By John Ward Anderson 

Washington Post Service 

QUERETARO, Mexico — It 
was supposed to be a great tech- 
nological leap, but when Marco del 
Prate’s home telephone service was 
upgraded from pulse- to digital-di- 
aling. it was more like a tumble into 
the Dark Ages. 

The modernization necessitated a 
change in phone numbers, and TeJ- 
mex. Mexico’s monopoly phone 
company, mistakenly gave him a 
number reserved for a commercial 
line, which cost five times more than 
a residential one, and it continued to 
charge him for his old phone line. 
When he refused to pay the bill, 
Telmex sent an attorney after him. 

Fernando Dias said he has waited 
six months for a new phone line in 
his office, but Telmex. or Telefonos 
de Mexico, as it is officially known, 
wants more than 20,000 pesos 
($2.5501 to install it This from a 
company that crossed his phone 
lines, took weeks to make repairs 
and charged him for calls be did not 
make to Singapore and India. 

“Since they’re the only com- 
pany, if you don’t pay them, they 
just cut you off,” he said. “It’s 
blackmail.” 

But the angry customers of Tel- 
mex, the reviled government mono- 
poly that was coaverted to a private 
monopoly six years ago. may get 
their revenge. 

On Wednesday, the long-dis- 
tance telephone industry here will 
throw open its doors to competitors 


for the first time, ending a 49-year 
monopoly on costly, inefficient 
phone service and fully privatizing 
it Eight competitors, including the 
telecommunications giants AT&T 
and MCI, are hovering around die 
beleaguered Mexican phone com- 
pany. 

There is such widespread dis- 
satisfaction whh Telmex that in the 
coming years, the company could 
lose as much as half of Mexico's $4 
billion annual long-distance mar- 
ket Spurred by the huge number of 
calls between the United States and 
Mexico, which have more tele- 
phone traffic between them than 
any two countries except the United 
Stares and Canada, some analysts 
believe the annual long-distance 
market here could grow to $11 bil- 
lion within five years. 

There were about 2.4 billion 
minutes of calls between Mexico 
and the United States in 1994«and 
the figure is growing about 18 per- 
cent a year, industry analysts said. 

Such a potential beating on its 
home turf could spell trouble not 
only for Telmex, but for Mexico. 
The company is so large — it has 
been the most actively traded stock 
on Wall Street for the last two years 
and accounts for about a quarter of 
the value of the Mexican stock ex- 
change — that it has spawned a 
maxim here: As Telmex goes, so 
goes the economy. 

Government officials and Tel- 
mex executives say competition 
will be good for consumers and for 
Telmex. 


" Maybe well lose clients.’ ’aTel- 
mex spokesman said, “but we be- 
lieve competition will create a bigger 
market and we can expand as a glob- 
al telecommunications company.'.' 

Others are not so sure. 

“My take is that they’ll lose 15 
percent of die market share by the 
end of the year, but I don’t think 
Telmex’s woes are 12-month 
woes, 1 ’ said Ray Ugouri, a telecom- 
munications analyst at the brokerage 
firm of Merrill Lynch &Co. in New 
York. He and other analysts foresee 
that Telmex could eventually lose 
half its long-distance customers. 

F u rthermore, according to an in- 
dustry analyst who asked not to be 
identified, the privatization of the 
Mexican phone industry “is a classic 
Latin American story of the haves 
and have-nots.” The vast majority of 
Mexicans, who do not have phones, 
will no. benefit, because the focus is 
oq high-profit, long-distance service, 
not high-cost, local installation. 

“Yes, the money today is in long 
distance,” said the Mexican sec- 
retary of transportation and com- 
munications, Carlos Ruiz Sacristan, 
“but with competition, in die end, I 
believe the money will be in the 
company that has the telephones in 
the houses — that’s local service.” 
With various incentives, he pre- 
dicted that the number of phone lines 
in Mexico would double in 10 
years. 

The privatization has come in 
two phases. The first began in late 
1990 when, after 43 years as a 
bloated and much maligned state 



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monopoly, Telmex was sold to the 
country’s richest businessman. Car- 
los Slim Helu, for about $1.8 bil- 
lion. 

As pan of the sale agreement, Mr. 
Slim was granted a six-year mono- 
poly on long-distance telephone ser- 
vice, the most profitable part of the 
industry, during which he promised 
to upgrade the country's telephone 
network. 

By all accounts, Mr. Slim ful- 
filled his part of the bargain. But 
now, the customers get to weigh in. 
As Mr. Slim’s long-distance mono- 
poly ends, other telephone compa- 


nies will be allowed to offer do-* 
mestic and international long- 
distance services to people on Tel- 
. mex’s blanketing local network. 
The companies wall pay. Telmex a . 
fee of about S3 cents per minute to 
use die lines. Even so, industry ana- ■ 
lysts expect long-distance prices to \ 
drop by 20 to 30 percent. 

According to telecommunica- 
tions analysts and executives, the. 
company positioned to serve the* 
most customers is Avantel. a joint 
venture between MCI and Grupoi 
Financier© Banamex-Accival, Mex- \ 
ico’s largest financial group- • 





Dollar Rises on Fear of Yen Decline 


STOCKS: U.S. Markets Give Up Gains 


it* r - 

dp# ^ 




7~-iP 


l.Mtahgd 

(New Line Gnemo) 

517J mSBon 

2 . Jerty Mogutep 

rrrKSM 

514Jmooan 

3.101 Datenodtens 

(Won Disney} 

Sll JmUan 

a BeoASi BUOwad Do America 

(AmrevnO 

*104 mB Bon 

5- Scream 

(Dimension FBiml 

SSJirtADon 

<. One Fine Day 

cm Canary fat} 

58.7 Rinnan 

7. The Preacher's WHe 

aovetanne) 

577mBHon 

8. Man Attacks! 

- (Warner Bras J 

SS.l mflOon 

*. My Fellow Amanrane 

CYrarnerBrmJ 

ftUmnaon 

10. Tire Evening Star 

(Paramount) 

SUrnOBan 


Cemp&d by Ow Skrf Frm Dap&din 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
cl Imbed against the yen Monday for 
the seventh consecutive trading day 
as investors protected themselves 
against possible declines in the yen 
overseas during Japan’s weeklong 
New Year holidays. 

The dollar was mixed against oth- 
er major currencies, continuing to 
benefit from last week’s buying as 
traders close out positions at the end 
of the year, analysts said. 

The dollar closed at 116.145 yen. 
up from 1 15.30 yen Friday. 

The dollar, trading ai its highest 
levels in more than tfiree-and-a-half 
years, has gained almost 3 yen in the 
past seven trading days, and more 
than 13 yen since the end of last 
year. 


The dollar also rose to 1.5550 
Deutsche marks from 1-5545 DM; 
and climbed to 13487 Swiss francs 
from 13485 francs. But it fell to 
5.2415 French francs from 53435 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE 

francs. The pound fe 
from $1 .6920 Friday. 

Anxiety over the Japanese econ- 
omy and its wobbly stock market, 
whose main index fell to its lowest 
levels of the year last week, drove 
the yen down, traders said. 

“Tokyo's equities markets are 
not in good shape, and that has for- 
eign exchange investors worried,” 
said Hiro Maejima, a trader at Cit- 
ibank. “The dollar-buying climax 
doesn’t seem to have hit yet. and 


many investors are wary that the 
Bank of Japan will not be able to 
directly intervene in support of the 
yen over the holiday.” 

The U.S. currency seemed unaf- 
fected by the release of U.S. leading 
economic indicators, traders said. The 
November index was up 0.1 percent 
With a lack of comments from 
either Tokyo or Washington to stem 
the dollar's rise against the yen, the 
U.S. currency tide has only farther to 
go this week, traders said. 

One trader said 117 yen was 
* ‘easily’ ’ the objective for the week. 
“There are no comments to restrict 
dollar-yen from heading up high- 
er,” she said. But traders will be 
wary of bidding the dollar too high 
with Tokyo closed for the rest of the 
week. (AP, Market Slews) 


Continued from Page 9 

economy would keep interest races 
stable, which in turn would help 
stock prices. 

‘ ‘As long as rates stay where they 
are,” the tendency of investors to 
favor stocks “has to be to the up- 
side,” said Jack Baker, head trader 
at Furman Selz Inc. 

On the Big Board, Computer As- 
sociates was the most active issue, 
gainin g I to 49%. A profit warning 
by the company sparked a techno- 
logy sell-off Friday. 

Dow components that fell in- 
cluded IBM, down 1% to 153%; 
Walt Disney, down 1% to 70, and 
American Express, down 1 to 57%. 
Dow gainers included Xerox, up 1 14 
to 52%, and AT&T, up % to 44. 

Regional telephone stocks,, which 
led the rally fti'day , were big losers 


Monday. BellSouth fell 214 to 41%, 
SBC Communications retreated IVfc 
to 53% and Ameritech dropped 1% 
to 61%. 

The technology-heavy Nasdaq 
Composite index ended down-0.19 
poim at 1391.19 after rising earlier 
in the day. Software publishers! 


US. STOCKS 


it 


plummeted, giving back early gains. ' 
ZiteL (he most active issue, plunged - 
20% to 4L AccelerS Technology! 
dropped 5% to 16%. . \ 

Apple Computer shares fell 1% to , 
21% after a story posted on the In- » 
tercet said the computer maker’s J 
worldwide market share had’ 
dropped to 5.4 percent from 8.7 per- * 
cent and its U.S. market share to 73 • 
percent from 133 percent (AFP,. 

AFX. AP. Bloomberg , Reuters) - 



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U. S. STOCK MARKET DIARY 


INTERNATIONAL FUTURES 


Monday's 4 p jo. Close 

The top 300 maaHKOva shares, 
up to the dcewig on Wa» Street 
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Indexes 
Dow Jones 

Own «sai Law Lmi Oft. 

Indus 467179 4587 <64053 654957 —1154 
Trans BUS 222251 227*51 22S064 —755 
U» 1107 23664 23453 235.T2 -061 
Como 3M1A4 206453 88150 305359 — 180 

Standard & Poois 


Hlgfi Low Oase a*. 
WJU4 88253 88353 -4.12. 
55SL61 54655 547.23 —057 
20152 20039 70081 —056 
86.48 8357 8610 —003 
759-20 753L73 75U5 — ISA 

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339 JJ1 31X42 

2403 2AJ9 

39028 


ESLsoNs HA. Wi. sates 1X701 
FfTSOPBlW 79^97 00 H09 

SOYBEANS (OKm 

&800 to mfewminv- dolkn nor duM 

-tan 97 7 j 00 65* 654ft -007* 25J7I 

Hern 654* in isc* -oaw aas 

Mav97 191* 187 U7* -185* 26465 

JUI97 191 117 647V, -405 21588 

Aug 97 619 IBS* 185 V -105 3413 

Estsotes NA. FrTv softs 74427 

FrftoPwW 147449 off im 

WHEAT (OKTO 

1000*1 mWmum-dN lo ra If n u dw 
Hern 3JB 111* 307 -0*7*32809 

MW97 315* Ul Ml* — 5.Q5V; 1717 
MV 341 UK 3JW-XQ3 SUBS 
Sen 97 246* X*3* 3X3* — 0.03 996 

EsLsffis NA RTLStKa 4410 
FrfsoBmW 60498 up 305 


Livestock 
CATTLE (CMBI) 


High Low COMB Ova OWd 


GRANGE JUKE Oicm) 

>AOODta.-CMftlf b. 

Jcn97 7L» 7108 7150 -AJ0 14H. 

■Morn 82J38 7*45 80.10 -175 T7JB0 

Horfl SSJ0 8275 83J5 -L95 4472 

JUlW ms 1133 C7J0 -200 «S 

ESLM01 NA Fri^scdes 5425 
RTscpenlid 274SS iff 94 


Metals 

GOLDOKAUQ 

WOtrayaL-dtftaripcrtrovaz. 

Jon 97 37^31 +110 

FN>97 37170 37U0 37L20 +IU BM92 

Apr 97 37100 373. W 37X40 ♦B.M 2X176 

Jun97 37630 37550 375J0 +0.10 11737 

Aug 97 37840 +0.10 1459 

0097 3*1-38 31040 38070 +0.10 2J57 

Dec 77 3040 382J0 38340 +0.10 14440 

Fob 9* 38L70 ♦M 1.187 

EstOON* NA FfTlsate 5.928 
Wsocenlrt 181303 Off 996 

HI GRADE COEPSI QK3NX) 

neoonzL-cmttpTtt. 

JonT7 10150 10040 N845 -075 4 08 

Feb 77 mio 99 JO 9945 -045 1482 

Ma-97 99.15 9tM 9845 -035 20432 

Apr 97 9745 9745 97.15 -040 957 

HWV 96J0 95JS 9545 -015 1341 

Ain 97 9SJ5 8155 95JD -005 763 

MV 9440 MJB 9L3 +&S5 3410 

MV 9100 9480 9X10 + 005 576 

ft*»97 CUD 9X20 9115 ♦8.18 1640 

Estsotes NA RTS. softs LC01 
FrrsopeiW 49JBI a 0 1469 

3B.YB2WOWO 

Miftrfc c e e i fftf . 

Jai97 4865 486J 676V — M 19 

Feb 97 4794 -»J 2 

Mtr97 492V 4800 «TJ —XI 54,72+ 

May 97 4965 455J 4861 -94 9AM 

•U” 4^0 «0J 4904 -VJ «JI7 

Sen 97 497JI 49733 4912 -9J XfflB 

Dec 97 51X0 5BU 5EQJ -94 *330 

JMtt SMI —94 5 

&4.R60 NA Rfisofts 9406 
RTsopenW 8X451 up 505 


Kfgfi Law Qcm aw* Opted 

10-YEAR FRENCH 60V. BONDS (MATIF) 

■ FF50CU100 - oft of 1CD net 
.Mar 97 129.46 12940 m.30 ♦(L0012&623 
Jun 97 12BJB 12744 12&0Q +-QJD &B92 
Sep 97 12006 1263)6 126.00 +OJJO 01- 

Dec 97 N.T. NX 95J0 +000 0 

Estrahima; 2X077. Open Jau 31B-168 up 
179. 

nXy^WMHUWWTBOWPflJffgl 
m.200 maaon-plsof loo pd 
Hon 12X38 72SLJJ Sjj +030 87,9*0 
JLT H.T. 12X07 ♦040 
EH. softs: LI 16 l Prev. safes; \«X3 
Pl tV- CpWl NC *9493 up 439 

EURODOLLARS ICMSQ 
si mORon^tsaneepct. 
in 97 9M» 94480 MJ90 21J46 

Feb 97 94-480 94470 94430 4237 

Mar 97 94AM 9MM 94470 *1X076. 

An97 *4340 94X30 *4330 323JW 

Mft- 00 7X4S) *XM0 91440 3BJ06 

JWlOO 9X420 9X380 91310 35J2B 

SepflO 9J370 91340 91340 31,128 

OecK mn 91260 91201 2SJ22 

Eststfes NA Frf's.s8«s 89J91 
FiTsepenW 2J54539 op 73 
BRITISH FOUND (CMHU “ 1 



■ ' - 

' 



. High 

Law 

Ouse 

age 

Optat 

776B 

7tS 

7657 

-073 

7.717 

76X0 

7*88 

;«x5 

—435 

•■28* 

76X8 

74X1 

1*45 

—432 

9X00 

7770 

77X0 

WX) 

—447 

664 


&Lsdes NA Fifs. softs 4471 
Ri*s open ted SJ4B up « 
HEA7MCOB. OiUBO " 






Jen 97 

71X0 

7010 

7050 

-005 

156*5 

Ft* 97 

70.95 

4*70 

ALTO 

-413 36JM 

Man 

6975 

6410 

W.IU 

-O0B 

13X95 

Aar 97 

<5X5 

4*78 

6475 

-060 

4329 

May 97 

82X5 

62610 

62.U 

+032 

*3*5 , 

Jun 97 

M-ffl 

59X0 

6010 

V037 

*967. . 

Jul97 

9>J0 

59 JB 

596» 

+ 007 

1125 

Aug 97 

.59 X 

59 JO 

59 JO 

+832 

X2M 

SBPto 

595S 

5930 

5# JO 

♦032 

2X63 

Dec 97 

60S 

8010 

8435 

♦027 

im 


WORLD SIfK.K 

- 

fad2r.Doc.50 

1 - 


sij ■*« .4 

T -o 2; ' 


IV., 

Ilk 


2*4 I* 

277 7ft 

5651 76* .... 

17*6 4 4Wu 
260 I* 

4747 I* 

MH 3 

173 lift 
220 Itr, 

1S3 5T. C 

174 14* 

13U 26K 

179 «■ 

«S 4ft 
532 1JV. 

300 jB'i 
162 Wi, 

227 33ft 
226 17ft 
275 10ft 
903 Mft 

58* 28* 

7S7 ft 

<216 !ft 
229 10* 

1190 I* 

281 4% 


H 

v« 

3ft —ft 
Ift —ft 
W —ft 

4 49j, .'ft, 

lift 12ft -ft 


Dividends 

COUtlMMIf 


Per Amt Rec Pay Conpany 


IH - 
2 


7Sft TSft. —Vm 
~»Y«i Oft —‘Va 
I* I* -J ft 


1* 

2 


T,u 


.... ft, 
lift lift • ft 
1* W -V,. 
5* 5* — V u 

14* 14* • * 

25* 35*. -ft 

'ft, "ft _ 
32»a 4ft, _ 
18 18ft -V, 
20ft 79ft 
9 Wi. ♦*, 
32ft 31* ♦ ft 

11 * lift ♦* 
10* FDft —ft 
19ft IS* —ft 
27’A J7* -Ift 
"■ * • ft, 

2ft, 2»a -V» 
10ft lift -ft 
*H ft, -ft, 
4 4Vi» — V u 


IRREGULAR 

Banco BHbooVtt b 3503 1-9 1-21 

RAGRnd B .0688 1-15 2*15 

REVERSE STOCX SPLIT 
Antons Resauices 1 for IQreirerse sent. 
Qvyiwi Care - 1 for 3re««se spm. 
Rifurebtolfcs tec 1 Mr lOrnww 

YEAREND 


Evaveen v«we A 
Ese npeen VBteeB 

Evergreen VoUieY 
Fidduy Incore II 
FV*KS»rtnCA 


Per And Rec Pay 

- X42S 12-27 12-30 
_ X382 12-27 12-X 

- X44 12-27 12-30 
. 1.19 12-27 12-27 

- m2 12-27 12-27 


e vergreen Y 
Evergreen Sal A 
E vergreen M B 
Evergreen Bid Y 
Eveigreen 
Evergreen 
Evergreen C 
Ev ugie enY 
Evergreen Gift) A 
Evergreen Grin 8 
Evergreen inaiY 
Ev er green 
Evergreen 
Everpreen Too 


.181 12-27 
1-243 12-27 
1.217 12-27 
1-2S2 12-27 
34912-27 
319 12-27 
3212-37 
35912-27 
J81t27 
3*512-27 
an 12-27 
3312-27 
33512-27 
394 12-27 


12-30 

12-J0 

12-30 

12-30 

12-30 

12-30 

12-30 

12-30 

12-30 

72-30 

12-30 

12-30 

12-30 

12-30 


REGULAR 
Alter Banco? OH, 
Gentayfin 
ComcnstCorpA 
Comrounfly S FL 
Fa Frankm 
rasvgsru. 

GF5 Bonconi 
Green Street Rn 
MertwOeElA&S, 
Sfewort&SMve 
Stewart I 
VSEI 

iLn 


VSECorp 

Woynesvgsl 


Q 

£ 

1-13 

1-fi 

Q 

.15 

1-17 

1-31 


6B33 

3-6 

3-27 

0 

70 

1-15 

2+3 

0 

J38 

1-S 

1-21 

0 

.125 

1-6 

1-17 

0 

.10 

1-10 

1-28 

Q 

.10 

1-10 

1-22 

0 

J5 

1-15 

1-31 

0 

6»S 

1-31 

2-14 

Q 

JB 

1-10 

1-28 

Q 

J45 

?o 

2-21 

a 

33 

1-8 

1-21 


Fob 97 oojJJ 65.15 6587 +187 3X159 

AcrW 6445 6578 6430 +188 21012 

JUO 97 63AS 6125 6157 +075 10,129 

A«97 <137 6X00 6X32 *167 9J62 

0&97 AUB UJ£ iUS -SJ3 4391 

Dec 97 67J9 67.15 £747 +06S X017 

EAsdes ujn F=rTv safes &S14 
FiTsaoeninl M33 up 351 

mmrji cattle icmbo 

SUntb-mhBve. 

Jas97 6X25 6742 <020 +U3 X359 

H**n 6X55 6740 6LS +1J0 5.177 

AmW sajs mx test *ixs uaa 

Main 1930 6X40 6930 +1A0 LOW 

A*S»7 71^ 7X35 7135 +1AB XI 50 

Sep97 7138 7X08 7035 +145 336 

&J-JCRJ 150 frrssaa IMS 

FriSoeaiH 14542 up 146 
HOGS-Loon (C84ER) 

«J00 bs.- aentt per lb. 

Feb 97 795) 7951 7959 +200 1X746 

APT £7 7432 7432 7432 +100 5519 

Jun 97 7732 7732 7732 +230 SrC9 

■UW 71S +2J0 l*H 

AWJ? fJl VJB +X* 1«S 

Od97 6167 OS OjO +U0 99 

^.sates sn nrs. sales 5374 
Frfsunrt 27,910 up 140 


FLATMUMOMERJ 

Wfeayafc-dg gnpwbw ae. 

Jan 97 37X00 37X00 37X60 —030 

Apr 97 37X00 37X00 37530 HL80 

MfJ 37X50 377 JO 37X60 rQJD 

3C797 38L00 38X00 38U0 -080 

Aw 98 38400 ♦OJO 

a.S0hB NA Briscoes 1537 
FITS open W 26J45 an 29* 


8325 

16339 

2M0 

2J9X 

1JM 


LONDON METALSajUE] 
Dalais permeate tan 


P revi ou s 


OM Grade; 

Spot 1511% 1513ft 7524ft 1525ft 
Forward 15<L0O 154400 155400 1555610 
modes 0fl9k Grade) 

2218.X 22&00 2259 J0 22606» 
21266)0 212X00 216X00 216X00 


MOT97 16900 1MO 1-6888 -30 343S5 
Jun 97 14856 14810 14838 -32 X170 
Set! 97 14788 -36 1JH7 

DOC *7 14738 —36 7 

Estjffis NA Fifs. sales XX707 
Frt'sopenrnt 37459 up B665 

CANADIAN DOLLAR (CMBO 

lBCLO0Cdofecm.SperCdn.dfe 

Mar 97 J3S2 J337 J339 -11 5U05 

Jun 97 73*0 -7377 J379 -11 1XS78 

See 97 7423 74U 7414 -11 4226 

Dec 97 .7455 J44B 7647 -11 387 

Eal. sties NA RTs-sdas 8788 

Frrsopenhd IMW up <770 

GERMAN MARK (OHOU 
123J0D morfcvspw-morfc 
Dec 96 45)8 -3 17 

MCT97 4873 484* 4461 -3 47J43 

Jtr 97 4S0B 4436 4500 -3 4374 

Sep 97 453* —3 1493 

soles NA BTs-SOkS 7J51 
Bfsoponte* 5X337 NT 457 

JAFANBEYEN (CMBU 

tt5 mrewi yon. S per no yen 

Dec 96 J0W2 -40 7 

HaT 408730 6088*5 6)08709 -50 5B454 

An 97 JSSSO 6XNBU J9»3 -SO 14*8 

Est,SB*e8 NA Ws. soles 17474 

Frt-sopenW 60398 up #Ma 

SMSS FRANC (CMER) 

128610 0 tr ums ,»prete a n c 
Dec 96 7R1 7871 7671 +136 

Han 7479 3439 J465 

-tan 97 753B 73as 7533 

Estate NA Firs. sales X9I7 
Rfsoponiar 47479 up 791 
' WJO^ STHUJN6 aJFW) 


32779 

44428 

1451 


taanoo - mso* loot 


Forward 

xicftri 

^ard 

rto 

w- 


604ft 
71 5610 


«95ft 

717J0 


Spot 
Foronrt 


83056)0 <3156)0 
64056)0 6*1 OJO 

50000 568000 
S740J0 5750.00 

■ Grade) 

1048fi 1007ft 

106L0O 1069% 


5-00 715ft 

&00 71 7 JO 

639000 <40000 
6495J0 <50000 

571000 5711.00 
57706)0 57756)0 

1OS4J0 1OBO0 
1076ft 1077X0 


-i-jK W41 $29 9130 +00) 

Jon97 93-09 91D7 93.09 ,.0613 

JprfT 93.5? 9XJ0 9X91 + gjj 

WA S- 72 2P 3 ♦“» 
BP &*9 BS 

JW88 VX5S 9X54 9X55 + 06M 

5eg*8 N.T. NT. 9X46 *CU3 

D«96 N.T. N.T. 9X38 ♦ 0J, 

Ma99 92J2 9X32 173a +£5 

60099 92-23 9X23 9223 + QJt 

5ep*9 9X18 9X11 *118 +003 

9XU. 9Xl« 9X15 ♦ 0J3 


|sl sate; 1X519. Pre».idt*"si70 
),9B8 


97J94 

S7J71 

57400 

4X868 

3LM67 

2X029 


um 

182 


r, open teiL- 394875 ' off 


HWi Lffi Close Chge Optat 


agre t tewdraR amoaat per 
s tertfADR; g-paypteic ta C nenrfliwi tewd 
aHOoattty? noert ir t r. s-scat+aml 


•ft 41 'A* »„ 


S3B 

!3ft 

12ft 

13 

♦ ft 

2644 

•57V 

ISft 

15ft 

+ fr. 

183 

37ft 

36ft 

lift 

-ft 

148 

4ft 

4 

4ft 

-ft 

in 

5ft 

5ft 

MV 

+ Vl4 

2031 

t.j 

ft 

ft 

-l. m 

SB 

4ft 

4ft 

4M. 

—Vi, 

304 

400 

& 

17ft 

3ft 

» 

-ft. 

143 

27ft 

27ft 

27ft 

• ft 

K< 

{Ift 

Mft 

rm 


306 


IBft 

IDft 

•ft 

ion 

3514 

34ft 

BY, 

‘ft 

5532 


35ft 

B ft 

♦ ft 

6176 

*39 

a 

Vp 

2ft 

Im 

Sft 


901 

!*» 

Ift 

lift 

♦ft. 

601 

IWU 


Ift, 

*v„ 

342 

•2ft 

12ft 

12ft 

• ft 

*3» 

left 

18K 

MM 

—ft 

S3 

19 

13** 

5 

17ft 

Sft 

13 

• ft 

14* 

6 

Sft 

Sft 


2D 

.ftp 

ft 

ft 

•Vm 

*25 

IBft 

w 

raft 

-ft 


144 lift 1SV H 15ft » Vi, 

UOI 14ft, Uft, 14ft, •* 

117 MV, laft MV, -■/„ 

31*6 IM 13 13ft, »ft, 

617 lift, 19* I*/* -ft 

1130 11* lift II* .* 

im 15* is » --.ft 

22895 ft, * * 

464 IV., I* Ift, , v„ 


Stock Tables Explained 

Salra fatten inOM Yeaty Nght and tea icfled Die pmAeus 52 wets (Jus t» ament 
week. Out naitetatoitahg day. WhereflspBorskxkdNdndaaoeeftipteOSpcRBdsriMre 
Ita5 been pchtBie yeas W^HpwinmeunddMdand are Bwn far me nrar Male: neyiiTdPCT 
afaeiwfse noted rates of Attends am oral dbfewsBnHte based aitetaa) dednBOa 
a - dMdend eba exha fa), b ■ annua rale of dMden: phis siott OMcJerxL c - SqaidaOna 
dMdend. «- PE racends 99.dd - cefled. d - new ywnty tow.dd - loss tn the tost 12 mounts, 
e • dMdend dectaed or paid in preceding 12 months, f- annual rote hcremed an fast 

dKtarcTton.g -dMdend In CimiHSanfind&sobfect to lS^nen-resfaence fen. )-tf*faend 
dedored after splB-vp or afadt d hMei id. 1- dMdend poMHib yen-, omBteA deferred or no 

flOlon token at latest Ovtoend meeftod- k - dividend dectared or pedd Ws w. an 
aauaadallK issue wi» dividends En grreore. ■- aawol rm. reduead on fast deabrafen. 
n - new Hwm in tt* past 52 weeks. The hfaMow range begins wfdi the start of mxBno. 
M - neto day deOwry. p - Infttal OMencL annual rate unknown. p/E- prioMenteae itfta 
q-dos«tend iRvfuai fand.r- dMdend declared or P*d in precedes ^monffifcohsjteft 
-Mdend '!!l? dl ® h " Dwtecnd wbh dree at spat sb sides, - (flvfaea paid in 

sloa to preceding 12 raonm^esfttrwed cash wtoe on ex-divldend or es-ffiSTtouikmdaJe. 

o- new i^ orty high, v-tmdeig hafted. vi- in iad(Wto>arwreeeiraol»ralMfagjGBraB^ad 

wideflneBaiKnralcrftttorsecurtda9nMtunedbys4ic?icoinpcnie5.vHl»wtiendhaiiacitod. 

*» - when issiiecv ww - won woiroms. a . ac-dMdenfl orer-ifgMs. Mfa . epdfatAufton. 
xw - wffti*rt warranto. r ex-dMdend and sofas In foil j«d - yield, i - sofas ta ful 


(CCBCR) 

40400 te-eem pw to. 

ftb*7 RL42 BU3 8042 +308 UK 

nan acuts suk aus +uu *u 

Horn 8LB hop its +180 STB 

idW ».li -36B S25 

A*I0*7 7$40 +3JJQ 151 

MB FrfSfiDes I6B9 
Frfsooenirt M® off TOl 


Food 

COCOA DK5E) 

10 mvMc Im- 1 per ton 

]» I3» 054 33J19 

Mam 1381 1371 1380 --5 U499 

JK97 1403 1400 UCC —J him, 

faptt 144 1419 U20 —4 6,900 

Dec?) U3* 1436 1<JS —4 1401 

OM .K/m RYLSOes USB 
FfTsooai W 8U85 UP 259 

COFFEE C (NOE) 

87-9tote.-C4nl»p*rlk 

Man 11745 11S.H 11X95 -as 1*511 

Hem 11440 11X00 11X45 +8LM 4J7D 

JJW raa HUB mio vm 

wmu tui 1IU» MMO 1402 

a.S0toS 440 FrfftSOtaS 9J3t 

RfSODWinr 304(5 UP 2005 

SJGAR^dORLOll (NCSE) 
i TX OOOtn. auvjpwfc. 

»•* aw +au 77,954 

*80*97 1099 10X7 HL99 *0J8 3)4U 

AIW 10*3 1044 18*2 +06B 24423 

HU0 +0JR 14,14* 
B.MO flip Frfssdes 2&9C 
WTStoWlW 154,136 UP <577 


Hnandai 

UST.BLLS (CMER) 

si reraeo- pft«r we net. 

Morn W9 H97 Wl -VU 4JBB 

Jun *7 9647 94X7 94X7 Tttfll XU4 

S0Q97 g*J5 

soles NA FrTs. sales si 
Frr s open »n 6491 up 220 

SYR. TREASURY (CSOT) 

SUQjaoprt».pteS, Brass W1M DCS 
ManW^iS Iff-ffl iwlffl “ 0i 1aU3i 

!B nn « 2J» 

soses 15j<2 Wisete 9J22 
FrTsopen utf 150481 eft 928 

WTR. TREASURY KBOT1 

vtoJOO prtet- pft aifadsof TSOpd 

Ato-97 I1M5 M9-27 »!® Z ” 2IU« 
AtoWW-W 10M9 WM0 _ £ 
K.stoes liOOO FirasRa 2ft5K 
Frfsopeniri 299 Jl2 off 53 

US TREASURY BONDS oar) 


WjpKTHEUAOMAMCOJFW) 

8»rw , ar 

JU097 *6X5 96X3 

S«97 9672 96J0 

9653 9650 

Moito 9622 9628 

JonCS M6S Otai 

Sj® ?sj* 


9648 +06)1206462 
960 ♦ 0J1 16629B 
9671 +060140547 
96S *060 
9631 +DJ4 8X641 
*64 a +004 65491 


5^ 9544 9543 K43 + 0§ 


4X803 


EsLscte NA RTs-sate 2X6S2 
FrlftoPenW 10X310 off 710 

U8HT 4 WL LI CRUDE (NMER) 

1400 0W.- doOarm per onL 
M>97 2S_S5 2612 2SJ4 +ft!2 101,797.* 

War 97 2690 2145. 2446 +0.11 37 M . * 

Apr 97 34.10 23X7 2J9* *0.10 23X02;: 

May 97 2J6P 2X2S 23X3 +0.14 lUBt 

JW1 *7 22X8 2X68 22X6 -0,12 27X36 . 

XX 97 2130 2X20 2X25 +006 MX6S J 

Aug 97 ZIJO 21J6 21X0 +0J9 0208 

Sep 97 21J6 71-32 7U6 +QJB 12X07 

Od97 TUB 20.91 21J2 ♦AH 8X72 

Dec 97 20X9 2X33 J0J7 +0X8 3131 

Junto 19X5 1945 1945 +0.10 1X1*3 *. 

Dec 91 1U0 18X0 18X0 -06P 12J8T *■ 

EsLsdtt NA Frrs.sote ao.w 
PC's open 08 358J97 UP 3570 - 

NATURAL GAS (NMBt> 
lOXOOnim bW% s per mm Mu 
Fet) 57 2X30 2X30 1677 -307 3X907- 

Man 2540 2J35D 2411 — M9 19J1S - J 

Apr 97 1270 2130 2)66 -174.11X17-.' 

Mam 2160 2010 3X50 -n 8X3T 

•Am 97 26)60 2X00 2020 —70 811)3 ■ 

JUt97 2X80 1580 7X10 -75 7,18* '■ 

Aug 97 2X70 5X10 2JZ5 -60 6X60 V- 

5ep97 1X70 2X10 26120 -70 6JS* 

Ocf97 10H0 2X40 2X40 -70 6450 

NWB X190 2155 2155 -50 3J13 

Decor 2380 223 1 2250 — B 4417 * 

Est.scte HA Rrf &. sales 34X84 
FrFsanenM 144482 oft 2051 . ’ 

UNLEADED GASOLINE (NMBO 
42080 gaft cwPs per eol 
Jtto97 7Rffl 60X5 6941 -0.13 UN 

F»*7 ».W 46JB 67X8 +0X2 27X56 : 

Man 69-5C 035 69X3 +017 114M ■ 

AW 97 703 69X0 7038 +0.13 5X63 

May» <9X0 6 * jo mn +o.» 3J42 - 

An 77 MSB 46.00 sun +024 3X93 . 

EsLsales NA FrCftSCdos 14H47 
FffsapenM 45X36 up 5*6 , 

GASOIL 0PE3 

U&dooan per metric ton >'lats of loo tons 
Jon 97 223X0 219J0 223X0 +46) 0 10J46 

Feb 97 220 JO 216.25 210X0 +250 21,312 

Mar 97 211X0 208X0 21 OlOO + 2JQ BJ99 

AD197 201 35 199.75 20075 +1X0 6.762 

May 9 7 194J0 19175 19225 +1X5 Mil . 

Jun 97 190X5 19025 189 JO +1J5 7,453 

JtM97 N.T. N.T. 10475 +OXO 2X17 • 

AWT? NT. |fj. 185-75 +025, 8*0 J 

97 185J0 185J0 +025 508 

OOV7 N.T. N.T.' 184X0 +025 841 

Nov 97 1BSJ0 laSJO Unch. - 67 

ea iota ram. openwxra47ooe«2 ' 

BRENT OIL QPE) 

UX. dodos par barrel 
FW)97 2X97 2X55 

Mar 97 2133 2100 
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CVrKKKATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 31, 


1996- WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 1, 1997 


PAGE 11 




EUROPE 




f i ! Sjj 

J ‘IV f 

... ^ 


'■ nv.'-t 
'* V i 

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::■**** 




■ -!;nKs — 


Aegon to Acquire U.S. Insurer 

Dutch Firm Joins Globed Top 10 With $3.5 Billion Deal 


THE HAGUE— Aegon NV said 
Monday it had agreed to boy foe in- 
surance operations erf Providian Corp. 
for $3.5 Mliooiirstocfc aiid agam^ 
debt, a transaction that would place 


the Top IOgtobal insurers. 

Tbe deaVwfrichwas approved by 
the boards of both companies over 
the weekend, would be the largest 
U.S. acmiisjtion by a Dutch com- 
pany and comes as insurers world- 
wide are obnfonmtg with rivals to 
fend off banks and mutual-fund 
companies competing for con- 
sumer’ savfcgs. ■ 

Providian, a diversified financial 
company based in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, said foe deal would allow it to 
focus on its fast-growing consumer- 
lending and. banking business. Its 
San Erandsco-based banking unit, 
Provi dian Bancorp, will be spun off 
to shareholders jict before the com- 
pletion of lbe buyout, which is ex- 
pected in die first half of next year. 


Agnar Urges 
Labor Reform, 

. Bloomberg Business News 

MADRID — Prime Minister 
Jose Maria Aznar said Monday 
that Spain must reform its labor 
market to create more jobs. 

In an interview with die daily 
£3 Mundo, Mr. Aznar said that 
labor laws must be changed to 
decrease die amount of tem- 
porary job contracts, create 
more oppo rtun ity for young 
people mid to keep Spain com- 
petitive with hs European coun- 
terparts. 

Laws should be changed to 
address “the large amount of 
temporary and precarious work 
in Spam.'’ he said. “A labor 
market reform must be oriented 
to stability.** 

Unions are cutrently nego- 
tiating with employers in an ef- 
fort to reform Spain’s labor 
laws. Unions want more indef- 
inite job contracts, while em- 
ployers want to reduce the cost 
of hiring and firing workers, so 
they wm be less averse to give 
workers more km^-term con- 
tracts. If the two sides cannot 
reach agreement by early 
spring, the government has in- 
dicated it wm broker an agree- 
ment 


Kees Storm, Aegon's chair man. 
said the purchase would add five 
percentage points to Aegon’s earn- 
ings per share growth. Aegon is the 
Netherlands’ second-biggest in- 
surer, with a market share of 20 
percent in group life insurance and 
12 percent in individual life. 

The deal includes a tax-free ex- 
change of stock, with Providian 
shareholders receiving Aegon NV 
shares worth $2.62 billion, or $28 
per Providian share. Aegon said. 

Aegon USA. the U.S. arm of Aegon 
NV, will assume about $780 million 
of debt and $100 million of Monthly 
Income Preferred Stock, or MIPS, foe 
company said. MIPS are preferred 
shares that pay monthly dividends. 

Analysts applauded the transac- 
tion. “This is. an incredibly big 
fish,** said Lex van der Somme, a 
fond manager with ING Bank Ver- 
raogensbehcer, which owns 33 mil- 
lion guilders worth of Aegon stock 
and manages 1.5 billion guilders. 
* 'There are great integration advant- 


ages ahead in 1998 and 1999." 

“It’s a very good move,” said 
Dick de Haas, an analyst at Gestion 
NV. “They will become more flex- 
ible and a more diversified company 
as a result of this move.” 

Aegon's share price climbed 10.9 
guilders, to 110.10 ($63.07) on the 
Amsterdam Stock Exchange. 

Providian's insurance operations 
will become part of the Dutch com- 
pany's U.S. unit., bolstering its com- 
petitive positions against rival Euro- 
pean insurers such as France’s Axa 


SA, which owns 60 percent of Equit- 
able Cosl, and Switzerland’s Zurich 
Insurance Group, which acquired 
Kemper Corp. two years ago. 

Last mouth, Axa escalated the 
insurance industry’s consolidation 
by announcing a $93 billion 
takeover of its larger French rival. 
Union des Assurances de Paris. The 
move follows Munich Re's acqui- 
sition of American Re Corp. for $4 
billion earlier this year. 

( Bloomberg , AP) 


Unemployment in France 
Reaches a Record 12.7% 


Rouen 

PARIS — French unemployment 
hit a record 12.7 percent in Novem- 
ber, resuming its steady rise after a 
surprise drop in October, and econ- 
omists said Monday the number of 
jobless was likely to rise further. 

The number of people unemployed 
rose by 20,700 iu November, after a 
12,000 decline in October, to reach 
3,121300, after adjustments far sea- 
sonal v ariations, the Labor Ministry 
said. In October, 12.6 percent of foie 
work force was imemptoyed. 

For foe government of President 
Jacques Chirac, foe unemployment 
figures make its pledge to cut un- 
employment ever hairier to fulfill as 
France tries to rein in spending to meet 
foe deficit criteria far joining foe 
European tingle currency in 1999. . 

Economists said that although there 
were signs of recovery in the economy 
that would eventually arrest foe rise in 
foe number of jobless, there was no 
quick solution in right 

“It's a bit disappointing as it re- 
verses some of foe surprise good 
news we bad last time,” Philippe 
Brossard, head of research at ABN 
Amro NV in Paris, said. ‘ ‘The econ- 
omy is still moving up but it will be 
the end of spring before we see any 


impact on unemployment.” 

The national statistics institute, 
LNSEE, forecast earlier this month 
that unemployment would peak at 
13 percent in the first half of 1997 
before starting to decline gradually. 

David Brickman. European econ- 
omist at Yamaichi International, 
was more pessimistic. “The econ- 
omy has got to grow at a much farter 
rate than at foe moment to generate 
falling unemployment, he said. 

“Unemployment will probably 
peak around foe third quarter next 
year but foe risk is that it doesn't 
peak until much later. French labor 
laws are so rigid employers are not 
going to be encouraged Co take on 
new Tabor.” 

lain Lindsay, senior bond analyst 
at Credit Lyonnais, said foe rise in 
thejobless total would make it all foe 
harder to bring down foe deficit in 
the social security system, which is 
financed mainly by payroll taxes. 

France's social security system, 
which is expected to show a deficit 
of 29.7 billion francs ($5.65 billion) 
in 1997 after an expected deficit of 
513 billion francs this year, is in- 
cluded in calculating foe total public 
deficit for the European Union’s 
Maastricht treaty criteria. 


Russian Car Venture 
Sends Strong Signal 
To Domestic Rivals 


Bloomberg Business News 

YELABUGA, Russia — AO 
. Yelaz's plans to assemble Cbev- 
‘rolet Blazers under its venture with 
General Motors Corp. will send a 
strong competitive signal to Rus- 
sian carmakers, the industry min- 
istry said Monday. 

As Russia's first major auto- 
motive joint venture, AO Yelaz is 
aiming 10 make 50,000 Chevy 
BJazersa year by December 1 997, 
the ministry said. 

“The release of foe 
Yeiabuzhsky 'jeep' is a signal to 
our car manufacturers.” the min- 
istry said. “Attention; A new com- 
petitor has appeared — prove that 
you can produce nothing worse.” 

Prime Minister Viktor 
Chernomyrdin of Russia and 
Anatoli Chuhais , the presidential 
chief of staff, attended the roll-out 
of die first Blazer from tire Yelaz 
production line earlier this month. 

Yelaz's venture to assemble 
Blazers from imported parts is in 
contrast to Russia's bigger car- 
makers, which are depending on 
high import tariffs to allow them 
to continue producing poor-qual- 
ity cars at high prices. 

General Motors has a 25 per- 
cent share in the AO Yelaz-Gen- 
eral Motors venture, in exchange 
for $250 million of investment 
The remaining 75 percent is split 
evenly between foe government 
of Tatarstan, foe majority share- 
holder in Yelaz, and foe Russian 
government. 

The Russian government con- 
tributed 120 billion rubles ($213 
million) to the venture. 

Under foe agreement, the joint 
venture will introduce a new Gen- 
eral Motors model every three 
years. The venture plans to pro- 
duce 60 percent of its output do- 
mestically, reducing the imported 
component from foe current 100 
percent level. 

“Without a doubt, at the be- 
ginning of our work we'll meet 
opposition from our giants Gaz 
and Vaz,” said Industry Minister 
Yuri Bespalov, referring to AO 
Gaz, manufacturer of foe Volga 
sedan md Gazelle utility truck, and 
AO Avtovaz, maker of the Lada 
sedan and Samara hatchback. 

Avtovaz is currently battling 


Frankfurt ' London ' 

DAX . FTSE1Q0 latex ■ ■ C*C4D 


2950 • - 

4100 j. 1-lI 

23ffi 

2B50 "A/ 

4000 - f/\/V 

2250 

2750 - - jJ 

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2175 

2650 .V* 

3800 / 

2100' 

2550\/V 

3700 y 

2025 

^ J ' S’ O' N D 

3600 J A’S O N D‘ 

1950- 


with the government about pay- 
ment of 1 1 trillion rubles of foe 
carmaker's debt, of which 2.9 tril- 
lion rubles is in unpaid taxes. Earli- 
er this month it said it would sell a 
50 percent stake in the company to 
raise money to pay the tax bill. 

Avtovaz has been producing 
foe same Lada sedan for more 
than 20 years with little modi- 
fication. It set up its manufac- 
turing plant in foe late 1960s with 
help from Fiat SpA of Italy. 

Joint ventures such as Yelaz's 
will help modernize foe Russian 
auto industry, Mr. Bespalov said. 

“To keep producing foe same 
model of car for decades is, to my 
mind, nonsense,” he said. “And 
let them call a new automobile a 
'screwdriver automobile* as- 
sembled from imported parts. The 
main thing is that it has ap- 
peared." he said. 

The Yelaz carmaker is named 
for its manufacturing base in 
Yeiabuga, 700 kilometers (4373 
miles) east of Moscow. 

■ Lukoil Plans Global Issue 

Russia's biggest oil company, 
Lukoil, plans to raise at least $1 
billion through a global place- 
ment of its shares next year. Vice 
President Leonid Fedim said, Re- 
uters reported from Moscow. 

“Tbe main task on the capital 
market next year is a global place- 
ment of more than 100 million 
shares,” he said. “Given current 
prices, we expect that would ex- 
ceed $1 billion." 

Other issues and placements 
would raise $300 million. Mr. Fe- 

dun said 

Mr. Fedim said Lukoil had vir- 
tually completed preparations for 
a London stock exchange share 
placement, which is expected in 
March or April. 

Lukoil was one of tbe first Rus- 
sian companies to issue level-one 
American Depositary Receipts 
and has already issued convertible 
bonds. 

It also plans to issue ADRs on 
its preferred shares after the New 
Year holidays, he said. 

By foe end of 1997 it intends to 
issue level-three ADRs, which 
raise new capital on its ordinary 
stock. 


“’J A ‘ S' O N‘ O' 

1996 

• PtW. . . % 


EOE. 


Srtis*ete: 


Os3o ■/>■■■■ 7 QBX ■ ■ 

London FTSFi oo ■ 


S4fL24 .638.09 *1.43 

L 8 SM 3 Aggftgr * 0.12 

2^38-69 -' 2,85288 "*{.26 

j&k "; T\4eai;h 


vmn-. .. wst©- 

.pert*, . cac 40 ■ 

Stockholm : ‘ SX 16 


. S&Sft : ■ ■ • §8 Bl80 • 40.71 
• ' +Q.60 

'■ ' +O.KJ 
.00+087 
2#t*JS3- 230&9& . *0.51 
2*527,42' 2.493J0O +1.35 


Source: Telekurs lucnWianal Herald Tribune 

Very briefly: 

• AG IV AG has sold its 74 percent stake in Wayss & Freylag 
AG, a German construction company, to Hollandscbe Beton 
Groep NV for 300 million guilders ($171.9 million). 

• The Bank of Spain will withdraw several coins, including 
ones with General Franco's image, beginning Wednesday 
because of reform aimed at making coinage simpler. 

• Grundig AG, a German electronics firm, said results would 
improve next year, even though it expected to post a loss. 

• Groupe des Assurances Natumales refused to comment on 
a report that it would request up to 10 billion French francs 


• Sisu-Auto Oy. Finland’s state-owned automaker, said 
Renault might buy its truck business. Bloomberg. AFP. Reuters 


Schneider Charges Likely 

Bloomberg Business News 

FRANKFURT — German prosecutors said Monday they 
would probably present charges against Juergeu Schneider 
this week, accusing him of fraud in connection with the 1 994 
collapse of his property group. 

A press conference on the charges could be held Friday, said 
Job Tilmaim, senior prosecuting attorney. 

An attorney for Mr. Schneider, Stefan von Moers of the 
Munich firm Rue eke l, Trenkner & Collegen, was not avail- 
able for comment. 

Mr. Schneider was extradited to Germany in February to 
face six counts of fraud in connection with allegations that he 
lied to Deutsche Bank AG and other German banks to obtain 
billions of marls in loans for real-estate projects. 

He fled Germany in 1994, leaving about 6 billion Deutsche 
marks ($3.85 billion) in liabilities. He was arrested in Miami in 
May 1995 and fought extradition proceedings until January. 

Deutsche Bank was owed 13 billion DM as Mr. 
Schneider's largest creditor. It wrote off 500 million DM in 
1994 because of Mr. Schneider. 


WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


Mtft Uw dm P» 


HJgfc Lour dace Pro* 


HkjB tow Oeso Pr**. 


Hfe* Low ante pick 


The Trib Index 


Monday Dec. 30 

Prices in kml currenties. 
Tetstars 

HM Law Owe Prec 


Amsterdam eoe^muj 


AHf-MMU 
Aegon 
AMri 
Alan MnW 
Boon Go. 

Bob mss on 

CSMCM 

DocdbdwPef 

DSM 

Eberior 

FgrtbMoov 


Hmoombsoc 

HonDoogios 

WG Group 

KLM 

KNPBT 

KPN 

* GP 

OceGAAn 


11X40 112 

U 2 jo nsji 

1*30 vnjo 

237 23S 

63JM 

3130 3JJ# 
M2B M20 
32X50 HUD 
17170 WJB 
29 JO M90 

easa an 

4650 46® 
5150 5140 
139 13680 
3M2D 3D3L5D 
' 7220 7130 
.11650 nSLTD 
<220 6120 
4820 AM 
30 3720 
<6 6520 
4740 4600 
263 26020 
18630 M6 
1920 WJO 
8850 0530 
126 123 

14650 14340 
50 49JQ 
150 14J-50 
10630 10520 
30120 30020 

WU9 J£ 

7120 71SS 
3610 3SJ0 
23&50 22040 


SESSS 

item Ml 
VNV 

'Mnn* 

Bangkok 


AdcWoScc ZM 710 218 

BantfakRF 75* 20. 2« 

KranTM» 5150 4950 50 

PTTEXPM 376 360 370 

Stan Cement F «H n* «M 

SkmCMBkF 187 133 186 

Tdeconado 54 52 5X50 

TtuAMnn 38 3725 3725 

TMFmftF 164 159 150 

UM Com 174 T7D 174 


11240 11150 
110.10 9920 

in i* 

236 ZJC68 
6080 587D 
3120 3L70 
96 9540 
32450 319 

17040 16920 
2920 29.10 
6050 5920 
4620 4680 
5190 5340 
13610 13670 
38580 30120 
72 7120 
11650 116 

6220 <120 
4050 4850 
3720 3680 
6520 6550 
4740 4670 
26250 361 

18750 18650 
70 70 

88 8558 
12480 12660 
14450 14250 
S» 4920 

150 14850 
10630 10670 
30220 30120 
K<n •mnn 
7190 7250 
3630 3520 
22950 22950 


na Law a 050 Pm. 

AAmHdg 2000 2763 2000 2763 

Altana ' 719950 1190 UM 1W9 
BkBflrfn 28 27 M 20 28.10 

BASF S92B 5SM »2B 5699 

Bauer Hypo Bk 4665 46 4«5S 4520 

Bar.VUsMa* 8X20 030 030 6265 

Bayer <220 6206 6300 6155 

D e fald o rt 7630 73 7610 7450 

BMW m 1 1OH50 1073 1032 

CammerdKG* 39.15 3855 39.10 3805 

Matter BOH 106 10420 m 10355 

Degas* 700 685 6 K 60 603 

Deutsche Bat* 7250 7140 7120 7L&S 

DcrtTetefcm 3248 32 3245 XL39 

DnsdnerBank 4610 4558 4670 4550 

Fnsentos 310 30050 310 339.5® 

FnsentHMed I32L70 oo 13120 1» 

FtMLKrapp 251 249 249 24650 

Gene 99 9610 9850 9* 

K3«slbg2Jf»t 1265B 123 12450 123 

Henkel pM 77 JO 75^1 77 JO 7425 

HcehtleF <1 5675 <1 58S» 

HaactWl 7170 7000 7270 70*5 

Kanhnff 520 5* 520 515 

Unste 940 924 Ml 923 

LgffiBKD 21 XM 21 2070 

M AN 373 36650 373 36650 

Maaaemm 667 662 667 65650 

Metattgeselsdia0315D 3142 3L5D 3150 
Metro 124 12050 124 S3MI 

Munch Knack R 3845 3725 38« 37« 

Rnunsofl 349 344 34S50 340 

R WE 6520 6440 65JB 

SAPpM 211 3SB 20950 2U 

SchetStB 129 JO 129 1».90 1» 

SteneiK 7250 7142 7250 71J0 

Thyosm 273 27150 273 27250 

vXT WJ0 0820 09 8905 

VaS 495 495 495 504 

Vtag 60550 60150 604 604 

VUramgen <41 <34 640 637 


tscor 

Uberiymos 

Liberty Lite 

Mtewcn 

Nonp* 

Nedrar 

RmUiuudlGa 

RUkokmO 

Rost PtaBnim 

SA Breweries 

Somancnr 

Saoel 

SBJC 

Tiger Orris 


3J32 334 

310 31B 

11675 117 

9675 M 
law 1635 
<475 65 

4150 4105 
65 65 

64 64 

116 119 

5475 5475 
5625 5550 
100 10150 
64 64 


Kuala Lumpur 


Mol Banking 2735 

MriHISMpF 735 

POtamasGas 1810 

Rencnfl 446 

ReaarttWBrid 1170 

Skne Dfflty 9^ 

TetefeenNU 2250 


Helsinki 


NokfaA 

(Mao-YMyimta 


^ 174 ™ 174 - w 

MaxketS Closed Hong Kong H- 


251 258 250 250 

3690 3650 3690 3650 
216 «3 214 213 

5870 5730 58 98 

65 6460 6490 6490 
1459 1430 1438 14* 
259 256 258 257 

3400 3430 3450 35 

112 7H 112 172 

267 265 26680 26690 

179 17658 177 174 

7H50 77M 7350 7740 
43 42^1 4250 4250 
365 350 363 364 

9600 95 9650 9S 

8140 8030 81 8030 


London 

MOW Non 

AHted Donecq 
AngflwiWtaier 

Assoc Br Foods 
BAA 
Boretays 
Bo* 

BAT tad 
BankSariland 
Blue aide 
BOC Group 
Book 
BPS tad 
BritAmsp 
Bin Airways 
But Gas 


H U *—: 1341875 


The Bombay, Jakarta, Ma- 
nila, and Seotzl stock markets 
were closed Monday for a 
holiday. 


Brussate 


Cstoyi 

DdhnbeLk* 


UI2S 10*00 
5Sia 500 
6770 6 720 

W 

m B 2fiD 

3000 SS5 

1206 H96 

120 116 
1472S T4ffi 

”95 IK 

7600 BIO 
3M5 39K 
5190 5030 
2300 2100 
US 1414 
«95 4070 

.1490 11M0 
M5do vaaa 
MSB 10100 
MSB 4750 
6400 6530 


10400 10475 

IS i§ 

20150 inw 
8885 

s 

SOW M0 
2200 2150 
1422 1434 

4085 4065 
11375 1 1475 
10400 1 0380 
moo warn 

4050 4795 

4550 6530 




W? 

nlrcbtaaGa 

iSSSf* 

HKTetecwwnro 




1130 1TJ0 
3450 34.10 

1120 lias 
70 68 

2030 1950 
3*20 3330 
175 155 

1685 li« 
&S5 855 

4630 4K0 
»15 161D 
BJO 835 
365ffl 3640 
HJ30 9^ 
3260 3230 
69S 650 

4340 4250 
17.10 1660 
95 93 

930 9.15 

7735 7550 
12-95 1235 
7SJB 1450 
2530 25J0 
U70 1430 
1230 1120 
5 4» 


2930 
2140 2140 

« A 


1130 1US 

ss ss 

69 6950 

20 T9 JO 

34 3340 

333 158 

1680 1550 
830 680 

4540 4350 
1115 1115 
835 830 

3670 3610 

■a g 

1635 17 

S£S 24 

1430 U70 
XUS 1240 
450 5 

66 164 

60 <135 
3030 1930 
2140 2140 

21 2135 

738 7^ 

53 51.K 


fc. 

sassr 

Low) See 


MEPC 

MwconrABwi 

HaOonal CM 

NoU Power 


14S75 14775 lg» 
MSB 02500 03700 82M0 
2MB 2120 2150 2T2S 


21B 2J^M 


Copenhagen «*** 


i'| S 

SxtSS 

475 467 OS 

2 HO 0 »aUD 0 O»a 00 9 

153000 149775 1SS00 1 





WwfHdps 

WMfltaOc 


35B 330 

s.w 

950 950 

630 640 

769 7175 
1540 li» 
3oeo 3350 
39-10 3940 
3115 


^ *. % 
3B m m 


Frankfurt 


«* na 

kb n 


MOB 90S 

T3J 13030 


Johannesburg "j&ggggS 

AMdamUBfeS 249 74M M50 « 

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1730 1740 1730 
2675 2735 27 

730 739 735 

10 10 10 

4M 444 442 

1140 1148 1130 
935 940 935 

22J0 2250 2240 
UJD 1140 1140 
2150 2230 2150 


FT-SE 100:411539 
PicMob 409140 

740 744 741 

448 446 453 

5 JI 538 5 J 3 

730 733 732 

131 133 132 

430 442 478 

442 483 456 

955 1041 957 

610 615 612 

439 440 435 

346 307 347 

3 -Si MS 155 
831 679 873 

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343 283 351 

1235 1234 1225 
601 644 642 

225 226 225 

5.14 548 532 

693 659 695 

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3 J 0 198 4.05 

233 238 275 

1036 1052 W 53 
144 146 144 

6 fi» 4 JM 482 
446 448 486 

543 509 607 

611 684 604 

612 615 614 

353 M 3 355 
527 551 530 

440 444 464 

1243 1374 1343 
630 638 635 

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7 M >30 733 

679 344 340 

940 10 942 

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451 459 453 

277 239 239 

£81 540 542 

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645 447 603 

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240 1238 1244 
730 733 739 

177 339 180 

619 <56 620 

25 29 a 

740 7 50 748 

255 238 238 

357 330 355 

420 430 429 

223 123 226 

483 446 442 

432 434 433 

127 1240 1239 
148 155 149 

483 445 444 

640 643 683 

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186 £48 

44 7.17 

152 158 152 

£70 533 £77 

747 74 ? 749 

491 493 493 

340 348 341 

427 434 427 

7.15 720 730 

355 162 356 

691 1144 1097 
OS 439 438 

745 75 S 747 
ISO Kt 154 
947 943 947 

155 157 156 

554 £51 554 

643 747 942 


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Tcte&Lyto 

Toco 

Tlwroro Wnter 

31 Group 

Ti Group 

TowKra 

Undew 

IIM Assurance 

UN News 

UNUBSes 

Vttdome Lxb& 

Vodafone 

WMmod 

vraknaHdgs 

Watsetey 
WPP Group 
Zeneca 


Madrid 

Aorinm 

ACESA 

Aguas BacBtoa 

Anwdaria 

BBV 

Banesto 

BcstWiisef 

Bco Centra Hbp 

BcoEnterior 

BCD Poptdar 

Bco Santander 

CEPSA 

Conanento 

ag^urira 

FECSA 

GcwHoftiral 

inentajla 

Piyea 

Repeal 

SwBtanaSec 
Tabocotero 
TeMootea 
UUon Feoon 
VtaencCeroari 

Mexico 


Cemex CTO 
ClfcnC 

Enp Modena 
GpoCaaoAl 
Gpo Fta inbtuxa 
idiabOartiMex 
Televisa CPO 
TelMexL 


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472 433 
353 152 

6M 607 
490 455 

£78 £71 
232 257 

1411 1426 
470 475 
694 694 

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£34 533 

248 249 

756 751 

143 348 

463 460 

251 247 

1643 1647 


■in Wee 44342 
PieilnaR 44651 


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CAC-4B;231663 I refle b °^ W 5 
Pie ri mite 230695 VOlwBF 


19150 18750 
1825 1785 

5410 5320 
S75D 53WJ 
700 6999 
1055 1000 

20390 19920 
3340 3200 

2765 
25548 
8220 8120 
3970 3900 
3660 2610 

7870 7710 

9100 9000 

1290 1265 

307* 30030 
1875 1*» 

2745 2695 
SD40 4990 
1450 1385 

5610 5550 

30X9 3000 

1330 12S 

1415 1375 


18770 10900 
1815 1010 
5350 5280 
5750 5750 

7000 7000 

1035 983 

20398 30000 
33* 3250 

2770 2770 

25400 25700 
8200 8260 
3935 3950 
2655 2600 

7850 7790 
90* 9000 

1290 1255 
30520 30330 
I860 1850 

2725 2705 
5000 5030 

1435 1385 

5570 5550 

3039 3005 

1330 1260 

1415 1400 


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AGF 

MrUqukta 

AknMAbfe 

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Bwcalni 

BNP 

Bouyaues 

COnaT Plas 

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CCF 

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CTedB Lyon PC 
Crown Gut Seal 
Danone 
EX-AnuBakw 
EiMantaBS 
Eure Disney 
Eurotunnel « 
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640 629 

16650 160 

020 006 
427,60 42160 
331,20 321160 
625 60S 

1-90 200 

544 529 

115B 1146 
3447 3366 

245 23680 
44690 44110 
135 132 

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727 723 

47650 47250 
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7 JO 695 

642 637 

364.90 3S0.10 
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472J0 46X60 
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782 780 

34650 341.* 
214 20650 
287 28610 
S95 575 

2080 ‘>097 

1474 1450 

11630 11610 
179 17610 
1S28 1527 

521 512 

237.90 23560 

523 569 

745 736 

1305 1280 

22050 219 JO 
16960 167 

422 41950 
13680 12&20 
321 31750 


OB 624 
16*50 I60JB 
815 020 

425 421 

330 329 JO 
622 602 
20050 20151 
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1153 1T49 
3383 3400 

239.90 24270 
44690 44600 
133 13680 


725 723 

475 47670 
832 826 

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36350 36140 
311 31650 
090 893 

1954 1932 

MSS 1422 
47280 464 

278 274 

782 786 

34450 34240 
Sift® 35M® 
2BS 28670 
584 592 

2065 2060 

1470 1455 

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17750 178 

1527 1527 

514 510 

23750 235.50 
570 567 

741 730 

120V 1270 

22049 OTJ® 
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421.10 420JD 
130 130 

321 321 


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Amcor 
ANZBUng 
BHP 
Bam 
BnmMeslmL 
BurnsPMBp 
CBA 

CCAmaB 
Cates Myer 
Camataj 
CRA ud 
CSR 
Fasten Brow 
GJO Australia 
GaodmaaFld 
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Asia Cemenl 
Cataay LHe las 
Cbang Hua Bk 
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9050 0&50 9050 0050 

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1363 1350 1258 IXff 

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640 628 <40 625 Fnpmv 

30 19J1 19.90 19.65 cnw 9y 

63t 630 622 630 Finance 

Ufi 258 259 258 

326 123 324 125 MsceOaneous 

148 15S 158 155 Rsw Untnrinls 

1185 1X40 1180 1X40 now Materials 

206 202 205 202 SetVKX 

655 24 2650 2605 

060 855 857 855 Utilities 


018 005 

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1704 1700 
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2640 2601 
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640 620 

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656 650 

173 356 

130 115 

176 170 

108 105 

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240 137 

7.16 707 

900 903 

304 301 


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7620 2404 
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19.90 1945 
632 630 

259 258 

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347 345 

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106 107 

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7.15 ?J4 

9.14 903 

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year to date 

149.25 

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159.76 

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114.34 

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137.41 

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142.44 

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S Paata Torino 
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Montreal 

Bee Mob Cera 
CfeHeA 
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CTRolSvC 


3640 3635 
1650 1648 
2040 2800 
948 976 

3040 3850 
4140 4105 
2600 2690 
15300 15100 
101.10 18100 
1X90 1X72 


I OKS 10420 
2800 2775 

3335 3300 

1226 1224 

18095 18558 
1684 1570 
MW 900 
7900 7950 

4340 4235 

29000 28900 
13050 13050 
7907 1970 

637D 4320 

7145 7800 

mm si 25 

1030 1030 

2345 2300 

2910 2000- 

14330 14180 
14800 14850 
9410 9260 
6920 6845 

4080 MB 
3845 3005 


ttsttab tarter Z791 .92 
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4060 4060 40tt 
2245 2260 2X10 
3020 3QK 3015 


3100 3UD 33 « 

17 17V 1705 


Sio Paulo 

90s an 900 900 

500 £00 £00 *95 

762 701 703 704 

56900 56500 56000 56&IHJ 
3560 3450 3540 'MAD 
4099 4051 4051 4098 
38*00 30200 38200 38600 
45000 44500 45000 44699 
36900 36500 36900 36701 
Ptd 11.15 1099 IMS 1105 

FW 16700 16*50 16*00 16*50 

Sd Notion* 29.50 2660 29-50 2860 

fSSraPfcl 8840 79n 8000 79^ 

CVRD PM 2035 2000 2000 2020 


Singapore sn ap Tipis 2210*5 

ft emeu s: 3 2 8 1 <0 



FOT&BtTflM 
Ffcst Bank 
Formosa CF 
Huai Nan Bk. 
Hunted TeBran 
ICBC 

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Tainan Caul 
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Tokyo 


cermnsPoc 

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Cycle Callage 
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49 49 49 

2205 2105 2205 
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4705 4045 4740 


MXIOtacSIXH 

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141 142 138 

152 152 154 

2800 2030 2030 
2440 2640 2658 
67 JO U 67 JO 
163 163 165 

104 105.50 185-50 
4600 47 47 

307 31059 30SJ0 
120 135 126 

mm 345 340 

2i3 na 2i5 

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1B4 184 18150 

9050 100 ?9 

117 117JD 117 

37 3 7 3600 



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SkraKflaFarsF 
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SKFBF 
SSABBF 

MOB AF 
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1040 1040 
1X40 1X10 
1730 17 

001 001 
800 005 

£15 £10 

1630 M39 
248 2.74 

336 126 

6-50 650 

300 X78 

11.10 1000 
3-1 B 116 

1.19 100 

1740 1690 
640 640 

740 70S 

1X60 1200 
N.T. 1.73 
27J0 2680 
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147 107 

138 302 

*42 440 

1.17 U9 
1500 I £70 
306 108 


10160 102 
770 770 

189 ISO 

32 e 337 

1060 165 

73 7360 
393 396 

207 211 

930 944 

490 495 

290 30160 
187 188 

190 m 

17X50 37960 
104 IBS 
137 13860 
6BJQ 70 

wfl m 

290 30160 
US 16160 
113 114 

9IJ0 94 

195 196 


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DeOeMKang 
De tarn Bank 
Dakea House 
Doha Sec 
Dense 
Faawi 
FdBBo* 

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Hondo Motor 

!BJ 

IHI 

Itochu 

Ito-Yeknda 

JAL 

Jusco 

Kitimo 

KffiKcd dec 

Kao 

Kowa Steel 
KDO 

KtaUMppRy 

Kim Br e wery 

Kate Steel 

Kanatsu 

KiriNta 



UCB 


iSJlEK 






tm 1480 
103K 1010 

3790 2770 

3710 3600 

1690 1660 

3820 3830 

1080 1090 

1000 1060 
3310 3150 
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622 

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622 

610 

5050 

4990 

5040 

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610 

615 

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3930 

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3870 

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114) 

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7220 

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630 

627 

627 

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490 

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2090 

2050 

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1000 

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1100 

375 

364 

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367 

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1160 

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3838 

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Th0 Ummotianal HonU Tribune WoM Stock Indus O tracks the US. dotor values ot 
ZDO tntB/nBbomOy nvostatile stocks from 2S commas- Formon Mo/mation. a hoe 
booklet Ktavaiabto by wrung to 77» Trib lndex.18] Avenue Charles de GauBo, 

92531 NeuBy Codex. France. CompSed by Bloomberg Business Mows. 


steek Mrotariiodac 692627 
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5060 50 50J0 5060 

176 173 174 173 

158 155 156 155 

2£8D 2£60 2£60 75M 
5260 5160 S3 52 
SS S3 5S 5360 
28J0 2700 28 27.90 

167 165 164 16S 

43 42 4X« 42 

13660 12860 129 12&5D 

2400 2460 2*70 2*60 
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4X90 42 4X50 42 

6060 5860 59 66 

54 53 S3 5360 


MM 225:19361.35 
Pmtout: 1936904 

1160 1180 1160 

860 874 B75 

995 1030 995 

442 <54 642 

1070 1090 1070 

3100 2150 2120 

721 750 733 

21 BO 2200 2190 

2X50 2560 2580 

772 790 710 

2300 2300 2320 

2260 2260 


NICK 

Nomura Sec 
MTT 

SokoGra 
RUM 
Saturn Bk 
Sankyn 
Semen Bank 
Sanyo Elec 
Secora 
SeBaiRwy 
Settsul Ham* 
Sem-Emen 


SNn-etwCh 

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794 77V 
595 590 
540 545 
342 337 
524 510 
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SumB Chem 
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SwidtMeni 
sundiTrosr 

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TatntaOieai 
TDK 

ToholmEI Pwr 
ToM Bros 
ToktoManne 
Tekyu El «*err 
Tokyo Gas 
Tokyo 
Tonea 

loopwi Prior 
Tam tad 
TosMio 
Taya Seams 
ToynTmti 
Toyota Mater 
Yamaichi Sec 
VOannautiU 
YWudBRtp 
YOsuda Trust 


Toronto 

Atottfbl Price 
Atowto Enemy 
Alcan Atom 
AndeisaaErol 
BkMoatrod 
BiNmaScnfla 
Bank* Gold 
BCE 
BCTeteamm 
Btochem POrsm 
BemOanflecB 
BrosomA 
Bro-* Minerals 
CMwca 
CISC 
QtaNTOIRafl 
CdnNotRss 
CrtaOoM Pet 
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Com beg 
Dutaco 
Damu 
DonetuwA 
DsPentCdeA 
EurottorMog 
FaUnFM 
Fekadtridge 

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France He ie ee 
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3400 3450 

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1220 >330 

814 828 

3240 3280 

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4940 7010 

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1160 1180 
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2100 2110 
1190 1230 

7590 7590 

912 913 

1630 1670 

447 459 

1610 1620 
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594 600 

2670 2730 
2390 2430 

7530 7550 

2270 2300 

1190 1210 

1000 1090 

2510 2540 

646 650 

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704 715 

722 728 

2770 2798 

919 935 

3290 3330 

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EA-Genend 
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3367 3200 3200 

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700 602 691 

228 2B3 283 

544 530 530 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDA Y, DECEMBER 31. 1996- WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 1, 1997 

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* 5 * 


MLkNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAX, DECEMBER 31, 1996- WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 1, 1997 


PAGE 13 


ASIA/PACIFIC 







CaipaedbyOyrSf^n^Dapatd^s 

SEOUL — Sooth Korea's cur- 
rent-account defidt soared . 10 -fold 
in November as exports tumbled, 
the central Hank said Monday. 

The cunent-accbimt deficit in 
Novemberrose to$1.87 biDioa from 
$180 million in' November 1995, 
bringing die deficit for the first 11 
nronms of the year to a record $21.6 
billion, theBank of Korea said. The 
current account is the broadest mea- 
sure of a country’s trade. 

South Korea's current-account de- 
ficit for all of 1995 was $9 bfllian. 
‘Worsened by the five-day work 
this month, the deficit is 
fy to exceed $23 billion,” said 
Paeng Dong loon, a senior research- 
er at the central bank. 

A $23 billion deficit is equivalent 
to 4 percent of. the country’s gross 
national product and is expected to 
cause an increase in unemployment 
as companies reduce investment and 
dismiss staff. 

Analysts said Korea’s labor strikes 

auto manufacturers and oiSerfodu^ 
trial companies, which would add to 
the deficit at the end of the year. 

But the rising current-account de- 
ficit mainly reflects slumping sales 
by computer chip manufacturers, 
which account for 18 percent of all 


Bank Islam Offers Banking by the Book 


The Associated Press 
KUALA LUMPUR — Fawzi 
Ahmed was more concerned with 
morality than profit when he 
opened an account in 1983 at 
Bank Islam, a fle dgling Hank 
which operates according to Is- 
lamic principles. 

The most important of those 
principles is Islam’s ban on in- 
terest payments which are con- 


Beijaya Buys Stakes in 2 Firms 


Banking and Investment Carp., 
which has $8 billion in assets, die 
world's Islamic bankers are be- 
lieved to hold total deposits of 
nearly $70 billion. 

In addition, rapid growth in die 


Bloomberg Business News 

KUALA LUMPUR — Beijaya Industrial Bhd. sai d it would buy con- r 0 

trolling stakes in two companies for 664.3 million ringgit r S9A2 Jt million) as iixhistxy has prompted Citibank and 
part of its plan to build one of Malaysia's largest diversified groups. other major international hanks to 

‘ ‘It’ll be die investment bouse of the next century, ’ ’ said Ling Hee Uong, opm Mamj c s ubsidiaries. 
the company’s controlling shareholder. 

Mr. Ling, 27, _who is the eldest son of Malaysia’s transport minister, 
jCTeaosury. j _ ■ bought a controlling slake in Beijaya Industrial just three weeks ago. 

rawzi and other depositors The latest acquisitions allow Beijaya Industrial, which wire ropes 

are not paid interest on their ac- and sells real estate, to expand its range of businesses will help the 

company mm a profit by 1997, Mr. Ling said. 

Berjaya win buy 32 percent of Promet Bhd_ an engineering and construction 
ly, and 32 percent of Kelanamas Industries BhcL, winch has interests in 
d beverage making and distribution, along with sugar plantations. 

- . — Mr. Ling is backed by Rashid Hassain, a financier who controls Rashid 

place to keep then - money. But Hussain Bbd-, a publicly traded stock brokerage and banking group. 
today, banking by Islamic print- 


counts; instead, they share in the 
bank’s profits. 

The banks were invented in 
Egypt three decades ago to 
provide pious Muslims with a safe 


crples has grown into a compet- 
itive, mul tibilH on -dollar industry is ex- 
panding rapidly in many parts of the world. 

Islamic banks are common in the Middle 
East and have sprung up as far away as London 
and the Philippines. The theocratic leaders of 
Iran and Sudan require banks to do business 
according to Islamic guidelines. 

Since Bank Islam became Malaysia's first 
such bank, the indnsoy has taken off. Malay- 
sia's government encourages its Islamic 
bankers to become global leaders by offering 
such innovations as home mortgages and a 
growing array of sophisticated financial ser- 
vices. 


The bedrock of Islamic banking is the ban on 
interest payments. These are regarded by the 
Koran as exploitation because depositors and 
lenders make money without providing labor or 
sharing risks. 

Islamic banks pool deposits to invest in con- 
struction, commodities trading and other busi- 
nesses dot do not profit from interest payments. 

Commercial borrowers pay die bank and its 
depositors a share of their profits instead of 
interest. That involves risk, because die bank 
does not know in advance what the profit, if 
any, will be. 

Led by giants like Saudi Arabia's A1 Rajhi 


Bank Islam's deposits have 
grown to some 3 billion ringgit 
($1.18 billion), while other Malay- 
sian banks have opened separate 
teller windows for Islamic clients. 

One institution, Arab-Malaysi- 
an Bank, has issued Southeast 
Asia's first Islamic credit card — 
an interest-free Visa card. 

Islamic bankers said they also 
attract thousands of wort gage bor- 
rowers from the Chinese and In- 
dian minorities in Malaysia’s pop- 
ulation of 17 million people. The cost of an 
Islamic mortgage is about the same as for 
standard home financing. But borrowers are 
lined by its simple terms — a flat monthly fee 
that eliminates the uncertainty of variable in- 
terest rates. 

The government of Prime Minister Mahathir 
Mohamad is also developing an '‘Islamic cap- 
ital market* ’ using interest-free bonds and other 
securities. Eight Malaysian Islamic investment 
funds hold shares worth $780 million in 330 
carefully screened companies, which cannot be 
linked to liquor, gambling or other enterprises 
contrary to Islamic teaching. 


Investor’s Asia 



ftanaj Keag ; .• 













Source: Tetokuts 


l nw ioari Herald Tribune 


Very briefly: 



the Bank of Korea 
said f ,067 South Korean companies 
bad filed for bankruptcy in Novem- 
ber, the second-highest monthly 
number this year afro* 1 ,143 in Oc- 
tober. The central bank said tire eco- 
nomic slowdown was to blame. 

The Bank of Korea expects the 
economy to grow 6.4 percent (his 
year, down from a 9.0 percent 
growth rate in 1995. 

The central bank also said direct 
overseas investment by South 
Korean companies fell 402 percent 
in November, to $245 million. 

(Bloomberg. Reuters) 


China to Allow 4 Foreign B anks Do Business in Yuan 


CoaratdbrOwSeffFnmDnpaeim 

SHANGHAI — China gave four foreign banks 
— Citibank. Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi Ltd., die 
Industrial Bank of Japan Ltd. and Hongkong & 
Shanghai Banking Carp. — permission Monday 

to begin doin g h nsmeat in Onngag ynan rwi a trial 

basis, possibly within a month. 

The announcement ends months of specu- 
lation about winch banks would be allowed to 
enter the potentially lucrative business. 

Only banks with brandies in the Pudong de- 
velopment area of Shanghai, across die river 


from its traditional financial area of Puxi, will be 
allowed to conduct local-currency business. 

According to official regulations published 
earlier this month, foreign banks licensed to 
handle yuan business will have to limit yuan 
loans to less than 35 percent of the loans they 
grant in hard currency. 

While foreign banks have been have been eager 
to gain a share of die huge local market for Chinese 
yuan deposits and loans, China has so far restricted 
foreign banks in China to handling foreign-cur- 
rency loans. Some analysts say China’s state- 


owned banks are poorly prepared to face foreign 
competitors. 

It remains unclear whether foreign banks will 
have to pay die same tax rate as Chinese banks — 
erne of the key obstacles to implementing the 
policy change. Foreign bank] 


its are currently 
taxed at 15 percent, while Chinese commercial 
banks are taxed at 33 percent and the main state 
banks at 55 percent. 

Executives with the chosen banks said they 
were waiting for more details on the terms of 
business. f Bloomberg, Reuters ) 


• China said it had restrained inflation but retained strong 
growth in 1996, and it expected to do better next year despite 
soaring state-sector losses and slumping incomes. State stat- 
istics estimated (hat gross domestic product grew 9.7 percent 
in 1 996 to 6.78 trillion yuan ($814.2 billion), while retail price 
inflation fell to 6.0 percent from 14.8 percent in 1995. 

• Jakarta Stock Exchange said the volume of transactions in 
1996 rose 1773 percent to 293 billion total shares traded, 
compared with the previous year. 

• Orogen Minerals of Papua New Guinea plans to exercise an 
option to acquire 20-5 percent of Go be oil field project. 

• The Australian stock market burst through the 2,400 
barrier to its highest close in history. The All Ordinaries index 
ended 17.3 points higher at 2,412.90. led by natural resources 
producers amid expectations of rising commodities prices. 

• South Korea plans to open the government procurement 
market to foreign companies Wednesday under the frame- 
work of a World Trade Organization agreement. 

• China Air Lines Ltd., Taiwan's largest airline, said 
November sales rose 9.9 percent to 4.36 billion Taiwan dollars 
($1583 million) from a year earlier. 

Reuters. Bridge News, AP, AFP. Bloomberg 


SATELLITE: TV Pirates Spark a New Kind of Border Conflict Executives Purchase CITIC Pacific Stock From Parent 


Continued from Page 9 

unit of General Motors Carp.; MVS 
Midtiviriazraf Mexico, and others. The 
second, Sky, is led by Gropo Televisa 
and News Cotp. 

Once Mexico had signed the recipro- 
city agreement, die companies wasted 
no rime in making the gray market le- 
gitimate. , _ . • 

-SkyTV was signing up enstomerain 
shopping malls and stores m Mexico 
City, Guadalajara and Monterrey before 
Christmas and expects to have 170,000 
paying customers across Mexico by die 
end of the year. Galaxy Latin America 
received its permit to start charging cus- 
tomers on Dec. 11 and expects to be able 
to offer 238 video and audio channels by 
the time it starts a new $250 million 
satellite in September. 


Mexico’s may market is quickly dis- 
appearing. “The business has gotten less 
attractive, now dial die two big compa- 
nies are absorbing the market," raid 
Pedro Castaneiras, a Mexican business- 
man who used to install satellite dishes 
in and around Mexico City. 

Mr. Castaneiras estimated drat about 
40,000 households in Mexico sub- 
scribed to gray market services. As in 
Canada, this means buying a dish. m.tfie 
United States or going through a local 
gray-market company that can sell the 
(fish and provide the key to getting 
monthly services — an address in the 
United States to be used for bifling. 

Protected by a language barrier, Mex- 
ico’s primary consideration was the 
business end of the equation. In Canada, 
die issue of cultural protectionism is far 
more sensitive. Canada tries doggedly to 


limit die leakage of radio, television, 
books, magazines and films from the 
United States in order to preserve at least 
a bit of space for domestic competition. 

The dispute with Canada over provid- 
ing direct-to-home television is ham- 
pering a fully legal satellite service from 
being made available to Canadian con- 
sumers, who continue to snap up the 
gray market satellite progr amming az a 
rate, of more than 20,000 a month. . 

Industry leaders in Canada fear the 
domestic market could evaporate before 
a Can a di a n provider gets into the air. 

“ffthe gray market is allowed to grow 

unabated for another year, there may not 
be a business case for a domestic dmect- 
to-home company,” said Michael Neu- 
man, president of Emressvu Inc., a com- 
pany backed by Bell Canada that won a 
satellite license two years ago. 


Bloomberg Business News 

HONG KONG — Executives at CIT- 
IC Pacific Ltd., China’s largest invest- 
ment company is Hoag Kong, paid 10.89 
billion Hong Kong dollars ($131 bil- 
lion) on Monday for a 15-5 percent stake 
in their company in a bid to increase its 
independence and growth prospects. 

Chairman Larry Yung and other ex- 
ecutives bought 330 million shares from 


the company’s state-owned parent, CIT- 
IC Hong Kong LttL, for 33 dollars a share, 
a discount of 24 percent to closing share 
price of 43.60 dollars on Friday. The 
shares rose to 45.60 dollars on Monday. 

The company told the Hong Kong 
stock exchange that the purchase would 
raise money for the parent to make in- 
vestments in China and give managers 
incentive to improve their performance. 


By cutting Beijing's share in (he com- 
pany to just over quarter, the purchase 
makes OTIC Pacific look more inde- 
pendent. 

' ‘It's not clear why they need to do this 
or whether this is just a favor to the 
staff.” said Andrew Look of Prudential 
Portfolio Managers Aria Ltd. * ‘The pros- 
pect of managers taking such large profits 
creates an overhang on the stock.'' 


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Patricia Weils 
At Home in Provence 

Recipes Inspired by Her Farmhouse in France 

For the past thirteen yeare, 
Patricia Wells has been carrying on a 
love affair not with an individual, but 
wltfa a region of Prance, a centuries-old 
stone farmhouse, and a cuisine. Now. 
in a cookbook that captures the soul of 
modern regional French cooking, the 
award-winning journalist and author 
Invites readers to share the passion, 
the joy. and. best of all, the cooking of 
her adopted borne. 

Provence is uniquely blessed with 
natural beauty as well as some of the 
world’s most appealing foods and liveli- 
est wines. Patricia's culinary skills have 
transformed the signature ingredients 
of this quintessential French country- 
side into recipes so satisfying and 
exciting they will instantly become part 
of your dally repertoire. 

Here are 175 recipes from 
Patricia’s farmhouse kitchen. As you 
read and cook from this book, gener- 
ously illustrated with the captivating 
color pictures of Earned photographer 
Robert Freson, you will feel as if you 
have actually joined Patricia Wells in 
her beloved stone farmhouse, and her 
passion for the foods, flavors, and peo- 
ple of Provence will become yours. 

Patricia Wells has lived in France 
since 1980, where she is the restaurant 
critic for the International Herald 
Dribune. She is the author or five test- 
selling books: The Food Covers Guide 
to Ftorte. The Food Lover's Guide to 
France. Bistro Cooking. Simply French. 
and Patricia Wells' Trattoria. 



Hardback. 384 pages. 75 Ibur-color photographs. 

THE WORLD'S DAILY NEWSPAPER 

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HcralbSSribunc 

Sports 


PAGE 16 


TUESDAY 


t «o*« s>. 


World Roundup 


Favre Wins MVP 
For 2d Straight Year 


football Brett Favre, the 
Green Bay Packers' quarterback* 
was voted the National Football 
League's Most Valuable Player on 
Monday, becoming the first repeat 
winner since 1990 and only the 
second player ever to win the award 
in consecutive years. 

Favre joined Joe Montana 
(1989-90) as the only winner of two 
straight MVPs. Other two-time 
winners were Steve Young (1992 
and 1994), Johnny Unitas (1964 
and 1967) and Jim Brown (1957 
and 1965). Favre joined Paul 
Hom ling, Jim Taylor and Bart Starr 
as Packers who’ve won the award 
Favre Jed the Packers to a 13-3 
record this season, tops in the NFC. 
He surpassed his 38 touchdown 
passes of 1995 — an NFC record — 
with 39 this year. He also threw for 


3,899 yards and had a 95.8 rating, 
second in the league to San Fran- 


cisco's Steve Young. The Packers 
will meet the 49ers this weekend in 
Green Bay in an NFC playoff 
game. (API 


luce Banned for 4 Games 


soccer Inter Milan's English 
midfielder. Paul Ince, received a 
four-game suspension Monday — 
the heaviest punishment in the Itali- 
an first division so far this season. 

The disciplinary commission of 
the Italian soccer league punished 
lnce. 29, for rough play and for 
protesting a referee's decision dur- 
ing Inter's last Serie A match on 
Dec. 22 against last-place Reggia- 
na. Ince. a member of England’s 
national team, was sent off the field 
during the match, which ended in a 
i-i draw, after receiving a double 
warning. 

The suspension, which can be 


appealed, for a ^possible reduction. 


was the second received by Ince 
during the current season. (APi 
• Carlos Alberto Parte ira, wr.o 
steered Brazil to a record founh 
World Cup title in 1994, signed a 
two-year contract Monday to coach 
the New York/New Jersey Met- 
ros tars of U.S. Major League Soc- 
cer. Parriera*w5&4enned a “perfect 


49ers, in a Monsoon, 
Drub the Eagles, 14-0 


Young Excels in Playoff Victory 


By Tom Friend 

New Yurt, Times Servuv 


SAN FRANCISCO — Monsoon sea- 
son and football season are not sup- 
posed to coincide, but the playing field 
at 3Com Park was under water by half- 
time and now Ray Rhodes's Phil- 
adelphia Eagles are six feet under. 

The Eagles threw two interceptions in 
the end zone, watched the San Francisco 
49ers' quarterback. Sieve Young, tun 


NFL Playoffs 


through them and were shut out for the 
first time in their playoff history. 14-0. 
in a National Football Conference wild- 
card game Sunday. 

The Eagles' Ty Detrner threw twice 
into enemy hands — each time inside 
the San Francisco 10-yard line — and 
spent the rest of the gome watching 


Young bootleg. Overcoming a two- 
:hdc 


touchdown deficit is difficult any time, 
but it was impossible Sunday with the 
wind careening in sideways and with 
half of the stadium lights out because of 
a power failure. 

Detrner left in the second half with a 
badly pulled right hamstring, courtesy 
of the 49ers' relentless Bryant Young. 
His replacement. Mark Rypien. was five 
years removed from his Super Bowl 
year with Washington. Ricky Waiters, 
the Philadelphia running back and 
former 49er who wanted payback, was 
rendered useless. He finished with 57 
yards on 20 carries. 


San Francisco, a wild-card team for 
the first time since 1985. will meet the 
Green Bay Packers at Lambeau Field in 
Wisconsin next weekend in the division 
round and it can only hope that Young 
locates a sturdy flak jacket- The quar- 
terback played nearly the entire game 
with bruised ribs and still managed to 
run for 70 yards on eight improvisa- 
tional carries. 

One was a second-quarter touch- 
down. a 9-yard quarterback draw on 
which he acted like a fullback,. Then, 
just to show his diversity, he eventually 
found Jerry Rice. too. 

Rice, who had only one catch for 3 
yards at halftime, made a one-handed 
3 6 -yard catch in the third quarter and 
followed that with a 3-yard touchdown 
catch that sealed the affair. Young ( 14 of 
21 for 161 yards and no interceptions) 
spent the rest of the day running out the 
clock or bootlegging out the clock. 

The wind had a mind of its own. The 
mild gusts were 44 miles (72 kilome- 
ters) an hour, the heavy gusts 64 miles 
an hour, and they certainly had both 
kickers wishing for a dome. 

Gary Anderson was the definition of 
wide left. His Eagles marched 59 yards 
on the opening drive — sending Watters 
(48 yards on 13 carries in the First half) 
every which way but backward — but a 
Lee Woodall sack forced an ill-fated 
field goal attempt from 40 yards out. 

Watters' jersey was the dirtiest. This 
was his maiden voyage back to San 
Francisco — after fleeing the 49ers two 
years ago For a $9.6 million contract — 




- i 

i \ 


~ ' A 


Ricky Watters (32) going nowhere against the 49ers, his former team, as the Eagles lost in the playoffs. 


and be wanted the ball on downs one 
through four. 

Young did his best to make Watters 
the most idle Eagle of all time. In the 
second quarter, the 49er quarterback 
engineered the sort of drive usually re- 
served for a clear day, completing 6 of 7 
passes and scoring on a daredevil 9-yard 
touchdown run. 

It was a simple quarterback draw on 
thtrd-and-1 and Young broke four 
sturdy tackles en route to the end zone. 


It gave the 49ers a 7-0 lead, with 1 1 
minutes left in the first half, but it also 
had Young doubled over. He had 
bruised the ribs adjacent to his throwing 
arm on Conner’s tackle and it left him 
with an abbreviated throwing motion. 

In a game that appeared in same 
Monday editions. The Associated Press 
reported: 

Steetors 42, colts 14 The Pittsburgh 
Steelers advanced to tire second round 
of the NFL playoffs with a 42-14 rout of 


the Indianapolis Colts. 

But this game did not come down to a 


final desperation pass by the Colts, as 
did last year's AFC title 


: game between 

the two teams. 

This time, Jerome Bettis saved a 
Steelers' offense that was threatening 
yet another big-game meltdown, run- 
ning For two second-half touchdowns 
and 102 yards as host Pittsburgh sur- 
vived another erratic day by quarterback 
MikeTomczak. 


fit” for the fledgling franchise by 
manager. Charlie Stil- 
litaho. Paneira. 53V becomes the 


its general 


third coach in the brief history of 
the team, following Eddie Firmani 
and Carlos Queiwz. (Reuters) 


Larsson Upsets Enqvist 


tennis Second-seeded Thomas 
Enqvist of Sweden was eliminated 
in the first round of the $635,000 
Qatar Open on Monday, losing in 
straight sets to countryman Magnus 
Larsson. 

Larsson defeated Enqvist who is 
ranked No. 9 in the world, 6-4, 7-5, 
to set up a second-round march 
against another Swede, Panik Fre- 
driksson, who defeated Karim 
Alarai of Morocco 6-2, 6-2. (AP) 


Zimbabwe Test Abandoned 


cricket The second and Iasi 
cricket test between Zimbabwe and 
England was called off Monday, 
two hours before play was due to 
resume on the fifth and final day. 

Heavy overnight rain in Harare, 
Zimbabwe, had swamped the edge 
of the playing square and it proved 
impossible for ground staff to cany 


out mopping-up operations in time 
>f a 


for any prospect of a result 
A victory for either side was un- 
likely in any event and. by general 
consent between the umpires and 
the two captains. Alistair Campbell 
and Mike Atherton, the match was 
abandoned. (AP) 



South Africa Sweeps Germany, 3-0 


•> 

i 


The Associated Press 

PERTH, Australia — Wayne Ferreira and Amanda Coetzer 
both scored impressive singles victories Monday as South 
Africa swept Germany, 3-0, in the Hopman Cup mixed teams 
tennis championship. 

Coetzer won the first seven games and went on to beat Petra 
Begerow. 6-0, 7-5 in the women's singles and Ferreira then 
defeated Bemd Karbacher 6-4, 6-4 to seal an unassailable 
lead. The third-seeded South African pair then won the mixed 
doubles 6-3. 6-4. 

• '-Ferreira, who playWtfte event last year widrabKtten hand, 
scored his first victory in five Hopman Cup singles matches. 


“In mixed it is physically easier than singles," Rosset said. 


“I felt I wasn’t ready to play singles but I had a lot of 
1 1 could win the mixed with Martina.’* . 


Homan CdpTcnni* 




V ■■ l ' ? r.; ■ ' j -7$ 

'd ■ • I )■ : •• ' • ->;-v : -.vi .v % y ^ 


“It’s good to get a win," he said “It makes the rest of the 
week a little easier. I didn't serve particularly well, but I was 
happy with the rest of my game.” 

Ferreira rallied from 2-4 down in the second set, winning 
four straight games against Karbacher. while Coetzer always 
had the measure of the erratic Begerow. who was called up 
four days ago as a replacement for world No.l Steffi Graf, 
who withdrew from the event with a viral infection. 

Marc Rosset, struggling to overcome a painful back injury, 
linked with Martina Hingis earlier Monday to lift second- 
seeded Switzerland to a 2-1 victory over Romania in its 
opening match. Rosset needed treatment at courtside during 
the 110-minute match but he and Hingis downed Adrian 
Voinea and Irina Spirlea 3-6, 7-5, 6-3 in the decisive mixed 
doubles. 


confidence that I could win 

Rosset, a former Olympic gold medalist who travels with 
bis own physiotherapist after a series of niggling ailments, 
said be expects to be fit to play both singles and doubles 
against South Africa on Wednesday. - 

Hingis is now 5-0 in Hopman Cup singles play. Sur- 
prisingly, she and Rosset converse in English, rather than one 
of the Swiss national languages. Hingis was boro in the Czech 
Republic, while Rosset ’s first fatigoage is French. “We hied 
German last year, but my German is so bad I give Marti aithe 
wrong instroctions," said Rosset 
Croatia, France, Australia and the United. Stales are con- 
testing Group A of die round-robin event and Switzerland, 
Germany, Romania and South Africa are in Group B. 




be 


IV 


The winning team from each group will advance to Sat- 
urday’s final. Prize money for the event totals $640,000. The 


winning pair wifi collect $176,000. The Hopman Cup is one 
of a series of lead-up events to the Australian Open, to be 


played in Melbourne from Jan. 13-26. 

■ Top-Seeded Kafelnikov Crashes to Tillstrom 

Mikael Tillstrom of Sweden upset two-time champion 
Yevgeni Kafelnikov 6-2, 6-2 Monday in the first round of the 
Australian Hardcourt tennis championships. The Associated 
Press reported from Adelaide. 

Tillstrom, ranked 47th in the world, broke French Open 
champion Kafelnikov's serve twice in the first set to establish 


VX.;.. 


’■ r *S? 9i«d/ VffWT fnurr-lw* 

Wayne Ferreira powering a forehand during his victory Monday. 


Hingis gave the Swiss a 1-0 lead when she beat Spirlea 7- 
5, 6-2 in the women's singles but Rosset then gave Voinea a 


a grip he_never relinquished. The victory took him just 49 
*ded Ka " ' 


walkover victory in the men's singles, preferring to save his 
back for the doubles. The gamble paid off. 


minutes. Top-seeded Kafelnikov, ranked third in the world, 
said, “He was very aggressive and be dominated me all night 
From time to time it happens and to lose to a guy who is 47 in 
the world is not the end of the world for me. 


A Sugar-Bowl Dilemma: Thump the Bible or the Quarterback? 


By Malcolm Moran 

rVw Yuri Times Service 


NEW ORLEANS — The marriage 
between football and religion was re- 
newed here at the worship services of 
the First Baptist Church of New Or- 
leans. when Pastor David Crosby issued 
his welcome to the guests and reminded 


them of the place they occupied on the 
calendar. “This is indeed a special 
Sunday." he said. "It's the Sunday be- 
fore the Sugar Bowl." 

Soon afterward, as the people in the 
broad, bright church listened intently. 
Florida State’s coach. Bobby Bowden, 
briefly addressed an issue that extended 
well beyond his team's attempt to win a 


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national championship. "When I say I 
am a Christian, it doesn’t mean that I'm 
perfect.” he said. “You read the paper,, 
and you can tell I'm not perfect.” 

The extent of Bowden’s imperfection 
is at the center of differences that have 
become the focal point of the Sugar 
Bowl. 

Steve Spurrier, the coach of the Flor- 
ida Gators, who must hope for an Ari- 
zona State loss in the Rose Bowl on New 
Year's Day, and a Florida victory over 
Florida State the next night to gain the 
first notional championship in school 
history, has intensified an accusation 
that began following Florida State’s 24- 
21 victory over the Gators a month 
ago. 

Spurrier's claim that Florida State 
used laie and illegal hits m an attempt to 
injure Danny Wuerffel, the prayerful 
Florida quarterback and Heisman 
Trophy winner, has challenged the eth- 
ics of Bowden and his staff. It has 
transformed an upcoming meeting with 
officials, seldom attended by head 
coaches, into high-level peace talks 
very likely to be attended by both Spur- 
rier and Bowden. 

A football game has already grown 
into a debate over the choices behind 
tactics and gamesmanship, and the harm 
that can be brought to a quarterback and 
a coach 's reputation. 

As Spurrier has reiterated his view- 
point. he has been pushing an agenda he 
maintains is nothing more than a coach 
protecting the welfare of a player. His 
opinions have included a revealing per- 
sonal assessment during a week in 
which Spurrier, a minister's son. would 
prefer to reveal as little as possible. 

"He doesn't have a nasty temper at 
all.” Spurrier said of Wuerffel. “I think 
he’s sort of like a New Testament per- 
son. He gels slapped upside the face and 
he rams the other cheek. He says: ‘Lord, 
forgive them. They know not what they 
doeth.' I'm probably more of an Old 
Testament guy. You spear our guy in the 
ear hole, and we think we’re supposed to 
spear you m the ear hole. That’s how 
we’re a little different.” 

Bowden, for his part, has appeared to 


camouflage his feelings. When asked if 
he had been angered by the charges, he 
said: “Not too much. More than I've 
ever been, but not too much.” 

The meeting between Florida State 
(1 1-0) and Florida lll-l) marks the 11th 
time that a bowl game has created a 
rematch of a game in the previous regular 
season. Only once before in djp 61 years 
of The Associated Press news media poll 
has the No. 1 -ranked team been forced to 
replay an opponent it had already de- 
feated, and in that game, Ohio State lost 
to UCLA irrthe 1976 Rose Bowl. 

But this game involves the power 
politics of possibly the richest reenjitinj 


area in the nation, a rivalry that has 

s. From the first 


contempt for decades, 
question of the initial formal news con- 
ference here — Why do these teams 
dislike each other? — it was clear that 
the familiarity of a fifth game within 
three seasons had not helped the re- 
lationship. 

After Spurrier cited the basic explan- 
ation — teams within a state that play 
each year and recruit much of the same 
talent — he turned to his theme. "It 
probably added a little dimension after 
the last game,’ ' he said. "I must tell you 
the reason I spoke out about the way 
they hit Danny Wuerffel is because I 
feel as a head coach, the No. 1 re- 
sponsibility I have is player safety.” 

Wuerffel was sacked six times behind 
a Florida offensive line that has had six 
different starting combinations as a result 


of injury and suspension. He completed 
23 of 48 passes for 362 yards and three 


touchdown*. He was hit 32 times on 
Florida s 76 offensive plays. A Florida- 
produced videotape of nine plays showed 
duee dear late hits by Florida State, two 
of which were penalized. Three other 
tackles that were not penalized appeared 
to involve borderline hits. 

Spurrier said he was not making a 
connection between the tackles andFfor- 
°5' ‘Jwy stiU beat us regardless 
orhow they hit Danny,” he said. “It had 
no outcome on the game.” 

But at the start of Sugar Bowl week. 


against Florida State, 1 -I -4 in the last six 
games, or a struggling offensive line. 

Bowden said his staff would remind 
the players of the importance of avoid- 
ing penalties. If the added scrutiny on 
tackles after Wuerffel releases his 
passes causes one or more early flags, 
one potential effect could be the cre- 
ation of subtle indecisiveness — as 
small as fractions of seconds - — that 
could inhibit Florida State’s over- 
whelming defensive line. 

Before it was time to resume the 
search for solutions Sunday, Bowden 
also went to church. He stood behind a 
pulpit, framed by poinsettias. He en- 
couraged listeners to examine the Bible 
— “Read the doggone book” — ami 
remembered a story about the difficult 
choices everyone must face. 

Bowden remembered that when his 
six children ranged in age from 4 to 14> 
a , revivalist made an example of him as 
me family sat in the front row of a 
church. Bowden remembered being 
askoi if he would walk across a beam on 
me floor, from one side of the aisle to the 
other, for $20. Of coarse, Bowden 
replied. 

nr I took that beam up to 

New York Chy and I could stretch it 
from the top of the twin towers, U0 
stones high, from thm roof across the 

street to that roof, and I said Til give you 

[to walk across, would you do it?' 

. 1 sai<i: ‘Absolutely noL I wouldn’tdo 

« for a thoasand dollars. I wouldn’t try it 
for a million dollars. I’d fell. I wouldn’t . 
do it for all the money in the world! ’ - 

He said, ‘Well, let me ask you an- 
other auesmon. ’ He looked at me withail . • 

' saxd ’ ^ we were 1 10 stories 





(T^ 





, , , ncic 1 aU sunes 

high, and you were up on that roof, and 
T was over here on this roof, andl had 


IS 


the controversy has overshadowed any and Bobbv R A(v j An ^Z’T, v h“k* 
discussion of Spurrier’s 2-5-1 record 


rf m r iwi, <14 hi i nou . 

your kids, holding himby the . 
0< e ®dge, and I told you if you 
21^5“ 1 w ,° uld o’tdrop him butif. 
ym dTitr ” gomg 10 *°p ““- would . 





‘ , .,_ 1 , , 


N -fr- '• 



j 
















manv. 34 


4-2 Victory 
Extends Flyers’ 
B creak to 13 


:' The Associated Press 

John L^Clair scored twice as the Phil- 

■ adebphia Flyers stretched the National 
■Hockey League’s longest current un- 
beaten nmu> Bgaiw^witb a 4-2 victory 

j over the slumping Calgary Flames. 

LeClair scored the decisive goal, his 
24th. at 2:1 0 of the third period Sunday 

NHL Iovndop 

; eight, rifling in a shot off a kick pass 
from Dale Hawerchuk. Earlier. Hawer- 

• chuk had a goal for his 1,400th career 
| point. Eric Lindros assisted cm that goal, 

• extending his consecutive-game point 
! 'streak to a league-high 13. 

j ; Midway through the third period, 

• Damios Zubins got -the final goal for the 
> '.visiting Flyers, who are 1 1-0-2 in their 
'•last 13 games.. 

1 1 Tommy Albelin and Sandy Mc- 
I ’Carthy, with his first goal of the season, 
i’/'l the Flames. 

OMdhM 2 , Panthers -t In Miami, 
;'/= icent Damphousse’s second goal of 
the game — during a two-man advan- 
\ tage — gave injury-riddled Montreal a 
; victory over Florida, ending the Ca- 
l’ nadiens' seven-game winless streak. 

- The loss left the Panthers in a first-place 
, tie with Philadelphia in the Atlantic 

■ Division. Florida had taken sole pos- 
session of the lead in October with an 8- 
0-4 season-opening nm 

Blues 4, Bruins 2 Jim Campbell, the 
NHL's leading rookie sewer, bad two 
i: goals, and Grant Fuhr stored 32 shots 
L for host St Louis.The Blues had not 
: beaten the Bruins sauce 1994. John 
[ Rohloff scored twice for the Bruins. 

| utockhswks 4, W a i m 3 In Chicago, 
l Alex Zhamn nv scared unassist ed with 
[ 5:26 to play, capping a three-goal third- 
period rally as die Blackhawks broke a 
j* six-game winless streak. The loss was 
' Hartford's fourth straight on the road. 

Avalanche 3, Stars 2 Christian Matte 
had his first NHL goal and assist as 
Colorado ended tite unbeaten road streak 
^Dallas in a meeting of Western Con- 
ference leaders. Uwe Krupp and Eric 
Lacroix added goals for the Avalanche. 
Mike Modano had his 15th goal for the 
Stars, and Bill Huard added one. 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. TUESDAY. DECEMBER 31, 1996- WEDNESDAY', JANUARY 1, 1997 


SPORTS 


PAGE 17 



\\\rn IWthIniIi'IIiIITVC 

Vin Balter shooting over the Heat’s Tim Hardaway (left) and Keith Austin. 

O’Neal Lifts Lakers Over 76ers 


The Associated Press 

Shaquille O'Neal scored 28 points in 
28 minutes and Eddie Jones had 20 points 
and seven steals as die Los Angeles 
Lakers beat the Philadelphia 76ers, 1 15- 
102, for their 12th victory in 15 games. 

The Sixers, who have lost 12 of their 
last 13, were led by Jerry Stackhouse 
and the rookie Allen Iverson, each of 


whom had 21 points Sunday night Der- 
rick Coleman and Clarence Weather- 
spoon added 1 9 apiece. The host Lakers 
took a 10-point lead into the fourth 
quarter and used a 13-4 run to go ahead. 
100-83, with 8:03 left. Philadelphia re- 
sponded with an 8-0 spurt, but the Sixers 
got no closer as O’Neal scored his last 
six points in the final 514 minutes. 

Nets 110 , Pacers 102 Kerry Kitties 
scored 28 points, including a 3-pointer 
and a jumper during a 7-0 run in overtime 


that led New Jersey past host Indiana. 

Indiana, which lost to the Nets for the 
second time in three days, was led by 
Reggie Miller's 37 points, including 17 
in the fourth quarter. 

Heat 93, Bucks 94 Tim Hardaway 
scored 1 8 of his season-high 36 points in 
the fourth quarter as Miami gained its 
14th straight road victory — the third 
longest streak in NBA history. 

Alonzo Mourning, Sasha Danilovic 
and Gary Gram were sidelined with 
back problems and Kurt Thomas sal out 
with a sprained right ankle. That left 
Miami with only eight players in uni- 
form, and coach Pat Riley used seven as 
the Heat won its fifth in a row. 

Trail Blazers 110, Spurs 86 Isaiah 
Rider scored 19 points while playing 
less than three quarters as the host Trail 
Blazers routed San Antonio. 

The Spurs lost their second in a row 
since David Robinson was injured 
again, this time with a broken left foot. 


1996: A Year of Glory and Gloom 

In Sports, Excellence Shared Stage With Ignominy 


By Dave Anderson 

Nett fork Tunes Ser-.ve . 

A kVLR die revelry, reality re- 
turned. Not long after a celeb- 
ration, a comedown usually oc- 
curred. And even with the glory, gloom 
often hovered. 

In sports in 1996. many victories 
were never enjoyed for long and the 
losses lingered. 

The New York Yankees sprayed 
champagne after John Wen eland dosed 
out the World Series, but he soon de- 
parted to the Texas Rangers as a S24 
million free agent. Jimmy Key took the 
Baltimore Orioles' money. Jim Leyritz. 
whose home run turned tire Series, was 
traded to the Anaheim Angels. 

Michael Johnson streaked 200 meters 
in a world-record 19.32 seconds at the 
Summer Games, but the Atlanta police 
still don't know who planted the bomb 
that exploded in Centennial Olympic 
Park. 

The Dallas Cowboys won Super Bowl 
XXX, but a guilty plea to drug pos- 
session suspended Michael Irvin for five 

P aines and a violation of the National 
ootball League's drug policy suspen- 
ded Leon Lett until late next season. 

Michael Jordan lifted the Chicago 
Bulls to a fourth National Basketball 
Association title, but sandwiching that 
achievement, the Bulls' rainbow-haired 
rebounder, Dennis Rodman, had to be 
suspended for head-butting a referee 
and for foui language on television. 

Eyander Holyfield dethroned and de- 
molished Mike Tyson in an 1 1 ih -round 
knockout, but Andrew Go lota twice was 
disqualified for hitting Riddick Bowe 
below the belt. And Tommy Morrison 
turned up HTV positive. 

Tiger Woods, after winning his third 
straight United States Amateur golf 
championship at age 20. won two PGA 
Tour events, but Greg Norman was still 
wondering how he soared to a final - 
round 78 to lose the Masters to Nick 
Faldo. 

Cigar tied Citation's 1 6-race winning 
streak, but then die superhorse lost three 
of his last four races before being re- 
tired. 

Steffi Graf took three of the four 
Grand Slam tennis titles, including a 
seventh Wimbledon and a fifth U.S. 


Open, while her father. Peter, was in a 
German prison pending trial on income- 
tax evasion charges. 

Nebraska's selection as the mythical 
U.S. college football champion after its 
Fiesta Bowl triumph was stained by 
various police charges against several of 
its players, and Boston College sus- 
pended 1 3 players for gambling. 

The University of Kentucky, urged 
on by coach Rick Pitino. soared to the 
national college basketball title, but Jim 
Harrick. whose UCLA team won the 
crown in 1 995, was discharged for lying 
about who was with him at an expense- 
account dinner. 

Baseball ’s players and owners signed 
a labor treaty, but earlier in the year 
Roberto Alomar was suspended for the 
first five games next season for spitting 
in an umpire's face, and Marge Schott, 
the Cincinnati Reds' owner, was sus- 
pended for racial remarks. 

Too often in too many sports. 1996 
was that kind of year. 

A FTER the Yankees lost the first 
two games of the World Series, 
the team's manager. Joe Tone, 
told its owner. George Steinbrenner, not 
to worry. *We*ll win three in Atlanta," 
Torre said. “Then we'li come back to 
the Stadium and win it Saturday night." 
They did just that, the Series turning on 
Leyritz’s three-run homer in the fourth 
game that the Yankees went on to win in 
the 10th inning. 

In the Year of the Home Run (a record 
4.962 were hit in U.S. major-league 
baseball. Todd Hundley hit 4 1, a record 
for catchers, but the New York Metis 
were on a treadmill to fourth place in the 
NL East. Paul Molitor, playing for the 
Twins, got his 3.000th hit. Eddie Mur- 
ray. playing for the Orioles (he'll play 
for Anaheim next season), slugged his 
500th homer. 

Heart problems persuaded Tom Las- 
orda to stop managing the Dodgers after 
nearly 20 seasons. Vision loss forced the 
Twins’ Kirby Puckett to stop playing. 

Midway through the Summer Games, 
which attracted a record 197 nations, a 
pipe bomb exploded one night in 
Centennial Olympic Park. It killetJ a 44- 
year-old woman, provoked a Turkish 
photographer's fatal heart attack, in- 
jured 111. embarrassed Atlanta and 


closed the park lor three days. But the 
competition continued. 

Perhaps the most compelling mo- 
ment occurred during the opening ce- 
remony. when Muhammad AJi, the 
three-time world heavyweight champi- 
on and a ] 960 boxing gold medalist now 
afflicted with Parkinson's syndrome, 
lighted the Olympic flame that blazed 
above Olympic Stadium. 

In his first full NBA campaign since 
his fling at baseball. Michael Jordan was 
arguably better than ever. The Chicago 
Bulls set a record for regular-season 
victories, with 72. and then conquered 
the Seattle SuperSonics in six games for 
the tide. For that. Jordan was rewarded 
with his fourth MVP award for the reg- 
ular season and his fourth MVP award 
for the playoffs. 

Unlike the four opponents Mike 
Tyson had demolished since his release 
from prison. Evantier Holyfield didn't 
freeze in fear. He wax tougher and 
stronger, in the 11 th round. Tyson was 
battered and beaten. As the World Box- 
ing Association champion, Holyfield 
holds ar least a share of the heavyweight 
title for the third time. 

In hockey, the Colorado Avalanche, 
in its first season there after leaving 
Quebec, swept the third-year Florida 
Panthers in the Stanley Cup finals. Not 
long after, the World Cup provided a big 
boost for American talent. Sparked by 
New York Ranger goaltender Mike 
Richter, the U.S. team stopped Canada. 
5-2. in the decisive third game. 

For all of Eldrick (Tiger) Woods’s 
deserved hype and headlines, Tom Leh- 
man wax the best golfer, winning the 
British Open, the Tour Championship, 
the Vardon trophy and S 1.780. 159. de- 
spitelasing the U.S. Open by one stroke 
to Steve Jones. 

Bjame Riis of Denmark ended 
Miguel lndurain's bid for a sixth 
straight Tour de France. Lance Arm- 
strong repeated in the Tour duPont, but 
he later was diagnosed with testicular 
cancer. 

In one of the year's sweetest stories, 
the Sl John's soccer ieam, with players 
from all over the world and the New 
York area, won the university's first 
national championship in any sport. 
And unlike so much else in 1996. that's 
still a sweet story. 


Scoreboard 


NBA Stamdmos 


Orlando 1 
New Jersey 
PMwMpNo 
Boston 


lAimM COMnZDKS 

nUNTK DM810M 

.23 ' 58 

u- 20 B -714 

X 15 13 J36 

10 is MO 


Seattle 

21 

10 

.677 

1 

Portland 

16 

15 

516 

8 

SociemeidD 

13 

17 

.433 

BV> 

Golden State 

11 

18 

J/9 

10 

LA. dipper? 

10 

19 

J4S 

11 

Phoenix 

9 

•19 

-321 

Til* 


20 8 n* 

15 13 -536 

10 15 MO 

-8 18 JOB 

8 M JM 

5 31 .1*1 


CENHUU. MVOION 


Chicago 

Detroit 

Cleveland 

Atlanta 

ClwfWte 

Milwaukee 

incBana 

Toronto 


Houston 

Utah 

Minnesota 
Da Bos 
Denver 
Sen Antonio 
Vancouver 


26 

4 

JUT 

— 

21 

7 

-750 

4 

IB 

10 

443 

7 

16 

n 

J93 

B’A 

15 

13 

.536 

10 

15 - 

14 

517 

nm 

13 

14 

.481 

11% 

10 

19 

J45 

15Vh 

«COMHBH 

BSTDtVtttON 

n 


W 

L 

Pd 

GB 

23 

4 

J93 

— 

22 

6 

-786 

Vi 

12 

17 

X14 

11 

10 

17 

JOT 

12 

8 

21 

-276 

15 

6 

20 

J31 

15W 

« 2« 
FWDM90N 

200 

17Vi 

22 

9 

J10 

— 


SUNDAY'S UBOLM 

I'LL: Kilties *-17 84 28. GB M6 8-10 21 
Bradley 1MB 04 20) 1: Mller 12-23 7-7 37, 

' AJ3uvte6-163-61S. ft xboeo iK Ww Jetsey 

48 (Bradley 10), Indtano 82 IDOovts 18). 
Aastsn— New Jeney 23 UQffles 6), Indiana 
21 (Best 8). 

Miami 22 16 I* 25-M 

MHwwto 24 22 1* 29— *4 

M: Hardaway 14-24 4-5 36. P J.Brawn 5-11 
04ll8.KtlMwndb— Miami 48 (P-L Brawn 13). 
MBwo ukee 47 (Baker, Lung 9). 

Assists— Mtami 18 (Hardaway B), 

Milwaukee 27 {Robinson 81. 

PbOadetobia 27 28 22 27—102 

[XlSm 38 24 31 38-115 

P: stackbouae 6-14 7-1221, Iverson B-1B3- 
4 Zl; LJL DNeollO-17 8-1228. ONeallO-17 
8-12 28. Rebounds— PhBodelphki 80 
(WHflmns HO. Lx» Angeles 44 lOtleal 121. 
Assists— PhTtadelpNa 21 I Iverson 10). Los 
Angeles 31 (VdnEwl ID- 
Sai Antonio 15 18 28 29- 88 

31 27 29 23-118 
SJL: WHUns 3-18 *-14 14 W1 floras 8-103- 
a i c P rtffl u ifc Sen Aiitonto 49 (Penhie B)i 
Poland 44 (Sobonls 11). A®**-®" 
Antonio 14 (Alexander 6), Pomona zi 
(tLAmterson 9 ). 


The AP Top 25 

Hie top 25 teems In The Anoetatod Proe* 1 
coflage b —fc et be B poll, wttk Itrat-placa 
votes in pnranlheaea. roeoida through Dec. 
29. toretpo nne b ase d oo2S pokes for slhet- 
0tUf XS38 

Record Pts Prv 

1. umnvn .V-'Ti* h 

2. Woke Forest (6) M W8 2 

3. Kentucky 1M > 

4 .I 0 W 0 M. 8-0 ’**(2 | 

5. Oemson 10*1 * 

6. Oncbmotl 5-= MW 7 

7. Utah 8-1 1.2M e 

8. Michigan *-l J'*}* J 

9 Arizona 8-2 1,114 r 

11. North Carolina W ” 

12. Indiana 13-1 J* 

11 DuW» B-2 12 

14. Louisville 100 Ml 18 

15. Minnesota 10-1 £1 15 

18. New Mexico ll-i ^7 14 

17. Xavier, Ohio M ” 

1& Texas ^ » j® 

19. Maryland lljj f 

20 - Oregon »-0 7 * 

21. Stanford 7-1 „ 

22. Arkansas M 3T2 M 

21 Terns Tem 8-2 2“ 20 

24. mmols 10-2 1,0 ” 

25. Boston CaBege 6-2 » 

Others reaMng vaksc Alabama 57. Georgl o 
37, CoQtanla 24 Florida SL 24 Cormeaicvl 
22. WtaconsJn IB. CdL at Chartesion 11 Texas 
Christian 11 West Virginia 11. 

1ft Washington 1D,Tulso9, New MetocaSi.B. 
UCLA a PocHlc 7. Memphis 4 Fresno 5t. 5. 


Michigan SI. 5. Oklahoma a UNLV 4 Virginia 
4 Iowa 3, Marquette 2, Rhode Island 2, 
Colorado SL1.iL Michigan 1. 

Top 25 Coixege Results 

How the tap 26 town s to The A nsi wild 
"- Tr Wi nri l M TiVakTftnA n y lWynd Me gr* 
est (B-0) did no) play; 1 Keirtuckr flO-1 > beat 
Stole 6T-45C srihtTwuRto ' 

phis 73-72; beat Washington Stott 85-7*. 

5 , Iowa State (8-0) did not ptoy. 

& aeresoo GW) dW nrt ptoy; 7, aodsMti 

(5-2> beat western Kentucky 81-57; 8. Ut«m 
IB-ll heat Wisconsin- Milwaukee 77-81- beat 
UC inline 75-50; 9, Arizona [5-23 bent Robert 
Morris 118-54. 

10, ViBaaosa (9-1) beat 5L JoseptrsBl-^ 
beat Rider 75-81; 11, North Caroltoo (*•»> dM 
not alar. 12. Date »-2) dM nor ^y.' IX 
Indiana 03-1) beat Butte; 8*^4 0T ; 

Caigale 63-4B; beat Volparalsa 72-51 ;14 New 

Mexico (11-1) beat Jackson Stott «M5; beat 
Bucknell 67-57; beat Mlsstetppl 75^4 
IS. Minnesota (ID-11 beat Aiabuina Slaw 
114-34 beat Long Wand University 104-84 
16, LoutHWe 1104)1 beat Tennessee Stow 
102-54 boat Na 25 Boston College 89-85, 
20 Tj 17, Xavier. Obia (9-0) beat Kansas Stole 
95-54 18. Texas UtrT) M no! iplW 1*-"; 
obaiea 0 B-2) last to San Jose State tf- sw iob 
to Santo aam 77-52. .. 

20. Texas Tech (B-2) lostto New Mexico 
Stott 122-105; boat Wyomtog ^-T^ 2L 
Maryland Ol-O) beat LofovetwJO^®^ 
Pittsburgh 56-63 beat HowoD 75-W; H. 
Arkansas (6-2) beat Southern Utah Stale *2- 
Sis n, Stmriard (7-1) beat Navy 8 588; 24 
Oregon (9-01 beat Temple 82-6* beat Oregon 


DENNIS THE MENACE PEANUTS 


State 68-84 25, Boston College (6-2) beat 
Central Connecticut Slate 63-53; k»t to No. 16 
Loufcvffle 89-81 2DT. 


Philadelphia 
Ftarlda 
New Jersey 
N.V. Rangers 
Washington 
K.Y. Islanders 
Tampa Bay 




23 12 3 49 120 92 

20 9 9 49 113 89 

20 12 3 43 95 84 

19 15 5 43 136 lw 

15 19 3 33 9* 102 

12 14 B 32 95 104 

) 1 79 S 27 99 113 


I uniyni wwr 

horthEast division 

W L T Pts GF GA 
Buffalo 1* 15 3 41 108 98 

Pittsburgh IB 15 4 40 130 120 

Hartford 17 13 6 40 111 1W 

Montreal 13 18 7 33 120 1W 

Boston 13 17 6 32 103 YD 

OttoWO 11 16 7 29__ *4 102 

WlSIMICOm K HW 

CENTRAL DIVT3KJN 

w L T Ptl GF GA 
Dallas 22 12 3 47 108 87 

Detroit 20 11 6 44 116 73 

St. Louts 17 20 2 36 111 129 

Phoenix 16 17 4 3o 1M 117 

Chicago 15 19 6 36 103 107 

!fSSo 16 22 0 32 117 135 

PACIFIC WVtttON 

w L T Pt* GF GA 

f ninmto 22 10 5 49 1 31 09 

Edmonton 16 M 4 36 1M in 

Vancouver 16 18 1 33 105 118 


Calgary 13 20 5 31 95 110 

SanJose 13 19 4 30 92 116 

Los Angeles 13 20 4 » 100 127 

Anaheim 12 19 5 29 103 115 

WNBlflr'l K85ULTS 

PMtadetphla a- 7- 3 

TS Period: C-AtoeBn 2 

N^GooHes: P-hexTqII. C-Bdd.' 10- 
Period: F-^~ • f o bZ? 


Emerson 4 ISondersoa Cossets) third 
Period: C-Bkich8 (Krteakrasov, Shantz) a. C- 
CheSos s CAroome, Miller) 7, C-Zhomnov 9. 
Shots on goal: H- 9-9-9-27. C- 18-10-15-43. 
Goalies: H-GIguere. C-Hackett 
Dallas 0 1 t— 2 

rntaiadn _ 12 0—3 

second Period: D-^bdono ts (LehM«A' 
lrhe) (sh) ac-Aroop 3 (OroanshUpT^ 
!: ' SoWc MiBK > Thlid Period: D- 
Huord JMeuwendyk. Zubov) Sbats on goto; 

c - 8-9-4-21. Goalies: D-Irbe. 


mania, def. Marc Posset. Switzerland, 
walkover. 

Amanda Coefrer, South Africa, de*. Petra 
Begeran 60 7-5; Wayne Ferre iro. South 
Africa, def. Bemd Kartxxher 6-4 5-4. 
doubles 

Hingls/Rosset del. Splrlettvolnea 3-5, 7-5. 
w/636j" rta= "' eiro o^gCTontXnrbacK- 

Swttzeriond def. Romania 2-1 
Germany *f. South Africa 3-0. j 


(ppj. anus iw ywp - 1,1 • ■ ■■ . . 

1 1 . — 30. GooHes: M-Thlbauh. F-FHzgatrlCk. 

Bestw ! I « 

St Louis * ■ 

First Period: 5.L-CompbHl 12 

(Petrwrtcky, Kravchuk) Z 
[Campbell, Kravchuk) [pp). 3. 5-L-Campbell 
13 (Persian) 4 B-RoWoK 1 <D“voTa 
5 lumpen Soeaod P«J?* . 2 

(Stumpev Bounce) Third Period: S.L-- 
PePerin 2 (Moclmvlsl (sht. Shall oa goak B- 
14-1*6-34. &.L.- 7-3-7-17. GoaSes: B- 
Rantord. Taltas. S.LrFldlr. 
nenttod l 5^ 

First Period: H -Cossets lOtDlneen, Malik) 
2. c-MItter 9 (Craven. 5avmd) (ppl. Second 
Period: H-Sonderson 23 (Burt) (pp). 4 H- 


flCOUttHT 
ZIMBABWE VR ENGLAND 
_ MONDAV. IN HARARE 
England*.— Mm; is* 

Match abandonSr*. - .. 

UMITKDOVtBSTaOk — 

PAKISTAN VS. HUNTER IHVITATUM* . _ 
MONDAY. IN NEWCASTLE, AUSTRALIA 
Pakistan Innings: 188-9 (32 overs) 

Hunter Pnvtwtton XI: 161 a* out (313 overei 
Pakistan won by 25 runs. 


HOPMANCUP 

M PERTH AUSTRALIA 

GROUPS 

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BASKXTSAU 

NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION 
in °^ v '“ C BWtV Prince from 

Iniured list Waived C Melvin Booker. 

FOOTBALL 

NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE 
RFt— Fined Minnesota vikings CB Corey 
Puller 530000. lor poking Green Bay Packers 
jtmk^Wnlefs in the eye In a Dec 22 

NATIONAL Hofctfprave on ln|ured 
BOSTON —Returned D Anders Myrv». . 

LW Andre Roy io Providence. AHl_ Sent D 
Dean Mollwc to Providence lor condtlton- 

'"ojlgaado -Sent RW Christian Matte. D 
Eric Messier, C Joset Marha and O wade 
Betak ia Herehcy. AH l_ 

DALLAS -Put F Greg Adams and F Brent 
■ Gltcnrist on Injured reserve. Recalled F Marc 
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nyTERKATlONAL HEKALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY DECEMBER 31, 1^-WEPNESPA^ JANUAB* 


vational herald TRIBUNE, TUESDAY — - — || 

Santa Evita’: Obsession Becomes a ®. 

:■: Araffltaru^ a joeiy to Ji 


W ASHINGTON — The 
best cup of coffee in h 
Washington can be found at d 
the White House. Its repu- t 
ration is such that people from t 
all over the world stop by to { 
share a cup of 
java with the 
presidenL 
These klat- 
ches attract bus- 
inessmen and 

lobbyists from 
the Far East 
who will do 
anything to own gu Chwa ld 
a raug bearing 
the presidential seal. 

The coffee is always ex- 
cellent. but it is not necessarily 
cheap. A good cup of Jamaic- 
an blend costs anywhere from 
$134,500 to $200,000 — not 

including sugar. . 

People who complain 
about the high prices are told 
that the president’s coffee 
goes through a certain filter- 
ing process — its secret 
known only to the Democrat- 
ic National Committee. 

Besides, what you gel with 
your coffee is the president of 
the United States, who will 
listen to your story, whatever 
it is. 

At these prices, the question 
is often asked if a visitor gets 

Putting the Bubbles 
Back in Champagne 

Agence France-Pnesse 
PARIS — French cham- 
pagne producers sold record 
quantities in 1996, restoring 
fizz to an industry wracked by 
several years of crisis, a re- 
port said Monday. 

The six main champagne 
houses, which cut prices dra- 
matically in recent years as 
demand fell, sold a record 250 
million bottles, topping the 
1989 record, the financial 
daily Les Echos reported. 




doughnuts as welL Those who 
have attended the klaiches say 
that anyone who gives more 
than $200,000 is entitled to as 
many doughnuts as he wants. 
A spokesman said, “The pres- 
ident always claims that cof- 
fee without doughnuts is like a 
day without sunshine." 

How did the White House 
become so famous for its cof- 
fee? One day an Indonesian 
businessman from Arkansas 
stopped by and Clinton offered 
him a cup of mocha java. 

“How much is it?’ the 
businessman asked. 

"There’s no charge for my 
coffee," the president said, 
* T don’t want to make a profit 
on my brew." 


By David Streitfeld 

Washington Post Service , „ 

W ASHINGTON — On the day they came to till ban, 
Tomas Eloy Martinez had lunch at a fashionable 
taSH SLmlaSc—VT brought anotetotas 

table. “When you come outsitfe,” it said, 
tot you." A glance out the window showed die street was 
blocked off, the usual sign that an assassination was aboutjo 
unfold, Martinez asked the raaitre d* if there was a back exit. 

There wasn’t. . his 



■ ■ Italy, ne — -r ■„ after Anmm™ f 

the new pre^dertf fo ^. Ia movement in the W* J> 
The Montoneros § uei ™ — finally force the iss ue 
cJSd EviB as tteSr By then no 

bat he was 

longer The gneiglas sa.d his 

Four weeks taw. P^^'Shmwdeodmn.ed 


An aide standing next to 
the president whispered to the 
overseas visitor, “If you’d 
like to donate $150,000 to 
buy a new coffee pot for the 
White House, we’ll take it.” 
The businessman plunked 
down the money, and the 
president poured him another 
cup of coffee. Another ven- 
erable tradition was started. 

Pretty soon word got out in 
the Far East that the best kaf- 
feeklatsches in the United 
States were being held at 1600 
Pennsylvania Avenue. When 
ihey beard the news, Malay- 
sian businessmen were pre- 
pared to kill for a cup of good 
American coffee. To keep the 
president from being over- 
whelmed with visits from cof- 
fee lovers, a minimum cover 

charge of $ 1 20.000 was levied 

on each cup. This didn't seem 
to bother the Thai. Chinese or 
Taiwanese businessmen who 
sold arms to the mainland. 

When one Thai merchant 
was questioned as he left the 
White House with a Bill Clin- 
ton mug he said, “What's the 
big deal? Someone has to fi- 
nance an American elec- 
tion." 


ineffectual wire, lsaoei, wasu^"—' “f “ u/h n 
helD of Jose Lopez Rega. a government truster v®® 
believed himself a sorcerer. Paramilitary squads 

roamed with impunity, fighting real and imagined enemies 

° f L^Rega didn't like Martinez one of Ac * county’s 
best-known journalists. A couple of 
bomb had gone off in the writer s home. “ 

his library. An accompanying threat had given him 48 hours 

t0 ThaT Korodtoo hasty to Martinez. A weekor two in 

hiding and the matter would surely 

the restaurant made him realize he was 

newspaper. The receptionist called other reporters, bom 

Argentine and foreign, who came to 

gambit worked; even an Argentine death sto wasn 

loins to shoot someone in front of so much media. 

8 Knez went straight to the airport, and hasn tMfUU 
time in the country since. But he remains mi Argtoe, 
pcnfe-iallv in his lone-runmng fascination with Juan Peron 

Isabel. The three of them 

dominated Argentine politics for 30 yeare: even now. toe 
effects linger and the arguments are bitter. Multiply ^yner- 
?^^tivto vrith thTKennedys about a thousand tunes, 
and you have Argentina and the Perons. 

The writer, now 62, lives in New Jersey. Exile, as 
sometimes happens, offered a useful new P^pechve^d^ 
change in career. Martinez had interviewed 
evenhelped him write his memoirs. But he found the tools of 

journalism too limited to depict ^^Teron 

In the early '80s he wrote a novel ^ed simply The Peron 
Novel." it was fiction that was factual, wntien to set me 

re< b^tiie? 1 ited States, at least the response was ™inimal. 
m . ..i.hnr, oracn'i arMt. and Juan isn t the sexy Peron. 



unknown pe«a^W*“ later, she was whole 

tettbg room table- Her accessor. Isabel. 

was combing , veentine necrophilia, Martinez 


savsoverbreakisst snxietv ” be writes m 

to evil they ca^crtconuoL **3^ E vita,“ he be- 

of sorts, too. It certainly in- 


Y. n-» 

W el." ft was Fiction that was actual, wnnen .» ^ Argent|ne writer Tomas Eloy Martina. ^ m me fi 

• States, a, pofc* out. -ate bad tor countries but very good for nov- 

®ss5s-- 

helped by the film. For the moment Evita is overthrown in 1955, ordered Evtto seci^ybimea ohflJltom 0 f Eva Peron. 

Martinez says he' s finally through with ^ SS^TtSi soldiers who carried out the mission gave the phantom ^ 


dial if I were alotte wui otkj. body, you are too 

superstitious, ff youre alrae _______ one is likely 

close to something tiwt can cE^ahy came to rest in 

SS283 SSsS=ss 

in the ugliest stdtam rf ^ 

SSSS^gseatB 

he’s gmng you his opinion aU the trine. He s very m 
^^^“nsfer 

year on the with books in 


LV1I4, *awuiv*.-- 

1 ,f TTiiftSE?te & an international hit MW ■“> 1 

a Spanish -language edition. While it 1 ias no ? 

Mtora’s mS. the book will doubtless befagw 
helped by the film. For the moment 

Ktinez says he’s finally through with jJePem* Bitt he 
doesn’t deny they’ve been valuable. Obsessions, he 



PEOPLE 


COMING OUT — Jeanie Elizabeth Eisenhower, 18, standing between 
her father, David Eisenhower, and mother, Julie Nixon Eisenhower, at the 
International Debutante Ball in New York. Jeanie is the great-grand- 
daughter of one president and the granddaughter of another. 


I mprobable as it sounds, it’s to be 
Sir Paul McCartney. The former 
Beatle was awarded a knighthood m the 
New Year's honors list Among other 
showbiz figures receiving honors. Sir 
Andrew Lloyd Webber, the composer 
of “Evita," “Phantom of the Opera 
and “Jesus Christ Superstar" becomes 
Lord Lloyd Webber *-J5(hichdwsn_t . 


-^SSTrecogm^: Ihe actress Joan 
Collins, best known for her role as 
AVxis in the television show “Dynas- 
an OBE (Officer of the 
3roer of the British Empire), while the 
playwright Alan Ayckbourn was 
knighted. Frederick Forsyth, whose 
best-sellers include "The Day of the 
Jackal," becomes a Commander of the 
Order of the British Empire, which en- 
tities him to add the initials CBE after 
his name. The racing driver Damon 
HOL the current Formula One world 
champion, was given an OBE for ser- 
vices to auto racing. 


ident Francois Mitterrand with a post- 
age stamp bearing his profile as well as 
the tricolor flag of the country he gov- 
erned for 14 years. The top right comer 
reads “Francois Mitterrand. 1916- 
1996 ” and the value of the stamp is 3 
francs (about 60 cents), the cost to send 
a letter in France. 



""children’s divorces. Queen Elizabeth 
II is thinking of celebrating her 50th 
wedding anniversary next year in grand 
style. Buckingham Palace has revealed 
that the queen and Prince Philip, who 
were married in November 1947. are 
toying with the idea of inviting thou- 
sands of other long-married couples to a 
"joint celebration" garden party. If it 
goes ahead, the bash should go some 
way to erasing the bad memories of the 
past year’s sensational divorces of 
Prince Charles from Princess Diana, 
and of Prince Andrew from the former 
Sarah Ferguson. 


France will honor the former Pres- From the kitchen: Eberhard Midler, 


executive chef and part owner of the 
Lutece restaurant in New York, wralked 
into the restaurant with Paalette Safer 
last week and said to the staff* Let me 
introduce you to the new Mrs. Muller. 
“Everyone’s jaw dropped, he said- 
“Only three days earlier customers ana 
friends had been asking us/Whenare 
vou parting married?’ and I ha d been 
ja fur,~ au actxw ag pcecimve 
with a wine company, in -January when 
she dined at Lutece with a friend. ...... 

Chef Christian Constant put the final 
touch to an eventful year for French 
cuisine by announcing he would leave 
die famed id tehee of (Ire Hotel Crilloa m 
Paris to open his own restaurant. Jh a 
newspaper interview. Cons tant . 46, said 
he was tired of working up to 14 houre a 

day and was looking forward to a new 
start in bis restaurant, opening next 
month in the capital's chic Seventh Ar- 
rondissemenL 


The conductor Georg Solti would 
like toproduce an opera by Mozart or 
Verdi before he diet, he confessed to 


the German mamririe ' Der Spiegel 
“I’Ve ofien’wanted to do it, but I laden 
Ihe courage; 7 ’ said the 84-jrar-oIdHm- 
earian-boro fonner conductor of ok 
C hicago Symphony Orchestra, adding: 
“Peih^^dooceed in staging a pro- 
duction of Mozart or Verdi before I 
dje."; 

• ' 'The daughter of die man once re- 
gardedas one of America’s most power- 
ful mobsters has written a book about 
power, murder and corruption. And 
you’ll find it in the fiction section of 
UJS. bookstores. John Gotti’s daugh- 
ter, Victoria Gotti, has written "The 
Senator’s Daughter," due out in Feb- 
ruary. Hie novel features a beautiful 
lawyer who is assigned to defend a 
busboy charged with killing a unio? J 
boss. The labor leader is a dapper Ital£- 
an-American dogged by prosecutors in- 
tent on nailing him with flimsy charges. 
Gotti, 32, has said that her lather was not 
the boss of the Gambino crime family^ 
Gotti — once known as the Dapper Dot 
for his natty suits — is serving a life 
sentence for murder and racketeering. : '