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INTERNATIONAL 





nmme 


PUBLISHED “WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


The World’s Daily Newspaper 


London, Tuesday, February 4, 1997 


Chernomyrdin Warns U.S. 
Of Russia’s NATO Phobia 


Alliance’s Expansion East Could Provoke 
A Nationalist Reaction and Rearmament 







; ' ^prit 


David HaOnaamD Mh|n tag 

Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin mak- 
ing a point during an interview Monday. 


Struggle Opens 
For President 
And Congress 


Budget and State of Union 
‘lifer Wins To Define 2d Clinton Tern 


By Jim Hoagland and David Hoffman 

Washington Fog Savior ' 

MOSCOW — — Prime Minister . Viktor 
Chernomyrdin will warn President Bill Clinton 
and Vice President A1 Gore in Washington this 
week that the rapid expansion of NATO into 
Centra] Europe threatens to midermine the 
Yeltsin government and will fuel extremist de- 
mands in Russia for a return to armed con- 
frontation with die West 

“I'm worried about Russia,' " the usually low- 
key, careful Russian leader said in a remarkably 
introspective 70-minute interview at the Russian 
White HoaseonMonday.TtaeWest “wants us to 
explain to our people rhi there is nothing to fear. 
How can we explain this? .Nobody is going to 
listen to any explanations.” He added, “De- 
velopments in Russia could take an ominous 
tom." 4 

Mr. Chernomyrdin’s forceful ternaries were 
clearly intended to advance Russia's negotiating 
posture, which he hardened by demanding that 
theNorih Atlantic Treaty Organization sign with 
Russia “a binding treaiy. with verification, ”diat 
would commit toe alliance to transforming itself 
from a military body into “a political orga- 
nization” that would not treat Russia as its main 
threat and enemy. 

These positions have already been ruled out 
by the ltwnember alliance, which is expected at 
its July summit meeting in Madrid to invite 
Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic to 
become members two years from now. . 

But Mr. Chernomyrdin’s expressions of 
alarm, delivered against the backdrop of Pres- 
ident Boris Yeltsin’s continuing ill health and 
in tease, poli deal maneuvering in Moscow, also 
seemed to reflect a genuine concern that Wash- 
ington and other Western capitals had not 
grasped the potential damage he said the NATO 
debate conic do to the already weakened Russian 
go v ernment 

Mr. Chernomyrdin, who normally sees Mb'. 
Gore twice a year for narrowly focused sessions 
cm trade, investment and science, portrayed the 
U.S.-Russian relationship as nearing a sigm- 
Scant turning point. He suggested that failure to 
resolve the NATO expansion issue by the time 
Mr. Clinton and Mr. Yeltsin are scheduled to 



AUe KqriKt/TlHi AMoeded Pm 

WARSAW RITE — Defense Ministers Volker Ruehe of Germany, right, Stanislaw 
Dobrzanskf of Poland, canter, and Charles MUkm of France, in Warsaw for trilateral 
discussions, attending a ceremony Monday at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. 

The Price Is Right in Japan 

Economy Stalls, but Everyday Costs Are Far Down 


it WASHINGTON— After months pfinvoking 

Dim li bipartishnship.Pre&ident Bill Clinton formally 
presents his legislative agenda and Ins budget 
this week, beginning the long struggle that wall 
- « determine whether the RqwUican-controUed 
" : !w . Congress and the Democratic president can 
really enter a season of cooperation. 

VL Mr. Clinton starts off tins debate in a stronger 

■" position than in years, given new legitimacy by 

his reflection and the highest public approval 
! - ratings of his presidency. 

• - Republicans are no longer pronouncing his 
proposals dead on arrival, thoughthat is in part 

••• became Mr. Clinton has moved so far in their 
direction since the Republicans won control of 
' Congress in 1994. 

, - : : !J He has used two recent speeches — - an ap- 
. pearancc before the centrist Democratic Lead- 

ership Council and his inaugural address — to 
■ ' ■ give ideological coherence to the small-scale 

> .'campaign, proposals that positioned him in the 
_ X' political center. He has said he advocates a 
. i government “humble enough not to solve all our 
. problems for us but strong enough to give us the 

• -.:« l • '-iAv tools to solve our problems for ourselves.” 

. Now, his aides say, he will demonstrate what 
..-.t.- 1 - he means through concrete programs. 

, • While House officials say the president will 

' -'.,•>*> seize the moment in his State of the Union 

u-' Address on Tuesday night by first calling on 

K.' Omgress and the nation to complete the ”un- 
finisbed business’' of balancing the budget, find- 
' , „ijr. ing jobs for welfare recipients and overhauling 
.- ;jx — . . campaign finance laws. To give urgency to die 
' , ?uv campaigp finance issue, he is expected to call for 

'V,\w : action by July 4. . _ ... 

As be has increasingly smee the Republicans 
woo. control of Congress, Mr. Clinton will not 
. i?.«v mat unte leeisiatrve action but will also call for 


See RtjSSlA, Page 6 


By Maxy Jordan 

Washington Pan Service 

TOKYO — The Japanese stock market and 
the yen are at their lowest points in years. The 
national railway system is so ter in debt it would 
cast every person in the country $2,000 to bail it 
out Banks are going bankrupt, and land prices 
have crashed as much as 50 percent 

So why is Toshio Someya, a homemaker, so 
Jinpy? 

Because you can almost hear the sound of 
consumer prices falling all over the country. 
Discounts and sales are now the norm in aland 
where shopkeepers a few years ago found they 
could make clothes and cars more attractive by 
increasing their prices. 

Mrs. Someya' s favorite place to shop these 
days is Kou’s, Tokyo’s first warehouse-style 
-ttiscomit w hol es al er. Krai’s, similar to the balk- 
buy stores that fill die pantries of suburban 


America, has become one of the busiest stores in 
the world almost overnight, drawing 40,000 cus- 
tomers on a good day. 

“Lower prices are the way of the future; 
people are demanding it," said HSdeo Mase, the 
manager at Kou’s, where those who pay the 
equivalent of a $25 membership fee can buy a 
box of cornflakes for only $2 — less than half the 
grocery-store price — or a washing machine for 
$500, about 30 percent off the retail price. 

Japan is widely portrayed these days as down 
and out, an Asian tiger that lost its roar when the 
go-go days of tile 1980s faded into leaner times. 
But for Mrs. Someya and millions of other 
Japanese, daily life is actually better now that tile 
boom years appear to be over. 

“When tiie economy was sky-high, so were 
prices,” said Mrs. Someya, 52. “I like to go out 
to eat, and restaurants are lower now. Only in 

See SHOP, Page 6 


U S. Has Big Stake in Hong Kong’s Future 


By Keith B, Richburg »■ 

■ Washington Post Service . ■ 

HONG KONG —.The outdoor picnic on the 
old colonial veranda was billed as “The Great 
American Barbecue,” and the thane was 1970s 
disco fever. But ter more on display than the 
eddies and the heft-bottom jeans was the array of 
American food and beverages — chicken and 
steaks cooking on smoky grills, potatoes and 
com an the cob, Napa Valley wine, Sam Adams 
lager and Miller Lite beer. 

The event last month was meant to showcase 
American agricultural products* and the 200 
guests included restaurateurs, chefs .and major 
food buyers. Amongthe many sponsors were the 
UJS. Meat Export Federation, the Poultry and 


Egg Export Council, California’s pistachio 
growers and Florida orange-juice makers. 

The mood was festive, as at any big, Amer- 
ican, backyard cookouL But tiie successful 
yearly event and the long list of sponsors point 
out how far the U.S. agriculture industry — just 
as for UJS. banks, insurance companies, broker- 
age houses and advertising firms — little Hong 
Kong is big business. 

The Commerce Department estimates that 
total direct U.S. investment in Hong .Kong is 
about $13.8 billion. This is America's 13th- 
largest trading partner, and at the end of 1995 the 
United States had a $6.9 billion trade surplus 
with the territory. 

American hanks here have assets of more than 
$50 bullion, and about 500 U.S. companies have 


regional headquarters here. Overall, 1,100 
American companies have operations in Hong 
Kong, nine U.S. states have representative of- 
fices and more than 80 American universities 
have alumni associations. 

This may be the United Kingdom’s last im- 
perial outpost in Asia, but U.S. expatriates in 
Hong Kong now outnumber the British, with 
37,000 Americans compared with 27,000 Bri- 
tons. Take away the British civil servants and 
policemen, and the construction workers on the 
new airport project, and the British numbers 
shrink even further. 

The huge investment of American capital and 
people means that over the next months and 

See HONG KONG, Page 3 


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• 1 '^‘ w « ori {hear oivh to grapple with the nation's social 

’Vt .4 rv-..«. 

• : .Jamming to the family-centered themes ofhis 

• . cainpaam. Mr. Clinton plans to make education a 

. • j v : j!- ■ ^cornerstone of his agenda for the next four 

. * M expected to call for schools across the 

; coantryto test whether their stadatis are per- 
fanning up to nationally recognized standards 
■ and to Explain how tiie federal government ran 
hdhn eftala the ctiflMflS for Such ngor. . 

till PTfcfclinton also plans to tackle tee issue of 
hcslsWfesurance once - again, this * 

‘ initiatives intended tohelp toe lQrmi- 

.. foaMacriam children who tack coverage. 

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plans to offer $3.4 bilhrom gymjs 
" t! Sd^^Sefto stimulate 

»b#ai be forced off welfare under stringaat 

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BELGRADE CHARGE — PoKcemen nimuiig to outmaneaver demonstrators In 
central Belgrade, on Monday during the 76th straight day of protests. Dozens of 
people were injured in dashes with policemen bn Sunday and Monday. Page 5. 


■'paoe.two; 

A^VruuA^Tra^e^mihefbt^k 

THE AMERICAS ' . . 1 P»B*3. 

Jhe Wide Open White Bouse Doors 


Books 

Crossword — 
Opinion — , 
Sports 


Page 9. 

Page 10. 

: — Pages 8-9. 

Pages 18-19. 


AOENPA 

Tapie Imprisoned 
One Night at Least 

PARIS (AFP) — Bernard Tapie surrendered 
Monday to pass his first night behind bars as be 
prepared to race a court ruling that could jail him 
for eight months for rigging a soccer match. 

The European Parliament deputy, who has 
been stripped ofhis seat as a French member of 
Parliament but has so far avoided jail, turned 
himself in at La Sante prison in Paris before the 
hearing of his appeal Tuesday by France's 
highest cram. 

Earlier article , Page 5. 

2A Bid for Thomson Starts 
Musical Chairs in France 

Alcatel Alstirom opened a round of musical 
chairs in French industry Monday when the 
electronics giant with two aerospace compa- 
nies, launched a new bid for a major stake in the 
state-owned defense contractor Thomson-CSF. 

To raise cash for the bad. Alcatel plans to sell 
part of its Havas SA stake to Compagnie Gen- 
erate des Eanx, which in turn would give Havas 
its 20 percent state in Canal Plus SA, making 
the media conglomerate owner of 40 percent of 
Europe’s biggest pay-TV service. Page II. 


i* ’ ■' ! .* 




L‘ See CLINTON, Page 3 

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Bhutto Losing; Big Victor Is Apathy 




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By Kenneth J. Cooper 

Washington Post Service 


ISLAMABAD, Pakistan- — ■' Mian'. Nawaz Sharif, 
faroed out as tiie prime minister of Pakistan in' 1993 
because of ccooramc mismanagement and alleged cor- 
ruption, was poised. Monday to return to office after an 
election marred by a recrad low turnout. - 
Prelininaiy results Showed Mr. ShariTs Pakistan 
Muslim' Le^ue dominating national races for the 217 
seats in PariSment, ahead of the Pakistan People’s Party 
of the fanner prime minister, Benazir Bhutto. The vote 
was ordered after President Barooq Leghari dismissed 


r--*.— • .. -,'V 


Miss Bhutto’s government in November, alleging cor- 
ruption and abuse of power. 

Analysts predicted that the final count would leave the 
Muslim League as the largestparty in parliament and that 
Mr. Sharif, 47* could muster the majority to fonn the next 
government with support from regional parties and in- 
dependents. In addition, the winners of 10 seats reserved 
for religious minorities have traditionally backed the 


Results announced at polling stations but not made 
official by tiie national election commission showed the 

See PAKISTAN, Page 6 


No. 35.436 


North Korea 
Plans to Turn 
Its Economy 
Toward West 

Trade Chief Cites Hunger 
And Collapse of ‘Socialist 
Market 9 as Cause of Shift 

By Jonathan Gage 

huernaannal Heraht Tribune 

DAVOS, Switzerland — Acknowledging that 
much of his country is hungry and on rations. 
North Korea’s foreign trade chief said Monday 
that Pyongyang was reorienting its economic 
policy “so that we can develop close links with 
the capitalist economy." 

The official, Kim Jong U, said in an interview 
that “since the socialist market has collapsed." 
North Korea must change with the times to win 
hard-currency reserves by luring foreign invest- 
ment 

“The food situation in our country is dif- 
ficult," Mr. Kim said through an interpreter, 
“but no one has died." 

He said that “our people are nor eating as 
much as before, and are living on rations." 

His comments coincided with a North Korean 
report Monday that the country had only half the 
grain it needed to feed its people, according to a 
Reuters dispatch from Tokyo. 

And last week, the International Federation of 
Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies said that 
food rations in North Korea hod dropped to a 
level four times lower than normally considered 
essential for a healthy population. 

“Our leader, Kim Jong R, says that it is logical 
that everything should be in keeping with 
change, " the foreign trade chief said. * “When the 
world changes, we change our policies." 

For North Korea, one of tiie world’s last hard- . 
tine Marxist countries, this change will mean 
“giving first priority to trade, concentrating 
everything on trade.” Kim Jong 11 said, as well as 
swindling tiie country’s industrial priorities from 
heavy to light industry. “Our lack of foreign 
currency is just a temporary difficulty,” he said. 

North Korea has set up a special economic 
zone in an isolated north east comer of tiie coun- 
try near the Russian and Chinese borders, called 
the Rajin-Sonbong Free Economic Trade Zone t 
to which it is trying to lure foreign capital with a 
two-year tax “holiday” and what Mr. Kim 
called “a good tax rate" of 14 percent on net 
profit after that. 

In two years, he said. North Korea has re- 
ceived investments in the economic zone total- 
ing $100 million from companies that include 
ING Bank of the Netherlands, Royal/Dutch 
Shell of Britain, and from some companies in 
Thailand, Denmark and Nigeria. 

Mr. Kim said that participating in meetings in 
Davos among some of the world's business and 
financial elite at the annual conference of the 
World Economic Forum had convinced him that 
Pyongyang’s policy change was “correct" and 
“that we can develop dose links with die cap- 
italist economy, the world economy." 

He denied that this meant that the Democratic 
People’s Republic of Korea was making a tran- 
sition to capitalism like other countries formerly 
behind the Iron Curtain. 

“The socialist system has been chosen by our 

See KOREA, Page 6 


Forget Potentates: 
In Davos, Gates 
Is the Real Star 


By Anne Swardson 

Washington Post Service 

DAVOS, Switzerland — If the god of Davos is 
Mammon, the demigod this year ts Bill Gates. 

The chairman of Microsoft Corp. is easily the 
most sought-after star at this annual Alpine 
summit of the world's corporate and govern- 
mental elite. 

Forget Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of 
Israel, forget the Russian prime minister, Viktor 
Chernomyrdin. When Mr. Gates, 41, led a ses- 
sion Monday evening, the huge auditorium was 
filled to capacity and people were turned away. 
When he held a news conference, the seats were 
filled 15 minutes before it began, and reporters 
were spilling out the door. His book. “The Road 
Ahead.' ' is one of the top sellers at the bookstore 
here, even though it was first published in 19%. 

It is not just that the attendees at this year’s 
World Economic Forum want to hear what Mr. 
Gates has to say about Microsoft Office 97 or 
other software programs. Here in Europe, where 
unemployment is high and innovation rase, Mr. 
Gates is perceived as someone who has all the 
answers. If Europe is economically troubled and 
European business stagnating. Bill Gates may be 
able to save it or at least that is how the thinking 
apparently goes. 

In a recent interview with the International 
Herald Tribune. Jean-Claude Trichei, the head of 
tiie French central bank, said, “We need more 
Steve Jobs, more Bin Gates in Europe," referring 
also to the founder of Apple Computer. In nam- 
ing Mr. Gates one of 50 “masters of the world," 
a French magazine, Le Nouvel Obsexvateur, en- 
thused over his “eternal adolescent allure.” 

Here in Davos, Mr. Netanyahu marveled at the 
speed at which Mr. Gates had become a bil- 
lionaire, and said be hoped Israel could produce 
such heady expansion. On the rare occasions when 
Mr. Gains could be spotted in the public areas of 
this labyrinthine convention hall, he was accom- 
panied by television cameras and photographers. 

See GATES, Paged 





PAGE 2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY -SUNDAY FEBRUARY 1-^ 



INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 


PAGE TWO 


Cyanide and Explosives / M A Tragedy largely Unnoticed' 


, A * 


Appetite for Fish Turning Asian Coral Reefs Into a Wasteland 


By Michael Richardson 

International Herald Tribune 


J AKARTA — The Mentawai Islands along the south- 
ern coast of Sumatra in Indonesia are a picture of 
tropical paradise: countless remote atolls fringed by 
white sand beaches and coconut palms. 

But below the surface of the crystal -clear azure waters, 
on the coral reefs that skirt the islands, it is another story. 

Jeroen Deknatel. director of operations at Fantasea 
Divers based on Phuket Island in Thailand, was so im- 
pressed at the tourist and recreational diving potential of the 
Mentawais that he took his live-aboand dive ship down to 
the area 18 months ago and organized two cruises for 
divers. 

Two years earlier, scientists from the Bung Hatta Uni- 
versity tn Padang, the main port city in the region, had 
visited the Mentawais and found pristine coral reefs teem- 
ing with fish. 

Yet on its two cruises, covering more than 1,280 ki- 
lometers 1 800 miles) and 65 dive sites throughout the chain 
of islands, the Fantasea found that most of the reefs were 
completely destroyed- 

‘‘It was an underwater wasteland.'* Mr. Deknatel re- 
called. "Hundreds of miles of reefs had been totally ob- 
literated. With a few' notable exceptions, marine life was 
nonexistent." 

Disappointed divers on the ship suggested names like 
Dresden. Hiroshima and Ground Zero for some of the sites. 

Mr. Deknatel said that possible causes of the destruction 
included dynamite and cyanide fishing, infestation by the 
coral -earing crown of thorns starfish and sediment runoff 
due to logging on some islands. 

But the prime suspect was the use of explosives and 
sodium cyanide poison to kill or stun reef fish so that they 
could be caught quickly in large quantities. 

"Several large factory fishing boats from countries 
outside Indonesia are suspected of using dynamite and 
cyanide to decimate the reefs," Mr. Deknatel reported at 
the time. “Such boats have been observed in the area, but it 
was not possible to determine their country of origin.’* 
Although now illegal in most Southeast Asian countries, 
use of explosives for fishing in the region dates back to World 
War R, when surplus ammunition became widely available. 

Application of liquid cyanide, mainly by divers using 
plastic squirt bottles, to stun large fish such as wrasse. ; 
groper and cod so that they can be pried from holes and i 
crevices in reefs, is a more recent innovation. 

Such fish, when shipped live to Chinese seafood res- 
taurants — in Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Singapore and 
other countries in an increasingly affluent region — com- 
mand prices many times higher than the same fish chilled, 
frozen or even fanned. 

For example, a single Napoleon wrasse smuggled out of 
Indonesia, where its export has been illegal since 1995, can 
sell to eager seafood customers for over $5,000. including 
up to $245 for the lips alone, which are prized as aparticular 
delicacy. 

Robert Johannes, an American coral-reef ecologist based 
in Australia, estimates that the annual volume of reef fish 



Because the reefs provide vital shelter and breeding 
grounds for fish, and many of the poorest communities 
among Indonesia's population of 200 million depend heav- 
ily on fish for protein, the economic and social consequences 
of wholesale reef destruction could be devastating. 

President Suharto recently appointed a number of his 
most senior officials, including the defense minister and the 
chief of armed forces, to a newly formed national maritime 
council. 

Its main task is help protect the seas and reefs of Indonesia 
— a country comprising more than 17.000 islands. 

"As the largest archipelagic state in the world. In- 
donesia’s marine potential has not been fully utilized by its 


owners but exploited by others who have left only seven 
percent of our coral reefs in good condition, * * said Sarwono 


percent of our coral reefs in good condition, * * said Sarwono 
tCusumaatmadja, the environment minister. Scientists say 
that hundreds of tons of cyanide are being pumped each 
year into coral reefs in Indonesia and elsewhere in South- 
east Asia. 


B UT since Indonesia is so large and the trade in live 
reef fish so valuable, it is difficult to enforce the 
laws intended to control it. Local officials are 
either paid by organizers or middlemen to look the 
other way, or may even be partners in the business. 

Mark Erdmann, who spent two years studying the trade 
in Ujung Pan dang on Sulawesi Island, one of the main 
collection points for live fish exports, said that in Indonesia, 
it was only illegal to use cyanide for capturing fish. 

“Possession of cyanide on fishing vessels is permitted 
for ‘tranquilizing’ purposes," he said. "Legal loopholes 
such as this make enforcement virtually impossible.' ’ 
Many of the cyanide divers come from poor communities 
in Indonesia. Mr. Erdmann estimated that those involved in 
the live trade were paid from $150 to $500 a month — as 
much as 10 times the average monthly salary of con- 
ventional fishermen and three times that of a university 
lecturer. 

He said that there was a real danger the trade in its present 
form could cause “local over-exploitation, if not local 
extinction" of reef fish stocks in Indonesia. 

Most experts say they believe that if the trade is to be 
effectively controlled, more marine parks must be es- 
tablished and local communities given a stake in their 
management and in the ownership and maintenance of 
traditional reef fishing grounds outside such protected 
areas. 

‘ ‘The live seafood business can be done on a sustainable 
basis using hand-lhies or fish traps," said Helen Newman, 
a marine biologist who works closely with Operation 
Wallaces, an Indonesian organization dedicated to pro- 
tecting coral reefs off southeast Sulawesi. ‘ * But without the 
support of Local people, you've got no hope.” 

Mr. Johannes said that security of tenure provided an 
essential incentive for conservation of reef fishing 
grounds. 

"To be more effective, however," he added, "local reef 
owners need government help in the form of supporting 
legislation education, assistance with enforcement, and legal 
agreements between reef owners and fishing companies." 


A diver pumping cyanide into a reef to kill or stun fish so that they can be caught quickly. 


caught live in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific and 
sold to seafood restaurants in the region is between 1 1 ,000 
tons and 16.000 tons, worth at least several hundred million 
dollars. 

* ‘The fisheries that supply this market are creating a vast 
and expanding ecological tragedy that has gone largely 
unnoticed outside the region,' ’ he said. * ’The use of cyanide 
to catch live reef fish is most intensive in Indonesia and the 
Philippines. By unfortunate coincidence, these are the two 
countries whose waters also hold the world's greatest 
marine biological diversity." 


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L ARGE fish destined for the restaurant trade are 
generally able to pass cyanide poison out of their 
systems when put in holding pens before shipment. 
The trouble is that while explosives damage sections 
of a reef, cyanide kills die smaller fish as well as the living 
coral, algae and invertebrates on which die fish population 
depends for survival. 

"When a reef is destroyed by cyanide, a whole gen- 
eration of local fishermen and villagers is being deprived of 
its main livelihood." said Rainer Sigel. publisher of Asian 


fedlart Cteaea 


^INDONESIA J W- 

j£rl — 

The New Tort Time* 


Diver in Singapore. "The food chain is destroyed from the 
bottom up, and that means it will take much Longer to 
regenerate." 

A survey by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences has 
estimated that 58 percent of Indonesia's coral reefs had 
been heavily damaged and 35 percent partly damaged, 
largely because of human activity. 


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A Street Reopens in Hebron 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


But Bustle of Yesteryear Seems Far Down the Road 


By Joel Greenberg 

New York Times Service 


HEBRON, West Bank — At 
about 8:00 Monday morning and 
after three years of waiting, Ab- 
dallah Uweiwi went with his 
partners to try to reopen The 
People's Taxi stand on Martyrs 
Street in downtown Hebron. 

Their last day of business there 
was Feb. 26, 1994, when Dr. 
Baruch Goldstein, a Jewish set- 
tler. gunned down 29 Muslims 
who were praying at the Tomb of 
the Patriarchs shrine down the 
road. 

After the killings, the Israeli 
Army closed Martyrs Street to 
Palestinian motorists to prevent 
revenge attacks on Jewish en- 
claves there. 


The once-bustling thorough- 
fare has been largely deserted 
since, except for a trickle of ped- 
estrians who have braved Israeli 
Army checkpoints scattered 
along the road to protect the Jew- 
ish compounds. 

Shops, a gas station and taxi 
stands have closed, and Arab 
drivers have been forced to make 
lengthy detours around the street 
to get from one side of town to the 
other. 

On Monday, life was supposed 
to start going back to normal on 
Martyrs Street, which lies in an 
area still controlled by Israeli 
forces after a withdrawal from 
most of Hebron last month. 

Under tbe Israeli -Palestinian 
agreement on Hebron signed Jan. 
15, the army is supposed to re- 


open the street gradually, restor- 
ing traffic to normal in four 
months. 

A renovation project financed 
by the U.S. government is sup- 
posed to transform tbe road, 
providing a security wall and 
parking area near the Jewish en- 
claves, as well as sidewalks, 
sandblasted and repainted Arab 
storefronts and residences — all 
set off with awnings, cast-iron 
railings and plants. 

But that seemed a long way off 
on Monday. 

Tbe army declared part of 
Martyrs Street open to taxis and 
municipal vehicles as a first step 
in reopening the road, but only a 


PARIS (AFP) — French train services are expected to be 
disrupted Wednesday by a strike called to protest reorgan-! 
ization of the state-run SNCF rail company, it said Monday- 
Mainline service could be cut by up to half in most areas, 
while high-speed TGV trains on the Paris-Lille and Paris-. 
Bordeaux routes will be reduced by a third. In Paris, trains into 
and out of the Saint-Lazare and Montparnasse stations will be 
reduced, but all other trains are expected to run. 

Services to the east of the country, in particular to the Alps, 
will be maintained. With the school vacation period under, 
way, many of tbe French will be headed to the ski slopes. . 


British Air Adds Flights at Gatwick 


- u 


Mosques Sprout in Britain 


_ P 4*nt/Atnsce Fiaim-Preuc 

A Palestinian in a UN car having his papers checked Monday by Israeli 
soldiers monitoring entry to the reopened Martyrs Street in Hebron. 


Agence France-Presse 

LONDON — As many as 100 
mosques will be built in Britain 
by the end of the century at a cost 
or £1 million to £3 million ($1.6 
million to $4.8 million) each, h 
was reported Monday. 

The Daily Telegraph newspa- 
per. quoting architectural sources 
involved in the projects, said they 


would be paid for primarily 
thro u ah individual donations 


from Britain’s million-strong 
Muslim community. 

In addition, major refurbish- 
ment is planned on 160 existing 
mosques, the paper said. 

Britain already has some 1 ,000 
mosques, but most are in con- 
verted warehouses, churches or 
community centers. The new 
ones, said the sources, will be 
built in classic Islamic design, 
with central dome and minarets. 


partners arrived with their cabs to 
reopen their taxi stand, an Israeli 
officer told them to move their 
cars away and to close the office. 
An army spokesman explained 
later that the road was only open 
to through traffic for now. 

"They announced one thing 
on radio and TV , but the reality is 
different.” said Mr. Uweiwi after 
be was turned away. "In fact, 
nothing has changed. But this is 
our sfreet, despite the settlements 
and the military restrictions. We 
will stay here, die here and be 
buried here," he added, looking 
toward a sprawling cemetery on 
the other side of the road. 


LONDON (Bloomberg) — British Airways said it would, 
open new routes to Glasgow, Barcelona and Lisbon from, 
London’s Gatwick airport and shift two routes to Gatwick 
from Heathrow airport on March 30. Service from London to-. 
St. Petersburg, five days a week, and a twice-daily service to. 
Pisa will be transferred to Gatwick from Heathrow. 

After tiie changes, British Air will fly 116 routes from. 
Gatwick, 13 more than from Heathrow. The airline transferred 
east and central African services to Gatwick last year. On March* 
17, it will move all Latin American services to Gatwick. 


I’* 1 ?' iii 


hi I al 


An outbreak of dengue fever on the island of Madura, off- * 
East Java, has killed at least 24 people, and 355 others have 
been hospitalized with the disease since November, the- 
Jakarta Post reported, quoting local officials. (AFP). 


Czech rail workers seeking to be spared from layoffs will- 
begin a 48-hour strike al midnight Monday, and union leaders', 
said the walkout would be extended daily until a demand to. 
dismiss mangers instead was met (AP) 


Correction 


Because of a technical error, a photograph of Ernie Els, the- 
golfer. appeared in a story about Brenda Schultz McCarthy, 
tbe tennis player, in the Saturday -S un day sports pages. 


Foreign Aid Agencies Ordered 
To Get Sierra Leone’s Approval 


7 More Algerians 
Are Killed, Putting 
Weekend Toll at 38 


WEATHER 




Forecast for Wednesday through Friday, as provided by AccuWaather. Asia 


Accrue France-Presse 

FREETOWN, Sierra Leone — The 
government has ordered all local and for- 
eign aid agencies to obtain official ap- 
proval before setting up in Sierra Leone. 

. All nongovernmental organizations 
will be "required to sign an agreement 
with the Ministry of Economic Devel- 
opment and Planning which will be ap- 
proved by the country’s attorney gen- 
eral before they can start operations.’’ 
Vice President Albert Demby said over 
the weekend. 


Plague Kills 30 in Zambia 


Reuters ' 

LUSAKA. Zambia — Bubonic plague 
is suspected in the deaths of 30 people in 
Zambia in the last month, the Zambia 
Information Service said Monday. 

At least 60 people were being treated 
at health centers in the Namwaia dis- 
trict, the service said, quoting nurses and 
doctors at the clinics. The Health Min- 


istry in Lusaka confirmed the deaths but 
said there was no conclusive evidence 
that the epidemic was bubonic plague. 


Noting the " proliferation ** of non- 
governmental organizations in Sierra 
Leone. Mr. Demby said there were 
some aid agencies who were "regis- 
tering just to receive funds from over- 
seas with government not being aware 
what the funds were for." 

"You have an obligation to govern- 
ment to report these funds.” Mr. Demby 
said, "and also you need to employ 
qualified Sierra Leonians for jobs now 
filled by expatriates." 

Eighteen international and 12 local 
nongovernmental organizations are cur- 
rently operating in Sierra Leone, par- 
ticularly in areas in the south and east 
most affected by a rebel war waged 
from 1991 until the signing of a peace 
accord last November. 

Meanwhile, about 200 Sierra Leo- 
nian refugees were repatriated Monday 
from neighboring Liberia by the office 
of the United Nations High Commis- 
sioner for Refugees. 

The office said the 200 refugees were 
the most vulnerable of about 1 J00 Si- 
erra Leonians it planned to ferry by air 
and sea from Monrovia, where many of 
them had been living for six years. 


. Reuters 

PARIS — Algerian security 
forces said that seven people had 
been assassinated over the weekend 
in Blida Province, a stronghold of 
Muslim fundamentalists, bringing 
to 38 the number reported killed 
since Friday in Algeria. 

In a statement, Algerian security 
officials said the seven were "as- 
sassinated in a cowardly way” — 
their usual term for those killed by 
having their throats cut. 

The statement, carried by the of- 
ficial Algerian news agency APS, 
did not identify the killers. 

On Sunday, the Algerian news- 
paper Watan said that 31 people 
were killed, also in Blida province, 
on Friday night. 

That massacre was confirmed by 
a source close to the security forces, 
who said the 31 were believed to 
belong to five families all related to 
a dissident member of the Armed 
Islamic Group, which has stepped 
up its campaign of violence during 
the current month of Ramadan. 


CapanMDm 
Costa DK Sol 



CmangUal 

Cttonfn 

Hand 

HoCnxwi 
Hong Kong 


North America 

Much at tho United States 
and southern Canada wW 
average near to above nor- 
mal temperatures through 
Friday. A storm le expected 
to afreet much of the East 
Wednesday before movtag 
Into the Canadian Mar- 
Mmas Thursday. The West 
w a mealy be quite stormy 
Thursdsy and Friday. 


Europe 

Much ol eastern Europe, 
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PAGE 3 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 


THE AMERICAS 


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* With lotting System Ignored, the White House Doors Swung Wide 


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By Tim Weiner 

; : fe* 1 York Times Service 

: WASHINGTON — Ten years ago, the Re- 
ag an White H ouse adopted a rale ag>ul forei^ 
busm®smen t lobbyists and consultants who 
wanted to gel into see the president without the 
JjieBsmg of tbeir embassies: They shouldn’t. 

: , Bu * “J Psion’s aides did not follow that 
rule. In their eagerness to raise money for the 
president s re-election, they allowed friends of 
his hmd-raisera — including China’s biggest 
Wcap«M merchant, favor-seeking businessmen 
and other dubiously credentialed deaknakers — 
to meet with Mr. Clinton. 

; Nor did the White House check the suitability 
of Americans invited by the Democratic Na- 
!V bon^ Committee to meet the president, aiiow- 
mg, for instance, a twice-convicted felon to sip 
coffee with Mr. Clinton. 

, A senior administration official now «uifi the 
unexanuned invitations to foreigners “a huee 
mistake." & 


Critics Find 
Much to Fault 
In Clinton Plan 
i > For College Aid 

By Rene Sanchez 
; ana Clay Chandler 

I Washington Post Service 

; WASHINGTON — It would be a 
federal gift of staggering proportions: 
tax breaks, tuition grants and new schol- 
arships, all designed to ease one of the 
most difficult chores faring many Aiwr- 
(can families — paying for college. 

• To President Bill Clinton, the $50 
billion package be will send to Congress 
this week is a centerpiece of his second 
term, as vital to his legacy in the White 
House as balancing the federal budget 
or reforming welfare. 

> With public alarm over college costs 
tearing and with the economy produ- 
f cing a wave of jobs that demand better- ' 
educated workers, Mr. Clinton is vow- 
ing to provide historic new access to 
higher education, as the GI Bill did after 
World War II or as the federal student- 
loan program did when it was created in 
the 1960s. 

But as they scrutinize the emerging 
details of Mr. Clinton ’s plan, economists, 
some congressional leaders and even uni- 
versity officials who want more federal 
aid say they worry dial the proposal is 
fraught with as many risks as rewards. 
_What Mr. Clinton intends re create, 
they say, is a huge government en- 
titlement, one whose roots lie more in 
election-year politics than prudent fiscal . 
pdicy: It may hardly have the impatthe 
is promising, they add. and may jbe 
difficult to manage. 

‘ Thomas Kane, a Harvard University 
economist, said the package would very 
( \ ftJcely Dot achieve one of its fundamental 
• goals: increasing college enrollment. 

"Most of that money will go to stu- 
dents who would have gome to college 
anyway,’* be said. "That’s tax relief, 
not education policy." 

The core of theproposal is atax credit, 
to be called the Hope scholarship, that 
would refund up to 51,500 to families in 
each of the first two years a child attends 
college and earns at least a "B” grade 
average. Alternatively, families could 
deduct up to $10,000 from taxable in- 
come for each child enrolled in college. 

Both breaks would gradually be 
phased out for higher-income families. 

- The president is also calling for a 25 
percent increase in the size of tbe federal 
Pell grants program, which pays the 
tuition costs of 3.6 million of the needi- 
S esf college students. 

■ Many college officials, even some 

who contend the package is flawed, say it 

cOuld be a landmark in American higher 
education by making attending two 
yfeara of college neatly as universal as 
attending high schooL About 60 percent 
of high school graduates go to college. 

■* "Tlbis is a genuinely a breakthrough 
proposal.’’ said Terry Hartle, a vice 
president for the American Council on 
Education, which represents more than 
1300 of the nation's colleges and uni- 
versities. "It could be a huge step for- 
warder American families.” 

Improving access to college has be- 
come a Dressing national concern. The 
college gradu- 
is 


That mistake would not have happened had a 
system set up in 1987 remained in place after Mr. 
Glutton took office, according to several present 
and fanner White House and National Security 
Council officials. 

When the Iran-contra affair erupted in 
November 1986. the White House became “a 
glass house," said an official in the admin- 
istration of Ron aid Reagan. In rh fishbowl the 
National Security Council erected barriers in 
January 1987 to keep foreign agents away from 
the president and out of the White House. 

After years of being beset by favor seekers 
from abroad — President Reagan had. welcomed 
a billionaire Japanese war criminal and other 
questionable visitors during his first six years in 
office — the president’s aides worked "like a 
hockey goalie," as onepnt it, to reject foreigners 
who sought meetings with the president to far- 
ther tbeir political or business agendas 

The system evolved in the Bush adminis- 
tration, former White House aides said. One said 
that the White House and the security council 


staff all recognized that "this is a common 
problem — people trying to get in to see the boss 
— and by getting in to see him, they can rep- 
resent to others that they got something out of 
him-" 

The system was straightforward. Tbe White 
House chief of staff and tbe White House coun- 
sel’s office would notify the security council 
staff when foreign visitors without introductions 
from their embassies asked to see the president. 
Tbe staff would vet the potential visitor, some- 
times seeking help from the Central Intelligence 


Agency 
The ( 


lestioos asked, according to a former 
Bush administration official, included: "Who is 
this guy? What does he want? Is this an ap- 
propriate meeting?” 

In tbe end, tbe visitor might win an appoint- 
ment to see a member of the security council staff 
— but almost never the president. 

"I was like tbe fish in tbe tank at a Chinese 
restaurant,’ * recalled one former security council 
aide. "I was supposed to absorb all the evil." 


Mr. Clinton’s top aides did not follow that 
practice. Sometimes the White House would ask 
the security councO to check out a foreign visitor 
— more often it would not 

"The NSC staff was dependent on those in the 
White House to bring these issues to our at- 
tention — usually the political staff.” said David 
Johnson, a spokesman for tbe security council. 
“I’m unaware of anyone from tbe White House 
counsel's office bringing those issues to us." 

So the security council staff, according to one 
of its more prominent members, ceased to func- 
tion as a screening system toprevent potentially 
embarrassing visitors. By 1994, a year after Mr. 
Clinton took office, tire gatekeeping system was 
gone. 

A system drat once had been rigorous became 
"ad hoc." an official said. On Jan. 21. on orders 
from tbe new chief of staff. Erskine Bowles, the 
White House began to re-establish the old sys- 
tem. 

Bui a year ago, nobody on the White House 
political team saw fit. for example, to ask the 


security council staff about Wang Jun, who 
showed up on a guest list for a White House 
meeting with die president How did Mr. Wi 
goi into the White House? “Nobody ever asl 
anybody.” a security council official said. 

So at the behest of a tireless political fund- 
raiser from Arkansas, Charlie Yah Lin Trie, Mr. 
Clinton wound up sipping coffee with Mr. 
Wang, who runs the Chinese government's 
weapons- man uf acturing and procurement 
agency, which is involved in secret arms deals 
around die world. 

It was a coup for Mr. Trie to introduce one of 
the Chinese government's most powerful of- 
ficials to the president. 

On another occasion, an invitation was ex- 
tended to Carlos Mersan. chief economic adviser 
to the president of Paraguay, whose economy is 
in large part based on the smuggling of high-tech 
goods. He was invited to the White House by 
Mark Jimenez, a Miami computer executive who 
has raised three-quarters of a million dollars for 
Democratic Party campaigns and causes. 


POLITICAL N O 7 S S 


Governors Relent on Welfare Low 

WASHINGTON — Under pressure from congressional 
Republicans, leaders of die National Governors’ Asso- 
ciation have decided not to seek major changes in the new 
federal welfare law. Instead they issued a cautious appeal to 
Congress and to President BUI Clinton to work with them to 
meet the needs of a relatively small group of legal im- 
migrants who win lose federal benefits. 



But on Sunday, in tbe interest of getting an agreement, Mr. 

Pataki and a fellow Republican, Governor Pete Wilson of 
California, joined others to support a com prom ise policy. 

The compromise came on the same day dial the House 
Democratic leader. Richard Gephardt of Missouri, said he 
wanted to see how the law worked before any major changes 
were made. The co mp romise expresses concern about tbe 
effects of the new welfare law oo one group of legal im- 
migrants, tbose who are already in the United Steles but cannot 
become citizens because of age or disability. 

The statement as originally drafted said such immigrants i/UOlB / UnOUOtB 
"should not be barred from federal supplemental security x * 

income benefits and food s t amp s." 

Republican congressional leaders and conservative Re- 
publican governors objected to that wording, so the Human 
Resources Committee softened tbe language. 

The governors now urge Congress simply to "ensure that 
the immigration system and its requirements are fair to both 


citizens and noncitizens and meet the needs of aged and 
disabled legal immigrants." (NYT) 

Lawyers Oppose Death Penalty 

SAN ANTONIO, Texas — Galling tbe imposition of the 
demit i penalty "a haphazard ma»<» of unfair practices," 
policymakers at tbe largest organization of lawyers in the 
United States voted overwhelmingly Monday to seek a 
moratorium on capital punishmeot 

Tbe vote by the American Bar Association’s House of 
Delegates was 280-1 19. The recommendation now will be a 
focus of die 370,000-member group’s efforts in Congress 
and state legislatures. Tbose who wanted tbe association to 
change its policy said that "efforts to forge a fair capital- 
punishment jur i sp rudence” had failed. No executions 
should occur, they said, "unless and until greater fairness 
and due process prevail.” No organized opposition surfaced 
within the association. 

More than 3,000 men and women are on Death Rows 
across the United States. The federal government and most 
states permir capital punishment. (AP) 


Mickey Kantor, who had a reputation as an aggressive trade 
negotiator for the Clinton administration, after being sur- 
prised by a S93. 15 cab fere for a trip from Dulles Airport to his 
Washington home: "Was I mad about $93? You're damn 
right I was. I was angry, and I did say I was going to refuse to 
pay. I did bit my open band on the back of & trunk.” (WP) 



WtHtedo Ixe/Ttr AnouirJ Press 

President Clinton with Governor Bob Miller of Nevada, chairman of 
the National Governors' Association, at the White House on Monday. 


Marriage? It Dents Drinking and Drugs (but Not Smoking) 


By John Schwartz 

Washington Post Service 


gap m earnings _ . 
ales and workers without a 
widening, yet tbe rare at which lower- 
mconw families send children to college 
has remained stubboinly low. 

“ But already in Congress, and on some 
campuses, there are doubts about key 
parts of (be plan. Some -skeptics say n 
mi ght give colleges incentives to raise 
n» costs even more, pressure professon to 
I raise grades of students desperate ro 
qualify for the new aid and force the 
Internal Revenue Service to 
dpm& transcripts to make sure rax breaks 
went only to students with high grades. 

:0*msay they worty that mut*of 
the package slights poor families who, 
because they pay Ktde in taxes, would 
nW henefitsuhstantially from tax breaks 
On tbeir children’s tuition. 

Hk administration tried to blunt such 
criticism fast week by shifting s ? va ]‘J 
billion dollars it had been “ 

the Pell grant increases are not 
Mr. Clinton's plan "tips tbe fcajefitt ^o 
heavily to the more advantegKl 
society that I have great mjgfc 
said Lawrence Gla*eux. ex^^^ 

v rectorforpoUcyanalyasai TheCollege 

> Board, -f Jft£TSfdS 

SSSVSiK crupper- 

income program. ’ 


WASHINGTON — It doesn’t take a 
scientist to determine that many young 
people who leave home for college be- 
gin drinking to excess; smoking and 
even using illegal drugs. But a new, 
long-term nationwide study shows that 
alcohol and illicit drug abase drop 
sharply after marriage, while the to- 
bacco habit proves far more tenacious. 

Researchers from the University of 
Michigan found that becoming en- 


2 Are Arrested 
For Bombings 
In California 


Los Angeles Tones 

VALLEJO, California — Two men 
have been arrested here in connection 
with tbe bombings of tbe county court- 
house and a bank, and tbe authorities 
have seized nearly 600 pounds of stolen 
dynamite in what they contended was a 
plot to destroy evidence in a pending 
criminal case. 

No erne was hurt in tbe bombings, 
which rocked tbe Solano County court- 
house in Northern California and dam- 
aged three automated teller machines 
outside a Wells Fargo bank last week. 

The police in Vallejo said tbe two 
suspects they arrested Sunday were 
Francis Donald Eroestberg, 40, of 
Vallejo, and Oston Osotono. 24, whose 
hometown was not listed. They were 
bring held without bail on suspicion of 
conspiracy, possession of explosive 
devices and burglary. 

A third man was being sought and 
was considered armed and dangerous, 
the police said. 

‘*The motive, we believe, was an . 
attempt to stop tbe county criminal 
justice system,” said lieutenant Ron 
Jackson, spokesman for the Vallejo Po- 
lice Department "It’s not gang-related 
or militia-related or anything like that, 
but as simple as they wanted to stop a 
relatively serious court case, and they 
thought if they could destroy the ev- 
idence they could stop tbe trial.’ ’ 

He would not elaborate on die nature 
of die court case. ,, 

The arrests capped a weeklong in- 
vestigation that began Jan. 25, when two 
children found a knapsack hokfing 30 
sticks of dynamite leaning against as 
outside wall of tbe city library. On 
Sunday night, the discovery of 61 sticks 
of dynamite in a car, and 5 00 pou nds 


gaged, getting marri ed and having chil- 
dren are all associated with a steep drop 
in the use of alcohol and illicit drugs — 
a phenomenon the researchers called the 
* ‘marriage effect-’ ’ 

Forty-one percent of single subjects 
in the study reported heavy alcohol use 
in tbe two weeks before the survey, 
while 28 percent of tbe married sub- 
jects reported such behavior in that 
period. Cocaine and marijuana use re- 
gistered similar steep declines after 
marriage. 

Couples who live together whhoat 


becoming engaged or marrying did not 
appear to change tbeir lifestyles, tbe 
researchers found. Divorce was asso- 
ciated with a return to bad habits, while 
remarriages drove down drug and al- 
cohol use once again. 

But die study subjects who married 
did not experience tbe marriage effect 
when it came to smoking. The research- 
ers found about 18 percent of tbe group 
smoked while they were single and 
about 16 percent after marriage. 

Women, in part because of preg- 
nancy, were more prone to quit cigar- 


ettes. Men, however, did not tend to kick 
tiie tobacco habit. 

Tbe report released Monday is based 
on data collected by tbe University of 
Michigan’s Institute for Social Research. 
That survey of young people has been 
funded since 1975 by the National In- 
stitute on Drag Abuse and has collected 
information from more than 33,000 
young adults between 1976 and 1994. 

Why do young marrieds cut back so 
readily on drinking and illegal drags but 
not tobacco? To ’ Brian Ruberry, a 
spokesman for the national Campaign 


for Tobacco-Free Kids, the answer is 
simple: "Nicotine addiction has a big 
role there." He added, "They are ad- 
dicted to a very powerful, powerful 
drug." 

A spokesman for the tobacco industry 
disputed Mr. Ruberry 's view. 

"With a pleasant pastime like 
smoking." said Thomas Lamia of the 
Tobacco Institute, "you can smoke a 
cigarette and drive a car and do anything 
else you want to. It does not intrude on 
the user’s lifestyle, the way drinking 
and illegal drug use do." 


Away From Politics 

• The number of rapes reported around the 

United States in 1995 fell to 97,000, the lowest 
number since 1989 and the lowest rate per capita 
in a decade, the Justice Department reported. It 
also said that according to a survey designed to 
include people who did not report incidents to tbe 
police, fee number of people 12 and older who 
were victims of rape or sexual assault fell by 44 
percent from 1993 to 1995. (NYT) 

• The newly reconstituted jury in O.J. 
Simpson's civil trial began its first full day of 
deliberations Monday with no indication of 
when a verdict would be reached. Judge Hiroshi 
Fupsaki ordered tbe jurors in Santa Monica, 


California, to start over after be removed the 
panel’s only black member, replacing her with an 
alternate. The original panel considered the case 
for about 14 hours last week. (AP) 

• Protesting what they described as unsafe 

conditions for welfare recipients who work in 
New York City parks, workfare laborers and 
tbeir supporters disrupted a Groundhcw Day ce- 
remony at the city's zoo in Queens. They said 
that many of tbe 5.500 laborers must often pick 
up trash, including dangerous materials like used 
syringes, without proper gloves. (NYT) 

• An abortion clinic bombed twice last month 

in T ulsa, Oklahoma, was attacked » g? in by an 
intruder who broke in, shot at medical equipment 
and fled, tbe police said. (AP) 


CXJNTON: Struggle Begins 


HONG KONG: For U.S. , a Big Stake in the Future 


more in u*f - *^rrr x 7 - '" jr iT 

foe evacuation of about 20 blocks m the 

heart of a central Vallejo neighborhood. 

Lieu tenant Jackson said the police 
believed tbe suspects intended to use the 
explosives to destroy a police evidence 
facility, which is in the basement of the 
library. “We flunk it was going to hap- 
pen relatively soon, and you can ima- 
gine what 60 sticks of dynamite would 
have done/’ be said. , . , 

He added that a major break in tire 
case came when tbe police were con- 
tacted by a number of people who ap- 
■ uiiHifl v Vnw v the suspects had in- 
formation about tine b o m bi n g s. 


Continued from Page 1 

years, Hong Kong and its future are likely to remain 
one of the central U.S. policy concerns in Asia. 

With tbe colony set to revert to rule by the 
Communist Chinese mainland in less than five 
months, what happens here will help define Wash- 
ington’s pivotal but prickly relationship with 
Beijing. The changes could affect everything from 
whore American ships in Asa can dock for shore 
leave totbe ability of U.S. law-enforcement agencies 
to combat organized crime in America’s cities. 

“We’ve got so many Americans doing business 
here, both locally and in China, that if die guarantees 
are not lived up to, it would really make a difference 
in financial flows and trade patterns,” said a UjS. 
diplomat with long experience in Hong Kong. 

President Bill Clinton’s administration and 
members of Congress are already moving Hong 
Kong to the front of the U.S. policy agenda. In a 
news conference last week, Mr. Clinton said be 
hoped China would continue “the personal 
freedoms flat tbe people of Hong Kong have 
enjoyed in making it such an economic engine." 
Several congressional delegations have visited this 
year, and many more are expected. 

Beijing appears to accept that America has an 
im port an t stake in Hong Kong's future. Various 
U.S. policymakers say feat Hong Kong has been a 
topic in almost every high-level meeting, and 
Chinese leaders have not told tbeir American coun- 
terparts that the future of the colony is an internal 
affair. “They recognize our interest," a U.S. of- 
ficial here said. 

There are many reasons besides the heavy com- 
mercial investment that undexiie U.S. policy- 
makers’ concern in maintaining Hong Kong’s local 
autonomy and way of life. 

For tbe U.S. Navy, Hoag Kong is an important 
port of call, with abom 65 American ships paying 
visits each year, bringing in a total of 50,000 
American seamen. Those sailors on shore leave 
pump $50 million into the local economy. China 
has agreed in principle foal the ship visits can 
continue even after Hong Kong becomes Chinese 
territory, but tiie details are still being worked out 

Hong Kong is also an important regional center 
for American law-enforcement agencies, with tbe 
.FBI and tbe Drag Enforcement Administration 


uncovering increasing links between Asian or- 
ganized crime in America and tbe local criminal 
"triads." A U.S. official said that several recent 
kidnapping, drug-trafficking, illegal -immigrant- 
smuggling and counterfeiting cases in America 

have all teen traced back to Hong Kong gangs. 

“The cr iminal finks often come through Hong 
Kong because of Hong Kong’s status as a regional 
financial and communications center," the U.S. 
official said. "Our ability to combat Asian crime is 
vastly aided by having an active partnership with 
tbe Hong Kong police.’’ 

The United States and Hong Kong also enjoy 
cultural linVft, from tbe huge numbers of American 
Chin ese who trace tbeir ancestry here to the large 
number of local Chinese who have graduated from 
American universities. Tung Chee-hwa, the ship- 
ping tycoon chosen to become China’s first chief 
executive oo July 1, lived for a decade in foe United 
States and has been a longtime member of the 
American Chamber of Commerce. 

Many American diplomats, academics and 
members of the business community say tbey see 
Hong Kong — with its open markets, low tariffs, 
civil liberties and freewheeling, capitalist system 
— as a harbinger of tiie kind of society mainland 
C hina might one day evolve into, making Hong 
Kong’s way of life vitally important in the longer 
process of reforming China. 

"On trading rules, financial rales, human rights. 
Hong Kong is the place where the world’s rales, 
and ChinaXmeet,” said a U.S. official. 

As foe largest and most prominent foreign com- 
munity in Hong Kong, the United States seems 
most likely to benefit from the shifting order that 
will occur here next summer. Throughout Hong 
Kong's histoty as a British possession. British 
firms and British interests held a privileged po- 
sition here against American and other foreign 
competitors, even as Hong Kong boasted of being 
one of the world's more open economies. 

"In terms of influence, there’s no question that 
traditional British firms have had a dispropor- 
tionate influence here," said Douglas Hoick, the 
newly elected chairman of the American Chamber 
of Commerce. "There has been some privileged 
status for certain British companies, and that will 
go away. You are removing one element of com- 
petition at that top position." 


Continued from Page 1 

and a proposal to help main- 
tain health insurance for un- 
employed workers. 

Two days after.his speech, 
Mr. Clinton plans to provide 
further detail by announcing 
his budget proposal for the 
1998 fiscal year. Although 
the outlines of the program — 
which calf for balancing the 
budget by 2002 while making 
$100 biuion in tax cuts for 
specific social purposes — 
are almost identical to the 
proposals he made last year, 
this time tbe Republicans are 
not dismissing the plan out of 
hand. 

Yet despite the tone of 
amity and the desire of both 
Mr. Clinton and Republican 
leaders to show that divided 
government can work, seri- 
ous stumbling blocks could 
emerge as the two sides start 
negotiating how to erase the 
federal deficit. 

One of tbe most bitter fiscal 
issues dividing Republicans 
and Democrats in tbe 1996 
campaign was how to find 
savings in Medicare, the 
health insurance program for 
the elderly. 

Last month, Mr. Clinton 
made a conciliatory gesture to 
the Republicans by announ- 
cing that Ids budget plan 
would trim' the growth of 
Medicare spending by $138 
billion over six years — more 
savings than he was willing to 
entertain in the past. 

Republicans welcomed tbe 
move but have since ex- 
pressed reservations about 
the fact that Mr. Gin ton 
would make the roughly $20 
billion in additional savings 
largely by reducing payments 
to health maintenance orga- 
nizations, not by asking the 
elderly to pay more. 

Tax cuts are also shaping 
up as a struggle. 

The Republicans want 
nearly twice the number of 
cuts proposed by the presi- 
dent, with more reductions 
for people in the upper-in- 
come brackets and a drop in 
the top capital gains rate. His 
proposals are largely focused 
on middle-income families 
and education. 

Within his own party, Mr. 
Clinton will probably face 


pressure for more social 
spending. 

Senate Democrats have 
already outlined an assort- 
ment of plans to extend health 
care coverage to the 10 mil- 
lion uninsured children. 

A proposal sponsored by 
Senators John Kerry and Ed- 
ward Kennedy of Massachu- 
setts goes beyond anything 
Mr. Clinton is expected to call 
for. Their plan, at a cost of $25 
billion over five years, would 
provide vouchers for poor 
families to buy insurance. 


DEATH NOTICE 


PINKHAM Richard, AJL 
A retired New* York 
advertising executive who was 
a member of the team that 
helped the National 
Broadcasting Company enter 
tbe era of network television, 
died recently at Jupiter Medical 
Center in Jupiter, Ft. He was 82 
and had homes in Hobc Sound, 
FI., and Rye, N.Y. The cause 
was cancer, his family said. 
NBC appointed him manager 
of planning for its budding 
video network in 1951- Then, 
as vice president, he was given 
responsibility for network 
programming. In that post he 
had a leading rote in shaping 
the “Today" show with Dave 
Garroway & the "Tonight" 
show with Steve Allen. He 
moved to Ted Bates & Co. in 
1957, where he held senior 
management positions in 
television programming and 
production. After Bates merged 
its media and programming 
functions in 1963, Mr. Ptnkham 
led the combined department. 
He was elected to the 
advertising agency's executive 
committee, served as its 
chairman and in 1976 was 
named vice chairman of the 
company. He retired in 1979. A 
native of Manhattan, he 
graduated from Yale College in 
1936. He worked briefly for 
Time Magazine and The New 
York Herald Tribune before 
moving into television and 
advertising. He Is survived by 
his wife, Mary Strurhers 
Pinkham; two daughters, Mary 
Janeway of Cambridge, MA, 
and Elizabeth Anderson of 
Billings. MT; two sons, Richard 
AJt. Jr., of Rye, NY and David 
S. of Barrington, ri and eight 
grandchildren. 






PACE 2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 1-2 , 1997 




iDCf»X\ VCawTTN 


xitmti 


ASEAN to Keep East Timor Off Agenda of EU Talks 


BRIEFLY 


SINGAPORE — The Association of South 
East Asian Nations will block any attempt by 
the European Union to discuss East Timor at a 
joint ministerial meeting neat week, but it is 
ready to talk about Burma, Singapore Foreign 
Ministry officials said Monday. 

“On Myanmar there will be a discussion,** 
a senior official said, referring to Burma, “but 
on East Timor there will not be a discus- 
sion.” 

The official was briefing reporters about 
the 12th ASEAN-EU ministerial meeting, to 
be held in Singapore on Feb. 13 and 14. 

“The Indonesians have told us as co-chair- 
men that if the East Timor issue is raised by 
the Portuguese, they would walk out,” the 
official said. 

Indonesia, he said, felt that East Timor 
should be discussed under United Nations 
auspices and should be brought up in bilateral 
talks with Portugal. 


He added that the Indonesians had received 
a strong mandate on this issue from ASEAN 
heads of government at their informal meet- 
ing on Nov. 30. 

ASEAN groups Indonesia, Thailand. 
Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Brunei 
and Vietnam. 

The official, who declined to be identified, 
said that Singapore had not received an as- 
surance from Portugal that it would not raise 
the East Timor issue at the meeting. 

But he said that ASEAN had been talking to 
the EU presidency and other EU members to 
make it clear that the “whole relationship 
would be seriously affected” if the issue was 
brought up. 

Indonesia has been accused of human 
rights violations in East Timor, which it in- 
vaded shortly after Portugal abandoned it in 
1975. 

Indonesian rule of East Timor has never 
been recognized by the United Nations, which 


regards Portugal as the administering power. 

The official said ih»if, despite difficult hu- 
man rights issues to be tackled, “indications 
are good that there will be a substantive, 
forward-looking joint declaration after the 
meeting.” 

Burma, whose military regime has been 
isolated in the West for suppressing demo- 
cratic forces, is expected to be admitted as an 
ASEAN member along with Cambodia and 
Laos, possibly as early as this summer. 

The EU lias been critical of ASEAN’s 
relations with Burma's military junta. 

The ASEAN-EU meeting will be followed 
by the first Asia-Europe foreign ministers 
meeting on Feb. 15. 

Another official said that political dialogue 
at the second session would look at global 
challenges and focus on economic cooper- 
ation. 

According to Singapore Foreign Ministry 
figures, total trade between ASEAN and the 


European Union rose to $99-5 billion in 2 995. 
up from $75.7 billion hi 1994. 

(Reuters, AFP) 


Taipei Seeks Subs From Bonn 




TAIPEI — President Lee Teng-hui urged Germany on 
Monday to sell submarines to Taiwan to help ensure 


_ n u rt . . n IVlUIKMiy LU 5CU SUUUhU UM 

Burma Holds 105, Opposition bays stability in the Taiwan Strait. 


The Burmese opposition leader Daw Aung 
San Suu Kyi said Monday that the military 
government was still holding 105 people de- 
tained in student protests in December. 
Reuters reported from Rangoon. 

A senior member of the governing State 
Law and Order Restoration Council said in an 
interview that the country’s rulers were still 
holding some detainees, but he did not say 
whether they had been arrested in connection 
with the December protests. 

He also said that the council had no plans 
for dialogue with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. 

“She will always be against us,” said Lieu- 
tenant General Kyaw 8a, a founding member 
of the council and the hotels and tourism 
mini ster. “At this time, it is impossible.” 


Peruvian Leader 
Meets With Clinton 

Lima Rejects Giving In to Rebels 


The Associated Press 

WASHINGTON — Set- 
ting aside concerns of coun- 
terterrorism experts. Presi- 
dent Bill Clinton met Monday 
with President Alberto 
Fujimori of Peiu about the 
Lima hostage crisis. 

Mr. Fujimori was in Wash- 
ington to attend an interna- 
tional gathering on small 
business loans. 

Peruvian officials have 
speculated for days that Mr. 
Clinton would meet with Mr. 
Fujimori But adminis tration 
officials last week dampened 
expectations for a presiden- 
tial meeting, saying Mr. Clin- 
ton did not want to raise the 
value of the hostage-taking. 

“He has deliberately been 
very low-key in talking about 
that, for reasons that reflect 
the recommendations of his 
counterterrorism experts in 
our government," the White 
House spokesman, Michael 
McCurry, said Friday. 

None of the hostages is 
American. 

Mr. McCuny said Monday 
that “some diplomatic con- 
tacts" Sunday persuaded the 
administration that a low-key 
meeting between the twd 
presidents would be appro- 
priate. *• 

Though neither side gave 
details of the discussion, be- 
fore the meeting Mr. Fujimori 
dismissed suggestions of any 


"peace accord” with the 
Marxist guerrillas who have 
held hostages at the Japanese 
ambassador’s residence in 
Lima since Dec. 17. 

Speaking to the Organiza- 
tion of American States, Mr. 
Fujimori said Peru had paid 
too high a cost to impose law 
and order “to throw it all 
overboard and give in to the 
extortion of a gaggle of hu- 
man rights violators.” 

"Some people are starting 
to talk about a peace accord. ” 
Mr. Fujimori added. "We 
Peruvians do not understand 
what they are talking about, 
since that idea presumes a 
reality that is not Peru’s.” 

He said die country was 
"living in peace” and was 
not “going to accept such a 
peace agreement." 

Referring to the Tupac 
Amaru Revolutionary Move- 
ment rebels who were hold- 
ing the 72 hostages and de- 
manding the release of jailed 
comrades, Mr. Fujimori ad- 
ded, “There are no guerrillas 
or popular armies in Peru, 
there is only a people tired of 
living in poverty and vio- 
lence; a people who want to 
work and get ahead in life.” 

In Canada on Saturday, 
Mr; Fujimori pledged during 
a meeting with Prime Min- 
ister Ryu taro Hashimoto of 
Japan not to provoke the 
Tupac Amaru guerrillas. 



Mint t%owi}nM{n<> fii i m IVo wt 

A policeman washing a police dog near the residence in Lima where 72 hostages are still being held. 

Australian Chief to Seek a Parley on Republic 


Reuters ■ ■ ■ ■ _ 

CANBERRA — Prime Minister John 
Howard will seek party approval Tues- 
day for a people’s convention to be held 
by the end of the year to consider whe- 
ther Australia should become a republic, 
with a vote possible before the next 
national election in 1999. 


Government sources said Monday 
that Mr. Howard's cabinet had already 
approved the convention, which would 
consider how Australia’s constitutional 
monarchy can become a republic, re- 
placing Queen Elizabeth with an Aus- 
tralian head of state. 

The derision confirms a 1996 election 


pledge by .Mr. Howard, a -staunch mon- 
archist. that the convention would be 
held this year. Half of its delegates 
would be elected by tbe public, and the 
others appointed by the national and 
state governments. 

Opinion polls show that about half of 
Australian voters want a republic. 


"The Republic of China is surrounded by the sea. and 
the lack of submarines is our biggest weakness in pro- - 
tecting ourselves and maintaining stability across the ' 
Taiwan Strait.' ’ Mr. Lee said. 1 

* ‘Germany and Taiwan have discussed submarine pur- 
chases for a long time, but your government has not 
approved the deal under pressure from Chinese Com- 
munists," Mr. Lee said. 

Germany maintains diplomatic relations with China, 
which has considered Taiwan a renegade province since it • 
drove nationalist forces here in a civil war that ended in - 
1949. Beijing has warned other nations against selling-! . 
weapons to Taiwan and has threatened retaliatory mea-> V 
sunss over any deals. (AFP)- ■' 

Malaysia Shuts Borneo Border^ 

KUALA LUMPUR — Malaysia closed pan of its : ' 
border with Indonesia on tbe island of Borneo after recent - 
race riots on the Indonesian side, the Malaysian national 
news agency Bemama reported Monday. 

All border posts between Malaysia's state of Sarawak ' f 
and Indonesia’s West Kalimantan Province on Borneo-: 
will be closed indefinitely. Bemama quoted a State 
Security Council order as saying. 

The order follows news reports that 5.000 indigenous 1 
Dayak tribesmen burned and looted scores of homes and 
businesses belonging to settlers from the Indonesian 
island of Madura in noting last month, Bemama said. < •’ 

The border closure has stranded hundreds of Indone- 
sians working in Sarawak, preventing them from re- " 
turning home for the weekend. Bemama said extra police- 1 
had been deployed at die border. (Reuters )' 1 

Tokyo Spars With Okinawa 

TOKYO — Prime Minister Ryu taro Hashimoto'' 
warned Monday that a dispute between the Japanese- ■» 
government and Okinawa landowners over leases for - 
U.S. military bases could cause a rift in Japan-U.S. ties. 

Leases for land on the southern island of Okinawa -' 
expire on May 14. 

The land is currently occupied by 12 American military-' 
facilities and owned by landlords who oppose the U.S. “ 
presence. 

A special Okinawa prefecture committee that is ex- 
pected to rale on tbe forced leases begins hearings on Feb.' • 

21. It is unlikely to deliver a verdict before die May 14~* 
lapse of the leases, Mr. Hashimoto said. (Reuters) -- 

For the Record 

A fire In Calcutta destroyed an international book fair '■ 
Monday, killing one person and reducing to ashes thou—' 
sands of volumes at a makeshift exhibition site, fire 
officials said. ( Reuters ) 


At least 47 Philippine children died of measles in the** 
last month, and more than 1,000 are in a government^ 
hospital, health officials said Monday. Health Secretary 
Cannencita Reodica said she had ordered a nationwide ’ 
immunization campaign to prevent the spread of ' 
measles. (AFP) ; 

Indian troops offered Muslim separatist militants a ; 
weeklong trace in the troubled state of Kashmir during the • 
Ed al-fitrfestival, a top army official said Monday. “We ! 
want all the people in Kashmir, including militants, to ; 
celebrate Ed without any fears or apprehensions, said I 
General Jasbir Singh Dhiilon, Kashmir’s army chief. 
Muslims celebrate Eid al-Fitr on Feb. 10 to mark the end 
of Ramadan, the Muslim holy month of fasting. (AFP) \ 


mmv 



Personals 


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ZNTEKSATHJNAX HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAX FEBRUARY 4, 1997 


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EUROPE 


G>W™brO*St#F^U 9 * e * a 

a BE2 ^5 ADE — T&e police clubbed 
demaijjors m more than 50,000 people 
Tnardied through Belgrade on MondayTwh- 
uesses said, the day after police injured 80 
people in another crackdown. 

■ . 75? po ^ ce sealc ^ °ff a pedestrian zone in 

; It was the second straight day trf dashes 

the secunty police of 
, President Slobodan Milosevic in a largely 
nranmil ihmMTwvith 9 ■' 


Serbia s Days of Violence 

Many Injured in Clashes With Police 


burning,” said Ljnbisa Samardric, a popular 
actor and producer. -• - 



viue i/rasJcovic, an opposition leader, 
uiged the army to side with the-protesteis and 
implored citizens to stop paying taxes. 

“Complete dv3 disobedience is die only 
way,” be told re porter s . 

Zoom DnndBc. another ouoosition leader. 


against fee canceling of opposition election 
victories. 

• several hundred policemen wear- 

ing helmets and body annor had left the scene 
after tens of thousands of demonstrators with- 
drew from a standoff wife a police cordon cm 

a major boulevard earlier in the afternoon. 

But about 200 people lingered for what 
may n ave been fee first unprovokedassanltby 
protesters cm fee police in Serbia's marathon 
political crisis. 

The police finally charged, pursuing 
scattered clutches of protesters in different 
directions past startled strollers in the shop- 
ping district 

Several protesters were caught, kicked and 
clubbed by policemen. 

EariierMooday. 10,000 students rallied at 
different colleges and were allowed to march 
u nh i nd ered through fee city and across , fee 
bridge that was the scone of Sunday’s con- 
frontation. 

The violence on Sunday was fee govern- 
ment’s fiercest response yet to 1 1 weeks of 
street rallies touched off by its annulment of 
opposition victories in municipal elections in 
November. 

Some 80 people were injured when po- 
licemen used riot sticks, tear gas and water 
cannon to smash through a crowd of thou- 
sands trying to cross the bridge into Belgrade. 
Policemen then chased protesters all over fee 
city center, beating and arresting them. 

of the Serbian l^rdrotox Church^ Patriarch 
Pavlc, appealed to the police “to protect law 
and oider, and not those in power, who are 
sinking deeper and deeper, not knowing what 
they are doing.” 

The National Theater went on strike, and 
distributors polled films from a popular an- 
nual festival. 

“We can't r emain silent while Serbia is 


urged tite west to raise pressure on Mr. Mi- 
losevic to 'recognize toe opposition's election 
victories in Belgrade and other major cities. 

"All. those governments thtnlHng <jf 
business with Milosevic in telecommunica- 
tions and ofeer areas should cancel their con- 
tracts,” Mr. JDjmdpc told Associated Press 
Television. 

He also criticized police . actions on 
Sunday. 

“Actions like these cannot stop the demon- 
strations, but can only raise the restlessness 
and anger of the people,*’ Mf. Dpndpc said. 
“We must continue. The people will come out 
today, tomorrow and in fee mime . Milosevic 
has won nothing and lost a great deal.” 

Germany .France and Britain deplored the 
violence. 

The top i n tern a tional mediator in Bosnia 
directly accused Mr. Milosevic of ordering 
it 

Witnesses told independent radio stations 
that scores of protesters had been messed but 
there was no word on arrests from authorities 
on Monday. 

riadiBf rtmt tn»,gan S unday continued intft 
early Monday morning. At least eight po- 
licemen were among fee injured as fee police 
fired tear gas and water cannons and swung 
riot sticks and protesters responded by throw- 
ing rocks. 

An Associated Press reporter was dabbed 
an the back, and cameramen for Associated 
Press Television, Renters Television and' 
CNN were also beaten. (AFP, Reuters, AP) 

■ France Invites Opposition Leaders . 

France, condemning police repression of 
pro-democracy protesters in Belgrade, in- 
vited the three leaders of Serbia's opposition 
coalition to visit Paris as sooo as possible. 
Reuters repeated from Paris. 

"This invitation amounts to recognition by 
fee French government of the leaders of the 
Zadejno opposition coalition, which through 
fee past weeks has proved its political ma- 
turity,” Foreign Minister Herve de Chare tie 
said in a statement 


Catherine Megret and her husband, Bruno, celebrating the National Front’s success in VitroQes. 

Block the Far Right, Juppe Urges 


■ ■ CrwyllnH ty Our S*#Frzm Dtip*cba 

VTTROLLES, France — Prime 

rightists on Monday^ todrop out of 
a municipal election bere and unite 
wife Socialists to keep out the far- 
right National Front. 

Mr. Juppe, interviewed by France 
Intar radio about the poll’s second 
round in VhroOes, said: "What we all 
ware is the list of the candidate which 
came thud to poll out” That would 
be Roger Gujchard, candidate of the 
government's RPR-UDF coalition. 

The National Front’s Catherine 
Megret led fee field ahead of fee 
Socialist mayor, Jean-Jacques 
Anglade in the first round, touch- 
ing off a dispute among main- ' 
stream candidates over how to stop 
tb» anti-immigrant party from win- 
ning control of Vitrolles. 

The National Front controls 
three other towns in southern 
France: the Mediterranean port of 
Toulon, die ancient Roman city of 


Oratage and Marignane. which bor- 
ders on VrtroUes and is home to fee 
Marseille airport. 

In Vitrolles, Mrs. Megret finished 
.first wife 46.7 percentof the vote. Mr. 
Angbrie trailed wife 37 percent after 
a campaign marred by insults and 
scattered violence. Mr Goichaid, the 
center-rightist, had 163 pemnn 
A second round will be held 
Sunday because Mrs. Megret fell 
short of fee 50 percent needed to be 
elected outright. 

Both Mr. Anglade and Mr. 
Guichard urged each other to stand 
aside to mainstream forces 
against the National Front 
Mrs. Megret’s husband, Bruno 
Megret, who is the National 
front’s deputy leader, said Mr. 
Juppe covered himself in shame in 
supporting Mr. Anglade. “a can- 
didate who has beat invalidated, 
stripped of his post, and placed 
under investigation far forgery.” 
Mr. Anglade, who said Mr. 


Guichard had no reasonable hope 
and should pull out, called a rally 
for Wednesday. 

Mr. Guichard said, "He should 
pull out if he wants to avoid a 


Megret victory.” 
Mr. Megret, 


Mr. Megret, beaten by Mr. 
Anglade in 1995. was banned from 
running this month for exceeding 
campaign spending limits and was 
"represented” by his wife, who 
has scant political experience. 

Charles Pasqua, a former interior 
minister and loading figure on fee 
right in France, said Monday that 
fee political class had made a big 
mistake by allowing die National 
Front to monopolize a certain num- 
ber erf "republican values” like pat- 
riotism and nationalism. 

He said the National Front was 
able to pick up a large protest vote 
because the left bad collapsed and 
there was no otiier way for French 
voters to vent their frustrations. 

(Reuters. AFP) 


Bomb Hits U.S. Dorm in Paris 

. .- PARIS — A bomb exploded early Monday outside the 
American block at the Gte Uotversitaire, fee mam hall of 
residence for Paris students, shattering windows and 
damaging -three parked cars, feopaJice sad. There were 
no injuries, and no one immediately took responsibility 
for fee attadc,in fee south of thecapital. ‘ 

The police said feat fee explosive device was packed 
into a small gas canister, denying eartierrepcttslhal it was 
a 13-kfiognun (28-pound) canister. 


J UC y 5UU LU&1C IfOd uu 1 IU» uvutuhuipvim 

^ „ faurpeople in December. The train attack, and a wave of 

h* bombings that killed eight people in 1995, have been 
$ attributed to Algerian Muslim nmitanta. (Reuters) 

French-Dutch Pact on Drugs 

THE HAGUE — France, the. severest critic of fee 
permissive Dutch drugs policy, signed a customs agree- 
ment with the Netherlands on Monday feat aims to 
prevent smuggling of narcotics. 

Under fee accord, Dutch and French custra ns cfficyre 


• Mulder, a spokesman for die Dutch customs aut horit ies. 

The two countries will intensify cooperation through 
regular exchanges of customs officers and intelligence. 
They will also swap techniques and equipment for scan- 
ning suspect shipments. (AP) 

Belgian Won’t Shuffle Cabinet 

BRUSSELS — Prime Minister Jean-Luc Debaene, 
walking haid to keep his government in one piece, said 

Monday feat he had no plans to change his team despite a 
scandal involving one of fee parties m fee coabnoo. 

The scandal over bribes allegedly paid to fee Socialist 
Party in the late 1980s has spaxked calls for Socialists to 
leave the government and for fee coalition mquit. 

"There is not a single reason to reshuffle fee .gov- 
ernment.” Mr. Dehaene said after meeting leaders of Ins 
' Flemish Christian Democratic party./ T^ gcwemmem 
has a clear mission, and those who thmk I will fcfmyseff 
get distracted from this mission are wrong. (Reuters) 


Greek Cypriots Buy a Gunship 


’ groimd-to-air missiles from Russia. 


Protests by Opposition Paralyze Bulgaria 


Ca^MbjOm-SeffFiwm ntfeto 

SOFIA — Striking transporta- 
tion workers brought Bulgaria to a 
standstill on Monday as the main 
opposition party rejected a. pro- 
posal from fee ruling Socialists' to 
jmmiHnn coalition government. - 
Compounding fee transport*- 
. lion stnke, students Mocked five 
major intersections in Sofia, jam- 
ming all routes in and out of die 
capital Fifteen students were in- 


their blockade, organizers of tite 
demonstration said. 

National radio said fee airport, 
which was shot down for 50 
minutes Monday, would close for 
a foil hour Tuesday and indef- 


initely beginning Wednesday if 
ibe Socialists proceeded to form a 
new government on their own. 

And main routes into Bulgaria 
were blocked around fee country , : 
national radio said. All roads 
around Plovdiv were closed, a hu- 
man chain blocked the town of 
Iambol for two hours and protest- 
os closed a main bridge in the port 
of Varna. 

Demonstrators at Doupcitsa, 60 
kilometers (35 miles) south of 
Sofia, kept up their round-the- 
clock barricade of road and rail 
routes to Greece fora sixth day. 

National radio also reported 
strikes • at all of the country's 
mines. 


On Sunday, fee Union of Demo- 
cratic Forces, the main opposition 
party, declined the Socialists’ last- 
minute offer of more talks on a 
coalition, insisting that they first 
hand back their mandate. 

Bulgaria was plunged mto its 
worst crisis since fee aid of Com- 
munist mle in 1989 after the resig- 
nation Dec. 28 of Prime Minister 
ZhanVidenov and his replacement 
by another Socialist. 

The new center-right president, 
Peter Stoyanov, who backs the op- 
position, designated the Socialist 
candidate Nikolai Dobrev as the 
new prime minister last Tuesday 
and asked him to form a govern- 
ment 


Swedish Parties Agree to Start Nuclear Power Phaseout 


Reuters 

STOCKHOLM — The governing Social 
Democratic Party gained support Monday to 
phase out unclear power, ending a 17-year 
deadlock. 

"The Center Patty, the Left Party and the 
Social Democrats lave reached accord on a 
proposal for an energy agreement,” said Peter 
Akmder, a spokesman for Energy Minister An- 
ders Sundstrom. 

These three parties hold 210 of the 349 seals 
in Parliament. 


Swedish radio said they had agreed on the 
closure of one reactor at fee Barseback nuclear 
power plant before general elections in 1998 and 
rite closnre a second reactor after the elections. 

Negotiations are set to begin wife the plant’s 
owner, Sydkraft AB, about replacing the power 
source wife either natural gas or ad, die radio said. 
Spokesmen for the parties declined to oommenr 
on fee details of the accord, saying they would 
inform their Parliament members Tuesday. 

Environment Minister Svend Auken wel- 
comed a possible closure of Barseback, which is 


within sight of Copenhagen arid has long been a 
subject of dispute between Sweden and Den- 
mark. "It is a very good and responsible agree- 
ment,” the minister said. "It concerns bow a 
nuclear power pbaseout will begin, and it meets 
demands that the industry will not be hurt It 
will provide increased employment” 

Swedes voted in a 1 980 referendum to phase 
out nuclear power. Parliament later set 2010 as 
the target for making the country nuclear-free. 
Critics say that Sweden has not made altern- 
ative arrangements for electricity supply. 


Major Hopeful on NATO 


Rouen 

PARIS — Pome Minister 
John Major of Britain said in 
an interview Monday that he 
believed asettfement would be 
found' to a Rrmch- American 
dispute over NATO com- 


Speakmg of the NATO 
commands, Mr. Major told 
fee newspaper Le Hgaro: 
"The furore structure will 
have to be efficient militarily, 
ft will have to address Euro- 


pean aspirations but also have 
wide political support in die 
United States. 

"ft will have to express a 
coherent and visible Euro- 
pean identity with new tasks 
and even more influence” far 
Europeans. 

Puis and Washington have 
been deadlocked for several 
months over a French de- 
mand that a European officer 
take over NATO’s southern 
command. 


What Tapie 
Seeks for the 
Slammer: 

A Cell Phone 


Conpitdlr? OvrS« 4 [ Front SKpaxhe* 

PARIS — Bernard Tapie, fee bank- 
nipt former tycoon, French politician 
and soccer boss, was expected to spend 
bis first night in jail Monday, pending a 
Supreme Court bearing on lus appeal 
Tuesday. 

"He is going” prison, said Mr. 


Under the Bulgarian constitu- 
tion, fee Socialists’ offer would 
have paved the way for elections 
two months after a coalition gov- 
ernment was formed. The oppo- 
sition's rejection of the proposal , 
seems designed to farce earlier 
elections. 

The Socialists have an absolute 
majority in Parliament and, bar- 
ring defections, should be able to 
win a vote of confidence Tuesday 
for their new cabinet. But many 
people say they fear that the vote 
will spark a repeat of the violence 
of Jan. 10, when demonstrators 
battled the police and besieged and 
ransacked Parliament. 

(AFP. Reuters) 


Tapie’ s lawyer. Jean-Yves Lienard. 

Mr. Tapie, a former Socialist minister 
who sits as a Radical in fee European 
Parliament, has faced a series of legal 
actions over fee last few years, many 
linked to his time as head of die Olym- 
pique de Marseille soccer team. 

The case stems from a ruling in the 
northern city of Douai in November 
1995. A court there ordered him jailed 
for two years, wife 16 months suspen- 
ded, over a 1993 match-rigging offense 
involving a march between Marseille 
and Valenciennes. 

By law, Mr. Tapie, who has ex- 
pressed terror at the prospect of going 
behind bars, must report to prison on fee 
eve of the bearing Tuesday on his ap- 
peal. Otherwise lus appeal will be re- 
jected automatically. 

Earlier, Mr. lienard visited La Sante 
prison in central Paris. 

“I wanted to discuss wife fee prison 
administration the manner in which he 
would be admitted to La Same if be 
decided to come,” the lawyer said. 

French news media said Mr. Tapie, 
54, inquired whether he would be al- 
lowed to use his cellular phone in prison 
— the answer was "no” — and how 
many showers a day he would be al- 
lowed. 

He was also reported to have called 
Loik Le Floch-Prigent, the former 
chairman of state railroad and of the oil 
company Elf Aquitaine, who was re- 
cently released from six months in pre- 
trial detention, to inquire about con- 
ditions at La Sante. 

If the court upholds the sentence, Mr. 
Tapie will serve fee rest of his term. 

If it quashes his conviction, then Mr. 
Tapie, whose business empire once in- 
cluded the sports equipment company 
Adidas, will be released until his next 
trial. 

He faces a blizzard of legal actions 
over his foiled holding company, tax 
affairs and stewardship of fee Marseille 
team. 

He is also appealing a six-month con- 
' viefion for tax fraud' over; his luxury 
yacht and is to go on trial in May on 
charges of falsifying the accounts af 
Marseille. 

Mr. Tapie, who has begun a career as 
a film actor, is hoping for an open prison 
regime under which he conld spend his 
nights in jail while working in movies 
during the day. (Reuters. AFP) 

Verdun Fort For Sale 
( Check the Minitel) 

Rotten 

PARIS — Local authorities in Ver- 
dun, site of one of the bloodiest battles 
of Worid War I, expressed dismay 
Monday after fee Defense Ministry pub- 
licly advertised to sell fee town’s his- 
toric CitadeL 

"Putting fee Citadel on sale on the 
Minitel is indecent,” said Dominique 
Peridont, who heads fee tourist office in 
the eastern French town. “If anyone can 
go about transforming it into who knows 
what, what will remain of its past?” 

The 18 th century fort has been for 
sale for nearly three years, but only in 
fee last few days has the sale begun to be 
widely advertised to the public on the 
Minitel computer network. 



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INTERNATIONAL 


War Again? Tense Bosnian City Awaits a Ruling 


BRIEFLY 


By Bradley Graham 

Washington Post Service 


BRCKO, Bosnia-Herzegovina — An in- 
ternational arbitration decision due within 
days on the future of this northern city b3s 
stirred threats of renewed war from leaders of 
Bosnia's ethnic groups and prompted U.S. 
military forces to gird for the worst. 

The ruling on whether Brcko will remain in 
Serbian hands, revert to Muslim control or 
end up in some other hybrid arrangement — 
perhaps under international management — is 
regarded as potentially one of the most im- 
portant turning points in Bosnia since the 
1995 Dayton accords ended three-and-a-half 
years of civil war. 

It comes on the heel s of a big reduction in the 
size of U.S. and other international peace- 
keeping forces in the country, raising questions 
about the ability of the Stabilization Force led 
by the North American Treaty Organization to 
quell trouble if it erupts. 

U.S. military commanders here remain 
confident that they have the firepower to 
prevent formerly warring armies from mo- 
bilizing after the decision, which is expected 
by Feb. 15. But they worry about noncon- 
vendonal challenges: masses of civilian pro- 
testers converging on Brcko, confrontations 
erupting elsewhere along the 62 1 -mile < 1 .035- 
kilometer) demilitarized zone that separates 
Bosnian Muslim, Serbian and Croatian forces, 
or terrorist acts by paramilitary groups. 

To reinforce the several dozen tanks and 
armored personnel carriers normally posi- 


tioned here, a mechanized infantry company 
and some attack helicopters are being moved 
closer to the city from other bases in Bosnia. 

Brcko (pronounced BURCH -ko) straddles 
the main land mid water trade routes linking the 
southern Balkans with Central Europe. Bos- 
nian Serb forces seized it in May 1992, sending 
the Muslims — who accounted for 55 percent 
of tire city's population — fleeing, as did 
Croatian residents, to villages south of town. 

Today, the city is a bleak and battered 
remnant of its prewar self, its port and railroad 
lines idled, its major factories — shoes, cook- 
ing oil, livestock processing — great decaying 
bulks of inactivity. But Brcko is a strategic 
choke point for the Serbs. 

It lies at the center of a corridor three miles 
wide Uniting the eastern and western parts of 
the Bosnian Serb Republic. Brcko ’s popu- 
lation has sweUed with Serbian refugees from 
Sarajevo and other cities now in territory con- 
trolled by Bosnia's Muslim -Croat federation. 

The peace accords left unsettled who 
should control the city, assigning the decision 
to a three-member panel of international ar- 
biters led by an American jurist, Roberts 
Owen, and including federation and Serbian 
representatives. The arbitration ruling, orig- 
inally due in December, was postponed for 
two months at the Serbs' request 

Muslims see Brcko as the ultimate test of 
their right to reclaim territory that was theirs 
before die war. Serbs, resentful that they had to 
surrender territory in Dayton and determined 
to turn tire zone of separation into a permanent 
boundary between them and the federation. 


insist that the arbitration panel reaffirm Ser- 
bian control of Brcko and even expand the 
corridor by granting them land now under 
federation control. Representatives of dis- 
placed Bosnian Croats have urged that control 
of the city be ceded to the United Nations or 
some other international authority. 

If the city were to go to the federation, the 
Serb Republic would be split in two. most 
likely leading thousands of people to flee the 
western portion and Serbs throughout the 
region to lose faith in the peace process. In 
Serbian hands, however. Brcko could block 
federation access to Croatia and the Sava 
River, a major trading artery and a link to the 
Danube River and Black Sea. Moreover, such 
an affirmation of Serbian sovereignty over a 
city gained by force could be read as a le- 
gitimization of Serbian aggression. 

Leaders of all three of Bosnia's main ethnic 
groups have issued threatening statements in 
the last month or two, saying that their people 
cannot idly accept a decision on Brcko that 

f oes against them. Momcilo Krajisnik, the 
erb on the three-man Bosnian presidency, 
declared that the integrity of the Serb Re- 
public was more important than peace and that 
Serbs "would go to war over Brcko." 

At the local level, the political rhetoric has 
been more muted lately, and a general calm 
has held for more than a month. But in- 
terviews with Serbs and Muslims in the area 
reveal the fierce strains between them. 

* ‘If Brcko becomes an open city. I'll leave,’ ’ 
said Simo Peric. a Serb resident who before the 
war owned a farm in what is now federation 


territory. “If it's given to the federation, 
there’ll be a war worse than the last one." 

“Brcko never belonged to the Serbs and 
never will.” asserted Kemal Kalic. who fled the 
city with his family five years ago. “I'm telling 
you, there’ll be a new war if our right to return 
isn’t protected. People are fed up." 

Since the signing of the peace agreement, 
only about 100 Muslims have tried resettling 
in Brcko. trickling into the ruined southern 
suburbs of Brod, Dizadarusa and Omerbe- 
govaca, near a U.S. military encampment 
here. Before the war. more than 20,000 
Muslims lived in the town. 

Several bomb attacks on Muslim houses 
last summer and fall chased out two families 
that had ventured back and discouraged others 
from attempting to reclaim their property. 

The arbitration decision has the potential to 
trigger confrontations not only around Brcko 
but also wherever Muslims and Serbs face 
each other. As a sign of persisting tensions 
along the zone of separation, for instance, a 
crowd of more than 200 angry Serbs clubbed 
Muslim construction workers last weekend in 
the northeastern hilltop hamlet of Gajevi. 

The assault ended when a U.S. sergeant 
fired a warning shot and other soldiers helped 
push the Serbs back. Bur U.S. military com- 
manders remained focused on the ruined vil- 
lage last week, intent on restoring calm there 
in anticipation of the Brcko decision. 

“What Gajevi shows is that the Bosnian 
Serbs are serious about not letting even small 
numbers of Muslims move back in,” said Joe 
Drach, an adviser to the U.S. command. 


Cardinal Koliqi of Albania, 
Long a Prisoner, Dies at 94 


Nr*' York Times Service 

Cardinal Mikel Koliqi of Albania, 94, who 
spent decades in confinement during the ri- 
gidly Stalinist era in his country, died Tuesday 
in Shkoder, Albania. 

He regained his freedom in 1986 after 38 
years in jails and labor camps. Pope John Paul 
Q. who elevated him to tbe College of Car- 
dinals in November 1994, took note of his 
stature as a “fearless pastor" and “heroic 
priest" who bad endured "so much suffer- 
ing." 

Cardinal Koliqi. the first Albanian ever to 
become a cardinal, donned the traditional red 
hat at an unusually late stage of life. He was 
released in 1984 because of his health, with 
six years remaining on a sentence for anti- 
communist propaganda. 

Then the world’s last remaining Stalinist 
government crumbled, the ban on religion 
was lifted in 1990 and he openly resumed his 
priestly office at the reborn archdiocese of 
Shkoder, the center of Roman Catholicism in 
Albania and his hometown. 

The Pope sought out and embraced Car- 
dinal Koliqi during a visit to Albania in 1993. 
At the time of his elevation, the Catholic News 
Service reported from Rome that it was “a 
symbolic gesture of church gratitude" to 
someone who kept up not just his faith but also 
an underground pastoral ministry when all 
religion was outlawed. 

Herb Caen, 80, Columnist 
Known As ‘Mr. San Francisco* 

SAN FRANCISCO (NYT) — Herb Caen. 
80. whose 60-year journalism career was de- 
voted to doting on San Francisco and whose 
affections were more than amply repaid by 
legions of ardent readers, died Saturday. 

To call Mr. Caen “Mr. San Francisco." as 
was sometimes done, was redundant. Few, if 
any, other newspaper columnists have been so 
long synonymous with a specific place. To his 
fans, Mr. Caen was a towering icon in his 
adopted hometown — although he was 
largely unknown in much of tbe country since 
his column of stubborn localisms did not even 
travel well across San Francisco Bay. 

In April 1996, Mr. Caen turned 80, won a 
special Pul itzer Prize for his “continuing con- 
tribution as a voice and a conscience of his 
city" and married his fourth wife. In May. he 
told his readers that he had inoperable lung 
cancer — he smoked for 40 years but quit 25 


years ago — and 5,000 letters poured in. Hie 
city proclaimed June 14 Herb Caen Day. and 
75,000 people turned out to shower the writer 
with affection. 

Qin Jiwei, 82, a Leader 
Of Tiananmen Crackdown 

BEUING (Reuter) — Qin Jiwei, 82, a 
former Chinese defense minister, a close as- 
sociate of the paramount leader. Deng Xiaop- 
ing. and a man who helped to orchestrate the 
military crackdown on pro-democracy 
demonstrators in 1989, died Sunday, the 
People’s Daily newspaper said Monday. 

Mr. Qin's support as a close ally of Mr. 
Deng's was essential in ensuring the backing 
of the military when the leadership decided to 
impose martial law in Beijing in May 1989 
and then send in troops, backed by tanks, to 
crush the protests around Tiananmen Square 
with heavy loss of life. 

Dr. Ian A JL Munro, 73. a crusading ed- 
itor of the British medical journal The Lancet 
for 12 years and a champion of Britain's 
National Health Service, died after surgery in 
Kent. England, on Jan. 22. 

John P. Mohr, 86, the crusty, poker-play- 
ing FBI official who became a member of J. 
Edgar Hoover's inner circle and later played a 
central role in the disappearance of Mr. 
Hoover's legendary files on politicians, died 
of renal failure Jan. 25 in Arlington. Vir- 
ginia. 

Gayle Kirkpatrick, 62, a fashion designer 
who was known for his youthful, modem 
approach ro American sportswear, died of 
AIDS on Jan. 25 in New York. 

Roger John Tayler, 67, who helped to 
advance modem understanding of stellar evo- 
lution and served for 18 years as secretary, 
treasurer and finally president of the Royal 
Astronomical Society in Britain, died of can- 
cer Jan. 23 in London. 

Heiner Carow, 67, who directed what was 
probably the most popular film ever in the 
former East Germany. "The Legend of Paul 
and Paula," died Friday after an apparent 
stroke. Mr. Carow ‘s often-sensitive themes 
earned him a name as a "difficult director" in 
the Communist regime. 



Pope Mum on Jerusalem Visit 

VATICAN CITY — Pope John Paul U on Monday 
received the Israeli prime minister. Benjamin Netanyahu, 
who again invited him to visit Jerusalem. 

The Pope made no public commitment. 

After their private talks, which lasted 20 minutes. Mr. 
Netanyahu said to the Pope, “We look forward to re- 
ceiving you in Jerusalem." John Paul responded, "God 
bless Israel." 

The talks between the two men. who met for the first 
time, were thought to have focused on tbe status of the city 
and the progress of Mideast peace efforts. 

Jerusalem is one of the most delicate issues in Mideast 
peace negotiations, and in relations between the Israelis 

and the Holy See. The Pope long has expressed a desire to 
visit the city, which is holy to Christians, Muslims and 
Jews. 

Hie Vatican seeks a special “open city" status for 
Jerusalem, backed by international guarantees. Israel, 
which captured the eastern part of the city from Jordan in 
1967, regards Jerusalem as its capital. ( AP ) 

Train Crash in Egypt Kills 15 

ASWAN, Egypt — At least 1 5 people were killed and 
10 others injured when a cargo train ran into a passenger 
train Monday near the southern tourist town of Edfu, 
security sources said 

They said the passenger train, en route from Alexandria 
to Aswan, was stopped at the Radissiyah station when the 
cargo train hit it from behind 

Rescue workers were still trying to remove the dead 
and injured from the two damaged rear cars of the 
passenger train, the sources said ( Reuters ) 

Battle Rages East of Bogota 

BOGOTA — Heavy fighting raged Monday between 
government troops and leftist guerrillas in a mountainous 
area 50 kilometers (30 miles) east of Bogota, tbe au- 
thorities said, amid unconfirmed reports that IS to 25 
soldiers had been killed. 

The battle started Friday near th e town of San Juanito 
when about 50 troops of a counterinsurgency unit came 
under «»artr from guerrillas of the Revolutionary Aimed 
Forces of Cblombia. 

The head of the Colombian military. General Harold 
Bedoya, said radio contact with the troops had been lost 
since midday Sunday, making it impossible to give 
casualties. But the newspaper El Tiempo reported that at 
least 18 soldiers had been killed in the attack, and the TV 
Hoy news broadcast reported up to 25 dead. (Reuters) 

Ecuador Cabinet Shuffle Is Set 

QUITO — President Abdala Bucaram has said he 
would change 60 percent of his cabinet on Thursday, the 
day after a general strike in Ecuador that has been called 


to protest his economic policy. 
He said 


said late Sunday the new cabinet ministers would 
"in some cases be independents, in others fbimer politi- 
cians and former journalists, and in other cases members of 
some parties that are currently represented in Congress." 

Mr. Bucaram is facing a storm of protest over austerity 
measures carried out since he came to power six months 
ago. He has also come under fire for naming friends and 
relatives to top government posts. (Reuters) 


Gs 


R4KISTAN: Victor Is Apathy 


Su&m Sr hi jlfiu 

Bill Gates, chairman of Microsoft Corp., preparing for a news conference in Davos. 

GATES: Microsoft Head Steals Show in Davos 


RUSSIA: Chernomyrdin Warns U.S . on NATO 


Continued from Page l 

meet in March could lead to a 
Russia increasingly swayed 
by ultranationalists, "and the 
tanks will be rolling out" of 
now-inactive factories. 

He said he expected the 
March summit meeting, to be 
held in the United States, to 
come about on schedule. But 
the prime minister favors 
shifting the meeting to 
Europe to conserve Mr. 
Yeltsin's strength, an idea he 
will put to Mr. Yeltsin in a 
meeting here Tuesday, if Mr. 
Yeltsin agrees. Mr. 
Chernomyrdin will cany the 
request Wednesday to Wash- 
ington. where he spends two 
days in talks with Mr. Gore 
ana has a session Friday af- 
ternoon with the president 

Asked if Russia was ready 
to discuss the framework for a 
new strategic arms reduction 
accord, Mr. Chernomyrdin 
reintroduced political linkage 
into the relationship by say- 
ing this would have to wait 
until the NATO debate was 
cleared up. The previous stra- 
tegic arms reduction treaty 
has languished unratified in 
the Russian Parliament in 
part because of nationalist 
and Communist concern over 
NATO expansion. 

On other topics, the 58- 
y ear-old Mr. Chernomyrdin, 
who has been a dominant fig- 
ure in managing Russia while 
Mr. Yeltsin has been ill. and 
who has given few extended 
interviews to Western corre- 
spondents. made these 
points: 



• He has advised Mr. 
Yeltsin, who turned 66 
Sunday while convalescing 
from pneumonia and heart- 
bypass surgery, not to rush 
back to work from his 
sickbed, as he has in the past 
But Mr. Chernomyrdin ac- 
knowledged with a smile that 
Mr. Yeltsin was not likely to 
follow that advice. “He’s 
tired of these doctors," he 
said. “You can understand." 

• He said he believed that 
the International Monetary 
Fund would resume lending 
to Russia after suspending 
monthly installments of a 
$10.3 billion, three-year loan 
because Russia appeared to 
be failing to maintain strict 
fiscal discipline. 

• He predicted that there 
would be no renewal of fight- 
ing in Chechnya. Using 
highly conciliatory language, 
he said he accepted the pro- 
posal of the newly elected 
Chechen president, Aslan 
Maskhadov, for negotiations 
with Moscow, and said tbe 
election lifted^ a burden for 
Russia, providing a “legitim- 
ate government ’ ’ in 
Chechnya. 

But NATO was the subject 
that animated him with pas- 
sion and consternation. Re- 
peatedly thrusting a fleshy 
forefinger into his palm to 
emphasize his determination. 
Mr. Chernomyrdin portrayed 
sustained efforts by NATO 
political leaders “to comfort 
us” on expansion as a total 
failure. 

“We know the military 
component of NATO. We 


know that NATO means a 
powerful nuclear presence, 
nuclear forces, and all of this 
is being moved towards Rus- 
sia.” he said, deriding advice 
riven by NATO leaders to 
Russia to “take it easy, there 
is nothing to be frightened 
about We are friends, we 
love you." He added: 

“I'm not afraid that Poland 
or Hungary or anyone else 
will be within NATO. It is not 
so dangerous for Russia. The 
thing is. I’m worried about 
Russia, what might happen in 
Russia, and nothing else." 

Ultranationalists like 
Vladimir Zhirinovsky "will 
accuse the president and the 
government of doing nothing 
to prevent this development" 
and “so we have to arm 
ourselves.” 

He continued, “The pro- 
duction facilities are there in 
brand-new condition, they are 
waiting. This is how the em- 
ployment problem will be re- 
solved.” He said. “The tanks 
will be rolling out and the 
planes. Do we need this?” 

NATO’s effort to get Rus- 
sia to sign an info rmal se- 
curity chatter at the time of 
the July summit meeting and 
the expansion decision "is 
unacceptable." Mr. 

'Chernomyrdin said firmly. 
Instead, be demanded a 
NATO-Russia treaty that 
would have to be verifiable, 
"transparent," and ratified 
by the parliaments of signat- 
ories, in the manner of tbe 
nuclear arms reductions treat- 
ies negotiated by Washington 
and Moscow. 


Continued from Page 1 

"He is very different from 
the typical European busi- 
nessman." said Roben 
Hormats. vice-chairman of 
Goldman Sachs Internation- 
al. "He embodies the Euro- 
pean desire to catch up on the 
technological revolution.” 

From the moment he ar- 
rived by helicopter Saturday 
night, to his departure 
Monday evening, Mr. Gates's 
sheaf-like schedule was jam- 
packed. Little of it was on the 
public program. 

On Sunday morning, for 
instance, he met with a gaggle 
of presidents and prime min- 
isters. no staff allowed, to an- 
swer their questions about 
software, innovation and cap- 
italism. On Monday, he 
lunched with the world's me- 
dia elite. Somewhere along 
the line he met with a large 


potential client. He turned 
down hundreds of requests 
for other meetings. 

Mr. Gates himself tries del- 
icately to avoid passing judg- 
ment on anything but the 
products his company makes 
and sells. Asked about 
Europe’s failure to adapt to 
information technology as 
thoroughly as the United 
States, he said: “There is some 
leadership and good work go- 
ing on here. But if you take the 
numerical view, the U.S. is the 
largest, and I don't think any- 
one is going to pass us by." 

He is right In a speech 
Monday morning, Andrew 
Grove, president of Intel 
Corp., warned bluntly of a 
"technology deficit” that af- 
flicts European business. 
There are 10 times more elec- 
tronic-mail users in tbe 
United States than in all of 
Europe, he said, and five 


tiroes as many Internet users. 

But the European problem 
goes deeper than a lack of tech- 
nology. It was best explained 
by Gail Edmondson in Busi- 
ness Week magazine, respond- 
ing to Mr. Trichet's quest for a 
European Bill Gates. 

Imagine if Mr. Gates came 
to France to start a new com- 
pany, sbe wrote. He would 
find a work force that de- 
mands to retire at age 55 and 
strikes if the demand is not 
met. Employees who want to 
work 32 hours and be paid for 
38. Workers at a failed bank 
who took the president hos- 
tage. Young people, 50 per- 
cent of whom want to spend 
their professional careens 
working for the state. 

“To see why so few French 
youths follow in his footsteps, 
you need only look at France 
through Bill Gates's eyes," 
die wrote. 


Continued from Page 1 

Muslim League sweeping the 
populous Punjab Province 
and making inroads into Sind. 
Miss Bhutto's home prov- 
ince. And a likely Muslim 
League ally, the Awami Na- 
tional Party, was dominating 
North-West Frontier F*rov- 
ince. 

Military dictators have 
ruled Pakistan for nearly half 
of the 50 years since inde- 
pendence from Britain, and 
the army remains the most 
stable force in the developing 
nation of 130 million people. 

Turnout among die 56-5 
million eligible voters was 
about 30 percent, tbe lowest 
of seven national votes since 
Pakistan's first free elections, 
in 1970. The turnout amoun- 
ted to a massive expression of 
dismay with the performance 
of three governments beaded 
by Miss Bhutto or Mr. Sharif 
since democracy was restored 
in 1988. 

"People are fed up with 
both major parties, said 
Hakim Bhatti, a herbal medi- 
cine specialist wbo did not 
vote in Rawalpindi, a gritty 
city near the capital. Islama- 
bad. 

The widespread perception 
that prime ministers and other 
elected leaders have used 


government to loot the coun- 
try has reduced faith in demo- 
cracy and inspired among 
some Pakistanis a nostalgic 
yearning for martial law. 

A recent poll conducted for 
the monthly Herald magazine 
indicated that 95 percent of 
Pakistanis consider most of 
the nation's politicians to be 
corrupt. 

But Western observers 
doubted that the nation's mil- 
itary leaders, who have 
sought international accept- 
ance by taking part in United 
Nations peacekeeping oper- 
ations, would reclaim direct 
control of die government. 

“I think democracy is here 
to stay in Pakistan.’’ Pres- 
ident Leghari said Monday 
night. 

The country’s most prom- 
inent nonvoter may be Imran 
Khan, a farmer cricket star 
who ran for prime minister. ’ 
His new party. Movement for 
Justice, campaigned against 
corruption and for govern- 
ment accountability, but did 
not field a candidate to rep- 
resent Mr. Khan's ancestral 
village. 

For that reason, Mr. Khan 
said, he did not vote Monday. 
In past elections, he has said, 
he did not vote because he 
was out of the country playi ng 
cricket. 


SHOP: Japan 9 s Economy May Be Stalled, but There’s a Silver Lining for Consumers 


Continued from Page 1 

Japan did a shop owner take off a 
price tag of $100 and replace it with 
one of $500 to make sine it flew off 
the shelf. This was ridiculous. Now 
things are more normal.” 

Economists continue to debate 
whether it is good or bad for Japan 
that tbe value of tire dollar has risen 50 
percent against die yen since 1995. 
and whether the once-mighty econ- 
omy is just retooling or fiat broken 
down. 

But men and women shopping in 
Tokyo’s neighborhoods say life, at 


least for now, is as good as. or better 
than. ever. 

“All this talk about tbe bad econ- 
omy seems so distant to me." said 
KeOco Hatanaka. 28, who said her 
husband’s salary as a real estate agent 
has gone up in the last few years while 
the price of items from apples to air- 
line tickets had fallen. 

Since only aboat 7 percent of Jap- 
anese people invest in the stock mar- 
ket, the recent dramatic dips in die 
stock market have not hit ordinary 
people, such as Mrs. Hatanaka. "I 
have no stock; it’s had no effect at 
all." she said. 


Mrs. Someya said that certain lux- 
uries had gone the way of fat salary 
bonuses. For instance, her husband 
now gets her flowers for her birthday 
instead of expensive necklaces. But 
she thinks she has gained more than 
she has lost in Japan's more con- 
sumer-friendly economy. 

Many items still seem expensive to 
some visitors: A movie ticket can cost 
$24. a bunch of grapes $30. a cup of 
coffee $5 or even $10. But there is 
now an almost unheard-of opportu- 
nity to find discounts and to com- 
parison-shop. 

Browsing the aisles at Kou’s, Mrs. 


KOREA: North Aims to Turn Its Economy Toward the Wfest 


Continued from Page 1 

own people,” Mr. Kim said, “but to 
develop and maintain ties with the 
capitalist world we have changed." 

North Korea’s 22 million people 
currently earn $790 per capita an- 
nually. Mr. Kim said. He attributed 
their poverty to ’ ‘continuous national 
disasters arid the collapse of the in- 
ternational Socialist market," after 
the disintegration of tbe Soviet bloc. 

He said the rational disasters in- 
cluded two major floods, in 1995 and 
1996 that had cost the country more 
than $17 billion. 


According ro a frank and detailed 
description of the country’s economic 
plight monitored in Tokyo, the North 
Korean news agency. KCNA, said the 
population was suffering "temporary 
food problems." 

“As is known to all, North Korea 
has in recent years been repeatedly hit 
by unprecedented natural disasters, 
which greatly damaged agriculture 
and other sectors of the national econ- 
omy and caused temporary food prob- 
lems,’ * the official press agency said. 

"The nation’s annual demand for 
grain is about 7.84 million tons, of 
which 4.82 million tons is needed as 


Hatanaka bought a television set, a 
half-pound (225 grams) of beef, a 
package of mincemeat and bags of 
oranges, potatoes, onions and toma- 
toes. At a neigh borhood grocery store, 
that would easily have cost her $400. 
but at Kou’s the total came to $300. 

Kou’s is part of a trend in Japan 0 
toward more diversity and compe- 
tition in merchandising. 

In recent years, such U.S. retailers 
as the Gap. Eddie Bauer. L.L. Bean 
and Toys 'R Us have opened stores in 
Japan, offering top-quality goods for 
prices that Japanese department 
stores cannot touch. Their success and 
a loosening of some government reg- 
ulations have led to more discounting 
among Japanese retailers. 

Kou’s officials say they can offer 
discount prices because they follow 
the formula that U.S. wholesalers 
have perfected. 

. Th^ sell memberships, offer items 
in bulk, do not wrap goods and have 
only 1 8 full-time employees in a store 
about the size of three football 
fields. 

"Our mission is not to wait for 
prices to come down, but to bring 
e North T« rh#» - lbe ? 1 dow1 '.” said Kozo Yam am oio. a 

irrSE? “H£ g - spokesman for Daiei. the giant su- , 

■ said Monday: The U.S- permarket chain that owns Kou's. I 

^ministration recently announced That's revolutionary talk in Janan 
' it w ?^ d continue to take part in where the government Md iJIeVSI-’ 

^ U8h mtenuuional Potations have long cooperated to 
agencies. control prices. 


food,” it quoted a statement from the 
Flood Damage Measures Committee 
as saying. 

North Korea has twice delayed a 
U.S. meeting to discuss the start of 
peace talks for the region until a grain 
deal with an American company is 
consummated. It said the u!$. aid 










INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 


PAGE 7 




% •'***'& 


‘V.srfP'*?. '* 






'i 




■M 




*»Vf- 








V VASHH' iGTON 


- 


(Who are we to argue?) 


The "Who’s Who in Europe Survey’ 1996 shows that, amongst Europe’s most influential people, 
over twice as many consider the International Herald Tribune to be 
‘The best source of international news’ as its nearest rival. 

Dare we say that it’s something you’ve thought for a long time? 

\bu-can get your copy of the survey via James McLeod in Paris on (33) 1 41 43 93 81. 
Richard Lynch in New York on (212) 752 3890, or Andrew Thomas in Singapore on (65) 223 6478 


















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EVTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNPAi; FEBRUARY 1-2, 1997 



PAGES 


Mcralb 


INTERNATIONAL 



(tribune 


PUBLISH hO WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON TOST 


Next in the Mideast 


The first weeks of 1997 brought 
clear evidence that the political leaders 
and people of Israel are ready to push 
ahead with the next moves toward 
building a Middle East peace. So too 
are the Palestinians and their leader, 
Yasser Arafat. The question now is 
whether Egypt and Syria have the 
courage and wisdom to join them- 

In recent weeks Israeli troops with- 
drew from most of the West Bank city 
of Hebron. Prime Minister Benjamin 
Netanyahu of Israel and Mr. Arafat 
established a pragmatic working re- 
lationship and Israel's two main parties 
began to bridge their differences over 
peacemaking. Egypt mustered little 
enthusiasm for all this, and Syria, as is 
its custom, remained coldly aloof. 
Egypt's president, Hosni Mubarak, 
and Hafez Assad, the Syrian leader, 
need to reassess their positions. By 
easing the path to regional peace, they 
could help bring increased security and 
prosperity to their countries as well as 
their neighbors. 

There are some signs Mr. Mubarak 
may recognize that die peacemaking 
effort in Israel has reached an im- 
portant new point After weeks of ur- 
ging Mr. Arafat to stiffen his bargain- 
ing position on Hebron, Cairo 
switched gears at the last moment and 
contributed to the final compromise. 
Sunday, Mr. Mubarak met Mr. Net- 
anyahu at the World Economic Forum 
meetings in Davos, Switzerland, and 
encouraged expanded peace efforts. 

But that is not enough. Egypt's 
largely negative rote in the Hebron 
talks, along with an ugly anti-Israeli 
campaign in the government-influ- 
enced Cairo press, has badly strained 
relations with Israel. 

Mr. Mubarak apparently concluded 
last year that the new Israeli govern- 
ment intended to freeze peacemaking 
efforts indefinitely. Since then Cairo 
has turned away from its earlier helpful 
role as a diplomatic bridge between 
Israel and other Arab countries. In- 
stead. it has seemed intent on pro- 
moting Egypt's Arab leadership role 
at Israeli expense. 


Quit Making Excuses 


At his news conference Wednesday, 
President Bill Clinton was asked wheth- 
er a Chinese crackdown on civil liber- 
ties in Hong Kong would upset U.S.- 
Cbina relations “in any way." 

■’Well, it wouldn't help anything,” 
he began blandly. He then went on to 
muse about China's possible belief that 
it can crush Hong Kong's political 
freedoms while maintaining its eco- 
nomic vibrancy. You might think the 
United States, ostensibly the world’s 
leading believer in a connection be- 
tween prosperity and democracy, would 
have strong views on this proposition. 
Mr. Clinton's verdict? "I don't know if 
that's true or noL . . . It's a complicated 
society. And I'm not so sure that it can 
exist ... if the civil liberties of the people 
are crushed." Take that, Mr. Deng. 

Hong Kong, currently a British 
colony of 6 million people, will revert to 
China in five months. Beijing has prom- 
ised to safeguard its freedoms under the 
slogan “One country, two systems." 
Bur steps it has taken already put that 
promise in doubt. China has hand- 
picked a legislature to replace an elect- 
ed council; it has signaled that it will roll 
back Hong Kong’s bill of rights and 
other basic freedoms; it has warned that 
press freedom will no longer extend to 
attacking the leadership or advocating 


Taiwanese or Tibetan independence. 

In response to all this, what Mr. 
Clinton should have said was this: The 
freedom of Hong Kong is important to 
us and all other free nations. If you 
abuse that freedom, it will affect our 
relationship. Moreover, you cannot 
maintain Hong Kong’s economic vi- 
brancy if you strangle die free flow of 
information and compromise the trans- 
parent and uncorrupt rule of law upon 
which a truly free market depends. 

Why didn't be say that? Maybe it's 
because, despite all fee talk of a “multi- 
faceted relationship," all the Clinton 
administration really cares about is 
trade. But maybe it’s because Mr. Clin- 
ton truly believes, as he said later in the 
same news conference, feat the advance 
of liberty in China is "inevitable" — 
“just as, eventually, fee Berlin Wall 
felL" In fact, the Berlin Wall, and com- 
munism in Eastern Europe, fell for 
many reasons, but certainly among them 
were fee campaigners for human rights 
behind the Iron Curtain and fee strong 
support they received from the West 
We fear there is nothing inevitable about 
democracy craning to China. But if you 
say it is so, you give yourself fee perfect 
excuse not to rake the hard steps that 
might make democracy more likely. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


A Troubling Figure 


Weakened by declining member- 
ship, financial problems and an 
abysmal public image, fee National 
Rifle Association is facing a takeover 
by a far-right faction known for court- 
jng armed militias and other extrem- 
ists. The showdown is expected at a 
board meeting later this month, when 
the current executive vice president. 
Wayne LaPierre Jr.. could be ousted by 
his longtime rival, Neal Knox, a troub- 
ling figure if ever there was one. 

Mr. Knox's rise to the organiza- 
tion's top administrative post would 
drive the group further toward the 
fringe, weakening what is left of its 
connection to fee American main- 
stream and to its distant origins as a 
legitimate organization for sportsmen. 

Mr. Knox has been a dark force in 
fee NRA since his days as the group's 
chief lobbyist. He was kicked out of 
that job in 1982 and expelled from the 
board in 1984 for "extremism." He 
clawed his way bock, using a wrathful 


column written for a national gun 
magazine as his platform. 

He sees conspiracies everywhere. 
According to The Washington Post, he 
once suggested in his column that the 
assassinations of fee Kennedy s and 
Martin Luther King Jr. had been staged 
to build public support for gun control 
“for the purpose of disarming the 
people of the free world.” 

Mr. Knox is on record as supporting 
repeal of the Brady Law governing 
handgun purchases and fee ban on as- 
sault weapons, and for wanting to le- 
galize even fully automatic weapons. 

The NRA is in trouble today be- 
cause. years ago, it exchanged its mis- 
sion as a sportsmen's organization for 
its role as gun lobbyist, alienating its 
moderate members and fee American 
public in general. The elevation of Mr. 
Knox will not make the NRA any more 
lovable. On the other hand, it could 
hasten its extinction. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


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TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 

EDITORIALS/OPINION 


6 Please Use Your Liberty to Promote Ours ’ 


This may serve Mir. Mubarak's do- 
mestic political purposes, but it has 
damaged Egypt's standing wife Israel 
and with the United States. Cairo has 
also lost touch wife fee more realistic 
positions of Jordan and the Palestinians. 
Egypt should recognize that as the first 
Arab country to make peace wife Israel, 
its natural leadership role is to lead fee 
way to a wider regional peace. 

Syria is now fee focus of the Clinton 
administration's efforts to build on fee 
Hebron agreement and will be high on 
the agenda of President Bill Clinton's 
meetings in Washington wife Mr. Net- 
anyahu and other Mideast leaders over 
the next few weeks. It has never been 
clear whether Damascus actually wants 
to reach a comprehensive peace agree- 
ment wife Israel or simply feels a need 
to assure Washington it is prepared to 
pursue negotiations. But talks between 
Israel and Syria have been suspended 
for nearly a year, and wife progress 
resuming on the Palestinian front, Mr. 
Clinton has committed himself to make 
a new push to get peace talks resumed. 

Mr. Netanyahu has been less willing 
than his Labor predecessors to talk 
about returning the Golan Heights to 
Syria in exchange for full diplomatic 
and economic ties and reasonable se- 
curity provisions. He also rejects Mr. 
Assad's unreasonable insistence on 
binding him to informal understand- 
ings reached between Syrian repre- 
sentatives and negotiators from the 
previous Israeli government. 

Still, Israel seems prepared to re- 
open talks with Syria that could also 
include discussions of fee Israeli mil- 
itary presence in southern Lebanon. If 
Syria made a show of goodwill by 
acceding to Mr. Netanyahu's plea to 
restrain Hezbollah units in Lebanon 
from their attacks on Israeli positions, 
progress on other issues could follow. 

While Egypt and Syria worry about 
maintaining their leadership roles in the 
Arab world, they risk being left behind 
by political and economic forces feat are 
reshaping the region. At some point they 
may find it impossible to catch up. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


R ANGOON — Those of us Who 
decided to work for democracy in 
Burma made our choice in the con- 
viction that the danger of standing up 
for basic human rights in a repressive 
society was preferable to fee safety of a 
quiescent lire in servitude. Ours is a 
nonviolent movement that depends on 
faith in the human predilection for fair 


By Daw Aung San Suu Kyi 

The writer is a Nobel Peace laureate and leader of the opposition 
National League for Democracy in Burma. 


Some would insist that man is primar- 
ily an economic a nimal interested only 
in his material well-being. This is too 
narrow a view of a species which has 
produced numberless brave men and 
women who are prepared to undergo 
relentless persecution to uphold deeply 
held beliefs and principles. It is my pride 
and inspiration feat such men and wo- 
men exist in my country today. 

In Burma it is accepted as a political 
tradition feat revolutionary changes are 
brought about through the active par- 
ticipation of students. The independence 
movement of our country was earned to 
a successful conclusion by young lead- 
ers, including my own father. Genera! 
Aung San, who began their political 
careers at Rangoon University. 

An institution wife such an outstand- 
ing reputation for spirited opposition to 
established authority is naturally a prime 
target for any authoritarian government. 
The Burmese military regime which as- 
sumed state power in 1962 blasted the 
Rangoon University Students' Union 
building out of existence within a few 
months of taking over and made it illegal 
for students to form a union. 

In 1988 the people of Burma rose up 


against fee rule of the Burma Socialist 
Program Party, the civilian cloak of a 
mili tary dictatorship. At fee vanguard 
of fee nationwide demonstrations were 
students who demanded, among other 
basic rights, fee right to form a union. 

Hie response of the military junta 
was to shoot them down. More than 
eight years on, fee students of Burma 
have still not relinquished their quest 
for an association that would promote 
their interests and articulate their as- 
pirations and grievances. 

As recently as December, there were 
student demonstrations where the call 
for the right t0 form a union was re- 
iterated. The security forces used vi- 
olence to disperse the demonstrators, 
and a number of young people from my 
party, the National League for Demo- 
cracy. were arrested on fee grounds that 
they had been involved in organizing 
the demonstrations. I was accused of 
having discussions with fee students. 

Things have indeed come to a sorry 
pass in a country if meetings between 
politicians and students are seen as acts 
of subversion. My party has never 
made a secret of its sympathy for the 
aspirations of students. We work to 
forge close links between the different 
generations so that a continuity of pur- 
pose and endeavor might be threaded 
into the fabric of our nation. 

When we are struggling against over- 


Snn^unKin material desires. Those fortunate 

3an 3UU “v enough to live in societies where they are 

ate and leader of the opposition entitled to full political rights can reach 

democracy in Burma. out to help their less fortunate brethren 

in other areas of our troubled planet. ' 7 
whelming odds, when we are pitting Part of our struggle is to make the 
ourselves against fee combined might international community ■ understand 1 
of state apparatus and military power, that we are a poor country not because * 
we are sometimes subject to doubts — there is an insufficiency of resources , 
usually the doubts of those whose belief and investment, but because we ore de- 
in the permanence of an existing order prived of the basic institutions and prac- -< 
is absolute. It is amazing how many tices that make for good government. 

There are multinational business 

„ t . ^ . concerns which have no inhibitions • 

BuSOWSS investment in about dealing with repressive regimes. ; 

Their justification for economic in- 

Burma helps only an volvemeni in Burma is that then- pres- - 
already wealthy elite . ence wil1 actually assist the process of . 
Z_ democratization. 

Bui investment that only goes to 
people still remain convinced that it is .enrich an already wealthy erne bent on . 
wise to accept the status quo. monopolizing both economic and polit- 

We have faith in the power to change ical power cannot contribute toward < 
what needs to be changed but we are 6galir6 and justice — the foundation 
under no illusion that the transition from stones for a sound democracy, 
dictatorship to liberal democracy will be I would therefore like to call upon 
easy, or that democratic government will those who have an interest in expand- , 
mean the end of all our problems. We ing their capacity for promoting in- 1 
know that our greatest challenges lie tellectual freedom and humanitarian - 


wise to accept the status quo. 

, We have faith in the power to change 
what needs to be changed but we are 
under no illusion that the transition from 
dictatorship to liberal democracy will be 
easy, or that democratic government will 
mean the end of all our problems. We 
know that our greatest challenges lie 


know that our greatest challenges lie tellectual freedom and humanitarian 
ahead of us and that our struggle to . ideals to take a principled stand against 


establish a stable, democratic society 
will continue beyond our own life span. 

But we know that we are not alone. 
The cause of liberty and justice finds 
sympathetic responses around the 
world. Thinking and feeling people 
everywhere, regardless of color or creed, 
understand the deeply rooted human 
need for a meaningftil existence feat 
goes beyond the mere gratification of 


companies that are doing business with 
fee Burmese military regime. Please 
use your liberty to promote ours. 

This comment was adapted by the 
International Herald Tribune from a 
commencement address by the writer to 
the American University in Washing- 
ton. The address w delivered last 
week on her behalf by her husband. 


Imagine It’s 2007 and an Enlarged Europe Basks in Prosperity 


D AVOS, Switzerland — The 
Europe of 2007 is larger, 
more united and more prosper- 
ous than could have been ex- 
pected at fee beginning of 1997. 
Its territory extends not rally to 
Centra] Europe but also to the 
Baltic states. Not only does it 
have a common currency but 
also a common fiscal policy 
which serves two objectives: to 
countercyclical variations and to 
even out divergences among in- 
dividual states. The Union acts 
wife a single voice in foreign 
polity. It has a constitution 
which makes the European 
Commission responsible not to 
fee Council of Ministers but to 
fee European Parliament, and 
the Council of Ministers acts as 
the upper bouse of the European 
PariiamenL The principle of sul>- 
sidiarity prevails and legislation 
which impinges on national sov- 
ereignty must receive' two- 
thirds’ support in both houses. 

There is close political and 
military cooperation with the 


By George Soros 


United States on the one hand 
and Russia on the other. The 
eastward expansion of NATO 
has been accomplished by a 
grand alliance between NATO 
and Russia. The Grand- Alliance 
is part of a system of alliances 
which assures peace and sta- 
bility in fee worid. 

How did this miraculous state 
of affairs come about? It all 
started in 1997 when the people 
of Europe realized that fee future 
of fee European Union was in 
danger. There was too much em- 
phasis on fee common currency 
and not enough on the political 
integration of Europe. Hie 
people of Europe were feeling 
increasingly alienated because 
decisions were foisted on them 
by governments that seemed in- 
sensitive to their concerns. 

The common currency' was 
moving forward with the force 
of a steamroller, although fee 
French public was preoccupied 


with the problem of unemploy- 
ment ana tended to blame fee 
common currency for its per- 
sistence, and the German public 
was reluctant to see fee stability 
ofthe Deutsche mark diluted by 
a European central bank which 
included the Mediterranean 
countries. Those countries, par- 
ticularly Italy, had so much to 
gain from the common ciHrency 
that they were determined to be 
included in fee first round. 

To make the introduction of 
the euro palatable to its voters, 
the German government had in- 
sisted on a very tough stability 
pact Thoughtful people realized 
that wifeout any leeway in either 
monetary or fiscal policy, un- 
employment could not be re- 
duced. To stimulate employ- 
ment, rigidities in fee labor 


cause a temporary rise in fee 
budget deficit which was not 
permitted under the stability 
pact There was a danger feat thie 
Union would be sacrificed on the 
altar of the common currency. It 
was as if Keynes had never lived. 
If you recall, it was Keynes who 
warned against the adverse ef- 
fects of England going back on 
fee gold standard in 1926. 

Against this background, 
some leading citizens of Europe 
initiated a public debate on fee 
future. It encountered a remark- 
ably strong response. It led to a 
Congress of Europe in May 
1998, on the 50th anniversary of 
the first Congress. A Declaration 
of Interdependence was adopted 
which spelled out. the political 
foundations of the European 
Union. The Declaration played a 
major role in fee elections for the 
European Parliament in 1999, 


market Would KaVeTtti beTfc^^aixF'bdWihg to public pressure; 
moved and die very onerous; fee governments of Europe yiel- 
taxes imposed on wages would ded greater power to fee Euro- 
have to be reduced. That would pean Parliament I don't remem- 


ber whether this was ac- 
complished by a treaty or by the; 
Parliament convening itself into 
a Constitutional Assembly. But 
one way or another, the new 
constitutional structure that I 
described before emerged. n 
Fortunately, 1998 showed 
some economic pickup because 
of fee reduction in interest rates 
which occurred in 1996, and sq 
die introduction of the common 
currency went off wifeout a 
hitch. In the year 2001 or 2002, 1 
don’t remember which, renewed 
economic weakness led to th£ 
abandonment of the stability 
pact and it was replaced by a 
common fiscal policy which suc- 
ceeded in stimulating the econ+ 
omy by reducing the taxation o[ 
wages. That is how we scraped 
by and reached fee benign con? 
di tioqs of the year 2007. 

- ' This colhmem, provided to thP 
Herald Tribune, war the text of a 
speech given by the financier ai 
the World Economic Forum. 


D AVOS, Switzerland — A 
year ago there was virtual 
unanimity in Western Europe 
on fee inevitability of the com- 
mon European currency. 

Today this is no longer the 
case. Or to be exact, there no 
longer is confidence that die 
“euro" will arrive on time, on 
the terms now established, which 
are essentially those of the Ger- 
man central bank, fee Bundes- 
bank. However, if those terms 
are not accepted, will Germans 
themselves accept the euro? 

A reasonable expectation is 
that there will indeed be a euro, 
but one under greater political 
influence than in fee existing 
program. 

This is what the French pro- 
pose. However, fee head of fee 
Bundesbank, Hans Tietmeyer, 
says that “the treaty is the 
treaty," and in an interview 
wife the International Herald 
Tribune [Jan. 20) cited the 
statement of his predecessor, 
Karl-Otto Poehl, that an inde- 


By William P faff 


pendent central bank is a crucial 
element in a single currency. It 
thus also is possible feat fee 
common currency’s arrival will 
be postponed because of a scan- 
dalously belated recognition of 
fee problems entailed in recon- 
ciling the positions defended by 
the two most important of the 
euro’s founding members. 

The positive scenarios for the 
currency are dramatic indeed: a 
powerful rival to fee dollar in 
international commerce and fi- 
nance, perhaps the successor to 
the dollar. Raw’ materials and 
energy, perhaps more, eventu- 
ally denominated in euros. 
Boom in Europe because of re- 
duced costs in doing transna- 
tional business, and fee advan- 
tages of conducting external 
trade in a powerful common 
currency. New dynamism in 
Central European economies 
annexed to the expanding West 
European economy. 


Getting from here to there, 
though, can no longer be seen 
in the simplistic terms common 
a year ago. The single market 
had been easily achieved; why 
not the single currency? The 
reasons are many. 

“The serious discussion has 
only begun,” a French econ- 
omist, Jean -Jacques Rosa, 
wrote in the Figaro newspaper 
recently. * ‘The object of fee de- 
bate is simply what no one until 
now has decided: What is this 
euro to be? A duplicate of the 
Deutsche mark, or a more flex- 
ibly managed money?" 

The Bundesbank position is 
clear. It has to be an interna- 
tionalized Deutsche mark, “as 
strong or stronger’’ than the 
mark. The German public, 
already doubtful about this 
new currency, will accept no 
less — or so we are told. 

The problem lies in France, 
and to a lesser extent in the other 


In Israel, Economy Over Ideology 


J ERUSALEM — On fee 
same day the Hebron agree- 
ment was signed by Benjamin 
Netanyahu and Yasser Arafat 
came another piece of signi- 
ficant. if overshadowed, news: 
The International Monetary 
Fund announced it would re- 
classify Israel as an econom- 
ically advanced stale, adding its 
name to the prestigious list that 
includes the United States. Ja- 
pan and Singapore. 

A country becomes eligible 
fra this exclusive dub when the 
service sector becomes the dom- 
inant factor in the national econ- 
omy. This means that the citizens 
function more as consumers and 
producers than as soldiers. 

Both fee Hebron agreement 
and the IMF decision on Jan. 15 
reflect Israel’s readiness to 
choose the economy over ideo- 
logy . and fee fact feat a growing 
□umber of Israelis want to bal- 
ance the collective aspirations 
Of the nation wife fee quality of 
individual civilian lives. 

During fee Israeli elections 
last year, Mr. Netanyahu prom- 
ised to do what proved to be 
impossible: realize Israel's col- 
lective aspirations by being 
rough on the Arabs and improve 
fee nation’s economy by privat- 
izing enterprises under state 
control, including the health. 


By Yaron Ezrahi 


electric and transportation 
industries. 

These were contradictory 
aims because to complete the 
privatization, Mr. Netanyahu 
needed foreign investment Yet 
two months after his election, 
fee Tel Aviv stock market lost 
16 percent of its value, largely 
because of concern that his eco- 
nomic policies would clash 
with his nationalistic politics. 

And in September, violence 
by Palestinians protesting the 
opening of an archaeological 
tunnel m Jerusalem’s Old City 
persuaded many big foreign in- 
vestors to freeze their plans. 

These events forced Mr. Net- 
anyahu to resolve his contra- 
dictory campaign promises by 
signaling to Wall Street that be 
would choose peace over ideo- 
logy. Indeed, in the two days 
after tire Hebron pact was 
signed, the Tel Aviv stock mar- 
ket rose by 3 percent. 

The agreement also symbol- 
izes Israel's new identity. Both 
Mr. Netanyahu and fee late 
Yitzhak Rabin embraced the 
peace process reluctantly. But 
Mr. Rabin, the most revered 
warrior in Israel's modem his- 
tory. was converted to it on the 


battlefield, when he saw fee tra- 
gic price paid by his soldiers. 
For his part, Mr. Netanyahu was 
converted to it by mounting 
pressure to pump up Israel's 
economy. 

Mr. Netanyahu defended his 
decision to sign the Hebron ac- 
cord as a capitulation to ne- 
cessity. This is true. But for 
many Israelis, the agreement 
was also a moral choice be- 
tween the nonviolent chal- 
lenges of fee global market- 
place and the bloody challenges 
of the battlefield. 

Most Israelis have come to 
realize that the desire for a decent 
life has been deferred too long by 
the demands of fee struggle to 
return to the Holy I -and. 

The Hebron agreement al- 
lows Israelis to begin focusing 
on the prosaic concerns of daily 
living. This may be less than 
inspiring for religious and na- 
tionalistic Jews, but for the rest 
of us the agreement is a high 
point in the struggle to free our 
country from the dangerous 
messianic dream of restoring 
the old kingdom. 

The writer, author of the forth- 
coming “Rubber Bullets: Power 
and Conscience in Modem Is- 
rael ," contributed this comment 
to The New York Tunes. 


countries not now in the 
Deutsche mark zone but eager 
to join the single currency. 
France’s currency has been 
pegged to the mark since the 
1980s, because France has 
wanted to make an international 
demonstration of the rigor of its 
economic management It has 
unquestionably succeeded. But 
France also wants fee euro man- 
aged in a way that pays attention 
to the real economy in fee mem- 
ber states, and to growth and 
employment there. 

This is a confrontation that 
until now everyone has preten- 
ded not to notice. Even now, 
wife the problem out in the 
open, too many are choosing to 
respond wife solutions that are 
currently unrealistic. 

Mr. Rosa concludes his ana- 
lysis by saying that the euro, 
like every other money in the 
world, has to be controlled by a 
single government. 

A former member of the 
Council on Monetary Policy of 
fee Banque de France, the 
French central bank, Jean Bois- 
sonnat, says the same thing. 

“Without European eco- 
nomic government the euro is in 
danger of exploding. I am not 
sure that Europe's leaders real- 
ize the scale of the changes 
awaiting us.” 

But everyone knows that be- 


tween now and 1999, when the 
euro is to come into existence, 
no central European politico* 
economic authority is going to. 
be created. Mr. Rosa proposes 
feat fee whole thing be delayed* 
while experts are put to work to. 
think through how this Euro : 
pean economic authority is go^ 
ing to be created. 

One wonders, however, if ex- 
perts are really going to solve' 
the problem. It is not a technical 
problem; it has to do with the 
fundamental issue of sover- 
eignty. A European economic 1 
authority separate from a polit- 
ical authority is bard to imagine. 
Yet a real government able to 
set Europe-wide budget and fi- 
nancial policies, and deal wife 
the social consequences of cer- 
tain budget decisions, is not in 
the cards. Least of all at a mo- 
ment when the European Union 
says that it is about to expand 
eastward. 

Yet if the problems surround-i 
ing fee euro cause the common 1 
currency program to be post- 
poned, will it ever happen?. 
Good Europeans like to say 
that unification is like bicyc- 
ling; if you don't keep going-, 
you fall over. But what if you 
have taken the wrong track and 
have run into a wall? 

International Herald Tribune. 

© Los Angeles Times Syndicate. _ 




limit! 


Back in the Difficult Present, Will the Euro Ever Materialize? « 


IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO. : 

1897: Cflapian Railway a Special stove by fee master- 


ST. PETERSBURG — A great 
deal of energy has been shown 
in pushing forward the railroad 
from Samarkand to Tashkent. 
An Imperial ukase has just 
been issued approving the de- 
cision of the Committee of fee 
Ministers of the Council of 
State to complete with the least 
delay possible fee prolongation 
of the Trans-Caspian railroad. 
The work should be completed 
in three years and a half. 

1922: ‘Fumata’ Watch 

ROME — Crowds assembled 
in the Piazza San Pietro to await 
fee result of the first voting for 
the election of the new Pope by 
fee Cardinals. Twice a day, 
people watch for the ' 'fumaia/' 
or smoke, issuing from a small 
chimney of the Sistine Chapel, 
Which reveals whether the Pope 
has been elected or noL After 
each scrutiny fee votes are burnt 


in a special stove by fee master- 
of ceremonies. If the result is 
negative, some moist straw i& 
mixed with the ballot papers.- 
and fee consequent dark hue of< 
the “fumata" gives fee re- 
quired intimation. But if the 
pope has been elected, dry straw 
is used, and then thin white 
fumes announce fee news. 

1947: Dutch Gold 

WASHINGTON — German 
documents recently discovered 
in the Russian Zone show that 
the Germans in war-time trans- 
actions wife fee Swiss sent 
nearly $70,000,000 of Dutch 
gold to Switzerland, which fee 
Swiss accepted as part of Ger- W 
man gold stocks. The Allied 
governments waived further, 
claims of this nature in Switzer- 
land. American officials are. 
considering approaching Britain 
and France as to the possibility 
of making a moral appeal to 
Switzerland on this Dutch gold. 


i 

‘i , 





r.\bfc » 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 


OPINION/LETTERS 


In Banking Brouhaha, 
Swiss and Jews Benefit 


i By 'William Safire 

T) Pl °" Partial jnsdce to a mas- 

■'land, ®S2S* geonaioii, with macks of 

- woAs »- w 


{Dot protecting the assets of its 
fdepo sitors , m this case the money 
|of European Jews entrusted to 
,-Swiss safekeeping during the 
Holocaust 

, When the World Jewish Con- 
A rgress and U.S. Sense bankms 
-committee led by Atfonse D’Am- 
ato asked searching questions 
about the missing ' Swiss 
hankers reacted guiltily arrog- 
antly awi stupidly. They stone- 
walled for a year; one of their 
diplomats planned to laim^ h » 
public-relations “war 

Jhose demanding an a 

tine big bank was caught 

ding records that might prove on- 




Things got a little ogiy last 
week with politicians thwatwihig 
a New York boycott against Swiss 
honldng (though nobody was pre- 
pared to cut down on Swiss 
chocolate), while the Swiss press 
(which had courageously ferreted 
out the bellicose diplomat's in- 
ternal memo) reported threat* of a 
wave of anti-Semitism if this pub- 
licity gave Switzerland a black 
eye. 

Isn’t this terrible? No. This is 
good for all concerned. 

- It’s good for this generation of 
Swiss, who can at last look their 
nation’s past in the eye. Neutrality 
was bettm- than Nazi occupation; 

It meant helping both Axis and 
Allies (with Allen Dulles of the 
American Office of Strategic Ser- 
vices operating a valuable listen- 
ing post in Switzerland). And if 
belated restitution of misappro- 
priated deposits assuages this gen- passions but get to justice. & 
eration’s conscience, let it be pay- koller pledged full cooperation 
Back time. 

- It’s good for Swiss banking. 

Rainer Gut, head of Cr&fit Suisse, 

Stepped in to stop the stalling by 
calling for creation of an initial 
fund to start restoring the nation’s 
reputation for integrity. That 
broke the logjam; he understands 
Ms industry's need for global 
trust. 

Now Paul Volcker, a former 
U.S. central banker who has 


It’s the end of the don’t-make- 
ttouble syndrome. 

Macabre old joke: Two Jews 
are lined up.against a waH to be 
shot 

When One asks for a b lindfo ld 
and a last cigarette, tte other whis- 
pers to him, “Don’t make 
trouble.’' 

_ I ran into the Nobel Prize- wm- 

Wiere2°^re- eco- 

nomic forum, and asked him 
about the presumed reaction by 
some angered Swiss against local 
Jews. 

“Anti-Semites don't need an 
excuse to be anti-Semitic,” he 
replied with equanimity. And the 
Jewish leaders here are not in- 
timidated by the veiled threats of 
backlash. Times — and. Jewish 
atrimHft* — have changed. 

One reason for the end of the 
craven don’t-make-trooble syn- 
drome is the existence of a strong 
Israel. And die current diplomatic 1 
and banking. dispute about, eco- 
nomic justice* far dead depositors 
is good for that nation, too. 

That’s because the Swiss pres- 
ident. Arnold Roller, has a coun- 
terpart to deal with on this issue. 
Pome Minister Benjamin Netan- 
yahu of Israel is here, inviting 
investors to build plants in Israel 
and lobbying European leaders to 
provide Palestinians with sophis- 
ticated border-checkpoint equip- 
ment to deter terrorism. 

In his meeting with Mr. Roller, 
Mr. Netanyahu said that Switzer- 
land could not leave this as a mys- 
tery — that it was best to calm the 
* ' Mr. 
in 

uncovering the truth - and has 
out against anti-Semitism, 
of the* Knesset and 
Swiss Parliament will weak to- 



Bjr HAWJGEWL- 


‘Baghdad by the Bay 9 
Loses a Beloved Voice 


By Haul Farhi 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


eVejy one’s trust, can assess the 
depth of the debt without the har- 
assment of the secrecy-prone. 

. It’s good for the Jews. Andndt 


“You can’t bring back the. 6 
million,” Mr. Netanyahu told me 
Sunday night, “but you can do the 
morally decent thing for victims 
fast disappearing. 

“The time has come to do 
justice to the truth. That's what we 
expect of Switzerland, and I was 
assured that’s what Switzerland 
will do.” 

• The NewYorkTimes. ■* 


Culture or Vulture? 

Regarding “ Pop Culture's to 
Blame When Young Don't Learn' 
(Meanwhile, Jan. 9) by Jane K. 
Strauss : ' 

My 12-year-son attends a pres- 
tigious English-language school 
in Europe. He is shocked because 
the other students are so “rode,” 
by which he means that they con- 
stantly lace their conversation 
with gratuitous obscenities picked 
up from compact Hides and 
videos. Teachers’ effort to curb 
this are, as Ms. Strauss avers, both 
time-consuming and ineffective. 

Most pop culture is “Made in 
America,” so there is a particular 
arms on Americans to support Ms. 
Strauss’s call to action. But Euro- 
peans also must voice their op- 
. position to this offensive material, 
fi ght the peer pressure that co- 
erces children to boy it and imitate 
it, and protest to the companies 
that sell it 

MARTIN BARBER.. 

Sarajevo, Bosnia* 
Herzegovina. 

Rather than trying to hide artist- 
ic expression from foe hungry eyes 
and earn of children, as Ms. Strauss 
suggests, a more astute course of 
action for schools would be to use 
such expression as a starting point ' 
fey the teaching qf informed, in- 


telligent ideas about sexuality and 
violence in our culture. 

When artistic expression is in- 
volved, not all vulgarity or vi- 
olence or sexuality is gratuitous. It 
does not help Ms. Strauss’s ar- 
gument that she holds the First 
Amendment in contempt And it 
would not hurt for her to acknow- 
ledge that there must continue to 
be forums for adults to learn from 
art that has not been “edited" to 
remove a powerful part of the 
artist’s message. 

MASON COLBY. 

Paris. 

People and Politicians 

Regarding “Yes, America, a 
Single Currency for the Coming 
Superpower ” (Opinion. Jan. 16) 
by Roy Denman: 

Sir Roy has no conception of 
how unattractive the terms are in 
which he presents the case for 
European integration. He writes 
that the British are hostile to a 
single European currency because 
their press has convinced them 
that “European integration is a 
plot for die takeover of Britain by 
beel-clidting Gauleiters.” 

He later concedes that German 
opinion is also divided on a joint 
currency, before adding with ob- 
vious admiration, “but issues of 
this kind are not decided there by 


public opinion polls but by the 
political class.” So Germany is no 
longer ruled by Gauleiters; it is 
ruled instead — as the European 
Union of Sir Roy’s dreams no 
doubt would be — by a “political 
class” heedless of die views of 
ordinary citizens. No Fleet Street 
Europhobe could have made the 
point more eloquently. 

GEOFFREY WHEATCROFT. 

London. 

Sir Roy seeks to dismiss le- 
gitimate concern about die direc- 
tion Europe is moving in by im- 
plying that anything other than 
unconditional acceptance of die 
decisions taken by the “political 
class” — as opposed to die people 
— is a sign of infantile fear. 

The irony here is that Sir Roy’s 
article appeared only days after 
the German government decided 
to impose visa requirements cm 
children bom and brought up in 
Germany — mostly of Turkish 
origin — who do not satisfy the 
racially based criteria for German 
citizenkhip. 

By subjecting a vulnerable sec- 
tion of the population to this ma- 
licious 'requirement, the “political 
class" in Germany has shown that 
fear of “Gauleiters" is by do 
means irrational or infantile. 

AID AN KENDRICK. 

Munich. ' . 


W ASHINGTON — The sig- 
nal attribute of the daily 
newspaper column is whether it is 
indispensable, whether, in the par- 
lance of “The Front Page.” il 
“begs to be read” each morning. 
Herb Caen wrote a column like 
that 

For 58 years — a time so long 
that it's not just a record for an 

MEANWHILE 

American newspaper column but 
a triumph of human endurance — 
Mr. Caen pounded out columns 
for the San Francisco Chronicle 
and. briefly, the rival Examiner. 
He was often a hack (a writer can ’t 
avoid that in 16,000 columns), 
though more often he manufac- 
tured words and images with the 
ringing clarity of poetry. Either 
way, if you fitted in San Francisco, 
you had to read him. Mr. Caen, 
who (Red Saturday at 80, was in- 
dispensable. 

Mr. Caen wrote six columns a 
week for the Chronicle, all of 
them about his adopted city (he 
was born in Sacramento). 

To an outsider, the column’s 
appeal may have been inexplic- 
able. Certainly, it didn't travel 
well beyond San Francisco, nor 
was it meant to. 

Mr. Caen was like an old friend 
who dropped by each morning for 
coffee, come to tell you some hil- 
arious tidbit or idiosyncratic piece 
of gossip gleaned from his ca- 
rousings the night before. Read- 
ing Mr. Caen, you never felt like 
you lived in something so alien as 
a city; you lived in. were pan of, a 
town. 

Mr. Caen actually wrote two 
kinds of columns, each distinct in 
tone and temperament. The first 
were his five-times-per-week 
"items” columns that brimmed 
with quips and puns, short ob- 
servations and news blurbs — 
“scooplets," he called them — 
that often (though not always) 
turned out to be dead-on accurate. 
Mr. Caen modeled these columns 
on Walter Wincheli’s rai-a-tai-tat 
style, each item separated by an 
ellipsis. Lake the legendary 
Wmcbeli, his daily output came 
from an amazing network of tip- 
sters. He could also be unspar- 
ingly funny; once, when the 
columnist Warren Hinckie left 
Mr. Caen’s Chronicle for the Ex- 
aminer, Mr. Caen observed that 


Mr. Hinckle’s departure “would 
raise the intelligence level of both 
newspapers." 

Mr. Caen's weekday columns 
were also the defining' scorecard 
for who was up or down polit- 
ically. Willie Brown, the former 
speaker of the California As- 
sembly and now San Francisco’s 
mayor, made frequent appear- 
ances in the column, whether 
pushing some bill or buying ex- 
pensive suits at the tony men's 
shop Wilkes Bashford (owned by 
another friend of Mr. Caen’s and 
also plugged unmercifully in his 
column). He could be less than 
charitable in adjusting to yet an- 
other of the social waves that have 
periodically lapped over San 
Francisco — the "beats" of the 
1950s (Mr. Caen is credited with 
coming the term “beatnik”), the 
hippies of the 1 960s. the gay and 
women's movements of the 1970s 
and beyond. 

The more endearing — and ul- 
timately more endunng — Mr. 
Caen is the one who came to our 
doorstep every Sunday morning. 
Mr. Caen’s Sunday column aban- 
doned the three-dot format for a 
lyrical, impressionistic love note 
to his city'. These were filled with 
images of street scenes, of clat- 
tering cable cars and the sound of 
the foghorns on Alcatraz. In one of 
these “Baghdad by the Bay" 
pieces, Mr. Caen describes a party 
at the office of the lawyer Melvin 
Belli that is interrupted by the 
sound of a car crash in the street: 
"An ambulance crew tenderly 
pries the victim out of her car. She 
is wearing a black dress and 
pearls, and a stole is strewn on the 
from seat. So she was on her way 
to dinner, to meet her date. The 
lawyers stand and watch, still sip- 
ping their drinks, as the ambulance 
pulls away. Through the crowd 
walks a Chinese boy. a wooden 
box under his arm. and he is chant- 
ing, 'Shine, shoeshine, who wants 
a shine.* and you wonder who was 
waiting where for the girl in the 
black dress and pearls." 

That Sunday column is from 
1961. There were hundreds more 
to follow. There was a similarity 
about them, although close read- 
ers could see how Mr. Caen’s love 
for bis adopted city had grown 
more complicated with time. It’s 
as good a chronicle of one man 
and one town as there may be. 

The.Wushingiott Post. 


BOOKS 


M.r 


■frri- tioii 


win: a*, 


FOR THE HELL OF IT: The life 

qnd Times of Abide Hoffman 

By Jonah Raskin. 315 pages. $24S5. 
University qf California Press. 
Reviewed by Jonathan Yardley 

A BRAHAM (Abbie) Hoffman was 
bom in 1936, the. child of Russiare 
Jewish parents who had matte a decent 
life for themselves and their family m 
the Massachusetts manufacturing city 
of Worcester. There was little in ins 
childhood to suggest that thjee decades 
big he would become one of the 
paradigmatic figures of the social and 
cultural rebellion of the 1960s and 
J970S. His relationship with his father 
was tense, but otherwise, Jonah Raskin 
writes, "he seemed to grow up happy 


and carefree,” die “epitome of the nice 
Jewish boy,” ampdestrebeDioos streak 
being the oiihr hint of things to crane. 

But the 1960s transformed a great 
many people in ways thru would have 
been utterly unpredictable only a few 
years earlier. It may seem odd that Ab- 
bie Hoffman, in many ways conven- 
tional as. well as deeply. attuned to his 
Jewish heritage, should have tamed into 
the cafeufetedly outrageous leader of 
Yippie!, “a put on and a prank” that 
became one of the decade’s more 
widely publicized counterculture orga- 
nizations, tan the upheavals of the peri- 
od enlisted a great many unlikely fead- 
ers and followers. The truth, as Raskin'S 
sympathetic but dispassionate bio- 
graphy suggests, is that Abhte Hoffman 
was a bomb waiting to be de ro gated 


4 


CHESS 


By Robert Byrne 


1 ARRY Kasparov beat Veselin To- 
J palov in Round 1 in die Las P alm a s 
temational TournamenL 
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There were at least three aspects of 
this bright young that, at least in 
hindsight, we can identify as ingredients 
for an unusual life. One was die 
internal conflict between the straight 
lived by bis father, a man he simul- 
taneously admired and resented, and the 
rebellious instincts within himself. A 
second was bis infatuation with the 
movtes.lns sense oflife “as a movie” — 
a common American phenomenon, by 
die way — and his innate understanding 
of how the mass media operate. 

The -third, and overall die most im- 
portant, was the Bipolar Disorder, more 
commonly known as manic depression, 
from which he apparently suffered. Al- 
most from the beginning bat more and 
more so as be grew older and the illness 
was neither identified nor treated, Hoff- 
man was subject to wild mood swings. In 
his manic period he was king of die 
Yippies, star of street theater, leader of 
die Flower Brigade, literal and figurative 
outlaw. 

This was the Abbic Hoffman whom 
die nation saw ni gh tly on the news, an 
engagingly outre humorist and in-your- 
face radical whose antics and posturings 
were just what television was made for, 
a reality of which be was keenly aware. 
He had many moments at center stage, 
none mere dramatic than the streets of 
Chicago during die 1968 Democratic 
. Convention; a psychiatrist who ex- 
amined him a decade later concluded 
that during the convention Hoffman's 
“behavior was out of control and was no 
longer calculated, or for deliberate ef- 
fect, but . . : deteriorated into frag- 
mented, irrational and at times delu- 
sional proportions entirely inappropriate 
with and without obvious direction." 

hi his depressed periods, which be- 
came more and more common later in 
his life, Hoffman was an entirely dif- 
ferent man. Well before he achieved his 
brief notoriety, living in New York and 
makin g his way through its radical un- 
derground, he wrote tetters that were 
“introspective, moody, insecure and 
full of sadness.” 

In 1979, die same psychiatrist quoted 
above “noted that Abbic evidences 
mental and motor retardation, that his; 
every move seems painfully slow, and 
that he speaks in such a low voice that 
one finds oneself moving closer to 
hear.” ft was while he was in such a 
‘ state, in April 1989, that Hoffman laced 
a glass o± Scotch whisky with pheno- 
barbetal and kQled himself, a departure 
for which he bad long been preparing. 

That Hoffman was the victim of a 
physiological Alness having profound, 
behavioral and emotional effects was 
not conclusrvdy.proved, but all the ev- 
idence points to it. “How and why he 
became a radical isn’t entirely clear 
because he obscured his own political 
evolution," Raskin writes. 

It may havebeco purely accidental that 
tins trowed man came to a semblance of 
maturity tea time when the country was 
ready to pop unde open. There can be no 
doubt that ho seized the day. 

JonathanYariHey is onthe staff ofThe 
Washington Post. 


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Stefano Nicolao. center, surrounded by his expert helpers at the atelier; the Caffe Florian in Venice provides the perfect backdrop for these 1 8th~century costumes . 


When Life’s a Carnival, Venetian Tailor Is the Designer 


By Roderick Conway Morris 

' hwmarimtal Herald Tribune 

V ENICE — One of the most 
enduring and productive off- 
shoots of the spontaneous, 
grassroots revival of the 
Venice Carnival in the late 1970s was 
the creation of Nicolao Atelier, a sar- 
- tonal box of wonders, a few minutes* 
walk Grom the Rialto Bridge. 

, This year's Carnival, which marks the 
200th anniversary of die last one before 
the fall of the Venetian Republic (and 
runs until Feb. 1 1). will undoubtedly be 
infused with nostalgia for the much- 
lamented (by the Venetians, at least) an- 
cien regime. And. if you see some reveler 
dressed in stylish 18th-century costume, 
whether as a gondolier or grande dame, 

. the chances are that the clothes were 
made by Stefano Nicolao and his dozen 
expen and nimble-fingered helpers. 

Although Nicolao still regards himself 
as primarily a cinematic and theatrical 


costumer for any historical period — his 
costumes for the recent film “Farinelli’* 
won a string of awards — he also has an 
ever-increasing stream of private clients 
coming to ask for pieces for evening and 
even day wear. 

*‘1 think I must be the only tailor in 
Venice who isn't the son or daughter of a 
tailor or dressmaker, ’ ’ said the tall, blond 
and bearded. Venetian-born Nicolao, at 
his workshop on die eve of Carnival last 
week. “I started by studying theatrical 
design at the Fine Arts Academy here in 
Venice, but before finishing went on the 
stage as an actor. I realized after a while 
that I was really more interested in what 
went on backstage, and I had the op- 
portunity to work at the city theater in 
Trieste and learn the tricks of the trade. 
To my amazement, I was then asked to 
run the costume department, which was 
a rather frightening prospect, but I took 
the plunge and accepted. 

“In the first years of the revival of the 
Venice Carnival, there were dozens of 


different theater groups performing, not 
to mention a sudden rise is demand for 
costumes generally, and this gave me 
the chance to return to live and work in 
my hometown, • something I’d always 
wanted to do." 

International commissions followed, 
including malting costumes in the Hi- 
malayas for the "Marco Polo” film 
spectacular. 

“It was an extraordinary experi- 
ence," he said. “We were trekking and 
riding on ponies at over 3.500 meters, 
working with authentic natural mater- 
ials, and dying, cutting and sewing with 
no electricity in places where life had 
hardly changed since Marco Polo's 
day," Nicolao said. 

Among his somewhat less arduous 
subsequent tasks has been the making of 
some exceptionally sumptuous Renais- 
sance costumes for a Lyric Opera of 
Chicago production of “Don Carlos.*’ 

Nicolao has amassed a considerable 
persona] collection of historical cloches 


from the 18th century onward, many of 
which he has bought at country auctions, 
often in France. “These authentic ex- 
amples are a constant source of ref- 
erence for me. as is the important re- 
search that has been carried out at places 
like the Metropolitan Museum in New 
Y ork and foe Victoria & Albert Museum 
in London." 

“By studying the past you can learn 
alternative techniques." he said. “For 
example, in an 18th-centiny-style dress, 
instead of wearing a corset underneath, 
you can build foe stiffening into the 
bodice, which can make the dress more 
flexible and comfortable — but looks 
the same from the outside.” 

Many of Nicolao 's private clients 
originally came to him to rent a costume 
for Carnival or a ball or party, and have 
since come back again to order 
something specially made for them. 
“The point about evening dress is that 
it's actually a kind of costume or fancy 
dress. And I suppose most of the designs 


I've devised for private clients are in 
some ways 'historical,' or at least in- 
spired by forms from the past — whether 
it's something from the 18th century or 
the 1920s or '30s. But I’m not a normal 
stylist in that I don't try to impose my 
taste on my clients. They usually come 
with an idea of their own, a fantasy 
almost, and we work on it together.” 

NICOLAO handmade dress 
usually costs 900,000 to 1.8 
million lire ($560 to $1,120). 
and up to 4 million for a really 
intricate wedding dress (his wedding 
dresses, like his historical costumes, can 
also be rented, from a wardrobe of 
around 6.000). The exotic range of Nic- 
olao's styles make it well-nigh im- 
possible for two people in the same room 
to find themselves wearing foe same 
dress, even when it comes to fabrics, of 
which be keeps a vast and varied stock. 

“Fortunately, firms Hire Bevilacqua 
and Rubeili here in Venice and others in. 


for example. Lyon, still produce many 
'historical* patterns — though often these 
are now made principally for upholstery 
and furnishings. Another useful source 
are producers who specialize in materials 
for ecclesiastical vestments.” he said. . 

To coincide with the anniversary .of 
foe fall of die Republic on May 12, 
“Serenissima: The Am of Fashion jn 
Venice, From the 13th to the 18th Cen- 
tury,” an exhibition drawn from public 
and private collections in Venice and 
elsewhere, embracing pictures, histor- 
ical clothes, shoes, fans and other con- 
temporary accessories, wfil open at the 
Accademia Italians in London (until 
July 20). The show is a new version of 
one held in New York in the winter of 
1995-96, and once again Nicolao has 
been invited to design and stage a cat- 
walk -cum -historical drama, called 
“Venetian Reflections.” for a gala 
evening at foe Westminster Theatre on 
June 3, illustrating the development of 
Venetian fashion down foe centuries., 




I 1 


Sum of Its Parts: Model Agency for the ’ 90s 


By Jennifer Steinbauer 

Net*- York Times Service 

N EW YORK — Ask anyone 
who runs a New York mod- 
eling agency what gener- 
ates bus, and the answer is 
definitive: female superstars. Ask 
whether an agency can survive with- 
out them, and the answer will not be 
so definitive. 

No one knows this better than 
Natasha Esch, 25. Esch. the soon-to- 
depart president of Wilhelm ina Mod- 
els. is quick to admit that her agency 
is not what it was 20 or even 10 years 
ago. when, along with Elite Model 
Management and Ford Models. Wil- 
helmina dominated the business. 
Gone are the Kim Alexises and 
Beverly Peeles and Imans who once 
glamorized the agency's portfolio. In 
their place are mostly unknown faces 
— many working steadily as 
everything from catalogue models to 
fittings models for designers — and a 
few midlevel celebrities like Daisy 
Fuentes. 

“We never book girls from there," 
said Bryan Ban try, an agent and pro- 
ducer who works with leading fashion 
photographers. “Elite is chic, and 
Foid was always sort of all-American, 
and Wilheimina is just kind of 
tacky." 


But that is not the same as un- 
profitable. And Esch. who walks with 
purpose in her Prada shoes and chats 
as knowledgeably about capital 
structure as about design, is tactical 
rather than tacky. Yes. she finds child 
models through Kmart photo studios. 
And she sells Wilhelm ina backpacks 
and black bomber jackets with her 
logo cm the back. 

Esch, who has grown weary of the 
modeling business and wants to work 
for a fashion house or magazine, says 
she will leave behind an agency with 
a healthier bottom line. It is one that 
she and her father, Horst-DieterEsch, 
who bought Wilheimina in 1989 and 
will take over from his daughter, have 
recast in deals far removed from the 
catwalk or foshion pages. 

“Do we have foe same prestige as 
20 years ago?" Esch said in an in- 
terview at her Park Avenue South 
office. “Absolutely not But I think 
Wilheimina is the best it can be for 
this day and age. Back then, there was 
more prestige, but less money.” 

Esch, who earned her degree from 
Babson College, a business school in 
Wellesley. Massachusetts, makes no 
apologies for ventures like the one 
with Kmart. “We have repositioned 
how a modeling agency makes 
money,” she said. “It is not just 
booking models but building products 


around merchandising. The power 
lies in getting your name out there.’' 

Esch said that in her five years, 
Wilhelmina’s annual revenues have 
gown to $20 million from $12 mil- 
lion. While she declined to disclose net 
profit, she did say the agency easily 
makes the 5 percent net profit that is 
usual in foe business. Wilhelmina’s 
transformation from stylish fashion 
agency to house of backpacks and 
even plus-size models is a result of big 
shifts in the modeling agency business 
in New York. An increasing chunk of 
the market has been nibbled away by 
new, smaller players like Next Man- 
agement, Karin Models and Women 
Model Management, whose stated 
goal is to discover and build stars. 

M ANY agencies now have 
to settle for slimmer 
profits to retain or lure 
away from other agencies 
the hot young female laces. That 
means accepting smaller commissions 
from models and staying lean to com- 
pete with the 40-odd agencies that 
have sprouted over the last five years. 

“Today, you have 12 or 15 im- 
portant girls at 10 different agencies,’ ’ 
said Jerome Bonnouvrier, founder of 
the agency DNA Model Manage- 
ment “Ten years ago, they would 
have all been in two agencies." 


To make up for its lack of hot 
young models. Wilheimina has ex- 
panded less glamorous segments — 
“parts" models (who lend, say, a 
foot or a hand to an advertisement), 
plus-size models, older models, child 
and male models — as well as mar- 
keting tie-ins. Through its catalogues, 
anyone can own a tiny T-shirt ($15). 
backpack ($25) or guide to modeling 
($14). In the next few months, the 
agency will begin selling advertising, 
promoting products and running con- 
tests on America Online. 

What of the industty rumors that 
Esch's leave-taking signals that the 
company will be sold? “Totally un- 
founded,” Esch said. 

That is how Natasha Esch wants to 
leave things. 

And while she was criticized as too 
young and inexperienced from the 
word go, many in the industry tip 
their hats to foie young woman who 
sued Elite for snatching away 
Beverly Peele (later settling for what 
she said was six figures) and dis- 
missed the head of her Los Angeles 
division in her first year. 

“I don’t think we have seen foe last 
of Natasha Esch,” said Bandy, the 
agenL "She was fortunate enough to 
have a father to set her up, and she 
learned on foe job. I think she’ll be a 
big name in die future.” 



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INTERNATIONAL 


SUSINESS/FINANCE 


TUESDAX, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 


PAGE 11 


Statistical Ruling Aids 
’taly’s Bid to Join EMU 


By Tam Buericlc 

J/Uernaietui Herald Tribtm* 


“It seems Eurostat is returning to 
more normal procedures,' 1 a Finance 


^ — ww uwuuu ^auiibuui^, a j 

BRUSSELS t I Ministiy official in Bonn said. “That 

was w]nt was traiy missing £r 


W 10 join 

in 1999 got a mode* 


truly missing from the 

France Telecom decision.” 

Nevertheless, thearcane nature of the 
decisions served to underscore the fact 




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.! product this year. 

i* “pro hy Eurostat was one of 
decisions announced, by the Lux- 
^fflnbomg-tMsed EU statistical agency 
^mat were aimed at setting dear account- 
*Ang ground rules for European govem- 
^oos struggling to reach foe deficit and 
^debt criteria this year for joining aEuro- 
.ape^mouetoy union at hs outset 

The decisions did not arouse the level 
of controversy that followed Eurostat’s 
endorsement in November of a one-time 
paym ent from France Telecom to the 
- French Treasury that would reduce the 
French deficit by roughly 0.5 percent of 
GDP this year. 

The decisions covered !«nan«r amna 
involving many of the 15 EU countries, 

' and their effect win cut both ways, with 
-' some increasing and some decreasing 
'-.■national deficits and debts. 

^ German officials welcomed the de- 
tailed consultations that took place 
among national specialists before the de- 
^cision. They said the process stood in 
.-static contrast to the one ti—t Jed to die 
^ -ru ling on France Telecom, which they 
“'^described as rushed and politicized. 


the real state of convergence in Europe’s 
economies, the reality upon which mon- 
etary union ultimately will depend. 

Eurostat officials defended their 
work, saying the agency remained in- 
dependent. 

_ Alb erto de Michelis, the agency’s 
director, said the . ridings would help 
governments meet the criteria for mon- 
etary union “because they now have 
clear-cut rules from which they cannot 
deviate.” 

Italy benefited from a ruling under 
which capitalized interest on the coun- 
try's postal boids, which are sold at a 
discount to their face value rather than 
paying interest annually, will be coun- 
ted as a government expense only when 
it is paid, instead of being spread over 
several years. 

In Rone, die Treasury said the ruling 
would help Italy meet the deficit ceiling 
of 3.0 percent of GDP this year. 

That view is not widely shared by 
economists or officials in other Euro- 
pean countries, given dm Italy's deficit 
was 7.4 percent of GDP in 1996 and its 
economic growth has slowed to arouDd 
1 percent. 



Anti-Monopoly Phone Pact Nears 

international phone calls, which are of- 
ten far higher than American rates. 

“I think we will have an agreement 
by Feb. 15,” said Renato Ruggiero, 
head of the trade organization. 

A global deal, would c ommit coun- 
tries to move toward the kind of com- 
petition that is being opened up in the 
Umled States and die European Union. 

It would threaten die high prices 
charged by many countries’ telephone 
monopolies by allowing rivals to setup 
new networks, and it would open new 
nities for giants such as AT&T 
British '‘Telecommunications 
! or Sprint Coxp. tobuild or buy foeir 
way into Latm America, Asia and 
Alima. . * 


<•: New York Tunes Service 

"•f DAVOS, Switzerland — Trade ne- 
gotiators from more than 100 countries 
-‘are close to reaching an agreement on 
^opening up government-protected tele- 
' > communication monopolies to compe- 
; 'titiombut the UnitedStales is still threat- 

far as U.S. offiriaj^wouid like. 

With only two weeks left before a 
deadline set by die World Trade Organ- 
ization, 10 countries have come forward 
T with new or improved offers to open their 
[domestic commu ni cation marieets- 
i" Officials at the trade organization say 
f that considerable progress has been 
[ made mi persuading many countries to 
> start redwing their fees for completing 




Source: Waters MommSoa Sambas 


NYT 


On-Line Firms Sharpen 
Financial -Data Rivalry 


By Marie LancQer 

New York Times Service 


NEW YORK — The battle for 
Wall Street's desktops has always 
been fierce. Now the jostling among 
the major competitors has become so 
intense that h is hard to tell who’s 
winning. The shortanswen no one. 

Michael .Bloomberg, the fanner 
stock trader who started Bloomberg 
LP in 1981 and turned it into the 
industry’s hottest financial-data com- 
pany. seems oo top of die world. 

People f amiliar with Mr. 
Bloomberg said that 18 months ago, 
he even approached Dow Jones & 
Co., the pubosher of The Wall Street 
Journal, aboat a merger. 

Although the board of Dow Jones 
rebuffed the overture, its executives 
may regret not having a provocateur 
tike Mr. Bloomberg around. Dow 
Janes has been struggling to fix its 
own financial-data service, Dow Jones 
Telerate, which is technologically in- 
ferior and has been steadily losing 
market share to both Bloomberg and 
Reuters Holdings PLC 
But if Mr. Bloomberg and his squat 


on Wall Street; he has had his share of 
setbacks, too. Executives at Merrill 
Lynch & Co., which in December re- 
duced by a third its 30 percent stake in 
his company, said it had passed over 
Bloomberg recently when.il decided to 
install 25,000 te rminals for its retail 


brokers. Instead, Merrill Lynch is de- 
veloping its own network of linked 
personal computers. 

Even Reuters, the doyen jf the fi- 
nancial-information market, has taken 
its lumps. The 146-year-old company 
virtually invented the business and 
still has more than twice as many 
customers as Telerate and nearly five 
times as many as Bloomberg. But it 
has been struggling to sell its new 
flagship terminal because traders, 
bankers and analysts have found it 
difficult to integrate die Reuters 3000 
with their existing data services. 

The problem for all these companies 
is that the ground is shifting beneath 
them. The emergence of the Internet as 

a vast information pipeline is calling 
into question the future of companies 
that feed data to desktop boxes over 
dosed, prop riet ary networks. 

“The whole on-line phenomenon 
has changed tins business dramatical- 
ly,” said Michael Wolf, partner in 
charge of media and communications 
practice at the management con- 
sultancy Booz Allen & Hamilton. “In 
thelongnm, people won’twant to have 
more than one box on their desk” 

The current machines have been 
handsome moneymakers, running 
from $200 a month for a bare-bones 
data feed to $1 ,140 a month for a fully 
equipped Bloomberg ter minal. 

But what historically has been a 

See DATA, Page 15 


Alcatel Revives Bid 
For Thomson-CSF 

Firm’s Plan to Sell Its Havas Stake 
Sets Off Series of Other Proposals 


By Barry James 

laematioaal Herald Tribune 


PARIS — Alcatel Atethom said 
Monday it was resuming its bid for a 
major stake in the state-owned defense 
contractor Thomson-CSF in cooperation 
wit h the aerospace manufacturers 
Aerospatiale and Dassault Aviation SA. 

Alcatel said it would sell pan of its 
stake in the media conglomerate Havas 
SA to raise the cash. Havas, meanwhile, 
was reported to be shopping for a bigger 
stake in Canal Plus SA, Europe's 
: pay-TV service. 

It appeared to be the start of another 
round of musical chairs involving many 
of the top players in French industry, 
finance ana media. These were the 
moves planned Monday: 

• Alcatel, a large electronics-equip- 
ment maker, would sell pan of its 21 
percent share in Havas and then team up 
with the two aerospace manufacturers to 
buy a 58 percent stake in Thomson-CSF 
that the government has been trying to 
sell for months. 

• Compagnie Generate des Eaux 
would increase its stake in Havas by 
buying Alcatel's shares, but ar the same 
time the conglomerate would hand over 
to Havas its 20 percent interest in Canal 
Plus, making Havas the owner of 40 
percent of the television network. 

• Canal Plus, already entrenched in 
France, Germany, Italy, Poland and 
Spain, would then seek to increase its 
subscriber base to 8 5 million households 
by expanding operations in the Benelux 
countries through its recent acquisition 
of the Dutch rival NetHold NV. 

Alcatel bid for Thomson last year but 
lost out to the missile-maker Lagardere 
Group, which is allied with two British 
com 

GEC Marconi. 

As part of the transaction, Lagardere 
was to have sold Thomson's multimedia 
division to Daewoo Electronics Co. of 
South Korea as part of a general sale of 
Thomson holdings. 

But the government canceled the deal 
Dec. 4 after the National Assembly’s 
privatization commission objected to 


the sale of Thomson Multimedia amid 
massive public protest over an Asian 
takeover of such a well-known French 
company, and the decision brought 
down the entire delicately balanced 
Thomson privatization. 

Now, with cash from its sale of Havas 
shares and the support of Dassault and 
Aerospatiale, Alcatel would stand a bet- 
ter chance of pulling off the Thomson 
deal, analysts said. 

But such a Gallic solution may not be 
to the liking of European defense plan- 
ners, given their emphasis on cross- 
border cooperation in the military and 
electronic fields. 

A Finance Ministry spokesman said 
an announcement on Thomson would 
be made before the end of this month. 
Alcatel confirmed that it was in dis- 
cussions with privately owned Dassault 
and state-owned Aerospatiale about the 
Thomson takeover. 

But neither Dassault nor Aerospa- 
tiale, which are set to merge in 1997, 
would comment. 

At current market prices, the 58 per- 
cent of Thomson-CSF that the govern- 
ment wants to sell would cost about 1 1 
billion francs ($2 billion). Thomson-CSF 
shares rose 4.60 francs to close at 169. 

Generate des Eaux, which has broad 
interests in public services, transport, me- 
dia and other fields, would become one of 
the biggest players in the European media 
with a majority stake in Havas. The two 
companies said discussions were “in 
progress concerning their respective in- 
terests in audiovisual activities.'’ 

In expanding its stake in Canal Plus, 
Havas would become more directly in- 
volved with media competitors such as 
Rupert Murdoch of News Coro, instead 
of being a holding company for a mul- 
tiplicity of publishing and broadcasting 
interests. The prospect of stronger ties 
with Canal Plus sent Havas Abates sur- 
ging Monday. They closed 23.50 francs 
higher at 424, a 12-month high- Canal 
Plus fell 5 to 1,177. 

Alcatel fell 6 to 542. The company 
sold its media business to Havas in 
1995, receiving in return its stake in the 
company. 




\ >iV. ■ : 


Thinking Ahead /Commentary 


Free Trade in Americas Is Not Enough 



By Reginald Dale 

International Herald Tribune 




"WASHINGTON — Latin 
America, largely ignored 
in President Bill Clinton's 
▼ ▼ first term, is beginning to 
[wreappear an Washington's radar screen. 

| The signs are that Mr. Clinton will soon 
’ take steps to remedy his earlier neglect 

! • Buttne danger is that be may seek to 

[ fill the Western Hemisphere’s political 
> vacuum with the’ wrong economic con- 
[ tent. He is likely to try to reactivate die 
(.planned Free Trade Area erf the Amer- 
icas, which has languished in relative 
f, obscurity since its launc h ing in 1994. 
jr, Most Latin American countries are 
! "eager to move ahead with negotiations 
j to establish the Free Trade Area of the 
'r Americas. They do not want to he left 
[ out of the huge economic Woes they see 

■ rating shape around the world — m 

■ Europe, around the Pacific and, closer to ■ 
tome, in North America. 

T-*rin Americans are busily signing 
'economic pacts with one another. But, as 
Arvind Panagariya of the University of 
Maryland points out, the whole of Latm 
'America, excluding 
for less than 2J percent of world trade, 
i A hemisphere wide free-trade area 
[would give Latin America grwter m- 
vfluence on the world stage, help to at- 

i tract investment and spur on the process 

inf economic liberalization that much of 
jfcrcKioii has embraced overthe past 10 
lyears — or at hast that’s the idea. 

P In fact, there is a lot wrong wift »- 
{grand free-trade agreements such asfoe 


Free Triade Area of the Americas as now 
planned — as free-trade purists such as 
Mr. Panagariya and Jagdidi Bhagwati of 
Columbia Unive r si ty have long argued. 

Regional ‘ffiee trade” pacts arc ac- 
.tnaDy preferential agreements, because 
members reduce barriers toward their 
partners bttt.not to the outside world. 
But economists’ objections that the ar- 

Many oftbe original 


the AstarPacific Economic Cooperation 
fornm but not in Ihe Free Trade Area of 
die Americas. 

Many of the original arguments for 
regionalism are no longer valid. Wash- 


trade pacts no longer apply. 

rangements create damaging trade dis- 
tortions have often been dismissed as 
theoretical. 

Now, there is growing evidence that 
such distortions really occur. One recent 

study found that the enforcement of the 
European Union in the -1980s led toa 
massive diversion of trade away from 
nonmember countries. 

Countries from South Korea to foe 

Caribbean have been losing out badly in 
the Ameri can market since Mexico 

ffrrited States and Canada in the I'forth 
. American Free Trade Agreement. 

The critics are not sayi ng that foe 
European Union or NAFTA shou ld be 
dismantled. On balance; they have done 
fa r mare good than harm. But jri the 
future, it would be much; better for re- 
gions that reduce trade barriers to open 
themselves to foe iest of the world arfoe 
same time — as is currently planned in 


1980s, believing that the 
were no longer interested in mull 
trade openings. 

- -Regional trade pacts, it is argued, can 
act as trailblazers for wider liberaliz- 
ation. Markets may be opened more 
quickly among smaller groups of coun- 
tries than in laborious multilateral ne- 
gotiations. 

But foe world has changed. Multi- 
lateral negotiations in the Uruguay 
Round succeeded There is anew world 
Trade Organization in Geneva ready to 
propel worldwide liberalization for- 
ward It is the regional initiatives — 
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, 
the Free Trade Area of foe Americas and 
the expansion of NAFTA — that have 
hung fire. 

Countless studies have shown dial the 
more open an economy is. the faster it 
will grow. There is not much that re- 
gional trade areas can achieve that can- 
not be done better by worldwide lib- 
eralization. That should be Mr. 
Clinton's top priority. 

He would be much longer re- 
membered as the leader of the growing 
campaign to set a target date for world 
free trade, say 2025, than as the author 
of a preferential trade agreement with 
Latin America. Such a coarse would 
also to better for the United Stans, for 
Ijitiri America and for everyone else. 



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CREDIT LYONNAIS 


Private Banunc Network: 

Switzerland: Geneva tel. 41 22/705 66 66 - Headquarters for Credit Lyonnais International Private Banking 
Basle tel. 41 61 /284 22 22 • Zurich tel 41 1/217 86 86* Lugano tcl 41 91/923 51 65 
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PAGE 2 


INTERNATIONAL mm ALP TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDAX, FEBRUARY 1-2, 1997 



PAGE 12 


INTERNATIO NAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 

THE AMERICAS 


The Dow 


30-Year T-Bond Yield 




5500 - — 


At Home on the Range in 9 90s 

Telemarketing Finds a Labor Market in Dakotas 


Manufacturing Data 
Pare Blue- Chips’ Loss 


ir* 122 




By James Brooke 

New York Times Service 


S O N D J F 


S O N D J F 
1986 1997 


Exchange index 




The Dow 
S&P500' 
S&P 100 
Composite 


Maifcet Value 


.fain- 

412^8 -'Jni Ae T ' 
943T&2* 

VisBaJt | J ^i8gpr."T4(M$ 


Caracas 


IPSA General 526ft2», -.52a8,S1;.^Q.6S. 

Capital General : ~ 8403,00 ■ wffi* . ; 


[menuiioaBl Herald Tritune 


Very briefly: 


• Apple Computer Inc. will disclose the details of its re- 
structuring plan this week as the struggling company tries to 
cut its costs 25 percent. The plan is expected to include 
substantial layoffs. 

• Northrop Grumman Corp. said it had won a contract 
valued at more than $400 million to make doors for several 
models of Boeing Co.’s passenger jets; Boeing said it had won 
an order valued at $255 million for six of its new 737-700 
aircraft from Norway's Bratathens SAFE airline. 

• Israel Aircraft Industries Inc. and Chicago's Pritzker 
family said they would build a new tine of business jets 
offering travel at lower prices than comparable aircraft 

• Lockheed Martin Corp. said it planned to spin off 10 
businesses that had more than $650 million in revenue last 
year into a new company to be called L3 Communications. 

• Motorola Inc-'s computer unit said it would reorganize into 
two divisions, for commercial and technical products. 

• ITT Corp.'s chairman and chief executive, Rand Araskog, 
declined to meet with Hilton Hotels Corp.'s president and 
chief executive, Stephen Bo llenbach. to discuss Hilton’s 
$1 0.5 billion offer to buy HT, Hilton said. Bloomberg, nyt. ap 


LINTON, North Dakota — The driving on the 
Lawrence Welle Highway had deteriorated into 
whiteout conditions as another blizzard, scoured the 
North Dakota plains. But in a weQ-heated former 
tractor showroom. Susan Homer was booking va- 
cations to Hawaii and Florida. 

“People ask. ‘How are you surviving it up there?’ ” 
Mrs. Horner said of the guilt pangs of people who 
telephoned a reservations center in North Dakota to 
book sunny vacation nips with Rosenbluth Interna- 
tional, the third-largest travel company in the world. 

Calling America's Arctic to book tropical travel 
may seem incongruous, but for the dairy fanners of 
this small town, the arrival of Rosenbluth on the 
wings of fiber-optic telephone cable has been an 
economic godsend. 

“When this office opened, every fourth business 
place on Main Street was closed, Linton was headed 
to becoming a ghost town,” said Mrs. Horner, whose 
husband now milks their 50 cows on his own. “My 
paycheck makes our house payment and our farm 
payment.” 

Telecommunications businesses are transcending 
geography, searching the outback for pockets of 
hard-working, well-educated people to make hotel 
reservations, take orders for catalogue companies, 
process corporate expense accounts or handle pan- 
icked calls from owners of new computers. 

Omaha, Nebraska, bas become the “toll-free cap- 
ital" of the nation, with teas of thousands of people 
there working in telemarketing. In Sooth Dakota, 
5.000 people process credit-card transactions, mak- 


ing that die state's largest industry. 
In North Dakota, the explosion 


In North Dakota, the explosion of the telecom- 
munications industry has been so sudden, with thou- 
sands of jobs added in the last two years, that planners 
say it may be the way to stop a long-running brain 
drain. 


“A fundamental shift is occurring,” said Philip 
Burgess, president of the Centex for the New West, a 
policy and research group in Denver. “For the first 
time in modem history, we have jobs chasing people 
instead of people chasing jobs. In remote areas like 
the Dakotas or Montana, you start looking at levels of 
educational attai nmen t or work ethic, sod you find 
that those states rank among the highest So compa- 
nies move out there.’' 

Traditionally, North Dakotans have complained 
that they have exported their education tax dollars, as 
well-educated young people leave for jobs else- 
where. 

Although the state ranks 49th in teacher pay, the 
Scholastic Assessment Test scores of high school 
seniors rank die highest in the nation, according to a 
study last year in the Harvard Educational Review. 
Tbe state also boasts an 87 percent graduation nue for 
high schools, among the nation’s highest. 

Rut tbe population of 638,000 is virtually the same 
size as it was in the 1920s. One measure of the lack of 
growth is seen in statistics kept by United Van Lines, 
the largest moving company. Last year, for every 
family that the company moved into North Dakota, it 
moved at least two out 

“We have to create jobs where the younger people 
can stay and make a good living,’ ’ said Chuck Stroup, 
a former banker who is the state's economic de- 
velopment director. 

Fiber-optic cable, 4,600 miles (7,400 kilometers) 
worth in the state, may level the playing field, bring- 
ing faster and higher quality communications to the 
northern Plains. In the past two years, telecom- 
munications companies nave announced that they 
were starting or expanding 40 businesses in North 
Dakota. 

Because North Dakota enjoys the lowest unem- 
ployment rate in the country, 1.9 percent, companies 
move through die countryside searching far the hid- 
den unemployed, largely farm wives or Indians who 
stopped formally looking for work long ago. 


Cm r a U lyOirSBgFnmDbpMdia 

NEW YORK — Bond prices 
rose Monday, helping to cut a sharp 
loss in stocks, after a private report 
on manufacturing suggested the 
economy was mowing slowly 
enough to keep inflation at bay. 

“We’re having growth and no 
build-up of inflationary pressures,” 
said Alan Day, a manager at 
Stratevest Group in Burlington. 
Vermont. “As a result, the market 
is taking a positive tone.” 

The benchmark 30-year bond 

rose 20/32, to 96 3 1/32. reversing an 
earlier loss, pushing its yield down 
to 6.74 percent from 6.79 percent. 

Hie Dow Jones industrial aver- 
age closed 6.93 points lower at 
6,806.16. Advancing issues out- 
paced decliners by a 14-to-ll ratio 
on the New York Stock Exchange. 

“We have been following the 
bond market, and I think we will 
continue to do so,” said Ken 
Ducey, director of trading at BT 
Brokerage. “This will be a bit of an 
up-and-down day.” 

Tbe National Association of Pur- 


percent jump last June. It reflected 
growth in employment, hours 
worked and hourly earnings. "• 
Over the past month, a senes of 
surprisingly robust economic read- 
ings eroded hopes that economic 
growth had stayed modest enough 
to keep a lid on inflationary pres- 


US. STOCKS 


sures such as rising production 
costs. Still, most recent inflation 
readings have been tame. 

In an another report suggesting 
some moderation in the economy, 
the Commerce Department said 
construction spending fell 0.7 per- 
cent in December. r 

Bellwether technology shares 
gave back some of their morning 
gains but continued to lead the Nus* 
daq market, where the most active: 
issue was Intel. 

Intel rose even after a Semicon- 
ductor Industry Association report' 
that the chip industry’s worldwide 
December sales fell I percent from 


chasing Management reported that 

its overall index declined to 52.0 in 


November. Plans by Samsung to cut 
Droduction could increase demand' 


G-7 Prospects Undermine the Yen 


Weekend Box Office 


The Associated Press 

LOS ANGELES — “Star Wars" dominated the U.S. box 
office over the weekend, with a gross of $36.2 million. Fol- 
lowing are the Top 10 moneymakers, based on Friday's ticket 
sales and estimated sales for Saturday and Sunday. 


1. Star Wan 

2. Jerry Maguire 
1 Scream 

4. Metro 

5. (tie) Bwerty HUN Ntn|a 
Evtta 

7. In Love rod War 
B.The Reflc 
9. Gridlock 'd 
ID. Mother 


CDhOsArrFdO 
(Tri-Start 
(Dimension FBms) 
(Touchstone) 
(Tri-Start 

(HoOywoad Pictures) 
( NewUnedaema ) 
(Pammount) • 
(Gramcrcy) 

, (pawmounn , . 


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Bloomberg News 

NEW YORK — The dollar 
gained Monday against most other 
major currencies and rose strongly 
against the yen after Prime Minister 
Ryu taro Hashimoto of Japan said 
Japan should not expect other coun- 
tries to band together to weaken tbe 
U.S. currency. 

Tbe remarks countered specula- 
tion that central bankers and finance 
ministers from the Group of Seven 
leading industrial countries might 
make a statement opposing more 
gains by die dollar at their meeting 
Saturday in Berlin. The G-7 coun- 
tries are the United States, Japan, 
Germany, France, Britain, Italy and 
Canada. 

"Hie fact that they aren’t talking 


about a concerted effort to hold the 
dollar back is negative far the yen,” 
said Rick Zauderer, a trader at Fried- 


The dollar rose to 121.725 yen 
from 121.425 yen on Friday, and to 
1.6405 Deutsche marks from 
1.6386 DM. 


FOREIGN EXCHANGE 


Tbe dollar was also quoted at 
1.4187 Swiss francs, down from 
1 .4239 francs, and at 5 .5490 French 
francs, up from 5.5293 francs. 

The pound was at $1.6200, up 
from $1.6030. 

Mr. Zauderer said be was holding 
dollars he bought for yen at the be- 
ginning of tbe year. “I still feel the 


yen has room to go down," be said. 

But the dollar's gains were pared 
after the international investor 
George Soros said in Davos, 
Switzerland, that the G-7 might ob- 
ject to the pace of the dollar's rise at 
their meeting. 

Whfle G-7 nations might approve 
of the dollar level, they might dis- 
approve of the rate of change, said 
Mr. Soros, who earned r eno w n from 
selling the pound in 1992. 

Tbe mark weakened earlier after 
Eurostat, the European Commission's 
statistics office, said most of the meth- 
ods used so far by European Union 
countries to reduce their budget de- 
ficits would be p ermissib le when de- 
ciding which countries had qualified to 
join European monetary union. 


January, below most analysts’ ex- 
pectations, from a 53.8 reading in 
December. Tbe report helped to bol- 
ster optimism among investors that 
tbe Federal Reserve Board will not 
seek to cool tbs economy by raising 
interest rates when its policy board 
meets Tuesday and Wednesday. 

“I don't think the Fed will need 
to act based on economic growth.” 
said John Breazeale, a manager for 
Weiss Money Management. 

Bonds slipped early in the day 
after a report showing Oat a bigger- 
than -expected gain m personal in- 
come had revived concern that high- 
er wages may spur the economy and 
quicken inflation. 

The government said personal 
income gained 0.8 percent in 
December. Spending rose 05 per- 
cent. The personal savings rate rose 
to 5.4 percent. 

“These numbers leave the im- 
pression that consumers may be 
building up a small war chest, given 
the rise in the savings rate and the 
large gain in persona] income,” 
said Anthony Chan, chief econo- 
mist at Banc One Investment Ad- 
visors in Columbus, Ohio. 

The Commerce Department also 
said the income gain had lifted earn- 
ings for the year by 55 percent, 
down from a 63 percent jump in 
1995. Spending rose 4.6 percent, 
compared with 4.8 percent a year 
earlier. The monthly increase in in- 
comes was the largest since a 0.9 


production could increase demand 1 
for chips from Intel, which rose 1% 
to 163%. 

Other chipmakers fell. Texas In- 
struments fell 2% to 76 W. Applied 
Materials, a maker of equipment 
used to manufacture semiconduct- 
ors, fell 1% to 4814. Motorola fell 
1 % to 66% after the maker of semi- 
conductors and cellular phones said- 
its computer unit would reorganize 
into two divisions, for commercial 
and technical products. 

General Motors fell % to 58% 
after it said U.S. sales of its cars and 
trucks fell 1.45 percent in January 
from year-earlier levels, less than; 
expected. 

Chrysler was unchanged at 34% 
after it said its U.S. soles of cars and 1 
trucks rose 2 percent because df 
stronger car volume. 

Kmart rose % to 1 1% after it said 


it was holding talks about merging 
its Builders Souare stores with 


its Builders Square stores with 
Waban’s HomeBase stores in a deal 
that would create the nation’s third 
largest home improvement chain:-' 

Mercury Finance fell A to life 
when the auto-lending firm strug- 
gling under a cloud of financial 
mismanagement named a new pres- 
ident and chief executive as it met 
with creditors to try to extend debt 
obligations. 

William A. Brandt Jr., president 
and chief executive of Develop- 
ment Specialists, will replace John 
N. Brincat, who resigned but re"T 
mains on die board. 

(Bloomberg, Reuters, AP4 


AMEX 


U. S. STOCK MARKET DIARY 


INTERNATIONAL FUTURES 


Monday's 4 P.M. Close 

The tap 300 most odhre shares, 
up to the dosing on Wafl Street 

The Associated Press. 


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PiATMJM 04MBU 


IMS 2173 
3030 1025 
1720 1734 
5735 5734 
204 210 

40 63 


Apr 97 35170 35230 355X0 +100 28433 

JU17 35RX0 35800 35800 +U0 1411 

Ocf 97 360X8 357X9 36830 +150 1274 

Jan 91 3BJ0 1X81 

EP. soles NA Rfl sates 34B8. 
Frf>opwiiftf 27,199 up 225 


Market Sales 


Ademoed 

□refined 
Undmroed 
Total Issues 
NmHtehs 
New Lows 


285 293 

244 22 

105 200 

731 745 

78 33 


NYSE 

Amex 

Nasdaq 

InmBBonx. 


46160 098181 

16X2 27-47- 

499X9 679.19. 


CATTLE CCMBU 

«UOO(h.-OV1tiD« 4M. 

Feb97 4870 E3.J2 OJ2 -0X2 

Apr 97 47X0 4177 4592 -890 

Jun«7 65X7 4830 4155 -8C 

Aua 97 <4X0 4810 6830 -OJO 

Od97 <810 <7X0 SIM -837 

[fee 97 7835 49X0 49X5 -825 

Ed. sales NA FtYLSdes OSO 
FrTsopanH 101359 up ITM 


dasa Previous 

LONDON METALS (LMD 
Dolan per retfric tan 
AJuImkb (Hfek erode} 

Spat 1610X0 1611X0 1597X0 1598X0 
Forward 1634X0 1635X0 1622X0 1634X0 
Capper Caroades ONa*en>del 
Sain Z382XO ZW7-00 2395X0 2400X0 
Forward 2190X0 2192X0 2175X0 2177X0 


to im 

HT 5*1. 

HV 1ft 
IM ISft 
IM IF* 


X* 91, 
ME ft 

414 7H 

317 l<t 

as ini 

IS Sft 
la m 
101 JVl 
10* 1711 

at ex 
3731 8ft 
■9 I9f 

407 MU 

217 lift 
6* 30 


IBB Ift III 
*72 ft ft 
in im in* 
in in* m 

17* 3ft 2ft 
12 lift lift 
IB 7ft 4ft 
fin Tuft im, 
IN Sift, Sift 
IN 1ft Ift 
7*7 lv. u* 
IS* Ift 1ft 
127 CM lift 
17 Ift 1ft 
« &ft fit 
IB 8 20 

W* Wu 27* 

132 4ft 4ft 

a » » 
un 20ft 19ft 
Nil 25ft 
1st* im 


}in 4* 

it* 

. St +■* 
im -ft 


Dividends 

Canpany 


.Mi -ft 
lift 

Ml -ft 

IMt, »B*> 
SI -ft. ffti 
Itft ,«h 
lv, ft 
IV* 

lift -ft 


Canpany Per Antf Rsc Pay 

STOCK SPLIT 
Jade Henry Amoc 3 far 2 »B. 

Patriot Adi Hasp 2 far ifeST 

REVERSE STOCK SPLIT 
FasHane brill ftrXreyerorspW 

INCREASED 

AOaaOrainB, Q .14 2-51 3-7 

Dreyfus CA Midi M X5 2-12 2-27 


Per Amt Rk 


134 » 

161 12ft 
576 Ift 

1017 eft 


ua iv* 
in 9*1 
*U 17ft 
7 47 BU 
HM H 
» 12 
211 «•* 
779 IV. 


Bft 2M 
7ft Tft 
n w 
12ft lift 
14ft lift 
IM IP* 
» 31ft 
7Jft 2V. 
10ft II 

£? .£ 

■a ’s 

9* » 


jjft *ft 

37ft M 
4ft 

IM 4* 

r ra 

UH 4* 

US ♦** 

D» -ft 

3 4 
BB 

*5 


FMei Bnoorp PA 
R Wayne 1W 
HabendmBDCP 
jack Hemy Assoc 
Palter Harnifln 
Raritan Bren 
St Paul Cos 


Q .14 2-21 3-7 

M X5 2-T2 2-27 
Q X9 2-14 2-28 
O -29 3-10 4-1 

O X35 3-1 3-15 

a XB 2-21 3-13 
Q XD 2-20 3-7 

Q .175 2-15 3-1 

Q X Ml 4-17 


•EDUCED 

John Hariand Q X75 3-20 3-4 

INTTIAL 

UnnedTedin _ Xi 2-21 3-10 



14ft . 1 * 
IM +H 
* -ft 


REGULAR 

AMB Find » .06 2-14 2-28 

Alltel Carp Q -275 2-2* 4-3 

Ananlarta Penal 0 X7S 3-12 3-24 

Avery Dennison O .17 3-5 3-19 


5KSaW 

VMSE. 


Q XB 2-14 
O J05 2-10 
O .10 2-15 
0 -25 220 

M .OS5 228 
0 JO 3-15 
a JS 2-12 
Q .10 2-12 
Q XI 3-1 
Q XS 2-14 
M .1031 2-10 
Q X77 M3 
O 22 2-4 

O J2 M7 
Q .11 M4 
M X41 M4 
Q JO 2-14 
M X665 M4 
O .14 2-14 
M X498 MO 
O -05 3-3 

8 X6 2-4 
JO 2-28 
a JM 2-4 
MX695 2-28 
Q M M0 
Q XS 224 


CATTLE (CMBO 
SLOfin ibml- cadi nte Wk 

Mar 97 7845 6875 6895 -870 

Apr 97 7045 49J5 49X0 -822 

May 97 7170 7845 7895 

Aua 97 7540 7810 7440 -812 

Sep 97 75J5 7478 7808 —827 

OU97 76X0 7540 7170 -825 

Est scries NA FTfisries 2491 
FrrsopenH 2X277 up va 


Spot 464X0 665X0 659X0 ■ 661X0 

Forward 675X0 576X0 670X0 672X0 


£22? £55 ,2S -« -IX4I08JH 

WHg U872 -U0 9X94 

SOB97 N.T. N.T. 12869 — 1 JO 
EM. sotes 88918 Prev. safes: 98144 
Prev.opaainL ilexes off 274 
EURODOLLARS (CMER) 
SlmBton-maHOOpcL 
F0b97 mjS 9*43 9444 14X45 

Mre97 9443 9841 9442 +0X1 40882D 

Apr 97 9839 9837 9431 +801 4X90 

JIH197 9833 9828 9431 +0X3 397X94 

Sap 97 9430 9812 9818 +00*295X48 

Dec 97 94JB S197 9800 +0X7 20^442 

MW9B 93X7 93X1 93X0 +007 172X79 

Jwi« 9182 93X3 9180 +887 135478 

SeP 98 9175 91*5 93X3 +0X7 10X967 

Pec 10 9343 915t 9141 +807 >1X99 

arts HA FftteB 532.958 
RTiopctH 2JO220 up 27344 
BRITISH POUND (CMBt) 

<8500 noundb 4 par pound 

Mar 97 lXW 14064 14114 38494 

Jun97 14110 14060 U090 2X2 9 

Sop 97 U85s 1X49 

Dec97 14018 I 

Est sates NA Firs, totes 18978 

FITs open fed 39X03 up 1710 

CANADIAN DOLLAR (CMHU 

108S0O donor*, s Per Cdn. dr 

Mir 77 J422 :rm J* u 42,191 

Jun»7 J516 J5D2 J5DS 8532 

Sap 97 7555 J545 J547 3X2* 

Dec 97 7600 7504 73*4 475 

Est safes NA FrTs. sates 3,911 

FrfsopenH 58780 up 500 

6BM AN MARK (D6BD 

1X8000 maria. S Per nwfc 

Ma-97 4117 SOU 4112 79X37 

Jin97 4150 4118 4149 5X14 

SOP 97 4118 8144 • 

Dec 97 42® 18 

EiLAtei NA PrTs. sales 19,900 

FfTSOPOnW 86433 UP 427 

■J6PNESCYBKCHER] 

114 mlfeai yen. * Mr 100 yen 
Mir 97 J272 JI229 X241 78858 

Jun97 J370 X336 4360 1113 

Sw>97 304 XO0 4478 656 

Ext scries NA PH's, sales 17X09 
HTsopanlnt 79737 is 2IQ1 
SWISS FRANC (ana) 

12SM04ronob S per tar 
Mor97 701 7012 JW9 CX44 

Jun97 TIM TOM 7146 8715 

Sec 97 7215 7155 7215 1420 

^■stries NA RTs sates 12-476 
HTsaaenH 52X01 off 402 
3-MONTH BUROMAMC OJIfE} 


FrrsopenH 43415 UP 364 
HEATMeCNL (NMBl) 

42JN0 ear, cents per aai m 

Ma-97 4540 45.10 4SJB -040 

APT 97 CUD 4270 6171 -871 

May 97 6195 69J? 6843 -851 

Jim 97 5945 5850 SJ0 -836 

JU 97 m.m SUB 5U0 -0X1 

Aug 97 58«J 5845 58*3 -024 

Sap 97 59.10 59X5 5948 -0X6 

Oct 97 59X3 —831 

NQV97 60X1 59.98 59.10 -821 

Dec 97 mM BM 6048 -816 

Est. safes NA FrTs. scries 55X72 
FrfsapanW eoxai off 11133 
LIGHT SWEET OtUDE (NMER) 

1X00 BPL- dnoors per btri. 


Mar 97 34X5 2348 3815 

Apr 97 2107 ZL54 2174 +803 

May 97 2138 Z3M 3035 +806 

Jun97 2243 2245 2243 +0X9 

Jill 97 22X5 2131 2147 +810 

Aua 97 2230 2205 2214 . +811 

Sea 97 2140 2172 2143 +811 

Oct 97 2145 2142 21X2 +811 

NOV 97 21.25 71J3 2U3 +811 

Dec 97 21X5 20X5 2896 +811 

Jan 90 2875 2873 2873 +811 

Fed 93 2855 2853 2853 +811 

Mro-98 2035 +811 

Est sales NA FiTisalei 98996 
FTTs open irt 353474 UP MV 
NATURAL GAS (NMERI 
10X00 mniMiftl per Iran Hu 
Mar 97 2345 2J90 1313 

Apr 97 1125 1090 1107 

May 77 2X40 2X20 2X32 

Am 97 2X40 2X25 1032 

Jul 97 2050 2X30 1045 

Auv97 im 2040 2055 

SBP 97 2JB0 2X50 1065 

Oct 97 liND 2X60 20BB 

Nay 97 1195 1185 1190 

Dec 97 1315 1300 2J05 

Jan 98 2X91 2335 2340 

ESI. sates NA FiTs. sate 21X51 


151371 

UP 403 
:(NUEI 

U 


bbo-poi 
47 JS 

1835 

+0X9 

3M46T 

0.15 

69.99 


lM6ff= 

49X0 

00 

+028 

9X08' 

67 JO 

6829 

+028 

<416 

66X0 

6449 

+0* 


68* 

*80. 

+0* 

3,l73f r 


ai.Kw* n«. nrino rvw 

FTrscewnW <8183 Off 3198 , L 

GASOIL OPE) 

U A dollars per metric »<X1 -talSDf 180 tons ... 

Feti 97 205X5 20X50 304X0 -5X5 19.7*4- 
Mor97 19X25 19875 196.75 1443^ 


Spat 761SX0 7620X0 7480X0 7490X0 

Forward 7710X0 7720X0 7580X0 75B5L00 


3-MONTH HUROMAR1C OJPFE) 

DM1 nffBon - at* at 10a pd 

FSW7 Mf 96Xd 96X7 -C 


API 97 19125 191 J5 79145 —175 8313 : 
May 97 187 J5 186X0 1B875 — 3J5 
JW197 18550 184.75 185-25 -2X0 7.5*3 

Jut 97 185X0 1B4J5 18535 — US 7^2c 
AuoW 184J5 184X5 185X0 —1X0 VUB 
S«il97 N.T. N.T. 185X0 -1J5 898 


„ 96 M 96X8 96X7 — 0X2 iJT7 

1*077 96X9 96X7 96X7 — 0X2 200-117 

Aw w N.T. 78T. 96X7 —0X2 17X8 

JIHS7 96X9 96X6 96X6 — 032 1X1.336 

STOW 94X2 9479 9679 —0X1 154X31 

Oe<97 9647 94X1 96*3 —801 158465 

MCTVS 96X9 96X4 9646 Undt 128572 

ijurtfe 9626 9623 9635 UndL 98646 

S«p90 96X1 «» 9600 Un£ T7JT7 


Spat 5805X0 5815X0 5805X0 5715X0 
prepaid 5965X0 597000 5845X0 5870X0 


Spat 175314 1154ft 1151X0 115ZXD 
Forward 117X00 1174X0 1171X0 117000 


22. « , N - T ‘ N-T. 18475 — 1J5 5«; 

•0997 18375 18373 18450 —135 45*: 

Dec 77 18850 18175 18450 —1X0 llstr, 
Est writs 14X00. Open tau 65X04 up 7*5} 


Feb 97 7552 75JD 7S73 +JK 

Apr 97 75-40 7890 7537 +652 

Ain 97 80S 0O2S 0857 +4X7 

Jul 97 7BXD 7030 78X0 +052 

Aug 97 75X0 7800 7535 +0X2 

Od97 6850 67X0 683S +BX7 

Extsata-NA FrfS. rotes 12X92 
FrrsopenH 386« UP 491 


Rnsndal 

UST.BLLS <04BU 


Mar 97 9897 9895 *896 +0X1 4714 

JUP97 *4X7. 94X5 94X6 +0X2 1315 

Sep 97 9873 *471 *871 +0X6 794 

Est softs NA FfTs. scries 390 
FrrsopenH 8X23 up 112 


9S33 9330 9531 +001.47X1 

j&U 9144 9546. + 4X2 4U74 

9530 95.17 95.19 +QX1 24X16 

9494 *892 9492 Undt 19X71 

9468 9465 9867 + 8X1 11087 

105675. Pre*. sales: 122X44 
1 ML- 1.179X22 ap vxie 


Est sates: 105X75. Pre*. sales: 122 
Prev.epwiML- 1.179X22 ap 931 
Wj t O MTH STERLING (UPPE7 

Sm” %S 10 °S§i 93X5 + 


PORK BBJJES (CMER) 


Fab 97 79X0 77-45 71X0 +BX5 
Mar 97 7750 7642 77X0 +007 


May*/ 71X0 7740 7BJD +1* 

Jul 97 77X0 76XS 7750 +0X0 

Aua 97 75X0 7435 7470, +042 

Est. scries NA Frfs. series 1744 
FrrsonaiH 8486 Off S3 


I YR. TREASURY (CNOT1 
siooxoa erln- pn X AWftsW 100 pc* 

Mtr 97 106-52 106-28 106-46 +15 188173 

ton97 M6-» HM1 104-29 +U 10835 

Sep 97 104-13 + 15 

ESLsdes NA FiTASOtaS 9X99 
RTs open ml 195X08 up 65! 


0*097 9X44 9X63 9343 + 0X1 104X42 

SS M +003108^ 

Sep97 9332 9118 9331 + 0X3 71421 

D^r KJU 90X0 93X3 IffiS S«0 

02X0 nx +8X4 39X00 

jfjO nj0 92X1 +0JS XU30 


353 E S P 

5 SS» Si %% :ss Ws 

S2 S -2 «48 +0X7 7X26 

Derf* 9X48 9342 9345 +0X7 3X45 

(gfVSsJaS - *otes S8SD4 
Pre*. open HL X42U up 5481 
3-MONTH P1BOR (MATlP) 

MCTS7 9^ S «ia f %44 -0X3 71057 

sSw W4B 9644 96^ = 0J» SxS 
Doc 97 9641 96X7 96X7—004 26X11 
«« M ViS 9&M 9648-QX3 17X4S 
Jun W V6M 9630 96X1 —0X2 16815 
Sffi.2 213 9609 94-11—0X1 10X09 
Doc 93 MX7 95X6 95X4—0X1 10716 
* M0 * 0 -°' 12433 

Jun 99 N.T. N.T. 9SJ4 +0X0 3.757 

Sep 99 95X9 95X9 9&X9 +0X3 19S 

Dee 99 N.T. H.T. 94X3 iSS 1 Jffl 


II YR. TREASURY (OKm 

SI 00X00 prfc,- pH A 33mS* of TOOnd 
Mar 97109-09 100-22 189-XS +12 323X47 

Jonf7 108-22 100-04 188-19 +12 21473 

Sep 97 181-04 108-02 108-02 + 12 1393 

Oee*7 107-23 +12 10 

Estsotes NA. Frfs. safes 103X90 

FtfsapenW 346X18 off 10 


4U ITS 
141 I9U 

IBM SW 

443 m* 


17V| 17ft 

Wt lift 

*& *2! 
«ft 4ft 


*sn 15 
a* ift 
4U Uft 
5775 4« 

UD S-m 
24M 2ft 
13* Sft 
Mt 10 ** 

ns 

n «h 

D* 6 ft 

#77 17 

M .*!* 
44* in 
n 21*9 
ui in* 
at m 
« 13ft 
31 7ft 

«B 1 ft 

SB ift 




Sft » 
4 ft M 
lift 1*1 
31ft W 
lift lift 

m m 

3M » 

XI* Xft 

n 3 ft 
!i* IN 
IIW lift 
in m 
im in 
50. SI* 


14** 

3M* 4* 

lift +M 


2» 4> 

+ft. 
!*» .ft 


260 IM 11 

UH Uft 

NS Sft ^ 
U3 Hft m 

M "5s 

V Ift Ift 


im +H 

ra 

1 * j* 
in 

IH* 

im ft 

u.ft 


Stock Tables Explained 

Sotos Hours tm unoffkSaL Yearly h&is aid lows mOect the previous S2 weeks pits toe ament 
wfeetutatfnRBfe lut e al luidtagctay. Wham spBoratedt<fl*tend*mouiiltag*>33 p rot « nlcraiow 
in been pdd. lie yean Nghtaw ronoaonddMtend taetNcMin farfts nBRStadcsarriy. Unless 
crihensise noted mtesoi dhridendstmannueri dfebudstnente based an DalatasldeciDiiAin 
a-dhridendcrisaesara tsj.b-annoal rate ofdMdend plus stodt dMdend e - Hqtridaftofl 
dMdend. ee- PE exceeds 99-dd- cosed, d- new yearly low. dd- tots brttwkiEnZrnonttn. 
o - dMdond deckned or paid |i prcceffina 12 months, t - annual rota Increased an last 
dedcRulloag-d«WartataCancsiflcnfw>d6scriil0dto1Maanwes)dena9iaK.i-iMdanif 
declared altar spO-up aritadc dMdond. - dhridetd perid iWs^ yKO.omflML deferred or no 
adtan token ot latest dMdend meeting, k - dfektend declared or pold IMS pm an 
accutnuiaiiua tesuewm dMdends in anoon, m - a rawed rata reduced an tasrdadaiaflon. 
n - new Issue In Hie past 52 weeks. The hlgh-Jaw rang* hoplns wltti Hie staff of Hoang. 
w» * nos day deivery. p » mmol dMdond omud rata unknown. • pritjMqmtaBsnrta 

q-dosed-end mutual fundr-iflutoend declared or flaw In prBCafinal2manttis,plUi stock 
dMdond s - stock stria. OMdand betfns «Wi date of spit- sts -sides, t - tffiridend paid In 
stock M prececBno 12 raanffid esdnxded assn value on eswIMaond or aoMUtrBiuflm dale, 
u - new yearty high, y-tradkig halted. *1 - m berokruptay or recEtwersWpor beino reargonbad 
underBroBonk ni plqActwstgtrtllesanmtedbysuchiafl W aniediiwI-yiitiMniMiteiited. . 
*rf - wtoi bsuoV ww - wfih warranti- x - w-dlyktend or oc-rtghts. nSks - e+dterriCWton. 
JW - wffMst variants, y- ewttvHend and safes hi iWL yld ■ yfekt 1 - sates 01 ML 


lemetrlcMnt-f nw-wa 

M»97 mt, 1313 13 31 +6 

Mov 97 1334 1342 1350 +9 

JM97 1311 1320 J» +1? 

SeP 97 1404 1399 1483 +9 

Dee 97 168 1422 M8 +9 

Est Pries NA RTs salts K1X67 
Frfs open ini B9JS3 up W 


COFFEE CWCSG} 


Mcr97 14550 139-75 I6S6S +J5 
May 97 1XL98 TK25 14 W +5M 
Jul 97 13749 T D M D7J5 +5K 

SeP 97 134X0 179.50 TSU9 +4X0 
Estates na Fm. safes tust 
Frfs open M cun off 679 


SUGAR -WORLD II (MCSE1 

in4O0BH.-eennperta. 

MCT97 «U7 I0JS H42 -0X3 


US TRBUUURY BONDS {CBOT) 
BKMHUO+WlliSMifelHBal 
Mr *7112-07 111-09 112-02 +21 CKL81I 

Jun 97 111-22 1W-S 111-19 +21 324*3 

503*7 111-03 11D-8 111-OS + 71 ua 

Dec 77 110-34. +71 4464 

MOTH 110-14 +71 44 

Junta - 110-04 +21 - II 

Sfepta W-27 +71. 4 

Dec» W9-19 4 21 3 

Marta TCP-71 + 71 > 

Etf.ntes NA Fit's. sries 463413 
FiTlflP0flW 535.961 ID 10014 
GERMAN GOVemUlCNT BUND OffYO 
DM2Sd000 -«S Of lOOKt 
Mata 10150 18148 101J6. ♦ dT3 230471 

junta 101x0 10086 moss + au vjio 

Usotec naxtaj nw-roritE 1SM71 
Prey, open felt: 340*1 up ME 


f|RENT« L O p D 

fWtemel ■ US of IXOObaireis^ 
Marta 2245 W3C 22X4 + 0X2 49ciV 

S-l 9 2, 93 + 0X1 37Xri|l A* 

WW S1J6 21X5 2145 +0X3 taSii, ▼ 
JUte ta 21X7 21.15 21X8 +0X4 17J 

71.03 20X0 20.94 + 0X7 lJ.lflf 7 
Aug ta 20.73 30X0 2065 * 012 1 b- 

^ 2 ^ 22 2038 * 0.15 SXW 
ft-I- NT. 2013 +0.18 17?*: 

N.T. N.T. 19X9 +021 
O0C97 19.70 19X5 1946 +0.16 3^ 

^Eot sates 30500. 0«nlnl_- ism,,^" 

CAC.40 CMAT1F] .’ 

E™2P* rln o«Daliit . 

Fea 97 2320X 25D4X 25160 — 1 .00 21071 T 


M**r 97 25285 2S11X 2S22X — 1X0 1S47I.. 
Apr W 2526X 2515X 2S24.0+25180 b- 
J»n W 0485X 2481 X 2487X — 1X0 lxsl 

Sap ta 2494X 2490X 2499X — 1X0 iUr- 
Decta NT. NT. 2S19X-1X0 
K2TS N.T. 2S37X — 1X0 7X3P 

SepW N.T. NT. 2512X — Ixo 

EM. volume: 10811 Open tar.- 40577 err 


JJTSE 100QJFFE1 
CEperlmtnpehif 

Hmn 4265.0 42S7X 425911 — 4J] 
pmn NT N.T 427BX —85 89S*L 
Septa 4297X 4297X 43D3X -85 l3l. 

U-edeK U58 Prev. sates U409 l 

Prev. era feu 46413 up 4D ‘ 


^&t.vOOmK 64X98. Open Into 265X75 up 


Stock Indexes 


s m nr»=i 9 Hi 

slss «b 

ww.apenteis 270440 up +*« 


SVC0MP.MDEX (CMBt) 

gPn lnam 

ntarV7 79QJB 7R5JD 7VUV) a ? pi m s>l ■’ 

SS ^ 

^Ste. NA WLsSS^Tlin, ,:4n 
Frrsqcmnk* 194JJ7 off 413 


Odta RL27 «* 1033 -^UO 

Estsdu NA Frfs. Brits TUB* 
n?88panH 1 56397 iro <■ 


Industrials 
COTTON 1 (HCTNI 


Commocfity Indexes 





m S 2 Sg H 


.raa Pun ™ s 


°"t Pnratous: 


yi 




roh 1 








K\\ 1 


l K. ti 


K V U.’K 1 I •* 


Isw'rt j 




PAGE 13 


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, ... 



INHIRJVATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY FEBRUARY 4, 1997 


EUROPE 


*SE Banker) 
Abandons 
Merger With 
Nordbanken 


-j. 


# 


^y^ hOvSHfFamDUpiaelKt 

/ r STOCKHOLM — Skandmav- 

ukaEnslolda Bank/sn AB and Notd-. 
hankoi AB. Sweden’s third- and 
fourfe-Iargest tanks, said Monday 
they had abandoned talks about 
mttppg their operations, which 
would have created one of Scand- 
ipayja s two largest banks. 

After at least a month of nego- 
tiations, the banks called it quits 
Friday, said Peter Forsblad, a Nord- 
banken spokes man 
'‘ Gimilla Wikman of SE Banken 
aid merger talks with Nordbanken 
had failed because of the way they 
tad developed, “We ended discus- 
sions b ecaus e the focus of the dis- 
cussed merger was not satisfactory 
to shareholders, employees or cus- 
tomers;" she said, 
r, She said that “a number" of issues 
could not be resolved but dftrHwid to 
desen be the areas of contention. 

? "“There was no special point over 
which talks ended, and we never came 
to any price discussions," she said, 
b. She. said that although it was clear 
§ff the financial sector in Swedes was 
restructuring, SE Banken was in no 
hunry to do a deal. 

-> “We think we are strong enough 
OP our own," she said. * ‘There is no 
immediate need for a meager. 

Ii Peter Thome, analyst at Paribas 
Capital Markets, said: "This is not tta 
sfla to restructuring m Sweden. One 
itf the reasons it didn’t go ahead is 
tecaum there is financial strength and 
profitability in the hanks. Financial 
distress would have pushed this on.” 
*: Merger speculation pushed up the 
tanks' stocks up last month. But 
Monday,. SE Banken shares fell 5 
kronor to close at 67.50 ($933). 
Nordbanken shares declined 7.50 to 
22730. 

(■ Sweden’s finance mmi-aer, Erik 
Asbrink, said Monday die state 
Would still seD its 59 percent stake in 
Nordbanken despite the failure of 
the merger talks. 

-'In January. SE Banken and Nocd- 
tanken shares rose to record highs oo 
speculation the stale would sell a 
quarter of Nordbanken to Investor 
AB, a Swedish holding company 
controlled by the Wallenberg family, 
which has a stake in SE Banken. 

(Bloomberg, AFX, Reuters) 


Poland Aims to Catch an Economic Wave 

Privatization of Biggest Properties Is Planned to Bolster Growth 


By Jonathan Gage 

Imrmkmal Herald Tribune 


DAVOS, Switzerland — - Taking advantage 
of the economic momentum that comes from 
.being Eastern Europe’s best-p erf o rmin g econ* 
omy, Poland will launch an aggressive new 
round of privatizations this year. President 
Alek sander Kwasniewski said. 


off will be 11 banks, teleconununicalidns con- 
cessions and a huge copper en tei p i i sa ^ Mr. 
Kwasniewski disclosed in an inttaview here. 

He placed a $4 billion total value on the sell- 
off Of just two of the many p mper rFra — the 
copper company KGHM Polska Miedz SA and 
the. country’s oldest bank; Bank Handlowy w 
Warszawie SA. 

. “We have reacted real success in Poland,” 
Mr. Kwasniewda said, “and we intend to take 
advantage of it.” 

Mr. Kwasniewski’s enthusiasm for die Pol- 
ish economy's prospects often makes it difficult 
to get a word m edgewise with the telegenic 
former Communist who has converted himself 
into something resembling a conservative So- 
cial Democrat. 

The Polish eco nom y has created half a mil- 
lion jobs in three years, Mr. Kwasniewski said. 

Poland’s stock market last year was one of 


die best-performing in the world, powered by 
an exiraoidin&ry entrepreneurial culture, a con- 
sumer market of40 million Poles and aflood of 
foreign direct investment that Mr. Kwasniewski 

put at $6 biQiaa in 1996. 

.. The Investment boom has already brouj 

substantial manufacmring operations to 
land, including car plants for. Daewoo Motor 
Co., Hyundai Motor Co. and General Motors 
Crap, that are looking for fresh markets as well 
as cheap operating bases from which to invade 
Westers Europe’s larger markets. 

But the European Union has already stepped 
in to stem what it considers too many tax 
incentives extended to such companies as Dae- 
woo. Poland recently has agreed to tighten 
tariffs on car imparts by Daewoo, which until 
now has been able to import car parts into 
Poland free of duties. 

Apart firm an inflation rate that was 183 
percent last year but is falling, “Poland would 
meet the Maastricht criteria for European mon- 
etaryumoh," said Anders Aslund,afeDow at the 
Carnegie Institute and a specialist in Eastern 
Europe. 

“Unemployment is high" in Poland, added 
Mr. Aslund, a bat it is not generally perceived 
as a tag problem because it is failing and 
because of the extensive underground econom- 
ic activity’' that supplements die incomes of 


many Polish households. "In general, Poland 
looks v«y mnch like Italy." he said, "in- 
cluding lots of wheeling and dealing." 

The timing of the planned state sales could 
hardly be better. Privatization has been one of 
the few blemishes on Poland’s economic suc- 
cess story since the fall of communism. The 
country has privatized small enterprises with 
little difficulty but has stumbled in attempting 
to sell off its big industrial ones. This is partly 
due to a 1990 privatization law, analysts say, 
which allows three sets of interest groups — 
company managers, workers and state author- 
ities — to veto privatization efforts. 

Thus the economy is stfil heavily dependent 
on state industry and die public sector in gen- 
eral, which accounts for 49 percent of gross 
domestic product That is one impediment that 
may keep the Polish economy from continuing 
to steam along at its current growth rate of mrae 
than 6 percent of GDP, for foster than Poland’s 
rich neighbors in Western Europe. 

Also weighing on growth prospects is the 
heavy burden of public-sector pensions, which 
soak up no less than 16 percent of GDP. 

But the main challenge, according to Mr. 
Kwasniewski, will be to limit inflation while 
promoting economic growth because Poland 
has "chosen the path of high growth to close the 
gap with countries of the European Union." 


Investor’s Europe 


Rank&i 

- 3250 


ijQndcm . 

*3^100 Indttc 

m - — - — 


GAG 40 




'AS O N 

law 


— ' @60 

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1997 1996 1997 1996 1997 


E)«feang»l : \ 

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:60E. 

Morelay Pra^.. 

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waci 

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• ATX 

1,182.18 ■ xmjB +Q-64 

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2J3 7jk 2,7^33 <4333 

Source; Tetekurs 


lmmlHaail Herald Tribune 

Very briefly; 


RWE and VEBA Flirt With Southwestern Bell 


Cmi*iiyOrSfrnnDiv*dKt 

FRANKFURT — Southwestern 
Bell Coro, is among the companies 
with which RWE AG and VEBA 
AG have held talks about the pos- 
sibility of framing . a telecommu- 
nications alliance in the wake of 
reports that the planned alliance of 
the two German companies with 
Cable & Wireless PLC was on the 
verge of coUapriqg, industry 
sources said Monday. 

Shares of RWE, VEBA and Cable 


& Wireless fell after reports that the 
British telummmimicati png com- 
pany was considering ending its 
partnership with RWE to join a big- 
ger international gnxm tixtf included 
UJS- and French telecommunica- 
tions companies. 

RWE AG said Monday its tele- 
communications alliance with 
VEBA AG would go ahead even if 
Cable & Wireless pulled out of the 
venture. "The aliianr* with VEBA 
will take place in any case," Dieter 


Scbweer. a spokesman for RWE, 
said. "The talks with VEBA are 
almost concluded." 

Analysts said VEBA and RWE 
would not have trouble finding a 
new partner. "If Cable & Wireless 
pulls out, there would be a lot of 
otherpeople knocking on the door,” 
said Roderick Hinkel, an analyst for 
Paribas Capital Markets. 

C&W shares fell 2 pence to 464 
pence ($7.44) in London. VEBA 
shares fell 0.90 Deutsche mark to 


89.70 DM ($54.91) in Rankfurt, 
while RWE foil 0.95 to 6835. 

anotter^ate-up amop^oOTnpmies 
hoping to challenge Deutsche 
Telekom AG when the Gennan tele- 
communications market opens to 
competition next year. 

In October, RWE left an alliance 
with VIAG AG and British Tele- 
communications PLC to court 
VEBA and Cable & Wireless. 

(AFX, Bloomberg) 


U.K. Airport Firm BAA Expects Deal on Naples Soon 


Oafd UhfO-SMtFimmD+mtm 

LONDON — BAA PLC said 
Monday it expected to take a con- 
trolling stake m the Naples airport 
by the end of March and may invest 
in Bedin’s Schoenfeld airport, 
which is seeking financing for a 
planned expansion. • 


BAA, which operates seven Brit- 
ish airports including London’s 
Heathrow, has been, negotiating to 
takeover fee airport for more than a 
year. It said it wanted (be purchase id 
lay the groundwork for its expansion 
into Continental Europe as govern- 
ments sold state-owned airports. 


BAA signed a letter of intent in 
January 1996 with the airport. op- 
erator, Gesac, which is owoed 473 
percent by the city of Naples and 
473 percent by the surrounding 
province of Campania. Alitalia owns 
fee remaining 5 percent The airport 
handles about 23 million passengers 


a year. Separately, BAA London 
Heathrow reported a 6.2 percent rise 
in pretax profit far fee nine months 
ended Dec. 31, to £397 million 
($631 million), as revenue rose 7.4 
percent, to £1.06 bOlibo from £987 
million a year earlier. 

( Reuters , Bloomberg) 


• Philips Electronics NV submitted a provisional plan to 
unions and staff to cut 325 jobs out of 730 at its corporate 
headquarters as part of a restructuring plan. 

• Linotype-Hell AG plans to cut 800 jobs in Germany and 
400 abroad as part of its restructuring plan. 

• Belgian police raided fee office of Finance Minister Phil- 
ippe Maystadt and fee headquarters of Kredietbank NV 
amid allegations that fee bank received illegal tax breaks. 
•Groupe des Assurances Nationales SA’s rescue will re- 
quire 15 billion to 20 billion Reach francs ($2.72 billion to 
$3.63 trillion) of fresh cash freon the government, allowing fee 
insurer to withdraw from the property sector, cover past losses 
and meet future obligations, Le Monte daily said. 

• Coca-Cola Co. said that it and its seven South African 
bottling partners would invest more than 1 billion rand 
($218.9 million) over the next five years to expand marketing 
and distribution in South Africa. 

• Cristobal Montoro, Spain’s economy secretary, ruled out 
die need for an adjustment to fee 1997 budget, reaffirming fee 
government’s 3 percent growth forecast for 1997. 

• The Bank of Israel will allow Israelis to invest more freely 
in overseas securities markets as part of a package of foreign- 
currency liberalization measures. 

• Tire European Commission will ask fee World Hade 
Organization to appoint a panel to rule on its legal challenge 
against U.S. legislation aimed at curbing investment in Cuba. 

• The Paris High Court fined Swissair AG 20,000 French 
francs ($3,626) for each of fee 66 staff members it laid off in 
France and ordered fee airline its modify its restructuring 
plans to conform with French employment laws. 

• MetallgeseUschaft AG’s net profit for 1 996 rose 86 percent, 
to 220 million Deutsche marks ($134.7 million), while pretax 
profit rose 20 percent in the first quarter, to 26.7 million 

DM. AFX. Bloomberg. APP, Reuters 




WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


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134 

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676 

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606 

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9*5 

935 

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936 

134 

339 

133 

339 


The Trib Index 



CkMtas price*. 

Jan. 1. 1992-100. 

Level 

Chenge 

St. chenge 

year to date 

" 



- % chenge 

World teten 

151.70 

+ 0-45 

+OXJ 

+1504 

Restate Mane 

Asta/PadUc 

110.78 

+ 0.07 

+ 0.06 

- 17.49 

Europe 

162-27 

+ 0.33 

+ 4 X 20 

+ 1&59 

K America 

175.81 

+ 0*7 

+ 4 X 27 

+ 37.05 

S. America 

taduetrtel Indexes 

131752 

+ 2-13 

+ 1.64 

+ 47-82 

Capital goods 

180.83 

+ 0.26 

+ 0.14 

+ 36-16 

Consumer goods 

168.64 

+ 0.82 

+ 0.49 

+ 22.14 

Energy 

178.77 

+ 0.42 

+ 0^4 

+3102 

Finance 

110*6 

+082 

+OJ 8 

— 13.18 

MsceKaneous 

164,58 

- 0-20 

- 0.12 

+ 21.18 

Raw Materials 

176.50 

-085 

- 0-20 

+ 24.47 

Service 

138.39 

Unch. 

Unch. 

+1503 

UtiftiBS 

14 ai 8 

+ 0.24 

+ 0.17 

+ 12.62 

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PAGE 2 


INTERNATIONAL wrei *AT,n TRIBUNE, SATURPAY-SUNPAY, FEBRUASYl-M^ 



PAGE 14 


INTERNATIONAL 


TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 




Monday’s 4 PJH. Close 

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INFORMATION 

Read 

THE MONEY REPORT 

every Saturday 
in the IHT. 


INTERNATIONAL 



THE WORLD'S DAEQf NEWSPAPER 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 


PAGE 15 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


4 ¥aohan Plans Asset Disposal 


'mm 2!? ^ aohan Japan Lid. 
saidAfoodayjis expansion feeS 

fcj]ed and that it would slash its 

aswts by rwariy one- third and cut hs 

debt to try to return to profitability. 

■ Yaohan b president, Miummasa 
Wada, said the retailer would cut 
group assets by 79 billion yen ($547 
million), or 32 percent, to 170 bil- 

^>^5 7 b y ^ end of March 1999. 

■ Mr. Wada said that under a two- 
^ restructuring plan. Yaohan 
would cut group debt from 164 bil- 
lion yen as of March 1996 to 90 
bObon yes by March 1999 

mrat program to expand operations. 

■ Yaohan Japan, the flagship com- 


pany of the international retaB group 
ala> plans to sell more than 10 stares 

and offices m the next two years, fee 


— company also plans to sell 
some of its overseas assets. 

Under an expansion plan under- 
taken by Mr. Wada, the Yaohan 
group has extended its operations to 
Shanghai, where it has its group 
headquarters, anid to Hong Kang and 
elsewhere in Asia. 

“We regret that we have pro- 
ceeded with projects abroad, such as 
m Thailand,” Mr. Wada said. 

To fi n a nc e the rapid expansion, 
the group raised funds by floating 
corporate bonds and taking out 
short- and long-term loans from fi- 
nancial insti tutions 


Yaohan needs to raise 9.6 billion 
yen to finance the redemption of its 
convertible bonds in May, the Ky- 
odo news agency reported. 

Mr. Wada said Yaohan bad “fi- 
nancial support from some financial 
institutions” for the plan. 

Asked about the impact of the 
restructuring plan,Mr. Wada said, 
“We will proceed wife fee restruc- 
turing plan at first, and then we have 
to consider the effects on our profits 
and sales.** 

wife' the 
over tie next 
years, then we have to improve 
our business,*' he said,. adding fear 
some operating assets would be sold 
and feat “therefore overall revenues 
will fall.” (AFP, Reuters) 


ana saies. 

■ “We will try to proceed wit 
restructuring smoothly over the 
two years, men we have to imt 


Samsung Misses ’96 Sales Target 


Bloomberg News 
i SEOUL — Samsung Electronics 
Co. will invest more than $3 billion 
in new products this year to reduce 
ifs reliance on memory-chip sides 
after it missed its sales target for fee 
first time last year, 
i Declining profit will also hinder 
t^e South 


Yonhap news service. In his first 
public appearance since he took 
over at fee world’s biggest memory- 
chip maker in December, Mr. Yoon 
Said, “Samsung will focus on more 
aggressive ana futuristic manage- 
ment this year.*’ 

A crash in chip prices last year 
diminished the company’s profit, 


- > 


i company’s ability 

JU to upgrade chip production for more drove its stock 
^advanced technology, Samsung's "60 percent and led 'to the biggest 
president, Yoon Jong Yong, said oqrpontte shake-up in Samsung’s his- 
Monday in remarks carried by fee tccy. A company spokeswoman said 


Samsung’s total 1996 sales were 183 
trillion won ($21 3, bdlion), against a 
target of 20 trillion won. The com- 
pany project e d a rise this year of 
about 13 percent, about the same as in 
1996. ft targeted 1997 sates at 20.7 
trillion won. 

Mr. Yoon said 1997 profit would 
be “s l i g htly higher*’ than that of 
1996, Yonhap reported. 

Investors took the missed sales 
target in stride. Samsung stock rose 
1,800 won to 48,600. 


Philippines Voids 
Foreign Hotel Bid 


MANILA — The Supreme 
Court voided a Malaysian con- 
sortium's winning bid to purchase 
fee Manila Hotel on Monday and 
ordered fee government to sell the 
hotel instead to a Philippine bid- 
der. 

The ruling marked another em- 
barrassment for the government, 
which has seen a series of asset 
sates go awry. Critics say the 
cases will discourage foreigners 
from investing in the Philippines. 

In an ll-to-4 vote, the court 
ruled feat fee government-owned 
hotel was pert of the country's 
that its sale to a fbr- 
wonld violate fee 
policy’* laid down 
in fee constitution. 

The policy gives preference to 
qualified Filipinos in fee “gram 
of rights, privileges and conces- 
sions covering the economy and 
national patrimony.** 

Wife fee niling, fee Government 
Service Insurance System was 
ordered to sell a 51 percent stake in 
fee hotel to Manila Prince Hotel 
Carp., a privately held company 
owned by Emilio Yap, publisher of 
fee Manila Bulletin, for 6733 mil- 
lion pesos ($2535 millio n) . 

Reoong Bhd_ one of Malay- 


beritage 
ei 


sia’s biggest companies, turned in 
the higher bid of 44 pesos per 
share at the auction on Sept. IS, 
1995. Ten days later. Manna 
Prince offered to increase its 
41 38-peso bid to 44 pesos. 

Critics of the court’s decision 
see a dangerous precedent for for- 
eign participation in future gov- 
ernment asset sales. 

In a dissenting opinion. Asso- 
ciate Justice Artemio Panganiban 
called the ruling “judicial legis- 
lation” that makes bidding “a 
ridiculous sham where no Filipino 
can lose and where no foreigner 
can win.” 

Robert Sears, executive direc- 
tor of the American Chamber of 
Commerce in die Philippines, 
said, “Foreign investors are not 
wom down yet, but they are going 
to be if this continues.” 

Though this is die first time the 
court has sided wife a Filipino 
because be was a Filipino, it is not 
the first time a foreign company 
has been stripped of its claim to a 
government asset after bidding. 

In December, President Fidel 
Ramos overturned a government * 
agency’s decision to award die 
Subic Bay port contract to a group 
ted by Hutchison Whampoa Ltd. 
of Hong Kong. (AP. Bloomberg) 


PATA: Internet Deepens an Information-Services Bivalry Korean Problems Set Back 


••• Continued from Page II . 

battle among box-makers for space 
. ip trading rooms and brokerage 
firms is becoming a race to develop 
an array of information services — 
such as stock quotes, analytical tools 
and news reports — flexible enough 
tp- be delivered to a.customer's per- 
sonal computer in any number of 
combinations. 

A .. “You get the feeling that the In- 
V ternet is leaving Bloomberg behind. 


hind,” said John Sabre of IndoSuez 
Capital, referring to maker of the 
stock-quote machine that Citicorp 
told to Reuters in 1994 at a huge 
loss. Mr. Sabre gets his real-time 
financial information over a PC. 
r; Rentas, Telerate and Bloomberg 
are all grappling wife fee industry 
changes, but Telerate has feltthe sting 
the mosL The Dow Jones financial 
information services division, made 
• of Telerate and Dow Jones News 
a 21 percent (hop in' 


operating income far 1996, to $156 
mflliaa, an sales of $980 minion. 

Edward Atorino ofOppenheimer 
& Co. estimated that Telerate's op- 
erating margin had dropped to 15.9 
percent in 1996 from 203 percent 
the previous year and would fall to 
almost zero this year: By contrast, 
he said, Reuters routinely rolls up 
margins of more than 20 percent. 

Telerate’s historic strength has 
been its real-timeraice data on gov- 
ernment paper. Through its exclus- 
ive arrangement with Cantor 


firm. Tolerate is still viewed as 
place to go for such information. But 
several analysts said Telerate was 
becoming outmoded in other, fester- 
growing areas, such as transactions. 

A Renters machine, for example; 
allows customers to trade stocks and 
make currency transactions. 
Telerate; also never developed so- 
sofrware like 
lets users create 
tfleir Own complex financial models. 


Part of the problem is inadequate 
financial support from Dow Jones. 
Reuters spent roughly $300 million 
on research and development in 
1995, while Telerate spent about 
$33 million; Mr. Bloomberg has said 
his company spends $250 million a 
year on research and development. 

Still, wben Dow Jones announced 
Jan. 20 that it would spend $650 
million over three years to retool 
Telerate, its shares went into a 
swoon. S pffie shareholders 
that Telerate has fallen so far behind 
feat Dow Jones would do better to . 
cut its losses and leave the business. 

Among that group are two out- 
spoken money managers — Mi- 
chael Price of franklin Mutual Fund 
Advisors and James Cramer of 
Cramer Berkowilz & Co. — who 
amassed stakes in Dow Jones when 
its share price plunged. 

“If you can’t get me to use TeT 
erate— andl’m a machine junkie — 
you're not going to get anybody 
else,’.’ Mr. Cramer said.- 


IPC’s Ambitions in Asia 


Renters 

SINGAPORE — News of finan- 
cial trouble at its South Korean unit 
has dealt a setback to the computer 
maker IPC Corp.’s hopes of becom- 
ing an Asian regional player, ana- 
lysts said Monday. 

They said EPC Corp. (Koreans 
default on 570 tmllkm won 
($659,500) of promissory notes last 
week had raised concerns about the 
comp an y’s financial controls. 

The financial impact on IPC “is 
not very big, as it is limited to a 
subsidiary,” said Patrick Yau, an 
analyst at Schroders Securities. 
“Bui as the company is trying to be 
a regional player, implications are 
bigger as it suggests financial con- 
trol is very weak.” 

Timothy Wong, research man- 
ager at Vickers Balias, said control 
was “always the problem the fur- 



A S ON 0 J 
1996 1997 


- .18000 
's’o : NTr,r 17000 


Max; 


1997 . 

Monday " Ptev. 


a" son t> r* 

1996 1997 


Ch£*ei 


Hong Kong 

Hang Seng • 

13,«tJBr 13^21.79.1047] 

Stnqapar* 

Shafts rimes 

2 ^ian» 

2,216.47 

40.07 

Sydney , ; 

A^Oidnaifes 

2 ^ 2 iso 

2,423.70 


Tokyo 

t&keiZS 

•tafiB&M 18.330.01 

-1.33 

1 Koala U«nptfl'CoropQs»a 


U1&72 

+a43 


SET. 

.7$1,83 

788.04 

-3^5 

Seoul 

■ Composte indBf ' 

68735 

883.13 

14X60 

Taipei 

Stock Marius Index 7.M&BB 

7,315^9 

40 A3 

'ManR*. . 

PSE 

3^47.60 

3,421.91 

+0.75 

Jefliarta 

Composite Indax 

987.47 

891.12 

-0^3 

WaMngton 

NZSE-40 


2388.74 

-037 

Bcntoay 

Sansttue Index. 

W 24J» 

3382.47 

-1.72 


Source; Teiekum 


Internal Mid HcniU Tnbwtr 


Very briefly: 


tfaer away yon go; all kinds of stuff 
could go wrong.” 

IPC said Fnday it had not been 
able to contact die chief executive 
officer of the Korean unit. 

Patrick Ngiam, chairman of IPC, 
said be did not see the unit's troubles 
as reflecting poor financial controls 
or as a potential setback to becom- 
ing a regional player. 

“The South Korean situation is 
an isolated one,” he said. 

Mr. Ngjam said the company had 
sent a team to investigate fee matter 
in Sooth Korea. 

But an analyst at a Singapore 
brokerage said IPC already had prob- 
lems with its foreign operations. IPC 
closed both its Australian and U.S. 
operations last year to cut losses and 
concentrate on the Asian market 

“This whole phenomenon could 
be endemic,” he said. 


• Hong Kong’s gross domestic product grew at a 5. 1 percent 
annual rate in the third quarter, up from 4.6 percent in the 
second quarter, as private consumption grew 43 percent and 
government consumption 5.3 percent from a year earlier. 

• Bank of East Asia Ltd. expects its China assets to contribute 
more than 30 percent of its profit in five years as it doubles its 
investment there. The 6 percent of its assets invested in China 
last year earned 22 percent of Its net profit, which was up 15 
percent to 1.88 billion Hong Kong dollars ($242.6 million). 

• Thailand’s consumer prices rose 0J2 percent in January 
after a 0.1 percent decline in December. 

• Creative Technologies LtcL’s stock rose 2.70 Singapore 
dollars, to 21 ($ 1 4.92), after the maker of computer sound cards 
said second-quarter net profit more than doubled to 56.9 million 
dollars even though sates fell 1 1 percent 

•Japan’s foreign-exchange reserves fell $731 million in 
January, to $217.1 billion, their first month-to-monto decline 
since 1993. 

• Japan’s sales of domestic cars in January were 14.9 percent 
higher than in January 1996. ar 336,642 units, as customers 
raced to buy cars ahead of a sales- tax increase in April. 

• Toyota Motor Corp. is halting production Tuesday at 1 1 
plants as a result of a fire at a brake factory operated by the 
parts supplier Aisin Seiki Co. 

• Canon Inc. expects strong printer sales to raise its 1996 
parent-company pretax profit beyond its forecast of 1 17 billion 
yen ($958.2 million). 

• Nintendo Co. had sold 3.8 million of its 64-bit video-game 
machines worldwide by the end of 1996, including all of the 
2.1 million Nintendo 64s shipped to fee United States. 

• PT Citra Lamtoro Gang Persada, a company controlled 
by President Suharto’s oldest daughter, will start building a 
5.82 trillion rupiah ($2.45 billion) road-rail link in Jakarta in 
April, fee official news agency Antara said. 

• Petrotiam Nasionai Bhd. bought Broken HiU Pty.’s 43.75 

percent stake in die Dai Hung oil field in Vietnam. The 
Malaysian company refused to discuss terms, and BHP de- 
clined to comment. Reuters, Bloomberg, AP.AFP 




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A Global Network for Eco-Efficiency 



World Business Council 
for Sustainable Development 

(THIRD IN A SERIES) 

Global environmental problems require 

GLOBAL SOLUTIONS, YET GLOBAL SUCCESS IS THE 
SUM OF LOCAL EFFORTS. THIS IS WHAT TOE 
WBCSD GLOBAL NETWORK IS ALL ABOUT. 

Scattered throughout Africa, Latin America, the 
Gulf of Mexico, Asia Pacific, and Central and 
Eastern Europe, the 600-plus business leaders in the 
WBCSD regional and national councils, : along with 
four partner organizations, work to promote sustain- 
able development They are a critical link between 
the developed and developing world, and they have 
the unique opportunity to harness the power of busi- 
ness to protect die environment/ 

The global network is the laboratory where 
WBCSD policies come to life. It looks for methods 
of keeping indusny on the cumng edge of ideas and 
technology; il teas those ideas for viability and uses 

them in its own markets. 

The councils cany out projects that convey die 


message of sustainable development, conduct train- 
ing programs that enable business to reform destruc- 
tive practices, and influence governments to change 
policy frameworks. Through these efforts, they will 
soon enough signal how business is changing course 
toward sustainability. 

Thke eco-efficiency: It provides market opportuni- . 
ties, which are not restricted to developed countries. 
Transfer of ecoefficienf technologies from large 
companies in developed countries to small and medi- 
um-sized ernes in less-developed nations offers all 
sides clear benefits. 

Smaller companies in 
emerging markets gain 
access to the best avail- 
able practices, which im- 
prove profits and reduce 
pollution, and larger 
companies from the 
developed world in- 
crease market share and 
strengthen the' local 
economy while prevent- 
ing pollution. 

In Colombia, large 
companies are now help- 
ing smaller enterprises 

achieve eco-efficiency m ways that not only cut pol- 
lution and chemical use, but also improve profits. 

Throughout fee Gulf of Mexico, companies from 
various sectors - including mining, forestry and 
chemicals - have increased profitability, reduced 
pollution and conserved natural resources through 
eco-effident practices. 

In Thailand, where the energy sector accounts for 


“The regional BCSDs, in developing countries 
and countries in transition, are turning out to be a 
real driving force for the WBCSD movement We in 
Europe and North America tend to become tied up 
intirry issues , in questions of a few percentage points 
here or there. But many business leaders in Asia, 
Latin America, Africa and Eastern Europe are work- 
ing closely with their governments to create frame- 
works for environmentally sound industrial develop- 
ment, to leapfrog Northern development patterns. 
We have much to learn from their leadership and 
breadth of vision. ” 

- Stephan Schmidheiny, Chairman, 
Anova Holding and Founder, BCSD 


fee greatest proportion of greenhouse gas emissions, 
the private sector is deploying innovative power-gen- 
eration schemes and energy-efficient techniques. 

In the Czech Republic, faced with a legacy of 
heavy industry and outdated technologies, the coun- 
cil is working with the local government to ensure a 
successful transition to a market-based economy, 
through sustainable policies and measures. 

In Russia, a group of companies, led by the 
WBCSD, are participating in a $10 million educa- 
tional initiative. This venture combines classroom- 
— ^ based training with prac- 
tical company intern- 
ships and is designed to 
expose 600 of tomor- 
row’s Russian business 
leaders to the latest man- 
agerial practices and 
thinking, wife particular 
emphasis on eco-effi- 
ciency. 

The major leadership 
challenge fcxr industry 
today is to adopt eco- 
efficiency as fee busi- 
ness norm for the 21st 
_ — ___ - centur y B js a global 

challenge - as pertinent for companies in fee United 
States, Europe and Japan as it is for those in other 
regions of fee world, especially the fast-growing 
economies of Asia and Latin America, and the 
emerging economies in Central and Eastern Europe. 
This is why the global network plays such an impor- 
tant role, and why the WBCSD will continue to 
establish new councils throughout the world. 


j What is the WBCSD? 

: A busiriess group of 320 companies from 35. 
countries and more than 20 major industrial 
sectors, sharing a commitment to the environ- 
. ment aha fee princjpies of ecortoniiegrowth arid 
sustainable development. The WBCSD is 
' rauquely positioned to look at. areas of sustain- 
able development where Industry’s voice , can 
make & difference. ' 

,* The WBCSD aims at developing closer coopefeb 
’ fern between business, governments, norn 
governmental organizations and other organize- 
. dais concerned .wife sustainable development 
'fbr a complete Hst of WBCSD publications, 

■ please contact: 

E&Y Dkect Unit 6, P.O; Box 934, Poole, Dorset, 
BB17 TAG, United Kingdom.. Tei.: (44 1202) 
679 885; fax: (44 1202) 661999. 


Hie Global Network 

National BCSDs: Croatia, Czech Republic, 
Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Poland, Taiwan, 
Thailand. 

Regional BCSDs: Gulf of Mexico (Mexico 
Chapter, U.S. Chapter). Latin America 
(Argentina. Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, El 
Salvador, Honduras, Mexico). 

Partner Organizations: India, Philippines, 
Southern Africa, Zimbabwe. 


World Business Council 
for Sustainable Development 
160 route de Florissant 
CH-1231 Couches, Geneva, Switzerland 
Tel: (41 22)8393100 
Rue (41 22)839 3131 
E-Mail: info@wbcsd.ch 
WWW: www.wbcsd.ch 


The Members of WBCSD 


3M • ABB Asea Brown Boveri *Akzo 
Nobel . Anova Holding - A"™* 
Celulose * Assurances Gdnerales 
France • AT&T • Avenor • ^^otaa* 
• Bank Umum Naaonal BdWAU 
BOC • British Gas • British 
The Broken Hill 

(BHP) • CAEM1 MmerasSo e Meatagra 
-cZn- Chemical Works Sokolov • 

Brewing Company 


Danfoss • De lima & Cia • Deloitte 
Touche Ibhmatsu IntEinationa] • Dow - 
DuPont Eastman Kodak • EBARA • 
Environmental Resources Management • 
ESKOM • FALCK Group * Fiat • 
Fletcher Challenge • Fundacion Juan 
March Garoyaglio y Zorraquin • 
Gazprom * General Motors • Geriing- 
j fobzem Insurances • Glaxo Wellcome • 
Grupo IMSA * Heineken ♦ Heinz Wattle • 
Henkel - Hitachi • Hoffmann-La Roche ■ 
Imperial Chemical Industries • 


Indonesian Forest Community - Interface 

• International Paper Company • Inti 
‘ Karya Persada Tehnik • Investment 

Consortium • Itochu Corporation * John 
: Tsmg • Johnson & Johnson • Johnson 
Matfeey • Kajima • Kansai Electric 
Power • Kikkoman • Kvaemer • Lafarge 

• LG Group • Mitsubishi Corporation * 
Mitsubishi - Electric Corporation . • 

; Monsanto - National Westminster Bank - 
NEC Corporation • Neste Oy • Nestte • 
Nippon Ifelegraph & Telephone Corpora- 


tion • Noranda • Norsk Hydro • Novartis 

• Novo Nonfisk • Ontario Hydro • Orkla 

• Philips Electronics • Pirelli * PLIVA * 
PowerGen • Procter & Gamble • Rhdne- 
Poulenc • Rid Doce International - RTZ • 
Saga Petroleum • Samsung Electronics • 
S.C. Johnson & Son • Scudder, Stevens & 
Clark • Seiko Group • SGS Society 
G£n6rale de Surveillance • SGS-THOM- 
SON Microelectronics • Shell 
International Petroleum ■ SHV Holdings 

• Skanska • Sonae Investunentos * Sony * 


SOPORCEL • Statoil • Stora • Storebrand 
• Sulzer • Swiss Bank Corporation • 
Thiwan Cement Corporation • Texaco • 
Thai Fanners Bank * The Tokyo Electric 
Power Company * Toshiba Corporation • 
Toyota • TransAlta • Unilever • UPM- 
Kymmene • Vattenfall • Volkswagen • 
Waste Management International * 
Westvaco Corporation * Weyerhaeuser • 
Western Mining Corporation • Xerox ■ 
Yasuda Fire & Marine Insurance 
Company a Zurich Insurance Group. 






** 


PAGE 2 


INTERNATIONAL herald TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 1-2, 1997 



PAGE 16 


Monday’s 4 P.M. 

The 1 ,000 most-traded Natforaf Motet securities 
In terns of daCar wlu& updated twice a year. 
ThoAssoBalBdPms3. 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 


NASDAQ 


K WW LSB W Orgt 

















































































































































































































































PAGE 2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURHAY-SUNDAy, FEBRUARY 1-2 , 1997 



PAGE 18 





imc. 


TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4,199? 


World Roundup 


Norwegians Dominat 





By Christopher Clarey 

Internationa! Herald Tribune 


SESTRIERE, Italy — The Super-G is 
the newest of Alpine siding’s four dis- 


ciplines, but there was nothing new 
Mondary about the winner on the first 


Monday about the winner on the first 
day of the World Championships. 

Atle Skaardal has been taking great 
risks at high speeds for a living since 
1984, and under a crystalline sky in foe 


Italian Alps, the clean-living, mild- 
mannered Norwegian sailed down the 
Kandahar Banchetta course in one 
minute. 29.68 seconds to defend the 
world Super-G title he won last year in 
Sierra Nevada, Spain. 

“I just felt so relaxed," he said. “I 
was telling myself before the race that 
even if I didn't succeed I already had 
gold from last year." 

But once Skaardal reached the bot- 
tom of the relatively technical course, 
bis calm evaporated. He had skied fifth, 
and now he had to wait in the brilliant 
sunshine for foe other 10 members of foe 
first seed and the handful of dangerous 
outsiders to follow in his tracks. 

“I had a very bad feeling in my 
stomach," Skaardal said. “I almost 
threw up because I was so nervous.” 

Though several me" managed to ski 
faster on the top two-thirds of the course. 


CMMobol FcmMP 


Pete Carroll, shown coaching 
the Jets, wOf run the Patriots. 


Patriots Hire Carroll 


football Pete Carroll, foe de- 
fensive coordinator of the San Fran- 
cisco 49ers the last two years, is the 
new coach of foe New England 
Patriots, succeeding BUI Parcells. 

A Patriots spokesman confirmed 
foe appointment Monday, which 
had been expected even before Par- 
cel Is and foe Patriots officially 
severed ties Friday. 

Carroll, 45. was head coach of the 
New York Jets in 1994 and was 
sacked after finishin g foe season 6- 
10. He reportedly interviewed for 
foe St Louis Rams coaching job but 
was passed over for Dick Vermeil. 

Carroll was bypassed by the 
49ers when they hired Steve 
Mariucci, foe University of Cali- 
fornia head coach, after George 
Seifert resigned. 

• The Atlanta Falcons hired Art 
Shell, foe former head coach of the 
Los Angeles Raiders, as offensive 
line coach on Monday. (AP) 


was possible to beat these guys.’ 
Unlike some of his World C 


no one could equal his perf o rm ance on 
the bottom. Not fellow Norwegian Lasse 


New io r 49ers 


the bottom. Not fellow Norwegian Lasse 
Kjus, who took the silver medal in one 
minute, 29-89 seconds. Not Austrian vet- 
eran Gunther Mader. who took foe 
bronze in 1:30.01, and not Frenchman 
Luc Alphand, the World Cup downhill 
leader, who found this course too sinuous 
for his taste and fmkhflri 12th. 

Now all Skaardal has left to do in 
Sestriere is fulfill his lifetime goal by 
winning the gold medal in Saturday's 
downhill, which will be held on this 
same slope. It is downhill that has 
defined Skaardal's career, and he is un- 
questionably foe best Scandinavian 
speed skier in history. He was foe first to 
win a major downhill. (Norway's Stein 
Eriksen and Sweden's Ingemar S ten- 
mark already had broken plenty of 
ground in foe technical events). And 
along with Ole-Christian Fumseth, 


U nlike some of his World Cup co- 
horts. including one Italian in particular, 
Skaardal does not make much dews off 
the snow. He lives a quiet life in 
Salzburg with .his girlfriend Karin 
KoUerer, a member of the Austrian 
team. He has trained with ballet dancers 
to improve his a gili ty and is fond of 
sailing and windsurfing in Norway. 

Searching for other titillating Infor- 
mation is like searching for truffles in the 
Sahara. 

"There aren’t any Skaardal stories," 
said the Norwegian coach, Lars For- 
. berg. "He’s just a really nice guy and 
really great skier.” 

The same could be said of Kjus, who 
after last season appeared ready to dom- 
inate the World Cup circuit Instead, he 
found himself borne in Norway for five 
weeks earlier this season trying to shake a 
viral infection- He returned in mid-Janu- 
ary, and though be will need sinus sur- 
gery in the spring, he was healthy enough 
ro Sestriere to live up to bis reputation. 

"At Christmas time, Lasse was 
nearly at rock bottom," Forberg said. 
“But he made a tremendous effort, and 
now he’s king of foe mountain again." 

In truth, Skaardal was the king on 
Monday, but Kjus was more than happy 
to settle for being foe prince. 


FOOTBALL The San Francisco 
49ers unveiled plans for a 75,000- 
seat stadium that Carmen Policy, 
the club president, called foe 
"premier facility for the premier 
franchise in foe premier city ." 

The stadium would be at Can- 
dlestick Point, where tite team’s 
current stadium, 3Com Park, 
formerly Candlestick Park, stands. 
It would be foe cornerstone of a 
$525 million entertainment com- 
plex. ( AP ) 


West Indies Crushes Australia 
In an Ill-Tempered Final Test 


FIFA Enters Cup Dispute 


soccer FIFA, foe governing 
body of world soccer, stepped into 
foe dispute over the venue for foe 
2006 World Cup on Monday by 
saying it was perfectly acceptable 
for two nations from the same con- 
tinent to bid. 

The English FA.. which has not 
made an official bid, has com- 
plained because UEFA, foe gov- 


erning body of European soccer, is 
to back Germany's campaign. 


to back Germany's campaign. 

UEFA said the English knew in 
1993 that it would back a German 
bid. (Reuters) 


Reuters 

PERTH — West Indies thrashed 
Australia by 10 wickets in die fifth and 
final cricket test Monday after the um- 
pires warned both sides about their poor 
behavior. 

Despite their heavy defeat in three 
days, Australia won foe series, 3-2, to 
retain the Frank Worrell Trophy. 

Hie deterioration in relations be- 
tween foe two sides highlighted foe in- 
tense, and occasionally bitter, rivalry 
that has been a feature of their meetings 
over the years. 

The umpires, Darrell Hair and Peter 
Willey, spoke to captains Mark Taylor 
and Courtney Walsh on Monday. 

Late in West Indies' innings. Hair 
spoke to Taylor and Walsh, who was 
batting, at some length before foe two 
players shook hands and played on. 

Raman Subba Row, foe match ref- 
eree. said foe two captains were told to 
control the situation. 


‘ ‘The umpires said there was a fair bit 
of niggle from both sides and they told 


the captains, ‘enough was enough,’ 
Subba Row said. 


Subba Row said. 

Walsh returned later in his role as fast 
bowler to claim five wickets despite a 
hamstring injury as Australia was 
bowled out for 194 in its second in- 
nings. 

“The team required for someone to 
stay there and fight a bit,” said Walsh. 
“It did hurt and I was getting a bit 
worried about it, but five or six of foe 
gays asked me to keep going bowling, 
and it was hard to tell them ‘no.’ ” 

Left with a target of 54 runs for 
victory, openers Sherwin Campbell and 
Robert Samuels easily achieved the task 
in 44 minutes and 10.2 overs to aid foe 
match just before the scheduled dose. 

West Indies began the day on 353 for 
seven in reply to Australia’s first in- 
nings 243 and was all out for 384 just 
before lunch. 


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Skaardal led a gifted generation of Nor- 
wegian skiers that have been dubbed 
“The Attacking Vikings." Thar group 
includes Kjus and Kjetil- Andre Aamodt, 
who both have won overall World Cup 
titles and Olympic gold medals. 

Such success had a price, however. In 
the summer of 1995, the Norwegian Ski 
Federation flirted with bankruptcy after 
running up a $7 million deficit 
Kjus and some of bis less affluent 
had to finance some of their 
own training summer. Reorgan- 
ization and new sponsorship appear to 
have alleviated foe problems. 

"We are not thinking about money 
anymore," Kjus said. 

‘ ‘You need to be around a while before 
you get confident," Skaardal said. “The 
first year I was just watching foe big guys 
like Pfrmin Z u rfaiggen. I had so much 
respect, but after a few years, 1 realized it 



uimmu 


OnidiB&aieiaOThr AmoojXciI hn* 

Atle Skaardal of Norway flying to victory in the Super-Giant slalom, fire first race m the World Championships.- , 


O’Meara Holds Off Woods by a Shot 


By Thomas Bonk * 

LnAv'taT**, further four shots behind. 

The tournament turned into 

PEBBLE BEACH. Cahfor- a contest between neighbors 
nia — In golf, you have from the same resort commu- 
somefoing called local know- nity in Florida who go fishing 
ledge, and Mark O'Meara together and play a little 
knows this California peninsula friendly golf on the side, 
like foe back of his swing. "I loveMarkto death.” said 

O’Meara knows every grain Woods, 19 years younger than 
of sand, every blade of grass, O’Meara. “We talked about it 
every tree, every sea lion and back home — ‘Wouldn’t it be 
every pebble at Pebble Beach, great to battle it out down foe 
There is no other explanation stretch?’ Lo and behold, that’s 
for what O’Meara did Sunday what happened.’* 
an some of the most famous "Even though I made a run 
real estate in golf. He held off at him. it was too little too 
Tiger Woods and won the fate,’’ said Woods, who 
AT&T Pebble Beach Pro-Am learned something from 
for foe fifth time. Sunday’s experience. 

“There must be someone "I learned foe first two 
floating high above foe rounds of foe tournament are 
Monterey Peninsula who’s a pretty important,” said Woods, 
huge Mark O’Meara fan," He was 10 shots off the lead 
O’Meara said. after 36 holes before shooting a 

The 40-year-old with the 63 on Saturday and a 64 oo 


When Woods knocked a was slightly uphill with a left: 
sand wedge to within four feet to-right break. O'Meara used* i 
and birdied the 16th hole, he 7-iron because it had less kjft 
was within one shot of than a wedge, and he figured th& 
O'Meara, who was one group ball would catch foe green and 
behind Woods on the fairway roll in if he gorit going in the 
and heard the cheers. proper direction. 

O’Meara missed the green to He did and it did. 
foe left The ball stopped in the "To hold off a young, taj-l 
fringe, about 15 feet from the ented player," said O’Meara: 
hole. What be did next probably "Well, hey, OJC, that’s gre^t 
wot foe tournament. TTie foot for foe 40 -year-olds." -r. 


Living in the U.S.?- 


Now printed in New York 
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syrupy swing birdied two of Sunday, 
foe fast three holes, closed with Wood 


the last three holes, closed with Woods was seven foots t 
his fourth consecutive 67, set a hind Duval at the start of the h 
tournament record with his round but made five birdies < 
score of 268 and won a per- foe front nine to get to with 
son al -best $342,000. two foots of Duval ai 

One foot back were Woods O’Meara, who had needed on 
and David Duval, foe overnight six holes to catch die leader. 


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PAGE 19 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 


SPORTS 


nd 


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*Grosek Goal 
Lets Sabres 
Tie Capitals 

7 • The Associated Pnas 
Micbal Grosdc scored with 
4:31 left in the third period to 
give the Sabres a 2-2 tie wife 
the Washington Capitals in 


■vGrosefc’s goal Sunday, his 
iHth. was Ms first since Jan 


rr 


NHL losMpor 


i . 

5.~ Steve Kooowalchuk had 
Jgjyen the Capitals a 2-1 lead 
l^nth 6:12 remaining. 

1 D omimk Basek made 27 
saves for the Sabres. Jim 
Carey made 22 saves for 
Washington. 

b»»* 4, Stan 3 Vy- 
' Kozlov scored 80 
i into overtime as De- 
bit won at home for the first 
time in six. games. 

- ~ Kozlov’s 17th goal and 

to game-winner — came 
after 



Jordan Makes Points in Seattle 


By Clifton Brown 

New York Timex Service 


Bryant (Bi£ Country) Reeves scored i 
reer-high 33 points and Shareef Ab 


The Bulls’ Michael Jordan working hb way around Gary Payton of the SuperSooics. 


AFC Takes Pro Bowl in OT 

Mid the Stars’ end by Detroit’s 
Tomas Sandstrom. Sand- 
scorn's assist was his first 
point in three games since De- 
gajoit acquired him last week- 
ly Pittsburgh. 

‘ Brafas 3, Rangrara 2 In New 
York, die Bruins scared three 

goals in less than four minutes 

^ • » 


. ^Rob Tallas, Boston's rookie 
goalie, protected a one-goal 
lead for nearly half the game 
tfter Mark Messier scored at 
£3:19 of the second period. 
q^Das made 28 saves. 

’.Avalranchra S, M i g hty Duck* 

sCStephane Yelie scored the 
tie-breaking goal 21 seconds 
(pto the third period as Col- 
o£ado broke Anaheim’s streak 
of home victories at four. 


The Associated Press 

HONOLULU — Lance 
Alstodt kicked like an All- 
Pro. Gary Blanchard and John 
Kasay locked like investment 
bankas. 

Alstodt stole the show at 
die Pro Bowl by making a 35- 
yard kick to wm a Si million . 
promotional field-goal derby 
at halftime: The AFC’s Blan- 
chard and the NFC's Kasay 
put the game into overtime by 
missing. 

Blanchard, who was off 
target from 41 yards near the 
end of regulation, finally hit a 
37-yarder 8:15 into overtime 
Sunday to give the AFC a 2$-' 
23 victory over the NFC. 

Kasay missed a 39-yarder 


with 11 seconds remaining in 
the fourth quarter, making die 
overtime necessary. 

Alstodt. an investment 
banker in New York who 
played soccer in his youth, 
boomed home his kick on his 
only try. The all-star kickers, 
meanwhile, wear a combined 
3-for-8. 

“I know there were some 
guys that were a little upset 
that it went so long because 
they needed to catch their 
flights.’' said Mark Bnrnell, 
the Jacksonville quarterback 
who was a fill-m for the in- 
jured John Hway and won the 

Pro Bowl’s MVP Award. 

. The game was an excitii 
one, with Brunell and the T 


skins’ sGusFrerotte — invited 
to the Pro Bowl after Troy 
Aikman withdrew — helping 
provide offensive fireworks. 

Brunell completed 12 of 22 
passes for 236 yards, in chid- 
ing an 80-yard pass play to 
Tim Brown with 44 seconds 
left in regulation that tied the 
game at 23. 

Brunei! also took the AFC 
on a 66-yard drive to Blan- 
chard’s winning field goal, 
throwing a 43-yard pass to 
New England’s Ben Coates 
along the way. 

After Brown scored, Fre- 
rotte marched the NFC back 
down the field, but Kasay’s 
kick was off and the teams 
headed to overtime. 


SEATTLE — Michael Jordan stuck a 
knife in the SuperSonics with a 45-point 
performance — the most anyone has 
scored against Seattle this season — as 
he led the Chicago Bulls to an impress- 
ive 91-84 victory at Key Arena. 

Jordan was the only Bull to reach 
double figures, but it hardly mattered. 
Against the team the Bulls beat in last 
year's National Basketball Association 
finals, Jordan dominated Sunday while 
shooting 19 for 28 from the field! 

Jordan used his height advantage and 
his strength to score almost at will. One 
minute he was making a turnaround 
jimp shot, the next minute he was spin- 
ning into the lane for layups. When 
Jordan made a 45-foot shot to beat the 
fira-quartor buzzer, one could sense it 
was going to be a special day. 

The Bulls steamed to a 19rpoint lead 
in die second quarter, but sparked by 
Payton (24 points), who made a trio of 
three-pointers in the third quarter, 
Seattle closed within two points, 60-58. 

After a Chicago timeout, Jordan 
scored six consecutive points, starting an 
8-0 run that pushed the Bulls’ lead to 68- 
58. and the Bulls controlled play the rest 
of die way. 

The Bulls have won the first four 
games of their six-game Western road 
trip, and they have done ii without Dennis 
Rodman, who is serving an 11-game sus- 
pension for kicking a courtside camera- 
man. 

The NBA commissioner, David 
Stem, is supposed to make an announce- 
ment on Rodman's status this week. 

In other games. The Associated Press 
reported : 

Orfnfira* 1 02 , CmKOam S3 

Stu Jackson, who took over as Van- 
couver’s coach on Jan. 24, gained his 
first victory Sunday as the Grizzlies 
picked on somebody their own size — 
the Boston Celtics — and snapped an 
eight-game losing streak. 

Even with the victory in Boston, the 
Grizzlies have tile worst record in the 
NBA, with only nine victories. 


la 

career-high 33 points and Shareef Ab- 
dur-Rahim added 28 points for Van- 
couver. 

Unroot* 115, Hawks 104 Seven Nug- 
scored in double figures, led by 
le Ellis with 21 points, as they spoiled 
Dikembc Mutombo’s return to Denver. 

Flaying in Denver for the first time 
since leaving to sign with Atlanta, Mu- 
ff BA koPNDor 

tumbo was booed whenever he touched 
the ball. He wound up with three points, 
10 rebounds and one blocked shot. 

Lriktr, 129, hiiM* as Shaquille 
O’Neal scored 24 points before straining 
his right knee in the third period and 
leaving the Lakers’ rout against visiting 
Washington. 

Los Angeles led 46-22 at the end of 
the first quarter and 78-52 at the half. 

Hat so, cavafiars 78 In Miami, re- 
serve guard John Grotty hit two straight 
3-pointers to put the Heat in front for 
good against Cleveland. 

Crotty finished with 13 points to hack 
Tim Hardaway’s game-leading 20. 


Sons 108, Pistons 97 Twenty-one 
points by reserve Marie Bryant sparked 
visiting Phoenix, which ended a six- 
game losing streak by beating Detroit. 

The Suns, who had lost 10 of their last 
2 1 on the road, became just the second 
team to score 100 points against the 
Pistons this season. 

Hornet* 89, Knloke 99 Glen Rice 
scored 40 points as Charlotte snapped 
New York’s 15-game home winning 
streak. 

It was the first home loss since Dec. 3 
for the Knicks, who were without Patrick 
Ewing for the second straight game. 

Magic 103, Rocket* 90 At Orlando, 
Rony Seikaly scored 29 points, and the 
Magic took advantage of Diaries 
Barkley’s absence 10 hand the Rockets 
their fourth straight loss. 

Pacwrs 92, Mat* 90 At Indianapolis. 
Travis Best hit a go-ahead 3- pointer with 
39 seconds to play, and Reggie Miller 
scored 28 points as Indiana came back 
from a 20-point deficit to win. 

Thnbravwolvraa 103, trail Blazon 102 
At Minneapolis, Tom Gugliotta scored 
27 points, and Kevin Garnett sparked a 
third-quarter rally to lead Minnesota. 


Louisville Can 9 t Find the Net 


The Associated Press 

Louisville was held to its lowest 
point total in 1 6 years as Marc Jackson 
had 20 points and 14 rebounds to lead 
Temple to a 67-44 upset of the ninth- 
ranked Cardinals. 

“1 don’t think h would have mai- 

Couiti Bastkitball 

tered who we played today,” said 
Denny Crum, Louisville’s coach. 

The Owls (12-6) held visiting 
Louisville (18-3) to 26 percent shoot- 
ing (7-of-27) in miring a 22-15 half- 
time iead. Louis viUe finished with 19- 
of-63 from the field. 

WMhangtoti 92, Mo. 10 Arizona 88 

Mark Sanford scored 18 of his 26 


points in the second half for the 
Huskies (12-5, 5-4 Pac-10). The vis- 
iting Wildcats (13-5, 6-3) closed to 
90-SS on Michael Dickerson's 3- 
po inter with 24 seconds left. Sanford 
then made two free throws with 16 
seconds remaining. 

No. 12 Dak* 70, Ctawrgla Took 81 In 
Durham. North Carolina, Trajan 
Langdon scored 17 points for the Blue 
Devils (17-5, 6-3 ACC) and held Matt 
Harpring in check with his defense 
despite giving away four inches. 

Illinois 78, No. 1 7 Indiana 74 Ki wane 
Garris scored 28 points, including 
seven free throws in the final minute, 
as the mini (15-6, 5-4) won at In- 
diana’s Assembly Hall for the first 
time in seven years. 


>Sc 


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PAGE 20 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1997 


ART BUCHWALD 


Excuses, Excuses 


W ASHINGTON — Ev- 
eryone in Washington 
admits that there is a lot of 
finan cial monkey business 
going on. but they all have a 
reason to ex- 
plain iL 

Here are some 
of the excuses 
you hear bandied 



The president 
of the United 
States: "Mis- 
takes were made “Buchwald 

in Democratic 
fund - raising , but the adminis- 
tration policy was never for 
sale.” 

Newt Gingrich: “My law- 
yers did it” 

□ 

Some others: 

“We didn’t buy influence. 
We bought a nourishing break- 
fast at the White House.” 

*7 don't know one con- 
gressman who would change 
his vote because a lobbyist 
took him to Tahiti.” 

“I never tell the president 
what he should do. He always 
asks me what I think he should 
do.” 


A Church for the Czar 
In Yekaterinburg 

The Associated Press 

YEKATERINBURG, Rus- 
sia — Plans to honor Russia's 
last czar and his family at the 
site where they were killed 
have gotten a boost with an 
order by the regional governor 
to build a church there. 

The Interfax news agency 
reported Monday that the de- 
cree approves a church at the 
site of the Ipatyev house in 
Yekaterinburg, where Nich- 
olas II and his family were 
shot in July 1918. The house 
was demolished in 1977. 


“You can't have honest 
government if nobody buys a 
table to vour political din- 
ner.” 

“The only reason bankers 
held their meeting at the 
White House was that all the 
dining tables at the Hilton 
were booked" 

“The defense industry 
only gives money to a polit- 
ical party because we’re an- 
swering a cty for help.” 

“The mistake most 
people make is that they 
think large donors to pol- 
itics are getting something 
back. Nothing could be fur- 
ther from the truth. All 
we’re doing is thinning our 
cash flow/’ 

“Political money is like 
manure — you have to spread 
it around Washington to 
make sure that the cherry 
blossoms bloom.” 

"Td rather take a senator 
to Paris than wax his car for 
him." 

“As a political fund-raiser 
I resent the media because 
they never talk about the 
laundered money we refused 
from influence peddlers. 
They only mention the money 
we did accept” 

“You have to be careful 
when you take money from 
Asian lobbyists because 
there's a good chance you'll 
have to return iL*’ 

“I never met a special 
prosecutor I didn’t like." 

"People shouldn't get mad 
because we have access to the 
Oval Office and they only 
have access to their post of- 
fice." 

“A1 Gore is the only per- 
son the Buddhists trust” 

“We didn't know what 
was going on." 

"We didn't know what was 
going on." 

Blah. blah. blah. 


This Birthday Party Is Not Entirely Festive 


By Alan Riding 

New York Times Service 


P ARIS — The Georges Pomp- 
idou Center is putting on a 
’ cheerful face for its 20th birthday. 
A new replica of Constantin Bran- 
cusi's studio has opened at the 
northern edge of the center's slop- 
ing plaza. Eight “metamechanic- 
al” sculptures by Jean Tinguely 
welcome visitors into the build- 
ing’s forum. And on Its third and 
fourth floors, a show called ‘ * Made 
in Ranee” displays hundreds of 
works of an created in France be- 
tween 1947 and 1997. 

Yet for all that., the festive mood 
is somewhat strained. At the age of 
20, the vast arts complex is already 
in need of major surgery. And from 
October through Dec. 31. 1999, all 
but the Brancusi studio, a tiny tem- 
porary exhibition space and a ter- 
race overlooking the roofs of Paris 
will be closed. Already, the build- 
ing’s unusual exterior, with its 
labyrinth of pipes, tubes and ducts, 
has been repaired and repainted. 
Now its insides are to be renovated 
and reorganized. 

The official justification for hav- 
ing to spend $120 million on re- 
doing a relatively modem con- 
struction is that the Pompidou Cen- 
ter is a victim of its own success: 
designed to receive 5.000 people a 
day, it averages 25,000. Yet, while 
150 million visitors in 20 years 
translate into much wear-and-tear. 
there is also less-trumpeted recog- 
nition that maintenance of the 
building has been badly neg- 
lected. 

“For 20 years, almost nothing 
was done, not even a lick of paint.' ' 
said Renzo Piano, the Italian ar- 
chitect who designed the center 
with Richard Rogers, a Briton, and 
who will now work with the French 
Jean -Franco is Bodin on its renov- 
ation. “What we're to do is ab- 
solutely necessary.” He added that 
the work would rake twice as long 
if it were done step by step while 
keeping parts of the center open. 

During the hiatus, the center 
p lans to keep busy, with its enor- 


mous collection of 20th-century art 
more present than ever in exhib- 
itions in France and around the 
world Among these, a Fernand 
Leger retrospective, which will be 
on show at the center from May 
through September before it goes 
to the Queen Sofia Art Center in 
Madrid, will be at the Museum of 
Modem Art in New York from Feb. 
11 to May 27 next year. Further, 
much of the best of the Pompidou 
Center's collection will be on view 
in New York at the Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum’s Fifth Av- 
enue and SoHo homes from 
September 1998 to January 1999. 

The center's achievements so far 
have been plentiful. Its location 
brought prosperity and even geo tri- 
fled the run-down neighborhoods 
of Les Halles and Le Marais. The 
polemics that surrounded the build- 
ing’s design have also been long 
forgotten. Today it stands proudly 
as the forerunner of the daring 
Great Works — among them I.M. 
Pei's glass pyramid at the Louvre, 
the Bastille Opera and the new Na- 
tional Library of France — which 
changed the face of Paris in the 
1980s and ’90s. 

When President Pompidou de- 
cided to build the center in 1 969 (he 
died in 1974 before it was com- 
pleted), he was also eager to open 
up French minds to modem culture, 
and this, too, to some extent, has 
been achieved. “He was very 
aware that the French tended to 
look back,” said Jean-Jacques Ail- 
lagon, the center's president “But 
the center has also opened up the 
French to international culture. In 
the 1970s. they were still very in- 
ward-looking.” 

In some French art circles, the 
view is that the center has perhaps 
been too open to the world. 

Certainly under its Erst director, 
the Swedish art historian Pontus 
Hulten, it quickly made its mark 
with such shows as “Paris-New 
York," “Paris-Berlin” and “Par- 
is -Moscow.” But even today the 
complaint can be heard that in as- 
signing prestigious one-man 
shows, the center favors foreign 



KcsndrL VLnmwn^TV Wriiml kVa 

Most of the Pompidou Center will close in October. 


painters over French artists. 

The most original idea behind 
the Pompidou Center, however, 
was that it should be both a multi- 
and an interdisciplinary institution, 
em b rac in g not only painting, sculp- 
ture, photography and architecture, 
but also avant-garde dance, cin- 
ema, music and theater. 

“The most difficult thing has 
been to create interdisciplinary 
synergy,” Aillagon said in an in- 
terview in his office overlooking 
the large sculpture fountain by 
Tinguely and Niki de Saint Phalle 
at the southern end of the center. 

“Each department and area 


tends to look toward its own in- 
terest and its own public. 1 consider 
my main job here to be that of 
guarantor of interdisciplinary pro- 
grams. For that reason, when we 
reopen, we will have a new center 
for cultural creation.” 

In practice, many Parisians still 
consider the center to be princip- 
ally a museum, although they are 
drawn to it less by its permanent 
collection than by its frequent 
mega-shows, like “Dali” (840.000 
visitors in 1979), “Matisse” 
(735,000 visitors in 1993) and 
“Bacon” (400.000 visitors last 
year). But even these figures. 


provided by the Pompidou Center, 
distort the fact that only 24 percent 
of visitors actually come to see 
works of art. 

The lamest single group of vis- 
iters — 30 percent — head straight 
to the center’s library. And 27 per- 
■ cent attend other activities organized 
by the center, while 19 percent enter 
the building simply to see the view 
of Paris from the fifth -floor terrace. 1 
- What is apparent from the ever- 
present crowds, though, is that' 
people feel drawn to the -center , 
confident of finding something un- ■ 
expected of interest. 

One novelty lost weekend isthe 
latest version of Brancusi’s studio. 
One year before his death in 1957, 
the Romanian-bom sculptor 
donated the contents of his studio 
on Impasse Ronsin to the French 
state with the single condition that 
the studio be rebuilt as it was on the 
day of his death. A first replica at 
the Palais dc Tokyo was replaced 
by one built outside the Pompidou' 
Center. Then, after flooding forced, 
removal of the works in 1990, Pi- 
ano was asked to give them a new 
home on the same spot. 

Packed with 13/ stone, wood 
and bronze sculptures and 87 care- 
fully shaped bases,- the "studio'’ 
now stands inside its own building, 
its four connecting rooms and 
priceless collection visible through 
large plate glass windows. There 
are enough works of art to fill a 
large exhibition space, but photo- 
graphs taken by Brancusi con- 
firmed his preference to live sur- 
rounded by his works, and that is 
how they are displayed here. 

The special anniversary show. 
“Made in France,” which runs 
through Sept. 29, offers its own 
surprises, not only because it re- 
minds visitors that the likes of 
Braque, Matisse, Duchamp and 
Ernst were still alive and working 
in the early postwar years, but also 
because, by avoiding a chronolo- 
gical or thematic approach, it has 
found an interesting way of con- 
fronting lively and colorful works - 
by a host of renowned artists who 
have resided in France. 


1- 

V 


HALL OF FAME 


PEOPLE 


Celebrating Thurber, Briefly and Forever 


By Mel Gussow 

New M Times Service 


N EW YORK — James Thurber was, 
by his own description, a “short- 
piece writer”: 10 pages or less, and on to 
the next work. Once he collaborated 
(with Elliott Nugent) on a full-length 
play, “The Male Animal," but he was 
not about to write a Jamesian novel or a 
teU-ah -through- the -night autobiogra- 

phy. His memoir. “My Life and Hard 
Times," is briefer than a breviary. 

Within his chosen parameters, 
however, he was an acute observer of 
human nature as both a writer and a 
cartoonist. As Joseph Mitchell, a fellow 
New Yorker writer, said, he was “the 
only true genius" The New Yorker pro- 
duced. Mitchell rated him ahead of E.B. 
White. SJ. Perelman. Dorothy Parker 
and, of course, himself. Thurber' s re- 
sponse to such encomiums: “Anybody 
with the slightest critical ability knows 
that a genius would not have to slave 
over his prose so long, or over his draw- 
ings so linle." 

Because he is categorized as a hu- 
morist. it may come as a surprise to see 
him eternally enshrined in the Library of 
America series with a i, 004-page vol- 
ume. In the Library of America, he is 
alongside Melville, Hawthorne, Twain 
and James. With the exception of Wil- 
liam Bartram, the naturalist whose Li- 
brary of America collection includes 
drawings and text. Thurber is the first 
author-artist in the series. 

"James Thurber Writings and Draw- 
ings" is a wide-ranging anthology of 
vintage short stories, family reminis- 
cences and "Fables for Our Tunes.” 
The children's story “The 13 Clocks’* 
is. at 32 pages, the longest text. There are 
seven previously uncollected pieces, in- 
cluding the first story he published in 
The New Yorker, and a rich sampling of 
drawings. 

From rereading Thurber. it is clear 
ihat his great theme was not so much the 
war between men and women as the 
sexual stalemate. The basic question: 
Whai do you do when the bloom is off 
the romance? In his stories, the marriage 
or the relationship usually goes on far 



James Thurber, self-portrait. 

past the point of amity. One thrusts, the 
other parries, "Touch£!” as the head is 
sliced off. 

Thurber 's men are dreamers, not just 
Walter Mitty drifting off into imaginary 
escapades and walking down the street 
murmuring "puppy biscuit,” bui po- 
tential revengers devising plots. Man is 
overseen as well as overheard, with wo- 
man as his constant keeper, representing 
fact and friction. 

There is Mr. Bidwell, who has a habit 
of holding his breath, which might be 
characterized as spousal ann oyance, and 
there is Mr. Preble, who desperately 
wants to do away with his wife, if only he 
can get her to go down to the cellar. He 
says, plaintively: “We never go down in 
the cellar anymore. The way we used 
to.” And his wife, as usual, offers a 
correction, "We never did go down in 
the cellar that I remember.” 

The other Thurber, the accidental 
artist whose sketches were saved from 
the wastebasket by White, was under- 
valued even by Thurber himself. “If I 
couldn't write, I couldn't live,” he said, 
“but drawing to me was little more than 
tossing cards in a hat.” 

In a complete pictorial realization of 


his fictional character, Thurber drew a 
frightened, rabbity creature: perplexed, 
startled and slightly pinniped: an. In the 
famous cartoon of the seal in the bed- 
room (Wife: “AU right, have it your way 
— you heard a seal bark!”), there is a 
strong family resemblance between the 
man of the house and the seal on the 
headboard. 

Equally paradigmatic is die man 
telling his guest. “That's my first wife 
up there, and this is the present Mrs. 
Harris,” with the past Mrs. Harris 
crouching atop a bookcase looking as if 
she is about to spring back into wedlock. 
At the top of the food chain are Thurber’ s 
dogs, dewlapped and downcast, who al- 
ways seem to be eyeing (heir masters — 
or even a butterfly — with suspicion. 

The characters may seem forlorn, but 
die author increasingly has the earmarks 
of the classic. A periodic newsletter is 
published by his boyhood home in 
Columbus, Ohio,. which is now a na- 
tional historical site. In 1995, Harrison 
Kinney's exhaustive biography, “James 
Thurber: His Life and Hard Times,” was 
published, a book dial at 1,238 pages is 
decidedly un-Thurberian in length. 

Thirty-six years after his death, many 
of his books are still in print. Several 
posthumous collections have been pub- 
lished, and Adam van Doren, an artist 
and documentary filmmaker, is working 
on a film about his life. 

Though his blindness and other trau- 
mas deepened his irascibility, Thurber 
apparently retained his comic equipoise. 
As he once said, “The wit makes fun of 
other persons; the satirist makes fun of 
the world; the humorist makes fun of 
himself." Call him a wit, satirist and 
humorist, and more. 

Fables, parables and parodies tumbled 
from his pen, along with poignant scenes 
from life. 

T.S. Eliot said of Thurber’s work, 
“There is a criticism of life at the bottom 
of iL” He suggested that the writings 
and the drawings might survive “the 
immediate environment and time out of 
which they spring.” As Eliot suspected, 
Thurber was a far more serious and 
durable writer than his early readers 
might have thoughL 


T HE pop singer Boy George said he 
was beaten up by bouncers as he and 
a friend tried to enter the Ministry of 
Sound, the London nightclub where he 
works as a disk jockey. “They grabbed 
me by the throat and dragged me out into 
the street,” he told Press Association, 
the British news agency. “They kicked 
me and punched me and broke my fin- 
gernails. They actually beat me up under 
die poster advertising an album I have 
done for them.” Scotland Yard is in- 
vestigating. Mark Rodol, the club’s 
managing director, said Boy George 
was apparently in a party that refused to 
go through die normal entry procedure. 

□ 

The fashion designer Thierry Mu- 
gler has hired Ivanka Trump, the 15- 
year-old da ugh ter of Don aid and Ivana, 
to embody the image of a new range of 
clothes for young people. Ivanka Trump 
stars in an advertising campaign for 
Mugler TradeMark recently shot in 
New York, to appear in magazines in 
March. 

□ 

Mark Phillips, the former husband 
of Princess Anne, has married the U.S. 
Olympic equestrian Sandy Pflueger at 
a ceremony at her father's beachfront 
home in Honolulu, according to London 
news reports. About 100 guests atten- 
ded chp black-tie reception. The Times 
and Tbe Daily Mail reported. Most were 
riding friends from Britain and Aus- 
tralia, as well as members of the U.S. 
equestrian team, which Phillips, a horse 
trainer, manages. The new Mrs. Phil- 
lips, who obtained British citizenship 
last year, has been based in Britain for 
22 years. She was also previously mar- 
ried. Phillips, a former British Army 
officer, and Anne were divorced in 1992 
after 18 years of marriage. 

□ 

A British artist was so desperate to be 
exhibited in a major venue that he 
slipped one of his sculptures into the 
Tate Gallery in London, where it re- 
mained on display for an hour before tbe 
staff noticed. Calvin Russell planned 
tbe deception carefully. He requested 
permission from the gallery to paint one ' 
of the exhibits and brought in an easel 
for that purpose the week before. The 





Dam KeodaB/Thc A* 


Boy George: What happened? 

easel was actually a folding display 
stand. Then, he smuggled his 25 -cen- 
timeter (10- inch) bronze sculpture en- 
titled “The Iron Man” into the gallery 
under his jacket. There, he was met by 
an accomplice who provided him with 
an acrylic cover for the piece. Russell 
then sat back to admire the effect of his 
art work on passing visitors and to take 
photographs. After an hour guards real- 
ized they had been fooled and turned 
both artist and artwork out onto the 
street, but Russell had his wish. He said 
he was “very pleased with the public 
response to my piece.” 

□ 

Tickets for piano recitals by David 
Helfgott, whose troubled life is the 
basis of die film “Shine,” are suddenly 
selling like tickets to a Rolling Stones 
show. The Australian pianist's perfor- 
mance next month in San Francisco sold 
out in hours. Inspired by the movie, fans 
were willing to pay up to $65 for a 
chance to see HelfgotL 

□ 

When "Timecop” meets real cop: 


JTean-Claude Van Damme was let off 
with a warning after he was pulled over 
in Ponce Inlet, Florida, for speeding, 
about 8 miles per hour over the 35-mph 
limit. “He was very nice and very po- 
lite," said Sergeant Larry Roberts, 
the forgiving officer. Roberts said he 
instantly recognized the action-film act- 
or. But he insists he wasn't star-struck; 
local police typically don't throw the 
book at drivers just a bit over the limit 
“Basically, I told him it would cost him 
an autographed picture,” he said. 

□ 

The backstage drama at “Victor/Vic- 
toria” on Broadway is beginning to 
steal the show. Liza Minnelli wants to 
return to the lead role when Julie An- 
drews bows out this summer, but only if 
co-star Tony Roberts is sent packing, 
said Barry Cross, Minnelli's manager. 
Minnelli had filled in for the vacation- 
ing Andrews, who returned this week to 
a show New York tabloids say is blood- 
ied by a backstage battle. On-stage mis- 
cues by Minnelli in her First Broadway 
appearance in 12 years reportedly led to 
a backstage tantrum by Roberts and a 
subsequent ‘ ‘sickout " by the actor until 
Andrews’s return. Roberts told the New 
York Post that he never wanted the 
reason for his absence to leak out to die 
public, and he said Minnelli had helped 
him become a better actor. “I've never 
had a hard word with her, believe me,” 
he said. “And I love her!" Robert's 
returned to the show last Tuesday, btr) 
two days later, it was Minnelli who was 
out sick with a throat infection. She 
missed five shows, including her final 
performance on Sunday, and hundreds 
of fans demanded their money back 
because of the no-shows. 

□ 

Kevin Costner is quietly acknow- 
ledging that be became a fourth-rime 
father in November. The mother of baby 
Liam is Bridget Rooney, the owner of a 
horse ranch near Aspen, Colorado. 
People magazine reports. The couple 
met in the ski resort in late 1995 and. 
although they are no longer an item, a 
source told People that Costner would 
do “the stand-up thing” by taking full 
financial responsibility for die child. 
Costner is the divorced dad of Annie, 
Lily and Joe. 



eyes are smiling. 


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iotcragfionaliy from oreseas: 

1. jus dial the AT&T Access Number for 
the country you are calling from. 

2 Dial the pbone number you're calling. 
5 Dial the calling card number [feted 
above vour name. 


AT&T Access Numbers 

EUROPE 

Aistriaao _ 022803811 

Belgium* . . 080010010- 

Frence _ M008M011 1 

Germany .01300010 

Greece* .. . . 00800-1311’ 

Wand 1-8005500001 

Italy* . 172-1011 . 

Nettedsnds* 068228111 

Russia* *(Mwcow)». . 755-5042 

. 900898011 
020795811; 

Sattariand*. 0800990011 

United Kingdom* 0800098011 

Ml DOLE E*ST ~ 


Egypt • (Cabo)’ 
tenet 

SswSAreUao _ 


5108200; 

177-100-2727 

180010 


Ghana. 

Kenya* 
South Africa 


0191- 

080010. 

0800898123 


CWI Gad the Access [teeter for die coontty you're calling from’ Just ask on) operator for 
AT&T Direct" Smite. or visit our Web she si buptftanuaLComrtnider 


AT&T