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Herald 


INTERNATIONAL 



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The World’s Daily Newspaper 


PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 

London, Tuesday, February 18, 1997 




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No. 35,448 



Which Approach to Pyongyang? 

Seoul at Odds With Washington After Blocking Secret Deal 


By R. Jeffrey Smith 

Washington Post Service 

WASHINGTON — For the past six 
months, the Clinton administration 
has been working to improve U.S. 
relations with the isolated and finan- 
cially strapped regime in North Korea. 
American officials have priva te ly 
offered. to ease some trade sanctions, 
to help organize donations of human- 
itarian aid and to open the first U.S 
diplomatic office in the North Korean 
capital, according to U.S. officials. 

North Korea’s Co mmunis t rulers, 
despite their often belligerent rhetoric 
and public disdain for the West, have 
been receptive to the U.S. offers and 
enthusiastic about the prospect of 
closer ties and eventual U.S. private 
investment in their country, the U.S. 
officials said. 

In August, a North Korean official 
on a rare visit to Washington even told 
officials hoe that the regime would 
swallow a hitter pill that Washington 
demanded in exchange for assistance: 
He promised that his nation would 
participate for the first tune in pre- 
liminary talks with die United States, 
China and SoudrKorea about formally 
ending die Korean War. 

But this delicate diplomatic under- 
standing has never been carried oat 


because of incidents that have sown 
new tensions on the Korean pe ninsula 
and provoked South Korean officials 
to pressure Washington not to t»lr» 
actions friendly to the North. 

Some U.S. officials say South 
Korea’s hostility toward the North has 
begun to pose as much or more of an 
obstacle to a redaction of tensions on 
the peninsula than any recent provoca- 
tion by Pyongyang. Several officials 
said they worried that the government 
of Kim Young Sam, because of do- 
mestic political reasons, had become 
mired in antipathy to die North. 

Although officials from Seoul and 
Washington have worked to promote a 
image of close rapport — largely to 
keep North Korean diplomats from 
concluding they could exploit any dis- 
cord — the past six months have taken a 
toll on Washington’s 'relations nidi 
Seoul, diplomats say. 

. Answering Washington’s criticism 
of Seoul’s hostility to the North, South 

Korean Stand Eases 


' North Korea indicated for the first 
time that it might be prepared to accept 
die defection of a high - ranking official, 
and the South confirmed it would send 
food aid to the North. Page 4. 


Korean officials said the administra- 
tion had fooled itself into believing 
that North Korea had become less dan- 
gerous. . 

“Some American officials think the 
South Korean government overre- 
acts,” one South Korean official 
said. 

“They are wrong," he added, ar- 
guing that Washington cannot fully 
understand die fears of South Koreans 
who live “under the constant menace 
and threat from a neighbor 25 miles 
away from the capital.” 

The reported defection last week of 
a senior North Korean Communist 
Parly official, Hwang Jang Yop, to the 
South Korean Embassy in Beijing was 
among the latest incidents to increase 
tensions between North and South 
Korea. On Saturday, two mat shot and 
critically wounded another North 
Korean defector in a Seoul suburb. 
Last September, the appearance of the 
North Korean submarine along the 
South’s coast raised hackles in Seoul. 

At the core of the dispute over how 
to deal with North Korea is a broad 
debate about the significance of die 
country’s extraordinarily poor harvests 
and severe flooding over the past two 
years, which many analysts say could 

See KOREA, Page 6 


U*. WFPA; 

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pkgbppc Woivtr.ltnaen 

Foreign Minister Herve de Charette of France bad a kiss Monday for 
Madeleine Albright upon her arrival at the Elysee Palace in Paris. 



AGENDA 

Prodi Taunts 
Bonn on Euro 

Prime Minister Romano Prodi 
traveled to Germany on Monday to 
strengthen Italy's case for admis- 
sion to Europe's single currency. 

But instead of quelling German 
fears, Mr. Prodi questioned Ger- 
many's commitment to the euro. 
“We see our future hi Europe," 
Mr. Prtxii said. “I don’t, know if 
that is the case in Germany.” . 

Mr. Prodi warned that jbe ex- 
clusion of Italy could spark a com- 
petitive devaluation of the lira with 
harmful trade ramifications for the 
hew currency bloc. Page 1 1. 

Zaire Strikes by Air 

Zaire’s government confirmed 
Monday that its warplanes bombed 
three key rebel-held towns in its 
eastern provinces and that die raids 
would increase in intensity. Aid 
workers said at least nine people 
died in the air strikes. Page 6- 

Speeding the Web 

An Internet group says it has 
found the culprit behind the traffic 
jams on the world Wide Web: a 
faulty protocol in browsers and serv- 
ers. New software will ease theprob- 
lem, the group promises. Page 12. 

MAE TWO 

Tokyo’s Army of Homeless 


Bitter Kosovo Is Erupting in Anti-Serb Revolt 


By Chris Hedges 

New York Times Service 

ORLLAN, Yugoslavia — BajramPa- 
jaziti walked solemnly down the hillside 
from his brother’s grave, past a line of 
sOent, motionless mourners, and stopped 
at the door of his father’s small, white- 
washed home to pull off his shoes. 

It is a ritual he has repeated several 
times in this remote mountain village 
since his brother Zahir. 34, was killed on 
Jan. 31 with two other ethnic Albanians 
in Kosovo, a province of Yugoslavia. 

-The- men; members of a guerrilla 
group called the Kosovo Liberation 
Army, died in a gun battle that left 
several police officers wounded. 


Phafing un de r Serbian domination 
and angered after their auionomy was 
stripped from (ton six years ago, many 
of me 22 million ethnic Albanians who 
make up 90 percent of Kosovo’s pop- 
ulation have mounted a long campaign 
of peaceful civil disobedience. 

. But in recent weeks the confrontation 
with the authorities has turned violent, 
including a car bombing on Jan. 16 that 
severely wounded Radivoje Papovic. a 
hard-line Serb who is rector of the uni- 
varsity in Pristina, the province's cap- 
ital. •....• 

' So Mr. Pajariti’s visit to the cemetery 
was a ritual that many in Orilan expect 
to become familiar as the government, 
stubbornly insistent that force can blunt 


the independence movement in Kosovo, 
struggles to put down a growing in- 
surrection. 

While the guerrilla movement re- 
mains embryonic, it appears to have 
wide support and poses an increasing 
threat to stability in Kosovo and to the 
security of its Serbian minority. 

The Kosovo Liberation Army, which 
surfaced last year, issued a statement a 
few days ago identifying Zahir Pajaziti 
and his two colleagues as members. 

The group is fighting to create an 
independent state here and has claimed 
responsibility for about a dozen assas- 
sinations of Serbian officials and Al- 

See KOSOVO, Page 5 


HUNGARY 




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Quid Skating on Thin Ice 

A Champion Must Cope With Stardom at 14 


EUROPE . 

French Face Off on Immigration 


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Books — 

Crossword — . 

Opinion — 

Sports — 

MenuMomf CtaMflM 


Page 9. 

_... Page 10. 
_ Pages 8-9. 
Pages 16-17. 



Mat HmophreyTIV Awo citd Pran 

Tara Lipinstri performing during the exhibition at the end of the U-S. 
Figure Skating Championships. Lipinski won the women's title at age 14. 


By Jens Longman 

New Tort Times Service 

NASHVILLE, Tennessee — An hour 
after 14-year-old Tara Lipinski of sub- 
urban Detroit became die youngest fig- 
ure-skating champion ever in the United 
States it was announced that she had her 
own Web site on the Internet. Television 
appearances and magazine profiles 
were in the works. The tropical storm of 
her celebrity bad become a hurricane. 

“I think it will be normal,” she said. 

Her "coach, Richard Callaghan, 
smiled at her naivete. “We’D talk 
later.” be said. 

On Saturday night, Lipinski accom- 
plished one of the most technically dif- 
ficult programs ever by a female skater, 
landing seven triple jumps, including an 
unprecedented combination of edge 
jumps. If sbe skates as flawlessly at the 
world championships next month in 
Lausanne. Switzerland. Callag h an said, 
4 ‘she can give anyone in the world a run 
for her money.” 


But Lipinski's overnight ascent from 
skating princess to ice queen again 
raised a number of questions about 
young girls who achieve fame and the 
potential for great financial rewards in 
such sports as figure skating, gym- 
nastics and tennis. 

The most immediate is this: Can Li- 
pinski withstand the same pressures that 
wilted the 1 6-year-old defending cham- 
pion. Michelle Kwan, in a four-minute 
attack of panic on Saturday night? 

“It can be literally terrifying, the 
enormity of skating in front of all those 
people and on television.” said Linda 
Leaver, who coached the 1988 Olympic 
champion Brian Boitano. “If you think 
about it and you fear failure, it can be 
absolutely paralyzing. ’ ’ 
lipinski's victory reflects a continu- 
ing trend toward young, athletic skating 
champions. Some in die sport lament 
that skating is coining to resemble gym- 
nastics, whose female stars are gifted 

See SKATERS, Page 16 


An Economic Donnybrook That’s More Than Academic 


By Louis UchiteUe 

- New York Times Service ; 

. CAMBRIDGE, Massachusetts — 
They have met only once since Paul 
juRiog man returned last summer to the 
* prestigious economics department at 
ihe Massachu se ns Institute of Techno- 
logy. It was a brief, accidental encounter 
among the file cabinets and secretaries 
desks near Lester Thurow’s office. 

• “We exchanged pleasantries,” Mir. 
Throw said. "He was telling someone 
about* trip he had made to the far south 
pf Argentina, and I listened politely-* 

• The small talk left so much unsaid. For 

die two men — from offices oie floor 
apart that look out on die Charles River 

; newsstand Prices 

Bahrain —.1.000 Din M*-— 

i Cypres C.E1.00 Nigeria -125^^ 

■Denmaifc „14.00 DKr. Oman — 1.250 
Finland .....12.00 F.M- Qatar — 1 & 0 OHia|s 
Gibraltar. JtO.85 

■Great Britain ...£. 050 Saudi Arabte .10.00 H 
Egypt ££5.50 S. Africa ...R12 + VAT 

StaZZiSoS UAE..^10.00Djh 

Kenya.._:K. SH. 160 US. ML 

Kuwait .600Rte ambBbwB— 23m*30J» 


— axe not so much colleagues as high- 
profile combatants in a struggle to ex- 
plam the very nature of thesatiooalecoa- 
omy. . . ... 

With all file authority of their pro- 
fession, they have gone pubhc with strik- 
ingly d i ffere n t explanations of an eco- 
nomic phenomenon bedeviling not only 
the experts, but everyone else, too. 

Why have so many Americans fallen 
behind in the last two decades, while an 
affluent minority has so visibly 
prospered? Why has the resulting in- 
- come gap become so glaring and per- 
sistent, even with six years of steady 
economic growth? 

Wbai Mr. Thurow and Mr. Knigman 
have done is-translate into vivid meta- 
phors, riffs of sarcasm and doomsday 
prose the dry. technical debate of their 
colleagues at a time when many Amer- 
icans have taken sides, telling pollsters 

that they think competition from the rest 
of the world is the Kg cause of their 
income troubles.. 

For Mr. Krugman, representing the 

majority of economists, that view is 



HeMqnfTKNn York Tima 


Paul Krugman, left, and Lester Thnrow in their offices in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. The economists declined to be photographed together. 



9 *T7 0 294”8 0 5 025 


well-paid, college-trained workers, and 
so few of tiie less skilled. 

Bnt for Mr. Tburow and other chal- 
lengers of this view, the rapidly evolving 
global economy is indeed mostly to 
blame, with its hundreds of minions of 
low-wage workers sending what they 


produce to the United States and pufling 
<town the pay of average Americans. 

Mr. Krugman. 43, and Mr. Thurow, 
58, are not alone in tins debate. Politi- 
cians, pundits, historians, sociologists 
and Wall Street analysts have jumped 
in. Policy prescriptions abound: reg- 
ulate trade, restrict immigration, levy 
bighertaxes on the rich to subsidize the 
poor and improve educational standards 
man attempt — perhaps vain — -to make 
everyone highly skilled and well paid. 


But Mr. Krugman, often described as 
a shoo-in for a future Nobel Pri 2 e. and 
Mr. Thurow, who became an MIT eco- 
nomics professor while Mr. Knigman 
was still a teenager in well-to-do Mer- 
rick. New York, have emerged as the 
loudest and most articulate public 
voices of toe profession that, above oth- 
ers, should have answers. 

As they go at it. never face-to-face — 
always in writing and public speaking, 
sometimes from the well of the same 


MTT lecture amphitheater, although on 
separate days — they offer very different 
versions of the economy, as if they were 
cardiologists differing over heart dis- 
ease. with one citing stress as toe primary 
cause and the other a fat-rich diet. 

While serving as toe defender of the 
mainstream viewpoint among econo- 
mists. Mr. Krugman cultivates a 
firebrand image. He refers to "startlingly 

crude and uninformed” views of those he 
criticizes, often by name — Robert 
Reich, tiie former labor secretary, is a 
favorite target — or to experts who * ‘of- 
fer a logic no more confused than usual.” 
He included Mr. Thurow in that last 
epithet. 

“He is too personal,” Mr. Thurow 
said of Mr. Krugman. “He makes it 
hard to have a debate.” 

Mr. Thurow, on toe other hand, offers 
broad declarations that go far beyond 
the equations, diagrams and mathem- 
atical models that are. in Mr. Krugman 's 
view, the essence of respectable eco- 
nomics. Mr. Thurow, for example, of- 
fers sweeping statements about the im- 
pact of the global economy on 
Americans. 

“Those with Third World skills will 
earn Third World wages,” he declares, 
and “anything can be made anywhere 
on the face of toe earth and sold ever 
where else on the face of toe earth.” 

See ECONOMISTS, Page 6 


Albright 

And France 
Call End to 
Verbal War 

Secretary of State 
Hopes to Bridge 
Gap Over NATO 


By Steven Erianger 

New York Times Service 


PARIS — Secretary of State 
Madeleine Albright and Foreign Min- 
ister Herve de Chare tie pronounced a 
working truce Monday night in the 
sometimes strained French-American 
relations, praising toe two countries' 
long alliance and each making nods to 
the other's self-esteem. 

Mrs. Albright made a point of speak- 
ing toe language of the host country in 
her introductory statement and some of 
her answers, at one point suggesting, in 
French, that toe next question go to a 
French reporter. 

Mr. de Charette praised her as “a 
very great lady representing a very great 
country.” He said that both countries 
agreed on toe aims of NATO adaptation 
and enlargement and would work to- 
gether amicably before NATO’s sum- 
mit meeting in Madrid in early luly. 

Mrs. Albright called bilateral rela- 
tions “very solid and warm” and said: 
“When we work together, we can ac- 
complish a lot France and the United 
States are marching together down the 
road to Madrid.” 

She was also careful to say that 
Washington wanted to see France fully 
integrated into NATO, and that “the 
United States is very respectful of the 
European defense identity within 
NATO, and we want to wo-k it out.” 

But U.S. officials say Washington 
will not give up command over the Sixth 
Fleet, despite a French demand that a 
European general run NATO's South- 
ern Command. 

Mr. de Charette played down, at least 
‘in public, a French suggestion fora five- 
party summit meeting in April with 
Russia and key NATO members — 
Britain. France, Germany and toe 
United States. The suggestion has been 
criticized by other NATO members who 
were left out, including Italy, and was 
received with little encouragement from 
Washington. The Americans have said, 
as Mis. Albright did again Monday 
night, that it was more important now to 
concentrate on toe “substance” of a 
proposed NATO-Russian charter, and 
not the “process” of how and when 
talks go on with Moscow. 

Mr. de Charette, in answer to a ques- 
tion, said the preposed conference “is 
but one of the ideas on the road to 
Madrid,” but he did not exclude the 

See POLICY, Page 6 


Phone Pact: 
The Exporting 
OfU.S. Values 


By David E. Sanger 

Ne*- York Times Service 

WASHINGTON — For more than a 
half-century, toe United Nations has 
been toe main forum for the United 
States to try to create a world in its 
image, maneuvering with its allies to 
forge global accords about human 
rights, nuclear tests or the environment 
that Washington insisted would mirror 
its own values. 

But in recent months, starting with 
small issues and progressing this week- 
end to an enormous one. the Clinton 
administration has begun to use a new 
institution — the World Trade Orga- 
nization — to accomplish comparable 
ends. When the acting U.S. trade rep- 
resentative, Charlene Barshefsky, an- 
nounced Saturday that the United Stares 

NEWS ANALYSIS 

had approved a huge accord to open the 
world's highly protected telecommu- 
nications markets to frenzied Amen can- 
style competition, she made it clear that 
this agreement was about something far 
larger than commerce. 

“The United States has effectively 
exported the American values of free 
competition, fair rules and effective en- 
forcement.” she said. In fact, exporting 
U.S. values, and turning America's pas- 
sion for deregulation into a tool of for- 
eign policy, is what the new agreement 
is all about. 

The agreement empowers the WTO 
to go inside the borders of toe 70 coun- 
tries that signed it to review how quickly 
and effectively they are deregulating a 
keypart of their economies. 

That includes whether they are fol- 
lowing through on their commitments to 
allow foreigners to invest in a business 
that countries from France to Japan to 

See WTO, Page 6 



'fffp.'J.M- ;.v. i -; - ’ ■ .ttry srti r -n tt r n i 


PAGE 2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURPAY-SUNPAX, FEBRUARY 1-2, 1*>7 



T ; .' 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY FEBRUARY 18, 1997 

'mGETWO 


Sleeping Rough / 1 0,000 on Hie Street 


An Army of Homeless Rises Up in Tokyo 


By Velisarios Kattouias 

International Herald Tribune 


T OKYO — When Yasumasa Ueno left his 
native Kyushu in southern Japan 20 years 
ago, he never dreamed he would end up 
sifting rubbish for food or living in a card- 
board shantytown. 

“I’ve worked as a baker, a butcher, a bartender 
and on construction sites, but these days there isn't 
any work for people like one,” said Mir. Ueno. 59, 
one of up to 10,000 mainly older men sleeping 
rough on the streets of Tokyo. "Most of die time 
I'm too busy looking for food to think about what’s 
happening to me. But sometimes I feel like crying, 
and now and then I just want to die.' ' 

For years, affluent Japan prided itself on die tiny 
numbers of people living on its streets. Then, last 
January, it was given a vivid illustration that die 
armies of homeless people who line the streets of 
urban America and Europe were becoming a feature 
of Tokyo as well. 

People were transfixed by images of homeless 
people hurling eggs and setting oft fire extinguish- 
ers in clashes with the police sent to evict them from 
a cardboard shantytown near Tokyo's glistening 
town hall. There was nationwide outrage. 

Tokyo's governor, Yukio Aoshima, who ordered 
the mass eviction to appease local shopkeepers, 
responded by vowing to take homeless people off 
the capital’s streets. A temporary shelter had been 
built to house those evicted, and two permanent 
homeless centers are to be built by April 1998, with 
three more to follow. 

Yet even as Tokyo city officials struggle to meet 
Mr. Aoshima's pledges, the number of homeless 
people is growing. And government officials, ac- 
tivists and academics say that homeless people may 
soon become a common sight under bridges, along 
rivers and in rail stations and parks not only in 
Tokyo but across Japan. 

“We are afraid that what happened in the Uaited 
States could happen in Japan as well.” said Yoichi 
Yamamoto, director of Tokyo's Planning and Co- 
ordination Bureau. 

In the early 1970s, there were relatively few 
homeless people on America's streets. But thou- 
sands lost their jobs and became homeless in the 
next 20 years as the United Stales underwent 
wrenching changes to keep up in the global econ- 



fcoraeless people, however, this is little comfort. 
“On the issue of homelessness, central gov- 


ernment basically doesn't want to know/ ' sai 
Yamamoto, the Tokyo 


/eminent official. 

The Health and Welfare Ministr y has said that 
regional governments should solve the alcohol, 
drug, physical and mental problems that homeless 
people often softer from. In any case, the ministry 
has said it has no section to deal with home- 
lessness. 

The Labor Ministry is reluctant to help homeless 
day laborers find work because that would conflict 
with its attempts to stamp out small construction 
companies. Many reportedly have links with Jar 
pan’s yakuza crime syndicates. Big city and local 
governments insist that central government should 
Heal with homeless people because the bulk are 
from rural areas and therefore not the responsibility 
of urban taxpayers. 

Japan does not have a tradition of charitable 
giving comparable to that of the West, either. The 
free nee balls and second-hand clothes on which 
many of Tokyo’s homeless depend come mainly 
from Western church groups and U.S. servicemen 
stationed in Japan. 


“For t he past 40 years Japan has experienced 
rapid economic development, out I 


the idea of social 
welfare has yet to take root, and socially it still 
r emains very much a developing country,” said 
Senzo Miyata, a sociology professor at Kibi In- 
ternational University. “With the economy in ap- 
parent decline, you can only assume that Japan's 
homeless problem is going to get worse.” 


WiM/xa Kranubt/hamuitiQalJ HcnM Tribune 


Yasumasa Ueno in his cardboard home. 
*It must have been much toorse being 
homeless when Japan was poor. 9 


omy. There are now up to 300,000 homeless Amer- 
i up to 100.000 
shelters in New York alone. 


icans. with up to 100.000 people on the streets or in 


“We often talk about how to deal with the 
problem with officials in Osaka. Nagoya and 
Fukuoka where there are also sizable homeless 
communities." said Mr. Yamamoto, who is in 
charge of building the five shelters for Tokyo's 
homeless. 

Each shelter will house 50 people for up to two 
months as they undergo health checks and receive 
help to find permanent work. “But recently we've 
started to get calls from officials in smaller cities as 
well,” he said. “They're seeing homeless people on 
their streets for the first time. They don’t know what 
to do, and so they call us for advice.' ' 

The first record of ho meless people in Japan dates 
from the Nara Period in the 8th century, according 
to the National Museum of Japanese History. They 
remained a common sight in big cities for more than 


1,000 years. But they largely disappeared between 
the early 2950s and the late 1980s, when Japan 
experienced its economic “miracle.” Economic 
growth was so brisk there was work for everybody, 
even for the poor, ill, elderly and unskilled who 
form the core of today’s growing homeless com- 
munities. 

But since the collapse of real estate and share 
prices in the early 1990s, Japan has experienced its 
own acute economic changes, and die number of 
homeless people in Tokyo has risen by about four- 


fold, activists say. While low by international stan- 
dards, Japan 's unemployment rate is at a record high 
of 3.4 percent. 

“People think that because somebody is home- 
less they don’t want to work , ” said Hiroshi Ikeda of 
Shinjuku Renrakukai, an organization that fights for 
the rights of the 300 homeless people living in die 
biggest shantytown near Tokyo town halL “But 
that’s not true. Most people want to work. It's just 
that these days they don’t get work more than two or 
three days a month, and mat's not enough to keep 
you off the streets.” 


J APAN'S homeless have been hit especially 
hand by the bankruptcy of scores of small 
construction companies since the collapse of 
teal estate prices five years ago. As well as 
hiring unskilled laborers, such companies offered 
employees basic lodgings to make up for the tow 
wages they paid. 

So when they collapsed, people working there 
suffered a double punch: both their incomes and 
their homes were lost. 

The small construction companies that survived 
and that still hire day laborers can now afford to be 
choosier about who they hire, and are. 

Amid the continuing slump in the construction 
industry, they pick young Japanese or illegal im- 
migrants from, for example, Pakistan or ban be- 
cause they will work longer hours and for less 
money than older Japanese. 

Under Article 25 of Japan's constitution, all 
Japanese citizens are guaranteed “the minimum 
standards of wholesome and cultured living.” For 


T HESE days, people living on the streets 
also find themselves the target of sporadic 
violence. In Osaka last month, a 25-year- 
old man was sentenced to six years in 
prison for throwing a homeless man to his death 
mom a bridge in 1995. Police are still looking for 
five youths who beat and then lynched a homeless 
mao m Yoyogi Pari: in central Tokyo last year. The 
police are also looking for a gang that last year 
wounded a homeless man when it dropped a slab of 
concrete from a bridge onto the tent in which he was 
sleeping. 

“Under traditional Japanese thinkin g, people 
who cannot work and pay taxes are considered 
inhuman,” said Mr. Ikeda, 32, the activist at Shin- 
juku Renrakukai. 

Every Sunday evening for the past two years, Mr. 
Ueno has joined volunteers who patrol the area 
close to Tokyo's billion-dollar town halL At least 
eight people have died in the area from die cold, 
illness or disease since November, and volunteers 
check to make sure nobody is seriously ill. 

As Mr. Ueno walks around the affluent Shinjuku 
district in which he is a squatter, he wistfully points 
to buildings on which he worked when they were 
being built. A large electronics store, the Hilton 
Hotel, the town halL 

“Z haven't had a day of work all year,” he said. 
“But the worse thing about being homeless is dial 
you never have enough underwear or socks because 
those are the two things people usually just throw 
away and never give to other people.” 

Otherwise, be said, life on the streets was not so 
bad. Mr. Ueno washes in public toilets. To earn 
money for die occasional bath or for gas canisters 
for his camping stove, he sells magazines he finds in 
trash cans. 

To eat, he must rise at six every morning. He 
collects leftover rice from a sushi bar. He sifts 
through trash cans outside a supermarket for meat, 
fruit or other food that has been thrown out And he 
returns to his shack where he heats up whatever he 
has found into a soup. 

“Today, Japanese people are so wasteful at least 


there’s always enough to eat” Mir. Ueno said. 

“It must nave been much worse being homeless 


when Japan was poor.’ 


U.S. May Target Flowers 
In Colombia Drug War 

Effort to Woo Farmers From Coca Fails ; 


By Christopher S. Wren 

New York Times Service 


WASHINGTON — When Congress 
t» |jfninamH import duties mi freshly cut 
flowers and many other products from 
some South American countries in 1991 , 

Ka,°^wlivia 1 aSi^xu to switch from 
drug production to legitunale crops. 

Thanks to the Andean Trade Pref- 
erences Act carnations, roses, chrysan- 
themums and other flowers have be- 
come Colombia's third-biggest legal 
export after oil and coffee. Of $475 
mill ion in Colombian flowers exported 
last year, more than $371 million were 
sent duty-free to die United Stales. 

But Colombia has also displaced 
Bolivia as the second-largest producer 
of coca leaf, after Peru. Ana diver- 
sification into opium poppies has made 
Colombia a serious rival to Asia in 
heroin production. 

President Bill Clinton is scheduled to 
ann ounce Feb. 27 which countries 
Washington believes have failed to co- 
operate with the United States in fight- 
ing illegal drugs, and there are signs that 
Colombia will not only flunk the annual 
review for a second year but also risks 
being hit where it hurts financially — in 
the flower beds. 

Saying that the policy on duty-free 
exports has failed, two congressmen 
from California are pushing Congress to 
reimpose tariffs on Colombian flowers. 
Representative Tom Campbell, a Re- 
publican, and Representative Sam Faxir, 
a Democrat whose constituents include 
flower growers, received a sympathetic 


But Mr. Farr said that the adnu^. 
istration may not want to remvpose tat 
iffs on Colombian flowers because their 
growers are viewed as influential busi- 
ness allies against Mr. Samper and die 
drug traffickers. 

And business leaders in- Miami say 
that rc imposing the duties would directly 
jeopardize 5.400 jobs insouthemRaodfc 
ana indirectly threaten 10,000 more.' «j 
The State Department report last year 
assailed Colombia as “the center of die 
international cocaine trade” but also de- 
scribed Mexico as “the principal transk 
route for cocaine entering the U.S., as 
well as a major .source country far heroin, 
methamphet aminc and marijuana:” '{ 
President Clinton ceniflM That Mex- 
ico was cooperating with efforts to stop 
chug trafficking. But some law enforce- 
ment officials say that Mexico has bet 
come a worse problem than Colombia* 


Israeli Vows { 
Tighter Grip j „ 
On Jerusalem 


hearing Feb. 4 from Barry M 
director of the Office of National Drug 


Control Policy at the White House. 

At tile meeting, Mr. McCaffrey told 
them that he would consider recom- 
mending to the president that he de- 
certify Colombia again and remove the 
preferential treatment for fresh cut 
flowers, Mr. Campbell said 

“We’re not asking for punitive treat- 
ment,” Mr. Campbell said. ‘ ‘We’re say- 
ing just remove the benefit, since it has 
not achieved what we wanted it to do.” 
He said that in the past he had sup- 
ported tariff exemptions for Colombian 
flowers to encourage the country to sub- 
stitute legal crops for coca leaf and 
opium poppies, though it hurt him with 
some constituents. 

He has changed his mind. *' ‘I really do 
feel betrayed,” Mr. Campbell said. “I 
walked die extra mile and stuck my neck 
out, and Colombia rewards me ami the 
i more cocaine. 


people in my district with i 
not less.” 


Ex-Mexican President’s Brother Is Tied to Trafficker 


By John Ward Anderson 
and Molly Moore 

fttuAMWon Poll Service 


MEXICO CITY — Raul Salinas de 
Gortari, the older brother of former 
President Carlos Salinas de Gortari, 
helped to arrange a $4 million payment 
that was intended to win the release of a 
drug trafficker detained on cocaine 
charges in 1993, according to U.S. doc- 
uments cited by a Mexican magazine. 

The weekly news magazine Proceso 
reported in its Sunday edition that the 
documents suggest other Mexican of- 
ficials — including a former state gov- 
ernor and a top member of the attorney 
general's office — also were instru- 
mental in arranging payments to protect 
drug traffickers. 

Furthermore, an informant h3S told 
FBI investigators that he was present at 


“various social events'’ at a ranch 
owned by Raul Salinas that were also 
attended by drug dealers and Carlos 
Salinas, according to an alleged FBI 
transcript of the informant’s statement. 

Specifically, the informant conten- 
ded that Carlos Salinas, while be was 
president of Mexico, went to parties at 
his brother's ranch that were attended 
by the former bead of the Gulf drug- 
smuggling cartel, Joan Garcia Abrego, 
who was recently convicted in Houston 
of drug trafficking and money laun- 
dering. He received 1 2 life sentences 
and was ordered to pay $500 mini on in 
fines and forfeitures. 

The informant told the FBI that Pres- 
ident Salinas knew that Mr. Garcia Ab- 
rego was an important drug trafficker, 
the magazine said. 

[A lawyer for Carlos Salinas said the 
former president might take legal action 


against those who spread accusations 
linking him and his family to drug lords. 
The Associated Press reported. In a 
statement published Monday, the at- 
torney described the charges as “an 
ambush by foreign agents.”] 

It was not immediately possible to 
verily the authenticity of the documents 
presented by the magazine. The maga- 
zine translated the documents from 
English into Spanish and carried a pho- 
tograph on its cover of what appeared to 
be U.S. court and FBI documents. 


After seeing a copy of the picture, a 
le FBI in Houston said 


spokesman for the 
the documents appeared to be authentic. 

Proceso said large portions of the 
documents it obtained were deleted, 
raising question about the motives of the 
person, or people, who leaked them. 

Ever since Carlos Salinas left office in 
late 1994, there had been a swirl of 


allegations and minors that he, his broth- 
er, cabinet ministers and others in bis 
administration had ties to drug dealers 
and protected them and their shipments 
in exchange for payoffs. Both Salinases 
have dented dealings with drug traf- 
fickers, and neither has been charged 
with any crimes or drug violations. 

Raul Salinas, however, is now in pris- 
on on charges of “illicit enrichment,” 
accused of hiding more than $120 mil- 
lion in Swiss bank accounts. The United 
States says it suspects that the money 
came from laundered drug proceeds. 

The two documents cited by Proceso 
are part of a money seizure case in 
Houston involving Mario Ruiz Massieu. 
once a top prosecutor for the attorney 
general’s office. U.S. officials are trying 
to confiscate about $9 million that he has 
in a Houston bank, charging that it is the 
proceeds of drug smuggling. 


Mr. Farr, whose district includes big 
flower farms in the Salinas Valley, said 
that tariffs should be reimposed on- 
Colombian flowers to save American 
growers, who be said were being driven 
out of business. 

The president is required to report 
annually to Congress about which coun- 
tries tire United States believes is re- 
sponsible for the flow of illegal drugs. 
Last year, Colombia joined Afghanis- 
tan, Burma, Iran, Nigeria and Syria on 
the State Department's list of countries 
viewed as having failed to cooperate. 

When a country is decertified it be- 
comes ineligible for most American aid, 
and the president can also apply some 
trade sanctions and withhold invest- 
ment credits. 

The administration looks all but cer- 
tain to decertify Colombia again this 
year because of its displeasure with 
President Ernesto Samper, who has 
been accused of taking nearly $6 million 
in campaign funds from drug traffick- 
ers. Mr. Simper has repeatedly denied 
the charges. 

Robeart Gelbard, the assistant secretary 
of state for drag matters, said Friday that 
“the government of Colombia has foiled, 
in our view, to follow through on prom- 
ised cou ntemar cotics action,” arm had 
not taken concrete steps to show that it 
was fully confronting the drug interests, 

Mr. McCaffrey, in an interview this 
month, said “Colombia is going to be a 
big problem.” He asserted that 
“Colombians are hustling cocaine and 
heroin up and down the Eastern sea- 


Reuters 

JERUSALEM — Prime Minister 
Benjamin Netanyahu vowed Monday to 
strengthen Israel’s bold over all of Je- 
rusalem, saying be would decide within 
days whether to build a new Jewish 
neighborhood in the . Arab east of the 
city. 

Mr. Netanyahu returned from a visit 
to Washington to face accusations that 
he had promised President Bill Clinton 
he would freeze a plan to build 6^00 
housing units at a she called -Har 
Hernia. \< 

The controversy dominated news re- 
ports in Israel on Monday and oveo- J 
shadowed Isroeli-Palestinian nifa on ' 
implementing interim agreements 
signed since the peace deal ip 1993.. i 
Mayor Ehud Olmert of Jerusakin. 
said lie would send bulldozers to Har 
Homa to pave the way for cbustructioa' 
if reports that Mr. Netanyahu had de- 
fectively killed the project proved mai* 
But Mr. Netanyahu said to reporters : 
“I am simply incredulous over the 
tilings I am hearing here. Someone's 
trying to grab headlines over notitmgM 
“I intend to convene tire ministerial 
committee on Jerusalem fra . two meet 
ings In die coming days arid makeatf the 
necessary decisions,” he said of the Ha 
Homa project. 

Mr. Netanyahu said the detisioDs 
would “better reflect our absolute coafl 
mitment to Israeli sovereignty in Je- 
rusalem in all parts of the city/' u 
The Peace Now movement — which 
opposes Jewish settlement on land cap- 1 i 
tured from Arabs in the 1967 Mickflfe 
East war — said that butiding on the hiH 
of pine forests, which is near the Arab 
village of Sur Bahir, would result in 
violence. 

“Har Homa would be another Jertt 
salem tunnel,” a spokesman fra foe 
group said. He was referring to clashes 
in September after Israel opened a new 
entrance to a tourist tunnel near Muslim 
holy sites in the city. Sixty-one Pal- 
estinians and 15 Israelis died in the 
fighting. 

Mr. Netanyahu could face a revolt in 
his own Ukud party and from rightist 
coalition partners if the project does not 
go ahead. “I see this issue of Har Henna 
as a watershed,” Mayra Olmert said. _ 
Brayamin Begin, a member of the 
Likud who quit the cabinet over 
government’s handover of most of die ' 
West Bank town of Hebron to the Pal- 
estinians last month, accused Mr. Net- 
anyahu of "dividing Jerusalem.” Mii. 


board,” and that jailed leaders of the 
still runj 


Cali cartel “are still running the cartel 
with faxes and cellular phones.” 


cry in defeating Prime Minister Shinxxj 
Peres in last year’s national election-. '* 
The Palestinian Authority says Arab 
East Jerusalem will be the capital of a 
future state and has warned Mr- Net' 
anyahu not to take any action in the city 
that would prejudice talks, scheduled ta 
begin next month, on a permanent pease 
settlement. ' 


TRAVEL UPDATE 


WEATHER 


French Transit Strike Weakens 


TOULOUSE. France (Reuters) — A public transport strike 
in French provincial cities weakened Monday after the police 
removed pickets in Toulouse and employers met demands for 
shorter hours. 

In Toulouse, where the stoppage began Jan. 27, the police 
moved about 100 pickets blocking a mis depot shortly after 
dawn to let about 30 percent of buses run. 

Other strikes, which stopped transit services in about 20 
provincial cities, were still affecting Cannes, Clermont-Fer- 


rand, Le Mans, Lille, Nice, Sete and Toulon for a 12th day. 
Drivers' unions are divided over whether to recommend a 
return to work after management met part of their demands 
last week. They were offered a cut in the working week to 35 
hours with no pay loss, and retirement at 55 rather than 60. 


Dispute Disrupts Flights From Fiji 


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SUVA, Fiji (AFP) — International flights out of Fiji by the 
national carrier Air Pacific were disrupted Monday as a 
dispute between tbs airline and Us cabin crews continued far 
its fourth day. 

An Air Pacific flight from Nadi to Osaka, Japan, was 
canceled Monday, and five of the airline’s international 
departures from Nadi were disrupted over the weekend when 
flight attendants refused to work. The attendants want to 
renegotiate their hours. 


Avalanches killed five skiers in the Swiss Alps over the 
weekend, the Swiss news agency ATS said. Five people were 
also killed by avalanches in the French Alps and Pyrenees, 
reports said. (Reuters) 


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PAGE 3 




INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1997 


THE AMERICAS 



ins to Reassert His Power 


By Dan Balz and John E. Yang 

WashmxtonPo# Service 

WASHINGTON — A month after his rep- 
runand for violating the rules of the House. 
Newt Gingrich has put in place a strategy to 
rehabilitate himself, personally and political- 
ly. Bur Republicans in and out of the chamber 
say the speaker's standing remains precarious 
*nd, if it has not improved noticeably by 
summer, he will have trouble remaining in 
power into the next Congress. 

Mr. Gingrich’s missteps since the House 
voted to reprimand him on Jan. 21, including 
frpubuc outburst aimed at the news media atvt 
wee K ago. have farther shaken 
( confidence of fellow Republicans, who 
wave grown weary defending the speaker to 
their constitu ents 

“The well is dry,*’ said a leading House 
Republican, who called the speaker's hold on 
■power “tenuous . 1 * 

'■ Another Republican with close ties to the 
House stud many of Mr. Gingrich’s once- 
loyai followers distrusted Hin political in- 
stincts. 

■ “They have no faith in his judgment,” tbe 
Republican said. “They have no faith in his 
manag ement. It’s management by college 


professor in the House., They- have no idea 
where we're headed.'' 

The disarray among House Republicans 
was evident last week: They mustered fewer 
voces for term 1 mitre than they did two years 
ago; saw 44 of Their colleagues defect to help 
President Bill Clinto n win release of foreign 
aid for family planning groups, and could not 
push a constitutional amendment to balance ; 
die budget out of the Judiciary Committee, 
even though it is a cornerstone of their 


His strongest supporters say Mr. Gingrich’s 

condition, while difficult, is fax from due and 
predict that if he followed the plan for what 
one called “self-renewal/* be will emerge as 
strong as ever. 

That plan includes rebuilding relations 
among his colleagues in tbe House, speeches 
to friendly Republican audiences and, oust 
i m po r ta n t, a public d em e ano r of cooperation 
rather than confrontation — all of which were 
on display Saturday when the speaker ad- 
dressed a party ltmcbeon in his home stale, 
Georgia. 

“He’s been through bell,'’ said Repre- 
sentative Bill Paxon. Republican of New 
York and a staunch aBy. 

He cited the ethics battle and Democratic 


attacks throughout 1996. But he said Mr. 
Gingrich had “an unbelievable level of forti- 
tude" that would carry him back to power, 
both as the leader of the House and as the 
articulator of a conservative vision for the 
party. 

Another close friend said: “The truth is. 
Newt is a natural leader. He is the most 
optimistic person I. know, bar none. He has a 
remarkably strong will and the ability to do 
the weak required to get the job done." 

The friend added: ‘ ‘Mentally he’s in preny 
good shape. Emotionally he’s in preny good 
shape. Intellectually he's in pretty good 
shape. He’s a great student of history and 
understands the situation he’s in now." 

Despite those assets, some House Repab- 
licans worry that it is less a question of 
whether than when Mr. Gingrich missteps 
again. His outburst last month, the lawmakers 
said, illustrated his greatest weaknesses — his 
friability to discipline Himself and to see the 

impact of his words and actions. 

Concerns about Mr. Gingrich reflect a 
broader loss of confidence among Repub- 
licans about the direction of the party in the 
aftermath of President Chilton’s re-election 
and the ethics contro v ersy, in which the 
speaker admitted he bad given false infor- 


mation to the ethics committee and failed to 
seek proper legal advice in setting up a college 
course financed with tax-exempt funds. 

Mr. Gingrich agreed not only to accept a 
reprimand but also to pay a penalty of 
$300,000, an eye-catching p unishme nt chat 
transformed what his allies hod been describ- 
ing as a minor traffic violation into a major 
problem for the speaker and the rest of the 

Gingrich still has not decided how to 
pay the penalty, and has made clear to some 
members that he is resisting recommenda- 
tions that he use personal funds, rather than 
campaign contributions or a legal defense 
fund. He has complained bitterly that, despite 
the proceeds of his best-selling book, he can- 
not afford to use his own money. 

His allies say the issue is in die hands of the 
speaker’s lawyers and that he is concerned not 
Only about his own situation bat the precedent 
of ms decision on cases in the future involving 
other members. 

But other Republicans say his only political 
choice is to pay the money out of his own 
pocket. Many Republicans agree with the 
view of a House Democratic leadership aide 
who said last week, “Paying with campaign 
funds would be tbe end of him." 


■ Panel Widens Probe 

- atc-rt.. 

By Robert D. Hershey Jr. 

New York Times Service 

- WASHINGTON ■ — The Republican who heads the in- 
■vestigation by the House of Representatives into influence 
peddling by foreigners has announced that his panel is sharply 
* - : v _ expanding its scope. 

■' Dan Burton of Indiana, chairman of the House Committee 
'. on Government Reform and Oversight, said Sunday on NBC 

that the investigation was “going to be much broader than I 
would like." 

... “We thought initially we were going to just have to 

interview or depose just a few people." he said. “We now 
have over 300 people that we may reive to talk to." 

", Asked whether John Huang, a former fund-raiser for the 
Democratic National Co mmittee and one-time Commerce 
Department official, had compromised his top-secret security 
* . clearance, Mr. Burton said this was one thing his panel wanted 
to examine. Mr. Burton said that Mr. Huang “was working 
very closely’’ with interests of tbe Riady family in Indonesia, 
by whom he was once employed, as well as “some people in 
the Chinese government." 

v “We're going to look into every reea where there is a 
possibility of illegal activity as far as influence peddling, 
illegal contributions, possible involvement of White House 
‘ personnel and thing s like that," Mr. Burton said. 

He said he signed 20 subpoenas Saturday night after 
sending out five during the week as part of an inquiry that has 
already requested documents from 60 people. He declined to 
identify tin subjects of the subpoenas, but said the panel 
planned to conduct thorough “spade weak'' before it con- 
vened hearings, probably not until April or May. . . 
j. A White House aide, Lanny Davis,' denied later that the 
administration’s foreign policy had been influenced by cam- 
l - L paign donations. . = . 

.. • “There's no goveromental actions affected by contribu- 

Cions to this president," Mr. Davis said. 

s - More specifically, Mr. Davis dismissed mroEcatiaiis con- 
tained in an artide Sunday m The Washington I^JStClHT, Feb. 
H 7 ) dial the administration bad shifted its position on im- 
V migration and federal laborxnles in Guam after* stop there by 
* Hillary Rodham Cfinton in September 1993 was followed 
within weeks by hirodreds of thousands of dollars in cash and 
“soft money" donations from Guam to the CUnton-Gore 
- - campaign and the Democratic National Committee. .. 

Mr. Davis said, “Cause and effect isn’t established by a 
headline or by allegations." 

«. The Interior Department official responsible for the policy 
toward Guam, he added, “has said that that policy was 
evolving and, in fact, had been determined way before con- 
tabutions had been contributed.” 


.1 - . .* * ./ ' The Auf.iltJ ftt 

Joe Tanner, left, and Greg Harbangh Working Monday on the Hubble telescope in the shuttle's hold. 

Astronauts Patch Up the Hubble’s Tom Skin 


Reuters 

JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, Texas 
— Space walking astronauts finished up- 
grading the Hubble Space. Telescope on 
Monday and began pa t c h i ng up the tcic- 
scope's peeling, sunburned skin. 

NASA officials ordered repairs to rip 
in the silvery insulation that protects the 
telescope’s insides from extreme tem- 
perature swings in mbit 


Engineers were concerned that elec- 
tronic parts could overheat if nothing 
was done before the shuttle's next ser- 
vice call, scheduled far December 
1999. 

The astronauts Greg Harbaugh and 
Joe Tanner made the last of 10 upgrades 
to Hubble, mstaUiog a new control box 
for the telescope’s solar panels and fit- 
ting covers over magnetic sensors. 


' They rode on the end of the shuttle’s 
robot arm to reach the top of the four- 
story telescope far their final task. 

The astronauts quickly completed die 
covering of the box-shaped sensors with 
new thermal covers. 

With the last task of their $350 million 
service call done, the astronauts then 
patched up two insulation tears near the 
top of the telescope. 


AEL-CIO Chief Gambles All on Recruiting New Blood 


s: 


y 


, "By Steven Greenhouse 

j - New YorkHmes Service 

. ■ LOS ANGELES — Hav- 
ing roused the torpid AFL- 
CIO in Us first year as pres- 
ident, John Sweeney is pre- 
paring an ambitions all-out 
gamble to save the labor 
movement from further de- 
cline by shifting its focus to 
recruiting new members. 

«■ . In moving the federation’s 
emphasis toward organizing 
and away from politics, its 
thrust of last year, Mr. 
Sweeney hopes to reverse a 
• 20 -year clj dp in union mem- 
bership, a trend that labor 
leaders see as a cancer that 
has sapped their strength in 
politics and at tbe bargaining 
table. 

' Mr. Sweeney was prcpar- 
ing Monday to propose at the 
AFL-CIO’s winter meeting 
here a $60 million advertising 
effort to burnish labor’s im- 

Yage and a campaign to reach 
out to working women. He 
will also pledge to spend more 
than $2 uuUum on labor’s two 
biggest recruiting drives: or- 
ganizing 20,000 strawberry 
workers in California and tens 
of thousands of construction, 

hotel and bealth-care workers 
in Las Vegas. 

; Outlining goals that some 
labor experts call overly op- 
timistic, Mr. Sweeney said in 
an interview.* "We’re not go- 
ing to doubte our rasmbership 
in the short term. But if- w® 
turn around the decline m 
members and create a focus 
on organizing and set modest 
goals of some growth every 
year, whether it s 3 w4 per- 
cent, over the long term we 
will build a stronger labor 
movement .' 1 . . 

- In the four-day meeting, 

) &e labor leaders, meeting m 
an urban center instead of 
their traditional locale, a 


beach resort, will bear Vice 
President AI Gore discuss the 
labor standoff at American 
Airlines and refine their le- 
gislative agenda. _ 

Mr. Sweeney is undertak- 
ing his new organizing effort 
after a relatively successful 
first year to' president of toe 
largest U.S. labor organiza- 
tion. The federation has 
raised its profile, pushed Con- 
gress into raising the minim- 
um wage and excited college 


students about labor by en- 
listing more than 1,000 of 
them as summer interns. . 

In addition, toe federation 
spent $35 million to make it- 
self a force in politics, al- 
though its campaign efforts 
failed ^to achieveT^OT^big 

Some labor experts caution 
that Mr. Sweeney’s success at 
reawakening toe American 
Federation of Labor and Con- 


gress of Industrial Organiza- 
tions, an umbrella group that 
has 13 million members, was 
child's play compared with 
the task of recruiting millions 
more workers to unions. 

“It will be 100 times 
harder," said Gregory 
Tarp mian, president of the 
Labor Research Association. 
“It will be the basis by which 
Sweeney is judged.’’- 

The number of union mem- 
bers nationwide dropped by 


92.000 last year and by 

388.000 the year before; the 
percentage of American 
workers m unions has sunk to 
14.5 percent, compared with 
33 percent in toe 1950s. With 
the work force growing by 
about 2 milli on people a year, 
unions will nave to add 

400.000 new members a year 
to keep from falling further 
behind — a tall order con- 
sidering labor’s recent slump 
and toe crusade by many 


firms to keep out unions. 

Tailring about tbe federa- 
tion's big gamble to increase 
its numbers, Richard Free- 
man, a labor economist at Har- 
vard University, said: * ‘If they 
don't organize beyond the 
rates in which they’ve been 
organizing people, they’re 
captains of a sinking ship. One 
of Sweeney’s great strengths 
is he’s addressing toe idea that 
organizing is toe lifeblood of 
toe union movement" 


r22*y; : -CT 



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POLITICAL NOTES 



Political Page-Turners Go Pop 

WASHINGTON — It has been four years since Richard 
Ben Cramer produced what may be the best and is study 
cme of the longest political books of the decade, a 1.047- 
page opus on the psychology of presidential candidates 
entitled “What It Takes.’ ’ His study of six contenders in toe 
1988 race enraptured critics and even sold modestly well. 

Since toen the While House and Congress have changed 
hands. Washington is still more Machiavellian, and be is 
hard at work on a new book. It’s about Joe DiMaggio. 

“Basically.’’ Mr. Cramer said, “politics is out of 
vogue.’’ At least, his swatch of it may be. Politics is 
following toe rest of American culture, and going pop. So 
is political literature. 

Twenty years ago. Washington politics generated a 
wave of sober-sided, brisk- selling reportage, including 
“Lyndon Johnson and toe American Dream," by Doris 
Kearns, and Carl Bcmsiem’s and Bob Woodward's coda 
to Watergate. “Tbe Final Days.’’ among many others. 

A handful of their progeny made The New York 
Times* best-seller lists last year. But what did readers 
devour? Comedians (AI Frank en. "Rush Limbaugh Is a 
Big, Fat Idiot,” 23 weeks); scandal-mongers (Gary Aid- 
rich, “Unlimited Access.” 19 weeks); celebrities (Colin 
Powell’s “My American Journey," 20 weeks); sound- 
bite pamphleteers (James Carville’s paperback “We're 
Right, They’re Wrong,” 25 weeks). And slickly pro- 
moted satire (“Primary Colors.” Anonymous. 25 
weeks). In other words, politics life. (NTT) 

Frisson Over the Stripping Desk 

WASHINGTON — There was a minifrenzy among the 
White House press corps when reporters spotted a ref- 
erence in the mountain of papers released on the CIA 
director-designate, W. Anthony Lake, to something 
called the White House “stripping desk.” 

“Stripping?” In the Clinton administration? Zt could be 
anything. The White House spokesman, Michael McCurry, 
was asked about it but said he wasn't sure what it was. 

The reporters wanted him to investigate further. He 
explained later that the "stripping desk” was located in 
die Office of Records Management and referred to the 
process in which editing changes and internal notes on 
documents and letters are cleaned up and taken off before 
the documents are issued. No feather boas involved. 

“For such a suggestive title/’ he said, “it's a some- 
what unromantic office.” (WP) 


Quote/Unquote 


Robert Sklar, professor of cinema at New York Uni- 
versity. on recent movies that portray the diminished 
dignity and aloofness of toe American presidency: “You 
can't have a president playing the saxophone and talking 
about his underwear without some loss of dignity. "(AP^ 


Away From Politics 

• An Atlas rocket put into orbit a Japanese satellite 

designed to beam voice, data and television signals to 
Japan and other nations across the Pacific. (AP) 

• Reporters and editors at The Detroit News and the 

Detroit Free Press approved an unconditional offer to end 
a 19-month-old walkout Other unions agreed earlier to 
end the strike. (AP) 


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INTERNATIONAL WTHAI.T) TRIBUNE, SATURIM-SIJND^,FEBRUAHY 1-2, 1997 



In Korean Crisis, North and South Appear Ready to Lower the Tension |f 


CoxpQtdbj OrSt&Frm D^adtes 

SEOUL — North Korea indicated 
Monday for the first time that it might 
accept the defection of Hwang Jang 
Yop. the high-ranking North Korean 
official who has taken refuge in the 
South Korean Consulate in Beijing, and 
Seoul said it still planned to send food 
aid to its adversary despite the stand- 
off. 

“Our stand is simple and clear,*’ a 
Nortii Korean Foreign Ministry spokes- 
man said, “If he was kidnapped, ' then 
“we will take decisive countermeas- 
ures. If he sought asylum, it means that 
he is a renegade and he is dismissed.’’ 


Chinese police guarding the consu- 
late relaxed visibly Monday after North 


Korea indicated it could accept the of- 
ficial's defection. 

North Koreans, who had kept a very 
public, round-the-clock vigil around die 
consulate since last week, withdrew 
about midday. 


In another sign that the two Koreas 
may have turned the comer in the latest 
crisis in their relations. South Korea said 
it would send food aid and nuclear tech- 
nicians to North Korea despite the ten- 
sion over the shooting of a prominent 
defector Saturday in Seoul and the 
Beijing standoff involving Mr. Hwang. 

‘*Our policy is to send the survey 
tp-Am regardless of die tense situation/’ 
said Ban Ki Moon. President Kim 
Young Sam's national security adviser, 
referring to the nuclear tram. 

He also affirmed chat his government 
would respond to an international ap- 
peal to ship food to the North, which 
faces a severe food shortage after wide- 
spread flooding. 

Mr. Hwang, a key Communist the- 
oretician and former tutor of North 
Korea’s leader, Kim Jong II, is the 
highest ranking North Korean to seek 
asylum in the Sooth. 

The North Korean spokesman, wi ho 


spoke on customary condition of an- 
onymity, told Pyongyang’s official 
Korean Central News Agency that the 
North had asked Beijing to investigate 
Mr. Hwang’s “disappearance.” 

“The comment seems to imply that 
North Korea will accept it if independ- 
ent parties, like the UN High Com- 
missioner for Refugees, rules that 
Hwang is a political defector,’' said 
Kang Ho Yang, spokesman for Seoul's 
Unification Ministry. 

Mr. Ban, the security adviser, said 
South Korea had reviewed its overall 
policy toward the North following the 
attack Saturday on the North Korean 
defector in Seoul 


Lee Han Young, 36, a nephew of & 
oftbeNorthK 


former wife of the North Korean leader, 
was shot and critically wounded. South 
Korean police continued their inves- 
tigation Monday but said they had no 
definite evidence proving North Korean 
involvement in the shooting. 


But Seoul officials believe Oat 
Pyongyang ordered the attack as re- 
venge for the defection of Mr. Hwang, 
73, a member of its highest decision- 
making body, the Central Committee of 
the ruling Workers Party- 

Security around South Korea’s ports, 
airports and other public places had 
been beefed up, and 10,000 police and 
soldiers searched for the two suspected 
agents who shot Mr. Lee. 

The police found two shells from a 
Belgian-made Browning pistol, a 
weapon they ray is often used by North 
Korean agents. 

The South Korean foreign minister, 
Yoo Chong Ha, said problems stem- 
ming from Mr. Hwang’s defection were 
just the start of headaches for Seoul 
because of a crisis in the North. 

“I believe dte North Korean regime's 
crisis will deepen as time passes be- 
cause^ there’s no likelihood of improve- 
ment in its economic hardship and food 


i, and signs of laxity in its so- 
Mr. Yoo told a meeting of 


sho 

dal _ . 

South Korean diplomats. 

“The North’s reprisal has pushed us 
into a dilemma,” Mr. Ban told South 
Korean re porters- But he said his coun- 
try would accept a United Nations ap- 
peal for fresh humanitarian aid for 
North Korea, as well as sending the 
t«wn of nuclear technicians to survey a 
site in North Korea where two ligta- 
warer reactors will be built under a 1994 
U.S.-North Korean accord- 

But he added that the departure of the 


30-member team, originally set for next 
e delayed by “a few 


Sunday, could be 
daw.” 

The tense standoff over Mr. Hwang s 
defection had threatened the accord, 
aimed at freezing North Korea’s nuclear 
program, which is suspected of being 
used to build atomic bombs. 

After die weekend attack on Mr. Lee. 
South Korean newspapers reported that 


Seoul might cut off aid to the North and 
pnnp+i plans to send the nuclear survey 
team. Seoul is a key financial backer of 
the $5 billion reactor project - 
China faces a dilemma in deciding 
whether to allow Mr. Hwang to leave for 
South Korea. It does not want to in- 
furiaie North Korea, a longtime ally qn 
whose side it fought in the 1950-53 ' 
Korean War. But it also has diptamaHtc - - 
relations with SouteK^tra and wams te - 
encourage growing commercial ties. ’ 
The US. secretary of -sta&, . 
Madeleine' Albright, said Monday In 
Boon before going te Pari^thaishtvwa 
“very concerned 7 ' about tensions be- 
tween South and North Korea, ' 

Mr. Hwang’s defection and ibc j* l 
shooting in South Ktsra ‘hmderiin&tfe f 1 
importance of crying to establish a dia- 
logue” between the two Koras, she 
She will visit both Seoul and 


Beijing next week as part of her anxmdr 
(AP^Reu uis} 


the-worid tour. 


Pakistan’s Signal to India 

Taking Oath, Prime Minister Is Conciliatory 


BRIEFLY 


The Associated Press 

ISLAMABAD, Pakistan — Law- 
makers gave the Pakistan Muslim 
League on overwhelming vote of con- 
fidence Monday in a secret ballot that 
confirmed Nawaz Sharif as Pakistan's 
new prime minister. 

Mr. Sharif's centrist party received 
177 votes. The party of his rival, 
Benazir Bhutto, received just 16 votes. 

In a ceremony at the presidency, Mr. 
Sharif took the oath of office as 
Pakistan’s 13th prime minister. Pres- 
ident Farooq Leghari, who administered 
the oath, promised to cooperate with the 
new prime minister. 

“I am happy over the successful 
completion of die constitutional pro- 
cess,” said Mr. Leghari, the man who 
dismissed Miss Bhutto's government 
and paved the way for the Feb. 3 elec- 
tions. 


Pakistan has fought three wars in the 
“There is 


past 50 years. “There is a need for 
reconciliation in Sooth Asia,” he said. 
“The initiative has to come from both 
sides, but we will take one step forward, 
and we hope India will reciprocate.” 

■ India Offers to Resume Talks 


India congratulated Prune Minister 
Sharif on taking office and said it 
wanted to resume peace talks on a wide 
range of issues, including the dis 
over Kashmir, Reuters reported 
New Delhi. 


“I wish you success in die heavy tasks 
that lie ahead,” Prime Minister Hi). De- 



In his inaugural speech to Parliament, 
Mr. Sharif took a conciliatory approach. 
He vowed to root out corruption and to 
try to move Pakistan beyond die polit- 
. ical bickering that has marked previous 
governments. 

He even offered an olive branch to 
Pakistan’s old enemy, India, with which 


ve Gowda said in a letter to Mr. Sharif. 

During and after the general elections 
Feb. 3, Mr. Sharif had said be favored 
the resumption of bilateral talks. 

“I reciprocate your sentiments in frill 
measure,” Mr. Deve Gowda said, 
adding that India sought “an early re- 
sumption of dialogue between our two 
countries, at app ro priate leveL” 

Talks broke down in January 1994 
over deep differences on the issue of the 
Himalayan region of Kashmir. InHia 
says die region is an integral part of its 
territory. Pakistan has insisted that the 


Nawaz Sharif after being approved 
by the Parliament on Monday. 


people of Kashmir should be allowed to 
vote on whether to join Islamic Pakistan 
or Hindu-majority India. 

“We are ready and willing to have 
wide-ranging comprehensive talks on 
all issues of mutual concern.” Mr. Deve 
Gowda's letter said. 

A Foreign Ministry official said: “You 

mi g ht ftniwtnie that Hw p ritrte miniicfgr jg 

suggesting dial Kashmir could be one of 
theissues to dismiss with Pakistan.” 


Beijing-Manila Defense Talks 


MANILA — Defense Minister Chi Haotian of China 
called Monday for closer cooperation between tile armed 
forces of f*hm* »nd the Philippines in talks with his 
counterpart. General Renato de Villa. 

General de VDIa said General Chi was pleased with die 
“very strong” relations between the two armed forces. 

“He is proposing that we do some more activities together 
along this direction.” General de Villa said. But die issue of 
the two countries’ rival claims to Che disputed Spratly Islands 
was not discussed and would be left to foe foreign ministries. 
General de Villa said. 

The Sprailys are a cluster of potentially oil-rich isles, 
reefs and shoals in the South Chma Sea that are claimed 
wholly or in part by the two countries as well as by Taiwan, 
Vietnam. Malaysia and Brunei. (Reuters) 


billion) in loans. Opposition parties have accused pros- 
ecutors of trying to wind down their investigation without — | 
identifying the people who pressured banks into offering - 
the loans. (Reuters) ' 


China Officials to Visit Taiwan 


New Inquiry Into * Hanbogate ’ 


SEOUL — The South Korean Parliament formally 
began a fresh inquiry Monday into die collapse of Hanbo 
Steel & General Construction Co. following opposition 
accusations that prosecutors are not revealing all they 
know about the scandaL 

The speaker of Parliament, Kim Soo Han, accepted a 
request by Sooth Korea’s three main parties thaltbe National 
Assembly form a committee for a 45-day investigation. 

“We will shed light on the real truth of ’Hanbogate.’ ” 
said Cho Se Hyong, a member of Parliament from the main 
opposition National Congress for New Politics. 

The steelmalting flagship of Hanbo Group was declared 
insolvent Jan. 23 after racking up 5 trillion won ($5.8 


TAIPEI — A group of senior Chinese officials is 
scheduled to arrive in Triwan on Thursday for an right-day 
visit in a sign that strained relations between Taipei and - 
Beijing are easing; the Taiwan hosts said Monday. 

The 30-member delegation would indude Wang . 
Xjaomm, the daughter-in-law of Wan Li, one of China’s*’ 
most influential elders and a Politburo member, said 
Chinese Youth International of Taiwan, the group tint is 
sponsoring the visit. ' > 

“We invited them for a visit in order to promote 
understanding and cultural exchanges between the two/ 
sides of the Taiwan Strait.” said a spokesman for the - * 
organization, a private nonprofit group. 

The spokesman said the Chinese group would visit " 
cultural, educational and scientific establishments, and / 
exchange views wife local scholars and experts. ■ . ■* 

(Reuters ) » 


3V 


For the Record 




Hie Indian government has decided to stick to foe 
traditional city names of Bombay and Madras rather than 
adopt local versions. The Tiroes of India said Monday. It a 
said Mumbai — Marathi for Bombay — and Chennai — »; 
Tamil for Madras — were creating coaforion abroad and/ 
affecting business. (AFP).- 


INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFIED 


EDUCATION DIRECTORY 


UoSJL 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1997 


EUROPE 


French Face Off Over Immigration 


Juppe Says Opponents of Restrictions ‘Undermine Democracy’ 


By Barry lames 
International HtroM T.ibune 


^‘PARIS — More than 3,000 fihn- 
rnakcrs, writers, actors and academics 
gve signed petitions protesting a eov- 
crtanent bill against illegal inmugration. 
ftovoW a warning from Prime Min- 
ister Alain Juppe of Trance on Monday 
mat they were playing into the hands <4 
me extreme right National Front 
The artists and intellectuals said that 
mey would flout die proposed Jaw, 

s 2HL . *s? ed . ? P^en&gFrench 

'* ”°m giving hospitality to il- 

legal mmugrants, and that they were 
££*nning a demons trati on Saturday in 

Mr. Juppe said, “These are serious 
.acts because they undermine the state and 
democracy,’' and he asserted that erftiry 
,of the measures were “doing the work of 
I Jose who advocate xenoptobia.” 
Senior government officials argued 
diat by not cracking down on ilk^ i 
immigration, the government opens the 


way for the National Front, which talks 
of expelling millions of foreigners. 

Mr. Juppe said the protests were a 
blow against the government's policy of 
integrating foreigners because they 
failed to distmgmsh between legal and 

flte g t ll mwmgrnrifm 

France is required by the Schengen 
agreement, signed by several European 
Union countries, to prevent undocu- 
mented immigrants from entering the 
country. Mr. Juppe frugal immigrants 

would still be welcome in France. 

The government bill reinforces a law 
introduced, by decree by die previous 
Socialist government in 1982. That de- 
cree requires foreign visitors who need 
visas to obtain a certificate from those 
offering them hospitality in France, un- 


Mayor Jeannette Gaschard of 
Mairannes said dial tbejaw .would turn 
citizens into “potential police officers’ ’ 
and that die would disobey it 
The measures will not apply to any- 
one coming from countries whose cit- 
izens do sot require visas to enter 
France, including permanent residents 
of the European Union aryt die United 
States. 

Many of those who have signed the 
petitions also took part in the campaign 
to prevent the expulsion of undocu- 
mented immi grants from a Paris church 
last year. The movement of civil dis- 
obedience coincides with the National 


Front’s victory in municipal elections in 
the southern town of Vitrolles a week 


less they can prove they have enough 
money to pay fior their visit- 


money to pay for their visit. 

Oppooents of the tall have drawn 
parallels between that requirement and 
the wartime Vichy regime’s order for 


French citizens to report if they were 
giving hospitality to Jews. 


Now Bulgaria Wants to Join NATO 


The Associtned Press 

SOFIA — In a major turnaround, 
•y, Bulgaria’s new government annou nced 
Monday that the former Communist 
country wants to join NATO. 

“The caretaker cabinet decided to 
'State the country's desire for full mem- 
bership in the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization,” the state-run BTA news 
I agency quoted Foreign Minister Stoyan 
!Stalev as saying. 

It was the first time since the collapse 
of communism in 1989 that any Bu- 
lgarian government has declared the 
•country’s desire to join NATO. Bul- 
garia was the closest to Moscow of any 
; Soviet-bloc country and even after the 
•collapse of communism was at best am- 


bivalent about joining the defense al- 
liance. 

The BTA report said that the gov- 
ernment had entrusted the foreign and 
defense ministers to draft preparations 
to join NATO. 

The move reflects a policy torn under 
Bulgaria’s new president, Petar Stoy- 
anov, an ardent supporter of his coun- 
try’s accession to NATO and die Euro- 
pean Union. 

Mr. Stoyanov appointed the present 
caretaker government last week after 
convincing the Socialists, die renamed 
Communists, to cede power and agree to 
eariy elections in April. 

The anti-Comrmmist opposition is ex- 
pected to win a parliamentary majority. 


the southern town of Vitrolles a week 
ago. The From now controls four south- 
ern towns and hopes to bolster its stand- 
ing is legislative elections next year. It 
announced Monday that it would op- 
pose both legal and illegal immigra- 
tion. 

France has more than 4 million le- 
gally resident foreigners and an estim- 
ated 1 million illegal immigrants. Its 
traditional policy has been to assimilate 
foreigners, and one of every four French 
dtizens can trace ancestry to at least one 
grandparent bom abroad. 

Although the Socialists bear the re- 
sponsibility of introducing lodging cer- 
tificates for foreigners, the party’s lead- 
er, Lionel Jospin, said the government 
was altering a measure that was orig- 
inally intended to ensure that visitors 
were properly received. The new pro- 
penal, be said, would mrn citizens into 
informers. 

Mr. Jospin urged Mr. Juppe to re- 
consider, and said that if die bill pass ed 
the National Assembly next week, the 
Socialists would challenge it an con- 
stitutional grounds. 

Mr. Juppe responded that he would 
not retire tire measure, saying it was a 
balanced approach to the problem of 
illegal immigration. 



, s ' •*.# 
-*■ 






KOSOVO: Seeds of Rebellion 


BRIEFLY 


Continued from Page 1 


banian “collaborators.” As a 
.result, the Yugoslav Army in 
; Kosovo has been reinforced 
with anti-terrorist units, gov- 
ernment officials said. 

- The guerrilla group re- 
mains shadowy. State secu- 
rity officials say the core of 
$e Kosovo Liberation Army 
and that of a smaller group, 
fte National Movement for 
the Liberation of Kosovo, are 
made up of mercenaries who 
fought yrithMusIims against 
the Bosnian Serbs in the war 
in B osnia-Heraego vina. Hie 
ethnic Albanians here, as in 
Albania, are predominantly 
Muslim. 

Many of die insurgents, 

. "who have built an organized 
f base of 40,000 supporters, 
have received training in Al- 
bania, Iran and Pakistan, the 
government officials say. The 
guerrillas, they assert, also re- 
ceive money from militant Is- 
lamic groups in the Middle 
East. . 

w * ‘These terrorist groups are 
well trained and well 


an independent state occu- 
pied by the Serbs. 

People pay “taxes” to the 
“state*’ leadership, and all 
Serbian businesses and insti- 
tutions are boycotted. A sea 
of satellite dishes in cities like 
Pristina pull gov ernment 
broadcasts from neighboring 
Albania into most, living 
rooms. Serbo-Croatian is not 
spoken. 

Serbs in Kosovo are iso- 
lated from most Albanians^ 
The- special privikges,.beavy 
protection from some 25,000 
police officers and what is 
seen as cocky arrogance has 
made them detested by the 
Albanian majority. Many 
Serbs speak harshly of the Al- 
banians, often using derog- 


Britons Say Swiss Agree 
To Talks on Nazi Gold 


‘There is no 
antipathy by 
many Albanians 
to armed resis- 
tance or the use 
,1 of violence. 9 


. equipped,” said Milos Neso- 
vic, the top government ad- 
- nunistrator in the region. 
“The police have just broken 
a terrorist cell with dozens of 
arm ed militants. They found 
automatic weapons, explo- 
sives and sophisticated com- 
munications equipme nt. 

“We know these terrorists 
have trained abroad and re- 
_ceive money from exile 

■ groups in Germany and 
! Switzerland. They at tack po- 
1 lice and murder Albanians 
I who are loyal to the state. Bin 
: | warn the Albanians that if 

• they support an armed rebel- 
I lion, they wiU pay very dearly 
; for their mistake.’ 

Western diplomats say 
; president Slobodan Milo- 
; sevic of Serbia bears much of 
i foe blame for the crisis here. 
\ He used what he called the 

■ persecution of the roughly 

! 200,000 Serbs here by *e Al- 

. banians as a rallying cry to 

• build a nationalist state a de- 

■ c ade ago and touch off the 

■ wars in Croatia and Bosnia. 

: In 1989 he stripped 

' Kosovo of the autonomy mar 

■ it had under the old Com- 
'. munisr government of 
; Yugoslavia and declared a 

■ state of emergency. Later be 
: mounted an abortive cam- 
; paign to resettle ethnic 5er- 

• bian war refugees in, t he re- 
i rion, and be has put Serbs m 
; charge of all government- of- 
« frees, state factories and in- 
i solutions in Kosovo. 

; In the process, Mr. Milo- 
sevic has helped mold a nwfr- 
: itant Albanian ministme- Ai- 
; banian children, who no 
Monger attend state schools, 
'fSTnow taught in o»- 
' crowded basement cia»- 

rooms that they are citizens of 


“All these Albanian men 
have three or four wives and 
about 20 drikfren,” said Zor- 
an Dime, 32, a Serb 'wfoo 
works as an animal health in- 
spector. “They -make money 
running drug and prostitution 
rings, and none of them have 
paper state documents. At 
least 75 percent come from 
Albania or somewhere else, 
and the sooner we send them' 
back die better.” 

Six years of disciplined 
peaceful civil disobedience 
by the ethnic Albanians has 
frayed the patience of -many. 
And the a pp are n t success of 
die anti-government demon- 
strators in Yugoslavia in 
gaining reinstatement of op- 
position election victories has 
left many feeling that with 
Mr. ' Milosevic weakene d , 
now is die time to begin to 

exert more pressure. 

An increasing number of 
Albanians have crane to be- 
lieve that as in other former 
parts of tbe old Yugoslavia, 
like Croatia and Bosnia. 
arme d resistance is the only 
tool that will free .diem from 

Belgrade’s grip. 

’There are Albanians who 
are ready to identity them- 
selves as members of the 
Kosovo Liberation Army,” 
said Veton Sunra, the editor 
of Koha, one of- two inde- 
pendent Albanian newspa- 
pers. “The group probably 
does not have a widespread 
organizational structure, and I 
suspect it remains scanned. 
But what is worrying is that 
there is no antipathy by many 
Albanians to anned resistance 
or tbe use of violence.” 

The birth rate for Albani- 
ans, 33 per 1,000, is one of the 
highest W the worid, and most 
people have no work. Tens of 

thousands of bitter young 

men sit idle, willing recruits 
f or militant movements. 

Families, packed into de- 
pressing concrete hovels, live 
off money sent home by Al- 
banian guest workers in 

Europe ■ 

And many here, burdened 
by misery and repression, 
long for at least the excite- 
ment of struggle if not in- 


ZURICH — British politicians seeking 
compensation for Holocaust survivors said 
Monday that (hey had won Switzerland’s 
backing for a proposed conference of all 
countries dial handled Nazi gold during 
Worid Warn, . . 

Two British members of Parliament and a 
British deputy to the European Parliament 
said they would push Prime Minister John 
Major's government to organize such a con- 
ference afier securing support in talks with the* 
Swiss foreignmimster, Flavio Cotti. • - - 

GreviBe Janner, a Labor Party deputy who 
is a Vice' president offoe Worid Jewish Con- 
gress and a critic of Swiss wartime gold 
purchases from Hitler’s Germany, said Swiss 
backing was crucial for an international con- 
ference to be called, 

“It could not work without the full co- 
operation of the Swiss, and we were delighted 
that Flavio Cotti said he thought it was an 
excellent idea and that he thought die Swiss 
would participate,” be said in Bern after 
meeting Mr. Cotti. (Reuters) 



which shattered windows and charred. the 
facade of an apartment building shortly be- 
fore 9 A.M. in the provincial capital. 

The police said the attack bore the ball- 
marks of ETA. or Basque Homeland and 
Liberty, which has stepped up its violent 
campaign for Basque independence with six 
killings this year, including the attack 
Monday. (AP) 


Belgium Slaughtering 
Pigs to Stop Disease 


JacqattaeAra/neABOcUBriFtcB 

ILK. VOTE — Agriculture Minister 
Douglas Hogg in London on Monday. 
His handling of the “mad cow” affair 
was to be subject to a censure motion. 


- BRUSSELS — Belgium was to slaughter 
12,000 pigs Monday and Tuesday to prevent 
highly contagious swine fever from spreading 
into farms in Belgium from the Netherlands, 
an Agriculture Ministry spokeswoman said. 

She said the 12,000 pigs had been imparted 
from the Netherlands since Jan. 15 and were 
spread over 38 forms in Flanders, the northern 
half of Belgium. 

Two more cases of the disease, which is not 
harmful to humans, came to light last week- 
end in the southern Dutch province of North 
Brabant, bringing the number of cases in the 
Netherlands to 16. (Reuters) 


Andorra Leader's Party 
Heads for Second Term 


office said Monday. Turnoat was 81 .6 percent 
of die registered 10,837 voters. (AP) 


Gurkha Soldiers Allowed 


. ANDORRA LA VELLA. Andorra— The 
chief of Andorra’s government, Marc Fame, 
looked set for a second term after his Liberal 
Union party clinched amajority in elections in 
this dnnmntiv e country in the Pyrenees. 

Promises by each of the parties to consider 
allowing more foreign investment and in- 
troduce income taxes dominated the election 
campaign. Currently, foreign capital can hold 
only a maximum 33 percent share in any 
business. 

Mr. Pome's patty won 16 of the 28 seats in 
die Parliament in voting Sunday, the election 


ETA Suspected in Blast 
Fatal to Police Officer 


To Bring Families to UJL 


MADRID — A wave of attacks attributed 
to the Basque separatist group ETA continued 
Monday when a police officer was killed by a 
bomb that exploded under his car in tbe 
nordtiern Basque city of Bilbao. 

The bomb went off moments after tbe 
officer, Modesto Rico, drove out of a garage 
on Ins way to work at a provincial court, said 
a spokesman for the Basque regional police. 

No one else was injured by the explosion. 


LONDON — Nepal’s Gurkha soldiers won 
tbe right Monday to bring their families with 
diem to Britain under a £1 million package 
announced by die government. 

The armed forces minister, Nicholas 
Soames. told Parliament: “We expect that 
under these arrangements some 900 Gurkha 
dependents, wives and children will come to 
the United Kingdom.* ' 

Nepali soldiers have served with the British 
Army during the past 1 80 years. The army has 
3,250 Gurkhas serving in Hong Kong, Brunei 
and Britain. (Reuters) 


Spain Resumes 
Talks With 
Truckers as 
Strike Eases 




MADRID — The Spanish govern- 
ment resumed negotiations with strik- 
ing truck drivers Monday as tbe eco- 
nomic impact of the 12-day-old 
stoppage slowed. 

Commerce and traffic were returning 
to normal, with security forces guar- 
anteeing free movement on the roads, 
officials said. 


“The country is totally normal,” a 
iv eminent official said. 


WoHpog Kuuy/Rmn 

SENDING A MESSAGE — German postal workers protesting Monday in 
Bonn against tbe plans of Economics Minister Guenther Rexrodt to 
privatize tbe mail service. About 20,000 workers joined the protest 


government official said. 

Some automakers in Spain and else- 
where were forced to cut back or halt 
production Monday for lack of pans 
because of the disruption of traffic last 
week. 

A spokesman for Volkswagen AG 
said the elimination of two special 
weekend shifts at the Wolfsburg plant in 
Germany had allowed the company to 
maintain a normal production schedule 
Monday despite a parts shortage there 
because of the strike in Spain. 

A Volkswagen plant in Spain’s Nav- 
arre region also stopped production 
Monday because of a lack of supplies. 

By Monday, Civil Guards had un- 
blocked ports and main thoroughfares in 
northern Spain, the region hardest hiL 

Under government orders to guar- 
antee free circulation of traffic, security 
forces escorted any truckers who re- 
quested protection for fear of retaliation 
from strikers parked on highway 
shoulders. 

But a foreign trucker was seriously 
injured Monday in a clash with strikers 
in northern Spain. 

The driver, reportedly from Portugal, 
was hit in the face by a stone thrown 
from picket lines at Baracaldo, near 
Bilbao, according to a police spokes- 


Truckers’ tires were slashed at Ba- 
sauri, just south of Bilbao. In the neigh- 
boring province of Guipuzcoa, three 
people were arrested, one with a carload 
of stones heading for tbe blockades. 

Markets that had been emptied of 
produce by late last week were full 
again Monday, the Agriculture Ministry 
said. 

Taxi drivers had threatened to join the 
strike Monday, demanding the same 


improvements in working conditions 
and lower fuel prices that the truckers 


and lower fuel prices thai the truckers 
want. But only small demonstrations 
and partial stoppages were reported. 

In Barcelona, drivers stopped work 
for six hours and blocked some roads. 

In Madrid, about 200 taxis obstructed 
a-main road , to demonstrate in front of. 
foe Transport Ministry. 

The truckers' organization leading 
foe strike, Fedatrans, was expected to 
submit a document to the government 
outlining the truckers’ main disagree- 
ments and proposals to overcome 
them. 

The main hurdle in foe talks is foe 
trackers’ demand for eariy retirement 
— ai 60 instead of 65. 

Newspaper reports said some strikers 
who are not members of Fedatrans were 
abandoning the strike. 

Nevertheless, the economic secretary 
of the Catalan regional government, 
Maria Alavedra, warned Monday that 
the strike could rain tire government's 
efforts to reduce inflation. A drop in 
inflation is needed to quality for entry 
into European monetary union in 1999. 
Spanish inflation for January fell below 
3.0 percent for foe first time in 28 
years. (Reuters. AFP) 


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PAGE 2 


INTERNATIONALKERALD TRE 

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PAGE 6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1997 

INTERNATIONAL 


Wages of War: Mercenaries Face a Challenge 


an 


Rebel 


By Donald G. McNeil Jr. 

Ne* York Tima Service 

JOHANNESBURG — There is nothing new 
about mercenary armies. The tradition goes back 
through the condottieri who overthrew Italian 
city-states to the time of Achilles, who sulked in 
his tent because he thought Agamemnon was 


proving ground for now much mercenary sol- 
diers can pull off. Isolated from the Zairia n 
capital, Kinshasa, by hundreds of kilometers of 
jungle, the city is the target of a rebel offensive 
that began on die Rwandan header. It is also die 
headquarters for govern merit forces planning a 
counterattack, and they are getting considerable 
help there from mercenaries. 

Soldiers from Serbia and the Ukraine are 
among them. Unco n fi r med, reports say soldiers 
from France, Belgium, South Africa, Britain, 


The world always seems to have a fresh pool of 
mercenaries, depending on which veterans have 
lately been dumped on the market with lethal 
skills. Just as U.S. soldiers took the place of 
French ones in Vietnam in die 1960s, American 
mercenaries followed Bench ones onto die world 
stage, clearing, among other things, a market for 
Soldier of Famine magazine, an advertising for- 
um for the breed. Military experts say there is 
now a lot of former Soviet-bloc talent for rent 
But the very model of a modem band of 
mercenaries is not European. It is a South African 
concern. Executive Outcomes, whose glossy bro- 
chures announce such services as “armored war- 
fare” and “sniper training.” It is composed 
largely of white officers and black foot soldiers 
who fought in elite units of the Sooth African 
Army during its incursions into Angola in die 


WVUUU UUW VM#»M J — — J — a O 

teach the Zairian Anny and allied Rwandan Hutu 
militias how to fight — or preparing to do the 
fighting for than. 


China Leaders 
Bush Home as 
Deng’s Health 
Deteriorates 


BEUING — The deteriorating 
health of Deng Xiaoping has forced 
President Jiang Zemin and other 
leaders to cut short nips to return to 
Beijing, sources said Monday. 

Mr. Jiang returned during the 
weekend, cutting short a visit to the 
Communis t revolutionary base of 
Ganzhou in central Jiangxi 
Province, said one Chinese source 
close to the Communist Party. 

Prime Minister Li Peng also flew 
back to Beijing, abruptly cur tailin g 
a tour of the southern province of 
Guangdong, said the source, who 
asked not to be identified. 

“Jiang Zemin and Li Peng cut 
short their trips and rushed back to 
Beijing because D eng Xiaoping’s 
health was deteriorating,” the 
source said. 

The source said they saw Mr. 
Deng over the weekend and added, 
“His health is not looking good.” 

Mr. Deng, the 92-year-old senior 
leader whose pragmatic policies 
transformed a backward Stalinist 
state into an economic powerhouse, 
lives in a tightly guarded compound 
in central Beijing. 

Diplomats have said one baro- 
meter of Mr. Deng's health in the 
highly secretive Chinese system is 
die travel of top leaders and close 
family members. Few would be 
willing to be out of town orabroad if 
Mr. Deng were close to death. 

Deputy Prime Minister Li Lan- 
qing was on a visit Monday to Israel 
and Iran and Defense Minister Chi 
Haotian was in the Philippines. 

Chinese sources have reported 
growing rumors in Beijing in the 
past few days that Mr. Deng's 
health was failing. The State Coun- 
cil, or cabinet, declined Monday to 
comment on the rumors. 


Its two best-known operations were for An- 
gola’s government from late 1993 to mid-1996 
and fix- die government of Sierra Leone from 
March 1995 until last month. Originally called in 
to guard riverside diamond-mining areas in both 
countries, it expanded its duties — nominally to 


train soldiers — to lead troops and fly combat 
mi s sion s against r ebels and outlaws. 

Executive Outcomes says it was paid in cash, 
but in both cases it is widely rumored to have 
received nutting concessions as security. 

The company's combat e ff ec ti ve n ess in An- 
gola is credited widT forcing the rebel orga- 
nization of Jonas Savimbi to stop fi ghting and 
negotiate faff a place in die government. In Share 
Leone, it is acknowledged to have pacified 
swafosoffoe country long enough for elections to 
be hekL Its work is often held up — and not only 
by its salesmen — as a contrast to multinational 
□ops in Somalia. Chad, Liberia and Angola 
sponsored fay (be United Nations or die Or- 
ganization of African Unity. 

Executive Outcomes says it has no operations 
in Zaire. “We have no contract there, and we 
have never been in Zaire,” said Eebea Bariow, 
chairman of the firm’s bolding c ompany . 

Mercenary work does not come cheap, who- 
ever does it. Kbaxeeu Pech, a South African- 
based Journalist who has written extensively 
about Executive Outcomes, said its costs to sup- 
port roughly 500 men fighting in Sierra Leone 


exceeded Si 5 million a month, and its bill to the 
government was probably more than twice dial- 

I nfa n tr y m en are paid about $2,000 a month, 
while such sp ecialists as pilots earn $ 5,000 and 
up. That is tri ple what they would earn- if they 
could stay in South Africa’s rapidly shrinking 
military. salary offers in Zaire, are re- 

ported to be slightly higher the usual rate. 
Miss Pech said • _ . 

A valued and expensive service is afr support. 
In Angola and Sima. Leone, according to World 
Aimews magazine. Executive Outcomes flew 
two used Boeing 727s as supply planes, bought 
for $550,000 each from American Airlines. It 
also regularly flew Soviet Mi-17 armed transport 
heficoptens, MI-24 Hind gun ships, MiG-23 jet 
fighter-bombers and a squadron of Swiss Pilaws 
training planes converted to fire air-to-ground 
redeem. According to some estimates, heli- 
copters cost $5,000 an hour just to fly and main- 
tain. Jets cost far more. 

Though Zaire is an impoverished country, it 
does have large areas of mineral wealth, and its 
president, Mobutu Sese Seko, can find ways to 
pay for what be wants. He can presumably afford 


to spend heavily on mer«nari«. 
iteycould keepfoim in power is anotiwr 

moarts say Laurent Kabila, the Iwdf 
Of tSuiSL & 24.000 

including Banyamulenge ~ ethmcTX^^ 
JSeJJed after bullying by Hum 
fairiia soldiers regular - t u h rtjy 
SSnda, Uganda and Burundi (no 

fighters. The armies of "S* 

notary analysis say, are among the regroup 

mercenaries have some afr powe» 
most fighting is likely to doDeoitti»OTOTg 
mven the thick forests — and mound combat a 

not the Zaire Army’s strong 

“I’ve talked to Sou* Africans who foogg 
alongside the Zairian Army in tbe p^ sarf 
Retard Cornwell, a Pretona speciafistott m«s| 

battle.” i 



Zai rian Warplanes Bomb Sites 
In Rebel-Held Towns, Killing 9 


In 





srfoe weekend "and added FIGHTING THE FUNDAMENTALISTS — Algerian men in a self-defense group patrolling the district of 

ffo is not looking good” Bouinan, southeast of Algiers, on Monday. More than 60,000 people hare died since fighters of the Islamic 

mg, the 92-year-old senior Salvation Front, denied an election victory in 1992, began a terror campaign to overthrow the government. 

/hose pragmatic policies . 

led a backward Stalinist - _ — — " _ 

KOREA: Washington and Seoul at Odds on Approach to North 


Continued from Page 1 

bring a widespread famine ibis summer. 

To South Korea, the North’s vulner- 
ability creates an opportunity to extract a 
high price for cooperation: It wants the 
North to engage in direct talks about foe 
peninsula's future. 

But U.S. diplomats and die military 
officials who oversee 37,000 U-S. troops 
in South Korea are worried (hat North 
Korean rulers may respond badly to the 
pressure, and undertake provocative 
acts. Alternatively, they worry about a 
breakdown of order in North Korea that 
could send refugees fleeing south. 

Several U.S. officials, who spoke cm 


condition of axmymily, said these fears 
lay behind dm State Department’s will- 
ingness to offer concessions to Li Gun, an 
official in North Korea’s Foreign Min- 
istry, when he visited Washington for 
informal discussions in July and August. 

The concessions were conditioned on 
Mr. Id’s tentative acceptance in July of 
two U.S. demands: that North Korean 
officials agree to participate in a briefing 
by the United States and South Korea 
about future peace talks, and renew dis- 
cussions with U.S. officials about halt- 
ing missile exports to the Middle East 

In exchange, U.S. diplomats tenta- 
tively suggested to Mr. Li that Wash- 
ington would accelerate discussions 


about die opening of a U.S. office in 
Pyongyang; waive trade sanctions bar- 
ring U.S.air carriers fromjaaying North 
Kraea around $10 million annually to fly 
through North Korean -airspace; organ- 
ize a public meeting of potential donors 
to call attention to North Korea's dire 
food shortage; and waive export restric- 
tions on sales of American grain. 

But when the details became known in 
Seoul, the govern m ent was put on the 
defensive, a South Korean diplomat 
said. South Korean officials reiterated 
their view that any U.S. concessions 
should accompany — not precede — 
tangible improvements in Neath Korea’s 
relationship with South Korea. 


ECONOMISTS: MIT Professors Go Public in a Donnybrook Over the Income Gap 


Continued from Page 1 

For Mr. Kxugman, such statements 
are more seat-of-the-pants judgments 
than testable economic logic. 

Still, there is common ground. Both 
men see themselves as liberals, fighting 
not over ideology but over what con- 
stitutes good economics. They favor 
similar policies — strengthening unions, 
pushing education to improve people's 
workplace skills, and income redistri- 
bution via government policy to reduce 
inequality. Both men shifted their at- 
tention from academia to the public 
arena after being shut out of top slots as 
advisers in Democratic administrations 
— Mr. Thurow after Jimmy Carter was 
elected president and Mr. Krugman in 
the early Clinton days. 

They also share an uncertainty, even a 
pessimism, about the future. Mr. Krug- 
man doubts that any policy can improve 
much on the market’s sen-correcting, if 
sometimes fallible, ways. And Mr. 
Thurow worries that without a new cen- 
tral challenge to replace the Cold War, 
Americans will let the economy deteri- 
orate by failing to support government 
funding of research and necessary public 
investment that business shuns because 
the payoff is not direct and immediate. 

Mr. Krugman, the only child of an 
insurance company manager, achieved 
luminary status in less than a decade as 
an economist After finishing at Yale in 
1974 and receiving his Ph.D. from MTT 
in 1977, be produced path-breaking 
findings on the interplay of government 
and industry in trade. Although he wor- 
ries about government interference in 
markets, he nevertheless has demon- 
strated with mathematical precision ho w 
help from government can give an in- 
dustry a competitive advantage. 

In the early ’90s, he turned his attention 
to a wider public, displaying a rare knack 
for explaining the discipline and logic of 
economics to the educated layman, 

“There is no question that the po- 
lemics cut into the research," Mr. Krug- 
man said. “I like to think that like 
Keynes can step back and do deep think- 
ing again, but who knows. It is one of the 
things I wake up and worry about” 

Mr. Thurow blazed this trail from 
academia to a wider audience. The eldest 
of three sons of a Methodist preacher in 
Montana, he went east to Williams Col- 
lege and won a Rhodes scholarship to 
Oxford. He earned a Ph-D. at Harvard in 
1964 and four years later, at 30. found 
himself at MTT, holding professorships 


in both the economics department and 
the Sloan School of Management, where 
be later became dean. 

Pioneering work on income distribu- 
tion helped get him to the top. But he, too, 
shifted to capturing public attention after 
being shut out of government. “I decided 
that if I could not have the king's ear, I 
would talk to foe public,” Mr. Thurow 
said. “That’s the other way to have an 
impact on foe economic system.” 

Mr. Thurow likes Mr. Krugman’s early 
research suggesting that foe government 
can help create an export advantage for 

industry. That fits his preference for a 
market system leavened by government. 
But Mr. Krugman objects that his research 
is too often invoked as justification for an 
intrusive industrial policy by people 
“who don’t understand its limits.’ 

Mr. Thurow says that when the Mex- 
icans or Chinese export shirts or tires to 
foe United States, for example, less 
skilled American workers are edged out 
or forced into lower-paying service jobs. 

Mr. Krugman responds that imports 
from low-wage countries represent only 2 
percent of national income, not enough to 
have much of an impact on American 
labor. Trade is a cause of income in- 
equality, he acknowledges, bat be says 
other factors are more import an t — 
primarily the onslaught of new techno- 
logy. Because of that, foe demand for 


highly skilled people — from computer 
prog ra mmers to top executives — has 
soared, and their wages have gone up 
relative to foe less skilled. 

But, he said, foe unskilled will prob- 
ably not suffer over the long run. In- 
comes will rise in Mexico and China, 
Mr. Krugman said, as workers there 
become more productive. 

Mr. Thurow offers an entirely dif- 
ferent view. With capital so mobile and 
transportation communicatioos im- 
proving constantly, companies can place 


their operations almost anywhere, he 
says. Even their high-technology op- 
erations are vulnerable as educated Rus- 
sians and East Europeans, for example, 

bid for work. 

The best solution, both men agree, is 
more economic growth both at home and 
abroad- But they are worlds apart on how 
to achieve that growth, or whether it is 
even possible. The divide is over pro- 
ductivity, or output per worker, which 
has not been rising all that much lately in 
the industrial world. Ultimately, theooly 
way to generate more growth, or na- 
tional income, is to put more people to 
work or to find some way fix’ each work- 
er to produce more each hour. 

Mr. Thurow would try to lift pro- 
ductivity in stages. He would start by 
stimulating the economy, perhaps 
through government spending or lower 


interest rates.“Ptoductivity comes out of 
an economy that is pushed,”, he said, “ft 
is foe result of what people do in response 
to the opportunities that growth makes 
posable, not the cause of growth.” 

Mr. Krugman calls mis “wishful 
thinking.” He, and most mainstream 
economists, say they do not know why 
foe annual rise in productivity has 
slowed so much since the early 1970s. 
Nor do they claim to know how to re- 
vase this poor performance. 

The criticism of Mr. Thurow from 
mainstream American economists is 
rather blunt His sweeping conclusions 
and forecasts are often wrong. 

Fra- example, in “Head to Head,” a 
best-sefler published in 1992, he de- 
scribed a global straggle inroMn| fo rce 

United States, Europe and Japan. The 
regional blocs have not emerged. Mr. 
Thurow says they nrigfot yet materialize. 

Some of the mainstream economists in 
Mr. Krugman’s camp are critical of bis 
view that die global economy has only 
limited impact on American wages/Tech- 
noiogy might have a greater impact on 
wages than the global economy does, said 
Michael J. Piore, a Harvard economist, 
but many factors play a role — weaker 
onions, deregulation, job insecurity — 
and assigning weights is futile. ‘ The right 
position is agnostic,” he said. 


KINSHASA, Zaire — Zaire’s gov- 
ernment said Monday that its warplanes 
were bombing three key rebel-held towns 
in its - ^a-gteffl border provinces and that 
the raids would increase in intensity. 

“Since tins morning the FAZ has 
be e n bombing Bukavu, Shabunda and 
Walikale,” said a Defease Ministry 
statement in the capital, Kins* 18 *”- The 
FAZ refers to Zaires army. 

“bis a surgical operation aimed at the 

enemy’s strategic and military targets, ” 
foe statement said, making no mention 

nf nwiialtiftt nr Hatny 

Civilians in the towns had been ad- 
vised to move away from the targets to 
avoid being hit, the statement added. 

The medical charity Doctors Without 
Borders said from .foe neatby city of 
Gdma that at least nine people were 
killed and up to 37 wounded Monday in 
a raid on Bukavu by three Zairian gov- 
ernment jets. 

Earlier Monday, die government re- 
jected a cease-fire with rebels, who have 
captured much of the country's east. 

Foreign Minister Gerard Kamanda wa 
Kamanda said in a statement: “The gov- 
ernment stresses that it cannot accepts 
cease-fire with unidentified belliger- 


Sudan Negotiates 
With RebelFaction 

KHARTOUM Negotiations 
otr a peac e charter began Monday 
between the Sudanese government 
and foe South Sudan Independence 
Movement, a small rebel splinter 
faction, the official Sudan news 
agency SUNA reported. 

Foreign Minister Gebriel Rorec 
said foe talks were being held to 
work out the details of an accord 
signed with the rebel faction in 
April 1996. 

The accord did not include die 
main rebel group, the Sudanese 
People's Liberation Army. (AFP) 

U.S. and Pretoria 
Sign 3 Agreements 

CAPE TOWN — South Afiica 
and tiie United States strengthened 
their relations Monday, refusing to 
discuss publicly a dispute over 
South African ties with Washing- 
ton's list of “terrorist” states. 

After a meeting of then binational 
commission. Deputy President 
Thabo Mbdti and Vice President A1 
Gore signed three accords, includ- 
ing a treaty on double taxation. 

Last month the United States 
warned South Africa it would entail 
aid if a proposed sale of arms to 
Syria went ahead. (Reuters) 

Peru Rebels Warn 
On Military Assault 

LIMA — Tupac Amaru rebeds 

waned that a reported government 
plan to free the 72 hostages held in . 
die Japanese ambassador’s residence 
could bring death to ail inside and say - 
they will hold out “as long as Acc- 


ents.” Mr. Kamanda made the statement 

^^r^M^amme^Sahnoun, whovstr^^ 

mg to end the war. . * ■ 

At die same time, Zaire stopped up its 
co unter offensive against Tutsi-led rebels 
who have made large territorial con- 
quests since taking up arms m October* 
The government accuses the rebels of 
waging a proxy war far Rwanda, Bu- 
rundi and Uganda — which deny in- 
volvement. The foreign minister’s state-. 
went implied that Zaire .could consider » 
truce with the neighboring states. 

“Any cease-fire with the regular 
armies of Uganda, Rwanda and Burunfo 
must be linked to the withdrawal of a & 
foreign troo p s from Zaire," the state- 
ment said. % 

Zaire used the occasion of the UN 
mission to blame foe world body for a 
tiueat by the rebel leader Laurent Kabila 
to attack TingiTingi refugee camp near J 
the city of Kisangani- 
The government said a statement by 
foe UN secretary-general, Kofi Annan, 
last week that Zaire was arming exiled 
Hutu hard-liners among the camp dwell? 
era gave rebels die pretext to threaten a 
aid. UN officials said they saw. Zairian . 
military supplies being unloaded. 

POLICY: 

Albright in France , 

vContiBOed from Page 1 

. . -! 1 • '* 4 * ■ ■ i 


A Lima newspaper gave details 
Sunday of a purported plan to use 
Peruvian andU-S. troops to liberate 
the hostages as a last resort. (AP) 


minister. Klaus Kinkel, with whom Mrs, 
Albright met with earlier Monday in 
Bonn. 

“We have to do everything we can to 
make it easier, for the Russian people to » \ 
accept NATO enlargement,” Mr. Vj 
Kinkel said. 

Mrs. Albright also spoke to President 
Jacques Chirac, and praised him while 
answering a question about die French 
role in helping to negotiate a Middle East 
peace, a subject that annoyed her pre- 
decessor, Warren Christopher. 

“It is useful when others of President 
Chirac’s stature can put his shoulder to 
the wheel in a complementary way,’ ’ she 
said. She also called on other Arab coun- 
- tries to work to normalize their relations 
with IsraeL 

Mrs. Albright is meeting NATO allies 
to coordinate positions before she 
travels to Moscow for talks with Pres- 
ident Boris Yeltsin and Foreign Minister 
Yevgeni Primakov. 

When she was in Bonn, Mrs. Albright u 
met with Chancellor Helmut Kohl and U « 
Mr. Kinkel. who travels to Moscow oh. 
Tuesday for discussions with Mrt 
Yeltsin and Mr. Primakov. The Italian 
foreign minister, Lamberto Dim, is also 

S to Moscow far talks, so Mrs. Al- 
wanted to make sure that all the 
are “reading from the same 
page,” a U.S. official said. 

While it was not a major topic in their 
talks, American criticism of the German 
response to the Church of Scientology 
was a major part of the Albright-Kinkel 
press conf ere nce. 

Mrs. Albright called foe Stienrolo- , 
gists' comparison of the way Germany • 
deals with the Church of Scientology to 
the Nazi era as “historically inaccurate 
and totally distasteful.” 

- W hile (he U.S. government recently 
recognized Scientology as a religion for 
tax purposes, Mr. Kinkel said bluntly: 
“We perceive Scientology not as a re- 
ligion but as a profit-making organi- 
zation. Scientologists are not perse- 
cuted.” 


WTO: t The U.S. Has Effectively Exported the Values of Free Competition , Fair Rules and Effective Enforcement 


Continued from Page 1 

Singapore have long reserved for gov- 
ernment-run monopolies. If die WTO 
finds evidence of foot-dragging, it can 
authorize penalties. 

But that is only foe start of a growing 
effort by Washington and its trading part- 
nets to use foe newly created organi- 
zation as a new mol of foreign policy. 

This week, the European Union will 
decide whether to go ahead with what 
could emerge as foe landmark legal case 
in the World Trade Organization’s brief 
history, a challenge aimed at forcing the 
United States to abandon one of its most 
contested foreign policy initiatives. Its 
target is foe Helms-Burton Act, enacted 
by Congress last year to tighten the 
economic isolation of Cuba and increase 
the pressure on the Castro government. 

Europe, C a nad a and Mexico have de- 
nounced the act because it places sanc- 
tions on many non-U5. companies and 


their executives for investing in Cube. 
The U.S. administration has threatened 
to declare the isolation of Cuba a matter 
of “national security” instead of eco- 
nomics to keep foe law from going in 
front of foe organization’s trade court. 

At the same lime, however, Wash- 
ington is using the WTO as a toolto force 
political change in China. So far it has 
blocked Beijing’s moves to join the or- 
ganization, declaring that China's efforts 
to protect its key industries, and its huge 
subsidies to state-owned enterprises that 
employ half foe working population, 
must end. Washington says China must 
join the WTO on “commercially ac- 
ceptable terms” like every other nation. 

But it is lost on no one that this is part 
of a far broader effort to speed internal 
a awnmi c diimgM in China, c-hstng ps that 

seem certain to weaken the Communist 
Party’s hold over the country’s burgeon- 
ing economy. That, in .ram, could 
threaten foe party’s hold on power. 


“This is what we’ve meant for four 
years when we’ve declared that trade' 
and ‘economics’ are no longer a separate 
sphere from the rest of American foreign 
policy,” said. Mickey Kancor, one of 
President Bill Clinton’s closest political 
confidantes and a former trade repre- 
sentative and commerce secretary- “In 
fact, we are using all of these tools to try 
to open up societies.” 

. The Geoevarbased World Trade Or- 
ganization has become tire focal point 
For much of this effort because it was 
endowed, in foe global trade treaty 
known as foe General Agreement on 
Tariffs and Trade, with the power to act 
as the rule-setter and foe judge of eco- 
nomic globalization. 

Its predecessor organization, also 
calledGATT, never had foe power to do . 
anything but urge trading nakras to 
lower their tariffs. Ic (fid so during mul- 
tiyear negotiations in which countries 
lowered tiie tariffs on some products in 


return for similar concessions from other 
nations. . 

The process was slow, and involved so 
many trade-offs that it often entrenched 
protected industries rather than opened 
the world to market fences. But the 
United States did not complain because 
it viewed keeping its markets open to its 
allies as a way of battling communism. 

The telecommunications agree ment 
was the sure signal that the era of such 
ooe-stded concessions is over. The deal 
was supposed to be struck in ApriL But 
many of foe countries involved offered 
only scant openings of foeir markets. 

Ms. Barshefsky, the acting-trade rep- 
resentative, said the U.S. message was: 
“Grow up; you get what you give.'’ 

In the .end, other countries gave far 
more, though some, including Japan and 
C anada, banted at allowing forei gn^ to 
gain a controlling interest in their lead- 
ing companies. But beneath foe praise 
over foe weekend for free trade in tele- 


communications services, there were a 
tot of resentments against the United 
Stales. Ms. Barshefsky, many countries 
complain, used the enormous weapon of 
access to the United States — where 50 
percent of foe world’s telecommunica- 
uons market is located — to squeeze 
“^cessions out of lesser economies. 

Criming skirmishes to enforce the 
teleco mm unications law, to change die 
wty China organizes its work force and 
to challenge Washington’s attempts to 
have a common element: 
iney end the era in which foe laws of 
international trade took place along a 

S^p^^ atitSCUSK,msslalions 

Instead, those laws now go go the heart 
of evejy psaon s domestic politics, from 
S 5* a* telephone system, to v 

foe subsidizing of steel mills arrival > 

of econ ° n »ic weapons * 
hgaunrt national foes. Bigger stakes 
mate for bigger arguments. 





INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1997 


PAGE 7 


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(Who are we to argue?) 


The Who’s Who in Europe Survey’ 1996 shows that, amongst Europe’s most influential people, 

over twice as many consider the International Herald Tribune to be 

■ ‘The best source of international news’ as its nearest rival. . 

Dare we say that it’s something you’ve thought for a long time? 

You car get your copy of the survey via James McLeod in Paris on (33) 1 41 43 93 81. 
Richard Lynch in New York on (212) 752 3890, or Andrew Thomas in Singapore on (65) 223 6478. 


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PAGE 2 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, SATURDAY-SUNDA^ FEBRUAKT LAW97 






PAGE 8 


TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1997 

EDITORIALS/OPINION 


Heralb 





nmma with the new w»k times aw» the Washington post 


Don’t Risk the WTO 


riJbuttfc Hong Kong Freedoms ? Beijing Isn 9 t Interested 

C7 C7 V C7 . 1 nr ties, which <K 


The American economic strangu- 
• lation of Cuba is a Cold War ana- 
chronism dial aow threatens to upend 
a carefully constructed international 
- system for resolving trade disputes. 
Fidel Castro will be the only winner if 
Europe and die United Stales under- 
mine the new World Track; Organi- 
1 zation in a needless fight over Cuba. 

That fight revolves around the 
Helms- Burton Act. a 2996 law that 
compels the United States to impose 
sanctions against foreign companies 
that do business in Cuba. The law is a 
misguided attempt by Congress to im- 
pose its foreign policy on others, and 
European leaders are right to reseat ft. 
But they are wrong to turn to die World 
Trade Organization 10 resolve what is 
essentially apolitical dispute. Last week 
European officials wisely decided to 
postpone their legal challenge in the 
WTO. They would do themselves and 
their trading partners a favor if they 
dropped the case altogether. 

The Helms-Burton Act, passed last 
year after Cuba shot down two civilian 
planes over international waters, in- 
vites lawsuits against foreign compa- 
nies that use Cuban property that pre- 
viously belonged to American citizens, 
including those who fled after Mr. 
Castro took control. President Bill 
Clinton, as the law allows, has tem- 
porarily suspended that provision, and 
no company has been taken to court. 
But the administration is required by 
the law to deny American visas to 
executives of foreign companies that 
do extensive business in Cuba. 

The Europeans. Canadians and Mex- 
icans believe that economic engage- 
ment with Cuba is the best way to 
undermine Mr. Castro's grip, much as 


the White House believes that trade 
with China will eventually make that 
country more democratic. In its case 
before the World Trade Organization, 
the European Union accuses the United 
States of violating its fine trade ob- 
ligations under the international trade 
accord. That is a shaky assertion. The 
core purpose of the world trade accord 
is to prevent countries from adopting 
protectionist or discriminatory trade 
practices for commercial advantage. No 
one argues diat Congress passed Helms- 
Burton for protectionist purposes. 

The United Stales, for its pert, may 
claim exemption from the trading roles 
cm grounds that the Helms-Burton law 
protects vital American national secu- 
rity interests. Washington, in effect, 
would argue that foe law is an ex- 
pression of American foreign policy and 

as a result does not fall within the trade 

organization's commercial purview. 

A victory for Europe, giving it the 
right to impose trade sanctions against 
the United Stares, would nmiemune 
support for the World Trade Organi- 
zation in Congress and might encour- 
age Senator Jesse Helms and others to 
campaign for American withdrawal. 
An American victory would lead other 
countries to misuse the same national 
security defense in future cases. Japan 
already defends its restrictions on rice 
imports as a matter of food security. 

Europe and die United States should 
tty to settle this conflict on their own 
rather than going to the World Trade 
Organization. If that fails, die Euro- 
peans would be wise to hold their fire. 
Skirmishing over Cuba is not worth 
the potential risk to the World Trade 
Organization. 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Tehran Keeps at It 


Fo.r those who track censorship, par- 
ticularly censorship by violence, the 
last eight years have turned Valen- 
tine's Day into an anniversary of a 
* grimmer sort: that of the 1989 Iranian 
decree, or fatwa, calling for the death 
of novelist Sahnan Rushdie. Mr. Rush- 
I die. whose supporters used to mark the 
Feb. 14 anniversary with appeals for 
1 government sanctions against Iran, 
, gradually has emerged from isolation 
as the threat against him has seemed to 
lessen. This year the reminder cranes 
from Iran itself — along with, un- 
fortunately, clear hints of a politics that 
has wider implications and menaces 
for writers other than Mr. Rushdie. 

One case that has sparked worry 
among the American and European 
. groups that track abuses against writers 
is the tale of the Iranian literary editor 
and critic Faraj Sarkuhi, who was ar- 
rested, freed and rearrested earlier this 
winter in a saga that is still not fully 
clear. Mr. Sarkuhi. who is now in jail in 
Tehran, officially on charges of trying 
to leave die country illegally, was “dis- 
appeared" in November and then mys- 
teriously ‘‘reappeared" after the gov- 
ernment declared that it was not 
holding him and that, in fact, docu- 
ments showed that he had left the coun- 
try for Germany, where he has family. 

After his reappearance under house 
arrest, Mr. Sarkuhi smuggled out a 
long letter describing a bizarre plot in 
which, be said, he had been granted a 
visa, lured to the airport, made to give 
up his papers to a stand-in, men 
secretly hela and tortured into taping a 
long series of faked confessions that 


would implicate him and other writers 
in espionage with Germany and 
France, along with statements that 
would make the confessions appear to 
have been taped during a previous ar- 
rest in September. Mr. Sarkuhi sug- 
gests — and some dissident groups in 
the United Stales think it plausible — 
that the purpose of such a plot would 
have been to seek leverage over the 
German government during a poten- 
tially highly embarrassing trial of al- 
legedly Iranian government-backed 
assassins of four people in a Berlin 
restaurant called Mykonos in 1991. 

Whatever the truth of this nasty tale, 
the Mykonos trial also is offered as 
possible justification for the confused 
messages on Mr. Rushdie himself that 
have been coming from Iran in the week 
before the anniversary: First came an 
announcement from the Tehran foun- 
dation that initially offered the bounty 
on Mr. Rushdie, that the death sentence 
remains in effect that die monetary 
reward is (yet again) being raised and 
that anyone, not just a Muslim, can 
collect il The government then issued 
its customary disclaimer, saying it had 
no ability to block a religious decree — 
a statement somewhat spoiled by a sub- 
sequent one from the Revolutionary 
Guards that the novelist's death cer- 
tainly would come soon. 

It is far from clear what is happening 
in Iran or bow many different interests 
are being played out But the danger to 
these writers is not past, oor is the need 
to keep watch against the viciousness 
of this brand of censorship by terror. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Bulgaria Needs Help 


In Bulgaria, a nation of 8.4 million 
people tucked between the Balkans 
and the Black Sea, nearly half of all 
children are said to be malnourished. 
Ninety percent of the population is 
living below the World Bank poverty 
level of $4 per day; in feet, due to 
raging hyperinflation, many pension- 
ers now receive less than $4 per month. 
Bread tines and soup kitchens are 
Sofia’s most prominent features; hos- 
pitals are without medicine; orphan- 
ages are without heat. 

This disaster — in a land of fertile 
farmland, it must be said — is entirely 
man-made. Hardly missing a step in 
their transition from Soviet satellite, 
Bulgaria’s Communists renamed them- 
selves Socialists and continued to mis- 
rule their nation for most of this decade. 
They elevated corruption to sickening 
new levels while refusing to cany out 
needed (and promised) reforms. 

This winter, Bulgarians signaled that 
they had finally had enough. They elect- 
ed a capable reformer, Petar Stoyanov, 


to the largely ceremonial presidency, 
and then took to the streets to demand 
the resignation of foe Socialist gov- 
ernment. The Socialists resisted through 
nearly a month of peaceful protest, but 
finally gave way. A pro-reform care- 
taker prime minister is in office, and 
elections will be held in two months. 

The reformers, if they win as ex- 
pected in April, face a grim task. The 
transition, painful in every formerly 
Communist nation, will be doubly so in 
Bulgaria because it has been so long 
postponed, and ordinary Bulgarians 
will suffer most 

There is not much that foe outside 
world can do about this. But the United 
States would be right to send a modest 
amount of humanitarian aid now. a 
measure currently under considera- 
tion. Such a move would win friends 
for America and show support for Bul- 
garia as it takes its first halting step 
toward reform. It could also help avert 
a human tragedy this winter. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


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01997. Intenwaamd Herald Trijme. AH rtgbs rntrsed. ISSN: C294SQS2. HS-jjJ 


H ONG KONG — Beijing has 
dropped the last veils hiding its 
determination to control and manip- 
ulate Hong Kong as a virtual puppet It 
is now clear that foe Crown Colony will 
enjoy neither political nor intellectual 
freedom, and will find its financial and 
commercial freedom restricted when it 
becomes a Special Administrative Re- 
gion of the People’s Republic of China 
atfoeendofJune- 

The once paramount leader of China, 
Deng Xiaoping, is very feeble at 92, 
communicating, if at all, only through 
his daughter. He is politically co- 
matose. Just as dead is his promise that 
the people of Hong Kong could “put 
their hearts at ease" because foe ter- 
ritory would enjoy 50 years after the 
handover with its political and eco- 
nomic systems unchanged. 

The present weak leaders in Beijing 
are in foe early stages of the violent 
struggle for power that will follow Mr. 
Dengs death. They are attacking his 
former allies and reversing many of his 
policies, as well as cracking down on 
the already circumscribed freedom of 
conscience and expression that grew 
alongside his economic liberalization. 

Those embattled leaders will not 
grant Hong Kong the freedom that they 
forcefully deny to the people of China 
itself. By deed and by word, Beijing has 


mised Hong Kong under foe slogan 
“one county, two systems.’' 

Since his appointment two months 
ago. chief executive-designate Tung 
Chee-bw has repeatedly scurried off to 
Beijing fra detailed instructions. 

He was elected “democratically.” 


the Chinese insist, although it was 400 
stooges handpicked by Beijing who 
voted. All the semi-democratic insti- 
tutions that Hope Kong still possesses 
have been canceled in advance of the 
formal takeover — a partially elected 
legislature and folly elective local 
councils; statutory guarantees of civil 
rights; the right of the media to report 
and comment freely. 

The embattled leaders of China may 
well feel that no one can still believe in 
their promises and their benevolence. 
There would therefore no longer be any 
point in concealing their purposes, 
chief among them to exploit Hong 
Kong to the limi t 

Beijing has even demanded t ha t 
units of foe People's Liberation Army 
be allowed to enter the colony im- 
mediately. The Chinese evidently see 
trouble ahead. The troops are presum- 


v w ^ _ rv«a»te such tactics, wnicn 

By Robert Elegant J ably intended to make a showof fores fellow travelers cratiin- 

J ^ to deter the unruly common people of datty. ^ business ^ui be 

Hong Kong, who have burned Tung ue geijing’s role. . 

declared that it will not tolerate the Cbee-hwa in effigy and regularly bold better . econorn } c animals 

semi-autonomy that Mr. Deng pro- candlelight vigils to honor foe pro- « S commercial success. Higher 

mised Hong Kong under foe slogan democracy advocates slaughtered in vaiue J . rights and in- 

“one county, two systems." B^fing in 1989. . ELl fity Aiean vety lirtfe w 

Since his appointment two months By and large, Beijing has made no omo s r ^ ^ Hong Kong 
ago. chief executive-designate Tung secret of its plans. L&e Stalin and health v< commercially if it »s 

Chee-bw has repeatedly scurried off to Hitler, it has told foe world what it cam J?? rejects 
Beijing for detailed instructions. would do — and the world has not .. rTUinv 1 cctotend, Beijing will 

He was elected “democratically.” taken alarm. There are none so blind as Aitoaii, many ^ golden 

foe Chinese insist, although it was 400 those who will not see. with foreign 

Skarsjss aSfSSss 

that foeir 

too, will be con- ^“^^^o^owfoai rothc 

Yet foe portents are here for all to see. Communists d JJJ^ 

Swire’s, an mteifigent and forward- occanc [he center Nor 

looking group of companies, has made means total control by \ 

w coming do^ toy 

iSSrss^sssar^ B^SifSwS 

share of the stock ofbofo airlines and foe Hong Kong. As always^poi * 

app o intm ent of a Bejpng-sponsraed vice than well-being or . 

rnflimifln of the board. S wire’s was also command in _ Beijing. And Beijmg s 
mid that a Chinese airline would fly the tortuous politics will soon be in corn- 
same worldwide routes radiating from maud in Hong Kong. 

Horn? Kona that Catfaav Pacific foes. Iniemaiionol Herald Tribune. 


comprehend foe simple fact that their 
commercial freedom, too, will be con- 
strained after June 30. 

Yet foe portents are here for all to see. 

Swire’s, an intelligent and forward- 
looking group of companies, has made 
great efforts to adjust to the coming 
regime, even training the crews of 
Chinese airlines that compete with its 
own Cathay Pacific and Dragon Air. Yet 


Beijing recently demanded a greater 

a ppo in tment of a Beijing-sponsored vice 
chairman of the board. Swire's was also 
told that a Chinese airline would fly the 
same worldwide routes radiating from 
Hong Kong that Cathay Pacific foes. 


soon be in com- 


Sorry, but Coffee With the President Was All Right With Me 


B OSTON — Drinking cof- 
fee with tiie president of the 
United States and a dozen other 
people was well worth foe cost 
of the round-trip air fere from 
Boston to Washington. 

It took a while after the fact 
to figure out how to drop my 
visit to the White House into 
cocktail party conversation, but 
once T did I got the expected 
deferential questions: “What's 
he really tike?” “What did you 
say to him?" 

Now my tiny triumph has be- 
come part of a mini -scandal. 
The coffees with the president 
have been portrayed as a reward 
for major contributors to the 
Democratic National Commit- 
tee. a way for the party to court 
potential big donors, an oppor- 
tunity for people representing 


By Leonard Fein 


special interests to make then- 
cases at foe highest level. 

There were a repotted 103 of 
these coffees, and some guests 
were not exactly appropriate: a 
felon with reputed ties to or- 
ganized crime, a fugitive from 
Lebanon wanted by Interpol, 
the head of a Chinese company 
that owns a major weapons 
manufacturer. 

But the one I attended on 
May 6, 1996, seemed entirely 
benign. Not before, during or 
after our 80 minutes with die 
president was there even a hint 
that a campaign contribution 
was expected. 

In any case, I didn't contribute 
rate dime to the Democratic Na- 
tional Committee during the 


Clinton campaign. My modest 
contributions — to taling under 
$1,000 — went to three can- 
didates far the Senate and two for 
the House of Represe nt at iv es. 

Only two guests at the table 
were familiar to me, and oeifoer 
was wealthy. As fra the rest of 
the group, it included one gen- 
tleman who cared a great deal 
about Turkey, a woman who 
was concerned about judge- 
ships in Michigan, and a rabbi 
who congratulated the president 
cm America's role in the Middle 
East peace process. 

Most of us who spoke were 
concise: a couple of sentences 
of introduction followed by a 
question. The subjects ranged 
from the American failure to 


pay its United Nations dues to 
concerns about the habeas cor- 
pus provision of foe new anti- 
terrorism la w. 

Clearly, the guests were not a 
randomly selected soup. All of 
us supported Bill Clinton, with 
varying degrees of enthusiasm. 
Most of us had strong ties to 
constituencies that foe president 
regarded as vital to his re-elec- 
tion. I guess he hoped that if he 
spent time with us we would be 
flattered and return to those 
constituencies with an intens- 
ified commitment 

Perhaps the journalists who 
write about such things are 
jaded, so familiar with the 
powerful that they are indiffer- 
ent, maybe even contemptuous. 
But for the rest of us, even those 
who regard themselves as well 


connected, proximity to power 
— that is, to the president — is 
still a thrill. 

I have shaken hands with Mr. 
Clinton on four separate occa- 
sions. The coffee was foe only 
time I had a chance, however 

limited, to engage him in 
something approximating con- 
versation. 

I am sorry that foe event now 
has a touch of disreputability 
about iL But having failed, to 
my regret, to make President 
Richard Nixon's enemies list, T 
will happily settle for the Clin- 
ton coffee list. 

The writer is direcior of the 
Commission on Social Action of 
the Reform Jewish movement. 
He contributed this comment to 
The New York Times. 


European Security Isn’t Broken, So Why Try to Fix It Now? 


P ARIS — Madeleine Al- 
bright is on her first foreign 
tour as America’s new secretary 
of state. One of foe main themes 
of her trip is NATO expansion, 
a project much criticized in 
America and unpopular in 
much of Western Europe. 

Launched without serious re- 
flection in Washington, mainly 
in response to domestic bureau- 
cratic and political pressures, 
NATO expansion is a program 
that Washington feels com- 
pelled to stick with out of fear of 
foe humiliation of changing 
course, and because dropping it 
would seem a bow to Moscow. 
Washington insists that Russia 
must not be permitted 4 ‘a veto” 
over what NATO does. 

However. NATO has 15 oth- 
er members, and they have ve- 
toes. In theory, any one of those 
members could veto alliance 
expansion. Turkey is actually 
talking of doing so. 

Angry at the European Uni- 
on's reluctance to fulfill its 


By William Pfaff 


promise to admit Turkey, some 
Turks suggest retaliation by 
blocking NATO expansion. 
This is perhaps bluff, but if done 
it would get Washington and 
the other NATO governments 
out of a tight comer that they 
should never have got into. 

Mrs. Albright wants quick 
expansion. Even if foe idea is a 
bad one (not that she can admit 
it), the question of expansion 
should not be allowed to de- 
velop into a “permanent source 
of tension and insecurity.” That 
is what she told the House In- 
ternational Relations Commit- 
tee on Tuesday. The decision is 
supposed to be made at die 
NATO Council meeting in 
Madrid in July. 

A better argument says to 
hold back, both out of respect 
for the doubts of some allies and 
to allow everyone — including 
Washington — to flunk again 
about this project. 


The reconsideration would 
profit from some reflections by 
Robert Cooper, one of tbe bright 
men of the British Foreign Of- 
fice, currently minister at foe 
British Embassy in Bonn. 

In a recent essay he argues 
that 1989 marked a break in 
European history, in that it 
ended tbe balance of power sys- 
tem. This occurred as a new 
European system of integrated 
nations has been developing, as 
well as anew method or finding 
international security through 
wfaai Mr. Cooper calls “anned 
transparency’ — “not the 
same tiling as trust, though it 
might one day grow into thus." 

Until 1989, international or- 
der was based either on hege- 
mony or on balance. The he- 
gemonic model was imperial, 
with its last expression the vari- 
ous efforts to create something 
resembling world government 
or world federation. 


Poisoning Com, Beef and Water 


N EW YORK — How is it 
that an herbicide con- 
sidered to be such a threat to 
human health that it is banned 
in Austria, Germany, Hun- 
gary, Italy, tile Netherlands. 
Norway and Sweden manages 
to remain the most widely 
used pesticide of any kind in 
the United States? 

The herbicide is atrazine, a 
white crystalline powder that 
when sprayed over cornfields 
very quickly displays its re- 
markable ability to kill die 
grasses and broadleaf weeds 
mat make a com farmer’s life 
miserable, while leaving the 
com itself alone. 

Atrazine is cheap. It is long- 
lasting and does not dissolve m 
water. You can even spray it in 
foe rain. Fanners have taken to 
it die way toddlers take to 
candy. Fra the giant chemical 
outfit Ciba-Geigy . atrazine has 
been an absolute bonanza. 

The downside is spelled out 
in a new book, “Toxic De- 
ception: How tbe Chemical In- 
dustry Ma nip u l a t es Science, 
Bends foe Law, and Endangers 
Your Health.” The book was 
written by a pair of environ- 
mental journalists, Dan Fagm 
and Marianne LaveUe. who 
fod their research in conjunc- 
tion with die nonprofit, non- 
partisan Center for Public In- 
tegrity in Washington. 

The U.S. government has 
classified atrazine as a pos- 
sible human carcinogen. 
Some studies (disputed by 
Ciba-Geigy) conclude that it 
can damage DNA and induce 
gene mutations. Recent stud- 


By Bob Herbert 


ies have linked foe chemical to 
hormonal changes. 

“Indeed, out of 10 hormone- 
disrupting pesticides (includ- 
ing several known carcino- 
gens) tested in a recent study, 
only DDT had as damaging an 
effect as atrazine on bow die 
body metabolizes estrogen." 

Atrazine has been showing 
up in supermarket com, and in 
beef and milk. (Atrazine- 
treated corn is routinely fed to 
cattle.) And it has become one 
of the leading contaminants of 
drinking water. Tbe chemical 
was found in 990 of 1,604 
water samples drawn from 
streams, rivers, reservoirs and 
aquifers in foe Midwest from 
l989io 1994. 

The magnitude of die health 
threat of mis chemical can be 
gauged from foe estimate by 
the Environmental Protection 
Agency that some com fann- 
ers face a 1 in 863 lifetime risk 
of developing cancer from at- 
razme. Nonfarmers in die Mid- 
west fece a I in 20,747 risk, 
and a 1 in 13,850 risk if they 
use atrazine on their lawns. 

The authors note that die 
EPA “generally takes regu- 
latory action when a chemical 
poses a lifetime cancer risk 
higher than one in a million.” 

“Toxic Deception" ex- 
plains how the regulatory sys- 
tem is rigged to benefit foe 
chemical manufacturers while 
keeping foe general public in a 
dangerous state of ignorance. 

Very few Americans, for 


example, realize that foe fed- 
eral government does not 
screen chemicals for safety 
before they go on tbe market. 
It is up to tbe chemical man- 
ufacturers themselves to 
determine whether a product 
poses a substantial risk to 
health or the environmenL 
Thus, according to Mr. Fa- 
gin and Ms. Lavelle, only a 
fraction of the tens of thou- 
sands of chemical compounds 
on foe market today have been 
examined for safety. Those ex- 
aminations, for the most part, 
were conducted only after spe- 
cific questions were raised 
about a specific product 
Once a chemical is on tbe 
market, it is incredibly dif- 
ficult to get it off. Tbe chem- 
ical companies have nearly 
perfected the art of shielding 
products from foe interference 
of government regulators, 
public interest groups and 
private citizens who have been 

S isly banned. Ciba- 
tas spent more than $25 
in its ba t tle with the 
EPA over atrazine and another 
herbicide, rimazine. 

“Toxic Deception” shows 
bow foe industty uses cam- 
paign contributions, junkets, 
job offers, “scorched-earth” 
courtroom strategies, mis- 
leading advertising and multi- 
milliou-doliar public relations 
campaigns to keep their pro- 
ducts on foe market no matter 
how great the potential dan- 
gers. Itis foe story of the tri- 
umph of a special interest Over 
the public interest 

New York Times Service 


Balance among independent 
power centers worked during 
much of the nation-state period, 
but could not accommodate the 
unification of Germany by Bis- 
marck m the la« century, a state 
too powerful to be contained by 
traditional means. The result 
was tbe world ware and Ger- 
many’s redfvision in 1945 — 
now ended. 

The system of balance was 
undermined by technology's 
tendency toward unlimited or 
unacceptably costly wars. The 
theory of balance assumes that 
the balance can topple, and has 
to be restored by a war, thereby 
giving everyone a lesson in the 
need to keep up the balance. 

In foe Cold war, two quasi- 
hegemonic powers developed in 
east and west, balanced against 
one another. Thanks to arms 
control measures and d&ente, 
this relationship evolved toward 
the armed transparency system, 
which provides a sophisticated 
version of deterrence, requiring 
that states voluntarily limit their 
sovereignty (by allowing rivals 
to verity arms limitation agree- 
ments) and accept a measure of 
vulnerability. 

Expansion of NATO would 
tend to unbalance and remil- 
itarize a Russian-Western re- 
lationship that since 1989 has 
been relatively stable, based on 
armed transparency. Expanding 
NATO tends to enlarge what 
Moscow certainly sees as he- 
gemonic American power in 
Europe. NATO would become 
tbe instrument of U.S. predom- 
inance not only in western 
Europe but in Central and East- 
era Europe as welL 

This naturally disturbs Rus- 
sia, with important conse- 
quences for Russia’s internal 


politics. It also disturbs the ma- 
jor West European powers — 
including Germany and even 
Britain — rather more than 
Washington may realize. 

The plan to “Europeanize" 
NATO by allowing European- 
commanded joint task forces 
access to U.SJN ATO resources 
has yet to produce much more 
than a nasty quarrel over com- 
mand appointments, and over 
die limits placed on European 
use of U.S. resources. It has 
made U.S.-European relations 
in NATO more difficult. 

There is much to be said at 
times for inaction. To unsettle 
arrangements chat work is not a 
good idea, when there currently 
is no threat to Central or East 
European security. Better to ex- 
plore how the “aimed trans- 
parency" security arrange- 
ments already in place can be 
improved, and bow security for 
both, sides could be bettered 
through formal mutual as well 
as unilateral guarantees of die 
independence of the former , 
Warsaw Pact countries. 1 

Mr. Cooper writes (in an es- 
say in “Life After Politics,” 
published by Fontana Press in 
London) that the United States 
has demonstrated ambivalence 
about the newly changing Euro- 
pean order, and about Amer- 
ica’s new relations with Europe 
and Russia, and indeed about its 
entire world role in what it is 
fashionable to call the postmod- 
ern world. I would add that it 
has a right to ambivalence. 

But exactly because America 
is uncertain about its role, 
prudence would counsel holding 
back from radical and insuffi- 
ciently considered changes. 

International Herald Tribune. 

© las Angeles Times Syndic are. 


IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 

1897: HeUenic Troops sixpenny piece, gives it an 


CANEA — Another body of 
Greek troops has landed and is 
at Platania, about half an hour 
from this town. The Turkish gar- 
risons in the interior of the island 
are hard pressed and anxious 
to surrender to tbe Greek reg- 
ulars. An occupation of tbe 
island by Greece seems immin- 
ent. Tbe Mussulman inhabitants 
are not opposed to it and tran- 
quillity continues, to prevail. 

1922: New French Coin 

PARIS — Tbe baby of french 
currency has made its appear- 
axx» — the 50-centimes piece, 
m die pretty yellow metal with 
which the 1 -franc and 2-franc 
tokens have already made Parisi- 
ans famil i a r. It is a bonny little 
token, too. in foe same sh*p> 
and image as its bigger brothers, 
and undoubtedly will win its way 
to the hearts of all. Its size, ap- 
proximately that of an En glish 


sixpenny piece, gives it an © 
elegance and a delicacy which 
will ensure its dedication to 
those gentle offices of waiter's 
tip ana die church collection. 

1947: Two Terms Only 

Washington — chairman 

Alexander Wiley, Republican of 
Wisconsin, announced today 
[Fsb- 17] that the Senate Judi- 
ciary Committee had voted. 9 to 
1. for a proposed constitutional 
™eodnieru to limit the Pres- 
idential tenure to two full terms 
of four years each. A similar 
amending resolution has already 
been passed by the House. Un- 
der the resolution voted by the 
Senate Committee, if a President 
had served less than one year 
he would be eligible for an ad- 
ditional two frill terms. The Sen- 
ate measure would require 
^foficahoa by conventions in r 
force-fourths of die states, since 
this procedure “is closer to the 
People.” said Senator Wiley. 


■ii 

0 


- 7 ^ 







INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1997 

““ OPINION /LETTERS 


A China Connection? 
Officialdom Shrugged 



By William Safin 

W^^J°?V Thesl °- Chairman 
y . tt . t*** of the corrupt detailed oi 


1 UN — The sto- 
ry « told of the corrupt 
Albany judge who called oppos- 
ing counsel into his chambers and 
sard: Plaintiff slipped me five 
thousand to throw the case his 
way, and defendant gave me ten 
to deliver for him. How’s about 
another five from the plaintiff and 
I decide the case on its merits?” 
That’s apparently the roate 
taken by Bill Clinton and his 
pohcy-for-sale agents in Asia. At 
the same time anti-Taiwan John 
Huang and Charlie Trie were 
pouring in pro-Beijing money to 
(a) the Clinton campaign, (b) the 
Clinton Whitewater defense fund 
and (c) the care and feeding of 
the jail-bound Web HubbelL 
the Clinton "ambassador” in 
Taiwan and phony Buddhist cub- 
ists were steering pro-Taiwan 
donations to the Democrats. 
Neither side could be sure Bill 
Clinton would ‘‘stay bought.” 
Last October, a suspicious pat- 
tern was discerned in this space of 
Asian-based contributions and 
Ointon policy switches, provok- 
ing questions about possible eco- 
nomic espionage involving a hig h 
Commerce official with top- 
secret clearance and his fanner 
Indonesian employers, the Lippo 
banking empire, active in China 
Examination of our National Se- 
curity Agency “big ear” surveil- 
lance was suggested. 

In December. House Rules 


Chairman Gerry Solomon a 
detailed query to the FBI about 
potential economic espirxi&ge. 
Director Lonis Freeh replied that 
he had put 25 agents on the case. 

Lasr week. Bob Woodward and 
Brian Duffy of The Washington 
Post (IHT, Feb. 14) wrote that 
intelligence intercepts 
the involvement of die Chinese 
government in directing the flow 
of some political contributions in- 
to the Clinton White House. If 
true, that would mean nhrna suc- 
cessfully penetrated Mr. Clin- 
ton's decision-making process. 

Mr. CHaron was forced tn admi t 
that “this is a serious set of ques- 
tions” and claimed that the first he 
knew of it **was last e vening . ” 

My suspicions are heightenf-A 
by the release of White House 
memos intended to show sen- 
ators that the former national se- 
curity adviser, Anthony Lake, 
would make a suitable director of 
central intelligence. On the con- 
trary, die internal e -mail is 
damning: 

When Clinton fund-raism ran 
a group of Chinese officials, 
petrochemical manufacturers 
and their Asitt-American 
$366,000 giver into the presi- 
dent's office during and enter a 
radio speech, Mr. Clinton evi- 
dently felt a twinge of guilt — not 
of raising the money, bat ofbeing 
seen. “FOTU5 (president of the 
United States) wasn’t sure we’d 


Put Children First Again, 
And No More Excuses 


The state of the unionat this time ... 


want photos with these people 
circulating around,” noted one 
of Mr. Lake's staffers, seeking 
guidance from the NSC’s man in 
charge of Asia. 

The stunning response: Al- 
though the contributor was a 
“hustler” who should be 
“treated with a pinch of sus- 
picion,” the bottom line was “to 
the degree it motivates him to 
continue contributing to the 
DNC, who am I to complain?” 

The acquiescent bureaucrat 
was supposedly on duty to pro- 
tect U.S. national security in- 
terests. that’s who he was. 

His responsibility — and that 


of his bosses, Tony Lake and 
Samuel Berger, now promoted to 
national security adviser — was 
not merely to squelch photo- 
graphs that troubled the presi- 
dent’s conscience, but to stop 
China’s end run forthwith. The 
NSC response should have been 
an unequivocal “Absolutely not, 
and no more policy penetrations 
lifer* riiis in the future.” 

Where is the president’s For- 
eign Intelligence Advisory Board 
in all this — or does Warren 
Rudman see no need for over- 
sight? Has the CIA been tasked to 
query Taiwanese and South ■ 
Korean counterparts, who have a 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


French Crisis 

The article about France's crise 
(“A Somber France, Racked by 
Doubt" Feb. 12) carries some 
interesting echoes on this island to - 
the north. Both nations want to 
consider themselves as isles. By 
clinging to the old, they share a 
culture of denial, which is really a 
hangover from imperial days. 

These nations are being asked 
to acquire an “Internet mental- 
ity” overnight, when in fact all foe 
cerebral stubbornness and insular 
intransigence are in play to per- 
petuate de Gaulle's “non.” 

You rightly perceive the 
mood on one side of the Chan- 


nel, but what about the other? 

R.& BLACKWELL. 

Southsea, England. 

France survived several 
plagues, meinrfing those of the 
Moors, the English, foe Nazis and 
14 years of Francois Mitterrand. 

We will survive the Internet 
and the global market 

Even if our situation today is 
not good, we still enjoy a way 
of life that a lot of people would 
like to share, as well as a social 
security system that, though 
troubled, is still able to take care 
ofpeople. 

And, who knows, we could 
even recover our competitiveness 


with the euro and the future 
United States of Europe. 

BRUNO D’AGAY. 

Paris. 

Concerned Students 

We, 245 students and teachers at 
Gesamtscbule Oboe Aar in Taun- 
usstezn, G er ma n y , are deeply con- 
cerned by the “open later” to 
Helmut Kohl ( advertisement . Jan. 
9) from supporters of Scientology. 

We Germans are not neo- 
Nazis, and we cannot look the 
other way while historically in- 
correct and grossly inappropriate 
accusations are leveled at us. 

Hitler’s dictatorship was the 


darkest era in Germany’s his- 
tory, and we will never allow 
totalitarianism to occur again 
That is why we want to prevent 
Scientology from gaining too 
much influence here, because we 
think it is a totalitarian organi- 
zation. We are skeptical about 
Scientology’s claims and regret 
that we don't have much depend- 
able information about the group. 

That isn't our fault; we have 
found Scientologists want to keep 
much information about their 
activities within tile organization. 

As for calls to boycott films 
starring Scientologists, we do not 
see the specter of another Nazi 
Germany but merely people in the 


By William Raspberry 


better network in China than we 
do, to find out what Beijing's 
princelings have been doing in 
American politics? Would Tony 
Lake, if confirmed as director of 
central intelligence, direct 
ccamterintelhgence chief Paul 
Redmond to actively pursue leads 
to misfeasance in the NSC? 

Or — faced with a stunning 
coup by agents of influence re- 
cruited by Beijing intelligence — 
would our chief counterspy 
shrug his shoulders and repeat 
the battle cry of the Lake-Beorger 
NSC, “Who am 1 to com- 
plain?” 

The New York Times. 


public eye uttering their personal 
opinions a little too quickly and 
noisily. The boycott in question 
didn't work anyway — “Mission: 
Impossible,' ’ starring Tom Ctinse, 
was a success in Germany. 

Enough insipid attacks against 
the German people and their 
democratic representatives. We 
cannot be blamed for trying to 
prevent foe rise of organizations 
that might become dangerous to 
our democracy. 

S.KHJAN 
Taunusstem. Germany. 

The writer is a teacher. The 
other signatures have been sup- 
plied to the Herald Tribune. 


"Masai warriors in Africa have 
a greeting that Americans ought 
to embrace. 'Eserian Nakera?’ 
they always say when passing one 
another. It means: * And how are 
the children?' Their traditional 
response is: * All the children are 
well.’" 

— Hugh Price, president of 
the National Urban League. 

\\T ASHINGTON — Hugh 

YY Price has a knack for gening 
past the racial and political pos- 
turing and getting at the heart of 
tilings. Last week, in a wide-ran- 
ging session at the National Press 
Club, he got to the heart of urban 
education. It’s time, he said, 

MEAPTWHILE 

to teach all our children. “No 
excuses." 

His message was not just ex- 
hortation ; it was also a reminder. 
If the educational system is to 
work for those children who are 
nor being well educated, he said, 
we all have to be involved. 

Teachers must teach to high 
standards — and those who can’t 
must either be retrained or en- 
couraged to seek other work. Par- 
ents have to send their children to 
school ready to learn, or most of 
them won’t learn. Community 
groups and employers have to 
work together to create a climate 
of support and opportunity so that 
children can resist the anti-aca- 
demic tide that is engulfing the 
inner-riiy schools. And foe chil- 
dren themselves must behave as 
though academic achievement 
matters. No excuses. 

“The landscape of urban public 
education is dotted with teachers, 
classrooms and even entire schools 
that deliver the goods,” he said. 
“The needed innovations have 
been designed and field-tested and 
are now ready for mass market. It’s 
time no put them to widespread use. 
If we adults — educators, elected 
officials, parents, employers and 
community groups — will only do 
what we’re supposed to do for the 
children, then they will do what we 
expect them to do.” 

It Is that simple — and that 
difficult. 

The Urban League chief is not 
the first to observe that successful 
education requires both a com- 
petent teacher and an engaged stu- 


dent. The former can be de- 
veloped by our colleges and 
universities. The latter often re- 
quires the entire village. 

Parents obviously play a major 
role in exciting their children’s 
interest in learning. But too many 
parents, having enjoyed tittle suc- 
cess in learning, don’t know how 
to do it. They can be taught: in 
church basements, recreation cen- 
ters — and in schoolrooms, years 
before they become parents. 

That training will be much easi- 
er if we can manage to build com- 
munities foal value academic 
achievement the way we value 
athletic prowess. 

“For reasons that aren't evident, 
black youngsters, more so than 
otters, are susceptible to the per- 
nicious message that achievement 
is tantamount to acting ‘white,* ” 
Mr, Price said. ‘ ‘The negative pres- 
sures can even reach the point that 
achievers try to mask their intel- 
ligence. What’s perhaps worse, 
many African-American children 
operate under the delusion that 
they’ll be able to get ahead even if 
they don’t do well in school. With 
technology replacing marginally 
skilled workers with laptops and 
robots, and with affirmative action 
under sustained assault, this de- 
lusion is a sure-fire recipe for eco- 
nomic disaster for our children — 
and for our people. ” 

It is interesting to ponder the 
source of this attitude. Surely some 
port of it must come from years of 
well-meant emphasis on the limits 
imposed by racism rather titan on 
the potential that serious exertion 
can unleash. And part of it must 
come from what too many of our 
children see as self-evident; that 
except for a supergifted few, there 
ain't no making it. 

As Mr. Price noted, there is now 
plenty of evidence that children of 
ordinary intelligence — entire 
schools of them — can make it if 
they are respected, held to high 
standards and well taught 

It will take money, of course. 
But even more, it wiD take the rest 
of us — foe village. I think too 
many children sense they are no 
longer the center of our concern — 
and that may be why they ptty so 
tittle attention to our exhortations. 
We’ve got to make them the center 
again. No excuses. 

Eserian Nakera? 

Not well. Not well at all 
The Washington Post. 


BOOKS 


THE CORRESPONDENCE 
OF SHELBY FOOTE 
:& WALKER PERCY 

‘ Edited by Jay Tolson. 310 pages. $2750. 
r Norton. 

. Reviewed by David Nicholson ' 

T HIS is, for the most part, a won- 
derful book, essential reading for 
- anyone interested in the lives and work 
of Shelby Foote and Walker Percy. Like 
* any collection of letters, it forms a kind 
of autobiography, in this case a double 
* portrait where each man stands revealed 
■ in his own words and in those of the 
other. 

Still, its paramount value is its on- 
-going discussion of reading, writing and 
the techniques and aesthetics of fiction. 


which provides an intriguing lodk at two 
writers’ beginnings and their journey 
from apprenticeship to maturity. 

■ “You, for example, know exactly 
what I am talking about because you are 
a writer and because we have known 
each other forever — and because we 
are Stiuihem?’ ’ Percy observed in 1979, 
mmiii mg upg frat Trishi p that had begun 
nearly 50 years before and that would 
end only with bis death in 1990. 

They bad met in 1930 when Percy, 
age 14, mrived in Greenville, Missis- 
sippi, with his mother and two brothers 
fte a sojcKun wifo tiieir patrician cousin 
William Alexander Percy. The Percy 
beys' father iriileA himse lf the pre- 

vious summer. Foote, who was 13, had 
lost bis father at age 5. And so, perhaps 
“thinking that Foote would make a 


CHESS 


By Robert Byrne 


V ISWANATHAN Anand took an 
impressive second place, behind 
Garry Kasparov, in foe Las Pabnas In- 
• temational Tournament in the Grand 
- Canary Islands. Anatoli Karpov came in 

- Anand exhibited scintillating imagin- 

ative play in his third-round victory over 
1 Vasily Ivanchuk. _ _ . 

The Moeller Defense, 5..3c5. a fa- 
’ vorite of Alekhine 70 years ago, later 
lost his confidence but is experiencing a 

^A^TchSi' 

attack with 6 Ne5 NeS 7 d4Ne4 8 Rd 
Be? 9 Re4 Ng6 10 o4 0-0 II Nc3, 

following a Kashdan-Mxtaer-Bany en- 
counter in London 1932. But tnsgad of 
. Milner-Bany’s loosening, 11-. ^Iv- 
anchuk tried to keep a compact form- 
ation with 1 1 ...d6« , , ._j 

, Through 

P ■ Smirta-Izeta, Las Pahras 1993. hut 
Anand improved on *3 g 3 co^ N 
• with ] 3 Qh5!? 

* fascinating P oslt1 ? 5 }’Jr. pug 17 

Rh4* Gh4 l5 Qh4 Nh4 16Nb6Rbtt W 

Bf4, tying up the black forces. Ivanchuk 

hJAMGHUK fftACK, 



could not play 14^0*4 because 15 Bg5 
f6 16 Bh4 cd 17 QdS Kh8 18 Bg3 wins 
foe d6 pawn, giving Anand a bishop pirn 
two pawns for a took. Ivanchuk had to 
defend by 27_J«5 because 17..JM8? 
loses to 18 Bg5. 

On IS dS, Ivanchuk might have 
played 18..JLd8. Thus, 39 cS cd 20 g4 
Nd4 21 Bd6 Bg4 is unclear. He hoped 
for counterplay with 18_Re8 19 Kfl h6 
20 h3 Re4 21 Bh2 cd, but after.22 g4! 
Rc4 (22~.de 23 Bc2!) 23 Nc4 dc, 24 
Rel !. Anand had the upper hand. 

Iflvanchnk bad played 24. _Nd4 then 
25 Bd6Ra8 26 Re8 Kh7 27 Bd7 Bd7 28 
RaS h5 would have be tricky, yet 29 Bc5 
Nc6 30Rf8 hg31 Rf7 Bed 32Rb7 gh 33 
Bf8 Kg8 34 Bg7 Bd5 35 Kgl Ne5 36 
Re7 Nf3 37 Khl Should still win for 
White. Thus, 37_c3 38 be! Ba2 39 Rc7 
Bd5 40 c4 Be4 41 Bc3 Kf8 42 c5 Ke8 43 
c6 Bd5 44 BaS Be445 Rc8 Ke7 46 c7 is 
decisive. ' 

After 29 Be8, material was even, but 
Anand’s extra bishop was stronger than 
Ivanchuk's three pawns.: After 46 Kh2, 
there was no defense to 47 Bf8 except 
46~Kg7 but then 47 Bf3 picks off the 
black queenside. Ivanchuk gave up.' 


c d e 


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good companion for his ‘kinsmen,’ ” 
because of “foe shared experience of 
Joss,” Will Percy invited Foote to 
“come over to foe bouse often and help 
them enjoy themselves while they’re 
here.” 

While Percy began saving Foote's 
letters in 1948, Foote — with one ex- 
ception — did not begin to save his 
friend’s until 1970. What we have, then, 
for about half this selection from their i 
41 years of correspondence, is a mono- , 
logue by Foote, now 80. He sketches his 
plans for the novels he is writing or j 
merely contemplating, muses on the , 
nature of art. makes suggestions for I 
Percy's reading; and instructs him on I 
the craft of fiction. This didactic, one- 
sided conversation at the heart of the 
book is a mixed blessing, and it helps to 
remember that in I960, when Fooie 
wrote to congratulate Percy on the open- 
ing pages of the novel that would be-; 
come “The Moviegoer” (it won foe 
National Book Award a year later), 
Foote bad already published five novels 
and had been laboring for six years on 
- his force-volume narrative history of foe 
Civil War. 

On the one hand, we’d like to know 
how Percy — who entered the church in 
1947 — responded to pronouncements 
like this one: “I seriously think that no 
good practicing Catholic can ever be a 
great artist; artis by definition a product 
of doubt; it has to be pursued.’ 1 In the 
end, however.it doesn f t matter. Though 
Foote is so assured and self-confident as 
to be nearly insufferable — “I’m among 
foe American writers of all time,” he 
crows — what he has to say about the art 
and craft of fiction are so often right (or 
at least tboughMxovoking) as to be re- 
quired reading nor anyone considering 
me writing lire. 

If Foote’s letters overflow with con- 
fidence, Percy’s are often despairing. “1 
am doing very little,” he wrote in 1967. 
“It is a question of melancholy and 
depression.” Well aware of the sad his- 
tory of depression and suicide that 
plagued his family ,he asked, ‘ * But what 
■about me? I’ve lived longer than any 
Percy in history and therefore have no 
precedent. Therefore it’s all new ter- 
ritory.” 

It’s surprising, given their time and 
place (the South of the civil rights move- 
ment), how seldom race and racial mat- 
ters appear here. More disconcerting is 
foe casual (though infrequent) use of 
what we’ve come to refer to coyly as 
. “then-word.” 

What makes these writers worthy of 
our respect and admiration, despite their 
flaws, is not simply the excuse that they 
shared the prejudices and limitations of 
rhetr particular time and place, instead 
it is their literary legacy and their de- 
votion to their work. These was, es- 
pecially for Foote, something tran- 
scendent and almost mystical about that 
devotion. “We are foe outriders fin foe 
saints.” he once told Percy. “We go 
beyond (where they wont go) and tell 
them what we’ve found.” 

David Nicholson, a writer, did this for 
theWashingion Post. 


Your Guide To Over 
120 Top French Companies 





BOOK 


Published by the International Herald 
Tribune, in coordination with the Paris 
Stock Exchange, the 1996 edition includes 
detailed profiles of all the companies in 
the SBF 120 Index. 

The SBF 120 Index includes the CAC 
40 plus other major firms. These are the 
companies to watch in the coming years. 

Each profile includes: head office, 
CEO, investor relations manager, company 




background and major activities, recent 
developments, sales breakdown, 
shareholders, subsidiaries and holdings in 
France and internationally, 1 99 1 -1995 
financial performance, and recent stock 
trading history. 

Updated annually, the Handbook is 
indispensable for anyone who needs to 
know about the leading companies in the 
world’s fourth-laigest economy. 





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PARIS BOURSE 


Return your order to International Herald Tribune Offers, 37 Lambton Road, London SW20 OLW, England. 
For fester service, fax older to: (44-181) 944-8243 CARD N° . EXP 


Please send me copies of French Company * N T i » 

Handbook 1996 at UK£50 (US$75) per copy, including taSwSryte 

postage in Europe. 

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East £3.50. Rest of world £6. COMPANY 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, 
TUESDAY. FEBRUARY 18, 1997 
PAGE 10 


Cruising 
Into Past 
Interiors 

Dream Visions 

For ’90s Fabrics 


By Suzy Menkes 

Internoiieiuil Herald Tribune 

P ARIS — A balmy, star-speckled 
sky. the crash of rolling break- 
ers, a deck littered with lounge 
chairs — that’s not bad for a 
February day, huh? 

Two stout women in rain -splattered 
coats chorused one word to describe the 
1930s steamboat interiors: * ‘enchant- 
ing. - * They peeped into a child's cabin, 
its walls decorated with rabbits; they 
sighed over steamer trunks heaped on a 
stagecoach on the quayside; they died 
for a place at the captain's table, where 
oriental flowers ramble over the cloth 
and chairs. 

The exhibition created by the French 
fabric king Patrick Frey is packing in the 
public — transporting them on his 
"Croisiere Imaginaire. ’* or make-be- 
lieve cruise. 

Envisaged for professionals in the 
decorating trade (7.000 have visited so 
far), the show has been such a hit since it 
opened to the public in January that it 
has now been extended until after East- 
er. Up to 1 .000 visitors a day are visiting 
the 15 cabins, stroking the fabrics, 
clutching samples to cry out at home and 
(this being France) snacking at a cafe 
installed by the caterer Le Notre. 

“1 wanted to make people dream." 
says Frey, ‘ 'and because I am frustrated 
that fabrics are a nonfmished product 
and I never know what happens to them, 
I decided to show my concept of bow 
they could be used." 

Thar meant taking modem fabrics in 
all their diversity of color and texture 
and stirring them together in imagin- 
ative combinations with a dollop of nos- 
talgia and i twist of irony. 

The result is a captain's cabin, cap 
thrown nonchalantly on a chair, with a 
heady scenr of distant travel in the gir- 
affe-patiemed walls, the zebra-print 
throw and the spicy madras-check bed. 
Or the bracing gym, with its salty white- 
and-blue color scheme, lattice-patterned 
exercise mat and punching bags in lam- 
inated fabrics. Antique furnishings, like 
Venetian glass or a 1930s bath-on- 
wheels, give a period authenticity. 

The inspiration, says Frey, was the 




PMntAty 


Patrick Frey, whose Imaginary Cruise is drawing big crowds in Paris. 


American showhouse. And since the 
Pierre Hey company he inherited from 
his father exports 55 percent of its 236 
milli on franc ($42 million) business, he 
is currently on an eight-city tour of the 
United States, waving the flag. 

That might be made of the richly 
textured fabrics of Braquenie, a classic 
French fabric house Frey acquired six 
years ago, or the fresh and youthful 
"Pierre” designs. The strength of the 
exhibition is that it is not just on one 
note. Within the Pierre Frey group, 
founded by his father, Frey handies oth- 
er complementary companies, includ- 
ing the silks of Tim Thompson, which 
appear on board as the crisp scarlet and 
champagne stripes of milady's cabin. 

Frey conveys a vibrant enthusiasm 
when talking about his family of fabrics. 
And be has an explanation for the cur- 
rent focus on the home. 

"Homes have become so fundament- 
al because they are a refuge and a co- 
coon," he says. "And at a time when 
everyone from California to Paris wears 
die same jeans and T-shirt, they show 


the differences between people.” 
Inaglobal universe, Hey is happy to 
emphasize the intrinsic Frenchness of 
his materials, which often have their 
cultural roots in that ultimate escapist 
dream of the "vie de chateau" — the 
grand life at Versailles. 

The great French steamboat era of the 
Normandie liner seems more accessible 
and less stuffy than chateau life, judging 
by the visitors counting the pompoms 
on the passementerie and checking out 
the color choices of the 400 fabrics. 

Since the exhibition is in a wholesale 
showroom. Frey has no indication of 
whether the visitors will turn their 
samples into orders through stores, or if 
decorators will increase their spending. 

"I don’t know if the bottom line will 
go up." says Hey. "But I am getting 
moving letters from people about the 
show. I love my fabrics. I feel that I am 
fortunate to have a metier that I adore. 
And I hope I have transmitted that" 
‘'La Croisiere Imaginaire ” at 
Braquenie. Ill Boulevard Beau- 
marchais. 75003 Paris, until April 4. 


On March 14, the International Herald Tribune 
trill publish a Sponsored Section on: 

International Business 
Locations 

Among the topics to be covered are: 

• Trade fairs - do they deliver? 

■> 

• 2-Miour-a-day call centers. 

• The Euro - will a single currency make it 
easier to expand within the EU? 

• The shopping mall - a global phenomenon. 

• Britain - the European country most 
favored by foreign investors. 



Tlii- Mi-tii hi MMiiciiK-* wiili ihi* M1P1M trade show in Cannes. 
I'«>r ,i full *\iui|ist£" and advertising rates, please contact 
fhi* Sipplrim-no department in Phris. 

K.v tf.t-1) I) ft 92 13 nr e-moil: suppleiiient8E@Uit.cuin 

THE WORLD'S DAILY NEWSPAPER 


When a Plate Is a Fashion Plate 



Btwe Wcfcrr Iro-tapei CA* 

Gingham and ivy plate from Versace's Jeans home collection, and pink carnation tea set from Lacroix. 


International Herald Tribute 

P ARIS — You thought * 'design- 
er dining " was about pasta, 
coriander and Calif ornia wine 
served on a s tainless steel cable 
in a white-walled bunker? Now think 
about the plates. 

Perhaps they are flirty gingham 
check clutched by ivy leaves? Then 
they must be from Gianni Versace's 
latest junior homewares line. 

If the plates are hot pink, turquoise 
and asparagus green (that’s in one table 
setting), It must be Christian Lacroix's 
invitation to dine. 

Flowers? Kenzo, of course. Hearts 
and flowers: Leonard. Chains : Her- 
mes. Classic grandeur and lilies of the 
valley: Dior. 

Fashion designers have brought 
their art to the table without much 
fanfare. But the key move of the 1990s 
is from clothing customers to dressing 
up their homes. 

Building an entire universe with 
which a chent can identify is the way 


that fashion houses can increase busi- 
ness and fortify an image. 

Even if a designer had not puthis/her 
plates on the table, you would just 
know that Calvin Klein's would be 
cream, plain and streamlined and Ver- 
sace's baroque and over-the-top. 

Lacroix’s new range has that per- 
fect-fit look about it, from the tea ser- 
vice blooming with pink carnations 
through die damask tablecloths in 
sweet chinoiserie colors and the cutlery 
with weird-and-wonderful handles like 
frozen tassels. 

Launched by Christofle alongside 
the designer's couture collection, 
Lacroix’s Arts de la Tahle is a well- 
thought-out extension of his fashion, 
with a similar emphasis on mixing un- 
usual colors or textures and making a 
harmonious whole from a cultural 
patchwork. 

The range includes china with ar- 
abesque tracery; colored crystal gob- 
lets; and lace-patteiped or carnation- 
print table linen. Six collectors -item 


plates — decorated with heart, sun- 
burst and bull-fighting motifs or fash- 
ion and theater sketches — reflect sig- 
nature images of Lacroix's world. 

In his Jeans home line, destined for a 
twentysomething's first apartment. 
Versace is creating the same parallel 
universe as in his fashion collections. 
Whereas his Versace plates (created 
with Rosenthal china) are swagged 
with ostentatious gilt, the new col- 
lection reflects tiie brash and hip junior 
clothes. The first is for a plush interior; 
the other might show up on a terrace in 
the open air. With the gingham and ivy 
china go checkered bed linens and 
graphic towels. 

To celebrate the expanding range of 
homewares, from fancy bed linen 
through fancier furniture, Versace 
Home Signature is getting its own life- 
style areas, including a new boutique in 
the basement of the expanded Fau- 
bourg Saint Honore store in Paris. 

Suzy Menkes 


Looks Great on Screen, but Women Won’t Buy It 


By Suzy Menkes 

International Herald Tribune 


. ARIS — Carmine red lips, a veiled cocktail 
’hat, a pencil-thin suit — that was sui 
to be the 


P 1 

to be the look of the season. But the ran ure 
of "Evita' ’ to win an Oscar nomination for 
its fashion parade of costume changes mirrors the 
public's shunning of the movie's retro look. 

The same synergy between film and fashion was 
slated for “Emma." But although the high- 
waisted. girlish Jane Austen dresses have been 
nominated for an Academy Award, the flimsy 
1990s versions offered by Givenchy and Prada 
don't yet seem to have won the hearts and closets of 
modem women. 

Now "Portrait of a Lady" has been nominated 
and the tight bodices and fanning skirts of the 
Henry James era are inevitably being promoted as 
fashion. The clothes may be romantic on screen, but 
they are never going to make it to the subway, in tbe 
office or even out to lunch. 

So the symbiotic relationship between fashion 
and films is over? 


The silver screen originally popularized slinky, 
bias-cut, drop-dead 1930s gowns. When Brigitte 
Bardot appeared in tbe 1960s in checked gingham in 
Viva Maria,” the look took off instantly. Tbe hits of 
the 1970s were Diane Keaton 'siunky layered clothes 
and kooky hats in "Annie Hall" and the elongated 
silhouettes of Bonnie and Clyde. On tire small screen, 
“Dynasty" and "Dallas" in the 1980s brought 
power suits and shoulder pads to main street 
But those screen images were not promoted as 
fashion; instead they captured the mood of the 
moment And films still do that A "Reservoir 
Dogs" look — dark, skinny, sinister suit and mean, 
narrow tie — has moved into fashion’s language. 

With shopping as a recreation in films from 
"Clueless" to "Everyone Says I Love You," 
stores are eager to appear on celluloid (think 
Valentino shopping carrier and Harry Winston 
ring). But those are movies of today's world. 

Expecting women (why is it never men?) to wear 
the styles that defined Eva Peron in tbe 1950s or 
Emma in the early 1800s is not just retrospective, 
but retrograde. And modern women are too smart to 
buy the look along with their movie ticket. 







The “Evita’ 


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look by Estee LauderyOnd Givenchy’s take on “ Emma . 


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CROSSWORD 


ACROSS 

1 Scores for the 
Maple Leah 
• Heavyweight 
champ 
dethroned by 
Braddock 

-MUnlhtewey 


14 Hold, as the 
attention 

ie Any of three 
English rivers 

ie Wax's opposite 
17 In solitary 
is Dressed 


i* As before, in 
footnotes 
so Batman and 
Robin, e.g. 



***** 


HOTEL MFTROPOLE 
GENEVE 

A PRIVILEGED PLACEI 
34, quai GMrelGubon 1211 Geneva 

lei.: (41-221 31 B 32 00 
Far M152) 3)8 33 00 


SSG.I. (firmer 
•4 Kitty 

se Where to find 
Chfle powder? 
ie Vinegar Prefix 
si Statement of 
belief 

32 Obliquely 

3e Diamond Head 
locale 

STKfndofmfll 

33 Within; Prefix 
sett’s about 

thyme! 

41 Impels 
4> Expunge 
43 Miniature map 
4450’8-80'S 
pitcher Don 
47 Einstein's 
birthplace 
4S Declare 
seTJnfcers-Evrrs- 
Chance forte 
••New Zealander 
■7 Cartoonist Peter 
aeTyfenof 

competitor 
■sMfdeast carrier 

ee Had 

•1 WouK work 
ai Beach, 
basically 
«a Kind of car 
M Handle a baton 


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1 Mortarboard 
w e a re r 

2 Overly smooth 
a View from 

Stratford 
4 Home who 
sang "Deed I 

Do' 


• Restrained, as e 
flow 

• Game with 
wooden bate 

7* Long 

Syne" 

■ Jacob's twin 
a Aromatic 
ie Prominent 
Manhattan sight 
ii Equestrian's 
garb 

ix Bring together 
is Jewish feast 
ai Apr. payee 
as Communica- 
tions corp. 

aeGhre (care) 

27 Royal Crown 
Cola brand 
as Condition in 
Meta' card 
games 

** B.Taklas 

30 Amontillado 
holder 

ai Subjects for 
Barren's: Abbr. 

31 Sp. ladies 

33 -Ptcnkr writer 
M Manuscript mark 
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37 Sporty Pontiac* 

40 Palindromic 
preposition 

41 Not intentional 
4a*wen, — bar* 
44 Aral and 

Caspian Seas, 
really 

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center 

re ‘Laugh- in* 

co-host 

47W.W.B 

predator 

SO Kind of 
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»i Biblical 

prepetition 
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©Afeio York Tunes/Edtied by BTfl Shorts. 


Solution to Puzzle of Feb. 17 


■Strauss 


•4 Swear 
M “Gimme a 
C. .. I' Is on® 


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INTERNATIONAL 




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BUSINESS/FINANCE 


TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1997 


PAGE 11 


Sumitomo 
Targeted in 
Copper Trial 

% Trader Appears Set 
To Tarnish Employer 

By Sheryl WuDunn 

New York TbnerSmir* 


f-i * 


TOKYO — Yastro Hamanaka, the 
«Wr trader at ihe center of a $2.6 
bUlion trading scandal at Sumitomo 
Corp. t admitted Monday that be was 
guilty of forgeay and fraud as described 
by prosecutors. But the brash trader is 
Preparing to prevent Sumitomo from 
getting off squeaky clean, too. 

It may not be quite a showdown. Buz 
Mr. Hamanaka, Sumitomo’s former star 
trader who was nicknamed Mr. Five 
Percent because of the influence be wiel- 
ded over the world’s copper markets, is 
planning to wage his own battle of sorts 
against the company, according to one of 
the lawyers on Us defen se team. 

One of the most intriguing questions 


vy 


Sumitomo was in any way involved or 
aware of Mr. Hamanaka's off-the-book 
trading. Financial experts say it is hard 
to believe that one person could single- 
handedly hide such massive losses over 
a decade. 

Mr.- Hamanaka is said to have en- 
gaged in the trading of copper futures on 
a total of 1 .OS million tons, equivalent to 
mote than 70 percent of copper con- 
sumed in Japan. 

Mr. Hamanaka's defense team seems 
to be planning to turn Sumitomo's lax 
monitoring practices into a pivotal issue 
in the trial, which opened with the ar- 
<\ raignment on Monday. 

"Our concern at this juncture is to 
pursue whether the company could have 
prevented the incident or whether the 
company is liable for it,*’ said Tom 
Yoshiki, one of Mr. Hamanaka’s three 
lawyers. 

The defense's strategy may bejpart of 
an effort to win leniency for Mr. Ha- 
manaka, who was arrested on Oct. 22 
and faces 15 years in jail for fraud and 
forgery charges. Any fault found on the 
part of Sumitomo could perhaps help 
shorten Mr. Hamanaka’s sentence. 

So far, however, no one else at Sum- 
itomo has been charged with involve- 
ment in the massive losses. 



Imr'i All ifcc Warilfj Ai»c»fc/ T? BmAm, <k A mMflia r Inc. Pwwwa) 

Small jets, like the Embraer-145 , above, and Bombardier’s plane, below, give airlines more flexibility. 

Small Jets Behind Pilots Dispute 


By Adam Bryant 

New York Timet Service 


NEW YORK — The bluer con- 
frontation between American Airlines 
and its pilots union has its roots in a 
growing innovation in air travel — 
small jets — that the company wants 
to use on many routes. 

Also known as regional jets or com- 
muter jets, these aircraft are replacing 
turbo pro p planes on routes that do not 
have enough passengers to justify lar- 
ger jetliners. 

While popular with travelers — 
who like the jets’ speed and ability to 
fly above turbulence — these small 
planes are seen by the pilots as a way 
for American Airlines to replace 
maity of the larger jets, as well as then- 
jobs, by shifting business to its Amer- 
ican Eagle commuter subsidiary and 
its lower-paid pilots. 

American’s parent company, AMR 
Carp., insists that American Eagle pi- 
lots must fly these jets if the company 
hopes to compete profitably with oth- 
er carriers that already fly them. 

The intransigence of both sides ou 
the issue goes a long way toward 


explaining why they were willing to 
bear the heavy cost and disruption of a 
strike, which was averted for 60 days 
when President Bill C linto n inter- 
vened last weekend. 

To a degree, the dispute at Amer- 
ican Airlines is similar to the labor 
strife that resulted from significant 
changes m the steel and telecommu- 
nications industries, la those indus- 
tries, new technology, like the steel 
industry’s mini-mills, allowed 
companies to operate more efficiently 
with fewer workers. 

By all accounts, the small jets are 
rapidly changing die complexion of 
the airline industry. Some industry 
experts consider the introduction of 
the small jets to be similar to im- 
provements that enabled aircraft to fly 
with fewer engines arid smaller cock- 
pit crews. 

“The airline industry has always 
been able to provide travelers lower 
prices as a result of upgrades m tech- 
nology,” said Candace Browning, an 
industry analyst at Merrill Lynch & 
Co„ who estimated that half of all 
commuter airline fleets will be small 
jets instead of turbpprops in 10 years. 


City, Utah. 
Canadair 


The biggest user of the regional jets 
in the United States is Comair, a com- 
muter partner of Delta Air Lines, 
which flies the 50-seat Canadair re- 
gional jet on such routes as Cincinnati 
to Des Moines, Iowa, and Salt Lake 
to Boise, Idaho. 

inadair, a subsidiary of Bom- 
bardier Inc. of Montreal, first intro- 
duced the small jets into service in 
1992, has delivered 154 of them 
around the world, and has orders to 
deliver an additional 76. Canadair is 
also planning to build a 70-seat ver- 
sion of its current 50-seat model. 

Airlines including Continental 
have also ordered a small jet, the Em- 
braer-145, made by Empresa 
Brasileira de Aeronaut! ca of Brazil. 

The regional jets cost about $20 
million each, compared with $35 mil- 
lion for a Boeing 737 that seats more 
than 100. 

These jets are in many respects at 
the leading edge of a shift in the airline 
industry toward more direct service. 
Although the industry has revolved in 
the last two decades around the notion 

See JETS, Page 12 



Prodi Asks Germans: 
Will YOU Be Ready? 

Prime Minister Presses Case 
To Include Italy in Euro Launch 


By John Schznid 

International Herald Tribune 


FRANKFURT — Prime Minister 
Romano Prodi traveled to Germany’s 
Euroskeptical heartland Monday to 
press his case to include Italy in the 
launching of a single European cur- 
rency. 

But instead of issuing statements to 
reassure German fears, he questioned 
Germans' commitment to the euro. 

“We see our future in Europe,” Mr. 
Prodi said. “I don’t know if chat is the 
case In Germany.” 

During Mr. Prodi's two-city trip he 
also said that Italy would fight any “dis- 
crimination" in the form of political 
decisions to exclude Italy when the new 
currency is inaugurated. 

He warned that initial exclusion of 
Italy could spark an unwanted com- 
petitive devaluation for the lira with 
harmful trade ramifications for the new 
currency bloc. 

Mr. Prodi, visiting Germany for the 
second time in 1 1 day s, has undertaken a 
virtual roadshow to counter the widely 
shared German perception that Italy has 
few chances of making the first wave of 
entrants for tire project. 

“I fully trust the fact that Italy will be 
ready for next spring," when European 
leaders decide which nations will be in 
the elite group, Mr. Prodi said at a news 
conference in Munich, the capital of one 
of Germany’s most conservative 
states. 

Mr. Prodi met with Premier Edmund 
Stoiber of Bavaria, one of Germany's 
most vocal critics of a single European 
currency. After the meeting Mr. Stoiber 
said: * T welcome the fact that Prodi told 
me he wanted to stick to the criteria for 
EMU entry.” 

Later in Frankfurt. Mr. Prodi ad- 
dressed a group of Germany's business 
and financial elite, including Hans Tiet- 
meyer, president of the Bundesbank and 
one of Germany's most outspoken ad- 
vocates of adhering to tight economic 
selection criteria far participating mem- 
bers in the single currency. Two weeks 
ago, Mr. Prodi met with German polit- 


ical leaders in Bonn. 

Polls show that German voters, who 
blame inflation for the loss of their 
savings, are frightened that admission 
of Italy into the single currency club will 
create an inflation-prone euro. 

Supporters of the euro fear that Ger- 
mans may be unwilling to abandon their 
sturdy Deutsche mark for what they 
view as a weaker substitute, forcing a 
delay that could undermine the entire 
project. Mr. Prodi's nine-month-old 
government, meanwhile, has continued 
to promise the Italian people that Italy 
will be in the first wave. 

That fundamental rift between Italy 
and Germany has led to reports of a 
secret deal to exclude Italy initially, to 
appease die Germans, but then guar- 
antee Italy's entry into the single cur- 
rency before the introduction of new 
euro notes and coins in 2002. 

Despite Mr. Prodi's strong state- 
ments, his trip was meant to win favor in 
Germany at the grassroots level. Mr. 
Prodi took pains to show that he had 
mastered Germany's rhetoric of mon- 
etary stability, praising the principle of 
independence for central bankers and 
stressing that all deficit reductions must 
be “sustainable” — a key word in the 
German monetary lexicon. 

But he added: “Last year Germany 
was a model This year Germany is a 
disaster. I would expect stronger lead- 
ership from Germany.” 

It will be an uphill public relations 
effort, Mr. Prodi said. “The problem of 
stability is a problem for Haly," he said. 

Separately, Germany attempted to 
calm fears that a surge in unemployment 
would derail its attempt to meet the qual- 
ifying conditions for the launching of a 
single currency this year and force the 
launching of the euro to be delayed. 

“Germany will meet the criteria," 
the secretary of state for finance, Juer- 
gen Stark, said at a meeting of European 
finance ministers in Brussels that was 
overshadowed by fears that the cost of 
unemployment could destroy EU gov- 
ernments' ability to cut their budget 
deficits below the required 3 percent of 
gross domestic product. 


Thinking Ahead /Commentary 


West Squabbles Over Europe’s Map 


By Reginald Dale 

International Herald Tribune 


WASHINGTON — Disagreement 
over the future economic and political 
nuqp of Europe is threatening to strain 
relations between the United States and 
the European Union just when they 
should be working together to con- 
solidate the West’s Cold War victory. 

The issue that is rapidly becoming the 
hottest topic in nans- Atlantic diploma- 
cy is this: Should there be a link between 
the enlargement of the Noth A tl a nti c 
Treaty Organization and tine expansion 
of the EU to include new members in 
Central and Eastern Europe? 

The question sounds abstruse. But 


diff erence* over the future role of the 
EU, not only between Europeans and 
Americans, but inside Europe, too. 

The problem is becoming urgent as 
NATO prepares to name the ffrstcoun- 
tries that wfli be invited to join the 
alliance — almost certainly Poland, 
Hungary and tire Czech Republic, ami 
perhaps Slovenia. Because they are the 
most westernized, those countries are 
also the first in line for EU entry, 

probably a few years later. 

The challenge is what to do for coun- 
tries left out of flic first round of ex- 
pansion so as to let Moscow know they 

are considered part of the West and not 

up for grabs. w , . 

Most sensitive axe the three Baltic 
Stares — Estonia, Latvia aod Lithuania 
which Moscow will probably suc- 


ceed in keeping out of NATO for die 
foreseeable fixture. Romania, Bulgaria 
and Slovakia are also likely to be ex- 
cluded, at least initiaUy, from both 
NATO and the EU. 

AH these countries seek EU mem- 
bership, and many Americans now 
want mem to be admitted quickly to 
compensate for being left out of 
NATO. Additionally, some Americans 
argue, the U.S. Senate may hesitate to 
ratify NATO’s enlargement if flic 

Should there be a link 
between NATO 
enlargement and the 
expansion of the EU? 

Europeans are not visibly contributing 
to Western security. 

- Bat the idea is reviving fears is 
Europe that Europeans will increas- 
ingly be required to pay for U.S. for- 
eign policy decisions. European of- 
ficials add that the Americans do not 
seem to understand the complexities of 
European economic integration; that 
the EU is not a security organization 
and that Washington cannot toll the 
Union whom to admit and when. 

The European response is weakened 
by the EU’s internal divisions. German 
federalists, for instance, want the Uni- 
on and NATO to be enlarged in parallel 
so as to promote their virion of a 
powerful united Europe with a defense 


as well as an economic dimension. 
That is anathema to Britain. 

Germany and Britain also disagree 
over whether a renewed offer of EU 
membership should be made to Tur- 


key, a key NATO member, with Bri- 
tain and the United States in favor and 
Germany against. 

But the Europeans are quite right that 
EU enlargement cannot be artificially 
accelerated. It is equally absurd to ar- 
gue, as some Americans do, that the EU 
is slowing its eastward expansion for 
fear of low-cost competition. 

Most industrial goods from Central 
Europe already have free access to the 
Union and, while EU political leaders 
are uzging rapid entry lor Central Euro- 
peans, the Czech Republic and Poland 
are signaling they need mane time. 

Bam Americans and Europeans are 
in danger of letting doctrinaire quib- 
bling obscure the huge prize of a 
Europe “whole and free" for the first 
time in recorded history. But France 
has offered a possible way out. 

The French have proposed an on- 
going pan-European conference com- 
prising all the official can d ida te coun- 
tries for EU membership. The new 
body would show that these countries 
all have a “European vocation” even if 
some join the Union later than others. 

Countries of the former Soviet Uni- 
on would not be included- The chal- 
lenge would then be to blur the line 
separating them from the new “west- 
ern" Europe rather than to push them 
back into Russia’s arms. 


CURRENCY & INTEREST RATES 


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PAGES 


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PAGE 12 



30-Year T-Bond Yield 


m 11 


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S 0 
1995 



N D J F 
1997 


Exchange /■ Index ' • ' 

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NYSE S4PS00. 

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HV5E Composite 

U.S. • Nasdaq Co 
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1996 




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Caracas ■ Capital General • BGia39 . 6636.93 ^.3S 

Source: Bloomberg. Beaters iatmaaoml HenU Thbrne 


Vary briefly: 

CompuServe Chief Executive Quits 

COLUMBUS. Ohio (AP) — Robert Massey, president and 
chief executive of CompuServe, resigned Monday from the 
financially troubled on-line service. 

CompuServe’s parent, H&R Block Inc. . said Mr. Massey had 
quit to pursue other interests. Mr. Massey, 50, joined Com- 
puServe in 1976 and became chief executive in June 1995. 
Chairman Frank Salizzoni has been named as an interim 
successor. 

The company reported a $58 million loss in the quarter ended 
OcL 31. It also shut its family oriented WOW! service Jan. 31. 
A spokesman said that the resignation had nothing to do with 
the financial troubles at CompuServe, the second-biggest U.S. 
on-line service after America Online Inc. 

• BET Holdings Inc-’s Black Entertainment Television Inc. 
unit and Microsoft Corp. have formed a joinr venture to 
produce interactive programming on the Internet, targeting 
African-Americans. 

• Canada plans to bolster competition in its tightly controlled 
banking industry by loosening restrictions on foreign banks, 
officials in Ottawa said. 

• American Axle & Manufacturing Iuc/s unionized work- 
ers reached a tentative contract agreement with management 
of the company, which supplies General Motors Corp. and 
Ford Motor Corp.. United Auto Workers officials said. The 
deal was announced barely 1 5 minutes before a strike at five of 
the firm’s plants was to go into effect. 

• Tellabs Inc., a data communications equipment maker, said 
it had acquired Trelcom Oy of Finland for S3 .04 million. 

• Cineplex Odeon Corp. said it forged a deal with strikmg 
projectionists from tile International Alliance of Theatrical 
Stage Employees who have been Locked out since Oct- 28. 

NYT, Reuters. AFX. Bloomberg 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1997 

THE AMERICAS ~ 


— 1 Outlook for Germany > 

Chicago Board Gets Face-Lift p^jg f or Dollar ’ 


(«" 




But Traders Aren’t Ready to Forgo Shouting 


By Baraaby J. Feder ■ 

New York Turn Service 

CHICAGO — It's hoopla time at the Chicago 
Board of Trade, where what is proudly billed as “the 
world’s largest trading floor’ opens for business 
Tuesday morning. The new trading hall will be home 
to as many as 8,000 traders, broken and support staff 
members. Board of Trade officials say the advanced 
technology should help the exchange maintain its 
longtime ranking as the world's leading futures and 
options marketplace. 

In fact, though, the new trading floor is not really a 
showcase of the cutting edge in trading technology. 
While the floor is ready for traders and brokers to use 
the latest technology, the truth is that most have no 
intention of doing so for now. Trading on Tuesday 
will not look much different from trading last week, 
because the new floor is less a showcase than a 
reminder that the deployment of new technology is 
often retarded by the conflicting agendas, experience 
and fears of the people who wuJ use it 

The Board! of Trade's chairman sees the new floor 
as a starring point that could accelerate technological 
changes. "The new floor creates an environment to 
get people to think less defensively about tech- 
nology," said Patrick Arbor, the chairman. 

"There’s a lot of what's been done here that can’t 
be explained except by referring to their traditions," 
said Charles Kinsey, chief executive of Space Man- 
agement Programs Inc., the Chicago-based interior 
architect for the $1 82 million Board of Trade pro- 
ject. 

Those traditions start with "open outcry” trading, 
in which futures and options contracts on everything 
from com to Treasury bonds change hands via 
shouted and hand-signaled bids and oners. 

Impenetrable to outsiders even when trading is calm, 
it is a muscular world rooted in the 19th century. 

Open outcry bears little outward resemblance to 
newer computer-based methods of trading where 


office-bound brokers and traders armed with so- 
phisticated mathematical models and surrounded by 
screens of news and price information make deals 
with unseen counterparts as likely to be in Tokyo or 
London as across town. 

If where yon sit in computerized trading is Ir- 
relevant, where you stand in open outcry systems is 
crucial. Brokers on the top rung at (he outside of a pit 
have dear sightlines to booths at the edge of the floor 
from which they receive orders via hand signals. 

They enjoy easier access titan those in the pits to 
runners bringing information from other sources. 
They, can see the whole pit easily, which is an 
advantage when filling orders. 

"There are all sorts of competing business in- 
terests within an exchange but there always seems to 
be a very strong sentiment of it ain't clearly broke 
don’t fix it,** said Daniel Rappaport, chairman of the 
New York Mercantile^ Exchange. 

For a time starling in the late 1980s, the common 
wisdom in trading circles was that for all their ben- 
efits open outcry systems were destined to go the way 
of the dinosaur. 

The Board of Trade pursued a range of actions 
aimed at sustaining pit trading, including investing in 
electronic trading systems that would handle some of 
its products during hours when the pits were closed. 

Many Board of Trade officials felt the building 
project had to add not just elbow room bur better 
access to market information (the new room has giant 
electronic billboards carrying news from several wire 
services along with trading data) and faster com- 
munications among the employees and customers of 
trading firms. It also had to move everyone closer to 


That last goal requites electronic orders and re- 
cord-keeping from start to finish, including the use of 
hand-held electronics in the pits. 

* ‘We've put in place all rite right budding blocks with 
the new floor,'' claims J. Donald Karmazin, senior vice 
president of technology at the Board of Trade. 


On vUedbrOwSHf/to"!****** 

The dollar rose against the 

Deutsche mark in European trading 

Monday, oblivious w official caHs 
for calm as tradens fretted about the 
weak German economy and the 
single European currency. 

With U.S. markets dosed for die 
Presidents’ Day holiday, investors 
shifted (heir attention to the foreign- 
exchange market where the dollar 
surpassed 1.7000 DM for the first 
time since April 1994. 

With New York closed, Euro- 
pean buying was not strong enough 
to carry the dollar through the bar- 
rier of 1.7000 DM, but by the close 

it was just a fraction lowerai 1.6997 
DM, compared with 2.6874 DM in 
New York on Friday. 

The U.S. currency was trading at 
124.40 yen in Europe, up from 
124.25 Friday. 

Itwas also at 1.48 15 Swiss francs, 

up from 1 .4650 francs, and at 5.7289 
French francs, up from 5.6890. 

The pound was quoted at SI .6145, 
down from SI. 6220 late Friday. 

“The outlook for the dollar is still 
positive, in view of continued eco- 
nomic problems in Germany and 
Japan.” said Gerard Lyons, chief 
economist at DKB International. 

One of the market’s concerns is 
Germany's economic situation and 
whether it weakens prospects for 
European economic and monetary 
union, which is scheduled for 
1999. 

With German unemployment at 
the highest level since the 1930s, 
there are growing doubts about 
whether Bam can cut its budget 


Promising a Faster Web With New Software 


By John Markoff 

New York Times Service 

SAN FRANCISCO — The 
World Wide Wait may be coming to 
an end. 

The explosive growth of the 
World Wide Web in the past five 
years has created computer traffic 
jams as the number of users has 
outstripped the hardware and dnta- 
network resources on which the In- 
ternet is based. 

But now a group of researchers 
has demonstrated that not all of the 
congestion results from the sheer 
weight of the millions of new users 
Hying to squeeze onto the Internet. 


They suggest that a significant part of 
the delay is the fault of the design of 
the software underlying the Web. A 
study published by the group, based 
at the World Wide Web Consortium 
in Cambridge, Massachusetts, an in- 
dustry-sponsored group that sets 
standards, also shows that a redesign 
of that software would improve basic 
performance on the Web. 

Using such redesigned software, 
the authors of the report were able to 
retrieve data twice to eight times as 
fast as they would have using cur- 
rent World Wide Web software. 

Later this year, browsers that sup- 
port the new protocol are to be avail- 
able. 


The World Wide Web software 
works in conjunction with the basic 
software of the Internet, known as 
TCP/IP. The Internet consists of a 
growing collection of software pro- 
tocols, and the Hypertext Transfer 
Protocol — the "http" at the be- 
ginning of many electronic ad- 
dresses — has been the basis of the 
World Wide Web since 1990. 

"Everyone has known about the 
problems involving congestion on 
the Internet," said Jim Gettys, a Di- 
gital Equipment Corp. software de- 
signer is a visiting scientist at tte 

consortium and is one of the authors 
of the study. “What is less well 
known is that the World Wide Web 


protocol has been defeating the con- 
gestion control mechanisms in the 
Internet’s underlying protocols." 

Companies like Netscape Com- 
munications Corp. and Microsoft 
Carp, are readying versions of their 
software that are based on the new 
version of the protocol, H.T.TJty 
I.i. And one of the most common 
server programs used on the Inter- 
net, the Apache server, has recently 
added the capacity. 

As more computer users convert 
to Web browsers that support the 
new protocol, they will see signif- 
icant increases in speed as they re- 
trieve information from servers that 
have die new software. 


deficit to 3 percent of gross do- 
mestic product, a key criterion lor 
■membership in EMU. 

"Dealers haveaneganve view ot ; 

the mark, and the market is betting • ■ 
on an eventual monetary loosening 
in Germany in view- of the German * 
economy's weakness." said Don 
Smith, economist at HSBC Mid- 
land. . ... 

EMU is inconceivable without ■- 
Germany, by far the European Uni- 
on’s biggest economy, and one of ■ 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE*"* \ 

die most enthusiastic supporters of “ 
the single currency, the euro. 1 
Genxiany’s stale secretary for fi- > 
nance, Juergeo Stark, said Monday 
the deficit target would be met. Bui * 
not everyone in the financial mar- j 
kets believes him. 1 

"There’s a risk premium related 1 

to the uncertainty on what’s going to * 
happen to the mark and what land of '• 
euro we’ll have and when, and until 
this issue is clarified, it will almost ; 
always be negative for the Deutsche ■ 
mark," said Giorgio Radaelli, se- 
nior international economist at Leh- 1 
man Brothers in London. : 

The Bundesbank's vice presi- ; 
dent, Johann Wilhelm Gaddum, 
was the latest European official to * 
attempt to slow the dollar’s relent- - 
less climb, saying be saw no reason i 
for a weaker mark. 

On a visit to India, Mr. Gaddum > 
said he understood why investors ' 
were attracted to the dollar but did 
not believe the currency markets - 
were seeing the full picture of the 1 
mark’s future evolution. 

"There is no reason for a weaker 
Deutsche mark,’* he said. "I am not 1 
looking for strength for the dollar, I • 
am looking for the strength, possible - 
future strength of the Deutsche . 
mark." 

But traders said the dollar's gains 
against the yen were limited by con- 
cerns that central banks — notably 
the Bank of Japan — might to- - 
tervene to stem its rise. Intervention 
fears were stoked overnight by a * 
report that Japan and the United 
States had agreed that the Bank of 
Japan could intervene if the yen 
dropped sharply. (Reuters. AP) • 


U.S. Markets Closed 

Financial markets in the 
United Stales were closed 
Monday for the Presidents' Day 
holiday. ' ’ 


, flation Siu 


.ji.|i-liu K M VHhl 1 


HeraUya&ritnme 


JETS: Use of Smaller Planes Fuels PilotDiMpute at American 




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38. University Aiz- Marseille 

Switzerland 

39. EcoteLemama 

USA 

40. American University 

41. Tufts University ESL 


France 

42. Euxecole 

43. Ecote Active BOingue 

44. Lennen Bilingual School 

International 

45. TASE 

Netherlands 

46. International School 
Amsterdam 

Switzerland 

47. Aigkm College 

48. International S cho ol 
Geneva 

49. John F. Kennedy School 

50. Leysin American School 

51. Monte Rosa 

USA 

52. Judson School 

53. T^bar Academy 

54. Taft Summer School 


Altai 




France 

55. Paris American Academy □ 

UK 

56. Ghriati^ s Brtnratirm □ 

USA 

57. Harvard Graduate 

School of Design □ 

M«dfcdSchoob 

Hungary 

S3. Semmeiweiss University □ 

USA 

59. Ross University □ 


e-mail ; 


Net h e rl a n ds 

60. Gbristeljke Hog □ 

Switzerland 

61. HIM-Ifotri Institute McxntreuxD 

62. Hosa Hotel & Tourism 

School □ 

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64. Hotel School Lanzanne □ 

65. IHTTI-Inleniattonal Hotel 

& Tourism Trammg 
Institutes Ltd. □ 

Summer Comps 

Switzerland 

66. Village Camps □ 

USA 

67. Camps Mondamin 

& Green Cove □ 

68. Med-O-Laric □ 

69. National Camp 

Association □ 

70. Pok-O-MacCieady □ 

Edocgtiond Coancflng 

Switzerland 

71. FSEP □ 

USA 

72. Academic Quest 

International □ 

73. Jean P. Hague □ 

74. Vmcent/Curus □ 

Edoartton Confgran ua 

USA 

75. NAFSA □ 

jpgqui toocgyuii 

USA 

76. New England Villages □ 

Education RnbHwtiore 

T ^foy n atinn al 

77. UNESCO □ 

M p cdkingotg 

UK 

78. KAPLAN □ 


□ 65 or over 


SET- 

□ Male □ Female 

I am requesting infrn-mafiQn fay- 

□ Myself DAfrieud 

□ A family member Q An employee 


Continued from Page 11 

of feeding passengers into big hub air- 
ports and requiring them to take a second 
flight to their destinations, airl in es are 
also increasingly offering more direct 
service. The small jets play into this 
strategy, since they are able to fly longer 
distances nonstop than turboprop planes, 
although not as for as larger jetliners. 

Despite the sophistication of modem 
turboprop planes, they are widely per- 
ceived by travelers as inferior to jets — 
so much so that cities like Amarillo, 
Texas, guarantee a profit for American 
Airlines to offer jet service. Without 
such subsidies, American would offer 
American Eagle service instead. 

Assessing me long-term impact of the 
regional jets if they were placed into 
service in American Eagle or American 
is a matter of conriderabLe debate be- 
tween American and its pilots, who are 
represented by the Allied Pilots Asso- 
ciation. 

And their differences on the issue will 
undoubtedly continue to be a sticking 


point over the next two months in dis- 
cussions with a presidential emergency 
board of three mediators trying to head 
off another strike by American’s pilots, 
which they will be free to do after 60 
days. 

Within 30 days, the mediators will try 
to come up with a proposal that they 
drink both sides will accept. This week, 
the two sides are preparing presentations 
to the mediators, and the settlements that 
each side suggests may not be those that 
were proposed Friday. 

The positions may revert to those they 
held before talks began in Washington 
last week. The company agreed last fall 
to offer a 5 percent wage increase over 
four years and 5.75 million stock options 
to be distributed among the 9,000 pilots 
at American. But in early January, the 
rank and file voted against that deal by a 
margin of almost two to one. 

Almost two weeks ago, the pilots an- 
nounced their new proposal: an 11 per- 
cent raise over four years aral7^5 million 
stock options, as well as a demand that all 
jet frying be done by American plots. 


People familiar with details of the 
recent negotiations said that union lead- . 
ers had realized that the company would \ 
not give in to the pilots' demands that 
they fly the small jets. 

Aim indeed, airline executives held 
their ground in the face of a strike that ’ 
they bad said they could not afford. Even 
though the strike was ended after 24 ; 
minutes, just the threat of a strike drove 
away enough passengers to cost the air- \ 
line about $100 million in lost profits, ’* 
executives said. - 

After the strike was halted, Donald’ 
Carty, president of American Airlines, ; 
said that the regional jet issue had been • 
settled, but that the two sides could not ! 
agree on the size of a package of raises j 
and stock options for foe four-year con- ‘ 
tract 

But people fomiliar with the pilots' 
stance said the union was demanding, 
higher raises for giving American what it - 
wanted on foe regional jet issue; in ef- • 
feet, the jet issue made foe pilots dig in : 
further on their demands about com-. ” 
pensation, 


EVTERCVATIONAL FUTURES 


Feb. 17, 1997 


daw 

LONDON 1 METALS tLMQ 
OaOon per metric ton 
Aluntawn quorate] 

Spot 1S35H 1533 ft 1, 

Forward 1545ft 1544ft 15 


Spot _ 1193JW 11*100 1184ft 1185ft 
Rffliranl 1Z15JOO 121100 120700 12O9J0O 


2321 no rwm 234&0Q 235T-00 
2245JOO 2Z66J0 2257.00 225800 


Spol 444ft 647ft 650ft 651ft 

Forward 655X0 653X0 658ft 659X0 

KIcM 

Spot 767000 7480X0 7650X0 7660X0 
Forward 7768X0 7769X0 7740X0 7745X0 

Sor 59*5.00 5975X0 5925X0 5935X0 
Fateard 6015X0 6020X0 5775X0 5980X0 


Financial 

High Low Oos* Chge Opw 
LONG G4LT CL1PFE) 

£samo . pts s. 32nns oriooMt 

113-11 113X3 113X8 — (MM1VM83 
Jhuiflr 112-25 112-22 1T2-25 — 0-036X22 
Estate* 3&4T7. Prav. soles: 80584 
Prav.openfnL: 204X05 up 1377 

GERMAN GOVERNMENT MIND 
OIFFB) 

DM25O000-D!Eon00gcr 
atoiW 10160 10139 10358 — 0X3 248,948 
JUR97 10176 102X7 10276-0X224496 
Estate* 77,520. Prav. ate* 211,521 
Prev.ouen krt: 271444 up 6X64 


DAIWA JAPAN FUND 

SICAV (ivuiquidation) 

2, Boulevard Royal 
LUXEMBOURG 

R.C. L mraterargS a 761 

Notice of Extraordinary General Meeting 

The shareholders or DATWA JAPAN FUND are hereby 
convened to attend an Extraordinary General Meeting of 
Shareholders to be held on February 26th, 1997 at 3 , - O0 p.m. at 
the offices of Banque International 3 Luxembourg, 69, route 
d'Esch, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy or Luxembourg to 
deliberate on the foDowing agenda: 

1. to hear (he report of the liquidator: 

2. to appoint the auditors to (he liquidation in accordance with Article 
151 of the bw on commercial companies; 

3. to fix March 5th 1997 at 3:00 p.m. as date for a further 
Shareholder's Meeting to decide on the dose of Bquidntion. 

Shareholders are informed that at this Meeting; no quorum is 
required for the holding; of the meeting and the decision will be 
passed by a simple majority of the shares present and voting. 

The liquidator 


Wo* Low Qom digs Ofrint 

IHM FRENCH GOV. BONDS (MAT IF) 
FF 9 MUH 0 * pta of 100 pa 
Mor 97 | 5 -ff 13112 13136 —0X8 138 X 51 
J«) 97131 X 8 130 X 4 ) 3 !j 84 —CUO 14777 
Sen 97129.24 129 X 4 129 X 4 —0.10 1J>W 
Dec 97 N.T. N.T. 98 X 6 - —0X8 0 
EM. ratane 65 X 46 . Open hit: 15441 7 up 
671 . 

ITALIAN GOVERNMENT BOND CUFFE) 
m. 200 mOHan - rts of 1 00 act 
Mu 97 131.13 13054 130/7 - 027121 X 56 
JW 97 13040 129.95 13003 -03414323 
SBB97 M .T. NLT. 13017—027 
Est. Sales: 34277 . P«V. sates 84343 
Prav. open lot: 138,779 up 4789 

£MONTH STERLING CUFFE) 

£ 5 oaooo -rtsonoopcj 
*29 7 93 J 0 9X69 93 Jffl Undl. 1(0303 
9^0 9 X 45 9 X 47 - 0 X 1118^67 
Sen 97 7329 9327 9329 UflCft. 84309 
QK 97 9 X 16 9 X 14 9 X 16 UncJv 54819 
MCW8 9 X 07 9 X 05 9X07 Undv 30174 
£2SS nM 9300 37,198 

Sepra 9224 92.92 92.94 Undl. 21 X 44 
MC 9 S 9289 9287 9289 + 0 X 1 1 X 504 
Mra 99 9281 9281 9284 + 0 X 1 *474 
Jun 99 9276 9274 9278 + 0 X 2 7,559 
5 ep 99 9269 9289 9273 * 0X2 7284 
D <*99 9286 9266 9269 + 0 X 1 4829 
gat soles: 12 , 746 . Prav. soles: 4 X 505 
Prav. open tat: 504865 up 1,145 

3 -MONTH EUROMARK CUFFE) 
DMlmBBon.ptsoflMpd 

Feb 97 9481 9680 9481 Undl. 4006 
MCU 97 9687 9484 9686 Uratu 1 B 7851 
Aj *97 9688 9686 9688 - 0 X 1 4875 
jm *7 9 490 9687 9689 Undl. 176389 

Sum 2H5 o^? 3 Unch - 169887 
UOC97 96X9 9666 9468 — G&1 17XM 
Mtt9&9&53 9450 94X3 UndL 12X187 
JWI98 9435 9683 9685 Unch. 10X546 
W-U uSt 7X578 

SS22 SHf? Unch - 

f*C*99 9567 9565 9566 0 X 1 a 13 S 

Jun 99 9563 9562 9562 — DX 24875 
SCP 99 9 S. 1 B 95.18 95.17 - 0 X 1 2 XOT 
D*C ?9 9473 9472 902 —OX ) 20662 
“WOTMT 1 9471 9471 - 081 X 478 
JunOO N.T. N.T. 9469 —0X1464 
SenOO 9482 9432 9481 — 0 X 1 351 
DeeOO 9414 9414 9413 — 0 X 1 735 
E*. rates: 6 X 46 a Prar. sates 1 64543 
Pier, open tat: 1 . 1 B 9822 off 99^ 


3 -MO NTH PI BOR (MATlF) 
Ff 3 mmpn-pt*oHQ°Bd 
Mm 9MJ1 KM KJD 
Jun 979676 9673 % 7 S 
Sen 979673 9671 WJ3 
DK 9)9666 9665 9666 
Mor 9 S 657 9654 9657 
JWl 109644 9641 9643 
Sra 9 B 9636 9623 9626 
Die 989605 9604 9605 
Mar 9 W.T. N.T. 9582 


— 0X1 64248 

— 8X1 49761 
+OX0 35621 
-60130336 
+0X0 10774 
+0X0 1 7712 
+0X1 12851 
+0X0 9,920 
—0X1 12771 


Hfth lm CtoM Chge Optal 

Jim 999SJ56 9566 9568 +0X0 6884 
SMWWJ6 9585 9586 - 0X1 1486 
Dec 9995.12 95.12 95.12 —0X1 1857 
Est nhjffle; 21693. Open bit.- 262X21 up 
1,940. 

3 -MONTH EUROURA CUFFE) 

ITL 1 RMnon -pis ai 100 pd 

5-94 9287 9289 -0X49X064 
Jun97 93L48 9360 9362 — 0X68&4I1 
S-ZI 9372 -0-1047,252 
0037 9199 9389 9389 — 0.1231417 
Marra9410 93X7 93X7 —0.121X237 
JMI98 9403 93X6 93X8 —0.121X413 
fat sates: 21,165 Prcv- rates; S563S 
Prav. open tat.- 292,794 of* 1,757 

Industrials 

GASOIL OPE) 

17760 T7760"^07r 10841 
97 178X0 176X0 176X0 -OJ50 9X92 

}77JS 77575 175.75 -175 4.771 
I 77 - 75 176J0 17t25 —1X0 X385 
JI497 17825 178X0 17675 —TXO 3640 
Aug 97 H.T. H.T. 17785 -185 
SratX7 N.T. N.T. 178X0 -1X5 1X68 

Od97 18025 100X0 17X75 —1X5 1844 
N«W 97 N.T. N.T. 17960 — 1J5 59S 

D0C97 181X5 181X0 19085 -1x5 S,lS 
Est. sates: 6883. Open WjS 5X51 off 643 

BRENT OIL OPE) 

u -s. doBars par band - tats of 1 xoo barrels 
Mar97 Mil 2083 2084 -SlS 6ftWl 
ApT97 20X1 20X6 20X7 -080 27664 
May97 19.93 1982 1982 ^019 19J97 
Jtm97 19X1 796T 198! ^020 IIM4 
JlftW N.T. XT. 19.46 — 020 0730 

AO0V7 1980 19.40 1982 ZflXT 6725 

S«5” 19-31 1983 19X0 -080 XTO 

19.10 19.10 19X7 —080 2X23 

N.T. N.T. 18X4 — 080 4580 

Dec97 18X3 1884 1881 —080 3833 

EsLsatesA712 Open 1r6:l 46929 off 1,124 


^ock Indexes 


MnJ? 4332X4313X4325X— 7X 
^97 N.T N.T 4372.0— 6X 1,901 
15X84 

era*, open bd j 68,765 up 2886 
C4£+BW ATin 

VSfS «j?-5aaSs26«6 ilixoaSS 

JUO 97 N.T. K.T. 26148+11X01.199 
Sp 97 N.T. N.T. 2^;il W6»? 
MOT 98 N.T. N.T SSS + n'fmjSi 
tepWN.T. N.T. jSxJllSorU? 9 

Est. vahme: 7806. Open bu^ 69892 up 736 


18-2-97 


See our 

Avis and Antiques 

every Saturday 





v-v: 



INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY IS, 1997 


PAGE 13 


EUROPE 



* Two Swedish Banks 
Talk Merger, Again 


Jr’l 




Cm ^^OwSrfFnmlX^Aa 

STOCKHOLM — Swedbank. 
AB and Fgerenmg&baaker. aB said 
Monday they bad renee/ed merger 
talks to try to remain competitive in 
Sweden's consolidating financial 
services industry. 

If the talks result in a merger, 
something they failed to do three 
years ago, it would create the Nordic 
region's second-largest bank after 
Svenska Handekbanken AB 

Separately. Svenska Handels- 
t bankcn announced Monday it had 
v acquired more than 98 percent of 
Stadshypotek AB in a $3 billion 
takeover bid that was announced in 
December. 

“We have been expecting this for 
the last 10 or 1 1 months ,' 1 said Mon- 
ica Kapoor, an analyst at Fox-Pitt, 
Kelton, referring to the renewed 
talks between Swedbank and Foe- 
reningsbanken. “It was a question 
of when and not if.'’ 

S wedbank and Foereningsbanken 
suspended trading in then shares 
before a statement to be released on 
Tuesday, when they will d o lo s e 
results of the talks. The latest an- 
nouncement comes just two weeks 
after Skandinaviska Ensltilda 
Baoken AB and Nordbanken AB, 
Sweden's third-biggest and fourth- 
hugest banks by assets, said they bad 
abandoned their own merger talks. 

Ms. Kapoor said, “The cost sav- 
would be 


second-largest bank in the Nordic 
region after Handeisbank AB with 
785 billion kronor, incl uding Stads- 


hypotek AB. 

Swedbank, Sweden's second- 


largest bank by assets, bought 5 
cent ofFoereningsbanken more t 
a year ago. calling the purchase a 
way to ‘take part in any future 
discussions on change in the 
Swedish banking sector that might 
involve Foereamgsbankcn.'' 

In 1994, Foereoingsbanken an d 
Swedbank, known as Sparbanken 
Sverige in Sweden, abandoned dis- 
cussions co merge their hanking op- 
erations because .the two banks’ 
strategies did not match 

“My guess is that the merger will 
go through this time,” said Fredrik 
Myren, an analyst at Janies CapeL 
Mr. Myron pointed to tbe fact that 
the two bad issued a joint statement 
this time. (Bloomberg, AFX) 


Share trading in NCC AB, Slab 
AB and Lundbergfoeretagen AB, 
three Swedish construction and real 
estate companies, was suspended in 
Stockholm before a statement that 
was scheduled to be issued Tuesday 
on a possible merger, Bloomberg 


News reported from Stockholm. 
“NCC and 


mgs 


rignificant,'' and it 


would give Foereningsbanken ac~ 
i to Swe ~ ' * * 


Swedbank ’s large mortgage 

customer base, while giving Swed- 
boidc access to Foerenmgsbanken ’s 
widespread retail-customer base. 

A joint Swedbank and Foere- 


Siab wQl 

merge in one way car another as a 
defensive move to prepare for 
stronger competition ana lower 
volumes.” said Stefan Sundbtam, 
an analyst ax Swedbank. “NCC is 
more concentrated on civil engi- 
neering while Siab has more hous- 
ing construction, so they fit well 
together.” 


J vuu UTTWUUUUAI HUM A MWM 

ningsbanken would create a bank A merger would also affect Lxmd- 
with 1995 assets of 575 billion berg, which is Slab's main share- 
kronor ($78 billion), making it the holder, with a 50 percent stake. 


Russia andDe Beers 
Reach Export Accord 


Reuters . 

MOSCOW — Russia and De Beers have reached a breakthrough on 
a gem export agreement and Moscow has dropped its previous 
objections to the deal, a gem official said Monday. 

“Consensus has been reached — all of the government’s questions 
have been dropped,” said Valentin Logunov, spokesman for the 
Almazy Rossu-Sakha diamond-producing monopoly. 

De Beers stopped purchases of Russian diamonds at the end of last 
year when it cancelled its interim arrangement after Russia failed to 
« or reject a new trade deaL 

lussia had said it had objections to the memorandum and called for 


: were some concessions, that much is obvious, but who gave 
up what, I don’t know,” Mr. Logunov said Monday. 

Mr. Logunov declined to say to what extent the final trade ar- 
rangement would deviate from a 19% memorandum that was to form 
the basis of a formal agreement. 

He said that all that was needed now was President Boris Yeltsin’s 
approval and gov er nment documents enforcing the deal. 

A first deputy prime minister, Vladimir Potanin, quoted by Russian 
newsi 

or next. 


Mr. Logunov said one talking point concerned the amount of gems 
the Russian group would sell outside the De Beers network cm world 
markets. The memorandum had mentioned a quota of 5 percent of total 
Russian output but “there was a question of 10 percent.” 

‘This issue concents bow we wS] independently study the world 
diamond market, and not just tely oh the highly respected De Beers,” he 
said. 


■ Russian Natural Gas (Sant Opposes Hong Kong Fond 

RAO Gazprom, the world's largest natural gas producer, said that a 
plan by the Hong Kong fund manager Regent Pacific Group to buy its 
stock conflicts with Russian law and national security, Bloomberg 
News reported. 

Regent said last month it would start a$2G0 mflHoo fund in an effort 
to enable foreign investors to buy Gazprom’s Russian shares, which 
are priced at a steep discount to its American depositary receipts. 
Regent intends to buy the shares through its Russian subsidiaries to 
circumvent legal restrictions against foreign ownership. 

Rem Vyakhirev, die chairman of Russia's largest company, de- 
manded in a letter that Regent liquidate the fund, called Regent Gaz 
Investment Co. 

Gazprom said that “die substance of Regent’s actions contradicts 
tiie normative acts of the Russian Federation providing for national 
security while enabling foreign capital into the Russian economy.” 


VW Requests 
Investigation 
Into Bribery 
Allegations 


Inflation Surge Hints at German Strength 


Cat^UbyOirSk^FnmDiraicka 

WIESBADEN, Germany — In- 
flation in Western Germany accel- 
erated to a 15-month high in Janu- 
ary, a final repost released Monday 
showed, in an indication that the 


That brought the annual West Ger- 
man inflation rate to 1.9 percent, up 
from 1.4 percent in December, and 
its first reading above 1.5 percent 
since October 1995. 

For all of Gomany, inflation in 

country's sluggish recovery may be January rose an annual 1.8 percent could contribute to inflation byrais- 
buDding momentum. after using 1 A percent the month mg the price of imports. 

Consumer prices rose 0.5 percent before, the office said. Some economists doubt that in- 

in January from 03 percent in The statistics office attributed the flatten will be as low as the gov- 
December, the statistics office said, increases, which were greater than emment's forecast of 13 percent for 


originally reported, to “seasonal 
and weather-related factors.” 
Analysts predicted inflation 
would remain under 2 percent 
through 1997, although some wor- 
ried the weakening Deutsche mark 


1997 unless the mack becomes 
stronger. (Bloomberg, Reuters) 

■ Optimism Grows in France 

French industrial production 
grew m most sectors in January 
compared with December, said 
business executives surveyed by the 


Bank of France, AFX News report- 
ed from Paris. The bank called the 


future “distinctly brighter.” 


CaapSoibfOmSegFnoDi^mAa 

WOLFSBURG, Germany — 
Volkswagen AG said Monday it had 
asked German prosecutors to inves- 
tigate bribery allegations in connec- 
tion with a contract awarded to ABB 
Asea Brown Boveri Ltd. 

The Swiss-Swedish conglomer- 
ate has already asked Swiss author- 
ities to investigate discrepancies in 
costs for expansion of a paint fac- 
tory at VW’s Skoda unit in the 
Czech Republic. The VW com- 
plaint, filed Friday with the pros- 
ecutor in Braunschweig, Germany, 
involves the same case, Volks- 
wagen said. 

The step follows a report that a 
secret organization of purchasers, 
operating in Volkswagen and Gen- 
eral Motors Corp.. has demanded 
bribes from the carmakers' suppli- 
ers in recent years. 

The weekly magazine Der 
Spiegel said in its issue published 
Monday that ABB was forced to pay 
20 million Deutsche marks (SI 1.9 
million) to win the contract to ren- 
ovate the Skoda paint factory. Other 
press reports have suggested that 
bribes of 10 million DM were de- 
manded for the contract, estimated 
to be worth 400 million DM. 

“In connection with irregularities 
regarding the paint shop, about 
which we informed the public on 
Jan. 16, we have filed a complaint 
against unknown persons," VW 
said. “The step will open the way 
ibr investigations in Germany.” 

Volkswagen confirmed last 
month that it suspended a purchas- 
ing manager pending investigation 
into cost discrepancies relateato the 
ABB contract. 

VW would not name the man- 
ager. But the automaker said he was 
responsible for machine equipment 
purchasing at the Wolfsburg 
headquarters and the awarding of 
the contract for expanding the 
Skoda paint shop. 

VW' s in-house security chief. Di- 
eter Langdoerfer, is investigating 
whether the recent death of the 
Skoda chief executive, Ludvik 
Raima, is related to the bribery scan- 
daL Mr. Raima died in an auto- 
mobile crash in November. 

(Reuters, Bloomberg, AFX ) 


Investor’s Europe 



' lujndafi ’ ' pate:. 

: FTS£ lO&imte*: . -CAC 40 


4550 2700 


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4400 

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2250 ‘ 


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1 2^09652 

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54096 . 

639.03 

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Zfi/BMZ 

2^6638 

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OE5X 

qifQJRto 

59&40 

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4,337-30 

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461.96 

477,86 

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arem • 

la^si.oe 13314.00 

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CAC 40 

2,534.46 

2.527.48 

+027 


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; 2^35JS2 

2,792.48 

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1^13^36 

-0.10 

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SPt. 

2^966.19 

2,639^3 

+OJ94 

Soc/rco: Tetokurs 


Imenwianl liearid Thbaac 

Very briefly: 


• Prime Minister Alain Juppe of France has decided that 
Tbomson-CSF, the defense-components arm of Thomson 
SA, should be privatized by a direct sale, Le Monde newspaper 
reported. 

• Scandinavian Airlines System ’s pretax profit fell 3 1 percent 
in 19%, to 1.82 billion kronor ($246.6 million) from a record 
2.63 billion kronor in 1995, because of increased competition. 

• Lufthansa AG and Deutsche BA both announced cuts in 
domestic fares, heating up competition in the German air- 
travel market 

• British Land PLC, Britain's second-largest property-in- 
vestment company, will form a joint venture with Great 
Universal Stores PLC to increase and manage the retailer's 
property portfolio, which is estimated to be worth almost £900 
million ($ 1 .46 billion). 

• Oce van der Grinten NV, a Dutch maker of copier ma- 
chines. said fourth-quarter net profit rose 62 percent, to 60.1 
million guilders ($31.7 million), helped by sales from the 
recently acquired printer unit of Siemens Nixdorf Inform- 
ationssysteme AG. 

• Michelin S A is trying to entice investors for the second time 
in four months to convert bonds into shares, further cutting its 
debt and cleaning up its balance sheet. 

• Pechiney SA’s fourth-quarter sales fell 9 percent, to 15.29 
billion French francs ($2.69 billion), and analysts predicted a 
loss for 1996. 

• Phillips Petroleum Co., Agip Group and British Gas PLC 
have been allowed to appeal to the highest court in Britain, in 
their dispute over North Sea gas sales with Enron Corp., a 
government statement said. 

• Abu Dhabi is setting up a leasing company that will offer 

contracts ranging from aircraft to medical equipment, its 
founders, the United Arab Emirates Offsets Group and Abu 
Dhabi Investment Company, said. afx. b Wi^. Reuters 


WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


Mgh Im Qw Pro*. 


Hfcb low Oom Wl 


High law Clue Pm, 


Monday, Fab. 17 

Prfc»fatocafakrandaa. " - 
Tdekurs 

High low aw* Pm 


High Law .Ctora .M*. 



Amsterdam 


AEXMacnU* 
*T1M9 


ABN-AMRO 134 
Aegon BW 

AbDtd 121.40 

AtZoNoM ZS4 
Banco. ^ mss 
B ats wesson 3«JD 
CSMcM 117.10 
Datritadw Ptd 366X0 
OS M 187J0 

EBMtar »TO 

Forts Amo* 72-90 
Mm*3 m® 

G-Bncan *.83 

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Hoogoranscw 7MB 

HontDoogto 141 
I NG Grain 73-98 

KLM 55-W 

KNPBT 4UO 

KPN Ja*B 

NedSMrdGp 57 J® 

Ntfrtdo msjo 
OxGMm zom 

PoMram 87 

Rret&odHdg 135 
RotMCO 161« 

fitutanco 41.5® 

RoOnco 148 

Renata 110J0 
RwalDoMi 346JB 
Uoflncraa 368 

YmaaM VUB 

v- VNU 39 JO 

J* WUUnKICW 229 


1 30.10 13300 W.10 

119-50 mao mu 
119.lt 12140 T19J0 
281 JO 28240 285 

92 M 9540 

34.10 3440 34JD 
115 115.90 115.10 

38150 36500 361-50 
184-50 184 VU.70 

29.38 2950 2950 
71170 72J0 7030 

63.10 64-40 <040 

5800 5950 59 

M8J9 149.10 14810 

323 37600 32130 
77.98 79 JO 7S3B 
1*50 7»J0 13* 

7150 7X40 72.10 
5520 5SJD SLIO 
41 JO 41 JO 4150 
6740 7040 68-10 
»W 57 JO 5£* 
27150 285-40 27950 
23850 2*33 241 

70JM 79 JO 79 JO 
B4J0 8880 8540 
13350 135 134.10 

162J0 16140 162J0 
61 41.90 St 
167 JO 167J0 . 167 

110.10 110.10 109 JO 
341 34830 341 JO 
357 367 JO 351 

8*40 9040 09JD 
37 JO .39.10 3BJ0 
22820 227 JO 22810 


Mtasdotf 95 91 JO MJ0 9250 

BMW 1173 T144 1171 1190 

Conmata* 4230 4250 4145 43.15 

DMsrBan UUB 122 122 .U 12435 
71350 710 71250 723 
! 86 77 8812 883I.-MJ1 

□eta Tetatom 3240 33M 3255 3255 

DnMfewrBosk 5355 5220 5335 5350 

FfmmMs. 326 325 32*50 325 

nawohalM 14880 148 14650 14890 

KMRHnCKk 26259 260 261 . 260 

Gate 115J0 11250 11550 

HakMwZarf 138 137 mat 

‘ — 89 

76 
7855 

KonWt 514 

iXnsc 

MAN 


GF5A 

11950 117JB 119 JO 117 JO 


154 

155 

.155 

155 

UbedrNdBS 

34150 

342- 

.342 

- 344 

LMriyUfe 

129 JO 

. 138 129 JO 12*25 

MhwcD 

10850 

105 

106 

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UtoireaK 

19X8 

1U0O 

19X0 

19 

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7X50 

77 JO 

78JD 

ALSO 


47 

4850 

47 

47.18 

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63 

6175 

63 

81 


71 

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71 

70X5 


1 « 

137 139 JO 

07 

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56 

55 

55X5 

5850 

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50X5 

51X5 

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183 

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WdUTOMes 

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880 848 6J8 878 
495' 490 493 492 


140 

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138 

391 


140 13950 
3 W 395 


116 
138 

0030 8850 0090 

75 7570 :: 

76 7815 7830 

512 51250 513 

low 1115 1100 
2X70 23.05 2X10 2370 
455 447 45150 449 

70150 <8450 695 47856 

34 3185 3U0 3815 
13420 133 13430 13X90 

Munch Rack R 4160 4095 4120 4150 
4J7 412 415 419 

16 7470 7S22 7860 
25150 350 25130 254 

14585 14810 14480 14465 
8455 B401 8815 85J8 
32150 31 930 31950 32250 
« 8460 9471 95JS 
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703 , 7B1 > ;s 703 

811 ■ 804 00825 01850 


HgnOott - 7250 72 7250 72 Madrid 


zs Kuala Lumpur 


— _ AcMlnoK 
ACESA 


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aMi sja 8-07 pans 

103 293 299 101 

489 484 4JB 486 smy 

2J3 256 262 251 iGF 

1799 1755 T7J3 1797 AtrUquMe 

AhrfdAMin 

——————— An-UAP 

BonCMm 
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BNP 


CAC40: 20840 


S401JS 


783 750 

20150 194J0 
916 903 

608 5B4 

37540 37160 

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780 720 


916 

601 


900 

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TBS 

934 


GanQng . 
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17 1880 1880 1890 iST** 10 
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SAPpM 

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UM 


2X73 

860 815 820 810 

*05-895 J 890 
5J5 494 496 5JB5 

12J0 12 12 tm 

*45 9J 5 VJ9 9.10 
19 JO 1920 19 JO 19 JO 
1X10 11J0 1190 TIJ0 
2350 2320 2240 2240 


Bat Exterior 
Bco Popular 
BaScmtawtar 


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VEW 


London 


Abhor Natl 
ABt do 


FT-SE 1W: 4137 JO 
PltltaKfMJO 


Hehdnld HEXGwantMKWxc 


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Angara Wnter 
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AMoG 
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BAA 
aan j ar s 


Bangkok 


SET Mac 
PiMW&mAB 


AdrtntaSsc 236 

Bangkok BkF 226 

KrangTlwlBk *1J5 

PTTBjplor 338 

SkBB Cement F 6» 

SkmCmBkF 145 

T U nCO M M h i 49 

TMAInHn 4150 

Thai FwmBkF 134 

UMComm 155 


220 22# 228 

202 222 202 

3X50 3950 40JS 

320 336 340 

m mi 654 

135 141 139 

4550 48JS M 

37J5 3850 39J5 

120 130 126 

149 153 154 


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Hutdomaui 
Kentta 
Kesko 
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MftmB . 
Mdso-SotaB 
NMta 
Nokia A 
Orion-VWfmc* 
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295 295 

42 41 

220 219 

59 5850 
7390 7110 
IBM IB 


301 295 

40SS 


48 . . 

13X50 136 

310 30550 
181 180 
82 n 


UP! 


445 435 
107 JO 10X50 
9450 92 

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295 306 

42 41 

220 210 
SAM 57 
7130 74 

1 UD . 1 X 10 
3R - 300 
42 41 

136 13850 
30820 315 

IN 181 
SUB SI 
4440 4450 
437 440 

10850 10450 
94 93 


BAT tad 
BaakSataand 
Blue arc* 
BOC Gwp 

Boon 

BPBtad 

BiiAmsp 

BrtAJniaw 

BrtrGos 

Bit Land 

BrtPsta 


7J5 

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870 875 

t.74 7.15 ... 

591 803 5 M 

5J7 519 523 5J5 fiw'S 

12.10 1190 1197 1X11 " 

852 BJ5 



CogMngra 

FECSA 
GasNcdinl 
Ibenkata 
PrpM 
<30 Rejwol 
8» SertknaEtoc 
*80 TdXKntara 
1-14 TeWortca 
Untan Fwnn 


BiBl _ 
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BTH 


... X50 X52 

527 sis S 2 i 5 ® Manila 

354 346 3J9 

403 395 399 483 . . . 

9JB 9JB 943 9.48 AjOtaB 

7JJ0 697 7.01 7.02 

X48 3J3 SL45 341 BfcPMteW 

1X60 1X43 1X51 1X35 yHw a. 

812 807 807 810 MMMElKA 

XT. K.T. N.T. 2J5 Maw B ank 

5X5 818 5X2 5.18 S*™. 

693 87B 891 88B PQBonk 

656 846 650 857 

1J2 1J0 141 1J1 SanjMBWdB 

4M 4M *jO U6 Prime Hdg 

140 231 240 X41 


Z12TO 

205® 

209® 

202® 

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17/5 

1755 

1754 

1775 

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5730 

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Cm*® 

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57® 

5810 

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8920 

8840 

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11® 

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20910 

205® 

20910 

20440 

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3905 

30® 

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3895 

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2835 

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271® 

26450 

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96® 

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2635 

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8110 

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WTO 

8066 

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mo 

WTO 

9UD 

9390 

Hows 

1210 

343® 

11® 

ITOO 

1310 

Inehd 

333® 

343® 

333® 

Lnfcige 

1640 

27® 

1690 

2675 

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2750 

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Lnpmtf 

LtXwH 

5650 

54® 

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LVMH 

1380 

66® 

1360 

6550 

1370 

6650 

1375 

6540 

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Mk^dtoB 

33® 

3360 

3360 

34® 

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11TO 

1160 

11/0 

mo 

Pernod Kami 

J«0 

1475 

1485 

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Ptnautt-Priat 


932 

24890 232 24490 237 

1154 1139 1147 1164 




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dDM 

Prw, 

EriannB 

. 250 24+50 

250 245J0 

HmaetB 

3047 

10TO 

1040 

1025 

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537 

52a 

52B 

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bwatorB 

346 

339 

346 

340 

MoOoB 

235 

226 23X50 

224 

Nordbanken 

241 

232 

235 

233 

Mormnjplatw 

SandrtcB 

282 

278 

280 

277 

1® 

194 

195 192J0 

Scania B 

196 

192 

m 

1® 

SCAB 

1«J0 

167 

169 

167 

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76 

7150 

75 

72JD 

StamfltaFors 

208 19730 

205 217 JO 

StamskaB 

314 309 JO 

311 

310 

SKFB 

in 

184 IStfll 1B7J50 

Spasbanken a 
S tadshypaWiA 

N.T. N.T. N-T. 
1® 189 JO 189 JO 

IM 

190 

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in 

101 

103 

102 

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2Q2JD 

1*4 

201 

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105 

179 1B3L5D 

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27150 26870 271 40 

7S« *94 710 

889 M0 880 

524 516 


271 


523 521 


877 

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928 

7.15 

7*5 

467.90 

845 


571 075 
561 570 
923 927 
755 7.05 
7B5 793 
455 40 
810 638 


925 

7J5 

7*2 


849 


36950 mjSM 
asp 927 943 934 

2DGB 2024 2075 2039 


571 566 568 


43550 


PSCI 


Pwmodat 

: 371481 Ramutt 


30 2950 2950 1950 
3050 ss ao 38 
192 189 19] 


13 1X50 1250 
124 124 


SdMeMcr 
1« SEB 
,13 SGS Thomson 
IS StaGenende 
Sotfesdn 


SIB 564 573 5B4 

2^ 2380 2417 MB 

1491 1673 1687 1ST* 

m in 118 J 0 12X50 
1715 1690 1710 1700 

195X0 190 195.10 19X30 

576 568 571 576 

.306 301 JO 30890 30410 


Hong Kong 


Bombay 


1 I 


lAdta 

fLewr 
MndustPetan 
tadOcvBk 

nc 

rTN 


MotamgarT 
ftefloacilnd I 
StataBklndta 


948 
917 
390 
101 JS 
434 
145J0 



Eng Loco 


297 

23 

350 


933 940 

SOT 9WJS . _ 

382 38875 379 JO 
99 1002S 97JS 
421X5 42850 J& 
239 mM 24075 
275X5 27775 Z735D 
296 287X5 
22X5 2250 22JS 
34450 34850 34275 




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Amen* 

aamind 

BBL 

BehoM 

OK 

OUP 

Cahepo 

COCkMI 

Cobwyt 

DanalteLJan 

EtaanM 


19800 

5860 

7360 

21300 


12700 12700 1US8 



7220 


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Forts AG 
Geraert 
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GBL 

CatBcoQoa 

Krwfctbcmk 

PrtDflna 

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UCB 

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1312 

118 

1S17S 

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3310 

5980 

3*» 

75W 

4650 

12400 

11625 

12225 

4908 

7*20 


11450 

14850 


2660 


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116 
14950 
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BOM 
3260 
5050 
2455 
1575 
4610 
12275 
11525 
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4830 
7700 
2765 
31000 
74800 
M3S8 
2635 


7220 7270 

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SUM 1 3310 
3395 2390 
1312 1296 

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4635 4400 

13300 lfflS 

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2765 

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Bannah Qtatnol 10JB 1DJ0 10X4 1023 

BwfiwGp XS4. UI UX -LS3 M8XICO 

GMWhctan 818 .805 S.10 5X1 

a»SMXt&clm 490 4J2 <86 408 

Cram* Comp 867 553 SJU 551 

Gon ml Union 7J2 7X3 7X6 7J3 5®°“ ® 

Cw npoa Gp 7JT 7.15 7X0 7J4 

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Dtans 817 £13 415 &18 

aectaXHOpmrtBXIS 812 815 413 

EMI Group 1XT5 _ 

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410 390 40240 401 Zxi 

1575 1565 1570 1580 

7M , 7» 7M TWimCSF 17810 17X50 171 JO 172 

7J0 7 JO 7JB 7 JO ToWB 46740 45540 

Ifehor 8440 8X30 8450 8890 

Video 381 40 377 37*40 378 


401 390 400 ®s40 

687 670 687 Sn 

2820 27BO 2820 277* 
845 835 B41 B43 

276 27X90 275JC 274 

600 5B2 fiSffl 


3046J1 


CmkxGPO 
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4870 4426 4865 4420 SSO PaUlO 
1904 1X» 1X96 1900 
31J30 3005 30 SO 31.00 
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4600 45J0 4600 45L20 
4X50 4700 4X40 4X30 


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BradescoPW 


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TMMaxL 


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GEC xra 35 xn 183 

GkraWsacotra lose wjo MU5 iojd Mian 

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447 441 8SS 855 

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1546 1540 1544 15J4 


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GR£ 


MJB THaneHae 123*700 

Prwtoas: 1251 808 tstamig 



9 JO 9.10 9J5 9X5 

74700 730.00 737.00 75500 


6U0 59-60 6140 6040 
1541 1500 1150 1500 


BwhoncoPM 58700 
39700 


1S3J0 14900 15100 16000 


Gp 540 S55 545 IS bShSto 

as— a s 3 s 

Hkmon X92 009 X91 002 

Hon 6J4 6L72 872 5J4 - -^r— 

raScHIdgs 187* 1470 - 1873 1407 ®»«n 

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Rtm&Mr 672 6J6 670 871 

LsiSnefeB 2J8 XU 237 Z35 


CmflHBDflow 


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160 146 2 2J3 

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870 867 849 869 da« 

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417 <1° flg ill 

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FLSMB 86X15 gj ■ S 

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TnBedko an 366 30 W 

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rsmgs ilUtadra t 70177 
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844 857 860 

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1J6 1J0 1J2 1J5 

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535 5X8 U2 £33 

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23® 

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5140 

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5775 

325® 

31850 

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15270 

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11085 

1270 

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178/0 

17550 

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116® 

11225 

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845D 

8145 

8445 

4900 

4385 

4410 

4550 

4670 

4610 

4455 

4675 


TdespPW 


29X00 29800 29700 29000 
4XSS 4X08 4X70 4040 
2700 2860 2890 2890 


: 71243 


Sydney 

ABOnfburtes; 249X20 
PmteKMLH 

Amcor 

8X3 

137 

806 

847 

ANZBUng 

8J6 

8X8 

BJ4 

841 

BHP 

W2 

1704 

1/® 

17.95 

Bold 

381 

156 

159 

15R 

Brambles Ind. 

2241 

2200 

22J8 

22.45 

CBA 

1343 

13X4 

113/ 

11® 

CC Amato 

1340 

12.94 

12X4 

1306 

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5L23 

412 

12 0 

477 

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4J3 

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4/0 

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CRA 

18.95 

1*75 

1807 

18.78 

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4+2 

456 

402 

+59 

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JJ0 

163 

70/ 

207 

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2-48 

2J6 

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245 

GWAltatMo 

363 

354 

3 03 

300 

Coorimon Fid 

145 

MO 

143 


la AifiOoQo 

1XS4 

TM8 

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1201 

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109 

303 

309 

303 

Lend Lease 

2X35 

23 

2X25 

3110 

Moyne rttaass 
MlMHta 
Ivor Auxl Bank 

7J5 

144 

16M 

743 

103 

144? 

7J5 

103 

(6X4 

705 

103 

1644 

Nat Mutual 

lte£»Corp 

1X2 

107 

1X2 

109 

6J1 

465 

470 

466 

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North Ln 

1J5 

4X2 

1J1 

+15 

1.74 

4X1 

1J0 

4,17 

PocBSc Dudop 

116 

112 

114 

3.16 

Ptosieet Inti 

444 

1® 

403 

19? 

PUhBraodOtEl 

645 

400 

404 

&00 

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MS 

9J2 

7J4 

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5mka 

406 

4J0 

404 

4 16 

Southoora 

445 

4J3 

441 

4J5 

Wtefaraiera 

1003 

9X8 

10 

in 

WMC 

8X7 

8.14 

8X7 

8.13 

WesMeUTiud 

2J6 

2J4 

2J4 

3.44 

WestaocBWng 

Woowdapei 

700 

904 

704 

9.19 

7.79 

941 

705 

9.12 

Wootanrllts 

141 

133 

3J9 

3JS 

Taipei 

Start; Motel Mac 71487.18 
Pmioos; 7991X3 

Cathay Life lot 

182 

176 

779 

176 

OwngHwo Bk 
ChkHTungBk 

172 

91 

1® 

8450 

in 

90 


OitanDewlpmt 

108JD 

101 10740 


OdnoSted 

2SX0 

2SJ0 

2500 

2540 

Hhtflonk 

1® 

1/4 

7/9 

174 

ForaaEa pfesdc 

71 

69 

7040 

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145 

147 

143 

142 

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83 

SIS 

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118 
61 JO 

112 11640 
61 61 

112 


54 

4000 

53 

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5340 

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WdWorttlCMn 

71 

TO 

71 

70 


The Trib Index 

moooaaefSPOPMUnvYorklm. 

Jan. i. was -loo. 

Urt 

Change 

%c4uwjte 

ywuiM 
% change 

+15.89 

World Index 

152.82 

■a*7 

-OJ 1 

Rogtoaol Moan . 

Asia/Padflc 

111.12 

+ 0.12 

+ 0.11 

-17.24 

Europe 

161.03 

- 1.11 

- 0.68 

+15.70 

N. America 

179.17 

-0.52 

-OJZ9 

+39.67 

S. America 

140.35 

+0.67 

+0.62 

+57.63 

taduotriM bntaw 

Capital goods 

178.73 

-0^4 

-C.19 

+34-50 

Consumer goods 

173.62 

-1.09 

-0.62 

+25.75 

Energy 

179.84 

-023 

-0.13 

+32.61 

Finance 

111.81 

+ 0.12 

tail 

- 12^8 

Mscettaneous 

158.79 

-1.14 

-0.71' 

+1652 

Raw Atefertais 

184.10 

-055 

-0.14 

+29.83 

Service 

142.18 

-0^5 

-0^9 

+1648 

UtMes 

132.64 

■ 0^2 

-0.61 

+4.33 

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SE5Z1 NauSy C&tax. France. 


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Chao Pm 


High Low 

Oom Pm 


MttSOMsMMDl 

MUnbisHTr 

MBsuj 

MBsaiFutan 
MBSUTIW* 
MlffldaMlg 
MEC 
Nikon 
NmkoSec 
Nintendo 


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NKK 

Nanum5ec 

NTT 

NTT Data 

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OaataiGas 

Ricoh 

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PAGE 15 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY. FEBRUARY 18, 1997 


ASIA/PACIFIC 




’ A. 


•L : 


4 Bre-X and Freeport Strike a Deal 

Pact Gives Finder 45°/o Stake in Borneo Gold Deposit 


, •+ 












■ "i. 

,r * ; 



-V 


GtapiMIpar&HfrftaiMpaKte 

JAKARTA — Bre-X Minerals 
Ltd. said Monday it had racked an 
aameat with Freepon-McMo- 
R an Copper & Gold Inc. and a group 
of Indonesian partners dial allows 
Bre-X to retain a 45 percent stake in 
the world’s largest gold find. 

The agreement, which requires 
government approval, marks a re- 
versal of fortunes for Bre-X, a Ca- 
nadian mining company that had 
battled to keep control of the project 
since it discovered the gold deposit 
, on the Indonesian island of Borneo 
^ m 1994. 

The deal will allow Bre-X to fend 
off an unsolicited $5 billion 
takeover offer from Racer Dome 
Inc. of Canada . Discovery of the 
gold, known as the Busang deposit, 
had turned the small Calgary-rased 
Bre-X into a $4 billion company. 

The discovery set off a bidding 
war and a round of political in- 
fighting in Jakarta as political in- 
terests maneuvered for a piece of the 


project 
The si 






_ — ‘ squabble threatened to cast a 
chill over foreign investment in In- 
donesia, analysts and company ex- 
ecutives said. 


The agreement comes as a blow 
to the Canadian mining company 
BanickGold Coip., which had been 
selected by the Indonesian govern- 
ment to be Bre-X’s partner in the 
mine. 

Bre-X held off Bairick’s ad- 
vances with the help of Mohammed 
(Bob) Hasan, a close friend and ad- 
viser of Mr. Suharto. A company led 
by Mr. Hasan and owned by Pres- 
ident Suharto bought majority con- 
trol of two Bre-X partners that will 
own up to 30 percent of the proposed 
mine under the agreement. 

“There is no doubt that he was 
instrumental in bringing thip project 
to fruition,' ’ the president of Bre-X, 
David Walsh, said of Mr. Hasan, 

The In d o nesian min ist er nf Tnjty»« 
and energy, LB. Sudjana, scheduled 
a news conference for Tuesday to 
discuss die project. Mining exec- 
utives in Jakarta mM they expected 
tile minister to announce govem- 

Indonesia would have a stakeTmfl!? 
percent and would be the sole op- 
erator of the mine, to be called 
Busang Indonesia Gold JV. 

• “I believe that die Busang In- 


donesian Gold JV is the best solu- 
tion for my country, its people mid 
Bre-X, the company responsible for 
findnte this incredible deposit,” the 
Bre-X statement quoted Mr. Hasan 

as saying. 

Bre-X will not entertain other of- 
fers for the project, and is determined 
to wodc with Freeport, which 
offered the best plan for develop- 
ment of (be site, said John Fcld- 
erhof, a vice president of Bre-X. 

That is a coop for Freeport, which 
is the largest UJS. investor in In- 
donesia and operates the Grasberg 
copper and gold mine in the eastern 
province of Irian Jaya, die biggest 
mine of ite kind in the world. 

Mr. Fcldeibof said the Busang 
deposit bad an estimated 70.9 mil- 
lion ounces of gold, according to the 
latest geologists’ report. 

Bre-X had previously estimated 
that the deposit totaled 57 million 
o unces. 

Freeport will pay $400 million of 
die estimated budding cost of the 
mine, and has secured a $1.2 billion 
loan through Chase Manhattan 
Bank to pay for the rest of its de- 
velopment, Bre-X said. 

(Bloomberg, AFP) 


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Chip Slump Cuts Into Acer’s Profit 


& 


Bloomberg News 

TAIPEI — Acer Inc., one of the 
world’s 10 largest makers of per- 
sonal computers, said Monday that 
net profit dropped about 45 percent 
in 1996 on lower chip prices and 
write-offs at its U.S. subsidiary. 

The final 1996 profit figure will 
be “around” Acer’s revised fore- 
cast of 3 billion Taiwan dollars 
(S109 million). Vice President 
Philip Peng said. 

Acer earned a record 5.5 billion 
dollars in 1995. 

Profit fell mainly because of 
lower earnings at Texas Instru- 
men|s-Acer Inc., he said. 

The U.S. affiliate, which man- 
ufactures computer memory chips, 
was hurt by a drop of up to 80 
percent in the price of dynamic ran- 
dom-access, or D-RAM, memory 
drips. 

Profit also declined because of 


inventory write-offs of mens than 
$50 milli on at Acer’s subsidiary. 


Acer America Caro., based in San 
iia_ The write-offs re- 


Jose, California, 
suited from slower-titan-expected 
sales of its Aspire model co m p ute r. 

“Hus is a regrouping year for 
them, given the difficulty in the U.S. 
retails rhannpJ they’ve had,” said 
Jo nathan Ross, chief of HG Aria 
Securities in Taipei. 

Acer had halved its 1996 full-year 
forecast to 3 billion dollars from 6 
billion an Aug. 28. 

Sales for all of 1 996 fell 8 percent 
from a year earlier, to SI 9 hflfion 
dollars. That figme does not include 
business at subsidiaries, which was 
well below a target of 68.5 billion 
dollars posted in August and an earli- 
er 1996 prediction of 80 billion. 

Acer’s chairman, Stan Shih, told 
die Economic Daily News he ex- 
pected combined revenue at Acer 


Tnc and its affiliate* to increase 
about 20 percent in 1997. Acer will 
expand production in the United 
States and Europe, he said. 

Acer shares rose 50 cents, to 
58.50 dollars. 


I NEC Upbeat on D-RA3fe 


NEC Carp, believes pices of D- 
RAM drips will stabilize this year, 
Reuters reported from Tokyo. 

Hajime .Sasaki, vice president of 
NEC, told the Nihon Keizai Shimbcn 
a full-fledged shift to 64-megabit D- 
RAMs from 16-megabit D-RAMs 
would occur in mid-1998. 

“Prices will not fall further and 
they will stabilise this year,” be 
said. 

He predicted that global demand 
for D-RAM. chips in value terms 
would show a double-digit increase 
in 1997, compared with a 7 percent 
fall last year. 


Goldman Investment 
Lets Asia Shoemaker 
Run in the Fast Lane 


Bloomberg News 

HONG KONG — Henry Cor- 
nell bet $85 million on the world’s 
biggest maker of Nikes and Ree- 
s. instead of the brands. So far, 


he’s winning big. 

iGok 


In June, the Goldman, Sachs & 
Co. managing director made: bis 
firm’s biggest investment in an 
Asian company: 244 million 
shares of Yue Yuen Industri al 
(Holdings) Ltd. and a stake in its 
affiliate in Taiwan. Since them, 
shares in the Hong Kong-based 
manufacturer have risen 61 per- 
cent, more than three tiny** as 
much as the benchmark Hang Seng 
Index. 

“There are a lot of feet out there 
to put into Nikes.” Mr. Cornell 
said. “We're not sellers yet” 
Yue Yuen win show its mettle 
Tuesday, when it reports 1996 
profit. Chances are, the shoe- 
maker will report a 34 percent rise 
in net profit, analysts said. 

For Goldman and other in- 
vestors, Yue Yuen is seen as a way 
to grab some of Air Jordans’ mar- 
ket without paying for stocks such 
as Nike Inc. Yue Yuen's other 
customers include Reebok Inter- 
national Ltd. and Adidas AG. 

Tomany investors, Nike is more 
like a consumer brand than a foot- 
wear company. Nike trades about 
27 times earnings per share, a mul- 
tiple usually reserved for house- 
hold names such as McDonald’s 
Carp. Yue Yuen shares, by con- 
trast, trade at about nine times 
eaminj 

’s investment is help- 
in Vietnam, 
lesia and China, where 
cheap labor helps to hold down 
costs. The $55 million the New 
Yoric-based securities firm put in- 
to the company will nearly double 
Yue Yuen’s production to 50 mil- 
lion pairs a year. Sales will rise to 
almost $1 billion this year from 
$530 million in the year ended 
September 1995, analysts say. 

s, Yue Yuen, which produces 
for eight of the top 10 brand 
names, is well positioned to ben- 


tmings. 

GoJdman’s 


efit from the higher growth rates 
of the tain brand names,” ac- 
cording to Tun Finucane, a re- 
search analyst ax Nikko Research 
Center Ltd. in Hong Kong. 

In a recent research report, Mr. 
Finucane said die global market 
for athletic shoes is growing by as 
much as 7 percent a year as more 
and more people in Europe, Larin 
America and Asia are sporting 
Nike, Reebok and Adidas shoes. 

By expanding production, Yue 
Yuen will cement its position as 
one of the world’s biggest makers 
of athletic shoes — it accounts fora 
third of the branded market — and 
give the company a share of the 
growing market for casual foot- 
wear. 

This year, the Hong Kong com- 
pany is likely to expand its pro- 
duction capacity by 15 percent, to 
145 lines. That will grow co 170 
lines next year. So far that ex- 
pansion is on track. Mr. Cornell 
said. 

All that will be reflected in its 
earnings Tuesday. According to a 
survey of analysts published in 
the Estimate Directory, analysts 
on average forecast that net profit 
rose 34 percent to 1.05 billion 
Hong Kong dollars ($135.5 mil- 
lion). 

“The expansion is going well. 
Our money is being put to good 
use,” Mr. Cornell said. 

The investment also has paid 
off for Goldman Sachs, which 
bought Yue Yuen at 1 .77 dollars a 
share. Since June, Yue Yuen has 
risen 61 percent, while the bench- 
mark Hang Seng Index rose 18.85 
percent. On Monday, Yue Yuen 
rose 2.5 cents to 3.05 dollars. For 
Goldman, that is a profit of 3 19.4 
million in eight months. 

In addition to investing $55 mil- 
lion in Yue Yuen, Goldman Sachs 
also paid $30 million for 9.9 per- 
cent of Taiwan’s Pou Chen Corp., 
which makes materials for shoes. 

That allowed Yue Yuen to buy 
Fou Chen Corp.’s 55 percent stake 


in a joint venture, giving the Hong 
Kong company fuU control. 


Investor’s Asia 


Tokyo • 

Nikkei 225 



s ON D J F 
1996 1997 


SO N D J F 

1996 1997 


raW 'S , d'N D J F 


1996 


Exchange 
Hong Kong 


index 


Hang Seng; 


1997 

PW.‘ 1 % . 
Close Change] 
13,14452 13,11028+034 


Monday 

Close 


Singapore 

Straits Timas 

2£5fc1ff 

£252.48 

40.16 

Sydney 

AH OftSnarfas * 

2A9&2G 

2,482.60 

+043 

Tokyo 

N8*at225 ■ 

18.75GJB5 18.722JX) +0.15 

| (Ontalin^Cnaprab ' 

1J2S2A8 

T^4SL 9t 

+045 

Bangkok . 

SET . 

7064HJ 

713.48 

-0.74 

Sftoaf 

Composite Index 

71243 

722.32 

-1.30 

Tfifeat 

Stock Market index 7,687.18 

7A908B 

+1,18 

MftnSi '• 

pse 

3^1 A84 

3,32230 

•0.22 

•Jakarta 

Conposfte teoax 

701.77 

704.46 

•038 


MZSE-40 • 

2&TJM 

2323.18 

+030 

Bombay 

Sensitive Index 


3,521.99 

+1.66 

Source: Talekuis 


VnlcmalKMial Henld Tnboor 

Very briefly: 


Daiei Inc., Japan’s largest retail chain operator, said it would 
of Yaohnn Japan Corp.. which is re 


buy 26 outlets of 
hiring, for 33 billion yen ($265 million)! 


restruc- 


• Advanced Semiconductor Engineering Inc.’s net 1996 
profit declined 15.4 percent to 1.97 billion Taiwan dollars 
($71.5 million) from 2.33 billion Taiwan dollars a year earlier 
because of narrower profit margins. 

• Pohang Iron & Steel Co. signed a preliminary contract to 
buy businesses from debt-ridden Sammi Steel Co. for 719.4 
billion won ($822.4 million). 

• Toyota Motor Corp. said a fire at a key supplier cost it 
about 70,000 vehicles in lost production, shutting down most 
of Toyota’s Japanese plants for nearly a week this month. 

• Honda Motor Co. launched two models, the Civic Ferio 
and the Partner, whose emissions levels are a tenth of what 
Japan’s present regulation allows. 

• Woo! worths Ltd., Australia’s largest supermarket oper- 
ator, said it would expand its subsidiary. Australian In- 
dependent Wholesalers, to meet growing demand from 
independent retailers. 

• China urged Taiwan to lift a decades-old ban on direct air 
and shipping links, saying the curbs increased costs by several 
billion dollars a year. 

• Lite-On Technology Corp. of Taiwan will re-enter the 
personal computer business after a two-year hiatus, in a bid to 
expand its product base and cash in on the island's growing 
role in die world PC market. 


• Bayeriscfie Motoren Werke AG reported an 8 percent 
increase in car sales in Aria to nearly 100,000 units in 1996 
despite a difficult year for the luxury-auto sector. 

AFP, Bloomberg, AFX. Return 


Daiwa Cleans House After U.S . Bond Scandal 


Reiaers 

TOKYO — One year after 
its dramatic expulsion from 
the United States, Japan's 
scandal-ridden Daiwa Bank 
Ltd. is finding its misfortune 
may in some ways have been 
a Messing in disguise, ana- 
§■ lysts said Monday. 

* The fallout from its $1.1 


billion bond-trading loss in 
the United States, they said. 


forced the bank to take some 
of five bitter but necessary re- 
structuring measures that oth- 
er Japanese banks have been 
reluctant to put into effect 
“Following its expulsion 
from the United States and 
inspections by Japan’s Fi- 
nance Ministry and die Bank 
of Japan, Daiwa was able to 
eliminate management risks 
from its corporate structure.” 
said YukSto Ohara, analyst at 
UBS Securities Ltd. 

“It could be a model for 
restructuring at other banks, 
(h which still lack a sense of 
T crisis despite the recent fail in 
their share prices,” she said, 
referring to Daiwa. 

In Tokyo, Daiwa’s share 
price ckwed at 504 yen 


($4.04), down from 514^en. 


overseas, Ms. Ohara said. For 
the yearending in March 1997. 
Daiwa forecast operating 
profit of 80 Union yea. 

A Daiwa official agreed 
that the barm done by the 
bond-loss scandal was not as 
great as initially believed. 

“We feared that we might 
suffer substantial damage 
from the withdrawal from 
U.S. markets,” said Aldyodu 
Otani, a Daiwa director. “But 
the damage was not great 
Our customers stayed calm 
and have been supporting us. 
The strategies we have taken 
have not been wrong.” 

In November 1995, two 
months after news broke that 
a Daiwa trader in New Yosk 
lost $1.1 billion on unauthor- 
ized deals, U.S. authorities 
ordered Daiwa to shut down 
its U.S. operations. Daiwa 
pleaded guilty to charges, in- 
cluding conspiracy and fraud, 
and paid a record $340 mil- 
lion in fines. 

Japan's Finance Ministry 
also placed temporary restric- 
tions on Daiwa’s operations 
and ordered die i nsti tu tio n. 
Japans nimh- largest commer- 
cial bank, Co wok out a drastic 


strong customer base, the 
Asian Tn^ f kft t and the tr ust 
business, whhdi includes pen- 
sion-fund management 
Daiwa manages more pen- 
sion-fund money than any 
ocher Japanese bank. 

The bank also decided to 
shut about 36 offices, includ- 
ing 16 overseas, by March 
1999, and by the end of 
September had cut its assets to 
16-30 trillion yen from 19-36 
trillion yen a year earlier. 
Daiwa also plans to reduce t h e 
- number of its employees by 
about 2,000 by March 2000 , 
from 9,151 in September. 

But some analysts insisted 
the bank’s restructuring had 


not gone far enough, noting it 
was still saddled with 790 bil- 
lion yen in problem loans, as 
of September. 

Yushiro Doiyo, first vice 
president at Smith Barney In- 
ternational Inc.’s Tokyo 
branch, said that the expul- 
sion from the United States 
was bound to damage 
Daiwa’s future business. 

“I doubt whether Daiwa 
can continue to manage its in- 
ternational business without 
U.S. operations,” he said. 
“The business environment 
surrounding Japanese banks 
wfllbecomemucb tougher and 
Daiwa must make extra efforts 
to streamline its business, even 


halving its assets.” 

Several analysts have sug- 
gested that Daiwa’s woes 
may force it to combine with 
another finanrial institution. 
Last month, Moody’s In- 
vestors Service Inc. said 
Daiwa and Nomura Securi- 
ties Ltd_ its largest share- 
holder, may join under the 
same holding company. 

But Mr. Otani of Daiwa dis- 
missed the prospect of a mer- 
ger, saying that it was “not an 
issue for us at the moment.” 


ADVERTISEMENT 


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Amsterdam, 14 February, 1997 


ROYAL FCP MANAGEMENT SJL 

Societe Anonyms 
2, boulevard Royal, 

L- 2953 LUXEMBOURG 


R.C LUXEMBOURG B-28867 


DIVIDEND ANNOUNCEMENT 


THE EUROPE FUND will pay on February 25, 1997 a 
dividend of USD 0.50 per unit to all the registered 
unitholders. 


Units will be traded ex-dividend on February IS, 1997. 


The Board of Directors of 
ROYAL FCP MANAGEMENT &A. 
Soelede Amoaync 


By the aid of March 
Daiwa’s restructuring efforts 
are tikriy to help lift its annual 
operating profit above 100 bil- 
lion yen, despite the negative 
impact of asset reductions 


streamlining program. 

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Appeals Court 
Paves Way for 
Malaysian Dam 


CmfMbrOwSxtrrra*Diip<*±a 

KUALA LUMPUR — 
Malaysia’s Court of Appeals 
on Monday overturned end- 
ing made last year that 
threatened to delay construc- 
tion of the $5.3 billion Bakun 
Dam hydroelectric project. 

The decision paves the way 

for dam developer Ekran 
Bhd. and ABB Asea Brown 
Boveri Ltd., a Swss- 
Swedish conglomerate, to 

start construction work on the 

dam. , . . 

The Court of Appeals said 
the High Court was wrong to 
have ruled in June that me 
Malaysian government tha 
not have tbe authority to as- 
sign officials from the state of 
Sarawak to oversee environ- 
mental impact studies. 

The Bakun Dam may be 
completed ahead of schedule, 
stud Ekran Bhd-’s chairman, 
Tfag Pek Khw$. Tte dam 
developer is currently sched- 
uled for completion m 
ABB will collect * $23 bil- 
lion bonus if flic dam is fin- 
ished early. 

(Bloomberg* Reuters) 


FIDELITY GLOBAL SELECTION FUND 

Sod£t£ dlnvestissement A Capital Variable 
Kansallis House. Place de FEtoiJe, 

L-1021 Luxembourg 
R.C Luxembourg B 27.223 


NOTICE OF ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 


Notice is hereby given djai die Annual General Meeting of tbe Shareholders of Fidelity Global 
Selection Fund Sicsv (“tbe CompafljO. organised under tbe laws of the Grand Duchy trf Luxembourg, 
will be held at tbe registered office of *e Company, KansaUis House, Place de l’Eroile. Luxembourg, 
at 1 J.OOaro ot Feb ruaty 27, 1997,-specifically, bol without tbmtadon, far the following purposes: 


Agenda 

1. Presentation of the Report of the Board of Directors; 


7 Presentation of the Report of die Auditor; 

3 Approval of tbe balance sheet and Income statement for tbe fiscal year ended October 31, 1996: 

V Discharge of die Board of Directors and die Auditor; 

5 Election of sU (6)IKirctois, specifically the re-election of Messra EdwatdC Johnson 3d, Bany RJ 
Charles TM Colbs. Charles A Fraser, Jean Hamihts and Helmert Frans van den Hovrn, 
heme aH of the presort Directors; 

6. Section of tee Audi tor, specifically die election of Coopers & Lybrand, Luxembourg; 

7. Any other business that njay properly come before the Meeting: 

Approval of items 1 through 7 of ihc agenda will require the affirmative vote oF a majority of the shares 
present or represented at the Meeting wWr oq minimum number of shares present of represented in 
older ford quorum to be present. 

Subnet to the limitations imposed by die Articles of Incorporation of the Company with regard to owner- 
rfcrfof shares which constitute in die aggregate more than three percent (3%) of the outstanding shares, 
ead, share is entitled to one vote. A Shareholder may act ai any Meeting by proxy. 

By order of the Board of Directors 


Paced; January 27, 1997 


0 


UBZ BlIBBWKHiAl 1BUST MA N AG EME N T SJL 

Soci6te Anonyme 
2, Boulevard Royal, 

L - 2953 LUXEMBOURG 


ILC LUXEMBOURG B-28918 


DIVIDEND ANNOUNCEMENT 


THE UBZ EURO-INCOME FUND wiD pay on February 25, 
1997 a dividend of CHF 0-50 per unit to all (he registered 
unitholders. 


Unite will traded ex -dividend on February 18, 1997, 


Hie Board of Directors of 
UBZ INTERNATIONAL TRUST MANAGEMENT &A. 


ROYAL HP MANAGEMENT SJL 

Societe Anonyme 
2, boulevard Royal, 

L- 2953 LUXEMBOURG 


O.C LUXEMBOURG B-Z8867 


DIVIDEND ANNOUNCEMENT 


ORIENT GROWTH FUND win pay on February 25, 1997 a 
dividend of USD 0.50 per unit to ail tbe registered 
unitholders. 


l/nits will be traded ex-dividend on February 18, 1997. 


The Board of Directors of 
ROYAL FCP MANAGEMENT SA. 
SocJfte Anonyme 


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PAGE 16 


licralb^^foSribune. 


Frenchman Wins Solo Yacht Race 


Fuiyk Loses Playoff 

golf Paul Stankowski rolled in 
a one-foot birdie putt on the fourth 
playoff hole to beat defending 
champion Jim Furyk and win the 
Hawulan Open and $216,000. 

Mike Rod, a one-stroke leader 
after three rounds, also made die 
playoff but was eliminated on the 
first hole. Stankowski and Reid had 
made birdie putts on die last hole to 
create a three-way tie at 271. (AP) 

Zeros For College Stars 

football All- America running 
back Byron Hanspard and lineman 
Casey Jones completed last fall’s 
semester at Texas Tech without 
passing a single course, the Hou- 
ston Chronicle reported. Both pos- 
ted 0.00 grade point averages. 
Hanspard has made himself eligible 
for the NFL draft Jones was ruled 
ineligible at the start of the season, 
but played the final six games after 
obtaining a series of court orders. 

• Lawrence Phillips, the St. Louis 
Ram running back, was arrested and 
ticketed for disorderly conduct 
Sunday in Omaha after be started 
“cursing and yelling" at police of- 
ficers who went to his hotel room. 

The former University of Neb- 
raska star is serving three years 
probation after pleading no contest 
m December to a drunken driving 
arrest in California. (AP) 

Australian Club Attacked 

soccer A leading Australian 
soccer player may lose fee sight of 
one eye after rival fans attacked, his 
team's bus with bottles and rocks. 

Angelo Costanzo, an Adelaide 
City midfielder, will find out Tues- 
day if he has permanently lost the 
sight of his left eye. His pupil was 
cut by flying glass as hooligans 
pelted die bus. Costanzo, 21. said a 
gang of up to 20 youths ambushed 
the bus as it left South Melbourne’s 
home ground after Adelaide City’s 
2-0 victory in a National Soccer 
League match 

Costanzo was undergoing treat- 
ment Monday at a Melbourne hos- 
pital, where surgeons removed sliv- 
ers of glass from his eye. 

Duong the match, a linesman was 
pelted with bottles and two players 
were evicted. (AP) 


LES SABLES D’OLONNE, France 
— Christophe Auguin of France won 
die Vendee Globe round-the-world 
single-handed yachting race Monday. 

He reached France after 105 days 20 
hours 31 minutes and 15 seconds at sea 
on a record nonstop voyage. 

Auguin's yacht, Geodis, crossed the 
line at 933 AM to finish more than 
1.800 nautical miles ahead ofhis nearea 
competitor. 

Thousands of sailing fans filled this 
windy Atlantic port on a sunny day to 
watch Auguin cross die finish line, smil- 
ing and waving. 

Dressed in a red-and-yellow wind- 
breaker and sporting a beam, die skipper 
from Normandy appeared fit3Vi months 
and 26,500 nautical miles after he left 
Les Sables. 

“I feel like I just left yesterday,” said 
Auguin, who celebrated his 38th birth- 
day during (be race. But then he added: 
“One time was enough." 

“It’s the greatest day of my life, the 


reward for t hr ee months of hard slog,” 
A again told the spectators who had 
gathered at the port Monday morning to 
deer him home. 

IBs wife, Veronique, and son, Erwan, 
were helped onto Che boat, and the fam- 
ily sought some privacy behind a saiL 

Auguin has wot the BOC Challenge 
round-the-world race twice, but this was 
his first victory in a race in which sailors 
are not allowed to stop or mate landfalL 

Tbe last record belonged to Titouan 
Lamazou, another Fteacbman who won 
in 1990, racing around Antarctica and 
back to Ranee in 109 days. 

The race takes place every four years, 
and this time it was filled with har- 
rowing rescues and the likely death of 
one sailor. Gerry Roofs of Canada, one 
of 16 initial competitors, has been miss- 
ing since Jan. 7. 

In an interview Sunday, Auguin said 
by radio: “I’m hoping to have news of 
Gary when I arrive. It’s not easy to live 
when you’re all alone oo your boat and 
when you know thatyoa have a friend in 


trouble. It’s a difficult thing to go 
through.” 

Three Vendee sailors had ro.be res- 
cued in die Antarctic Ocean — one by a 
fellow co m peti to r and two by the Aus- 
tralian Navy. 

Tony Bullimore, a 57-year*old Bri- 
ton, waited five days in the cabin ofhis 
capsized yacht before rescuers ooukl 
reach him. 

Others who left the race were dis- 
qualified for stopping to repair their 
boats, including one that suffered a 
broken mast in die rough weather and 
high seas. Tbe mishaps drew criticism 
that the race was too dangerous. 

Ian B ailey- WTIlm nnt, head of the 
British Whitbread round-the-world race, 
accused the Vendee organizers recently 
of being responsible for tbe accidents 
and said they were lax in the structural 
requirements for competing boats. 

A working group of boat designers and 
yachtsmen ere to meet this spring to 
increase safety far the ne» race, m 2000- 
2001. (AFP, AP) 


SKATERS: At 14, U.S. Champion Sees Her Father Once a Month 


Continued from Page X 

athletes but often too young to develop 
any sophisticated artistry. 

“Presentation is what is missing in 
skating,’ ’ said Carlo Fassi, who coached 
1 9-year-old Nicole Bobek’s resurgent, 
third-place performance Saturday. 
“Thirteen- ana 14-year-old girls jump 
beautifully, but they are only jumping. 
You are a little kid, not a woman.” 
Asked if winning a title at 14 was too 
much too soon for Lipinslti, Callaghan 
hesitated before answering. 

“I want to say no,” he replied. “I 
thinkTara is bright enough to accept that 
she had a great night and the champion 
had an off-night. Because she had agreat 
night, she’s the champion. But there are 
a lot of years left in her career, and there 
wifi be a lot of highs and lows.” 
Lrpin&ki had to look no further than 
Kwan to see the potentially suffocating 
effects of pressure and expectation. 
K wan had been a heavy favorite to win a 
second straight championship en route 
to defending her tide as wodd cham- 
pion. Buz she fell once on Saturday , 
Mftmw alarmed and fell again. 

In four minutes, she lost a tide 
she had prepared for a year to defend. 

The most reliable female skater in the 
world over the past year, Kwan seemed 
to lose confidence. 

“It wasn’t so much the pressure,” 


she stud. “1 was more frightened after I 
stumbled. I land of panicked." 

Lipinslti appears to be fearless. When 
she was 5, she watched the 1988 Winter 
Olympics on television, and she stood 
on a box at home, pretending that she, 
too, was on die medal podium. 

Asked what made her most nervous 
about the responsibilities of success, she 
' replied, “Right now, nothing.” Yet she 
had never before won a tide, even on the 
junior leveL 

Success at 14 has not come without 
financial, educational and social costs. 
Tipmski trains in Bloomfield {fills, 
Michigan, where Callaghan is based, 
and lives with her mother. Pal, whQe her 
father. Jack, an energy company ex- 
ecutive, lives in Houston. 

She sees her father once a month 
during the nine-month strafing season, 
lipinslti said, and once a week in the 
summer. The family refinanced its 
home several years ago to pay far train- 
ing costs, which can run beyond 
$50,000 a year. Lipinslti does not attend 
school, but is taught by three tutors. 

“Tara knows I’m sad being away 
from my husband,” Pat Lipinslti said in 
1994. “ft's hard to do; it’s lonely. But 
I’d give my dau ghter anything. She 
loves ft. And we’re seeing results. I 
can't just demand that she stop. For the 
rest of my life. I'd have to sit around and 
think, ‘What if?’ " 





★ 

New Gmotellatixxn 


Callaghan, meanwhile, said Tara is 
sometimes obsessed with perfection. 

“She has in her mind that she has to 
repeat every jump five times before she 
leaves the arena to feel comfortable wife 
herself,” be said. “I don’t tike that. I've 
changed that Tara’s a perfectionist. If 
she doesn't do things right, she gets 
upset too quickly. It has subsided. I still 
think she could be easier wife herself, 
but there's no crying.” 

As young skaters* bodies grow, they 
may have difficulty landing demanding 
jumps. Doctors say the 4-foot-8-inch, 
75-pound Lipinslti should not grow 
much more, Ca jjaghim said. If she does, 
he said, without elaborating, “some- 
how she wifi control it.” 

A new rule fay tbe International Skat- 
ing Union, the governing body for fee 
sport, mandates rhat competitors at next 
month's world championships be at 
least IS. Li pmslri, who wifi turn 15 in 
June, is eligible because she competed 
at fee 1996 world championships, 
where she finished 15th overafl. 

“There are pros and cons." Calla- 
ghan said, referring to the age require- 
ments. “You want to be careful that 
stems aren’t pushed too soot. But you 
don’t want to hold them back if they 
deserve it I feink, probably, they have 
to be left alone and. when they peak, be 
given a chance to win, no matter what 
age they are." 




Sampras Wins as Rusedski Quits 


The Associated Press 
SAN JOSE — Pete Sampras won 
his second straight Sybase Open 
when Greg Rusedski of Britain re- 
tired while leading, 6-3, 0-5, 0-30. 

Rusedski, ranked No. 39 in fee 
wodd, said sprained ligaments in bis 
left wrist had bothered him all week. 


England Chases a Tough Target 


Reuters 

CHRISTCHURCH, New Zealand — 
The third and final Test between England 
and New Zealand enters its last day Tues- 
day with both teams in a position to win. 

England, chasing 305 to win, was 1 IS 
far two wickets in its second innings at 
stumps on fee fourth day. Mike Atherton 
was not out on 65, playing a classic cap- 
tain’s innings. Wife him was nigfatwatch- 
man Andrew Caddick. 

With fine weather forecast for Tuesday, 
England needs 187 to win wife eight 
wickets standing. It leads the series, 1-0, 
after winning tbe second test by an innings 
and 68 runs. 

When England batted, Atherton, who 
was 94 not out at the end of England's first 
innings, received good support initially 


Atherton, so New Zealand's are likely to 
rest on fee shoulders of the 18-year-ol<f 
left-arm spinner. 

He managed to turn the ball agreat deal 
from the patch of rough grass caused by; 
fee bowlers* follow-through and troubled 
all the batsmen, including Atherton. He* 
finished wife two wickets for 33 from his] 
23 overs. ! 

Vettori was also the star of New Zea- 
land's second innings. j 

In fee morning session, tbe home team 
had resumed its second innings at a pre J 
carious 95 runs for six wickets. Vettori 1 
made 29 not out and Chris Cairns hit a 
typically swashbudding 52 as fee home 
team reached 186. 

England started well against New Zea- 
land’s faster bowlers. Then, Knight was* 


Ren fetontTta Aoochxd Pm 

England’s Nick Knight reeling 
from a ball from Geoff ABott. 


from Nick Knight and then Alec Stewart. - caught hitting out at Vettori for 29. Stew* 

i».« fcJI tk. t— o. ... ... — :.i i. ■ a r ■ ■ ■ 


but both fell to tbe left-arm spin of Daniel 
Vettori 

Just as England's hopes may hinge on 


art _ was struck in fee face by a rising 
delivery from Vettori and a few balls lata* 
gave a catch to Blair Pocock. \t 


Scoreboard 


its'"- ■ 45 










NBA Sts 

unmea 

Atlantic; 


tttanl 

NewYoifc 

Ottando 

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NewJeney 

PhBodeJpbkj 






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Already compering in world-class Tournaments, the 
promising young tennis player Martina Hingis is 
creating a sensation with the elegant finesse and 
uncompromising strength of her game. Qualities she 
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“Trust your judgement, trust Omega” 

- Martina Hingis. 


Q 

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PAGE 17 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRLBUNEjTUESDAY, FEBRUARY 18, 1997 


SPORTS 


Youngster Wins the Daytona 500 

The Hendrick Team Takes Race’s Top 3 Places 


GM T a~ih.n~ nipmlkj 

D AYTONA BEACH, Florida 
— Everybody could sense the 
three-driver conspiracy start- 
ing to form as the lead cars 
bore off Turn 1 with five laps left in the 
39th Daytona 500 Sunday. 

■. Bat nobody could have imagiry ^ that 
&ie maneuver would lead to JeffGoitfon 
becoming the youngest winner in the 
face’s history, or that ailing owner Rick 
Hendrick would finish one-two-three, 
as Gordon wound up in front of team- 
mates Terry Labonte and Ricky 
Craven. 

The race was memorable for the slice 

of luck that kept Gordon from getting 
Japped halfway through the race — and 
Also for a wreck that featured crusty 
Dale Earnhardt bolting from an am- 
bulance and putting his battered car 
back in the show. 

/ A crowd estimated at 140,000 was 
(iot treated to the usual down-tbe-stretch 
thrills, because the last of six pileups, on 
Lap 1 97, meant the last four t aps were 
faced under the caution flag, 
i At 25 and with a Winston Cup points 
championship already under his belt, 
Gordon has accomplished more than 
many of NASCAR’s le gendar y drivers 
did at a comparable age. 

' He wiped out one of the numerous 
records of Richard Petty , who was 26 in 
1964 when he won the first of his seven 
Daytona 500s. 

' The decisive moment came when the 
Hendrick trio ambushed leader Bill El- 
liott shortly after the start of T-ap 195. 
Gordon went low, Labonte andCraven 
high. ‘“Bill didn't know who to block," 
Gordon said. 

* When Gordon slipped by Elliott. 
Craven's draft momentum helped push 


starred just two 
the pack in the ^ 
by Ettiott. 


lace. Craven, who 
> from the back of 
field, also slipped 


they ganged up on me,” a dejected 
Elliott said as he carried Ms daughter. 
Chase, from the garage area. “But I’m 
proud of finishing fourth." 

Gordon spoke to Hendrick by owiiniwr 
phone before pulling into victory lane. 
Hendrick, 47, is undergoing treatment 
for a rare form of leukemia at his home 
in North Carolina. 


H endrick, the nation’s 

largest car dealer, also is un- 
dor indictment on federal 
charges that include mail 
fraud and money launderi ng. He is ac- 
cused of bribing executives of Amer- 
ican Honda Motor Co. in return for 
favorable treatment in getting hot- 
selling cars. 

With kds third Daytona 500 victory. 
Hendrick became the first owner to have 
cars in the top three spots. Hus cars were 
1-2-4 in 1989, when Darrell Waltrip 
fi n i sh ed ahead of Ken Schrader, and 
Geoff Bodine was fourth. 

Earnhardt crashed IS laps from the 
finish when he was battling Gordon for 
the position behind Bill ElBotL As drey 
came off the high-banked second turn 
Gordon was on the inside and Earnhardt 


up along the wall. 
Suddenly, Ear 


Suddenly, Earnhardt’s Chevrolet 
was upside down, bouncing along on 
its roof, being banged around like a 
billiard ball by Ernie Irvan and Dale 
Jarre tL 

The car flipped back on its wheels 
and after sliding to a stop, Earnhardt 
climbed out and got in the ambulance. 

“I felt like I was OJL, and when I 


looked hack over at the car, I said, ‘Man, 
the wheels ain’t knocked off that car 
yet,’ ” Earnhardt said. “I got out of die 
ambulance, walked over there and told 
the guy in the car to see if it would fire 
up. 

“It fired up and I said, 'Get out’ I got 
in and we took off after ’em. You’ve got 
to get all the laps you can. That’s what 
we’re naming me championship for. 

“I hate it we tore up the race car, but 
I’m sure the guys can build another one. 
We’ll be ready to come back next week 
and win at Rockingham." 

Although he lost five laps, Earnhardt 
finish ed the race in 31st place. Earlier, 
he had led 48 laps. . 

“When we came off of turn two, 
Gordon was on the inside of me and got 
up against me tig ht. My car pushed and 
scuffed the wall a little bit. I got back 
into him a little, and I checked off the 
throttle. Somebody behind me turned 
me, and when it turned sideways it 
started going on its top." 

After the race, Earnhardt said he 
thought Gordon showed a little impa- 
tience. 

“I'm sure I didn't do anything that 
Dale wouldn’t brave done,” Gordon 
said. “What I did didn’t cost him the 
wreck. I had the inside tine, we were 
both racing for position. Sure, it was 
awfully tight, we both wanted that 
second place. When I saw him slide up a 
little and open the door. I jumped at il 

“When be hit the wall, I thought he 
might collect me, but I was lucky he hit 
me square on the side. If he’d hit me at a 
little angle, he could have spun me 
around and got me involved, too. That 
was plain old good fortune. It takes 
things to happen like that to win the 
Daytona 500. ’ ’ (WP. LAT) 


Loss Could Make Magic Coach Vanish 


i The Associated Press 

\ Orlando lost another game to Chica- 
go and possibly its coach, too. 

» Scotne Pippen scored 22 points and 
?oni Kukoc added 20 Sunday, sending 
die Bulls to a 1 10-89 borne victory over 
die Magic. 

) It was Orlando’s n its fourth straight 
loss, triggering reports that Brian Hill 
was on ms way out as Magic coach. 


John Gabriel, the Orlando General 
manager, said H31 would coach 
Monday night’s game at Charlotte but 
hinted that Hill's future was being ex- 
amined. 

“As far as Brian being fired at this 
moment,” Gabriel said, “it's false. 
We’re going to evaluate a lot of things. 



Vtam UfaoMPP 

Dennis Rodman on the Bolls’ 
bench in the victory over Orlando. 


all parts of our basketball operations. 
We’re going to try to make some im- 
provements.” 

Hill Jed the Magic to the NBA finals 
in 1995. This year, without Shaqudle 
O’Neal, Orlando is only 24-24. 

Chicago beat Orlando by the same 
1 10-89 score eariier this season, when the 
Magic was without injured Peony 
Hardaway, Horace Grant and Nick An- 
derson. AH three woe healthy tins time, 
yet Orlando was no match for the BoDs. 

Hardaway scored 20 points for the 
Magic, who went into last weekend’s 
All-Star break riding a 12-2 streak. 

Michael Jordan had 19 points, 10 
assists and eight rebounds. He also had 
four steals, moving him past Alvin 
Robertson into third place on the NBA 
career list with 2,1 13. 

Sonic* 10% Lafcsra 01 Detlef Schr- 
empf scored 10 of his 34 points in the 
fourth quarter as Seattle won in Los 
Angeles. Gary Payton scored 19 of his 
21 points in the second half for the 
Somes who were without Shawn Kemp, 
serving his one-game suspension for 
throwing a punch at Houston's Kevin 
Willis on Friday night- 


IMwnnbM 107, Scm 08 At Min- 
neapolis. Tom Gngliotta was back in 
All-Star form, scoring 23 points for Min- 
nesota. He had gone a combined 9-for- 
32 in Minnesota’s first two games since 
die All-Star break, but he shot 9-for-14 
with seven assists and seven rebounds. 

KiMb 8% Pacers ao In New York, 
Patrick Ewing scored 23 points, and the 
Knicks held Indiana without afield goal 
over the final 10:12. 

New York outscored Indiana 35-14 in 
the fourth quarter. Knicks guards John 
Starks, Allan Houston, Chris Childs and 
Charlie Ward combined for 27 points in 
the quarter after being held to eight 
points through the first three periods. 

Pistons 92, Raptors 80 Grant Hill had 

23 points and 18 rebounds and Joe Du- 
mars scored visiting Detroit’s final nine 
points. Damon Stoudamire, who had 14 
points and 15 assists for Toronto, 
missed a 3-pointer at the buzzer. 

Ma gg ot s 112, 78ars 87 In Phil- 
adelphia, LaPhonso Ellis scored a ca- 
reer-high 37 points as Denver broke a 
three-game losing streak- 76ers’ rookie 
Allen Iverson had 17 points and eight 
assists, but shot only 7-of-24. 

Kings 108 , W s ri i ma 88 Olden Poly- 
nice scared 23 points and Mahmoud 
Abdal-Rauf had 22, including 18 in the 
second half as Sacramento brat visiting 
Goldeu State. Mitch Richmond added 
19 points to pass 15,000. 

Vta8 Btaasn 118, CslHcs 108 In Port- 
land, Isaiah Rider hit 14 of his season- 
high 40 points m the fourth quarter for the 
Trail Blazers. He made 13-of-19 shots 
from the field and 12-of-13 free throws. 



liffld M.IW1V . HlrJ IW 

Robert Pressley flipping his Chevrolet on the bacbstretdi of the Daytona 500. He was not hurt. 

Flyers Humble the Penguins Twice 


The Associated Press 

Even without Eric Lindros. the Phil- 
adelphia Flyers beat the Pittsburgh Pen- 
gums, 5-1 m Philadelphia on Saturday 
and then 6-2 at Pittsburgh on Sunday. 

“We play different when Eric is out 
of there, ’ the Philadelphia center Rod 
Briod’ Amour said. “He’s such a great 
player, we tend to rely on him. But when 
he's out, we have to rely on every- 
one." 

Lindros has been sidelined with a bad 
back, which he strained in last 
Thursday's 4-2 victory over Ottawa. 
The Flyers' captain hopes to get back 
against Hartford on Wednesday. 

“If you go through a stretch of games 
without him, everybody gives a little 
more,’’ said the Flyers' coach. Terry 
Murray. “But you don’t want to go for 
the long haul without him because 
you’re going to miss a top player like 
him. He’s big. he’s very big." 

Trent Klatt scored twice for the Fly- 
ers an Sunday after the Penguins had 
taken an early 2-0 lead. The Flyers 
rallied with six straight goals. 

Jaromir Jagr scored his NHL-leading 
45th goal and Chris Tamer added a short- 
handed goal, but the Penguins couldn’t 
protect a lead and lost their fourth in a 
row and seventh in 1 1 games. 

Mari6 Lemieux, the NHL scoring 


leader, had three good scoring chances 
in the opening 90 seconds, but failed to 
put the puck into the net for Pitts- 
burgh. 

“This weekend was a big challenge 
and test for us, and we failed it." 

Lemieux said “We have a long way to 
go as a team, and I think there’s a gap 
between the two teams right now.” 

Usd Whigs 4, Panthers 2 Darren Mc- 
Carty assisted on the lying goal and then 
scored the game-winner in the second 
period to lead visiting Detroit over Flor- 
ida. 

Tied at 2-2, the Red Wings took the 
lead on their second power-play goal at 
17:00 of the second period McCarty's 
13th goal of tile season, a soft back- 
hander, squibbed between the legs of 
goal tender John Vanbiesbrouck. Vy- 
acheslav Kozlov scored his 19th with 
1 :45 remaining in the game. 

The Panthers' defenseman Robert 
Svehla scored power-play goals in each 
of the first two periods to give Florida a 
2-1 lead before Steve Yzennan tied it 
for Detroit with McCarty’s help. 

The Panthers were missing five reg- 
ulars because of injury and were playing 
for the second night in a row. 


Senators 4, Whsimm 2 Alexei Yashin 
and Randy Cunney worth scored third- 
period goals as Ottawa beat visiting 
Hartford. 

Yashin gave the Senators a 3-1 lead 
when he beat goaltender Sean Burke 
with a wrist shot at 12:55 for his 28th 
goal. 

Kevin Dineen pulled Hartford within 
a goal with 1:44 remaining, but Cun- 
neyworth got his ninth goal, into an 
empty net, with 21 seconds to go. 

The victory moved the Senators with- 
in two points of Washington for the 
eighth and final playoff spot in the East- 
ern Conference. 

Sabres 6. Shark* 2 Jason Dawe and 
Donald Audette each scored twice a? the 
Sabres scored five goals in the first 23 
minutes to bear visiting San Jose. 

Dixon Ward and Michal Grosek also 
scored for the Sabres, who extended 
their unbeaten streak to nine games — 
their longest in seven years — and re- 
mained in first place in the Northeast 
Division. 

Dominik Hasek made 31 saves for 
Buffalo. 

Jeff Friesen broke up Hasek’s shutout 
on a wrist shot between the legs with 
10:06 left in the game. 

Owen Nolan added another goal for 
the Sharks, who have lost four straight. 


Referees Miss the Point as Wake Forest Loses 


The Associated Press 

With four teams ranked in the Top 
Ten, the Atlantic Coast Conference is 
clearly the best conference. Its officials, 
aren’t reaching the same standards. 

Forthe second time in a week, a blown 
call in the closing seconds determined 
the outcome of an ACC game. 

This time, the mistake dropped No. 2 
Wake Forest exit of first place in the 
conference. 

Clint Harrison of North Carolina 
State was given credit for a 3-pointer at 
the buzzer in overtime — even though 
he clearly stepped inside the arc — and 
the Wolfpack beat Wake Forest by one 
point — 60-59 — Sunday. 


Officials Sara Croft. Raymie Styons 
and Mike Wood looked at each other, 
agreed that it was a 3-pointer and ran off 
the floor on Wake’s home court. 

Last Tuesday , Duke heal Virginia 62- 
61 when the officials mismanaged the 
clock on an attempted substitution in the 


final moments. The ACC suspended the 
three officials involved in that incident 
for one game each. 

Harrison scored 21 points for the 
Wolfpack (10-12, 2-1 1), which had lost 
all eight of its ACC road games. Tim 
Duncan had 25 points and 18 rebounds 


for Wake Forest (20-3, 9-3), which fell 
half a game behind ACC leader Duke. 

'.‘This is a difficult loss, but nobody 
died," Demon Deacons coach Dave 
Odom said. 

No. 13 Now Mexico 37, lUta 51 

Charles Smith scored 18 points and the 
Lobos (20-4. 9-3 Western Athletic Con- 
ference) reached 20 wins for the eighth 
time in nine years. 

Indiana 84, No. 14 Michigan 81 AJ. 
Guyton scored 3 1 points as Indiana (20- 
7, 7-6 Big Ten) rallied from an 1 8-point 
halftime deficit. Guyton made a tie- 
breaking jumper with 26 seconds left in 
overtime. Jerod Ward missed a final 3- 
pointer for Michigan (7-7, 7-5). 


DENNIS THE MENACE PEANUTS 



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PAGE 18 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, TUESDAY FEBRUARY 18, 1997 


ART BUCHWALD 


Bronco Bide Ends 



drawing 
dose. 

Chris Dec- 
aieur and I sax 
on the couch fediag very de- 


W ASHINGTON — The 
remaining dregs of the 
OJ. saga were played out on 
televirion last week. Prose- 
cutors. defense lawyers, trial 
lawyers, ac- 
countants and 
jurors were all 
having their fi- 
nal say as our 
lone national 


Buchwald 


“What do we do now?” he 
asked. “We needed OJ. 
Simpson more than be needed 
us/ 

“I don’t want to five in a 
world without Marcia Clark. 
Chris Darden and Bruno 
Mag li shoes," I said 

Decateur said. “We all 
knew that someday it would 
be over, but we didn't want to 
face it like fools we thought 
that the white Bronco nde 
would go on forever." 

□ 

I said, “When the glove 
didn't fit OJ., I thought we 
were guaranteed a mistriaL 
That would have given us two 
more years on Court TV." 

Decateur said, "How can 
television make it up to us for 
caking away our bread and 
circuses?" 

“There is a show on NBC 
that tells the true story of a 
murder in Texas. It’s called 
‘Love’s Deadly Triangle: The 
Texas Cadet Murder. One of 
the accused murderers is a 
naval cadet and the other is a 
cadet at the Air Force 
Academy. The person they 
killed was a beautiful high 
school student.” 

“I’m not interested in 
watching a fictitious melo- 
drama on TV after OJ." 

“It’s not fictitious.'’ I told 


Eiira. “It's a true story of pas- 
sion and homicide commi tted 
by two allegedly rotten peo- 
ple who, thank God, never 
made it as officers in the 
armed forces." 

“Were they tried and con- 
victed?" I asked. 

“No, that’s the point They 
haven’t even come to trial, 
yet NBC is showing us an 
enactment of the crime before 
the jury is sworn in/' 

“I don’t think that that’s 
fair.” 

□ 

“There's nothing fair 
about TV. It's show business 
— and even the news is now 
put to music. NBC's philo- 
sophy is that if a person is 
accused of committing a 
crime, the networks have a 
duty to show the public bow 
they think it was done, even if 
the trial hasn't taken place." 

"So TV programmers are 
saying that none of us is in- 
nocent until proven guilty?" 

“It depends on what the rat- 
ings are. They are much better 
when the person on the screen 
is portrayed as a killer rather 
than an innocent bystander." 

“Well, let's watch iL If it is 
a success. Til bet we’Q see 
hundreds of shows where the 
networks try the accused be- 
fore the courts can even round 
up a jury.” 


We tuned in the program 
and saw the two cadets living 
their alleged guilt-ridden lives 
in Texas after die crime. To- 
ward the end we were treated 
to scenes of the murder which 
were brutal and sickening. 

There couldn 't have been a 
person watching who wasn't 
convinced of the depths of the 
guilt of both cadets. 

Decateur and I agreed, if 
you can’t get OJ. Simpson, 
you have to take anything the 
networks give you. 


Dramatic License: The George Wallace ‘Story’ 


By Rick Bragg 

Sew York Times Service 


M ontgomery, Alabama— 
In one scene, a black servant, 
ice pick in hand, stands behind a 
seated George Wallace and briefly 
considers stabbing him in the back 
for the pain be has caused black 
people in the struggle over civil 


rights. 

foai 


another, an older, wheelchair- 
bound Wallace goes to the home of 
an old political nemesis to beg for- 
giveness but is turned away. He then 
attempts suicide by trying to roll his 
wheelchair off the high porch. 

Those graphic, gothic scenes, in 
a television movie about the life of 
Wallace that is now being filmed 
by Tomer Network Television, 
drip with Southern pathos. The 
problem with them, say the former 
Alabama governor, his son and oth- 
ers who have seen the movie’s 
script, is that the events they depict 
never occurred. 

“It's falsehoods and lies," said 
Wallace, who long ago apologized 
for his segregationist ideals but 
whose name remains synonymous 
with them. 

It is not the portrayal of him as a 
rigid opponent of desegregation 
tbar Wallace and his family are 
protesting. That man, bis Mends 
and associates say, is well doc- 
umented. 

Instead, it is the ice-pick scene, 
along with the film's portrayal of 
an older George Wallace, after a 
gunman's 1972 assassination at- 
tempt had crippled him. The 
movie’s script, seen by some mem- 
bers of the family, depicts a man 
desperate and suicidal. 

The movie, “George Wallace," 
is the latest of a number of films on 
historical figures that do not strictly 
adhere to actual events. And the 
family is considering a lawsuit to 
stop the showing of it if the disputed 
scenes are included in the final cut. 

Say what you want about the 
sdhoolhouse,’’ said Wallace’s son, 
Georae Jr„ referring to the gov- 
ernors “stand in the schoolhouse 
door" to tty to block tbs admission 



TktAuonamiPrm 

George Wallace, in 1975, anno uncing his 1976 presidential candidacy, from a wheelchair. 


of black students to the University 
of Alabama in 1963. “We want 
them to tell the truth — the good, the 
bad and the ugly. But do not make 
things up that rfiri not occur.” 

The two sides accuse each other 
of wanting to rewrite history in the 
twilight of Wallace's life. The 77- 
year-old former governor has spent 
the last third of that life in wheel- 
chairs and hospital beds, and is now 
so deaf that people communicate 
with him mostly in writing. 

The filmmakers acknowledge 
that the two scenes most offensive to 
the Wallace family do not describe 
actual occurrences, and say they are 
not intended to be taken that way. 
Rather the scenes are dramatic 
vehicles of a kind necessary to il- 
lustrate broader truths about Wal- 
lace’s life and times. 

Like others working on the 
movie, its Emmy- winning director, 
John Frankenheimer, notes that it is 
a d rama, alter all, and not a doc- 
umentary. Frankenheimer says that 
he considers the film, to be shown 
on the TNT basic cable channel in 


August, an accurate portrayal of 
Wallace and that the two scenes 
roost at issue “are symbolic" of 
what was happening at the time 
both to him ana to the country. 

In any event, “for anybody to try 
and judge a movie script without 
seeing the movie is a sign of pure 
amateurism,” said Ftankenheimer, 
whose feature films include “The 
Manchurian Candidate’* and 
“Seven Days in May." 

But Wallace and others are far 
from convinced. 

For one thing, they believe that 
the servant in the ice-pick sequence 
is modeled not on a composite of 
black rage, as the filmmakers con- 
tend, but instead on Wallace’s 
longtime aide, Eddie Holcey, a pa- 
roled prisoner who in real life be- 
came the governor’s good friend 

The attempted -suiri de scene, 
Wallace associates say, is equally 
fancifuL In that scene, set in fee late 
1970s, a despondent Wallace goes 
to the home of another former gov- 
ernor. Big Jim Fblscan, to apologize 
for some of the tilings he has said 


and done as a political adversary. 
After Folsom refuses to come to tire 
door, Wallace tries to roll his 
wheelchair off the edge of the 
porch. He is stopped by an aide. 

“They say ray best friend 
wanted to klu me with an ice pick 
and that I tried to commit suicide,'* 
Wallace said by telephone. “The 
movie's false." 

Mark Carliner, the executive 
producer, says the Wallace family 
is 4 ‘misrepresenting those two 
scenes.” 

“The scene they refer to as the 
ice-pick scene, that is a scene about 
anger and resentment, about a lot 
more than George Wallace," Car- 
liner said. “In our film, the blade 
voice is represented by this char- 
acter. If you can say that among the 
population in Alabama in 1963 
there was no anger, then that scene 
would be inappropriate and mis- 
leading.” 

Similarly, Ftankenheimer said, 
(he attempted-suicide scene is in- 
tended “to dramatize the despond- 
ency and despair he was in.” 


Frankenheimer and Carliner 
Wallace's depression, in the poi 
years after his shooting, is well doc- 
umented, But Wallace’s associates 
. .say he is just too tough to have ever 
considered killing himself. 

“1 don't think much of Holly- 
wood,” Wallace said. 

George Wallace Jr. said his fa- 
ther's real story was “dynamic and 
dramatic enough, replete with tri- 

antfdid not^nwd such^dramatiz- 
ation. 

The film is based in pan on Mar- 
shall Frady’s 

and stars Gary Snise (the 
Vietnam veteran of 
Gamp") in the title role. Although 
the Wallace Foundation, based In 
Montgomery, provided the film- 
makers some historical information, 
the Wallace family has no direct 
involvement in the movie, and no 
script approval rights. “I really 
don't care if we have the blessing of 
the Wallace family or not," 
Rrankenheimer said. 

Frankenheimer described Wal- 
lace as “a spokesman and spear- 
head of some of rhe most shameful 
history in our country." The film, 
he said, shows feat man’s trans- 
formation. 

“The theme of die picture at the 
end of the day is forgiveness," be 
said. “This is a movie about a mao 
who changed, who asked for for- 
giveness. 

But it is the way the film chron- 
icles that change, and the face it puts 
on Wallace, that rankles his son and 
others. A whole generation has 
come of age since be was last a 
visible national figure, and his leg- 
acy will be at least partly shaped \xy 
the film. 

Frankenheimer recalled feat be 



hope you 
are, too.’ I think he’s going to be 
veay pleased with iL" 

Unlikely, Wallace and his family 
say. “He’s suffered enough," his 
son said. ‘‘There’sapatt ofme that 
wants him to be left alone. I 
it will never happen." 



PEOPLE 


H OLLYWOOD turned out in force 
to help Elizabeth Taylor cel- 
ebrate her 65th birthday at a benefit 
gala for her favorite cause, AIDS. 
Hugh Grant got things off to a spir- 
ited start by introducing a retrospect- 
ive of Taylor's career and life. ‘ ‘What 
a body of work. Let’s face it, what a 
body, be said. Taylor, dressed all in 
green, was escorted by friend and new 
dad Michael Jackson, who com- 
posed a song for the occasion called 
“Elizabeth." The magician David 
Copperfield, the singers Hairy Con- 
nick Jr„ Patti LaBHle and Rod 
Stewart, and fee actor Kevin Bacon 
also entertained. Taylor, whose actual 
birthday is Feb. 27, is scheduled to 
have brain surgery fora benign tumor 
later this week. The black-tie benefit 
raised more than $1 million for the 
Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation. 
Held at Hollywood’s Pantages 
Theatre, it will be televised Feb. 24. 

a 

“Stanley" dominated Britain’s 
Koseanne playing Cleopatra at the Hollywood celebration of Liz’s career and life. Laurence Olivier awards, getting a 


boost for its Broadway opening later 
this week. The play, based on me life 
of the English painter Sir Stanley 
Spencer, took four awards. Among 
them, fee playwright Pam Gems took 
fee award for best new play, while 
Antony Sher won best actor. The best 
musical award went to the mega- 
budget “Martin Guerre,” from the 
creators of “Les MiseraWes" and 
“Miss Saigon.” Janet McTeer won 
best actress for “A Doll's House,” 
which goes to Broadway later this 
season. “Tommy," the stage version 
of The Who’s rode opera, won three 
awards. “Art,” a three-character play 
by Paris-based Yasmina Reza, was 
named best comedy. 

□ 

It seems that Courtney Love has 
Vaclav Havel to thank for her starring 
role in 4 ‘The People vs. Lany Flynt. * 
Director Mflos Forman, who was in 
Germany over die weekend for the 
Berlin Film Festival, said he cast 
Love despite her lack of acting ex- 
perience after showing screen tests to 


his friend fee Czech presidem. In fee 
film. Love plays Althea Flynt, fee 
troubled wife of Hustler publisher 
Larry Flynt- “X had three finalists 
and was leaning toward Courtney, but 
I wasn’t completely sure;” the Czech- 
bom Forman said, adding feat 
Havel's enthusiastic endorsement of 
Love had clinched fee choice. 

o 

An autographed script of fee last 
episode of ‘‘Cheers’’ was stolen fauna 
Boston charity auction where many of 
fee guests wore party madcs. George 
Wendt, who played Norm on fee 
NBC corned^, donated the script to fee 
Handel & Haydn Society, a classical 
orchestra and chorus. It had been auto- 
by the entire “Cheers” cast- 
script was stolen while a hotel 
security guard took a telephone call, ft 
had received a high bid of S1,000. 

□ ‘ 

Whitney Houston stormed off her 
husband Bobby Brown's tour bus in 
fee middle of Utah after a screaming 


match during his recent tour, accord- 
ing to People magazine. Brown and 
his reunited band New Edition had & 
late January performance in Al- 
buquerque and were traveling to their 
next date in Salt Lake City when 
Houston and Brown started scream- 
ing at each other. Brown reportedly 
tola the driver to pull off the highway. 
Houston and her entourage flew hack 
to Los Angeles, the magazine said. , 

Q 

. Nothing like swishing down an icy 
track at breakneck speed, protectedby 
little more than a metal can; to give 
Prince Albert a sense of fulfillment. 
“Bobsledding has been an incredible 
adventure for me. I've learned so 
much in terms of my personal de- ~ 
velopment,” fee 38-year-old heir to 
fee throne of Monaco said after testing, 
the new bobsled-luge run at Utah’s 
Winter Sports Parfc. “When you are 
an athlete competing at a high levels i 
you get to know yourself pretty well.- j 
In competing wife others, you get to J 
understand other people well, too.” j 



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