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The World’s Daily Newspaper 

Russian Demography: 
A Case for Dostoyevsky 

Death Rate of Working- Age Men Is Laid 
By Many to a Lethal Darkness of the Soul 

By Michael Specter 

New York Tunes Service 

MOSCOW — There are few more 
shocking trips one can take in Russia 
than to the general wards of a major 

S taL Despite the well-publicized 
ems of the Russian health-care 
system, it is not the hospitals them- 
selves. or their staffs, that give alarm: It 
is almost always the age of the patients 
and their condition. 

“Lung disease, heart attack, cancer, 
alcohol poisoning, high blood pres- 
sure." Tanya Rodinova, a 20-year-old 
nurse at Moscow's Hospital Number 4, 
reeled off the afflictions of five men, 
none of them yet 50. "The usual stuff. 
They are all going to die.” 

It may sound dismissive, but it is 
certainly true. Russian men are dying in 
middle age ar a rate unparalleled in 
modem history — from too much 
smoking, too much vodka, horrid diets. 

Paris to Bolster 
Military Force 
In Brazzaville 
Amid Uprising 

C-z>vafn4 frv Oar Suff Frtm Dupacl hr* 

BRAZZAVILLE, Congo Republic 
— A militia fighting soldiers loyal to the 
president seized the center of Brazza- 
ville on Sunday, and, as fighting con- 
tinued for ihe fourth day, France said it 
would reinforce its contingent here fol- 
lowing threats to its nationals and the 
death of a French soldier. 

Western military sources said militia 
fighters loyal to former President Denis 
Sassou-Nguesso and opposed to Pra* 
idem Pascal Lissouba had occupied 
most of the city' center and surrounded 
the prime minister’s office and the 

Officials at the presidency said dis- 
cussions had begun with representatives 
of General Sassou-Nguesso and other 
political leaders. 

In Paris, meanwhile, a spokesman for 
the French Foreign Ministry, Yves 
Doutriaux. said: "French military re- 
inforcements will be flown to Brazza- 
ville beginning tomorrow." He did not 
say how many troops would be in- 

There are about 450 French soldiers 
in Brazzaville. They arrived in March to 
evacuate foreigners from Kinshasa if 
necessary during the final days of die 
civil war in the former Zaire that 
brought Laurent Kabila to power. 

On Saturday, one French soldier was 
killed and five others were wounded here 
as they attempted to evacuate a group of 
foreigners from a building in which they 
had been trapped by fighting. 

A senior officer in the Congolese 
Army, who was taking part in the mis- 
sion, also was wounded in the shooting, 
the French Defense Ministry said. 

Mr. Doutriaux said France wanted a 
cease-fire in the conflict, followed by a 
negotiated settlement. 

In the meantime, be said about a 

See UPRISING, Page 7 

Paris, Monday, June 9, 1997 

No. 35,542 



little exercise and the enormous stress of 
rapid economic change and social dis- 
location since the dissolution of die So- 
viet Union. 

Suicides are on the rise; so are 
murders. Some Russians' wonder if an- 
other less tangible factor should be ad- 
ded: the gloomy Russian psyche. It is 
not the first tune die question has been 

“It is the indifference toward 
everything that is vital — toward the 
truth of life, everything that nourishes 
life and generates health,” Fyodor 
Dostoyevsky wrote in 1876, complain- 
ing of what seemed to be the incurable 
darkness of the Russian soul. “In our day 
this indifference — compared, let ns say, 
with the outlook of other European na- 
tions — is almost a Russian disease." 

It is not clear that such pessimism 
over the future and the health of the 
nation was justified 100 years ago. 
There can be no doubt that it is now. An 
astonishing drop in life expectancy for 
Russian men over the last decade, com- 
bined with one of die lowest birthrates 
on earth, has turned this country into a 
demographic freak show.- 

There is almost no current demo- 
graphic fact about Russia that would fail 
to shock: Per capita alcohol consump- 
tion is the highest in the world, nearly 
double the danger level drawn by the 
World Health Organization; a wider gap 
has developed in life expectancy be- 
tween men (59) and women (73) than in 
any other country, the mortality rate of 
.15.1 deaths per 1,000 people puts Rus- 
sia ahead of only Afghanistan and Cam- 
bodia among the countries of Europe. 
Asia and America (the rate for the 
United States is 8.8); the death rate 
among working-age Russians today is 
higher than a century ago. And there is 
much more. 

"The current death rates present the 
clearest possible threat to the national 
security of Russia.” a special report to 
President Boris Yeltsin recently con- 
cluded. “Only extreme measures will 
help us out of this demographic 

Yet the health crisis has received little 
top-level attention and almost no 
money. The government spends less 
than 2.6 percent of the gross national 
product on health care, far below the 
levels of other industrial nations. For the 
most part, it has been nationalist politi- 
cians and health-care advocates who 
have led the debate on the mortality 
issue, casting it as “genocide” for the 
Russian people. 

“I don’t think when you are killing 
off half a million able-bodied men every 
year, it is unfair to call that genocide.” 

See DARKNESS, Page 6 

Japan and U.S. Aim 
To Explain Accord 

TOKYO — Japan and the United 
States decided Sunday that they 
would quickly send representatives 
to China and other Asian nations to 
explain new arrangements that 
would give Tokyo its highest mil- 
itary profile since World War II. 

Japan’s enhanced military role in 
the region, announced by American 
and Japanese officials in Honoluln 
on Saturday, caused concern in Ja- 
pan and in Asian nations. Page 4. 


m twi 1 



French Open Salutes Its First Brazilian Champion 

Gustavo Kuerten, ranked No. 66 in the world, happily playing his way to a victory over Sergi Bruguera 
of Spain in the men's final Sunday of the French Open. Kuerten, 20, in his first-ever tournament final, 
won in straight sets, 6-3. 64, 6-2, over Bruguera, twice the tournament champion. Page 18. 

Opposition Coalition in Ireland 
Is Poised to Take Leadership 

By James F. Clarity 

New York Tunes Sen-ice 

■ DUBLIN — Bertie Ahem said Sunday night 
that he was confident of being named prime min- 
ister after final results showed his coalition falling 
just short of a majority in the 166-member 'Irish 

The official count showed that Mr. Ahern’s 
Fianna Fail and Mary Harney’s Progressive 
Democrats collected 81 seats and would need the 
support of Independents to have a majority. One 
seat was still in question. 

The coalition led by the incumbent prime min- 

Bmt) B* JidotfAgcno: Fnprc-Pre-tt 

Bertie Ahern, the Irish opposition leader, 
giving the victory sign Sunday in Dublin. 

ister. John Bruton, received 73 seats. Mr. Bruron 
said Sunday afternoon that "it is looking like" his 
opponents “have a belter chance" of forming the 
next government. 

Mr. Ahem did not claim victory. But he did say 
that “if we ’re a few short, there are many options. ’ ’ 
Officials of Mr. Bruton’s Fine Gael parly said they 
were resigned to going back into parliamentary 
minority. His principal coalition partners, the La- 
bour Party of Deputy Prime Minister Dick Spring, 
also conceded Mr. Ahem the victory. 

“I expect him to form a government” and 
become the next prime minister. Mr. Spring ’s chief 
strategist. Fergus Finlay, said in an interview on 
national television. Hearing that remark. Mr. 
Ahem said he would start on Monday morning to 
try to persuade independent members of Parlia- 
ment to join him and Fianna Fail, and probably the 
Progressive Democrats, in running the country. 

There was also the possibility that the Labour 
Party would switch coalitions, as it has done be- 
fore, leaving Mr. Bruron and joining Mr. Ahem. 

Mr. Spring, who brought the Bruton coalition to 
power in 1994 after walking out of a Fianna Fail 
coalition, said again Sunday that he did not want to 
go back to Fianna Fail, but would prefer to go into 
tiie parliamentary opposition. But other Labour 
Party officials, acknowledging that they had made 
a p<x>r showing in the election Friday, losing at 
least 10 of their 32 seats, indicated they favored 
staying in power by joining Mr. Ahem. One sce- 
nario spreading among political strategists in Dub- 
lin was for Mr. Spring to resign as leader. Labour 
to join Fianna Fail and Mr. Spring to be appointed 
Ireland's commissioner, or chief representative, in 
the European Union in Brossels. 

In his career as a politician — he was first 
elected to Parliament in 1977 — Mr. Ahem. 45, 
was known for wearing an anorak as he walked 
about his district. But for the recent campaign, his 
handlers decided to repackage him. He had his 
longish dark hair cut high above his ears and 
started wearing dark bankers’ suits. Utility poles 

See IRELAND, Page 6 

PUfl Betting His Future 
Kohl Adamantly 
Rejects Softening 
M* 4 Of Euro Criteria 

By John Schmid 

hiti Hi rjlJ Tribune 

FRANKFURT — .As European finance ministers gathered 
for a key meeting on monetary union. Chancellor Helmut Kohl 
warned Sunday that a postponement would doom the single 
currency and threaten German jobs and exports. 

The German chancellor, in one of his strongest statements of 
support for a common currency, bluntly rejected calls for 3 
softening of the entry criteria, even at a time when economists 
question whether Germany itself can make the grade. 

“The criteria in the Maastricht treaty are not up for dis- 
cussion," Mr. Kohl said in a speech to an industry group in 
Frankfurt. “Those who delay, delay forever." 

Mr. Kohl, who has announced he would run for a record fifth 
term next year, said he would stake his “political existence" 
on introducing the euro on time in January 1999. 

Aiming his comments at the German public, which has 
expressed increasing skepticism over giving up the Deutsche 
mark for the new currency. Mr. Kohl reminded his countrymen 
of the sort of economic shock they could expect if investors 
predict that the common currency, the euro, will fail. 

“Those who are thinking about a delay might consider the 
impact on the mark." Mr. Kohl said. 

The German currency tends to strengthen at times of Euro- 
pean disharmony and disintegration. The export -dependent 
German economy would suffer as a resurgent Deutsche mark 
priced German goods out of international markets. 

He issued the warning as EU finance ministers were gath- 
ering in Luxembourg to resolve a widening rift between 
Germany and France over the criteria. 

In France, the return of the political left has prompted a fresh 
bout of uncertainty over the new government's commitment to 
the EU's stability" and growth pact, a mechanism designed to 
enforce spending discipline among EU members. 

In a television interview in Italy on Friday, a key aide to 
Prime Minister Lionel Jospin said the new French government 
would formally ask for a flexible interpretation of the entry 
criteria at the next EU summit meeting in Amsterdam. 

“It would be absurd to exclude some countries because they 
are at 3.1 percent or 3.5 percent at the rime of launching the 
single currency." said the aide. Claude Estier. “Thai we want 
a more flexible interpretation of the criteria is certain." 

The European Commission president. Jacques Santer. ques- 
tioned before the finance ministers' meeting, said Sunday there 
would be “no delay" of the EU's plans for economic and 
monetary* union. Reuters reported from Luxembourg. 

Mr. Kohl's remarks echo those of Finance Minister Theo 
WaigeL who on Saturday dismissed gloomy economic fore- 
casts and said that Bonn would hold to the criteria and 

Mr. Waigel went further Sunday. sav : ng that drastic cu ; - 
were needed at all ministries to meet 1998 budget targets. 
European Union countries intending to qualify for the single 
currency on Jan. 1. 1999. must keep their budget deficit below 
3 percent of gross domestic product. 

Debate about a delay, previously a taboo subject in Bonn, 
flared last week when Mr. Waigel was forced to retreat from his 

kn IrrnitiD^'iu Krwe-I’ir- v: 

See EMU, Page 6 


Arafat Denounces Killings 

NEW YORK (Reuters) — The Palestinian leader, Yas- 
ser Arafat, said he was "absolutely against" vigilante 
executions of Palestinians who sell land to Israelis, and 
added that those responsible would be arrested. 

He was speaking in an interview in the current issue of 
Newsweek magazine. 

Three Arab real-estate brokers have been slain since the 
Palestinian justice minister was quoted in May as saying 
Palestinians who sold land to Jews faced execution. 
Peace negotiators meet at last. Page 7 


The 68 Determined Scots of Eigg Buy Their Island 

Books Page 9. 

Crossword .. Page 9. 

Opinion Page 8. 

Sports Pages 16-18. 

ThelHT on-line 

N«l M 
At tin 

A Match Made by Hitachi: Finding Spouses for Workers 

By Mary Jordan 

UjgiHHf ftwi Post Service 

TOKYO — For the Tanakas, it’s a 
wonderful Hitachi life. Shigetnitsu and 
Keiku Tanaka are longtime employees 
of Hitachi Ltd., the Japanese electron- 
ics giant They live in a Hitachi com- 
pany, apartment. All their appliances 
are kitachis. Mr. Tanaka wears a Hita- 
chi tic clip. . 

Even tneir marriage is a Hitachi. 

Back when they were single and 
looking for love, Shigemitsu, a ma- 
chinist, and Keiko, a telephone op- 
erator. turned to the place that had 
provided almost everything else for 
them in their adult lives: Hitachi 
- Independently, they made trips to 

/Anfloms. — 




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ihdn i, 

Nwwatand Prices 

_..10.00 FF Lebanon .U. 1000 

1&50FF Morocco; 16 Dh 

.1.600 CFA Qatar 10.00 Rigs 

__JE55D Rftrion 1150PF 

_10jOO FF Saudi Arabia. „1 0-00 R. 

...1100 CFA Senegal i.iQOCFA 

-ZBOQUib Spai n...... FTAS 

t.1250 CFA Turn* 1250 Din 

_ 120 JO UAE. 10.00 t»h 

.^,700 Fils U-5. MIL (Eur.)— S120 

the Tie the Knot office on the eighth 
floor of tiie Hitachi Insurance Service 
building in Tokyo. Shigemitsu went in 
1985, filled out a questionnaire asking 
about his education, bobbies, family 
background, height and weight He 
pasted on his photo, dropped it in a file 
and waited. 

Ten years later, Keiko Tomizawa 
came along. She filled out her own 
paperwork, then browsed the files of 
eligible mot and found her husband- 
to-be’s file — which hadn’t had a 
nibble in a decade. A company go- 
between, known as the wedding 
commander,” arranged a meeting, and 
last November they were married. 

•‘It was love at fust sight,” said 
Shigemitsu, now 36. 

"I guess the first tiling I thought 
was: He is not as fat as his picture," 
said his wife, 31. "He is not bad at 

In the United States, most bosses 
steer dear of employees’ personal mat- 
ters out of respect for their privacy or 
fear of sexual harassment lawsuits. But 
in Japan, where companies are often as 
important as family, many bosses see it 
as their duty to help their employees 
find a spouse. 

Matchmakers are a vital part of the 
dating ritual in Japan, especially for the 
wealthy and well-educated and those 
nearing 30, and many marriages still 
begin with an introduction from a go- 
between. On many Sundays in cities 
across Japan, fine hotel lobbies are 

filled with threesomes: a couple meet- 
ing for the first time, and their match- 

Often, that person is the boss. It is 
not unheard of for bosses to assemble a 
photo album of prospective dates for 
their unmarried employees. Many 
spend considerable time speaking with 
prospects and determining if they are 
wormy of their employees. And some 
companies such as Hitachi, which has 
more thaw 390,000 employees, estab- 
lish an office that helps employees who 
work long hours find a husband or 

“ It is difficult to find the time to find 
a good partner, so we are honored to 

See JAPAN, Page 7 

Alarm in Academia as Term Papers Flood Net 

By Peter Applebome 

New York. Tmn Service . 

NEW YORK — When President Bill 
Clinton vowed that every 12-year-old in 
America would be able to log onto die 
Internet, he probably did not have in 
mind lo gging on to the Evil House of 
Cheat to download term 
papers on “ Hamle t,” Crazy Horse or 
Mayan architecture. 

But many educators are increasingly 
alarmed or furious about the spread of 

dozens of Web sites offering such illicit 
help. They include traditional tenn-paper 
mins and guerrilla operations designed 
by college students in their dormitories, 
offering tens of thousands of term papers 
that can easily be downloaded and turned 
in by students as their own work. 

It is not dear how many students 
actually submit, under their own names, 
papers that have been obtained from the 
Internet Butthe spread of the term-paper 
sites highlights a problem that has man y 
educators veering between optimism 

Embattled General Losing 
Campaign for Joint Chiefs 

about the Internet, seeing it as a scholar’s 
dream of access to unlimited informa- 
tion, and concern that it has become a 
slacker's paradise of free computer 
games, pornography and term papers. 

Dorian Berger, who just finished his 
freshman year at Harvard University, 
said he had posted a number of his 
oaoers on the Internet so they could be 

papers on the Internet so they could be 
read bv more people. He said it soon 
become clear that his site had become a 

See CHEAT, Page 7 

By Brian Knowlton 

huenuttiunal Herald Tribune 

general's prospects of becoming chair- 
man of the Joint Chiefs of Staff ap- 
peared to be moving toward extinction 
Sunday, a casualty of an intense debate 
over a decade-old adulterous affair. 

Pentagon officials and key members 
of Congress said Sunday that they ex- 
pected General Joseph Ralston to with- 
draw his name soon. 

Representative Steve Buyer of Indi- 
ana, Republican chairman of the House 
subcommittee on military personnel, 
predicted that the general, now deputy 
chairman of the Joint Chiefs, would drop 
his candidacy, probably on Monday. 

General Ralston, who was returning 
Sunday from an official tow of Asia, 
was scheduled to meet Monday with 
Defense Secretaiy .William Cohen and 
the chairman of the Joint Chiefs, Gen- 
eral John Shaiikashvili, who is to retire 
from the position on Sept. 30. 

In their Sunday editions, both The 
Washington Post and The New York 
Times quoted senior Pentagon officials 
as saying that they expected General 
Ralston, a much-decorated Vietnam 
War veteran with an exemplary record, 
to withdraw and avoid what could be a 
sullying fight. 

Meanwhile, with the Pentagon in- 

creasingly embattled, Mr. Cohen has 
ordered a series of reviews on the mil- 
itary’s policies toward adultery and 
mixed-sex training, and its approach to 
disciplining sexual misconduct. 

General Ralston was Mr. Cohen’s 
choice to succeed General Shaiikashvili, 
though his name had not been formally 
forwarded to President Bill Clinton. 

Reports of General Ralston’s adul- 
terous affair in the early 1980s reached 
Mr. Cohen last week, and the general, 
when asked, confirmed the details. 

The affair began while the general 
and the woman, an analyst at the CIA, 
were students at the National War Col- 
lege. General Ralston was separated 
from his wife at the time, and they lwr*r 

Mr. Cohen’s decision to defend Gen- 
eral Ralston — and draw "a line” 
against what he portrayed as a frenzy of 
sex-related charges that has taken a toll 
among high-ranking officers —brought 
a cascade of criticism in Congress and 
elsewhere. On television and radio talk 
shows, critics spoke angrily of a double 

The question heard repeatedly was 
why General Ralston’s adultery was not 
disqualifying when other officers — 

SSlS ? “ P S u ? sly Lieutenant 

Kelly Flrnn, the first woman to pilot a B- 
See GENERAL, Page 7 



Islanders Seize the Moment / Saving Their Heritage 

A Tale of 68 Determined Scots 

By Warren Hoge 

No*- York Times Scn u e 

I SLE OF EIGG, Scotland — The phone 
rang and a caller from the mainland asked 
Davie Robertson if a neighbor was on the 

“Aye,” came the cheerful reply, “and 
where else would she be?” 

An answer of such straightforward High- 
land logic can only be given with confidence 
these days by the 68 residents of the savagely 
beautiful Isle of Eigg because of a remarkable 
campaign they waged together to raise £1.5 
million ($2 J million) to buy their island from 
its German landlord and guarantee their own 
right to stay. 

Farmers, shepherds, fishermen, guesthouse 
keepers, handymen — many with family roots 
on this windswept Hebridean outcropping that 
go back to the 17th century — they spread their 
plea around the world by enlisting the help of 
conservation groups and learning how to go on 
the Internet. 

More than 5.000 people responded with 
good wishes and checks. 

"A year ago. I didn't even know how to 
switch on a computer.” said Maggie Fyffe, the 
secretary of the new Isle of Eigg Heritage Trust 
that will take ownership Thursday. Dignitaries 
will be coming from the coastal towns of 
Arisaig and Mallaig and from the Isle of Skye 
for the ceremony, and Mrs. Fyffe is busy 
seeing to the placement of a commemorative 
standing stone, following an old Celtic tra- 

"I hope 1 can rustle up a piper," she said as 
she licked closed a freshly rolled cigarette. 

Until recently, another symbol of the is- 
landers' fighting spirit and community resolve 
— the rusted remains of a burned -out Bentley 
limousine — lay in an open shed by the pier. 
The vintage auto had belonged to Keith Schel- 
lenberg. an English businessman and former 
Eigg landlord with a history of conflict with the 
residents, and had caught lire mysteriously one 
day in January 1 994. An investigation by Colin 
Carr, a shepherd and designated "special con- 
stable” who is the island's only policeman, 
turned up no witnesses and no suspects. And 
it’s unlikely it ever will. 

"We weren’t the only ones who had trou- 

bles with him,” said Mr. Can. who had been 
the target of an effort by Mr. Schellenberg to 
evict him. his wife and his" five children from 
their 200 -year-old whitewashed seaside farm- 
house. "It could have been a passing fish- 
erman.’' he said amiably. Hie comment was 
greeted with some hearty laughs from the 
crowd ringing his kitchen table. 

It was around that same table that Marie Carr 
and three of her children found themselves 
doing a midday jig on April 4 when word came 
from Mrs. Fyffe that the islanders' bid to buy 
their rocky island from the current owner, a 
German artist named Marlin Eckhard Mar- 
uma, had been accepted. 

"Inearly went daft," she Said, recalling the 
merry scene. A look of gleeful horror played 
across her face. "I even made my 15-year-old 
rake his first drink with me.” 

That day, outbursts of gaiety erupted in the 
old stone houses and stuccoed cottages that dot 
the 1 1 square miles (28 square kilometers) of 
Eigg at word that the islanders had Finall y seen 
the back of the last of the nine landlords the 
island has had since 1828. 

The news also cheered people elsewhere in 
Scotland who have longed to modernize the 
■country's feudal land laws and know that the 
new Scottish Parliament promised by the in- 
coming British Labour government will give 
them the opportunity to do so. 

‘‘Scotland has the most concentrated form 
of land ownership of any Western country," 
said Daniel Morgan, a political science doc- 
toral candidate at Edinburgh University who is 
doing his dissertation on the subject with the 
Eigg campaign as its focus. "It was set up in 
the 12 th century to impose some order on. you 
know, the mad Scots, and it has not changed 


^ A. Glasgow 


o a 

Maggie fyffe teas named secretary of the Isle of Eigg Heritage 
after a remarkable campaign waged by residents to raise $2.5 million to 
buy their island from Us German landlord and guarantee their own right 
to stay. More than 5,000 people around the worid came to their cad. 

A NGUS Mackinnon, a 70-year-old re- 
tired army engineer whose family 
first came here in 1650, said the 
owners acted like colonial masters. 
"They treated us like rubbish,” he said "You 
know, as a child I saw landlords coming into 
my house without knocking and lifting the lids 
on the pans to see if we had a bit of their sheep 
in there." 

The evidence of the nonresident owners’ 
neglect of the land scars this island of soaring 

saddstone palisades, wooded glens and boggy 
grasslands sloping to the sea and so much plant 
and bird life .that Eigg is known as “The 
Garden of the Hebrides.” 

Towering above the lush lowland and the 
rise of headier moorland is a camel-backed 
basalt ridge with a Sphinx-Like headrock 
known as the SgutT of Eigg. This lends the 
flve-mile-long (eight-kilometer-long) island a 
kind of visual authority from afar that is 
thought to have accounted for its having be- 
come the meeting point for conclaves of 
Hebridean clan chieftains centuries ago. 

Crumbled stone foundations and roofless 
walls throughout .Eigg — the name is pro- 
nounced egg — stand as a reminder that in 
more recent times more than 500 people lived 
here. What are left now are a cattle ranch that 
has returned to its jungle state, 12 derelict 
worker's cottages, a ruined mill, an abandoned 
chapel, a shuttered general store, an old tea 

room and a rambling two- story "laird’s 
house" lodge with its floorboards buckled 
from thy rot and its walls and ceilings tom 
open from where its last occupant, Mr. Scbel- 
lenberg, ripped out furniture and electrical 
fixtures when he left after selling to Mr. Mar- 
umain 1995. 

"You know the phrase ‘everything but the 
kitchen sink,' ” said Mr. Robertson, pointing 
to twisted metal tubing protruding above the 
kitchen baseboard. “He took everything and- 
the kitchen sink." 

The islanders sensed their opportunity when 
they learned that. Mr. Mamma was facing 
financial difficulties and that Eigg itself was 
about to become a piece of the settlement 
Weary of rumors that their island was about to 
be bought by a rock star or developed as a 
holiday complex, the residents held meetings, 
sought outside help from lawyers, economists, 
and communications specialists, set up their 

Web site (http://dspace.dial.pii 
and launched their appeal ... 

“A remarkable part of the story febow well 
they developed their organizational aad man- 
agement skills." said Simon Fraser^ lawyer 
from Stornoway on the island of Lewis who 
will be the new governing trust's chairman. 
“It’s hard to imagine that these are people who 
had always been completely disenfranchised 
and unempowered.” 

T HOUSANDS of small contributions 
poured in, but what put them over the 
top was an anonymous £1 million 
(SI . 6 million) donation this spring 
from an Englishwoman who read a news ac- 
count of their campaign. Now Eigg belongs to 
a trust with the residents making up 50 percent 
of the partnership and the Highland Council 
and the Scottish Wildlife Trust 25 percent 
each. Their commitment is to a conservation- 
minded future for Eigg devoted to fanning, 
forestry and backpack tourism. 

“We don't want five-star hotels, proper 
walkways and signposts all over the place,” 
Mr. Carr said. "We actually "don't have a 
desire to change Eigg much ar all. The kind of 
tourists we want are the kind who are happy to 
come back to a wee house, make a fire, and dry 
out their clothes.” 

An ISLAND (?) 
in the middle of 
Western Europe? 

Are you looking foi on already built-out. personal, family 
and/or corporate ‘Home -Base" located in ttie heart- 
of western Europe'’ 

Would the Ideal (far you) be a country-estate property 
which combines the ultimate in Old World Charm 
with the ultimate in New World functionality, 
amenities and infra structure? 

What would describe "the ideal", ten you? 

Would it be located within a one hour's drive tram Bonn. 
Antwerp. Brussels and Luxembourg 7 

Would if be located within a three hours's drive from 
Frankfurt. Amsterdam. Calais. Parts and Euro-Dsney? 

Would the pnropal "Old Worfd Features* of the property 
include a completely restored 37 room Chateau 
and an IB roam Pavilion de Chasse (both with 
indoor, heated, marble swimming pools); Guest 
apartments located in a separate building, a CCH 
year aid Man/cured Park private deer habitat, 
world-class indoor ana outdoor teams courts, and 
v our own 9 hole/ 1700 yard golf course plus fully 
equipped gymnasium formal outdoor 
entertainment pavilion, croquet court, and gardens, 
ponds, fountains topiary hedges hand-iaid 
masem, anves an a pathways etc C trice facilities 
and access discreetly separated from residential 
xaces ar.d facilities; 

Would the principal "New Worid Features" include The 
ultimate in funcricnal'ly. amenities, and hi-tech 
infrastructure such a? dual iHOv and 220v) 
electrical power sup pi, f. stems Fite; Optic cables 
ana .nfrc-pf.Terrv 3V rcbie and digital telephone 
svstemi connecting /underground) the Chateau, 
rj.iiion de Chiasse. Office complex and the guest 
apartment? v.nich grace the property A 'jyper- 
duiet' 5uoerpiy engineered Chateau Air 
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the-flcor het wafer heating, high pressure water 
svsrerre Chateau ana apartment Duilding elevators. 
Heiicapte" poo and hangar i heated) A property 
penmete r thar y tencea gated and electronically 
secured, etc 7 

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'French GeriYiQh a Enghshi start already in place. 
.vna are already framed ana ei penanced «n an 
ascecrs cf maintaining ana operating ;ne property? 

1 1 1 1- 1- J ■ i ■ I t-Ii t-VJ 

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t fesjers ty co^frJenfici.-.Vvvti/ee rescected • 

Libya Tries New Tack in Pan Am Case 

But Victims’ Relatives Rebuff Offer of Talks About Trial of Suspects 

By Thomas W. Lippman 

Waslim&tun Post Semcr 

WASHINGTON — Libya has tried a 
surprising new tack in its long-running 
effort to escape UN economic sanctions 
imposed over the Pan Am 103 bombing 
in 1 988: a direct appeal to families of the 

In a letter sent last week from its 
United Nations mission in New York, 
Libya declared itself ' 'ready to enter into 
serious negotiations as of this moment, 
regarding the procedures leading to a 
trial" of two Libyan intelligence agents 
who were indicted here on charges of 
planning and carrying out the bombing 
over Lockerbie, Scotland. 

The explosion killed 259 people on 
the plane and 1 1 on the ground. 

The letter drew a strongly negative 
response from the Clinton administra- 
tion and family members who reported 
receiving iL 

"It’s unnerving and it’s outrageous,” 
said Rosemary Wolfe, who is the head of 
one group of victims’ families. "What 
incredible nerve, io send this to the fam- 

ilies. It is just a propaganda ploy." 

Two Libyan intelligence agents were 
indicted in 1991 and have long been on 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s 
"Most Wanted” list The FBI Has also 
offered a reward of up to $4 million for 
information that would lead to their ar- 
rest. But the two are believed to be in 
Libya, which has refused to turn them 
over to the U.S. or British authorities. 

Chafing under the resulting UN sanc- 
tions. which have cut off international 
air travel and restricted supplies for its 
oil industry, Libya has tried one legal 
maneuver after another in a quest for a 
formula that would get the sanctions 
lifted without delivering die two to 
Washington or London. One proposal 
called for Britain and the United States 
to send judges ro monitor a trial in Libya; 
another called for holding a trial in a 
"neutral country.” 

In its letter, Libya asserted that "all 
these efforts have not produced any re- 
sults, apparently because the govern- 
ment or the United States is neither 
interested in the incident nor does it care 
about the victims. ” 

As a result, the letter said, "almost 10 
years have been wasted since the in- 
cident without malting any serious pro- 
gress toward finding a solution to this 
case and identifying the real perpetrat- 

It offered to "guarantee our full and 
imm ediate cooperation with the United 
States and the United Kingdom” if they 
would accept any of Libya’s previous 
offers, or do as the French did in an 
unrelated airliner bombing by sending 
investigators to Libya to discuss the case 
with the Libyan authorities. 

The letter bore the seal of Libya’s UN 
mission but was unsigned. A diplomat at 
the mission, Ramadan Barg, said his 
government was "jusr trying to get the 
facts through, that's alL” 

Libya’s leader, Moammar Gadhafi, 
recently defied the United Nations ban 
on air travel to or from Libya by flying to 
Niger and Nigeria. Some relatives ofPan 
Am 103 victims said that what they 
viewed as a tepid international response 
to that provocation has emboldened the 
Libyans and prompted them to send their 

Isle of Man Criticised in Jailing of Girl, 12 


Since 185* 


The only Grand Hotel 
located in the heart of 
Geneva’s business 
and shopping center. 
Air canditioned. 

3A, quai Genera i-Gui son 
121 1 Geneva 3 
TeJ : (♦41-221 318 32 00 
Fax: 1*4 1-22) 31 8 33 00 
Email www metropole ch 


4 LONDON — Human 
rights campaigners have con- 
demned the authorities on the 
Isle of Man for allowing a 12- 
year-old girl suffering from 
spina bifida to be held in a 
prison used to house adult in- 

The girl, who has not been 
identified, was being kept in a 
prison annex in the Manx cap- 
ital, Douglas, set aside for 
women and young offenders. 
She had been accused of as- 
saulting social workers. 

Manx officials said the girl 
would appear in court Wed- 
nesday and was very likely to 

be granted bail. Magistrates 
had not been aware thar the 
girl suffered from spina bi- 
fida, a congenital defect of the 
spinal cord. 

A rights group, the Manx 
Council for Civil Liberty, de- 
manded an investigation of 
the case by the United Na- 

"Our concern in this mat- 
ter is further heightened by 
the recent revelation that the 
so-called segregated young 

offenders annex of the prison 
is also used on occasion to 
bouse adult prisoners," the 
council said Saiurday in a let- 
ter to the UN Committee on 
the Rights of the Child. 

Manx authorities said that 
although (he island's law 
provided for the imprison- 
ment of children as young as 
12 in exceptional circum- 
stances, the girl in this case 
had been strictly segregated 
from adult prisoners. 



International Funcfe viM E-mail. 

A new /tea service fdrTHT readers. 

M International fund groups delivered bv 
e-mail daily. 

I How do I subscribe? 

Send a blank e-mail message to "e-lunds@ihLcom'* 

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tite official E-Funds sponsor. 



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Dry ana warm wth plenty Sunny and very warm In 
of sunshine across the Finland and Hussia 
eastern half of the nation Poland and southern Scan- 
Tuasday through Thors- dinavla will also be warm 
day: most place*. Including wrt+i a few thundereiorms 
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Comfonaoie in Seoul 
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North America 





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American Airlines to Cut Fares R 

NEW YORK (AFP) — American Airlines announced Aal 
it would cut fares on weekday domestic flights by an average 
of 45 percent after other major carriers offered reductions. 

American said its summer specials, for weekday flights 
throughout the United States and Canada, average 45 percent 
off the regular 21 -day advance purchase fares and must be 
bought only seven days in advance. 

The airline also said it would offer fare specials to Mexico; 
Brussels and the Caribbean. 

Aga Khan’s Tomb Shut to Tourists 

ASWAN, Egypt (AFP) — The widow of the Aga Khan 3d 
has decided to dose her husband’s mausoleum on the West 
Bank of Aswan to tourists indefinitely, caretakers and local 
officials said. 

The Begum Aga Khan has complained that tourists flocking 
to tiiis jewel of Islamic architecture make too much noise and 
that souvenir stalls that have sprung up in the area threaten the 
“holiness’ ’ of the site. The Aga Khan is the leader of the Shiite 
sect of Ismaili Muslims. He died in 1957. 

Alitalia Adds Flights to Venezuela 

CARACAS (Bloomberg) — Alitalia has announced that it 
plans to expand flights to Venezuela pending government 
approval, following the collapse of Viasa. Venezuela’s in- 
ternational carrier, in January. 

Alitalia, Italy’s national airline, said it will begin offering a 
fourth direct flight between its Rome hub and Caracas be- 
ginning July 13 through October. 

An Alitalia spokesman said the airline was starting the 
flights to take advantage of the high season. The airline said it 
expected to receive formal permission from The Venezuelan 
government within days. 

This Week’s Holidays 

Banking and government offices will be closed or services 
curtailed in the following countries and their dependencies 
this week because of national and religious holidays: 

MONDAY: Am-ruma. Australia. Colombia. Hong Kong. Macau. Tai-ftaa. 

TUESDAY : French Guiana. Jordan. Macau. Portugal. 

WEDNESDAY: r srae i.Lib>a. 

THURSDAY: Paraguay. Philippines. Russia 

Sources: JJ 3 . Morgan, Reuters. Bloomberg- 


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■ U.S. Panel Urges Legal Ban on Human Cloning 

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By Rick Weiss 

Hu-i/i/ngfi’H Pmt Scmce 

WASHINGTON — A federal bioeth- 
ics commission has formally recom- 
mended that Congress enact a law to 
prohibit the creation of human beings by 
cloning, asserting that the technique 
posed Foo many medical risks and raised 
ethical concerns. 

Until Congress passed such a law. the 
commission said, the federal govern- 
ment should continue its moratorium on 
the use of federal funds for human cion- 
ins experiments, and privately financed 
researchers should be strongly encour- 
aged to abide by the same rules. 

■/The commission concludes that at 
this time it is morally unacceptable for 
anyone in the public or private sector, 
whether in a research or a clinical sel- 
ling, to attempt to create a child” by 
cloning, the National Bioethics Advis- 
ory Commission said in its final report 
To President Bill Clinton. 

’ The report stopped short of recom- 
mending a legislative ban on the cre- 
ation of cloned human embryos for re- 

search, purposes — a practice already 
prohibited among federally financed re- 
searchers but largely unregulated in the 
private sector. But it warned strongly 
against any attempt to implant such 
cloned embryos into women’s wombs, 
where they might grow into babies. 

“Professional and scientific societies 
should make clear,” the commission 
said, “that any attempt to create a child 
by cloning, and implantation into a 
woman's body would at this time be an 
irresponsible, unethical and unprofes- 
sional act.” 

Mr. Clinton banned the use of federal 
funds for human cloning research — and 
asked private laboratories and fertility 
clinics to follow the same rules vol- 
untarily — after researchers in Scotland 
announced in February that they had 
cloned a sheep from a single cell taken 
from an adult sheep. He then asked the 
new bioethics commission to study the 
issue of human cloning and make rec- 
ommendations within 90 days. 

Members said the commission de- 
cided to recommend a legal ban ou 
cloning people, rather than an extended 

moratorium, because of doubts thai 
private.fertility clinics would abide by a 
voluntary ban. 

“It is our concern that these clinics 
have operated in a way that really 
pushes the envelope of what is accept- 
able," said Alexander Capron. a mem- 
ber of the commission who is a pro- 
fessor of law and medicine at the 
University of Southern California. 
"'Hie main worry is that individual fer- 
tility clinics or the like would be in- 
duced by their own desire to be the 
first” to clone human beings. 

The 18-member commission also re- 
commended that a law include a “sun- 
set clause," to ensure that the ban is 
reconsidered within three to five years. 
It said “an appropriate oversight body” 
should review the scientific field before 
the law expires, to help Congress dec ide 
whether the ban should be extended. 

The 103-page report does not include 
suggested language for a legislated ban 
or offer specific penalties for those who 
might violate such a law. 

One commission member has drafted 
such wording, a member said. But Har- 

old Shapiro, president of Princeton Uni- 
versity, who chairs the commission, 
said the group was not prepared to make 
that wording public. Some members 
have said they are opposed to gening 
involved in the political process of forg- 
ing legislation. 

The report warned that the law 
"should be carefully written so as nor to 
interfere with other important areas of 
scientific research." a concept echoed 
Saturday by biotechnology companies. 

Carl Feldbaum, president of the Bio- 
technology Industry Organization, in a 
statement applauding the recommenda- 
tions, said the industry strongly be- 
lieved that "we must continue to clone 
genes and cells — techniques that do not 
lead to the development of a human 

Although a ban on human cloning can 
be justified for now on safety concerns 
alone, the commission said, it remains 
an “open question” whether ethical 
concerns — such as the possible psy- 
chological impact of being cloned or 
effects on religious or cultural values — 
might preclude human cloning forever. 

Infant Formula Now Seen as Weapon Against AIDS 

By Barry Meier 

A>n M Times Sen-icc 

NEW YORK — For two decades, 
doctors and public health agencies have 
offered uniform advice to new mothers 
in poorer countries: Breast-feed your 
babies to protect their health. 

■ But now. the AIDS pandemic is up- 
setting that simple equation. 

■ Studies are showing that mothers in- 
fected with the AIDS virus can transmit 
it through breast milk at significant 
rates. Based on such findings, the 
United Nations recently estimated that 
one-third of ail infants with HIV got the 
Virus through their mothers’ milk: 

• To a growing number of researchers 
;and advocates of breast-feeding, the im- 
plications of such srudies are as com- 
pelling as they were once unthinkable: 
Infant formula — a product whose mis- 
use in developing countries with poor 
sanitation was once blamed by oppo- 
nents for killing 1 million babies a year 
— may be a powerful weapon to reduce 
childhood deaths from AIDS. 

Doctors in industrialized nations 
have long recommended that HIV-in- 
fected mothers use formula. But as 
women in developing countries become 
aware of the risks of breast-feeding, 
they face excruciating choices and con- 
front societal taboos. 

When Margaret Hadebe, who lives in 
South Africa's Soweto township, 
learned last year that she had HIV. she 
initially ignored her doctor's advice and 
breast-fed her newborn daughter, ter- 
rified that her parents would otherwise 
suspect that she had the AIDS virus and 
abandon her. 

But the fear of infecting her baby 
became so great that she told her family 
that she could not produce enough 
breast milk and s tarter! using formula. 

“I was afraid that my baby might get 
infected," the 23-year-old woman said. 
“And I wouldn’t be able to live with 

Third World physicians such as 
Kuben Pillay, a pediatrician at King 
Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, on the 
east coast of South Africa, are also torn. 

Justice Dept Backs 
Clinton on Subpeona 

WASHINGTON — The Justice De- 
partment says Hillary Rodham Clin- 
ton's conversations with White House 
lawyers about Whitewater-related mat- 
ters are protected by the attorney-client 

In a filing Friday with the Supreme 
Court, Justice Department lawyers said 
a lower court should reconsider the 
case, applying a standard that balances 
the competing interests of attorney- 
client privilege against the Whitewater 
investigators' need for the notes. 

A federal appeals court had ruled 
that notes taken by two White House 
lawyers of conversations with Mrs. 
Clinton about Whitewater matters 
should be turned over. The petition 
increases the chance that the Supreme 
Court will agree to hear the White 
House appeal of that decision. INYT) 


New Gingrich Forum 

BOCA RATON, Florida — The 
House speaker. Newt Gingrich, a one- 
time college history teacher, was back 
on a campus recently describing his 
vision of- the Republican Party to a 
university auditorium filled with party 

Republican officials stressed that 
the event Saturday evening was in- 
tended as a way to thank small con- 
tributors. But it was also clearly de- 
signed to play to the strengths of Mr. 
Gingrich, who is trying to rehabilitate 
an image tarnished by government 
dosings two years ago and bis ad- 
mission last year that he broke House 
ethics rules. 

* ‘This journey that we’re on togeth- 
er is only made possible because all 
across America thousands of people 
decided voluntarily to contribute," 
Mr. Gingrich told’ the audience of 
2.000 at Florida Atlantic University 
before discoursing for an hour about 

In many instances, he said, advising 
new mothers to use formula would be 
impractical: many lack the means to 
sterilize bottles or the money to afford 
formula. Besides, the majority of preg- 
nant women in poor countries are not 
tested for HIV and thus are unaware of 
the risks they and their newborns face. 

“Do I give information about this to 
all women, or do I give information only 
to women who appear to me to be able to 
afford formula feeding?” Dr. Pillay 
asked. “And then do I say nothing to the 
woman in die squatter camp who has no 
access to clean water or electricity?" 

To some experts, including many 
who led the international boycott cam- 
paign against the Swiss company Nestle 
and other formula makers in the 1970s, 
there is little to debate. Though the data 
are incomplete, they say, in the vast 
majority of the Third World more in- 
fants will be imperiled by renewed pn> 
motion of bottle-feeding, with its ac- 
companying risks of diarrhea and 
dehydration, than by the danger of HTV 
transmission through breast-feeding. 

the party. In addition, the evening 
underscored a shift in Mr. Gingrich's 
role. He has continued to step back 
from the details of running the House 
and instead seeks to be chief spokes- 
man for what he calls “The Repub- 
lican Mission for. the Next Millen- 
nium." (WPl 

Quote /Unquote 

President Bill Clinton, in his gradu- 
ation address at Sidwell Friends 
School, with his daughter, Chelsea, in 
the audience: “Indulge your folks if 
we seem a tittle sad or we act a little 
weird. You see, today we are remem- 
bering your first day in school and all 
the triumphs and travails between 
then and now. Though we have raised 
you for this moment of departure and 
we are very proud of you. a part of us 
longs to hold you once more as we did 
when you could barely walk, to read 
to you just one more time ‘Goodnight, 
Moon’ or ‘Curious Geoige’ or ‘The 
Little Engine That Could.’ ” (WP) 

"In 90 percent of the developing 
world, the protection that is afforded by 
breast-feeding against the diseases of 
the Third World is higher than the rate of 
HIV transmission." said Elizabeth Pis- 
an! , a spokeswoman for UNAIDS, a uni t 
of the United Nations that includes sev- 
eral UN agencies and the World Bank. 

But others say that it is imperative to 
find alternatives to breast-feeding, in- 
cluding ways to make safe, affordable 
formula widely available. Meanwhile, 
the United Nations has come under crit- 
icism from scientists who say that the 
group, in its zeal to promote breast-feed- 
ing, has not confronted the HIV issue. 

Between 20 percent and 25 percent of 
infants bom to HIV-infected mothers 
become infected while in the womb or 
during delivery, said loseph Saba, a 
clinical research specialist with UN- 
AIDS. While earlier reports indicated 
that an additional 14 percent of such 
infants became HIV-infected if breast- 
fed, more recent studies suggest that the 
added risk in some countries could be as 
high as 22 percent. Dr. Saba said. 

W& % 

!\inwn M kif 'the \u>«UIAl IV--- 

ADVICE FOR GRADS — Former President George Bush speaking 
at the University of New England’s College or Osteopathic Medicine. 
He urged the 81 graduates to become involved in their communities. 

Away From 

• In an effort to enhance drug in- 

terdiction efforts along the smug- 
gling routes increasingly favored by 
traffickers, the Pentagon has trans- 
ferred jurisdiction over the Caribbean 
Sea and the island nations and ter- 
ritories in it from the Atlantic Com- 
mand to the military authority cur- 
rently responsible for South and 
Central America. [NYT\ 

• The main suspect in the torture 
killing of Jonathan Levin, the son of 
Time Warner’s top executive, was 
arrested in a New York housing proj- 
ect and charged with first-degree 
murder and robbery. The police ar- 

rested Mr. Levin's former student. 
Corey Arthur. 19. a convicted drug 

E eddler. Another suspect. Montoun 
Ian. 25. was charged with second- 
degree murder and robbery. ( AP) 

• Environmental officials from the 
37 states east of the Rockies have 
endorsed new measures to signif- 
icantly reduce the industrial emis- 
sions rhai form the smog that often 
drifts across state lines. tNYTt 

• The government has is charging a 
campaign fund-raiser working for 
Ronald Carey, the Teamsters' pres- 
ident. with mail fraud, asserting that 
the fund-raiser. Martin Davis, mas- 
terminded a scheme in which em- 
bezzled union money was contributed 
to Mr. Carey's re-eiection campaign 
in 1996. f/VVTl 

Papers Show CIA-Tin les Cooperation 

By Tim Weiner 

Nnv York Times Service 

WASHINGTON — In June 1954. the 
publisher of The New York Times 
privately agreed with the director of the 

Central Intelligence Agency to keep a 
Times correspondent out of Guatemala, 
according to the publisher’s personal 
files, just as the CIA was secretly mount- 
ing a coup there. 

"I telephoned Allen Dulles and told 
him that we would comply with their 
suggestion," reads a memorandum dic- 
tated by the publisher. Arthur Hays 
Sulzberger. The call rook place on or 
about June 3, 1954. 

Mr. Dulles, the director, had sugges- 
ted that the correspondent. Sydney 
Gmson, was politically suspect and 
should be kept out of Guatemala. 

Unknown to the publisher, the CIA had 
elaborate plans to overthrow an elected 
leftist president, Jacobo Arbenz Guzman, 
and replace him with a rightist military 
officer. Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas. 

Although Mr. Sulzberger later defen- 
ded Mr. Gmson against the CIA’s com- 
plaints. he also said he would screen his 
articles "with a great deal more care 
than usual." the documents show. 

Mr. Sulzberger’s files and a newly 
declassified CIA history of the Gua- 
temalan coup provide new footnotes to 
the story of how Mr. Gmson. who was 
based in Mexico City, was spied on by 
the CIA and ultimately kept out of Gua- 
temala by The Times. 

They include more details of Mr. 
Sulzberger's Cold War contacts with 
Mr. Dulles than previously published 

The CIA files say the agency had been 
spying on Mr. Gmson starting at leasi in 
1952. In a search for evidence that Mr. 
Gruson was politically unsound, a CIA 
commander in the Guatemala coup. Col- 
onel Albert Haney, "plumbed agency 
files" in late May 1954. the declassified 
history says. 

Colonel Haney, it says, "found that 
two years earlier, Gmson had attended 

parties in Mexico City at which Czech- 
oslovak diplomats had been present." 

“He rook this evidence to Dulles, and 
the director passed it on to Arthur Hays 

Three weeks after the coup, on July- 
20. 1954. Mr. Sulzberger sent Mr. 
Dulles a letter defending Mr. Gruson as 
“a good newspaperman who happened 
upon some stories which the people re- 
porting to you did not like.” 

“Of course," the letter continued, 
“now that we have been alerted. I shall 
watch his work with a great deal more 
care than usual." 

The publisher also sent the director a 
copy of a memorandum he wrote that 
day to a Times editor outlining his ver- 
sion of why Mr. Gmson was kept in 
Mexico City. 

Mr. Gmson, who later became a vice 
chairman and director of The New York 
Times Co., said: "I always understood 
'that ’Washington' — 1 didn’t know who 
— got directly in touch with Arthur 
Hays. I had a reputation with the CIA." 

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Digs in Guatemala Turn Up Massacres of 36-Year War 

By Larry Rohter 

- Vl 2 i and our team hasn ’t dug down even 

SAN MARTIN JILOTEPEQUE, a quarter of that distance," said 
Guatemala — At the height of this Freddy Peccerelli, a leader of the 
country’s Ions civil war, travelers Guatemalan Foundation for Foren- 
dreaded the military checkpoint on sic Anthropology, the group car- 
ihe road just south’ of this town in rving out the exhumation. - 
central Guatemala. More than 100,000 people were 

Passengers who lacked proper killed during the 36-year conflict in 
documenfs or aroused the suspicion Guatemala, which ended with the 
of soldiers for whatever reason were signing of a United Nations-super- 

“ Local people tell us this well the remains of her father and four of of the forensic group’s office in the 
could he as much as 100 feet deep, her brothers may be among those in capital. "There are many, many 
and our team hasn’t dug down even the well. ‘ ‘They were killing every- more than that, the result of a sys- 

routinely yanked from buses, cars or 
pickup trucks and never seen again. 

Now, thanks to the efforts of ar- 
chaeologists and anthropologists 
who normally die for Mayan an- 
tiquities. their fate is finally becom- 
ing clear. Barely 90 meters (100 
yards) from the din road, in a grove 
of trees surrounding an abandoned 
pumping station, the scientists are 
excavating a well from which 35 
skeletons ''have already been re- 

vised peace last December. Forty 
thousand more disappeared and are 
presumed dead. 

Relatives of those missing here 
have been suspicious since the early 
1980s of the well and the foul odors 
that have often wafted from it, but 
like thousands of others in this coun- 
try of 103 million, they were unable 
to act. 

one in those days of violence, but 
there was nothing we could do about 
it, because there was no law.” 

Now. with the war finally over, 
and relatives of the dead and miss- 
ing hesitantly coming forward, it has 
become clear that Guatemala is 
"awash in clandestine cemeteries," 
according to Ronalth Ochaeta, di- 
rector of the Roman Catholic 

more than that, the result of a sys- 
tematic policy of extermination." 

Thus far. 25 clandestine cemeter- 
ies have been excavated by the sci- 
entists, most of whom studied at uni- 
versities in the capital, anticipating a 
lifetime of recovering artifacts from 
Mayan temples and tombs. 

In Rio Negro, a site excavated 
before the peace agreement was 
signed, scientists uncovered the re- 

“We were afraid,” said Maria cemeteries spread all over the coun- 
Alberta Alvarez Kapir. 53, a try, but that is absurd," said 
Kakqikel Indian who believes that Fernando Moscoso Moller. director 

Church’s h uman rights office in mains of more than 100 children and 
GuaremaJa City, the capital. 80 women. At locations in the Peten 

Forensic scientists say that every jungle, they have found skeletons 
time they begin an exhumation, with hands and feet bound together 
townspeople approach to tell them behind their backs, the rope also 
of three or four other nearby sires stretched tightly around the necks 
that also need to be excavated — evidence of a form of death by 
“People have estimated that there torture that the scientists call, in 
are 400 of these clandestine typically clinical language, "forced 


As Mr. Peccerelli and another an- 
thropologist, Leonel Paiz Diez, dug 

near the apse of a church, a group of 
women knelt at the edge of the deep- 
ening pit and watched as two skel- 
etons gradually appeared. 

One of the women, Maria Chach 
Ujer, 38, last saw her husband. Vic- 
toriano Chach Toe. on Feb. 15, 
1982. That day he and five other 
people were taken to the church by 
members of the army ’s civilian aux- 
iliary patrols, supposedly to clear up 
confosion about their documents. 

“It’s not fair that my children 
have had to go hungry and grow up 
without their father and that I have 
had to leave them and go to the coast 
to work in the harvest to make the 
money to keep us alive." Mrs. 
Chach said, breaking into tears. 

The Guatemalan government has 
allotted only 550,000 for an official 
Truth Commission that will exam- 
ine the worst human rights abuses of 
the war without naming names or 
fixing blame: 

' 4 ^- * 



& Historic Textile Mill 
Faces the Wrecker’s Ball 

The 'tum-of-the-cenrary textile 
itnh in Gastonia, North Carolina, is 
Mill an imposing brick structure, 
seemingly impervious to the ravages 
of time. Bur the former Loray Mill 
planLonce the world's largest textile 
mill and the site of a violent strike in 
- J 929“- that came to symbolize the 
.labor strife then sweeping the South, 
now faces a wrecker’s ball. 

Short of a last-minute miracle, its 
r current owner. Firestone Fibers and 
Textiles, is set to demolish the 
6W.000- square-foot (54,000- 

Miuare-roeter) factory. More than 
bricks would be lost, says Mayor 

Jake Garland, who has tried to or- 
ganize a rescue. 

The mill has a powerful history of 
international intrigue and class con- 
flict. During the 1929 strike, the 
city’s police chief, Orville Aderholt, 
was murdered. So was Ella May 
Wiggins, a union balladeer whose 
death caused an international uproar. 
The Communist Party became in- 
volved at Loray in an attempt to build 
a role in the U.S. labor movement. 

For some the five-siary brick edi- 
fice represents a violent past to be 
forgotten; for others, a place where 
patents or grandparents made a 
good living. But those who would 
preserve the building, perhaps to 
make it a shep-and-office complex, 
appear to be losing the battle. 

Short Takes 

Mary Easano came from a fam- 
ily of Italian immigrants. When 
she turned. 14. 75 years ago, hex 
parents made her quit school and go 

to work in a Rhode Island cotton 
mill. At 69, she finally earned a high 
school diploma. "I had a terrible 
inferiority complex” because of the 
lack of an education, she told die Los 
Angeles Times. “Then I went to 
high school, and Ifeli much better.” 
$o much better that she wanted 
more. There was a school up die road 
from where she and her husband 
then lived, in Braintree. Massachu- 
setts. So, 17 years ago she enrolled 
in an extension school, concentrat- 
ing on classes that related to her 
Italian culture. And now, at 89, a 
grandmother of 18, she has her di- 
ploma — from Harvard University. 

New Hampshire has banned 
discrimination because of sexual 
orientation in hiring, housing de- 
cisions and public accommoda- 
tions, becoming the 11th state to 
offer civil rights protection to gays 
and lesbians. A similar measure 
failed in 1994 after it encountered 
opposition from the Roman Cath- 

olic Church. The new measure in- 
cludes a caveat, approved by the 
church, that says the state does not 
approve of any sexual lifestyle 
"other than the traditional mar- 
riage-based family.” 

Morris Stahl had tried for years 
to ger his wife. Phyllis, to stop 
smoking. Hiding her cigarettes did 
no good. Nicotine patches couldn't 
help her overcome a three-pack-a- 
day habit. But Mr. Stahl was worried 
about her health-' So he bought space 
on a billboard near their Pittsburgh 
home. The message: "Phyllis J. 
Stahl — Stop Your Smoking.' We 
love you. From your family and 
friends.” When the couple drove by 
the billboard. Mr. Stahl pointed it out 
to his wife. * ‘She said, 'God, are you 
crazy?' She was upset, but that was 
the reaction I wanted." Did it work? 
"A lot of my friends asked me where 
I slept last night,” Mr. Stahl said. His 
reply, "Well, under the billboard.” 

hltcmoiipiiiit Merultl Tribune 


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[Shadow of Burmese Military Looms Behind Buddhist 

By R. Jeffrey Smith 

Hiaftwgft»i Post Sen-tee 

MANDALAY, Burma t- This dusty, 
languorous city was roiled last March, 
when a peaceful gathering of several 
thousand monks airing grievances about 
botched government repairs of an im- 
mense golden Buddha turned into a two- 
evening spasm of violence and vandal- 
ism directed against local Muslims. 

The mayhem was meant partly as 
revenge for the reported rape of a 
Buddhist girl, and it left in its wake at 
least one death, many injuries and con- 
siderable property damage. 

Establishing the cause of a disturb- ■ 
ance such as the riots of March 16 and 17 
is a major challenge in Burma, an iso- 
lated nation ruled by a xenophobic mil- 
itary government that rigidly controls 
the news media, rarely holds open court 
trials and represses public dissent. 

But one possibly telling detail about 
the riots here has seeped into the ac- 

counts of citizens and Western diplo- 
mats stationed in Burma, that some of 
the supposed monks who joined in the 
vandalism at mosques were wearing 
army boots and carrying cellular tele- 

This has helped sustain a common 
suspicion here that Burmese military 
forces played a role in provoking or 
carrying out some of the anti-Muslim 
attacks. There was further suspicion that 
they did so partly to preserve the idea 
that only a strong authoritarian band can 
keep a lid on the ethnic and religious 
tensions supposedly boiling below the 
surface of this' outwardly placid soci- 

Although Burma is overwhelmingly 
Buddhist, roughly 4 percent of the 48 
million population is Muslim and 4 per- 
cent is Christian. In addition, the country 
harbors at least IS major ethnic groups, 
many of which have long battled the 
central government and each other. 

According to several diplomats, mil- 

itary leaders typically have dealt with 
dissent or outbreaks of public violence 
with crushing “scorched earth” tech- 
niques. Ne Win, the general who con- 
trolled Burma officially until 1988 and 
evidently still retains influence with his 
military successors, began his rule in 
1962 by dynamiting the student union at 
the University of Rangoon, a historic 
meeting place for dissidents. 

Ne Wm also ordered his troops, who 
make up a land army second in size to 
Vietnam's in Southeast Asia, to fire into 
crowds protesting economic problems 
and military rule in 1988. Some student 
protest leaders* heads were severed. Be- 
cause monks had played a role in those 
protests, the mintary orchestrated a 
purge of the Buddhist clergy in the early 
1990s and today has seeded senior 
Biiddhist ranks with spies, several dip- 
lomats said. 

The military junta, which calls itself 
the State Law and Order Restoration 
Council, has imprisoned hundreds of 



ilidcal dissidents without trial. In the 
it two weeks alone, to block a meeting 
in Rangoon, the junta has reportedly 
detained more than 300 members of the 
chief opposition party, . 

Disappearances ‘and “extrajudicial 
killing s* * of political dissidents are also 
orchestrated periodically by die military, 
according to the most recent U.S. State 
Department report :oii -human rights - 

When the latest protests erupted in 
Mandalay, the nation's. second-largest 
city and its seat Of power in ancient 
times, the military respcSided at first by 
deploying troops with automatic 
weapons throughout the city and or- 
dering a tight evening curfew. 

On the second evening, some of the 
troops fired over the heads of the rioters, 
and the ricocheting bullets killed at least 
one' monk, sources here -said. Annual 
proficiency tests for monks were can- 
celed by the government, and many were 
ordered home from local monasteries. 

More than ^ month later, 
sphere remains .^dgy herb 
capital, Rangoon, where several 
monks also attacked some . 

.The center of Mandalay, 
are many mosques, is closely 
bythepfoice. s&’jl-L 

That monks participated in suefi aneg 
seems bizarre to?a casual observer. The 
Buddhist faith here promotes comp®? 
sion and nonviolence, and virtually au 
males spend time in monasteries as an 
adolescent rite of passage, when they 
supposedly are imbued with values that 
promote peaceful resolution of all griev- 
ances. . 

But sources said many of those who 
wear a monk's garb are not serious stu- 
dents of the- religion. They add that in 
this instance, a long tradition of political 
activism and even violence by some 
senior monks carried over to some 
younger monks. 

“Anything could happen here, any- 
thing at all.” said a Burmese business- 

man whose clientele includes some se- 
nior military tenders. -r- 
According to several IocaSsouiees, 


a cry from someone in a erdwd of monks 
at the 

_ f Mahamuni Pagoda. jUteycdge of 

' the city that a Muslim matii«l 1 nped a 
Buddhist woman and hatf^ie hrqjun- 

*ishcA Word of the crinfey^oeifly can,,. 

|ust as senior monks Weft discussiDp 
how the military may have misfemdled 
repairs to an immense, 2,000-year-okl 
bronze image of Buddhaaf t&e she. 

•The assault had acruaUy otoirred sev- 
eral weeks earlier, may havSa&iien short 
of a rape and was apparently resolved 

satisfactorily by membersbf^e families 
involved, several sources saijL But, after 
bearing, about the crime hrn mob, an 
angry group of young monks stormed 
from the pagoda to exact revenge on 
more than a dozen mosques injtfce down- 
town area, where they smashed win- 
dows, destroyed furniture and burned 
conies of the Koran. 


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Firestorm in Australia 
On ‘Stolen Generation 5 

By Clyde H. Farnsworth 

j Sf h York Tunes Service 

i ALICE SPRINGS. Australia — 
; Emily Liddle remembers scrubbing and 
j polishing floors until she could see her 

> face on the dull linoleum squares. Herbie 
| Laughton t alks about his nightmares in 
. ! the spidery cellar where he was left for 

• three days after “pinching a wee bit of 
! jam.** Lana Abbott breaks down trying 

- to describe the mother she never saw 
; again after she was snatched away from 

home at age 4. 

These three Alice Springs residents 
i are pari of what Australians now call the 
; “stolen generation,” as many as 
! 100,000 aboriginal children forcibly re- 

• moved from ibeir families between 1910 
i and the early 1970s. 

< At the time the program was con- 
sidered to be in the children's best in- 

> terest. but it had another acknowledged 
' purpose: to wipe out a people. 

. The children selected were mixed ab- 
; engines, usually with white fathers or 
grandfathers, who were to become part 
; of the white society. 

The architects of the plan believed 
' that full-blooded aborigines, after an- 
I other 50 to 75 more years in their remote 

- desen settlements, would die out from 
! disease and a low birthrate. 

• They had reason to expect this. Num- 
.bers of aborigines bad already fallen 

sharply. For example, in Western Aus- 
tralia in the 1930s the population was 
estimated at 20,000. down from 60.000 
in the 1870s. 

Now. after an inquiry, the govern- 
ment's Human Rights and Equal Op- 
portunity Commission has set off a polit- 
ical firestorm by calling the old policy 
"genocidal” and urging reparations and 
establishment of an annual national day 
of apology. 

“Subsequent generations continue to 
suffer the effects of parents' and grand- 
parents' having been forcibly removed, 
institutionalized, denied contact with 
their Aboriginal ity and in some cases 
traumatized and abused.” the rights pan- 
el said in a 689-page report. “Systematic 
racial discrimination and genocide must 
not be trivialized, and Australia's ob- 
ligation under international law to make 
reparations must not be ignored” 
Australia adopted the UN Convention 
Against Genocide in 1949. The panel 
found that under the convention. Aus- 
tralia was responsible for rehabilitating 
victims and compensating not only in- 
dividuals but also families and com- 

Prime Minister John Howard, who 
heads a 1 5-month -old conservative- 
leaning coalition, rejected what he called 
the “black armband” view of history, 
which he said focused exclusively on 
atonement for past sins and ignored the 

“Clearly there were injustices done.” 
he said, “and no one should obscure or 

minimize them.'* But he added, “Aus- 
tralians of this generation should 
required to accept guilt and blame for 
past actions and policies over which they 
had no control.” 

A number of newspaper editorials 
agreed. “Guilt will* do little for recon- 
clI iation, ’ 1 The Northern Territory News 
told its readers. The editorial com- 
plained about “rhetoric and window 
dressing," saying they would “never 
provide jobs and improve Aborigines’ 
Living conditions.” 

The Australian, a national daily, and 
other journals said that although the ac- 
tions might have been paternalistic and 
cruel, people carrying out the so-called 
Native Welfare Acts were motivated by 
good will. 

“No doubt they were,” said Sir Ron- 
ald Wilson, the commission's president. 
“But this isn't relevant to the genocide 
finding. Genocide is not the attempt to 
destroy an individual. Genocide is the 
attempt to destroy a people, a culture.” 

Long before the white colonization of 
Australia began in 1788, the indigenous 
peoples known as aborigines had es- 
tablished their own cultures in what were 
largely nomadic societies. Aborigines 
go back at least 60,000 years. Anthro- 
pologists have documented more than 
400 aboriginal languages. After the re- 
pression of the last 200 years, few are 
spoken today. 

Mr. Howard has ruled out government 
compensation and blocked an official 
parliamentary apology, which he feels 
could impede the government in fighting 
compensation claims in the courts. 

In contrast. Kim Beazley , leader of the 
opposition Labor Party, is pressing for 
both compensation and a national apo- 
logy. He calls the removals “a matter of 
immense national shame." 

With aborigines numbering between 
400.000 and 500,000, or only 2 to 3 
percent of Australia 's 1 8 million people, 
the prime minister's attitude has done 
little harm to his standing. 

One survey by the New spoil orga- 
nization has pegged his approval rating 
at 42 percent, up five percentage points 
in the final two weeks of May. while Mr. 
Beazley ‘s rating dropped six points, to 
38 percent. 

The same poll found the country di- 
vided on the issue of .apology. Fifty 
percent said one was warranted. Forty 
percent said none was justified and 10 
percent were undecided. 

Apology or no. requests for compen- 
sation have flooded the courts. 

One hurdle, said David Dalrymple. a 
lawyer for aborigines in Darwin, is the 
statute of limitations, which in most of 
the suites and territories is six years. Yet 
courts have discretion io extend the time, 
and certain actions are beyond the scope 
of the statute anyway. 

Mr. Dalrymple said. “I'm confident 
the petitions will be successful ulti- 

finish line in Hong Kong's Chai Wan harbor. The festival attracted 1 ,300 paddlers from 18 countries. In China, 
meanwhile, residents had to wade in Changsha after flash flooding in Hunan Province killed at least 30 people. 

U.S. and Japan Set 
To Explain New Pact 


TOKYO — Japan and the United States decided 
Sunday that they would quickly send representatives to 
China and other Asian nations" to explain new security 
arrangements that would give Tokyo its highest military 
profile since World War 0. 

Japan's enhanced military role in the region, an- 
nounced by American and Japanese officials in Honolulu 
on Saturday, set off tremors in Japan and in Asian nations 
that suffered under Tokyo’s World War II occupation. 

Japanese worried the new role might breach their 
pacifist constitution; China was concerned it was aimed 
at containing its growing economic and military power, 
and some Asian nations saw the new ties as a sign of 
rising Japanese militarism. 

The arrangements were revealed in an interim report on 
six months of talks to review the 1960 U.S.-Japan Security 
Treaty, the basis of Washington's defense policy in Asia. 

It was agreed that Japanese airfields could be used by 
U.S. warplanes in the event of a conflict, and that Japan 
could carry out minesweeping duties and more in-depth 
intelligence gathering. Japan's peacekeeping duties will 
also be increased. 

Tokyo held out against having to participate in direct 
combat in an armed conflict in Asia or elsewhere. A final 
report on the agreement will be given in November. 

A top Chinese military officer, Xiong Guangkai. said 
the guidelines represented continued Cold War-era think- 
ing. In a bid to ease Chinese concerns, top officials from 
Japan's Foreign Ministry and Defense Agency are to 
arrive in Beijing on Monday to explain the views of 
Washington and Tokyo. The United Stares plans a similar 
diplomatic mission to Asian nations, including a visit by 
a top official to Beijing. 

V-® 1 * lraio-FVw» 


Pakistani Leader 
Cleared in Death 

KARACHI — A Pakistani ju- 
dicial tribunal has exonerated Pres- 
ident Farooq Leghari of involve- 
ment in the killing of Murtaza 
Bhutto, the estranged brother of 
former Prime Minister Benazir 
Bhutto, an official said Sunday. 

The tribunal's report, made pub- 
lic Sunday, rejected Miss Bhutto's 
allegation that her brother's murder 
was a. conspiracy hatched by Mr. 
Leghari to dislodge her govern- 
ment, the official said. 

Mr. Leghari dismissed Miss 
Bhutto's government on Nov. 5 on 
disputed charges of corruption and 
misrule. { Reuters ) 

South to Deliver 
Food to North Korea 

SEOUL — South Korea will de-- 
liver food aid to the North beginning 
Thursday under the first direct 
agreement between the Red Cross 
societies of the Cold War rivals, 
local media reported Sunday. 

The Hankook Hbo said the North 
Korean Red Cross had agreed to- 
accept last Monday's offer by Seoul 
to deliver 1 1 ,200 metric tons of food 
from June 12 to 19 via China. 

The Red Cross societies of the 
two Koreas signed an agreement 
last month in Beijing to ship 50,000 
tons of food aid. mostly com. to the 
North by the end of July. (Reuters) 

Cambodian Search 
For Briton Fails 

PHNOM PENH — King Noro- 
dom Sihanouk told the family of a 
missing British mine clearance ex- 
pert on Sunday that his attempts to 
obtain information on the case from 
Khmer Rouge rebels had failed. 

King Sihanouk expressed his re- 
grets in a letter to Beny Howes, 
mother of the kidnapping victim. 
Christopher Howes. 

* T have done my utmost, through 
several messages addressed to the 
Khmer Rouge leadership, to obtain 
a proper answer on the whereabouts 
of Mr. Howes, yet the Khmer Rouge 
refuse to acknowledge that they 
captured your son,” Kang Sihanouk 
wrote. (Rcurcrs) 

VOICES From Asia 

Fidel Ramos, president of the 
Philippines, pledging a peaceful 
transfer of power to his successor 
after presidential elections in next 
May: “When we hold national and 
local elections next year ... the 
world will witness the orderly trans- 
fer of power from this administra- 
tion to a new one.” (Reuters) 

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From Paris to Milan, from New York 
to Tokyo, fashion editor Suzy 
Menkes covers the fashion front 
■ With additional reporting on 
: lifestyle issues, the Style section 
provides up-to-date information on 
developments in the changing world 
of creative design. 

Every Tuesday in the International 
Herald Tribune, 

" '* ,ID ,lu '*<* 'mu umi> twilit nor 


39 Hindu Worshipers 
Die in Fire at Temple 

CoiifuM be Oar Staff FnnHDupubhei 


Dozens of Hindu worshipers 
„ died when a fire broke out in 
i an 11th-century temple in 
: southern India, stampeding 
panic-stricken devotees, the 
t authorities said Sunday. 

J The police in Thanjavur, 
! 320 kilometers (200 miles) 
southwest of Madras, the cap- 
ital of Tamil Nadu state, said 
I 37 bodies had been recovered 
i after the blaze on the eve of a 
; major Hindu celebration in 
the historic temple town. Two 
; “ore victims died later in a 
: hospital they said. 

I They added that 90 people 
! were injured, 44 of them se- 
i . riously, in the disaster Sat- 
’ urday evening. 

I Chief Minister M.Karunan- 

. idhi of Tamil Nadu said the 
j fire was caused by firecrackers 
that fell on a tent in the temple 
complex, where several thou- 
sandT had assembled to witness 
preparations for a prayer ser- 

! vice. The authorities said most 

i of the victims were trampled 
• when the crowd tried to escape 
! the flames that engulfed the 

i tent, which was made of palm 

; leaves. 

Witnesses said there was 
j only one exit and many 

people were prevented from 
leaving by barricades set up to 
control the crowd. 

Brihadeeswara, known as 
“Big Temple.” was built in 
the 1 1th century by the Hindu 
king Rajaraja Choia. It has 
been classified as a world ar- 
chitectural monument by the 
United Nations Educational 
Scientific and Cultural Orga- 

Witnesses said there was 
little damage to the temple as 
the fire and stampede oc- 
curred between the outer wall 
and the inner sanctum. 

All India Radio noted that 
the accident was the latest in a 
series of fires at religious 
events, citing a blaze during a 
pilgrimage ar Mecca in April 
in which 343 Muslim pil- 
grims died and a fire at a 
Hindu religious gartering in 
eastern India in February, in 
which 204 people died. 

An official said Sunday 
that the famil ies of the 39 wno 
died would each be gi ven 
100.000 rupees (about 
$2,700) by the government. 
Such awards are common 
after disasters in India, and 
indicate no admission of re- 
sponsibility on the govern- 
ment’s part. (Reuters. Ar) 

9 ‘ .j it.*? 

T V- 





For Italy, Albania Holds 
A Lesson in Diplomacy 

As Tirana Vote Nears, Relations Are Tense 

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ROME — Two embarrassing epis- 
odes have given Malian diplomacy in 
Albania a bhek eye. self-inflicted at a 
critical moment in the sensitive rela- 
tionship between the countries that face 
each other across a narrow stretch of the 
Adriatic Sea. 

First. Italy had to recall its longtime 
ambassador to Albania because of dam- 
aging things he reportedly said in a 
taped conversation, a transcript of 
which was primed in a newspuper there. 
Then last weekend, his successor's ap- 
pointment was withdrawn within 48 
hours of its announcement because of 
comments he reportedly made to an 
Italian newspaper. 

Only three weeks remain before Al- 
banian elections considered crucial for 
restoring stability' to a country that 
teetered on the edge of anarchy in 
March, after people revolted following 
the collapse of several get-rich-quick 
investment schemes. Reports of new 
violence come each day, casting a long 
shadow- over an already shaky dem<> 
cralic process. 

For example. Albania’s state-con- 
trolled television reported Wednesday 
that a hand grenade was throw n at a rally 
for President Sali Berisha outside the 
capital. Tirana. Thai reporr came two 
days after 20 people were wounded by a 
bomb at a cafe in Tirana that was owned 
and frequented by ranking members of 
the opposition Socialist Party. 

The violence is a major concern for 
the Organization for Security and Co- 
operation in Europe, which under the 
leadership of the former Austrian chan- 
cellor. Franz Vranitzky. has undertaken 
to monitor the June 29 elections and try 
to keep them free of the fraud that 
clouded Mr. Berisha’s victory in a vote 
in May 1996. 

Bui Italy also has a lot at stake in the 
voting, including its own credibility as 
an international crisis manager. 

In the early days of the crisis, Italy, 
faced w ith an influx of 1 6.000 Albanian 
refugees, took a lead role in trying to 
drum up a common European policy. It 
tailed to get full support from its north- 
ern partners, but. was given the com- 
mand of a 6.500-troop multinational 
force that was deployed in April under a 
limited UN mandate. 

For that reason, and because of the 
legacy of the occupation of Albania by 
Italy’s Fascist government before 
World War ll. the mission has been 

viewed here and abroad as a rest of 
Italy’s military and diplomatic leader- 

while the Italian military perfor- 
mance generally gets good marks, the 
embarrassment over the ambassadors is 
seen as evidence of Italy’s difficulty in 
coping with its new responsibilities. 

"The real problem is that this is the 
firsi time we are taking the lead in an 
international crisis, and because of our 
long tradition of following in the wake 
of others, we have discovered that we 
lack a proper decision-making struc- 
ture." said Franco Venturini, a com- 
mentator on foreign affairs for the news- 
paper Corriere della Sera. * ‘The result is 
that we have not bad a solid agreement 
on policy right from the beginning.” 

What made the fiasco of the am- 
bassadors so embarrassing was that 
their reported comments — denied in 
both cases — reflected the real splits 
that have beset Italy’s policy toward 
Albania, principally on relations with 
Mr. Berisha. 

The departing ambassador, Paolo 
Foresti. was quoted by the Albanian 
opposition newspaper 'independent as 
urging a top Berisha ally to undercut a 
pre-election accord negotiated by Mr. 

His successor, Manfredo lncisa di 
Came ran a. was quoted by the Italian 
newspaper La Repubblica as saying that 
Mr. Foresti himself bad a history of 
political involvement. 

Ever since Albania emerged in 1990 
from the isolation imposed by its long- 
time Communist rulers, Italy has taken a 
close interest in its neighbor. Italian 
businesses moved into the nation, and 
Italian political leaders soon took up 
positions on its politics, with rightist 
leaders favoring Mr. Berisha’s Demo- 
cratic Party and leftists showing more 
sympathy for the Socialist opposition. 

The recent appointment of Franco 
Angioni. a former commander of Italian 
troops in Lebanon, to head an inter- 
governmental task force on Albania 
based in Rome, is widely seen as a way 
of straightening out the mixed signals 
coming out of Rome in recent weeks. 

But foreign and Italian analysts said 
the appointment was also a recognition . 
that Italian involvement with Albania is 
not likely to end soon after the June 

One foreign diplomat said. “Tbeap- 
pointment of .General Angioni is a sign 
that the Italians are coming to grips with 
the fact that the burden is going to be 
theirs for a long time.” 

— . 

NO MORE BOUNCE — A team of Royal Engineer reservists recovering a "bouncing bomb” front the 
beach at Reculver, southeast England. The beach was a main site for testing the bombs during World 
War II. The best-known bouncing bomb was known as Upkeep, used against German dams. 


Gibraltar Seeks Help From UN Panel 

By Barbara Crossette 

Sr v York Tiiiitw SrrWiV 

maligned. 30-year-old General As- 
sembly decolonization committee, 
which has stubbornly refused demands 
to vote itself out of existence now* that 
the age of empire is over, has found a 
champion in the chief minister of Gibral- 
tar. Peter Caruana. 

Mr. Caruana. a British-trained bar- 
rister and the British colony's elected 
government leader, has turned to the 
decolonization committee, which is 
now in session here, because he believes 
that the case of Gibraltar has been 
shunted aside in the European Union, 
where the two nations that claim it. 
Britain and Spain, are members. 

"There are 17 territories still before 
the committee,' ’ Mr. Caruana said in an 
interview before making a speech to the 
panel Friday. '"Why the decolonization 
process, which started in the 1960s. is 
down to 17 cases is that they are all 
exceptional for one reason or the oth- 
er.” | 

Most of the 17 do not want inde- 
pendence, which is one of the reasons 
the committee, dominated by 'Third 
World nations, is often criticized as a 
costly irrelevance. 

The 17 territories still listed as colon- 
ies by the committee are American 

Samoa. Anguilla. Bermuda, the British 
Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands. 
East Timor, the Falk lands. Gibraltar. 
Guam. Montserrat. New Caledonia. Pit- 
cairn. Tokelau. Turks and Caicos. Si. 
Helena, the U.S. Virgin Islands and 
Western Sahara. 

Gibraltar's residents rejected indepen- 
dence in a 1967 referendum supervised 
by the United Nations. Nor do its 30.000 
people want to be returned to Spain, as 
Hong Kong will be to China at the end of 
this month under very different circum- 
stances. Gibraltar was seized from Spain 
in 1704 by a British-Duich force, and the 
1713 Treaty of Utrecht, which ended the 
War of Spanish Succession, formalized 
British sovereignty "in perpetuity." 

Mr. Caruana ’s goal, which he will 
discuss next month with Britain’s new 
foreign secretary', Robin Cook, is to 
forge a new relationship with Britain not 
unlike that enjoyed by the Isle of Man or 
the Channel Islands of Jersey and Guern- 
sey — both crown dependencies. 

Mr. Caruana said that Gibraltar 
needed to modernize its constitution to 
remove some of the last vestiges of co- 

The decolonization committee has no 
power to change Gibraltar’s status: it can 
only draw attention to areas of concern 
in its annual resolution to the General 
Assembly. But Mr. Caruana sees it as a 
valuable forum for publicizing his case. 

and possibly bringing some pressure to 
bear on Spain and on those in Britain 
who might consider giving the Spanish 
more uTa voice in Gibraltar's affairs. 

Gibraltar — 3.5 square miles t9 
square kilometers) of rocky peninsula 
that marks the entrance to the Medi- 
terranean — is all but enclosed by 
Spain, which has never reconciled itself 
to British control. 

Mr. Caruana *aiJ that Spain had used 
its power to harass Gibraltar, barring sea 
and air travel heiueen the two terri- 
tories. refusing to recognize Gibraltar’s 
telephone area code and blocking any 
action in the European Union that might 
diminish Spain's claim to the territory. 

Mr. Caruana is asking the decolon- 
ization committee not only to reaffirm 
the territory's general right of self-de- 
termination. but also to ensure that right 
in the future by excluding it from a 
provision in the committee’s charter 
that can break up an existing nation if it 
is invoked. 

Gibraltar fears that Spain will accept 
only one possible change in the colony s 
status: reversion to Spanish rule. 

Mr. Caruana said that the people of 
Gibraltar must be more involved in de- 
ciding their fate. 

The European Union has treated lhe 
issue as one that should be resolved 
betw een the governments of Spain and 

Swiss f bters Reject 
Ban on Arms Sales 

GENEVA — Swiss voters on . 
Sunday rejected a proposal 10 ban ■ 
weapons exports, according to the 
Socialist Party, which initiated the 

"The opponents managed to cre- 
ate a climate of fear by exagger- ; 
aiins the number of jobs 
ihreatened,” die party said. 

Along with the Greens and re- 1 
ligious and pacifist groups, the So- 
cialists wanted to ban lhe export of 1 
war materiel and products that can 
be put ro military L4.F P > 

U.S . Rejects Wolf 

Wolf, w ho directed East Germany ’s 
foreign spv service for 34 years, has 
been" refused a visa to visit the , 
United States for a book lour. 

Mr. Wolf was barred on the 
grounds that as head of the Ministry 
of State Security, or Stasi. he 
ordered or abet led" terrorist acts. 

Last week, a court in Germany 
convicted Mr. Wolf on three counts 
of kidnapping dating to the 1950s 
and ’60s. He received a suspended 
sentence. t\)T> 

Danish Biker War 

LISELEJE. Denmark — A Ban- 
didos motorcycle gang member 
was killed and three were wounded 
Saturday, when a man jumped from 
a car and started shooting outside a 

It was the latest round of violence 
in a war between the Bandidos and 
Hells Angels in Denmark and other 
pans of Scandinavia. t.\Pi 

The EU 
This Week: 

hiu-riiiiti. H. iot.t Tnbuiir 

Sianifhimt events in the Euro- 
pean Union this week: 

• EU finance ministers meet in 
Luxembourg on Monday. The 
meeting is Intended to give final 
approval to a stability pact enfor- 
cing budget discipline after the in- 
troduction of a single currency. 

• Prime Minister Lionel Jospin. 
President Jacques Chirac and 
Chancellor Helmut Kohl meet in 
Poitiers. France, on Friday for the 
semiannual meeting of the French 
and German governments. 

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TEL ' 


Gaullist Dream Fades Away With Chirac’s Loss o 

By Roger Cohen 

New York Tones Service 

PARIS — Gauilism is as much a feeling as an 
idea. Its components include a visceral French 
patriotism that has often spilled over into anti- 
Americanism, a strong belief in die state, a Bona- 
parnst flirtation with authoritarianism and a dash 
of rebellious bloody-nundedoess that bolds the 
dry rules of economics and market forces in 

Variously configured, Gauilism has survived 
at the center of French politics, embodied by the 
office of the president itself, which was tailored 
to Charles de Gaulle’s wishes in the Fifth Re- 
public's constitution of 1958. The idea was that 
he should stand above the parliamentary mayhem 
that sapped the Fourth Republic and serve as 
what he called the "guide and rallying point" of 
the nation. 

If last week was not the week Gauilism died, it 
was certainly one that caused the general to rum 
in his grave. His office was diminished, perhaps 
irremediably, by the blunders of a Gaullist pres- 
ident, Jacques Chirac, who put his personal au- 
thority on the line by calling early parliamentary 
elections only to see a coalition of Socialists and 
Communists sweep to power. 

.The extraordinary sight of the Socialist leader, 
Lionel Jospin, standing alone on the steps of the 
president’s Elysee Palace last Monday and an- 
nouncing his own appointment as prime minister 
said much about the way France has changed. 

ft is the president who names the prime min- 
ister. traditionally, it is also the president’s office 
that announces die appointment But as the 
weekly L’Express observed, Mr. Jospin has be- 
come “a second president” So he did his own 

At a deeper level the roots of Gauilism were 
■ ■ - sapped by the 

NEWS ANALYSIS election's de- 

moDstradon dial 

the extreme-rightist National Front was now 
strong enough, with 15 percent of die vote, to 
hold the moderate right to ransom. 

Gauilism emerged, with die Free France 
movement in 1940, to confront the fascism of 
Nazi-controlled Vichy. It re-emerged in 1958 to 
defeat the fascist currents in the French military 
and society that had been brought to fever-pitch 
by the Algerian war. 

It appears, however, to have been brought to its 
knees in 1997 by the neofascism of the National 
Front leader, Jean-Marie Le Pen, an embittered 
veteran of the Algerian conflict. 

“Gaullism’s defeat lies in its failure to drive 
bade the extreme right," wrote Jean-Marie 
Colombani, the editor of Le Monde. “The 
Gaullists would have survived if they had known 
how to stave off the threat of neofascism." . 

Mr. Le Pen’s message is simple enough. He is 
a racist and has described the Holocaust as a mere 
"detail" of World War U. With more than 3 
million people unemployed, 12.8 percent of the 
wort force, his solution is to throw out more than 
3 milli on French immigrants. 

Beyond this blant plan, he has exploited 
everything, from globalization to French plans to 
join a common European currency called the 
euro in 1999, to suggest that Gallic sovereignty 
and history is about to be washed away in an 
undifferentiated tide of American technology 
and German monetarism — a tide that the 
Gaullist president. Mr. Chirac, is too feeble to 

In so do in g , he has stolen the Gaullists’ pa- 
triotic thunder, destroyed their dike against the 
far right and propelled his party from less than 1 
percent of die vote in 1981 to a position as the 
arbiter of the French right's fate. It was the 
National Front's decision not to give broad sup- 
port to the Gaullists in the second round of voting 
last Sunday that ensured Mr. Chirac’s defeat. 

A central irony of the situation is that de Gaulle 
fevored European unity precisely to offset 
France’s postwar decline and constitute it once 
more as a power allied with Germany; and Fran- 
cois Mitterrand, Mr. Chirac's Socilaisr prede- 
cessor and a Gaullist in all but name, pursued die 

same objective. . , _ . . 

Yet, it is Europe, in the end, that has un- 
dermined the Gaullist message by exposing it to 
the taunt that the general's patriotism has now 
been betrayed Indeed, nothing could be further 
from the spirit of Gauilism than the talk of budget 
deficits, convergence criteria and the like that is 
the background drone of the euro’s gestation. 

In. an impassioned protest, the writer Denis 
TUlinac. a friend of Mr. Chirac’s, expressed horror 
lagt week at the way Gauilism had been betrayed 
by the growing hold of technocrats on politics. 

“Ga uilism ," Mr. Tillinac said, "is a particular 
eroticism, plebeian, sentimental and situated at 
the fluctuating fron tier of Bonapartism, populism 
and anarchism. You can exalt a Gaullist by 
calling on him to fight a German (once upon a 
time), a Communist, a Socialist, the powerful and 
the rich. You cannot provoke an erection by 
catling on him to combat budget deficits or 
satisfy the theology of central bankers.” 

Such fervor may sound mad or dangerous or 

Auditors to Start Work 
In Switzerland Looking 
For Holocaust Funds 

By Barry James 

huenuitivnul Herald Tribune 

Teams from three major U.S. ac- 
counting firms will move into 10 Swiss 
banks this week to begin an independent 
inquiry into funds that may have be- 
longed to Holocaust victims. 

The Volker commission, empowered 
to cany out the investigation, called for 
its findings, including the names of the 
original holders of the dormant ac- 
counts, to be widely disseminated. 

At a meeting of the commission in 
Jerusalem last week, five banks were 
selected for a pilot audit of the accounts, 
while five others will be audited on their 
record-keeping methods and archives. 
Once this process has been completed, 
the audit will be extended to all of 
Switzerland's nearly 500 banks, the 
commission says. 

Paul Volker, the former chairman of 
the U.S. Federal Reserve who heads the 
commission, said in Geneva last week 
that he hoped the audit would be com- 
pleted by the end of next year. 

The Swiss Banking Association said 
in 1995 that it had identified 774 un- 
claimed accounts from the Holocaust- 
era, with assets of about $32 million at 
current rates. But a source close to the 
commission said the number of dormant 
accounts was "dramatically higher." 

The audit, paid for by the Swiss Bank- 
ing Association, will be carried out by 
Price Waterhouse. KPMG Peat Marwick 
and Arthur Andersen. 

They will investigate accounts at 
Credit Suisse. Swiss Bank Corporation. 
Spar und Leihkasse Berne, Bank Can- 
tonale Vaudoise and a private bank in 
Geneva. Pictet & Cie. 

Elan Steinberg, executive director of 
the World Jewish Congress, said the 
decision made at the Jerusalem meeting 
to conduct a “forensic audit" of bank 
archives was equally significant. 

"They will look for gaps that may be 
in the archival material and what the 

policies were with respect to keeping 
records.* ’ he said. * ‘They will see if there 
are indications that records were im- 
properly disposed of. This happens 
against the background of the revel- 
ations last January thar the Union Bank 
of Switzerland was shredding docu- 
ments. Perhaps coincidentally. Union 
Bank of Switzerland was named as one 
of the Five banks in this audit" 

The others are Bank Baumann,, the 
Cantonale Bank de Geneve, Bank Julius 
Baer and Saint Gallische Kantonal 
Bank. Mr. Steinberg said. 

The World Jewish Congress has three 
representatives on the Volker commit- 
tee. as rtoes the Swiss banking industry. 

At the Jerusalem meeting, the com- 
mission decided to recommend that a 
mechanism be set up to allow individu- 
als to file claims to accounts they feel are 
rightfully theirs. Mr. Volker called on 
Switzerland to put aside its hermetic 
bank secrecy regulations to allow the 
names of the holders of dormant ac- 
counts to be posted on the Internet and 
published in newspapers and maga- 

Mr. Steinberg said toll-free telephone 
numbers would be set up to handle in- 
quiries. He said that people could also 
make prior claims, and that investigators 
would try to link them to accounts as 
they are uncovered. 

Mr. Steinberg said the claims mech- 
anism would replace the ombudsman 
appointed by the Swiss Bankers As- 

The World Jewish Congress also set 
guidelines for the disbursement of a 265- 
million-Swiss-franc humanitarian fund 
created by Swiss banks and industries. 
Mr. Steinberg said funds would be al- 
located "on the basis of objective mea- 
sures of need rather than on subjective 
measures of suffering.” 

"First priority will be given to the so- 
called double victims — those survivors 
in Eastern or Central Europe who have 
never received compensation.” 

Vaja Vp-Brhnr-hi«r 

Bishops waiting Sunday for the arrival of Pope John Paul IL who celebrated Mass in Krakow. Poland. 

Bishops Expect Pope to Visit Poland Again 


KRAKOW, Poland — Pope John 
Paul H, who drew a crowd of more than 
a million people at a Mass on Sunday, 
was in good form and may visit Poland 
again, his spokesman said. 

"I refuse to accept the notion that 
this is the Pope's last trip to Poland," 
Joaquin Navarro- Vails, the chief Vat- 
ican spokesman, said at a news con- 

Bishop Tadeusz Pieronek, secretary 
of the Polish bishops' conference, also 
said there were indications that the 77- 
year-old Pope would visit his native 
country again. The pontiff has received 
several invitations to return next year. 

Mr. Navarro-Valls said the trip 
through the land of his youth was an 
"extraordinary” experience for the 

"He is living through a lot of 
memories," the spokesman said, 
adding that the Pope was full of “in- 

tellectual curiosity" about where his 
country was heading. 

The Pope, who has bad several 
health problems in recent years, ap- 
peared in relatively good form as he 
presided at a three-hour Mass for a 
crowd thar the police estimated at more 
than 1,5 million people. 

“The Pope has held up perfectly 
well,” Mr. Navarro-Valls said, adding 
that "there are no signs of any par- 
ticular problems." 

“I'm not saying that the Pope in 1997 
is the same as he was in 1978 when he 
was elected, bur he shows he has the 
capacity to do the work," Mr. Navarro- 
Valls added, suggesting that 1 1 days on 
the road in Poland were perhaps less 
tiring than 16-hour days spent mostly 
behind a desk at the Vatican. 

The crowd Sunday was the biggest 
of the trip so far. A sea of people turned 
out to see the Pope at the Blooia mead- 
ows in Krakow, the city where he lived 

for more than 20 years as priest, bishop 
and cardinal. 

Speaking in a strong voice, the 
pontiff told the pilgrims that now that 
they had regained freedom after nearly 
half a century of communism they 
should use it to spread love and truth. 

Thousands of banners went up in the 
48-hectare ( 1 19-acre) field as the Pope 
was driven through the crowd in his 
glass-topped vehicle. 

He told tiie crowd that 10 years ago 
“we had before os the problem of the 
discovery of freedom.” 

Prime Minister Wlodzimierz 
Cimoszewicz. a former Communist, 
said later that he had told the Pope that 
he “should be full of optimism, be- 
cause we will cope with the problems 
that we have.” 

At the Mass the Pope canonized 
Queen Jadwiga, who died in 1399 at the 
age of 25 after helping to spread Chris- 
tianity to neighboring countries. 

both. But it is there in the angry French mood. 
And although apparently moribund, Gaulfem 
still has the power to contribute to the peculiarity 
of French politics. . . 

For while the right moved right m the United 
States and Britain, allowing the left of BiE Clin- 
ton and Tony Blair to occupy foe center, the 
Gaullist attachment to the state and rejectionof 
market reform encouraged the Socialists to keep 
further to the left, to distinguish themselves, 
"The right can’t let go of the state, so the left 
stays left,” said Ezra Suleiman, a professor of 
international relations at Princeton University. - 
Michel Lussault, a political swentist^saidthai 
as long as the 69-year-old Mr. Le Pen was there, 
no alliance between the Gaullists asd-tfae-Na- 
tional Front was possible. "After Le Pea, we 
could gradually see a rehabilitation of the Na- 
tional Front, along the lines of what the former 
fascists have done in Italy.” 

In that case, he added, a loose alliance of the 
right might eventually emerge. Without h, 
Gauilism looks permanently orphaned in the age 
of European integration. France does not want 
number-crunching and American recipes for 
growth; it wants to dream a little, however treach- 
erous its illusions. That was the message of the 
Socialist victory and the Gaullist defeat.' 


Kohl Is Adamant 

Continued from Page 1 

jHan for revaluing the Bundesbank's gold 
and currency stocks to help to plug a 
shortfall of at least 19 billion marks (SI l 
billion) in his 1997 budget. 

Economists predict that slow eco- 
nomic growth and high jobless rates 
would mean that Germany would fail to 
meet the Maastricht criteria as Mr. 
Waigel interprets them. Mr. Waigel 
promised earlier that Germany would 
qualify without tricks. 

“You will see, Germany will make 
the deficit criteria,' ’ he said at a weekend 
meeting of the junior wing of his Chris- 
tian Social Union, Bavarian sister party 
to Mr. Kohl’s Christian Democrats. 

Further signs of discontent in Ger- 
many about currency union emerged. 

A poll in Focus magazine said 82 
percent of Germans surveyed in an 
lRNA poll said they wanted monetary 
union delayed if member countries 
could not meet entry 'criteria strictly. 

■ French Aide Urges Flexibility 

Alan Friedman of the International 
Herald Tribune reported from Rome: 

France intends to formally request 
that the Maastricht single-currency cri- 
teria be interpreted in a flexible manner, 
according to Mr. Estier. the aide to Prime 
Minister Lionel Jospin. 

Mr. Estier, majority leader of the So- 
cialists in the French Senate, said in a 
.television interview Friday from Rome. 
'“We hope fora truly genuine economic 
government that can act as a counter- 
weight to the power of the central banks, 
in order to achieve an equilibrium that 
has not been respected so far. 

“This will probably mean a much 
more flexible interpretation of the 
Maastricht treaty criteria, which so far 
have been interpreted in a far too Dra- 
conian and rigorous manner.’ ’ 

When asked to comment on what Ger- 
many’s current difficulties would mean 
for the single currency. Mr. Estier said, 
“They mean we need a more flexible 
interpretation of the criteria." 

He added that "what is happening in 
Germany right now is taking us in that 

Germany's difficulties, he said, 
"mean that we must leave behind the 
accounting concept of the criteria and go 
toward a more political interpretation." 

U.S. Cancels Contract With Harvard Over Alleged Abuses in Russia 

By Michael Dobbs 

Vtoifiinsron Pi*si Service 

WASHINGTON — The U.S. gov- 
ernment has canceled a S14 million con- 
tract with Harvard University after al- 
legations that two senior American 
economic advisers to the Russian gov- 
ernment had abused their positions in 
Russia for private financial gain. 

The decision by the U.S. Agency for 
International Development effectively 
ends a program that had been the center- 
piece of U.S. assistance efforts to Russia 
since the collapse of communism in 
1991. For seven years. Harvard econ- 
omists have been part of the team ad- 
vising the Russian government on its 
transition from a socialist economy to 
the free market. 

A team of Harvard economists, led by 
Jeffrey Sachs, helped Russian leaders 
draw up a sweeping privatization pro- 
gram and advised them how to establish 
Wesiem-style capital markets. The 
agency already has spent about $43 mil- 
lion cn the Harvard program and had a 
further S 14 million earmarked, 

The AID decision followed an in- 
vestigation by its inspector-general's of- 
fice into the activities of two consultants, 
Jonathan Hay and Andrei Shleifer. who 
ran the Moscow branch of the Harvard 

Institute for International Development. 
U.S. officials accused the pair of in- 
vesting in the Russian bond market and 
using associates to set up mutual fund 
operations in Russia. 

“They used their positions to engage 
in private activities,’ ’ said Donald Press- 
ley, deputy assistant administrator of the 
AID. “This gives people the wrong im- 
pression, and left us with no choice but to 
withdraw funding from the Harvard op- 

The Russian government has said it 
had full confidence in the two consult- 

ants, who are close associates of the 
deputy prime minister, Anatoli Chubais. 

At a news conference last month, Mr. 
Chubais expressed anger at how die U.S. 
government and Harvard handled the 
controversy, and suggested that the re- 
searchers might have been the victims of 
a conspiracy by people "opposed to 
radical reform in Russia.” 

There are few effective restrictions in 
Russia against government officials' us- 
ing their positions for private gain. 

According to officials at the AID, Mr. 
Chubais was the recipient of an AID 

grant worth $14,400 in 1996. He ter- 
minated his work for the agency after 
President Boris Yeltsin chose him to run 
his re-election campaign. 

The AID officials said they had been 
alerted early this year of possible con- 
flicts of interest in the Moscow office of 
the Harvard Institute. Mr. Shleifer’s 
wife, Nancy Zimmerman, owner of a 
U.S.-based hedge fund, was alleged to 
have used staff and office space paid for 
by the U.S. government for her invest- 
ment business. 

Mr. Shleifer and Mr. Hay have denied 

any improprieties. Their lawyer, Mi- 
chael Butler, said that both consultants 
had followed all government rules and 
that Ms. Zimmerman had paid for all the 
work done in connection with her in- 

The World Bank, meanwhile, said 
Friday that it had ordered an anditof a $4 
million loan to the Russian Federal Se- 
curities Commission. The loan, intended 
to help Russia develop capital markets, 
was managed by die Institute for a Law- 
Based Economy, which was co-founded 
by Harvard and run in part by Mr. Hay. 

DARKNESS: State of the Russian Soul Can Be Seen in the Despair of Its Hospital Wards 

Continued from Page I 

said Alexander Prokhanov. the extremist 
editor of the newspaper Zavtra and the 
intellectual leader of the nationalist op- 
position. To him and his allies, the fig- 
ures reflect the economic changes of the 
Yeltsin era. 

“How many have to die before we 
realize what is going on here?” he 

Most demographers say the slide 
began long ago and was covered up by 
inconsistent and contradictory statistics. 
Whatever the reasons, the figures for the 

last five years are worse than ever The 
mortality rate for Russian men of 40 to 49 
was 16.3 per 1,000 in 1995, 77 percent 
higher than in 1990, when it was 92. 

Even the good news is hard to take: 
Life expectancy for men may actually 
have risen slightly in 1996 from the 
previous year — simply because the' 
most vulnerable young people have 
already died. The raw number of sick 
children, appallingly high by any stan- 
dard. appears lower this year only be- 
cause so few children have been bom 
over the past several years. 

"It has become an issue of ethics, of 

morality and of politics," said Valeri 
Yelizarov, a demographer at Moscow 
State University. "No society can sur- 
vive such patterns for long. What both- 
ers me most is how people assume it is 
inevitable, pan of the Russian male men- 
tality. Russian men have always had an 
indifference to their health. But it has to 
stop or the consequences will be too 
awful to predict” 

Soon after Dostoyevsky noted the 
“Russian disease," demographers car- 
ried out the nation's first major census 
and projected that by this time the pop- 
ulation would be 400 million. Inste ad, it 

IRELAND: Opposition, Just Short of Majority, Is Expected to Form New Government 

Continued from Page 1 

and billboards around the country were 
decorated with tens of thousands of lar- 
ger-than-life portrait posters showing 
the newly shorn Mr Ahem looping his 
right index finger around the point of his 
chin, a Dublin Hamlet, an Irish version 
of Le Penseur. 

But there was not much the handlers 
could do about his strong Dublin accent. 
Mr. Ahem has acknowledged that he has 
trouble pronouncing “th,“ and recalled 
how. when he became finance minister 
in 1992. he struggled with the phrase 
"economic growth.” 

He is considered a tough negotiator. 

and as a minister in a former govern- 
ment, arranged a national anti-infiation 
wage agreement with the country’s 
strong labor unions. 

“Negotiating with Bertie,” a union 
leader was quoted as saying, “is like 
playing handball with a haystack. Noth- 
ing comes back.” David Norris, a sen- 
ator and principal advocate of gay rights 
in Ireland, said. "Bertie Ahem is a de- 
cern and honorable person." 

Mr. Ahem, something of a liberal in a 
party with many conservatives, was not 
hurt by scurrilous leaflets spread around 
Dublin telling voters that he is separated 
from his wife and lives with another 
woman, which he does noi deny. 

He is a professional accountant with a 
degree from University College Dublin, 
second in national prestige only to Trin- 
ity College. 

“I led this country out of the mess we 
were in the 1980s," he said of the labor 
agreement “Some people say Fm too 
peaceful, the other side says I’m too 
harsh," he said in an interview, “I’m a 
good conciliator, a good negotiator, a 
good bridgemaker because I came up 
through the people system,” 

He is also considered “green," or pro- 
Roman Catholic, on the subject of the 
sectarian conflict in the British province 
of Nonhem Ireland. Gerry Adams, the 
president of Sinn Fein, the political wing 

of the Irish Republican Army, favored 
his election as prime minister. 

Mr. Ahem said however, thar he 

would notseek the support of Sinn Fein’s 
newly elected member of Parliament, 

Caoimhghn O’Caolin, in forming a new 
government. Mr. O’Caolin will be the 
first Sinn Fein member to take a seat in 
the Parliament since Ireland won in- 
dependence from Britain in 1922. 

“Sinn Fein haw done well in three 
elections." Mr. Ahem said, referring to . low toh"^ “ 

Jhe party S recent gams in Ireland and have lower ones — is a clear reflection 
Northern Ireland. “Now they have to he said, of a lack of optimism for the 
prove their peace strategy.’ ’ He said he future among Russians 

is 147.5 million, and the most recent 
repent to Mr. Yeltsin suggests that if new 
health and education initiatives are not 
adopted soon, the population of Russia 
will decrease by as much as 30 million in 
foe next 50 years. 

The implications of such change are 
Stark. Of the 3.5 million people under 
age 60 who died in Russia over the last 
five years — a figure with parallels in 
modern history only during vast famines 
or prolonged wars — most have been 
working-age people, who are desper- 
ately needed to help lift Russia from its 

In 1940, working-age people accoun- 
ted for 40 percent of the population, and 
the elderly, 8 percent. Now foe figure for 
foe elderly is triple that proportion, 
nearly 24 percent, while that for work- 
ing-age people has been halved. 

And there is no sign of relief. Despite 
a slight rise in life expectancy, the Rus- 
sian population fell by 480,000 last year, 
the steepest such decline in any year 
sinc» World War IL according to state 

"You do have to ask yourself how 
long can this go on." said Carl Haub a 
demographer with foe Population Ref- 
erence Bureau in Washington. Russia's 

Kohl Aide Denies 
That Coalition 
Is Breaking Up 


BONN — Chancellor Helmut 
Kohl's office denied a Sunday 
newspaper report that his long- 
standing coalition with the Free 
Democrats was in deep trouble and 
that the chancellor was struggling to 
keep it together. 

A government spokesman said a 
report in Welt am Sonntag, which 
quoted an internal Chancellery 
memo as saying a breakup of the 
coalition was possible, was com- 
pletely invented. 

The chancellor’s spokesman also 
denied that Mr. Kohl was holding 
talks to try to prevent the Free 
Democrats from leaving the gov- 
erning group. 

On Saturday, a spokesman for the 
Free Democrats denied reports that 
the party had threatened to leave the 
coalition if it insisted on raising 
taxes to help get Germany’s fi- 
nances in shape for Europe’s single 

Finance Minister Theo Waigel 
said Saturday foal he would not re- 
sort to raising taxes this year to help 
make up a shortfall of at least 19 
billion Deutsche marks ($11 billion) 
in his 1997 budget, but said he could 
not rule out increases for 1998- 

The Free Democrats' honorary 
chairman, Otto Lambsdorff, told 
German television he was con- 
vinced that the coalition would not 
collapse, but stressed that his party 
would not agree to tax increases. 

“Higher taxes would be irrespons- 
ible because they would just lead to 
higher unemployment.” be said. 

He added that cuts in government 
spending — foe Free Democrat’s 
favored solution to Bonn's financial 
problems — were needed not only 
to help plug budget gaps in 1997. 
but also to avoid a similar budget 
crisis next year. 

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Afraid and Isolated, Sierra Leone Totters on Edge of Anarchy 

PAGE 7- 


By James Rupert 

Washington Past Serv ice 

FREETX3WN, Sierra Leone — 
Nearly two weeks after impoverished 
soldiers seized power in this West Af- 
rican capital, Freetown is paralyzed, 
isolated and fearful. 

Government offices, banks and most 
shops are dosed. So is the airport, which 
is held by troops from Nigeria. Roads to 
the hinterlands are barred by young men 
at checkpoints who wave guns and often 
demand money. Gasoline is running 
low and people worry about how much 
fuel oil remains to generate electricity. 

With many of its fanning villages 
burned. or abandoned during a previous 
civil war. Sierra Leone relies on ship- 
loads of rice, wheat and commeal for 
food. But no ship has docked since the 
coup, and prices for such staples have 
doubted in Freetown's markets. 

Since the coup, a group of rural guer- 
rilla fighters has joined the soldiers in a 
volatile alliance. The coup-makers con- 
tend the elected government that ruled 
for 14 months was unfair to soldiers, 
notably through recent pay cuts and 
dismissals. But African and Western 
governments and the United Nations 
have demanded that the gunmen hand 
power back to the civilian government 
and have warned that the world will 
isolate Sierra Leone until they do. 

The nation's isolation deepened last 
week as foreign governments finished 
evacuating thousands of expatriates, 
many of whom flew out on U.S. military 
helicopters. On June 2, die Sierra Leo- 
nian forces fought Nigerian troops who 
hold the airport and a military camp 
outside the city. Many here fear that the 
Nigerians — who lead an intervention 
force under the auspices of the Economic 
Community of West African States — 
may open an assault on the city. 

“Our people’ cannot live like this for 
long." said Ibrahim Sorie, a legislator. In 
Parliament and in the street markets, the 
main topic of discussion is the same: just 
how. and when, Freetown will descend 
into anarchy. At the market in Kroo 

Town, people talked more than they 
shopped. A cup of Vietnamese rice now 
costs 200 leones (25 cents). “Before the 
coup, it was 100.” said Tobo Dixon, a 
security guard ar the port. 

Mr. Dixon said he tries to keep his 
four children fed on the staple diet of the 
poor, “rice and sauce.” Sauce is made 
of palm oil with tomatoes, onions and 
maybe other vegetables, but rarely meat. 
On his salary of about $2 a day. however, 
“even this, 1 can’t afford,” he said. 

At a gas station on another city street, 
nearly 100 cars and trucks — and scores 
of youths with gas cans — lined up to 
buy. Shouting customers shoved toward 
the pumps, where a dozen soldiers 
shoved back. Fights broke out. 

A steady trickle of buses and trucks 
runs from Freetown to the border with 
Guinea, hauling thousands of people 
toward new lives as refugees. But 
“there are so many checkpoints, and 
men with guns, I'm scared to go,” Mr. 
Dixon said. In any case, the ticket price 
has tripled since the coup and “not 
many ordinary people can afford it,” he 

Those who claim power seemed just 
as isolated. Brigadier General S.F.Y. 
Koromah sat at his desk in the Defense 
Ministry and welcomed four foreign 
journalists. “We have no way of com- 
municating our positions to the out- 
side,” he said. 

General Koromah. who is reportedly 
an older brother of the coup leader. 
Major Johnny Paul Koromah, said the 
junta wanted to contact foreign gov- 
ernments but did not know whether any 
foreign diplomats remained in the cap- 
ital. The last Western diplomats and UN 
personnel were evacuated last week. 

On Friday, the Armed Forces Rev- 
olutionary Council issued a statement 
saying it wanted to “continue nego- 
tiations” with the Economic Commu- 
nity of West African States and “any 
other international organization or 
country that is ready to mediate. " 

The council's mosr regular foreign 
contact is with the commander of the 
Nigerian forces camped outside Free- 

town. Since the Fighting June- 2, the 
Nigerians and the junta have maintained 
a tense politeness, consulting regularly 
by radio about military movements. 

Journalists arrived Thursday in one 
such movement, a flight by two heli- 
copters from Monrovia, Liberia, where 
a larger West African force, also Ni- 
gerian-led, is based on a mission to help 
end that country's civil war. The un- 
armed helicopters carried boxes of am- 
munition and a few Nigerian soldiers. 

The helicopters landed at an airstrip 
secured by other Nigerian soldiers 
backed by armored vehicles. At the air- 
strip's entrance, a small crowd of teen- 
age boys with guns warily eyed the 

Nigerians. “Rebels." said a Nigerian 

By the time the convoy reached its 
camp, the commander, Brigadier Gen- 
eral Jimmy Ojokojo. had received a 
radio call from the junta asking about 
the identity of four white passengers 
from the helicopters. "They thought 
you were mercenaries.” General 
Ojokojo told the arriving journalists. 

Radioing back. General Ojokojo told 
the junta that journalists had arrived and 
sought to reach Freetown. * ‘I’m short on 
vehicles at the moment,” General 
Ojokojo told a Sierra Leonian officer, 
asking if he could do him a favor “and 
send a track out to pick them up.” 

For the moment, at least. General 
Ojokojo said, “we're getting along." 

■ Legislators Call for End to Coup 

Members of Siena Leone's dissolved 
Parliament have met in defiance of a ban 
on political activity to denounce the 
military coup and call for the return of 
the ousted civilian president. Ahmad 
Tejan Kabbah. Reuters reported. 

Fifty members of the 80-seat Par- 
liament met Saturday evening and unan- 
imously approved a resolution calling 
on the military rulers to restore the con- 
stitution suspended after the coup May 
25. Several members of Parliament 
have fled the country. 

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Sierra Leone Army soldiers patrolling the streets of Freetown on Sunday, almost two weeks after the coup. 

Angola Moves Against Ex-Rebels in Control of Diamond Mines 

By Suzanne Daley 

Nor Kurt Titers Service 

LUANDA, Angola — In an impor- 
tant spillover effect of the war in Zair e, 
government troops in neighboring An- 
gola have attacked territory controlled 
by their longtime rebel enemies, who 
lost their most important backer when 
Mobutu Sese Seko, the Zairian dictator, 
was overthrown. 

Military officials and diplomats say 
the government, which signed a peace 
treaty with the rebels in 1 994, had begun 

And Israelis 
Meet at Last 

■ C.4ixMln Our SugFnm Piytsrto 

CAIRO — Israeli and Palestinian ne- 
gotiators held a crucial meeting here 
Sunday to prepare the resumption of 
peace negotiations that have been frozen 
for nearly three months. 

“The meeting will try to build die 
foundations for the resumption of ne- 
gotiations and there is hope it will 
achieve ihis goal.'’ said Israel’s am- 
bassador to Egypt, Zvi MazeL 

A member of the Palestinian del- 
egation said the negotiators were seek- 
ing to prepare for a meeting to be at- 
tended by Prime Minister Benjamin 
Netanyahu of Israel; Yasser Arafat, 
presiden: of the Palestinian Authority; 
and President Hosni Mubarak of 

rreeiing was the first between the 
two sides* negotiators since mid-March, 
when the Palestinians broke off peace 
t alks in protest ar the building of a new 
Jewish seighborhood in East Jerusalem, 
which the Palestinians want to be the 

offensives south of the town of Dundo 
in the country's diamond territory. 

Government officials say they have 
simply been trying to patrol their border 
against armed militias and soldiers loyal 
to Marshal Mobutu who are trying to 
escape the Congo. 

But Western diplomats and United 
Nations officials say the fighting has 
been taking place south of Dundo in 
remote mining areas rather than on the 
Angola-Congo border. These areas — 
largely stretches of savanna but threaded 
with diamond-rich riverbeds — have 

been producing income for Angola's 
rebels, the National Union for the Total 
Independence of Angola, or UNITA. 

In recent days, UN officials say, 
planeloads of diesel fuel, rations and 
ammunition have arrived in the area. 
They report having seen tanks and ar- 
tillery guns passing by and heard the 
sounds of mortar shells. There have also 
been reports of more than 100 wounded 
government soldiers, and displaced vil- 
lagers reportedly have begun to arrive 
by the thousands in sunoundii\g villages 
and towns. 

Since the government and the former 
rebels are supposed to be observing a 
peace agreement, the government's ac- 
tions have raised questions about 
whether it intends an all-out assault on 
the country’s diamond areas. The aim of 
such a move would be to crush UNITA 
once and for all. 

The attacks have set off a frenzy of 
diplomatic activity, with UN officials 
and Western diplomats traveling be- 
tween President Jose Eduardo dos San- 
tos in the capital and the UNITA leader. 
Jonas Savimbi, in the southern town of 

Bailundo, trying to avoid a total break- 
down of the peace agreement. 

“We are nying to convince the gov- 
ernment not to get cocky." said an 
official close to the talks, who requested 
anonymity. “It’s important for them to 
show restraint now." 

The last 32 months have been An- 
gola’s longest period of stability in more 
than two decades. The country, which 
has enough oil. diamonds and rich farm- 
land to be wealthy, plunged into a civil 
war almost immediately after indepen- 
dence was won from Portugal in 1975. 

Turkey Calls Halt 
To Assault in Iraq 

ISTANBUL — Prime Minister 
Necmettin Erbakan said Sunday 
that the Turkish .Army's operation 
in northern Iraq was coming to an 
end. the state-run Anatolian News j 
Agency reported. 

The aeency said it was quoting - 
Mr. Erbakan s speech to a meei ing 
in Ankara of his Welfare Party. 

Thousands of Turkish troops, 
backed by air power, poured into ; 
northern Iraq on May 14 to attack 
bases of the Kurdistan Workers ; • 
Party that were used to stage raids 
into T urkey. {Renters) 

Takban Assa ils Iran 
For Blocking Goods 

PESHAWAR. Pakistan — The ; 
Taleban militia denounced Iran on 
Sunday for halting the flow of most 
goods across its border with Af- 

“This is a violation of interna- 
tional protocols." a senior Taleban 
official. Wakil Ahmad, said by tele- 
phone from the militia's headquar- 
ters in Kandahar in southern Af- 
ghanistan. “Iran is closing its eyes 
to its international obligations and 
commitments." he said. 

Iran may have been responding - 
to the Taleban's closure last week 
of Tehran’s embassy in Kabul and 
the expulsion of its staff for alleged 
interference in Afghan affairs — a 
charge Iran denied. (Renters) 

Escalating Feud 
In South Africa 

white-led National Party has es- 
calated its war of words with South 
Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation 
Commission by threatening legal 
action over what it calls the panel 's 

In a letter dated June 2 and sent to 
the commission's chairman, the re- 
tired Anglican Archbishop Des- 
mond Tutu, lawyers for the National 
Party demanded an apology from 
Archbishop Tutu and the resignation 
of the vice chairman. Alex Boraine, . 
over comments they made about the 
party’s leader, F.W. de Klerk, ar a 
news conference May 15. 

The letter set a deadline of June 4 
for the commission to respond, but - 
that was later changed to June 20. 
after the panel requested time to - 
discuss the matter. The National , 
Party spokesman, Jan Bosnian, was 
unwilling to say Sunday what legal . 
action the party would take if its .. 
demands were nor met. (A P) ■ 

GENERAL; Joint Chiefs Post Fades Away U.S. Offers Congo CHEAT: Term Papers Flood the Internet 

Continued from Page 1 

52 bomber — were disciplined in situ- 
ations thar bore at least superficial re- 
semblance. Lieutenant Flinn was forced 
to resign from the air force to avoid a 
court-martial on charges that included 

* 'This has become much, much bigger 
than one general,” a Pentagon official 
said Sunday. 

Although both General Ralston and 
Mr. Cohen had said they would fight for 
the nomination, and neither has pnblicly 
retreated from that stance, the opposition 
in Congress appeared to be crippling. 

Representative Jane Hannan of Cali- 
fornia, a Democrat who is a member of a 
military personnel subcommittee, said 
Sunday that an admission of adultery 
should not in itself disqualify General 
Ralston. But given political realities, she 
continued, “that doesn't mean that Sec- 
retary Cohen should recommend him or 
tbepresident should Dominate him. 

The issue has already plunged Mr. 
Cohen into the most contentious battle of 

his young career in the Pentagon. Hop- 
ing 10 bring sense and resolution to a 
range of issues vexing the military, Mr. 
Cohen announced plans Saturday for 
three reviews. 

A civilian panel will examine mixed- 
sex training, a practice that some in 
Congress now assert should be banned. 
It is to complete its work in six months. 

A panel of senior legal officers of all 
services will study the adu Itery rules and 
propose clarifications. That report is due 
by Aug. 18. 

Another panel, of both civilian and 
military members, will take a broader 
look at male-female relations. It will 
consider whether discipline has been 
dispensed fairly in sexual misconduct 
cases, and will examine the rules on 
fraternization, adultery and sexual har- 
assment A preliminary report is due in 

One of the biggest questions appears 
to be whether, as critics suggest a 
double standard has been applied by the 
military, favoring men over women and 
senior officers over their juniors. 

JAPAN: A Marriage Made by Hitachi 

capital -jf a future state. 

But a last-minute dispute over the 
Jewish settlements threatened to derail 
the session. 

Israel delayed the departure of its ne- 
gotianig team by two hours after a Pal- 
estintai spokesman said the Jewish state 
had ageed to freeze settlement building 
in occupied areas in return for a re- 
sumpton of peace talks. 

Israsl denied that any such deal had 
been reached and insisted the Palestinian 
Authority retract the assertion. 

AFalestinian negotiator, Saeb Erakat, 
cleared the air by declaring in Cairo, 
“There is no agreement with Israel on 

Ml Arafat’s Palestinian Authority 
has its is ted that Israel freeze all Jewish 
conduction in contested areas, includ- 
ing £e 6,500-unit development the Is- 
raelis call Har Hama in East Jerusalem, 
as remain condition for resu m ing peace 
talks " 

. Atop Israeli negotiator, Dan Naveh, 
akodenied the reports of a pause, say- 
ing, '‘There is no agreement that Israel 
will stop building in Jerusalem at Har 
Hoamor in the settlements.” 

•We are sparing no effort t o resom e 
negotiations, ran we are standing firm on 
thcprinciple that we have the foil right to 
sa tagthe n Jerusalem, and there is no 
chage in this government policy,” he 

Yitzhak Levy, an Israeli legislator 
franifce National Religious Party, one 
ofMr. Netanyahu'S coalition partners, 
said stopping construction in Jerusalem 
_«S.*e West Bank: would bring down 
= tie government. 

“Our information is that the prime 

ouisierdoesaotimesd m Fetreai,’' he 
aid.- (AFP.Jteuiers. AP) 

Continued from Page 1 

heft),' ’ said Koichiro Wariishi, who is in 
charge of personnel for Hitachi- Insur- 
ance. Hitachi’s Tie the Knot office av- 
erages three weddings a year. 

Any effort to .arrange marriages has 
the enthusiastic support of the govern- 
ment. It is increasingly worried about the 
country’s low birth rate, which has 
dipped to an average of 1 .4 children for 
eacn married couple. Many are also dis- 
turbed by the soaring number of women 
who are not marrying, or delaying mar- 
riage; 50 percent of women aged 25 to 29 
are not married, a jump of 40 percent in 
a decade. 

With Japan’s rising divorce rate — 
one of every four marriages fails — go- 
betweens such as Sumie Hasegawa say it 
makes sense to involve a concerned third 
person when looking for a. lifelong part- 

“It could take years to meet the right 
person if you let it happen naturally,'’ 
said Mrs. Hasegawa, who has hundreds 
of rSsumds and photos of eligible 
singles. “I shorten the process. Through 
n» you can meet as many people as you 

Mrs. Hasegawa, a calligrapher and 
artist, says her formula is foolproof, 
pointing to the 25 marriages she or- 
chestrated, all still intact. ‘‘When it 
comes to compatibility there are the ‘big 
three’; father’s occupation, job and edu- 
cational background,” she said. - 

Of course, many Japanese , people 
have found 'their spouse on their own. 
Computer dating services advertise in 
every city. O-net, for instance, is a na- 
tional database of 63,000 eligible men 
and women. Jumping into that electronic 
piool of possible spouses costs $3,000. 

Shigemitsu Tanaka was urged by his 
senior colleagues to go to the Tie the 
Knot office at Hitachi. A shy man whose 
face easily turns red, Mr. Tanaka said he 
grew tired of feeling he had to go out 
every night to meet someone. 

“It’s harder to meet people when you 
are older,” he said. 

• For Mr. Tanaka, the beauty of the 
workplace wedding office is that be 
didn't have to do anything: He just 
waited until a woman picked him. And, 
according to his new wife, he made 
tilings harder on himself by submitting 
an unflattering photo that kept women 
away for 10 years. 

At the Tie the Knot office, once a 
person has submitted an application, he 
or she is permitted to comb through the 
files and select those of people they 
would like to meeL Often, workers take a 
vacation day and sit on the sofa in the 
small room to choose slowly and care- 
fully. Mr. Tanaka never bothered. 

Once a prospect is chosen, the wed- 
ding commander, Ichiro Fujise, or his 
assistent/ihfonns the person selected, 
sending than the r£sum£ and photo of 
the person requesting the date. Both 
parties must agree for a meeting to be set 
up. After the initial meeting, each side 
must call the office to report back on 
whether they had a good time: 

“The most difficult part of this job is 
conveying a ‘no,’ ” Mr. Fujise said. 

But in the Tanakas’ case that was 

They met outside the Hitachi Insur- 
ance office and went to lunch nearby. It 
lasted four hours. They moved on to 
another place for dinner. Last Novem- 
ber, after dating one year, they married. 
Seventy percent of the wedding guests 
were from Hitachi. 

Military Aid as 
Rights Incentive 

The Associated Press 

KINSHASA, Congo — The 
United States is willing to offer the 
new government of Congo military 
cooperation as an incentive to main- 
tain human-rights standards, a se- 
nior U.S. official said Sunday. 

President Laurent Kabila, 
anxious to maintain the Western 
goodwill he garnered during his 
seven-month rebellion to oust the 
Zairian dictator Mobutu Sese Seko, 
agreed this weekend to allow 
United Nations' officials to freely 
investigate charges that refugees 
have been massacred in regions 
held by the now-victorious rebels. 

Mr. Kabila's forces have preven- 
ted access to areas that humanit- 
arian groups say they believe be- 
came killing fields during the war. 

The U.S. representative to the 
United Nations, Bill Richardson, 
said Mr. Kabila made the commit- 
ment Saturday — and brought up 
military cooperation in the same 

Mr. Kabila “was very interested 
in military cooperation, because he 
said he was the minister of de- 
fense,” Mr. Richardson said. 

Mr. Kabila rules by decree, and 
bas co-opted all die principal 
powers in the new Congo for him- 

Mr. Richardson said the United 
States was open to Mr. Kabila’s 

' ‘I think we want cooperation be- 
tween oor militaries, ’ he said, 
adding that for now it would be 
restricted to technical advice on 
how to organize the military, and 
possibly some training later on. 

Continued from Page 1 

favorite of students trawling for good 
reports to copy or lift material from. 

“I am now getting e-mails from people 
from around the world asking for papers 
on every conceivable topic." Mr. Berger 
said. “Just this past week, I got letters 
from Russia, Korea. India and Lithuania. 
1 feel that I am some type of multinational 
cheating company when all I wanted to 
do was offer my papers as research in- 
formation to people on- the Internet.” 

Compounding the problem is the 
number of papers that are posted on 
academic or personal home pages. 

Samantha Brenner, a 17-year-old ju- 
nior at Stuyvesant High School in New 
York, said: “A Jot of people download 
papers and just change the names. There 
aren’t a lot of original papers thar get 
written anymore. 1 just think it’s the 
latest way to be lazy.” 

Many students say thar their peers are 
more likely to use the papers for ideas 
than to submit them outright and that the 
fear of getting caught makes the on-line 
papers more a diversion than an in- 
vitation to wide-scale plagiarism. 

But the flood of information to be 
used or abused at sites with hundreds of 
thousands of viewers explains the am- 
bivalence maty educators feel these 
days toward the ubiquity of the Internet 
in academic culture. 

“Sometimes the Internet is the library 
and sometimes it’s the mall, and though 
I love big metaphors, I haven't found 
one for the Web,” said Tom Rocklin, 
director of the Center for Teaching at the 
University of Iowa, who has written a 
paper about the on-line term-paper sites. 
“It seems to be too many things at once 
to get into a metaphor. 

“I know some faculty members think 
there’s a real evil genie out there,” he 
added. “I don't see a reason to panic, but 
. it’s definitely made something that’s been 
out there in the past much easier to do.” 

It does not take an Internet wizard to 

UPRISING: Rebels in Center of Brazzaville 

Continued from Page I 

hundred of the 2J2QO French nationals in 
the Brazzaville area had been taken from 
their homes to safe areas because of anti- 
French sentiment and outbreaks of vi- 
olence and looting in the capital. 

Mr. Doutriaux advised all other 
Bench citizens to remain in their homes 
and keep in close contact with the em- 

An Air France plane carrying 78 
people fleeing Brazzaville, most of them 
French citizens, arrived in Paris on Sat- 
urday night, and one of those on board 
said it was “open season on the French’ ’ 
in Brazzaville. 

“We did not want to leave, as we did 
not want to lose everything, but it be- 
came necessary,” one man told France 
Info radio on landing in Paris. “We were 

threatened with knives and machetes 
because we were French.” 

Some of those on board bad come to 
the airport with nothing but the clothes 
they wore. One man arrived without 
shoes, witnesses said. 

The commander of French forces in 
the republic described a chaotic and* 
deadly situation in the streets of Brazza- 
ville. “The problem is that there are* 
Nguesso's militias and there are Con- 
golese Army units that are not under the 
control of their officers, and so we have 
seen Congolese troops firing on their 
fellow soldiers,” Major Alexis Jaraud 

"There is shooting in the streets, and 
ihey are using rocket-launchers in res- 
idential neighborhoods,” Major Jaraud 
told the French television station LCI by 
telephone. (Reuters. AP) 

find term papers on the net. Typing in: 
"term papers" on any of the big search . 
engines immediately brings up long lists 
of sites that sell or give away term papers . 
or write them 10 order. 

Whether it is “Post-Modern Ethno-. 
graphy,” "Aphasia and the Acquisition^ 
of Syntax,'’ “Theme and Image of 
Women in Dame, Petrarch. Boccaccio- 
and Rabelais” or "Prenatal Care: A 
Cost-Benefit Analysis," papers on al-. 
most any subject are available. 

Sales of term papers are not new. 
Companies that do research for firms. 
and students have advertised on cam- 
puses and in publications like Rolling’ 
Stone for years. 

What is new is the number of places^ 
where papers are available, the ease with 
which they can be obtained and the often 
brazen ways that do-it-yourself Internet 
sites now flaunt the ability to cheat and 
plagiarize electronically. 

Most established for-profit sites in- 
clude elaborate disclaimers, saying that 
the information can be used for research- 
purposes but not submined as a student’s 
own work, though purchasers often have 
other intentions. It is illegal in most states 
to sell papers with the expectation that 
they will be handed in as students’ work. 

But many less professional sites are 
far less circumspect. 

"So what time is il?" the Chear Fac- 
tory site reads. "When is that assignment 
due? When did you get the assignment? 
Oh well, what can we say, check out our 
files and take whatever you wish!” 

Often, the commercial sites charge, 
from $6 to $ 1 0 a page for the papers. 

Salvatore Ciampa, a 21 -year-old stu- 
dent at York University in Toronto, who 
set up his fledgling site and does not* 
charge for papers, said he did not have 
time to put on his site all the papers 
coming his way and had no problem with.' 
students* choosing to use the papers as . 
their own. 

“I guess I just like the attention.” said 
Mr. Ciampa. His site has been on-line 
since April 8. Visitors are encouraged to. 
send him their own papers and take 
whatever is on-line. 

It is clear thar at least some of the 
papers are finding their ways into 
classrooms as original papers. 

Anthony Krier, a reference librarian ar 
Franklin Pierce College in Rindge, New. 
Hampshire, said that he had received 
more than 500 requests from teachers 
and deans, worried about plagiarism, for 
a list he had put together identifying, 
about 50 sites on the Internet that offer-, 
term papers. 

About 25 inquiries, he said, have! 
come from teachers and professors who ■ 
had already caught students using on- 
line papers under their own names. A . 

handful of the requests for his list, he 
said, came from students, apparently, 
seeking access to the sites for improper’ 

* ‘This seems to be snowballing, • • ' 
Mr. Krier, who said that he now finds' 
twice as many sites as he did when he- 
first looked for them in January. 



'(irtd an d Shove: Their Moment Has Come 




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By William S afire 

W ashington — The 
mbmera of moment of 
truth has passed. Ernest Hem- 
ingway's coinage in his 1932 
book "Death in the Afternoon” 
was ' ‘The whole end of the bull- 
fight was the final sword thrust, 
the actual encounter between the 
man and the animal, what the 
Spanish i cal the moment of _' 


The moments moment was 
pushed, penaps even shoved, 
aside by» th: now-familiar but ^ 

much unappreciated American- J?- 

iini when pish comes to shove. f 
Its definitioi is given in the Ox- »y / 

ford Englsh Dictionary as 1 

‘•when acion must back up M 

threats." Tiat sense of “deeds v 

replacing words” continues, 
but the maning now also em- 
braces “row or never” and 
“the critial moment.” A few 
years ago. he voguish at the end of the 
Jay had is time in the sun, but its 
meaning vas closer to ”when all is 
said and done” than “moment of 
truth.” T«day. when push comes to 
shove is udisputed king of the critical- 
moment hlL 

Deservdly so: WPCTS. as the 
Phrasedic Brigade refers to it. is one 
of the m<st vividly evocative Amer- 
icanisms First compare the etymolo- 
gies ofitfverb components: push, from 
the LarirpH/jdrc, “to beat,” came to 
mean ”!• exen force against”; shove, 
from Gemanic roots, became the Old 
English scufan. used in "Beowulf." 



Mr-uL." Wlla/lllf 

and means "to push a$ide roughly or 

Note the shading of synonymy to 
give the phrase its impact: WPCTS 
draws a distinction between the steady 
exertion of force in push and the rough- 
ness and forcefulness in shove. The 
focus is on the point at which the 
pushing reaches a critical mass and 
shoving, with its severity, takes over. 

What is the pro venance of this folk 
poetry? The OED's earliest citation is 
1 958, in "Cast the First Stone," a book 
about prostitution in New York, by 
John Martin Murtagh and Sara Harris: 
"Some judges . . . talk nice and polite. 

. . . Then, when push t omes to 
shove, they say. 'Six months in 
the workhouse.' ” 

. A couple of my correspon* 
\ dents dispute the American ori- 
i \ gin; one recollects, without cita- 
I j tion. usage in the north of 
J England in the mid-'30s. But at 
the Random House reference di- 
vision. slanguisi Jesse Sheid- 

L lower notes that “we’ve col- 
lected two other pre-1960 ex- 
amples from black authors. I'd 
say that a black-English origin 
for the phrase is pretty likely." 

He’s right. Peter Tamony! the 
one-man data base of San Fran- 
cisco who left his thousands of 
slang clippings to the Uni versi ty 
of Missouri at Columbia, 
clipped an even earlier usage 
from page 148 of Bernard 

1 Wolfe’s "The Late Risers." a 
1954 novel about the inhabit- 
ants of Insomnia Alley, or 
.,u/mr Times Square. In a conversa- 
tion, a black man says: "If push 
come to shove I might pull my old 
lady's coat. Could be she know some 
freakish mumbling man." 

I salute Randy Roberts, senior 
manuscript specialist at the Peter 
Tamony Collection, for tracking this 
earliest citation. Other evidence there 
of the phrase's black origin is a re- 
collection from Norman Pierce of San 
Francisco of Shove Day. or Bump Day, 
the traditional Thursday off for do- 
mestic servants in the’ 1920s. "on 
which blacks ‘accidentally' jostled 
whites in public places, railways, 
streetcars, etc.” 

Ne if York Times Sen ice 

An American Family Story 
Bv Patricio Bosworth 416 pages. $27 SO. 
Simon <£ Schuster. 

Reviewed by Carolyn See 

C ONSIDER this beautiful, saddening 
book on a par with Theodore Dre- 
iser's "An American Tragedy." It’s an 
extraordinary document, a terrifying 
piece of evidence about what it means to 
live in America in this century — to 
succeed, fail, succeed, fail. fail, fail, die. 
Pay no attention to the title t which makes 
it sound like a sappy celebrity memoir!. 
It’s written with blood and tears. 

Patricia Bosworth is an accomplished 
journalist and biographer (Diane Arbus. 
Montgomery Clift), and she begins her 
story with an arresting lead: “The night 
my father committed suicide, my moth- 
er gave a dinner party." She goes on to 
give us a headline in the New York 
YER, 59. DIES / Acted in Cases In- 
volving Civil Rights / Won Million in 
Rita Hayworth Divorce." On Page 1 
we've already got boundless personal 
pain and conflict, plus a larger weirder 
sadder question: What does a man's life 
count for? To what should we aspire? 
It’s fme to be remembered in the pages 
of The New York Times, less fme to be 
remembered for the amount of Rita 
Hayworth's divorce settlement. 

This brief, harrowing introduction 

hangs over the first 100 pages or so of 
Bosworth 's memoir. You know the end- 
ins of this story is not going to be good, 
so' all the early happiness of Bart ^ Crum 
and his beautiful wife. "Cutsie. is il- 
lusory. Or is it? He was a chamung. 
liberal attorney t patron saint of lost 
causes), and Cutsie wanted to create the 
perfect life for them while also writing 
novels. In 1938. just before the Hitler- 
Stalin Pact, the author remembers one ot 
manv parties she watched from lire nurs- 
ery as a girl: Carey McWilliams was 
there, and Helen Gahugan Douglas, and 
Edgar Snow, just back from China. At 
this, and at so many other parties, her 
parents danced on the patio: ‘ ' Every time 
I watched them, 1 believed they must be 
madly in love. . . . They thought they 
were indestructible then, and so smart 
and beautiful and well-connected that 
nothing could ever touch them." 

Except that Bart Crum was a very 
enthusiastic drunk. And he had periods 
of grave melancholy. And his ambition 
and yearning to be part of rhe larger 
world took him away from the family 
for months at a rime. And by definition, 
"lost causes" tend not to pay very much 
money. And the money he earned he 
immediately spent. After her first novel. 
Cutsie' s work never got published; she 
simmered with resentment, bought way 
too many things and, after the family 
acquired a country house, struck up a 
heavy flirtation with a gardener. 

After exciting times interviewing dis- 
placed Jews just before Israel comes 


into being. Bart Crum comes home, 
attends the opening of the United Na- 
tions and throws another great party- 
But already the FBI and HU AC are after 
him. A dark scrim begins to come dow n 
over all their lives. The gardener runs 
amok. Young Patricia and her brother 
become deeply demoralized. The Hol- 
lywood Ten are indicted, and Crum is 
one of their defending attorneys. Then, 
in one dazzling Lost Cause too manv. he 
takes over PM. an insolvent New York 
newspaper, moves his entire discon- 
solate family to the East — a liberal in 
the biu world, he’s an autocrat at home 

and then the paper folds. Dreisertan 


The children, now adolescents, ob- 
serve tragedy in the making and become 
pans of*tracedv themselves. They all. 
evidently, can 'see bits and pieces of 
what's happening, but they can only go 
on being themselves; they're helpless to 
stop anv of it. part of an extended per- 
sonal and panlv national tragedy thai s 
far sadder and’ stranger than even the 
beginning sentences of this book. A*» in 
the great Dreiser novels, the individual 
may think he holds his destiny in his 
hands, but he thinks wrong. It would be 
easy io blame ihe American government 
for some of this, but more likely the 
gods did it. gods both lofty and in- 
different. who watch our sorrows and 
smile mean smiles. 

Carolyn Sec reviews regularly for 
The Washington Post 


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By Uan Truscott 

T HE famous Goldman 
Pair, first played in 
1929. improbably the second- 
oldest rominuously played 
event iibridge. (The Vander- 
bilt Kockout Teams is one 
year dder.) Recently, the 
Goldmn title went to Car- 
leton litt and David Guivich, 
both c Manhattan. They also 
won i 1994, and Lett owns 
an ealier title with another 
partnr. Only one player, the 
great Alvin" Roth, has won 
more than three Goldmans: 
he ha had four victories. 

I Ut. as. South, judged the 
biddng well on the 
. dugumed deal. His partner 
sieved the minor suits by 
trifling two no-trump, and so 

he saved in four clubs over 
three no-trump. 

♦ - 
6 Q J M 8 2 

* KM 08 6 

4 A K 8 
0 K 10 3 
0 AK87 
♦ A Q 7 




❖ 5 

4 J 4 3 2 

4 Q J7 6 2 
9 J988 
0 84 3 


East and Wut were vntawreMe. The 

























West lad the dub ftve. 

West led a trump, and East 
took two club winners and 
played a third round to cut 
down ruffs. South won in his 
hand with the jack, and led his 
singleton diamond to 
dummy's ten. East won with 
the diamond king and led the 
spade king, which was ruffed 
in dummy. The diamond 
queen was led, covered with 
the ace, and ruffed by South 
with his last trump. The spade 
eight was led, and a heart was 
thrown from dummy. East 
won with the ace reaching the 
position shown at right: 

A routine lead of the spade 
five would have been ratal; 
South would have ruffed in 
dummy and played the jack 
and another diamond to end- 
play East But East led the 
diamond nine, won by 

dummy's jack. Now there was 
no end play; when East won 
the next diamond lead he had 
the spade five as an exit card. 

South had to lose another 
trick, but the penalty was only 
500; the eventual champions 
beat all die pairs who were 
minus 600 in three no-trump. 

♦ - 
t? Q 7 
4 J62 



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sateguaids pais 
3 Prefix with port 
suability s 

14 Songwriter Gus 
13 Plow animals 
16 Marvy 



IB Mississippi 

20 Lead singer 
with Dawn 

23 Opposite of 

24 Alphabet trio 

25 Reduced lare 

28 — la Douce 

28 What 'hemi-' 

30 Odd 

33 Popular record 

38 Cosmetician 

37 Treaty 

40 Seabees 1 motto 

42 Bor better 

43 Impassive 

43 Horses 1 home 

47 Morning or 
afternoon travel 

48 Vlad the 
Impaler, eg. 

53 Stallion's mate 

54 Water, in Cadiz 

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Solution to Puzzle of June 6 

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□□□eh saaaaaaaa 

□00E □□□□□ EH2IUE3 

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saiua hdcj _ 
□□ohhei aaaanaa 
□□□an HHaaaauaa 
□uHaa □□□aaaaaa 
□hubu aHaaaaaaa 

56 'Do Ya' rock 

57 Kind ol testing, 
in law 


59 Los Angeles 

82 Sonata section 

64 Mrs. Chaplin 

65 Jazz 

66 Dual 

87 Men's business 

88 Busier Brown's 

89 Pirate's prize 

70 Nobelist Wiesel 

71 TV'S 

Three Uves" 

1 Artist's 

2 Chinese temple 

3 Estee Lauder 

4 Rooney of 
'60 Minutes 

5 Frightful 

6 Banish 

7 Free to attack 

a instant 

a Neighbor of 

io Go out with 

11 60 S- 70 SAS 
thud baseman 

12 Endmg with 

13 Wan -covered 

21 Stench 

22 Morse code 

27 Baseball owner 
Schott et al 

29 Bluebeard s last 

30 Actress 

31 Storm or 
Tracker, in the 
auto world 

32 Finis 

34 Postpaid end. 
salt's ablest 

37 Utilities 
watchdog grp. 

38 From Z 

39 'Dirty Dozen" 

41 inflexible 
44 Superficial, ase 

46 Emulate 

48 Tetley product 
so Cosmetics 
61 Senior years 
52 Blew a horn 

Puzzia by Thomas W. ScMor 

C AW York Times/ Edited by K ill Short a. 

57 Cheerless 

58 Banned act 
go Bloodhound s 


54 Run of (violate) et spumante 

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MONDAY, JUNE 9. 1997 

International Herald Tribune 

Alliances Are Only Way 
Big Players Can Survive 

Fight Heats Up for Business of Multinationals 

By Sharon Reier 

P ARIS — As the wave of de- 
regulation in telecommunica- 
tions sweeps from the United 
States to Europe and eventually 
to Asia, the world’s telecommunica- 
tions giants have convinced themselves 
that there is safety in numbers. 

“Ultimately, I think, there is no room 
for an unaligned PTT at this point.' ' said 
Alfred Mockett, managing director of 
global communications for British 
Telecommunications, which, if regulat- 
ory permissions go through, has offered 
$24 billion in stock and cash to buy the 
portion of MCI it does not already own 
as a cornerstone for Concert, the BT- 
MCI alliance. 

* 'If an operator chooses not to play at 
the regional level or the global level and 
confines itself to the country level.* * Mr. 
Mockett warned, “they are going to be 
faced with the situation of constantly 
eroding market share." Mr. Mockett is 
slated to be in charge of the international 
arm of Concert, 

So far, as they seek to defend against 
other major players moving into their 
once cozy' backyards, the major tele- 
communications operators have 
clustered into three international alli- 

Mr. Mockett believes that there may 
be room for a fourth. 

The BT-MCI-Concert effort ties to- 
gether joint ventures and equity in- 
terests in 24 additional telecommuni- 
cations groups, including Cegetel in 
France and most recently Telefonica de 
Espana. Global One's equity sharehold- 
ers are France Telecom. Deutsche 
Telekom and Splint. And Unisource, 
until now a loose alliance among Royal 
PTT Nederland. Sweden's Telia and 
Swiss Telecom, last week announced 
that it intended to merge the interna- 
tional networks of its three partners into 
a single unit next January'. Unisource 
has a joint venture with AT&T and an 
Asian connection in AT&T World Part- 
ners. whose 1 1 partners include KDD 
Japan and Singapore Telecom 
If their revenues are a drop in the 

bucket compared to the colossal $670 
billion world telecommunications mar- 
ket ( Global One claims $800 million in 
revenues for 1996, Unisource about $1 
billion and Concert S700 million), their 
capital investment and investment in 
technology and personnel and their ap- 
petites for business are big. 

In essence, they are fighting for one 
of the fastest growing segments of the 
telecommunications markets: multina- 
tional corporations that want seamless 
desktop-to-desktop communication for 
voice data and video from anywhere to 
anywhere in the world. 

“Corporations are asking for services 
which are the same wherever they buy 
them." said Viesturs Vucins. the pres- 
ident and CEO of Global One. which 
has established offices, passed regu- 
latory hurdles and placed employees in 
65 countries. 

Mr. Vucins said the multinational 
corporate market accounts for merely 7 
percent to 10 percent of the total world 
market for telecommunications. But it is 
the fastest growing part Traditional 
long-distance voice telephone is grow- 
ing at an annual rate of about 8 percent. 
However, data transmission, driven by 
corporate use of intranets (closed cor- 
porate ■ communications system 
modeled after the Internet) as well as 
corpora i e linkups to the Internet, is in- 
creasing at a rate of 20 percent a year. 

Essentially, the global alliances ore 
proposing to multinationals that they 
can now, through a single source, obtain 
a single standard of |>erfect global in- 
terconnectivity for their data, voice and 
video communications. Instead of deal- 
ing with dozens of so metimes agon- 
izingly inefficient PTTs in all the coun- 
tries where they operate, with their 
abilities to provide varying levels of 
service and products like video, voice 
mai I and Internet linkage, they will have 
one party responsible for making it 
work globally. 

Besides high worldwide technical ca- 
pabilities. clients are being offered the 
convenience of a single point of contact 
and a single bill if desired. 

Of course, such promises of one-stop 
shopping have proved to be less than 

fruitful for other industries. In financial 
services, for instance, despite a lot of 
hype, the concept of the financial su- 
permarket left consumers cold. 

B UT with capital investment 
running so high — it takes 
major investments to build in- 
ternational networks with uni- 
form state-of-the-art switching systems 
that provide the most up-to-date ser- 
vices — the stakes are serious. And. 
while revenues are still small and all 
three alliances are running in loss, the 
growth rates and the size of the clients 
are big. Concert boasts a Ford contract, 
and Global One brags about its tele- 
communications network for Samsung 
of Korea. 

Albeit off a small base, all three are 
growing well over 50 percent in rev- 
enues per year. 

“The reason the market share is so 
modest on a global scale now is because 
most of the world’s markets hitherto 
have been locked up tighter than a 
drum,'' said Mr. Mockett. “But be- 
cause of the WTO agreement, the ad- 
dressable market from now to year 2000 
will go from 17 percent to 95 percent 

The Scramble to Set Up 
Satellite Phone Services 

$12 Billion Market by 2004 Is Expected 

By Mitchell Martin 


EW YORK— For an industry 
with only one functioning 
company, the global satellite 
telecommunications business 
has some pretty fierce competition. 
Dozens of companies are spending bil- 
lions of dollars to launch hundreds of 

Dozens of companies are spending bil- 


open.” He was referring to the World 
Trade Organization agreement in. Feb- 
ruary that opened up the global tele- 
communications industry to the free 

As a result, alliances are designed to 
prevent a competing alliance or foreign 
PTT from snagging important clients. 

“The nightmare scenario^" noted 
Keith Maliinsoo, managing director for 
Yankee Group Europe, a telecommu- 
nications consulting firm in London, 
"is that a German multinational com- 
pany defects to Viag International [one 
of the new competitors in the Gentian 
market] or your French multinational 
defects to Cegetel." 

To Mr. Mallinson. in fact, “the al- 
liances are primarily defensive." 

Since multinationals are the target, 
each alliance has a U.S. connection. 
Global One paid $4 billion for a 20 
percent interest in Sprint. BIT s total 
investment in MCI, meanwhile, will 
probably go above the $30 billion mark 
as it provides the huge amounts of cap- 
ital needed to develop MCI's local net- 
work in the United States. Since the 

Continued on Page B 

satellites in an often confusing race to 
provide telecommunications services to 
people all around fee world. 

There are these who question whether 
these efforts are worthwhile, but others 
say the market for the communications 
services is vast, and certainly worth fee 
proposed investments. For instance. 
Bruce Gerding. vice president -of TRW 
Inc. and managing director of Odyssey 
Telecommunications International Inc., 
said there are only 200 million phone 
lines in fee developing world, which has 
■ a population of about” 5 billion. 

Current plans are for about $20 bil- 
lion to be spent oh setting up systems by 
2002. according to Aberdeen Group 
Inc., a technology research organization 
in Boston, but Mr. Gerding quoted stud- 
ies showing feat the global satellite tele- 
phone market will have $12 billion in 
annual sales. two years later. 

Although some analysts question 
whether the world's poor need satellite 
phone systems, many leading technol- 
ogy companies are willing to gamble that 
they can make money providing com- 
munications services to them or to rich 
people who want fast Internet access or 
to multinational corporations that need 
to link their offices around the world. 

This leads to the big problem of mak- 
ing sense of these systems. The compa- 
nies that are proposing them see vastly 
different markets, and they are position- 
ing fee services in different way’s. Even 
though all of these systems use satellites 
to offer global services Jhal replace func- 
tions now performed by telephone lines, 
they are adamant feat their services are 
not all direcrly comparable. 

What the companies and analysts say 
is feat fee altitude of fee satellite' system 
largely determines fee service. There 

are three categories, kndyn as GEOs, 
MEOs and LEOs, in defending order 
of distance from the Eartl 

• GEOs are fee old-f; hioned geo- 
stationary satellites of th son now in 
use for television transrassion. They 
are very far away from 1 arth. 36.000 
kilometers (22.000 miles so that their 
orbits keep them stationer over a fixed 
point of the planet. Becau : they are so 
high up, as few as three sa liites are all 
that it takes to cover -the bulk of the 
planet compared with hunc eds of satel- 
lites for fee lowest compel ors. 

GEO systems are therel re less of a 
logistical problem to estab sh, and fee 
satellites are more power il and last 
longer than their lower- fly ib brethren. 
Yet they have one major drawback — it 
takes about half a second for infor- 
mation to make the trip to le satellite 
and back tu Earth, whichtauses an 
audible delay in phone colersations 
akin to making an intematiaal call on 
conventional systems. . I 

Although the one funcrionjg system 
is Comsat Corp.’s Planet | service, 
which uses Inmarsat’s ’gectationary 
satellites, many observers saj 
orbit makes these devices 
for voice communication, 
however, be useful for such ap/ 
as Internet access. Cyberstar. 1 
backed by Loral Space & Ci 
cations Ltd., is planning to 
fastest of the services, up to a 
of 6,000,000, almost 200 time 
than the 33.600 modems att 
today’s well-equipped compute! 

• MEOs are high enough able fee 
Earth’s surface (10.000 kllomeirsi to 
require only about a dozen satellfes but 
their medium orbits reduce fee d|ay in 
communicating w ith the ground ICO 
Global Communications, a cotbany 
spun off from fee Inmarsat majtime 
communications treaty oigamzatm. is 
planning to offer telephone, dat( fax 
and messaging services via a 10-wel- 
lite system, which will place it in bm-£ 
petition with Odyssey's! 12-craft ?oi- 

fee high 
1 system 
fer fee 
id rate 
hed to 

i l 

Continued on Page B 

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the phone you can 
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nr - 

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•i jU. 

i ' 

5 Satellite 

Continued From Page A 

. • LEOs require dozens of 
' tow orbit , satellites, which 
'have to communicate with 
each other and with the 
Earth’s surface. Being so Jow, 
they tend to have the shortest 
life spans, and they shoot 
through the sky in as little as 
: 12 minutes, so the systems 
need many, satellites- The 
global communications net- 

■ ‘ works are known as big 
•" f LEOs, differentiating them 

*; from little LEOs which, be- 
1 • cause of the frequencies they 
have been allocated, are only 
*■ allowed ro provide data com- 
munications such as paging. 

*• The first big LEOs sched- 
- l - uled to come on-line is the 
Iridium system, which will be 
followed closely by GlobaJ- 
- star. Both are planned for next 
year. They will compete with 
Planer 1, which currently 
charges about $3 a mini] re for 
** voice communications, but 
■ their hand-held phones will 
*■* be easier to carry around than 
n the Planet i note book- sized 

r The biggest of the big 
LEOs, at least in terms of the 
r > number of satellites planned. 

is from Teledesic Corp., 
•. owned by Bill Gates, the Mi- 
crosoft Corp. chairman: Craig 
1 McCaw. founder of McCaw 
Cellular Communications, 

’ and Boeing Co., which will be 
' the prime contractor for the 
288-satellite system. Unlike 
' the other LEOs. however. 
Teledesic aims to provide 
dam communications rather 
than voice at speeds as high as 
2,000,000 baud. Its target 
market is “businesses that 
' have large operations around 
' the globe.* ' said Russell Dag- 
1 gan, the Teledesic president. 

Teledesic is trying to 

• provide the same kind of ser- 
•■* vices that businesses could 

• obtain if they had 100 percent 
. fiber-optic networks. But. 

■ Mr. Daggatt said, suburban 
corporate offices. let alone re- 
mote locations, often do not 
have fiber lines running to 
their switchboards. 

The Teledesic approach il- 
_ lusrrates that, besides the alti- 
tude of the satellite, the kind 
of receiver helps determine 
the characteristics of ihe ser- 
vice. Telephone-like units, 
some of which can access 
conventional cellular ser- 
vices, offer the advantage of 
mobility, but fixed antennas 
or dishes allow foster, cheap- 
er communications. 

Major Satellite Communications Systems j 


(Key Backer) 



DuaHu<xte handsets' 

can function ae sataSto 
#nd Mlufeu- phones 



Satellites w 

Planet 1 9.600 



sized unit 


5 GEOs 

ICO Globalcom 







10 MEOs 







66 LEOs 

(Loral) ' 


<$1 /minute 




48 GEOs 





home dish 


3 GEOs 







- handset 
■ rooftop 


12 MEOs 

Teledesic - 


Several ‘ home-dish 




288 LEOs 

* GEOs Geostationary iGeesyochranosI Earth Orbit -36.000 km. MEOs- Metfium Earth Ortta ■ 10.000km. LEO'S: Low Earth 
Orb* ■ about t 000 km. ■ ... 

'""V *, " ’P"' 


■ \ • •• 


• \ 


'V jp 

A call on Motorola's Indium system Is iransm'nsd ■ 
from a ceaular priane to the nearest satellite, which 
sends ihe signal to an Earth 'gateway 1 ' that verifies 
Ihe caller as an authorized user. , . 

Source. Company and press report, Aberdeen Gnjup. 

The call Is then routed through the const eflatkm of 
satellites to Its destination anywhere on Earth. The 
constellation contains 77 satellites arranged In seven 
polar OfHtal planes. Each plana contains 11 satellites. 

When Boeing joined 
Teledesic in April, it was big 
news. These systems are ex- 
pensive in absolute terms, 
costing several billion dollars 
to establish, and the technol- 
ogy is unproven for the MEOs 
and LEOs. To share the risks, 
the proponents of the various 
systems are purring together 
alliances: Iridium, for ex- 
ample. is 2 A percent owned 
by Motorola Corp.. bur other 
investors include Veba AG. 
Sprint Corp. and FT Bakrie & 
Brothers of Indonesia. 

Government regulation, 
one of the stickiest problems 
the satellite systems face, is 
another reason for the alli- 
ances. Most of the systems 
require ground stations. But 
even if a physical presence is 
not required in a given coun- 
try. none of the companies 
involved wants to offend lo- 
cal regulators. 

Local allies are therefore 
helpful in getting the required 
approvals as well as in mar- 

keting the services. Another 
way to minimize, the logis- 
tical nightmare is to go after 
the big ones first This is a 
strategy Globa Is tar has adopt- 
ed. said David Benton, a Lor- 
al spokesman. He said the 
company now has about 14 
licenses out of about 105 

Logistics aside, the big 
question is whether there will 
be sufficient demand for the 
global communications ser- 
vices that use satellites. 

Traver Kennedy, director 
of wide-area-network re- 
search at Aberdeen Group, 
believes, there will.He noted 
that direct television broad- 
casting turned out to be more 
successful than expected and 
that satellite communications 
could turn in similar perfor- 
mances'. ' 

Monex' Report editor of the 


Alliances Are Only Way to Survive 

Continued from Page A 

United States is home to 
about 50 percent of the top 
2.000 multinationals, “these 
are the kinds of dowries they 
have to pay to get into the 
market.” Mr. Mallinson 

But if the strategies are in 
place, the alliances are nor yet 
set in stone, not if the de- 
fection of Telefonica de Es- 
pana from the Unisource al- 
liance in April is any 

Telefonica de Espona 
backed out of Unisource to 
sign an agreement with BT 
and MCI. This should give 
Concert a dominant position 
in Latin America since Tele- 
fonica i> the largest player 
there. While this may give the 
edge to Concert in the Span- 
ish-speaking world. Uni- 
source says it is looking for a 
fourth partner to replace Tele- 
fonica. Italy's STET is men- 
tioned as a strong contender. 
However with Britain's 
Cable & Wireless and Japan ‘s 
huge NTT unaligned, there is 
still room for surprises. 

A possible AT&T acqui- 
sition of SBC. which has in- 
terests in Mexico and Chile, 
among other international in- 
vestments. could also 
strengthen the alliance. 

Whatever the outcome, 
none of the alliances wants to 
show weakness. “There is a 
winner take ail aspect of this 
business. Those who are 
strong will go from strength 
to strength. We are concerned 
in our company because we 
haw Apple computers. We 
are worried it won’t exist in a 

few years. People feel the 
same way about their tele- 
communications provider." 
Mr. Mallinson said. 

Mr. Vucins of Global One 
summed it up: “You could 
say it is a war that is coming 
up here between people who 
used to work very closely 
with each other in rhe com- 
munications world. They 

have .started to cluster. It is 
becoming clearer as the fog 
goes away from the situation 
who is going to work with 
whom. There is simply not a 
company in the world which 
can do iron its own." 

SHARON REIER is a free- 
lance journalist based in 


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bttptf/ • Email: 

Taking a Gamble on 

By Barry James 

litunuBmiAl Herald Tnhunc 

P ARIS — When JamesR. Adams 
rhapsodizes about phone con- 
versations. he’s nor thinking 
about calling your mother or 
your banker. He means phones talking to 
other phones in digitalese. 

The boom in cellular phones means a 
potentially huge payoff for Texas In- 
struments, the company of which Mr. 
Adams is chairman. In one of the com- 
puter industry's more spectacular 
gambles, it has invested its future in the 
chip that makes it possible for tele- 
phones — or any other digital devices — 
to talk to each other: 

The chips are called digital signal 
processors, and unlike the processors at 
the heart of your personal computer, 
they are programmed to do one thing 
vety fast instead of carrying out a variety 
of tasks at lesser speeds. For example, 
Texas Instruments' most souped up pro- 
cessor works at up to five times the speed 
of the top-of-the-line Pentium chip. 

Last year, Mr. Adams said, Texas In- 
struments provided key portions of 23 
million cellular phone units made by Eric- 
sson, Nokia and other manufacturers. 

The basic idea for digital signal pro- 
cessors began in the 1970s with ex- 
periments in speech synthesis that pro- 
duced an educational toy called Speak & 
Spell. The problem then was to have the 
toy speak as soon as the child had fin- 
ished spelling, which an ordinary 
memory chip conld hot do. 

It took Texas Instruments, inventor of 
the integrated circuit, a long , time to 
wake up to the full potential of digital 
signal processing. As the world's largest 
manufacturer of semiconductors 10 
years ago, it had a comfortable cushion, 
but as prices of memory chips fell and 
other players entered the market, Texas 
Instruments needed a dramatic new 
product to keep its place among the 
technologically elite. . 

In recent months, Texas Instruments 
has sold its defense business to Ray- 

theon^ its software interests to Sterling 
Software Inc. aud its notebook computer 
. operation to the Acer Group of Taiwan 
in moves to regroup around its core 
activities. The company, which reported 
1996 revenues of $9.9 billion plans to 
spend $1.1 billion on research and de- 
velopment in 1997, most of it on signal 
processing arid its applications. 

Digital signal processors already ac- 
count for more man 40 percent of the 
company's total semiconductor reven- 
ues, and this is. certain to increase as 
more applications are developed. 

Was there a danger of putting too 
many eggs into one basket? 

. “I think quite ihe contrary," Mr. 
Adams said. 4, In some cases in the.past, 
we have not put enough eggs into the 
winning baskets. The question is will we 
be big enough to handle all the possible 
uses of digital signal processing. " 

Mr. Adams said he could not think of 
a single computer application that could 
not be “empowered" by digital signal 
processors. They improve the sound in 
audio equipment, steady tire picture in 
video cameras, make it possible for auto- 
matic braking systems to react instantly 
and enable washing machines to run 
more quietly and more efficiently. They 
are also an essential component in every 
computer hard drive. . 

Texas Instruments is rhe world’s lead- 
ing supplier of Digital signal processors, 
ahead of Lucent Technologies Inc. It is 
also the number two — behind Thomson 
— in digital-analog signal processing 
solutions. That's what makes it possible 
for humans to talk to machines and vice 

Mr. Adams said Texas Instruments 
began investing in digital signaling pro- 
cessing long before it had any idea where 
the technology would lead or what 
products would use it. ( 

"We' knew that if you could process 
information very quickly, the uses 
would be developed and this is what has 
happened," he said. 

The key application, of course, has 
been .the exponential growth of com- 

munications and die Internet. DyU 
signal processors are at the heart ot me 
new 56k x2 modems, which can be up- 
graded with' software adjustments. Tne 
company has just announced a new chip 
10 times foster (1.6 billion instructions a 
second) than today’s best An Internet 
file Aar today takes 1 0 minutes to down- 
load will be downloaded in five seconds 
with the new chip, the company claims. 

Mr. Adams said Texas Instruments 
expects to expand rapidly in Europe s 
deregulated telecommunications market 
next year. 

- "If " the U.S. experience is any in- 
dication; there will literally be hundreds 
of new technology-oriented companies, 
veiy innovative and really entrepreneur- 
ial. There will be large companies with 
deep resources who will see this as a real 
opportunity to make an investment. All 
this will give more options to custom- 

"In ihe United States many were neg- 
ative about deregulation early on, but at 
the end of the day, it was a win- win-win 
proposition, particularly for business 
customers. I believe those very same 
things will happen in Europe. My only 
comment woula be that the governments 
need to be very careful about the rules, or 
the benefits won’t flow to the con- 

Will the possible cancellation of 
France Telecom’s privatization have an 
impact on telecommunications growth 
in Europe? 

“I thmk deregulation works better if 
companies are motivated by private en- 
trepreneurial interest, ’’ Mr. Adams said, 
“nance Telecom is a very good com- 
pany, they are a good competitor. But I 
do believe it is very important that France 
Telecom has some private equity and 
some private entrepreneurial guidance. I 
have always found that companies that 
are motivated by competition and the 
profit motive tend to do a better job over 
time satisfying their customers. 

BARRS JAMES is on the staff of the 
International Herald Tribune. 

NICHOLAS HADDAD, Operations Manager, Mobile Communications, Ericsson Australia Piy. Ltd. (with his father). . ■=» 

Improvising takes two things. 
Creativity and experience. ” 

More dan a century of telecomm uni ca do d expertise lends force t» the 
ingenuity that is instrumental in the way Ericsson serves its customers. 
Being a major player, we see our sophisticated repertoire in telecommuni- 
cations not just as technological triumphs, but as ways to add value to 
peoples lives. What better inspiration for new solutions and services than 

'• I. 

to. make things work for the individual as well as for companies and entire 

Ericssons 90.000 employees are adrive in more than 130 countries. Their com- 
bined expertise in fixed and mobile networks, mobile phones and infocom 
systems makes Erksson the world-lead fng supplier inteleoomnmnicarioiis. 

I ffr-i 

Its about communication between people. The reft is technology. 

Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson, S-126 25 Scockholm, SWEDEN. 




d Modernization. Foreign Investors Tread Warily 

Despite China’s Rapid Modernization, Foreign 

By Ted Plafker 

B eijing — when 
China first opened 
itself to foreign 
business in the late 
1970s. its telecommunica- 
tions were as creaky and in- 
efficient as its centrally 
planned economy. Direct- 
dial service was unknown and 
connections, once made, 
were frequently lost. 

Since then telecommunica- 

tions services, in major cities 
at least, have become modem 
and reasonably efficient. Di- 
rect international dial, mobile 
voice and paging, intranets 
and Internet are all on offer. 

The outlines of China's 
broader business climate con- 
tinue to be mirrored in the 
development of its telecom- 
munications sector. Modern- 
ization has been quick, and 
the potential of China's mar- 
ket of 1.2 billion people beck- 

But bureaucratic turf wars, 
a poor service infrastructure 
and wariness of foreign par- 
ticipation have begun to 
dampen the enthusiasm of 
some top foreign players. 

According to China's of- 
ficial projections, every urban 
home will have telephone ser- 
vice by 2000. Subscribers are 
expected to number 123 mil- 
lion. up from 60 million 
today. The number of mobile 
phone users will rise to 18 

"China is typical of newly 
opening markets. If there 
were not some frustrations to- 
gether with the potential, it 
would be very unusual in- 
deed," said Buddy Neel, 
president of BellSouth China, 
a subsidiary of the Atlanta- 
based BellSouth Corp. 

Viewing telecommunica- 
tions as vital to its national 
security and sovereignty, 
China has placed tight limits 
on foreigners seeking to op- 
erate networks. BellSouth 

Mony callback companies are overcharging their customers with next- 
minute billing, hidden service charges, and other questionable tactics. 

Collbock Claims lid. will analyze your bills at not chorge. We moke 
our money by keeping 1/3 of any refund we arrange for you. 

Toget started oil you hove to do is fill out this form and fax it bock to 
us today along with the summary page of your lost three stotements. 

Please fax back to: 

201 - 457-9632 

YESI I authorize CoUback Claims Ltd., to analyze my raObadt bills. I understand tfnr 
lhafs is ns fee lor die service. II CoBbock Claims ltd. arranges c rotund For me, they mil 
be entitled to I /3 at that lefijnd. 

Harnot Account 

tltiTH rant] wOT 

Humber of Collbock provider 

Nani «f Callback Agoal 

China operates one venture 
providing engineering ser- 
vice and another managing 
the inremai network for the 
Portman Center, a commer- 
cial complex in Shanghai 

In 1994, the company ini- 
tiated a much more ambitious 
project to provide cellular 
phone service In Tianjin and 
Beijing but, Mr. Neel said, 
“the deal collapsed at a fairly 
advanced stage of negoti- 
ations. " Mr. Neel declined to 
provide figures, but industry 
sources say BellSouth lost 
S50 million on the failed ven- 
ture. Even so. his company 
believes China is worth the 

“Obviously, we would not 
still be here if we didn't think 
the potential justified it.” he 

Indeed, the fact that a for- 
eign service provider could 
even enter into negotiations 
reflects significant progress. 
Until recently, all service was 
the exclusive domain of 
China’s Ministry of Posrs and 
Telecommunications, which 
is forbidden from accepting 
any foreign investment. 

Then, in 1994, China's top 
government body, the State 
Council, authorized the estab- 
lisliment of a competitor, 
China Unicom. And it al- 
lowed Unicom to work with 
foreign service providers. 

“The government has been 
very unsure about how to pro- 
ceed. They don’t want a wide 
open field like the United 
States now has. They are a lot 
more comfortable with the 
idea of a duopoly." said a 
Western diplomat who mon- 
itors the telecommunications 

Even with the emergence 

In 1996, LG invested over US*9 biLlion to grow its business. 

We pot people first. 

Clian-bu Yu has created something unbelievable. 

Imagine a device that combines the (unctions of a computer, a fax m ac h i n e, a modem, a web browser, an electronic organizer and 
more— so small 11 rests comfortably in tbe palm of your band. 

What Chan-Su likes most about LG Electronics' new Handheld PC is tbe freedom it gives you to wort bow and where you like. 
Freedom bom the expense and inconvenience of tbe long line of machines H replaces. 

LG’s other many technologically-sophisticated products include one-time programmable microcontroller units and digi tal mobile 
Lelecommunication systems. Everything we make exists because we listen to you. 

Now, bow can wc help you? 

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Bv 2000. the number of mobile phone users is expected to hit 1 8 million in China. 

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of Unicom, foreign firms 
have so far been able to invest 
only indirectly. They were re- 
quired to invest in separate 
joint ventures which in mm 
could invest in Unicom proj- 

In May, the UAicom CEO. 
Li Huifen. announced that 
foreigners would’ be permit- 
ted to invest directly in Uni- 
com joini ventures provided 
their stake was less than 50 
percent and that they had no 
operational control. 

“When we heard that, we 
all wondered whether it was 
supposed to be good news or 
bad news.” said a director of 
one firm involved with Uni- 

Such uncertainty is due to 
Unicorn's reputation for be- 
ing quick to demand cash 
from foreign companies but 
slow to deliver fiincxional net- 
works or paying subscribers. 

Part of Unicorn's problems 
are beyond its controL Al- 
though' the State Council au- 
thorized the company to com- 
pete. the playing field 
remains distorted because the 
Ministry of Posts and Tele- 
communications is both Uni- 

corn’s competitor and its reg- 

In several Chinese cities. 
Unicom has attracted foreign 
investment and built mobile 
networks, only to be refused 
access by the ministry to the 
nationwide telephone grid. 
Without that access, the local 
networks are nearly useless 
because subscribers cannot 
connect with anyone except 
other subscribers on the same 
small network. 

Representatives of several 
firms involved with Unicom 
also complain that it is too 
concerned with getting for- 
eign capital to build infra- 
structure and neglects the 
management and training 
needed to use it effectively. 

“It is an incredibly inef- 
ficient setup for sharing in- 
formation. AU these Unicom 
branches are getting good 
ideas from their foreign part- 
ners. but they have no way to 
synthesize them,” said Wil- 
liam Kreuger of Xin De Tele- 
com, a Chinese-German joint 
venture investing in Unicom. 

“They need to train their 
people in every aspect of ser- 
vice, or else all these assets 

and all their great equipment 
will be doomed to unpro- — 
ductivity,” he said. ^ /■ / 1 

Unicom said Iasi month •;>''* ... 

that it has so far spent 9billion ' H * h 
yen ($1-1 billion) on infra- 
structure, of which 70 percent ••;" ". 
has been provided by foreign f 
firms." j.i. 

In contrast to frustrated •" ' ' 

would-be service providers. - ‘ 
equipment providers have so 
far done well by meeting that 
sort of demand. " . . 

And, because China’s in- - 
f restructure was so backward 
until so recently, it does not 
need to update older networks _ 

or sacrifice the investment 

that went into them, in in- . 

dustry parlance, China is a Z- 

prime candidate for 
“leapfrogging” straight to 
the most modern technology. ,r;* . • 

That technology is being 
provided by the world’s lead- - » ; : 
mg firms, such as Alcatel. 

NEC. Siemens. Lucent and 
Motorola. Throughout China. 
these firms have established Eg 
joint- venture factories to pro- ^ 

duce advanced equipment. 

TED PL4EKER is a jour- j 
nalist based in Beijing. 


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Andrew Lippmcin /Media-Consultant 

Internet’s Innovative Role 

Andrew Lippman is associate director of 
Media Laboratory at the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology atid director of Digital 
Life, a Media Laboratory consortium that 
looks at the online interconnections between 
objects and people. He -is an electrical and 
computer engineer by training and holds sev- 
en patents, tic recently spoke with Ken ShuI- 
nian in Cambridge. Massachusetts. 

Q. Where will the next wave of innovation 
in telecommunications originate? 

A. Without a doubt on the Internet We can 
presume that telephony will not evolve sig- 
nificantly, that people are going to continue to 
do what they have always done on the tele- 
phone. perhaps more cheaply, perhaps more 
efficiently, but still in the same fundamental 
way. Television today is technically tbe most 
pervasive medium. And the hardware is uni- 
versal. Yet the software is remarkably pa- 
rochial. If you are abroad and you read the 
International Herald Tribune, you can get a 
little bit of home. But if you turn on the 
television, you only get local programming. 
The only television software that seems to 
travel worldwide are the Brazilian relenov- 

Q. Are you predicting the demise of tele- 

A. To some extent television has nd future. 
A lot of media mature very quickly and do not 
evolve much afterwards. Theater has changed 
somewhat since Shakespeare's time, but if he 
woke up today he would still recognize how 
we present a stage play. Radio and television 
matured for a certain period of time but, since 
then, have grown very slowly: My suspicion is 
that television will continue to exist in its 
present form until viewers tike us grow old 
and die. 


Q. Do you foresee the eclipse of the tele- 
phone as well? 

A. No. just as I don't foresee the eclipse of 
[he publishing industry just because text can 
be delivered electronically. The question is 
where the next hotbed of innovation will be. 
When we move into widespread video-con- 
ferencing. we will do that on the Internet. If 
we invent a viable interactive television, that 
will also take place on the ImemeL 

Q. Which regions on the globe are best 
poised to catch the new reiecolnmu ideations 

A, Places like Hong Kong and Singapore 
have bought into the information highway in a 
big way. as have other areas in Asia. These 
countries recognize that a telecommunica- 
tions infrastructure is the kev to industrial and 
social growth. We recently had visitors from 
Scotland, where unemployment is quite high, 
who were looking at telecommunications as a 
way ro bootstrap their economy. The places 
that are more "industrially advanced are slower 
to pick up on this. 

Q. Will the dominant telecommunications 
corporations be able to maintain their market 
shares as this technology spreads? 

, A * The big three will certainly have a major 
role. MCI. which is responsible for the back- 
bone ot the Internet, is doubling its Internet 
1 capacity every month. At this rate, its data 
capacity w’llj soon exceed its voice capacity, 
let innovations can come from anywhere 
from a high-powered corporate lab or from 
your son s or daughter’s homework. 

I recently met with a man from rural Col- 
orado who wanted to wire a school system but 
was too far from the network to run lines. He 
decided to connect instead by using low-cost 
radio frequencies. Now he is doing the same 
thing for some communities in Mongolia. 


Q. Can the Internet be subverted into a 
national or nationally controlled medium? 

A. As a medium, [he -Internet is neither 
under central control nor in total anarchy. 
Most large-scale communications systems 
tend to be self-governing. They don’t require 
a chief executive. And they don’t fall apart. 
All of rhe participants recognize the value of 
the system. And the casual way in which we 
make global contact on the Internet is as- 
tonishing. If you came home to find that your 
12-year-old daughter had made a phone call to , 
Australia, vou’d probably be annoyed. But if ■ 
you found she’d made Web contacr with 
Australia, you’d probably be proud. 

Q. How much is telecommunications tech- 
nology shaping our lives ? And how much are 
our lives shaping the new technology? 

A. We tend to build our communications 
systems in our own image. Systems and tech- 
nologies are invented, then lie around indef- 
initely until we need them. We had the tech- 1 
nology for the telegraph for hundreds of years • 
before it was put into use. And this was only 
with the development of the railroads, which 
required instantaneous signaling. But just 
three years after Morse invented his telegraph 
code. Tlie Associated Press was founded. 

Communications also tend tn flower when ' 
the medium becomes affordable and easy to 
use. The invention of ihe telegraph key be- 
came the gateway to its widespread use. In 
telephony, the inexpensive handset was the 
driving force. With the Internet, this key will 
be affordable and easy to use terminal equip* 
meat. This is a unique moment in history, 
however. Never before has a technology- come 
along that has allowed so many ‘.of us to 
connect to so many things so cheaply. 

Q. Will the global communications nd' 
work necessitate a rethinking of national aflJ 
international boundaries? What about com- 
mercial boundaries? 

•A. We don’t yet know what the longevity of 
the virtual community will be. At present, we 
are still deeply rooted in the physical com- 
munity. I think commerce has been global for 
quite awhile. What is happening now is 
merely an illustration of how globalized com- 
merce has become. It will cause repercussions 
that are hard to fathom. Any industry’ that i> 
rooted in bits instead of in atoms can 
located anywhere. And to that extent the phys- 
ical world won’r matter quite so much. 

Q. Will this also entail a large-scale re- 
distribution of global resources and income? 

A. It will if you assume that the indus- 
trialized countries are going to be static and just 
lie down and die. But this isn't going to happed 
Many of the European countries that histor- 
ically regulated their telephone industries ai^ 
already moving toward deregulation, We're all 
going to grow up together. What I’m hoping for 
is a more democratic vision of world income 
and distribution. This should be viewed not as 
a ship, but as a tide that raises all boats. 

KEN SJffULMAN is a freelance journalist 
based in Boston. 

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International Real Estate group 

Bilingual Executive Secretary 

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To directly assist and support the President in 
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For Interview, send resume with photo to: 

CHM International . 

Attn: Eric R. Ettner, RA 1. Box 338, Hwworth. UJinol* 61745 USA. 
Fax: 309 8281190 





An important alcohol and soft 
drinks group, selling 
in 170 countries, 
is looking for an 


■ Part-time studies 

■ Small class size 
(max.: 20 students) 

■ Internationally 
acclaimed faculty 

■ Over 1 00 courses 
in Business, 

Art History, 
Economics, French 
Studies, Political 
Science, Philosophy, 

■ Courses taught in 
English and on a 
credit or audit basis 

■ Classes begin 
September 15, 


Call for a detailed 

course listing: 

Tel.: Ol 40 62 07 20 

Fax: Ol 40 62 07 17 


Wyoming, USA 


Business Administration • Computer Science 
Distance Learning iNo classroom study! 

- Accredited • Licensed by State Dept, of Education 
• Member of several professional associations 
• Student Loans - Scholarships 
• Also on-campus programs at Cheyenne campus in USA. 

. and at 22 affiliated centers in four continents 


Dept.HT.697, 12tMAirpon Parkway. Chrajmb WY ^OOLUSA 
^ Tel: +1 307 634 1440 - Fax: +1 307 634 3091 
Home page: hnpJ/ 

Export Assistant 

based in South-Easi France 

Working in the International Sales Department, you will 
be responsible tor tracking orders from receipt through 
to shipment \bu will help contract managers prepare 
and carry out their travel and prospecting arran- 
gements. will be in constant touch with customers 
and distributors and involved In operational marketing. 
With English as your mother tongue, you will have some 
experience in exports. You should have a 
thorough knowledge of German, and possibly Frendi. 
If you want to commit yourself to a lively 
company with tremendous potential, your willingness 
to work and energy will be your keys to success. 
Send your application (CV. photo, current salary) 
to COOPERS & LYBRAND DevetoppBment. BP 165. / 
06903 Sophia Antipolls Cedex. /j 

Hy J. 

ss /A 

& / M 



Leading US-based entertainment trade newspaper 
seeks correspondents in Paris and Germany 
(Munich or Cologne) to cover film, TV and music 
from a business perspective. Will consider full- 
time or part-time in Paris; freelance stringer onlv 
in Germany. Must be fluent in English and local 
language. Experienced reporters only. 

Also accepting CVs for possible future openings in 
other major European cities. 

Jeff have. European Bureau Chief 
The Hollywood Reporter 
32-34 Broadwick Si., London W1 A 2HG, UK 
Fax: 44/171/331-1951 

Executives Available 


MultfnguaJ American citizen, currently 
posted in Southeast Asia as manarpng 
dreckx ol a branch ot USS16 B Ewope- 
an manufacturer, responsible P & L tor 
USS43M. fifteen yews' axpenence n 
•world markets, seeks new ctialenjng 
positon. Proven track record in new van- 
tores, creabngtexpamfng safes/ifis&ibu- 
bon networks. Uniting local teams, etc. 
Free to retocate Please Fu (85)3240012 

EuropeiCIS Expert LSE+Sortunne Grad 
aiimal antapenew naensfre busmess 
cyMcatxms 28 wart oU taete capnal 
rrartetfEX post. Tel 44 (0)tB1 742 0071 

LADY. 27. btaguai toga) counselor, dual 
natonafefy French £n£sti, seeks postal 
ii any county. TalfFax +33(0)483121337 

Secretarial Positions Available 

irnicm/F SEEKS tor AMERICAN 

Engbh mother longue secretaries. 
Knowledge ol French requied 
422 Rue SaH Honore 
75008 Pails, France 
TO: (0) 1 42 81 76 7B 

Secretaries Available 

mother tongues Engtsh/French seeks 
parl-Dme |db m Pans. Reply to Box 
0283. LH.T. 92521 Neuly Cd>. France. 

Domestic Positions Available 

FRENCH FAUIT seeks btajnl couple 
ffnnteh Fteftch) wthovl cfttdrwi 40 
mi ™.. vamUe good retemwes. 
Room and boart. TjMe ann. arta 

tiMng Scenw-.Uust Ka ceuolyta and 
animats. Retif wift C.V. and photo: 
IHT. B« w. 92521 NtaJy cedes 

Domestic Positions Wanted 

FRB4CK BAN easts job K Iwnatap- 
v to France at abroad Pamawni or 
Snow Job. Tet Pans *33 (0)i45i1iiB3 

age Courses 

one-to-one home stays/groups 
150 locations in Britain. Franco, 
Germany, Italy. Rutafe » nd SP 8 '" 
All agesfleveis. Free info Pack 
Tel/Fax: +33 467 15 04 73 


Appears every Monday 
in The Intennarket. 

To advertise contact 
Kxmberlv Guenand-Betraocouit 
TeL: + 33 (0)1 41 43 94 76 
Fax: + 33 (0) 1 41 43 93 70 
or your nearest IHT office 
* or representative. 

Jrtanaiv* and aamHntensluo 

(BMBlwrai Hw Caww 
For AtMU 

UM. Group **» fnuam lMHu' 



MetibK Frances Rtera 

a. Rub Joan da Ruufta 
F-OftoflO CANN£S 
T# 3M /M B03BB3 ' 
nos 3S4<oaB#»97 


General Positions Available 1 Educational Positions Available 

StockbroM) m ot Para-based kwest- 
man) bank seeks Enaned translator to 
join its busy team. English motto 
tongue; mn 3 yean retovam axpenence. 
Fax CV 8 work sampte: 3310)145962383 
or write to: CPR ACTIONS, 

X rue Si Georges, 75312 rtK C* 09 

pteopndtog too Asa, Tirtay, TbatenJ, 
Scandnana. Raly. Europe. Souto AtoO- 
Hgn SS. Tc Wax *33(0)450384975 

General Positions Wanted 

Just back from USA. seeks marketing 
rammeraal |ob In Paris repw. 
Fax*33fl))1 49 84 33 49 

FRENCH BASED, exparieneed spans 
numefet sate hd nwspapw postal. 
J GLMQRE Pax i33 (0|3 44 57 74 X 

WOMAN, 25, FiBncihEngteh-ltakan. 
pas asstanceMe tor your oornmercal 
protects, bevel In Brussels. 

3. Secondary 
4. Ubanan 
5. Elementary Muse 

Ptease lax CVs H973-7B0D19 or tHtal: 
Mr OmerTioyer-bayanObatecotaiibh 


tor Busmess People 

Dynmnfc. Fnantiy T«m 

Innovalve Teaching UeOtodB. 

Para-SutaitMi Wodfoa Papas. ' 
Comptolr dei Laiguntpl) 45 51 S3 56 

tongue. peuVtena Musi tee expertenee 
m him ataen. Write to: Box 0306, 
mi, &21 NauiyCadax. France. 


fTf ±; 



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“i; *• .-' 

Dai-Ichi Loan Scandal 
Claims More Casualties 

Appointments to Top Posts Are Scrapped 

G W&tf fry tHr Stiff Frvm Dtspnriia 

TOKYO — Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank 
Ltd. said Sunday it had scrapped its 
choice of a new president as suspicions 
deepened over the weekend that die 
bank’s top. management had helped ar- 
range illegal loans to a reputed cor- 
porate extortionist. 

The bank said Ichiro Fujita would not 

be promoted to the presidency from his 
current post as vice president after it was 
) reported that he was aware of the loans as 
a senior managing director in charge of 
-loan screening in 1995, according to 
press reports. Mr. Fujita will also resign 
-from the bank's board, the reports said. 

Mr. Fujita was to have replaced Kat- 
suhiko Kondo, 59, who will resign over 
die scandal, as will Chairman Tadashi 
Oku da, 65. 

The bank has also decided not to 
appoint Vice President Yoshiharu Mani, 
i60, who was to become the new chair- 
"man, the daily Nihon Keizai Shimbun 
repotted. No one could be contacted at 
ihe bank to confirm the report. 

' The bank’s sudden change of mind 
suggests that it believes prosecutors 
may soon determine that responsibility 
fbr the scandal lies with more than just a ' 
few rogue employees, the Nihon Keizai 
5 him bun said. 

Four of the bank’s executives were 
i arrested Thursday on suspicion of 
providing Ryuichi Koike with a total of 
1 1.78 billion yen ($101.8 million) over a 
two-year period be ginnin g in 1994 to 
buy his silence at shareholder meetings. 

Mr. Koike is known as one of the 
extortionists, or sokaiya, who accept 
cash from corporations in exchange for 
promises to refrain from raising em- 
barrassing questions or otherwise dis- 
rupting proceedings at shareholders’ 
meetings. Payoffs to sokaiya are illegal. 

. . Mr. Koike was also suspected of hav- ■ 
ing been paid off by Nomura Securities 
Co. through a real estate company 
owned by his brother. He has been ar- 
rested in connection with the payoffs. 

Critics of Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank’s 
appointment of Mr. Fujita said he would 
not be able to escape blame fbr the 
J bank’s shady dealings. 
f Mr. Fujita said two weeks ago at a 
press conference that he learned in late 
1995 about loans the bank had been 
making to Mr. Koike. Much of the value 
of the loans is not recoverable. The bank 
admitted last month it hid the loans on 
; two occasions, in 1990 and 1994, from 
Finance Ministry inspectors, the min- 
istry said. 

: Mr. Fujita, 58, had been scheduled to 
formally, take over the presidency on 
June 27 when Dai-Ichi Kangyo will 
hold its shareholders’ meeting. 

Mr. Mani, the vice president who was 
to become chairman, is also expected to 
resign from the board since the scandal 
has grown to a point indicating that the 
company’s management had been sys- 
tematically involved, the reports said. 

• The bank executives who were ar- 
rested all belonged to the general affairs 
department, which is generally respon- 


sible for such administrative work as 
arranging company meetings and dis- 
tributing office goods. 

The four could face prison terms of 
up to six months and fines of up to 
300,000 yen if convicted, ‘ 

Prosecutors reportedly suspected top 
Dai-Ichi executives had also played a 
role in arranging the loans. Loan- 
screening executives gave approval to a 
loan plan drawn up by general affairs 
officials for Mr. Koike, although they 
knew the money would not be re- 
covered, the Asahl Shimbun reported. 

“ There are growing signs that the 
bank itself was involved in the case,” 
thepaper said. 

Tne Kyodo news agency said pros- 
ecutors were questioning loan-screen- 
ing executives to determine the extent of 
top management's involvement. 

One of the arrested was Hiroshi lo- 
ots ume, a former managing director in 
the general affairs department He con- 
sulted an executive in charge of screen- 
ing transactions and decided to extend 
the loan to the sokaiya, Kyodo said. 

The Tokyo Shimbun reported that the 
Finance Ministry was considering slap- 
ping an administrative punishment on 
Dai-Ichi Kangyo. Such a penalty could 
take the form of a temporary ban on new 
account opening and fresh loan con- 

Meanwhile, the Mainichi Shimbun 
said a former Nomura Securities ex- 
ecutive, who had been questioned but 
not arrested, had confessed to inves- 
tigators that he had brought stock cer- 
tificates to Dai-Ichi Kangyo in 1992 as 
collateral for a loan to Mr. Koike. 

“I brought stock certificates at the 
request of suspect Koike,” the official 
reportedly said, suggesting the top 
brokerage house had helped the extor- 
tionist get funds from the bank. 

Both Mr. Koike and his brother were 
arrested last month and remain in cus- 
tody, along with Hideo Sakamaki, who 
resigned as Nomura president in March 
before being arrested on May 30. 

All three have yet to be charged. 
Meanwhile, the former Nomura man- 
aging directors Nobutaka Fujikura and 
Shimpei Matsuki were charged Wed- 
nesday with violating both the com- 
mercial code and the securities and ex- 
change law. 

On Friday, Finance Minister Hiroshi 
Mitsuzuka had said Dai-Ichi Kangyo 
should decide what to do about Mr. 
Fujita’s appointment 

If authorities determine that even a 
fraction of the more than $ 1 00 million in 
unsecured loans to Mr. Koike were in 
fact payoffs, this would be the largest 
illegal payoff scandal tinder commercial 
law, far overshadowing the $1 .4 million 
that Takashimaya Co., a department 
store operator, paid a racketeer in 

On Friday, stock in Dai-Ichi Kangyo 
Bank fell 6 percent, to 1,250 yen. The 
stock has fallen 18 percent over the past 
three weeks. 

(AFP, Bloomberg, Reuters) 

Rank Am erica Courts 
An Investment House 

Robertson Stephens Said to Be Target 

J™*“l Jin-iKfikiv kjhit/IL-tiW'f*- 

Mr. Strauss- Kahn shaking hands with his predecessor, Jean Arthuis. 

Will Strauss-Kahn Toe 
Monetary-Union Line? 

French Finance Minister Fosters Optimism 

By Farah Nayeri 

flWw/wg Nett* 

PARIS — When Dominique 
Strauss-Kahn was an up-and-coming 
French trade minister in 1 991 , one of 
his earliest and most sensitive mis- 
sions was a fence-mending trip to 

His boss. Prime Minister Edith 
C reason, had described the Japanese 
as “ants” bent on ruling the world, 
and Mr. Strauss-Kahn was dispatched 
to make amends. 

• Now, as the new minister of eco- 
nomic affairs, finance and industry. 
Mr. Strauss-Kahn faces a far more 
daunting challenge: to reconcile his 
Socialist Party’s lofty campaign 
promises with die budgetary rigor re- 
quired to qualify for European eco- 
nomic and monetary union. 

Investors hope that the 48-year-old 
economist will water down a Socialist 
platform that pledged to swell state 
payrolls, shore up public spending 
and block the sale of state-owned 
companies — all of which would 
hamper France’s participation in the 
European currency union. 

Those who know the man are con- 

“I think he has a pragmatic ap- 
proach to problems, and that he is in 
favor of the single European cur- 
rency,” said his friend Jean Peyrel-. 
evade, chairman of the stare-owned 
bank Credit Lyonnais. 

Financial markets, too, are opti- 

When Mr. Strauss-Kahn was ap- 
pointed last week by Prime Minister 
Lionel Jospin, following the Social- 

ist-Communist alliance's surprise 
victory in legislative elections, stocks 
and bonds soared on relief that the 
country's purse strings had escaped 
the clutches of a free-spending Com- 
munist, and fallen into the hands of an 
economist some analysis describe as 
the most conservative member of the 
Socialist Party. 

“He’s a free-marketeer at heart,” 
said Robert Boubtil. a banking ana- 
lyst at Wargny in Paris. 

Wherher Mr. Strauss-Kahn will 
live up to those expectations remains 
to be seen. Just weeks ago ; he was 
mayor of the crime-ridden Paris sub- 
urb of Sarcelles. and one in a cast of 
Socialists lurking in the political 
shadows, while his wife, Anne Sin- 
clair — one of France’s best-known 
television interviewers — basked in 
the spotlight. 

His last ministerial duties dated 
back to the early 1990s, when he 
served two 11-month stints as in- 
dustry and trade minister under Pres- 
ident Francois Mitterrand. 

Mr. Strauss-Kahn set out in life as 
an academic. A graduate of a top 
French business school, Hautes Et- 
udes Commerciales, he went on to 
earn degrees in law, political science, 
and statistics. By 1977, he had a doc- 
torate in economics, and afterward 
taught at the University of Nanterre 
outside Paris. 

Mr. Strauss-Kahn landed his first 
parliamentary seat in 1986, and went 
on to head Parliament’s influential 
finance committee between 1988 and 
1991, where his job was to oversee 

Bhn’Hitvrfi News 

Corp. is close to an agreement to buy 
Robertson. Stephens & Co., an invest- 
ment bank that specializes in high-tech- 
nology companies, for as much as $600 
million, a person familiar with the ne- 
gotiations said over the weekend. 

The purchase of Robertson Stephens. 

which is based in San Francisco, would 
expand BankAmerica ’s equiiy under- 
writing business as the bank aims to 
provide its corporate clients with a full 
menu of financing services. 

BankAmerica. which already helps 
some corporate clients raise money in 
the bond markets, has long had on in- 
terest in gening into the more lucrative 
business of stock underwriting. In 
March, BankAmerica took a first step 
when it formed an alliance with a New 
York equity-trading firm, D.E. Shaw & 
Co., to offer equity-related products. 

BankAmerica, which is also based in 
San Francisco, would be the third large 
commercial bonk to buy a securities 
firm in the last three months. In April. 
Bankers Trust New York Coro, said it 
would acquire Alex. Brown & Sons Inc. 
for $ 1 .7 billion, while Swiss Bank Corp. 
agreed ro buy Dillon Read & Co. for 
$600 million in May. 

Commercial banks are eager to buy 
securities firms as the legal barriers that 
have separated the banking business 
from the brokerage Industry since the 
Great Depression come tumbling down. 
Last year, the Federal Reserve Board 
more ’than doubled the limit on revenue 
that banks can earn from securities un- 
derwriting and other non-lending busi- 

For securities firms, teaming up with 

a bank through a merger provides ad- 
ditional capital they need to compete 
against companies that are financially 

■'Given where they are in their cor- 
porate life cycle, I wouldn't be sur- 
prised” if Roberison were trying to sell, 
said Bruce Lupatkin. director of re- 
search at Hambrecht & Quist Group. " I 
suspect they are looking for a source of 
capital. *’ 

Robertson Stephens could obtain cap- 
ital by going public, taking a strategic 
partner or selling the whole business. 

In Robertson Stephens. BankAmer- 
ica would get a firm specializing in 
arranging stock sales for technology, 
health-care and consumer product 
companies. The securities firm, which 
has over 500 employees, also advises on 
mergers. Robertson has relationships 
with the kinds of fast-growins compa- 
nies the bank targets for bond under- 
writing and leveraged financing busi- 

Robertson Stephens also has an in- 
vestment management business, with 
$4.3 billion in assets, including about $3 
billion in 11 stock mutual funds and 
$500 million in venture-capital funds. 

Venture capital funds ore formed lo 
raise money for investing in companies 
that are just starting out or are in the 
early stages of developing their 
products. With venture capital, invest- 
ment banks can develop relationships 
with companies that may one day need 
other financing services. 

A spokeswoman for Robertson 
Stephens said the firm did not comment 
on speculation in the market. No 
BankAmerica spokesman was available 
for commeni. 

To End Piracy, China Tightens 
Imports of CD -Making Gear 

duel Jospin, following the Social- See MINISTER, Page 13 

C<*milrd In C>ur Stuff FnmDofku,-tn 

SHANGHAI — China has tightened 
rules on the import of equipment used to 
make video compact disks in an effort to 
reduce piracy, the official China Daily 
newspaper said Sunday. 

Companies that want to import the 
equipment need to obtain percussion 
from the Ministry of Foreign Trade and 
Economic Cooperation and the General 
Administration of Customs, effective 
June 1. 

The U.S. Trade Representative said 
in an annual report to Congress on April 
30 that China had made “significant 
progress'’ in combating piracy of 
American compact disks, movies and 
business software. 

The two sides signed an agreement in 
1995 that called on China to dose fac- 
tories and stamp out rampant piracy of 
American goods. 

Nonetheless, more than $1 billion 

of American printed works, compact 
disks and software is pirated annually 
in China. Harold McGraw 3d, pres- 
ident of the American publisher Mc- 
Graw-Hill Cos., said earlier this 

* ‘There has been significant progress, 
but it has been in dialogue, not in im- 
plementation,” said Mr. McGraw, who 
was visiting Shanghai to attend a busi- 
ness conference. 

‘•There are still enormous gaps in 
terms of the enforcement of certain le- 
gislative and agreed-upon practices 
here,” he said. ‘‘A lot of improvement 
has robe made.” 

China’s new rules on the import of 
disk-making equipment come as the 
U.S. Congress is debating renewal of 
China's most-favored- nation trade 
status. Most-favored-nation status al- 
lows products to enter the U.S. under 
normal tariffs. ( Bloomberg . Reuters ) 

Hot Tech Gear: Smart Pens and Simple Computers 

By Mitchell Martin 

Intenuikimjl Herald Tribune 

TLANTA — With cc 
touching an increost 

recent years, he added. Cross has been experiencing 
growth in international markets, where 45 percent 
of its 1996 sales were recorded. 

Those moves helped, Mr. Buckley said, but the 

society, all kinds of companies are being 
X JBl forced to redefine the ways they do 
things. Often this means adapting old industries to 
the modern world. Sometimes it means scaling 
down high technology to mundane levels. 

An example of the first approach is AT. Cross 

niter technology Those moves helped, Mr. Buckley said, but the 
y large part of company has also decided to move further up the 

technology scale. Cross now makes digital sryli, 
used for writing on handheld computers, and at the 
Comdex/Spring '97 computer trade show last week 
it introduced its iPen line. The IPens, to be available 
in October at a Use price of $149, work like 
computer mice. This means they can add hand- 

Co. of Lincoln, Rhode Island. For 151 years, the writing to fax and painting programs. An iPen 
company mainly maHa pens, which were often comes with a tablet that connects with aWindows- 
distnbuted through department stores and small based personal computer and feels more like a 
merc handise rs. conventional writing instrument than competing 

In 1990, Cross got a shock when its sales de- products, Cross said, 
clirred for the first time, said John Buckley, the Mr. Buckley said that Cross has other pen- 

pany that avoids layoffs, is slow to change its 
strategies and did not react quickly to changing 
market conditions. ‘.‘They've turned the comer,” 
Mr. Paris said, “but it wasn't a very sharp turn." 

The company is not under any financial pressure, 
thanks ro large cash reserves, Mr. Paris sard. But its 
stock has fallen from as high as $40 a share in 1989 
to about $1 1.375 on Friday. Mr. Buckley noted that 
a hostile bid was unlikely because voting control is 
maintained by a class of stock that is held by the 
Cross family. 

While Cross is moving into high technology, a 
company called Parallax Inc. in Rocklin, Cali- 
fornia. drew crowds to its booth with'model trains. 
The speeds of the trains were controlled by a low- 
tech computer called the Basic Stamp, which costs 
as little as $34, looks like a chip on a green circuit 

Hingis’ Choice 

- tocopany’s chief operating officer. Its first reaction, related computer items in the works, including board and acts like a 1970s-era computer, 
be said, was to exoand its pen lines from the well- devices being developed with International Busi- Boasting all of 2 kilobytes of mem 

■ known stimsUhonette to include some fatter mod- ness Machines Corp. that will digitally store hand- 
i rls ajd high-quality fountain pens, considered im- written documents so that after putting pen to paper, 
portanr in the European and Asian markets. In a user can download the data in the writing in- 


. Cross Rates ' Juno 6 years. The technology that changed its 

™ ™ “ JL- 5i Sr il S' market was not so much computers re- 

ESST 52 M M K St — !uis u* KB a*- placing pens as a move toward mass 

rm*mi uw ums — u*m ftttwr un am' i.nor wr u» use merchandisers and electronic inventory 

-twdwt*? - — «» iMJjnss vu 9 saw un mkhb ms rans manacemenL 

2?-:-£ES s ^s.hesaid.isafamily-nmcom- 

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sr ■5 srr s: ss 22 ns- s « s A Beefed- Up R 

IBM- --- =tt m UHl 1 Ml Utf LKTO UM 4WOS U» UU» 1SS» WM *4 * JT 

»S* '. ud un SIS taiKM txa«sm Bhombers N™ 

t LEXINGTON, Massachusetts — 

sing developed with International Busi- Boasting all of 2 kilobytes of memory, the 
lines Corp. that will digitally store hand- thumb-sized units are programmed in the old Basic 
cuments so that after putting pen to paper, language and can be used to control other circuitry 
1 download the data in the writing in- in projects like small weather stations and timed 
strument to a computer. drug delivery or to teach people about computing. 

Cross has been ‘‘a little slow to re- Bur some of the little computers have been used to 
act,” said Alexander Paris, an analyst at replace industrial controllers costing thousands of 
Barrington Research in Chicago who dollars, the company claimed, 
said he has followed the company for Charles Grace 2d, the chief financial officer, said 

years. The technology that changed its the company sells about 100,000 a year, and a 
market was not so much computers re- handful go up with each U.S. space shuttle to cany 
placing pens as a move toward mass out experiments designed by students. One catch: 
merchandisers and electronic inventory you need a personal computer to transfer programs 
manage men t into the device. 

Cross, he said, is a family-run com- Internet address: CyberScape@iht.cvm. 

said he has followed the company for 
years. The technology that changed its 

A Beefed-Up Raytheon Plans Cuts 

'WE un tw MO KfliKM BhombersN*** 

*** aadZa * ii v>? LEXINGTON, Massachusetts — Ray- 
jejbpr trtdt fltuatt * n *vy eat tutor) t/rOb at itxt MOr raff omfferb HA.- ud (heoa Co. will spend $573 million to close 
y. plants, sell equipment and eliminate jobs after 
. completing $12.45 billion in planned defense 

Values acquisitions, according to a regulatory filing, 

r-r — r I*r*_ tonwet nrs cmk» pvt ■ Th e defease, aerospace awl engineering 

RSEhS' VtS. xZ ^ concern will pay Jl«f million in feu lo t 

r.-B^s rriTT _ Comacy Omaqr . Mrs 

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14U31 MhBiupw 3SJSS PtiLpaa 26J8 TtatemS 2750 

mTtqM 20150 PM* If ■ 123 1HW 23J1 

I,.— a 140 U RannMt ' S3 S3 SO UIEAUB 3671 

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The maker of Patriot missiles and Beech 
aircraft released the estimates in a filing with 
the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commis- 
sion. The money to pay for severance and 
plant closings is to be spent over a two and a 
naif year period following the closing of the 
transactions, said a Raytheon spokesman. 

Raytheon said it expected the Texas In- 

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vestment hankers, lawyers and accountants for struments transaction to close by the end of 

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11540 U4J7 1MJS 
1409 1418* 14*3* 

their work on thepurchases, the filing said. 

Raytheon said in January that it would buy 
the defense-electronics divisions of Hughes 
Electronics Coro., a unit of General Motors 
Corp., and of Texas Instruments Inc. It will 
pay about $9.5 billion in stock and assumed 
debt for the Hughes business, and $2.95 bil- 
lion in cash for the Texas Instruments unit. 
The req uisiti ons would make Raytheon the 
thir d-largest aerospace concern in the United 

this month, and the Hughes purchase to close 
by the end of September. 

In February, Raytheon’s chairman and 
chief executive, Dennis Picard, told analysts 
and investors that the company would close 
“at least” seven of its 41 defense facilities. 

Separately, Raytheon’s E-Systems division 
received a $1.1 billion, five-year contract for 
logistics services from the U.S. Special Op- 

erations Command, the Defense 
said late Friday. 

/ L 

a [ 


The sign of excellence 

PAGE 12 



With Inflation Apparently at Rest, a Robust Rally Looks Set to Roll On | t 


r. mpilnt tn Oui Stuff Fn«n bkpjs. /in 

NEW YORK — Treasury bond 
prices are seen holding steady this week 
after a thundering rally on Friday, al- 
though economists said there might be 
some pullback because of technical 

Treasury bond prices posted their 
biggest gains in five weeks after a gov- 
eminent report showed the U.S. jobless 
rate fell last month to 4.8 percent, the 
lowest since November 1973. The price 
of a 30-year Treasury bond rose 1 7/32. 
to 98 2/32 on Friday. The bond’s yield 
fell to 6.7S percenr from 6.88 on the 
previous day. 

The yield, which had been 6.91 per- 
cent a week earlier, is now at its lowest 
level since Feb. 26. For bondholders, the 
gains on Friday translated into about 

$12.19 for every $1,000 worth of bonds 

The marker will pass through die first 

C of the week without much input 
economic data, although debate 
over the Federal Reserve Board’s next 
move on interest rates will be fueled 
later in the week by reports on retail 
sales and inflation news. 

Meanwhile, uncertainty about Euro- 
pean monetary union could lift Treasury 
bonds. That happened to some extent on 
Friday, analysts said, when central banks 
helped lead a Treasury bond buying spree 
that appeared linked to related foreign- 
‘ exchange fluctuations. EU finance min- 
isters meet Monday in Luxembourg. 

The Friday rally was not typical of 
bond-market behavior. When the econ- 
omy surges and companies have a 

week seen as friendly, the market should 
not see many obstacles to continuing its 

harder time finding workers, wages and 
prices typically rise more quickly. That 

can spark a rout in bonds, because in- . . , ... f 

flatioh erodes the value of the securities’ “The market is on a roll, and 1 don t 

fixed payments. see anything getting in the way of the 

But although the economy’s first- rally other than it technically getting 
quarter growth was the fastest in about a “ — ** — T — T ~ Uiaf 

strong^tone, traders said. 


decade, and unemployment dropped in 
May to its lowest level in a generation, 
inflation has not shown signs of rising. 

‘ The key assumption is that low rates 
of unemployment lead to high er wages 
and inflation,” said Victor Thompson, a 
fund manager at State Street Global Ad- 
visors in Boston. ' Tn dus cycle, inflation 
doesn't appear to be showing itself.'' 

With the small amount of data next 

.overbought,” said Joseph Lira, chief 
U.S. economist at CIBC Wood Guody 
Securities Cotp. ' 

The jobs report was one in a series of 
government releases that point to mod- 
erate growth in the economy. Previ- 
ously, the government reported that con- 
sumer prices rose at just a IJ percent 
annual rate during the first four months 
of theyear. down from a 3.9 percent rate 
in the period a year earlier. This year’s 
period included the firsr quarter. In 
which the economy expanded at a 5.8 
percent annual rate — the fastest growth 

since the fourth quarter of 1987. 

These indicatore may allow the Fed- 
eral Reserve to refrain from raising bank 
‘lending rates when officials meet July 1 , 
some investors said. 

“The inflation performance is very 
good," said Hugh Whelan, a fund man- 
ager at Aeltus Investment. “That should 

temper any alarm on the Fed's part.” . 

Central bank officials raised the tar- 
get rate for overnight loans between 
banks in March by 25 basis points, to 5..5 
percent, to cool growth and keep in- 
flation from accelerating. Last month 
they left rates unchanged as inflation 
remained subdued. 

Further evidence that inflation is un- 
der wraps could come Friday, when the 
government releases its report on pro- 
ducer prices. Economists expect the 

Labor Department figures to show that 
prices paid to factories, farmers and 
other producers were unchanged in 
May, and rose just 0.1 percent excluding 
food and energy prices. 

Still, many investors are reluctant to 
buy bonds because they are concerned 
the economy’s strength — reflected not 
only in the jobless rate, but also in 
statistics such as a 28-year high in con- 
sumer confidence — may yet speed 
inflation and lead to at least one more 
rate increase. 

‘ ‘The Fed is going to tighten again — - 
it’s just a question of when,” said Reid 
Smith, a bond-fund manager for the 
Vanguard Groap of Funds in Valley 
Forge. Pennsylvania. “We're going io 
see higher rates before the end of the 
yea r." (Bloomberg. Bridge News. :VJT» 

hi 1 . 

7 ?.■ ^ ■" ‘ 5k*.". 





. =k‘7. IS 


. — ■ r« 

• .. i *rf-**. 

■■ ■ .1* 

Most Active International Bonds 

The 250 mosi active International bonds traded 
through the EuracJear system for the week end- 
ing June 6. Prices supplied by Telekura. 

Rnk Name Cpn Maturity Price Yield 

Argentine Peso ‘ 

242 Argentina 8*. 1 2/1 3/98 100 J&55 8.6700 

Austrian Schilling 

134 Austria AH 05/23/02 99.1500 4.6600 

161 Austria 5U 04/11.<07 993000 5.8000 

Belgian Franc 

192 Belgium 7 04/29/99 105.9900 6.6000 

British Pound 

96 Britain 7 06/07/1)2 100.0310 7.0000 

141 Britain Tsy Loan 15ta 09/30/98 110D 14.0000 

142 World Bank zero 07,07/00 79.6250 7.5800 

165 Fed H Loan W8 6 7 a 04/07/02 98.7500 6.9600 
183Brftainersion Stk 9 1 * 10/25/04 113.4690 83700 
21 4 World Bank 6.100003/17/00 97.7500 63400 
215 EBRD 6200002/14/00 98.0000 6.3300 

Canadian Dollar 

250 Canada 


12/01. TO 1035500 


Danish Krone 

8 Denmark 


03/15/06 111.1863 


19 Denmark 


11/15/07 1035932 


27 Denmark 


11/15/98 106.B000 


29 Denmark 


05/15/03 112.0500 


46 Denmark 


12/15/04 105.7894 


49 Denmark 


11/10/24 966000 


54 Denmark 


ll/U-01 1116600 


68 Denmark 


12/10/99 1036000 


79 Denmark 


17/15/00 1136800 


83 Denmark 


11/15/02 1036500 


110 Denmark 


02/15/0 0 994500 


115 Real Kredii 


IQ/01/26 89 30 DO 


122 Denmark 


02'15A>8 102-1200 


132 Denmark 


06H 5/97 100.4900 


151 Nykredil 3 Cs 


10/01/26 895000 


Deutsche Mark 

1 Germany 


2 Germany 


3 Germany 


4 Germany 


6 Germany 


7 Germany 


9 BundesoOligation 4‘* 

10 Germany 


13 Germany 


15 Germany 


16 Germany 


17 Germany 


18 Treuhand 


20 Germany 


22 Germany 


23 Germany 


2a Germany 


26 Germany 


30 Germany 


32 Treuhand 

73 i 

34 Germany 


35 Treuhand 


36 Germany 


37 Germany 


38 Germany 


39 Treuhand 


41 Germany 


43 Treuhand 


44 Germany 


45 Germany 


47 Germany 


48 Treuhand 

6 J » 

50 Germany 


52 Treuhand 


53 Treuhand 


55 Germany 


56 Treuhand 

4 J s 

57 Germany 


58 Treuhand 


59 Treuhand 


60 Germany 


61 Treuhand 


64 Germany 

7' < 

65 Germany 


67 Germany 


69 Germany 

63 » 

70 Germany 


71 Germany 


73 Treuhand 


01/04/07 101.1125 5.9300 
01/31/02 113.3900 7.0600 
042606 1035300 6.0400 
03/19/99 100 7170 3.7200 
05/1205 1073629 6.3900 
070407 101. 12B4 5.9300 
02/2202 992988 45300 
11/2001 100.7925 4.7100 
01/03/05 110-4911 6.6700 
082001 1019300 4.9100 
05i/21Ol 1022600 45900 
01.0506 101 9840 55800 
070904 1 12.0733 65900 
10/14/05 105.3681 6.1700 
02/1606 101.8950 5.8900 
09,2001 113.9729 72400 
010404 952652 65600 
10/2000 1 14.9708 75300 
07/2202 113.7204 7.0300 
12/02/02 110.6827 6.6600 

07.1503 106.7700 6.0900 
06/1103 108.7000 6.3200 
01,72/01 1152900 7.8100 
02,2101 103-0900 5.0900 
00/2001 115.7200 75600 
04/2303 106.7200 6.0800 
11/2100 1025020 4.9900 
0304,04 105.1300 5.9500 
027001 113-7988 7.4700 
08/2200 104.7067 5,4900 
04/2203 108.1488 62400 
051304 107.7967 62600 

01.13.00 1075019 65100 

1001.02 1125500 65700 

0709.03 107.3863 6.1700 

05.15.00 1045086 54100 
07.01/99 105 51 00 6.0500 
11/1104 112.0008 6.7000 

01.79.03 109.9600 64800 

01.1 AW 1025200 45900 
0919/78 100.1700 3^900 
11.1203 104.1275 5.7600 
12.20.02 110.1000 64700 

0571.01 113-9600 75500 
09,1103 1045733 57400 

07.1504 106.9799 65100 

0215.00 1055475 6.1000 
10.71/02 110.6750 6 5500 
04.29/99 1D3.7246 55400 

Rnk Name 

Cpn Maturity Price Yield 

77 Germany 

81 Germany 

82 Germany 
84 Germany 

86 Treuhand 

87 Germany 

88 Germany 

90 Germany 

91 Treuhand 

92 Germany 

93 Germany 

94 Germany 

95 Germany 
97 Germany 

100 Treuhand 
102 Treuhand 
105 Germany 
1 IB Germany 
120 Treuhand 
127 Treuhand 

138 Germany 

139 Germany 

an 12/2000 
69 b 05/20199 
6«> 12/02/98 
5V, 02/22/99 

6* 09/15/99 
Sift 0021/00 
6W 0376/98 
3(* 12/18/98 
61* 01/02/99 
B 0972/97 
6 02/20/98 

6 067016 

7 1175/99 
6tt 0779/99 
Bln 07/20/00 
6Vi 0570*98 
7V, 1070/97 
5U 0870/98 
69* 0675*98 
5* 09/24/98 
5W 1170/97 
SO 0578/99 

152 Bankers Tr FRN 322660571/02 

159 Germany 
163 Germany 
168 Germany 
172 Germany 
174 Germany FRN 
177 Germany 
184 Russia 
200 Germany 
203 Germany 

207 Germany 

208 Germany 
21 9 Germany 
221 KFW 
226 Germany 
231 Germany 
236 Germany 

7 0272/99 
81, i 0771/97 
714 0170/00 
6h 0274/99 
3.0308 09/30*04 
8fc 0572/00 
9 0375/04 

5U 1070/98 
6fc 0870/98 
6% 0170/98 
6 1070/96 
514 0275/98 
5Vj 03/12/07 
64k 0170/98 
6% 0671/99 

241 Westpo Bk FRN 3.137506/04/99 
243 German States 6M 0871/06 

245 CrMil Local SW 10/18/00 

247 Germany m 0271/00 












































Dutch Guilder 

21 Netherlands 


62 Netherlands 


76 Netherlands 


98 Netherlands 


99 Nethehands 


103 Netherlands 


108 Netherlands 


111 Netherlands 


113 Netherlands 


11 4 Netherlands 


126 Netherlands 


130 Netherlands 


131 Netherlands 


133 Netherlands 


145 Netherlands 


154 Netherlands 


158 Italy 


162 Netherlands 


178 Netherlands 


181 Netherlands 


187 Netherlands 


188 Netherlands 


195 Netherlands 


196 Netherlands 


21Q Netherlands 


212 Netherlands 


21 7 Netherlands 


224 Netherlands 


239 Nelherlands SP 


244 Netherlands 


07,15/98 102.9100 6.0700 
02/15/07 100.4000 5.7300 
06/15/99 107.1500 7.0000 
03/01/05114.1500 6.7900 
03/15/99 1055000 6.6400 
01/15/01 115.1000 7.8200 
01/15/06 102.6500 5.8500 
09/15/01 115.9300 75500 
02/15/99 104.9000 6-4300 
01/15/23 112.90 6.6400 
07/15/98 103.1500 6 5000 
10/01/98 104.0000 6.4900 
03/154)1 1135500 7.4700 
02/15/00 110.6300 7.4600 
06/15/02 115.1500 7.1600 
06/15/05 109.4500 6.4000 
0509/12 985000 65200 
11/15/05 107.6500 65700 
04/15/03 1075500 6.0600 
09/15/07 119.0500 6.9300 
09/154)2 103.9700 5.5300 
0501/00 112.4700 7.7B00 
04/15/10 113.90 6.5800 
01/15/04 102.7000 5.6000 
07/01/00 11X70 7.9200 

02/15/02 1145500 75000 
104)1/04 111.20 65200 
01/15/00 109.1500 7.1000 
01/15/23 17V* 7.0400 

06/01/06 119.90 7.0900 


72 France OAT 
75 FrancB OAT 
104 France OAT 
119 France OAT 
169 Britain 
176 Franca BTAN 
198 France OAT 
225 France B.T.A.N. 
230 Britain 
238 France OAT 
249 France OAT 

5Vi 04/25/07 94.9000 55000 
7 04/25/06 1065000 65900 

7Vj 04/25/05 109.8000 6.6300 
6 04/25/04 1015300 5.9100 

9vt 02/21/01 116.1500 7.B600 

5 03/16/99 1015800 4.9400 
8*5 03/154)2 113.1300 75100 

6 on mu 104.0500 5.7700 

4 01/28/00 98.7100 4.0500 

10 02/264)1 117.6000 85000 
B 04/25/03 11X40 7.1200 

French Franc 

101 FranceOAT SI* 04/25/07 985800 5.60 DO 

1 79 France BTAN 4J* 04/12/99 1015100 4.6700 

218 France OAT 6'* 10/254)6 105.9400 6.1400 

Finnish Markka 

136 Finland sr 1999 11 01/15/99 111.1598 9.9000 

Rnk Kane Cpn Maturity Price Yield 

153 Finland 91* 03/154)4 1205904 75900 

211 Finland Serial s 7U 04/184)6 107.1621 6.7700 

Italian Lira 

137 Mediobanca (rrtl 2 07/01412 845000 25700 
232 Italy 6 02/15/00 995900 6.0600 

Japanese Yen 

124 Spain XI OOOOMWM 1025750 10100 

146 Italy 316 06/08/05 1075750 16900 

170 Malays Ian Air 2550005/29/02 995000 25600 
186 Japan Dev Bk 61* 09/20/01 1191* 5.4600 

199N.U.Mon 0593001/18/99 1005102 05900 
21 6 Argentina 4.4000 0V27AJ4 9B.8750 44500 

South African Rand 

229 BNG zero 12/29/20 41*1X6700 

Spanish Peseta 

107 Spain 7.900002/28/02 109.1210 75400 

116 Spain 7.400007/30/99 1045600 75800 

237 Spain 6V> 04/15/00 1045650 6.4900 

Swedish Krona 

85 Sweden 
125 Sweden 1036 
147 Sweden 
160 Sweden 1037 
197 Sweden 
205 Sweden 

11 01/21/99 109535010.0600 
10U 05/05/00 1125070 95900 
101* 054)5/03 11X9560 85200 
8 08/1 M>7 1075200 7.4400 

6 ' 024)9/05 95.8650 65600 
61* 10/25/06 975530 65800 

U.S. Dollar 

5 Brazil Cap S.L 4V* 04/15/14 90.0869 5.0000 

11 Argentina porL 51* 03/31/23 685564 X0600 

12 Brazil S-ZJ FRN 67* 04/15/24 83.0063 X2800 

14 Brazil par ZJ 516 04/15/24 665250 75800 

25 Argentina FRN 6* 03/29/05 895762 75400 

28 Venezuela FRN 6Vt 12/18/07 715199 7.1000 

31 Mexico 111* 05/15/26 111.9116 105800 

33 Brazil L FRN 6’* 04/15/06 915750 75100 
40 Argentina llVi 01/3Q/1 7 109.6047 105800 
42 Brazil FRN 6V* 01/01/01 985313 65900 

51 Venezuela par A 61* 03/31/20 755056 8.9600 

63 Mexico 9«* 01/15/07 1055705 9.4000 

66 Brazil S.L FRN 6>V* 04/15/12 825288 85100 

74 Mexico par A 61* 12/31/19 75.6250 X2600 

78 FcCbo FRN zero 06/03/09 995500 0.0000 

80 Ecuador FRN 3'* 02/28/15 655949 49500 

89 Mexico par B 6M 12/31/19 75.6250 85600 

106 Bulgaria FRN 6*1* 07/28/11 68.1563 95300 

109 Italy FRN 5.718805/12/02 995200 57300 
121 Ecu ad or par 3V* 02/28/25 465750 75500 

123 Bulgaria FRN 6*u 07/28/24 69.0625 95000 

128 Argentina FRN 5595304/01/01 128.7500 4.4200 

129 British Gas zero 11/04/21 151* 75200 

135 Brazil S.L FRN 6*y, 04/15/09 875500 7.9500 

140 British Telecom 6% 04/25/02 99.9697 67500 

143 Mexico FRN 71* 084N/D1 1005900 75100 

144 Argentina FRN 61* 0V31/23 85.8125 8.0100 

148 Total 6Vi Ofi4)2/tM 995750 6.9200 

149 Pemex 81* 05/30/02 1005750 84700 

1 50 Venezuela par B 644 03/31/20 765750 B.B400 

155 Ecuador FRN Wv. 02/28/25 69.9375 95000 

156 Mexico 114* 09/15/16 109.7500 103600 

1 57 CZbk Overseas 5.726601/294)1 995800 5.7500 
164 Goldman Sachs 6'r*, 04/02/04 995700 65700 

166 Mexico C FRN 6.820312/31/19 92.1737 74000 

167 Panama FRN 4 07/17/16 875500 45800 

171 Russia 9'* 11/27/01 100.0240 95500 

173 Brazil Cbond S.L 4'* 04/15/14 905195 55000 

175 Poland par 3 10/27/24 555750 5.3700 

180 Pern Pdl 4 034)7/17 645250 6.1900 

182 Associates 6% IQ/31/01 995500 65000 

lBSBayVerelrnbank 614 05/22/00 1006273 6.7100 

1B9 Mexico B FRN 6535912/31/19 92.7949 73600 

190 Poland FRN 6'4‘v, 10/27/24 98.1875 75700 

191 Mexico D FRN 6^ 12/2849 925789 73800 

193 British Telecom 7 05/2X417 100.1622 6.9900 

194 Poland inter a 10/27/14 84.1875 4.7500 

201 Mexico A FRN 6567212/31/19 9X1250 76500 

202 Brazil S.L FRN 6*Mt 04/15/12 825289 84100 

204 Peru Front 31* 03/07/17 59.0625 55000 

206IADB 6** 03/074)7 985000 47300 

209 Italy FRN 5.902307/26/99 1003000 55800 
213BayHypoWech 7 05/144)1 1015000 6.9300 

220 Panama Interest 31* 07/17/14 755500 46500 

222 Nigeria 614 11/15/20 647500 93600 

223 Tokyo Bee Pwr 7 02/134)7 1005562 49600 

227 Bulgaria 2V4 07/28/12 526375 45900 

228 Mexico 914 02/064)1 1053750 95500 

233 Argentina 11 104)94)6 1095991 105400 

Z34 Sweden FRN 5.718802/084)1 1005300 5.7200 
235 Morgan Trust 6*4 05/284)2 1005000 47500 

240OntariO 7V 04/04/02 104.1250 76400 

246 Spintob 6*i OV2B4H) 1005645 48600 

248 Standard CD 61* 12/31/99 85.1300 7.1900 

The Week Ahead; World Economic Calendar, June 9-13 

6 sz.-flflj.lB jfrvs im s economy jnd ftrancW everts. aon&leC for the lawmeborml Herald Tltbune by Bloomberg Busman News. 




Expected Hong Kong: Hong Kong Trade De- 
Ttils Week veiopment Council sponsors Hong 
Kong International Him Market 
Trade Fair. June 11-June 13, Hong 
Kong Convention and Exhibition 

Copenhagen: The World Gas Con- 
ference meets to discuss the pros- 
pects for natural gas. Speakers in- ■ 
elude Herald Norvik, president of Sta- 
toi) AS of Norway; Pierre Gadon- 
neix, chairman of Gaz de France. 

San Jose, California: Intel Corp. 
and IBM Corp. sponsor Netscape 
Internet Developers Conference, in- 
formation: 415-937-2555. From 
June 11-June 13. 

Washington: Federal Trade Com- 
mission holds hearings on Internet 
privacy. From June 10-June 12. 

June 9 

Tokyo: The Bank of Japan releases 
wholesale price index for May: Ma- 
chine Tool Builders Association re- 
leases sales figures for April. 

London: Office for National Statis- 
tics releases industrial production fig- 
ures for April, producer prices for 

Prague: Statistical Office releases 
May consumer prices figures and 
April industrial output figures. 

Mexico City: Central bank releases 
inflation rate for May. 

Ottawa: Statistics Canada reports 
first-quarter industrial capacity uti- 

June 10 

Sydney: Simon Hannes. a former 
executive with Macquarie Bank, 
faces insider trading hearing. 
Tokyo: The Economic Planning 
Agency releases data on machine 
orders for April as well as its month- 
ly economic outlook. 

Copenhagen: Danmarks Statistik 
releases March and April retail 

Prague: Czech Parliament recon- 
venes for deputies to hold a vote of 
confidence on the reshuffled Czech 

Mexico City: Central bank releases 
the nation's foreign- reserve levels. 
Ottawa: Statistics Canada reports 
Apnl new motor vehicle sales. 

Rio de Janeiro: Coffee exporters 
release May export figures. 

Wednesday Tokyo: Japan and the United 
June 11 9 States to discuss deregulation of 

Japan's insurance markets. The 
Bank of Japan releases figures on 
balance of payments in April, per- 
sonal savings figures as of the end 
of March, current account in April. 

Budapest; Government releases 
May consumer prices figures and re- 
vised Apnl industrial output figures. 
London: Office for National -Statis- 
tics releases provisional unemploy- 
ment rate for May. productivity and 
unit wage cost for April. 

Ottawa: Statistics Canada reports 
April new housing price index. 
Washington: U.S. Department of 
Energy issues its weekly report on 
U.S. petroleum stocks, production, 
imports and refinery utilization. 

June 12 

Hong Kong: External trade statis- 
tics by country and commodity for 

Sydney: Government to release the 
labor-force figures for May, includ- 
ing employment growth and the un- 
employment rate 

Bern: Switzerland's Department for 
Economic Affairs expected to re- 
lease gross domestic product fig- 
ures for first quarter. 

Munich: The economic research in- 
stitute Ifo gives a presentation on 
the German economy. 

Mexico City: Finance Ministry re- 
leases April’s trade balance. 
Washington: Commerce Depart- 
ment reports retail sales for May. 

June 13 

Tokyo: The Bank of Japan releases 
figures on bank lending in May. The 
Economic Planning Agency may re- 
lease gross domestic product fig- 
ures for the January- March quarter. 

Madrid: The National Statistics in- 
stitute releases May consumer price 

Paris: Insee releases provisional 
May consumer price index figures. 
Treasury releases March ba lance- 
of-payments figures. 

Washington: Labor Department re- 
ports the producer price index for 
May, Commerce Department re- 
ports April business inventories and 

Bond Investors Scramble to Buy More Junk 

Bloomberg Neies 

NEW YORK — Junk bonds contin- 
ued their climb last week as Trans Amer- 
ican Energy Corp. and 13 other compa- 
nies raised $3.85 billion, the largest 
amount sold in any week this year. 

The success of the sales, many of 
which were boosted because of investor 
appetite, is a clear sign that the junk 
bond market has recovered from its 
slump two mouths ago. 

They come amid optimism that the 
economy will keep its steady pace and 
that the Federal Reserve Board may not 
raise interest rates. Thar is good news 
for companies with lower credit ratings 
because it increases the likelihood that 
they will not default on interest pay- 
ments — or go bankrupt. Employment 
figures released Friday, showing less- 
than -expected job growth and, at 4.8 
percent, the lowest unemployment rate 

since November 1973, further boosted 
investors' confidence. 

The statistics “suggest that interest 
rates may not be raised.” said Kenneth 
Mala me d, a funds manager at Financial 
Management Advisors. “If that’s the 
case, we’re going to have a cooperative 

Individual investors and brokers 
plowed a net $374 million into junk, or 
high-vield, bond mutual funds for the 
week ended last Wednesday, according 
to AMG Data Services. That is die 
biggest inflow in three weeks and re- 
verses the small outflow of last week. 

That helps explain the ease with 
which the market digested this week's 
sales — and suggests that fund man- 
agers have plenty of cash to put to work 
□ext week. Among those planning to 
sell bonds in coming days is Abacan 
Resources Corp., which explores for 

and develops oil and gas properties in 
Nigeria. It is preparing a $160 million 
sale of five-year notes. 

TransAmericao Energy, an oil and 
natural gas company based in Houston, 
was the week's biggest issuer, raising 
$ 1 .35 billion in a two-part sale. 

And all this does not include Brazil’s 
$3 billion offering of global bonds — 
also rated below' investment .grade — 
many of which were bought by Amer- 
ican investors. 

From the start of the year through last 
Friday, high-yield bonds had returned 
5.2 percent, or 12.7 percent at an annual 
pace, according to a basket of 860 bonds 
tracked by Merrill Lynch. 

That beats higher-grade corporate 
bonds, which had returned an average 33 
percent so far this year, and Treasuries of 
all maturities, which had returned 2.7 
percent, according to Merrill figures. 

*• • 


■ -m 

New International Bond Issues 

Compiled by Paul Flonen 












Floating Rate Notes 

Banco Monte del Paschl dl 


SI 50 





Over 3Hnonth Libor. Noncolatale. Fses O.I75%>. (Lehman Brottwn j 

Caisse Centro le du Credit 






Over 3-month Libor. HoncoNable. Fees 0.175%. Donominotions Siaooo. CCrecfil Suisse Fist 

Gulf International Bank 






Over 3-month Ubor. Callable at par ii 2000. Fees 0.25%. Denominations SIOjMO. f Chase 







Over 3-month Libor. NoncnBable. Fees DJ0%. (Mexrill Lynch.) 

NBG Rnance 






Over 3-manlh LJbor. Callabte at par In 2002. thereafter 1 .90% aver 3-morwh Libor. Fees Q4IF>. 
(Salomon Brothers.) 

Svenska Handelsbanken 






Interest will be 3- month Libor. Noncallabte. Fees 0.175%- (Lehman Brothers.) * 

Midland Bank 






Over 3-montti Ubor. Callable bt par In 2001 therec Iter 0.70% over 3-month Ubor. tHSBC 

Household Bank 






Over 3- month Plbor. NoncallaUe. Fees 0.175%. (Menu Lynch.) 

Renault Credit 






Over 3-month Plbor. Noncalable. Fees 0.1 5%. Denominations FFtoaooo. (Debit Commercial 

Danone Finance 






Over onth Ubor. Rioffoied at 99.90. NamwUable. Fete 070%. (Banco Monte «ie P'nschi 5 


European Coal and Steel 






Under34nonth Ubor. Nonca Sable. Fees 0.15%. (Banco Portuguese oe Invesrimenta.' 

Merrill Lynch 

Y1 0,000 





Under 3-irwntti Libor. Noncaltabte. Fees DJ0%. Denoirtnattens Y100 imifron. IMemli Lvncn ) 


Asian Development Bank 






Semi-annually. Noncallabie. Fees 0325%. (Goldmon Sachs.) 




10 V* 



Semi-annually. Noncallabie. Fees 1 V»% Denominations S250.000, (Goldman Sachs.1 

Chrysler Rnance 






R (raftered at99Jl l. NoncaHable. Fees 1 Vu%. (BNP Cap/M Morten.) 

Council of Europe 






NonaflaMe. Poo 050%. (Nomura J 






99 JO 

Reoffend at 995M. NoncnBable. Fees! W%. (ABN AMRO Hoare Gavett.i 

Deutsche Bank 






Reoffered at 99.786. NoncaSabta. Fees 1 W%, (Deutsche MoipanGrenfelL) 

Electrldtede France 




101 JA 


Reoffered at 99 Jbis. Noncallabie. Fees 1 7 <*%. (J.P. MorgoiO 

European Investment Bank 






Reoffered at99J15. Noncallofale. Fee* 2%. (Salomon Brattwsj 

Ford Motor Credit Corp. 

SI, 000 





Semi-annually. Noncallabie. Fees 045%. (Merrill Lynch.) . 

General Electric Capital 







Re offered at 99334. Noncallabie. Fees 2 V*%. (Goldman SachsJ 

General Electric Capital 







Reoffered at 100.132. Noncaltabte. Fees 2%. (Goldman SochW ' 

Merrill Lynch 






Noncallabie. Fees 035%. (MerriB Lynch.) 








Reoffered of 99314. NoncallaUe. Fees 2%. (CommerzbankJ 

Sigma Rnance 





99 JO 

Reaffered at 99368. Nonaitiable. Fees 1 *»%. (Salomon Brattwsj 

St. Petersburg 






Noncallabls. fees 1%. Denomlnatons suiooa. (Salomon Brothers. I 


SI 400 



101 ^61 


Rooftarod ioai 86. Noncallabte. Fees 2%. (Credit Suisse First Boston.) 


ST 50 





Noncallabls. Fees 045%. (Unlbanco.) 

General Electric Capital 







Reoffered at 9955. NoncaltaWe. Foes lta%. (Goldman Sachs.) 

Internationale Nederlanden 






Reaftered at 99.765. NoncatfaWe. Fees 2 V*% (ING Barters.) 





101 JO 


Reoftered at toa Noncaltabte. Fees 130%. (Credit Suisse First Bostan.l 

Shinhan Bank 






Reoffered of 99.5755. Noncallabte. Fees 1 .80%. (DG Bank Deutsche GenassenschattsbonlO 







Reoftered at 9838. NancaBable. Fees 2te%. (Rabobank.) 







Reoffered at 100. Noncaltabte. Fees 2H%. (Commerzbank.) 

Argentina „ . 





— ■ 

NoncaUable. Fees 0.75%. (UBS.) , 

In ter- American 

Development Bank 





SomMmnuairy. Noncaltabte Fees 030%. (Yamaldil.) \ ■■ 

Uoyds Bank 






Noncaltabte Fees 0.40%. (Goldman Sachs.) ' 

Barclays Bank 





CollaOle at tn 2009. thereaftar kitereS wfll be lArtovera-monlh Ubor. F«S 0625%. iBariMVS 
deZoetaWeddj 1 




5 *Xb 



Reoftered at9930. Noncallabie. Fees 2%. [ABN AMRO Hoare Govett) 








CaBoble at par in 1999. Increased from MO billion Urn. Fe« 1 [Canpto.l 





101 JO 


Reoffered ot 100. Noncaltabte. Few 2%. (Deutsche Morgan Grenfell, i 1 

European Investment Bank 






NowaUable. Fungible with outstanding Issue reusing total amount to 900 bffltan lira. Fees 
(Caboto J i 

Landesbpnk Rheiland Pfalz 





99 JO 

Nottadlabte Fees l Mflu. (IMIJ 

Worid Bonk 






Reoffered at 10085. Noncallabie. Fees 1%. (Credito Itattano.i 

Fannie Mae 

Yl 0,000 




5emranmaHy Noncollnbta. Fe« | l.5%.Rademmton will be m d-jltars at an exorngt rate o' 
S4.29933 per 500000 yen band. (Merrill Lynch.) 


Last Week's Markets 



- • .ktt 

r. J*. 
■:?T -MV 

-■ ' ■ • - .I* 

- l -ft 

■ ■=£? iV-ijfc 

.ru >-■ ? 

MS i i 

*: \ 

; ... ,;■* . 

-• "j ! 

. i'V 

"h* * “ 



tiotaif « N 


1*3*1 * 

I uiLifqgrfkitf?' 

91 Itfcttl 


' V- s.-'34 

. • - i. 


s -‘ xcfeiT 


ik. *ir\ 










Stock Indexes 

United States 
OJ Trans, 
s & P 100 
Nasdaq Cp 




Cana da 
T5E Indus. 




May 30 
' BiflTfl 

Harw Sena 



2066575 2003.61 
464550 462150 
449250 4385.00 
2,71955 2i 583.94 
369559 364/34 
14655-13 14,75731 
90U6 90214 


LoiKlon p.m. IKS 
World Index from Morgan Shmiay CopM mil Penpectlre. 


* 143 
+ 0.15 

* 157 

* 127 


+ 0J1 


* 574 

Money Rates 

Unttad States 
LHscounr role 
Federal tends rate 

Call money 
3-montti tetwbank 


Bank two rate 
Call money 
3- manta interbank 


intHveiriten rate 
CoU money 
3-mamh interbank 


June 6 May 30 

5.00 550 








Call money 
3-month interbank 

0 J3 

056 056 

*<■* 6'-i 


ate 60i* 

3.10 110 

3V* 3K 

3Vta 6T, 

■B 358 

3.18 370 

Junefi May 304, Ch'ge 
34400 34560 — 066 

Eurobond Yields 

Jms MayKYrU* Yrm> 
Hie 6.98 758 433 

U-S.s.mdmterm 661 442 433 610 

U5 .S short tern 673 454 450 5.96 

~ 760 760 7.75 7.09 

553 553 5.03 466 

JW 6 9 7 7.78 4.07 

IS 5# 5.W 5.38 

561 560 551 4.B2 

653 6J2 462 576 

Weekly Sales 

Primary Maristt 

uj. x inarrren 
Pounds starting 
French Francs 
Italian Pre 
Swedish kronor 

iSSSKSI, a is is 

Aus . S 

f10 477 651 5.70 

6.96 773 756 4.M 
7-38 755 8J9 7.1? 

3.14 207 2M 144 

Scom. Luxembourg stock exchange. 

Cadel Bk Euwdw 

I NobS 5- 

Shashi* 69.8 165 eTIJ l»ISy 

Convert. — — 32 0 

FRNs 128.7 8455 I.3M5 

ECP 125735 7.2445 11*597 
Total 122725 B.I5&.I 1174/2 106^ I 

SecpmKrrr Martel 


Strata OH 20- 970.7 18.9855 7+W55 
Convert. I562J 1^77.1 13210 ^ . 
FRNs 19.1885 87155 51, 7M5 
ECP 1 4387.2 14,937.1 20642 
Total 56089 0 J6.1 15 0 72*26.1 
Source: Evrodear. Cede! BmK * 


Libor Rates 

. iHWBirtl jHWWftl 

U5. t 5Vb son* 

Dewsene mark 3v-» w* 
Pound sterling 6** 

5ovmse Uoyds Bank, Reuters 

!i Jlt « 





French franc 










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V* . ~* /-&*:‘!± 3zzM. *"-< * 

On Renault 

Jospin Fails to Give 
Assurance on Plant 

Bhuuilbciz Nc»S 

L - PARIS — The Belgian prime 
• .minister, Jean-Luc Dehaene, met 
with his French counterpart. Lionel 

- Jospin, on Sunday over the planned 
1 -closure of a Renault car plant in 
. Belgium but left with no assurances 

that the decision would be rescin- 
. -ded. 

Just before Renault’s board meets 
, on Tuesday. Mr. Dehaene and Mr. 
Jospin, the newly elected Socialist 
prime minister, talked for 90 
1 minutes and discussed the plant 
closing as well as European issues. 

As he depan ed. Mr. Dehaene said 
-.Mr. Jospin would examine the 
Renault closing "in coming days.” 

But the French government, 
1 which no longer has a majority stake 
. in the company, said Renault's man- 
agement would have the final word 
' on the future of the Belgian plant. 

. “M. Dehaene has asked to see me 
. this weekend,” Mr. Jospin said in an 

- interview in the French newspaper 
-Journal du Dimanche. "But t have 
to stress the decision belongs to the 

Belgium's prime minister spoke 
. w ith Mr. Jospin in the hope that the 
new French government, which 
took over last Monday from a con- 
. -servarive coalition, could persuade 

- Renault to change its mind. 

Renault, 44 percent owned by the 
. French government, announced on 
Feb. 27 that it would close the plant 
in Vilvoorde, north of Brussels, in 
July. About 3,100 jobs will be lost, 
and production will be shifted to 
plants in France and Spain. 

The closure announcement came 
three weeks before Renault reported 
its first loss in a decade. It lost a net 
5.25 billion francs <$925 million) in 
■ 1996 because of sagging car sales 
and truck-price wars. It vowed to 
slash costs and cut jobs to boost its 

After the closure was announced. 
Mr. Dehaene had called it "com- 
~ pleiely divorced from social real- 
ities.” and vowed to "make every' 
' effort possible to reverse the 
Renault decision.” 

Mr. Dehaene made his pitch 
1 Sunday to the new prime minister. 
But French Socialist officials say 
that they never condemned the prin- 
ciple of the plant’s closure, only the 
way that it was presented. 

PAGE 13 

Warren Buffett's Alter Ego Shines at Wesco 

Insurance Company Led by Charles Mimger Follows a Winning, but Quiet, Strategy 

By Richard Korman 

AVn- York 7i«« Smicc 

NEW YORK — The annual 
shareholder meeting of Berkshire 
Hathaway Inc. in Omaha, Neb- 
raska. has grown into what Warren 
Buffett, the billionaire investor and 
its chairman, calls a “capitalist’s 
version of Woodstock.” This year 
it was held in an arena. 

This year’s annual meeting of 
the Wesco Financial Corp.. held in 
Pasadena. California, was much 
quieter. It drew a crowd of about 


or even than its B shares, intro- 
duced a year ago. which closed at 

Yet, a share of Wesco will still 
buy membership in what some 
people hold in the greatest regard; 
the Buffen- 
Munger invest- 
ing team. As 
Blair Sanford, 
an analyst at 
Hoefer & Ar- 
nett in San 
Francisco and 
one of the few 
Wall Streeters 
who follow the 

70, and Murray Stahl, chairman of 
Horizon Asset Management and a 
follower of rhe company, was not 
surprised. "I've never heard any- 
body talk about it or seen a report 
about it,” he said of Wesco. 

But these very different enter- 
prises have much in common. 
Berkshire owns 80 percent of 
Wesco. Charles Munger, who is 
Mr. Buffett's alter ego, serves both 
as Berkshire's vice chairman and 
as Wesco's chairman. And, like 
Berkshire, Wesco sells insurance 
bur makes most of its money in 
investments. Indeed, following the 
Buffett brand of price-conscious 
investing in. companies with unique 
brands, few competitors or outer 
advantages, Wesco holds large, 
long-term positions in six blue- 
chip businesses — five of which 
are also Berkshire mainstays. 

All of this prompts the question: 
Is Wesco an unsung Berkshire 
Hathaway? With a Friday closing 
price of $264.50, Wesco shares are 
certainly more affordable than 
Berkshire’s A shares, which closed 
on Friday at a lofty $45,400 apiece. 

250 — Friday’s close 

company, put 

it Wesco has, 

“if not the 
smartest invest- 
ing mind of the 
20th century, 
then one of the 

"Warren is 
more publi- 
cized, ’’the ana- 
lyst explained, 

“but Warren 
wouldn’t be 
Warren had he 
not met Charlie 

Some ex- 
perts. including 
Mr Munger 
himself, play down the value of 
Wesco. And Wesco stock has ap- 
preciated about 50 percent in the 
last 12 months, with a large spurt 
this spring as stocks of major hold- 
ings, like Freddie Mac (the Federal 
Home Loan Mortgage Corp.) and 
Coca-Cola Co., rose sharply. 

But many others find the stock 
attractive. "Wesco represented 
hidden value to us when it was $67 

A Baby Berkshire 

Wesco Financial, is 80 
percent owned by Warren 
Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway 
and, like Berkshire, makes 
most of its money from 
investing. Here are weekly 
closing stock prices. 

$275 — Symbol WSC 

ill (If I 

J J A S 0 N D 

Source. Btoomtxrg Financial Markets 

a share in September 1992. and it 
still probably represents hidden 
value,” said Whitney George, 
managing director of the Royce 
Funds. Royce and its related 
companies hold 1.4 percent in 
Wesco, the 
srake after 

With Wesco, 
as with 
Berkshire, the 
"float” from 
the insurance 
business — 
premiums that 
will be paid out 
only when 
claims are 
made — is used 
to invest. 

that the stock 
holdings laid 
out in Wesco's 
1996 annual re- 
port are still ac- 
curate. 99.84 
percent of the 
portfolio is in 
shares of Fred- 
die Mac, Coca- 
Cola. Gillette, 
Wells Fargo, 
American Ex- 
'■’ |T press and Sa- 
lomon. Last year, rhe value of the 
portfolio rose from $1.1 billion to 
$ 1 .53 billion, and so far this year, it 
has advanced to $1.86 billion. 

"This is a company that is not 
trading on its earnings; it's trading 
on its investment portfolio.” said 
Peter Doyle, managing director of 
Horizon Asset Management, 
which also owns Wesco shares. 

“You are buying some wonder- 



ful businesses through Wesco at a 
fairly attractive price.” 

Indeed. Wesco’s actual opera- 
tions. which include a reinsurance 
business and a steel and melal fab- 
ricator, provided just 530 million in 
net income lasr year, on revenue of 
5108 million. That is Tiny for a 
company with a market capital- 
ization ofSi.9 billion. 

But when the earnings from 
Wesco's six major stock holdings 
are considered, the engine that 
drives Wesco becomes clear. Even 
after removing dividends from 
those companies’ estimated 1997 
earnings, as well as an amount for 
the taxes that will eventually be- 
come due. the earnings total $56 
million. That is nearly double the 
net income from Wesco’s own op- 

An added sweetener for poten- 
tial Wesco investors is Mr. Buf- 
fett’s long-held desire for 
Berkshire Hathaway to buy out the 
20 percent of Wesco that it does not 
already own. The Peters family, 
which owns 1.3 percentage of 
Wesco's total shares, has long re- 
sisted selling its stock. But the idea 
has never died, and such a buvour 
would probably lead to gains in 
Wesco’s stock price. 

Wesco does not look good from 
all angles, however. With more 
than half its stock portfolio in Fred- 
die Mac. Wesco can be jolted by 
the forces that can hurt that en- 
terprise: higher interest rates and 
pressure to remove its preferential 
governmental status. 

"If Freddie moves. Wesco will, 
too,” Mr. Sanford said. 

An added risk for potential 
Wesco investors: The company de- 
pends more on its investments than 
Berkshire does. 


Korean Auto Industry Shaken by Call for Streamlining 

Ageiue Frjihv-Presse 

SEOUL — South Korean auto- 
makers have plunged into bitter dis- 
putes over who should be the target 
of mergers and acquisitions in the 
face of domestic oversupply and 
falling demand. 

Samsung Co. triggered the 
wrangle last week when it presented 
a report to the government calling 
for deregulation on mergers and ac- 
quisitions to help restructure the 
auto industry. 

Newspaper commentaries saw 
the deregulation call as a tactic by 
Samsung, which is faring mounting 

costs in building its automaking fa- 
cilities, to win government backing 
for a takeover either of Kia Motors 
Coip. or Ssangyong Motor Co. 

Kia Motors. South Korea's 
second-largest automaker, fired 
back Saturday with a lawsuit against 
Samsung Motor Corp., the auto unit 
of Samsung. 

The suit claims that the comments 
by Samsung, which will introduce 
its first cars to Souih Korea in 
March, caused damage to Kia’s 
business and asks for financial com- 

South Korea's auto industry had 

annual production capacity of 3.47 
million units last year, but it man- 
aged to sell only 2.85 million units, 
including 1.21 million units shipped 

Samsung said in the report that, 
except for South Korea's leading 
automakers, Hyundai Motor Co. 
and Daewoo Motor Co., other car- 
makers could not survive mount- 
ing competition in rhe next de- 

It alleged that Kia faced excessive 
financing costs and was suffering 
from managerial problems, while 
Ssangyong. a maker of sports utility 

cars, was reeling under debts. 

The Korea Auto Manufacturers' 
Association convened an emer- 
gency board meeting on Saturday 
and issued a strongly worded state- 
ment, warning Samsung against 
seeking government assistance in its 
thinly veiled merger and acquisition 

The association, a group of six 
automakers excluding Samsung, 
noted that when Samsung sought a 
government license to jump into the 
auto business a few years ago. it had 
justified its entry by insisting that 
there would be no market glut. 

Weak German Investment Outlook 

MUNICH (Reuters) — Companies in Western Germany 
plan only a small increase in investment growth ibis year, the 
Ifo economic research institute said Sunday. 

Ifo said a survey showed that investment budgets this year 
have grown by 6 percent, lower than the 7 percent that was 
expected, and only just above last year's increase of 5 percent. 

The Lnstintte said data from surveys indicated a bleak 
outlook for employment. West German companies surve>ed 
said that they would reduce staffing by 3 percent this year and 
an additional 1 percent in 1998. 

Xerox Buys Out European Venture 

NEW YORK (NYTt — Xerox Corp. plans ro fake full 
ownership of Rank Xerox, the London marketing and man- 
ufacturing operation it created in 1956 with Rank Group PLC. 

Xerox said late Fridas it would pay Rank about SI .5 billion 
for the 20 percent of Rank Xerox that it does not already own 
and will change the venture's name to Xerox Ltd. p 

Since Rank" Xerox also owns 50 percent of Fuji Xerox Asia 
Pacific Ltd., the deal will give Xerox an additional 10 percent 
of (hat joint venture, raising its share of Fuji Xerox 10 half. Fuji 
Xerox is a Japanese joint venture that makes and markets 
Xerox equipment in Asia. To help pay for the transaction. 
Xerox said it would suspend its share-repurchase program. 

Rome to Sell a 12.5% Stake in ENI 

ROME (Bloomberg) — The Italian government will sell at 
least 12.5 percent of ENI SpA this month in its third sale of 
shares in the state energy company, raising about 8.7 trillion 
lire iS5.10 billion). 

That would cut the government's stake in the company, 
whose full name is Ente Nazionale Idroearburi. to 56.5 percent. 
The Treasury said Saturday that if demand w ere great enough, 
it would sell as much as 14.4 percent of the company. 

Government officials have said the Treasury intend?, to 
keep at least a 51 percent stake in ENI. 

Italy Will Not Convert STET Stock 

MILAN (Bloomberg) — The Italian Treasury 1 wjU not 
convert the savings shares of STET SpA and Telecom Italia 
SpA into ordinary shares when it merges the two stale- 
controlled telecommunications companies. 

Market speculation about the conversion of savings shares, 
which have greater dividend rights but less voting pou er than 
ordinary shares, has sent them higher at various times in the 
past few months, but each rally lost steam. 

The government, which currently owns 62 percent of STET. 
or Socieia Finanziaria Telefonica, is set to merge the company 
with its main operating unit. Telecom Italia, before selling the 
combined company to private investors in a privatization that 
could earn as much as SI 1.5 billion later this year. 

Novell President Will Step Down 

NEW YORK (NYT) — Novell Inc., the struggling maker of 
computer networking software, said Joseph Marengi had 
resigned as president and chief operating officer, effective at 
the end of June. 

The departure of Mr. Marengi. 43. had been expected since 
May 28. when Novell surprised investors with a net loss of 
$14.6 million for its second quarter and said it would cur its 
work force by about 1.000 employees, or 18 percent. Novell 
announced the move Friday night. 

.Although Mr. Marengi was briefly considered for the top 
spot. Novell's board chose 10 hire Eric Schmidt, chief tech- 
nology officer at Sun Microsystems Inc., in March. Mr. Mat- 
engi~said then his future role with the company was unclear. 

1VQNISTER: Strauss-Kahn Fosters Optimism on Monetary Union 

Continued from Page 11 

government spending. 

It was in May 1 99 1 that Mrs. Cresson. 
France's first female prime minister, 
gave him his first government post as 
industry* and trade minister, where he 
remained under Mrs. Cresson 's suc- 
cessor, Pierre Beregovoy 
The impression he left was that of an 
individual who steered clear of dogma 
and knew economics well. 

“He’s a strong personality with 
widely recognized economic creden- 
tials,” said Eric Chaney, a European 
economist with Morgan Stanley & Co. 
in Paris. * ’ I expect him to put up budget- 
ary resistance to the more free-spending 

Mr. Chaney said he hoped Mr. Strauss- 
Kahn would "limit the more negative 
features of the Socialist program.” list- 
ing as one of those features the party’s 
jabs at European monetary union. 

indeed. Mr. Jospin, the party leader, 
spent much of the campaign chipping 
away at the cuiTency union require- 
ments. saying he would oppose any fur- 
ther belt-iightening measures aimed at 
meeting them. He rejected a post-mon- 
etary union Stability Pact that calls for 
fining governments exceeding specified 
borrowing limits, although that pact is a 
key condition for Germany to join. 
'Analysts say Mr. Strauss-Kahn can be 

trusted 10 toe a more realistic line. They 
point to his choice of chief aide, Francois 
Villeroy de Galhau, as a telltale sign: Mr. 
Villeroy was a negotiator of the 
Maastricht treaty that laid down the con- 
ditions for monetary union. 

“He’s very pro-European,” said 
Patrick Mange, an analyst at Deutsche 

Investors hope that Mr. 
Strauss-Kahn will water 
down a Socialist platform 
that pledged to swell state 
payrolls, shore up public 
spending and block the 
sale of state-owned 
companies. Those who 
know him are confident. 

Bank in Paris. ”He's not one you could 
accuse of scheming against European 

Observers are less clear on how far 
Mr. Strauss-Kahn will go in introducing 
the kinds of reflationary policies that his 
party touted during the campaign. 

It was Mr. Strauss-Kahn who came up 
with the plan to put 350,000 youths on 
government payrolls, giving them five- 

year contracts to cany out public-service 

Funds for those contracts, he said, 
would come from existing job-creation 

Another 350,000 jobs, the plan stip- 
ulated. would be created by shortening 
the work week to 35 hours from 39 while 
maintaining ihe same pay. 

Analysts termed the pledges unwork- 
able, saying they would both deepen 
France’s deficits and erode corporate 

At the same time, Mr. Strauss-Kahn 
appears to be a backer of the market- 
friendly plan to set up pension funds 
introduce by the outgoing conservative 
government and opposed by the So- 
cialist Party's rank and file. 

In 1982. he co-authored a book on the 
subject with Denis Kessler, who is a top 
executive at the insurer Axa SA. and an 
official at the CNPF, the French em- 
ployers’ union. 

Analysts recalled that the book 
termed pension funds necessary both to 
provide companies with financing and to 
relieve the state-sponsored retirement 
program, which is headed for a gaping 
deficit as the elderly rapidly outnumber 
the working population. 

In short, Mr. Strauss-Kahn is likely to 
come up with tailor-made — as opposed 
to ready-made — solutions 10 France’s 

DR. IBNU Hartomo Promissory Notes 

This notice is important and requires the immediate 
attention of* the holders of this promissory notes. 

Wc do hereby notifv to all holders of DR. IBNU 
27th Oaobcr 1985, that our office has been exclusively 
and irrevocably nominated to settle this subject with 
holders of these notes. 

For that purpose we kindly request ail holders to contact 
us urgently, not later than 20-6-97, for preparation and 
approval of the list of holders of these promissory* notes. 

- Mr. lose SIMON PASTOR (Attorney at Law) 
C/Nl’Sez of. Balboa N b 1 15 3° A 
28006 Madrid - Spain ■ 

TEL: 34- 1 -5628024, Fax: 34-I-S644159 


16, avenue Morie-THarese, L-2I32 Luxembourg 


tffrrmr Jiinr 1>L 1997. Citicorp *\A- London, ha* h«n 
^ppqinti-d Investment Manager for the German Equity 
Ulipnftlvlio in U**u of Citibank huitzetland. 

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PAGE 16 



Nostalgia, but No Triple Crown 

By Andrew Beyer 

Washington Post Service 

ELMONT, New York — The scene 
at Belmont Park, evoked, memories of 
horse racing’s glorious past, as 70,682 
people cheered for a thoroughbred hero. 
They came with the hope of seeing 
Silver Charm malm history and win the 
Triple Crown, and many aisn dreamed 
that he would become the horse whose 
star appeal revives an ailing sport 

An eighth of a mile from die finish 
line Saturday, SilverCharm had the lead 
in the Belmont Stakes. But horse racing 
rarely delivers the storybook endings, 
and Touch Gold’s late rally snatched the 
race from SilverCharm. By three-quar- 
ters of a length, the gray colt missed 
joining such immortals as Secretariat, 
Seattle Slew and Affirmed — the last 
three to sweep all three races. 

The crowd at Belmont was percept- 
ibly dispirited by die result and the sense 
that the sport had lost a great oppor- 
tunity. Even Silver Charm’s jockey, 
Gary Stevens — who could have be- 
moaned the loss of the biggest payday 
ever for a jockey — declared, “I'm 
disappointed for the world of thorough- 
bred racing.” 

But this Triple Crown series show- 
cased racing at its best Only 1 1 horses 
have won the Triple Crown, which be- 
gins the first Saturday in May with the 
Kentucky Derby, continues two weeks 
later with the Preakness and ends three 
weeks after that with the Belmont 

That demanding schedule, plus vary- 
ing distances — die Derby covers 1 A 
miles, the Preakness a mile and three- 

sixteenths and the Belmont LA miles — 
make die Triple Crown elusive. 

Silver Charm won the Derby and 
Preakness in tight photo finishes after 
breathtaking stretch drives; his will to 
win was evident Bob Baffert, the colt’s 
trainer, thought Silver Charm lost Sat- 
urday because he couldn’t see Touch 
Gold rallying on the far outside and 
didn’t know he had to fight back. Even 
the winner's trainer, David Hofmans, 
agreed: “When you run next to Silver 
Charm, it just pumps him up.” 

Losing to Touch Gold was no dis- 
grace. The lightly raced colt had given 
evidence before Saturday that he might 
be the best of his generation — and 
maybe the best in many years. In tbe 
Preakness he encountered an insuper- 
able amount of bad luck after stumbling 
at the start, but still lost by less than two 
lengths. Before the Belmont he was 
suffering from an injured hoof that dis- 
rupted training. This Belmont may be 
remembered as a race in which one great 
horse defeated another. 

Not only were the horses exceptional, 
but the human cast of characters in- 
volved in this Triple Crown was an 
engaging and even endearing group. 

A minute or two after the race — 
which would have yielded Bob Lewis, 
the owner, a record $5.4 million wind- 
fall had Silver Chaim won — a tele- 
vision interviewer wanted to know how 
he felt. Lewis's immediate response: 
‘‘This has been the thrill of a lifetime all 
the way through.” 

Baffert was just as upbeat and gra- 
cious as he has been throughout this 
spring of high-pressure competition. 

One minute, before post time, he was 
waving and tossing Silver Charm but- 
tons into the midst of fans s tanding 25- 
deep at the rail 

A day earlier or a day later, the same 
area of Belmont Park would be almost 
deserted. The few thousand people in 
attendance rattle around the place built 
to. accommodate crowds of 50,000 or 
more that used to be commonplace. The 
atmosphere at Belmont depresses even 
people who love the sport passionately. 
It is the nostalgia for the good old days 
— when horse racing was a mainstream 
sport that drew throngs of enthusiastic 
fans — dial made so many people hope 
that Silver Chaim could do for ms sport 
what Tiger Woods has done for golf, or 
Michael Jordan for basketball 

Such hopes were unrealistic from the 
start, for the nature of the racing and 
betting business has changed funda- 
mentally. In New York, most racing 
fans prefer to wager at convenient off- 

to Long Island for an event that lasts aQ 
afternoon. Many now watch the races 
live on television and bet by telephone. 
At most of America’s tracks, horse- 
players watched the Belmont on banks 
of television sets carrying simulcast sig- 
nals from all- parts of the country. 

The new treads in wagering may not 
be as dramatic as a of humanity 
roaring in unison, but they have gen- 
erated betting totals unimaginable in the 
past and give the sport its best hope for. 
survival. Even if foe game prospers in 
the future, it won’t have many days like 
Saturday, with 70,682 people cheering 
for a single faotse. 

Benny the Dip Wins a Thrilling Derby 

Gxrptln/ tr, Our StqffFmn Dbparrbr] 

EPSOM, England — Benny the Dip 
won one of foe most thrilling Epsom 
Derbies for years with a short-head vic- 
tory over Silver Patriarch. 

The courageous colt, named after a 
Damon Runyan character, took the lead 
with a pile-driving run up foe Epsom 
straight Saturday and then narrowly 
held off a late surge by Silver Pat- 

The winner was a last-minute ride for 
Willie Ryan, who in foe past has often 
missed out on big race mounts. Ryan 
landed the ride only last week and rode 
his first ever Epsom Derby winner. 

“He is a lovely horse, very game,” 
said foe 32-year-old jockey. “Hus is the 
best of spare rides.” 

Three years ago, Ryan broke his ribs 
in the Derby when his mount. Foyer, 
stumbled at the halfway point. 

Olivier Peslier. foe French jockey, 
rode Benny the Dip to a brilliant victory 
in the Dante Stakes at York. But for foe 
Derby he opted to ride Cloudings, fin- 
ishing 10th in foe field of 13. 

Benny foe Dip starred at 1 1-1, Silver 


Patriarch, ridden by Pat Eddery, was 6- 
1. The 25-1 chance Romanov ran home 
a distant third, five lengths back. 

Benny the Dip was always up with 
foe pace and made his decisive move on 
foe short Epsom straight. For a moment 
it looked as if he might come home 
unchallenged, but Eddery, on the big 
gray Silver Patriarch, came from last 
place to make a sustained and exciting 
challenge over foe final half furlong, 
only to be denied by foe shortest of 

John Gosden, foe trainer, also won his 
first Epsom Derby. Gosden’s father, 
Towser Gosden, was also a trainer, but 
he never won the Derby. When he was 
forced by ill-health to give up training, 
one of the horses in his stable was 
Charlottown, who went on to win the 
Derby in 1966. He died shortly after 
Charlottown’ s big race victory. 

“I'd only say to my old man some- 
where up there that we finally got it 
right,” Gosden said. “This one is for 

Benny the Dip is owned by Landon 
Knight, a newspaper publisher. Knight. 

who is wheelchair-bound, was unable to 
come to Epsom, but his wife. Cynthia, 
was there. 

Speaking from his home in Ohio, the 
72-year-old Knight said, “I listened to 
foe race over foe phone but I could not 
hear anything after Tattenham Comer 
because of foe crowd noise.” 

Gosden said Knight had almost sold 
the horse. 

“As I was about to leave foe States be 
said ‘Gosden go and have a look at that 
horse,* so I went back and missed my 
plane,” said foe trainer. “I told him I 
loved foe horse and he said. ‘You can 
have him.’ ” 

Entrepreneur, the 2.000 Guineas win- 
ner and 6-4 favorite, failed to stay and 
finished a disappointing fourth. 

“He finished a very tired home. It 
was a very disappointing perfor- 
mance,” Entrepreneur’s jockey, Mi- 
chael Kinane, said. Entrepreneur was 
only ninth at Tattenham Corner. 

Romanov, with John Reid up, ran 
gamely to finish third, without threat- 
ening the two leaders at any stage in the 
million-pound race. ( Reuters . AFP) 


Major League Standings 

Oqutsl and Moyne Clemens. TTmfin (9). 
Ptasac (9), Quontril (9) and Santiago. 
W-Clemens. 114 L-Oqurst 1-2. 
Sv-QuanMH CD. HRs-OaUarrt. McGwire 
(23). Taranta C. Delgado (11). 

MBwauftee 0» 901 000—3 < 0 


New York 021 201 Ob— 4 11 1 





JJUleicedes, Mlrimda (4), Ftarie (6) and 






Mattieny; KnJlogers. Medr (6), Stanton (7). 

New York 





Nelson (8), M. Rhero (9) and QrardL 






W-KruRogeix. 4-1 L-J. Mereedee. 2-2. 






Sv-M. RNaa 0 7). HRs — Milwaukee, Durni 






[11. New York. Fielder (5). 


Batttawre 001 100 001-3 12 1 






Odcoge 110 QS0 Ob— 7 11 0 






Erickson, Rhodes (6). Br.WHBoms (8) and 






Webster; Drabek. McElray (61. Simas (8). 

Kansas Oty 





T.Casfflto (91. R. Hernandez (9) art 






Fabregas. W— Drabek. 5-4. L— Erickson. 8- 


2. Sv — R. Hernandez (12). HR-CMcaga. F. 






Thomas (16). 





Anaheim 021 001 201—7 10 0 






Mtaaesahi 004 100 13x— 9 IS 0 






CFmfey. DeLucfa (7). Holtz (7). P. Harris 


(8) art Leyritc Aid red. F. Rodriguez (71. 


Swindett (71. AguBera (91 and Sfetabodi. 





W-Swindctt, 42. L-P Haris, ft! 






Sv— Aguilera (14). HRs— Anaheim, Schrmn 






(7). Minnesota, MoUfar (21. 

New York 





Tun 010 000 000-1 S 1 






Kansas Oty 100 010 00*— 2 7 0 






Burkett and 1 Rodriguez; Rosado and 


Fasana. W-Rasnda, 31 L -Burkett. 4-i 












Chicago OH 000 000-0 6 0 

SL Louis 





Montreal 0M 020 BIx— J ID o 






Je. Gonzalez, Wendell (7), R-TaJts (8) and 






Serrate. BuIRnger art Fletcher. 


W — Bu Dinger, 3-5. L— Je.Gonzalez. 2-1. 

Son F nineteen 33 




HR— Montreal H-Rodrtguez (1 IL 

C (dorado 





New York 001 DM 010—2 7 2 

Los Angeles 





Gndnatl OOO t J23 OOx— 5 9 0 

San Diego 





RJteed, Trficek (7), McMkhael (8) and 



Seattle 022 002 000— A 9 I 

Detroit 000 200 000-3 8 0 

Lowe McCarthy (61. B.Wets 171. Ayala (8) 
and Maryana OIhrarw. Mfcefl 17). Broad (9) 
and Casanova. W— Laura 1-1. L— OSvaea 
4 4. Sv— Ayala 0). HRs-Seattle. Cruz Jr. 2 
(3). Detroit PitdcO). 

Ctavefemd 130 110 010-7 10 0 

Boston 000 001 020-3 11 1 

Hcrefther. Assemtodier RD. Plan* in and 
S. Alomar: Gordon. Brandenburg (51. Stocumb 
(8) and Hatteberg. W— HffiltttB 6-1 
L— Cordon 34. HR— Oewkmd Thome 04). 
Oakland DM 000 001-1 81 

Tonnlo 400 ON OOx— 4 60 

Handley; Tomka SulUvan (7). Remfinger (8), 
Carrasco (81. Shaw (91 and J.OIIver. 
W— Tomka 1-1. L— R. Reed. 4-3. Sv— Shaw 
001. HR— Cincinnati J. Obvef (3). 
PWkrtdphia on NO 040 0-4 10 0 
Pittsburgh 000 300 IN 1— 8 9 0 

Beecto R. Hants (7). Serudhn (8). Botlofico 
(10) and Lieberthal; F -Cordova Rincon (0, 
Labette (H). M.WHkMs (10) and Kendall 
W— M. WTHna 5-0. L— SpradRa > 2. 

SL Louis 100 300 000—3 0 1 

Las Angeles ON 010 000-1 7 0 

ALBenes, Eckersley (9) and Mefice Park. 
Had (8). Guthrie (9) and Piazza. 
W— ALBenes, 5-5. L— Part, 4-3. 
Sv-Eckersfey (12). HRs-St Loo is, 

Lankford 2 (14). Ganl (11). 

Atlanta 103 002 003-9 IS 1 

Sim Francisco 004 IN 000-5 9 3 

Wade, Byrd (3). BarowskJ (51. BWedd (7). 
Emhree (8). Wohlers (9) raid J. Lopez; 
Rmrter, Raa (3). Poole (5k Tavaraz (7), 
R. Rodriguez (8), Aroeha (9) and Jensen R. 
Wiki ns (B). w— Byrd. 3-0- L— Raa 1-4. 
HRs— ABanta J. Lopez (1 1). San Francbca 
G.HIII (7). 

Houston 122 201 NO— 0 12 0 

San Diego ON Oil 000-7 IS 0 

Homptoa Lima (5), Minor (7). R. Springer 

(8) , Maq norite (8), B_ Wagner (9) and 
Eusebio. Ausmus (9); J -Hamilton. Bergman 
(5). P-Smith [6k Bochttar (6k Burrows (9) 
and Ratierty,CHemandez(B). W— Lima 1- 
3. L— J. HamRfoa 4-1 So— B. Wagner 0 1). 
HRs— Houston, Bagwell (19). Sim Diega 
CamMttl (5). 

joinuri m went w 


t«ms ooi on ms-4 s i 

Kansas Oty ON SOS 80s— tO 12 0 

■ D.Otver, WhiJ«.de (6). Vosberg (6k 
Santana (6). Atoerre (8) and I. Rodriguez. 
Mercedes (8); Pins ley, R. Veres ttk Caslan 

(9) . JScnSogo (9) and Mocfalane. 
W— Pittstey, 1-4. L— Oliver, 3-7. HRs— Taos. 
I. Rodriguez (8k J. Gonzalez (10). Kansas 
Cdy, C Davis 2 (8). 

Borttmore 0M ON ON 00-0 9 0 
Chicago MW ON ON 01—1 8 0 
111 barings) 

KantteniecM. Orosco (S). A.8erttez (91, 
TeJWsthews (10). R. Myers (10) and HaBea- 
Ahrarez. Korchner (9k T. CastUo (9), 
R.Hemondez (10) and Fobregas. 
w— RHemandez, 4-1. L— R. Myen. I -3. 
Oakland ON 001 000-1 A 0 

Taranto IN 101 Ota-3 6 0 

Kmsny, D. Johnson (7), Groom (8), C. 
Reyes (8) and GaWIBams; Persoa Spoijeric 
(B). QuaniriA (91 and B. Sanhogo. 
W— Penan 1-4. L— Kareay. 1-7. 
Sv— Qua ntrfll (3). HRs-Tofonta, C Delgado 
02). Toronto, Sierra (1). 

Mivraateo OH ON 000—9 4 0 

New York ON ON 20*— 2 S 2 

Kart. WkJanan (8) and MaOrnir. D.Wdb. 
M. Rhreia (9) and GirardL W-D. Wells, 7-3. 
L— Knrt, 2-7. Sv-M. Riven (18). 

□eve kart 022 220 010-9 12 ■ 

Boston 004 ON 010-5 II 2 

Cotan Marmot (8k Shuey (8) and S. 
Ataman Seta Wasdln (4), Brandenbarg (7), 
Lacy (8k Han mood (9) and Hatteberg. 
W— Cotorv 1-1 L— Sele, 6-5. HRs— CovetonA 
Thome (15), Ma.WSanS (14). Justice 07). 
Boston, Bragg (6), Carden (10). Frye (1). 

Seattle 000 010 000-1 5 2 

Detroit (08 IN Mta-3 5 1 

Wolcott S. Sanders (8) and WBsore 
Ju.Thompsoa MJMyers (9). ToJones (9) 
and Casanova. W— Ju.Thompsoa 6-4. 
L— Wotaott 2-4. Sv— TaJones (5). 
HRs— Detroit To. dark (18), Casanova (1). 
Anaheim tOO ON 001— I 6 I 

Minnesota 300 030 Ota— 4 13 0 

Perisha Hcsegawa (5) and Krentec Radke 
and StembadL W— Radke. 5-5. L-Pertaha 


New York ON IN 211-5 9 1 

Gndnatl 101 130 4Q*-10 16 1 

Lidta M.Oaric (4), Kastdwado (7k Mrawnl 

(7) . Trfcsk (8) csid Hundley. A. CasGIta (8); 
Mwgaiv SuBhran (2k Belinda (6). 
FeJJoftiguez (8) and J-OBver. W— SuEvon. 

1- 1. L-Udta 3-1- HRs— Near York. Hondtey 

(13). Everett (5k Cincinnati M. KeBy (1). 
Atlanta Oil ON N3-5 4 0 

San Ftunascs ON on 020—2 2 1 

G .Maddox, Wohlers (91 and EddPerec 
Gardner, D-Hemy (9). R-Rodrtguez 19) and 
R-WOklns. W— G. Maddox, 7-2. l-O. Henry, 

2- 2. Sv— WoWere (t3>. HRs-Aflonta A. 
Jones (4). San Francisca G. Hill (8). 

Ftortdo 103 ON 210-7 14 T 

Colorado 490 IN 000-5 9 0 

HaSng, Starter (3). F.Heredla (6). Powell 

(8) , Nen (9) and Toon: Thomson, Holmes (4k 
S. Reed (8). DoJean (9) and Manwaring. 
W-F. Heredia 34). L-Hohne*. 2-1. 
Sv— Nen (161. HRs— Florida, Arks (1). 
Coritoe (7). Cotarwta L-Walker (18), 
Gdkvraga (16k Bichette (9). 

Ctricoga ON ON 000-0 7 0 

Montreal 002 020 01*— 5 6 0 

Methoflond. BattanfleU (7). Rains (8) and 
Serrate C Perez end Ftokfter. W— C Rarer, 

64. L — MelhcAond. 5-5 HRs-MarrireaL 
Saittangeio 2 □). 

PhBodehdtfa 2N no 000-2 s 2 

Pittsburgh 280 200 SOx-9 10 0 

Nya B lazier (4k Rywi (7), Ptantenberg (7) 
and Prowl Lieberthal (7); Ueber, Ruebel 
(7), Sodowsky (7k Rlnccm (Bk Waintiause (9) 
and KendalL W— LJebet, 3-7. L— Nye, 0-1 . 
SL Louts ON ON 002-2 6 0 

Lts Angstes 103 ON 10s— 5 14 2 

DnJadaarv Frascatore (5), Bettm (8) 
and Larepkkv Nomo and Pka2a W— Noma 

65. L— On-loduon, 1-2. HR— Los Amatos. 
Piazza (10). 

Hoasfoa IN 019 000 0—4 7 0 

SaaDtoga 012 000 910 1-5 13 0 

Ol tarings) 

Wcril Minor (7), Mognonte (8), ft. Garda 

(9) and Ausnncs HAAarray, TLWtorrett (7), 


Memorable 'Ylomeiits from Johnnie Walker: R\DER < T P with Bernard (mil (teller 

m IPPIW;, 





U rrttra mrfi K Sinunnn.v i?- HhoJmlni 61 Harr F Smith £ hlrmaAmal HmJd Tribune / Prnfaioaal Spats Ihrtnrnhip lj<L 





1 knvt ioanJ kpnr Fnan-IVov.- 

The Australian batsman Steve Waugh ducking under a bouncer from 
the English bowler Devon Malcolm on Sunday in the Ashes test match. 

England Crushes Australia 
In Opening Ashes Cricket Test 

A aencc Frjnce-Presse 

BIRMINGHAM, England— Mike 
Atherton scored a rapid half-century 
Sunday as England galloped to victory 
after tea on the fourth day of foe first test 
against Australia at Edgbaston. 

Australia collapsed again in its second 
innings, losing its last eight wickets for 
123 runs to set England a target of 1 18 to 
■ win. It took England just 88 minutes to 
reach foe target Atherton hit 57 not out 
and Alec Stewart 40 not out 

Australia, which had trailed by 360 
runs after foe first innings, opened foe 

day on 256 for one. wicket in its second 
innings. Mark Taylor was out midway 
through the morning to spinner Robert 
Croft for 129. his highest score since 
taking over as captain two years ago. 

Greg Blewetl and Steve Waugh took 
the score on to 353, but when Croft 
removed him for a brilliant 125 foe 
tourists folded to 477 all out. 

Darren Gough, an England pace 
bowler, grabbed three wickets for 123 
runs, ana Mark Eaih am finished off foe 
Australian innings with three wickets 
for no runs in 10 balls. 

Ahead of 
Tonkov to 
Win Giro 

The Assanuied Press 

MILAN — Unheralded Ivan Gotti on ‘ 
Sunday became foe first Italian in six ■ 
years to win foe Tour of h^y overall tide, ; 
bearing Pavel Tonkov, foe defending, 
champion, by 1 minute. 27secondsai foe • 
end or the 22-stage cycling marathon. ! 

Mario Cipollini, a teammate of Gotti - 
with the Sacco team, took Sunday’s last ! 
stage in Milan, beating Glenn Mag- - 
nusson in a crowded final sprint. j 
Luca Mazzanti and Nicola Loda. two j 
more Italian riders, placed third and* 
fourth, respectively, with Marcel 
a German with the Festina team, coming 
fifth. • 1 

It was the fifth stage victory in this j 
year’s tour for CipoIlmL The tradition- \ 
ally ceremonial 164-kilometer (102- j 
mile) final leg was a triumphant parade ■ 
for foe 2 8- year-old Gotti. J 

Gotti built up an overall lead in the. 1 
climbing stages and withstood' 
Tonkov’s counterattack in the final in- j 
dividual time trial. 

Gotti was the first Italian to win foe' 
Giro title since Franco Chioccioli in* 
1991. Chioccioli is one of his coaches. 

The Giro winner, who turned pro in 
1991, had a thin record before this year’s 
competition. In foe 1995 Tourde France, 
he wore foe leader's yellow jersey fin- 
two days and eventually finished fifth. 

Tonkov, a Russian who rides for the ' 
I talian Mapei team, acknowledged de- ' 
feat after Saturday’s stage to Edolo, the 
longest and toughest in this year's Giro. 
Tonkov won foe stage but could not pull 
away from Gotti, who placed second, 
just one second behind. 

“Gotti deserved foe title,” Tonkov- - 
said after spraying foe race winner with . 
champagne at the award ceremony. The, 
Russian cyclist ended the race with a 
bandaged aim and a braised leg fol- 
lowing a downhill spill last Thursday. • 
This year’s Giro was deserted by foe 
leading European cyclists, who pre- 
ferred to prepare for the forthcoming 
Tour of France. It was also marred by- 
several spills, which knocked ont such-, 
pre-race favorites as Luc Leblanc of' 
France, Alexandre Shefer of Kazakstan*, 
and Italy’s Marco Pantani. 

Only 1 10 cyclists ont of 180 starters ' 
completed foe race. 

Leblanc and Shefer were injured 
while holding third and fourth place, 
respectively, in the overall standings! 
and withdrew during the 19th stage. 

Pantani, who was returning to the!' 
Giro after recovering from a bad leg 1 
fracture, fell during tbe eighth stage and- 
did not start the next day. 


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Gonzalez (2). Son Diega Gwynn CIO). Corner 
15 )- 

Japanese Leagues 


































Yakutt 4, HlrasWma 2 
GiunkJd 3 Yonriuri 0 
HansNn 10. YNwhama4 
n •BAT'S H 
YakuB & Hbaslrima 2 
Yonriuri a Ownlchl 1 
Hanstrin 7, Yokahamal 



































Orix 9, Data! S 

Klntetau 9. Nippon Ham 2 


Orix & Data 3 
Lotte A Settw 5 (10 Innings) 
Kintetsu X Nippon Ham 0 


Stanley Cup Finals 


PMMMpttta 0 0 1—1 

Datrait 1 1 0—2 

First Period: D-LMstran 2 (Maltby) 
Panalttes— LeCtolr, PM dwtang); Larionov, 
Del Ontorieiencel; Undros, PM 
Bnterforence); FaOoorv PM (ItaMng stidO 
Second Period: OMcCarly 3 (Sandstrm 
Yzerman) Penalty— Konstanl ta av, Det 
CHerietence) TfeM Petted: P4Jn*os 12 
(Dcsianfms) Penalties— Sranuetecn, PM 
(stashing); Poddr, Ptii Oilgh-sttddng); 
Dropar. Del (dashing) Stats ea geek P- 8-12- 

3-28. D- 9-10-8—27, Power ploy 

Opportunities— P- 0 of 3; D- 0a( 5. GaaBes: P- 
HextaB 60 (27 stats-25 saves). E>, Vernon 
16-4 08-271. 

(Detreit wen series and SMurCup 44) 

Marcel Wust. Germany, Festtns 6. Mariana 
PtcoolL iWy. Bresdalat 7. Dents Zonelta 
My. AKb A Zbigniew Sprodb Potand, 
Mapet 9. Ataxal Slrafcov, Russia RaskdtB 
10. Marta Hvasiqa StoraMa Rastatto aR si. 

Ovend eWKfnge after 22 stage* end 
3^18 fane: 

I.GoM, 102 hours 53 minutes 58 secomteZ 
Tonkov, at 137; 3. GuettM 1A0t 4. Mlatt 
1220: 5. Gontdw 12:4*6. Belli 12^8; 7. di 
Gmde 1254; 8. Maim Serrano, Spain 
Kelme 1 6:07; 9. Garzefli lUy.MercatoneUin 
1 BKLte 10-RtrMera 18^6. 

European Grand Pmx 

’ Leafi ng ecoree Sraxtoy Ntar Onto round 
of S8SIUIOO (81 JI6 mMon) Eurapeen Grand 
CUt In Hexham: 

C Mentgomerte, Scot 696B6365-270 

R. Gouea S. Africa 69-69-68-69-^75 

Lee Westwood Eng. 70-7066-70-276 

DcvWGBotd Eng. 71-69^9-69-778 

Scott Hendenoa Scat 69-71-68-70-278 

R.WesseteS. Africa 71-69-73-67-280 

JonRobsoaEng. 72-68-70-70-280 

David Carter, Eng. 69-70-70-71-280 

John Metal England 71-72-67-70-280 

JamtoSpenca Eng. 69-72-67-72-280 

JCB Classic Sendai 

Fi rnri ecorae Sunday In ttte 1 00 mflfian yen 
(** 8S2JW0) JCB Ctoetac Sendai gait 
toumment on the M81-yw*L pen 71 
Oma*e-Zaa Kakusel Gcfl Ck* course In 

NohuMo Sata Jap. 
T.lzawa Jap. 
Eduardo Henera CoL 
Y. Kaneka Jap. 

S. KuwabaraJop. 
"Jumbo" OzaHJop. 

T. Nlshtea wg Jap. 

T. Tfstrima Jap. 

68- 65-64-70 — 267 

69- 68-67-67—271 

67- 68-67-69 — 271 
71-65-65-71 — 272 

68- 65-71-69-273 

69- 68-70-69 — 276 


Argafitaa XI England 13 


Narthem Transvoat 35, Brfnati Lions 30 


Awstralta: 1 18 and 477 
England 478-9 dedared and 119-1. 
England wan by 9 wickets. 


West Indies: 2S3-7 (49 ov«5) 

Sri Lanka- 2486 (49 weis). 

Wosl indies won by 35 runs. 


Giro & Italia 

Leading poetdanc In 238-km 21 « stage of 
Giro dttaiia from MMe Id Edolo: 

1 . Pavel Tonkov. Russia Mapei 7 h. 13 at. 
36 U 2. Ivan Gotti Italy, Sacco of 1 s,- 3. 
Wlodlmb BeiL Italy. Biesdalat s.f.- 4. Jove 
Rut *ra Spate Ketae 1 J33i 5. Andraa Noe’. 
Italy. Asia &. ULNkstaMlostUWy, AKI alj 
7 Glusopgo Guerinl Ifafr- Patti si 8. 
°w«Ppe di Grande- ikrty, Mapei Uj g. 
OanWe de PoaL IMy. Rns May or 2«k ID. 
Seigd GantdRB Ukratne. AM si. 

taodlng ptadngg In 2tad and Bnei etege 
of Oku <nuHa over IS tarn from Bowie 

l. Atario apoBlni Italy, Soeoa 4 h. 24 m. 41 
1 Wognusson, Sweaoa Amareond 

Vtasl Luca Mazzanti Holy. GeramUta Re- 
fla 4. Nicola Lada Italy, MagfiNcta MGs 5. 



standings; Paraguay 23 paints Colom- 
bia 17; Atoentaa 1« Bodvta H Ecuador 14; 
Chaei Peni IS Uruguay 13; Venezoeta l. 


FIJI New to la rid l 

STA WP we cv e Papua New Guinea 3 
pobrts New totatd i Rfl tt. 

Ffp a New Zealand l 


Denma rk Z Bosnia 0 

snuiDmasi Derarati 13 pobds Greece 
1(k Cnaatta 9; Bosnia 1- Slavania 1. 


Georgia LMaktarao 
stimmog Daly 16 points; England 1& 
Paland 4- Geaigta 3; Moldova 0. 

Finland XAMteoganQ 
■TliNteiMteHanrarlOpotob; Finland T, 
SwSzettand 4 Hungary 6; AzerbaBan X 

Betarui a Scotland 1 
LahtaL Austria 3 
Estonia Z5vreden 3 

wtamoincs: . Soofiiaid 17 points; Austria 
13; Sweden 12 Latvia 7; Beta res 4 Estonia 4. 


ftU5Sta2, IsrselO 
Balgarta 4 Laxerabowg 0 

Russia 14 pob*.- Israel 13; 
Bulgana 12; Cyprus 4- Luxembourg a 

Faroe Istands 1 Motto 1 


Belgium 4 Sim Marino a 
W M Wta Netherlands is potato,- m. 

gtomlS; Turiw, 7) Wales /; sanMaSSa 


Macedonia I, kebnxfO 

ST»NDW4a* Romania IB points Mace- 
donia 13f Irehmd 1ft LDtiuania ft Iceland ft 
Uectrienstehi 0. 


Portugal 2. ABtarlaO 
Ukiafne 0, Germany 0 
ST A i f i as. Ukraine )4potateGennany 
lft Portugal lft Northern Ireland 7; Arawnlo 
£ Albania 1. 


Nigeria ft Kenya 0 

STANSNHOSe Nigeria 13 pond s. Kenya 7: 
Guinea ft Burkina FasoO. 


Llberio l.Nmnfcta 2 
Egypt ft Tunisia 0 


South Africa ft ZambtoO 
STAMNNOSi Sooth Africa 10 potato; Con- 
go 7; Zambia & Democratic Rep. of Congo 2. 

- GROUP 4 
Angola 1. Cameroon 1 
Toga 2. Zimbabwe 1 


Morocco 1, Ghana 0 

sTAMDHtoa: Morocco 13 points Ghana 
ft Sierra Lean e 4 Gabon 1. 


Vtefnamft ToitanenfchuM 
Chino ft TaffcManO 

stamhnosc China 13 poll*; TapUston 
lft Turkm enistan ft Vietnam 0. 


Iraq 1, Kazakstan 2 

T AI W I Ms Kazakhstan 6 poHitw Imgft 
Pakistan a 


France ft England l 

STASONieo*: England 6 points; Brazil 1; 
France 1; Hat? 0 

PcdesSneft Jordan ft Be 

Japan 4 Croatia 3 

aA.eroMM’s cae'v7 
Ausfaafio ft Canada 2 
stRNDUraxe Untied States 6 points; Italy 
ft Ausfr afla 3; Gmoda ft 
AastraBa X Canada 2 


Kansas City X DaSas 1, SO 0-1): 
Washington DX, ft Cotorodo Q 
Tampa Bay ft Gotombus I: 

GTAMMeasE Eastern Coeteence: DX. 
2ft New England 20; Colbmbw 1ft Tampa 
Boy lft NY-NJ 11 Western Corterance: 
Kansas City 17; Dallas 1& Cotorado 13; San 
Jose 8; Las Angeles 7. 

Stan 3. LuceroeS 





MaiMl (9), Cm. def. Hingis (1 ), SwL 64, 6-1 

Gigl Fementei, US. and Zvereva 0), BeL 
taf. May Joe Femondez and Raymond (5), 


Kuerten, Bin*, det Bmguero (16), Sp. 6-1 6- 
4* 6-2. 


Kbfelnikav, Rim. and Vacek (4), Czech, Get 
Woadbridge and Wood forte (1), Australia 7- 
6n4-m,4ft6.i i 


H irate Jap. and BhupaW 06). Ind. daf. Ray- 
mond and Goftraith (i). Ui. 6-4 6-1. 

H enter Bdg, det Block, ZJrab.66. 64, 66. 

Blocfc Zbnb. andSeftrttna Kazak. defJAaT 
crefcctad SrebaHft Sim. 64 5-7, 7-3L 


Eisner, Ger. del. Hama, Pera, 66.6-4 

De Annas. Ven. and Horn* Peru, def. DI 
PoHiurte and Jeasplene, Fr. 64 2-ft 7-5. 



*L-Ftoed Oiieagg OF Albert Belle S5J100 
tar Inappropriate conduct foitowtog game at 

sieve laho— S igned OF Jonathon Ham6 

tali R^PTylerSwInbumsan, RHPTraySHifa 
C Erick Rasa IB Heath Bender, OF Ryai 
Upshaw, LHP Johnny Wheeler and LHP- 
Mkhael Hughes. . 

KANSAS CITY— Put LHP Jamie Water ae 
ISttoy disabled tat Bought conbod of RHP 
Jose Santiago from Laming. ML Tim*, 
fened RHP Jaime Bhima from 15-dayta #■ 
60-day fe l led Bs t. SeidRHPRkk Hubrntw 
outright to Omaha, AA. • 

Minnesota— S igned C Biyanf MMsan, INF 
LateefVaughrvRHPMoJTJorgenaandRHP . 

TAMPA bay— S igned RHP Jason Skm- 
d ridge. LHP Maquis Roberts. OF Mo# 
Morsflefct SS Paul HooverOF Anthony Pig-* 
ott RHP Jonafinn Cummina, and IB Ryan' 

Toronto— P ut RHP Tiro Crabtree on 16 
day disabled fist R sailed RHP Marty - 
Janzen ham Syraaree, IL Reassigned RHP 
Cartas Abnanzarto Syracuse. Signed OF Vte- 
non Wells, RHP Woody Heath. RHP Mott' 
McClellan RHP Travis HubbcL LHP Coin - 
Bredasen INF Brian Barnett RHP Matt, 
Wehner, RHP David Hugging. RHP John 
Sneeft LHP Anthony Safay. INF Andrew 
Barrett and RHP Tbn LneetieW. Agreed to 
tarns with RHP Eric Schultz. RHP Scott Bor-, 
reft RHP Adam Herndon and RHP Ken ■ 

TAMPA bay— S igned LHP Todd BeHS. 
RHP Chris Wright RHP Tom Pries 3B 
Dustin Carr and OF Travis Mller. 

TEXAS— Agreed to tenns wtth LHP Rabat 
Poland, RHP Dan DeYoung, RHP BSy Diaz, 
2B Thomas Sergta, RHP Jeff Ridenour, OF 


AJtuONA-Lormed IB Travis Lee to Toc- 
son, PCL Signed RHP Dwid Havwsttr*. 3B 
Keftti Jones. RHP Jason Mortifies. RHP 
Mike Rooney and LHP Jamie Puorio. 

Chicago— S igned LHP Lee Hancock and 
assigned him to Orionda SL Assigned LHP' 
Dareld Brawn from Orlando to Daytona 

cm crew ATI reds— P taced RHP MBie Mor- 
gan and LHP John Smiley on 1 5-day dteobtod 
Rst tor SmBey refreodve to June 2. Recoiled 
RHP Feb Rodriguez and RHP Brett Tomlo" 
from IruflanopoHs, AA. 

LD5AN&ELES— Put INF Juan Castro 00 15- ■ 
day dbabtod Brt. Readtod INF Chad FamOe 

from Albuquerque, PCL 
MOHTKEAL-Ptoart OF VfadjmlrGuenttO ( • 
on 1 5-day disabled RsL Recalled INF Jose . 
VMro from Ottawa IL Desiidtflted RHP ■ 
Derek Adcaln tor as si gnment Signed 35, 
Scott Hodges, RHP Jufio Pern. SS Anthony 
CoraatakL RHP SCutt SWcWgwL LHP. 
Oarence Blank, RHP Ryan Vbn G8dA RHP. ■ 
Joseph Frehrel and C John WMto. 

san Diego— P ut INF Terry Shumpert and - 
LHP Sterling HBchcock on 15-day dtoobled 
8st tor Hitchcock retroactive to June ft R*’ 
called RHP Todd Ertas from Motnte SL 
Signed RHP Shawn Camp, RHP Jeny Dan ■ 
SS Joseph Demons, RHPRWvCuttortBOG, : 
OF Brandon Hammings, RHP Horty IW-. 
doaOF Brert HonatartOF John Had** ^ 

OF Brian JagensoaC Tony Lawrenca LHP 

David Maurer, RHP Todd Naft LHP J°*. 
Otawltv 3B Jason Rakers, RHP Pat** 
Rywi OF Kail Ryden. IB Scott S«t SS day 
Sneftgrmre, RHP Bryce Tredeou. • 



DENVER -Signed WR WB# Andason. 
UEeH-SignedS Derrick Hasldiw. 
MNmesoTA-slaned SS Torrtan Gray’ 81- 
yewrartroct and P MJtdi Berger to l-W* 

NEW England— A greed Id terms wBh Dt . 
Brandon MAcitaL Reigned LB Many . 
Moore. ' 


now. Signed WR VM Johnson and Dt RT® 

mw YOfiK JETS-Tradod CB Carl Grten- 
wood to Green Boy farS ChrisHoyes; _ . 

OAttAND-Signed RB John Henry MBs. . 
FirrsBOMH— Agned to towns wtth . 
Dtayt Porter. ■ 

sr. Louis— Agreed to terms wdh W* - 
ranee 5m ad onl-yeor contract. _ 
san diego— S igned OT Vaughn Port«r w 



carouka— S igned D Hugh HaroBtoftry 
Sami Kapenen and F Ian MoctW B 
yoarcontrads. * 

Dallas— S igned F Gar CartaonHW ono,. 
RWJuha Lind to 1 -year corfrods. / 


ARMY-Named Prt Harts aw« 
ban coach. 

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- :t. ; ;j '« Ljjate 1 

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PAGE 17 

Red Wings Sweep Flyers for First Stanley Cup in 42 Years 

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Darren McCarty of the Red Wings reaching around the Flyers’ goalie, Ron Hextall, to score in the 2d period. 

. i 

Johnson Is Sharp as Mariners Win 

The Asuriiitcd Press 

Anyone still wondering about Randy 
Johnson’s health? 

Johnson, dominating hitlers as if he'd 
never had a back problem, took a no- 
hitter into the eighth inning and struck 
out 1 5 on Sunday as the Seattle Mariners 
defeated the Tigers in Detroit, 2-0. 

Johnson (9-1) gave up a leadoff 
single to Phil Nevin in the eighth — the 
only hit he allowed in eight innings — 
and extended his scoreless streak to 29 

Johnson won the 1995 AL Cy Young 
Award, but was limited to orUy eight 
starts last year because of back prob- 
lems. He underwent offseason surgery 
and wasn't the Johnson of old during 
spring training. But in going 5-0'in his 
'last six starts, the tall left-hander has 
* never looked better. 

Johnson struck out at least 10 for the 
. 74th time, moving him into a tie with 
Sam McDowell for fourth place on the 
career list. He walked three and left after 
. throwing 1 25 pitches. He also struck our 
the side in both the third and sixth. 

: innings. 

Yankee* 3 t Brewars 1 Paul O’Neill hit 
a two-run homer, and Tino Martinez had 
1 a solo shot, leading David Cone and the 
Yankees over visiring Milwaukee for a 
three-game sweep. 

Cone (7-3) struck out nine in seven 
innings and allowed seven hits. Mariano 
Rivera worked the ninth for his league- 
leading 19* save and his third of the 

O’Neill's 1 1th home run gave New 
York a 2-1 lead in the fourth against Jeff 
D’Amico (2-3). Bemie Williams led off 
with a single and stole second before 
O'Neill homered ro left-center. Mar- 
tinez’s 2 1 st home run came in the eighth 
off reliever Doug Jones. 

pmoim 3, Pirates 2 Philadelphia 
earned a rare road victory the way it 
usually does, with Curt Schilling pitch- 
ing, and Ruben Amaro’s RBI single 
finished off a three-run seventh inning 
1 in the Phillies' victory over the Pirates. 

in games played Saturday: 

Royals 10, Rangers 4 Chili Davis 
homered from both sides of the plate 
and drove in five runs to lead host 
Kansas City over Texas. Davis accom- 
plished the feat for the 10th time, one 
short rf Eddie Murray’s major-league 

Batting right-handed against a left- 
hander, Davis hit a three-run homer in 
the fifth for a 5-1 lead. He then hit a two- 
run drive off Matt Whiteside in the sixth 
to make it 7-3. 

White Sox i. Orioles o Harold Baines 
singled in the winning run in the 1 1th 
inning as host Chicago won for the fifth 
time in six games. 

Randy Myers walked Dave Martinez 
leading off the 1 1th, and Chris Hoiles 
advanced the runner with a passed ball. 

Baseball Roundup 

Darren Lewis sacrificed, Albert Belle 
was- intentionally walked and Myers 
threw a wild pitch, putting runners on 
second and thud. Baines then singled to 

Yankees 2, Rra wars O David Wells (7- 
3) allowed four hits in eight innings and 
struck out eight in winning his third 
consecutive decision. Mariano Rivera 
worked a perfect ninth for his 18th save 
as host New York improved to 7-3 fol- 
lowing a. 1-6 home stand. 

Blue Jays 3, Athletics i In Toronto, 
Carlos Delgado tied a Blue Jays’ record 
by homering in his fourth consecutive 
game, and Robert Person (1-4) got his 
first American League victory. Delgado, 
who hit a grand slam Friday night, hit a 
solo homer for a 2-0 lead in the fourth off 
Steve Karsay (1-7). Ruben Sierra added 
a solo homer in the sixth, his first since 
joining the Blue Jays on May 24. 

imfiam 9, Rad Sox s Jim Thome and 
Dave Justice hit two-run homers, and 
Matt Williams hit a solo homer, sending 
host Boston to its seventh loss in eight 

Tigat-s 3, Mirinan i Justin Thompson 
became the first pitcher to strike oat Ken 
Griffey Jr. -six straight times. 
Thompson, who struck out Griffey three 
straight tiroes in a 4-1 loss to the Mar- 
iners a week ago, did it again in Grif- 
fey’s first three at-bats. Tony Clark 
homered over Tiger Stadium’s right- 
field roof and Raul Casanova hit a two- 
run homer for Detroit, which stopped a 
three-game losing streak. 

Twins e, Angais 1 In Minneapolis, 
Brad Radke came within one out of a 
shutout, pitching a six-hitter, striking 
out six and walking three in his first 
complete game of the season. 

10, Mots 5 Terry Pendleton had 

three hits, including a pair of run-scor- 
ing doubles, as host Cincinnati over- 
came another pitching injury and beat 
New York for its third straight victory. 

The Reds had a season-high 16 hits, 
including seven doubles, off five pitch- 
ers. The Reds’ starter, Mike Morgan, 
left with pulled rib-cage muscles and 
went on the 15-day disabled list. 

BravM 5, Giants 2 In San Francisco. 
Greg Maddux (7-2) allowed two hits in 
eight innings and Andrew Jones hit a 
tiebreaking homer in the ninth. 

Martins 7, Rockies 5 Jeff Conine and 
Alex Arias hit late-inning homers in a 
game delayed 2 hours, 13 minutes be- 
cause of rain in the second inning. 

Expos 5, Cubs o In Montreal, FJ 3 . 
San range lo homered from both sides of 
the plate, and Carlos Perez pitched a 
seven-hitter for his second straight 
shutout, the third of his career. 

Pirates 9, Phillies 2 In Pittsburgh, Jon 
Lieber withstood a two-run first inning 
and allowed only two more hits in the 
next five-plus innings. Pittsburgh has 
won three Straight, matching its longest 
streak of the season. 

Ryan Nye couldn't hold the 2-0 lead 
in his major-league debut as the Pirates 
tied it in the first on Kevin Y oung’s run- 
scoring single, a pair of walks and Mark 
Johnson's sacrifice fly. 

Padies 5, Astros 4 A pinch-hitter. 
Scon Livingstone, singled home the 
winning run with two outs in the 10th 
inning, lifting host San Diego over 

Tony Gwynn, who hit his 100th ca- 
reer home run and extended his hitting 
streak to 17 games, drew a one-out walk 
from Ramon Garcia in the 10th. Gwynn 
took second on Steve Finley’s groun- 
dout, and Ken Caminiti was intention- 
ally walked. Wally Joyner singled to 
left, with Gwynn holding up at third. 
Livingstone batted for reliever Trevor 
Hoffman and grounded an 0-2 pitch into 

Dodger s 5, Cartfinals 2 Hideo Nomo 
struck out 10 to end his first three-game 
losing streak in the majors, and Mike 
Piazza homered as host Los Angeles 
beat Sl Louis. 

Nomo (6-5) gave up six hits and 
walked three. He pitched his first com- 
plete game in 15 starts since no-hitting 
Colorado last Sept. 17. He shut out the 
Cardinals until the ninth. 

Jazz Gain a Little Respect from Bulls 

By Mike Wise 

Vor Yi’rk Times Sen ire 

9 ^ 

SALT LAKE CITY — The basket- 
ball scholarships at Pick-and-Roll State 
will not have be revoked after all. John 
Stockton, Kail Malone and the Utah 
Jazz finally mounted a decent challenge 
to Michatrl Jordan’s throne. 

Before the loudest post-season crowd 
Otis season, they dumped the Chicago 

NBA Finals 

Bulls in Game 3 of the National Bas- 
ketball Association finals, 1 04-93, on 

Friday rrigbL , 

With the DeltaCentcr crowd swaying 
and people unable to hear the person 
to mem. ihe Jazz, playing host to 
tbesr fust, league championship series, 
wined tie Bulls* hopes for a sweep. 
Game 4 was to be played Sunday in 
Utah. . 

The Bdfr had run the Ja 22 off the 
floor ITGame 2. Now Stockton and 
Msdtwtreturned the favor. The Jazz 
baShttedtrf 61-45 at halftime. They 
raahafioor-— and ran die pick-and-rrfl 

aHiiagiflL • 

.Swbfaon (17 points. 12 assists) 
P&i$£ape*T the Bulls* bacfccoun, and 
"WsSfeWpuints, 10 rebounds) rolled 
J w er 'gje interior defense in one of 
Utah's nx»t cc*nptete postseason per- 

Tifc more inmressive statistics for 
eqooerqed offensive rebounds, 
and that intangible called 
“a^ Afiqr not.blocking x shot in the 
the Jazz had five ns- 
JW&ml i&te ftrst half and eight of- 
feabe rebounds. 

Utah's Biyon Russell and Greg Foster, 
nonentities in Games 1 and 2, re-emerged 
and gave their future HaD-of-Fame team- 
mates some much-needed support. 

The Bulls cut the lead to 77-60 by the 
end of the third quarter and to 79-66 at 
the outset of the fourth, but could not 
quite make up for lost ground through 
most of three quarters. For the first time 
in the series, the Jazz finally started to 
push the tall in the open floor and score 
in transition. 

Running with the Bulls is never a 
good idea, but in Game 3 it was merely 
part of the landscape, one that featured 
the world’s most accomplished basket- 
ball team falling on its face. 

The scene was almost eerie, watching 
the Bulls be completely dismantled. Not 
even the way Seattle tested Chicago’s 
will in Games 4 and 5 in last season's 
finals could compare. 

The easy answers for the Jazz turn- 
around was their point gnard-and-power 
forward combination. But Stocktonand 
Malone were only part of the picture. 
The Jazz scuffled with the Bulls un- 
derneath the basket, never letting Den- 
nis Rodman take control of the glass. 

Chris Morris and Howard Eisley 
played key minutes off the bench, and 
Utah swarmed Jordan, who finished 
with 26 points. Though Jordan opened 
the game by sticking two 3-pointers, he 
had taken only 13 shots by the be- 
ginning of the fourth quarter. 

Malone, who had shot 38 percent 
from the field in die fust two games and 
co nfirm ed to nurse an open blister on his 
right palm, was playing with too much 
force aggression on offense for any 

0 f the Bulls’ frontline players to match. 

The Delta Center was ihe siie of one 

Utah 104, Chicago 93 






PF Pts 

















Long toy 













































































20 25 
































































































25 20 












3-PeW goals: CWajgo 12-32 (Pippeo 7-11, Jordan 
4-10, Kerr 1-3, Rodman 0-1. BuedflerO-1. Harper 0-2. 
KohK 040, Utsa 4-M (Russefl 3-4, Foster 1 ^ Monta 
1-3, Stockton. 0-1, Etetey 0-1, HomoceK 03). 
Tedmfcah: Harper, Pipper. 

(Chicago toads series M) 

monstrous pep rally, with placards de- 
nouncing everything from Rodman’s 
lifestyle to Jordan’s selfishness on of- 
fense. It began with thousands of bal- 
loons being released from the rafters 
before the game, furry mascots 
repelling from the catwalk high above 
the arena. There were also fireworks, 
which exploded so loudly against die 
ceiling that players snick their fingers in 
their ears, and nearly 20,000 changed 
»ople clad in purple who would not sit 
5wn or shut up. 

t'.Mprfrilfn I ha U0 ^nauPiywii br\ 

DETROIT — For the first time since 
1 955, the Detroit Red Wings are Stanley 
Cup champions of the National Hockey 

Finishing a tournament in which they 
displayed technical brilliance and over- 
all cohesiveness, the Wings completed a 
four-game sweep of the final series on 
Saturday night with a 2- 1 victor)’ over 
the Philadelphia Flyers amid the ju- 
bilation of Joe Louis Arena. 

No NHL team had gone longer with- 
our winning rhe big silver trophy that the 
league commissioner, Gary Bettman. 
presented on the ice to Steve Yzerman. 
the Red Wings' captain. 

The last time 1 Detroit won it, Ted 
Lindsay was captain, the team played at 
the now-demolished Olympia Stadium, 
and the league had six teams instead of 

The first period had an interesting and 
uneven rhythm to ir. The Flyers main- 
tained pressure in Detroit's zone for 
long stretches and seemed to use their 
superior size to their best advantage, 
something they had failed to do in the 
other games. 

The Wings seemed tentative early, 
perhaps nervous with a chance to clinch. 
But they got the only goal of the period, 
by Niklas Lidstrom, 33 seconds from 
the end on a slap shot from the blue line 
that got between the skates of Ron Hex- 
tall. the Philadelphia goalie. 

Indeed, although the shot 
was a good one, it was stop- 
pable. It was the kind of goal 
that has demoralized the Fly- 
ers throughout the series. 

Lidstrom had four shots on 
goal during the first 20 
minutes. Kirk Maltby set up 
the goal with a pass to the 
blue line. 

The Wings also got the 
only goal of the second peri- 
od. It came at 13:02 on a 
beautiful play by Darren Mc- 
Carty. He took a pass from 
Tomas Sands tram with only 
the Flyers' rookie defense- 
man. Janne Niinimaa, be- 
tween him and Hext all’s 
goaL McCarty faked to go 
around the outside, luring the 
rookie into a poke-check, 
then switched the puck from 
his right to his left, leaving 
Niinimaa behind. As he sped 
in on goal, McCarty made a 
similar move in reverse. He 
drew Hextall down to the ice. 
then swept the puck sideways 
and right and popped it into 
the empty net. 

“Don't expect that all the 
time,” McCarty said. 

“Every blind squirrel finds a 

nut once in a while. 1 guess 1 found one 
at the right time. I was excited io make ii 
2-0. it gave us breathing room. We 
needed it.” 

In the final minute of the third period, 
ihe Flyers pulled Hextall and finally 
broke "through on Eric Lindros's first 
goal of the finals. It came far too late to 

Stanley Gup Finals 

mean anything, but gave Philadelphia a 
shred of consolation to take into what 
will be a long summer. 

Two years ago. the Red Wings lost 
the final in four games to New Jersey. “I 
think we all had in the back of our minds 
two years ago, and how devastating it 
was. and we're just glad we had a 
chance to prove we could do it.” said 
Mike Vernon, the Detroit goaltender 
who was awarded ihe Conn Smythe 
Trophy as the most valuable player in 
the playoffs for his 1 6-4 record and 1 .76 
goals-against average, the lowest 
among the 1 1 goalies who have won the 

"We're all Conn Smythe winners in 
my mind.” he said. 

After so many years of frustration, the 
Detroit fans went into a frenzy when 
Steve Yzerman. who has been with the 
Red Wings since 1983. grasped the Cup 
and skated around the confeni-Iittered 
ice so evervone could see its shining fvjjm 

The Red Wings' captain, Steve Yzerman, holding the 
Stanley Cup high after Detroit swept Philadelphia. 

glory. It is a tradition begun by Ted 
Lindsay when the Red Wings won the 
cup in 1950. 

Yzerman offered it to the team's 
owner. Mike Hitch, and then passed it to 
Viacheslav Fetisov and Igor Larionov, 
ihe Wings' Russian stars who shared The 
weight of a trophy for which they com- 
peted as hard as anyone bom on ihe 
Canadian prairie. 

“I have no liquid inside me to get any 
tears out." said Fetisov. 39. a first-lime 
Cup champion. “There were so many 
questions if Russian players can win the 
Cup. and finally we did it. Nobody is 
going to ask any more questions." 

Even the legendary Gordie Howe, 
whose relationship with his former club 
has been strained, was in the locker 
room to congratulate players afterward. 
“It was beautiful." said Howe, a mem- 
ber of the Red Wings' last Cup-winning 
team in 1955. “It's been too long." 

It was Scotty Bowman’s seventh 
championship as a coach and his first 
with Detroit. He is the first coach to win 
the Stanley Cup with three different 
clubs — five with Monrreal from 1973 
to 1979 and one wiih Pittsburgh in 1992. 
After the game. Bowman laced on 
skates and made a victory’ lap wiih the 
trophy over his head. 

"I always wanted to be a player in the 
NHL and skate with the Cup." said 
Bowman, who never played in the 
league. Bowman's contract 
with Detroit is finished, al- 
though he has an option to 
work nexr season as a front- 
office consultant. His name 
has been heard in discussions 
about openings for coach and 
general manager with other 

Asked whether he would 
return to try to tie Toe Blake 
as the only NHL coach with 
eight Stanley Cup rings. Bow- 
man replied with an answer to 
a slightly different question. 

"No, 1 wouldn't tie Toe 
Blake because he coached 13 
years and he won eight 
cups." said Bowman, who 
first coached in the NHL in 
the 1967-68 season with the 
Si. Louis Blues. 

“Detroit played great." 
said the Flyers’ coach. Terry 
Murray. “They were poised 
and they were on a mission. 
Every one of them played 
with intensity. They deserved 
to win. They played better.” 

Detroit was able to neut- 
ralize the Flyers’ superstar. 
Lindros. and his so-called Le- 
gion of Doom line with sur- 
prising ease throughout the 
series. (NYT.WP.LAT) 

RACING Thrilling finishes in Belmont and Epsom Derby p. 1 « ICE HOCKEY Detroit sweeps Flyers in Stanley Cnpp. 1 7 

PAGE 18 


MONDAY, JUNE 9, 199? 

World Roundup 

Montgomerie Wins 
Euro Grand Prix 

golf Colin Montgomerie cap- 
tured the European Grand Prix on 
Sunday in Hexham, England, with 
a 7-under-par 65. It was his first 
victory of the year and came four 
days before the U.S. Open. 

“There will be a few players 
going to the U.S. Open next week 
with confidence, but none with 
more than me. 1 cannot wait until 
next Thursday morning,’’ Mont- 
gomerie said. 

The Scotsman finished with a 
four-round total of 18-under-par 
270, five shots ahead of the de- 
fending champion. Relief Goo sen 
of South Africa. Goosen closed 
with a 69. (AP) 

Italy Holds Brazil, 3-3 

soccer Romario scored with 
six minutes to play Sunday to give 
Brazil a 3-3 draw with Italy in 
Lyon in the Toumoi de France. 
Alessandro Del Piero gave Italy 
the lead after 7 minutes; then the 
team exchanged own goals before 
half time. Del Piero put Italy 3-1 
ahead with a 62d minute penalty, 
but the Italian defense could not 
keep out Ronaldo and Romario, 
who each scored a dazzling goal. 

The draw means England, 
which beat France 1-0 on Saturday, 
wins the tournament ( Reuters ) 

Bugs’ Sapp Busted for Bot 

football The Tampa Bay 
Buccaneers defensive tackle War- 
ren Sapp, whose draft stock 
dropped two years ago because of 
drug use allegations, has been 
charged with misdemeanor 
marijuana possession. 

Sapp's 1995 Mercedes was 
pulled over Saturday, and officers 
smelled marijuana, die police said. 
The officers searched the car and 
discovered 12.7 grams of 
marijuana under an armrest and in a 
backpack. (AP) 

Luyendyk Protest Works 

dyk. the Indianapolis 500 winner, 
was declared the winner of the 
lndy-car Texas 500K in Fort 
Worth on Sunday after his protest 
over lap scoring was uphelaby the 
Indy Racing League. 

Luyendyk claimed he was shor- 
ted a lap by league officials, and 
the race chief agreed after review- 
ing tapes and computer readouts, 
which showed the Dutchman was 
nearly a full lap ahead at the end. 
The American rookie Billy Boat 
was dropped to second, and his 
A J. Foyt Racing teammate. Dav- 
ey Hamilton, fell to third. 

Foyt scuffled with Luyendyk 
after the race when the Dutchman 
went to Boat's post-race celebra- 
tion and notified them of the 
protest. (AP) 

Germans to Face Charges 

Prosecutors plan to start filing 
charges this summer against 
former members of East Ger- 
many's sports establishment for 
giving performance boosting 
drugs to athletes. 

About 50 former East German 
coaches and team doctors are un- 
der investigation for possible 
charges of bodily injury related to 
the doping. (Reuters) 

London Beats Claymores 


London Monarchs scratched out a 
10-9 victory Sunday over the 
Scottish Claymores in the World 
League of American Football, vir- 
tually eliminating the defending 
champions from a place in the 
World Bowl next month. Tony 
Vinson's 2-yard run late in the 
first quarter was the game's only 
touchdown. (AP) 

Upsets Rule at Wild and Woolly French Open 

Gustavo Kuerten of Brazil, right, comforting Sergi Bruguera of Spain 
on Sunday after winning the final of the French Open, 6-3, 6*4, 6-2. 

Unseeded Kuerten Takes Final 
In Straight Sets Over Bruguera 

By Ian Thomsen 

International Herald Tribune 

PARIS — He replaced his ban danna 
with a baseball cap, which he pul on 
backwards, shoving all of his hair up 
underneath because he wanted to look 
his best Waiting on the impromptu stage 
on the floor of center court were Bjorn 
Borg and Guillermo Vilas, with Seigi 
Bruguera about to join them — nine 
French Open titles among them in alL 

All of them waiting for Guga. 

Guga. known officially as Gustavo 
Kuerten, a 20-year-old Brazilian, 
banged his shoes against the stair to 
knock the dust from them. To Borg, be 
bowed low with both hands raised. Borg 
held ont an invitation in both hands, a 
heavy silver bowl, and Kuerten took it in 
his arms and* kissed it like he really 
meant iL The trophy Actually blushed in 
reflection of the red clay. 

“This is the time I've been in a tour- 
nament final,'' Kuerten told the crowd 
of 16,000 after his shocking 6-3, 6-4, 6- 
2 victory Sunday in die French Open 
final against No. 16 Bruguera, the two- 
time former champion. He spoke as if 
worried that he might yet be thrown out 
of the stadium in his blue and yellow 

So ended the strangest Grand Slam 
tournament of these modem, million- 
aire times. Twenty-five hours after the 
Croat Iva Majoli won her country’s first 
Grand Slam title (although Mimi 
Jausovec. a Croat, won die French tide 
for Yugoslavia in 1977), Kuerten bad 
become not only the first Brazilian male 
(don't forget Maria Bueno) in a Grand 
Slam final but also the third unseeded 
champion in the 67-year history of the 
French tournament. 

At No. 66 in the world, a ranking that 
will be upgraded sharply into the Top 20 
this week, he was the lowest-rated fi- 
nalist at Roland Garros since 1968. 

The last South American to win a 
Grand Siam tide was Andies Gomez of 
Ecuador, who was 30 when he unex- 
pectedly conquered Roland Garros seven 
years ago. But Kuerten’s dramatic blast- 
off had more in common with the 1982 
victory of Mats WjJander, then a 17- 

year-old unseeded Swede. Neither Wil- 
ander nor Kuerten had ever won a tour- 
nament before seizing one of the biggest 
on die planet. Wilander went onto win 
six more Grand Slam tides, including 
two more french Open championships. 

The victory earned Kuerten 
3,668,000 French francs ($625.191 ), al- 
most three times as much as he has 
earned in his short career. 

“Money? I drink 1 put mine in an 
account because I just have all that I 
need right now.” he said. “I mean, my 
life is being perfect even before this 
tournament. I nave a good house, I have 
my mom’s car that I use a little bit.” 

The final began under clouds in a 
threatening wind. Afterward, Bruguera 
claimed that the weather bothered him, 
whereas the 6-foot 3-inch (1.89- meter) 
Kuerten merely pierced the wind with 
his grounds trokes and thunderous 
serves. Kuerten was thin and utterly 
flexible, and positive in every way. The. 
pressures didn’t throttle him, but instead 
Drought from him his best work of the 
tournament. For die first time he seemed 
cocky — but not arrogant, never ar- 

Bruguera’s serve was broken in the 
fifth game and again on die decisive 
point of the opening set Thereafter, the 
former champion tried to slow the 
rhythm of the match, to begin smoth- 
ering Kuerten, who was his worst- 
ranked opponent of the last five rounds. 

The best point of the match, early in 
the second set showed how hopeless It 
was for Bruguera — a baseline rally 
which Kuerten upgraded with searing 
grounds trokes ana careful volleys, only 
to find himself being lobbed back to the 
baseline to resume the point all over 
again, the crowd oohing and ahhing as if 
a unicyclist was trying to cross the sta- 
dium on a tightrope. When Kuerfen 
waved in fun after winning die point he 
had the audieoce won over, too. 

At the end of the set he refused to 
allow Bruguera to win three break 
points, then broke the Spaniard to take 
the set himself. Then Bruguera was 
broken in the sixth game of the third set, 
and teat was it for him. 

The final was Kuerten's 49th career 

match. He has won just 28 of them. But 
his last five victims included the 1993 and 
1994 French Open champion Bruguera, 
the 1995 champion and fifth-seeded 
Thomas Muster and the 1996 champion 
and third-seeded Yevgeni Kafelnikov. 
Kuerten won three matches of five sets 
each, coining from behind in each one. 
His career-best winning streak now 
stands at 11 matches, although five of 
them won’t appear in any record books. 

Tunisia, Nigeria and Morocco Reach Finals 

C7wv>Arf hr Ow Sag Firm Dupnchcs 

A goalless draw in Cairo on Sunday 
was enough to assure Tunisia of a place 
in the 1998 World Cup finals. 

Tunisia became tee third African 
country to secure a place in France. 
Nigeria and Morocco bote clinched a 
place in tee finals with victories Sat- 
urday. Apart from France, tee host, and 
Brazil, the defending champion, they 

are rhe first three definite entries. 

Tunisia played defensively 
throughout and allowed Egypt only one 
shot at goal. 

In African Group 3, South Africa 
scored twice in the first 16 minutes 
against Zambia to move a step closer to 
its first World Cup finals. The African 
champion beat Zambia 3-0 and needs to 
beat Congo in its final qualifier at home 

next month to ensure a place in 

In Group 4, Cameroon drew I-I in 
Angola and leads the group, with An- 
gola second. Cameroon can qualify for 
the World Cup with a victory Aug. 17 at 
Zimbabwe. On Saturday, Nigeria 

World Cap Soccik 

clinched its World Cup spot ' 
Kenya 3-0 in Lagos. The 

Eyal Bercovitz of Israel, left, attempting to tackle Alexei Kosolapov of 
Russia in a World Cup qualifying match on Sunday. Russia won, 2-0 

[when it beat 
victory en- 
sured that, with one game to play, Ni- 
geria will win Group 1. 

In Casablanca, Kbalid Raghib, a 61st 
minute substitute, scored to give Mo- 
rocco tee victory ovei Ghana and with it 
a place in the World Cup finals. 

Europe In European Group 1. Den- 
mark beat Bosnia 2-0 in Copenhagen to 
pull clear of Greece, which did not play. 
Mark Rieper and Miklos Molnar scored 
Denmark’s goals. and Peter 
SchmeicheL, tee Danish goalkeeper, re- 
peatedly thwarted the Bosnian attack. 

In Group 4, tee top three teams all 
won. Gary McAllister scored Scot- 
land's winning goal with a penalty in tee 
50th minute against Belarus in Minsk, 
but goalkeeper Jim Leighton was the 
hero for his injury-hit side. 

Austria scored three second-half 
goals to beat Latvia 3-1 in Riga, and 
Sweden, which led 3-0 after 73 minutes, 
survived a late surge to beat Estonia 3-2 
in Stockholm. 

In Group 5. Russia scored two im- 
pressive first-half goals and beat Israel 
2-0 in a downpour Sunday in Moscow to 
replace Israel at the top of European 
qualifying Group 5. 

They came last month when Kuerten 
returned to Brazil to play in a minor- 
league event called the Curitiba Chal- 
lenger. Having lost all but two of his 
seven matches on clay this year, Guga felt 
it necessary to restore his confidence. 

Four weeks later, Bruguera's last gasp 
was heaving in the net. With that, Kuer- 
ten bent down and touched his knees with 
his head, and opened his eyes to see his 
feet somehow touching the ground. 

Majoli Feels 
‘So Normal 9 
After Victory 

By Ian Thomsen 

International Herald Tribune 

PARIS — Her one great desire had 
turned into silver and she held it trem- 
bling in her hands. Iva Majoli was the 
French Open champion, at No. 9 the 
lowest seed to win tee trophy in the Open 
era, and she could not put it all together. 
. “I guess I can’t believe I'm a cham- 
pion because I feel so normal.’ ' she said 
after her 6-4, 6-2 upset of top-seeded 
Martina Hingis on Saturday. * ’I feel like 
nothing happened." 

The 1 9-year-old Majoli became the 
first Croatian to win one of the four 
major championships. Only one other 
woman, the unseeded Chris O’Neil at 
the 1978 Australian Open, had ever won 
a Grand Slam title in the Open era 
against longer odds. 

Four rounds earlier, Majoli had 
somehow overcome a deficit of 4-6, 0-4. 
and 15-40 against Lindsay Davenport of 
tee United States. For the last three days 
she had been on antibiotics, fighting a 
bad cold that had peaked during her 
semifinal victory over Amanda Coetzer 
of South Africa- 

But Majoli ’s culminating victory was 
not one of tee great upsets of all time. 
True, Hingis carried a 37-match win- 
ning streak into the final, but the 16- 
year-old Hingis has ascended to tee top 
this year with great help from injuries to 
Steffi Graf and Monica Seles. Hingis 
may have been feted like a queen, but 
she is still a princess, and the tour needs 
to present her with a punishing rivalry 
before convincing the public that the old 
stars have truly been replaced. 

With each early game, Majoli seemed 
to throw a little bit more at Hingis. In the 
fifth game, Hingis had to stave off six 
break points before holding serve. She 
bled two games later, dot 

Bulgaria beat Luxembourg 4-0 in 
Bourgas, Bulgaria, and lies third in the 
group, close behind tee leaders, and has 
more games to play. 

In Group 7. Belgium beat San Marino 
6-0 in Brussels with two goals from 18- 
year-old Emile Mpenza. The victory put 
Belgium level with the Dutch at tee top 
of the group, but Belgium, which led 5- 
0 at half nme, squandered tee oppor- 
tunity to improve its inferior goal dif- 

In Group 8, Macedonia beat Iceland 
1-0 in Skopje on Saturday to overtake 
Ireland and move into second place in 
the group. Macedonia’s victory is un- 
likely to catch tee leader, Romania, but 
second place would earn it at least a 
playoff for a trip to Fiance. 

In Group 9. Ukraine and Germany 
drew 0-0 in Kiev. Dynamo Kiev striker 
Serhiy Rebrov had tee best chance for 
the home team just before halftime, but 
his powerful low shot from just inside 
tee (penalty area bit tee goalpost 
Germany rarely threatened tee 
Ukraine goal. Ukraine is two points 
ahead of Germany, but the Germans 
have played two fewer games. 

In Oporto, Portugal beat Albania 2-0 
to draw level with Germany on points. 

south America Ecuador and Chile 
drew l-l Sunday in Quito in the South 
American group. Ariel Graziani gave the 
home team the lead just before half time, 
and Marcelo Salas equalized for Chile in 
the 53d minute. Bote teams started tee 
day in a group of five teams separated by 
just one point contesting tee fourth place 
in the group. The top four will go to 
France. (Reuters, AP, AFP) 

crumbled two games later, double-fault- 
ing in deuce and losing serve. 

In the two sets, Hingis never 
threatened Majoli with a break point, 
never even took her serve to deuce. 
Majoli scattered Hingis with her power 
and accuracy — a victory for all of the 
bigger, older victims who have been 
frustrated in the last year by Hingis. 

For sure, Hingis was. not at her best, 
playing just six weeks after undergoing 
arthroscopic knee surgery, tee injury 
coming from a Fall off a horse. 

After falling behind mortally in the 
fifth game of tee second set, the pres- 
sures of her injury, her ranking and her 
youth seemed to tell on Hingis. 

Majoli became tee fifth teenage wom- 
an to win tee French Open, a statistic tear 
belied her reputation as a late-bloomed 
When she was Hingis's age, Majoli was 
a veteran of the Nick Bollettieri tennis 
academy in Florida, having moved there 
with her family when she was 1Z She 
was supposed to become the next Mon- 
ica Seles, ft remains to be seen whether 
Majoli’s patient route to tee top will be IQ 
her advantage in tee coming years 
against Hingis. 

“I think Martina at 16 is like a grown- 
up,” Majoli said of her friend. 4 T think 
with me at 16, 1 was more like 13. For 
myself it’s better that it' didn't come 
before. I felt I wasn’t ready for anything 
too big at tee age of 16 or 17 . 1 had a 
great time those years. I played welL I 
did have fun. I went out. ] just did 
everything teat normal people do. Then 
last year I decided, OK, I feel great, I 
feel ready for something big." 

■ Fernandez a Victor in Doubles 

Gigi Fernandez of the United States 
and Natasha Zvereva of Belarus beat 
Mary Joe Fernandez and Lisa Raymond 
of tee United States, 6-2, 6-3. to win 
their fifth French Open women's 
doubles title Sunday. The Associated 

In Saturday’s mixed doubles, Ray- 
mond and Patrick Galbraith lost to Rika 
Hiraki of Japan and Mahesh Bhupathi of 
India. 64, 6-1. 

Yevgeni Kafelnikov and Daniel 
Vacekbeat tee world’s No. 1 pair, Todd 
Woodbridge and Mark Woodforde, 7-6 
4-6 6-3, in the men’s doubles final. 

in the springtime. 

Every country has its own AT&T Access Number which 
makes calling from France and other countries .realty 
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