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•'The World's Daily Newspaper 

Paris, Monday, May 19, 1997 

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No. 35,524 

Zairians Welcome 6 New Congo 9 

Kinshasa Cautiously Celebrates End of Mobutu Rule 

Troops of the alliance being greeted by cheering crowds during their arrival Sunday in central Kinshasa. 

By Howard W. French 

■Vgw York runes Sen, it e 

KINSHASA, Zaire — After a final 
night of wild gunfire, Zaire's victorious 
rebels took complete possession of this 
city of 5 million, transforming themselves 
in the process into the new authorities of 
Africa's third-1 argest country. 

At least 177 people were killed as 
Laurent Kabila's forces, the Alliance of 
Democratic Forces for the Liberation of 
the Congo, entered the city, first esti- 
mates from the Zairian Red Cross said. 

The whereabouts of former President 
Mobutu Sese Seko remained a mystery 
Sunday night, with no confirmation 
from his entourage that he had sought 
exile in Morocco. 

[The spokesman in Paris for Zaire's 
new rulers threatened to ‘ ‘plant bombs" 
in France if it gives shelter to Marshal 
Mobutu, Reuters reported 

[“If Mobutu comes into exile in 
France, we will start planting bombs." 
an infuriated N'Zomba Afri Ku-Nyeng 

said after French police prevented him 
and his supporters from taking over the 
Zairian Embassy in Paris.] 

With heavy overnight pillaging 
spreading into the morning hours, the 
change seemed slow and gradual at first, 
but by the end of the day, when the last 
elements of Marshal Mobutu’s army 
had surrendered, the city bad seemingly 
become an entirely new place. 

The transformation was clear in the 
exuberance of ordinary Kinshasans. 
who said they were now living free after 
nearly 32 years of dictatorship, but also 
in the unaccustomed discipline and or- 
der that the new authorities — thou- 
sands of men who have marched nearly 
the breadth of this continent in seven 
months — have already brought. 

“We have suffered for 32 years, and 
that is a whole life for many people in 
our land.” said Donatien Bwana. “We 
have to wait and see what the new 
government will bring, but from what I 
can see in these soldiers, they are Con- 
golese, not Zairians, and that means that 

they, and we, are proud." 

[South Africa has recognized Mr. 
Kabila as president. Deputy President 
Thabo Mbeki said Sunday, Agence 
France- Pres se reported.] 

In one of bis first acts upon seizing 
power, Mr. Kabila proclaimed a change 
in the name of this country, removing 
Marshal Mobutu's creation, Zaire, and 
replacing it with the Democratic Re- 
public of the Congo. 

In the streets of Kinshasa, residents 
seemed more than' anything eager to 
discover who their so-called liberators 

See ZAIRE. Page 11 

A Staggering Feat 

Western military leaders are 
eager to meet Mr. Kabila, whose 
feat they regard as staggering. And 
in Switzerland, banks have frozen 
Marshal Mobutu's assets. Page 11. 

U.S. Economic Success Sends Out Political Ripples Around the Globe 

By Roger Cohen 

Nn- York Times Service 

PARIS — Tony and Cherie Blair abandoned 
their official car for a “Westminster walk- 
about” on their way to the opening of Par- 
liament last week, and The London Times ap- 
provingly noted the American inspiration of 
such politics, especially the way Mrs. Blair's 
scarf fell, like Hillary Clinton's, “with a length 
hanging down from the left shoulder." 

Not to be outdone by the new British prime 
minister. President Jacques Chirac of franoe 
last week took a leaf from the Clinton political 

manual by departing for China with 55 leading 
French industrialists on a sell- France mission 
that has danced lightly over human-rights is- 
sues. With a parliamentary election just a week 
away. Mr. Chirac was betting that the president- 
as-global-salesman (as opposed to exalted 
statesman) is now a winning image even in 

Whether it is sartorial style or commercial 
substance, the impact of America's sustained 
economic vibrancy, and die “whatever works" 
president identifiol with it, is now widely felt. 
From Canada through Europe to Japan, big 
government is out of fashion. The political left 

is lurching toward the center. And growth has 
assumed the status of a fully fledged political 
ideology, the foundation of electoral success. 

The first thing Mr. Blair did was to grant 
control of monetary policy to the independent 
Bank of England, an extraordinary step for the 


leader of the British left, and one of die first 
things he made clear was that “high and stable 
levels of economic growth" wonld be a pri- 
ority. Hie moves echoed Mr. Clinton's message 
on taking office in 1993 dud he wonld not 

interfere with the Federal Reserve or be a big 

A huge political shift is under way. It may be 
radical, as in Britain, faltering, as in France and 
Germany, or tinged, as in Canada, with dread of 
American economic Darwinism. But the sheer 
durability and extent of America's economic 
expansion — a soaring Wall Street, inflation at 
3 percent, joblessness under 5 percent and only 
a brief blip in upward growth since 1 982 — has 
imparted what seems to be the single strongest 
political message of the post-Cold War de- 

That message is: The areas where the state 

does things better than the market are extremely 
limited; fiscal discipline can be combined with 
strong growth and high employment if the right 
conditions for entrepreneurship are created, and 
successful politics in the absence of ideological 
enemies or pressing security threats amounts to 
the pragmatism of learning these lessons com- 
bined with sharp marketing — exemplified by 
the Blairs' stroll and that billowing scarf. 

Dissension remains. The best balance be- 
tween state and market is still widely discussed, 
a debate that reflects die differing cultural tra- 

See RIPPLES, Page 5 

Arrest of President’s Son 
Captivates South Korea 

By Mary Jordan 

Washington Post Service 

TOKYO — Prosecutors in Seoul ar- 
rested a son of President Kim Young 
Sam over the weekend on bribery ana 
tax evasion charges, in a sensational 
scandal that has captivated the country 
and will most likely affect the pres- 
idential election. 

On Sunday, the scandal continued to 
grow as prosecutors sought to anrest a 
former intelligence chief linked to the 

Mr. Kim’s son, Kira Hyun Chul, 37, 
was accused of taking $3.6 million in 
bribes from businessmen seeking favors 
from his father. He also was charged 
with accepting an additional $3.7 mil- 
lion in cash donations from business- 
men and laundering the money to avoid 
flying $1 -5 million in taxes. 

prosecutors said the younger Mr. Kim 
maintained more than 100 bank accounts 
where he tried to hide money given to 

him by businessmen seeking govern- 
ment contracts or licenses. Mr, Kim has 
admitted taking some of the money, but 
he has denied that it was bribes. 

Prosecutors also were seeking to ar- 

rest the former deputy head of the 
Agency for National Security Planning, 
Knu Ki Sup, who was a close associate 
of President Kim's son. A prosecution 
official said Kira Ki Sup would be 
charged with taking about $170,000 in 
kickbacks from the same businessman 
that the president's son was accused of 
capping for a bribe. 

The president, who has made fighting 
corruption a cornerstone of his admin- 
istration, has not been accused of wrong- 
doing. But analysts said the scandal 
swirling around his son has paralyzed 
his presidency and diminished bis in- 
fluence in selecting a candidate to suc- 
ceed him in die December election. Kira 
Young Sam was elected in 1992 and is 
limited by law to one five-year term. 

Most analysts in Seoul agreed that the 
elder Mr. Kim, who has been buffeted 
by repeared scandals involving close 
aides and now his son, has become a 
virtual caretaker president with more 
than six months left in his term. 

Seeking to minimize the damage 
from his son’s arrest, the president is- 
sued a formal apology for the “severe 
shock and disappointment" that the ar- 
rest has caused the nation. He is ex- 

Election Rivals Clash in Jakarta Streets 

3 Main Parties Cancel Mass Rallies After a Weekend of Violence 

Ahn Yams tanYIV Anorfaml ftta 

Kim Hyun Chul, 37, who is ac- 
cused of taking millions in bribes. 

pected to address the nation next week 
to apologize further and possibly offer 
new fiscal reforms to guard against cor- 

The paralysis in the final months of 
Mr. Kim’s presidency also puts him in a 
far weaker position to deal with North 
Korea at a time when the South and the 
United States are working hard to bring 
the Noith to the negotiating table to 
discuss peace. Many believe that genu- 
ine improvements in North-South re- 
lations, which the United States regards 

See KOREA, Page 4 


JAKARTA — Supporters of Indone- 
sia’s ruling Golkar Party and a rival 
Muslim-oriented party clashed in sev- 
eral areas of Jakarta on Sunday as a 
second day of campaign violence ahead 
of May 29 elections hit the capital. 

The city's police chief. Major Gen- 
eral Hamami Nata. said the situation 
was under control, but tension ran high 
across a southern swathe of the city. 

Late Supday, the heads of the three 
political parties in the Jakarta area is- 
sued a statement canceling mass out- 
door rallies in the city for the remainder 

of the campaign. They said that until the 
end of the campaign period on Friday, 
meetings would be confined to neigh- 
borbood “dialogues” to avoid further 
violence and property damage. 

But an official of the Muslim-ori- 
ented United Development Party said 
this did not necessarily mean people 
would not take to the streets again in 
illegal parades. 

Growing numbers of fights among 
rival activists had been reported in re- 
cent days as die country's three of- 
ficially recognized political parties 
geared up for the final week of cam- 

paigning. Electioneering ends Friday, 
when a five-day cooling off period will 
be declared ahead of the ballot. 

On Sunday, backers of Golkar, the 
ruling party Tor the last 30 years, and the 
LTnited Development Party hurled 
stones and other missiles at each other in 
at least five areas of the capital. 

Witnesses said riot police and troops 
were deployed in the city's southern 
Kebayoran Lama and Cipulir areas, in 
Otisea and Cawang in the east and in the 
central Proklamasi district to quell vi- 

See INDONESIA, Page 4 

In Bosnia? ‘Only the Absence of War 9 

The Peace Bureaucracy Fails to Resolve Old and Deep Hatreds 

By Chris Hedges 

Sine York limes Service 

BRCKO, Bosnia-Herzegovina — 
Robert Farrand, the U.S. diplomat who 
is this town’s international supervisor 
under the Balkan peace accord, sat in 
his new office overlooking the Sava 
River recently talking about peace, 
brotherly love and tolerance. 

Down the street, at an outdoor rally 
to celebrate the Serbian Orthodox 
■jon saint of the town, Bosnian Serb 
leaders issued calls for vengeance, war 
and annihilation. 

The civilian administrators who ar- 
rived in Bosnia after the signing of the 
Dayton peace agreement in December 
1995 were supposed to cajole local 
communities into rebuilding a mul- 
tiethnic society obliterated by war. 

But the starkly different visions 
proffered by Mr. Fanand and the Bos- 
nian Serb leadership highlighted what 

many now see as the failure of the 
international diplomats to move the 
Bosnian Serbs, Croats and Muslims 
forward. And scenes like the outdoor 
rally have left NATO commanders, 
who successfully established a cease- 
fire and now patrol boundary lines 
with some 30,000 troops, in despair. 

“It would be a mistake to say there is 
pepr& in Bosnia,” said a top NATO 
commander, who spoke on condition of 
anonymity. “We have only the absence 
of war. We gave the civilian officials the 
time and space to carry out the Dayton 
agre ement, but they failed. Nothing has 
biyn accomplished. The moment we 
pack up and leave next year the war 
could well start all over again.' ' 

Mr. Farrand, a 31 -year veteran of 
the State Department who was ap- 
pointed to administer the disputed 
town of Brcko this year, is typical of 
the small army of diplomats, bureau- 
crats and aid workers who descended 

on Bosnia with lofty goals but little 
idea of how to carry them oul 
M r. Farrand was appointed by the 
chief international civ ilian administrat- 
or for Bosnia, Caii BDdt of Sweden, to 
supervise Brcko until its fate is decided 
by international arbitrators sometime 
before next March. 

But he has no money to carry out 
reconstruction programs. He cannot 
force the Serbs to accept the return of 
the 20.000 Muslims driven from the 
town at the start of the war. 

When a senior member of Mr. Far- 
rand's staff was asked what tools were 
available to the office to push through 
the demands of the Dayton accord, he 
answered, “Our wit.” 

Many civilian administrators, while 
acknowledging their failures, say die 
refusal by NATO leaders to anest 
people indicted on charges of war 

See BOSNIA, Page 11 

kmul JuTiU \pw KrvwlW 

Riot police fonning a barricade Sunday to block political demonstrators from entering a Jakarta neighborhood. 


2 Directors Share Cannes’s Top Prize 

CnnpSrd Oar Staff pmai Dapachrt 

CANNES — Abbas Kiarostami, the 
Iranian director of “The Taste of the 
Cherry," and Shohei Imamura, the 
Japanese director of “The Eel," won a 
joint Golden Palm award Sunday for 
best film at Cannes’s 50th festival. 

Sean Penn was voted best actor for 
“She’s So Lovely," directed by Nick 
Cassavetes, and Kathy Burke was 
named best actress for “Nil by 
Mouth,” directed by Gary Oldman. 

The award for best director went to 
Wong Kar-Wai of Hong Kong for 
“Happy Together.” Youssef Chahine 
of Egypt was given a special prize for 
his film “A1 Massir" (“The Des- 
tiny”). The Golden Camera award for 
a first-time director went to Naomi 
Kawase of Japan for “Moe No Su- 
zaku." Other awards went to James 
Schamus for “The Ice Storm" screen- 
play. and Tessa Sheridan for the best 
short film. (Reuters, AP) 

EUROPE Pages. 

Turkey Vows to Crush Kurd Rebels 



Page 8- 



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Sponsomd Section Pages IB-21. 

International Business Education 

The Intermarket 

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What Runs the Store, Doesn’t Talk, and Won’t Smash Your Sushi? 

By Kevin SulIivaxT 

Washington Post Service 

TOKYO— It’s 3 AM. and you’ve got a hanker- 
ins for a bag of dried .squid and a Coke — and 
maybe the new CD by TheYeHowMonkeytorock 
you to sleep. But you re tired, and you don t feel 
like making small talk with some grumpy 
overnight clerk in a convenience store. 

It's time for RoboShop. 

Super RoboShop 24. which opened Iasi month in 
a busy 6 centra! neighborhood, is Tokyo s — and 

probably the world's — first convenience store run 
entirely by remote-controlled robots, with no 
clerks or other humans present. 

Customers browse the long display cases of 
food, drinks, cosmetics, magazines and household 
goods, writing down their product number on an 
order card. The customer then punches those num- 
bers into a keyboard similar to an ATM. drops the 
total due into the coin slot and waits as "Robo” 
goes to work. 

Robo. a sort of mechanized bucket, whizzes 
along behind the display case glass and stops in 

front of each item, which is then dropped in, 
vending-machine style. Robo knows to choose the 
biggest items first, so a big bottle of aftershave or a 
Cuisinait doesn’t squish a platter of fresh sushi. In 
a few seconds, Robo has zipped over and back and 
up and down and collected a baskerfui of goods, 
which it then dumps through a small trap door to 
the waiting customer. 

People around the world are still trying to figure 

mans obsolete in the mundane daily task of buyine 
bread and milk. 6 

In Japan, the idea has many boosters. 

“I find this interesting and fun, and I think 
everybody else will, too.” said Kokoro Miyata, 19. 
who studies accounting at a junior college in the 
neighborhood. Miss Miyata, who stopped in to buy 

h£fSL£ R&p°4gu e |am denB “ hiS SCh °° l 

Americans will soon get a chance to register 

See ROBOTS, Page 4 


PAGE mo 

U.S. Dilemma / Should It Be Tolerated? 

Soldiers on Adultery: 
‘Just Don’t Get Caught ’ 

By Ian Fisher 

New York lanes Service 

IUDAD JUAREZ, Mexico — The 

big man with brush-bristle hair — the 


R telltale trait of a soldier — seemed 
neither ashamed nor especially proud 
of himself as he emerged from a private room 
of the Casa Colorada here. 

He is married. But he just spent $40 for five 
minutes of sex with a woman in this brothel 
across the border from El Paso, Texas, dec- 
orated in red, from the walls to die lamps to the 
felt of the pool table where two unhired pros- 
titutes shot a quiet game. 

“It shouldn’t be,” said the soldier, who is 33 
and stationed away from his family at the Fort 
BUss army base in 0 Paso. “But everyone is 
human. It's going to happen.” 

The soldier summed up succinctly the con- 
fusion in the military over the issue of adultery, 
which has emerged as the latest question of 
sexual misconduct to snarl the armed forces. 

On one hand, the U.S. military decided long 
ago that adultery was a threat to discipline, and 
the act is illegal under military law, punishable 
by reprimand, dismissal and, in rare cases, 

But it is common and commonly over- 
looked, even if it is not nearly as overt as it was 
just a few decades ago. With people away from 
their families for long stretches of time, adul- 
tery has been often tolerated. 

For years, boxes of condoms were left on the 
quarterdecks for sailors, single or not, going 
ashore. Soldiers long maintained live-in girl- 
friends abroad in places such as South Korea. 
To this day. houses of prostitution flourish 
around foreign bases and ports of call, and it is 
no secret that many of the military customers 
are married. 

The offense of adultery also encompasses a 
vast range of encounters that are routine to 
civilian life, from a one-night stand with a co- 
worker to a long-term relationship outside of a 
troubled marriage. 

So. regardless of the circumstances, an in- 
formal working rule on adultery has de- 
veloped. implied in military law and expressed 
in interviews with service members in HI Paso 
and Juarez: Do what you want, but don’t do it 
blatantly and don’t get caught. 

“They are really not concerned about it 
unless something happens,”, said a married, 
29-year-old specialist from Brooklyn. New 
York, on a recent night on the town in Juarez. 

“If nothing happens.” he added, m eanin g 
that an affair remains discreet, “they don’t 
give a heck.” 

It is a standard with a shifting bottom line. 
Analysts and critics of the military say that is 

what has brought .the armed forces to 
its current struggle over adultery 
after years of public battles with 
other sexual conduct, from homo- 
sexual behavior to sexual harass- 
ment and rape. 

In a high-profile case that has 
embarrassed the air force. First Lieu- 
tenant Kelly FI inn. a single woman 
and the first female pilot of a B-S2 
bomber, was scheduled to be court- 
martialed Tuesday for affairs she 
bad with a married man and an en- 
listed soldier. Last week, die army's 
top enlisted soldier. Sergeant Major 
Gene McKinney, was charged with 
adultery among other offenses re- 
lating to allegations that he sexually 
harassed four servicewomen. 

And. casting a tragic shadow over the debate 
is the case of Lieutenant Colonel Karen Tew of 
the air force who committed suicide in March 
after pleading guilty to having an affair with an 
enlisted man. At 41, a year shy of retirement, 
she bad been dismissed from the service. 

For the military, the issue of adultery is 
spelled out plainly as Article 134 of the Uni- 
form Code of Military Justice: There are three 
elements to the crime, two of which seem 
perfectly clean a soldier had sex and one of die 
parties was married to someone else. 

The third element is more subjective: that 
the conduct harmed “good enter and dis- 
cipline” and was “of a nature to bring dis- 
credit upon the armed forces. ” That condition, 
according to a Pentagon legal official, is a 

gathering outside a 
i tdub in Ciudad 

Juarez , 
where some soldiers look 
for sex. In the UJS. military, 
adultery is common, and 
commonly overlooked, even' 
if not nearly as overt as it .j 
ivas just a few decades ago.' 

At Fort Bliss, officials acknowl- - 
edged reprimanding soldiers fra- " 
adultery. But they said they were 
una ware of any cases stemming 

from visits to brothels in Juarez, ' 
although soldiers and the prostitutes 
themselves said it was common 

At one brothel, die Pink Lady, a " 
prostitute named Cristal estimated 

Jja UHnm/Tlir V» T«i TWi 

crucial part of the law, even though be ac- 
knowledged that it creates the impression that 
prosecution is selective. 

T’S dangerous.” said the official, who 
on the condition of anonymity. 
r ou always leave yourself open to the 
.kind of criticism the services are getting: 
Well, you treated this person differently from 
that person. The problem is all those cir- 
cumstances that feed into individual judgment 
don’t always get played out in the media or 
anecdotal accounts.” 

For example, the military has a strong in- 
terest in disciplining cases of adultery within a 
company because its cohesion is considered 
critical to life and death. It is also concerned 

with disciplining officers or ranking enlisted 
soldiers who must command the respect of the 

rials ss 

troops. In general, militar y officials say, an 
adultery case has proceeded only when it in- 
volved “egregious” conduct and was spe- 
cifically brought to a commander’s attention, 
often by a wronged spouse. 

But the standard — which seeks not to pry 
too deeply into soldiers' private lives — can 
create awkward imbalances if an act of adul- 
tery is not considered a danger to morale: An 
encounter with a prostitute may be less likely 
to be prosecuted, though it is illegal in the 
United States, than a case like one involving 
First Lieutenant Flinn. the bomber pilot, who 
said she considered her boyfriend her first 
serious romantic relationship. 

Air Force Pilot Facing Court-Martial Seeks to Resign 

The Associated Press 

MINOT, North Dakota — The nation's first 
female B-52 pilot will ask to resign with an 
honorable discharge rather than face a court- 
martial on charges of adultery, her lawyer 

First Lieutenant Kelly Flinn, 26 and single., 
was scheduled to be court-martialed Tuesday 
at Minot Air Force Base on charges of adultery 
and fraternization in connection with two af- 
fairs the air force says she had over the past 

One was with an enlisted man who is single, 
the other with a married civilian. She also is 
charged with lying to investigators and dis- 
obeying an order to stay away from the married 

Lieutenant FI inn's lawyer. Frank Spinner, 
said Saturday that the decision to resign was 

difficult for die plot “She is a human being 
and she has feelings.” he said. “She sees her 
dreams coming to an end. She is not smiling. 
happy. But she's at peace with herself.” 

On Saturday. Colonel Dermis Kansala 
denied Lieutenant F linn 's request that the 
court-martial be delayed until June 2. She may 
seek a continuance. 

Mr. Spinner said he would submit Lieu- 
tenant FUnn's request to resign with an hon- 
orable discharge early next week. It must pass 
through several chains of command before it 
reaches the air force secretary, Sheila Wid- 

A senior air force official in Washington 
said it was “very, very rare” for an honorable 
discharge to be granted in lieu of a court- 

Lieutenant Flinn faces dismissal and up to 

916 years in prison if found guilty in a court- 

She was a rising star inthe air force, featured 
in a promotional film and chosen to fly with 
Ms. Widnall when the secretary visited the 
Minot base. 

Lieutenant Flinn has said in interviews that 
Marc Zigo, the married man she was involved 
with, lied when he told her he was legally 
separated from his wife and had filed for 

She has also said she initially lied to the air 
force about her affair, fearing an admiss ion 
would destroy her career. 

The air force has come under a barrage of 
criticism in connection with the case. It has said 
that Lieutenant Flinn. by lying and violating 
the military code, breached the trust necessary 
between commanders and subordinates. 

♦hat half the American soldiers she 
saw were married. 

Some experts on the military say *•' 
such vaganes make the point that ,r - 
the chain of command has no busi- 
ness in prosecuting an affair of the *' 
heart as a crime, when the civilian 
legal system declared it off limits long ago. 

“We are talking here about, at best, what^ 
could be called lifestyle offenses,” said Tod# 
Ensign, director of Citizen Soldier, a veterans' { 
rights group. “In 1997, if someone no longer > 
wants to honor their marital vows, I don’t think 
the criminal justice system has any place in 


RITICS cite other inconsistencies. 
The willingness to pursue charges 
varies depending on the commander ~ . 

as well as the branch of the service. J 

The air force takes a much tougher line than the 
army, which experts said was harder than the * 
navy or the Marines. 

Lawrence Korb, a senior fellow at the 
Brookings Institution, said the rule on adultery 
could also be used selectively against any 
service member who becomes too much trou- 
ble, and an affair is among die problems. 

Soldiers themselves seem tom. Nearly ".; 
every soldier interviewed during a week in - 
Juarez and El Paso — whether in brothels or ~ 
nightclubs or walking their dogs with their 
wives — said adultery was illegal in the mil- J 
itary for good reason: Soldiers need discipline “ ’ 
and should be held to a higher standard than - 
society. V| 

• ‘When you are deployed you are not doing - 
a lot. whether you are on a ship or in the 
desert.” said Major Paul Gay an, 34, a married fj . 
Marine. “But one of the things you do do is 
think about home.” 

But many soldiers said they wondered if the 
punishment was at times bio harsh, especially r i 
in a case like that of Lieutenant Flinn. A -j 
married staff sergeant in the air force. Antonio 
Cabrera, said. “The guys do it. then she does it 
and gets in trouble.” 

But he said that adultery still had no place in 
the military. 

Jetliner Is Blown Apart in Test to Counter Terroris] 

By Matthew L. Wald 

New York Times Service 

With a flash and a boom that sent the 

back half of a jumbo jet leaping into the 
air on this old air base north of London, 

British and American military experts 
setoff four bombs inside the cargo holds 
of an old Boeing 747. They were testing 
new hardening techniques that Amer- 
ican security officials say are the best 
hope for protecting planes against 

Huge damage had been predicted be- 
cause one of the luggage containers had 
no protective hardening, so damage in 

reinforced and unprotected areas could 
be compared. 

The results were dramatic, as a sec- 
tion behind the wings of the retired Air 
France plane separated as if sliced by a 
guillotine. Spectators gasped at the 

Video and film cameras, pressure 
meters, microphones and other sensors 
captured the event in what engineers 
hope is excruciating detail. 

It will take technicians months to 
analyze the results. A major part of the 
analysis will be to determine which 
bomb created which effects. Exterior 
sections of the plane outside the forward 
cargo hold appeared to have survived 

intact, but pari of the upper section of 

the plane was opened up by the blasts. 

of the tests is to develop 

The object 
baggage containers or liners for the 
cargo area that will allow a plane to 
survive a bombing without a break in its 
skin. In flight, such a break can tear a 
plane apart Plans for the exercise began 
shortly after the destruction of Pan 
American Flight 103 over Lockerbie. 
Scotland, in 1988. 

Security experts were confident that 
the tests would teach them a great deal, 
regardless of the level of damage. 

“This lest is going to be successful no 
matter what happens," said Paul Polski, 
director of die Office of Aviation Se- 



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curity Research and Development at the 
Federal Aviation Administration, 
shortly before the charges were det- 

The plane sacrificed Saturday was 
built in 1971. hi 1994, it was brought to 
this airfield, 90 miles (145 kilometers) 
from London, which was an important 
base for American bombers at the height 
of the Cold War. The 747 had been 
stripped of its engines and most other 
valuable parts, but the cabin still held 
pressure well, test officials said. 

The American aviation agency tested 
a baggage container hardened with a 
substance called Spectra, which re- 
sembles Kevlar, the material in bul- 
letproof vests. 

British officials tested a liner 
hardened with a similar material be- 
tween the container and the fuselage.- 

Air Controllers Sweat Out Breakdown 

The Associated Press 

CLEVELAND — A one-hour long 
communications system failure left 
more than 180 aircraft over six states 
with little contact with air-traffic con- 
trollers, controllers said. 

“We were really sweating it out, 
watching weak images of the planes 
flying overhead, trying to calculate if 
any were on converging flight paths,” 
said Tim MacDonald, the safety of- 
ficer with the National Air Route 
Traffic Controllers Association. 

About 80 flights leaving airports in 
Cleveland. Pittsburgh and Detroit also 
were delayed for an hour, said Tanya 
Wagner, a Federal Aviation Admin- 
istration spokeswoman. 

She said flights had been delayed or 
rerouted at airports in Michigan, 

Pennsylvania, Indiana, New York and 
West Virginia. She did not know the - 
number of aircraft affected. 

“We lost some of the frequencies - 
available to us. but we still had enough" 
to reach the pilots and reroute the 
planes,” she said. ’ 

Investigators were trying to deter- ' 
mine the cause of the problem. 

“They are looking at a possible 1 
MCI equipment problem.’ ’ she said. - 
Pat Fancy, the union’s president, ■ 
blamed most of the problem on a 
power failure and said a backup sup- 
ply system installed by MCI Corp. had ' 
partly failed. 

Technicians were able to restore the J 
system after about an hour by byj: 
passing the failed system. Ms. Wag-*-*] 
ner said. 

French Rail Is Disrupted Beijing-Hong Kong Line 

PARIS (AFP) — A railroad conductors' 
strike continued to disrupt rail services 
Sunday, but the state-owned railroad, SNCF, 
said trains would soon be running on schedule 
after many strikers returned to work. 

SNCF said Eurostar services, hit by the 
strike for the first time Saturday, would be 
normal throughout Sunday as would TGV 
high-speed trains running between Paris and 
Geneva, and Paris and Rennes. It said (hat two 
out of three trains would run across most of 
the country Sunday and that il would try to 
ensure good service for those returning from a 
long holiday weekend Monday and Tuesday. 
Unions were less optimistic, saying many 
inspectors were refusing to return to work. 

BELTING (Reuters) — China started direct 
train service Sunday between Beijing and 
Hong Kong as part of its bid to bolster ties 
with the territory. 

Deputy Prime Minister Wu Bangguo in- 
augurated the service by cutting a symbolic 
red ribbon and saying the new link, some 
2.350 kilometers ( 1 .400 miles) long and built 
over three years at a cost of nearly $5 billion, 
would contribute to Hong Kong's prosperity. 



Forecast for Tuesday through Thursday, as provided by AccuWeather. Asia 

Sabena Airlines, the Belgian carrier, re- 
sumed flights Sunday to Beirut after a 1 2-year 
stoppage during Lebanon’s civil war. There 
will be three Brussels-Beirut flights a week. 


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This Week’s Holidays 

Banking and government offices will be 
closed or .services curtailed in the following 
countries and their dependencies this week 
because of national and religious holidays: 

MONDAY : Andorra. Aicana. Bahamas. Barbados. 
Belgium. Benin. Canada. Central African Republic. Conga. 
Denmark.. France. Gabon. Germany. Grenada. Hungary. Ice- 
land. Ivory Cinit Lrectncnxlcin. Luxembourg. Madagascar, 
Monaco. Netherlands. New Caledonia. Norway. Senegal. 
Sweden. Switzerland. Tnhiir. Togo. Turkey. 

TUESDAY: Cameroon. Thailand. 
WEDNESDAY: Burma. Chile. Malaysia. Singa- 
pore. Sri lanka. 

THVRSDA ) : Indncua. &’n Lanka, Yemen. 
FRIDAY: Jamaica. Monxxo. 

SATU RDAY : Belize. Bermuda. Bulgaria. Ecuador . 
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North America 

Tho Pacific Northwest will 
cool off mb we* as cooler 
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continue lo be hot with 
widrty separated attomoon 
and evening thunder- 
storms. Fast-moving 
weather systems 1*4 bong 
showers and thunder- 
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eastward to Now England 


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w® have a ample at shewn 
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stay mild. Biou^i showers 
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a heel ihe region Wednes- 
day and Thursday. Turning 
warmer in Madrid. 


Cool, unsettled weather 
will grip much of Japan, 
including Tokyo, through 
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mdutSng Seoul. wKl see a 
moderating trend, though n 
may shower each day. 
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.Clinton Challenges Researchers to ‘Triumph 5 Over AIDS Within 10 Years 

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,| BALTIMORE — P re ,i d em 
Bill Clinton challenged AmeS 
(csearcbers Sunday to find a vac- 
cme id the next decade that would 

fid the world of AIDS, "it cannot 

come a day too soon," he said. 

; -Speaking to graduates at Mor- 
gan State Umwreity, Mr. Clinton 
said the United State? was em- 
j>adang in the next 50 years on 
■ the age of biology," in which 
file nation would be responsible 
for ensuring that its science was 
used for the common good 
. “Let us make an AIDS vaccine 
its first great triumph." Mr. Clin- 
fon said. “Today, let us commit 
ourselves to developing an AIDS 
{raccine within the next decade." 

, Mr. Clinton said the quest for a 

vaccine would take place at a new 
research center at the National 
Institutes of Health in Bethesda, 
Maryland, outside Washington. 

1 The president said he was con- 
fident his goal could be reached 

“if America commits to finding 
an AIDS vaccine, and we enlist 
others in our cause. ’ ’ 

“It is simply a question of 
when," he said, "And it cannot 
come a day too soon.” 

He said he plans to appeal to 
other nations to join the search for 
a vaccine when he meets next 
month with leaders of the Group 
of Seven industrialized nations in 

■ Speech Echoes Kennedy’s 

John F. Harris of The Wash- 
ington Post reported: 

In his speech. President Clinton 
intended to echo John F. 
Kennedy’s challenge in the early 
1960s to put a man on the moon 
by the end of that decade. 

Worldwide, 3 million people 
are newly infected with HTV an- 
nually, and an estimated 29 mil- 
lion people now carry the virus, 
which causes AIDS. 

While various drug combina- 

tions have proven successful in 
slowing the pace at which the 
disease sickens and ultimately 
kills its victims, only very re- 
cently have researchers made suf- 
ficient progress to make a vaccine 
within a decade at least somewhat 
plausible, expeits said Saturday. 

To reach this end, however, 
Mr. Clinton announced only some 
comparatively modest means. 
The most concrete was the cre- 
ation of the new AIDS vaccine 
research center in Bethesda. 

The new center, according to 
an administration official, would 
stan with about 30 to 50 research- 
ers drawn from existing programs 
of the National Institutes of 
Health, with the expectation that 
additional staff would be hired 
over time. 

It would concentrate on re- 
search in the early stages, the sort 
that drug companies often find 

The federal government now 

spends about $150 million an- 
nually on the search for an AIDS 
vaccine. This figure has risen by 
about one-third over the past two 
years, but Mr. Clinton did not 
announce new funding increases 

The president also urged drug 
companies to step up their efforts 
in developing an AIDS vaccine. 
Critics have said the companies 
have been slow to invest in vac- 
cine development. 

Mr. Clinton’s speech was 
broadly devoted to the possib- 
ilities and perils, created by the 
accelerating rush of science. 

He called on Congress to pass 
legislation that would make it il- 
legal for insurance companies to 
deny coverage to individuals, set 
premiums, or otherwise adversely 
affect people as a result of genetic 

Mr. Clinton signed legislation 
last year that took some steps to- 
ward limiting insurers' reliance 

on genetic testing, but adminis- 
tration officials said it left wide 
areas of possible abuse unad- 

The fear that science could be 
turned against them or their chil- 
dren by insurance companies has 
led some women to avoid genetic 
tests for hereditary disposition for 
breast cancer. 

While warning of such 
dangers, Mr. Clinton's speech 
was mostly upbear. 

He said that advances in the 
field of biology would shape the 
21st century as profoundly as the 
new understanding of physics, 
which led to the development of 
the nuclear bomb, shaped the 20th 

The president said he believed 
such advances had already put an 
AIDS vaccine within reach. 

David Baltimore, a scientist 
who won a Nobel Prize in bio- 
logy, applauded Mr. Clinton's an- 
nouncement, but warned that it 

was still unproven whether an 
AIDS vaccine was possible. 

“If we put in an all-American 
effort over the next 10 years" and 
fail, he said. "we'U have to look 
seriously at the prospect that you 
can't develop an AIDS vaccine." 

But Mr. Baltimore added that 
Mr. Clinton's goal was neverthe- 
less laudable. 

Mr. Baltimore, who heads a 
committee on AIDS vaccine re- 
search at the National Institutes of 
Health, said he was personally 

optimistic. However, he added, 
“The state of the science is very 

“The state of the science is very 

Yet there are some positive 
signs. Eric Goosby, who oversees 
ADDS policy at the Department of 
Health and Human Services, said 
some recent research had in- 

creased optimism about a pos- 
sible vaccine “for the first time in 

a longtime." 

He cited recent research show- 
ing how injecting DNA material 

from viruses can excite a response 
in the immune systems of animals 
without actually causing the dis- 

He also noted the recent dis- 
covery that macaque monkeys, 
which are especially useful in 
AIDS vaccine research, could be 

The uncertainty about how at- 
tainable an AIDS vaccine might be 
led to debate within the admin- 
istration about how specific Mr. 
Clinton should be in his address. 

Some officials were hoping he 
could set his goal of a vaccine for 
a date earlier than 10 years from 
now. Others cautioned against 
making an explicit prediction that 
a vaccine would be found. 

But even a rudimentary vac- 
cine, with a low efficacy rate and 
modest risks of causing illness, 
might prove valuable in some 
Third World countries where 
large percentages of the popu- 
lation cany HIV, experts said. 

Cuba’s Economy 
Gets Bitter News 

Castro Links Poor Sugar Harvest 
jdnd Economic Misery to Storm 

By hairy Rohter 

Nr*- York Tunes Service 

■ MIAMI — In a severe 
blow to efforts to revive the 
Cuban economy, the sugar 
harvest — the country's 
largest source of much- 
heeded foreign exchange — 

June, which meant they cut 
cane that was not ripe and 
delayed the process of clean- 
ing, preparing and sowing the 
fields. That mortgaged the 
1997 harvest." 

Mr. Castro attributed die 
decline primarily to the hur- 
ricane designated Lilly, 

will fall considerably short of which damaged several mills 
the government’s target this when it swept through the Cu- 

year. President Fidel Castro 
has acknowledged. 

■ • H .L-i 

ban countryside in October, 
and to tighter U.S. sanctions. 

"v “In my opinion the harvest which he maintained had 
VJUI not reach the same quan- made it more diffi cult for 
tity as last year," Mr. Castro Cuba to buy fertilizer, herb- 

said in remarks broadcast 
over the radio in Havana this 
month. The statement fol- 
lowed other reports in the 
State-controlled media point- 
ing to machinery, labor and 
transport problems and dif- 
ficulties in financing die har- 
vest of the all-important 


■ The shortfall that Mr. 

icides and other supplies. He 
also spoke of “subjective 
factors," without being more 

But Juan Varela, a jour- 
nalist who covers the sugar 
industry for Cuban state rar 
dio, said in a recent commen- 
tary that sugar mills were 
working at less than two- 
thirds of capacity, primarily 
because of “labor indiscip- 
line" and the breakdown of 

Miss and Miss Again: 
‘Star Wars 5 Is No Closer 

Modest Shield Is Years Away, Pentagon Says 

By Tim Weiner 

Ne w York Times Service 




LET XT RIP — Graduates of the Citadel celebrating the year’s end at commencement. 

Castro is expecting places the because of “labor incus 
Cuban economy in a vulner- line" and the breakdown 
&ble position and promises machinery. 

toiumncd hardAi? Ibr the ■ Eriks Demonstrate 
Country. S U milli on people. 

I A 36 percent rise m sugar Cuban exiles held a pea 
production last year helped fid demonstration off Cul 



Feed the Birds? Not 
If You Value Freedom 

fuel a reported economic north coast over the weekend 
growth rate of nearly 8 per- to promote a national work 
cent, the highest in Cuba stoppage on the island. Reu- 

ben t, the highest in Cuba 
since the collapse of the So- 
viet bloc in 1989 led to the 

stoppage on the island, Reu- 
ters reported. 

A dozen boats and a few 

imposition the next year of a planes gathered Satinday 
so-called special period of near Cuba’s 12-mile territori- 

■ -a nl wfiito i n ViMvt /vff Uairana 

austerity, which continues to 
this day. The Soviet Union 
gnd its allies had heavily sub- 
sidized the Cuban economy. 

: Initially, before tens of 
thousands of cane cutters 
beaded off to the fields last fall, 
Mr. Castro predicted an in- 

of nearly 20 percent 
ie harvest of 4.45 mil- 

pyfer the harvest of 4.45 mil- to Cuba in early iws. 
lion tons last year. But more . It was the latest in a series 
recently, unofficial forecasts of flotillas mounted _by 
have steadily whittled away Miami-based Cuban exiles 
that target, first estimating 4.9 ■ that have served to heighten 
million tons as the likely out- tension between the United 

al waters limit off Havana, 
where crew members held a 
prayer service and then turned 
back to Florida. The flotilla 
was far smaller than the Cu- 
ban exile group Democracy 
Movement had intended and 
the first of three planned be- 
fore Pope John Paul H's visit 
to Cuba in early 1998. 

It was the latest in a series 
of flotillas mounted by 
Miami-based Cuban exiles 

million tons as the likely out- 
put and then scaling that figure 

back to the yield of last year. 

In the 1980s Cuba harves- 
ted as much as 7.7 million 
tons of sugar. . 

. But once the Soviet Union 
could no longer provide cred- 
its and supplies on highly fa- 
vorable terms, sugar produc- 
tion nose-dived, and the 
entire economy contracted by 
more ihan a third between 
L989 and 1993- 
-Even before Mr. Castro 
spoke, Carlos Lage, the coun- 
try ’s senior economic plan- 
ner, and other officials wei ® 
forecasting a reduced growth 
njxe this year, 4 percent to 5 
percent. But that figure, dip- 
lomats in Cuba and econo- 
mists in Miami said, was 
based on a harvest that at least 
matched the one last year, and 
- die, failure to reach that goal 
ai.*ure further problems. 

1 "If this situation is not re- 
solved quickly, tire sugar sec- 
tor could become a hindrance 
to the country's process of 
economic recovery, tire 
newspaper Trabajadores, tire 
official publication of ine 
country’s sole labor federa- 
tion. warned in an editorial last 
month- As things now stand, it 
said, the low yields this year 
are already “a dead weight on 
the profitability of producers 
'and the national economy. 

• Such a situation, tire news- 
r continued, would >nev- 
y “damage £ e J? all . on . al 
capacity to resist the blockade 
and other imperialist jggres- 
sions.” a reference to the U.S. 
economic embargo, which 
fjas been in place for more 
'.iijh 35 years. _ . , 

! Cuban agricultural officials, 
said Carmelo Mesa Lago, an 
expert on the Cuban economy 

at the University of Pittsburgh, 
“*L. .... . Iasi vear to 

States and Cuba. 

In Havana, Cuban media 
said navy vessels monitored 
the flotilla from inside Cuban 
territorial waters, but there 
were no incidents. 

All Suzanne Levy wanted to 
do was feed the birds. Instead 
she’s facing a trial, complete 
with witnesses, in her home- 
town of New Rochelle, New 

City officials say the bird 
feeder she put up is a structure, 
and that all structures require 
permits. She had no permit, and 
so faces a $250 fine or 15 days 
in jail if convicted. 

“If it's a crime to feed birds, 
then they are going to have to 
put me in jail.” Ms. Levy, a 
bartender, told The New York 
Times. "I’m only doing what 
eight out of 1 0 Americans do." 
She noted that other neighbor- 
hood structures, such as a wish- 
ing well and a basketball hoop, 
had been built without per- 

A neighbor, Joyce Alfano, 
says the bigger problem is a 
feeding table that Ms. Levy 
built around the feeder. 

“Twenty-five pigeons can land 
on that table at a time," said 
Ms. Alfano. "We had to 
power-wash the side of. the 
house to get the droppings 

i But there is a Catch-22: Ms. 
Levy was ordered to build the 
table by another city agency. 
The Health Department had 
said that seeds jailing on the 
ground constituted a violation 
because they could attract wild 

Ms. Levy believes City Hall 
should devote its attention to 
more pressing matters. 

Short Takes 

lived for seven years in a 
cramped, one-bedroom apart- 
ment in the Tudor-style house. 

The house in Atlanta 
where Margaret Mitchell 
lived while writing her Civil 
War saga, "Gone With the 
Wind” has opened to the pub- 
lic as a museum after a $5.2 
milli on renovation. “The 
Dump," as Miss Mitchell af- 
fectionately called it, was twice 
struck tty arson since efforts 
began in the early 1990s to 
preserve it as a museum. The 
restoration was largely fin- 
anced by the German auto- 
maker Daimler-Benz, which 
owned the house until handing 
it over to the city this month. 
Miss Mitchell and her husband 

Ernest Hemingway’s birth- 
day celebration will be a taste- 
ful, family-oriented affair this 
year, held on Sanibel Island, the 
author's family said. Celebra- 
tions on Key West had become 
rariier rowdy. Organizers re- 
cently canceled the festival there 
after the author’s sons asked for 
a cut of the festival’s proceeds 
and for greater control 

Festivities in Key West, 
where Hemingway lived off 
and on and completed "For 
Whom the Bell Tolls." in- 
cluded a lookalike contest and 
lots of partying. 

On Sanibel, the new Inter- 
nationa] Hemingway Festival, 
from July 1 8 to 20, will include 
a writer's conference and arts 

“This is a new festival for a 
new generation of Heming- 
ways, ’ ' said Mina Hemingway, 
a granddaughter. 

But a niece of the author. 
Lori an Hemingway, disagreed. 
“It seems sad char it’s been 
ripped out of the place where he 
spent so much of his time and 
put in a place that doesn't toil 
the bells." 

International Herald Tribune 

WASHINGTON — Fourteen years 
and some $40 billion after President 
Ronald Reagan envisioned a “star 
wars" missile defease to shield the 
United States from nuclear attack. 
Pentagon officials say a far more mod- 
est system is still many years and many 
trillions away. 

Although they want to spend about 
$18 bQlion over the next five years on a 
variety of technologies designed to 
knock out enemy missiles in midair. 
Pentagon officials say such systems 
have failed most of their tests over the 
past decade and may not be ready in the 
next decade. 

Paul Kaminski, die undersecretary of 
defense in charge of buying weapons, 
told members of Congress last week that 
the Pentagon ’s attempts to create a “hit 
to loll" system — to destroy an in- 
coming test missile with another missile 
— had failed in 70 percent of the tests. 

“If you look at our overall score of 
attempted hit-to-Jdll intercept tests on 
all programs since the early 1980s, it has 
been six hits out of 20 attempts," he 

“We can make a bullet hit a bullet." 
he said. “We can demonstrate that un- 
der ideal conditions. The next step is to 
move from hitting, not occasionally, but 
to hit routinely under stressful oper- 
ational conditions," including "simu- 
lated wartime conditions." 

The struggle to build a national mis- 
sile defense system that could protea 
the United States from an enemy attack, 
or a regional defense that could protea 
troops in the theater of war. has been 
fraught with technological complexity, 
high cost and political rhetoric. 

The system President Reagan first 
envisioned — a “peace shield" that 
would protect the entire nation from an 
all-out missile attack from Moscow — 
was scrapped for smaller systems that 
might defend the United States against 
attacks from Iran. Iraq or North Korea. 
The CIA estimates that such a threat will 
not materialize before 2010. 

The systems now under development 
would be defenseless against a delib- 
erate act of war by Russia or China, but 
would have “some capability" of de- 
fending against a handful of nuclear 
missiles launched in an accidenral or 
unauthorized attack, Mr. Kaminski 

cent events have highlighted the very 
high risk associated with the program," 
he added. The ‘ ’very high risk" he cited 
meant that a completed system might 
not work even after spending another 
$18 billion. 

Among the recent events Mr. Kam- 
inski cited was a series of failed tests 
conducted under the auspices of the 
Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, 
the Pentagon agency set up to build 
missile defense systems. Most recently, 
in January, a missile designed to hit a 
target missile sat dead on the launch pad 
as the target streaked through the sky, 
setting the national missile defense pro- 
gram back at least a year, military of- 
ficials said. 

Four different hit-to-kill systems are 
under development The Clinton ad- 
ministration wants to spend money on 
tests for the next three years, until 2000, 
and then decide which system to deploy 
by 2003. The “3 plus 3’* plan is derided 
tty conservatives in Congress who want 
to build a system sooner, perhaps by 

Away From 

• A moratorium on the cloning of 
human beings by public or private 
institutions has been recommended 

by the National Bioethics Advisory 
Committee. It said such efforts 

would not be safe now because they 
would be too likely to result in 
malformed fetuses. (NYT) 

• Astronauts worked to move 
thousands of pounds of supplies 
and equipment between Russia's 
orbiting Mir station and the docked 
space shuttle Atlantis, which will 
be returning to Earth. (API 

• Child endangerraent charges 
were dropped against Annette 
Sorensen, an actress from Copen- 
hagen who had left her baby in a 
scroller on the sidewalk, by a New 
York City judge. Charges against 
the American father. Exavier 
Wardlaw, were not dismissed, and 
he faces trial next month. (WP) 

Despite plans to deploy a national 
missile defense system by 2003. “re- 

• The 46th Miss Universe pa- 
geant was won by Brook Maheal- 
ani Lee, a 26-year-old from Hawaii, 
who topped 73 contestants. (AP) 


Governors Moke Friends 
With Corporate Fellows 9 

getting the best advice on important issues. But that was scheduled to be broadcast on its news- 

critics say it gives the corporations a lobbying magazine program “20/20," and one participant 

This way to 

advantage unavailable to their adversaries on 
major policy issues. (NYT) 

WASHINGTON — In the past several years, a 
select group of America's biggest corporations 
have given millions of dollars 'to the National 
Governors’ Association and an affiliated research 
arm. In return for their tax-deductible contributions, 
the corporations' lobbyists have gained unusual 
access to the governors' policy-making apparatus. 

They take part in the governors’ plenary meet- 
ings, attend receptions with governors, get brief- 
ings from the group's leaders and staff, and attend 
other events to help them “become better ac- 
quainted with governors’ staff and to share com- 
mon interests," an association fact sheet says. 

They also frequently attend staff meetings that 

develop many of the governors’ policy recom- 
mendations, giving them a chance to influence the. 

Call for More Defense Cuts E2St5X a 

WA«mir.TrtM c«»i,ni UTiiiiam The "20/20 report, bag 

WASHINGTON •— Defense Secretary William 
Cohen has challenged lawmakers to put aside 
parochial interests and support the closing of more 
military bases and reductions in the National 

He defended the moves as necessary to step up 

in the report contended that the network had acted 
out of fear of alienating members of Congress. 

ABC News executives dismissed the conten- 
tion as groundless, saying the report was pulled 
simply because its reporting was inadequate. 

Trie “20/20" report, based on a book to be 
published next week by Ronald Kessler, a former 
Washington Post reporter, had been scheduled for 
Friday night and was promoted on earlier ABC 

The report contained revelations about spend- 
ing on expensive furniture for committee chair- 



DojTl miss ll \ lot happens there. 

^ , m ft VU ■ Ml M llliUIV IVI VVI1IIIM ■ 

purchases of new weapons and equipment after ^ ^ excesses by members of Con- 

years of declining military procurement. cress. 

“I’ll put it to the Congress and say: Would you 
rather protea bases or put modem equipment in / f Jnmirkio 

the hands of soldiers?" Mr. Cohen said at a press yu,UlK / UIU£ UUIC 

briefing before the formal release Monday of a p^idem Bill Clinton, addressing the few re- 
ma J or Pentagon review of military strategy and maining survivors and relatives of rhe infamous 

On June 16 th , the International Herald Tribune 
will publish a Special Report on: 


formulation of state and federal regulations that capabilities. Mr. Cohen indicated that he was Tuskegee experiment, in which 399 black men 

IUIU1UIW1WI .... .. . ■ - -■ kmnnn « flnht ik. .mnAmu. Ivnufllc .... ... i r i ■ r , , i. 

can mean billions of dollars to participating 
companies. Among them are corporations as di- 
verse as AT&T, Exxon, General Motors, Dow 
Chemical, Pfizer, Blue Cross/Blue Shield. Philip 

Morris, and Goldman, Sachs & Co. 

bracing for a fight, given the economic benefits 
that many political districts draw from hosting 
military bases and reserve units. (WP) 

The bipartisan governors' group* which ac- 
tively recruited the corporate "fellows, defends 
the practice as perfectly legal and aimed only at 

ABC Cancels Broadcast 

NEW YORK — ABC News management ab- 
ruptly canceled a report about abuses by Congress 

were left untreated for syphilis for decades as part 
of a federal government study: "What was done 
cannot be undone, but we can end the silence. We 
can stop turning our heads away, we can look at 
you. in the eye, and finally say. on behalf of the 
American paiple: whal the United States gov- 
ernment did was shameful, and I am 
sorry.” (NYT) 

Among the topics to be covered are: 

• The industry's battle to control costs. 

• A viable future for the superjumbo? 

• The affect of record profits on aircraft 

• How does European deregulation fit in 
with global moves to open skies? 

• The evolution of Inflight entertainment. 

"were s° desperate lost year to 
vet the biggest harvest pos- 
ifjMe that they worked into 



every Saturday in the THT. 


■lliw inn niim iiiiK with ih r U- 1 toured Vir Slum 
Imiiiw dirlributioii during |Iii‘4i»h_ 

,,r tkiiim in !’■ 

*1 M ?>. Fax: (.t.t-l) t( fcj « >2 li» 
or ("-iiiiiil: xuppIt-iitriKi'ftfiiir.i-oni 

nir. fti)HUrM».viii nkvm-iw.K 

the woRurs daily newspaper 

i- . . 


Defying Pressure, Burmese Junta Shows No Sign of Easing Its Grip 

By R. Jeffrey Smith 

Washington Pkal Senice 

RANGOON — The police captain at the first 

checkpoint on the road leading to the home of 

1991 Nobel Peace 

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the 
Prize winner, was unyielding as he blocked the 
path of a taxi and insisted that foreigners were 
“not allowed to visit” her walled compound. 

When an American visitor with an appoint- 
ment to see Daw Aung San Suu Kyi ar her home, 
less than a mile away, asked why.'the captain — 
who gave his name as Them — would only say, 
again and again: “Because of the order.” 

Thirty-five years after seizing control of this 
country, and seven years after annulling demo- 
cratic elections won by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's 
political party, the Burmese military regime is 
accustomed to issuing orders without providing 

explanations. Many citizens here — after looking 
)f tl 

around for spies of the government — say that its 
decisions are arbitrary, corrupt or inept and can 
be carried out with lethal brutality. As a result, 
they say, its leaders remain widely hated and 
greatly feared. 

Despite die public's animosity, and the growing 
hostility of the Clinton administration, however, 
the military’s grip on power in this Southeast 
Asian nation of 45 million shows no signs of 
slackening. In fact, the generals may even be 
getting stronger because of new repressive mea- 
sures instituted in the past seven months against 
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and her supporters. 

Hundreds of university students have been 
jailed since protests against government education 
policies and police tactics flared briefly in Decem- 
ber. The arrests have effectively decapitated the 
student movement, several diplomats said Uni- 
versities, which have been a crucible of anti- 
government sentiment in Burma since 1920, were 
abruptly shut with no date set for reopening. 

Separately, a fierce offensive by as many as 
100,000 troops since February has routed in- 
surgent forces allied with the Karen National 
Union, an ethnically based party in Karen state, 
east of the capital. That party, until its repression 
in 1995. played a key role in opposing the mil- 
itary regime. 

In the past year, the military junta here has 
persuaded a half-dozen ocher ethnic minorities 

that controlled vast areas in northern and western 
Burma to sign cease-fire agreements by promising 
them more autonomy and — according to several 
Western diplomats — permitting them to cultivate 
and refine a substantial portion of the opium gum 
that winds up on U.S. streets as heroin. 

In addition, the military has jailed as many as 
300 members of the National League for De- 
mocracy, the chief opposition party and the plat- 
form for Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's activities, since 
last summer, including several of her close aides. 

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the charismatic daugh- 
ter of the architect of Burma's independence from 
the British in 1 945. has been blocked from making 
any public speeches since November. She also has 
been forced to restrict her movements outside the 
compound since hundreds of men in civilian garb 
were allowed to pass through a government cor- 
don that month to attack her motorcade and beat 

up many of her supporters. 

nth do 

Interviews with dozens of people during a 
week of traveling in Burma suggested that public 
discontent is heightened by the country's eco- 
nomic failures. Government statistics indicate 
the economy's growth rate has been falling stead- 

ily since changes were introduced in 1992 to 
move the country away from socialism toward a 
more market-oriented system. 

Infiation exceeds 30 percent, defeose expendit- 
ures reportedly consume as much as 50 percent of 
the budget, and coiruption and inefficiency are 
rife at hundreds of large state-owned corporations 
or private firms controlled by senior military 
officers. Without striking a deal with such a firm, 
or handing over at least a 5 percent commission to 
an officer, it is virtually impossible to invest here, 
according to foreign executives. 

Conditions outside this capital are static. 
“They are basically losing a generation,” a 
diplomat said. "Their infant mortality and life 
expectancy rates are as bad as you might find in 
the worst nations of Africa. ” 

But- the armed forces have prospered since 
19S8. when the State Law and Order Restoration 
Council was formed to bring military officials 
into a more direct governing role. Hie number of 
troops, then 186,000, has doubled. 

To stem a grave shortage of foreign currency 
and build up its domestic manufacturing in- 
dustry, the government last summer banned all 

imports of nonessential goods — creating whai is 
described as a brisk under-the-counter trade. m 
But the measure did little to promote die 
creation of factories in this overwhelmingly ag- 
ricultural nation, with the result that few up-jo^ 
consumer goods are on display. 

The Clinton administration last month banned 
most U.S. investment in Burma because of da 
government’s failure to thwart the drug trade. But 
with few American goods in evidence and few 
joint ventures with American firms outside the 
oil and gas sector, the sanctions are not expected 
to cause much harm to Burma's economy. 

There appears to be a consensus among West- 
ern diplomats here that as bad as Daw Aung San 
Suu Kyi's situation is now, it may become even 
more grim sifter a decision on Burmese mem- 
bership in the. Association of South East Asian. 
Nations, which could formally rule on the issue 
as early as July. Many diplomats see the mil- 
itary's recent actions as having been relatively 
restrained by a desire to avoid embarrassing its 
ASEAN neighbors on the eve of the vote. 

“If they get in. they will likely lock her up 
again,” a senior diplomat said. 

From Burma, With Good Will 

Heroin Suspect Is Caught and Returned to Thailand 


By Seth Mydans 

New York Times Service 

BANGKOK — The chief suspect sought by 
the police after the biggest heroin seizure in 
U.S. history has been captured in Burma and 
was returned over the weekend to Thailand, 
where he had jumped bail earlier this year, 
authorities in Burma said. 

The suspect, Li Yung Chung, had been 
granted bail in Thailand in February despite a 
request from the United States for his ex- 
tradition in connection with 1,070 pounds (455 
kilograms) of heroin seized in a warehouse in 
Hayward, California, in May 1991. U.S. of- 
ficials estimated the street value of the drugs at 
more than $1 billion. 

His release on bail had violated normal Thai 
procedures and drawn protests from U.S. of- 
ficials. Mr. Li was indicted a year ago in a New 
York court and could face life in prison- on 
drug-trafficking charges. 

Mr. Li, who holds a Thai identity card under 
the name Phongsak Rogjanasakul, was flown 
to Thailand on Saturday on the final day of a 
two-day visit to Burma by the Thai prime 

The Burmese authorities said he was being 
returned as a goodwill gesture to Thailand and 
as a contribution to the regional battle against 
drug trafficking. 

The visit of the prime minister, Chavalit 
Yongchaiyudh. came one month after the 
United States imposed economic sanctions on 
Burma. It was a clear statement that Thailand, 
along with other nations in the region, would 

continue to promote economic and political 
ties with the Burmese. 

The seven ASEAN nations appeared ready 
to accept Burma — along with Cambodia and 
Laos — as members this year, despite the 
human-rights abuses that led to the U.S. sanc- 

A joint statement Saturday at the conclusion 
of Mr. Chavalit's visit affirmed the region's 
hands-off policy, stating that each nation had 
“the right to pursue its own path of national 
development," and that “outside interference 
is counterproductive.' * 

Mr. Chavalit has been a longtime friend of 
the Burmese military junta and, as defense 
minister, was the first foreign official to visit 
Burma after a 1988 crackdown in which hun- 
dreds of pro-democracy protesters were 

Thailand and other members of the As- 
sociation of South East Asian Nations — 
Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, die Philip- 
pines, Vietnam and Brunei — have taken 
advantage of Burma's liberalized trade 

They assert a policy of “constructive en- 
gagement,” rather than public criticism and 

Saturday’s statement affirmed Thailand's 
support for the admission of Burma into the 
regional grouping so that "Southeast Asia could 
become a truly united community of nations.” 

The return Saturday of Mr. Li came in 
response to a request from Thailand, which had 
been embarrassed by his release on bail, a 
move that violated its own legal procedures. 

Li Yung Chung, wanted in New York on heroin-trafficking charges, after arriving in Bangkok. 
Mr. Li had lied Thailand after he was granted bail there despite a U.S. extradition request 

Without advertising, 

tomorrow’s jam 


uld cost 


KOREA: President Kim’s Son Is Arrested 

Continued from Page 1 

as key to stability on the edgy Korean 
Peninsula, may be delayed until a new 
South Korean president takes office. 

The arrest of the younger Mr. Kim has 
caused a sensation in South Korea. 
When he was driven to the prosecutor’s 
office for questioning last week, the 30- 
minute trip by mororcade from his home 
was broadcast live on national televi- 



Election Rivals Clash 

Continued from Page 1 

olence and keep the two sides apart. 

General Hamami said the situation 
was “still within the limits of toler- 
ance.” adding that the city was “re- 
latively safe.” 

The police chief reported no arrests or 
injuries and calm appeared to return to 
most areas after nightfall Sunday. 

On Saturday, the police used tear gas 
and rubber bullets to disperse about 
2.000 stone-throwing members of the 
United Development Party in the Jati 
Negara district of eastern Jakarta. They 
were protesting being barred from a 
street previously open to Golkar. 

Meanwhile, about 100 supporters of 
Golkar reportedly attacked a mosque 
Sunday. apparently in an attempt to pro- 
voke pro- Uni led Development Ptiny 
residents in the central Java town of 
S lemon, about 400 kilometers (250 
miles) east of Jakanu. 

Witnesses said about 200 police of- 
ficers dispersed the group before out- 
raged residents could retaliate. 


The arrest has captivated the nation 
partly because of the depth of the cor- 
ruption it represents, and partly because 
many see it as proof of the health and 
maturity of South Korean democracy. 

Mr. Kim’s government is the first in 
modem times to be headed by a pop- 
ularly elected civilian politician with no 
military ties. In three decades of au- 
thoritarian rule that preceded Mr. Kim's 
presidency, the idea that a close relative 
of the nation’s leader might be arrested 
was laughable. 

Previous military leaders considered 
themselves “all powerful, all-knowing, 
omnipotent untouchables," said Lee 
Jung Hoon. who teaches political sci- 
ence at Seoul's Yonsei University. "To 
have a son arrested during a president's 
term is quite big news. But the public 
opinion was so strong, government pros- 
ecutors could not have let him walk.” 

President Kim ordered the prosecu- 
tion of his two immediate predecessors. 
RohTae Woo and Chun Doo Hwan, who 
are now serving jail terms for corruption 
and treason. But numerous scandals 
dose to him have led to allegations by 
opposition politicians that the president 
himself is corrupt and should step 

Prosecutors said the younger Mr. Kim 
had hidden SI 6.3 million in the 100 
secret bunk accounts he maintained — 
exactly the kind of accounts his father 
outlawed ;ls part of fiscal reforms to root 
out corruption in South Korea. So far. 
prosecutors have been able to account 
for only $7.3 million of the money in the 

■ Kwangju Victims Honored 

In emotional scenes Sunday in 
Kwangju, the victims of a 1980 army 
massacre in the city were honored is 
heroes of democracy. Reuters reported. 

But ceremonies at a newly dedicated 

Bangladeshi Coast 
Girds for Cyclone 

CHITTAGONG. Bangladesh — 
Thousands of volunteers on Sunday . 
started evacuating millions of* 
people from the path of a cyclone 
heading toward the Bangladesh , 
coast from the Bay of Bengal. 

“Around 15 million people live.' 1 
on the coast and nearby islands, and 
it's a difficult task to get them away ^ 
from the feared cyclone," a safety 7 
official said 

“We have already started the 
process because the cyclone now 
looks definitely heading toward our 
coast,” he said. 

At least 33,000 government and 
Red Crescent volunteers fanned out 
in Bangladesh's coastal areas on 
Sunday after weather officials said 
the storm, with winds up to 200 
kilometers an hour (120 miles an 
hour), might hit the coast by early 
Monday. (Reuters ) £ 

Chinese Dissident 
Visits Hong Kong 

HONG KONG — Chai Ling, a 
self-exiled leader of the 1989 pro- 
democracy movement, has arrived 
in Hong Kong for a short visit be- 
fore the territory’s return to Chinese 
rale on July 1, Hong Kong gov- 
ernment radio said Sunday. 

The radio quoted a source dose to 
the dissident as saying that Miss 
Chai had arrived at Hong Kong on 
Saturday to "understand conditions 
here.” (Reuters) 

Protesters Take 
To Streets of Taipei 

TAIPEI — More than 50,000 
demonstrators marched on the pres- 
idential office Sunday to protest 
against President Lee Teng-hui’s 
failure to replace the prime minister 
in response to growing concerns 
about crime. 

In the second major protest this 
month urging the government to 
fight rising - crime, demonstrators 
carried placards demanding the im- 
mediate dismissal of Prime Minister 
Lien Chan. jA 

On Thursday, Mr. Lee accepted , 
the blame for what he called 
Taiwan's worsening social order 
and accepred the offer of his hand- 
picked prime minister to quit in 
July, but that has not satisfied the 
protesters. (Reuters) 

VOICES From Asia 

^ Chris Patten, governor of Hong 
Kong, warning Sunday against al- 
lowing the territory to fall victim to 
“creeping socialism,” just weeks 
before Hong Kong's reversion to 
Chinese rale: "If I’ve learned one 
important lesson from my five years 
in Hong Kong, it's to leave well 
alone when it comes to economic 
management.” (AFP) 

cemetery that were attended by about 
5.000 residents were marred by vicious 
fighting between students and the police. 
About 3.000 students hurling rocks and 
firebombs battled riot police at Chosun 
Universiry for the second night in a 

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Continued from Page I 

(heir opinion. Tsuneo Kanetsuka. pres- 
ident of Super 24 Corp.. said plans were 
in ihe works for a RohoShop on Firth 
Avenue in New York, as well as 20 more 
shops in Tokyo and 2(1 smaller rohoi- 
controllcd vending kiosks. 

Mr. Kanelsuku said RohoShop taps 
into the current wave of “silent con- 
suming." in which buyers purchase 
goods through mail-onJer or even 
through e-mail on ihe Internet without 
ever talking to a human sales clerk. 

“This is everybody’s dream.” Mr. 
Kanetsuka said. 

He added that his company saved 
money on employee salaries and passed 
(hose savings on in consumers: A can of 
Coke costs about 92 cents just about 
everywhere else in Japan, bul at 
RobnShop it is 75 cents. 

Mr. Kanetsuka also said manufactur- 
ers had u chance lo display new or un- 
usual items that many traditional con- 
venience stores did not carry. RnboSImp 
features a broad range of products com- 

monly found in Japanese shops, from 
sandwiches and noodles to sodas and 
cologne and Japan's hugely popular 
serialized comic books known as 

But the shop also carries an eclectic 
mix of $9(1 French watches, pet sham- 
poo. condoms in little packages that look 
like Japanese passports, a S7WJ bottle of 
bumblebee extract that is supposed to be 
a health tonic and a $90 package of 
herbal tea. 

RohoShop is essentially a huge vend- 
ing machine — although it is far more 
elaborate. Still, it is the logical next step, 
given Japan's position as vending ma- 
chine capital of the world. 

Jusl about anything, from whiskey to 
meal to (lowers to clothing, is available 
in (he 5.4 million machines here, which 
sell about $42 billion worth of goods 
each year. 

Mr. Kuneisuku'x company got iissiurt 
selling pajamas, underwear and hras oul 
of vending machines, and il still operates 
-IK l machines nationwide. 

Junichi Nozaki. 38, a vending ma- 

chine designer, stopped by RohoShop 
this week to check out the new tech- 
nology - — and to buy a couple of 
pastries. He said he found RoboShop’s 
ordering keyboards a little complicated 
and the robot a bit slow. But he said it 
was an exceptional first effort, and he 
(houghi it would. succeed in Japan's ex- 
tremely competitive technology mar- 

“In the future. I think there will be a 
shop like tilts in every office building." 
he said. “But it needs to be simplified. 
We Japanese like new things, but at the 
same time people get bored quickly* 
Designers have to develop something 
new all rhe time." 

Just down the street at the MiniStop 
convenience store. Yumiko Shimuzic 
ihe manager, was not worried about i 
new robot on the block. “I never srf 
anyone in there." she said, adding that a 
computerized shop would never he able 
to match the fust service and a warm 
h . L !o n Slivered by a human being. 

"People are not used in having no 
people around.” she said. 

rl r, and Spa 

“ S"~r!er 




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Russia Moves to Brink 
Of an AIDS Epidemic 

Drugs and Sexual Activity Fuel Increase 

B >- Michael SpecieT 

V,’w >' t .rA Hiiii i V,-r ,,. 

MOSCOW — Fueled bv a convcr- 

E“ * sw s;ng drug ahijsc S3T5- 

creased sexual activity. Russia stands 
ot the precipice of an AIDS epidemic 
5? “ S X g losive afc 'he one lhat 

5J2* ?? OUgh Eur °P L ‘ ;iJld ^e United 
Stales 15 years ago. 

_ The nation's leading AIDS expens 
folly aware alter ihe fall or communism 
that an open society would bring a rising 
nsk of all sexually transimiicd diseases 
h flVe *°ng forecast that the number of 
reported AIDS cases would climb. 

_ Although the raw numhers are minus- 
;ca/Ie compared with those in Africa or 
tfyen the United Stales, officials 
.* jphneiy state that reported infections 
represent no more than 1 0 percent of the 
true figures. But even the reported fig- 
.ures tell a harrowing story of the rapid, 
exponential advance of the epidemic in 
a country whose health-care budget has 
far more in common with those of the 
Third World than with the United 
States, where expensive new drugs have 
brought hope to many. 

“This epidemic started slowly in 
■Russia,'' said Alexander Goliusov. the 
federal Health Ministry's chief AIDS 
specialist. “But now it has caught on 
fire. Before, we could talk about con- 
trolling it or limiting the damage. Now 
the catastrophe is real.*' 

Last year 1,500 new cases of HIV 
infection were reported in Russia, more 
than the official figure for the first nine 
■years of the epidemic-combined. For the 

19th Century Bell 
Falls in Frankfurt 




FRANKFURT — A bell weij 
ing 1,810 kilograms 
pounds! crashed five meters (16.5 
feet! onto a concrete floor and 
smashed to pieces while being rung 
in one of Germany's most famous 
churches, the local fire department 
said Sunday. 

The 1 67-year-old bell belonged 
to Frankfurt's Paulskirche. site of 
Germany's first democratic Parlia- 
ment in 1848 and now used for 
civic occasions. No one was hurt in 
the Saturday incident 

first quarter of this year, according to 
preliminary data from the Health Min- 
istry, the numbers have already out- 
stripped those for 1996. 

Taking into consideration the many 
caves lhat are never reported, federal 
health officials now say that by the end 
of 1997 there could be 100,000 people 
infected with HTV, the virus that causes 
AIDS, in Russia. By the year 2000, they 
believe, the figure will be 800,000. 

There arc many reasons for the huge 
surge of HIV infection in Russia, and 
most of them are related. The vast ma- 
jority of new infections are among Rus- 
sia’s 600.000 intravenous drug abusers 
— who are most efficient at spreading 
the virus and least susceptible to coun- 
seling or education efforts of any kind. 

Poor border control in the chaotic 
aftermath of the fall of the Soviet Union 
has permitted the smuggling and abuse 
of narcotics to soar over the last five 
years. And a new era of complete free- 
dom has caused sexually transmitted 
diseases like syphilis, herpes and go- 
norrhea to spread more rapidly here than 
anywhere else in the world. 

The prevalence of sexually transmit- 
ted diseases has always been an ex- 
cellent barometer for the incidence of 
AIDS — in part because those diseases 
can increase the possibility of HIV in- 
fections, and in part because they 
provide a good way to measure the 
sexual activity of a population. 

In 1996, according to government 
statistics. 10 million people in Russia 
had some sexually transmitted disease. 
Russia had 217 cases of syphilis per 
100,000 people, a rate that is more than 
50 rimes that in die United States or 
Europe. Seven years ago the figure for 
Russia was only six cases per 100.000. 

“How can there possibly be an enor- 
mous epidemic of diseases like syphilis 
and almost no spread of AIDS?' r said 
Dr. Irina Savchenko, an epidemiologist 
at the Russian AIDS Center in Mos- 

.. V x ": f&i: ! V ■ . 

ry :. : y*. 



Labour MP Denies Election Bribery 

Mohammed Sarwar, new Labour MP for Glasgow, arriving at London’s 
Heathrow Airport on Sunday. He said allegations in a newspaper that he bribed a 
rival candidate during the recent general e lection campaign were “totally false." 

RIPPLES: Waves From American Success 

Continued from Page I 


"There can’t be.” she said. "Either 
there are too many cases of syphilis or 
there are too few of AIDS. And believe 
me, we are not overreporting syphilis.” 

The impact of the epidemic has been 
heightened by the almost complete lack 
of educational or preventive measures 
available. When AIDS was fust reported 
in Russia in 1987, the earliest victims 
were gay men. and the illness was treated 
by Soviet authorities as the evil effect of 
a bourgeois. Western-style life. 

By die early 1990s, when political 

instability became the central fact of 
Russian life, even tentative efforts to 
teach AIDS awareness came to ahalL In 
1991, just at the moment when Russia’s 
sexual freedoms became most obvious 
and pronounced, the Institute of Pre- 
ventive Medicine stopped translating 
AIDS information booklets from foreign 
languages. Money for even the most 
basic treatment became difficult to find. 

The situation has become worse since 
then, because Russia bas almost no 
money to spend on health care. Ac- 
cording to the World Health Organi- 
zation, a United Nations agency, a coun- 
try should devote at least 5 percent of its 
gross domestic product to basic health 
care. Russia spends 2.2 percent. 

Health Ministry figures suggest that it 
st $5 billion a 

will cost at least S3 billion a year to treat 
Russia's AIDS patients in the year 2000. 

Today the entire federal health budget 
for the country is only twice that. 

“Do you think it’s a coincidence that 
the death rate in Russia exceeds the birth 
rate by 70 percent?” said Nikolai Ger- 
asimenky, chairman of the Health Care 
committee in the Parliament. “We do 
not invest in the health of our citizens. I 
think we should have learned from the 
experience of others that prevention 
costs less than treatment and that if we 
don't spend money on AIDS education, 
people are going to die.” 

But that money is not going to be 
available soon. In 1995 the Health Min- 
istry received less titan half the money 
budgeted for its AIDS program, accord- 
ing to Mr. Goliusov. This year the budget 
for AIDS prevention and treatment pro- 
grams is $8 million. Bui so far the Health 
Ministry has not received any of this. 

ditions in America. Europe and Japan. 
U.S. domination naturally meets resent- 
ment. Mr. Chirac, in China, pointedly 
embraces a “multipolar' ' world, code 
for one not dominated by the United 
States. The Chinese applaud him. 

But in a post-ideological and Webbed 
world, the insistent fact that America 
works seems, for now, hard to resist. 

“I am struck when I travel by the way 
that Bill Gates of Microsoft and Andy 
Grove of Intel have become interna- 
tional heroes,'* said Robert Hormats, 
the deputy chairman of Goldman Sachs 

“They are seen as representing an 
entrepreneurial renaissance that has, at 
the same time, placed Clinton’s Amer- 
ica in the vanguard of international tech- 
nology and created millions of jobs.” 

The age of Gates-Groveism is re- 
inforced by the fact that their medium is 
their message: The technology that is 
linking and changing the world carries 
its own political and economic impact, 
reducing politicians’ room for maneu- 

In Japan, once a bastion of regulation, 
it is now almost universally accepted 
that government interference in the 
economy is unhelpful. Parliamentary 
campaigning last fall was dominated by 
candidates railing for a freer economy, 
for in Japan the perception is strong that 
America leads in new technologies be- 
cause of its flexible capital markets and 
Clintonian pragmatism. 

In Canada, the central policy of the 
Liberal government of Prime Minister 
Jean Chretien has been deficit reduc- 
tion; next budget year, for the first time 
in nearly three decades, the government 
may not need to borrow any money at 
all. Now ministers focus on when to cut 
taxes and by how much, and debate in 
the campaign for June 2 elections turns 
on not whether to shrink government 
but by how much. 

At the depressed heart of the welfare 
state, in France, change is less dear cut 
and more contested. Nonetheless, amid 
coded signals and continuing taboos 
over endorsing “Anglo-Saxon" eco- 
nomic models, Mr. Chirac’s Gaullist 
party and other members of his right-of- 
center coalition have been making clear 
that they believe the age of the gov- 
ernment fonciionnaire is over. 

Finance Minister Jean Arthuis went 
so far as to declare last week that he was 
delighted dial “the welfare state is fin- 
ished," adding that “too much state 
kills the state." 

In a country where the state’s role as 
guarantor of welfare, engine of industry 
and nexus of society has long been 
assumed, and where the number of func- 
tionaries has risen to 5 5 million from 
4.4 million in the past 15 years, such a 
statement was revolutionary in its au- 

dacity. But it is no longer blasphemy. 

In response. France’s Socialists talk 
about being a modern party and provid- 
ing seed capital to small and medium- 
sized industry. But the party's discourse 
is still marked by a brand of socialism 
that promises 350,000 new state-sector 
jobs to fighi unemployment of 1 2.8 per- 

So far, this message seems to have 
left voters unconvinced, and thus, Mr. 
Chirac’s government is favored to win 
the election despite its deep unpopular- 
ity during the past two years. 

One of the interesting aspects of the 
campaign is the desire expressed in 
many quarters for an apolitical but ef- 
fective prime minister, voters often 
voice a preference for Christian Blanc, 
the blunt, hard-driving, telegenic gov- 
ernment employee who has wrested 
state-owned Air France from disaster 
and prepared it for privatization. 

Mr. Blanc was a Socialist, but now 
says. “I don’t give a damn about ide- 
ology — all I care about is effective- 
ness." He says he still values social- 
ism's emphasis on human dignity, 
solidarity, the general interest and the 
need to fight injustice. But economic 
socialism is bunk. 

The words could have come from Mr. 
Blair, who has not questioned Margaret 
Thatcher's sweeping privatizations but 
has put improvements in education and 
health care at the heart of his program. 
He has also proposed a “ welfare- to- 
work program” financed by a levy on 
“the excess profits of the privatized 
utilities." The very notion of “excess 
profits” seems unthinkable in Amer- 

It is in such matters where the critical 
test of the U.S.-led global political rev- 
olution may lie. Without genuine sen- 
sitivity toward those on the wrong end 
of the changes, the seeds of upheaval 
could be planted. 

The end of the last century brought a 
similarly sweeping revolution — the 
cars, trains and industries that made 
nations whole and brought the masses 
closer to political life. 

Few imagined then how those trends 
would be exploited by Fascists and 
Communists, leading to tens of millions 
of deaths. The U.S.-led shift in civ- 
ilization is full of promise; but its ul- 
timate consequences remain unclear. 


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Koranic Fervor Shakes 
Turkey’s Foundations 

By Stephen Kinzer 

,Vw Yorl Time* Service 

ISTANBUL — When Turkey’s Na- 
tional Security Council met in February, 
military commanders who were de- 
manding that Prime Minister Necmettm 
Erbakan retreat from his Islamist ide- 
ology showed a video that police agents 
had secretly recorded. 

Witnesses say the video showed stu- 
dents at a private Islamic school lining 
up to file past, and spit on, a bust of 
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. the revered 
leader who transformed Turkey from an 
Islamic slate into a secular one three- 
quarters of a century ago. 

“I swear by Allah.” the students then 
vowed in unison, "to strive to create a 
state based on religion and Islamic law 
in Turkey and to devote myself to the 
war against Mustafa KemaJ atheism.” 

The country's top military officers 
consider themselves the ultimate guard- 
ians of Turkish secularism, and so after 
they showed the video and presented 
other evidence, they demanded a crack- 
daw n on all aspects of Islamic education 
here. Mr. Erbakan agreed — although 
he and members of his party remain 
highly reluctant to keep their commit- 

The issue of religious education is 
now at the center of the conflict between 
secularists and Islamists that is shaking 
Turkey. It has led to a highly emotional 
debate that could determine the fate of 
Mr. Erbakan's government, shape fu- 
ture election results and even lip the 
balance for or against a military coup. 

No one knows how many unlicensed 
Koran courses exist, but at least some of 
them are evidently being used as train- 
ing grounds for militants who hope to 
impose an Isiamic-based political order 
here. Military commanders find that in- 
tolerable and want all the courses shut 

In addition, hundreds of religious 
academies function legally, and those 
pose a more complex challenge. They 
offer religious instruction in addition to 
a full curriculum similar to that in other 
schools. The military has decided that 
they are shaping fundamentalists, and is 
insisting that the government close or 
restrict them. 

Parents and alumni, backed by Is- 
lamist groups, are angrily resisting this 
demand, and last Sunday they drew a 
crowd of more than 100,000 people to a 
protest in Istanbul- 

Two months after the meeting at 
which the video was shown, military 
commanders again confronted Mr. 
Erbakan and warned him that they 
would tolerate no further delay in the 
crackdown he promised. Soon after- 
ward, the police shut down several 
dozen unlicensed Islamic schools like 
the one where the video was made. 

But the commanders remain far from 
satisfied, and they have found support 
from leaders of the secular True Path 
Party, which is Mr. Erbakan’s coalition 
partner. Interior Minister Meral Aksen- 
er, who is from True Path, said recently 
that the unlicensed Koran schools 
closed so far represented only 2 percent 
of those that exist She vowed to close 
the rest 

According to Turkish law, all courses 
in the Koran, the Muslim holy book, 
must be registered with the government 

which approves instructors, courses of 
id I 

study and textbooks. But hundreds of 
Koran courses are believed to be op- 
erating without government approval, 
and with the new crackdown many are 

dropping out of sight. Some apparently 

others are 

A Turkish soldier manning a checkpoint near the Habur border crossing between Turkey and Iraq. 

Ank ara Vows to Crush Rebels in North Iraq 

The Associated Press 

HABUR, Turkey — As Turkey 
vowed to keep troops in northern Iraq 
until it suppressed Turkish Kurdish 
rebels there, an Iraqi Kurdish faction 
said Sunday it also was continuing to 
battle the rebels. 

The Iraqi Kurdish group that con- 
trols areas south of the Turkish border 
said it was battling the rebels of the 
Kurdish Workers Party, or PKK. in the 
Iraqi Kurdish capital, Arbil. 

A spokesman for the Iraqi Kurdistan 
Democratic Party, or KDP, was quoted 
by the Middle East News Agency as 
saying that his group was trying to evict 
the Turkish Kurdish guerrillas from 
Arbil. He claimed that the Kurdish 
Workers Parly’s activities there 
threatened peace and security in the city 
and hampered relief work by the United 

Nations and other aid agencies. 

The Turkish Foreign Ministry said 
Sunday that its troops would not leave 
until die rebels were “rendered in- 

On Saturday, Turkish officials said 
902 guerrillas had been killed since 
Wednesday, when Turkish troops, es- 
timated to number from 25,000 to 
50,000, crossed the border backed by 
tanks and air power. The death toll 
among Turkish troops was put at 12. 

But Med-TV. a pro-Workers Party 
television network based in Brussels, 
said that the rebel death toll was ex- 
aggerated and that 40 soldiers had 
been lulled. It also said the rebels had 
downed a Cobra helicopter near the 
border region. Irfan Dogan, a spokes- 
man for the television network, said at 
least 14 Workers Party guerrillas were 

killed Saturday. Each spring for four 
years, Turkey has made incursions 
across the border to destroy rebel bases 
there, but this time it claimed it went in 
to help the Kurdistan Democratic 
Parry regain control of the region. 

While the that party fought a rival 
Iraqi Kurdish faction last fall, the 
Kurdish Workers Party used the op- 
portunity to increase its hold on the 
mountainous region that stretches 30 
kilometers south of the Turkish bor- 

Turkey’s incursion has drawn 
protests from Baghdad and Arab coun- 
tries. The UN secretary general Kofi 
Annan, also has also demanded that 
Turkey withdraw its troops from Iraq. 
UN relief operations, as well the food 
supply for the Iraqi Kurdish region, 
could be jeopardized by the incursion. 

have closed voluntarily, but ot 
believed to be operating clandestinely. 

At an Istanbul dormitory for public 
school students, a religious teacher 
emerged to greet visitors one day re- 
cently, pointedly refusing to shake the 

hand of a woman in the ^roup. Asked if 
he was running an unlicensed Koran 
school , as neighbors believe, he replied, 
“This is only a dormitory, but we teach 
the Koran to anyone who asks.” 

Besides (he Koran courses, military 

commanders and secularist civilians 
have focused their displeasure on re- 
ligious grammar schools and high 
schools. Those academies first appeared 
decades ago to train imams, who lead 
Muslim prayers, and other Islamic 

In 1996, L6 invested over US$9 billion to grow its business. 


Armed Groups Ordered 
To Disband in Chechnya 

GROZNY. Russia — The Chechen president 
on Sunday ordered armed groups in his republic 
disbanded as Chechens celebrated the signing 
of a formal peace treaty with Moscow. 

President Aslan Maskhadov announced the 
move at a rally in the town of Stariye Atagi. 
south of Grozny, at which Chechens cele- 
brated the treaty signing on May 12. Russian 
news agencies reported? 

Mr. Maskhadov said that now that the long 
confrontation wiih Moscow was over, 
Chechens should show the world they can live 
peacefully and lawfully as they build their own 
independent state. For this the republic must be 
demilitarized, he said, according to Itar-Tass. 
.MI Chechen fighters will be given the 

chance to join the newly forming Dzhokar 
Dudayev Na 

National Guard, and others can join 
the police, he said. (AP) 

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Thatcher Doesn "t Like 

Blair Opening to IRA 

WASHINGTON — Former Prime Minister 
Margaret Thatcher on Sunday sent a blunt 
message ol opposition to the new Labour 
government over its decision to open talks with 
Sinn Fein, the political arm of the Irish Re- 
publican Army, without preconditions. 

“I do not like it.” Mrs. Thaicher said in a 
U.S. television interview. "You do not talk to 
people who support violence without getting 
an undertaking from them that violence will 
cease, at any rate during the talks.” 

Prime Minister Tony Blair last week offered 
talks between British officials and Sinn Fein 
without demanding a formal rRA cease-fire 

His offer softened a ban the British. Irish and 
U.S. governments clumped on contacts with 
Sinn Fein after the IRA ended a 17-month 
truce in February 1996 in its war against 
British role of Northern 1 reland. i Rchtcrs) 

Pope Fetes 77th Birthday 
And Hopes to Reach 100 

ROME — A jovial, hcahhy-looking Pope 
John Paul 11 marked his 77th birthday Sunday, 
saying that although he was approaching his 
"sunset.” he hoped to live to be 100. 

The pontiff was feted by children and other 
worshipers of a Rome parish at one of his 
regular Sunday morning visits io churches in 
the Italian capital. 

Addressing the children, who asked him 
what his birthday promise was. he replied: 
“To be good.” 

When the children chanted the Polish birth- 
day refrain "sin hit." he said: “Do you know- 
that ‘sto lat’ means 'may you live 100 years’? 
Well then. I’ve got 23 to go. Let’s hope so. 
Ti me passes. ’ ’ ( R enters i 

The EU 
This Week: 

Intern, III,, llcnil, I Inbuilt 
Significant events in the fittifpcun Union 
this neck: 

• Foreign ministers meet in The Hague on 
Tuesday to review the first full draft of new 
Union treaty that ELI leaders hope to complete 
in Amsterdam ite\t month. 

• ELI leaders gather for an informal summit 
in Noordwijk. the Netherlands, oil Friday to 
give a final push In treaty talks. The meeting 
will give Prime Minister Tony Blair his first 
opportunity to demonstrate a more inncili- 
atory British stance on l : .uro}> issues. 

• 1 he F.iirope:tn Lihii mission was expected 
to announce iisauiitruM ruling tin the proposed 
link-up ul British Airways and American Air- 
lines on Wednesday. U has indicated it will 
request the two carriers m give up hundreds of 
lakcult ami landing sluts at London's Heath- 
row Airport to (osier competition. 

For the Eurouj 
Poor Marks, : 

But It’s Trying 

By Celestine Bohlen 

New York Times Service 

ROME — If Prime Minister Romano 
Prodi were still m school, he would be 
the kind of pupil who. arrives in. -.fee 
classroom early, gets his homework 
done on time, puts his hand up miront of . 
the teacher’s nose — and still fails togdt 
straight A’s. 

In this case, the evaluation is coming 
□ot from Italian voters but from, die 
country's northern European neighbors 
— Germany in particular. Despite thp 
efforts of Mr. Prodi 's center-left gov- 

ernment, they continue to give Italypoor 
marks as a fiscal partner for the planderi 

al partner 

introduction in 1999 of a common, 
pean currency known as the euro.„ . 1 

Mr. Prodi is left- wondering, win 
more he can do. A former economk^ 
professor who entered politics just two 
years ago, he has held office for more 
than a year in a country where, far the 
last 50 years, governments on average 
lasted only nine months. • . . .. 

In his brief time, he has sticceeaedm 
halving Italy’s budget deficit, bringing 
it within range of the requirement 7-ne 
more than 3 percent of gross domestip 
product. — set for joining the cpmmoH 

Recently, in a two-hour television, 
special, he announced a public camr 
paign to trim pensions, the opening 

round in a long-expected structural re- 
Jv's welfare sta 

scholars. But their numbers have grown 
in recent years to more than 600, and the 
military says they now produce at least 
10 times more graduates each year than 
there are places for imams and religious 

form of Italy ’s welfare state. 

But each week seems to bring more 
bad news for Italy 's hopes to qualify as k 
founding member of the euro club. From 
Brussels, the capital of the European 
Union, come periodic reports showing 
Italy Jagging in budget-deficit goads. ' 

From Germany come skeptical 
noises from bankers and politicians. , 
The new British prime minister, Tony 
Blair, recently left Italy off a list 
Europe's top economic powers, thou 

the country’s gross domestic product 
>f his 

outstrips that of his own. 

Like many Italians, Mr. Prodi accepts 
much of this as the residue of Italy's 
reputation for reckless public spending, 
unsteady institutions and an easygoing 

With the German elections next year 
falling smack in the middle of the euro 
timetable, Mr. Prodi sees the coming 
test for Italy as more political than eco- 

“In Germany, any politician has to 
listen to a public opinion that thinks that 
the Deutsche mark is the best currency 
in the world, that will give it up only for 
another strong currency and that thinks 
that any links to the Italian lira will only 
weaken the currency,” he said in an 

“We have two ways to deal with the 
prejudice. We can either give up — 
which is impossible — or show that we 
can stick it oul That is why I am adam- 
ant, why I never have had a moment's 
hesitation, why I keep making it clear 
that we will follow all the steps.” 

Getting into the first round of mon- 
etary union has been a steadfast goal of 
the Prodi government, which was elected 
in April 1996 as the first governing co-r 
alition to include the mainstream branch 
of Italy's former Communist Party. 

It is also the issue that has thrown int 
sharp relief the government 's reliance K, 
Parliament on a minority party, the Re- 
founded Communist Party, which is op- 
posed to cuts in pensions and other 

Italy is not alone in finding it difficult 
— politically and socially — to meet the 
criteria set down for monetary union by 
the Maastricht treaty of 1992. The call 
by President Jacques Chirac of France 
for early parliamentary elections is an 
attempt to win a mandate for the painful 
belt-lightening required by Maastricht. 
Germany's political parties are now try- 
ing to reach a consensus on another 
round of budget cuts. 

Yet Italy alone has not been hit with a 
wave of Euroskepticism, even after the 
imposition of a one-year ’’Euro-tax” in 
an effort by the Prodi government to 
slash the deficit. 

“No public opinion is as in favor of 
Europe as we are." Mr. Prodi said. “We 
still remember the Italy of one gen- 
eration ago. an Italy without Europe. 
We came out of the war in a miserable 
way. and now we are where we are — 
with a gross national product that ranks 
between France and Britain. And that is 
all because of Europe, because of the 
enlargement of the market" 

But a new report issued by the EarM\ 
pean Commission found that Italy has w 
do much more to bring its 1 998 deficit to 
the ? percent threshold. The report re- 
commended “structural measures with 
a permanent impacr on the budget” — 
measures that are likely to run into op- 
position from Mr. Prodi ’s hard-line 
Communist allies. 

Other European countries have re- 
ceived similar warnings, but. acconiing 
to news reports. Spain and Portugal — 
the two other southern European coun- 
tries vying for entry into the currency 
union ■— got better marks. 

The finals for euro qualification will 
take place early next year, when the EU 
finance ministers review economic stai? 
istics for 1997. Still, most experts agree 
that each country's fiscal track record 
will be judged much earlier. 

. But there are some Germans who 
dispute the popularly held notions tha^. 
(lie new European currency would 14;: 
better off without Italy. Hans Olaf Hen- 
kel. head of the leading German in- 
dustrial association, told the Italian 
newspaper L;t Repubblica recently .lW 
excluding Italy — Europe's third larged 
economy — would have dangerous im- 
plications for hoth France and Germany, 
which would suffer if the lira, excluded 
from the euro, were to fall in value. . 

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Arafat Calls on Clinton 
> To Intervene in ‘Crisis’ 

ByBarton Gel I man 

Clmton declaring the envoy's mission a 
Mr ‘ C, ' n,on for his 

S;Z“t dL * lrd ,srae,i - 

achieving any progress." the PaJeslin- 

SS^kJS!'- accordins 10 e,!<:erp,s 

cnsis in the peace process has 
deepened and threatens all our achieve- 
ments, he wrote, adding, "Mr. Pres- 
ident, times are difficult and this is the 
moment ro save ihe process. We expect 
you to intervene to prowci it." 

The letter, which included several 
criticisms of Mr. Ross, followed two 
worths of increasingly open Arab dis- 
content with U.S. policy in the Middle 
East and with Mr. Ross in particular. In 
a meeting Friday afternoon at Mr. 
Ross s hotel room, according to offi- 
cials present, the Palestinian negotiators 
Mahmoud Abbas and Saeb Erekat told 
Mr. Ross bluntly that they regarded him 
as pushing “an Israeli agenda." 

Mr. Ross, according to knowledge- 
able officials, told the Palestinians that 
Mr. Arafat could not pressure the U.S. 
government by refusing to meet with 


Mr. Ross also defended himself 
against the charge of pro-Israel bias, 
saying no one speaks more bluntly thaii 
he does to Prime Minister Benjamin 
Netanyahu of Israel about U.S. dis- 
agreements with Israeli settlement 
policy in the West Bank and about le- 
gitimate Palestinian concerns. 

Hours before Mr. Ross's departure 
for Washington on Friday night. Mr. 
Arafat reversed course and invited him 
to a meeting in Nablus. 

' A Western diplomat briefed on that 
meeting said it “was very usefhl for 

UiMnniT fha oar * v 

maintain diplomatic contacts with Pal- 

He was referring to Secretary of State 
Madeleine Albright; Defease Secretary 
William Cohen; Mr. Ross; Mr. Ross's 
deputy, Aaron Miller, and the U.S. am- 
bassador to Israel, Martin Indyk. 

Mr. Ross, Mr. Miller and Mr. Indyk 
are Jewish. Mrs. Albright, who said she 
recently discovered her parents were 
Jewish, was raised as a Catholic and 
converted in adulthood to the Episcopal 
Church. Mr. Cohen, whose father was 
Jewish, does not identify as a member of 
the faith. 

Senior Palestinian officials said in 
interviews offered on condition of an- 
onymity that they had lost confidence in 
Mr. Ross and believed it was time for a 
new American envoy. 

“President Arafat's position is that 
Dennis Ross has railed," a member of 
the Palestinian leader's inner circle 

Tbe A in K ua d Pnm 

Azam Azam, light, an Israeli Arab accused of spying in Egypt, and his alleged Egyptian confidant, Emad Abdel 
Hamid Ismael appearing in court Sunday in Cairo. On trial since April 24, tbe two say they are innocent. 

Israelis Play Down 6 Spying 9 Quarrel With the U.S. 

By Barton Gellman 

Wjgfttojgfgii Post Service 

JERUSALEM — Israel has informed 
the United States that an intercepted 
conversation between Israeli intelli- 
gence agents that led the FBI to suspect 
a senior U.S. official was passing sen- 
sitive information to Israel was an in- 
nocent reference ro above-board chan- 
nels of cooperation, officials from both 
countries say. 

The account marks the first formal 
effort by Israel to explain its position in 
the case. 

The Clinton administration has given 
no public indication of whether It ac- 
cepts the Israeli explanation. But a U.S. 
official in Washington said the admin- 
istration had accepted it as plausible and 

was inclined to believe it in the absence 
of any further evidence developed by an 
FBI investigation that has been under 
way for several months. 

Even as Israel sought to allay U.S. 
suspicions, its ambassador in Washing- 
ton recommended that Prime Minister 
Benjamin Netanyahu summon the U.S. 
ambassador in Tel Aviv for a protest 
over U.S. eavesdropping on Israel. 

In a diplomatic cable disclosed by the 
Yedioth Aharon orb newspaper and au- 
thenticated by Israeli officials, Eliahu 
Ben Elissar, the Israeli ambassador, 
urged that Mr. Netanyahu protest the 
“wiretapping and secret surveillance” 
of Israeli officials in Washington and 
demand a halt to the FBI inquiry. 

The FBI opened the investigation in 
January after the National Security 

Agency intercepted a discussion of a 
sensitive U.S. diplomatic document be- 
tween a senior Israeli intelligence of- 
ficer in Washington and a superior. The 
conversation referred to someone code- 
named “Mega" in a way officials said 
suggested that Mega may be someone in 
the U.S. government who has provided 
information to Israel. 

A source who read tbe National Se- 
curity Agency transcript said the in- 
telligence officer reported to his su- 
perior that Mr. Ben Elissar asked him 
“to go to Mega to get a copy” of a 
confidential letter from Warren Chris- 
topher, secretary of state at the time, to 
Yasser Arafat, the Palestinian leader. 
The superior rejected the request, reply- 
ing, "This is not something we use 
Mega for.” 

vkrlearing the air.' 
" Since Israel : 

* Since Israel started construction in 
March of a new Jewish neighborhood in 
East Jerusalem, and the United States 
twice vetoed UN Security Council res- 
olutions condemning the move, Pales- 
tinians have spoken ever more darkly 
about the U.S. policy team. 

Freih Abu Medein, who holds the 
justice portfolio in Mr. Arafat's Pal- 
estinian Authority, said last month that 
“five Zionist Jews” were running U.S. 
Middle East policy and added that it was 
implausible that a nation die size of tbe 
United States could find no one else to 

Robert Campbell, Former Chief of Newsweek, Is Dead at 79 

New York Times Service 

Robert Campbell, 79, a former chair- 
man, publisher and president of News- 
week magazine, died of Parkinson’s 
disease Monday in Rancho Santa Fe, 

Mr. Campbell, who spent three de- 
cades with Newsweek before he retired 
in 1979, began his career with the 
magazine as an advertising salesman in 
California. After holding a broad range 
of executive posts, in 1966 he was 

named managing director of Newsweek 
International. Six years later he was 
appointed publisher of Newsweek. He 
added the title, of president in 1975 and 
became chairman the following year. 

Mr. Campbell was a graduate of 
Northwestern University, a fighter pilot 
during World War II and was involved 
in tiie Berlin airlift in 1948-49. He was 
recalled to active duty during the 
Korean War and held the rank of bri- 
gadier genera] (retired) in the air force. 

Prasit Lulitanon, 87, one of tbe 
founders of tbe English-language 
Bangkok Post and a leading journalist 
who spent nine years in jail as a political 
prisoner, has died of leukemia, the Post 
said Sunday. 

SaadaQah Wannous. 56, whose 
caustic plays and social criticism about 
tiie Arabs' political decline made him 
one of the Arab world’s top playwrights, 
died of cancer Thursday in Damascus. 

In the explanation delivered to Wash- 
ington. Israeli officials said Mega is tbe 
nickname tbe Mossad intelligence ser- 
vice uses for the Israel desk officer of 
the CIA. The Mossad station in Wash- 
ington maintains close working rela- 
tions with that officer, and, according to 
Israel's official account, Mr. Ben-Elis- 
sar suggested that channel for trans- 
mitting Israel's request to see tiie Chris- 
topher letter. 

According to an Israeli official, Israel 
conveyed that explanation to Washing- 
ton after Attorney General Janet Reno 
confirmed May 8 that the FBI was in- 
vestigating the Mega case. U.S. officials 
could not confirm that sequence. 

In public explanations of the affair, 
Israeli officials have scoffed at the al- 
leged secrecy of the Christopher letter to 
Mr. Arafat, emphasizing that Mr. Net- 
anyahu knew its contents because Den- 
nis Ross, tbe U.S. special envoy ,-read it 
aloud (o him. Tbe letter offered CJ.S. 
assurances to the Palestinians after suc- 
cessful negotiations to withdraw Israeli 
troops from most of tiie West Bank city 
of Hebron. 

Urey also said the newspaper 
Ha'aretz published quotations from the 
letter Jan. 31, arguing that Mr. Ben 
Elissar could have had no motive for 
using extraordinary means to obtain iL 
The intercepted conversation, however, 
took place in the second week of Janu- 
ary, before Ha’aretz published the quo- 


Iraqis Will Receive 
Syrian Delegation 

DAMASCUS — Syria will send 
a high-ranking economic delega- 
tion to Iraq, a step that suggests 
improved relations between two 
countries that have been at odds for 
nearly 20 years. 

Tbe delegation will reach Iraq on 
Monday for a four-day visit that is 
expectai to focus on possible Syr- 
ian exports to Iraq under the - UN 
oil-for-food deal that began in 

Sanctions imposed after Iraq in- 
vaded Kuwait in 1990 prevent 
flights to Iraq, so the delegation 
must cross the Syrian-Iraqi border, 
which has been closed since 1980, 
Syrian officials said. (AP) 

Algeria Prepares 
For June 5 Vote 

ALGIERS — President Li amine 
Zeroual officially dissolved tire 
country's transitional legislature 
Sunday, two weeks ahead of a gen- 
eral election in Algeria. 

The June 5 vote will be the first 
genera] election in Algeria since the 
start of the five-year conflict be- 
tween Islamic militants and the au- 
thorities, in which it is estimated that 
60,000 people have been killed. 

State radio said Mr. Zeroual had 
included in his farewell speech to 
the outgoing National Transitional 
Council an homage to the deputies 
present, and to the “martyrs of 
duty" — deputies allegedly killed 
by Islamic extremists. (AFP) 

Mexico Prosecutor 
Is Seized in Spam 

MEXICO CITY — The author- 
ities in Spain have arrested tire se- 
nior official who was prosecuting 
Mexico’s most sensitive murder 
and corruption cases until his dis- 
missal and disappearance after 
charges of rigging evidence, the 
Mexican government announced. 

Mexico will seek the extradition 
of tire former prosecutor, Pablo 
Chapa Bezanilla. to face charges of 
criminal association, illegal ex- 
humation of a body and other counts, 
tbe Mexican attorney general said. 

He is accused of taking part in a 
conspiracy to plant a body on a 
ranch belonging to Raul Salinas, 
the brother of former President Car- 
los Salinas, to frame him in a 1994 
assassination. (NYTj 





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Elite Establishment Egghead Eupatrids 

By W illiam Safire 

W ASHINGTON — As is well 
known (as Communists used to 
say) the world is run by a snobbish, 
arrogant clique of rich and powerful 
aristocrats — a network of the well- 
born and over-educated — who main- 
tain a stranglehold on the all-powerful 
media and sneer at downtrodden com- 
moners condemned to a lifetime in 
entry-level jobs flipping Bilderber- 

Welcome to the international lan- 
guage of populist resentment. 

“Netanyahu as victim of the media 
. elite" headlined U.S. News, using the 
word elite as T.S. Elior did in 1 948 with 
the £hrase "an eMe- governed soci- 
ety.’ The conservative Israeli prime 
minister was reported to have used a 
Hebrew slang term — branja — to 
derogate what the newsmagazine 
called “the liberal, secular, moneyed 
elite centered in North Tel Aviv.” 

As the most popular synonym for 
the Establishment — a term attributed 
in 1945 to the ’20s novelist Ford Ma- 
dox Ford but popularized by the British 
political commentator Henry Fairiie in 
1955 — elite has a paradoxical ety- 
mology. It comes from the Latin eli- 
gere. “to elect,” and became a noun 
meaning “elect, choice,” but now 
means the opposite of "elected" — 
indeed, unelected is a common com- 
plaint of outsiders about insiders. 

Although elite as a noun can be used 
proudly, elitist, the noun and adjective, 
and elitism, the nominative are pe- 
jorative: the sociologist David Reis- 
man wrote in 1950 that Sigmund Freud 
* ’ shared with Nietzshe and Carlyle ele- 
ments of an elitist position." 


Russia has been rich in character- 
izations of the inside wielders of 
power. From the intelligentsia of a 
century ago fused by revolutionaries to 
mean “the educated bourgoisie”) to 
the nomenklatura of the Soviet era to 
the praviashchiy klas more recently, 
the leadership class has long been rec- 
ognized and resented. 

Today’s term is isieblbhment. ac- 
cording to Natasha Simes of Johns 
Hopkins in Washington, and elitnaia 
midiia, a term every American radio 
talk-show host will readily recognize. 
Mafiozny, in addition to its sense of 

N'koJic Aicm/tHT 

“criminal," also means “powerful; 
united in a cause." 

In the 70s, our home-grown elit- 
naia midiia were lumped with the elit- 
ist academic “effete corps of impudent 
snobs” by Spiro Agnew in a phrase 
created by speech writer Pat Buchanan. 
(Effete, meaning “pampered, decad- 
ent” was taken as homophobic by its 
confusion with effeminate, criticism 
rejected by the vice president with 
“check your diction ary.“) 

Insider was first used in an 1848 
book about Wall Street stock trading, 
playing off Jane Austen's 1800 term 
outsider. Though some media elitists 
pride themselves on being insiders, the 
word carries a sinister connotation to 
the auslanders: although the Spanish 
woid camarilla is the equivalent to the 
British old boy network, the Mexican 
columnist Jorge Castaneda prefers the 
English terni insider. 

m France, the influentials and lords 
of creation traipsing through the cor- 
ridors of power are called les gros 
bonnets, equivalent to the American 
top brass, mom brass hats, for “fancy 
military helmets.' ’ or bigwigs. . 

In the past, populist resentment fo- 
cussed on a social aristocracy that be- 
came a political class: the Bourbons 
(from a town in France, Bourbon 1’ Ar- 
ch ambault. that spawned a family that 

long held the throne) were segrega- 
tionists who gained control of tbe 
Democratic Party in the post-Civil War 
South during Reconstruction. The 
Brahmins(from the Hindu caste furthest 
from “untouchables") became an ar- 
tack word of Irish politicians in Boston 
in the late 19th century against wealthy 
and socially prominent blue bloods. 

But wealth and high birth — as 
exemplified by the eupatrids. or hered- 
itary aristocracy of ancient Athens — 
are no longer the hallm arks of the inner 
circlers. Now what turns us off is bran- 
dished brains. 

‘ Like old boy network and the Es- 
tablishment,' the newer chattering 
classes is British, from die early 
Thatcher era. popularized by Alan 
Watkins of the Observer, and has 
traveled the Atlantic to be adopted 
here. Nicholas Comfort, in his “Brew- 
er’s Politics’-' { 1 993) defines it as ‘ ‘the 
intermeshing community of left-of- 
center and middle-class intellectuals, 
especially writers, dramatists, and 
political pundits, who believe their 
views should carry enormous weight 
and have considerable access to the 
BBC and much of the media.” 

Though intellectuals rarely gain 
power and liberal governments are be- 
coming a rarity, liberal intellectuals are 
resolutely seen as part of the power 
structure. (White power structure was 
a ’60s civil-rights term, influenced by 
C. Wright Mills' 1956 title, “The 
Power Elite.") 

Hirsute anti-intellectuals have con- 
centrated on the lack of hair on the 
foreheads of tbe targets of their re- 
sentment: high-brow was coined in 
1908 in reaction to the disdainful low 
brow, coined two years before to de- 
scribe the uneducated. Egghead was 
defined in a 1908 letter mom thepoet 
Carl Sandburg as “slang here for ed- 
itorial writers"; it was popularized in 
1952 by the columnist Stewart Alsop. 
quoting his nonjournalist brother John 
saying “all tbe eggheads love [Adlai} 
Stevenson. But how many eggheads 
do you think there are?” 

President Clinton deplores ‘ ‘a world 
in which Big Bird is an elitist and right- 
wing media magnates are populists." 
He knows who takes the lead in blast- 
ing the powers that be. Catch us on the 
media: we breakers of the Brahmin 
branja are established as die anti-E$- 
tablishment elite. 

New York Times Sen-ice 


■ By Alan Truscott 

A star Italian pair was on 
track to score a remark- 
Jable double in the Cavendish 
.Calcutta tournament in Las 
2' Vegas recently. Alfredo Ver- 
,sace and Lorenzo Lauria were 
‘lying second at the midpoint 
iof the Cavendish Pairs. 

They were betting favor- 
ites in the Calcutta auction 
that preceded the event, fetch- 
-ing $64,000 in a pool that 
totaled a record $1,288,500. 
JAnd they won the Cavendish 
.Teams event, along with 
JMassimo Lanzarotti and An- 
(drea Buratti. 

* Following were the scores 
Ja s final pairs sessions began: 
* 1. Peter Weichsel of En- 
cinitas, California, and Mike 

Albert of Omaha, 1773 imj 

2. Versace and Lauria 141 

3. Hany Tudor of Miami and 
Michael Seamon of Miami 
Beach, 1312; 4. Pyotr Gawrys 
of Poland and Sam Lev of 
Forest Hills, Queens, 1099; 5. 
Sidney Lazard of New Or- 
leans and Bart Bromley of 
Chicago, 1068. Of the pre- 
tournament favorites, the 
Italians were the-only ones in 

On the diagramed deal, a 
tricky opening lead paid off 
for Joe Silver of Montreal, 
long recognized as one of the 
most imaginative experts in 
the game. Against a contract 
of two spades, he chose to 
lead die club six, an unortho- 
dox card. Knowing Silver’s 
reputation. South put up 
dummy's king to allow for a 

tricky underiead of the ace. 

East was Kyle Larsen of 
San Francisco, and he took 
his ace and shifted to a heart. 
West won with the queen, led 
the club jack, holding the 
trick, and returned a low heart 
to his partner's king. 

When die club seven was 
led from East, South was un- 
able to fathom what was go- 
ing on in the club suit. It 
seemed that West must have 
at least one more club, so he 
ruffed with the spade eight. 
Silver happily overruffed 
with the nine and had the 
trump ace as the setting 

South could have made his 
contract by ruffing the third 
club high, but that would have 
put him in jeopardy if the 
trumps had split badly. 


4 Q 76 
S’ J 108 
♦ 08 2 


♦ 42 

9 043 

♦ AQ754 


♦ KJ10B6 

0 K 10 8 7 

♦ 103 

Neither side was vnlneraMaTheMd- 



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NAZIMOVA: A Biography 

By Gavin Lambert. 432 pages. $32 JO 

Reviewed by Wendy Smith 

A LMOST forgotten today. Alla 
Nazimova was once revered as the 
greatest actress on the American stage. 
As Gavin Lambert points out in his 
competent but superficial biography, 
during Iter 50-year career Nazimova 
twice managed to fuse groundbreaking 
wotk in modem classics with commer- 
cial success. 

From her 1906 English-language de- 
but in “Hedda Gabler” through the 
American premiere of “Little Eyolf” in 
1910, the Russian-born actress made Ib- 
sen accessible to her adopted country's 
theatergoers in national tours that netted 

In 1928, after frittering away years in 
silent movies typecast as an exotic, she 
triumphed again onstage in “The Cherry 
Orchard," proving that age had only 
deepened her interpretive gifts in a series 
of hits that climaxed with her 1935 pro- 
duction of “Ghosts." 

She was a playwright’s actress. Noel 
Coward. Thornton Wilder. Tennessee 
Williams and Clifford Odets all admired 
her ability to yoke a star’s charisma to the 
service of a script, which she analyzed 
with searching intelligence and brought 
to life with powerful emotion. 

Eighteen-year-old Eugene O'Neill 
saw Nazimova’s “Hedda” 10 times (“It 
gave me my first conception of a modem 
theatre where truth might live”); 25 
years later, she played Christine Mannon 
in “Mourning Becomes Electra." 

George Bernard Shaw wanted her for 
the 1923 New York production of 
“Saint Joan." but scheduling conflicts 
with d lucrative music-hall tour pre- 
vented her from taking the part. 

T HE clash of Shaw and vaudeville 
was typical of Nazimova’s profes- 
sional life. Although she didn't become 
a U.S. citizen until she was 48, in 1 927. 
her story is very American. 

Serious ambitions compromised by 
the desire to make lots of money, talent 
lavished equally on masterpieces and 
claptrap, damaging relationships with 

executives who knew how to exploit her. 
appeal but couldn't nurture her artistry 
— Nazimova would have had plenty to 
talk about with Ehis Presley. 

Gavin Lambert, a veteran chronicler 
of Hollvwood mores (“Inside Daisy 
Clover." “GWTW: The Making of 
Gone with the Wind." etc.), has little 
interest in such connections. 

His readable narrative of Nazimova s 
life seldom goes beyond particulars to 
plumb her complex personality or the 
beliefs that shaped her art. 

Nazimova *s fiery nature is most 
strongly conveyed in the early chapters, 
which draw heavily on her unpublished 
autobiography to delineate tangled re- 
lationships with a brutal father who beat 
and ridiculed her. an older sister who 
was his favorite, a passive brother, and 
an unhappy mother who vanished when 
Alla was 5. 

Lambert also does a nice job of un- 
tangling fact from myth in Nazimova 's 

Nazimova was a play- 
wright’s actress wiio 
brought a script to life 
with powerful emotion. 

description of her work at the Moscow 
Art Theater, where she played minor 
parts as an apprentice. 

She gained greater fame Touring the 
Russian provinces with her lover, the 
brilliant, alcoholic actor Pavel Orlenev, 
but it's here that the book begins to lose 
its way. 

Lambert knows how to lay out a com- 
plicated plot line, as he shows the couple 
burning their bridges at home by pro- 
ducing a play denouncing government- 
sponsored anti-Semitism, then embark- 
ing on an overseas tour that brought 
them to New York in 1905. but he lets 
details overwhelm what should be a key 
section on Nazimova's artistic devel- 

His consideration of her first English- 
language performances (Hedda. Nora in 
“A Doll’s House." Hilda Wangel in 
“TTie Master Builder") is decent, re- 
lying on reviews and Nazimova's own 
comments to spotlight her ability to de- 

liver a play’s social message while 
sounding her character’s psychological 
depths. - . ... 

Nazimova’s Hollywood yeah 
brought her few roles worth considering, 
but Lam ben could profitably have spent 
more time elucidating what kept. her. j 
there so long — perhaps a salary higher " 
than Mary Pickford’s is sufficient ex- 
planation — and drastically cut his 
lengthy accountsofher affaire with other . 
women. (Although she lived for years 
with a British actor.whom she calledher 
husband. Nazimova was primarily ho- 
mosexual by this time.) 

E SPECIALLY with respect to ’“Ca- 
mille” and “Salome,’’ the overetyl-" ■ 
ized extravaganzas into which Nazi-' 
mova sank her own money toward the 
end of her silent film-career, a discussion 
of her motivation would have been help- 

By the time we reach her 1928 
comeback in the Civic Repertory 
Theatre's production of “The Cherry 
Orchard.” Lambert has given up. on 
analysis altogether in favor of a gossipy 
depiction of the Civic as “a lesbian 
theatre’ ' at which the actress met Qlcsca - 
Marshall, her companion for the rest of 
her life. . 

A strong section on Nazimova’s di- 
rection of ‘ ‘ Ghosts” suggests thafsomejM 
times the absence of interpretation is du 
■to lack of source material, but a sensitive 
researcher always make deductions, 
from reviews, and the lack of focus Js 
Lambert's fault alone. - ' = t j # : - 

Chapters on the years before Naa- 
mova’s death in 1945 give, a similar 
impression of being thrown together by 
an author out of steam. 

There’s no question that Gavin Lam- 
bert has exhaustively chronicled. Alla 
Nazimova’s dramatic life. Unfortu- 
nately, the result is a welter of facts that 
will serve better as raw material for a 
more thoughtful biographer in the fu- 

Wendy Smith, author of “ Real Life 
Drama: The Group Theatre and Amer- 
ica. 1931-1940." writes a monthly 
column on biographies for the online 
bookseller She wrote this 
for The Washington Post. 

Vet led (he dub six. 


i Meal at boot 

s Sell tickets 

10 Sam the of 

GO's pop 

14 ‘Beetle Bailey* 

19 It's a no-no 
it Car with a meter 

17 Lose one's 

18 Israeli guns 
M Tennis great 

9i Bohemian 
Z 2 ‘Gunsmoke’ 
star James 
24 Vulgar one 

as Tyke 
27 70'5-30's 
Yankee pitching 

94 1 m us's medium 
37 Goods 
sa'BUie" bird 

39 Abba of Israel 

40 Opera 

4t Stupor 
42— 'easier 

43 Sheets, 

44 Put on the 

«S Old instrument 
of punishment 



Solution to Puzzle of May 16 



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•3 * the Mood 

tor Love- 

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1 Treats cynically 
a Lucy's best 

a Children's 

author H. L 

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9 Audiophile's 

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J -It's ■" 

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Computerized Testing for Business Schools: Fast, Flexible, but Pricey 

By MitchelTManin 

1 "Wrajfttfm/ flirjIJ TV,*..,— ■ 

the^SduSf The bad nevi ’ s about 


lest, required for entrance io 1 ?00 
wtSTisSr 0 * 1 pr ? erarns around"ihe 

’ s ** * e price is going up. The 
S°°jJ° e £ s ,s ^at applicants will be able 
to take the test whenever they want and 
(F. ™« of, he results 
fiwshin^ instead of waiting the tradi- 
tional six weeks. 

««T h r^ Gra ^ Ual t- ly ? ana S emenI Admis- 

S£s &A? Ch devel0ps *“■ over ' 
sees the GMAT, is compuierizing most 

ot its system around the world Oct. 1. 

Only a handful of the approximately 

400 sites worldwide will not use com- 

concemf gely because P° we r- supply 

The cost will rise to S125 from the old 
base pnce of S84. although David 
Wilson, president of the not-for-profit 
'council, said the average price paid was 
ill*, after late-regisiranoji and other 
supplemental charges were added. 

Last year, about 203,000 people took 
the test, 72.000 of them from outside the 
^Jmted States. This year, Mr. Wilson 
jpajd. the overall number is expected to 
jump to 225,000. in part because some 

• • Q 


prospective test-takers are trying to beat 
the October conversion to computers. 
Mr. Wilson ascribed this to fear of an 
unknown system rather than any in- 
herent disadvantages in the computer- 
ized version. 

In fact, he said there would be several 
attractive facets of the new system for 
business-school applicants. For one 
thing, the computers will adjust the level 
of questions to the test-takers' abilities. 
This means that well-prepared applic- 
ants can skip some low-level questions 
and either finish the test quickly or spend 
more time on the difficult subjects. 

Another improvement, he said, was 
that a prospective business-school stu- 
dent could decide to take the test re- 
gister and complete the examination in a 
day. That he continued, is an attractive 
option for some working people who are 
considering a return to school for a mas- 
ter's degree in business administration. 

Most of the examination consists of 
multiple-choice questions, and these 
can be graded almost immediately un- 
der the new system. Mr. Wilson said. 
Answers are transmitted from the test 
centers to the Educational Testing Ser- 
vice in Lawrence Township. New Jer- 
sey. which administers the examination. 
These con be graded and returned within 

minutes. Mr. Wilson said, but essay 
questions must be read by human re- 
viewers. so the entire score cannot be 
immediately determined. 

Computerization will make it diffi- 
cult to cheat on the test, Mr. Wilson said, 
adding chat the testing centers also 
would have video security and on-site 

Last year, U.S. authorities arrested a 
California resident on charges he had 
arranged for expert test-takers to sit for 
examinations, including the GMAT. on 
the East Coast and then transmit the 
questions to applicants on the West 
Coast, where the sessions began three 
hours later. The new system would 
make such operations far less likely. 

Do the business schools like the 
change? ”We are elated.” said Sandra 
Kelzenberg. associate director of the 
MBA program at the University of Min- 
nesota's Carlson School of Manage- 
ment. The flexibility of being able to 
take the test on short notice was a major 
advantage, she added, given the dif- 
fering admission dates for graduate 
business schools. 

Mr. Wilson said that demand was 
growing for the GMAT in Western 
Europe, China and Hong Kong, because 
American-style MBA programs were 

popular for multinational companies 
that wanted local executives who were 
familiar with international business 

Last year, 4.130 Chinese citizens 
took the test, and they did well. The 
mean total score was 581 out of a pos- 
sible 800. one of the highest among 
countries. The winner was the Marshall 
Islands, but with only three test-takers, 
its mean score of 677 was not stat- 
istically significant. 

The best score among countries with 
several hundred takers was 585 in Bul- 
garia. Americans did not do outstand- 
ingly welt, scoring 51 1 compared with a 
mean of 500 in ocher countries. Mr. 
Wilson said the fact that two-thirds of 
the test takers were Americans meant 
the aggregate U.S. score had to be close 
to the overall mean. 

Among the large economies, Britons 
fared the best. English citizens scored a 
mean 564, while those Grom Scotland and 
Wales averaged 558 and 557, respect- 
ively. Northern Ireland’s mean was 494 
while the Republic of Ireland was 542. 

The test is only given in English, and 
citizens of anglophone countries and- 
those where English is widely spoken, 
such as the Netherlands and India, 
seemed to have an advantage. 

Mr. Wtison said the council had 
asked overseas business schools wheth- 
er foreign-language versions of the test 
should be developed, but their response 
was ”not at all — English is the lan- 
guage of commerce. The schools 
make allowances, he said, for nonanglo- 
pbones. and Ms. Kelzenberg said the 
University of Minnesota measured for- 
eign applicants against the means for 
their respective countries. 

There may, however, be some cul- 
tural advantages at play. Mr. Wilson 
said, and these are to be studied later this 
year. He said business-school deans 
“intuitively" found that Germans, 
Swiss Germans, and Japanese did not do 
as well on the quantitative portion of the 
GMAT as they did in MBA programs. 
The deans speculated that this was be- 
cause their cultures “reward precision 
rather than speed.” the latter quality 
being important on the test. 

■ Help for Dismissed Employees 

Frank Swoboda of The Washington 
Post reported from Washington: 

You’ve just lost your job. you don’t 
belong to a union and you don't know 
where to rum for help. Enter the Na- 
tional Employee Rights Institute and its 
□ew publication, “Job Rights & Sur- 

vival Strategies, A Handbook for Ter- 
minated Employees.’ ’ 

The guide comes complete wim 
sample letters and forms, addresses of 
various associations involved in Unem- 
ployment law and tips for dealing with a 
range of subjects from legal responses to 
emotional support in a time of crisis. 

The handbook is the result of a de- 
clining labor movement, said Paul To- 
bias. founder and chairman of the or- 
ganization. With only 11 percent of the 
civilian work force in the United States 
represented by unions. Mr. Tobias said 
there was a need to help protect the 
rights of employees who lose their jobs 
through firings, downsizing or techno- 
logical change. 

The highlights of the advice: 

• Stretch out your departure date to 
accumulate more service time and pos- 
sibly fulfill pension requirements. 

• Complain tactfully because em- 
ployers often are willing to expand sev- 
erance and benefit packages to quickly 
resolve an employee’s dissatisfaction 
— unless misconduct is involved. 

• If all else fails, and you plan to take 
your employer to court, get a lawyer. 
“Succeeding in an employment-termin- 
ation lawsuit without a lawyer is vir- 
tually impossible.” the handbook says. 


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The World Food Programme iWFPi is the Food Aid Organization of 
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support administrative budget of $ 100 million annually. WFP 
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The WFP, with headquarters in Rome, Italy and offices throughout the world, has 
vacancies for an initial duration of two years renewable for the following positions: 


Rome. Africa and elsewherer 

The Procurement Officer is responsible to manage and provide technical advise on 
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0.\ PAGES 18-21 

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Theme; The Power of Women 
Topics Health 

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Good Honours Degree Required 
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Karachi International Container Terminal Ltd 
■ Port of Karachi 

Based Karachi, 





Our client, a joint venture between two eminent 
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VIA: have been retained to search ter an experienced 
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International public health consulting firm seeks Id fill the 
position of Deputy Director for Field Activities. Project provides 
technical assistance and training to developing countries in 
family planning commodity logistics management, logistics 
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Cash Auction Privatization Specialists: 
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia 

Development Alternatives. Inc. (DAI) is a leading 
international development consulting firm. We are 
seeking individuals to work in Mongolia for 3 month 
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auction program in- which 15-20 SOE.’s wiJ] be 
privatized. Tasks undertaken will include the 
dissemination of information regarding the enterprises, 
the preparation of the auction, the receipt of bids and 
their opening and ranking and the selection of winners 
and oversight of the sales transactioa Individuals must 
be available to spend 3 months in Mongolia in the 
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7b apply, send curricidum vitae to: 

LcAxm Hager 
Development Alternatives. Inc 
7250 Woodmom Avenue, Sidle 200 
Bethesda, MD 20814 
Fax: 301-718-7968 

PAGE 10 

MONDAY, MAY 19, 1997 





Turkey’s Painful Struggle Between Old and New 

•/ «/ L7C/ .. .... , — ™r,or cnmothino 

Zaire After Mobutu 

STANBUL — Turkish intellectuals 
pensively suggest that their coun- 

By William Pfaff 

try’s future is “either Iran or Algeria. 
If this bleak prediction is true, it raear 

the foreien powers supportine Kurds key’s leadership expresses something 
and fundamentalism. Iran and Syria. like de^arrat Je l^k of comprehen- 
I oet the armv reiterated sion and support they find m Europe. 

President Mobutu Sese Seko no 
doubt fled Kinshasa on Friday to save 
his life and his fortune rather than to 
spare Zaire a final spasm of violence as 
rebel forces closed in on the capital. 
Anything else would have been out of 
character for a man who misruled his 
country for nearly 32 years, impov- 
erishing his people as he skimmed mil- 
lions, perhaps billions of dollars from 
the government to enrich himself. 

His was a destructive and flamboy- 
ant dictatorship, sustained with die 
cynical assistance of the United States 
and France. Few Cold War alliances 
reflected so poorly on those involved. 
Marshal Mobutu ran his resource-rich 
country like a satrap, smothering polit- 
ical opposition, selling off its minerals 
for the benefit of a few and demanding 
a fawning allegiance that often 
bordered on parody. Washington ac- 
cepted the abuses as the price of main- 
taining a Cold War ally, and France 
was happy to use Marshal Mobutu to 
retain its influence and economic links 
in Central Africa. 

Zaire deserves better, but may not 
get it Rebels who have fought a suc- 
cessful seven-month campaign will 
assume power in the days ahead with- 
out governing experience or a clear ' 

commitment to democracy and the 
rule of law. 

Their leader, Laurent Kabila, has 
conducted a scorched-earth offensive, 
permitting the killing of Hutu refugees 
from Rwanda by his Tutsi command- 
ers. Mr. Kabila has assured Western 
diplomats he does not intend to copy 
Marshal Mobutu's methods, but the 
brutal behavior of his followers in re- 
cent months belies those words. 

Mr. Kabila can set a different pattern 
by dealing humanely with the rem- 
nants of the Mobutu court and moving 
(prickly to demonstrate that he is more 
interested in governance than revenge. 
Thousands of Rwandan refugees re- 
main trapped in Zaire, and Mr. Kabila 
must do everything he can to prevent 
his troops from attacking them and 
impeding the work of international re- 
lief organizations. 

It will take years for Zaire to recover 
from the Mobutu regime, even under 
enlightened leadership. Taking a cue 
from the Swiss, an immediate effort 
should be made to freeze his assets 
anywhere he placed them. His fortune 
alone could give Zaire an economic 
boost. The only pity is his sacking of 
Zaire did not end years ago. 


NATO’s Allure 

If this bleak prediction is true, it means 
an end to the nearly century-long effort 
to remake the most important of mod- 
em Islamic societies on modem terms 
and reconcile it with the West. 

Turkey's political and business es- 
tablishment as well as its Intellectuals 
are entirely Westernized in manner and 
style. But a century ago their prede- 
cessors were members of an oriental 
court and ruling apparatus, closer to 
China's than to the European courts 
that were its contemporaries. 

A liberal constitution was imposed 
upon the Ottoman Empire only in 1 908, 
by the “Young Turk” modernizers. 
After Turkey's defeat as a German ally 
in World War L. and the loss of what 
remained of its European empire, Ata- 
tuik — Mustafa Kemal — the maker of 
modem Turkey, abolished the sultan- 
ate in 1922. and in 1924 disestablished 
Islam as state religion. 

His subsequent social and educational 
reforms transformed Turkey, but pre- 
cariously so. Turkey’s very grave cur- 
rent problems originate in the continuing 
tension between modernization and tra- 
dition, particularly traditional religion. 

Hie political society of Turkey has 
been extensively but imperfectly West- 
ernized. The modem party system has 
shallow roots and tends to produce 
governments closely, and sometimes 
corruptly, linked to tbe major com- 

mercial and banking groups of the 
nation, cut off from the peasantry of 
what remains , a poor if rapidly and 
erratically developing country. 

Today’s Turkish government is fur- 
ther distracted by Kurdish nationalism 
and the more radical Kurds' separatist 
movement and terrorism. 

The most important problem today, 
however, is the electoral power of Is- 
lamic fendaroentalism. The Islamist 
party, the Refah or Welfare Party, is 
paradoxically the only modem polit- 
ical organization in Turkey. It has deep 
roots in countryside and village, of- 
fering a program of religio-political 
reform to a population disoriented by 
the forces of modernization. 

The fundamentalists are strong 
enough to have assumed the prime 
ministry a year ago, expediently sup- 

and fundamentalism. Iran and Syria. 
Last Wednesday the army reiterated 
that naval maneuvers with Israel would 
take place despite the prime minister s 

By Rjy 

and Howard ^ 

to ri. 

attempt to annul them. 

The balance is delicate among fun- 

potted by the secular party led by the 
former prime minister, Tansu Ciller, 
well-known in the West. But this co- 
alition acts under the edgy surveillance 
of the Turkish Army, which has always 
considered itself custodian of Ata- 
turk’s vision of a secular and West- 
ernized Turkey. 

Tbe army in 1980 dismissed a ci- 
vilian government It recently has 
stared its own “strategic concept” of a 
Turkey threatened by Islamic radi- 
calism as well as by terrorism (a ref- 
erence to the Kurdish separatists) and 

damentalists. led by Prime Minister 
Necmettin Erbakan, the secular oppo- 
sition parties and the army. The press is 
under pressure. The government is held 
at least indirectly responsible for a re- 
cent raid on a television station, closure 
of a newspaper and interrogation of 
critical journalists. 

Thus far the press has not been in- 
timidated, in part because the two major 
press groups are political forces in their 
own right, with important television and 
banking interests. Publishers as well as 
journalists are volubly hostile to the 
government and have sought the sup- 
port of the foreign press against at- 
tempts to suppress critical journalism. 

The fundamentalist -led government 
and its programs for Islamization of 
education and public life are a new 
obstacle to Turkey’s ambition to be- 
come a part of the European Union. 
Turkey’s EU membership has been ex- 
plicitly opposed by Europe’s Christian 
Democratic parties, and implicitly by 
other EU groups as well. 

Membership was promised Turkey 
in 1 963, and since January 1 996 Turkey 
has had a customs union with tbe EU, 
and of course is a NATO member. The 
secular and Europeanized part of Tur- 

Not many Europeans are open to the 
plea made earlier this year by Jacques - 
Attali, a onetime Bench government : 
official and first president of tbe Euro- 
pean Bank for Reconstruction and De^ 
velopment, that Turkey deserves to be 
welcomed into the EU precisely in order 
to demonstrate to the rest of the Islamic 
world that democratic and secular pol- 
itics will be rewarded by ; membership in 
fee ruling international institutions. 

Should fundamentalism provoke the 
military to take power again, Turkey’s 
relations with the EU will worsen and 
its NATO links will be harmed, the., 
country’s isolation worsened. Its U.S.- 
backed military cooperation agreement 
with Israel contributes to its present 
pariah status in the eyes of orthodox 
Islamic governments and its own fun- 
damentalist voters. 

The way ahead for tbe Turks is ex- 
tremely difficult. In principle Turkey . 
has a leading geopolitical role to play in 
relation to fee Turidsh-speaking states 
of tbe former Soviet Union, and a good 
deal has been done to develop Turkish 
relations with those countries. But fee 
ambition of Atarurk, and of the gen- 
eration that remade the country, was to 
re-establish Turkey as a European 
power — and that is what an inward-.. . 
looking Europe today resists. 

International Herald Tribune. 

© Los Angeles Times Syndicate. 

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One of the chief arguments advanced 
by those who oppose NATO expansion 
is that it will leave a number of coun- 
tries in a “gray zone” of insecurity. 
Those are the nations that would not 
join NATO, at least not in the first wave 
of enlargement, but which have his- 
torical reason to be nervous about Rus- 
sia and to seek security guarantees from 
the West. First and foremost, feat 
would mean Estonia, Latvia and 
Lithuania — the three Baltic republics 
— and Ukraine, outside Russia the 
most populous of tbe old Soviet bloc. 

So it was interesting to hear tire 
president of Ukraine, Leonid Kuchma, 
on the subject of NATO the other day. 
The military alliance “is a factor for 
stability in Europe today,” he told 
Washington Post editors and reporters. 
It has proven that, he said, with its 
peacekeeping operation in the former 
Yugoslavia — where NATO has in- 
tegrated Russian, Ukrainian and Baltic 
troops into its own operation. 

In response to the agreement 
reached by NATO and Russia last 
week, Mr. Kuchma said, "I can only 
welcome and support the idea that Rus- 
sia is leading the way to show an 
example of cooperation with NATO." 
Ukraine, too. he said, is negotiating a 
charter to promote further cooperation 
between it and the alliance, short of 

Ukraine has come to a decision that 
its interests lie in closer integration 

with fee West. NATO membership is 
not in the cards, at least not now, but it 
welcomes NATO's approach to its 
borders. Polls show that most Ukrain- 
ians no longer see NATO as a threat, 
despite years of Soviet propaganda to 
the contrary, and Ukrainian officials 
hold out the hope that Russian opinion 
will similarly, if more slowly, evolve. 

As for Russia, Mr. Kuchma ex- 
pressed optimism about “the Russia of 
Yeltsin — but the Russia of 
Zhirinovsky or Lebed is another mat- 
ter/’ Which vision — the relatively 
liberal Russia of Boris Yeltsin or the 
aggressive and nationalistic one of 
Vl adimir Zhirinovsky — will Russia 
finally accept? “Not even the computer 
which won against Kasparov” could 
predict feat. Mr. Kuchma said. Thus the 
eagerness for Western friends. 

None of this is to minimiz e the 
danger of a gray zone; it exists. So does 
the risk that NATO expansion will 
undermine Russia's democrats. But 
the risks of inaction — which would 
truly leave all former Communist 
countries in a gray zone — is far great- 
er. Nothing testifies to that more elo- 
quently than the fervent desire of prac- 
tically every single one of those 
nations for closer ties with NATO. 
After all, as Mr. Kuchma said, “You 
have to ask why these countries are 
ready to join NATO, but not some 
other alliance." 


For East Asians, Engagement With China Is the Only Option 

>OKYO — A year ago 

A Beijing stunned the worid 
by rattling sabers in fee Taiwan 
Strait Now the People's lib- 
eration Army has moved into 
Hong Kong in preparation for 
the territory’s July 1 handover. 

These are not foreign policy 
abstractions on this side of the 
Pacific. All here know China 
will be an economic, military 
and political giant in the next 
century. How should Asia re- 

The West has as many pre- 
scriptions as there are scholars 
and policymakers offering them, 
with three main schools of 
thought all flying the banner of 

• “Balance of power” 
realists say China is an emerg- 
ing menace that requires unity 
among its potential prey. 

• “Bandwagon” realists 
suggest that any country likely 
to be in conflict with Asia’s 
giant should simply submit to 
its hegemony. 

• “Clash of tivflizatioo " real- 
ists accept China as East Asia’s 

By Takashi Inoguchi 

next leader and advise the rest of 
the world to keep fee Middle 
Kingdom at arm’s length. 

It is hard to see how any of 
these approaches could work to 
East Asia’s benefit. The es- 
sence of the balance of power 
argument is containment It 
worked well last year, when 
U.S. carriers served notice that 
Beijing's military maneuvers in 
the Taiwan Strait were unac- 
ceptably provocative. But con- 
tainment may not be an option 
as China strengthens. 

The bandwagon approach ef- 
fectively advocates "Finlandi- 
zation.” This is dangerous, giv- 
en the nonconfrontational 
stance Japan and other Asian 
nations have adopted toward 
China’s emergence. Concili- 
ation does not have to mean 
Finlandization. But if Asians get 
any softer toward China, 
Beijing could begin objecting to 
any alliances it takes to be anti- 
Chinese in inspiration or intent 

This would put Japan in a 

difficult position. Tokyo and 
Washington are gradually re- 
defining the security treaty 
binding them, with emphasis on 
a greater role for Japan. China 
has already expressed deep con- 
cern about this; in fee end. Ja- 
pan cannot have it both ways. 

But neither can China's 
neighbors afford the cynical ap- 
proach of “civilizationists” 
such as fee Harvard professor 
Samuel Huntington. Tbe West 
may be able to ignore China, but 
from East Asia, benign neglect 
toward the mainland mammoth 
is simply not an option. 

“Realists" aside, consider 
the reality. China is a country of 
great historical traditions, re- 
cently saddled with painful 
memories of national humili- 
ation. It now seems genuinely 
interested in taking its place 
within the Law-abiding commu- 
nity of nations. 

In its quest for prosperity, 
China is becoming ever more 
intertwined in the world's eco- 

nomic, financial and technolo- 
gical institutions. Finally, and 
despite frequent appearances to 
fee contrary, Beijing is at bot- 
tom interested in raising demo- 
cratic consciousness at home — 
if only because the elite knows 
it is fee best way to consolidate 
its leadership. 

It follows easily that if China 
nurtures its institutions, its ex- 
ternal contacts and a modicum 
of democracy, the risk of con- 
flict is reduced. This is what 
policymakers in Japan and else- 
where in East Asia should focus 
on, not the so-called realities 
advanced in fee West. 

Some experts argue that an 
assertive China could drive Ja- 
pan into a confrontational, na- 
tionalistic posture to protect its 
interests. But Japan has down- 
played each instance of Chinese 
aggression, from Beijing's Vi- 
etnam adventure in 1979 to the 
Taiwan Strait incident last year. 

Others say feat as long as Ja- 
pan maintains its economic and 
technological edge, it will col- 
laborate with China out of mer- 

cantile self-interest. But in less 
than a quarter-century China is 
likely to be producing Nobel 
laureates — while surpassing Ja- 
pan in gross national product 

Why not acknowledge feat 
China vrili eventually outstrip 
Japan? With feat in mind, the 
best Japan and fee rest of the t 
region can do is adopt policies 
that encourage China to continue 
deepening its economic interde- -. 
pendence, its engagement wife igft, 
international institutions and its - 
democratic inclinations. 

In short, while vigilance and - 
preparedness are still to be 
stressed throughout fee region, 
East Aria needs to engage 
China — positively, tena- 
ciously and as an equal. West- 
ern realists should recognize the 
simplest law of perspective: de- 
pending on where you stand, fee 
picture changes. 

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- 1 -. a 

Mobutu’s On 
Some Nei 
But Sows 

14 ll Si 

The writer is a professor of 
political science at the Institute 
of Oriental Culture. University 
of Tokyo. He contributed this 
comment to the Herald Tribune. 

No Cause for Celebration A Mideast Puzzle: How to Produce a Palestinian Democracy? 

One of the hazards of protracted 
negotiations is that achieving agree- 
ment can come to overshadow all else, 
including whatever it is that is finally 
agreed to. The deal becomes its own 
reference point. The negotiators and 
hangers-on become so caught up in fee 
process that they lose sight of the 
price, part of which consists of lost 

There's a little of that self-delusion- 
al quality, as well as fee usual volume 
of plain old puffery and spin, sur- 
rounding the U.S. budget deal just an- 
nounced for the second time in two 
weeks wife undiminished fanfare. The 
two sides keep passing around fee 
same box of cigars, but it continues to 
be unclear, at least to us, feat this deal is 
worthy of that much fuss. 

Its virtue is that it pushes the deficit 
in the right direction, but only mod- 
estly. Far from solving the long-range 
fiscal problem, it papers it over, post- 
pones it and in some respects makes it 
worse. Both parties keep talking about 
what their constituencies are going to 
get from the deal, as opposed to what 
they might have to give up because of 
it. Thar tells you something. 

The agreement carefully does not ad- 
dress the long-term cost of the great 
middle-class entitlements — the aid to 
the elderly and disabled in fee form of 
Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid 
— that increasingly drive the budget. It 
would make some important savings in 
both the health care programs by con- 
straining payments to providers, but 
that’s a well to which the government 
can continue to turn only so long. The 
structural imbalances that will intensify 

as fee baby boomers begin to retire not 
that many years from now weren’t 
touched. Too hard, the negotiators de- 
cided; maybe their successors will have 
better luck and more fortitude. 

The deal does include a tax cut, 
however no problem there. The cut will 
add to fee deficit, and the tax bill the 
Republicans have made clear they will 
write — and that the president has made 
clear he will sign — will mainly benefit 
the better-off. It is likely also to be 
backloaded, despite a fuzzy promise by 
fee Republican leadership to fee con- 
trary. If the budget in fact is balanced by 
tbe year 2002, the balance will likely last 
about a nanosecond. Then we can start 
all over again. Meanwhile, the com- 
bination of protecting aid to the elderly 
while granting a tax cut will put enor- 
mous pressure — much more than fee 
two rides have faced up to and ac- 
knowledged — on fee rest of the budget. 
These are fee operating funds for the 
agencies, the money for investments in 
things like roads and research and some 
of the major forms of aid to the poor. 

The deal feat was struck is an outline 
only. The bills to carry it out are still ro 
be written — and how they are written 
will make a difference. But fee outline 
seems likely to us to result in (a) not 
that much improvement in fiscal 

Palestinian authorities in 
die West Bank have now 
threatened death to any Arab 
who sells “an inch” of his land 
to an Israeli. A Palestinian land 
dealer who made such a deal 
was found gagged and beaten to 
death. It is ugly, and the Israeli 
government spokesman was on 
the right track when he said it is 
further significant for what it 
tells us of tbe kind of regime feat 
will rule the Palestine to be. 

But that does not exhaust the 
matter. The fact is this latest 
sequence is part of a pattern of 
violence that marks the whole 
Israeli -Palestinian scene. Force 
in its various forms has been the 
common instrument of policy 
by occupier and occupied alike. 
On either side plenty of people 
are ready to go back to square 
one and make a count of the 

By Stephen S. Rosenfeld 

other's offenses and a minim- 
izing justification of its own. 

Actually, to inject a bit of 
perspective we. need go back 
merely to the other day. Even as 
the Arab-land story broke, Is- 
rael was having to account be- 
fore a UN committee for using 
techniques of torture on Pal- 
estinian terrorism suspects. 
And not only on terrorism sus- 
pects: on political detainees. It 
is the son of terrible coarsening 
that can and must be combated 
but is hand altogether to avoid in 
a protracted struggle in which 
civilian society is a principal if 
not fee principal field of battle. 

My guess is there is a lot more 
understanding in the United 
Stales and elsewhere for Israel's 
problem with terrorists than for 
the way the Palestinians propose 

to handle land dealers in fee fam- 
ily. But if there is to be any 
pretense of fairness in the ar- 
gument. public opinion must 
deal as best it can with Israel's 
derelictions, as wife Palestine's. 

No simple balance or even- 
ing out, however, will work. 
Israel's failings arise chiefly, I 
believe, from the condition of 
war it has bad to face since its 
beginnings as a state nearly 50 
years ago. Palestine's failings 
arise not only from the same 
condition of war but also in 
some measure from an Arab 
political culture unfriendly to 
due process and democracy. 
Dark as things look at the mo- 
ment. diplomacy may yet suc- 
ceed in producing a two-state 
solution. That would leave Is- 
rael functioning os a normal 

policy; the balance will be gossamer; 
(b) some highly regressive changes in 
tax and social policy, and fc) a weaker 
government less capable of carrying 
out its basic functions. If the goal was 
to narrow the deficit, there were lots of 
other ways they could have done it 
This is the one they chose. 


Return Elgin Marbles to Greece 

'Vf * ^ lYFfcRNVnOMI. 1£fA * i 

Iicral o„J’Z- (bnbunc 




KATHARINE P. DARROW. ifev Chairman 

RICHARD McCLEAN. Publisher & Chief Executive 
MICHAEL GETLER, Eicruiive Editor 

• WALTER WELLS. Manuring Editor • PAUL HORVJTZ. Deputy Managing Editor 
CARL GEWIRTZ. Awhile Editors • ROBERT J. DONAHUE Editor nf the Editorial Pages 
• JONATHAN GAGE Business and hinanre Editor 
• RENE BONDY. Deputy Publisher 

• JAMES McLEOD. /Wiwn.ww Director • DIDIER BRUN. Circulation Director. 

Dim tcur tlr la Publication: Richard MtClean 

Inh.-miiii.mal Herald Tribune. Ik! Avcmic Ouriovde-Gaulle. WMI Neuilly-w-Seine. France 
Td • M i J| 41 WKl Fuc Sub-tT)ptf*«s.tll41.41.W.lll: Advertising, fl ) 4 1.4 .VC. Ii News. Kj4l.41.V3.1X. 
IntWTWI address: E-Mail: ftU&ihLCQin 

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> JW" harP»ti''inl llrnittl Inhatir tit rizhi\ rrsriini /Vt\ ICW-SW’ 

N EW YORK — One of the 
oldest international cul- 
tural disputes has begun a new 
turn under Prime Minister 
Tony Blair's victorious La- 
bourites. Scarcely a day after 
taking office, Britain’s new 
heritage secretary. Chris 
Smith, informed a BBC in- 
terviewer that the Labour gov- 
ernment would not return the 
Elgin Marbles to their ancient 
and rightful home in Athens. 

It is not sensible or feasible, 
Mr. Smith contends, to re- 
move fee Parthenon carvings 
from their special gallery in 
the British Museum. 

Since that venerable insti- 
tution overflows with world- 
class an in its storerooms, the 
secretary certainly cannot 
mean that the galleries would 
then be empty. 

No, what he seems to be 
saying is that restitution would 
be inconvenient and that pos- 
session is 90 percent of the 
law, a robustly conservative or 
one might even say Thatcher- 
ite argument. Soon Mr. Smith 
will doubtless repeal points 
made by Britons for more than 
a century: that the Marbles 
were legally acquired at fee 
time, that they would have 
been damaged if left in Greece 
and that their restitution would 

By Karl E. Meyer 

trigger a rash of claims, since 
so many museum treasures 
were similarly uprooted in an 
imperial scramble for spoils. 
All the points are half-true. 

Thomas Bruce, the seventh 
Earl of Elgin, was the British 
ambassador to the Ottoman 
Empire when he received a 
murky permit from the sultan 
to remove some of the famous 
sculptures from the Parthen- 
on. It wax granted in extraor- 
dinary circumstances, since 
the Ottomans in 1799 were 
urgently seeking British help 
against Napoleon. 

Crucially, however, no- 
body troubled to ask the 
Greeks, then under Turkish 
dominion, about taking 17 fig- 
ures from the Parthenon ped- 
iment. as well as 15 metopes. 
56 slabs of friezes, a caryatid 
column. 1 3 marble heads and 
a miscellany or fragments. An 
appalled witness was Lord- 
Byron, who wrote abundantly 
in protest, bearing down on 
Elgin's Scottish roots, as in 
"The Curse of Minerva”: 

Daughter uf Jove! hi Bri- 
tain s injured name. A true- 
born Briton may the deed dis- 
claim. Frown not on England; 

England owns him not: Athena, 
no! thy plunderer m-jj a Scot. 

It is also ha If- true that the 
Elgin Marbles were safe- 
guarded in London during 
Greece's various wars and 
more recently from stone-rot- 
ting pollution and automotive 
fumes. Laudably, fee Greeks 
years ago removed ihc remain- 
ing carvings and are now build- 
ing a new Acropolis Museum. 
This is where the Marbles 
would be safely shown should 
Britain's Labour government 
more generously reconsider. 

But would not that open a 
very large bam door 10 litiga- 
tion? Again, half a point, since 
there are no universal rules for 
these deeply felt disputes. The 
Parthenon and its missing 
friezes arc pan of Greece's 
birthright, a defining symbol of 
Athens and iLs democracy. 

Precisely such considera- 
tions led Denmark, after de- 
cades of arguments, to restore 
to Iceland in 1971 the codices 
containing ancient sagas. A 
slate holiday and national re- 
joicing attended their return. 
Greek pride and joy would as 
surely light up the” Aegean if 
ever those Parthenon frag- 
ments were allowed a voyage 

The Men iail limes 

democratic country. But what 
will produce a companion Pal- 
estinian democracy? The ques- 
tion is enough to bring Pales- 
tinian democrats to despair. 

The question gets even harder 
when you consider that Israelis 
have a severe case of ambival- 
ence about Palestine's demo- 
cratization. They consider it de- 
sirable in fee abstract but not 
convenient now. Better to have 
a strong, centralized Palestinian 
authority feat will keep terror- 
ists in check and ensure sta- 
bility. This is what. pragmatic, 
peace-seeking Israelis think one 
thin layer below the surface. 

Their complaint against Yas- 
ser Arafat is not that he's an 
implausible democrat but that 
he doesn't run a tight enough 
ship. It is why Syria, which lives 
under the sort of strongman rule 
feat makes Mr. Arafat look mel- 
low. has always been Israel’s 
preferred negotiating partner. 
Of Hafez Assad it is said that 
he's tough but he delivers. Israel 
makes good use of its being the 
only democracy in fee area. 

_ It s Israelis in the ruling 
Likud, who do not want to go to 
the two-state place where ne- 
gotiations will likely take them, 
who invoke Palestinian democ- 
racy. My suspicion is they do so 
partly because tliev think it’s 

beyond reach and therefore safe 
to aspire to. Meanwhile, they 
denounce Palestinian despotism 
as an impediment to the trust 
that ought to be fee foundation 
of negotiation. Their subtext is: • 
How can you Americans expea 
us to come to terms with those 
bloody-minded Palestinians? 

The United States, too, has 
found itself in an uncomfortable 
contradiction. It needs Mr. Ara- • 
fat to put into effect its well- 
chosen policy of favor for a 
negotiated Israeli-Palestinian 
settlement. But Washington 
also is sensitive to the flaws in 
fee internal Palestinian order 
and to fee feudal political cur- 
rents flowing in other Arab 
states. Without Mr. Arafat the 
new PaJestine flounders in 
political chaos, or so it is easy to 
fear, and leaves Israel without a 
partner. Wife him Palestine be- 
comes an embarrassment and a 

The answer is evident: to 
work the diplomatic track and 
fee democratization track at fee 
same time. That will take a mea- 
sure oF diplomatic exposure and 
political boldness feat fee Clin- 
ton administration has so far not 
shown. As fee president lingers 
by the side of the road, his 
choices narrow. 

The Wadtingum Post. 


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1897: Murder Attempt ing of the latest escapade of it: 

NEW YORK — An attempt on 
the life of Mr. John McPherson, 
formerly U.S. Senator from 
New Jersey, was made early to- 
day {May 1 8 1 by two men in his 
office in the Aldridge building. 
One of the assailants. William 
B. Van Aken. who attempted to 
shoot the ex-Senalor with a re- 
volver. is partly blind. He was 
arrested. Tire oiher assailant es- 
caped. Mr. McPherson said ihut 
Van Aken was unknown to him. 
Mr. Low. private secretary of 
Mr. McPherson, said that both 
men seemed to have an interest 
in the suit about fee Belle 
Meade slock farm, in which (he 
ex-Senator is involved. 

ing of the latest escapade of its^ 
denizens, the bigamous mar- 
riages of several screen stars, 
the idea comes to mind that if a 
change is ro be made why not 
adopt '*FolIvwood?” 

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1922: Hollywood Help 

PARIS -- Mr. Will Hays, the 
“movie" " star, is quoted as say- 
ing that he is going to clean up 
Hollywood and will start by 
changing its name. After read- 

ROME — A controversy be- 
tween the Vatican and the lead- 
ers of a modernistic trend in 
religious an remains open today 
despite a spectacular visit of the 
head of the movement 10 dis- 
cuss it with Pope Pius XU. The 
crux of the movement has been 
to show Christ and orher figures 
in religious sculpture and paint- 
ings in complete nudity. The 
leader of the trend. Giacomo 
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PAGE 11 


Genesis of the Zaire Rebellion: Victory Came on a Shoestring 




Times Hfmrr 

anSS^fwi* oSiohT 221*2 LaUrc M Kabi ! 3 

Mobuni Sese Sn/rl *7 haI he wou,d lo PP ie 
seriously Bui ,jlrnosl no one look him 

ZSunuSSiS" 1 "**? monihs. his rebel 
States east of t hl £ 2? nl ? y ? s l . ar ^ e 35 lhe United 

SSSS«5,Si -ld ™ *s 

Western military' officers are eager to meet the 
Sul^hs COrnniailder Wh ° master ™nded the rebel 

His identity and ev en his nationality remain a 

NEWS ANALYSIS believe he ^ iT ^ a 

^ While acknowledging the skills of the rebels, 
wulitary analysts contend that the Zairian Army 
tost the war as much as the rebels won it. Thanks 
to the country s greedy political leaders, the army 
^?sbadly equipped, poorly trained and demor- 

Facing a rout, the government brought in mer- 
cenaries from Serbia. France and Belgium But 
they couldn’t help. 

“Even the arrival of the messiah would not 
have changed anything for our army, ’ ’ a Zairian 
general said. 

In the end, the mercenaries probably aided the 
rebel cause, draining money needed for the army 
and allowing the rebels to rally popular support 
with the cry that foreigners were killing Zairi- 
ans . 

Much is still unknown about the rebels, even 
the exact size and composition of their army, 
which grew and was trained as it went along with 
recruits from eastern Zaire, Rwanda, Tanzania 
and Angola. Western military observers believe 
that the main fighting force now numbers no 
more than 6,000, with a rear support force of 
perhaps 20.000, including thousands of deserters 

from the Zairian Army. The exact level of foreign 
support is also unknown, bur according to West- 
ern intelligence reports, Rwandan and Ugandan 
troops played a critical role in support of the 

Based on interviews with Western and Zairian 
military officers and observation of the rebellion 
as it progressed, a picture emerges of a war that 
was conducted on a shoestring, with an emphasis 
throughout on minimizing the cost in lives, in 
ammunition and in the damage to Zairian lowas 
and cities. 

A decade ago, the outcome would have almost 
certainly been different. 

In a history marked by frequent rebellions, 
Zaire’s military has never had a proud record. But 
thanks to huge amounts of foreign military as- 
sistance, Marshal Mobutu’s army was respect- 
able. if not formidable. 

The Israelis trained a special Presidential Di- 
vision. The French trained an 
airborne brigade. The Italians 
assisted the air force. 

Belgians ran the military 
academy. The United Stares 
provided logistical support. 

But in 1990, at the close of 

the Cold War, Western govern- 
ments ended their military aid programs because 
of Mr. Mobutu’s abuse of human rights and 
refusal to move to democracy. Hie army began to 

While Mr. Mobutu and the politicians were 
milking the mineral-rich country for themselves, 
they ignored the army. 

In the capital, Kinshasa, senior commanders 
were padding the payroll by grossly exaggerating 
the number of soldiers ana pocketing the salaries 
for themselves. 

In outlying posts, officers put soldiers to work 
as fanners to feed the troops and generate income 
to buy them uniforms and shoes. Soldiers were 
forced to moon light Men from the motor pool 
became taxi drivers, using government gasoline. 
Mechanics went to work in automobile factories. 
Members of the Presidential Division hired 
themselves out as security guards. 

.The soldiers were too busy and too tired to 
train or to take care of their equipment 

When the rebels attacked Lubumbashi, the 
country’s second-largest city, the defending 
forces had 15 multiple rocket launcheis, with 40 
rockets each. But they could not fire them. The 
electrical firing mechanisms had rusted from 

years of being left in the rain. 

By the time die war broke out, most of the army 
had not had any meaningful training for nearly 
seven years. Soldiers were being paid the equi- 
valent ofSl a month, a senior officers 10 — when 
they were paid at ail. 

One NATO military officer in Africa who has. 
followed the war closely compared the beginning 
of the war to the Bay of Pigs invasion. 

That was an American operation using Cuban 
dissidents, he noted. In this case, the sponsor was 
the Tutsi -dominated Rwandan government, us- 
ing Zairian dissidents, including ethnic Tutsi who 
have lived in Zaire for generations and had been 
threatened with expulsion by local officials. 

The objective was to empty the refugee camps 
in the Kivu region in eastern Zaire, just across the 
border from Rwanda. The camps were filled with 
Rwanda Hutu who fled their country in July 1994 
after General Paul Kagame’s Tutsi-led rebel 

While acknowledging the skills of the rebels, 
military analysts contend that the Zairian Army lost 
the war as mnch as the rebels won it. 

army overthrew die Hutu-dominated govern- 
ment The Tutsi victory followed a genocidal 
campaign by the Hutu in which at least half a 
million people, most of them Tutsi, were killed. 

The camps had become staging areas for sol- 
diers from the defeated army, who conducted 
raids into Rwanda. 

Washington and other Western capitals had 
been concerned about the camps, and especially 
the presence of thousands of former soldiers. But 
neither Western governments nor the United 
Nations took decisive action to deal with the 
impending crises. 

Last summer, “the Rwandans and Ugandans 
threw up their hands,” as a Clinton admin- 
istration official put it, and told Washington that 
if the international community was not going to 
do something about the camps, they would. 

Then, in October, the authorities in South Kivu 
Province threatened to strip Zairian citizenship 
from the 300,000 Tutsi living there. 

That sparked an armed uprising by the Zairian ' 
Tutsi, known as the Banyamulenge, which was 
backed by Rwanda’s government It is not clear 
whether at the outset the rebels intended to ac- 
complish more than cleaning out the camps. 

“We know that at a minimum they wanted to 
push those people back from the border, and at a 
maximum, kill as many of them as they could,' ' 
said a Clinton administration official. 

It was two weeks after the uprising began that 
Mr. Kabila appeared on the scene publicly, and 
took political control of the rebellion. 

“Was Kabila put there by the Rwandans, or 
did he show up and take power?” a Western 
diplomat wondered. 

A longtime revolutionary — he launched an 
unsuccessful Marxist revolt against Mr. Mobutu 
in the 1960s — Mr. Kabila first set his sights on 
the gold-rich region of Zaire around Isiro. north 
of the refugee camps. 

When government military posts began falling 
like rooen branches off a diseased tree, the re- 
bellion picked up momentum. 

Dense jungle terrain would normally work to 
the advantage of a defending force. But in this 
war it benefited the attacking 
rebels, primarily because of the 
army’s deplorable condition. 

Lacking even radios so they 
could communicate with each 
other. Zairian soldiers bunched 

together instead of putting out 

listening posts that would have 
detected the rebels as they advanced. 

Lacking firepower discipline, which they 
could have acquired in training, when the soldiers 
heard movements in the jungle they fired wildly, 
wasting ammunition and inflicting few casu- 

The rebels, in contrast, short on troops and 
materiel, exercised military discipline and ma- 
neuvered with considerable caution. They car- 
ried out deliberate reconnaissance of army po- 
sitions, using the local population to give them 

Then they attacked from several directions — 
another sign of experienced military command- 
ers — and always left a way open for the Zairian 
soldiers to retreat, which encouraged them to do 

In laze December, the rebels took Bunia in 
northeastern Zaire. It was a turning 'point in the 
war, said a Western military analyst. Zairian 
troops ran away, slowing down only long enough 
to loot every single village as they headed west 

“After that, the army was despised by the 
population,” said a Western diplomat. “It was an 
army that ran and pillaged.” 

The rebellion became a popular uprising. 


Mobutu’s Ouster Pleases 

Some Neighboring States 
But Sows Fear in Others 

By Stephen Buckley 

Washington Post Service 

NAIROBI — President Mobutu Sese 
Seko’s departure from power in Zaire 
will reverberate far beyond that enor- 
mous country’s borders. 

Since the rebel leader, Laurent Kab- 
ila, began his campaign to topple Mar- 
shal Mobutu seven months ago, the lead- 
ers of many of die nine countries 
surrounding Zaire have expressed hope 
that his eventual victory will herald an 
age of stability and prosperity for them 
' and for Africa’s third-largest country. 

largely in die hands of Mr. Kab^him- 
seif, whose Alliance of Democratic 
Forces for the Liberation of the Congo 
confronts the arduous task of governing 
a nation with 46 million people who 
belong to 250 ethnic groups and some 
400 political parties. 

“A lot depends on Kabila,” said JefF 
Drumtra, Africa policy analyst for the 

Tories Feud 
In Jockeying 
To Lead Party 


LONDON — Former Interior Min- 
ister Michael Howard staked out a hard- 
line position on Europe on Sunday as he 
and nvals fought for the mutative m 
succeed John Major as head of the de- 
feated Conservative Patty. . 

The contest to replace Mr. Major, who 
announced his departure hours after the 
Conservatives were routed by Tony 
Blair’s Labour Party in the] May 1 elec- 
tion, has so far been marked by internal 
squabbling and backbiting- , 

^One of the main targets has been Mr. 
Howard, who has been accused by his 
former deputy, Anne Widdecombe. of 
being “dangerous” and unfit to lead the 
party. Miss Widdecombe has camedout 
an extraordinary vendetta against Mr. 
^Howard over bis finng 
Ihrisons chief. Derek Lewis, m 1995. 
'*The showdown is due COI 5J:£L a 
head on Monday when Miss Widde- 

combe, minister for pnsoaswhexiNw. 
Howard was home secretary, » etpectod 
to substantiate her case in Parliament 
that he^ misled the House of Commons 

over Mr. Lewis's dismissal. 

° The former minister sought to rebuild 

m Tnre^Tewed°5r < BB? television. Mr. 
Howaitf 'suggested that the Common 
A^rnlturaJPolicy, for example, could 
fiPSSSS it would become 

r^veS European . Umon 
expanded to tale in countries from East 


U.S. Committee for Refugees. “How he 
chooses to handle the next few weeks 
and months will determine the stability 
of Zaire. And the stability of Zaire will 
determine the stability of the region.” 

Mr. Kabila’s plans may be uncertain, 
but two clear beneficiaries of Marshal 
Mobutu’s fall are the Rwandan and An- 
jovemments. Both yearned to see 
ouster of die 66-year-old dictator, 
who led Zaire for nearly 32 years. T o that 
aid. diplomats said, both countries lent 
substantial military support to Mr. Kab- 
ila's uprising. - 

On the other hand. Marshal Mobutu's 
departure also may jolt Africa’s other 
authoritarian leaders, particularly those 
from Zaire’s francophone neighbors, 
who have provided solid support for 
Marshal Mobutu over die years. 

The benefits for the Angolan gov- 
ernment can be seen largely in terms of 
foe debilitating blow dial Marshal 
Mobutu’s overthrow deals to the Na- 
tional Union for the Total Independence 
of Angola, or UNIT A, which received 
critical help from Marshal Mobutu dur- 
ing its long, unsuccessful war with foe 
Angolan government. 

Some analysts said Marshal Mobutu's 
support of UNITA even after Angola’s 
civil war ended three years ago allowed foe 
rebel organization to tmly partially commit 
itself to the government, m which it now 
holds cabinet seats. Consequently, Angola 
continues to lurch toward a peace that 
remains far from certain. 

* ‘It’s the end of UNITA as a guerrilla 
force,” said William Zartman, director 
of African studies at Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity’s School of Advanced Interna- 
tional Studies. “It’s foe beginning of 
UNITA as an opposition party.” 

Hie rebels' victory also may mean foe 
end of foe Rwandan government's three- 
year campaign to neutralize former 
Rwandan soldiers who participated in 
the 1994 genocide against that country’s 
minority Tutsi population. 

When foe Tutsi rebel force that now 
forms Rwanda’s government halted die 
massacres and seized power, Hutu sol- 
diers and militiamen poured into Zaire as ■ 
refugees along with hundreds of thou- ' 
sands of Hutu civilians. Marshal Mobutu 
allowed the former soldiers to rearm and 
to stag** insurgency attacks from eastern 
Zaire. But last year, Mr. Kabila's rebels 
swept through the refugee camps, and 
they have spent much of foe last seven 
months trying to stamp out remaining 
Hutu extremist elements inside. 

“Rwanda no longer has a significant 
threat at its borders,” said Crawford 
Young, co-author of “The Rise and De- 
cline of foe Zairian State.” “Rwanda 
can feel more secure’ * than it did before 
foe Zairian insurgency began. 

But if the leaders of Rwanda. Angola 
and Uganda feel more secure, other gov- 
ernments in the region may be uneasy. 

Political analysts said that foe demise 
of Marshal Mobutu, who lasted longer in 
power than any post-colonial leader in 
Africa, could trigger dramatic reactions 
among other authoritarian leaders. 
Those leaders may try to prevent op- 
ponents from following Mr. Kabila's 
lead either by granting their citizens 
more political and social fredoms or by 
becoming even more iron-fisted in their 

policies and actions. 

The analysts said that Marsha! 
Mobutu's supporters in such countries 
as Togo Centra! African Republic; 
Congo and Gabon probably are the most 
disappointed by his defeat. 

Jon-Msi; Beojorne AnocunsJ Pien 

An unidentified man being lashed Sunday by a rebel soldier with an ammunition belt at a military base in 
Kinshasa. The man was taken out of the camp and pushed into an alley by the soldiers, where he was shot 

ZAIRE: The ‘New Congolese’ Celebrate the End of Mobutu’s Rule 

Continued from Page 1 . 

were, whether they were the Rwandan 
hordes that Marshal Mobutu’s govern- 
ment had warned were coming, or 
whether they were merely Zairians like 
themselves, who had organized to get rid 
of a bated system. 

The answer, in foe end, was a mixed 
one. Conversation after conversation 
with foe alliance fighters, and with the 
Kinsbasans who nibbed elbows with 
them, revealed that a significant number 
appeared to be Rwandan, or of Rwandan 
Tutsi extraction, but most, in fact, 
seemed to come from Zaire’s eastern and 
southern regions, which were captured 
by Mr. Kabila at earlier stages in foe 
seven-month civil war. 

“We are an alliance,” said one com- 
mander from southern Zaire wbo had 
spent years of exile in Angola. “We 
have all kinds of people among us. The 
important thing is that we are Africans 
and we are Congolese.” 

When a crowd gathered around one 
small bunch of rebel soldiers in the cen- 
tral commercial district, where they had 
just arrested a looter, a man asked one of 
foe rare female soldiers to have turned up 
so far what, the alliance's agenda was. 

“If you have been to school, you can 
expect that you will find work in the new 
Congo,” said the soldier, who spoke in 
French and said that she was from foe 
eastern city of Bukavu. “You will be 
free. But if you are lazy, and don’t want 
to do an honest day's work, there wil I be 
no one to help you.” 

If the day ended with none of the 
tension and little of the gunfire that have 
marked die nervous last week in the life 
of this city, its beginning was far less 
certain. For reasons that have not yet 
been publicly explained, foe thousands 
of bone-tired rebel soldiers who 
marched into the central city early Sat- 
urday evening almost immediately de- 
camped, leaving much of the capital 

As word of foe vacuum spread, so did 
foe pillaging, by soldiers and civilians 
alike, that in some areas residents said 
was as intense as what they lived through 
in two previous bouts of army looting 

morning, hitting foe central commercial 
district, and the crowded Maronge 
quarter, where West African immigrants 
own many shops. Much of the crimin- 
ality, however, was focused on foe sym- 
bols of Marshal Mobutu’s long rule. 

Abandoned by his once fearsome 
Presidential Division, Marshal 
Mobutu’s last home at Camp Tshatshi 
was thoroughly pillaged, as were foe 
hones of ms son. KonguJu,' and the 
homes of many wealthy allies. 

Atone Civil Guard camp, hundreds of 
neighborhood residents coursed through 
the barracks carrying off everything 
from air conditioners aod desks to boxes 
of plastic raincoats and berets. 

Asked why foe alliance was doing 
nothing to stop the looting, a soldier 
from the new army who stood idly in the 
near distance said: ' ‘We did not liberate 
this country to see people behave like 
thieves. But when it comes to Mobutu 
and his property, whatever the people 
can take back, they deserve." 

By midday, truckloads of alliance sol- 
diers could be seen pouring into foe 
capital from the city’s outskirts, taking 
up positions and restoring calm. 

Before their arrival, however, Kin- 
shasans engaged in a final witch-hunt 
against Marshal Mobutu's troops, chas- 
ing isolated soldiers through the streets, 
beating them to death and burning foe 
dozens of bodies on foe spot 

David GuamfeUa/Tbr Awwd Pkh 

A Kinshasa civilian standing over 
a friend who was accused of looting 
and then shot by the Civil Guard. 

When the rebels reached foe Congo River, local 
residents ferried them across so they could attack 
the town of Kindu. 

It is not known how much outside assistance 
ihe rebels have received. 

Zairian military and Western intelligence of- 
ficials say that in some battles Uganda provided 
artillery and armored personnel carriers. And 
Rwandan Army soldiers fought with the rebels, at 
least in the early battles, according to Western 

In April, as the rebels prepared for their final 
push on foe capital, Angola supplied reinforce- 
ments. most of them second-generation Zairian 
exiles, who had served in foe Angolan Army. 

But whatever foe level of support foe rebels 
received from neighboring countries, foe 
strength of foe rebel army came mainly from the 
men and materiel collected as it rolled across the 
country. One Western military observer, who 
estimated foe size of the rebels main fighting 
force at 6,000, said that a third of them may be 
former government soldiers. 

Throughout the war, there have been few 
pitched battles, and Western military observers 
said that the casualties on each side, wounded and 
killed, have been light, not more than 2,000. one 
military officer said. 

As soon as three months after the outbreak of 
foe rebellion, Zairian commanders in foe field 
were saying that the army could not win. 

“This war is no longer a military problem,” a 
Zairian colonel said in Kisangani in March, days 
before Zaire's third-largest city fell. “Every- 
where we go, foe population is with the rebels. 
The only way out is a political solution." 

But foe country’s political leadership, secure 
in Kinshasa, took no action. “I have never seen 
such political paralysis," a Western diplomat 

In seven months, foe country's leaders made 
no effort to mobilize foe population or raise an 
array. Even one battalion with throe months 
training would have made a difference, some 
analysts said. 

“If the Zairian Army had slowed down the 
rebels anywhere, it would have increased foe 
cost of foe war for them tremendously,” said a 
NATO officer. He said that the rebels would 
have begun to suffer foe effects of prolonged 
periods in the jungle, such as trench foot and 
malaria, and that they would have begun to run 
out of money. 

‘ ‘It was a war on the cheap.' ’ he said. 

Swiss Deepen 
The Freeze on 
Mobutu Assets 

By William Drozdiak 

Washington Post Service 

BERLIN — The Swiss government 
has frozen for one year all assets held in 
foe name of Zaire's deposed dictator 
Mobutu Sese Seko and members of his 

The government said it was impound- 
ing all of Marshal Mobutu's assets be- 
cause his departure from Kinshasa sig- 
nifies that “henceforth he no longer 
carries out the function of president of 

The decision by foe Swiss Federal 
Council cm Saturday came a day after 
judicial and police authorities seized his 
luxurious villa at Savigny near the 
lakeside resort of Lausanne. The 30- 
room mansion is estimated to have a 
market value of more than $5 million. 

After three decades of plundering foe 
mineral wealth of his country. Marshal 
Mobutu is believed to have accumulated 
an enormous fortune. There have been 
persistent reports that he has stashed as 
much as $4 billion in Switzerland, but a 
government review of the country’s 400 
banks last week said that none reported 
having accounts in his name. 

Jean Ziegler, a Swiss Socialist politi- 
cian and prominent critic of bis coun- 
try’s banking practices, said it would be 
preposterous to accept foe word of Swiss 
banks that claim not to bold any of 
Marshal Mobutu’s assets. 

He said there was substantial evidence 
that Switzerland's leading banks have 
long served as a haven for the stolen 
fortunes of Third World dictators such as 
Marshal Mobutu. Manuel Noriega of 
Panama and Ferdinand Marcos of foe 
Philippines. More than a decade after Mr. 
Marcos fied to exile, and eight years after 
his dea t h, the Swiss government is still 
negotiating with the Philippines over an 
estimated $500 million held in his name. 
The Swiss president recently went to the 
Philippines and said he wanted to resolve 
foe matter as quickly as possible. 

Hie Swiss injunctions were handed 
down after Marshal Mobutu re linquis hed 
power and left Kinshasa on Friday on the 
first leg of a journey into exile. The Swiss 
decision came after repeated demands by 
foe rebel forces of Lament Kabila, who 
has taken power in Zaire, to impound all 
of Marshal Mobutu’s assets before they 
could be moved out of the country. Under 
the order, the estate and any other hold- 
ings in foe Mobutu family name cannot be 
sold or transferred until further notice. 

Matthias Kraaft, a Swiss government 
spokesman, said that the order in no way 
implies recognition of a new Zairian 

BOSNIA: Amid the Ancient Hatreds , 6 Only the Absence of War 

Continued from Page 1 

crimes or to protect refugees who want 
to return, has left them without the co- 
ercive power to make the parties respect 
the peace agreement, which calls for all 
refugees to be allowed to go home. 

They also fault international -aid 
donors for refusing to provide adequate 
money to build a viable economy. 

Brcko, a dilapidated collection of 
houses with terra-cotta roofs and boxy 
concrete apartment buildings on foe 
banks of the Sava River, is in the five- who moved slowly past a park along the 
kilometer-wide corridor that links the river Ihe other day. Before the war. the 

entity in Bosnia created under the peace 
agreement will be cut in two. 

The Muslims, who made up 55 percent 
of the town before the war, want Brcko to 
gain access to the river traffic along the 
Sava, linking them to trade routes. 

Each side in the conflict — both the 
Serbs and the Muslims argued so bitterly 
over Brcko that its fate could not be 
decided at Ihe peace talks — has 
threatened to go to war again if the 
arbitration does not go its way. 

The town is patrolled by U.S. soldiers. 

1992, and the Serbs removed every stone 
to obliterate die structure. 

The Muslims fled at foe start of the 
fighting to territory under their control, 
south of the town. Many now live in poor 
conditions just a few kilometers away. 

“To destroy the mosques was not to 
destroy cultural monuments, because 
Muslims have no culture.” said Anica 
Savic. a correspondent for Tanjug. the 
Serb-run Yugoslav news agency. “Hiey 
are Serbs who were converted by the 
Turks during foe occupation because 

book of *200 ^ i 11 * 1 R ub,ish ^ a 

early this decade. - two parts of Serb-held Bosnia. Ff Brcko park was the site of one of the town’s three The Muslims Wouldn't ^ bookwith 

Sporadic looting continued into the is handed to the Muslims, the Serbian mosques. The bunding was dynamited in even two years' worth of journalism “ 

PAGE 12 



As Fed Ponders Next Move on Rates, U.S. Bonds Could Be a Safe Haven 

By Timothy Middleton 

flew York Tuna Service 

NEW YORK — Expectations are 
widespread that the Federal Reserve 
Board will again raise interest rates, 
perhaps as soon as Tuesday. But most 
investment advisers expect higher rates 
to do more damage to stocks than to 
bond prices. 

Just look at what happened after the 
Fed’s last upward move.' As J.P. Mor- 
gan Securities recently noted in a mar- 
ket advisory, the Standard & Poor's 
500-stock index shed 5 percent of its 
value in the five trading days after the 
March 25 rate increase, while the long 
bond lost only about 1.5 percent 

Bonds, then, may be a haven in this 
time of uncertainty. 

‘ ‘There's a limit to the returns stocks 
can generate over time, and the mare 
they move up, the more attractive bonds 
look," said Lewis Altfest a financial 
.planner in. New York. "In accounts that 
are normally 20 percent in bonds, they . 
are now over 40 percent’* because of 
market conditions. 

But investors in bonds and bond funds 
are being urged to be selective. The extra 
yield generated by bonds of lower credit 
quality or longer maturities is minimal. 
So advisers recommend short-term and 
intermediate-term portfolios of govern- 
ment bonds, the safest kind. 

"This is not the time to buy junk, and 
it is not the time to extend out on the 
yield curve,' ’ said Daniel Wiener, editor 
of the Independent Adviser for Van- 
guard Investors, a newsletter published 

in Potomac, Maryland. 

Last week the yield on the 30-year 
Treasury bond was very close to 7 per- 
cent; it ended Friday at 6.91 percent, up 
5 basis points horn a day earner. “The 
only time the public gets interested in 
bonds is when the yield goes over 7 
percent," said David Corcoran, pres- 
ident of York Securities, a discount 
broker in Manhattan. If stocks falter, 
piercing the 7 percent barrier could 
cause individual investors to look at the 
bond market for the first time in a long 
time, he said. 

But to earn that coupon, investors 
take on considerable rate risk. At a yield 
of 6.89 percent, the long bond trades at 
$96.59 for every $100 of face value. If 
interest rates were to rise to7J0percent, 
that would drive down the price of the 

brad to $89.76. Thomas Sowanick, 
chief fixed-income strategist for Merrill 
Lynch & Co., foresees just such a rate 
increase by the fall. 

In the opinion of many bond-market 
analysts, the Fed — having already 
raised short-term rates a quarter-point in 
March — will be compelled to raise 
them further. 

There are two reasons: a surprisin gly 
strong economy will put upward pres- 
sure on inflation, and foreign rates, es- 
pecially Japan's, will probably rise this 
year, lu ring investors away from U.S. 

Foreign demand for Treasury bonds 
is a key underpinning of the credit mar- 
kets and U.S. economic policy. For- 
eigners, including other central banks, 
own $1,125 trillion, or just under a third. 

of the S3.755 trillion of American debt 
not held by government agencies. 

"We just can't afford in the United 
States to lose any demand, and I t h i n k 
the Fed knows that,*’ said John 
Breazeale, {Resident of Weiss Money 
Management in Palm Beach Gardens, 
Florida. "If demand doesn’t go up, 
we’ve had it." 

If 30-year rates rise to 7.50 percent by 
September, as Mr. Sowanick expects, 
holders -of 30-year bonds will suffer a 
net loss of 4.16 percen t , after taking, 
their coupons into account. 

For protection, investors can look for 
shorter maturities. "It seems to me that 
the two-year Treasury is an excellent 
hiding place,” said James Grant, editor 
of Grant's Interest Rate Observer, a 
newsletter. "It’s offering a yield of 6.20 

percent, which is a pretty fancy yield in 
the global scheme of things for next to 
nonsk." . - jd 

Slightly higher yields, in exchange 
for a litde more interest-rate risk, ran tfe 
found in securities maturing m four fr 
five years. Five-year Treasury bonds are 
now* yielding about 35 basis points less 
Than the 30-year bonds, making die 
yield gap 96 percent. i. 

A Wl more yield can be eked out in the 
Ginnie Mae market, where home mort- 
gages are pooled into securities backed 
by the Government National Mortgage 

“We’re seeing yields anywhere from 
7 JO percent to 7.75 percent," saidRoger 
Bayston. manager of the Franklin U.S. 
Government Securities fund, winch in- 
vests primarily in Ginnie Maes. j - 

Most Active International Bonds 

The 250 most active Internationa! bonds traded 
tiirough the Eurodear system for the week end- 
ing May ia Prices suppfied by Telekurs. 

Cpn Maturity Pries YMd 

CpM Maturity Price YMd 

After Slide 9 Dollar Searches for Fresh Cues 

j sToavid Cay Johnston 

' Vr~ i- '* 7-w« J J •: 

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Cpn Maturity Price YMd 

Argentine Peso 

240 Argentina Boon zero 04/0107 105.2000 0.0000 

Austrian Schilling 

5!* 04/11/07 1003000 5.7200 

Belgian Franc 

159 Belgium 

03/28/03 1200700 7J5000 

British Pound 

178 Sol Rn 

m 12/07/07 103.0000 7.4000 
Oft 12/31/99 1035022 8.4500 

796 Fonrde MaeWS 6ft 06/07/02 99.6250 6.9000 
201 Bayerfsche LB 6ft 06/07/02 9X7500 6.9600 

213 Halifax BS FRN 6781204/25/12 99.7000 6J100 
216 Lehman Bra 6808601/2202 10X0300 681 00 
218 Britain m 12/07/07 102J»30 7.1000 

77 Germany 

78 Treuhand 

80 Germany 

81 Germany 

82 Germany 

83 Treuhand 

90 Germany 

91 Treuhand 

92 Germany 
97 Germany 

101 Germany 
109 Treuhand 
11 4 Germany 
116 Treuhand 

123 Germany 

124 Treuhand 
129 Treuhand 
134 Germany . 

137 Germany 

138 Germany 

143 Germany 

144 Germany 
148 Germany 

154 BA Credit Card 
1 a Treuhand 

6 06/20/16 968217 6.2000 

6 11/12/03 1046583 57300 
8ft 07/20/00 1134S25 7.7000 
644 07/15/04 1085267 67200 
8 09/22/97 101-5900 7X700 
6M 07/29/99 1054400 5.9300 
81 h 08/21/0011X1300 75100 
514 04/29/99 10441920 55200 
5ft 02/22/99 10X1586 57100 
514 05/28/99 104.1939 55200 
6ft 12/02/98 105.0300 65500 
6ft 01/32/99 1045500 67100 
6ft 06/2V98 100.8630 6.0700 
m 10/21/02 111-1467 65200 

5 12/17/98 1025000 45900 

7 12/22/97 10X1700 65500 
6ft 03/26/98 102-4132 5.9800 
5ft 09/24/98 10X8900 54700 
m 02/2*99 1055500 65ioo 
5ft 08/20/98 10X9000 55900 
6ft 02/20/90 10X1800 6.1200 
Oft 05/33/00 11X2700 77200 
7ft 1Q/2Q/97 1017500 75700 
6ft 06/21/99 106X400 63500 

6 11/13/05 1011744 53200 

6 10/22/03 104.7833 5.7300 

7 11/25/99 107.7100 65000 

133 World Bank 4% 12/2Q04 115.7470 4.1000 

171 World Bank Sft 03/20/02 n5W 45500 

181 Spam 3.100009/2*06 10X1706 X0300 

197 Wort d Bank zero 09/20/99 963750 13600 

205 Worid Bank 416 06/2Q/00 1093404 41200 

231 Fannie Mae 2 12/20/99 1015250 1.9700 

236 EXIm Bk Japan *ft 1Q0103 112 3.9100 

248 Santaader Inti 1349011/14/01 903000 13900 

Portuguese Escudo 

242 da De Invest E 

11/15/99 1005637 

South African Rand 

Bloomberg Hews eminent 

NEW YORK — Currency traders rose in 
agree that the value of the dollar, after Mtchigai 
declining for two weeks, will be dictated index ha 
this week by the Federal Reserve "Peoj 
Board's policy meeting on Tuesday. possibQii 
But that is about all they agree on. Charles J 
"I’m 50-50 on whether the Fed will change i 
tighten” credit by raising interest rates, "But as 
said Hillel Waxman, head of foreign people w 
exchange at Bank Leumi Trust Co. could be 

eminent ann ounced that bousing starts 
rose in April, and the University of 
Michigan said its consumer-sentiment 
index had advanced this month. 

"People are starting to dismiss the 
possibility of a Fed rate hike," said 
Charles Spence, director of foreign ex- 
change at Standard Chartered Bank. 
“But as we get closer to Tuesday, 
people will get more nervous that there 
could be one." 

He forecast the dollar would trade be- 
tween 113 yen and 118 yen and 1.6850 
Deutsche marks and 1.7350 DM tins 
week. & 

Last week, the dollar fell more-tts^ 
5 percent against the yen, adding ® 

2.5 percent against the yen, adding 
the previous week’s 5.25 percent drop, 
which was the biggest since September 
1 985. That came after the dollar reached 
127.50 yen, a four and a half year higl), 
on May 1. The dollar’s plunge was in 
part the result of weeks of warnings bv 
Japanese officials that they would act to 
halt tire dollar’s rise. •" f 

Those moves convinced some traders 
that the Japanese economy was finally 
rebounding after five years of stagna- 
tion. and that the Bank of Japan would 
raise official interest rates soon. ‘ 
"Now the yen has momentum of its 
own," said John McCarthy, a manager 
at ING Baring Capital Markets. ; • J • 

183 World Bonk 
224 EBRD 

zero 04/81/22 
zero 04/07/27 

X4089 115600 

"There are reasons to justify why they 
should raise rates and reasons to justify 
why they shouldn’t” 

The U.S. central bank has seen some 
numbers showing strength in the econ- 
omy and some indicating a. slowdown 
from the first quarter’s torrid 5.6 percent 
annualized growth pace. The govern- 
ment reported last week that industrial 

Swedish Krona 

165 Germany FRN 3338 09/3004 99.1800 33500 

Canadian Dollar 

03/15/99 9X7875 40500 

Danish Krona 

173 Germany 
176 Dresdner Fin 

179 KFW 

180 Treuhand 

192 Spain 

193 Germany 
199 Germ any 

6%. 05/2W9B 10X0200 &1900 
5tt 10/20/98 10X5683 5.1200 
5ft 04/30/04 100.1357 54900 
516 03/12/07 97.9500 53200 

5 01/1499 10X4133 48800 
7 01/05/001075000 65100 

6ft 01/20/98 10X2100 64800 

6 02/2098 10X0100 55800 

87 Sweden 
100 Sweden 
103 Sweden 1036 
142 Sweden 
160 Sweden 
166 Sweden 
202 Sweden 
206 Sweden 

11 01/21/99 109.7370 103200 
6ft 102506 975740 66600 
1016 05/05/00 11X1510 93600 
6 02/09/05 9619T0 62400 
10U 0*0503 119-4920 85600 
13 001301 125J840 105400 
5ft 04/12/02 973770 55200 
9 04/2009 1164380 73000 

production was level in April while re- 
tail sales fell. But on Friday the gov- 

If the Fed does not raise rates Tues- 
day, it may well do so at the next policy 
meeting in July, Mr. Waxman said. 
With the U.S. economy stronger and 
U.S. interest rates higher than in Ger- 
many and Japan, the dollar should ul- 
timately rise, he said. 

"The dollar certainly belongs higher 
than it is, basal on economic funda- 
mentals — if the market ever decides to 
take a look at them," Mr. Waxman said. 

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203 Germany FRN 3350004/06410 995700 33600 

5 Denmark 
15 Denmark 

20 Denmark 

21 Denmark 
33 Denmark 

40 Denmark 

41 Denmark 
48 Denmark 
54 Denmark 
63 Denmark 
76 Denmark 
105 Nykredtt Bank 
107 Real KredTT 
118 Nykredtt 

722 Nykredtt 3 Cs 
151 Denmark 
174 Denmark 
235 Denmark 

03/15W6 1115200 7.1800 
11/1 W 10X9000 67400 
11/15/01 1115300 7.1700 
11/15/98 1069500 64200 
11/1<V2d 97.9000 7.1500 
11/15/00 11X5200 75300 
12/15X14 1069000 66100 
12/HV99 10X7000 5.7900 
05/15/03 11X1000 7.1400 
11/15/02 10X4000 53000 
02/1 5XX) 99X200 40200 
1WJ1/26 963500 73300 
IQ/01/26 89JT500 66900 
10101/29 95.1500 73600 
1001/26 89.9000 66700 
08/15/97 1006500 69500 
02/15/99 1033200 53100 

oans/05 944500 53900 

210 Germany 
21 5 Germany 
21 7 Germany 
219 Germany 
223 Germany 
226 Russia 
232 Mexico 
234 World Bank 

5U 11/20/97 1013200 53000 
02/21/00 109.9400 73500 
816 07/21/971003500 XI BOO 
716 10/20/97 101.6600 7.1300 
6ft 08/14/98 10X5900 61500 
9 03/25/D4 99.9250 93100 
Oft 02/24 W 993000 83700 
7ft 04/12A25 11X1000 64700 

Dutch Guilder 

Deutsche Mark 

1 Germany 

3 Germany 

4 Germany 

7 Germany 

8 Germany 

9 Germany 

10 Germany 

11 Germany 
13 Germany 
16 Germany 
18 Germany 
T9 Germany 

22 Treuhand 

23 Germany 

25 Germany 

26 Germany 

27 Germany 

28 Germany 

29 Treuhand 

30 Germany 

31 Treuhand 

35 Germany 

36 Treuhand 

37 Germany 

42 Germany 

43 Treuhand 

44 Treuhand 

45 Treuhand 

46 Treuhand 

49 Germany 

50 Germany 
53 Germany 

55 Germany 

56 Germany 

58 Germany 

59 Germany 
62 Germany 
64 Germany 

66 Germany 

67 Germany 

68 Germany 

69 Germany 
71 Germany 

73 Germany 

74 Treuhand 

75 Germany 

6 01/04/07 10X3567 53600 
444 11/20/01 10X6744 47200 
8 01/21/02 11X8789 73300 
616 04/26/06 1045257 53800 
6ft 05/12/05 1083567 63200 

5 05/21/01 10X1459 49900 

6 07/04/0710X3979 5.9800 
3U 03/19/99 10X4050 X7300 
7% 01/03/05 1123200 65800 
61* 10/1405 1062400 61200 

5 08/2001 10X2686 48900 
616 01/04/24 97.1520 64300 
7ft 09/09/04 11X7033 66500 

6 00/1*0610X8975 53300 
5ft 05/15/00 1053900 5-5800 

8 07/22/02 174416? 6.9900 

9 10/2000 1153500 73200 

6 01/05/06 10X9117 53300 

7ft 12/02/02 111J100 66000 
8U 09/2X01 1144600 73100 
6% 07/01/99 1053000 60400 
516 02/21/01 10X4350 53800 
6ft (M/ll/03 1063723 64600 
5ft 08/22/001043476 5.4800 
641 05/13/04 10X4150 62300 
8V* 02/2001 11416 7.4400 

6ft 07/09/03 1 07.9433 61400 
616 034)4/04 105.7600 5.9100 
7 Vb 01/29/03 1104800 64500 
716 1001/02 11X40 63300 
5V* 11/21/00 1010225 49700 
0ft 12/2000 11X1450 7J100 

7 01/13/00 107.9300 64900 

8*6 08/2001 1162100 73300 
71* 11/1104 11X7350 66500 
6ft 07/1*03 1073800 60500 
84* 05/21/01 1144400 73200 
9 01/2201 115ta 7JBOO 

61* OV15/Wn047495 62100 
616 04/22/03 10X7440 62100 
31* 12/18/98 1003700 33000 
7V» 12/20/02 11X0313 64800 
31* 09/18/98 10X1928 X4900 
6Vt 05/20/99 1049250 53400 
616 09/15/99 1068100 63200 
6% 04/23/03 107.4150 60500 
6 09/1*4)3 105.1400 5.7100 

17 Netherlands 
57 Netherlands 

84 Netherlands 

85 Netherlands 
94 Netherlands 
96 Netherlands 
106 Netherlands 
108 Netherlands 
119 Netherlands 
125 Netherlands 
130 Netherlands 
132 Netherlands 
135 Netherlands 
141 Netherlands 
182 Netherlands 
186 Netherlands 
190 Netherlands 
208 Noth Tbnis 
222 Netherlands 

616 07/15/98 10X0600 60600 
516 02/15/07 T 00.9800 53900 
9 01/15/01 11640 73000 

716 0301/05 1147300 67500 
81* 03/15/01 114.1500 73500 
6 01/150610X2500 53100 

7V* 06/15/99 1073700 69900 

7 06/1505 110 63600 

71* 04/15/10 11470 65400 

616 11/1505 1083500 62400 
816 06/1502 1153000 7.1400 
8Vt 02/15001103500 74400 
71* 01/1503 T 141800 65700 
Bft 09/1501 1161) 73300 

716 01/1500 1093000 7.0800 
516 09/1502 1042300 53200 
61* 04/15031073700 60400 
zero 07731/97 993440 XI 300 

2 Brazil 1 Cap S.L 4V* 04/1504 8X1748 56200 

6 Argentina par L 516 03/31/23 664548 7.9000 

12 Argentina FRN 6ft 03/2905 904851 7.4600 

14 Argentina 111* 01/30/17 1073357 103500 

24 Mexico 111* 050526 1083571 103600 

32 Venezuela FRN 61* 12/1807 89.7600 73400 

34 Italy FRN 5718805/1202 997800 5.7300 
38 Brazil L FRN 61* 04/1506 893392 73700 

47 Brazil par 3 516 04/15/24 6X9688 X2100 

51 Mexico par A 6ft 12/31/19 740000 X4500 

52 Venezuela par A 616 03/31/20 741896 9.1000 

60 Brazil XL FRN 6«ft 0415/12 797813 X7000 

61 Bulgaria FRN 6**i 07/28/11 662535 9.9100 

65 Brazil SZI FRN 6ft 04/15724 80.9975 X4900 

70 Mexico par B 614 12/31/19 740000 83500 

79 Ecuador FRN 314 02/20/15 61.7995 53600 

86 Bulgaria FRN 6V* 07/28/24 673625 9.7900 

88 Poland FRN 6Wt UV27/24 9X5600 73400 

89 Brazil CbandSJL 41* 04/15/14 851867 53800 

93 Brazil FRN 61* 010101 9X0875 66300 

95 Mexico 11%* 09/13/1* 1077500103600 

98 Argentina FRN 6ft 03/31/23 840000 73900 

99 Russia 916 11/2701 9X2500 94100 

10 Ecuador par 3 02/28/25 447500 67100 

New International Bend Issues 

Compiled by Charlotte Sector 



Floating Rate Notes 


2009 open open — 

0 ver6-mantti Utser. Caflabta at par horn 2000. Fta 030% . DMomlrwflansSTOLflOX Tuna S/3 
tw set May 19.(GoMman Sadis tntU J? 

J- federal cr :r:.: '::rT.aI 

Goldman Sachs 

Owra-morth Ubar.CaHaWcat parkpam 2000. Fees 63OT6 DanamknttonsSiaoOX (Gahtimd 
Sachs Inti) . ! 

Supp^T. :r : - » t -u! .v e 

Suntrvst Banks 

0.67 99313 - 

0«er3montti Ubar. Private piocamuifcaDaMe at par ham 2007. Fees 0375%. (Lehman 

98 Argentina FRN 

99 Russia 

110 Ecuador par 

Wachovia Bank North 

Below 3-month Libor. NoncaHaMe. Fees 0.175%. D«non*jatlons $250. (MarrIN Lynch fttfU 

Argentaria Global Finance 

6W 99.952 - 

HI Venezuela parB 616 03/37/20 741250 9.1100 

0ver3-mantti Ubar. Non eatable. Fees 0.15%. Denominations 100000 mortis. (Banque 

BA Looks l 

112 Ecuador FRN 

113 Poland Inter 

61*s 02/28/25 673750 94800 
4 10/27/14 8X6250 4.7800 

72 France OAT 

120 France OAT 

121 France OAT 
139 France OAT 
172 Britain T-nate 
177 France OAT 
185 Britain 

191 France OAT 
194 Britain 

237 France OAT 

238 France BTAN 

239 France OAT 
246 Italy 

250 France B.TAN. 

7 04/2506 1073000 65100 
6 04/2504 10X1500 58700 
7ft 04/2505 111.1000 67500 
8V* 03/1502 11X6800 74800 
5 01/2609 101.1017 49500 
51* 04/2507 963174 57200 

4 01/2800 9X9333 40400 

Oft 04/25/22 11740 73300 
9V. 02/2101 1161500 73600 
9*4 04/2500 113V* 83700 

5 03/1*99 1013200 49300 
6U 04/2502 1073000 63000 

6 040204 1013867 59400 
6 051*01 1043500 57600 

115 Argentina FRN 57031040101 127.7500 44600 

126 Brazil XL FRN 6% 04/1509 851250 B.15Q0 

127 Mexico FRN 7ft 080601 1013100 77800 

131 Argentina 11 1009/06 10X12501X1700 
136 Poland par 3 10/27/24 56.1875 53400 
140 Argentina FRN 5.7031090102 11490 49600 

145 Italy 69* 09/27/23 9X963 6 74000 

147 First Na Bk Chic 7 0*0*0010X6250 69600 
149 Ontario 6 020106 9X3540 64300 

155 Peru Pdl 4 0307/17 6X3125 64200 

156 Panama FRN 4 07/17/16 862500 46400 

161 Mexico A FRN 6867212/31/19 9X2500 73100 

162 Bcicftrys Bk Ldn557000d/1 1/97 99SB50 55700 

163 CADES 61* 03/1102 993532 65600 

Westpac Banking 
Compagnie Bancalra 

0.05 99.96 — Beta* 3-awntti Libor. NonarBable. Fees 0.10%. <JP. Morgan Securitas) 

0.10 99395 — 

Ow3H>ianltilJbor.No n cnOBbl4FBM2W%.Penomt i wItaBS1030X(Bordiiy»deZoet» 


British Telecom 

164 Arg Bontes 

167 Brazil 

168 Bulgaria 
170 Mexico 
175 Ontario 

184 Tokyo Elec Pwr 
187 Nigeria 

61* 03/1102 993532 65600 
816 050902 9X7750 83600 
89* 110*01 10X1639 84900 
2ft 07/ZW12 49.1888 45700 
99* 01/1507 1046250 94400 
Tft 01/2703 10X6021 7.1900 
7 02/1307 100.1565 69900 

Czech Export Bank 

Toronto Dominion Bank 

101.937 99J4 
99419 9940 

Raaflemd at 99.722. NonoDltaMe. Fe« 2%. (GaUman Sadis InririU) 

Nanarlftale. Fees 635%. Denominations si 0300. CJ.P.MorgonJ 

Reoffered at 99^89. Nonaitabto. Fni 1 **%. (A8 N-AMRO Home GwetU 

6ft 707J35 
69* 101J66 

Reoffend at 99J}. Woncnflobte. Fees UW6. (IntmaBonal Bank of Japan). 

Reaflered at 99391. Nancallable. Fees !»*%. (Morgan Stanley Inti) 

Toyota Credit Canada 

6 ft 99.623 

NoncaSabfe Fees 039%. (MwrS Lynch IrrHJ 

10 10X046 — 

Nancallable. Fungtaie with autstamSno Issue, raising total amaimllD WOO mlflton. Fees not 
dtedased. Denanlnattans SIOOOL (J JP. Morgan Searrfflesj 

616 11/15/20 647813 94500 

Finnish Markka 

128 nnlondsr 1999 11 01/15091113692 93600 

146 Flnlond Serials 7ft 04/1806107.9024 67200 

French Franc 

102 Francs BTAN 
153 France OAT 

4% 04/12/99 101.9500 46600 
716 04/250611X5800 64400 

Irish Punt 

188 Mexico □ FRN. 6351612/2^19 9X6018 7.0100 
189 British Tetecom 6*4 04/2502 993491 67700 

195 Deut Fin Dabn zero 02/12/17 443750 42000 

198 BadWuert L Fin 7 04/3*02 101.1769 69200 

200 Argentina Oft 12/2003 993750 84300 

204 Worid Bank 6Vi 0*0106 9X6029 67200 

207 Canada FRN 5%s 02/1 (V99 99.7700 55800 

209 Bco Com ExL 714 020204 913750 73900 

211 Italy FRN 5V» 06/2801 10X0600 53800 

212 Venezuela FRN 6% 03/1807 893875 72300 

214 Peru Front Load 3* 0307/17 568750 5.7100 

220 EIB TA 04/2307 1022349 73900 

225 Britain FRN 5V* 100401 993900 52700 

227HeJaba Inti Fin 6ft 0409021002000 63400 

228 EIB 7Vfe 09/1*06 1022861 69700 

229 Fort Cred Eur zero 0*0*07 9X7139 57200 

GMAC Canada 
Tokyo Electric Power 
Castle Transmission 


Reoffered at 100.16 NanculloWe. Fees 2%. (Dresdner KMnwort Benson J 
Reoffered at 992a NancaBoWe. Fees 2%. (WesMeutsche LandesbankJ 

Redeemable ariOlJO at any Bine. Fern not tflsdosed. Denomi na tio ns £1*000- (Credit Subs* 
First BosturO . 


National Power 
European Investment Bank 

101213 - 

BV* 101201 

Reoffered at 99.711 NoncoBabfe. Fees 2%. fflordoys de Zoete WeddJ 
Reoffered at 99226 Nanai noble. Fees 2VH6. (Bardays de Zoete WeddJ 

cent rise imm - 
lomur.p;: r:-; 
plan tc> -Lc. i : - f. 
Bui ihs 

earned ; v. : 

Irani (as: ” 
quesn'M ■ 

planned ^ 
Ncarh a 

code-sharin; - * 

tailed ■ 

m action q: 

— "J-. ; -.r ' "rTgjjnJ 
• • r ••• 

2 ? ,i.-vu '. V ' 

truly i t\ *M r 

. be te** ' 

”■ - r - '-' r r —y hx 

■ - 

.t-iiaribe •" |H 

?i4W Ijii 

5.11 10X00 

220 EIB 

225 Britain FRN 
227HeJabo Irrtt Fin 

228 EIB 

229 Ford Cred Eur 

Interest wtU be 511% until 2002 when Issue b callable at par, thereafter 470%. Fees 0325%. 
Denominations 100300 francs. (Sodete GeneraleJ ‘ 

Export- Import Bank of 

Nancaltabte. Fees 035%. (Sanque PaxtbasJ 


08/1806 11X1000 72700 

230 HK& Strong Bk SV* 12/31/99 872700 66200 

Volvo Finance Sweden 

6<* 101.052 

Japanese Yen 

117 World Bonk 

4V* 03/2003 11X7583 3.9900 

241 Norddeutsche 

243 Philippines Fix 

244 Credit Local 
247 CADES 
249 Quebec 

6ft 030707 982500 6.7400 

6 12/2100 9X0000 61200 
BU 1007/16 1002500 8-7300 
61* 02/1*04 977500 66500 
zero 0*09/97 993449144200 

7 01/3007 97.7500 7.1600 

Reoffered at 99 J02. NancoBabte. Issue may be redenominated kn euros after EMU. Fees 2%.' 
CABN-AMRO Hoara GovetU 

Bijgitefre HjpOtheken und ITL20XOOO 2002 7.10 T 01 335 9930 CaltatXe at par from 1999. Fees 1W%. (Bona NatEanate del LavoreJ 

Telecom Argentina 


8ft 10X73 

The Week Ahead: World Economic Calendar, May 19-23 

Commerzbank Overseas 

Reoffered at 992X Nancaflabls. Fees 2%. (Banco Comerdafe itolkmoj 
Reoffered ctf 99^15 Nancaltoble. Fees 1M%-(ABN-AMR0 HoareGovett) 

^acle Is Set h 

6V* 10079 

A Bchettale ofttitt week's economic and flrwncM events, compfed far the frr w ma d onat HaraM 7W»une by Btoanberg Business News. 

Reolfered at 99.19. NoncaRabte. Issue may be redenominated In euros after EMU. Fees 2%. 
(ABN-AMRO Hoare GovettJ 

i»vw. Co- .- 

Kansai Electric Power 

5ft 701207 




Reoffered at 9933X NoncottaWe. Fees 2%. Denominations 506000 aulttfers. (ABN-AMRO . 
Hoore Cowtt.) 

Expected Canberra: China's deputy prime 
This Week minister, Zhu Ronaii, discusses fc 

Week minister. Zhu RongjT, discusses bi- 
lateral trade with Prime Minister 
John Howard. Friday to June 1. 
Hong Kong: MoneyWorid Asla- 
Hong Kong ^7 trade fair on money, 
investment and financial services. 
Friday to Sunday. 

Brussels: European Union agricul- 
ture ministers meet. Tuesday and ‘ 

Anaheim, California: International 
Business Machines Corp. sponsors 
its Financial Services Industry Con- 

Sora Lee 

4*6 101.145 99.52 Reoffered at 99.77. NoncaBabte. F«5 ] %%. (ABN-AMRO Hoare GovetU 

51* 10X04 10045 NoncaHable. Foe* I.Wfe. (Banque Generate du LuwmboorgJ 

Bartque Generate du 

Bve ains i n v. 7 - ^ :: ^ una 

rw-i • 

Madrid: Conference on the impact of ference. Speakers include former 

Europe's single currency on financial 
markets. Speakers include Luis An- 
gel Rojo, governor of the Bank of 
Spain. Saturday and Sunday. 

U.S. Trade Representative Mickey 
Kanton author Alvin Toffler. Sunday 
to Wednesday. 

General Electric Capitol 

5V» 101495 — Reoffered at 9937. Nonaritobfe. F4es 1 ’*%. (Banque PoribasJ 


Deutsche R nance 


YWd 1347%. Reoffered at 745. Noncntlabte. Proceeds l n ndUkm ran& Foes 640%. 
(Deutsche Morgan Grenfefl.) 

e “-T r 

May 19 

Bangkok: Finance Ministry, Bank of London: April public-sector borrow- 

Thailand and National Economic and ing requirement 

Soda! Development Board to dis- 
cuss deficit and economic problems. 
Hong Kong: Beijing Enterprises 
Ltd.'s chairman announces compa- 
ny’s listing on stock exchange. 

Madrid: Spanish National Statistics 
Institute releases unemployment 
rate for first quarter. 

Hirln: Istrtuto San Paoio di Torino 
SpA begins Initial public offering. 

Mexico City: Finance Ministry re- 
leases first-quarter gross domestic 
product figures. 

Earnings expected: Con Edison, 
Filene's Basement Lowe's Cos., 
Limited, Neiman Marcus Group, 
Toys "R" Us. 

European Bank for 
ReconstracHon and 


Yfetd 12X14%. Reoffered at 3.15 Fungible urttti outstan (flag Issug, rnislno total faca amount fa 7 
button rand. Naneafiabfe. Foes 625%. (Morgan Stanley Infl) 

fe'.- £ 

IWaife L.?* ,e en:eR: 

Swedish Export Credit 

Yield 13.96%. Fimgibfewttti outstanding Essua. robing total fees amount to 4 bUBan rend. 
Naneallaofe. Fees 0 J0%. (Hambm Bank.) 

Mitsubishi Electric Finance 

— Nancallabta. Fees 020% (Dahra Eurapaj 

New America 

Semlwwiualty. Rederapdan at marurtfy wlR be In doUare. NoncaBabte. Fees 140% (Nomura 

™ l0s ^>:ha: 

May 20 

Tokyo: Bank of Japan releases 
monthly economic review. Ministry 
of International Trade and Industry 
releases revised data on industrial 
production in March. 

Paris: Chancellor Helmut Kohl of 
Germany meets with President 
Jacques Chirac to discuss Euro- 
pean single currency. 

Rome: Conflndustrfa releases an- 

Earnings expected: Arts Optical In- nual industrial production numbers. 

temattona! Holdings. 

Annual meeting: Deutsche Bank. 

Washington: Federal Open Market 
Committee meets to set interest- 
rate policy. 

Mexico City: April unemployment 

Ottawa: Statistics Canada reports 
March wholesale trade. 

Equity Linked 


Huaneng Power Inti 

irtwretf wu ba 3W% until 2000 . thereafter a to 8’i% Norrailtobte. Convertible at an emectsd 4 

to 45% premium. Fees not dtadosad. Terms taba set May at .(DeutadreMoipanGrentetU Hi 

Nestle Holdings 

Sendannually. Redewmble at 126575 in 2002 to yield 0.10 am Treasuries. Comrentbfe at 
S29J0 pef share, an 1 B% premium. Fees 2W% (J.P. Morgan SecurttfesJ 

UBS Finance 

Wednesdav Sydney: Westpac-Melboume Irvsti- London: April M4 bank lending fig- Washington: Trade deficit in goods 

^ jl. j. InWnv ffse u 1 - ,imh A n«I AAA mawau pm*nhf finttroe onH caniiroo fnr Mgrrh Anril KtuHnol 


May 21 

tute releases Index for March. 
Tokyo: Federation of Electric Power 
Companies releases data on elec- 
tricity demand in April. 

Annual meetings: CRA, Dong Shin 
Paper Manufacturing. 

ures. April M4 money supply figures, and services for March. April budget 

t :■? £ 

^ .r 

S -tr ‘*>fe 

Earnings eiqsected: Carlton Com- 
munications, Courtaukte. Deutsche 
Postbank, Metallgesellschaft, RWE, 
Zurich Group. 


Earnings expected: Car- 
bide/Graphtte Group, Computer As- 
sociates International, Ham- 
ischfeger Industries. Home Depot. 

Last Week's Markets Euremarts 


•fe 'r.- 

% .3 


- "S.'S; 

Stock Indexes 

Money Rates 

Eurobond Yields 

May 22 

Wellington: Deputy Prime Minister 
Winston Peters presents budget up- 
date to Parliament 
Annual meetings: Teledata (Singa- 
pore), Zagro Asia. 

London: Revised gross domestic 
product figures for first quarter. Re- 
tail sales for April. 

Munich: Economic research Insti- 
tute ifo to publish April survey of 
German business climate. 

Paris: March industrial production. 

Mexico Cfty: Energy Regulatory 
Commission begins accepting bids 
for a 1 2-year concession to build 
and operate a natural-gas distribu- 
tion system in Toluca. 

Earnings expected: Barnes & No- 
ble, BorvTon Stores, Proffitt’s. Mitel. 

United States May 14 May 9 %Ch*ge 

DJ Indus. 7,194*7 7,169533 + 035 

DJU1I. 221.94 22346 —077 

DJ Trans. 242463 2401 JO +0.90 

S8.P100 B1246 B0B47 +041 

S8.P500 B29.75 82479 +040 

S 8, P tnd 977 JO 97000 +0.77 

NYSE Cn 43244 429 J3 + 0.75 

NaHaqCp 1J40J4 1J3SJ0 +041 

Prime rate 
Federal fundi rate 

tetas Weekly Sales May IS 

May!* Moyf WNM Yr tow Prt, Wgy Moritet 


Nasdaq Cp 


Nikkef 225 



Call martoy 
3+nanHi Infetbank 

2032473 19.8a2.7B 

4493.90 4630.90 


Bmdc base rate 
Call money 
3-mamh Intetbanfe 

May 23 

Manila: National Development Com- Maastricht Netherlands: Euro 
pany holds pre-bidding conference pean Union heads of state and gov- 

on the sale of its 7.5 percent share 
in National Steel Corp. 

emment hold summit to discuss re- 
visions to the European Union 

Annual meetings: Dresdner Bank, 

Zeneca Group. 

Mexico City: First-quarter nominal 
gross domestic product. 

Buenos Aires: Industrial production 
for April. 

Ottawa: Statistics Canada releases 
first-quarter financial statistics for 

tse Indus. 





&24740 422670 

Inter vo nYton r 

UJ.J taw term 7i» 7 OB 7U8 4S3 

UA.S.mdmtenn 459 465 483 41 a 

U .5. S. Short term 439 450 4SD 496 

Pounris sterOn a 7J2 785 7.75 7JI9 

French francs Sill SJ11 5JQ 446 

ttOanllre 7J» wo 7^ 498 

panbhhraner 544 544 5J2 SJB 

Swedish kronor 5 Jl 5J2 54 I 442 

ECUslarjatam 6J2 433 642 676 

ECUs, mdm term 5J4 535 $47 4.76 

Can.* 432 439 451 SJB 

AUS.1 738 731 7JM ill 

2,78428 243191 

lnte,vmritan rate 
Cafl money 
3-rnonte Intertank 

4^ 439 451 5J0 
738 731 736 7.11 

7^5 735 BJ9 7.19 
1.96 1.96 T.96 144 

Same: Lmmuxvupaock etdwnge. 

Pnmm Mariwt 

5Sri» BeradMr ,~ 

, s NonS s Nsei 

Sttagift 147J 45 5124 5454 

£££?*■ 10 OO 144 1294 

„f74Jl 13173 133:1 

iSi 9fiJ2S 12427 3 10J91* 

Tasal 114040 104533 12,955.1 11499.1 

Emdw ” 
S Hens s . Karri 
|™®sfe22377J 17,9524 91,1669 28410* 
S™** «61 4463 11553 1 JS7U 

cro* .40803 524546 44 K3 

§CP 14^643 123441 223203 25.4793 
Total 56242J 349273169497.9 623993 
SOW*.- Fufottwr, Bonk. 

.. -fee. 

^ ... r" *-*'* 

f Cn 1 

'oil -V, 

340455 156241 

1406237 U 39030 

Call money 
3-ntomti kitefbar* 

Libor Rates 

jjteW Sfife Moyl6 May 9 %Ch'oe 

WSQP B99JH 87191 +XW London pjn. HxS lujo w fit 


... - 3 miiHi 

JJ.S.l SVte 51* 

Deutsche marit 3M 3fe 

Pound SRritag 6*k 6<o 

Stmxxuwds Bank. Boaters. 

French franc 

’O -.Ml 

,^•9* \ **s / 

= l ^r»G! 



- — £fT5A(K'. i 

'Safe H a 

as %***&< 

TO Saand — «?° re ‘merest - »n e** 

n-.e 5j.^S» 

UP, n*>«. ... . . ..■*S*v«i.iT Mt Hnp j^nC 

;* **££** «££*'&; 
*»- A b“ i ’ Pw«m nsfa. *« 

« ?S“ ; 3SS&^ 


li'-nr “ cr. . ~ _e s Ceuie Sfc 

z *i£?**S* 

uk, He foRfC^r - . , 0 

De<£Ul ^2 wd US ven l^be. 
„ W*: ■ i, ' S "0 ' >35% 

lh* I ... u -“ 

lav S«jaV^ " *inceS^ 

ere 127 Jrter *e dolS^ 

S’ f* ** «*£ot ilSs*^ ^ 
wL tJhflis di>IIjr‘-s rii*" h ‘-' '- Vo < 
<hr. ih: »«*«*, 

. UoiL *nS. a of «»t 

her nuMs^f.r:^‘:r ; ^7^ rJa P u *5 

t to cwr , " cvj ••- ; »",“V.' ■ v 7 at wuin Mi 

awl- x ESG K J- - V r ^ f?-,' J ™» a- 
j, M^es.^ 

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*■*•<»*, - - - » -j.. emj. 

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IMMeyM Mtze? r.7 7 *^?:-;-.. 

**•*- *•* ? ■■'.fw £***- -e/t l^:”vi-; ,.-c r "" 

*•* '•: r i ; r:rV" ; c 7 '.~. •;•; .. s r .J 

•miMi;-^ * "» T>7: - -■”■ -- 
«MT *«* i"K* *r" ;~-'. . : .c: Hi-rMs:*! 

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m *m "-*> ■ *•* rw :.*■ - ;■ . 

ii*# £*•*£? 

l nn * ^'Vi*;-: rc"^>** c- =e^ 

U* x*rH> %*.’-« 

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MONDAY, MAY 19, 1997 

Beware of Pension Plans 
That Refuse to Deliver 

2? ; Law Protecting Retirees Has Loopholes 


. . WgM' York Times Sen-ice 

:: SS£S 

surance agenr for ihe New York Life 

wTS C*-’ be expected a »curc 
n^re. with money coming in every 

^ S 0 ™ tW ° com P ar, y J^nsions. 
Cv™. ^ after he left work, 

TM^l Y « k ^ re ? uced lhe monthly 
; I^ymentson one of his pensions, con- 
1 temiing that he no longer deserved the 
«. money. 

kito Rl Jf 1 80 v Ued ^ company, trying 
* •£** fe calls his full pension 
c ? rejored. A New York Supreme Court 
. judge dismissed the suit in November. 
t ruling that the company had acted 
l - within its rights. Mr. Russo is appeal- 
, ■ mgthat decision. 

r ; The Employee Retirement Income 
■■’ Swmty Act of 1974. known as 
r . IiRISA, was supposed to end such dis- 
I«rtes by protecting employees’ pen- 
c . ®°? s ' ® u ^ though many people think 
‘ ' mcir pensions are secure thanks to the 

- law, not all pensions fall under its 
t , jurisdiction, as Mr. Russo discovered. 

ERISA covers all pensions from 
corporations as well as pensions from 
~ ■ most nonprofit groups. It regulates 
whom pensions must cover and how 
much they can be reduced by Social 
* ' Security, and it establishes financing 

^ . _ But the law does not govern pen- 
sions from state and local governments 
or religious organizations. Nor does it 
govern the supplemental pensions that 
corporations provide to their higber- 

- paid executives and salespeople, like 
Mr. Russo, when their earnings exceed 
federal caps on traditional pensions. 

7 Supplemental executive pensions 
F are called “nonqualified” because 

they do nor qualify for the tax breaks 
that employers receive when they 
sponsor qualified pension plans. 

Phyllis Bora, a pension expert ai 
George Washington University who 
was chief of staff to a House sub- 
committee on pensions for 16 years, 
says that if you are in a pension plan 
that is exempt from ERISA, “they can 
do whatever they want lo you.” 

Ralph Jackson worked for 27 years 
for the city of New York and for the 
state, retiring in 1988, but he never 
collected a penny in pension money. 
His lawyer, Edgar Pauk, deputy di- 
rector of Legal Services for the Elderly 
in Manhattan, says that is because of a 
host of roles and technicalities set by 
bis two employers and because Mr. 
Jackson made errors in his pension 
forms as he transferred between vari- 
ous city and state jobs. 

“Everyone who looked at his case 
agreed it was unfair, but they would do 
nothing because there was nothing in 
the rules to correct this outrage,” Mr. 
Pauk said. 

Even the thousands of people with 
pensions that are covered under 
ERISA can have problems collecting. 

"In the normal course, benefits get 
paid,” said David Levin, a lawyer with 
the Washington office of Reish & 
Luftman, a benefits law firm. “And 
how well it goes for the vast majority of 
people is a wonderful thing. But there 
are also all sorts of shenanigans. ” 

The most common problems, ben- 
efits lawyers say, are that companies 
are sold, merged and split up, and it is 
hard to track where the pension plans 
went Once you locate your particular 
pension plan, the company may not 
have records of your employment, es- 
pecially if you changed jobs years ago. 

See PENSION, Page 15 

• Sirvr rWrmmvTtv Vv >url Tor* 

Vincent Russo of Queens found his supplemental pension was no good. 

BA Looks Profitable, But New. Alliance Is Cloudy 

By Erik Ipsen 

Inumanqnal Herald Tribune 

— LONDON — British Airways PLC is 
expected to announce Monday a 7 per- 
cent rise in pretax earnings for 1996 and 
jo trumpet its progress on a three-year 

plan to slash annual operating costs. 

~ But the airline, which analysts say 
. earned around £630 million ($1 .03 bu- 
llion) last year, will probably be less 
'forthcoming about the most crucial 
'question bearing on its future — its 

- planned alliance with AMR Corp., the 
parent of American Airlines. 

Nearly a year after British Airways 
said it would link up with American in a 
code- shari ng and marketing alliance 
bailed as potentially the most powerful in 
the industry, at temp ts to put those plans 
into action have fallen months behind 



The European Commission’s com- 
petition directorate is due to rule this 
week on whether the alliance can pro- 
ceed. Commission approval is required 
because of the two airlines’ strength in 
their home markets and because of the 
alliance’s potential to dominate lucra- 
tive routes between the United Stales 
and London. 

Meanwhile, BA’s four-year alliance 
with USAir Group Inc. which British 
Airways said fattened its bottom line by 
about £100 million a year, has died. 

“The sad fact is that the old alliance, 
which worked quite well for BA, has 
collapsed in a heap, whereas the new 
alliance has not got off the ground yet, 
and it may never,” said Keith McMul- 
. leu, an analyst at Avmark International, 
an airline consulting firm. 

But British Airways is convinced dial 
time and events stand on its side. Last 
week, the airline's chief executive. Bob 
Ayling, pounced an the official unveil- 
ing of the so-called Star Alliance of 
Lufthansa AG, Scandinavian Airlines 
System, Air Canada, Thai International 
Airlines, and UAL Corp.’s United Air- 
lines. calling it ‘ "ultimate proof ’ that the 
industry was abandoning its national 
wellsprings in favor of global alliances. 

Others insist that the old fears about 
huge companies abusing their dominant 
market positions have increasingly been 
supplanted by the conviction that only 
giants grow and prosper in global mar- 

“The world has moved on since the 
BA-American alliance was first an- 
nounced,” said Andrew Darke, an ana- 
lyst at the brokerage Williams deBroe. 

RAGE 13 

A Straggling Germany 
Seeks Budget Ballast 

Waigel Says He Won’t Rule Out Tax Rise 

By John Schmid 

International Herald Tribune 

FRANKFURT — The government 
of Chancellor Helmut Kohl appeared 
headed into a political minefield after 
Finance Minister Theo Waigel ac- 
knowledged that he was willing to con- 
sider raising taxes next year to cover 
another looming budget shortfall. 

Appearing Saturday in Nuremberg at 
a meeting of ethnic Germans who were 
expelled from Czechoslovakia after 
World War H, Mr. Waigel warned that 
he could not rule out a tax increase in 
1998. although he called the move “a 
last and undesirable resort.” 

Near-record unemployment has 
forced Bonn to spend about 20 billion 
Deutsche marks ($1 1 . 74 billion) on job- 
less benefits this year. 

The prospect that the 1998 deficit 
would again step out of line with the 
European Union's single-currency stan- 
dards heightened an already acute sense 
of embarrassment for a government 
whose credibility has waned since setting 
last week that it would resort to die same 
sorts of one-time budget fixes that it has 
condemned other countries for using. 

Mr. Waigel has said he was planning 
an emergency sale of shares in Deutsche 
Telekom AG and the creation of new 
fiscal reserves by reassessing the na- 
tion’s gold and foreign-currency stock- 

These are not easy admissions for 
Germany, which, more than any other 

EU nation, has irked its partners with 
demands for * ’sustainable measures to 
rein in deficits to bring them into line 
with single-currency standards. 

“Waigel has always claimed to be a 
paragon of correctness,” said Udo Lud- 
wig, director of the Halle Economic 
Research Institute. “Now it turns out he 
preaches water but drinks wine.” 

Borrowing a term from the Bundes- 
bank's president, Hans Tietmeyer, Mr. 
Ludwig called Mr. Waigel 's proposals a 
form of “window dressing” that used 
up some of Germany's most valuable 
resources. Mr. Tietmeyer used that term 
to deride France, Germany's closest EU 
ally, in October when the French gov- 
ernment proposed transferring pension 
funds from the national telephone com- 
pany into stare coffers to help polish its 
budget figures. 

Meanwhile, with Germany appearing 
to have surrendered a degree of its moral 
authority, Italy has wasted no time in 
moving to exploit its new-and-ixn- 
proved bargaining position. Over the 
weekend, Italy announced plans for a 
tax increase of its own next year with the 
express aim of plugging its deficits to 
help convince the EU that it is ready for 
the euro. 

The notion of a German tax increase 

withmMr^^Cohl’s coaliti^ 1 ^^; Free 
Democratic Party, the junior partners in 
the coalition, have vowed to oppose such 
a move. The Free Democrats are to hold 
their annual party congress on Friday. 

Bonn’s Raid on Reserves: 
Who Wins in Euro Race? 

He cited not only the Star Alliance, but 
also Boeing Co.’s acquisition of Mc- 
Donnell Douglas Corp. 

In the meantime, British Airways 
continues one of the industry’s most 
radical attacks on its cost base. Earlier 
this month, BA sold off its ground-fleet 
services operation at London's Heath- 
row airport with its 415 employees; cut 
a deal with its 3,500 cabin-crew mem- 
bers, who agreed to pay cuts in ex- 
change for job guarantees and better 
pensions; and forged an accord with 
cargo workers involving a two-year sal- 
ary freeze and 400 layoffs. 

Last week, BA’s plans to sell off its 
long-haul catering business at Heathrow 
prompted a strike by catering workers. 
The industrial action left galleys empty 
and forced the airline to cancel some 
flights to the United States. 

By Carl Gewirtz 

■ International Herald Ttibun e 

PARIS — The apparent extravagance 
of the means — last week’s raid by the 
German government on the resources of 
the country’s central bank — nearly 
obscured the ends: Monetary union as 
scheduled on Jan. 1, 1999, with die 
Maastricht treaty’s criteria intact and 
Germany as a founding member. 

Finance Minister Theo Waigel said 
Friday that Germany wrould revaluate its 

f old and foreign-currency reserves to 
elp the country meet the criteria for the 
launching of the single-currency. 

John Llewellyn at Lehman Brothers 
said the Finance Ministry’s pronounce- 
ment last week showed Germany’s “de- 
termination to meet and beat the qual- 
ifying criteria.” 

These include a budget deficit no 
larger than 3 percent of gross domestic 
product and a debt burden no greater 
than 60 percent of GDP. 

Patrick Artus, chief economist at 
state-owned Caisse des Depots, 

France’s largest institutional investor, 
said, ‘ ‘This clearly shows that Germany 
intends to go ahead with monetary un- 
ion and wiQ not let any deviation from 
economic criteria stand in its way.” 

The currency market’s reaction to die 
government's move was quiet The 
Deutsche marie declined modestly 
against the other Continental currencies, 
and the German brad market sold off as 
markets in Italy and Spain, which usually 
follow die trend set in Frankfurt, rallied. 
The European Currency Unit, or Ecu. a 
forerunner to the euro — the future com- 
mon currency — was little changed- 

Italy is widely perceived to be the 
major beneficiary of the German decision 
to engage in “creative accounting’ ’ prac- 
tices. Italy has been criticized for using a 
one-time rax increase, to be refunded the 
following year, to meet the criteria to 
enter die union. Now, most analysts agree 
with Graham Bishop of Salomon Broth- 
ers in London, who said that “Germany 
has lost the moral high ground” it staked 

See GERMANY, Page 15 

Oracle Is Set to Network With a Netscape Unit 


Schumacher's Choice 

Bloomberg News 

fornia — Oracle Corp. will 
- ann ounce Monday that it is 
investing in Netscape Com- 
munications Corp.’s Navio 
Communications unit, a per- 
-son familiar with the agree- 
ment said. 

Oracle's Network Com- 
nuter Inc. unit, formed to de- 
velop software for network 
..computers, televisions and 
game machines, would take 

Jhestake in Navio. the person 
familiar with the agreement 
said. Netscape holds a ma- 
-jority interest in Navio. 

Netscape officials declined 
4o comment, except to say that 

the announcement was not an 
acquisition of Netscape by 
Oracle. Oracle officials were 
unavailable to comment 

The alliance is intended to 
compete against Microsoft 
Corp.'s Internet initiatives. 

Netscape created Navio to 
make Internet software for 
devices running everything 
from televisions to handheld 
computers. Oracle could use 
the software, analysts said, for 
network computers. Such a 
system is a low-cost machine 
that lacks a hard drive and is 
connected to a network. The 
Navio software could be used 
by Oracle to connect network 
computers to the Internet 

The agreement would fol- 
low Microsoft’s decision last 
month to buy a Navio rivaL 
WebTV Networks Inc., for 
5425 million, as part of a push 
to combine televisions, the 
Internet and software. 

Josh Bernoff, an analyst at 
Forrester Research Inc., said 
that since both Netscape and 
Oracle are in the network 
computer business, “it would 
make a nice alliance against 

The alliance would let the 
companies pool their re- 
sources to develop software 
for devices other than per- 
sonal computers, Mr. Bernoff 

Netscape created Navio as 
a separate company to let both 
companies concentrate on 
different markets, as Net- 
scape moved to focus on de- 
veloping more sophisticated 
software for the corporate 
computer networks, rather 
than devices. Navio has 
worked with such companies 
as Sony Corp., Nintendo Ltd. 
and NEC Corp. 

On Friday. Netscape and 
Oracle issued a press release 
saying the Netscape presi- 
dent, Jim Barksdale, and the 
Oracle chairman, Larry El- 
lison, would make an an- 
nouncement Monday. Net- 
scape shares rose as much as 

13 percent in trading after 
Nasdaq trading closed Friday 
on speculation that Oracle 
would buy Netscape. 

Oracle has been one of the 
leading proponents of the net- 
work computer, along with 
Sun Microsystems Inc. and 
International Business Ma- 
chines Corp. 

The network computer is 
being proposed as a way ro 
lower 1 computer administra- 
tions costs by ending costly 
updates of PCs. Network 
computers receive their soft- 
ware and data from central 
computers on the network. 

Internet address: 

currency RATES ^ Tota ] Denies Deal ’With Iran 

Cross Rates 

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GwBptM by Our Staff Frott Oiyur 

TEHRAN — Total SA denied Sunday 
that it had signed, an oil and gas contract 
with Iran, despite an announcement by 
Iran’s foreign minister, AJi Akbar Velayati, 
that a deal had been reached. 

A representative of the French company 
said Total had “signed no contract” with 
the Islamic republic. 

Mr. Velayati announced Sunday thai the 
$3.5 billion contract to develop the South 
Pars field, one of the biggest oil and gas fields 
in the Gulf, was signed between Total and 
Iran's state-owned National Iranian Oil Co. 

• “Talks are continuing with foreign oil 
and gas companies on a number of projects, 
but no final agreements have been signed 
yet,” the Iranian company said. 

Total and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are 
among European companies bidding to de- 
velop the second phase of the South Pars 
field at an estimated cost of $900 million. 

Total and Shell confirmed this month 
that they have been involved in advanced 
negotiations with the Iranian company ori 
South Pars but that a Contract had not yet 
been signed. 

Total « developing two fields off the 

Persian Gulf island of Sirri under an agree- 
ment signed in 1995. Total secured the $600 
million contract in July 1995 after Conoco 
Inc., a subsidiary of DuPont Co., bowed to 
pressure from the U.S. government and with- 
drew from an agreement to develop the two 
Sirri fields. Under the terms of trade sanc- 
tions against Iran, U.S. companies are barred 
from investing in Iran's oil and gas fields. 

(AFP, Reuters, Bloomberg ) 

■ Western Banks to Aid Gazprom 

Goldman Sachs & Co. has said it and 
other Western investment banks plan to 
arrange $3.5 billion in loans and debt and 
equity sales to help RAO Gazprom of Rus- 
sia construct a pipeline to Europe and de- 
velop new gas fields, Bloomberg News 
reported from Moscow. 

Goldman Sachs and ABN-Amro Bank, a 
Dutch tank, will first arrange a $1 billion 
short-term credit for Gazprom, the world's 
largest natural gas company, a Goldman 
Sachs representative said Saturday. 

TTie credit will be refinanced By offering 
as much as $2.5 billion in debt and equity in 
sales led by Goldman and ABN-Amro, the 
spokesman said. 



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PAGE 15 

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Investors Shun Asian Phone Shares 





Bla.wituty v«. ta T 

tion is mounting i n Ajd-,’* *2j npeta " 
m unications msSk" ’Jh . ,clecor5[1 ‘ 
are running forcow*' 

«^k?- a iSd ‘K ! elee °™nunicarion 
stocks, said Roslan Harun a fund 

BM^ThS Aseumbankers Malaysia 
Bhd. There x too much uncertainty 

Southeast Asia’s telephone comoa- 

Slev fac^H fav °nies because 

they faced little competition in fast- 
growing markets, have hit the skids 
Investors are betting that a flood of 
new service providers will erode the 
large profit margins of these often slow- 
movmg, state-control led companies. 

In addition, waning investor appet- 
ite for telephone stocks is hampSL 
capital-raising efforts by new market 
Wedn esday. Malaysia’s 
thind-jargest cellular phone company 

Bmanang Sdn.. sajj j t had dejaj^ 
planned initial public offering until 
year s end. blaming a slump in the 
stock market. 

“The whole world is coming to 
terms with the fact that in industries 
like this, you have to have more play- 
li er \ saidSally Woo, a fund manager 
Sat Mees Pierson Asia Ltd. in Singa- 
pore. This region isn't really anv 
different.” J 

Typically state-controlled, Asia's 
telecommunications heavyweights en- 
joyed monopolies longer than compa- 
nies in the United States and Britain. 

Investors were also attracted by the 
companies’ towering presence in local 

stock markets. Singapore Telecommu- 
nications Ltd., for instance, accounted 
for as much as 40 percent of Singa- 
pore's iota! market capitalization. 

International investors now have 
many more options. In addition to tele- 
communications companies. South- 
east Asian markets offer an array of 


well-capitalized companies ranging 
from electric utilities to newspaper 
publishers. The steady growth of local 
bond markets has also increased the 
range of available investments. 

That is not just bad news for tele- 
communications companies, which 
could lose billions of dollars in market 
value. It also signals that Asian stock 
markets could extend recent losses be- 
cause telephone companies often re- 
main the largest stocks in local bench- 
mark indexes. 

But just because the immediate out- 
look is gloomy for telephone stocks 
does not mean the future of the industry 
in Asia has darkened,' though growth 
prospects vary by country. The number 
of phone lines per hundred people, for 
example, ranges from two in Indonesia, 
the world's fourth most populous na- 
tion, to about 30 per hundred in Singa- 
pore. (By contrast, it is more than 60 per 
hundred in the United States). 

Revenue growth rates also differ 
widely. In Malaysia, the state phone 
company's soles growth is expected to 
slow to about 16 percent in 1998 from 
22 percent lust year, according to UBS 
Research. Philippine Long Distance 

Telephone Co., on the other hand, will 
see revenue growth rise by 14.5 per- 
cent in 1998. up from a 13.5 percent 
increase last year, according to Phil- 
ippine Asia Equity Securities Inc. 

But sharply rising revenues do not 
mean share prices are headed higher. 
For example, Telekom Malaysia Bhd.. 
the state-controlled company that once 
had a monopoly on phone services in 
Malaysia, must now compere with 
several cellular-phone companies. Its 
shares fell 28 percent over the past 
year.- while the benchmark composite 
index dropped 9.4 percent. 

In Thailand, telecommunications 
stocks have been hit with a double- 
whammy: the slowest economic 
growth in a decade and the prospect 
that two new operators will enter the 
market before the year's end. 

Shares of two mobile -phone oper- 
ators, United Communication In- 
dustry PLC and Advanced Info Ser- 
vice PLC, have fallen as a slowing 
economy has limited subscriber 
growth. To attract new users, the 
companies offered free, or reduced, air 
time and cut handset prices, thereby 
squeezing profit margins. 

“It doesn't lake a genius to figure 
that one of the first luxuries people will 
have to give up as the economy slows 
is a mobile phone,*' said Timothy 
Taylor, associate director of UBS Se- 
curities Ltd. 

In the Philippines, shares of Pilipino 
Telephone Corp., once the laigest cell- 
phone operator, are down 54 percent 
this year, making it the worst per- 
former in the benchmark index. 

PENSION: Beware of the Plan That Falls Through the Loophole 

Continued from Page 13 

ERISA requires companies to keep re- 
cords for only six years. 

John Kovalichik of Holyoke, Mas- 
sachusetts. worked for 31 years at 
Adams Pakkawood, a manufacturer 
there, and for its corporate predecessors. 
But when the company folded in 1991, 
he could not find out where to go to start 
collecting his pension. 

He and other workers eventually 
called on the Pension Assistance Project 

E he University of Massachusetts Bos- 
Gerontology Institute, which runs a 
lie to help people collect their pen- 

• Jack Pizer, an institute employee who 
counsels people about their pension 
-problems, said that in the Adams Pakka- 
wood case, * ‘it took nine months, but we 
finally learned that the pension plan was 
terminated and the money was used to 
buy annuities” at the Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Co. 

William Rhatigan, a Met Life vice 
president, said the problems began 

when Adams Pakkawood closed before 
all the annuities paperwork was fin- 
ished. He also said that when the com- 
pany sold off its equipment, it sold the 
file cabinets containing the pension re- 
cords. The Adams Pakkawood retirees 
are now receiving payments. 

Another common difficulty occurs 
when a company refuses to respond to 
requests to begin payments or miscal- 
culates the benefits when it does pay. 
The law makes it a wrongful act to pay 
either less or more than the pension plan 
specifies, but plans are so complicated 
that mistakes and disagreements can 
easily arise about what the proper 
amount is. 

In recent years, the Labor Depart- 
ment's Pension and Welfare Benefits 
Administration and the government- 
owned Pension Benefit Guaranty Crap, 
have received a small but growing num- 
ber of complaints about shortchanging, 
especially in lump-sum settlements. 

Two years ago, Piggly Wiggly South- 
ern Inc. paid $1 million to retirees of its 
Alabama supermarkets whom it had 

shortchanged by using an improper in- 
terest rate. But the company paid only 
after losing a lawsuit 

In March, TRW, the military con- 
tractor. was found by a federal judge in 
Cleveland to have underpaid more than 
5.000 employees by as much as $40 
million in pension money by using im- 
proper interest rate calculations. TRW is 

But pursuing claims feu ERISA-pro- 
tected pensions can be burdensome. The 
courts have held that lawyers' fees gen- 
erally cannot be awarded unless there 
has been willful misconduct by the pen- 
sion plan, a high hurdle to surmount 

And although it can be hard to receive 
pension payments when you think they 
are due, it is a lot tougher when you do 
not even know you are entitled to any- 

According to Norman Stein, a law 
professor at the University of California 
at Davis who specializes in retirement 
law, some employers create pension 
plans but do not tell their workers, as the 
law requires. 

GERMANY: ‘Creative Accounting’ to Meet Criteria Has Its Price 

Continued from Page 13 

out on fiscal rectitude as a 
reason to delay Italian entry. 

But some analysts said the 
German action would bolster 
the case for Italy entering 
after the start of the union, 
but before adoption' of the 
euro two years later. 

Keeping the entry criteria 
intact will keep Italy out at 
the start, Mr. Llewellyn said. 

The biggest loser in the 
unexpected raid on the 
Bundesbank’s reserves, ana- 
. lysts agreed, was the German 

r erament. 

The timing of the an- 
nouncement. twinned with 
news of an 18 billion DM 
shortfall in the budget, is a 
public-relations disaster,” 
said Hans-Juergen Meltzer 
of Deutsche Bank. 

Thomas Mayer, formerly 
an economist at the Bundes- 
bank and now an economist 
. at Goldman Sachs in Frank- 
furt, said the government's 
. maneuver was a * ‘clear polit- 
ical statement” that mone- 
tary union would proceed as 
planned. But. he added, it 
would have been much 
smarter to separate the re- 
valuation of the Bundes- 
"bank's assets from the de- 
cision on how to solve the 
■ government’s fiscal prob- 
lems.” . . 

Germany, Austria aid 
Sweden are the only EU 
’countries whose official re- 
• Serves — — gold and foreign 
exchange — are valued at 
historic levels rather than at 
market prices. Germany s 

E s valued at an average 
of 144 DM ($85) per 
compared with a cur- 
rem market value of about 
590 DM. Its 

.are valued at 1.3600 DM 
compared with a market 
value of 1 .693 1 DM. 

■ ! The European Monetary 
Institute, forerunner of die 
European Central Bank, re- 

qirirestbat all pW*; 
the future central bank value 
reserves uniformly at near 

market values. Sucb'revalu- 
ation would raise the 
Bundesbank's assets by 
about 60 billion DM. 

It is still unclear how mucb 
of this purely bookkeeping 
“profit” the government 
covets. But it appears that 
just as the government an- 
nually uses the central bank 
as a profit center, incorpor- 
ating profits transferred from 
the Bundesbank to reduce the 
federal budget deficit,, so it 
intends to use part of this 
windfall bookkeeping profit. 

This transfer of wealth ac- 
cumulated over many years 
will be used to pay off some of 
the debt incurred after the uni- 
fication of West and East Ger- 
many. This will bring debt. 

now looming at 62 percent of 
GDP, down to width target 

It is unclear how this will 
affect the budget deficit al- 
though with debt paid off, 
funds previously allocated 
for interest payments will be 
freed for other uses. 

In fact analysts are indif- 
ferent about the technical- 
ities. What irks the experts is 
the arbitrariness and rigidity 
of the criteria to qualify for 
membership in die monetary 
union and the resulting eco- 
nomic hardship as govern- 
ments seek to conform. 

‘ 'There is no economic lo- 
gic to the criteria,” said 
Charles Wyplosz, a leading 
academic expen on mone- 
tary affairs. 

“The less respect paid to 
these artificially imposed 
hurdles, the better off we 
would be. The last three years 
of slow growth and rising un- 
employment in Europe at- 
tests to this.” 

Mr. Mayer agreed that 
“the convergence criteria 
have lost their economic 
meaning” because condi- 
tions today bear little re- 
semblance to 1991 when the 
criteria were embedded in the 
treaty that established the 
monetary union. 

“Politicians have decided 
it's extremely important to 
maintain these symbols of 
convergence, even if they 
don’t have much meaning,” 
be said. 

Protect VburPertonalAMete 

Detanrare Nevada 
. 11 .Cs a«"®0 Comt>af " e5 

I.lnasi«e« a8ft0urs 

Corporate .Agents. Inc. 

ComouSeM GO INC 

Mp mn >!•«— «*«" 

Arab RebuNic of Egypt 

Ministry of transport and Communications 

General Authority for Raods , 
Bridges and Land Transport 



The General Authority for Roads, Bridges and Land Transport (GARBLT), Ministry 
of Transport and Communications. 105 Kasr El Aini Sired. Cairo, invites both Egyptian 
and foreign investors to participate in an 

International Prequalification Procedure 
with the purpose of selecting investors, companies and consortia which have an interest in 
participating in an international lender for 

“Investment Road Concession Contracts” 
for the design, construction, toll operation and maintenance of the following roads and the 
development of adjacent and/or other land:- 

Alexandria to Fayoum Road, 
Fayoum to Day rout Road, 

Davrout to Al Farafra Road, 
Dayrout to Aswan Road, 

Al kharga to East of Auamat Road, 
Al-Sallum to Wadi El Natron Road, 

approx. 199km. and link roads 

approx. 210km. and link roads 

approx. 263km. 

approx. 433km. and (Ink roads 

approx. 520km. 

approx. 508km. and link roads 

The Request for Prequalification (RFQ) application forms which require financial, 
technical and administrative information to be completed by applicants may be obtained 
from the Procurement Dept, of GARBLT al 105 Kasr El Aini Street, Cairo, upon payment 
of LE ,? O0O in cash or by a crossed cheque in the name of *Thc General Authority for 
Roads. Bridges and Land Transport '. 

op n, chall be completed, signed and submitted to the Procurement Dept, of GARBLT - 
NOT LATER THAN 12.00 noon on the 26lh of JUNE 1997. 

Each Applicant Tor prcqualification will be notified individually of the decision. 

Eng Fo'Td^MEl ^ Khalil -". o f 

S orcc^iD^^" 0 ^- CARBLT 

Far.(Wl2-«2> 1 : ' 


China to Tighten Watch on Brokers 

SHANGHAI (Bloomberg) — China said Sunday it would 
step up supervision of the country’s financial institutions and 
brokerages amid a crackdown on the securities industry, 
which foreigners said was riddled with corruption. 

The State Administration for Industry and Commerce is 
seeking to strengthen rules covering brokers. Authorities have 
drafted a law standardizing brokerage rules that will be 
examined by the National People's Congress, the official 
China Daily reported. 

The government also plans this year to present “complete” 
rules for the supervision of financial institutions, as weU as 
regulations on internal controls, the China Dally said in a 
separate report. 

U.S. Regulators Warn Fund Firms 

WASHINGTON (NYT) — The Securities and Exchange 
Commission is warning fund companies to be more cautious 
about marketing new funds by using the past performances of 
portfolio managers or the records of similar funds. 

Barry Bar bash, director of the SEC's mutual fund division, 
told a fund industry gathering Friday that the commission had 
been inundated with requests to use past performance in this 
way. But many of the requests “suggest that the industry is 
reading our rulings more broadly than we anticipated,” Mr. 
Barbash said, possibly misleading investors and causing the 
SEC to re-examine guidelines it adopted last year. 

Bonn to Examine YEBA Purchase 

FRANKFURT (Bloomberg) — The Economics Ministry 
said Sunday it would monitor VEBA AG’s decision to take a 

stake in Berlin's electricity utility, Bewag amid concern the 
sale would give VEBA a near-monopoly in the Berlin power 
market. _ 

VEBA, VIAG AG and Southern Co. of the United States 
agreed last week to pay 2.9 billion Deutsche marks ($1.71 
billion) for a 50.S percent stake in Bewag. which is owned by 
the city-state of Berlin. 

Cargill Closes Taiwan Pork Plant 

TAIPEI (Bridge News) — Cargill Inc. has closed its pork- 
processing plant in suburban Kaohsiung, executives of the 
U.S. company said Saturday. 

Cargill had exported most of the plant's output to Japan, 
which banned Taiwanese pork March 20 because or an 
outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Taiwan. 

Once the Taiwan plant disposes of inventory this month, 
Cargill will withdraw from all pork processing in the region, 
a Cargill executive said. 

The company has started exporting pork from the United 
States to Japan but will need new investment and tune to 
produce pork that caters to Japanese consumers’ tastes, the 
executive said. 

Phillips in Joint Venture in Qatar 

DOHA, Qatar (Bloomberg) — Phillips Petroleum Co. of 
the United States and the state-owned Qatar General Pet- 
roleum Corp. agreed Sunday to spend $750 million to set up a 
petrochemical plant in the Persian Gulf emirate. 

Philips will have a 49 percent stake in the joint venture 
polyethylene plant, which will be built in Mesaieed Industrial 
Area outside the capital, Doha. 

The project is expected to be completed in 2000. 

Thailand to Set Up Fund 
To Bolster Stock Market 

Bloomberg News 

BANGKOK — Thailand’s 
commercial banks plan to set 
up a fund worth 50 billion 
babr ($1.97 billion) to bolster 
the country’s stock market, 
the world's worst performing 
in the past 18 months. Fi- 
nance Minister Aramiay 
Viravan has said. 

The government will also 
cut next year's budget by at 
least 2.4 percent, to 982 bil- 
lion baht, to help narrow 
Thailand’s trade and current- 
account deficits. Mr. Am- 
nuay said Saturday after a 
meeting with Prime Minister 
Chaovalit YongchaiyuL 
■ Government officials are 
scrambling to revive investor 
confidence, which took a 
fresh hit this week as foreign- 
exchange traders assaulted 
the baht, driving it at one 
point to an 1 1-year low. The 
attacks were repelled after in- 
tervention by several South- 
east Asian central banks. 

On Friday, the doQarrose to 
25.85 baht from 25.40 baht 

Mr. Amnuay said the equity 

support fund was agreed to by 
representatives from most of 
the country’s 15 commercial 
banks late Friday. 

The benchmark Stock Ex- 
change of Thailand index has 
plunged 56 percent since the 
beginning of 1996. Share 
prices have tumbled as Thai- 
land's economy slowed to its 
lowest growth rate in a de- 
cade. Most forecasts are for 
growth of less than 5 percent 
this year. 

Last week, the SET Index 
plunged 7.3 percent, to 
561.19. as foreign hedge 
funds attacked the baht to 
force a devaluation of the Thai 
currency. The index is now 
dose to a seven-year low. 

To protect the baht die 
Bank of Thailand, the central 
bank, spent billions of dollars 
of foreign reserves. It got as- 
sistance from central banks 
throughout Asia, including 
those of Singapore and 

Most analysts think lend- 
ing rates need to fall 3 per- 
centage points to get the 
economy back on track. 

In this Tuesday’s 



ow fashion 
is bugging 
the garden 




The European Index 
Conference 1997 

The Euro & The Exchanges: 
Implications for Multinationals 
anil Financial Martlets 

The Grand Hofei. Rmsferdam. June SO 

This conference, timed to follow the Amsterdam Summit, which marks the end of the Dutch Presidency 
of the EU, will debate the Euro's potential impact on multinationals and financial markets. 

SpeaHers include 

. Paul Aaronson 
Executive Director, 
Morgan Stanley & Co. IntT Lid. 

Jean Frijns 
Chief Executive 

Michael Gardner 

F.TJS.E International 

Johan Groothaert 
Client Strategies Group 
Merrill Lynch International 

Peter Stanyer 

Performance ft Risk Management 
Mercury Asset Management 
Group PLC 

Peter Jay 
writer ft broadcaster 

Gordon Bagot 
Director. Head of Research 
ft Consultancy 

WM Company 

Angelien Kero n a 
Director of Equity Investment 
Robcco Group 

Lars Nielsen 
Professor of Finance 

Richard Pagan 
Bonds ft Equities Portfolio 

Salomon Brothers International Ltd. 

Jan Michiel HesseLs 
Chief Executive Officer 
Vendex International N.V. 

Andrew Skirton 
Chief Investment Officer 
Barclays Global Investors 

Piet Veldhuisen 
Head of Mutual Funds 
Generate Bank N.V. 

Onno Vries man 
Client Strategies Group 
Merrill Lynch International 

Bill Stack 

Chief Investment Officer. 
Global Equities 

Drcsdner RCM Global Investors 

. UrstdaTewb, International Herald Tribune* Conference Office,' 63'LroagAoie, London 
Tel, (44 171) S36 4802 .Fax: (44 171) 836 0717 E-maTh ulewis@ifetxom 




The Netherlander 

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PAGE 18 





Globalization: Here to Stay 

Many schools now require students to take international courses. 

B oth U.S. and Euro- 
pean business schools 
are placing more em- 
phasis on international busi- 
ness. Many are establishing 
new programs to address the 

The popularity - of the 
MBA degree may be increas- 
ing in Europe, but in the 
United States, the phenom- 
enal growth of the last decade 
has slowed down. 

To increase the pool of eli- 
gible students, American 
schools have had to broaden 
their curricula to encompass 
the needs of non-U.S. stu- 

At the same time, they 
have had to respond to grow- 
ing competition from their 
European counterparts, 
which emphasize interna- 
tional business as a matter of 

Supply and demand 
Meanwhile, companies are 
also demanding that business 
schools prepare students for a 
global marketplace. 

“There isn’t a company 
that isn't looking toward an 
international market, so 
every school has to have 
some [international] 

courses.” says Dick 
Kwartler. publisher of the 
MBA Newsletter. 

Reflecting the internation- 
alization of business educa- 
tion. the former American 
Association of Collegiate 
Schools of Business has 
changed its name to the 
AACSB-inremational Asso- 
ciation of Management Edu- 
cation. The organization just 
admitted its first European 
member, the French business 
school ESSEC. 

In Europe, meanwhile, the 
European Foundation for 
Management Development, 
headquartered in Brussels, 
has backed away from its 

former denial of pan-Euro- 
pean accreditation and is 
launching just such a pro- 
gram because of the new em- 
phasis on globalization. 

The European schools 
“are faced with the increas- 
ing need to market them- 
selves globally.” says Mr. 

New requirements 
In the United States, the 
Fuqua School at Duke Uni- 
versity, for example, has in- 
tegrated international course 

What makes a program 
truly International are 
•pan- na tional 

curriculum, a faculty 
with overseas 
experience or 
education, and a 
tSverse student body 
drawn from several 
countries and who 
have stutBed abroad 

requirements — at least two 
courses — for all students; 21 • 
percent of Fuqua's MBA stu- 
dents are from overseas. 

Katie Joyce, the assistant 
director of international pro- 
grams, expects that percent- 
age to increase to one-quarter 
by the next year. 

“There's a big push to in- 
ternationalize the faculty,” 
she says. “Students are in- 
tensely interested in interna- 

The buddy program 
The Fuqua School's Interna- 
tional Business Club brings 
in speakers and organizes 
other activities, and a buddy 
program ties students to sim- 
ilar overseas programs. Stu- 

dents can take short-term 
courses in various places 
around the world, and there 
are 20 international exchange 
programs — all for the nor- 
mal-track, full-time MBA 

For those particularly in- 
terested in global business, 
Fuqua also offers a Global 
Executive MBA 

Called the GEMBA the 
program features distance 
learning via the Internet 
mixed with weeks spent 
either at the home campus in 
North Carolina or at a foreign 

Undergraduate trends 
This trend holds true for un- 
dergraduate and even con- 
tinuing education courses. 

At the University of Cali- 
fornia at Riverside, interna- 
tional executives receive a 
certificate after a few weeks 
of study. 

George Mason University, , 
located near Washington, j 
D.C.. offers a master of arts ; 
degree in International 

The interdisciplinary pro- 
gram focuses on internation- 
al trade and investment, eco- 
nomics, law, technology and 

“It caters to people not 
into an MBA but who want 
practical knowledge of bow 
trades are carried out” says 
Jay Sennett a George Mason 

The school relies heavily 
on an adjunct faculty of busi- 
nesspeople and government 
officials who are active in 
various professions — 
“hands-on professors.” as 
Mr. Sennett calls them. 

The factors 

What makes a program truly 
international are a pan-na- 
tional curriculum, a faculty 
with overseas experience or 


There fe no going back to a one-coantry market— and txisiness schools ate mvismgthefr programs accordingly. 

education, and a diverse stu- 
dent body drawn from sev- 
eral countries and who have 
studied abroad. 

Most U.S. and European 
business schools are eagerly 
recruiting beyond their bor- 
ders in order to diversify their 
student body. 

Like other schools, the 
American Business School 
in London is “recruiting all 
around the world,” says Jar- 
lath Dillon, dean of interna- 
tional affairs. 

The school's International 
MBA Program is offered in 
conjunction with Temple 
University in Philadelphia. 
Students study there, as well 
as in Japan, giving them first- 
hand knowledge of business 
in the three main areas of the 

global marketplace: North 
America. Western Europe 
and the Pacific Rim. 

Percentages up 
Many European schools 
have high proportions of for- 
eign students. 

The student body at the 
Institute Superieure’du Ges- 
tion (ISG) in Paris represents 
50 different nationalities. 
Students in the International 
MBA program spend 14 
months in Paris. New- York, 
Tokyo or other cities. 

“We totally believe in 
having students who are in- 
ternational-minded and are. 
or intend to become, citizens 
of the world.” says Dean 
Nazila Leroy. 

The European Business 


E X E C U 

M B A 

R O G R A M 

The Worlds 
Global MBA 

Duke University's Fuqua School of 
Business offers an MBA pregram for 
managers of global companies who 
are working anywhere in the world. 
The Global Executive MBA, 
described as ‘the most ambitious 
attempt at conducting virtual classes 
worldwide " by The Wall Street 
Journal, is the preeminent MBA ■ 
program to prepare working 
managers for global business 
leadership in the 21st century. 



DURHAM, NC 27708 - 0 ! 1 6 USA 


Hie Global Executive MBA (GEMBA™) program 
is cm intensive, 19-monfh degree program ffiaf 
. combines residential classroom sessions on four 
continents with distance education using 
Internet-based technologies. 

This unique program allows executives working 
anywhere in the world to acquire core business 
skills, shape global management strategies and 
develop proficiency in the use of advanced 
interactive technologies in management. 

The Global Executive MBA 

• Prepares managers to meet the challenges 
of the global economy. 

• Includes a total of 11 weeks of residential 
doss sessions at sites in Europe, Asia and 
the Americas. 

• Provides experience using interactive 
technology as a learning and 
management tool. 

• Offers the full range of material contained 
in a top-ranked MBA program. 

• Establishes a worldwide network of other 
global managers. 

• Allows executives and managers to remain 
on the job anywhere while earning an MBA 
from one of the world's leading universities. 

Who Should Apply 

High-potential managers of global 
corporations; executives of small- and 
mid-sized entrepreneurial companies with 
global responsibilities. 

Application Deadlines 

(Class entering May 1 998) 

Early Decision, September 15, 1997 
Regular Decision, February 1, 1998 
Late Decision, March l f 1998 

To receive a detailed brochure and application, 
contact The Fuqua School of Business (U.5A) 

Td 919-660-8011 
Fax 919-660-8044 
or visit our web site: programs/ gembo 



School in London emphas- 
izes cross-cultural business 
education and draws students 
from over 70 countries. 

In the United States, 
George Washington Uni- 
versity tops the list of in- 
ternational attendance, with 
67 percent in the most recent 
class from 35 different coun- 

Fuqua's 2 1 percent is more 
representative; at DePauI 
University's Kelistadt 
Graduate School of Busi- 
ness. one-third of students 
studying international busi- 
ness are from overseas. 

Skills to take home 
These students may be in- 
terested in U.S. business 
methods and attracted to the 
quality of education there, 
but they also want to leam 

skills that they can apply 
when they graduate and head 
back home. 

Most students in interna- 
tional programs tend to be 
more focused because they 
are older and either have had 
extensive work experience or 
are currently employed in 
multinational companies. 

At the European Institute 
of Business Administration 
lINSEAD) in France, the av- 
erage age is 28 and average 
work experience three to five 
years, with 30 percent of stu- 
dents coming from major 
consulting firms. 

Hotels and more 
The march tow ard the global 
economy and international 
student bodies is being felt in 
other disciplines as well. 

At the Hotel and Tourism 

School (HOSTA) in Switzer- 
land, students from 40 coun- 
tries receive the equivalent of 
a U.S. associate degree. 
Founded in 1959 as a Ger- 
man-speaking program, in 
the early 1980s, the school 
switched to English — al- 
most universally accepted as 
the lingua franca of interna- 
tional business programs — ; 
and became more interna- 
tional in scope. 

“The hotel trade is the epi-f 
tome of international busi- 1 
ness.” says Thomas Soboc- 
inski, director of the school. 

“It’s a phenomenon: In- 
ternationally minded people- 
have more in common with 
each other than with people 
in their own countries who 
may not have such common 

Steve Weinstein 

“Internation al Business Education” 
i«zs produced in its entirely by lire Advertising Department . 
of the Inrcniatiunul Herald Tribune. 

Writers: Julia Clerk in San Diego. Timothy Harper in Hen' Jersey, 
Joshua Jampol and Michael Rowe in Paris. 

Terry Swartzberg in Munich and Slew Weinstein in Hew York City. 
Program Director: Bill Mjlrder. 

An MBA front Bath is rated one 
of the best available in the UK. 
You have two opportunities to find 
out why on 21 and 24 May 1997 \ 

Thu School ai Management within ilu* Uni»*r«ri- ol Bath is one of the top five MBA schools in Briiain. 
recently awarded the highest Funding Council ratings lor Loth teaching and research. 

You are inrifed 10 met-; senior members of the tooiln nfos helped w make this possible at rhe tarthcomine 
G.MAC MBA Forum- in Pan»»u 2! ALy W and l’-f Air. 1997. Tlir Director ul the Bath Full-time 
MBA will also he available in Franldur. on -•"> Alai, inteniev ins potential candidates for its AMBA - accredited 
12 month programme. 

This ad'.errisemem U your person jI imiiamm to jppli tor jn interview and discover \vh\ over A (TV of the 
participant? come ham an international hackmmind 

Plawfux or e-mail vain- (.Tfin English I to arrur far IJ anno on Monday 10 J lay /Of) - qnoting reference IHTI V" 
and including a telephone fox contact ninnhrr la Antluny Bins. Director of Studies, full-time MB.-L 
If rou an- unaniilahle an JJ 1-i Slur but are *tiU interested in our JIB.A. contact ns far further details: 
ret - n Idll SJUlSJ fill Vo. - n 1 820210 

UTTIT site: http: n Department* MimaKeiHent e-mail mba info# management, bath, 
School of Management. l ull er\ih of Bath. ilarerinu Pfiirn. Bath.' 


tfiJihing tcjrmnc 10J hmiafcdn J, !■„ ink hf-iir*. jnJ [udo.irr 


8 . 

In Global Business. A DePauI MBA 
Makes A World Of Difference. 

I S -Month MBA in International Marketing 
and finance (MBA/IMF) 

It's the world's only MBA program 
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Cal! (312)362-8811 today. 

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leu weeks arc spent 
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The Chicago Aduantaqc 
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DePauI University gives you 
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Mail in 
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PAGE 19 

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INTERNATIONAL business education 

^Presentation Skills 

Are the Key to Success 

E\en seasoned speaker* have something to learn. 

A n American woman 
making a business 
presentation to a 
group of German male col- 
leagues began in a casual 
lighthearted style. Several of 
the men snorted, stood up 
and headed for the door, de- 
claring her presentation a 
waste of time. She spoke 
loudly and sharpiv. telling 
them to sit down" and be 
quiet. They did. and she 
switched to an assertive, for- 
mal tone without anj c«f her 
“fun” techniques. The Ger- 
mans paid attention. 

After members of a 
alaysian sales and market- 
ing team presented quarterly 
results to representatives 
from their American 
headquarters, the Americans 
complained that the present- 
ations were meandering and 

vague. The complaints 
stopped when the Malaysi- 
ans made their presentations 
more direct and boftom-line- 
oriented and delivered them 
in a more assertive, confident 

Room for improvement 
Both real-life anecdotes are 
the result of presentation 
skills training, one of the 
most popular branches of 
continuing education in busi- 
ness. At virtually all levels, 
managers arc realizing that 
they need to improve their 
ability to make personal 
presentations, whether to 
small groups or large audi- 
ences. h not only gets their 
message across, but also 
helps ro advance their ca- 

Rae Gorin Cook, president 

of Gorin Communications, 
Inc. in Wilmington, 
Delaware, is the professional 
presentation skills trainer 
who supplied both of the 
above examples. Ms. Cook, 
who charges S60U for half- 
day and $1,200 for lull-day 
one-on-onc presentation 
training, says the old-fash- 
ioned way of presenting — 
standing up and giving a 
lengthy, informative speech 
— often falters in the in- a 
temational arena. 

“Doing business interna- 
tionally requires concise, to- 
the-point yet diplomatic 
communications due to the 
lack of time to build rela- 
tionships and sell ideas.” she 
says. “Also, international ex- 
ecutives have to discipline 
themselves to listen com- 
pletely and to ask questions.” 

More and mare executives recognize the need to develop their presentation state. The goaf is not just to get ttefr message acmss, tut also to advance thet careers. 

This is particularly important 
when not everyone in the 
room has the same native 

A surprising number of 
executives arc hindered by 
“nice” (too much) and “con- 


New Programs Cater to Global Market 

More schools are going international, 
anticipating trends and responding to 

When a would-be benefactor offered 
$31 million to build a business school 
from scratch at Oxford University, he 
thought his gift would make him a hero. 
Instead, he had to fight off criticism 
from faculty and the media. What made 
Oxford look this gift horse in the 

According to Dick Kwartier. publisher 
of the MBA Newsletter, the man ex- 
pected to have more decisiorvmaking 
power than the university was willing to 
cede. Other peoplemaintained that the 
Oxfbid dons did not approve of the 
man’s profession, ior indeed of busi- 
ness schools in general. 

Whatever the reasons, the contro- 
versy has not scared away benefactors 
from other business schools. Many 
U.S. schools are named after donors, 
such as Kellstadt at DePaul, Wharton 
at the University of Pennsylvania, Stem 

at New York University and Fuqua at 
Duke University. 


The Technion- Israel Institute of Tech- 
nology is the recipient of largesse from 
its American Society, which has raised 
more than $400 million for Technion, a 
scientific and technological university 
in Haifa, Israel. 

Included in that is a promise of $30 
million to start a business school ded- 
icated to the management of technol- 
ogy-based companies. 

International MBA and other busi- 
ness programs are proliferating, even 
though many business students still 
focus on the local market 

“A lot of international programs are 
not faring as well as they should be- 
cause of foe economy,” says Jariath 
Dillon of foe American Business 
School. "When the economy starts a 
downturn, you revert to your own cul- 
ture.” This has not stopped schools 

from starting new international pro- 
grams, which may well flourish in foe 
long term. 


The biggest growth is occurring in pro- 
grams tailored to specific companies or 
geographic areas. The Kellstadt School 
has begun a new program in Hong 
Kong, both in response to requests 
from businesses there and to anticip- 
ate managers' needs. 

Business schools are also finding 
innovative ways to establish new and 
unique programs. 

The Fuqua School's global MBA pro- 
grams began last year in response to 
corporate leaders who wanted foe uni 
versity to employ Internet technology. 

The program enables far-flung ex- 
ecutives to communicate with profes- 
sors and each other via email and 
bulletin boards, supplemented tty face 
toface meetings at various sites 



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cise” (not enough ) problems. 
Ms. Cook says. They need to 
be taught how to interrupt, 
how to gain and hold the 
room's attention and how to 
make their points aggress- 
ively and effectively. 

“Niceness problems occur 
when nice people ore 
shocked to see how aggres- 
sive top-level communica- 
tions and team communica- 
tions are, and when they can't 
cope with aggressive peers,” 
she says. 

“Conciseness ‘is a com- 
mon problem for the baby 
boomers who were raised on 
a grade-school presentation 
model of introduction, body 
and conclusion — and the 
more you say. the better. In 
the new business environ- 
ment with Ihe younger gen- 
eration. there is no patience 
for this slow, gradual build- 
ing to the point. Now: Make 
the point first, prove it con- 
cisely and make recommen- 

Three suggestions 

Ms. Cook says middle and 

upper-middle managers raise 

their profiles as potential 
candidates for senior man- 
agement by improving their 
presentation skills in~ three 

• Editing what they say, 
and saying only what is nec- 

• Showing themselves 
trustworthy, so they can hold 
their ground when senior 
managers challenge their po- 

• Interpreting information 
and making a recommenda- 
tion. rather than laying out 
the facts and leaving it to the 
bosses to decide. 

The right training 

Ms. Cook says one difficulty 
for people seeking to polish 
up their presentation skills is 
finding the right training. She 
says there are “tens of thou- 
sands” of people who declare 
themselves to be experts in 
presentation training, from 
battle-hardened international 
executives to speech profes- 
sors and out-of-work actors 
with little experience in the 
business world. 

“Many trainers claim skill 

in presentation coaching, and 
off-the-shelf programs can 
make everyone an expert es- 
pecially inside large compa- 
nies,” she says. 

She adds that pieople look- 
ing for presentation training 
should shop around fora pro- 
gram and a trainer to match 
their needs. They should ex- 
amine the training materials, 
talk to the trainer about what 
the course can do for their 
specific situation and get ref- 
erences beyond woni-of- 
mouth from friends and col- 

Starting in school 
Presentation skills are also 
becoming part of the estab- 
lished business-school cur- 

For students at Warwick 
Business School in England, 
“Communication skills are 
an integral part of die 12- 
month course,” says Bill 
Manuel, director of the Full- 
time MBA program. 

In addition to two week- 
long modules with external 
facilitators dedicated exclus- 
ively to such skills, students 

give regular presentations on 
project" work carried out in 
small syndicate groups. 
These are graded on content 
professionalism and quality 
of the presentation tech- 
niques used. 

Beware of hubris 
Warren Wint. senior partner 
at the Total Success training 
consultancy in London, says 
that good preparation is crit- 
ical even for accomplished 
speakers: 10 to 15 minutes of 
propping is needed for every 
minute of a presentation, lie 
says that some people 
emerge from training think- 
ing they are “perfect” 
presenters; in truth, the train- 
ing is merely a base on which 
they need to keep building 

“The worst presentations 
are made by people who as- 
sume they already have foe 
talent to be a great speaker,” 
says Mr. Wint. “They do a 
minimum of work during the 
training and then end up with 
nothing to say after two 

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PAGE 20 




Asia Pushes Homegrown Education 

Governments are encouraging students to study in their home country. 

L ong accustomed to 
paying for students to 
go abroad for business 
and technical training, Asian 
countries are now making a 
major push to provide train- 
ing and keep professionals at 

Malaysia is revamping ter- 
tiary education with the im- 
plementation of the “21st 
Century” education bill 
passed in December 1995. 
The government aims to 
build a society based on 
sound moral values whose 
members are fluent in several 
languages as well as com- 
puter literate. The project 
will also contribute to Malay- 
sia's endeavor to become a 
regional education hub and 
keep at home some of the 2 
billion ringjtt {$798 million) 
that 70,000 Malaysians stu- 
dents spend annually to at- 
tend universities abroad 
Malaysia also wants to at- 
tract more foreign students to 
its colleges and universities 
as a means of reversing the 
foreign exchange flow. 

The 2 1st Century bill al- 
lows Malaysian universities 
to function like corporate 
bodies, with the power to 
borrow money, enter into 
business joint ventures, in- 

vest and cooperate in com- 
mercial undertakings. They 
will continue to be operated 
by the government even after 
this “corporatization.'' 

Financial planning 
Corporatization has raised 
fears that disadvantaged stu- 
dents may not be able to af- 
ford a university education in 
Malaysia. But authorities are 
quick to reassure students 
that they will not be forced to 
abandon their studies owing 
to financial hardship, and the 
government has pledged 
whatever assistance is nec- 
essary to help needy stu- 
dents. The administration of 
the Universiti Malaya (UM) 
— the first institution to be 
corporatized — has prom- 
ised that there will be no 
sharp fee increases, at least 
during the first few years 
after implementation. 

In the longer term, the 
government is hoping to in- 
stitutea “National Education 
Fund,” which will help stu- 
dents to begin saving for their 
tertiary education while they 
are still in high school. 

The Malaysian govern- 
ment has also opened tertiary 
education to the private sec- 
tor. The government has 



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made it clear, however, that 
only premier foreign uni- 
versities — with good finan- 
cial backgrounds and infra- 
structure and expertise in 
science and technology — 
can establish branch cam- 
puses in Malaysia. 

The first such institution is 
Australia’s University of 
New South Wales, which 
will, according to vice chan- 
cellor John Niland, “ulti- 
mately teach full UNSW de- 
grees in Malaysia.” Courses 
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Some 15,000 Malaysians 
have attended UNSW in 
Australia, and it is hoped that 
the sons and daughters of 
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Malaysian campus. 

Meanwhile, local com- 
pany Lhyan Holdings and 
Australia's KoratouTmage 
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venture to offer distance 
learning courses accredited 
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nology in Sydney. This 
branch campus expects an in- 
take of about 300 students 
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tions in information technol- 
ogy and engineering. 

In another move, the 
Malaysian government has 
launched a Batik Kampung 
(return home) program to 
persuade Malaysians in- 
volved in cutting-edge tech- 
nology abroad to impart their 
knowledge to their fellow cit- 
izens. Realizing that the 
present lack of technological 

infrastructure could be a 
hindrance to this possibility, 
the government says it will 
make every effort to supply 
the specialists with the nec- 
essary technology. 

Raising standards 
Singapore has also realized 
that high-quality homegrown 
education is needed to sus- 
tain business growth and 
foster an influx of global 

Deputy Prime Minister 
Tony Tan recently an- 
nounced a wide-ranging ac- 
tion plan to make the repub- 
lic’s two universities — the 
National University of 
Singapore and Nanyang 
Technological University — 
into world-class institutions. 
The plan includes expanding 
postgraduate educational and 
research facilities, providing 
more tertiary education pos- 
sibilities and revising the un- 
dergraduate curricula to in- 
clude more analytical skills 
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play a larger role in Singa- 
pore's university life. Prime 
Minister Goh Chok Tong re- 
cently declared that Singa- 
pore is too small to produce 
the 20,000 to 30,000 top 
graduates expected from a 
world-class university. To 
offset this shortfall, foreign 
students should comprise 
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European Schools Linjc Up 

The program was named after the goddess of wisdom fora good reason. 

A trio of universities velop courses using special- And die Jj?'? 

from France. Spain ists who tailor their teaching f^ted two new 
and Gcrmanv came to the needs of foreign cur- Lyon students can study few 

Singapore hads its students. 

most foreign students will 
come from tile Southeast 
Asian region, Singapore in- 
stitutions should also seek 
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the United States, Australia 
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sachusetts Institute of Tech- 

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sional schools of business, 
computer technology and 
communications at the Uni- 
versity of New Delhi. 

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A trio of universities 
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exchange program that 
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yardstick of what true Euro- 
pean training should be — 
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guistic competence — it 
looks like a success. 

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tions d'Enseignement et de 
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pace Educatif European, or 
Mobile Teaching and Re- 
search Institutions for a 
European Educational Cen- 

It is mobile because pro- 
fessors are required to so- 
journ at foreign universities 
for weeks at a stretch, which 
gives them time to develop 
links with researchers and 
other instructors. 

Teacher movers 
A big asset of Europe's in- 
ternational education pro- 
grams has been their ability’ 
to move students. MIN- 
ERVE moves teachers. It of- 
fers classes in their fields and 
in their own languages, but 
away from home. 

The program fosters a new 
type of relationship, allowing 
European institutions to de- 

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velop courses using special- 
ists who tailor their teaching 
to the needs of foreign cur- 

The concept was bom 
when the Universite de Ly- 
on-2 decided to invite other 
European colleges to its cam- 
pus. The first two partners 
were the Univershat de Bar- 
celona and the Goethe Uni- 
versitat in Frankfurt 

Building on existing Units 
Exchanges between the 
schools already existed: Bar- 
celona is linked to Lyon’s 
Rhone- Alpes province by a 
regional cooperation pact, 
and Frankfurt is Lyon's twin 

The project obtained 
European Commission fund- 
ing, plus local cash from each 
region and the Universite de 

A 15 million franc ($2.6 
million), 1,000 square meter 
( 1,195 square yaitf) building 
was specially designed and 
constructed on the French 
campus, where each partic- 
ipating school has space. Op- 
erating costs for the program 
are another 2 milli on French 
francs yearly. 

Plans to travel 
Thanks to this exchange, 
unique in Europe, a common 
teaching and research com- 
munity has been established 
in Lyon. The plan is to have it 
circulate, so that its pedago- 
gical multilingual family 
can meet regularly in the 
three cities. 

MINERVE isprobablythe 
nearest thing to an authentic 
European school Professors 
from Frankfurt and Bar- 
celona teach in their lan- 
guages in Lyon’s licence 
(bachelor’s degree) and 
moiirise (master’s) pro- 

And the institutions have 
created two new diplomas: 
Lyon students can study law 
with specialties in German or 
Catalan law. and a similar 
program in French law was 
created for Barcelona. 

These degrees are recog- 
nized by both institutions. 
They complement each 
school's national course, but 
add another language and 
culture. : 

Sector-oriented : 

At Lyon, students do not fol- ■ 
Iow a year-long bilingual de- 
gree program, but take spe- 
cified two-hour classes 
during a -one-month period, 

“This gives them a bilhf^ 
gual competence in certain 
sectors ; — that’s what we 
want” ‘says Bruno Gelas, 
president of Universite de 
Lyon-2. Part of the concept 
behind MINERVE, Mr. 
Gelas adds, is to solve a tra- 
ditional French problem with 
languages, 'a difficulty that 
the other cities share as 

Enhanced job prospects 
The cross-cultural recipe also 
gives students an advantage 
in the job market. 

“They are hired immedi- 
ately,'' Mr. Gelas says. 

In all, close to 1,700 stu- 
dents have participated since 
the program began in 1994. 
Next year, Barcelona is due 
to begin work on its own 
permanent MINERVE facil- 

In June, the Europeans 
Commission will examine*/’ 
the program’s results and 
look at ways to reproduce the 
fbrmulalelsewhere. The Uni- * 
versity of Turin might be- • 
come the fourth partner, and 
other schools in the Lyon 
area might also join. 

Joshua Jampo 

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PAGE 21 


INTERNATIONAL business education 


Investor Relations Is a Thriving Career Path 


^jestor relation 5 — a profession that 
- Skl " S * a ma *eting 

executive — is one of the hotted 
fieWs m international financial ser- 


Headhunters say there is a short- 
age of good IR people, which is one of 

^ r ^K?- nS S0 many H^^eting 
f n t ?^f l i b,C ’ feaitrans executives are 
and 50 many 
nu [Hl er cnjnc ^ ers in the finance de- 
partment are brushing up their 
presentation skills. 

president and 
CEO of the Washington-based Nation- 
al Investor Relations Institute, says IR 
is no longer confined to doling out 
information about a company to ex- 
isting or potential investors. “It's such 
a dynamic field," he says, citing 
changes in methods of valuation, 
styles of investing, ways of taigeting 
institutional investors, the globaliza- 
tion of markets and the impact of new 
technology on the investment com- 

A recent NIRl survey cited three 
areas of growing responsibility for IR 

• A more active role vis-3-vis Wall 
Street, including more direct contact 
with analysts and investors. 

• Broader involvement in corpo- 
rate activities beyond strict IR. includ- 
ing strategic planning and financial 

• Better access to senior man- 
agement as corporate leadership in- 

creasingly recognizes and appreci- 
ates the importance of the IR 

Growing responsibilities 
Top managers not only tell IR people 
what message to deliver to the In- 
vestment community, but they also 
ask how their company — aid its 
competitors — are perceived by ana- 
lysts and investors. An NIRl study 
found that the number of IR exec- 
utives regularly making presentations 
to their boards Increased from 52 
percent in 1994 to 64 percent last 

In recent years, heightened finan- 
cial reporting requirements and the 
detailed demands of the Investment 
community have made IR more “fi- 

“We are just as obligated to put out 
bad news as we are interested in 
putting out good news." Mr. 
Thompson says. An IR executive who 
leans too far toward public relations 
loses credibility, he adds. 

A recent NIRl study found that 74 of 
its member IR executives said they 
had competence in finance, and 69 
percent said they had competence in 
public relations. Six in 10 IR exec- 
utives report to the chief financial 
officer of their companies. 

“Most people back into ft,” Mr. 
Thompson says of IR careers. Many 
IR executives start in corporate com- 
munications and show they under- 
stand the financial aspects of the 
business, or start in finance and show 
a flair for making presentations. A 

survey of senior IR people showed 
that they had business careers av-. 
e raging 18.5 years, yet they had been 
in IR for only 6.5 years on average. 

New career path 
More young professionals are setting 
their sights on IR early on, sometimes 
in college, says Mr. Thompson. He 
cites a handful of graduate schools 
that are now either offering or moving 
toward IR programs, either short-term 
or as part of MBAs, including the 
University of Michigan, Bentley Col- 
lege and Farleigh Dickinson Uni- 

A 1996 NIRl study found that the 
average annual compensation 
among the IR practitioners in the 
United States in 1995 was 
$115,000. IR people holding the title 
of vice president or senior vice pres- 
ident had an average cash compen- 
sation of $162,000. Among compa- 
nies with more than $1.5 billion in 
market capitalization, the average an- 
nual compensation was $136,000. 
The survey showed that in the typical 
IR department of a large company, 
deputies and other juniors earned 
$100,000 or less, while senior staff 
typically earned $150,000 to 

A survey breakout of 4S senior IR 
executives with large companies, 
most of them with the title of vice 
president or senior vice president 
found they had annual average in- 
comes of $207,000 in 1995. Their 
annual budgets were $358,000. 


Management Know-How Goes East 

On-Site Executive Training Courses 

While the Web offers a great deal of information, face-to-face contact is sometimes irreplaceable. 

?Tk JT any of the world’s universities, textbook publishers 
|\/| and management training institutes are offering one 
-1- ▼ -A. of their premium products free of charge. It only 
takes one good search engine for desk-bound managers to 
download information on “detailing of the differences in 
environmental accountability regulations in the United States 
and Europe” or “assuring enterprise- wide quality in the no- 
borders company” and thousands Of other hot topics in 
international business education. 

The Web is not enough 

With all this information available on their PC monitors, why 
are more and more managers traveling overseas to attend 
business education courses? These courses are often very 
expensive — around $1, 000 a day — and take the managers 
away from their daily responsibilities for weeks and even 

While the Web provides , managers with all the infor- 
mation, overviews and case studies they could ever require, it 
cannot inculcate one key item: a true understanding of the 
mentality of other cultures. “"Mentality courses’ are in strong 
demand. They acquaint managers with the mores, business 
practices and linguistic niceties of the countries to which they 
will be posted,” said a recent article in Handdsblatt, the 
German business daily. 

Case studies 

provides its executive echelons . with “Cross- 
cuJturaJ Awareness, Skills Action” workshops. These in- 
culcate awareness of the value systems and social structures 
of the countries in which Lufthansa’s partner airlines are 

based. „ 

The objective of these workshops, says a Lufthansa 
Spokesperson, is to make its managers “intercultnraliy com- 
petent” _ . . .... 

Hoechst is taking matters one step further, bunding its 
entire man agement skills program around a cross-cultural 
approach. . . 

Skills across cultures . , 

As Wolfgang Beika, the company’s head of executive de- 
velopment, explains. “Our young managersmefi^ to put 

Not surprisingly, the demand for mentality courses centers 
on “Asia training,” as the international business education 
sector likes to call it This instruction is provided by a large 
and growing number of institutes. They are offshoots of 
independent institutes of management education and in- 
formation, of the business administration departments of 
major European universities and of such international cham- 
bers of commerce as JETRO (Japanese Export Trade Or- 

The forerunner of them all is INSEAD’s Europe-Asia 
Institute, now in its 15th yean 

Changing mindsets 

Another mentality course provider is the International Mas- 
ters Programme in Management (IMPM). To change the 
mindsets of its participating managers, this venture un- 
dertaken by leading business schools in Britain, Canada, 
France, India and Japan has sent the managers to sojourn in 
villages in India and in post-earthquake Kobe. . 

The managers work for a broad spectrum of international 
companies, including Matsushita, Motorola and the Royal 
Bank of Canada. 

In addition to the ■above-mentioned “field trips,” the 
courses have sessions in which managers exchange ideas on 
the experiences that formed them as professionals. 

Terry Swartzberg 

W hen the nations of 
Central and East- 
ern Europe started 
returning to market econo- 
mies after 19S9, Western 
business schools were soon 
looking for ways to meet the 
former socialist countries’ 
needs for management edu- 
cation. The Business Devel- 
opment Centre at 
Manchester Business School 
in Britain, for example, offers 
courses to train managers 
from Russia. Several of the 
courses focus on St Peters- : 
burg, with which Manchester | 
has a twinning arrangement. 
Courses are conducted in co- 
operation with local partners, 
including the St Petersburg 
City Council. “ 

“We also cooperate with 
the British Foreign Office’s 
Joint Assistance Unit,” says 
Brian Longworth of 
Manchester's Business De- 
velopment Centre, “which 
manages a special know-how 
fund to assist development 
projects in Eastern Europe. 
Our involvement in this area 
also helps us provide infor- 
mation on East European 
business prospects to local 
businesspeople in the 
Manchester region.” 

French business schools 
are tackling managemenr 
training for Easton Europe 
in a variety of ways. These 
include establishing courses 
with local and international 
institutions, helping train 
business teachers from East- 
on Europe and providing fi- 
nancial assistance to East 
European students who wish 
to study in the West 

At foe be ginnin g of this 
year, foe Ecole Superieure de 
Commerce de Pans launched 
two programs supported by 
the European Commission. 
They aim to train 60 pro- 
fessors at the University of 
Ferghana in Uzbekistan and 
to create a business school 
unit within that university. 

In June 1996, students at 
foe Marseill e-Provence busi- 
ness school (ESC Marseille- 
Provence) who belong to the 
school’s “Junior Entreprise” 
association helped students 
in Novosibirsk (Russian Fed- 
eration) to set up a similar 
association locally. 

“They also provided as- 
sistance with market research 
techniques, and we are now 
looking at similar projects in 
Poland. Romania and Hun- 
gary,” says ESC Marseille- 
Provence Director Jean- 
Pierre Daloz. 

In response to foe growing 

Western business schools am developing management programs for Central and Eastern Eumpe. 

importance of this region, 
Groupe HEC near Paris last 
year created a special center 
for Central and Eastern 
Europe to coordinate all ini- 
tiatives in this area The ef- 
forts include courses estab- 
lished jointly with the 
London Business School and 
foe Norwegian School of 

“We have been cooper- 
ating with European Union 
authorities on projects in- 
volving knowledge transfer 
to East European countries 
such as foe Slovak Repub- 
lic,” says Kai Peeters at foe 
Rotterdam School of Man- 
agement in foe Netherlands. 
“These are essentially qual- 
ity initiatives aimed at help- 

ing local universities to de- 
velop their own skills in their 
regional context For in- 
stance, we bring East Euro- 
pean academics over to our 
school in the Netherlands for 
week-long periods. We be- 
lieve this is preferable to 
shipping out Western teach- 
ers without specialist know- 
ledge of local conditions.” 

The Barcelona-based 
IESE provides another ex- 
ample. “We have created a 
European Network of Man- 
agement schools that links 
Central and East European 
management institutions, 
and we also run an inter- 
national faculty development 
program for professors of 
management coming from 

that region,” says Maria de la 
Puerto, manager for Central 
and Eastern European Pro- 
grams at IESE. “We wel- 
come 20 or 30 teachers each 
year, and the program covers 
four tracks: design of 
courses, research methodo- 
logies, teaching methods and 
case writing. 

“Participants also have to 
prepare a project aimed at 
helping them to transfer what 
they have learned to their 
home countries in areas such 
as writing case studies, 
where knowledge is trans- 
ferred to local corporate ex- 
perience and establishing 
new courses and institu- 
tions,” says Ms. de la Pu- 
erto. Michael Rowe 

/ countries in which Hoechst is active. This provides 
with both the skills and cross-cultural experience 
site to working for a truly international company” 




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k :-;v it 

One Race to Go for Triple Crown 

Silver Charm Wins the Preakness in a Photo Finish 

By Andrew Beyer 

Washington Post Service 

Triple Crown Winners 

Silver Charm held off Cap- 
lain Bodgit's late charge to 
win the Kentucky Derby, the 
losing jockey. Alex Solis, 
speculated, ‘"This could be 
another rivalry like Affirmed 
and Alydar — but hopefully 
with me winning." 

After Silver Charm won a 
bead-bobbing, three-horse 
photo finish Saturday in the 
Preakness Stakes, the paral- 
lels to 1978 seemed even 
more apt Not only have these 
battles been thrilling, but Sil- 
ver Charm possesses the very 

S ualities that made Affirmed 
le most recent winner of the 

1935 — OMAHA 
1946— ASSAULT 



Triple Crown. 

. Silver Cham 

■ Silver Charm has the same 
indomitable spirit. But even 
more important, he has the 
same versatility — a com- 
bination of high speed with 
the ability to sit and make his 
move whenever his jockey 

The instructions of the 
horse’s trainer. Bob Baffert, 
to the jockey Gary Stevenson 
Saturday were, simply: "Just 
push the button today." 

; Silver Charm didn’t run the 
best race in the Preakness, but 
his versatility — plus a little 
luck — got him to the wire 


By late Saturday afternoon, 
everyone connected with this 
race knew tha t Captain 
Bod git the favorite, had the 
deck stacked against him. The 
Pimlico racing strip, which 
has been fair and unbiased 
throughout the spring, 
favored speed Saturday. 
Front-runners dominated 
most of the races. 

When Solis and Captain 
Bodgit's trainer, Gary Cap- 
uano, saw this evidence, they 
knew their horse was in big 
trouble. And there was noth- 
ing they could do about it for 
the Captain is a one-dimen- 
sional stretch runner. 

Stevens and Kent De- 
sormeaux, the rider of Free 
House, recognized the bias, 
and both had horses with 
speed to take advantage of it 
When the gate opened, they 
came out aggressively and 
took positions behind the 

pacesetter. Cryp Too, who 
was destined to tire quickly. 

DesormeaiLt, a former 
Marylander with plenty of ex- 
perience on speed-favoring 
Pimlico strips, urged Free 
House to duel with the front- 
runner. As he made his move, 
Stevens moved too. and he 
was worried that he wasn’t 
going to be able to make up 
ground on die leader. 

“The track was favoring 
front-runners all day long,” 
Stevens said. Meanwhile. 
Solis and Captain Bodgit 
were running eighth, out of 
10, on the turn — a hopeless 

Despite these highly dis- 
advantageous conditions. 
Captain Bodgit came flying 
down the middle of the track. 
As in the Kentucky Derby, he 
veered inward for a step or 
two and lost some a mo- 
mentum. But be' was gaining 
on Silver Charm and Free 
House with every stride. The 
finish was so close that fans at 
die track clustered around 
every television set to waich 
die slow-motion replay and 
try to discern which colt’s 
head had bobbed on the finish 
line at the right rime. 

Silver Charm not only 
made his own breaks, but the 
gods of racing also bestowed 
good fortune on him. Not 

back stretch and got caught in 
traffic between boises. Then 

traffic between boises. Then 
Chris McCanon cook him to 
the rail in die stretch, trying to 
move inside Free House, and 
was slightly squeezed. With so 
much trouble, he shouldn’t 
have finished close to the three 
top horses from the Kentucky 
Derby. Yethe missed winning 
the Preakness by less than two 

His presence will add even 
more intrigue Co the final leg of 
the Triple Crown. People who 
appreciated Touch Gold’s per- 
formance will bet him with 

S June 7 at Belmont Park, 
in Bodgit’s loyalists will 
e that die longer distance 
of the Belmont will at last give 
him die opportunity to over- 
rake his tormentor. 



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J .Thompson, Bautista (9) and A Johnson; 
Rosado. R. Veres (91, J.wofter (91 and 
MJSweeney. W— J. Thompson, 4-2. 

L — Rosado, 3-2. HR-OetrolL Nieves (51. 
NOW YOlk 000 000 006-0 4 0 

Tans 000 002 40 k— 6 6 0 

D.Weiis, Medr (71 and Posada' Santana 
Patterson (71 and IRodftguez. W — Santana, 
2-fl. L—O. VM& 4-2. 5 v— Patterson 
(1). HRs— Texas, Greer (3), W.Clark (51. 

Bafflmon 003 100 011-6 11 2 

Seattle 001 0M 002—3 6 • 

Erickson, R. Myers (9) and Webster: 
D .Martinez. Hatzemer (8), Mamanuo (91 
and D.WU&on. W— Erickson. 7*1. L—O. 
Martinez, 1-4. hr— B altimore, Webster d). 
MAwaakH 100 000 000-1 5 I 

Anaheim M0 002 21*— 5 8 1 

McDonald, D. Janes (B) and Mofheny, 
Levis ms C. Finley ml Leyrite. W— C Ftnfey, 
1-3. L— Me Donate, j-3. hrs— A naheim. 
Hollins (21. Aficeo n>, Edmonds (7). 
Okoge Ml 021 781—6 10 2 

OTOdaad 000 001 Ml— 2 9 2 

Alvarez, Levine (71, LThamns 19 j, Simas 
(91, fLHemcndez (9) and Kreuton VV Adams. 
SJlAontgamery (71, Mahler (9) and G. 
Win lams. W— Alvarez. 3-4. L— W. Adams, 2- 
5. Sv — R. Hernandez (B). HR— Chicago, 
F.Thomas (7). 


Son Diego 100 200 203-7 9 0 
Chicago 238 011 il»-16 21 1 

TLWgrrefl, Cumane (3. Bergman (61# 
Lang (8) and CHemondez. S taught (6); 
Foster, R. Tafls (8) and Senate. M. Hubbard 
(81. W— Foster, 4-3. L—TL Worrell, 2-S. 
HRs— Son Diego. S. Finley Cl), Gamez (31. 
Chicago, Sosa (7), Semite (2). 

Florida 200 0M 018-3 6 0 

Pittsburgh 010 000 000-1 5 0 

AEemandez. Nen (91 and Zaun; Ueber, 
Petere (8). M.WBMns (9) and KendatL W— A. 
Fernandez, 5-4. L— Ueber, 1-5. Sv— Nen 
(ill. HR— Pittsburgh. M. Johnson (31. 

Los Angeles 000 an 001—2 6 0 

OactoMt 201 010 00*— 4 9 0 

Park, Candtattl (6J. Osuna (8) and Piazza; 
Morgan, Shaw (8) and Taubensee. 

W-Margan, 1-4. L-Park, 2-2 Sv— Shaw 
Ml. HR— Las Angeles, Piazza (7). 

Houston • 740 000 001-12 11 1 
PfeBadetphta 000 012 400-7 13 1 
Holt R. Gratia (71. Monte (71. Hudek (91 
and Ausmus.' M. Letter, AUmbs (II. R. Kants 
(31# Pkmtenoerg (61, SprodHn (81. Ryan (W 
and Lieberthal W-Holl, 5-3. L-M. Ltaten 3- 
4 . HRs— Houston, Bagwell (III, Ausmus (II, 
Blgglo 2 (71. Plffladelphta, Rolen C2). 
CotonMo 000 OH 020-2 7 0 

New York OH DM 100-1 0 0 

Ritz, M. Munoz (7), Holmes (81. B. Ruffin 
(9) and Monwaring; MXtark, Mc/vudiael (fij, 
Trtkek (9) and Himdtey. W — M. Munoz. 1-0. 
L— McMIchael 3-4. Sv— B. Ruffti (7). 
HR— Colorado. 1_ Walker (14). 

San Fnmdscn 506 OH 208-13 14 2 
Montreal 020 433 oil — 14 is 2 

Ruder. Roa (4), Tovarez (6), R- Rodriguez 
Ml, D. Henry (71, Beck W and R. m Uns 
BuUteger, Torres (3), Tertord (5). D. veres 
(71, Dam (71* M. Valdes (7). Urblno (9) and 
Winger, w— uracna 2-2. L— Beck. 2-2. 
HRs— Sun Frondsea Bonds 17)- G- K91 (51. 
Montreal, Segui (5). 

SL Loafs OH OH OH OH 0-0 11 1 
Aflanto 0M 000 OH OH 1—1 7 0 

(13 Ian tags) 

ALBenes, Petltovsek DO). Fossos (109# 
TJMathews (111, Fmscanre D2) and 
DlfeOce. Sheaffer (11),- G-Moddux. woofers 
(91. Btetedi) DO), Byrd (11). Embree Dll, 
aantz (12), Bonmskl (13) and PereL J. Lopez 
(9). W— BarowsH, 1-a L — Frescntnre, 2-2. 


Qev cta nd 004 02B 101—8 9 0 

Taranto OH OH 010—1 9 0 

A. Lopez, Kline (6). Mesa (9) and Borders; 
W.WUams, Bener (6) and OBrten. W-A. 
Lopez, l-l L— W. wnttoms. 1-3. 

HR— Cleveland, Thome (B). 

Chicago HI 060 008-7 13 1 

Oafclni d OH 301 108-6 B 0 

D Darwin, Kaitiuier (7). R. Hernandez (8) 
and Karkovke: Karsav. C. Reyes (5). Groom 

(7) . Wenger! (8), A. Small (91 and Moyne. 

W-O. Darwin, 1-2 L— Karsav, 0-5. Sv— R. 
Hemandez (91. HRs— Chtcoga DaJWorttnez 
(31- Oakland, Spkzzfo (6), McGwire flfl. 
Boston 012 HO 010—4 B O 

Minnesota OH MI 000-0 4 O 

Gordon and Hatteberg; Rudke, Guardado 

(8) and Slelnbach. W— Gordon, 2-5. 

L— Rudke, 3-2 HR— Boston. Oleary ( 4 ). 
Detroit 104 001 210—9 11 0 

Kansas Oty OH 1H 001-2 5 0 

Pugh. M. Myers (9) and Casanova; 
Plttsley, Me Dill (6), J-Mantgomery (7), 
Pichardo (9) and Speftr. W-Pugh, 1-a 
L— Phtstey. 84. H Rs-Oetroll T.Ctaik 2 061. 
E LHunter D). Hlgglnson (6). 

44 vw York 602 001 118-11 20 1 

Tens in 010 201—5 12 2 

Mendoza, Stanton Ml, Nehon (7). 
Boehringer (91 Bid Posada; Burkett Alberro 
CO. Gunderson (71. Vasoeeg (9) and 
I. Rodriguez. H .Mercedes (B). W— Mendoza 
3-1. L— Burkett 2-3. HRs— New York, a Nefll 
(B), T. Martinez D 7). 

Mflwaofcee 121 1H BOO— $ 11 1 
Anaheim OH 004 02*— 6 8 2 

Adamson. .Wtchman ML vtnane (71. 
Fetters (7) and Mariwny, Leris (8); Watson, 

Chelsea Celebrates Cup Victory 


LONDON — Tens of thousands of 

singing and chanting fans thronged the 
streets of southwest London on Sunday 


Memorable Moments from Johnnie Walker: DKR Cl. P irith lh>mar<I Callarhc 

streets of southwest London on Sunday 
to watch Chelsea bring the English F.A. 
Cup to its Stamford Bridge ground for 
only die second rime. 

The police closed streets and an un- 
derground station as fans cheered the 
team’s open-topped bus along fashion- 
able King's Road to the ground at the less 
prosperous end of the Fulham Road. 

Chelsea, which included only four 
Englishmen in its team along with two 
Italians, a Romanian, a Norwegian, a 
Scot,- a Welshman and a Frenchman, 
beat Middlesbrough, 2-0, on Saturday to 
lift the trophy. 

Ruud Gullit became the first foreign 
manager to win the FA. Cup. 

Italian midfielder Roberto Di Matteo 
scored the fastest goal in an F. A. Cup 
final this century when he hammered a 
shot past the Middlesbrough goalkeeper 
Ben Roberts in 43 seconds. 

Mark Hughes, the Welsh striker, 
picked up a record fourth winner s 
medaL He collected three with 
Manchester United. . , 

Eddie Newton, who scored Chelsea s 
second goal, said the victory canceled 
out the memory of losing the 1994 final 
to Manchester United, 4-0. 

EH Matteo’s goal was not the quickest 
in Cup final history. That was scored in 
1895 when Aston' Villa took the lead 
within 40 seconds of the kickoff against 
West Bromwich Albion at the old Crys- 
tal Palace in south London. It was the 
only goal of the match. 

Although there is no precise time for 
the goal, all surviving evidence places it 
between 30 and 40 seconds after the 
kickoff. It is also unclear who scored that 
goal; it has been credited to both inside 
forward Bob Chan and center forward 
John Devev. 

While Chelsea celebrated, its beaten 
opponent Middlesbrough was recover- 
ing from its latest trauma. The club has 

finished the season demoted from the % 
Premier League and as losing finalists in- . fy . 
England's two cup competitions. 

Middlesbrough faces the dispersal of 
its foreign legion . Juninho, Emerson and . . 
Fabrizio Ravanelli head the departure- 

list. - - . 

Juninho who has been both consis- 
tently fr- Aiian t and committed to his team, 
has already said he would be happy to 
move to Manchester United which is 
seeking a replacement for Eric C anto n a . 

RavanelH, who limped off after ; 22. 
minutes on Saturday, appears likely to 
return to Italy although Liverpool is re- 
ported to be interested. _ . 

Emerson, a disappointment in recent ■ 
weeks, is more of a problem. His play 
Saturday was sporadic and erratic. 

Chelsea can look forward to tbebright 
lights of Europe while Middlesbrough 
now contemplate visits to such teams as 
Tranmere, Port Vale and Oxford — with 
time to reflect that maybe that money 
cannot buy everything. 

Leverkusen Stays on Bayern’s Heels 

RofaciU) Honaniw ,\sMeulni An 

Gary Stevens urging Silver Charm, center, between Captain Bodgit, left, and Free House to win the Preakness. 

only might Captain Bodgit 
have beat him on an even 
track, but Touch Gold should 
have beaten everybody. 

The colt from California 
came into the Preakness with- 
out the experience or condi- 
tioning of his rivals. He had 
raced only twice as a 3-year- 
old. but lib performance was 
phenomenal. When the gate 
opened, Touch Gold 
stumbled so badly that his 
nose hit the ground. 

Instead of being in conten- 
tion early, he was dead last He 
rushed into contention on the 


Bayer Leverkusen stayed one point 
behind Bayern Munich at the top of the 
B undes liga with a 3-0 victory over strug- 
gling St Pauli. 

Ulf Kirsten, Dutchman Erik Meijer 
and Hans-Perer Lehnhoff scored in the 
second half Saturday to condemn St 
Pauli to relegation. 

Bayern had won, 3-0, at Hansa 
Rostock on Friday. 

Both leading teams have two games 
left The Bavarians' schedule looks 
tougher. They entertain fourth-place 
VfB Stuttgart in Munich next weekend 

Leverkusen, which narrowly avoided 
relegation last season, is chasing its first 
championship. It also needs just one 

to take his league-leading total to 20 this 

PORTUGAL Porto clinched the Por- 
tuguese title for a record third successive 
season when it beat Guimaraes, 4-0, 

Soccer Rodnauf 

point to mak e sure of second place and 
Germany's second berth in the Cham- 

Gennany’s second berth in the Cham- 
pions Cup. 

On Sunday, Kaiserslautern made sure 
that it would return to the top division 
with a 7-0 victory over VfB Luebeck. 

Kaiserslautern, which was relegated 
from the B undes liga last season, is nine 

away on Saturday. The victory put the 
team from Oporto 1 1 points clear of 
second-placed Sporting Lisbon with 
three matches t o go . 

HUNGARY MTK Budapest became 
Hungarian champion Saturday after beat- 
ing bottom -placed Stadler PC 5-3. 

MTK. which has lost only one match 
all season, leads Ujpest by 10 points and 
last year’s champion Ferencvaros by i 1, 
both have three matches left. 

SCOTLAND Steve Cropper of Airdrie 
scored an own-goal to give Hibernian a 
1-0 victory in me first leg of a Scottish 
league play-off Saturday to decide 
which of the two clubs will play in die 

Premier League next season. 

Hibs chmg to the 13ih-minme lead- 
after defender Gordon Hunter was sent 
off just before halftime. 

Hibernian finished sec ond -from -bot- 
rom of the premier division. Airdrie fin- 
ished second in the first division. 

TURKEY Galatasaray became the 
Turkish champion Friday when its Istan- 
bul rival Fenerbahce lost, 4-1. to lowly 

Fenerbahce, the defending champion, 
slipped to third place, one point behind 
Besiktas, also of Istanbul, which beat 
Antalyaspor. 4-0. The top two Turkish 
clubs qualify for the Champions Cup. 

ISRAEL Be tar Jerusalem became the 
Israeli champion for the third time Sat-. 

i vvim!> £Ojlie ■'" 


urday after drawing. 1-1. with Hapoel 
Jerusalem. Betar took an unassailable 
eight-point lead with just two rounds to 
play. Its nearest pursuers, Hapoel Fetah 
Tikva and Hapoel Beersheba, lost and. 
drew respectively. 

points ahead of second-placed Heitha 
Berlin and 13 points ahead of third- 

Berlin and 13 points ahead of third- 
placed Mainz and Wolfsburg, in fourth 
spot. Only the top three are promoted. 

Kaiserslautern has won three league 
titles, most recently in 1 991 . 

France Nantes snatched the initiative 
from Paris St. Germain in the race for 
Fiance's second European Cup place. 

Nantes extended its unbeaten run to 
30 games Saturday, when it won. 3-0, at 
home to Montpellier. PSG lost away, I* 
0, to arch-enemy Marseille on a penalty 
three days after losing the European Cup 
Winners' Cup final to Barcelona, also 1- 
0 and also on a first-half penalty. 

Monaco, already crowned champion, 
won at Nancy, 3-1. ft entertains Nantes 
in the final round of matches next week- 
end while PSG plays Strasbourg. 

Netherlands PSV Eindhoven 
dosed in on its 14th Dutch league title 
when it bear Utrecht, 6-1. on Saturday. 

PSV leads Feyenooid by seven points. 
Feyeaoord has three games left, starting 

Cipollini Cruises 
In Giro’s 2d Stage 

with Rotterdam rival Sparta on Monday. 
Luc Nilis scored three goals for PSV 

CntpUrdrn (hr Stuff From Dispcsdta 

CERVLA, Italy — Mario Cipollini 
won another crowded sprint Sunday in 
the second stage of the Giro dTtalia 
cycling race and retained the leader's 
pink jersey. 

The 30-year-old Italian pulled away 
from the pack of other riders at the 
close of the flat, 2 1 1 -kilometer ( 130.8- 
mile) route from Mestre to Cervia 
along the Adriatic coast. 

He completed the course in 5 hours, 

9 minutes. 46 seconds. 

Cipollini, who has built a career out 
of capturing such stages, also took the 
opening leg Saturday in a closing dash, . 
edging his counttyman, Nicola Minali. f j 

Minali crashed rounding the final 
curve Sunday. His back wheel skidded 
sideways as he chased Cipollini out of 




and ih;> ’i~~' 

Sie-.e v --' 77 ;- 

scored £'M ! * 

rallying *' 

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Stanley Cur 7 " 
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the final bend. 

Ijrfn Ivitw>^ Vfrnrr Ftaoro* IWwif 

( Reuters. AP) Mario Cipollini winning Sunday. 

Howgown Ml. P. Hants (71, Holtz (8). 
Potival (8) and Leyritz. W-PartivaL 1-2. 
L — Fetters. 1-2. HRs— Mltwaukee. Jaha (8). 
G. WWams (4). 

BaWanro MO 288 108-4 H 1 

Seattle OH 818 010-3 9 0 

Key. TeJAattiews (61. RaMym (91, A. 
Ben ten (9) and Holies; SSomters. McCarthy 
(6), Ayala (71. Hotzemv (9) and DaWflson. 
W-Key. 80. L-S. Sanders, 85. Sv— A. 
Benitez (4). HRs— Baltimore, Surhotf (51. 
Seattle. A.Roditguez (6). 


San Diego 100 012 208-6 12 0 

Ctatfnat! HI HI 000—2 6 0 

J.HamRten, P. Smith (6). Bodrtter (8). 
Hoffman (9) and Flaherty; Mercker, Belinda 
(6). Rem linger (6), Carrasco 7). Sullivan (9) 
and Taubensee. W— J. Hamilton. 2-1. 
L— Mercher. 1-4. Sv— Hoffman (7). 
HRs— San Dtaga SNptey n). Gwynn IB), 
□nctenatv LHarrts (21. 

Colorado OH HO 018-1 8 0 

Now York OH Ml 00*-3 10 1 

Thomson, DeJean (7). SJteetf m and 
JeJteed; BJones, Jo. Franco (8) and 
Hundley. W— B. Jones. 7-2. L— Thomson, 8 
2. Sv— jaJ=ranco D2). HR— Cotoroda 
Galarraga (8). 

Florida 103 201 113-11 19 1 

PHtahorgta DM OH 100-1 8 2 

Rapa- Hutton (71. F. Heradia (8), Poaen 
(9) and CJohmon: Cooke. Sodavrcky (31, 
Morel (61, Wahthouse (8) and KendaU. 
W— Rapp. 3-2. L-Coofce, 3-5. HR-Ftortda 
Rapp O). 

Hoaston in 010 008-2 4 8 

PhfladoipHa 002 OH 20*— 4 8 1 

Rrynatd& R. Springer (7). Lima (8) and 
EuseMa- SckUtiao, Borneo (9) and 
UebcrTnal. W— Senate g, 6-3. L— Reynolds, 
4-4 Sv— BattoSco m. HRs — Houston, 
BoflaeU (12). PhOarSepida, Rolen (3). 

SL Louts OH 002 040-6 7 1 

Attanta 020 H4 201—11 19 1 

Morris. Raggto (5). Painter (71 rata 
DffHce. LampUn (5); Smoltz. Byrd (81. 
Oonfz (8) and J. Lopez. W- Smote 5-3. 
L— Monts, 1-2. HRS — SI. Louis. Lankford (7), 
Gent (6), Franklin (2). AnaiUo— Blauser (61- 
Los Angeles 084 120 001-8 n o 

Montroal OH 000 201—3 4 3 

Nana Rnflnsky (9) and Pi a z za : CPerez. 
Tams (A). M. Vdldes (01 ond Fletcher. 
w-Noma 5-2. L-c Perez. 4-3. 

San Francisco OH 0M 022—4 s 0 

CHcago m on 800-1 7 1 

Gradner, Beck (91 and BenyhA R. WIBtlns 
131; Tetemoca Rojos (9). Patterson (9) and 
ScTvofc. w— Gardner. S-l. L — Tetemoca 0-3. 
Sv— Beck (14). HRs— San Franclsa* Kenf 
m. R.wmdns CD. 

umtuert RHOLTI 

SeSHj7. LaneO 

Do lei 5, Orix 2 
Wntetsu 8. Nippon Ham 0 



Rugby Union Super 1 2 


NBA Playoffs 



Miami 17 23 24 11-95 

New York 27 17 Z2 24—90 

M:Maumliig10-187-142& Hardamy8-17 
1-4 20; N.Y_- Childs 9-17 3-2 22, Johnson 6-12 
8-9 20. Redounds— Miami 43 (Mourning 91, 
New York 56 (Oakley 12). Assists— Miami 20 
(Hordaway 8). New York 18 (Childs 9). 
(Series tied 3-3) 

Fire State 35. Northern Transvaal 23 
Canterbury 48> Queensland 3 
New South Wales 2a Auckland 34 
Gauteng 42. Natal 8 
Weufngfon 29, ACT 35 

Mane um auuHPtotfSHfp 
Hong Kong 46, Untied States 9 
Japan 32, Canada 31 


Seattle 31 19 17 24- 91 

Houston 30 25 19 22— 96 

S: Payton 9-22 5-6 27, Kemp 7-16 7-8 21; H: 
D ruder 9-19 4-7 24. Olajmvoo 11-19 83 22. 
RvbouniJs— Seattle 53 (Kemp 10), Houston 
54 (Barkley 14). Assists— Seattle 71 (Payton 
7). Houston 35 (EBe 11). 

(Housim wtns series 4^1 


NHL Playoffs 


India Innings: 225-7 (50 avers,) 

Sri Lanka Innings 229-5 (40J5 oversj 
Result: Sri Lanka won by 5 wickets. 
NanTHAimwisume vs. Australia 
Saturday, in NORTHAMPTON 
Australia Innings: 233 aH out (474 avers) 
NarthamptonEhlre innings: 134-5 (35 overs) 
Result: Australia wan an Faster run rate. 
Australia Innings: 121 aB out (35 overs! 
Worcestershire Innings: 123-5 (3ELS overs) 
Result: Worcestershire won by 5 wickets. 



N.Y. Rangers 0 0 l— 1 

PbflatMptaa 3 O 1—3 

First Ported: P-Zubrus 5 (Undros. LeCtalr) 2. 
P-NBnlmaa i (Umhn. LeCiair) (pp). Second 
Period: None. Third Period: P-Desfardlns 2 
(Undue. LeCtolri 4. New York, RobKalHe 4 
(Gretzky, Samuetssan) Shots en goal: N.Y.- 
6-6-13-25. P- 8-5-8-21. Goofles: N.Y.- 
Rkhter. P-Snow. 

(PbBadetpMa loads series l-O) 
w u ih u i co on n u ma finals 

Detroit 0 1 3—4 

Cotoroda 1 l a— j 

First Period: C- Young 2 {Ozmintfi. RJaJl 
(DP). Second Period: -C-Lemicu> n 

(KareensAy. Forstwg) J. D-Larianov 2 
(Fedorov, Udstrom) (ppl. Third Parted: D- 
Fcdorov 3 (Yzemtoa Udstrom I 5 , o 

Yzerman A. 6 , D-McCarty 2 (Shanahan) 
Shots an goal: D- 13-17-to— «. C- 5-6-*— 17. 
Goalies: D-vemon. C-Roy. 

(Series Hed 1-11 



Japanese Leagues 

T E N N I S 











Chun lehl 































Yakutt 3, Hanshln 0 
Chonkhl la Yomluri 6 
Yokohama 4 , Hiroshima 3 

HuraWn 1, Yakufl 0 
Yokohama 8, Hiroshima 2 
Chumctu 9, Yomluri r 


UP *97 












Da let 












Nippon Ham 










. AM 









SettxiB. LoltoS 


Nippon Ham 4. Kintetsu 0 




Alberto BerosateguL Spam dct. Morc- 
Kmdn G orJJncr, Germany, 7-5, 7-5. 


Ale* Corretja (10). Spain, del. Goran ivonl- 
scvlc (6). Croatia. 7-e i7 51. 7^ (7-4); Marcela 
Rtos 1 71. Crate, drf. Alberto BevoeolcouL 
Spain, 6-1 3 A 6-1. 


Corrata aet. Plos. 7-S. 7-S. 6-3. 

WOMM'S sntauu 



Maiy J 0 C Fernandez (tgj, uniied Stales 
Jana Novcroa (21. Czech ReoutHK. o-t; 
M«Y Pierce (12). France, act. Amanaa Co- 
etzer (7), South Atncn. a- 4 . t-4. 


Fernandez def. Pierce, e-4. o-t 

Leading result* Saturday in tha tint etoge 
of Ihs Teur of Htoy cycling rocs In Venice. 
Stage dstoncs 128 Idta motor* (79J mites); 
1, Mono OpoHnk Italy, Saeca 2 houre. 38 
minutes. 17 seconds; 2. Nlcota Minali Italy. 
BatBv-Dcrl Monro. sJ_ % Endrio Leonl Italy, 
Akl-Safl, s.t, 4 nilppo Metoni holy. Amoree 
Vita, iJ- 5. Mirim Rassata Italy. Scrigna S.L, 
A. Marcel Wust. Gormcny, Fasitna Lotas, s.t„ 
7. Gabriele Botouccl llolv. Cciamlche Refln, 
s.t, 8, Angel Eda Aishia, Spate, Keline Casta 
Blanca, i.1- 9, Gabrieto MtasogRa, Italy, 
Moped. sJ_ IQ, Seiguel Ouuchraun. Ukraine. 
Team PaitL s 1. 

Loedtag results Sunday In the 21 1 -hm sec- 
ond stogooltho Tour ol Italy tram Ueetm: 1 . 
OpaUrri. 5 hours. 9 minutes. 46 seconds; 2. 
Jan Suarada. Czech Republic. Mapd %.u 
lLeanLs.i.4.MaurizloTomL Italy. Ros Mary 
s-l- 5. Balducd. sJ- 6. Massimo ApoMonla 
Italy. Scrigna s.t. 7. MkuagRa. s.t. & Glenn 
Magnussoa Sweden. Amore ana Vila sj„ 9, 
Moriano PkxolL Italy. Brescia lot sj. 10 ! 
Yevgeny Benin. Russia Batik s.l. 

ovnua VTAMNNQft: l. apowu 7 
hours. 47^9; 2. Leant 16 seconds behind. 3, 
Svorada At- -L MlnaS, sJ_ 5. Mognusson. 20 
seconds; A Batducrl, 34 second*, 7. Aibsaaiia 
s J- 8 wust. S-l- 9. PIccoiL SJ. 18 Bento, sj. 

English Open 

Loading team after Sunday'* Anal mind 
or iho asa.oao- pound (dire 1.05 
English Open si the psr- 72 . 7.oiB^are 
Msnioa Hsnshury Manor course In Ware: 

P. Johansson. Sweden 7Q-e8-ao.67-?6e 

D. edlund. Sweden „ , 

Jov Townsend. U.S. 

S. Webster. England 
O. Hawed. England 

R. Chapman. England 

S. Torrance, Scakmd 

ROavdan, England 
Mark James. England 

GotyD»T. Seottona 

46 -66- 7 1. 70- J n 
71-70-71 -64-276 


Cheteea 2, Mkhflesbrough 0 
Scorers; Roberto di Matteo Dst), Eddie df 
Newton C83td) “j 

Real Betts 3. SevfBa 3 

Bologna a Vicenza 0 
Juventus 1, Parma 1 
Milan 2, Lazio 2 
Napon 1 Rorenflna 2 
Piacenza 1. Cagliari 1 
Reg plana 1, Perugia 4 
Roma 2, Inter 1 
Sampdoria 4. UdbteseO 
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Barkley Leads Houston to a Place in the Final Four 

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Red Wings goalie Mike Vernon making a save. Detroit evened the series against Colorado at one game each. 

Red Wings Rally Past Avalanche 

The Associated Press 

DENVER — The Detroit: Red Wings 
outworked and outplayed the Colorado 
Avalanche for the second straight game, 
and this time they were rewarded. 

Steve Yzerman and Darren McCarty 
scored goals in the final four minutes, 
rallying the Red Wings to a 4-2 victory 
Saturday night and squaring the West- 
ern Conference finals one game each. 

Detroit dominated the defending 
Stanley Cup champions, but had to rally 
from a 2-0 deficit. The Red Wings, 
whooutsbot Colorado, 35-19. in die 
series opener but lost 2-1, again enjoyed 
a huge advantage, outshoodng the Avs, 

H Still, the Wings trailed by two goals 
in the second period before Igor Lari- 
onov scored die first Detroit goal. Sergei 
Fedorov tied it early In the third. 

Larionov’s power-play goal deflec- 
ted in off Colorado defenseman Adam 

“After that goal, luck started to go 
our way/’ said Scotty Bowman, the Red 
Wings’ coach. “It was a fortunate play 
for u$, and it seemed to spark our 

Yzerman scored his 44tfa career play- 

off goal, banking a shot off the pads of 
goal fender Patrick Roy from behind the 
net to break a 2-2 tie at 16:00. 

“I just tried to throw it out in fronrof 
him,” Yzerman said. “Even if it 

NHL Playoffs 

doesn’t go in, there's a chance that we 
might get a rebound.” 

Defenseman Nick] as Lidstrom made 
a sdek save to rob Colorado's Eric 
Lacroix on a shot at an unguarded net 
moments later. Then Detroit's McCarty 
scored on a breakaway at 1 8:43. 

The Avalanche had won their pre- 
vious 1 1 home playoff games. 

The Red Wings outshot Colorado, 
13-5, in the first period. Roy made big 
saves on shots by Fedorov and Brendan 
S hanahan, and Martin Lapointe hit the 
right post. 

Scott Young’s power-play goal late 
in the period gave Colorado a 1-0 lead. 
Sandis Ozolinsh sent a delayed pass 
from the right circle to Young, who 
scored from the left circle at 18:37. It 
was only the second goal for Young in 
the last 27 games and just the fifth shot 
of the period for die Avalanche. 

Detroit continued to pepper Roy with 
shots in the second period, enjoying a 
17-6 advantage. But Colorado moved to 
a 2-0 lead on Claude Lemieux's NHL- 
leading 11th playoff goal. Lemieux, 
matching his goal total in 45 regular- 
season games, punched in a rebound of 
Kamensky's shot at 16:09, extending 
his points streak to nine games. 

Moments later, after a high-sticking 
penalty on Ozolinsh, Larionov scored 
his second goal of the playoffs at 

It ended an 0-for-9 power-play 
drought by Detroit in the series. 

The Red Wings scored another 
power-play goal at 2:10 of the third 
period when Fedorov connected from 
the left circle. 

Bowman said he wasn’t worried 
when his team fell behind 2-0. 

“We were playing pretty well,” he 
said. “We weren’t discouraged. I 
thought we just had to push harder. 
After the second period, I told our team 
we were starting to worry the other 
team, so just keep working, keep play- 
ing hard.” 

. Marc Crawford, the Avalanche 
coach, said his team “played awful.” 

Williams Leads Indians 9 Homer Spree 

^ Zjtrc*** 

The Associatid Press 

Matt Williams hit two of 
Cleveland's four home runs, 
Sunday as the Indians won, 
8-6, in Toronto. 

Sandy Alomar and Jim 
Tbome also connected for 
Oeveland, which leads the 
majors with 71 home runs. 
The Indians won for the third 
tune in eight games. 

Orlando Merced and Ed 
Sprague homezed in the first 
innin g for Toronto and Joe 

Carter connected later. The 
Blue Jays lost for only the 
fifth time in 15 games. 

Williams hit a two-run 
shot in the first inning and led 
off the third with his 13th 
homer of the season. It was 
the 23d multi-homer game of 
his career, including a three- 
homer performance this sea- 
son against Milwaukee. 

PhJIliM 5, Astros 3 Scott 
Rolen hit a two-run homer 
and Garrett Stephenson al- 
lowed only six hits and one 
unearned run over seven in- 
nings as Philadelphia beat 
visiting Houston. 

Rolen's third-inning home 
nm hjs third in three days 
and fourth of the season, gave 
the Phillies a 4-0 lead. Darren 
Daulton then followed with 
his fifth of the year. 

Stephenson (1-0), who 
struck out 12 Cardinals in his 
first major league start on 
May 13, struck out four and 
did not walk a baiter. 

V In games played on Sat- 
urdays ■ 

Pmdmm «. «•<*» * Tony 
Gwynn had three hits, in- 
cluding a two-run homer, as 

the San Diego Padres ended a 

four-game losing streak with 
a victory over the frustrated 
Reds in Cincinnati. 

Ray Knight, the Reds man- 
ager, coached third base for a 
second consecutive game and 
was ejected for arguing a call 
with umpire Jerry Layne. 
Knight kicked dirt on thud 
base, uprooted it and slammed 
it down before leaving. 

Knight, who was fined for 
dusting home plate with his 
hand, foot and cap after a 
May 1 ejection, is showing 
the strain of the Reds’ worst 
start in 47 years. Cincinnati 
, Jjas the worst record (12-2H) 

Hn the major leagues 

Mats 3, Rocks** * Bobby 
Jones became the first seven- 
game winner in the National 
League, as he pitched the 
New York Mels past visiting 

Janes (7-2) won his fourth 
straight decision. He scatter- 
ed seven hits in eight innings, 
striking out four and walking 

Bravos 1 1 , Cardinals 8 One 

night after being no-hit for 
836 innings, Atlanta broke 
loose for 19 hits — five by 
Kenny Lofton — to beat vis- 
iting Sl Louis. 

John Smoltz (5-3), whose 
scheduled start was pushed 
back one day by a flu bug, 
had two hits to lift his batting 
average to .435 (IO-for-23), 
Jeff B la user added three hits, 
including a two-run homer. 

Lofton went 5-for-5, giv- 
ing him a major league-lead- 
ing 66 hits. 

On Friday night, ' St, 
Louis's Alan Benes had his 
no-hit bid broken up with two 
outs in the ninth inning on a 
double by Michael Tucker 
and ihe Braves went on to 
win, 1-0, in 13 innings. 

Uarfim 11, Pfeates 1 In 

Pittsburgh, the pitcher Pat 
Rapp homered for one of 
Florida's season-high 19 hits 
as the Marlins won their sixth 

Bobby Bonilla, formerly 
of the Pirates, had two 
doubles among his three 

Phailm 4, Astros 2 In Phil- 
adelphia, Curt Schilling al- 
lowed three hits and struck 
out 11 in eight innings. 
Schilling (6-3) walked three 
and raised his major-league 
leading strikeout total to 79. 

Dodsem a. Expos 3 Hideo 
Nomo struck out a season- 
high 11 in 81^ innings, and 
doubled to ignzte a four-run 
third inning as Los Angeles 
won in Montreal. 

Giants 4, Ctdw 1 Rick 

Wilkins, who entered the 
game as a replacement for the 
injured Damon Berry hill, hit 
a go-ahead, two-run homer in 
die eighth inning as San 
Francisco won in Chicago. 

Wilkins’s third homer fol- 
lowed a leadoff walk to Mark 
Lewis and came off Amaury 
TeJemaeo, who had been 
working on a two-hit 

Marie Gardner (5-1) won 
his fifth straight decision, 
matching a career best. Rod 
Beck pitched the ninth for his 
NL-leading 14th save. 

I n Jaw 8, Blu« Jays 1 Jim 
Thome hit his second career 
grand slam as Cleveland won 
in Toronto. 

WMto Sox 7, Athletics 8 

Frank Thomas drove in three 
runs with a pair of doubles 

Al BeinwVn* 1 Awnwttil Piru 

Rav Knight, the manager of the Cincinnati Reds, 
hurting third base to the pound during bis tantrum. 

and Dave Martinez capped a 
six-run fifth with a three-run 
homer as Chicago won in 

Thomas went 3-for-3 with 
a pair of walks and raised his 
batting average to .353. 

Mark McGwire hit bis 
14th homer for the A’s. 

Rod Sox 4, TWma O In Min- 
neapolis. Tom Gordon pitch- 
ed a four-hitter for Boston’s 
first complete game this sea- 
son, helping the Red Sox end 
a seven-game losing streak. 

Gordon struck out a sea- 
son-high 10, walked four and 
recorded his first complete 
game since Aug. 28 of last 

Ttgom 9, Royal* 2 In Kan- 
sas City, Tim Pugh beat the 
team that gave up on him and 
Tony Clark bit two of De- 
troit’s four home runs, lead- 
ing the Tigers past Kansas 

Pugh, making his first ap- 
pearance since being called 
up Tuesday from Triple-A 
Toledo, gave up one run and 
three hits in eight innings. 

Pugh was 0-1 with a 5.45 
earned run average in (me start 
and 18 relief appearances last 
season for the Royals, who 
released him on Aug. 14. 

Jim Pitts ley (0-4) had an- 
other poor start He went five 
innings, gave up six hits and 
five runs with two walks as his 
ERA rose from 7.08 to 7.46. 

IMm* 11, Rangwr* 5 In 
Arlington. Texas, Tino Mar- 
tinez and Paul O'Neill both 
homered during New York’s 
six-run first inning. 

Martinez's 17th homer, a 
three-run shot, gave him 50 
runs batted in over 42 games. 
O’Neill added a two-run 
homer, his eighth, as New 
York rocked Texas starter 
John Burkett with five 
straight hits in the first 

Bemie WiUiams went 4- 
for-4 and Cedi Fielder added 
four hits for New York, 
which beat Texas for the sev- 
enth tune in the last eight 
games between the clubs. 

Oriel** 4, Ma r in e r* 3 

Jimmy Key became the sea- 
son’s first eight-game winner 
when Baltimore’s bullpen 
survived a shaky ninth inning 
in Seattle. 

Key (8-0) gave up one run 
and six hits in 536 innings — 
equaling his shortest appear- 
ance this year. 

' Ang*f* 6, Br*w*r» 5 In 

Anaheim, Darin Erstad’s 
run-scoring single capped a 
two-run rally in the eighth 
inning that gave the Angels 
their sixth straight victory. 

By Sam Howe Verhovek 

Se h - York Tones Service 

HOUSTON — There have been mo- 
ments in the Western Conference semi- 
finals when Charles Barkley played 
with such intensity that he seemed 
destined for a confessional on talk-show 
television. Next on Oprah: Men Who 
Want a Championship Too Much. 

But on Saturday, after starting the 
seventh, and decisive, game of the series 
by missing two easy tip-ins and two 
layups, Barkley settled down, eased up 
and turned in a remarkable perfor- 
mance. He scored 20 points, grabbed 14 
rebounds and fired up his teammates 
and the hometown crowd in a 96-91 
victory over the Seattle SuperSonics. 

After missing free throws and throw- 
ing up air balls at critical junctures in 
earlieT games. Barkley lived up to his 
guarantee of both a great game per- 
sonally and a Rocket victory. 

“I ain’t got no chicken in my heart,” 
Barkley said after the game. He is hop- 
ing to win his first league championship 
in 13 seasons. 

It was, in fact, a great game for each 
of the Rockets’ three wise men: 
Barkley, Hakeem Olajuwon and Gyde 

The three 34-year-olds scored 66 
points between them, including 35 of 
the Rockets' 41 second-half points, and 
crashed and bumped their way to 35 

The younger Sonics team turned out 
to be the more tired of the two, spinning 
into a terrible torpor late in the third 
quarter and well into the fourth, in 
which they missed a dozen shots in a 
row and went for 6 minutes and 14 
seconds without a field goal 

Still, the Sonics put on a ferocious 
push toward the end of the game, going 
on a 12-1 run and narrowing the margin 
to 89-86 with 1:32 to play on Shawn 
Kemp's driving layup and foul shot. 

The rookie Matt Maloney, a cool and 
sensational hero in some games of this 
series and a nervous young man who 
could not seem to find the hoop with a 
medicine ball in others, then responded 
with a 3-pointer with 1:17 left that put 
the crowd into a frenzy and the Rockets 
up, 92-86. 

But the Sonics got the next 4 points, 
and the outcome wasn’t certain until the 
very end as Drexier, in two instances, 
made just one of two shots from the foul 

With 16.3 secoods to go, down 94-91, 
the Sonics fumbled, Kemp missed a 
desperation shot, and suddenly Olaju- 
won was more or less alone under the 
basket, malting the shot that iced die 

For a team that is a bit long in the 
tooth, winning a bruising seven-game 
series, however thrilling, is perhaps not 
the most auspicious way to move on to 
the conference finals. The Rockets then 
flew to Salt Lake City for a matchup 
against the well-rested Utah Jazz. 
Barkley played down concerns that the 
team would be too weary to fight against 
the Jazz. 

“If you're tired at this stage of the 
season," he said, “you should be doing 
something else.” 

And Drexier sounded more like an 
excited college player than a jaded vet 

NBA Playoffs 

cran as he talked about the conference 

“This is the Final Four of the NBA,” 
he said. “We made it!” 

The victory Saturday marked the first 
time that the Rockets have ever beaten 
the Sonics hi the playoffs, having lost 
five earlier series. 

The Sonics are the only team that 
Rudy Tomjanovich has lost a playoff 
series to in his six years as Houston's 
bead coach. 

The Sonics, the defending Western 
Conference champions, were vying to 

become only the sixth team to rally from ; 
a 3-1 deficit and win a playoff series. , 
(The Heat got a chance to try for that - 
honor on Sunday against the KnicksJJ 
Last year, they swept the Rockets, at- 
that point the league's defending cham-'] 
pions, in the semifinal conference, 
round. ■* 

Going into the game, the teams could . 
hardly have been more evenly matched. • 
Both won 57 games in the regular sea-^ 
sou and had won six playoff games ■ 
apiece. ! 

Across the span of the first six games ■ 
in this series, the Sonics had scored/ 
exactly one more field goal, while the/ 
Rockets had scored a cumulative total of ’ 
4 more points. 

Every game but one had been decided - 
by 6 points or less. Both teams had a; 
field-goal shooting mark of 44 percent < 
“That was a great series,” said - ; 
Olajuwon after it was all over. “It was a. 
war and it took seven close games. I' 
respect those guys.” * 

“This was a series that was woo on- 
blood and guts," said Mario Elie of the ] 

Said Terry Cummings of the Sonics: ; 
“They did what was necessary to win! 
the game. I wish we hadn’t dug such a 

big hole for us.” 

Kemp, the Sonics' forward who 
scored 21 points and got 10 rebounds, 
and had some troubled moments this 
season, hinted that he might wind up on' 
another team next season. 

“We'U wait for the future on that,” 
he said when asked whether he would 
play with Seattle in 2997-98. 

While perhaps not quite as violent as] 
the brutal matchup between die Knicks 
and the Heat, thiaplay off series has been 
plenty intense. Therc were no bench- 
clearing brawls or suspensions, but in- 
die sixth game of the series. Kevin Wil- 
lis delivered a sharp elbow to Kemp, 
drawing a $10,000 nne, while Kemp’s’ 
return swat at Willis made him $5,000 

The Washington Post reported: 

Barkley had said Friday: “We will 
win the game.” His proclamation made 

“I didn't guarantee a win.” be said. 
“I just said we would win Game 7. 1- 
don't guarantee anything but death and; 
taxes and politicians are going to lie.” • 

Barkley said the idea was to help' 
relax Maloney, who had scared only six- 
points in the previous two games. ‘ ‘The 
only reason I said that was to take the 
pressure off Matt,” Barkley said. 

“I didn’t want to read stories about' 
how bad Matt Maloney was doing. I 
wanted to read stories about how I was 
guaranteeing a win — which I did not- 

The Sonics’ Terry Cummings scor- 
ing over the Rockets* Mario Elie. 


is the 





On the evening of Sunday June 1 . 
at 22.00 CET. the world will know ! 

You can see it live and exclusively on 
Eurosport. as DONOVAN BAILEY and 
MICHAEL JOHNSON meet head to head. 

The evening also features some of the 
other biggest names in the world of 
athletics in this unique One-to-One: 

Challenge of the Champions 

Also see TEXT page 345 

* yp 



HORSE RACING Silver Charm on course for Triple Crown p. 22 BASKETBALL Rockets beat Sonics in game 7 p. 23 

PAGE 24 

World Roundup 

■V- : 

A * • £ 

<A ••• - '•* 

WaffSk^m Br-- 

P»id Jodo/AB’ 

Greg Blewitt of Australia 
missing the ball against 
Worcestershire on Sunday. 
Australia lost, its first defeat 
on its cricket tour of England. 

Malone Wins MVP 

BASKETBALL Karl Malone, the 
muscular power forward who 
helped cany the Utah Jazz to the 
best record in the Western Con- 
ference this season, edged Michael 
Jordan on Sunday to win his first 
NBA most valuable player award. 

Malone received 986 points and 
63 first-place votes while Jordan. 
who has won the award four tunes, 
got 957 points and 52 first-place 
ballots from a panel of sports 
writers and broadcasters in the 
United States and Canada. 

The only closer vote was when 
Magic Johnson beat Charles 
Barkley by 22 points in the 1989- 
90 season. (AP) 

Swedish Showdown 

golf Per-Ulrik Johansson im- 
proved his chances of a second 
successive Ryder Cup place on 
Sunday when he won the English 
Open by two strokes at Ware. 

The 30-year-old Swede shot a 
final-round five-under-par 67 for 
a 269 total. 19 under par, to beat 
compatriot Dennis Edlund. It was 
Johansson’s fourth victory on the 
European Tour. 

The triumph hoisted Johannson 
from 10th to third in the Ryder 
Cup rankings. The top 10 golfers 
qualify for a spot in the team that 
plays the Americans at Valder- 
rama. Spain, in September. 

Edlund, 31, shot a 69 for 271, 
me stroke ahead of an American, 
Jay Townsend, and a young Eng- 
lishman, Steve Webster. (Reuters) 

Moscow Weighs Bid 

Olympics Moscow is consid- 
ering bidding to be host of the 
2008 Games, the mayor of the 
Russian capital said Sunday. 

“It think that Boris Yeltsin will 
support such a decision," said 

Yun Luzhkov, a dynamic organ- 
izer who makes little secret of his 

izer who makes little secret of his 
ambition to succeed the Russian 
president. (Reuters) 

Capital Victory 

RUGBY UNION Australian Cap- 
ital Territories beat the Welling- 
ton Hurricanes in Wellington on 
Sunday 38-29 and booked a home 
semi-final in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere Super 12 competi- 
tion. ( Reuters ) 

Claymores Beat Admirals 


Murphy caught a 50-yard pass 
from Dave Barr with just under 
two minuies remaining to give the 
defending champion Scottish 
Claymores a 10-6 victory Sunday 
over the Amsterdam Admirals in 
the World League of American 
Football. (AP) 



Corretja Defeats Rios, 
Taking Title in Rome 

Spaniard’s Boldness on Baseline 

Will Face Test at French Open 

By Ian Thomsen 

International Herald Tribune 

They are the premier baseline players in 
the worid. and no one from Spain has 

ROME — The French Open begins 
next week without a leading candidate. 

Two more names were added to the 
ever-growing list of contenders when 
Alex Corretja of Spain beat the pony- 
tailed Chilean, Marcelo Rios, in the 
I talian Open final Sunday. 7-5. 7-5, 6- 

Conetja served well and was obstin- 
ate from the baseline, he became the 
only repeat winner on clay this spring 
and moved up seven places to No. 8 in 
the worid — his first appearance in the 
Top 10 — but one wonders whether he 
can create the shots demanded of every 
champion over the two weeks at Roland 

“I think the next step will be to win a 
Grand Slam/’ Corretja said. "This 
tournament is the greatest victory in my 
career. I have to mentally prepare that 
it’s going to be different than one of 
these tournaments — the matches are all 
five sets — but I think I can do well there 

Rios, the seventh seed, was the more 
obviously talented. Incredibly quick 
and balanced, he broke the lOth-seeded 
Corretja in the first game and seemed 
immediately inclined to carry on the 
trend of their last match together, the 
final at Monte Carlo a month ago, which 
turned into a three- set rout for Rios. But 
Corretja was too proud to let that happen 
again. He made his stand in just the third 
game, extending it to 2 1 minutes and not 
letting go until Rios gave in. From then 
on, there was little to choose between 
them, except chi the crucial points. 

“If I don’t win that game, the set it 
was almost gone," Corretja said of the 
third game. “That’s when I make the 
struggle to fight and get into the match. 
Mentally 1 began to believe in myself 
more and more." 

The Chilean was frustrated, flinging 
his racket ai his feet after a backhand 
mistake lost the first set for him on 
serve. Twice in the second set. he ac- 
cepted Corretja’s invitations to take the 
lead, only to be broken back to even 

The Spaniard was guarding his 
baseline first of all. and attacking from a 
distance only when it was logical to try. 
Though he was 800 kilometers (500 
miles) from his home in Barcelona, he 
defended Italy’s most famous court as if 
it were his own. But then, the Spaniards 
believe that every day court is theirs. 

played better on clay this spring than 


In the final set, Rios seemed to relax 
slightly, going for his shots more 
openly, willing to accept what came. 
Despite this loss. Rios, 21 , became this 
week one of the leading contenders for 
Roland Garros. His weakness at the net 
should not be a factor, and. in the ab- 
sence of a dominant player this day 
season, his talent and charisma might 
carry him far. 

In the semifinal Saturday, he beat- 
another Spaniard, the former French 
Open finalist Alberto Berasategui, 6-3, 
3-6, 6-1. 

However, Rios’s will to persevere 
remains in question. Late in the final set, 
he was hearing whistles of derision from 
the crowd of 9.500. most of them dearly 
wanting to support him, but upset that he 
would attempt two hopeless drop vol- 
leys — the first of them losing his serve 
in the sixth game, wasting his hard work 
in the previous game when be broke 
back to even. 

In many ways, the final epitomized 
the two schools of modem tennis. Rios 
represents the John McEnroe school, 
but without that champion's wit 
McEnroe quickly became a star, in part 
because his arrogance comes across 

Just a Note 

And Memories 

By Rob Hughes 

Inienuitiorud Herald Tribune.. .. . 

Jan Hann/Thr Anonoird l*rw 

well on television, though it also makes 
him unpopular among fellow players. 

Mary Joe Fernandez returning Mary Pierce’s serve In the Berlin final. 

him unpopular among fellow players. 

Corretja is just a guy who wants to 
win and does not care how he looks. His 
style is quiet and unspectacular. Be- 
tween them. Rios and Corretja have 
already earned $4.5 million. 

Only Michael Chang, like Corretja, 
has contested four singles finals this 
year. Corretja reached die Italian Open 
final after defeating sixth-seeded Goran 
Ivanisevic on Saiurday. 7-6 (7-5). 7-6 
(7-4). Ivanisevic did not seem to mind 
the loss, having missed the previous five 
weeks because of a broken finger. 

‘ ‘Three years ago when I played him 
at Roland Garros, he played with no top- 
spin backhand." Ivanisevic said of Cor- 
retja. “Now he gives you no easy 
points, you have to fight for everything 
against him.” 

Altogether, the week served as proof 
that this great tournament had been un- 
dermined by the ambivalence of players 
who have come to view it as a warm-up 
for the French Open. 

Mark Miles, the chief executive of- 
ficer of the ATP tour, has reacted to 
years of criticism by revealing a pro- 

posal Sunday to streamline the players' 
ranking system. The ATP has tried des- 
ignating dome tournaments Super Nine 
events, but the players do not always 
play as if they are super. 

Under the new proposed format, each 
player's ranking would be influenced 
most severely by his performances in 
the four Grand Slam tournaments as 
well as in seven or eight major ATP 
Tour events, including the I talian 

At the moment the ATP tour is with- 
out structure. Players are invited to at- 
tend as many tournaments as possible, 
with the understanding that they can 
throw die occasional match without re- 
crimination. Under the new system, fans 
could count on the top players gathering 
at a dozen major tournaments each sea- 
son — and hopefully trying their hardest 
at those tournaments. 

Worrying ly. Miles said that the pro- 
posal might offer injured players the. 
chance to make up points at lesser 
events. No other sport offers injured 
players the chance to recover a trussed 
opportunity. If the tennis tour wants to 

improve its competitions, its players 
must begin to accept some harsh rules. 

■ Fernandez Wins German Open 

Mary Joe Fernandez won her first 
title in more than two years Sunday, 
when she beat a wilting Mary Pierce in 
straight sets in the final of the German 
Open. The Associated Press reported 
from Berlin. 

Fernandez survived a flurry of win- 
ners at the start from Pierce, who won 
the Italian Open last week, and went on 
to beat her. 6-4, 6-2. 

Pierce led 4-2 in the first set against 
the 10th seed, but collapsed when her 
fierce groundstrokes began to miss. 

“The harder I tried, the worse I was 
playing.” said Pierce, seeded 12th. “I 
ran out of gas. I felt like all my energy 
was gone after six or seven games." 

Fernandez won eight straight games 
as Pierce continued to hammer shots 
deep into the corners without success. 

“This was the biggest title of my 
career,” said Fernandez. “This was a 
tough field — all the top women were 

Dreary Draw Takes Juventus Close to Crown 

Cin^xJeJ by OurS^Frcn DUpatckrs 

Nicola Amoraso celebrating after 
equalizing for Juventus against 
Parma with a penalty on Sunday. 

ROME — Juventus drew whistles 
from its own fans Sunday as it declined 
to pursue the victory that would have 
clinched the Italian title and played out a 
lackluster 1-1 draw with second-place 
AC Parma in Turin. 

Juventus could have secured the Serie 
A title with a victory, but the dull draw 
was still a better result for the league 
leader than for visiting Parma. Juventus 
retained its six-point lead in the .stand- 
ings and now there are only two games 
left in the season. It can clinch its second 
championship in three years — and rec- 
ord 24th overall — with no more than a 
draw against lowly Atalanta of Ber- 
gamo on Friday. 

The clash with Parma was lively only 
during a 10-minute period in the first 
half, which brought an own-goal, a pen- 
alty kick and the expulsion of the Parma 
coach. Carlo Ancelorti. 

Once the teams were even at 1-1 in 
the 40th minute, they seemed content to 
play out the draw and neither club took a 
serious shot on goal after halftime. 

Parma took a fortunate lead in the 
29th minute, when Zinedine Zidane, the 
Juventus midfielder, deflected Enrico 

Chiesa’s comer past goalkeeper Angelo 

The goal forced Juventus forward, 
and it equalized 12 minutes later with 
Nicola Amoroso's controversial penalty 
kick. The penalty was awarded when 
Juventus striker Christian Vieri went up 
for a header and was pushed by Parma 
defender Fabio Cannavaro. Ancelotri 

Cup. The win gave the Genoa club sole 
possession of fifth place one point be- 

Soccer Roundup, Page 22 

and his players protested vigorously, 
earning the coach a red card. 

Intemazionale of Milan kept pace 
with Parma in the fight for second place, 
which brings with it a spot in the lu- 
crative Champions League. Youri 
Djorkaeffs goal with seven minutes 
remaining gave Inter a 1-1 draw at AS 

At the rail of the standings. Verona 
w as assured of relegation to the second 
division after a l-l draw with visiting 

Elsewhere. Samdporia’s long- 
dormant attack came alive to beat Ud- 
inese 4-0 in a key showdown for one of 
Italy's fourspoLs in next season's UEFA 

possession of fifth place one point be- 
hind Lazio, which came back to draw. 2- 
2, at AC Milan. 

Spain Davor Suker scored with a 
penalty after 50 minutes to give Real 
Madrid, the league leader, a 1-0 victory 
over Valladolid in Madrid on Sunday. 

Real Betas lost ground in the race for 
Spain’s second European Cup place 
after it drew an extraordinary derby with 
Sevilla, 3-3, on Saturday. 

Sevilla scored twice in the final five 
minutes to level the scores. Betis then hit 
the post from a free-kick which appeared 
to cross the line. The referee blew the 
final whistle immediately afterwards, 
and had to be protected from enraged 
fans by police as he left the pitch. 

The draw is unlikely to save Sevilla 
from relegation to the second division 
for the first time in 25 years. 

The game opened with a freak goal 
from Robert Jami for Betis, before 
Robert Prosinecki equalized from the 
penalty spot. Jami made it 2-1 just after 
the break. Juan Canas put Betis ahead, 
3-1. in the 83d minute, but Sevilla hit 
back with last-gasp goals from Salva 
Ballesta and Jesus Galvan. 

LONDON — So it is adieu Eric \ 


Sunday's announcement that, a wfiE-'. 
before his 31st birthday he has played*;." 
his last game, is not the first time Cafei 
tona has “retired” from soccer. If tg*gf 
really is final, then we should sahftgj. 
Cantona for his originality while giv*lf|. 
thanks that he chooses to go before 
wearies him or ill-temper outwdgjEugf 
what he has achieved. ■' 

He departed Manchester Uni ted fike&ey : 
fugitive m the night: a note sufficing tfrv; - 
say that he wished to do other things,!^- . 
leave the sport at his peak. He and feis v . 
famil y were on vacation abroad and 
were told not to expect a swift return $>_'• 

A pity. Cantona thanks the fans m his •' 
farewell missive wi thout affording those ? 
who contributed week after week to his: 
fortune die traditional good-bye. That - 
of course, is Eric. He never pondered to 
tradition. The captain whose improvis^ " 
tion helped stroke United to four cham- 
pionships in five years feels those tri- 
umphs are legacy enough. 

How, then, shall we remember hhu7 ' ;r 
There are many examples of both- the 
majesty of his touch and the madnessof > 
his psyche, but he was what he roost 
wanted to be: an artist on a par with the - - 
poets and painters whose rebelliousness 
he sought to emulate in movement. - - 

Cantona at his best caressed his sport, 
illuminated the way for other players.^- 
changed a game and changed percep-^/ 
dons of how to perform. He could caress ’ 
the ball with nonchalant brilliance.. he; 
could spoil his game with outrageous 
spite or kick out like a hooligan. 

He reawakened a spark of childish - >j 
ness in many of us as he turned up his .- 
collar, swaggered through midfield and 
scored with memorable aplomb. He also, 
because of his abuses of sportsmanship- 
and his anarchist attitude to authority, 
made it so much harder for any of us to 
show our children his example. 

Soccer tolerated him. indulged his 
tempestuous fire, because he was a win- 
ner. Sometimes we forgave him irra- 
tionally because he could lift the soul of . . 
an audience, create beyond the ima- 
gination of others. 

Where will we see him next? In Nike 
advertisements, to be sure, for he is the 
archetypal image of that company’s ;', 
mean machine winners. Di films, per- 
haps, for he has already had a taste of 
French cinema. 

He prophetically penned his own epi- 
taph tack in 1994: 

“Just as I can bring happiness to ... 
people with my spontaneity, my in- 
stinctiveness. so there are always going . 
to be shadows, black stains." 

Bom in Paris, raised iu Marseilles, 

Eric Daniel Pierre Cantona now has a 
young son of his own. a boy who adores 
papa's image as the Manchester United 
No. 7. Cantona probably could not beaiM_-, 
to hang around while that image frayed.' 7** 

Recently, his body had softened, his - 
uncanny knack of finishing off games in 
an arrogant swoosh of the foot has es- 
caped him. Recently, Alex Ferguson^ 
his manager for four-and-a-half years, 
has publicly courted Juninho. the di- 
minutive Brazilian who will be sold by 
Middlesbrough any day now for a sum 
exceeding £10 million.’' 

Pre-empting the script, perhaps, Ju- 
ninho said Saturday that he would love to 
replace Cantona at Manchester United 
Cantona, meanwhile, read the omens in 
the newspapers he despises: The stories 
said King Eric might be going to Za- 
ragoza or back to Marseilles. 

If he prefers to step off Chat road to 
decline, to reject the money and retire 
with his pride, bravo. * ‘Its like being with 
a woman." he once said “if you cel to 
the point when you ‘ve nothing to say , you 
leave. Or else you stop being good." 

Good bad. never indifferent, Eric 
Cantona leaves soccer with an indelible 
imprint. An artist. a poet, a cliampion. 

Rob Hughes is on the stuff of The 
Times of London. 

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