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Paris, Wednesday, May 28, 1997 


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^4 Landmark Charter 


By John Vinocnr 

Jnur national Herald Tribane 


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Mr. Clinton's cane was the object of much maneuvering at the ceremony Tuesday. Above, Mr. Yeltsin and Mr. 
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PARIS — The 16 NATO nations and 
Russia signed a charter Tuesday em- 
blematic of the end of the Cold War that 
will allow the alliance's eastward ex- 
pansion while creating a permanent 
council for dialogue and cooperation on 
security issues between the former ad- 
versaries. 

After nearly a half-century of nuclear 
confrontation, die charter brings Russia 
into a permanent consultative role close 
to, but clearly outside. NATO. "Russia 
and'NATO." the parties said, "do not 
consider each other adversaries.' ' 

Called the NATO-Russia Founding 
Act. the document’s signature under the 
c hande liers at the Elysee Palace was 
embellished by an unexpected, and ap- 
parently improvised, announcement by 
President Boris Yeltsin that Russia was 
going to remove the warheads from the 
nuclear missiles that it .has continued to 
target on countries present at the ce- 
remony. 

The off-the-cuff statement — at a 
ceremony meant to give an epochal and 
equitable feel to rircamstances essen- 
tially marking the final phase in the 
disappearance of the Soviet Union — 
appeared to startle the leaders, including 
President Bill Clinton, and left their 
advisers virtually speechless. But with- 
in hours, a spokesman for the Russian 
president offered a clarification of his 
remark, saying that rather than scrap 
warheads, Russia would no longer tar- 
get die signatory countries. 

This was a modification of consid- 
erable importance, confirmed later in a 
bilateral meeting with Mr. Clinton. 
Since the United Stares and Russia had 
already concluded an agreement three 
years ago not to target one another, Mr. 
Yeltsin was basically aligning the Rus- 
sian position on the rest of NATO with 
what be had already agreed with the 


Supreme Court Rejects 
Clinton Legal Immunity 

Unanimous Ruling in Sexual-Harassment Case 




By Brian Knowlton 

International Herald Tribune 


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a WASHINGTON — The Supreme 
r V? Court ruled unanimously Tuesday that a 
president has no constitutional im- 
munity from civil lawsuits while in of- 
fice, clearing tire way for Paula Corbin 
Jones, a former Arkansas clerical work- 
er, to pursue a sexual-ha r as sm ent case 
against President Bill Clinton. 

But while the ruling carries potential 
for new embarrassment to the president, 
it is not clear that a trial will proceed 
while Mr. Clinton is in office. 

The r uling , though unanimous, was 
narrowly wonted. It left the door open 
for a trial judge in Little Rock, Arkan- 
sas, to delay proceedings if it., is de- 
termined that they would unduly m- 
terfere with the president’s duties. ' ' 

In Paris, where Mr. Clinton signed 
the Russia-NATO agreement, top 
White House aides expressed surprise at 
the ruling, but said they would have no 
official comment. 

Ms. Jones’s lawyers said they would 
consider a settlement offer if it led to 
‘ ‘the redemption of her reputation.” 


Asked about a i 

lawyer, Gilbert Davis, replied: "It is 
to our opponents, if tbey choose, to ] 
fer such an offer, and' we would certainly 
take it to our client to consider." 

He added that any settlement, to be 
-deemed acceptable, would have to in- 
clude an apology. He did not elaborate. 

By establishing a president's legal 
vulnerabilities, tire Supreme Court rul- 
ing could affect the conduct of the office 
for years to come. Justice John Paul 
Stevens wrote for the court that ques- 
tions other than those of constitutional 
immunity could justify a stay of the trial 
or ofpretrial proceedings. 

"The high respect that is owed to the 
office of the chief executive, though not 
justifying anile of categorical immunity, 
is amatter that should inform tire conduct 
of the entire proceeding,” be wrote. 

The ^ court did not address tire issue of 
whether a judge could compel tire pres- 
ident to appear in court at a specific time 
or place. Legal experts have said this 
woold raise questions about the con- 
stitutional separation of tire judicial and 

See CLINTON, Page 16 


AGENDA 


Allies to Delay Return of Croat Enclave 


The United Stares and its European 
allies, in the face of Croatian in- 
transigence on allowing the return of 
Serbian refugees, have decided to 
delay the return to Croatian control of 
the UN-administered enclave in East- 
ern Slavonia. 

The decision to delay return of the 
enclave by six months is likely to be 
approved by the UN Security Council. 

U.S. officials also warned that they 
would bar Croatia's entry into West- 
ern economic and military alliances if 
Serbian refugees were not allowed to 
return. Page 17. 


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The Riadys and the Pursuit of Influence 


JamesRiady was a freque 

lire Hoose and a 


. Jent visitor 

to the Clinton White 
frequent Democratic Party contrib- 
utor and that, along with carefully 
groomed anecdotes, helped to create 
tire impression, true or not, that his 
family had a direct pipeline to tire 
Oval Office, 'a perception that seems 


to have enhanced tire Uppo Group's 
prestige in the eyes of government 
officials in Asia. "Riady’s goal was to 
sell his relationship with Clinton to 
two governments, Indonesia and 
China.” said a former executive of tire 
Lippo conglomerate, of which James 
Riady's father is chairman. Page 2. 


Luyeudyk Wins Indy Books 


INDIANAPOLIS (AFP) — Arie 
Luyendyk won tire 81st Indianapolis 
500 auto race on Tuesday, holding off 
Scott Goodyear of Canada over the 
final laps for his second Indy triumph. 
The race had been delayed twice. 


Page 19. 

Crossword — 1 Page 4. 

Opinion Pages 18-19. 

Sports Pages 39-3 L 


The I nte m tar ket 


Page 25. 


ThelHT on-line http://www.iht.com 


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Reports Emerge of Congo Death Camp 

Aid Workers and Others Suspect Extermination of Hutu Refugees 


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By Donald G. McNeil Jr. . 

New York Tima Sendee 

KISANGANI, Congo — Since the 
middle of last month, no outsider has 
fr rn allowed down tire jungle road that 
begins at a roadblock manned by sol- 
diers at Kilometer 42 south of here. But 

Newsstand Prices 





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a growing number of accounts emerging 
from that zone suggest that some form 
of systematic killing of refugees and 
disposal of the evidence has been taking 
place there. 

These accounts suggest — although 
they do not conclusively prove — that 
people have died in significant numbers 
m me jungle and that their remains, 
often in the form of ashes, are being 
dispos ed of ec masse. Aid workers now 
express a deepening conviction that the 
jungle asnide the road, as it runs along a 
bend in tire Congo River, has been 
turned into a killing camp^ 

The accounts come from refugees 
who have emerged from the jungle, 
from aid workers who deal with the 
victims, from Congolese who live 
nearby, from a disaffected Congolese 
soldier who says he worked in the zone, 
and from aid workers who saw a mil- 
itary unit move into the area. 

i he more than 25 people interviewed 
refused to be namgd or have their aid 
aynnifis identified for fear of rembution. 


Amoog the tilings that cannot be doc- 
umented are how many people may 
have died or are continuing to die. But 
with an estimated 40,000 refugees, 
mostly ethnic Hum from neighboring 
Rwanda, still missing in the area, the 
refusal of the soldiers attire roadblock to 
admit outside observers has only 
darkened the suspicions about their 
role. 

“They march them down the road — 
yes, children and mothers too,*' said a 
terrified 34-year-old man in the Biaro 
camp, just south of here, who had said 
he had beard from other refugees what 
had happened. 

“Tbey kill them, and then at Ki- 
lometer 52 they mix corpses together 
and make fire with them.’ ’ 

• Such revelations, if proved true, 
could be a major embarrassment for the 
new government of Congo, formerly 
Zaire, led by Laurent KabOa, who took 
power May 17 after winning a seven- 
month rebel war. The new justice min- 
ister, Mwenzc Kongolo, said he knew 



NYT 


notiling directly about what was hap- 
pening near here. 

The Hutu refugees "lie a lot," he 
said. In denying that his government 
was in any way responsible for their 
deaths, he pointed to a separate group of 
refugees, many suspected of being 
former Rwandan Hutu militia members, 
that bad emerged hundreds of miles 
away, in the westers town of 
Mbandaka- 

"They were fighters.” he said. “If 
we'd bees logical and consistent, we’d 

See CONGO, Page 16 


Americans. Unlike pledges of de-tar- 
geting, which cannot be technically 
verified, removing warheads would 
have been a very significant develop- 
ment, requiring an American response 
and opening a debate on lowering the 
alert status of the remaining U.S. nu- 
clear arsenal. 

It was a long moment of palpable 
uncertainty that contrasted with the 
charter's promise of a new era of no 
surprises, calculability. coordination, 
and occasionally — "where we ail 
agree," Mr. Clinton said — joint ac- 
tion. 

In the course of a series of speeches 


made by the chiefs of state and gov- 
ernment, Mr. Yeltsin again expressed 
disapproval of NATO's planned expan- 
sion into countries that border on the ex- 
Soviet Union. But the protest was al- 
most formalistic in tone, and although 
Mr. Yeltsin sighed somewhat theatric- 
ally before he signed the document, he 
acknowledged that NATO had taken 
Russian interests into account 

He mate no further mention of 
NATO's plans to initiate membership 
for Poland, Hungary and the Czech Re- 
public at the organization's summit 

See NATO, Page 16 


The Marshall Plan: An Idea 
That Changed the World 

Fifty years ago next week, on June 5, 1947, in a 
commencement day address to alumni at Harvard 
University, Secretary of State George C. Marshall 
advanced tiie idea of a self-help project for 
Europe, financed by the United Slates, that would 
aid in the economic, technical and social 
recovery of a Continent that lay in ruins after a 
devastating war. “It is logical that the United 
States should do whatever it is able to do to 
assist in the return of normal economic health 
to the world, without which there can be no 
political stability and no assured peace,” he said. 

Thus was bom the Marshall Plan, one of the 
most successful ideas of contemporary history. 

To mark the 50th anniversary, the International 
Herald Tribune today publishes a special report, 
beginning on Page 5, on “The Marshall Plan and 
Its Legacy.” The report marks a different kind of 
anniversary— not of war and suffering, invasions 
or bomb dropping — but of the supremacy of ideas 
and intellect and the start of a process that 
literally changed the world. 



Across Europe, Socialists 
Celebrate French Omens 


By Alan Cowell 

New York Times Service 


BONN — Gains by the French left in 
first-round parliamentary elections 
have heartened Socialists in other parts 
of Europe, offering them a portent of 
growing reluctance among Europe's 
voters to define their future solely in 
terms of global economy dominated by 
the American market ethic. 

From Bonn to Rome and Vienna, 
leftist parties portrayed the advances by 
Lionel Jospins Socialist Party as a sign 
that European voters, confronting the 
fiscal rigors of planned monetary union 
in 1999, would cleave to softer options 
based on the elusive twinning of jobs 
and social welfare offered by the left 

Typically, Oskar Lafontaine, the 
head of Germany's opposition Social 
Democrats, interpreted the French re- 
sults as a sign “that economic and fi- 
nancial policies which raise unemploy- 
ment through restrictive budgets and 
social spending cuts are condemned to 
failure." 

The Social Democrats, who are to 
challenge Chancellor Helmut Kohl in 
elections late next year, want to do so on 
precisely that platform, arguing that 
even Germany’s limited euros on the 


welfare state — far from the harshness 
of American downsizing or Thatcherite 
free-marketeering — represent a be- 
trayal of tiie social state, which is as 
sacred to the left in France as it is in 
Germany. 

The outcome of the French vote is 
critical for Germany, Europe’s troubled 
economic powerhouse, which sees the 
impetus for monetary union as driven by 
Paris and Bonn. The union is the center- 

See EUROPE, Page 16 

Chirac Urges Voters 
To Stay the Course 

President Jacques Chirac appealed to 
French voters Tuesday not to ‘ ‘squander 
the benefits that France is on the point of 
harvesting. ’’ He defended strict budget- . 
ary policies and economic moderniz- 
ation by saying that they were starting to 
show results. Page 17. 

Separately, Prime Minister Alain . 
Juppe said that the decision about which 
nations enter into the planned common 
currency would now be "political” and 
that die conditions for membership need 
not be applied rigorously. Page 21. 


In Indonesia, Megawati 
Warns of Poor’s Rage 9 


By Michael Richardson 

International Herald Tribune 

JAKARTA — Excluded by the gov- 
ernment from Indonesia’s legislative 
elections scheduled for Thursday, 
Megawati Sukarnoputri spends much of 
her time in a suburban house with a large 
tropical garden where caged doves coo 
contentedly. 

Yet, as the daughter of the country’s 
founding president, Sukarno, she con- 
tinues to speak a political language that 
has tapped a deep vein of public dis- 
content with the government of his long- 
serving successor. President Suharto. 

“The rage of the pom is grouting 
everywhere in this country,” Mrs. 
Megawati said in an interview Tuesday. 
‘ 'The big issues include corruption, col- 
lusion and economic discontent. We 
have so much unemployment 

Her rhetoric and increasing popular- 
ity prompted the government in 1996 to 
back a rival faction of her party, the 


Indonesian Democratic Party. In June, 
she was replaced by Suryadi as the 
leader of the officially recognized party, 
one of only three permitted to contest 
Indonesia's elections. 

In July, a riot erupted in Jakarta when 
troops helped the rival faction evict Mrs. 
Megawati’s followers from the party’s 
headquarters. Both Indonesian and for- 
eign observers say the intervention has 
backfired and contributed to the public 
anger and violence that have been a 
feature of the election campaign. 

There is little doubt that the gov- 
erning Golkar party — supported by the 
government, armed forces and bureau- 
cracy in a tightly controlled authorit- 
arian system — will win another land- 
slide majority to Indonesia’s Parliament 
this week in the country’s sixth election 
since Mr. Suharto, a former army gen- 
eral, took over from Mr. Sukarno in 
1967 after a coup attempt that the mil- 1 

See INDONESIA, Page 4 











Appearances Count / They Aided Lippo Group Mostly in Asia 


The Riadys and the Pursuit of Influence 


John j^omfret and Lena H. Sun 

Washington Post Service 


A PRIL 19, 1993. was a tense day at the 
White House. After a lengthy standoff, 
the FBI planned to pump tear gas into the 
Branch Davidian compound near Waco. 
Texas. At stake were the lives of dozens of federal 
agents and the nearly 80 men. women and children 
holed up inside. The White House situation room 
was on full alert. 

It was not too busy, however, for President Bill 
Clinton to spend some time with James Riady and 
John Huang of Indonesia's Lippo Group conglom- 
erate. The two had been cleared in that morning for 


First of two articles. 


their fifth White House visit in a week. Mr. Riady. 
Mr. Huang and an associate. Mark Grobmyer, chat- 
ted with Mr. Clinton in his study just off the Oval 
Office shortly after S P.M.. while in the background 
scenes of the failed FBI raid, which led to scores of 
deaths, were replayed on a television screen. 

Mr. Riady later told government ministers back 
home in Jakarta about his chat with the preoccupied 
president that afternoon, saying that Mr. Clinton 
even showed him the situation room. Such an- 
ecdotes helped Mr. Riady create the impression, 
true or not. that his family had a direct pipeline to the 
Oval Office, and that perception seems to have 
enhanced Lippo's prestige in the eyes of at least 
some government officials in Asia. 

To die Riadys. that was worth all the money and 
effort they spent cultivating official Washington, 
according to former Lippo executives. Indonesian 
government officials and others who know the 
family and its massive conglomerate. 

That could answer a question thar has dogged 
investigators ever since the controversy over Demo- 
cratic fund-raising practices broke last fall: What 
did the Riadys stand to gain from their courtship of 
an American president and his political party? 

Without the link to Mr. Clinton, the Riadys were 
prominent businessmen, but they were also ethnic 
Chinese in a country that deeply mistrusts the 
Chinese. As successful as they were, therefore, they 
had little chance of gaining admittance to President 
Suharto's inner circle, limiting Lippo's chance to 
win billions of dollars in contracts he hands out to 
friends and family members. 

The Clinton connection changed that It put the 
Riadys in the category of a potential back channel to 
the White House should the Indonesian government 
— or the Chinese — desire it. “Riady *s goal was to 
sell his relationship with Clinton to two govern- 
ments. Indonesia and China," said one former 
Lippo executive, who asked not to be identified. 

Rarely has a foreign-based corporation cultivated 
a L'.S. president so aggressively. The Riadys. who 

S ot to know Mr. Clinton in the early 1980s. did all 
tey could to strengthen that relationship once Mr. 
Clinton was elected. Beginning in 1991. they and 
business associates contributed more than S700.000 
to the Democratic Party, including a $450,000 
contribution from a business partner's family that 
was returned last year as possibly illegal. 

The Riadys also hired one of Mr. Clinton’s 
closest friends. They were host to events for three 
groups of U.S. commerce and trade officials who 
traveled to Jakarta. In the National Portrait Gallery 
sits a life-size bronze bust of Mr. Clinton donated in 
the Riadys* honor. Typical of their efforts was an 
offer to fly a Little Rock contingent to the 1994 
economic summit in Indonesia's capital in case Mr. 
Clinton “would like to see some Arkansans while 
he was over there," a White House aide has said. 

If the Riadys hoped to use their ties to Mr. Clinton 
to gain direct benefits from the U.S. government, 
however, the evidence is well hidden. In contrast to 
Asia, where Lippo has extensive dealings with 
government officials at every level, the Ann’s U.S. 
operations are minor. 

The Midas touch that the Lippo patriarch. 
Mochtar Riady. displayed in Asia seems to have 
failed him in the United States. The firm floundered 
an effort to develop a U.S. bank, and while it has 
teamed with some U.S. companies on Asian ven- 
tures, they require little U.S. government aid 
Indonesia is another story. In Jakarta, Lippo has 



access to the White House,” die official 
said “Suharto's people were interested in 
thi s access so they met with him.” 

After his trip, Mr. Grobmyer wrote Mr. 
Clinton about Mr. Suharto’s desire to ad- 
dress the economic summit He noted that 
the Riadys had scheduled meetings for him 
with top Indonesian officials and attached a 
thank-you letter for Mr. Clinton to send 
■ James, describing Mr. Grobmyer *s insights 
as “very helpfuL” Mr. Clinton didn't send 
it, but James Riady gave Suharto aides a 
copy of Mr. Grobmyer’ s letter to Mr. Clin- 
ton as proof of his family's influence, ac- 
cording to the Foreign Ministry officiaL 
The Riadys also promoted Mr. Hubbeli at 
Mr. Suharto’s presidential palace as 
someone “influential with Bill Clinton,'* 
said another Indonesian officiaL After Mr. 
Hubbeli resigned from the Justice Depart- 
ment amid allegations of fraud. James 
Riady arranged for him to tour Indonesia. 

Mr. Riady made sure that Mr. Hubbeli. 
liv-ft Mr. Grobmyer, visited East Timor, 
where Indonesian security forces have been 
accused of widespread human rights ab- 
uses. Mr. Riady “said letting a friend of 
Clinton's see Tun or might help change U.S. 
policy.” the official said. 

“So naturally we thought it was a good 
idea.” he said.* 

Indonesian officials who traveled 


to 
‘s 
ames 


Washington saw tangible proof of Lippo’: 
White House access. In April 1993, Jame_ 
Riady escorted the governor of Jakarta to 
the East Wing for a meeting on which the 
White House can provide no details. 


fry tr& IW 


Mochtar Riady and his son James of 
Indonesia's Lippo Group conglomerate 
aggressively cultivated President Clinton 
and the Democratic Party . The appearance 
of influence aided their operations in Asia. 


H 


approached the Suharto regime for almost 
everything from critical building permits to outright 
financial bailouts. In Chinn, where Lippo is investing 
heavily, the firm is equally if not more dependent on 
official support because government ministries own 
the companies that are Lippo's partners. 

When Mr. Clinton was elected president, the 
Riadys saw a chance to gain more leverage with the 
governments in Beijing and Jakarta, according to 
associates 'of the family. One former executive 
recalled James Riady *s pitch when Lippo was host 
to a delegation of Chinese officials in Jakarta in 
1993. “James told them if they ever needed a special 
word passed to the White House, be or his father 
would be happy to do it,** the executive said. 

I N their contacts with Mr. Grntoni the Riadys 
pressed the views of the Chinese and Indonesian 
governments. In early 1993. Mochtar Riady 
sent the president a four-page letter, urging him 
to renew China’s trading privileges and to support 
Mr. Suharto in his desire to attend the Group of 
Seven economic summit talks later that year. 

Mr. Clinton recalls that James Riady also tried to 
persuade him to meet Mr. Suharto at the 1993 
Tokyo summit talks — a meeting Mr. Clinton 
granted after his top foreign policy advisers re- 
commended it. And in a 1996 Oval Office meeting. 
James Riady urged Mr. Clinton to stick to his policy 
of separating the issue of China’s trading privileges 
from human rights concerns. 

The Riadys offered others as messengers, too. 
including Mr. Grobmyer. with whom Lippo worked 
closely, and Webster Hubbeli, paid $100,000 by 
Lippo after he left die Justice Department. 

In early 1993. James Riady arranged for Mr. 
Grobmyer. a Little Rock lawyer and longtime Clin- 
ton friend, to spend one and a half hours with Mr. 
Suharto in Jakarta. An official with Indonesia's 
Foreign Ministry said Mr. Riady insisted that Mr. 
Grobmyer “had the ear of President Clinton.” 

“He said the meeting would give us special 


E also took Wardiman Djojone- 
goro, the Indonesian minister of 
education, to die Oval Office in 
September 1 994 to hear Mr. Clin- 
ton give his radio address. About that time, 
the ministry granted Lippo a license to 
operate an international scnool at one of its 
property developments. 

And Mr. Riady accompanied Hartarto 
Sastrosoenarto. Indonesia’s coordinating 

minister for production and one of Mr. 

Suharto’s most influential advisers, to the White 
House for a September 1995 lunch. Joining them 
was John Huang, who had left Lippo for the Com- 
merce Department the previous year, and Marie 
Middleton, a former mid-level presidential aide 
who continued to use the White House Mess to 
entertain clients. Two months later, die Indonesian 
government arranged for a group of private compa- 
nies to rescue Lippo during a financial crunch. 

“These trips helped Lippo improve their ties to 
die Suharto regime," said the former Lippo ex- 
ecutive. “As a result, Suharto helped rescue them 
when they needed help." 

Neither the Riady family nor their representatives 
would comment for this article. 

U.S. officials insist that neither the Indonesians 
nor the Chinese needed Mr. Riady as a backdoor 
emissary because diplomatic and other official 
channels were wide open. Mr. Suharto's powerful 
aide, Mr. Hartarto. for example, has little trouble 
getting on the schedule of U.S. cabinet secretaries. 
“I don't think the Indonesian government found 
any need to use the Riadys as intermediaries to the 
U.S. government,” said Robert Barry. U.S. am- 
bassador to Indonesia from 1992 to 1995. 

Still, Mr. Subano was seeking greater recog- 
nition in the world, and the U.S. government was 
signaling that problems like Indonesia's human 
rights abuses and poor treatment of workers stood in 
die way of better relations. U.S. officials acknowl- 
edge that die perception that James Riady bad 
special access to Mr. Clinton could be of great value 
to Lippo. 

‘‘From the Asian perspective, personal relation- 
ships are more important than anything else," said 
one senior adminikration officiaL 

Another former administration official who dealt 
extensively with Indonesia said: “I think James 
Riady had a particular cachet that other people 
didn’t have.” 


Tomorrow: The Riady family empire. 


Resistance in Tehran: 
It Starts With a Stroll 


.»* 


By Stephen Kinzer 

Vn- Tori Taca Ser.-xe 


TEHRAN — On a nee-shaded side- 
walk in a wealthy Tehran neighborhood 
last week, four" dangerously carefree 
teenagers, two boys and two girls, chose 
an unlucky' time for a stroll. 

Their charter was suddenly interrupted 
die screech of tires, and two police 
icere from the vice squad jumped from 
a cruiser to confront them Upon check- 
ing their identity papers, die officers dis- 
covered that the four were unrelated. 

Any public contact between unmar- 
ried males and females is considered a 


& 


violation of pobhc moraBry, so xbe of- 
ficeis called /orbeIp.asd soon zwoother 
cruisers appeared. 

The two girls tearfully begged officers 
to leave zbem alone, anatbezr sobs 
readied the eats of a servant in a nearby 
house. He emerged, spoke quietly to die 
head of the police squad, and slipped him 
the equivalent of S5. Thanks to his timely 
intervention, the teenagers managed to 
escape scandal and pttnjsfamenL 

Police actions like this one have been 
a fact of I ranian life since the 1979 
Islamic revolution. If once they were 
tolerated, now they feed the growing 
frustration that helped produce an as- 
tonishing upset at the pods on Friday. . 

Many of the 20 million people whose 
votes propelled Mohammed Khatami to 
victory in the presidential election sup- 
ported him because they want to enjoy 
more of life's pleasures kid believe that 
be will allow them to do so. 

Mr. K hatami did not directly denounce 
the harsh social code that has restricted 
privme life here for 18 years, and even as 
president be will have less authority don 
the country’s supreme religious leader, . 
Ayatollah Saved AH Kham enei, 

But Mr. Khatami pledged in his cam- 
paign to “respect the privacy of citizens’ ’ 
and guarantee their “civil rights and 
freedoms.” Those were the promises that 
many I ranian s had been waiting to hear. 

“We live a double life in this coun- 
try.” said a middle-aged mother who 
voted for Mr. Khatami. “My children 
know that when their schoolteachers ask 
whether we drink at home, they have to 
say no. If they are asked whether we 
dance orplay cards, they have to say no. 
But the fact" is that we do drink, dance 
and play cards, and the kids know it So 
they are growing up as liars, knowing 
that their parents are also liars and 
knowing that to survive in this country 
we have to lie. That's a terrible thing, 
and I want it to change.” 

Enforcement of religious codes has 
eased here in recent years. No longer do 
police routinely stop men and women 
who are driving together in cars and ask 
them to show "papers proving that they 
are married. Raids on private homes are 
becoming less frequent. Nonetheless, 
social control is sttD tight. Squads of 
policemen and religious vigilantes patrol 
the streets at night listening for the sound 

of Western music. If they hear h, they 
knock ax the offender's door. Depending 
on the seriousness of the offense and the 
officers' inclination, the matter is re- 
solved with a payoff or with an arrest. 

Even before the election Friday, 
many Iranians, especially those in 
Tehran and other large cities, were 
quietly resisting laws that restrict their 
private pleasures. Satellite dishes, 
which are banned, have sprouted on 
some rooftops, often covered by make- 
shift tents. Foreign videocassettes, 
which are also banned, are an almost 
normal sight in middle-class homes. 
Videos may be rented from clandestine 
companies chat offer home delivery. 

Videos often arrive in Tehran even 
before they are on sale in the West 


Demand is so strong that some Iranians 
carry video cameras into movie theaters " 
when they navel, record movies directly ’* 
off the screen and smuggle them home. - 

Vigilance at the Tehran airport is *' 
strong but not prohibitive. One young - 
woman recently returned from a trip " 
abroad wife lOcompact disks stuffed into 
the waistband of her pants, hidden under •• 
the loose bold clothing that is mandatory 
for Iranian women. Alcohol also is avail- " 
able, despite strict prohibition. Some, 
newsdealers sell bottles of potent 
homemade vodka, and brand-name 
whisky is available at premium prices 
with rally slightly more difficulty. 

Public fraternization between die 
sexes is one of the last frontiers of social 
co n noL Displays of affection or even _ 
friendship between unrelated males and 
females are taboo. Still, there are chic 
avenues and favored pizzerias in Tehran 
where groups of young men and women 
^eeacAodterand.iftheydare.exchange : 
smiles or even a few hurried words. 11 

. Such encounters and the clandestine 1 
relation sh ips that spring front them can® 
be dangerous. Romances between un-% 
married men and women are punishable ■» 
by fines, prison or, in extreme cases 
when sexual contact is alleged, lashing. 

Iranian women must wear bead * 
scarves and cover their bodies witfi loose 
and shapeless garments so that they will ■« 
remain, in the words of one religious * 
exhortation, * ‘as a pearl in its shell. But 1 
in recent years, curls have begun to slip “ 
into view. Some women cany lipstick 
and makeup to apply when they are 
going places where they do not expect to 
meet any police or religious authorities. 

There is a bold urban underground of ' 
young people who defiantly reject the 
strictures. They proclaim their love for 
all things Western and paint the names- 
of rock bands on walls and buildings. * 

“When I was growing up in the shah’s - 
days, the way to rebel was to become a 
Marxist or. even better, an Islamist," a 1 
schoolteacher said. “Now the way to do ' 
it is to dance, drink, use drugs and go to ' 
secret parties. We used to have girl- -* 
friends, but we never had sexual re-'.’ 
lations with them. Now kids have sex as-* 
a form of political protest." ‘ M 


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fire*; 




Money 




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if 




-- 


Khatami Blames 
U.S. for Strains 

The Associated Press 

TEHRAN — Iran’s president- 
elect said Tuesday he expected no 
major changes in the country’s un- 
friendly relations with the United 
States. 

Mohammed Khatami, the mod- 
erate cleric who won a landslide 
victory, said Washington was “the 
source of the strained ties,” and 
there would be no improvement in 
relations unless the United States 
changed its policy toward Iran. 

“Unfortunately we don’t see any 
sign of such a change," he said. 

The U.S. State Department ac- 
cuses Tehran of sponsoring terror- 
ism. 

On Tuesday, the White House 
press secretary, Michael McCurry, 
told reporters traveling with Pres- 
ident Bill Clinton in Paris that “the 
things that concern us and trouble 
us about Iran's behavior in the 
world need to change" before the 
United States would reconsider its 
strictures against Iran. 

Mr. Khatami is to take office in 
August. He said he would consider 
appointing women to the cabinet. 


■£.y 


HERALD TRIBUNE WORLD YOUTH FORUM 
ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 
50tb ANNIVERSARY REUNION 

NEW YORK 
AUGUST 7 -10, 1997 

If you were, or you know someone who was, a participant 
in the Herald Tribune/Wbrld Youth Forum (either Dec- 
March or summer programs), please contact us for details 
of the Association and the reunion: LUT Box 293, 92521 
Neuilly Cedes or 

Catherine Marin (33 I) 47 72 12 15 
catherinemarin@compuserve.com 

Daniela Yaffe Zidon (I 914) 2452279 
djddon@juno.com 



TRAVEL UPDATE 


WEATHER 


More Hong Kong flights Canceled 

HONG KONG (AP) — Cathay Pacific Airways, which has 
run into a recent series of engine problems, canceled 22 flights 
Tuesday. 

The airline, Hong Kong's flag carrier, said it had canceled the 
flights after problems wife Rolls-Royce Trent 700 engines on its 
Airbus-330-300 aircraft, which have failed five times since 
November. On Monday, the airline canceled 18 flights. 

Indonesia's largest airline, Garuda, said Tuesday it would 
comply with Hong Kong's request to suspend flights to the 
British colony using the Airbus planes powered by the Rolls- 
Royce engines. It will use DC- 10s and 747s. 

Air and water transport between Kinshasa and Brazza- 
ville is irregular more than a week after the takeover of Zaire by 
rebels. Despite the reopening of Kinshasa’s airport Saturday, 
the three major airlines that regularly fly there — Swissair, 
Sabena and Air France — have yet to land in the new 
Democratic Republic of Congo. Trips across the Congo River 
by boat to Brazzaville remained suspended Tuesday. (AFP) 

Smoking will be banned on Israeli airlines’ flights of less 
than five hours, the Transport Ministry said Tuesday. (AP) 

Tourist arrivals in Cyprus feD IS percent in 1996 as 
publicity given to violence on the island scared people off, 
travel agents said Tuesday. (Reuters) 


Mgwvo 

Anotentam 

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Bam 

BajsmIs 


Gaparongan 


Europe 

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OF OF 
22/71 14*7 pc 
13/6 1 f/44 a 

1WBB 8M3 pc 
25/77 IU1 • 
2700 17/62 < 
16*4 7/44 r 

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28/78 fl/48 a 
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Parts 3085 8M6s 

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RoyHjev* 6/46 7M4 r 

Rigs 15*9 WOt 

Ron* M/75 12/53 a 

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Stockholm 12/53 3/37 PC 

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TaBam 1306 406 c 

IMP 2082 1955 pc 

varaca 22 Vi a /43 a 

Vienna 18161 6M1 pc 

Waraaw 16/61 8/43 c 

Zurich 17132 SMI i 


Forecast for Thursday through Saturday, as provided by AccuWeather. Asia 


Mgh LoaiW 
OF C/F 
24/73 18*1 pc 
>9®8 11/52 « 
23/73 937 e 
2271 12/63a 
25/77 1«1 pe 
18*4 7/4* r 
18*4 6/48 pc 
20*8 12/53 a 
17/82 6/43 en 
17*2 1060 c 
28/82 17*2 C 

1960 1953 s 

16*6 11*2 a 
2973 9/46,9 
16*6 7/44 -pc 
24/75 11/62 i 
11*2 •1/31*1 
1966 7/44 pc 
16*4 6/43 pc 
22/71 18*1 pc 
22/71 18*1 pc 
21/70 1366 a 
31/88 1 4/57 'pc 
24/76 17*2 pc 
24/76 1152 « 
>«1 5/41 pc 

16*1 5/41 s 
21/70 14*7 t 
16*1 12/53*1 
21/70 12*3 a 
17*2 5M1 c 
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14*7 307 C 
22/71 
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Heavy 
— Snow 

North America Europe Asia 

New England and the Sunny, warm and dry over A slow-moving storm will 
Norlheasi wW hove pleas- most of France Thursday bring soaking rains to 
ant weather Thursday end through Saturday, while Manchuria and Korea 
Friday, white thunder- England will be partly Thursday and Friday, Qian 
storms wll rumble over the sunny and pleasant. Most to Japan Friday and Satur- joou 
Midwest and the Great ot eastern Europe will be day. Balling will have Emm 
Lakes region; showers cool with clouds and sun; mixed douds and sun with 
may move Into New Eng- showers will be scattered a shower or two. while 
Irom southern Germany steadier rains will bo In 
and Pound to the Balkans, south-central China. Hot 
Wet across northern Spain and efry m India and norl- 
and Portugal western China. 



land Saturday. Pleasant In 
tha Northwest Thursday, 
but a bowers are Gkaly Fri- 
day and Saturday. 


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OF C/F 
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32*9 22/71 pc 
33*1 24/75 pc 
23/73 1 2/53B 
33*1 24/75 s 
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32*0 24/75 r 
28*2 22/71 pc 
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44/111 27*0 a 
32*0 22/71 r 
33*1 24/75 po 
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21/70 14/57 ah 
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28*4 23/73 sll 
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HUB 




THE AMERICAS 


House Leader Takes On Clinton Over China 


By Adam Clymer 

•Vfn Yu'* Tim ex Srrvwe 

WASHINGTON — Breaking with ihc Clinton ad- 
ministration again. Representative Richard Gephardt, 
ihe House Democratic leader, denounced normal trade 
relations with China on Tuesday, asserting that such 
terms would help China's leaders and “contribute to 
their tyranny and reinforce their contempt for Amer- 
ica’sresolve." 

Cilling current policy in Beijing “free-market Sta- 
linism," Mr. Gephardt, in a speech at the Detroit 
Economic Club, said effons to advance democracy 
through trade were futile. 


"Economic growth for the elite » ill not lead to basic 
human rights for billions." he said, bluntly contra- 
dicting President Bill Clinton’s contention that trade 
ties are "the best way to bring China into the family of 
nations and to secure our interests and our ideals." 

IThe White House press secretary, Michael McCurry. 
said of Mr. Gephardt's statement! " We’ll charitably 
disagree.” Reuters reported Monday from Paris, where 
Mr. Clinton signed a pact between NATO and Russia. 

["Supension of normal trade relations with China 
would be. in some sense, a declaration of economic 
war on China and would further isolate China from the 
world community," Mr. McCurry said.] 

Last week Mr. Gephardt, of Missouri, condemned 


As Money Issues Loom, Canada Leans to Right 


By Anthony DePalma 

tor York Times Servi t'r 

TORONTO’ — Even the speech 
coaching he has undergone could not 
hide Preston Manning’s western roots 
or prairie individualism as he railed 
' gainst big government at a campaign 
stop here and vowed to work for those 
Canadians "who think this government 
doesn't give a hoot about them." 

Mr. Manning, leader of the rightist 
Reform Party, has spent a lot of time 
away from the western provinces where 
he and his party were bom and has 
focused instead on Ontario, which has 
103 of the 301 seats that will be filled in 
the parliamentary election Monday. 

It is not only his western twang that 
makes his presence seem so unusual. 
Ontario was governed by a free-spend- 
ing. left-leaning government until 1 99S, 
and Mr. Manning’s message would 
have been rejected outright. 

But then a fiscally conservative gov- 
ernment took over in 1995. Now Mr. 
Manning’s western-based Reform Party 
is carrying the same message. 

All across Canada in the last few 
years, the mood of voters has shifted 
strongly to the right, at least when it 
comes to spending and taxes. Canadians- 
have been forced to deal with balloon- 
ing deficits, sky-high taxes, and a re- 
liance on big government that was seen 
as stifling private enterprise. 

H Of course, big government and a gen- 
erous social safety net have long been 
prominent features of Canada's political 
landscape, so any. movement at all 
seems to take on great significance. 

But in this election campaign, Mr. 
Manning's message of budget cuts and 
deficit reduction is being repeated by 
almost every party leader. At almost the 
same moment Mr. Manning was ad- 
dressing reporters at the headquarters of 
the Canadian Broadcasting Corp. this 
past week, Jean Charest, 38, leader of 
die Progressive Conservatives, was in a 
radio studio upstairs explaining how he 
would trim spending, cut taxes and re- 
peal a recently passed gun registration 
law because he found it too restrictive. 

"Added together,” wrote the colum- 
nist Rosemary Spiers in The Toronto 
Star, "support for Reform in die west 
and for Charest in the east challenge the 





tahwIRean 

Prime Minister Jean Chretien, leader of the Liberal Party, making a campaign stop at the airport in Vancouver. 

traditional liberal view of Canada as a years in power, the Liberals' message where Mr. Manning comes from, also has 
kinder, gentler society." was quite different as they attacked the cut spending deeply, and other provinces 

Even the New Democratic Party, country’s deficit with a combination of have done toe same to a lesser degree, 
which governed Ontario until 1995, has high taxes and deep spending cuts, in- Polls show Mr. Manning and the Re- 
been accused by some of its traditional eluding some that have hurt health care, form Party running strongly out west, 
liberal supporters of trying to stake out education, welfare, and Canada’s cher- and second, behind the Liberals, in 
some ground on toe right. ished social programs. Ontario. They have only a handful of 

Only the governing Liberal Party of “This is a fairly significant turn to the candidates in French-speaking Quebec, 

Prime Minister Jean. Chretien claims to right," said Neil Nevitte, a professor of and in toe Atlantic provinces, 
be taking a balanced approach to re- political science at toe University of Most polls published so far in the 
ducing toe deficit and restoring social Toronto. "But as I look at toe Canadian five-week campaign indicate that Mr. 
spending. Its most recent budget in- political scene, I see the same things that Chretien’s Liberals will retain enough 
creased child welfare payments and are happening in pretty much every ad- seats in Parliament to form a new gov- 
some arts programs. vanced political state.” eminent, with Mr. Chretien as prime 

But during their three- and-a-half The western province .of AJberta, minister. 


years in power, toe Liberals' message 
was quite different as they attacked the 
country’s deficit with a combination of 
high taxes and deep spending cuts, in- 
cluding some that have hurt health care, 
education, welfare, and Canada’s cher- 
ished social programs. 

“This is a fairly significant turn to toe 
right," said Neil Nevitte, a professor of 

? alitical science at toe University of 
oronto. "But as I look at toe Canadian 
political scene, I see the same things that 
are happening in pretty much every ad- 
vanced political state." 

The western province .of Alberta, 


Leftist Pulls Ahead in Mexico City Mayoral Race 


By Sam Dillon * 

New York Times Service 

MEXICO CITY — The leftist can- 
didate in Mexico City’s first mayoral 
, election, Cuauhtemoc Cardenas, has 
-V^merged from a crucial televised debate 
against the governing party candidate 
with a large and widening lead in opin- 
ion polls. 

Mr. Cardenas’s lead has climbed so 
sharply in recent weeks that even Juan 
MUlan, the No. 2 official in toe gov- 
erning Institutional Revolutionary 
Party, or PRL, acknowledged publicly 
on Monday chat it would be very dif- 
ficult for any other candidate to catch up 


before the July 6 election. 

The son of the Mexican leader who 
nationalized toe country’s oil fields in 
1938. Mr. Cardenas. 62. abandoned toe 
PRI in 1987 and ran unsuccessfully for 
president in 1988 and 1994. 

His current popularity appears to 
stem at least in part from the- widely felt 
animosity here to former President Car- 
los Salinas de Gortari, who many Mex- 
icans believe stole the 1988 election 
from Mr. Cardenas. 

In a poll published Sunday by toe 
Mexico City newspaper Reform a. Mr. 
Cardenas was the mayoral candidate 
p referred by‘39 percent of those sur- 
veyed. Alfredo del Mazo, former gov- 


ernor of the state of Mexico who is the 
PRI candidate, and Carlos Castillo 
Peraza, toe philosopher who is toe can- 
didate of the conservative National Ac- 
tion Party, were preferred by 19 percent 
each. 

Virtually all recent opinion polls have 
shown Mr. Cardenas with a healthy 
lead. 

The mayor governs the 9 million in- 
habitants of Mexico City proper, known 
as toe Federal District, out not the 11 
million additional people who live in toe 
metropolitan suburbs. Throughout this 
centiny, toe 'post has been filled by the 
appointive whim of successive Mexican 
presidents, all of whom since 1929 have 


come from toe same party. 

15 Mr. Cardenas wins, he and Pres- 
ident Ernesto Zedillo will need to im- 
provise rules of political cohabitation in 
the Mexican capitaL Mr. Cardenas also 
would be in a strong position to run for 
president in 2000. 

At least eight candidates have been 
campaigning since March, but only Mr. 
Cardenas. Mr. Castillo, and Mr. Del 
Mazo have seemed to have any chance 
ar victory. 

As recently as March, toe three-way 
race seemed fairly tight, but in the 
weeks since then, Mr. Cardenas’s lead 
has surged in some polls by more than 
20 points. 




Chasing an Elusive Balance in Tobacco Talks 

Delicate Negotiations Seek Justice for Past Wrongs and Action for Future Progress 




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By Bany Meier 

New York Tunes Service 

NEW YORK — Every day 
has brought a new bulletin 
from the tobacco talks. Cig- 
arette makers pledge to fight 
teenage smoking. Negotiat- 
ors reach a preliminary plan 
to make it harder for smokers, 
torrent and future, to sue. 
Knd industry r epresentatives 
indicate that they might give 
federal authorities control 
over that most alluring drug, 
nicotine. 

Far two months, negotiat- 
ors representing cigarette 
producers, state attorneys 
general, plaintiffs’ lawyers 
and anti-smoking groups 
have been engaged in a bar- 
gaining process that could set 
toe nation's legal and regu- 
latory policies on tobacco for 
decades to come. 

But as a crucial ioand of 
the talks begins this week in 
New York City, a central 
question still hangs'over toe 
negotiations, oae whose res- 
olution will probably deter- 
mine their success or failure: 
■f^Vhere should toe tines be 
\;drawn between punishing toe 
j, -tobacco industry for its past 
sins, compensating toe in- 
jured and giving cigarette 
makers incentives to act with 
more restraint in the future? 

"It js inevitable that there 


has to be a careful balance 
between social justice for past 
wrongs ami taking action for 
progress in the future," said 
Matthew Myers, a lawyer 
with toe Coalition for To- 
bacco-Free Kids and a par- 
ticipant in the talks. 

In weighing that balance, 
toe negotiators have taken po- 
sitions that reflect their be- 
liefs, their strengths and 
weaknesses at the bargaining 
tabl e and the pressure of im 

NEWS ANALYSIS 

pending - trials in lawsuits 
against cigarette makers. 

The tobacco industry’s 
stance is, perhaps, the 
clearest. It appears ready to 
acknowledge whai its critics 
have long charged and most 
doctors accept as fact: that 
nicotine can be addictive and 
dial cigarettes cab cause death 
and disease. Tobacco compa- 
nies have offered to pay some 
$1.5 billion in fines annually 
if youth smoking has not been 
reduced by 60 percent within 
a decade. Tens of billions of 
dollars would go to sares su- 
ing to recover Medicaid funds 
spent on treatingsmoking-re- 
lated diseases. The industry, 
rather than continuing to fight 
the government for years, 
may also yield control over 
nicotine to federal regulators. 


But in exchange for a set- 
tlement package likely to be 
worth more than $300 billion, 
cigarette makers have pro- 
posed limits on lawsuits, now 
and in the future, that would 
provide toe companies with 
financial predictability. Ne- 
gotiators are near agreement 
on proposals that would, 
among other things, prevent 
smokers from filing class-ac- 
tion lawsuits and collecting 
punitive damages, and would 
limit injury claims related to 
secondhand smoke. 

It is here that the going gets 
sticky for those on the other 
side of toe bargaining table. 
Some negotiators believe that 
the public-health benefits of a 
settlement would outweigh 
any liability restrictions be- 
cause claims by smokers have 
historically filed in court. 
Some decry efforts to give up 
the right to sue, while others 
say industry's financial offers 
are paltry given the profits 
reaped by cigarette makers. 

Recently, the debate over 
where to strike a balance has 
spilled out from behind 
closed doors. Over the week- 
end, Michael Moore, the Mis- 
sissippi attorney general and 
the architect of trie tobacco 
talks, went on die offensive 
with other attorneys general, 
stressing a settlement’s ad- 
vantages and playing down 


its legal consequences. 

"I am not willing to bet my 
10-year-old son's future on tire 
50-year failure of the tort sys- 
tem as it relates to tobacco," 
Mr. Moore said. He added that 
for him, toe key parts of the 
talks involved “reductions on 
cigarette consumption, restric- 
tions on advertising and reg- 
ulation of tire product.’’ 

• Benefits like the elimina- 
tion of advertising focused on 
teenagers and toe ban on fig- 
ures like Joe Camel that ap- 
peal to the young are irre- 
futable, said Robert Habush, 
a lawyer from Milwaukee 
who represents the state of 
Wisconsin in its Medicaid 1 
lawsuit But while be said he 
could agree to capping in- 
dustry ’s annual legal payouts, 
he said the lawsuit restric- 
tions being considered were 
too high a price to pay. j 

“Industry can stop advert- 
ising to teenagers any time it 
tikes," Mr. Habush said. “If 
they are giving up the right to 
do something that they j 
shouidn 't be doing in toe first 
place, that doesn’t sound like 
a big concession." 

Negotiators are also grop- 
ing for answers because they 
are trying to construct social 
policy with little evidence of 
what the consequences might 
be. Under one proposal, for 
example, those who begin 


smoking in the future would 
only be able'to sue under toe 
most limited of circumstances, 
such as the discovery that cig- 
arettes caused a disease not 
currently linked to their use. 

To many, such restrictions 
seem reasonable: If the public 
is constantly bombarded with 
explicit warnings about 
smoking’s health dangers, 
then those who smoke will- 
ingly accept the risks. 

I SMALL LUXURY HOTELS I 
OF THE WORLD I 


POLITICAL NOTES 


the budget deal Mr. Clinton struck with Republicans as 
lacking "fairness." Thai position was widely riled as a 
move in preparing to run for the Democratic pres- 
idential nominal ion in 2000 against Vice President A1 
Gore. But Mr. Gephardt said then, “That derision 
hasn't been made and won’t be made for some time.’ ' 

On the budget, only a third of the House Democrats 
joined him in voting "no." Some who were dubious 
voted for the measure, knowing it would be approved 
and that opponents faced future television advertise- 
ments against them saying they opposed a balanced 
budget. He may have more influence on the issue of 
renewing China’s most-favored-nation status, because 
the odds are uncertain and the political risks slight. 


A Woman Is Heard 
In Court’s Top Case 

WASHINGTON — Ir was the 
biggest case before the Supreme 
Court this term, one involving wheth- 
er toe terminally ill have a right to 
physician-assisted suicide. First up 
before toe justices were two lawyers 
arguing that states should be able 10 
outlaw the practice. The justices 
seemed surprisingly receptive. 

Into this atmosphere came Kathryn 
Tucker, arguing for toe other side. As 
she stood at the lectern, one of toe few 
female lawyers in toe country who has 
ever argued before the high court, toe 
questions came fast and the skepticism 
was obvious. She did not flinch. 

Ms. Tucker’s sex puts her in small 
company. Although women occupy 
half toe classroom seats in the na- 
tion’s law schools and represent one 
in four practicing attorneys, only 14 
percent of the 203 lawyers who ar- 
gued before the Supreme Court this 
term were female. 

Among the most established means 
of starting down the path to Supreme 
Court advocacy is a Supreme Court 
clerkship, which young lawyers vie 
for but few women attain. 

Women also have been underrep- 
resented in the U.S. solicitor general's 
office, toe elite legal department that 
handles federal cases before the court. 
And they still lag men in winning big 
law firm partnerships and in obtaining 
prestigious academic positions. (WP) 

Medicare Battle On 

WASHINGTON — Having 
agreed on the general outlines of a 


Away From Politics 

• Mother Teresa has slipped 
quietly into New York to initiate a 
new group of nuns into her Mission- 
aries of Charity. The Nobel Peace 
Prize winner flew in from Rome on 
Monday and was greeted by two 
dozen nuns at Kennedy Airport (API 

• The eighth annual Weedstock 
Festival wrapped up over the week- 
end in Ferryville, Wisconsin, with the 
police saying toe pro-marijuana event 
was less trouble man expected. There 
were 60 arrests. Organizers said about 


plan to balance toe budget. Congress 
will soon begin a major effort to re- 
design Medicare, and the process has 
already set off a fierce legislative 
struggle that pits elderly people, hos- 
pitals, doctors and other health care 
providers against one another. 

Medicare. jointly funded bv toe fed- 
eral government and toe slates, 
provides health insurance for elderly 
and disabled Americans. Congress has 
agreed to cut projected Medicare 
spending by $1 15 billion, or S.5 per- 
cent, in the ’next five years but has not 
made any final decisions about how. 

Each group wants to protect its 
share of toe S1.2 trillion to be spent in 
toar period, and, in most cases, toe 
preferred strategy is to appeal to 
“equity” and “fairness" and argue 
that others should bear a larger share 
of toe cuts. 

Every additional dollar of premi- 
ums paid by toe elderly is one fewer 
dollar that must be cut from payments 
to hospitals. Each dollar taken from 
surgeons frees up a dollar for family 
doctors and internists. 

Republicans and a few Democrats 
in Congress say their objective is not 
just to save money but also to give 
beneficiaries a wider choice of com- 
peting health plans, including health 
maintenance organizations and other 
forms of managed care. (NYT) 

Quote /Unquote 

The Reverend Steve Hill, an evan- 
gelist in Pensacola, Florida, who is 
leading perhaps the largest and 
longest-running Pentecostal revival in 
America in almost a century: “If you 
walk into McDonald's, it won’t make 
you a hamburger. Going to church 
won’t make you a Christian." (NYT) 


3.500 people attended. (AP) 

• A family trip ended in tragedy 
when three children sleeping in a 
camper shell behind a pickup truck 
died of suspected carbon-monoxide 
poisoning. The children, aged six and 
younger, were sleeping in a camper 
shell attached to a Nissan pickup 
truck as toe family was returning to 
North Hollywood from San Fran- 
cisco. When toe family arrived at their 
home, toe parents found the children 
were not breathing. (Reuters) 


Manfred yon Ardenne Dies; 
Worked on Soviet A-Bomb 


The Associated Press 

DRESDEN — Manfred von Ar- 
denne, an inventor and physicist drafted 
by the Soviet Union to help develop an 
atomic bomb after World War U, has 
died at toe age of 90, his personal sec- 


retary said Tuesday. 
Mr. von Ardenne, 


Mr. von Ardenne, who died Monday 
afternoon at his borne in Dresden, came 
to toe Soviets * attention for his work 
during World War II developing a 
cyclotron, a particle accelerator used for 
atomic research, in a Berlin laboratory. 

Working in a Soviet lab on the Black 
Sea, he developed a process for splitting 
isotopes to create uranium-235, a ma- 
terial crucial to toe Soviets’ success in 
creating a nuclear bomb. 

Mr. von Ardenne later said toe So- 
viets* bomb had helped bring parity to 
the U.S.-Soviet arms race. “It was our 
contribution to atomic peace,” he said. 

After working for toe Soviets, he 
returned to East Germany in 1955, again 
establishing his own research institute. 
It was the largest such institute in East 
Germany when the Berlin Wall fell in 
1989, with 500 employees. 

Though he never joined the Com- 
munist Party, bis research earned him 
great personal freedom, including per- 


mission to travel to the West, and die 
lifestyle of toe privileged East German 
elite, including a private mansion over- 
looking the Elbe River where he died." 

Fadhel Jamali, 94; Ex-Leader 
Of Iraq Signed UN Charter 

CAIRO (AP) — Fadhel Jamali, 94, a 
former Iraqi prime minister who signed 
toe UN charter in 1945, has died in exile 
in Tunisia. 

Iraqi diplomats said Monday that Mr. 
Jamali died Saturday in a military hos- 
pital in Tunis where he was being 
treated for a heart condition. 

He helped develop Iraq’s first mod- 
em school system and in 1 V45 was made 
foreign minister, in which capacity he 
signed toe UN charter. 

John Canfield Ewers, 87, ethnolo- 
gist emeritus of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, historian of the West and 
chronicler of the Plains Indians, died 
May 7 in Arlington, Virginia. 

Henri Baraka t, 83, a veteran film 
director who was known as “toe master 
of poetic realism" in Egyptian cinema, 
dial Monday night in a Cairo hospital 
where he was being treated for res- 
piratory problems. 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 199 


ASIA/PACIFIC 


Facing a New Scourge , China Rehabilitates an Old Opium Warrior 


By Rone Tempest 

Li’s Angeles Times 

BELTING — It was a rime when Brit- 
ish and American drug dealers invaded 
the land, amassing huge stocks of opium 
in the prosperous southern port of Can- 
ton. 

A brilliant, progressive Confucian ad- 
mini sou tor. on orders of the Qing dy- 
nasty emperor. launched one of the 
world's first anti-drug campaigns. In 
perhaps the biggest drug bust ever, the 
Canton commissioner. Lin Zexu, des- 
troyed 3 million pounds of raw opium 
confiscated from foreign drug barons. 

This sparked the infamous Opium 
War. in which China was defeated and 
forced to hand Hong Kong over to Bri- 
tain in 1841. 

Mr. Lin. who is also known as Lin 
Tse-hsu. was disgraced because of his 
role in China's humiliation and banished 
to a remote western parr of this nation. 


It has taken more than ISO years for 
his historic rehabilitation. Call it “The 
Revenge of Commissioner Lin.” It is 
why. when Hong Kong reverts from 
Britain to China on July 1. one of the 
men with the most reason to celebrate 
wiU be a retired diplomat. Ling Qing. 
who is 74. 

Mr. Ling, who as China’s chief rep- 
resentative to the United Nations in 1 985 
proudly presented the repatriation agree- 
ment — the Sino-British Joint Decla- 
ration on the Question of Hong Kong — 
to the world is the great-great-grandson 
of Commissioner Lin. 

Mr. Ling said in an interview that he 
viewed the return of Hong Kong both as 
a vindication of his famous ancestor and 
as a chance to launch another crusade 
against drugs in China, this rime tar- 
geting die mounting use of heroin by 
Giinese youth. 

The Chinese authorities say that drug 
use in China, particularly in areas bor- 


dering the poppy-growing territories of 
Southeast and Central Asia, has expan- 
ded rapidly in recent years. 

In honor of his ancestor, whom be 
describes as “ ‘a world pioneer in the anp- 
drug movement," ’ Mr. Ling created the 
Lin Zexu Foundation in 1995. The first 
goal of the foundation, which has re- 
ceived more than S1.2 million in dona- 


of drugs. I think the situation is perhaps 
as serious as those days when Lin Zexu 
was commissioner. We wanted to use 
the foundation to point out the seri- 
ousness of the problem. 

The police and local authorities also 
have picked up on the theme. In Match, 
authorities in Guangzhou — the modem 
name of Canton — marked the 156th 


You might call it ‘The Revenge of Commissioner Lin.’ 


dons from overseas Chinese, is to restore 
the tiny house where Mr. Lin was bom in 
Fuzhou, in Fujian Province. 

But the main purpose is to conduct a 
national anti-drug campaign. 

“Drug trafficking and smuggling has 
become a serious problem in China.' 1 
Mr. Ling said “China used to be mainly 
a transit area for drugs. Now there are 
many young people who are also victims 


anniversary of Mr. Lin’s raid there by 
burning 368 pounds of heroin, opium, 
morphine ana other drugs con fiscat ed 
since the beginning of the year. 

Although he was once vilified by the 
Communist leaders of China as an 
“agent of feudalism.” Mr. Lin’s repu- 
tation has undergone a revival of sorts 
recently, particularly as the return of 
Hong Kong nears. Now he is portrayed 


as a progressive administrator, one of the 
first to advocate looking outside China 
for ideas. 

He also is seen as a pioneer in fighting 
rampant drug addiction in die late Qing 
dynast)-. 

He is one of the main heroes in the 
epic film on the Opium War that will be 
shown across China beginning July 1- 
Mr. Lin is also one of the good guys in a 
new video game titled "Opium War” — 
one of a number of strongly patriotic 
games approved for use in die country's 
proliferating video parlors. 

But Mr. Ling — who changed his 
name from Lin to protect his family 
during his days as a Communist guerrilla 
in the war against Japan — also re- 
members when his famous ancestor was 
a liability’. 

Although he once served as translator 
for Mao in the guerrilla base of Yan’an 
in remote Shanxi Province and as a 
liaison officer to U.S. forces fighting the 


Japanese in World War II. Mr. Ling and 
his family were persecuted during the . 
1 966-76 Cultural Revolution because of ■# 
their “bad class background” daring to 
Mr. Lin. 

“Now, everyone claims he was a na- 
tional hero.” Mr. Lang recalled with a 
tinge of bitterness. 

“Bin during the Cultural Revolution, 
Mr. Lin was discredited because they 
considered him a feudal official loyal to 
the emperor.” ' 

Mr. Ling himself was harassed by Red 
Guards. An older brother was jailed as a 
class enemy fluid died in prison. 

The imminent return of Hong Kong 
has changed all that. Commissioner Lin 
has been elevated to national hero. His 
glory is reflected on his descendants. 
“Now I've become a star.” said a smil- 


ing Mr. Ling, who still speaks English in 
die American idiom he learned as liaison 
to U.S. officers — members of the s<j- 
called Dixie Mission — in Yan’an. 


Burmese Police Blockade 
Nobel Laureate’s House 

Action Bars Celebration of 1990 Victory 




The Associated Press 

RANGOON — Heavily armed riot 
police blocked roads Tuesday leading to 
the homes of the opposition leader Daw 
Aung San Suu Kyi and her deputies to 
prevent supporters from commemorat- 
ing their 1990 election victory. 

The police also used barbed-wire bar- 
ricades to seal the office of the National 
League for Democracy, the party that 
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi leads. The op- 
position parly won 82 percent of the 
seats in a Parliament that the military 
reeime refused to convene. 


Beheading of Boy 
And Killer’s Taunt 
Alarm Japanese 

By Mary Jordan 

H Jfhnyto-. Post 5m nv 

TOKYO — The severed head of an 
11 -year-old boy was found Tuesday 
morning outside" a school in Kobe with a 
note placed in the mouth saying. “Stop 
me if you can." 

In a country with relatively little vi- 
olent crime.’ one where children 
routinely ride subways alone, the killing 
left the nation uneasy about the killer's 
possible next move. The police say the 
same person may also be responsible for 
the bludgeoning death of a 10-year-old 
girl in the same neighborhood two 
months ago. 

Jun Hase. II, had been missing since 
Saturday afternoon when he left home to 
visit hisgrandfather, who lives in a neigh- 
borhood half a mile (800 meters) away in 
Kobe. A janitor found his head Tuesday 
morning a* the gate of a junior high 
school: the rest of his body was found 
later in bushes on a wooded hill nearby. 

Police officials said that “Devil 
Rose” also had been written on the note 
in the boy's mouth but did not say what, 
if anything, they believed that meant. 
The police’ seemed stunned at the killer's 
note daring them to catch him or her. 

More than 400 police officers combed 
the neighborhood, questioning virtually 
everybody in town. Thousands of chil- 
dren were warned to stay inside at night 
and not to walk alone during the day: 
parents began organizing themselves to 
accompany children to school. 

There were 1 ,200 cases of murder and 
attempted murder in Japan last year, 
compared with 23,000 murders in the 
United States. Japan has about half the 
U.S. population of 260 million. 


At least 316 members of Daw Aung 
San Suu Kyi's party who had planned to 
attend the commemoration Tuesday 
have been arrested by the military gov- 
ernment. the party's vice chairman, U 
Tin Oo. said Monday. Troops surroun- 
ded his home Tuesday morning. 

More than 200 other party members 
from across Burma came to Rangoon in 
hopes of taking pan in the congress at 
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's lakeside com- 
pound. said a party member who asked 
remain unidentified. 

All were turned back Tuesday morn- 
ing by the police and plainclothes in- 
telligence officers as they tried to ap- 
proach their leaders' homes. No new 
arrests were reported. 

Ten members of the party's executive 
committee had already arrived at Daw 
Aung San Suu Kyi's compound before ic 
was sealed off. 

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi won the 199 1 
Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts to bring 
democracy to military-ruled Burma. £ 
1995. after six years of house arrest for 
political activities, she was released. 

The military keeps guards around 
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s home to block 
journalists and to prevent her from giv- 
ing weekend speeches to the public, but 
has allowed her to have several hundred 
supporters as guests on public holidays. 

This is the second straight year that 
the government has arrested hundreds of 
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s followers to 
prevent them from commemorating the 
1990 election. 

The government denied that it has 
arrested anyone. It made a similar denial 
after detaining 262 members of Daw 
Aung San Suu Kyi’s party in 1996. 

About two dozen party members that 
the government insisted it had never 
arrested are serving long prison terms. 

The United States. Japan, Britain, 
Germany and several other Western gov- 
ernments have condemned the arrests. 

■ Malaysian Group Assails Junta 

The Malaysian Muslim Youth Move- 
ment urged the government Tuesday to 
defer Burma's admission into the As- 
sociation of South East Asian Nations 
for “harassing Muslim communities,” 
Reuters reported from Kuala Lumpur. 

The group's secretary-general, 
Ahmad Azam Abdul Rahman, said that 
30 mosques have been destroyed in 
Burma since March, most of them in the 
central city of Mandalay. 

Unrest between Buddhist monks and 
Muslims broke out in mid-March in 
Mandalay, Burma's second-largest city. 
Witnesses said that several mosques 
were ransacked and that Budanist 
monks protested in the street. 


^ i Fighting Among Afghan Allies * 




if u ^ 

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Police scuffling with protesters Tuesday near Japan's mission in Taipei, the day after ; SEOUL — Pi 
Japanese sea patrols blocked Chinese nationalists from disputed islands in the East China Sea. ; bowed to public 

: national address 
j election spendin 

Manila Rekindles Feud on Isles \ public outrage aj 

j Opposition pa 

Beijing Protests Arrest of Fishermen in South China Sea j 

I Parliament hold: 


The Associated Press 

MANILA — Officers of a Philippine Navy 
patrol ship have arrested 21 Chinese fishermen near 
a disputed South China Sea shoal, prompting an- 
other protest by Beijing against Manila, officials 
said Tuesday. 

The fishermen were detained and their boat im- 
pounded 3fter they were seized May 20 near Scar- 
borough Shoal, about 215 kilometers (130 miles) 
off Zarn bales Province, a navy spokesman said. 

Lieutenant Commander Salvador Cuba said the 
government was preparing to charge the fishermen 
with illegal entry and poaching. 

The Chinese Embassy's consul. General Hi 
Bingyi, went to the Department of Foreign Affairs 
on Tuesday to protest the arrests, saying that the 
fishermen had the right to enter and fish in the area 
because it belonged to China, a department official 
said. 

The Chinese official demanded the immediate 
release of the fishermen, but Philippine officials 
said the men would be detained indefinitely for 
illegal entry, according to a Philippine official who 
did not want to be identified. 

The arrests and the Chinese protest follow sev- 
eral recent incidents involving territorial disputes 
in several South China Sea areas that have clouded 
relations between the two countries. 

The disputes over the shoal and over several 
areas of the Spratly Islands, also in the South China 
Sea, were among the top issues in bilateral talks 


Monday in Beijing. Philippine officials say the 
shoal belongs to the Philippines because it lies 
within its 200-raile exclusive economic zone, but 
Chinese officials say China has exercised sov- 
ereignty over the area since ancient times. 

Chi April 30, a Philippine Nav>- patrol ship drove 
away a Chinese boat carrying amateur radio op- 
erators from China, Japan and the United States that 
approached the shoal without permission. 

Philippine fishermen later went to the shoal, 
removed a Chinese flag and markers and planted a 
Philippine flag. China’s ambassador to the Phil- 
ippines. Guan Dengming, lodged a protest in Ma- 
nila over the incident. 

Chinese officials again lodged a series of protests 
when two Philippine congressmen, accompanied by 
several journalists, went to Scarborough on May 17 
and posed on die island beside the Philippine flag. 


MAZAR-I-SHARDF, Afghanistan — The thud of rock- 
[ ets reverberated throughout .this desert city Tuesday as , 

: Taleban religious forces tried to put down an apparent - 
■ uprising among the new allies who helped them capture i 
northern Afghanistan last week. 

The fighting began in the neighborhood of Saeedabad, . 
where three Taleban soldiers were Wiled, and quickly l 
spread throughout the city. By dusk, a major battle was ; 

. raging, with rockets hitting buildings and people scram- ' 
blmg for cover from small arms fire. There was ho 
immediate information on casualties. 

Brawls broke our as Taleban troops tried to disarm 1 
soldiers who deferred from, and helped overthrow, the _ 
northern warlord Abdul Rashid Dustam. The cause of ! 
tension between the Taleban troops and the northern 
soldiers was not known. ‘ (API ' j 

Congress Party Contest Is Set '■ 

NEW DELHI — Rajesh Pilot entered the race for the 
Congress (I) Party presidency on Tuesday, setting up the • 
first open leadership battle in 20 years for control of . 
India's oldest political machine. 

Joined by vocal supporters, Mr. Pilot Launched a cam- „ 
paign targeted at the current party president the veteran - 
Sitaam Kesri, and called for young blood and a drive to ; 
dean up a party tainted by comiption scandals. The party • , 
election is scheduled for June 9. f Reuters i ; 

Kim to Discuss Election Funds 

SEOUL — President Kim Young Sam of South Korea 
bowed to public pressure Tuesday and agreed to make a 
national address Friday on the explosive issue of his 1 992 
election spending. 

Only last week, Mr. Kim had appeared to rule out any 
public statement but his refusal to comment sparked 
public outrage ami veiled calls for his resignation. 

Opposition parties allege that his campaign was partly 
bankrolled by the scandal-ridden Hanbo Group and ex- 
ceeded spending limits. On Monday, they demanded that 
Parliament hold-an independent inquiry. (Reuters) 

Strike Hits Kashmir Capital 

SRINAGAR, India — Shops and businesses were 
closed on Tuesday in Kashmir's biggest city, Srinagar, in 
a strike to protest alleged human rights violations by 
Indian security forces. 

“Kashmir wall observe a complete shutdown on May 
27 to protest against custodial killin gs, rape of women, 
destruction of properties and harassment of innocent 
civilians by Indian security forces," a statement from a 
union of transporters and traders said. 

Srinagar is the capital of Jammu and Kashmir, mainly 
Hindu India’s only Muslim majority province, where 
troops have been fighting a seven-year-old separatist 
rebellion. Indian authorities deny allegations of hum an 
rights violations in Kashmir. " (Reuters) 


Japan Is Silent on Coast Guard’s Action For the Record 


Japan took a low-key approach in its dispute over 
islands in the East China Sea on Tuesday, the day 
after the Japanese Coast Guard thwarted an at- 
tempted landing by a flotilla of Chinese nationalists. 
Reuters reported from Tokyo. 

Prime Minister Ryu taro Hashimoco declined to 
comment on Tokyo’ s deployment of 60 patrol ships 
to keep a 20-boat flotilla of Chinese nationalists 
away from the islands, which are called the Sen- 
kakus in Japanese. The islands are also claimed by 
Taiwan and China, which call them the Diaoyus. 


Tamil rebels blew up an army vehicle Tuesday in 
northwestern Sri Lanka, killing five soldiers, the military 
said in Colombo. Two soldiers were wounded in the 
rocket attack on a military tractor on Mannar Island, 230 
kilometers < 145 miles.) north of Colombo.. (APS 

Fourteen more persons, including three rescuers 
crushed by a landslide, were confirmed dead Tuesday as 
the'deaih toll rose to 35 from powerful winds and rains 
that bartered the Philippines. (AP) 


INDONESIA: Megawati IPhms of a Growing Rage of the Poor ’ 


CROSSWORD 


Continued from Page 1 

itary blamed on Communists. 

But how will Mrs. Megawati’s dis- 
gruntled supporters and those of the 
Muslim-oriented United Development 
Party react to such a result, especially if 
they feel it has come as a result of official 
manipulation? 

Mrs. Megawati, a member of Par- 
liament representing the Indonesian 
Democratic Party since 1 988, is clearly 
worried about a violent backlash. 

She said there had been government 
manipulation of the results in the past 
and added: * *1 would not be surprised if it 
were to happen again. But what makes it 
critical this time is that we have had so 
much violence recently, which has never 
happened before . ' ' 


More riots could lead to a crackdown 
on dissent and opposition groups in In- 
donesia. which could ensnare Mrs. 
Megawati and her followers. 

In the interview. Mrs. Megawati 
seemed acutely conscious of that pos- 
sibility and eager to prevent it from 
happening. 

“I have given instructions for there 
not to be any violence,” she said. “But 
we have seen violence occur, so we must 
be very careful.” 

At times she sounded almost like Mr. 
Suharto, who is wary of Western-style 
political liberalism on the grounds that it 
could open the door to instability, threat- 
ening unity and economic growth in the 
world's fourth most populous nation. 

“Indonesia is based on the idea of a 
family and consultation to reach con- 


Bombing Attempt at a Jakarta Mall 
Is Said to Be Foiled as Troops Arrest 3 


The Associated Press 

JAKARTA — The military cap- 
tured three men as they allegedly tried 
to plant a bomb at a shopping mall in 
Jakarta, a private television station 
reported Tuesday. 

A senior army officer, speaking on 
condition of anonymity, confirmed the 
incident but refused to give details. 

Although there was no word about 
possible motive, Jakarta and other 
areas have been rocked by rioting and 
protests during the campaign for par- 
liamentary elections on Thursday. 

The SCTV channel said that the 
men had been canying explosives into 
the mall. It added that the three men 


arrested were part of a group of eight 
who were confronted by troops 
Monday night at the mall in Kelapa 
Gading. a predominantly ethme- 
Chinese district in Jakarta. 

The shops and homes of ethnic 
Chinese, who are a tiny minority in 
Indonesia but control a large portion 
of the country’s wealth, often ore tar- 
geted during protests over poverty and 
economic imbalances. 

On Friday. 133 people died in a fire 
at a shopping mall in Banjarmasin, on 
the island of Borneo, 900 kilometers 
(560 miles) northeast of Jakarta. 

The fire was set during a riot by 
supporters of rival political parties. 


sensus,” Mrs. Megawati said. "In tbe 
West you are allowed to have opposition 
political parties. But for us here — in a 
country made up of over 20.000 islands 
and many different ethnic, linguistic and 
religious groups — integration is cen- 
tral. We need unity.” 

Although Mrs. Megawati did not say 
so. her aides said that reducing the power 
of the presidency while increasing the 
authority of the legislature and the in- 
dependence of the judiciary was a cen- 
tral feature of her reform program. 

The program was set out in a 20-page 
agenda for * 'restoring democracy, justice 
and order' ' in Indonesia that she signed on 
April 3 and sent to the U.S. Congress. 

Some Indonesian officials speak 
scathingly of Mrs. Megawati. 

“She is a housewife who happens to 
have inherited the political aura of her 
father,” an official said, referring to Mr. 
Sukarno's charismatic, sloganeering 
brand of politics. 

“But people, especially the young, 
forget that Sukarno's legacy was a coun- 
try at war with its neighbors. Malaysia 
and Singapore, and an economy in ru- 
ins,” tbe official gaid. “The Suharto 
government restored peace, stability and 
economic development to Indonesia.” 

Although she holds court in a room 
where paintings of her father hang prom- 
inently on the walls, Mrs, Megawati seeks 
to distance herself from his legacy. 

“A lot of people connect me to Bung 
Kamo,” she said, referring to Mr. 
Sukaroo’s-fridonesian nickname. Broth- 
er Kamo. “But I must emphasize that the 
time now is very different from his time. 
When he was fighting, the people were 
strongly opposing colonialism. They 
were fighting for independence. What I 
am trying to do now is add meaning to 
the independence we have achieved.” 


ACROSS 

i World 

Service (radio 
provider) 

4 — Per 
(novelty item) 
8 'My Lite on 
Trial* author 


13 Mine produd 20' 


14 Dog . paw: 

horse: 

15 Lacking, wffn 

"of 

« High-risk game 
iv Plan 


AGENCE CHAMPS ELYSEES 

Furnished apartments, 3 months or 
more or unfurnished, residential areas. 


T«l Paris: +33 (P)1 42 25 32 25 
Fax Paris +33(0)1 45633709 


20" to differ - 

at Coral — 

22 Gaze 

23 Kind of acid 

as Dump ox 

27 Republican 

V l P. Dick 
31 Hemming and 
hawing 

34 Charles Lamb, 
to readers 

36 Exhibits scorn 

37 Rqi caused by 
bark beetles 

40 Renaissance 
type 

41 Course 

42 Me 

(Adenauer) 

43 Pulsate 

44 Zorro's marks 
44 Leg bones 
so Message on a 

Wonderland 

cake 

54PaC.S 

counterpart 
or Beach. 

basically 
so Parmer's land 
so Montreal 
derxzens 
■a Distance on a 
radar screen 
*3 Pater Lorre role 

Mr. 

•4 Deception 
as Australian 
exppri 

66 Effect of auto 
exhaust 
•7 Actor Mineo 


iTenms'a Becker 
2 Main tnrusi 
s Jai alar basket 
4 Showy-flowered 
shrub 


5 1956-57 
Wimbledon 
champion Lew 
s Charged 
parade 

7 Pertaining to 
the second- 
largest 
continent 

8 Good herder 

9 First lady 
to Plenty 

11 Miller beer 

12 Brainstorm 
is Piece for two 

17 Word repeated 
after "Qua' 

18 Award 
bestowed by 
Queen Eliz. 

23 Deep blue 

24 Manitoba Indian 
26 One of the 

Waughs 
28 ■Canterbury 
Tales' dnnk 
2 « Gaelic 

30 North Sea 
feeder 

31 Handle text 

32 Dr. Westheimer 

33 Hollywood 
Boulevard sight 

35 Electric gurtar 
hookup 

36 Location 
38 Congeal 
*9 Stupor 

45 Hindu garment 

47 Scornful cries 
40 Co name 
ending 
*8 Monroes 
successor 
■1 Dabbling ducks 
si Craze 

53 Collectible Ford 

54 opposite of a 

buzz cut 
*5 Pitfall 

so Moon of Jupiter 




PuoMbyEtfEMr ^ 1 1 j 1 1— —I 

York Times/Ediled by Will Shorts. 


Solution to Puzzle of May 27 


56 60'9-7Q*S 

Japanese P.M. 

66 Zilch 

61 Robespierre, e.g. 


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International Herald Tribune 





A Special Report 


WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1997 
EAGE5 


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The Marshall Plan: A Legacy of 50 Years 

When the Americans 
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Economies Faltered las Soviet Threat Grew 7 


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T HE WLNTER of 1 946fl7 in Europe was dreadful. In some 
ways it was worse even than the last and most destructive 
winter of the war two years earlier. Now Europe, just 
beginning to rebuild, endured record snowfall. Throughout 
3he Continent, people suffered There were thousands of destroyed 
apartments, buildings and factories, with millions of homeless and 
* pbless people wandering in the,rubble or standing in distribution lines 
.waiting for food. 



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Peace had bruughi promise and. h- 
■ deed, through the first 1 1 months of 
1946. recovery from the ravages of utir 
had been under way throughout West- 
ern Europe, not in repairing public 
buildings and housing but primarily: by 
getting coal, steel and other basic in- 
dustries producing. But the winter 
weather played havoc. Trucks 
could not move, people could 
not get to the mines and fac- 
tories. Meanwhile. Europe's 
trade patterns had also been 
smashed. The pre-war flow c*f 
goods between Eastern and 
Western Europe had been shut 
off by the postwar Soviet impositufi of 
an “Iron Curtain” around the perimeter 
of its new European empire. 

World War 111 was in the air. The 
‘ victors in the war — Britain. Frdnce.’the 

• Soviet Union and the United States — 
had broken into two hostile, ahned 
' camps. Their soldiers stood face-ro-face 
along Germany's Elbe River and in’Ber- 

■’lin. The same enemy, totalitarianism, 
{and in a different guise, communism, 
;had engulfed half of Europe and 

• threatened the other half. Joseph Stalin, 
the Soviet leader, was on the mbve. 
.threatening to extend his satellite em- 



pire. which already included Poland, to 
Hungary and Czechoslovakia. 

The United Slates, having paid so 
much to destroy the Nazis, could not 
consider abandoning Europe to the Red 
Army. World War II had come about in 
pan because democratic Western 
Europe was noi united and the United 
Slates, having slipped back in- 
to its historic isolationism after 
World War I, was not involved 
in European security. Amer- 
ica's leaders had learned these 
lessons and were determined to 
avoid past mistakes. 

On March 12. 1947, Pres- 
ident Harry S. Truman announced a new 
U.S. policy of the containment of com- 
munism through military aid to 
threatened countries, in this first case. 
Greece and Turkey. It became known as 
the “Truman Doctrine." and as a policy 
had remarkably long legs: every Cold 
War president stuck to it for the next 42 
years. 

But the military response was only 
half what was needed. Even democratic 
countries that had no Soviet troops on 
their borders, nor major insurrections on 

Continued on Page 10 


INSIDE; Josef Joffe • Madeleine Albright » Michel Crozier 
• Valery Giscard d'Estaing • Flora Lewis • Barry James • 
Art Buchwdld • Joe Fitchett 



These three posters were among the 25 winners of a 1950 contest to capture the Marshall Plan’s spirit by artists from 13 European countries. 


i '• 


Strike Hit> kashmir Capitol 



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Hoecl^st is a world leader in pharmaceuticals 
and clfemicals. But how on earth is it pronounced? 


You probably come across us 
every day, perhaps without even 
knowing it 

Maybe in our medicines that 
help doctors keep you healthy or 
treat serious illnesses. 

Or in the food on your table, 
grown with the help of our agrtcu| 
tural products. 

Or maybe in your home or 
car where our advanced materials 
such as fibres, plastics and paints 
make your life easier safer and 
brighter. 

1 

But with our name some people! 
still get a little tongue-tied! 

It’s actually very easy. 

We're called Hoechst, pro- 
nounced “Herkst”. 

You can say that again! 

For more information about 
our activities please contact 

Hoechst 

D-65926 Frankfurt am Main 

Inter net; 

httpV/wwwJhoechst-com/ 


agricuhitre end chemicals. With a staff of 145 000 people worldwide, amauil sales total DM 52 billion. 


Hoechst 



- \ 
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page 6 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAX 28, 1997 

THE MARSHALL PLAN / A SPECIAL REPORT 


Marshall Plan Aid 
| April 1948- June 1952 

i Assistance in millions of dollars 
j O ■celand 
[ 0 Norway ..... 

J O Sweden 

j O Britain . .. . 

0 Denmark 

0 Ireland 

0 The Netherlands 
o Belgium/Luxembourg _ 559.3 
0 Western Germany . ... 1 ,390.0 
O Austria ■ 

0 France . 

0 Portugal 
0 Italy 
0 Greece 
0 Turkey 




For Germany, Priceless Gift of Pardon 


By Josef Joffe 


tnwnuiiiual Herald Tribune 

T 



M UNICH — The Marshall 
Plan wasn’t all smoke and 
mirrors. But it wasn 't much 
by today's standards. All 
told, the aid package — grants, loans, 
real stuff like food and fuel — came to 
roughly $13 billion over three years. 
That was a pittance compared to the 
hundred billion dollars western Ger- 
many has been plowing into eastern 
Germany annually since re unification in 
1990. 

And yet the symbolism mattered 
much more than the substance in a story 
that ranks among the finest moments in 
the annals of American diplomacy. 

Try to picture whai Europe was like 
in 1947. It was slowly emerging from 
the worst war in history. Germany was 
the most hated nation on the planet. Two 
years before. Hitler's heirs had rightly- 
expected revenge and retribution with- 
out end — Versailles cubed, as It were. 

But instead, there were die four 
"Fs": food, fuel, fiber and fertilizer. 
These generous Americans, enemies 
only yesterday, were not Greeks bearing 
gifts,* and the psychological impact was 
phenomenal. 

Back at Versailles in 1919, the Ger- 
mans had been branded like Cain; they 
alone bore the guilt for World War I. 
Their lands were amputated, their in- 
dustries dismantled. They were to pay 
backbreaking reparations until kingdom 
come. 

And now? Along with the other West 
Europeans, the Germans were handed 
the Marshall Plan. In money terms, it 
wasn't that much. West Germany re- 
ceived only one-tenth of the total — a 



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Cologne in J945. A bartered Germany expected retribution but got aid.- 


L'A XaUtMal Arehn.es jnd RjCOHiH .VhuaHUraUcn 

On average, the aid made up about 2 J percent of the national incomes of the recipients over four years. 


meager S19 per capita — as compared 
to one-fourth for Britain and one-fifth 
for Ranee. 

But the real payoff is still impossible 
to quantify, what was it worth for a 
riah ro be suddenly pan of the club? 
at price tag do you attach to re- 
spectability and community when you 
thought that you were off to prison 
forever? 

The Marshall Plan was so much more 
than the four "Fs." Instead of exacting 
reparations, as after 1919, it offered 
precious start-up capital. Instead of im- 
posing a discriminatory regime, it 
opened the door to rehabilitation. And 
let's nor forget what is always ignored. 
While extending aid, die Americans not 
only opened their vast market, but also 
relentlessly pressed the Europeans to 
resist their protectionist instincts in fa- 
vor of finer trade among themselves. 

This, too. offers a benign contrast to 
the aftermath of World War 1. when 
competitive devaluation and rising 
trade barriers regularly nipped recovery 
in the bud. Sadly, it also makes for a not 
so benign comparison with the post- 


Cold War period. Economically, East- 
ern Europe would be far beuer off today 
if the EU had been more generous about 
opening its own markets. S tan-up cap- 
ital is quickly devalued when the be- 
neficiaries can't sell what they make. 

If Germany today is an exemplary 
democracy — the very opposite of the 
doomed Weimar experiment — we 
have the Marshall Plan land of course. 
NATO) to thank for it. This time. Ger- 
man democracy was associated with 
prosperity and security, and that made 
all the difference. 

True enough, the United States 
wasn’t all altruism. The Marshall Plan 
was also conceived as a bulwark against 
Stalinist expansionism. Especially in 
Italy and France, with their powerful 
Communist parties, those clasped hands 
gracing every crate and bag containing 
American goodies nicely helped to un- 
dercut Stalin's allies in Paris and 
Rome. 

Economically. .America was also do- 
ing well by doing good. In the war years, 
the United States had built up the migh- 
tiest production machine the world had 
ever seen. Where w ould it find cus- 
tomers for its huge surplus unless it 
provided impoverished Europe with 
purchasing power? 

But in politics, even selfish intentions 
count for less than the consequences. 
And in postwar Europe, die economics 
of the European Recovery Program 
fERP) mattered less than the prodigious 
political payoffs. 

Consider French-German reconcili- 
ation. Initially. France was obsessed 
with emasculating German power once 
and for all. Stalin or not. the French 
would not even dream of German 


rear-in ament. They would have been . 
ay to see West Germany sink to thej|f\ 


states of a pastoral economy. 

US. aid to France, two and a half 
timq* bigger than the German share, 
coaxed the French away from the uapof 
Versailles and to go easy on reparations 
ai\d\lemontage. But that was merely a 
strode of tactical brilliance. The real 
genias of the Marshall Plan was its 
comjn Unitarian design. 

“if you want our help," the Amer- 
ican! said in so many words, “forget 
about coming to Washington with your- 
naticnal shopping lists." To be worthy 
of help, the West Europeans would have 
to sej aside their ancient enmities and 
agree on supranational arrangements 
that louid tally needs and take care of 
the distribution. 

Arid so. the grand experiment of in- 
tegration which progressed from the 
European Coal ana Steel Community to 
the Hrropean Union was bom on that 
histone June 5, 1947. when George C 
Marsi.aU proclaimed: It was not Amer- 
ica's task to "draw up unilaterally a 
program designed to place Europe on its 
feet etonomically. This is the business 
of the turopeans. ’ 1 

As Helmut Schmidt, the former Ger- ! 
man diancellor, puts it in the current 
issue 6f the Foreign Affairs magazine: 
"Thepmergrog European Union is one 
of [America's] greatest achievements: It 
woulcnever have happened without the 
" Plan." 


Marshall 


JOSEY JOFFE is editorial page editor 
and ci iumnist of the Suddeutsche Zei- 
tung it Munich and an associate of the 
Olin institute for Strategic Studies, 
Harvard University. 


Combining multi-sourced financing 
with single-source service. 




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the CHALLENGE. For Lithuania, 
the Klaipedos Nafta oil terminal is a vital 
source of earnings, but since it had been 
working at 200% capacity, renovation 
was essential. The engineering had al- 
ready started when ABN AMRO Bank was 
asked to arrange a comprehensive multi- 
sourced finance deal worth US$ 50 mil- 
lion for the completion of the project. A 
unique arrangement was structured 
which was covered by Export Credit 
Agencies in Sweden, the Netherlands, 
Germany and the US. Not only did it allow 
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THE MARSHALL PLAN / A SPECIAL REPORT 


Time to Finish the Job for All Europe 


By Madeleine K. Albright 


T 


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$ 


[ HIS YEAR. v,s; will celebrate 
the 50ih ammersary of the 
Marshall Plan and the begin- 
ning of America’s mwlem part- 
nership with Europe. We will remember 
the cttic.s ami factories rei ived, the food 
shipments delivered and the hope re- 
stored. Wl- will marvel at the massive, 
cooperative undertaking by govern- 
ment:.. businesses, labor unions and cit- 
izens that nude it all possible. 

But the best way to honor this 
achievement is tofinish the job — for all 
of Europe. 

To do that, we must understand what 
the Marshal! Plan intended to achieve, 
and what it failed to achieve. 

We must first remember that the Mar- 
shall Plan was more than an effort to fix 
the physical damage caused by World 
War II. Had that been the point, it would 
have simply restored Europe to the 
status quo of 1939 — a status quo of 
faltering economies, disunity and grow- 
ing disdain for democratic values. 

In fact, the point of the Marshall Plan 
was not to rebuild Europe at all. but to 
build an entirely new Europe. Us most 
feiiduring legacy is visible not so much 
in the steel mills and railways and farm- 
lands of rations like Germany and 
France. It is visible in the institutions 
that ended ccnruries of European con- 
flict, transcended old ways of thinking, 
and formed the basis for West European 
and trails -Atlantic unity. 

We must also remember that Mar- 
shall aid was open to all. but that Stalin's 
veto denied its benefits to the lands 
across the Elbe. For 50 years, the eastern 
limits of European prosperity and in- 
tegration were determined not by the 
choice of free peoples, or by the in- 
terests of free nations, but by where the 
Red Army stopped in 194S. 

That unnatural divide is still visible in 
the economic gulf between Europe’s old 
and new democracies. It is perceptible 
in the poisoned air that shortens lives 



from Ukraine ro Romania. It is tangible 
in the desire for greater security felt by 
citizens from the Baltic to the Black 
seas, across a region where our cen- 
tury's two hoi wars and the Cold War 
began. 

Our challenge in this anniversary 
year is to overcome the divides of his- 
tory. culture and habit that still threaten 
the security and freedom of Europe as a 
whole. It is to do for Europe's cast — in 
our own self-interest — what we could 
only do for Europe's west a half a cen- 
tury ago. 

We can start by transcending the 
habits of speech and thought that have 
crept up on us these past 5(J years. 

For example, many people still cas- 
ually use the word ‘‘Europe*’ as if it 
were synonymous with Western 
Europe. And justt wo weeks ago, a head- 
line in a major American newspaper 
announced the impending admission of 
“Eastern bloc” countries to NATO, as 
if tbe Warsaw Pact still existed and our 
aspiring allies had to leap across con- 
crete and barbed wire to join us. 

It is time we stopped looking at 
Europe through Rip Van Winkle eyes. It 
is time to agree that there will not be a 


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truly complete trans-Atlantic partner- 
ship in security and trade, or a truly 
“European” currency or foreign 
policy, until it encompasses Europe's 
new market democracies. 

That is why America applauds the 
European Union’s decision to 
.strengthen its internal bonds, to expand 
to Central and Eastern Europe and to 
keep the door to membership open to 
other nations, such as Turkey, to the east 
of what might be called “traditional” 
Europe. Though we do not have a vote 
in this process, we do have an interest in 
seeing it unfold as rapidly and expans- 
ively as possible. 

A few years ago. President Bill Clin- 
ton and the leaders of NATO also had a 
decision to make. They framed that de- 
cision by asking a question: Would 
NATO be known forever as the or- 
ganization of countries that were once 
arrayed against an empire that no longer 
exists? Or would it he known as an 
alliance of capable democracies united 
to meet the challenges of the future? 

I F THE second outcome is best, 
they decided, then limiting NATO 
tn its Cold War membership would 
make no sense. Our alliance had lo 
be open to those democratic nations that 
are ready lo make a first-class con- 
tribution to our common security. 

So this July in Madrid. NATO will 
invite several of Europe's new democ- 
racies to begin accession negotiations. 
Yesterday in Paris, the leaders of NATO 
and Russia also signed the Founding 
Act of their new partnership. 

These decisions are already being 
vindicated. 

Russia's people and leaders are more 
determined than ever to move forward 
with democratic and market reform. 
There is renewed confidence from 
Tallinn to Prague to Sofia that the prom- 
ise of integration in Europe will be kept, 
that there is a bright light at the end of 
the tunnel of reform. And as newly free 
nations prepare to join Western insti- 
tutions, disputes that defied resolution 
for decades are melting away, making it 
less likeiy that conflict will ever again 
engulf the eastern half of Europe. 

We have refused to limit our vision to 
the easy part of Europe and that is itself 
a proper tribute to tbe spirit of the Mar- 
shall Plan. For 50 years ago. there was 
no “easy" part of Europe; all that we 
have today was built on rubble. 

NATO and the EU represent the vic- 
tory of integration over the “hunger, 
poverty, despotism and chaos” that 
George Marshall saw in Western Europe 
in 1 947. Their renewal and enlargement 
today is the logical extension of Mar- 
shall's strategy and the fitting capstone 
to the work his generation began. 

MADELEINE K. ALBRIGHT is the 
U.S. secretary of state. 



I S ■nuxjl AnAnci md RcooS .UramttDnoa 

George Marshall heads procession at Harvard commencement on June 5,194 7. where he presented his Plan. 



Hji » ai d l>mvmity Archives 


Honorary degree recipients at Harvard in 1947. Front row, from left: Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Colwell, 
George Marshall, James Bryant Conant, General Omar Bradley, T.S. Eliot, Senator James Wadsworth. Back 
row: W. A. Dwiggins, Professor George Chase, Hodding Carter. I A. Richards, William Gibbs, Frank Boyden. 


ADVERTISEMENT 


ADVERTISEMENT 


• 4 i 


LEARN FROM HISTORY 

Marshall Plan Aid for Austria 


After the First World War, the losing countries, 
among them an Austria greatly reduced in size, 
were raced with economic chaos. The Treaty of St. 
Germain, with its detrimental stipulations and 
humiliating conditions, was regarded as ruinous. 
The young Republic, which had opted for a 
democratic system of government, felt its sover- 
eignty was being restricted and did not believe it 
had any chance of economic survival Austria 
never managed to overcome this shortcoming in 
self-assurance during the inter-war years. Its pop- 
ulation lent a willing ear to everyone who 
denounced the Paris treaty stipulations. 

The ideals of 1918, namely democracy and a 
republican state, became tarnished. In contrast, 
revanchism and striving for revision were 
assured of approval. This ethno-psychological 

% ndrome contributed in large part to the 
i schluss and thereby to participation in World 
War n. 


In 1945, Austria was once again on the losing 
side. The country had been bled to death and 
politically defamed. There was a certain ambiva- 
lence in the wording used to describe the situa- 
tion. Under the terms of the Moscow Declaration 
of 1943, Austria was one of the countries to be lib- 
erated from National Socialist domination. Since 
it was a country that had been divided by the 
wartime Allies into four zones and only enjoyed 
an amputated sovereignty, Austria had to be 
regarded as occupied territory. 

The end of the war and the armistice were 
accompanied by negative features such as 
' she 


hunger, disease and sho: 


of all the necessi- 
ties of daily life. One-third or the railway network 
and 10 percent of all living quarters had been 
completely destroyed. Symbols of national identi- 
ty such as St Stephen's cathedral and the State 
Opera house in Vienna had been burnt out The 
industrial plants in the east of the country demol- 
ished by Soviet Army fort; s were equivalent in 
value at then-prevailing prices to one billion 
Austrian Schillings. The narvelst of summer 1945 
amounted to barely 50 percent of that brought in 
in 1937. The population had to make do during 
the summer of 1945 with a average daily intake of 
only 350 calories. At the same time, the country' 
was swarming with refugees, returning prisoners 
of war, ex-intemees and displaced persons from 
all over Europe who had to Be fed. 

Not until November 1946 could a daily alloca- 
tion of 1,550 calories be assured, thanks to 


supplies from the Allies abroad. Finally, in 
autumn 1947, the normal minimum daily average 
of 2,100 calories was achieved. On account of tne 
terrible destruction, the economy had been 
brought to a halt Despite the widely differing 
views of the four wartime Allies regarding the 
reconstruction of Austria, the Western powers, 
particularly the United States of America, were 
determined that the mistakes inherent in the Paris 
suburb treaties after 
World War I should 
not be repeated. The 
victorious Western 
powers, particularly 
the USA, had opted for 
a different postwar ■ 
conception for Europe. 

The rehabilitation pro- 
gram for Europe pro- 
posed by George 
Marshall in 1947 at 
Harvard University 
was an offer of assis- 
tance for the devastat- 
ed Continent, not an 
absolute obligation. 

On behalf of Austria, 

Foreign Minister Dr. 

Karl Gruber accepted 
the American offer of 
aid after he had 
obtained the reluctant 
approval of Commu- 
nist colleagues within 
the framework of the 
federal government in 
Vienna. The Austrian 
Socialists gave their 
wholehearted 
approval since they 

saw the chance of realizing state-planning possi- 
bilities for the economy under the Marshall Plan 
system. 

After 1947, Foreign Mihister Gruber participat- 
ed in the Paris Conference, which formulated the 
formal stipulations of the Marshall Plan. On July 
1, 1948 Austria officially acceded to the European 
Relief Programme (ERr). From the Austrian point 
of view, there were two.essential components that 
contributed to the Austrian economic miracle and 
thus to the country's much-vaunted postwar suc- 
cess story. One was the fundamental readiness of 
the United States to finance the economic 



reconstruction of Europe, and therefore of 
Austria, instead of - as after the First World War - 
to threaten with reparations. The unconsidered 
imposition of reparations after the First World 
War led to the economic bleeding of the Continent 
and to radicalization of Che political scene, which 
ultimately caused the world economic crisis and 
led to hundreds of thousands of people being 
unemployed. Based on the Bretton Woods 

Agreement, billions of 
dollars flowed into 
Europe and served to 
get the economy back 
on its feet again. 

From American ERF 
funds, Austria re- 
ceived a billion US 
dollars, amounting to 
US$137 per head of 
the population. It was 
the second highest 
amount, after Norway, 
to go to any country. 

At the beginning, the 
support was in the 
shape of foodstuffs 
and investment goods 
that could be paid for 
by enterprises in 
Schillings. From these 
repayments, so-called 
counterpart funds 
were created that 
enabled low-interest 
investment credits to 
be made available to 
industry. About 60 
percent of these coun- 
terpart funds went to nationalized industry, the 
electricity industry and the railways. This type of 
recycling persists to the present day in the shape 
of die ERP-Fonds, which allocated about 5-6 bil- 
lion Schillings every year for structural promotion 
credits. 

Administration of the ERP funds was in the 
hands of the Organisation for European 
Economic Cooperation (OEEC), whereby both 
GATT and the European Payments Union - which 
operated a clearing system for European ERP 
partners - constituted an important instrument of 
cooperation between individual countries. For 


Austria - apart from the enormous financial assis- 
tance - it amounted to a significant process of 
learning, which ultimately led to integration 
within die European Union. Cooperation with 
other countries in such important sectors as a 
jointly agreed customs policy linked Austria into 
a European economic structure. Domestically 
assured strategies of accommodating to but also 
of insisting on certain standpoints promoted the 
self-assurance of the country and its representa- 
tives. 

In addition, there was the circumstance that mil- 
itary defeat did not entail further humiliation, but 
that help toward economic reconstruction provid- 
ed a chance to display diligence and achievement. 
The unshakeable self-assurance of the postwar 
reconstruction generation accrued from this dis- 
play of confidence. Cooperation and team-spirit 
clearly led to success. The newly acquired confi- 
dence in this country and the faith people dis- 
played in tackling the difficulties of tne postwar 
years were finally transformed into a guarantee of 
political stability. 

The mostly American reconstruction assistance 
was also accompanied by a series of domestic 
measures to which Austria can point with some 
pride. Austria's politicians of the postwar genera- 
tion succeeded, through three-party consensus, in 
creating the political and institutional framework. 
The centralization of representational interests 
constituted an important instrument for negotia- 
tions and ultimately led to the establishment of 
the internationally admired Social Partnership. 
This "consensus between capital and labor in the . 
country" (Ernst Hanischj was only possible, how- 
ever, on the basis of foreign assistance. A further 
vital pillar was the readiness of the population to 
keep wages down. For years on end, wages 
trailed behind prices. 

This discrepancy, however, provided funds that 
were successfully invested in reconstruction. In 
view of the geo-political situation of a country on 
the frontier between two fundamentally opposed 
systems of economic and political stability, this 
was of an importance not to be underestimated. 
Instead of negative personal assessment, instead 
of the "unfitness for life” which prevailed after the 
First World War, Marshall Hon aid enabled an 
aura of a reconstruction generation to arise that 
for decades rendered this country resistant to 
political enticement. 












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CITIBANK 


The Seeds of European Union: Can 1997 Match Initiatives of 1947 and 1957? 


By Valery Giscard d’Estaing 

The following are excerpts from a 
speech, titled "From The Marshall Plan 
to the European Union 1947-1997," 
that Valery Giscard <f Estaing made to 
the Chicago Council on Foreign Re- 
lations in Chicago on April 14. 


T HE GREAT European Union 
movement would probably 
never have begun without the 
bold initiative of Secretary of 

State George Marshall 

■ The speech he gave at Harvard was 

remarkable in every way. 

It had been prepared by a group of 
experts that included the most outstand- 
ing minds of the time. George Kerman, 
to whom we owe the doctrine of con- 
tainment William Clayton, who had 
drawn the secretary of state's attention 


to the dramatically worsening economic 
situation in Europe, on the verge of 
starvation and bankruptcy; and Charles 
Bohlen, who actually wrote die draft for 
the speech. Marshall himself put the 
finishing touches to his text in die plane 
carrying him to Cambridge 

The original idea of the Marshall Plan 
was to enable Europe to restore a trade- 
based economy, if need be by means of 
imports, so that the machinery of a Euro- 
pean economy could once again func- 
tion normally, after which it would cope 
with the job of reconstruction itself. 

Marshall aid was about balance of 
payments aid rather than a budget sub- 
sidy. This can be verified by studying 
the breakdown of this aid: 46 percent 
went toward purchases of food and cot- 
ton from the United States. 1 6 percent to 
buying coal and 19 percent to steel and 
aluminum. Only 14 percent went into 
capital goods per se 


The Plan succeeded brilliantly. Since 
the beginning of the war, the average 
standard of living of Europeans had 
fallen by S percent, the Germans’ by IS 


50th Anniversary ^ r 
of the 

MARSHALL 
PLAN 


The idi \ i f\ es o\. 
Europe is growing 

TOG I I HIR. A REASON 1 O 
Cl I ERR VI E. 


We blued bridges i or v V : c ‘ 

I; ‘ £> 

ECONOMIC COOPl RATION 


percent and the Italians' by 26 percent. 
By the end of 1 95 1 , after three and a half 
years of Marshall Plan, the standard of 
living had leapt up by 33.5 percent And 
more important still, the program, 
thanks to die targets it had set itself, laid 
the foundations of the exceptional eco- 
nomic growth enjoyed by Europeans 
over (he next 30 years, with an annual 
average of 4.8 percent. 

The second innovation came in the 
form of an appeal to Europeans to unite. 

Georee Marshall stated: "It would be 
neither fining nor efficacious for this 
government to undertake to draw up 
unilaterally a program designed to place 
Europe on its feet economically. This is 
the business of die Europeans. The ini- 
tiative. I think, must come from 


Europe.” In this remarkable sentence 
you find the two mottoes which should 
govern for aQ time to come the re- 
lationship between the United States 
and Europe, and inspire the long search 
by the Europeans for their unity. 

Marshall’s appeal to the Europeans to 
take charge jointly of the aid program 
was singularly audacious when rate 
thinks of the cinnnnstances of die time. 
It was just three years after D-Day in 
Normandy, and only two years since the 
end of the war. TTiis appeal was ad- 
dressed to the Allied countries of 
Europe, Britain and Fiance, but also to 
the adversaries of yesterday; Germany 
and Italy. In fact, the four major re- 
cipients of the Ma rshall aid were pre- 
cisely these countries. 

George Marshall made no mention of 
the goal of European Union, as Robert 
Scbuman did a year later. But the struc- 
tures created to administer Marshall aid, 
under the especially skillful and en- 
ergetic leadership of Paul Hoffman, her- 
alded the institutions that six European 
states would make for themselves 10 
years later. Without the positive 
achievements of the Marshall Ran in 
restoring economic balance and ex- 
panding trade, this undertaking would 
most probably never have succeeded. 

• 

It is now 40 years ago, on March 25, 
in the magnificent Palazzo del Mnseo 
Capitolino in Rome, designed by 
Michelangelo, that the heads of gov- 
ernment and ministers of foreign affairs 
of six European countries signed the 
treaty that brought into existence the 
European Economic Community, 
known as the Common Market . . . 

These six countries all received Mar- 
shall aid. They were indeed the main 
beneficiaries of it The only one missing 
was Britain, who had been invited to 
join in the negotiations but preferred not 
to come. 

The treaty set oat to achieve two 
objectives — one was economic, the 
other political. The economic objective 
was explicitly clear do away with all 
trade quotas, completely phase out cus- 
toms duties between participating coun- 
tries and set a moderate, common ex- 
ternal tariff. It was in 1992 that this goal 
of a single market was finally achieved 
with the implementation of the weD- 
known Single Act. 

The political objective was never 
written into the treaty, but it was present 
in the minds of all the signatories 

The institutions created by the Treaty 
of Rome went substantially beyond 
what was required to reach the eco- 
nomic objective: an executive, a par- 
liament, a court of justice. In fact, it was 


the framework of the future European 
federal entity drat was being estab- 
lished. And these institutions have re- 
mained unchanged ever since, despite 
the enlargemenr of tile European Com- 
munity from the six member states of 
1957 to the 15 of today. 

• 

In trying to describe the long un- 
broken trajectory from the Marshall 
Plan to the European Union. I have not 
answered the simplest question that you 
are probably asking yourselves: Will 
there ever be the equivalent of die Phil- 
adelphia miracle far Europe (the 1787 
Congress that succeeded in raising the 
pillars of the U.S. Constitution)? 

The basic law of the European Union, 
which would order and rank the various 
diplomatic treaties since 1957, still re- 
mains to be written. 

Could one imagine die major Euro- 
pean leaders devoting a few days, or 


even a week or two, of their time to 
come together, far from the public and 
media gaze, in a room adorned with the 
statues of Dante, Goethe, Shakespeare 
and Victor Hugo, and with contem- 
porary busts of Jean Moonet, Konrad 
Adenauer, Alcide de Gas peri, Robert 
Schuman and Paul-Henri Spaak, to de- 
bate and draft — no office routine and 
no lobbies allowed — as they did in • 
former years in Rome and at the Elysee, ft 
this charter of the European Union that 
the peoples of our Continent are 
anxiously awaiting? 

You probably will say that would 
take a miracle. 

But that is just what miracles are — 
always improbable, never impossible. 

V4LERY "GISCARD D'ESWNG, a 
former president of France, is chair- 
man of the Foreign Affairs Committee 
of the French National Assembly . 


.... . . . .. „ , . . U -S. Wuhan! Anting tal Reeanfa A rfuriiiinn 

With Marshall Plan help, Berlin puts up new housing for its homeless. 


in Europe and across 


PAGES 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY MAY 28, 1997 

THE MARSHALL PLAN / A SPECIAL REPORT 


Michel Crozier /french Sociologist 


Michel Crazier, 74, a distinguished 
sociologist, helped modernize France 
with insights about the workplace 
partly gained from his Marshall Plan 
experience. His books include “ The 
Bureaucratic Phenomenon" and “ The 
Stalled Society.” He is director emer- 
itus of the Center for the Study of Or- 
ganizations in Paris and visiting pro- 
fessor at Harvard and the University of 
California (Irvine). Crozier talked to 
the International Herald Tribune's 
Joseph Ftichett about the plan’s en- 
during impact over a half-century. 

Q. When did you first hear of the 
Plan? 

A. In 1947, 1 wanted to study U.S. 
labor unions and got a French fellow- 
ship to travel around America. Every- 
where I turned up, people were de- 
bating the same subject — the Marshall 
Plan. What impressed me was the 
breadth and depth of public involve- 
ment in the issue, extending from the 
nation's top policy-making elite to all 
kinds of load decisionmakers, embra- 
cing both the political classes and 
people in all walks of life. 

Naturally, like any aid program, it 
was going to touch people directly in 
the beneficiary countries, but what was 
surprising was that it also powerfully 
mobilized grass-roots Americans — 
just as h would later affect the lives of 
almost everyone in Western Europe. 

Washington was pulling out all the 
stops to get backing, and union activists 
were fighting hard for it, so everywhere 


I went a union local would call a meet- 
ing and say: "Here’s a brother from 
France, and he’s going to tell you why 
the Marshall Plan is vital." 

1 would explain that my country had 
been destroyed, but chat we were de- 
termined to rebuild and it was extraor- 
dinary and wonderful to know that we 
were going to get help from our friends. 
I barely spoke English, but there was 
always enthusiastic applause. 

• 

Q- Why do you think Americans 
were so responsive to the Marshall Plan, 
especially unions? Today they resist 
programs increasing U.S. imports and 
creating jobs abroad such as the North 
American Free Trade Agreement. 

A. The Marshall Plan’s generosity 
and idealism tapped into. Americans' 
desire to think of themselves as a moral 
nation. At the time, it worked brilliantly 
as an idealistic alternative to commun- 
ism in what we now call middle Amer- 
ica and particularly for the unions, 
which were strongly anti-CommunisL 
So it was a great political cause, which 
also offered the unions a golden op- 
portunity to stake out a more mfluennal 
and prestigious role for themselves in 
U.S. affairs. 

Take France, the trickiest country for 
the Marshall Plan because of ticklish 
sensibilities among the independent- 
minded French. The Communists had 
emerged in a strong position after 
World War H, mainly because of the 
party's role in the Resistance. 


the Marshall Plan because it wasAmer- 
ican, describing it as a blueprint for 
colonizing France or as a new guise of 
the German occupation of France that 
called for a new resistance. Very few in 


the Marshall Plan because the lead- the MarshatiPlan because it wra Amer- fiTture The°U.f - example was 

ership was obsessed about full employ- ican, describing it as a blueprint for . onse_ neoole only gradually 

ment America had only raaergedfrcra colonizing France or as a ^^'tc!abso* the need tflhiten to 

the Depression a decade earlier thanks ihe German occupation of France that njanagen LrheehoD floor and learn how 
to tbe'economic stimulus and man- called for a new resistance.' Vetyi fewrn ^qp^n^^p»oora™^ra n 
power demand in World War DL There imeUectualm academic life dared stand to £ 

were fears die country might slide back up to the Communists moral teoonsm. *™P ro hrp^hroulh^m^rench man- 
into depression now that the war was Someone like myself, cohered pro- lem b^toough^^^ 
over. The Plan would give a fillip to American, was ostracized m many ’JLJ^hur over the years 

U.S. manufacturing and create jobs. circles as a "reactionary. T he sti gma France Drofoundlv. 

In addition, unions got posts in was powerful, and I suffered from it m U-Js. ideas chang pro y 

Europe for lots of their people working the sense that my work didn't have the If A ^ SJhtw* notifies into a new 
with the Marshall Plan. It was a boost official recognition, and die audience, which ^ d jKg United 

for labor's position in foe U.S. do- that it would have enjoyed in normal leftist penod, France and dte Unug 
mestic system to have this recognition circumstances. I’m not complaining; States would have a comp y 
of the unions’ foreign role against com- it’s just the way it was. ferent reJanonsmp invnlw- 


Michel Crosier 

But what was really important was 
the big trade union, the Confederation 
Generate du Travail (CGT), which was 
more powerful than the French Com- 
munist Party and had a broader in- 
fluence. Tbe union’s leaders were mil- 
itant C ommunis ts actively engaged in 
Infiltration and subversion. That was a 
battle which UJ5. labor leaders, who 
had been active overseas politically dur- 
ing World War H, were spoiling for. 

American labor as a whole backed 


over. Lne Plan would give a tulip to 
U.S. manufacturing and create jobs. 

In addition, unions got posts in 
Europe for lots of their people working 
with the Marshall Plan. It was a boost 
for labor's position in foe U.S. do- 
mestic system to have this recognition 
of tbe unions' foreign role against com- 
munism. It was the beginning of your 
system of labor attaches in U.S. em- 
bassies. Scores of veteran labor or- 
ganizers went to Europe to evangelize 
for tbe U.S. model of strong unions and 
vigorous negotiations for worker ben- 
efits. They argued that workers got no 
tangible benefits from political strikes 
of foe kind ordered by Communist-run 
unions. In contrast, the U.S. message 
was the bread-and-butter goal of work- 
ers’ prosperity in Earope. 

Q. How were yon affected? 

A. It was a tremendous intellectual 
battle. Postwar France was a conflicted 
society, bitterly factional, with tbe 
Communists enjoying a very powerful 
position in political and electoral terms, 
controlling foe labor scene and dom- 
inating intellectual life. They opposed 
Amenca and U.S. influence, so a big 
body of French opinion was hostile to 


Q. If it was such an uphill battle, how 
did the Marshall Plan succeed? 

A. It's a long story in every sense, 
including the fact dial some important 
results wily emerged over time. For 
instance, the Marshall Plan introduced 
a more modem notion of managers and 
experts in French business and gov- 
ernment, mainly through ‘‘productiv- 
ity missions.’* These weren't just 
know-it-all U-S. experts bossing 
around, the French. Many of them were 
group trips — similar to sending a 
dozen French carmakers now to spend 
two days at General Motors on its Sat- 
urn assembly line and giving them an 
opportunity to talk to everybody. 

For the French It was a perfect eye- 
opener, an example of a nonhierarch- 
ical society that worked — exactly the 
opposite of when we had that wasn't 


So it took time, but over the years 
U.S. ideas changed France profoundly. 
If it hadn’t been for the Vietnam War, 
which tilted French politics into a new 
leftist period, France and the United 
States would have a completely dif- 
ferent relationship today. 

Q. And your personal involve- 
ment? 

A. After my U.S. trip, I was sent on a 
productivity mission in 1956 which 
was an outgrowth of the Marshall Plan 
financed by French counterpart funds. 
That led io a year at Stanford’s Be- 
haviorial Sciences Center. It was 
sponsored by the Ford Foundation, 
which was very much a part of the 
intellectual climate that produced the 
Marshall Plan. Then I got a substantial 
grant from those counterpart funds to 
analyze the functioning, on the shop 
floor and in management, of France’s 
state-run tobacco monopoly. With my 
Marshall Plan aura, I had complete 
freedom and easy access to people, and 
that made it possible for me to pioneer 
new methods of sociological analysis. 
It launched my intellectual career and 
influence in France. 







Fifty years ago, the United States helped us at a time when we were in dire need. The Marshall Plan 
gave us the tools and the support we needed to clear away the rubble and devastation of the war so that 
we could feed our families and re-build our homes, our businesses, and factories. It helped us to start 
over again so that we could learn to live together in peace and freedom. Especially here in Rhineland- 
Palatinate, wartime enemies became good friends, helpful neighbors and reliable partners. This partner- 
ship has had an indelible impression on our state. 

Over fifty thousand Americans still live and work here - the largest American community outside of the. 
United States. They enjoy life between the rivers Moselle and Rhine, next to historic castles, over a 
glass of fine wine. Old traditions and modem times have formed a harmonic and dynamic union here 
at the very heart of Europe. Come to visit us and see for yourself! 

Kurt Beck, Minister President of Rhineland -Palatinate 
For further information please call; phone +49-6131-164712; e-mail; Poststelle@stk.rp.dbp.de; internet; http//www.rpl.de 








PAGE 10 




The remedy 


vicious 


the confidence of the 


European people 
in the economic future 


of their own countries 


and of Europe as 
a whole.” 0^01^ 


gures. Ii wasn’t the size of the grant 
at mattered so much as how it was 
ent and the way it boosted morale. 
The money came as allotments in the 
tm of grants to the participating couh- 
es, on the basis of a formula wotted 
tt by the Europeans, with U.S. par-, 
ipation in the discussions. Britain got' 
e most at $3.2 billion, followed by 
ance at $2.7 billion. Italy $1.5 billion, 
est Germany $1.4 billion, and the 


c » st6ifo.fi 


Marshall Hoped to Get the ‘Patient 9 Back on Its Feet and Foster Stability 


Continued front Page 5 


their soil, were threatened — by the 
ballot box. Communism had great ap- 
peal; in France and Italy, the Com- 
munists were getting close to 30 percent 
of the vote, and Communist-led strikes 
were making conditions worse in the 
chaotic winter of 1946-47 and people 
more desperate. 

Through the recently established 
United Nations Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Administration (UNRRA), the 
United States was providing sufficient 
food to Europe to ward off starvation. 
But the program was subject to wide- 
spread criticism for its piecemeal nature 
and for its bureaucratic inefficiencies. 

Compounding the crisis, wartime- 
bred hatreds remained white hot, es- 
pecially among people who had been 
under occupation by the Germans, 
which was just about everybody on the 
Continent. The French statesman and 
political economist. Jean Monnet. was 
struggling to create a Europe wide coal 
and steel community, but his efforts 
were hampered by anti-German sen- 
timent. The French wanted recovery for 
themselves, but they were not so sure 
they wanted Germany to recover. A 
disunited Western Europe was facing an 
increasingly united Eastern Europe. 


balance. Only a combination of inspired 
leadership and teamwork could save it. 
Marshall went to work. Typically, he 
turned to experts for the details. He told 
the State Department to get to work on a 
European Recovery Program (ERP). 
which later would become popularly 
known as “the Marshall Plan.” 

It was a team effort in which many 
men played critical roles, starting with 
the undersecretary of state. Dean G. 
Acheson. William L. Clayton, the un- 
dersecretary of state for economic af- 


established definite goals. They counted 
on having a pump ready to be primed. 
Europe had the workers and managers, 
the institutions, the capitalist know- 
how. What Europe needed was capital 
to purchase raw materials, machine 
tools, heavy equipment, fertilizer. 

It was characteristic of Marshall that 
he saw not only challenge but oppor- 
tunity. The special genius of the ERP 
was its insistence on dealing with 
Europe as a whole. The country-by- 
country policy of UNRRA was a cause 


* Europe ivas as close to destitution as a modem civiliza- 
tion can get. She could not groiv enough food and she 
could not find the money or goods to buy food elsewhere 


Theodore H. White, ‘Fire in the Ashes’ 


I N MARCH 1947, the newly ap- 
pointed U.S. secretary of state. 
General George C. Marshall, went 
to Moscow for a foreign ministers' 
conference. Marshall, who as chief of 
staff of the U.S. Army in World War II 
had been the architect of victory, was by 
far the most respected man of his day. 

Marshall deplored the war talk going 
on in Washington. He wanted to co- 
operate with the Soviets in rebuilding 
Europe, not fight them. He hoped to 
convince them that everyone would 
benefit if the Soviets would remove the 
Iron Curtain. But ro every proposal he 
made to the Soviets in Moscow to work 
together, the answer was no. 

Returning through Western Europe 
from Moscow, Marshall was shaken by 
the seriousness and urgency of the situ- 
ation. Europe's leaders were close ro 
despair, their people too. They didn't 
know how they were going to meet the 
Soviet threat or restore their economies. 
In a nationwide radio address upon his 
return to die United States, Marshall put 
it concisely: “The patient [Europe] is 
sinking while the doctors deliberate.” 

Marshall was accustomed to facing 
great challenges and making big de- 
cisions. Winston Churchill said he did 
more than any other man to bring about 
victory at a time when nothing less than 
the fate of Europe had been at stake. 
Now, two years after V-E Day. 
Europe's fate was once again in the 


•hvii umi 


fairs, had first grasped the underlying 
reasons for Europe’s plight — and its 
corollary, the threat to U.S. exports. The 
basic approach to Europe was worked 
out by the State Department's Policy 
Planning Staff led by George F. Ken- 
nan, who had authored the famous dis- 
patch known as “the long telegram” 
and then the article, signed with an 
“X.” in the quarterly. Foreign Affairs, 
that alerted American leaders to the 
dangerous course of Soviet 
postwar policies and posited 
containment as the best U.S. 
response. His colleague and 
fellow European specialist. 

Charles E. Bohlen, helped re- 
fine the politics. James V. For- 
restal. the secretary of the navy, 
was an early hawk who brought Kerman 
to Washington and broached the idea of 
using U.S. economic power to contain 
Russia. 

But the Marshall Plan is aptly named. 
Marshall was tfie driving force, nor only 
because of the power of his name and 
office but also because of his ideas, 
salesmanship, administrative ability. 
enthusiasm and energy. Years later he 
told his biographer Forrest Pogue that 
he worked harder on, and for. the ERP 
than on anything else in his life. Mar- 
shall never would have accepted the title 
of the man who saved Western Europe, 
or anything remotely like it. but certain 
it is that no man did more to put in place 
a work of such scope, magnitude and 
importance with such clear purposes. 

One general aim was to prime the 
pump. The ERP would be a hand-up, not 
a handout. Marshall's planners were 
sensitive to the criticisms of UNRRA 
and recognized the political reality that 
American taxpayers were not going to 
continue feeding Europe indefinitely. 
(U.S. taxpayers did pump S9 billion into 
UNRRA between 194548. mostly in 
food aid.) So they set a time limit and 


STRENGTH TOR THE 
FREE WORLD 


HIIIM 


of confusion and inefficiency. Having 
been drawn into two European wars in 
their lifetimes. U.S. leaders felt it was 
past time for Europeans to form a union, 
a sort of United Stales of Europe. Not 
wanting to force anything on the Euro- 
peans. Marshal], Acheson. Kennan and 
the others required Europe's leaders to 
get together and present their own plan 
for using the ERP money. The United 
States would then respond to the re- 
quest. In the process, the basis 
for a new economic union in 
Europe would be laid, and be- 
yond that a military alliance and 
the possibility of a new political 
union. 

The planners further saw the 
ERP as good for the American 
economy. First, most of the credited 
dollars would be spent in the United 
States. Second, as Clayton saw and 
Acheson explained, often to reporters 
over martinis in his office at the end of 
the day (one of the first instances of spin 
control). American exports were run- 
ning at S 1 6 billion a year, imports at less 
than $8 billion. Most of the exports went 
to Europe. If the Europeans were to pay 
for them, they had to have dollars which 


they could only get by producing goods 
America could import. Lf the Europeans 

Hen 


were going to pay for their own defense, 
as Americans very much wanted them 
to do, first they had to get their econ- 
omies moving. 

ERP was not a partisan effort Re- 
publicans. led by the pre-war isolation- 
ist Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg. 
chairman of the Senate Foreign Re- 
lations Committee, got behind it. 

Nor was it an overt anti-Soviet effort. 
The Soviet Union had suffered more 
than any other participant in the war, 
even Germany, so if the Plan’s goal was 
to rebuild Europe, the Russians had to 
be dealt with. Kennan decided that ihe 
United States should “play it straight'* 


Fifty years ago, George C Marshall launched a bold initiative. The goal: to rebuild an independent 
Germany and an independent Europe. His ideas have succeeded. Thanks to the Marshall Plan and 
its financing programs we - as the principal lending institution of Marshall Plan funds - are able, now 
as then, to make visions become reality. Thank you. 


l/yit# Kreditahstalt 

ftf W fur Wiederaufbau 


by inviting Moscow into the ERP. but 
only on the condition that the Soviets 
open iheir economy to Western invest- 
ment, their markets to Western 
products, their account books to West- 
ern administrators- Soviet sarellites — 
including Hungary (which was taken 
over by proxy in May 1947) and the 
Soviet-occupied zone of Germany — 
were also invited into the ERP, bm only 
on condition that they also open up- So. 
too. was Czechoslovakia, still inde- 
pendent even though the Co mm u n ists 
had a strong position in the government 
and Red Army troops stood just across 
the border. 

By late May 1947, Kennan ’s team 
had the ERP offer ready, though not the 
de tails of the plan: an integral part of the 
offer was that the Europeans themselves 
would work out die details. Weighing 
options about where, when and how to 
announce it, Marshall, who had a long- 
standing invitation to speak at Harvard, 
chose the 1947 commencement, which 


Western Europe. He had die cheek to 
charge that the ERP would “divide 
Europe into two groups of states. 
Within a week, he announced a “Mo- 
lotov Plan” for Eastern Europe. 

Britain and France pressed ahead, 
inviting 22 nations (including Russia 
and the satellites in case Moscow 
changed its mind) to a full-scale Euro- 
pean confr p* np T* on die Marshall offer. 


(Germany would be represented pro- 
of the foi 


happily came on June 5, the eve of the 
third annii 


l anniversary of D-Day. On May 30. 
in a memo, he told his staff to * ’prepare 
a draft for a less than 10-minute talk by 
me at Harvard to the alumni. 1 will 
supply the polite references to the oc- 
casion." 

The speechwriters were instructed to 
stress the urgency of the situation be- 
cause, as be said later. “The whole 
world's future hangs on a proper judg- 
ment, hangs on the realization by the 
American people of what can best be 
done, of what must be done." 

To explain the crisis in Earope. he 
said, he warned to make a special point: 
“Since 1938 there has been practically 
no development of peaceful business. 
Nationalization has disrupted the busi- 
ness structure. Finns have lost contact 
with each other, particularly across bor- 
ders. . . . We have been too prone ro 
estimate the collapse of business on the 
basis of visible destruction, but it now 
appears that iber conditions outlined 
above are more serious than the actual 
demolishing of plants and rupture of 
communications.' ' 


visionally by those of the tour 
occupying powers who came.) 

Some see the Molotov 
walkout as a historic turning 
point But others insist that it 
was in the cards all along, that 
Stalin had no choice because 
Kennan had stacked the deck by 
ifomanriing ftwt Stalin open his empire 
and cooperate with the West 

There was a view that Moscow could 
have succeeded in killing the Marshall 
Han by joining it Jan Masaryk. Czech- 
oslovakia's U.S.-educated foreign min- 
ister, made the point to a friend: “Do 
you see Truman and Congress forking 
out billions of dollars to Enemy Number 
One. Communist Russia, from whom 
we all have to be saved?” 

There is also some evidence to in- 
dicate That Stalin thought the United 
States could not make good on its eco- 
nomic promises: that he expected the 
ERP ro fail and honed the Soviets could 


Those women went after those con- 
gressmen. It was electric, what 

happened, just electric.” 

But congressional hearings dragged 
on. In January 194S. Truman tried to 
speed things up by reducing the initial 
appropriation from 517 billion over four 
years to S6.8 billion to cover the first 15 
months. Still no action. 

Then came the Czechoslovak coup m 
late February. The easternmost of the 
European democracies. Czech- 
oslovakia was already domina- 
ted by the Soviets. Now it had 
become a Communist dictator- 
ship and a Soviet satellite. The 
Communist seizure of absolute 
power in Prague brought to 
many minds the unhappy 
thought that it was just there, just at this 
time of year, nine years earlier, that 
Hitler had overrun the Czech capital 


E 


pick up the pieces in Western Europe. 
For the Soviet people, he made a dis- 
fortheC 


M ARSHALL, the career sol- 
dier, understood economics 
better than the economists. 
He also knew more about 
diplomacy than the diplomats and more 
about politics than many of tire politi- 
cians. He did not put out an advance 
copy of the speech, nor did he clear his 
text* with Truman, who had only a gen- 
eral idea of what the ERP proposal was 
going to be. Marshall understood that 
his challenge was not to sell the idea to 
the preside nt — or even, at first, to a new 
Republican Congress that was poten- 
tially hostile — but to the people. 

In his memo to the staff, he had 
written: “It is of tremendous impor- 
tance that our people understand the 
situation in Europe and the plight of 
their people.” He wanted to set off a 
national debate over policy, not sneak a 
new one in by political manipulation. 

On June 5. in a low voice but with 
clearly stated, simple language, Mar- 
shall announced the plan for the ERP. 
He said: “Our policy is directed not 
against any country or doctrine but 
against hunger, poverty, despotism and 
chaos. Its purpose shall be the revival of 
the working economy in the world so as 
to permit the emergence of political and 
social conditions in which free insti- 
tutions can exist. ’* 

“Any country that is willing to assist 
in the task of recovery will find full 
cooperation,” be said, adding that “the 
initiative must come from Europe. The 
role of this country should consist of 
friendly aid in the drafting of a Euro- 
pean program and of later support of 


r or the Soviet 
astrous choice; for the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union he made the right 
choice. The world had to wait four de- 
cades before the Soviet rulers brought 
themselves ro reverse that choice. 

In that summer of 1947, 16 West 
European nations finally accepted the 
French-British invitation. (The Czechs 
accepted, then canceled two days before 
the meeting under pressure from Stalin.) 
On July 12. they started working on die 
terms of ERP. consulting closely with 
Marshall’s people in trying to fuse their 
national shopping lists. 

By August, they bad a plan asking for 
S28 billion over a four-year period, and 
the British diplomat Sir Oliver Franks, 
die conference chairman, came to 
Washington and told Robert Lovett 
(who had succeeded Acheson at State): 
“The forging of the recovery of West- 
ern Europe can only be done once and it 
has ro be done now.” 

On Dec. 19. 1947. Truman presented 
the ERP to Congress, after reducing the 
proposed amount ro SI7 billion. In re- 
cognition of Marshall's leadership and 
prestige. Tinman began to refer to the 
measure as the “Marshall Plan.” A 
presidential election was coming up and 
be was trailing badly in the polls; as he 
realistically told his supporters, “Can 
you imagine its chances or passage in an 
election year in a Republican Congress 
if it is named for Truman and not Mar- 
shall?” 

Even so the ERP had some intense 
opposition. To many congressmen, the 
Plan was another New Deal giveaway, 
and ro foreigners at that Senator Robot 
A Taft, “Mr. Republican,” proclaimed 
that American money should not be 
poured into a “European TVA” — a 
reference to the Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority, a government-built and run 
power-generating and regional devel- 
opment program that was a showcase 
for die New Deal and anathema to Re- 
publicans. His fear was that the Euro- 
peans would use American money to 
nationalize basic industries: he char- 


VENTS rushed forward. On 
March 5. 1 948, General Lucius 
D. Clay, in command of U.S. 
/occupation forces in Germany, 
sent a telegram to Washington:- “Al- 
though I have felt and held that war was 
unlikel y for at least 10 years, within the . 
last few weeks, I have felt a sub&jQ] 
rhane»> in the Soviet attitude which 
gives me a feeling that it may come with 
d ramati c suddenness.” Congress "heard 
from Marshall die following week that 
die situation was “very, very serious.” 
Three days later, the Senate endorsed 
the ERP by a vote of 69 to 17. Three 
days after that, Truman told a special 
session of Congress that America must 
meet “this growing menace to the very 
survival of freedom.” 

On March 16, 1948. France, Britain 
and the Benelux countries signed the 
Brussels Union, pledging mutual de- 
fense. Truman immediately welcomed 
die move and promised in a speech the 
next day to Congress that American aid 
would be forthcoming to the signatory 
nations “ro help them to protea them- 
selves.” It was a seed from which 
NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Or- 
ganization. would grow a year later. 
Thus did military ana political needs go 
hand-in-hand: as Truman put it, die con- 
tainment doctrine and the ERP were 
“two halves of the same walnut” On 
March 3 1 . the House passed ihe ERP by 
318 to 75, although it appropriated $53 
billion, not die $6.8 billion Truman had ” 
requested. 

The ERP was and is unique in that it 
was the only aid program that stipulated 
a set of economic objectives and a set 
time frame for their fulfillment The act 
manrfarM a recovery plan based on spe- 
cific endeavors: a strong production ef- 
fort; expansion of foreign trade; cre- 
ation and maintenance of internal 
financial stability; European unity. The 
follow-up appropriations would depend 
on progress in these areas. 

A major congressional requirement 
had been that a businessman, not a bu- 
reaucrat run the program. Marshall 
agreed. Paul G. Hoffman, an auto- 
mobile salesman, self-made millionaire 
and farmer president of Studebaker 
cars, took the job. His representative in 
Europe was die highly respected W. 
AvereJJ Hardman, another tycoon 
working for the government for a dollar 
a year. His headquarters were in Paris, 
with his own office a green-and-gilt 
room with a bust of Benjamin Fr anklin 
behind his desk. The Plan’s building on 
the Place de la Concorde was die place 
to be for ambitious young planners and 


'Congressional approval of the Marshall Plan was a 
oint in the 


tumirig point in the history of the world. 9 Winston. S. Churchill 


such a program. The program should be 
•. agreed to by a number, if not 


a joint one. 

afl, European nations.” 

Marshall spoke to the role of the 
American people: “With foresight and 
a willingness on the part of our people to 
face up to the vast responsibility which 
history has dearly placed upon our 
country, the difficulties I have outlined 
can and will be overcome.” 

That evening in Britain, Foreign Min- 
ister Ernest Bevin was listening to the 
BBC’s regular feature program, 
“American Commentary,” and heard 
reporter Leonard Mi all (who had been 
briefed by Acheson about the U.S. ini- 
tiative) describe “an exceptionally im- 
portant speech which propounded a 
totally new. continental approach to the 
problem of Europe's economic crisis.” 

Bevin recalled afterwards that be 
"grabbed” the offer “with both 
hands.” Suggestions by his staff that he 
query Washington were brushed aside 
— “It doesn't matter what he said; now 
what matters is what we do" — and by 
morning he had been in touch with the 
French foreign minister. Georges 
Bidault, and had arranged a meeting in 
10 days. Their main worry: What would 
Moscow and its satellites do? The two 
ministers decided to meet the issue 
head-on and invite the Soviet foreign 
minister, Vyacheslev M. Molotov, to 
join them in planning a conference of 
European nations to respond to the U.S. 
offer. 

Marshall's speech made headlines 
everywhere and had a salutary effect on 
European morale. The Americans were 
coming back ro the Continent, as they 
had in 1917 and 1944. But the world was 
on tenterhooks as Molotov and the 120- 
member Soviet delegation arrived in 
Paris on June 27. 

The three-way talks were grim — 
secret but with all sides talking to the 
press. The Soviets were in a dilemma: to 
refuse to take part meant the creation of 
an anti-Soviet, pro-democracy Western 
bloc: to accept meant economic and 
media penetration by the Western de- 
mocracies into the Soviet satellites, 
even Russia itself. 

Molotov proposed that each nation 
establish its own recovery program. The 
French and British insisted on a 
Europewide program. On July^2, Mo- 
lotov stalked out, condemning "Amer- 
ican imperialism” and warning that a 
revived Germany would dominate 


acterized the ERP as “a bold Socialist 
blueprint” Much of this was election- 
jear posturing (Taft was a leading Re- 
publican presidential candidate), as 
everyone knew the United States was 
going to have ro do something. The polls 
showed the people more favorably in- 
clined to the ERP than the Congress by a 
wide margin. 


Mi 


‘ARSHALL and his staff 
worked at bringing the 
politicians around. They 
. conceded a point demanded 
by the National Association of Man- 
ufacturers, that ' 'aid should be extended 


to private competitive enterprises in- 
stead of to governments. ’ ' This was one 
of die most important of the many in- 
novations in public policy planning and 
execution that made up the ERP. They 
sent congressional investigating teams 
to Europe to see for themselves. One 
who went was the freshman Republican 
Richard M. Nixon. He had been against 
the ERP; so were his constituents. So 
convinced of the need was he after see- 
ing for himself, when he got back to 
California he worked to turn his con- 
stituents around, and did. 

Mainly, however, Marshall relied on 
the people to force the Congress to act. 
The State Department organized de- 
bates on college campuses, sent out its 
top people to make speeches, published 
books, pamphlets and articles, and in 


diplomats. Before it was over, 3,000 
Americans — economists, engineers, 
efficiency experts — - were involved. 
Throughout, Hoffman later declared, 
“Marshall never made a suggestion on 
how to run the show.” 

The show lasted four years, swal- 
lowed up in the end by U.S. military 
needs of the Korean War. The United 
States put $13 billion (the equivalent of 
more than $80 billion today) into the 
ERP. That was only $4 billion more than 
it had put into UNRRA in a shorter time 
period, but it had much bi gg er results. 
The cost ro the United States was ap- 
proximately 1.2 percent of the total 
gross national product for 1948-1951. 

On average, the aid made up about 
2.5 percent of the national incomes of 
the recipient countries over the four 
years. To men who had two years earlier 
been dealing with national economies in 
which 40 percent of GNP was going into 
making war. these \ 
figures. It wasn’t the 
that i 


general sponsored a national debate on 
thisi 


crucial question. 

The best spokesman was Marshall. 
Although a flat, uninspired public 
speaker, he was extraordinarily effec- 
tive in getting Congress ro follow his 
lead. His secrets were that he never lied 
or exaggerated and he had a marvelous 
sense of their point of view — he knew 
and appreciated the pressures the politi- 
cians were under — and an ability to get 
them to change. At a congressional 
hearing he warned that if the United 
States turned down the ERP, “we must 
accept the consequences of the collapse 
[of Western Europe] into the dictat- 
orship of police slates.” He went to 
every region of the country. Years later, 
he told Pogue, “I talked to the women's 
organizations about ERP. 'You will put 
it over/ I said, and then I went into it. 
My goodness, they went back home and 
they scared Congress to death. You nev- 
er saw such rapid action in your life. . , . 


I 

I 

L_^ 

the mo 
France i 

West Germany 

Netherlands $1. 1 L_ 

countries received much lesser 
amounts. 

The money was largely used by Euro- 
pean firms for the purchase of American 
goods. With the ERP, Congress 
severely limited payments to UNRRA- 
To take up the slack, some ERP money 
was used to purchase foodstuffs, but; 
most of it was used for equipment and 
materials. The European participants, 
formed the Organization for European 
Economic .Cooperation, where they; 
learned to work together — a forerunner- 
of the Common Market, which was 
formed in 1957, and the other efforts at 
union thai were to follow, capped by the 
1991 Maastricht Treaty on European 
political and monetary union. r u '< 

The ERP ended on Dec. 31, 1951. It*~: 
had been a great success in two areas — 
increased production and the expansion 
of foreign trade — and not so successful 




Continued on Page 11 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. \K~EDNESDAY. MAY 28. 1997 

THE MARSHALL PLAN / A SPECL4L REPORT 


PAGE 11 


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SSSISm* flard Lessons in Cooperation and ‘Productivity’ 

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By Flora Lewis 

P ARIS — Before the projected 
four years of operation were 
completed, it was clear that the 
Marshall Plan had been a bril- 
liant success in rescuing Western 
Europe from the ravages and psycho- 
logical despair left by World War'll. 

But it wasn't until much later, in some 
ways not until the collapse of the Soviet 
empire in 1 dS9 and of the Soviet Union 
itself in J99f. that its vast historical 
impact became evident. Nobody can say 
how the world would have evolved 
without the Marshall Plan. Certainly, it 
would have been different. 

Two things drove the builders of the 
new postwar world. One was a keen 
awareness of what went wrong after the 
bright hopes inspired by the victory in 
World War I and the peace of Versailles, 
in Woodrow Wilson’s words ’’the war 
to end war.” The other was mounting 
perception of the Soviet threat. 

The condition which Secretary of 
Stole George C. Marshall put on Amer- 
ica's huge recovery offer for Europe was 
that the European states join in calcu- 
lating their needs and drawing up a plan. 
Ernest Bevin, foreign minister in Bri- 
tain ‘s Labour government, jumped at the 
opportunity and raced to Pans to get 
started with France. Marshall said that 
America’s aim was to launch “a cure,” 
not "a palliative” for Europe's distress. 

The genius of the Marshall Plan was 
its insistence that the objective must be 
recovery, not just relief, and that this 


could only be achieved by an entirely 
new order of cooperation among the 
recipients. Stalin, the Soviet leader, saw 
that demand as a U.S. attempt to take 
over Europe’s economies. Much to the 
relief of Western participants, he re- 
jected (he offer. He also forced alt the 
other countries of what was becoming 
the Soviet bloc to refuse, though several 
were reluctant, thus sealing "the East- 
West partition of Europe. 

Even in the West, the early nego- 
tiations were difficult. Washington 
complained that it kept being given 
“shopping lists” from each country* 
instead of the integrated plans it re- 
quired to ensure widespread, maximum 
benefits of its gifts. It is not too much 10 
say that the United States imposed on 
the Europeans totally new habits and 
policies of cooperation, liberalizing 
trade, breaking national cartels, intro- 
ducing technology. 

The magic word for the Americans 
was “productivity.” a new idea in 
European economics. It caught on with 
miraculous results. 

The embodiment of this approach 
was Paul G. Hoffman, whom President 
Harry S. Truman named head of the new 
Economic Cooperation Administration 
(EC A) to organize the program in 
Washington. Hoffman was president of 
the Studebaker automobile company, a 
man of tremendous energy, self-con- 
fidence and a reputation as a super- 
salesman. He was easygoing in manner, 
mild, but utterly determined. 

Hoffman recruited men from the 
worlds of business, labor, fanning, and 


technical specialists to show the Euro- 
peans what he meant by cooperating to 
achieve production gains. He pointed 
out that with almost twice the pop- 
ulation of America, Europe turned out 
half as many goods. 

Georges Villiers, president of the 
French business council, caught the so- 
cial and political implications of focus- 
ing on productivity. "Instead of giving 
over to class hatred about the division of 
our wealth. let us double or triple the 
quantity of this wealth,” he said. 


T HE American method, driving 
the Europeans to consciously 
accept the need to work togeth- 
er both within the shattered 
structures of their own societies and 
among their states, was as crucial to the 
result as the American goods and 
money. It laid die foundations for what 
was to become the European Union. 
Even the plan now for a single European 
currency can be traced back to the in- 
sistence that exchange controls should 
not hamper trade and the establishment 
of a European Payments Union at 
American insistence. 

Then, as now, Britain sought to hold 
back, arguing that national sovereignty 
was being infringed. Sir Stafford 
Cripps, chancellor of the Exchequer, 
almost refused to sign multilateral ar- 
rangements that the Americans felt were 
prerequisite to success. But by the Mar- 
shall Plan's first birthday, be said, “In 
one year ECA has done more for Euro- 
pean unity than was accomplished in the 
preceding 500 years.” 


Hoffman went further. “In order to 
build a united Europe, yen: firs: have to 
build Europeans." was’his byword, and 
he set about it in his usual practical way 
that could always be measured by re- 
sults in production and well-being' 

The total aid delix ered by the" Mar- 
shall Plan was $13 billion, and It was 
urgently needed. But ihe greatest ben- 
efit w’as the new idea of moving toward 
economic integration. Two years after it 
started. Norwegian fisherman were in- 
creasing their catch with nets woven in 
Italy out of L'.S. -provided cotton, a tiny 
example of much bigger advances. The 
Plan’s requirements paved the way for 
the European Coal and Sreel Commu- 
nity. which led to the Common Market 
and French-German reconciliation. 

The tremendous returns on .Amer- 
ica’s investment in restoring European 
confidence later brought people ro call 
for a Marshall Plan for Africa, for East- 
ern Europe, for Russia — as if it were 
only a matter of delivering a lot of 
money. It was much more than that. 

It was the development, by required 
practice, of new ways for neighbors to 
work together and think of each other, 
based essentially on the American ex- 
perience of organizing a continental 
economy and judging performance by 
results. The Marshall Plan proved it was 
possible. 

FLORA LERIS, an American corre- 
spondent. writes a regular column that 
appears in the International Herald 
Tribune and is distributed by The New 
York Times Svndicate. 


□ r , x n London 
Frankfurt 


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By 5 51, Most Economies 
Were Moving Once Again 


Continued from Page 10 

in stabilizing currency or improving the 
standard of living. Tiiere was little pro- 
gress in achieving economic integra- 
tion. Still, when the ERP ended, most of 
the West European economies had 
reached a point of self-sustaining 
growth, in part because the ERP had 
helped lay the base. The resurgence of 
Western Europe in the 1950s" 
followed. 

Americans like to believe 
that the Marshall Plan was a rKef 
timely, generous and extraor- IT'^ 
dinarily successful act of states- 1 £ < 
manship that forced France. * 2 s ? j 
Germany. Britain. Italy and the 
other Europeans to cooperate and in the 
process saved Western Europe. That 
stretches considerably. The United 
States played a role, but was not the 
creator of modem Europe. Most of what 
has been created the Europeans did for 
themselves. The OEEC headquarters in 
Paris was a home for many of the best 
brains on the Continent that adv ocated 
European unity. Dutch Foreign Minister 
Dirk Srikker served as the agency's di- 
rector general, seconded by Robert 
Maijolin, one of Monnet's key disciples 
in France. 


STRENGTH FOR THE 
FREE WORLD 


T HE MARSHALL Plan Was a 
set of ideas articulated by 
George Marshall but common 
to the Western leaders of 1947- 
48. They had been through two world 
wars, both of which started in Europe. 
They had learned what would not work. 
Marshall provided the consensus view- 
on what should be done, gave it a name, 
and sold it. 

In the process, he may have saved 
Western democracy. We can never 
know what would have happened if the 
ERP had noi been implemented. The 
war scare of March 1948 may have been 
grossly exaggerated; so too the pos- 
sibility of the Communists winning 
power at the ballot box in France and 
Italy. What we can know for certain is 
that when it came time for the United 
States to stand tall, to provide not only 
food and materials but the ideas and 
leadership appropriate to its responsi- 
bilities, Marshall was there. 

The legacy of the Marshall Plan 
shows a good return on investment The 
EEC, NATO, the Western bloc as a 
whole, the commitment to democracy 
and a free marketplace, the ongoing 
efforts at European union, all can trace 
their origins to the Plan. 

According to the Soviets, die Marshall 
Plan divided Europe; the facts are the 
opposite. Now that they are free, the 


republics of the former Soviet Union, 
and their former satellites, have asked for 

— with the support of many voices in the 
West — noi just membership in NATO 
but their own version of the ERP. 

But when people call for a ‘ ‘Marshall 
Plan” for this or that struggling country 
or region, they ignore one of the most 
basic" facts in the success of the ERP: the 
infrastructure was there. Real banks. 
Insurance companies. Skilled workers, 
foremen, managers. Experi- 
enced capitalists. A free press 
and some tradition of and prac- 
vorld lice in democracy. 

t I | | sponge to a unique situation. On 
tgl' a wider view, however, the story 
of the ERP is inspirational. It 
shows what tree men and women can do 
when they get together and form a team 

— and are lucky enough to have a great 
leader. It also shows that it takes mo- 
mentous times to bring out the true great- 
ness of a democracy ."Thai was obvious 
during the war. when the democracies — 
with indispensable help from the Soviets 

— crushed the Nazis. With the Marshall 
Plan, what stands out today is the states- 
manship exhibited by the participants. 
They were able to separate the common 
interest from narrow political or eco- 
nomic interests. They had learned during 
the war that teamwork was the sine qua 
non of survival. In 1 947-48. at American 
urging, the French replaced their fear of 
a revived Germany w ith hope for a re- 
built Europe. 

The public support that Marshall and 
his people rallied for the cause, and the 
quality of the national debate, are almost 
unimaginable today. Thai is because we 
don’t have that kind of challenge, today, 
and we don’t have leaders w'ho have 
been through any crisis, much less one 
even approaching the magnitude of 
World War II. In democracies, chal- 
lenge brings out the best, while ordinary 
times can bring out the worst. The smal- 
ler the issues, it seems, the greater the 
partisanship. 

During the war. Marshall and the 
other architects of victory had learned 
the necessity of involving the public and 
boosting morale. They had turned back 
a descent into the Dark Ages. In 1947- 
48. faced with the possibility of a dif- 
ferent but equally catastrophic descent, 
they acted, on die basis of the principles 
that had become second nature to them 
during the war. It was a great moment in 
Western history. 

STEPHEN F. AMBROSE is the author 
of numerous books, including The New' 
York Times . bestseller “D-Day" and 
mulrivolume biographies of Dwight D. 
Eisenhower and Richard M. NLxon. 


(3 Brno 
3 Pilsen 


3 Bratislava 
□ Budapest 


□ Chicago 

a New York 


□ Beijing 

3 Tokyo 

□ Hong Kong 


That Austria toda\ 
disposes of a 
modern and inter- 
nal ion ally com- 
petilive industrial 
structure is largely 
attributable to 
support deriving 
from Marshall 
Plan resources. 
Resources from 
which business has 
benefited via the 
ERP-FOIYDS. This 
created the basis 
for a stable, free 
and independent 
Austria. 










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I) 


I 


2331 


i 


The Speech That Launched It All 


The following is the commencement 
address that George C. Marshall made 
at Harvard University on June 5. 
1947. 


I NEED not tell you gentlemen that 
the world situation is very serious. 
That must be apparent to all in- 
telligent people. I think one dif- 
ficulty is that the problem is one of 
such enormous complexity that the 
very mass of facts presented to the 
public by press and radio make it ex- 
ceedingly difficult for the man in the 
street to reach a clear appraisement of 
the situation. Furthermore, the people 
of this country are distant from the 
troubled areas of the earth and it is hard 
for them to comprehend the plight and 
consequent reactions of the long-suf- 
fering peoples, and the effect of those 
reactions on their governments in con- 
nection with our efforts to promote 
peace in the world. 

In considering the requirements for 
the rehabilitation of Europe, the phys- 
ical loss of life, the visible destruction 
of cities, factories, mines and railroads 
was correctly estimated, but it has be- 
come obvious during recent months 
that this visible destruction was prob- 
ably less serious than the dislocation of 
the entire fabric of the European econ- 
omy. 

For the past 10 years conditions 
have been highly abnormal. The fe- 
verish preparation for war and the 
more feverish maintenance of the war 
effort engulfed all aspects of national 
economies. Machinety has fallen into 
disrepair or is entirely obsolete. Under 
the arbitrary and destructive Nazi rule, 
virtually every possible enterprise was 
geared into the German war machine. 
Long-standing commercial ties, 
private institutions, banks, insurance 
companies and shipping companies 
disappeared, through loss of capital, 
absorption through nationalization, or 
by simple destruction. Zn many coun- 
tries, confidence in the local currency 
has been severely shaken. The break- 
down of the business structure of 
Europe during the war was complete. 

Recovery has been seriously re- 
tarded by the fact that two years after 
the close of hostilities a peace set-* 
dement with Germany and Austria has 
not been agreed upon. But even given a 
more prompt solution of these difficult 
problems, die rehabilitation of the eco- 


stuffs to exchange with the city dwell- 
er for the other necessities of life. This 
division of labor is the basis of modem 
civilization. At the present time, it is 
threatened with breakdown. 

The town and city industries are not 
producing adequate' goods to exchange 
with the food-producing farmer. Raw 


materials and fuel are in short supply. 
Machinery is lacking or worn out. The 


Machinery is lacking or worn out. The 
farmer or the peasant cannot find the 
goods for sale which he desires to 
purchase. So the sale of his farm pro- 
duce for money which he cannot use 
seems to him an unprofitable trans- 
action. He, therefore, has withdrawn 
many fields from crop cultivation and 
is using them for grazing. He feeds 
more grain to stock and finds for him- 
self and his family an ample supply of 
fool, however short he may be on 
clothing and the other ordinary gad- 
gets of civilization. 

Meanwhile people in the cities are 
short of food and fuel. So the gov- 
ernments are forced to use their for- 
eign money and credits to procure 
these necessities abroad. This process 
exhausts funds which are urgently 
needed for reconstruction. 

Thus a very serious situation is rap- 
idly developing which bodes no good 
for the world. The modem system of 
the division of labor upon which the 
exchange of products is based is in 
danger of breaking down. 

The truth of 'the matter is that 
Europe's requirements for the next 
three or four years of foreign food and 
other essential products — principally 
from America — are so much greater 


no assured peace. Our policy is dir- 
ected not against any country or doc- 
trine but against hunger, poverty, des- 
peration and chaos. Its purpose should 
be the revival of a working economy in 
the world so as to permit the emer- 
gence of political ana social conditions 
m which fits institutions can exist 
Such assistance. I am convinced, 
must not be on a piecemeal basis as 
various crises develop. Any assistance 
that this government may render in the 
future should provide a cure rather 
than a mere palliative. Any govern- 
ment that is willing to assist in the task 
of recovery will find full cooperation, C 
am sure, on the part of the U.S. gov- 


ernment Any government which ma- 
neuvers to block the recovery of other 
countries cannot expect help from us. 


than her present ability to pay that she 
must have substantial additional help 


nomic structure of Europe quite evid- 
ently will require a much longer time 


entiy will require a much longer time 
and greater effort than had been fore- 
seen. 

There is a phase of this matter which 
is both interesting and serious. The 
farmer has always produced the food- 


must have substantial additional help 
or face economic, social and political 
deterioration of a very grave char- 
acter. 

The remedy lies in breaking the 
vicious circle and restoring the con- 
fidence of the European people in the 
economic future of their own countries 
and of Europe as a whole. The man- 
ufacturer and the farmer throughout 
wide areas must be able and willing to 
exchange their product for currencies 
the continuing value of which is not 
open to question. 

Aside from the demoralizing effect 
on the world at large and the pos- 
sibilities of disturbances arising as a 
result of the desperation of the people 
concerned, the consequences to the 
economy of the United States should 
be apparent to all. 

It is logical that the United States 
should do whatever it is able to do to 
assist in the return of normal economic 
health in the world, without which 
there can be no political stability and 


F urthermore, govern- 

ments, political parties, or 
groups which seek to perpetu- 
ate human misery in order to 
profit therefrom politically or other- 
wise will encounter the opposition of 
the United States. 

It is already evident that, before the 
U.S. government can proceed much 
further in its efforts to alleviate the 
situation and help start the European 
world on its way to recovery, there 
must be some agreement among the 
countries of Europe as to the require- 
ments of the situation and the part 
those countries themselves will take in 
order to give proper effect to whatever 
action might be undertaken by this 
government 

It would be neither fitting nor ef- 
ficacious for this government to un- 
dertake to draw up unilaterally a pro- 
gram designed to place Europe on its 
feet economically. 

This is the business of the Euro- 
peans. The initiative. I think, must 
come from Europe. 

The role of this country should con- 
sist of friendly aid in the drafting of a 
European program and of later support 
of such a program so far as it may be 
practical for us to do so. The program 
should be a joint one, agreed to by a 
number, if not all, European nations. 


An essential part of any successful 
action on the part of the United Sates 
is an understanding on the part of the 
people of America of the character of 
the problem and the remedies to be 
applied. Political passion and preju- 
dice should have no part With 
foresight, and a willingness on the part 
of our people to face up to the vast 
responsibility which history has 
clearly placed upon our country, the 
difficulties I have outlined can and will 
be overcome. 



„The remedy lies 
in restoring the confidence 
of the European people 
in the economic futures 
of their own countries and 
of Europe as a whole." 


George C. Marshall 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 
June 5, 1947 


Deutsche Bank IZI 

Taunusanlage 12. D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Telefon +49 69 910-0 


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A coal shipment to the Netherlands. Marshall aid aimed to foster recovery for Europe . not to just give relief. , 








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US. Freedom Train on a 1948 coast-to-coast trip in which it made hundreds of stops to promote Marshall Plan. 


National Sensibilities vs. U.S. Goals 


Critics Accused Washington of Trying to Meddle in Domestic Affairs 


By Barry James 


L ONDON — While Washington 
saw die Marshal) Plan as a 
package for Europe, the assor- 
ted European recipients invari- 
ably sought to tailor their participation 
to fit their own national circumstances 
— and to parry critics complaining that 
U.S. aid had too many strings attached. 

The Economic Coordination Admin- 
istration, the plan's European headquar- 
ters, mixed deftness in pressing U.S. 
ideas with realism about how far gov- 
ernments could be pushed and ulti- 
mately was pragmatic in accommod- 
ating European sensibilities. 

As a result, the program fell short of 
its loftiest goals out nonetheless suc- 


• Germany, the political heart of the 
Marshall Plan even though it was never 
acknowledged publicly, was in many 


capitalism and U.S. imperialism, 
intellectuals railed against the c 


ways the easiest place to administer die 
aid because it flowed into the three 


aid because it flowed into the three 
Western-occupied zones, which were 
soon to become West Germany but even 
then remained pliable to directions from 
'Washington. 

Generally speaking, however, the 
Marshall Plan often amounted to "es- 
sentially a group of Western European 
nations harnessed unhappily together 
by American authority, according to 
David W. Ellwood. a recent historian of 
the program. But Washington, by mak- 
ing it clear that it would deal with the 
group only as a bloc, created powerful 
peer pressure by making the Plan coa- 


ceeded in providing what one official 
called a "psychological 


peer pressure by making the Plan con- 
ditional on its acceptance by all. 

The aid was delivered in the form of 


called a "psychological 
blood transfusion" that rein- — 

vigorated Europeans and en- ‘Ttrifi 

abled governments to con- _ 

centrate on investment and posit 

exports, with only limited sat- r 

isfaction of consumer de- PCOfh 

in and. cin m 

Without the built-in peer . 

pressure for countries to stay deds 

with the program or jeopard- 

ize Europe’s aid, things could 
have worked out differently because of 
the European countries’ divergent pri- 
orities. For example: 

• Britain, the largest recipient, re- 
mained aloof from the European in- 
tegration dial the aid implied, clinging 
to its empire and its sterling zone. 

• France used the aid to boost an 
ambitious postwar modernization pro- 
gram, but U.S. demands frequently 
clashed with the reawakening great 
power pretensions of the French. "We 
need tire United States." Foreign Min- 
ister Georges Bidault told the National 
Assembly, "in order to do without it." 

• Italy, emerging from a long period 
of Fascist rule with the largest Com- 
munist Party in the West and the lowest 
per capita food levels in Europe, seized 
the opportunity to use Marshall funds to 
feed itself. Despite grumbling by U.S. 
officials, the ruling Christian Democrat- 
ic Party emerged as a strong U.S. ally. 

• The Scandinavian nations worried 
I about Moscow's reactions if they edged 
I out of neutrality in taking Marshall aid 

(Finland abjured aid altogether), but in 
the end they joined ERP because they 
needed access to European markets. 

• Belgium, the Netherlands and Lux- 
embourg come as a Benelux bloc in an 

| embryonic example of European union. 


intellectuals railed against the degree 
of American interference thar the aid 
entailed. French officials groused that 
they had to import cultural contamin- 
ation such as American cigarettes, 
chewing gum and Hollywood movies in 
exchange for allowing the United States 
access to strategic raw materials in 
France’s colonies. 

Because the aid was indirect, the pub- 
lic often did nor fully perceive its ben- 
efits, especially since governments 
were prone to blame U.S. conditions for 
painful austerity measures to fight in- 
flation and balance national budgets. 

In 1948. the staunchly Anglophile 
U.S. ambassador to Bri tain, Lewis W. 
Douglas, reported that anti-American- 
ism bordered on "the pathological." In' 
1 950. a Gallup poll in Paris showed that - 
40 percent of the population 
mmmmmmm felt that the aid was an affront 
to French sovereignty. 

In the end. everyone had to 
'ind compromise, including the 
j _ Americans, who occasion- 





‘Britain has never before been ina ^“eJHS-^tadio 

position where her national security and compromise, including the 
1 . r * j j * j Americans, who occasion- 

econonuc fate are so completely dependent ally let their own national in- 

on and at the mercy - of another country’s 

decisions.' Lewis W. Douglas, U.S. ambassador to Britain. 1948 ism meant that Washington 
exacted a price wherever it 



S| emen 


dollars to central banks, which handed 
them on to businesses needing to buy 
goods from America — thus closing the 
* ‘dollar gap* ’ that threatened to paralyze 
trade between Europe and the United 
States. In return, recipient countries had 
to match the grants in their own national 
currencies as “counterpart funds,” 
which were used under U.S. control — 5 
percent for direct U.S. use (mostly to 
buy strategic materials) and 95 percent 
for domestic projects approved by 
Washington. 

It was a tool for influencing domestic 
priorities — * ‘enforcing sound econom- 
ic practice, as the Americans saw it: 
tying our hands, as many Europeans saw 
it.” writes the American historian 
Richard J. Barnet in his book. “Al- 
lies.” 

To a degree, the contradiction was 
inherent in the U.S. approach. Wash- 
ington demanded free trade, abandon- 
ment of colonial preferences, convert- 
ible currencies and yet wanted 


European unity, which in many ways 
needed to start as a regional trade bloc. 


needed to start as a regional trade bloc. 

Critics saw larger, cruder threats in 
the Plan, which Communists in France 
and Italy, ousted from the ministerial 
posts that they had held in the first 
postwar cabinets, called an offensive by 


was politically essential. 

For example. Ireland, because of its 
wartime Nazi sympathies, got no grants, 
only loans for rural electrification. 
About six percent of Marshall fiinds 
went to colonies of the European na- 
tions to prevent them from becoming 
Communist playgrounds, but only in. 
exchange for U.S. access to their raw" 
materials. 

Washington was careful to keep aid, 
levels higher to wartime Allies. France ■ 
and Britain, than to Italy and West Ger- 
many, the former Axis powers, which- 
were the next largest recipients. 

And the Allies got special latitude, - 
too. France, for example, ultimately ac-; 
cepted the Marshall Plan’s insistence on 
integrating Germany into the West and.- 
in return, Washington, despite its- free,, 
market preference, let the aid underpin - 
the Monnet Plan for centralizing plan- ' 
ning in France. 

Britain was the biggest beneficiary in 
the amount of aid it received, a position - 
reflecting the Anglophile attitudes of 
the policy-making elite in Washington 
m those days. But it was not enough to * ;i - 
save the sterling area that many in Lon- 
don had hoped to preserve. 







B. IRRY JAMES is on the staff of the 
International Herald Tribune. 





'J/i 'Cr* | j 





INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1997 


PAGE 13, 


THE MARSHALL PLAN / A SPECIAL REPORT 


For Americans in Paris, 
PX Privileges Galore 

Fast Track to Cuban Cigars and Dutch Cheeses 


By An Buchwaki 



Ruchwald 


T he marshall pjjjj was and 

siiil is the best idea ihe United 
States ever had. It made the 
Russian^ cry uncle and won the 
hearts and minds of Western Europe. 

How ii was created is a miracle. On 
top were Marsha?]. A t en II Harriman. 
David Bruce. Miliun Kuu and many 
other successful diplomats and busi- 
nessmen. They were the Generals. 

But it was "started so 
fast that there was a 
shortage of American 
foot soldiers — people 
to open the mail, guard 
the gates and shred the 
top secret papers. 

The personnel people 
began to raid Pans's 
Left Bank, hiring Amer- 
ican students and ranged 
fctparriates. The selling 
point was not the salaries but PX priv- 
ileges for Marshall Plan employees, 
which gave them an oppon unity tii buy 
American whiskey and com flakes at 
very deflated rates. 

In 1948. 1 was living in Montparnasse 
in the Hotel des Eiats-Unts which was a 
Polish cooperative. The place was filled 
with ex-GIs who slept all day and stayed 
up all night. They claimed to be writing 
books and translating Camus and paint- 
ing great pictures. 

when the Marshall Plan was formed, 
the word was out that they were hiring 
Americans. A goodly portion of my bud- 
dies went down and sewed up menial 
jobs as messenger boys and file clerks. 

Lo and behold, six months later the 
Marshall Plan expanded at such a rate 
that everyone in the mail room wound 
up as directors of the coal and industry 
commission for the Benelux countries 
and U.S. advisers for the production of 
Italian pasta. They worked out of large 
offices in the Hotel Talleyrand and 
smoked Cuban cigars and tasted Dutch 
cheeses to see if they were up to snuff. 

. I couldn’t get a job with Ihe Marsha]] 


Plan but my friend George Anderson 
got one us a mimeograph operator and 
wound up printing all the money in 
France. 

What made the Marshall Plan mi- 
raculous was that it was for the most part 
corruption free, which was a unique 
situation in Europe. 

As a matter ol fact, as time went on 
the Europeans became more and more 
nervous because no Americans came 
around demanding a payoff for the 
money we gave them. 

My friend Janies Nolan was then ad- 
vertising manager of the Herald 
Tribune. He kept examining the Mar- 
shall Plan to see if there -was some way 
the Trib could take advantage of its 
existence. Then he came up with an 
idea. He went to the Italians and said 
••Why don't you take out a supplement 
in the Tribune telling everyone in 
Europe how Italy was becoming pros- 
perous and its industry thriving. 1 

The Italians were thrilled and said 
■ ‘Aha. finally the payoff.” They bought 
the space and were very happy someone 
in America was finally being paid off. 

When ihis worked, Nolan went to 
France, then Greece and then Denmark 
The paper was alive with supplements, 
the Marshall Plan countries were happy 
to give back something to the Amer- 
icans. and the Trib readers were treated 
to exciting reading about Europe's 
healthy economy. 

The reason we don’t ever hear about 
the Marshall Plan is that it worked. 
America likes to brag about its failures. 

The Marshall Plan was one of its 
great successes. Proof is: because of it 
everyone is doing well, the Soviet Un- 
ion is belly up and having access to an 
American PX is not the big deal it was 
45 years ago. 

ART BVCHWiLD began writing for 
the Herald Tribune in Paris in 1 949. He 
left the staff in 1962, but his syndicated 
column appears regularly in the IHT. 



v- n ■ 

• .ii*”* ♦ 




kfyilcar 

Demonstrators march against Marshall aid in Paris in September 1 948. C onmutnist pressure against U S. policy was especially strong in France. 

The Age of Cold Warriors (and Dirty Tricks) Is Born 


By Joseph Firchett 


P ARIS — The same era of post- 
war crisis that inspired the Mar- 
shall Plan also gave birth to the 
Central Intelligence Agency. In- 
siders saw them practically as two sides 
of the same coin with which to assist 
allies and block Soviet power. 

Though the Marshall Plan was to be 



At war’s end, the French faced food shortages and rebuilding. At top, a 
Parisian bread line; at bottom, Caen cathedral surrounded by rubble. 


foreign aid plan 
and the formation of the CIA were means 
of defending U.S. interests by aiding 
allies. 

Major innovations both, the Plan and 
the agency — the nation's first op- 
erational peacetime intelligence service 
— were set almost simultaneously as a 
dual response to faltering political will 
and Soviet-backed subversion. 

As 1947 unfolded, an almost monthly 
drumbeat of world events seemed to the 
West to indicate gaping opportunities 
for Soviet gains in Europe and Asia. 

' Washington responded to the mount- 
ing sense of global threat with radical 
decisions to provide aid and a coven 
action agency to do die undercover 
work. Secretary of State George C. Mar- 
shall approved, with the single reser- 
vation that the agency be situated out- 
side die State Department so that U.S. 
diplomats could plausibly deny any 
knowledge of covert activities. 

From the outset, the two organiza- 
tions were so tightly intertwined, and 
their mindsets so similar, that they often 
shared objectives, funds and people. An 
early episode occurred in France, where 
Communist-led unions were braced to 
dump Marshall Plan cargoes into har- 
bors. As the first freighters headed for 
France, the docks in Marseilles and Bor- 
deaux. were cleared by strong-arm 
squads of anti-Communisr dockworkers 
organized for street fighting by U.S. 
labor officials and intelligence agents. 

More routinely, the covert U.S. pro- 
mam systematically subsidized anti- 
communist politicians — usually left- 
of-center social democrats — to un- 
dercut the Communists. Hidden budgets 
also financed pro-American propa- 
ganda disguised as independent foreign 
publications and broadcasts. 

The subterfuge was part of a cam- 
paign of psychological warfare mas- 
terminded by George F. Kennan, who 
was also the main conceptual godfather 
of the Marshall Plan. Both were what 
Kerman called "measures short of 
war,” with the decided advantage of 
costing money to prevent bloodshed. 

But covert action was not cheap. Un- 


like aid, it was not visibly fundable, so 
the campaign was largely financed by 
the Marshall Plan itself. According to 
recently declassified CIA documents, 
the reconstruction program passed the 
agency five percent of the counterpart 
funds'll obtained from European coun- 
tries in their local currencies — a secret 
budget of roughly S200 million a year, a 
huge war chest for the period. 

Depending on the country, the role of 
the agency varied. It practically ran the 
show in Greece, which had only been 
added to the Marshall Plan belatedly at 
the entreaty of U.S. intelligence offi- 
cials. They argued that the country was 
vital for western access to oil and to air 
bases in the Middle East from which 
bombers could reach Soviet targets. 

Retired CIA officials have disclosed 
that the Plan's representative in Athens 


problem in July to the United Nations. 
China was too’ big to relinquish: Mar- 
shall decided in October to step up mil- 
itary aid to Chiang Kai-shek because of 
fears that Chinese Communists would 
conquer Manchuria and link up with 
Russia, forming a military-industrial 
block similar to the Japanese position in 
East Asia in World War II. 

• Japan. Kennan warned, could suc- 
cumb to Soviet influence unless Wash- 
ington delayed a peace treaty, stopped 
dismantling cartels and restored Jap- 
anese exports. (The formula strongly 
resembled Marshall Plan priorities for 
Germany: reunification was less urgent 
than restoration of Ruhr basin coal pro- 
duction to fuel European recovery.; 

Seeking better levers of power in 
Washington, the National Security Act 
centralized foreign operations: the inter- 


U.S. officials based the postwar era on three founding acts: the 
Bretton If bods agreement on monetary: stability', the Marshall 
Plan for industrial vitality and NATO for military security. 

Diane B. Kunz, 'Butler and Guns. America’s Cold War Economic Diplomacy* 


was subordinated on State Department 
orders to another U.S. office handling 
intelligence and paramilitary activities 
to help the conservative government 
defeat a Communist-led insurgency. 
This office was headed by Dwigbt P. 
Griswold, a former Nebraska w gov- 
ernor. 

This mixture of methods seemed nat- 
ural to the foreign policy establishment 
of the times. Certainly, it did not shock 
privately funded philanthropic founda- 
tions such as the Rockefeller and Ford 
foundations. Like Marshall’s people, 
they believed in social engineering to 
promote stability and economic mod- 
ernization, and had few qualms about 
covert action to prevent Soviet agents 
from sabotaging the Marshall Plan. 

Indeed, in 1947 events seemed firus- 
tratingly uncontrollable to Washington 
as opportunities appeared for Soviet ad- 
vances of global proportions. 

• Communists came to power in Po- 
land in January and in Hungary in May. 
In France and Italy, governments 
seemed to totter as food riots prompted 
Communist calls for general strikes. 

• In July, the British empire shanered 
with India’s independence. A storm was 
gathering in Palestine as Arabs fought 
the imminent creation of Israel. 

• In Asia. U.S. -occupied southern 
Korea was riddled with unrest, partly 
fomented by Soviet-backed northern 
Korea, so Washington handed over the 


agency process in a National Security 
Council, intelligence activities in the CIA 
and the armed services in a Secretary of 
Defense. The bill passed in July 1947. 

In September. Moscow set up the 
Communist Information Bureau to di- 
rect Communist actions in all countries. 
U.S. officials saw the Cominform as a 
conspiratorial front organization aimed 
at disrupting the Marshall Plan. j 

The task of foiling the Soviets was; 
assigned to a new U.S. agency, tech- 
nically pan of the CIA but m practice a: 
semi -independent outfit with the cover 
name Office of Project Coordination. It' 
was energetically led by Frank G. Wis- 
ner, a former lawyer 'who had been, 
stunned by the Soviet crackdown he saw 
first-hand in wartime Romania. 

OPC soon fielded several hundred 1 
agents, partly funded in Europe by the 
Marshall Plan. It is unclear how much ■ 
Paul G. Hoffman, the head of the Euro- 
.pean Recovery Program, knew about 
his aid program's ties to the intelligence 
work — and how much the Plan owed 
success to the undercover agents. 

But Wisner worked closely with 
Hoffman's top deputy. Richard Bissell. 
(Bissell was later to join and help run the 
CIA. earning praise and blame for the 
U-2 spv plane and the Cuban invasion in 
1961./ . 

The shared convictions of these men 
were articulated by Kennan in Decem- 
ber 1 947 in a lecture to the National War 


College. Pro-Soviet Communists, he „ 
explained, had won a “strong position • 
in Europe, so immensely superior to our 
own . . . through unabashed and skillful 
use of lies. They have fought us with 
unreality, with irrationalism.'* 

“Can we combat this unreality suc- 
cessfully with rationalism, with the 
truth, with honest, well-meant econom- 
ic assistance?” Kennan asked, answer- 
ing his own question with a plea for new 
government missions — code for covert , 
action to thwart Soviet subversion and . 
widen popular support for democracy. •. 

Dirty tricks were in. At OPC, Wisner. 
with partial funding from tbe Marshall 
Plan, developed a propaganda cam- 
paign that planted material in scores of . 
European radio stations. 

The agency poured money into 'the 
1948 Italian elections, and die Christian 
Democrats came to power for 40 years. 

No front was more crucial than of- , 
ganized labor as U.S. trade unionists, 
sought to convince Europeans that So- 
viet-style Marxism w Ss not a workers' 
paradise but a gulag. The-American Fed- ■ 
eration of Labor's redoubtable European 
representative, Irving Browns- the man • 
who broke the strikes on the Marseilles 
docks — drove a wedge into the Com- 
munist-dominated labor movement by 
convincing (and helping finance; a dis- 
sident minority to set up Force Ouvriere. 
an anti-Comraunist independent union. 

Brown was contagiously persuasive 
in arguing that free trade unions were 
the key "to workers’ interests — and 
democracy. His convictions made him 
an uncomfortable ally for some cold 
warriors: France banned him several 
times because of- his support for Al- 
gerian independence. 

Brown cultivated everyone who was 
anti -Comm uni sl Escorting Gary 
Cooper through the Communist-con- 
trolled slums around Paris, he learned 
how to bar Communist unions from 
Hollywood movies shot in Italy. 

Brown was an eminence grise for 
Washington during a 40-year career 
overseas. In 1981, when he was fun- 
neling underground aid to Solidarity 
despite martial law in Poland. I asked 
him in an interview whether he worried 
that his activities might jeopardize East- 
West detente. Brown growled: *Tve 
been fighting fascism all my life. We 
starred against the Nazis and we 'll finish 
the job in Moscow.” 

Brown, who died in; 1985, credited 
the Marshall Plan with giving the 
United States an exceptional capital of 
good will to spend in the Cold war. 

JOSEPH FITCH ETT is on the staff of 

the International Herald Tribune. 


SIEMENS 



In 1947, George C. Marshall launched 
his visionary plan to help European 
countries recover from World War II. 
Fifty years later, we wish to express 
our gratitude for this remarkable plan 
which helped European people and 
companies to recover from the ravages 
of the war. 

Today, some 380,000 employees of 
Siemens provide solutions in the 
electrical and electronics fields to 
customers in 189 countries. 

Thank you, George C. Marshall. 





i 


httpyAvww.siemena.de 













Whart will ‘tino CJrlAchrct 1 

Reflections on the Marshall Plan and our Future 


/•* >V. V, F 


v.. 


m 



n March 9lh of this year. 1 published an Open Letter to the leaders of the world 
| in The Hew York Times: and ten days later, it appeared in the International 
Herald Tribune. My message emphasized that there are tens of thousands of 
nuclear weapons poised in silos throughout Russia and the adjacent republics of 
Belarus. Kazakhstan and Ukraine. I appealed to world leaders to act decisively and to 
prevent the chilling possibility that even one of these weapons would find their way 
into the hands of a despot. This anniversary of the Marshall Plan is an ideal 
opportunity to amplify my earlier message: to avert the catastrophe of nuclear crime, 
we must bring Russia and the surrounding republics into the fold of stable democratic 
nations. Moreover, without substantial further aid and investment from the world's 
most developed economies , that stability will be nearly impossible to obtain. 

After reading my Open Letter in March, my granddaughter Stacey, came into my 
study with her eight-month-old son poised on her arm. He was napping peacefully, 
but Stacey looked pensive. She asked me. 

f Whsi kind of wo/id, ^randfatticf ohild otpeof io arm/ up in?" 

What world, indeed? Such are the questions of today...and those yet to come. I 
often think about the questions our great-grandchildren will ask in Web-site college 
classrooms decades from now. I*m frightened when I imagine what some of those 
questions might be. but I think it's far better to pose those questions today and reflect 
on them. ..and not compel our grandchildren to ask them when the tragic answers are 
pan of unchangeable history: 


Provoking Nuclear Catastrophe 


If we don't actively address the social and economic conditions that tempt aggressions, 
we expose our vital interests to extreme risk. There may be as many as 40.000 Russian 
nuclear warheads vet to be deactivated. Graham T. Allison and his colleagues warn in the 
penetrating study Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy. “The single most important truth about the 
posr-ColdVar securiry environment is that Russia is convulsed by a genuine, ongoing 
revolution.. .But about the current revolution, there is one difference without precedent in 
human experience. Never before has a superpower arsenal of nuclear weapons and fissile 
material existed in the midst of an ongoing (and unavoidably turbulent) revolution...^ risk 
of nuclear detonation on American soil has increased 

Brian Eads, in a memorable Reader's Digest (April. 1997) article titled “A Shopping 
Mall for Nuclear Blackmailers." cites a multitude of frightening examples. I quote just 
two of them below: 

• “According to U.S. Senate testimony, retired Russian naval captain Alexei 
Tikhomirov slipped through an unguarded gate at a nuclear-fuel storage facility near 
Murmansk in 1993. He sawed a padlock off a door, then pried it open with a metal 
bar. Inside he broke off ten pounds of uranium from three submarine fuel- 
assemblies, stuffed the material into a bag and calmly retraced his steps. Eight 
months later police caught him by chance as he tried to sell the stolen uranium. 
{Asking price: S50.000.) The military prosecutor remarked that ‘potatoes were 
guarded better than naval fuel."* 


“You mean world leaders couldn't see that the intelligentsia of Russia's enormous 
military and scientific establishment were cut loose from jobs and opportunities and 
that a critical few would sell skills and materials to the highest bidder?" 

“You're telling us that no one foresaw that the East Bloc nuclear arsenal offered 
exactly the weapons/ that terrorist groups and rogue nations wanted desperately to 
command?" 

“You’re asking us to believe that a large piece of the world became a contaminated, 
radioactive cinder because w f e weren't smart enough to fund a transition to post- 
Cold War peace?" 


• "According to...Graham .Allison, more nuclear material has been stolen from the 
former Soviet Union since the fall of the Berlin Wall than the United States 
produced in the first three years of the Manhattan Project — and that’s counting 
only the known incidents." . 

Project Sapphire* and other security' control programs are important steps, just as 
the founding of NATO was a crucial adjunct to the Marshall Plan. But. control is not 
enough. As both Graham Allison and Brian Eads advocate, buying Russian HEU 
(heavily enriched uranium) at a faster pace and transforming it to civilian use is a wise 
step. But. in my view, they still fail short of a different need. And, that's where a 
Marshall Plan for Russia enters the picture. 


Russia, Risk, and Reality 


As w'e celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the Marshall Plan, we would do well to 
look back and ask ourselves: Why and how did the Marshall Plan work? The Marshall 
Plan should be a model that occurs to us whenever dramatic changes and transitions 
occur. It is a model that may have even greater bearing on the 1990s than it did in the 
1940s. 

In his watershed work entitled Diplomacy, Henry Kissinger offers these insights 
about the Marshall Plan: 

• Secretary Marshall began by dispassionately analyzing “the relationship between 
the proposed aid program and American interests" in a key Oval Office session with 
Congressional leaders. 

• “...Secretary Marshall, in a commencement address at Harvard... committed 
America to the task of eradicating the social and economic conditions that tempted 
aggression. America would aid European recovery, announced Marshall, to avoid 
■political disturbances' and ‘desperation,' to restore the world economy, and to 
nurture free institutions." 

• “The Atlantic Alliance served as a military bulwark against Soviet expansion, while 
the Marshall Plan strengthened Western Europe economically and socially.” 

Several themes that I draw from Dr. Kissinger’s comments deserve special 
emphasis: George Marshall could project a dispassionate understanding of how 
helping Europe bolstered American interests, and adverse social and economic 
conditions have real power to tempt aggression. 

As experts have pointed out, American support for the integrated economic recovery 
of Western Europe, including Germany, created the foundation for a Common Market. 
Without that Market, the peace that World War II achieved could never have been 
sustained. The Marshall Plan's monumental role in changing world history was not a 
function of its goodwill or its humanity, but of clear and objective reasoning about what 
constitutes the threats on our horizon. 

For several years, I have advocated replicating the Marshall Plan in our time for 
Russia and other successor republics to the Soviet Union. Western public opinion has 
concluded — and falsely, I might add — that the principal threat to Western and 
American interests has vanished. It has not. Rather, the threat has become stealthily 
shifting both the components and the finished weapons of colossal destructive power 
into the marketplace of terrorism and rogue nations. 


Fifty years ago. the Marshall Plan objectively created stability and curtailed the 
threat of aggression in post-War Europe. Isn’t the stimulus of a Marshall Plan for 
economic development in Russia — a plan that truly harnesses and redirects the 
powerhouse of Russian technology — equally fundamental in our time? 

George Marshall may have been a distinguished humanitarian. In my opinion, he made 
a greater contribution to humanity because he was something more; a dedicated pragmatist 
who recognized and addressed threats in a realistic way. Have we forgotten the real wisdom 
of this soldier-statesman from Uniontown, Pennsylvania? Do we dare to forget it now? 

•U.S. Project Sapphire, successfully moved tons of fissionable materials, including 
enough weapon-grade material to build some two dozen nuclear bombs, from 
Kazakhstan to a plant in the U.S. for conversion into commercial fuel. , 

~ Whaf can ujov readers do? 

FhnhfUl Your participation can have tremendous impact. Do you sense the same ominous 
scenario that I do? Then send E-mail to President Clinton, Congress, President Boris 
Yeltsin and the Duma. Send your letters and faxes to Prime Ministers Hashimoto and 
Blair, ro the Assembly in Paris and the Parliament in Ottawa...and to any other forces in 
the G-7 Nations who can advance this proposal. This message is addressed to YOU — 

“We cannot, we must not, let this moment pass , for an incinerated earth 
and a cremated humanity have no further needs .' 7 Alfred J. Roach. 

Alfred J. Roach is an industrialist/financier/entrepreneur who has specialized in the 
establishment and development of successful new companies and 
technologies for over 40 years. 

He serves as Chairman of the Board of Til Industries. Inc., a 
Company which he founded in 1964. involved in the manufacture of 
advanced technology equipment for use in the fibre 
optics/telephone/telecommunications industries. 

Thirteen years ago, Mr. Roach conceived the idea and established 
American Biogenetic Sciences. Inc., in which he .sen es as Chairman 
of the Board. This global biopharmaceutical and diagnostic company 
is involved in the fields of cardiovascular disease and neurobiology. 

He has been honored for his pioneering work in uniting the world's 
scientific community in his unique “Global Scientific Network." 
Among the honors bestowed on him are Fellowships to the World 
Academy of Art and Sciences and Washington Academy of Sciences. He is an Academician of 
the Russian Academy of Sciences and is a member of the New York Academy of Sciences. 

This message was paid far personally by Mr. Alfred J. Roach. It may be reproduced without permission in its entirety 
Visit our Internet site at: www.people-of-the-world,org for previous articles. 

For more information write to: 801 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118 



IF YOU AGREE WITH THIS MESSAGE YOU ARE FREE TO PUBLISH 
OR SEND A COPY TO A FRIEND. GOVERNMENT OR BUSINESS LEADER. 










INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MW 28. 1997 


PAGE 15 


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PAGE 16 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, 'WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1997 

INTERNATIONAL 


Mubarak and Netanyahu 
Agree That Peace Needs 
More Effort With PLO 


mm 




Reuters 

SHARM EL SHEIKH, Egypt — 


Mr. Netanyahu refused to confirm or 
deny repons in the Israeli news media 


Egypt and Israel said' after a meeting of that he was offering to compromise on a 
their leaders Tuesday that they needed housing project for Jews in predora- 


more time and consultations with the 
Palestinians to restart peace talks. 

“We need another meeting and we 
need more deliberation,” President 


inantly Arab East Jerusalem that has 
angered Palestinians and initially led to 
the deadlock in the peace talks. 

The Yedioth Ahronoth daily news- 


Hosni Mubarak of Egypt said after three paper reported that Mr. Netanyahu 
hours of talks with Prime Minister Ben- would propose that Israel complete the 
jamin Netanyahu of Israel at the Red Sea infrastructure of the housing complex 


resort of Sharm el Sheikh. 

“We discussed ways to put the peace 
process between us and the Palestinians 
back on track,'* Mr. Netanyahu said. 
“This was a positive beginning, but we 
need to do more work.” 


for Jews before halting construction and 
starting a parallel bousing project for 
Arabs. 

After laying the infrastructure for the 
Arab housing, Israel would continue 
construction simultaneously for both 


Mr. Mubarak said he would invite populations, the newspaper added 


Yasser Arafat, the Palestinian leader, to 
a future three-way meeting. 


Resist Kabila, 
Opposition 
Group Urges 


The Associated Press conditions and otherwise abus 

KINSHASA, Congo — An opposi- various security services of ti 
don group on Tuesday urged citizens of tinian Authority. Mr. Eid cha 
the newly renamed Congo to mobilize two prisoners were beaten to 
against President Laurent Kabila, saying detention, 
he was no better than the dictatin’ hi “It is urgent to combat the 


Although Mr. Arafat has said that 
only a halt of construction would lead to 
resumption of talks, Mr. Netanyahu has 
refused to stop building. 

■ Palestinians Accused on Rights 

A Palestinian human-rights monitor 
has accused the Palestinian security 
forces of extensive abuse and torture of 
its prisoners, The New York Times re- 
ported from Jerusalem. 

Bassem Eid bead of die Palestinian 
Human Rights Monitor, presented a re- 
port citing 42 cases in which Pales tinian 
prisoners reported being beaten, 
whipped, held in painful or cramped 
conditions and otherwise abused by the 
various security services of die Pales- 
tinian Authority. Mr. Eid charged that 
two prisoners were beaten to death in 


Presidents Clinton, Yeltsin and Chirac, along with Mr. Solana, the NAT< 
hope will be bom of the charter. Left to right at rear are Prime Ministers 1 
Greece, Jose Maria Aznar of Spain, Jean-Claude Juncker of Luxembot 


MATO members 

* Original members-1949 
(also U.S. and Canada) 
Joined 1951-1982 
223 Joining this year 


^SWEDEN 


fttatftAY 


!>■ «§« : r i Continued from Page 1 

meeting in Madrid in July. The issuewas ( 
also left alone by Mr. Clinton, ^ who faces 
P' !. HBt iW serious opposition to toe-expansion. 

- JBB JHH The theme of the ceremony, and the 
Hr If : -M lMM document with it, was partnership, in- 

volving an effort by NATO to stress 
Russians dignity, potential and oeteT- 
mination to achieve a prosperous, demo- 
emtio state. It was knowingly the anti- 

thesis; of the circumstances at me 
Versailles peace c onference al the end of 

World War t when Germany emerged 
humiliated and vengeful of the. Allies. 

The Permanent Joint Council created 
by the document says, the shared Ob- 
joctive “is to identify and pursue as 
many opportunities for joint action as 

|H possible' 1 without interference in-, the 
mternaL affairs of the participants. The 
* *n council would be the principal body for 

consultation between Russia and NATO 
in times of crisis, with provisions for 
emergency meetings in addition its reg- • 
ular meetings of defense and political 
officials, and exchanges of officers at 
military headquarters. 

In an attempt to preempt criticism 

(chief, signaling the partnership they within the Allied countries that the couiw , 
bnv Blair of Britain, Costas Simitis of cil could provide a forum for Russiai#*' 
* - d Wim “ of «" Netherlands. 

t* 7 | . nra o • i A White House briefing paper empha- 

rr hdt l her tJaiCl sized: “While Russia wall work closely’ 

J with NATO, it will not work within 

~he Associated Press NATO. The Act makes clear that Russia 

Excerpts from remarks at Tuesday’s has no veto over Alliance decisions and 
signing of he NATO-Russia accord: NATO retains the right to act andepend- 

* 15 4 entiy when it so chooses.” 

“The logic of confrontation between -j^ e document contains NATO's 
former adversaries is yielding to a new phrase that it has no intention, plan or 
era of cooperation. The Paris accord does reason to deploy nuclear weapons an die 


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Alandcr IMMHh 


What They Said 


-he Associated Press 

Excerpts from remarks at Tuesday's 
signing of he NATO-Russia accord: 

“The logic of confrontation between 
former adversaries is yielding to a new 
era of cooperation. The Paris accord does 


’ m ti 1 

‘b* . ... 
Isfr 

jssfiK 1 ***; 1 

a** 6 ': 
&'i * ! 

s &r~d. 


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deposed. 

The youth movement of the Demo- 
cratic Union for Social Progress said it 
would go ahead with a march Wed- 
nesday along the potholed roads of Kin- 
shasa despite the new government's ban 
on aUpoIitical activity. 

“They claim to be liberators, but it 


“It is urgent to combat the indefens- 
ible practices of beating, whipping, ty- 
ing up. burning and worse of Pales- 
tinians by other Palestinians,” Mr. Eid 
said Monday. 

He explained that all the cases he 
studied began with beatings and that 26 
involved beatings with weapons or bat- 
ons. A large number of detainees also 


J \ 

sa^Rusv- 
t — 

I UKRAINE 
^^MOLDOVA 


BBSs 


is as if they have taken us from one reported being subjected to shabeh . a 
prison cell to another prison cell/ 1 said method commonly used by Israeli in- 
Raymond Kahungn Mbemba, national tenogators, which involves tying die 
secretary of the youth movement, at a prisoner for long stretches in an ex- 
press conference. “We cannot accept cruciatingly painful position. Most of 
that. 7 ' the other complaints involved whipping. 

In an announcement read on state usually with a cable, 
radio and television Monday, the nil- Neither Mr. Eid, nor Irwin Cotier, a 




ing Alliance of Democratic Forces for Canadian law professor who helped pre- 
the Liberation of Congo repeated pare the report, alleged that the torture 
earlier bans on public meetings and was systematic or officially condoned, 
protests. and many of the abuses cited in die 

Mr. Kabila banned political parties rraoit appeared to be the local initiative 
outright in some other parts of Congo of badly controlled security forces. Mr. 
during his s^ven-month sweep across Eid also noted that the frequency of 
the country! which culminated in his torture declined over the two years 
declaring himself president on May covered by the study. 

17. “The Palestinian Authority is not set 

“Any violators will be considered in its ways, it goes back and forth, re- 
enemies .of the liberation of the Con- fleeting indecision in regard to human 
golese people and will be punished to the rights,” Mr. Ed said. “The problem is a 
fullest extent of the law," the radio lack of control over the security 


announcement said. forces.” 

' The government did not say how long He added, however, that be was con- 
the ban would last or go into details vinced that Mr. Arafat knew “what is 
about what it entails. But because most going on.” 

opposition groups are based in Kinshasa, “We are putting die responsibility on 

the restrictions effectively bar political Mr. Arafat,” be said, noting that his 
parties from organizing or meeting any- organization and families of detainees 
f where in the country. - sent many letters to the Palestinian iead- 

The move is reminiscent of those im- • er detailing their charges, 
posed by Mobutu SeseSeko, the dictator In response to the report, the Pal- 
Mr. Kabila overthrew, and is likely to estinian attorney general. KbaledQidia, 
anger Western nations that had pressed - said: “Our laws forbid totally any kind 
him to incrdehice democracy. of torture. 

The radio broadcast Monday also re- “It is not, as the report said, usual 
pealed earlier bans on public meetings treatment in our Palestinian Authority. It 


A NATO Primer 

| THE ALLIANCE 1 

i 

i 

1 

ACTIVE 

ARMED 

FORCES 

19B6 

DEFENSE 
SPENDING 
(LS. doBara, 

In mil Hon* 

Belgium 

46,300 

$ 3,230 

Britain 

226,000 

32,462 

Canada 

70,500 

7.733 

Denmark 

32,900 

3,113 

France 

398.900 

38,454 

Germany 

358,400 

31.945 

Greece 

168,300 

3,462 

Iceland 

NONE 


Italy 

325,150 

19,951 • 

Ltufembourg 

800 

121 

Nejherlands 

63,100 

8,076 

Norway 

30,000 

3,711 

Portugal 

.Spain 

Tuikey 

54.200 

206,800 

639,000 

1.72B 

6,919 

5,651 

United States 

1,483,800 

268.843 


peated earlier bans on public meetings 
and protest, and called on people holding 
unregistered weapons to surrender them 
immediately. 


is not our habit, put perhaps a few” 
abuses “happen here and there.” 


Souks: International mstffutg tor Strategic Studtea 


CONGO: Reports Emerge of Extermination Camp for Refugees 


Continued from Page 1 

have killed them instead of treating them 
medically and. bringing them near the 


month campaign by Hutu leaders against 
Tutsi and moderate Hutu that killed at 
least a half-million people. 

From the start of Mr. Kabila's rebellion 


airport. How can you put that together last September, which began in the east- 
with accusations that we are lolling em area bordering Rwanda, Congolese 


them?” 


received assistance from the 


It is impossible to say for certain if Rwandan government, diplomats say. 
refugees have been killed by the order of Once the fighting began, most of toe 
top Congolese officials or by local com- Rwandan Hutu refugees who had lived in 


top Congolese officials or by local com- 
manders and rogue units, perhaps with 
the cooperation of Rwanda. 


Rwandan Hum refugees who had lived in 
toe border area for more than two years 
returned home, but tens of thousands fled 


But still, Congolese soldiers south of deeper into Congo's interior ahead of Mr. 
here will not let anyone past the roadblock Kabila's advancing forces, 
to look. Even diplomats with toe personal The suspicions swirling about the 
permission of Mr. Kabila who have come activities along the jungle road here in- 


to ar would be their salvation. Hie men 
are tied up. made to kneel, and then 
strangled or backed to death as others 
waich. they say. Sometimes women and 
children are killed too, and sometimes 
the children are released to go on up toe 
road — this time alone, they say. 

Beyond Kilometer 42, mere are re- 
ports of burial pits from which the bodies 
from earlier killings are being dug up 
and burned. Soldiers and local Con- 
golese civilians who have trucked in 
wood and gasoline say there is an open- 
air crematorium beside a quarry at Ki- 
lometer 52. 

According to The Associated Press, a 


Highlights of the agreement 
between NATO and Russia: 
new members Russia drops its 
objection to NATO's expansion o 
include former Soviet sat el rites, 
expected to start with Poland, i 
Hungary and the Czech Repubtc. 
A NATO-RUSStAN COUKCfl- Will bp 

established to discuss security/ 
issues. In a compromise, It wlilbe 
run by the NATO secretary-gen- 
eral, a Russian official and a 
representative of a NATO meinber 
NUCLEAR WEAPONS NATO StyS it 
has no plans to deploy nuclear 
weapons or establish storagesrtes 
on the territory of its new Cejtral 
European members. / 
FOREIGN FORCES NATO has/ 
assured Russia that it will net 
permanently station “subste/ittaf 
numbers of U.S., Canadianpr 
Western European troops ai the 
soil of its new members. I ■ 


Sierra Leone Aide 
Seeks Intervention 


not shift the divisions created in Yalta. It territories of its new members, an as- 
does awiy with them once and for all.” surance to Russia but short of a formal 
— Jacques Chirac, French president renunciation thar would have been re- 
-mi ii our joint accomplishment, garded as malm? ltarittsd partners of Ihe 

and this is also a victory for reasom" si® deeply unpop- 

Boris Yeltsin, Russian president ^“RtSda^Mtein ‘m'aSi 

* 'Our efforts have borne font. In Par- protect Europe and toe world from a new 
is, we may resolutely direct our gaze to confrontation and will become the foun- 
che next century, to a vision of a free, dation for a new, fair and stable part- 
united, prosperous and stable Europe.” nexship.” 

— Javier Solana Madariaga, Mr. Clinton asserted: “Fo^all of us, 
NATO's secretary-general this is a great day. From now on, NATO 
...... - . . and Russia will consult and coordinate 

For decades our European conttnent and wo* together. Where we agr^e, we 
wss divided. No country has suffered ^ act jointly.” 
more from that than Germany.*’ Addressing critics who fear that- ex- 

— Helmut Kohl, German chancellor p anning the Alliance will make it po- 

“Tbe veil of hostility between East tentiaUy unmanageable, leaving Russia 
md West has lifted.” feeling increasingly encircled, he added: 

— Bill Clinton. U.S. president “Now wc tave anodier chanM. Russia 

has opened itself to freedom. Hie veil of 
TT o A rr T) hostility between East and West has 

Alt i miS JrOSltlOn lifted. Together we see a future of pait- 

v a rr/% ^ i nership too long delayed that must no 

On INAIO (Jommand longer be denied.” 

For President Jacques Chirac of 
Reuters France, the ceremony was the end of toe 

PARIS — The United States continues division of Europe created at Yalta, “a 
to insist toai NATO’s Southern Com- chapter without precedeni in that it ex- 
mand, based in Naples, remain in Amer- presses a common vision of toe future.” 
ican hands, the Stale Department spokes- Helmut Kohl, toe German chancellor, 
man, Nicholas Bums, said Tuesday. found the charter more than a chapter in 

“Hie American position has not the history of Europe but one “in toe 
changed,” Mr. Bums said, speaking to history of mankind, 
reporters on toe sidelines of a Paris sum- Mr. Yeltsin's remark on the missiles 

mit meeting marking the signing of toe came after he bad completed his speech. 
NATO accord with Russia. He rose again, saying, “I, today, after 


is, we may resolutely direct our gaze to 
the text century, to a vision of a free, 
united, prosperous and stable Europe.” 

— Javier Solana Madariaga, 
NATO's secretary-general 

“For decades our European continent 
was divided. No country has suffered 
mare from that than Germany.” 


md West has lifted.” 

— Bill Clinton. U.S. president 

U.S. Affirms Position 
On NATO Command 

Reuters 

PARIS — The United States continues 
to insist fear NATO’s Southern Com- 
mand, based in Naples, remain in Amer- 
ican hands, the State Department spokes- 
man, Nicholas Bums, said Tuesday. 

“Hie American position has not 
changed,” Mr. Bums said, speaking to 
reporters on toe sidelines of a Paris sum- 
mit meeting marking the signing of toe 
NATO accord with Russia. 


1 - 1 

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Serbs. West 

Wavs Retu 

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lEndave 


The head of the Southern Command having signed the document, am going 


“must be an American,” Mr. Bums 
reiterated. 


to make the following decision. 
Everything that is aimed at countries 


France, which left the North Atlantic present here, all of those weapons.are 
Treaty Organization’s integrated ralli- going to have their warheads removed/’ 
tary command in 1966, has been press- After a meeting between Mr. Clinton 
ing for the Naples position, traditionally and Mr. Yeltsin. Sanity Berger, the pres- 
held by an American admiral, to be i dent's security adviser, said that toe 
handed over to a European officer. Russian president had confirmed the 
Paris says that France's return to proposal not to target the Act’s other 
NATO's military command will be NATO signatories, 
frozen unless a satisfactory agreement is Later Tuesday, Mr. Clinton anived in 

reached on the matter. Amsterdam. 


CUDNTON: A Rebuff on Legal Immunity. 

Continued from Page 1 toe courts would find that no mac 


C-wpiWM 

UNITED NATIONS, New York 
— Sierra Leone's delegate to toe 
United Nations urgeoWest African 
states Tuesday to iitervene milit- 
arily to restore the lemocratically 
elected government Misted over the 
weekend by a miliury coup. 

The official. Jaiyes Jonah, said 
Sierra Leone’s derosed president, 
Ahmed Tejan Krobah. had ap- 
pealed io the Economic Association 
of West African States “to help 
restore democratiugovemment.” 

Mr. Kabbah fUd to Guinea on 
Sunday after troops led by Major 
Johnny Paul Konlma seized power. 
At least 1 8 people died and 40 were 
wounded toe military takeover 
Sunday as fighyng, looting and ar- 
son swept the capital. Freetown. 

The West Africans maintain a 
peacekeeping ftree in Sierra Leone. ' 

Mr. Jonah said he would rep- 
resent Mr. Kalbah at the next meet- 
ing of the Organization of African 
Unity and wdild urge other African 
nations to reny assistance to the 
new leadership. (AFP. AP) 


executive branches of government. 


toe courts would find that no man is 
above the law,” said Cindy Hayes, who 
heads, a fund established to pay Ms. 


” We assume that toe testimony of toe Jones's legal expenses. 


thousands of kilometers to find out what elude the possibility that a combat unit — disaffected soldier from Mr. Kabila’s 


happened to toe refugees, have been which witnesses say is formed of Tutsi forces, who said he had killed no one but 
barred from toe area. Many accounts, all speaking toe Rwandan dialect and per- had helped remove bodies, described 
essentially consistent, suggest something haps from Rwanda itself — is conducting how the ashes of toe burned bodies are 
deeply disturbing has gone on there, more or completing a campaign of reprisal or shoveled into white bags and stored to be 
disturbing even than the accusations last preemptive killings against those Hutu dumped into rivers later. The soldiers 
month by UN officials that the Hutu who survived their exile and were pre- operating south of Kilometer 42 are un- 
refugees had been condemned to a slow paring to be returned to Rwanda by toe der great pressure to hurry before out- 
deato from starvation and disease by Mr. United Nations and other aid groups. siders gain access to the area, said the 
Kabila's forces. According to refugees and aid work- soldier, who said he had volunteered the 


One reason toe accounts are emerging ers who have talked to survivors and to 


area was sealed off. Second-hand ac- 
counts report killings and funeral pyres 
deep in toe rain forest, and soldiers car- 
rying off bags of human ashes. 

It is not dear how many of toe soldiers 
from this unit remain in toe area. But al 
least one former Zairian soldier who 
worked in toe zone said about 30 refugees 
are still being killed each day as they 
emerge from hiding places in the forest 

Mr. Kabila's forces, who this month 


is that the soidiers operating in the zone local Congolese soldiers who say they gusted with the killings. ing of the Ottanizalion of African supporters said she had filed suit only 

have needed the help of local people to have helped buiy the bodies, groups of “When the UN eventually comes to Unity and would urge other African after a magazine article identified her. 

cany out their work. Local people say refugees are being waylaid as they investigate, there will be no evidence nations to any assistance io toe Ms. Jones's supporters applauded the 

they have been dragooned to work south stumble up toe road toward a UN airlift left.’ * toe AP quoted him as saying. new leadership. (AFP. AP) court ruling. “Paula has always felt that 

of Kilometer 42, carrying bodies, driv- . _ - - - - / - __ __ _ _ ___ — — 

ing trucks, or digging graves. f 

> Palestinians Release EUROPE: Socialists in Mark Countries Celebrate French Returns 

itary unit in the days before the jungle TT Q of/ir ^ . . „ „ ,/«. , . r . . ^ 

area was sealed off. Second-hand ac- D/UUWtMaief Continued from Page 1 elections take effect and wait for toe words: Docs Europe follow the prescrip- 


information because he had grown dis- 
gusted with the killings. 

“When the UN eventually comes to 
investigate, there will be no evidence 
left.” toe AP quoted him as saying. 


president may be taken at die White 
House at a time that will accommodate 
his busy schedule,” Justice Stevens 
wrote, “and that, if a trial is held, there 
would be no necessity for toe president 
to attend in person.” 

The constitution, he wrote, gives a 
president no protection against private 
lawsuits. “Like every other citizen.” he 
wrote, Ms. Jones “has a right to an 
orderly disposition of her claims.” 

The case stems from her allegations 
that Mr. Clinton summoned her to a 
hotel room in 1991. when he was gov- 
ernor of Arkansas and she was a low- 
level state employee, then exposed him- 
self and sought oral sex from her. 

Mr. Clinton has denied the charge. 

Ms. Jones did not file the claim until 
1994, after Mr. Clinton was president, 
prompting charges from his defenders 
that she was seeking fortune < the lawsuit 
asks for $700,000) and publicity. Her 
supporters said she had filed suit only 
after a magazine article identified her. 

Ms. Jones's supporters applauded the 
court ruling. “Paula has always felt that 


But Mr. Clinton's lawyers, have not 
exhausted their ability to delay proceed- 
ings, and possibly could postpone them 
until after he leaves office in 2000. 

They can seek dismissal of the suit on 
grounds other than presidential im- 
munity. They can also renew attempt&to 
settle out of court. Attorneys for toe two 
sides were said to have been on the verge 
of such a settlement two years ago. tat 
toe endeavor collapsed when Ms. 
Jones's attorneys were angered by last- 
minute published comments from toe 
Clinton team. 

The other likely avenue is an attempt 
by Mr. Clinton's lawyers to delay the 
case, as suits routinely are. A court 
would be expected to give serious con- 
sideration to a claim from the White 
House that the burdensome duties of toe 
office of toe president justify delaying a 
suit that could seriously distract him. 

Tha (pinl v r. . - i , 


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ai 


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■ that, «i 


asxs tor */uu uuu) and publicity. Her The trial judge mUttle^k^d'vAen Is 

He,d 

— — — — ““W be nearly as distracting as toe case ^ OfttviL. • 

tiself. particularly if the president were 

ebrate French Returns 

m inc PPM iron L urtain i WUs / quests to other parties. i m ?, c 

The French result is even more sig- In the mst milrtC Imua al.a«« Ml- ^ AH . 


elections lalfe effect and wait for toe 
second round.” 

Preparations for the new currency, the 
euro, have ilready led to budget cuts as 
g ovemmerhs try to get toeir books in 
order so tint they qualify for inclusion. 

That his raised a prospect of unfa- 
miliar hajphip in countries, particularly 
France aid Germany, where unemploy- 
ment is nearly at record levels and un- 


Ajtei we Fronce-Presse piece of Mr. Kohl’s European vision. 

RAMALLAH, West Bank, — A Pal- The Germans do not expect French 
estinian- American television journalist Socialists ro renege on the commitment 
held by Palestinian security services for to monetary union made by the former 
a week was freed Tuesday, members of president, Francois Mitterrand, himself 


his family said. 

No charges were brought against the 
journalist. Daoud Kunab. who had been 
on a hunger strike to protest his im- 


a Socialist But toe party has set con- 
ditions for supporting toe concept. 
German officials are concerned (hat a 




mg 


- *:ci Vi| 


so that they qualify for inclusion, nificam than the already important vic- 
at his raised a prospect of unfa- lory of Tony Blair in England.” said 
■ hajphip in countries, particularly Armando Cosxutia. head of Italy’s far- 
e aid Germany, where unemploy- left Refounded Communist Party, 
is nearly at record levels and un- “The left in France is campaigning on 


ES S d Pn Mr n Tu L a=t”p d rSur e r, had been unpalatahte tc ,<n .«*». .«» » 

included large numbers of Tutsi, ethnic broadcasting live deba£«j by the ftJ- fa S sSft« 

rivals of the Hutu in Congo and neigh- estinian legSlanw coimcil that toured “ * 

boring countries. The refugees are strong criticism of Palestinian Autoonty B^JP^^Ttowlaved characieristic 

among some 1 .2 million Hutu who fled officials. The White House issued a de- Mr. kohl displayed ch^aciemtic 


Vjerman oruciais are concernea uiai a ment is neany ai recoru aim un- i ne icii in France is campaigning on 
Socialist government in Paris might iois aretearing to confront government a much more advanced program, 
strain the alliance by pressing demands plans to cut social provisions that are centered on a reduction in working hours 
unpalatable to German voters, who are seen aw a birthright, including generous and defense of the welfare state. 
troubled by the thought of losing their si:k pty and pensions. Against that. Jose Maria Robles Frapa 

1 ^leutsche mark to a softer — -* — — • - ■ - ■ ' - b 


mg wntten questions and document re- 
quests to other parties. 

In the past, courts have always re- 
spected a president’s schedule, as they 
did when Theodore Roosevelt, Harry 
Truman and John Kennedy were sued In 
private cases, or when Mr. Clinton was 
subpoenaed to testify in two Whitewater 
criminal trials. i 

The case was advertised as one of 
grand constitutional principles: In a de- 
mocracy, does the president stand above , 


for';:!] 

SNijJ t har ^ “ -‘Zoning odt 






boring countries. The refugees are 
among some 1.2 million Hutu who fled 
neighboring Rwanda in the summer of 


neighboring Rwanda in the summer of mand last week for his release, and naa 
1994 after a Tutsi-led government came the U.S. consul io Jerusalem meeI w,Ul 
to power and ended a genocidal three- Y asser Arafat on Monday. 


caution about the first-round French re- 
sults, saying that “one must lei the re- 
sults of the first round of the French 




asignJJof 

reeling for the global dictates ot a mar- of Europe entrusted to a coalition of Stariff ™ 
ket-driven order or m try mg to salvage Socialists and Communists has not un- ?onSderation X? J“ JJ? - :5Cj 6 ^ 

toe costly benefits that have taken rom in dersuwd anything that has haimened teife m S « ■ ^ ^°. ugh 11 m,gh J f 
Europe Mncs ihe World War II. In oihtrr «nue ,he fullV ,hc Berlin 5&- ■Z£2S*** conducofte , 0 , . 




nation's business? 



3i i J. 1 ‘' ver ^ ,; ew hn# : * 

*■ -^.butsyfe 






INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY. MAY 28, 1997 


PAGE‘17 


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East German Spymaster 
Is Sentenced and Freed 

Verdict Comes Ahead of Wolf’s New Book 


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By Alan Cowell 

»Vgw yort 7Iwtf» Sfn'i f i> 

BONN — Markus Wolf, the former 
East German spymaster who under- 
mined and outsmarted his adversaries 
for decades during the Cold War. was 
found guilty Tuesday on three counts of 
kidnapping daring to the 1950s and 
1960s. 

His trial in Duesseldorf represented 
one of few conclusive attempts by the 
reunified Germany to bring the onetime 
Communist leadership to book for 
deeds that grew from and cemented the 
country's division. 

Mr. Wolf, 74, who dismissed the 
hearings as a political show trial, was 
given a two-year suspended sentence, 
meaning that he walked free in a glare 
of publicity just days before the June 1 
publication of his memoirs in 14 coun- 
tries. 

In the weeks preceding the verdict, 
prepublication serialization of the 
memoirs has infuriated many politi- 
cians here by accusing the late Herbert 
Wehner — a towering Social Democrat 
figure in West German politics — of 
maintaining conspiratorial links to the 
erstwhile East German authorities. 

But, from a cinematic viewpoint, the 
memoirs’ most striking picture is of 
two CIA operatives arriving at his 
dacha outside Berlin in 1990 — a few 
months after the fall of the Berlin Wall 
— laden with pralines and flowers and 
offering him a new identity in Cali- 
fornia and a large amount of money in 
return for the names of his agents. 

The verdict followed six years of 
efforts by German federal prosecutors 


to punish Mr. Wolf for his role ai head 
of Euki Germany's foreign intelligence 
department — a position that once 
earned him the sobriquet of “the man 
without a face" among Western in- 
telligence operatives who. for years, 
did not know what he looked like. 

In 1993, two years after he gave 
himself up to the German authorities, 
the same Duesseldorf court convicted 
Mr. Wolf on treason charges and 
ordered him jailed for six years. But the 
verdict fell away in \ 1995 after Ger- 


accuseu as traitors tor espionage activ- 
ities in their own country. 

In January, prosecutors invoked East 
German law to charge Mr. Wolf with 
kidnapping, coercion ur^l causing bod- 
ily harm, offenses subject to a statute of 
limitations for former West German 
spies but not for their hast German 
counterparts. \ 

The case has provoked debate be- 
tween East Germans and. West Ger- 
mans over the same troubling issue as 
besets other countries, from South 
Africa today to Germany a hblf-ceniury 
ago: How should figures from the past 
be dealt with when repressi^ regimes 
give way to democratic successors? 

Mr. Wolf and his supporters main- 
tain that he has been tried as anemblem 
of a defeated regime by Vengeful 
people who still cannot come to terms 
with his ability to hoodwink them. 

But the presiding, judge in Duessel- 
dorf, Ina Obst-OHers, argued Tuesday: 
“I want to set it straight that he was not 
convicted because he was a Stas\ sym- 
bol." The Stasi was the German state 



L. 


Ilrrico «pi’\pirr trtt.¥-Krw 

Mr. Wolf and his wife, Andrea, arriving at court Tuesday in Duesseldorf. 


security apparatus in which Mr. Wolf 
worked. "He was accused pf concrete 
crimes." 

Those crimes included the abduction 
of a Stasi defector from Austria in 
1962. the 1 955 kidnapping of a German 
translator working for U.S. authorities 
in West Berlin and the 1959 detention 
of an East German typesetter who had 
worked for the Gestapo in occupied 
Norway during World War IL 

The prosecution, which dropped sep- 
arate treason charges three weeks ago 
to accelerate the hearings, had deman- 
ded a jail term of three and a half years, 
and defense lawyers depicted the two- 


year suspended sentence as a victory. 

“I should be able to live with this 
judgment if I did not believe it was a 
violation of the law and the consti- 
tution," Mr. Wolf said. 

Both the defense and the prosecution 
have one week to consider appeals. 

Mr. Wolf was head of the bast Ger- 
man foreign intelligence agency from 
1953 to 1986, running a network of 
4,000 agents. Possibly the most’ illus- 
trious of those was Gunter Guilfaume, 
infilt rated into the office of fprmer 
Chancellor Willy Brandt. The unmask- 
ing in 1974 of Mr. G uillaum e bipught 
down Mr. Brandt's government. ' 


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As Croats Bar 
4, Serbs, West 
Delays Return 
Of Enclave 


By Chris Hedges 

New York Tones Service 

ZAGREB, Croatia — Washington 
and its European allies, angered by the 
stubborn refusal by die Croatian gov- 
ernment to permit 350,000 exiled ethnic 
Serbs ^ to return to their homes in Croatia, 
have decided to postpone Croatian con- 
trol of the UN-administered enclave in . 
Eastern Slavonia. 

The decision to extend the mandate of 
the 5,000-member UN peacekeeping 
force in Eastern Slavonia, a swath of land 
that was seized by rebel Serbs six years 
ago, is ’expected to unleash a firestorm in 
Croatia when it is announced. The ex- 
tension of the UN mission, these dip- 
lomats said, will also exacerbate the de- 
teriorating relations between Washington 
and Zagreb, especially if the Croatians, as 
many expect, continue to refuse to honor 
the commitments to permit Serbs to return 
home, made under the Dayton peace 
agreement 

The decision to extend the UN man- 
\ date, at least for another six months, 
f looks fikely to be approved in June by 
the UN Security Council, Western am- 
bassadors said. And these diplomats said 
Tuesday that, if Croatia continued to 
refuse to abide by its commitments, they 
will lobby for a further extension of the 
UN presence beyond next January. . 

President Franjo Tudjman and his rul- 
ing Croatian Democratic Union make fre- 
quent references to the scheduled return 
on July 15 of Croats to the region and 
especially the gutted city of Vukovar, 
where the 1991 war for independence 
from' the former Yugoslavia began. The 
return of Vukovar, where several diou- 
sand Croats were killed by besieging Serb 
forces, figures prominently in Mr. Tud- 
jman's current campaign for the June 
presidential elections. 

U.S. officials warned Tuesday that 
they would also scuttle Croatia's entry in 
Western economic and military alli- 
ances if the Serbian refugees were not 

permitted to return home. Many of these 

officials gloomily predicted that, given 








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the attitude of the government, com- 
pliance by Zagreb was unlikely. 

The 100.000 remaining ethnic Serbs 
in Croatia, most of them elderly, have 
been systematically attacked by gangs of 
Croats, evicted from their homes, and 
hundreds have been beaten or killed. Of 
the 8,000 ethnic Serbs who remained in 
the Krajina enclave after it was seized by 
the Croatian military in August 1995. 10 
percent were slaughtered. There were 
200,000 Serbs, many whose families 
had lived in the area for generations, 
who fled to Serbia and Bosnia. 

Nearly all of the few hundred ethnic 
Serbs who have managed to return to 
homes in Croatia have been unable to 
move into their houses because of a 
draconian "temporary" housing law, 
that has, in effect, allowed the gov- 
ernment to confiscate all Serbian prop- 
erty and turn it over to Croats. And the 
government is moving ahead with a 
widespread and costly program to settle 
ethnic Croats in Serb property. 

Zagreb has also railed, despite re- 


el espite re- 


peated U.S. requests, to make provisions 
to provide security for any of the 
120,000 etimic Serbs who might remain 
in Easter^ Slavonia under Croatian rule, 
U.S. officials said. 

A total, of 350,000 Serbs fled their 
homes after successful Croatian Army 
campaigns to seize two of the three rebel 
Serbian enclaves in May and Aagust of 
1995. About 60,000 of these displaced 
Serbs live in formerly Croat homes in 
Eastern Slavonia. The others reside in 
miserable collection centers or crowded 
apartments in Bosnia and Serbia. 

President Tudjman, seriously ill with, 
cancer, has, however, pointedly told 
U.S. officials that his government has no< 
intention of allowing Serbs to come , 
back. And in a two-hour meeting Tues- ; 
day with Ambassador Robert Gel band, 
the State Dqjartment's special repre- : 
sedative for implementation of the 
Dayton accords, the president refused to 
waver from his hard-line stance. 

The U.S. ambassador to Croatia, Peter ; 
Galbraith, and eight other Western am- j 


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Daughter Is Born 
^To Woman Held 
In IRA Bombing 

The Associated Press 

LONDON — A women facing ex- 
tradition to Germany for questioning on 
IRA bombing charges gave bir th 
Monday while under guard in hoantal. 

Friends of Roisin McAliskey. daugh- 
ter of tire former civil rights protester and 
nationalist lawmaker Bernadette Devlin, 
said she had a baby girl. 

Mrs. McAliskey, who suffers from 
asthma, was taken to the Whittingdon 
Hospital in norjh London with an armed 
police escort after a court granted her 
bail last Friday. 

She had been held without charge in 
prison while fighting extradition to Ger- 
many. Supporters contend that she has 
been mist reated and has lost weight 
■'Ifc since her arrest. ... 

v German police want to interview her 
in connection with a June 28 mortar 
bomb attack at a British Army base in 
Germany. Nobody was injured in tire 
Irish Republican Army attack, but build- 
ings were damaged. - 


Ankara Coalition Faces New Vote 

ANKARA — The Turkish opposition said Tuesday it 
would introduce a new censure motion next week in an 
effort to bring down the Islamist-led government of Prime 
Minister Necmettin Erbakan. 

"We will submit our appeal for a vote of no-confidence 
for the government to the paiiianrentary speakership early 
next week," said Mehmet Kececiler, deputy leader of die 
Motherland Party. "The government will fall this time." 

Last week, Mr. Erbakan's government narrowly escaped 
a censure motion introduced by the opposition. (AFP) 

German Bishops Meet With Pope 

VATICAN CITY — Pope John Paul II presided over 
talire Tuesday with Germany’s Roman Catholic bishops on 
whether the church in Germany should continue to take part 
in a counseling system for mothers considering abortions. 

Under the law, pregnant women seeking abortions need 
certification showing they know about offers of help for 
mothers and children. The German church, saying many 
women have changed their minds about an abortion as a 
result of the counsel system, has been resisting Vatican 
pressure to drop out of the system. 

The Pope agreed to the bishops’ request for a meeting, 
whose participants included Cardinal Angelo Sodano, me 
Vatican’s secretary of state; Cardinal Jozef Ratang«\ the 
Pope’s guardian of orthodoxy, other top Vatican officials 


and 27 German bishops. The Vatican said after the meeting 
that the "solutions ta be adopted will be indicated after a 
careful evaluation oif the results of the meeting. " (AP) 

Vote Observers Arrive in Albania 

TIRANA, Albania' — A team of election experts from the 
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe began 
fanning out Tuesday across Albania to prepare for the June 
29 vote, officials said. 

The 28 experts left a Tirana hotel guarded Italian, Turk- 
ish and Greek troops in jeeps from the multinational force. 
Tony Welch, coordinator for the monitoring effort, said, 
"These are the people who go out into the towns, talk with 
the Albanian authorities and advise them on bow to prepare 
for these elections." » 

Twenty to 25 more observers, pan of a planned force of 
80 people, are to arrive Wednesday and move to the 
countryside over the Weekend. The vote was called to 
defuse tensions after thousands of people who lost their 
savings in investment schemes rioted in March. (Reuters) 

For the Record 

Poles narrowly approved a new constitution to replace 
the Comm unist-era charter, results of a referendum released 
Monday showed. The Election Commission said 52.71 
percent backed die new constitution, while 45.89 percent 
were opposed 1 .4 percent of votes were invalid ( Reuters ) 


Late Appeal by Chirac^ 
Defends Reform Policy 

y 

President Fails to Name Juppe Successor 


By Joseph Fitchett 

lntcmmonal Merabi Tribune 

PARIS — President Jacques Chirac, 
plunging into the parliamentary election 
campaign Tuesday in a bid to pull out a 
conservative victory, urged French 
voters to rally behind candidates com- 
mitted to economic liberalization and 
European integration. 

Appealing to the French people not to 
"squander the benefits that we are close 
to harvesting," he defended recent stria 
budgetary policies and economic mod- 
ernization by saying that they are start- 
ing to show results. 

Acknowledging that reforms often 
call for sacrifices, Mr. Chirac insisted 
that France was on die only path to 
remain a European power at the end of 
the century. 

His 10-minute appearance on tele- 
vision amounted to a keynote address for 
the early elections he called a month ago. 
But it may have been too little and too 
late for the center-right government to 
survive with a working majority in 
Sunday’s runoff ballot. The first round 
last weekend left the opposition Social- 
ists with a surprising advantage. 

Mr. Chirac had to put his personal 
prestige on the line, as his predecessors 
nave done in difficult elections — al- 
though rarely so late in the campaign. 
The poor showing forced Prime Minister 
Alain Juppe to announce his intention to 
resign — the first time a prime minister 
leader has bowed out during a cam- 
paign. 

A key question, which was not di- 
rectly answered in the speech, is who 
would become prime minister if the con- 
servatives manage to hold a parliamen- 
tary majority. 

The answer is particularly important 
to voters, commentators said, because 
the Chirac government has been so 
vague about its future agenda. 

while Mr. Chirac did not cite any 
possible candidate, the thrust of his ap- 
peal seemed to point toward Edouard 
Balladur, a former prime minister who 
unsuccessfully challenged Mr. Chirac 
for die presidency two years ago, as the 
man who could best run policy in ac- 
cordance with Mr. Chirac’s vision. 

Mr. Balladur advocates steady but 
cautious economic liberalization and fa- 
vors a single European currency by Jan. 
1, 1999, in tandem with Germany. 

hi his comments, Mr. Chirac warned 
voters not to “jeopaidize” European 
integration at what he called a critical 
moment. This was a veiled reproach to 
hesitations about the present policy that 
is shared by the Socialists and, to a large 
degree, Philippe Seguin, another widely 
mentioned possibility for prime min- 
ister. 

In Germany,. Chancellor Helmut 
Kohl, an ally of Mr. Chirac’s, would be 
comfortable with Mr. Balladur but not 
with Mr. Seguin or the Socialists, whose 


doubts about Europe are echoed by Ger- 
man Social Democrats. 

Mr. Seguin. quoted in the issue ap- 
pearing Wednesday of L’ Express 
magazine, reiterated that France could 
force Germany to loosen the economic 
criteria for a single currency to allow 
inflation, growth and jobs. 

"France is France after all! Without 
France, there is no single currency. But 
we have to know what we want and we 
have to say so firmly." he said. 

Mr. Chirac carefully phrased his 
views to leave room for him to cooperate 
with a Socialist prime minister, presum- 
ably Lionel Jospin, if the conservatives 
lose. 

But the speech provided a foretaste of 
Mr. Chirac’s agenda during a possible 
"cohabitation" between the conserva- 
tive president and a leftist government. 

By not singling out a favorite, Mr. 
Chirac also avoiding damping the am- 
bitions and discouraging the campaign 
efforts of other conservative candidates 
to succeed Mr. Juppe in the job of trying 
to reconcile the need for painful changes 
with many French voters determination 
to resist any risks with their system. 

In an interview in the newspaper Le 
Monde, Mr. Balladur suggested Tues- 
day that Mr. Juppe’s policies were the 
right ones but badly presented and clum- 
sily handled. 

Mr. Balladur and Mr. Seguin appeal to 
separate currents in the Gaul list party. 
Mr. Seguin emphasizes social values 
and a strong government role to maintain 
France's unity and prominence while 
Mr. Balladur stresses the need to mod- 
ernize government and guarantee equal 
opportunity as the way ahead. 

The former prime minister is close to 
the centrist party, created by former 
Valery Giscard d’Estaing and now the 
jtmior coalition partner, which stresses 
European integration as a way to mod- 
ernize France. 

He advocates tax cuts as the key to 
growth — an idea backed by Mr. Chirac 
in his comments — while Mr. Seguin 
says bhmtly that social protection . is 
worth spending on. 

In the campaign, Mr. Seguin has been 
closer to the center, while Mr. Balladur 
would dramatize the choice between co- 
hesive conservative leadership and the 
Socialists. 

The votes of many National front 
supporters are needed for a conservative 
majority, but it is unclear how Jean- 
Marie Le Pen’s followers would react to 
the ascension of Mr. Seguin or Mr. Bal- 
Iadur. 

For Mr. Chirac, personal factors are 
bound to weigh. 

He has always been toary 'of Mr. 
Seguin, 54, a rough-hewn ’intellectual 
who is a potential challenger at (he'end 
of the current presidential terra in'2002. 
In contrast, Mr. Balladur,; 68. is ’foiir 
years older than Mr.’ Chirac and not,a 
rival again. 


AadGBkfniMOfiMdftM 


Sarajevans signing a petition Tuesday demanding that Michael Steiner, the No. 2 official overseeing the dvillan 
aspects of the 1995 peace accords, be allowed to succeed Carl Bildt in the senior post A spokesman for Mr. 
Bfldt’s office said Mr. Steiner had already been ruled out. Carlos Westendorp of Spain is expected to get die post. 


U.S.-EI] Haggling Clouds 
Outlook for a Trade Deal 


bassadors, delivered an unusually stem 
demarche to Mr. Tudjman on Friday. 
They threatened an extension of the UN 
presence if certain measures, including a 
repeal of the "temporary" housing law, 
were not immediately carried out 

The president who listened to the d6- 
marcbe as he rapidly twirled his thumbs in 
apparent disgust heatedly told the gath- 
ering "that no reasonable person in the 
international community can expect the 
Croats to accept the Serbs back," ac- 
cording to those present. The president 
went on to comment approvingly, in front 
of the German ambassador, of die cam- 
paign following World War II in Czech- 
oslovakia that drove all ethnic Germans 
from the Sudentenland. 

"It would be very hard, at this point, for 
the Croatian government to> fulfill the 
conditions necessary to allow us to return 
Easton Slavonia to Croatian rule," said a 
Western ambassador who met with the 
pre^dem. "but this is only compounded 
by die fact that the government says it 
won’t fulfill these conditions." 


By Tom Buericle 

International Herald Tribune 

The United States and the European 
Union failed to reach agreement Tues- 
day on a draft accord to eliminate im- 
portant non tariff barriers to trans-At- 
lantic trade, a setback to President Bill 
Clinton and EU leaders who had hoped 
to make a deal the centerpiece of their 
semiannual meeting Wednesday. 

Charlene Barsbetsky, the U.S. trade 
representative, and Sir Leon Brittan, the 
EU trade commissioner, were unable to 
break a months-long deadlock on the so- 
called mutual recognition agreement 
during talks in Paris, where both were 
attending the annual meeting of the Or- 
ganization for Economic Cooperation 
and Development 

While both sides planned to keep talk- 
ing through Wednesday, officials said an 
agreement appeared out of reach. 

In addition to blaming each other for 
the deadlock, the two officials disagreed 
openly on the need for a new round of 
comprehensive global trade negoti- 
ations, with Sir Leon calling a new round 
vital to liberalizing commerce around 
the world and Mrs. Barshefsky dismiss- 
ingit as irrelevant 

The stalemate set a discordant tone for 
a meeting Wednesday in The Hague 
between Mr. Clinton, Prime Minster 
Wim Kok of the Netherlands, current 
holder of the EU presidency, and Pres- 
ident Jacques San ter of the European 
Commission, the EU executive agency. 

It also was for from the spirit of trans- 
Atlantic cooperation that the three lead- 
ers had planned to commemorate in ce- 
remonies marking the 50th anniversary 
of the Marshall Plan, the American aid 
program that revived the European 
economy after World War H. 

The absence of a trade deal would 
only draw attention to more serious dif- 
ferences the two sides are trying to re- 
solve, including the dispute over U.S. 
sanctions on foreign companies that 
trade with Cuba and Washington’s con- 
cern over the European antitrust inves- 
tigation of die Boeing-McDonnell 
Douglas merger. 

EU and U.S. officials said the leaders 
were unlikely to discuss the Boeing case 
directly for fear of politicizing a con- 
troversial antitrust review, but a spokes- 
man for the EU commission said Mr. 
Santcr would stress that the European 
review was being conducted “on the 
basis of objective rules.’ 

"It’s certainly not an issue that will 
improve the atmosphere of the sum- 


mit," a senior Dutch official said. 

Officials also stud the two sides had 
made no headway in turning the current 
six-month truce over the Helms-Burton 
Act, which contains the Cuba sanctions, 
into a permanent settlement 

A settlement of the issue requires the 
two sides to reach an agreement oa prop- 
erty expropriations in third countries, 
but Mrs. Barshefsky and Sir Leon did 
not raise the matter in their discussions, 
said Jay Ziegler, a spokesman for Mrs. 
Barshefsky. 

Mr. Clinton and EU leaders will sign 
agreements to facilitate trade by sim- 
plifying customs procedures, and to 
combat drug trafficking by imposing 
controls on trade in key chemical com- 
ponents of drugs like ecstasy. 

The two sides also will be able to point 
to closer collaboration on political is- 
sues, ranging from North Korea, where 
the EU has just agreed to contribute 90 
million European currency units ($78 
million) to a U.S.-backed plan to counter 
the threat of nuclear proliferation, to 
Iran, where EU governments have sus- 
pended contacts following a German 
court ruling that found Tehran’s leaders 
responsible for murder. 

"Our positions are closer than they 
have been for quite some time," a U.S. 
official acknowledged. 

But a trade failure would be partic- 
ularly disappointing because both sides 
have targeted industry-driven trade ini- 
tiatives as a cornerstone of closer eco- 
nomic and political cooperation between 
the United States and the 15-nation Un- 
ion. 

The mutual recognition agreement 
has been a top priority of business be- 
cause it would eliminate the need for 
duplicate European and American test- 
ing of products accounting for $40 bil- 
lion of two-way trade. 

EU and American negotiators have 
already missed a January deadline set by 
President Clinton and EU leaders at their 
previous summit meeting, in Decem- 

" We will lose the momentum" if an 
agreement is not concluded this week, 
said Stuart Eizeostat, U.S. undersecret- 
ary of commerce for international 
true. 

European officials acchsed the U.S. 
Food and Drug Administration of block- 
ing progress by insisting on Ifs right to 
review European certifications of phar- 
maceutical products and by offering to 
include in the pact only 45 of 800 med- 
ical devices, ranging from scanners to 


ical devices, ranging 
protheses. 



/ 



PACE la 


WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1997 


licralb 



INTERNATIONAL 



tribune 


PUBLISHED WITH THE NEW >OKK TIMES AND THE WASHINGTON POST 


6 The Most Unsordid Act’ 


Looking back 50 years to the dawn of 
the Cold War, a certain modesty is in 
order. We now know who won, and can 
itemize rbe mileposts of victory. The 
nuclear peace held, the industrial de- 
mocracies hung together, and over time 
the Soviet empire collapsed, just as 
George Kennan foresaw in his pivotal 
“long telegram” from Moscow fin Feb- 
ruary 1946. There Ik urged collective 
resistance to Stalin’s expansionary 
drive, yet presciemly added max the suc- 
cess of the Soviet system “is not yet 
finally proven” and its permanence 
“need not yet be regarded as assured.” 

But the fate of the Soviet Union was 
unknown when Secretary of State 
George Marshall rose on June 5, 1 947. 
to deliver the commencement address 
at Harvard University. What he did 
know was not encouraging. In Wash- 
ington. his boss, Harry Truman, had 
plunged in approval ratings, abetted by 
the first Republican Congress since the 
1920s. Europe, still bleeding from the 
war and having just endured the cen- 
tury's worst winter, faced in Marshall’s 
words “hunger, desperation, poverty 
and chaos.” 

Nor was it a good time to ask Amer- 
icans to offer erstwhile adversaries and 


prostrate allies, including a no longer 
friendly Soviet Union, bifiic 


lions in loans 
and grants. Americans had already 
voted nearly S20 billion for postwar 
emergency programs and were in no 
mood to spend more. 

In March 1947, when President Tru- 
man asked a reluctant Congress to ap- 
propriate $450 million in security aid 
for Greece and Turkey, the loudest 
applause the president elicited was 
when he promised that the money 
would be promptly repaid. 

Nonetheless, in Massachusetts that 
fine June day. in six fateful sentences, 
Marshall said America would open its 
purse wide if Europe, including the 
Russians, came up with a promising 
recovery plan. These were the seeds of 
what Winston Churchill called “the 
most unsordid act in history." 

From 1948 until 1951, with Repub- 
lican support, some $13 billion, the 
equivalent of roughly $80 billion 
today, was disbursed in Marshall Plan 
grants and loans. This opened the way 
to NATO, the Common Market, 
French-German friendship and thus the 
Western world we know today. 

Granted. Marshall aid was not char- 
ity. It generated a thriving market for 
U.S. exports, and its deeper motive was 


political, to shore up the European cen- 
ter-left and contain the Soviet Union. 

But Marshall and his chief deputy. 
Dean Acheson, rightly gambled that 
Stalin would boycott foe July meeting 
in Paris prompted by foe Harvard 
speech. Stalin went further. He barred 
Czechoslovakia from participating, 
presaging the 1948 Communist coup m 
Prague and foe hardening of foe Iron 
Curtain that Churchill bad perceived 
two years earlier in another commence- 
ment speech, in Fulton. Missouri. 

Seen in hindsight, the end of foe 
Cold War was foreshadowed in its ad- 
vent Under Stalin, foe Kremlin as- 
sumed that a capitalist economic crisis 
would engulf and cripple foe West- 
Certain that it would triumph no matter 
what. Moscow proceeded to drain $14 
billion from Extern Europe between 
1948 and Stalin's death in 1953, the 
same period in which Washington 
provided $13 billion to Western 
Europe. The Soviet bloc, for all its 
outward might, was rooted in subser- 
vience and rapacity. 

The real surprise in newly opened 
Cold War archives is how few sur- 
prises have thus far emerged. So writes 
John Lewis Gaddis in “We Now 
Know.” a brave early attempt to distill 
these documents into a narrative. 

Stalinist Russia was as dangerous and 
devious as Mr. Kennan concluded in his 
remarkable telegram. The onus for di- 
viding Europe rested with Moscow, and 
so long as Stalin was in charge, conflict - 
was inescapable. Where Americans (al- 
though not Mr. Kennan) erred was in 
underestimating the political and eco- 
nomic weakness of foe Soviet system, a 
misjudgment that contributed to foe tra- 
gic intervention in Vietnam. 

But this was not so evident 50 years 
ago. Facing a Soviet adversary with 
global appetites and a nuclear capacity. 
Washington rose impressively to foe . 
occasion, summoned life from foe 
ashes of Europe and rallied support for 
a bold and demanding response. 

Today's threats are more subtle and 
require more nuanced responses. The 
planned eastward expansion of NATO 
mimics foe grand strategies of the earli- 
er era but seems misplaced at a time 
when the consolidation. of democracy 
in Russia is paramount. 

Still. America has every reason to 
look back with awe and admiration at 
how it met the great challenges that 
followed World War H 

— THE NEW YORK TIMES. 


Burma Isn’t Normal 


Burma's military regime has 
launched a new. nationwide crackdown 
against foe democratic activists — and 
rightful rulers — of that Southeast 
Asian nation. About 200 should-be par- 
liamentarians and tbeir supporters are 
in jail. The junta has sentenced one 
democrat to 26 years in prison for pos- 
session of a copying machine. One of 
foe world’s worst governments is 
providing “another reason.” as foe 
U.S. State Department spokesman said, 
“why we don’t think that Burma ought 
to be treated as a normal country.” 

Burma is a nation of 45 million 
people, rich in natural resources, which 
should be a leader in Asia. Decades of 
repressive rule have turned it into a 
laggard instead. In 1990 the ruling 


junta permitted parliamentary elec- 
thaf 


lions that were won — overwhelm- 
ingly — by a pro-democracy party Jed 
by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, even 
though she was under house arrest at 
foe time. Having lost foe election, the 
military rulers — who go under foe 
name State Law and Order Restoration 
Council — refused to cede power. Daw 
Aung San Suu Kyi, a Nobel Peace 
laureate and daughter of Burma’s post- 
colonial independence leader, has been 
under house arrest or something close 
to it for most of the time since then. 

The proximate cause of foe latest 
arrests was her call for her National 


League for Democracy to convene on 
Tuesday, foe seventh anniversary of 
those elections. The junta, apparently 
determined to prevent even a one-day 
peaceful assembly, has been rounding 
up those who won election Co a leg- 
islature that never convened. The more 
basic reason for the arrests is foe re- 
gime's refusal even to initiate a dialogue 
with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, which is 
herprincipaJ political demand. 

The crackdown presents a dilemma 
to Burma’s neighbors in Southeast 
Asia, relatively prosperous and in- 
creasingly democratic nations like the 
Philippines and Thailand, which are 
debating whether to admit Burma into 
their Association of South East Asian 
Nations. Given Burma's political and 
economic instability, and its wretched 
global reputation, ASEAN can do itself 
no good with such a new member. 

Britain’s new government said last 
week that it would work with its Euro- 
pean Union partners to cake new mea- 
sures against the Rangoon junta. Pres- 
ident Bill Clinton last week imposed 
congrcssionaliy mandated economic 
sanctions. In his meetings in Europe, 
and at foe meeting of the Group of 
Seven leading industrialized nations 
next month, he should pursue further 
cooperative ways to pressure Burma to 
respect its own people’s wishes. 

— THE WASHINGTON POST. 


Other Comment 


The Effects of Bribery 


Persistent bribery by major multi- 
national companies across foe devel- 
oping world and in Eastern Europe has 
four particularly damaging effects: 

It distorts fair trade and makes a 
mockery of the concept of interna- 
tional competitiveness. 

It sustains corrupt autocrats in 
power. (Look at much of the former 
Soviet Union, not to mention Africa.) 

It leads to massive waste of scarce 


public-sector budget resources, espe- 
cially in poor countries, and so has dire 
human rights consequences. Palaces 
and sports stadiums are built while the 
rural and urban poor don’t even have 
minimal health care and schooling. 

And it renders foreign aid programs 
ineffective. 

European and Japanese multination- 
al corporations routinely pay bribes 
around foe globe. 

— Frank Vogl. commenting in 
The Washington Post. 


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Give Khatami Time to Prove Himself in Tehran 


L ONDON — The Iranian presiden- 
tial election has produced a sur- 
prise result that has to be taken into 
account in any reappraisal of policies 
toward Tehran. Almost two-thirds of 
-foe voters, some 22 million people, 
chose Mohammed Khaiami, a 54-y ear- 


By Amir Taheri 


old mullah, against another 54-year- 
old Mullah, Ah Akbt 


i Akbar Nateq-Nouri. 
Some might wonder what the dif- 
ference can be between one middle- 
aged mullah and another? The answer 
more than you might think. 

; Mr. Khaiami campaigned on a plat- 
form of social liberalization, political 
opening, normalization of relations 
with foe outside world, including foe 
West, greater rights for women, and the 
rule or law. Those are truly revolu- 
tionary ■ themes in an Iran suffocating 
under a corrupt and oppressive regime 
with a medieval ideology. 

‘Mr. Nateq-Nouri. candidate of foe 
most reactionary factions in foe 
Khomeinist establishment, offered a 
platform that resembled what foe Tale- 
ban movement is doing in Afghanistan. 
He won 'less than a quarter of foe 
vote, despite massive cheating in his 


favor in many provinces. The Iranian 
people, abandoning their habit of boy- 
cotting elections, decided to turn up 
en masse to prevent foe Taleban ide- 
ology from winning. 

file election was neither free nor fair, 
in foe sense accepted in a pluralist de- 
mocracy. Mr. Khaiami ’s campaign was 
severely restricted by foe government 
and some powerful mullahs who treat 
foe provinces as their fiefdoms. The 
victorious candidate was prevented 
from even visiting six of foe country’s 
27 provinces during foe campaign. 

Nevertheless, for foe first time there 
was a genuine contest and a clear 
choice. And foe personality and 
policies of the winner do matter. Mr. 
Khatami is an urbane intellectual .who 
has lived in Europe, knows French and 
German and is familiar with Western 


w. 


literature and political thought. 

j-Nouri comes from a peas- 


Mr. Nateq- 
ant family, has little formal education, 
has traveled, out of Iran only on brief 
official visits to Russia, North Korea 


and Sudan, and believes that the only 
book offlTneeds to read is foe Koran. 

Mr. khaiami won because urban 
middle and working classes wanted to 
block Mr. Nateq-Nouit. The unexwc- 
turoout stymied his well-oiled 
„ machine. 

almost a cliche to say that to- 
„in regimes cannot reform until a 
icant section of their people <fe- 
foqt it is time for change. That is 
is happening™ Iran. 

Khatami was backed by politi- 
, technocrats, mullahs and mii- 
officers convinced that repression 
ime and adventure abroad are no 
sr sustainable. 

mid Mr. Khatami become the Ira- 
au Gorbachev? Mikhail Gorbachev 
sized control of the party and the state 
* a he became general secretary and 
[dent. In the Iranian system, foe 
jed president has to share power 
ith an unelected “Supreme- Guide" 
[and foe faction-ridden ParliarnenL 
Nevertheless, Mr. Khatami now has 
foe legitimacy of a clear electoral man- 
date that neither foe “Supreme Guide 
nor the Parliament can ignore. He might 


start a process of reform that m tune 
develops its own unstoppable logic. 

Will his election lead to changes in 
Iran’s foreign policy? I believe so. He 
can start with a clean slate. His name 
has never been mentioned in connec- 
tion with terrorism or foe mass ex- 
ecutions that foe regime has carried out 
over the years. He has made plain that 
he knows that he cannot deliver an 


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economic upturn without normalizing 
ties with the industrialized world, in- 


VCM?.. 


elected 


eluding foe United States. 

Before deciding what new measures 
to take with regard to Iran, the Western 
powers should give Mr. Khatami a 
chance to settle in, form his cabinet and 
unveil his policies. They should not 
shut foe door in his face even before he 
is sworn in. Then they should demand 
that his administration do what he 
promised during his campaign. 

If Iran begins to close foe chapter of 
revolution at home, it would be un- 
likely to want to keep it open abroad. 


jN* * 


The writer, an Iranian journalist 
abroad, contributed this comment to 
the International Herald Tribune. 


Marshall Plan: Our Economies Grow When They Cooperate 


I Plan’s lessons are universal, 
and have enormous relevance to 
peace, security and prosperity 
in foe 21st centuiy. 

The 50th anniversary of 
George Marshall’s speech co- 
incides in an approximate way 
with the end of the 20th centuiy, 
and what a century it has been. 
Turbulent, brutal, exciting, hor- 
rific. dramatic, creative, prom- 
ising — all these adjectives will 
be used to describe this excep- 
tional chapter in world history. 

As foe curtain was raised cm 
this century, tensions were 
rising in Europe. Alliances 
flourished and were central to 
foreign policy, which was 
anchored in foe concept of bal- 
ance of power, meaning mil- 
itary strength. 

Unlike recent times when we 
counted nuclear warheads in es- 
tablishing that balance, at foe 
start of foe centuiy foe measure 


By Donald Johnston 


r 


The writer is secretary-general of theiOECD. 


was the number of soldiers one 
could put on the field. The 
French -Russian Agreement of 
1 89 4 stated that available forces 
“to be employed against Ger- 
many should be, on the part of 
France, 1.300.000 men and, on 
foe pan of Russia. 700,000 to 
800,000 men.” 

The triple alliance of Ger- 
many, Italy and Austria repre- 
sented the counterbalance, with 
Britain isolated until the entente 
cordiale with Ranee in 1904. 

This brief excursion into his- 
tory demonstrates how fragile 
and tense the European rela- 
tionships were before World 
War I. as foe century opened. 

In foe wake of thar war. with 
10 millio n killed and 20 million 
wounded, one would have 
thought that lessons had been 


learned. Sadlt not. The tension 

hi 


and fragility Quickly returned. 


In 1936. thie British historian 
ishfcr’ 


H. A. L. Fishfer wrote of the dif- 
ferences that had divided foe 
European peoples, concluding 
with these Words: 

“These differences are un- 
resolved ... [Yet ever since foe 
fust century of our era the 
dream of unity has hovered over 
foe scene and haunted foe ima- 
gination bf statesmen and 
peoples. I'for is then: any ques- 
tion more pertinent to the future 
welfare or foe world than how 
the nations of Europe, whose 
differences are so many and so 
inveteratk. may best be com- 
bined iijto some stable orga- 
nizationtfor foe pursuit of their 
commod interests and foe 
avoidance of strife." 


World War II was soon upon 
us, with horrors and disloca- 
tions probably unmatched in 
history because it touched foe 
lives of civilians and look their 
lives in a way and magnitude 
never seen before. 

Fisher was truly prescient 
when be wrote that no question 
would be more pertinent to the 
future welfare of the world than 
bow the nations of Europe could 
be combined into a stable or- 
ganization. What happened after 
1945 could not have been fore- 
seen by foe most optimistic of 
world leaders in foe late 1930s. 

As foe ashes of World War II 
were shoveled away, a new un- 
derstanding took hold. Wealth, 
foe product of economic growth 
and development, would flow 
from cooperation and coiiab- 


goal was a folly integrated eco- 
nomic community. 

Many factors combined to 
realize foe dream. The Marshall 
Plan funding was certainly one 
of great importance. But foe 
funding mechanism was even 
more important. 

Through the consensus pro- 
cedure of the Organization for 
European Economic Coopera- 
tion (from which today's Or- 
ganization for Economic Co- 
operation and Development 
evolved). European countries 
were obliged to agree on fund- 
ing allocations as a group. The 
effects of this approach were 
astounding when compared 
with prior experience. 

From the end of hostilities 
until 1947. foe United States 
had expended approximately ^ 


oration, from the interdepend- * $14 billion in Europe withou 


ence of trade and investment 
and foe concomitant liberaliz- 
ation of markets. In short, foe 


Forward With a New Generation of Europeans 

»r¥- iri/’r rr- rrc ‘ n n iuri i f... .1..;— 


r jp HE HAGUE — Fifty years 


ago Secretary of State 
George.C. Marshall presented a 
plan that would help Europe 
arise from its ashes, file Tru- 
man administration understood 
that something had to be done to 
get Europe back on its feet. 

The Uniced States feared 
harsh economic, political and so- 
cial consequences for the people 
of Europe if they were left to 
themselves. And there it was. on 
June 5, 1947 — Marshall laying 
out a bold and visionary plan for 
which we owe the American 
people a great deal. 

.The Marshall Plan struck an 
American chord: helping peo- 
ple to help themselves. It was 
more than a very generous gift. 
In foe first place, it taught us a 
lesson in international solidarity, 
which we have internalized over 
the years in our development 
programs around the world. 

Second, it ensured an Impor- 
tant American commitment to 
foe well-being of Europe. 

Third, it summoned the 
European nations to come to- 
gether. As Marshall said in his 
Harvard speech, * ‘The initiative 
must come from Europe.’ * The 
plan restored hope and gave 
Western Europe a sense of di- 
rection. The upshot has been the 


By Hans van Mierlo 

The h riter is foreign minister oft the Netherlands. 


step-by-step process of West 
European integration. 

The Soviet Union refused to 
take part, and that refusal ag- 
gravated the growing rift be- 
tween East and West Now, after 
the dividing lines have disap- 
peared. we have a window of 
opportunity to continue foe pro- 
cess that Marshall triggered and 
witness a re-creation of Europe. 

hi this process we will hold 
fast to two basic elements: 
European integration and a 
strong, vibrant trans-Atlantic 
relationship. 

The two fundamental Euro- 
pean institutions, foe European 
Union and NATO, are adapting 
to changing times and will soon 
welcome foe new democracies 
of Central and Eastern Europe. 

In the next two weeks the 
Dutch EU presidency will gear 
up its efforts to bring the In- 
tergovernmental Conference to 
a successful end in Amsterdam. 
Revision of foe Maastricht 
treaty will help foe Union adapt 
its institutional structure so that 
it can support the admission of 
new member states. Some six 
months after the conclusion of 


foe conference, foe Union will 
start accession negotiations 
with me candidate states. 

Onf of foe basic principles of 
foe Union is thar membership is 
open jo every European country 
whica n 



meets the staled criteria. 


, for instance, has a long 
go before it meets foe 
forfull membership. Yet 
firmly convinced that it is 
’s interest to keep the 
open and help Turkey 
orae its internal problems, 
argeraent is also on foe 
“ agenda. NATO and foe 
Union follow their 
calendars, but they serve 
e cause: foe creation of a 
prosperous, demo- 
ic and undivided Europe. 
"ATO and Russia are mov- 
toward close cooperation, 
sia may not have 3 veto on 
TO enlargement, but it is 
ential that this great nation 
b h included, not excluded, from 
the emerging new European se- 
curity architecture. 

I The trans-Atlantic relation- 
ship has taken on a new mean- 
ing. The Americans are our 
/relatives by history and our 


Work Is Valued Above Children 


L OS .ANGELES — At first 
glance, an emerging con- 
sensus on foe importance of 
child care to welfare reform 
seems to bode well for poor 
children in America. 

A recent study by foe Na- 
tional Institute of Child Health 
and Human Development 
found that, in general, chil- 
dren in high-quality day care 
do as well socially and in- 
tellectually as children cared 
for ai home by their mothers. 
Given foe quality of many 
home environments in poor 
communities, some children 
are probably better off in a 
child care setting. 

But most children of wel- 
fare recipients will inherit foe 
fate of foe majority of children 
of adults in foe work force: 
very little time, “quality” or 
otherwise, with parents, com- 
pounded by long hours spent 
in mediocre to harmful sur- 
rogate care. 

Almost regardless of foe 
economic status of their par- 
ents, children in surrogate 
care are the victims of a so- 
ciety that values time spent 
working much more than time 
spent raising children. 

Working parents at all in- 
come levels have less and less 
time to spend with their chil- 
dren. Inadequate family leave 
policies mean that many in- 


By Lucia Hodgson 


/ 


fonts get only a few months/of 
full-time attention, if that j 
care 


While high-quality 
does not impede children 'd so- 
cial and intellectual develop- 
ment. foe minimal amount of 
rime spent with parents does 
interfere with forging crucial 
primary relationships. 

In her coming book .“The 
Time Bind: When Work Be- 
comes Horae and Home Be- 
comes Work.” Ariie Russell 
Hochschild suggests that 
many parents prefer spending 
rime at work. The work world 
has become “a more appre- 
ciative. personal sort of social 
world.” while at home ‘ ‘emo- 
tional demands have become 
more baffling and complex.' ' 

Work beckons with “order- 
liness. harmony and managed 
cheer,” while home offers un- 
resolved quarrels, unending 
housework and scheduled 
“quality" time with children. 

In addition to the stresses 
that foe economic system puts 
on parent-child relations, re- 
cent studies show that most 
surrogate care in America is 
far from the high-quality care 
that children need to thrive. 

More than three-quarters of 
foe children who spend their 
days in child care centers, and 


almost two-thirds of those in 
family day care, are receiving 
custodial care that does no~t 
meet their needs for * ‘health, 
safety, warm relationships 
and learning.” according to 
foe Families and Work Insti- 
tute. Ten percent of children 
of working parents are receiv- 
ing care that is so inadequate, 
harmful, unsafe and unsanit- 
ary that it interferes with their 
basic development. 

It is unlikely that foe chil- 
dren pushed into care by wel- 
fare reform will do better than 
their more advantaged peers. 

The fact that our culture has 
reached consensus on shifting 
3.5 million children into a dys- 
functional child care system is 
a testament to our bankrupt 
expectations for the next gen- 
eration. We treat foe issue of 
children’s well-being as an af- 
terthought. 

Children's needs take a 
back seat to foe demands of a 
family-hostile economic sys- 
tem. We need a broader, more 
generous vision of why we 
have children and what they 
deserve for their own sake. 


friends by choice. With foe 
Cold War relegated to history. 
Atlantic cooperation must go 
beyond traditional security in- 
terests. The new Trans-Atlantic 
Agenda launched by the Euro- 
pean Union and the United 
Stales covers such important 
areas as stability in crisis-prone 
areas, the removal of nontariff 
barriers and meeting new 
transnational challenges. 

We increasingly face more 
diffuse problems such as inter- 
national crime, drug trafficking, 
environmental degradation and 
communicable diseases. These 
problems cannot be contained 
by national borders. We are also 
putting in place foe building 
blocks of a trans-Atlantic mar- 
ketplace. so that we can join 
hands with our trans-Atlantic 
business community. Both foe 
United States and foe European 
Union have much to gain from 
better economic cooperation. 

AH in all. we are trying to 
truly bridge the Atlantic by 
forging people-to-people rela- 
tions and stimulating civic lead- 
ership in communities of the 
Euro-Atlantic region. 

It is no coincidence that an 
EU-U.S. summit takes place 
only hours before the Marshall 
commemoration in The Hague 
today. From Vancouver to Vla- 
divostok, people have come a 
long way to share ideas and look 
ahead to a new Europe. 

The coming years will show 
whether we have been as 
farsighted as George Marshall 
and his eolleaguesr Their wis- 
dom and foe perseverance of 
Harry Truman should be an in- 
spiration to the leaders of today 
who can marshal a new gen- 
eration of Europeans for foe 
work of foe next century. 

tnicnujiunh/l HerulJ Tribune. 


visible results. Putting new 
funding within foe Marshall 
Plan had extraordinary con- 
sequences. It stimulated eco- 
nomic cooperation arid collab- 
oration that had a much greater 
impact on the rebirth of Europe 
than the money itself. In Europe 
liberalization increased- Inhib- 
iting laws. tariffs and regula- 
tions that bad prevented market 
forces from working were 
gradually dismantled. 

Those • lessons underpin 
today's global commitment to 
multilateral trade and invest- 
ment. We still have a long way 
to go, but foe destination is now 
visible at a global level. 

We looked at the balances of I . 

military power of foe 1890s. 

Now in the 1990s there are new f / 

balances — balances of in- 
terest. As the curtain lowers on v 
this century, dangerous con- r. 

flicts of interest which dora- 
mated the landscape ai its be- 
ginning have given way to V 

creative and mutually benefi- 
cial competition of market 
forces. There is an ever increas- ; ' 
ing coincidence of commercial 
and environmental interests 
among nations. 

AH swords should not imj£\ ’ 
mediately be beaten into plow- ’ *" 
shares. Had it not been for the ->■ 
grand alliance of NATO, which ; ■ 
preserved the balance of power 
against the forces of foe 
Warsaw Pact. Europe, and in 
turn foe world, could not have 
set in motion the economic mir- 
acle of globalization that is un- 
folding. And our global village 
still contains dangerous and un- 
stable neighborhoods. The prin- 
ciples of market economics, 
democratic institutions and re- 
spect for human rights do not 
yet get universal recognition. 

Let us hope that foe world lias 
learned this lesson for the ben- 
efit of future generations: While 
lasting freedom, peace, pro- 
sperity and security must be de- 
fended through military prow- 
ess. they can be acquired only 
through economic cooperation 
and development. 

International Herald Tribune. 


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IN OUR PAGES: 100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO 
1897s Martyrs’ Death 



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The writer is author of the 
forthcoming book "Raised in 
Captivity: Why Does America 
Fail Its Children: 1 " She con- 
tributed this comment to the 
Los Angeles Times. 


ST. PETERSBURG — Seven- 
teen bodies of hermits were dis- 
covered near Tiraspol. The in- 
dividual suspected of having 
walled them in a cellar explained 
that he belonged to the same 
sect. He said his act was promp- 
ted by the ardent wish of these 
fanatics to die a martyr's death 
to purge themselves of their sins 
in view of foe approaches end 
of the world, which they had 
been persuaded was imminent 
by an astronomical prediction of 
a comet in 1897. 


jess telegraphy and telephony, jfc ' 
is the destiny of these new means 
of disseminating knowledge, 
opinion and entertainment to en- 
compass the entire world. An 
infinitude of labor would be re- 
quired to put a message designed 
for the universal ear into all lan- 
guages of the globe. 


•5*v, 


.*• i 


1947: German Marches 


r . 

■:‘V 


1922: ‘Universal Ear’ 


PARIS — Failures of special! v 
devised “universal languages''' 
to become universal have been 
due mainly to the fact that they 
have not been indispensable to 
the happiness or convenience of 
mankind. Thai indispensabiliiy 
may become a reality ihrouch 
the extension of foe use of wire- 


BERLfN — AH foreign observ- 
ers at foe “second parliament of 
foe Free German Youth Move- 
ment for foe Soviet Zone were 
struck by foe resemblance of that 
organization to the Hitler Youth 
Movement Two American Mil- 
itan. Government officials were 
"hit very hard” with the spec- 
tacle of 2.000 young people of 
both sexes marching in military 
formation with banners flying?/ 
through the streets. In foe Amer- 
ican Zone such parades are con- 
sidered to constitute violations 
of the directive against German 
para-military formations. 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1997 


OPINION/LETTERS 




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■ For NATO Expansionists, 
: A Lesson From History 


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By Ronal<! Steel 




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N EW YORK — Fifty years 
ago, the Marshall Plan united 
■ — but also divided — Europe. In 
j editorials and commencement ad- 
• dromes we celebrate it today as an 
) unparalleled act of enlightened 
» generosity. 

J That it was. Through an in- 
. fusion of American money, much 
; of Western Europe was restored to 
, prosperity and democracy. 

; But it is wrong for Clinton ud- 
[ ministration officials and their 
• supporters to extol the Marshall 
) Plan as a model for an expanded 
1 • NATO, as they are now- doing. We 
\ forget that the earlier creation, as 
1 « the price of its success, helped 
i ; sunder the strained links between 
rj the two parts of the continent. 
: Eastern and Western Europe. 

I Given a similar effon to unite 
■ more of Europe today, the United 
) States may actually he sowing the 
• seeds for another partition" be- 
• ‘wccn Russia and the West — 
;■ fljonly this time the division will be 
wholly unnecessary. 

In 1947. when .American of- 
ficials put together the economic 
j recovery program for a war- dev - 
! astated Europe, they faced a ter- 
rible dilemma: What to do about 
Russia? To bring the Soviet Union 
' into the Marshall Plan would 
greatly complicate the efforts to 
revive capitalist economies in 
Europe, provide markets for 
; .American exporters and construct 
a trans-Atlantic free-trade system. 

Yei to exclude the Soviet Union, 
to create two rigidly opposed eco- 
nomic and hence political systems 
in Europe, would be to reinforce 
the very “iron curtain" that of- 
’ ficials had inveighed against. 
George Kennan. the official in 
charge of formulating the Mar- 
shall Plan, argued that the Rus- 
- * sians had to be invited to par- 
1 ticipare. If they were not, the 
United States would be blamed 
' for seeking ro divide Europe. 

He cleverly resolved the prob- 
fc; lera by leaving the door open to 
the Kremlin, but imposing such 
I rigid economic conditions that 
Stalin would likely turn down the 
offer for fear of weakening Rus- 
* sia’s hold over its satellites. Ul- 
timately, that is what happened. 

* The Russians stalked out of the 
* planning talks and took the East- 
■ em European states with them. 

Europe was divided in rwo and 
j would remain that way for 40 
years. It was the Soviet Union that 


put up the barricades and thus 
bears the greatest responsibility. 
But its actions, though brand, 
were not irrational. 

As Mr. Kennan himself later 
wrote, the Communist coup in 
Czechoslovakia and the blockade 
of Berlin “were defensive reac- 
tions on the Soviet side to the 
initial' success of the Marshall 
Plan " and the decision to set up an 
independent West German state. 

Is there a lesson in this story for 
the present? Soviet Russia, con- 
sumed by dogma and ruled by a 
paranoid dictator, bean little re- 
semblance to the democratizing, 
tree-market Russia of today. 

Except for one thing: Both are 
Russian. Each has a history of 
authoritarianism, of heroic repul- 
sions of invasions from abroad; of 
attraction to and fear of the West 
and of a determination to be a 
power in the world commensurate 
with its cultural greatness. 

Russia also, indeed eternally, is 
both a port and not a pan of Europe. 
American policymakers, in an ef- 
fort to expand economic institu- 
tions and Cold War alliances, de- 
clare that the United States is a 
"European power." But this is 
more true of Russia, and efforts to 
deny this fact will inevitably have 
unhappy consequences. 

Instead of invoking the Marshall 
Plan as a slogan, the Ginton ad- 
ministration should draw a lesson 
from it. Living in a lime of danger, 
the architects of the Marshall Plan 
were prepared to pay its costs be- 
cause they believed they had no 
other choice. Today’s NATO ex- 
panders in Washington ate driven 
not by fear, but by a combination 
of ambition ana opportunism. 
They want to build an eoduring 
structure, in emulation of their il- 
lustrious forebears, and ro leave a 
legacy that will outshine that of 
their intellectual predecessors. 

But the legacy they leave could 
be far different from the one they 
imagine. Their predecessors 
opened up a door that Stalinist 
Russia refused to enter. Today’s 
leaders are locking a door that 
democratic Russia is knocking on, 
hoping for admission. 

The author, a visiting professor 
of international affairs at George 



Mr. Marshall 9 s Hint: 
Why It Whs Missed 


By John T. Beth ell 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 


Washington University, is the au- 
'• of "Ter. 
power. ’’ He 


thot 


Temptations of a Super- 
He contributed this com- 
ment to The New York Times. 


No Panic in Hong Kong 

George Hicks (“Hong Kong: 
New Wrench in the US.- Sine 
W'orfo." Opinion. April JO) is cor- 
rect in arguing that Hong Kong is 
rapidly becoming the new spoiler 
in Sino-American relations. He is 
quite wrong, however, in asserting 
tiutt Beijing's pledge to seat a new. 
undemocrarically selected “provi- 
sional” legislative 'Council is the 
key issue in this unfolding drama. 
Like it or not, the provisional coun- 
cil is a done deal. Here in Hong 
Kong this has been almost uni- 
versally. albeit grudgingly, accep- 
ted as a fact of life. Only in the U.S. 
Congress does it remain a pulse- 
quickening matter of contention. 

Many here blame the outgoing 
governor, Chris Patten, for for- 
cing China’s hand by unilaterally 
attempting to change the electoral 
rules of the game, increasing the 
number of democratically elected 
council members after the ink was 
dry on the Sino-British Joint Dec- 
laration of 1984. Whatever Mr. 
Patten’s motives, and most here 
consider them to have been gen- 
erally lofty, his high-stakes 
gamble — that China would sit 
still for such an eleventh-hour rule 
change — failed, and the people 
of Hong Kong will pat rb e price 
of that failure come July 1. 

Of more immediate and press- 
ing concern to people here is a 
series of new restrictions on the 


rights of various local “societies” 
Cor interest groups) to freely ex- 
press their points of view and to 
maintain contact with counterpart 
groups overseas. Although a se- 
rious enough issue, this too has 
been subject to misinformation and 
mi scomm unication within the U.S. 
Congress and the mass media. 

While the restrictions, issued 
by the government-in-waiting of 
Grief Executive Tung Chee-hwa, 
are certainly disturbing, they are 
hardly draconian, as some have 
charged. The real concern is not 
that they will dramatically destroy 
freedom of speech and assembly 
in Hong Kong at one stroke, but 
that they may turn out to be the 
First small slide down a slippery 
slope of governmental efforts to 
control and manipulate the ex- 
pression of opinion. 

RICHARD BAUM. 

Hong Kong. 

‘Duff’s Ditch’ 

I watched with fascination and 
satisfaction over the last several 
weeks as a story did not unfold in 
the news. 

Last month, the world heard of 
the devastation along America's 
Red River, especially in Grand 
Forks. North Dakota. Next in die 
swollen river's path was the Ca- 
nadian city of Winnipeg, a me- 
tropolis of more than half a million 
people. But there the story ended. 


No news, in this case, was great 
news. 

In 1950. Winnipeg suffered the 
most damaging flood in the city's 
brief history, causing considerable 
damage and dislocation. The flood 
of 1997, which flowed silently 
past (and around) the city last 
month, wassome 30 to 40 percent 
larger than the 1 950 flood. 

What made the difference? The 
answer is “Duffs Ditch," the 
nickname for the Red River 
Hoodway. designed by engineers 
in the 1960s and approved for 
construction by Manitoba's prime 
minister at die time. Duff Roblin. 
The floodway — for which more 
earth was moved than any other 
project in the Western Hemi- 
sphere except the Panama Canal 
— has justified its construction 
costs by sparing Winnipeg from 
this year’s flood. 

As a young civil engineer I 
worked on the model studies of 
theRed River Floodway under the 
supervision of Professor Ed 
Kuiper, a visionary hydraulics en- 
gineer who strongly promoted the 
project I say hats off to Professor 
Kuiper and to Duff Roblin. and 
I’m sure I am joined by most 
Winnipegers. 

MARSHALL GYSI. 

Lausanne, Switzerland. 

The writer is managing direc- 
tor of the International Federa- 
tion of Consulting Engineers. 


W ASHINGTON — George 
Marshall's commencement 
speech to alumni at Harvard Uni- 
versity cot thin coverage in the 
press, and the few reporters who 
saw its news value received scant 
support from rheir superiors and 
the Department of State. 

Stephen White, then an edit- 
orial writer for the New York Her- 
ald Tribune, was ihe only out-of- 
town newsman to cover the 

MEANWHILE 

speech — and that was a bit of a 
fluke. In a casual breach of in- 
stitutional secrecy. J. Robert Op- 
penheimer had confided to Nlr. 
White, an old friend, that he was 
going to receive an honorary de- 
gree at Harvard in June. "You 
ought to come." said Mr. Oppen- 
heimer. adding that on the ex ening 
before commencement he would 
be dining "with Jim Conant. 
George Marshall and T. S. Eliot." 

Mr. While arranged to attend 
the exercises. * ' Since the Trib was 
paying my way. 1 felt an obli- 
gation to file some kind of story.” 
he recalled 40 years later. “Wan- 
dering into the’ university's press 
room' I asked who was io be the 
principal speaker. Marshall. 1 
asked for a copy of his speech. It 
was duly produced. I asked if 
there was anything in it. 'Nothing 
of any importance".' 1 was told. 'A 
routine commencement speech/ 
“J then sat down, read the 
speech and proceeded immedi- 
ately to a telephone, where I called 
George Cornish, managing editor 
of the Trib. 'General Marshall/ I 
said, ‘has just offered to rebuild all 
of Europe, including the Soviet 
Union. I’ll file full text right away, 
and a story after hearing the 
speech.’ 

“ ‘Hold on/ George said. And 
then, ‘Call back in about half an 
hour.’ Which I did. 

“I was told that George had 
called Tom Twitty. who covered 
State for the Trib: that Tom had 
called Mike McDermott, press 
spokesman for State, and that 
Mike had assured him that the 
speech was merely a routine com- 
mencement address and hardly 
worth our attention. Under the cir- 
cumstances. said George, J 
needn’t bother filing full text — 
routine coverage was all that was 
called for. I remonstrated as force- 
fully as I could, until finally 


George yielded soroew’har. Write 
as much’as you want, he said, and 
quote as extensively as you need 
to. But no full text. 

"I left the phone and went back 
to the Yard. There 1 ran into Frank 
Kluckhohn. Boston bureau man for 
The New York Times. ‘You will 
never believe wliat just happened 
to me. 1 he said. What had happened 
to him was. stroke for stroke, pre- 
cisely what had happened to me. 
State’ had told the Times, too. that 
there was no story/* 

Later that afternoon I ran into 
The Associated Press man. and 
asked to see his ‘black sheet' — 
the carbon of the story he had Filed. 
The first paragraph reported that 
President Conam had announced a 
massive fund drive. The second 
paragraph expatiated on the first. 
The third paragraph reported that 
General George C. Marshall also 
spoke, amongothers.” 

The lead" paragraph of Mr. 
White's story stated that Marshall 
had proposed a program to rebuild 
Europe. The next day. the Times 
ran a brief follow-up. headlined 
“Mr. Marshall’s Hint.” Both 
newspapers published Marshall's 
full text some days later. 

Mr. White concluded in retro- 
spect that the strategy of Marshall 
and his State Department advisers 
had been to dodge the kind of 
publicity that might beget hostile 
reaction in Congress. “And if 
that's what they warned." he 
wrote, “that's whar they got.” 

The most enterprising job of 
coverage was done by the BBC 
and its Washington correspondent , 
Leonard Mialf Having procured 
an advance text of Marshall's 
speech from the State Department 
that day. Mr. Miall recorded ex- 
cerpts to be broadcast from Lon- 
don the following evening. Tuning 
in at 10:30 PA!., on June 5, the 
British foreign secretary. Ernest 
Bevra. thought at first that he was 
hearing the speech live. 

Because the British Embassy in 
Washington had forwarded a 
summary of the Marshall propos- 
als by surface mail, the BBC gave 
Bevin a head start in laying the 
groundworic for a unified Euro- 
pean response. 

The author was editor of Har- 
vard magazine from 1966 to 1995. 
A version of this article from The 
Washington Posfappeared in Har- 
vard magazine's May-June issue. 


BOOKS 


READING IN THE 
DARK 

i By Seamus Deane . 272 pages. 
$23. Aifed A. Knopf. 

[ Reviewed by 

1 Richard Eder 

- TT begins, puzzlingly, with a 
X series of disconnected 

- childhood memories from the 
' 1940s in Derry, in Northern 
• Ireland. The little boy’s moth- 
■' er senses an invisible pres- 
' ence bn the stair's landing and 
’ sobs inconsolably. An aunt 

tells a frightening ghost story 
v u of a brother and sister who 
drive their nanny mad by ex- 
changing features — hair, 
“ eyes, smile, even gender — 

- with each other. 

' The kindly, mournful fa- 

- ther, a shipyard worker, takes 
" the boy and his brother for a 
r seaside walk -and points out a 
' patch of turf overhanging the 
' cliff's edge that the birds 
~ seem to avoid. Ir is. be says, 
" "the .land of the disap- 
peared." 

•* Less mistily, there is his 
’ glimpse of a neighbor run 
oveT by a van, a policeman 
vomiting while getting the 

- body out and, later, the in- 
‘ evitable neighborhood rumor 


that it was the police who 
were driving the van. There is 
a violent standoff between the 
police and the Catholics on 
Sl Patrick's Day. and fire- 
works and booming drams on 
the Protestant marching 
days. 

There is the rough inter- 
rogation of the family after 
the boy sneaks a pistol out of 
his father's bureau and shows 
it to a friend. There is the 
mystery of why the father, 
whose long-vanished brother 
fought in the IRA, was not 
arrested for possessing the 
weapon. 

These scenes and others 
make an initial blur, but it is 
the blur of a film developing. 
Gradually it takes on a fear- 
ful, unforgettable clarity. The 
Northern Irish poet Seamus 
Deane devises as a fictional 
memoir the web of legend, 
secrecy and obsession with 
betrayal that choked and still 
chokes the history of his 
country. 

It is the story of a CathoDc 
family and its beleaguered 
community. It looks back to 
the 1920s and the beginning 
of Irish partition and leads up 
into the 1970s. In a larger 
sense, it is a stoty of the in- 


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tractability of civil division, 
the crippling, ineradicable en- 
ergies of defeat and the twin 
curse of too much remem- 
bering and too much silence. 

These are devastations, but 
“Reading in the Dark” e- 
vokes them not as rhetoric but 
as the moth holes and rotted- 
out pieces in the fabric of one 
family’s life. We would not be 
so enthralled and moved if 
Deane had not evoked the life 
itself with so much humanity, 
delicacy and fierce wit 
Yeats's “tearible beauty/’ a 
cliche by now, could have 
been waiting for this near- ma- 
gical book to arrive. 

The darkest devastation in 
the family is its secrets. The 
book begins with ghosts and 
mysteries as a 6- or 7-year-old 
might apprehend them. It con- 
tinues with an obstinate search 
for answers when die same 
boy achieves the fearsome lu- 
cidity and utter lack of caution 
of a 12-year-old. The search 
takes him up to 19 and 20, 
when, knowing the answers, 
he begins to know the moral 
and intellectual ambiguity to 
which all answers lead. 


troys the mother, a brave 
and loyal woman, and the fa- 
ther, a man of simplicity and 
kindness, is not so much the 
secrets themselves as the fact 
that he knows only the first of 
them and she comes to know 
them all. The beauty of 
Deane '5 lament — as is true 
of Frank McCourt’s Irish 
childhood memoir, “An- 
gela's Ashes,” a lovely but 
smaller work — is that it is 
not told as such. The narrator 
speaks with all the vitality, 
the appetite for life and dis- 
covery and the pleasurable 
distractibilizy of his age. 
Those news shots of children 
playing, soccer in some 
bombed-out ruin may spell 


tragedy, but the thunk of each 
kick is young nature's irre- 
pressible high spirits. 

Some of the book's high 
spirits go to depicting the 
classes at the boy's school, 
taught by priests. They are 
arrogant and sarcastic; they 
use wit, word play and the 
unconditional authority they 
possessed back in the 1950s to 
prevail over their charges. It is 
a familiar kind of scene by 
now, going back ar least to the 
whiplash classroom thunder- 
ing in James Joyce’s “Por- 
trait of the Artist as a Young 
Man ’ ’ and reworked by Cath- 
olic writers ever since. 

There is a difference here. 
For one thing, the boys are not 
cowed. They stand their 
ground and score an occa- 
sional point — one, for ex- 
ample, in a wonderfully 
kinked duel in algebra class 
and another in religion. Iris as 
if they were enduring tennis 
instruction from a vastly su- 
perior player, victims of 
verbal smash-shots but grow- 
ing in their own proficiency. 
For another thing, the priests 
are presented with complex- 
ity as well as wit. 

Deane gives a nuanced 
portrait of the Catholic 
Church in Northern Ireland at 
mid century. Belligerent and 
constricted, it played a role in 
holding together and restrain- 
ing the minority community. 

As he reaches adulthood, 
the boy achieves his tragic 
truth. As he does, there Is a 
pivotal scene that elevates 
“Reading in the Dark” be- 
yond brilliance. Looking at 
his mother and father grown 
old, he realizes that the truth 
that would ease them would 
also destroy them. From de- 
liverer of secrets he grows up 
to become their guardian. 

Richard Eder is on the staff 
of the Los Angeles Times. 


Living in the U.S.? 

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delivery in key cities. 

To subscribe, call 

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(in New Yoifc call 2 12-752-3890) 

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international herald tribune, 

WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1997 
PAGE 20 


stage/entertainment 


'Othello’: Ballet on Opera Scale 


By Anna Kisselgoff 

Afgvr fa Times Service 

• York/- — 

I “Othello.” a new. 

I ^1 spectacular look- 
JL N.iug thrpe-act ballet 
■ choreographed, by Lar Lub- 
ovitch to a commissioned 
score by Elliot B. Goldenthal. ■. ■ ■* 
is nor your usual American 
Ballet Tfidatre offering. .£r 

“It's' tike Broadway.” a •• 
viewer declared while going 
up, the aisle ai ihe Metropol- 
itaxi Opera-House. Actually, 
it's like oft- Broadway on an 
opera-house scale. 

This remark testifies none- 
theless' to the success of this 
truly' experimental produc- 
tion, which had its world 
premiere Friday night and 
was - seen again on Saturday 
with an equally good, even 
more dramatically integrated 
new cast. 

Depth and characterization 
are not the strengths of Lub- 
ovitch’s “Othello.” But then 
again. Shakespeare is a hard Sandra 
act to follow, and Lubovitch, 
aJ§o going back to the 16th-century 
Venetian tale that was Shakespeare’s 
source, has come up with his own take on 
things. His lago is not the embodiment of 
‘'motiveless malice.” as Coleridge pur 
it. He. is a neurone who finds a hanky 
dropped accidentally inro his lap. 

Yet it is not lago but Lubovitch, with 
his -whirlpool of passionate choreo- 
graphy. and Goldenthal with his un- 
abashedly dramatic score, who set the 
action in motion. Whether with Des- 
mopd Richardson, one of America’s 
most powerful dancers, seen as a mag- 
nificent Othello in the first cast, or a 
more nuanced second cast headed by 
Juiie Kent and Keith Roberts, this ‘ 'Oth- 
ej Jo” is .a grand evening in the theater. 

Major credit must go to the world of 
glass mat George Tsypin has conceived 
onstage through his extraordinary de- 
cor- HiSjihobile slabs of cracked glass 
(actually plastic) are eventually reduced 
co an abstraction of a glass bed and an 
open space, a killing ground. With 
Wendall K. Harrington’s slides of 
Venice and a turbulent sea and sky, this 
"Othello” has a visual impact rarely 
seen in bailer. To compare this pro- 
duction to Broadway is not necessarily a 
kiss pf death in the hot-house world of 
classical ballet; it is a tribute to a genu- 
me^rtistie collaboration. 

,r Othello” will return for a brief run 
from June 24 to 26. Anyone interested in 
seeing how offbeat-artists work in an 
establishment setting, not to speak of 
anyone interested in superb dancing, 
should see thi>*‘OtheUo.” For despite 




Stn KndwicUTbe Nev YoikTbnei 

Sandra Brown and Desmond Richardson in "Othello. " 


its opera-house scale, there is an ex- 
perimental tenor here that full-evening 
narrative ballets from Europe do not 
have. 

Essentially, this is a downtown team 
of collaborators working uptown. Lub- 
ovitch is a modern -dance choreographer 
long accustomed -to working in ballet 
and has also choreographed Broadway 
musicals. Goldrathal’s film scores 
(“Interview with the Vampire”! do not 
preclude work in die classical field and 
in experimental theater (“Juan Dari- 
en.” “The Green Bird”). 

Tsypin is equally at home anywhere 
in the world in theater and opera, in- 
cluding Peter Sellars’ “Death of Kling- 
hoffer.” A similar range comes from 
Ann Hould-Ward, one of Lubovitch’s 
favorite costume designers; Pat Collins, 
the lighting designer, and Harrington. 


T HE combined result is bold and 
free of the conventions com- 
mon to other three-act narrative 
ballets. The British and the 
Russians have led the way here since 
World War II; many American compa- 
nies (including Ballet Theatre) have im- 
ported a “Romeo and Juliet” or im- 
i rated one from a European model 
Usually these ballets are based on clas- 
sical sources. 

What is unusual but not without pre^ 
cedent is that this American production 
has an original score. Goldenthal will be 
accused of sounding like Prokofiev in 
his first act, but actually he owes much 
more to the “Fall River Legend” of 



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Chief Investment Officer 
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Head of Mutual Funds 
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Client Strategies Group 
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Morton Gould. Melodrama is 
j not beneath him, especially 
shrieks of sound that connote 
emotional anguish. But he 
can also, despite his fondness 
for drums, subside into quiet 
lyricism. There is a wonderful 
turbulence about the score 
when it gets worked tip, and it 
is very much on Lubovitch's 
wavelength. 

For all the Renaissance 
costumes and the fact that 
Etesdemona and Emilia are on 
toe, the choreography is im- 
1|A bued with Lubovitch’s mod- 
em dance signature style: a 
surge of movement that 
sweeps its dancers along into 
lifts or waves and eddies 
around the stage. 

The corps thus becomes a 
major player, so to speak. The 
mood m the first two acts is 
signaled by crowd patterns. 
Othello and Desdemona 's 
wedding, beautifully staged 
v with two children also acting 

as their symbolic surrogates, 
kv Y°rtcTtaw is celebrated in Act I by a ball 
h hello." and a carol or circle dance. 

This round dance, glimpsed 
through glass arches and pillars against 
a Titian-like slide projection, could 
have come our of a medieval illumin- 
ated book. The ball, however, is almost 
a parody of the courtiers in the 
“Romeo” ballets. There is sound and 
fury as the men beat their fists in the air 
and the women drop at their feet. 

Like the aristocrats, the common folk 
who celebrate the return of Othello’s 
ship (anchored stunningly by curved 
ropes across the stage) in a bawdy flex- 
footed tarantella, telegraph Lubovitch ’s 
main theme: namely that Desdemona 
and her attendant, Emilia, are part of a 
society whose men are wife abusers. 

To reduce any “Othello” to just that 
idea is cheap. Lubovitch does not do 
this, but Emilia gets yanked around by 
lago, and Desdemona is clearly help- 
less. In Act m she appears, startlingly, 
resigned to her death. Emilia gives her a 
cross (which leads into her only big 
solo) and she prepares ritualisncally for 
her fate. . 

That Othello loves her as he kills her 
is symbolically telegraphed in their 
lovemaking; tenderly he ties the white 
handkerchief around her neck and 
seems to hold its ends until Desdemona 
goes limp with him in a spin. 

Othello's suicide by dagger is even 
mote dramatically timed. But every so 
often the main characters disappear into 
the crowd. It is clever of Bianca, por- 
trayed fe tchingly by Christina Fagundes 
as a street dancer, to slip the handker- 
chief into Cassio's jacket in the midst of 
the tarantella. 






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Ravaged by the Cultural Revolution and largely ignored by today's youth, Peking Opera is struggling to survive. 

The Vanishing Peking Opera 


By Henry Chu 

Los Angeles Tunes Sen-ire 

B EUING — Just minutes into 
“Farewell My Concubine.” 
the Oscar-nominated film 
chronicling the lives of two 
Peking Opera stars, a strict old master 
lays down a sweeping claim. “If you 
belong to the human race, you go to the 
opera,” he declares to his overworked, 
oft-abused young apprentices. “If you 
don't go to the opera, you're not a 
human being.” 

Judging by that standard, humanity is 
on the verge of dying out in this country 
of 1.2 billion people, for Peking Opera 
— the sumptuous concoction of fab- 
ulous costumes, painted faces, lyric po- 
etry, percussive music and jaw-drop- 
ping acrobatics — is locked in a 
tumultuous struggle to survive. 

Ravaged by the 1966 - 76 Cultural 
Revolution and largely ignored by 
today’s youth, Peking Opera is fast dis- 
appearing from the stages it once ruled 
throughout China Its audience is drop- 
ping by as much as 5 percent a year, by 
one estimate. If the trend continues, 
experts fear, one of die world's great art 
forms for two centuries is in danger of 
vanishing within a generation. 

With it would go one of the primary 
means by which the oldest civilization 
on Earth has handed down legends and 
values from its 5,000-year past. 
Through fantastic tales of everything 
from military conquests to the antics of 
the mischievous Monkey King, the 
genre has passed on Chinese hiscoiy, 
cosmology and literature to untold mil- 
lions since the Qing dynasty. 

But the art's most avid patrons, the 
elderly, are dying off. China's young 
have shoved it aside in favor of jazz ana 
pop music. Theaters and opera schools 
across the country — similar to the 
harsh institution portrayed in “Farewell 
My Concubine,” where boys were 
schooled and beaten — have boarded up 
their doors since the disastrous Cultural 
Revolution. Actors who have trained 
since childhood to perfect their demand- 
ing craft now eke out threadbare ex- 
istences. 

Here in the cradle of Peking Opera, 
where each of the capital's 18 districts 
once boasted its own performing troupe, 
only a single local repertory remains. 
Few companies mount complete operas 


any longer, unable io make enough 
money to pay the bills. “No perfor- 
mance, no debt.” as a saying goes. 

As Peking Opera’s fortunes decline, 
the verdict of ran Minbo, a Beijing 
computer engineer, seems to ring truer 
by the day. “Its time is over.” Fan, 29. 
says of the art form. “We'vegot to have 
new an for a new age. Thai's how 
society progresses." 

Opera aficionados disagree, and are 
fighting hard to arrest — if nor reverse — 
tie decline through outreach and edu- 
cation programs. Even the central gov- 
ernment has recognized the gravity of the 
situation, establishing a national Com- 
mittee to Revitalize Peking Opera and 
sponsoring festivals and competitions. 
State-run television broadcasts nightly 
episodes of classic performances, while 
some theaters have beefed up their pro- 
ductions with special effects and 
shortened story lines to attract tourists 
and young people — an effort that has 
been blasted by critics. 

“It cannot die out,” asserts Luo 
Zheng, a psychology professor at 
Beijing University who has pioneered a 
campaign to cultivate awareness and 
appreciation of the form among yoang 
Chinese. “But it cannot be restored to 
its former glory." 


W HAT rums off many West- 
erners and younger Chi- 
nese from Peking Opera 
delights its older fans: the 
high-pitched, alraosi whiny singing; the 
cacophony of cymbals and clappers; the 
heavily stylized movements; and the 
bountiful symbolism, by which the 
slightest gesiure on the nearly naked 
stage conveys meaning or action. Point 
to your temple, and you show your 
bashfidness. Walk in a circle, and 
you’ve taken a long journey. 

“No sound is but a song, no move- 
ment is but a dance,” an opera star 
instructs his acolytes in “Farewell My 
Concubine.” 

The movie, directed by Chen Kaige, 
blasts what everyone agrees is the single 
greatest source of devastation to Peking 
Opera in modern times: Mao Zedong's 
Cultural Revolution. Denounced as dec- 
adent and reactionary, Peking Opera was 
commandeered by Mao’s wife, Jiang 
Qing. who forced actons to don workers’ 
garb and perform only eight contem- 
porary "model operas” about class and 


anti-imperialist struggle. Actors were 
persecuted if they did not comply. 

By the time the Cultural Revolution 
ended, the loss to Peking Opera was 
incalculable: an entire generation of 
young people, many of them former Red 
Guards, who had received no exposure 
to die an or, worse, openly trashed it 
"Peking Opera is an ait with historical 
and literary components, an integrated 
art," said Luo at Beijing University. 
“Bur in the Cultural Revolution.'youlost 
so much of that If you want the gen- 
erations who grew up during the Cultural 
Revolution co appreciate Rating Opera, 
they have to make up all the lessons they 
missed in history and literature.” 

Before the opera could reclaim hearts 
and minds, however, it was swamped 
with competition from Western pop cul- 
ture, which flooded China after the 
country's social, and economic liber- 
alization in 1979. Now, movies, rock 
concerts and karaoke bars draw millions 
of young Chinese on the weekends, 
leaving Peking Opera theaters empty of 
new blood 

“They think that it’s something their 
grandpas and grandmas like, so they 
shouldn't," said Wang Xiaofisng, a 
writer with the state-sponsored bi- 
monthly magazine China Peking Opera. 
“Ask them if they’ve ever seen one.and 
they’ll say no.” 

“Young people are more material- 
istic. They want to make money.” said 
Sun Yumin, director of the Beijing Tra- 
ditional Opera Academy. The presti- 
gious campus, once solely .an operatic 
training ground, is now a general arts 
academy open to aspiring painters, 
sculptors and ballet dancers. 

In fact, there are no schools left ded- 
icated exclusively to Peking Opera, 
whereas there used to be several 40 
years ago, opera buffs say. Then, tal- 
ented youths were plucked from early 
childhood to prepare for a life on the 
stage, passing through an arduous train- 
ing that involved practice from morning 
to night, under threat of the whip, to 
master disciplines from singing to dan- 
cing to martial arts. 

Now. persuading students to enroll in 
an arts academy for the required seven 
or eight years of training can be dif- 
ficult “In Peking Opera, you don’t 
make much money, and it involves sac- 
rifices," Sun said. "So young people 
don’t last lonq.” 


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Puccini in an Unfamiliar Setting 


G 


By Henry Pleasants 

liuyrnaiioHal Herald Tribune 

LYNDEBOURNE, England — Giyndeboume Fes- 
tival Opera has launched its new season with 
Puccini’s "Manon Lescaut,” an odd choice. 
Giyndeboume has never been a Puccini house. 


BF03 TheCrans 
^ lT\7s Montana Forum 

5 A\V. > Switzerland - VIII yearly meeting 

O 3 lvf -2 ■ The Foundation enjoys the Consultative 
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.** 1997, JUNE 26 to 29 
INFRASTRUCTURES AND FINANCING ! 

The Crans Montana Forum offers an esdusive business meeting 
devoted to the development and the financing of Infrastructures 
In over bO countries of the highest Interest 
All issues related to ports, airports, motorways, energy transport 
and supply, telecom, housing, tourism, logistics and distribution, 
financial services and foreign Investment will be debated 

The Crans Montana Forum Is the only Forum wiffi a slnrily hmrd 
dares where you can really meet governmental representatives, 
officials and derision makers {including International 
Organisations). 

Apart from the traditional participation of Europe - Western, 
Central and Eastern - Central Asia and the South Mediterranean - 
over oC countries represented - the I'* 0 ? Forum welcomes also 
top level delegations from Egypt Estonia. Klrghiswn. Lebanon. 
Morocco, South Africa. tiutey and Caucasus States (headed by 
the Head of State. Head of Government or top level members of 
ihe Government! with the key derision makers in the main eco- 
nomical fields 

Information mid Registration: 

phone (+41 22) 791 70 40, 
fax (+41 22) 791 70 41, 

^niandittpV/www.onf.ch 


Only one other of his operas has been heard there. That was 
“La Boheme.” produced in 1 967 and revived in 1978 without 
conspicuous success. 

The choice of“ Manon Lescaut” is not the only oddity 
about this season's inaugural. Also odd is the choice of John 
Eliot Gardiner, heretofore associated famously with the tikes 
of Monteverdi, Gluck and Rameau, as conductor. 

Nor was “Manon Lescaut” the ideal choice for his in- 
troduction io Puccini. First performed in 1893 in Turin, it was 
Puccini’s third, and first successful, opera. It established him 
as a composer to be reckoned with, but was soon eclipsed by 
“La Boheme," “Tosco" and “Madama Butterfly.” 

Like Giordano’s “Fedora." it has survived fitfully on the 
fringes of the repertoire only when singers w ere on hand who 
could make n sound a bener opera than it is. At its premiere at 
the Met m 1907 it was sung by Caruso. Cavalieri and ScottL 
The title role subsequendy became a favorite of Lucrezia 

J^ ered by Caruso and. after his death. Giovanni 
Mamnein. 

„ c°lS de A t ? |“™i: ™ the p' a « w> look for a Caruso, a Bori or 
a Scotti. At last week s season opening, the young American 

^;^^h? nn,SWn .’ t l le youn S Roma rian soprano Adina 
Nitescu and the young Italian baritone Roberto di Candia all 
sang we'l andaoed well but it was not enough to redeem the 
°^. a hodgepodge libretto that leave Puccini’s treatment 
or the .subject so inferior to Massenet’s. 

b - v Graham Vicks s, *g' production 
,’p 1 H . U£ k° n s stage designs. Designs? Four bare 
walls, nothing in Manon s luxurious boudoir in Act 2 but an 

3 ? rot f squ f , - v ^ngated mirror, no sign of a 
ship at Le Havre in Act 3 until a gangplank is suddenly 

T^neeTa 0 ^ ^ 0per ^ !? p,a > ed in P«iod costumes. 
They need a period setting, and don’t have it. 

The London Philharmonic in the nit plavs well under 
^- r wel;™uccf ni 'S| ,C,IOUS hand wi,hout ev «r sounding 
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BUSINESS/FINANCE 


WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1997 


PAGE 21 


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» Baby Bell 
And AT&T 
Said to Talk 

Potential Deal's Value 
Is Put at $50 Billion 

bx (ha SnjJ from liapab ha 

NEW YORK — AT&T Corp. and 
SBC Communications Corp. are holding 
talks to combine their operations in a 
deal that would effectively reunite local 
and long-distance phone service, sources 
told The Associated Press on Tuesday. 

The talks were described as “seri- 
ous." but there was no indication a deal 
was imminent, the source said. 

A merger, which the source valued at 
^SSO billion, would be the first joining of 
T^T&T and any of the regional Bell 
operating companies since the breakup 
of the former American Telephone & 
Telegraph Co. monopoly in 1984. 

The combined company would have 
580 billion a year in revenue. 230.000 
workers, 60 percent of the $80 billion 
long-distance market and virtual control 
over local phone and wireless services 
throughout the Southwest and Californio. 

"The main purpose of such a merger 
would be to address the local market," 
said Graham Fmnie, an analyst at Yan- 
kee Group Europe. "The companies 
need to have a wide portfolio of 
products and services spanning local to 
long distance." 

Any proposed combination of the two 
companies would face numerous chal- 
lenges from regulators and competitors, 
the source said, speaking on condition 
of anonymity. In Washington, Justice 
Department antitrust attorneys said they 
hod do additional information on a po- 
tential deal. 

SBC hod no comment, a spokesman 
said Tuesday in San Antonio. SBC is the 
bolding company for two regional Bells 
% — Southwestern Bell and Pacific Telesis 
Group — that provide local phone service 
to seven of the 10 largest U.S. cities. 

An AT&T spokeswoman said: "As a 
matter of policy, we don’t comment on 
rumors or speculation about mergers, 
acquisitions, divestitures or other busi- 
ness combinations." 

AT&T shares ended at $37,375 in 
New York trading, up $1 .25. SBC shares 
closed 75 cents higher at $57,625. 

(AP, Bloomberg) 



Juppe Shows Flexibility 
Over Criteria for Euro 

Who Joins Is ‘PoliticaV Matter, He Says 


Unid Cvnuu^V .VvlnLtran 

John Cal ley, lured out of his exile from Hollywood six months ago, has helped stage a turnaround at Sony. 

Sony Pictures’ New Boss Strikes Gold 


By Geraldine Fabrikant 

New York Times Sen'ice 


N EW YORK — John Calley 
might seem an unlikely 
choice to run a major movie 
company in the late 1990s. 
Mr. Calley, eager for a more mellow 
life style, left Hollywood in 1 980, liv- 
ing first as a virtual hermit on Fishers 
Island. New York, in Long Island 
Sound and then in rural Connecticut, 
reading lots of books but rarely watch- 
ing television or movies. 

To stave off restlessness, he did pro- 
duce a few films independently, includ- 
ing the Oscar-nominated “Remains of 
the Day,” which was released in 1993. 

Mr. Calley did agree in 1993 to step 
in to spruce up United Artists so that 
Metro-Goldwyn -Mayer Inc. could sell 
it — "putting rouge on the corpse," to 
use his phrase. But be put out only a 
few films for United Artists, nothing 
like his fierce tempo two decades earli- 
er, when as a senior Warner Brothers 
executive Mr. Calley produced a film a 
month, on average, including commer- 
cial successes such as “ ‘The Exorcist ’’ 
and “Superman." 

That is why last week, when he took 


off for Sony Corp.’s annual manage- 
ment meeting in Tokyo, Mr. Calley 
could scarcely believe the good news he 
was bearing, just six months after tak- 
ing over as president of troubled Sony 
Pictures Entertainment. So far this year, 
Sony’s two studios, Columbia Pictures 
and Tristar Pictures, have brought in a 
combined $447 million at the box office 
— a record pace for the film industry. 

The success of movies such as ‘ ‘Jerry 
Maguire" and "Anaconda" has helped 
Sony grab 20.7 percent of the U.S. 

ftffiDIA MARKETS 

market, and the company is expected to 
lead the industi^r in market share for the 
year on the projected strength of com- 
ing big-budget films such as “Men in 
Black," a science-fiction action com- 
edy scheduled to be released in July. 

"It is ray life again," Mr. Calley, 66, 
said of his return to full-time movie 
making. 

It is also an unlikely turnaround for 
Sony. Just three years ago, the com- 
pany took an embarrassing $2.7 billion 
write-off — an admission that Sony's 
purchase of Columbia Pictures in 1 989 
and tiie ensuing reign of profligacy by 


Central Bank Lets Czech Koruna Drop 


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C&rptioitry Oxr Sn^fFrcm DapexJxi 

PRAGUE — The koruna tumbled 
Tuesday after the central bank freed the 
currency from a narrow trading range, 
and some investors forecast that die 
currency would be devalued by as much 
as 15 percent within days. 

Late Monday, the Czech National 
Bank eliminated the 15 -month-old 75 
percent band within which the koruna 
moved against a basket made up of the 
Deutsche maiic and dollar and said the 
decisive rate for the koruna would be its 
relation to the mark. No details on how 
the koruna would shadow the mark were 
given. 

The decision to free the korunas 
^ trading range pushed stock and bond 
prices higher, while the Czech currency 
fell sharply. The dollar rose to '33.08 
koruny from 3053 koruny. The Prague 
Stock Exchange’s PX-50 Index, which 
has declined steadily for three mouths as 
investors expressed concerns about the 
economy and capital-markets regula- 
tions, rose 21.10 points, or 4.4 percent, 
to 499.80. 

The koruna has been under heavy 
pressure recently as speculators took 
advantage of bulging ament-account 
and foreign-trade deficits to challenge 
the central bank to intervene. The cen- 
tral bank intervened on several occa- 
sions over the past 10 days to buy 
koruny to support the exchange rate. 

Some currency traders said repeated 
centra) bank interventions and a chok- 
ing of market liquidity were untenable 
in the long run out said the move still 
took the market by surprise. “It was a 
bit of an unexpected move, ’ ’ said Pavel 
Pinkava of Nomura International. 

The central bank also raised its key 



ftxrJoackflfeucR 

Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus be- 
fore talks on the currency. 

discount rate to 13.0 percent from 105 
percent Monday. 

Meanwhile. Czech citizens, worried 
That the koruna's fall would erode their 
savings, crowded local banks to buy 
foreign currency or open foreign-cur- 
rency accounts. At a central branch of 
Ceska Sporitelna, the main Czech sav- 
ings bank, a clerk said about 1 million 
koruny ($30,000) of foreign currency 
had been sold before supplies ran out in 
the morning. ( Reuters , Bloomberg) 

■ French Left Helps the Dollar 

The dollar rose against European cur- 
rencies Tuesday amid concern that 
France will dilute the economic require- 
ments for Europe’s single currency and 
as U.S. bond yields rose above 7 percent 
for the first time in a month, Bloomberg 
News reported from New York. 


CURRENCY & INTEREST RATES 


Cross Ratos 

\ s 

ABStardom UTO5 

Brassed JSOBS 

Frankfurt ISO 

London M) 1*81 

Madrid 

MMn 1473JB 

nmym no — 

Parts S»B 

Tokyo HA« 

Toronto U« 

Zurich If* 

1 ECU 
1 SDR 


lira i.iw 

SKTI SMB 
VO — 
— 1771 

mi»7 sun 
U15J8 98190 

unto (Jos 

M«2S 3J7S7 

wm a* 
usb am 
urn asm 
0706 MSB 
USA IWi 


Un an 

iiur — 

7MOJ-03S4S 

uw asm 

U3LS UIM 
1557 * 7117 
• — 8773 
URN I JIB 

asm* mm* 
am aw 
Bier 072U 

SMS* 07401 

mu vtn 

U 3 Uf W 551 


V. SF. 
LUB- US 4 
— KU 
45 * 45 * 1 JM 
57.119 13097 

com HUM 
* 77*5 1,11150 
£21 MBS 
03434 *M 77 
13*14 no 
03931 * 09734 
401 * 1 * — 
aura \m 
*38 LN 34 


a PK**r 

13*5 13 »* 
311 7***3S‘ 
MB MIC* 
13*79 231745 
HHU 7 — 
L 2 I 4 .T 5 IMM 
13*7 MM® 
<1471 U 01 * 

8 *A 81(57 
— 0941 * 

ubs* aim* 

L 5939 WSJB 7 
M 1 H 199212 

AttwKv*** 


Libid-LJbor Rates May 27 

Swfu Brent* 

Dollar D-Mark Franc Steritai Franc Van ECU 

1-iMMtt) 5T.-SV4 1V4-1H 6W-4*1t 3Ul-M **-Vn 4-4V1 

3-month 5Vk-5V 3-3M, lW-m «k-6¥W 3»-3H V8-M «W-4¥W 

6-nwndi 5>3U-5>Mt 3M-3M 19ta- 17* CVk-dVn 3W- 3W» V»- W» 4Vn-«k 

(-year 6VU-64V 3M.-3V* lVk-lWW, 64*n-7Vii 3Vn-3H 4«i-4W 

Sources: Bouton, Lloyds Bonk. , . _ , . . . _ 

antes oppScobie to Merttank deposits of si nBBon mMmum for «juftraww- 




Other Dollar Values 


Cwienqr 
Ararat- P*“ 
AosiraSnnS 
AntriontcA. 

KrOZB re<d 
CMMseym 
Czech Batata 
tvadsti krone 
BBYPt pound 
Fin. markka 


Gnekdrac 

Hong Kong 3 
Hang, forint 

IndtermiM 

late, rapk* 

Irish £ 
HmeBslMk. 
Knrdknr 
Malay, rtog. 


c u nenqr 
Aten, peso 
ML. Zealand* 
Herat, krone 
PMLpess 
MbhzMT 
parteccude 
Rum table 
5<w«8 rival 
Sing.* 


Omnney 
S.A<r.rand 
S. Kor. non 
Su ed , krona 
TOlwnS 
TMbahf 
TWkfaAHro 
UAEdMnm 
Ve n n . ban* . 


ii Forward Rates 

^ Cenoacy 3Mey «^V **** Omm »*■» **** 

zsssl is jss ssr sb sb sb 

DauBdminart 1-E953 \M\S 1J881 


Key Money Rates 

Uaflnd Stotra C 

Dlieoantrale 

Print rate 

FuluJ 

remw ram 
90-day CD* deokrt 
1«Mny CP deaten 
3 ninth Treatory MH 

1- year Tranuiybei 

2- yeor TTeorary H 
5-yera Twasery note 

7-year TnHsnry as* 

10-yetr Treowiy rate 
30-year Trenmry bead 
M«rii Lynra 3M«ry RA 
Japan 

DbcMntrate 

Caitmwry 

i.«04tti Interbank 
J-neatt Interbank 
AMiteteferiMBlr 
10-yen Gael bead 

8n—g9 
Lanbanl rate 
CM nancy 
l-nwalli toteitmnk 

3 - <noaOl Interbank 

4- miMriblnteibaafc 
linear Band 


Oast Pm 
5JJ0 Sj00 
Wl 8% 
5 V, 5 VW 
5 j 57 SA 8 
SjU 5jSS 
5-00 5 JB 
554 553 

«SJB 6 J 1 
552 A 5 B 
AOP 6 M 
ATS 574 
752 6 SB 
5 X 0 5 X 0 

050 050 

045 045 

053 053 

054 054 

053 0A2 

2X5 2X0 


4ig 450 
JW5 3X8 
3.15 3.(5 

3X0 3X0 

3X5 3X5 

5.90 5X8 


Bank ban rate 
Cedi money 
1 mmrtti Intwfccnb 

3-nontb briertiank 
4 uniW bOrtet 
10-year CM 

France 

Interaenttaa rate 
Cad nancy 


and dosing priest New YMr < 
CJoncJ 

Souick Haulm. 


the film executives Peter Guber and 
Joo Peters had been a strategic disaster. 
Alan Levine, a former lawyer whom 
Sony then gave the task of trying to 
turn the studios around, lasted only two 
years before resigning under pressure 
m November. 

That is when Nobuyuld Idei, pres- 
ident of Sony Corp., brought in Mr. 
Calley in a calculated bet that his ma- 
turity and- track record would com- 
pensate for his having spent so many 
yearn on the sidelines. So far, the bet 
seems to be paying off. 

Certainly, Mr. Calley cannot claim 
much credit for "Jerry Maguire," a 
Tom Cruise vehicle approved more 
than a year before he came aboard. But 
it was Mr. Calley who oversaw last- 
minute changes in the mar ketin g plans 
and expanded the promotional budget, 
moves widely credited for turning a 
potentially popular film into the block- 
buster it has become. 

Just as important, be is seen as seek- 
ing a new and necessary stability for 
Sony’s movie-making business, which 
had seen four presidents come and go 
at Colombia and three at Tristar be- 

See SONY, Page 23 


The dollar extended its gains after a 
report that U.S. consumer confidence 
surged to a 28-year high in May, trig- 
gering speculation the slowdown in 
growth anticipated by the Federal Re- 
serve Board when it left rates un- 
changed last week may be late in ar- 
riving. A rate rise at the Fed’s next 
meeting in July would increase the al- 
lure of dollar deposits. 

Parties of France’s center-right won 
36 percent of the vote in the first round 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE 

of voting Sunday, compared with 40 
percent for leftist parties. The left is 
opposed to measures to cut spending to 
bring the deficit in fine with requirements 
for joining a single currency. Thar has led 
to concern that debt and deficit criteria 
could be watered down. 

At 4 PJvl in New York, the dollar 
was quoted at 1.70S5 Deutsche marks. 

, up from 1 .6938 DM on Friday. Markets 
in New York were closed Monday for 
the Memorial Day holiday. 

The dollar also rose to 116.67 yen 
from 1 15 .55 yen, to 5.7595 French francs 
from 5.7085 francs and to 1.4205 Swiss 
francs from 1.4045 francs. The pound 
slipped to $1.6311 from $1.6345. 

"The dollar appreciated through the 
day as EMU concern arose freon the 
French elections and as a strong con- I 
sumer-confidence report reinforced I 
speculation the Fed will raise rates,’ ’ said 
Brian Hilliard, an economist at Societe 
Generate Strauss Turnbull in London. 

"Still, one has to be cautious; it 
doesn’t necessarily mean the Socialists 
will win the second round" of the 
French elections this Sunday, he said. 


By Alan Friedman 

Inienuuiwxd Herald Tribune 

PARIS — Prime Minister Alain 
Juppe, showing a new flexibility, said 
Tuesday that the decision about which 
countries launch Europe’s planned 
single currency would be "political" 
and that the conditions for membership 
need not be applied rigorously. 

In making me statement on French 
radio, Mr. Juppe contradicted Ger- 
many’s position on the conditions re- 
quired for monetary union and stepped 
back from his own previously orthodox 
view about the need for rigor in meeting 
Europe’s single currency conditions. 

A government insider said that Mr. 
Juppe, stung this week by an electoral 
defeat, was trying to reassure French 
public opinion that not too much more 
sacrifice would be needed to satisfy the 
terms of the Maastricht treaty. Follow- 
ing a strong electoral showing by the 
opposition left, Mr. Juppe announced 
Monday that he would resign from of- 
fice even if his governing center-right 
coalition manages to retain power in the 
Sunday runoff elections. 

In the past Mr. Juppe has frequently 
stated, in unison with Finance Minister 
Tbeo Waigel of Germany and other 
German officials, that government def- 
icits must be brought down to 3.0 per- 
cent of gross domestic product, foe 
Maastricht target 

Bm on Tuesday Mr. Juppe for the first 
time spoke of a more flexible inter- 
pretation of foe single currency criter- 
ia. 

"It is obvious," be said, “that a 
second decimal point will be interpreted 
with intelligence, and not using rigorous 
accounting methods." 

He said that "rather than arguing 
about 3.1 or 3.2 percent" it would be 
more important that as many as possible 
of tire 15 European Union member na- 
tions joined in launching foe euro. 

Mr. Juppe added that when the time 
comes, next spring, to choose members 
for foe single currency, "foe decision 
will be a political one." 

Mr: Juppe’s remarks brought him 
closer to the view of the Socialist leader, 
Lionel Jospin, whose alliance with foe 
Communist Party achieved a s tronger 
showing than the center-right govem- 


GloLal Private Banking 


mem parties in tire first round of par- 
liamentary elections Sunday. Mr. 
Jospin has said be favors a more flexible 
interpretation of foe single currency 
conditions. 

Although Mr. Juppe was speaking 
Tuesday in foe context of an election 
campaign in which the French public is 
clearly skeptical about further sacrifice 
for Maastricht, his remarks could have 
broader implications in Europe. 

The German government, already 
concerned about foe prospect of a So- 
cialist-led government in France that 
included tire anti-Maastricht Commu- 
nists. would not be pleased by Mr. 
Juppe's talk of a looser interpretation of 
the single currency conditions, an of- 
ficial in Bonn said Tuesday. 

The government of Chancellor 
Helmut Kohl is itself facing a domestic 
political struggle as it seeks to make 
more spending cuts or raise taxes in 
order to ensure that Bonn achieves a 3.0 
percent deficii-to-GDP ratio this year. 

Italy, meanwhile, has been foe object 
of scorn among German and other Euro- 
pean officials who doubt it will achieve 
foe 3.0 percent target in 1997. A recent 
European commission report said Italy 
would end the year with a deficit equal 
to 3.2 percent of gross domeTOc 
product, which would disqualify Rome 
if foe Maastricht treaty were interpret ed 
strictly. 

On Tuesday, as Mr. Juppe was noting 
that it was pointless to argue ’‘about 3.1 
or 3.2 percent," Italy ’s Budget Ministry 
undersecretary Giorgio Macdotta said 
Rome's 1997budget deficit might be 3.2 
percent of GDP, or 02 percentage points 
above foe Maastricht treaty target 

■ Investors Regain Nerve 

French investors recovered their 
nerve Tuesday after Monday's selling 
wave, betting that even if foe left won 
the parliamentary election, there would 
be no radical change in economic 
policy, Reuters reported from Paris. 

The blue-chip CAC-40 index closed 
up nearly 1 percent after plunging 3.9 
percent Monday — its biggest one-day 
dive in four years — following foe left’s 
upset victory in foe first legislative 
round Sunday. Bonds also steadied but 
foe franc retraced its gains in late trading 
on foreign selling pressure. 


ATTRACT NEW CLIENTS 


BY SERVING PRESENT CLIENTS 
EXCEPTIONALLY WELL. 


f of Ktun£jir 

iVdfiiMa/ /immk «7 .Vix, Yo’l 
(, SbmhI S.|. in (mkm. 


6Vh tY, 
(M Ota 
*» 6V» 

6 Vi 6VW 
Wu AM 
752 7X3 


Exceptional service demands personal 
attention as well as genuine concern for tke 
financial well-being of our clients. And so we run 
our tank according to one fundamental principle: 
to prqtect our clients’ capital as we safeguard 
its purchasing power. 

i^SrSi It is a simple principle upon which we hase 

i. in (mkm. 

our brand of financial conservatism: private 
hanking huilt upon rigor, discipline and prudence. This 
sophisticated conservatism, vigorously pursued, has created 
a global private hank of exceptional stability, capable 
of weathering the roughest storms. 

Indeed, Republics capitalization ratio, 
on a risk adjusted basis, is two times as great 
as that required by the worlds international 
hanking regulators. 

To our way of thinking, it is security as 
well as return that we must ensure each day. 

And in the process, to provide a unique quality 

1111 VUrU l/.shtfiurfi'n ■>/ 

of service, understanding and discretion. 


Interaenttaa rate 3.10 3J0 | 

COBteanay 3W» 99k 

1 m oate tetet tra * 39W 39k 

34—ate tetaraonA 39k 39k 

A-anam Mertaak 3M » 

lt-yearOAT 5X2 575 

Sources-' Ration. Bhomban. MhtW 
Lrncn. Son* of Toltyo-MIhobiahl, 
C wnm cnaaWt Ow» Lfonnots. 

GoW ajl ml erg* 

Zorich N A 3050 +1X0 

London 34355 34355 +1.10 

NewYat 34350 344.70 +T50 

rtaifofsp&ovoce. London o^do! 


|H Republic National Bank of New York* 

Strength. Security. Service. 

Sutra Ruth * iNW Wt ’ tiim-vo * LmJ<m ' &-ii!n£ ' Hi-irul * I1%- wrly Hillr * Hhviw Aiiw ' (.'jyiinw iol.ifiJ* * Citjw-nluA'M * Cnlirulljr 
OiiiTlwy " Hi’lhf Kt'llf * I-iLrirU * Angi-lr* * I.u^iih* ■ 1 jiu'uiLmrd * Manila * Oily * Miami ’ Milan * M.uiU- Carl.< • Mi'nU-viJv,, 

Mimlnvll ‘ MiWia " Nj-fJu ' Pari* - IVrtli * Punla iM l:*U' * Kii»«lv lanvin* * £antia£> * * jn!ni+ * * T.ilnsi * TonmU> * Xiiridt 

*" l&iuUk XiUiul liuil >* nv» V.L, Mur, •, 


PACE 22 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1W 



THE AMERICAS 


a Investor’s America * 



Source: Bloomberg. Reuters 


I m r mO owI Herald Tnbane 


Very briefly! 


Hundt Resigns as Head of FCG 

WASHINGTON (Combined Dispatches) — President Bill 
Clinton accepted the resignation Tuesday of Reed Hundt as 
chairman of the Federal Communications Commission. 

His departure had been expected. He earlier pledged to stay 
on the job long enough to complete work on the phone- 
competition provisions of last year’s sweeping telecommu- 
nications law. The FCC completed dial job May 7. 

William Kennard, the FCC’s general counsel, is a leading 
contender to succeed Mr. Hundt ( Bloomberg , Reuters) 

Consumer Confidence Hits Record 

NEW YORK (Bloomberg) — U.S. consumer confidence 
surged to a 28-year high in May, and home resales in April 
remained at a pace that would top 4 million for die second 
consecutive year, according to data released Tuesday. 

The Conference Board’s index of consumer confidence 
rose to a higber-tfaan -expected 127.1 points in May from 
April’s revised figure of 116.8. That is the highest reading 
since August 1969, when the index reached 131.7. Mean- 
while, home resales fell a larger-than-expected 2.4 percent in 
April, the National Association of Realtors said, but that still 
translated to an annual rate of 4.06 million, close to die 1996 
record total of 4.09 million. 


High-Tech IPOs Flounder 

Investors Turn Selective After 1996’s Poor Results 


By David Baiboza 

New York. Tones Service 


NEW YORK — A record number of tech- 
nology companies went public in 1995 and 1996 
as investors clamored to own a piece of what they 
hoped would be the next Intel Corp. or Microsoft 
Corp. But with many of last year’s not new issues 
faltering, die market for initial public offerings in 
high-technology companies has tumbled. 

While a slowdown was expected this year, the 
slump in oew technology issues seems to have 
been sharper than many analysts expected and is 
perhaps another indication of how quickly mar- 
ket sentiment can change. 

“For the better part of 1995 and 1996, we had a 
roaring technology market, and IPOs were clearly 
a beneficiary of that” said Lise Buyer, an analyst 
at T. Rowe Price & Associates. “But the rather 
traumatic technology market of die last eight 
months has reduced investors' risk tolerance, and 
so they’re being increasingly selective.” 

Technology offerings are hardly alone. This 
year, the new-issues market is down 35 percent 
from its pace last year, when a record $49 billion 
was raised through 865 public offerings, ac- 
cording to Securities Data Co. 

But technology issues are even worse off. At 
this time last year, 105 technology companies 
had gone public, raising about $7.3 billion. 

This year so far.just 52 companies have done 
so, raising about $1.7 billion — a 77 percent 
decline in dbllar figures. 

For Internet companies, the drought has been 
even more severe. So far. only three Internet 
companies have gone public in 1997. raising $95 
million, down from $1 2. billion a year earlier. 

In 1996. investors made Lucent Technologies 
Inc., a spin-off from AT&T Corp., America’s 
largest offering ever, raising $3 billion; they also 
flocked to Yahoo! Inc_, die Internet search en- 
gine. Both have since racked up large returns. 


But heading the new issues of 1997 is Hartford 
Financial Services Group, which raised 5650 
million last week in the year’s largest American 
offering so far. The largest technology issue this 
year is Iona Technologies,, an Irish software 
company that raised $137 million. It is now 
trading below its offering price. 

. “Year to date, it’s been terrible.” said Mi- 
chael Moe, director of growth stocks at Mont- 
gomery Securities. “The amount raised in all 
IPOs is down 30 percent. But more telling per- 
haps is that pricing has been poor.” 

Nearly half of tee technology companies that 
have gone public this year were finally priced at 
less per share than the estimate filed in their 
prospectuses, compared with just 12 percent last 
year, according to Montgomery Securities. 

Analysts attribute die soft market in new tech- 
nology Issues to a variety of factors, including a 
bear market in small technology stocks as the 
Russell 2000 Technology Index plunged 23 per- 
cent before rebounding in the past month. 

“If the market catches a cold, the IPOs get 
pneumonia,” said L. Keith Mullins, a managing 
director at Smith Barney, noting that die market 
for new issues takes its lead from the per- 
formance of the larger market 

Initial public offerings also have been affected 
by weak cash flows into technology mutual 
funds and the flood of new offerings in the past 
two years. In 1995 and 1996, roughly 373 tech- 
nology companies went public, more than in all 
of the 1 980s. But thus far, many of those compa- 
nies have posted disappointing returns; that, in 
turn, has sapped investor enthusiasm. 

‘ ‘Last year, there were a lot of trees growing to 
the moon,” said a new-issues analyst who spoke 
on condition of anonymity. “Investors thought 
they could buy anything in the technology sec- 
tor. But this year they lost money on the net- 
working stocks, stocks which they thought were 
unassailable.” 


Technology Issues Push 
Shares to a New High 


v . 


set* 


Iff n 

tfflfar 1 


CVnjafrrfM ChaSli^fnimbisfa>ckei 

NEW YORK — Technology shares 
drove the stock market to a record high 
on Tuesday, despite a weak bond mar- 
ket, where long-term interest rates above 
7 percent. , , . . 

Stocks climbed as large hedge funds 
snapped up shares in the fast-growing 
computer industry, traders said. 

Hedge funds, which manage pools or 
money for a small number of wealthy 
individuals or institutions, “think tech is 
the big move,” said David Slaine, who 
Nasdaq stock-market trading at 
Morgan Stanley & Co. 

The Dow Jones industrial average 
closed 37 J50 points higher from Friday at 
7,383.41 points, surpassing the record of 
7345.91 it set that day. 

U.S. financial markets were closed 
Monday for the Memorial Day holiday. 

The Standard & Poor's 50-srock in- 
dex gained 2.68 points to 849.7 1 . 

But the biggest gains were reserved 
for the largest computer companies in 
the Nasdaq composite index, which rose 
19-49 points, or 1 percent, to 1,40931. 

Cisco Systems, a computer network- 
er, rose 1% to 68#, and Microsoft 
jumped 3% to 126%. 

Several reasons are contributing to 
computer companies* strength. The de- 
clining dollar has raised the attractive- 
ness of computer-related companies, 
which make more than half of their sales 
outside the United States, traders said. 

To deploy funds quickly. Mr. Slaine 
said, investors snapped up options con- 
tracts on the Morgan Stanley High Tech 
Index, which charts the path of 35 U.S. 
.computer companies. 

As stocks have rallied to records in the 
past month, some investors have said 
companies such as the software pub- 




Usher Oracle and the chipmaker Micron 
Technology could rise farther and faster 
than the S&P 500 index. 

“There are so many good companies 
ihai were overlooked in this market pse , 
said R. Lynn Ytuni, a manager at Banc 
One Investment Advisors Corp- “Wd^re 
now entering a market phase that is best 

defined as a catch-up phase.’ 

One of the day’s roost active shares 
was Micron Technology, after Thomas 

US. STOCKS 

Kurlak, a Merrill Lynch analyst raised 
hi*: estimates of the chipmaker s 1 997 
and 1998 earnings. At the end of the first 
quarter. Micron was the biggest holding 
of the hedge-fund manager JeffVinik, die 
former manager of Fidelity Investments’ 
Magellan Fund. Micron surged 414 to 
42Vi, and Intel surged 6Vfe to 169 5/16. 

Bay Networks rose 1 to 22)4 as die 
computer-networking company intro- 
ducal several switching products, -in- 
cluding a low-cost workgroup switch. 

J. P. Morgan fell 1 Vfc to 103%, leading 
a retreat among banks as bond yields . . 
climbed above 7 percent for the first time m 
in a month, after reports showed the 
economy may be strong • enough to 
prompt another interest-rate increase by 
the Federal Reserve in July. 

The benchmark 30-year Treasury bond 
fell 14/32 to 95 2/32, taking the yield up to 
7.02 percent, its highest level since April 
28, from 6.98 percent on Friday. 

Rising consumer confidence contrib- 
uted to die split in the market, fueling 
expectations for continued profit growth 
and concern that inflation could accel- 
erate as the economy embarked on its 
seventh consecutive year of expansion. 

(Bloomberg, AP) 



-if 




Bottler to Buy Coca-Cola Units 

Bloomberg News and overhauled, to its nine 

ATLANTA — Coca-Cola largest bottlers. Coca-Cola 
Enterprises Inc. said Tuesday Enterprises, which is 44 per- 
it planned to buy Coca-Cola cent owned by Coke, has been 
Co.’s bottlers in New York the biggest beneficiary of that 
and Canada for $1.66 billion drive as it expanded across 
in cash and assumed debt as it Europe and North America in 
sped up die consolidation of the past year, 
its bottlers. “They want to make sure 

Coca-Cola Enterprises, the the bottlers are in the strong 
world’s largest soft-drink bot- hands of a good management 
tier, said it agreed to buy about team,” said Marion Glover of 
to die Supreme Court to revive a lawsuit saying . half of Canada’s Coca-Cola Glover & Associates, a bot- 

Beverages Ltd. and Coca- tling-indastry consultant. 


• Former International Business Machines Corp. workers 
lost an af 

they had Been duped into leaving their jobs when the company 
knew it would soon offer a more generous severance package. 

• Netscape Communications Corp. is leading an effort to 

propose a standard that would enable Internet users to stop 
personal information from being sent automatically from their 
computers to World Wide Web site operators. Microsoft 
Corp. has not agreed to the standard. Bloomberg, ap 


tng-m< 

Cola Bottling Co. of New Coke Enterprises said the 
York from Oxa-Cola. It plans purchases would give it 65 
to buy the remaining stakes in percent of Coca-Cola’s North 
the bottlers from investors. American sales and 20 percent 
Coca-Cola Co. has stepped of global sales. Coca-Cola's 
up the sale of local distrib- Co.’s shares closed at $6850. 
utors, which it has purchased up 375 cents. 


INTERNATIONAL FUTURES 


May 27, 1997 

High Low Latest Otoe Optnt 


Grains 

’cbRNKwro 

. MOO Do rriWmmrv. cams per bwhal 
Jut 97 270 26* UA'A -6<A 122,159 

'Sep 77 TSP/t 253ft 254 -4ft 3UZ2 

■OBCJ7 27 251 257 -Ot >12*0 

i Mar 98 M3* 258 2S8’A -4 .12JD1 

,Mof98 3U 20 342 — *»• U » 

, Jut 98 . 270ft 245* 36554 -4ft U19 

Doc 98 254V, 25* 255 -3* XW 

Est sales NA. Presales 51277 

■rtf's awn int 28 M 26 aft 2076 

1 SOYBEAN MEAL (CBOT] * 
^Oatan-daltanDerton -• 

'jmn 281 JO 276J0 .277.10 -3-10 50385 
' Aug 97 2MJ9 25858 ■ 25BJ0 — *JQ 1X44* 

iSsp97 ML50 219-50 239.50 —*JQ 9M* 

,0(397 229 JO 2ZL50 22100 —LOO 10390 

.Dec 97 227.00 21X20 274*0 — OO 20345 

Jan 98 217.80 71400 21400 -3J0 2J7B 

Estates NA. Rfs. soles 3L216 
FWsopenftit lllfljl tel 1718 

! SOYBEAN Oft. fCBOT) 

, SIMM In- eentt per B 

JUt 97 23-51 3325 2X22 -003 50 JU 

AOB97 21*9 2147 2148 -003 1438* 

Sep 97 21B0 TX.W ZU3 -005 8,955 

<M<n ’ 2190 216$ 7X6* -006 8.W5 

Dec 97 3403 33J0 2LB1 -OOB 18,177 

JOT 98 2471 2198 23.5* -OOS 7JS4 

EsLstees NA. Frf&. safes 13,148 
' RfsopenW 10X847 up *87 

. soybeans (caorn 
, i0ODHunir*nnm- ants per DusM 
. JUI97 SUVi *30 V] 831V. —4ft 92J4S 

AIM 97 802 789 7WV% -9V+ 24*10 

' Sep 97 717 705 7D5V, -11V 9,336 

■ MW 97 08 66* *45 -12V, *9.515 

■Jjitl *80 MS 44*h —1114 5J3i 

Est-sc« NA Frt's.sofes 4US9 
Frf*S0PSlJnt 1BV3J Off 557 

WHEAT (CBOT) 

&0BD Du itWitlmwn. acres oer dhM 
ton 376 353 3*3 ft -JUS *7,703 

. Sen 97 38* 'A 3TO 371 —14V, 14JW 

Dec 97 39SS6 383 M3V, -9* 17J9B 

Mar 91 39JVj 38* 386 -8 1 .49 

BLstees NA. Fri'S-Wes 16.928 
Pri’s open art 81.562 aft 3S3 


Livestock 

CATTLE (CMS?) 
**DDU..cM(PnB. 

Jun97 6532 *455 

AU097 *552 *485 

Oct 97 *8.90 6442 

Dec 97 77 JS 7IJB 
Fet>98 71-60 71J7 

APT 98 7137 7115 


*490 
*527 
68.77 
7135 
71 JO 
712$ 


-45) 24507 
-OJJ 34*84 
-030 10863 
-035 9,8*1 
-007 5,005 

-0.12 i jm 


Hlgti Law LataM Ow Opifrt 

ORANGE JUICE (NOW 
I5JMW.- cans per b. 

Jut 77 81-80 7960 79X5 —US 14092 

Sea 77 8JJ0 ffiw KUO -iJ5 7.184 

Non 97 8600 849 8475 — 1 I JO 3468 

An 98 83.75 87.25 87-25 -1J0 U26 

EstsaW NA. FrYs. sales 97* 
FrTsapenn 29J11 aft 3*8 

Metals 

GOUHNCMX) 

loo oz.-dHkn per tmca. 

May 97 3*450 tljft 1 

JUT 97 3*130 3*3.10 34470 »L*0 41JB9 

Ail 97 3*190 +IJI 

AUB97 3*7 JB 3*110 3*7.10 Oil 356*4 

0097 mx 3*920 3S9M vIJO 4987 

Doc 97 351*8 35LOO 35260 +1JB 31450 

FefcW 35560 3SL» 355JO *160 48« 

ABT98 35860 +120 1833 

An 98 3*930 36060 36480 +120 7Mt 

Est. sales NA Pri*s.Srtes 24871 
FiTs open tat 15*279 aft 500 

H GRADE COPPS? OKMQ 
25400 ■&- ants pern. 

Mov 97 11860 11720 118.10 -065 7M 

Jun97 11BJ0 11720 11160 -040 3^*6 

All 97 11860 1(760 11860 —035 34 «0 

Aub97 11660 11530 11SA5 -030 1A«1 

Sep 97 11415 1)110 11400 -415 6602 

0097 11230 11160 11330 -405 16® 

NW 97 1106S -OLIO 1,171 

Dec 97 WAD 10830 109-00 -4.15 4027 

Jon 98 10730 -415 508 

E3. sales NA Rfs. sales 8.160 
RfsaoenM 6049* off 16* 

9LVBI (NCM20 

5.000 bar at-- cam per trovaz. 

Morn 47730 +I.J0 54 

Am 97 <7150 47L00 *7760 +160 * 

A* 97 47660 <7150 474JC +1.00 5L999 

Sep 97 48160 47760 «920 +160 *617 

Dec 97 48960 48560 48630 +160 7330 

Jan 98 489 JO +160 17 

Mir 98 49*60 +160 7,975 

Atoy+B 49968 +160 U7I 

Est. sales NA Firs, sales 12.178 
FrrsepenM 89675 off 895 

PLATWUMCNMBU 

Satravaz.- wavs oer IN, 

Jill 97 40160 388.10 39760 +BJ0 13.932 

Od97 397 JO 38960 39X50 +6.10 4*2* 

Jan 98 39X50 +S.1I) 1J18 

Est. sales NA FrTs. sales 1,957 
FrfsmwiM 19292 off 101 

Clase Previous 

LONDON METALS (LME) 

DaOcra per metric ton 

AisatooKrtHta Grafts) 

Sod 162755 1628'* 161560 161660 
Ponwnl 164000 16*160 162560 163660 
CnthoftasfH NO Grade) 

2589 Mr »114 2SWA 259T/j 
251360 251460 251360 251560 


High Low Latest Chge opM 

GERMAN GOV. BUND (UFPE) 

DM250600 -pte of 100 pet 

Jun 97 100 J3 10066 10026 — 034 234180 

& & 9928 WJ5 99.73-033 37232 
97 NT. N.T. 9823 — 023 
Est sates: 178,792. Piw. sates: 179,318 
Pier, open ML: 867+02 aft AMI 
ITA1JAN GOVERNMENT BOND OJFPEJ 
ITL 200 iMNan - pts of 10Q pd 
Jun 97 129.90 1&20 129.82—061 8X500 


Htfi Lm Latest Chge OpM 

Jun 98 9360 9322 9360 — 065 2M10 
Sep 98 9X79 9X70 9328 — 065 XTO 
EsL sales:’ 50805. Prey, safes: 34600 
Prey, open bit j 32S64* up 2652 


SSP97 13066 12961 13032 — 069 20461 
Est safe* 61629. Prsv. sates: 6X724 
Prey, open Int: 108.961 aft 1635 
10-YEAR FRENCH GO V. BONDS CMAT1R 
f=F50aa«-tf5OfI«pt* 

Jim 97 128^12008 12X44 +014157,748 
Sep 97 12668 1266* 12668 +010 17615 
DM97 9660 9040 96J0 +OT0 0 
Est safest 2349*0. Open W- 1 7X363 up 
1639. 

EURODOLLARS (CMER) 
ti mnaotwpts of too pet. 

Am 97 94.18 MU M17 
Jilt 97 9409 9467 9467 

Sep 97 9197 9392 9364 
Dec 97 9173 9167 91*6 

Ms98 9U1 915* 91H 

JLflfl 11M 91*2 9347 

SeP 98 9339 9133 913* 

Deere *128 S031 JDL2J 

Mar 99 9125 93.W 9321 
Am 79 9321 93.14 9X1* 

Sop 99 9115 9110 93.11 

Dec99 930* 9103 9103 
Estsrfes NA FrCs. sates 
fWsapenW 2692448 
BRRBH POUND (CMBO 
tisnawmas. speroeuna 
Am 97 160* 1-6Z77 14302 386*5 

Sep 77 14310 14350 1402 *4*1 

Deere 1.434* 11* 

Est. sales NA RYs. sates 1160 
FWsccenW 434*3 aft 4*80 

CANADIAN OQIAAR (OW90 


S7.9M 

7211 

1.552 


4»«* 
-061 13211 
—0634*7643 
—064 357270 
— 065 245638 
-66*231281 
—665 171,201 
—66* 121375 
—665 9*2*6 
— 065 79225 
-005 <6.073 
-065 41678 
Slfll 


Ed. soles 14.919 Fri'S. safes 8690 
Pri'saPWW 10165* Off 10 

FB50ER CATTLE (CMER) 

50600 »«.- centsper lb. 

May 97 7*27 IJ15 

AW 97 7925 7155 7190 -040 1198* 

S0OP7 71*0 7525 7MS -OJS 2672 

0097 7155 7110 71M -OI5 3240 

Nov 97 7925 7925 7947 1603 

Jan 98 B0JS 79.75 BUS 4*3 

Ed. sales 1,9*7 Fffs. safes itjs 
P tf'sapenM 206*0 oft «8M 

HOGS-Uim (CMBO 
404 OQ *».- mM par e> 

Jun 97 81.71 B0J5 8120 

AU97 0227 SO * STAS 

Aug 47 8M 7BA5 79A5 

oarr 7 V* 7?.» 7JA2 

Dec 97 70.10 *18S *922 


428V. 

*37.00 


629V» 

63100 


436W 

63100 


6271* 

63660 


NIcM 

Spot 724060 725060 7*55 J» 746560 
Foraard 735060 736060 756560 757060 
Tin 

Spat 566560 567X00 569060 570060 
Fcnwnl 577000 573060 574060 575060 
Zfeic (Special KMi Grate) 

Spal 134060 134160 1339V, 1340V, 
Faraard 136260 136360 13*060 13*160 

HJgn Law dose dge OpM 


Jun 97 2284 3736 2238 

SOP 97 2331 2380 2383 

Dec 97 23*5 23» 23» 

Ed. sales NA Frr*. sales 106Q 
FrfsaaenM MSt alt M 

GBOAANMARKIOIER} 

nS60D« TCTfc« .SPWITIgfc 

Jun 97 29*8 28*4 2E66 

5ep97 jHHD JW3 2TO4 
Dec 97 2972 29*5 2WS 

Ed. safes NA Pf 7s. safes 962* 
FrPsOPWirt 79.950 Oft 363 

JAPANBE YEN (CMER) 

122 mUSon van, t Per 10Q ven 
JUH 97 6675 8588 AS9J 

5ep97 273* 670* 2706 

Dec 97 2835 2115 283 

Ea, sate na fwi soles 119*1 
Fri'smnM 87.908 a ft 2211 

SWISS FRANC (CMBO 
lttWWnw «P g tran c 
Am 97 2218 2M? 20*2 

Sep 77 7201 2120 JIB 

Deere 22» 2305 2310 

Ed. safes NA PfTi. sates 1IU83 
FffsOPenirr 5168* UP 180 

MEXICAN PESO ICMER) 
JBUnpauttrapm 
Am97 .125*5 .13485 .133*0 
Sep 97 .13100 .13000 .13092 
Dec 97 .IT4S5 .19*85 .17455 __ 
Ea. safes NA Ws.saiw *451 
FrPioeenirt 3760* up 1873 


74230 

4281 

517 


81279 

5237 

783 


44977 

SA18 

*a 


174*0 

10224 

7.139 


Industrials 
COTTONS {NCTNJ 
aun>B.> cam par lx 
AM 97 7360 7341 7227 *024 3*460 

Od 97 7425 7460 7428 + 025 4JJT7 

Dec 97 7120 7425 7113 +029 25240 

Mor98 TLB 7*60 7*20 +020 1739 

May It 77.15 7760 77.15 +025 969 

EsL sdas NA RTvstees 11QS 
RTsapefHRt 736*0 up 74 
HEATMGOft. CNMSO 
cam pur aal 

Jun 97 5722 5560 SSJD -342 1860 

AM re st.15 5490 55.15 -133 3723 

Aug 97 5720 5X50 553) -368 I7.9C6 

Sec 97 B29 5446 5*45 —3.13 92<1 

0097 5820 B60 5768 -108 86SI 

Nov 97 5928 5860 5868 -143 72W 

D«c97 5928 5867 5U$ -127 T24« 

JonM *040 5B2S 5965 -123 7684 

FN>» S9M) %J5 !XA5 —1.28 1723 

Ea. safes NA Frt s. safes 30235 
Ftf-SOPenW 132,995 off 1015 

UGHTSWST CRUDE (NMBO 
1 280 Ml- dMDSaar BU. 

A/I 77 2127 2025 2179 -86*111182 

Aug 97 2167 3875 202* -022 <7287 

Sep 97 716* 3065 2822 -174 30495 

0097 2143 2870 2US -028 194C 

Norn ZIjOU XUO XLS7 ~ttS3 14787 

Dec 97 2160 1B2D 3B2B -029 37600 

AmSB 3023 205D 2021 -OS 17471 

F+U9I 3DA5 —023 7,937 

Mar98 2147 2DJ8 20JB -169 4285 

S 98 2045 2040 2041 -8 M <133 

safes NA Rfs. sales 81 680 
Frfsooeninf 4096*8 aft 38 

NATURAL GAS (NMBO 
NMD own feu's, t per nwn Mu 
AM 97 2470 3480 2461 39440 

AM 97 2MB UK MS 8445 

Sec 97 2430 1270 2410 K.«8 

0097 2330 2475 2415 19620 

Nov 97 1430 13*0 1420 7,934 

Oec 97 2245 2688 2225 136* 

Esf.safef NA RTlsoks «,!» 
FrPsimenW 312601 UP 1749 

INLEADEDGASOLME OUCR) 


Jun 97 **60 &LT0 45J0 -163 2177 

JUI97 *L5C *110 6190 -100 37479' 

Aug 97 MUD 41-33 4)6fl -}J7 K.13 9 

Sen 97 61 JO 6046 60*0 -4.95 4639 

0097 SUB SUB 5US — 1JD 17*2 

NavTJ 5965 UK 

Dec 97 SM 57.10 SJS -160 19*0 

EsL safes NA FrTv safes 3161S 
Fri’sopen W 89623 tel 3*43 
GASOILOPE) 

U2. Hollars per metric ton -tots of 100 Ions 
Jun 97 17*45 17145 17100 —545 21777 
17245 17360 -550 11064 

1950 
463* 
1,922 
7224 


Jul97 17760 _ . 

Aug 97 178125 17560 17560 -545 
Seat 97 10060 17760 17645 -545 
Oa97 18145 178.75 17020 " “ 


Nor 97 K.T. N.T. 17945 -560 
Doc 97 18260 18045 18020 —560 


Est. 


15418. Open ML: 67622 up 785 


Est. safes 11690 . Ffl's.Jte* M3* 
FrfsmnM *02*3 alt 387 

romc es-UEs icmeri 

J 0 JM fas.- can do B 
May 97 9200 9020 «60 

All 97 9197 916S 91.90 -MO 

Aug 97 9120 90.45 9162 +0.12 

Esl. safes 10*3 Prl's. safes 
FrCsoeenim 828* up 34 


+025 10,764 

+asz riura 

+192 7624 

*a« 1475 

+132 9602 


41 

UTS 

US! 


3-MONTH STERLING (UPFE1 
£500600 -pteofioqote 
Jun 97 93^ 9360 9140 -06*111773 
5CP?7 9119 93.1* 9117 - OC3 105,254 
" “ 92.99 9197 92.97 — 003 94658 

918* 9263 9263—062 60212 
92J* 9243 9243-062 41415 
9168 9266 9266 — 062 334*1 

9263 9262 9262— 062 20477 

Mar 99 9261 9269 9269 -OD2 19674 
Esf. safes: 35414. Pfer. Safes: 37+1*7 
Prev. open W_- 531402 aft 1.747 


Dec 97 
Mv 98 
Jun 98 
Sep 98 
Dec 98 


Food 


COCOA OMCSE) 


Jul97 

14*2 

14*4 

1457 

— ? 

Sen 97 

«» 

1*74 

1461 

-10 

DecW 

1515 

1510 

1512 

-12 

Mar 98 

15*2 

1536 

1538 

-7 

MayfB 



15*0 

-3 

Juf9fi 

1580 

1575 

1580 

-7 


Erl's open ire 9&029 off 1050 

COPFEE C (NC3EJ 
SJ.MO 8».- certs per b. 

Art W 37100 25560 27*30 
SeP 97 239i0 137 JO 237 JO 
Deere OTJC US 00 301.95 
NafS 18700 18775 18*65 
MOV 93 17860 17*00 178.00 
Est. sues 10.297 fivs. safes 
Fri'sopenuit 29.8*9 aft 198 

SUGAR-WORLD 11 (NCSE) 
Hi.000 *»•-«"» p*» «» 


51+557 

11988 

18612 

30,9*4 

SJ31 

522 


.1765 1*34 
-1165 7615 
-545 *.933 
-190 2JOB 
-100 422 

5.970 


Financial 
UST.BNAA (CMBO 

simUen-ptsMUOwt. _ __ 

Am97 Ml M hfi 
See 97 9*57 9*53 **JJ -M3 4.9H 

DecW 847 

Bf.sofes NA Ws-scaes U5 
RfsoaenM 9J71 aft 83 

5 YH. TREASURY" (CBOT) 
siaojnoprtn-m&um+MicnBei 

Jun 97 105-21 I0M2 JAMS -13 
56097 105-10 104-55 104-58 -14 40610 

Deere 104-41 —13 277 

Est. safes NA W s. safe s 363 0 
prrsooenM XJT2 oft 19ZSB 

ii m. treasury townn 

SlOOmarM-pBAmdstelOOpct „ 

Junre 107-07 106-22 106-27 -09 B66tt 

Sep 97 IM-23 106-07 106-11 -10 n& 

Dec 97 10*60 -10 1620 

Ed. sales NA Pirs-sofes 3*624 
Fri'sopenirf 354.9*7 0ft Ifl9 

(A TREASURY BONDS (CBDT) 

ss«Erss> i, Ba"3.* s sL-ffi’&afe-sssi 

Score 108-27 108-05 108-10 —16 00.158 PrCT ' opefl ' m - 

Dec97 108-10 107-21 W7-79 -15 246*1 

Mar 98 107-19 -15 2 m 

Ed. stem NA Pri's. safes 13*673 
FWs open ini 5H688 oft >*837 


BRENT OIL (IPO 

UAdtekn per bonel' tots cflMioo barrels 
Mb 97 1968 19,12 1962 -0.78 71X1 
Aag97 1960 1961 1968 —072 37676 
Sep 97 1969 1968 196* —065 11.173 

OU97 1962 1961 1962 -OS9 1427 
NOV97 19.91 1961 1962 —056 6627 
Dmti? J967 J9J7 1969 -OM. 12270 
Jan98 1960 1961 1962 -063 1246 

EA sates NA Open MKNA 


J-MONTH EUROMARK CUFYE) 

OM! mBflon -pfsanoapa 
Jun 97 9661 9660 %61 + 0J) 22*6*6 
_ ALT. N.T, 96J9 UneN 1612 
9677 9*J* 9677 UnOL 0 
9^74 9*72 96.73 UndL 211312 
9LS9 9&X 96^8 - H01 137612 
9664 9*62 9*64 Unch.209.lS7 
9666 9673 96J5 - 061 151X5 
w 9664 9662 9663 - 061 124620 
Dec 48 95 JS 95JA RSJ7-06? 82 892 
MAO 


M97 

Sffi 

Dec 97 
Mar 98 
Jun 98 
Sep to 


MMNTH PIMK OMTin 


Juire 

1117 

1UM 

11.1* 

-ate 

DteW 

IXM 


10.9* 

-aga 

Marts 

10.90 

1M1 

lore 

-00* 

MOV 98 

10J99 

10.7* 

1080 

-o« 


St. safes 1(677 Fn’s.$tees 4,980 
Fri'soooilni 15560* up 951 


U*5 


UBGRMMWniiailER) 

t3mnon-ptsofia0pd 

Junre 909 9*39 9*39 H6*l 

Jilt 97 9621 9*21 901 -B0I W1 

Aug 97 94.15 904 94.M -061 1785 

EsLsdes NA ft!'*, stees U*6 
FrrsanenW WXTl uo 511 

LONG GILT fLlPFEJ 

£50008 - pts 1 Writs of lOGpd 

Jun 97 112-13 112-02 112-12 — 0-03 l**t591 

S*p 97 112-23112-12112-22 — 0-01 28.751 

Dec 97 N.T. N.T.112-10-0-2S 

Est. soles; 12285* Prw.Mries: »7*1 

Prey, open 1913*2 aft 2^93 


57,796 

SeaW 96J3 962* 96J1 +0.06 *00*1 
‘ ” 9t34 9&2S 9632 -007 310*9 

g*2J 9620 9*27 +0J56 29J7D 
9619 9413 9418 + OJJ* 248*0 

9606 9400 9405 1 005 22285 

95$ 95.79 9485 -0JJ5 15.795 

M61 95.5* 95M> + 0.0* 11655 


Dec 97 
MarW 
Jun 98 

Dec 98 
Mar 


Stock Indexes 

SAP COMP. MDEX (CMSQ 
SBOkMNi 

Amre 85*78 8*260 0 SJ 0 - 26 J 171812 
SCP 97 8*110 851 JO 85840 + 3 JB 11291 

Deere are jo s*mo uuo +jjo ires 
Est safes NA FiTs. safe* 67,183 
FrTsopenW 1916*3 ua 2113 

FTSEIOOOJFFE) 

PS per Mb: pom 

Jun 97 4787 JT&M M 87 J) + 140 6&530 
Sep 97 4737 X 47145 4719 J ♦ 115 5,990 
Dec 97 N.T N.T 47640 + 16 J) 522 

E». sales: 7671 PlW. sates 1 E 233 
Piev.ogenbri.' 7 lo *2 oft *61 

CAC 404 MAT 1 FI 

M^^eaO 2 *Su 2 « 78 J)+ 22 Jt 0 219*6 
Jun 97 265403*110 2653 - 5 + Z 2 JJ 0 3 aSl 
Jilt 97 26 * 452*130 76520 ♦ 2100 1222 
sen 97 2 * 680 26316 2 * 67 . 5 + 21 JO 11913 
D« 97 N.T. N.T. 2 * 87 J ♦ 21 SO 451 

M«r 96 2701526870 27110 + 2250 7,999 
Esr. safes M 5 B 8 . Open am 790 ** up 
139a 


EsL sates: 177J35. Open M_- 2770*8. 

J-MONTH EWWHJRA BJFFO 
ITL 1 nrlBan-ptseJlOOpd „ 

Jim 97 9304 9304 9127 — OOB 1045*1 
5ep97 7159 915* 9158-007 9&3S7 
«7* 9368 9173— 006 54121 
^79 9173 9179-005 31»0* 


Commodity Indexes 

Clase Pmrtow 
Mo odjrs , U1GOO 

Retftn 1-990.70 201 S Jo 

DJ-FlArtS 1*269 

CRB 250 J3 251 Jl 

Sources: Marti Assedoha Pre& London 
(WTBtwncWFirftmfs Eatongt WT 
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PAGE 23 J 


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ASIA/PACIFIC 


Beijing Sets 
Opening in 
* Telecoms 

Foreign Firms to Aid 
A Second Network 


Aimun/n-r? Sews 

BEUING — China is poised 10 
allow the establishment of a second 
fixed-line telephone network, giv- 
ing foreign investors a crack at one 
of the world's fastest-growing mar- 
kets. officials indicated Tuesday. 

The State Council, China's cab- 
inet, has agreed in principle to let 
China United Telecommunications 
Carp, operate local phone networks 
in three regions, officials said. Uni- 
com, os the company is known, is 
teaming up with Sprint Corp. of the 
United States and a company con- 
trolled by Metromedia Co., another 
American concern. 

"We think it's a major break- 
through." said Ken Wang, who 
qversees Sprint's ties with Unicom. 

About one in 20 people in China 
has a phone, compared with one in 
two in neighboring Hong Kong. But 
the industry in Cftina is growing at 
about 30 percent a year. 

Shares in telecommunications 
companies based in Hong Kong 
surged as investors concluded that 
these companies would gain greater 
access to the booming Chinese mar- 
ket. Hong Kong Telecommunica- 
tions Ltd. jumped 4 percent to 16.75 
Hong Kong dollars {$2. 16), its 
highest level since September 1994. 
China Everbright Group, an investor 
in Unicom, bought 8 percent of 
Hong Kong's biggest telephone 
company this month. 

"Demand in China is massive." 
David Barden, an analyst at JJP. 
Morgan Securities Ltd., said. "The 
China fixed-line market can grow as 
fast as people can get capital for 
investment" 

Unicom has found it hard to raise 
funds, in part because Beijing has 
been slow to define its role in the 
x telecommunications market Set up 
* in 1994 to compete with the Ministry 
of Posts and Telecommunications 
monopoly, Unicom relies on foreign 
investors to expand its existing mo- 
bile-phone and paging services. 

Sprint wifi help Unicom develop 
a local network in the northern city 
of Tianjin, while a company con- 
trolled by Metromedia will develop 
a similar network in die southwest- 
ern province of Sichuan and the 
municipality of Chongqing. 








o 




Mt 

Mfim 

V ~ ? m jm is 

_ &3C3UBJ Mi, uuLKn.tr. 

Sega’s chairman, Isao Okawa, left, and president, Hayao Nakayama, right, with Bandai’s 
president, Makoto Yamashina, center, announcing the deal in January that was called off Tuesday. 

Sega Jilts Bandai at the Altar 

Video-Game Powerhouse Withdraws Offer to Buy Toymaker 




C.'inr’ib'Jfa (far ‘tljtffi.m lJ.ijuj.fei 

TOKYO — Sega Enterprises Ltd. said Tuesday it 
was withdrawing its offer to buy Bandai Co. a day 
before Bandai "s board was to have voted on the deal, 
saying Bandai employees opposed the combination 
because of differences in the two companies' cultures 
and product lines. 

Instead, the companies said they were considering 
a more limited alliance that could bring together 
Sega's popular Sonic the Hedgehog video game and 
Bandai’s best-selling Tumagochi, the “virtual pet" 
on a keychain that has been a global phenomenon 
since its introduction last November. 

The decision ends five months of wrangling over a 
proposal that could have created a powerful force in 
home entertainment. Sega is one of the top three 
makers of video games and game players, and Bandai 
is Japan's No. 3 toymaker. 

"it was always hard to see the merits" of the deal, 
said Nanako Sakaguchi, an analyst at Dresdner 
Kleinwon Benson (Asia) Ltd. in Tokyo. "The char- 
acter of rhe two companies proved to be too much at 
odds." 

The deal would have created a company with 
annual sales of more than 600 billion yen ($5.18 
billion) that combined Sega's expertise in video 
games and machines with Bandai's strength in toys, 
merchandising and multimedia. 


Sega, based in Tokyo, said in January it would buy 
Bandai, an older company based in Osaka, for 129 
billion yen by October and would use Bandai's 
popular characters, such as the Mighty Morphin 
Power Rangers, to enliven Sega’s Saturn home 
video-game system. New game systems from rivals 
Sony Corp. and Nintendo Co. have lured away fans of 
Sega’s home machine, although Sega retains the 
largest share of the arcade-game market. 

As recently as Monday. Bandai said it expected its 
board to approve the deal at its meeting Wednesday. 
Kyodo News Service reported Tuesday that Bandai 
had made that announcement to quell rumors that its 
managers opposed the deal. Kyodo also quoted com- 
pany executives as saying that Bandai's president. 
Makoto Yamashina, had been urged to reconsider the 
deal because of the difference in corporate cultures. 

Bandai, with consolidated sales of 2 18 billion yen 
in the year that ended in March 1996, is Japan's 
largest toymaker and is particularly strong in so- 
called character toys. Sega cut its profit forecast for 
the last financial year to 1 1 billion yen from 27 billion 
yen, citing competitive pressures and inventory 
write-offs of 23 billion yen. It will report final results 
for the year Wednesday. 

Sega's shares fell 20 yen to close at 3,700 on the 
Tokyo Stock Exchange. Bandai’s shares fell 30 to 
close at 2,760. (Bloomberg. AFP, Reuters) 


Hanoi Limits 
Foreigners’ 
Internet Use 


Reuters 

HANOI — Vietnam announced 
rules Tuesday to prevent govern- 
ment bodies 'from releasing infor- 
mation on the Internet and to require 
diplomats and foreign organizations 
to seek approval before irjDsmitdng 
information on-line. 

Foreign diplomatic staff, inter- 
national organizations and foreign 
new* agencies would be required to 
seek approval from the Foreign and 
Culture ministries to distribute in- 
formation on the Internet, according 
to reports in official media. Approv- 
al would be given in the form of a 
license. Legislative, judicial and re- 
search organizations and other state 
bodies w ould not be allowed to con- 
nect with the Internet. 

Vietnam currently forbids indi- 
viduals to access the Internet, but a 
state-monitored gateway for public 
use is expected to be opened this 
year, affording the Communist 
country access' to the worldwide 
computer netw ork for the first time. 
Currently the only Internet access is 
through limited electronic-mail ser- 
vices run by state agencies. Officials 
say they are concerned about the 
possible inflow of material deemed 
subversive or harmful. 

■ Cybersbops Room in Japan 

Japan's Ministry of Post and 
Telecommunications said Tuesday 
that Internet -based shopping in Ja- 
pan grew 40-fold in the financial 
year ended March 31, keeping pace 
with an increase in general Internet 
use. Reuters reported from Tokyo. 

"Cybermall" shops sold about 
28.5 billion yen (S245.9 million) 
worth of goods, up from 700 million 
yen the previous year. Japan, which 
still logs behind the United States 
and Europe in Internet use, also saw 
a sharp gain in die number of users 
in the past year, the report said. 


Shanghai Favors France for Light-Rail Project Loans 


Compiled h Our SlftfFnm i Dufukhte 

SHANGHAI — Shanghai is leaning toward 
France to provide government loans and equip- 
ment to build a light railroad through the city, a 
senior city official said Tuesday. 

The 25 kilometer (15.5 mile) elevated light- 
rail line will follow an existing railroad track 
from Wujiacbang in the northeast of the city, past 
the railroad station and down to the southwest. 

President Jacques Chirac of France had said he 


would consider providing a loan for the project 
when be visited Shanghai earlier this month, said 
Huang Qifan, the city official. 

On May IS, Mr. Chirac and President Jiang 
Zemin of China presided over the signing of a $ 1 .5 
billion contract for Airbus Industrie to sell 30 
planes to a Chinese state-run aviation company. 

“The French government has offered sup- 
plements to us.' ’ Mr. Huang said, adding that the 
city would use French suppliers if it accepted die 


loans. If France does win the light-rail contract, 
die main recipient is expected to be the British- 
French consortium GEC-Alsthom. 

France had initially been favored as partner for 
Shanghai’s two subway lines, but weeks before a 
contract was to be signed. Germany offered a 
loan and snapped up the project 

Mr. Huang said the amount of foreign gov- 
ernment loans to be provided to the project was 
still under negotiation. (AFP. Reuters) 


SONY: New Chief Stages Surprising Turnaround for Ailing Studio 


ContinDed from Page 21 

tween 1991 and 1996. Mr. Calley has 
installed Amy Pascal, former head of 
Turner Pictures, as president of 
Columbia Pictures; and, having ushered 
our Robert Cooper from Tristar, he. has 
entrusted the operation there to Chris 
Lee, president of production. 

Entertainment executives outside 
Sony detect a new mood. 

"There is a reservoir of good will 
toward the company and John in par- 
ticular, ’ ' said Robert Bookman, an agent 
at Creative Artists Agency, which rep- 
resents many leading actors, writers and 
directors. 

k But Mr. Calley’s initial victories at 
^aSony Pictures are no guarantee of long- 
* term success, for his task is a daunting 
one. To begin with, once the current 
schedule of releases runs out, few films 
will be left in the pipeline. That is why 
Mr. Caliey now spends many weekends 
reading two dozen scripts or more, al- 
though he says he is looking for quality, 
not quantity. 

"I don’t think you can decide how 
many films you are going to make," he 
said. "You have to make films you are 
crazy about.” 

Then, too, despite the initial good 
feeling, there is still much morale-mend- 
ing to be done at Sony’s studios, where, 
according to an agent, “paranoia among 
managers left people feeling they had to 
look after themselves and were pitted 
against one another.” 


Perhaps Sony’s biggest entertainment 
challenge is one that Mr. Calley, at his 
level in the management hierarchy, can 
do little about 

Today, most other big studios have 
corporate ties that ensure steady ancil- 
lary markets for their films. 

Walt Disney Co. has a ready buyer in 
its ABC television network, for ex- 
ample. Warner Brothers, a unit of Time 
Warner Inc., has its parent’s HBO cable 
channel, the Turner cable network and 
the WB television network, and Twen- 
tieth Century-Fox. a unir of News Coip., 
can rely on its parent's Fox television 
network in the United States and satellite 
networks in Europe and Asia. 

But Sony, despite all its talk over the 
years of media ‘ ‘synergy,” has no direct 
ties to other media distribution systems. 

There is strength in Sony's television 
programming business, which is respon- 
sible forsuch hits as "Mad About You," 
"The Nanny." "Wheel of Fortune” and 
"Jeopardy." 

But in the absence of a guaranteed 
television distribution network, that 
business, like Mr. Calley’s movie op- 
eration, remains riskily reliant on pro- 
ducing a continual string of hits. 

“How well can Sony do up against 
these giant distribution and content ma- 
chines like Disney and Time Warner and 
even News Corp.?" asked Harold Vo- 
gel, an entertainment a naiyst at Co wen 
& Co. 

Mr. Calley, however, says Sony, as a 
global company, takes an international 


perspective on distribution. He said the 
company was racing to lock up dis- 
tribution deals with television and cable 
companies worldwide for its American- 
made movies and television programs. 
Recently, for example, Sony invested in 
Rupert Murdoch’s Japan Sky Broad- 
casting, a digital satellite-television ser- 
vice in Japan. 

The company has also begun pro- 
ducing local entertainment program- 
ming for various markets, including 300 
hours so far this year in China. 

‘ ‘One of the advantages that Sony has 
is the advantage of looking over every- 
one's mistakes over the last 10 years and 
deciding what they want to be in," Mr. 
Calley said. 

There is a simple, central premise to 
Mr. Galley’s strategy for Sony. “You 
want to do franchise films if you can,” he 
said, referring to such spin-off machines 
as the Warner Bros. “Batman” series. 

For sequel potential, he is betting on 
• ‘Godzilla,” which is in production fora 
May 1998 release and which be hopes 
"will prove the validity of what he calls 
his concentric theory of film making: 

“Of the 250 films that get made each 
year, about 35 are successful. There are 
certain films that are as close to sure 
things as you can get, or you take a shot 
with the next-generation actress, and 
you're a little farther out. Farther from 
the center is ‘The Crying Game’ ter- 
ritory, and that is very difficult to fore- 
cast. Our basic job is to get as many in 
the middle as possible.” 


■JC .. 


■ - ** 







Dainong Plans 

X, To Sell Off 
" if 17 Businesses 


A Bloomberg News 

v SEOUL — Dainong Group, 
the snuggling owner of South 
Korea's most luxurious de- 
partment store, said it would 
sell off 17 of its 21 businesses 

in a bid to stay afloat 

By selling several busi- 
nesses, including its newspa- 
pers and a restaurant chain, 
Dainong aims to bolster its fi- 
nances and redress problems 
caused by over-expansion. 

“Thig is like cutting out the 
rumor before it kills the entire 
group.” said Choi Byung 
Long, senior fund manager at | 
Daehan Investment Trust Co. i 
The company will retain : 
only its core retailing and tex- 
tile units, Dainong Corp., 
Midopa Co., Dainong Heavy 
Industries Co. and Metro 
Product Co., which account 
percent of total 


group sales. The conglomer- 
ate's sales last year were 1 35 
trillion w on ($1 32 billion) and 
total assets of 1.8 trillion won 
— equivalent to its debts. 




■ - ■ - 


Safira Republic Holdings S.A. 

Luxembourg 
Value Number 595.113 

Dividend Payment 

At ibe General Meeting of Shareholders held in Luxembourg on May 14, 1997. it was 
resolved that a dividend of USD 4.50 per share (USD 2J15 after the stock split) 
be payable for the year 1996. 

The dividend in respect of bearer shares will be payable from May 31. 1997 upon 
surrender of coupon nr. 9 at the counters of the Company's paying agents listed below. 

Stock Split 

At an Extraordinary General Meeting of Shareholders held in Luxembourg on May 14. 
1997, it was resolved that the Company's stock be split by exchange of one existing share with 
a par value of USD 5. per share for two new shares with a par value of USD 2.50 
per share. The split will be effective May 3 1 , 1 997. 

For holders of registered shares, the shore register will be updated to reflect the split. 

’ Such holders will receive, upon request, new share certificates. Holders of bearer shares 
may exchange their existing shore certificates against new certificates at the counters of 
the Company's paying agents listed below, as of June 2, 1997. 

Banque Internationale S Luxembourg S.A.. Luxembourg 
Republic National Bank of New York (Suissei S.A., Geneva 
Republi- National Bank of New York (LuxemboiagJ S.A., Luxembomg 
Republic National Bank of New York, London 
Union Bank of Switzerland, Zurich 


64-Megabit Key 

Profit Hopes Ride on New Chip 

Bloomberg News 

TOKYO — Three of the world's 10 largest semi- 
conductor makers said Tuesday they expected profit to 
rebound after plummeting chip prices caused earnings to 
decline in the previous business year. 

Fujitsu Ltd., Mitsubishi Electric Corp. and Toshiba 
Corp. forecast higher profits for this business year be- 
cause of more stable prices for large memory chips and a 
shift to production of higher-grade semiconductors. 

One of the three, Toshiba, also posted earnings Tues- 
' day. Its group pretax profit fell 29 percent, to 125.4 billion 
yen ($1.08 billion), as sales rose 6-5 percent to a record 
5.453 trillion yen. 

The companies made their forecasts after releasing 
lower profits for the year that ended March 31, in line with 
analysts' expectations. 

All three are betting that demand will rise for the latest 
generation of computer memory chips — 64-megabit 
dynamic random-access memory, or D-RAM, chips. 

These semiconductors can each store the equivalent of 
about 64,000 pages of newspaper text — about four times 
the capacity of their 16-bit predecessors — but their 
manufacturers so far are getting prices of as much as $60 
a chip, more than seven times the current market price of 
16-bit chips. 


NOTICE OF WORKS CONCESSION 

(Direct ive 93/3 7/CEE) 

1- CONTRACTING AtflHOHfTY 

Chambre de Commerce « dlndostr* Mee C&ie d'Azur 
20. Bodevard Caratacd - 06000- MCE (Fiance) 

Tet p3) M M 13 75 05 Fw: (33)0493 13 75 00 
2A • LOCATION OF WORKS PERFORMANCE 
NICE - COTH D'AZUR AIRPORT - MCE - 06200 - FRANCE 
SB . PURPOSE OF THE CONCESSION OF WORKS, 

NATURE AID SCOPE OF 93W1CES: 

Reference of die prefect: A. El 

Purpose of theconcewtan of worts: Appomenent rf the beneidar/ of an agreement 
of temporary oc o i Mti oii of a govenurKutowned land wnHn the airport area. Tire 
benefidary wfll be responsible far financing. buSding and operating a real estate 
ampler of 50,000 square meters intended to accommodate trade show at the Nke 
CAte tfAnjr Airport, and a partdng of 25JIOO square meters. 

3A • DEADLINE TO SUBiHT APPLICATIONS: June 24, 1997 at4 PAL 
38 - ADDRESS TO FORWARD APPLICATIONS: 

Refer to I jbove - Drecoon dn Grands JVoftu d*EquipemenB 
Reference to rotate on the envelope. “AJEL - Appel ficentfidatures” 

3C • LANGUAGE IN WHICH THE APPLICATIONS MUST BE DRAFTED 
French 

4 "PERSONAL, TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL CONomONS 
TO BE IttT BY THE CANDIDATES 

The candidates, which can subnut their apphnoons either alone or in a pxiup, wl 
have to establish that they have financial capabilities as well as economic and 
commercial operating apawdes. 

The financial capabiaty of the anthdate wd have to be etna Idled by submitting 
relevant bank references, balance sheets and corporate accounts of the hst three 
years or any other equivalent document as <«dl is a fat of timbr transactions. In the 
esnhfisf u nent of uvbaithe candidate was involved 

The operating capabAty wffl haw to be esablished by suborning re feren ces in the 
ana of opera ti ons of showrooms or trade shows. 

These references will have to be as precise as possible. They must fcuBcate and 
describe ac h i e vements and projects from a commercal and economic wewpoeic 
The candidate must be In erder with n s tax. tax related and social Security nMintions. 


The candidates wh«h do not meet the conditions mentioned n Andes 24 aJTb), e), 
eL 5 and g) of Directive no- 93/37/GE couM be excluded from participating in the 
selection procedures 

5 . CONTRACT AWARD CRITERIA: 

The selection procedures with respect to earxfiefates to fie chosen wff fie carried out 
in two phases Rrst the shortlisting phase accordng to which the list of carofcbtxs 
authorised to submit a tender wffl be approved. Second, the final selection phase with 
respect to the tenders submitted by the candxhtes accepted. 

Selection criteria of the candtdites tkmng die shortirsong phase 

► technical value frnow4»w and refermoesj 
fa- financial guarantees 

SeteaJon enters of the tenders for the contract award 
fa tedmiol and l aw ww cii l value of the tender 

► Inantiaf corafidom of the offer 

8 - OTHER INFORMATION: 

Documents presenting the protect and the major rtgtus and obligations of the 
tandKbK are made wamble to die andidnes at m address rotated in 3 above m 
exchange for a check of FF. 5.000 as guarantee. This check wil be cashed n the 
candidate does no* submit an acceptable appbaDon. Tne documents supplement the 
in f or mat ion gvenmthk notice. 

Meetings to present th* project ind vims at die site an be arranged. 

Addhlonaf I nfantta t mn an be requested fa writfigtn the contracting authority at the 
address mentioned in 3 above. 


Hong Konst 
Hang Seng 

14503 

14300 

aA 

12500 — J 

12000 ., ■ c 


D J F MAM 
1996 1997 


Singapore 
Straits Times 

'Sifc 

2150 

2100 \ 

2050 

m 

1950 D~ j F M 
1996 1 


1225 ' 


Exchange Index 

Hong Kong Hang Seng 
Singapore StrateTimeG 
Sydney ABOnSnaifes“ 
Tokyo MBtfwt 22S 

Kuala Lumpiff Composite 
Bangkok SET 


•“V'ji. 

20000- 1 f* 

-Nf 


f— 

'MAM 

170W D J F MAM 

1997 

1998 1897 

Tuesday Prerv. ■ % ' j 

Close 

dose Change! 


Seoul 
Taipei 
Manga 
Jakarta 
Wellington 
Bombay 
Source: Telekurs 


Composite Max 


14540.16 14574.64 -0.24 
2J0T6 . 01 2,056.32 +0.96 
2,578-90 2£84.60 -0-23 

19,889.89 2G.04&50 -0.77 
1,081.88 1,081.19 .+0-06 
5S&84 ■ 56&3B +028 

723J35 718-99 +061 


Stock Market Index 8,123-28 8,194.66 


Composite index 
NZS&40~ ~ 

Sensfiive index 


2,710.91 2,598.20 +4.34 
688.85 66320 +0.85 

2^21,52 2,311.05 +0.45 
3^92^5 a7m.6S -0.25 

International Herald Tribune 


Very briefly; 

• Nissan Motor Co., Japan's second-largest automaker, pos- 
ted a profit of 77.74 billion yen (S670.S million) for the year 
that ended March 31. putting it into the black for the first time 
in five years thanks to aggressive cost-cutting, the reversal of 
the yen 's climb against the dollar last year and the recovery of 
the Mexican peso. 

• Japan's chief cabinet secretary, Seiroku Kapyama, said harsh . 
penalties were needed to famish violations of banking laws. 

• General Motors Corp. said it was considering building a 
parts plant in the Philippines but had decided not to assemble 
vehicles there. 

• Hong Kong's business association, the Better Hong Kong 
Foundation, unveiled plans for a multimiUion-doUar party to 
mark the first day of Chinese rule July 1. 

• PT Astra International, Indonesia's largest automaker, 
plans a I -for- 1 stock split to try to improve the liquidity of its 
shares. 

• Singapore Telecommunications Ltd. has invested about 
$40 million in two high-speed Internet links to the United 1 
States to try to make the island state a regional Internet hub. 

• China and Iran signed an agreement on oil and gas ex- 
ploration and development during a visit to Beijing by Iran's 
minister of petroleum, Gholamreza Aghazadeh, the Xinhua 
news agency reported. 

• Taiwan's index of leading indicators fell 13 percent in April, 
strengthening evidence drat sluggish exports are stifling 
growth. Economists had predicted a rise of 03 percent in the. 
index. 

• S hanghai Automotive Industry Corp. (Group), China’s 
biggest automaker and a joint-venture partner of General 
Motors Corp. and Volkswagen AG, is considering selling 
shares to the public. 

• Philippine stocks surged for die fourth consecutive day, 
pushing the benchmark index up 434 percent, or 112.71 
points, to close at 2,710.92, as investors decided that first- 
quarter growth data due this week would confirm that a five- 
year-old recovery remained on track. Remm. ap. Bloomberg, afp 


A two-month 
trial subscription. 

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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, W EDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1997 


PAGE 25 


mm # 


SM THE INTERMARKET 


IT +44 171 420 0348 


TELECOMMUNICATIONS 


# BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 




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OFFSHORE COMPANIES. For tree's^" 
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1224 Fax: 44 181 748 6559/6338 

wwpapplBDaco^k 


GENERAL 

A nnouncements 

Attention visitors 
from the U.S! 


If you enjoy reading IHT 
when you trawl, why not 
also get it al home? 


in key U.S. cities 
CaH (1) 800 882 2884 

(m New Vokraiizizjffi 3890) 
2tctalb*a£g£^ribunc. 

THr maitun uiur wwb 


VIENNA, AUSTRIA. Tffc 713 - 3374. 
Am you sad cr woffwP Lonely or to- 
ved&P Are you despairing « suWiWT 
It help to taO< atadj #. Aim: 
BEFFtiENDESS m totel eonfidfirae. Mem- 
Fn. 9.30 am - 1 pm and every day 630 
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FRENCH WB4 7TCXET& cater CM! 
u aciee from SiOD to S350. TeL Paris +33 
ik (0)14335 4703 Df +33 flW 8050 57BS- 


Legal Services 


OFFSHORE COMPANIES 

READ1 VASE C0'£ . FULL ADUffl 
TRADE DQC'JMEN75 AND LC 

bw&hs a acccuntvjj 

CHCJA BUSINESS SERVICES 

Coras Su>4« Ho for unmraate 
£*rvces & ccmpan-,- brocrw? 
NACS LTD. Room 1108. ASwn Ptaza 
2-E Granvie Read. TST. Keaton. 
Kong Kc-ng. e-raa* nacsUiA super ret 
Teh 852-27241223 Fax 27224373 


DYNAMIC A INNOVATIVE COMPANY 
«.tih expaenced ideas, approved 
Daunts and said dentate seeks 
ache partner respadway msatmnaJ 
or pmrate support also iram the hotel 
and resort maisoy. m order to expand. 
For applcation and Urtwr MonraUon 
please contact us under Box 298 
LH.T„ 92521' NfluJBy Cedex. France. 


FASHION 

Our cSent is the Premier Worldwide 
Fashion network m mail order tor die 
greatest irtemafional brands. To become 
an exclusive corespondent n your statE, 
your cowtty Please conad lb 
fiJp-JArwvr^cetairexorafcon^ 
Fax: Park 33 1 45 44 47 77 
Los Angeles: 1-213-954-0186 


EitabUshed I n t a madonsl 
tovestomd Banking Finn 
SEEKS ASSOCIATES to represent its 
financial products & services worirade 
Training & Video avatetfe. 
LYONS CAPITAL MC. - U3A 
Tet 804-6430000 Fax: B04-643-0725 
lyonsWlyonscapriaLconi 
hthL'Aww.l)fflnsCflpiaIxom 


WORLD WOE PROJECTS reowes 
ash funtSng from S3M-S50M USS. 
Principal 1106%) and fund provider's 
ronrastion rao%) guararaeed by 
lop 25 Einpaan bank. 
EureW Luxnnboug Holding 
Roc +32.11.2149*1 


MADE M ITALY, EXPORT FROM ITALY 
ewy kind of consumer goods, tood- 
shrils, fwnttra, squpmam. tedroioaes. 
C.W.O. (cash vrith order) with L/C + 
F.OD. system, ordy. Best arnHy/pricee. 
temce your request to. C1GJ. va fax 
+3943432ES2 

V YOU HAvTcOMIERCIAL Prendsaa 
avateUe, wel stained and are ready to 
tanst a mtahun of USS50AXMX. you can 
become an BC partner h Europe. Alta. 
Africa or America. Tel: Pens +33 
(0)1 4757 7762. Fat (Q)1 4758 5517. 

2nd PASSPORTS / Driving Licences I 
Degress/Camouflage Passports.'Secrel 
Bank Accoume. GM, P.O. Bo 70302. 
Athens 166 JO, Greece. Fax 8952152, 
MtpJNnw^obat+noneyxom 

LB.C. SEEKS ACTIVE PARTNERS” 
for the creation oi highly profitable 

projeett h USA, Asia, Ara and Europe. 

TM Paris +33 (0)1 47 58 54 74. Fax: 

+33 (0)1 47 59 55 17 (ReL 004). 

AGSUS WANTED! To Sa8 IB CoTpo” 
reUons & lift ton S3Q0 (al nduswa) 
Corporate Consulting Ltd. Telephone: 
302-5294)500 or Fax: 302-529-9005 USA 

AUTHOR OF A UNIQUE STORY tor a 
fabulous Western, seeks confidant Fin 
Producer or Director Reply Sox 0288. 
IXT„ 92521 NeiMy Cede*. Franca. 

FAMOUS DISCOTHEQUES OFFERED. 

2 nw/taige successU franchise outlets 
in Singapore mi Bah Avsfiabb In May. 
Omar rattans- Fax |65) 834 0395 

IMPORT * EXPORT COMPANY IN 
LAUSANNE seeks a partner. 8 you are 
interested please tax + 41-21-601 07 25 


AMERICAN LAWYER ZURICH 
Compieie professional serves for all 
commercial busmess, real estate and 
LISA investments. Al your armrests in 
America under legal managemert. Over 
25 years experience. 10 from Zurich. 
Puwnes & Associates. Attmational Busi* 
ness and Legal Consultants. Loren L 
Antes, Juris Dr. Fa* *41-1-825 G234. 
Tet +41-1-825 6232 

DIVORCE IN 1 DAY. No travel. Write: 
Box 377, Sudbury. UA 01776 USA Tat 
508M43-B387. fax 506/4434183. 


For SaleS Wanted 

COPPER CLAD LAMINATE FOR SALE 
Large quantities ol FR-2. FR-4, CEM-1 
andwn core copper dad taminate for 
sate et dtscounl prices. Al tavenloty 8 


iY CERTWO 
I) S6M695. Wife 16707 
J 7 , Hunbncpn Beach. CA‘ 

wel-iiwnnfljimptoom 


ii i a wv TMfid. piase contact us at Ur*- 
venal Lamratas- USA drristan. Tet 
5Q&4694200 Fac 5 09-372-8592. 

BEAimFULLY designed crafts from 

X wood: ehass boards, boxes, toys. 

Bern and more. Vckme pwdtase 
ody. Fax Uorecca (212) 224 4193. 

Real Estate 
for Rent 

Paris A rea Unfurnished 

PARS IBIIl WEST. . 

- 2nd low. Seqm. 2 rooms* 
peridiupcare+hasL » naw. ffMDU. 
-Bth floor. 45 sqjn. studio, as new, 
FHSOOtoJ. Td +33(0)142150625 


Paris Ar ea Furnished 

ah, 0DE0N, Mgf! ft* sufc hiwi 
house, chamring. quel. fidYWTCf' 
F55IX) net T* +33 ffll 46 90 04 ®. 


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P0SZUKUJEMY DYNAUICZNYCH, 
mowncycn po polsku btisniossemenow 
Ipare me wyUuuone) riba expanse 
srrbU) rozsriiaiacei ue Anwrytotsktej 
miedrynartfewe) finny prosze wetorrac 
cllsrtY ni.- Bex 0297. 92521 

Neutiy Cedar. France 

LB XL seeks for ts Eixopean. Amenan. 
Asan and Atecan carters: el new prod- 
uclB ter dismbuhon. Tet PARIS +33 
(0)1 <757 368Q. Fat +33 1011 4758 5517 

PORTLAND CEMENT + KUNKER. 
We offer buli-bagged any destination. 
Fax 372 3 3343104 !ill 38 2 5455464 

SUCCESSFUL Candy 8 let Cream 
shop ta R Worth. Taxes. S229C TeWFax 
817-2B3-5895 or B 1 7-545+3266 USA. 

TURKSH GROUPS await projeore frwT 
all couarias on nurism. industry, ate. 
Pteasa fax: +50 it2 2457681 tar (ttafe 


Telecommunications 


Glob eNet 


GIobeNal privately owned partnership 
nth one ol Irie US’s largest cable TV. 
providers, seeks to expend ds tail 
Cahack whotasale program. Only exper- 
ienced cafflack operators with minimum 
monteiy traffc need apply. Waste r tf» 
serious celtaeck resder or masw agent 
tootang to anprow tees merita postaon 
and manure. To recekre an ovetvow ol 
our program, pteasa conted Karen Yavl 
via lax at: elQ -525-8610 or E-mail: 
gnoS’mtespnnB. con. 


Wmback 


The Original A Largest Discount 
TaboommudcattaM Company 

T* t20L5M.1»1 

Fax: 1206599.1981 

Hraaft tateOkafiractacojn 
mJmSiaciuoni 


Business Services 

-LEARN THE CHC PARISIAN WAV 
Be s your bast a saves tune 1 Mr> I&, 
use your top in Parra to improve or 
change your look and become a new 
person. Al aspects’ of your appearance 
mV be aten care of: Personalized 
advice. Showing. Protessronal team: 
image makers, make-up. skin care, 
hakorassare... G.C. Consjtam. Tet; +33 
( 0)1 431 58588 9am to 230pm Paw twe 

MA1LWG LISTS by Berger & Conpry 
European business and consumer date 
TeL 44 1312362996 Fax 44 1312267901 


ASSET PROTECTION 

Offering a unique range of services to 
overseas investors in Caravan private 
corporations, real estate and perttebe 
investments. Our firm soeaatzes in 
provKfing managemsro and siranJsmp 
Cvemw functors tainted to the specific 
iwterements ct overseas oonas. 

For nure mtomtatian. please ccntacc 
L Gnmnid CJULCJL (UX) 

Foe Canada (416) SM783 
E-Mate gnanraMVIatar^a 


MANAGSIENT MTL SSW1CE 
You company domett and office man- 
agement. to The Caribbean. Perecnsl 
and confidential senate. Ak tadbbes In- 
duing a-mad. Fax tapw) 221-9060 

US COMPANY, pertatomg to a Group 
estatfshed 30 years ago. wif sourced 
types ol US manutaitaired goods and 
maienals lor a modest con v rx ss jni 
Braswt (USA). Inc. (Miami). Tel: 
(305)374-2828. Fax: (305)3744153. 

E-Wat no24086canednet. 

YOUR OFRCE IN 0UBUN. SeMcefoT 
fees, UflK. Phone A Fax, Offshore Co. 
Formations. Prestigious Address. Tel: 
+353 D) 475 1881 Fax: (1) 475 1889 

YOUR OFHCE IN LONDON 
Bond Street - Mai. Phone. Fax, Telax 
Tet 44 171 290 9000 Fax 171 499 7517 


Tax Services 

COMPUTE YOUR VS. INCOME TAX 
exclusion, get Bxtenwon Med using our 
Website-TAXHELPER.COM ITS free! 
E-mail KLARINCPAOtaxhe!per.com or 
Fax: 7T4-833-t886 USA. 

EXPAT INCOME TAX U.S.T.S.. Inc. 
Returns and rotated services. Pans Rep: 
+33 (0) 1 4413 6944 Fax 4563 2496; 
London +44 ,0) 171 722 3906. 


Security and Surveillance 

ANTI-TERRORISM EXPERT, equator. 
Personal proteewn. Tat France +33 
(0)6 0809 1479. Fax +33 lOjt 4270 7565 


Banking 


COMMERCIAL HO. BANNMG LTD 

CREDIT 

MFO: FAX +30 1 32 43 527 


Capital Wanted 

REQUIRED LOAN OF 1)55500,000- 
USS3 mMon tar 30 days m exchange for 
an SBLC from fire dess bank. eg. Loan 
received USSl rnffion, we offer USS2 
irdlan SBLC as payment of pttnctole 
plus tateea. Fints must proof first Fax 
“ to: 00-60-7-3513077 





Ideal accommodation: shrio-5 bedrooms 
Oualy and serwee assured 
READY TO MOVE M 
Tel +3310)1 43129000. Fax (OH 43129808 


AT HOME N PARK 

PARIS PROMO 

Apenmems to ram funtted or not 
Sales A Property Management Servtta 
25 Av Hoche 75008 Paris FXD1-46811Q39 

Tel: 433 (0)1 45 63 25 60 


French Riviera 


CAP D'ANTIBES. Unique panoramic 
new, wakrirara. 30 min. dime from fee 
Airport. supeA house mth a surface area 
al 170 sq.nu comptetety renovated, com- 
prising 5 bedrooms, swimming poof, 
1153 sq.m tend, surrounded wftii old 
sees. Ideal lor second rasdenfial house 
Price USS 1.9 M negotiable- Contact 
Foma Parsons, Tel: UK 44 in 437 
9105. Far 44 171 2S7 5673 


Holidays and Travel 

EXCLUSIVE TRAVEL SERVICES 
1 am your personal tour grade and travel 
consultant. Luxembourg Telffax: 
+35251.7693 


AGENCE CHAMPS ELYSEES Hoflday flenfate 


Paris & Suburbs 


Furrtttad apanmartt, 3 uerths or more 
orurttreshad. reatotM areas. 


Td: +33 ( 

Fax: +33 


Switzerland 


42 25 32 25 

45 63 37 09 


JULY-AUGUST. 2 rooms. 50 sqm. hi- 
nisfied. Paris 17th. FF6,O0QJmo or 
FROOOMl Tet +33 (181 42289646 


GENEVA, UKUHY FURNBHBD awn- 
matt. From swfcs to4 ttedooms. T* 
+41 22 735 6320 Fax +41 22 7362671 

Real Estate 
for Sale 

Paris and Suburbs 

PLACE DES VOSGES, 30 sim, detexa 

hrontsfwcf. 2 rooms. 

place, bafftata. Owner +33(0)1 42409262 


Employment 


E xecutives Available 

HARVARD FEMALE LAWYER, seeks 
paHBrte emptoymert, shde estali^frg. 
Ktiffy motivated & experienced (Pans 
baud, tomes). Fpify fitanguaJ. strong 
trans-industry litas, computer fterare. 
took, a raeeonatfe oSers OMidared. 
Fax (RaL HT) +33 (0)1 45021234. Wrta 
Box 295, If, 92521 Neuffly C* Frinta. 


cf Glassware, Po+catain and China ■ 
i is leaking tor strong buyers 
twnatosaiers. tiscaunt-soresj i 
! OxcceznUtf j 

tturtd Vide Supples Inc. 

F» *51 ” J «^6199 f 

I The SjdijWMW I 


EMPIRE STATE BUdiXNCi 
ADDRESS 

Oatn matant cradtbiKty. 
EwttitwnaWYpi— anwm 
iha workTa baaHuwwn 

building. Hail raca+vao. phone 

ring, c o nfrenca 
room, fumahad mhv-ofHcia*. 

MH » «TAW OWVCtSPMCn 

■rainwiMm • ButaHtt-ms 


! Established Company 
I Seeks Short Term 
| Development Funding 
| For Exciting Project 
i Contact 0171-916 9026 


IDEA OR 
VENTION? 



Don't miss ; 

our 

SpedaiR^ort 
Telecommunications ! 
which will ! 

i 

appear on I 

June 9. 1997 I 


Capital Available 


ANGLO AMIKICAN ClOur 
■ r — PLC r 


PROJECT FINANCE 
VBfTURE CAPITAL 
GLOBAL COVERAGE 
NO MAXIMUM 
BROKERS WHCOME 
For Coporate Brochure and 
nonnation pad 
TM: +44 1924 201 365 
Far +44 1924 201 577 
You are Mtome to vod us. 


NONRECOURSE FfliANCWG 

AVAILABLE FOR INTERNATIONAL 
PROJECTS AND WVESTM9ITS 
HAVING SAUSFACTCWY CREDIT 
SUPPORT OR GUARANTEES 

Brokers Protected 

PINNACLE CREDTT 

Teh (416) 601-2270; Far (416) 601-2280 
Toronto, Canada 


CAPITAL C0RP. 

H & A 

Corooraa Fencing 
Vatan Capital 
(WbrkMdB) 

Tel: mwwm 
Fax: 001-407-248-0037 USA 


GLOBAL PROJECT FUNDING 
VENTURE CAPITAL-JOINT VENTURES 
-PROECT FWANCNG 


mvmsATio.N *i Vn.-ii.-xri 

Tet +44 113 2727 550 
Fac +44 113 27Z7 5BO 
Fe« are not requested pnor to 
en offer of tandhg tong mad*. 


PROJECT FINANCING 

Ventre Capitol - Joint Venhres - 
No Masmum - Brokers Protected. 


RJ1 INTERNATIONAL 
let 001-242=363-1649 
Fax: 001-716-7794200 


RREVOCABIE BANK 
RESPOIBBLE FUNDttG 
AGAWST SUITABLE GUARANTEE 
MMMUM USS10JMUM0 
TYPICAL COST 5% 

LESS ON LARGS? AMOUNTS 
NO RISK DELIVERY 
FOR MEETWG FAX 
+44 (0)171 470 7205 


"ItMBXATE & UHLMTED “ 
Capeal avattltt tor 
All business projecte! 
m UA SI tnl/no max. 
bfl Businas Consulng 
1717) $7-7490 (US. FAX) 
hCp^ww*. Wxrscon.com (burnt) 


UNLIMITED IN TL FUNDING I LOANS 
(commotraL prajact finance ■ stari+rp. 
devutopmentl through Prime totetnaonal 
Europran Ftnanom Sources. To Itemize 
your protect / request type to: CROWN 
fNST. Inc. va lax + 21072-9637 (USA) 


of Car-Ascessones 
is looking for strong buyers 
(wholesalers, discount-stores) 

Wnw i ■wl.m 

vorid Wide Simplte toe. 

Fac -31 (orTsr* bl09 
The Neeu-risMtl* 


j Von want to extend i 
yottr financial activities ! 
| on tiie Belgian market 

We are an important Belgian 
financial institution who can 
offer you a national 
commercial distribution 
network 

We guarantee you success in 
the short term 

Please contact Box D-479 - IHT 
92521 Neuilfy Cedex - France 


COMMERCIAL FUNDING 
FOR ALL PROJECTS WORLDWIDE 
VentLfreEjjp Capital 
Bjsms&Tenn Loans 
Biota enquiries toccme 
EMC WVESTIIENTS LTD 
FAX -M (0)115 942 7846 


FUfiOS AVAILABLE 
For tavastment Progtwns 
Proof of Pints Arotebto 
Through Account Hokters at 
Seven LLS & European Banks 
(212) 758-4242 Fn: (212) 758-1221 
fflanay's & Brokers Invited 
375 Park Are, NY. NY 10152 USA 


CAPITAL FUNDING AVAILABLE 
Untoum SIM USD. Charges no retainer 
fees, interest 4% & up. Conlacl Ms. 
fatten Fax 604424-1470 Carafe 

COHHERCtALfeUStHESS FINANCE 
avattabte tor any viabte projects wodd- 
nade. Fax brief synops* in English to 
Corporate Advances. (+J44-1273821300. 

GULF BANCOR LTD tor tundnq al pro- 
jacts. Fax +31 11B 466295. P.O. Box 
381, 4380 AJ Vfcsngen - ML 


Financial Sendees 


FUNDNG PROBLEMS? 

tor 

SOLUTIONS 

Coma 


BANCOR 

OF ASIA 

ttt nuawttes to secure hmdtog 
for viable projects: 

VENTURE CAPITAL 

EQUTTY LOANS 

REAL ESTATE 

Long totm collateral 
Suppnteg Guarantees 

Fir fo32) 81W284 
-Tat (B32) 894-5358 


(CommEHXi earned or4> 
Brokers Commisaon 


WORLD WIDE FINANCING 

’ConmercW MongngH 
■Ventura Capital 
‘Stock Luns 
’ftofod Ftindhg 
■Lattonol Croat 
'Accounts Recsfvabta Financing 
'Private Ptacement 
WsfcStefe 

Tel: (212) 7564242 
Fax: (212) 758-1221 
Brake's Welcome 

375 Para Are. NY. NY 10152 USA 
Ratin&tt Retainer 

Sometmes Required. 


FINANCIAL GUARANTEES 

hsnance r Ftensraance bsAed 
giararaeuB lor qttKed 
tusmess prapas. 

Tat 561-9953222 
Fax: 561-998^226 USA 
ncrthCDip®«rittoet^tnet 


U5. DOLLARS AVAILABLE 
’ Tracing Prograns/VMure Capdal 
‘ Equty Loansfiitdge Loats 
■ hnporaExport Fnancing 
1 S2IFS5DU Funds Graraittod 
Sy Top Ftaancbl hsttuons 


CONFERENCES 


INTERNATIONAL CRAFT EXPOSITION 

Rosemont Convention Center 
{five mmine* from O'Hare Intenabooal Airport) 

Searching for business opportunities? Attend the creative industry's mi 

^ni-fnf (nrU-Anlv i MriA t i f teMi Xiptet rfn** Ip n/fi np tmi omnlip 


neetDework,jpj 
more. Gain in 
more than 200 


s, floral and trimmings, miniatures and doll houses. , 
and sewing supplies, rubber stamps and stencils, and much 
on future treads, techniques ana business strategies with 
i of education. Honored try Trodesho*- Week as one of the 


PRAHtM Viiwpn wmmjowui uu. IQ. -riM- 

EHBtetikfeeLifb^oEEb^rxom WdfnrwwxnitivEHbdiiA^^ 


Agents Wanted 
Worldwide 

30% COMMISSION OFFERED 


Non-exclusive independent agents 
needed immediately in aii countries by 
the Finance Merchants Group of Nassau, 
Bahamas to market our Class A interna- 
tional commercial banks and Class B 
offshore banks. 


A unique and profitable opportunity! 

FINANCE MERCHANTS GROUP 

Conted Ms. Anno Grecian/ 
for further details end available banks 

24-HOUR GLOBAL COMMUNICATION CENTER 
Tel. (602) 230-4153 (USA) - Fax (602) 2305214 (USA) 

BAHAMAS OFFICE 
Tei. 242-394-7Q80 - Fax 242-394-7082 


INT*L FRANCHISES 


JUST PUBLISHED 

International Herald Tribune's 
International Franchise Guide 
rVTERVATIOJVAl MASTER FRWCH1SE 
& AREA DETOLOPMEXr OPPORTL^VTITES 

Thu definitiur -uide dmntt-d solely to iniernaUonAl fraiu-hLinp. 
[V-raiW- unMcrdjie proGks op the uorldV leadinp international 
[rutiauHjrs. ITo page?. l : SS34.95 (includes flipping) 

Stud tn /HT IjUn/**.. P.O. Box U/38. iMLind. C\ Q4ftM . Cash, Monty Order. Visa , 
or M'C t-4-od Am. ?. E\wr. DjIf & Approval ji-nalun-).' 

Tel: (5UH 83*>-547Tor Fax: (affl) 547-3245 
E-Muil: sourrelitH.vkigiearrhlink.nrt W ehsite rwTvw iranr hist- ind. iti m 

Hcral bl^ttL Sribimc 


FUNDING COMMITMENTS 
ISSUED BY MAJOR BANKS 

FOR FUNDS FIRST TRANSACTIONS 
Tel 551 -837-1363 
Fan £61-657-4364 USA 


Serviced Offices 


Your Office It Germany 

«b are "z yoa semes' 

1 Complete office services at two 
prestige addresses 

' Fifty equipped offices tor short 
term or tang term. 

' httmattoraly trahad office 
and professional staff a you 
isposai. 

■ Can be legaffy used as you 
corporate domett tor Germany-' 
Europe. 

" Your business operation can start 
immediately. 

■ Since 1972. 

Lalrca Bushes* Services GmbH 
Lareo-Haus am Hotzhauserreeik 
Justnanstrasre 22 , 

60322 Frankfut am Mata 
Getneny 
T«t(0|gst« 

Fax: (®) 585770 


COMMERCIAL COORDINATORS 

SWITZERLAND 

' Been] rcpreseraaim 
■ Fuff admnstotive and secretarial 
services 

’ PR and sooal fimefcon airangemeitt 
’ Translations, copy mttng in German. 
French, English 

* Med and greet you or your derra 
Genew and Zunch 

* Property search, retcation assistance 
’ Offices n German and Frtnch 

speaking Swtartanl 

CCS 

Comment Coonfinatos Swtoartand 
ScfenzacttrsttBSse 18 
TelfFa +{41) 1.362 34 97 
Enmalh c<-»Oacccsaxh 


YOUR OFFICE IN PARIS 

b ready whan you need It 
even lor a couple ol houre. 

' Fifty iunctsra! modem offices 
and conference rooms to lenrby toe 
no if. day, month tec — 

1 Your tacticaf or pomanert base 
■ Prestige mtfttag address. Al semen 
BBE — 

81, Fg SMtonore 75006 Paris 
Tef+83 (0)144713636. Fax (0)1 42661560 


World-Wide 

Business Centres H 
Nfdworfc dD "jJET. 
START YOUR 
BUSINESS TODAY! 

Bigness addresses, furnished offices, 
metenj fadfies m: Austria, Btegkm, 
France. Germany, Great Britan, Italy, 
Netherlands, Portugft, Swtertend 

Pteasa coraact: Sales Office n Zurch 

TeL 441-1 214 62 62 
Fax 441-1 214 65 19 

E+rait wxticn_ajrdi®teii 0 vm.di 
vreb: rmv.cnibcnxh 


TAX FREE HAVEN 
xi Iha heat d Nassau 
Prestigious Office Space Avaffatee 
Secreterial Services, Prw® Phone 
& Ffe Conference Room 
FiftiParf-'nme Office Renat 
TeL 1-242-356-0444 Far 1-242-326-3655 


Financial Investments 


SAP FUTURES TRADERS! 
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EUROPE & ASIA 

MAxaBE profit pammu. 

Unique Trader Ass 1st Program is now 
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Proven track record. Comae system 
developer for more into at 
TeJ B1-77W895 fine H1-77WW7 
E-mail: JfcarttooLcom 
Creative BreaMtrough, he. (USA) 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE COMMODITIES 
FINANCIALS FULLY LICENSED FRF 
VATE ACCOUNTS. TEL (I) 972 702 
8841 FAX: ti) 809 49+«16 


Diamonds 

ROUGH DIAMONDS. We Mfl pay naant 
cash tor gam quafty, Afrtcar ongn. 
volume only. Fax 954 474-3866 USA 


COMMERCIAL 
& INVESTMENT 
PROPERTIES 

Rentals 


PARIS 6th - ODEON, 3 n» CreWton. 
unfumshad shop, commercial lease. 
ReraaL FF9500( month + VAT. Tel: +33 
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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1997 


PACE 27 


SPONSORED PAGE 



Moscow and Prague: 


^ Excitement of toe East 


U nforgettable sights and 
experiences brought 70 mil- 
lion people to Prague in 
1996: the walk across the 
Charles Bridge and the climb up to 
the Hradcany, the city’s fortified 
“upper town”; the mute testimony of 
die gravestones in the New Jewish 
Cemetery; the chamber music in the 
churches; and the bustle along the 
Celetni, the main shopping street. 

Another attraction is not listed in 
any guidebook, but you feel it the 
moment you set foot in Prague: the 
excitement of being in a city that - 
building by building, street by street, 
quarter by quarter - is returning to 
life. It is fascinating to be in the capi- 
tal of a country that is successfully 
modernizing its economy while 
relaunching one of the world's most 
venerable and venerated traditions of 
democracy. 

Moscow teems with a similar 
excitement The scope of its econom- 
ic and political transformation is even 
greater than that of Prague. Ibday's 
Moscow is a jumble of lovingly 
restored neighborhoods and vast new 
construction sites, interspersed with 
the Kremlin, Red Square and other 
sights attracting tourists from all over 
the world. Arriving with the tourists 
are legions of businesspeople, who 
hope to realize the potential of the 
Russian market. 


PLEASURES IN PRAGUE 


% £. 
* 


Just walking around Prague is a great 
pleasure, especially on a warm sum- 
mer day. Attending a cultural event in 
one of the city’s historic buildings is 
an even greater pleasure. A peak expe- 
rience is an opera staged in one of the 
city’s resplendent palaces. Many of 


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The Renaissance Moscow Hotel Is equipped to handle everything a business traveler 

needs -from conference feeffies and translattons to excebent titling and a superbly 


S PON S ( ) R E D P A ( * F. 


traveling ivith 


* 


enaissance m 



these operas were written by such 
Czech greats as Dvorak," Janacek and 
Smetana. Others, such as “The 
Marriage of Figaro,” first found fame 
in Prague, a city of accomplished 
composers and appreciative connois- 
seurs. 

After a disappointingly short run in 
Vienna, “Figaro” received a rapturous 
reception when it came to Prague, and 
its fame then spread around the world. 
On the heels of it came a commission 
for Mozart from a local princely fam- 
ily. The result was “Don Giovanni,” 
premiered in Prague in 1787. 

This summer, the passionate tale of 
lust and revenge will be performed in 
the perfect setting and at the perfect 
time. The place will be the courtyard 
of the Lichtenstein palace, perched 
immediately below the Hradcany’s 
fortifications. The time will be 
evenings in July and August 

“Don Giovanni” and another well- 
loved classic, ‘La Traviata,” form the 
centerpiece of the Renaissance Prague 
Hotel's “Open Air Opera” packages. 
Offered from July 1 1 to Aug. 18, these 
packages come with the hotel’s wide 
range of features and amenities, 
including extra-large rooms, 24-hour 
room service, unrestricted access to 
the hotel's fitness center and its swim- 
ming pool, limousine and bus service 
to the airport, in-house parking and a 
fully equipped business center. 

Tbe tetter is of great interest to 70 
percent of the guests staying at the 
Renaissance Prague Hotel’s 315 
rooms: international executives in 
Prague to do business in the rapidly 
growing economy. Many of these 
executives stage meetings or seminars 
in the hotel’s 10 conference rooms 
and banquet halls, which range in 
capacity from 10 to 240 persons. 





Renaissance 
In Europe 


Prague now offers a profusion of 
cuisines equaling that of London, 
Amsterdam or any other center of 
multicultural culinary fare. The 
Renaissance Prague Hotel’s restau- 
rants exemplify the city’s new gastro- 
nomic. diversity. The Potomac offers 
contemporary American cuisine. The 
Pa villi on has an ever-changing range 
of buffets for breakfast, lunch and 
dinner. The U Korbele serves the 


famous beer, dumplings and other 
culinary creations of Bohemia 


culinary creations of Bohemia. 

Tbe Renaissance Prague Hotel is 
located in the heart of the city's down- 
town district, on V. Celnici, a street 
just four short blocks away from the 
main train station. 



Headquartered in Eschbom, 
a northern suburb of Frankfurt, 
Renaissance Hotels International 
is responsible for operating 
68 Renaissance and Ramada hotels in Europe, 
Africa and the Middle East 
For reservations and further information 
on these or any other Renaissance, 
Ramada or New World hotels, 
please call 

(353) 213 58030 or fax (353) 213 58040. 


For further information, please contact: 
Renaissance Hotels International 
Frankfurter Str. 10 - 14 
D-65760 Eschbom 
Germany 

TeL: (49 6196) 496 0 
Fax:(496196)496115 


BUSINESS IN MOSCOW 


The centrrty located Renaissance Prague Hotel offers atate-of- 
th c ortfadBths and services, extra-large rooms, fheculsins and 
“Open Air Opera” packages, available from Jtdy 11 to Aug. 18. 


“Renaissance in Europe” 

was produced in Us entirety by the Advertising Department of 
the International Herald Tribune. 

Writer: Terry Swartzberg in Munich. 

Program director: Bill Mahder. 


Business travelers do not necessarily 
judge a hotel by the size of its rooms, 
or the softness of its beds, but rather 
by tbe quality and range of its ser- 
vices. In many parts of tire world, 
hotels are the base of operations for 
business executives, who use them to 
hold sales seminars, recruit personnel 
and handle everything from transmit- 
ting data to getting visas. 

There is an enormous need for busi- 
ness-related services in Russia, which 
is a new and rapidly changing market 
for most of the world's business com- 
munity. This is why the Renaissance 
Moscow Hotel offers such a wide 
range of business-related facilities, 
including a conference center seating 
up to 300 people and equipped with 
booths for simultaneous translation. 
Tbe hotel also has 12 other confer- 
ence rooms and a business center with 
state-of-the-art communication sys- 
tems and fully equipped private 
offices. 

Business travelers also appreciate 
comfortable accommodation. In fact, 
they insist upon it - and at value-fbr- 
money prices. The Renaissance 
Moscow Hotel more than lives up to 
all their expectations. Located on the 
hotel’s top floor, the Renaissance 
Club . offers 60 king-sized bedrooms 
and a . range of suites; guests are 
offered butler service, separate check- 
in and check-out facilities, and much 


more. 

All of the guests staying in the 
Renaissance Moscow Hotel’s nearly 
500 rooms and suites enjoy such 
state-of-the-market amenities as satel- 
lite television and satellite telephones, 
a superbly equipped fitness dub, and 
a wide choice of on-site restaurants, 
bars and cafrs. 

For both business and leisure trav- 
elers, the hotel's location is one of its 
prime attractions. The Renaissance 


Moscow Hotel is situated next to the 
Olympic complex and within a 10- 
minute ride from tbe heart of the 
city’s downtown district. 


An exceptionally large number of 
lists wifi be in A 


tourists will be in Moscow this yean 
The city is celebrating the 850th 
anniversary of its founding with fire- 
works, folkloric events, ballet and 
opera festivals, and a wide range of 
other attractions. 

In addition to accommodation, the 
Renaissance Moscow Hotel’s “850 


years of Moscow” package includes 
transportation to and from th 


the airport 
and die “Moscow 850 pass,” which 
entities its bearer to discounts at the 
city’s museums and a number of its 
stores. 


5: 






■iv 


Renaissance Prague Hotel 
V. Celnici 7 
CZ- 11 000 Prague 1 
Czech Republic 
Tel.: (420 2) 21 82 21 00 
Fax: (420 2) 21 8222 00 


Renaissance Moscow Hotel 
Olympijskij Prospect 18/1 
Moscow 129 110 
Russia 

Tel.: (7 095) 931 9000 
Fax: (7 095) 931 9076 
Satellite telephone: (7 502) 223 9000 
Fax: (7 502) 223 9076 


ALEXANDRIA 





I , 
/' 


TOETO . KARLSRUHE ■ ANTALYA COLOGNE HAMIUKC . WASHINGTON DC 




ft * 


FT 










PAGE 28 


INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY. MAY 38. 199; 

EUROPE 


OECD Bars 
Easing Rules 
For Russian 
Membership 

CurnfxM by i*«r Su&Fmm CiispOKha 

PARIS — OECD ministers on 
Tuesday welcomed the prospect of a 
significant increase in the organi- 
zation’s membership, but said (here 
could be no question of weakening 
the criteria for entry for Russia. 

The Organization for Economic 
Cooperation and Development 
offered Moscow a closer partner- 
ship but no firm date for joining the 
international free-market group. In- 
stead. the OECD forged a new co- 
operation pact with Russia and 
vowed to help it liberalize its econ- 
omy. 

Negotiations are in progress for 
Slovenia to become the organiza- 
tion's 30th member, and Argentina, 
Chile and Israel are among 20 coun- 
tries that have expressed interest in 
joining the organization, Britain’s 
Foreign Office minister. Tony 
Lloyd, said at the OECD's annual 
ministerial meeting. 

Ulrich Stitcher, Austria’s direc- 
tor-general for economic coordin- 
ation, said: “The OECD of tomor- 
row will certainly be a larger and 
more varied organization that it has 
been in the past A broader regional 
base would be a majoradvantage for 
the OECD. " 

Potential members are expected 
to have a level of democratic, eco- 
nomic and social development close 
to that of existing members. 

“The OECD has to maintain the 
highest possible standards so new 
entrants must meet those stan- 
dards." Mr. Lloyd said. 

Russia applied for OECD mem- 
bership a year ago. but Donald John- 
ston. the secretary-general, said last 
week that acceptance was still a long 
way off. (AFX, Reuters} 


Greece’s Fleet Faces a ‘Depressed Scene ’ 


By John Tagliabue 

New York Times Service 


PIRAEUS, Greece — The Piraeus Yacht 
Club, where shipping deals are struck over 
heaps of grilled squid, juts out from a rocky 
outcrop like the bridge of a svelte cruise liner. 
These days, that bridge faces stiff headwinds. 

This is no small matter, either in this sea- 
faring town near Athens or in a country like 
Greece. While Greece may be an economic 
dwarf in the European Union, its merchant fleet 
is a commercial giant, accounting for about half 
of all European shipping and almost 20 percent 
of the world's shipping fleet. 

Over the past year or so. expansion of the 
Greek fleet has far outstripped demand for 
cargo space. World seaborne trade rose 3 per- 
cent to 33 percent in 1996, compared with 3.7 
percent a year earlier and where large cargo 
carriers earned about $ 14.800 a day m 199S. 
according to Clarkson Research Studies, a ship- 
ping group, they now earn $9,985. 

The value of the big cargo haulers you see 
when you look out over the Piraeus harbor has 
fallen by about half since the start of 1995, and 
the result has been financial leakage. 

Last year, the 85-vessel Adriatic Tankers, 
controlled by Panagis Zissamaros, was crushed 
under $620 million in debt and declared in- 


solvency. This year, Unimar. an operator of 
small bulk camera, and Marcantonakis. an 
automobile transporter, are in financial straits, 
and the group headed by Menis Karageorgis, a 
former head of the Union of Greek Ship Own- 
ers, is in a dispute with bankers over loans. 

“We’re not talking a full-blooded shipping 
crisis yet," said Nigel Lowry, local correspon- 
dent for die trade newspaper Lloyd’s List, “but 
a bit of a depressed scene." 

Depression, of course, is nothing new to 
Greek shipping, which has watched its fortunes 
ebb and flow over the years. Modem Greek 
shipping was bom in the last century, uniting 
mainland Greece with the 2,000 or so Greek 
islands in the Aegean Sea. In recent years, while 
much of world shipping raced after the efficient 
container-traffic routes, the Greeks excelled at 
“taxi" services, chartering cargo vessels by the 
day or the voyage. 

Traditionally, powerful Greek shipowners 
such as Stavros Ni arch os and Aristotle Onassis, 
or more recently George Li van os and John 
Latsis, stayed solvent by playing the ship mar- 
ket, buying used vessels when prices were 
down and selling when they revived. The result 
was a carousel of shipping families. 

Not surprisingly, the financial squeeze has 
brought movement into the market mat experts 
say has been accelerated by the rise of a young 


generation of shippers trained at Western busi- 
ness schools and focused on finance. 

Thus, to increase revenues, some tanker 
lines, such as Ceres Hellenic Shipping En- 
terprises of Livanos. now run by Mr. Livanos's 
son Peter, are shedding an older generation of 
big tankers, those larger than 200.000 tons in 
capacity, in favor of smaller, more efficient 
vessels of about 50.000 tons. Meanwhile, cargo 
lines such as Costamare are entering the fiercely 
competitive container-shipping business once 
avoided by the Greeks. 

But what most upsets the shippers among all 
the changes are rising costs, inflated by the price 
of Greek seamen's Tabor. The effort to reduce 
labor costs is pitting the shipowners against the 
powerful Greek Seamen’s Federation and the 
government over a proposal by shipowners to 
drop requirements that Greek vessels use 
mainly Greek sailors. Under present law, all 
officers and 40 percent of the crew on Greek 
ships must be Greek nationals. But the Union of 
Greek Ship Owners and its president. John 
Lyras, are proposing a change in the law that 
would allow shipowners to decide how many 
crew members must be Greek. 

The mathematics are simple. While Greek 
crewmen earn as much as S2.000 a month, 
crewmen from places such as Turkey and the 
Philippines make as little as $400. 


EMI, Profit Sagging, to Revamp American Subsidiary 


Catpdrd by Our Staff Fran Dapotcha 

LONDON — EMI Group PLC 
said Tuesday it would reorganize its 
North American subsidiary to re- 
duce costs and encourage the de- 
velopment of new U.S. acts to try to 
match the success of its top-selling 
British pop group the Spice Girls. 

The announcement came as EMI 
reported a 23 percent drop in annual 
pretax profit^ to £283.9 million 
($462.4 million), compared with 
pro-forma earnings of £367.3 mil- 
lion last year. The latest earnings 
included a restructuring charge. Ex- 
cluding that charge, pretax profit 


rose 3.6 percent, to £38025 million, 
in line with analysts' expectations. 

Sales fell 3.7 percent, to £3.4 bil- 
lion. The company will pay a full- 
year dividend of 30 pence a share, 
up from 27 pence last year. 

EMI also announced that it 
planned to raise shareholder value 
by buying back as many as 10 per- 
cent of its own shares. 

Emerging markets in Asia, East- 
ern Europe and Latin America offset 
sluggish performance in the United 
States. Japan and most of Europe, 
EMI said. 

The company plans to close its 


New York head office, dismissing 
two top executives and a staff of 50. 
EMI has put Ken Beny, the head of 
EMI Music International and Virgin 
Records, in charge of its North 
American business. Mr. Berry was 
responsible for launching the Spice 
Girls and signing the singer George 
Michael. The company plans to take 
a charge of £117.2 million to re- 
organize the division and to provide 
for bad debts from U.S. retailers. 

Closing the New York office will 
save between £35 and £40 million 
annually, EMI said. The move came 
amid a slump in a U.S. market suf- 


Investor’s Europe 


Frankfurt 

DAX 


London ' Paris 
FT5E 100 Index . CAC 40 . 

3000 



D J F MAM 
1996 1997 


d'jf mam 

1996 1997 


Exchange 


ttefex 


Close 

806.13 


D JF MAM 
1996 - 1997 

PlieV. 

Close" ctiaage| 
' 812:19 .^0.75 


Brussels 

BEL-20 

ZZJSXZ 2,279.04 ,.-OM 

Frankfurt 

DAX • 

*1,674»36 3.K7.86 +0.4S 

Copenhagen 

Stock Market 

578.05 58a?3- . .tO.46 

Helsinki 

HEX General 

S,894Jia >0-37 

Oslo 

.OBX 

■ 63835 • ' mm ■■■JESS 

London 

•FTSE tfld 

4,681.60 4,681 v8p +0.42 

Madrid 

Stock Exchange 

577.7S : 57ft 73: +123 

Milan 

MfBTH. 

J2337 -..12253 

Paris 

CAC 40 

2^8ft34 2,654.74'. '40^6 

Stockholm 

SX 16 • ■ , 

.3, 06ft 59 S f 10Z.94--1^ff 

Vienna 

AtX 

t j3tft70 ,1.30342 ,WZ 

Zurich • 

SPt 


Source: Telekurs 


Inicnuiinul Herald Thbtme 

u 

Very briefly: 


fering from price competition 
among retailers and store closures. 

“The U.S. has given them prob- 
lems,” Colin Tennant, an analyst 
with UBS. said. “Something had to 
happen.” EMI ranks only fifth 
among the world's music compa- 
nies in U.S. sales even after in- 
vesting heavily there, but it aims to 
be in the top three. Mr. Tennant 
said. 

Shares in EML which split from 
the consumer-goods rental company 
Thom PLC in August, fell 54 pence, 
or 4 percent, to close at £ i 1 .7 1 . 

(Bloomberg. AFX. AFP ) 


• Waterford Foods PLC’s and Waterford Cooperative 
Society Ltd.'s boards accepted a revised takeover.bid of 337 
million Irish punts ($510.3 million) from the Irish milk 

processor A von more Foods PLC. 

• Philips Electronics N V will sell its 25 percent stake in Bang 
& Olufsen AS back to the Danish electronics maker for 160 
million Dutch guilders (S84 million). 

• Banco Santander S A of Spain plans to pay $594 million to 
acquire a 35 percent stake in Argentina’s Banco Rio de la Plata 
SA and an option to buy an additional 15 percent stake. 
Santander said it would take management control of the bank. 

• Russia set a minimum price of $ 1 . 1 8 billion for a 25 percent 
stake in the telecommunications company RAO SvyazinvesL 
No date has been set for the sale. 

• Lear Corp„ an American maker of automobile seats, agreed 
to buy Germany's Keiper Car Seating GmbH for 400 
million Deutsche marks ($237.1 million). 

• Denmark's economy will expand 3.3 percent this year, the 

government said, surpassing the 2.9 percent growth that it 
forecast in December. AFX. BUwmberg. Reuters 




WORLD STOCK MARKETS 


Tbesday, May 27 

Prices In local currencies. 
Telekurs 



High 

Law 

dose 

Prev. 

Amsterdam 

AEX mdse 80*13 



Previous 812.19 

ABN- AMRO 

37 

3*40 

3* JO 

36/0 

Aegon 

14*70 

147.70 

142/0 

145/0 

Anew 

148.90 

14*80 

147 

14840 

Akio NotoH 

267/0 

265 

265/0 

m 

SoariOr. 

17930 

117 

117 

718X1 

B 0 I 5 vuess ora 

17M 

37/0 

37/0 

37 JO 

CSMcva 

101/0 

98 

101/0 

103/0 

Dordlsche Pet 

388/0 

385 

386/0 

384 

DSM 

198 

196 

196 

197/0 

•Elsevier 

33 

37/0 

32/0 

32/0 

FartbAmev 

82/0 

8130 

8130 

8230 


68J0 

67 

67/0 

6*20 

G- Brae eva 

6*70 

65 

6*30 

6*30 

Hagemeyer 

97/0 

9430 

9430 

96/0 

Helneken 

330 

327 JD 

328 

32890 

Hacgavenjcvn 
Hunt Douglas 

99 JO 
17*70 

9/ 

171 

97 JD 
171/0 

99/0 

173 

INC Croup 

89/0 

88 

8820 

88/0 

KLM 

SIM 

5*30 

5*50 

57 30 

KNPBT 

40/0 

3930 

3990 

JQ?* 1 

KPN 

<820 

67/0 

67 JO 

6820 

NerfltafdGp 

47/0 

47/0 

47 JO 

47/0 

NutrtOa 

302 30 

299 

299/0 

302 

OceGrtnlen 

24890 

241/0 

247/0 

142 

PhOmsElec 

109.10 

10810 

10830 

109.10 

Porraram 

95 

19*80 

92/0 

19130 

9120 

19130 

95/0 

19*20 


17290 

17230 

17230 

1/230 


6030 

6U 

60/0 

60/0 


17*80 

17*30 

17*40 

17*10 


no 

109 JO 

no 

109/0 

BotoI Dutch 

Un never ora 

37*60 

371.90 

372/0 

37330 

383/0 

380/0 

380/0 

382/0 


11810 

10850 

109/0 

no 

VN0 

43/0 

4110 

43.10 

43JD 

•WbttesKIcva 

237 

23*30 

23*30 

23*10 


Bangkok 

AdvIitfaSvc 
Bangkok BK F 
Krvmi TtnlBk 
PTT&jJtar 
Stom Gem enl F 
Slam Con Bk F 
y.to con»sla 
al Airways 

f lFatm BkF 
Comm 
\ 


177 

199 

176 

162 

218 

2IO 

216 

206 

29J5 

2730 

29 

2875 

322 

306 

320 

306 

558 

M0 

540 

558 

132 

(29 

TO 

IZ7 

3875 

28/5 

7830 

30.75 

37J5 

3*75 

37 

37 

125 

115 

175 

116 

117 

113 

114 

117 


Bombay 

BoMAloo 
HlndUSt UTO 
Hindus Peflm 
Ind Dev Bk 

rrc 

MohaiwgarTd 
Reliance Ind 
Slate Bk India 
Steel Authority 
Tata Eng Loco 


Brussels 


BEL-20 kdeK 227*32 



Previous 2279/4 

AlmaflU 

16273 

16000 

16000 

16500 

Barca ind 

6370 

6300 

6330 

6330 

BBL 

9350 

9250 

9340 

9300 

CBR 

3410 

3355 

3355 

3415 

Cabuyi 

14700 

14450 

14550 

14650 

Demote Lion 

1780 

1735 

1755 

1780 

Eiectrabef 

8320 

8280 

8310 

8290 

Eledntfkw 

3540 

3520 

3540 

3520 

Fulls AG 

6960 

6810 

6920 

6800 

Gcvoert 

3275 

3200 

3220 

3340 

GBL 

5630 

5520 

5520 

5610 

GenBaiflue 

14225 

14075 

I4T50 

14225 

Kredietbank 

14525 

14425 

14500 

14400 

Prtroflna 

17850 

12725 

12800 

12875 

Povierfln 

5110 

5000 

5110 

5110 

Raya k? Beige 

9970 

9900 

9900 

9940 

SocGenBetg 

3375 

3345 

3345 

3350 

Satvay 

21750 

21625 

21675 

21650 

Trodedei 

15425 

1S400 

1500 

15400 

UCB 

77000 

96400 

97000 

97050 


BC flank 


Codan 
Danrtco 
Den Danske Bk 
D/S Svendbig B 
□.■S1912B 
FLSMB 
KobLuBhavne 
Nva NortifckB 
SOStwSBarB 
Tde Donmk B 
TryaBafflca 
imiaanmait A 


313 

39i 

m 

405 

625 


307 

391 

910 

400 

614 


307 

393 

910 

401 

615 


Frankfurt 


AMBB 
Adidas’ 
AlflanzHdg 
Altana 
Bk Beffin 
BASF 


Bewog 
BMW 

CKAGCotanto 

Commerzbank 

Daimler Benz 136.70 


1480 
189.50 
378 

1585 
393} 
663 0 
Bk 58.95 
713} 
030 
9250 
43 
1400 
171 
51.40 


'Dettossa 04.15 

Deutsche Bank 9«.95 

DeutTetotom ».» 

DiesdnerBanfc 62-40 

Fresentus 

FiweiliBMed 15050 
Fried. Kropp 32250 

Gene 

HutdeOg 2 ml 
Henkdpfd 


I2*M 

1« 

100 


HEW 
Hochtief 
Hoeeha 
Xoraoui 
Laim>.ier 

Lkiiftf 
Lufthansa 
MAN 

Mannesman* . 

M«aikwse«scnoll 37 >| 
Menu „ 1&50 
Munch RueckR 446S 
Preussog 448 


7750 

69.90 

630 

7460 

1260 

2X30 

516 

727 


1450 1450 
18850 18950 
370 37 5/0 
1570 1578 

3950 39.45 
65/45 6545 
5025 5855 

73 7X20 
6123 6855 

92 92.T0 
42J0 4250 
1475 1477 
17050 17050 

51.10 5140 
13550 13640 
6220 84.15 
9945 99.78 

39 3940 
6205 S3L2Q 
350 350 

14950 150 

32150 32150 
124 1 24 

165.10 165.10 
9170 100 

487 487 

7550 76 

69.10 69 JB 

615 620 

75 75 
1247 1253 

2120 2825 

510 Si 
721 723 

3755 3755 
J83 184 

4430 4445 

46350 46550 


1475 

187 

373 

1538 

3955 

6405 

5140 

7349 

6137 

9100 

4350 

1461 

17150 

6075 

13445 

8150 

9940 

40 

6155 

35550 

14850 

321 

124 

16650 

9150 

*7 

78 

69.15 

608 

7640 

1251 

2130 

516 

727 

3745 

178 

4475 

467 


RWE 
SAP pfd 
Sdcflnq 
SGL Carbon 
Siemens 
Springer lAreO 
Suedzudcer 
Thjrssen 

VEW 

vicg 

Volkswagen 


HUH 

76.10 

317 

17740 

250 

10005 

1500 

977 

400 

9835 

505 

793 

1156 


Law dm 
75JD 75.75 
315JD 316.40 
173.70 17440 
24450 249 

99/0 9955 
1500 1500 

915 927 

39850 399.10 
9*30 98.65 
505 505 

78350 79050 
1148 1153 


Prev. 

7550 

31650 

17180 

24250 

99.78 

1500 

914 

39250 

9115 

505 

775 

1142 


Helsinki HEX General UK 309102 
Previous; 310541 


EnsoA 

47/0 

4*50 

4*50 

47 

Hutnamaki 1 

235 

227 

228 

235 

Kemtra 

52 

51 

52/0 

51 

Kesko . 

73.70 

73 

73 

73.70 

Merita A 

17/0 

17J0 

17.70 

17.90 

Metro b 

145/0 14*50 14*50 

144/0 

MetHLSertaB 

42.70 

41/0 

41/0 

42 

Neste 

137 

136 

137 

136 

Nakfa A 

3S3 

348 351/0 

351 

Oifon-Ylilymoe 

208 

202 

204 

206 

Outokumpu A 

105 

102 

102 

103 

UPMKymmene 

123 

120 120/0 

123 

Valnwt 

93 

92 

7230 

92 


SET tadoc 56944 
P revious; 56136 


Senses 30 bides: 369255 
Previous 370145 

8S475 044 85450 852 

1042.75103350 1037103525 

422 41750 421 423 

9550 9150 9525 9350 
43050 425 15 438 42*25 

27750 27050 277 27450 

29250 28350 28450 28850 
30450 299.75 301 303 

21 2050 3)50 21 

40455 38950 393 400 


Hong Kong 

HmgSeng:l45M.H 
Previoas: 1457*64 

Amoy Preps 

9/5 

aas 

*90 

9/5 

Bk East Asia 

28/0 

28.10 


2*45 

Cathay Podfie 

11/0 

11/5 

11/0 

11/0 

Oku itg Kong 

8025 

78J5 

79 

HO 


2*75 

2*40 

2*75 

2*70 

China Light 

Cffic Podflc 

39/0 

3830 

auo 

39.10 

46 

4*90 

45 

4*80 

DooHemBk 
First Paanc 

41/0 

4040 

40/0 

41 

1040 

9J0 

10/5 

9/0 

Hang Lung Dev 

IS 

14/0 

1*90 

1*95 

Ml.-.L , L-.hV 

93 

8.95 

92 

*80 

92/0 

*95 

93 

*85 


77/0 

7*25 

1*25 

77J5 

HK China Gas 

IZM 

?2J0 

1285 

(290 

HK Electric 

28 

27 JO 

27.90 

2/ JO 

HKTUecamm 

1*85 

1*05 

1*75 

1*15 

HopeweflHdgs 
HSBC Hdgs 

*05 

238 

1VS 

22S 

4 

226 

*03 

226 

HutcWsonWh 

6*25 

63/0 

63/0 

6*75 

Hyson Dev 
Johnson El Hdg 

2*10 

25J5 

2*85 

2*30 

2245 

22 

2230 

22 

Kerry Props 

19*5 

19/5 

19/0 

19/0 

New World Dev 

50/0 

49/0 

49/0 

5025 


2/3 

2/8 

3JH 

2/3 

Pearl Mental 

2.93 

2/8 

2J5 

293 

SHK Proas 

Shun TokH tigs 

9*75 

9*50 

9*50 

9*25 

*15 

*05 

*15 

*10 

SfaoLandC* 

045 

830 

(04 

840 

Slh Odno Past 

7/5 

*95 

7/5 

7 

Swire PocA 

6*50 

64 

6*35 

6*25 

WharTHdgs 

3*50 

33.90 

3*40 

3*30 

wtmtacfc 

20 

19/0 

19/0 

19/5 


Jakarta 

CBOTMlfafadac 66*85 
Prevtoas: 663/0 

Astmirrtl 

6100 

6050 

6075 

5950 

Bk infl Indon 

1900 

1875 

1900 

IIUU 

BkNngnn 

1550 

1525 

T525 

1525 

Gu dong Gram 

10050 

9900 

10000 

9900 

Indocement 

3050 

2950 

3050 

3000 


5T«J 

5050 

5050 

5100 

Indosot 

6900 

6875 

6875 

6825 

Sampoemo HM 

9475 

9435 

9425 

9435 

Semen Grestk 

5725 

5625 

5625 

5650 

Tefetomuitfknsl 

3875 

3/75 

3875 

3800 


Copenhagen st ockade* 5710 s 

Previous. 58073 


312 

396 

907 

404 

626 


34800Q 348000 348000 350000 
24M00 240000 240000 241000 
1D6)M 105M06W6 1050 

720 713 720 704 

708 699 703 703 

890 881.12 681.12 888 

328 322 32142 329 

366 359 363 340 

3S3 343 343 354 


DAX: 367456 
Previous 365756 


Johannesburg AitMartg.wMJs 

AmotoamM Bks 
AngtaAmCocri 
AngtoAnvCorp 
AntdoAm Gold 
AnataAmlnd 
AVMIN 
Bartow 
CG. Smith 
DeBccre 
Drfefonteln 
Fit Non Bk 
Gena* 

GFSA 

Imperial Hdgs 
IngweCoal 

I SCOT 

Johnnies I ikH 
Liberty Hdgs 
UbMvUle 
LtoUfc Start 
Minorca 
NOTTpak 
Nadar 
Rem brondl Gp 
Richemont 
Rust platinum 
SA Breweries 
Saaioncar 
Sasol 
SBIC 

Tiger Oats 


Kuala Lumpur c omposite tobij? 

Previous: 1081.19 

AMMB Hdgs 
Getttng 
Mol Bonking 
MaflnHShipF 
Petra nos Gas 
Proton 

PuMcBk 
Renting 
Resorts Works 
Rothmans PM 
Slme Darby 
Triekom Mai 
Te 
UMI 
TTL 


29 

27/0 

VJS 

7*75 

301/0 

298 

J»\M 

296 

266/0 

263 

263 

766/0 

% 

302.75 

30X75 

30525 

18*25 

IR9 

180 

1*15 

16/S 

1*15 

1*t5 

4*10 

4*50 

46415 

45/0 

25.40 

» 30 

25/5 

2520 

159/0 

15*75 

15*75 

159 

39.15 

3*75 

3*90 

39.10 

3X65 

3125 

3165 

3125 

20 

19/0 

19.90 

19/5 

11*50 

113 

11*25 

111/5 

Kl 

57 

57.75 

57 

KJ 

29/0 

30 

29/5 

33Q 

2.99 

3 

?.Vtt 


56 

57 

55J5 

350 

340 

340 

34*50 

12*75 

125 

127 

139 

17J0 

16MO 

1*85 

1635 

10*25 

99.75 

99.75 

99.75 

1/ZS 

17 JO 

17/5 

17/5 

8*50 

68 

88J5 

8*25 

47.90 

4730 

4720 

47/0 

62J5 

6L2S 

«L5U 

63/0 

71 

49 St 

7025 

69/0 

128 

12*50 

13*75 

17725 

47/0 

47 JO 

47.30 

4725 

56 

5*50 

5575 

5*35 

20*50 

20X50 

2UXM 

205 

7*25 

75 

7525 

7525 


16 

1*80 

16 

1*90 

1X40 

13J0 

1320 

1150 

2S25 

25 

25 

25 

5/5 

5/0 

US 

5/0 

*80 

*60 

BJ0 

*75 

12 /a 

1220 

12/o 

12/0 

*52 

*42 

*42 

*56 

150 

3/4 

148 

146 

*75 

8/5 

a 78 

8/5 

2*25 

wen 

25J5 

76 

820 

*05 

*20 

*25 

17.40 

17.10 

17/0 

17 

1120 

1120 

11/0 

11/0 

19/0 

19/0 

19/0 

19/0 

UO 

*95 

9 

0-30 


London 

Abbey Natl 
AIBedDamecQ 
AngHan water 


FT-SE 100:4681-60 
Previous: 444! JO 


■AssocBriSods 

BAA 
Barclays 
Bass 
BAT Ind 
BanfcSoflterd 
Blue Orem 

BOC Group 

Baals 

BPBInd 

BritMtup 

Brit Always 

BG 

Bill Lima 


955 9 JO 
454 443 

653 650 

6.15 648 

150 1-18 

558 166 

*37 556 

12.75 12* 

8.12 B 

5.14 552 

4.12 351 

*27 4.18 

9.97 9-W 

751 7.17 

358 353 

1252 1X35 
133 75B 

252 1-77 

5.98 5.90 


942 950 

*49 *S3 

650 658 

6.08 659 

1.19 1.18 

557 555 
537 *28 

1175 1137 
853 Bl05 
553 *70 

*10 601 
*22 *21 
9.93 9.B8 

757 7.13 
148 351 

12/1 1253 
7.16 727 

2 201 
195 *97 



High 

Low 

dose 

Prev. 

Britpeflm 

7/1 

733 

739 

726 

BSJCVB 

Bril Steal 

*91 

*83 

*89 

*83 

1/4 

1/1 

1.53 

1/3 

Brit Telecom 

*54 

4/0 

*53 

*50 

BTR 

118 

2/7 

113 

217 

BumobGostrol 

10.18 

18.11 

10.17 

104)5 

Burton Go 

127 

TJK 

125 

126 

Cable Wireless 

*95 

*r» 

*87 

*98 

Cadbury Sch* 

*55 

*43 

5/9 

*51 

Carbon Comm 

525 

5.16 

521 

*21 

Cornml Union 

7/2 

7.78 

779 

725 


*77 

6*1 

*77 

*66 

Courtaatds 

327 

X78 

X36 

322 


*80 

*70 

*71 

*78 

Elearecam portents X04 

*01 

*03 

198 

EM) Group 

1134 

11.71 

11J1 

1225 

Energy Group 
Enterprise 08 
Fam Colonial 

5J2 

*84 

1/4 

5/2 

6*0 

1/3 

S/7 

6/2 

i/a 

*66 

*76 

1/2 

GerriAcddent 

9/4 

928 

9/1 

9/6 

CEC 

3J3 

3/3 

154 

3/9 

CKN 

1008 

10/2 

1007 

10/7 


111* 

12 

1Z10 

11.98 

GnmndaGp 

9/6 

194 

9 

9.19 

Grand Mel 

6 

5.92 

*94 

*93 

GRE 

226 

189 

190 

193 


*85 

*78 

*84 

*82 


*99 

*93 

*97 

*83 

GUS 

*58 

*48 

*53 

*52 

mSlHWgs 

5*7 

*55 

5/7 

538 

lais 

17.76 

1*14 

17/6 

ia 

*04 

7.94 

8 

7.94 

Impl Tobacco 

*QS 

195 

X97 

4/2 

Kingfisher 

LoabrakB 

735 

148 

7/5 

2/2 

720 

142 

7/9 

145 


9.06 

*86 

9/4 

189 


251 

7/5 

248 

250 

Legal Genl Grp 

*82 

*62 

*80 

4/5 

UoydsTSBGp 

*40 

*18 

*26 

*19 

Lucas Vartly 

2 

1.97 

139 

2 

MMs Spencer 

526 

*0/ 

*15 

*12 

ME PC 

5.15 

*11 

*13 

*13 

Mercury Asset 
National Grid 

1*15 

155 

13/2 

275 

1*15 

126 

1184 

236 

Nab Power 

527 

*78 

*3S 

*40 

NatWtHT 

729 

7*4 

7/4 

7.91 

Next 

722 

723 

729 

722 

Orange 

229 

2/7 

109 

109 

P&O 

6/2 

*31 

625 

628 

Pearson 

725 

7.13 

7.1 B 

7.18 

PflWngfan 

120 

6/3 

127 

687 

127 

*92 

129 

*93 

Premier Famefl 

486 

4*0 

*81 

*86 

Prudential 

*51 

*38 

*50 

*40 

RrffltrackPP 

*48 

*2/ 

4X1 

*42 

Rank Group 

4X1 

OO 

425 

*42 

ReckMCaftn 

*68 

*60 

*65 

162 

Reunaxl 

ISO 

131 

323 

117 

Reed inti 

6.15 

*05 

*14 

*05 

RentoVIl InBiat 

220 

238 

229 

228 

Reutera Hdgs 

*85 

628 

*83 

*78 


105 

2M 

103 

3/3 

RMC Group 

9 

*90 

9 

*90 


2/6 

2/2 

2X1 

2/0 

RaralBkScor 
Rlireg 
Raval&Sun Al 

*30 

*12 

*27 

*1) 

1*75 

1*66 

1072 

1*77 

*84 

X57 

4J6 

3/3 

*79 

156 

*81 

3/6 

Samsbury 

X62 

X50 

3/5 

15B 


17/5 

17.25 

17/S 

1725 

Scot Newcosfle 

7.03 

*95 

*99 

7 

Sent Power 

3*1 

in 

3J9 

182 


192 

230 

292 

290 


7J8 

HI 

7JD 

7.72 

Shell Tin nspR 

1113 

11*3 

1111 

11.86 

Slebe 

9/0 

9/5 

9/a 

9/5 

Smith Nephew 

12 5 

121 

1J5 

1J1 

Smith tone 

10J2 

1*27 

10/6 

1*48 


7/8 

7/1 

7/4 

7/5 

SfhemEfec 

*18 

*13 

*17 

4.U 


*50 

<U5 

*48 

*51 


10.17 

9.94 

1010 

10/6 

Tare* Lyle 

*51 

XA« 

*50 

448 


178 

3,70 

3J2 

376 

Thames Water 

625 

*68 

*75 

6.70 

31 Group 

*14 

VOH 

5.12 

*10 

Ti Group 

559 

*50 

5 34 

*59 


174 

770 

272 

275 


16*5 

1*75 

16/0 

1*82 


*98 

*90 

*94 

*92 

Ufa News 

7*5 

726 

7/a 

7JB 

Uldlrtimes 

7*3 

*8/ 

7/2 

*89 


*15 

5/8 

*12 

*13 

VodpJime 

171 

7/7 

168 

168 


*15 

8 

*05 

*15 

Wiltons Hdgs 

3*7 

3/2 

3/6 

1M 

Wofcetoy 

*75 

*69 

*70 

*71 

wpp Group 

143 

140 

2/1 

229 

Zeneca 

19/2 

18 

1*80 

1*82 


Madrid 

Acertnoc 

ACESA 

Agues Bareetoi 


Bate Marc 577J6 
Previous: 57DJ3 


SI . 

Banesto 
Bartdnter 

Bco Centro Hbp 
Bco Popular 
Bco Santander 
CEPSA 
Corftneme 
Corp Mcpfre 
Endesa 
FEC5A 
Cos Natural 
Iberdrola 
Pryco 
Reps* 

SeunansElec 
Tooacafara 
Telefonica 
Union Fcnasa 
Vdencdsnad 


34900 

1940 

5990 

7600 

10520 

1640 

26500 

5030 

33500 

13100 

5150 

XCfl 

8060 

11940 

1345 

30200 

1040 

3010 

6390 

1*5 

7820 

4S3S 

1360 

2100 


24710 

1865 

5800 

7480 

10370 

1620 

25780 

4975 

32800 

12750 

5000 

2840 

7870 

11720 

1310 

29690 

1885 

2930 

6280 

1440 

7600 

4470 

1315 

1990 


24860 24880 
1923 1865 

5990 5820 
7590 7500 

10430 10300 
1630 1610 

2S920 24000 
5030 4975 

33430 33150 
12800 12600 
5030 5070 

3960 2W S 
9030 7850 

11750 11660 
1340 1310 

29800 28880 
1910 1920 

2955 1925 
6330 6190 
1470 V430 

7750 7640 

4520 4425 

1325 1340 

2100 2065 


Manila 

Ayala B 
Ayala Land 
Bit Philip IS 
C*P Hrenes 
Monflu Efec A 
Metre Balk 
Petron 
PCIBaik 
PM Long DM 
Sot Miguel B 
5M Prime Hdg 


1*50 

20 

155 

9.20 

91.50 

SBS 

7J30 

27250 

780 

77 

7/0 


PSE Index: 2710.91 
Previous 2S9&20 

17JS I&50 17 

1*50 1975 1820 

147 151 IS 

0/0 970 

90 9050 

555 585 

640 770 650 

241 27250 248 

750 775 745 

7550 7550 


9 

90 

555 


7.10 730 730 


Mexico 

Ana a 

Banged B 

CamaCPO 

GfraC 

EmpModema 

Cpo Carso A1 

GjmFBcwner 

GpoFlnlnbima 

KmrirOwkMei 

TetevtsoCPO 

Tel Wee L 


4*90 

17/0 
28.90 
1276 
39/5 
4770 
1 SI 
28.10 
2830 
11370 
17/6 


Bote fade* 3964,14 
Previous J9BSJ3 

4*35 4135 4*50 
1750 17*0 17® 
2860 28/5 2930 
123 12.H 
39*5 39/S 39-70 
4*35 46/S 4770 
1.79 179 1/1 

2730 28.10 2&00 
27JB5 2875 27.90 
11270 11270 1 J130 
1734 17/2 17/0 


Ben Comm IW 

BatFhiomm 

BaadlRoma 

B«w«ai 

Creak) Haflaio 

Edbort 

ENI 

^emflAsjfc 
I Ml 

INA 

ltaigG5 

Medknel 

MeeOabancn 

Moruedlsofi 

OtnSTI 


PlreH 

RA5 

Rdo Banco 
S Poolo Torino 
Stet 
Te 
TIM 


HJUBT u torn a dC fl. 12337 J9 
Previous: 1225X09 


Milan 

AjiemznAssic 11400 11240 11^3 11250 


Montreal 

Bee Mofe Com 
CdnTteA 
CdnUBA 
CT Flirt Sve 
Gca Metro 
Ot-west Ufeco 
hnasco 
lirvestart&p 
LefcknvCa* 

Nad Bk Canada 
Power Carp 
P ow er Fkri 
OoebecarB 
Rogers CommB 
Rayed BkCda 



LB* 

dose 

3480 

3350 

3475 

4600 

4500 

*500 

1270 

1246 

1247 

23500 

73000 

73200 

2565 

2495 

2555 

8270 

8155 

8160 

8890 

8870 

88X5 

5570 

5475 

TO5 

29350 

79000 

79050 

15225 

14910 

15175 

2390 

2365 

7375 

5400 

5260 

5400 

7610 

7425 

7460 

10050 

9915 

9970 

1067 

1048 

1051 

514 

501 

505 

2575 

2505 

2545 

3620 

3560 

3600 

13600 

13310 

13395 

17800 

17700 

17750 

10825 

10660 

10680 

8690 

8460 

8675 

4720 

4610 

4680 

5145 

4995 

5110 

iBdosrams 

M*;3 


Previous;! 

4115 

43 

43 

2*70 

25/0 

2560 

3*30 

35)4 

35ta 

25V5 

35 

35H 

>7fa 

17.10 

1716 

27/5 

7 IV> 

27V5 

39.95 

39 

39/5 

2*15 

Mltfi 

2*15 

1*85 

I&H5 

1*85 

1*70 

16W 

1*70 

32 

31/0 

31/0 

3*05 

29# 

30lb 

2SM 

2SW 

2*60 

7/5 

7/5 

13 5 

6115 

60W 

61 


High Low dvse Prev. 


High Low Case Prev. 


Peugeot CU 
Pino utf -Print 
Promodes 
RentBJH 
Reed 

Rh-PoulencA 

Scno6 

Sdmdder 

SEB 

SGS Thomson 
He Generate 
Sodexho 
Si Go tx»in 
Suez 

5ynttietoba 

Thomson C5F 
Total B 

Uihior 

Valeo 


614 
2479 
2058 
1453 
1579 
191 
533 
XI .90 
990 
486.7D 
657 
2745 
806 
302 
673 
1763 
544 
69 
358 


598 

2396 

2011 

143.10 
1540 

186 

524 

29530 

966 

472 

MB 

7680 

790 

296/0 

680 

171/0 

530 

86.75 

347.10 


613 605 

2467 2396 

2025 2039 

144/0 146/0 
1575 ISfiO 
190.10 1KL80 
529 527 

297/0 30030 
966 971 

479/0 468 

654 654 

2482 2677 
BOO 794 
30130 300 

673 694 

175 17130 
540 538 

88.9Q 8675 
352 35330 


Sac Paufo 


Bevespu inde c 11056.90 
Prevtout: 1*960/0 


BradescaPfd 
Brahma Pfri 
Cerelg Pfd 
CESPPfd 

Qipel 

Ettrobrns 
Da voaiooPU 
LjglflServtaos 

MreSresPfd 

PauOsto Luz 

SidNachUMl 

Souza Cruz 

TdtbmsPfti 

Tetendfl 

Tetwt 

TetospPfd 

Unfbonca 

UsbirimaPM 

CVRD Pfd 


860 

77800 

49/0 

62.00 

16.00 

490.00 

535/0 

541.X 

358/0 

246/0 

159.70 

35.90 

9.99 

1-060 

156.99 

167/4 

36800 

37/0 

1.19 

24/0 


845 860 

7764* mm 
4880 49.00 
6030 6031 
15.90 15.90 
483/0 48700 

575.00 51500 

527.00 540.00 

355.00 35S.0O 

243.00 24430 
15800 158«0 

3*70 3X30 
9/0 9.63 

14030 14340 
152/0 155/9 
164/0 164.10 
349/0 355/0 
37/0 37/0 
1.17 1.17 

2*30 2430 


845 
779 00 
.49/0 
61/0 
16.00 

491.00 
534 99 
52800 
359.79 
24X00 
leOZO 

36.40 

9.40 

141.00 

152.00 
16800 
352/0 

3650 

130 

2*70 


ABBA 
Asr ID amon 
Astra A 
Atlas Copco A 
Autoliv 
Electrolux B 
Ericsson 3 
Hermes B 
loirerthre A 
investcrB 
.V.cDoB 
.‘larcoonken 
Pnarm/Uctohn 
ScnCvri: B 
Scarua B 
5CA3 

5-E Bcnkeo A 
Sianilio Fors 
Sunska B 
SKFB 

Spartanken A 
Siodsnypotek A 
stare A 
S» Handles A 
Volvo B 


111 10850 
214 210 

13430 13030 
227 21930 
303 299 


43430 

278 

260 

69B 

393 

252 

246 

26350 


476 

272 

252 

590 

3S6 

24? 

243 

2M> 


210 20730 
225 23130 
17230 J70 

8230 SI 30 
293 276 

328 32230 
187 1*430 
14930 14630 
190 190 

t)« 1 1B 

213 209 

215 21330 


109 11030 
212 213 

13050 134 

220 225 

29930 30*91 
476 482 

27*50 27730 
253 256 

692 6 97 

387 390 

250 250 

242 245 

263 262 

20330 210 

22138 22*50 
170 17250 
82 82 
276 293 

323 32530 
18530 1S6 

148 146 

190 190 

IIE50 11850 
210 21230 
214 214 


Oslo 


AherA 


OSXtetae 63855 
Previous: 64820 


Seoul 


132 13030 13130 13030 Dacam 


Composite index; 723/5 
Prevtoas: 71899 


100000 96000 98000 96000 


Sydney 


All Ordmaries: 2S7BJ0 
Prevtoas: 2584/0 

Amcor 

6.60 

*50 

*54 

*59 

ANZBking 

8/7 

8/9 

8// 

•8/3 

BHR 

1*76 

1*34 

1829 

1*92 


199 

193 

3 31 

3.96 

Brambles Ini 

2170 

2X6/ 

73.69 

23./0 

CBA 

1X25 

1*05 

14.2/ 

1*13 

CC AmalU 

15/3 

1525 

15/0 

1*45 

Colei Myer 

620 

622 

*2/ 

*23 

Comaico 

729 

721 

n 6 

13 1 

CRA 

21.91 

21/8 

21/0 

21.92 

C5R 

*71 

*55 

*w 

*69 

Fosters Brew 

2/8 

2 36 

2 37 

238 

Geaaman Fid 

1/8 

1/5 

IM 

1/8 

ICi Australia 

12 

11.92 

11.92 

12 

Lpnd Lease 

2 * xl 

25 

2520 

2*45 

MIM Hdgs 

1.48 

1.90 

1.92 

1.92 

Nal Aus! dank 

1**5 

1*79 

1*9J 

1193 



BergesenDyA 
ChrtstkBda Bk 
Den norake Bk 
EBuera 
HafsJundA 
KnemerAsa 
Nora* Hydro 
Karate SkagA 
HycoraedA 
Orida Asa A 
PeflmCeoSvc 
SMoPetonA 
5cfiteVM „ 
Transocean Off 
Sierebrend Asa 


167 

161 

161 

164 

2*90 

2420 

2*30 

2*90 

2*10 

27.90 

28 

2*30 

147/0 

143 

143 

144 

44 

44 

44 

43/0 

436 

424 

J2S 

430 

370 

363 

365 

362 

256 

253 

255 

252 

1D0 

98 

96 

r> 

622 

625 

630 

625 

311 

306 

308 

311 

147 

(39/0 

tozo 

(40 

13X50 

133 

133 

134 

49*50 

495 

495 

480 

47J0 

4*90 

47 

47J0 


Daewoo Heavy 
Hyundai Eng, 
Kio Motors 
Korea Ei Pwr 
Koreo &xch Bk 
fjjrea Mob Tel 
LG Semkan 
Pohong Iron SI 
Samsung Dislay 
Samsung Elec 
Shinrton Bonk 


7500 7010 

taeoo i84oo 
15700 15500 
V6300 2*000 
5610 5450 

377500 36SOOO 
33200 32200 
57530 56800 
44200 43200 
61600 60900 
10300 10100 


7390 7050 

10700 18400 
1SW0 15700 
76000 26200 
5510 5550 

270000 378500 
37500 33300 
57200 57700 
4JOOO 43W0 

61500 61100 

10300 10200 


Nat Mutual Hdq 
NctfsCorp 
Pacific Dunlap 
Pioneer inn 
Pub Bnradcasl 
St George Ban! 
WMC 


2/3 

S.78 

165 

449 

*90 

808 

856 


1.94 1.95 


567 

334 

X43 

6.65 

801 

840 


5.70 

1*5 

4.45 

6.90 

807 

841 


1.95 

5.79 

335 

X46 

665 

808 

8.48 


Paris 

AtXff 

AGF 

Air Lkratde 
AXaMAbtt) 
Affl-UAP 
Bancake 

bk: 

BNP 

Coned Plu s 
Crarefoor 
Casino 
CCF 
Ctetem 
CMfetlanDJar 
CLF*OcdoF«n 
CredB Agrkote 
Dyne 
Elf-Apuflofne 
EridardaBS 
.Eutodbuer 
EinOhwnel 
Gen-Eau* 
Htnas 
ImeW 
LatoKP 
Legrand 
LtWol 
LVMH 
Lyon. Ewe 
MchefnB 
ParflieaA 
Pernod ftoort 


CAO40I26OJ4 



Prevtoas; 2654 J4 

863 

851 

953 

853 

187 

184 

1B6 

185.90 

910 

879 

910 

879 

666 

053 

<66 

661 

370 36110 369J0 

364 

698 

684 

698 

687 

870 

851 

355 

E53 

25X90 

24X80 250.90 

247 

1047 

1016 

1035 

1042 

3838 

3700 

3819 

3730 

271/0 265/Q 

270/0 

770 

25*60 

252 

25X80 

252.10 

630 

ill 

130 

670 

898 

BS7 

891 

665 

547 

531 

538 

533 

1336 

1326 

1326 

1262 

898 

874 

898 

683 

607 

591 

598 

597 

866 

841 

844 

942 

9/3 

&9S 

92S 

9 

*45 

*35 

*40 

645 

777 

751 

770 

761 

420 

412 

416 

420 

800 

760 

789 

777 

377 

371 

37*70 

371 

963 

905 

951 

910 

2086 

2021 

2084 

»B 

1419 

1386 

1412 

1393 

583 

570 

5B3 

576 

341 

39X40 

331.10 

38X20 

34*10 

38*50 

33*10 

339 

399.90 

292 294.90 

7%« 


Singapore 


AstoPocBnnr 
CeretesPoc 
□ty Devfls 
Cycle Carnage 
Dairy Farm lm ’ 
DBS foreign 
DBS Land 
Fraserfctaeve 
HK Land' 

Jard Moirtesn • 
Jord Sirocgt ‘ 
Keppel 
Kcppcl Bank 
Keppel Feis 
knoelLand 
QCBC loresjn 
<K Unton Bk F 
Pwk way Hdgs 
SemMwang 
Sing Air foreign 

SmgLand 

5mg Press F 
Sina TecJi inn 
Sing Tetewnm 
Tat Lee Bank 
UU Industrial 
U1dO5en0kF 
Wing Tat Hdgs 
‘nnV.S. deoars. 


Straits Uses: 207*01 
Prevtoas: 205*32 


7 

*70 

6 JO 

7 

175 

8M 

070 

8.70 

1190 

12.70 

1X70 

17.70 

1*60 

1*40 

1*40 

14/6 

*76 

0.74 

0.75 

174 

N.T. 

N.T. 

N.T. 

iaau 

N.T. 

NT 

N.T. 

*84 

11.40 

11.20 

1130 

11-SI 

ZiV 

277 


277 

*95 

*85 

*95 

6*6 

172 

X 66 

172 

3.7? 

*05 

*70 

685 

670 

3 76 

X74 

176 

A74 

*06 

*60 

4/4 

*84 

*12 

*00 

4.10 

4 13 

18 40 

1*10 

1870 

ha 

1*10 

990 

1*10 

10 

6/0 

625 

*45 

*50 

7.10 

7 

7.10 

T 0 S 

13 

1X70 

12 90 

12 V 0 

7J0 

715 

;.is 

Mftr 

29 JO 

29 JO 

I960 

29.40 

196 

3/8 

3.94 

iVf. 

ISO 

J/7 

1/0 

746 

134 

XT 

134 

1.14 

1.1 J 

1.13 

1.13 

1.13 

15/0 

1*90 

15 

tiJil 

*34 

426 

*34 

4JJ 


'.Ifcslpoc Bkjng 
Wooaudc Pel 
Wool Wurth-; 

7.24 

11.49 

*1« 

719 

1124 

*08 

7.22 

11.34 

4.16 

720 

11.45 

*14 

Taipei - 

5t«C* Market iadra: 81 2X26 



Prevfavs: 8194/6 

Ciitajy Lil® In'. 

152 

149 

1J9ZQ 

151 

Chang Hv.n Bi 

12050 

11*50 

11*50 119/0 

true Tuna Pi 

71 

69 



Chinn De-jeiaml 

11*50 

116/D 

116/0 

117/0 

C*nr»a Slrvl 

30 40 

30 

H 


RtafBan* 

119 

117 

117 

117.50 

Fartnosa Plastic 

a 

7DJO 

71/0 


Hug Non Bk 

118 

116 

116 11*51 

irrll Curam Bk 

70 

6fl» 

40/0 

W50 

Non >0 Plft-Hc'. 

75 

73 

7J30 

•V SO 

jtan r.orsi LdC‘ 

«? 


Of} 

91 50 

Tainan 5*;mi 

113 

UO 

III 


Tatwm 

S7 

56 

56 

57 

U1C V.icro EL'C 

73 

71 

73 


Ufa IVurtd Oita 

44 

iU 

68 

68 


Stockholm 


AGAS 


5X 16 IndoL- 30*039 
previsas: sm.94 

Ida HC33 HM 105 


Tokyo 

Alincmola 
All Nippon Air 

AriliWr 

Asarn Hctv 
Aioh; Ch>.rn 
■Vah Glass 
Bt 7a*iu rjii’41 
B1 taKjliama 
Birfni-.taiK- 
Crinan 
Crttb-J Eh, 
CngqaLa Elrr 
Dal Nlpn F-rtnl 
Dnirl 

Dal lcm tong 
Pdi.-d Beni ‘ 

DOuto HDirY- 


1180 

777 

am 

488 

IHt) 

:i/> 

jtfi 

:wo 

:ira 

TOW 
2400 
8! 4 
13»U 

■153 

ijv? 


Hlkkn 325: 19889/9 
Prevtoas: 7904330 

1170 1180 

764 7?7 


1150 

7/* 

4?M 

,"V9 

670 

M5D 

:ow 

564 

2670 

7wt0 

rove 

•050 

?J70 

TttJ 

I.U4) 

445 

JJ70 


The Trib Index 

Prices as of 300 P.M. New York one. 

Jan 1. 1992= 100. 

Level 

Change 

%. change 

year to date 
% change 

World Index 

167.48 

-0.31 

-0.18 

+12-30 

Regional Indexes 

Asia/Pacific 

123.85 

-1.14 

-0.91 

+0.34 

Europe 

175.64 

- 1.22 

-0.69 

+8.96 

N. America 

194.94 

+ 1.22 

+0.63 

+20.40 

S. America 
industrial Indexes 

154.48 

+1.42 

+033 

+35.00 

Capital goods 

204.97 

+054 

+ 0.12 

+19-92 

Consumer goods 

189.41 

+0.19 

+ 0.10 

+17.33 

Energy 

196.56 

-0.45 

-0.23 

+15.14 

Finance 

124.33 

*1.23 

-0.98 

+6.76 

Miscellaneous 

169.92 

-1.32 

-0.77 

+5.03 

Raw Materials 

185.86 

-1.15 

-0.61 

+5.98 

Service 

T 57.72 

+ 0.88 

+O.S 6 

+14.86 

Utilities 

143.60 

-0.81 

- 0 .S 6 

+ 0.10 

The International Herald Tribune World Slock lnde<Q tracks the U.S doSar valuea ol 
ZBO internationally mvesteble stocks from 25 countries. For mom information, a tree 
booklet is avaBattie by writing to The Tr* Index.! 8 1 Avenue Charles de GauOe. 

92S21 NeuiBy Cede*. France. Compied by Bloomberg News. 


I - 

/■j: 


1 tf . ■ i ■ 


4310 HMD 
195 BOS 
675 087 

11(4) 11(4) 

-V*> 7130 

j64 56*1 

I6« Js7l) 
;»» mo 
7118 7110 

3150 70 (0 

33W 2400 

Wl 80S 
nan i iso 
4!) 445 

nun ?j5o 


Dal wo Sec 

GDI 

Denso 

East Japan Ry 
Bsai 
Fanuc 
IBank 
) Photo 
Fi)| 
HochfcmiBh 
Hltndri 
Honda Motor 
IBJ 

m 

IlDChU 

tto-Yokado 

JAL 

Japan Tobacco 

Jusco 

KoPma 

KansalBtec 

Kao 

KawosoMHvy 
Kowa Steel 

Kinkl Nlpp Ry 

KMn Brewery 

Kobe Steel 

Komatsu 

tomato 

Kyocera 

Kyushu Etec 

LTCB 

Marubeni 

Moral 

Mofsu Conw 
Matsu Elec Ind 
Matsu Elec Wk 
MteubfeM 
MDsublsMCh 
MttsuWsWEI 
MirsubftWEs) 
Mitsubishi Hyy 
Mitavbisni Mot 
Mitsubishi Tr 
Mitsui 

Mitsui Fudosn 
Mltsu Trust 
Murafo Mtg 
NEC 
Nikon 
NlkkoSec 
NbrTenda 
Nlpp Emress 
Nippon oil 
Nippon S*ed 
Nissan Motor 
NKK 

Nomura Sec 
NTT 

NTT Daio 
0)1 Paper 
Osaka Gas 
fifcoh 
Rolan 
SakuraBk 
Sonkyo 
Sanwa Bank 
Sanya Elec 

Secom 

SdbuRtrr 

SeklsulOicm 

Sckbui House 

Seven-Emeu 

Sharp 

Shikoku El Pwr 

Shimizu 

SMn-etSuCh 

SWseiflO 

Shizuoka Bk 

Softbank 

Sony 

Sumifomo 
SvmtemoBk 
SumHChcm 
Suranamo Elec 
SuroffMefor 
Sum* Trusl 
Tatsho Pnorm 
TakedaOwm 
TDK 

Tohoku El Pwr 
ToMBcnk 
TaUo Marine 
Tokyo El Pwi 
Tokyo Election 
Tokyo Gas 
Tokyo Corp- 
Totten 

Toppon Print 
Tour Inn 
TosMbo 
Tostcm 
Taya Trust 
Toyota Motor 
TomOTwcni 

ir« 100: tux 1.000 


Toronto 

AWHriPnce 
Alberta Enenjy 
Alcan Alum 
Anderson Espl 
Bk Monln?al 
Bk NOW SC OttO 

BarrtckOold 

BCE 

BC Telecomm 
BUKtwm Pharm 
Bombardier B 
Broscan A 
Cameca 
CIBC 

Can Nall RaB 


High 

Low 

a use 

Prev. 

864 

849 

852 

855 

877 0a 

8650a 

8650a 

8680a 

2870 

2830 

2850 

20 ) 

5600a 

SiWa 

5560a 

5600a 

2350 

7310 

2350 

2310 

4220 

4160 

4180 

41® 

1550 

mo 

7520 

IS® 

4660 

4530 

4540 

46® 

1390 

1350 

1380 

1360 

1120 

1100 

1110 

1130 

1240 

1210 

1230 

1210 

3630 

3540 

1540 

3580 

1410 

1390 

1400 

1410 

473 

452 

458 

4111 

635 

61b 

618 

633 

6850 

6/40 

67® 

6A40 

537 

528 

S29 

537 

8990D 

871 0o 

8910O 

(NBOa 

4130 

4070 


4070 

699 

645 

646 

*60 

2290 

2230 

2260 


1570 

1540 

1550 

1570 

530 

520 

520 

533 

359 

357 

352 

3W 

703 

700 

700 

703 

1160 

1150 

1160 

1160 

227 

724 

225 

225 

895 

883 

887 

885 

560 

549 

551 

554 

7900 

7850 

7850 

7920 

2050 

7070 

2020 

2050 

385 

3/6 

376 

379 

571 

517 

512 

520 

2300 

2160 

2180 

2170 

3510 

3450 

3490 

3500 

2210 

21/0 

2180 

2170 

1300 

1280 

1290 

1300 

1410 

1380 

1390 

1420 

370 

356 

359 

375 

683 

663 

6*3 

673 

IdlO 

1580 

1560 

1610 

Bit) 

855 

857 

*65 

912 

906 

907 

»10 

1630 

1570 

1590 


7030 

1010 

1010 

1020 

WOO 

1440 

1440 

1470 

850 

816 

8)6 

835 

4500 

4460 

4470 


1 b )0 

1580 

1590 

1580 

1830 

7810 

1830 


717 

6f> 

706 


8980 

8 H» 

8850 

8930 

939 

926 

979 


622 

6)4 

615 


356 

149 

351 


753 

737 

739 


250 

344 

745 


1500 

1470 

T*» 

1470 

1060b 

1010 b 

1050b 


42006 

4130b 

4150b 

4080b 

693 

478 

680 


31J 

305 

309 


1480 

1460 

14*0 

1470 


now 

now 


726 

714 

716 

722 

3730 

3580 

3640 



1440 

1450 

1450 

509 

493 

495 

499 

8300 

8100 

8100 

8200 

6730 

610(1 

6100 

6290 

1710 

1190 

1700 

1200 

1730 

1710 

1210 


8680 

8480 

B490 


1540 

1500 

15® 

1530 

2000 

1»80 

1980 


711 

698 

700 

714 

2750 

2690 

2700 

26 » 

1720 

1700 

1720 

1710 

1180 

1160 

1180 


7930 

rim 

7800 

7870 


900 

9690 


1020 

1000 

1000 



16H 

1620 



491 

492 



1870 

two 

■ 840 

331 

XI 

J08 


1050 

tow 




2+50 

3000 


3000 

79S0 

3000 



8560 



7070 

20 ® 

7W0 

2070 


1/7 

974 


1440 

14 10 

1420 

>420 


2250 




4980 

S050 

5000 


JIN 

309 

-ns 


69i> 

bW, 


1410 

1190 

1*10 



15W 

1610 

16® 

7«5 

IIS 

779 

798 


TOO 

715 


3100 

3070 

3100 


913 

Mm 

808 



J510 

3510 

3590 


7860 

28® 

28*0 


High Low Close Prev. 


Cdn Nat Res 
CdnOcddPel 
Cdn Pacific 
CnrrSnai 
Dafasco 
Domtar 
Donohue A 
Du Pom Cda A 
EdperGreup 
EwoNevMng 
Fairfax Flnl 
Rikunbriiipe 
FlelcherCrtdl A 
Franca Nevada 
Cult Cda Res 
imperial Oil 
Inco 

IPL Energy 
La k) la nr B 
Laewen Croup 
MccmOIBkO 
Magna Inti A 
Mertwnex 
Moore 

Newbridge Net 
Noranda Inc 
Norton Energy 
Nihent Tetecom 
Nava 
Onex 

PancdnPeflm 
Petra Cda 
PtoeerDome 
Poco Pettm 
Potash Sent 
Penabsonce 
RfaAlgOTi 
PogeraCameiB 
Seagram Co 
Shell Cda A 
Stone consoW 
Suncor 
Talisman Env 
TcckB 
Teieglabe 
THus 
TTronson 
TarOom Bank 

Transotta 

TrnrsCdaPfae 

Tnmark Rnl 

TrizecHatin 

TVXGdfl 

Westcoasr Eny 

Weston 


3720 

3615 

3720 

38 « 

XL10 

31.05 

31/5 

32/5 . 

3720 

36W 

3*85 

JTVi . 

31A) 

39V5 

3W4 

4*05 

2*90 

2 ** 

36/0 

26/0 

1125 

lilt 

life 

.1120 1 

Jl 

30.16 

31 

»»• 

JS25 

35Vt 

3520 

35/5 

24 

ZLB0 

2X90 

2*10 


39JB0 

40/5 

4*10 . 

350 

341 

345 

350 ’ 

31.90 

3120 

3120 

31/5 1 

2170 

23ta 

2X55 

2X80 • 

/I fa 

70h 

7IU 

7*45 ■ 

1X30 

1165 

1220 

1305 . 

6/25 

66 K» 

AM4 

67.15 

4*70 

4*05 

4614 

4*90 

43to 

19.10 

4145 

1*90 

4340 

1*95 

iffi- 

4XBO 

41® 

<120 

41® 

20 JO 

2020 

2025 

2030 . 

/X80 

7620 

76/0 

7640 ■ 

1X55 

1230 

I3ta 

12 to W 

31 

SOM 

30.95 

3W 99 

56« 

54h 

56 JO 

55 ■ 

32to 

32/0 

32/5 

32.70 1 

35 

34 ■* 

35 

34to : 

179W 

[16/5 

119 

118 , 

li/5 

nvj 

11/0 

11/5 

26to 

26K> 

26to 

26 Vi 







30U J9JB0 29/0 
42a5 42/5 42.15 
1614 1*30 1*20 
27-45 2*85 2*95 
55.05 53 5X65 

29.95 2935 29.90 
8/5 Bfa 8L 
25 2*05 
7840 79 


25 JO 
70 


Vienna 

Boetder-Udden 

Credffanst Ptd 

EA-GenereK 

EVN 

Flugholen Wien 
owv 

Oesl EleUrlz 
VAMaW 
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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE. WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1997 


RAGE 29 



































































































PAGE 30 


A 500 Without Fans 

Auto Racing The drivers were 
there, the cars were on the track and 
there was no rain forecast But, with 
the Memorial Day weekend over, 
all that was missing at the Indi- 
anapolis 500 on were fans. 

Parking lots outside die Indiana- 
polis Motor Speedway were bare. 
The Snake Pit, die infield in turn 
four that is usually packed and 
rowdy, was dead. Many seats in the 
stands were empty. And scalpers 
lined the streets hawking handfuls 
of tickets. Only the hardiest of fens 
— and those who could get out of 
work — made it back Tuesday after 
the race was rained out for the 
second straight day Monday. (AP) 

Ronaldo to Stay in Spain 

soccer Ronaldo looked set 
Tuesday to become soccer’s most 
expensive player when agents for 
the 20-year-old Brazilian striker 
reached an agreement with FC Bar- 
celona to double his pay and extend 
his contract until 2006. 

Under the deal, which concluded 
several months of talks. Bar- 
celona's chairman, Jose Luis Nun- 
ez, agreed to raise Ronaldo's an- 
nual salary to 500 million pesetas 
($3.5 million). (AP) 



A slimmed down John Daly, 
who said he was “very rusty,*’ 

Daly Back on Course 

GOLF To cries of “Welcome 
back, John," John Daly happily 
returned to golf on Monday after 
undergoing rehabilitation treat- 
ment for alcohol abuse at the Betty 
Ford Center in California. 

An enthusiastic sellout crowd of 
30,000 descended on Farmington, 
Pennsylvania, 60 miles south of 
Pittsburgh, most attracted to die 
charity pro-am event by Tiger 
Woods’ participation in a fund- 
raiser for leukemia research. Daly 
struggled to a 73, but he appeared 
thrilled to be back as he acknowl- 
edged cheers while striding the fair- 
ways and signing autographs be- 
tween holes. Daly will return to the 
PGA Tour later this week at the 
Memorial in Dublin, Ohio. (WP) 

Victory for Sri Lanka 

cricket Sri Lanka took the In- 
dependence Cup title with an em-. 
phatic 85-run victory over Pakistan 
in the second final in Calcutta on 
Tuesday. (AFP) 


Sports 


WEDNESDAY MAY 28, 1997 



The Old Lady of Turin 
Gets Ready for Borussia 




Imermnonai Herald Tribune 

T he Old Lady of Turin, La Vecchia 
Signora as the Juveatus soccer 
team is affectionately known, 
turns 100 this year. She is in fine fettle, 
showing her wares wherever the sport 
matters, filling her bags with every con- 
ceivable piece of silverware. ■ 

Juventus is the world club champion, 
Italian champion — again— so-called 
Supercup champion , and will defend her 


Jim Cornier surrendering after losing a print — and later the five-set match — to Magnus Larsson of Sweden. 

On the Job in Paris With Steffi Graf 

Playing With a Bandaged Knee, She Easily Wins Opener 


By Ian Thomsen 

Inienutlonal Herald Tribune 

P ARIS — The aroma of chicken 
roasting for lunch was wading its 
way toward Steffi Graf late Tues- 
day morning, as if Paris itself were 
trying to reach out and give her a de- 
licious hug. Then the wind came up, the 
attempt was dissolved, and she was iso- 
lated m her work again. 

For Graf, a little nervously, her open- 
ing match Tuesday at the French Open 
mightfaave felt like the first day cm a new 
job — a job die was sure die could do, 
but a new one nonetheless. 

She was absent for three months this 
year, because of a knee injury, and her 
recovering performances this tnonth have 
included a big loss by 6-0, 6-1 to Amanda 
Coetzer in Grafs homeland of Germany, 
as well as a tournament victory last week- 
end at Strasbourg. Now Graf was playing 
in front of a few thousand morning cus- 
tomers and exhibiting a persistent edgi- 
ness, a spade in her movements in be- 


bandage taped to her left knee. 

That nervous energy was contrasted 
against the relaxed backdrop of Roland 
Garros, whose grounds would be filled 
later in the day with tens of thousands of 
relaxed, well-fed spectators turning 
pink in fee sun, waiting in short queues 
for their ice creams. They moved from 
one court to another — there were 14 
courts in play overall at Roland Garros 
— and could decide among themselves 
whether No. 2 Graf and her new rival. 
No. 1 Martina Hingis, also recovering 
from a knee injury, would meet in fee 
final in 1 1 days. 

At 27, it would be easy for Graf to 
accept physical decline and vanish in fee 
happy, satisfied crowd around her. In- 
stead, she overwhelmed Paola Suarez of 


Argentina in fee first set and began fee 
second wife three cutting backhands, 

ftarfi finer than fee l«tf, fee third firming 

into a feather as it crossed the net ana 
landing without a bounce.’ ShQ shut her 
eyes and tflted her bead back into the sun, 
arms swinging at her tides, delighted. 
She really does love fee game. 

Though she went on to win, 6-1, 6-4, 
she was not nearly as sharp after feat one 
blissful moment — which explains 
why, perhaps, she is so reluctant to 
indulge her emotions when she plays. 

La a comer of fee grounds just behind 
Graf's match, in an attic of a court tucked 
underneath fee wands of a neighboring 
viewing area, the British No. 1, Tim 
Henman, was having a difficult time 
wife fee imrenowned Frenchman Olivier 
Delaitre. Henman, himself recovering 
from recent elbow surgery, lost by 6-2, 
2-6, 1-6, 6-2, 6-4 and immediately began 
looking forward to Wimbledon, where 
he should benefit from the same kind of 
local support feat Delaitre used against 
him here. 

By fee end, the crowd was giving a 
bullfighting cheer for each of fee clinch- 
ing points by Delaitre, who looks more 
like a rugby player than a professional 
now entering fee second round of a 
Grand Slam tournament. • - 

From Graf to Delaitre toMarcelo Ri- 
os, die tournament seemed to change as 
you walked from one court to the next. At 
Court No. 1, a medium-sized bowl where 
No. 7 Rios of Chile was beating Wayne 
Black of Zimbabwe, 6-4, 5-7, 4-6, 6-2, 6- 
1, you tended to feel as if you were 
watching future stars in development. 

It is possible to follow fee tournament 
from the courtyard, where the scores at 
every court are constantly updated and a 
giant TV screen shows featured play. It 
is also gloriously possible, if you have 
the proper ticket, to see signs of an upset 


about to strike foe two-time former 
champion Jim Courier — then walk five 
minutes to the other end of the grounds 
and see Courier lose to Magnus Larsson 
of Sweden by the topsy-turvy result of 
6-1, 6-2. 4-6, 1-6,64. 

Courier was replaced on the court by 
Hingis, the 16-year-old Swiss who cheer- 
fully demolished Henrieta Nagyova of 
Slovakia. 6-0, 6-2, in 51 urinates. 

■ Ivanisevic Is Ousted 

The fourth-seeded Goran Ivanisevic 
became the first major casualty of the 
French Open when he was upset by 
Magnus Gustafsson, The Associated 
Press reported. Gustafsson beat the 
Croatian. 4-6, 64, 7-6 (7-3), 6-3. Clay is 
Ivanisevic's least favorite surface, and 
in Gustafsson he met an opponent who 
matohed him shot for shot in a battle of 
big hitters. 


Scoreboard 


in Munich. 

All right, fee opposition happens to 
be German, and Germans are never de- 
feated until the fat lady sings, the final 
penalty kick, the whistle is blown. 

However, Borussia Dortmund is not 
remotely a 4 ‘home’ * team when it comes 
to fee Olympic Stadium in Munich. 
Bavarians are not exactly second cous- 
ins in fee soccer sense to those people 
who wear a fluorescent yellow outfit 
and whose harsh, industrial environs 
had dared to “borrow** the Bundesliga 
title until Bayern Munich reclaimed it a 
week ago. 

Moreover, Dortmund is the resting 
place for “old” flames of Juventus. 

No less than five players of fee Bor- 
ussia squad have worn Juventus cloth — 
defenders Julio Cesar, Stefan Reuter 
and Juergen Kohler, and die inventive 
midfield players Andy Moeller and 
Paulo Sousa. 

They have had their reunions before. 
Three times Dortmund has faced Ju- 
ventus in recent European encounters 
and three times the new Juventus has 
erased fee old. 

Juventus is, in the words of Frank De 
Boer, that fine, experienced player of 
Ajax Amsterdam, “a team from another 
planet.” 

Didier Deschamps, a European 
Champions Cup victor wife Olympique 
Marseille, and then again with Juventus 
last year, dictates the rhythm. 

Zinedine Zidane took, his time to 
settle in after fee years in Bordeaux, but 
he comes alive whh mesmeric control of 
the bail and invention in the big games. 
At 24, Zidane should be entering his 
prime. 

Then there is Vladimir Jogovic, 
formerly of Red Star Belgrade, a player 
whose free-kick technique or skill at 
dropping long passes into the path of 
teammates, is bom of the technique that 
created fee term “European Brazili- 
ans'* far Yugoslavs. 

With Ciro Ferrara — an Italian! — 
Paolo Montero, a Uruguayan, who is 
mean and reliable in defense, and An- 
gelo Peruzzi, a strong and agile goal- 
keeper. plus fee collective will to win. 
Juventus is complete. 


It is also overblessed. A year ago^the , -‘ 
coach, Marcello Lippi, offloaded^ Gi- 
anluca Vialli and FabzmoRavanelILiltis. 4 ■» 
two gladiatorial forwards and began to 
rebuild a team at fee pinnacle of its sport . 
Why? Fresh blood, hungry new memo 
strive for the prize and push for glory. . - v 
One of his newcomers, Alen Bokri c, -.; 
has the sniping stealth of a Croatian -,; 
warrior. He scores when it counts and 
runs where it matters. And his partner v 
could be any one of three: - . - - 

Alessandro Del Piero, last year’s ~- 
young soldier, bedeviled this year by 


rdan s 




r '-bf 


wl'i 

. > vi, ahica 

~ --r. r.zit i 


SOCCER/RobHvvihw* 

and self-doubt, but still one of Italy’s v • ~ ; ~ ?'■ « 

most precious sons. Or Christian Vieri, V' . --- 

an emerging Italian center forward. Or 

Nicola Amoroso, 22. taking his oppac-^w .. &*.?■,-” :z '•> ^ 
trinities with relish and swiftness. 

There is one player on Dortmund’s 
books who could improve Juventus'. I ’’ r ■->* 

collection: Matthias Saromer, a German *.] ... - ?.■ -p 

international, and the game’s finest ox- ' J ..V. >r 
ponent of turning defense into attack. - fihz&i ± * 



He glides from his own h^lF of fee i 
field, tall and loog-limbed and instinct- * j 
ively aware of openings and 'move-;.; 
meat. \ 

If only he were fitter for more of .fee ... 
season. If only he were in the Old 
Lady’s black-and-white dress, and not ’■ 
merely the leader of her castoffs. 

But. soccer being the perverse game it 
is, maybe Sammer will nave his way and 
Dortmund, a team perennially beset by . 
medical problems, will mock :eve*y j,- 
word of the above one-sided eulogy. * , ‘- 
So long as it is a good game — how 
Europe needs feat after, fee flat UEFA *• 
Cup and Cup Winners Cup finals — fee V. _ 
reunion should be a rejoicing. Anyway, 
there is a second Old Boys gathering in - j 
Munich that, in the h uman sense, means 
even more. \ 

UEFA has invited fee eight surviving 
players of the Manchester United team - 


players of the Manchester United team 
whose plane crashed at the Muni^i air- 
port in February 1958, killing 23 people Jr 
including another eight players. Vis- * u 
iting the city again, walking around the 
hospital where they were treated, and 
getting reaquainted wife one of the doc- 
tors who operated on some of them, are: 
Jackie Blanchflower, Bill Foulkes, Sir 
Bobby Chariton, Harry Gregg, Kenny 
Morgan, Albert Scanlon, Dennis Yiollet - , 
and Ray Wood. 

Tbeir presence, and 1 hope theirpeace ^ 
of mind, lends something to the oc- -fl 
casion feat not even a mother can give: a . 
triumph over disaster feat.took lives but „ 
could not kill fee love of the game. 

Rob Hughes is . on the staff of The ~ t 
Times of London. . . _ - 


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CBJ, RaJrtyera m and Webster; PeOffte 
Nelson (7). Ltoyd (7). Medr (7) and GtrgnD. 
w-fiaslde. 2-1 L— PetBKa 6-3. 
Se— RiMyere Cl S3- HRs-SaOlmore. By. 

I Anderaon (5>- New Yort, Be.W?*ia«s (9). 

oahted N1 BN 9N 01—2 7 0 
1 KBBsasQtf ON 901 M 09-1 9 1 
HI tadnssITeloneder. C. Reyes (B). 
Groom (9J. W. Adana CIO). A. Smal (11) and 
Moyne Appier, Mk.wnoms (10) and 
> Mnctartano. w— w. Adams. 3-5. 
L— Mk.VHHtams. o-l. Sv-A. SmOB (2). 
SwWb 400 214 On— 13 14 • 

MtaesotD 029 391 209-9 13 2 

s-sandets. McCarthy (0, B. Wefts 14), 
Ayala (8). Ourttai m «d Da.WBsotv 
Aidrea F. Radrt^rez (1). RW* 15), 
Swtndefl (fi), TmmUey W and G. Myers. 
W-S. Sanders. I-S. L-AWHL 2-7. 
HRs— 5eaM» RDovis 16), Buhner2 01), E. 
Manhiei 2 (7). Cora (5)- Minnesota GMyen 
CD. 

OavalNd 269 9M 110—11 13 1 

Chkoga 290 IN 1W-4 6 9 

HersMsab Mesa (to. Groves (9) and S. 
AJornan Havana KanAner ® and Pena. 
Fabregas <83. W— Hnshher, 5-Z 
l— Havana 44. HRs— CNasja F. Thomas 
00), Cameron (1). 

Teat on in ooo-i 5 i 

Taranto 440- NO 00a-9 13 1 

5«aiafia. Vosbere O) ond L Rotelguec 
Cfemens. QuonfrtU BJ and SanOsp. 
W— Oaneni 9-fl. L-SanMM, 2-Z 
HRs— Texas, j. Gonzalez <9. TorantX 
5 praguc t9), Merced (5). 

HtenOUSL LEAOUe 

Odeoge OOO 191 HW * 1 

pntsta^ ON N1 00ft— 1 3 1 

Foster, Ratos <73. T. Adams W jmd 
Housm Servos RJ? FXonUm, M. Wdkfaa 
(ffl and Kendo K. W-Fostet 63. L-F. 
Cordova 3-4. 5»-T. Adorns (5). 

HRs— Chkaga Som (131. PBBiiwtfi. 
Womack (2). 

SL Loots NO HO 999-7 14 0 

Colorado 999 400 020-9 13 0 

DnJodaoa Peftonek (fl ond UvepWis 


Ritz, Habnes (5). DeJean (83. S. RMd (9) and 
MammlnB. W— DaJean, 2-a L— P«kovNk, 
3< Sv-5. Reed C53- HRs-Sf.Loulfc Goertl 
(4), Gant 09- Cotorada CasNo (73), 
Galarn>B 0 (11). Webs CD. 

Houston 290 910 999-3 7 1 

Su Fradsco t3> ON 0O1—4 y 1 

fternofafe Atarlln (7), R Spring* »), LJrw 
(9) and Ausmus.- Rueter, D. Henry CBJ, R. 
Rodriguez (9), Tovorez (9) ond Jansen. 


FWGome 

— PUatelpMa 200 119 200—5 B 1 

3 CkM IN 110 00a— fl 14 1 

4 MXerter, E. Rama*. Plantentoerg (7). R- 
eh Harris C73 ond UetoerttwfcSfiiBey, Remflnger 
7 (8) and Ofver. W— Smfcy.5-6. L— M. Lefte, 

4-5. 5v— RanSnger GD. HRs— PNtadelpWa 
“ Jefferies (4), K. Jordan Q3. CMC, Boone CO. 
: Second Game 

’ PNodsteWn 093 ON 001-4 9 2 

Oodoafl 332 on ee*-e io o 

Beads Stater CD. E. Ramos (9. Ryan (73- 


and FOrtfyee. W-Momon. lit BncIlO- 1. 
New York ON IN 030-4 7 1 

Mootreoi 001 HI 100—3 B 1 

RJfeerl Lkfle (71 KasMwoda (S3. 
AAcMdm (B), X Franca (71 and CastBo 
Bteser (7). BUtMger, Urttna <83, D. Veres (9) 
and Ffcfcher. W-Utes 3-a L-UrbMa, 2-t 
Sv— Franca 04). HR-MartrecA Stranoe W. 
Florida ON IN 300-3 ■ 1 

LosAogrias 010 210 OU-5 0 1 

HeBag. Hutton (73 arid Zounr Pork, Osvna 
<7U Gutnrio (B3. T.WOneB m ond Piazza. 
W— Port, 3-1 L— HeOMg. 1-3. So-T. WorreC 
04), HRs— Ftortda.Ataboit O), Hard CU.Lm 
Angeles, Mondesi (113, Kanos (7), ZeBe (BJ. 
Adootn 223 029 949-12 16 9 

SraiDItgo 4N ON 109X5 11 1 

Wade, Bofwstt (3J, Bleiecfci €57. Embiee 
(7J, Clontz (HL Byrd (9) ond J. Lopez: 
T.werreft H. Murray UK P. SmJM <73, 
Burrows IB), Omnone (8) and Flaherty, 
w— Borovnkt, 2-a L— T. Woreft 2 - 6 . 
HR-5011 Diega SWpley (2}. 

Japanese Leagues 


First Periadb None. Socoad Period: D- 
LopoMIe 2 (Larionov) TIM Period: D- 
Fedorov 5 (Kaziov, Brown) X C-Young 4 
CDcadmonK ForsUerg) X I>> Shanahan 6 
(Larionov) (en). Shots on goat C- 3-S-8-16. 
D- 14-16-12—42. GoaBes C-Roy. D-VSmon. 
(Dehtrit wins series 4-2) 

DetnB meets PhUoderpMa in Stanley Cop 
Rnals wtih first game on 5ahrrday, May 31. 


IMMUHmn DIVISION 

Valendal Real Betts) 
nwnns: Real Madrid 86 points; 
Barcelona 8$ Real Berts 7< Deparflvo 
Coruna 74r Afieflca MartM 68; AlMrilc Bft- 
boo 58; VonadoM SO; Real Sodedod 54; Va- 
lencia 53; Terwrfle 52; Zoragazo 49; Corrv- 
posMa 49; Raring Santander 48; Celta 
Esparryol 45; Oviedo 44r Sporting €t Rayo 
VaDecano 42; Extremadura 41; SevSta 3 7; 
Hercules 35; Logrorws 32. 

■SIABIfUnCOP 

Hapoel Beeraheba l , Moccahi Tel Aviv 0 



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L 

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Pet 

GB 

Yakut 

26 

16 



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Hiroshima 

20 

19 

— 

J13 

45 

Qiunkhl 

21 

20 

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512 

45 

Honshln 

19 

22 

— 

563 

65 

Yokohama 

17 

20 

— 

A59 

65 

Ybmh/rf 

)7 

22 

— 

A2S 

&O 


iwuri Reams 

YafcuR 4. Ycrtohamo 3 
Honshln X Chunlrifl 1 
YrmhrU. Hiroshima; 



W 

L 

T 

PCL 

GB 

Sribv 

26 

15 

— 

434 

— 

DoW 

21 

21 

— 

SOD 

55 

Orbr 

18 

18 



-500 

55 

Latte 

18 

20 

1 

.474 

65 

Nippon Ham 

19 

Z2 

— 

•463 

7 A 

Kintetsu 

17 

23 

1 

•425 

85 


imursuiuiff 

SrribuS. Orts2 
Wppon Horn X Dale! l 
Lotte 3, Kintetsu 2 


NBA Playoffs 

USTtHM COMFttllKI PBU1S. 

(Besr-OPAEVEN) 

Monmamn 

Odeoge 19 12 26 23— N 

Miami 24 23 14 26- 97 

C: Jonkm 9-3511-1329, Ftopa 5-172-3 1« 
Mt Hardaway g-19 2-2 25. Mourning 9-13 2-6 
18. Refta o n ds — Chlongo 53 (Redman 11), 
Miami 55 (Mourning 14). Assists— aficogo 
17 (Pfppen S), Miami 16 (Hardaway 7). 
(Odarita M series 3-1) 


NHL Playoffs 


IBBST-OASEVeitl 


a g 1—1 
Q 1 2—3 


French Open 

1ST ROUND 
WOMEN'S SINGLES 

RaymoncUii del MraeewLBule>A7-5, 6-3. 
Dreganttr.Rom. d el. Jeyaseekm. CanA-lA-j. 
VOn Roast Brig, del. Barbara RBTner, C«^ 
many. 3-0 ret 

Splrieodte. Rom. def. Janet Lee,U^6-l, 6 - 0 . 
BegeremGer.det£rzybawskaPol3Ad-3^< 
Koaralkova Rus. def. Zrutaftovn StovaUa 
6-16-2. 

Hcdtfrtnl tt, def. Code, U-S, 7-6 (7-5). 7-5. 
Tanasugarn, TbaL deLCourtots, Brig. 7-6 (7- 

Graf (2). Gw, dri. Suarez. Atg. 6-1, 6-4. 
Ruon»FascualSp. del MonfoltaSpA-a 6-0. 
Hobsudova U5). Slovakia, dot Barabon- 
sridkovo. Belarus. 6-1 6-1 
UWwvtseva Rus. dot. Nemeckova, Czerib 6- 
4.6-1 

Tauzlal Fr. def. Simpson, Con. <- 3 , 6-2. 
SriiuRz-Mccaritiy 04). Nrih. (M. Centora. 
Czerii6-X7-SL 

YUldda. Jap. deL McQuflkin. Ausfr, 6-1 6-4. 
Sujftamo. J«ni. dri. Wogncr, Gwi7. 6^ 6 - 1 . 
GMianfi-Rubbl Fr. def. Oremans, Nrtti. 2-0, 
6-2, 6-3. 

Kandmr, Ger. dri. Garda, Sp. 7-6 (7-1), 6-1 
Makarova. Rus. dri. Derivume-Bafleiet Fr. 

6- 46-2. 

Fortna It. dri. Wiesner, Austria 6-2. 1 - 6 . 64 , 
Fernanda 02). U.5. del. Lori McNttt VA, 
6-2. 6-1 

CeotfilnLlL dot. Enda Jop.7-6 (7-5), 7-6 (7-4). 

Grossman. dri. Genl Czech, 6-1 6-0. 
Womtna ( 4 ), Czech. dof.Tanens-Valcra Sp. 
6-16-2. 

Neflomt Lot, dri. Shtot Fr. 6-2, 7-5. 
PortemiLdef. Mlyngt JTO7-6, (7-3), 2 - 4 . 60 . 
Hy-Boriab. Can. def. DwJry. Fr.fr 7 (6)8). frj 
1W- 

Mowwmft Fr. def. Watonabe, 
HlngbflL5wt!L def. NagynvaSlorakA-IU-z. 
Sanchez Vlcario (6). Sp. def. Jogimiak. Fr. 
MK 

Pllkowskt Ft. del. Uibianl ti. 7-6 (7-2), 6-2. 
Utinon e, Fr. def. schen. Austria frl tet. 
Cristeo. Rom. dot. Prebst Gw. 6 - 16 - 4 . 

G)g» Gcr. def. CsSeits, Brig. 6-1 4-4 6-2 
Lobat Arg. det.Boogart. Nrih.7-S.fro 
Tested Fr. del. Sung-Hee, 5. KOr. fro. 6 - 4 . 
zverera. Sri. del. Tu, u^.frl 1*. frj. 

Pa IW. tef .Huber (8). Ger. 6 - 1 4-& 6-1 
Gla&s. Ger.<tof.Ca0ens. BKg. 6 - 1 4 - 6 , fr 2 . 

•AITS WOLES 

Dewrit Brig. def. Co ram, Holy, 6-1 6-1 6-1 
Medwdw, Ukr.def. Bcroaotegri n». Spoiii, 
6444,24,622-1. 

Rossef 05), Switz. deLHrtwty. Skwokki, 7-5, 

3- 6. 7-6 (7-2), 6-4, 

Muster (5), Austria def.GoeSner, Germ. 4-4 

7- 6(7-42 6-2 6-7(2-71. 6 -L 

Taranga UJj- dri. FUppbiJ. Urg. 4-6, 6-2 5-7 
7-6(9-73,6-4. 

WoodnrK,U.S.dri. Vocck. Qedvfr4,6-2 6-1 
NtOfa (W, Sp. det Morfia Spifrlfr? 0-7), 5. 
7.WW 

ArazL Mer. del. DreriunanaGcrA-l 6 - 4 . fr? 
Wtradbrldga Australia dri. Certxn Den. 7-6 
(84). 44 6-1 64. 

LopentdEcu. deL Fcttcrtdn,DerLfr 4 . frl, fr^ 

PWBppoussb. Australta, dd. Kulll Swe. 6-z 

4- A34fr4fr4. 


Ri«toXJiLdef.BtateJtaLfri5-7^dfr26-l. 
Detattre, Fr. def. Henman fULBrtt 6-1 2-6 
1-dfrlfrt. • ,. 

PtonnarvBriB-dri.S«vs»0AAnAfr27-lfr3. ,. 
Laiseaa Sure. def. Courier, U.S. frl, 6-14-6 
T-66-a 

Vttenv.Rus. def. Nertx&nwfrl, frl. 3-4 6-1 ■ 
Otrtusfca 5. Af. def. Pastuni, Arg. 7-6 <7-3L ■ . 
frl frl. 

StriJaAustroBadetFuria«ult.7,&frl.frdfrl ' 
Simian, Fr. def. SdnSer, AusMuHHU 
6^ frl 

Gofrncnt Fr. del. OeraenL Fr. frl.6-1 63. ! 
Borisclv Fr. dri. KucWn, Starak.6-1. frl, 6-4. 
Vdn Sctrepplngerv Nrih. dot Hoorhute, Nrih. ■' 

6- 164.5-7,6-4. 

untnetb czsclt. def. Kleter, Ger. frl frl 61 
KrocskaHun.deLKrosfak,Sk»ok.7-5»6^4- i 
67-6(7-5). 

BlodtOmh. dec. S«nrttai1^1-6^1frlfrl * 
Bruguoro 06), Sp. def. Vdn Herd' Bela 6-1 
0-6.6-164L 

BlancASp. def. GodwkbS Affr-i frl 1-6, 7-5. 
Pavel, Rom. def.O'Biten, U-l, 6-4. 7-5 6-0. 
Marriflta (10), Sp. driJ=mnl>erg. Aushrila, fr . . 
16-26-2 

AXasta(ll),5p.dri.Vdlnea,RonLfr-67-16-4. ■ 
Chang (23.U5- dri. GNertFr. frl frl frl • 
KraScek (6), Noth. del. Draper, Australia 7-6 ‘ . 
(7-3). frl frl. 

KordaCzech. def. BurtlaSp/Ht6-Q,7-W7-4). . 
Woodtorde. Australia def. Scrictmi. Sp. 5-7. 

7- 618-6), 6-7 no-12), 6-4. 8-6. - 
CCesMiSa del Doug Ftech.UjA-664L frl. * 
Ferrriiq, 031, SAidetTHstram,Swe. 6-7(1- *’ 
7). 7-6 (7-3), 6-7 (2-7), frl frl. 

Gustofssaa Swe. deLrvoirisevlc W, Cn.4-6, - ’ 
6-17-6(7-33,6-1 


AHSmCAHLEAaue 

BOsrroK-Reailied RHP Jeff Suppan from ' 
Powtucket U-OtnkuwdLHP JetTGruftdtto : 
Powfuckef. 

cnrCACO— Purchased contract of 3B Scott 
Codbough Iran Waterhury. NL. 

CLCVEL4MD— Oesignated OF Kevin 
Mrtriteft and RHP Teddy Wanecher ter as- 
slgnment. Optioned INF Domini) Jackson " , 

and LHP Steve KOnetoBvffoiaAA. Recoiled > 
RHPpanny Graves from Bulfate. Purchased ' 1 

amtraris of OF TranWad Hubtard and WF - 

Casey Crmdarie from Buflate. , 

MirtKeso T fl rt ewnded RHP Bab Tevrts- - ’ 

^ Many Contovo tram ' ’ : 

15rihydtaibledBst.Optloned3BToddVtaifc. '*-C* 

er Ip Sort Lake Qty.PTl r-~ S 

n^“ 1 2 l ^f!" !ased RHP TtaniOi Mar- ' „ 

Wtez. RKo0ed RHP Mha Maddux hair * 

1 ocoma PCi_ { 

TDus-AcMvated RHP Ken HJB ttvm rtw ' .; 

ISrikty disabled Rst s 

„ TOBoHTO-Purahosed contract of OF 
Ruben Sierra from Syracuse IL. Optioned fc . i 
LHP Huck Flenar to Syracuse, ' V, 

nadonalleagug .s 

, _®"' : ‘HNa'r»— Pui of Reggie Sanders on ■ 
]Moy dhebled fist. Recalled OF MB® Kafly “ 
tram IrufianopoOs. AA. . V 

acoMoo-SotecDnfraclafOFDaroefll' \ 
*° ^ 4ansWn “f the Japanese Central ■ ^ 

lAopue. PurriwMd contract of OF Hgtvay.* > 
Ptteora from Colorado Springs, PCL. ! 

^YOWf-SeriRHPAndyZNiilWtZlo'Ah V 
terrtr to complete the Greg McMMwel trade- V 
"SSSSW 11 QF Smnti on 15. ' 

KS^E. ratol ' NFF,edd,G<,K ' • ’ 

Ldob-Sot I B DmtM Young to IzxjIs- 
trine, AA on a lehobfiRatian assignment. 

Activated OF Rfekey Hender- , 
»n tram ISritey as**# UsL Ffaced OF \ 

Chris janes on IS-rtgy digabled BsL 

WEW-Adhrated INF Scott LMng- > 

Hoaurr 

Uui "“™«ALKOMCTu*euB . :< 

a * eh " fln: om ~ r ••*: 
ah Ha ph Dg te get to Debrifs 1 
NKhaurkig Game 4 af Western Canferance I. 

ca^^ir Na,n « Atotr> vigiieault i' 

^^Dwerangosalslantcoacii. I 

aw FKKMr. president I, 

^*neratmanager. Pramated eBBlriit 
™^raar B» wane** interim gen- 


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INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAY 28. 1997 


RAGE 31 



SPORTS 


at Tur, r 

..wV 

•tor-.- v..,. 


A Victory for the Heat 

Did Jordan ’s Golfing Sink Bulls ? 


* 


By J. A. Adande 

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MIAMI -— ■ The Miami Heat's players 
can keep (heir golf dubs in storage, and 
perhaps a certain Chicago Bulls* player 
should put his clubs away. 

The Heat stayed alive in the Eastern 
Conference finals Monday with an 87- 
S0 victory in Game 4. Or should that be 
Game Fore? 

Golf w as a recurring theme Monday 
at Miami Arena, from the golf ball-sized 
knot that swelled up on Scotlie Pippen’s 
head — thanks ro an Alonzo Mourning 
elbow — to the questions about Michael 

MBA PUYOfM 

Jordan's decision to play 48 holes at a 
local golf course Sunday. In one Freudian 
slip during his postgame news confer- 
ence. Jordan even mistook which sport is 
supposed to be his prioriry right now. 

“I don't think thar had anything to do 
with the way that 1 played today.* * said 
Jordan, who finished with 29 points on 
w.^ir-35 shooting. “All throughout the 
series, when I've had days off. I Ye 
relaxed and gotten away from the game 
of golf. uh. the game of basketball"’ * 

After a day of swinging the clubs in 
the draining humidity of South Honda, 
Jordan missed his first 14 shots and 20 
of his first 22 as the Bulls fell behind by 
2 1 points. Even though Jordan found his 
stroke — shooting, not putting — in 
time to put together a 20-point fourth 
quarter that brought Chicago back with- 
in a point, the Bulls could not overcome 
a Heat team that finally looked like the 


group that won 61 games during the 
regular season instead of one that was 
embarrassed at home Saturday in a 98- 
74 blowout loss to the Bulls. 

Mourning had 18 points and 14 re- 
bounds. Tim Hardaway, who scored 
only 34 points in the first three games, 
finally shook loose from the Chicago 
defense For 25 points and six assists. 
Jamal Mashbum scored 17 points. 

Alter the ease in which they won 
Game 3 to take a 3-0 lead, the Bulls were 
all set to complete their sweep. Instead 
they failed to put an early end to a series 
for only the filth time in their past 24 
opportunities and now must play Game 
5 Wednesday night in Chicago. 

Jordan's shots repeatedly came up 
short in the first half, which led to 
speculation that he had lost his energy 
on the links Sunday at Tumberry Isle. 

“I’m not going to blame what I did 
today on what I did yesterday,” Jordan 



my energy 
rhythm off* 


just 


.ytirni offensively.” 

The Bulls’ coach, Phil Jackson, de- 
fended Jordan’s decision to play golf, 
but his displeasure showed when he was 
repeatedly asked about it. 

“Michael knows how to take care of 
himself.” Jackson said. “If that was 
what he called for during the day, then 
that’s his priority. I let them have a day 
off yesterday, as far as work, and they 
had their opportunity io have a good 
time, and it might have cost them. This 
time of year, sometimes it’s better to do 
those things than ro stick your nose to 
the grindstone all the time.” 



Red Wings Gain Finals, 
Ousting Avalanche, 3-1 


By Lynn Henning 

.\r* K>nt Tunes Sen ice 


peorifu 

Game 


P.wtr («/4i'an 

Miami's Alonzo Mourning getting a grip on Chicago's Dennis Rodman. 


DETROIT — Playing as if they were 
ified at the thought of having to face 
ite 7 of the Western Conference fi- 
nals at Denver, the Detroit Red Wings 
finished off the defending Stanley Cup 
champions, the Colorado Avalanche. 3- 
1 . to earn their second trip in three years 
to the Stanley Cup finals. 

The Red Wings will be trying to win 
their first cup since 1955 when they face 
the Flyers in a four-of-seven-game 
series that begins Saturday in Phil- 
adelphia. In their last nip to the finals, in 
1 995. the Red Wings were dismissed in 

NHL >uroiM 

four games by die New Jersey Devils. 

“I told the team before the game, it’s 
so hard to get to the finals, they would 
me the day they showed up and didn't 
play the game of their lives,” said De- 
emir's coach. Scotty Bowman. “When 
you can knock out the Stanley Cup 
champions in one game, you've got to 
do it/* 

Patrick Roy was about all that sep- 
arated the Red Wings from what could 
have been a blowout. Detroit ripped shot 
upon shot at the Colorado netminder 
during a furious opening 20 minutes on 
Monday night. 

But no matter if h was Vyacheslav 
Fetisov on a rocket from the slot. 
Brendan Shanahan from point-blank 
range in front of the crease or Sieve 
Yzennan on a wraparound attempt. Roy 
knocked away all 14 shots from a Red 


Wings team that played with fury. Over 
all. Roy stopped 40 of 42 shots. “Ul- 
timately they wore our team down," 
Coloraclo's coach. Marc Crawford, said. 

“Patrick gave us a chance to steal 
one. but at this level you don't try to 
steal games." 

The Avalanche, on the other hand, 
barely bothered the Red Wings* goalie, 
Mike' Vemon. who stopped 15 of 16 
shots. 

Detroit finally solved Roy at 3 
minutes 29 seconds of the second period 
on Martin Lapointe’s blast from aiop the 
left circle. 

The Red Wings were dominated by 
the Avalanche, 6-0. in Game 5 at Den- 
ver and several of the Detroit players 
said they had to win Monday night — a 
tacit admission that they were long shots 
in a series finale on Avalanche ice. 

A sense of desperation marked De- 
troit’s play even as it took a 1 -0 lead into 
the third period. The Red Wings con- 
tinued to storm Roy. getting a second 
goal at 6:11. when Sergei Fedorov- 
scored off a pass from Slava Kozlov. 

Colorado was enjoying a different 
night altogether on offense as the Red 
Wings disjointed them well into die 
third period and made life relatively 
comfortable for Vernon. 

The Avalanche finally scored at 
14:48 of the third period on Scott 
Young's rebound of Adam Dead- 
marsh's shot. 

Roy was pulled for an extra attacker 
with 47 seconds remaining but Shanahan 
ended any hopes the Avalanche had of 
overtime "when he scored into an empty 
net at 19:30 to clinch the victory- 


Orioles Score Comeback Victory in N. Y. 

Yankees Get a Taste of Their ’ 96 Medicine: Grit and a Mighty Bullpen 


By Mark Maske 

Washington Post Senice 



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NEW YORK — The Baltimore Ori- 
oles took this one straight from the New 
' fork Yankees’ 1996 World Series-win- 
ning formula. They used grit and a dom- 
inant bullpen performance to win a game 
they had no right to win. The Orioles 
rallied from a four-run, seventh-inning 
deficit and handed their *96 nemesis an 

5- 6 defeat ar Yankee Stadium. 

The Orioles won Monday night for 
the seventh time in nine games to im- 
prove their record to 32-15, dropping 
the Yankees (26-23) seven games be- 
hind them in the American League East. 
The Toronto Blue Jays, meanwhile, 
trailed by 616 games after their 8-1 vic- 
tory over the Texas Rangers. 

“I think it’s significant when you 
come back against any team.’ ’ said Ori- 
oles center fielder Brady Anderson, 
who provided two hits and three RBIs. 

Yankees starter Andy Pettitte took a 

6- 2 lead into the seventh, but the Orioles 

t ot Anderson's two-run double and B J. 

urhofFs rwo-run, two-out single off 
reliever Graeme Lloyd in a six-run in- 
ning. Reliever Jesse Orosco then retired 
the side in order in the bottom of die 
seventh. Armando Benitez struck out all 
three batters he faced in the eighth and 
Randy Myers got the final three outs In 
order for his 16th save. 

After Shawn Boskie (2-2) allowed 
the first two hitters he faced in the sixth 
to reach base. Orioles relievers retired 
the final 12 Yankees. 

* ‘If you want to compete for a division 
, you need to have balance in your 


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bullpen.” Johnson said. 

Anderson hit Petdtte’s first pitch of 
the day over the right field fence for his 
third leadoff home run of the season. 
The Yankees got a two-run triple from 
Tim Raines, Derek Jeter’s RBI groun- 
dout and Bemie Williams’s homer off 
Erickson in the third. Surhoff had an 
RBI single in the top of the fourth, but 
Jeter responded with a two-run single 
for a 6-2 New York advantage. 

The Yankees beat the Orioles 14 
times in the teams’ 1 8 meetings last year 
and captured their AL Championship 
Series showdown in five games. They 
seemed likely to coast home on Monday 
behind Pettitte (6-3). But the left-hander 
got into trouble in the seventh. Surhoff 
got a leadoff single and Jeffrey Ham- 
monds walked Lenny Webster’s RBI 
single and Pettitte 's run-scoring wild 
pitch got the Orioles to 6-4, and Mike 
Bordick walked. Yankees Manager Joe 
Tone stuck with Pettitte even with lefty 
Lloyd ready in the bullpen. Anderson 
responded with a drive to center field to 
score Webster and Bordick. 

Torre went to right-hander Jeff Nel- 
son. Jeff Reboulet ounted Anderson to 
third base. Cal Ripken followed with a 
check-swing tapper, and Nelson should 
have had an easy out at first base. But his 
foot slipped as he made the throw, and 
first baseman Tmo Martinez couldn’t 
make die scoop. Anderson held at third 
base, and Ripken was given a hit Torre 
brought in Lloyd, who retired Rafael 
Palmeiro. The Yankees walked Chris 
Hoiles intentionally to load the bases, 
but Surhoff got Anderson and Ripken 
home with a bouncer through the 


middle. “7 threw the pitch inside, where 
I wanted to throw the pitch.” Lloyd 
said. “I jammed him. and he just hit it up 
the midale.” 

In other gomes. The Associated Press 
reported: 

Indiana 10, Whita Sox 4 Indians 1, 
Albert Belle 0. That’s how fans may 
view Cleveland’s victory in Chicago. 

But those closest to the situation bad a 
different perception of Belle’s first 
game against his former dub. 

“The White Sox were good before 
Albeit signed and they're a good team 
after Albert signed,” Indians manager 
Mike Hargrove said. “We didn’t come 
here to play Albert We came here to 
play the White Sox.” 

Blua days 8, Hangars 1 At Toronto. 
Roger Clemens (9-0) became the AL's 
first nine-game winner, allowing one 
run and four hitsfn seven innings and 
striking out seven. Off to his best start 
since going 14-0 in 1986, he lowered his 
league-leading ERA to 1.81. 

Tlgsts 6, Angels o At Detroit Omar 
Olivares (3-3) pitched a four-hitter for his 
second shutout this season. He won for 
the first time since blanking Cleveland, 
64). on May 10. 

Rad Sox 3, Bmwn 2 At B oston, Tim 
Nae bring hit a two-run double with one 
out in the ninth as Boston rallied for just 
its fifth win in 20 games. 

AtHaKcs 2 , Royals i In Kansas City. 
Scott Spiezio singled home Jose Canseco 
with one out in the 1 1th. Canseco drew a 
one-out walk off Mike Williams (0-1). 
and Jason Giambi singled before Spiezio 
hit a clean single to right Kansas City 
starter Kevin Appier struck out a season- 



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Cal Ripken Jr., tbe Orioles third baseman, diving for a ball as the crowd at Yankee Stadium looks on. 


high 10 innine innings, but didn’t getany 
ran support and failed in his fourth at- 
tempt to get his 100th career victory. 

Mariners 1 3, Twins 8 At Minneapolis, 
Edgar Martinez and Jay Buhner both 
homered twice, and Joey Cora extended 
his hitting streak to 21 games for 
Seattle. 

Reds B, Phillies 5; Reds 8, Phillies 4 

After their worst start in nearly a half- 
century, the Cincinnati Reds have won 
four in a row. 

Barry Larkin reached base safely in all 
seven plate appearance Monday night, 
extending his streak to 12, two short of 
the NL record set by Pedro Guerrero in 


1985 and four short of Ted Williams’ 
major league record set in 1957. 

Cobs 2 , Pirstss i Chicago’s Sammy 
Sosa and Pittsburgh’s Tony Womack hit 
inside-the-park homers five minutes 
apart in the sixth inning. It was the first 
time two inside-the-park homers have 
been hit in the same NL game since Lou 
Brock and Hector Cruz of St Louis did 
it against San Diego on June 18. 1976. 

Rookies 9, Cardinals 7 Andres Galar- 
raga hit a 469-foot two-nm homer, and 
Vinny Castilla added a solo shot as 
Colorado overcame a 6-0 deficit at 
Coots Reid. 

Bravos 12 , Pachas 5 Michael Tucker 


drove in three runs on two doubles and a 
triple and scored twice as visiting At- 
lanta beat San Diego for die sixth 
straight time. 

Mated, Expos 3 Rey Ordonez drove in 
the go-ahead run with a two-out single 
in the eighth following a two-run single 
by pinch-hitter Matt Franco off Ugueth 
Urbina (2-4). 

Dodgers 5, Martins 3 Eric Karros hit a 
tiebreaking two-run homer and Todd 
Zeile and Raul Mondesi hit.solo shots as 
Los Angeles won its third straight. 

Giants 4, Astros 3 Barry Bonds 
bomered off Jose Lima (0-3) to break a 
3-3 tie in the ninth at San Francisco. 


DENNIS THE MENACE PEANUTS 


CALVIN AND HOBBES 


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PAGE 32 


. INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY, MAY 28, 1997 


OBSERVER 


Most Jokes Verboten 


By Russel] Baker 

N EW YORK — Polish 
jokes verboten. Black 
jokes verboten. Italian jokes 
verboten. Jewish jokes ver- 
boren. Catholic jokes ver- 
boten. Mother-in-law jokes 
verboten. Femmist jokes ver- 
boten. Homosexual jokes 
verboten. (Except when told 
by, respectively. Poles, 
blacks. Italians, Jews, Cath- 
olics. mothers-in-law. femin- 
ists and homosexuals.) 

The proscription list hangs 
on the back wall inside every 
comedian's skuii, and for 
good reason. Violation con 
result in indictment for in- 
sensitivity, accompanied by 
public denunciation and dis- 
employment with its terrify- 
ing absence of income. 

Well, on to Mario Puzo. He 
has been at it again. Writing 
stories that suggest persons of 
Italian heritage are capable of 
engaging in felonious activ- 
ity. His latest work in this 
vein was recently televised to 
a mass audience. 


His earlier works concern 
murderous criminal organiza- 
tions composed almost en- 
tirely of persons with Italian 
names with a boss everybody 
calls “the Don." This latest 
was no different. 

His stories violate the sen- 
sitivity principle by suggest- 
ing that organized crime is an 
Italian affair. For years 
people of Italian root have 
fought this stereotype, urging 
television to stop giving Itali- 
an names to all its gangsters. 
Who can blame them? 

They have enriched Amer- 
ican culture with names like 
Toscanini, Cuomo, Pacino, 
Marciano, DiMaggio, Fermi, 
Coppola, Lucci. Pavarotti. Pic- 
colo, Balducci. Torre. De Niro, 
Valentino; have given the 


world the poetry of Dame; the 
art of Michelangelo and 
Raphael, the music of Verdi 
and Puccini; the movies of 
Fellini De Sica. Rosselini . . . 

It does not require demon- 
strable sensitivity to under- 
stand an Italian -American 
urge to cry, “Enough already 
with A1 Capone. Frank Nitti 
and all those rotten Corle- 
ones!" 


Puzo escapes an insensitiv- 
ity indictment under the rule 
that any member of a group 
thought to need sensitivity is. 
nevertheless, permitted to be 
insensitive, but only to his own 
group. If a Puzo show referred 
to a black character as “a 
spade." as Raymond Chand- 
ler. the Anglo master of crime 
fiction, did in the pre-sensi- 
tivity era. well — “The sen- 
sitivity boys are going to take 
you for a tittle ride. Mario.’! 

In exercising his license to 
insensitivity. Puzo does spin a 
good yam. His earlier God- 
father opuses might have 
made wonderful opera if 
Verdi had been available. 
This last one on TV started so 
tired — “Been here. God- 
father, done this" — that I 
signed off early. 

Did people of Italian an- 
cestry grit their teeth and sub- 
mit to omerta, the Mafia code 
of silence? Two weeks later 
no protests are heard. See 
how a sensitivity failure can 
rot the character? 

Until this latest onset of 
godfatherism I had quit say- 
ing “Mafia" and “omena-’’ 

I must try hard not to think 
such words again. I shall now 
think, instead, of Gina Lol- 
lobrigida. Claudia Cardinale. 
Sophia Loren- and Tuscany’s 
sunny hills. Ah. Isabella! Re- 
member the Chianti we drank 
that verboten afternoon in 
sun-dappled Fiesole . . .? 

Neu- York Times Service 


Mary Coughlan’s Long Road Back to Cult Status 


By Mike Zwerin 

Iniemadonal Herald Tribune 

L ONDON — The biography accompa- 
nying Mary Coughl art’s eighth album, 

‘'After the Fall" (Big Cat/V2), includes 
what is possibly toe longest list of downers in 
the history of the human voice. 

A suicide attempt followed by a spell in a 
psychiatric ward, a broken marriage, crooked 
contracts, calamitous ca- 
reer moves, a repossessed — 

house, an overdose, “a Her struggle with 

tendency to look at life , „ 

through the bottom of a adWTStly IS well 

borfle.” piUs. adultery, 10 represented in the 

years of depression, 31 de- , r 

tox programs. singers material 

Why go public stressing 

all of that? There’s a difference between 
learning from mistakes and advertising them 
as extra added attractions. 

“I don’t think there’s any point in doing it 
any other way," she explains. Her Irish 
accent is a flurry that demands frequent 
calming down. And imagine an expletive 
deleted from about every other sentence: 

"I've learned so much; I put it all there so 


There was a generous advance and she 
purchased a beautiful house on two acres 
near Dublin. When die multinational’s chief 
Irish operating officer disappeared, he left no 
sales figures and nobody had been paid Her 
manager had mortgaged her bouse to finance 
a tour which lost £80,000. She found she was 
personally liable. The record company 
dropped her.'The bank took back the house, a 
van backed up and emptied it and the car in 
front was driven off. She and 
her husband split up. She 
6 with "began to drink for oblivi- 

well Now she’s sober, with a 

in the new b at) y- 4 * ot of one ' on_ 

, one counseling has done a 

teriaL - lot of good She's in AA “of 

: — course." She’s one of the 

better talkers at the meetings. After she fin- 
ished her most- recent recovery program 
three years ago, she told herself. “I’U give 
singing a try one more time." 

She pulled out the boxes with the old 
itineraries and faxed her contacts and gradu- 
ally got her old gigs back. The term “cult 
figure" was heard about her once more. She 
signed with a small record label that gave her 




other people might learn too. It’s important complete artistic control. It has since merged 

5 — .i S .i_ _ 1 i** u ^ i v j ..J.v Mart 


to say it. otherwise people think they're the 
only ones with the problems." 

Clean for three years now, with a new 
recording contract, touring with her own 
band there is something enlightened if not 


with V2, a multinational launched with £300 
million ($490 million) from Richard Branson 
of Virgin fame. 

Most of the songs she is now singing are 
written by Jimmy McCarthy and Johnny 


[trite beatific about Coughlan at the age of Mulhem, whom she calls “the most in- 


Her srory goes, as she puts it. 4 ‘from earth 
mother number one to the scum of the 
earth." She omits the implied “and back 
again." She was a macrobiotic vegetarian, 
she breast-fed her first three children (there 
are five), she ran natural childbirth clinics. 
But “I lost control of my career and then I 
lost control of myself." Right now, it's one 
day at a time. 

Singing professionally just happened It 
was never a conscious decision. A Dutch 


telligent and insightful songwriters in Ire- 
land." The songs are about “heroin ad- 
diction. recovery, unemployment and stuff 
like that. Inner-child sniff. Jimgian stuff." 
Trevor Knight set "Dilemma," a bitter- 
sweet poem by DorothyParker, to music for 
her. And there’s a version of Henry Purcell’s 
"When { Am LaicLin Earth." 

Struggle with adversity is foremost in her 
material and the texture of her voice and 
delivery, which can be hypnotic, stress victory 
over it. She glides around the stage between 


friend of hers wrote a song on the occasion of choruses clapping hands wearing a calming 


the birth of her first daughter 21 years ago; 
the recording went on the Dutch charts for 20 
weeks. She was signed by a multinational 
record company with an A&R policy that 
went something tike this: “You do this stu- 
pid commercial bubble-gum pop song or else 
you don’t get to do the good songs you really 
want to do." She laughs: ‘ ‘The songs I really 
wanted to do were like ‘The Whiskey Didn’t 
Kill the Pain.’ " 


smile. Her band features a tenor saxophone 
not unlike Teddy Edwards with Tom warts. 

Her children are 21, 19, 16. 5 and four 
months. Claire, the 19-year-old, travels with 
her now taking care of the baby. She will go 
to art college in the fall. Claire learned how to 
walk in Belgium on one of her mother's tours. 
The other three children are at home in Dub- 
lin with an American man, the father of die 
two youngest children, with whom Coughlan 
























Coughlan has a new album, “After the Fall," and is touring withfrer own band 


has been "living in sin for eight yearsbe- 
cause we don't have divorce in Ireland." 

“Sin" is accented with a shrug. A line 
from Marc Almond’s song “Saint Judy" 
(about Judy Garland) is delivered with sim- 
ilar irony: "And if I die before I wake up / 1 
pray the Lord don’t smudge my makeup." 
Coughlan was brought up a strict Catholic 
and she says she is recovering as much from 
chat as from drugs and alcohol: 

“Given my Catholic background, it 
wasn't really surprising that I became an 
alcoholic looking to get out of pain. There 
was really no other way I could have man- 
aged. This is an explanation not an excuse. 
I’ve been learning so many things it ‘s unreal. 
Things about parenting and life skills that I 
could never have had before because of the 
way I was brought up. 

.“I left home at 15, 1 sent postcards to my 


parents every so often for years. Tj’s gotten 
bener with them, but there's still ^ Jor we 
have to talk about.”. About how \all the 
scandals in the church “just about ruined my 
grandmother when she found out from the 
papers. Her faith was all she had to keep'ber 
going." 

After Coughlan spoke up in favor of birth- 
control on a TV talk show, she received a letter 
calling her a “southern. Catholic, feminist, 
lesbian bitch," signed "Ten Men in a Pub." 

She can laugh it off now. such is her 
mental health. She takes a sip of apple juice:. 
“A guy at V2 got Michael Jackson's auto- 
graph for my daughter. That was really nice 
of him. It’s a bigger picture now all down the 
line." 

Mary Coughlan on tour : Hamburg. May 
28; Berlin. May 29. 30: Cologne, May 31; 
New York. June 13. 14, 15. 







PEOPLE 


, Herwtg Vnjuli/Agrace Fpip 

TOQUE OF THE TOWN — The French chef Paul Bocuse, left, and his 
colleague Marc Meneau with the medals they received on taking the 
oath as new members of the Belgian Brewers Guild in Brussels. 


R UMORS are flying that Dimitra 
Liani. the 42-year-old widow of the 
Greek prime minis ter Andreas Papan- 
dreou, may wed before her husband has 
been dead a year. * ‘She can do anything 
she wants after the mourning period." 
her mother told the Athens daily 
Eleftheros Typos on Tuesday. Papan- 
dreou died on June 26, 1996, at age 77. 
But Polyxeni Liani, whose daughter is 
widely known as “Mimi," doesn't 
think her daughter will take the plunge 
with the 32-year-old actor Kostas 
Spyropoulos. ‘ ’I don't think she is that 
crazy," the mother was quoted as say- 
ing. Spyropoulos is being accused of 
failing to mourn Iris former companion, 
Aliki Vouyouklaki, one of Greece's 
most popular actresses, who died last 
July at toe age of 63. Mimi, mired in 
scandal even before Papandreou’s 
death, has been unable to avoid toe 
limelight in the 12 months since her 
husband's funeral. She has been em- 
broiled in a legal battle with her 
stepchildren and has drawn the ire of her 
late husband's party by threatening to 
make, or break, political reputations in a 


tell-ali book. The book is expected to be 
out in October. "She is writing the book 
of revelations. She sleeps all morning 
and writes the book all night." her 
mother was quoted as saying. 


“The Lost World: Jurassic Park" is 
breaking box-office records for movie 
debuts. Steven Spielberg's dinosaur se- 
quel — at more North American theat- 
ers than any debut movie in history — 
took in an estimated $90. 1 million over 
the Memorial Day holiday weekend, 
shattering the previous four-day record 
of S56.8 million set last year by "Mis- 
sion: Impossible." “Lost World" was 
expected to pass the $100 million mark 
on Tuesday, which would set another 
record. It took seven days for "Inde- 
pendence Day" to rake in $100 million 
last summer. 


Jodie Foster will have to make space 
between her Oscars' on toe mantle for 
her latest award — an honorary doc- 
torate in fine arts. Richard Levin, the 


president of Yale, honored the actress 
for breaking new ground for women in 
film through her choice of roles and her 
success as a director and producer. It 
was the second degree from Yale for 
Foster. 34, who graduated magna cum 
laude from the university in 1985 with a 
bachelor's degree in literature. 


Tony Bennett has recorded a tribute 
album to the jazz great Billie Holiday, 
one of his early influences. "It's my last 
of these kind of albums for a while,’ ' toe 
70-year-old crooner told the New York 
Daily News. “I’ve done one on Sinatra, 
another on Astaire — and I have to get 
on with other things.” Recording 
“Tony Bennett on Holiday" brought 
back memories for toe singer. "I really 
loved her music and her style,” he said. 
"She encouraged me. And I am forever 
grateful." 


Michael Jackson arrived in hail and 
rain at a military airport in Warsaw on 
Tuesday as he began a two-day castle- 


hunting visit. The poor weather did not 
dampen the enthusiasm of some 200 
young fans who waited to greet him, 
nor did it put him off wearing his 
' sunglasses, although he did forsake his 
mask. Jackson was greeted by Mayor 
Marcjn Swiecicki and, after watching 
a traditional mazurka performed in his 
honor, took off by helicopter to fly over 
toe city en route to a visit to Wilanow 
castle. The pop star is said to be in- 
terested in building a theme park near 
Warsaw. 


The 4-pound brass lock that burglars 
picked to break into the Democratic 
National Committee headquarters at the 
Watergate complex 25 years ago 
fetched a high bid of just $13,000 at an 
auction in Hampton, Virginia, nowhere 
near a suggested price of S25.000. The 
break-in started the scandal that forced 
Richard Nixon to resign toe presidency 
two years later. Jim Herrald. a retired 


Watergate superintendent who owns the 
lock, held off on accepting toe bid. He 
wants to see if higher offers come in. 






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