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The World’s Daily Newspaper 


London, Tuesday, November 25, 1997 

No. 35,687 




Now Some Answers 
To Luxor Questions 

• Massacre of Tourists Is Reconstructed 

By Alan Cowell 
and Douglas Jehi 

Ntv York Tones Service 

. ZURICH — Wheo Linka Finger- 
;3>uth, 32, a Swiss tourist, beard the 
r pop-popping of automatic rifle fire at 
“-the Temple of Hatshepsut in Luxor, 
'Egypt, die thought that someone was 
..shooting at a dog she could see scut- 
,'thng away in the distance. But she 

- soon discovered that she was a likely 
‘-target herself. 

■> Crouched behind one of the soaring 
columns that distinguish the 3,400- 
. year-old temple — a “must" des- 
' tmation for foreign visitors to Egypt 
- : — Mrs. Fingerhuth, a magazine jour- 
nalist from Zurich, peered down to- 
ward the temple entrance. 

“People were running away, left 
and right," she said in an interview at 
her home. Two tourists standing atop 
a ramp leading to the temple's middle 
courtyard suddenly keeled over awk- 
wardly, as if to pick something up 
from die ground, she said. 

Then she understood why: Sprint- 
ing toward her hiding place last Mon- 
day were two men carrying assault 
rifles. As they ran past a Japanese 
tourist, she said, one of the men fired 
into the woman's face from a range of 
about 15 inches (33 centimeters). 

The close-range salvos and the 
chaos were the start of a half hour of 

- systematic terror. 

. - In the next 30 to 35 minutes. 58 
• foreigners — 34 of them Swiss — and 

■ 4 Egyptians, along with 6 gunmen, 
would perish in the worst terrorist 

■ attack ever in Egypt — an assault for 
which the militant Islamic Group 
quickly took responsibility. 

A welter of tumors and un- 
answered questions followed the 

Did the attackers, as some wit- 

nesses suggested, sexually molest 
young women? Did they dance on 
mutilated dead bodies? Was there any 
immediate response from the Egyp- 
tian security forces? 

From interviews with survivors 
and Egyptian investigators, from the 
published statements of other surviv- 
ors and from the reports of forensic 
specialists in Switzerland, some an- 
swers are emerging. 

. Hie attack appears to have been as 
methodical as it was gruesome. 

The six gunmen operated in pairs, 
Egyptian investigators say, with the 
two men who killed pouce guards 
near the temple entrance then taking 
their place to ward off a counterattack 
that never came. 

The four other attackers carried out 
most of the killin g, investigators say, 
splitting off right and left as they 
rushed into the middle courtyard and 
toward the crowds of tourists like 
Mrs. Fingerhuth among the columns 
at the rear. 

In all, the gunmen carried six auto- 
matic rifles, three butcher knives, two 
pistols and a police walkie-talkie 
taken from one of the slain guards. 

Beneath their coats they had 
stashed clipload after clipload of am- 
munition: their supply was still not 
exhausted when the last five of them 
were killed by the police three hours 
later, near the Valley of tile Queens. 

Most of the victims were s tot in the 
head and chest, suggesting an attack 
that proceeded with discipline and 
precision, Egyptian investigators 
said. Some were slashed and hacked 
with knives, so viciously in one case 
that a victim’s head was nearly 
severed, witnesses and Egyptian in-: 
vesti gators said. 

Egyptian and Swiss forensic ex- 
See LUXOR, Page 4 

Winnie Mandela a Killer?- 
Panel Weighs the Question 

By Suzanne Daley 

New K.if* Tunes Service 

she wears tinted glasses with a glittering 
rhinestone rim. Her suits are tailored but 
flashy. She is dripping with gold jew- 

After oearly two years on South 
• Africa's political fringes — dumped 
from the cabinet, divorced in a hum- 
bling two-day proceeding — Winnie 
Madikizela-Mandela is back. And, like 
her new power wardrobe, she cannot be 

* President Nelson Mandela’s former 
wife is fighting furiously to win the 
country’s deputy presidency. It is an 
uphill battle against the leaders of the 
governing African National Congress 
party, who clearly want nothing to do 
with her. 

But first she faces a huge and grueling 
hurdle — a five-day session that began 
Monday before the country’s Truth and 
Reconciliation Commission, which is 
delving into her role in as many as a 
dozen killings during the late 1980s. 

[Facing her accusers for the first time. 

Mrs. Madikizela-Mandela heard eight 
hours of sometimes graphic testimony 
Unking her to murders, assaults and 
disappearances Monday, Reuters re- 

[One by one, witnesses detailed a 
reign of terror in the Soweto black town- 
ship in the 1980s by the bodyguard unit 
led by Mrs. Madikizela-Mandela. One 
witness told how he last saw his son 
alive, badly beaten, in a vehicle with 
Mrs. Madikizela-Mandela. Her former 
driver. John Morgan, said she had 
ordered him to dump the body of a 14- 
year-old boy beaten to death in her 

[Though she laughed out loud at the 
allegations by the opening witness. Mis. 
Madikizela-Mandela, who resumed her 
maiden name after President Nelson 
Mandela divorced her last year for in- 
fidelity, became more somber and 
drawn as the day wore on and the al- 
legations mounted.] 

The commission does not have the 
power to prosecute, and it is unlikely 
that this country’s overburdened justice 

See MANDELA, Page 4 

n<U A n drrw j i/Agma 1 ftancp-fttaw 

Winnie Madikizela-Mandela attending the hearings on Monday. 

Albright Urges Tough Asian Action 
To Avoid an Economic \ Meltdown 9 

Sbohei Nozawa, president of Yamaichi Securities Co-, breaking down as 
he announced Monday that Japan’s fourth-largest brokerage would close. 

A Tidal Wave of Exports 

East Asians Expected to Flood U.S. Market 

By Michael Richardson 

International Herald Tribune 

SINGAPORE — East Asia’s 
plunging c ur ren c ies and shrinking eco- 
nomic growth prospects will result in a 
new wave of exports to the United 
States, increasing political pressures for 
protectionist measures, analysts in the 
region and U.S. officials said Monday. 

Recent falls in the value of South 
Korea’s won and Japan's yen against 
the dollar, as doubts about the financial 
and economic health of both those coun- 
tries increase, will give added mo- 
mentum to the expected surge in East 
Asian exports. 

“Because of devaluation. East Asian 
producers will find themselves in a very 
competitive situation,’* said Larry 
Hatbeway , chief economist for East Asia 
at UBS Securities (Singapore) Pte., a 
unit of the Union Bank of Switzerland. 

"Many East Asian countries face 
austerity and slow growth at home,’ ’ he 
added. “They will try to export their 
way out of problems. Of the major in- 
dustrialized economies, only the U.S. is 
buoyant enough to keep absorbing their 

Some economists are forecasting that 
the U.S. trade deficit in 1998 wOl grow 

to $150 billion from about $1 15 billion 
this year and that more than two thirds of 
it will be accounted for by East Asia. 

The United States already absorbs 
about 28 percent of Japan's exports, 20 
percent of South Korea’s and more than 
30 percent of China’s. 

Mr. Hatheway and other analysts said 
that East Asia's ties with the United 
States would be strained by the new 
flood of East Asian exports, made up to 
50 percent cheaper by devaluation 
against the dollar. 

Jeffrey Garten, a former U.S. un- 
dersecretary of commerce for interna- 
tional trade who is now dean of the Yale 
School of Management, described the 
issue as potentially explosive. 

* ‘Already, 20 percent of U.S. imports 
come from the Asian emerging mar- 
kets,’’ he said. “How do you think 
Washington's trade managers will react 
to a run-up of the U.S. trade deficit with 
these nations when China is already 
becoming America’s b£te noire and a 
cheap yen is causing the deficit with 
Japan to mushroom again, particularly 
in sensitive sectors like autos?” 

Japanese officials said in Vancouver 
after Trade Minister Mitsuo Horiuchi 

See EXPORTS, Page 10 


Netanyahu’s Ex -Aide Might Be Indicted 

The Israeli police have recommen- 
ded that the former top aide to Prime 
Minister Benjamin Netanyahu be in- 
dicted on charges of theft and fraud, 
Israeli television reported Monday 

The aide, Avigdor Ueberman, quit 
Sunday as director of the prime min- 
ister’s office, a position equivalent to 
White House chief of staff in the 
United States. 

Israel’s two main television sta- 
tions said the police had recommen- 
ded charging Mr. Ueberman with 
theft and fraud because he only repaid 
about a fourth of a $40,000 loan that 


Bridging the Birth Culture in Japan 


The Oval Office, Seen From Texas 

Books — Page 8. 

Crossword Page 9. 

Opinion ... Pages 6-7. 

Spqrts ... Pages 18-19. 

The !HT on-line 

was provided by an immigrant sup- 
port group several years ago. 

A police spokesman said an in- 
vestigation of Mr. Lieberman had 
been completed but would not confirm 
that the police were asking the state 
prosecutor for an indictment. Page 4. 

■tali Lavzabd/lTc AhiiibI Pn» 

Jorge Mas Canosa, 58, the lead- 
er of Cuban- America ns opposed 
to Fidel Castro, has died. Page 2. 

By Brian Knowlton 

AwwwaaM/ Herald Tribune 

VANCOUVER, British Columbia — 
Secretary of State Madeleine Albright 
issued a blunt call for action to Pacific 
Rim leaders here Monday, saying that to 
avoid an “Asia meltdown,” the region 
will have to pursue sound economic 
policies no matter how “difficult or 

Her comments came as President Bill 
Clinton was preparing for a bilateral 
meeting with Prime Minister Ryutaro 
Hashimoto of Japan, whose country was 
jolted over the weekend by the collapse of 
Yamaichi Securities Co., the country’s 
fourth-largest securities house. 

Mrs. Albright, speaking to company 
executives at the Asia-Pacific Econom- 
ic Cooperation summit meeting here, 
minced no words about the need for 
responsible action in dealing with the 
financial turmoil that has rocked the 

“The world is asking: Will our part- 
nerships fall apart, or will we pull to- 

Tokyo Pledges 
To Act Swiftly 
As Firm Shuts 

By Stephanie Strom 

Nett York Times Sen ice 

TOKYO — Yamaichi Securities Co., 
the fourth-largest brokerage firm in Ja- 
pan, closed its doors on 100 years of 
business Monday, and the government 
mobilized its forces to reassure global 
markets that it was committed to an 
orderly overhaul of the country’s shaky 
financial system. 

Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto. 
who is attending the Asia-Pacific Eco- 
nomic Cooperation .meeting in Van-, 
couver, said that he took Yamaichi's 
collapse “very seriously” and had in- 
structed Hiroshi Mitsuzuka, the finance 
minister, to move to stabilize the finan- 
cial system. He said no decision had been 
made cm whether to use public money to 
bail out Japan's debt-strapped banks. 

"I would like to make clear that Ja- 
pan’s problems are completely separate 
from those of the so-called Asian cur- 
rency crisis.” he told Reuters. “I would 
not like you to make such a connection 

Unlike some Southeast Asian nations 
and South Korea, which have had to 
appeal to the International Monetary 
Fund. Japan is a creditor nation, not a 
debtor, he said. "These Southeast Asian 
countries owe money to foreign coun- 
tries; Japan lends money- The nature of 
the problem is completely different." 

Yamaichi goes out of business leav- 
ing about 3 trillion yen ($23.8 billion) in 
liabilities to clients and putting more 
than 7,000 people out of work in a 
country where unemployment is almost 

As the company began to unwind its 
business, the government came in for 
some sharp questions about its role in 
Yamaichi's failure and the billions in 
hidden losses that suddenly came to 
light as the firm collapsed. 

Mr. Hashimoto also said the Ministry 
of Finance had informed him that Ya- 
maichi had $2.6 billion in previously 
hidden losses, and not $2.1 billion, as 
the company had said, Bloomberg 
News reported. 

Yamaichi amassed its latest Josses in 
the process of covering the Josses of 
favored customers — a practice that was 
supposed to have been rooted out in 
1991, when a wave of scandals hit the 
Japanese securities industry. 

Mr. Mitsuzuka struggled to answer 
questions about how many other se- 
curities firms might be concealing bid- 
den payments to customers and how the 
government intended to find them. 

Such deals, called loboshi. in which a 
brokerage temporarily shifted losses on 
investments from one client's account 
to another’s to help clients avoid having 
to report losses, were common in 1991 , 
when the Japanese stock market was 
foiling as the bubble economy col- 

But Yamaichi's off-the-books trans- 
actions were not what precipitated its 
end. The company and its troubles were 

See JAPAN, Page 10 

geiher? Will we squander our energies 
in finger-pointing and blame-pinning, 
or will we focus on how to gel back on 

Asian leaders also signaled their con- 
cern. The “turmoil cannot be waved 
away by brave talk,” said President 
Fidel Ramos of the Philippines. Prime 
Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad of 
Malaysia delivered another lively attack 
on currency traders, calling on APEC to 
endorse regulations to trim their power 
to “bludgeon into submission” coun- 
tries like Malaysia. 

Mr. Hashimoto tried to distinguish 
between the problems Tokyo is facing ax 
home and the problems of its neighbors, 
underlying that Japan is a creditor nation, 
not a debtor that has had to appeal for aid 
to the International Monetaiy Fund. 

Mrs. Albright warned against “al- 
leged panaceas that are quick, easy and 
wrong." She said that each affected 
country must implement sound policies 
and that the international community 

See APEC, Page 10 

Seoul Stocks 
Plunge to a 
10- Year Low 

By Kevin Sullivan 

Washington Post Sen icc 

SEOUL — The slock market tumbled 
to a 10-year low Monday in its biggest 
fall ever, in the aftermath of Friday’s 
announcement that the government 
would seek an emergency bailout from 
the Internationa! Monetary Fund to res- 
cue South Korea's battered economy. 

As the reality of the IMF bailout 
began sinking in" Monday, domestic in- 
vestors sold off shares at a furious pace 
and the market fell 7.2 percent to close 
at 450.64 points, its lowest level since 
July 1987. 

Bond markets also declined, the 
South Korean won continued its sharp 
slide, and interest rates jumped to a five- 
year high on the first day of what ana- 
lysts say is a harsh new reality in 

“Ugly is the proper term for it," said 
Mark Barclay, an analyst with Samsung 
Securities Co. in Seoul. 

"It's grim, but there’s going to be a 
lot of hardships in this economy for the 
next while.” 

Few analysis directly linked the tur- 
moil here to the announcement Monday 
that Yamaichi Securities Co., the 
fourth-largest brokerage firm in Japan, 
would go out of business, the largest 
business failure in Japan since World 
War fi. 

Nonetheless, the bad economic news 
from Tokyo and Seoul is further ev- 
idence that the rising tide of financial 
woes that swamped Thailand, Malaysia 
and Indonesia has now flowed into 
Northeast Asia. 

South Korea’s new finance minister, 
Lim Chang Yu el, warned Monday that 
tough restructuring under IMF rules was 
South Korea’s “last chance." He 
ordered 12 ailing merchant banks to 
merge by the end of the year. 

“This is our last chance. Without 
drastic restructuring, we cannot over- 
come the crisis.” Mr. Lim told 

He made his warning as South 
Korean officials began talks with 
a team from the International Monetary 
Fund on terms of a multibillion-dollar 
bailout. Seoul officials said Friday 
they would seek $20 billion in emer- 
gency loans, but most analysts say that 

See KOREA, Page 10 

1 The Dollar 1 


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Germany Wants to Be ‘Normal,’ but History Keeps Getting in the Way 

By Alan Cowell 

New York Times Service 


BONN — Imagine the political cart _ . 
Europe a decade from now: at its hub, the ret 
Germany, encircled by lands it once occupied yet 
locked in peaceful step with them by a common 
European currency and by common membership m 
the NATO alliance. , . 

That is the utopian vision of strength and nor- 
maicv that Chancellor Helmut Kohl would like to 
moLdas ^ teg** —a goal, be is given to smng. 

century. Yet, as Germany teeters between pros- 
perous postwar introspection and the unfaxniliar 
assault of economic globalization, a question in- 
trudes: How will Germany achieve normalcy on a 
continent that still defines its relationships by 
caricatures drawn from the same history it seeks to 

For most nations, one measure of normalcy is 
their relationship with the past. And as the so- 
called Nazi gold affair in Switzerland and France’s 
acknowledgment of its ambiguous wartime history 
have displayed in recent months, historical truth 
has become a spectral force across Europe. 

On the surface. Germany has all the trappings of 
a “normal” postindustrial society. A traveler from 
the United States initially finds Frankfurt or Dus- 
seldorf perfectly familiar: the highways and high- 
rises, talk shows and discos, businesses and 

But then come the subtexts that are not so 

• Every manifestation of late 20th-century life in 
Germany finds a counterpoint in the past: The 
point of reference for the nation's record postwar 
unemployment of 4_5 million is the mass job- 
lessness that preceded Hitler’s rise to power in 

1933; die fear of inflation that propels Germans’ 
misgivings about the planned European currency 
harks back to the ruinous inflation of the Weimar 

Indeed, German society is latticed with taboos 
— some evident some less so. 

At the most obvious level, displays of Nazi 
insignia and gestures, swastikas and stiff-arm sa- 
S tC u “f* ^ egaJ - II “ a criminal offense to trivialize 
me Holocaust In more subtle ways, the past plays 
itself out in responses that sometimes strike out- 

See GERMANY, Page 4 



PAGE mo 

Birth Without Pain / Bridging Cultures 

A Hero to Expats in Tokyo 

By Mary Jordan 

Washington post Service 

T OKYO — It passes like a gift from one 
pregnant foreigner to the nest: 
“Sakamoto.” “He’ll give you pain- 
killers." “He doesn't make you stay in 
the hospital for a week." "He talks to you Like a 

All over Tokyo, when pregnant foreign wom- 
en gather to chat, die name of the obstetrician 
Hiaela Sakamoto is often mentioned with a 
knowing nod. Dr. Sakamoto's clientele consists 
exclusively of foreigners: Americans and Euro- 
peans and other Asians who want to deliver in 
Japan, but don’t want a Japanese delivery. 

Having a baby here can be a shocking ex- 
perience for women who are used to being 
consulted about medical matters. The style of 
many Japanese doctors is to issue directions 
rather than to explain. 

Long lines at hospitals mean patients often 
endure die “three for three” shuffle: wait three 
hours for three minutes of the doctor's time. And 
because the custom here is to administer no 
drugs during labor, Japanese doctors routinely 

S re requests for epidurals even during dif- 
t deliveries. 

In a majority of deliveries, American women 
receive an epidural, an injection of anesthetic 
into the membrane surrounding the spinal cord 
that numbs the lower half of the body. But only 
about 10 percent of Japanese women receive 
one, according to the Japan Society of Obstetrics 
and Gynecology. 

Michele B ambling, an American graduate stu- 
dent whose first baby is due in December, has 
heard all the labor horror stories — a favorite 
topic among the thousands of Western women 
who live here. One friend repeatedly asked for an 
epidural during two days ofiabor, and was given 
one only after an ugly confrontation with her 
doctor. A Japanese friend was given the cold 
shoulder by nurses and hospital staff after de- 
livery because she had done the unthinkable 
during labor She screamed in pain. 

“The idea is that you aren't supposed to 
scream,” Mrs. Bambting said. “If you can’t put 
up with that kind of pain in labor, you are not 
going to have die strength to be a good mother.' * 
Mrs. B ambling, who is from Maryland, con- 
sidered returning to Washington to give birth. 
But she decided to have the baby in Japan after 
meeting Dr. Sakamoto. As a Japanese doctor 
trained in the United States, he is a bridge 
between the two medical cultures. 

Tokyo trails only Frankfort and London on the 
list of foreign cities where Americans are bom. 
Nearly 4,000 American babies were registered at 
the U.S. Embassy here last year. There are 

44.000 American residents in Japan, not in- 
cluding military and embassy officials, and Jap- 
anese medicine — from its practice of not telling 
people they have cancer to outlawing birth con- 
trol pills — is one of the most talked-abont 
topics. The lack of painkillers during childbirth 
really gets American women going. 

“If there were more women doc tare, there 
would be more painkillers.” said Christine Hen- 
derson. who moved here recently with an Amer- 
ican financial company. “They say women don’t .i j j — 1_ 

want them, but they don’t tell them epidurals 

rills — 


even exist It’s just like birth control p 
men automatically say you don’t need iL” 

Dr. Sakamoto, a 48-year-old father of four, 
has spent a lot of time outside Japan. He met his 
wife, Miigem, who is Colombian, while on a 
business trip to Mexico. He did his postdoctoral 
work at Yale University and completed his in- 
ternship at a U.S. naval hospital in Japan. 

He speaks Spanish, English and Japanese. 
“It's not just that he speaks English so well, he is 
culturally compatible with Westerners,” said 
Mrs. Bambting. “He is flexible. He listens.” 

In the Japanese medical system, patients 
routinely slip cash under the table to the doctor. 
The doctors have crushing workloads and gen- 
erally do not earn much. The cash is a bit of 
incentive for extra attention. The expected 4 ‘tip” 
for a doctor who has delivered a baby is now 
$1,000 to $Z500. 

Dr. Sakamoto takes no tips. He encourages 
women to draft their own birth plans and have 

their husbands present during delivery, shocking 
ideas in Japanese circles. He cares about little 

things tike having a beanbag chair or special 
pillows to help with labor. 


VEN though some of his patients view 
him as more Western than Japanese, his 
wife laughed at the notion. “For me he 
is really very Japanese,” she said. “Bat 
he does understand the other side.” 

During a recent interview. Dr. Sakamoto took 
off bis shoes and put on the slippers that visitors 
must wear in die nursery, so he could check on 
his newest patients. At Seibo Hospital, an old 
Catholic facility in Tokyo, Dr. Sakamoto is the 
first person hundreds of babies have seen. 

The son of two doctors, he has a calm and even 
presence. He checked the oxygen monitors on 
twin girls he just delivered six weeks prema- 
turely. They faintly moved their fragile bodies. 
Around them two dozen other newborns wailed. 
“After all these years, a baby’s cry doesn’t 
bother me,” he said. 

The best and the worst pan of his job. he said, 
is “that I have to handle two lives at the same 
time.' ' or three in the case of twins. Basically, he 
said, “catching babies. ’ ’ as he describes his job. 

)Ml*4 ESiringttm/Thr VmbniffnB ftw 

Dr. Hideki Sakamoto , in the maternity ward at Seibo Hospital in Tokyo, has 
a clientele of pregnant expatriates who want to deliver their children in 
Japan without the anesthetic-free rigors of a Japanese delivery. 

is the same &U over the world. But patient 
demands and custom make for some variations. 

One of the most striking cultural differences is 
the role of the father in the delivery. Dr. 
Sakamoto said the notion that the father would 
be present horrifies many Japanese women. 

“If a Japanese doctor said to his patient, 
‘Would you like for your husband to be in toe 
delivery room? They would say, ‘What! Please, 

Asked about toe joke here that says toe men 
who run Japan have decided that God intended 
childbirth to be painful. Dr. Sakamoto offered an 
explanation for why most doctors won’t offer 
mothers an anesthetic. 

“When a doctor gives an epidural,” he said, 
“toe doctor has to stay in toe hospital. You can't 
go out for a cup of coffee or dinner, you have to 
monitor the patient.” 

FCazunori Ochiai. general secretary of the Ja- 
pan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, who 
has worked at University Hospital in Geveland. 
said toe issue is complicated by cultural factors. 
He said Japanese women usually don’t ask for 
painkillers because man y believe that pain is 
simply part of the process. 

Some Japanese women interviewed said they 
believed that American women who have paink- 
illers that numb them during birth may be putting 
emotional distance between themselves and 
their children. Japanese mothers are famously 

their children. Japanese mothers are famously 
close to their children. Those who worked before 
they married routinely quit to spend virtually all 

their time at home. Some younger Japanese 
women, though, told by their mothers that any 

, Younger women also are beginning 1 
consider the idea of having their husbands with 
them daring delivery. 


| HERE is also a financial deterrent to 
receiving painkillers during labor. Ja- 
pan’s national medical insurance does not 
cover pregnancy or childbirth, because 
neither is (teemed an “illness.” As soon as toe 
baby is bom. nearly all vaccinations and medical 
care are covered, but to have a baby , families must 
ly $4,000 to $9,000 in cash — plus “tips" — 
on the hospital and other factors. And 


epidural can add $1,000 to that cost 

Japan lacks in care for pregnant moth- 
ers, it makes up for once the baby is bom. U nlik e 
in toe United States, where most insurance plans 
require new mothers to leave the hospital in 48 
hours or less, Japanese mothers with normal 
deliveries usually stay a full week. 

“Medical costs in the U.S. make it very hard 
to keep women in toe hospital for a long time,’ ’ 
Dr. Sakamoto said. But Japanese women like to 
stay in the hospital ‘ ‘because they live in modest 
homes without helpers and their husbands usu- 
ally don’t take off work.” Nurses pamper moth- 
ers, giving them extraordinary attention and les- 
sons in everything from breast-feeding to 
combing a baby’s hair. 

No Shortage z 4 
Of Candidates 


In U.S. to Lead; 

Castro’s Foes > 

* ! 

By Donald P. Baker 

Washington Post Service 


MIAMI — The death here of Jasgtl 
Mas Canosa, who dreamed that 
he would succeed his nemesis, Fwgft 
Castro, as a democratically elected preg* 
ideal of Cuba, establishes a leadersQjrr; 
vacuum arerwig toe 1.5 millio n Cubage 
Americans, 1 m illion of whom live^au 
southern Florida. Z-C, 

“We are not concerned about yqfr 
will replace him because he is 
placeable," said Francisco Hernandez^ 
president of the 200,000-family Cub^p 
American National Foundation. jSIft. 
Mas Canosa and two other refugees; 
founded tlx: group and used it a*r 
platform to influence policy — 
white House and Congress. 

Most of the potential successors;! 
part of a younger generation, som^ i 
whom, unlike most foundation $aEr 
warts, were bom in the United 
Nearly all of them espouse 'a similar 
hard line on dealings with Cuba. . -.J* 
Much attention is likely to focus on 
toe Miami-Dadc county mayor. Alex 
Penelas, if only bemuse he is a skillful 

politician who is not shy in a 

36-year-old lawyer, whose 
was given new power a year ago, is- 
Florida's most visible Hispanic official. 

Three congressmen also may takes r 
greater role in trying to shape U.ft. 
policy toward Cuba: Lincoln Diaz-Bal- 
art, 43 and a native of Cuba, and Heaga 
Ros-Lehtinen, 45, both Republicans inf 
Florida, and Robert Menendez, 45, 
Democrat of New Jersey. The three 
issued a joint statement Sunday saying 
that Mr. Mas Canosa'“would not wish 
tint toe pain of his passing cause pes- 
simism among Cuba’s freedom fight-, 
ers.” . 

As word of Mr. Mas Canosa ’s deat h- 
spread through Miami’s Little Havana, 
section on Sunday, three foundation ex-* 
ecutives also were mentioned as po$~. 
sible successors: Carlos de Cespedes, 
47, a businessman who heads toe foun- 
dation ’"s political action committee* 

which has contributed more than $25 0. 


died peacefully in London 
on Tuesday 1 8to November 
following a short but 
courageous fight against 
illness. A man for all seasons, 
he touched the lives of 
so many wito his- warmth, 
friendship and generosity. 
His indomitable spirit will 
never be forgotten. Greatly 
loved and sadly missed by 
Gwen. Robert. Vanessa and 
all members of his extended 
family. Funeral Service 
at 1 1:30 a.m. on Friday 28th 
November at Christ Church 
Chelsea. Christchurch Street. 

London SW3. 

Instead of flowers, donations 
can be made to BSAPTrust. 
5 Winkslcv Grove. Harrogate. 
N. Yorkshire, HG3 2SZ. 

Jorge Mas Canosa, 58, Enemy of Castro in U.S., Dies 

By Larry Rohter 

iVw Kurt Times Service 

MIAMI — Jorge Mas Canosa. 58, who 
came to the United States as a penniless 
refugee from toe dictatorship of Fidel 
Castro and built the Cuban- American Na- 
tional Foundation into one of Washing- 
ton’s most effective lobbying groups, dial 
Sunday at his home in Miami. 

Mr. Mas Canosa died of lung cancer, 
officials of toe foundation said. They also 
mentioned pleurisy' and renal failure as 
possible causes of death and said he had 
been suffering as well from Paget's disease, 
which causes the bones to degenerate. 

From toe moment he arrived in Miami in 
I960, Mr. Mas Canosa dedicated himself to 

seeking the overthrow of Mr. Castro, first as 
a conspirator in various aimed plots and 
then, for toe last twb decades, in Congress. 

His organization became a familiar pres- 
ence on Capitol Hill and over the years 
earned a reputation as single-minded in 
purpose and generous in donations to those 
willing to endorse its objectives. 

For more than a decade, three U.S. pres- 
idents sought his advice on Cuban affairs to 
such an extent that many critics of Mr. Mas 
Canosa considered him toe principal ar- 

chitect of a U.S. policy they regarded as 

excessively rigid. Every significant piece 
of legislation on Cuba since 1 980 has borne 
his imprint, from the establishment of Ra- 
dio and TV Marti to last year’s Helms- 
B niton Act tightening the economic em- 

bargo of Cuba. At a $l,000-a-plate fund- 
raising dinner in Miami in 1992, President 
George Bush declared, “I salute Jorge - 

He called Mr. Mas Canosa the living 
embodiment of toe success of Cuban im- 
migrants in toe United States. 

By then, Mr. Mas Canosa was a mil- 
lionaire many times over in toe commu- 
nications and construction businesses. 

To advance his cause, he traveled ex- 
tensively around the world, trying to form 
alliances wito anyone he thought useful in 
the struggle against Mr. Castro. He was an 
early patron of Boris Yeltsin, energetically 
supported toe Angolan guerrilla leader Jonas 
Savimbi and encouraged Latin American 
leaders to speak out against Mr. Castro. 

But his -many detractors in the United 
States and abroad saw in Mr. Mas Canosa 
the same dictatorial streak, relish for power 
and intolerance of opposing views tout 
characterized Mr. Castro’s rule. 

Over the airwaves of Spanish-langnage 
radio stations in Miami and in letters to the 
editor and public debates, Mr. Mas Canosa 
repeatedly questioned toe patriotism of 
those who disagreed with him, and 
threatened in some cases to ruin their lives 
or careers. 

The apogee of his influence probably 
came in the summerof 1994, when President 
Bill Clinton invited him to the White House 
to discuss how to stem toe flow of i 
across the Florida Stzaits in rafts, and ac 
ed several of bis recommendations. 

million to political candidates since Ji 
was founded in 1980; Alberto Heman-; 

man of the foundation boanS; and Mr* 
Hernandez, 61 , an economist who spent 
two years in a Cuban prison after he took 
part in the abortive Bay of Pigs invasion 
35 years ago. 

While all of those are considered 
hard-liners in toeMas Canosa mold. iti£ 
now possible that moderate voices also 
may be heard, such as that of Byo G&-. 
tierrez-Menoyo, 62, leader of Cambio 
Cubano, or Cuban Change, who .Ad- 
vocates normalizing relations with the 
Castro regime. 

■ No Official Cuban Reaction ■*"’ 

The official Cuban press agency; 
Prensa Latina, called Mr. Mas Canosa a 
“promoter of anti-Cuban actions” but 
officials had no immediate comment jon 
his death, Reuters reported from 
Havana. «■-, 

Prensa latina issued a nine -para- 
graph report that avoided angry lan-. 
guage while listing his activities r ‘ ‘ 
toe Cuban government 

See our 

every Saturday 
in The Interraaricet 



W liat are the most promising 
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Don't mi ss the Sponsored Section 

in Europe: 

Choices and Challenges 

on December IL 1997 


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Zurich Extends Shopping Hours 

ZURICH (Reuters) — Switzerland’s largest city will 
loosen long-standing limits on sbop hours after voters over- 

whelmingly approved longer evening hours in a referendum. 

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closing times to 8 P.M., in line with a trend started by large 
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Torrential rains flooded 130 apartment blocks in Corinth 

and slowed traffic in Athens to a crawl over the weekend, the 

police said Monday. Storms also tut the region of Argos, in the 

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Paris will set up a free skating rink in front of City Hall 
over the Christmas holidays. The 1,000 square-meter (10.000 
square foot) rink will be surrounded by 33 pine trees to 
simulate a Norwegian forest glade. (AFP) 

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Iii ( -?SOn a Clear Day in Texas , Bush the Younger Can See the White House 


By Kyle Janard 

International Herald Tribune 

I hi •> 

AUSTIN, Texas — The bass-fishing, baseball- 
loving governor of Texas likes the idea of r unning 
for president in 2000 . 

For George Bush, 51, it’s a distant vista but a 
distinct possibility. So he’s letting his fellow Tex- 

ans know that even if they re-elect him governor 


Th- Apunaird Pi™ 

Governor George Bush of Texas. 

□ext year, he can 't promise he will serve a 1 
year term. 

It's the an of the negative, avoiding political 
damage other officeholders have endured when 
they broke a promise not to run. 

Yet when Mr. Bush tells his electorate that it is 
‘’not in the best interest of Texas” to say he won’t 
run for president, he's really talking to all Amer- 
icans who are wondering who might step up to die 
plate. The Republican field is wide open, which 
makes this son of a former president a first-tier 
candidate for the party’s nomination if not the 
unofficial front-runner — even though be won’t 
commit just yet. 

“I don’t know whether I will or will not,” he 
said in a recent interview. And he won't know, he 
says, until after the gubernatorial campaign next 
year and. assuming he is re-elected, toward the end 
of the 1999 Texas legislative session. It’s a stretch 
of time he calls a political “eternity-” 

But the governor leaves few doubts: If the 
opportunity knocks, and if conditions are fight, he 
will train his sights on Washington. 

He even appears willing to lake on what he sees 
as some of the ethical ills of the nation’s capital, 
asking: “Could I help elevate the debate? Wash- 

ington is a very uncivil place as far as I’m con- 
cerned." How would he change that? “I would try 
to focus on principles and goals, as opposed to 
personalities and party.” 

Mr. Bush has been in the oil business in west 
Texas, a political adviser to his father in the 1988 
campaign and a part-owner and managing director 
of the Texas Rangers baseball team. 

Elected governor in 1 994, be has presided over a 
flurry of legislation that plays down the role of the 
state bureaucracy. Reforms in the education system 
have given vast autonomy to local school districts. 

Welfare changes to limit benefits and require job 
training have been high on the governor's agenda. 

“In the old days,” he said, “people were re- 
warded and applauded for saying, ‘How can we 
efficiently sign you up on welfare?’ Now we have 
a culture in place that says, ‘How can I help you 
find work?’ That’s a huge difference in attitude. ” 

Mr. Bush also pushed through a rewrite of the 
juvenile justice code. “That's important," he said, 

‘ ‘because in order to affect adult crime, we've got 
to teach our children first -and foremost, ‘Don't 
break the law.’ " 

Mr. Bush surprised the pundits when he drove 
Ann Richards, a popular Democrat, from office in ' 
the 1994 gubernatorial election. 

That was the year the North American Free Trade 
Agreement took effect, and for Mr. Bush good 
relations with Texas's trading partner ro the south 
are crucial. “Even though problems exist between 
us.’ ' he said, “ ’the spirit of cooperation is as strong as 
it’s ever been." 

The governor welcomes recent steps toward 
democratization in Mexico because “true political 

competition will say to the world that Mexico is a 
good place to invest long-term capital." That's 
especially important, he added, “because the more 

long-term investment in Mexico, the more likely it 
is foi ' 

for a middle class to grow, and as the middle 
class grows it will take pressure off our border/* 
It’s a long, open border where drug-trafficking 
has increased dramatically in recent years as 
Colombian drug lords negotiated distribution deals 
with Mexican drug-lords. 

“The Mexicans have got a significant problem,' ’ 
Mr. Bush said. “They’re dealing with well-fin- 
anced, weD-entrenched, well-armed people. And we 
in die United States have got to understand that.’’ 

He says he believes President Ernesto Zedillo of 
Mexico “is committed to cleaning up the drug 
problem," but “I also believe he’s outgunned 
now.” At the same time, drugs are a two-way deal: 
“The suppliers are supplying demand, and our 
country nas not done a very good job suppressing 

Another national issue on his mind is the "un- 
funded liabilities" of the Social Security retire- 
ment system and “how we’re going to pay for it as 
a nation that’s aging." 

As he put it “I think that whichever president is 
able to solve that problem, they'll say. ‘Wow. what 

a great domestic giant.’ ” 

A Bush concerned about domestic issues ? Such 
maners hardly dominated his father's adminis- 
tration, the son agrees, but that was because the 
elder Bush found himself in the middle of a roiling 
world: the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Gulf War. 

He laments the fact that President Bush, who 
was defeated by Bill Clinton, missed the nation's 

economic upturn “by a quarter.” 
President Bush also had 

NAFTA, meanwhile, is generating billions of 
dollars in trade with Mexico. For Governor Bush. 

doing big business with nations to the south is the 
way of the future. “In order for our country to be 

able to compete globally with the Far East and 
Europe, we’re going to have to have a free flow of 
goods and services throughout our hemisphere,” 
he said. The governor laments a troubling “pro- 
tectionist element" developing in the United 
States, warning that if “we were to wall off Mexico 
from the United States" it would be ‘ * devastating' ’ 
to the United Stares. “Presuming I would do 
something other than be governor, that would be a 
major pan of a platform,” he said. 

strong relations with the 
Chinese. The younger Bush thinks that was wise 
and applauds Mr. Clinton's policy of engagement 
with Beijing — though that "doesn't mean that 
you have to accept religious persecution, for ex- 

“I'm also a big believer in markets.” he added. 
“When a country institutes market reforms and 
allows the marketplace to allocate resources, it's 
amazing what follows. 

“I’ll never forget going to China to visit Dad 
when he was there in 1975” as chief of ihe U.S. 
Liaison Office in Beijing. 

“Everybody ■ wore the same clothes. 1 was 
shocked Here was close to a billion people, but no 

“And it follows that if there's no demand, no 
capacity for expression or individual will or free- 
dom, tlien obviously that's rhe case in the political 
arena as well as the market arena.” 

Reno Faces Freeh Factor 

»*.: • 

Jh Financing Imbroglio 


Witt FBI Director Push for Outside Counsel? 

By Roberto Suro 

H Mhingion Post Sen-ice 

'WASHINGTON — As Attorney 
General Janet Reno prepares to decide 
bv next week whether to seek inde- 
pendent counsels to investigate fiind- 
riuSing phone calls by President Bill 
C-lihton and Vice President A1 Gore, 
pfiphaps the most critical unresolved 
question involves the role the FBI di- 
rector Louis Freeh will play in the de- 
cision. senior officials say. 

All further investigation of the White 
House telephone calls would halt if Ms. 
Reno accepts the recommendations of 
Justice Department lawyers, due to ar- 
rive on her desk Monday, that she declare 
no:independent counsels are necessary. 

Mr. Aceh was nor formally consulted 
in- the development of the recommen- 
dations. and he has argued in the past that 
an independent counsel should take over 
Hid' finance inquiry; the officials' sakL 
Hhby said-ii -was- unclear how Ms.- Reno 
will consult ‘with Mr. Freeh, and how 
important’ she Anil consider his position. 
/-But if Mr. Freeh continues to argue for 
an ■ independent counsel. Ms. Reno’s 
choice would be difficult. Going forward 
with the actions recommended by all her 
senior staff might result in public dissent 
from Mr. Freeh. But simply proceeding 
with the independent counsel process 
would mean rejecting detailed legal 
reasoning, which she helped develop. 

•• Ms. Reno took the unusual step last 
month of publicly granting Mr. Freeh 
virtual veto power over the campaign 
finance inquiry. During a congressional 
hearing on Oct. 15 marked by hours of 
hostile questioning from Republicans 
demanding an independent counsel, 
Ms. - Reno announced that no avenue of 
investigation would be closed down 
without Mr. Freeh's approval. FBI of- 

ficials had complained that the scope of 
their inquiry had been hampered by the 
Justice Department 

Subsequently, however, officials at the 
Justice Department insisted that Ms. 
Reno alone would make the decision on 
whether to seek an independent counsel. 

The attorney general has until Dec. 2 
to decide whether Mr. Clinton or Mr. 
Gore — by soliciting donations from 
their White House offices — violated a 
114-year-old law against campaign 
fund-raising on federal property. Under 
the strict procedures of die Independent 
Counsel Act, Ms. Reno must seek an 
outside inquiry unless she can demon- 
strate that there is no “reasonable cause' ' 
to investigate the matters further. 

Lawyers in the Justice Department’s 
Public Integrity Section will recommend 
that Ms. Reno decide there is no reason 
to proceed, said department officials 
who noted that she Iras consulted with 
the lawyers regularly and has partic- 
ipated in developing the- recommenda- > 
turns. Neither Mr. Freeh nor other senior 
FBI officials have been briefed on ihe 
recommendations, die officials said. 

Although a legal analysis that goes on 
for dozens of pages backs up the in- 
dividual recommendations on Mr. Clin- 
ton and Mr. Gore, a central argument in 
both cases is that the statute in question, 
the Pendleton Act of 1 883, was designed 
to shield low-level federal employees 
from shakedowns by their bosses and 
that the law has never been applied to 
telephone solicitations directed at 
donors who are not federal employees. 

If Ms. Reno chooses to request an 
outside prosecutor, a three-member 

Clinton Can Bypass 
Senate on Nominee 

stitution gives a president authority to 

fill vacant positions “that may happen 

WASHINGTON — A constitution- 
al power rooted in the muddy roads 
and farm rhythms of the 18th century 
may give President Bill Clinton a 
chance to salvage — at least for a few 
months — the nomination of Bill Lann 
Lee to head the Civil Rights Division 
in the Justice Department 

Before leaving town Nov. 13 on a 
10-week recess. Senate Republicans 
made clear their opposition to Mr. 
Lee’s being in the post because of his 
views on racial preferences. But Con- 
gress adjourned without acting on the 
nomination, presenting Mr. Clinton an 
opportunity to put Mr. Lee in office 
under a so-called recess appointment. 

That wonld be a thumb in the eye of 
the Republican leadership and a chal- 
lenge to the Senate’s power of advice 
and consent But Mr. Clinton may be 
willing to risk a confrontation to make 
a point on affirmative action and build 
support of minority-group voters. 

Article n. Section 2 of the Con- 

during the recess of the Senate, 
appointee can bold the office until the 
end of die next congressional session, 
unless a Senate vote rejects the of- 
ficeholder. Early Congresses met a few 
months a year, travel times were long 
and the congressional calendar was set 
to accommodate planting schedules. 
Presidents often needed to fill posts 
before the Senate could convene. 

The use of a recess appointment 
would allow Mr. Lee to serve at least 
until next autumn. Democrats conld 
filibuster to block any effort to vote 
him out of office. But ihe political cost 

would be high. Senate Republicans 

have made it clear that Mr. Lee, a 
former lawyer for the NAACP Legal 
Defense and Educational Fund Inc., is 
unacceptable to them. (NYT) 

port renamed to honor former Pres- 
ident Ronald Reagan gained ground 
over the weekend, when it received the 
unanimous endorsement of the Re- 
publican Governors Association. 

The measure was sponsored by 
Governor George Allen of Virginia. 
The airport is his state, just across the 
Potomac River from Washington. The 
plan was approved at a meeting of 
Republican governors in Miami. 

The Republican leadership of Con- 
gress has said it expects to bring leg- 
islation changing the name to the floor 
in the House and Senate early next 
year, perhaps before Mr. Reagan's 
87th birthday on Feb. 6 . 

The federal government leases the 
airport to the Metropolitan Washing- 
ton Airports Authority. I NYT) 

Governors Line Up 
For Reagan Airport 


WASHINGTON — A Republican 
plan to have Washington National Air- 

Geoff Garin, a Democratic pollster, 
describing the year in Congress for 
both parties: “No harm, no foul. If 
1995 was a year of battle lines being 
drawn, 1997 was a year of battle lines 
being blurred.” ( AP) 

A Lonesome Trail 
For Texas Democrat 

IlijtAtfieri'it Post Sen ice 

After long hesitation, the Texas land 
commissioner. Garry Mauro. an- 
nounced last week that he would be a 
Democratic candidate for governor 
against the heavily favored incumbent. 
George Bush, a Republican. 

Three days later, the retiring Demo- 
cratic lieutenant governor, Bob Bul- 
lock, who was political mentor for Mr. 
Mauro and godfather to one of his chil- 
dren. said he would support Mr. Bush 
over his former deputy. 

“During my public career." Mr. Bul- 
lock announced. “I’ve served under 
seven governors, and Governor Bush is 
the best.” 

It was not the first time dial the crusty 
Mr. Bullock, whose office rivals the 
power of the governor's under the Texas 
constitution, has made it plain that he 
tikes the way Mr. Bush is leading the 
state. But his formal endorsement un- 
derlines the challenge facing Mr. Mauro. 
who trailed Mr. Bush 68 percent to 16 
percent in the most recent Texas Poll. 

Mr. Bullock, now the Democrats' top 
elected official, said. "It just does not 
make sense to retire a responsive and 
proven leader” like Mr. Bush. 


By Matthew L. Wald 

AYw York Times Sen-ire 

panel of federal appellate judges will 
lividuaL If s ‘ 

pick the individual If she declares that 
there are no reasonable grounds to con- 
tinue the investigation, then all further 
inquiry in this area must halt 

WASHINGTON — The Federal Aviation Ad- 
ministration routinely fails to determine whether 
violations that its inspectors uncover at aircraft 
repair stations are ever connected, according to a 
report by the General Accounting Office, the in- 
vestigative arm of Congress. 

Repair stations now do nearly half of the S6.5 
billion in annual maintenance, repair and renov- 
ation work on airliners, and failures by repair 
stations have been cited in two Valujet accidents 
and other incidents. 

But according to the General Accounting Office’s 
report, the Federal Aviation Administration fails to 
determine whether violations it discovers are cor- 

rected, because the agency does not keep the proper 
paperwork for adequate follow-up inquiries. 

Senator Ron Wyden, Democrat of Oregon, who 
asked for the study, said in a telephone interview 
that ‘ ‘safety in the skies is directly related to quality 
aircraft maintenance on the ground.” But. he said, 
the agency “still doesn’t get the message." 

The congressional auditors said they had ex- 
amined the records of 172 cases in which the 
Federal Aviation Administration had sent letters to 
domestic repair stations. In about a quarter of the 
cases, there was no response in the file from the 
repair stations. In three-quarters of the cases, there 
was no record of what the aviation agency thought 
of the stations' corrective actions, if any. And in 
some cases it was not possible to tell whether an 
inspection had been completed, the report said. 

Away From 

• An F-15 fighter plane 
crashed into the Atlantic 
Ocean and the pilot ejec- 
ted safely and was res- 
cued. the air force said. 
The plane went down 
about 65 miles 1 105 ki- 
lometers) off the coast of 
Virginia. The pilot 
floated on a raft for about 
a ' half-hour until he was 
.picked up by a Coast 
Guard helicopter. His 
■name was not re- 
leased. (AP l 

• A worker was killed 
when he fell four stories 
31 the General Electric 
budding in New York’s 
Rockefeller Center after 
a hoist collapsed, t AP J 

• A small airplane took 
off without its pilot and 
flew for nearly two hours 
before crashing in a field 
-in central Ohio. The en- 
. ginc stalled on a taxiway, 
$nd Paul S irks of Dayton, 
Ohio, got out to restart it 
tv turning ihe propeller. 
.The plane started and 
. taxied awav without Mr. 
Sirks. (AP) 

Drug Czar Takes On New Enemy: The Pentagon 

By Bradley Graham 

WosJiiHXion Post Service 

Barry McCaffrey took charge 
of the White House drug con- 
trol office last year, he set out 
to lift its sagging bureaucratic 
standing. He enlarged the 
staff, asserted his authority as 
the administration’s primaiy 
spokesman on drugs and de- 
veloped a plan to slash illicit 
drug use in half over the next 
1 0 years. 

Now, in perhaps the 
clearest test of Mr. McCaf- 
frey’s power, the retired four- 
star army general is challen- 
ging not an enemy drug cartel 
but an allied federal depart- 
ment: his former employer, 
the Pentagon. 

Mr. McCaffrey has refused 
to certify 1 a draft of the 
Pentagon s fiscal J 999 
budget, calling the $809 mil- 
lion earmarked far counter- 
dreg work inadequate. His de- 
cision earlier this monih 
marked the first time since the 
creation of the anti-drug office 
nine years ago that a govern- 
mental department was denied 

The move effectively leaves 

the dispute to President Bill 
Clinton and his White House 
advisers to resolve, placing the 
president in an awkward po- 
sition: Does he side with Mr. 
McCaffrey, affirming his au- 
thority to influence drug 
spending levels throughout the 
government? Or does he side 
with Secretary of Defense 
William Cohen, who has 
branded Mr. McCaffrey’s in- 
sistence that the Pentagon 
spend an additional $141 mil- 
lion excessive? 

For Mr. McCaffrey and his 
aides, the struggle is much 
more than a budgetary 
wrangle. "You can view 
what '5 going on now as a test 
of the office’s role, a test of its 
ability to assert its statutory 
interagency leadership,” said 
a senior aide. 

For Mr. Cohen and his 
staff, the central issue is 
whether the Pentagon can and 

should play a greater role in 
combating narcotics. 

Already hard-pressed ro fi- 
nance a rising number of 
i, and short of 
; for a new generation of 
weaponry, the Pentagon in- 
sists it cannot afford ro spend 
any more on counterdrug ac- 
tivities. Besides, defense of- 
ficials said, trafficking routes 
for narcotics into the United 
States have changed in recent 

years, with fewer drugs being 
ferried by aircraft and more 
by small boats across the 
Caribbean or by land across 
the U.S.-Mexican border. 

"When the primary threat 
was by air, Pentagon radar 
could help," said a senior de- 
fense official involved in the 
counterdrug effort. "But as 
you shift to a greater maritime 
threat, it becomes less of a 
Defense Department issue and 

more of a civilian law enforce- 
ment and intelligence one.” 

Mr. McCaffrey has asked 
the Pentagon 10 add funds to 
help expand interdiction ef- 
forts in Mexico, the Andean 
region in South America and 
the Caribbean. He also wants 
more money to augment in- 
telligence and construction 
assistance provided by Na- 
tional Guard units along the 
southwestern U.S. border. 


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Page 4 



U.S. Warns Netanyahu 
To Get Moving on Peace 

By Steven ErUnger 

New York Times Service 

VANCOUVER, British Columbia — 
President Bill Ctinton and his admin- 
istration are turning up the heat on Prime 
Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel 
to produce “substantial progress’’ with 
the Palestinians in talks in December, 
senior American officials say. 

The officials, speaking at the Asia- 
Pacific Economic Cooperation forum 
here, said Mr. Clinton's refusal to see 
Mr. Netanyahu in Washington last 
week, his welcome of former Prime 
Minister Shimon Peres and Secretary of 
State Madeleine Albright’s recent meet- 
ing with Mr. Netanyahu in London were 
ail designed to increase pressure on the 
Israeli government. 

The moves came as the latest crisis 
over Iraq demonstrated weakened support 
for the United States in the Arab world. 

Washington wants Israel to announce 
a “serious and credible" draetable for 

Police Deal 
New Blow to 
Israeli Leader 

The Associated Press 

TEL AVTV — In a blow to a prime 
minister reeling from a mutiny in his 
own party, the Israeli police have re- 
commended indicting Benjamin Netan- 
yahu’s former top aide on charges of 
theft and fraud, Israeli television stations 

reported Monday. 

ie aide. Avigdor Lieberman, quit 
Sunday as director of the Prime Min- 
ister’s Office, a position equivalent to 
White House chief of staff. 

His departure appeared to be aimed at 
quelling a mutiny against Mr. Netan- 
yahu in the governing Likud party, 
where his rivals for the leadership were 
enraged by Mr. Lieberman ’s efforts to 
tighten the prime minister's control. 

At a news conference Monday. Mr. 
Lieberman vowed “to continue to act 
with all my strength" to help Mr. Net- 
anyahu- Such political activity “was not 
enabled by my status as a civil servant," 
he explained. But a few hours later, die 
nation's two main television stations re- 
ported that the police have recommended 
charging Mr. Lieberman with theft and 
fraud because he had only repaid about a 
fourth of a $40,000 loan from an im- 
migrant support group several years ago. 

A police spokeswoman said an in- 
vestigation of Mr. Lieberman had been 
completed, but she would not confirm 
that the police were asking the state 
prosecutor for an indictment 

Mr. Lieberman made no immediate 
comment on the reports. Israel TV said 
Mr. Netanyahu’s office denied that the 
resignation was connected to the police 

Mr. Lieberman, Mr. Netanyahu and 
other Likud officials barely escaped 
prosecution in April, after the police 
recommended they be indicted in a case 
i n vo king the appointment of an attorney 

The police suspected that Roni Bar- 
On. a Jerusalem lawyer who resigned 
after a day on the job, had been appointed 
because he promised to end the corruption 
trial of Arieh Deri, a powerful coalition 
ally of Mr. Netanyahu s. In the end pros- 
ecutors decided to charge only Mr. Deri. 

Mr. Lieberman has asserted that be is 
a victim of anti-Russian prejudice — a 
claim that has made him popular among 
the hundreds of thousands of Russian- 
speaking immigrants, where resentment 
against Israel’s veteran elites is strong. 

When Mr. Netanyahu won the party 
leadership in 1 993 he named Mr. Lieber- 
man. 39. to manage the party. Mr. Lieber- 
man used the position to purge the party’s 
top ranks of Mr. Netanyahu’s rivals. 

An indictment against Mr. Lieberman 
would be a blow to the prime minister at 
an already low point in his rocky 17- 
month tenure, when party rivals are bay- 
ing tor his resignation, coalition allies 
are grumbling and the opposition is re- 
surgent in the polls. 

The Likud has been wracked by in- 
ternal dissent for two weeks, since a 
pony convention where activists asso- 
ciated with Mr. Netanyahu and Mr. 
Lieberman pushed through a plan abol- 
ishing primaries. 

Thai gave the power to pick Knesset 
candidates to a central committee 
stacked with Netanyahu loyalists. Mr. 
Netanyahu backed down from the de- 
cision. saying he would instead hold a 
vote among the 200,000 rank-and-file 
members to see what kind of party elec- 
toral system they want 

withdrawal of its troops from the West 
Bank, originally scheduled for two 
months ago under existing peace ac- 
cords with the Palestinians. 

The officials denied having threatened 
Mr. Netanyahu. But one of them said, 
"Threat is not the way we do business 
with Netanyahu, as a rule,” implying dial 
the rule could be broken at some point 
“It is clear that the president is in- 
creasingly frustrated and impatient" 
another senior official said. 

A third official said that Mrs. Albright 
* ‘does not threaten Mr. Netanyahu” bit 
added: “She has made it clear to him that 
she will ‘tell it like it is' on the Middle 
East, and she will continue to do so. And 
she has definitely made it clear to die 
Israelis that the post 1 1 months have not 
been productive and that we need to do 
some serious work in December." 

The officials denied a press report in 
Israel that Mrs. Albright had warned Mr. 
Netanyahu in London that unless there 
was rapid progress, she would announce 
— “American position" on what a troop 


kai-HMT BoujuJRMiaR 

RISING WATERS IN SOMALIA — Residents of Kobon, a village in southern Somalia, walking past then- 
flooded homes Monday. Hundreds of villages in the region flooded by the Juba River are still under water. 

withdrawal ought to be. 

They also denied Israeli press reports 
that she had specified to Mr. Netanyahu a 
percentage ofWest Bank territory that the 
United States wanted to see turned ova- to T TTViYO. O A t? _ > jw A nr 

the Palestinian Authority in this second of l^U AUJClS 30771# Answers Emerging tO (JueStlOUS AbOUt MoSSOCre 
three withdrawals called for under the ° ° 

Oslo accords and January's Hebron 
agreement on an Israeli -Palestinian peace 

said that many of the victims had 

EU Report 
Is Setback for 
Lifting of Ban 
On U.K. Beef 


Continued from Page 1 

settlement Mr. Netanyahu postponed the 
withdrawal after an outbreak of suicide 
bombings in Israel in September. 

“We want to see rapid progress on the 
troop withdrawal and other issues," one 
official said. “As to an appropriate per- 
centage, we've only made clear it has to 
be serious and credible." But the of- 
ficials did not rule out publicizing an 
American position. 

The first Israeli withdrawal after 
Hebron involved 2.7 percent of the oc- 
cupied territories, which the Palestinians 
criticized as ridiculous and some Amer- 
ican officials also thought was too small. 
Mr. Netanyahu is said to be examining a 
second withdrawal from a maximum of 
5 percent of the Israeli-occupied land — 
something the United States also would 
not regard as “serious and credible." 

In Washington on Friday, Mr. Clinton 
said "the window of progress will be- 
come smaller with time,” and he warned 
of the growing frustration of “ordinary 
people, both Israelis and Palestinians. 

■ PalestiniansDiamissPropos^ 

The Palestinians on Monday dis- 
missed Mr- Netanyahu’s latest offer to 
withdraw troops from a small part of the 
West Bank, saying he was just playing 
for time and trying to appease the Amer- 
icans, The Associated Press reported 
from Jerusalem. 

Mr.' Netanyahu's hard-line allies 
threatened to bring down the prime min- 
ister's shaky coalition if he returned any 
land to die Palestinians. In the West 
Bank, meanwhile, about 1,000 Palestin- 
ian university students attended a Hamas 
rally, chanting “Bomb Tel Aviv.” 

Mir’s Computer 
Gets Another Fix 


MOSCOW — The Russian sj 
station Mir was orbiting the 
normally Monday despite the 
second failure in a week of its main 
computer, space officials said. 

A spokesman for Mission Con- 
trol in Korolyov said the breakdown 
occurred Saturday morning in two 
units of a new computer installed by 
the station’s Russian-American 
crew at the beginning of October. 

The units were replaced early 
Sunday morning. Afterward, the 
station was operating normally. 

“Two computer units were re- 
placed, the database was loaded and 
the computer was switched on.' ’ the 
spokesman said “The computer 
began to work immediately.” 

Vladimir B ranees, a computer ex- 
pert at RKK Energia, the state-run 
firm that built Mir, said the com- 
puter. along with the replacement 
units, was suffering from old age. 

“A11 these computers have been 
used before," Mr. Btonets said, 
“there aren't any spanking new 
ones that are straight from the fac- 
tory . We repair them and send them 
up. And unfortunately, that’s why 
they break down so fast” 

When its computer fails, Mir can- 
not automatically control its orient- 
ation to the sun, which it needs to keep 
its solar batteries working effectively. 
The crew to typically has to dose 
down many systems to save power 
until the orientation is restored. 

utterly disfigured by gunshot and 
stab wounds. Egyptian officials say they 
have found no evidence that victims 
were intentionally mutilated, although 
the officials and witnesses confirmed 
that some of the victims were “finished 
off with knives" after first being 
wounded with gunshots. 

Several witnesses, including Abdel- 
nasser Ahmed Ibrahim, 27. an unarmed 
guard employed by the government to 
watch over the temple’s ancient treas- 
ures, said some knife wounds had been 
particularly horrific: one woman's stom- 
ach had been so badly slashed that it 
gaped open. 

But Egyptian investigators said there 
was no evidence to corroborate a report 
in a Swiss newspaper that a German 
woman saw her father beheaded. They 
said the grievous facial wounds attrib- 
uted by some witnesses to deliberate 
mutilation seemed to have been caused 
by automatic rifles* being fired from 
extremely close range. 

One wounded Swiss witness, Rose- 
marie Dousse, 66, said that young wom- 
en were separated from die groups of 
tourists and led away to be sexually 
abused. But Egyptian officials said they 
had found no evidence of such abuse and 
Mrs. Fingerhuth and Egyptian and for- 
eign witnesses reported seeing no sign 
that any tourists had been singled out in 
this way. 

Egyptian investigators have been able 
to identify only one of the assailants, 
even though photographs of the bodies 
of five of the six men have been pub- 
lished in Egyptian newspapers. 

The sole gunman identified, Meihat 

newspaper. “There are hysterical 
screams, rending cries, Arabic com- 
mands — all sending multiple echoes 
from the rock walls around us." 

But at the end, Mrs. Fingerhuth said, 
“There were only the screams of the 
victims, and the attackers shouting, “ Al- 
lah u Akbarl ” — God is most great! — 
both a religious utterance and the ral- 
lying cry of Islamic fundamentalism 
across the Muslim world. 

It is clear that the six men who carried 
out the attack met with no armed re- 
sistance until long after they fled in a taxi 
and then a hijacked bus, some 45 
minutes after the massacre began. 

‘I kept waiting to hear 
someone firing back, but 
there was nothing. 9 

By killing two police guards posted 
400 yards apart at the outset of the as- 
sault, the gunmen eliminated the only 
aimed security at die site, Egyptian in- 
vestigators say. Reinforcements did not 
arrive until after the attackers left 

“We cannot let the police off the 
hook," said a senior Egyptian inves- 
tigator. “We understand that it was a 
terrorist attack, but if the police had 
responded more quickly, many lives 
would have been saved.". . 

Only 20 or 30 minutes after the attack 
ended andMrs. Fmgefhutb left her hid- 
ing place did she and other survivors 
encounter police reinforcements ap- 
proaching the temple in a Jeep as a tour 
bus was canying the survivors, including 
four wounded tourists, back to Luxor. 

Indeed, she said, Egyptian civilians 
and tour guides were the first to rescue 
survivors and try to tend the wounded 
and dead. From the accounts of Mrs. 
Fingerhuth and Mr. Mueller, ir seems 
that the terrorists crisscrossed the 
temple’s middle court, moving away 
then returning to gun down people who 
had taken cover and who screamed in 
terror when they were discovered. 

Although the attack began about 8:45 
AJvL, it was not until noon that the 
police finally cornered the last five of the 
gunmen after chasing them for more 
than two hours through the desen hills . 

During that chase, the sixth gunman, 
who collapsed after being wounded, was 
killed by his companions, apparently to 
prevent his capture, Egyptian investi- 
gators said. As the two sides exchanged 
fire throughout, the pursuit, tounsts 
across the area were ordered co take 
cover in ancient tombs. 

“After a period of calm, we came up 
thinking it was safe, but the firing started 
again,' "Karen Dean, an Egyptology stu- 
dent from Warwick University in Eng- 
land who was amoqg those pinned down 
in the latter stage of the morning melee, 
said on her return home. 

“This time the police started firing 
back. There was fear in their eyes and 
they were Fixing large rifles.” 

The fear has not yet left survivors like 
Mrs. Fingerhuth. After her return home 
last Tuesday, she said, she thought she 
was dreaming that a terrorist wanted to 
kill her, then that another tourist wanted 
to share her hiding place and she was 
saying dm there was no room. 

Then, she said, she awoke to find that 
“it was my daughter asking to get into 
bed with me.” 


BRUSSELS — Hopes for a swift ow- 
ing of die export ban on British beef 
received a setback after a report by EU 
veterinary experts said controls over 
meat production were inadequate, the 
European Commission said Monday - 

This month, the British government 
had proposed partly lifting the 20- 
montn-old ban in Northern Ireland, 
where a computerized database can 
track cattle movements. 

The plan, which is not operational 
elsewhere in Britain, won European Un- 
ion scientific backing in September. 

But veterinary inspectors who visited 
the province two weeks ago have re- 
ported back to Brussels, saying controls 
over meat production were problematic. 

“There is a problem over the control 
of meat destined for export and that 
which is for the U.K. market,” said 
Filippo di Robilant, spokesman for the 
EU consumer affairs commissioner, 
Emma Bonino. 

The EU imposed a worldwide ban on 
British beef exports in March 1996 after 
the British government announced a 
possible link between bovine spongi- 
form encephalopathy, or “mad cow" 
disease, and Creutzfeld- Jakob disease, 
its human brain-wasting form. 

The report has yet to be published, but 
its findings were given Friday to the 
British government, he said. 

It appears that the veterinarians were 
unhappy that cattle slaughtered for beef 
to be sold on the domestic market were 
not subject to the full database. 

But the report was not all bad news for 
Northern Ireland's farmers. It also noted 
the low incidence of bovine spongiform 
encephalopathy in the province — 
something the European Commission 
may take into account when making its 
final recommendation. 

It remains to be seen how soon tighter 
rules could be in place in Northern Ire- 
land, which would allow the easing pro- 
cess to remain on crack. 

Intense diplomatic contacts between 
London and Brussels in the past month 
led to hope there could be some re- 
sumption in exports by Christmas. 

A British government spokeswoman 
said the British agriculture minister, Jack 
Cunningham, was due to meet Mrs. 
Bonino in Brussels on Monday evening. 
Mis. Bonino is handling the repoort as 
commissioner responsible for food 



safety. The other key player within foe 
m Commissioner Franz 

EU executive. Farm * 

Fischier, has yet to comment officially. 

The European Commission said Nov. 
12 that it .was stepping up legal pro- 
ceedings against Britain, France, Portugal 
and' Spain for failing to put in place 
controls against the spread of man cow 
disease. The commission said Britain was 
failing to meet EU veterinary controls in 
meat plants and refrigerated warehouses. 

Ahmed Abdelrahman, had been sought 


by the police as a suspected terrorist, I 
there was no evidence that had taken pan 
in previous attacks. 

A note found in one gunman 's pocket 
suggested that the attackers were aligned 
with Mustapha Hamza, a leader of the 
Islamic Group who is believed to be in 
Afghanistan, but how and where the 
assault was planned remain a mystery. 

What is now beyond doubt is that 
from the moment the attack began, the 
assailants were able to kill at will. 

"I kept waiting to hear someone firing 
back, but there was nothing," said Mrs. 
Fingerhuth, a widow who left her two 
young children — Anna. 5, and Baiz, 3 
— with relatives in Zurich while she 
went on vacation. 

When it began, Mrs. Fingerhuth said, 
she and a group of about a dozen tourists 
were inspecting a wall-relief in a small 
side chapel several hundred yards above 
and beyond the entrance. They entered 
the chapel just 3s the shooting began. 

“I saw a dog running, and I said, 
‘They are shooting at the dog,’ " Mrs. 
Fingerhuth recalled. 

Then came the realization that the 
temple was under attack, and Mrs. Fin- 
gerhuth thought that one of the attackers 
had caught sight of her. 

She and three others — her friend Trix 
Nigg, 33, Felix Mueller and his wife, 
who was not identified by name, 
clambered over a wall and took cover in 
a small ruined enclosure. 

As they cowered, they would later 
learn, other tourists less than 20 feet (6 
meters) away were trapped among the 
sandstone pillars of ancient colonnades, 
from which there was no escape. 

“Now the shooting is very close.” 
Mr. Mueller, a journalist, wrote last 
week in the Neue Zuercher Zeitung 


At the Truth Panel 

Continued from Page 1 

system will ever take up the case of Mrs. 

But the commission is expected to lay 
before the public a startling and sordid 
collection of evidence, which could well 
influence her political future. 

Several members of the Mandela 
United Football Club — as her body- 
guards in the late 1980s called them- 
selves — have turned against her. They 
are expected to paint a portrait of the 
guards as a squad of hired killers who 
helped discredit her political enemies 
and, if that failed, assassinated them. 

One of them says he saw Mrs. 
Madikizela-Mandela fatally plunge a 




i fatally plunge 

of scissors into S tom pie Moekhetsi 

ietpei, a 14-year-old boy she had ac- 
cused of telling police about activities 
inside her house. 

Others are expected to say that she 
ordered several deaths, including that of 
the Soweto doctor who is said to have 
treated a badly beaten Stompie Seipei. 
The doctor died shortly afterward during 
a supposed robbery. 

The witnesses have said that Mrs. 
Madikizela-Mandela arranged the doc- 
tor’s slaying because he would not co- 
operate with her plans to embarrass a 
white priest by accusing him of having 
sex with young boys. 

The commission has more than 20 
witnesses lined up to testily against her. 
They range from the grieving parents of 
alleged victims to high-level ANC of- 
ficials who were on a committee or- 

Paa AndreivVAgeotc France- Prow 

Katiza Cebekhula, who is expected to testify that he saw Winnie 
Madikizela-Mandela stab a 14-year-old named Stompie Seipei, having 
a word at the hearing Monday with Emma Nicholson, a British MP. 



f, . 

ti . - ■ 

ganized at the time to look into her 
troubles with the law. In the past, those 
officials refused to talk about their in- 

“The general idea." said John Allen, 
spokesman for the commission, “is to 

get as complete a picture as possible.” 
:la-l “ 

Mrs. Madikizela-Mandela, 63, tenot 
expected to fight back with her own 
testimony and witnesses until the last 
day of the hearings. She defiantly de- 
manded a public nearing instead of the 
closed-door one the commission sug- 

The core of her defense is expected to 
be that she was the victim of police dirty 
tricks. A few weeks ago, she taunted the 
press by producing five unnamed people 

GERMANY: The Ghost of Europe's History Keeps Getting in the Why of a Nation’s Quest to Achieve ‘Normalcy’ 

Continued from Page 1 

siders u> bizarre. German officials rail against the 
Scientology movement, for instance, because they 
fear it is a totalitarian movement growing, like foe 
Nazi party, from inconsequential beginnings, even 
though the official response smacks of the Nazi 
era's authoritarianism. In a low-key debate about 
smoking in public places, the authorities are said to 
be reluctant to be too stern because the Nazis 
frowned on public smoking, especially by women. 

It is that tracery of unspoken taboo and inhibition 
he political It 

that some, to foe political left and to foe right, now 
depict as the greatest bonier to normalcy, a source 
of self-doubt and even self-loathing. 

"One almost has the impression that Germans 
have set out not to be loved at all,” Peter Schneider, 
a leftist author, wrote recently in Der SpiegeL “Or 
do they not love themselves? Is this absence of self- 
love a result of Hitlerism, or, conversely, the cause 
of Hitlerism?" 

The argument gets more complicated because, 
throughout the postwar era, Germany rebuilt itself 
on a notion of consensus designed specifically to 

swallow the extremes of the past in a society of 
checks and balances, and, above all, in the denial of 
nationalism in favor of a broader Western identity. 

That was simpler to achieve before reunification 
seven years ago, but since then another Germany 
has returned — Europe’s most populous land, with 
82 million people, foal was once The crucible of 

And, according to some on what is called the 
"new right," a loose assembly of writers, in- 
tellectuals and historians, that huge, geopolitical 
shift has opened the way for a self-assertive Ger- 

Even today, many younger Germans chafe at 
being beld accountable for history. Virtually all of 
Germany's neighbors (except Switzerland) were 
occupied, annexed or invaded at some point during 
World War H; all harbor stereotypes of an ag- 
gressive Germany strutting through foe genera- 

In fact, no other European country has done as 
much as Germany to confront its history. Of 
700,000 visitors each year to foe former concen- 
tration camp at Dachau, 350,000 are Germans, 

a Nazi occupation of their state. Just one year later, 

tier’s Willing Executioners"," by the 
Daniel F 

many of them schoolchildren sent there to reinforce 
any to eschew the reflex of contrition for foe past, the message drummed home in schools and politi 
reflex they blame on such stalwarts of foe left as cians’ speeches: never again. 


American writer Daniel Goldhagen, sought to 
prove exactly the opposite: that ordinary Germans 
were the perpetrators of genocide. 

The debate has left contradictory strains in Ger- 
man society. Among the intellectual elite, the pre- 
occupation with history remains. The two major art 
shows in Berlin this fall, for instance, deal with 
German division and with foe work of artists forced 
to flee by the Nazis. 

the author Guenther Grass and foe philosopher 
Juergen Habermas. 

That conflict between national pride and his- 
torical shame now defines the ‘ ‘German question"; 
How. can Germany draw a line under its history 
without seeming to discard it? 

In the 1920s, the deadly mix of World War I 
humiliation and repressed nationalism nurtured 
Nazism, albeit under completely different circum- 

In less public circles. foough, the inhibitions 
i Germany’s generals 

Germany has spent $58 billion in reparations and 
is still called upon — by former slave laborers, for 
example, or % victims of Nazi persecution in 
Greece — to pay more. But doesany of that make 
foe post any easier to live with? The answer is no. 

simply because there is no statute of limitations for 
the Holocau: 


Two yeans ago. Chancellor Kohl commemorated 
the 50fo anniversary of foe end of the war by 
seeking to cast ordinary Germans as foe victims of 

seem to be weakening. When 
discovered recently that, three years ago, foot sol- 
diers had made home videos showing themselves 
giving Nazi salutes, their conclusion was not just 
that taboos were being eroded in the barracks, but 
that they were weakened in foe homes and schools 
where foe soldiers grew up — particularly in East 
Germany, which never accepted foe same respon- 
sibility for the past as West Germany. 

And, increasingly, foe postwar inhibitions collide 
with Germany's need to reinvent itself in a global 
economy that challenges it to tap hidden reserves. 

at a news conference who she said were 
witnesses who would clear her name. 
She then refused to let any of them 
answer questions. 

Newspapers later reported that at least 
one of them is set to testify against her 
and that the others were never among her 
closest circle. 

Mrs. Madikizela-Mandela, who was 
convicted of kidnapping and assaulting 
Stompie Seipei in 1991 but received a 
suspended sentence, has tittle support 
among South Africa's elite, who see her 
as an our-of-control rabble-rouser. In 
recent years, she has faced new scandals, 
from accusations of misusing govern- 
ment property to building up huge per- 
sonal debts. 

But she is popular among the coun- 
try 's most downtrodden. She is seen as a 
tireless campaigner for foe poor, most of 
whom have felt little improvement in 
their lives since the 1994 elections that 
brought foe ANC to power. 

She recently broke with party pro- 
tocol to criticize foe government as soft 
on crime and incompetent at creatine 
jobs and housing. She has also called for 
a referendum on the death penalty 
which surveys indicate is supported by 
most South Africans, black as well as 
white. Top ANC leaders, including Mr 
Mandela, adamantly oppose it. 

The remarks prompted 
tongue-lashing from foe 


delivered by^Spora Miniate 

{teve Tshwete. He called her a - -po- 
litically wayward charlatan" and a r}»r ! 
son who “tends to believe that everyone 
is against her, and therefore resorts to 

strange behavior to attract attention.” 
“The more I fry to recall Winnie’s 

contribution to the debate in the ANC the 

more I draw a blank," Mr. Tshwete said. 
“Check minutes of cabinet committees 


she used to attend and you will not find a 

single substantive contribution.” 



1 * 

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/j Iraq Says UN Inspectors 

i Encounter No Obstacles 


. Baghdad Assails U.S. Reconnaissance Flight 
AndDoesn’t Say if Sensitive Sites Were Visited 

: '•* ' •: .V 

r. : r;s= :\?r V "" ■■■■'■ 

« a 

^ CMftkd hyOtr Stuff Frcu Dapak-Mn 

* BAGHDAD — Iraq said Monday 
United Nations anus monitors hud 
epdetLa third day of searches for banned 
faeapcns without obstacles, but did not 
say whether they had tried to visit sites 
die Ktq has declared off- limits . 

‘ • Earlier, a U.S. U-2 reconnaissance 
pland used by the United Nations flew 
ova Iraq without incident. 

In Washington, a Defense Depart- 
ment spokesman confirmed the flight 
4 ‘It spent a couple of hours over Iraq and 
is now out of Iraqi territory,” said Col- 
onel Richard Bridges, a Pentagon 
tbesnan. Iraq has previously 
iteced to shoot down such aircraft 
It was the third U.S. U-2 flight over 
central Iraq in three weeks without in- 
cident despite Baghdad ’s threat to shoot 
down American surveillance planes 
ordered over the country in support of 
UN anus inspections. 

In Baghdad, a Foreign Ministry 
said the plane was beyond 

range of Iraqi air defenses, 
li f<M 

hammed Sayed Sahhaf. was quoted as 
saying that the U.S. military buildup in 
tbe Gulf and the latest flight by a U-2 
pijlne were pushing the region into mil- 
iary confrontation. 

“The U.S. is escalating tension in the 
:gion by intensifying its reinforce- 

ments in the Arabian Gulf area and 
sending its U-2 aircraft,” Mr. Sahhaf 
said in a letter sent to the UN secretary- 
general and carried by the official Iraqi 
press agency, INA. 

Mr. Sahhaf asserted that tbe U-2 had 
not only spied on Iraq but also “carried 
out provocations ana heightened ten- 
sion and charged the situation in a man- 
ner that could lead to its explosion.*’ 

UN monitors returned to Iraq on Fri- 
day after Baghdad reversed an Oct. 29 
decision banning Americans, whom 
Iraq accused of spying, from talcing part 
in inspections. 

The ban caused a tease standoff with 
the United Nations and prompted a U.S. 
military buildup in the Gulf. But U.S. 
officials are questioninglraq's promises 
of cooperation with UN weapons in- 
spectors and say they will not relent on 
economic sanctions. 

“This crisis is far from over,” Bill 
Richaidson, the U.S. representative to 
the United Nations, said Monday. 

Iraq continues to bar inspectors from 
63 sites, including President Saddam 
Hussein's numerous presidential com- 

“These presidential palaces seem to 
be getting larger, more numerous,’ ' said 
Richard Butler, the head of the UN 
Special Commission, or Unscom. 
which is monitoring the dismantling of 


Jmm! "ijMiUih/^flgur F n w c ftwr 

An Iraqi official, left, speaking Monday in Baghdad with the chief of the UN inspectors in Iraq, Brian Baxter. 

Iraqi weapons of mass destruction, as 
required by the cease-fire agreement 
that ended the Gulf War. “How many 

palarra can One have?” 

Tbe Iraqi press agency, quoting the 
head of Iraq’s National Monitoring Di- 
rectorate, said eight groups of inspect- 
ors visited seven sites on Monday and 
carried out aerial surveillance of two 
locations. INA said that one of' the 

groups had checked remote monitoring 
cameras that transmit video images to 
UN headquarters in Baghdad- There 
was no immediate UN confirmation. 

“All groups verified • that biased 
American allegations that banned ac- 
tivities took place during the period 
Unscom suspended its work were un- 
true,’ ’ the press agency reported. “They 
also ascertained that monitoring means 

including cameras, sensors and other 
accessories were in good condition.” 

In a separate dispatch, INA called on 
members of the Iraqi Parliament to con- 
vene in an emergency session Tuesday. 
It gave no reason, but such calls have 
been made when the National Assembly 
was asked to give opinions or ratify 
decisions by the ruling Revolutionary 
Command Council. (Reuters, AP) 

Land Mine Stance Touches 

By Peter Baker 

Washington Post Service 

*• VANCOUVER, British Columbia — 
While much of the rest of the world 
prepares to sign a treaty banning anti- 
tel land mines. President Bill 

!linton has heatedly defended his de- 
cision not to join the international ac- 
cord. aiguing that he has already done 
more than any other leader to rid the 
globe of the devices. 

• During a joint appearance with Prime 
Minister Jean Chretien of Canada, 
whose government is the prime force 
behind the new treaty and host for next 
week’s signing ceremonies, Mr. Clinton 
said Sunday that be shared its goals but 
Had to reject it because foreign leaders 
refused to accommodate U.S. con- 

• It would be “a great mistake,” he 

maintained, to focus on his reluctance to 
endorse die treaty. 

“We should look at the evidence,” 
Mr. Clinton said. “What is your record 
on land mines? Which nation has de- 
stroyed tbe most land mines? Which 
nation is doing the most to promote de- 
mining? The answer to that is tbe United 

The defensive performance exposed 
the great sensitivity of the matter for Mr. 
Clinton, who clearly resents appearing 
isolated from the international commu- 
nity and resistant to the goal of elim- 
inating weapons held responsible each 
year for maiming or killing 25,000 ci- 
vilians, many of them children. 

The president sided with the 
Pentagon, which wants to keep the 1 
million U.S. land mines buried in South 
Korea as a guard against invasion from 
the North and to be able to use anti- 

personnel mines to protect anti-tank 
mines, which are still allowed under the 
treaty. Last-minute U.S. attempts failed 
to win concessions on those matters 
during talks in Oslo in September. 

About 100 countries plan to gather in 
Ottawa on Dec. 3 to sign the treaty, 
which requires stockpiles to be destroyed 
within four years of ratification and 
minefields to be cleared in a decade. 

Mr. Chretien tried to avoid embar- 
rassing Mr. Clinton on the matter Sun- 
day. While the two talked about their 
differences by telephone a week ago, the 
Canadian leader did not raise them dur- 
ing their honrlong private meeting. But 
White House aides had warned Mr. 
Clinton that he might face tough ques-. 
boning, and so when a reporter asked 
whether tiie issue had come up, he made 
a lengthy and argumentative defense. 

The United States has destroyed 1.5 

million mines and plans to destroy an- 
other 1.5 million, more than any country 
in the world, he said. And his admin- 
istration is increasing its budget for de- 
mining by 25 percent, he added. 

Mr. Chretien tried to lighten the mood 
by saying he understood that the situ- 
ation was complicated for Mr. Clinton 
and suggested the Korean problem 
could have been finessed. 

“We’U keep the pressure — gentle 
pressure — on the president every time 
that we have an occasion to get them to 
move," Mr. Chretien said. • 

A stern-faced Mr. Clinton then cut in 
again. “This is a question of how that 
treaty was worded and tbe unwillingness 
of some people to entertain any change 
in the wording of it,” he said. ‘ 'I believe 
I was the first world leader at the United 
Nations to call for a total ban on land- 
mine production and deployment" 

While praising Mr. Chretien and call- 
ing the Canadian-drafted treaty “a mag- 
nificent thing, " he added: “It is a great 
mistake to make this whole story about 
whether we will sign on to this.” 

During their private session, Mr. 
Clinton and Mr. Chretien discussed an- 
other major treaty that has produced an 
impasse between the United States and 
its allies. International officials are 
scheduled to meet in Kyoto, Japan, next 
month to search for a strategy to curb so- 
called greenhouse gases that are blamed ' 
for global warming. 

Mb'. Clinton seeks more moderate 
goals than Japan or Europe. Mr. Chretien 
did not take a formal position, but did 
back the U.S . insistence that developing 
nations such as China and Mexico be 
covered as well “This is not a problem 
only with the industrialized nations," he 
said. ' ‘This is a global issue!” 

Aid Workers Freed 
In Somali Region 

NAIROBI — Five foreign aid 
workers kidnapped Iasi week b> 
gunmen in the self-declared Re- 
public of Somaliland in northern 
Somalia last week have been freed. 
United Nations officials said Mon- 

The five — a European Union 
representative, Dennis Cassidy, 
and four UN workers — were kid- 
napped Friday in Elayo. 

Somaliland officials said the aid 
workers had been on a mission to 
halt the destruction of trees using in 
the making of charcoal. It was sus- 
pected that they were kidnapped 
because they were believed to be 
carrying money to pay the charcoal 
makers. ( Reuters ) 

Mugabe Opponent 
Denies Treason 

HARARE. Zimbabwe —.The 
opposition leader Ndabaningi Si- 
thole pleaded nor guilty Monday at 
a High Court hearing to charges of 
treason and plortiag to assassinate 
President Robert Mugabe. 

The 78-year-old Methodist cler- 
gyman is alleged to have planned to 
blow up Mr. Mugabe's motorcade, 
to have possessed amt* and to have 
sent young men for military train- 
ing with the aim of overthrowing 
the government. 

Two men alleged to have been 
his co-conspirators in the August 
1995 plot have already been jailed 
on lesser charges — one for 12 
years, the other for 15 

Mr. Si thole could face the death 
penalty if convicted of treason He 
has been free or bail a part for.;:-. a 
brief period in custody since his 
arrest two years ago. (AFP) 

Canada Teens Face 
Charges of Murder 

VICTORIA British Coiumbia — 
Seven teen-age girls and a boy have 
been charged in connection with the 
murder of a 14-year-old girt 

The suspects were arrested Sat- 
urday after police began investi- 
gating rumors that a runaway had 
been killed in Saanich, a town on 
the outskirts of Victoria. The police 
found the dead girl adrift in an inlet 
of Juan de Fuca Strait. An autopsy 
was expected Monday. (APj 



The only thing comparable about 

G Ih&Jeadin£Hotels of thtfWbrki 

is that they are all incomparable 

Chahba < 

Call tor vour free 


copy of the 1998 
Directory; See 
telephone numbers 

lust as each woHdlv destination offers 
die traveler different pleasures to 
delight in. so docs each member of 
The Leading Hotels of the World. 

So, while one of The Leading Hotels 
might offer j selection of twelve 
different bed pillows tn sleep on. 
another might heat the hath towels 
m a measured "8 degrees. 

Such dedication to perfecting the art 
of hospitality comes as no surprise. 
After all. jny Leading Hotel can be 
under the scrurmv of our appointed 
team of inspectors at any time. 

No wonder the only thing more 
difficult than achieving leading Hotel 
status is maintaining it. 

There are 310 members of 
77* Leading Hotels of the World located 
in 6S countries, on she continents. 
Discover for ynuredf why each hold 
is something of a destination in itself 


Sa^txng Hota Gooener Hmch 
hotel Osteroa<nBCher 

Sauburg (FuschO Hotel fcniass Fused 
Seereti Ctar: vital Hotel Rove 
Vienna hotel Bristol 
Hotel imoenai 
Hotel Sachet 

Bruueb Royal Wmefcor Hotel 

Zogtefi Hotel Esplanade 

Umassoi Beech Hotel 

Paphos Paphos Amathus Beach 


Copenhagen Howl d Angeicno 


Broadway TncrLyg: 

London The Bennie 


At ms 

The I 
Four Seasons Hotel 
Mandarin Oriental Hyae 

The Savoy 
faptow Cftedon 


HefanUd Sokes Hotel Hespena 


Bento HotelduPaKai 
Cannes Hotel Mamet 
Coucnevei Byctos des Neoes 

Hotel an CnameLM 

Evtan Domains du Boyd dub 

Even - HOtel Royal 
Nice HotetNeaesco 
Pans Hotel ae Ciaon 
Hotel Le Bristol 
Hotel Meuice 
H6tel Ptaza Ath6n6e 
Hotel GHz 

St Jean- 

Coo-fenat Hotel Royal Bhrtara 
St -Trope; Hotel Bybkx 

Baden-Baden Brenner s Park-Hotel Ik 


Bum 5ctvossnoiei BuhierhOtie 

(Black Forest) Hotel Mmerbad 

Berlin Giand Hotel Esplanade 
kempmsk) Hotel Mon 

Kempinda Moral Bristol 

Schtossnotet Vter 
Bremen Pork Hotel 
Cologne EraeWor Hotel Ernst 
Diesden KemptreM Hotel 

lose hen bergpalds 

Dtaseldart Hotel Brakdenbachec Hot 

am Mon Hotel Heascher Hof 

Wiesbaden Hotel Nassauet Hot 
fre*>ufp CoVambt Hotel 
HamtxTO Hotel Ver Janresstfen 
KsrnpnSM Hoi el AttanHc 

Herdo&xng Der EwopOKche Hof ■ 
Hotel Europa 
Leipzig Kempinsfci Hotel 

Funrerrhot Leipzig 
Munich Bayeflscher Hat 
Hoter Catoet 
Kemoinskl Hole! Viet 
Jcteeszeiten Munchen 


Athens Hotel Grander Bretagne 
Crete Bounda Beach Hotel 
and VBos 

Amsterdam Hotel ■» I'EufOpe 
Hater Ovura 

BuddDW Kempwski Holes Cotvlnus 

□ubfln Beriaesy Court Hotel 
Wasltxjry Hotel 

Bologna Grand Hotel I 
Capri Grand Hotel i 

Lake Como vead'Este Grand Hotel 
& Sporting Club 

Ranance/ftesote Hotel Via San Michele 
Florence Grand Hotel 

Grand Hotel Via Medici 
Hotel Regency 
tsersa Grand Hotel Pinto 
Molno Tonne 

Mai Excofciar Hotel Gala 

Grand Hotel et de Men 

Hotel F*Ce 

Hotel Rtnape d Sawia 


Terms Grand Hotel & La Pace 
Naples Gran d Hntel WBS Wto 
Portoflno Hotel Spienddo 

Marghertta Ugure Grand Hotel Mtramae 
PaSfano LeSrenuse 
Rome Atdrowndl Palace Hotel 
Hotel Eden 

Hotel Header Vila Medtd 

Haw Lord Byron 
Le Grand Hotel 
Son Demo Royal Hotel 

Costa Sme ra M a Hotel Cate cfl Vatpo 
Hotel Romazano 

Venice Bauer Gr&iwdd 

Hotel Ciprtant&Peiaan 

Venice Udo HotetExcetdor 

Verona Due Tom Hotel BagBanl 

Luxembourg CVy Hotel le Royal 


Monte Coria HOtetdePorti 

Oslo Hotel Conltnentc* 

Warsaw Hotel Bristol 

ArmagOo de Ftera Hotel Via Vita Parc 

QurtaaaLogo Hotel Quinta do Logo 
Lboon Hotel da Lena 
Usbon/Estorf Hotel Prtoclo 
LbOon/Sntra Coosar Park Ponria 
Longa Golf A Resort 

Madeira. Funchc* Rote s Hotel 

Moscow KempinsU Hotel 

Barrschug Mosrau 

St Petersburg Grand Hotel Europe 

Auchleraraer Gleneogles 
Edkiburgh The Botmorct 

The Caledonian 
Timbeny Tumbeny Hotel. Galt 

Barcelona Husaftelace 

Rey Juan Cartas 1 
Esteparta Las Dunas Beach 
Hotel and Spa 

Granada/Lpte Hotel La BobadSa 
Madrid Hotel Ba 

Palace Hotel 

MClcna/Mfas Hotel ByMos AndoAa 
MaXoraa Hotel Son vido 
Marbefla Hotel Puente Romano 
MatoetaClub Hotel 


Costa Brava Hostal de la Gavrina 
Santander Hotel Real 

SeviSa Hotel Alfonso XH 

SarSucar ta Mayor Hotel Hacienda 

* Sweden 

Stockholm Grand HAtet 

Bad Ragaz Grand Hotel QueSenhot 
Basel Hotel Dre* Kings am 

Berne Gauer Hotel 

Schwei&Bfhof . 

Hotel BesevusPatoee 
BOtganstack Park Hotel 

Geneva Hotel des Betgues 
Hotel du RhOne 

GrindehMdk) Grand Hotel Regkia 
Gstaad Gdood Rotate Hotel 
tntertdken victoria Jungfrau Grand 
Hotel ft Spa 

Kandersteg Rcvd Hotel Betovue 
LouKrme Beauflvage PcSace 
Lausanne Pdace 
Lucerne Pciaoe Hotel lutem 
Lugano Splendde Royal 
Monl-Peierin Le Wrador Resort and 

Montreux Le Monlreux Palace 
SI. Motto BocfrutrsPaloefl Hotel 
Kkrim Hotel 
Suvnetta House 

Zermatt Seder Hotel Mont Cenrin 
and Residence 
SeAer Hotel Monte Rasa 
Zurich Baurauloc 

Dolder Grand Hotel 

Istanbul The Bosphorus 

raragan Palace Hotel 
KempinM Istanbul 

Cairo ^fteMeno House Oberoi 
Hotel & Carina 

Jerusalem Hng David Hotel 
TetAutv Dan tel Aviv 

Aleppo Chahtxj Chtm Pdace 
Damascus Cham Palace 

EWo Cham Palace 
United Arab Emirates 
Abu Dhabi Beach Hotel 

Dubai Al Busron Parana Hotel 
.label Al Hotel 
the Royer Abjar norer 

Mombasa Serena Beach Hotel 
Novo D* Navob Serena Hotel 
The Nortofc Hole! 

Grand Bate Royal Pc*n 

Marrakech La Mranaurva 
South Africa 

Cope Town Mount Nefcon Hotel 
Durban the Royal 
Johannesburg Mtchaotangeto 

The Western Hotel 

Certnage The Restdence-runb 
Harare Meikles 


Brisbane The Hemoge 
Haymon island Hayman 

Metooume Rockman s Regency 

The WmasCT 

Sye*wy The Ctoservalory Hole! 
The Sebei ol Sydney 
French Polynesia 
Bora Bora Bora Bora Lagoon Resort 
Hong Kong 
Hong Kong me EraeOfc/ 

Mandarin Oiwniat 
The IMz -Carttan 
kawtoon The Perwsuia 

The Royal Garden 

Bangalore The Otero 

The tar Wesr End 
Calcutta The Ooerol Grand 
T or Bengal 

Goa The Leeta Beach Goa 
Jcripu PajvtSh-An Oberoi Hotel 
Moaras Taj Coromandel Hotel 
Mumbai The Obe<oi 

lefl Mona Hotel 
New DeM The Oberoi 

la| Mcriwl Hotel 
Id} Pakace Hotel 

Hoi BaB Imperial Hotel 
‘ Musa Dua Beach Hotel 

The Oberoi 
The Pto-Cortion 
Jcrirchd Mcnaam Ortentta 
Lomoo* The Oberch 


Kyoto KyOtO T 
The Mi 
iii Hotel I 

a Hold Now Oiary 
The Imperial 

Tokyo DaHchi Hotel Tokyo 
Four Seasons Holer. 
Hotel Okua 
Irhperal Hotel 

Seoul The SMia Seoul 


Macau Hotel Beta visa 
Mandarin Oriental 



Kucria Lumpur Hotel Istana 

Langrawl Paiongl Beach Resort 
Penang Ftewip Muriara Beach 


KcrcrcW Pearf Contlnentel Hotel 
People’s Republic of China 
Sefnfl Grand Hotel 

Kemptnrid Hotel I 
LuTlonhansa r 
The Pdoce Hotel 

(Canton} White Swan Hotel 

Shmghal Garden Hotel Shanghai 
Shanghai JC Mandarin 
The Vfertn Tal Rng tang 

Mantle Mandarin Oriental 
The Peninsula 

Singapore City The Mandarin 

Marfera Mandarin 
The Oriental 

Tdpel The Rto Hotel 
The Sherwood 

Bangkok The Dustt Thanl 
The Oriental 

Cho-Am/Hua kfln CXh» Resort and Polo 

KraW DuEtt Rayavodee Resort 

Px*®l Dutf Loguna Resort Hotel 
Phuket racht CUj 

Swat Thanl/ 

Koh SamU Boon TaHng Ngan-i. 

Mandcrrtn Otfenld 
Sanltouri Dusit Resort 

Hanoi Hanoi Daewoo Hotel 


Montreal Wz-Cariton Kempkida 
• Momreol 

Toronto KUng Edward Hotel 
Vancouver The Pan Pacific Hotel 


Cancan CanSnoRed 

Hesta Americana 
The Rte-Caitton 
ManxmHo Las Hadas Resort 
Mexico city Cammo Root 

Hotel MarqUs Reforma 

linked St ales of America 

Scarbdate the Phoeni cian 

Scottsdale Prtncen 
Bet-Air Hole! BeWte 
Beveriyhflfo The Beverly His Hotel 
The Peninsula 
The Regent Beverly 


Cartsbod La Costa Resort end Spa 
LagmaMguet The Rttz-Cartton 

Los Angeles The RtoOarticn. Moma 
d« Rey 

Palm Springs Givenchy Hotel & Spa 
San Francisco Monetary! Oriental 
The RUz-Cartfon 

Santa Monica Shutters on the Beach 
District of Columbia 
Washington. D.C. TheCcntlon 

The Watergate Hotel 



N. Monk TunbenyUe Resort &Clita 

Fisher ttarKJ the fister mend Qua 
Naples The Rrb-rrxtt-j) ■ 

Palm Beach The Brecicis 

Atkanta TheCTij-Cartturi . 

HorioUu. Oahu Hatekuuni 

Kahaia Mandann 
OrtenlcH. Hawcm 


West Oahu Want Resort & Spa 
Kohcsa Coast. 

Hawaii The Orchid al Mauna 

WaSea. McrS Grand Wa»ea Resort 
Hotel & Spa 

New Orleans Windsor Court Hotel 

Boston The Pth:- Carrion 
New York 

New tort Ttie Hetmstey Park Larie 

hate Plaza Athene® 
Hotel UVastbur, 

Thu Ma<k 

The New /-'ft r'Gta.;e 
The Periiiwjtj 
The Pierre 
Their iragb 
The Wakfc-n Towers 

Wed Virginia 
Wtille Sudptrur 

Jpnngs The *xier 

Suenas Aires Alvea AaLjce h.. tel 
Cues** Fort 

Ifieus. Bahia Hotel TiansamAA:o 
Hia de JarvetfC' Caesar Part n.--iei 


i Mel 

&£rn Paukj Caesar Park 

The Maksoua Plakc 


Santtogci H-Mei Ca»ero 


Bogota Horei Bogcr j i?-:-, ai 

Costa Rica 

San Jose Crmtno Peal 


GuayaciuU Hc-lel -Zoo Verde 
Quite Hare: Ot>: Verde 


Llmu Hotel Gro Verde 


SI. James Sandy l me Hotel 
French West Indies 
La Samama Sr Matin 

„ , Grenadines 

Petit at Vincent Pent SI Vincent Pescrt 

Puerto Rico 

Las Croabas B ‘^angubl.ado: Peso.- % 

Country- Out> 

San Juar, 3 San Juan Hcdei i 


_ St. Barthfittmy 

Grand Cal de Sac Hotel Guanaham 
_ West Indies 
Barbuda KCiub 

Far reservations ar any of The Leading Hotels of tbe.VfaU call tout crave! consultant. Ot for reservations and a complimentary copy dour Dinuorv 
profiling each hotel, coruacr any nservanon o^x-c lisrad beSaw Gipta are available in Enfijish. French, German, Italian. Spanish awl j jpjn^ ' 

■ ■ m — i i |_ M-m Tael^d UmI^ j _ 

North America 
(MNd States, 

Canada, Puerto Rfoo ft 

(1-S1D B3MI10 

Hx (061 /J/-/557 

Tckyo C8I-3J K10-5U1 
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MmcoOv (SM) A29034Q 



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The Asian Challenge 

America and Russia Need a Fresh Start Together 

President Bill Clinton meets wilh his 
Asian counterparts this week in an 
atmosphere verging on crisis. What 
started as a run on the currency of 
. Th a ila nd has blossomed into financial 
tranma that threatens economies from 
Japan through Indonesia. On Friday 
came die spectacle of the proud South 
Koreans appealing for emergency aid 
from the IMF. And all this only months 
after experts had been placidly singing 
the praises of Asia’s economic '‘mir- 
acles” and “dragons.” Could things 
really have gone so wrong so fast? 

The spread of Asia’s financial crisis 
points, on the most obvious level, to the 
new and immense interconnectedness 
of the world economy. As the econo- 
mist David Hale said, ' ‘The notion that 
defaults on Thai property loans might 
rock tbe currencies of countries as far 
away as Korea, Estonia and Brazil 
would have been regarded as fanciful 
less than 10 years ago.” But Japan's 
banks have lent lots of money to Korean 
companies; Korean bonks have loans 
outstanding in Thailand; everyone de- 
pends to some extent on everyone else’s 
health. Moreover, foreign investors 
who lose their shirts in Thailand get 
spooked and pull money out of other 
“emerging markets” even when eco- 
nomic reality might dictate otherwise. 

But if South Korea’s economy had 
not been vulnerable in Other ways, it 
could have withstood both the real and 
the psychological effects of Southeast 
Asia's troubles. As in Southeast Asia, 
though. South Korea's institutions 
have not fully kept pace with its eco- 
nomic growth. The “tiger* * economies 
— South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan 
and Singapore — have income levels 
seven times higher today than 30 years 
ago. That is phenomenal growth, and 
there is no way education, bank reg- 
ulation or pension systems could be 
expected not to lag. 

In South Korea’s case, the chief 
problem has been a cozy relationship 
between banks and manufacturers 
iD.S. bank reformers, please take 
note). As long as the economy was 
growing fast that was all right, but at 
the first sign of slowdown the problem 
loans that everyone long knew existed 
suddenly became more serious. 

One danger now is of ovorreactioD: 
Japanese banks call in their Korean 
loans; more Korean companies fail; 
Japanese banks, already struggling, 
spiral downward. At worst, the leading 
Asian economies — including Japan 
— could enter a prolonged recession, 
which would affect economic growth 
throughout the world. v 

But this worst-case outcome is not 
inevitable. When experts assure us at a 
rime like this that “die economic fun- 
damentals are sound,” it is natural to 
listen with a dose of skepticism. But in 
Asia’s case the assurances are not fam- 
ous. South Korea has a high savings 
rate, a well-educated population, a 
sound manufacturing ana technologic- 
al base. Its problems are institutional, 
not fiscal. What is needed now is se- 
rious reform of the kind that Sonth 
Korea has too long postponed. If an 
IMF rescue proceeds, U-S. taxpayers 
will want to know that they are not 
bailing out banks and companies that 
deserve to go under. But the IMF 
should not demand the kind of squeez- 
ing that would force South Korea into 
an unnecessarily deep recession. 

At best, Asia's economies are in fora 
rough couple of years. As they can buy 
less and seek to export more, the U-S. 
trade deficit is certain to soar, and the 
U.S. economy will not grow as fast as it 
would have. Whether the consequences 
become more serious depends on how 
well tbe turbulence is handled in the 
coming days and weeks. 


Crack Down on Bribery 

In the past few years dozens of de- 
veloping countries have begun pro- 
grams to cut corruption and prosecute 
officials who take bribes. But little has 
been done by the developed world to 
crack down on bribe-givers. That 
changed on Thursday in Frankfurt, 
when the 29 countries belonging to the 
OECD agreed on a treaty outlawing 
bribes to foreign government officials. 

The treaty, while incomplete, is a 
victory for the United States. The 1977 
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act made it 
illegal for American companies to 
bribe foreign officials. But no other 
nation followed. Many, including Ger- 
many and Australia, allow companies 
to deduct foreign bribes from their 
taxes as a business expense. 

The spread of democracy, with the 
accompanying demands for govern- 
mental accountability, is one reason 
that more nations are trying to fight 
corruption. Another factor was the 
founding in 1992 of Transparency In- 
ternational, a Berlin-based organiza- 
tion that has helped many countries 
design anti-corruption strategies and 
has been pushing for years to make 

offering bribes illegal. A treaty gained 
support because nations were willing 
to give up this business advantage only 
if tiieir competitors would also do so. 

The treaty would force nations to 
prosecute any of their corporations that 
pay bribes to foreign government of- 
ficials. legislators and executives of 
state-controlled companies. It has sev- 
eral shortcomings, however. It is not 
clear whether countries must stop al- 
lowing tax deductions for bribes. Cor- 
porations may continue to bribe of- 
ficials of political parties. Provisions 
for enforcement are weak, and the 
treaty contains no specific steps that 
countries must take, such as account- 
ing changes to keep businesses from 
disguising bribes as commissions. 

Countries should ratify the treaty 
quickly and treat it as a minimum, 
adding their own measures to improve 
it But the treaty itself is a significant 
accomplishment. If seriously enforced, 
il will reduce the number of bribes and 
add moral weight to the developed 
world's exhortations to poor countries 
to stop accepting them. 


Tudj man’s Vendetta 

For nearly a year the hard and narrow 
nationalistic government of Franjo 
Tudjman in Croatia has been hammer- 
ing away at the Open Society Instinitc- 
Croatia, a private democracy-building 
foundation underwritten by the Amei- 
ican Financier George Soros. Accused 
by President Tudjman of conveying a 
“dangerous alien ideology" — a 
charge that damns him for making it - - 
the institute has since been steadilv at- 
tacked and harassed, especially for its 
support of independent media and hu- 
man rights organizations. Now its Cro- 
atian executive director and accountant 
have been given criminal convictions on 
what are transparently political charges 
of falsification of official records. 

One can understand Mr. Tudjman 's 
vendetta. He knows how fragile is his 
claim to democratic legitimacy and 
how potentially strong and challenging 
to him the building of an open socieiv 
would be. For what other reason than 
fear would he be exposing himself to 
the world as the persecutor of an open- 
society movement that is almost every- 
where else understood as a necessary 
and even noble exercise in post-Com- 
munisi governance? Surely this is why 
he has mobilized propaganda, legal, 
financial and administrative measures 
to target the likes of the Croatian Hel- 

sinki Committee and the independent 
newspaper Feral Tribune. In so doing, 
of course, he is showing his contempt 
for the Helsinki Final Act and other 
international agreements that Croatia 
solemnly signed. 

The Zagreb government, in addition 
to the prosecutions, has demanded that 
Open Society Institute-Croaria submit 
a new legal registration that would 
remove its tax exemption and subject it 
to strict government controls. The de- 
mand is part of an evident official 
effort to control or terminate foreign 
and domestic foundations, branches of 
foreign businesses, and humanitarian 
and other nongovernmental organiza- 
tions. This effort must be opposed 

Croatia has led something of a 
charmed life since Yugoslavia broke 
up. The heaviest criticism, and for the 
grossest misdeeds, has fallen on Serbia; 
Croatia's transgressions have been 
played down. The latest overstepping 
comes at a good time for Croatia to be 
held io account. What Mr. Tudjman is 
trying to do is consistent with the old 
Communist partem: isolate the tender 
shoots of civil society from each other 
and from sources of foreign encour- 
agement. This is dirty stuff, and he must 
not be allowed to get away with it. 


M OSCOW — It is not yet clear how 
die Iraq crisis will end, but it is 
already clear what it has exposed — the 
serious tensions just beneath the sur- 
face of foe U.S. -Russian relationship. 

Last Friday night X found myself in 
Moscow watching a CNN report from 
the White House to tbe effect that some 
U.S. officials suspect that the Russians 
and Iraqis may nave cooked up the 
whole Iraq crisis in order to help Bagh- 
dad escape from UN sanctions. 

Thai is aserious charge. We have not 
heard dial kind of conspiracy talk since 
Nikita Khrushchev was pounding his 
shoe at the United Nations. 

Alter meeting here with Russian of- 
ficials and analysts, I can report that 
such charges certainly reflect the pre- 
vailing mood of U.S.-Russian ties. 

The relationship has gone in the. last 
seven years from a strategic partner- 
ship to a pragmatic partnership co a 
relationship of benign neglect to a re- 
lationship heading for malign neglect 
Several factors combine to push 
Russian-Araerican relations downhill 
One is a global phenomenon. There is a 
growing backlash against America’s 
overwhelming economic and military 
superiority. America's allies and en- 

By Thomas L. Friedman 

emies are increasingly united in re- 
sentment of the United States. 

Do you know what Iran calls Amer- 
ica today? Not “the Great Satan” but 
“tbe Capital of Global Arrogance." 
Unfortunately, that is also what the 
French, the Malaysians, the Russians, 
the Chinese, the Japanese and the Ger- 
mans call Washington behind its back. 

. Saddam Hussein is tapping into this 
undercurrent of resentment against the 
United States. In the 1990 Gulf War, be 
played the Arab Robin Hood, stealing 
from the Arab rich, Kuwait, to give to 
the Arab poor. This time he is standing 
up to the American Evil Empire. 

Saddam’s foreign minister regularly 
complains that the United States be- 
haves as if it were ‘ ‘the last days of die 
Roman Empire." A Baghdad man in 
tbe street whom CNN interviewed just 
happened tb refer to America as an 
“international Dracula that sucks the 
blood of people around the world." 

This sense that America wants to 
decide everything but pay for nothing 
resonates far and wide. The Russian 
commentator Alexei Pushkov said that 

“foe attitude here now is that Russia 
should be a balancing force to correct 
situations where America gets, infant- . 
ated with its own power." 

It is nor that Fiance, Russia or 
Malaysia wants to confront America. 
They just want to irritate it — even 
though they know that they need Amer- 
ica to deal with foe world’s bad guys, 
indeed because they need America. 
Every time Boris Yeltsin meets with 
the* Chinese or Europeans be now 
warns about foe dangers of “bego- 
monism." He doesnY mention foe 
United States. He doesn’t need to. 

At foe same time, foe termites have 
been eating away at the cote U.S.- 
Russian relationship. 

Arnold Horelick, a Russia expert at 
the Carnegie Endowment, remarked 
that in America “Russia is viewed more 
and more as a problem and less and less 
as an opportunity” — a problem be- 
cause of its loose nukes) mafia crime 
and all too free market for arms buyers. 
Tbe growing attitude in Washington is 
that Russia’s elites are not entirely com- 
petent to manage their own affairs. 

From the Russian side, there is still 
resentment at foe way NATO expan- 
sion is being shoved down their throats 

— a brain-dead Giimon move cud has 

foe defensive. • . 

And there is deep concern aw® - 
America’s growing economic ao<l po^ 1 " 
ical influence in the oil-rich forrofirSo- 
viet republics on Russia’s southern non- . 
tier. There is a feeling, says foe Russian .* 
strategist Sergei Rogov, foal “Rissiais ■» 
being eased out of areas of foe globe 
where we have our vital interests.” 

President Yeltsin still believes m the 4 ' 1 
U.S.-Russian relationship still do- ■ 
livers in foe crunch. And there is now a -■ 
web of economic ties between Russia; ■ 
and America, which is the largest for-- 
eign investor in Russia. Sttii, if the -■ 
relationship does not become more ’ 
positive will become more neg- - 
ative, and as Russia recoveis its”- 
strength it will become more difficult. 

Now is precisely foe time when foe-. 1 
United States should be taking advan- 
tage of Mr. Yeltsin’s continued lead- 
ership to set a new course in tbe re- .* is not too late but it will be 1 . 
soon. Or, as Mr. Horelick put it: “Just- : 
letting tire forces of inertia run foes will 
lead ns toward mutual alienation — if • 
not something much worse." 

The New York Timet. ' * 

Iran: The Discontent in Tehran Evokes 1980s Moscow- 

T EHRAN — This is a city of interior 
lives. The narrow streets downtown 
and tbe broader avenues thar climb 
through tire foothills of the snow-capped 
Elburz Mountains are crowded by day, 
but in tire evening Iranians retreat to their 
homes, tire best sanctuary they can find 
from the suffocating restrictions of 
Iran’s Islamic code. Everything that is 
forbidden in public is possible at home. 

Once apartment doors are closed, 
women discard foe loose-fitting gar- 
ments they must wear in public, revealing 
a hidden layer of jeans and blouses. The 
guarded talk of tire workplace is replaced 
by lively political discussions and scath- 
ing ridicule of tire ruling clerics. 

In affluent neighborhoods and a sur- 
prising number of middle-income homes, 
illegal satellite dishes hidden on building 
rooft deliver television broadcasts from 
Asia, Europe and tbe United States. 

Bootlegged copies of foe latest Amer- 
ican movies are slipped into video play- 
ers. Unmarked bottles of vodka and 
homemade wine appear magically from 

By Philip Ta n Vim a n 

cabinets. For uncensored news about 
developments in trail, many Iranians 
tune into shortwave broadcasts in Farsi 
from foe Voice of America and Israel. 

Yet even home does not entirely 
shield Iranians from foe low-grade fear 
that penneates their lives. Iranians do 
not know when internal security forces 
will pounce on them. 

In that fear they have much in com- 
mon with Soviet citizens I knew in tire 
mid-1980s, before tire stranglehold of 
communism ended. The maintenance of 
a fundamentalist state, whether Com- 
munist or Islamic, requires a degree of 
terror to keep people from openly ag- 
itating for greater liberty. 

In Tehran it takes foe form of security 
forces that appear without warning on 
streets and even at homes, arresting Ir- 
anians for violations of foe Islamic legal 
code, like playing Western music, hold- 
ing mixed-gender parties and, in the case 

of women, failing to wear sufficiently 
conservative clothing. 

Often tire security forces can be 
bribed to let people go, but not always. 
The punishment for those who cannot 
buy their release is a perfunctory trial 
and then as many as 80 lashes admin- 
istered by a guard who wields a whip in 
one hand while holding a copy of the 
Koran under his other arm. 

The forces are part of the large se- 
curity apparatus controlled by tbe con- 
servative clerics who run Iran. Their 
harassment has picked up in recent 
months, apparently in response to foe 
unexpected election as president in May 
of Mohammed Khatami, a relatively 
moderate cleric. His victory reflected 
mounting public frustration with the ri- 
gidities of foe Islamic state. 

Although the topography and light 
in Tehran are Middle Eastern, and the 
culture is imbued with Persian history, 
I could not help thinking of Moscow a 
decade ago as I made my way about the 
city during a five-day stay. It was partly 

ftrejspirrted gatherings ^of famfty 

the intense evenings I spent in Moscow 
with Russians who talked of liberty and 
democracy around their kitchen tables! . 

Americans in Moscow sometimes el- 
vied foe intensify of friendships amtfti' 
Russians, who found a warmth among.- 
family and friends that defied the con: 
political culture of tire Soviet state:- 1 
sensed tire same closeness in Tehran.* • 

The conservative clerics have all 'but 
obliterated modem Ir anian literature ami 
tire arts. Music, theater, film and tire fate 
arts have been deformed by censorship; 
with the most creative people forced tfo 
do their artistic work outside Iran. ■* ** ' 
After work, as the traffic thins and the" 
sidewalks clear, tire real life of Tehrafc’ 
begins. It does not take place in theater! 
restaurants or public places. They an£a»' 
sterile as - tire fcianwv state, and fife 

n ie have as little use for them as thdyi 
or the unyielding Islamic funda-' 0 
mentalists who rule Iran. • 

The New York Times. ! > 


Iraq: Compliance on Arms, Then an End to Sanctions 

P ARIS — To will the end is 
to will the means. To will an 
end and pretend that there is no 
problem of means is self-de- 
lusion. This has been Washing- 
ton's problem with Iraq. 

Washington’s goal is to as- 
sure an end to Iraq’s attempts to 
produce weapons of mass de- 
struction. It might also like 
President Saddam Hussein de- 
posed or dead, although it isn't 
sure. That uncertainty under- 
mined victory in foe Gulf War. 

Who would succeed Saddam 
Hussein? Might not those who 
took his place be as bad or 
worse? Would his removal not 
require occupation of the coun- 
try? What would American 
public opinion and foe Con- 
gress make of that? One doesn’t 
need to ask. 

Would Iraq break up if this 
regime falls? Would a Kurdish 
state emerge, making territorial 
claims on Turkey and Iran? 
Would tbe Shiite communities 
of southeastern Iraq come under 
Iranian control? 

President George Bush and 
his cabinet preferred the devil 
known to devils unknown. 
They left Saddam Hussein in 
power, and left tire Iraq problem 
to Bill Clinton. 

Mr. Clinton is now confron- 
ted with the result of Rnssia’s 
diplomatic intervention in the 
latest Iraq crisis. 

Until now, UN arms inspec- 
tion has been accompanied by 
sanctions on the Iraqi economy, 
with a promise that if tbe in- 
spections eventually satisfy the 
Security Council the sanctions 
will end. What Saddam Hussein 
wants is to get the seemingly 
interminable sanctions lifted. 

This is the deal that Rnssia’s 
Yevgeni Primakov has been 
working on. Sanctions were not 

Pressures on Saddam 

S ADDAM Hussein is in little 
danger of i m mediate over- 
throw, but be faces an increas- 
ingly discontented population, 
slowly ground down by sanc- 
tions and isolation. Although 
anger is undoubtedly focused 
on foe United States, most 
Iraqis unreservedly blame him 
for their predicament 
The long stalemate and Sad- 
dam’s inability to relieve tbe 
situation daily reveal him as an 
ineffective leader. Family feuds 
and increased reliance on kin- 
ship groups in key security po- 
sitions are eroding his B&’ath 
party's cohesion and support. 

Sanctions are taking a toll on 
military readiness and morale 
that cannot foil to cause concern 
among die leaders of his main 
support base. 

The educated middle class, 
or what is left of it, sees the state 
crumbling. All of these intan- 
gibles are building pressures 
that he must address or deflect 
— Phebe Marr, commenting 
in The Washington Post. 

By William Pfafif 

mentioned in the statements 
made early on Thursday morn- 
ing after the Geneva meeting of 
Mr. Primakov with Madeleine 
Albright and the French and 
British foreign ministers, but 
the deal has to be that full com- 
pliance with UN resolutions on 
arms will end tbe sanctions. 
Otherwise Iraq would not have 
agreed to readmit all the arms 

The devil is in the details, 
obviously. Washington now de- 
mands that sites be opened to 
inspection which until now 
have been reserved by Iraq as 
vital to its national security. 
Sanctions will continue, Wash- 
ington says, but what the Se- 
curity Council will say remains 
to be seen. 

Should tire United States ac- 
cept Russia’s mediation? What 
is it otherwise to do? 

The absolutely sure way to 
guarantee that Iraq has no 
weapons of mass destruction is 
to invade and occupy iL This not 
only is unacceptable to Con- 
gress and American opinion, but 
in practical terms is impossible. 
Iraq's neighbors Kuwait, Saudi 
Arabia, Syria and Jordan will 
none of them allow foe United 
States to stage an invasion from 
their territory. Iraq's seacoast is 
minuscule, and distant from 
Baghdad. The United States 
simply cannot get at Iraq. 

It can bombard the country. 
Because this is actually the only 
thing it can do, Washington 
talks of little else, pretending 

that it would be an effective 
thing to do — which is untrue. 

Iraq's mass - destruction 
weapons and the m«ms fox 
making them cannot all be de- 
stroyed from the air, even if the 
intelligence existed to locate 
them all. They can only be found 
and destroyed on the ground. 

Champions of bombing usu- 
ally claim that intense and pro- 
longed “punishment" of Iraq 
and its infrastructure, at further 
expense to Iraq’s people, would 
force the Iraqi dictator to do 
what Washington wants. 

The idea here is “compei- 
lence,” a theofy about war 
which foe strategic studies think 
tanks used to discuss during the 
darker days of the Cold War. 
How many nuclear explosions 
would “compel" foe enemy to 
do what the United States 

Persistent Inspection Can Work 

M onterey, California— 
The confrontation be- 
tween the United Nations and 
Iraq has eased, but foe crisis 
over elimination of Iraq’s bio- 
logical. chemical and nuclear 
weapons is far from over. Bagh- 
dad, for instance, has had almost 
four weeks to hide evidence that 
it produced such aims. 

But even without deliberate 
Iraqi deception, the task is 
daunting for the inspectors, 
who returned to Iraq on Sat- 
urday. I know, because I have 
been there. 

In February 1995, I partic- 
ipated in a biological weapons 
inspection team organized by 
the UN Special Commission. 
Other inspectors and I inves- 
tigated a large plant SO kilo- 
meters outside of Baghdad 
called A1 Hakam, which Iraq 
claimed was producing animat 
feed and bacterial pesticide. 

The Special Commission 
doubted this story because the 
factory was in a remote desert 
location, with dummy bankers, 
barbed wire and guard towers. 
Moreover, foe Iraqi government 
agency foal ran this factory also 
controlled a known biological 
weapons research center. 

Sounds suspicious, but it is 
not easy to detect whether bio- 
logical warfare agents such as 
anthrax bacteria and botulinum 
toxin are being produced. A 
plant thai produces bio- weapons 
can easily be disguised as a fac- 
tory for vaccines, antibiotics, 
vitamins, even beer or yogurt 
The job of my inspection 
team was to find out whether 
Iraq could manufacture the 
equipment it needed to make 
biological weapons. 

At A1 Hakam, we investigat- 
ed buil dings that contained 
stainless steel tanks of various 
shapes and sizes linked together 
by metal pipes, valves and 
pumps. The equipment could' 

By Jonat h an B. Tucker 

have been used to produce bio- 
weapons, but some members of 
foe inspection team doubted 
that this could be so. None of 
foe buildings had safety equip- 
ment, like high-efficiency air 
filters, which a factory produ- 
cing bio-weapons would seem- 
ingly require. 

Other inspectors argued that 
since the Iraqis normally took 
few precautions to protect 
workers or the environment, 
even buildings without safety 
features could have been used 
for illicit production. Given foe 
lack of solid evidence, it was 
hard to make a strong case on 
either side. 

In a separate inspection, a 
team took samples at A1 Hakam 
and found certain irregularities 
that cast doubt on foe Iraqi story. 
These inspectors thought that the 
equipment was not being used to 
produce pesticides but instead to 
train personnel to manufacture 
anthrax. But they could find no 
conclusive evidence. 

Such frustrations ate not un- 
usual Inspections rarely turn np 
“smoking gun" evidence of a 
violation. Instead the inspec- 
tions feed suspicions, which 
must be followed op by other 
means, such as questioning Iraqi 
officials or tracking imports of 
materials and equipment. 

Foe example, UN investiga- 
tors determined that Iraq had 
imported, but could not account 
for, 17 tons of medium needed 
to grow bacteria. 

It was not until the summer of. 
1995 that suspicions about foe 
AJ Hakam factory were con- 
firmed. In July of that year 
foe Iraqi authorities admitted 
producing deadly anthr ax spores 
and botulinum toxin at A1 
Hakam in late 1990. but 
they denied that the agents had 

been put in bombs or wafoeads. 

A month later. Hussein 
Kamel, son-in-law of Saddam 
Hussein and the purported mas- 
termind behind foe biological 
weapons program, defected. 
Only then did Baghdad release 
documents proving that before 
the Gulf War Iraq had biological 
weapons ready for use. 

Based on this and other ev- 
idence, in June 1996 the UN 
Special Commission razed tbe 
entire Ai Hakam complex. 

The writer directs the Chem- 
ical and Biological Weapons 
Nonproliferation Project at the 
Monterey Institute of Inter- 
ational Studies. He contributed 
this to The New York Times. 

wanted it to do? The empirical 
evidence about the results -of 
conventional -bombing is 'all 
negative. ' •’ ' V 

Bombing did 'hot change 
Winston Churchill’s mind>i' 
Britain’s policy in 1940. It diff 
not change Hi tier’s mind. It did 
not change the mind or cam- 
paigns of Ho Chi Minh in W- 
etnam. Israel has for decades 
been bombing targets in Leb-_ 
anon, and no Islamist leader has 
said "Stop, we give up." .“! 1 

Radovan Karadzic stopped 
fighting in Bosnia not because 
he was bombed by NATO ‘in" 
1995 but because, having been 
bombed, he was opened to iti-' jg 
vasion and destruction by ■ fe- y 
armed Croatian and Bosnian' 
Muslim forces. 

As is usual in American af- . 
fairs, President Bill Clintoftr- 
Congress and a part of foe press - 
have made an enormous invest-^ 
meat of personal and nationflU 
ego in maximum demands on’ ; - 
Iraq — including a demand for' 1 
Saddam’s overthrow in oite- 
presidential misspeak, sub-" 
sequently un-misspoken when 1 - 
it was pointed out to Mr. Clin-- 
ton that the Security Council ' 
was not on board for that. ■ ■ 

The diabolizatioQ of Saddam j( 
Hussein, the exaggeration of his 
menace, excoriation of Amer - 
ican allies for not taking Wash- : 
ingron’s view of the affair — all 
(his has now created a problem- - 
that Washington seems noner 
understand. . 

It does not have the means to- 
get what it wants. It has to tailor^ 
its policy to tbe means avails, 
able. Otherwise it will be pef-il 
manently frustrated, and . in-cr 
creasingly ignored. . . 

International Herald Tribune. V.- *; 

Lot Angeles Timet Syndicate, f i 


1897: Women Lawyers 

PARIS — Excitement on the 
question as to women banisters 
in Fiance — “tobeornottobe” 
— ran high at die Palais de 
Justice, when MUe. Chauvin, a 
young lady who has passed all 
foe examinations, demanded to 
be allowed to take the oath, just 
like any ofoer barrister. Tbe Pro- 
curator -General did not meet 
the application with a direct 
negative. His conclusion ap- 
pears to be dial if women are to 
be admitted to the bar it should 
be by an act of the Legislature. 

1922: Caliph Invested 

dul Medjid was invested with 
foe mantle of foe Prophet as 
Caliph of Islam this morning 
{Nov. 25] atTopkapu Seraglio, 
Stambul, amid scenes of patri- 
otic and religious enthusiasm 
not witnessed in Constantinople 
for centuries. An enormous 

multitude of people, among- 
whom woe thousands of urn- 
veiled women, lined foe streets ' 

The great significance of £ 
day’s festivities, which passed' ■ 
without foe slightest incident," 
lies in the evident real sati£* 
faction with which foe Turkish-" 
people has accepted foe se&‘ 
aration of Church and State. ■ " 

1947: Germany’s Fate^ 

FRANKFURT' — On foe eve’ <Jf~- 
foe crucial Foreign Mmisters”'- 1 
Conference in London to decide' 
Germany’s fate, foe local Coirt-T’ 
munist Party headquarters has- 
issued a manifesto calling on all r 
to combat "foe powers of darit-’* 

ness and reaction” which seek** 

to prevent foe formation of W' 

i^ridemocratic G«man^ 

public This is the opening gun** 
of a nsmg campaign" by fob- - 

Communists to discredit Amer- » 

Russian and Western halves^/ 





Weighing the Human Costs 
Cf Punitive Foreign Policy 

Soirone called up to 
invite mtilo interview the 

By Stephen S. 


it o the White House. 
'hufocitjA'as supposed to be 
* n their fet as much as their 
i ause, Krdish rights. I said 
io thaxfe and offered the 
1 iev I |ye honed over time 
i > copejwh like appeals: The 

g fesf is ft heavy distraction 
$tHji the ause. 

t b caller pressed, I 
tfe explained that I 
uapproacb issues on 
rs and not to expose 
h emotional black- 
ijiail and the resulting per- 
sonal disomfort; I resented 
lieing faced to confront di- 
rectly a rafter better held at 
firm’s itlgih. I also con- 
sidered hoi someone who 
fpsts fort cause projects not 
only covnitment but a lack 
<}f ftiil cnfidence in the mer- 
its of hi cose. 

] Of curse, the issue is not 
^simp, the broader issue of 

It Hate in 
history io make 
igficy more 
mtive to the 
$man factor . 

iMtuing the human compon- 
I-aof a political decision or 

I We in the news business get 
i coming and going. We are 
iborted~to remove the human 
>!Rponen( from our consid- 
gjjpn of events in order to be 
gjtfded as “objective” and 
so. “tough” (the ultimate 
Washington accolade) and to 
egape being dismissed as a 
biding heart. 

gut we also are exhorted to 
vtj&h the human costs of 
p^lical decisions in order to 
Kep faith with American so- 
y 0 ctv ’s deepest values and our 
. on consciences and. where 
it matters, to sway public 
cinion to our side. 

In the spectrum of opinion 
c this central issue of our 
plitipal culture, fosters turn 
ct to be an easy case. They 
s inflicting a punishment 
upfi themselves: the choice 

reserve our deeper sympathy 
for people whose pain is in- 
voluntarily suffered. 

That is why I am prepared 
to watch the images of mass 
wretchedness that CNN has 
made its signature story. Often 
the people shown have been 
forced to "‘fast" — forced to 
go without food, shelter and 
minimal conveniences for eth- 
nic or political cause. 

Bearing witness to their 
tragedy on the screen ought to 
be thought of as a minimal 
obligation of international 
citizenship. The very (east we 
can do for global unfortunates 
is to watch them on televi- 
sion. A response, helpful if 
partial, often follows. 

The rule on fosters applies 
also to civilians who position 
themselves at military targets 
as “human shields” in order 
to give would-be attack- 
ers pause, as reportedly 
happened last week in Sad- 
dam Hussein’s Iraq. 

In explicitly making them- 
selves a part of an aggressor 
state’s military defenses, 
these Iraqis were corrupting 
the ancient and honorable tra- 
dition holding that there musr 
be restrictions in battle on the 
extent of harm that can be 
done to civilians. For would- 
be attackers, the question is 
no longer whether they would 
be doing something wrong — 
they would not. It is merely 
whether they would be doing 
something prudent — that de- 
pends on circumstances. 

In fact, the calculation of 
the circumstances of civilian 
distress bears on decisions the 
United States and its Gulf 
War coalition partners have 
been confronting in Iraq. The 
current moment is an embar- 
rassing rime to raise the topic. 
But there is no avoiding it 
In dealing with the mur- 
derous Saddam Hussein in the 
Gulf War. Americans care- 
lessly squandered some part 
of their own moral capital. 

Defeating an aggressor 
was the United States’ main 
achievement — incontestably 
a moral contribution and one 
that requires no apology. But 
tire deliberate targeting of 

(Aggravate .jqi^qnal injury Iraq’s civilian public health 
iMbeis own,- They, - .plant .du.Ued, that moral edge. 

relent .j 

lay be admired for their con- . 
•jttion, but they do not need 
•life pitied — patronized, ac- 
aiiy — for their suffering, 
•gtfer for the rest of us to 

First and foremost, Sad- 
dam Hussein was responsible 
for his people's suffering. But 
the pain was aggravated by 
the bombing campaign and 


Financial Crisis 

Jfygunling "Crisis Tests 
A spin Values" ( Nov. /5): 

;So the Western democra- 
/ % ics, see tiie East's current fi- 
jVahcial woes as a test of 
democratic vs. authoritarian 
regimes? Horsefea titers. 

-The cause is the shonky 
deal, or rather the raft of 
shonky deals, which can suc- 
I ceed only in a bull market. 
The shonky deal can be 
defined as taking great risks 
wjth other people's money 
without their knowing. Any 
system can withstand abuse 
and always has to. But when 
the., web of unenlightened 
sqlf- interest takes too much, it 
needs only one glitch and ... 
P -When the controls break 
^tiown and regulation becomes 
ineffective and too many 
people in ihe ruling classes 
haye too much to lose, the 
result is inevitable. As the 
months roll by and the dom- 
ino effect hits South Korea 
and. Japan, we will come to 
know hou much the financial 
anti commercial communities 
in the West have participated 
in-.-tiiis witches’ brew, and 
how exposed the Western 
economies really arc. 


Lower Lyd brook, 

_ . England. 

Liberal democracy (which 
presupposes at least an inde- 
pendent congress, a free 
press, fair laws and a strong 
judiciary) can best provide 
such safeguards. 


Charlottes ville, Virginia. 

Slovenia and the EU 

Regarding “Slovenia Pur- 
suing Its European Future ” 
(Oct. 30) 

The article quotes Slove- 
nia's prime minister, Janez 
Dmovsek. who says he hopes 
that his country will not, hav- 
ing concluded its own EU 
entry negotiations, have “to 
wait another two or three 
years for the others to com- 
plete theirs" before achiev- 
ing Union membership. 

The prime minister need 
not worry. Hans van den 
Brock, the commissioner re- 
sponsible for EU eastward 
enlargement, told the Euro- 
pean Parliament on July 16 
that “there is no necessary 
link between the number of 
countries with which the .Un- 
ion begins negotiations and 
the number of countries that 
eventually join the Union in a 
first group.” 

“Each negotiation is sep- 
arate and pursues its own 
course at the rhythm which is 
determined by die complexity 
of the issues to be resolved.” 
he added. 

Slovenia will join the Un- 
ion as soon as it has con- 
cluded its own entry nego- 
tiations. It will not have to 
wait for other candidates. 




f^suf Wonadi of the Center 
lor Strategic and Internation- 
al Studio in Indonesia mis- 
titKcnly viuies that the key to 
, ccpnomiL recovery in Soiith- 
c a { { ti Asia »' not whether a 
country ha* a liberal or an 
auworit.irian political sys- 
tetjl. What is important, he 
is “whether the gov- 
couqent «s good.” 

While everyone agrees that 
good government is desirable, 
diUprcnccs arise on how to 
achieve st. Governments arc 
composed of people. Expert- vy. Save 9 
ence shows lhai in order to be uu • 3 ‘v s * 
gopd, people must abide by 
rules, be subject to occasional 
checkups, be accountable and 
at||.imes even be sanctioned. 

Why should the goodness of 
government be brought forth 

.-TJo curb state corruption, 
monopolies, privileges and 

mlspranagemenL govern- 
ments (including those in 
Southeast Asia) must also be 
subject to strict laws, account- 
ability and public scrutiny. 

The writer is chairman of 
the enlargement commission 
of the European League for 
Economic Cooperation. 

Regarding “In Vietnam, 
Where English Is King. 
France Declares a Revolu- 
tion" (Nov. 14): 

I was surprised by statistics 
in the article. Recently I was 
in northern Vietnam. Liter- 
ally every Vietnamese I met 
was more comfortable in 
French than in English. This 
was true in Hanoi but par- 
ticularly in mral areas. 



by a sanctions program that 
impeded restoration of die 
damaged civilian facilities. 

Some of the Americans 
taking part in the Iraq debate 
last week faulted members of 
the Gulf War coalition for 
supposedly being ready now 
to sell the sanctions too 
cheap. But the Europeans and 
Arabs may know better than 
we Americans the particular 
shape of the misery the Iraqi 
people have endured. 

That accounts for much of 

3 publics that ir the 
requirement for arms inspec- 
tions is met, the nearly seven- 
year sanctions regime should 
be allowed to fade away. 

In wartime, terrible things 
happen and are not much 
questioned when they do hap- 
pen. For instance, distinctions 
between military and civilian 
targets made carefully in 
peace tend to evaporate in war. 
it is late in the century, late in 
history, to make policy more 
attentive to the human factor. 
But perhaps not too late. 

The Washington Post. 

To Heal U.S. Racial Divide, Start With Children 

By William Raspberry , We rake race as a proxy for an race and caste. We want our children 

incredible array of behaviors, be- to grow up in a saner, safer, fairer 

W ASHINGTON — America, 
President Bill Clinton told a 
group of ministers here in Wash- 
ington the other day, is fast ap- 
proaching the time at which there 
will be no "majority" race — just an 
incredible array of ‘ ‘minorities. ’ * 
“We know what we’re going to 
look like,” be said at a prayer break- 
fast with 130 clerics. “The demo- 
graphers can tell us that. But they 
can’t tell us what we’re going to be 
like. ... We’d best be ready." 

President Clinton’s call was for 
the ministers to help America over- 
come its racial divisions. 

I assume there was not one of the 
130 who wouldn’t like to help. I also 
assume that few among them have 
much of an idea of how to go about it: 
Pulpit exchanges? Cross-visits be- 
tween white and black congrega- 
tions? Deliberate recruitment of 
members not of the congregation’s 
majority? Conversations of the sort 
President Clinton's race commission 
has launched? 

The reason the question is so bard 
is that we Americans harbor such a 
variety of beliefs about our divi- 
sions. We believe — at least many of 
us do — that race is an illegitimate 
classification to begin with, that 

there is no scientific way of defining world than the one w ere about to 

race. But we also believe that the 
preceding sentence is a species of 
sophistry — ■ that of course we know 
what race means, even if we can’t 
write down an impregnable defm- 


ition. We know that Colin Powell, 
Whoopi Goldberg, Michael Jackson 
and Clarence Thomas have 
something in common, although we’d 
be hard-pressed to nail it down. 

We believe that race matters and 
dial it does not — or at any rate ought 
not — matter. We want to be proud of 
our racial heritage (whatever that is) 
but not of all our r acial heritage. We 
want to be judged for our character 
even while we judge others by their 
skin. We want to be rid of race as a 
useless concept and yet we cling to it 
as though it mattered profoundly. 

What really hangs us up, though, 
is our desire to be both decent 
enough to judge one another as 
individuals and smart enough to 
learn from experience how certain 
people behave. 

Jmow it’s wrong to let skin color be 
the basis for our judgments, and yet 
our experience seems to teach us that 
it makes sense hi do so. 

The thing cuts all sorts of ways, 
but with special devastation to 
/yncrica’s black and brown minor- 
ities. Afric^- Americans may have 
certain prejudices about how white 
people think and behave, but be- 
cause white people have the power 
tO grant 0T withhold -oppor tuni ty 

their prejudices with regard to 
African-Americans are the more 
powerful. Hispanics may have their 
private experience-based stereo- 
types about gringos, but it is the 
gringos’ prejudice that is likely to 
make the difference. 

What, given our dearly held in- 
ternal contradictions, can President 
Clinton's ministers be expected to 
do about out racial divisions? 

I’m not optimistic when it comes 
to adult Americans, for whom it’s a 
lot harder to cast off prejudices than 
it is to change the language with 
which they are disguised. But it does 
seem to me that there is something 
we want, right across divisions of 

hand them. 

If I’m right about that, we might 
be able to persuade ourselves that 
it's in everybody's best interest to 
make sure that all the children have 
a good chance at a decent envir- 
onment, a decent education — and 
a decent life. 

And if we could bring ourselves to 
do that, it might also help to alleviate 
many of the negative things for 
which race is our proxy — including 
fear. Maybe it’s too Late for the old 
folk to lose their fear of white bosses, 
black teenagers, “different” neigh- 
bors. But wouldn’t we like our chil- 
dren and grandchildren to inhabit a 
world in which color no longer 
mattered very much? 

Suppose we could reduce our in- 
termingled and contradictory beliefs 
to tills one: Unless we do right by the 
kids, we're all doomed 

Knowing what we'll look like iu 
the near future isn’t much help. We 
need to get busy working on what we 
will be like. The children aren’t a bad 
place to start. 

The Washington Past. 

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Italy’s All-Too- Open Door to Europe 

Cargoes of Illegal Immig rants Are Usually Bound Elsewhere 

By Celestine Bohien 

Afar York Tunes Service 

. REGGIO CALABRIA, Italy — All’s 
journey began more than four mo nths 
ago when he and three friends set off 
from Iran's capital, Tehran, for the 
mountains that lie between Iran and 

Traveling by night, on foot and by 
donkey, they’sneaked across the border 
and made their way to Istanbul, where 
Urey waited three months before book- 
ing passage, at $3,000 a head, on a ship 
bound for the Italian coast. 

Goran, a 30-year-old elementary 
school teacher, left the city of Zakho in 
the Kurdish region in northern Iraq a 
month ago. For the first part of his 
journey, a trek aver the mountainous 
border into Turkey, he paid local smug- 
glers $1,000. 

He spent 21 days in Istanbul, hanging 
around Aksaray Street, a well-known 
address on a well-traveled smuggling 
route, until one day, a “sender” stopped 
by his boarding house, looking for pas- 
sengers willing to buy a place on the 
next ship out. 

Last Wednesday, a red ship with no 
name and no flag — described by its 
occupants as a filthy floating antique — 
pulled up along die coast north of here, 
on the toe of the Italian boot, and un- 
loaded 347 illegal immigrants, includ- 
ing AJi and Goran. 

Most of the passengers were Kurds 
from Turkey or Iraq, but there were also 
Bangladeshis, Pakistanis, Algerians and 
five African women who said they were 
from Rwanda. 

This was the latest boatload of im- 
migrants in recent months to dock on 
Italy's southern coast. On Nov. 2. an- 
other ship, also from Istanbul, arrived in 
the Apulia region with a human cargo of 
796. And reports of small boats carrying 
Albanians across the narrow Adriatic 
Sea continue; on Friday, a dinghy with 
27 people aboard capsized in heavy 
seas, drowning five. 

The surge in boat people comes as 
Italy is struggling to meet its new ob- 
ligations under the Schengen accord, an 
agreement among European countries 
that allows for the abolishing of pass- 
port checks at members' borders. 

Italy, whose late entry into the group 
was certified only last month, has long 
been considered a prime entry point for 
illegal immigrants into Europe. One 
reason is its long and exposed coast; 
another is its immigration laws, which 
in the view of Italy ’s Schengen partners, 
allow unhindered passage northward to 
those who succeed - in making it into 

Under Italian law, most illegal im- 
migrants receive expulsion papers that 

same request farther north. Of the 796 
people — most of them Iraqi Kurds — 
who landed on die- Apulia coast two 
weeks ago, fewer than 20 chose to apply 
for asylum in Italy. The rest were re- 
leased with expulsion papers. 

This has led to sharp protests from 
Italy’s Schengen partners, notably Ger- 
many, which in the first nine months of 
this year processed asylum requests 
from 13.214 Turks and 10,583 Iraqis, 
many of them Kurds. 

Recent reports of increased expiil- 

from Germans 

ly prompted many 
ed. on Wednesday 


‘Italy is only respecting 
the Geneva Convention 
that says you can’t send 
people hack to where 
they may be in danger. 9 

give them IS days to leave the country. 
The others — who include most new 
arrivals from nearby Albania and from 
many North African countries — are 
stopped at the borders and sent back to 
their countries of origin. 

In the first three months of this year. 
25,000 illegal immigrants were ordered 
expelled from Italy, while 19,463 more 
were turned back at the frontier. 

For immigrants from distant points 
such as Turkey, Iraq. Iran or Southeast 
Asia, die expulsion order provides them 
with 15 days of legal residence in Italy 
— the equivalent of a transit visa to 
more northern Europe, which for many 
is their destination of choice. 

This is particularly the case for the 
recent wave of Turkish and also Iraqi 
Kurds headed for Germany to join long- 
established communities of guest work- 

“France and Germany are very angry 
with Italy for being a sieve,'* said 
Grazia Di Donato of die Italian Com- 
mission for Refugees, a private group 
that assists immigrants. “But Italy is 
only respecting the Geneva Convention 
that says you can’t send people back to 
places where their lives may be in 

Yet until recently, even those eligible 
for political asylum have turned down 
Italy’s offer to consider their applica- 
tions, opting instead for the expulsion 
papers that give them time to make the 


from the boat that landed on 
to consider applying for political 
asylum in Italy. 

That still leaves Italy struggling to 
keep up with its new responsibilities, 
after it feeds, clothes and processes new 
arrivals. A Dew law, stul pending in 
Parliament, would provide for those 
who have been given expulsion orders 
to be detained until their departure, or to 
be escorted to the point of exit 

But the coastal towns and cities that 
have borne the brunt of the immigration 
lack the facilities and personnel to deal 
with large groups of foreigners. In Reg- 
gio Calabna, it took local officials two 
days to rind translators who could speak 
with the latest wave of boat people and 
explain their options to them. 

By Friday noon, Ali and his three 
friends were looking for a shower and a 
decent meal before heading first for 
Rome, then Spain and South America, 
and on to the United States, their ul- 
timate goal. After their trek out of Iran, 
none of the coming border crossings 
have them particularly worried. All, a 
36-year-old petroleum engineer, said he 
and his friends briefly considered re- 
maining in Italy and seeking political 

“It is a difficult question,” said Ali, 
who like other illegal immigrants de- 
clined to give his full name, out if we 
got refugee status here, it might make 
problems for our families at home. Bet- 
ter to go in silence.” 

Goran and Nazir, a 29-year-old Kurd 
from northern Iraq, were mailing over 
their prospects for political asylum in 
Italy, although their real goals lie else- 
where — the Netherlands for Goran, 
where he has relatives, and Britain for 
Nazir, because he speaks English. 

But for Nazir, the worst is over. 

“We feel lucky because we survived 
this ship.” which he said had no bath- 
rooms, no food and only a bare floor, 
covered with sand, to sleep on. 

“If we had not brought some biscuits 
and water, we would have starved," he 
said. “We lived like animals. When we 
arrived, we had to throw our clothes 
overboard because they were so dis- 

it >.<‘i j. . in 



•fiii'jwri cvn- •.n.v' * h.'i ji*h 


A Public/Private Life 

By James H. Jones. 937 pages. $39.95. 


Reviewed by 
Winifred Gallagher 

I N the strait-laced era in which the sex 
researcher Alfred Kinsey (b. 1894) 
grew up, the male paragon was Teddy 
Roosevelt: accomplished, nigged and 
chaste up till his wedding night. Kinsey, 
a gifted young biologist and Eagle scout, 
met the first two criteria. The fifth para- 
graph of this vast book, however, states 
reports that, from childhood, he was 
“both a homosexual and a masochist.” 

Turning his private quest for under- 
standing and tolerance into a public cam- 

paign, the young man regarded by his 
culture as sick or sinful would go on to 
develop a science that invalidated such 
judgments and changed America. In this 
masterly, disturbing biography by toe his- 
torian-author of “Bad Blood,” an account 
of the tragic Tuskegee syphilis experi- 
ments, Kinsey the altruistic reformer is 
also revealed as a duplicitous ideologue 
who compromised his much- vaunted ob- 
jectivity and condoned behavior ranging 
from dubious to destructive. 

After a dismal childhood dominated 
by a harsh father and hellfire religion, 
Kinsey trained as an entomologist at 
Harvard and found his niche at the Uni- 
versity of Indiana at Bloomington. The 
young scientist’s good looks and en- 
cyclopedic erudition only somewhat 
disguised his profound unease and need 


By Robert Byrne 

I N the recent Foutys international 
Tournament in Tilburg, the Nether- 
lands, Garry Kasparov shot out of the 
opening gate with five wins and a draw. 
Bui then he encountered Peter Svidler, 
and lost. 

The early zest that was lacking at the 
end can be seen in Kasparov’s first- 
round defeat of the Dutch Grandmaster 
Loek Van Wely in Round 1. 

After 2...Ne6 in the English Opening, 
3 Nf3 and 3 g3 are commonly seen. But 
3 e3 also leads into a Sicilian Reversed 
with 8...d5 9 cd5 Nd5. 

Van Wely’s l3.Na4 was directed 
against the development of the black 
queen bishop, but it did not work. Kas- 
parov went on his merry way with 
13...Be6 14 Nc5 Bd5!, all set to answer 
15 Nb7 with 15...Nd4 16 ed ed 17 Bel 
Bg2 18 0-0*0 Bb7, winning a pawn 
and'preparing an attack with 19...c5. 

Van Wely was surely hoping for a 
partial victory with 15 b5 Nd8 16 e4, but 


V. Wdy 

1 c4 

2 Nc3 

5 M 

6 Bb2 

7 d3 

8 QcZ 

9 cd 

11 Ne2 

12 Nc3 

13 Na4 

15 bS 

16 ed 

17 Bel 

18 0 - 0-0 

19 Rhl 

20 Rel 


23 Kdl 

24 Bf3 

25 Kiel 

26 Bdl 






V. Wely 



27 Bd4 



28 fig? 



29 Nd2 



30 Be2 



31 Kdl 



32 Kc2 



33 Bf3 



34 h3 



35 Nbl 



36 Nc3 



37 Bg2 



38 hg 



39 M 



40 Kd3 



41 Ke2 



42 Be4 



43 Kd2 



44 Kel 



45 fg 



46 Kfi 



47 Kgl 



48 ab 



49 dS 



50 Bg6 



51 Nd5 



52 Resigns 

Kasparov charged with 15... Nd4!, sac- 
rificing a knight to open the white king 
position. After 16 eded. Van Wely could 
□ot well play 17 Kdl because 17...b6 
recovers the piece with a winning attack. 

50 he did what be could with 17 Be2 Bg2 
1 8 0-0-0 to get his king into safety. 

After 18...Bhl 19 Rhl Qd5! 20 Rel 
(if 20 Rdl? Re2 21 Qe2 Qc5, Black 
would be totally lost) 20..JRe5r 21 Qb3 
Qb3 22 Nb3 Rae8, it was impossible to 
play 23 Nd4 because 23...C5! 24 be be 
25 Kdl RdS wins decisive material* 
Thus, on 23 Kdl Rb5 24 Bf3f Rel 25 
Kel c6 (25...Rb3? 26 Bd5), the material 
was approximately equal. 

Rather than produce a clumsy rook 
placement with 26~-c5. Kasparov gave 
back his material advantage with 26...a5! 
27 Bd4 and, after 27...a4 28 Bg7 Kg7 29 
Nd2 Re5 30 Be2 b5, he planned to 
exploit the four isolated white pawns. 

With 42..Rh3 43 Kd2 Rh2 44 Kel 
g3, Kasparov started the decisive pen- 
etration of toe enemy formation. After 
45 fg fg. Van Wely could not play 46 
Bc6? because 46..Jlc2 47 Ne4 Kf4 48 
Bd5 g2 would queen a pawn. 

Kasparov started a second front with 
47..2J4! 48aba3.0n49d5 Kf4! 50 Bg6cd 

51 Nd5 Kg5, Van Wely gave up in view of 

52 Bbl Rb2 53 Nc3 Rbl! 54 Nbl aZ 


for controL Turning to toe “marriage 
cure," he wed Clara McMillen, a so- 
ciable, tomboyish Phi Beta Kappa; they 
developed a sex life, albeit an unusual 
one, and produced four children. 

Professionally, Kinsey's well-received 
graduate work — including an evolu- 
tionary study of gall wasps — had already 
revealed him as a taxonomic “splitter,” 
who focuses on organisms’ variations, 
rather than a “lumper” who sees sim- 
. ilarities. The tendency that fueled his 
second career spoiled his first. Compuls- 
ive and driven, writes Jones, “he could 
not stop classifying, and ultimately, his 
personality vitiated his science.” 

Kinsey discovered his true vocation in 
1938, when he designed a marriage 
course for university students. In toe 
proper Midwest of those days, toe bio- 
logist preached that people should enjoy 
sex as uninhibited mammals. Surveying 
different sexual “outlets” and orient- 
ations, the splitter didn’t see norms, but 
variations — not good or bad, healthy or 
sick, but only common or uncommon. 
Starting with students seeking counsel. 
Kinsey began collecting sex histories 
instead of bogs. With support from the 
Rockefeller Foundation, he started the 
Institute for Sex Research at UI and 
became, in Jones's words, a “secular 
priest,” who advised, explained, ab- 
solved and, increasingly, crusaded. 

In 1948, “Sexual Behavior in the Hu- 
man Male" — the best-selling “Kinsey 
Report" — portrayed a private America 
very different from its public facade. 
After all the adultery, homosexuality and 
other “outlets” were tabulated (includ- 
ing farm boys’ attraction to animals), 
Kinsey reported that 95 percent of men 
had done something conventionally 
thought “wrong” or “abnormal,” 
which raised questions about such stan- 
dards. In toe chillier “Sexual Behavior 
in the Human Female,” published in 
1953, Kinsey, who was uncomfortable 
around women, gamely challenged pre- 
marital chastity and toe mythical “va- 
ginal orgasm.” This reader smiled at 
Jones’s droll observation that to Kinsey, 
“from a sexual standpoint, men and 
women were badly mismatched." 
Despite his popular success, some in- 

tellectuals as well as clergy eoq 
reservations about Kinsey ? s work. Mar- 
garet Mead observed that toe male book 
“suggests no way of choosing between a 
woman and a sheep.” More critically, 
scientific peers picked up serious meth- 
odological flaws. 

His status slipping, and beset by poor 
health and inner demons. Kinsey died in 
1956 at die age of 62. missing toe sexual 
revolution be helped foment. In illu- 
minating a dark figure who, despite ter- 
rible lapses, did considerable good, 
Jones painstakingly chronicles the ori- 
gins of Kinsey’s lamented psyche and 
stresses his positive qualities and con- 
tributions, especially his battle against 
sexual ignorance and prejudice. 

a 5 cd a F 8 T 


Position after 47 Hgl 

Winifred Gallagher, whose most re- 
cenr book is "Just the Way You Are: How 
Heredity and Experience Create the In- 
dividual.'’ wrote this for The Washing- 
ton Post. 


Trial of Islamists Begins in Paris 

PARIS — Soldiers and police stepped up patrols here 
londay, toe first day of the trial of alleged Islamic militants 
of helping to cany out bomb attacks in France in 


The 39 defendants, 16 of whom are Algerian nationals, 
are charged with giving logistical aid to those responsible 
for the bombings, which killed nine people and injured 
more than 200. 

The actual bombers never have been identified officially, 
but a number of suspects have been killed in France and 
Algeria. Two Algerians currently in French and British 
custody are under investigation for the attacks. (AP) 

E U Eases Elephant Import Ban 

BRUSSELS — The European Commission agreed Mon- 
day to relax a ban on imports of live elephants, ivory and 
other elephant products from selected Southern African 

The new rules from toe European Union's executive 
branch are in line with an international agreement on hade 
in endangered species that was signed in June in Harare, 


condition they do not try to sell them 
Under s imilar conditions, hunters will be able tcimport 
elephant trophies from Zimbabwe, Botswana and Nmibifl. , 
The hew EU regulation was broadly weJconoecby die 
World Wildlife Fund, which also applauded tiLcom- * 
mission's decision to tighten roles on toe impoijng of, Lj 

caviar and sturgeons. 

( API. 


Bank Finds No Holocaust jFWj rfsffl 

ZURICH — Switzerland’s biggest private bank, Fj$t & “ 
Cie., said Monday a sweeping independent 'audit Kacfc 
no assets left in its vaults by victims of the Holocaot 

Charles Pictet, a bank partner, said die bank > -dwn “-i 
research had found about 32,500 Swiss francs ($23.00) in 
dormant accounts dating from the World Warn era bl 
these did not represent deposits by Jewish 'refuges or. G 
others later murdered by toe Nazis. 

Mr. Pictet said auditors sent in by an independen panel. - 
set up by Swiss banks and toe World Jewish Congras had. 
nftrmed the bank’s own findin gs 


‘.‘They found nothing that we didn't find,” he «d at A. 
news conference. “This was very satisfying for. us. ^ , 

. ( Raters L 

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hechen Asserts France 
Arranged Hansom for 4 

A)tcnre Francc-Presse 
• 5 ^® “7 Chechen ki< 

r Nd $3.5 million 

lhan three months, a Chechen official 

1 -, 1 i eslim , 0 C 13 ' 5 ™»ion waS ” 

-i?"? 11 B “ laudi Tekilov rf the 
‘ S ch A n -. C< ? Im,lsslor ' f or the Libera- 
I llbn ofMissingor Detained Persons “I 
4 can guarantee that” 

‘‘Men came from Moscow 

F E S 2 nd hroughi themoney 

with them, he added “Anyway, if they 

without the monev. they 

with them, 
had cfime 

Anyway, if they 
would not have talked^to^ytad*^ 

brirf^e/^' S ' d0llarS ’ “ ‘ ““ 

i Frenchmen, three of whom 

worked for the humanitarian organi- 

were *«* on* the 
night if Nov. 17. three and a half months 
after king seized in the Caucasian re- 
H u _ bljc °f Dagestan on Aug. 2 and taken 

to neighboring Chechnya. Hie three 
workers and their friend were flown to 
Lyon from Moscow on Wednesday 
aboard a military aircraft. 

Alain Michel, president of Equi- 
Libre, which is based in Lyon, said 
Andy Chevallier, 31; Pascal Porcheron, 
42; Laurent Moles, 28, and Regis 
Greve-Viallon, 32 “were released with 
no payment of a ransom by either the 
French government or EquiLibre.” 

The four were freed in Makhachkala, 
the Dagestan capital after spending the 
evening at a colleague’s home. They 
had been kidnapped in the capital by 
men disguised as policemen. 

‘ ‘Intermediaries, apparently from 
Dagestan, took them to a house in 
Makhachkala, where they were joined 
by a representative of the Russian gov- 
ernment.” said the EquiLibre head. 

The four were freed “ thanks to the 
intervention of Russian authorities,” 
Mr. Michel said- 

-m/rr . ! ■! > » ■ J luLqri LMil Tlir \«|iriilnl l\i-w 

An election worker piling up bags of ballots Monday in a Sarajevo suburb after voting by the Bosnian Serbs. 





K I R I U M 

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Pui[|p By Cngray E p ul 

O Weir York Times/Edited by Will Shartz 

go Stowe gut 
61 Lunch order 

Europe’s Internet Puzzle 

Free Speech vs. Laws Against Spewing Hate 

By Elizabeth G. Olson 

. New York Times Sen-ire 

GENEVA — The World Wide Web 
site of a group called (he Charlemagne 
HammersJdns opens with an image of a 
man in a ski mask, carrying a gun and 
s tanding ' by a swastika. A click on a 
button below labeled, in French. “Ac- 
cess for sobhumans" yields a picture of 
what appears to be a concentration 
camp, accompanied by the words: “Be 
assured, we still have many one-way 
tickets for Auschwitz.” 

The site — one of a number created 
by groups with similar names and agen- 
das — was carried by America Online's 
service in France until this month, when 
it was closed by administrators who 
decided its content was offensive. 

“Putting a Nazi site on-line is illegal 
in France,” said Michelle Gilbert, a 
spokeswoman for AOL, because it “in- 
cites racial hatred.” The site reappeared 
on an Internet server in Canada. 

The skinhead site is hardly the only 
one vilifying ethnic groups. One site, 
based on a computer in Sweden and 
purporting to belong to a group called 
Radio Islam, is devoted to questions 
about the reality of the Holocaust and 
features caricatures of evil-looking fig- 
ures with black beards and exaggerated 
noses, wearing Stars of David. 

The hatred that drips from these and 
other such Web sites, of course, exists 
independent .ofjuiy, tecfonalogyaad .qc-, 
curs in all media. 

1 But for a group of conferees meeting 
in Geneva this month under the spon- 
sorship of the United Nations Human 
Rights Center, the question was how to 
apply European countries' legal pro- 
hibitions against hate speech to this new 

Michael Schneider, head of the Elec- 
tronic Commerce Forum in Bonn, 
which represents German Internet ser- 
vice providers, said there bad been sev- 
eral cases in which the German au- 
thorities had demanded that providers 
eliminate sites or face prosecution. But 

be argued that Internet service providers 
cannot control content, saying, “They 
are nothing more than carriers.” 

Still, Debra Guzman, director of an 
American organization, the Human 
Rights Information Network, called the 
Internet “a utopia for all kinds of hate 
groups, from neo-Nazis to anarchists” 
who are “targeting teenage males with 
this propaganda.” 

Agha Shahi of Pakistan, chairman of 
the meeting! said sites that promote rac- 
ism violated a treaty against discrim- 
ination. The 148 countries that signed 
the pact, he said, “are under obligation 
to enact measures to eliminate if.” 

The United States has signed the doc- 
ument, but has said it will not pass laws 
that infringe on free speech. 

The conference seemed at a loss as to 
how to balance what one speaker called 
“the two most powerful revolutions of 
the 20th century, those of human rights 
and information technology. ’ ’ 

The Internet “enables the instant 
marketing of bate and mayhem.” said 
Marc Knobel, a researcher in Paris who 
monitors Web sites for the Simon Wie- 
senthal Center in Los Angeles. The 
number of hate sites has nearly doubled 
to 600 in the last year, he said; he has 
catalogued 300. 

It is often impossible to determine 
who is responsible for these sites, most 
of which are based on computer servers 
in the United States, 

. . J&fediyecgSBr histories.of the United 
States, with its tradition of ; free-speech 
guarantees, dfid? of iEurqpfc, with its 
World War D legacy of genocide, were 
evident at the conference. U.S. repre- 
sentatives argued that the Internet can- 
not be regulated; others sought ways to 
ban offensive sites and punish their 

Philip Reitinger, a lawyer at the U.S. 
Justice Department, said that it is “not 
through government censorship that 
equality is well served; thar principle — 
one which accords freedom of expres- 
sion the highest respect — applies with 
equal force to the Internet.” 

Both Factions 
Claim Victory 
In Voting by 
Bosnian Serbs 


BANJA LUKA, Bosnia-Heizegovi- 
na — Two weeks before official results 
are due from the weekend Bosnian Serb 
elections, both hard-liners and relative 
moderates claimed victory Monday. 

The party of President Biljana Plavsic 
claimed it was leading in the north- 
western city of Banja Luka, with 35.84 
percent of the vote, according to a report 
bv the independent press agency Flash. 

' The hard-line Serb Democratic Party 
of Radovan Karadzic, the former Serb 
leader and war crimes suspect, has lost 
its majority in the Bosnian Serb Par- 
liament, unidentified party sources told 
the agency. 

But a senior figure in the Serb Demo- 
cratic Party. Momcilo Krajisnik, 
claimed it had taken a “clear victory ” 
in the polls across the Serb-run half of 
the country. 

Luke Zahner, a spokesman for the 
Organization for Security and Cooper- 
ation in Europe, which is overseeing the 
elections, said that absentee ballots. 12 
percent of the Total, had not been coun- 
ted and that “it is simply too early” to 
announce a winner. The OSCE will not 
publish any results from the polls until 
Dec. 10. 

The elections, held on Saturday and 
Sunday, were organized to resolve a 
power struggle between Mrs. Plavsic 
and the hard-liners. Mrs. Plavsic, her- 
self a Serb nationalist, favors imple- 
mentation of the Dayton peace treaty 
and is backed by the West. 

The United States and European gov- 
ernments pushed for the early elections 
in the hope of depriving the hard-liners 
of a majority and help clear the way for 
enforcing the peace agreement 

Western governments have injected 
reconstruction aid into Mrs. Plavsic's 
stronghold of Banja Luka, donated 
equipment to television studios under 
her control and provided campaign 
funds for her new political party. 

The international community's 
deputy high representative ro Bosnia, 
Hanns Schumacher, said the election 
was not expected to settle the power 
struggle once and for all. ”1 cannot 
foresee that this rifr may be overcome,” 
he told reporters in Sarajevo, 

“The only hope we have at this stage 
is that the result of these elections will 
provide us with a constructive coun- 
terpart on the Serb side with, whom we 
can cooperate on the basis of ihe Dayton 
agreement,” he said. 

According to the results Feported by 
Flash, Mrs. Plavsic’s Serb Popular Al- 
liance won 35.84 percent of the votes in 
Banja Luka, her home base, while the 
Serb Democratic Party took 9.66 per- 
cent. Mrs. Plavsic's party was leading in 
nearby Prijedor, with 45 percent of 
votes, while in Gradiska, in the .north, 
the party won 34 percent pf votes, the 
agency said. 

~ However, the hard-liners won in their 
strongholds like the northwestern towns 
of Derventa and Doboj.. In~Pale, the 
hard-liners' stronghold, their party won 
about 53 percent of votes ; according to 
unofficial results reported by the hard- 
line media. (AFP, Reuters. AP) 


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PAGE 10 


Harsh Words for Wei 
From China Dissidents 

By Seth Faison 

Ww York Tina service 

T BEIJING — Wei Jingsheng may still 
be celebrating his first taste of freedom 
in die United States, but back in Beijing 
he has already come under attack from 
fellow dissidents. 

On Monday, in an open letter that 
showcases the way China's advocates of 
democracy often prefer mud slinging to 
teamwork, another prominent dissident 
criticized Mr. Wei for being headstrong, 
arrogant and too soft on Deng Xiaoping, 
China's former leader. 

The dissident, Xu Wenli, wrote that in 
just a few days of freedom, Mr. Wei had 
already committed serious mistakes and 
demonstrated a lack of understanding in 
true democracy by acting like a tyrant. 
Mr. Wei, a political prisoner for 1 8 of the 
past 18 and a half years, was released 
Nov. 16. 

‘ ‘A constitutionally democratic China 
will never again accept a dictator with all 
power in his hands,*' wrote Mr. Xu in a 
letter he distributed to news organiza- 
tions. “No one is perfect or without 
weak points.” 

Mr. Xu, 54, was a prominent leader of 
the Democracy Wall movement in 1978- 
79, like Mr. Wei. He was later jailed for 
12 years for publishing an underground 
newspaper that defended Mr. Wei once 
he was arrested and tried in late 1979. 

Mr. Xu has not spoken publicly since 
1995, when he and other intellectuals 
demanded more open government, 
prompting the authorities ro bully him 
back into silence. On Monday, he broke 
that silence, and what seemed most re- 
markable was that he did so without a 
call for freedom of speech or for more 
democracy, but rather to criticize a col- 
league who just got out of jail. 

Internal bickering and name-calling 
has badly undermined China's demo- 
cratic movement overseas, and has come 
to be expected of some dissidents within 
China as well. Even so, Mr. Xu's com- 
ments seemed extraordinarily ill-timed. 

coming so soon after Mr. Wei's tri- 
umphant release and arrival in the 
United States. 

In -an interview, Mr. Xu said he 
thought it necessary to speak out because 
“not everyone knows the true nature” of 
Mr. Wei. He argued that he was trying to 
be constructive, saying he hoped that 
pointing out Mr. Wei's weaknesses 
would encourage him to change. 

“On the surface, he appears to be a 
distinguished leader," Mr. Xu said. 
“But in reality, he is not." 

Asked if Communist Party authorities 
had encouraged him to write the letter, 
Mr. Xu vehemently denied it, pointing 
out that be criticizes Mr. Wei for being 
loo soft on Mr. Deng, hardly a position 
that the authorities would endorse. 

Ren Wanding, another prominent vet- 
eran of the Democracy Wall movemenr, 
also criticized Mr. Wei recently, writing 
a political tract entitled, “Wei Jingsheng 
Does Not Deserve the Nobel Peace 
Prize: Do Not Create a False God for 

“Wei Jingsheng promoted bis unjust 
claim to leadership by inflating himself 
and his group while deflating others," 
Mr. Ren wrote. "He distorted history, 
manufactured facts, and was wildly ar- 

On Monday, Mr. Xu blamed him for 
trying to assume the mantle of ‘ ‘father of 
China’s democracy movement.” 

“Only the great democratic pioneer 
Sun Yat-sen is worthy of the title of 
founding father,” Mr Xu wrote, re- 
ferring to China's first president, who 
assumed office in 1912. 

Mr. Xu also seemed disturbed that, 
when Mr. Deng died in February, Mr. 
Wei called it an unfortunate event and 
wrote a letter of condolence to Mr. 
Deng's family. 

“You wrote off Deng's blood debt of 
June 4 in one stroke, forgiving him far 
too easily." Mr. Xu wrote, referring to 
the suppression of pro-democracy dem- 
onstrators in !989's massacre in 

APEC: Albright Urges Tough Asian Action 

Continued from Page 1 

would then help those nations “that are 
doing their best to help themselves." 

The undiplomatic reference to a 
“meltdown'* was a striking departure 
from the cautious tone of consensus that 
has typified APEC meetings. But the 
summit, which was to have focused on 
less gripping topics like tariffs on toys, 
had its usual veneer stripped away by the 
crises breaking around it. 

The night before. Mr. Mahathir, 
whose country was among the first to be 
hit by the Asian turmoil, issued a harsh 
critique not just of unrestricted currency 
trading but of the free-market approach 

The free market, he told company ex- 
ecutives, suffered from the same delu- 
sions of “infallibility” as the Commu- 
nist system had. and was equally guilty of 
bringing pain and misery to millions. 

Mr. Mahathir, whose country’s cur- 
rency, the ringgit, has lost about half its 
value since midsummer, said that with 
the move by some command economies 
toward unfettered capitalism. "We seem 
to have jumped from the frying pan into 
the Fire.” 

However, many analysts have said 
Malaysia's problems were caused partly 
by government excesses and poor fi- 
nancial management. 

But Mr. Mahathir, comparing today's 
situation to earlier days of greater con- 
trols. said: “True, there were abuses 
There was corruption. There were quite 
a lot of scams. There was still poverty. 
But the sufferings now are far greater 
than before." 

He said that markets, like govern- 
ments. are corrupted by power. Mr. Ma- 
hathir called on APEC to tightly regulate 
currency trading and restrict market ex- 
posure to foreign -exchange trade. But 
his comments appeared to fly in the face 
of the much more broadly held view here 
that markets need to be freer, not less 

That point was made by a top financial . 
leader of South Korea, who was asked 
whether the financial woes that drove his 
country Friday to seek a $20 billion loan 
from the IMF would boost protectionist 
spirits in his country. 

* ‘Hie world benefits from a freer flow 
of finances," said the official, speaking 
on background, “and if the financial 
wheels of the economy turn fast, you 
should allow the wheels to turn fast." 

In the face of the bad news. Japanese 
and Korean officials here did their best 
to portray a calm sense of determined 

Mr. Hashimoto said that Japan would 
“take every step" to support regional 

Korean officials said that their coun- 
try ’s economic fundamentals were good, 
and that IMF-imposed austerity was not 
expected to cause a sharp rise in un- 
employment or to provoke undue labor 

President Jiang Zemin of China did 
not directly address the Asian turmoil in 
a keynote speech Sunday, but said 
China's “prudent" management of its 
economy would protect it "The situ- 
ation in China is excellent," he said. 

Mr. Clinton’s own effort to project a 
reassuring tone caused some momentary 
confusion when it appeared he was min- 
imizing the situation. A top U.S. official 
was asked about the president's char- 
acterization of the Asian troubles as 
“glitches in the road.” 

He said Mr. Clinton was trying to 
make the point that “there are some 
good underlying economic fundament- 

Mr. Clinton was expected to discuss 
with Mr. Hashimoto how the two coun- 
tries, and the rest of APEC, could best 
help Korea in support of the IMF. Japan 
pledged a iotal of S9 billion to help 
Thailand and Indonesia work their way 
out of crisis, but its own brewing fi- 
nancial problems escalated sharply with 
the Yamaichi announcement. 



EXPORTS: Asian Tidal Wave Expected _ (j 

~ •:V' > 

ft .V: \ * 

? • 

- /">, i'-” 

Suidl MdhuuwtUttcn 

Prime Minister Gujral leaving Parliament on Monday after it was 
adjourned indefinitely amid a continuing fight over a coalition partner. 

Continued from Page 1 Dean Witter securities, noted that the new 

inroads by East Asian exports to pe 
met the U.S. commerce secretary, Wil- United States would occur as campaigij- 
liam Daley, on the sidelines of die an- ing began for foe mid-tenn con ^{^ SI0 ^” 
nual meeting of the Asia Pacific Eco- elections in November 1998, wttnsopie 
nomic Cooperation forum that the Democrats and Republicans see *9 r *| 
Clinton administration’s biggest con- stronger protectionist measures aga mst 
cem was a possible major increase in Asia unless countries in the region agreed, 
East Asia’s exports to the United States to open their markets nwre widely to Ug 
next year as countries try to engineer a imports and adopt other measures ,*g 
recovery led by exports. achieve more balanced trade. ‘M 

Concerns about an East Asian export “I have no doubt that in the long tdn^j 
surge were heightened recently when not only for Japan but all of tpe coontna^ 
Japan and the United States announced trying for economic recovery, accpss to 
trade figures that showed a rapid rise in foe U.S. market and exports to dw U.S^ 
America’s politically sensitive deficit are a big part of their recovery 
with East Asia. said Greg Mastel, a trade' analyst wito 

According to foe figures made public foe Economic Strategy Institute ui. 
in Tokyo, Japan's already large trade Washington. . *-t 

surplus with America rose 55 percent in Senior U.S. officials said injvan-j 
October compared with a year earlier, couver that foe financial crisis gripping j 
The Commerce Department in Wash- Asia would not prevent Washmgtonfrom , 
ington reported that the U.S. trade deficit pressing Japan for more action to n 
in September with Asia’s newly indus- the huge trade imbalance betwee foe, 
trial ized countries — including Hong world's two leading economic pow rs^T , 
Kong. South Korea, Singapore and The U.S. trade representative, 

Taiwan — more than doubled to just over lene Barshefsky, said that Washii 
$2 billion from $956 million in August would continue to urge Tokyo t 
That was the highest for any month in more to stimulate domestic demar l f(jjj 
more than five years. Analysts said that goods and rely less on exports as t 
the fact that it showed up so strongly in out of its current economic problei s.^ 
September, when the Asian financial American officials want Tokyo i > u fr* 

Indian Parliament 
Adjourns in Chaos 

NEW DELHI — The Indian Par- 
liament was adjourned indefinitely 
Monday as a crisis threatening foe 
minority coalition government result- 
ed in pandemonium in the lower house 
for the third working day in a row. 

Pumo Sangma. the speaker, sus- 
pended the House of the People be- 
cause, he said, it had been overtaken 
by “mindless mockery" since a con- 
troversy erupted last week over the 
assassination in 1991 of Rajiv Gandhi, 
then the leader of the Congress (I) 
Party and a former prime minister. 

The move increased fears that Prime 
Minister Inder Kumar Gujnd's fragile 
coalition will fall within foe next few 
days. Congress, which helps Mr. 
Gujral's 15-party coalition stay in 
power, has accused Dravida Munnetra 
Kazhugam. a regional party, of being 
linked to Mr. Gandhi's assassination 
and has demanded that the prime min- 
ister evict it from the coalition. [AFP) 

Burmese Dissident 
Will Wait and See 

RANGOON — The Burmese op- 
position leader Daw Aung San Suu 
Kyi said Monday that she was re- 
serving judgment on the nation’s re- 
vamped military government because 
time was needed to form an opinion. 

“We need to wait to see whether 
they really change their policies or 
not,” she said before a National Day 
celebration at her house. 

About 360 people, including mem- 
bers of her party, the National League 
for Democracy, diplomats and krai 
reporters, attended the ceremony at 
the dissident's lakeside home. 

National Day commemorates the 
boycott declared in 1920 by students 
at Rangoon University against the 
British, Burma's colonial masters. . 

Her statement was the first since the 

military junta announced Noy. \5 that 
several members had been dismissed 
and that the name of foe ruling council 
had been changed. 

“There will not be any difference if 
foe heart does not change." Daw 
Aung 5au Suu Kyi said. “There will 
not be any difference if the policy does 
not change.” ' f Reuters ) 

Taleban and Warlord 
Exchange Prisoners 

KABUL — The United Nations has 
brokered the first prisoner exchange 
between foe ruling Taleban army and 
an ethnic Uzbek warlord whose al- 
liance controls a northern part of Af- 

The Taleban freed five command- 
ers loyal to Abdul Rashid Dustam. In 
return, he released four Taleban sol- 
diers. The exchange was the culmin- 
ation of a week of negotiations, said 
Zamir Kabulov, a UN official who 
helped arrange the deal. 

The Taleban has imposed a strict 
form of Islamic rule in the 90 percent 
of the country under its control. 

A spokesman for Mr. Dustam said 
the two sides also agreed to work on 
future POW exchanges. (AP) 

Russian in Hanoi 

HANOI — Prime Ministers Viktor 
Chernomyrdin of Russia and Phan Van 
Khai of Vietnam signed agreements 
Monday aimed at revivingties between 
Moscow and its Soviet-era ally. 

The agreements covered trade and 
economic relations, tourism and veter- 
inary cooperation, and were signed in 
front of foreign journalists and dig- 
nitaries who were accompanying Mr. 
Chernomyrdin on the highest level 
visit from Moscow to Vietnam since 
the collapse of the Soviet Union in 

But they offered only a passing 
mention of Hanoi's debt to Moscow 
from the war years. ( Reuters) 

the fact that it showed up so strongly in 
September, when the Asian finan cial 
crisis had only just begun, was an omen 
of a much worse imbalance to come. 

The United States has a $20 billion 
annual trade deficit with Southeast Asia, 
its third largest after Japan and C hina. 

As a result, trade tensions are likely to 
rise as East Asian countries try to sell 
more goods to foe United States, while 
reducing their imports from the West. 

Tun Condon, East Asia economist in 
the Hong Kong office of Morgan Stanley 

dertake a number of politically ptmSg 
steps to boost consumer demand, 
ing widespread economic dereguk iorC*. 

The United States argues for thug 
would open Japanese markets to pom 
foreign competition, reduce price aijfii 
help stimulate purchases of both f reig^J 
and Japanese goods. 

But Tokyo worries that it woul al§f* 
cause widespread corporate disk aticwJJ 
and a major rise in unemploymen : 

KOREA: Shares Tumble to 10-Year Lo\ 

Continued from Page 1 “Everyone is 

this,” Mr. Bareli 

much more will eventually be needed, new fiscal contrc 
South Korea's economy, which grew to higher intense 
from postwar ashes a little more than 40 porate collapses. 

“Everyone is going to be affered bjg 
this,” Mr. Barclay said, noting tbt thfe* 
new fiscal controls would probabfr lead* 
to higher interest rates and mon co£* 

years ago to become foe world’s 11th 
most powerful producer, is headed for a 
long period of pain. Government of- 
ficials, who had refused to acknowledge 

South Korea's industrial congimes^J 
ates, railed chaebol, vasdy oveexteigj 
ded themselves in the last cobble o£ 
decades, when favored industrp wens* 

iiviou, *tiiv iviujw w avmivn iviagi# MS, nuvu lawiuu mimiuu p *1 

the depth of the problems until hours given nearly unlimited access w opitdW 
before they asked for the bailout, now by foe government and foe bants i coo&j 
admit that the national economy is out of trolled. Analysts now say foe/ avrage* 

control and in need of draconian re- 

Those reforms will begin with a series 
of strict new fiscal controls demanded by 
the IMF as a condition of foe bailout. The 
IMF, whose first officials arrived Sun- 
day in Seoul, is expected to ask for lower 

South Korean company has debt* th£g* 
total three times its assets, and manr are* 
in far worse shape. 1 J 

If interest rates keep rising, it wl b£» 
even, hander for those companies to rake* 
payments on their debt. South Kre4* 
already stung by a record rate of corpcale 

targets for overall economic growth, in- collapses, could see far more compares J- 

flation control, liquidation of bloated fi- 
nancial institutions and labor reforms. 

Analysts here say those measures, 
while needed, are almost certain to cause 

go under, adding to the banks’ bad cBt - 
— already estimated at $26 billion — nd 
foe unemployment rate. / 

The dollar was quoted at 1 ,080 Soth 

while needed, are almost certain to cause t oe dollar was quoted at l ,usu j»om 
tax increases and layoffs in a country Korean won here Monday — h gain if - 
where lifetime employment had been 2.9 percent against the Iocaf current 

virtually guaranteed. Unemployment, 
now- •at just over 2 percent, could 

South Korea’s strong labor unions are 
expected to fight foe moves, and massive 
strikes are likely, causing social unrest in 
a proud nation that thought it had left its 
worst economic days behind. 

In its first public comment on foe IMF 
negotiations. South Korea's second- 
biggest union, foe Korea Confederation 
of Trade Unions, threatened a 
“massive” strike in January and vowed 
to do “whatever it takes to fight against 
foreign interference in foe Korean econ- 

since Friday and nearly 28 percenr sinft 
foe beginning of the year. The weak w<5 
has also caused havoc for Consume*, 
whose paychecks do not grias for, ant; 
for corporations competing foe globai 
marketplace. i i-i 

Political concerns are also weighing 
heavily on investors. South Korea wifl 
elect a new president Dec. 18, and Pres? 
idem Kim Young Sam, .prohibited by 
law from seeking a second term, will be 
a lame duck until his successor is sworn 
in February. In foe meantime, analysts in 
Seoul say Mr. Kim has -shown little 
enthusiasm for tackling the economic 
problems. r \ 

JAPAN: Go vernment Seeks to Reassure Markets Over Closing of Yamaichi Securities 

Continued from Page 1 

discussed endlessly in the press in foe 
last couple of months, and its stock price 
collapsed. The bad news had made it 
increasingly difficult for the company to 
borrow short-term money, and when it 
became clear that its long-time ally, Fuji 
Bank, would not step in to help it, what 
little access it had to funds dried up. 

The Ministry of Finance and foe Bank 
of Japan both sought Monday to em- 
phasize that Yamaichi had gotten itself 
into an extraordinary bind and that they 
were committed to closing the company 
in an orderly fashion. 

Additionally, foe Bank of Japan 
pledged to take steps to ensure foat Ja- 
pan's financial institutions would have 

access to foe short-term money markets. 
In recent weeks, banks have been forced 
to pay higher premiums to borrow 
money after the failure of Sanyo Se- 
curities, a second-tier brokerage firm, 
and Hokkaido Takushoku Bank, one of 
Japan's top 20 banks. 

Lenders’ concerns about the impact of 
Asia's turmoil on foe world’s second- 
largest economy have increased. “The 
environment surrounding Japan's finan- 
cial system has become increasingly 
harsh due to foe recent instability in the 
slock markets and Asian currency mar- 
kets and also due to foe recent successive 
failures of financial institutions," said 
Yasuo Matsushita, foe Bank of Japan's 

The finance minister, Mr. Mitsuzuka. 

said that while Yamaichi *s failure was 
not likely to require the use of the Com- 
pensation Fund for Deposited Securities, 
which protects a securities firm's clients 
against losses, the government planned 
to strengthen the fund. 

Directors of Yamaichi, after working 
all weekend, reached their decision ro 
shut down the 1 00 -year-old firm at a 
board meeting early Monday morning. 
The Finance Ministry said foe firm would 
begin shutting operations Tuesday. 

It is the largest business failure in 
Japan since World War II and may come 
to be seen as foe start of a new era in 
Japanese business, one governed by 
market forces rather than bureaucrats. 

Moreover, the time-honored “con- 
voy” system, where companies held 

shares in ofoercompanies and all pitched 
in to paper over problems, has been 
openly challenged by Fuji Bank, which 
refused to rescue its longtime customer 
Yamaichi executives had been ordered 
by foe Finance Ministry to reach a de r 
cis ion on closing before markets opened 
in Hong Kong. Japanese financial mar- 
kets were closed Monday for a holidays 
Mr. Matsushita said Monday that foe 
Bank of Japan would provide “exer- 
tional” loans to protect investors’ assets 
and ensure foe swift liquidation of Yft* 
maichL Officials of foe bank say it is also 

prepared to enter foe currency markets^ / 
support foe value of the Japanese yea. ’ 
But foe currency showed little changed 
overseas trading Monday after the s hurt- 
down of Yamaichi was announced. 

yii tit* Ufij/O 


■ *i. 

* '(< 

u a ting the Upside and Downside of Decadence 


i, - . |?V 

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v -*^ , i. ■ * , . 

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■ j Jana Havlovicova of Slovakia holding up her dress of in colorful paper triangles, and the winning slinky. 
I black-leather dress by Declan Kearney of Northern Ireland . 

. By Suzy Menkes 

Mcmational Herald Tribune 

\ X- ONDON — Ah, 

l> dccadfcfacc! The pop- 

l r y ping 'of<*nmpagne : 

corks c& dawn. Crim- 
son drapes drawn against the 
4 daylight The mingled scent 
of incense and calla lilies; 
sex, drugs and absinthe. 

1 i“Oprom dens, opulence, 
rich fabrics — it should be 
Stupendous,” said Alexander 
McQueen to describe his 
fashion take on decadence. 

•i "it's about flamboyance, 
things that are over the top,” 
said fellow British designer 
■ Antonio Berardi. 

But the fledgling designers 
3ft taking pan in the world's 
' biggest student contest chi 
Monday took a different and 
more serious point of view 
than the designer judges. The 
Smirnoff International Fash- 
ion Awards 1997, held in 
newly cool London for the 
first time in its 1 3 year history , 
displayed die real meaning of 
decadence: a falling away, a 
transformation through the 
process of dying. Let’s just 
call h premillennial angst 
. .-U made for an exhilarating 
display of fashion nihilism, 
as students from 29 countries 

colorful rubber bands and 
called “fabulous elasticity.” 

“Decadence should not be 
negative, but positive — 
about rebirth, rejuvenation 
and*a brightl-hamjy dvtere,” 
said Pang-Feng Weng. “It’s 
die concept of recycling.’ • 
From Kenya and Slovakia, 
entrants also accentuated the 

E ’’ve: one showing a 
shape worked in Af- 
rican beading on plastic as “a 
fusion between traditional 
African fashion and Western 
dress"; the other a dress in 

laws about age and alcohol.) 

But Susan Murray, die pres- 
ident of Smirnoff, says die 
idea is sponsorship, rather 
than patronage. 

•"The fashion awards are 
about finding rhedesigners of 
tomorrow — and it is the only 
international contest that tar- 
gets young designers,” she 
says. “Goodwill through 
sponsorship is a valuable tool 
to build the brand and a great 
opportunity to talk to the 
audience. Fashion for us is an 

colorful paper triangles as “a 
symbol of freedom and mys- 
terious life.” . 

The purpose of the 
Smirnoff awards is to make a 
global sweep of fashion tal- 
ent The judges, including 
designers Jasper Conran, 
Nicole Farhi and Matthew 
Williamson, as well as Mc- 
Queen and Berardi, choose 
the winner, who receives a 
£10,000 (517,000) scholar- 
ship and a placement at Lon- 
don’s St Martin's School of 
An — the cradle of cutting- 
edge fashion. 

On Smirnoffs side, it is a 
chance to promote vodka as 
cool. (The United Stales is 
excluded from the contest be- 
cause of tiie complicated 

international language for 
young people.” 

The most significant thing 
is not whether the awards 
throw up the nexi big fashion 
thing — although the contest 
has a good track record for 
finding designers who build 
serious careers. It is rather 
that the universal language of 
young fashion has such a 
somber message. 


ergy, enthusiasm 
and optimism 
are supposed to 
be prerogatives of youth, the 
contest’s message — implicit 
or explicit : — is rather rage, 
despair or a poetic escapism. 

The latter was represented 
by body sculptures, carved 

oat of driftwood that had 
floated in from Siberia, from 
Iceland. Finland's Dona Hy- 
otylainen read a poem about 
her snowy white perspective; 
Russia's entrant called her* 
decorative fabrics a vy^y to 
give a garment ’“its own 
soul,” and John Boddy from 
the United Kingdom said that 
his raped jacket and skirt 
shredded at the hem was in- 
spired by the sea to “create 
something quite romantic — 
with an edge.” 

Poetry, drama, political 
statements — but who would 
ever wear this performance 
art — apart from the models 
at Monday’s runway show? 
In order to reduce die wacky, 
un wearable factor, students 
were asked to present a com- 
mercial development of their 
creative ideas. So Elizabeth 
Makrys of Australia reduced 
her complex thoughts about a 
• black hole of information to a 
red dress with shirring at the 
back to symbolize the link of 
spine to brain. 

The fact that a coming 
generation is thinking so 
deeply about fashion and try- 
ing to invest it with intel- 
lectual or artistic meaning 
must be a good omen for its 

Clockwise from top left: McQueen with Dcdu . Kearney’s leather helmet: Elizabeth Tin-a of Kenya with her 
beading on plastic : Conran with driftwood bodice from Iceland, and rubber-band dress by Pang Feng-Weng. 


9000 i 


-W V 

Find the best 
s- in town. 

) sent wit their challenges to 
T the haul old world: here a 

Finnish snow scape of white 
hot, wadding coar and boots, 
representing a streak of pur- 
ity in a polluted world; there 
the brownish green of dying 
leaves with the same message 
from the Israeli entrant, and 
from Ukraine, an impas- 
sioned plea for hedonism in 
the face of the Chernobyl nu- 
clear catastrophe. 

The most controversial 
entry — and one that the 
judges were shown only on 
video — was from Croatia: a 
dress with pieces of raw mea t 
dangling. Although Karmen 
Dugec. like other students, 
had won a regional contest. 
British immigration and the 
Smirnoff organizers were 
unhappy about importing a 
lotting garment (although the 
artist Damien Hirsx s dead 
cows have famously made 
museum displays)- 

r And win 
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This competition runs until December 19, 

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At the end of the competition, all of the 
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PACE 13 

Another Blow for Thailand, While South Koreans Feel Pain 

Baitle Cry on the Streets of Seoul: 
Sacrifice for the Nation’s Sake 

By Don Kirk 

Special to the Herald Tribune 

SEOUL — Along the streets of cen- 
tral Seoul, people did not have to listen 
to President him Young Sam warning 
them of * bone-aching pain’* to know 
^ that their country faces a long, hard road 
to economic recovery. 

For many South Koreans, the hard 
times are already here. 

Business is really had, people have 
stopped buying,” said Kira Ki Chul, 
minding a sidewalk newsstand 
“Nowadays, when small kids want to 
buy candy, their parents say our 
money’s not good, don’t buy,” he said 
Monday, just days after the president 
explained that the country would be 
forced to turn to the International Mon- 
etary Fund for financial help. 

Surrounded by papers and magazines 
blaring the news on his country's eco- 
nomic woes, Mr. Kirn doubted whether 
the decision to turn to the IMF for huge 
. loans would do much good “IMF loans 
will help in the short term, but our 
country is bankrupt," be said “It will 
take two to three years to recover.” 

At a nearby food stand, Lee Hynng 
Sook also doubted whether borrowing 
from the IMF would solve anything 
“We will only be in debt to other coun- 
tries," she said ‘ ‘We should tighten our 
belts and save money. The IMF controls 
us. We should be independent — even if 
we eat only two meals a day.” 

Independence seems to be the message 

the government, consumer groups and 
the media were sending out Monday. 
"Let’s save our economy by frugality," 
said a TV commercial sponsored by a 
consumer group that showed a woman 
depositing money in a bank. "Stop over- 
seas travel,” another ad implored 

The sense of desperation spread from 
shops selling cheap imitations of foreign 
brands to department stores decked out 
with Christmas regalia in hopes of luring 
shoppers through the end of the year. 

‘ ‘People have no money, ’ ' said Kang 
Hye Young, a jewelry counter clerk in 
Midopa, one of Seoul’s largest stores. 
"Sales are bad” 

Shin Myung Hee, whose shop sells 
sweaters and scarves, blamed the rich 
and powerful for the country's problems 
and wondered whether they were ready 
to take the drastic steps needed to turn 
die economy around "I am very angry 
with these rich people who spent a lot of 
money.” she said. “We should save 
money. We should be austere.” 

But Mrs. Shin also recalled the long 
struggle to recover after the Korean War. 
“Wecan do it,” she said "We survived 
after the war. We can do it again-” 

On street comers, consumer advo- 
cates were handing out pamphlets urging 
passers-by to hand over dollars they 
might have saved at home and change 
them for won at the bank. 

"It’s a patriotic duty in these hard 
times,” one pamphlet said. “We must 
sacrifice for die country.” 

Such remarks resonate among secu- 

Vuii Ju Hynsnj/Tbc AmumoI Pirw 

The Korea Women’s Association encouraging South Koreans to change 
U.S. dollars into won to help ease the crisis at a rally Monday in SeouL 

rides analysts in the nearby high-rise 
office towers that have changed the sky- 
line of central Seoul in 20 years. 

"They need to let companies really 
go bankrupt,” said Daniel Harwood 
regional director of Hoare Govett Asia. 
"They need to get rid of capacity. They 
need to force big companies to cut un- 
profitable business.” 

In the process. Korea could undergo 
social strains of a sort likely to bring 
about mass protests. The unemploy- 

ment rate, which the government says is 
less than 3 percent, could jump to more 
than 10 percent if companies followed 
the rules of economic pragmatism. 

"It's a case of bow far the politicians 
are willing to drive things down,” Mr. 
Harwood said 

But Edward Campbell-Harris, a man- 
ager at Jardine Fleming, said: "It’ll be a 
long haul to bring the patient back to 
health. I'm not sure that people will 
come rushing in to invest.” 

Security Syste: 


for On-Line Shopping Raises Doubts 

By Saul Hansell 

Ne h- York Tunes Service 

After two years of development and dozens of trials 
around the world, the credit-card industry is readying 
an elaborate system meant to improve the security of 
making purchases over the Internet 

The system, called Secure Electronic Transaction, 
is to be introduced early next year and promises to 
make it harder for someone to steal a credit-card 
number sent over the Internet. It will also make it 
easier for shoppers to verify that the on-line merchants . 

they are dealing with are legitimate and for the mer- 
chants to authenticate the identity of the shoppers. 

Yet after the system’s proponents, including about a 
dozen financial and software firms, have invested tens 
of millions of dollars in its development, they are finding 
there is a growing backlash among bankers and compa- 
nies doing business on the Internet to the system. 

The system, which is often called by the acronym 
SET, is too slow, too expensive and far too cum- 
bersome for shoppers to use, the critics say. 

"SET is not a panacea and it ain’t cheap," said 
Allan Weinberg; senior. vice president of First Data 

Corp., the United States' largest credit-card processor, 
which handles such big Internet merchants as Dell 
Computer Coro, and Inc., the on-line 
bookstore. “If you want to sell more sweaters or 
greeting cards on the Internet today, you are just not 
going to get a return from your SET investment.” 

First Data is grudgingly building the capability to 
accept SET transactions because some of its clients 
have asked it to do so, Mr. Weinberg said. But he 
predicted that two years from now, a “relatively 

-See INTERNET, Page 16 

Thai Stocks Plummet as Closing 
Of Finance Firm Raises New Fears 

By Thomas Crampton 

international Herald Tribune 

BANGKOK — The seizure by Thai 
authorities of a fraud-tainted finance 
company sent stocks tumbling to almost 
a nine-year low Monday and reignited 
fears that some of the country’s re- 
maining financial institutions might not 
be solvent, analysis said. 

“The question is whether the finan- 
cial system here is rotten to the core,” 
said Barry Yates, Seamico Securities' 
head of regional research. 

Alleging loans may have been made 
in a "dishonest fashion,” using forged 
promissory notes, the central bank took 
over management of Mahatun Finance 
Co. laie Sunday. 

Three top executives of the company 
were fired, had their assets frozen ana 
were barred from overseas travel. They 
were replaced by two central bank of- 
ficials and one outsider. 

Although 58 of the country's 91 debt- 
burdened finance companies were sus- 
pended by authorities several months 
ago, officials had made repeated as- 
surances that no more would be 
shuttered. Mahatun Finance was one of 
those that remained open. 

“The most worrying part was this 
company's alleged intent to deceive 
about collateral," said Mr. Yates. “I 
think this is by no means an isolated 

At a news conference convened Mon- 
day to calm the company's depositors 
and creditors, the Bank of Thailand's 
governor, Chaiy awat Wibulswasdi , said 
the takeover decision had been based on 
management problems at the company 
and did not reflect on the finance sector 
as a whole. 

Analysts said there was little chance of 
panic withdrawals from other institu- 
tions, but the incident demonstrated the 
pressure Bangkok was putting on debr- 
laden finance companies. 

“There were already allegations that 
Finance companies had pledged the 
same collateral twice, to the central 
bank and foreign creditors,” Mr. Yales 
said. “The market is scared that this is 
coming to light in one of the 33 sup- 
posedly viable finance companies.” 

The Mahatun takeover, along with the 

closure of Japan’s Yamaichi Securities 
Co., drove Thai stocks sharply lower. 
Bangkok’s main index ended down 2.23 
percent, at 412. 18 points, its lowest level 
since Jan. 6. 1989. 

Mahatun Finance is relatively small, 
with a registered capital of 150 million 
baht (S3.S million), but analysts said the 
authorities' actions were highly sym- 
bolic and could be the prelude to more 
sweeping moves in the troubled sector. 

“I would not be surprised to see more 
closures before the Dec. 8 renew of 
Thailand's International Monetary 
Fund program,” Neil Saker. head of 
regional economic research at SocGen- 
Crosby Securities in Singapore, said. 

’ ‘They need to show a much more hard- 
line approach.” 

In August, the IMF put into place a 
S17.2 billion bailout for Thailand that 
contained strict conditions, including 
requiring Bangkok to reform the coun- 
try^ financial sector. 

Mr. Saker added that he thought the 
country’s 91 finance companies and 15 
commercial banks would be reduced to 
10 of each kind of institution by this 
time next year. “Outside the top four 
banks, they will all be foreign-con- 
trolled," Mr. Saker added. 

The Bank of Thailand's unprecedent- 
ed action was the first exercise of power 
given to authorities under the newly 
promulgated Investment and Securities 
Act of 1997. Under the new rules, the 
central bank can act swiftly to protect 
shareholders' interests without going 
through a lengthy process of obtaining 
permission in advance. 

“Particularly in light of the travel 
restrictions on the fired executives, this 
was clearly meant as a message to 
people who might want to cheat/* said 
Masaisugu Nagaio, general manager o( 
the Industrial Bank of Japan. 

Hasty action against Mahatun exec- 
utives was welcomed by analysts as a 
marked contrast to the drawn-out case 
of scandal-plagued Bangkok Bank of 

“You could look at this as positive,” 
said a foreign analyst who asked to 
remain anonymous. “Everyone” knew 
the bank was in trouble two years ago, 
the analyst said, but "it is still operating, 
and nobody has been thrown in jail.’ ’ ^ 



By Reginald Dale 

Intcrnu timuil Herald Tnhune 

some time now, a nagging 
question has perplexed ad- 
mirers of Japan: How can 
such a talented and energetic people lei 
their economy get into such a mess and 
fail for so long~to find the way out? 

As waves from the economic and 
financial crisis in Southeast Asia lap 
ever closer to Japan, the need for an 
answer becomes still more pressing. 

There is not much of a secret about 
what Japan ought to do. In addition to 
addressing the urgent problems of its 
hanking and financial sectors, it is 
widely agreed that Japan must dereg- 
ulate its economy, curb the power of its 
notorious bureaucrats and give freer rein 
to Wesiem-style individual enterprise. 

After seven years in which Japan has 
tried every trick in the conventional 
book to resuscitate its flagging econ- 
omy without success, many of the 
country’s leaders accept that the time 
has come for a radical change in the 
rigid, collectivist system that served 
the country so well from the end of 
World War II to the late 1980s. 

But. as European countries have 
demonstrated, it is one thing to agree 
that change is necessary, qutte another 
to put it into practice. In Japan, reform 
seems to be retarded by a kind of na- 
tional mental block — it is almost as if 
the nation needs to be laid on a psy- 
chiatrist's couch and examined to see 

what makes it resistant to new ideas. 

It so happens that someone has been 
doing just that. Masao Miyamoto is a 
psychoanalyst, a former bureaucrat 
and a best-selling writer who has de- 
veloped his own theories about Japan’s 
reluctance to change, and the reasons 
for its economic stagnation, on the 
basis of ptychiatric techniques. 

But while many ordinary Japanese 
agree with his views, they are not pop- 
ular with the Japanese political and 
academic establishment and the people 
who run the country’s media. 

The reasons for that became clear 

Japan will not change 
unless its people become 
more individualistic and 

after Mr. Miyamoto began addressing 
a meeting at the Economic Strategy 
Institute in Washington this month. His 
diagnosis of the Japanese psyche in- 
cluded narcissism, masochism, fetish- 
ism and a castration complex. 

Japanese masochism — perhaps the 
most important feature of the diagnosis 
— involves a willingness to sacrifice 
oneself for a wider group by suppress- 
ing individual talents and character- 
istics to maintain the harmony od 
which Japan’s conformist society is 
based, Mr. Miyamoto said. 

That judgment may sound unduly 

harsh and subjective. Where Mr. 
Miyamoto makes more practical sense 
is in arguing that Japan’s work force, 
and its bureaucrats, are immobilized by 
exhaustion, inefficiency and ignor- 
ance, all of which are regarded as * ‘vir- 
tues ” in the Japanese system but which 
combine to prevent change. 

Exhaustion comes from long com- 
mutes, obligatory overtime — often 
unpaid — followed by dinner with su- 
periors and mandatoiy visits to karaoke 
bars, all of which, Mr. Miyamoto said, 
are tiring, boring and unproductive. 

Inefficiency is enshrined in the way 
a Japanese bank, for instance, will em- 
ploy a Harvard Business School gradu- 
ate to hand out paper tissues to cus- 
tomers — so as not to make his co- 
workers jealous of his Harvard ex- 
perience — and in endless meetings 
with no real discussion or conclusion. 
Women are kept in lowly jobs in which 
their talents are wasted. 

Ignorance is valued in the sense that 
Japanese employees must never dis- 
play more knowledge than the rest of 
the group, for fear of arousing envy and 
destroying harmony. 

Japan will not change, Mr. 
Miyamoto says, unless its people be- 
come more individualistic and self- 
interested. It is not a totally original 
conclusion. Other Japanese commen- 
tators have said much the same thing. 
The problem is that individualism and 
selfishness are the two aspects of West- 
ern culture that the Japanese have al- 
ways disliked the most. 

Thinking Ahead /Commentary 

A Psychoanalyst’s View of Japan’s Ills 


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PAGE 14 


A ■'I'wJ » 


Dollar Rises 
Against Yen 
Amid ‘Disdain’ 

Bloomberg Newt 

NEW YORK — The dollar rose 
against the yen Monday after the 
demise of Japan’s fourth-largest 
brokerage showed more weakness 
in the country's financial system. 

Investors grew wary of holding 
Japanese financial assets and the 
yen needed to pay for them after 
Yamaichi Securities Co. shut down, 
the third large Japanese financial 
institution to fail in the past month. 

Yamaichi Knocks Wall Street for a Loop 

CoavBrd by (hr Slog PamDt&ntia 

NEW YORK — Stock and bond 
prices were shoved lower Monday 
by worries that weakness in Japan’s 
fin ancial system could tr anslate into 
lower profits for U.S. companies. 

The drop followed declines in 
overseas markets alter Yamaichi 
Securities Co., one of Japan's Big 
Four brokerages, said it would go 
out of business. ■ 

“As people begin to dig deeper, 
they tend to see the U.S. economy's 
link to Japan and die link to Asia, 
and the deeper yon dig the worse it 
looks. ’’ said George Jennison at 

L« *t r.T-Tja 

Asian financial instability, were 
particularly hard hit. 

Chase Manhattan closed down 3 
3/16 at 11016. Citicorp fell 4 3/16 


to 122 9/16, and BankAmerica 
dropped 254 to 721*. 

Compaq Computer led technol- 
ogy issues lower, railing 3% to 59 15/ 
16. It was the most actively traded 
issue. Intel fell 2 1/16 to 78 3 A 6. 

Worries that the trouble in Asia 
would take its toll in other emer gin g 

markets sent down American de- 
positary receipts of F-atin American 
companies. ADRs of Telebras, the 
Brazilian telephone company, fell 5 
11/16 to 98 5/16. 

Federal Signal fell 1 Vito 22 7/16. 
The maker of public-safety equip- 
ment and vehicles trained that 
fourth-quarter eaAiings and sales 
would be lower than analysts ex- 
pected because of parts delays and 
labor troubles. 

The Dow's weakest components 
were Disney, which lost 11/16 to 93 
11/16, and Merck, which fell 1 15/ 

16 to 92%. Both were big gainers 
last week. 

Greyhound rose 1/16 to 4 1/16 pn 
expectations for heavy holidiy 
travel to lift revenue over the next 

pi(n| th. 

Albertson's rose4 1/16 to 42 
The food and drug retailer reported 
strong third-quarter income. - “ 

Bay Networks rose % to 29 13/16 
after an analyst at BankAmerica 
Robertson Stephens raised his rating 
on the maker of computer-network- 
ing products to “bay” from “kflg- 
term attractive.” (Bloomberg, AT) 

jay” from “It 

i Bloomberg . 

the entire Asian region with a sig- The Dow Jones industrial average 
nificant measure of disdain,” said closed down 113 .59 points, at 
Stephen Jury, m a n a gin g director of 7,767.92, while the broader Stan- 
foreign exchange at Union Bank of dard & Poor’s 500 index- finished 
Switzerland. “There’s a feeling this down 16.42 at 946.67. Losing issues 
certainly isn’t the end, and that’s outnumbered gaining ones by a 5- 
being reflected in the yen.” to-2 ratio on the New York Stock 

The dollar rose to 126.885 yea in Exchange. 

Williams to Buy Mapco for $3.4 Billion 

Source: Bkxxnberg, 

4 PM. hading from 126-525 yen 
Friday. But the dollar was flat to 
lower against most European cur- 
rencies as traders looked to the Con- 
tinent as a haven from Asia’s crises. 
Traders see the United States as 

Treasury bond prices fell on con- gas pipeline in the Un 
can that Japanese government in- said Monday it would 1 
stitutions would sell securities to Inc., the biggest .U.S 
bolster ailing banks and brokerages, pipeline operator, for $3 
The price of the benchmark 30-year stock and assumed debt 

GenpBsfty Oar Stf From Otspmria 

NEW YORK — Williams Cos., 
which operates the largest natural- 
gas pipeline in the United States, 
said Monday it would buy Mapco 
Inc., the biggest .U.S. propane- 
pipeline operator, for $3.4 billion in 

Mapco stock, based on Friday’s clos- elude natural-gas marketing sex- 

ing price of Williams stock. Mapco vices and refinery operations as .well 
closed Friday at $38. 125 a share. as retail outlets for propane. , A 

"* aise than Europe, percent from 6.05 percent Friday. 

Very briefly: The dollar was unchanged from Yasuo Matsushita, the governor 

late Friday at 1.7385 Deutsche marks of the Bank of Japan, said the central 

• The Organization for Economic Cooperation and De- and fell to 1.4055 Swiss francs from bank was prepared to use its foreign- 
velopment predicted Federal Reserve Board policymakers 1.4103 francs and to 5.8185 French currency holdings to provide foods 
would tighten U.S. interest rates by 0.50 percentage point in francs from 5.8200 francs. The for Japanese financial institutions 
the first half of 1998. The group also said the U.S. inflation rate pound slipped to $1.6910 from overseas. 

would rise by 0.25 percentage point in 1998 and wage $1.6933. “There is an urgency for liquidity 

pressures would increase because of the low jobless rate. Traders said the dollar also was in Japan, and it could exert some 

• Smith*™ California Rdi«m -m sold io a™, held back by the belief that the slow- pressure to sell.” said Robert Alley 

issue closed down 17/32 point at 100 The deal would unite two Tulsa, The acquisition gives Wi 
24/32, taking the yield up to 6.07 Oklahoma, energy companies with unregulated pipeline busin 

closed Friday at $38. 125 a share. as retail outlets for pi 
Williams derives more than 60 “I think it’s a gres 
percent of its profit from shipping sets of shareholders 
natural gas through inters tate Bailey, chairman, ; 
pipelines, a business where the rates chief executive of W: 
of return are limited by regulators, think the company tiu 

more vulnerable to the region’s mal- 24/32, taking the yield up to 6.07 Oklahoma, energy companies with 
aise than Europe. percent from 6.0S percent Friday. combined assets of nearly $16 fail- 

as retail outlets for propane. , A . 

. “I think it’s a great deal for t£>.t4r 
sets of shareholde rs,” said Keith 
Bailey, nhairmanj president tihd 

chief executive of Williams, “dha I 
think the company that comes out of 
it is even, stronger than the indi- 
vidual companies going in.” 1 
Mr. Bailey said he could notffr£- 

velopment predicted Federal Reserve Board policymakers 
would tighten U.S. interest rates by 0 JO percentage point in 
the firs thalf of 1998. The group also said the U.S. inflation rate 
would rise by 0.25 percentage point in 1998 and wage 
pressures would increase because of the low jobless rate. 

• Southern California Edison said sold 10 gas-fired gen- 

erating plants for $ 1 . 1 2 billion. 2.65 times their book value of SuEJ? i ^ n o^in ’ 

S421 million. The Edison International utility subsidiary frora "““S * "“W 

identified the buyers as AESCorp., Houston Industries Inc., soon *^, „• _ U.S. debt and held are 

a consortium of NRG Generating (UA> Inc. and NGC Then s no compellmgreason to bilhon as of Aug. 31 

Corp/sDestec unit, and Thermo BectronCorp. get into i dollars right now, one ana- Financial and techno 

lysisaid. two sectors considered t 

• Hollinger International Inc. sold more than 160 news- 
papers in 1 1 states, or about 40 percent of its U.S. community 

firm, for$3 lOmSfion, to help pay for the its recent acquisition U.S. Approves Knoll Obesity Drug 

of the Post-Tribune in Gary, In diana, 

currency holdings to provide funds ceive a 21 percent premium over 
for Japanese financial institutions Friday’s closing share price under 
overseas. the terms of the stock swap. On the 

‘ ‘There is an urgency for liquidity New York S tock Exchange on Mon- 
in Japan, and it could exert some day, Mapco shares closed at $43 JO, 
pressure to sell.” said Robert Alley up $5,375. Williams finished at 

pressure to sell.” said Robert Alley up $5,375. Williams 
at Aim Advisors. Japanese investors $53 .8 1 25, down $1.62 
are the biggest foreign holders of Under the deal, Ma 
U.S. debt and held a record $321.2 holders would get 0.83 
billion as of Aug. 31 . of Williams common si 

Financial and technology stocks, share of Mapco comma 

Oklahoma, energy companies with unregulated pipeline business. Mid- victual companies going in. 
combined assets of nearly $16 bil- America Pipeline System, that can Mr. Bailey said he could not.ffr^- 
Yasuo Matsushita, the governor lion and employing nearly 21,000 cam higher profit mar gins . diet the merger’s impact on jobs![| 

the Bank of Japan, said the central people. “To be competitive and suit in- Mr. Bailey would remain efrief 

Mapco’s shareholders would re- vestors. you need the higher growth executive after the deal, while Jarffts 
ceive a 21 percent premium over from unregulated businesses.” said Barnes, chairman, president 'and 
Friday’s closing share price under Susan Weaver, an analyst with chief executive of Mapco, intends to 
the terms of the stock swap. On the Howard, Weil, Labouisse, retire. ( Bloomberg , AP) 

New York Stock Exchange on Mon- Friedrichs Inc. m c d 

day, Mapco shares closed at $43 JO, Williams will pay out $2.65 bil- ® ona * to ” U Y ^ e f© r 

up $5,375. Williams finished at lion in stock and assume $750 mil- Sonat Inc., an oil and gas cfifti- 
$53.8125, down $1,625. lion in debt pany, said it planned to buy Zilkha 

diet the merger’s impact on jobs!^ 
Mr. Bailey would remain chief 
executive after the deal, while Jarfffcs 
Barnes, chairman, president 'and 
chief executive of Mapco, intends to 
retire. (Bloomberg, AP) 

up $5,375. Williams I 
$53.8125, down $1,625. 
Under the deal. Map 

Mapco' s share- 
.8325 of a share 

Williams employs 14,218 
and is involved in gas eat 

logy stocks. 

noioers would get u.cjzo oi a snare ana is involved in gas gam 
of W illiams common stock for each telecommunications and fiber- 
share of Mapco common stock. That video as well. Mapco employs 

two sectors considered vulnerable to would equal $46. 15 for each share of 6,600 people, ana its businesses in- Houston. 

retire. (Bloomberg, AP) 

■ Sonat to Buy Zilkha Energy 

Sonat Inc., an oil and gas crifti- 
pany, said it planned to buy Zilkha . 
Energy Co., a privately owned Off- T 
shore energy explorer, for $1.3 bil- 
lion in stock arm assumed debt, -The 
Associated Press reported fitftn 


• A group including Sony Corp., Liberty Media Group and 
investor Leon Black agreed to buy Telemundo Group Inc, 

Bloomberg Hews 

MOUNT OLIVE, New Jersey — BASF AG's Knoll Phar- 

a S parish-language U.S. television network, for $539 million maceuticalCo. unit has won approval frora the Food and Drag 
in cash. ap. Bloomberg. Bridge News. Return Administration to market its obesity drag, Meridia. in the 

* United States. 

■ The drag, known chemically as sibutramine, will enter a fat- 

— ” eetcenq WTnce fighting market plagued by troubles after the recent withdrawal 

TTtr inrrfumf nriT by American Home Products Corp. of two obesity drags linked 

d0m ; .he company would work with 

mated the MS . box office over the weekend, with a gross of doctors ^ we ight-loss clinics to n^ke sure that its drug is 
SI 7.5 million. Following are the Top 10 moneymakers, based prescribed only to patients who need to lose weight for health 

Monday’s 4 P.M. Close 

The 300 most traded stocks of Ihe day, 
up to the daring on Won street. 
The Associated Press. 

Mm W* Lou Ufa) aw 

SMH Hflk Lm 

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1996 that the drag's benefits did not outweigh its risks, mainly 
related to hi gh bloodpressure problems. The drag agency said it 
was recommending mat doctors monitor patients' blood pressure 
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• -. ■tk™ e of A ^y'sAssiiui^oS 

l ®nd a partner in Laz- 

* ani Frcres m Pans, told the French 

. rjftwaf.v “ “ ,mat ^‘ <* 
■>*« At*n*ge when businessmen who 
V ’^vc raadc good write their memoirs 
ij- take entires, Mr. Bemheim, who 
r. has always been a behind-fee- 

ik T^***^*; decided to step 
"uijft, into the krnehghc himself 

• £“ ^^ofGcnera^^ ‘he engin- 
eeredfe ijst hostile takeovorbid 
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* a foreign company. He now is pre- 
.^'. 7 ggnng to raise that offer in response 


GeneaaU’s bid Oct. 13 for As- 
s’™^ Generales de France SA, 
France’s third-largest insurer, came 
as a shock to the French business 
C 0 I 5 mu nity- Long shielded from 
predators, French managers are now: 
seeing their old-boy- network of 
Cross-shareholdings un winding qfl- 
der competitive pressures. • < . 4 ; 

The coming of the single Exsor 
pean currency is ejected to eari. 
courage other foreigners to try to* 
take over French co mp anies: :• 

“With the Generali " bid^ 

with a master stroke.’’ 

■ Mr. Bemheim was bom in 1924, 
the son of a successful property de- 
veloper who died wife his wife in a 

World WarH 
• In the mid-1950s, he joined his 
. ancle in the family property-devel- 
. opment firm, winch he expanded. 
As a result, be came to the attention 
Andre Meyer, one of Lazard 
irretes’ legendary partners, .who 
.asked him to sort out the bank’s 

wim me Generali bid, 

Bemheim is earning himself a place 
in this country’s financial history,” 

eaist ‘Darn*.!. T u J r : — 1. 

in mis country s financial history, 
said Patrick Leguil, head of research 
at the French brokerage Trans- 
bourse. “He’s crowning his career 

; property investments. 

He was so good at it that in 1967 
he was invited to. join the investment 
bank. That was when his career as a 
power broker took off. 

.. As such, Mr. Bcmbeim, now one 
of tbe wealfelest men in France, has 
-helped a new generation of French 
-entrepreneurs grow and prosper. 

These include Bernard Arnault, 
head of the luxury-goods maker 
LVMH Mbet Hennessy Louis Vuh- 
ton SA; Francois Pinanlt. who con- 
trols the retail group Printemps-Pin- 
aidt-Redoute SA, and Vincent 
Bollore, whose holding company has 
stakes, that ran g e from shipping to 
banking. Mr. Bemheim is credited 
with honing the technique of “cas- 
cade holdings," which allow entre- 
preneurs with more ambition than 
rash to control large companies. 

In 1973. Mr. Bexnheim led Laz- 
ard’s purchase of just under 5 per- 
cent of Generali At that time, he 
forgedclose ties with Enrico Cuccia, 
former chairman of the powerful 
Mediobanca SpA investment bank, 
the Italian counterpart to Lazard. 

Today, Mediobanca and Lazard 
are the dominant shareholders in 


-yfr 2150 — 



nT W- 

20000‘ v 


— K.l — . lag) 



— ■ 1 1700 Uy 


^10500 — 

1550 - - ? 






Antoine Bernheim, the man be- 
hind the historic takeover bid. 

Generali, with a 1735 percent stake. 
Mr. Cuccia made Mr. Bemheim a 
vice president of Mediobanca and 
then helped him become, in 1995, 
the c hairman of Generali. 

Colloids’ Shares Soar on Belief 
iH 0,1 ^ a ™e s Be Vying to Buy It 



LONDON — Allied CoDoids 
--Otoup FLC rejected a hostile £1.07 
i billion ($1.8 billion) bid from a U.S. 
■ vjK>mpaiiy Monday, but its share 
soared in anticipation that oth- 
' £fi£bidda$ may enter the fray. 

Eastwood, an analyst at Dresdner 
KJeinwcert Benson, raid. He said a 
likely bid would be .- ’something . 
close to 180 pence” a share. 
Colloids is 

: kt- 

• qj ? |The American specialty chenric- 
s Inc. offered 155 

v -i • 


each Allied Colloids 
, a 23 'percent premium over 
.fgijday’s closing price. But Allied 
-Colloids advised shareholders to re- 
. the bid. 

-•■o 1 “This offer fundamentally under- 
? t i f clues the prospects of our business, 
,,ftpd we therefore intend to contest it 
vigorously, - " said David Farrar, the 
Allied Colloids chief executive. 

—' Allied Colloids ’ shares closed at 
x 1673 pence, up 41.5 pence, or 33 
percent-, on speculation that another 
-Tbid may be in the pipeline. 

-"-—“I would find it difficult to be- 
' -lieve thatthere wouldn’t be a coun- 
. leroffer at these levels,” Michael 

Allied Colloids is seen as an at- 
tractive niche player in the highr • 
margin specialty chemicals sector < 
The company, which makes chera*. 
icals used in the paper, textile ancf 
mining industries, said the Hercules 
offer was the second unsolicited bid 

for the company in recent days. It 
didn’t name die earlier bidder. • . 

is a 

“We believe that cnir price 
nerous price and a fall price,” . 
life Elliott, Hercules’ chairman 
and chief executive, said in a con- 
ference calL “We believe that the 
combination will create one of the 
best specialty chemical companies - 
in the world.” 

Mr. Elliott, who said Hercules lad 
been working cm the offer far months, 
held talks with Allied Colloids over 
the weekend but said no agreement . 
was reached over “pricin g issues.” 

Western Germany 
PostsaPrice Rise 

Bloomberg News 

FRANKFURT — West Ger- 
man consuznerprices crept up- 
ward this monfe, data released 
Monday showed, although a 
decline in October import and 
producer prices indicated the 
inflation ask. was still slight. 

Consumer prices far Novem- 
ber were up 0.1 percent from 
October, according to aj 
inary repeat from the 
Statistics Office, and 1.8 ] 
from a year earlier. The < 

percent from October IS 
Still, analysts and investors 
said consumer prices in Ger- 
many were not likely to ac- 
celerate soon, allowing the 
Bundesbank to keep interest 
rates on hold until at least 1998. 
Inflation has remained below 
the Bundesbank's 2 percent 
limit since September. 

Microsoft Drops Insistence That Rival 
Incorporate Its Code in Unix System 

Tokyo • 
Nikkei 225 





doss dose 

Prwr, % . 

Co*eA*tbyOer Sn^ Front Dbpfritrs 

BRUSSELS — The European 
Commission said Monday that Mi- 
crosoft Corp. had settled a com- 
petition dispute with a rival U.S. 
software company, Santa Cruz Op- 
eration Inc. 

The commission, the European 
Union's executive body, said Mi- 
crosoft had removed a clause from 
its contract with Santa Cruz that bad 
required the California-based com- 
pany to include Microsoft code in its 
Unix operating system and pay roy- 
alties to Microsoft 

Santa Cruz filed a private com- 
plaint with the European Commis- 
sion in January, and tnecommission 
found in May that the contract vi- 
olated EU competitibn law. 
ft has 

freely with Microsoft,” the com- 
mission said. 

The contract was particularly 
harmful to Santa Cruz’s compet- 
itiveness in the field of operating 
systems for workstations and serv- 
ers, where it competes with Mi- 
crosoft’s NT product, the commis- 
sion said. r 

Under the agreement, Santa Cruz 
can still use the Microsoft system by 
paying a royally, but it is no longer 
obliged to use the system. 

Microsoft ~was involved in 1987 
with AT&T Coro, in unifying vari- 
ous versions Of the Unix system. It 

.WJBwjx t0.54S.20 +036 


t ,642.40 


KIT AkXw«u4ait" ■ 

f ] s . . 







to.- ~ 




Sangtok ■ . 8ET . ” 







^por ■ Skeoc'MEokBt Index 7JS6J25 







... 41(121 . 









Source: Telekuia 

hOnnalMul HniU Trbiui,- 

Very briefly: 

• Deutsche Bank AG, Europe’s largest bank, will combine its 
mortgage-banking units. The new bank, with total assets of 
99.2 trillion Deutsche marks ($57.25 billion), will be called 
Europaeische Hypothekenbank AG. 

• BMW AG will hold its Christmas bonus steady this year, the 
company said, even though the current pay contract would 
allow it to reduce the payout. It said workers would receive as 
much as 120 percent of their last monthly wage. 

retained technology rights when 
in fee ; 

• Argonaut AB offered 1.8 billion kronor (S237 million) for 
the Swedish shipping company Nordstroem & Thulin AB to 
offset the effect of tougher competition. Nordstroem & Thulin 

“Microsoft has unilaterally and 
irrevocably waived its rights under 
contract provisions to which the 
commission had objected on the 

AT&T sold its rights in fee system. 

An attorney for Microsoft wel- 
comed the commission’s move to 
close the complain L * ‘We were pre- 
pared to address SCO’s concerns as 

long as our intellectual property roy- 
could be protected at the 

grounds that they prevented another 
software firm from < 


alty rights could be protected at fee 
same time,” the attorney. Brad 
Smith, said. (AP, Bloomberg, AFP) 

already owns 48.4 percent of the voting rights in Argonaut. 

• Christian Pierret, fee French industry minister, left for a 
trip to Japan on Monday amid speculation that Toyota Motor 
Corp. would announce soon that it would build a second 
European production site in France. 

• British Aerospace PLC. one of four partners in Europe's 

Airbus Industrie group, said it would supply wing pans for 
Boeing Co.’s 737 jetliner, putting BAe in fee unusual position 
of buildings parts for a key rival. Hewn, Blwmhei >> 



Moriday, How. 24 

Prteu In local currandas. 


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8&M 8350 8410 B&40- 
108 10490 10490 106.10 
18150 17870 17X20 18170 
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211 213 221-75 

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37.10 3740 
1335 1345 
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115 115 
186 18830 
51J5 5275 

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1120 1125 
2720 2820 
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8J4 899 
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9 JO TOItS mi 9 
341 344 347 

822 834 834 

335 134 138 
594 694 699 

237 U9 SM 

6.9S 791 793 

290 250 295 

733 7J0 739 

893 9.13 9.M 

238 239 242 

425 427 492 

530 52D 533 

117 325 118 

427 493 490 

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4m evs 40N-.--«m 


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3945 39.15 39.15 3920 
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msa m i7i jo 174 

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398 373 398 380 

■30SeO>-'»«l1-3093B 30730.- 
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8.10 790 H0 830 

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OauhanaiPM 500X1 500A8 500X0 52100 Cuffnav 
UgMSenrtdos 398X0 395X0 385X0 421X0 Sydney 

The Trib Index 

Pncesas of 3.00 PM 



Jan. 1. iSOS => 100. 



% change 

yaarto date 

°d change 

World Index 



-0 23 

♦14 55 

Ragianal Indnes 











N. America 



tO .07 


S. America 





Indirotrial In dams 

Capital goods 





Consumer goods 




















Raw Materials 

. 170-51- 

’ -12A ‘ 



VSs/vfca " . 


-1 .06 - 

‘ -0.62 






♦ 13.33 

The International HaraM TnDune World Stock Index O tracks tha U S. tJoBar values ot 

280 ntmttaOonaBy InmUabla stocks from SB oxmrias. For mom mtormapor alma 

txxMat is avaSabla by writing lo 77 » TdD tndax. ifl? Avmua Charias oe CeuHe. 

92521 Naony Codex. France. 

CorrpdBd by Bioomairg News 

NaX BA Canada 2110 2290 2190 2115 

Power Carp 45ft SlD 453S 4514 p* n)bn i,p fd 

PowerFM 44V4 44N 443S 44 

QaebeEarB 28 M 28X5 2810 2815 Km 

Rogue Comm B 790 790 790 795 

Royal BKCda 81.11 80110 BM 8W* fSwPW 


Oslo O tXinriria 44*11 T&PM 

PnwtoBC 478X1 UnBMDOO 

(Criminal PM 


312X0 300X0 301X0 310X0 
231X0 22000 221X0 232X0 AnKOr 
128X0' 126.99 12730 13100 ANZ Biting 
31.99 31X0 3199 3135 
835 830 830 840 

11U0 109X0 11090 114X0 

11800 mxo 11150 lmoa cba 

116X0 107X0 11230 120X0 CXAnufl 
285X0 271X0 271.00 290X0 Coles Myer 
3250 3190 32X0 32X0 Ccntofco 
7 JO 7.19 739 7 JO 

AH OnHaartas: 248218 
PwrioUfi 248270 

High Low Ctos* Prow. 

High Law Qom Prow. 





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1194 1349 1335 1390 

145 333 337 X42 

2845 2816 JS36 2845 ^ 

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736 730 735 732 2*«Xiiafltt 

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140 136 

9750 94 

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Potash Sask 


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9670 9310 943S |700 

3430 3350 3360 3460 

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136 13550 

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67 68 

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51 505S 5095 51.10 
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4630 45.65 4590 46 

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35.95 35 3595 15*. 

5430 5305 54X5 5441 
20.1} 1995 1995 2a 10 

lUfe 9550 8950 9150 90S3 

TatwonSenri 125 120 12& 123 

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UM Alton Elec 69 6S 65 6750 

UldWortdCMn 5650 5550 56 5550 


ATX Mac 125990 
PtwtaUB 1291X2 

Market Qosed 


The Tokyo stock market FmronhflWien 
was dosed Monday for a hoi- o^bhoiu 
iday. yAstohi 


874 82250 





















980 967.05 




47350 47350 










Tbe restoration of 

the historic Hotel Le 

MUnHdgt 7 

nucaacY . 

WPP Group - 




SfoSSro ’"I’ii ’si 

S7J3 5640 5750 
30790 200 207 JO 2O7J0 

69 6790 <810 6810 












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840 8» 890 

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7990 7990 
2725 2B0 

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Royal is now complete. 

Lovingly restored to 
her original splendour, the Hotel 
Le Royal Phnom Penh Is once again 
ready t0 greet her guests. 

In tbe past, these Included 
luminaries like Jacqueline 

and Charles de Gaulle; 


now Immortalised In 

our personality suites. 
On November 24th, 

the intrepid adventurer, the travel 

romantic and the astute businessman 

can once again relive the Says of 
a bygone era without forgoing 

the necessities of the modern 

.. . - . HOTEL LE BOYAL 

i\enneqy, somerset Maugnam rw, mk, n^w •* 

i iimu rnnumii anon 

UMtUmt ITEM Dm Ar*X SmrjkMl Mtaf Pkmmm IM Mcmtnt t JbslmnO 

PmmFtmt. QnUiMwiIHI. 

world. Unless they choose to. 

btntananmtHatnUStlSht.FlinEebigilatmitaBU^ien Ferns 

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64(8 6600 

14(8 1485 

11410 11530 
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195 188 189 195 

2(30 2590 2820 36JD 

Den mute Bk 3090 5&S8 3850 SOSO 

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tort Hpta. 372 

tortetogA 236 

sisr^ s 

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Shnbnoid 4950 


3S8 359 36890 iw, 

3(5 36650 37490 


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Ul 117 817 231 

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366000 326000 327500 347500 

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.... .... (32 

10.70 1860 I860 1870 

5PI index: 2569.16 
PrortWK 341130 

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Si B 

NasU6 B 



Sober R 


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Business Opportunities 

Appears every Wednesday in the Intermarket 
To advertise contact Nina Nieli in our London office : 

Tel.: + 44 1 71 420 0325 / Fax: + 44 1 71 420 0338 
or your nearest IHT office or representative. 



r . 

EAGE 16 



* - — • 
fWa* K 

The Dark Side of i Asian Values’ Turns Miracle Into Mess 

By David E. Sanger 

New York Times Service 

Asia's economic as- 
cendancy in the 1980s 
and early 1990s moved 
from the astounding to the mildly 
terrifying, the world began to look 
for the magic formula that had built 
such prosperity from poverty. Asian 
leaders themselves were the first to 
give the recipe a label, writing about 
“the Pacific way" and lecturing 
about “Asian values.” 

. Even those who doubted there was 
an answer conceded that there was 
something different about the way 

Suharto Son 
Comes Back 

Asians were organizing themselves 
for the next cranny. It struck anyone 
watching Thai workers singing a 
Japanese company song alter calis- 
thenics in the Toyota factory near 

Economists pointed to Asia’s 


phenomenal savings rates, sociolo- 
gists to its low divorce rates. Busi- 
ness schools offered case studies of 
companies that guaranteed lifetime 
employment and built low-cost 
bousing for workers. One of Singa- 
pore’s top diplomats gushed in For- 
eign Affairs magazine two years ago 

that modern Asia had “emerged as 
die most dynamic region of die 
world” because it fused “the best 
practices and values from many rich 
civilizations. Asian and Western.” 

Underneath all that fusion, 
though, was a good deal of fraud. 

While the world was enthralled with 
the best of Asian values, phenomenal 
growth rates obscured die worst: 
crony capitalism, corruption and 
secrecy eating away at the region’s 
accomplishments like termites in a 
forest of fast-growing bamboo. 

In the name of “cooperation” 

between governments and the busi- 
nesses that supplied them with ready 
cash, no one would be forced to 
disclose embarrassing Financial in- 
formation, give shareholders real 
power or expose powerful friends to 
true global competition. 

Now, as the International Mon- 
etary Fund races in to clean up the 
wredcage and pvt together bailout 
packages — last week South Korea 
became the latest juggernaut to plead 
for its help —it is dear that die darker 
side of Asian values helped turn the 
Asian miracle into the Asian mess. 

As Daniel TarnlJo, President Bill 
Clinton's international economic 
adviser, noted before Mr. Clinton’s 


Bloomberg News 

JAKARTA — Bam bang Triha t- 
modjo. President Suharto's second 
son, is back in banking. 

Less than a month after PT Bank 
Andromeda — a bank he co-owned 
— was closed under terms of the 
International Monetary Fund's $23 
billion rescue package for Indone- 
sia. Mr. Bambang has a new bank. 

He bought the name and banking 
license of PT Bank Alfa, a defunct 
bonk, and is folding it into his 
sprawling Bimantara Group, of 
which Bank Andromeda, once was 
pan. Bimamara executives said. 
Over the weekend, workers at Mr. 
Bambang ’s 30-story corporate 
headquarters in central Jakarta 
pulled down the blue Bank An- 
dromeda sign above the old lobby- 
level bank branch and pur up a blue 
Bank Alfa sign in its place. 

Analysts said the move could 
damage the credibility of the aid 
package, which made banking re- 
form its centerpiece. 

”The IMF package is all about 
more transparency, more account- 
ability. ana in that context, this is a 
setback,” said Neil Saker, an econ- 
omist at SocGen-Crosby Securities 
in Singapore. 

It also raises questions about 
whether the central bank is follow- 
ing through on its promise to liq- 
uidate assets of Bank Andromeda 
and 1 3 other banks it shut for chron- 
ic violations of banking laws. Of- 
ficials at Bank Indonesia, the central 
bank, did not return calls. 

At the time the banks were closed, 
Indonesian officials said it was im- 
portant for the banks ’ management to 
be held responsible. The government 
also said it hoped other banks would 
■ ‘draw a lesson" from the closures. 

Instead, on Monday, Bank Alfa’s 
newly mimed branch at the Bi- 

\ • V-. 


On lie. Dhan^aUThr Pn 

FINISHING TOUCHES — Workers preparing a sign for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting 
Countries meeting in Jakarta on Monday. Kuwait's oil minister, Isa Muhammad Mazeedi, endorsed 
Saudi Arabia's call to raise OPEC's production ceiling by as much as 2 million barrels a day. 

mantara Building was open for busi- 
ness. staffed by Bank Andromeda's 
former employees. 

“It's just like we changed our 
clothes: everything else is the same.” 
said an account officer at the branch, 
who apologized for only having her 
old Bank Andromeda name card to 
offer. She said the bank was offering 
28 percent interest rates on saving 
deposits to attract new customers. 

An unidentified Bimantara exec- 
utive and the account officer at the- 
new branch said Mr. Bambang 
would use the assets and liabilities 
of Bank Andromeda to flesh out his 
new bank. Those assets were seized 
by Bank Indonesia this month. 

Shares of PT Bimantara Citra, 
Bambang's publicly traded holding 

company, which does not bold 
shares in Bank Alfa, rose 323 rupiah 
Monday, or 17 percent, to 2,225 
rupiah (62 cents). 

Bank Andromeda was closed be- 
cause more than 20 percent of its 
loans outstanding had been made to 
companies controlled by its share- 
holders. which is illegal. It also 
failed to meet a Bank Indonesia 
standard of 150 billion rupiah of 
paid-up capital. 

The bank's biggest customer was 
Bimantara Groups PT Chandra Asti, 
a petrochemical maker, which had 
$75 million in borrowings from the 
bank. Mr. Bambang defended Bank 
Andromeda's practice of lending to 
affiliates by charging that “90 per- 
cent” of Indonesia's banks did the 

INTERNET: New On-Line Payment System Raises Doubts 

Continued from Page 13 

small” portion of Internet transac- 
tions would use SET. 

The controversy highlights bow 
problems that seem insurmountable 

— such as consumers' fear of using 
credit-card numbers on the Internet 

— can vanish in months, potentially 
rendering research into solutions an 
expensive exercise in futility. 

“Last year we did a survey and 
three-quarters of our customers said 
credit-card security was an issue,*' 
said Chris McCann, senior vice 
president of 1 -800-Rowers, which 
does 10 percent of its business on- 
line. “Today less than one-third see 
it as an issue.” 

"Credit-card shopping on the In- 
ternet is going like gangbusters 
today.” said Cliff Conneighton, 
chief executive of Internet Com- 
merce Services Corp^ which runs 
shopping sites on the World Wide 
Web for 1 Panasonic Consumer Elec- 
tronics Corp. and Random House 
Inc. “The tear of shopping is di- 

minishing rapidly. It's always good 
to have troth on your side, and the 
truth is that it’s not very risky.” 

While SET provides greater se- 
curity, it is much more complicated 
to use than the security programs 
automatically built into today’s 

First, a customer must get a spe- 
cial program, known as an elec- 
tronic wallet, which works in con- 
junction with Internet browser 
software. Netscape Communica- 
tions Corp. and Microsoft Corp. in- 
clude suen electronic wallets in their 
latest browsers, but credit-card 
companies plan to offer their own 
versions. Any SET wallet will be 
able to handle five different credit- 
card accounts; debit cards will be 
added in a future release. 

Consumers will also need an elec- 
tronic certificate — effectively a 
digital identification can! — asso- 
ciated with each credit card. They 
will either receive this on a disk or 
download it from their card com- 
pany’s Web site. 

At the end of a shopping spree, 
the shopper would select which 
credit card to use, and the wallet 
would transmit the card number, 
purchase details, and the unique 
identifying information in the cer- 
tificate to The merchant’s Web site in 
an encrypted form. 

The credit-card number is passed 
while still encrypted directly to the 
processing bank. That means that an 
electronic thief lapping into the sys- 
tem will not find any valid card 
numbers. This is one of the biggest 
risks of current browser systems. 

Moreover, by validating the elec- 
tronic certificate, the merchant can 
be much more certain of the card- 
holder’s identity. That means that 
someone who steals a credit card 
from someone's wallet cannot use it 
to make purchases on the Internet. 

Similarly, the shopper's wallet 
software will examine the digital 
certificate of the merchant, auto- 
matically providing a warning if the 
merchant is not authorized to accept 
credit cards. 

same. He had sued Finance Minister 
Mar’ie Muhammad, alleging that the 
closure of his bank was a “political 
move” aimed at smearing the name 
of his family and pushing his father 
out of power. Last week, Mr. Bam- 
bang dropped his suit, saying he had 
reached a settlement with Bank In- 
donesia. He did not disclose details. 

The children of Mr. Suharto, a 
former army general who has ruled 
Indonesia for 30 years, are among 
the country’s wealthiest citizens. 
-dominatiflgJaige-bttstflesfraFeas. - - 

Mr. Bambang alone has a vast 
collection of businesses, from pet- 
rochemicals and a newspaper to 
telecommunications and television, 
many of which require special gov- 
ernment licenses. 

United Engineers 
Is Reprimanded 
On Renong Trade 

Bloomberg Nc*‘s 

nance Minister Anwar Ibrahim 
said Monday that the Kuala 
Lumpur Stock Exchange had 
reprimanded United Engineers 
Malaysia Bhd. for not provid- 
ing enough information about 
its acquisition of a 32.6 percent 
stake in its parent ■ company 
Renong Bhd., the Bemama 
news agency reported. 

Mr. Anwar also said the re- 
gistrar of companies had fined 
United Engineers for a disclos- 
ure violation concerning the 
number of shares it held. The 
report did not provide details. 

Shares in United Engineers 
tumbled 43 percent last week. 
Renong shares rose 21 percent 
Monday to close at 1 .80 ringgit 
(53 cents). 

departure over the weekend for an 
inopportunely ' scheduled annual 
meeting of Pacific Rim leaders, 
“The Asian miracle did not repeal 
the laws of economics.”. 

South Korea now knows this only 
too well It is still a world-class 
producer of steel, semiconductors 
and cars, and its economy is still 
growing impressively. But it is suf- 
fering an acute cash crisis because 
its banks lent money mindlessly — 
often at government insistence — to 
projects and companies that are now 
collapsing left and right The banks, 
in turn, were depending on a river of 
foreign cash. 

They are failing because that river 
has been abruptly rerouted as in- 
vestors have begun to steer clear of 
South Korea — and die IMF’s other 
wards, Indonesia and T hailan d. 

In South Korea as in Indonesia and 
Thailand, the darker Asian values 
encouraged politicians to use nation- 
al h anking systems as their personal 
kitties. They ordered up loans for 
projects that enriched their friends. 

Until disaster loomed on the ho- 
rizon, governments and corporate 
titans together managed to cover up 
bad news that might warn investors 
that some of that- dynamism was 
really a lighted bundle of dynamite. 

The fear of criminal libel suits 
kept a tight rein on what tbe press 
said about politicians. While it was 
hardly a secret that die family of • 
President Suharto of Indonesia had 
swept up most of the country’s lu- 
crative businesses into its own gov- 
ernment-protected monopolies, it 
was unhealthy to explore in public 
bo w corruption coula undermine In- 
donesia’s future. 

Fraud, deception and influeace- 
peddiing are hardly uniquely Asian; 
it was less than a decade ago that all 
three contributed to America’s sav- 
ings-and-loan crisis. In fact, there 
may be no such thing as “Asian 
values,” good or bad. Even at the 
height of Asia’s boom, it seemed 
improbable that a salaryman trudging 
off the train in Yokohama shared 
much of a world view with an ethnic 
Chinese executive in Indonesia. 

But in Asia die talk about com- 
mon values contributed to argu- 
ments that there was something 
unique, perhaps even innate, about 
the region’s material success. 

That bred an overbearing arrog- 
ance in tbe business world. Business 
leaders boasted in tbe early 1990s 
that Asia would soon be generating 
enough wealth to become die 
world’s banker. 

“There was a great deal of myth- 
making throughout Asia about the 
real sources of prosperity,” John 
Dower, a historian at the Massachu- 
setts Institu te of Technology, said. 



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Source : Tetekurs hnmuomM] Herald Ti*une 

Very briefly; 'j 

• Tap Resources Bhd„ a Malaysian construction company, 
said it did not sell all of the shares it had planned to sell in tt^ 
initial public offer. Tap said 96.1 percent of its 5.67 million 
new shares offered were sold. The remaining 219,000 new 
shares will be bought by tbe underwriters, the company sairfc 

• Jakarta stocks soared almost 5 percent on reports that 
President Suharto bad ordered disbursement of a $5 billion 
loan from Singapore and had asked state companies to buy 
shares on the Local market. 

• Casco Pacific Ltd. said it would pay 1.34 billion Hong 

Kong dollars ($172 million) for 15 percent of a Hong Kong 
bank whose acquisition analysts said was a mistake even 
before its Value plunged. Cosco will pay 18.88 dollars a share 
for die stake in family-owned Liu Chong Hing Bank lid., said 
Casco’s chairman, Zhang Dachun. The bank’s stock closed 
Monday at 10.10 dollars. - Z 

• Yamaichi Securities Co^ the Japanese brokerage that ha$ 

collapsed, said its Singapore subsidiary was trying to sell its 
trading seat on the Stock Exchange of Singapore. * -] 

• Indonesia will move to minim ize tbe impact of the Asian 

currency crisis by furthering economic deregulation and ofi 
feting incentives for investment, a government minis ter said; 
Investment Minister Sanyoto Sastrowaidoyo told a parlia* 
mentaiy commission in a written response to legislators, 
questions that there was a possibility there would be a decrease 
in domestic and foreign investment after the. sharp fall in thd 
rupiah’s value. ' : 

• Broken Hill Proprietary of Australia said its employee^ 

had begun to return to a plant at its Port Kembla steelworks 
after an explosion there. In a statement received in London^ 
Broken Hill added that it was confident its rolling mills would 
be operative within 24 hours. No serious injuries were re- 
ported in the explosion. - Bloomberg. Reuters. AF& 

JUk ruta OUuiil UJU 

uanheMassadiu- Singapore Air and Lufthansa 

we believed it, too, because who 
could argue with success?” 

One question now is whether 
Asia’s present and no doubt tem- 
porary humbling will lead to any 
fundamental reassessment of the 
link between its authoritarian ways 
and its success. Until now, Asia’s 
need to keep building prosperity — 
putting “economic rights” first, in 
the language of the "Asian values” 
argimtent — has been used as a 
justification to keep a lid on in- 
dividual freedom. 

But the roots of Asia’s economic 
troubles make a convincing case that 
those authoritarians who are so 
minded can mess up the operations of 
fast-growing economies as skillfully 
as anyone can. They do so chiefly by 
trying to manipulate markets to help 
themselves ana their friends. 

The toughest job facing the IMF 
may be changing that culture — 
convincing countries that they have 
to reveal financial figures that could 
expose the dealings of thepolitically 
well-connected. The IMr will un- 
doubtedly insist on austerity, which 
means canceling big dams and fam- 
ily-owned car projects. 

No doubt many in Asia will de- 
clare that tbe IMF is acting as a 
proxy for tbe Americans. Prime 
Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad of 
Malaysia has already warned against 
“re -colonization.” What is really 
happening, though, is tbe true “fu- 
sion’ ’ of Asian and Western values. 

OeapUnt bv Oar Staff Fnet Dtipaxha 

SINGAPORE — Singapore Airlines Ltd. and Lufthansa AG ” 
signed an agreement Monday linking their flight-reservation 
networks, cargo operations and frequent-flyer programs. 

The agreement defused industry speculation about a wider 
accord linked to tbe Star Alliance, of which Lufthansa is a part? - 
It came a day after Singapore Airlines ended its eight-year 
partnership with Delta Air Lines Inc. and Swissair AG. 

“Despite the efforts of the three partners, it hasn’t been,’ 
terribly productive,' ’ Cheong Choong Kong, deputy chairman; 
of Singapore Airlines, said of the pact with Delta and Swissair.* 
“We weren't the poorer for It, but it did not meet up to our, 
expectations.” **• 

The Singapore earner’s deal with Lufthansa calls for the; . 
German airline to use Singapore as a primary hub for Souths ft 
east Asia and Australasia. Singapore Airlines will use Frank;' 
fort as its hub in continental Europe. It also calls for the two; 
airlines to implement code-sharing; in July 1998 on flights! 
between Singapore and Frankfurt and on services beyond both' 
intematjonafhubs. Code-sharing agreements between airlines! 
allow them to do such things as sell tickets jointly for each! 
other’s routes. 

Jurgen Weber, Lufthansa's chairman, said the German', 
airline would continue to be a member of tbe Star Allian ce,, 
which also includes United Airlines Inc., Air Canada, Varig- 
SA, Thai Airways International Ltd. and Scandinavian Ain-I 
lines System. * v ; 

Swissair, which already has a partnership with Malaysia-, 
Airlines, said it would look for another partner in Asia but tha£ 
its partnership with Delta would continue. 

Although Swissair’s link with Delta raised its passenger’ 
volume and market share between the United States and! fl£ 
Europe, the Swiss carrier said the Singapore link alone wqs- * 
inadequate to keep up with Asian market growth. s 

Despite the focus on Frankfort, Singapore Airlines also wilt 
continue to expand its services at London’s Heathrow Airpor),< 
where there are plans to increase tbe number of its flights next, 
summer. (Bloomberg, Reuters, AP ). 

Asia’s Crisis Steps Up the Pressure on Governments for More Openness 

By Nelson Graves 


KUALA LUMPUR —Want to know 
the amount of Singapore's trade with 
neighboring Indonesia? Mainland 
China’s investment in Hong Kong? 
Malaysia's nonperforming bank loans 
by sector? 

Good luck trying. Information like 
that can be crucial to good business 
decisions, but it is difficult if not im- 
possible to find. 

An opaque curtain obscures much of 
the workings of Asia’s economies. For 
years. Asia's stunning growth rates 
were a given, and investors tolerated 
secrecy in return for profits. 

But now-, with currencies and stock 
prices tumbling, governments are com- 
ing under renewed pressure to pull back 
the curtain. 

“The extent that various govern- 
ments in the region are or are not able to 
respond to the current crisis in a way 
that promotes greater transparency is 
probably the most important thing to 
monitor in Asia as 1997 draws to a 
close,” the Political and Economic Risk 
Consultancy said in a recent report. 

Without the kind of information that 
gives a clear picture of the economies, 
investors could be reluctant to pour 
money back into the region once the 

current turmoil passes. That, analysts fidence of shareholders and investors in secrecy, but such important data as 

say, could jeopardize the leaders’ goal 
of achieving developed status for the 
region by 2020. 

The sudden onset of Asia’s financial 
woes and its domino effect — from 
Thailand through Southeast Asia to 
Hong Kong and South Korea — are 
blunl reminders that technology has 
opened up new investment horizons but 
also brought new risks. 

“Govern merits are beginning to rec- 
ognize that the release of timely and 
accurate economic and financial data is 
a critical dement to the maintenance of 
financial stability,” Alan Greenspan, 
the chairman of the U.S. Federal Re- 
serve, said last month. 

The U.S. central bank chief called for 
more comprehensive public informa- 
tion on the financial health of nations, 
including data on government foreign- 
exchange transactions and banks’ non- 
performing loans. 

"Greater transparency is critical in 
preventing corporate malpractices such 
as criminal breach of trust, transfer pri- 
cing, bribery, insider trading, share ma- 
nipulation and the listing and floating of 
overvalued assets,” Malaysia's Insti- 
tute of Strategic and International Stud- 
ies said in a study. 

“If unchecked,” it said, “such prac- 
tices can erode and weaken the con- 

thc capital market.” 

trade figures, consumer-price trends 

It is little wonder, then, that the In- and industrial-production estimates are 
temational Monetary Fund is insisting still hard to get 
that Thailand, in exchange for a rescue China issues economic indicators 
package, publish regular figures about haphazardly; they can appear on tele- 
central bank reserves. economic growth vision, radio, the Xinhua news agency 

estimates and export trends. or in the newspapers at any time. 

The level of transparency in Asia's Economic indicators are not offi- 
business environ- dally released in 

meras varies Bangladesh, 

greatly. A recent Without a freer flow of Even in Asia's 

survey in the Polit- . • . . more developed 

ical and Economic information, investors may economies, infor- 

Risk Consultan- reluctant to put money mation can be 

cy’s Asian In- , . r . J hard to come by 

telligence news- back mtO toe region, or puzzling. 

letter showed that Plagued by 

executives rated Australia as even more leaks in the past, Japan has tightened its 
transparent than tbe United States or Bri- procedure for releasing economic data 

Without a freer flow of 
information, investors may 
be reluctant to pnt money 
back into the region. 

leaks in the 

> at any time, 
tors are not offi- 
cially released in 

Even in Asia's 
more developed 
economies, infor- 
mation can be 
hard to come by 
or puzzling. 

Plagued by 
an has tightened its 

tain, with Singapore not far behind. 

Taiwan, the Philippines and Thailand 
have made strides in regularizing the 
release of economic data. But in fr- 

aud .now issues important figures at 
8:50 A.M., before markets open. 

But many economists say tbe data 
can be unreliable. They cite gross do- 

doncsia. consumer-price and trade data mestic product estimates, which often 
are frequently leaked ahead of their do not appear to tally with previously 

scheduled release time. released ’data. 

China, India and Vietnam, on the The Economic Planning Agency 
other hand, remain tightly sealed. concedes that its index of reading in- 
“In Vietnam, information is dicators is not a totally reliable road 
something id be hoarded, not shared,” map of future trends, 
said Brace Gale of Political and Eco- Machinations inside big business and 
nomic Risk Consultancy. finance remain a mystery in Japan. 

The IMF is pressing Hanoi to end its Some of Japan's biggest brokerage firms 

have been enmeshed in payoff scandals 
involving sokedya racketeers who extort 
money from companies by threatening 
to expose dubious business practices or 
disrupt shareholder meetings. 

While Singapore was rated as having 
one of the most transparent business 
economies, Mr. Gale said some figures 
remained hard to get. 

“Singapore banks don’t give any fig- 
ures cm nonperforming loans.” he said. 
“They don’t have to.” 

Singapore’s trade with Indonesia * ‘is 
almost luce a national secret;’ ’ Mr. Gale 
said. The Official Secrets Act discour- 
ages bureaucrats from passing out 
policies or regulations. Companies that 
seek explanations when foreign work* 
ers are denied employment permits may 
never get answers, be said. 

When a fall in Malaysian stock prices 
picked up speed in September, the gov- 
ernment announced mat it could use a 
broad security law to arrest speculators 
who “sabotaged” die ecooomy. 

Against the backdrop of that wanting 
and newly plummeting share prices, a 

brokerage firm in Kuala Luoipur issued 
a statement last week asking news or- 
ganizations to refrain from quoting it 

In October, fed up with' reports about 
the unhealthy effects of the prolonged 
haze resulting from numerous forest 
and brush fires in the area, particularly 

in Indonesia, Malaysia barred scholars'- 
from talking to tbe press. 

Such moves raised questions about 
obstacles to the flow of information and * 
sparred the opposition Democratic Ac-' 
non Party to call for “a new policy of* 
corporate transparency to restore plum-* 
meting investor confidence. ” \ 

Norman Yin, a banking professor at 
National’ Chengchi University in*', 
Taipei, said government officials in' 
many Asian countries tended to try re- 
assure the public that their banking sys- - 
terns were sound without providino a d_ ' 
equate data. b 

”The market doesn’t have enough ' 
information on banks,” he said. “Gov-? 
emments .around the region are not only - 
withholding disclosure information but ' 
sending wrong signals to depositors " 
so they will not withdraw money But* 1 
after a while, they cannot hide it ’ ' 

For businesses, the silver lining in. 
Asia s current troubles could be in-- 
creased pressure on governments to en- 
sure greater transparency in the future,, 
— both to draw back funds and stave off - 
future economic collapse. t 

“I believe this crisis will lead to full- * 
scale financial reforms.” Mr. Yin said. : 
“The economies have to open up fan e* 
rompenuon and make pubhcdiscl^t 
of all reformation. They will have to or - 

they won’t be able to keep pace." ’ ' * 


PAGE 18 

^ IJetato^Sribunc ' 





World Roundup 

Panthers Fire Coach 
After a Poor Start 

HOCKEY Doug MacLean was 
fired as coach of the struggling 
Florida Panthers on Monday, two 
seasons after leading them to the 
Stanley Cup finals. 

He will be replaced by the team's 
general manager, Bryan Murray, 
who will do double duty through 
the end of the season. Murray's first 
game behind the Florida, bench is to 
be at home Wednesday night 
against Boston. 

The Panthers, at 7-12-4, have the 
second worst record in the Eastern 
Conference and are coining off a 5- 
2 loss to the Washington Capitals 
on Sunday night. 

The team’s president, William 
Torrey said; “Obviously the per- 
formance of our team in the early 
pan of this season is a huge dis- 
appointment” (AP) 

Olerud Returns to Mete 

baseball John Olerud returned 
to the New York Mets on Monday, 
agreeing to an $8 million, two-year 

Olerud hit .294 last season, his 
first with the Mets. He had 34 
doubles, 22 homers and a team- 
high 102 RBIs, his highest totals in 
four years. 

New York obtained Olerud from 
Toronto last Dec. 20 for the right- 
handed pitcher Robert Person. 
Olerud made S6J5 million in 1997, 
the final season of a S21 million, 
four-year contract, and the Blue 
Jays gave the Mets SS million to 
cover more than 75 percent of the 
first baseman's salary. (API 

Australian Wins Slalom 

skiing Zali Steggall powered 
down a steep, icy slalom course to 
give Australia its first-ever World 
Cup victory by a woman. 

Steggall, 23. posted the two fast- 
est runs of the day in winning by .78 
seconds over Ylva Nowen of 
Sweden, with Claudia Riegler of 
New Zealand third, at the event in 
Park City, Utah, on Sunday. 

Steggall, a native of France who 
gained Australian citizenship when 
her family relocated, had a lead of 
2\ seconds after the first run down 
~the course - ancTbeSKlTtheTield by 
51 in foe-afternoon. (AP) 


BUM 5iH/Rn«en 

Z aifi Ste ggall of Australia cele- 
brating her victory in a World Ciqj 
women's slalom event in Utah. 

Giants and Redskins 
Stall Each Other, 7-7 

Favre andLevens Carry the Packers; 
Jets Hold Off Vikings at the Goal Line 

By Bill Pennington 

Sew York Times Sen-ice 

LANDOVER, Maryland — As ex- 
pected, the game between the New York 
Giants and Washington Redskins was a 
tense, physical struggle between two 
old rivals. It was hardly pretty football, 
with -two clumsy offenses awkwardly 
trying to break a tie in sudden-death 

In the end, neither prevailed. The 
battle for first place in the National 
Football Conference East ended in a 7-7 
tie. The Giants remained in first place 
with a 7-4-1 record, and the Redskins are 
sdll a game back with a 6-5-1 record. 

The Giants' coach, Jim Fassel, ac- 
knowledged after Sunday night's game 
that the tie — the first for the Giants 
since 1983 — did little to damage the 
team's quest for its first division title in 

NFL Romhpmp 

seven years. And, as the disorderly 
overtime period wound down, it oc- 
curred to Passed that while it was im- 
portant for die Giants to win, it was far 
more important for them not to lose. 

“We came here to win the game, but 
yes, it entered my mind that we kept first 
place with a tie,” Fassel said 

After a sloppy, uneven game, the 
overtime period was so chaotic that 
three missed field-goal attempts were its 
highlights. The first came with 3:18 Left 
in the overtime period when Brad Dalu- 
iso missed from 54 yards out On the 
next play, Phillippi Sparks intercepted a 
Jeff Hostetler pass intended for Michael 

Tyrone Wheatley then ran around the 
right end for 14 yards on first down to 
the Redskins' 37-yard line. But the Gi- 
ants advanced the football only one 
more yard, setting up a second 54-yard 
attempt by Daluiso. 

This one was blocked at the line, 
which would have given the Redskins 
choice field position. But the attempt 
did not count, because a Redskins line- 
backer, Marcus Patton, had called time 
out just before the snap. Fassel then 
decided to punt. The final unsuccessful 
54-yard field goal was by the Redskins’ 
Scott Blanton with 1 1 seconds left in the 

The Redskins' next-to-last drive of 
the fourth quarter was kept alive by 
three successive third-down comple- 
tions by Hostetler, who replaced Gus 
Frerotte in the second half. 

Frerotte suffered a sprained neck 
when he intentionally head-butted the 
padded wall that surrounds the playing 
field at Jack Kent Cooke Stadium in 
celebration after scoring a second- 
quarter touchdown. 

The Giants’ lone score came early in 
the third quarter when they drove 46 
yards for a touchdown after Sparks 
picked off Hostetler, his first of two 
interceptions. A 4-yard pass from 
Danny Kanell to Chris Calloway tied 
the score at 7-7. 

The Associated Press reported: 

Packets 45, Cowboys 17 At Green 
Bay, Brett Favre threw four touchdown 
passes and Dorsey Levens rushed for a 
team-record 190 yards as the Packers 
(9-3) ended a siring of eight consecutive 
losses to Dallas (6-6). 

Levens broke Tim Taylor's 36-year- 
old Packer record of 186 yards rushing 
in a single game. 

Cardinals 16, Ravens 13 At Bal- 
timore, Arizona (3-9) got its first road 
victory of the season when Joe Nedney 
kicked a 43-yard field goal as time ex- 
pired. The Ravens (4-7-1 ) had tied it on 
a 34-yard field goal by Matt Stover with 
34 seconds left, but Jake Plummer then 
drove the Cardinals 55 yards to set up 
Nedney 's third field goal of the game. 

O'dars 31, Bills 14 Steve McNair ran 
for two touchdowns and threw for a 
third against one of the NFL’s best 
defenses as host Tennessee kept its slim 
playoff hopes alive. The Oilers (6-6) 
controlled the ball by rushing for 163 
yards against the Bills (5-7). 

jots 23, vicing* 21 The Jets stopped 
Robert Smith on a 2-point conversion 
run with no time left to beat visiting 
Minnesota, which nearly overcame a 
16-point deficit in foe fourth quarter. 

Bean 13, Buccaneers 7 At Chicago, 
the Beam (2-10) held Tampa Bay to 35 
yards rushing and stopped the Buccan- 
eers twice in the fourth quarter to pre- 
serve the victory. 

Eagles 23, Steele rs 20 Bobby Hoying 
outplayed Kordell Stewart in a meeting 
of first-year starting quarterbacks. Mak- 
ing only his second pro start, Hoying 
completed 15 of 3 1 passes for 246 yards 
and two touchdowns to lead foe host 

49 #n 17, Charger* io At San Fran- 
cisco, the 49ers won a team-record 1 1th 
straight game by beating the Chargers in 
their first meeting since the 1995 Super 
Bowl. Steve Young threw for two 
touchdowns, and Merton Hanks’ two 
interceptions led to 10 points. 

Panther* 16 , Ram* 10 At St. Louis, a 
third-string defensive end, Israel Ray- 
bon, saved foe game for Carolina by 
tipping away a fourth-down pass headed 
to a wide-open Aaron Laing in the end 
zone with 1:13 left. 

Bengal* 31, Jaguar* 26 Boomer 
Esiason threw for two touchdowns in 
his first start since returning to the 
Bengal*. While the demoted Jeff Blake 
stood on the sideline in a warmup jacket, 
Esiason led host Cincinnati (4-8) to four 
first-half touchdowns against the Jag- 
uars (8-4). The Bengal* traded Esiason 
in 1993, and heplayed for the Jets and 
Cardinals before returning this season. 

chM* 19, Saahawfcs 14 At Seattle, 
the Chiefs (9-3) beat foe Seahawks (6-6) 
for foe sixth straight time and 13fo time 
in 14games. Seattle drove to the Chiefs' 
10 in foe closing minutes, but Warrea 
Moon then threw three incomplete 
passes before being sacked and rum- 
bling ou fourth down. 

Lion* 32, Colt* io Barry Sanders 
rushed for 216 yards and two touch- 
downs, including an 80-yaxder, as host 
Detroit (6-6) routed Indianapolis (1-11). 
Sanders topped 100 yards for foe 10th 
straight game and became foe first run- 
ning back in NFL history to score three 
touchdowns on runs of 80 or more yards 
in a season. 

Patrio t* 27, Dotphbi* 24 Dan Marino 
threw interceptions that Jimmy Hitch- 
cock and Larry Whigham returned for 
touchdowns, and Whigham picked off 
another pass at the goal line to stop a 
fourth-quarter comeback by visiting 

Falcon* 20, Saint* 3 At Atlanta, Chris 
Chandler threw two TD passes in the 
second half, including a 36-yarder to 
Ben Emanuel, as Atlanta (4-8) won its 
second straight game for foe first time 
since 1995. 

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Tyrone Wheatley, a Giants’ running back, being upended by the Redskins’ William Gaines in the first quarter.! 

J f 

\ Bonehead Play 9 Gets a New Meaning] 

By Thomas Boswell 

Washington Post Senior 

L ANDOVER, Mary Land — Gus 
Frerotte celebrated his one-yard 
touchdown scramble in the 
second quarter by deliberately smashing 
his head against the padded stadium 
wall beyond the end zone. 

The quarterback with an $18 million 
contract knocked himself so loopy that 
he was taken to the hospital for X-rays 
of his stiff neck and missed the entire 
second half of the Washington Red- 
skins' most important game of the sea- 
son Sunday, which ended in a 7-7 over- 
time tie with foe New York Giants. 
Diagnosis: sprained neck. 

Forget the spike, the Chicken Dance 
and foe Lambeau leap into the crowd. In 
the annals of end zone celebration, we 
.now have a new, undisputed Winner 1- 
Gus's goof. 

Please, don't say that Frerotte was 
unlucky. After all, there's a league rule 
that forbids players from taking off foeir 
helmets during an end zone celebration. 
That rule might have saved Frerotte 
from becoming foe National Football 
League’s first accidental suicide. 

In a sense, Frerotte probably should 
be forgiven. He won't be, of course. 
But, if you try extremely hard, you can 
sympathize. A little. For weeks he has 
been second-guessed and criticized for 
playing exactly as he has throughout his 
entire Redskins career. 

Cautiously. Unspectacularly, Intelli- 
gently. Erratically. All in all: Pretty 
well. All his statistics this year are 

identical to 1995 and 1996. Or better. 

Yet Frerotte came into this division 
showdown, with foe Redskins trailing 
the Giants by one game, as a man under 
enormous pressure. 

In recent weeks, Coach Norv Turner 
has, by his play selections, shown pro- 
gressively less confidence in his fourth- 

ten Frerotte ran away from 295- 

S iund (134-kdlogram) Bernard Holsey. 

en scampered inches past the end zone 
pylon to break a scoreless tie in foe 
second quarter, he coaid not contain his 
joy. His scoring run brought him to a 
halt inches from the padded wall in the 
end zone. First, he heaved foe ball 
against the wall in celebration. 

But, in this era of extravagant self- 
congratulation, that hardly seemed suf- 
ficient When others have done flips and 
handstands, spun foe baiHikca tOffaHd^ 
■hugged their linemen, doesn’t a quar- - 
terback on foe hot seat have to do 
something to express himself? And, 
perhaps, inspire foe troops too? 

Give Frerotte credit It was just a 
quick, hard head-butt Yet it definitely 
did the job. Frerotte had enough marbles 
left to hold for the point-after attempt, 
then locate the bench, unaided. But soon 
the trainer, Bubba Tyer, was asking 
Frerotte for pertinent data. 

Like his name and who’s buried in 
Grant’s tomb. 

As Frerotte walked toward Turner on 
foe sideline, foe coach asked, “What 
happened?" A question for foe ages. 

With 1 minute 31 seconds left in foe 
half, foe Redskins got foe ball again. 

Frerotte re-entered foe game and thndwj 
four straight passes. Two short ones: 
were completed. Two missed badly. Fql 
the half, Frerotte was an undistin- 
guished 9 of 19 for 104 yards and 
interceptions. , 

When the second half began, 
Hostetler was at quarterback. ^ 

How long wUl he stay there? In die 
case of most teams, foe answer cr 
simple. The expensive young quarter- 
back returns as soon as his head is clear. 
(And everybody has stopped laugji* 

It's not that simple with foe Rdtk 

Frerotte’s true culpability is that *£ 
left his team virtually naked in its mgst 
vital game of the. season and, perhaps 
Turner’s entire four years. Hostetler had 
tak en sn aps in practice -.with foe first 
-'feSHFCfF’only twooccasic&s this season? 
-Think Hoss was a little fusty? Sun^ajf 
night was foe first time be has been 
rushed by something faster than a tack- 
ling dummy in a year. 

And he looked like it If Hostetler and 
foe Redskins could have scored a single' 
point in regulation time, they wouid 
have beaten the Giants instead of head- 
ing into overtime tied at 7. 

During his Redskins career, Frerotte 
has been known for toughness, into!* 
ligence, good judgment and durability 
That’s the irony. T*.- 

The injury Sunday night was the 
worst of Frerotte’s career since he be 3 
came a starter. It was also — by a light | 
year — his worst moment of bad judg- 

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International Herald Tribune 

B OLOGNA — East of Chicago 
and New York, relatively close 
to Athens, sits the newest bas- 
ketball capital. 

There are so many good millionaire 
basketball players in Bologna that foe 
Italian coaches don't know what to do 
with them all. Practically overnight, this 
small, gorgeous city has been overtaken 
by sky scraping centers and street-smart, 
pocket-picking guards. 

It would be wrong to say that bas- 
ketball is a new sport for Bologna, foe 
northern -Italian home of one of foe 
world’s oldest surviving universities, 
wonderful food, and, at least tempor- 
arily, Roberto Baggio, star of the 1994 
soccer World Cup. 

Bologna has been foe seat of Italian 
basketball since foe local club, Virtus, 
began its run of 13 domestic cham- 
pionships. “I like to compare our club 
with the Celtics — we have our white 
traditional uniforms, foe flags from our 
championships hanging from the ceil- 
ing" the team’s coach, Ettore Messina, 
was saying the other day. 

Last summer, foe Virtus president, 
Alfredo Cazzola, went to foe United 
States in search of a downsized version 
of Lany Bird. He agreed to a three-year* 
$6 million contract with foe swing-man 
Predrag Danilovic, a Serb who had 
starred for foe Bologna club before 
moving to foe NBA’s Miami Heat 

Antoine Rigadeau, foe prolific 
Yugoslavian center Zoran Savjc and 

Elsewhere in town, foe rival club 
Fortitude Bologna went on an even 
more expensive spree. For each of foe 
last two years. Fortitude hod advanced 
to the decisive game of foe Italian cham- 
pionship, and the tide could have been 
theirs last spring with just one extra 
basket in diner of the final two games. 

“To me, 1 was expecting with a little 
change we can win the title this year," 
said the team's mentor, Valerio Bianch- 
ini, foe only coach to win Italian cham- 
pionships with three different clubs. 
‘But foe owner — and this is something 
with which I also agree — he thought 
that foe team last year was finished. So 
he decided to change everything, but it's 

Vantage Point/iAM Thomsen 

Allowed to stay was Carlton Myers, 
captain of the Italian national team, a 
shooting guard who looks, plays and 
behaves like foe stars in foe NBA. He is 
often assumed to be a transplanted Amer- 
ican, but he was bom in London and 
moved to Italy at 10 years of age. Vir- 
tually everyone else -was sent packing. 

Then, in came foe last two Most Valu- 
able Players of Europe — David Rivers, 
foe American point guard who drove 
Olympiakos of Piraeus, Greece, to the 
European Championship last spring, and 
Dominique Wilkins, foe No. 7 all-time 
NBA scorer who did the same for 
Panafoinakos of Athens the year before. 

As a result, this ancient city of warm 
brick and stucco is divided. On one side 
is foe traditional Italian club, Virtus, 
which is made up entirely of European 
players and has an older, wealthier base 
of rans. On the other side is the newer, 
flashier, get-rich-quick club of Forti- 
todo, cheered by younger voices and 
dominated on the floor by a quartet of 
ex-NBA Americans as well as Myers. 

Two months into the season, foe 
Europeans are having the better of it. 

“We have foe most selfish team in 
basketball.” Rivers says of his Amer- 
icanized team. “It’s foe most selfish 
team here in Europe, it would be foe 
most selfish team in the U.S. But on 

paper we have the most talent-" blow by foe losers. In fact, Fortibodn 

Says Myers: "My first thought was Bologna (7-3) is third in foe baliS! 
that we would be a very good team with championship, still within ranee of 
— iblems at foe beginning of foe season. Virtus Bologna (10-0), and both team-; 

would go are at the top of their groups infoc 
EuroLeague. ‘TomefoebiggSsiga^ 
arc tire ones at the end of foe yearT^said 
Wilkins, assuming a positively Amer- 
approach 10 foe regular season ’’•“J 


totally, committed to making the sac- 
rifice necessary to win." \ 

On Sunday night foe two Bologna 
clubs met for foe first time this season'm 
one of the most important Europejn 
games of foe season. Between them, 
they had spent more than $20 millidn 
this year, while that amount would cq^- 
er Michael Jordan's salary only until 
mid-February, perhaps, it is a huge in- 
vestment by European standards, 

The Bologna “Americans" ran fast 
breaks at foe beginning, but when foe 
game slowed down foe Bologna teamef 
Europeans showed their stuff, circu- 
lating in their halfcourt offense like' a 
school of fish to create easy baskets for 
each other. *‘™ 

Fortitude may be sponsored by foe 
computer software firm Teamsyst^n, 
but that moniker is misleading; it took 
all of their strongest individual efforts 
for foe team of Americans to stay irifoe 

A ND that they did. They wqirfd 
have won if not for five missed 
free throws over foe last two and 
a half minutes. Such failures gave 
Danilovic foe chance to seize fo e ramie 
at the line with four seconds to go 78-W 
forVinus. ’ . j 

,. Ths . received as a rrimfo 

blow by foe losers. In fact, FortiSo 

didn't think foe big 
this ftir.” 

Last week. Rivers and. Wilkins 
happened to return to Athens, foe home 
site of foeir European championships. 
In the uniforms of foeir 


new Italian club, 

they were drubbed by 23 points against 
AEK Athens. Rivers says foathe, Myeis 
and Wilkins have already had several 
heart-to-heart talks to try and solve foeir 
problems of teamwork. 

"When I have an open shot or an easy 
basket, and I see someone else i 

Tm trying to give foem foe ball i r 

can see Tm not consciously trying to they will be playing with fo e 
scorepoints," Rivers says. ' Tm hoping of foe opponent. Last summSHa* 
it will set an example, but it basn 1 1 rivalry between the clubs esraJnwf 
truly believe no one other than myself is Virtus Bologna bought foe town gyrnT 

iw Italian club, guarantee you they don p t want to olavuS 

a against in a five-game playoff series 1 ’ * 

, Myers It remains to be seen whether foe 
Americans can make themselves at 
home over the next few months. Whefr 
foe two nval teams meet again eari? 

, ‘ L - ij 





A Boxer With Brains 

Foreman Quitting With Senses Intact 

By Jim Utke 

Thc Ass ociated Press 

V YoU ( * on ’ t ^ow whether to be 
happ>r or sad now that George Fore- 
njan is finally leaving boxing. Be- 
% Sood for George and 

■: y® * for boxing are no longer 
the same thing. B 

Stay in the business as long as 
• Foreman did (76-5, with 68 knock- 
outs) and almost everything happens 
twice. He made two fomines He 
. 'Wooed two audiences. He won the 
; heavyweight championship, took 10 
years off. reinvented himself, then 
% 'W<» a second title some 20 years after 
$he first. 

Butbe will be 49 in January. And it 
was hard keeping your fingers 

crossed m every round in the 10 years 
Since he returned to the ring. 

*Tve had a wonderfaf career ” 
.Foreman said at the end of one more 
-•Saturday tug fat that ran on longer than 
. planned. He was already wi ring 
sunglasses. “I don’t think m be back 
boxing again. You can only get so 
many millions." 

Tlie figfat that convinced him to go 
came against Shannon Briggs in At- 
lantic City, New Jersey. It went the 
distance and ended with Briggs being 
; handed the most charitable kind of 
-majority decision. Foreman did not 
'pomplain. He had drawn the longer 
r straw enough times to know better. 

Foreman is not leaving because his 

S 'se to clean up boxing has been 
id. Bnt neither is he being driv- 
en out because of bad decisions, or 
because the game is still packed with 
bad actors, ripoff artists and incom- 
petents. He is getting out because a 
knockout artist without a knockout 
punch has no future. 

Saturday against Briggs marked 
.Foreman’s fourth straight fight that 

went the full 12 rounds. He looked 
young at the be ginning, old in (he 
middle, and exhausted at die end- The 
the 25-year-oki Briggs may have looked 
worse — to everybody but foe judges. 

His comeback bought foe sport 
some vital rime. A villain on his first 
go-round in boxing, Ik transformed 
himself into a cuddly pitchman foe 
second dme around. Foreman kept 
foe audiences tuned in while Mike 
Tyson was doing time and foe rest of 
the heavyweight division couldn't 
generate enough electricity to make 
even Don King’s hair stand on end. 

But Foreman could have gone the 
night after he knocked out Michael 
Moorer. It came almost 20 years to foe 
day after he himself had been 
knocked out by Muhammad Ali in 
‘ ‘The Rumble in foe Jungle.” He had 
nothing left to prove. 

Angelo Dundee was in ALi’s comer 
that night. Two decades later, he 
found himself in Foreman's comer 
for foe Moorer fight. “Look at 
George now. If somebody would 
have told me then that l*d be here, 
working his comer 20 years later, I 
would have said, ‘You’re crazy.’ 

‘‘Back then, George was foe bad 
guy. He was so uptight you couldn’t 
ask him foe time of day without it 
bang a problem. But look at him now 
— just like Ali was then. A real crowd 
favorite, all smiles, so easygoing. If 1 
didn't know better. I’d swear he 
wasn't foe same guy.” 

For eman wasn’t foal same guy Sat- 
urday night. After 33 fights on foe 
comeback trail since 1 987 there was no 
reason to expect be would be. The best 
part about it is that he figured that out 
before it was too tele. And it’s never a 
bad thing when someone gets oat of a 
tough racket with enough years and 
sense left to make a dent in the pile of 
cash he has stashed somewhere. 


Walker Shines 
In Clutch as 
Surging Celtics 
Edge Pistons 

The Associated Press 

Antoine Walker scored 29 points, in- 
cluding a key dunk with 22 seconds left, 
to lift foe Boston Celtics to a 90-86 
victory over foe struggling Detroit Pis- 

The victory Sunday night was Bos- 
ton’s sixth in its last seven games and its 
fourth straight at the FleetCenter in Bos- 
ton. Last season, foe Celtics didn’t win 
their seventh game until Jan. 5. The 
Pistons have won only three of their test 
12 games. 

Ron Mercer chipped in 16 points and 
Chauncey Billups had 13 for Boston. 

Knicks 104, CiioliM 84 Charles 
Oakley scored 12 of his 19 points in foe 
third quarter but was ejected in the 

fourth quarter as host New York won its 
third game in a row by 20 points or 
more. With 1 1:06 remaining in the game 
and foe Knicks ahead, 85-65, Oakley 
was ejected for striking Otis Tboipe 
with open-handed shots to foe chest and 
face alter being elbowed by Thorpe. 

Patrick Ewing scored 19 points in 
only 28 minutes, and his backup, Chris 
Dudley, contributed 10 points and 10 

Bulls 103, Kings 88 Michael Jordan 
scored 33 points, including 12 during 
Chicago’s 23-7 run early in the second 
quarter, to lead the visiting Bulls. 

Toni Kukoc tied his season high with 
18 points and Dennis Rodman had 14 
rebounds as the Bulls, who opened the 
season with four consecutive road 
losses, won their second in a row away 
from home. 

The Bulls had a 21-point lead late in 
the second quarter but allowed the Kings 

Hrm> Kn AhmnwAprr’.c Fiaa.i-.Pt«« 

Allan Houston of the Knicks, left, leaping past teammate Charlie Ward 
to block a shot by Sam Mack of the Grizzlies during the Knicks' victory. 

to pull within four points in foe third 
period before putting foe game away. 

Lafcars 119, clippers 102 Eddie Jones 
scored 28 points and Kobe Bryant added 
24 as foe unbeaten Lakers gave Del Har- 
ris his 500th victory as an NBA coach. 

The host Lakers played without Sha- 
quille O’Neal, who is expected to be 
sidelined for another week because of a 
strained abdominal muscle. 

Harris, who has a career record of 

500-430, became foe 19th coach in 
league history to reach 500 wins. 

The Lakers have won their first 1 1 
games, equaling the sixth-best start in 
NBA history. The record of 15 was set 
by foe Washington Capitals in 1948-49 
and tied by the Houston Rockets four 
years ago. 

The loss was foe ninth straight for the 
Clippers, who have won just" once this 

Bondra Is Hot 
As Capitals 
Trap Panthers 

The Associated Press 

Peter Bondra continued his hot streak 
with two goals and an assist as foe 
Washington Capitals won their fourth 
straight on foe road, 5-2, over the Flor- 
ida Panthers in Miami. 

Bondra. who leads foe Capitals with 
16 goals, has six in four games and a 
point in each of his last eight 

Olaf Kolzig stopped 28 shots Sunday 

NHL Roundup 

night to improve his record to 12-4-2. 
John Vanbiesbrouck (5-8-2) had 25 
saves for the Panthers. 

Florida dropped its fourth consec- 
utive game at home and has a five-game 
winless streak at Miami Arena. The 
Panthers have won only two games at 
home this season. 

FtamM 3, Hknrion— 3 The smallest 
crowd of foe NHL season saw Carolina 
rally from a three-goal deficit to salvage 
a tie with visiting Calgary. 

Nelson Emerson capped foe come- 
back when he tipped in Geoff San- 
derson’s 30-foot (nine-meter) blast with 
5:24 remaining. 

Attendance was announced at 5.516, 
56 fewer than the turnout for the Hur- 
ricanes’ home game this month against 

Kings 2, Avalanche 1 Luc Robitaille 
scored at 2:43 of overtime as Los 
Angeles rallied for victor}' over host 

It was foe 10th goal of foe season for 
Robitaille. who took a cross-ice pass 
from Garry Galley and beat Craig Bil- 
lington from foe lower right circle. 

Robitailie’s goal capped a comeback 
for the Kings, who tied the game at 
16:41 of foe third period on a shot by 
Vladimir Tsyplakov. 

Claude Lemieux scored for Colorado 
at 5:03 of foe second period. 



NBA Stampings 

■ACTON cmmuicK 







New York 



A 92 







Orion do 




New Jersey 















PNtodeipItta 3 7 

























3 Vi 

Clew, land 





Indiana - 

5 . 








rorento 1 11 J» 


■NDWEST nvwoN 


• - 





San Antonio 































0 It 




LA Lakers 

























Golden State 





LA Clipper* 1 12 -077 






24 35-8* 

V:Reeves 8-142-3 18 Thorpe 3-7 11-12 17) 








NYAritley 9-14 1-2 19, Ewtag 701 5-7 19. 








York 60 (Dudley 10). Assists— VontDUver 19 








(Mayberry 4). Now York 32 (Ward 8). 

Los Angeles 







Chicago 28 » IS 27-103 








Saamnto 21 21 28 18— 88 

Son Jose 







CJaidanll0911-1233L Kukoc 6-15461& 








SJUchmond 8-22 M 2X WNfamson 5-12 26 








12. Raboaeds— Chicago 53 (Rodman 14). 








Sacr ame n to 58 (Stand ifl). 
Assists— Chicago 23 (Kukoc 8). Sacramento 
19 (Owens 4). 

LA. Clippers 24 23 27 28-102 

LA. LAWS 31 24 29 35-119 

LAC Rogers 8-14 5-10 24 Murrey 7-14 4-7 
lft LALJom* 7-14 13-16 28. Bryant 8-21 3-9 
24. Rebounds— LA. CRppers 45 (Murrey). 
LA. Lakers 60 (Btount 9). Assists— LA- 
CBppere 24 (Rooms & LA. Lakers 29 (Von 
Ewi 11). 


NHL Standings 


&NB 5-121 Ml 21. B.WWtams 8*14 3-5 Ifc 
B-.Wofkar 12-23 4-7 29. Mercer 7-15 2-4 14. 
Rebounds— Octroi! 58 (HHI 1U, Boston 49 
(WolkerT). Assists— Detroit IB (HBt Hunte*. 
Dorabre 4J, Boston 20 (BShips 6). 

Vancouver 26 22 17 19— •* 

NwYMk 2* 25 32 21—184 







New Jersey 





















N.Y. Rangers 







N.Y. Istonders 














Tampa Bay 4 16 2 10 




































































St Louis 



























SUNDAY'S nsurn 
Washington 1 2 2-5 

Florida 1 0 1—2 

FM Period; W-Bondra 15 (Sirnorv 

Housiey) Z F -Sheppard 3 (Gagner) (pp). 
Second Period: W-Housiay 3 (Bondra. 
Johansson] (pp). 4 W-Bondra 16 (Oates, 
Johansson) TMrd Period; W-Tlnortfi 5 
(Hunter) 6. F-Whltney 6 (Sheppard) 7. W- 
Slmon 5 (Gonchar) Spots on goal: W- 14-4- 
12-30. F- 9-13-8—30. Cortes- W-KoWg. F- 

Gdgonr-- •» -• • — — 1 2 -0 8-2 

Coraftw 0 12 0-3 

FM Period: C-iginlo 6 (Alteon, Titov) 
(sfi). Second Period; C-Wytorrder 5 (AH son, 
Hulse) 3, C- Titov 3 (Huta*. Nytandei) 4 
Carolina Ptimeau S (OtteiH, Wesley) Third 
Period: Caraftaa. OtJeiB 4 (Kapanerv 
Primeou) A Cantona Emerson 7 
(Sanderson K»n) Orerttme None. Shots on 
goat C-5-B- 10-2—25. Cantona 9-10-13-1-33. 
Coates: C-Tabaracd. Carolina, Burke. 

Las Angeles 0 0 11-2 

Colorado 0 10 0-1 

First Porto* None. Second Period: C- 
Lemieux 9 (Lacroix. Facsberg) ThW Period: 
LA— Tsyplakov 5 (Mirra* PerrouB) 

Overturn: X LA.-Rohtefle 11 (Goley. 
Stinnpel) Shots on geek LA- 9-4-8-1—22. C- 
4-13-20-1— 3ft Goalies: UL-FheL C- 


NFL Standings 









Kansas aty 
San Diego 

7 5 0 .583 

5 7 0 417 
1 11 0 .083 


8 4 0 
B 4 0 

6 6 0 
4 7 1 
4 8 0 

9 2 0 

4 67 






260 226 
197 286 
205 328 

281 22 6 
305 242 
257 228 
233 257 
225 309 

324 1 84 
247 203 
264 277 
275 262 
225 306 

The AP Top 25 

N.Y. Giants 








L T Pd. PF PA 

4 1 .62S 218 207 

5 1 -542 224 176 

6 0 300 246 213 

6- 1 A58 203 244 

9 0 350 196 262 


New England 


W L T Pet PF PA 
8 4 0 M3 283 232 
7 5 0 383 288 216 

Green Bay 9 3 0 .750 316 234 

Minnesota 8 4 0 ,667 274 262 

Tampa Bay 8 4 0 A67 242 192 

Detroit 6 6 0 300 267 230 

Chicago 2 10 0 .167 195 322 


x-5an Francisco l] I 0 .917 295 149 

CaraOna 6 6 0 300 201 224 

Atlanta 4 8 0 333 236 295 

New Orleans 4 8 0 333 154 245 

SL Loots 2 10 0 .167 202 281 

x-won Adrian She. 


Arizona 16. Baltimore 13 
Tennessee 31, Buffalo 14 
Green Bay 45. Dallas 17 
Detroit 32, InAmopoGs 10 
New England 27, Mfcnri 2* 

New York Jets 21 Minnesota 21 
AltanlD 2d New Orleans 3 
PModdphta 23. Pittsburgh 20 
Chicago 11 Tampa Bay 7 
Carolina Id. ST. Lewis 10 
andmot131, Jacksonvfle 26 
Kansas City 19, Seattle 14 
San Frondsca 17, San Diego 10 
New York Giants 7, Washington 7, tie. 

The Top TVmnty 

Five teams in 


Assactoted Press college football pot, with 
RnHtoM vows in perwNhee— . record* 
through Nov. 22. totari point* based on 25 
points tor * first place vow through one 
point for • 25th place von and previous 





1. Michigan (69) 




2. Nebraska (1) 




3. Tennessee 




A Penn St. 




5. Florida St. 




6. UCLA 




7. Florida 




8 North Ccrotna 




9. Ohio SL 




l a Washington SI. 




Tl. Kansas St 




12. Arizona St. 




13. Auburn 




7 4. Georgia - 

■ 8-2 



15. Texas ALM 




16. Syracuse 








la Purdue 




19. Missouri 




20. Cotorodo St. 




21. Washington 




22. Mississippi SL 




23. Southern Miss. 




24. Air Force 




25. Oklahoma St. 




Others receiving votes: Virginia Tech 112, 
loen 7ft West VUglnta 6ft Wisconsin 44. New 
Mexico 41, Louisiana Tech 3ft Marshall 3ft 
Cierason 23, Notre Dome 20, Vbgtnta A 

Southern Cal 4 N. Coroina Sti 

World Cup Scores 

Landtag Itael seem Sunday utter the final 
round otthe 51 3 nilBan World Cup a< GoH. 
played on tee 8,B33-y*nL par-72 The Ocean 
Course. IQawah Wand, South Cantons 

Ireland (545) 

Paul McGiruey 66-704848-273 

Podraig Harrington 71-67-4867—273 

Scotland (550) 

Cohn Montgomeite 68-6646-66—266 

Raymond Russell 66-72-74-72—284 

United Stales (551) 

Davis Love 111 6569-74-65-273 

Justin Leonard 72-69-67 70-278 

Germany (554) 

Alexander Cejta 63686572-268 

Sven S trover 7G 7567-74-286 

Wales (554) 

PHWp Price 72686966-275 

Ion Woasnnm 74-7269-64—279 

Spain (555) 

Ig recta Ganido 67676967— 270 

Miguel Angel Mortal 6874-71-72-285 

England (559) 

Mark James 6873-7866-277 

POul Broodhuist <8746872-282 

Zimbabwe (561) 

Tony Johnstone 7367-7268-280 

Mark McNulty 6874-71-68-28! 

New Zealand (562) 

Grant Waile 78706967— Z76 

Michael Long 69-7567-75-286 

South Africa (562) 

Ernie EH 73686969-279 

Wayne Westner 6871-72-72—283 


1 . Greg Norman. Australia 1 130 points. 

2. Tiger Woods. U3. 1 0.76 

3. Ernie Eb, South Africa 938 

4. Nick Price. Zimbabwe, 9.07 

5. Davfe Love III. U.S. 885 

6. Coin Montgomery Britain, 8.71 

7. MososW Oznki Jopoa 837 
8 Mark O'Meara U3. 823 
9. PMI Mickeboa 1)3. 822 

18 Tom Lehman. U3. 7.B3 
It. Justin Leonard. U.S. 6.96 

12. Scolt HoclL 113. 6.93 

13. David Duval US. 6.78 

14. Brad Faxon. U3„ 637 
15 Nick Faldo. Britain. 635 
18 Vftiy Singh. Fiji 641 

1 7. Steve Elktogtaa Australia. 840 
18 Fred Couples. U3.536 

19. Jespcr Pamevik, Sweden, 536 

20. Tom Watson. U.S. 547 


Barcetoria 28 Attelku Madrid 2& Celta Vigo 
24 Espanyd 23. Real Sociedad 71 Maflocco 
71: Oviedo 21: AtNettC Bilbao 19; Real 
Zaragoza 17: Real Bctb 17; Merida 16- Rac- 
ing Santander 15 Compostela 14 Dcpocthm 
Corona H Tenerife 12: Valencia 11: Val- 
ladolid Ift Satamonco 7; Sporting GOon 1 . 


Leeds United 1 West Ham United 1 


World Cm* 


Leading results: 1. ZaS SieggalL Austro 6a 
1 minute, 3830 seconds; 2 Ylvo Nowen, Swe- 
den 13738 8 Claudio Rlegier, New 
Zealand 13735: 4 Krislino Korokk, 
Burnsville. Minn. 137.75- 5 Trine Bakka 
Norway. 1.-3812; 6 Mortlno AcroJa Switzer- 
land. 13851; 7. Kotin Selringer. Germany. 
13883; 8 Nolosa Bokal Slovakia 13886; 9. 
Hide Gerg, Germany, 139-06 18 Uiska 
Hravat Slovakia 13938 
slalom stan Dotan (After 7 event): 1. 
Steggoft 100 points; % Nowea 8ft 5 Rlegier. 
Secmm. 36 a Bokal 3Z 9. Gog, 2ft 1ft 
Hrovot 26 

214 points: 2. Ertl 192; 1 Nowea 18ft 4, 
Metonhzer, 1565 Piccard, 141;6 Flemmea 
108; 7. SteggalL 10ft 8 Ratea 99; 9(tte). Geig. 
93: Setanger, 93. 


Real Befe l, Departtvo 0 
Salamanca 8 Real Sodedad 0 
Real Zaragoza 1. Tenerife 0 
Merida 8 Mallorca 0 
Ceda Vigo 1, Racing Sard antler 2 
Compostela a Vailed ofld 0 
standings: Real Madrid 28 points; 


Jana Novotna Ql, Czech RepubCo del. Mary 
Pierce (7). Franca 76 (7-4), 6-Z 63. 



oBiamdo— Waived F-C Tim Kemptan. Ac- 
tivated C Don 5clmycs from injured list. 

phoenix — Put C Horado Llamas an in- 
lured list 

Sacramento— Waived F Derek Grimm. 
Activated G Bobby Hurley from Injured Bst 
Toronto— Announced resignation of Utah 
Thomas, oenerai manager. Nomad Glen 
Gnimwikl general manager. 

nfl- F ined Xmus CB Jerome Woods 
810000 tor hit on Denver WR receiver Ed 
McCaffrey. Fined Arizona C Mflte Devlin 
S7300 for late block hum behind on NY Gtanls 
DT KeUh Hanflton Fined Dallas DB Omar 
Stoutmire tSJJOO foe unneaessmy toughness 
ogoinst Washington WR Leslie Shepherd. 

Cincinnati— S igned P Bill Kushner to 
practice squad. 

n.tjets— Signed WR-QB Ray Lucas off 
practice squad. Waived OT Ronnie Dixon. 

Philadelphia— R e-signed OL Harry 
Boatswain to 1-yaar contract. Put LB Danin 
Smith on injured reserve. 

ST. Louis— Waived RB Lawrence PMftn. 









^ :"1 U H 











M CCN NN to* 

imp aueurt iwnd 



1062 AM 
Parte and Suborn^ 


i "T, 

PAGE 20 



Promoting Tourism 

TTTASHINGTON — The or can command respect if he 
V thing that distin- doesn’t have his own skybox. 
guishes Washington from any 


other American city is our 
very own Mayor Marion 
Barry. His concern for his 
Jle goes far 
erning the na- 
tion’s capitaL 
He is also a big 
sports fan— so 
much so that he 
asked Finan- 
cial Control 
Board chair- 
man, Andrew 
Brimmer, for $625,000 to ac- 
quire a Luxury sky box at the 

new MCI Sports Arena in 
downtown D.C. 


Brimmer agreed to the 
lease, providing the suite was 
used only for business and to 
promote tourism in the city. 
Barry, being the conscien- 
tious leader he is, assured 
Brimmer that's exactly what 

he had in mind 

Bony’s reasoning was that 
you can score more points for 
Hr ata basket ball gam?; than 
wandering the halls of Con- 
gress. He also felt that no mny- 

It’sa GreatDay 
For Quiche Lorraine 

Agmce Fnmce-Pnesse 

PARIS — About 30 French 
chefs are planning an 18-hour 
baking session on Thursday 
to produce the world’s 
biggest quiche lormine. 

The quiche, to measure 6 
meters (about 20 feet) in dia- 
meter, will be baked in 125 
pieces, then assembled as a 
single pie in an attempt to 
break into the Guinness Book 
of Records, the head of the 
French caterers’ association 
said. A total of 1 ,800 eggs, 160 
.liters of milk and 180 kilo- 
grams of bacon will be used. 

sky box. 

A brouhaha ensued after 
the news of this leaked out, 
and Brimmer immediately 
scrapped the idea. It was a 
great loss for the city because 
I’m certain Mayor Barry 
could have gotten a lot of 
work accomplished in the 
sky box, something like this: 


A Barry guest: This a great 
box to watch Michael Jordan. 

Mayor Barry: Please don’t 
talk about basketball while 
we’re up here. I’d like to dis- 
cuss D.C. bonds and what we 
can do to make them more 
attractive to people who are 
always complaining about 
our potholes and falling- 
down bridges. 

Guest: Can I at least watch 
the game? 

Barry: I'd prefer that you 
don't. I didn’t lease a sports 
box to become a spectator. 

Barry: How about some 
caviar and vodka? 

Guest: No thanks. I’ll just 
have some foie gras and a 
frankfurter. I must say you 
have a wonderful life for a 

Barry: Living well is the 
best revenge. I can get so much 
more done in a skybox than I 
can from visiting Nigeria. One, 
thing I really need advice on is 
bow to deal with the snow. 


Guest: If I were yon, I 
would leave town as soon as it 
starts to fall. 

Barry: I hadn’t thought of 
that. You’re a big help. 
Would you like to come to a 
hockey game here tomorrow 
night? I'd like to share some 
ideas with you about dump- 
ing our garbage in Virginia. 

Guest Washington owes 
you a lot for your dedication. 

Barry: I’m just paying back 
for all the city has done for 

In 6 Welcome to Sarajevo,’ Echos From the Siegej 

By Alan Riding 

flew York Times Service 

L ONDON — The Bosnian war in the early 
1990s was truly a conflict of the new in- 
formation age. It was covered live, in color and in 

No one could say, “I didn’t know,' 1 because 
journalists and camera crews were risking their 
Lives daily to keep the world informed by satellite. 
Yet this was not enough. 

Governments and members of the public every- 
where “knew"; they even expressed outrage, dis- 
may and embarrassment But the bombardment of 
Sarajevo continued for almost four yearn. 

Michael Nicholson, a veteran British television 
correspondent, decided to focus his reporting on a 
Sarajevo orphanage in the hope that me plight of 
children living in misery and fear — and eventually 
being shelled — would stir international action. He 
promised the terrified children that they would be 
rescued, and one 1 1-year-old. Natasha, took him at 
his word. 

When he was about to accompany buses taking 
children to safety, Natasha reminded him of his 


Nicholson's experience; which he recounted in a book, 
“Natasha's Story,” provides the framework for Michael 

Urfir UmtvWraoui 

Emira Nusevic, a Sarajevan, is featured in Winter bottom’s film. 

the Dayton peace agreement in November 1995 and who 
remains an unpaid consultant to the Clinton administration 
o a Bosnia, has volunteered to publicize the film because he 
feels it serves as far more than a footnote to the latest bloody 

Winterbottom's new film, ''Welcome to Sarajevo," the first chapter of European history. 

English-language movie account of the siege of the Bosnian * ‘Bosnia was the greatest collective security failure of the 


But the film goes beyond the immediacy of “Natasha's 
Story,” offering a compelling portrait of the nerve-racking 
lives of television war correspondents and conveying the 
incomprehension of Sarajevans at the world's indifference 
to their fate. 

“Welcome to Sarajevo” was filmed — mainly in Sa- 
rajevo, but also in Croatia and Macedonia — in the summer 
of 1996, barely six months after the U.S. -sponsored Dayton 
peace agreement led to the dispatch of tens of thousands of 
N ATO troops and brought an end to the fighting. 

Yet while set in 1992, the movie remains disturbingly 
topical: A political settlement in Bosnia and Herzegovina is 
still far from assured, and voices in Congress are calling for 
the withdrawal of American troops next June. 

“A film isn’t going to have a major impact,” said 
Winterbottom, 36, a soft-spoken En glishman, whose movie 
before this one was “Jude/' an adaptation of Thomas 
Hardy's novel ‘‘Jude the Obscure,” starring Christopher 
Eccleston and Kate Winslet. “But perhaps it can remind 
that Bosnia is nor over and done with; it is not a dead 

“If people talk about it. perhaps it will help those who 
want to do something about it If you go to Sarajevo, it’s clear 
that the more the West decides to become committed, the 
better the future is going to be.” 

Richard Holbrooke, the American diplomat who brokered 

West since the 1930s, and the film really raptures that,” 
Holbrooke said. “But it also illustrates by implication that it 
wasn't until tire United States came in that mis horror was 
ended, and that it could and would resume again if we pull 
out prematurely, as some shortsighted people are advoc- 
ating. It would be an act of great irresponsibility to walk 
away from such a substantial achievement-’' 

This was not of course the political dimension that Win- 
ter bottom bad in mind when the British producers Graham 
Broadbent and Damian Jones first approached him three 
years ago with a screenplay based on “Natasha's Story.” 
Bat he did see an opportunity to * ‘do something' * that might 
draw attention to the war in Bosnia. 

With Frank Cottrell Boyce recruited to provide a screen- 
play, the director and the producers then decided to broaden 
tbe narrative, “to use the journalists-' story to tell other 
people’s stories rather than just Nicholson’s own story,” as 

Winterbottom put it. 

om pu 

By May 1995 a screenplay was ready, but financing for 
the film was not in place. Winterbottom, whose previous 

films also include “Butterfly Kiss” with Amanda Plummer footage that had been',* so to speak, on our cutting-room 

onrl * 1 lintK D.-tk^rf /’’nrlllla rnant rllA MAf Ap t-IlA <1 aa«« ** M; haAM vtiA Aim qdIx' 

“We were going in at the same time as thoii t 
sands of troops/’ he recalled at Sheppertoo btu-^ 
dios outside London where he was in p° stp J* ro ’ 
duction for his new film, “I Want You, a. 
comemporaiy love story- “You couldn t help ask- 
ing, if that effort was being made now, why wasn t 

Then there was the huge shock of the scale of ttief 

damage, but also the contrasts. Sniper’s Alley was 
devastated, but in. the center the marker was open t 
and full of fruits and vegetables. Bars were ope^ - 
people were eating pizzas. They were determined 1 

to keep on living, ’ . _ . _ 4 

Filming began in June 1996, with Stephen 

O il lan e- jn the role of Michael Henderson, the. 

British reporter who rescues Emira (played by a 
Sarajevan girl, Emira Nusevic); Woody Haxretsoq 
as Flynn, a bombastic American reporter with A 
soft heart, and Marisa Toraei as a relief worker. | 
The scenes shot in Croatia showed the bus 
convoy's flight to Split but, because the moyie 
insurers wanted to limit time spent in Sarajevo/ 
interiors and a fire at the orphanage had to be, 
filmed in Macedonia. As it happened. Winter-'; 
bottom recalled, it proved easy to work in Sarajevo; 
not least because of help from the local Saga Film Company, 
which had recorded critical moments of the war on video. 

Principally in the first half of the movie, which focuses oq 
the war and the army of journalists who had h e adqua r ters ift " 
the ruins of the Sarajevo Holiday Inn, Winterbottom decided • 
to make use of real documentary tape to convey the full horror 
of the shelling of civilians. This approach has inevitably 
created the impression among audiences that these are images 
being captured by tbe film’s fictional television reporters, * 

The director said that while he intentionally blurred fact 
and fiction, his purpose was to make things as real as 
possible, not to make some large metaphorical statement. 

“In crar research, we watched all this footage,” he ex- 
plained. “So, having seen incredibly shocking and moving 
stuff, you can see the risks people took to get it; you can see 
very bluntly wbat is happening in Sarajevo. It seamed crazy 
not to use it It seemed crazy to say, ‘Well, we’ve seen all that 
stuff, now we’re going to re-create it’ So the general 
principle was to re-create as tittle as possible. It wasn’t 
stylistic thing. It just seemed to be much more honest to use. , 
rail footage. In the end, we used 10 minutes of video in a-~ 
100-minute film.” 

Nicholson, 60, a reporter for the network ITN, said that .; 
some of the video images in the movie had in fact never been ■ ■ 
seen on television because they were considered “too hor- ' 
rific” for the general public. “It was astonishing to sec:: 

and “Go Now” with Robert Carlyle, spent the rest of the 
year filming ‘ ‘Jude. ’ ’ 

Finally, in January 1996, with Miramax joining Britain's 
Channel Four Films in backing the film and an uneasy peace 
taking hold in Bosnia, Winterbottom and his colleagues 
visited Sarajevo for the first time. 

floor," Nicholson said. “People who’veseen the film ask 
roe, ‘Was it really like that? ’ Well, it really was. 

“The film is very real, although of course a lot of events * ■ 
are compressed into a short time. The amazing thing is that 1 
people like me spent four years trying to tell people what ft - 
was like and -it takes a movie for people to get it” 



The Chopin Marathoner: He Knows His Mazurkas 

By David Stevens 

International Herald Tribune 


ARIS — Garrick Ohls- 
son has had a busy 
month. Hie American 

a daunting! 

in Paris, London and Poland de- 
voted exclusively to the solo 
keyboard music of Chopin. 

The three programs Ohlsson 
brought as his musical baggage 
are only the first installment of 
his traversal of the composer's 
complete solo works, which he 
has grouped into six programs, 
each one of them a musical 
meal and a half. He has per- 
formed the complete cycle over 
the last couple of years in New 
York and other North American 
sites, and the European repeat 
of the marathon will be completed with a series of 
similar length next year. Meanwhile, the feat has 
also been committed to record, complete in nine 
compact disks on the Arabesque labeL 

The 49-year-old musician insists there has been 
“no burnout,” and in the stamina department it 
probably does not hurt to be 6 feet 4, with hands to 
match, and have the physique and manner of an 
amiable piano mover rather than piano player. 

Yet, although he has the hage technique to go 
with that physique and an outgoing personality, 
Ohlsson is not an overpowering performer in a 
muscular sense. Critics regularly cote his “sen- 
sitivity” and ‘'lyricism’* and remark on his avoid- 
ance of self-aggrandizement. His personality on the 
concert platform comes across as a nice balance of 
his ancestry — Swedish on his father’s side and 
Sicilian- American on his mother’s. 

In reviewing Ohlsson’s first recital in Paris’s 
Salle Gaveau, Alain Lompech, the daily Le 
Monde’s chief scorekeeper of the piano game, 
wrote of “such elegance, such refusal to show off, 
even in the most hair-raising etudes,” and summed 
up the artist as one of the last of a line of pianists 
“who know all the expressive and technical re- 
sources” of the instrument. 

Although Chopin is omnipresent in the piano 
world, relatively few — even of those who are 
celebrated Chopin interpreters — have come for- 
ward lo tackle tbe complete works in a cycle. 
Alexander Brailowsky famously did so in Paris in 

Fvnrk | |«tnbnn/M«pnna 

Garrick Ohlsson is traversing the composer’s complete solo works. 

1924 and again in New York after the war, and 
Nikita Magaloff did it in Europe, but when Ohlsson 
launched his project, it had been decades since the 
feat was last performed. 

“From Opus 1 to 64 there are very few duds,” 

Ohlsson said. “Chopin was fully formed by the 
time he was 20, only a little behind Mozart” 

Organization was necessary. “The public seems 
to like big events, but it is also necessary to avoid 
fatigue for the Listeners,” he said. Chopin helped. 

For instance, the mazurkas “are grouped by mu- 
sical purpose — the pieces are linked so that one 
drops into another. ” 

He avoided the chronological approach, and the 
genre or encyclopedic organization has been re- 
served for the recordings. Thus, each program has 
groupings of, say, mazurkas, waltzes and noc- 
turnes, with the spots just before intermission re- 
served for one or the sonatas or major dramatic 
works or important sets such as the two groups of 
etudes or the 24 preludes, or major crowd-pleaser 
such as tbe A-flat Polonaise (Op. 53), which ended 
the third recital. But each program is a minimum of 
two hours of music and rates very high on any- 
body's degree-of-difficulty scale. 

Ohlsson says he has “resisted being a Chopin 
specialist,” and indeed he has a large and eclectic 
repertory, from Haydn and Mozart to the late 20th 
century, and including such pianistic beasts as 
Busoni's hour-pins, five-movement concerto. 

Nevertheless, it was his triumph in the 1970 

Chopin piano competition in 
Warsaw — the first American 
to win that celebrated tourna- 
ment — that provided toe 
springboard for his career. 

He had earlier won the 
Busoni competition in Italy 
and another in Montreal, but in 
1970 he had to choose between 
two big ones — besides 
Warsaw, there was also the 
Tchaikovsky competition in 
Moscow, the one that- had 
launched Van Clibum so spec- 
tacularly in 1958. 

Rosina Lhevinne, one of his 
teachers at Juiiliard, argued in 
favor of Moscow. The Russian 
atmosphere was more hospit- 
able to Americans, sbe argued, 
and toe Russians would like 
Ohls son’s big, virtu osic style, 
“but she said toe Poles were 
more Eurocentric. Francophile and snobbish, and 
they didn't think any foreigner could quite get tbe 
mazurkas right” 

“It was good advice, 1 ’ he concedes, but he went 
to Warsaw anyway. So while Ohlsson was happy to 
win toe first prize, he seems even prouder to have 
also won tbe special prize given specifically for his 
performance of mazurkas. 

That triumph launched his career, but an incident 
a couple of years later got him almost as much 
publicity. On tbe eve of a recital in Alice Tully Hall 
in New York, for which he had picked out a Stein- 
way that was duly delivered, an interview appeared 
in The New York Times in which he described his 
Boesendorfer Imperial as toe “Rolls-Royce of pi- 
anos.” The Stein way people promptly sent a truck 
and took their instrument back and would not relent 
Ohlsson had to cadge another instrument from Phil- 
harmonic Hall, a Boesendorfer, as it happened. 

At the Salle Gaveau, Ohlsson. who says the 
manufacturers are much more relaxed about these 
•hings today, played a Steinway. 

Even in this Chopin cycle, not everything is 
Chopin. For encores. Ohlsson has come up with 
works by other composers — a Rachmaninoff 
prelude, a Scriabin etude — that are a kind of 
homage to Chopin or chat show his influence. But 
the recitals show Chopin in all bis dramatic variety 
and melodic richness. 

“He is greater than we think he is,” Ohlsson 

■T* HE estranged wife of Earl 
1 Spencer applied Monday 
to the Cape Town High Court 
to block a divorce action there. 
Lord Spencer, tbe brother of 
the late Diana, Princess of 
Wales, appeared at toe start of 
bearings to deride whether his 
divorce from Victoria Lock- 
wood, a farmer model, will 
take place in Britain or South 
Africa. Most of Lord Spen- 
cer’s assets are in Britain, and 
if the case is beard there. Lock- 
wood might get a larger court- 
ordered settlement than in 
South Africa. Lord Spencer 
and Lockwood married in 
September 1989; be moved to 
South Africa in 1996 after 
clashes with newspapers over 
stories about an extramarital 
affair and bis wife's treatment 
for eating disorders. 


The student new, 

ilfc .. fe-X 1 

Sm KnyiV ftm* 

Victoria Lockwood, right, outside the courthouse. 

ine student newspaper at 

the University of California at Berkeley, which put me in jaiL "But after getting her a sand- d\ 
carried a column about Chelsea Clinton, a wich and something to drink, the police from * 

student at Stanford, has apologized. Ryan 
Tate, the editor in chief, said in an editor’s 
note, “If it had been another freshman . . . that 
would have been unacceptable, too. It was a big 
error on our part.” The column by a fourth- 
year student, Guy Bran urn, exhorted students 
to seize Stanford’s campus before tbe football 
game between toe two school rivals. Besides 
revealing which dorm Chelsea lives in, Bran- 
um also wrote: “ Show your spirit on Chelsea's 
bloodied carcass, because as the Stanford 
Daily lets us know, she is JUST ANOTHER 
STUDENT/' Bran urn said that he was being 
satirical and that toe column was meant to poke 
fun at Stanford’s elitist reputation. 


different jurisdictions teamed up to relay her; 
in five separate patrol cars, to her doorstep! 
Greyhound has suspended the driver, who has 
been with the company for 20 years, pending 
an investigation. 

□ ‘ 

A new book on the Red Baron, toe World 
War I German flying ace who downed about 80 
Allied aircraft, claims it has finally identified 
an Australian soldier, firing from the ground; 
as responsible for shooting him down. Until- 
now, it had been generally accepted that Roy- 
Brown, a Canadian pilot, shot Manfred von 
Richthofen’s plane out of toe sky above the 
Somme to Eastern France on April 21, 1918. £ 

But toe book, “The Red Baron’s Last Flight, 
Greyhound has apologized and given a by two authors including Norman Franks, an 
refund to an 80-year-old woman for throwing eminent aviation historian, says toe fatal shot 
her off a bus in the middle of toe night with her was fired by Sergeant Cedric Basset Pop kin. 
birthday present: a puppy named Cookie. The French archivists say they have evidence to 
bus driver discovered Antonia Sanabria’s support the book's claim, 
gift, told her it wasn’t alio wed and ordered her ■ ■ 

off ar a rural truck stop about SO miles (125 ■ Q 

kilometers) from her home in Tampa, Florida, The stylist Edmond Booblil is hosting a 

at 3 A.M. A security guard summoned by the fashion show in Paris for generously pro- 
bus driver called sheriff* s deputies — adding portioned women he says are ignored by other- 

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in the springtime. 

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makes calling home or to other countries really easy. 
Just dial the AT&T Access Number for the country you 1 re 
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l.jua dial die XftT Acces Number 
for the oounay you are celling from. 

1 Did the pMne number yon're calling. 

3- Dial die calling card number Used 
above jour name. 

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