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Full text of "The liturgy of the Holy Apostles Adai and Mari. Together with two additional liturgies to be said on certain feasts and other days: and the order of Baptism. The order of the consecration of the Oblation and of Baptism. Complete and entire. Collated from many manuscripts from various places"

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( 8 9 ) 


He then takes a jar of water and pours it into the chalice in the same 
way in the sign of the cross , saying : 

Water is mixed with wine and wine with water. And let them both be 
one, in the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. 
He takes the flagon of wine and pours it into the chalice , saying : 

One of the soldiers struck the side of our Lord with a spear, and forth- 
with came there out blood and water. And he that saw it bare record and 
his record is true, and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye also might 
believe. In the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy 
Spirit, for ever. 

Here endeth the Order of Preparation. 

Unto God be glory. 


THE END. 


\ 


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( 88 ) 

And let all the people say Amen and Amen. Among companies 
clothed with light : and the bands of Angels : the bridechamber is kept 
for thee in heaven : at the right hand of the King Christ our Saviour. * 
O our illustrious and holy Father : Mar N. the victorious : who didst 
work a work of righteousness : in the Church, the spouse of Christ : and 
didst love fast and prayer : and perfect and true love. * And to prove the 
place where thy illustrious body is laid up : well forth helps : and healing 
to all that are afflicted : and take refuge in thy prayers. * Great is the 
power by which thou didst conquer the devil : and which brought thee 
to the land which is full of good things. And now for us all beseech : 
that with thee we may sing in the kingdom : a new praise which ceases 
not : to Father Son and Holy Spirit. 1 

And so forth , as many anthems as he wills , while he is taking the 
bread out of the oven and putting it on the paten. He then [ takes 
a little fire from the oven and puts it in the censer , and] takes a little 
incense , and says : 

This earthen vessel is loosed [from its sanctification], and let it return to 
its former nature, in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the 
Holy Spirit. 

He scatters the incense within , not in the form of a cross ; and then 
goes down from the oven with the paten in his right hand , and the 
censer in his left , and takes them into the holy place saying Ps. xcvi. 
1-9 to holiness. He sets the paten in the recess on the right of the altar 
and hangs the censer in its place. He then goes out of the holy place to 
the Place of the Deacon 2 to mix the chalice. 

DIRECTION FOR MIXING THE CHALICE. 

First he brings a flagon of choice wine and holds it in his right hand 
and the chalice in his left hand , and pours wine into the chalice in the 
form of a cross , from east to west and north to souths saying : 

The precious blood of our Saviour is poured into this chalice in the Name 
of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, for ever. 

’ From the Special Anthems at the Wednesday night service. 

* The Baptistery, on the south side of the sanctuary, also used as a vestry and, in many 
churches, for the baking of the bread. 


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( » 7 ) 

that they be not hurt by the Evil one. * May those who travel by sea : be 
freed from the billows : and those who journey on dry land : be delivered 
from barbarians. May those who have been carried captive : be released 
from their bonds. May Thy compassion comfort the sorrows : of those who 
are taken by force. If any are harassed by the Evil one, may Thy great 
strength rebuke him : and pardon those who walk in sin : and forgive their 
trespasses. May Thy Godhead be pleased : with those who have offered 
offerings : and raise those who have, fallen asleep in Thy hope : and quicken 
them by Thy grace. May we who have taken refuge : in the prayer of the 
Blessed One, the holy Virgin Mary : mother of Jesus our Saviour, be kept 
by it from the Evil one : and conquer all his wiles. * And in that great 
day of searching : when the dead rise from the graves : and the good are 
separated from the evil : may we be worthy to have our joy with her : in the 
bride-chamber of the kingdom on high : and to sing threefold praise to 
the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. 1 

From Everlasting , etc. The ranks and orders of the Spiritual ones : 
with the priests in the Church, are singing praise : for a memorial of the 
holy martyr : St. George who did brave deeds and conquered and was 
crowned. * He endured sufferings and troubles : fire and the sword and 
stoning. The persecutors inflicted on him : many and various torments. 
He put the wicked king to shame : who persecuted the good servants. 
He brought low the excellency of his power : and the gods which he 
worshipped. Zeus and Apollo and Artemis : the work of men’s hands. 
The giant of strength St. George cried : and said to the nobles of the 
king : Ye shall not worship idols : carved and wrought by artificers. Lo 
Christ is the King of kings : and Lord of all gods : He giveth an 
inheritance to all that fear Him : a bridechamber and good things that 
pass not away. He clotheth with glory in His kingdom : the illustrious 
martyrs who believed in Him. * Kneeling in prayer before his Lord he 
besought and prayed, saying : Take away by Thy grace : from all who 
keep the commemoration : of this day of my persecution : hail and 
famine and pestilence : locust, young locust and caterpillar : the blast that 
destroys the fields. And the terror of the night : and all evil confusions : 
And keep all the inhabited world : by the great power of Thy Godhead.' 

* From the Special Anthems at the Wednesday night service. 


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( 86 ) 

Prayer . For all Thine unrequited aids ( see page 3). 

They proceed. Thee, Lord of all, we confess (see page 3). 

Prayer. Thou, my Lord, art in truth (see page 3). 

Deacon. Lift up your voice all ye His people and glorify the living Cod. 
Answer. Holy God thrice (see page 3). 

Prayer. Holy and Glorious (see page 4). 

Deacons . Bow your heads for the laying on of hands and receive the 
blessing. 

Prayer. With our souls in accord with the one perfect faith of Thy 
glorious Trinity, may we all in one concord of love be worthy to raise 
to Thee praise and honour, confession and worship at all times, Lord of 
all, Father Son and Holy Ghost for ever. 

They proceed to these anthems. 

Thou art a priest for ever. O High Priest of our religion and our 
Absolver, O Christ Who wast for us an acceptable and blameless sacrifice : 
we ask of Thee forgiveness of our trespasses : when the judgment seat 
is set. For Thou art persuaded by Thy sufferings in our nature in 
it Thou didst suffer and wast tempted for our salvation. 

Be ye watchful and sin not. Ye disciples of Christ and sons of the 
mysteries beware of mixing with heathen and apostates : that your faith 
be not made void : and the baptism which ye received : made useless 
by the customs ye would acquire from them : destructive of body and soul. 
He healeth those that are broken in heart. Our Lord gave the medicine 
of repentance : to the skilled physicians who are the priests of the Church. 
Let him whom Satan hath stricken with the wounds of wickedness : come 
and shew his sores to the disciples of the wise physician : and they will 
heal him with spiritual medicine. 

Glory to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Ghost. By the 
prayer of the Blessed One may peace reign in creation : and by the 
request of the Virgin : may the children of the Church be preserved. * May 
the Power which came down from on high : and hallowed and adorned 
her to His honour : that she might bear the true Light : and the Hope and 
Life of all creatures : be with us and amongst us : all the days of our life. 
May He heal the sick and infirm : and those who are cast into temptations. 
May He bring back those who are journeying afar in safety to their homes : 


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( *5 ) 

He puts his hand in the oven and takes the priest' s loaf 1 in his hand , 
saying : 

The King of kings came down to be baptized, and bowed His head before 
John that He might be baptized of him. 

He arranges the priest's loaf on the east side of the oven , and another 
on the west , saying : On the east and on the west. Then another on 
the north and another on the souths saying : On the north and on the 
south. And another on the right of the priest's loaf saying : Titus 
on the right hand. And another on the left , saying : Dumachus on the 
left. [Two robbers were crucified with the one heavenly Treasure : the 
one on His right hand would not cease from his robbery, but in his last 
robbery robbed the Paradise of Eden.*] For the others he says , May they 
be fat and sweet and shew that the Lord is true, strong and blameless. 
When he has done arranging them he says thrice : As the fragrance of 
the good incense and the savour of the sweet censer, receive O Christ our 
Saviour the request and prayer of Thy servants. 

He takes a little incense and throws it into the oven , which he cover j, 
saying thrice : Hallelujah, Hallelujah. Glory to Thee O God. 

He proceeds . Glorious art Thou, O our Lord ; and it is meet that we 
should glorify Thee day by day for ever and ever. Amen. * Glory 
to Christ, and confession to Him who opened our mouth and granted 
unto us that we should sing hallelujahs and praises to Him, repeat thrice ; 
the third time say : Sing and glorify Him. * Let us glorify the Father, 
the Son and the Holy Ghost for ever. Amen. Repeat thrice. * Our 
mouth is not sufficient to confess Thee, O our Lord, all the days of our 
life for Thy grace, repeat thrice ; the third time say : to honour and 
glorify Thee. Continuation. Have compassion upon us by Thy grace, 
O Thou Who art a merciful Lord to us mortals, and have mercy upon us. 
O Thou before Whom no man living is pure indeed, Thou O my Lord 
didst turn us from all error. Thou art God, and for Thee glory is meet 
for ever and ever. Amen. 

They proceed. Peace be with us. 

* Syr. “ The portion with the malka.” or (as here) '* malka.” 

* The words in square brackets are omitted from the Jilu manuscript, apparently by a 
copyist’s error. 


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( 8 4 ) 

This dough is signed and hallowed with old and holy leaven of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, which was given and handed down to us by our holy fathers 
Mar Adai and Mar Mari and Mar Thomas the apostles, who made disciples 
of this Eastern region ; In the Name of the Father and of the Son and of 
the Holy Spirit. He signs the dough in the form of a cross. 

He then takes the malka and signs the oil in the priest* s loaf in the same 
way. He also takes with two fingers some of the malka , saying : 

This broken portion is signed and hallowed with this holy leaven ; In the 
Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. 

He puts on the cover of the vessel containing the malka and goes and 
carries it to its place ^ that is to the holy place , saying Ps. xs civ. i— 6 
inclusive , and says : 

Our King is with us and our God is with us : and our helper is the God 
of Jacob. Blessed are the people that are in such a case. Blessed are 
the people that are in such a case. Blessed are the people whose God is 
the Lord. 

He proceeds with Ps. xxiv. 7, 8, and hangs the vessel in its place 
and proceeds , beginning : 

Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace and a good hope to 
mankind. 

Our Father, etc. [with farcings]. 

He says Ps. Ixxxii.-ci. inclusive , while signing and kneading the bread. 
And when he has finished the preparation , he goes to the oven and 
says ; 

He brought me also out of the horrible pit, [out of the mire and clay ; 
and set my feet upon the rock and ordered my goings]. 

He fills the censer with coals of fire and hangs it up and covers the 
fire in the oven until it has got somewhat low. He wipes the [sides of 
the oven *] well and uncovers the fire . He takes a little incense and 
puts it in the fire, saying : 

This earthen vessel is hallowed in the Name of the Father and of the 
Son and of the Holy Ghost. 

He proceeds . Holy God, thrice (see page 3). 

* The oven, made of clay, is built into the ground or into the wall Wood is burnt at 
the bottom, and the cakes adhere to the sides until they are baked. 


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( 8 3 ) 


[ From a Manuscript of the Jilu District. 1 ] 

THE ORDER OF KNEADING AND PREPARING [THE 
BREAD] AND OF THE MIXTURE. 

They begin. Our Father, etc. 

Prayer . Make us worthy, O our Lord and our God, to walk in the ways 
of virtue which are well-pleasing to and propitiate Thy Majesty, and may 
our desire be in Thy law, and may we meditate in it night and day, O 
Lord, of all, Father Son and Holy Ghost, for ever. He says Ps. i.—xxx. 
inclusive , three hulali: before each subdivision of which is said a prayer 
similar to the above. 2 ' 

During the Psalms the priest brings fine flour and olive oil and warm 
water and mixes them together , and pours into them leaven , 3 and puts 
salt, in according to his discretion. He says the three hulali until the 
dough is made. When it is made he makes a mark on the dough,* in 
the middle , on the east , west , north , and south ; and covers it well until 
the time of preparing the bread. 

THE ORDER OF PREPARING [THE BREAD]. 

When he prepares the bread he first takes the portion for the antidoron 5 
from the top of the dough, and then the leaven , 6 and then takes from the 
middle of the dough the priest* s loaf 7 and makes in it a square hollow , 8 
and puts in it a little olive oil kept for the purpose, and goes and brings 
the malka , 9 and says Ps. cxlv. 1—7 to “ shewed.** He opens the vessel 
and takes with two fingers some of the malka , and says : 

* Printed in the second part of the Takhsa (Urmi, 1892). 

* The Psalms are divided into twenty parts, each called a Hulala. A subdivision of a 
Hulala is called a Marmitha. (See note 3 in the Liturgy, p. 1.) 

* The ordinary leaven kept from the last baking. 

4 With a wooden press. 

* Or the napkin. The former is the received interpretation. 

‘ For future use. A little dough is kept over each time to leaven the next baking. 

1 i.e. The principal host • lit. “ font.” 

* The holy leaven, preserved in the sanctuary of each church, and renewed yearly. It 
is handed down from generation to generation. The Syriac equivalent for " leaven ” in this 
office is khmira, the usual word. 


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( 82 ) 

Prayer to loose the water [from its consecration ]. O Blessed and Holy 
One Who art alive for evermore, Who art from everlasting, and Whose depth 
is unsearchable by man ; Thou of Thy will hast created us and hast not 
withheld Thy gift from us who have called on Thy Name, but hast sent 
unto us Thy Holy Spirit. These waters have been consecrated with Amen 
and with the same Amen let them be loosed from their consecration, let 
them return unto their former nature. For all these Thy aids and 
graces towards us let us lift up unto Thee praise and honour and con- 
fession and adoration, now and always and for ever and ever. He does 
not make the sign of the cross over the water , but puts his hand into it 
and washes the cruse in the waters of the Jordan , and troubles the water 
and grasps and turns it round hastily within the water as one who would 
snatch something from it. And he throws a little ordinary water into 
the Jordan and then the priests who celebrated baptism wash the cruse and 
their hands and faces. And every one who anointed and who baptized 
and who came near to the baptism shall wash in the font. Then they 
cast aside the water in a pure and untrodden place. If there be an 
orifice they open it and let the water out thence so that it is not trodden 
by any one as when others pour it out in the nave from ignorance. If 
a man come and desire baptism they do not consecrate the same water 
again but bring other and consecrate it. And know that baptism is by 
no means to be administered without consecration , except that if any 
one come near unto death they give him baptism. 

Here endeth the Order of Baptism , without omission. 

To God be glory , and upon us His mercies and compassion. 

Tea and Amen. 



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( 8i ) 

offences in Thy glorious holy life- with us : and our Helper the God 
giving and divine mysteries, O Christ of Jacob. 

the Hope of our nature, at every Blessed are the people that are in 
season for ever. such a case. Blessed are the people 

Prayer. The new sons whom Thou that are in such a case : blessed are 
hast begotten in Thy holy Baptism, the people whose God is the Lord, 
from a spiritual bosom, worship For He is our God. Christ Who 
Thee. O my Lord fulfil Thy gift wast baptized and didst shine forth 
in Thy servants, forbid from them and enlighten all : make Thy peace 
shameful things, that they may keep to dwell amongst Thy people which 
in purity the glorious garment where- Thou hast chosen for Thyself, 
with Thou in Thy compassion hast Create in me a pure heart 0 God. 
clothed them, O Lord of all, Father Grant us O Christ, that with a pure 
and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. heart : and in good works we may 
Another. May the great aid of perfect Thy will. 

Thy Godhead, my Lord, accompany Glory to the Father and to the 
these Thy worshippers who have Son and to the Holy Spirit. In 
been baptized in Thy Name, to per- Jerusalem which is above before the 
feet and fulfil at every season the judgment seat of Christ, there may the 
will of Thy Sovereignty, O Lord of names of Thy servants be written, 
all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit From everlasting and for ever 
for ever. and ever. Thy Shining forth, our 

Saviour, hath given joy to creation 
and hath promised blessings and 
eternal life. 

Conclusion. Let us raise glory and honour and confession and adoration 
unto Thee* O Most High Who didst descend and put on the flesh of our 
humiliation, and madest us one with Thee in all things of Thy Godhead 
and didst promise us that Thou wouldst make us heirs of Thy glory and 
children of Thy own inheritance in the fellowship of Thine honour. May 
Thy mercies and Thy compassion be upon us all continually ; and to Thee 
and through Thee to Thy Father and to the Holy Spirit may we lift up 
praise and honour and confession and adoration, now and always and for 
ever and ever. 

M 


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( 8o ) 

Evil one and his hosts; and sanctify your members in chastity. May 
this signing which ye have accepted, be to you unto the blessings to 
come that pass not away, at the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ ; and 
in the new world may He set you at His right hand, and ma y ye lift up 
glory and confession and adoration to the Father and to the Son and to 
the Holy Spirit, now and always and for ever and ever. 

He signs their foreheads with the thumb of his right hand from below 
upwards and from right to left y sayings N. is baptized and complete, in 
the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit for ever. 
They answer , Amen. 

Then he sets crowns on their heads saying , Thou hast set upon his head a 
glorious crown ; he asked life of Thee and Thou gavest it unto him. Or 
this , The crown of N. is woven, unto feasts and rejoicings, in the Name of 
the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit for ever. 


The priest takes the horn , and stand- 
ing above the font pours the oil from 
the cruse into the horn ; and if 
any of the oil remains in the cruse 
he casts it with the cruse into the- 
font. 

They pray t It is due, my Lord, that 
we should lift up constant praise and 
honour and confession and adoration 
and thanksgiving unto Thy glorious 
Trinity, for the gifts of the holy 
mysteries which Thou hast given us 
in Thy compassion for the absolu- 
tion of our trespasses ; O Lord of all, 
Father and Son and Holy Spirit for 
ever. 

Another. Blessed be Thy adorable 
honour from Thine exalted place ; 
Who pardonest our debts and our 
sins and Who passest over our 


Then they enter the baptistery and 
begin the anthems. 

Holy and aweful is His Name . 
Our Father which art in heaven 
hallowed be Thy name : Thy 
kingdom come Thy will be done. 

I will alway give thanks unto the 
Lord. Blessed be Christ Who hath 
sanctified us in His Baptism : and 
hath given us a type of eternal life. 
And blessed be the name of His 
honour for ever. Blessed be He 
Who in His Baptism hath sanctified 
for our salvation : an absolving womb 
in the mystery of His praise. 

For He is the Lord our God. 
One Lord one faith one baptism 
for the remission of debts. 

A King great above all gods. 
Our King with us and our God 


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10 


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( 79 ) 

glorify Thy glorious Trinity at every season, O Lord of all, Father and 
Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

The priest repeats this \jprayer of the ] imposition of hands f passing his 
hand over the head of each , and saying in an audible voice ^ Great, O 
my Lord, are the wonderful acts of Thy dispensation and our nature is 
unequal to the narration of them. For from the beginning of our 
existence we have polluted the honour of our free-will, through the 
seduction of our captor Satan, and we have rejected the confession of 
Thy Godhead by the worship of that which is no God. But Thy grace 
did not leave us to that perdition of which we were worthy by reason of 
our wickednesses, but by the revelation in the flesh of the Only-begotten 
from Thee, God the Word, Thou hast turned us back towards Thee and 
hast made us worthy to know Thee and hast raised the low estate of our 
nature, by taking our headship, and hast appointed us heirs of the blessings 
to come which pass not away. When the time came for which we 
waited for the adoption and the redemption of our bodies, Thou gavest 
us the earnest of consolation, the grace of the Holy Spirit which is 
received from the holy mysteries of spiritual baptism; even as to-day 
these Thy servants and hand-maidens have drawn near and have put on 
this Thy gift, and have thereby been set free from their sinful passions and 
have become pure members of the body of Christ, Who is the Head of 
our life. And we look that Thy grace shall keep them in chastity of life, 
and in pious conversation, that being filled with faith and righteousness 
they may receive the precious shining forth of our Saviour Jesus Christ 
unto the fruition of the new life which is imperishable. And may we 
lift up to Thee praise and honour and confession and adoration, now 
and always and for ever and ever. 

He signs them , and says this [ prayer of the ] imposition of hands over 
one and all of them . May the earnest of the Holy Spirit which ye * have 
received, and the mysteries of Christ which ye have taken, and His living 
sign which ye have accepted, and the new life which ye have gained, and 
the armour of righteousness which ye have put on, keep you from the 

1 Confirmation is administered at the same time as Baptism, by the laying on of hands 
only, without oil. 

* The pronouns are written so as to be capable of change. 


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( 7» ) 


sponsors . Then they clothe him in clean garments , but 
not putting a cap or covering on his head until it is 
bound on by the priest after the last signing. So with 
all the children one after another . And see t 0 our 
brother , beware of taking the children within the 
sanctuary as do some who are without knowledge^ for 
this is quite forbidden. And let there be circumspec- 
tion regarding the girls that they be anointed dis- 
creetly. And when they have put on the garments 
of those who have been baptized , the priest goes out to 
the great door of the holy place , and with him the 
deacons and the Cross and the Gospel and the censer 
and the lights and the horn of oil , and they bring 
near those that have been baptized unto the door of the 
holy place. 

And they pray , Glory to Thee, my Lord, Who hast chosen Thy Church 
in Thy Christ, and hast adorned her with heavenly loveliness, and hast 
made her children treasurers to divide Thy riches to the needy, O Lord 
of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

Canon to [the chant ] From Error. 

Priest. [Pa. xcv.] O come let us glorify the Lord and sing to our 
God, the Saviour. * From error from guilt and from death our Lord 
hath saved ua in His Baptism. Let us worship Him and glorify Him. 
[He repeats ver. i, the deacon says ver. 2, and so on alternately to 
the end of ver. 7.] From error from guilt and from death, etc. 
Priest. Glory to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit. 
From everlasting and for ever and ever. Oh Thou Who saidst in Thy 
Gospel to Thy disciples, Knock and I will open, open the door unto our 
prayer. The deacon repeats ver. 1. O Thou Who saidst in Thy 
Gospel, etc. 

Prayer. Accept my Lord, in Thy mercies these sheep and lambs and 
this flock who have been signed with Thy holy sign and write their names 
with the Church of the First-born in heaven, that they may confess and 


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( 77 ) 

off their garments and taking their ear -rings , their the Epiphany ,* 
necklaces and their rings , and asking their names , tfW that none be 
these they make known to the priest. And the deacons unoccupied . 
gird their loins , putting their stoles under the girdle 
of their loins that neither oil nor water may touch 
them. And for each child whom they bring in there 
shall be a napkin in which he may be received on the 
shoulders of the deacon. And when they bring in the 
children the priest anoints each severally on the breast 
with three fingers , downwards and from right to left 
with the sign of the Cross , saying , N. is signed in die 
Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy 
Spirit for ever, thereby showing that he imprints the 
knowledge of the Trinity in his heart and that it 
is given from above . 

Then those who are prepared anoint the whole body 
of him who has been anointed by the priest , in a 
discreet and orderly manner [excepting a full-grown 
woman or man); and they turn him on his back as 
before with no omission. And when they have anointed 
him leaving no spot unanointed they then bear him 
to the priest who is standing by the font. And he 
places him in the font , the child's face being towards 
the east , and immerses him three times, at the first 
saying, N. is baptized in the Name of the Father. They 
answer , Amen. And at the second , In the Name of 
the Son. They answer , Amen. And at the third. In 
the Name of the Holy Spirit for ever. They answer. 

Amen. 

He immerses the child in water up to his neck and lays 
his hand upon his head and immerses it in water and 
takes the child up from the font and gives him to the 
deacon. And the deacon receives him into a white 
cloth and gives him to his sureties — that is, to his 
‘ These are of considerable length. 


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( 76 ) 

the good news of our renewal and restoration through our Lord Jesus 
Christ, Who by the type of His Baptism signified the resurrection from the 
dead and commanded us that in the mystery of His Baptism we should 
make a new and spiritual birth for those that believe. For the Holy Spirit 
Who is of the glorious being of Thy Trinity, by means of visible water, 
renews according to His will our ancient form, and by His grace pours 
into us the earnest of incorruptibility ; Who also descended and abode on 
Our Saviour when He fashioned the type of this holy Baptism. 

The deacon says , Stand in quiet and in awe. Peace be with us. 

[Priest.] MAY THERE COME, O MY LORD, the same Spirit on 
this water also, so that it may receive might for the help and salvation 
of those who are baptized therein ; 

Canon. 

That they being perfected in body and in soul may lift up to Thee praise 
and honour and confession and adoration, now and always and for ever and 
ever. He signs the water , and they answer, Amen. 

Then the priest takes the horn of oil and signs the water , pouring it 
upon it in the form of a cross, and sayings This water is signed and 
consecrated and mingled with the holy oil, that it may become a new 
womb bringing forth spiritually in absolving baptism. In the name of 
the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit for ever. They answer , 
Amen. 

The priest proceeds , saying ,* The holy [Thing] is meet and right, unto 
one divine nature. 

They answer , One Holy Father, one Holy Son, one Holy Spirit, for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

The deacon says , Praise ye the' living God. 

The consecrating priest stands by the cruse of oil and Then they say 
the other priest by the font of water, their faces east- one of the 
ward. And the deacons bring in the children , stripping Madrashas of 

* The Baptismal Service being modelled on the Liturgy, this passage is an imitation 
of the Sancta sanckis (seepage 33). It seems to mean that the holy water of Baptism is meet 
for those who are to be united thereby to the Divine Nature. 


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( 75 ) 


Canon. 

And to Thee and to Him and to the Holy Spirit may we lift up glory 
and honour and confession and adoration, now and always and for ever 
and ever. He makes the sign over the oil. 

Then the priest takes the horn of oil from the hands of him who held it 
and signs the oil that is in the cruse upon the throne with the oil in the 
horn , in the Sign of the Cross, from Cast to west and from north 
to south , saying , This oil is signed and consecrated and mingled with 
the holy oil that it may be for a type of incorruptibility in absolving 
Baptism. In the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy 
Spirit for ever. They answer , Amen. 

Then he gives the horn to him who held it ; and proceeds , saying t 
And make us worthy, our Lord and our God, to stand before Thee 
constantly without spot, with a pure heart and with an open face, and 
in that freedom of speech which is given- to us by Thee in Thy mercies 
so that we all with one accord may call upon Thee saying on this wise ; 
They say , Our Father which art in heaven. 

They cover the consecrated cruse t and then go towards the Jordan , 
that is the font of water ; they stand at its right and lefty the thurifer 
alsOy and they place the Cross and the Gospel on the east of the font above 
it until the water be consecrated, and the priest takes up the veil where- 
with the font is covered and prostrates himself ; and the deacon says t 
Let us pray, Peace be with us. 

The priest sayty The '.grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God 
the Father and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with us all, now and 
always and for ever and ever. He signs the water and the deacon says y 
Pray in your minds, Peace be with us. 

The priest repeats this g'hantha in a low voice. From Thy grace, O 
our Maker, which is the spring of living waters, is the need of Thy 
creation fulfilled ; unto Thee are manifold requests offered whereon follow 
gifts freely given ; from the great riches of Thy pitifulness is help ren- 
dered for the refreshing and support of our nature. For Thou in Thy 
unsearchable knowledge didst cause us to enter at the beginning this 
corruptible world, and in the time that pleased Thee Thou didst give us 


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( 7 + ) 

in His perfect Person and is partaker of Thy Being and of Thy Creator- 
ship. May He mingle in this oil and grant to all those who are anointed 
with it the earnest of the resurrection from the dead, given unto the per- 
fecting of adoption and unto deliverance from sinful passions and unto the 
fruition of heavenly rest. For Thou in the wisdom of Thy dispensation, 
hast advanced this world by the coming of Thy Christ, to a mind worthy 
of Thy Trinity and hast renewed it with spiritual gifts befitting the know- 
ledge of Thy faith. For the holy oil which Thou gavest to the ancients 
for a sign and faculty of the temporal priesthood and of the transitory 
kingdom, Thou hast now committed to the priests of the Church that 
it may be for a token and for a parable of those who depart from earthly 
to heavenly things in an immortal body and unchangeable soul, being 
circumcised with the circumcision not of hands in the putting off of sinful 
flesh by the circumcision of Christ. May they be made worthy with 
those heavenly and holy hosts in fear and trembling to glorify Thee, the 
Lord of hosts the King of all ; 

Canon . 

Crying and praising without ceasing, calling one to another and saying. 
They answer , Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of hosts; heaven and earth 
are full of Thy praises and of the nature of Thy Being and of the 
excellency of Thy glorious splendour. Hosanna in the highest. Hosanna 
to the Son of David. Blessed be He Who came and Who cometh in the 
Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest. 

The priest repeats this g'hantha in a low voice. Even now, my Lord, 
by Thy grace, may this great and terrible and divine mystery be fulfilled, 
and may grace come from the gift of the Holy Spirit and abide and dwell 
on this oil and bless it and consecrate it and seal it in the name of the 
Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. And by the might of Thy 
grace may this oil of anointing be such as to give to all those who are 
signed with the life-giving sign, in the name of the Father and of the Son 
and of the Holy Spirit, full and true holiness and the exalted com- 
munion of the Kingdom of heaven, by this baptism which is perfected and 
fulfilled in the type of the death and resurrection of our Lord Jesus 
Christ; 


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destined didst ordain a good end for Thy creation and 
didst save it from death by Thy merciful will, and hast 
appointed me, O my Lord, a mediator to administer Thy 
gift ; not because my ways are spodess nor because my 
conversation is worthy of Thy embassy hast Thou set me 
apart to bring near to Thee that which Thou hast formed, 
but in Thine infinite riches and in Thine unsearchable 
providence, hast Thou ordained that Thy riches shall be 
bestowed through my hands to those who need the gift 
of Thy grace, O Giver of our lives. Make me worthy, 
O my Lord, in Thy pitifiilness, to be a mediator of this 
service that it may receive the completion of Thy gift. 


pray, Peace be 
with us. Pray 
ye for the 
memorial (see 
page 15). 


Canon. 

And may we lift up to Thee praise and honour and confession and adora- 
tion, now and always and for ever and ever. He signs himself \ and says , 
Peace be with you. They answer. And with thee and with thy spirit. 
Then he lifts the veil that is on the flagon and winds it round the 
flagon , sayings 
Canon. 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God the Father and 
the fellowship of the Holy Spirit, be with us all, now and always and for 
ever and ever. 

He makes the sign over the oil that is in the flagon ; and proceeds , Lift 
up your minds. They answer , Unto Thee, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, 
and of Israel, O glorious King. 

He proceeds. Let us confess and worship and glorify God, the Lord of 
all. They answer. It is meet and right. 

The deacon says , Peace be with us. 

The priest repeats this g'hantha in a low voice over the oil. Unto 
Thee Who art rich in love and overflowing in compassion and kind in 
grace and unspeakable in glory, our Lord and our Creator and our 
Benefactor, we cry and entreat, that by Thy Will, O God the Father, and 
by the will of Thy Only-begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ, THERE 
MAY COME grace from the gift of the Holy Spirit, Who is of Thee 

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( 72 ) 

worthy to lift up to Thee praise and honour and confession and adoration 
at every season, O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 
The deacon says, Whoso hath not received baptism, let him depart ; whoso 
doth not receive the sign of life, let him depart ; whoso doth not accept 
it, let him depart. Go, ye hearers and watch the doors. 


While the anthem is being 
said the priest pours oil 
into the flagon and places 
it on the altar and covers 
it with a veil, the priests 
and deacons standing on 
the right and on the left. 
And one of the priests takes 
the horn 1 in his hand and 
stands at the right of the 
altar which is set up in the 
baptistery. And if there 
be no other priest the chief 
deacon holds it standing 
by the throne , lights being 
[held] near them. 


Anthems to [ the chant] The Blessed 
Martyrs. 

Holy and aweful is His name. Thy Bap- 
tism with water hath sanctified our souls 
and proclaimed our resurrection. Spiritual 
beings with John stood by in great amaze- 
ment ; He Who sanctifieth the nations by 
His Baptism received baptism from His ser- 
vant, that He might free the race of mortals. 
Thou hast given a sign to them that fear 
Thee. Thy Baptism, etc. 

Thou hast led us through fire and water. 
Thy Baptism, etc. 

Glory to the Father and to the Son and 
to the Holy Spirit. In the river Jordan 
John baptized the Lamb of God, and when 
He was ascending from the water the Holy 
Spirit of Truth, in the bodily form of a dove, 
descended and abode on the head of our 
Saviour after He was baptized. 

From everlasting and for ever and ever. 
In the river Jordan, etc. 


And when the anthem is concluded they say, We believe in one God, etc. 
Then the priest draws near to consecrate the oil, and kneels before the altar. 

The priest repeats this G'hantha in a low voice ; Our The deacon 
gracious God, Who in the time which Thy wisdom pre- says. Let us 

* The horn, which must not be confused with the flagon, contains the holy oil, thought 
to have been handed down from St. John. See “ Catholicos of the East,” p. 269. 


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{ 7 * ) 

and the depth confess with us, etc. * John beheld a great wonder : in the 
river Jordan when he was baptizing; cherubin chanting Hallelujah and 
seraphin crying Holy : and the Holy Spirit descending and the Son 
receiving Baptism : and the Father crying and saying : This is my beloved 
Son in whom I am well-pleased. * Let the height and the depth confess 
with us, etc* 

The deacon says y Be still and keep silence. The priest says y Peace be • 
with you. They answer , And with thee and with thy spirit. 

THE GOSPEL. The priest reads. The holy Gospel of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, the preaching of John. [John ii. 23 to iii. 8.] 

They answer , Glory to Christ our Lord. 

The priest prays. O Lord God of hosts, we pray The deacon says the 
and beseech Thee, fulfil in us Thy grace and Karuzutha y Father of 
pour forth through us Thy gift, and may the mercies and that which 
mercies and compassion of Thy Godhead be for follows it. [See Hal- 
the pardon of the trespasses of Thy people and for lowing of the Apostles, 
remission of sins to all the sheep of Thy pasture, p. 6.] 
whom Thou hast chosen for Thyself in Thy grace The deacon says y Bow 
and Thy mercies, O Lord of all, Father and Son your heads for the inl- 
and Holy Spirit for ever. position of hands and 

receive the blessing. 

The priest repeats this \frayer of the\ imposition of hands in a low 
voice. O Treasure enriching those receiving therefrom, O Thou Who 
art Rich and Whose gifts are not withheld from the needy, O Thou Who 
art good and dost not oppress Thy labourers, O Lord not neglectful of 
Thy servants, hear, my Lord, in Thy compassion the prayer of Thy 
servants and receive in Thy pitifulness the petition of Thy worshippers 
and answer our requests in Thy mercies out of Thy rich treasury. And 
of Thy grace, keep the beloved flock of Thy pasture from all harm, and 
make Thy peace to dwell among us all the days of the world, O Lord 
of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. j 

He raises his voice and says y As our souls agree in the one perfect faith 
of Thy glorious Trinity, so may we all in one accord and love be made 


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( 7 © ) 

glorify. For Thou art the Quickener of our bodies and Thou art the 
Saviour of our souls. They say. The voice of the Lord is upon the 
waters ; the God of glory hath thundered. * Thee Lord of all we confess, 
and Thee Jesus Christ, etc. Glory to the Father and to the Son and to 
the Holy Spirit, from everlasting and for ever and ever. Thee Lord of 
all we confess, and Thee Jesus Christ, etc. 

They pour water into the font at their discretion , so that it rises 
above the head of him who is to be baptized ; and they cover the font 
with & veil and place the Cross and the Gospel above it. 

Prayer. Thou, my Lord, art in truth the Quickener of our bodies and 
Thou art the good Saviour of our souls and the constant Preserver of 
our life. Thee my Lord we are bound to confess and worship and 
glorify at every season, O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit 
for ever. 

Prayer. Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy upon us. # 
Glory to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit. * Holy 
God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy upon us. * From ever- 
lasting and for ever and ever. * Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, 
have mercy upon us. 

Prayer. Enlighten for us, our Lord and our God, the impulses of our 
thoughts, that we may hearken to and understand the sweet hearing of Thy 
life-giving and divine commands; and in Thy grace and mercies grant 
that we may gather from them profit, love, hope, and salvation, which are 
serviceable both to the soul and to the body ; and that we may sing to 
Thee constant praise without ceasing, at every season, O Lord of all, 
Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

THE APOSTLE. Paul the Apostle. Epistle to the Corinthians. My 
brethren [pray ye,] Bless O my Lord [i Cor. x. i to 13]. 

They say this Station or Madras ha. 1 

Let the height and the depth confess with us : the Being Who created 
us and reneweth us. V erses. Among the multitudes the friend of the 
bridegroom : saw the living Lamb coming to be baptized ; and he cried 
out in fear, saying : I have need to be baptized of Thee ; and the multi- 
tudes gazed in awe : on the living mystery of Baptism. * Let the height 

* A Doctrinal Hymn. 


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( 69 ) 

saved by the precious Blood, who are committed to their 
guidance in succeeding times. May they increase her by 
the addition of penitents, while they keep her entire and 
provide for her, and may they be made worthy to say 
unto our Lord with openness of face : Behold us and the 
children whom Thou hast given us, for by Thy com- 
passion we have been kept; and may they hear the 
voice of our Lord saying. Well done, good and faithful 
servants, ye have been faithful in a little, much shall be 
committed into your hands. Now let us all with one 
accord together, lift up glory to the Father and to the 
Son and to the Holy Spirit, and may we be made worthy 
of the new life which passeth not away, in the kingdom 
of heaven by the grace of Christ. 

He proceeds , Arise in the strength of God. 


Canon, to [ the chant] Pity and Pardon. 

Priest. [Ps. cxxxii. i, 2.] Lord remember David, etc. * Blessed be 
He Who in heavenly types set up His Church and filled her with His 
glory, and gave by her absolving Baptism for sinners. [He repeats vers. 
1, 2. The deacon says ver. 3, and so on alternately to the end of the 
psalm.] Priest . Blessed be He, etc. Deacon. Glory to the Father and 
to the Son and to the Holy Spirit. From everlasting and for ever and 
ever. * O Holy One Who didst let Thy Shechinah dwell on Mount 
Sinai and didst sanctify it with awe, let Thy peace dwell within Thy 
Church and sanctify her. Deacon. [Ver. 1, 2.] Lord remember, etc. 
* Pity and pardon, O our Saviour, stablish Thy Church and keep her 
children, by the prayer of all Thy saints. 

The deacon says, Peace be with us. 

Prayer. For all Thine unrequited aids and graces towards us let us 
confess Thee and glorify Thee without ceasing in Thy crowned Church 
filled with all aids and blessings. For Thou art the Lord and Creator of 
all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

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have waxed old 
in sin, bring 
back the erring 
to Thy fold, 
bring those 
that are far off 
into Thy house* 
hold, gather 
together the 
scattered into 
Thy Church, 
O good Shep- 
herd, Who 
wentest forth 
to seek us, and 
didst find us 
who were lost, 
by Thy grace 
and in Thy 
mercies, O Lord 
of all, Father 
and Son and 
Holy Spirit for 
ever. 


( 68 ) 

are clothed who are therein baptized in faith, Satan our 
enemy might be condemned. Let us confess Him 
therefore, our gracious King, Who willeth not the death 
of a sinner, but that he should turn from his wickedness 
and live ; Who in His gospel calleth to the penitent : Ask 
and it shall be given you, seek and ye shall find, knock 
and the treasure of mercies shall be opened unto you. 
Let us all therefore, being beloved children of holy 
baptism, pray for these our sons and daughters, who are 
about to receive the sign of life, denying Satan and all 
his works, and being perfected and fulfilled in the true 
faith of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 
that they may be made worthy to receive this greac and 
wonderful gift of grace, and to put off in absolving 
Baptism the old man who was corrupt in the lusts of 
error, and to put on by the washing of holy water the 
new man, who in God is created in righteousness and 
holiness of truth, and to receive from the holy altar the 
Body and Blood of Christ, an earnest of the' resurrection 
of life. May the holy angels have joy in heaven over 
them, and all the holy Church, for their union with the 
flock of Christ; and in righteousness, in holiness and 
in good and right works, may they keep the gift of 
overflowing mercies which they receive through the 
Holy Spirit, Who will lead them from this world to the 
land of life and light, and may they be fellow-heirs with 
Christ. Pray we also for our holy fathers, Mar N. 
Catholicos, Patriarch, and Mar N. Metropolitan Bishop, 
who have been made mediators of this great and won- 
derful gift to which created beings are not sufficient. 
May He Who chose them, and gave them the fountain 
of life, given in mercies for the pardon of men and 
opened by means of them, grant that the Church enjoy- 
ing happy peace and the whole earth being in tranquillity, 
they may stand at the head of all their flocks, the sheep 


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( 67 ) 


Abraham and from David, and in Thy Being from Thy Father. [He 
repeats ver. i. The deacon says ver, 2 ; and so on alternately to the 
end. After the deacon has said the last verse t the priest repeats it , 
then the deacon says it again and continues ,] We confess Thee, our 
Lord Jesus, etc . Priest . Glory to the Father and to the Son and to 
the Holy Spirit. From everlasting and for ever and ever. * We confess 
Thee our Lord Jesus, etc . Deacon. The Lord said, etc. [ver. 1.] * We 
confess Thee our Lord, Jesus, etc. 


Prayer. Glory 
to Thee, Who, 
by the oil and 
water which 
Thou hast 
poured on our 
wounds, hast 
healed the in- 
firmity of our 
bodies, and by 
Thy Spirit hast 
cleansed as with 
a sponge the 
taint of sin 
from our souls, 
that Thou 
mightest make 
us pure temples 
to Thy honour, 
O Lord of all, 
Father and Son 
and Holy Spirit 
for ever. 

Or thiSy Quick- 
en, my Lord, 
the dead who 


The deacon says the Karuzutha , Let us pray, Peace be 
with us. Kneel down. Let us confess with humble 
prayer and beseech with supplication and entreat with 
faith towards God the Father ; Who in His abundant love 
towards us sent His Only-begotten Son into the world, and 
by the light of His revelation saved us from the error of 
darkness wherein we stumbled through the agency of Satan 
our captor. With all our heart and soul, let us confess 
the Son Who is of one nature with the Father, Who of 
His own will stooped down, and of His mercies put on 
our body, and thereby brought us near unto Himself, and 
renewed us in the truth of His doctrine, and showed us 
the way of light and the path of life. With tears of re- 
pentance, therefore, and with outcry of pure thoughts, let 
us make supplication to Jesus Christ the Physician of our 
souls, Who did not weary of our bruises, nor loathe our 
scars, but suffered long in His compassion, and bare 
with our frowardness by the mercies of His grace. With 
the medicine of His sayings He bound up our stripes 
and healed our sickness and raised up our fall. With our 
knees bent in prayer, let us confess Him Who stooped to 
be baptized by John, the Voice that called to repentance, 
not because His purity and stainlessness needed baptism 
in water, but that for us, defiled and spotted with sin. He 
might sanctify water by His holy Baptism, that by the 
hidden might and armour of the Spirit, wherewith those 


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( 66 ) 

showed to us in His holy baptism the true resurrection 
and renewal which is in very deed given to us at the end 
of this world. And He delivered this mystery of Holy 
Baptism to the holy Apostles, when He sent them to 
call the nations and to convert the children of men ; and 
commanded them to make it the beginning of the Faith, 
and a schoolmaster of the fear of God and a sign of 
those that turn from the error of darkness to the know- 
ledge of the truth. And those apostles handed down this 
type to the priests and pastors of Christ’s flock, to be 
unto them for a token and for the making of disciples in 
all generations. Even now behold many are prepared to 
receive the gift of Baptism in confession of the precious 
Passion of our Saviour, having committed their souls in 
faith and love, to Him Who in regeneration has renewed 
our frame, has pardoned our sin and has raised up 
our fall. And they look that by the holy token of 
absolving Baptism, they shall become members and like 
unto Him, Who is the Head of the Church, the First- 
born from the dead. Let us also make supplication 
with them and beseech on their behalf the compassionate 
God, that He will make them worthy of the incor- 
ruptible state shown forth by Christ Who is the first- 
fruits of the resurrection of life, sending on them the 
gift of the Spirit Who girdeth up the feebleness of their 
nature, that they be not doubtful of the visible mysteries, 
whereby they receive the good things to come which 
pass not away ; and Who poureth forth the power of His 
gift also upon the oil and water, that therein may be 
fulfilled the type of death and of resurrection, with the 
earnest of the kingdom of heaven by the grace of Christ. 


and when we 
are far off 
bringest us into 
Thy house- 
hold, O Lord 
of all, Father 
and Son and 
Holy Spirit for 
ever. 


SHURAYA. Priest. [Ps. cx.]. The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou 
on My right hand until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. * We 
confess Thee, our Lord Jesus, that in Thy humanity Thou art from 


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( 6 S ) 


the gift of the Spirit from heaven, 
mercies and compassion are given to 
every man. Enter therefore, ye who 
are bidden, into the joy which is 
prepared for you ; and with a pure 
and holy heart, and with faith in 
the truth, give thanks to Christ our 
Saviour. 

The gates of heaven are opened. The 
gates of the spiritual bride-chamber, 

etc. 

Glory to the Father and to the Son 
and to the Holy Spirit. O Gate 
of Truth opened to the lost, call us to 
enter Thy treasury on high. 

From everlasting and for ever and 
ever. O Gate of Truth, etc. 


up good words : I speak, my work 
is for the King. * Glory to Thee 
our Saviour Who hast honoured 
Thy Church which Thou hast 
chosen, and hast adorned her 
with all beauties. 

[Ver. i. Deacon , ver. 2 ; and 
so on alternately to the end of 
the psalm .] 

Deacon. Glory to Thee our 
Saviour, etc. 

Priest. Glory to the Father 
and to the Son and to the Holy 
Spirit. From everlasting and for 
ever and ever. * Glory to Thee, 
our Saviour, etc. 

Deacon. [Ver. 1.] My heart 
welleth up, etc. * Glory to Thee, 
our Saviour, etc. 

Prayer. Elect 
us in Thy 
compassion, 
my Lord, with 
a good election, 
that we may 
serve before 
Thee with a 
spiritual ser- 
vice, O Thou 
Who findest us 
when we are 
lost and gath- 
erest us when 
we are scattered 


The deacon says this Karuzutha ; Let us pray, Peace be 
with us. With supplication and humble prayer we offer 
our petition to the Divine Nature of the Father and of the 
Son and of the Holy Spirit, even to Him Who alone is 
everlasting ; Who is the Cause and Maker of all created 
things, visible and invisible, Who from the beginning made 
the race of man mortal and corruptible, for the trial of his 
free-will; and now in the last times hath promised him 
resurrection from the dead, through the revelation of 
God the Word the Saviour of all. Who being equal 
with God took the likeness of a servant, and opened to 
us the way of new life through spiritual types. For the 
headship which He took from our race, He offered for 
baptism in the river Jordan, by the mediation of John 
the herald; and as in an image He fashioned and 


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( 6 + ) 

said to us ; repeat . Seek and ye shall find, knock and it shall be opened 
unto you ; for the act is more than the word and the deed than the 
promise. For Thy gift is not found by the wise and the prudent only, 
and the gate of Thy pitifulness is not open to them alone, but to others 
also, in the age of infancy to whom nature hath allotted ignorance, amongst 
whom are these children who stand before Thee. Thy grace hath caught 
them in the life-giving net and hath laid them in the holy vessel of 
absolving Baptism, that thence they may be born with a new and spiritual 
birth to the increase of their faith j and their bodies being unspotted with 
the pollution of sin, they may receive a cleansing that changeth not, and 
be members of Christ and nurtured at the table of His mysteries ; and that 
bodily stature and spiritual increase may together grow up in them ; and 
that Thy grace may teach them the power of the world to come, whereof 
thou hast now given them the type without their asking and Thou hast 
opened to them Thy door without their calling. With all the true 
children of Thy mysteries, let us return thanks for Thy gift unto them, 
and lift up unto Thee praise and honour and confession and worship, 
now and always and for ever and ever. 

He signs each one of them on the forehead with the sign of the Cross , 
with the oil of anointings with his forefingers from below upwards and 
from right to lefts saying ; 

N. is signed with the oil of anointing in the Name of the Father and of 
the Son and of the Holy Spirit for ever. 

And while he is signing them they enter the baptistery as they are y 
with the censer , the light x, the cross , and Gospel and the rest. And 
they begin the ant hems , while they are being brought in. 

Prayer . Gather us to Thee, and bring us into Thy fold, and make us 
firm in Thy sign. Make our infancy wise in Thy truth, that we may 
glorify Thy holy Name at every season, O Lord of all, Father and Son 
and Holy Spirit for ever. 

Open unto me the gates of righteous - The priest begins , My heart 
ness. The gates of the spiritual bride- welled up. The whole to its i 

chamber are opened for the absolution [proper] tune. 
of the children of men; and now by [Ps. xlv. i.] My heart welled 


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( 63 ) 


ORDER OF BAPTISM. 

First the priest begins. In the name of the Father and of the 
Son and of the Holy Ghost for ever. Glory to God in the highest, 
repeat three times , and on earth peace and good hope to men, at every 
season for ever, Amen. Our Father which art in heaven. 1 Deacon. 
Let us pray, Peace be with us. Prayer. Strengthen, our Lord and our 
God, our weakness in Thy compassion, that we may administer the holy 
mysteries of absolving Baptism, given for the renewal and for the salva- 
tion of our nature in the mercies of Thy grace, O Lord of all, Father 
and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. [Amen.] * 

They begin , How beloved, to the charity I will love Thee O Lord ; with 
the farcing. Priest. [Ps. lxxxiv. i.] How beloved are Thy tabernacles 
O Lord of hosts : my soul hath waited and longed for the courts of the 
Lord. How beautiful and glorious is the place of Thy sanctuary, O God 
Who sanctifiest all. \Repeat ver. i. Deacon . ver. 2, and so on alter- 
nately to the end of the psalm .] How beautiful, etc. Priest . Glory 
to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, from everlasting 
and for ever and ever, Amen. How beautiful, etc. Deacon. £Ver. 1.] 
How beloved, etc. How beautiful, etc. The Deacon proclaims , Let us 
pray, Peace be with us. 

Prayer. Turn us again towards Thee in Thy compassion, and receive 
us into Thy household, O good Shepherd Who wentest out to seek 
us and didst find us who were lost, and didst desire our return, in Thy 
grace and mercies, O Lord of all. Father and Son and Holy Spirit for 
ever. 

[Or this. Let Thy right hand, our Lord and our God, from the height 
of Thy sanctuary, rest on these souls which wait to receive the gift of 
Thy grace, O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever.) 

He repeats in an audible voice this [ prayer of the] Imposition of hands, 
laying his hand on the head of each one of them , and saying , 

The promise of Thy mercies, my Lord, hath been fulfilled, as Thou hast 

‘ With fardngs as before (see page 1). • So atter each collect. 


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( 62 ) 

the tree, lo watchers 1 and men celebrate it. * Aweful art Thou. * The 
false gods have fallen, the Churches thundered. Satan is condemned and 
the Cross hath conquered. * Aweful art Thou. * Continuation. My 
brethren let us draw near and behold the Sacrifice of the Body and Blood 
of the Son of God, Who hung on the Tree for sinners, and Who in His 
love is sacrificed for the Church. * Aweful art Thou. * He hung on the 
Cross as a frail [creature], and He gave His life as God. Hallelujah. * 
Aweful art Thou.* 

Here endeth the Canon Aweful .art Thou. 

To Jah be glory for evermore . 

‘ The Angels. 



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( 61 ) 

glory, and the Lord with the sound of the trumpet. God reigneth over 
the nations. God sitteth upon His holy seat. * Aweful art Thou. * 
In choirs stood the spiritual ones, extolling the Son in the day of His 
Ascension. * Aweful art Thou. * Continuation . While they beheld Him 
He was taken up, and a cloud received Him, and He was hidden from their 
eyes. * Aweful art Thou. With thanksgiving let us glorify this precious 
Body and Blood which we have all taken, saying, Hallelujah, hallelujah. * 
Aweful art Thou. * 

ON THE FEAST OF PENTECOST. Aweful art Thou O God most 
High, from Thy holy place for ever and ever. Blessed be the glory of 
the Lord from His place. Verses. Create in me a pure heart O God, 
and renew Thy steadfast Spirit within me. * Aweful art Thou. * The 
Paraclete hath come down to-day, and hath given wisdom to His servants 
through His gifts; * Aweful art Thou. * Continuation. On the feast 
of the Passover He sacrificed Himself in the type of a lamb, and on the 
festival of Pentecost He sealed His victory. * Aweful art Thou. * Let us 
all through the grace of our Saviour, draw nigh unto Him with faith ; the 
Body and Blood of Christ the Son let us take and let us give glory, 
saying, Hallelujah. * Aweful art Thou. * 

ON THE FEAST OF THE REVELATION. 1 Aweful art Thou O 
God most High, from Thy holy place for ever and ever. Blessed be the 
glory of the Lord from His place. Verses . Thou hast clothed Thyself 
with splendour and honour, Thou coverest Thyself with light as with a 
garment. * Aweful art Thou. * Our Saviour revealed on the height of the 
mountain ; the great glory wherein He will come. * Aweful art Thou. * 
Continuation. A voice came from heaven saying, This is My beloved 
Son, in Whom I am well pleased. * Aweful art Thou. * 

ON THE FEAST OF THE CROSS.* Aweful art Thou O God most 
High, from Thy holy place for ever and ever. Blessed be the glory of 
the Lord from His place. * V erses. The despised Cross on the height of 

' i.e. The Transfiguration, August 6th. 

• September 13th. This is the only Festival of the Cross observe 1 by the Eastern 
Syrians. 


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( 6° ) 

Hallelujah, hallelujah. * Verses. A Star hath shone forth out of 
Jacob, and a Prince hath arisen out of Israel. * Hallelujah, hallelujah. * 
Thousand thousands stand before Him, and ten thousand times ten 
thousand sing Holy to His glory. * Hallelujah, hallelujah. * Continua- 
tion. A voice came from heaven, saying, This is My beloved Son in 
Whom I am well pleased. * Hallelujah, hallelujah. * On Thee do we 
wait continually, and Thy Sovereignty will we serve with all our hearts, 
saying, Holy art Thou 1 Holy art Thou 1 Holy art Thou 1 O Lover of 
men ; hallelujah, hallelujah. * 

ON THE EVE OF THE RESURRECTION. Aweful art Thou O God 
most High, from Thy holy place for ever and ever. Blessed be the 
glory of the Lord from His place. Verses. To-day my heart is glad 
and my glory exulteth, my flesh also shall rest upon hope. * Aweful art 
Thou. * For Thou hast not left my soul in Sheol, neither hast Thou given 
Thine Holy One to see corruption. * Aweful art Thou. * Continuation. 
Let heaven and earth and all that is therein, give thanks with us on this 
day. * Aweful art Thou. * Therefore, O Christ, with the angels we cry, 
Holy and glorious is the might of Thy Trinity. For lo heaven and the 
whole earth are filled with Thy glory. * Aweful art Thou. * 

ON THE FEAST OF THE RESURRECTION. Aweful art Thou O 
God most High, from Thy holy place for ever and ever. Blessed be the 
glory of the Lord from His place. V erses . Exult and take courage O 
mortals, for the dominion of death hath been destroyed. * Aweful art 
Thou. * Lo heaven and earth wait for Him, till He come and renew all 
that is therein. * Aweful art Thou. * Continuation. To-day do the 
Dominions in heaven rejoice, for they have seen that the hope for which 
they looked is perfected indeed. * Aweful art Thou. * And we will praise 
Him together saying, Holy art Thou, Holy art Thou, Holy art Thou, O 
Lord of all. Hallelujah, hallelujah. * Aweful art Thou. * 

ON THE FEAST OF THE ASCENSION. Aweful art Thou O 
God most High, from Thy holy place for ever and ever. Blessed be 
the glory of the Lord from His place. Verses. God is gone up in 


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( 59 ) 

before the throne of Thy Majesty, we may find mercies and compassion 
and may rejoice with all those who from the beginning have been well- 
pleasing to Thee, in the grace and mercies of Thy Only-begotten. With 
Whom to Thee, O my Lord, be glory and honour and dominion and exalta- 
tion, with Thy living, holy and life-giving Spirit, now and at all times and 
for ever and ever. He signs the mysteries , and they answer , Amen. 
He offers a genuflexion before the altar , but let him not kneel. They 
conclude everything as it is written in the Liturgy of the Apostles 
{see page 26). Here endeth the third Hallowing. 

To God be constant glory. Amen. 


THE CANON “ AWEFUL ART THOU.” 

ON THE NATIVITY, after One Holy Father etc. [see page 33), they 
draw to the veils of the altar and arrange themselves in [two] choirs 
in the sanctuary , and those within begin in a low voice , sayings Aweful 
ar * Thou O God Most High, from Thy holy place for ever and ever. 
Blessed be the glory of the Lord from His place. They repeat it in a 
loud voice , and the people in the nave answer the same . 

The V erses said in the sanctuary. The Lord hath said unto me, Thou 
art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee. 1 * Aweful art Thou * from 
the costly palaces of ivory ; King’s daughters shall praise Thee with 
honour. * Aweful art Thou. * Continuation. That live coal which the 
prophet saw, an angel took with the tongs : and now priests within the 
sanctuary bear it upon their hands in procession. * Aweful art Thou. * 
O come together ye peoples, let us draw near unto Him, in holiness of 
our bodies and of our souls. For this is the mystery which was hidden, 
which is given for us for the remission of sins. Hallelujah, hallelujah. * 
Aweful art Thou. * They draw back the veils ; and the deacon says y 
Praise ye [see page 33). And they that are in the nave say the antiphon 
and the rest. 

ON THE EPIPHANY. They say The Messengers instead of Aweful 
art Thou. 

* The asterisks mark the place where the two choirs change. 


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( 5 » ) 


possess openly the Holy of Holies which is in heaven. * Thus we, my 
Lord, Thy servants, weak and frail and miserable, repeat ; here he strikes 
[his face], who were far off from Thee, and whom because of the abundance 
of Thy pitifulness Thou hast made worthy to stand and minister before Thee 
this awful and glorious service ; with one accord we make ‘supplication to 
Thy adorable Godhead Who renewest all creatures. AND MAY THERE 
COME, O MY LORD, the grace of the Holy Spirit, and may He dwell 

and rest upon this oblation which we 
Uvulas a to he said instead of In offer before Thee. May He bless 
silence and in awe ( see page 26). and consecrate it and make this bread 
O how awful is this hour, and and this cup to be the Body and Blood 
how dreadful this moment, of our Lord Jesus Christ ; and do 
wherein the priest invokes the Thou change and consecrate them by 
Spirit, and He descends from on the operation of the Holy Spirit, in 
high and effects His will, and such wise that the taking of these 
sanctifies this heavenly Eucharist glorious and holy mysteries may be, 
of the Body and Blood of Christ to all such as receive them, unto 
our Saviour, unto the absolution eternal life and resurrection from the 
of debts and the remission of dead and absolution of the body and 
sins of those who partake. In of the soul and unto the light of 
quiet and in awe, in trembling knowledge and to openness of face 
and in dread, stand ye and pray, towards Thee, and unto that eternal 
Peace be with us. salvation which Thou hast promised 

us through our Lord Jesus Christ; 
that we may all cleave together in one accord unto one bond of love and 
peace and that we may be one body and one spirit, as we are called in 
one hope of our calling. Let no man eat it and drink it to the con- 
demnation of his body and soul ; let it not be to him unto weakness and 
sickness by reason of his sins, in that he eateth of this bread, and drinketh 
of this cup unworthily ; but may we wax strong and be confirmed in all 
those things that are well pleasing to Thee, being made worthy with a pure 
conscience to have communion in the Body and Blood of Christ, 

Canon. 

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( 57 ) 


in the body, sons of earth, who honour Thee and 
through the request of the spiritual ones above the 
firmament, who glorify Thee ; Thy cherubin, Thy sera- 
phin and the angels of light who sing Holy to Thee. 
Amen. 


G'hantha. 

He repeats in a low voice , O Lord God the mighty Father, we be- 
seech Thee, repeat , and we kneel and worship before Thee. Bring back 
the erring ; enlighten the ignorant ; support the weak ; raise up the 
fallen ; strengthen those who stand ; and in Thy mercies do unto every 
one as is profitable and expedient for him. We beseech Thee O my 
Lord, and we make supplication before Thee ; that Thou wilt remember 
over this oblation, the fathers and patriarchs, prophets and apostles, 
martyrs and confessors, bishops and doctors, priests and deacons and 
all the sons of our ministry, who have gone forth from this world ; and 
all our brethren in Christ, and all those who have* departed this world 
in the true faith, whose names Thou knowest ; absolving and forgiving 
them, whereinsoever they have sinned and offended before Thee, as 
men inclined to err and subject to passions. And by the prayer and 
request of all those who have been well pleasing unto Thee, do Thou 
turn towards us and have mercy upon us and upon all Thy servants and 
handmaids who stand before Thy holy altar, and make us all worthy to 
be partakers of the portion and inheritance which hath come to the saints 
in light. Grant to us, O my Lord, that in sincerity of love and purity 
of pure thoughts, we may live before Thee in this our place of sojourn- 
ing, possessing a steadfast knowledge of the true faith in Thee and having 
communion in Thy awful, holy and divine mysteries, so that when we 
stand before the awful judgment-seat of Thy Majesty, we may not be 
ashamed and found guilty. And as in this world Thou hast made us 
worthy of the ministry of Thy awful and holy, life-giving and divine 
mysteries, so also in the world to come make us worthy with openness 
of face to be partakers of all those good things that pass not and waste 
not away. And when Thou shalt make a consummation of those things 
which as in a mirror and in a parable we here possess, may we there 

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( 5 & ) 

be reconciled to offenders in Thy forbearance; bring 
back the erring to Thy fold ; gather together the dis- 
persed into Thy household ; solace the afflicted with Thy 
grace ; give rest to the harassed in Thy compassion ; 
fulfil [Thy] charity to those who walk in the way of truth 
trusting in Thee ; raise up again the departed who have 
fallen asleep in Thy hope ; make them to stand at Thy 
right hand and delight them with the heavenly bliss of 
Thy kingdom, with all the just and righteous who nave 
been well -pleasing unto Thee from the beginning. And 
to Thy people assembled in Thy name and now stand- 
ing before Thee, pardon their debts and blot out their 
ill deeds; cleanse their spots and forgive their sins; 
heal their sicknesses ; make them whole from their 
diseases; overthrow their enemies and destroy them that 
hate them; pass over their offences; clear away their 
stains ; wash their wounds ; fulfil their need ; turn back 
their wanderings; quicken their mortality; comfort their 
distress; calm their troubles and enlighten their dark- 
ness , exalt their low estate ; enrich their poverty ; solace 
their affliction ; incline Thee to the request of my sin- 
fulness, for their sakes: even to me Thy servant a sinner 
and offender ; for Thou hast this day moved me by Thy 
grace to fall down before Thee at this time. Come to 
my help and turn Thee to my salvation ; raise up my 
humiliation ; exalt my low estate ; pardon my sinful- 
ness ; pass over my transgressions and hear my prayer ; 
receive my request and make me to walk in Thy paths 
and to attain unto Thy promises ; make me a partaker of 
Thy mysteries and set me with those on the right hand 
in the world of Thy bliss; make me to sit down in 
the banqueting hall with all those of Thy household; 
make me to stand boldly before the throne of Thy 
glory with all Thy saints ; pour out upon my sinfulness 
the gift of Thy mercies; through the prayer of those 


wherein sera- 
phin stand in 
awe before 
Christ’s throne 
of glory, and 
all with one 
loud voice sing 
praises and hal- 
lelujahs with- 
out ceasing, to 
the Body set 
forth and the 
cup mingled. 
And [gaze on] 
the priest plead- 
ing and en- 
treating and 
asking mercies 
for all the 
whole world. 
Stand ye and 
pray in your 
minds. Peace 
be with us. 


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who arc in captivity, and we beseech Thee, O my Lord, to help all 
those also who are tried and troubled by severe diseases and sicknesses. 
And we also supplicate Thy pitifulness, O my Lord, for all our enemies 
and them that hate us and for all those who devise any evil against us ; 
not for judgment nor for vengeance, O Lord God of hosts, but for mercies 
and salvation and the remission of sins, because Thou wiliest that all men 
should live and return unto the knowledge of the truth. For Thou hast 
taught us by Thy Beloved Son our Lord Jesus Christ, to pray for our 
enemies and haters and for them that govern us with force and fraud. 


Canon. 

And whereinsoever, O my Lord, as mortal men we have trespassed 
and sinned, do Thou absolve and forgive and pass over and pardon, O 
Thou Who art gracious and in Thy pitifulness dost govern all, that in 
mutual concord we may lift up to Thee praise and honour and confession 
and adoration, now and always and for ever and ever. He signs himself ; 
and they answer , Amen. 


Kushapa . Worthy of glory from every mouth (see 
p. 22). 

Or this . Glory to Thee our Lord Jesus Christ, Who hast 
in Thy mercies counted me among the number of Thy 
priests, repeat. Glory to Thee my Lord, Who hast 
joined me to the choir of Thy priests. Glory to Thee 
my Lord, Who hast set me in the ranks of Thy saints. 
Glory to Thee my Lord, Who hast raised me up at this 
time to make supplication for Thy people before Thee. 
Glory to Thee my Lord, Who hast made me worthy 
to intercede boldly for Thy people and to cling to the 
skirts of Thy mercies. Pity O my Lord, Thy people who 
now stand awaiting Thy mercies j turn Thee towards the 
erring sheep who have been lost from Thy flock; pardon 
the sinners who have transgressed the commandments of 
Thy law ; have mercy on all creation in the abundance 
of Thy mercies ; forgive debtors in Thy compassion ; 


The deacon 
saj/Sy Pray in 
your minds. 
Peace be with 
us. 

Or this $u- 
lasa. Lift up 
your eyes to the 
heights above, 
and gaze with 
the thoughts 
of your hearts, 
seek and search 
out what things 
are being 
celebrated at 
this moment. 


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( 5 + ) 

of the glorious substance of Thy Godhead Who from Thee O Father pro- 
ceeded^ and with Thee, and with Thy Only-begotten Son co-equally is 
worshipped and glorified, and honoured by all. We offer unto Thee this 
sacrifice, living and holy and acceptable and glorified and awful and 
exalted and spodess for all creatures and for the holy apostolic Catholic 
Church) from one end of the earth to the other, that Thou wouldest keep 
her unmoved and unharmed by offences. * Yea our Lord and our God, 
repeat , keep her unmoved and unharmed by any offences, that there be 
upon her no stain nor blemish, no wrinkle nor any such thing ; for Thou 
hast said through Thy beloved Son our Lord Jesus Christ, that the gates 
of Sheol shall never prevail against her. And for all our Fathers the 
bishops in every place, who preach the right word of the true faith, and 
for all priests who fulfil their office before Thee in faith, in righteousness, 
and in the sanctity of truth, and for all deacons who hold the mysteries 
of the faith in a pure conscience, and for the whole estate of Thy pious 
and holy people here and in every place, and for all those who wittingly 
and unwittingly have sinned and offended before Thee ; * And for Thy frail 
servant, repeat , whom Thou hast by Thy grace made worthy to offer 
before Thee this oblation, and for all those who in virtue serve Thy holy 
Church in works of righteousness, for all those who abound in alms 
towards the poor, and for all princes and rulers of this world, we 
entreat and beseech Thee, to establish in them Thy fear and to implant 
in them Thy truth, and to subdue by them all barbarous nations. And 
we beseech Thy Godhead O my Lord, do Thou make wars to cease 
unto the ends of the earth, and scatter the people that desire war, that 
we may lead a calm and quiet life in all soberness and godliness. For 
the fruits of the earth and the temperature of the air that the crown of the 
year may be blessed by Thy grace. For this land and for them that dwell 
in it and all round about it, and for all lands and them that dwell therein; 
that Thou wilt have mercy and bless and keep and protect them in Thy 
compassion, and for all seafarers and wayfarers, for all those who are in 
affliction or distress or persecutions or tribulations or tumults for Thy 
holy name, and for all those who are afflicted or tormented in bonds and 
imprisonment, and for all those who are cast out to distant islands to 
continual torments and hard servitude, and for all our faithful brethren 


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G'hantha. 

The priest repeats in a low voice, We also O Lord of hosts, God the 
Father, repeat , commemorating this command given for our salvation, and 
all those things which have been done for us, before all things do believe 
and confess Thee, O God the Father of truth, and the eternal birth 
from the Godhead of Thy Only-begotten, and His consubstantiality 
with Thee conjoinedly. We remember also His wonderful dispensa- 
tion provided for us and through our humanity effected, the cross, 
the passion, the death, the burial, the resurrection on the third day, the 
ascension into heaven, the sitting on the right hand and the glorious 
second coming to us of our Lord Jesus Christ, in Whom Thou wilt judge 
the dead and the living, rendering to every man according to his deeds. 
Furthermore, we confess the Holy Spirit the Spirit of truth, Who also is 


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( 53 ) 

wounds of my ill deeds and the scars of my offences with 
Thy all-healing medicine. Grant that I may open my 
mouth before Thee and make me. worthy to move my 
lips towards Thee, give me leave to plead with Thee 
concerning my offences and the remission of sins and 
the pardon and blotting out of the spots upon mvself and 
upon my sinful companions and associates. Let me ask 
of Thee concerning those things which beseem and are 
besought of Thy Godhead, for to Thee Who art rich 
without impoverishment and a treasury that faileth not, 
our manifold requests are at all times brought, and are 
answered by abundant gifts freely given. Be not angry 
with me, O [Thou Who art] kind and long-suffering, 
because I have no openness of face before Thee. With 
freedom of speech I say these things before Thy Majesty ; 
yet accept me, although I am over-bold, because Thy 
name is called upon me, and accept this sacrifice at the 
hands of my frailty, on behalf of Thy people and the 
sheep of Thy pasture. For these things I give praise 
to Thy name and offer adoration to Thy Sovereignty, 
now and always and for ever and ever. 


of Christ our 
Saviour, with 
the enlight- 
ened eye of 
the mind, and 
with the clear 
thought of the 
understand- 
ing, let us be* 
hold wisely and 
see the Only- 
begotten Son 
of the Father 
being led to 
His great Pas- 
sion of the 
Cross. Let us 
pray. Peace 
be with us. 


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( 52 ) 

The Words of our Lord. 9 

For when the time came when He should be betrayed for the life of 

the world, after He had kept the Passover with His disciples, according to 
the law of Moses, He instituted His own Passover before He died, even 
this which we keep for His commemoration as He committed it unto us, 
until He be revealed from heaven. For our Passover is Christ Who was 
slain for us. And after supper of the Passover of the Law of Moses, , 

He took bread in His holy, spotless and undefiled hands, and blessed 
and brake and ate, and gave to His disciples, saying, TAKE EAT YE ^ 

ALL OF IT. THIS IS MY BODY WHICH IS BROKEN FOR a 

YOU FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS. In like manner also He 

£ 

mixed the cup of wine and water, and blessed and gave thanks and 
drank and gave to His disciples, saying, TAKE, DRINK YE ALL OF * 

IT. THIS IS MY BLOOD OF THE NEW TESTAMENT WHICH 
IS SHED FOR MANY FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS. THIS J 

BE YE DOING FOR MY MEMORIAL UNTIL I COME. FOR j 

WHENSOEVER YE EAT OF THIS BREAD AND DRINK OF ' 

THIS CUP, YE COMMEMORATE MY DEATH UNTIL MY , 

COMING. Wherefore whosoever in true faith draws near and takes of 
them, let them be to him, O my Lord, for the pardon of debts and j 

the remission of sins and for resurrection from the dead and for new life 
in the kingdom of heaven ; 1 

Canon. 

And let us lift up praise and honour and confession and adoration, to 1 

Thee O adorable Father, and to Thy Son Thy glorious offspring, and to 
Thy living, holy and life-giving Spirit; now and always and for ever and 
ever. He signs the mysteries , and they answer , Amen. 

Kushapa. Lord God of hosts, accept [see page 24). The deacon 

Or this. O Lord God merciful and pitiful, repeat , now I says, Let us 
have begun to speak before Thee, I dust and ashes, beseech pray, Peace be 
of Thee, I Thy sinful, frail and offending servant, a debtor with us. 
to Thee from the womb, a stranger to Thee from the Or this %- 
belly, a dependant on Thee from the bowels of my mother, lasa. Gaze on 
Pity me in Thy mercies and in Thy compassion draw me the gentleness * 

out of the sea of debts and in Thy kindness take me out and meekness 
and lift me up from the abyss of my sins, and heal the and obedience 


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( 5i ) 

Spirit, Who is eternally with Thee and is of Thy nature, and Who is 
the Maker of all created things. We bless, O my Lord, God the Word, 
the hidden offspring of Thy bosom, Who, being in Thy likeness and the 
brightness shining from Thee and the image of Thy Being, thought it 
not robbery to be Thy equal, but He emptied Himself and took the 
likeness of a servant, perfect man, of a reasonable, intelligent and im- 
mortal soul, and of the mortal body of mankind, and joined it to Him and 
united it with Him in glory, in power and in honour, even a passible nature 
formed by the power of the Holy Spirit, for the salvation of all, and was 
[born] of a woman, and was [born] under the Law, that He might redeem 
those that were under the Law, and might quicken all those who were 
dead in Adam ; and He slew sin in His flesh and abolished the law of 
ordinances by His commandments, and opened the eyes of our under- 
standing which were blind and prepared for us a way of salvation and 
enlightened us with the light of the divine knowledge, for to those who 
received Him He gave power to become the sons of God. And He 
washed us and absolved us by the baptism of holy water and sanctified 
us in His grace by the gift of the Holy Spirit, and them who were buried 
with Him in baptism into death He raised and lifted up, and made them 
sit with Him in heaven through the assurances of His promise. And 
He loved His own which were in this world and unto the end He loved 
them. He was given in exchange for the recompense of the guilt of our 
race for the life of all, and gave Himself for all to death which was 
reigning over us, and to whose power we were subject, for through our 
sin we were sold to it. And by His precious Blood He redeemed and 
saved us and descended into Sheol and loosed the bonds of death, and 
because it was not right that He should be holden in Sheol, He, the 
First-fruits of our salvation rose from the dead on the third day and 
became the First-fruits of them that slept, that He might be preeminent 
in all things. He ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand 
of Thy Majesty O God, and left us the commemoration of our salvation, 
this mystery which we offer before Thee. 


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( 5 ° ) 

fly and hover and cease not, and continually with a loud voice without 
ceasing sound forth praise, and sing hallelujahs, crying one to another and 
saying, 

They answer , Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of hosts; Heaven and earth 
are full of Thy praises and of the nature of Thy Being and of the 
excellency of Thy glorious splendour. Hosanna in the highest. Hosanna 
to the Son of David. Blessed is He Who came and Who cometh in the 
name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest. 

Kushapa . Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God {see page 22). 

Or this. I beseech Thee, Lord God of Hosts, repeat , and I supplicate 
Thy many mercies, I Thy sinful and offending and miserable servant, on 
behalf of my sinfulness and weakness, that Thou wilt forgive me my 
trespasses and sins, and wilt accept this living and holy sacrifice at the 
hands of my frailty, for me and for this Thy people who wait for Thy 
salvation; that it 1 may be to us, O Lord, for absolution and healing and 
help and mercies. And when Thy Body and Thy holy Blood mingle 
with the bodies and souls of Thy servants, may they* purify us from the 
pollution of sin, and may they* clear away from us all the wickedness and 
craftiness of the enemy of our humanity; may they* fill us with the truth 
of faith and the fire of the knowledge of Thy dispensation and the perfect 
love of Thy Sovereignty and the good hope of Thy grace. And accept 
this pure service which is before Thee, so that we all in every place with 
one soul and one mind, may be made worthy to perfect Thy will in true 
faith and in perfect love, and may be made worthy to raise glory to Thy 
Sovereignty, for the sake of all Thy unspeakable graces towards us. 

G'hantha. 

The priest repeats in a low voice , And with those heavenly hosts, repeat , 
we also, O gracious Lord, O God the merciful Father, even we cry out 
and say, Holy art Thou indeed and glorious art Thou in truth, and lofty 
art Thou and exalted above all, Who hast made Thy worshippers upon 
earth worthy to become like those that glorify Thee in heaven. Holy 
also is Thy Only-begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ, with the Holy 

* Plur. pron. in the Syriac, probably with “ mysteries ” understood. 

* Sing. pron. in the Syriac, probably agreeing with “sacrifice” in the preceding sentence. 


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( 49 ) 

art the same, it is meet, seemly, and right, that we should confess, worship, 
glorify and exalt Thee at all times and at all seasons. For Thou art 
the true God, incomprehensible, infinite, inexplicable, invisible, uncoin- 
pounded, impassible, immortal, high and exalted above the thought and 
understanding of all creatures, Who art everywhere present and in no 
place art bounded, Thou and Thy Only-begotten Son and Thy Holy 
Spirit. Do Thou, my Lord, give us utterance in opening our mouths, 
that we may offer to Thee with a contrite heart and humble spirit, the 
spiritual fruit of our lips, even a reasonable service. For Thou art our 
God and the Father of our King and Saviour Jesus Christ our Hope, in 
Whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, through Whom 
we have received the knowledge of the Holy Spirit the Spirit of truth. 
Who from Thee, O Father, proceedeth, and is of the hidden essence of 
Thy Godhead, in Whom all rational natures visible and invisible are 
strengthened and sanctified and perfected and fulfilled. Now to Thee 
and to thy Only-begotten Son and to the Holy Spirit, we lift up continual 
praise always without ceasing, because all things are Thy work. For Thou 
out of nothing didst bring us into being and didst establish us, and when 
we had stumbled and fallen and waxed feeble, Thou didst renew us atresh 
and raise us up and take us for Thine own and didst not cease to exer- 
cise Thy care towards us; as far as to heaven hast Thou lifted us up 
and hast given us by Thy compassion the kingdom to come. For all Thy 
graces towards us, we give Thee thanks, O God the Father of truth, and to 
Thy Only-begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ and to Thy living and holy 
Spirit. We worship Thee for all Thy graces which Thou hast wrought 
towards us, those we know and those we know not, those which are open 
and those which are hidden, and we give Thee thanks for this service and 
we beseech Thee to accept it at our hands. For who is sufficient to utter 
the wonders of Thy power, or to show forth all Thy praises ? For neithei 
could all living creatures uniting in one mouth and tongue be sufficient 
to tell of Thy greatness O my Lord. 

Canon. 

For before Thy Trinity my Lord, stand a thousand thousand and ten 
thousand times ten thousand angels and archangels, who all with one accord 


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( 4 » ) 

glory, where the waving of the wings of the cherubim ceases not, nor 
the hallelujahs and sweet chanting Holy Holy Holy, of the seraphin, 
thither lift up your minds. They answer , Unto Thee, the God of 
Abraham, of Isaac, and of Israel, O glorious King. 

He proceedsy The living and reasonable oblation of our First-fruits, and 
the unslain and acceptable sacrifice of the Son of our race, which • the 
prophets figured in mystery and the apostles proclaimed openly and the 
martyrs bought with the blood of their necks and the doctors expounded 
in the churches and the priests sacrificed upon the holy altar and the 
Levites bare upon their arms, and the nations partook of for the pardon of 
their debts, for all created things to their utmost bound, is offered to God 
the Lord of all. They answer , It is meet and right. 

Kushapa. Lord Lord ( see page 2i). The deacon pro- 

Or this . I adore, O Lord God, Thy grace, repeat , claimsy Peace be 
and I confess Thy pitifulness, that albeit I am un- unto us. 
worthy. Thou hast in Thy compassion made me Or this ^ulasa .' 
worthy to offer to Thee glorious and divine mys- Be ye mindful of 
teries. I beseech Thee, O my Lord, I entreat and the wonderful dis- 
supplicate Thy grace, that they may be for the tran- pensation of Christ 
quillity of the world and for the peace of creation, our Saviour, which 
for the upholding of Thy faithful Church and for was perfected for 
the heroic- deeds of Thy priests, for the nurture of us. Who by His 
Thy faithful and for the preservation of Thy body gladdened 
righteous, for the absolution and remission of the our sadness, and 
sins of the penitent and for the conversion of the sprinkled upon our 
erring, for the salvation and aid of all mankind and hearts His living 
for the blotting out of the offences of all Thy blood. With cir- 
servants and handmaids who stand before Thee at cumspection watch 
this present moment, by Thy grace and mercies for ye and pray. Peace 
ever. Amen. be with us. 

G'hantha. 

The priest repeats in a low voice , O Lord God of hosts, eternal 
Being, Father Almighty, repeat , Who continually and at all times art and 

1 lit. praise. 


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( 47 ) 


THE THIRD HALLOWING. 

They consecrate according to this. Jive times in the year ; on the 
Epiphany , on the Friday of John the Baptist , on the Memorial of the 
Greek Doctors, on the Wednesday of the Rogation of the Ninevites , and 
on the Passover . 1 

First the priest begins as it is written in the Hallowing of the Apostles , 
every thing fully until page 18. 

First cycle . We confess, O my Lord, the overflowing riches (see page 1 9). 
Kushapa .* Yea our Lord and our God look not (see page 18) 

G'hantha , 3 The priest repeats in a low voice , inclining before the altar. 
Glory to Thee, O Finder of the lost (see page 15), 

Canon. 

For to Thee, O God the Father of truth, and to Thy Only-begotten Son 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and to Thy living holy and life-giving Spirit, let us 
lift up glory and honour and confession and adoration, now and always 
and for ever and ever. He signs himself and they answer. Amen. 
The priest says. Peace be with you. The people answer. And with thee 
and with thy spirit. The deacon says. Give the peace one to another in 
the love of Christ. They say. And for all Catholici and Bishops (see 
page 20). They read the Diptychs* that is the book of the living and 
the dead. 

Kushapa. O Lord God of The deacon says the Karuzutha, Let us 
Hosts, help my weakness (see all in purity and groaning confess and 
page 20). beseech and supplicate. 

Canon. 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God the Father 
and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit, be with us all, now and always and 
for ever and ever. He signs the mysteries, and they answer. Amen. 
He proceeds. Above in the exalted heights, in the awful place of 

* i.t. Maundy Thursday. * See note 4, p. 15. 

* See note 2, p. 18. 4 See note 2, p. 2a 


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( 46 ) 

body and in an immutable soul, they have sinned and offended before 
Thee. * For there is no man who sinneth not and who needeth not 
mercies and forbearance from before Thee, repeat. We beseech and 
desire of Thee, O my Lord, we worship, and entreat Thee, let Thy 
adorable Godhead and Thy pitifulness, my Lord, be well pleased. 

The deacon says , In stillness and in awe stand ye. Peace be with us. 
AND MAY THERE COME UPON US' and upon this oblation, the 
grace of the Holy Spirit; may He dwell and rest upon this bread and 
upon this cup and may He bless and consecrate and seal them, in the name 
of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. By the power of 
Thy Name may this bread become the holy body of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and this cup the precious blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. And whoso 
in true faith eateth of this bread and drinketh of this cup, may they be 
to him, O my Lord, for the pardon of debts and remission of sins, and 
for the great hope of resurrection from the dead, and for the salvation 
of his body and of his soul, and for life and glory for ever and ever. 
And make us all worthy by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that 
with all those who have been well-pleasing to Thy will, and who have 
had their conversation according to Thy commandments, we may delight 
in the kingdom of heaven and in the good things that are prepared and 
pass not away, 

Canon. 

Both here and there, may we all together and equally, confess and 
adore and glorify, the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, now 
and always and for ever and ever. He signs the mysteries, and they 
answer , Amen. They conclude everything as it is written in the 
Hallowing of the Blessed Apostles (see page 26). 

Here endeth the second Hallowing , to God be constant glory , Amen. 

* See note 2 , p. 26. 



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( 45 ) 

periodeutae and priests and deacons who are in this ministry of truth, that 
they may stand and minister before Thee purely and worthily and holily, 
and may be approved by Thy will so that they may be made worthy to 
receive from Thee good and exalted degrees, at the revelation of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. And for all the children of the holy catholic Church both 
here and in every land, that they may be nurtured in the worship of Thy 
Sovereignty, in true faith and in good and virtuous deeds, to the salvation 
of their lives ; and for Thy sinful and offending servant, that in Thy grace, 
O Lord, Thou mayest pardon my sins and make my offences to pass away, 
those in which wittingly and unwittingly I have sinned and offended before 
Thee. And for all those on behalf of whom this oblation is offered, that 
they may find mercies and compassion before Thee and may live. And 
for the fruits of the earth and the temperature of the air, that the crown 
of the year may be blessed by Thy grace, repeat thrice. And for the 
whole race of man, for those who are in sin and error, that by Thy grace, 
O my Lord, Thou wilt make them worthy of the knowledge of the truth 
and of the worship of Thy Sovereignty, that they may know Thee that 
Thou alone art God the Father of truth, [O Thou who art] good and wiliest 
that all men should live and be converted to the knowledge of the truth, 
and know that Thou art the Lord from everlasting and from eternity, the 
divine essence uncreate, Maker of all things, Father and Son and Holy 
Spirit. He for us men and for our salvation, even the Son of God, God 
the Word, put on perfect man our Lord Jesus Christ, and was perfected 
and justified in the power of God and in the Holy Spirit. And was 
Mediator of God and man, and Giver of life for ever and ever, to all 
those who through Him are brought near to God the Father ; to the same 
be praises and blessings for ever, Amen. * Yea our Lord and our God, 
repeat , accept from us in Thy grace this sacrifice of praise, which is the 
reasonable fruit of our lips, that it may be a good memorial before Thee 
of the righteous of old time and of the holy prophets, of the blessed 
aposdes and of martyrs and confessors, of bishops and doctors, of priests 
and deacons and of all the children of the holy catholic Church, who 
have departed from this world in the true faith, here he signs [himself ] 
and strikes his face with his hands ^ that in thy grace, O Lord, Thou wilt 
pardon them all the sins and offences, wherein in this world in a mortal 


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( +4 ) 

G'hantha. 

He repeats in a low voice , We adore Thee, my Lord, repeat , and confess 
Thee and glorify Thee, that albeit we are unworthy on account of our 
sins, Thou hast drawn us near to Thee by reason of Thy many mercies 
and hast renewed and sanctified us by the grace of the Holy Spirit and 
hast made us worthy to administer before Thee this awful and divine service 
for the salvation of our lives. We utter confession and praise before 
Thee with great thanksgiving, for the great salvation which has come to 
us all, through Thy beloved Son our Lord Jesus Christ, and we offer 
before Thy glorious Trinity, with contrite heart and humble spirit, this 
living and holy and acceptable sacrifice, the mystery of the Lamb of God 
which taketh away the sin of the world. We beseech of Thee and suppli- 
cate Thee, that Thy adorable Godhead, O my Lord, may be well pleased, 
and that in Thy pitifulness this pure and holy oblation may be accepted 
in which Thou wert well pleased and reconciled regarding the sins of the 
world. * Now also, O Lord repeat , lo this oblation is offered, before Thy 
great and awful Name, for all the holy catholic Church, that Thou mayest 
cause Thy peace and tranquillity to dwell in the midst of her all the days of 
the world. * Yea, our Lord and our God, repeat , cause Thy peace and Thy 
tranquillity to dwell in the midst of her all the days of the world. And 
may persecutions and tumults and strifes and schisms and divisions be put 
far from her, and may we all cleave to one another in one concord, with 
a pure heart and with entire love. And for all our fathers the bishops and 


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The Words of our Lord. 

And with His holy apostles in that night in which He was betrayed. He 
celebrated this great and holy and divine mystery, taking the bread in His 
holy hands. And He blessed and brake, and gave to His disciples, and said, 
THIS IS MY BODY WHICH IS BROKEN FOR THE LIFE OF 
THE WORLD FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS. After the same 
manner also He gave thanks over the cup, and gave to them and said, 
THIS IS MY BLOOD OF THE NEW TESTAMENT WHICH 
IS SHED FOR MANY FOR THE REMISSION OF SINS. TAKE 
YE ALL THEREFORE. EAT OF THIS BREAD AND DRINK 
OF THIS CUP. THIS BE YE DOING WHENSOEVER YE COME 

TOGETHER FOR MY MEMORIAL. And as we have been com- 
manded, so we Thy weak and frail and miserable servants have come 
together, that by permission of Thy grace we may celebrate this great and 
awful and holy and divine mystery, wherein was great salvation [wrought] 
for the whole race of man ; 

Canon. 

Lifting up praise and honour and thanksgiving and adoration, to the Father 
and to the- Son and to the Holy Spirit, now and always and for ever and 
ever. He signs the mysteries and they answer , Amen. The deacon 
saysy In your minds pray ye. Peace be with us. 

Kushapa. Lord God of hosts, accept this oblation {see page 24). 


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( 43 ) 

O my Lord, repeat , and we confess Thee and we glorify Thee, for the 
sake of all Thy graces towards us. For Thou hast created us out of 
nothing and hast made us worthy of the great honour of free-will and 
of consciousness and from everlasting and in every hour Thou carest for 
the upholding of our lives ; before Thy great and awful Name we kneel 
and adore, and with us all the companies of those above praise and give 
thanks, for Thy unspeakable grace. For for us men and for our salva- 
tion, the Only-begotten God the Word, Who is the likeness of God, 
counted it not robbery to be the equal of God, but emptied Himself and 
took the likeness of a servant, when He descended from heaven and put 
on our humanity, a mortal body and a reasonable, intelligent and immortal 
soul, of the holy Virgin by the power of the Holy Spirit; and through 
them He fulfilled and perfected all this great and wonderful dispensation, 
which had been prepared in Thy foreknowledge from before the founda- 
tions of the world. Thou hast fulfilled it now in the last times, through 
Thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ, in Whom dwelleth all the fulness of the 
Godhead bodily. And He is the head of the Church and the firstborn 
from the dead and He is the fulfilment of all and all in Him is fulfilled. 
Who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God, 
and hath sanctified us by the offering of His body once, and made peace 
by the blood of His cross, through Him, to things in heaven and to things 
in earth. Who was delivered for our sins, and rose that we might be 
justified. 


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( 42 ) 

the light of Thy glory and the brightness from Thee and the image of 
Thy Being, hast created and established the heaven and the earth and aH 
that is therein; and by the Holy Spirit the Spirit of Truth, Who is from 
Thee the Father, all rational natures visible and invisible, are strengthened 
and sanctified and made worthy to lift up praise to Thine adorable 
Godhead. For before Thee, O God the Father of Truth, and before Thy 
Only-begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ, and before the Holy Spirit, 
stand a thousand thousand and ten thousand times ten thousand holy 
angels; these for the joy of their lives, in the constancy of their wills, 
hallow Thy great and holy Name in constant praise. And Thou hast, 
my Lord, in Thy grace, made even the feeble race of mortal man worthy 
to lift up glory and honour, with all the companies of those on high, to 
Thy Almighty Sovereignty, even with those who at all times before the 
majesty of Thy holiness lift up their voice to glorify Thy glorious Trinity 
which in three Persons co-equal and undivided is confessed. 

Canon. 

Crying and praising without ceasing, calling one to another and saying. 
They answer. Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth 
are full of Thy praises and of the nature of Thy Being and of the 
excellency of Thy glorious splendour. Hosanna in the highest, hosanna 
to the Son of David. Blessed is He Who came and Who cometh in the 
name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest. 

Kushapa . Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God (see page 22). 

G'hantha. 

He repeats in a low voice. Verily, O Lord, repeat , Thou art holy and 
glorious for ever and ever. Holy art Thou, O God the Father of Truth, 
holy is also Thy Only-begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ, holy in truth 
is also the Holy Spirit, Divine Essence uncreate. Maker of all things, Who 
in His essence from everlasting in truth is holy ; holy is His name and 
holy is His habitation, and He sancdfieth in truth all those who are made 
worthy to receive the gift of His grace. We lift up praise and honour 
and confession and adoration, to the Father and to the Son and to the 
Holy Spirit, now and always and for ever and ever. * We worship Thee 


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( 4i ) 

He signs himself, \ and they answer , Amen. He says , Peace be with you. 
The people answer , And with thee and with thy spirit. 

The deacon says. Give the peace one to another in the love of Christ. 

They read the Diptychs ,' that is the book of the living and the dead . 

Immediately the priest draws near and bends The deacon says the Kuru- 
before the altar on his knees , and repeats this zutha , Let us all in purity 
prayer ; and groaning confess and 

Kushapa .* O Lord God of hosts, help my beseech and supplicate [see 
weakness [see page 20). P a g e 20). 

Canon. 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God the Father 
and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with us all, now and always and 
for ever and ever. He signs the mysteries , and they answer , Amen. 
He proceeds. Above in the exalted heights, in the awful place of glory, 
where the waving of the wings of the cherubin ceases not, nor the halle- 
lujahs and sweet chanting, Holy Holy Holy, of the seraphin, thither 
lift up your minds. 

They answer , Unto Thee the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Israel, 
O glorious King. 

He proceeds , The living and reasonable oblation of our First-fruits, and the 
unslain and acceptable sacrifice of the Son of our race, for all created 
things to their utmost bound, is offered to God the Lord of all. They 
answer , It »s meet and right. The deacon says , Peace be with us. 

Kushapa .* Lord, Lord, grant us openness of face [see page 2 r). 

G’hantha . 3 

The priest repeats in a low voice , It is meet, my Lord, every day, repeat , 
and right at every time and fitting every hour, to confess Thy holy Name, 
and to worship Thy Majesty in every land and every place, even Thee 
O God the Father of Truth, the Being from everlasting, and Thy Only- 
begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit, for ever and 
ever. For Thou art the Lord and Maker of all things visible and 
invisible, Who through Thy Only-begotten Son God the Word, Who is 

' See note 2 , p. 2a * See note 4, p. 15. * See note 2. p. 18. 

G 


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( 4 ° ) 


SECOND HALLOWING. 

They consecrate according to this from the First Sunday of the Annun- 
ciation 1 until the Sunday of Hosannas 

[First the priest begins as is written in full in the Hallowing of 
the Apostles , until page 18.) 

First cycle . Glory to Thee, O Finder of the lost [see page 15). 

Kushapa. Yea, our Lord and our God, look not [see page 1 8). 

G'hantha. 

Prayer before the altar. The priest repeats in a low voice , O Almighty 
Lord God of hosts, Who art alone eternal, and Who art the Cause and 
Maker of all creatures; O glorious King, Who hast done great things and 
incomprehensible, glorious and exalted deeds and unspeakable; Thou 
Who, in a wonderful and awful dispensation which Thy Only-Begotten, 
our Lord Jesus Christ, effected through our humanity, hast wrought for 
us a restoration to new life and hast given to us the earnest of the Holy 
Spirit in our hearts; and, further, albeit we are unworthy, hast made us 
worthy by Thy grace, of the knowledge of these glorious and holy and 
divine mysteries, so that we may not only offer and accomplish them 
but may also partake and have communion in them; look not, O my 
Lord, on our feebleness and on our frailty, but in Thy grace and in Thy 
overflowing mercies, fill us with the grace of the Holy Spirit; so that 
when we stand before Thee with a pure conscience and offer to Thee 
this living and holy and acceptable and bloodless sacrifice, we may find 
grace and mercies before Thee repeat , 

Canon. 

With all those who from the beginning have been well-pleasing to Thee 
in the grace and mercies of Thy Only-Begotten. To Thee and to Him 
and to the Holy Spirit, let us lift up glory and honour and confession 
and adoration, now and always and for ever and ever. 

' Answering to Advent and Palm Sunday with us. 


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( 39 ) 

filled Thy will, O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 
Amen. 

Conclusion. For that Thou hast made us worthy, O my Lord, to take 
delight in Thy Body and in Thy holy Blood, in like manner make us 
worthy to take delight in Thy kingdom, which passeth not away nor 
vanisheth, with all Thy saints, now and at all times and for ever and ever. 

Here endeth the Order of the Mysteries , with the Hallowing of the 
blessed Apostles Mar Adai and Mar Mari , who made disciples of the 
East. Amen. 



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( 3 » ) 

always and for ever and ever. They answer , Amen. The people receive 
the Peace from the priest .' 

Conclusion on ordinary days . May our Lord Jesus Christ, Whom we 
have served and celebrated and honoured in His glorious, holy, life- 
giving and divine mysteries, make us worthy of the fair glory of His 
kingdom, and of delight with His holy angels, and of openness of face 
before Him, and of standing at His right hand in Jerusalem which is 
above, in His grace and mercies. To Him be glory and upon us and 
upon all creatures, may the right hand of His providence rest; now and 
always and for ever and ever. 

Prayer on receiving the Holy Thing. Sanctify our bodies by Thy holy 
Body, pardon our debts by Thy precious Blood, purge our consciences 
with the hyssop of Thy compassion, O Christ the Hope of our nature, 
O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

On ordering [i.e. consuming the remains of~\ the Mysteries' Let not 
Thy living Body, O my Lord, which we have eaten, and Thy victorious 
Blood which we have drunk, be to us, O my Lord, for judgment and 
for vengeance; but for the pardon of debts and the remission of sins, 
for the great hope of resurrection from the dead, for the new life in the 
kingdom of heaven and for openness of face before Thee with the just 
and righteous who have pleased Thee, O Christ, the Hope of our nature, 
O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever, amen. 

Another. For that we have received Thy Body openly, may Thy power 
dwell in us secretly, may we go forth to meet Thee joyfully, may we sing 
glory to Thee threefold, with the just who have fulfilled Thy will O Christ 
the Hope of our nature, O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit 
for ever, amen. 

Another. For that we have received Thy Body from the paten and 
have drunk Thy Blood from the chalice, make us worthy, O my Lord, 
with the robber to sing glory in Paradise, with the just who have fill- 

* Here the people kiss the cross in the priest’s hands, partake of the blessed bread which 
was baked with the holy loaves, and go out of the church. The blessed bread is given by 
one of the priests or deacons standing at the nave entrance to the baptistery, saying during the 
distribution a prayer " of Mariam " (see " Preparatory Office at the Baking of the Bread ”). 

* In practice the priest and deacon within the sanctuary do not communicate until 
this time; and these prayers are said during their communion. 


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( 37 ) 

Who, etc. * Let us confess and worship and glorify * The Son Who gave 
us His Body and His Blood. * They proceed 
Our Father which art in heaver 1 three times . 

But on ordinary days they say t Glory, O my Lord, and honour repeat 
and confession and adoration and constant thanksgiving, we are bound 
to lift up to Thy glorious Trinity j for Thy gift of the holy mysteries which 
Thou hast given us in Thy compassion for the pardon of our debts, O 
Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

They answer , Amen, Bless, O my Lord. 

Another . Blessed be Thy adorable glory from Thy place on high, O 
Christ, Who pardonest our debts and our sins and dost make our offences 
to pass away, by Thy glorious, holy, life-giving and divine mysteries. O 
Christ, the Hope of our nature always and for ever. They say t Our Father 
which art in heaven. 


CONCLUSION.* 

On Sunday r, Feasts , and Memorials? 

The priest goes forth and stands in the great doorway of the holy place 
at the right side , and he blesses the people in an audible voice , sayings 
May He Who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heaven through 
Jesus Christ our Lord and hath bidden us to His kingdom and hath 
called us and brought us to desirable blessings, which pass not away 
neither cease nor vanish, as He promised and assured to us in His life-giving 
gospel, saying to the blessed company of His disciples, Verily, verily, I 
say unto you, Whoso eateth My Flesh and drinketh My Blood, dwelleth 
in Me and I in him, and I will raise him up at the last day, and he 
cometh not into judgment, but hath passed from death to life eternal ; 
bless our congregation and guard our company and make our people 
glorious, which came and rejoiced in the power of His glorious, holy, 
life-giving and divine mysteries. With the living sign of the cross of our 
Lord be ye sealed and guarded from all harm hidden or open, now and 

* The Lord's Prayer, not farced, but with doxology. 

• lit. " sealing." » See note 4, p. 1. 


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( 36 ) 

giving and divine, with one accord confess and glorify God Who gave 
them. They answer , Glory to Him for His unspeakable gift. 

The deacon says , Let us pray. Peace be with us. 

The priest prays in a loud voice . It is meet, my Lord, every day repeat 
and it is right at every time and fitting every hour, to confess and adore 
and glorify the awful name of Thy Majesty. For by Thy grace, my 
Lord, Thou hast made worthy the weak nature of mortal man, with 
spiritual beings to hallow Thy name, to have communion in the mysteries 
of Thy gift, to delight in the sweetness of Thy words and to lift up 
voices of praise and of thanksgiving to Thy most high Godhead, at every 
season, O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. They 
answer , Amen. Bless, O my Lord. 

He prays the second time. May Christ our God and our Lord our King 
our Saviour our Giver of life and the Forgiver of our sins, Who in His 
grace and His mercies made us worthy to take His precious, all- 
sanctifying Body and Blood, grant unto us to please Him in our thoughts, 
words, deeds and actions. And may this earnest, O my Lord, which we 
have received and are receiving, be to us for the pardon of debts and 
the forgiveness of sins, for the great hope of resurrection from the dead 
and for new life in the kingdom of heaven, with all those who have 
been well-pleasing unto Thee in Thy grace and Thy mercies, for ever j 
amen. 

At the sound of the priest's voice , one of the deacons draws the veils 
aside y and while the priests give the Peace to one another within the 
sanctuary , those [in the nave] say this Psalm. [Ps. cxcviii.] Praise the 
Lord from heaven. * The Son Who gave us His Body and His Blood. * 
Praise Him in the heights. * The Son Who gave us His Body and His 
Blood. [& on to v. 6.] 

They proceed , [Ps. cxvii.] Praise the Lord all ye heathen, * For His gift 
towards us. * Praise Him all ye nations, * For His gift towards us, * For 
His merciful kindness is great towards us, * For His gift towards us. * 
Truly He is the Lord for ever, * For His gift towards us. * Glory to 
the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, * The Son Who gave 
us His Body and His Blood, * From everlasting and for ever and ever. * 
The Son Who, etc . * Let all the people say amen, amen. * The Son 


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( 35 ) 

Thine absolution : glory to Thy name for Thy gift. * Blessed be Thy 
glory from Thy place : Who forgivest our debts because of Thy mercies; * 
In Thy grace make us all worthy : to confess and adore Thy divinity. * 
And at every season let us lift up : glory to Thy Sovereignty amen and 
amen. [Here the veil is closed .] 

And on Feasts of our Lord . Strengthen, our Lord, the hands that have 
been stretched out : and have received the Holy Thing for the pardon of 
debts. * Make them worthy every day : to yield fruits to Thy Godhead. * 
The mouths which have praised Thee within the holy place : do Thou 
make fit to sing glory. * The ears which have heard the voice of Thy 
praises : let them not, my Lord, hear the voice of alarm. * The eyes that 
have seen Thy great compassion : again, O Lord, let them see Thy blessed 
hope. * The tongues also that have cried Holy : do Thou dispose to speak 
truth. * The feet that have walked within the Church : make them to 
walk in the land of light. * The bodies that have eaten Thy living Body : 
do Thou renew with new life. * Our congregation which is worshipping 
Thy Godhead : O multiply towards it every aid. * And with us may Thy 
great love abide : and therein may we abundantly render glory. * Open 
the door to the petition of us all : and may our service also enter Thy pre- 
sence. * [Here follows “ Cause all guiles,” etc., as on Sundays , to 
the end.] 

On Memorials of the Departed and on ordinary days . May the 
mysteries which we have taken in faith : be to us, O my Lord, for the 
pardon of debts. * Thou art in the form of the Creature and also of 
the Creator : O Christ, the King of the ages. * By Thy body and by 
Thy blood Thou hast pardoned and forgiven : the stains and debts of 
all who have believed in Thee. * And make us all worthy at Thy 
revelation : to go forth with confidence to meet Thee. * And with the 
ranks of the heavenly beings : may we lift up glory; amen and 
amen. * [Veil closed .] 

IV hen the people have received the Holy Thing , the priest returns the 
vessels with the mysteries to their place. And while the priest goes in, the 
deacon proclaims , Let us all, therefore, who, through the gift of the grace 
of the Holy Spirit, have drawn near and have been made worthy and have 
communicated, in the taking of these holy mysteries, glorious, holy, life- 


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( 34 ) 

Then the deacon who gave the Peace draws didst give for the pardon 
near y saying , Let us pray. Peace be with us. of the nations. And in it 
The priest taking the chalice gives it to him , Thou hastconsecrated our 
sayings The grace of the Holy Spirit be with nature that we may sing 
thee and with us. praisetoThy Sovereignty. 

When the Antiphon is concluded , the deacon holding the chalice exclaims , 
Bless, O my Lord. 

The priest raises his hand and makes the sign of the cross over the people , 
saying in an audible voice , The gift of the grace of our Giver of Life 
our Lord Jesus Christ be fulfilled in mercies with us all. 

They answer , For ever and ever, Amen. 

When the priest gives the Body y he says y The They say the verses 
Body of our Lord to the devout priest ; or to of the Antiphon , My 
the deacon of God ; or to the pious believer ; brethren, receive the 
for the pardon of debts. Body of the Son, saith 

The deacon says over the chalice y The precious the Church, and drink 
Blood for the pardon of debts, a spiritual feast His chalice with faith 
unto eternal life j to the devout priest ; or within the kingdom, 
to the deacon of God; and so to every one [ Variable Anthem of 
according to his degree . 1 the Bema follows .] 

Hymn of praise for Sundays . Our Lord Jesus, the adorable King : Who 
by Thy passion didst conquer death the tyrant. * Son of God Who didst 
promise us : new life in the kingdom on high. * Cause all guiles to 
cease from us : and make Thy tranquillity and mercies to dwell in ou; 
land. * That in the day of Thy shining forth we may live before Thee : 
and may go forth to meet Thee according to Thy will. * With hosannas 
we will confess Thy name : for Thy grace towards our race. * For Thy 
mercies are multiplied towards our humanity : and Thy love hath shined 
forth upon our mortality. * Thou hast blotted out our debts through 

* The priest communicates the people at the sanctuary gate, from the paten which is 
held by the apostle-deacon, round whom the sanctuary veil is wrapped. The peace-deacon 
administers the cup on the north side through a hole in a low wall which runs parallel 
to the sanctuary wall at a distance of about three feet The space between these two walls is 
the bema. 


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i 


( 33 ) 

self and raises his voice, and for ever and ever. They answer , 
Amen. 

The priest says, Peace be with you. The people answer , And with 
thee and with thy spirit. He proceeds , The Holy [Thing] is perfectly 
meet for the holy. They answer , One Holy Father, one Holy Son, one 
Holy Spirit. Glory to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, 
for ever and ever. Amen. 


Canon. 1 

Instead of Make us worthy, on the feasts of our Lord they say, Make 
Thy tranquillity, my Lord, to dwell amongst us, and Thy peace within our 
hearts; may our tongues proclaim Thy truth, may Thy cross be the 
guardian of our souls, while we make new harps of our mouths, and speak 
a new language with fiery tongues. Make us worthy, my Lord, in the 
freedom of speech that is of Thee, to pray before Thee this pure and holy 
prayer, which Thy life-giving mouth taught to Thy true disciples, sons of 
Thy mysteries ; Whensoever ye pray, after this manner pray ye and give 
thanks and say ; They answer , Our Father which art in heaven.* 

The deacon who says the Karuzutha comes towards the priest , 
saying. Let us prav. Peace be with us. The priest takes the hand of the 
deacon and places it on the chalice, saying. The grace of the Holy Spirit 
be with thee and with us and with the partakers hereof in the kingdom 
of heaven for ever, Amen. The deacon answers , With thee and with us 
and with the partakers hereof in the kingdom of heaven. The deacon 
says , Praise ye the living God. 

The deacon who read the Apostle comes in They say [the Anthem ] 

front of the priest , and says , Let us pray, of the Bema on days of 

Peace be with us. The priest puts on him a the mysteries . 

veil and places the paten on his arm , saying , Antiphon . Blessed be 

Divine grace be with thee and with us and with Thy Body and Thy Blood, 

the partakers hereof for ever. O our Lord, which Thou 

' This word, though found in the manuscripts, seems to be a mistake. 

* Then follows " O Lord God of hosts," and so on, as on ordinary days ; and after " One 
Holy Father,” on the greatest festivals follow the special anthems (Qanun dkhilat) given below. 
The veil is drawn to during the special anthems, but again opened when they are finished. 

P 


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( 3 * ) 

be made holy by the Holy Spirit. They answer , Lord, pardon ate. 
Deacon . In concord and harmony of our minds let us receive in peace 
one with another the communion of the mysteries. They answer , Lord, 
pardon etc . Deacon . That they may be to us, O my Lord, for the 
resurrection of our bodies and for the salvation of our souls and for 
eternal life. When the Karuzutha is concluded the deacon says y Let 
us pray. Peace be with us. 

The priest repeats secretly in a low voice , Pardon, my Lord, in Thy 
compassion, the sins and offences of Thy servants and sanctify our lips by 
Thy grace, that they may yield the fruits of praise to Thy most high God- 
head, with all Thy saints within Thy kingdom. If there are uncon- 
secrated chalices he here signs them' He rises to his full height from 
the bowing and raises his voice , sayings 

And make us worthy, our Lord and our God, constandy and without 
blame to stand before Thee, with a pure heart and open face and with 
that freedom of speech which is granted by Thee in Thy mercies, that 
we may all equally call on Thee, saying, 

They answer , Our Father which art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name. 
Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven so on earth. Give 
us the bread of our need to-day. And forgive us our debts, as we also 
have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation but deliver 
us from the Evil one. For Thine is the kingdom and the power and the 
glory for ever and ever, Amen. .. 

The priest repeats this prayer in a low voice. 

O Lord God of hosts, our gracious God and our merciful King, we 
desire of Thee and beseech the abundance of Thy pitifulness ; lead us not, 
my Lord, into temptation, but deliver us from the Evil one and his hosts ; 
for Thine is the kingdom and the power and the might and the strength 
and the dominion, in heaven and on earth, now and always and for ever 
and ever, Amen. Or this y sometimes said in an audible voice and 
slowly ; Yea, our Lord and our God, we desire of Thee, and beseech the 
pitifulness of Thy grace, lead us not, my Lord, my Lord, into temptation, 
but save and deliver us from the Evil one and his hosts. For Thine is 
the kingdom and the power and the might and the strength and 
the dominion in heaven and on earth, now and always, he signs him - 
* This custom is now obsolete, and the meaning is not understood. 


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( 31 ) 

love of God the Father and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit, be with 
us all ; now always and for ever and ever. They answer , Amen. He 
signs himself lifting his hands a little upwards on either side , because 
this signing is made on behalf of the people although the priest signs it 
on himself \The veil is opened .] 

The priest says softly The deacon proclaims , Let us all in awe and 
to himself Blessed art reverence, draw near to the mysteries of the 
Thou, O Lord God precious Body and Blood of our Saviour. With 
of our fathers, and a pure heart and with true faith, let us remember 
glorified is Thy name His Passion and consider His Resurrection. For 
for ever. For not ac- for our sakes the Only-Begotten of God took 
cording to our sins of mankind a mortal body, and a reasonable, in- 
hast Thou dealt with telligent, and immortal soul. And by His life— 
us, but in the multi- giving laws and by His holy commands, He has 
tude of Thy mercies brought us out of error to the knowledge of the 
Thou hast delivered truth. And after all His dispensation for us, He, 
us from the power of the first-fruits of our nature, was lifted up on 
darkness and hast the cross, He rose from the dead and was taken 
bidden us to the king- up to heaven. He hath delivered to us His holy 
dom of Thy Beloved mysteries, that in them we might commemorate 
Son, our Lord Jesus all His goodness towards us. Let us therefore with 
Christ. overflowing love, and with a humble will receive 

While this is being the gift of eternal life. With pure prayer and mani- 
said y the priest breaks fold sorrow, let us communicate in the mysteries 
the Body , and then of the Church in penitent hope, turning from our 
dips a cake 1 for the offences, and sorrowing for our sins, and asking 
children . mercy and forgiveness from God the Lord of all. 

Deacon. We condone the offences of our fellow-servants. They answer , 
Lord, pardon the sins and offences of Thy servants. Deacon. We purify 
our consciences from divisions and strife. They answer , Lord, pardon 
etc . Deacon . Our souls being clear from anger and enmity. They 
answer , Lord, pardon etc . Deacon . Let us take the Holy [Thing] and 

* Literally, “ live ooaL” The Syrians interpret Is. vL 6, the " live coal on the altar,” as 
signifying mystically Christ 


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( 30 J 

half which is in his hand y saying , The holy Body is signed with the 
absolving Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. In the name of the Father 
and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit for ever. They answer , Amen. 
He holds both halves in both hands and unites them as if they had 
not been broken . And let his forefingers be joined round the halves , 
like a wheel, and let him say ; 

These glorious, holy, life-giving and divine mysteries have been set 
apart and consecrated, perfected and fulfilled, united and commingled, 
attached and sealed one to another, in the adorable and glorious name of 
the glorious Trinity, Father and Son and Holy Spirit, that they may be to 
us, O my Lord, for the pardon of debts and the forgiveness of sins 
and for the great hope of resurrection from the dead and for new life in 
the kingdom of heaven, to us and to the holy Church of Christ our Lord, 
here and in every place, now and always and for ever and ever. 

At [ the word ] now he cleaves a cleft with his thumb , in that part 
which was dipped in the Blood. Then he puts the halves on the paten one 
upon the other crosswise , so that the broken part of the undermost which 
was held in his left hand looks towards the chalice , and the broken part of 
the upper one which was held in his right hand looks to the west towards 
the priest , so that the cleft in it shall be towards the chalice. He wipes 
his hands well \ and signs himself on the forehead with his thumb , with 
the sign of the Cross , and then the deacons around him , saying : 

Christ accept thy ministry. Christ make thy face to shine. Christ 
preserve thy life. Chnst nurture thy youth. 

Let him loosen the veil which was folded around the paten and 
the chalice , and say ; 

Glory to Thee, our Lord Jesus Christ, that, although I am unworthy. 
Thou hast in Thy grace appointed me a minister and mediator of Thy 
glorious, holy, life-giving and divine mysteries. By the grace of Thy 
compassion make me worthy of the pardon of debts and the forgiveness 
of sins. And then : Glory to Thee, O God. Glory to Thee, O eternal 
Son. Glory to Thee, O Holy Spirit, Who sanctifiest all for ever. They 
answer , Amen. 

He kisses the altar in the midst , and exclaims like one making 
an announcement , saying ; The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the 


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( *9 ) 

He kisses the loaf in the trembling stand before the altar, and gaze 

form of a cross , not touching it at the priest breaking and dividing the 

with his lips, but figuratively, body of Christ for the pardon of trespasses. 

from the top to the bottom From everlasting to everlasting for 

and from right to left , saying , ever and ever . O Thou Who in com- 

Glory to Thee, O my Lord ; passion dost open the door to the re- 

glory to Thee, O my Lord; pentant and callest sinners to come to 

glory to Thee, O my Lord, Thee, open to us, O my Lord, the door 

for Thine unspeakable gift of Thy mercies, and let us enter by it 

towards us for ever. Amen. and sing glory to Thee by night and 

They answer , Amen. by day.] 

He holds the loaf firmly with both hands , saying , We draw near, O my 
Lord, in the true faith of Thy name, towards these holy mysteries ; we 
break by Thy compassion and we sign by Thy pitifulness the body and 
blood of our Saviour, our Lord Jesus Christ. In the name of the Father 
and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit for ever. They answer , Amen. 
At the naming of the Trinity, he breaks the loaf that is in his hands 
discreetly into two halves . Now some here sign the bread with their 
thumb at the time of the fraction , but do thou beware of such audacity . 
For it is not here necessary to sign, but only to break at the naming of 
the Trinity. Holding them in both hands, he puts that half which is 
in his left hand in its place , not in the former position but differently , 
disposing the broken side towards the chalice. And with the half that is 
in his right hand , he signs the Blood that is in the chalice, from east to 
west and from north to south , dipping a third part of the half that is 
in his hand into the chalice , that is a third part of both portions. So he 
signs the chalice with that half of the loaf, but not with the upper side 
and the edge, as others are wont to do, but at the part where it is broken , 
the front of the half facing [the chalice]. While he comes [i.e. signs ] 
from east to west , he says , The precious Blood is signed with the life- 
giving Body of our Lord Jesus Christ. In the name of the Father and of 
the Son and of the Holy Spirit for ever. That is [he says this while 
signing] from east to west towards him ; and [at the words] and of the 
Holy Spirit, [he signs] from north to south towards the paten. And 
so he signs the Body that is on the paten , in like manner , with the same 


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( 28 ) 


Order of Consignation and of Fraction. 

He begins the order of consignation and of fraction , and he draws 
near with outstretched hands , not clasped as illiterate men do , and 
he censes his hands and his face with the incense , sayings Sweeten, 
our Lord and our God, the odour of our uncleanness and of our 
corruption, with the fragrant odour of the sweetness of Thy love, and 
purify us therewith from the stains of sin, O Good Shepherd, Who 
wentest forth in search of us and didst find us who were lost and willedst 
our return. Pardon me my debts and my sins, those which I know 
and those which I know not, in Thy grace and in Thy mercies. Repeat 
thrice , and say t Bless, O my Lord ; bless, O my Lord ; bless, O my Lord. 
The pitifulness of Thy grace, our Lord and our God, brings us near unto 
these glorious, holy, life-giving and divine mysteries, though we are 
unworthy repeat thrice . The deacon answers him , In truth, my 
Lord, we are not worthy. Have pity on us, my Lord, for we are not 
worthy, through our frailty, because of our many sins. At the conclusion 
of each time after the words y the pitifulness of Thy grace, he folds his 
hands on his breast in the form of a cross and kisses the middle of the 
altar and the right and left [sides]. He takes the uppermost loaf 
which is in the middle of the paten y in both his hands , not folding them y 
and looks upward , saying, Praise to Thy holy Name, our Lord Jesus 
Christ ; and adoration to Thy Sovereignty at every season for ever. Amen. 


For [Thou art] the living 
and life-giving bread, which 
came down from heaven 
and giveth life to the whole 
world, for they who eat of it 
die not, and they who receive 
it are saved and absolved by 
it and live in it for ever. 
Amen. 

They answer , Amen. 


[The deacons begin' 

See that it is I. I am the bread 
which came down from on high, said our 
Saviour in the mysteries to His disciples. 
Whosoever hath love approacheth and 
receiveth it and liveth for ever in Me 
and inheriteth the kingdom. 

Glory be to the Father and to the Son 
and to the Holy Spirit. The cherubin 
and seraphin and archangels in fear and 


‘ These anthems are Irom the Khudhra. Singing them in this place is a matter of 
tradition. 


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( 27 ) 

Church. Grant peace to the priesthood and to the realm, 1 make wars 
to cease from the ends of the earth, scatter the divided peoples who desire 
war, that we may lead a calm and quiet life in all temperance and in 
the fear of God. 

He proceeds. 

I thank Thee, my Father, Lord of heaven and earth, Father and Son and 
Holy Spirit; that though I am a sinner and weak yet, because of the 
abundance of Thy pitifulness. Thou hast in Thy grace made me worthy 
to offer before Thee these mysteries, awful and holy and lifegiving and 
divine, of the body and blood of Thy Christ, so that I may minister to 
Thy people and the sheep of Thy pasture, the pardon of their debts 
and the forgiveness of their sins and the salvation of their souls and 
the reconciliation of the whole world and the peace and tranquillity of 
all the churches. 


He proceeds. 

[Ps. li. ver. i.] Have mercy upon me, O God, according to Thy grace. * 
O King Christ, 8 have mercy upon me. * According to the multitude of Thy 
mercies, blot out my sins. * O King Christ, glory to Thy name. * Wash 
me throughly from my wickedness. * O King Christ, have mercy upon me. 
[£0 on, alternately , to the end of the psalm.] 

[Ps. cxxiii.] Unto Thee have I raised mine eyes. \_And so on , 
without farcing , to the first clause of ver. 3.] I have washed my hands 
in purity, and I have encompassed Thine altar, O Lord. 

\Here the priest goes a second time to the baptistery 5 and washes 
his hands.] 

Prayer of the Incense. 

May our prayer and our petition be pleasant unto Thee, our Lord 
and our God, and may the savour of our pleasant censer be for Thy rest, 
even as the censer of Aaron the priest in the tabernacle. Renew our 
souls together with our bodies and be reconciled to Thy creation for Thy 
many mercies’ sake, O Creator of pleasant roots and sweet spices, O 
Lord of all. Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

* ue. Church and State. • Or, O Anointed King. * See note 1, p. 1 5. 


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( *6 ) 

the martyrs and confessors, of the bishops and doctors, of the priests and 
deacons and of all the children of the holy catholic Church, even those 
who have been signed with the living sign of holy baptism. And when 
he says [ the word ] signed, let him sign the throne 1 from below upwards 
and from right to left, inclining the while , Here he strikes his face with 
his hands , We also, my Lord, repeat three times Thy weak, frail and 
miserable servants, who are assembled in Thy name and stand before Thee at 
this moment, have by tradition received the example from Thee, rejoicing 
and glorifying and exalting and commemorating and celebrating unto Thee 
this great and awful and holy and life-giving and divine mystery, of the 
passion and death and burial and resurrection of our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ. AND MAY THY HOLY SPIRIT, O MY LORD,* come and 
rest upon this oblation of Thy servants, and may He bless it and hallow it 
and may it be to us, O my Lord, for the pardon of debts and for the 
forgiveness of sins and for the great hope of resurrection from the dead 
and for new life in the kingdom of heaven, with all those who have been 
well-pleasing to Thee. For all this great and wonderful dispensation 
towards us, * we give Thee thanks and glorify Thee without ceasing, 
within Thy Church redeemed by the precious blood of Thy Christ, with 
unclosed mouths and unveiled faces. When the priest says , May He 
come, O my Lord, he arises and elevates his hands , and the deacon says , 
In silence and in awe stand ye and pray. Peace be with us. 

Canon, 

Lifting up glory and honour and confession and adoration, to 
Thy living and holy and life-giving Name, now always and for ever and 
ever. He signs the mysteries , and they answer. Amen. He offers a 
genuflexion before the altar, but let him not kneel, [Here the veil is 

closed,"] 

He proceeds, 

O Christ, the peace of those above and the great tranquillity of those 
below, grant, my Lord, that Thy peace and tranquillity may abide on the 
four quarters of the world and especially within Thy holy catholic 

1 Throne =— altar. 

• The first two words of the Invocation, which are generally written large, give the name 
by which it is known ; viz. Nitki Mar , “ May He come, O my Lord.” 


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( 25 ) 

sinner [though I be] ; even as the oblation of Abel in the field and of Noah 
in the ark and of Abraham in the sacrifice of his son and of Elijah in 
mount Horeb and of the widow at the treasury and of the aposdes in the 
upper room, and with the oblation of the just and righteous fathers, who 
from generation to generation have offered their oblation. Yea, our Lord 
and our God, may this oblation be accepted for all the holy Catholic 
Church, that it may be established and kept immovable ; for priests and 
kings and rulers that they may be established in the peace of the churches 
and in the safety of their borders j for the poor and needy and harassed j for 
the mournful and distressed and tormented ; for all the departed, who have 
separated and passed away from amongst us ; and for all those who stand 
before Thy holy altar and make request and prayer through me a sinner. 
O grant their requests, pardon their debts and blot out their sins. And 
for this land and them that dwell therein ; for this village and its inhabi- 
tants ; surround it, my Lord, with a strong wall, and turn away from it 
in Thy grace hail and famine and death and the flying locust and the 
moth and the crawling locust, and let not the spoiler have power over us 
nor let the enemy rejoice over us ; for N. and M., he names the cause or 
the matter [of intercession ], kneeling before the altar , and every cause of 
his own or of others he here brings before God . And he arises and 
says , Bless, O my Lord; bless, O my Lord; bless, O my Lord; My 
brethren-, pray for me. He proceeds to repeat in a low voice , 

G*hantha. 

Do Thou, my Lord, in Thy many and unspeakable mercies, repeat , 
make a good and acceptable memorial for all the just and righteous fathers 
who have been well-pleasing before Thee, in the commemoration of the 
body and blood of Thy Christ which we offer to Thee upon Thy pure 
and holy altar, as Thou hast taught us, and grant us Thy safety and Thy 
peace all the days of the world. * Yea, our Lord and our God, grant us 
Thy safety and Thy peace all the days of the world, repeat , that all 
the inhabitants of the earth may know Thee, that Thou art God, the only 
true Father, and Thou didst send our Lord Jesus Christ, Thy Son and 
Thy Beloved, and He, our Lord and our God, came and in His life-giving 
gospel taught us all the purity and holmes* «f the prophets and aposdes, o£. 

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( H ) 

and honour and cQnfession and adoration, now always and for ever and ever. 
He signs the mysteries , and they answer , Amen. 

The deacon says , Pray in your minds. Peace be with us. The priest 
proceeds to this kushapa kneeling^and saying secretly ; 

Kushapa, 

Lord God of hosts, accept this oblation for all the holy catholic 
Church and for all the just and righteous fathers who have been well- 
pleasing to Thee; for all prophets and aposdes; for all martyrs and 
confessors ; for all mourners and afflicted ; for all the needy and harassed ; 
for all the sick and distressed ; for all the departed who have gone forth 
and migrated from amongst us; for this people which looks and waits 
for Thy mercies; * and for my frailty and misery and poverty, repeat . 
Yea, our Lord and our God, according to Thy mercies and the multitude 
of Thy graces, deal Thou towards Thy people and towards my misery, 
not according to my sins and offences, but so that I and these may be 
made worthy of the pardon of trespasses and the forgiveness of sins, 
through this holy Body, which we take in true faith by grace which is 
from Thee. Amen. 

Kushapa of the Departed 

I worship Thy grace, O my Lord, and I confess Thy pitifulness, in 
that though I am unworthy because of my sins, Thou hast brought me 
near unto Thee in Thy compassion, and hast appointed me a minister and 
mediator of these glorious and holy mysteries. I desire of Thee, and 
beseech Thy Sovereignty, that they may be for the peace and safety of the 
world, for the preservation of Thy holy Church, for the increase of 
the true faith, for the exaltation of the righteous, for the absolution of 
sinners, for the acceptance of the penitent, for the return of those who 
are far off, for the encouragement of the. weak, for the refreshing of the 
harassed, for the comforting of the distressed, for the healing of the sick, 
for the support of the poor and for a good memorial of the departed, and 
do Thou to all of us, O my Lord, such things as are helpful and approved 
by Thy Sovereignty. * Yea, Lord God of hosts, repeat , may this oblation 
be accepted in the heights above, from my hands, miserable and offending 

* This' is only used at memorials of the dead, in addition to or instead of the foregoing. 


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THE WORDS 


OF OUR LORD.* 


[Our Lord Jesus, in the same night in which He was betrayed, took 
bread, and blessed and brake, and said, Take, eat ; this is My Body which 
is broken for you ; this be ye doing for My memorial. Likewise after 
they had supped, He gave the cup also, and said, This cup is the new 
testament in My Blood; this be ye doing, as oft as ye drink for My 
memorial.] 

Or read as it is written in the other Liturgies. 

Canon. 

For all Thy aids and graces towards us, let us lift up to Thee praise 

* The words of institution are not written in the Apostles’ Liturgy. It is thought that 
they were always recited, and it is at this part of the service that they are found in the other 
East Syrian liturgies. 


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( n ) 

our uncleanness and sanctify our lips and mingle, O my Lord, the voices 
of our feebleness with the Holy of the seraphin, and the hallelujahs 
of the angels. Glory be to Thy mercies Who hast made creatures of dust 
partakers with spiritual beings. 

He arises , and says , Bless, O my Lord. Bless, O my Lord. Bless, O 
my Lord. My brethren, pray for me. He repeats , in a low voice, 

G'hantha. 

With those heavenly hosts we confess Thee, O my Lord, repeat , 
even we Thy servants, weak and frail and miserable. For Thou hast 
shown great grace unto us which cannot be repaid, in that Thou didst put 
on our humanity that Thou mightest quicken us by Thy divinity, and 
Thou hast exalted our low estate and hast restored us from our fall, Thou 
hast raised us out of a state of death and Thou hast forgiven our debts 
and justified us from our guilt, Thou hast enlightened our knowledge, * and 
hast condemned, O our Lord and our God, our enemies, and hast granted 
victory to the weakness of our frail nature in the abundant mercies of 
Thy grace. 


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( « ) 


G'hantha. 

Worthy of glory from every mouth, repeat , and of confession by 
every tongue, and of adoration and exaltation from all creatures, is the 
adorable and glorious name of Thy glorious Trinity, Father and 

Son and Holy Spirit. Who didst create the world in Thy grace and 

its inhabitants in Thy pitifulness j Who didst save mankind by Thy com- 
passion and hast showed great grace unto mortals. Thousand thousands 
of those on high bless and adore Thy Majesty, O my Lord; and ten 

thousand times ten thousand holy angels, and hosts of spiritual beings, 

ministers of fire and spirit, glorify thy name ; * with the holy cherubin and 
spiritual seraphin, offering adoration to Thy Sovereignty, 

Canon. 

crying and praising without ceasing, calling one to another and saying j 
They answer , Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of hosts. Heaven and 
earth are full of Thy praises and of the nature of Thy Being and of 
the excellency of Thy glorious splendour. Hosanna in the highest. 
Hosanna to the son of David. Blessed be He Who came and Who 
cometh in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest. And at each 
crying of Holy, the priest makes a genuflexion before the altar . He 
kneels down y and says t 

Kushapa . 

Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of hosts. Heaven and earth are full 
of Thy praises and of the essence of Thy Being and of the excellency of 
Thy glorious splendour ; as saith the Lord, Heaven and earth are filled by 
Me. Holy art Thou, God the Father of truth, of Whom all fatherhood 
in heaven and on earth is named. Holy art Thou, everlasting Son, by 
Whose hand all things were. Holy art Thou, Spirit of Holiness, Being 
through Whom all things are sanctified. Woe is me. Woe is me. For 
I am amazed ; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell amongst 
a people of unclean lips ; and mine eyes have seen the King, the Lord of 
hosts. How awful is this place, for to-day have I seen the Lord face to 
face. This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of 
heaven. * And now let Thy grace be upon us, Lord, repeat , and purge 


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( 21 ) 

worthy of openness of face before in awe stand ye and pray, Peace 
Thee in the day of judgment. Amen. be with us. 

Prayer of the Incense . 

Mayest Thou be pleased, our Lord and our God, with the sweet 
savour which we offer to Thee before Thy holy altar, within Thy glorious 
temple. May it be for the gladness of Thy holy Name, and for the pardon 
of Thy servants and of Thy flock, O Father and Son and Holy Spirit 
for ever. 

The priest says to the deacon , Christ strengthen thee to do His will con- 
tinually. He proceeds , 

Canon. 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God the Father 
and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit, be with us all, now, always and 
for ever and ever. He signs the mysteries , and they answer. Amen. 

He proceeds. 

Lift up your minds. They answer , Unto Thee, the God of Abraham, 
of Isaac and of Israel, O glorious King. 

He proceeds. 

The oblation is offered to God, the Lord of all. They answer , It is 
meet and right. [He elevates his hands at every canon which has not 
the word Now.) The deacon says , Peace be with us. The priest kneels 
down and prays secretly , saying , in a low voice , 

Kushapa. 

Lord, Lord, grant us openness of face before Thee, that with freedom 
of speech which is from Thee we may perfect this living and holy 
service, our consciences being pure from all evil and bitterness. Sow 
among us love, peace and concord towards each other and towards all 
men. 

He arises and kisses the altar. Now it must be made known , that at 
the beginning of every g'hantha and at its conclusion , he makes a 
genuflexion and kisses the altar. And the priest proceeds , stretching 
out his hands in due order , and saying , 


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( 20 ) 

The priest continues , Peace be with you. They answer , And with thee 
and with thy spirit. The deacon says , Give the Peace one to another in 
the love of Christ. They give the Peace one to another , saying , For all 
catholici, bishops, presbyters and deacons, and the whole company of the 
departed of the congregation of the Church ; and for the life and peace 
of the world ; and for the crowning of the year, that it may be blessed and 
fulfilled by Thy grace j and for every child of the Church who is worthy 
to receive this oblation that is before Thee ; and for all Thy servants 
and handmaids who stand before Thee at this moment ; for all of them 
and for us all may this oblation be accepted for ever. Amen. 

They make the procession of the Peace 1 and read the Diptychs * that 
is, the Book of the Living and the Dead. 


The priest says in a low voice 

Kushapa. 

O Lord God of hosts, repeat , help 
my weakness by Thy pitifulness, and 
by the assistance of Thy grace make 
me worthy to offer before Thee this 
living and holy sacrifice, for the aid 
of the whole body and to the praise 
of Thy glorious Trinity, O Father 
and Son and Holy Ghost for ever. 
The priest stands up and lifts the 
veil from the mysteries , and winds 
it about the chalice and the paten , 
saying, O my Lord, Who in Thy 
grace hast made me worthy of Thy 
Body and Thy Blood, make me also 


The deacon says. Let us all in 
purity and groaning confess and 
beseech and supplicate the Lord. 
With reverence stand and behold 
those things which are performed 
in the awful mysteries which are 
being consecrated. The priest 
has drawn near to pray, that 
by his mediation peace may be 
multiplied unto you. Cast your 
eyes downwards and lift up your 
minds to heaven. 

The deacon says. Vigilantly and 
earnestly seek and supplicate at 
this moment. Let none dare to 
speak. Whoso prays, let him 
pray in his heart. In silence and 


* The priest kisses the altar, and the deacon takes his hands between his own and kisses 
them. The deacon then goes out to the nave, and similarly gives peace to the person highest in 
rank in the nave, who then stands at the north-east corner of the nave. The second in rank 
touches the deacon’s hand, and raises his own to his lips, and does the same to the first 
person, and stands behind him. The third does the same, and so on, each person touching the 
hand of all in front of him. But a layman kisses the hand of any priest in the congregation. 

• Now quite obsolete among the East Syrians. 


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( 19 ) 


THEN HE OFFERS THE HALLOWING OF THE BLESSED 
APOSTLES, MAR ADAI AND MAR MARI, WHO MADE 
DISCIPLES OF THE EAST. 

They consecrate according to this from Saturday of the Resurrection 
until the Annunciation ; 1 and on [ Memorials of] the Departed ; and 
on Memorials of Saints and on ordinary days. The priest says, Bless, 
O my Lord; bless, O my Lord; bless, O my Lord.* My brethren, pray for 
me. They answer, Christ hear thy prayers, Christ accept thine oblation, 
Christ make thy priesthood to shine in the kingdom of heaven and be 
well-pleased with this sacrifice which thou dost offer for thyself and for 
us and for all the whole world, which looks and waits for His grace and 
mercies for ever. 

The priest repeats this first g'hantha of the Apostles in a low voice . 

G'hantha. 

We confess, O my Lord, the overflowing riches of Thy grace towards 
us repeat , in that, although we are sinners and weak, yet in the multitude 
of Thy pitifulness Thou hast made us worthy to administer the holy 
mysteries of the Body and Blood of Thy Christ. We ask for help from 
Thee for the strengthening of our souls, * that in entire love and true faith 
we may administer Thy gift towards us. Repeat the beginning and the 
end of each g'hantha [from the asterisk]. 

Canon.* 

And that we may lift up to Thee praise and honour and confession and 
adoration, now and always and for ever and ever. He crosses himself and 
the people answer , Amen. 

1 t.e. from Easter Eve till Advent. 

• The phrase " Barikh Mar ” (" Bless. O my Lord ”), as understood by the Eastern Syrians, 
is not addressed to the celebrant, or to a bishop or metropolitan present, but to God. It is sung 
with much ceremony when in the mouth of the priest; he bows to the east, once to the middle 
pf the altar, once to the right, and once to the left. Outside the Liturgy, it is used whenever 
prayer is begun. Private or public prayers begin with “In the name, etc Bless, O my 
Lord.” . Only twice in the Liturgy does it seem capable of the translation, Jube domne bent- 
dicer t, vis. where the deacon says it before the Epistle, and before the Communion. But even 
there it is probably addressed to God, and not to the priest, and it is so understood by the 
Syrians themselves. 

1 At every canon the priest makes a genuflexion and raises his voice. 


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( i» ) 

a genuflexion , and kneels down until the 
conclusion of the karuzutha ; and while he 
is on his knees , he repeats this prayer in a 
low voice , in his hearty supplicating ly. 

Kushapa. 1 

Yea, our Lord and our God, repeat , 
look not on the multitude of our sins and 
let not Thy sovereignty abhor the weight 
of our iniquities ; but in Thine unspeakable 
grace do Thou accept this sacrifice from our 
hands and endue it with virtue and efficacy, 
that it may obtain the pardon of our many 
sins; that when Thou art revealed at the 
end of the times, in the humanity which 
Thou tookest of us, we may find grace and 
mercies before Thee and may be made 
worthy to glorify Thee with the spiritual 
multitudes. 


When the karuzutha is concluded he rises and kisses the altar, and 
repeats the g'hantha * without stretching forth his hands before the 
altar . And know that here he may not stretch forth his hands at all , 
because he has not received confidence . But at the other g'hanthas he 
stretches out his hands after he has acquired confidence , and at every 
g'hantha he prostrates himself before the altar, at the beginning and at 
the end . And he shall stand about one cubit from the altar , and the 
space between his hands shall be the same ; and he shall bow his head as low 
as to his knees , and at the conclusion of every g'hantha he shall prostrate 
himself and kiss the middle of the altar . 

* See note 4, p. 15. * “ Prayer of inclining," said with bent head and in a low voice. 


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( *7 ) 

Then he repeats , Glory to Thee, O Finder 
of the lost, while he prostrates himself and 
rises and kisses the middle [of the altar\ y in 
like manner the right and left sides, and 
offers a genuflexion ; he rises and kisses the 
middle and the right and left sides . And 
he faces those on the left y while he is himself 
on the right , saying ; 

Bless, O my Lord. Pray for me, my 
brethren and my beloved, that I may be 
worthy to offer before our Lord Christ this 
living and holy sacrifice, for myself and for 
the whole body of the holy Church, by the 
grace of His compassion for ever. Amen. 
They return answer to him, God, the Lord 
of all, be well-pleased with thy sacrifice and 
accept thine oblation, which thou dost offer 
for us and for thee, in His grace and mercies 
for ever. Amen. Then he says , Glory to 
Thee, O Finder of the lost ^prostrating himself 
according to the previous order ; and when 
the deacon says , May the oblation be accepted, 
the priest prostrates himself towards him , 
saying thus : For all the living and the dead 
is this oblation offered ; may it be accepted 
from my sinfulness before the awful judgment- 
seat of Thy majesty, O our Lord, with open 
face. Then the priest descends quickly from 
the raised place , and turns his face towards 
the deacon who has concluded , and prostrates 
himself towards him , saying thus : Christ 
confirm thy words and accept the fruits of 
thy lips and pardon the trespasses and sins 
of all those who hearken to thee. Then he 
turns his face towards the altar and offers 


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( «6 ) 

Glory to Thee, my Lord, Who hast called and Bishops; and of all 
me, even frail me, in Thy grace, and hast priests and deacons and 

drawn me near unto Thee in Thy compassion, young men and virgins ; 

and hast set me as an appointed member in and of all who have died 

the great body of Thy holy catholic Church, and departed from this 

that I may offer before Thee this living and world in the true faith; 

holy and acceptable sacrifice, which is the and of all our fathers and 

memorial of the Passion and of the Death brethren; of all our sons 

and of the Burial and of the Resurrection of and daughters ; of all 

our Lord and our Saviour Jesus Christ, in faithful kings, lovers of 

Whom Thou wast well-pleased and reconciled Christ; of all prophets and 

to forgive the sins of all mankind. aposdes ; of all martyrs 

Here I inform thy love , 0 my Lord ,* that and confessors here and 

as the priest draws near before the altar, in every place ; that God 

just when he draws near and says the may crown them at the 

Kushapa , he prostrates himself until he has resurrection from the dead, 

come to the altar , then he prostrates himself and give to us with them 

and rises and kisses the middle [of the altar\ a good hope and portion 

then he prostrates himself and rises and and inheritance and life 

kisses the right horn , then he prostrates in the kingdom of heaven. 

himself and rises and kisses the left horn , May this oblation be ac- 

then the middle , then the right side , then the cepted with openness of 

left side . And he faces those on the right face and be consecrated by 

side while he is inclined on the left side , and the Word of God and by 

he prostrates himself towards them , saying ; the Holy Spirit, that it may 

Bless, O my Lord. My brethren, pray be to us for help and for 

for me, that this oblation may be fulfilled by salvation and for life eternal 

my hands. in the kingdom of heaven 

They return answer to him , God, the Lord by the grace of Christ, 
of all, strengthen thee to perfect His will, 
and accept thine oblation, and be well-pleased 
with thy sacrifice, for us, and for thyself, 
and for the four regions of the world, by the 
grace of His compassion for ever. Amen. 

* This is merely a courteous way of giving information to the reader, = Beloved Master, 
pray observe. 


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( IS ) 


We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible 
and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God ; the Only- 
begotten, the Firstborn of all creatures, Begotten of His Father before 
all worlds and not made; very God of very God, of one essence with His 
Father j by Whose hands the worlds were established and everything was 
created. Who for us men and for our salvation, came down from heaven, 
and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit and became man, and was conceived 
and born of the Virgin Mary ; He suffered and was crucified in the days 
of Pontius Pilate ; He was buried and He rose again on the third day as 
it is written ; and ascended into heaven and sat down on the right hand 
of His Father; and He shall come again to judge the dead and the living. 
And in one Holy Spirit, the Spirit of truth, Who proceedeth from the 
Father, the life-giving Spirit. And in one holy, apostolic, catholic 
Church. And we confess one baptism for the remission of sins ; and the 
resurrection of our bodies, and the life for ever and ever. Amen. 

They go in quickly and prostrate themselves thrice , and when the priest 
prostrates himself before the altar , he says , God the Lord of all be with 
us all, in us all, in His grace and mercies for ever. Amen. Here the 
priest washes his hands' and they make the sign of the cross [in the 
air with joined hands\ towards all the [four\ crosses of the holy place* 


The priest turns his face to the altar and 
offers three genuflexions, at each genuflexion 
drawing nearer , and at the beginning of the 
genuflexions he begins this Kushapaf saying 
it softly with his lips . 

Glory to Thee, O Finder of the lost. 
Glory to Thee, O Gatherer of the dispersed. 
Glory to Thee, Who bringest near them that 
are far off. Glory to Thee, Who turnest 
the erring to the knowledge of the truth. 


The priest says to the 
deacon who has concluded , 3 
God, the Lord of all, 
strengthen thee to sing 
His praises. 

The deacons say the karu- 
zutha [following ], s Let 
us pray ; peace be with us. 
Pray ye for the memorial 
of our fathers the Catholici 


1 He goes for this purpose into the Baptistery, which is also a vestry, etc., on the north 
side of the sanctuary. Water must not be brought into the sanctuary. 

* These are crosses marked in oil at the consecration of the church on each wall of the 

sanctuary, but they are not visible crosses. » Meaning obscure. 

4 Prayer of beseeching ; always said kneeling and in a low voice. 

* Said very slowly, so as to last till the end of the prayer, “ Yea, our Lord and our God.” 


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( *4 ) 

The priest prostrates himself towards the \The proper Anthem of 
four sides of the hema ; first he prostrates the Mysteries, 

himself towards the east twice , then to the Glory be to the Father 

rights then to the east once , and arises . and to the Son and to the 

Then he prostrates himself to the east twice, Holy Spirit, 

to the Itft once , to the east once, and to the ( A proper verse follows ) 

west. He says the Gloria in the Anthem of From everlasting and for 

the Mysteries , and goes down and gives the ever and ever. Make 1 

Peace to the people. When he comes towards the right hand of Thy 

the deacons, they prostrate themselves towards mercy, O our Lord Jesus, 

one another face to face , and he says to them ; to overshadow and abide 

May God the Lord of all, be content with on Thy people and the 

your ministrations and adorn you with all sheep of Thy pasture, 

beauty and enrich you with all the gifts of Lord, Thy mercy is for 
His bounty for ever and ever. ever on Thy worshippers; 

When he comes to the door of the sanctuary , cast not the works of Thy 

that is the holy place , he prostrates himself hands into the hands of 

saying y Our hearts being sprinkled and pure the Evil One. Make true, 

from evil conscience, may we be made worthy Lord, Thy promise which 

to enter the Holy of Holies high and exalted; Thou madest to the (or, 

and in purity, watchfulness and holiness may Thy) Twelve, saying : I 

we stand before Thy holy altar, and offer to am with you unto the end 

Thee spiritual and reasonable sacrifices in of days. Be with us as 

the true faith. with Thy Apostles by the 

He proceeds, Thou art good and dost not help of Thy grace. * And 

always chide, neither keepest anger for ever; deliver us from temptations, 

turn Thy face from my sins and blot out and give us time full of 

all my offences, in the great multitude of peace, that we may confess 

Thy pitifulness, O Father and Son and Holy and worship and glorify 

Spirit for ever. If there be not time he says : Thy great and holy Name 

Our Lord Jesus Christ be with us all in His at all times. Repeat thrice 

grace and mercies for ever. Amen. from the asterisk .] 

The priest goes up to the door of the holy place, and prostrates himself 
and stands up, stretching forth his hands, saying with a loud voice, 

* Invariable verse. 


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Christ and His precious 
Blood are on the holy 
altar. In awe and love 
let us all draw near unto 
Him, and with the angels 
let us cry aloud unto 
Him, Holy, Holy, Holy, 
Lord God. 

The poor shall eat and 
he satisfied. The Body of 
Christ and His precious 
Blood are on the holy 
altar. In awe and love 
let us all draw near unto 
Him, and with the angels 
let us cry aloud unto 
Him, Holy, Holy, Holy, 
Lord God. 


( *3 ) 

The deacon says , Let us pray. Peace be with 
us. The priest says> Let us lift up praise to 
Thy glorious Trinity at every season for ever. 
May Christ, Who was sacrificed for our salva- 
tion and Who commanded us to make a 
commemoration of His Death and Burial and 
Resurrection, accept this sacrifice at our hands, 
in His grace and mercies for ever. Amen. 
He strikes the chalice and paten together 
three times , and each time he says , By Thy 
command, our Lord and our God, repeat , 
these glorious, holy, life-giving and divine 
mysteries are set and ordered on the absolving 
altar, until the coming of our Lord the second 
time from heaven, to Whom be glory at every 
season for ever. Amen. 

He arranges the mysteries on the altar and 
covers them carefully with a veil. 


Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, Upon the 
holy altar let there be a memorial of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of Christ. 
From everlasting and for ever and ever. Amen . O apostles of the 
Son and lovers of the Only-Begotten, pray that there may be peace in 
creation. 

Let all the people say Amen , Amen, Thy memorial, O our Father , 1 
. . . is upon the holy altar, with the just who have overcome and the 
martyrs who have been crowned. Or this: Lo all the departed have 
fallen asleep in hope in Thee, that at the glorious resurrection Thou wilt 
raise them in glory. 

They go out to the nave t and the priest gives the Cross and the 
Gospel to the deacons to hold , and says t May Christ our Lord make you 
worthy to receive Him with open face. Amen. 

They bind * the veil and the priest begins the appointed Anthem of 
the Mysteries and those who are within the holy place repeat it, 

* The name of the patron saint is inserted here. * u*. loop up the veil, drawing it aside. 


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( ) 

through us Thy gift, and may the mercies and compassion of Thy 
Godhead be for the pardon of the debts of Thy people, and for remission 
of sins to all the sheep of Thy pasture, whom Thou hast chosen for 
Thyself in Thy grace and mercies, O Lord of all, Father and Son and 
Holy Spirit for ever. 

The deacons say with a loud voice , Bow your heads for the Imposition 
of hands and receive the blessing. 

And the people bow their heads , the deacons also , and the priest ^inclining 
himself \ repeats this Imposition of hands secretly in a low voice: O 
Lord God of hosts, repeat , Thine is the holy Catholic Church, which, by 
the great Passion of Thy Christ, was purchased [to be] the sheep of Thy 
pasture ; and through the grace of the Holy Spirit, Who is of one essence 
with Thy glorious Godhead, are the degrees of the Imposition of hands of 
the true priesthood given. In Thy pitifulness, O my Lord, Thou hast made 
us who are of feeble and frail nature, worthy to become appointed members 
in the great body of the holy Catholic Church, and to administer 
spiritual aids to the souls of the faithful. Do Thou therefore, my Lord, 
fulfil in us Thy grace and pour forth through us Thy gift, and may the 
mercies and compassion of Thy Godhead be upon us and upon this 
people which Thou hast chosen for Thyself. He raises his voice and 
says , And grant unto us, my Lord, in Thy compassion, that we may all 
together and equally, all the days of our life, please Thy Godhead, in good 
works of righteousness, acceptable and well-pleasing to the glorious will of 
Thy Sovereignty, and that we may be worthy, by the aid of Thy grace, 
to lift up to Thee praise and honour and confession and adoration, at 
every season, O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

The deacons enter the holy place and say , Whoso hath not received 
baptism, let him depart ; whoso doth not receive the sign of life, let him 
depart ; whoso doth not accept it, let him depart. Go, ye hearers, and 
watch the doors. 

The priest goes to place the mysteries upon the altar, and when he 
places the vessels upon the altar , the priest takes the paten and the 
deacon the chalice , and [ the choir\ begin the Anthem . 

I waited confidently for The priest takes the paten in his left hand , 
the Lord. The Body of and the chalice in his right , crossing his hands . 


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( II ) 


Pray ye and desire of God the Lord of all : 
that ye may be to Him a kingdom, holy priests 
and people. Cry to the mighty Lord God with 
all your heart and all your soul. For He is 
God, the Father of compassion, merciful and 
pitiful, Who willeth not that those whom He 
hath fashioned should perish, but repent and 
live before Him. And especially must we pray 
to, confess, worship, glorify, honour and exalt 
one God, the adorable Father, Lord of all, Who 
by His Christ wrought a good hope and salvation 
for our souls : that He may fulfil in us His grace 
and mercy and compassion until the end. Amen . 
The deacon proceeds . With petition and with 
beseeching we ask for an Angel of peace and 
mercy. Answer . From Thee, O Lord. 

Night and day, throughout our life, we 
ask for continual peace for Thy Church and 
life without sin. Answer . From Thee, O Lord. 

We ask continual love, which is the bond 
of perfectness, with the confirmation of the 
Holy Ghost. Answer . From Thee, O Lord. 

We ask for forgiveness of sins and those 
things which help our lives and propitiate Thy 
Godhead. Answer . From Thee, O Lord. 

We ask the mercy and compassion of the 
Lord continually and at all times. Answer . 
From Thee, O Lord. 

Let us commit ourselves and one another 
to the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Answer . 
To Thee, O Lord our God.] 



* 




•s 

^5 


%» 

* 




3 


When the Karuzutha is ended , the priest says , O Lord God of 
hosts, we pray and beseech Thee, fulfil in us Thy grace, and pour forth 


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( 1 ° ) 

and of their faith may be kept in all the holy 
Catholic Church till the end of the world. 

For the memorial of our fathers and brothers, 
faithful and true, who have died and departed 
from this world in this true faith and orthodox 
religion, let us pray, etc. That He may loose 
and forgive their transgressions and offences, and 
make them worthy to have joy with the just and 
righteous who were approved by His will. 

For this country and its inhabitants, for 
this town [or, village] and those who dwell in it, 
for this house and those who care for it, and 
especially for this congregation, let us pray, etc. 
That He may take away from us by His grace 
the sword, captivity, robbery, earthquakes, famine, 
pestilence, and all evil plagues which are against 
the body. 

For those who err from this true faith, and 
are held in the snares of Satan, let us pray, etc. 
That He may turn the hardness of their hearts, 
and make them to know that God the Father 
of truth, is one, and His Son Jesus Christ our 
Lord. 

For those who are grievously sick, and tried 
by evil spirits, let us pray, etc. That He may 
send His Angel of mercy and healing to visit, 
cure, heal, help and comfort them in the 
multitude of His grace and mercies. 

For the poor and afflicted, orphans and 
widows, the harassed, troubled and grieved in 
spirit in this world, let us pray, etc. That H^ 
may give them what they need by His grace, 
provide for them in His pitifulness, comfort 
them in His compassion and deliver them from 
whoso governs them with force and fraud. 


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The proper Anthem of the Gospel . 



( 9 ) 

fathers Mar,' ... let us pray, etc . That He 
may keep and uphold them at the head of all 
their dioceses ; that they may feed, serve, make 
ready for the Lord, a perfect people, zealous of 
good and noble works. 

For presbyters and deacons who are in 
this service of the truth, let us pray, etc. That 
with a good heart and with pure thoughts they 
may serve before Him. 

For all the discreet and holy congregation, 
children of the holy Catholic Church, let us 
pray, etc. That they may accomplish their good 
and holy course, and receive from the Lord 
hope and promise in the land of life. 

For the memorial of blessed Mart Mariam 
the holy Virgin, mother of Jesus our Saviour 
and Lifegiver, let us pray, etc . That the Holy 
Ghost Who dwelt in her may sanctify us by 
His grace and perfect His will in us and seal in 
us His truth all the days of our life. 

For the memorial of the prophets and 
apostles and martyrs and confessors let us pray, 
etc. That by their prayers and sufferings He 
may give us with them a good hope and salvation, 
and make us worthy of their blessed memorial 
and their living and true promise in the kingdom 
of heaven. 

For the memorial of our holy fathers 
Mar Diodorus, Mar Theodoras, Mar Nestorius, 
bishops and teachers of the truth, and Mar 
Ephraim, Mar Nersai, and Mar Abraham, and 
all the holy, ancient and true teachers, let us 
pray, etc. That by their prayers and petitions 
the pure truth of the doctrine of their religion 

* The patriarch, the metropolitan, and the bishop of the diocese. 


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The proper Anthem of the Gospel. 


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( * ) 

O Thou Who wiliest not the death of a 
sinner but rather that he should repent of his 
wickedness and live, we etc. 1 

O Thou Who art glorified in heaven and 
worshipped on earth, we etc. 

O Thou Who in Thy holy [Nativity*] 
madest the earth to rejoice and the heavens to 
be glad, we etc.' 

O Thou Who by nature hast immortality 
and dwellest in the light on high, we etc. 

O Saviour of all men and specially of 
them that believe in Thee, we etc.' 

Save all of us, O Christ our Lord, by Thy 
grace; increase in us Thy peace and tranquillity, 
and have mercy upon us. 

Another. 

Deacon. Let us pray. Peace be with us. 
Let us pray and desire of God the Lord of all. 
Amen. That He may hear the voice of our 
prayer, and receive our petition, and have mercy 
upon us. 

For the holy Catholic Church, here and 
everywhere, let us pray and desire of God die 
Lord of all. Amen ( and so for every clause ). 
That His peace and tranquillity may abide 
within her until the end of the world. 

For our fathers the bishops, let us pray 
etc. That they may stand at the head of their 
dioceses without blame or stain all the days of 
their life. 

Especially for the welfare of our holy 


* These clauses are only said on Sundays, festivals of our Lord, and memorials of 
saints. 

J The name of the festival of our Lord last preceding is here inserted. 


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2 


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( 7 ) 

The people answer , Our Lord, have mercy 
upon us. 

He proceeds , Father of mercies, and God of all 
consolation, we beseech Thee. Answer . Our 
Lord, etc . {and so after each clause ). 

Deacon . Our Saviour, Who carest for us, and 
suppliest all things, we etc. 

For the peace, safety and security of all 
the world and all the churches, we etc. 

For our land and for all lands and for 
those who dwell in them in faith, we etc. 

For a moderate climate and a seasonable 
year, the fruits and produce of the earth, and 
prosperity of all the world, we for the etc. 

For the welfare of our holy fathers Mar 
. . ., 3 and all those who serve under them, 
we etc. 

For the kings who have power in this 
world, we etc . 4 

O merciful Lord, Who in mercy governest 
all, we etc. 

For orthodox presbyters and deacons, and 
all our brotherhood in Christ, we etc . 4 

O Thou Who art rich in mercy and over- 
flowing with compassion, we etc. 

O Thou Who art before all worlds and 
Whose power is strong unto all generations, 
we etc . 4 

O Thou Who art by nature good and 
the Giver of all good things, we etc. 


Apostles in the upper 
chamber. O Creator of 
sweet herbs and pleasant 
spices; in the name of 
the Father, etc. 

At this time also the 
ma'apra , or outer vest - 
menty is* put on .] The 
priest takes the paten , 
and goes and puts on it 
as many loaves' as he 
chooses , and sett the 
paten on the treasury * 
until the Karuzutha be 
ended 

During the Karuzutha 
those in the nave sing 
the proper Anthem of 
the Gospel. 



* Bukhra; lit. “firstborn." When the bread is first blessed it is so called, in allusion to 
Christ, the Firstborn of all creatures. (See Renaudot, Lit. Or. ii. 62.) 

* A recess in the north wall of the sanctuary. 

* The patriarch, the metropolitan and the bishop of the diocese 

4 These clauses are only said on Sundays, festivals of our Lord, and memorials of 
saints. 


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( 6 J 


by the light of Thy gospel, we confess and worship and glorify at every 
season, O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. And 
when the priest goes to make ready the Gospel , Glory to the everlasting 
mercies which sent Thee unto us, O Christ the light of the world and the 
life of all for ever. Amen. 

And when he takes it up to go out [of the Sanctuary ], Give us wisdom 
by Thy law, and enlighten our impulses by Thy knowledge, sanctify our 
souls by Thy truth, and grant that we may be obedient to Thy words 
and may fulfil Thy commands, at every season, O Lord of all, Father 
and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

For the Censer. O my Lord, let that same sweet odour which breathed 
forth from Thee when Mary the sinner poured sweet-smelling ointment 
on Thy head, be mingled with this incense which we place to Thine 
honour, and for the pardon of our debts and of our sins, O Lord of 
all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever.' 

The deacon says in an audible voice , Let us stand ready to hear the holy 
gospel. If it be a day of the mysteries ,* he says , Be calm and still. The 
priest proceeds , saying , Peace be with you. They answer , And with 
thee and with thy spirit . 3 He reads the Gospel , and when he concludes , 
they say , Glory to Christ our Lord. 

During its recitation A deacon says the Karuzuthaf Father of 
they both go , a deacon mercies, and that which follows it [ standing 
to take the censer, and outside the sanctuary ]. 

the priest to cense the [Let us all stand up, as is right, with joy 

paten. [He says , This and rejoicing; [on week days in sorrow and 

paten is blessed, like the care ;) let us beseech and say, Our Lord, have 

paten of the blessed mercy upon us. 

’ Here is recited the Zumara, lit. “ the song." It is a few verses of the Psalms, like the 
Shuraya. 

• The modem Syrians do not understand the meaning of this rubric. 

* Turgama before the Gospel. This and the Zumara are variable. 

4 lit. “proclamation,” or "preaching," from kerusso. It is partly a bidding prayer and 
partly a litany. There are several of them in all the offices, and they are always said by a 
deacon. This Karuzutha is said daily in the morning and evening offices during most of 
the year, but is usually abbreviated by passing from the end of the first part to “ Pray and 
desire of God the Lord of all " (p. 9). This Karuzutha is not printed in the Takhsa. See 
note 1, p. 1. 


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( 5 ) 

[Turgama' before the Apostle, sung by all ; they go down to the nave 
and sing it in two choirs antiphonally . O ye who have been invited by 
the great Purpose to the living wedding feast of the banquet of the King 
of those in heaven and those on earth.* Behold the fire of the gospel, 
and cleanse away all worldly thoughts from your minds with the Divine 
furnace.* The Lord hath opened the treasure of benefits before those 
who made request to Him, and hath said: Come, receive the deed of 
remission of your trespasses, O ye sinners.* Purify your heart, and be 
converted like children and become inheritors of the kingdom on high 
and members of the household.* Lo, the gospel is preached to you by 
spiritual voices and opens for you the road to earthly blessings.* It is 
meet that ye turn from the laws of children to the laws of truth, like 
Paul the son of the Hebrews.* Armed was he when the Lord saw him 
zealous in Israel, and called him to be zealous among the people of the 
Christians.* See, lo, he was blinded to the commands of the law, and 
his eyes were opened by the commands of Jesus.* He drove from his 
soul all false thoughts and became an apostle and preached His power 
among the Greeks.* It is fit that we should listen to his glorious and 
true words which he preaches now in his Epistle to the (Galatians, or 
Corinthians, or Romans, or Ephesians, etc.) 

The Apostle. 

They say , Glory be to the Lord of Paul.] 

When the priest descends from the Bema* and comes to the door of the 
holy place? he and the deacon both incline , and the deacon says , Let us 
pray. Peace be with us. 

The priest prays in a low voice , Thee, O Brightness of the Father’s glory, 
and Image of the Person of Him that begat Thee, Who wast revealed in 
the body of our humanity, and didst enlighten the darkness of our mind 

* lit. “ Interpretation ” = homily. The use of a Turgama here and before the Gospel, 
dates only from Gregory Bar-Hebraeus, and is now obsolete in practice. It is not mentioned 
in the rubrics of the Takhsa. The form above is invariable, but that before the Gospel 
varies according to the season. 

* The space between the sanctuary and the low wall across the nave. See Maclean and 
Browne's “ The Catholicos of the East and his People,” p. 292. 

1 Or “ altar,” i.e. the place where the altar stands. 


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( ♦ ) 


Prayer before the Lection. 

Holy and Glorious, Mighty and Immortal, Who dwellest in the 
saints, and Whose will rests content, turn O my Lord, and pity and have 
mercy upon us, as Thou art wont, at every season, O Lord of all, Father 
and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

The Blessing wherewith the priest blesses the reader of the Lections .* 

Blessed be God the Lord of all, Who giveth us wisdom by His 
holy doctrine. May His mercies abound on the reader and on the hearers, 
at every season for ever. They read the Lections and proceed to the 
proper Shuraya* 

Prayer before the Apostle . 5 

Enlighten for us, our Lord and our God, the impulses of our thoughts, 
that we may hearken and understand the sweet hearing* of Thy life-giving 
and divine commands; and, in Thy grace and mercies, grant that we may 
gather from them profit, love, hope and salvation, which are serviceable 
ooth to the soul and to the body, and that we may sing to Thee constant 
praise without ceasing, at every season, O Lord of all, Father and Son and 
Holy Spirit for ever. 

On Memorials and during the Fast , except on Sundays of the Fast , 

they pray , 

O wise Ruler, Who wonderfully carest for Thy household, O great 
Treasury, Who pourest forth in Thy pitifulness all aids and blessings, we 
beseech Thee, turn, O my Lord, pity and have mercy on us as Thou art 
wont at every season, O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit 
for ever. 

When the deacon who reads the Apostle says , Bless, O my Lord, the 
priest answers , Christ give thee wisdom by His holy doctrine, and 
make thee a pure mirror to those that hearken to thee. 

* These lections are usually two, and always from the Old Testament or the Acts. 

* lit. “ The Beginning.” Used for a few verses of the Psalms prefixed to the Anthems 
in the daily services, and appointed in other places, as here before the Apostle. 

* A Lesson from St Paul 


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( 3 ) 

of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. They say the appointed 
Anthem of the Sanctuary . 

Prayer of the Lakhumara ‘ ; on Sundays and Feasts . 

When the sweet odour of the delight of Thy love, our Lord and 
our God, penetrates us, and our souls are enlightened by the knowledge 
of Thy truth, may we be made worthy to receive the revelation of Thv 
Beloved from heaven, and may we there confess Thee and glorify Thee 
without ceasing in Thy crowned Church, filled with all aids and blessings. 
For Thou art the Lord and Creator of all, Father and Son and Holy 
Spirit for ever. 

And on Memorials and on ordinary days. For all Thine unrequited 
aids and graces towards us, let us confess and glorify Thee without ceasing 
in Thy crowned Church, filled with all aids and blessings. For Thou art 
the Lord and Creator of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

They say y Thee, Lord of all, we confess, and Thee, Jesus Christ, we 
glorify; for Thou art the Quickener of our bodies, and Thou art the 
Saviour of our souls. I have washed my hands in purity, and I have 
encompassed Thine altar, O Lord. Thee, Lord of all, we confess, and Thee, 
Jesus Christ, we glorify ; for Thou art the Quickener of our bodies and 
Thou art the Saviour of our souls. Glory be to the Father and to the 
Son and to the Holy Spirit, from everlasting and for ever and ever ; amen. 
Thee, Lord of all, we confess, and Thee, Jesus Christ, we glorify ; for Thou 
art the Quickener of our bodies and Thou art the Saviour of our souls. 
Deacon . Let us pray. Peace be with us. 

Prayer . Thou, my Lord, art in truth the Quickener of our bodies 
and Thou art the good Saviour of our souls and the constant Preserver of 
our life. Thee, my Lord, we are bound to confess and worship and glorify 
at every season, O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 
Deacon . Lift up your voice, all ve people, and glorify the living God. 
They answer , Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy 
upon us. Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit. 
Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy upon us, from 
everlasting and for ever and ever; amen. Holy God, Holy Mighty 
Holy Immortal, have mercy upon us. 

* lit. “ Thee, Lord : ” the technical term for the following anthem. 


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( 2 ) 

we may administer the holy mysteries which were given for the renewal 
and redemption of our nature, through the mercies of Thy beloved Son, 
O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. They begin the 
Marmitha appointed. 

Prayer on Memorials ,’ and on ordinary days. 

May the adorable and glorious name of Thy glorious Trinity, be 
worshipped and glorified and honoured and exalted and confessed and 
blessed in heaven and on earth, at every season, O Lord of all, Father and 
Son and Holy Spirit for ever. Priest. [*Ps. xv. i.] Lord, who shall 
dwell in Thy tabernacle : and who shall abide on Thy holy mountain ? 
In purity of thoughts, O our Lord, make me to stand before Thine altar. 
Lord, who shall dwell, etc. Deacon. [Ver. 2. Priest. Ver. 3 ; and so 
on alternately to the end of Ps. xvi] Priest. [Ps. cl. 1. Deacon. Ver. 2 ; 
and so on. Priest . Ps. cxvii. 1. Deacon. Ver. 2.] Priest. Glory be 
to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, from everlasting 
and for ever and ever ; amen. In purity of thoughts, O our Lord, make 
me to stand before Thine altar. Deacon. [Ps. xv. 1.] How beautiful 
and glorious is the house of Thy sanctuary, O God, Who sanctifiest all. 
Peace be with us. 

Prayer of the Anthem of the Sanctuary ; on Feasts and Sundays. 

Before the glorious throne, my Lord, of Thy majesty, and the high 
and exalted chair of Thy honour, and the awful judgment-seat of the 
intensity of Thy love, and the absolving altar which Thy command hath 
established, and the place where Thy glory abideth ; we, Thy people and 
the sheep of Thy pasture, with thousands of cherubin singing Hallelujahs 
to Thee, and ten thousand times ten thousand seraphin and archangels pro- 
claiming Thee Holy, do kneel and worship and confess and glorify [Thee] 
at every season, O Lord of all, Father and Son and Holy Spirit for ever. 

Prayer on Memorials . 

The Name, great and awful, holy and blessed, gracious and incom- 
prehensible, of Thy glorious Trinity, and Thy grace towards our race, 
we are bound to confess and worship and glorify at every season, O Lord 

* See preceding note. 

* See appendix for translation of these psalms from the Peshitta version. 


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ORDER OF THE HALLOWING OF THE APOSTLES, MADE BY 
MAR ADAI AND MAR MARI THE BLESSED APOSTLES. 


First the priest begins . In the name of the Father and of the Son 
and of the Holy Spirit for ever. Glory to God in the highest repeat 
three times and on earth peace and good hope to men, at every season 
and for ever ; amen. Our Father Which art in heaven hallowed be Thy 
name. Thy kingdom come. ‘[Holy, holy, holy art Thou. Our Father 
Which art in heaven. Heaven and earth are full of the greatness of Thy 
glory. Angels* and men cry to Thee, Holy, Holy, Holy art Thou. Our 
Father Which art in heaven hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come.] 
Thy will be done, as in heaven so on earth. Give us the bread of our 
need to-day. And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our 
debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the 
evil. For Thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory for ever 
and ever amen. [Glory be to the Father and to the Son and to the 
Holy Spirit, from everlasting and for ever and ever amen. Our Father 
Which art in heaven hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come. 
Holy, Holy, Holy art Thou. Our Father Which art in heaven. Heaven 
and earth are full of the greatness of Thy glory. Angels* and men cry 
to Thee, Holy, Holy, Holy art Thou.] 1 
Deacon. Let us pray. Peace be with us. 

Prayer before the Mar mi t ha 1 for Sundays and Feasts . 4 
Strengthen, our Lord and our God, our weakness by Thy grace that 

1 Square brackets are used in this translation to mark farcing, anthems, etc., which are 
used with the Liturgy, but which are not printed in the Takhsa. 

* lit. “ watchers." CL Dan. iv. 13. 

* The portion of Psalms appointed for various seasons or days, sung antiphonally by those 
within and those without the sanctuary. (1) First Sunday of Advent to the Fast,' except 
on Memorials of Saints; also from Easter to Pentecost: Ps. xcvi.-xcviii., inclusive. Con- 
tinuation : Ps. xxxv., from ver. 18 all under one Gloria, (a) Sundays of the Fast and Sundays 
from Pentecost to the “ Hallowing of the Church : " Ps. cxliv.-cxlvi., inclusive. (3) Hallow- 
ing of the Church, t.e. the four Sundays before Advent : Ps. cxlvil-d., inclusive. Continua- 
tion : Ps. xlvi., from ver. 4, “ the holy place.” (4) Memorials of Saints, special. On some 
feasts the Continuation is not that of the season. There is no farcing on feasts, but after each 
clause “ Hallelujah” is said. 

4 The word "feast” is now usually confined by the East-Syrians to the feasts of our 
Lord. Saints’ days are called by them “ Memorials.” 


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( i* ) 

It is especially to be noticed that the holy words in which our 
Lord and God Jesus Christ instituted the most holy sacrament of the 
Eucharist, and which, as far as the Liturgy of the Blessed Apostles is 
concerned, were never committed to writing by the Syrians, though 
the priest always pronounced them when celebrating the mysteries, are 
inserted in their place, which is sufficiently certain from a comparison of 
other liturgies of the same people, and from inquiry into the custom of 
the priests ; but they stand apart because they rest on the authority of no 
ancient codex. They are in the form in which the blessed Apostle Paul 
repeated them in his First Epistle to the Corinthians. 

Now, it is much to be desired that, in whatsoever church of the 
Eastern Syrians an altar-book is altogether wanting, or where there is only 
a torn or mutilated or almost worn-out copy, when the company of the 
faithful come together to receive the most holy mysteries of the Body 
and Blood of Christ, this book may come to the hand of some learned 
and devout Bishop or priest who may, according to due right and custom, 
offer the oblation to God the Father Almighty for the remission of sins, 
for the obtaining of grace, for the peace and salvation of all Christians. 


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( viii ) 

this ancient Church and also to incite the present clergy to theological 
and doctrinal studies. 

The Catholicos and other Bishops of the Eastern Syrians, have for 
more than fifty years again and again implored the Church of England 
for aid of this kind, the first Englishman to apply himself to the succour 
of this afflicted Church which had been all but destroyed by the infidels, 
being the above-mentioned Dr. Badger under the patronage of the Most 
Reverend William, at that time Primate of All England. Next, fourteen 
years ago, the Reverend Edward Cutts, an eye-witness [despatched by 
Archbishop Tait], brought news to England of their poverty and distress. 
Finally, in the year of grace 1886, the present Archbishop of Canterbury, 
having received a like report from the indefatigable young traveller 
Athelstan Riley, who has now four times returned from visiting the Syrians, 
sent two priests, since joined by four others, with definite instructions 
not to entice the Syrian Christians into the Anglican Church nor to 
pass over or condone any of their doctrine which is erroneous, but, 
to uplift the down-trodden, to instruct the ignorant, to establish the 
feet of those who have gone astray in the ancient paths of the Catholic 
Faith and of holy living. 

In consequence, those whom the Archbishop has charged with this 
office have most willingly expended labour on this book as an aid to 
religion and devotion j and they think well to advertise the learned reader 
concerning their work, that this printed text is based on the authority of 
the best manuscript available, an Alqosh one, and that insertions from 
other codices are in brackets. 1 

Now, in order that they for whose sake the book has been published 
may use it more readily and without error, everything to be said, whether 
by the priest, by the deacon or even by the congregation, but which, as 
far as the Liturgy of the Blessed Apostles is concerned, was never 
committed to writing by the Syrians,* is inserted in full, although in 
manuscripts much is usually indicated by the first words only. However, 
according to custom, the preceding Liturgy of the Holy Apostles must 
be referred to for the beginning and conclusion of the other Liturgies. 

1 These brackets have not been kept in the Translation. 

* i.e. These parts were not printed in the Liturgy. 


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fecit. Tam demum, anno salutis MDCCCixixvito, eadem renunciante juveni impigro Athel- 
•tano Biley, qoi a Syria in patriam tertio atque quarto jam reversus eat, duos presbyte- 
roa (quibus quatuor alteri jam adjuncti aunt) miait Archiepiscopua Cantuarienaia qui 

nunc eat: eo certe conailio non ut Syroa Christianas ad ecdesiam Anglicanam alliceret, 
nec ut doctrinam eorum minua praetermitteret vel condonaret iia, sed ut depres- 

aoa erigeret, indoc tos inatrueret, lapaorum pedes super antiquas vias fidei catholicae mo- 
rumque sanctorum constitueret. 

Quae cum ita essent, operam in hunc librum ad religionem devotionemque ad j omen- 
tum, libentissime ii impenderunt, quoa huic officio praeposuerat Archiepiscopua: qui lec- 

torem eruditum illud de opere suo censent admonendum; codicis manu scrip ti optimae 
notae apud Alqosh inventi auctoritate imprimis niti textum hie impressum ; quae vero 
ab codicibus inserta aunt uncis esse inclusa. Quo autem expediti.ua et inoffensius 
libro illi uterentur quorum gratia editus eat, integro yd in extenso, ut aiunt, expreasa 
sunt omnia quae yel a sacerdote vel a diacono vel etiam a plebe sunt dicenda ; quamyis 
in libris manu acriptis multa non nisi prirnis vocibus indicari solent. Liturgiarum tamen 
aliaxum praeparatio et conclusio a praecedente Sanctorum Apostolorum Liturgia, prout 
aolitum eat, petendae sunt. 

Praesertim yero notandum eat verba 31a sacrosancta quibus Dominus ac Deus noater 
Jesus Christos an-notiagirruiTri Eucharistiae jMjnu.mftntnrn instituit, quae ut inter mysteria 
celebranda semper ore proferebat sacerdos, ita, quod ad beatorum apostolorum attinet 
liturgiam, nunquam literis mandabant Syriaci, loco suo, sicut ceteris eorundem liturgiia 
collatis usuque aacerdotum indagato satis comparuit, separatim tamen, quippe nulla co- 
dicum antiquorum auctoritate fulta, inserta esse; quemadmodum beatus Apostolus Paul- 
ua in epistola sua ad Corinthios priore ea recitavit. 

Quibus ita comparatis, maxime eat in votis ut in quibus Svrorum Orientalium ecclesiis 
altari liber omnino defuerit, aut non adsit nisi scissus vel mutilus vel paene absumptus, 
convemente coetu fidelium ad sacrosancta Christi Corporis Sanguinisque mysteria percipi. 
enda, hie in manus episcopi yel presbyteri docti devotique veniat, qui pro peccatis di- 
luendis, pro gratia impetranda, pro pace et salute totius Chris tianorum numeri Deo 
Patri Omnipotenti oblationem rite recteque ex more faciat. 


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PREFACE. 


As on the day of Pentecost when the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver 
of life, spoke to the heart of His people, and devout men out of every 
nation under heaven heard the mighty works of God, each in his own 
language, from those Galileans the twelve holy Apostles, so it is admitted 
that the saying of St. Paul, “ I will pray with the Spirit, and I will pray 
with the understanding also,” is best fulfilled when men of every nation 
call on the name of the Lord in their own language wherein they 
were born. 

And so in each country where the Apostles or men of their day 
proclaimed the gospel, a form of liturgy framed in the native speech 
existed of old; and of these some remain to our day, and nothing in them 
should be rashly neglected or unadvisedly omitted. 

This book, printed in the ordinary [Eastern-Syrian] alphabet from type 
cast at Urmi for the purpose, represents faithfully the LITURGY or Order 
of celebrating the Mysteries, which is said to have been given to the earliest 
Christians in Syria, by their Apostles St. Adai and St. Mari, with the 
Liturgies of Theodore and Nestorius, commonly so called, together with 
the formula and the generally accepted ceremonies of Baptism, and is 
intended for the use of the clergy and for the advantage of other scholars 
among the faithful in the very ancient Church of the Eastern Syrians, 
and to serve for instruction to those of other countries interested in 
liturgical research. 

In the preparation of this edition, the priests deputed by the Most 
Reverend Primate Edward Lord Archbishop of Canterbury have collated 
many codices obtained from Alqosh, Kurdistan and Urmi, as also the 
printed copies published by the learned Renaudot in Latin and by the 
Reverend Doctor George Badger in English, their object being, according 
to the instructions given to them, both to preserve intact the records of 


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PBAEPATIO. 


Sicut die Pentecostes in quo Spiritus Sanctus, Dominus et Vivificans, ad cor popud 
sui locutus est, riri religiosi ex omni natione, quae sub caelo est, magnalia Dei ab ists 
Galilaeis, sanctis duodecim apostolis, relata unusquisque lingua sua audiebat, ita cbnstas 
illud beati Pauli, Orabo spiritu, orabo et mente, maxim e adimpleri cum "f»m « n Domini 
invocent homines uniuscujusque gentis lingua propria in qua nati sint. 

Itaque singulis regionibus quibus evangelizaverunt apostoli yel apostolorum coaetanef 
liturgiae forma patrio sermone concepta ab antiquo extitit : quarum TtnnTmila* tisque sc 

aetatem nostram supersunt, nec quaequam est temere negligenda aut inconsulto omtr 
ten. da. 

Bererendi igitur in usum Cleri , ceterorumque fidelium literatorum de ecclesia antiqua 
sima Syrorum Orientalium ad profectum, necnon rerum liturgicarum studiosis exteris ii 
documentum, UTTJBGIAM, seu ordinem mysteriorum celebrandorum, quam, ut fertur 
apostoli sui, Sancti Adaeus et Maris, primitivis Syriae in Christo tradiderunt, liturgia. 
quoque Theodori ac Nestorii, ut rulgo nuncupantur, una cum Baptismi formula caer- 
moniisque, sicut receptae sunt, literarum formis usitatis, ad hunc ipsum usum in TJmi 
confectis, expressas, hie qualiscunque libellus fidelitur repraesentat. 

In qua editione comparanda tarn multos codices manu scriptos, e regionibus quibu 8 
nomina Alqosh, Kurdistan, TJrmi, conquisitos, quam exemplaria in libris a doctisrm. 
Benaudotio latine, a rererendo doc tore Georgio Badger anglice editis, exhibita control©- 
runt presbyteri ab amplissimo praesule Edwardo Archiepiscopo Cantuariensi legati : qui, 
quod iis commissum est, et antiquae ecclesiae monumenta illibata ut conserrarent ez 

derum hodiemum ad sacras literas doctrinaeque studia ut incitarent sibi propositua 
habuerunt. 

Hujusmodx a uxilium ab ecclesia Anglicana semel atque iterum plus quinquaginta an- 
sos imploraverunt Syrorum Orientalium Catholicus episcopique ceteri : quorum ad suble* 
Tandam ecclesiam afflictam et ab infidelibus modo non ad rnbilnm r edactam , primus ex 
Anglis, fayente reyerendissimo Willelmo tunc temporis totius primate,' applicayit 

se dominus doctor Badger supra memoratus. Deinde rir reverendus Edwardus Cutts, tea* 
tis oculatus, Anglos de miseriis aerumnisque eorum quatuordecim abhinc annos certiores 


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( Vi ) 

A further account of and notes on this Liturgy may be found 
in Renaudot's Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio., tom. ii. ; Asseman’s 
Bibliotheca Orientalis, vol. i v. ; Hammond’s Liturgies ; Maclean and 
Browne’s The Catholicos of the East; and in the Quarterly Paper of 
the Assyrian Mission for Jan., 1891, (S.P.C.K. and 7, Dean’s Yard, 
Westminster). 

The earnest hope of the Translators is, that these prayers of Christians 
of ancient times and distant regions may not only form an acceptable 
contribution to liturgical literature, but may be welcomed by many devout 
members of our Church. 

July, 1893 . 


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TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE. 


1*7 

A3> 

fine 


The following translation of the Liturgy of the East-Syrian Church aims 
at placing the entire rite intelligibly before the English reader, and there- 
fore includes the many Litanies, Anthems so far as they are invariable, 
and Karuzuthas, or Proclamations said by the Deacons. Renaudot’s Latin 
translation, used in Hammond’s “ Liturgies,” is very good, but his edition 
was founded on a very imperfect MS.; and the English translation given 
by Dr. Badger, in an “ Occasional Paper of the Eastern Church Associ- 
ation, No. xvii., Rivingtons, 1875,” is also incomplete. 

This translation has been made from the edition of the Takhsa, 1 or 
Order of Services, published by the Archbishop’s Mission. But the 
Takhsa is the Priest’s book, and, while it contains several lesser rites, it has 
not all the Deacon’s parts of the service, many of these being known by 
heart or being found in other books, as, for example, the Litany on 
pp. 6— 11, which is used in the Daily Service. All the parts not in 
the Takhsa are indicated by square brackets. Although the MSS. 
collected for the Takhsa are modern, the East-Syrian Church having been 
deprived, during its manifold sufferings and persecutions, of most of its 
literary wealth, this Liturgy claims to be ancient, perhaps the most ancient 
in Christendom. There are many internal evidences of great antiquity, 
and in handing down so holy a rite the care of learned copyists would be 
extreme. In the MSS. more discrepancies are found in the Rubrics than 
in the Prayers. The Rubrics are as a rule more modern, and have probably 
been modified or added to gradually for the sake of clearness. It has 
been thought well to keep some of the technical words of ritual, as 
their meaning does not answer exactly to any of those in general use. 

* " Takhsa " is derived from the Greek rafts, Order. 

“ Qurbana,” the usual name for Holy Communion, is an abstract noun formed from the 
verb to offer. It is translated Oblation throughout, to keep the similarity of derivation. 

b 2 


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THE LITURGY 

or THX 

HOLY APOSTLES ADAI AND MARI 


TOQRHSK 

TWO ADDITIONAL LITURGIES TO BE SAID ON CERTAIN 
FEASTS AND OTHER DAYS: 

AMD 

THE ORDER OF BAPTISM. 


IN THE STRENGTH OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST WE BEGIN TO WRITE 

THE ORDER OF 

THE CONSECRATION OF THE OBLATION 

AND OF BAPTISM. 


COUPLETS AND ENTIRE. 

Collated from many Mantuorlpte from various Places. 

OUR LORD HELP US. AMEN. 


X27S-1202 


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LITT7EGIA S12sCTORTJ3I AP0ST0L0RT7M ADAEI ET HARIS. 


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