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V AND Tilt liANNATYNE CLUB BY W.fiEEVCS D.D. 



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THE 



LIFE OF ST. COLtlMBA,; 

FOUNDER OF HY; 

WRITTEN BY A DAM NAN, v 

NINTH ABBOT OF THAT/MONASTERY. 



THE TEXT PRINTED FROM A MANUSCRIPT OF THE EIGHTH CENTURY ; WITH THE VARIOUS READINGS OF 
SIX OTHER MANUSCRIPTS PRESERVED IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF EUROPE. 

TO WHICH ARE ADDED, 

COPIOUS NOTES AM) DISSERTATIONS, 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE COLUMBIAN INSTITUTIONS IN IRELAND AND SCOTLAND. 

BY 

WILLIAM BEEVES, D,D,, M.E.I.A., 

CURATE OF KILCONRIOLA, IN THE DIOCESE OF CONNOR. 




DUBLIN: 
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FOB, THE IEISH ABCH^IOLOGICAL AND CELTIC SOCIETY. 

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PRINTK]) AT THE UNIVEliSITY PltESS, 
BY M. H. GILL. 




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449370 



THE 



IRISH ARCJLEOLOGICAL AND CELTIC SOCIETY. 



MDCCCLVII. 



HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE ALBERT. 



His GRACE THE DUKE OF LEINSTEE. 



THE MOST NOBLE THE MARQUIS OF KILDARE, M. R. I. A. 

THE RIGHT HON. THE EAEL OF DUNRAVEN, M. R. I. A. 

THE RIGHT HON. LORD TALBOT DE MALAHIDE, M. R. I. A. 

VERY REV. L. F. RENEHAN, D. D., President of Maynooth College. 



EUGENE CURRY, ESQ., M.R.I.A. 

REV. THOMAS FARRELLY. 

REV. CHARLES GRAVES, D.D., F.T.C.D., 

M.R.I.A. 

REV. JAMES GRAVES, A.B. 
REV. MATTHEW KELLY. 
THOMAS A. LARCOM, Lieut.- Colonel R.E., 

M.RIJL 



PATRICK V. FITZPATRICK, ESQ. 
JOHN C. O'CALLAGHAN, ESQ. 
JOHN O'DoNOVAN, ESQ., LL.D., M.RJ.A. 
GEO. PETRIE, ESQ., LL.D., V.P., M.R.I.A. 
REV. WILLIAM REEVES, D.D., M.RJ.A. 
REV. CHARLES RUSSELL, D.D. 
J. HUBAND SMITH, ESQ., M.RJ.A. 
WM.R. WILDE, ESQ., F.R.C.S.I., M.RJ.A. 



AQUILLA SMITH, ESQ., M.D., M.RJ.A. 

Steiaries J 
REV. J. H. TODD, D.D., Pres. R.I.A. I JOHN T. GILBERT, ESQ., M.RJ.A. 



PREFACE 



EFOKE St. Columba was long in the grave a , it is likely 
that some member of the brotherhood set himself to col- 
lect his patron's acts, and to record such events of his 
life as were suited to the taste of the day, or were cal- 
culated to promote the veneration of his memory. In 
furtherance of this design, he probably turned his atten- 
tion rather to the maryels b than the sober realities of the 
Saint's life, and consulted more for the excitement of admiration in a simple and 
credulous age, than for the supply of historical materials to meet the stern de- 
mands of remote posterity. When Adamnan, a century after St. Columba's 
death, in compliance with his brethren's urgent request , drew up the memoir 
which has immortalized both the subject and the writer, his information was 
derived, as he himself states' 1 , in part from written, in part from oral author- 




a Was long in the grave Some of the most 
valuable pieces of biography in the western 
Church have been written by the discipjes or 
immediate successors of the respective saints 
whose Lives are treated of: thus St. Martin's 
Life by Sulpicius S.eyerus, St. Germanus's by 
Constantius, St. Columbanus's by Jonas, St. 
Cuthbert's by Bede. St. Patrick's Life, and 
with it the early history of the Irish Church, 
owes much of it_complicatipn and uncertainty 
to the length of interval which elapsed between 
his death, and the recording of his acts. 

b Marvels. The ancient records of the Irish 
Church consist of most dissimilar materials : 
there are, on the one hand, the Genealogies, 
which set forth the descent of the saint; the 



Annals, which, with scrupulous fidelity, record 
the year of his death ; and the Calendars, which, 
with equal exactness, tell the day of the month 
on which it occurred, and name his church ; 
and, on the other, the Life, which too often 
bids defiance to truth, reason, and decency, 
and, instead of history, presents a specimen of 
the meanest fiction. The early Bpllandists 
printed many of these compositions, but sub- 
ject to strong protest ; the later editors have, 
in many cases, exercised their own discretion 
more summarily, and substituted Acts for 

-"-**** 

Lives. 

c Request. " Fratrum flagitationibus obse- 
cundare volens." Pr. i (3). 

d Himself states. " Vel ex his quse ante nos 



VI 



Preface. 



ities. In the latter respect, he was quite near enough to the fountain-head, 
both in time and place, to draw from authentic sources, for in his boyhood he 
had frequent opportunities of conversing with those who had seen St. Columba, 
and he was now writing almost on the very spot where his great predecessor 
had indited his last words, and surrounded by objects every one of which was 
fresh with the impress of some interesting association 1 ". As regarded his docu- 
mentary materials, he had before him the account of Cummene the Fair, whom 
he cites by name g , and whose entire narrative he has transferred, almost ver- 
batim 11 , into his own compilation, where it is for the most part incorporated 
with the third book. He had also another memoir 1 , on the authority of which 
he relates an occurrence not recorded in Cummene's pages. Besides these com- 
positions, which were written in Latin, there existed in our author's day 
certain poems on the praises, of ColumTba, in the Scotic tongue, among which 
was probably the celebrated Amhrcfi, or panegyric, which was written by a con- 
temporary of the Saint. BaithenCvMor 1 , who enjoyed St. Columba's friendship, 



inserta paginis reperire potuimus, vel ex his 
quse auditu ab expertis quibusdam fidelibus 
antiquis, sine ulla dubitatione narrantibus, di- 
ligentius sciscitantes didicimus." Pr. 2 (8). 

e Boyhood He was born in 624, and St. Co- 
lumba died in 597. He states that, when a 
youth, he received from Ernene's own lips an 
account of certain appearances which that 
monk observed on the night of St. Columba's 
death, at which time his informant was an 
adult. iii. 23 (238). 

f Association. As, the crosses which marked 
the interval between him and Ernanus, when 
the latter dropped dead, i. 45 (88) ; the cross 
which noted the spot where the old horse took 
leave of him, iii. 23 (231); the pillow of stone 
which marked his grave, ib. (234). 

s Cites by name. In his account of king 
^Edan's inauguration, iii. 5 (199). 

h Verbatim. See note b , p. 190, note a , p. 195. 
note c , p. 196. The following references will 
show the chapters, as numbered in Mabillon's 
edition, and the corresponding places in Adam- 
nan: Cap. i in iii. i (190); cap. 2, with the 
name supplied, in iii. 2 (191); cap. 3, in iii. 4 



(195) ; cap. 4, the first sentence, at the end of 
iii. 4 (196), the rest in ii. i (103); cap. 5, with 
additions, in iii. 5 (197) ; cap. 6, in iii. 6 (202); 
cap. 7, in iii. u (209) ; cap. 8, in iii. 12 (210); 
cap. 9, enlarged, in iii. 8 (205) ; cap. 10, names 
inserted, in iii. 15 (215); cap. n, enlarged, in 
iii. 16 (216); cap. 12, with names, inserted, in 
iii. 17 (219); cap. 13, extended, in iii. 18 (222); 
cap. 14, with the name of the place, in ii. 37 
(153); cap. 15, in iii. 19 (223); cap. 16, in iii. 
22 (227); cap. 17, first sentence, in the end of 
iii. 22 (228), and the rest in iii. 23 (228) ; cap. 
18, in iii. 23 (229); cap. 19, in iii. 23 (230); 
cap. 20, in iii. 23 (233) ; cap. 21, in iii. 23 (233); 
cap. 22, in iii. 23 (234) ; cap. 23, in iii. 23 (239); 
cap. 24, in iii. 23 (240); cap. 25, with additions, 
in i. i (12-16), i. 8 (33); cap. 26, enlarged, in 
ii. 44 (174); cap. 27, greatly augmented, in 

i. 3 (25)- 

1 Another memoir. " Hanc prsedictam visio - 
nem, non solum paginis inscriptam reperimus," 
&c iii. 23 (237). 

k Amhra. See the note on Carmina, p. 17. 

1 Baithene Mor. He is to be distinguished 
from Baithene, son of Brendan, St. Columba's 



Preface. vii 

is said to have commemorated some particulars of his life, and poems ascribed 
to Baithene are more than once referred to by O'Donnell. Metrical com- 
positions bearing the name of St. Mura n are also cited by the same compiler , 
who adduces them as his authority, in part, for the history of St. Columba's 
infancy. Thus furnished with record and tradition, and quickened, moreover, 
with zeal for the honour of a kinsman? after the flesh, the ninth abbot of Hy 
became the biographer of the first, and produced a work, which, though not 
ostensibly historical* 1 , and professing to treat of an individual, is, " the most 
authentic voucher 1 " now remaining of several other important particulars of the 
sacred and civil history of the Scots and Picts" 8 , and is pronounced by a 
writer 1 not over-given to eulogy to be " the most complete piece of such bio- 
graphy that all Europe can boast of, not only at so early a period, but even 
through the whole middle ages." Our author is indeed as free from the defects 
of hagiology as any ancient writer in this department of literature, but it 
must ever be subject of regret that he..chose an individual instead of a society 
as his subject, and reckoned the history of his Church a secondary consideration 
to the reputation of his Patron. If Bede had contented himself with being 
the biographer of St. Cuthbert, instead of the historian of England, would he 
be now par excellence the Venerable ? If Adamnan had extended to history 
the style and power of description which appear in his tract on the Holy Places, 

s 

successor. This Baithene was of the Cinel P Kinsman. See the Genealogical Table op- 

Enda, and was commemorated on the igth of posite p. 342. 

Feb. See notes, p. 318; Colgan, Act. Sanct. * Historical. The secondary importance at- 

p. 369; O'Donnell, iii. 20 (Tr. Th. p. 4346). tached to historical precision in the biography 

m O'Donnell. Vita S. Columbse, i. 26 (Tr. of ancient saints is very tantalizing. See note a , 

Th. p. 393 6), 51 (398 a), iii. 41 -(438 a). p. 193. 

n St. Mura. He was a little junior to St. Co- r Voucher. Colgan expresses a similar sen- 

lumba, and died circ. 645. His church was timent: "Haec Acta tarn accurate sunt con- 

Fathan, now Fahan, on the south-west side of scripta, ut hystorias sacras et prophanas utri- 

Inishowen. He was not of St. Columba's race, usque Scotise, ab anno quingentesimo usque ad 

but his church lay on the side of Loch Swilly septingentestmum mirum in modum illustrent : 

opposite to the territory where that saint was Et si aliquot alias vitas Sanctorum nostrorum 

born. See an article on St. Mura in the Ulster ad singula specula, tarn exacteconscriptashabe- 

Journal of Archceology, vol. i. p. 270. remus, spes magna foret, dolendam illam nos- 

Compiler. Ib. i. 21 (3926), 25 (3930), 30 trseAntiquitatisjacturamhauddifficulter posse 

(393 6). It is very probable that these poems reparari." Trias Th. p. 372 a. 

which O'Donnell cites are included in the col- s Picts Innes, Civ. and Eccl. Hist. p. 145. 

lection ascribed to St. Columba, MS. Laud 615, * Writer. Pinkerton, Enquiry, Pref. vol. i. 

Bodleian Library. See note a , p. 264. p. xlviii. (Edinb. 1814.) 

b 2 



vni 



Preface. 



with the experience, the feeling, and the piety, which characterize his Life of 
St. Columba, the voice of Christendom would have borrowed the word from 
his countryman w , and irreversibly have coupled his name with the title of 
^Admirable. Even in the limited sphere which he chose, he soon acquired, to 
use a modern expression, a European celebrity, and the numerous copies of his 
writings which are found scattered over the Continent x show in what esteem 
he was held abroad. It was therefore more rhetorical than just in a late his- 
torian y of the English Church, to create a silent sister beside the vocal Lindis- 
farne, and state that " splendid as is the fame of lona, the names of almost all 
its literary men have perished." Surely Adamnan and Cummene are more than 
names, and if names be wanting, the Chronicle of Hy z is not so barren as to 
suggest the old lament 

" Omnes illacrymabiles 
Urgentur, iguotique longa 
tfocte." 

Adamnan's Life of St. Columba has obtained due publicity in print, yet 
has always appeared in such a form as to render it more a subject of research 
than of ordinary study. It was first printed by Henry Canisius a , in the fifth 
volume of his Antiques Lectiones, on the authority of a manuscript preserved in 
the monastery of Windberg in Bavaria. Twenty years afterwards, Thomas 
Messingham b , an Irish priest, reprinted the tract from Canisius, in his Florileg- 



w Countryman. In the MS. called the Book 
of Fenagh, our writer is called Q&aninan 
a&anrpa, 'the admirable Adamnan.' 

* Continent. Besides the MSS. of the Life 
which will presently be enumerated, copies of 
the tract De Locis Sanctis are reported to be 
preserved at the Vatican, and at Corbey, both 
of which Mabillon used; at the monastery of 
S. Germanus a Pratis, ssec. viii. (O'Conor, Rer. 
Hib. SS. vol. i. Ep. Nuncup. p. 142); at Bern, 
one saec. ix., and another saec. x. (Appendix A, 
Report, Record Comm. pp. 31,46); atRheinau, 
ssec. xi. (ib. p. 201) ; at Saltzburg, ssec. ix. vel x. 
(ib. p. 203). 

y Historian. Carwithen, Hist, of the Church 
of England, chap, i (vol. i. p. 6, Lond. 1829). 
In the second edition, however, a note was ap- 
pended, at the instance of the present writer, 



qualifying that statement of Carwithen (vol. i. 
p. 5, Oxford, 1849). 

z Chronicle of Hy. See pp. 369-413 of the 
present work. 

a Canisius. Under the following title : Sancti 
Adamnani Scoti Libri tres, de Sancto Coivmba 
Scoto, Presbytero et Confessore, qui circa annum 
Domini $6$ floruit, Nunc primum editi ex mem- 
branis M, S. Monasterii Windbergensis in Sauaria. 
Antiques Lectiones, torn. v. pp. 559-621, 4to, 
Ingolst. 1604. 

* Messingham. -Florilegium Insula Sanctorum, 
seu Vitcs et Acta Sanctorum Hibernice, 8fc. t cottegit 
etpublicdbat Thomas Messinghamus, Sacerdos Hi- 
bernus, S. R. E. Protonotarius, nee non Seminarii 
Hibernorum Parisiis Moderator, fol. Parisiis, 1624. 
The title of the Life is, Vita. Sancti Columbce 
Presbyteri et Confessoris, auctore Sancto Adam- 



Preface. ix 

turn, adding titles to the chapters, and appending a few marginal glosses, 
together with testimonies of Adamnan> at the beginning, and of St. Columba, 
at the end, of the Life. 

About the same time, Stephen White , a learned Jesuit, a native of Clon- 
mel, discovered, while in search of Irish manuscripts on the Continent, a 
venerable cop_jLof Adamnan in the Benedictine monastery of Reichenau, and 
the transcript which he made supplied the text of the fourth Life of St. Co- 
lumba in Colgan's Trias Thaumaturga d , published in 1647. ^he editor of the 
work prefixes numbers to the chapters, which are not in the original, and errs 
wherever White has made an omission or alteration in the text, but in other 
respects is remarkably faithful. The notes display considerable learning and 
vast acquaintance with the ecclesiastical records of his country, but his conjec- 

nano Ablate. Ex tomo 4. antiques lectionis Henrici Archbishop in another place records a literary 

Canisii, fyc., accompanied by an engraving of the performance, "a Stephano Vito viro antiqui- 

saint, habited in his cowl, having a mitre lying tatum, non Hiberniae solum suse sed aliarum 

at his feet, and underneath, the motto Quisda- etiam gentium scientissimo" (Wks. v. p. 458). 

bit mihi pennas sicut Columba, et volabo, et requi- It is refreshing to witness the literary friend- 

escam? pp. 141-184. ship which existed in this case between men of 

c White. His Apologia pro Hibernia adver- different communions, and in an age when party 

sus Cambri calumnias was printed in 1849 by feeling ran high ; a tie which, in like manner, 

the Rev. Matthew Kelly, from a MS. preserved bound Ussher to Sirmondus and David Roth, 

in Brussels. White lent his copy of the Reichen- There is less satisfaction at finding Ward, in 

au MS. to Ussher pre_yious.Jy_tp.. 1.63$, who occa- the same page of his Rumold, passing from the 

sionally refers to it ; thus, speaking of Vitus's " doctissimus polyhistor Stephanus Vitus" to 

identification of lepnan and Ferreolus (237), he "Jacobus Usserius hodiernus Armachanse Se- 

adds: "Ita enim habebat antiquissimum quo dis Pseudo-primas, sacrarumantiquitatumBri- 

ille usus est, ex Benedictine Augiae Divitis in tannicarum vir peritior (quod dolendum plane) 

Suevia coenobio petitum, exemplar" (Wks. vi. quam sequacior" (p. 180). 
p. 541). Elsewhere he cites it as Augiens. MS. d Trias Thaumaturga. The title of this 

(ib. p. 245, and iv. p. 456), or Vet. MS. (vi. pp. equally rare and valuable work, so frequently 

523, 526, 527, 530). White furnished Ussher referred to in the following pages, is Triadis 

with many other fruits of his Continental Thaumaturgae, sen Divorum Patricii Columbce et 

searches, which the Archbishop acknowledges Siigidas, trium Veteris et Majoris Scotice seu Hi- 

(Wks. vi. pp. 269, 274) ; and a folio MS. of bernice, sanctorum Insulae, communium Patronorum 

Ussher's, containing these communications of Acta, Sfc. Studio R. P. F. loannis Colgani, Lo- 

White's, was lately sold by Mr. Kerslake of vanii, 1647, fol. pp. 336-372; and Notts, pp. 372 

Bristol. The long extract from the anony- -386. The title of this portion of the volume 

mous Life of St. Columba which Ussher has is Quarto Vita S. .Columbce Abbatis, Scotonim 

printed, " ut a Stephano Vito humanissime Pictorum Apostoli, 8f utriusque Scotice Patroni. 

communicatum accepimus" (Wks. vi. p. 466), Authore S. Adamnano Abbate, ex Membranis 

is most probably from White's own pen. The Augice Diuitis in Germania. 



X 



Preface. 



tural emendations are often peculiarly unhappy, and his constant endeavour to 
find a place in the Irish Calendar for Adamnan's worthies sometimes tempts 
him into misspent labour. 

Stephen White furnished a copy to the Bollandists 6 also, from which the 
text was again printed, in 1698, under the editorial care of Francis Baert, but 
in a less faithful form than the previous one. The editor took many liberties 
with the copy, changing the division of the chapters, introducing new titles, 
displacing the original ones, and occasionally altering the text. The notes 
which he has added are principally from Colgan, and are neither as rich nor 
erudite as his materials might have led one to expect. 

The next publication of the Life was the reprint of Canisius's Lectiones 
in Basnage's Thesaurus*, in the first volume of which it is reproduced in its 
earlier defective form. 

Lastly, it appeared, in 1789, in Pmkerton's Collection^, a work of much 
smaller dimensions, and which might have had a wide circulation but for a 
whiui .of the editor, who limited the impression to a hundred copies 11 . The 

^.^^s* .,""* " "" *.-.. * 

text of Adamnan in this work professes to follow a manuscript preserved in 



e Bolland'ists. Acta Sanctorum, Junii, torn, 
ii. die nona Junii, with the sub-title De Sancto 
Columba, Presbytero Abbate in lona Scotia insula, 
pp. 180-236; and the special heading, FitaPro- 
lixior, Auctore S. Adamnano Ablate, Ex membra- 
nis Augicp. Divitis in Germania, pp. 197 0-236 a. 

f Basnage's Thesaurus. The title is, Thesaur- 
us Monumentorum Ecclesiasticorum et Historico- 
rvm, sive Henrici Canisii Lectiones Antiques ad 
ScBculorum ordinem digestce, variisque opusculis 
aucta:, quibus Praifationes historicas, Animadver- 
siones criticas, et Notas in singulos Auctores adjecit 
Jacobus Basnage, Amstelcedami, 1725 (and the 
same with Antverpias in the title of some copies), 
iv. tomi, fol. Adamnan appears in torn. i. pp. 
674-709. 

ff Pinkerton's Collection. Under the title, 
Vit(R Antiques Sanctorum qui habitaverunt in ea 
parte Britannics nunc vocata Scotia vel in ejus In- 
sults. Quasdam edidit ex MSS. quasdam collegit 
Johannes Pinkerton qui et variantes lectiones et 
notas pauculas adjecit. Londini, 1789. The sub- 
title is, Vita Columbcs Autore Adomnano, tribus 



libris conscripta, pp. 47-187. On the title of the 
book is a small map of Hyona nunc Icolmkill, 
and on the blank space of p. 466 is pasted a 
small India-paper sketch entitled Monaslerium 
Hyonense ab occidente. Opposite the title is a 
map of Scotia vel Hibernia medii cevi, which is 
reproduced on a new plate in the second vo- 
lume of his Enquiry. This map is full of errors : 
it makes Connacht, Ciannacht; it places Cork in 
Corcabascin, Mis wiorasinthe middle of Dalriada, 
Culedreben in the middle of Tyrone, Ailech south 
of Dromore, Cova in Cavan, Dairmagh on the 
Shannon, and turns the Suir into the Slichen! 
The ? which accompanies Cova in the earlier 
is omitted in the later map. 

h A hundred copies. The List of Subscribers 
has fifty-eight names, and at the end is the 
note: "Eighty Subscriptions at Twenty Shil- 
lings each. Twenty more copies have been 
thrown off; but they shall be presented to 
foreign literati, and great libraries at home 
and abroad; and can never come into sale 
here" (p. xv.) 



Preface. 



XI 



the British Museum ; but the editor, who made the text of Canisius the basis 

. - ; 

of his collation, has very often neglected his professed exemplar, and fallen in 
with the old readings of the Windberg, instead of the British, manuscript. 
On the whole, the text is certainly an improvement on that in the Canisian 
family, but is greatly inferior to Colgan's, with which the editor seems to have 
been unacquainted 1 , for he supplies the deficiency at the commencement of 
the British manuscript from Canisius's meagre authority, and, when he might 
have drawn from Colgan's rich store, he adds a few foot notes, which do more 
to prove the editorial incompetency of the commentator than to illustrate the 
text of his author. ' ' 

All who have compared the text of Adamnan as given by Canisius or his 
copyists, with that in Colgan, the Bollandists, or Pinkerton, have observed a 
great difference in their length. Ussher noticed the brejdty. of Canisius's 

j _ .. ' " - |,^ JTr*" "" ' " ^/ """"-.. ~r 

compared with the Cotton and Reichenau MSS. k ; so did Colgan and Pin- 
kerton ; and Dr. Lanigan 1 has gone so far as to state it to be his opinipn that 
the shorter text was the genuine production of Adamnan, and that the longer 
one owed its difference to a later hand. In deciding, therefore, between the 
recensions, the question is one of abridgment or interpolation. A strong pre- 
sumption in favour of the longer text arises from the fact that it is found in 
the oldest and most respectable manuscript, as well as in two others of totally in- 



' Unacquainted. This is demonstrable from 
his notice of the printed editions of Adamnan, 
one of the most remarkable specimens of biblio- 
graphy in existence: "Ejusdem, ab Adomnano. 
Vita hsec celeberrima extat in Canisii Lect. 
Ant. Surii Vitis Sanct. Mabillon Ssec. Ben. in 
Triade Sanctorum Hibernise, Stephani Vici; 
in Florilegio Messinghami ; in Vitis Patrum 
Occidentis Benedicti Ganoni, Lugduni, 1625, 
fol. p.. 420. Amplior, et emendatior, in Actis 
Sanctorum Bollandianis, Antv. 1643-1786 50 
torn. fol. Tomo ii. Mensis Junii, p. 197, an. 1698, 
edito, cum notis Francisci Baertii Et hie om- 
nium atnplissima, et integerrima, ita ut de novo 
edita videretur, ex MS. in Bibl. Reg. Mus. Brit. 
Cent. xii. 8 D. ix." Who could believe that a 
writer of such pretensions as Pinkerton would 
present his chosen centuria with such trash, 
and in a learned language too ? They would 



have smiled to know (probably some of them 
did know, for Edward Gibbon, Bishop Percy, 
Thorkelin, and Tyrwhitt are on the list), that 
neither Surius nor Mabillon ever printed a line 
of this work of Adamnan ; that the Trias was 
the work of John Colgan, not of Stephen White; 
that Francis Baert was not the editor of the 
and June vol. of the Acta Sanctorum, but only 
one of four who parted the labour among them; 
that no such writers as Vicus or Ganon are 
known to sanctology; and that Gonon gave only 
a short abstract "ex ilia prolixa [Vita] quam 
scripsit Adamannus." Had Pinkerton con- 
sulted Colgan and the Bollandists he might 
easily have produced a better book. 

k Cotton and Reichenau MSS The supple- 
mental matter in these he calls avsKdora Adam- 
nani (Wks. vi. 236). 

1 Lanigan. See pp. 12, 98 of this work. 



Xll 



Preface. 



dependent authority, one of wliich professes to follow a Scotch transcript. 
To which may be added, that Fordun and O'Donnell" used and received the 
longer text, as is proved by their citing passages which d.o not exist in the 
shorter. The gtyje of Adamn^n is apparent in these extra portions, and the 
arrangement of the chapters in the longer text agrees better with the character 
of his other work. This view is confirmed by the consideration that the 
shorter text owes its peculiar character, as least as far as regards the absence 
of titles and the fewness of proper names, to an assignable cause, namely, the 
convenience of congregational reading, as expressed in St. Benedict's Rule : 
" Ideo omni tempore, sive jejunii sive prandii, mox ut surrexerint a coana, 
sedeant omnes in unum, et legat unus Collationes, vel Vitas Patrum, aut certe 
aliquid quod sedificet audientes" (cap. 42). It is reasonable to suppose that 
the interruption of the narrative by titles;, or the incumbering of it with proper 
names, would be avoided as opposed to the purpose of edification ; hence, con- 
sidering the linger memoir to be the genuine one, it is easy to imagine the 
creation of an Abbreviated text, and this revision becoming the favourite one 
for conventual reading. 

But the shorter text possesses internal evidence that such a reduction 
has taken place. The second Preface declares the author's intention? to give 
at the outset of his memoir a summary of the wonders contained in it, which 
was to serve as ajoretaste for those whose eagerness to learn something of the 
Saint would not wait for the patient perusal of the whole. Now, this promise 
is fulfilled^ in the first chapter of t|fe .longer text, but is left unaccomplished in 
the shorter. Again, the fortieth* chapter of the first book places St. Columba 
" in Scotiensium paulo superius^Baemorata regione," and then goes on to speak 
of Trioit, a place now known as tfrevet, in the county of Meath. In the longer 



m Fordun. In Scotichr. iii. 38, he cites i. 9 
from the fuller copy ; so in cap. 41, from i. 10 ; 
in cap. 42, he borrows from i. i, the whole pas- 
sage about Oswald, which is wanting in the 
shorter copies, and introduces it thus : " Quern 
Beda Csedwallam, quern et Adamnanus Cath- 
lonem in sua chronica appellat." In cap. 49 he 
refers to it again. He probably used the text 
of the Cotton MS. Tiberius D. iii. Brit. Mus. 

n O'Donnell. He cites the account of Os- 
wald, and the statement about the poems on 
St. Columba from j. i, as Adamnan's, in Vit. 



iii. 66, 67 (Tr. Th. pp. 443, 444) ; ii. 44. in like 
manner, in cap. 68 (ib. p. 444 a) ; ii. 45, in capp. 
69, 70, 7 1 (ib. 444 6), all of which are wanting 
in the shorter text. 

Rule. Cap. 42, under the title, Ut post 
Completorium nemo loquatur. 

P Intention. " De miraculis ejus succincte 
qusedam, quasi legentibus avide praegustanda, 
ponam." p. 7. 

1 Fulfilled " Virtutum documenta, secun- 

dum nostram praemissam superius promissi- 
unculam, breviter sunt demonstranda." p.n. 



Preface. xiii 

text the chapter but one preceding relates St. Columba's doings in the Campus 
Breg, the old name of East Meath, and thus the reference above mentioned is 
easy and intelligible. But in the shorter text, where the said passage also 
occurs, six of the antecedent chapters, as given in the longer, are omitted, and 
the place which is last mentioned is_Skye, and further back, for several chap- 
ters, the scene is laid in Hy. It is evident, therefore, that the true correlative 
to supra memorata does not exist in the shorter text, and, as a necessary conse- 
quence, that it is mutilated 1 '. Moreover, as regards the tituli, they form an 
integral part of each chapter, for the names which occur in them are often not 
repeated, though referred to, in the substance of the chapter, so that their re- 
moval, as in the Bollandist edition, from their proper places to the beginning of 
the books, that they may not break the thread of the story, illustrates the prin- 
ciple upon which they were entirely omitted in the manuscripts ; and occa- 
sionally renders the insertion of some words in the text necessary, in order to 
complete the construction. Thus, ini. 49 (92), all the copies have supra me- 
morata munitione, but there is no antecedent mention of a munitio except in 
the titulus, which speaks De hello in munitions Cethirni, the absence of which 
evidently bears witness against the integrity of the shorter text, and, in the 
Bollandists, demanded a note of explanation 8 . The very title of Canisius's 
manuscript, Incipit prima Prcefatio Apologiaque Adamnani Abbatis sancti scrip- 
toris, indicates a later hand ; as the Bollandist editor observes 1 , " quis enim 
seipsum sanctum vocet?" Accordingly, in giving the preference to the 
Beichenau manuscript, he comes to the conclusion that the " Windbergense 
MS. videatur ex hoc desumptum, pluribus rebus, taedio forsitan vocum barbari- 
carum, vel librarii incuria, praetermissis" u . 

Of the seven manuscripts which furnish the various readings in the present 
work, three contain the longer, and four the shorter text : these shall now be 
considered under the several signatures which are employed to represent 
them. 

I. Codex A., a manuscript of the beginning of the eighth century, formerly 
belonging to Reichenau, but now preserved in the public library of SchafF- 
hausen. Its age is indicated by various criteria: i. The writing is of that 

* Mutilated. See note a , p. 76. t Observes Junii, torn. ii. note d , p. 198 a, 

R Explanation The omission is at p. 211 b, 190 6. See Schoell, Eccles. Brit. Sector. Hist. 

and there is a reference to note t, p. 212 6, Font., p. 61, where the writer evinces a very 

which says: "De memorata munilione ref'ertur superficial acquaintance with his subject. 

ad tituluin Capitis, qui sic habet," &c. u Pratermissis. Act. SS. Jun. torn. ii. p. 190 1. 



xiv Preface. 

peculiar heavy hand which is found in the oldest Irish manuscripts, not indeed 
as round as that of the Books of Kells or Durrow, but possessing many fea- 
tures in common, and claiming priority to tHe Book of Armagh, the date of 
which is fixed to the year 807. 2. The Greek character which appears in the 
text, as shown in the following facsimile of the colophon of the second book 



t 





and more at length in the Lord's Prayer, which is written on the last page of 
the manuscript, in semi-uncials, without accents or breathings. 3. The parch- 
ment, which is made of young goat-skin, and evidences by its colour and con- 
dition extreme age. 4. The remarkable colophon of the scribe, which, taken 
in connexion with other evidence, is of the greatest weight. It is in rubric on 
page 1360, and records the name Dorbbeneus (242), one of extreme rarity, in 
Irish records, and of which the present writer knows no examples but the two 
which are mentioned in the Annals, in connexion with Hy. One of these is the 
entry at A. D. 7 24, which records the death of Faelcu, son of Dorbene (381,382), 
and the other that which records the death of Dorbene, who was elected to the 
chair of St. Columba at Hy in A. D. 713, and died the same year (381). The 
former Dorbene was probably a layman, and anterior to Aciamnan ; the latter 
was probably only half a generation junior to Adamnan, whom he survived 
but nine years. To ascribe the manuscript to this individual is to claim a very 
early date for it, and it may be objected that it was written by another person 
of this name, or copied by a later hand from the autograph of this Dorbene. 
The former exception is not probable, the name being almost unique, and 
found so pointedly connected with the Columbian society; the latter is less 
probable, as the colophon in Irish manuscripts is always peculiar to the actual 
scribe, and likely to be omitted in transcription, as is the case of the later ma- 
nuscripts of the same recension preserved in the British Museum. 5. The 
judgments of those who have examined it. Colgan, on White's report, says u : 
" Exemplar illud Codicis Augiensis tarn vetustum et tanta fide et integritate 
exaratum est, ut nisi Codex ipse esset in Germania repertus, non aliud vide- 
retur ab eo, quod S. Dorbeneus Abbas Hiensis, S. Adamnani discipulus, ipso 
Adamnano adhuc vivente, vel paulo post ejus mortem, sua manu scripsit." 

u Colgan says. Trias Thaumaturga, p. 3720. 






* e- 



\l 



'* * * $ 



D 

<D JS 



2 c -3 3 &-< 




Preface. xv 

Colgan's cause of hesitation was very unreasonable, because the same would 
apply to any copy, in any age, as the Bollandist editor reasonably observes w : 
" Verum, ut liber in Germania inventus sit, non admodum me movet, quo 
minus credam ipsum esse Dorbenei autographum : cur enim idem ille codex, 
ob hasreticorum persecutiones aliaque ex causa, in Germaniam transferri minus 
potuit, quam ejus ecgraphum? patet vero factum esse alterutrum." Among 
the writings of Father Mauritius Van der Meer x , preserved in the monastery 
of Rheinau, of which he was a member, is the memorandum : " Adamannidrey 
Biicher vom S. Columba, etc. Anmerk. Das eigentliche Msc. vom viii. 
Saeculo (welches vormals in die Keichenau gehort), befindet sich dermalen in 
der Biirger-bibliothek zu Schaffhausen." This learned monk died in 1795, so 
that it may be concluded the manuscript had passed from Keichenau before 
that date, and anterior to the suppression of the monastery in 1799. Further, 
among the archives of the Schaffhausen library is the following notice of the 
manuscript?, in the handwriting of the same Van der Meer : "Hoc ipsum MSS. 
credi posset authographum Dorbbenei ; subscriptio enim ilia in rubro vix ab 
alio descriptore addita fuisset ; characteres quoque antiquitatem sapiunt saBculi 
octavi : nee obstat, ,quod in Germania repertum fuerit ; eadein enim facilitate, 
qua apographum ex Hibernia afferri debuisset, poterat etiam authographum 
per monachos Hibernos, in his partibus olim frequentes, afferri. Verum simile 
omnino MSS. cum rubro quoque S. Dorbbenei annexo, refertur extitisse in 
Monasterio Augia? Divitis, ex quo descripsit hanc vitam ante medium sasculi 
elapsi P. Stephanus Vitus S. J. ac typis mandarunt Colganus in Triade 
Thaumaturga a pag. 336, etBolandus torn. 2 Junii die 9. In omnibus convenit 
cum MSS. Scaffusiano, si excipias indicem capitulorum post prasfaciones rubro 
descriptorum, in quo plurima discrepancia reperitur. Aut igitur dicendum, 
supra memoratum P. Stephanum eosdem titulos in indice commutasse (quod 
tamen vix crediderim) atque adeo esse unum et idem utriusque loci MSS. aut 
ssepius eandem vitam jam sseculo octavo cum eadem nota Dorbbenei fuisse 
descriptam." It is the identical manuscript, and White did alter the index : 
at least the editors did. 6. There are occasional corrections of the orthography 
in a different and later hand, the date of which Dr. Keller fixes 2 at 800-820, 

w Bollandist observes. Junii, torn. ii. p. 1906. Metzger, and communicated to the editor by 
x Van der Meer. Miscellanea, torn. v. p. 356. Dr. Ferdinand Keller, of Zurich. 
>' Notice of the manuscript. It was oblig- z Keller fixes. In a communication to the 

ingly copied by the librarian, the Rev. J. J. editor he writes : " As I know the handwriting 

c2 



XVI 



Preface. 



the time when probably the manuscript was taken over to Germany. 7 . The 
orthography of the Latin is of that peculiar kind which characterizes Irish 
manuscripts at home* and abroad b . As it is indicative not only of the anti- 
quity, but of the origin, of the manuscript, the following classification of its 



of the time of Charlemagne quite well, and 
have made hundreds of facsimiles, I am sure 
that the corrections above and beneath the 
words are not older than about the year 800- 
820." 

11 At home. The Book of Armagh affords 
abundant examples of the various peculiarities 
observable in the present manuscript : thus 
VOWELS : a for e, asparsio, evellabat, maladic- 
tio ; SL for O, horalogium, parabsidis, salamon ; 
efor a, excolentes (straining), jecto ; efor ae, 
cessar, hessito ; e for ee, belzebub ; efor 1, 
accepit (pres.), ancella, antestes, college, ore- 
men, deadema, debetum, deluculo, demitto, 
dimedium, dirego, ejecio, injece, redemo, semp- 
eternus, transegere (infin.), vigelo; e omit, 
per aphcer., (e)dissere, (e)ducentes, (e)julan- 
tes ; i for ae, arimathia; I for e, adoliscens, 
bibliothica, campistris, cicidit, consuitudo, 
contumilia, dirilinquo, discendo, dissidia, dis- 
truo, elivo, flagellatus, hospis, intripide, mi- 
clius, novim, prsesis, reciperunt, sagina, vinia ; 
I for y, azima, misterium; i insert., elemoisina, 
injecierunt, venierunt ; i omit., dsenaris, esurit, 
transit (perf.) ; o for au, clodus , ofor-u, 
baiolo, cellola, centorio, commonis, fulgor, in- 
sola, iracondus, luxoriosse, mormuro, orceo- 
lus, orceus, porpura, porticos, soffoco, sordus, 
spelonca, tonica; u for o, decapulis, dia- 
bulus, idula, parabula, paruehia, prumptus, 
prura ; u omit., ungentum; M insert., anguelus, 
aavanguelium, confringuet, franguentes, in- 
tinguo, lougue, planguit, sponguia, tanguo; 
ae for e, sedo, aegissent, selymosina, sepis- 
copus, sevanguelium ; au for u, conclausus ; 
oe for e, oboedio. CONSONANTS : b for p, 
babtitzo, parabsis; la for v, vissitabit (perf.); 
cforv., cotidie, silicis (siliquis), stercolinium; 
c insert., tracho, vecho; f for ph, blasfemia, 



bosferus, coffinus, caifas, fantasraa, fariseus, 
filippus, filactyria, profeta ; li omit. , aurio, 
erodes, menta, orreum, ymnus, tesaurus ; 
h prefix., habundantia, harundo, hintorrogo, 
hiisdem, holera, honus, hostiarius, hostium ; 
nfur m, barabban, inpleo ; n insert., quadra- 
gensimus ; q/or c, persequtio, torqular ; Bfor 
t, contensio; s omit., expuo; tfor d, muntatio; 
vfor b, gravattum (grabatum) ; v omit., nin- 
uetis, parascues, pluia; y for I, fymbria, pyla- 
tus, synapis ; tzfor z, babtitzo, gatzofylocium, 
scandalitzo. DOUBLING: occulus; deffero, ref- 
fello, reffulgeo; camellus, candellabrum, ollim; 
cymmiterium; repputoj aeclessia, arenossa, aus- 
sus, csessar, caussa, claussus, conclussus, dis- 
sertum, dissidia, essuriens, evassit, herbossus, 
hypocrissis, inlessus, issaias, misserat, misser- 
tus, missit, occissus, paradissus, possitus, pre- 
tiossus, propossitio, tessaurus, ussura, vissus. 
SINGLING : afectus, afert, aferte ; alatum ; nu- 
mularius ; oportunus, pilipi, pupis, offere ; 
asumo, nose, presura ; dimito, atulit. NON- 
ASSIMILATION: adprehendo, inlido, inmundus. 
b Abroad. See the examples adduced by 
Zeuss, who introduces them by observing : 
" Prodiisse earn proprietatem ex orthoyraphia 
et pronuntiatione patriae linguae, jam indicant 
vocales productae accentu uotatae praeser- 
tim vocum monosyllabarum et terminationuin 
grammaticalium, ft'equentius dativi plur. in 

-is," &c Gram. Celt, praef. p. xxi. Especially 

see Angelo Mai in his Cicero de Republica, 
Praef. p. xxxv., and Conspectus Orthographisa 
Codicis Vaticani, p. 347 (Lond. 1823). The 
Vatican palimpsest, from which he printed 
this work, formerly belonged to the Irish mo- 
nastery of Bobio, and is inscribed Liber S. Co- 
lumbani de Bobio (ib. p. xxiii.) ; the common 
title of almost all the manuscripts of Bobio. 



Preface. xvii 

principal features may be acceptable, and the more so, as the orthography, 
being barbarous, or at least provincial, has not been adopted in the text of 
this edition, nor have the peculiar spellings been given in the Varias Lectiones, 
as they would have swelled them to an inconvenient length. 

i. Interchange of Vowels. 

a JOT e, honorificantia, consparsi ; i, apparationes ; o, abortus, anomata, 
doma, cenabium. 

e for a, densebitur ; ae, demon, inlessus ; i, accedisse, accedit, ancella, 
aprelis, -contegisse, contenebit, contenuo, debetum, degitulus, deligenter, de- 
vulgo, dilegeret, habetus, incedens, itenere, noles, obsedes, penetens, posse- 
deam, relegio, resedens, reteneo, semplex, semplicitas, sustenens, videt (perf.), 
sempeternus ; oe, cepit, penitens ; u, tegorium, tegoriolum ; omit., himalis. 

i for a, cognitionalis, exhilarita ; e, anchorita, bilua, calcians, cicidit, cispes, 
conpiscuit, crudilis, dispexit, distinatus, domisticus, dulcido, efficit, elimentum, 
flagillo, herimus, meritrix, morire, morireris, ocianus, pellicius, perigrinus, 
pilagus c , pininas, pissulus, segites, susciperit, tris, vehimentia, veninosus, veni- 
num ; ee, elimosina ; o, agonitheta ; u, obstipuere ; y, cimba, misterium, pira, 
pirinei, sinodus ; termin. is for es, accus. plur. ; omit., domnus, rnensum, 
obisse, plebeus, transit (perf.); insert., filii (voc. sing.), somniis (somnus), 
unianimes. 

ofor u, bocetum, bocula, commonis, eoropa, excommonico, incolomis, in- 
moto, iracondus, insola, modolabiliter, modolatio, motatio, motuus, pecodes, 
rivolus, tegorium, tegoriolum ; au, clodus. 

u for o, accula, cselicula, cenubium, consulatio, diabulicus, diabulus, domu, 
inculatus, mursus, prsestulor, prumte, suspes ; y, carubdis ; omit, distingere, 
inpingatus, linga, langores, equm; y for u, eylogia. 

ae/or e, difficilimae (adv.) ; i, praevilegium. 

oe/or e, oboediens, oboedientia. 

c Pilagus, Thus Muirchu in the Book of This spelling pervades the Irish school. In 

Armagh has pylagus (fol. 20 aa), and the short Sedulius on Rom. i. 14, is the reference secun- 

prologues of that writer which are prefixed to dum PH., which Ussher understands of Pila- 

the St. Paul's Epistles bear the name of Pila- gius, adding : " Quo nomine Pelagii in Pauli 

yius (foil. io6aa, 1076, 12700, 12966, 13206) epistolas scholia non semel in antiquioribus 

133 66, 135 60, 136 60, 138 aa, 141 a 6, 14206). JVISS. notata reperi" (Wks. vi. p. 357). 



xviii Preface. 

2. Interchange of Consonants. 

b for p, babtizo, obto ; v, corbus, fabonius. 

c for q, oblicus ; t, maceriale ; insert., anchellans, ancxietas, pincxisset, 
vechiculum. 

f for ph, anfibalus, foca, limfa, ofthalmia, profeta, scafus, sulfureus, zefirus ; 
vice versa, 0mrvp. 

h, omit., auritorium, ausit, cristianus, ebdomas, esito, eucaristia, exalo, 
exaurio, monacus, ordeum, ymnus ; prefix., habunde, harundo, harundinetum, 
herimus, hisdera, hostium; insert., nothus (south wind). 

a. for m, adinpletus, anfibalus, conparatio, conpertus, conprehendo, quandiu; 
omit., cojux, domucula; insert., quadrigensimales, singillatim. 

pfor b, prespiter; omit., prumte, sumtus. 

q for c, sequtus ; g, lonquinquitas. 

r omit., remigo, susum. 

s for ps, salmus, salterium ; sc for x, ascella. 

t for d, jugulentus, haut. 

vforb, cavallus, evernia, repedavit (fut.); omit., aesteus, aunculus, fluius, 
longeus, pluia, pluialis, ulturnus. 

3. Doubling of Consonants. c, occulus, cormaccus; 1, inallens, malluis- 
sem, nollint, ollim, parentella, protellari, tollerabilis, vellint; n, annanias, 
rennueris ; p, repperio ; r, serris ; a, cassu, cassurus, essurio, evassere, evassit, 
inlessus, inrissit, possitu?, recusso, suassus, ussus, vassis. 

4. Singling. b, sabatizo ; o, eclesia ; f, dificilis, efloreo, sufrago ; m, co- 
means; n, septinalis; p, oponens, oportunus, pupis, supliciter; r, afferent; 
s, colosus, concusus, gresus, indefesus, jusus, mansisit, mesio, misa, promisio, 
scripsise, sensise. 

5. Assimilation. Amminiculum, amministro, ammiro, ammoneo. 

6. Non-assimilation Adpulsus, adsigno, antemnae, conlatus, inlustris, in- 
merito, inmundus, inrideo, subfultus, subprimo. 

7. Contraction. Iteris d /or itineris; vie. vers. vehiculus/07 1 viculus. 

8. Coherence. Abre, adiebus, admisarum, anobis, deregno, econtra (pre- 
positions generally joined to the words they govern). 

p. Division. De vulgata, ex interata, per se quotore. 

d Iteris. Thus Columbanus uses itero for et boni viatores in patria requiescunt." In- 
ilinero in "Sed ibiomnes saeculi iterautes, . . . struct, viii. (Flera. Collect, p. 61 a). 



Plate. 2.. 




Preface. 



xix 



10. Accents. On dative and ablative plural, throughout, humanis, locis, 
misis, uicinis ; se ; on proper names 6 , abac, aldo, dumi, fachtm, mocumin. 

As regards the writing, there are three hands discernible ; the first that of 
the substance of the manuscript, which is very uniform, and never departs 
from the steady boldness of the letter, except where a new pen produces an in- 
crease of sharpness and smoothness of stroke. A second hand, possibly from 
the same writer, but with a different ink .and pen, and in a smaller, rounder- 
letter, appears on p. 108 a, beginning at the words Cummeneus Albus in libro^^ 
&c. in iii. 5 (199), to the end of the chapter. The third hand, is the later and 
inferior one which has made the corrections in the orthography in different 
places. As regards ornament, capitals", some of them of considerable size, 
are liberally used: the books open with very large letters, and the initials of 
the chapters are proportionably distinguished. In every column, where a new 
clause commences, the first letter is daubed with red or yellow paint. There 
is a total absence, however, of interlacing or artistic work, and the capitals are 
illuminated by the simple process of dotting the substance of the stroke with 
yellow, or its margins with red, and filling up the hollow with red or yellow. 
The capitulationes at the commencement, the tituli of the chapters, and the 
colophon of the scribe, are all written in rubric, which is in general very fresh 
and beautiful 11 . Over the signs of abbreviation, also, there is commonly added a 
similar stroke in red. The ordinary ink is generally very dark 1 , but it varies, 
in some places being as black as jet, in other places turned brown k . The book 
itself is in quarto, and consists of 68 leaves, each measuring io| by 8| inches. 



e Proper names. The same system of accent- 
uation exists in the Latin tracts at the begin- 
ning of the Book of Armagh, except that the 
accents are more numerous, sometimes accom- 
panying every letter in a proper name, some- 
times only the vowels. By this means the 
proper names, in the absence of capitals, can 
be discerned at a glance. 

f Libro. See the facsimile in Plate II., No. 15. 

s Capitals. See Plate II, where fig. * repre- 
sents the opening of Pref. 2 (4), fig. unnum- 
bered, of iii. 23 (228) ; fig. 4, of Pref. i (3) ; 
fig. 8, of i. i (n); fig. 12, of ii. 2 (105); fig. 14, 
of ii. 46 (182). 

h Beautiful See the titulus of iii. 23 (228), 



in Plate II. fig. i. 

1 Dark. Dr. Keller's observation on this 
subject is very just : " In den altern irischen 
Msc. ist eine dicke Tinte benutzt worden, die 
sich durch ihre Schwarze und Dauerhaftigkeit 
in hohem Grade auszeichnet. Sie widersteht 
oft den auf Eisen priifenden Reagenzien und 
scheint nicht aus den Stoffen, die man gewb'hn- 
lich dazu anwendet, bereitet worden zu sein." 
Bilder und Schriftzuge in den irischen Manu- 
scripten, -c., in Mittheilungen der Antiquar- 
ischen Gesellschaft in Zurich, Sieb. Band 
(1851), p. 70. 

k Brown. The Book of Armagh affords an 
interesting example of ink on the colour of 



xx Preface. 

The writing is in double columns. The pages are generally marked across 
with horizontal ruled lines drawn by a sharp instrument 1 , and the columns are 
defined by perpendicular lines of the same kind, always leaving the column on 
the left; narrower than that on the right. The volume is probably in the 
original binding : the sides are beech- wood, greatly worna-eaten, covered with 
calf-skin ; the sewing of the back is very rude and curious, and the front was 
formerly secured by clasps. 

A very remarkable feature of this manuscript is the copy of the Lord's 
Prayer, written on the last page, if not by the same hand, at least by one of 
the same age and school. It exhibits the Greek character adopted by the 
Irish, in its mediuscular or semi-uncial state, and in orthography fully comes 
up to Kuster's critique on the Irish MS. of the Pauline Epistles, called the 
Codex Boernerianus : " Librarium nactus est valde imperitum et oscitantem." 
It exhibits in a marked manner the same disregard of quantity which is ob- 
servable in the Greek letters and in the Book of Armagh, and in the old 
metrical Latin of thelrish ; as well as in the words IIHPICTHP A for TTCJOKT- 
rtpa", and CHKVNAVC for secundus, in the body of the manuscript. The 
following represents its orthography and division in ordinary letters : Darij/y 
o ei V ro<e vpavotc aytaaOriTb) TO ovojua aov : ?]A0ara> rj/SacrtXeta ami. 
Tw TO ^sArjjita crou. a) cvovpavw KCU tiny YIQ. rov aprov TJJUWV TOV tin 
ovcriov Soe 17/HV o-rjjuepoi'. KCU a (j>g rjjiuv ra ofyi Arjjuara ijjuwv. we KO.L 



which IQOO years has made but little change. connexion with the ruling, this remarkable fea- 

In the 25th of St. Matthew, at the top of fol. ture in the second part of the Book of Armagh, 

48 bb, there are two lines where the ink is ex- that the writing hangs from, instead of resting 

tremely pale, probably owing to some diluent on, the line. This was a peculiarity of Oriental 

used by the writer, for there is an error at the writing, and was adopted by the Irish for con- 

place. venience, inasmuch as the upper part of many 

i Sharp instrument. This kind of ruling is of their letters, as p, 5, p, p, c, coincided better 

common in Irish MS S. See Rettig's account with a horizontal line than the lower. The two 

of the ruling of the Codex Sangallensis, Pro- volumes of Doomsday in the Chapter House at 

legom. p. x. (Turici, 1836). In the Book of Westminster afford a medieval illustration of 

Armagh the ruling of the Gospels, which are the marginal spacing, and the ruling with a 

written with great delicacy, does not catch the pointed instrument. 

eye ; but in the Epistles it is very distinct, and m i{ u $ter' s critique. Nov. Test. Grscc. prsaf. 

the little incisions along the outer marginal p. 9 (Lipsiae, 1723). 

lines, marking out the spaces for the horizontal n Hspianpa. See note e, p. 5. The use of 

lines, are very plain, especially on the first leaf H for E,in this word helped the later copyists 

of the quaternio, showing that one process of the Life to turn IT into N, P into II, C into 

served for the whole fasciculus. There is, in O, and P into T, and thus make vijiriorqra. So 



Plate . 






061 

































Preface. 

/ 



xxi 



rote atij rate i?juwv. KtttjU rj etc evf^/foje rjjiiae cit,' Trtpao-juwv. aXXa pv trat 
a;ro rou TTOVE/OOU. The capricious subdivision of the words is strikingly 
exemplified in old Irish writing, otherwise one could suppose that when 
Greek writing had lately emerged from the continuity of uncial style, the 
scribe, copying from such a text, might have been occasionally embarrassed 
by the want of severalty in the words of his exemplar. The Lord's Prayer in 
the Codex Sangallensis is in a smaller form than this, but it bears a wonderful 
affinity to it in the shape of the letter ; and even in orthography, for, though 
not so reckless, it has cXflarw, a^io/uLEv, and r\ Suva/ute. The accompanying 
facsimile (Plate III.) shows some curious particulars in the form of the letters. 
The B is in a transition state between Greek and Irish ; the A, as is more fully 
shown in the colophon of the second book, is on its way to an Irish t) ; in like 
manner the A is passing to the X, and evidences a disposition to omit the light 
stroke on the left, and leave it an Irish L. The M is written in two ways, the 
latter of which, like two C's dos a dos, with a vinculum, appears in the Book 
of Armagh , as is shown in the annexed facsimile of the colophon to the Gos- 
pel of St. Matthew p . Matthaei, not aware of 
the common use of the former, writes* 1 , concern- 
ing its occurrence in the Codex Boernerianus, 
" facile confunduntur XX. cum ^u.; p. cum v." 
The N is evidently allied in form to the Irish 
N ; the P is intermediate between P and "R, fa ^HfJtA; DM/^TTHI * 
and the Greek influence is shown in the Irish 

capital by the tendency to suppress the curl of the letter ; the C for S is uni- 
versally employed in all the Hiberno-Greek MSS. ; the ^ is a transition from 
Y to Y, and is used in Hiberno-Latin writing for Y, and causes the word eulo- 
giam to appear as eylogiam in the Life (p. 121). On the whole, this specimen 
of Hiberno-Greek 1 ', though worthless in a linguistic point of view, is very valu- 

in the verse cited by Mabillon (Annal. Bened. Boernerianus, Animadv. p. ii4(Misen. 1791). 



torn. Hi. p. 677 a): 

Qui studiis radians, et APHTIC germine vemans. 

Book of Armagh. At present in the edi- 
tor's possession. See note c , p. 354, infra. 

P St. Matthew. Fol.52 b a. The above wood- 
cut is borrowed, by permission, from the Pro- 
ceedings of the R. Irish Acad. vol. iii. p. 318. 

1 Matthaei writes Epist. Pauli xiii. Cod. Gr. 



Hiberno-Greek. The most copious and ac- 
cessible authority on this head is the Antiquis- 
simus Quatuor Evangeliorvm Canonicorum Co- 
dex Sangallensis of H. C. M. Rettig (Turici, 
1836). This admirable work contains 395 li- 
thograph pages in facsimile of the St. Gall 
MS. See also the two facsimiles at fols. 23, 
86, of Matthaei's Codex Boernerianus. 



xxii Preface. 

able in the history of Irish writing, as it shows how the Greek and Roman 
letters, as written by the Irish, mutually affected one another, and gave the 
Irish alphabet, especially in capitals, that peculiar character which distinguishes 
it from all others*. 

The history of the manuscript is interesting. It was undoubtedly written 
in the west ; and was probably taken to Germany in the early part of the 
ninth century. The corrections of the Irish orthography, and the peculiar 
ha.nd_.othe^ corrector, indicate a foreign revision, and at the period mentioned. 
The monastery of Augia Dives, or Reichenau*, where the book was found at 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, was an ancient monastery much fre- 
quented by the Irish, and its abbot, from 842 to 849, was the celebrated 
Walafridus Strabus, who had been previously Dean of St. Gall, another mon- 
astery of Irish connexion. At the beginning of the ninth, century a strong 
tide of. Irish pilgrims set in towards Qermany u ; possibly caused by the Norse 
invasions of the west ; and it is likely that the breaking up of. Hy, at the same 
time, and by the same influence, caused many members of the Columbian 
society to fall in with the movement. There undoubtedly was some such 
communication between Ireland and eastern Germany soon after 825, whereby 
Walafridus Strabus, who records the martyrdom of St. Blaithmac, was made 
acquainted with the particulars of that tragical event v . St. Fintan, the patron 

s All others. The peculiarity of the Hiberno- eighth to the twelfth centuries, including Ice- 
Greek letter in the Cod. Boerner. drew from landers, is reported to be still in existence, 
the experienced Matthaei the confession : "Ad The valuable relics of the library were carried 
tria millia Codicum Graecorum in variis regio- away by the monks at the suppression in 1799, 
nibus tractaui, nullum tamen huic similem" to prevent their falling into the hands of the 
(xiii. Epist. Pauli, Animadvers. p. 113). Government (Baden). 

1 Reichenau. That is, 'Rich meadow,' lati- u Germany. The observation of Walafridus 

nized Augia Dives. It is a fertile island in the Strabus, in his Life of St. Gall, is very much to 

inferior part of the Lake of Constance, contain- the purpose: " Nuper quoque de natione Sco- 

ing three parishes with three old churches, torum, quibus consuetude peregrinandi jam 

Ober, Mittel, and Unter ZelL The steeple of pene in naturam conversa est, quidam adve- 

the conventual church, a structure of extreme nientes," &c. ii. 46 (Messingham, Florileg. 

age, was lately whitewashed, and deprived of its p. 293 a). This was written before 842. 

external ornaments, by way of renovation. The v Tragical event. It is a remarkable circum- 

Necrologium of Reichenau was published by stance to find an occurrence which so deeply 

Keller some years since, and the Liber Con- affected St. Columba's society very briefly no- 

fraternitatvm Augice Divilis, the latter part ticed in domestic records, and to be obliged to 

of which contains the names of strangers travel to eastern Germany for further particu- 

\vho visited Reichenau from the middle of the lars. See p. 389, infra. 



Preface. 



xxm 



saint of Augia liheni, or Rheinau w , had made his way to Germany about 
twenty-five years before, and his Life, which was written a short time after his 
decease, though existing in Germany x , proves the writer to have been an Irish- 
man, and acquainted with Irish occurrences, for it contains some sentences in 
the Irish language, and speaks of a monk then living in Fore, to whom the 
saint had related the visions which he had at Rheinau. And, that it was not 
unusual to carry books abroad, appears by the many Irish manuscripts which 
are preserved on the Continent, and, especially, from the donations which 
Dungal made to St. Columbanus's monastery of Bobio, and Bishop Marcus 2 to 
that of St. Gall. The discovery of the manuscript of Adamnan at Reichenau 
by White, and the communication of his copy to Ussher, Colgan, and the 
Bollandists, have been already mentioned 11 . When or by whom it was removed 
from that monastery is not known, but that it found its way to Schaffhausen b 
before the suppression in 1 799 has been shown above. Dr. Ferdinand Keller, 
who has the credit of bringing it to light again, thus writes, Jan. 1851: " The 
present proprietor of the MS. of S. Columba is the Town-library (public 
library) of Schaffhausen. Here I found this codex in 1845 a * *he bottom of a 



w Rheinau That is, ' Meadow of the Rhine;' 
in Latin, Augia Rheni. It is situate on a pic- 
turesque island of the Rhine, not far from the 
cataract beside Schaffhausen. 

x Germany. Published by Goldastus in his 
Rerum AlamannicarumScriptores, p. 318 (Fran- 
cof. 1606). The saint, who was a native of 
Leinster, is called Findan in the Life. 

y Dungal. The catalogue of the books which 
this Irishman gave to the monastery of Bobio 
has been published from an ancient MS. by Mu- 
ratori (Antiq. Ital. Dissert. 43, torn. iii. col. 821). 
The memorandum prefixed to the catalogue 
states that they were the books " quos Dun- 
galus prsecipuus Scottorum obtulit beatissimo 
Columbano," that is, to bis monastery, for the 
founder of Bobio was now 200 years dead. A 
manuscript in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, 
formerly in the Bobio collection, has these 
lines : 

" Sancte Columba, tibi Scotto tuus incola Dungal 
Tradidit hunc Librum, quo Fratrum corda beentur." 

Ib. col. 826. Dungal's catalogue mentions 



" Librum quendam Scotaicze linguae." Ib. col. 
821 (Mediol. 1740). 

1 Marcus. In 841, Marcus, an Irish bishop, 
and his sister's son, Moengal (latinized Mar- 
cellus), returning from a pilgrimage to Rome, 
visited St. Gall, and were induced to make it 
in future their home. Marcus bequeathed his 
books to the monastery, and Moengal became 
director of the inner school, and teacher of 
those boys who wore the cloister dress, and 
were, for the most part, while yet children, 
devoted to the monastic life. See Keller, ut 
supra, p. 63. 

a Mentioned. See pp. ix., x., supra; Acta 
Sanctorum, Junii, ii. p. 190 a. 

* Schaffhausen The identity of the MS. 

now existing there with that formerly seen at 
Reichenau, is put beyond the shadow of a doubt 
by two memoranda on the first page, which, 
though partially erased, admit of being read : 
one at the top of p. i, col. a, Liber Augice Di- 
vitis ; the other at the foot of the page, Lib' 
augie maioris. 

2 



xxiv Preface. 

high book-chest, where it lay pele-mele with some other MSS. and old books 
totally neglected, bearing neither title nor number." It was twice borrowed 
by Dr. Keller, and on the latter occasion, in 1 85 1 , he made a valuable collection 
of facsimiles from it, and through Mr Morf, a person of considerable learning 
and experience in manuscripts, secured a most minute collation of the text 
with the printed edition in the Bollandists, the results of which, with the 
greatest kindness and liberality, he placed at the service of the present editor. 

II. Codex B. A vellum MS. of the middle of the fifteenth century, pre- 
served in the British Museum, Bill. Reg. 8 D. ix. The text agrees in its 
main features with that of A. It has, however, capitulat.iones for the second 
and third books, which do not exist in A, and a paragraph in the middle of 
the second book (ii. 20). These have been introduced into the present work 
(pp. 100, 1 88, 131). It also contains a recital of the names of St. Columba's 
twelve disciples, and of his immediate kinsmen. This appendage, which comes 
without a break immediately after the text in the manuscript, is not an integral 
part of the work ; but as it is evidently very ancient and trustworthy, it forms 
the subject of Additional Note A (pp. 245-247) in the present work. The 
manuscript wants about a quaternio at the beginning, and commences abruptly 
in the middle of i. 3 (25). This defect is of old standing, for the name Lwnley, 
written at the foot of the first page, is the signature of John, Lord Lumley , 
who died in 1609. Otherwise, the manuscript is in unexceptionable preser- 
vation ; the vellum clean, and the writing distinct. The capitals are large 
and massive, in red and blue alternately ; those at the beginning of sections or 
paragraphs smaller, but coloured in like manner : the tituli are in rubric. As 
to orthography, it never uses ce or ee, and rarely ae ; it generally has c instead 
of t in such words as tercius / aspirates initial vowels, as heremus, hostium ; 
doubles medial consonants, as occeanus; obeys assimilation, as illacrimans ; has 
no y ; is indistinct in the combination of minims, in the letters i, m, n, u \ 
generally reads the name iona ; has no capitals as initials of proper names ; 
and, though using various forms of stops, has no fixed rule of punctuation. 

It is in a large 8vo vol. consisting of 144 fols. or 288 pages. The con- 
tents of the volume are, S. Columbce Vita, fol. i a to 70 a ; Eegula Augustini> 
71 a to 780; Flares magistri Hugonis de Sancto Victor e etfratris Nicholai 

c LordLumley. His manuscripts and printed the palace of St. James, where the Prince re- 
books were purchased for Prince Henry by sided. See Birch's Life of Henry Prince of 
James I., and added to the Royal collection at Wales, p. 127 (Dublin, 1760). 



Preface. xxv 

Triveti super Regula beati Augustini, fol. 79 a to 144 b. The leaf measures 
9s by 6f inches, and the page 6 by 4^ inches. There are generally 24 lines 
to the page. The age of the manuscript has been greatly overrated. Pinker- 
ton, in his Vitae Antiquse* 1 , states it to be Cent, xii., and is followed by Dr. 
Petrie (215). In his Enquiry*, Pinkerton lowers the date one century, and 
describes it as " written in the thirteenth century." 

III. Codex C. The Canisian text, which was published in 1604, "ex 
membranis m. s. Monasterii Windbergensis in Bauaria." It seems to be the 
manuscript which is mentioned, under the head Windberg in the Appendix A f 
to the Report of the English Record Commissioners, as S. Adamnanus Scptus 
de S. Columba Scoto. In its printed state, this is the most unsatisfactory 
text 5 of all the copies : it is very likety, however, that justice has not been done 
to it in the transcription. It belongs to the shorter recension. In the intro- 
duction to the Life, Canisius says : " Notandum est quod codex MS. Rebdorf- 
fensis expresse in titulo libri vocat Sanctum ;" and Messingham h cites him as 
his authority for the statement: "Codex MS. Rebdorfensis ubique vocat 
Adamnanum, vel Adomnanum." But this is another name 1 for the Wind- 
berg MS., and the town of Rebdorf is situate in the south-east of Franconia, 
a little west of EichstadtJ, on the north bank of the Altmuhl, a tributary of 
the Danube. Canisius's residence and place of publication, Ingolstadt k , is not 
far off on the south-east. 

IV. Codex D. The second tract (fol. 39 aa to 51 ba), in a large vellum 
manuscript of the thirteenth century, preserved in Primate Marsh's Library, 
Dublin, vulgarly, though erroneously, called the Book of Kilkenny 1 , and marked 

d Vitae Antiques:. In the note Lectori, p. vii. h Mess'mgham. Florileg. Sanctor. Hib. p. 142. 

e Enquiry. Vol. i. p. 61. At p. 315, how- 5 Another name. Thus, the Vit. S. Kiliani in 

ever, he wavers : " The invaluable MS. in the the fourth volume of the Antiquse Lectiones, is 

King's Library, written in the twelfth or thir- printed : "Ex membranis MS. monasterii Wind- 

teenth century." bergensis et Rebdorfensis" 

{ Appendix -4.p-Supplement, p. So. J Eichstadt. This is the Aichstadium, in the 

s Unsatisfactory text. Stephanus Vitus, in Dominican convent of which Canisius found 

the preface to his collation of the Cod. Augien- bis original of Cogitosus' Life of St. Brigid. 

sis, describes the Life in Canisius as " tres k Ingolstadt. This town also, through Gret- 

libros, verum passim incuria librariorum de- ser, first gave Adamnan's tract De Locis Sanc- 

pravatos, obscuratos, hsesitantes, hiantes, trun- tis to the public. The literary offerings of this 

catos, et memorabilium rerum multarum narra- part of Bavaria were a small instalment in dis- 

tionis omissione foedum in modum deformatos." charge of the old debt Franconia owed to Ire- 

Abp. Ussher's MS. Copy, penes John C. land for her missionary services. 

Nicholl, of Merthyr Mawf, Bridgend, Esq. ' Book of Kilkenny. This name, by which it 



xxvi Preface. 

v. 3, 4. This volume contains the lives of .twenty-eight saints" 1 , all Irish, 
except St. Anthony. It is written in double columns. The chapters are not 
numbered by the original hand, and are only distinguished by large red initials. 
Its text is of the shorter recension, but differs from the other MSS. of the 
same family in occasionally departing from the usual order of the chapters, and 
by reducing Adamnan's involved constructions to the more natural order of 
the words. It generally substitutes Hybernicf for Scotia, Hybernienses for 
Scotienses ; and, when it comes to an Irish name, departs from the usual mo- 
nastic hand, and writes the word in the native character . It is almost certain 
that this is the manuscript which Ussher speaks of when, citing Adamnan, he 
writes? : " De Scotia (sive ut MS. meus eodem sensu habet, Hibernia) ad 
Britanniam ;" andagain q : "Moctheum enim, in MS. quo usus sum codice, ibi 
nominatum invenio : pro quo Mauetius in libris Adamnani editis." 

V. Codex F. A vellum manuscript in /j.to. ssec. x., consisting of fifty leaves. 
It formerly belonged to the church of Freisingen, situate at the junction of 
the Moosach and Isar, in Bavaria; under the number 141, a nd is now in the 
Royal Library of Munich, 6341 . It is the most respectable manuscript of the 
shorter recension, and often exhibits the proper names in a very correct form. 
It was collated for this edition in 1853, by Professor Conrad Hofmann of 
Munich, and the facsimile in Plate IV. No. i, was made by Mr. Schenk of 
that city. The memorandum at top of the first page, Iste liber est sancte 

has been frequently referred to, was given to 23. S. Barrus, 132 b. 26. S. Abbanus, 1386. 

it by the late Mr. Downes, who conjectured 24. S. Edus, 134. 27. S. Kiaranus, 144 b. 

that some Lives published by Colgan from a 25. S. Ailbeus, 135. 28. S. Malachias, 148. 

Codex Kilkenniensis were taken from it ; but a Besides No. 2, Nos. 4, 20, 21 have been liberally 

slight comparison shows that it is not Colgan's consulted for the present work. Cod. E. 3, u, 

original. Codex Armachanus is more likely to o f Trinity College Library, is a collection of 

be its correct designation. i r i s h Lives bearing a great resemblance to 

Twenty-eight Saints. Namely : this, but greatly inferior in value on account 

1. S. Antonius, 33. 12. S. Cronanus, 88 6. of its numerous chasms. The Lives of Colman 

2. S. Columba, 39 a. 13. S. Comgallus, 90 &. Ela, Barr, and Albeus, contained in it, are 6c- 

3. S. Edanus, 51 6. 14. S. Carthagus, 940. casionally referred to in this work. 

4. S. Brendanus,566. 15. S.Declanus, 101 6. n Hybernia. See pp. 9, 25, 52, 76, 81, 90, 

5. S. Comgenus, 646. 16. S. Kyaranus, 106 6. 103, nr, 207, infra. Cod. D is the only manu- 

6. S. Molyng, 70 6. 17. S. Yta, 109 6. script of Adamnan which takes this liberty. 

7. S. Fintanus, 740. 18. S. Molua, 1126. "Native character See pp. 81,94, 105, 113, 

8. S. Senanus, 76 b. 19. S. Laurencius, 116. 121, 198, 200, 218, 237, 238. 

9. S. Mocoemog, 80 b. 20. S. Cainnicus, 124. P He writes. Works, vol. vi. p. 236. Conf. 

10. S. Fynanus, 846. 21. S. Munna, 127. Var. Lect. p. 9, infra. 

11. S. Ruadanus, 86 a. 22. S. Colmanus, 129 b. o Again Ib. p. 415. SeeVar. Lect. p. 6, inf. 



riace . 



perp 
clerirur ^ 



EATI NOS 



cuncfarr u&lcnf- 



f-c^reTrruu^ifcj 




iittam difcnptxt 



tu 






Codex. S. 



PR JMA. PRAEfATJO 

c AD OM NAN J ABBA 



PATP^O 




Preface. xxvii 

Marie et sancti Corb. Frisinyensis, records the name of St. Corbinianus r , the 
founder of the see, who lived in the year 710. 

VI. Codex S. A small quarto manuscript on vellum, of the early part of 
the ninth century, preserved in the Library of St. Gall, No. 555. It consists 
of 83 folios, and contains the text of the shorter recension. The writing, 
which is represented in Plate IV. No. 2, is poor, and, as Dean Greith states, 
" literis Carolinis SECC. ix. scriptus, mendis et naevis scatet, ideoque plurimis 
in locis correctus apparet." On the last page is the figure of St. Columba, of 
which a facsimile is given in Plate V. The catalogue of the library of St. 
Gall, which was written in the ninth century, and is still preserved, mentions 
a Vita sancti Columbce in Cod. i. ; and in a much later catalogue, that of 
Weidmann, formerly librarian of St. Gall, that Vita is reported to be still in 
existence. Haenel says of it : " Vita S. Columba? cod. membranaceus, pul- 
chre scriptus. In fine imago S. Columbae. Reperitur in catalogo Bibliothecse 
sa3c. ix." (Catalog! Libror. MSS. &c., col. 697, Lips. 1830). For the various 
readings of this manuscript, the editor is indebted to the Very Rev. Charles 
Greith, Dean of St. Gall. 

VII. Codex Cottonianus. This copy of the Life is contained in a large 
folio volume, which formerly belonged to Sir Robert Cotton, and is now to 
be found in the British Museum, under the mark Bibl. Cotton. Tiberius, 
D. Hi. It is a vellum manuscript in double columns, written in a fine large 
hand, of the latter part of the twelfth century. It contained, according to 
Smith 8 , sixty-eight tracts, principally Lives of Saints ; and, among these, the 
forty-seventh was Vita Sancti Columbe episcopi. With other manuscripts of 
the Cotton Library, it suffered considerable damage in the fire of 1731, and 
from that time until 1852 was unemployed, being reported in the Catalogue 1 
as " A folio volume on vellum, burnt to a crust, which is preserved in a case." 
However, by the direction of Sir Frederick Madden 11 , and under his judicious 
superintendence, the leaves which had been consolidated were disengaged, 
flattened, and inlaid, and the volume once more made available for refer- 
ence. Unfortunately, the editor was not aware of the existence of this 
manuscript at the time that he was collating the other copies, so that its 

r St. Corbinianus. See Acta Sanctorum, at l Catalogue. By Planta, Lond. 1802, p. 39 i. 

Sept. 8 (Sept., torn. iii. p. 261). Sir Frederick Madden. The reduction of 

s Smith. Catalogus, Libror. MSS. Biblio- some eighty "crusts" to good literary pabu- 

thecse Cottonianse, p. 27 a (Oxon. 1696). lum is one of the many proofs of diligence and 



xxviii Preface. 

readings do not appear under the text. But the omission is repaired in some 
measure by the discovery that Cod. B is in general a faithful representative 
of this manuscript. On becoming aware of its present condition, the editor 
took the opportunity, while the present sheet was at the press, of going over 
to London to collate the newly revived authority, and the result will be found 
at p. 456, seqq., of the present work. 

The volume contains the same number of leaves w that it did before the 
fire, though they are all more or less damaged at the top, while those near the 
beginning and end have been nearly destroyed. The Life of St. Columba 
occupies from fol. 192 ab to 217 act of the present numbering. There are 
some chasms in the volume not caused by the fire, and which are not noticed 
in the pagination, namely, between fols. 194, 195, where the text of Lib. i. from 
end of cap. 2 to end of 22 is wanting; and between fols. 196, 197, where the 
text of Lib. i. from middle of cap. 36 to end of 49 is likewise wanting. This 
deficiency subtracts much more matter from the tract than the fire has done. 
However, even in its doubly mutilated condition, this copy is extremely 
valuable, and ranks next to Cod. A in correctness and historical importance. 
It contains the text of the full recension, with the capitula and tituli ; and so 
closely resembles B, that the latter may be confidently pronounced to have 
been copied from a common Scotch original. The names of St. Columba's 
disciples and kinsmen y , as in B, but somewhat more accurately given, succeed 
the Life, in the form of an ordinary chapter, and this again by an epilogue 
consisting of twenty-five Leonine hexameters 2 . Abp. Ussher, who consulted 
this manuscript, and cites it on four occasions, has printed eleven of these 
verses a . Father Innes also transcribed them, and partly promised "a full 
copy" to be inserted in the Appendix to his History. However, they never 
appeared, and they now are printed for the first time at full length, some 
chasms in the early lines being supplied in brackets from the portion published 
by Ussher : 

skill which the learned Keeper has evinced in identical manuscript, for it occasionally sup- 

the service of his department. plies words which the incuria of the scribe has 

w Same number of leaves This is proved by let slip in the Codex Cottonianus. 

Mr. Wanley's MS. notes to the old Report on y Disciples and kinsmen. It was from the 

the Library. Cotton MS., not B (as stated in p. 245), that 

* Common original. In all the marked in- Abp. Ussher published their names, 

stances of variation between A and B, this z Hexameters. Fol. 217 aa, line 8. 

manuscript agrees with B. It is demonstrable, a Eleven verses Brit. Eccl. Ant. cap. 15 

however, that B was not copied from this (Wks. vol. vi. pp. 230, 239). 



Plate. 5. 




Preface. xxix 

" Sancte Columba pater, quern fudit Hibernia [ma]ter, 

Quern Christ! numen dedit [ecclcsie for]e lumen. 
Que tibi scripta d[amus, tibi si]nt accepta rogamus. 

Na[m licet indigjne, tua scripsimus acta [benigne] : 

Scripsimus et vitam virtu [tis ab arce po]litam. 

Te petinras per eum . . . . s dante per evum, 

In tua dsvotos sermtia protege totos. 

. ..... us pro cunctis funde precatus : 

Auge virtutem, fer opem, servaque salutem, 

Regis Alexandri, qui causa te venerandi 

Jusserat ecce tuos pingi scribendo triumphos. 

Huic assiste pater quos spiritus pervol&t ater, 

Ut nicb.il in pejus temptatio transferat ejus ; 

Ut bonus accedat eui se rex et sua credat. 
Rex actus regis fac formet ab ordine legis. 

Malo servatur cum rex a lege regatur. 

Protege Reginam, ne sentiat ipsa ruinam. 

Insula pontificum sibi te cognoscat amicum. 

Plebem cum elero rege Christo principe vero, 

Omnes sancte juva pater et patrone Columba. 

Ensis Scottorum sis et munimen eorum ; 

Auxiliumque boni, prece, fer servo Simeoni, 

Hec qui verba precum tibi scribere duxerat sequum ; 

Willelmoque, Iona b sacer, afier celica dona, 

Hunc librum clare qui dignum duxit arare." 

Father Innes drew no further inference from this curious record than 
what he vaguely states in the following passage, where he treats of the Cotton 
manuscript : "It appears to have been transcribed from a former copy, 
written in Ycolmkill, by order of one of our King Alexanders, by a monk 
called Simeon, under the direction of William, Abbot of Ycolmkill." The 
manuscript in question is of the date of about 1180, and is evidently a reper- 
tory of lives, copied in close succession, with reference to the order of the 
Calendar 11 , from independent authorities. Hence the original, from which it 

b lona. Ussher cites the lines for the sake He allows the age of above 400 years to the 

of this word, as illustrative of the Hebrew ap- MS. ; but he might safely have added another 

pellation. See note f , p. 5, infra. Innes erro- century. He (or his editor) has erred in giving 

neously understands it of the island. Tiberius D. viii. as the press mark of the vo- 

c Innes states. Civil and Eccles. History of lume. It is, and has always been, D. iii. 

Scotland, p. 144 (Spalding Club, Aberd. 1853). d Order of the Calendar. The Lives range 

e 



XXX 



Preface. 



borrowed these lines, was of a prior date. Now as Alexander II. reigned 
from 1214 to 1249, i* ^ s evident that he cannot be intended; Alexander I., 
therefore, whose reign was from 1 107 to 1124, is the subject of the metrical 
colophon. 

The applicability of the loth and nth verses to this sovereign is con- 
firmed by Fordun, who, having stated the circumstances which led to the 
foundation of Inch Colum by Alexander I. (p. 298, infra), adds e : " Turn etiam 
quia Sanctum Columbam semper a juventute speciali venerabatur honore ; turn 
insuper, quia parentes ipsius per aliquot annos infoecundi, sobolis solatio erant 
destituti, donee devotione supplici Sanctum Columbam implorantes, gloriose 
consecuti sunt quod tarn anhelo desiderio diu quaesierunt." What is even 
more to the point, Fordun, in the preceding chapter, says of the same king, 
" Erat itaque in construendis ecclesiis, et reliquiis Sanctorum perquirendis, 
in vestibus sacerdotalibus librisque sacris conficiendis et ordinandis studio- 
sissimus." The regina mentioned in the iyth verse was Alexander's queen, 
Sibilla f , who died at Loch Tay, 3 Id. Jul. 1122. Alexander's mother, St. 
Margaret, was a great benefactor of Hy; and his brother had been abbot 
of St. Columba's monastery of Dunkeld. The Willelmus of the 24th verse 
was probably the Wilhelmus, Bishop of the Isles, who, according to the Chro- 
nicle of Man h , succeeded Koolwer, and on whose death in 1114, Hamond, or 
Wyinund, was consecrated to the see. This would limit the composition 
of these lines to the interval between Alexander's accession in 1107, and 
Bishop William's death in 1 1 14. 

The following are the principal peculiarities of this manuscript : It in- 
variably calls Hy, ioua insula 1 ; but when in the 24th hexameter it uses 
the Hebrew name of St. Columba, it writes iona : It uses no capitals with 
proper names : It often prefixes s to initial c, as scelerius for celerius : It uses 
e for <2 and OB: It writes Tn-ottrrtpa, EIHPYCTHPA : It uses the adjective 



generally under the days of May and June, 
and the volume seems to have been one of a 
great manuscript series of Acta Sanctorum for 
the whole year. 

e Fordun adds. Scotichron. lib. v. cap. 37. 

f Sibilla. See Fordun, Scotichron. v. 40, vi. i. 

x Benefactor of Hy See p. 410, infra. 

h Chronicle of Man. Johnstone, Antiqq. 
Celto-Norman. p. 43. This is Keith's author- 



ity for the early names under the Bishops of 
the Isles, p. 296 (Edinb. 1824). The Chron- 
icon places Hamondus " in diebus Godredi 
Crouan," but this must be an error for Godred 
Olaveson. The former died in 1095, but Ha- 
mondus was not consecrated till 1.114. 

1 Ioua insula. This is the universal form in 
all the old MSS. B is the first to read iona- 
See pp. 258, 413, infra. 



Preface. xxxi 

Scotius for Scoticus ; and in the inflections of the word sometimes supplies 
the deficient c by interlineation, which looks as if the copyist was not familiar 
with the adjective : It has all the tituli in rubric ; and commences the 
greater and lesser divisions with coloured letters of red, green, and blue : 
There are 43 lines in the column, which originally measured about IT^ by 
3^ inches. The only other Irish tract in the volume is St. Brendan's Life k ; 
and the only Scotch tracts are the Lives of St. Margaret 1 and St. Ninian m . 

Besides these seven manuscripts, which furnish the various readings of this 
edition, there are reported to be in existence the following : 

j . At Admont", a cathedral town of Styria, in the circle of Judenburg, 
and valley of the Enns river, a manuscript Vita S. Columbce presbyteri et 
confessoris, beginning " Sanctus igitur Columba nobilibus fuerat oriundus na- 
talibus, patrem habens Fedilmitum filium Fergusa." 

2. Heiligenkreutz (Holy-Cross), in Austria, is reported as having a Vita S. 
Columbce. There are eight places of the name in the Austrian empire ; but 
of the two which are in the archduchy of Austria, this is probably the Cis- 
tercian monastery, in the district of the Vienna forest. 

3. Salmansweilerv, a Cistercian monastery, one mile from Uberlingen, on 
the north side of the lake of Constance, is reported to have Adamannus Abbas 
de Vita S. Columbe confessoris. 

4. Tegernsee\ a monastery of Bavaria, between the rivers Isar and Inn, 
and the lakes of Schlier and Tegern, is said to have Vita Columbi Confessoris ; 
Sa3C. xiii. This, however, as well as No. 2, may be by Cummene. 

5 . In the Codex Salmanticensis r , belonging to the library of the Dukes of 
Burgundy at Brussels, is a fragment of a Life of St. Columba, differing very 
little- from Adamnan's. Owing to the loss of several folios, the greater part 
of this tract is wanting, and what remains, beginning at iii. 1 8 of Adamnan, 
is printed by Colgan as the second part of his Vita Secunda 5 . 

k St. Brendan's Life Fol. 107 aa to 1 18 aa. lamanca, where it was kept in the Irish college 

1 St. Margaret. Fol. 179 bb to 186 aa. before it was sent to Father Rosweyd. This 

m St. Ninian. Fol. 186 aa to 192 aa. MS. is frequently mentioned in the following 

n Admont. Append. A. to Report of English pages. Colgan and the Bollandists have drawn 

Record Commissioners, p. 2. largely from it. For an account of its contents, 

Heiligenkreutz. Ibid., p. 123. see Mr. Bindon's communication in Proceed- 
P Salmansweiler. Ibid., p. 202. ings of the R. Irish Acad. vol. iii. p. 498. 

1 Tegernsee. Ibid., p. 209. s Vita Secunda. Tr, Th. pp. 327 6-330. It 
r Codex Salmanticensis So called from Sa- should be, Vita Tertia acephala. 

6 2 



XXX11 



Preface. 



The other Lives of St. Columba are the following : 

I. That by Cummene, already mentioned, and of which an account is 
given at p. 199 of this work. 

II. The first part of Colgan's Vita Secunda*, which he found in the Sa- 
lamanca MS.", and erroneously supposed to be by Cumineus. It is a succinct 
and chronological digest of the principal recorded events of the Saint's life, and 
supplies from the old Irish Life some particulars not recorded by Adamnan. 

III. A Life by John of Tinmouth x , pirated by Capgrave y , and reprinted 
by Colgan with notes, in the Trias, where it appears as the Vita Tertia*. It 
is principally compiled from Adamnan, and ends with the monition 11 : " Est 
autem sciendum quod Hibernia proprie Scotorum est patria : antiquitus igitur 
Scotia pro Hibernia saepius scribi solet sicut hie in vita sancti Columbe diligenter 
intuentibus apparet. Et etiam venerabilis Beda de gestis Anglorum multis 
in locis Hiberniam exprimere volens, Scotiam scripsit." 

IV. The office in the Breviary of Aberdeen 13 , containing nine short les- 
sons, borrowed, in an abridged form, from Adamnan. 

V. An abridgment of Adamnan, printed by Benedict Gonon c under the 
title Vita S. Columbas, sive Columbani, Presbyteri et Confessoris (qui alius est 
a S. Columbano Luxoviensi abbate) ex ilia prolixa quam scripsit Adamannus 
abbas Insulce Huensis in Scotia. It occupies three folio pages, double columns, 
and is accompanied by three trifling notulas. 

VI. An ancient Irish memoir, frequently referred to in the following 
pages as the old Irish Life. It is a composition probably as old as the tenth 
century, and was originally compiled, to be read as a discourse on St. Co- 
lumba's festival 3 , on the text Exi de terra tua et de cognatione tua, et de domo 



1 Vita Secunda. Tr. Th. pp. 3 2 5~3 2 7- 

u Salamanca MS. Fol. 205. 

* John of Tinmouth. He flourished in 1366. 
The volume containing his great collection of 
Lives is one of those in the Cotton Library 
(Tiberius E. i.) which suffered by the fire. All 
that art could do for its restoration has been 
effected under Sir F. Madden's care. It is now 
bound up in two separate parts. The tract 
De Sancto Columba Abbate et Confessors com- 
mences on fol. 1 80 ba (Part ii.). "Hunc li- 
brum expilavit Joannes Capgravius," Smith, 
Catal. Cotton, pp. 28, and xl. b. 



y Capgrave Legenda Aurea, fol. 62 b a. 

7 - Vita Tertia, Trias Thaum.'pp. 332-335. 

a Monition Joh. Tinmouth. (Tiber. E. i.), 
fol. 183 aa ; Legend. Aur. fol. 65 ba. 

b Breviary of Aberdeen. Propr. SS. Temp. 
Hyemal. fol. 103 a b 10406 (Rpprint). 

c Gonon. Vitas et Sententice Patrum Occi- 
dentis, p. 420. (Lugduni, 1625, fol.) 

d St. Columba' s festival. It says, speaking 
of Abraham and other pilgrim fathers: peib 
po comaill acap popacaib a bucup cal- 
man&a, ap spa& acap uarhan in Coirii&e&, 
in c-apbnoerii acap in o-apt> ecnaift acap in 



Preface. 



xxxin 



patris tut, et vade in terrain quam tibi monstravero. This curious relic of 
Irish preaching is preserved in four manuscripts : i. The Leabhar Breac, or 
Speckled Book of Mac Egan, in the library of the Royal Irish Academy (ibl. 
1 5 ab). 2. The Book of Lismore (fol.49 b a), of which the original is in the pos- 
session of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire, and a beautiful copy in the Boyal 
Irish Academy. 3. A quarto vellum MS., formerly belonging to the Highland 
Society 6 of Scotland, and now deposited in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 
It is a thin fasciculus without covers, probably of the twelfth century, and 
written in double columns. The Life begins in fol. 7, and is continued to the 
end, namely, 1 4 b. It modernizes all the old words and constructions of the 
earlier copies, and subjoins the account of St. Columba's proceedings at the 
convention of Drumceatt, taken from one of the prefaces to the Amhra Cho- 
luim-cille. This MS. may be the one of those mentioned by Martin f , circ. 
1700 : " The Life of Columbus, written in the Irish Character, is in the Cus- 
tody of John Mack Neil, in the Isle of Barray; another Copy of it is kept by 
Mack-Donald of Benbecula" A facsimile of some lines has been engraved 
in one of the Highland Society's publications^. 4. MS. Royal Library, Paris' 1 , 
Ancien Fond., No. 8175. It forms fol. 53 aa to fol. 5666, of a small folio 
parchment volume found by the Revolutionary Commissioners, during the 
Republic, in a private house in Paris, and by them presented to the library. 

This ancient Life, evidently held in great esteem, furnished O'Donnell with 
a considerable portion of his narrative, and he has transferred the whole into 
his collection. Ussher was acquainted with it, as is shown by his reference 1 : 
"Ut habet anonymus, qui acta ipsius Hibernico idiomate descripsit;" but 
Colgan does not seem to have been aware of its existence, and the Irish Life 
which he cites is always that of O'Donnell. 



mac coja t>o t)ia t>ia ca lich acap popaich- 
mec in ecmong inna pee pea acap na h- 
aimpipe, it> epc panccup ppeppicep Co- 
lumba. ' In the same way as it was fulfilled, 
and his native country was left, for the love 
and favour of the Lord, by the illustrious saint, 
and illustrious sage, and the son chosen of God, 
for whom there is a festival and commemora- 
tion at this period and at this season, id est, 
prespiter Columba.' In the Leabhar Breac and 
Book of Lismore are lives of SS. Patrick and 
Brigid, the former on the text S. Matth.iv. 16, 



the latter on Rev. xiv. 4. The Life of St. Adam- 
nan is a discourse on Job, xxxviii. 3. 

e Highland Society. See the notice in Pro- 
ceedings of the R. Irish Academy, vol. iv. p. 256. 

f Martin Voyage to Western Islds. p. 264. 

e Publications. Report on the poems of Os- 
sian, Plate III. No. 3, and pp. 310, 311 (Edinb. 
1805). 

h Paris See Dr. Todd's notice in the Pro- 
ceedings of the R. Irish Acad. vol. iii. p. 226. 

1 Reference. Brit. Eccles. Antiqq., Index 
Chronologicus, an. 522 (Works, vol. vi. p. 587). 



XXXIV 



Preface. 



VII. The latest and much the most copious collection of the Saint's acts 
is that by Manus O'Donnell, chief of Tir-Connell, which professes to be, and 
is, a chronological digest of all the existing records concerning the patron of 
his family. His framework consists of Adamnan and the old Irish Life ; into 
this he has worked : i. The historical allusions found in the volume of poems k 
ascribed to St. Columba ; 2, The substance of the preface to the Amhra 
Choluim-cille ; 3, Extracts from the prefaces to the Latin hymns ascribed to 
St. Columba, and from the hymns themselves, as preserved in the Liber Hym- 
norum; 4, Some notes from the comments on theFeilire of Aengus 1 ; 5, The 
matter in the poems on Cormac Ua Liathain m ; 6, Passages from the lives of 
contemporary saints, especially St. Mochonna, or Machar, of Aberdeen 11 ; 
7, The alleged prophecies of Berchan of Clonsast ; 8, Some legendary 
poems p on the wanderings of certain Columbian monks, which far outdo St. 
Brendan's Navigation in wildness of incident. O'Donnell's statement^ is : "Be 
it known to the readers of the Life, that it was buried in oblivion for a long 
time, and that there was not to be found, but a fragment of the book which 
holy Adamnan compiled of it in Latin, and another small portion 1 " in Irish, 
compiled by the Irish poets in a very difficult dialect ; and the remainder in 
legends scattered throughout the old books of Erin." These materials, with 
one or two trifling exceptions, all exist at the present day, and have more or 
less been consulted for the present work. It would be quite possible for a 
good scholar and patient investigator, endowed with an inventive wit, and a 
copious style, to compile from materials existing in the year of Grace 1856, a 
narrative to the full as circumstantial, as diffuse, and as marvellous, as that 



k Poems. Bodleian Libr., Laud 615. 

1 Aengus. As the legend of St. Columba's 
ordination. Trias Thaum. p. 396 6. 

Cormac Ua Liathain. See pp. 264-274, 
infra, Conf. O'Don. ii. 64 (Trias Thaum. 
p. 421 a). 

n Machar of Aberdeen. O'Donnell, iii. 23 
(Trias Th. p. 435 a). The extract in Colgan 
is cited by T. Innes (Civ. Eccl. Hist. p. 194) ; 
but the Acts are not now known to exist. 

o Berchan of Clonsast. O'Donnell, iii. 78 
(Trias Th. p. 446 a). See p. 314, infra. 

p Legendary poems. Namely, the Sea6jian 
61erieach Ciioluim-chille, or Errores clerico- 



rvm ColumbcB-cille (Trias Th. p. 446 6). 

i His own statement Vit. fol. i ia(Rawlin- 

son, 514, Bodl. Library). The original pas- 
sage, with a translation which is here borrowed, 
is given in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy, vol. v. p. 175. 

r Small portion. It appears from the contents 
of O'Donnell's work that he had a perfect copy 
of Adamnan and the entire of the old Irish Life, 
but he calls the one a blob t>on lebap, e frag- 
ment of the book,' and the other becon eli, ' a 
trifle more,' because they fell so far short of 
his own great conceptions. See the description 
in note w , next page. 



Preface. 



xxxv 



contained in the great volume of O'Donnell, and much more correct. It would, 
however, labour under one great defect, the Irish would not be as good. 
When and where this work was compiled, and at what cost, the following de- 
claration of the noble author will set forth : " Be it known to the readers of 
this Life, that it was Manus, the son of Hugh, son of Hugh Roe, son of Niall 
Garve, son of Torlogh of the Wine, O'Donnell, that ordered the part of this 
Life which was in Latin to be put into Gaelic; and who ordered the part that 
was in difficult Gaelic to be modified, so that it might be clear and compre- 
hensible to every one ; and who gathered and put together the parts of it that 
were scattered through the old books of Erin ; and who dictated it out of his 
own mouth, with great labour, and a great expenditure of time in studying 
how he should arrange all its parts in their proper places, as they are left here 
in writing by us ; and in love and friendship for his illustrious Saint, Kelative s , 
and Patron, to whom he was devoutly attached. It was in the castle of Port- 
na-tri-namad 1 that this Life was indited, when were fulfilled 12 years, and 20, 
and 500, and 1000 of the age of the Lord v ". 

This work exists in all its original dimensions, beauty, and material ex- 
cellence, in a large folio w of vellum, written in double columns, in a fine bold 
Irish hand, and is preserved in the Bodleian Library x at Oxford, where it was 
deposited, together with the other Irish manuscripts of Mr. B-awlinson ; 
having previously cost that gentleman, at the sale of the Chandos collection 
in 1 y6f-, the formidable sum of twenty-three shillings 5 " ! Colgan published a 



s Relative See the affinity of Domhnall 
Mor, the ancestor of the O'Donnells, to St. 
Columba, in the Genealogical Table opposite 
p. 342. 

* Port-na-tri-namad. That is, 'Port of the 
three enemies,' now Lifford. See O'Donovan 
on Four Mast. A.D. 1522, 1526, pp. 1353, 1384. 

v Age of the Lord. Colgan refers to O'Don- 
nell's preface for the date 1520 (Trias Th. p. 
446 6), but 1532 is the author's own statement. 
The writer died in 1563. 

w Large folio. The leaf measures 17 by nf 
inches, and there are 60 folios or 120 pages in 
the Life, which are followed by 18 folios con- 
taining poems on the O'Donnell family. On 
the second folio is a large coloured representa- 



tion of the saint in episcopal robes. The vo- 
lume has a slip cover of undressed skin, which 
gives the exterior a very hirsute appearance. 
See the notice of it in Dr. O'Conor's Stowe 
Catalogue, p. 397. 

x Bodleian Library Rawlinson, B. 514. 

y Twenty-three shillings. This appears in 
Rawlinson's priced Catalogue of the Chandos 
Sale, preserved in the Bodleian Library. The 
manuscript formerly belonged to Sir James 
Ware, in whose collection it was numbered 
XXV. ; and afterwards came into the posses- 
sion of the Duke of Chandos, whose library 
was disposed of by auction, beginning March 
12, 176.2., and this book (No. 2567) was sold on 
the 1 8th night. 



xxxvi * Preface. 

copious abstract 2 of this compilation in Latin, preserving the principal parti- 
culars of the narrative, but omitting the outrageously fabulous portions 11 , as 
well as those which were not in accordance with his ecclesiastical feelings 15 ; 
and divided the whole into three books, agreeing with the three chief eras of 
the Saint's life: i. From his birth to the battle of Cooldrevny. 2. From 
that event, as the cause of his departure from Ireland, to his temporary return 
to attend the convention of Drumceatt. 3 . From the convention of Drum- 
ceatt to his death. This compilation is important as a depository of all the 
existing traditions concerning St. Columba, but it throws no real light on 
Adamnan, either in solving a difficulty, or identifying a place ; and its great 
prolixity only serves to show how much superior Adamnan's memoir is to any 
other record professing to be an account of the Saint's life : and, after all, how 
little historical matter has been added to that work by the utmost endeavours 
of those best qualified to succeed in the attempt. To Adamnan is, indeed, 
owing the historic precision, and the intelligible operation, which characterize 
the second stage of the ancient Irish Church. In the absence of his memoir, 
the Life of St. Columba would degenerate into the foggy, unreal, species of 
narrative which belongs to the Lives of his contemporaries, and we should 
be entirely in the dark on many points of discipline and belief, concerning 
which we have now a considerable amount of satisfactory information. 

Adamnan's memoir is, therefore, to be prized as an inestimable literary 
relic of the Irish Church : perhaps, with all its defects, the most valuable 
monument of that institution which has escaped the ravages of time. The 
editor, at least, felt it to be so : and has therefore taken great pains, in the 
midst of many difficulties and discouragements, to call into his service all the 
means of illustration which books, places, and men could afford. 

What has been done to restore the text to its purity has already been 
stated. It may be added that the Glossary, which belongs to this depart- 
ment of the work, exhibits many vocables not noticed by Du Cange or his 
editors ; and assigns some new significations to words already known. 

Through the valuable aid of Professors Curry and O' Donovan, the editor 
possessed himself of all the materials which were to be found in Irish manu- 

.' Copious abstract Trias Thaum. pp. 389- b Ecclesiastical feelings See the examples 

446 ; frequently cited in the following pages. given at pp. 250, 326, infra. 

a Fabulous portions. See his apology, Trias c Identifying a place. See pp. 95, 107, 152, 

Th. p. 446 b. infra. 



Preface. xxxvii 

scripts, which bore on the history of St. Columba or his order ; and from this 
valuable store he has drawn as freely as the limits of the work would 
allow him. 

In the department of topography the editor has been able to pronounce 
with certainty upon many points which have hitherto been undetermined. 
With two exceptions, every Irish name in Adamnan has been identified ; and 
many Scotch names, which hitherto were matter of conjecture, have been 
traced to their true positions. Two journeys to the Western Isles aiForded 
to the editor advantages, not only of personal examination, but of an introduc- 
tion to those whose local knowledge was a living reference in cases of difficulty. 
It was thus that he has been enabled, in the case of lona, to add to his own 
passing observation the constant experience of the Rev. Donald Mac Vean, one 
of the ministers of that island, who has been at all times ready, in the most 
obliging manner, to satisfy inquiry, and to whom the topographical account 
of Hy in the present volume owes much of its accuracy and detail. 

From Joseph Robertson, Esq., of the General Register House, Edinburgh, 
the editor has received many valuable references and suggestions. To William 
Skene, and John Stuart, Esqrs., he is also under similar obligations. 

That noble work, the Origines Parochiales Scotice*, formed a most valua- 
ble precursor to the present undertaking, as the numerous references to it in 
the following pages will show. Even in its incomplete state, it is an enduring 
monument of unbounded patience and research. Will Ireland, with her ample 
resources and able hands, never muster spirit sufficient for such a work ? But 
first, national muniments must receive some consideration, and she must cease 
to enjoy the unenviable distinction of possessing the least cared-for, worst- 
kept records in Europe. 

To the Rev. Dr. Todd, the Rev. Robert King, and Mr. William Millar, 
who read the proofs of this work, the editor owes his grateful acknowledg- 
ments for the patience with which they have performed their part, and the 
valuable suggestions which they have made. 

The Dublin University Press has fully maintained, in the execution of the 

d Origines Parochiales Scotice. Vol. i. was still; and it is to be feared that, if the present 

published in 1851; vol. ii. part i, in 1854; and editors be allowed to pass away, leaving the 

vol. ii. part 2, in 1855. The two first volumes task unfinished, no future time will raise up 

bear the signature of C. Innes; the third, that successors possessing qualifications equal to 

of James B. Brichan. It is greatly to be re- those now available in furtherance of this 

gretted that the work has come to a stand great national object. 



XXXV111 



Preface. 



present volume, its character for elegance ; and the editor feels bound to re- 
cord the skill and intelligence which it has been his happiness on all occasions 
to experience in the operations of that office. 

Mr. John Bartholomew, Jun., deserves great credit for the admirable style 
in which he has engraved the two maps which accompany this work. His 
merit is enhanced by the consideration that he was previously unacquainted 
with the Irish letter, and that in executing the map of Ireland he was at once 
the learner and the accomplished artist. 

To John C. Nicholl, of Merthyr Mawr, Esq., the editor is indebted for 
the use of a manuscript volume containing Archbishop Ussher's copy f of 
Stephen White's collation^ of the Keichenau codex : and the favour was the 
greater as it was conferred upon a stranger. 

There was a time when the confident manner in which the name Scotia, 
and its derivatives, are limited in the following pages to Ireland and its rela- 
tions, would have been pronounced by the inhabitants of North Britain to be 
bigotry or presumption ; but fortunately that day of prejudice is past : Chal- 
mers and Pinkerton brought it to an end ; so that now, as an enlightened 
writer 11 observes, " from Maiden Kirk to John 0' Groat you will hardly find 



e MS. volume. This is the book which is 
mentioned in note c , p. ix. supra. On the fly- 
leaf is written : " Sum ex libris Jacobi Tyrrell, 
A.D. 1662." James Tyrrell was Abp. Ussher's 
grandson, and this volume seems to be one of 
those which changed hands when Shotover 
House passed into another family. 

f Ussher's copy A portion is in the delicate 
and beautiful hand of the amanuensis who 
prepared a copy of the Primordia (now in the 
editor's possession) for the second edition ; the 
rest is in the Archbishop's own writing. 

s White's collation. It commences thus : 
" I. H. S. Maria. Stephanus Vitus Lectori. 
Nuper ex coenobio Benedictinorum in Suevia ce- 
leberrimo Augia Dives dicto, vulgo Reichenaw, 
allatus est ad me Dilingam vetustissimus Ma- 
nuscriptus Codex membranaceus, continens 
folia (communis magnitudinis) sexaginta sep- 
tem. In quo, parum polito sermone Latino, sed 
in caracteribus Ibernicis (multum diversis ab 



aliarum gentium scripturis), per quendarn Mo- 
nachum, ut videtur Ibernum, qui ad finem co- 
dicis se Dorbbeneum nominat, descripti sunt 
tres libri quos ante annos amplius quam non- 
gentos primus scripsit evulgavitque Beatus 
Adomnanus Abbas." Some remarks on tho 
age of Adamnan, and the style of the memoir, 
are subjoined, which agree exactly with what 
has been stated in a preceding part of this 
Preface. In the margin, opposite S. White's ac- 
count of the manner in which he became ac- 
quainted with the MS., is the date, "An. 1621, 
31 Maii," in Ussher's writing. A marginal 
note of Ussher's on the title of the Preface re- 
cords the existence of a MS. of Adamnan not 
noticed elsewhere : " MS. San Mielanus in Lo- 
tharingia : Incipit Prcefatio prima Apologiaque 
Eadomnani sancti Scriptoris." S. Miel stands 
on the east bank of the Meuse, in Lorraine. 

h Writer Joseph Robertson, Esq., in letter 
to the editor, Sept. 10, 1856. 



Preface. xxxix 

one follower of Thomas Dempster." Scottish history now confesses the pro- 
prietorship of ancient Ireland in the name Scotia ; 

" Seque novo veterum deceptum errore locorum." 

Even were positive evidence wanting, the language of the Highlands, called 
Erse 1 , which is only another form of Erysche k , or Irish, would indicate the 
origin of the people who spoke it, and point to Ireland as the ancient home of 
the Scotch. From this mother country issued St. Columba, and almost all the 
early saints of the Scottish calendar. Coming from Ireland, yet frequently 
revisiting it, they maintained their old relation : so that their memory was 
equally cherished in either country, and a common day appropriated to the festi- 
val of each. One of these Irishmen, in particular, was styled a Fer-da-leithe\ 
or < Man of two portions,' from his divided service. An humble aspi- 
rant to the name, the present editor, as labourer in common for the Archaeo- 
logical Society of Ireland and the Bannatyne Club of Scotland, trusts that he 
also, in the region of his inquiry, has, with some success, been a l man of two 
portions:' he can with confidence assert that he has made diligence the com- 
panion, and truth the guide of his way, whether on the road or in the study ; 
and that he has so far attained the object of his divided labours, as personally 
to have enjoyed, during the progress of the work, many seasons of relief from 
the sorrows of a troubled mind, and many hours of genuine happiness in social 
or epistolary intercourse with dear and highly-valued friends on either side of 
the channel. 

BALLYMENA, 
November 2$th, 1856. 

1 Erse. See Chalmers, Caledonia, vol. i. Hybernice" but " nunquam vernacule, saltern 
p. 477 ; Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis, p. 25. cum his qui Latino noscunt." Miscellany of 
In 1661 Mr. Robert Campbell was refused ad- the Spalding Club, vol. v. p. 400 (Aberdeen, 
mittance as minister of Kilarrowin Islay, "for 1852). Martin, who was a native of the West- 
want of the Yrish tounge" (Orig. Paroch. vol. era Isles, always calls their language Irish, 
ii. p. 261). In 1663 the Scotch Parliament, on See his Description of the Western Islands of 
the petition of the bishop of the Isles, allocated Scotland, pp. 23, 87, 127, 206, 215, 225, 230, 
an annual sum for ministers who " had the 239, 244, 248, 256, 270, 274, 278. 
Yrish tounge" (ib. pp. 16 1, 294). One of the sta- k Erysche. This is the name invariably used 
tutes of the old Grammar School of Aberdeen by Archdn. Monro to denote the language of 
(A. D. 1553) gave the students the option, ' Lo- the Western Isles (Description, &c. passim). 
quanturomnesLatine,Grsece,Hebraice,Gallic&, * Ferdaleithe. See p. 315, infra. 

f2 



APPENDIX TO PREFACE. 



i. Memoir of St. Adamnan. 

A DAHEAN% which is said to "be a diminutive of Adam b , is a name of unusual 
^LJL form, and of rare occurrence in Irish records. The Annals and Calendars pre- 
sent but jbhree or four .instances of it, to which the venerable father of English history 
adds another d , and then, taking the one best known at home, so treats of it as to make 
it 7ro\\u)v avragios a\\tav. The individual whose celebrity was thus guaranteed 6 was 
born in Ireland f , in or about the year 624^ and though there is no express record of 



a Adamnan Adamnan's Life is given in the 

Acta Sanctorum at Sept. 23 (torn. vi. pp. 642-649), 
from the pen of Constantinus Suyskenus, but it 
contains no new matter. The Irish Life, which is 
preserved hi one of the O'Clery MSS. at Brussels, 
furnished the legends on St. Adamnan which ap- 
pear in the Breviary of Aberdeen. It is a sort of 
historical discourse on Job xxxviii. 3, intended for 
the saint's festival ; but it is a miserable production, 
full of absurdities and anachronisms. Anything in 
it worthy of notice will be found in this memoir. 

b Diminutive of Adam. See Cormac, cited at 
p. 256, and Baertius, at p. 142, infra. 

c Three or four instances. The Calendars have 
none except our author. The Annals have, besides, 
St. Adamnan, bishop and abbot of Eath-maighe- 
aenaigh (An. Ult. 730; Four Mast. 725); and 
Adomnan mac Alddailedh (An. Ult. 835). Ussher 
mentions S. Adompnanus as the successor of St. 
Ciaran hi Inis-Aingin, now Hare Island, in Lough- 
Ree in the Shannon (Wks. vi. p. 525), and O'Couor 
borrows from him (Rerum Hib. SS. vol. ii. p. 138, 
n. 42) ; but Ussher seems to have read the name 
incorrectly, for in the Life of St. Ciaran, whence he 



derived his information, the same individual is called 
" Quidam vir de Momonia sc. de gente Corcobais- 
cind, nomine Donnanus." cap. 28 (Cod. Marsh, 
fol. 147 aa). Marian Gorman settles the question : 
Donncm pacapc o Imp Qingin pop l/och Rib, 
' Donnan, priest, of Inis-Aingin on Loch Ribh' 
(Cal. Jan. 7). The Adamnanus of Inchkethe 
whom Fordun makes a contemporary of S. Serva- 
nus (i. 6), is, by a violent anachronism, intended 
for our Adamnan ; but Abp. Ussher was too desir- 
ous to swell the history of North Britain, Avhen on 
such authority he represented Odomnanus as an 
abbot anterior to St. Columba, and fixed his date at 
the year 488 (Ind. Chron.). 

d Another Adamnanus of Coludi Urbs, or Col- 
dingham, Bede, Hist. EC. iv. 25. See Colgan, Act. 
SS. p. 224, where Jan. 31 is given as his day, and 
680 as the probable date of his death. 

e Guaranteed. See Bede, H. E. v. 15, 16, 21, 
to be cited presently. 

f Ireland. See nostra Scotia, p. 241, infra. 

e Year 624. The An. Ult. at 623 have Nativi- 
tas Adomnani abbatis lae. Tighernach, at 624, 
has bap QbOTnnain ab hie, but instead of 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. 



xli 



the parish, or province which gave him birth, there is good reason for supposing that 
he was a native of that part of the territory occupied by the race of Conall, called Tir- 
Aedha h , and now familiarly known as the barony of Tirhugh, in the south-west of the 
county of Donegal. Here was settled the clan from which he sprung, and here was 
also one of his principal commemorations 1 , preserving a vivid recollection of his abode k . 
His father, Eonan 1 , was sixth in descent from Conall Gulban" 1 , the head of one of the 
two great races of the Northern Hy-Neill, and, in virtue of his birth, claimed kin to 
St. Columba, and many of the sovereigns of Ireland. The father of Eonan was Tinne, 
from whom came the patronymic Ua Tinne*, or 'grandson of Tinne,' an appellative 
which is occasionally found coupled with Adamnan' s name. Eonnat , the mother of 
Adamnan, was descended from Enna, a son of Niall, whose race, the Cinel Enna, pos- 
sessed themselves of the tract lying between the channels of the Eoyle and Swilly, 
which was called the Tir-Enna, or ' land of Enna,' and answers to the modern barony 
of Eaphoe. Here was situate the ancient church of Eath-both p , said to have been 



bap, wzors, the Chron. Sector, reads gem, nativi- 
tas. Lanigan (Eccles. Hist. iii. p. 153) prefers the 
date 627, because he finds the age of 77 assigned to 
Adamnan, and 624+77 only equal to 701, whereas 
704 is the date of his death. Mac Firbis's MS. An- 
nals state his age at 78 ; the date, however, as given 
in the Annals, is not to be hastily set aside. Ward 
assigns his birth to 626 (Rumolcl, p. 218). 

h Tir-Aedha. That is, ' the land of Aedh,' so 
called from Aedh, son of Ainmire, who, in common 
with Adamnan, was of the Siol Sedna, or descend- 
ants of Sedna, grandson of Conall Gulban (Geneal. 
Table, p. 342), one branch of whom, namely, the 
Cinel Luighdech, occupied the present barony of 
Kilmacrenan (p. 192), and another, the barony of 
Tirhugh (p. 38). 

1 Commemorations. The church of Drumhome, 
of which Adamnan was patron. See the interesting 
mention of it at p. 238, where it is almost implied 
that Adamnan was, in his boyhood, living in that 
neighbourhood. 

k Recollection of his abode. Ward, in reference 
to a well in the parish of Drumhome, says : " Vidi 
qui ex loco quodam Dabhach Adamhnain, ubi 
Sanctus pernoctabat in aquis, vimina ad restem 
iiendum abstulisset, contemptis Sancti nomine et 
asylo, et mox rabiosa febre correptus, eadem 
nocte interiit furibundus, exiliens mauibus grabato, 



uti quodam agitatus da;mone." In the marginal 
note he explains Dabhach Adamhnain by Lava- 
crum Adamnani, and adds " clarus miraculis fons 
in Tirconallia inter Dungalliam et Belathseniam 
(Ballyshannon), in quo 'pernox stabat." Vardaei 
Rumoldus, p. 219. 

1 Ronan. See Geneal. Table at p. 342. 

m Conall Gulban. The Office in the Breviary of 
Aberdeen correctly states : " Sanctus adampnanus 
preclaris ortns parentibus de nobilissima conaldi re- 
gis progenie carnis duxit originem." Propr. SS. 
Part. Estiv. fot. 11460 (Reprint). 

n Ua Tinne. GbamnaTi "Ua Dn&e, 'Vision 
of Adamnan,' in Leabhar Breac, fol. 127 a, 129 bb. 
" Adamnanus Nepos Tinnei," Vit. Trip. S. Patricii, 
i.6 9 (TriasTh. 1286); "Hua Tinne," iii. 99 (167 a), 
which Ussher misrepresents by Attiniensis (Wks. 
v i- P- 375)' Colgan and Lanigan were disposed to 
confound it with Maccuthenus. See note n , p. 246. 

Ronnat. She is thus noticed in the so-called 
Tract of ^Engus, De Matiibus Sanctorum Hibernian: 
TZormao ingen Seigme mic t)uach meic 
baiirpmbain bo cenel Gnba mec Neill, ma- 
caip aoamnain meicRonain, ' Ronnat, daugh- 
ter of Seghine, son of Duach, son of Bairrindan, of 
the race of Enna, son o' 1 Niall, \vas the mother of 
Adamnan, son of Ronan' (Lib. Lecan). 

P Rath-both. Now Raphoe. See p. 280, infra. 



xlii 



Appendix to Preface. 



founded by St. Columba, but acknowledging St. Adamnan, or Eunan, as its patron, a 
preference probably arising out of his maternal connexion with the original occupants 
of the district. Concerning Adamnan' s early history not one particle of information 
remains, nor cyenji legend 11 , save'ite following anecdote in the life of Mnnachta the 
Festive, a chief of the Southern Hy Neill, and subsequently monarch of Ireland : 
" Not long after this, Finnachta came, with a numerous cavalcade, to the house of his 
sister, whither he was invited to be her guest. As they were riding along the way, 
they m,et. Adamnan, then a^choolboy, who was travelling upon the same road, with a 
jar of milk upon his back. And as he fled from the way, before the cavalcade, he 
knocked his foot against a stone, and stumbled, and the jar fell from his back and was 
broken. Upon which Finnachta said, Thou shalt receive protection, student, from 
me, and he prayed him not to be sorrowful. Then said Adamnan, good man, I 
have cause for grief, for there are three goodly students in one house, and three more 
of us are attendants upon them. And how we act is this : one attendant from among 
us goes out in turn to collect sustenance for the other five ; and it was my turn to-day, 
but what I had gathered for them has been spilled upon the ground ; and, what grieves 
me more, the borrowed jar is broken, and I have not wherewith to pay for it." Such 
is the story, which probably was the creation of a later age, to introduce a historical 
reality, the intimacy of Adamnan with Finnachta, and his subsequent interference 
with him. It transports St. Adamnan, in his youth, from Donegal to Meath ; but this 
is no violence, for St. Columba, before him, studied at Clonard r in Meath, and read 
with Gemman in a plain of Leinster 3 ; nor was it inconsistent with the severity of mo- 
nastic discipline, even in one nobly born, to derive his sustenance from eleemosynary 
sources. But the lesson in the Breviary of Aberdeen forgets all propriety when it 
places Adamnan' s novitiate under St. Columba*, and assigns to the latter the Jus patro- 



i Legend. His birth is made the subject of one 
of St. Columba's prophecies, but even this does not 
pretend to any early particulars : Colum cille OC 
cmpngipe Gbamnain. <5 e bcnb a airnn bim 
anmain. t)o sena cam ppi banpcala o rrmip 
Ice alainb il abbail. bib ptn lei^inb co cfn 
bcrnim. popialec p mbech inbpcne ap cfnpa 
Tnopcainmoip. bipap secapplaiciupGeriipa 
appinbacca: pop Gfmpacnfpc nac coceba. 
.???. bl. in abbaine bQbamnan ampa mop 
pceldlb. ' Columcille foretelling of Adamnan. He 
shall receive his name from my name. He shall 
make a law for the women, from the noble, wide- 
spread, Ictian sea hither. He shall be learned with- 
out defect. He shall attract half the language of 



envy, for he will ordain a great Law. A sapling 
who will wrest the sovereignty of Tara from Fin- 
nachta. Over Tara he shall not assume power. 
Thirty years in abbotship shall Adamnan, of high 
and illustrious renown, be. (Brussels MS. No. 
5101-4; MS. Bodl. Libr., Laud. 615, p. 132.) See 
p. 237, infra. To this the lesson in the Breviary of 
Aberdeen refers : " de cuius ortu moribus et vita 
sanctus columba longo tempore antequam nascere- 
tur divinitus prophetavit." ut supra. 

1 Clonard. See p. 195, infra. 

s Leinster. See p. 137, infra. 

t Under St. Columba. " Natus est itaque sanctus 
adampnanus sicut beatus precinebat columba quern 
a tenera infancia cunctis gratum divina reddidit 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. xliii 

natus of Lismore u . The abbot under whom St. Adamnan was admitted into the brother- 
hood was probably Seghine v , for he lived until Adamnan was twenty -eight years old. 
During his incumbency, and that of the three succeeding abbots, our author, no doubt, 
acquired such a character as rendered him eligible, and such a reputation for learning 
as recommended him, to the presidency of the Columbian order, now in the meridian 
of celebrity and influence. "With the exception of his skill in Latin, his acquaintance 
with other languages and branches of education is more a subject of inference than of 
express declaration; there is sufficient evidence, however, to justify "Ward* in the 
statement: "Edoctus est omnes liberales, sacras et asceticas disciplinas, linguas etiam 
Hebraicam et Gra3cam; et quidquid patria lingua (in qua turn pleraeque scientise et 
Druydum qua3 non fuere damnata dogmata) scriptum esset vel artium, vel legum, vel 
historiarum." His studies, meanwhile, did not supersede his bodily labours, and 
to the subordinate period of his profession is probably to be referred the voyage for 
timber to repair the monastery, of which he speaks at page 178. In the year 675, 
Pinnachtay Medach, grandson of Aedh Slaine, succeeded his first-cousin (whom he put 
to death), as monarch of Ireland. He was of the Southern Hy Weill, and was a chief 
both valiant z and hospitable 1 . An old bardic composition 11 says that Adamnan, after the 
accidental introduction mentioned above, was invited to his court, and subsequently 
became his anmchara, or ' spiritual director ;' and that this is the reason why Adamnan 
made so conspicuous a figure during Pinnachta's reign. 

gracia. Successu vero temporis a prefato beato co- writers, as if such subjects were familiar to him. 

lumba monichalem suscepit habiturn et posteajuxta He cites Josephus (in ii. 20) under the title of 

abbatis sui preceptum ad lismorensem devenit ab- tertius Judaicce captivitatis liber, and (in ii. 29) 

baciam." ut supra. This is too bad. St. Columba sancti Hieronymi commentaria ; and a verse of Ju- 

ob. 597 , St. Adamnan not. 624. Baronius is not vencus (in i. 18). 

more correct: "Scripsit ejus vitam Adamnandus * Ward. Vardsei Rumoldus, p. 218. 

eidem aqualis" (In Martyrol. Rom. Jun. ix.). See y Finnachta. The Four Masters sometimes, and 

the anachronism noticed in note k , p. 21, infra. the Annals of Ulster always, write the name less 

u Lismore. See notes, p. 371, infra. St. Co- phonetically, Finnsnechta. 

lumba had no more jurisdiction in Lismore than in " Valiant. He demolished Ailech, the stronghold 
Applecross or Kingarth. Even when Lismore was of the Northern Hy Neill, in 676 ; defeated the La- 
made an episcopal seat, it was kept distinct from Hy. genians in 677 ; fought Bee Boirche, king of Uladh, 
See p. 298, infra. The Bollandist editor mistook in 679. In 688 he clericatum suscepit (Tigh., and 
this for the Irish Lismore. Sept. torn. vi. p. 6440. An. Ult.), but in 689 revertitur ad regnum (16.). 
T Seghine. Sed. 623-652. See p. 373, infra. a Hospitable His appellation Fledach, derived 
w Inference. Besides the introduction of Greek from pleaft, ' a banquet,' is said by Keating to 
words into the text of the life, he discusses the or- have arisen from the festivity which prevailed under 
thography and meaning of some Greek names in his reign. (Hist, of Ireland, reg. Finachta.) 
the tract De Locis Sanctis, ii. 27, iii. 2; and treats b Bardic composition. Contained in a vellum 
of the Hebrew form of Tyre, and its Latin equiva- MS. which was formerly in the possession of Wil- 
lent, and the mention of the name in historical liam Monck Mason, Esq. 



xliv 



Appendix to Preface. 



On the death of Failbhe, in 679, Adanman was elected to the abbacy of Hy, being 
now fifty--..Ye years of age. Bruide, son of .Bile, the most valiant of the Pictish kings 
since the reign of his namesake, the son of Maelcon, preceded the abbot in his eleva- 
tion but one year, so that Adamnan's incumbency is set down in the Chronicle of the 
Scottish Kings as the ecclesiastical parallel of his reign d . Aldfrid, the Northumbrian 
prince, whom the Irish knew as Mann Pina , was now an exile in Ireland 1 . Thither 
he had probably been led through his mother's alleged connexion with the chief family 
of the north, and here probably it had been that Adamnan commenced that intimacy 
which caused the Irish to call Aldfrid the alumnus of Adamnan 5 , and which proved so 



c Scottish kings. " Brittle films Bile, xxi. annis. 
Hujus tempore floruit S. Adamnanus." Chron. in 
Kegist. S. Andreas. 

d His reign. The Irish Life of St. Adamnan tells 
the following curious story of this king's interment : 
" The. body of Bruide, son of Bile, king of the 
Cruthnigh, was brought to la, and his death was 
sorrowful and grievous to Adamnan, and he de- 
sired that the body of Bruide should be brought to 
him into the house that night. Adamnan watched 
by the body till morning. Next day, when the 
body began to move and open its eyes, a certain 
pious man came to the door of the house, and said, 
If Adamnan's object be to raise the dead, I say he 
should not do so, for it will be a degradation to every 
cleric who shall succeed to his place, if he too can- 
not raise the dead. There is somewhat of right in 
that, replied Adamnan. Therefore, as it is more 
proper, let us give our blessing to the body and to 
the soul of Bruide. Then Bruide resigned his spirit 
to heaven again, with the blessing of Adamnan and 
the congregation of la. Then Adamnan said 

Many wonders doth he perform, 

The king who was born of Mary. 

He takes away life. 

Death of Bruide mac Bile. 

Seldom after ruling a kingdom 

That a hollow stick of withered oak 

Is about the son of the king of Al-Cluaite." 

Bruide died in 693. See p. 378, infra. 

e Flann-Fina. See pp. 185, 186, infra. 

! Ireland. Notwithstanding all Thomas Innes's 
penetration and candour, he was unable to shake off 
entirely the old national infatuation about Scotia. 



See the passage cited at p. 186, infra. And again : 
" The names Scotia and Hibernia, which in these 
times were indifferently applied, by the writers, to 
Ireland and Scotland," and, " his adding in Hibernia 
is the effect of the confusion of this name, applied 
sometimes, as I said, in ancient times, as well 
to the northern part of Britain, inhabited by the 
Scots, as to Ireland, properly so called" (Civ. Eccl. 
Hist. pp. 292, 293). Goodall says that Ireland was 
not known till after Vespasian's time, and that the 
Ispvr] of Strabo lies north of the Forth ! Introd. 
to Fordun. cap. 2 (vol. i. p. 3). But see how Pin- 
kerton despatches such nonsense (Enquiry, vol. i. 
p. 7) ; and his observations on the attempt to place 
Erin in Strath- Erne (ib. vol. ii. p. 225). 

e Alumnus of Adamnan. Mac Firbis's Irish An- 
nals thus record his death: TYlopp plainn piona 
mic Oppa pi Safari, an cfgnaib arhpa, balca 
Q&arhriam; be quo "Riaguil bennchuip ce- 
cinic, 

Iniu pfpap bptnbe cac, 
1m popba a pfnaoap. 
TTlanab algap la mac t)e, 
Comb be ab senacap. 
Iniu po bic mac Oppa, 
Q ccac ppi claibrhe glapa, 
Cia bo paba aicip^e, 
Ip hi inb hi lap nappa. 
Imu po bic mac Oppa, 
Lap a mbibip butia 
TJo cuala Cpipc ap 
TCoipaopbuc bpuibe bpfga. 

The death of Flann Fiona, son of Ossa, king of 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. xlv 

serviceable to the teacher when the pupil ascended the throne. The ' * war of Ecgfrid' ' h , 
as Adamnan terms the fatal expedition against the Picts in 685, restored Aldfrid to his 
country and the enjoyment of his hereditary rights, so that when the abbot of Hy, in 
the following year, went on a mission to the Northumbrian court, probably to plead 
for the Irish captives whom Ecgfrid' s general had carried away from Mcath, he found 
a ready answer to his petition. It may be that he undertook the errand at the instance 
of king Einnachta, on whose patrimonial territory the descent had been made by the 
Saxons, possibly at the instance of the Leinstermen. The circumstances of Adam- 
nan's journey are thus related in his Irish Life, but manifestly with that looseness, and 
disregard of historical precision, which characterize the later hagiology of Ireland : 
" The north Saxons went to Erin and plundered Magh Bregh as far as Bealach-duin; 
and they carried off with them a great prey of men and women. The men of Erin be- 
sought of Adamnan to go in quest of the captives to Saxonland. Adamnan went to 
demand the prisoners, and put in at Tracht-Eomra k . The strand is long, and the 
flood rapid ; so rapid that if the best steed in Saxonland, ridden by the best horseman, 
were to start from the edge of the tide when the tide begins to flow, he could only 
bring his rider ashore by swimming, so extensive is the strand, and so impetuous is 
the tide. The Saxons now were unwilling to permit Adamnan to land upon the shore. 
Push your curachs on the shore, said Adamnan to his people, for both their land and 
sea are obedient to God, and nothing can be done without God's permission. The 
clerics did as they were told. Adamnan drew a circle with his crozier around the cur- 
achs, and God rendered the strand firm under their curachs, and he formed a high 
wall of the sea about them, so that the place where they were was an island, and the 
sea went to her limits past it, and did them no injury. When the Saxons had observed 
this very great miracle, they trembled for fear of Adamnan, and they gave him his 

the Saxons, the illustrious wise man, the foster son same year (704) with Adamnan's. Bede assigns it 

of Adamnan ; of whom Riaguil of Bennchor sung : to 705. Riaguil of Bangor is not noticed in the 

To day Bruide fights a battle Annals, but his day is in the Calendar, at June 1 1. 

About the land of his grandfather. h War of Ecgfrid. See p. 186, infra. The Bol- 

Unless it be too much to ask of the Son of God, landist e(Utor thought that Adamnan's first visit to 

May he not perish in it. c , , , 

To day the son of Ossa falls Saxonland was for the purpose of pleading with 

In battle with green swords, Ecgfrid. Junii, torn. ii. p. 190 a. 

Although he did his penance. ' Bealach-duin. NowCastlekeeran, on the Black- 

And shall lie in Hi after his death. water (f ormer ly the Sele), north-west of Kells. 

To-day the son of Ossa falls, . _ , n _, 

Who had the brown drinks. Tracht- Ramra. The name is now unknown, 

Christ has heard our supplication, but the graphic description is very applicable to 

He will save the splendid Bruide." Solway Firth. Fordun speaks of the " flumen 

(MS. Brussels, 5301, p. 80). The writer evi- Eske, quod dicitur Scotiswath, sive Sulwath" 

dently confounds Aldfrid with Ecgfrid, as regards (Scotichr. ii. 2, iii. 7, 41). Ptolemy calls the Sol- 

the battle. Tighernach places Aldfrid's death in the way, 

g 



xlvi Appendix to Preface. 

full demand. Adamnan's demand was, that a complete restoration of the captives 
should be made to him, and that no Saxon should ever again go upon a predatory ex- 
cursion to Erin; and Adamnan brought back all the captives." The secret of his 
success is told by Adamnan himself 1 , "regem Aldfridum visitantes amicum;" and the 
result is briefly but satisfactorily stated by the Annals at 687, which is 686 according 
to Bcde : "Adamnan conducted sixty captives to Ireland." It may have been about 
this period that the Synod was held in Ireland to which Adamnan alludes at p. 178 ; 
his language at the end of the chapter (p. 182) seems to regard it as an occurrence of 
some standing when he wrote. It is to be regretted that he gives no clue to the year, 
object, or place of meeting. At the time of his first visit to Aldfrid, a great mortality 
prevailed in Europe, from which, however, the Scots and Picts of North Britain were 
providentially exempted" 1 ; and two years afterwards, when he undertook a second 
journey to the Northumbrian court, disease was still ravaging the country, although not 
permitted to touch him or one of his attendants. The object of this visit is not stated 
by Adamnan, but it probably was some matter of international policy which Adamnan 
was chosen to negotiate. The fact that he sailed direct to Ireland with the liberated 
captives in 686, seems to justify the reference of the following statement in Bede n to 
a later date, when he returned to Hy, and subsequently crossed over to Ireland : 
' ' Quo tempore plurima pars Scottorum in Hibernia, et nonnulla etiam de Brittonibus 
in Brittania rationabile et ecclesiasticum paschalis observantice tempus Domino do- 
nante suscepit. Siquidem Adamnan presbyter et abbas monachorum qui erant in 
insula Hii, cum legationis gratia missus a sua gente, venisset ad Aldfridum regem An- 
glorum, et aliquandiu in ea provincia moratus, videret ritus ecclesiaa canonicos ; sed et 
a pluribus qui erant eruditiores esset sollerter admonitus, ne contra universalem eccle- 
sise morem, vel in observantia paschali, vel in aliis quibusque decretis cum suis paucis- 
simis et in extremo mundi angulo positis vivere prsesumeret, mutatus mente est ; ita 
ut ea quse viderat et audierat in ecclesiis Anglorum, suse suorumque consuetudini 
libentissime prseferret. Erat enim vir bonus et sa/piens, et scientia Scripturarum noli- 
Ussime instructus. Qui cum domum rediisset, curavit suos qui erant in Hii, quive 
eidem erant subditi monasterio, ad eum quern cognoverat, quemque ipse toto ex corde 
susceperat, veritatis callem perducere, nee valuit." He then goes on to tell of Adam- 
nan's voyage to Ireland ; but of that presently. In reference to this visit he gives the 
following interesting account of Adamnan's tract on the Holy Places : " Scripsit idem 
vir de Locis Sanctis librum legentibus multis utillimum ; cujus auctor erat docendo ac 
dictando Galliarum episcopus Arcuulfus, qui locorum gratia sanctorum venerat Hiero- 

i Himself. See p. 185, infra. Brittania. Probably the Alcluid Britons, whose 

" Exempted. See Adamnan's statement, p. 184. king, Kydderch Hael, had been on friendly terms 
n JBede. Historia Ecclesiastica, v. 15. with St. Columba. See p 43, infra. 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. 



xlvii 



solymam, et lustrata omni terra rcpromissionis p , Damascum quoquc, Constantinopolim, 
Alexandriam, multas maris insulas adierat ; patriamque navigio revertens, vi tempes- 
tatis in occidentalia Brittaniso littora q dclatus est: ac post multa, ad memoratum 
Christ! famulum Adamnanum perveniens, ubi doctus in Scripturis, sanctorumque loco- 
rum gnarus esse compertus est, libentissime est ab illo susceptus, libentius auditus ; 
adeo ut quseque ille se in locis sanctis memoratu digna vidisse testabatur, cuncta mox 
iste litteris mandare curaverit. Fccitque opus, ut dixi, multum utile, et maxime illis 
qui longius ab eis locis in quibus patriarchae et apostoli erant, secreti, ea tantum de his 
quae lectione didicerint, norunt. Porrexit autem librum hunc Adamnan Aldfrido regi, 
ac per ejus est largitionem etiam minoribus ad legendum contraditus. Scriptor quoquc 
ipse multis ab eo muneribus donatus, patriam remissus est." Bede then devotes two 
chapters to extracts from this work. To the same visit Ceolfrid also alludes in his 
letter to King Kaiton, where, speaking of those who differed from him on the paschal 
question, he declares : "plurimos ex eis sanctos ac Deo dignos extitisse, ex quibus est 
Adamnan r , abbas et sacerdos Columbiensium egregius, qui cum legatus suce gentis ad 
Aldfridum regem missus, nostrum quoque monasterium 8 videre voluisset, miramque in 
moribus ac verbis prudentiam, humilitatem, religionem ostenderet, dixi illi inter alia 
conloquens : Obsecro, sancte frater, qui ad coronam te vitae quae terminum -nesciat ten- 
dere credis, quid contrario tuae fidei habitu terminatam in capite 1 coronas imaginem 
portas ? et si beati consortium Petri qua3ris, cur ejus quem ille anathematizavit, ton- 
suree imaginem imitaris ? et non potius ejus cum quo in aetemum beatus vivere cupis, 
etiam nunc habitum te, quantum potes, diligere monstras ? Eespondit ille : Scias pro 
certo, frater mi dilecte, quia etsi Simonis tonsuram u ex consuetudine patria habeam, 



i* Terra repromissionis. That is, Palestine. The 
Irish generally used the words in a different accep- 
tation. See Repromissio, p. 452. 

i Occidentalia Brittania littora This particu- 
Jar, which is not mentioned in the tract itself, proves 
that Arculfus visited Adamnan in Hy, not Ireland. 

r Est Adamnan. A historical present. Nech- 
tan [the Naiton of Bede], to whom the letter was 
written, did not become king of the Picts till two 
years after Adamnan's death. Baronius, therefore, 
antedates it seven years at the very least, when he 
refers it to 699 (Annal. Eccles. torn. viii. col. 706, 
Colon. 1609). Smith, following Higden, dates it 
A. D. 7 10 (Bedae, H. E. v. 21). 

3 Nostrum monasterium. That is, In Gyruum, 
or Jarrow. Adamnan, to reach this, must have 
crossed the north of England, very much in the 
line of Hadrian's Wall. 



* Terminatam in capite. The contrast here drawn 
between the frontal and coronal tonsure, in reference 
to their emblematic forms, is peculiar. 

u Simonis tonsuram. See p. 350, infra. The 
Cotton MS. containing the Irish canons from which 
Ussher occasionally borrows, is one of those which 
suffered by the fire of 1731, and were lately re- 
stored under the care of Sir F. Madden. Its mark 
is Otho E. xiii. At fol. 142 b is found the follow- 
ing rationale of St. Peter's tonsure : " Ut a Simone 
Mago Christianos discerneret in cujus capite cesa- 
ries ab aure ad aurem tonsae anteriore parte cum 
antea Magi in fronte cirruin habebant." At fol. 1430 
occurs the passage cited from Ussher at p. 350, infra, 
where for regi, which is a misprint in the late edi- 
tion of Ussher's Works, the original has tegi ; and 
for Nil, Avhich Ussher reads, the original gives 
Nailis, to express ' of Niall.' 



xlviii Appendix to Preface. 

Simoniacam tamcn perfidiam tota mcnte clctcstor ac rcspuo : beatissimi autem aposto- 
lorum principis, quantum mca parvitas sufficit, vestigia sequi dcsidcro. At ego : 
Credo, iuquam, vcre quod ita sit ; sod tamen indicio fit, quod ea quoo apostoli Petri 
stint, in abdito cordis amplcctimini, si quoe ejus csse nostis, etiam in facie tenetis. 
Namque prtidcntiam tttam facillime dijudicare rcor, quod aptius multo sit, ejus quern 
cordo toto abhominaris, cuj usque horrendam faciem viderc refugis, habitum vultus a 
tuo vultu Deo jam dicato scparare ; ct e contra, ejus quern apud Deum haberc patronum 
quceris, sicut lacta vcl monita cupis sequi, sic etiam morem habitus te imitari conde- 
ceat. Ha3C tune Adaninano dixi, qtii quidem quantum conspectis ecclesiarum nostra- 
rum statutis profccisset, probavit, cum rcvcrsus ad Scottiani, multas postea gentis 
ejusdcm tiii'bas ad catholicam temporis paschalis observantiani sua pnedicatione 
correxit ; tametsi eos qui in Hii insula morabantur monachos, quibusque speciali rec- 
toris jure prseerat, necdum ad viam statuti melioris reducere valebat. Tonsuram 
quoque, si tantum sibi auctoritatis subesset, emendare meminisset." It is worthy of 
remark that, while Bede makes special mention of one of Adamnan's works, he says 
nothing about the other, nay, he proves by his passing observation concerning St. Co- 
luniba elsewhere"', de cujus vita et verlis nonnulla a (Liscipulis ejus feruntur scripta 
halori, that he was not aware of Adamnan's having written on the subject. This 
silence suggested a difficulty to the Bollandist editor, which, however, was removed 
when he remembered that the Life bears internal evidence of having been written 
some time after the visits to Aldfrid: " Forrnidinem omnem toilet ipse Adamnanus; 
qui, in fine libri secundi, meritis S. Columbse adscribit, quod in utraque legatione An- 
glica, ad Egfridum nempe et Aldfridum Eeges, grassante per regiones istas pestilentia, 
incolumis evaserit : adeoque niirum non est, Yitam S. Columbte neque ab auctore 
fuisse oblatam Aldfrido Eegi, neque innotuisse Bedoe : quandoquidem constet Adam- 
nanum, post finitam legationem Anglicam, de virtutibus et miraculis S. Columbas 
scripsisse, quoe in aliorum scriptis invenerat, et per totam vitam suam a senioribus 
audierat." 

Prom the above it appears, therefore, that on his return to Hy, Adamnan endea- 
voured to introduce the new observances, but found the community much less disposed 
for change than he had been ; and that attachment to old customs prevailed over the 
influence of argument, or the weight of personal influence. 

In 692 Adamnan again visited his native country, and the object of his journey 
seems to have been one of importance, for the Annalists, every word of whom is full of 

if 

meaning, in recording the event, state that it occurred fourteen years after the death 
of his predecessor Pailbhe. On this occasion he seems to have had political as well as 
ecclesiastical matter to engage his attention. His friend the sovereign of Ireland, 

v Observation elsewhere. Historia Eccles. iii. 4. "' Sollandist editor. Acta Sanctorum, Junii, 

See note d , p. v. supra, and Pref. 2, p. 8, infra. torn. ii. p. 190 a. 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. xlix 

King Finnachta, had incurred, if the bardic accounts arc to be credited, the displeasure 
of the Hy Neill race, by impairing the honours which he was expected to uphold, in 
remitting to the Leinstcr-mcn the tribute which they had been in the habit of annually 
paying to the chief of the existing dynasty. Finnachta had fought the Lagcnians and 
routed them, so that his indulgence to them does not seem to have been extorted by 
force. The secret probably lies in the monarch's title of Flcdacli, or ' the Festive.' 
Poems ascribe the exemption to the pleading of St. Moling, a Leinstcr ecclesiastic of 
great celebrity, who took advantage of the ambiguous meaning of the word Lucm, 
which is cither Monday, or the (Lay of judgment, to convert the term of a temporary 
respite into a perpetual surrender of the claim. Adamnan gets the credit of being the 
great champion for the maintenance of the demand; and a poem x of some length and 
lire is attributed to him, wherein he calls Finnachta in pig cpin Imc cen 'oecu, 'the 
old grey king without teeth,' and indulges in such sentiments as these : 

" Were I a king of reddened spears 
I would humble mine enemies, 
I would exalt my high places, 
My combats should be frequent." 

The Irish Life of Adamnan says that a proclamation had been made by Finnachta to 
the effect, that the lands of Columcillc should not enjoy the same privileges as those 
of Patrick, Finnian, and Ciaran, whereupon Adamnan said: "The life of the king 
who made this proclamation shall be short; he shall fall by fratricide; and there shall 
be no king of his race for ever." Finnachta fell by the hand of his cousin in 695. 

During his sojourn in Ireland, Adamnan in all probability exerted himself strenu- 
ously in the propagation of the new Easter observance, and laid the foundation of the 
great success which afterwards attended his recommendation of the subject in this 
his native country. His stay, however, was not of long continuance, for we find him 
returning to Ireland in 697, in order to legislate for the people. It was probably in 
the interval of these two journeys that he compiled his Life of St. Columba, for the 
use of his society. In it he makes no reference to the difference of sentiment between 
himself and his congregation on the paschal question ; but there is an allusion to a 
sore subject, where he tells of St. Columba' s prophecy at Clonmacnoise concerning the 
discord, " qute post dies inultos ob diversitatem Paschalis festi orta est inter Scotiae 
ecclesias" (p. 26). He may have referred to the same subject when he spoke of the 
" valde stolidi qui ingrati Dei patientia male abutuntur" (p. 184). Baert conjectured 
that the Life was written during Adamnan' s last sojourn in Ireland, and that the 
brethren, at whose instance he professes to write, were not the refractory monks of 
Hy, but the more amenable inmates of Durrow, and of the kindred associations in 

K Poem. Book of Lecan, fol. 310 6 ; Book of Invasions, fol. 940. 



1 



Appendix to Preface. 



Ireland. This, however, is a conclusion drawn from unsound premises, for it supposes, 
as some Irish accounts have done, that Adamnan quarrelled with his people ; also that 
the Irish Columbians yielded, while the Hycnsian ones held out. The one supposes 
Adamnan to have been expelled from his pastoral charge ; the other is contradicted by 
Bede. The Life itself bears the fullest internal evidence that it was written by a 
member of the society, who speaks of nostrum monasterium (pp. 58, 72, 177), living in 
the island, nostra insula (12, 178), which was small and remote (241), among other 
islands (185), and called loua insula (176, 181). 

Connected with the journey to Ireland in 697, the Annals record a transaction 
which they despatch with enigmatical brevity : Dedit legem innocentiwri* populis. In 
which words they allude to a social reformation which was brought about by Adam- 
nan, and which, having obtained the highest sanction of the people, became, as in the 
case of many modern Acts of Parliament, associated with the name of the propounder. 
A synod was convened at Tara z , within an enclosure called the Ratli-na-SenadJi, or 
" Rath of the Synods," where the memory of the chief actor was perpetuated in the 
name Pupatt Adhamhnain, or "Pavilion of Adamnan," which was given to a portion 
of the space; also in the Suidlie Adhamlmain, or " Adamnan' s chair;" the Dumlia 
Adhamlmain, or " Adamnan' s mound;" and the Cros Adhamhnain, or "Adamnan's 
cross," situated on the east of the Rath a . This mopbail, or l convention-general,' 
was held, as the semi -legendary records state, at the instance of Adamnan, for the 
purpose of procuring a national enactment, exempting women from war and expedi- 
tions. The legend concerning the influence and circumstances which brought Adam- 
nan to interfere in the matter may be seen at p. 1 79 of this work. The acts of the 
convention were copied by Michael O'Clery from the Book of Raphoe^, and are pre- 
served in one of the Irish manuscripts at Brussels . There were present thirty-nine 
ecclesiastics, presided over by Mann Pebhla, the Abbot of Armagh, and among them 
were Ichtbrocht d , or Ecgbert, probably the individual who brought the Hyensians to 
paschal conformity in 716 ; and Murchu Mac U Macteni , the writer of a portion of 



y Innocentium The Origines Parochiales Scotise 
(vol. ii. p. 288) makes it morientium, but the Lex 
was to save life, not to kill. 

1 Tara. The Irish Life of Adamnan places this 
convention at the place now known as Ballyshan- 
non: " On another occasion when Adamnan was at 
the royal meeting [pig-bail] of Conall and Coir- 
pre, at Eas Euaidh, making his Law, the roydamua 
of the son of Ainmire, i. e., Flannabhra, son of Cum- 
mascach, came, having with him a female captive 
who had killed a woman, to submit the case to 
Adamnan," &c. Colgan conjectured that the conven- 



tion was held at Derry or Kaphoe. See p. 178, infra. 
The acts of the convention do not state where it 
was held, but it might be inferred to have been at 
Leitir, near Birr, on the confines of ancient Meath 
and Munster. 

a Rath. See the Maps in Petrie's Tara, and the 
ancient authorities cited at pp. 115, 123, 148. 

b Book of Raphoe. The title is, Incipit Cain 
Adamnain ap plicc pen lebmp "Raca bochae 
[secundum veterem librum Bath-bothae]. 

c Brussels. Burgundian Library, No. 2324. 

d Ichtbrocht. So the name is written in the 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. 



li 



St. Patrick's memoirs in the Book of Armagh. It is a remarkable fact, however, that, 
with the exception of the Abbot of Armagh, and Ccnnfacladh f , Abbot of Bangor, the 
rest of the clergy were from Lcinstcr and the south. At the head of the laity was 
Loingscch, son of Acngus^, monarch of Ireland, and after him forty-seven chiefs of 
various territories. Last on the list of temporals is "Bruide mac Derili 11 , king of the 
region of thePicts." The enactments of the synod were afterwards called LcxAdamnanti, 
or Cain Adhamhnain* , which means " tribute of Adamnan," because among its results 
was the privilege which was conceded to him and his successors of levying pecuniary 
contributions under certain conditions. In after times, when this assessment became 
of sufficient importance, there was an officer, or agent, for its receipt, styled the 
TYlaop cana G&arhnam, 'Steward of Adamnan' s Law' 1 . 

It was possibly on the same occasion that the question of Easter was publicly dis- 
cussed, and the usage advocated by Adamnan adopted. At this time also may have 
been promulgated those eight canons" 1 which bear the name of Adamnan. Ecclesiastical 
considerations, however, if entertained at this meeting, were not of sufficient importance 
in the eyes of the Irish to merit an entry in a journal ; and the absorbing subject seems 
to have been the civil enactment which afterwards became a source of profit, and for 
this reason had special claims upon the memory. 

In the mystified style of the Irish, it is sometimes dangerous, and always diffi- 
cult, to deal with their statements as historical records ; but there seems to be ground 



original, which the editor has examined. Colgan 
understands it of "Ecbertus Anglus." See p. 179, 
infra. Concerning Ecgbert, see pp. 379, 383. 

e Murchu mac U Macteni The entry of this 

name in the acts of Adamnan's synod is of im- 
portance in the history of the Book of Armagh, as 
it serves to fix the date of Muirchu Maccumachtheni, 
whose name is attached to a portion of the Memoirs 
of St. Patrick in that volume, in these words : 
" Haec pauca de sancti Patricii peritia et virtutibus 
Muirchu Maccumachtheni, dictante Aiduo Slebti- 
ensis civitatis episcopo, conscripsit" (fol. 20, la). 
The name of his informant also occurs in the acts 
of the synod, in the form Aedh epscop Sleilte, 
whose day is Feb. 7, and whose obit is entered in 
Tighernach at 700, and in the Annals of Ulster at 
699. Murchu mac Ua Maichtene, and his brother 
Meadhran, are noticed in the Irish Calendars at 
June 8 ; and the Calendar of Cashel, cited by Col- 
gan (Act. SS. p. 465 , n. 31), places their com- 
memoration at Kill-Murchon, in the territory of 



Hi-Garrchon, in the eastern part of the county of 
Wicklow, near the town of the same name. 

f Cennfaeladh. His obit is in the Ann. Ult. at 
704, and his day in the Calendar at Apr. 8. 

s Loingsech, son of Aengus. He succeeded Fin- 
nachta in 695, and reigned till 703. 

h Bruide mac Derili. Called bpmt>6 mac t)e- 
plli pi Cjiuicen cuaice. He died in 706, in the 
eleventh year of his reign. The introduction of his 
name into the acts is suspicious, unless we suppose 
him to have attended at this synod as Aidan, son of 
Gabhran, did at Drumceatt. 

i Lex Adamnain See An. 727, at p. 383, infra. 

k Cain Adamhnain See the names of the va- 
rious Cains in Petrie's Tara, pp. 173, 174, The 
Brehon Laws make frequent mention of this Cain, 
but the particulars of it were unknown till the Brus- 
sels MS. containing the account of this synod was 
brought to light. 

1 Adamnarfs Law. See An. 929, p. 393,t/ra. 

m Eight canons. See the reference at p. 179. 



lii 



Appendix to Preface. 



for believing that the public mind, which had for some time been kept in expectation 
and alarm by the diseases which prevailed, and the portents which were observed or 
imagined, Avas advantageously impressed, and seriously disposed, by the relation of a 
vision, concerning the joys of heaven and the pains of hell, which Adamnan is said to 
have witnessed previous to the date of the above synod. The pip Q&amnain, or 
T r ision of Adamnan, an Irish composition of considerable age, as is proved by its style, 
is still in existence ; and though possessing internal evidence that in its present form" 
it is not the production of Adamnan, it lays claim to considerable antiquity , and em- 
bodies a narrative which, like the visions of St. Fursa 1 ', passed current in conversation 
as the realities of his experience. The Yision q is a religious discourse on the text 
Psal. cxlvi. 5, 6 (Yulg.), and after some prefatory remarks, goes on to say: " After 
this, that which is preached here was manifested to Adamnan Ua Tinne, the high sage 
of the western world, when his soul passed from his body on the festival of John the 
Baptisf, and when it was carried to heaven to behold the angels there, and to hell to 
behold its wretched hosts." Having related all that he witnessed in either abode, and 
having specially noticed in the place of torment the " Aircinnechs, who, in the pre- 
sence of the relics 5 of the saints, administer the gifts and tithes of God*, but who turn 
the profits to their own private ends from the strangers and poor of the Lord," whom 
he elsewhere brands as " sensual Aircinnechs," the narrative proceeds to say that 



These canons do not seem to have any connexion with 
the Cain Adhamlmain. Martene printed the Canones 
Adamnani, with, other Irish Canons, from a MS. 
of the Bigot Library at Kotterdarn, which formerly 
belonged to the Monastery of Fescamp, in Nor- 
mandy (Thes. Nov. Anecd. torn. iv. col. 18, Lut. 
Par. 1717). They exist also in the Cotton MS. of 
Canons (fol. 155 &), but with considerable varia- 
tions, under the title Incipiunt Canones Adomnani. 
Mention is 'made at p. 179, infra, of a transcript of 
them. Besides these, there is in Martene a detached 
canon, under the title Item Adompnanus (/&. col. 
1 1). It is of the same purport as the others, namely, 
unclean food, and it exists in the Cotton MS., but 
without Adamnan's name (Otho E. xiii. fol. 126 &). 

n Present form. It speaks of bechmabd, 
' tithes,' which were unknown in Ireland until long 
after Adamnan's time. 

Antiquity. See the extract in O'Donovan's 
Irish Grammar, p. 440, where the learned author 
observes : " There appears no reason to question, the 
antiquity of the Vision." 



i' St. Fursa. See Bede, H. E. iii. 19. Fursu in 
Perona pausavit. An. Ult. 660. 

i Vision The pip GoaThnctm is preserved in 
the Leabhar Breac, fol. 127 a. It consists of two 
parts, the Vision, and the Application, and occu- 
pies eight double-columned folio pages of the ma- 
nuscript (Library of the Koyal Irish Academy). 

r John the Baptist. The second part of Adam- 
nan's Vision contains instructions for averting the 
mortality that was apprehended on the feast of the 
Decollation of John the Baptist (Aug. 29). The 
note on the Feilire of Aengus at this day states that 
the Scuab a Fanait (Besom of Fanad) was a plague 
which was to visit Ireland in the latter times, in 
revenge for the beheading of John the Baptist, as 
prophesied by Columcille, Moling, and Aireran. 
The Annals of Clonmacnoise, at 550, attribute the 
prediction concerning the Scuab Fanait to Bee mac 
De, king Dermot Mac Cerbhail's poet. See O'Dono- 
van, Ann. Four Mast., vol. i. p. 196. 

8 Relics. ITlapcpa. See Martires, note m , 
p. 314, and Eeliquicc, p. 452. 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. liii 

the soul of Adamnan desired to remain in the happy region, but that "it heard from 
behind him, through the veil, the voice of his guardian angel commanding it to bo 
replaced in the same body from which it had passed ; and that it should relate in the 
assemblies and conventions of the laity and clergy the rewards of heaven and the pains 
of hell, such as the conducting angel had revealed to him. It was therefore the pre- 
cept which Adamnan preached whilst he was alive. It was this precept, too, which 
was preached in the great convention of the men of Erin, when Adamnan's Eule was 
put on the Gaedhil ; and when women were made free by Adamnan and "Finachta 
Fledach*, son of Dunchadh, son of Aedh Slaine, the King of Erin, and by the men of 
Erin also. For it was alike that men and women went into battles and into conflicts, 
until the the Rule of Adamnan was imposed." A second vision, or rather a supple- 
ment, recounting the wickednesses of the inhabitants of Ireland, and the mortalities 
with which they were visited, and should be visited, follows, and mentions such 
chastisements as the Scamhach, or 'Leprosy;' thello-ar, or ' Cow mortality; fheDiffbail 
tor aid, or ' Blight of fruit ;' the Gorta, or ' Famine ;' the Nuna, or ' Scarcity ;' and 
Dunibadh, or ' Human mortality ;' against all of which it declares prayer and fasting to 
be the only sure preservative. 

From 697 till the year of his death, Adamnan seems to have remained in Ireland : 
for, though the social improvement which he effected is despatched in a few words in 
the Annals, we can hardly conceive that so vital a measure was brought about without 
much exertion and preparatory solicitation. The success of his paschal advocacy among 
a people naturally attached to old prejudices, in communities widely spread, and sub- 
ject to many antagonistic influences, must have required a longer period for its com- 
pletion than the following words of Bede u would at first sight seem to imply : " Navi- 
gavit Hiberniam, et preedicans eis, ac modesta exhortatione declarans legitimum 
paschse tempus, plurirnos eorum, et pene omnes qui ab Hiiensium dominio erant 
liberi, ab errore avito correctos ad unitatem reduxit catholicam, et legitimum paschse 
tempus observare perdocuit." The Life of St. Gerald of Mayo, a compilation full of 
anachronisms, has yet this curious coincidence with the statement just made, that it 
allows Adamnan a seven yecvrtf residence in Ireland. Now, admitting the supposition 
above stated to be correct, the interval between 697 and 704, the year of Adamnan's 
death is exactly commensurate with this period. One thing appears certain from 
Bede, namely, that Adamnan crossed over from Ireland to Hy in the summer of the 
year in which he died, and that he had been in Ireland for a considerable time pre- 
viously. The Irish Annals record an occurrence which almost proves him to have 
been in Ireland in 701. In that year Irgalach, son of Conang, great-grandson of 

* Finachta Fledach. This is an anachronism: he cessor, Loingsech, son of Aengus. See p. li. supra. 
died in 695. The convention was held under his sue- u Jledt. Historia Ecclesiastica, v. 15. 

h 



liv 



Appendix to Preface. 



Aedh Slaine, and lord of Cianachta v in JMeath, slew his own cousin Niall, son of 
Cearnach Sotal. This act is said to have excited the indignation of Adamnan, under 
whose protection Niall had been, and he denounced against Irgalach speedy retribu- 
tion for the crime. At this time Adamnan is represented to have been in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Boyne w , and an ancient poem* states that the cursing of Irgalach took 
place in a synod held by Adamnan at Tara. Irgalach, according to Tighernach, was 
slain by the Britons in 702 ; and the Annals of Ulster add that the deed was done in 
Inis-mac-Nesan, the small island east of Howth, now known as Ireland's Eye. The 
wife of Irgalach/ was Muirenn, daughter of Cellach Cualann, and sister of St. Kenti- 
gema z of Loch Lomond. She died in 748. 

The Life of St. Geraldus* represents Adamnan' s connexion with Mayo in these 
words : " Tune sanctus abbas Adamnanus post visitationem totius Hibernise ad S. Ge- 
raldum perrexit, ut fraternam cum eo contraheret societatem. Cui S. Geraldus fundum 
cum fonte limpido contulit, atque sibi suam commendavit Ecclesiam, ut a persecutione 
laicorum post obitum suum earn defenderet : quod totum S. Adamnanus se comple- 
turum promisit, atque opere complevit. Post ejus [S. Geraldi] vero obitum b S. Adam- 



v Lord of Cianachta. So he is styled in the 
Cain Adhamnain, although he could not have been 
lord by descent, as the Cianachta were of a different 
race from his. The Annals of Inisfallen call him 
" king of Hy Neill," which is probably correct, as 
his son Cionaedh was monarch of Ireland from 724 
to 728. Dr. Petrie states that Tighernach calls 
lorgalach "king of Bregia" (Tara, p. 148); but 
this must be a mistake, or else the printed text has 
omitted the title. It is also an error to say that he 
was killed by the Saxons. In 682 the Britons 
fought with the Dalaradians at Kathmor, and in 
697 they joined the Ulidians in wasting the coast of 
Louth (pp. 377, 378, infra). Possibly they had 
made a settlement in Ireland. 

w Boyne The Irish Life of Adamnan represents 
the saint as "fasting against Irgalach," immersed 
in the river Boinn, and overcoming him by deceit. 
This system of fasting against an obnoxious indivi- 
dual was a favourite mode with the Irish ecclesias- 
tics of bringing down visitations on their enemies. 
The Brehon Laws contain directions on the course 
which is to be pursued in such a case. Irgalach re- 
sisted the influence of St. Adamnan's fasting by 
doing the same himself, until Adamnan, by induc- 
ing one of his people to personate him, put Irgalach 



off his guard, and thus got the mastery of him. 
The story is curious, not only as illustrative of this 
extraordinary system of fasting, but as indicating 
the low tone of moral feeling in the writer who re- 
presents the saint as saying : " It is better that one 
of his people should tell a falsehood for him, than 
that he should tell it himself." 

x Poem. Printed in Petrie's Tara, p. 122. It- 
contains the lines, of which the following is the 
translation : 

" The synod of Patrick was held in the great Eath; 
The synod of Brendan, and of Euadhan; 
The synod of Adamnan, afterwards, 
In cursing Irgalach." 

y Wife of Irgalach. The Irish Life says that 
" she was humble and obedient to the Lord and to 
Adamnan ;" and it is remarkable that her obit is 
entered in the Annals, which is very rarely done in 
the case of women. 

2 St. Kentigerna. See note h , p. ityinfra. 

a St. Geraldus. Colgan, Acta SS. p. 602 a. 

b Post ejus obitum. The date of St. Gerald is 
very uncertain. Tighernach at 732, and the An. 
Ult. at 731, have Pontifex Maigi-Eu Saxonum 
Garailt obiit. The Four Masters (An. 726) repre- 
sent this entry by " Gerald of Magh-eo died." And 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. Iv 

nanus Mageonensem Ecclesiam, per septem annos indefesse rexit. Inde ad lonensem 
Abbatiam pcrrexit, et ibi feliciter in Domino obiit et sepultus cst." Now, though this 
statement is open, in the first place, to the grave objection that St. Geraldus was later 
than Adamnan instead of prior to him, and, in the second, that a monastery founded 
twenty years previously as an asylum for adherents to the old Easter, was not a likely 
place to entertain the professed advocate of innovation ; still, the story seems to be 
wrought upon an ancient tradition that St. Adamnan traversed Ireland on ecclesiastical 
duty, and spent some years therein, and that, having gone back to Hy at the end of 
about seven years, he died soon after. 

The narrative of Adamnan' s proceedings, from his first visit to the court of Aldfrid 
down to his last stay in Ireland, as given in Mac Eirbis's MS. Annals, is so amusingly 
characteristic of native simplicity, that it is entitled, notwithstanding its looseness, 
to find a place among more explicit records. "An. 896 [recte 796]. In this year 
the men of Erin consented to receive jurisdiction and one rule from Adamnan respect- 
ing the celebration of Easter on Sunday, on the fourteenth of the moon of April ; and 
the coronal tonsure of Peter was performed upon the clerics of Erin, for there had been 
great variance in Erin on these questions, until then, inasmuch as some of the clerics 
of Erin were in the habit of celebrating Easter on Sunday the i4th of the moon of 
April, and had the coronal tonsure of Peter the Apostle, following in the steps of 
Patrick ; others, following Columcille, celebrated Easter on the fourteenth of the 
moon of April, whatever day of the week 4 that fourteenth should happen to fall, and 
had the coronal tonsure of Simon Magus 6 . A third party followed neither the sect of 
Patrick nor the sect of Columcille, so that the clergy of Erin held many synods, and 
they used to come to these synods with weapons, so that pitched battles used to be 
fought between them, and many used to be slain ; so that many evils ensued to Erin 
from this, namely, the Bear-mor f , and the very great dearth, and many diseases ; and 

their learned editor understands it as equivalent to d Wliatever day of the week. The An. Ult. at 

" Garailt, pontifex," &c. (vol. i. p. 324). Such an 451 have Pasca Domini viii. Kal. Mali celebratum 

interpretation would stand, if there were an .1. or i. e. est ; but in this year the 24th of April fell on Tues- 

before Gerailt. The passage plainly states that " the day. That the 24th of April may fall on Sunday, 

Bishop of Mayo-Saxonum of Gerald died," and this B must be the Dominical letter, which does not occur 

addition of Gerald's name is a prolepsis. The Life between 449 and 455. Bede, however, expressly 

of St. Gerald states that he came to Ireland accom- states : " Quern [diem] tamen et antea non semper 

panied by three brothers, one of whom was Beriker- in luna quarta decima cum Judseis, utquidam reban- 

tus. He was the St. Beretchert of Tulach-leis, now tur, sed in die quidem Dominica, alia tamen quam 

Tullylease, in the county of Cork, whose day in the decebat hebdomada celebrabant" (H. E. iii. 4). 

Calendar is Dec. 6, and whose obit is entered in the e Simon Magus. See p. xlvii., and p. 350, infra. 

Four Masters at 839. If this date be correct, St. f ear-mor. Probably a mistake for Bo-ar mor, 

Gerald must come down to circ. 800. ' the great cow-mortality.' See the enumeration of 

c Steps of Patrick. See note m , p. 350, infra. national scourges, p: liii. supra. 

h2 



Ivi Appendix to Preface. 

extern tribes injured Erin. They continued thus for a long period, and even to the 
time of Adanman. He was the ninth abbot who succeeded to the government of la 
after Columcille. 

"A great spoil was earned off by the Saxons from Erin. Adamnan went to demand 
a restitution of the spoil, as Bede relates in his history. The greater part of the 
bishops of all Europe assembled to condemn Adamnan for having celebrated Easter 
after the fashion of Columcille, and for having upon him the tonsure of Simon Magus, 
i.e. ab aure ad aurem. Bede says s that though many were the wise men in that synod, 
Adamnan excelled them all in wisdom and eloquence ; and Adamnan said, It was not in 
imitation of Simon Magus that he had this tonsure, but in imitation of John of the 
Breast' 1 , the foster-son of the Kedeemer, and that this was the tonsure which he had 
upon him, and that though Peter loved the Saviour, the Saviour loved John ; and that 
it was on the fourteenth of the moon of April, on whatever day of the week that should 
fall, the Apostles celebrated Easter. Then an old senior rising up said, Though Co- 
lumcille himself were present here, we would not leave him until he should be of the 
same rule with ourselves ; but you we will not quit, until you be of the same rule 
with ourselves. Adamnan made answer unto him and said, I shall be of the same rule 
with you. Be tonsured therefore, accordingly, said the bishops. It will be sufficient 
that I do so, said Adamnan, at my own monastery. No, said they, but immediately. 
Adamnan was then tonsured, and no greater honour was ever shown to man than was 
given to Adamnan on this occasion ; and that great spoil was restored to him, and he 
came straight home to his own monastery of la. It was a great surprise to his con- 
gregation to see him with that tonsure. He then requested of the congregation to 
receive the tonsure, but they refused, and he got nothing from them, sed Deus permisit 
conventui peccare, i. e. ipsum Adamnanum expellere 1 , gui misertus est Hilernice. Sic 
jReda dixit; for Bede was along with Adamnan. Now Adamnan came afterwards to 
Erin, and his fame spread throughout the land, but that one regulation of Easter and 
of the tonsure was not received from him, until this year, anno Domini 696, and Adam- 
nan died in the year 703, in the 78th year of his age." 

Bede records the last stage in our saint's life, " Qui cum celebrate inHibernia ca- 
nonico pascha, ad suam insulam revertisset, suoque monasterio catholicam temporis 
paschalis observantiam instantissime prsedicaret, nee tamen perficere quod conabatur 
posset, contigit eum ante expletum anni circulum migrasse de sseculo. Divina utique 

z Bede says. This is a palpable forgery. The ings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. v. p. 52. 

writer seems to have Colman's discussion running in > Expellere There is no existing authority for 

his head. See Bede, H. E. iii. 25. this, except perhaps an inference from Bede's words, 

h John of the Breast. 1 charmer 1 bpuinne, the "graviorem cum eis cogeretur habere discordiam," 

Irish name for St. John the Evangelist, borrowed cited in the text. Possibly Adamnan's protracted 

from St. John, xiii. 23, 25 ; xxi. 20. See Proceed- stay in Ireland suggested the idea. 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. 



Ivii 



gratia disponente, ut vir unitatis ac pacis studiosissinras ante ad vitam raperetur seter- 
nam, quam redeunte tempore paschali, graviorem cum eis qui eum ad veritatem sequi 
nolebant, cogeretur habere discordiam." This was, according to the Irish Annals, in 
the year 704 : in which the reformed Easter fell on the 3oth of March. He died on 
the 23rd of September 11 , which is the day of his commemoration both in the Irish and 
Scotch calendars. 

Of the character of Adamnan for learning and the graces of the Christian mi- 
nistry, we have the highest testimony in the contemporary statements of Bede and 
Ceolfrid. Alcuin, later in the same century, ranks him with Columba and Comgall, in 
the well-known epigram 1 

" Patritius, Cheranus, Scotorum gloria gentis, 

Atque Columbanus, Congallus, Adomnanus atque, 
Praeclari patres, morum vitscque magistri, 
His precibus pietas horum nos adjuvet omnes." 

In a later age, Eordun, in addition to the trite commemoration, " virtutibus pollens 
et miraculis," says of his literary fidelity, " quando historias et res gestas conscripsit, 
de more semper habuit auctorem suum in testimonium adducere." The Irish, of 
course, are loud in his praises. In the Vision he is styled the ' noble sage of the 
western world' 11 , and his Life ascribes to him the combined virtues of Patriarchs and 
Apostles, while the Pour Masters sum up the evidence thus : " Adamnan was a good 
man, according to the testimony of St. Beda, for he was tearful, penitent, given to 
prayer, diligent, ascetic, temperate ; he never used to eat except on Sunday and Thurs- 
day ; he made a slave of himself to these virtues ; and, moreover, he was wise and 
learned in the clear understanding of the Holy Scriptures of God." Yet he was not 
without his temptations, and there is a curious coincidence between his Irish Life, and 
the Lessons in the Breviary of Aberdeen as to the manner in which the enemy made 
his assaults, namely, in human form, and with knotty, diabolical questions . The phi- 



k September 23 . Cave erroneously has 2 3 Octob. 
(Hist. Literar. vol. i. p. 594 6, Oxon. 1740) ; and in 
this he is followed by Casimir Oudin (Comment, de 
Script. Eccl. vol. i. col. 1666, Lips. 1722). Oudin, 
however, avoids two other blunders of Cave, where 
the latter states that Surius published Adamnan's 
Life of St. Columba , and that Serarius was the first 
editor of the tract De Loots Terra Sanctce. 

1 Epigram Flacci Albini sea Alcuini Opera, 
torn. ii. vol. i. p. 219 a (ed. Andr. Quercetano [Du 
Chesne], 1777). 

m Fordun. Scotichronicon, iii. 49, 51. 

n Western world. Gbamnan UaGhinbe apb- 



ecnaib i op carp bomain. See note a , p. 370. 

Questions. The Breviary of Aberdeen relates 
that a child was found, who " ante Dei virum duc- 
tus multa ei probleumata prasposuit. Tune sanctus 
facto signaculo crucis inimicum effugavit, qui in 
specie infautis beatum virum temptare voluit." 
Lect. iii. (Propr. SS., Part. Estiv. fol. 114 66). 
The Irish Life states that "the demon came in hu- 
man form to converse with Adamnan, for the men of 
Munster compelled him by force to come to Adam- 
nan. And he came with many hard questions. 
One of the questions was, Was it in shape or with- 
out shape that the Devil worshipped, and was it 



Iviii 



Appendix to Preface. 



losophy of these legends is, that they arose, in an imaginative age, out of the prevailing 
and well-founded belief in Adanman's learning and mental ability. Among his many 
virtues, diligence in his calling seems to have been one. The energy of his character 
has left its impress on the traditions of the country in the many journeys which he un- 
dertook, and the synods which he held ; and he himself bears honest testimony to the 
multiplicity of his labours, in the epilogue of his tract on the Holy Places p : "Quse et 
ego quamlibet inter laboriosas et prope insustentabiles tota die undique conglobatas 
ecclesiasticas sollicitudines constitutus, vili quamvis sermone describens declaravi" 
Filial piety was another of his virtues, and out of his character for it grew the legend 
cited at p. 179, infra, and the title of his Feilire, or Festology, Incipit Feilire Adam- 
nain tna TTlachaip \_for Ms mother} hie. 

The undoubted writings of Adamnan are, his tract De Locis Sanctis^, and the Vita 
S. Columbce. The former, whose authorship is proved beyond all question by Bede, 
opens with the following prologue 1 ": "In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti, 
texere librum de locis incipio sanctis. Arculfus sanctus episcopus, gente Gallus, 
diversorum longe remotorum peritus locorum, verax index et satis idoneus, in Hiero- 
solymitana civitate per menses novem hospitatus, et locis cotidianis visitationibus 
peragratis, mini Adamnano hsec universa quse infra craxanda sunt, experimenta dili- 
gentius perscrutanti, et primo in tabulas describenti, fideli et indubitabili narratione 
dictavit, quse nunc in membranis brevi textu scribuntur." This interesting record is 
an important item in the history of writing, as showing the collateral and respective 
uses among the Irish of waxed tablets 8 and membranes for literary purposes, towards 
the close of the seventh century. 

The other genuine work of Adamnan wants the external evidence which the tract 
De Locis Sanctis possesses, and bears testimony on certain ecclesiastical questions 



through knowledge or in ignorance that the Devil 
worshipped ?" They also relate how the Devil was 
brought to Hy in the shape of a corpse, to be buried, 
and how it rose up and spoke, putting, as the Life 
says, many wonderful questions to the congrega- 
tion, all of which Adamnan resolved. 

P Tract on the Holy Places. See the passage 
cited at p. 242, infra. 

i De Locis Sanctis. Gretser's edition (Ingoldst. 
1619) was printed from a MS. sent to him by Fa- 
ther Rosweyd, " ex intima Holandia" (Prolegom. 
p. 22). The MS. ssec. viii., which is mentioned in 
note x , p. viii. supra, is described in the Nouveau 
Traits de Diplomatique as "de S. Germain des Pres, 
num. 844" (torn. iii. p. 66), "un petit in-folio, en 



ecriture ordinaire du viii. an ix a siecle" (ib. pp. 129, 
132) : " ce MS. etoit dans la biliotheque de Corbie" 
(ib. p. 355). It is probably the Corbey MS. which 
was collated by Mabillon. Besides the MSS. men- 
tioned at p. viii., there is another in the British 
Museum (Cod. Cotton, Tiberius, D. v. pars ii. pp. 
156 a to 184 &). It is in writing of the fourteenth 
century, and though copied by an ignorant scribe, and 
imperfect, contains some valuable various readings. 
It has been collated by the editor. 

r Prologue Mabillon, Acta SS. Ord. Bened. sac. 
iii. pt. ii. p. 456 (Venet. 1734). 

8 Waxed Tablets See note ', p. 358, infra. Thus 
also in the same tract: "Cujus mihi formam in 
tabula cerata Arculfus ipse depinxit" (i. 2); and 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. 



lix 



which it has sometimes been judged desirable to invalidate. Sir James Dalrymple, in 
1714, when defending the Presbyterian view of Church government 1 , found it conve- 
nient to throw discredit on the anecdote told in i. 44 (p. 85, infra), and, as a means 
towards this, called the genuineness of the whole work in question. " I cannot agree," 
says Sir James, "with our Biographer", that the Authority of Adamnanus is equal, far 
less, preferable, to that of Bede, since it was agreed on all hands to be a fabulous History, 
lately published in his Name, and that he was remarkable for nothing, but that he was 
the first Abbot of that Monastery, who quit the Scottish Institution, and became fond 
of the English Romish Bites." In our own day Doctor Giles, when translating Bede's 
Ecclesiastical History, added the remark v : " Besides the work < On the Holy Places,' 
Adamnan is the reputed author of a ' Life of Saint Columba,' but I have strong doubts 
of Adamnan' s having written it. I propose shortly to publish the original text of both 
these works." On what the writer's scruples were founded does not appear, as the 
proposed opportunity of declaring it has never occurred. It is to be hoped that the 
doubts originated in a different style of research from that which made Bede's Colum- 
eelli an island w , and Decvrmach the same as Derry x ! Lastly, in 1851, a Prussian 
clergyman y , hoping to extend to a portion of British antiquities the enlightenment of 
German criticism, objected to the Vita Adamnani on these grounds : "Ha3c ipsa adeo 
fabulis est obscurata, ut vix credi possit, vii saeculo, quo literae apud Hyienses flo- 
ruerunt, ejusmodi nugas esse conscriptas. Prologi autem Yitae suspicionem mihi 
faciunt, quorum titulum ' Praefatio Apologiaque Adamnani Abbatis sancti scriptoris' a 
librario esse praepositum nemo non videt, apologiam vero, quae tarn stylo ac sermone 
quam re aliena sit a Yita ipsa, ncticiam esse, facile apparet." But surely these are 
not the observations of one qualified to pronounce judgment on such a question. If 
nugce and fdbulce such as Adamnan' s indicate spuriousness, what becomes of early 
biography ? As to the title of the Prologue, had he consulted a good edition 2 , he might 

again, "juxta exemplar quod mihi Arculfus inpagi- the translation of Bede, v. 9, and Dr. Giles cor- 



nola figuravit cerata depinximus" (i. 3). 

* Church government In an anonymous pub- 
lication, bearing the title, A Vindication of the 
Ecclesiastical Part of Sir James Dalrymple's His- 
torical Collections, in answer to a late Pamphlet, 
intituled, The Life of the Reverend Mr. John Sage, 
p. 21 (Edinb. 1714). 

u Biographer. The writer of the pamphlet in 
question was Rev. John Gillan, afterwards Bishop 
of Dumblane. 

v Remark. Bede's Ecclesiastical History, in 
Bonn's Antiquarian Library, p. 264 (Lond. 1847). 



rected it in his second edition, p. 248. 

x Derry. Bede, p. 1 14. The derivation of Dal- 
rieta, namely, Dal-Ri-Eta, 'the portion of King 
Eta,' in p. 7 ; and the character of Hy as " one of 
the most fertile" of the Scottish islands, in p. 113, 
are not borne out by record or fact. 

y Prussian clergyman. Carolus Guilielmus 
Schoell, in his dissertation, De Ecclesiastics Brito- 
num Scotorumque Historic Fontibus (Berolini, 
1851), p. 61. 

z Good edition. As Colgan's. Pinker ton (p. 53) 
takes the spurious title from Canisius. See Vance 



Island. The British Critic noticed this error in Lectiones at pp. 3, 456, infra. 



Ix Appendix to Preface. 

have solved that difficulty ; and if he had gone further, he might have found the 
Bollandist's remarks' 1 upon the expression. Lastly, as to the Apology, the res is of 
course different from the narrative of the Vita, while the stylus ac sermo are so similar 
to the rest, that none save the architect of a paradox could discern the difference in 
the materials. The Life, where there is a slight variation of style, tells its own story, 
for it professes to be compilation ; and we might as well deny the genuineness of Bede's 
Ecclesiastical History, because an early chapter is borrowed from Gildas, and another 
from Constantius, without acknowledgment. There is internal evidence in the Life on 
the following points to satisfy any but a theorist, that, i , It was written by an eccle- 
siastic, living in loua i-nsula (pp. 176, 181), styled nostra (pp. 12, 178), in which was 
nostrum monasterium (pp. 58, 72, 177); 2, By the superior of the monastery (pp. 16, 
26, 223 tit.'); whose immediate predecessor was Falbeus, and he a successor of Segi- 
neus (pp. 1 6, 26); 3, By one who conversed with those who had heard S. Columba's 
voice (p. 73); who conversed with a person who remembered the night on which S. 
Columba died (p. 238) ; who conversed with the acquaintances of St. Columba's 
friends (pp. 50, 85, 237) ; who conversed with a person who had witnessed the battle 
of Dun-Ceithirn in 629 (p. 95) ; who knew an early friend of the St. Fintan who died in 
635 (p. 22) ; who conversed with the nephew of his predecessor Yirgnous who died 
in 623 (p. 225); who was living when the battle of Magh-Bath took place (p. 200) ; 
who witnessed the ravages of the Great Pestilence (p. 182); who was a personal 
friend of King Aldfrid (p. 185) ; who lived when the House of Gabhran was declining 
(p. 201); 4, By one whose name was Adamnan (pp. 16, 95, 225, 238). Here is an 
accumulation of evidence which should satisfy any mind, and the more so as it is 
for the most part undesigned and incidental, the internal counterpart of the writer's 
own declaration: "Hujus ergo prsemissaB narrationis testes, non bini tantum vel 
terni, secundum legem, sed centeni et amplius adhuc exstant" (pp. 17, 182). 

Besides these Latin works, Adamnan is said to have written, i, A Life of St. 
Patrick. This is stated twice in the Tripartite Life b . 2, Poems. Tighernach cites 
some verses of his, at the year 695, and the Four Masters, at 742. His alleged Feilire, or 
' Festology,' consisting of seven quatrains and a half, comes also under this head. The 
poem on the remission of the Boromean tribute, containing fifty-two stanzas, though 
bearing his name, is hardly compatible with his religious character, and evidences the 
genius rather than the piety of the writer. 3, Historia Hibernorum ab origine ad sua 
tempora, mentioned by "Ward , but otherwise unknown. 4, Epitome metrica triginta 
voluminum legum Hibernicarum, also mentioned by Ward ; and, like the preceding 
article, probably some compilation of modern date and no authority. 

a Bollandists remarks. See p. xiii. supra. Thaum. pp. 128 6, 167 a). See note n , p. 41, supra. 

b Tripartite Life. Lib. i, 70, iii. 99 (Trias c Ward. Rumoldus, p. 218 (Lovan. 1662). 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. Ixi 

Of Adamnan' s two Latin works, the tract De Locis Sanctis is the better written 
and more flowing, but it bears a striking resemblance to the other in many particulars 
of style, and the use of peculiar words and phrases. In the following pages the reader 
will observe the liberal employment of diminutives , so characteristic of Irish composi- 
tion ; and he will find them, in many cases, used without any grammatical force, and 
commutable, in the same chapters, with their primitives. The same tendency is also 
observable among verbs in the use of frequentatives and intensitives. He delights in 
the distributive numerals instead of cardinals, and in the adjective termination ax 
where admissible. He uses the pluperfect for the perfect, and the nominative instead 
of the ablative absolute. He occasionally employs Greek d , or Greco-Latin words ; 
and in a few instances introduces Irish and Hiberno-Latin expressions 6 . Proper 
names'" he sometimes inflects according to the rules of Irish grammar, so that in a 
Latin narrative they present an anomalous appearance. Above all, the artificial, and 
often unnatural, interweaving of his words, in long sentences, and the oft-recurring 
ablative absolute in awkward position, will strike the reader as remarkable features 
of the style. 

One subject more remains to be considered : the veneration of St. Adamnan' s me- 
mory. In testimony of this, two classes of monuments exist, namely, the churches 
under his patronage, and the appellations commemorative of his name. 

St. Adamnan's Irish Churches. 

i . JRathboth. He is the patron, but not the founder 5 , of this church. It was ori- 
ginally monastic ; and in the bestowal of conventual honours among the ancient Irish, 
the distinctions of Orders were not regarded. Hence, when Raphoe became an episco- 
pal see, but under its old patronage, after-ages, supposing that a bishop's see must 
originate with a bishop h , took advantage of Adamnan's phonetic name Eunari, and 
created a bishop Eunan patron of the diocese, moving his festival a fortnight back in 
the month, and leaving Adamnan to enjoy his old abbatial honours on the 23rd. Pope 
Clement XII. approved of a mass for Bishop Eunan's festival-" on the 7th of September. 

c Diminutives. See Glossary, voce Diminutiva, Ainmurech, gen. of Ainmire (pp. 91, 201); Loigse, 

d Greek See Glossary, voce Grcedsmi. gen. of Loigis (p. 210); Leathain, gen. of Liathan 

e Irish expressions. See Hi, and Hininglas in (p. 220); Draigniche,gen.ofDraignech(fip.^, 225). 

Glossary. Thus maic, the gen. of mac (pp. 32, 40). 8 Founder This was St. Columba. See p. 280. 

f Proper names. Thus, Ferguso (p. 8); Aido h Bishop. See the names of Irish sees founded 

(PP- n 36, 4 X > 45) 82, 225), in the genitive; by presbyters, at p. 335. 

Comgitt, gen. of Comgall (p. 32) ; Domnill, gen. ! Eunan. See the various forms of this name, at 

of Domnall (p. 201) ; Fechureg, gen. of Fiachrach pp. 256, 257, to which may be added, as an ultima- 

(p. 45, 225) ; Cellaiff, gen. of Cellacft (p. 65) ; turn of corruption, St. Arnold. See p. Ixvi. infra. 

Colgion and Colgen, gen. of Colgu (pp. 65, 82); J Bishop Eunan's festival. See p. 257, infra. In 



1 



Ixii 



Appendix to Preface. 



which was printed in Paris in 1734. Accordingly, the Bollandists k place the comme- 
moration of " S. Eunanus Episcopus, Confessor, Baphose in Hibemia," at Sept. vii., in 
a short notice edited by Joannes Stiltingus. Alban Butler 1 , following this authority, 
repeats the error at the same day ; and in the Irish Calendar appended to the Dublin 
edition" 1 of his valuable book, the same fictitious patron intrudes on another saint's 
day. St. Adamnan's bed" used to be shown at Eaphoe. 

2. Skreen. A parish church of the diocese of Killala, in the county of Sligo, 
barony of Tireragh, bounded on the north by Sligo Bay. The site of the church is an 
old grant. The Life of Earannan relates that Tibraide [son of Maelduin, Lord of Hy- 
Eiachrach] bestowed upon St. Columba and his fraternity three pleasant portions of 
ground, one of which " locus isto sevo Cnoc-na-maoile p dicebatur, postea a S. Adamnano 
Abbate, Serin- Adhamhnain, i. e. Scrinium S. Adaranani dictus." St. Adamnan is locally 
called A'wnaun, and his well is situated a little to the east of the old church, at the other 
side of the road. Erom this well the townland Toberawnaun [Cobap G&arhnain] derives 
its name, between which and the townland Soodry runs the Dunmoran stream. Over 
this rivulet, in connexion with a boreen, is the Drehicl Awnaun, or ' Bridge of Adam- 
nan,' formed of a flag nine feet long, and nine inches broad, resting on two stones in 
the bed of the stream, two feet high. It does not nil the whole breadth of the stream, 
so that at either end there is a vacant space between it and the bank. The natives say 
it was formed by the saint, for his convenience in going from his church to the strand ; 



the diocese of Raphoe, St. Eunan is generally con- 
sidered to be a different individual from Adamnan, 
and the error derives support from the custom which 
prevailed of holding the commemoration of St. 
Etinan as patron of the diocese on the yth of Sep- 
tember. 

k B'jllandists Acta Sanctorum, Sept. torn, in., 
p. 128, where the following is found : "Castellanua 
in Martyrologio universal! S. Eunanum memoravit 
inter Ahemeros, seu Sanctos illos, quorum cultus 
certo diei affixus non est. Inter Missas proprias 
Sanctorum patronoruin Francias et Hibernias, quse 
Parisiis anno 1734, impressa3 sunt, jubente summo 
Pontifice Clemente xii., ad vii. Septembris legitur 
Missa de S. Eunano, eique praepositus est hie titu- 
lus : Infesto Sancti Eunani episcopi et Confessoris, 
ecclesicB et dicecesis Rappotensis putroni generalis. 
Missa haec probat, jam saltern die vii. Septembris 
coli S. Eunanum, et quideni ut patronum dicecesis 
Rappotensis. Casterum Missa ilia nihil habet de 
gestis Sancti, atque ea de causa nihil ex ilia hue 



transfero. Solum obsen r o Evangelium legi ex Lucae 
cap. 10 de missione Septuagiuta duorum Christi 
discipulorum : ex quo utcunque colligi potest, S. 
Eunanum haberi pro Viro apostolico, qui fidem 
apud suos promulgavit." 

1 Alban Butler, He has a " Saint Eunan, first 
Bishop of Raphoe in Ireland," under September 7. 
" The monastery founded there by St. Columb, and 
restored by St. Adamnan, being converted into an 
episcopal see, St. Euuan was appointed to govern 
it." Ib. The error about St. Eunan is repeated un- 
der St. Adamnan at Sept. 23. 

m Dublin edition. R.Coyne, 1838. See vol. ii. 
p. 1118. 

n Adamnan's bed. Harris's Ware's Works, vol. 
i. p. 270. It was probably a flag. 

Life of St. Farannan Cap. 8 (Colgan, Act. 
Sanctorum, p. 337 a). 

P Cnoc-na-moile See the interesting notes on 
this name in O'Donovan's Tribes and Customs of 
Hy-Fiachrach, pp. 267, 416. 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. Ixiii 

and some additions which were lately made to it, in order to complete the continuity 
of the path, were speedily removed, as foreign to the original design. The church 
derives its name, it is said, from Adamnan' s shrine, which was preserved there. This 
shrine might be supposed to enclose St. Adamnan' s bones, and to be the case contain- 
ing the reliquim Adamnani, which were brought over to Ireland in 727 for the renewal 
of his Law, and which were taken back to Hy in 730. But, according to a record in 
one of the Brussels MSS. q , which was copied by Michael O'Clery, in 1629, from " an 
old black and difficult manuscript of parchment," the contents of the shrine were the 
various relics which Adamnan himself had collected. The record opens by saying, 
' ' Illustrious was this Adamnan. It was by him was gathered the great collection of 
the relics [map Gym] of the saints into one shrine, and that was the shrine which 
Cilline Droicthech r , son of Dicolla, brought to Erin to make peace and friendship 
between the Cinel Conaill and Cinel Eoghain." It then proceeds to enumerate the 
twenty-six articles which were enclosed in it, consisting of manuscripts of the Gospels, 
hymns, and poems ; articles of apparel belonging to the saints of Ireland ; and a few 
relics of St. Paul and the Yirgin Mary ; the aggregate of which must have filled a 
large box, and been a rather heavy load to carry about. Colgan couples this shrine 
with the church of Skreen, and observes 8 : "Est ecclesia multorum reliquiis nobilis et 
veneranda, Dioacesis Kill-aladen. in regione de Tir Ehiachrach, de qua, vide plura in 
notis ad vitam S. Adamnani, ubi dabimus* catalogum reliquiarum in illo scrinio recon- 
ditarum." In 832 the shrine of Adamnan was in the keeping of Tuathal mac Eeradh- 
aich, Abbot of Rechra and Durrow, from whom it was carried off from Donaghmoyne" 
by the Danes. It is very likely that there were two shrines called Adamnan' s, the 
older, containing his own remains v , which is the one referred to in the Annals, the 
other w , containing the miscellaneous objects mentioned in the catalogue, which was in 
after-times coupled with his name, and preserved in his church of Skreen. 

3. Drumhome. A parish in the diocese ofRaphoe, county of Donegal, barony of 
Tirhugh. It is the Dor sum Tomme mentioned in such interesting connexion at p. 238, 

i Brussels MSS. Burg. Libr., No. 2324-40^. 26. his bones were expected to have been found dry 

r Cilline Droicthech. He was fourteenth Abbot (Bede, H. E. iv. 30). The relics of Bp. Aidan were 

of Hy. See p. 382, infra. enshrined within thirty years of his death (iii. 26). 

s Observes. Acta Sanctor. p. 340 6, n. 42. w The other The ancient catalogue calls it a 

1 Dabimus. The promise was not fulfilled, for cido", which is the term used elsewhere for the lea- 

his work terminates at March 30. them satchels in which the early ecclesiastics used to 

u Carried from Donaghmoyne See pp. 80, 389. carry about their books. See p. 1 15, infra. In the 

v His own remains. So the writer supposes at p. present instance the words in cimg have the inter- 

315, infra. This would allow but twenty-three lineal gloss .1. m fcpine, 'i.e. the shrine.' It 

years' interval between his death and the enshrine- was probably of leather, for the recital commences 

ment of his remains. But the grave of St. Cuth- thus : " fair youth, noble is the theca thou hast 

bert was opened eleven years after his death, and taken upon thy back." 

i 2 



Ixiv Appendix to Preface. 

and was probably in the neighbourhood of St. Adamnan's birth-place. The seat of a pow- 
erful branch of the Cinel Conaill was in this parish (p. 38); and in it was also preserved 
the reliquary called the Cathach (p. 284). Fleming*, in reference to Adanman, says: 
"Animadvertendum, ipsum antequam Hiensis monasterii administrationem suscepisset, 
plura in Hibernia monasteria, sub editas a se regulaB praescriptis erexisse, quorum pra?- 
cipua fuere Rapotcnse, Pontis-Adamnani, Droimtuamense, et Scrinense." To this list 
Colgan adds 5 ' : " Colitur S. Adamnanus in Ecclesiis de Dunbo, Aregal, Boithfheabha, et 
Grelleach, in dicecesi Derensi." 

4. JErrigal. A parish in the diocese of Deny, county of Londonderry, barony of 
Coleraine, formerly called, from its patron, Airecal Adharnhnain, the ' habitation of 
Adanman' 1 . It is now best known through its village Garvagh. The present parish 
church stands on a modern site. The old site is in the townland of Ballintemple, 
where the foundations remain, measuring 52 by 18 feet. South of this is the only 
local commemoration which now remains in the parish, namely, an eminence called 
St. Onan's Rock. It is marked on the Ordnance Map (sheet 1 8, at foot), but at the 
time it was noted there was not a man in the county that knew who St. Onan was. 

5. Dunbo. A parish in the same diocese, county, and barony. The ruins of the 
old church, situate near Downhill, measure 63.2 by 27.6 feet. In this parish is 
the Munitio Cethirniof-p.gi, infra. 

6. JBovevagh. A parish in the same diocese and county, barony of Keenaght. 
Archbishop King's list makes S. Eugenius the patron, which name may be regarded as 
a Latin form of Eunan a . Local belief makes St. Ringan, that is, JSTinian, the patron ; 
but Colgan' s authority, already cited, is superior, as he lived in an age when these 
matters were better understood than now. The old church measures 51 feet by 17.6. 

7. Greallach. Now Templemoyle b , in the parish of Cloncha , diocese of Deny, 
county of Donegal, barony of Inishowen. It is a small burial-ground, with the 
faintest traces of a quadrilateral building ; situate on a rocky slope, amidst a wretched 
group of cabins, which form the hamlet of Templemoyle on the road between Culdaif 
and Cam. It contains but one tombstone, bearing the name of James Maginnis, a 
schoolmaster, who died Jan. 25, 1819. 

8. JBallindrait. In the parish of Clonleigh, diocese of Derry, county of Donegal, 
and barony of Raphoe. It adjoins Raphoe on the east, and is the Pons Adamnani 
mentioned above by Fleming. The Irish name d is Opoicec Gftamnam. There is no 
church there now. 

* Fleming. Collectanea, p. 435 b. So also Var- a Eunan. See Colton's Visitation, p. 85. 

dasi Rumoldus, p. 219. b Templemoyle. See Colton's Visitation, p. 69. 

y Colgan adds. Acta Sanctor. p. 387 a, n. 7. c Cloncha. CluaiTl caca of Calendar, July 1 6. 

z Habitation ofAdamnan. See Primate Colton's d Irish name See the authority cited by O'Do- 

Visitation, edited by Beeves, p. 80. novan, in the Four Mast. An. 1607 (p. 2353). 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. Ixv 

9. Syonan. A townland in the parish of Ardnurcher, diocese and county of 
Meath, barony of Moycashel. It is Sui&e G&ariindin in Irish, that is, 'Seat of 
Adamnain.' The ruins of a castle exist here, but Macgeoghegan says that it was not 
church land. The tradition of the neighbourhood is, that St. Adamnan, when on a, 
visit to Ireland, preached to his relatives, the descendants of Fiacha, son of iNiall, on 
a hill in the townland, which ever since has borne his name. 

10. Killonan. A townland in the parish of Derrygalvin, county of Limerick. The 
name seems to be formed from cill G&arhnain, but without confirmation from any 
other ostensible local evidence. 

St. Adamnan's Scotch Churches. 

1 . Furvie. A chapelry in the parish of Slains, on the east coast of Aberdeen, 
north of the Ythan Mouth. This seems to have been Adamnan's chief commemora- 
tion in Scotland, for it is the one connected with his name in the Breviary of Aber- 
deen^ " S. Adampnani abbatis patroni apud Fund Aberdon. dyoces." In the Yiew 
of the Diocese of Aberdeen 5 it is stated, under parish of Slaines : " Here stood of old 
the parish church of Furvie (dedicated to St. Fidamnan, Abbot of Icolmkill), over- 
blown by the sands." The New Stat. Acct. h says : " On the estate of Leask, there is 
another ruin of a religious house, evidently a Eoman Catholic chapel, as the place 
where the altar stood is plainly discernible. It is small, but must be considered a fine 
old ruin. One gable and Gothic window are still nearly entire, and the walls are 
overgrown with ivy. It stands in the middle of a small plantation of stunted firs 
and alder, on a little eminence gently rising from, a swampy bottom, with a rivulet 
half enclosing it on the south side. It is called St. Adarnannan's Chapel." The same 
name is given to it in the Old Statistical Account 1 . 

2. Forglen. A parish in the north-east angle of Banff, separated from Aberdeen- 
shire by the Doveran. It was also called Teunan-kirlc, from, a peculiar form of the 
patron's name. Adam King j , in his Calendar, at Sept. 23, has " S. Thewnan abbot 
and confessor in Scotland maister to king eugenius ye 6. 684." Dempster k also calls 
him Thewnanus, placing his day at Sept. 23 ; but Camerarius 1 while he mentions 
"Sanctus Adamannus Episcopus, Northumbrorum Apostolus" (a man who never 
existed), at Sept. 25, notices "Sanctus Thevuanus Abbas et Confessor" at Sept. 26, 
adding, "Monasterio Mailrossensi diu preefuit hie Sanctus." The writer in the Old 

e Tradition. SeeO'Donov., Four Mast. An. 703. * Old Stat. Account. Vol. v. p. 276. 

f Breviary of 'Aberdeen. Propr. SS. Part. Estiv. J Adam King. Kallendar, in his Catechisme 

fol. 1 14 & a (Keprint), where the name is incorrectly (Paris, 1588). 

given Furni. k Dempster. Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Scot- 

s Diocese of Aberdeen. Collections, &c., p. 388. orum, vol. ii. p. 613. 

h New Stat. Account. Vol. xii. p. 593. l Camerarius. De Scotorura Fortitudine, p. 177. 



Ixvi 



Appendix to Preface. 



Stat. Account 1 " says : " The name of this parish was formerly 'T Eunan, or St. Eunan, 
after the saint of that name to whom the church had been dedicated." In the New 
Stat. Account", it is added that the ruins of the chapel still remain, at the mouth of 
a rivulet which falls into the Devcron. The valuable writer in the Collections on the 
Shires of Aberdeen and Banff , observes: "Mr. Thomas Innes takes him to be the 
very same with Saint Adamnan, who in Irish is called Ainan, and their day is the 
same, September the twenty-third ; Teunan being formed from Saint Ainan, as Trowel 
and Tantan from Saint Rule and Saint Antony." In this parish was formerly kept 
St. Columba's sacred banner, called the Breacbannach, mentioned at p. 330, infra; and 
he was also a patron of the church. 

3. Aloyn. A parish in the south of Aberdeenshire, on the north side of the Dee. 
"Aboyn hath for its tutelar Saint Theunan" p . About half-way between Aboyne 
Castle and the ruins of the ancient parish church, is a large old tree, now called the 
Skculan Tree* 1 , with a well at the foot of it called the SIceulan Well. The tree is still 
held in reverence. Thomas Innes r tells us that he was born in this parish, and 
mentions the objects alluded to as called in his day ' S. Eunan' s Well,' and ' S. Eu- 
nan's Tree.' 

4. Tannadice. A parish in Forfar, whose patron was St. Columba. A large rock 
on one of the braes of Angus, in this parish, is called St. Arnold's Seat*. That this 
name, though apparently so far removed, has been formed from Adamnan, appears by 
the following extract from a record of 1527*: "Et sic etindo versus austrum usque ad 
caput montis vocate Sanct JZunendi's Seit." "Who could suppose that the names St. Ar- 
nold's Seat and Syonan were identical in meaning ! 

5. Inchhith. An island in the Frith of Forth, E. K". E. of Inch Colm. " Inche- 
kethe, in qua prsefuit Sanctus Adarnnamis abbas, qui honorifi.ce suscepit Sanctum 
Servanu.ni, cum sociis suis, in ipsa insula, ad primum suum adventum in Scotiam." 
So Fordun u states, more trustworthy in his nomenclature than his chronology. 

6. Sanda. An island off the Mull of Cantyre, on the S. E. Fordun says of it v : 
" Insula Awyn, nbi cella Sancti Adamnani, ibique pro transgressoribus refugium." 
Father Mac Cana's MS. account of the island states that in Irish it is called Gbhuinn, 



m Old Stat. Account. Vol. xiv. p. 530. 

n New Stat. Account. Vol. xiii. pt. i. pp. 83, 87. 

Collections on Aberdeen and Banff. Vol. i. 
p. 509 (Spalding Club, Abercl. 1843). 

P Theunan. Collections of Aberdeen, p. 633. 

1 The Skeulan tree. New Stat. Account, vol. xii. . 
p. 1060; Collections of Aberdeen, p. 633. 

T Thomas Innes. Civil and Eccl. Hist. p. 301. 
5 5^. Arnold's Seat. New Stat. Acct. vol. xi. 
pt. i. p. 198. In the parish of Kinneff, in Kincar- 



dineshire, there was formerly a ruin called St. Arnty's 
Kill, which in the Macfarlane MSS. is mentioned as 
St. Arnold's Cell (New Stat. Acct. vol. xi. pt. 2, 
p. 314). Can this be a perversion of Adamnan ? 

1 Record of 1527. Liber Respons. in Scaccar. 
Reg. Scot. 1527-1539 (General Register House, 
Edinburgh). 

u Fordun. Scotichron. i. 6. 

T Fordun says of it. Scotichron. ii. .10. 

w Account. Burgund. Libr. Brussels, No. 5307. 



Memoir of St. Adamnan. 



Ixvii 



Latinized Avonia. "In ea est asdicula S. Ninniano sacra, ad cujus ccenobium in Gal- 
vidia tota insula spcctat. Conjunctum huic sodiculaB cst ossarium siue sepulchretum 
quatuordocim filiorum SS 1 viri Senchani x Hibcrni sanctitate illustrium. Saxeo mu- 
rulo septum, in quo sunt septem grandia et polita saxa, quibus sanctissima corpora 
teguntur, in quorum medio erat obeliscus, altior hominis statura. Nemo mortalium 
impune ingrcditur ilium murulum." 

7. I&lleunan. A denomination of land in the parish of Kilkerran, in Cantyre, va- 
riously written Killewnanc and Kilyownane y , and, no doubt, formed from cill 
Q6amnam. 

8. Dalmeny. A parish in Linlithgow, near Queen's Ferry, having a fine old 
Romanesque church. Here was a chantry of St. Adamnan. The writer in the New 
Stat. Account 1 says : " Prom the crown-charter conveying the patronage capallanice et 
altaris Sancti Adamani' A infra ecclesiam parochialem de Dummany, it would appear to 
have been dedicated to St. Adaman, as the adjoining parish of Cramond was to 
St. Columba and the Yirgin Mary." 

At Campsie, in Perthshire, was a croft of land called St. Adamnan' s Acre*. 



In the above list it is observable that the dedications of St. Columba and Adamnan 
keep very close together. In Ireland, the churches of Raphoe, Skreen, and Drumhome 
are said to be founded by the former, yet under the patronage of the latter. In Scot- 
land, Forglen is St. Adamnan' s, but in it were St. Columba's lands of the Banner ; 
St. Columba's church of Tannadice has St. Eunan's Seat; St. Columba's church of 
Belhelvy neighbours to Furvy; Inch Colm's nearest land is Inch Keith; and St. Co- 
lumba's Cramond has Dalmeny next adjoining on the west. 

The memorial appellation formed from the saint's name was Giolla-AdhamJmain, 
or ' Servant of Adamnan.' It early became a Christian name, and we find an example 
of it in the Charters of Kells in the beginning of the twelfth century (p. 404, infra). 
It appears about the same time in the Mac Donnell family, for Somerlid, son of Gilla- 
Adhamnain, fell in 1164 (p. 408). Subsequently it became a favourite name in the 
family, and passed into that branch of it called the Mac Neills of Barra. Among them 



x Senchani. The chapel is now locally called 
Kilmashenaghan (Orig. Par. ii. p. 9), that is, Clll- 
Tno-Seoncain. Father Mac Cana adds : " In ilia 
insnla fuit repertum brachium Sancti TJltani, quod 
thecae argenteas inclusion, ante hoc bellum religiose 
servabatur a viro generoao ex inclyta Mac Donello- 
ruin familia." Could this be the reliquary now 
commonly called St. Patrick's Arm ? Nothing is 
known of its history, and as to the saint's name it 



has probably originated in a vulgar guess. See 
Ulster Journ. of Archrool. vol. ii. p. 207. 

>' Killownane. See Origines Parochiales, vol. ii. 
pp. 15, 1 6, 24. 

z New Stat. Acct. Vol. ii. pt. i. p. 102. 

a Sancti Adamnani. See Inquis. Spec, vicecom. 
Linlithgow, Nos. 135, 142, 155. 

b St. Adamnarts Acre. Inquis. Spec, vicecom. 
Perth, Nos. 64, 708, 880. 



Ixviii 



Appendix to Preface. 



we find, in 1495, Gilleownan* Makneill, grandson of Gilleownan. In Ireland it was 
borne by on 0'Preel d , in 1328. According to the usual process it became also a sur- 
name, and is the origin of Mac Lennan, the name of the old inhabitants of Glensheil in 
llosshire, which has passed into that familiar form from Mac Gilla-Adhamlmain, as ap- 
pears from the genealogy of the clan , who derive their name from Gillaagamnan, son 
of Cormac, son of Oirbertach, of the race of Ferchar Abhradhruadh. 



2. Chronological Summary of St. Columba's Life. 

St. Columba was born at Gartan f , a wild district in the county of Donegal, on the 
very day that St. Buite 5 , the founder of Monasterboice, departed this life. Thus the 



c Gilleownan. See the references in Origines Pa- 
rochiales Scotioe, vol. ii. p. 367. 

d O'Freel Annals Four Mast., A.D. 1328. 

e Genealogy of the clan. From Mac Vurrich 
MS., communicated by W. F. Skene, Esq. 

f Gartan. See Map. The earliest authority for 
St. Columba's birth-place is probably the statement 
in the old Irish Life: ^opcdn bin, dinm in luicc 
in no senip, ' Gortan, now, is the name of the 
place in which he was born.' O'Donnell and the 
Calendar of Donegal cite the alleged lines of St. 
Mura : 

TCusaft i n<5ancan t>a &eoin ; 
'Sbo hoiltoh i Gill mic Neoin ; 
'Sbo baipbeb mac na maipi, 
a cCulaig 06 t)ublaipi. 

' He was born at Gartan by liis consent;' 
And he was nursed at Cill-mic-Neoin ; 
And the son of goodness was baptized, 
At Tulach Dubhglaise of God.' 

None of the Latin Lives make any reference to the 
place of his birth. Local tradition, however, is 
very decided in confirmation of the Irish account. 
In the townland of Churchtown (Ord. Survey, sheet 
44), on the face of a hill which overhangs a small 
lake, called Lough-na-Calliagh, and commands a 
view of Lough Beagh on the right, and Lough 
Akibbon on the left, is a group of ecclesiastical re- 
mains which are held in great veneration on account 



of their connexion with the history of the saint. In 
the centre of the burying-ground are the vestiges of 
an ancient building, about a foot over the level of 
the ground, and measuring about 34 by 12 feet. 
Outside the burial-ground, on the N. W. and S. E., 
are two rudely-carved crosses, which time has 
greatly disfigured. Lower down on the S. E. is the 
Holy Well. About 42 yards S. S. W. of the old 
foundations are the walls of a small church, un- 
roofed, but otherwise in good preservation, marked 
on the Ord. Survey as " St. Columbkille's Chapel." 
The stone altar at the east end is in good preserva- 
tion. Lower down the hill, at some distance to the 
S. W., and in the townland of Lacknacor, is a flag 
upon which it is reported St-JDolumba was born ; it 
is marked on the Ord. Survey " St. Columbkille's 
Stone." The country people believe that whoever 
sleeps a night on this stone will be free from home- 
sickness when he goes abroad, and for this reason it 
has been much resorted to by emigrants on the eve of 
their departure. The Gartan clay is also believed 
to be a preservative against shipwreck and fire : but 
it must be raised by an O'Freel to make it effective. 
s St. Suite. His name is Latinized Boetius. He 
was son of Bronach, a descendant of Tadhg, son of 
Cian, son of Ailill Olum, and, as such, one of the 
Cianachta, whose territory embraced the southern 
part of Louth, where his church of Monasterboice is 
situate. He is styled "bishop of Mainister." A 



Summary of St. Columba 1 s Life. 



Ixix 



yth of December 11 is determined for an event, the date of which might otherwise have 
been unrecorded 1 ; and the Irish Calendars 5 , in noticing it, present at that day, the 
anomaly of a secular commemoration 11 . Authorities vary as to the year 1 , ranging from 
518 to 523 ; but calculation from Adamnan's data" 1 gives 521 as that most likely to be 
the true period. 



copy of his Life is preserved in one of the Ware 
MSS. in the British Museum (Cod. Clar. 39, Add. 
No. 4788), and it contains the following passage: 
" Sed et ipso sanctissimo die obitus sui de sancto 
Columba spiritualiter vaticinans ait, Hodie, inquit, 
natus est infaus cui nomen Columba, qui coram Deo 
et hominibus gloriosus existet, quique post xxx ta 
annos abbinc hue veniet, et meum sepulcrum revela- 
bit, et cemiterium designabit" (fol. 73). The old 
Irish Life of St. Columba contains exactly the 
same statement. The Round Tower and majestic 
crosses of Monasterboice are objects well known to 
tfie antiquary. 

h Seventh of December. The Irish_Life adds: 
Dapbain bin, ap ai laci pe6cmaine, ' on Thurs- 
day, of the week-days.' This will give the choice 
of 517 and 523 for his birth : for, Dec. 7 is e, there- 
fore, it being Thursday, A is the Sunday letter, which 
belongs to the above years. 

1 Otherwise unrecorded. In like manner, a syn- 
chronism rendered the birth-day of Alexander the 
Great notorious. 

i Irish Calendars. Marian Gorman, at Dec. 7, 
has 5ein Choltnm 6aib caemgil, which Colgan 
renders " Nativitas S. Columbse immaculati et prae- 
clari" (Trias Th. p. 483 a). The Calendar of Do- 
negal has <5ein Colmm-6ille, 'the Birth of 
Columcille.' 

k Secular commemoration. The Breviary of Aber- 
deen thus limits the admission of such : " Post ilium 
sacrosanctum domini nostri natalem diem nullius 
hotninis legimus nativitatem celebrari : nisi solum 
beati iohannis baptiste : in aliis sanctis et electis 
dei novimus ilium diem coli: quo illos post con- 
summacionem laborum et devictum triumphatumque 
mundum in perpetuas eternitates presens vita par- 
turiit." Propr. SS. Part. Estiv. fol. 15 bb. Baert 
observes on the present case : " Verum, cum non 
soleat Nativitas sanctorum festive celebrari, prae- 



terquam B. Marias Virginis et S. Joannis Baptistae, 
quia horum, et non aliorum Nativitas, sancta et 
immaculata ab omni peccato exstitit; crediderim hoc 
potius memoriae causa a Gormano inscriptum Mar- 
tyrologio fuisse, quam venerationis." Act. SS. Jun. 
torn. ii. p. 183 a. 

1 Fear. The Annals of Ulster waver between 
518 arid 522,< At the former date they say: "Na- 
tivitas Coluimcille eodem die quo Bute mac Bronaigh 
dormivit ;" at the latter, "Vet hie nativitas Coluim- 
cille." Tighernach places it in the same year with 
the battle of Detua, and the year after the death of 
Conlaedh, which was synchronous with the acces- 
sion of Justin the elder, in 518. The Four Masters 
fix St. Suite's death at 521. The Annals of Inis- 
fallen have 511, and those of Boyle 499 ; but their 
respective systems of computation are peculiar to 
themselves. O'Donnell calculates 520 (iii. 57, Tr. 
Th. p. 441 6). Ussher adopts 522 (Brit. Eccl. Ant. 
Index Chronol.) ; Colgan, .5 19 (Tr. Th. p. 486 a) ; 
while Dr. Lanigan fixes on 521 (Eccles. Hist. vol. 
ii. pp. 1 06, 114). The statement in the Irish Life 
gives 523 (note h , supra). Nennius has the follow- 
ing chronological note: "A nativitate Columba; 
usque mortem sancta? BrigidDB quatuor anni sunt" 
(Hist. Brit. 16, ed. Stevenson). Unfortunately, 
the exact date of St. Brigid's death is alike matter 
of controversy. 

m Adamnan's data. St. Columba was inhis forty- 
second year when he removed to Hy (Pref. 2, p. 9), 
that is, in 563^ In that year Whitsunday fell on 
the 1 3th of May, so that he was then 41 years, 
5 months, and^6 days, old. Add to this, 34 years 
for his sojourn in Britain (ib. and pp. 227, 228), 
and we get the date 97, so that the gih of June in 
that year found him 75 years, 6 months, and 2 days, 
old. Thus, with the Four Masters and Dr. Lanigan, 
we get 62 1 as the year of his birth. Bede's state- 
ment is that St. Columba died cum esset annorum 



Ixx 



Appendix to Preface. 



Fedhlimidh", the father of Columba, belonged to the clan which occupied, and 
gave name to, the territory surrounding Gorton, and was, moreover, a member of the 
reigning familiesP of Ireland and British Dalriada. Eithnci, the mother of Columba, 
was of Leinster extraction 11 , and descended from an illustrious provincial king. Thus 
the nobility of two races was combined in their son, and, no doubt, contributed to the 
extended influence which he acquired, when education, piety, and zeal were super- 
added to his honourable antecedents. 

He was baptized by the presbyter Cruithnechan", under the name Colum 1 , to which 
the addition of cille, signifying ' of the church'", was subsequently made, in reference 



septuaginta septem (H. E. iii. 4), which is followed 
by Tighernaclu The old Irish Life, and O'Donnell, 
refer his birth to 520 ; but the Annals of Ulster 
give 76 years as his age. 

11 Fedhlimidh. See Pref. 2, and note u , p. 8, 
infra. The form Aedelmith in the Appendix of 
Cod. B. is a clerical error. Cod. Cotton., at the 
same place, more correctly has Fedilmith. See 
pp. 246, 458. 

Clan. See note c , p. 192, and note , p. 320. 
i' Reigning families. See the Genealogical Tables 
at pp. 342, 438. 

( i Eithne. See Pref. 2, p. 8, infra, and pp. 190, 
246. This was a common name. The mothers of 
Bishop Aedh, of St. Maedoc of Ferns, and of St. 
Comgan of Glenn-Uissen, were so called. The Irish 
Calendar records the names of Eithne, daughter of 
Maine, who was commemorated on the east of the 
Boyne; and Eithne, daughter of Dunking, who 
Avas patron of Tulach-Ui-Felimidha(S'ewc/ias2Vaem/t 
in Book of Lecan). See also the six examples in the 
Index to O'Donovan's Four Masters. Doire-Eithue 
was the original name of Cill-mac-Nenain. 

r Leinster extraction. See herjpedigree and fa- 
mily history at pp. 8, 163, 164, 246, infra. The 
legend of king Aedh mac Ainmirech's death in the 
Book of Lecan (referred to in note c , p. 39, infra}, 
contains a dialogue between the king and St. Co- 
lumba, of which the following is a translation : " 
cleric, said the king, obtain for me from the Lord 
that my trophy [i. e. my head or scalp] be not 
gained by the Leinstennen. That is difficult for 
me, said Colamcille, because my mother is of them ; 
and they came to me to Durrow, and by fasting 



urged me to bestow the gift of a sister's son. And 
what they requested of me was that their trophies 
should not be carried off by a stranger king. And 
I promised them that." Noe, or Naue as Adamnan 
calls it (p. 9), the name of Eithne's grandfather, is 
common in Irish records. See An. Ult. 674, 710, 
789; and Rath-Noe, p. 87, infra. 

* Cruithnechan. See iii. 2, p. 191, infra. 
4 Colum See note b , p. 5, and note k , p. 6, infra. 
u Of the church. !JojL.a&.MrcAes, for then the 
name would be Colum na g-ceall. Bede rightly 
derives Cqlumcelli " a cella et Columba" (H. E. 
v. 9). So O'Donnell, as translated by Colgan, 
"additamento kille, quod cellam seu ecclesiam sig- 
nificat" (i. 30, Tr. Th. p. 393 6); " partim ab Ec- 
clesla, foelici omine, sortiturus" (i. 8, ib. 390 6) ; 
" pueri solebant prte gaudio, elevatis in coelum ma- 
nibus, dicere, Ecce advenit Columba de cella" {O'Don- 
nell ap. Colgan, Act. SS. p. 645 6). In the Leabhar 
Breac, we find the following rationale of the com- 
pound: Colum, pro simplicitate ejus dictus est : 
Cille .1. apa mince ciceb on chill in no les 
a palmu h-i combail na lenab compocup, 
ocup ba h-eb abbepbippen acuppu peppin : 
In came ap Colum becm mbiu on chill .1. 
o chelais bubslaipe i Cip Lugbach h-i 
Cineol Conaill. ' Cille, because of the frequency 
of his coming from the cell in which he read his 
psalms, to meet the neighbouring children. And 
what they used to say among themselves was, Has 
our little Colum come to-day from the cell, i. e. from 
Tulach-Dubhglaise in Tir-Lughdech in Cinell Co- _\ 
naill' (fol. 108 6). O'Donnell names Kilmacrenan : 
" Aucti nominis occasio fuit, quod puer sub id tern- 



Summary of St. Columba's Life. 



Ixxi 



to his diligent attendance at the church of his youthful sojourn. The tradition of the 
country is, that he was baptized at Tulach-Dubhglaise, now called Temple-Douglas*, 
a place about halfway between Gartan and Lettcrkenny, where there is a cemetery 
of considerable extent, containing the roofless walls of a large chapel, and, at a short 
distance on the north-east, within the enclosure, a square, elevated space, which ap- 
pears to have been artificially formed, and to be the spot which in O'DonneH's time 
was coupled with the memory of the saint w . 

The place where St. Columba is said to have spent the principal portion of his boy- 
hood was Doire-Eithne", a hamlet in the same territory, which afterwards exchanged 
this name, signifying Roloretum *JSitJmece, for Gill-mac- Nenairi", in commemoration, it 
is supposed, of the " Sons of Enan," whose mother was one of St. Columba's sisters 2 . 
The absence of any mention of this place in the ancient Irish Life, coupled with the 
fact that this parish was the original seat of the O'Donnells, might suggest the conjec- 
ture, that it was introduced into the biography of the saint as an expedient of a later 
age to add lustre to the chiefs of TirconneU, by associating the history of their patron 
with the origin of their race, were it not that there is evidence of a very early relation 
between St. Columba's family and the place, in the circumstance that the 0'Ereels a , 
who were the ancient herenachs of the church lands there, were descended, not from 
Dalach b ,the forefather of the O'Donnells, but from Eoghan, the brother of St. Columba. 
The name Cill-mac-Nenain, also, as explained above, indicates a like connexion. 



pus in ecclesia de Kilmacnenain educabatur." i. 30 
(Tr. Th. p. 393 6). Thus also the Calendar of Do- 
negal (June 9) : Qr- aipe ainmmgcep 6 o cill 
.1. aji a oileTYiain i cCill naic Nenain i 
cCenel Conuill, which Colgan renders: " Et 
cognomentum Kille adjectum est, quia in Ecclesia 
Kill-mac-Enain (id est filiorum Enani) in Tirco- 
nallia patria regione enutritus et educatus fuit" (Tr. 
Th. p. 483 6). The Life of St. Farannan (c. 3) 
explains Cille by cellis (Colg. Act. SS. p. 336 a) ; 
so also Notker, cited at p. 5, infra; but the other 
authorities far outweigh them. " Columba, quern 
Angli vocant CollumkillumSSocdin, Vit. S. Ken- 
tig. 0.39. It is worthy of observation that the epithet 
was not peculiar to St. Columba, for we find a Colman- 
cille, of the race of CollaDachrioch, commemorated 
at Oct. i (Cal. Donegal. ; Colg. Act. SS. p. 713). 

v Temple-Douglas. So marked on the Ord. 
Survey, sheet 52. The country people call it 
simply Dooglass. The grave -yard contains five 
roods, and is tastefully enclosed. It is situate in a 



pretty valley under Crookatee Hill, at the bottom 
of which flows the rivulet Dubh-glas, ' Black- 
stream,' which gave name to the place. This chapt'l 
is situate in the parish of Conwal, whose patron 
saint was Fiachra (Calend. Feb. 8) ; but its eccle- 
siastical relation to Kilmacrenan is thus shown by 
the inquisition of 1609: "A chappell called Tol- 
loughooglasse, and 12 gortes or acres of free land 
to the said chapell belonginge, out of which there is 
paid yearly to the O'Freelies some rent unknowen to 
the said jurors, which is the corbe of Kilmacrenan" 
(Ulster Inquis. Appendix, No. v.). 

w Memory of the Saint. See Ced Mitheachd Co- 
luimcille, No. 15, p. 281, infra. 

x Doire-Eithne. See pp. 192, 281, infra. 

y Cill-mac-Nenain See pp. 191, 247, 281, 320, 

404, infra. See Map. 

z One of St. Columbds sisters. Mincholeth. See 
note m , p. 247, infra. 

a O'Freels. See pp. 192, 281, 412, infra. 

b DalacJi. See Geneal. Table opposite p. 342. 



k2 



Ixxii 



Appendix to Preface. 



The youth Columba, when arrived at sufficient age, left the scene of his fosterage , 
uiid, travelling southwards, came to Moville d , at the head of Strangford Lough, where 
he became a pupil of the famous bishop, St. Finnian .. Here he was ordained deacon; 
and to the period of his sojourn in this monastery is referable the anecdote which is 
told by Adamnan in the opening chapter of the second book f . 

From Moville, St. Columba proceeded further southwards, and, arriving in Leinster, 
placed himself under the instruction of an aged bard called Gremman. At this stage of 
the saint's life, he being still a deacon, occurred an incident which Adamnan records 
in the course of his narrative 5 . 

Leaving Gremman, he entered the monastic seminary of Clonard, over which St. 
Finnian the founder then presided. Here St. Columba is said to have been numbered 
with a class of students who afterwards attained great celebrity as fathers of the Irish 
Church h . St. Finnian does not appear to have been a bishop 1 , and when Columba was 
subsequently judged worthy of admission to superior orders, he was sent to Etchen j , 
the bishop of Clonfad k , by whom he was ordained a priest 1 . 

According to the Irish memoirs, St. Columba left St. Finnian, and entered the mon- 
astery of Kobhi Clarainech m , whose establishment at Glas Naoidhen, now Glasnevin, 



c Fosterage. See note on pueri nutritor, in. 2, 
p. 191. 

d Moville See TlTag bile in the Map, and 

note a , p. 103. For Strangford Lough, see Loch 
Cuom on Map. 

Finnian. See note a , pp. 103 and 195. 

f Second book. See text and notes, p. 103, infra. 

Narrative. See H.J25, p. 137, infra. 

h Fathers of the Irish Church. See the expres- 
sion, Twelve Apostles of Erin, and the references in 
note 6 , p. 301, infra. 

' Not a bishop. See note , p. 195. Only one 
or two of his celebrated disciples afterwards received 
episcopal orders. Possibly the influence of his ex- 
ample regulated the after-choice of the majority. 

J Etchen See note b , p. 349, infra. He was of 
noble Leinster extraction, both by his father's and 
his mother's side. He was also uterine brother of 
Aedh, son of Ainmire, the sovereign who granted 
the site of Derry to St. Columba. He died in 578. 
See p. 37 r, infra. His festival is Feb. i r, at which 
day Colgan has collected the various particulars and 
legends of his life (Act. SS. pp. 304-306). 

k Clonfad. See Cluam paba in Map, a little 
west of Cluain Gpaipb, near the middle. It was 



situate in the territory of Feara-bile, now Farbill, a 
barony in Westmeath, coextensive with the parish 
of Killucan. In the townland of Clonfad, the Ord- 
nance Survey marks Monastery, on S.W. Bishop's 
Grave, and on W. Graveyard. In Bishop Dop- 
pirig's Visitation Book of Meath, preserved in Pri- 
mate Marsh's Library, the place is noticed as the 
chapelry 8. Educani de Clonfad. 

i Priest. The legend says that St. Columba 
went to receive episcopal orders from Etchen, but 
that, through a mistake of the bishop, priest's orders 
only were conferred. The whole story seems a fic- 
tion of a later age. It supposes, among other anom- 
alies, ordination per saltmn, and the degree of order 
to depend on the volition of the officiating minister. 
The legend is preserved in a note on the Feilire of 
JSngus. A Latin translation is given by Colgan 
(Acta SS. p. 3066, n. 17); and the original Irish, 
with an English translation, by Dr. Todd (Obits of 
Christ Church, p. liv.). 

m Mobhi Clarainech. Also called Berchan. The 
epithet Claraineach, which Lanigan incorrectly in- 
terprets ' lame,' properly signifies ' flat-faced,' being 
compounded of dla^tabula,, and eineac,./acie5, and 
is rendered tabulari facie in the Lives of SS. Brigid, 



Summary of St. Columba's Life. 



Ixxiii 



near Dublin, consisted of a group of huts or cells' 1 , and an oratory, situate on either 
bank of the Einglass . Here also are said to have been, at the same time, SS. Comgall, 
Ciaran, and Cainnech, who had been his companions at Clonard. A violent distemper 1 *, 
however, which appeared in the neighbourhood about 544, broke up the community, 
and Columba returned to the north. On his way he crossed the Bior q , now called the 
Moyola water, a small river which runs into Lough Neagh on the north-west, and, in 
doing so, prayed, it is said, that this might be the northern limit 1 " to the spread of the 
disease. Mobhi died in 545, and in the following year, according to the Annals of 
Ulster, the church of Derry was founded 8 by St. Columba, he being then twenty- five 
years of age. In 549 his former teacher, St. Pinnian of Clonard*, was removed from 
this life. 

About the year 553, he founded the monastery of Durrow u , of which, as his chief 
institution in Ireland, Bedc makes special mention. We have no means of ascertain- 
ing the dates of his other churches ; and all we can do with any probability is to allow 
generally the fifteen years' interval between 546 and 562 for their foundation. 

In 561 was fought the battle of Cooldrevny v , which is believed to have been, in u 
great measure, brought about at St. Columba' s instigation. A synod, which Adamnan 
states" was assembled to excommunicate St. Columba, met at Teltown, in Meath, pro- 



Cainnech, and Maidoc. St. Mobhi's day is Oct. 12. 
He is stated to have been one of the twelve Apostles of 
Erin, and a fellow-student with St. Columba at Clo- 
nard Vit S. Finniani, c. i9(Colg. A. SS. p. 395 a). 

n Group of cells The Irish Life of St. Columba 
says, Q m-boca ppi upci amap, 'Their huts 
were by the water, on the west.' 

Finglass. That is, 'fair stream,' commonly 
the Tolka. This is the slap, or 'stream,' which 
enters into the name Glas-Naoidhen, now Glasnevin, 
on the north of Dublin. 

P Distemper. The Irish Life says, Gcbepc 
ITIobii ppia a balcaib bepgi inb inaib i m- 
bacap ap bo n-icpa& ceicm anaicni& ann 
.1. in bui&e connaill, ' Mobhi told to his pupils to 
leave the place in which they were, for that a strange 
distemper was about to come, namely, the Buidhe 
chonnaill.' See Mr. W. K. Wilde's valuable ob- 
servations in Census of Ireland for 1851, Part v. 
vol. i. pp. 46, 416. 

<J Bior. See pp. 52, 209, infra, and Map. 
r Northern limit. This inconsiderable stream, in 
the lower part of its course, divides the dioceses of 



Armagh and Derry, which, in mo, were repre- 
sented under the names of Ardmacha and Ardsratha. 
Thus it was the boundary between the Airghialla, and 
the Cinel Eoghain branch of the northern Hy Neill ; 
and hence, perhaps, in the biography of a Neillian, 
it was represented as a boundary of disease. 

8 Derry founded. See note r , p. 160, infra. 

* Finnian of Clonard. He died in the Great 
Mortality. The Annals of Ulster, at 548, in re- 
cording his death, call him Finnio Maccucduib, the 
latter of which names is a clerical error for Macc- 
u-telduib. The designation is derived from Ailill 
Telduib, a progenitor of the saint. The tract De 
Matribus SS. Hib., attributed to /Engus, calls St. 
Finnian, "Findia, son of Ui-Tellduib." A succes- 
sor at Clonard, whose death is recorded in the same 
Annals at 653, is styled " Colman Mac Ua Tel- 
duibh." Thus it would seem that, as in Hy, so in 
Clonard, the chief offices were limited by clan. 

u Durrow The question of its date is considered 
in note b , p. 23, infra. 

v Cooldrevny. See Addit. Note B, p. 247, infra. 

w Adamnan states. Seeiii. 3, pp. 192-194, infra 



Ixxiv 



Appendix to Preface. 



bably at the instance of the sovereign who was worsted in the battle ; for Toltown was 
in the heart of his patrimonial territory, and was one of his royal seats. The assembly, 
however, was not unanimous, and St. Brendan of Birr protested against the sentence. 
St. Finnian of Moville*, also, soon after testified his sense of veneration for the accused, 
who had been once his pupil. 

"Whether the censure which was expressed against St. Columba by the majority of 
the clergy had, or could have had, any influence on his after course, is difficult to de- 
termine. Irish accounts say that St. Molaisi of Devenish, or of Inishmurry y , was the 
arbiter of his future lot, who imposed upon him the penance of perpetual exile from his 
native country. But this seems to be a legendary creation of a later age, when mis- 
sionary enterprise was less characteristic of Irish ecclesiastics than in St. Columba' s 
day. In removing to Hy, he did no more than Donnan z , M aelrubha*, and Moluoc b volun- 
tarily performed, and Cainnech wished to do. Scotland was then a wide field for cler- 
ical exertion, and St. Columba' s permanent establishment in one of its outposts, within 
a day's sail of his native province, entailed very little more self-denial than was required 
for the repeated and, perhaps, protracted visits of St. Finbar d , St. Comgall 6 , St. Bren- 
dan^ the two Fillans s , St. Bonan 11 , St. Flannan 1 , and many others k . It was a more decided, 



x Finnian of Moville. See iii. 4, p. 195, infra. 
This must have been the saint of Moville, not of 
Clonard, for the latter died in 549, whereas the nar- 
rative refers to about 562. 

>' Of Devenish) or of Inishmurry. See note k , 
p. 252, and note x , p. 287, infra. 

1 Donnan. See pp. 304-309, infra. 

Maelrubha. See note a , p. 138, note d , p. 215, 
p. 376, an. 671, 673, p. 382, an. 722, infra. 

b Moluoc. See note e, p. 371, infra. 

c Cainnech. See note b , p. 121, and note b , 

P- 335> in f ra - See also i- 4 (P- 2 7)> & 14 (P- i 2 3)- 
d St. Firibar. The founder and patron of Cork. 
He is also the patron saint of Dornoch, the episco- 
pal seat of Caithness ; and of the island of Barra, 
which derives its name from him. 

e St. Comgall. See iii. 17, p. 220. He founded 
a church in Heth, or Tiree (note b , ifc.). Holy wood 
in Galloway was anciently called, after him, JDer- 
congall. See authority cited in Keith, Scottish 
Bishops, p. 399 (Edinb. 1824). 

f St. Brendan. See iii. 17, p. 220, infra. He 
founded a church in Ailech, probably Alyth in 
Perthshire ; and another in Heth, or Tiree (Vit. c. 43, 
Cod. Marsh., fol. 63 6 a). He is the patron saint 



of Kilbrandon in the island of Seil (not far from 
which is Culbrandon), and of Boyndie in Banff. 

s The two Fillans. One of Strathfillan, whose 
day is Jan. 9, see note v , p. 367, note h , p. 384; the 
other, who appears in the Irish Calendar at Jun, 20, 
as " Faolan the Leper, of Eath-Erann in Alba, and 
Cill-Faolain in Laighis." Rath-Eranu is now Dun- 
durn, in the parish of Comrie in Perthshire. It is 
situate at the east end of Loch Earn, where also is 
the village of St. Fillan's. St. Faelan's memory is 
vividly preserved in the neighbourhood. See Old 
Stat. Acct. vol. xi. p. 181 ; New Stat. Acct. vol. x. 
pp. 582, 584. His Irish church is situate in the 
Queen's County, in that part of the parish of Kil- 
colmanbane which is in the barony of Cullenagh 
(Ord. Surv. sheet 18). In 1623 it was called Kill- 
helan [i. e. Gill paeldin] (Leinster Inquis., Com. 
Reginae, Nos. 24, 25, Jac. I.), which name is now 
disguised in Sallyheyland Thus also Killallan in 
Renfrew, whose patron was the former St. Fillan, 
is sometimes called Kylheylan (Origines Parochia- 
les, vol. i. p. 81). 

h St. Ronan. See note n , p. 416, infra. 

i St. Flannan. The patron saint of Killaloe. In 
Scotland he gives name to the Flannan Isles. 



Summary of St. Columba's Life. 



Ixxv 



and, therefore, a more successful course than theirs ; but it was equally voluntary : 
at least, there is high authority for supposing it to have been such. " Pro Christo pere- 
grinari volens, enavigavit," the common formula of missionary enterprise, is Adamnan's 
statement 1 of his motive: with which Bede's expression" 1 , "ex quo ipse prcedicaturus 
abiit," is in perfect keeping. That he returned more than once, and took an active part 
in civil and religious transactions, is demonstrable from Adamnan 11 . How much oftener 
he revisited Ireland is not recorded ; but these two instances are quite sufficient to dis- 
prove the perpetuity of his retirement. That he was not banished by secular influence is 
clear even from the legend, which represents his dismissal as an ecclesiastical penalty. 
Early in the next century, St. Carthach, or Mochuda, was driven by the secular arm 
from his flourishing monastery of Rahcn; but then he only changed his province, and 
established himself at Lismore . In doing so, however, he took his fraternity with him, 
and gave up all connexion with Rahen. But St. Columba, when he departed, severed 
no ties, surrendered no jurisdiction ; his congregations remained in their various settle- 
ments, still subject to his authority, and he took with him no more than the prescrip- 
tive attendance of a missionary leader. 

Durrow, his principal Irish monastery 11 , lay close to the territory of the prince 
whose displeasure he is supposed to have incurred, yet it remained undisturbed ; and 
when, at a later time, he revisited Ireland, to adjust the affairs of this house, it seemed 
a fitting occasion for "him to traverse Meath, and visit Clonmacnois q , the chief founda- 
tion of his alleged persecutor, and the religious centre of his family. Surely, if the 
Northern Hy Neill had defeated King Diarmait r , they could easily have sheltered 
their kinsman. 

In 563, St. Columba, now in his forty-second year, passed over with twelve 
attendants to the west of Scotland, possibly on the invitation of the provincial king 8 , 
to whom he was allied by blood. Adamnan relates* some particulars of an interview 
which they had this same year ; and the Irish Annals record the donation of Hy, as 
the result of King Conall's approval. At this time the island of Hy seems to have 



k Many others. As, SS. Berach, Berchan, Blaan, 
Catan, Comgan, Fiachra, Merinus, Mernoc, Molaise, 
Monenna, Munna, Vigean, &c., all of whom Demp- 
ster laid hold of, as Napoleon did the English 
travellers in France. The editor has in preparation 
a Scoto-British Calendar, in which he hopes to be 
able to show how extensively the ecclesiastical ele- 
ment of Ireland diffused itself throughout Scotland 
in early ages. 

1 Adamnan's statement. Pref. 2, p. 9, infra. 

m Bede's expression. Historia Ecclesiastica, iii. 4. 

n Demonstrable from Adamnan. Seethe note a , 



p. 9 ; note b , p. 23 ; note , p. 92, infra. 

Lismore. See note s, p. 37 1. For an account 
of the expulsion, see Lanigan's Eccl, Hist. vol. ii. 
p. 352. The original authority is St. Carthach's 
Life, which was printed by the Bollandists at 
May 14 (Acta SS. Maii, torn. iii. p. 385 &). 

P Principal Irish monastery. See note b , p. 23, 
and note b , p. 276. 

1 Clonmacnois. See note c , p. 24, infra. 

T Defeated King Diarmait. See pp. 31, 248,i'n//-. 
s Provincial king. Conall. See p. 434, infra. 
1 Adamnan relates. See i. 7, p. 32, infra. 



Ixxvi 



Appendix to Preface. 



been on the confines of the Pictish and Scotic jurisdiction, so that while its tenure was 
in a measure subject to the consent of cither people, it formed a most convenient centre 
for religious intercourse with both. The Scots were already Christians in name ; the 
Picts were not. Hence the conversion of the latter formed a grand project for the 
exercise of missionary exertion, and St. Columba at once applied himself to the 
task. He visited the king at his fortress" ; and having surmounted the difficulties 
which at first lay in his way, he won his esteem, overcame the opposition of his 
ministers"', and eventually succeeded in planting Christianity on a permanent footing 
in their province*. The possession of Hy was formally granted, or substantially con- 
firmed, by this sovereign also ; and the combined consent 1 to the occupation of it by St. 
Columba seems to have materially contributed to its stability as a monastic institu- 
tion. St. Columba afterwards paid several visits to the king>", whose friendship and 
co-operation continued unchanged till his death". 

In 573, St. Brendan, of Birr, the friend and admirer of St. Columba, died, and a 
festival was instituted at Hy a by St. Columba in commemoration of his day. 

Of the places where St. Columba founded churches in Scotland, Adamnan has pre- 
served some names, as Etliica, insult, Elena?, HimbaP-, Scia e , but he has given no dates, 
so that their origin must be collectively referred to the period of thirty-four years, 
ending in 597, during which the saint was an insulanus miles 1 . 

Conall, the lord of Dalriada, died in 574 s , whereupon his cousin, Aidan, assumed 
the sovereignty, and was formally inaugurated by St. Columba in the monastery of 
Hy h . JSText year -they both attended the convention of Drumceatt 1 , where the claims 
af the Irish king to the homage of British Dalriada were abandoned, and the inde- 
pendence of that province declared. 

St. Brendan, of Clonfert, who had been a frequent visitor of the western isles, and on 
one occasion had been a guest of St. Columba in Himba k , died in 577 ; and St. Finnian, 



u Fortress. Now Craig Phadrig, see i. 37, p. 73, 
and ii. 35, p. 150, infra. 

v His ministers. See i. 37, p. 73, and ii. 33, 34, 
pp. 146-150, infra. 

w Their province. See ii. 27 (p. 142), 32 (p. 
145), iii. 14 (p. 214). 

* Combined consent. See note a , p. 151, and 
more at length, pp. 434-436, infra. 

>' Visits to the king. Seeii. 42, p. 167, infra. 

Till his death. See ii. 35, p. 152, infra. 

Instituted at Hy. See iii. 1 1, p. 210, infra. 

b Ethica insula. St. Columba's monasteiy was 
in that part of the island called Campus Luinge, 
now Soroby. See iii. 8, pp. 206, 207. 



c Elena. See ii. 19, p. 127, infra. 

d Himba. See i. 45, pp. 86, 87, infra. 

c Scia. See ii. 26, p. 138, infra. 

f Insulanus miles. See Pref. 2, p. 9, and iii. 23, 
p. 229, infra. 

s Died i574 See pp. 32, 370, infra. 

h Inaugurated in Hy. See iii. 5, p. 198. From 
the friendship between the parties, Irish writers 
style St. Columba the anmccrpa, i. e. ' soul's friend,' 
or confessarius, of king Aedhan. MS. H. 2, 16, 
Trin. Coll. Dub. p. 858. 

1 Convention of Drumceatt See note c , p. 92, 
and p. 436, infra. 

u Himba. Seethe anecdote, iii. 17, p. 220, infra. 



Summary of St. Columbds Life. 



Ixxvii 



of Moville k , also one of our saint's preceptors, was removed by death in 579. About 
the same time a question arose between St. Columba and St. Comgall, concerning a 
church in the neighbourhood of Colerainc, which was taken up by their respective 
races, and engaged them in sanguinary strife 1 . In 587 another battle was fought, 
namely, at Cuilfedha, near Clonard, in which engagement also St. Columba is said 
to have been an interested party. 

In judging of the martial propensities of St. Columba, it will always be necessary 
to bear in mind the complexion of the times in which he was born, and the peculiar 
condition of society in his day, which required even women to enter battle, and justi- 
fied ecclesiastics in the occasional exercise of warfare 11 . Moreover, if we may judge 
from the biographical records which have descended to us, primitive Irish ecclesi- 
astics, and especially the superior class, commonly known as Saints, were very impa- 
tient of contradiction, and very resentful of injury". Excommunication, fasting 
against, and cursing, were in frequent employment, and inanimate, as well as animate 
objects are represented as the subjects of their maledictions. St. Columba, who seems 
to have inherited the high bearing of his race, was not disposed to receive injuries, or 
even affronts, in silence. Adamnan relates 15 how he pursued a plunderer with curses, 
following the retiring boat into the sea, until the water reached to his knees. We 
have an account q also of his cursing a miser who neglected to extend hospitality to 
him. On another occasion 11 , in Himba, he excommunicated some plunderers of the 
church ; and one of them afterwards perished in combat, being transfixed by a spear 
which was discharged in St. Columba' s name. Possibly some current stories of the 
Saint's imperious and vindictive temper 3 may have suggested to Yenerable Bede* the 
qualified approbation " qiialiscumque fuerit ipse, nos hoc de illo certum tenemus, quia 
reliquit successores magna continentia ac divino amo^e regularique institutione insig- 
nes." With the profound respect u in which his memory was held, there seems to have 



k St. Finnian, of Moville See note a , p. 103, 

and an. 579, p. 37 1, infra. 

1 Strife The battle of Coleraine. See p. 253. 

m Battle of Cuilfedha.See p. 254, infra. 

n Ecclesiastics in warfare The custom was not 
peculiar to Ireland. See the cases cited from Gre- 
gory of Tours (iv. 41, v. 17) in Milman's Latin 
Christianity, vol. i. p. 290 (Lond. 1 854). 

Resentful of injury. Giraldus Cambrensis has 
a chapter headed "Quod etiam sancti terras istius 
animi vindicis esse videntur" (Topogr. Hib. ii. 55, 
p. 734, ed. Francof.), in which he accounts for their 
peculiar development of temper. 

J> Adamnan relates. See ii. 22, p. 133, infra. 



1 An account See ii. 20, p. 131, infra. 

r On another occasion Seeii. 24, pp. 135, 137. 

s Vindictive temper. The story of his cursing the 
Clan vie nOster, or Ostiarii, in Hy, for an ima- 
gined slight, was believed in the island, and told 
to Martin (West. Islds. p. 263) ; and to Pennant, 
who gives an account of the " imprecation of this ir- 
ritable saint" (Tour, vol. iii. p. 254) ; and to the 
writer cited in New Stat. Acct. (vol. vii. pt. 2, 
p. 314). The curse was believed to have restrained 
the family from ever numbering more than five, or, 
according to some, eight members. 

1 Venerable Bede Historia Ecclesiastica, iii. 4. 

u JRespect. See Fordun, Scotichronicon, iii. 26. 



1 



Ixxviii 



Appendix to Preface. 



been always associated a considerable degree of awe. Hence, perhaps, the repulsive 
form v in which he was supposed to have presented himself to Alexander II. in 1 249. 
Fordun tells a story" of some English pirates, who stripped the church of ./Emonia, or 
Inchcolum, and on their return, being upset, went down like lead to the bottom ; upon 
which he observes: "Qua de re versum est in Anglia proverbium ; Sanctum viz. 
Columbam in suos nialefactores vindicem fore satis et ultorem. Et ideo, ut non 
reticeam quid de eo dicatur, apud cos vulgariter Sanct Quhalme nuncupatur." 

St. Columba visited Ireland* subsequently to June, 585, and from Durrow pro- 
ceeded westwards to Clonmacnois, where he was received with the warmest tokens of 
affection and respect. 

In 593 he seems to have been visited with sickness, and to have been brought near 
death. Such, at least, may be supposed to be the moral of his alleged declaration^ 
concerning the angels who were sent to conduct his soul to paradise, and whose ser- 
vices were postponed for four years. At length, however, the day came, and just after 
midnight, between Saturday, the 8th, and Sunday, the 9th of June, in the year 597% 
while on his knees at the altar, without ache or struggle, his spirit gently took its 
flight". 

Of his various qualities, both mental and bodily, Adamnan gives a brief but ex- 
pressive summary b . Writing was an employment to which he was much devoted. 
Adamnan makes special mention of .books written by his hand; but from the way in 
which they are introduced, one would be disposed to conclude that the exercise con- 
sisted in transcription rather than composition. Three Latin hymns of considerable 
beauty are attributed to him, and in the ancient Liber Hymnorum d , where they are 
preserved, each is accompanied by a preface describing the occasion on which it was 
written. His alleged Irish compositions are also poems ; some specimens of which will 
be found in the following pages 6 . There are also in print f his "Earewel to Aran," a 



Y Repulsive form. See note P, p. 14, where the 
date 1263 is a misprint. 

w Fordun tells a story. Scotichron. xiii. 37. 

x He visited Ireland. See i. 3, p. 23, infra. 

T Alleged declaration See iii. 22, p. 228, infra. 

1 In the year 597. See Addit. Note L, p. 309. 

* Gently took its flight. See iii. 23, p. 235. The 
long chapter which describes the last scenes of St. 
Columba's life is as touchingly beautiful a narrative 
as is to be met with in the whole range of ancient 
biography. 

b Summary.- See Pref. 2, p. 9, infra. 

c Adamnan makes mention See ii. 8, 9, p. 116, 
ii. 44, p. 175, iii. 23, p. 233. 



d Liber Hymnorum. In the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin. See note c , p. 260, infra. From 
this, or a similar manuscript, Colgan printed these 
interesting compositions, with a translation of their 
prefaces (Trias Thaum. p. 473-476). Dr. Smith, 
of Campbelton, lias given rather spirited translations 
of these hymns in English verse (Life of St. Columba, 
pp. 136-143). One fasciculus of hymns from the 
Liber Hymnorum has been published by the Irish 
Archaeological Society, under the learned editorship 
of the Eev. J. H. Todd, D. D. A succeeding por- 
tion will contain St. Columba's Latin Hymns, in 
all the erudition and elegance of the preceding part. 

c Following pages. See pp. 264-277, 285-289. 



Summary of St. Columbtfs Life. 



poem of twenty-two stanzas ; and another poem 5 of seventeen stanzas, which he is sup- 
posed to have written on the occasion of his flight from king Diarmait. Besides these 
there is a collection of some fifteen poems, bearing his name, in one of the O'Clery 
MSS. preserved in the Burgundian Library at Brussels' 1 . But much the largest collec- 
tion is contained in an oblong manuscript of the Bodleian Library at Oxford, Laud 615', 
which embraces everything in the shape of poem or fragment that could be called 
Columba's, which industry was able to scrape together at the middle of the sixteenth 
century. Many of the poems are ancient, but in the whole collection there is probably 
not one of Columcille's composition 1 *. Among them are his alleged prophecies', the 
genuineness of which even Colgan called in question" 1 . Copies of some of these com 
positions have been preserved in Ireland"; and from a modernized, interpolated, and 



f In print Transactions of the Gaelic Society 

(Dublin, 1808), pp. 180-189. Verse 6 mentions 
the Dalriads nnder the name pluag lllonaig, ' the 
host of Monadh' (p. 182). See note P, p. 437. 

s Another poem In Miscellany of the Irish 
Archa3ological Society, pp. 3-15. 

h Brussels. See note a , p. 264, infra. 

1 Laud 615. See the account at p. 265, infra. 
Edward Lhuyd gives a brief statement of its con- 
tents, and describes the book as " an old Vellum MS. 
consisting of 140 pages in the form of a Mustek 
Book" (Archteol. p. 436 c). On a fly-leaf at the 
beginning is written, " Liber Gulielmi LaudArchiepi. 
Cant. etCancellar. Universit. Oxon. 1636." There 
is no record of the scribe who copied the book, but 
the writing indicates the date of about 1550. 

k Genuine composition. Among its many coun- 
terfeits, it has a poem by St. Brendan of Bior on the 
death of Columcille (p. 39), which is open to the 
somewhat serious objection that St. Brendan died 
twenty-four years before St. Columba! 

1 Alleged prophecies As, predictions of the evils 
which should fall on Ireland for her crimes (pp. 22, 
77, 79, 109). Another in which he predicts, among 
other evils, the death of the royal bishop, Cormac 
Mac Cullenan (p. 82). A prediction of the degen- 
eracy of the bishops of Ireland (p. 1 18). Another, 
foretelling the wretchedness of the Irish kings, and 
that foreigners should come from the east to conquer 
them ! (p. 119). A prediction of the desolation of 
Tara, Ailech, Cruachan, Emhain, and Ailleann 



(p. 128). A mournful prediction of the future de- 
generacy of the Irish people (p. 139). See note^', 
p. 17, infra. : 

m Colgan called In question, Trias Thaum. p. 
472 a, n. 20, p. 473 a, n. 26. 

n Preserved in Ireland. One, consisting of ninety 
stanzas, entitled Tllepca Coluim 6ille pecc- 
muin pia na epcpecc, 'Columcille's Intoxication 
[i. e. prophetic inspiration] a week before his death,' 
begins 6ipc piom a baoicin ttuain, ' Listen to 
me, good Baithene.' Its counterpart occurs in the 
Laud MS. at p. 82, and is printed in a corrupt and 
mutilated form in O'Kearney's "Prophecies of St. 
Columba," pp. 32-60. This may be taken as the 
earliest mention of the burial of St. Columba in 
Down, and one of the authorities for the disturbance 
of his remains by Mandar the Dane (see p. 314, 
infra). The following is an extract from it : 

Cicpa TTlanbap na mop long, 
Ip beapaib mo cli om' pariiaD : 
Qn Cailsionn bo caippngip pin, 
Q baoicin lonifmm aipim. 

Do caippnsip pacpaic co piop 
Ocup bpigic son misniom, 
a g-cuipp i n-Dun son ail 
Ip mo copp, a baoicin aipnii 

<5io a&laicceap rmpi in h-1 
beb i n-t)un bo coil t)e bi, 
pacpaic ocup bpigic co m-buaio 
'Sap 5-cuipp ap b-cpiup in aen 



Appendix to Preface. 



often garbled version of them, a collection of " the Prophecies of St. Colunibkille" has 
been lately published in Dublin. But it is to be regretted that the editor, not content 
with medieval forgeries, has lent his name, and, what is worse, has degraded that of 
St. Columba, to the propagation of a silly imposture, which docs not possess even an 
antiquity of ten years to take off the gloss of its barefaced pretensions,, 



' Mandar of the great ships shall come 
And shall carry off my body from my people : 
It was the Tailginn that foretold this, 
beloved Baithcne, put on record. 

' Patrick foretold, of a truth, 
And Bridget the evil-deedless foretold, 
That their bodies shall be in stainless Dun, 
And my body, Baithene, record. 

' Though I be buried in Hy, 

According to the will of my angerless King, 
It is in Dim I shall abide in the grave ; 

King of Hosts, it is true. 

' Though I be buried in Hy, 

1 shall be in Dun, according to the living God's will ; 
With Patrick and Bridget the victorious ; 

And our bodies in the one grave.' 

In these lines, the Tailginn denotes St. Patrick (see 
note, p. 351, infra). The following, which is the 
last verse but two of the poem, contains an interest- 
ing reference to the Latin hymn called the Altus 
(see pp. 253, 362, infra), and the Amhra (p. 17, 
infra}. Which of his compositions is meant by his 
Easparta, or Vespers, is uncertain : 

lllo Glcup amsli&e 50 naoirh, 
lllo Gappapca bia bapbaom, 
lTlo Grhpa 05 pi 5 an epca glan sle, 
Grmpo pasbaim cap meipe. 

' My Altm, angelic and holy ; 
My Vespers for Thursday ; 

My Amltra, with the king of the pure bright moon ; 
Here I leave after me.' 



Such was his reputed legacy. The reader who is 
curious on the subject may see in " The Prophecies 
of St. Columba" (p. 61) a sample of the spirit in 
which the literary bequest has been received ! 

Prophecies of St. Columbkille. Edited, with 
"Literal Translation and Notes, by Nicholas O'Kear- 
ney," Dublin, 1 856. The first in the collection, to 
the end of the 5th verse, corresponds to the poem 
in the Laud MS., beginning Cicpa aimpeap a 
bpenainn (p. 139). At the 6th verse commences 
what corresponds to the poem in the Laud MS. 
beginning Giucpa aimpip bubac (p. 79). At 
the i6th verse commences what corresponds to the 
poem in the Laud MS. beginning baicpi&ep 
coirmle bana (p. 22). The second prophecy an- 
swers to the poem in the Laud MS. beginning 
Gipcea ppim a baicin buain (p. 82). The fourth 
prophecy, " The Fall of Tara," answers to the poem 
in the Laud MS. beginning Ceniaip bpeg gib 
linrhap lib 1m a peap (p. 128). The sixth and 
last prophecy of St. Columba, " Eiri this night," is 
not as old as the Ecclesiastical Titles Bill ! ! Had the 
editor of this book consulted for the credit of his un- 
dertaking, he might have gone to Oxford and copied 
Laud 615. By so doing he could have found pro- 
phetic matter enough, full 300 years old, to satisfy 
the most morbid appetite, and moreover have pro- 
vided himself with a collection of very ancient and 
curious historical poems. 



VITA 



SANCTI COLUMB.E 



AUCTORE 



ADAMNANO. 




VITA SANCTI COLUMBJE. 



IN NOMINE JESU CHRIST! ORDITUK 

PR^EFATIO. 

EATI nostri Patroni, Christo 2 suffragante, vitam 3 de- 
scripturus, fratrum flagitationibus obsecundare volens, 
in primis eandem lectures quosque 4 admonere procu- 
rabo ut fidem dictis adhibeant " compertis, et res inagis 
quam verba perpendant, qua3, ut aestimo, inculta et 
vilia esse videntur ; meminerintque regnum Dei non 
in eloquentiae exuberantia, sed in fidei florulentia con- 
stare a ; et nee ob aliqua Scotic33 b , vilis videlicet 6 linguae, aut 'humana 

1 Incipit prima praefatio apologiaque Adomnani abbatis sancti scriptoris in vitam S. ColumbaB confes- 
soris et abbatis C vite sancti Colutnbae S. Incipit prologus Adamnani abbatis in vita sancti Columbse 
abbatis et confessoris D. om. F. Codex B acephalus est, hodieque ad -ro pectore verbo in cap. 3 indpit. 
3 sufragante A. 3 discripturus A. F. S. 4 aramonere A. F. S. 5 conpertis A. 6 lingse A. lingue D. 
7 nomina auonmla inepte Boll. 




a Constare. A paraphrase of i Cor. iv. 20, 
suggested by the passage in Sulp. Severus' Pre- 
face to his Life of St. Martin: "Ut res potius 
quam verba perpendant, et sequo ammo ferant, 
si aures eorum vitiosus forsitan sermo percu- 
lerit j quia regnum Dei non in eloquentia, sed in 
fide constat. Meminerint etiam salutem sseculo 
non ab oratoribus, sed a piscatoribus esse prse- 
dicatam."_Lib. Armac. fol. 19100; Opp. Ed. 
Hornii, 1654, p. 484. Other ideas, and the 
employment of two prologues in the present 
case, seem to have been derived from that 
writer's Preface and Prologue. 

^Scotica vilis linguae That is, Hibernica : 
" Haec [Hibernia] autem proprie patria Scot- 



B 



torum est." Bede, H. E. i. i. See Index. 
S. Gregory characterized a cognate dialect 
as " Lingua Britannise quse nihil aliud nove- 
rat quam barbarum frendere." (Opp. i. 862.) 
Even a Saxon king, " qui Saxonum tantum 
linguam noverat" superseded his Irish-taught 
bishop Agilberct, "pertcesus barbarce loquelce." 
(Bede, H. E. iii. 7.) It was the wonder of 
Anastasius how Johannes Scotus " vir ille bar- 
barus in finibus mundi positus" was able to 
comprehend and translate the Greek tongue. 
(Ussher, Syll. Ep. xxiv.) The incongruity of 
Irish proper names and the Latin narrative, 
which the author here acknowledges, is styled 
a want of qualitas by a nearly contemporary 

2 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



II. 



onomata", aut gentium, s obscura locorumve vocabula, quse, ut puto, inter alias 
'exterarum gentium 10 diversas "vilescunt linguas, utilium, et non sine divina 
opitulatione gestarum, 12 despiciant rerum pronuntiationem. Sed et hoc lec- 
torem "admonendum putavimus, quod de beatoe memoriae viro plura, studio 
brevitatis, etiam "mcmoria digna, a nobis 16 sint "prsotermissa, et quasi pauca 
de plurimis 17 ob evitandum fastidium 18 leoturorum sint 19 caraxata d . Et hoc, ut 
arbitror, quisque luec lecturus forte annotabit, quod minima de maximis per 
populos fama, de eodem beato viro 20 divulgata, disperserit, ad horum 21 etiam 
paucorum 22 comparationem, quse mine breviter 23 caraxare disponimus. 24 Hinc, 
post hano primam prsefatiunculam, de nostri vocamine prnesulis in exordio se- 
cundce, Deo auxiliante, intimare exordiar. 



'IN NOMINE JESU CHEISTI 
SECUNDA PK^EFATIO. 

VIR erat vitae venerabilis et beata3 memorise, monasteriorum pater et fun- 
dator e , cum lona 2 propheta s homonymum 4 sortitus nomen ; nam licet diverse 

p ad exterarum om. C. 9 A. D. F. S. externanim. Colg. Boll. 1 om. D. vilescant C. in marg. 
sive vilefaciant Mess. 12 dispiciant A. >s ammonendum A. F. animonendi D. w memorise D. F. 
15 sunt C. 16 pnetermisa. i" ad D. is lectorum C. D. F. S. C. D. F. S. craxata A. octies 
in hac vita, quinquies prater ea in tractatu De Locis Sanctis, JUEC forma, verisimiliter Adamnani propria, 
adhibetur. Stephamis Fttus, cujus apographo Codicis A. usi sunt Colganus et Bollandistce, exarare hie et 
alibi substitute; volens, ut ait Baertius, plus quarn oportebat sapere. 20 devulgata A. D. 21 om. C. 
22 conparatioiiern A. " C. D. F. S. craxare A. exarare Colg. Boll. 24 ad exordiar om. D. 

1 Incipit pnefatio secunda C. F. S. Incipit secundus prologus D. a profeta A. 3 omonimon 
A. D. F. S. homonymum C. 4 sortitus est C. 



writer in the Book of Armagh, who apologizes 
for expressing himself in his native language, 
after this manner: "Finiunt haec pauca per 
Scotticam inperfecte scripta j non quod ego 
non potuissemRomana con dere lingua, sed quod 
rix in sua Scotia hse fabulse agnosci possunt : 
sin autem alias per Latinam degestae fuissent 
non tarn incertus fuisset aliquis in eis, quam 
imperitus, quid legisset, aut quam linguam so- 
nasset, pro habundantia Scotaicorum nominum 
non habentium qualitatem." (fol. 18 &6.) 
Jocelin, in the twelfth century, took another 
way of overcoming the difficulty : "In multis, 
etiam vocabula locorum, et etiam personarum, 



ob inconditam verborum barbariem devitamus, 
ne latinis auribus fastidium aut horrorem in- 
geramus." (Vit. S. Patricii, c. 93.) Many 
of the proper names are for this reason trans- 
lated by Adamnan in whole or part. 

c Onomata. On the use of Greek words, see 
the note at Machera, ii. 39. 

d Caraxata. The verb xpa<r(rw in the form 
of charaxo had been adopted by Latin writers 
as early as Prudentius. Subsequently it came 
into very general use, and is frequently em- 
ployed by Adamnan both in this work and in 
his treatise "De. Locis Sanctis." 

e Monasteriorumfundator. Jocelin represents 



PRJEF. II.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



trium diversarum 6 sono linguarum, unam tamen eandemque rem significat 
hoc, quod 7 Hebraice dicitur IoNA f , "Grgecitas vero nEPi2TEPAS 10 vocitat, 
et Latina lingua COLUMBA H nuncupatur. Tale tantumque vocabulura homini 
Dei non n sine divina 12 inditum providentia creditur. Nam etjuxtaEvan- 
geliorum fidem . Spiritus Sanctus super Unigenitum a3terni Patris 13 descendisse 
monstratur in forma illius aviculse qua3 columba dicitur : unde plerumque in 
sacrosanctis libris w columba mystice Spiritum Sanctum significare 15 dignosci- 
tur. Proinde et Salvator in evangelic suo praBcepit discipulis ut columbarum 
in corde puro insertam "simplicitatem 17 continerent; columba etenim "simplex 
et innocens est avis. Hoc itaque vocamine et homo simplex innocensque nun- 
cupari debuit qui in se columbinis moribus Spiritui Sancto hospitium praebuit : 
cui nomini non inconvenienter congruit illud quod in Proverbiis scriptum est, 

s om. D. c nomine add. D. ? Ebraice A. 8 Grecitas A. 9 HHPICTHPA A. F. S. 
NHITIOTHTA peristera C. lo vocitatur D. u esse add. F. 12 providentia inditum esse credi- 
mus C. D. S. 13 filiura add. C. D. w om. C. 15 dinoscitur A. S. l6 semplicitatem A. J7 con- 
tenerent A. 18 semplex A. S., et simplex innocensque nuncupari debuit C. 



him as the founder of a hundred monasteries. 
(Vit. S. Patricii, c. 89.) O'Donnell increases 
the number to three hundred, including churches 
and monasteries in Ireland and Britain ; of 
which one hundred were on the coast. (Vit. Hi. 
42, Tr. Th. p. 438.) Colgan has collected the 
names of sixty-six, of which he was, either di- 
rectly or indirectly, the founder (Tr. Th. pp. 

493-495-) 

f Hebraice lona. The word f\y\i occurs in 
the Old Testament, not only as a proper name, 
but as a common noun, signifying " a dove." 
Columbanus, in the superscription of his epistle 
to Pope Boniface IV., styles himself " rara avis 
Palumbus," and, as he proceeds, observes: 
" Sed talia suadenti, utpote torpenti actu, ac 
dicenti potius quam facienti mihi, Jonce He- 
braice, Peristerce Greece, Columbcs Latine, po- 
tius tantum vestrse idiomate linguae nancto, 
licet prisco nitar Hebrseo nomine, cujus et pene 
subivi naufragium." (Fleming, Collectan. p. 
144 a.) 

s Peristera The word is written with long 
vowels IIHPICTHPA in the Reichenau and St. 
Gall MSS. Thus in the Book of Armagh, we 



find Hgo, HCTQTE, BHATVC, HPAT. In Ca- 
nisius' MS. the writer, mistaking the Greek ca- 
pitals, gives the word NHIIIOTHTA, in which, 
as an inflexion of i/qwiorTje, he may have sup- 
posed some propriety of sentiment. Pinkerton, 
who supplies the deficiency at the beginning of his 
exemplar, the Cod. Brit., from the meagre text 
of Canisius, instead of the fuller copy employed 
by Colgan and the Bollandists, gives the word 
in its corrupt form, and observes in the note : 
"Quod NHIIIOTHTA hie vult non video." 

(P- 54-) 

h Columba. The Irish call^him Cpljum, ad- 
ding, as a distinction, cilte, ' of the churches,' 
and this title was becoming general about the 
yjear 700, for Ven. Bede observes : " Qui vide- 
licet Columba nunc a nonnullis composite a Cella 
et Columba nomine Columcelli vocatur." 
(H. E. v. 9.) So it was understood in Ger- 
many also : " Cognomento apud suos Colum- 
kille, eo quod multarum cellarum, id est 
monasteriorum vel ecclesiarum institutor, fun- 
dator, et rector extitit." Notker Balb. (Mar- 
tyrol. 9 Jun.) The name Columba was a com- 
mon one in his day, and there are twenty saints 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



F. IT. 



Melius est nomen bonum quara divitiae multse 5 . Hie igitur noster prsesul non 
19 immerito, non solum 20 a cliebus infantise k hoc vocabulo, Deo donante, adorna- 
tus, proprio ditatus est, sed etiam 21 prsemissis multorum 28 cyclis annorum ante 
23 sua3 nativitatis diem cuidam Christi militi, Spiritu revelante Sancto, quasi 
filius repromissionis 1 mirabili prophetatione" 1 nominatus est. Nam quidam 
proselytus" 24 Brito, homo sanctus, sancti Patricii 25 episcopi discipulus, 20 Mauc- 
teus p nomine, ita de nostro 27 prophetizavit Patrono, sicuti nobis ab antiquis 

10 inmerito A. F. S. 20 adiebus A. duo verba scspe in cod. A. more Hibcrnico cohcurent. 21 prse- 
misis A. 22 circulis D. 23 om. D. 21 Britto 1). 25 archiepiscopi D. 26 Maucteus A. F. S. 
Moctheus D. Maueteus C. in cujus errorem, MAVETEUS tradens, ineptius discedit Pink. Mauctaiieus 
Colg. Boll. 27 profetizavit A. 



in the Irish calendar so called. It is observable 
that in continental hagiology Columba is a fe- 
male appellation; whereas, among the Irish, 
with one or two trifling exceptions, it belongs 
to the opposite sex. We have in_.Adamnan 
various Latin forms of the name, as Columba, 
Columbanus, Columbus, and Columb. The 
first bishop of Dunkeld was Columba, who 
flourished about 640. 

* Divitice multce. Prov. xxii. i. The quota- 
tion agrees with the Vulgate. Its application 
of nomen is peculiar. 

k A diebus infantia. This shows that Colum- 
ba was an original name. Irish writers pretend 
that he was christened Crimthann (CpiOTficcmn 
'a fox')> but that his playmates designated 
him Columba on account of his gentleness. It 
may have been that he had two names, one 
baptismal and the other secular, as in the case 
of Fintan or Munna, Fintan or Berach, Cro- 
nan or Mochua, Carthach or Mochuda, Darerca 
or Monenna, in the Irish calendar; Munghu 
or Kentigern in the Scotch; Cadoc or Cath- 
raael in the British ; Nuallohc or Cuthbert in 
the Saxon. It is a curious coincidence that a 
distinguished contemporary of our saint was 
Columba son of Crimthann. See the first note 
on ii. 36, inf. 

l Filius repromissionis. "Terra repromis- 
sionis" is a common name in the lives of Irish 
saints for the Holy Land. 

m Prophetatione. Thirty years, and its mul- 



tiples, were the term which the Irish legends 
generally allowed for the fulfilment of such 
predictions. St. Patrick prophesied the birth 
of S. David and S. Kieran 30 years before (Tr. 
Th. p. 208) ; of S. Comgall, S. Molash, S. Col- 
man, S. Mac Nisse, 60 years beforehand (/A. 
pp. 88; 209 b; Act. SS. Jun. Sep. i. p. 664); 
of S. Ciaran and S. Brendan, 120 years in ad- 
vance (Tr. Th.pp. 145 b; 158). The life of 
S. Columba in the Cod. Salmant. expressly 
limits this prophecy to 60 years. (Tr. Th. p- 



n Proselytus. Gr. TrpoffjjXvroe, advena, pere- 
grinus, qui aliunde venit. See the examples of 
the term at i. 26, 30, 32, 44 infra. 

Patricii episcopi. Cummian, in his Paschal 
epistle, written circ. 634, calls him " sanctus 
Patricius papa noster." (Ussher, Syll. Ep. xi.) 
He is mentioned in Ven. Bede's Martyrology at 
Mar. 17. His Hymn by Seachnall is preserved 
in manuscripts of the eighth century. His 
Confession in the Book of Armagh was tran- 
scribed, about the year 800, from his autograph, 
then partly illegible ; yet Ry ves and Ledwich 
called his existence in question ; and a chival- 
rous German has lately asserted " ficta sunt 
quse Patricii feruntur scripta. Falsa quae Vitis 
traduntur. Incertum est vel Prosper! testimo- 
nium." C. G. Schoall, Eccl. Brit. Scotorumque 
Hist. Font. p. 77(Berol. 1851). 

P Maucteus St. Mochta of Lughmagh, or 
Louth, is commemorated in the Calendars at 



. II.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



traditum expertis compertum habetur. In novissimis, 28 ait, 20 seculi 29 tempori- 
bus films nasciturus est, cujus nomen Columba per omnes insularum 30 oceani 
31 provincias 32 divulgabitur notum; novissimaque orbis tempora 33 clare 34 illus- 
trabit. Mei et ipsius duorum 35 monasteriolorum agelluli unius sepisculss inter- 
vallo disterminabuntur r : homo valde Deo carus, et grandis coram ipso meriti. 
Hujus igitur nostri Columbse vitam et mores describens, in primis 36 brevi ser- 
monis textu, in quantum valuero, strictim comprehendam, et ante lectoris 
oculos sanctam ejus conversationem pariter exponam. Sed etde miraculis ejus 
succincte qusedam, quasi legentibus avide prsegustanda, ponam 8 ; quae tamen 
inferius, per 37 tres divisa libros, plenius explicabuntur. Quorum Primus 38 pro- 
pheticas revelationes ; Secundus vero divinas per ipsum virtutes effectas ; Ter- 



28 inquit C. D. 
34 inlustrabit A. S. 



transp. C. D. 30 ociani A. s> provintias F. 32 devulgabitur A. 33 om D. 
35 monasteriorum C. 38 brevis C. 37 tris A. 38 profeticas A. 



Aug. 19, and is to be distinguished from St. 
Mochta de Insula, son of Cernachan, who died 
in 922 at his church of Inis-Mochta, now Inish- 
mot, in the county of Meath. The former, in his 
life, is described as "ortus ex Britannia," and 
as landing at Omeath, in the county of Louth, 
with twelve followers. Hence his title "pros- 
elytug." Tighernach and the Annals of Ulster 
record his death at 534: "Dormitatio Moctai 
discipuli Patricii, xvi. Kal. Sept. Sic ipse 
scripsit in epistola sua Mocteus [Macutenus 
Ann. Ult.~\ peccator prespiter, sancti Patricii 
discipulus, in Domino salutem." By O'Donnell he 
is styled " Hiberniensium sacerdotum primice- 
rius" (Colg. Tr.Th. 3896); and in the Tripartite 
Life of St. Patrick " Patricii Archiprsesbyter," 
(iii. 98. Tr. Th. p. 167). He may be the Mauc- 
teus of Mochod who is named in the Annals of 
Ulster at 47 1, 511, 527. The Calendars style 
him bishop, but the authorities here cited limit 
his rank to the priesthood. See Colg. Act. SS. 
pp. 7 2 9-737; Calendar, 24 Mar. and 19 Aug.; 
Todd's Introd. to Obits of C. C. p. LXIX. 

r Disterminabuntur. We have no record of 
any church or lands of St. Columba being situ- 
ate near St. Mochta's church of Louth, nor of 
any other church under this saint's patronage, 
except Louth, and Kilmore in the barony and 



county of Monaghan. The ancient chapel of 
Ardpatrick, which lay about half a mile south- 
east, and Cnoc-na-seangain, where the abbey 
of Knock was founded, in 1148, are both in the 
parish of Louth, and one of them may origi- 
nally have been appropriated as in the text. 
O'Donneli refers this prophecy to lona, and 
represents St. Mochta as sojourning there be- 
fore the settlement of Columba i. 3 (Tr. Th. 
p. 389 6.) But this is opposed to the statement 
in St. Mochta's Life : " Alio tempore offerente 
ei rege, scilicet filio Colcan Aedo, agrum acci- 
pere renuit, dicens ; Nascetur in aquilonali Hi- 
berniae plaga sanctus nomine Columba, electus 
Deo et dilectus, cui a Deo ager iste datus : cui 
non tantum Hibernia sed et Britannia serviet ;" 
cap. 16 (Act. SS. p. 730 6) ; where (notwith- 
standing a great anachronism, for St. Mochta 
died in 534; whereas Aodh son of Colga, the 
alleged donor, lived till 606) we have evidence 
that Ireland was referred to, and that part of 
it in which Louth is situate, for this prince was 
lord of Oriel and Orior. Four Mast. A.C. 606 ; 
Ussher, Brit. EC. Ant. c. 17 (Wks. vi. p. 415). 
8 Prcegustanda ponam. This passage, which 
is found in all manuscripts and printed edi- 
tions, proves the genuineness of the first chap- 
ter. See the first note on it ; infra p. u. 



8 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



. II. 



tius angelicas apparition es, ?continebit, et quasdam super hominemDei cseles- 
tis claritudinis 40 manifestationes. Nemo itaque me de hoc tarn praedicabili 
viro aut mentitum sestimet, aut quasi, quasdam dubia vel incerta scripturum : 
sed ea quas majorum fideliumque virorum tradita expertorum 41 congrua rela- 
tione 42 narraturum, et sine ulla ambiguitate 43 caraxaturum sciat, et vel ex his 
qtise ante nos inserta paginis 44 reperire potuimus, 45 vel ex his qu33 46 auditu ab 
expertis quibusdam fidelibus antiquis, sine ulla dubitatione narrantibus, dili- 
gentius sciscitantes, didicimus. 

1 SANCTUS igitur* Columba 2 nobilibus 3 fuerat oriundus genitalibus u , 
patrem 4 habens 5 Fedilmithum filium 6 Ferguso w ; matrem 7 Aethneam nomine, 



39 contenebit A. 39 - 40 manifestationes continebit C. 40 manifestationis A. 
cognovi C. F. S. congruo D. 42 narrantium C. narratur D. * 3 craxaturum A. exaraturum Colg. 
Boll. *4 repperire A. 45 ut C. 4e audivi C. 

1 Incipit liber primus de propheticis revelationibus C. S. Explicit secundus prologus in vita sancti Co- 
luinbe abbatis et confessoris Incipit primus liber in vita sanctissimi Columbe abbatis et confessoris D. 2 ex 
add. D. 3 fait D. * om. D. Fedelmitum C. Fedilmithum A. F. S. Feidlimyd D. Fedhlimidium 
Mess. 6 A. F. Ferguis D. Fergusii C. 7 A. S. Aetheam F. Ethneam D. 



* Iffitur. In this manner the Life of St. Mar- 
tin and many other early biographies com- 
mence. Cummineus' short life of our saint 
begins so; and C. D. F .S., which are followed 
by Canisius, Messingham, and Pinkerton, make 
this the commencement of chap. I. The pro- 
bability is, that Adamnan transferred to this 
part of his prologue the opening sentences of 
some brief memoir which was previously in ex- 
istence : for he professes to borrow " ex his 
quse ante nos inserta paginis reperire potui- 
mus." 

u Nobilibus genitalibus. A member of the 
reigning family in Ireland, and closely allied to 
that of Dalriada in Scotland, he was eligible to 
the sovereignty of his own country. His half- 
uncle Muircertach was on the throne when he 
was born, and he lived during the successive 
reigns of his cousins Domhnall and Fergus, and 
Eochaidh ; of his first cousins Ainmire and 
Baedan ; and of Aedh son of Ainmire. To this 
circumstance, as much as to his piety or abili- 
ties, was owing the immense influence which 
he possessed, and the consequent celebrity of 



his conventual establishments : in fact, he en- 
joyed a kind of spiritual monarchy collaterally 
with the secular dominion of his relatives, being 
sufficiently distant in lona to avoid collision, 
yet near enough to exercise an authority*made 
up of the patriarchal and monastic. His imme- 
diate lineage stands thus : 

EARC, 



NIALL of the IX. Hostages, 

Monarch of Ireland from 

A. D. 379 to 405. 



CONALL GULBAN, 

Ancestor of the Cenel 
Conalll, slain in 404. 



ECHIN, 
7th in descent 
from Cathaeir 
Mor, King of Ire- 
land, A. D. 120. 



LOARN, 

1st King of Scotch 
Dalriada. 



FERGUS CENNFAD A = ERCA 



NAVE, or 
NOE. 



DIMMA 



FEDHLIMIDH = >ETHNEA 
COLUMBA. 

w Filium Ferguso Some of the printed edi- 
tions have Fergusii, to avoid the apparent in- 
correctness of case, but unnecessarily, for the 
above is the regular form of the old Irish geni- 
tive. So Aido at i. 10, 13, 43. 



PR.EF. II.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



8 cujus pater Latine Films Navis dici potest, Scotica vero lingua "Mac Nave. 
Hie anno secundo post 10 Culedrebinae x bellum, aetatis vero suae xlii. y de 
11 Scotia ad Britanniam 2 pro Christo 12 peregrinari volens a , enavigavit. Qui 
13 et a puero 14 Christiano deditus tirocinio, et sapientiae studiis integritatem 
corporis et animas puritatem, Deo donante, custodiens, quamvis in terra posi- 
tus, coelestibus se aptum moribus ostendebat. Erat enim aspectu angelieus, 
sermone nitidus, opere sanctus, ingenio optimus, consilio magnus, per annos 
xxxiv. b insulanus miles :6 conversatus. Nullum etiam unius horse intervallum 
transire poterat, quo non aut orationi aut lectioni, vel scriptioni, vel etiara alicui 
operationi, incumberet. Jejunationum c quoque et vigiliarum 16 indefessis 17 la- 
boribus sine ulla 18 intermissione 19 die noctuque 20 ita occupatus, 21 ut supra hu- 
manam possibilitatera uniuscujusque pondus specialis 22 videretur operis. Et 
inter haec omnibus carus, hilarem 23 semper faciem ostendens 24 sanctam, Spiritus 
Sancti gaudio 25 intimis laetificabatur praecordiis. 

8 usque ad Nave violenter deletus in S. om. D. 9 A. F. Macanaua C. 10 A. Culedreibhne C. D. 
Culae drebinae S. Cule-drehtinse male Colg. Boll. u Scothea S. Hybernia D. 12 perigrinare A. 
13 etiam C. D. 14 deditus Christiano C. 15 est versatus C. conversatus est F. D. conservatus S. 
16 indefesis A. indefessus C. 17 laborationibus C. D. F. S. ]9 intermisione A. 19 diu C. 20 occu- 
patus ita C. 21 erat add. F. 22 operis videretur C. 23 om. F. semper hilarem D. u sanctorum 
specie Sancti Spiritus C. sancto Boll. 25 in add. D. 



x Culedrebince bellum. The battle of Cool- 
drevny was fought in the year 561. See the 
note on the name, i. 7, inf. 

y Aetatis suce xlii ' Navigatio Coluim-cille 

ad insulam la etatis sue xlii." Tighernach, ad 
an. 563. 

* Ad Brilanniam " Venit de Hibernia . . . 

. . Columba Brittaniam." Bede, H. E. iii. 4. 
This one statement ought to have been suffi- 
cient at any time to prove where Scotia lay. 

a Peregrinari volens St. Columba's removal 

to Scotland, though it could hardly be called a 
change of country in his day, has proved a 
fruitful subject for legendary speculation, 
which O'Donnell and Keating have detailed 
at length. (Vit. S. Col. Lib. ii. c. i-io, Tr. 
Th. p. 408 ; History of Ireland, reg. Aedh.) 
With these should be consulted the judicious 
observations of O'Donovan on the Four Mast. 
at 557 (vol. i. p. 197) ; the extract in Ussher's 
Brit, EC. Ant, c. 17 (Works, vi. p. 466); Act. 



C 



SS. Jun. ii. pp. 1946-197 a ; Lanigan, EC. Hist, 
vol. ii. p. 144 ; King's Church Hist. vol. i. 
p. 79. The present expression implies that the 
saint left Ireland of his own accord ; and this 
opinion is confirmed by a passage in the Life 
from the Salamanca MS. : " Postquam vir 
sanctus ad ea, quse quondam mente proposue- 
rat, implenda ad peregrinationis videlicet pro- 
positum, et ad convertendos ad fidem Pictos 
opportunum tempus adesse videret, patriam 
suam reliquit, et ad insulam lonam, prospero 
navigavit cursu." Cap. 6. (Tr. Th. p. 3260.) 

b Per annos xxxiv. Bede says : ' ' Post annos 
circiter triginta et duos ex quo ipse Brittaniam 
prsedicaturus adiit." (H. E. iii. 4.) But the 
number in the text is confirmed by Adamnan 
at iii. 22, 23, infra. 

c Jejunationum. A curious legend, illustra- 
tive of his extreme abstinence, is related in the 
Leabhar Breac, fol. 108 b. See O'Donnell, Vit. 
S. Columbse, iii. 34 (Tr. Th. p. 437 a.) 



10 



Vita Sancti Colunibce 



[LIB. i. 



'NUNC PRIMI LIBRI 2 CAPiTULATIONES (1 ORDIUNTUR. 

De virtutum miroculis brevis narratio 6 . 

De sancto Finteno abbate, Tailchani filio, quomodo de ipso sanctus Columba 

a prophetavit. 

De Erneneo, filio Craseni, 3 prophetia ejus. 
De adventu Cainniclii quomodo pramuntiavit. 

De periculo sancti Colmani gente Mocusailni sancto Columbae revelato. 
De Cormaco nepote Letha 3 prophetationes ejus. 
De belHs f . 
De regibus*. 

De duobus pueris secundum verbum ejus in fine septimanae mortuis. 
De Colcio h filio Aido Draigniche, et de quodam occulto matris ipsius peccato. 
De signo mortis ejusdem viri 3 prophetia sancti Columbae. 
De Laisrano hortulano. 
De Ceto magno quomodo 3 prophetavit. 

De quodam Baitano, qui cum ca3teris ad maritimum remigavit desertum. 
De quodam Nemano ficto 4 poenitente, quipostea secundum verbum sancti car- 

nem equaa furtivae comedit. 

De illo infelici viro qui cum sua genitrice peccavit. 
De I vocali littera quas una in 5 Psalterio defuit. 
De libro in 6 hydriam i cadente. 
De corniculo atramenti inclinato. 

1 Omnia usque ad cap. 2 desunt in C. D. F. S. Elenchus in Colg. Boll, ad numerum capitulorum 
expletus est. 2 Kapitulationes A. 3 profet. A. * penetente A. * salterio A. 6 ydriam A. 



d Capitulationes. These summaries are evi- 
dently genuine. They differ in expression from 
the headings of the chapters, in two cases em- 
brace several chapters under a single title, and 
at the close leave seven chapters unnoticed. 
In one instance they supply a proper name not 
mentioned in the narrative. Capitulationes of 
Books ii. and iii. are wanting in the Reichenau 
MS., but are supplied by the Cod. Brit., though 
of lower authority. Colgan and the Bolland- 
ists, following S. White's copy, have altered 
this table so as to correspond exactly with the 



chapters, supplying deficient titles from the 
sequel. 

e Narratio. Chap. i. This and the succeed- 
ing five tituli follow the order of the narrative. 

f De Bellis. Comprehends chaps. 7, 8. The 
chapters are not numbered in the original, but 
for the convenience of reference, figures are 
employed in the present work. 

s De reyibus. Chapters 9-15. 

h De Colcio.This title and the following 
one belong to chap. 17. 

i Hydriam. " Aquarium vas" in chap. 24- 



CAP. I.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



1 1 



De adventu alicujus Aidani qui jejunium solvit. 
De aliquo misero viro, qui ad fretuin clamitabat, mox morituro. 
De civitate Romanse partis, super quam ignis de co3lo 'cecidit. 
De Laisrano filio Feradaig, quomodo "monachos probavit in labore. 
De Fechno 9 Bine. 
De Cailtano monacho. 
De duobus peregrinis. 

De Artbranano sene, quern in Scia insula 10 baptizavit. 
De naviculse transmotatione juxta stagnum Loch-dise k . 
De Gallano filio Fachtni quern daemones rapuere 1 . 
De Lugidio Claudo m . 
De Enano 11 filio "Grrath. 
De 12 presbitero qui erat in Triota. 
De Erco furunculo. 
De Cronano poeta. 

De Ronano filio Aido filii Colcen, et Colmano Cane filio Aileni, 13 prophetia 
Sancti. 



INCIPIT PRIMI LIBRI TEXTUS, DE "PROPHETTCIS 

REVELATIONIBUS. 



VIRTUTUM MIRACULIS BREVIS NARRATIO. 

VIR itaque venerandus qualia virtutum documenta dederit, in hujus libelli 
primordiis, secundum nostram ^raemissam superius 2 promissiunculam p , bre- 

t 7 cicidit A. 8 manacos A. 9 obscure A. babtizavit A. sic A. 12 prespitero A. & pro- 
fetia A. 1 prsemisam A. 2 promisiunculam A. 



k Loch-dice. This title belongs to chap. 34, 
but the name does not occur there, so that this 
must be regarded as an original authority. 

^Rapuere. Chap. 35. So far the order is 
observed from cap. 17. 

m De Lugidio Claudo. Chap. 38. But 36 and 
37 are unnoticed in this recital. 

n De Enano. Chap. 39, where the name is 



" Nemano filio Gruthriche." 

De Ronano filio Aido. Chap. 43. The 
order is observed from chap. 38, but the seven 
remaining chapters are unnoticed. Colgan and 
Baertius have supplied the deficiency. On 
the genitive form Aido see note, p. 8, on 
Ferguso, and i. 10, 43, 49. 

f Promissiunculam. He refers to the passage 



C2 



12 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



viter sunt demonstranda. Diversorum namque infestationes 3 morborum homi- 
nes, in nomine Domini Jesu Christi, virtute orationum, perpessos sanavif : 
dasmonumque 8 infestas ipse unus homo, et irmumeras contra se belligerantes 
catervas, 4 oculis corporalibus visas, et incipientes mortiferos super ejus 5 cceno- 
bialem co3tum inferre morbos, hac nostra de insula retrotrusas primaria*, Deo 
Miixiliante, repulit u . Bestiarum furiosam rabiem, partim mortificatione, partim 
forti repulsione, Christo adjuvante 6 compescuit w . Tumores quoque fluctuum, 
instar montium aliquando in magna tempestate consurgentium, ipso ocius 
orante, sedati humiliatique sunt x ; navisque ipsius, in qua et ipse casu navi- 
gabat, tune temporis, facta 'tranquillitate, portum appulsa est optatum. In 
regione Pictorum aliquantis diebus manens, inde reversus ut magos confun- 
deret, contra flatus contrarios 8 venti erexit velum, et ita veloci cursu ejus 
navicula enatans festinabat, ac si secundum habuisset ventum^. Aliis quoque 
temporibus, venti navigantibus contrarii in secundos, ipso orante, conversi 
sunt z . In eadem supra memorata regione lapidem de flumine candidum detulit, 
quern ad aliquas profuturum benedixit sanitates* : qui lapis, contra naturam, in 
aqua intinctus, quasi pomum supernatavit. Hoc divinum miraculum coram 



3 membrorum Colg. Boll, 
ponti Colg. Boll. 



4 occulis A. 5 cenubialem A. 6 conpiscuit A. 



tranquilitate A. 



in the 2nd Preface, which has been noticed at 
foot of p. 7. But the present chapter is want- 
ing in all the MSS. except A. (for B. is muti- 
lated in this part), and Lanigan questions its 
genuineness on the grounds that " besides the 
difference of style between it and the rest of 
the work, the subjects mentioned in it are not 
in general of that kind, of which Adamnan 
professes to treat in the first book." (Ec. Hist, 
ii, p. no.) The former of these objections is 
easily disposed of by denying any material dif- 
ference of style, the very word promissiuncula 
for instance, being quite Adamnanic (see the 
Index, voce Diminutive?) ; this chapter, more- 
over, being a dilation of the 25th chapter of Cum- 
mineus, and in many places adopting his very 
words. (Mabillon, Act. SS. Ben. Ord. vol. i. 
p. 346 ; Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 323 b ; Act. SS. 
Junii ii. p. 188 b; Pinkerton, Vit. Antiq. p. 43.) 
As to the second objection, Adamnan's own 



words referred to above are a decisive answer. 
The copies which John Fordun and O'Don- 
nell used contained this chapter, for they 
both relate the story of Oswald, and cite 
Adamnan by name as their authority (Scoti- 
chron. iii. 42, vol. i. p. 149 ; Vit, S. Col. iii. 66, 
67, Tr. Th. p. 443 i.) 

r Sanavit. See ii. 4, 5, 6, 18, 31, 33, 40. 

8 DcEtnonum. See ii. ii, 16, 17, iii. 8, 13. 

* Primaria. The supremacy of Hy among 
the Columbian monasteries is thus expressed by 
Bede : " In quibus omnibus idem monasterium 
insulanum, in quo ipse requiescit corpore, 
principatum teneret." H. E. iii. 4. 

u Repulit Related below at iii. 8. 

w Compescuit Two instances, ii. 26 and 27. 

x Humiliati sunt. Related below at ii. 12. 

y Ventum. On Loch Ness, ii. 34. 

z Conversi sunt. See i. 4, ii. 15, 45. 

a Sanitates. Related in ii. 33. 



CAP. I.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



Brudeo rege b , et familiaribus ejus, factum est. In eadem itidem provincia, 
9 cujusdam plebei credentis mortuum puerum suscitavit , quod est majoris mi- 
raculi, vivumque et incolumem patri et matri assignavit. Alio in tempore 
idem vir beatus juvenis diaconus, in 10 Hibernia apud Findbarrum sanctum 
episcopum commanens, cum ad sacrosancta mysteria necessarium defuisset 
vinum, virtute orationis, aquam puram in verum vertit vinum d . Sed et coe- 
lestis ingens claritudinis lumen, et in noctis tenebris, et in luce diei, super eum, 
aliquando quibusdam ex fratribus, diversis et separatis vicibus, apparuit effu- 
sum e . Sanctorum quoque angelorum dulces et suavissimas frequentationes 
luminosas habere memit f . Quorumdam justorum animas crebro ab angelis ad 
summa ccelorum vehi, Sancto revelante Spiritu, videbat g . Sed et reproborum 
alias ad inferna a daemonibus u ferri sa3penumero aspiciebat b . Plurimorum in 
carne mortali adhuc conversantium futura plerumque pranuntiabat merita, 
aliorum lasta 1 , aliorum tristia k . In bellorumque terrificis fragoribus hoc a Deo 
virtute orationum 12 impetravit, ut alii reges victi, et alii regnatores efficerentur 
victores 1 . Hoc tale "privilegium non tantum in hac praesenti vita conversant!, 
sed etiam post ejus de carne transitum, quasi cuidam victoriali 14 et fortissimo 
propugnatori, a Deo omnium sanctorum condonatum est honorificatore. PIujus 
talis honorificentise viro honorabili ab Omnipotente ccelitus collator etiam unum 
proferemus exemplum, quod 15 0ssualdo n regnatori Saxonico, pridie quam contra 

9 om. Colg. Boll. 10 Ebernia A. " om. Colg. rapi Boll. 12 inpetravit A. 13 praevilegium A. 
14 om. Colg. Boll. i 5 Oswaldo Colg. Boll. 



b Brudeo rege. The Pictish king, i. 37, ii. 35. 

c Suscitavit Related in ii. 32. 

d Aquam in vinum. Infra, ii. i. 

e Lumen effusum. Infra, iii. 17 to 21. 

'Frequentationes meruit Infra, iii. 3, 4, 5, 
1 6, 22. 

s Vehi videbat. Infra, iii. 6, 7, 9, 10, ii, 12, 
14. 

h Ferri aspiciebat.^-Infra, i. 35, 39, ii. 23, 25. 
Lata. Infra, i. 3, 10, n, 31, 46, ii. 39. 

k Tristia Infra, i. 16, 21, 22, 36, 38, 39, 40, 
4i, 45> 47 " 22. 

1 Victi, victores. Infra, i. 7, 8, 12. 

m De carne transitum. Some of St. Columba's 
posthumous virtues are recorded in ii. 45, 46. 

n Ossualdo. Aedilfrid, king of Bernicia, who 



had unjustly excluded his brother-in-law Ed- 
win from the throne of the Deiri, was slain by 
Redwald, King of the East Angles, in 616; 
whereupon the kingdom of Northumbria re- 
verted to Edwin ; and the children of the de- 
ceased king, of whom Oswald, then twelve 
years old, was the second, were compelled to 
take refuge in Scotland, where, during the life- 
time of Edwin, they remained in exile. After 
seventeen years' ineffectual efforts to shake off 
the Saxon yoke, Cadwalla, the British king, 
revolted, and, -with the aid of Penda, king of 
Mercia, gained a decisive victory, and slew 
Edwin at Hatfield, in Yorkshire, Oct. 12, 633. 
(Bede, H. E. ii. 12, 20.) In the ensuing year 
Cadwalla cut off Osric, son of Aelfric, who had 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



16 Catlonem Britonum regem fortissimum praeliaretur, ostensum erat. Nam 
cum idem Ossualdus rex esset in procinctu belli castra metatus, quadam die in 
"suo papilione supra pulvillum dormiens, sanctum Columbam in visu videt 
forma coruscantem angelica; cujus alta proceritas^ vertice nubes tangere vide- 
batur. Qui scilicet 18 vir beatus, suum regi proprium revelans nomen, in medio 

1(5 Cathlonem Fordun, iii. 42. Cathonem Boll. 8ua A. i 8 om Colg. Boll. 



succeeded to the throne of Deira ; and, in 635, 
slew Eanfrid, King of Bernicia, Oswald's eldest 
brother. Proceeding to lay waste Northum- 
bria, he encountered Oswald, on whom the 
united government had devolved, and was slain 
in battle See note z , p. 16 infra. 

Catlonem. " Csedualla, quamvis nomen et 
professionem haberet Christiani, adeo tamen 
erat animo ac moribus barbarus, ut ne sexui 
quidem muliebri, vel innocuae parvulorum par- 
ceret setati, quin universes atrocitate ferina 
morti per tormenta contraderet, multo tempore 
tolas eorum provincias debacchando pervaga- 
tus, ac totum genus Anglorum Brittanise finibus 
erasurum se esse deliberans." (Bede, H. E. 
ii. 20.) The battle of Hsethfelth, under its 
British name, is thus recorded by Nennius : 
" Duo filii Edguiin erant, et cum ipso corrue- 
runt in bello Meicen, et de origine illius nun- 
quam iteratum est regnum, quia non evasit 
unus de genere illius de isto bello, sed inter- 
fecti omnes sunt cum illo ab exercitu Catguol- 
launi, regis Guendotse regionis." (Hist. Brit. 
6 1. Ed. Stev.) Bede and the Saxon Chro- 
nicle give 633 as the date, but Tighernach 631, 
and the Annals of Ulster, and of Cambria 630 : 

A. D. 629. " Obsessio Catguollaun regis in 
insula Glannauc" [Priest-holme, near Angle- 
sey]. Ann. Camb. 

A. D. 630. " Gueith [Hibernice each, ' prse- 
lium'] Meiceren ; et ibi interfectus est Etguin 
cum duobus filiis suis. Catguollaun autem 
victor fuit." Ann, Camb. 

A. 0.631. Cach icip Gcum mac Qilli [pre- 
lium inter Eduin filium Ailli] regem Saxonum 
qui totam Britanniam regnavit, in quo victus 



est a Cathlon rege Britonum et Panta Saxono. 
Tighernach. 

A. D. 630. Bellura filii Ailli Ann. Ult. 

P Alta proceritas. Though the "nota major 
imago" was of old an acknowledged property 
of the shades (Virgil, ^En. ii. 773 ; Ovid, Fast, 
ii. 503 ; Juvenal, xiii. 221 ; Tacitus, Ann. xi. 2 r ; 
Hist. i. 86), it might be that Oswald, fresh from 
Scotland, and probably from lona, was im- 
pressed by the description he had heard of S. 
Columba's personal appearance, which, being 
matter of only thirty-six years' tradition, 
was likely to be fresh and true. He had 
heard that the saint bad mingled a good deal 
in military matters before his departure from 
Ireland, and that he had the credit of more than 
once turning the scale of victory by his prayers. 
The tradition of S. Columba's great stature 
may subsequently have given a character to 
the vision which Alexander II. saw in the 
island of Kerara, when on his way against 
Haco, in 1263 : " King Alexander, then lying in 
Kiararey Sound, dreamed a dream, and thought 
three men came to him. He thought one of 
them was in royal robes, but very stern, ruddy 
in countenance, something thick, and of mid- 
ling size. Another seemed of a slender make, 
but active, and of all men the most engaging, 
and majestic. The third again, was of very 
great stature, but his features were distorted, 
and of all the rest he was the most unsightly. 
The Hebridians say that the men whom the 
King saw in his sleep were St. Olave King of 
Norway, St. Magnus Earl of Orkney, and St. 
Columba." (Norw. Account of Haco's Expe- 
dition, by Johnstone pp. 10-13.) 



CAP. L] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



castrorum stans, eadem castra, excepta quadam parva extremitate, ld sui prote- 
gebat fulgida veste 1 ' ; et haec confirmatoria contulit verba, eadem scilicet qua; 
Doininus ad Jesue 20 Ben Nun ante transitum Jordanis, mortuo Moyse, 21 pro- 
locutus est, dicens : Confortare et age viriliter ; ecce ero tecum 8 etc. Sanctus 
itaque Columba, haec ad regem in visu loquens, addit : Hac sequenti nocte de 
castris ad bellum precede ; hac enim vice mihi Dominus donavit ut hostes in 
fugam vertantur tui, et tuus 22 Cation inimicus in manus tradatur tuas, et post 
bellum victor revertaris, et feliciterregnes. Post haec verba 23 experrectus rex 
senatui congregate hanc 24 enarrat visionem; qua confbrtati omnes, totus populus 
promittitse post re version em de bello crediturum et 25 baptismum suscepturum 1 : 
nam usque in id temporis tota ilia Saxonia gentilitatis et ignorantise tenebris 
obscurata erat u , excepto ipso rege Ossualdo, cum duodecim viris w , qui cum eo 
Scotos inter 20 exulante x 27 baptizati sunt. Quid plura ? eadem subsecuta 
nocte Ossualdus rex, sicuti in visu edoctus fuerat, de castris ad bellum, cum 
admodum pauciore exercitu y , contra 28 millia numerosa progreditur ; cui a 

19 suos Colg. sua Boll, sui Fordun. 2 A. Fordun. annum Colg. om. Boll. 21 proloqutus A. 
22 Cathlon Ford. Cathon Boll. 23 prius expergitus in A. s4 enarravit Colg. Boll. 25 babtismum A. 
baptisma Ford. 2G exsolante A. exulantes Ford. ^ babtizati A. 2S milia A. 



r Fulgida veste. Like the vision in iii. i. 

s Ecce ero tecum. Joshua, i. 9. 

1 Suscepturum. Bede, Hist. EC. iii. 2. 

u Obscurata erat. Edwin, with all his nobles 
and a great number of the people, received 
baptism from Paulinus at York, in 627. But 
on his death Paulinus fled, and the conversion 
of the nation was checked by the apostacy of 
Osric and Eanfrid, his successors (Bede, H. E. 
iii. i). " Nulla ecclesia, nullum altare in tota 
Berniciorum gente erectum est, priusquam hoc 
sacrse crucis vexillum novus militise ductor, 
dictante fidei devotione, contra hostem imma- 
nissimum pugnaturus statueret." (/&. iii. 2.) 
The words in the text refer to Northumbria, 
including Bernicia and Deira. 

w Duodecim viris. Not only ecclesiastics,but 
even laymen, adopted the apostolic number, as 
in the present instance, and when Oswald's 
brother Eanfrid went out to meet Cadwalla, 
" cum duodecim lectis militibus." (Bede, H. E. 
iii. i.) See the note on iii. 4, infra. 



* Scotos inter exulante. "Tempore toto quo 
regnavit-ffiduini, filii prsefati regis JUdilfridi qui 
ante ilium regnaverat, cum magna nobilium 
juventute apud Scottos sive Pictos exulabant, 
ibique ad doctrinam Scottorum catechizati et 
baptismatis sunt gratia recreati." Bede, H. E. 
iii. i. * Misit ad majores natu Scottorum, 
inter quos exulans ipse baptismatis sacramenta, 
cum his qui secum erant militibus, consecutus 
erat ; petens ut sibi mitteretur antistes. . . . 
Pulcherrimo saepe spectaculo contigit, ut evan- 
gelizante antistite qui Anglorum linguam per- 
fecte non noverat, ipse rex suis ducibus ac 
ministris interpres verbi existeret ctelestis : 
quia nimirum tarn longo exilii sui tempore lin- 
guam Scottorum jam plene didicerat 

Monachus ipse episcopus ^Idan, utpote de 
insula quse vocatur Hii, destinatus." lb. iii. 3. 

y Pauciore exercitu. " Quo, post occisionem 
fratris Eanfridi, supervenierite cum parvo ex- 
ercitu, sed fide Christi munito, infandus Brit- 
tonum dux cum inmensis illis copiis quibus 



i6 



Vita Sancti Columlce 



[LIB. i. 



Domino, sicut ei promissum est, felix et facilis est concessa victoria, et rege 
trucidato 29 Catlone z , victor post 30 bellum re versus, postea totius Britannias 
imperator a a Deo ordinatus est b . Hanc mihi 31 Adamnano narrationem meus 
decessor, noster abbas Failbeus d , indubitanter enarravit, qui se ab ore ipsius 
Ossualdi regis, Segineo 6 abbati eamdem enuntiantis visionem, audisse pro- 



testatus est. 



Catlione Boll. Cadwallone Ford. so b e n a Y 



nihil resistere posse jactabat, interemptus est." 
Bede, H. E. iii. i. 

z Trucidato Catlone. " In loco qui lingua 
Anglorum Denisesburna, id est, Rivus Denisi 
vocatur." Bede, H. E. iii. i. The British 
gave it a different name : ' ' Osuuald films Ead- 
fred regnavit novem annis, ipse est Osuuald 
Lamnguin [pulchrae manus] ; ipse occidit Cat- 
gublaun regem Guenedotae regionis in bello 
Catscaul cum magna clade exercitus sui." 
Nennius, H. B. 64 (Ed. Stev.) Bede and 
the Saxon Chronicle place the battle in 635, 
but the Irish and Welsh Annals earlier : 

A. C. 632. Cach la [bellum per] Cathlon et 
Anfraith, qui decollatus est, in quo Osualt mac 
Etalfraith victor erat, et Cathlon rex Britonum 
cecidit. Tighernach. 

A.C. 631. Bellum Cathloen regis Britonum 
et Ainfrit. Ann. Ult. 

A. C. 626. o"" 1 * 1 [vulnus lethale] Cacluoun. 
Ann. Inisfall. 

A. 0.631. Bellum Cantscaul, in quo Cat- 
guollaan corruit. Ann. Cambr. 

GeofFrey of Monmouth, perverting Bede's 
narrative, states that Oswald, having overcome 
Cadwalla at Heavenfield, was afterwards de- 
feated at Burne, and killed by Penda. He 
also represents Cadwalla as surviving Oswald 
many years, and dying in the arms of peace ; 
while he reserves the final prostration of the 
Britons for the twelfth year of his son's reign. 
(Hist. Brit. xii. 16.) 

* Totius Britannia imperator. "Denique om- 
nes nationes et provincias Brittanise, quae in 
quatuor linguas, id est, Brittonum, Pictorum, 



31 Ford. Adomnano A. 



Scottorum, et Anglorum divisse sunt, in ditione 
accepit." Bede, H. E. iii. 6. The present pas- 
sage is cited by Mr. Hallam as "probably a 
distinct recognition of the Saxon word Bret- 
walda ; for what else could answer to Emperor 
of Britain ? It seems more likely that Adam- 
nan refers to a distinct title bestowed on Os- 
wald by his subjects, than that he means to 
assert as a fact, that he truly ruled over all 
Britain." But this idea is not in harmony with 
Adamnan's or Bede's assertion. Mr. Hallam 
certainly errs in asserting that Cummineus" Life 
of St. Columba " is chiefly taken from that by 
Adamnan." Middle Ages, vol. ii. p. 350 (Loud. 
1853). See Saxon Chron. A. D. 827, where Os- 
wald is set down as the sixth king " who was 
Bret-walda." (Monum. Hist. Br. p. 343) ; Lin- 
gard, Hist. Engl. cap. ii. 

b A Deo ordinatus est. This divine right is 
expressed at i. 36, of a sovereign of Ireland ; 
and at iii. 5, of a prince of Dalriada. 

c Mihi Adamnano. The writer speaks in the 
first person again at chaps. 2, 3, 49, ii. 45, 46, 
iii. 19, 23. On the name, see the Introduction. 

d Failbeus Failbhe, son of Piopan, eighth 
abbot of Hy, presided from 669 to 679. His 
festival is March 2, at which day Colgan has 
collected the few particulars of his history 
which are recorded (Act. SS. p. 719). He is 
mentioned again in cap. 3, as the channel of 
information from Segineus. See the Appendix. 

e Segineo. Seghine, son of Fiachna, fifth ab- 
bot of Hy, governed from 623 to 652; so that 
the reign of Oswald, which was from 634 to 
642, fell within the term of his presidency. His 



CAP. I.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



Sed et hoc etiam non prgetereundum videtur, quod ejusdem beati viri per 
qusedam Scoticse 32 lingua3 33 laudum ipsius carmina f , et nominis 34 commemora- 
tionem, quidam, quamlibet scelerati laicse conversationis homines et sanguinarii, 
ea nocte qua eadem decantaverant cantica, de manibus 35 inimicorura qui eam- 
dem eorumdem cantorum domum circumsteterant sint liberati ; qui flammas 
inter et gladios et lanceas incolumes evasere, mirumque in modum pauci ex 
ipsis, qui easdem sancti viri 36 commemorationes, quasi parvi pendentes, can ere 
37 noluerant decantationes, in illo asmulorum impetu soli disperierant. Hujus 
miraculi testes non duo aut tres, juxta legem, sed etiam centeni, et eo amplius, 
adhiberi potuere. Non tantum in uno, aut loco, aut tempore, hoc idem 38 con- 
tigisse comprobatur, sed etiam diversis locis et temporibus in Scotia et in 
Britannia, simili tamen et modo et causa liberationis, factum fuisse, sine ulla 
ambiguitate exploratum est. Hasc ab expertis uniuscujusque regionis, ubicum- 
que res eadem simili 39 contigit miraculo, indubitanter didicimus. 

Sed, ut ad 40 propositum redeamus, inter ea miracula quae idem vir Domini, 
in carne mortali conversans, Deo donante, "perfecerat, ab annis juvenilibus 
cccpit etiam prophetiae spiritu e pollere, ventura praedicere, praesentibus absentia 

34 lingae A. 33 laudem Colg. carmina laudem ipsius Boll. 34 commendationem Colg. Boll. 

" om. Colg. eorum Boll. 36 commemorationis A. 37 noluemnt Colg. Boll. 38 contegisse conpro- 
batur A. 39 contegit. 40 propossitum A. *i perficerat A. 



festival is Aug. 12. He is called Seyeni by 
Bede (H. E. iii. 5) ; and Segienus in the super- 
scription of Cummian's Paschal Epistle. 
(Ussher, Syll. xi.) See chap. 3, and ii. 4, 
infra. 

f Carmina. O'Donnell identifies these with 
the panegyric composed by Dalian Forgaill, 
called the Amhra JJholuimcille, or ' Laudes S. 
Columbae.' Vit. iii. 67 (Tr. Th. p. 444). The 
author, who was also called Eochaidh Eigeas, 
was a contemporary of the saint, and is said to 
have written this poem at the time of the con- 
vention of Druimceatt. Copies of it, largely 
glossed, are preserved in the Liber Hymnorum 
and Leabhar na hUidhre, which attest its an- 
tiquity ; besides which, its language is so old 
as to have elicited from Colgan, who was an 
accomplished Irish scholar, the following ac- 
knowledgment : " Est penes me unum exemplar 



hujus operis egregie scriptum, sed seclusis fu- 
sis, quos habet annexos, Commentariis, hodie 
paucis, iisque peritissimis, penetrabile." (A. 
SS. p. 204 b, n. 12.) The virtues which the 
Irish believed to reside in the recital of the 
Amhra and the poems of S. Columba, are stated 
in the arguments prefixed to the several com- 
positions. Leabhar na hUidhre, fol. 8 ; Leabh- 
ar Breac, fol. 109; Liber Hymnor. p. 21; 
MS. H. 2, 16, p. 680, Trin. Coll., Dubl. ; Col- 
gan, Tr. Th. pp. 473, 476. For an account of 
the Amhra, see Colgan, A. SS. p. 203 ; Harris' 
Ware's Works, ii. pt. ii. p. 20; O'Reilly's Irish 
Writers, p. 39. 

s Projihetice spiritu. Giraldus Cambrensis 
states that he was one of the four Irish saints 
whom the natives believed to have been en- 
dowed with the gift of prophecy (Hib. Exp. ii. 
33; also ii. 16). Compare Tighernach, A. C. 



D 



i8 Vita Sancti Columbce [LIB. i. 

nuntiare; quia quamvis absens corpore, pra3sens tamen spiritu, longe acta 
42 pervidere poterat. Nam, juxta Pauli vocem, Qui adhasret Domino unus 
spiritus est h . Unde et idem vir Domini sanctus Columba, sicut et ipse qui- 
busdam paucis fratribus, de re eadem aliquando percunctantibus, non negavit, 
in aliquantis dialis gratiae speculationibus totum etiam mundum, veluti uno 
solis radio collectum, sinu mentis mirabiliter laxato, manifestatum perspiciens 
speculabatur. 

*Ha3c de sancti viri hie ideo enarrata sunt virtutibus, ut avidior lector bre- 
viter perscripta, quasi dulciores quasdam prajgustet dapes : qua) tamen plenius 
in tribus inferius libris, Domino auxiliante, enarrabuntur. Nunc mihi non 
indecenter videtur, beati viri, licet prapostero ordine, prophetationes effari, quas 
de sanctis quibusdam et illustribus viris, diversis prolocutus est temporibus. 

J DE SANCTO FINTENO, ABBATE, FILIO TAILCHANI. 

SANCTUS 2 Fintenus a , qui postea per universas Scotorum ecclesias valde 
3 noscibilis b habitus est, a puerili estate integritatem carnis et anima?, Deo ad- 
juvante, custodiens, studiis 4 dialis 5 sophias deditus c , hoc propositum, in annis 

42 prsevidere Colg. Boll. 

i titulus desideratur in C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 finntamts D. 3 nocibilis D. * A. D. F. S. dialecti- 
calis C. 5 sofias A. F. S. sophie D. 

587. The Buile Choluim-cille, or 'Ecstasy of (Cod. Marsh, fol. 127 a b ; Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 

Columkille,' supposed to contain predictions of 4606.) At the synod of Campus Albus, where 

the sovereigns of Ireland, was attributed to he upheld the old Irish observance of Easter, 

him. (Tr. Th. p. 472 6.) S. Laisre of Leighlin, his opponent, declared to 

h Spiritus est. So the Vulgate, and version him, "Non ibimus ad judicium tuum, quum sci- 

in the Book of Armagh, at i Cor. vi. 17. mus quod per magnitudinem laboris tui et sanc- 

* Fintenus. St. Fintan, more commonly titatis, si diceres ut Mons Marge [Slieve- 
known by the name Munna, is commemorated margy] commutaretur in locum Campi Albi, et 
in the Irish calendar at Oct. 21. He is noticed Campus Albus in locum Montis Mairge, hoe- 
in the calendar prefixed to the Breviary of propter te Deus statim faceret." Chap. 25. 
Aberdeen, at the same day, under the name (Cod. Marsh, fol. 12906); Ussher, Brit. EC. 
Mundus abbas. Sir Harris Nicholas places Ant. cap. 17 (Works, vi. p. 505) ; Religion of 
him as "Fintan or Munnu" at Oct. 21, and as Anc. Irish, chap. 9 (Works, iv. pp. 342-344). 
" Munde, abbot in Argyle," following Camera- c Dialis sophias deditus. See Glossary. In 
rius and Keith, at April 15. (Chronol. of Hist. his Life it is stated that he studied successively 
pp. 149, 164.) under S. Comgall at Bangor, S. Columba at 

b Noscildlis. His Life relates that when a Cillmor-dithreamh, and S. Sinell at Claoininis 

boy, S. Columba blessed him, and said " Voca- [Cleenish], with the last of whom he remained 

beris inter majores sanctos Hibernise." Cap. 2 eighteen years. Cap. 5, 6. (Cod. Marsh, fol. 



CAP. 2.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



juventutis conversatus, in corde habuit, ut nostrum sanctum Columbam, 7 Hi- 
berniam deserens, peregrinaturus adiret. Eodem aestuans desiderio, ad quern- 
dam vadit seniorem sibi amicum, in sua gente prudentissimum venerandumque 
clericum, qui Scotice "vocitabatur 9 Columb Crag d , ut ab eo, quasi prudente, 
aliquod audiret consilium. Cui cum 10 suos tales denudaret n cogitatus, hoc ab 
eo responsum 12 accepit : Tuum, ut aestimo, 13 a Deo inspiratum devotumque 
desiderium quis prohibere potest, ne ad sanctum Columbam 14 transnavigare 
u debeas ? 15 Eadem hora casu duo adveniunt monachi sancti Columbaa, qui de 
sua iriterrogati ambulatione, Nuper, aiunt, de Britannia remigantes, hodie a 
Roboreto 1G Calgaclii c venimus. Sospes 17 anne est, ait 18 Columb 19 Crag, vester 
Columba sanctus pater ? Qui valde illacrymati, cum magno dixerunt maerore, 
Vere salvus est noster ille patronus, qui his diebus nuper ad Christum 20 com- 
migravit. Quibus auditis, 21 Fintenus et 22 Columb et omnes qui ibidem in- 
erant, prostratis in terram vultibus, amare 23 flevere. Fintenus consequenter 
percunctatur dicens: Quern post se successorem reliquit? 24 Baitheneum, 
aiunt, suum alumnum f . Omnibusque clamitantibus, Dignum et debitum ; 
"Columb ad Fintenum 26 inquit : Quid ad haec, Fintene, facies ? Qui respon- 
dens ait : Si Dominus permiserit, ad Baitheneum virum sanctum et sapientem 

''juventatis A. 7 C. D. F. S. heverniam A. 9 dicitur D. 9 colum crag A. Columba Cragius 
ODonnellus in Vit. S. Columbce, iii. 65, vertente Colg. columbus (crag, om.) C. D. F. S. lo suas D. 

11 cogitationes D. 12 accipit A. 13 adeo C. li adeas D. 15 omnia desunt usque ad idem sanc- 
tus, cap. 3 D. IB om. C. F. S. " ne C. & Columbus C. F. S. om. C. F. S. 20 migra- 
vit ad Christum C. 21 Finten A. 22 Columbus C. F. S. 23 fleverunt F. S. 21 Battheneum C. F. 
a5 Columbus C. F. S. 26 ait C. 



127 b a; Ussher, Works, vi. p. 503 ; Tr. Th. p. 
460 b ; Calend. Dungal. Nov. 12.) See Lani- 
gan, Eccl. Hist. ii. p. 407. 

ll Columb Crag. It may be inferred from 
the narrative that his church was near Derry. 
and at the sea side. In the absence of his spe- 
cific name from the calendar, Colgan conjec- 
tures that he was the Coltnm p accopc o Ga- 
nach, 'Colum, priest of Eanach,' of Sept. 22. 
The chapel of Enagh, situate beside the lake of 
the same name, lies about two miles N. E. of 
Derry, in the parish of Clondermot. (Ord. Surv. 
s. 14; Reeves' Colton's Visitation, pp. 29, 31.) 

e Roboreto Calgachi Cap. 20 inf. At ii. 
39 the name is given in the Irish form Daire 



Calyaich, where see note. Dcnpe Catgaich was 
the name by which the modern Londonderry 
was known among the Irish till the middle of the 
tenth century, when the Pagan part of the com- 
pound was exchanged for a Christian equiva- 
lent, and the name became thet)mpe Choknni 
cille of succeeding times. Compare Four Mast. 
948 and 950. 

f Alumnum. Dalca alumnus. Thus Tigher- 
nach, Nacimtap baichine balca CholuiTn- 
cille, A.C. 536. "Reverendus pater abbas 
Baithinus ab infantia sua in verbo Dei et disci- 
puli ab abbate prseclarissimo Columba diligen- 
ter instructus est." Act. S. Baithenei. (Act. 
SS. Jun. ii. p. 237 a.) 



D2 



20 Vita Sancti Columbce [LIB. i. 

enavigabo, et si me susceperit, ipsum abbatem habebo. Turn deinde supra 
inemoratum 27 Columb osculatus, et 28 ei valedicens, navigationem praeparat, et 
sine morula ulla transnavigans, 29 Iouam devenit insulam. Et necdum, in id 
temporis usque, nomen ejus in his locis erat notum. Unde et imprimis quasi 
quidam ignotus hospes hospitaliter 30 susceptus, alia die 31 nuncium ad 32 Baithe- 
neum mittit, ejus allocutionem facie ad faciem habere volens. Qui, ut erat 
affabilis, et peregrinis appetibilis, jubet ad se adduci. Qui statim adductus, 
primo, ut 33 conveniebat, flexis genibus in 34 terra se prostravit; 35 jussusque a 
sancto seniore, surgit, et residens interrogatur a 36 Baitheneo, adhuc inscio, de 
gente et provincia, nomineque et conversatione, et pro qua causa inierit navi- 
gationis laborem. Qui, ita interrogatus, omnia per ordinem enarrans, ut 
susciperetur humiliter expostulat. Cui sanctus senior, his ab hospite auditis, 
simulque hunc esse virum cognoscens de quo pridem aliquando sanctus Co- 
lumba prophetice vaticinatus est, Gratias, ait, Deo meo agere debeo quidem 
in tuo adventu, fili; sed 37 hoc indubitanter scito quod noster monachus non 
eris. Hoc audiens 38 hospes, valde contristatus, infit : Forsitan ego indignus 
tuus non mereor fieri monachus. Senior consequenter inquit : Non quod, ut 
dicis, indignus esses hoc dixi ; sed quamvis maluissem te apud me retinere, 
mandatum tamen sancti Columbae mei 39 decessoris profanare non possum ; per 
quern Spiritus Sanctus de te prophetavit. 40 Alia 41 namque die mihi soli seor- 
sim, sic prophetico profatus ore, inter caetera, dixit : Ha3C mea, O 42 Baithenee, 
intentius debes audire verba ; statim nanique post meum de hoc ad Christum 
saeculo expectatum et valde desideratum transitum, quidam de Scotia f rater, 
qui nunc, bene juvenilem bonis moribus 43 regens astatem, sacraa lectionis studiis 
satis 44 imbuitur, nomine Fintenus, 45 gente Mocumoie g , cujus pater Tailcha- 
nus 11 vocitatur, ad te, inquam, perveniens, humiliter expostulabit ut ipsum sus- 

27 coluinbum A. C. S. 29 om. C, 29 A. C. F. S. 30 susceptus est Colg. Boll. 3i internuncium 
C. F. S. 38 battheneum C. F. baithenum S. 33 veniebat C. 34 ten-am C. F. S. 3 ' 3 visus C. 
38 battheneo C. 37 et hoc C. 38 on. C. 33 defensoris C. 40 aliqua F. aliaque C. 41 om. C. 
batthenee C. 43 agens C. irabutus C. 45 ad vocitatur om. C. F. S. 

e Mocumoie. Colgan proposes Mac-Ua- nomine Munnu de claro genero Hyberniae, id 

Maine, as Fintan's mother was of the race of est, de Nepotibus Neill. Pater ejiis vocabatur 

Maine: but we find 'Laisran us Mocumoie' at Tulchanus, qui de semine Conalli filii Neill 

cap. 18 inf. It is probably a clan name derived ortus fuit. Mater sancti Munnu nominabatur 

from Maan, a progenitor of S. Fintan. See next Fedelyn, quse de eadem gente nata est, id est, 

note. de semine Manii filii Neill." Vit. cap. i. (Cod. 

h Tailchanus. "Fuit vir vitse venerabilis Marsh, fol. 127 ab; Colg. A. SS. pp 452 > 



CAP. 2.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



cipiens inter cseteros adnumeres monachos. Sed hoc ei in Dei prsescientia 
prsedestinatum non est ut ipse 4G alicujus 47 abbatis monachus 48 fieret j ; sed ut 
monachorum abbas, et animarum dux ad coeleste regnum, olim electus a Deo 
est. 49 Noles itaque hunc memoratura virum in his nostris apud te retinere in- 
stilis k , ne et Dei voluntati contraire videaris : sed, ha3C ei intiraans verba, ad 
Scotiam in pace remittas, ut in Laginensium vicinis mari finibus monasterium 
construat 1 , et ibidem Christi 50 ovinum pascens gregem, innumeras ad patriam 



i* sit add S. 



om. C. F. S. O m. S. 



606 b, n. 3; Tr. Th. p. 373 b, n. 23.) His de- 
scent is thus given in the book of Leacan : 
ITlunnu Cigi ITIunnu mac Culchain mic 
Cpena mic Oesa mic ITlaam [a quo Moc-U- 
Moie?] mic Saeibi mic peiblimi6 "Reccaib 
mic Cuacail Ce6cmaip. With which agrees 
the pedigree prefixed to the Life in the Cod. 
Marsh. But in both there is a chasm of at 
least twelve gener-ations, for Fedhlimidh Recht- 
inar was King of Ireland in 164, whereas Conall 
Gulban, who was slain in 464, was tenth in de- 
scent from him, and S. Columba fourth from 
Conall. Supposing Saeide to be son of Conall, 
we have materials to complete the line. Men- 
tion is made of Tulchan and his son Munnius 
in the Life of S. Cainnech, cap. 24. (Edited by 
the late Marquis of Ormonde, pp. xiv. 14; 
Colg. A. SS. p. 606 b; Tr. Th. p. 483 a.) 

1 Fieret. Fleming concludes from this state 
mentthat S. Fintau was the author of a monas- 
tic rule. (Collectan. p. 437 a.) 

k Retinere insulis The story is told as fol- 
lows in the Life of S. Fintan : " Post haec S. 
Munna perrexit ad insulam Hy, ut ibi apud S. 
Columbam monachus fieret. Sed S. Columba 
ante adventum ejus migravit ad ccelum : et 
ante obitum suum prophetavit de S. Munna, 
talia verba dicens ad beatum Baitheneum : Post 
obitum meum veniet ad vos de Hibernia qui- 
dam juvenis, moribus sanctus, ingenio clarus, 
corpore quidem capite crispus, et genis rubi- 
cuudus, cujus nomen est Munna, quern ssepe in 
terra vidi, sed stepius spiritualiter in ccelo inter 



nolis F. nobis C. A0 ovium C. Colg. Boll. 

angelos Dei. Ad hoc autem ipse hue veniet, ut 
hie monachus fiat ; sed ne recipiatis eum, 
quamvis mul turn -sibi displiceat. Et tu dices 
illi : Revertere fili ad Hiberniam, quia caput 
magni populi ibi eris. Et ipse vadat ad aus- 
tralem plagam Laginensium, quse dicitur 
Cennselach ; quia ibi erit honor ipsius, et re- 
surrectio. Et quamvis mea parrochia major 
est in terra quam sua, tamen, meus amor, et 
mea potestas, apud Deum non est major quam 
ipsius. Et ita omnia ilia contigerunt." Chap. 
7. (Cod. Marsh, fol. 127 bb ; Colgan, Tr. Th. 
p. 461 a.) The third lesson of the Office of S. 
Mundus, in the Breviary of Aberdeen, contra- 
dicts the earlier authorities by stating that 
" ad yonam insulam in scocia pervenit in qua a 
beato columba habitum suscepit religionis." 
Propr. SS. Part. Est. f. 131 bb (Reprint 1852). 
1 Construat. Namely, Teach Munna, or 
' House of Munna,' in Ui Ceinnselach, now 
called Taghinon (pronounced Tamuri), situate 
about seven miles west of Wexford, and giving 
name to a prebend in the cathedral of Ferns. 
(Ord. Surv. Co. Wexford, s. 41.) It is referred 
to in the Lives of S. Maidoc and S. Molua, as 
the abode and burial-place of S. Munna. (Col- 
gan, Act. SS. p. 211 ; Fleming, Collect, p. 379 
a.) Besides this church, S. Fintan or Mun- 
na was the founder of one at Ath-caoin in the 
island of Coimirighi, at Achadh-leicce, and 
at Teach-Telli, now Tehelly, near Durrow. 
(Cod. Marsh, fol. 127 bb ; Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 
373 b, n. 24; Act. SS. pp. 15 6, n. 10, 606 a.) 



22 



Vita Sancti Colwnbce 



[LIB, i. 



animas coclestem perducat" 1 . Hasc audiens sanctus junior, Christo, lacry- 
mas fundens, 51 agit gratias, inquiens : Secundum sancti Columbaj prophe- 
ticam fiat mihi et mirabilem prrcscientiam. 62 Iisdemque 53 diebus verbis sanc- 
torum obtemperans, et a 54 Baitheneo accipiens benedictionem, in pace ad 
Scotiam M transnavigat". 

5G Ha3cmihi quodam narrante religiose sene presbytero, Christi milite, Ois- 
seneo nomine, Ernani filio, gente Mocu Neth Corb p , indubitanter didici : qui 



M ait F. S. '- hisdemque A. F. S. his denique C. Colg. Boll. 

'"" A. trausnavigavit Colg. Boll. 5G cetera desiderantur in C. F. S. 



* om. C. 



batthenco C. 



He was also fourth in a succession of Fintans 
who were abbots of Cluaineidhneach, or Clo- 
nenagh, in Queen's County. (Colgan, Act. SS. 
p. 356 a.) The parish of Taghmon in West- 
meath likewise derives its name from him. His 
principal church in Scotland was Kilmond, now 
Kilmun in Cowall, to which the Breviary of 
Aberdeen assigns his burial (Propr. SS. Part. 
Estiv. fol. 132 eta); where local tradition even 
marks the supposed place of his sepulture by 
the name of Sith-Mun (Old Stat. Survey, vol. 
ii. p. 383) ; and where a half-markland was 
held in virtue of the custody of his crosier. 
(Irtnes, Orig. Paroch. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 72.) The 
old parish of Elanmunde, on the confines of 
Argyle and Inverness, derived its name from 
an island in Loch Leven, on which there was a 
church called after S. Mund. (Ibid. p. 170.) 

111 Perducat. " Centum quinquaginta veros 
martyres, qui sub magisterio S. Mundifilii Tul- 
chani vixerunt, et super quos nullus audet 
quempiam sepelire invoco in auxilium meum." 
Litany of ^Engus. (Colgan, Act. SS. p. 453 b, 
n. 6; Vardaei Acta S. Rumoldi, p. 205.) u Fin- 
tanus films Tulchani, cum suis monachis qui 
sub jugo ejus fuerunt ccxxxiii., quos non uret 
ignis judicii : quorum nomina sunt ista Las- 
ranus, Commanus, etc." Martyrol. Tamlact. 
Oct. 21. (Colg. Act. SS. p. 453 6.) 

n Transnavigat. In after years he was af- 
fected with leprosy, on account of which he 
was styled Lobap : and with his disease he was 
taunted by Suibhne son of Domhnall, lord of 



Hua-Mairche, at the synod of Campus Albus. 
(Ussher, Works, vi. p. 504; Fleming, Collect. 
P- 379 &) He died in 635, at which year Tigh- 
ernach records the Quies Fintain i. e., Mundu 
filii Tulchain in xii. Cal. Nov. So also the 
Annals of Ulster, and of the Four Masters, at 
634. His acts are to be found in the Codex 
Marsh, fol. 127-129 b ; Cod. Salmant. fol. 137- 
140; and the latter portion in Cod. E. 3, ii, 
Trin. Coll. Dubl., fol. 105 a. The Breviary of 
Aberdeen has six lessons at his festival. 
Propr. SS. Part. Estiv. fol. 131 ab 132 a a. 

Oisseneo. Possibly, Oissene Foda, abbot 
of Cluain-Ioraird [Clonard], who died in 654, 
and is commemorated in the Calendar at May i. 

P Mocu Neth Corb. That is, TTlac 11 Nech 
copb, denoting that he was of the clan Ui 
Niadli-corb, whose origin, and relation to the 
chief family of Leinster, may be thus shown : 

Mogh Corb 
Cu Corb 



NIADH CORB 
Cormac Gealta-gaoith 
Fedhlimidh Firurglais 

Cathaeir Mor 

Hereditary King of Lein- 
ster, King of Ireland, 
circ. 174, ancestor of 
Mac Murrogh, O'Conor 
Faly, and chief families 
of Leinster. 



Mesin Corb 

Progenitor of SS. Kevin, 
Conlaedh, and other 
Leinster saints. S. 
Etchen, who ordained 
S. Columba, and died 
in 578, was sixth in de- 
scent from him. The 
territory of his clan, 
calledZ)a I Mesin- Cuirb, 
was a maritime district 
on the borders of the 
counties of Wicklow 
and Wexford. 



Enna Cinsealach, great-grandson of Cathaeir 



CAP. 3-J 



Auctore Adamnano. 



se eadem supra memorata verba ejusdem ab ore sancti Finteni, filii Tail- 
chani, audisse 57 testatus est, ipsius monachus r . 



J DE ERNENEO FILIO CRASENI SANCTI COLUMB^E PIIOPHETIA. 

ALIO in tempore vir beatus, in mediterranea a 2 Hibernia3 parte 3 monaste- 
rium, quod Scotice dicitur 4 Dair-mag b , divino fundans nutu, per aliquot 5 de- 
moratus menses, libuit animo visitare fratres qui in 6 Clonoensi sancti 7 Cerani 



5 7 testatur, Colg. 

1 titulum om. C. F. S. Boll, 
ratur C. 6 cloensi C. F. S. 



2 eberniae A. 
7 cherani S. 



3 monasteriorum A. * tlairmagh C. F. S. 5 ilemo- 



Mor, gave name to the Hy-Cinsealach, in 
whose territory Taghmon was situated; so 
that Oissene, one of his race, would, in all 
likelihood, be familiar with S. Fintan's history. 

'' Monachus. Ussher proposes to read: "qui 
et ipse monachus ejus extitit." Brit. Eccl. 
Ant. c. 17. (Works, vi. p. 503.) 

a Mediterranea The Umbilicus Hibernice, 
which has been variously placed at Ushnagh 
Hill, Clonmacnoise, and Birr, belonged to the 
south-west of the great plain of Meath. See 
note on Hi. 9 infra. 

b D air-mag. Written in Irish records Dap 
mash, or t)eap mash. Adamnan employs the 
Latin equivalent Roboreti Campus at i. 29, 49, 
ii. 39, iii. 15 ; and Roboris Campus at ii. 2. 
Speaking of Columba, Bede says : " Fecerat 
autem, priusquam Brittaniam veniret, monaste- 
rium nobile in Hibernia, quod a copia roborum 
Dearmach lingua Scottorum, hoc est, Campus 
roborum, cognominatur." (H. E. iii. 4.) The 
modern name is Durrow, and belongs to a 
parish of the diocese of Meath, situate in the 
barony of Ballycowan, on the north of King's 
County, and extending a short way into West- 
meath. It anciently formed part of the terri- 
tory Fer-Ceall, which was included in the king- 
dom of Teathbha [Teffia]. On the death of 
Crimthann, in 533, the lordship descended to 
his nephew Aedh, whose father, Brendan, sur- 
vived till 576, but does not appear to have en- 



joyed the supreme power. (Conf. Four Mast. 
556, 573, with Tighernach,562, 576, and Annal. 
Ult. 561, 575.) According to Tighernach, 
Gebh mac bpeanbain pigh Gebhca abpo 
bhaipc Dapmach bo Cholum chilli, ' Aedh 
son of Brendan, King of Tebhtha, who bestowed 
Darmach on Colum-cille," died in 589. S. Co- 
lumba removed to lona in 563 : Aedh became 
lord of Teffia in 553 : it follows, therefore, if 
Bede's statement be correct, that Durrow was 
founded between these dates. But the present 
narrative, while it describes S. Columba as 
" fundans," couples the date of the occurrence 
with the presidency of Alithir at Clonmacnoise, 
who did not succeed to that office till June, 
585. Consequently, we must either understand 
this expression in the sense of confirming, or 
suppose an inaccuracy in Bede. If it could be 
proved that Brendan was lord of Teffia, Bede 
would be shown to be in error, for that prince 
lived till 576 ; so that his son Aedh would not 
have the right of donation before that date, 
which was thirteen years subsequent to S. Co- 
lumba's departure. A similar conclusion would 
follow from the identification of the visit men- 
tioned in the text with the following, which is 
recorded in the Life of S. Ciaran : " Post Ion- 
gum tempus, cum S. Columba cum sua familia 
in Hiberniam ab insula Hia venisset, prsepa- 
rata est eis coena magna in monasterio S. Kier- 
ani in sua civitate Cluain; et cum illi venissent 



Vita Sancti Columbcv 



[LIB. i. 



cocnobio" commanebant. 8 Auditoque ejus accessu, universi undique ab agellu- 
lis monasterio vicinis d cum his qui ibidem inventi sunt congregati, cum omni 
alncritate suum consequentes abbatem Alithcrum , sancto "Columbae, quasi 
angelo Domini, obviam, egressi vallum monasterii f , '"unanimespergunt; humili- 
atisque in terrain vultibus eo viso, cuni omni reverentia exosculatus ab eis est; 
hymnisque et laudibus resonantes, honorifice ad ecclesiam u perdu cunt; quam- 
damque de lignis pyramidem g erga sanctum deambulantem constringentes, a 
quatuor viris seque ambulantibus supportari fecerunt : ne videlicet sanctus 
senior Colmnba ejusdem fratrum multudinis constipatione molestaretur. Eadem 

s audito itaquc C. 9 om. C. F. S. 10 unanimiter Colg. Boll. >i perducebaiit C. 



ad coenobium S. Kierani suscepti sunt in magna 
hilaritate et diligentia, et ilia coena refecti sunt 
largissirae, et fama ipsius refectionis per totam 
civitatem, et ejus circuitum late divulgabatur." 
Cap. 31. (Cod. Marsh, fol. 147 b a ; Tr. Th. 
p. 457 6.) It is certain that S. Coluraba was es- 
tablished in Hy when the " raagna domus" of 
Durrow was a-building. See i. 29, iii. 15, inf. 

Cerani ccenobio Clonmacnoise was founded 
in 548 by Ciaran mac an c-pdoip 'Filius Ar- 
tificis.' King Diarmait (i. 14, 36 inf.'), his chief 
patron, granted the site and endowments. The 
saint died on the 5th of Sept., 549, in the 34th 
year of his age. He was esteemed one of the 
chief saints of Ireland, and his monastery rose 
to the highest importance. Cummian's Paschal 
epistle calls him Queranvs Coloniensis, and 
ranks him among the " Patres priores" of the 
Irish. (Ussher, Syll. xi.) The old adjectives 
Clottoensis and Coloniensis are formed from 
Cluain, the first component in the name CVuain 
mic Noip, 'Meadow of son ofNos.' which was 
derived from Nos son of Fiadach, one of the 
Dealbhna-Eathra, the tribe in whose district, 
now known as the barony of Garrycastle in 
King's County, the abbey was situate. Later 
Irish writers added even another element to 
the name (as Four Mast. 1461); but legal re- 
cords are generally content with the form 
Cluanensis, or Clonensis : hence, as the See of 
Cloyne, which in Irish is Cluain-uamha, is 



also latinized by Clonensis, it is sometimes diffi- 
cult to distinguish between it and Clonmac- 
noise, which was also a bishop's See. 

(1 AgeUulis vicinis. Agriculture was probably 
a leading occupation under St. Ciaran's, as well 
as St. Columba's rule, attracting to the neigh- 
bourhood the external dependents who are al- 
luded to in the text. 

e Alitherum. Fourth abbot of Clonmacnoise, 
having succeeded Mac Nis.si, who died June 
1 2th, 585. His death is recorded by Tigher- 
nach at 599 : Gilichiyi abb Clnana mac Noip 
paupao. bo Tnup cpaioi bo, ' Ailithir, abbot 
of Cluain-mic-Nois rests. He was of the Mus- 
craidhe.' (Annal. Ult. 598 ; Four Mast. 595.) 
He appears in the Calendar at May 1 2 : eiichip 
ITlincinpi pop Lo6 t)eip5 bepc, ' Elithir, of 
Muicinis on Loch Deirg-derc' [now Lough 
Derg in the Shannon] Marian. Gorm. ; Ca- 
lend. Dungall. 

f Vallum monasteriL The rampart which is 
described by Bede as enclosing St. Cuthbert's 
little monastery in Fame may be taken as the 
type of the Irish monastic vallum. (H. E. iv. 
28 ; more fully in Vita S. Cuthberti, cap. 17.) 
For an interesting account of this kind of struc- 
ture, called a caipiol, or cashel, see Petrie's 
Round Towers, pp. 440-446. Cf. Reeves' Ec- 
cles. Antiqq. pp. '182, 197. See ii. 19 infra. 

e Pyramidem. Du Cange has one example of 
the word, which he explains by ciborium, or 



CAP. 3-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



hora quidam valde despectus vultu et habitu, puer familiaris, et necdum seni- 
oribus placens, retro, in quantum valuit se occultans, accessit, ut videlicet vel 
illius 12 amphibali h fimbriam, quo vir beatus induebatur, occulte, et si fieri possit 
ipso nesciente et non sentiente, tangeret. Sed hoc tamen Sanctum non latuit, 
nam quod corporalibus oculis retro se actum intueri non potuit, 13 spiritalibus 
u perspexit. Unde subito restitit, et post se extendens manum, cervicem pueri 
tenet, ipsumque trahens ante faciem suam statuit. Omnibusque qui ibidem 
15 circumstabant dicentibus, 10 Dimitte, dimitte, quare hunc infelicem et 17 injurio- 
suin retines puerum? l8 Sanctus e contra haec 19 puro pectore verba depromit 
prophetica, Sinite, fratres, sinite modo. Ad puerum vero valde tremefacturn 
dicit, O fili aperi os, et porrige linguam. Jussus turn puer, cum ingenti tre- 
more aperiens os, 20 linguam porrexit; 21 quam Sanctus, sanctam extendens 
manum, 22 diligenter benedicens, ita proplietice profatur, dicens, Hie puer 
quamvis vobis nunc 23 despicabilis et valde vilis videatur, nemo tamen ipsum 
ob id despiciat. Ab hac enim hora non solum vobis non displicebit, sed valde 
placebit; bonisque moribus, et animae virtutibus paulatim de die in diem cres- 
cet : sapientia quoque et prudentia magis ac magis in eo ab hac die adaugebitur, 
et in hac 24 vestra congregatione grandis estfuturus 25 profectus ; lingua quoque 
ejus salubri 26 et doctrina et "eloquentia 28 a Deo 29 donabitur. Hie erat 30 Erne- 
neus, 31 filius ^Craseni 1 , postea per omnes 33 Scotise ecclesias famosus et valde 

K an fi ball A. F. more Hibernico : sic anfibalo Lib. Armacan fol. 209 a b. l3 A. F. S. spiritnali- 
bus C. u A. C. F. S. respexit Colg. Boll. 15 circum astabant F. S. circiter astabant C. 1 dimit- 
tite bis C. 17 A. C. F. S. Colg. juniorem Boll. 18 ' 1S idem sanctus ad fratres suos conversus duro D. 
priorem partem cap. ii. ad verbum adeas excipiens. 19 ad sylldbum ro infit B. 2 suum add. C. D. S. 
ai ad add. D. 22 e t add. C. D. S. 23 despectibilis D. 24 nostra C, 25 provectus C. 26-27 doc- 
trinal! eloquentia B. 28-29 f u i ge bit D. 3 A. B. F. S. ereneus C. hylerianus D. 3i om , C. D. F. S. 
34 A. B. cresceni Colg. Boll. om. C. D. F. S. 33 hybernie D. 



' canopy of the altar.' In the present instance 
it signifies simply a canopy. 1 " Ad eum mo- 
dum, quo nos umbella seu baldachino utimur 
in Processionibus, causa venerationis erga SS. 
Sacraraentum, atque ad arcendam turbam, plu- 
viam, et solis ardorem." Baertius in loco. 
(Act. SS. Jun. ii. p. 202 6.) See Glossary. 

h Amphibali. Ussher explains the word by 
" vestis externae genus quoddam, qua clerici et 
monachi olim utebantur." (Wks. vi. p. 59.) 
See Glossary. The desire " amphibali firabriam 
tangere," expressed here, and at ii. 6, was cre- 
ated by the ij^aro TOV icpaairfdov rov ifiariov 



avrov of St. Mat. ix. 20, and xiv. 36, and seems 
to have generally prevailed towards distin- 
guished saints. Thus Gregory of Tours says 
of St. Trajan : " Si novum, ut adsolet, amphi- 
bolum induisset, cum quo processurus dicecesim 
circumiret, fimbriae hujus vestimenti a diver- 
sis diripiebantur." De Glorias. Confess, c. 59. 
(Opp. col. 941, Paris, 1699; Bibliotheca Vet. 
Pat. xi. p. 884, Lugd. 1677.) 

' Erneneus filius Craseni. His day in the 
Irish calendar is Aug. 18: epmn .1. !T)epTi6cc 
6 "Raich Naoi i nUiti gappcon .1. i pocap- 
caib Laigen : ocup o Chill bpaignech i 



E 



Vita Sancti Columlce 



[LIB. i. 



notissimus ; qui hsec oinnia suprascripta verba 34 Segineo abbati de 6e prophe- 
tata enarraverat, meo 35 decessore Failbeo k intentius audiente, qui et ipse cum 
34 Segineo praesens 3C inerat; cujus 37 revelatione et ego ipse cognovihasc 38 eadem 
qua? 39 enarravi. Sed et multa alia 40 iisdem diebus quibus in 41 Clonoensi 
co3iiobio 42 Sanctus hospitabatur, revelante prophetavit Sancto Spiritu; hoc est, 
de ilia, ' 43 que post dies multos ob diversitatem Paschalis festi orta est inter 
44 Scotia3 ecclesias, 45 discordia 1 : et de quibusdam 46 angelicis frequentationibus 
sibi manifestatis, quibus qusedam intra ejusdem coenobii septa ab angelis tune 
temporis frequentabantur loca. 

34 33. segeneo A. C. F. S. segeno D. 35 successore D. w eratD. 37 A. relatione B. C. D. F. S. 
19 om. D. 3y narravi D. 40 hisdem A. B. isdem F. < A. B. cloensi C. om. D. & sancti 
kierani add. D. & discordia D. scothicoe C. 45 om. D. 40 anglicis B. 



typona, 'Ernin, i.e. Mernocc, of Rath-Naoi in 
Ui Garrchon, i. e. in the Fotharta of Leinster : 
and of Cill-draighnech in Ui Drona.' Marian. 
Gorm. ; Cal. Dungall. His parentage is given 
in the Calendars of Cashel and Tamlacht at 
the same day, as cited by Colgan : " Erneneus, 
id est Mernocus filius Gresseni, de Rath-naoi 
in Hi-Gar chon in Lagenia, et de Kill-Droig- 
neach, in Hi-Drona." (Trias Th. p. 373 6.) 
Thus also in the Feilire of ^Engus, TTlac 
Cpefme ITlepnocc, affording a fresh autho- 
rity for the identification of the individual in 
question. His obit, which is unaccountably 
omitted by the Four Masters, is given by 
Tighernach, at the year 635 : " Quies Ernaine 
mic Cresene" So Annal. Ult. 634. His churches 
which are mentioned in the calendars are Rath- 
naoi, now called Rathnew, the parochial name 
of Wicklow; and Kill-droighneach, now Kil- 
dreenagh, a townland in Dunleckny parish, in 
the barony of Idrone East, county of Carlow. 
(Ord. Surv. s. 16.) The name is preserved in 
Scotland in the two Kilmarnocks, and Inch- 
marnoc. The festival " Sancti Mernoci epys- 
copi et confessoris patroni de Kilmernoch" is 
appointed in the Breviary of Aberdeen for the 
25th of October. Part. Estiv. fol. 132. It may 
be well to observe that the word Mernoc is a 
contraction of Mo-Ernin-occ, the prefix denot- 
ing wty, and the suffix little, so that the name 



thus altered conveyed the additional expres- 
sions of affection and familiarity. 

k Failbeo. The same authorities have been 
mentioned in i. i (p. 16). 

1 Discordia. The successive amendments 
which had been made on the Continent in the 
rule of Easter had, in St. Columba's time, left 
the British churches considerably in arrear; 
partly owing to their unwillingness to abandon 
ancient institutions, and partly to the circum- 
stance alleged of the Irish by Wilfrid, that 
" nullus advenerat, qui eis instituti perfectioris 
decreta quse sequerentur, ostenderet." (Bede, 
H. E. iii. 25.) St. Columba could hardly have 
been ignorant of the discrepancy, yet he evinced 
no desire to alter the existing practice, and such 
was the respect for his memory in after times, 
that the bare fact of his observance of the old 
rule operated, during more than a century, as 
the great obstacle to the adoption of the Roman 
Easter in the monastery of Hy and its depen- 
dencies ; on the principle stated by Colman : 
"Numquid reverentissimum patrem nostrum 
Columbam, et successores ejus viros Deo dilec- 
tos, qui eodem modo pascha fecerunt, divinis 
paginis contraria sapuisse, vel egisse, creden- 
dum est ?" In fact this discordia was a pro- 
tracted struggle between the chair of St. Peter 
and old associations, though the advantage of 
argument lay with the former. It was about 



CAP. 4.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



J DE ADVENTU SANCTI CAINNECH1, ABBATIS, DE QUO SANCTUS COLUMBA 

PROPHETALITER 2 PR^ENUNTIAVIT. 

3 ALIO 3 in tempore 4 cum in 5 Ioua insula, die fragosae tempestatis et intol- 
erabilis undarum magnitudinis, sedens in domo Sanctus 6 et fratribus pr&cipi- 
ens 7 diceret, Praeparate ocius hospitium, aquamque ad lavandos hospitum 
pedes 8 exhaurite; quidam ex ipsis 9 frater consequenter, Quis, ait, hac die 



1 tilulum om. C. F. S. hie sequitur in D. iii. 10 hujus edit, 
in quo hcec narratio post iii. 16 hujus edit, sequitur. 4 om. D. 
^ dixit D. 8 haurite D. 9 A. B. C. fratribus D. Colg. Boll. 



8 pronunciavit B. 3 quodam D . 
* A. C. iona B. o om . i). 



the period of St. Columba's visit to Clonmac- 
nois that Columbanus, by his advocacy of the 
Irish rule at Luxeuin Burgundy, was beginning 
to draw down upon himself the displeasure of 
the neighbouring bishops, in reference to which 
he addressed some letters to Popes Gregory I. 
and Boniface IV. (Fleming, Collectan. pp. 
no, 113, 157.) The Roman missionaries who 
visited Britain in 597 brought the merits of the 
rival systems under more immediate consider- 
ation, and as they were commissioned to ex- 
ercise pastoral superintendence over the " Scots 
who inhabited Ireland," a remonstrance from 
the newly founded See of Canterbury, about 
605 (Bede's H. E. ii. 4), seems to have had 
weight with a portion of the Irish Church, and 
a bishop called Terenanus was induced to adopt, 
and become a zealous advocate of, the reformed 
rule. (Vit. S. Laurent, ap. Ussher, Wks. iv. 
p. 422.) The question soon began to assume 
the form of a national controversy ; and to give 
weight to the Roman side of it, Honorius I., 
about 630, sent a letter to Ireland urging upon 
the opposite party the consideration of their iso- 
lated position. (Bede, H. E. ii. 19.) At the same 
time Cummian appeared in a synod which was 
held at Campus Lene, or Magh-Lena, near the 
modern Tullamore, in the heart of Ireland, where 
he pleaded for uniformity with such effect that 
the assembly was on the point of pronouncing 
a favourable decision, when an individual of the 
company, whom he styles " quidam paries deal- 

E 



batus," stood up and roused the dormant pre- 
judices of some present, so as to cause an 
adjournment of the proceedings. (Ussh. Syll. 
xi.) Shortly after, another conference was held 
at Campus Albus, near Carlow, where the en- 
deavours of Laisrean, Abbot of Leighlin, were 
overruled by the influence of Munna (the Fin- 
tenus of i. 2 swjor.). (Vit. S. Munnse, c. 25, Cod. 
Marsh, fol. 129 aa; Ussh. Wks. iv. p. 342, vi. 
p. 505.) By this time the inhabitants of the 
island had separated into two geographical 
parties, after the old civil division of the coun- 
try into the Northern and Southern Halves ; 
for Bede, in reference to an occurrence of 634, 
writes, that while the " septentrionalis Scotto- 
rum provincia" still adhered to the old practice, 
the "gentes Scottorum, quse in australibus 
Hiberniae partibus morabantur, jamjudum, ad 
admonitionem apostolicae sedis antistitis, pascha 
canonico ritu observare didicerunt." (H. E. 
iii. 3.) This distinction we find practically re- 
cognised in the superscription of a letter sent 
from Rome in 640, which is addressed to eleven 
ecclesiastics, who are proved by Irish records 
to have belonged to the northern division of the 
island. (Bede, H. E. ii. 19.) Whatever effect 
this appeal may have had, it is certain that the 
Columbian monasteries continued steadfast in 
their profession, and from time to time gave 
evidence of their firmness by the character of 
the bishops whom they sent to Lindisfai'ne : 
Aidan in 634 ; Finan in 652 ; and Colman in 

2 



Vita Sancti Columbee 



[LIB. i. 



valde ventosa et nimis periculosa, licet breve, fretum a prospere transnavigare 
potest ? Quo audito Sanctus sic profatur : 10 Cuidam sancto et electo liomini, 
qui "adnosante vesperam 12 perveniet, Oninipotens tranquillitatem, 13 quamlibet 
14 in tempestate, 15 donavit. Et ecce, eademdie aliquamdiu a fratribus expectata 
navis in qua 16 sanctusinerat n Cainnechus 1 ' juxta 18 Sancti prophetationem per- 
venit. Cui Sanctus cum fratribus obviam venit, et ab eo honorifice 19 et hos- 
pitaliter 20 susceptus est. Illi vero nautaj qui cum 21 Cainnecho 22 inerant, 
interrogati a fratribus de qualitate navigationis, sic retulerunt sicuti sanctus 
Columba prius de tempestate et tranquillitate pariter, Deo donante, in eodem 
maii, et 23 iisdem horis, mirabili 84 divisione prasdixerat ; et tempestatem eminus 
visam non sensisse professi sunt. 

1-" quidam sanctus et electus homo ad D. 12 veuiat D. i 3 om D. u ei add. D. ' 5 donabit 
C. D. l6 eratetdW. D. " cannechtisB. chaiimecbus C. S. kainnichusD. cainnechusF. 18 om. D. 
19 om. D. 2 que add. D. 21 cannecho B. chainnecho 0. S. kainnicho D. 22 erant D. . 23his- 
dem A. B. 24 A. B. C. F. S. visione sylldba prima erasa D, 



661. (Ibid. iii. 3, 17, 25.) The defeat of Col- 
man at the synod of Whitby in 664, and the 
retirement of the Seotic monks from Ripon ( Ib. 
iii. 26, v. 19) tended to circumscribe the influ- 
ence of Hy ; and at the close of the century, 
Adamnan, the ninth abbot, made an effort to 
reduce his fraternity to the Roman discipline, 
in which, though he failed, his endeavours were 
crowned with success in Ireland, " et pene om- 
nes qui ab Hiiensium dominio erant liberi ab 
errore avito correctos ad unitatem reduxit ca- 
tholicam." (Ib. v. 15, 21.) It was reserved for 
Egbert, in 7 16, to bring the Columbian monks to 
uniformity (76. iii. 4, v. 22), an event which 
Tighernach, at that year, curtly records : 
Pascha in Eo civitate commutatur. Thus termi- 
nated an observance to which Bede assigns a 
continuance of 150 years, dating its com- 
mencement from 565 ; the secret of which was 
that " Qualiscunque fuerit ipse [Columba], reli- 
quit successores magna continentia ac divino 
amore regularique institutione insignes: in 
tempore quidem summae festivitatis dubios cir- 
culos sequentes, utpote quibus longe ultra orbem 
positis nemo synodalia paschalis observanJLice de- 
c-reta porrexerat." (H. E. iii. 4.) 



a Breve /return. The sound of lona is an 
English mile across. See iii. 23, 4 infra. 

b Cainnechus. St. Cainnech was the patron 
saint of the diocese of Ossory, and from him 
the city of Kilkenny and the parish of Kilkenny 
"West derive their names. See ii. 13, 14, iii. 17 
inf. His Life was printed for private circula- 
tion by the late Marquis of Ormonde from the 
Codex Salmanticensis preserved in the Bur- 
gundian Library at Brussels, with various 
readings from the Codex Vitarum in Abp. 
Marsh's Library at Dublin (4to, 1853). 

c Prcedixerat. " Alio die dixit Columba-kylle 
fratribus, Prseparate cito hospitium et aquam 
ad lavandos pedes. Et post aliquod interval- 
lum navis Kannechi ad eos venit et portum 
tenuit. In cujus obviam Columba cum fra- 
tribus venit, et ab eo honorifice susceptus 
est. Tune fratres interrogaverunt familiam 
Kannechi dicentes, Quomodo potuistis hodie 
navigare ? Illi responderunt, Nobis Dominus 
Omnipotens tranquillam viam fecit et placidam 
per immensas undas : nam in mari undique 
circa nos erat sseva tempestas ; et ad longitudi- 
nem virgse circa navem nostram ex omni parte 
erat mitis tranquillitas." Vita, cap. 26 (p. 16). 



CAP. 5.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



29 



J DE PERICULO SANCTI 2 COLMANI EPISCOPI a , MOCUSAILNI b , IN MARI JUXTA 

INSULAM QU^E VOCITATUR RECHRU . 

ALIA itidem die sanctus Columba, in sua commanens matrice ecclesia, repente 
3 in 3 hanc subridens 4 erupit 4 vocem, dicens: Columbanus' 3 , 5 filius 5 Beognai, ad 
nos transnavigare incipiens, nunc in undosis 6 Chary bdis 7 Brecani c aastibus valcle 
periclitatur ; 8 ambasque "adcoelura, in prora sedens, palmas elevat; turbaturn 
qtioque et 10 tam formidabile u pelagus benedicit: quern tamen Dominus sic 
tercet, non ut navis naufragio, in qua ipse 12 residet, undis obruatur; seel po- 
tius ad 13 orandum intentius suscitetur, ut ad nos, Deo 14 propitio, post transva- 
datum perveniat periculum. 



i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 columbani B. 
C. D. F. S. 6 carubdis A. caribdis B. D. F. 
10 om. D. HpilagusA, pelagum D. 12 resedit C. sedit D. 



3 om. D. 4 in hac voce erupit D. 5 om. 
7 om. C. D. F. S. 8 abbasque C. 9 in F. S. 

14 propitiante D. 



A 

adorandum D. 



a Ejriscopi. He is stated to have been a 
presbyter at the time of S. Columba's death. 
See ii. 15 infra. 

b Mocusailni. The clan name by which he 
was distinguished, Colman OlamacUi Seilli. 
(Tighernach, 611; Annal. Ult. 610 ; Four 
Mast. 6 10.) He was descended from Eachach, 
son of Muiredhach, whose legendary destruc- 
tion by the expansion of the river Bann gave 
to that sheet of water the name of Loch nGac- 
ach, now called Loch Neagh. His descendant 
in the sixth generation was Clothrach, who had 
two sons, each giving name to a sept ; namely, 
Fedhlim Saillne, or Salline, the head of the 
Dal Sailne, or Dal Selli ; and Fedhlim Buan, 
the head of the Dal m-JBuain.(Ma.c Firbis, 
Geneal. MS. pp. 102, 728 b; Irish Nennius, 
p. 268 ; Dinnseanchus in Book of Lecan, fol. 
252 6 6.) Every man in the clan Dal-Sailne 
was a mac Ui Sailne. 

c Rechru. Rechrea ii. 41 inf. It is the mo- 
dern Rathlin of the maps, and Raghery of the 
natives ; a large island lying north of Bally- 
castle, in the county of Antrim. 

d Columbanus He is more commonly called 
Colmanus, as in the titulus j but the exchange 



is very frequent. Thus Bede's Colmanus (H. 
E. iii. 25, 26) is Columbanus in the Annals of 
Ulster, 667, 675, and Tighernach 676. Colman 
Mor of Irish history is Columbanus in Adam- 
nan (i. 14). So ii. 15, 1 6, iii. 12. See Usshei-, 
Brit. EC. Ant. c. 17. (Wks. vi. p. 536.) This 
Columbanus is the Colman-Eala or Colmanellus 
of the Irish calendar, Sept. 26 ; and the patron 
saint of Kilcolmonell on the east of Knapdale 
in Argyle, and of Colmonell in Ayrshire. See 
the note on the name at ii. 15. 

e Charybdis Brecani. See the titulus of ii. 
13 , where Cod. B. adds, " in vortice Brecain." 
Called by the Irish Coi|ie bpeccun, ' Brecan's 
Cauldron,' from the peculiar motion of the 
water, and the tradition that Brecan son of 
Maine [ob. A.D. 440], son of Niall of the Nine 
Hostages, was engulfed by it. Although the 
name has long since shifted to the strait be- 
tween Scarba and Jura, just as Scotia has for- 
saken its original home, there can be no doubt 
that in Adamnan's day this Corry-Brackan 
was situate near the Irish coast : its connexion 
with the island of Rathlin in the title, and the 
expression "transnavigare incipiens" in the 
chapter, are sufficient proof of this. Part of the 



3 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i, 



CORMACO. 

ALIO quoque 2 in tempore 3 de Cormaco a , 4 nepote 4 Lethani b , viro utique 
sancto, 5 qui tribus non minus vicibus eremum in oceano laboriose qusesivit, nee 
tamen invenit, 6 sanctus Columba ita 'prophetizansait: Hodie iterum "Corina- 
cus, desertum reperire cupiens, enavigare incipit ab ilia regione quce, ultra 9 Mo- 
dam fluvium 10 sita, n Eirros Domno d dicitur; nee tamen etiam hac vice quod 
quaerit inveniet; et non ob aliam ejus culpam nisi quod alicujus religiosi abbatis 
monachum, ipso non permittente 6 , 12 discessorem secum non recte comitari, 
navigio 13 susceperit. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3 - 5 B. columba prophetizans de viro utique sancto cormaco 
qui D. 4 om. C. D. F. S. 6 - 7 om. D. 8 cormac A. corraaccus B. 9 modan B. modum D. 
10 sita est C. D. " et cirros C. sirros S. 12 discessurum S. 13 suscepit D. 



channel between Ballycastle and the island of 
Rathlin is at certain times so disturbed by the 
action of the tides, that even in the absence of 
wind no small craft could live in it. It is lo- 
cally known by the characteristic name Slug- 
namorra, that is, Slog na mapa, ' Gulp of the 
sea,' and is probably the Jolduhlaup, ' Breaking 
of waves,' of the Icelandic sagas. To this ter- 
ror of sailors (of which there was until lately 
practical evidence in the extra pay received by 
the coast-guard of the station), Giraldus Cam- 
brensis refers in the grand, and but moderately 
exaggerated, description : " Non procul ab iii- 
sulis a parte boreali, est maris qusedam admi- 
randa vorago: ad quam a remotis partibus 
omnes undique marini fluctus tanquam ex con- 
dicto confluunt, et concurrunt; qui in secreta 
naturae penetralia se ibi transfundentes, quasi 
in abyssum vorantur." (Topogr. Hib. ii. 41.) 
The earliest notice of the transfer of the name 
is in Fordun, who, circ. 1390, writing of Scar- 
bay, says, "juxta quam gurgesoceani decurrit 
fortissima, Corebrekane nomine." (Scotichr. ii. 
10.) It is a curious fact that the only place in 
Ireland where the name now exists is in the in- 
land county of Monaghan, where a townland, 
in the parish of Magheracloone, having a fine 
earthen fort, is called Corrybrackan. (Ord. 



Surv. s. 30, 31.) Very vivid descriptions of 
the gulf are preserved in Irish in the Dinn- 
seanchus, and Cormac's Glossary, the latter of 
which, with other illustrative matter, is printed 
in Reeves' " Eccles. Antiqq. of Down and Con- 
nor," pp. 289, 386. See also the extract from 
the Life of St. Kieran in Col.gan (Tr. Th. p. 
458 o) ; and O'Donnell's Life of S. Columba, 
iii. 21. (Ibid. p. 434 6.) For an account of the 
natural phenomenon, see Hamilton's Letters on 
the N. Coast of Antrim, p. 14. (Dubl. 1790.) 

a Cormaco. For his history see the notes on 
ii. 42, iii. 17. 

b Nepote Lethani. In Irish Ua laacham, a 
ajelan name derived from his ancestor Eochaidh 
laathanach, which afterwards assumed the 
form Olethan, and was applied to a cantred in 
the south-east of the county of Cork, and a 
rural deanery in the diocese of Cloyne, conter- 
minous with the civil district. See note on 
title of ii. 42. 

c Modam. The river Moy, called in Irish 
THuai&e, rises in the county of Sligo, and be- 
comes, a little south of Ballina, the boundary 
between the counties of Sligo and Mayo, until 
it falls into Killala Bay. Tirechan writes the 
word Muada and Muaide (Liber Armacan. 
fol. 1460, 15 a a); and Giraldus Cambrensis 



CAP. 6, 7,] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



3 1 



DE BELLORUM FRAGORIBUS LONGE COMMISSORUM BEA.TI PROPHETIA VIRI. 

POST bellum Cule Drebene a , sicut nobis traditum est, duobus transactis 
annis, quo tempore vir beatus de 2 Scotia peregrinaturus primitus ena.vigavit b , 
quadam die, hoc est, eadem hora qua in * Scotia commissum est bellum quod 

i capitulum totum desideratur in C. D. F. S. 2 scocia B. 



numbers the Moadus among the nine great 
rivers of Ireland (Top. Hib. i. 6). The Ui 
pmcpao TTluai&e ' Hy-Fiachrach of the Moy,' 
now the barony of Tireragh in Sligo, occupied 
the right side of the river ; and the Ui Griial- 
gai&, now Tirawley in Mayo, the left. Dr. 
Prichard widely errs in identifying the mouth 
of this river with Wexford Harbour. Ethnog. 
Celt. Race, cited in O'Donovan's Hy Fiachrach, 
p. 410. Another Cormac founded a church 
beside the Moy. (Colgan, Act. SS. p. 752 6.) 

d Eirros Domno. Now the barony of Erris, 
in the county of Mayo. It is principally occu- 
pied by the enormous parish of Kilcommon, 
extending over 203396 acres. The Irish al- 
ways styled the territory loppup t)OTrmaTm, 
' Erris of the Damnonii, ' and supposed that it 
derived that name from the pip Doriinann, 
Viri Damnonii, a section of the Firbolgs. See 
Keating's History, vol. i. pp. 188, 190; also 
compare pp. 132, 144, 168, 368, 398. (Ed. 
Haliday.) Inbher Domnonn, the old name of 
the mouth of the Malahide river, near Dublin, 
now disguised in Muldowney, was derived from 
the same source. The word loppuf or Ippup 
signifies 'a promontory, 'and is applied, simply, 
or in composition, to many places on the coasts 
of Gal way, Kerry, and Donegal. See Hardi- 
man's West Connaught, pp. 73, 96, 97 ; Curry's 
Battle of Magh Leana, p. 35. Tirechan men- 
tions the Campus Domnon in regions filiorum 
Amolngid. (Lib. Armacan. fol. 10 6 a, 14 b a.) 
Conf. Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 59 a. 

c Permittente In the Lives of the Irish 
saints, the formula accepta licentia generally 



accompanies the mention of a departure from 
a monastery. 

a Cule Drebene. Prsef. ii. p. 9. The Calendar 
of Donegall, at June 10, states this place to 
have been between Drumcliff and Sligo: to 
which may be added Colgan's authority, " Est 
locus hie in regione Carbriee in Connacia, non 
procul a Sliguensi oppido, versus Aquilonem 
situs." (Tr. Th. p. 452 a, n. 3.) The old 
church of Drumcliff is about four miles north 
of Sligo, so that the district in which the battle 
was fought is determined, though the name is 
locally forgotten. The circumstances of the 
battle are thus recorded by Tighernach : 
A. C. 560, " The death of Curnan son of Eo- 
chaidhTirmcarnabyDiarmaidson of Cerbuil, in 
violation of the protection of Colum-chille; and 
this was the cause of the battle of Cul-Dreimh- 
ne." A. C. 561, " The battle of Cul-Dreimhne 
against Diarmaid son of Cerbaill. Fergus and 
Domhnall, the two sons of Muircertach mac 
Earca, and Ainmire son of Sedna, and Nin- 
nigh, son of Duach, and Aedh son of Eochaidh 
Tirmcarna, King of Connaught, were victors 
through the prayers of Colum-cille." 

The engagement took place in Carbury, the 
territory of the Cinel Cairbre, a branch of the 
northern Hy Neill, on the confines of Connaught 
and the Cinel Conaill; between the chiefs of 
the northern and southern Hy Neill, probably 
at the instance of St. Columba, whose rights 
had been violated by Diarmait, the sovereign 
of Ireland, in the murder of Curnan. See 
O'Donnell, Vit. Columbse, ii. i (Tr. Th. p. 
408); Ussher, Brit. Eccl. Ant. cap. 17 (Wks. 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



Scotice dicitur 3 Ondemone c , idem homo Dei'coram Conallo rege, filio Comgill d , 
in 4 Brittannia conversatus, per ornnia enarravit, tarn de bello commisso, quam 
etiam de illis regibus quibus Dominus de ininiicis victoriam condonavit : quo- 
rum propria vocabula 5 Ainmorius filius 6 Setni e , et duo filii Maic Erce, Domnal- 

3 A. B. Ussher (Opp. vi. 236). ondemon Fordun (iii. 26). mouamoire Colg. Boll. 4 bryt- 

tannia B. s anmorius B. 6 scetni B. 



vi. p. 466) ; Miscellany Irish Archseol. Soc. pp. 
3-15 ; O'Donovan on Four Mast. A. C. 555 (vol. 
i. p. 192,) 

b Enavigavit, That is, in the year 563. So 
Prsef. ii. p. 9 supra. 

c Ondemone. So the name appears in the 
MSS., and so it was in the copy which Ussher 
used ; but that which was employed by Colgan 
and the Bollandists seems to have changed it 
to Monamoire, in order to render it more con- 
formable to the Annals. We find a similar 
compound, Inde-mor, at Four Mast. 497 ; Tigh. 
503. The following record of the battle is 
found in Tighernach, immediately after the 
mention of St. Columba's departure to Hy : 
A. C. 563 : "The battle of Moin-Daire-Lothaire 
against the Cruithne by the Hy-Neill of the 
North ; in which seven kings of the Cruithne 
were slain, with Aedh Breac. Baedan son of 
Conn, with two of the Cruithne, fought against 
the Cruithne ; and the Cinel Eoghain, and 
[Cinel] Conaill [were those] they fought ; con- 
ducti mercede [of] the Lee and Ard-Eolairg." 
Some verses of Cennfaeladh upon the battle are 
then cited, from which we gather that the cause 
of the battle was an unjust partition, and that 
Elne, the territory between the Bann and the 
Bush, was, on the occasion, wasted with fire. 
The belligerants were the Cruithne or Dalara- 
dians, and the northern Hy Neill ; the latter of 
whom engaged in the strife at the instance of 
a Cruithnean chief, who seems to have been 
wronged by his ownpeople,and who covenanted 
to surrender to his auxiliaries the territory of 
Lee and Ard Eolairg, on the west side of the 
Bann, which had been ceded to the Cruithne by 
the Hy Neill, after the battle of Ocha in 483. 



From the mention of Lee and Elne, it is likely 
that the scene of the battle was not far from 
the town of Coleraine. See the note on Muni- 
tio Cethirni, cap. 49 infra. 

d Conallo filio Comgill He succeeded his 
uncle Gabhran, in 560, and was followed on the 
throne by his first cousin Aidan. The present 
passage gives some support to the statement in 
Tighernach that the grant of Hy was made by 
him rather than the Picts : A. C. 574, bapp 
Conaill rmc Corn^aill pigh Dalpiaba [mors 
Conalli filii Comgalli regis Dalriadse] xvi. anno 
regni sui : qui obtulit insulam la Colaim-cille. 
See Ussher, Wks. vi. p. 246 ; O'Flaherty, Ogy- 
gia, p. 473 ; Ogygia Vindicated, p. 104 ; Chal- 
mers, Caledonia, i. p. 281 ; O'Conor, Rer. Hib. 
Script, i. pp. 127, 137 ; Todd's Irish Nennius, 
p. 277 ; Innes' Civil and Eccles. Hist. p. 151 ; 
Hussey on Bede, iii. 4 (p. 122, n. 30). 

c Ainmorius filius Setni. Sedna the father 
of Ainmire, and Fedhlim St. Columba's father, 
were brothers, being sous of Conall Gulban. 
Ainmire helped to win the battle of Sligo in 
543, and was one of Dermot's successful oppo- 
nents at Cooldrevny. After the battle men- 
tioned in the text, he was reinstated in the 
possessions of his father Sedna. (Tighernach, 
563.) These included the present barony of 
Keenaght, in which Druim-Ceatt was situate, 
and explain the cause why that district was 
chosen for the convention which was held in 
his son's reign. He became sovereign in 568, 
and reigned three years. Tir Ainmirech, the 
old name of the barony of Boylagh in the county 
of Donegal, was derived from him. (O'Dono- 
van, Four Mast. 1343.) We have his name in 
the form Ainmuireg at iii. 5 infra. 



CAP. 8.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



33 



lus et 7 Forcus f . Sed et de rege Cruithniorum 6 , qui 9 Echodius Laib h vocitabatur, 
quemadmodum victus, currui insiclens evaserit, similiter Sanctus prophetizavit. 



BELLO 3 MIATHORUM a . 

3 ALIO in tempore, 4 hoc 4 est 6 post multos 6 a supra memorato 7 bello annorum 
transcursus b , cum esset vir sanctus 8 in 9 Ioua insula, subito ad suum dicit xni- 
mstratorem : Diormitium c , "Cloccam pulsa d . Cujus sonitu fratres incitati ad 

7 A. B. fergus Colg. Boll. 8 echuiuslaid B. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. 2 maychorum Fordun iii. 38. 3 hanc narrat. capiti v. subnectunt 

C. D. F. S. * om , D. a idem add. D. 6 -? om. C. D. F. S. 8 columba add. D. 9 iona B. D. 
1 dermitium A. uermicium B. om. C. D. F. S. . ll clocam A. .cloecumD. 



f Domnallus et Forcus. Muircertach, son f 
Muiredhach by Earca daughter of Loarn, was 
commonly known by the matronymic Mac Eire. 
His two sons, here mentioned, represented the 
Cinel Eoghain, being great-grandsons of Eogh- 
an ; while Ainmire, their companion in arms, 
represented the Cinel Conaill. They won the 
battle of Sligo in 543, and that of Cuil Conaire 
in 549; besides those of Culdreibhne in 561, 
and Moin Daire Lothaire in 563. On the as- 
sassination of Dermot, in 565, they became joint 
monarchs of Ireland. 

z Cruitlmiorum. These were the Irish Picts, 
called by the natives Cptnchne, who occupied 
Dalaradia in the modern counties of Antrim 
and Down, and had extended their dominions 
westwards towards Derry. See the word at 
chaps. 36, 49, infra. 

11 Echodius Laib Though this name does 
not appear in the account of the battle pre- 
served in the Annals, it is no doubt authentic, 
for the Annals of Ulster, at 610, record the 
Mors Eugain mic Echach Laibh, affording an 
instance of the curious and undesigned coin- 
cidences with which these veracious records 
abound. The above quotation is from the 
Dublin MS.: O'Conor's text, which professes 
to follow the Oxford copy, has Laibre. 

a Miathorum Abp. Ussher's ingenious, but 



F 



modest, statement, '*utrum Mceatarum Dionis, 
an aliorum, nunc non disquirimus," (Wks. vi. p. 
253,) affords a satisfactory identification of this 
name. Auo Sk ykvrj rwv UpeTrav&v [ikyiora. 
slat Ka\T]d6vioi icai Maidrai ' Kai eg avrd itai 
TO. TUIV aX\u)V irpoffprjpaTa (wg eiTrtiv) 
%(!)priKtv. oiKovai SI ol pkv Maidrai Trpog 
T(fi 5tcrrixtV/iart, 6 rrfv vrjvov di^rj 
KaXqdoviot dk, fisr' sKtivovQ. Epit. Xiphilini, 
Ixxvi. 12. This refers to A. D. 196. The po- 
sition of the Mseatse seems to have been imme- 
diately north of Severus' wall, which formed a 
line between the firths, and divided the Barbari 
from the Romans. T. Innes calls them Mid- 
land Britons, and places them in Valencia, be- 
tween the two Roman walls : but this is too far 
south. (Civil and Eccl. Hist. pp. 4, 8, 9, 13- 
17, 31, 47, 155, 210.) Conf. Ussher, Brit. EC. 
Ant. cap. 15 (Wks. vz. p. 203); Chalmers, Cale- 
donia, i. pp. 184, 201; Mr. Herbert, in Irish 
Nennius, p. xxxii. 

b Transcursus. Above thirty years. 

c Diormitium. He is mentioned again in the 
same capacity at i. 12, 22, 25, 29, 30, 34; ii. 
29, 30; iii. n, 23. The minister of St. Comgall 
was Crimthann. (Vit. cap. 19. Fleming, Col- 
lectan. p. 306 6.) That of S. Aibhe was Buiair- 
nen. (E. 3, n, Trin. Coll. Dubl. fol. 135 a a.) 

d Cloccam pulsa. So "personanteclocca/'iii. 



34 



Vita Sancti Columbw 



[LIB. i. 



ecclcsiam, ipso sancto procsulc pnceunte, ocius 12 currunt. Ad quos ibidem flexis 
gcnibus infit : Nunc intcnte pro 13 hoc populo c 14 et 16 Aidano f rege "Dominum 
orcmus ; hac cnim hora inemit bellum g . Et post modicum inter vallum egres- 
sus oratorium, respiciens in crolum inquit, Nunc barbari in fugam vertun- 
tur; "Aidanoqtie, quamlibet 18 infelix, 19 tamen concessa victoria est. Sed et 
de numero de exercitu 20 Aidani interfectorum, trecentorum et trium virorum 1 ', 
vir beatus prophetice 21 enarravit. 



12 cucnrrerunt D. 
n aedano D. aldano C. 
21 narravit B. C. D. F. S. 



om. B. D. 15 aedano D. aldano C. l6 populoque suo add. D. 

infdici C. D. regi add. D. w om. D. 20 aedani D. aldani C. 



23. Compare Bede, H. E. iv. 23. The Irish 
word is clocc or clo^, akin to the English 
clock. Some ecclesiastical bells as old as the 
time of St. Columba are preserved in Ireland. 
They are formed of sheet iron, bent into a 
four- sided form, like the modern bullock -bells 
of Spain, and the sheep-bells of Wiltshire, 
fastened with rivets, and brazed. One of the 
most original passages in the legends of the 
Breviary of Aberdeen occurs in the office of 
St. Lughaidh or Moluoc, an Irishman, the 
founder of the Scotch Lismore, who died in 
592 : " Sed et die quadam cumferream campa- 
nam et quadratam sue ecclesie pernecessariam 
fabricandam haberet." Proprium SS. Part. 
Estiv. fol. 6 a a. The quadrangular bell of 
St. Gall, the Irish missionary to Switzerland, 
who died circ. 646, is preserved in the monas- 
tery of the city which bears his name, but per- 
verted from its original design by being attached 
to a wall, for all the ancient Irish bells were 
hand-bells. Though the accommodation of 
such bells was only one of the purposes for 
which the Round Towers served, yet they pro- 
cured for those peculiar structures the name of 
Cloic-ceac, or 'bell-house.' For drawings of 
ancient bells see St. Patrick's Bell (Belfast, 
1850); Ulster Journal of Archseol. vol. i. pp. 
179, 271; Transact. R. Irish Acad. vol. xiv. 
pt. 2, p. 46-47 ; Archseolog. Scot. iv. p. 107. 

e Hocpopulo The context leaves it doubtful 
whether this refers to Aidan's Scots, or to the 



Miathi as his allies; and whether the term 
barbari, which follows, is applicable to the lat- 
ter, or to a common foe. Cummineus, however, 
fijom whom the substance of the anecdote is 
copied, expressly says, " pro Aidano et populo 
ejus" cap. 25. (Act. SS. Bened. Ord. i. p. 
346 ; Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 324 a.) So Fordun 
also. Scotichr. iii. 29. 

f Aidano. Hib. Ge&an, a diminutive of Qe&. 
See Zeuss, Gram. Celt. i. p. 281. "JSdan rex 
Scottorum qui Brittaniam inhabitant." Bede, 
H. E. i. 34. "Aegthan," Sax. Chron. 603. See 
next chap, and i. 49, iii. 5. 

s Bellum. Fordun copies this chapter almost 
verbatim, and identifies the subject of it with 
the battle of Wodenysburgh, which was fought, 
according to the Saxon Chronicle, in 591. He 
places it near Chester, whither Aedan marched 
to the support of Cadwalla, the British king. 
(Scotichr. iii. 29.) But such a supposition is 
inadmissible, if the identity of the Miathi and 
Mseatae be allowed. Ussher proposes "the 
battle of Lethrigh by Aedan the son of Gabh- 
ran," which Tighernach records at 590, and 
Ann. Ult. at 589; and subsequent writers adopt 
the suggestion, especially Chalmers, who makes 
it history, and, on his own authority, fills up 
the blanks : " In fighting, again, in support of 
the Britons, he defeated the Saxons, in 590, at 
the battle of Leithredh, when his two sons, 
Arthur, and Eocha-fin, were, however, slain, 
with rather more than three-hundred men." 



CAP. 9.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



35 



J DB FILIIS AIDANI REGIS SANCTI COLOMBO PIIOPHETIA. 

ALIO 2 in tempore ante supra dictum bellum Sanctus 3 Aidanum regem a 4 in- 
terrogat de regni successore. Illo se respondente nescire quis esset de tribus 
filiis suis regnaturus, 5 Arturius, an Echodius Find, an 7 Domingartus b , Sanctus 
consequenter hoc profatur modo: Nullus ex his tribus erit 8 regnator; nam 
in bellis cadent ab inimicis trucidandi : sed nunc si alios juniores habes ad me 
veniant, et quern ex eis elegerit Dominus regem, subito super meum irruet 
gremium. Quibus accitis c , secundum verbum Sancti :o Echodius n Buide ad~ 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll, in quibus tenor cap. v. continuatur. 2 quoque C. D. om. F. 3 ae- 
danura D. aldanum C. 4 interrogavit D. 5 arcurius B. ad 1 om. C. D. F. S. 6 A. B. eoch- 
odius Colg. Boll. 7 A. B. domaiigarthus Colg. Boll. 8 rex D. regnaturus C. F. S. 9 accersitis 
D. 10 A. B. euchodius C. D. F. S. eochodius Colg. Boll. A. B. buidhe Colg. Boll. om. C. D. F. S. 



(Caledonia, i. p. 282.) But there is an entry in 
Tighernach which supersedes all such specula- 
tion : A. C. 596, Jugulacio filiorum Aedan, i. e. 
Bran et Domangart et Eochaidh Find et Artur 
f each [in prselio] Chirchind in quo victus est 
Aedan. Chircinn is, most probably, the modern 
Kirkintulloch, a parish N. E. of Glasgow, on 
the borders of Dunbarton and Stirling, in which 
there is supposed to have been a Roman station 
on the Wall of Antonine. See Orig. Paroch. Sco- 
tise, i. p. 49. T. Innes follows Fordun, and sup- 
poses the Mseatae to have been a portion of the 
British troops in King Aidan's army p. 2 10. 
h Virorum. Among the allied forces at the 
battle of Cattraeth was a body of 300 men 
called "the retinue of Mynyddawg," and three 
leaders, Peredur, Gwawrddur, and Aeddan. 
Gododin, 325 (Ed. Williams, pp. 31, 129). Of 
these it is said : 

" But of the retinue of Mynyddawg, greatly to be 

deplored, 
Out of three hundred men, only one returned." 

Ib. 583 (pp. 50, 162.) 

Mr. Skene is disposed to identify the battle 
of Cattraeth with that recorded in this chapter, 
and has kindly favoured the present writer with 
some very ingenious communications in support 
of his theory ; the publication of which, by 



F 



their learned author, together with the result 
of his other investigations into the history of 
this obscure, but important period, is earnestly 
to be desired. 

a Aidanum regem. See last chapter, and note 
on iii. 5. 

b Domingartus. This name, though a com- 
mon one in the family, does not appear in the 
Irish enumeration of Aedan's sons. Fordun 
calls him Grifflnus, and states that he com- 
manded his father's forces at the battle of 
Fethanleg. (Scotichr. iii. 28.) Also, that his 
daughter, Fyn Wennem, was mother, by Con- 
anrodus, the king of Demetia's son, of St. Dros- 
tan. (76.38.) See Innes, Civ. EC. Hist. p. 206. 

c Accitis Besides the four sons mentioned 
in the text, Tighernach has preserved the 
names of Bran, slain in 596 (595 An. Ult.), and 
Conang, drowned in 622 (621 An. Ult.). The 
Irish tract on the " Men of Alba" enumerates 
seven : Qo&an cpa peace mec lep .1. ba 6ach- 
baig .1. eachaifc bui&e, agup eochai& pionn, 
Cuacal, bpan, baoitine, Concing, agup 
<5apcnaic, ' Aedhan, now, had seven sons, 
viz., two Eochaidhs, namely Eochaidh Buidhe 
and Eochaidh Finn, Tuathal, Bran, Baoithine, 
Conaing, and Gartnat.' Lib. Ballymot. fol. 
84 ba ; Mac Firbis, MS. Geneal. p. 401. 

2 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



veniens in sinu ejus recubuit. Statimque Sanctus eum 12 osculatus benedixit, et 
ad patrem ait : Hie est super stes, et rex post te regnaturus, et filii ejus d post 
eum regnabunt. 13 Sic omnia 14 post, suis temporibus, plene adimpleta sunt. 
Nam "Arturius et Ecliodius 10 Find, non longo post temporis intervallo, 
"Miatoruin superius memorato in bello, trucidati sunt e . Domingartus vero 
in Saxonia bellica in strage interfectus est f : 18 Ecliodius 10 autem "Buide post 
patrem in regnum successit^. 



! DE DOMNALLO FIL1O AIDO n . 

2 DoMNALLUS filius 3 Aido a , adhuc puer, ad sanctum Columbam 4 in Dorso 
5 Cete b per nutritores adductus est : quern intuens percunctatur inquiens, Cujus 

12 osculans D. hec D. postea D. a< j, sun t om , C. D. F. S. 1G fint A. i" mici 
tonim B. w et euchodius C. F. S. euchodius D. w om C. D. F. S. 

i titul. om.; capit. numeratur vi. in C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 donaldus D. 3 aeda D. *- 5 om. C. D.F. S. 



d Filii ejus. His sons Connadh Cerr, Domh- 
nall Breac, and Conall, were, afterwards, 
kings of Dalriada. See Irish Nennius, p. 278 ; 
O'Flaherty, Ogyg. p. 477 ; Chalmers, Caledo- 
nia, i. p. 278; O'Conor, Her. Hib. Script, i. p. 
127. The immediate successor of Connadh 
Cerr was his son Ferchar, whom Chalmers 
erroneously represents as the son of a non- 
descript Eogan, of the house of Loam. (/&. 
and p. 284.) 

e Trucidati sunt. The record of their death, 
cited from Tighernach under last chapter, 
places the event in 596 ; but St. Columba died 
in 595, and the battle, according to Adamnan, 
occurred in his lifetime. Either, therefore, the 
event is misplaced in the annalist, or the bio- 
grapher, writing a century after it, is charg- 
able with an anachronism. The former is 
more likely, as the text in O'Conor is both 
corrupt and unfaithfully printed. 

f Interfectus est Agreeably with the first 
clause of the entry in Tighernach, the Ann. 
Ult. have, at A. C. 595, Jugulatiofiliorum Aedain 
.1. bpam ocuf OoTncmsaipo [Brani et Dom- 
angarti], but they take no notice of the other 



two brothers, or of Chircind. It is very pos- 
sible that the supplemental clause by right be- 
longs to a former year, but that Tighernach, 
copying from some authority whose chronology 
was in arrear, has referred all to the same 
event. It is to be observed that the marginal 
chronology in the printed Tighernach, which 
was constructed by O'Conor, differs materially 
in British occurrences from the computation of 
Bede and the Saxon Chronicle. Fordun records 
the death of Domangartus under a different 
name: "Eochodius Buyd in regno patri post an- 
num successit, alio ejus fratre majore, Griffino 
nomine, in bello Saxonico prius interempto." 
Scoticbr. iii. 38. 

s Successit A.C. 606, baff Qebhain mic 
<5abpam [mors Aedani filii Gabhrani] anno 
xxxviii. regni sui. catatis vero Ixxiiii. Tigher- 
nach. So Ann. Ult. 605; Ann. Cambr. 607. 
He was buried at Kilcheran, near Campbelton in 
Cantire. (Fordun, Scotichr. iii. 38 ; Ussher, 
"Wks. vi. pp. 254, 602 ; Innes, Orig. Paroch. ii. 
pt. i. p. 12.) Eochaidh Buidhe succeeded, and 
reigned till 629. It is a curious fact that he is 
styled Rex Pictorum in Ann. Ult. 628, from the 



CAP. 10.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



37 



est films hie quern adduxistis? Illis respondentibus, Hie est 2 Domnallus 
"films 7 Aido, qui ad teideo perductus est, ut tua 8 redeat benedictione 9 ditatus. 
Quern cum Sanctus benedixisset, continuo ait, Hie 10 post super omnes sues 
fratres superstes erit c , n et rex valde famosus d ; nee unquam in manus inimicorum 
tradetur, sed morte placida, in senectute, et intra domum suam, coram amico- 
rum familiarium turba, super 12 suum morietur 13 lectum e . Quse omnia secun- 
dum beati vaticinium viri de eo vere adimpleta sunt. 



6-f om. C. in marg. D. 7 aeda D. 8 om. D. 9 ditatis A. ditatur D. 
11 om. D. 12 stratum add. D. 13 ad. Jin. cap. om. D. 



10 om. C. D. F. S. 



Liber Cuanach ; while, during his own lifetime, 
his son Connadh Cerr is called Rex Dalriadce. 
(Tigh. 627.) 

a Domnallus filius Aido Ainmire, his grand- 
father, was St. Columba's first cousin. Con- 
cerning his father, see next chapter. Aido, 
properly Ge&o, is the old genitive of Ge&, like 
Ferguso in Prsef. ii. (p. 8 supr.\ and i. 43, 49. 
So Fedelmtheo, or Fedelmedo, from Fedelmidh, 
Fergosso from Fergus. (Lib. Armacan. fol. 
1606, 1666.) See O'Donovan, Ir. Gram. p. 
95 ; Zeuss, Gram. Celt. i. pp. xxxii., 254, 269. 

b JDorso Cete. Hib. t)puim Ceacc. See i. 
49, ii. 6. Aidus, father of Doornail, was sove- 
reign of Ireland when the famous convention 
was held here. Colgan and O'Flaherty, fol- 
lowed by Chalmers and others, have assigned 
590 as its date. The Annals of Clonmacnoise 
notice it at 587 ; but the Annals of Ulster place 
it at 574: Magna Tno]it>ail .1. conventio Droma- 
cheta, in qua erant Coluim-cille ocupmac Gir.- 
TniTieach [et filius Ainmirei]. This date is 
confirmed by a poem cited in the preface to the 
Amhra.MS. Trin. Coll. Dub. H. 2. 16 (p. 680). 
Fordun blunderingly calls the place "Insula 
Dorcete." (Scotichr. iii. 41.) The precise spot 
where the assembly was held is the long mound 
in Roe Park, near Newtownlimavaddy, called 
the Mullagh, and sometimes Daisy Hill (Ord. 
Survey, Londonderry, s. 9.) The memory of 
the event has totally perished in the neigh- 
bourhood, but in 1645 it was vividly pre- 
served, for CoJgan, writing at that date, says: 



"Druimchead est locus Dioecesis et Comita- 
tus Derensis, ad Roam fluvium, hodi6 et sem- 
per venerabilis, maxime ob multas peregrina- 
tiones et publicam Theophoriam, quse in festo 
omnium sanctorum in prsedictse synodi memo- 
riam ibidem celebratse in eo quotannis fit, cum 
summo omnium vicinarum partium accursu." 
Act. SS. p. 204 6, n. 13. The convention was 
held in this neighbourhood, partly for the con- 
venience of King Aedan, but more especially 
because this was the patrimonial territory of 
the Irish monarch. See note e , p. 32 supra. 

c Superstes erit Conall Cu, his eldest bro- 
ther, surnamed Clogach or ' Delirious,' who op- 
posed St. Columb at Druimceatt, was defeated 
by Colman Rimidh at the battle of Sleamhain 
[Slewin], near Mullingar, in 602, and died in 
604. Cumuscach, his second brother, was 
slain by Brandubh at Dun Bucat [Dunboyke], 
in Wicklow, in 597. Maelcobha, the third, 
succeeded to the throne in 612, and, after three 
years' enjoyment of it, was slain at the battle of 
Belgadin or Sliabh-Truim [now Bessy Bell] in 
Tyrone, by Suibhne Meann, who held the sove- 
reignty till 628, when he was slain, and Domh- 
nall, mentioned in the text, became monarch of 
Ireland. 

d Famosus. He won the battle of Dun- 
Ceithern in 629 (see chap. 49 infra), and the 
more important one of Magh Rath in 637. See 
note on Bellum. Roth, iii. 5 infra. 

e Morietur lectum. A natural death was of 
rare occurrence among the sovereigns of Ire- 



38 Vita Sancti Columlce [LIB. i. 



SCANDLANO FILIO COLMANI. 

EODEM tempore Sanctus, et in eodem loco, ad 2 Scandlanura, filium Col- 
mani a , apud 3 Aidum regem in vinculis retentum b , visitare eum cupiens, pergit ; 

ipsumque cum benedixisset, confortans ait : Fili, 4 nolis contristari, sed potius 
Ia3tare et confortare : 5 Aidus enim rex, apud quern vinculatus es, de hoc mundo 

i titul. om. C D. F. S. Boll, in quibus tenor cap. vL continuatur. 2 scandalanum C. 3 aeclum D. 
* uoles A. noli C. D. F. S. 5 ae dus D. 

land at this period. Of the twelve successions treme barony of Donegall on the south-west, 

which took place between the birth of St. Co- Here, in the parish of Drumhome, and town- 

lumba and the reign of this Domhnall, only two land of Ballymagrorty Irish, is a conical hill, 

were unattended by violence. His obit, as re- locally known by the name Racoon, the apex of 

corded by the Four Masters, is in strict accord- which is entrenched like a rath, and contains 

ance with the biographer's statement : A. C. an ancient cemetery, now used only for the in- 

639 [recte 642], "After Domhnall, son of Aedh, terment of unbaptized children. This is the 

son of Ainmire, had been 16 years in the sove- " Rath-cunga in campo Sereth" of Tirechan. 

reignty of Ireland, he died at Ard-Fothadh, in (Lib. Armac. fols. 1 1 6 6, 15 a 6.) Beside this 

Tir Aedha, after the victory of penance, for he was the regal abode of Domhnall, as appears 

was a year in his mortal sickness ; and he used from a statement in the Tripartite Life of St. 

to receive the body of Christ every Sunday." Patrick: "Pergens postea Patricius per Tir- 

(Vol. i. p. 257, Ed. O'Donov.) The latter part conalliam, itinere inter Eas-Ruaid [hodie Bal- 

of this entry seems to be borrowed from a pas- lyshannon] et Oceanum suscepto, venit ad lo- 

sage in the ancient preface to the Amhra rela- cum cui vocabulum Rath-cunga : ibique a 

tive to St. Columba's conduct at Druimceatt : fundamentis Ecclesiam excitavit .... In 

" The Cleric went then to the assemblage of colle vicino Ard-fothadh appellato, coepit etiam 

Domhnall son of Aedh. And Domhnall rose jacere fundamenta Ecclesise. Sed die sequenti, 

immediately before him, and bade him welcome, incboata fabrica cospit corruere, et pene tota 

and kissed his cheek, and set him down in his corruit. Tune vir Dei in spiritu vidit juxta 

own place. And the Cleric left many blessings divinae praeordinationis dispositionem, locum 

on him, viz., to be ten years in the sovereignty non esse a Deo destinatum, ad sedem sacram, 

of Ireland ; and victory in battle during that sed ad aulam regiam in eo extruendam. Prae- 

time; and to fulfil one out of every seven of his vidit enim celebrem ilium Hibernise regem, 

promises; to be a year and a half in the disease Domnaldum, Aido Ainmirii filio natum, post 

of which he should die ; and to receive the body tempora in eo loco sedem fixurum." ii. in, 

of Christ every Sunday during that time." 112. (Tr. Th. p. 144.) 

(MS. Trin. Coll. Dub. H. ii. 16, p. 68 1.) The a Filium Colmani In most Irish authorities 

same passage occurs also in the sequel to the he is called Scanlann Mor, son of Cennfaetadh ; 

Irish Life of St. Columba contained in the as in the Preface to Amhra (Lib. Hymnor. fol. 

Highland Society's MS. fol. 12 a 6. The terri- 64, 67 a ; Leabhar na Huidhre, fol. 8 ; H. 2, 16, 

tory, previously called Sereth, was named from Trin. Coll. Dub. fol. 680) ; Vit. Hib. S. Co- 

his father Tir- Aedha, now Tirhugh, the ex- lumbse (HighL Soc., fol. 12 a a); O'Donnell, iii. 



CAP. II.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



39 



te pra3cedet c ; et, post aliqua exilii tempora, triginta anriis in gente tua rex 
regnaturus G es (1 . Iterumque de regno efFugaberis, et per 'aliquot 8 exulabis 
dies ; post quos, a populo reinvitatus, per tria regnabis brevia temporal Quse 
cuncta juxta vaticinationem Sancti plene expleta sunt, Nam post triginta 
annos de regno expulsus, per aliquod 9 exulavit spatium temporis : sed post a 
populo reinvitatus, non, ut putabat, tribus annis, sed ternis regnavit mensibus ; 
post quos continue obiit. 

6 eris C. D. 7 aliquos C. D. F. S. 8 exsolabis A. eiulabis C. 9 exsolavit A. 



2 (Tr. Th. p. 430 n) ; Vita S. Farannani, cap. 
6 (Colgan, Act. SS. p. 336 6); Keating, His- 
tory (Reg. Aedh). The present reading, how- 
ever, is found in all the MSS. Tighernach 
records the death of a Scanlann Mor, son of 
Cennfaeladh, at 643, but the interval between 
the date of the Convention and that year is too 
long to harmonize with the statements in this 
chapter. Besides, we find " Colmanus filius 
Fearaide, dux regionis Osraidhe," expressly 
mentioned in the Life of Cainnech, as that 
saint's patron (chaps. 43, 44, 47 ; pp. 26, 27, 
29. Ed. Ormonde), as also in the Life of St. 
Mochoemog (chap. 30, Colg. Act. SS. p. 5946) ; 
and his death is recorded by Tighernach at 
605, and Four Mast. 60 1. Cennfaeladh, father 
of Scanlann Mor, was first cousin of this Col- 
man. 

b Retentum Some say that he was delivered 
as a hostage by his father ; others, that he had 
been put in bonds for refusing to pay the cus- 
tomary tribute to the monarch. Again, it is 
alleged that one of Aedh's motives for con- 
vening this assembly was to procure his formal 
deposition, and that one of St. Columba's rea- 
sons for attending was to procure his liberation. 
See O'Donnell, iii. 2 (Tr. Th. p. 430 a) ; Keat- 
ing, Hist. (reg. Aedh); Colgan (Tr. Th. p. 375, 
n. 48.) Irish legends state that the place of 
his confinement was Ard-mac-nDobran, near 
St. Columba's Dubh Regies at Derry. (H. 2, 
16, T. C. D. fol. 680.) 

c Prcecedet. The death of Aidus is recorded 



by Tighernach at 598 : Cacb bum bolcc la 
bpanbubmac Gachach co Unnshi iiii.it). en- 
aip [prselium Dunbolg per Brandubh filium 
Eachachi cum Lageniensibus iv. Id. Jan.] ubi 
ceciderunt Aed mac Ainmirech pi epenn [rex 
Hibernize] anno regni xix. aetatis Ixiii. et Bee 
mac Cuanac pi Gipgmll ocup baine uaiple ele 
[rex Argiallise et nobiles alii] . See O'Donovan's 
note on Four Mast. A. C. 594. The legend of 
his death preserved in the Book of Lecan states 
that he made an expedition into Leinster to 
avenge the death of his son Cumuscach, and on 
the way he said to his servant, " Bring me Co- 
lumcille's cochall [cucullus], that I may have it 
on me to-night, that it may be a protection to 
me from the Leinstermen ; for Columcille had 
promised him that he should not be killed while 
he had his cochall on him. Then said the ser- 
vant, We have left it at Ailech. Aedh said, It 
is most likely that I shall fall this night by the 
Leinstermen, when my cochall is not here." 
(fol. 308 6.) 

d Regnaturus es. The Irish Life in the Edin- 
burgh MS., following the legend in MS. H. 2, 
16, T.C. D., states that Scanlann was liberated 
on this occasion, and received the saint's crosier, 
called the Bachall Mor, which he carried with 
him as a safe conduct ; that his father died on 
the day of his arrival in Ossory, and that Scan- 
lann thereupon assumed the sovereignty ; and, 
in consideration of St. Columba's services, 
granted a visitation every seventh year from 
that day to Columcille and his successors, in Os- 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



*DE DUOBUS ALIIS REGNATORIBUS, QUI DUO NEPOTES 2 MUIREDACHI a VOCITA- 
BANTUR, BAITANUS FILIUS 3 MAIC ERCE ET 4 ECHODIUS FILIUS DOMNAIL, 
BEATI 5 PROPHETATIO VIRI. 

ALIO in tempore, per asperam et saxosam regionem iter faciens, quae clici- 
tur 6 Artdamuirchol b , et suos audiens comites Laisranum utique, filium Fera- 
daclii c , et, 7 Diormitiura ministratorem, de duobus supra memoratis regibus d in 
via sermocinari, hasc ad eos verba depromit : O filioli quare inaniter de his sic 
coniabulamini ? nam illi ambo reges, de quibus nunc sermocinamini, nuper ab 
inimicis decapitati disperierunt. In hac quoque die aliqui de Scotia 6 adven- 
tantes nautse haic eadem vobis de illis indicabunt regibus. Quod venerabilis 
viri vaticinium eadem die de 8 Hibernia navigatores, ad locum qui dicitur 
Muirbolc Paradisi f pervenientes, supra scriptis ejus binis comitibus, et in 
eadem navi cum Sancto navigantibus, de 9 iisdem interfectis regibus expletum 
retulerunt. 

1 omnia ad cap. 16 om. C. D. F. S. 2 muirethachi B. 3 maicerce B. 4 euchudius B. 

5 prophetia B. 6 ardamuircol B. 7 dermitium A. 8 evernia A. 9 liisdemA. 



sory. This, however, is incorrect, for Colman, 
lord of Ossory, his father, died, according to 
Tighernach,in 605, which was seven years after 
the death of King Aidus. If the death of Aidus 
was the cause of his liberation (which seems to 
be implied in the text), then the "aliqua exilii 
tempora" would denote the period which elapsed 
between 598 and 605. It is remarkable that a 
similar expulsion and restoration of his father 
Colman is related in the Life of St. Cainnech 
(chap. 44, p. 27, Ed. Ormonde), and in that of 
St. Mochoemog, (chap. 30, Colgan, Act. SS. p. 

594 &) 

a Nepotes Muiredachi. Ainmire, father of 

Aidus, was slain in 569 ; upon which Baedan, 
and Eochaidh, his nephew, became joint sove- 
reigns of Ireland. Their death, referred to in 
this chapter, is thus related by Tighernach : 
A. 0.572, t)a hui ITluipebaish [duo nepotes 
Muiredaci] i.e. Baetan mac Muircheartaigh et 
Eochaidh Find mac Domhnaill [anno] tertio regni 
sui [occisz]. Cronan mac Tigernaigh-pifih [rex] 



Cianachta occisor eorum erat. These sovereigns 
were of the race of Eoghan, son of Niall, as is 
thus shown : 



MTTIREDHACH EARC 
son of Eoghan d. of Loam 



MOIRCERTACH 

Mac Earca 



DOINSEACH 

d. of Duach 



DOMHNALL = BRIGID BAEDAN K. 
I d. of Orca 



EOCHAIDH K 

b Artdamuirckol. So ii. 10. Art-muirchol, ii. 
22. Now Ardnamurchan, a peninsular district 
on the northern boundary of Argyleshire. The 
name in the text seems to signify ' Height of 
the two sea-hazels,' but the modern one ' Height 
of the sea-calf.' In 1292 it was called Arden- 
murich, and in 1309 Ardnamurchin. The cha- 
racter of the district in Adamnan is fully borne 
out by modern description : "It consists chiefly 



CAP. 12, 1 3.] Auctore Adamnano. 41 



1 DE OINGUSIO FILIO AIDO COMMANI SANCTI PROPHETIA VIRI. 

Hie namque de patria cum aliis duobus fratribus efFugatus, ad Sanctum in 
Britannia peregrinantem exul venit ; cuique benedicens, hflec de eo propheti- 
zans sancto promit de pectore verba : Hie juvenis, defunctis ejus ceteris fratri- 
bus superstes remanens, multo est regnaturus in patria tempore ; et inimici 
ejus coram ipso cadent ; nee tamen ipse unquam in manus tradetur inimicorum; 
sed morte placida, senex, inter amicos morietur. Quge omnia juxta Sancti 
verbum plene sunt adimpleta. Hie est 2 0ingusius cujus cognomentum 
BronbachaK 

1 capitul, totum om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll. 2 oingussius A. 

of mountains, hills, and high moors, in general the title, so as to make him the son of Colman 

more rugged and precipitous than of great ele- Mor, who was slain in 621 ; and in this he is 

vation." Old Stat. Surv. xx. p. 289. The old followed by O'Donovan on the Four Masters, at 

parochial name was Kilchoan, so called from 616. But the death of Colman Mor was a ju- 

the church, which stood on the south coast, gulatio (Ann. Ult. 620), whereas the subject of 

near Kilchoan Bay. See C. limes' Orig.Paroch. the present narrative died "placida morte." 

ii. pt. i. p. 194. Mac Firbis, however, renders any emendation 

c Laisranum filium Feradachi. See the note superfluous, and affords the following satisi'ac- 

on the name i. 29 infra. tory information : Cuachol TYlaolsapb, mac 

d Supra memoratis regibus. As their names Copmac caoi6, 711 Gpenn, tmrnaclaip .1. o" a P- 

do not occur in the chapter, this expression ban o ccabh Sganbail, 710 sabpat) an pige, 

proves that the titulus is an integral part of Ui tmibbmn "| "Ui btnbne cille eppuig bpom ; 

the narrative. agup Coman no Gasman acaip Go&a acap 

e Scotia. Or, Hibernia, as in the next sen- Qongupa bponbachall an naoirh, ' Tuathal 

tence, showing that Ardnamurchan was not Maolgarbh, son of Cormac Caoch, Kingoflre- 

then in Scotia. land [ A. C. 533-544], had two sons, namely,Gar- 

f Muirbolc Paradisi. TTltnpbols nemeft? ban, of whom was Sgandal [Four Mast. 665], 
This is a very singular compound. We have who succeeded to the sovereignty; UiDuibhduin 
Muirbulcmar at iii. 23 infra. The name has \_lbid.66cj], and Ui Duibhne of Cill-espuig-Brone 
not been locally preserved, but it probably be- [in the county of Sligo]; and Coman, or Caeman, 
longed to a sheltered bay in or near Ardnamur- father of Aedh father of Aongus JBronbachall 
chan. The word TYIupbolg signifies a ' sea in- the religious.' Clann Cairbre. (Geneal. MS. p. 
let, 1 and in Ireland is modernized Murlough. 167.) To which the Annals of Ulster add: 
See Four Mast. A.M. 2859, 3501. The battle of A.C. 648, Mors Oengusa Bron-bachlae regis 
Murbulg, between the Dalriada and Cruithne, Ceniuil Coirpri. The Cenel Cairbre, who gave 
recorded by Tighernach at 731, is referred to name to the territory, now the barony, of Car- 
Scotland by Keating (Hist. An. 724). bury in the north of Sligo, were descended from 

" Bronbachal. Colgan was unable to identify Cairbre son of Niall, and were a tribe of the 

him, and proposes to read "Filius Colmani" in Northern Hy Neill. In their territory the bat- 

Gr 



Vita Sancti Coluinbce 



[LIB. i. 



'PROPHETIA BEATI 2 VIRI DE FILIO DERMITI REGIS QU1 AIDUS SLANE ft LINGUA 

NOMINATUS EST 3 SCOTICA. 

ALIO in tempore, cum vir beatus in * Scotia per aliquot demoraretur dies, 
ad supradictum Aidum, ad se venientem, sic prophetice locutus ait, Prascavere 
debes, 6 fili, ne tibia Deo totius "Hiberniae regni praerogativam monarchies prae- 
destinatam 1 ', parricidali faciente peccato, amittas: nam si quandoque illud 
commiseris, non toto patris regno, sed ejus aliqua parte in gente tua, brevi 
7 frueris tempore. Quae verba Sancti sic sunt expleta secunduni ejus vaticina- 
tionem. Nam post Suibneum filium Columbani dolo ab eo interfectum , non 
plus, ut fertur, quam quatuor aniiis et tribus mensibus d regni concessa 8 potitus 
est 9 parte 6 . 

1 capit. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 1-2 voci scotica inferius subsequuntur B. 3 scot- 
tica B. * scocia B. * filii A. 6 B. everniae A. " finieris B. 8 ~ 9 pocius est parce B. 



tie of Cooldrevny was fought. The epithet 
bpon-bacliall, which O'Conor interprets baculi 
dolorosi, seems to have reference to the 'pil- 
grim's staff. 1 By supplying the word filii be- 
fore Commani in the title we have the exact 
lineage given by Mac Firbis ; while the word 
mors in the passage cited from the Annals, as 
opposed to occisio orjugulatio, indicates the na- 
tural death recorded in the text ; and the date 
648, reckoning even from the latest period 
of our saint's life, allows ample time for the 
subject of the prediction to become a senex. 
Such harmony in three independent records is 
a remarkable attestation of their accuracy. 

* Aldus Slane Eldest son of Diarmait Mac 
Cerbhaill, by Mughaina (Vit. S. Aidi, Colgan, 
Act. SS. p. 420 a); and surnamed from the 
river Slaine, near which he was born. (Keat- 
ing, An. 587.) As heir to the lordship of the 
Southern Hy Neill, he was a consenting party 
to the grant of Ceanannus, or Kells, to St. Co- 
lumba. (O'Donnell, i. 64, Tr. Th. p. 400.) On 
his father's death he succeeded to that dignity, 
and, about the year 580, at the instance of St. 
Oolumba, possibly on the very occasion men- 



tioned in the text, he granted to St. Colman- 
Elo the land of Fiodh-Elo in Ferceall, where 
the church of Lann-Elo or Lynally was subse- 
quently built. (Vit. S. Colmaneli, MS. E. 3, 
1 1, Trin. Coll. Dubl. fol. 106 a b ; TJssher, Wks. 
vi. p. 530.) On the death of Aedh son of Ain- 
mire, in 598, he, and Colman Rimidh, one of 
the Cenel Eoghain, were elected joint sove- 
reigns. His abode was on an island in Loch 
Leibhinn, now Lough Lene, near Fore in West- 
meath. (Vit. S. Fechini, Colgan, Act. SS. pp. 
135 6, 141 a; Vit. S. Aidi, ibid. p. 421 a.) 

b Prccdestinatam. King Oswald was said to 
be "a Deo ordinatus," (i. i, p. 16 supr.) and so 
Diarmait, father of this Aedh (i. 36 z'n/r.) 

c Interfectum. A.C. 600, lugulacio Suibhne 
mic Colmam moip la hQeb Slaine a mbpi- 
bam pop Suarma. * The assassination of 
Suibhne, son of Colman Mor, by Aedh Slaine at 
Bridamh on the Suainu.' Tighernach. The 
individual on whom this "parricidale pecca- 
tum" was committed was his nephew. Colum- 
banus in the text is an instance of the occasional 
use of that name for Colmanus. 

d Mensibus. The crime was committed in 



CAP. 14, 



Auctore Adamnano. 



43 



] DE REGE EODERCO FILIO 2 TOTHAIL% QUI 3 IN PETRA CLOITHE b REGNAVIT, 

BEATI VIRI PROPHETIA. 

ALIO idem in tempore 4 hic, ut erat sancti viri amicus , aliquam ad eum 
occultam per Lugbeum Mocumin' 1 legationem misit, scire volens si ab inimi- 

i capit. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 totail B. 3 om . g. i om , 3. 



600, and the retribution followed in 604, as 
Tighernach relates: Jugulatio Qeba Slame 
o Conall mac Suibhne pop bpu Locha Sem- 
bighe. Geb Durban comalca Conaill guch- 
bmb ocup baechgal bile pon gumepoap 
eum : unde dictum est : 

Conall pobn Qebh Slame 
Gebh Slame pobi Suibne. 

' The jugulatio of Aedh Slaine by Conall son 
of Suibhne on the brink of Lough Sewdy [in 
Westmeath]. Aedh Gusdan, foster-brother of 
Conall Guithbinn, and Baethgal Bile, wounded 
him : unde dictum est : 

Conall slew Aedh Slaine 
Aedh Slaine slew Suibhne. 1 

'- Porte. The reference is to his association 
with Colman Riraidh in the sovereignty. Such 
division of government was not unusual at this 
period. Colgan justly styles the harmony be- 
tween this chapter and the Annals " mira con- 
sensio." (Tr. Th. p. 376 a, n. 54.) 

a Roderco filio Tothail The Ehydderch 
Had of the British, son of Tudwal [here called 
Totkal, from the Irish Cuachal], surnamed 
Tutglud [Guaic Club 'of the Clyde district'], 
ap Cedig ap Dyvnwal Hen ap Ednyved ap 
Maxen Wledig [or Maximus, King of Britain, 
383-388]. He was of Irish extraction by his 
mother's side, for his sister Melangell, or Mo- 
nacella, was daughter of Ethni, surnamed 
Wyddeles, 'the Irish woman.' (Rees' Welsh 
Saints, p. 269; Archseol. Cambr. iii. pp. 137, 
224.) His surname Hael [Hib. pial] denotes 



' Liberal ;' hence he is called by Geoffrey of 
Monmouth JRodarchus Largus, and among the 
Welsh he was celebrated as one of the " Three 
Liberal Princes of the isle of Britain." Triad 
xxx. (Myvyr. Archseol. ii. p. 63.) "Gloria 
enimet divitise in domo ejus, liberalitas in corde, 
urbanitas in ore, munificentia in manu ejus, 
eo quod benedixisset Dominus operibus manuum 
ejus. Unde non solum in fines circumjacentes 
terrse ejus, sed etiam ultra mare in Hyberniam 
exivit fama largitatis ejus." Jocelin, Vit. S. 
Kentig. c. 37. (Pinkert. Vit. Ant. p. 277.) 
But his greatest honour was his patronage of 
religion: "Suscitavit super regnum Cambri- 
num in regem Rederch nomine ; qui a discipulis 
sancti Patricii in Hibernia baptizatus fide Chris- 
tianissima ; qui, et in toto corde qusereret Do- 
minum, et reparare studeret Christianismum." 
Vit. S. Kentig. c. 29. (Ibid. p. 261; Ussher, 
Wks. vi. p. 226.) We find a Ruaidhri mac 
Muirminn (Roderic Mawr) King of the Britons 
in 876, 877. (An. Ult.) 

b Petra Cloithe. Called in the thirteenth 
century, from its occupants, Dun-Breatan, 
now Dumbarton. " Civitas Brittonum munitis- 
sima usque hodie quae vocatur Alcluith." Bede 
(H. E. i. i.) " Alcluith, quod lingua eorum 
significat Petram Cluith; est enim juxta flu- 
vium nominis ilius." (76. i. 12.) The ancient 
Scholiast on St. Fiech's Hymn in the Liber 
Hymnorum observes on the name Nemthur, the 
alleged birthplace of St. Patrick, cachip i 
mbpecnaib cuapcipc .1. Gil Cluabe, 'a city 
in North Britain, i.e. Ail-Cluade' (fol. 29). In 
the early Irish annals we meet with Glo- 

2 



44 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[CAP. i. 



cis esset trucidandus , an non. At vero Lugbeus, a Sancto 5 intcrrogatus de 
eodem rege, et regno, et populo, et respondens, quasi misertus, dicit, Quid 
de illo inquivis misero, qui qua hora ab inimicis occidatur, nullo modo 7 scire 
potest ? Sanctus turn deinde profatur, Nunquam in manus tradetur inimico- 
rum, sed in sua, super plumatiunculam, morietur domo. Quod Sancti de rege 
Roderco vaticinium plene adimpletum est: nam juxta verbuin ejus 8 in domo 
sua morte placida obiit f . 

A intergatus B. fi ejus B. 7 sciri B. 8 om. B. 



cluaiche, the genitive of GilcVuaiche, in the 
notices of its kings. (Tigh. 694, 722; Ann. 
Ult. 657, 693, 721, 779, 869.) The surrounding 
tract was called Spach-Cluabe, (An. Ult. 87 1), 
and Arecluta, (Colgan, Act. SS.pp. 1780, iSro, 
1 88 a; Ussher, "VVks. vi. p. 217.) The Calen- 
dar of Cashel is cited by Colgan for " SS. Me- 
dranus et Tomanus in una ecclesia in Britannia 
Arcluidensi." Jun. 8. (Act. SS. p. 465 a, n. 
31.) The early date assigned to the Christian 
settlement in Alcluid by the Origines Paroch. 
Scot. (i. p. 24) is founded on an erroneous 
reading of the Ann. Ult. 554 : the place men- 
tioned there is Achadhcinn in Ulster. See Eccl. 
Antiqq. Down aud Connor, pp. 89, 322. For a 
detailed account of the Strathcluyd Britons, 
see Chalmers, Caledonia, i. pp. 235-249 ; Irish 
Nennius, pp. xxxiii.-xxxvi. Ix. 

Amicus. His special favourite was St. 
Kentigern, the friend of St. Columba, through 
whose agency Christianity became established 
in his dominions. See Vit. S. Kentig. 30, 31, 
33) 37- (Pinkert. Vit. Ant. pp. 261, 264, 267, 
277.) Merddin calls him Rhydderch Hael 
rwyfadur ffydd, ' Ridderch Hael, champion of 
the Faith.' (Myvyr. Arch. i. p. 135.) 

d Lugbeum Mocumin.See i. 24, 28, 41 infr. 
Lugneus Mocumin, his brother, is mentioned 
at ii. 1 8, 27 infra. 

Trucidandus. He waged war against 
Gwenddoleu ap Ceidian, whom he overcame 
and slew at the battle of Arderydd, circ. 577. 
Merddin Wylet, commonly called Merlin (who 



received also the name Laloiken, from Hallo- 
gan, ' twin-brother,' as he was addressed by 
his sister Gwenddydd, Cyvoesi (Myvyr. Arch. 
i. p. 138 ; Vit. S. Kentig. c. 45 ; Fordun, iii. 31) 
took part in the battle against the Strathclyde 
king, of whom, from bitter experience, he 
makes frequent mention in his Oian a Pharchel- 
/are, vs. 10, 12, 25, (Myvyr. Arch. i. pp. 135, 
1385) and in his Afallen beren, 13, (76. i. p. 151.) 
King Aidan, St. Columba's friend, was also 
opposed to Ridderch, in the battle of Arderydd. 
One of the " Three Expensive Battles of the 
isle of Britain was when Aeddan Vradog [' the 
Treacherous,' Hib. bpectoach, in joining with 
the Saxons] went to Alclut to the court of 
Rydderch Hael : he consumed all the meat and 
drink in the palace, leaving not as much as 
would feed a fly, and he left neither man nor 
beast alive, but destroyed all." (Triad. 46, 
52. (Myvyr. Arch. ii. pp. 11,66.) The message 
in the text may have had reference to A5 dan's 
hostility. 

f Obiit. " Eodem anno quo pontifex sanctus 
decessit Kentegernus, et Rex [RederechJ ac 
Princeps [Morthec] prsedicti obierunt; et in 
Glasghu sepulti sunt." Jocel. Vit. S. Kent. c. 
45 (Pinkert. Vit. Ant. p. 297.) This occurred 
circ. A. D. 60 1. The Englynion y Beddan have 
In Aberich Rederch Hael, In Aber Riderch 
Hael is' [buried]. (Myvyr. Arch. i. p. 79.) 
Which the Welsh place in Caernarvonshire, 
though it is more likely to have been in the 
neighbourhood of Glasgow. 



CAP. 1 6, 17.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



45 



DUOBUS PUERIS, QUORUM UNUS, JUXTA VERBUM SANCTI, IN FINE 
HEBDOMADIS OBIIT, PROPHETIA SANCTI. 

2 ALIO in tempore duo 3 quidam 4 plebei ad Sanctum 5 in Ioua commorantem 
insula 7 deveniunt; quorum unus, 8 Meldanus 9 nornine, de filio suo quipraesens 
erat Sanctum interrogat, quid ei esset futurum. Cui Sanctus sic profatur : 
Nonne sabbati dies hodierna est ? filius tuus sexto f eria, in fine morietur sep- 
timana3, octavaque die, hoc est, sabbato, hie sepelietur. Alter proinde plebeus, 
10 nomine n Glasdercus a , et ipse de filio quern ibidem secum habuit nihilominus 
interrogans, talem Sancti audit responsionem : Filius tuus 12 Ernanus suos vi- 
debit nepotes et in hac insula senex sepelietur b . Quae omnia, secundum ver- 
bum Sancti, de pueris ambobus, suis plene temporibus sunt expleta. 



J DE 2 COLCIO, AIDO DRAIGNICHE FILIO , A NEPOTIBUS 3 FECHUREG d ORTO ; ET 
DE QUODAM OCCULTO MATRIS EJUS PECCATO, PROPHETIA SANCTI. 

ALIO in tempore, supramemoratum Colgium, apud se in 4 Ioua commoran- 
tem insula, Sanctus de sua interrogat genitrice, si esset religiosa, an non. Cui 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 cap. vi. continuatur C. D. F. S. 3 om. C. * plebeii F. S. * co- 
lumbam add. D. 6 i n a B. C. D. 7 veniunt D. 8 mellanus D. 9 om. D. 11MI om. C. D. F. S. 
11 A. glasdercis B. 12 om , Q. D. F. S. 

i omnia ad cap. 19 om. C. D. F. S. 2 colgio B. 3 A. B. 4 iona B. 

and the exquisite Map prefixed. The name 
occurs again at iii. 20 in the same connexion. 
The following table shows Colga's lineage, 
and illustrates the admirable agreement of the 
biographer and the Irish genealogies : 

FlACHRA FotLSNATHACH a quo IJl FlACHRACH 

or Nepotes Fechureg. Son of Eochaidh, K. I. 358 ; 
toother of Niall, K. I. ob. 405. 

DAIHT K. I. ob. 428. 



a Glasdercus. Hib. 5^? ^epg, ' grey-eyed,' 
a family name in the Hy-Garrchon in the 
modern county of Wicklow. 

b Sepelietur Even at this early period it was 
considered a privilege to be interred in Hy. 

c Colcio Aido filio. " Colcu, of Cluain-Col- 
gan at Athcluana-Meadhraidhe, and Fael, 
and Sorar, three children of Aedh son of Aedh 
son of Lughaidh son of Uaitti son of Fiachrach, 
son of Eochaidh Muighmedoin." (Book of Le- 
can.) The same descent is assigned to his sis- 
ter St. Faoilenn in the Calendar of Donegall. 
Mar. 3. The surname Draigniche is Hib. 
tJliaigmge, gen. of Dpaigneach, 'blackthorn.' 

d Nepotibus Fechureg Hib. "Ul piachpach, 
a tribe inhabiting an extensive tract in the mo- 
dern counties of Galway and Mayo. See O'Do- 
novan's Tribes and Customs of Hy-Fiachrach, 



EOCHAIDH BEE AC 



EOCHAIDH AIDHNE a quo 
Ui Fiachrach Aidhne 



LTJGHAIDH. His bro- 
ther OilioU Molt K.I. 
ob. 4S3. 



AEDH 



AEDH = CTJILBNN 



COLQA 



FAILENN 



SOKAR 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



ipse inquiens ait, Bene moratam, et bonae fama3, meam novi matrem. Sanc- 
tus turn sic prophetice profatur, Mox, Deo volente, ad 6 Scotiam c profectus, 
matrem diligentius de quodam suo pergrandi peccato interroga occulto, quod 
nulli hominum confiteri vult. Q'ui, hsec audiens, obsecutus, ad 6 Hiberniam emi- 
gravit. Proinde mater, ab eo studiose interrogata, quamlibet primule infitiens, 
tamen suum confessa est peccatum d , et juxta Sancti 7 judicationem, poenitudi- 
nem agens, sanata, de se quod Sancto manifestatum est valde mirata est. Col- 
gius vero, ad Sanctum reversus, per aliquot dies apud eum commoratus, de fine 
sui interrogans temporis, hoc a Sancto audit responsum : In tua, quam amas, 
patria primarius alicujus ecclesise 6 per multos eris annos ; et si forte aliquando 
tuum videris pincernam f in co3na 8 amicorum ludentem, 9 hauritoriumque in 
gyro per collum g torquentem, scito te mox in brevi moriturum. Quid plura ? 
Hsec eadem beati viri prophetatio sic per omnia est adimpleta, quemadmodum 
de Colgio eodem est prophetata. 

5 scociam B. 6 B. everniam A. 1 A. B. indicationein Boll. 8 amico cum vitiose Pinkert. 



scociam o. 
' auritoriumque A. B 



c Ad Scotiam. That is, " ad Hiberniam, " as 
in next sentence. 

d Peccatum. Adultery. The tract of JEngus 
the Culdee De Matribus Sanctorum HibernicR sup- 
plies the following curious commentary on this 
passage : Cuilleanb Tnacarp Cholcan inec 
Qe&a ocup pailmbi a p echayi i cill Colgan 
ic Gc cliac TTlebpaibi, ut dicitur : 



Cuillenb maeaiTi Colsan cam 
Cocbab i ITltns "Uillenn eab 
ia pailbe son chaipfo cuil 
Do Vuib i Caipel ap eel. 

' Cuillenn was mother of Colga son of Aedh, 
and of Failinn his sister, in Cill-Colgan at Ath- 
cliath-Medraidhi, ut dicitur : 

Cuillenn the mother of Colga the chaste 
Was reared at Magh Ullen for a time 
By Failbhe, without charge of guilt : 
She went to Cashel straying.' 

Failbhe Flann, king of Munster, died in 637, 
having reigned 14 years. See Colgan, Act. SS. 
p. 381 a, where the last two lines of the above 
stanza are incorrectly translated. 



c Ecclesice. From Colga the parish church 
of Kilcolgan, and from his sister Faoilenn the 
adjoining parish of Killealy, both in the diocese 
of Kilmacduagh, which was coextensive with 
the civil territory of Ui Fiachrach Aidhne, de- 
rive their names respectively. They are situ- 
ate in the county of Galway, barony of Dun- 
kellin, south-east of the town of Galway. (Ord. 
Surv. s. 103.) The territory of Meadhraighe 
[pronounced Ma8ree~\, to which these parishes 
formerly belonged, does not now extend so far 
to the S. E., but is confined to the parish of 
Ballynacourty. See Hi. 20 infra, and the no- 
tice of this Colga at Feb. 20, in Colgan's Acta 
Sanctorum, p. 380. 

f Pincernam. Probably the same as the mo- 
nastic officer called cellarius in the Lives of 
several Irish saints. See Vit. S. Colmani Dro- 
morensis, c. 12 (Act. SS. Junii. ii. p. 27 6); 
Vit. S. Comgalli, c. 31 (Fleming, Collectan. p. 
309 6); Vit. S. Colmani-Ela (E. 3, u, Trin. 
Coll. Dub. fol. 106 6 a); Vit. S. Cronani (Act. 
SS. Apr. iii. p. 582 a.) The Life of St. Ailbhe 
relates that he and some other Irishmen, stay- 



CAP. 1 8.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



47 



J DE LAISRANO 2 HORTULANO a , HOMINE SANCTO. 

VIR beatus quemdam de suis monachum nomine Trenanum h , gente Mo- 
curuntir , legatum ad Scotiam d exire quadam prsecipit die. Qui, hominis Dei 
obsecutus jussioni, navigationem parat festinus ; unumque sibi deesse naviga- 
torem coram Sancto queritur. Sanctus base consequenter, eidein respondens, 
sacro promit de pectore verba, dicens, 3 Nautam, quern tibi non adhuc suppetisse 
dicis, nunc invenire non possum. Vade in pace: usquequo ad *Hiberniam 
pervenias prosperos et secundos habebis flatus. Quemdamque obvium vide- 
bis hominem eminus occursurum, qui primus prse ceteris navis proram tuse 
tenebit in Scotia, hie erit comes tui 5 itineris per aliquot in "Hibernia dies; teque 
inde revertentem ad nos usque comitabitur, vir a Deo electus, qui in hoc meo 
monasterio per omne reliquum tempus bene conversabitur. Quid plura? 
Trenanus, accipiens a Sancto benedictionem, plenis velis per omnia transmea- 
vit maria : et, ecce, appropinquanti ad portum naviculas Laisranus Mocumoie 6 , 
citior ceteris, occurrit, tenetque proram. Nautse recognoscunt ipsum esse de 
quo Sanctus prsedixerat. 



1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 
5 iteris A. 6 ebernia A. 

ing at Rome, were on a certain occasion pro- 
vided with materials for an entertainment by 
Pope Hilary : " Tune sanctus Aibeus ad sanc- 
tum Declanum et Colmanum dixit, Quis ex 
vobis erit noster cellarius in hoc prandio ? At 
illi dixerunt nos omnes sumus lassi, et non pos- 
sumus ministrare." (E. 3, n, T.C.D., fol. 
133 a 6). The larger monasteries had also a 
coic, coquus, and a pepcigip, oeconomus, or 
'steward,' whom the Annal. Ult. often call 
equonimus. See Colgan, Act. SS. p. 213 6, 393 ; 
Vit. S. Cannechi, c. 4 (p. 3, Ed. Ormonde); 
Vit. S. Moluse, c. 46 (Flem. Collect, p. 377 a); 
Columbani Reg. Ccenob. c. 12 (Ib. p. 23 6). 
"Muiredhach mac Huairgaile, equonimus Jae," 
died in 7 8 1. Annal. Ult. 

e Collum. The meaning of this obscure pas- 
sage seems to be : When you see your butler 
making merry in a supper of his friends, and 
twirling the ladle round in the strainer, etc. 



2 ortholano B. 3 nauta A. B. 



eberniam A. 



The difficulty arises from our imperfect know- 
ledge concerning the domestic utensils of the 
early natives. 

a Hortulano. The modern term would be 
5<TpSat>6ip. 

b Trenanum. Cpena of the Irish. A Tre- 
nanus is mentioned in S. Baitheneus' Life as 
one of his fraternity Cap. 2. (Act. SS. Jun. 
ii. p. 237 a; Colgan, Act. SS. p. 726). 

Mocuruntir Tnac-th-TJuncip. The three 
magi who opposed St. Patrick are stated by 
Tirechan to have been of the Generis Runtir. 
(Lib. Armac. fol. 10 a a.) According to the 
Tripartite Life of St. Patrick the Dal-Ruinntir 
occupied Cluain-chaoin in Fer Ross, now Clon- 
keen in the west of the county of Louth. iii. 
66. (Tr. Th. p. 162 a.) 

d Scotiam "Hiberniam" lower down. Again 
in Scotia, and its equivalent "in Hibernia." 

e Mocumoie Styled Hortulanus in the title. 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



] DE CETO MAGNO 3 QUOMODO SANCTUS PR^SCIENS DIXERAT. 

QUADAM die, cum vir 3 venerabilis in 4 Ioua demoraretur 5 insula, quidam 
f'rater, Beraclius a nomine, ad Ethicam 1 ' proponens insulam navigare, ad Sanc- 
tum mane accedens, ab eo benedici 6 postulat. Quern Sanctus 7 intuitus, inquit, 
O fill hodie intentius praecaveto ne Ethicam cursu ad terrain directo per latius 
coneris transmeare pelagus ; sed potius, circumiens, minores secus naviges in- 
sulas c ; ne videlicet, 8 aliquo monstruoso perterritus prodigio, vix inde possis 
evadere. Qui, a Sancto accepta benedictione, secessit, et navem 9 conscendens, 
Sancti verbum quasi parvipendens, 10 transgreditur ; majora n proinde 12 Ethici 
transmeans spatia pelagi d , ipse et qui ibi 13 inerant nauta3 vident, et ecce cetus e 



1 capitul. totum om. G. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 quo B. 
5 sua add. D. 6 postulavit D. 1 intuens D. 8 alio C. 
deinde D. 12 aethici A. erant D. 



3 columba add. D. 4 i ona j}_ j>_ 
9 asceudens C. D. 10 ingreclitur D. 



This tribe name is applied to St. Fintan in 
chap. 2 supra (p. 20). 

a Berachus Colgan supposes that this was 
St. Berach, founder of Cluain-Choirpthe, or 
Kilbarry, but on the very insufficient grounds 
that a dispute in which he was engaged was 
referred to Aidan son of Gabhran, who endea- 
voured, but unsuccessfully, to detain the saint 
in Scotland. (Act. SS. p. 342 a; Tr. Th. p. 
377 a, n. 61.) Berach, an abbot of Bangor, 
died in 663. Colgan interprets the name "di- 
rects et punctualiter ad scopum collimans, vel 
quasi alicujus mucrone punctum attingens." 
(Act. SS. p. 346 a, n. 2.) 

b Ethicam. This word is not a substantive, 
as has been generally supposed : for further on 
we find Ethici pelagi ; but an adjective agree- 
ing with insula (twice in this chap., and iii. 8), 
or terra (once in this chap., and i. 36, ii. 15' 
twice, 39, iii. 8). It is an appellative formed 
from ech or ich, ' corn,' and signifies trilicife- 
rax, the island being, as Fordun describes it, 
" insula ubi hordei magna copia ;" or, as it is 
termed in a Gaelic poem, dp ipiolnah-opna, 
'the low-lying land of barley.' It is men- 
tioned in the Lives of several Irish saints as 



terra, insula, or regio, ffyth, or Hith; and from 
dp ica, the Irish compound answering to 
Terra Heth, was formed the proper name, 
which has passed through the various stages of 
Tirieth (Reginald of Durham, i2th cent.), 
Tyre-e (Fordun, ii. 10), Tyriad (1343), Tereyd 
(1354), Tyriage (1390), Tiereig (1496), until it 
has been reduced to its present form of Tiree. 
The island Tiree is about eleven miles long, 
and varies in breadth from one to three. It is 
a low sandy tract, lying about twenty miles 
N.W. of Hy. Artchain (i. 36 infra), and Cam- 
pus Lunge (i. 30, 41, ii. 15, 39, iii. 8), were si- 
tuated in the Ethica terra. See the paper on 
" the Island of Tiree" in the Ulster Journal of 
Archaeol. ii. pp. 233244; Innes' Orig. Paroch., 
under Soroby and Kirkapoll (vol. ii. pt. i, pp. 



Insulas The direct course to Tiree lies in 
the open sea : the circuitous route would lead 
northwards to Staffa, thence to the Treshnish 
isles, and from them westwards to the northern 
extremity of the island. 

d Spatia pelagi. It is nearly twenty miles 
across from Hy to Port-na-lung beside Soroby 
in Tiree. Observe the form Ethici pelagi. 



CAP. 19, 20.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



49 



mirae et immense magnitudinis, I4 se instar mentis erigens, ora aperuit patula 
nimis dentosa, supernatans. 15 Tum proinde remiges, deposito velo, valde 
perterriti, 1G retro 17 reversi, illam obortam ex belluino motu fluctuationem vix 
evadere potuerunt, Sanctique verbum recognoscentes propheticum, admira- 
bantur. Eadem quoque die 18 Sanctus 19 Baitheneo f , ad supra memoratam insu- 
lam navigaturo, mane de eodem intimavit ceto, inquiens, Hac pra3terita nocte 
media, cetus magnus de profundo maris se 20 sublevavit, et inter 21 Iouam et 
Ethicam insulam se hodie in superficiem 22 eriget sequoris. Cui 23 Baitheneus 
respondens infit. Ego et ilia bellua sub Dei potestate sumus. Sanctus, Vade, 
ait, in pace, fides tua in Christo te ab hoc defendet periculo. 23 Baitheneus 
24 turn deinde, a Sancto benedictione accepta, a portu 25 enavigat: transcursis- 
que non par vis ponti spatiis, ipse et socii cetum aspiciunt; perterritisque omni- 
bus, ipse solus 3quor et cetum, 2G ambabus manibus elevatis, benedicit intre- 
pidus. Eodemque momento bellua magna, 27 se sub 28 fluctus immergens, 
nusquam deinceps eis apparuit. 



QUODAM BAITANO, QUI CUM CETERIS DESERTUM MARINUM APPETENS 
ENAVIGAVERAT, SANCTI PROPHETIA VIRI. 

ALIO in tempore quidam Baitanus a , genteNepos 2 NiathTaloirc b , benedici 
a Sancto petivit, cum ceteris in mari eremum qusesiturus. Cui valedicens 



14 om. D. 15 cum D. l6 ' 17 retroversi C. 

21 ionam B. D. 22 erigit B. & baithenus F. 
A. F. S. 27 om , D. 28 fluctibus C. D. F. 

1 capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll. 



is sancto F. 19 baitlieno S. 20 su llivavit B. 
84 tune beatus D. 25 enavigavit C. 26 ambis 



2 mathaloirc B. 



e Cetus See Martin's account of a Gallan pion,' and is often found as a component in an- 



whale which overturned a fishing boat, and de- 
voured three of the crew. West. Islands, p. 5, 
f JBaitheneo. He was superior of the depen- 
dent monastery of Magh-Lunge in Tiree before 
his accession to the abbotship of Hy. See his 
Acts, cap. 7 (Act. SS. Jun. ii. p. 237 6) ; and i. 
3> 4-1, ii. 15, iii. 8, infra. 

a Baitanus. The Irish form of this name is 
baocan ; that of Baitheneus, baoicin. 

b Nepos Niath Taloirc That is, Ua Niabh 
Galoipc. Nioth occurs in Tirechan (Lib. Ar- 
mac. fol. 14 a 1, 15 1 b). It signifies a ' cham- 



cient names. We find Tolorg in Four Mast. 842, 
885 ; and frequently in the catalogue of the 
Pictish Kings. (Irish Nennius, pp. 160-164.) 
c Eremum. "In oceano desertum" further 
on. See i. 6, ii. 42. Such was the island of 
Hirth, now St. Kilda. Of Borera, which lies 
to the north-east, Martin writes : " In the 
West end of this isle is Stallir-House, which is 
much larger than that of the Female Warrior 
in St. Kilda, but of the same Model in all re- 
spects ; it is all Green without, like a little Hill ; 
the Inhabitants there have a Tradition that it 



H 



5 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



Sanctus hoc de ipso propheticum protulit verbum, Hie homo, qui ad quae- 
rendum in oceano desertum pergit, non in deserto conditusjacebit ; sed illo in 
loco sepelietur ubi oves femina trans sepulcrum ejus minabit d . Idem itaque 
Baitanus, post longos per ventosa circuitus aequora, eremo non reperta, ad pa- 
triam reversus, multis ibidem annis cujusdam cellulae dominus 3 permansit, quse 
Scotice Lathreginden 6 dicitur. 4 Iisdemque diebus accidit, 5 quibus, post ali- 
qua mortuus tempora, sepultus est inKoboreto 6 Calgachi f , ut propter hostilita- 
tis incursum vicina ad ejusdem loci ecclesiam plebecula cum mulieribus et par- 
vulis confugeret. Unde contigit ut quadam die mulier deprehenderetur aliqua, 
quaa suas per ejusdem viri sepulcrum nuper sepulti oviculas minabat. Et unus 
ex his qui viderant sanctus sacerdos dixit, Nunc prophetia sancti Columba3 
expleta est, multis prius divulgata annis. Qui utique supra memoratus pres- 
byter mihi haec de Baitano enarrans retulit, Mailodranus g nomine, Christi 
miles, gente 7 Mocurin 11 . 



NEMAN O QUODAM FICTO PCENITENTE SANCTI PROPHETATIO VIRI. 

ALIO in tempore Sanctus ad Hinbinam insulam 8 pervenit, eademque die 
ut etiam po3nitentibus aliqua praacipit cibi consolatio indulgeretur b . Erat 

3 remansit B. 4 hisdemque A. 5 qui B. 6 B. calcagi A. 7 mocucurm B. 
i capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll. 



was Built by one Stallir, who was a Devout 
Hermit of St. Kilda; and had he Travelled the 
Universe, he could scarcely have found a more 
Solitary place for a Monastick Life." Voyage 
to St. Kilda, p. 42. 

d Minabit See Glossary. In the passage 

"minavit eos a tribunali" (Acts, xviii. 16), the 
Book of Armagh reads eminavit, and adds the 
gloss immacc A.jedt. (fol. 183 a a.) 

e Lathreginden. Not identified. The former 
part of the name seems to be Lachpach, which 
enters into the composition of the well-known 
names Lathrach-Sriuin and Lathrach-Odhrain, 
so that the compound should be written Lath- 
reg-inden. It is not found, however, in any of 
the native annals or calendars. Colgan's Sath- 
regin-den, he corrects in his note, but his pro- 



posed reading, Rath-regienden, is inadmissible. 
The division of the name Lath-reginden in the 
Bpllandists is also incorrect. It may be infer- 
red from the narrative that the place was in the 
neighbourhood of Derry. 

f Rdboreto Calgachi. See i. 2, supra. Daire- 
Calffaich, ii. 39, now Londonderry. 

e Mailodranus. The name Tnael-Ofrponn, 
' Servus Odrani,' occurs in the Irish Calendar 
at Jan. 10, May 31, Nov. u. 

h Mocurin. If Mocucurin, the reading in B., 
be correct, this tribe name will be Mac- U- Curin, 
from Ui Cuipin, of which we have an instance 
in the Four Masters at 1196. 

a Hinbinam insulam. The name Hinla oc- 
curs at i. 45, ii. 24, iii. 5, 17, 18, 23, infra. See 
the note on name at i. 45. Adamnan frequently 



CAP. 21,22.] Auctore Adamnano. 51 

autem ibi inter poenitentes quidam Nemanus , filius Cathir, qui, a Sancto jus- 
sus, renuit oblatam accipere consolatiunculam. Quern Sanctus his compellat 
verbis, O Nemane, a' me et Baitkeneo indultam non recipis aliquam refectio- 
nis indulgentiam ? Erit tempus quo cum 3 furacibus furtive carnem in sylva 
manducabis equae d . Jlic idem itaque, postea ad sajculum reversus, in saltu cum 
furibus talem comedens carnem, juxta verbum Sancti, de 3 craticula e sumptam 
lignea, inventus est. 



*DE INFELJCI aUODAM QUI CUM SUA DORMIVIT GENITRICE. 

ALIO 2 in tempore fratres 3 intempesta nocte 4 suscitat Sanctus, ad quos in 
ecclesia congregates dicit, Nunc Dominum intentius precemur ; nam hac in 
hora aliquod inauditum in mundo peccatum perpetratum est, pro quo valde 
Himenda judicialis est vindicta. De quo peccato crastino die, aliquibus paucis 
percunctantibus, intimavit 6 inquiens, Post paucos menses cum 7 Lugaido a nes- 
ciente infelix ille homuncio ad 8 Iouam perveniet insulam. 9 Alia itaque die 
Sanctus ad 10 Diormitium, interjectis quibusdarn mensibus, prascipiens n profa- 
tur, Surge citius, ecce 12 Lugaidus appropinquat, 13 dicque ei ut miserum quern 
secum in navi habet in Maleam b propellat insulam, ne hujus insulse cespitem 

3 furantibus B. 3 graticula A. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 quoque D. 3 in tempesta B. * suscitavit D. b tremenda C. 
6 dicens C. D. ? lugido D. 8 A. C. F. S. ionam B. 9 alio C. w A. B. F. S. diarmatum D. 
iormitium C. praefatur C. ^ lugidus D. 13 dicitque C. 

puts the names of islands in the adjective form laberis." Vita S. Endei, cap. 26. (Colgan, 

with insula. Thus Ethica, loua, Malea. Act. SS. p. 709 6.) 

b Indulgeretur On the arrival of a visitor it e Craticula. Hence Anglic^ Griddle. " Alio 

was usual in St. Columba's monasteries to re- die cum faber monasterii non esset prope, S. 

lax the strictness of dietary discipline. See i. Comgallus uni de fratribus dixit: vade frater 

26, infra. in officinam fabri, et fac nobis craticulam ad 

c Nemanus Others of this name are men- assandos pisces." Vit. S. Comgalli, c. 33. 

tioned at i. 39, ii. 4, infra. (Fleming, Collectan. p. 310 a.) 

d JSquce. A similar sentence was pronounced a Lugaido. He was the messenger of the 

by St. Enna against a hypocritical layman who monastery. See ii. 5, 38, infra. 

refused to accept the hospitality offered by b Maleam. Like most of the names of islands 

Crumther Coelan of Echinis : " Tu qui cum in Adamnan, an adjective agreeing with insu- 

cgeteris fratribus cibum in charitate ministra- & See i. 41, ii. 22. It is the Mull of the 

turn noluisti sumere, de carnibus equi, quern present day, and the Myl of Northern writers, 

furaberis, manducabis, atque manducando jugu- For dun calls it Mule. Scotichr. ii. 10. In 

H2 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



calcet. Qui, proacepto Sancti obsecutus, ad mare peifgit. 14 Lugaidoque ad- 
ventanti omuia Sancti prosequitur de infelici viro verfya. Quibus auditis ille 
infelix juravit nunquam se cibum cum aliis acceptuiMm nisi prius sanctum 
videret Columbam, 15 eumque alloqueretur. Qua3 infelbis verba 10 Diormitius, 
ad Sanctum reversus, retulit. Quibus compertis Sanctus ad portum perrexit, 
Baitheneoque, prolatis sacra? Scriptures testimoniis, 17 suggerenti ut miseri pce- 
nitudo susciperetur, Sanctus consequenter inquit, O 18 Baithenee, hie homo 
19 fratricidium in modum perpetravit 20 Cain, et cum sua niatre moechatus est. 
Turn 21 deinde miser in litore flexis genibus leges po2nitentia3 expleturum se 
promisit, juxta Sancti "judicationem. Cui Sanctus ait. Si duodecim annis c 
inter Brittones cum fletu et lacrymis poenitentiam egeris, nee ad 2S Scotiam usque 
ad mortem reversus fueris, M forsan Deus peccato ignoscat tuo. Heec dicens 
Sanctus, ad suos 25 conversus, 26 dicit, Hie homo filius est perditionis, qui quam 
promisit prenitentiani non explebit ; sed mox ad 27 Scotiam revertetur, ibique 
in brevi ab inimicis interficiendus peribit. Qua3 omnia secundum Sancti pro- 
phetiam ita contigerunt : nam miser 28 iisdem diebus ad 29 Hiberniam reversus, 
in 30 regione quse 31 vocitatur 32 Lea d , in manus incidens inimicorum trucidatus 
est. 33 Hic de Nepotibus Turtrei 6 34 erat. 



lugido D. 



15 eique D. 16 diermitius A. donnitius B. diarmatius D. J7 suggerente D. 
baithiue D. " patricidium D. 20 c h a i n B. 21 A. B. F. S. demum C. 22 A. B. D. F. S. 
indicationem C. 23 hiberniam D. 24 fbrsitan D. F. 25 om . D. 2B a itD. 27 hiberniam D. ^ 6 lus- 
dera A. B. 29 everniam A. 3 regionem D. 3 1 vocatur D. Boll. 39 lea B. leo D. 33 - 34 am C. D. F. S. 



Ptolemy it appears as MaXedg. Off the south- 
western extremity, called the Ross, lies the 
island of lona. 

c Duodecim annis. This was a usual term 
of monastic penance or service. See i. 26, Hi. 
23, infra; Bede, H. E. v. 20-; Hist. Ab. Uire- 
muth 7, 14 (Hist. EC. pp. 322, 329, Ed. Hus- 
sey) ; Vit. S. Munnse, cap. 14, 16 (Cod. Marsh, 
fol. 128 a 6). 

d Lea. In Irish Li, or TTlag l/i, or from the 
inhabitants, pip Li. Giraldus Cambrensis em- 
ploys the last name in the form Ferly. (Hib. 
Expug. ii. 16.) Tirechan, in the Book of Ar- 
magh, calls it Lee (fol. 15 a 6). The territory 
lay on the west side of the river Bann, being 
thus defined by Mac Firbis : pip Li o bhiop 50 
CcimuiV Fir-Li from Bior to Camus.' (Geneal. 
MS. p. 334.) The Bior is the Moyola River, 



locally called 'the Water,' which, rising in 
Ballynascreen, on the west of the county of 
Londonderry, flows eastward, and, passing Cas- 
tledawson, falls into Lough Neagh. At the sy- 
nod of Rathbreasil, in i no, it was constituted, 
and still continues to be, in part, the northern 
limit of the diocese of Armagh. Camus, the 
northern boundary, is a well known church- 
yard on the Bann, about a mile south of Cole- 
raine. See Colgan, Tr. Th. pp. 146 a, c. 127, 
377 6, n. 69; Calend. Dungall. 9 Jan.; Four 
Mast. Ann. 2550, 893, 1178, 1181 ; O'Donovan, 
Book of Rights, pp. 123, 129, 135 ; O'Flaherty, 
Ogyg. iii. 76 (p. 361); Reeves, Eccl. Antiqq. 
pp. 293, 330; Reeves, Colton's Visitation, pp. 
80, 125, 129. 

e Nepotibus Turtrei. In Irish, "Ui Cuipcpe. 
" Colla Uais [monarch of Ireland, A D. 332] 



CAP. 23, 24.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



53 



DE I VOCALI LITERA. 



QUADAM die Baitheneus, ad Sanctum accedens, ait, Necesse habeo ut ali- 
quis de f'ratribus mecum Psalterium quod scripsi percurrens emendet. Quo 
audito, Sanctus sic profatur, Cur hanc super nos infers sine causa molestiam ? 
nam in tuo hoc, de quo dicis, Psalterio nee una superflua reperietur litera, nee 
alia deesse, excepta I vocali' 1 , quas sola deest. Et sic, to to 2 perlecto Psalterio, 
sicutl Sanctus praedixerat repertum exploratum est. 



! DE LIBRO IN AQUARIUM VAS SANCTUS SICUTI PRAEDIXERAT CADENTE. 

QUADAM itidem die, ad focum in monasterio sedens, videt Lugbeum, gente 
Mocumin 1 ', eminus librum legentem, cui repente ait, Praecave, fili, prtecave, ses- 
timo enim quod quern lectitas liber in aquas plenum sit casurus vasculum. 
Quod mox ita contigit : nam ille supra memoratus juvenis, post aliquod breve 



i capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll. 
1 capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll. 



2 perfecto B. 



had two goodly sons ; Earc, on the north of 
the Mountain [Slieve Gallon ; as in Four Mas- 
ters, 1167], from whom descend the Mac Car- 
tains of Loch Feabhail [Foyle] ; and Fiachra 
Tort, on the south of the Mountain, from whom 
descend the Hy Tuirtre and the Fir Li, and the 
Fir Luirg, and the Hy-mac-Uais. It was by 
Fiachra that Conaille Muirtheimhne [now the 
county of Louth] was first seized, tort being a 
name for seizure." Mac Firbis, Geneal. MS. 
(Reeves, Eccl. Antiqq. p. 292.) Anterior to 
the English invasion, the Hy Tuirtre were situ- 
ated in Tyrone, on the west side of Lough 
Neagh and Lough Beg, adjoining the Fir Li 
on the south. Fearsat Tuama, 'the Ford of 
Toome,' now Toome Bridge, was the point of 
communication between the Hy Tuirtre and 
Dalaradia. In the twelfth century they were 
forced over to the east side of the Bann and 
Lough Neagh, and gave the name of Hy Tuirtre 
to the territory now known as the two baronies 



of Toome. The Decanatus de Turtrye in the 
early Taxations represented their extent. 
(Reeves, Eccl. Antiqq. pp. 82, 292-297.) In 
the middle of the twelfth century the Hy 
Tuirtre and Fir Li were under one chieftain, 
but subsequently they separated, and the lat- 
ter were transferred to the lordship of O'Cahan. 
The English called the territory Turteri, as in 
a Pipe-Roll of 1261 (Ulst. Jour, of Archaeol. 
vol. ii. p. 156); and in Writs of 1244, 1314 
(Rymer, Feed. vol. i. p. 256, ii. pp. 245, 262); 
Turturia in 1275 (Ib. i. p. 520). Nepotes Tuirtri 
occurs in Tighernach, A.C. 669, Annal. Ult. 
668 > 733> 744) 753- Regiones Tuirtri, Filios 
Tuirtri, Lib. Armacan. fol. 15 b a. 

a I vocali This was the letter by which St. 
Brendan of Birr is said to have indicated to St. 
Columba the place of his future sojourn. See 
Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 462 a ; Ussher, Wks. vi. p. 
240; Innes, Civ. and Eccl. Hist. p. 170. 

b Lugbeum gente Mocumin. See i. 15, 28, 41. 



54 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



intervallum, ad aliquam consurgens in monasterio ministrationem, verbi obli- 
tus beati viri, libellus, quern sub 2 ascella c negligentius inclusit, subito in 
3 hydriam aqua repletum cecidit. 

1 DE CORNICULO ATRAMENTI INANITER DEFUSO. 

ALIA inter hgec die ultra fretum a lou93 insulae clamatum est d : quern Sanc- 
tus sedens in 3 tuguriolo e tabulis sufFulto audiens clamorem dicit, Homo qui 
ultra clamitat fretum non est subtilis sensus, nam hodie mei corniculum atra- 
inenti inclinans effundet. Quod verbum ejus ministrator Diormitius audiens, 
paulisper antejanuam stans, 4 gravem expectabat s superventurumhospitem, ut 
corniculum defenderet. Sed alia mox faciente causa, inde recessit; et post 
ejus recessum hospes molestus supervenit, Sanctumque osculandum appetens, 
ora vestimenti inclinatum effudit atramenti corniculum f . 



J DE ALICUJUS ADVENTU HOSPITIS QUEM SANCTUS PR.3ENUNTIAVIT. 

ALIO itidem tempore Sanctus 2 die tertise feriae g fratribus sic profatus est, 
Crastina quarta feria jejunare proponimus 11 , sed tamen, superveniente quodam 



2 axilla Boll. 3 ydriam A. et capitulationibus p. 10 supra; fossam B. 

1 capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titulus deest in Boll. 2 A. ione B. 
riolo B. 4 gravamen B. 5 super venturuin B. 

i capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titulum om. Boll. 2 om. Colg. Boll. 



3 tegoriolo A. tugur- 



c Sub ascella. That is, sub axilla. See ii. 8, 
infra, where " sub ascella" is explained " inter 
brachium et latus." 

d Clamatum est. So i. 26, 27, 32, 43, infra. 
In calm weather a strong voice may be heard 
across the strait, which is about an English 
mile wide. The only mode, however, now in use 
ofmakinga signal for a boat is to raise a smoke, 
by burning a bundle of heather : and as each 
owner of a boat has a particular signal spot, it 
is at once known on the island whose services 
are required. 

e Tuguriolo. This hut was "in eminentiore 
loco fabrics turn" (iii. 22, infra) ; and was the 
place where the saint was in the habit of writ- 
ing (i- 35 1 6, iii. 15, infra). 



f Corniculum Representations of ancient 

ink-horns are to be seen in the illuminations of 
some manuscripts. See Keller's Bilder und 
Schriftzuge in den irischen Manuscripten, .p. 92, 
plate vii. (Zurich, 1851.) 

s Tertia fence That is, Tuesday. 

h Jejunare proponimus. "Quarta etiam et 
sexta feria et sabbato, frequenter Bomanam 
plebem ipsius tempore jejunavisse, confirmat 
Augustinus in 36. epist. ad Casulanum. Ut 
inde ritum hunc a Patricio in Hiberniam tra- 
ductum fuisse fiat verisimillimum." TJssher, 
Brit. Eccl. Ant. c. 17. (Wks. vi. p. 444.) St. 
Augustin's words are : " Cur autem quarta et 
sexta maxime jejunet ecclesia," &c. (Opp. ii. 
p. 148 6.) JEdan, who brought to Lindisfarne 



CAP. 25, 26, 27.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



55 



molesto hospite, consuetudinarium solvetur jejunjum c . Quod ita ut Sancto 
praeostensum eat 3 accidit : nam mane eadem quarta feria, alius ultra fretum 
clamitabat proselytus d , Aidanus nomine, filius Fergnoi 6 , qui, ut fertur, duode- 
cim annis f Brendeno ministravit Mocualti g ; vir valde religiosus, qui, ut adve- 
nit, ejusdem diei, juxta verbum Sancti, jejunationem solvit. 



'DE ALIQUO MISERABILI VIRO QUI ULTRA SUPRADICTUM CLAMITABAT 

FRETUM. 

QUADAM quoque die, quemdam ultra fretum audiens clamitantem a , Sanc- 
tus hoc profatur modo : Valde miserandus est ille clamitans homo, qui, aliqua 
ad carnalia medicamenta b petiturus pertinentia, ad nos venit : cui opportunius 

3 accedit A. 

1 capit. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 



the usages of Hy, established the practice "per 
totum annum, excepta remissione quinquagesi- 
mae paschalis, quarta et sexta sabbati jejunium 
ad nonam usque horam protelare." (Bede, 
H. E. iii. 5.) Columbanus's Penitential pre- 
scribes : " Si quis ante horam nonam, quarta, 
sextaque feria manducat, nisi infirmus, duos 
dies in pane et aqua." Cap. 13. (Fleming, 
Collectan. p. 23 6.) 

c Solvetur jejunium Among the Irish Canons 
published by D'Achery is one intituled, De sol- 
vendo jejunio, in which the principle of this 
relaxation is expressed: " Synodus dicit: Hu- 
manitatis causa melius est advenientibus fra- 
tribus, dilectionis offerre virtutem, et absti- 
nentise districtibnem et quotidiani propositi 
rigorem dissolvere : etenim tune Domino gra- 
tum jejunium est cum hoc fructibus charitatis 
fuerit consumptum." (Spicileg. torn. ix. p. 9, 
Par. 1669.) Lanigan instances the case of St. 
Apollon of Thebais, from Tillemont (torn, x, 
P- 38), as a parallel to the present. (Eccl. 
Hist. ii. p. 178.) See T. Innes, Civ. and Eccl. 
Hist. p. 171. In the use of the word proponi- 
mus as regards the observance of the fast, and 
m the dispensing power exercised here and in 
chap. 21, supra, we perceive the great discre- 



tionary power which existed in heads of houses 
under the Irish monastic system. 

d Proselytus. See Prsef. ii., i. 30. In i. 32 it 
is equivalent to peregrinus, hospes, and in i. 44 is 
applied to a bishop. 

e Aidanus filius Fergnoi. Colgan devotes two 
folio columns to the identification of this indi- 
vidual, and comes to the conclusion that, of the 
twenty-three Aedhans in the Irish calendar, he 
was the Aedhan Mac Ua Coinn, whose brother 
Meldan founded a church at Inis mac Ua Coinn 
in Loch Oirbsen [now Inchiquin in Lough Cor- 
rib]. (Tr. Th. p. 377 6, n. 72.) 

f Duodecim annis. See the note on the words, 
chap 22 supra, p. 52. 

s Brendeno Mocualti. This was St. Brendan, 
the famous voyager, and founder of Clonfert, 
who is commemorated in the Calendar at May 
1 6. He is sometimes called the son ofFinnloga, 
to distinguish him from St. Brendan of Birr, 
who was son of Neman ; and sometimes Mac- 
Ua-Alti, which was his clan name, derived from 
Alta, his great-grandfather, son of Ogaman, of 
the race of Ciar son of Fergus. See the note 
on the name at iii. 17, infra. 

a Clamitantem. See the note on the words 
Clamatum est cap. 25 (p. 54). 



Vita Sancti Columlce 



[LIB. i. 



crat veram de peccatis hodie prcnitudinem gerere ; nam in hujus fine hebdo- 
madis morietur. Quod verbum qui inerant prsesentes advenienti misero inti- 
inavere. Sed ille parvipendens, acceptis quoc poposcerat, citius recessit; 
et, secundum Sancti propheticum verbum, ante finem ejusdem septimanas 
mortuus est. 



! DE ROMANI JURIS CIVITATE IGNI SULFUREO C(EL1TUS PROLAPSO COMBUSTA 

SANCTI VIRI PROPHETIA. 

ALIO itidemin tempore, 2 Lugbeus 3 gente 4 Mocumin 5 cujus supra mentio- 
n em fecimus", quadam ad Sanctum die post frugum veniens triturationem, 
nullo modo ejus faciem intueri potuit, miro superfusam rubore ; valdeque per- 
timescens cito aufugit. Quern Sanctus complosis 5 paulum manibus 6 revocat. 
Qui reversus, a Sancto statim interrogatus cur ocius aufugisset, hoc dedit 
responsum, Ideo fugi quia minis pertiniui. Et post aliquod modicum inter- 
vallum, fiducialius agens, audet Sanctum interrogare, inquiens, Numquid hac 
in hora tibi aliqua fbrmidabilis ostensa visio 7 est ? Cui Sanctus Halem dedit 
9 responsionem : Tarn terrifica ultio nunc in remota orbis parte peracta est. 
Qualis, ait juvenis, vindicta, et in qua regione facta ? Sanctus turn sic profa- 
tur : Sulfurea de coelo flamma super Homani juris civitatem b , intra Italias ter- 
minos sitam c , hac hora effusa est ; triaque ferme millia virorum, excepto 10 ma- 

i titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. lugidus D. 3-4 om , c. D. F. S. * B. moccumin A. 5 paulu- 
lum B. C. D. F. S. 6 revocavit D. 1 erat C. 8 A. B. F. S. tale C. D. A. B. F. S. respon- 
sum C. D. 10 mulierum D. 



!) Medicamenta. It would seem from this that 
St. Columba's monastery was resorted to for 
the relief of bodily infirmities. 

a Mentionem fecimus Ati. 15, 24, supra. See 
i. 41, infra. 

b Civitatem We are indebted to Notker 
Balbulus for the modern name of this city. 
" Subversionem quoque civitatis quae nunc 
Nova dicitur in Italia, in subitaneo stupore, 
terrae hiatu, imo coelestis irae respectu subver- 
sam conspexit, et aliis extasin ejus mirantibus 
id ipsum nuntiavit, sed et hoc prsedixit, quod 
Gallici nautae, sicut et factum est eandem rem 
pso anno in Scotia relaturi essent." Martyrol. 
v. Id. Jun. (Canisii Antiq. Lect. vi. p. 854.) 



Some have supposed that the ancient name of 
this city was ^Emonia, but J. L. Schonleben, 
Archdeacon of Lower Carniola, published an 
essay to show that that name belonged to La- 
bacum, or Laubac, in Lower Carniola ; but that 
Alvum of Ptolemy was the one in question. 
(JEmonia Vindicata, Salisburgi, 1674.) It is 
now called Citta Nuova, on the north of the 
river Quieto, in Istria. It became an episco- 
pal see in the tenth century, and John, its first 
bishop, was styled " Episcopus ^Emonensis." 
See Act. SS. Junii, torn. ii. p. 208 b; Mail, torn, 
vii. p. 14; Geogr. Blaviana, vol. viii. p. 57-58- 
c Sitam. " Est autem Istria Italicarum Pro- 
vinciarum sub dominio Veneto una ; atque hoc 



CAP. 28, 29.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



57 



trum puerorumque numero disperierunt. Et antequam prsesens n finiatur an- 
nus, 12 Gallic! nautae, de Galliarum provinces adventantes d , haec eadem tibi 
13 enarrabunt. Quse verba post aliquot menses veridica fuisse sunt comprobata. 
Nam idem 14 Lugbeus, simul cum sancto Is viro ad Caput Regionis 6 pergens, 
nauclerum et nautas 10 adventantis 17 barca3 interrogans, sic omnia 18 illa de civi- 
tate cum civibus ab eis 10 audit enarrata, quemadmodum a prasdicabili viro 
sunt prsedicta. 



'DE LAISRANO FILIO FERADACHI BEATI VISIO VIRI. 

2 QUAD AM brumali et valde frigida die Sanctus, 3 magno molestatus maerore, 
flevit. Quern suus ministrator 5 Diormitius, de causa interrogans ma3stitiae, hoc 
ab eo responsum 4 accepit, Non immerito, O filiole, ego hac in hora contristor, 
meos videns monachos, quos Laisranus a nunc gravi fatigatos labore in alicujus 

11 A. B. F. 12 gallice B. 13 narrabunt D. 1* lugidus D. 15 om. D. ic adventantes D. 
' 7 A. barce B. parce C. al. parceF. in marg. 18 om B. 19 audivit D. om. F. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 cap. ix. continuant C. D. F. S. 3 columba add. D. * accipit A. 
5 diarmatus D. c lasreanus D. 



sensu hie dicitur Roman! juris, i. e. intra Italia 
terminos sita fuisse civitas ilia." Baertius. 

d Adventantes. There existed, at this period, 
frequent intercourse between the British isles 
and Gaul. When St. Columbanus was at 
Nantes, and the authorities there wished to 
send him back to Ireland, a ship was found in 
the harbour ready for the purpose, " quae Scot- 
orum commercia vexerat." Jonas, Vit. S. Co- 
lumbani, cap. 22. (Fleming, Collectan. p. 
236 a ; Messingham, Florileg. p. 234 i.) Even 
at the inland Clonmacnois, " in illis diebus 
quibus fratres S. Kiarani segetes suas mete- 
bant, mercatores Gallorum venerunt ad S. Kia- 
ranum, et repleverunt ingens vas de vino illo 
quod S. Kiaranus fratribus suis dedit." Vit. 
S. Kiarani, c. 31 (Cod. Marsh, fol. 147 66). 

e Caput Regionis Neither Colgan nor Pin- 
kerton observed that this was a proper name : 
the latter proposes to supply " Insulse Hyonse." 
(Vit. Ant. p. 78.) The foreign editor, how- 
ever, with more penetration, observed in Bu- 



chanan's Descript. Scot., " Ultra Cnapdaliam 
ad occidentem hibernum excurrit Cantiera, hoc 
est, Regionis caput? &c. (Act. SS. Jun. ii. p. 
209 a.) The vernacular name Cenn-cipe, or 
Cmb-cipe, appears occasionally in the Irish 
Annals, as Tighernach, 574, 68 ij Ulster, 575, 
680, 720; Inisf alien, 495; Four Masters, 620, 
679, 1154. The Northmen called it Satin 
(Johnstone's Olave, pp. 14, 18, 20, 22, 27 ; 
Haco's Expedition, p. 48). The earliest Scotch 
charters have it Kentir. (C. Innes, Orig. Pa- 
rock vol. ii. pt. i. p. r.) " Insula Kyntyre." 
Brev. Aberd. (Propr. SS. Part. Hyemal. f. 67 
b a.) Dunchadh Beg, of the house of Gabhran, 
king of Cindtiri, died in the year 721. Tigher- 
nach. So Ann. Ult. 720. 

a Laisranus. Called in the title filius Ferada- 
chi. At i. 12, supra, we find him in Scotland. 
His father was son of Ninnidh son of Fergus son 
of Conall Gulban, and was therefore first cou- 
sin of St. Columba. Laisranus was promoted, 
in 598, from his subordinate charge at Durrow, 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



majoris domus b fabrica molestat; 7 quae mihi valde 8 displicet. Mirum dictu! 
eodem momento horsB 9 Laisranus, habitans in monasterio 10 Roboreti Campi c , 
quodammodo coactus, et quasi quadam pyra d intrinsecus succensus, jubet mo- 
nachos a labore cessare, aliquamque cibationum consolationem "praeparari; et 
non solum in eadem die otiari, sed 12 et in ceteris asperas tempestatis diebus re- 
quiescere. Qua3 verba ad fratres consolatoria, a 13 Laisrano dicta, Sanctus in 
spiritu audiens flere cessavit, et mirabiliter gavisus ipse in 14 Ioua insula com- 
manens, fratribus, qui ad praesens 15 inerant, per omnia enarravit, et 16 Laisra- 
num 17 monacliorum benedixit consolatorem. 



J DE FECHNO SAPIENTE 2 QUOMOt)O PCENITENS AD SANCTUM COLUMBAM, AB 

EODEM PIUENUNCIATUS, VENIT. 

ALIO 3 in tempore Sanctus, in cacumine sedens mentis qui nostro 4 huic mo- 
nasterio eminus supereminet a , ad suum ministratorem 5 Diormitium con versus, 
6 profatus est, dicens, Miror quare tardius appropinquat quaedam de Scojtia na- 
vis, quae quemdam advehit sapientem virum, qui in quodam facinore lapsus, 
lacrymosam gerens pcenitudinem, mox adveniet. Post 7 proinde baud 7 grande 
intervallum ad austrum prospiciens minister, velum navis videt ad portum b 

7 A. B. quod C. D. F. S. 8 A. C. D. S. displicent B. F. Colg. Boll. 9 lasreanus D. w campi 
roborete D. prastare D. K om. D. J 3 lasreano D. u A. S. iona B. D. 15 erant D. 
16 lasreanum D. 17 A. B. monachum C. F. S. om. D. 

i titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 viro add. B. 3 om . D. * om. C. s diarmatum D. 6 pro- 
fatur B. 7 - 7 om. D. 

to be abbot of Hy, being the third who filled 
that office, which he held till 606. The omis- 
sion of his name in the Annals of Ulster created 
a gap in Ussher's catalogue of the abbots of Hy, 
which has been perpetuated by his copyists. 

b Majoris domus. Mentioned again at iii. 15, 
where the title calls it monasterium rotundum. 

c Roboreti Campi. t)aiji-Tna5h,now Durrow. 
See i. 3, 49, ii. 2, 39, iii. 15. This church was 
in Fer-Ceall in the King's County. There was 
another of the same name in Hy-Duach, a 
region of Ossory, also called Durrow. There 
was a Dearmach near Rath-Croghan in Ros- 
common, and there are townlands called Dur- 
row in Drumnatemple, county of Gal way; 



Drum, King's County ; and Stradbally, Water- 
ford. O'Donnell, in his Life of St. Columba, 
relates that when Scanlann was liberated after 
the synod of Druimceatt, St. Columba gave him 
his staff to serve as his safe-conduct, directing 
him to proceed to Dearmach, and deliver it to 
Laisranus. iii. 13. (Tr. Th. 433 b.) 

d Pyra. For igni, an adaptation of irvpi. 

a Supereminet. The highest spot on the island 
is Dun-i, situated N. N. W. of the monastery. 
Its elevation is 330 feet, and it is a conspicuous 
object from the sea. However, the hill called 
Cnoc-mor, which overhangs Reilig-Orain on the 
west, is, more probably, the place intended. 

b Portum. Port-Ronain, near the village, 



CAP, 30.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



59 



"propinquantis. 9 Quam cum Sancto adventantem demonstraret, cito 10 surgit, 
inquiens, Eamus proselyto obviam, cujus veram Christus n suscipit poeniten- 
tiara. At vero 12 Feachnaus d j de navi descendens, Sancto ad portum perve- 
nienti obvius occurrit; cum fletu et lamento, ante pedes ejus ingeniculans 
flexis genibus, amarissime ingemuit, et coram omnibus qui ibidem 13 inerant 
14 peccantias 15 confitetur 16 suas. Sanctus 17 tum, cum eo pariter illacrymatus, 
ad eum ait, Surge fili, et consolare ; dimissa sunt tua quse commisisti pecca- 
mina; quia, 18 sicut scriptum est, 19 Cor contritum et humiliatum Deus non 
20 spernit e . Quisurgens, gaudenter a Sancto susceptus, ad 21 Baitheneum tune 
temporis in Campo 22 Lunge f prsepositum commorantem, post aliquot est 
emissus dies, in pace commigrans. 

8 appropinquantis C. 9 quern D. lo A. G. F. S. surge B. surrexit D. ll A. D. suscepit 
B. C. F. S. I2 fechnaus B. C. F. S. fiachna D. erant D. culpas B. peccata D. is-w sua 
confessus est D. 17 om. C. D. F. S. 18 om. D. 19-2 deus contritum non spernit et humiliatum 
cor B. 21 baytbenum D. 82 longe D. 



the usual landing-place, is nearly due south of 
Dun-i. If Cnoc-mor was the place of obser- 
vation, Port-na-Mairtear, or Martyr's Bay, 
where the Free Church now stands, answers 
best to the description. 

c Proselyto. See Prsef. 2, i. 26, 32, 44. 

a Feachnans He is styled " sapiens vir " 
twice. In the Irish Annals we frequently find 
the epithet raoi, sapiens, applied to ecclesias- 
tics. Colgan, finding St. Fachnan of Ross styled 
sapiens in the Life of St. Mochaomoc, conjec- 
tured that he was the subject of the present 
narrative, but without good reason. Besides, 
Fachtnan andFiachna seem to be different names. 

e Spernit " Cor contritum et humiliatum, 
Deus non despicies." Psal. 1. 18, Vulg. 

f Campo Lunge. Situate in Ethica terra, now 
Tiree (ii. 15, 39); a penitential station (ii-39) ; 
Baitheneus superior of it (i. 41, iii. 8). " In 
monasterio quod Campus navis, id est Mag- 
lunga vocatur, quodque per S. Columbam in 
terra Heth fundatum est." Vit. S. Baitheni, 
c. 7. (Act. SS. Jun. ii. p. 237 6.) Combustio 
Muighe Luinge. Tighernach, 673. (Ann. Ult. 
6 ?2 J Ann. Clonmacn. 669.) The Four Masters 
render it Lorccafc TTlaige lunge, and, by its 



insertion, apply the notice to Ireland, A.C. 672 : 
where see O'Donovan's note. Among the obits 
in the Annals of Ulster, at 774, is Conall 
TTlaisi knngi, 'Conall of Magh-luinge.' The 
" portus Campi Lunge" which is mentioned by 
Adamnan, at ii. 15, as lying opposite to Hy, is 
probably the little creek called Port-na-luny, 
which is close to the old burying-ground of 
Soroby, on the south-east side of the island, 
where there stands a very ancient cross, and 
in which are remembered the remains of the 
original parish church, near the spot now oc- 
cupied by some curious sepulchral slabs. 
Among the thirteen Brigids mentioned by JE,n- 
gus the Culdee is " S. Brigidade Mag Luinge," 
whom Colgan places in Dalriedia, by which, if 
he means the original territory of that name in 
the north of the county of Antrim, he is in 
error. (Tr. Th. p. 611 6.) In the farm of 
Cornagmore, on the north side of Tiree, is a 
place called Kilbride, where a small chapel 
formerly stood, and this is the true site of the 
" Ecclesia S. Brigidse de Mag-luinge." See the 
paper on the Island of Tiree in the Ulster 
Journal of Archaeology , vol. ii. pp. 239-241, and 
the accompanying Map. 



12 



6o 



Vita Sancti Columbcv 



[LIB. i, 



J DE CAILTANO EJUS MONACHO SANCTI PROPHETATIO VIRI. 

ALIO 2 in tempore binos mittens monachos ad suum alium monachum, no- 
mine 3 Cailtanum a , qui eodem tempore prsepositus erat in cella 4 qua3 hodieque 
ejus fratris Diuni vocabulo vocitatur, stagno adhasrens Aba3 6 fluminis b , haec per 
eosdem nuncios Sanctus commendat verba : Cito euntes ad 3 Cailtanum prope- 
rate, "dicitoteque ei ut ad me sine ulla veniat morula. Qui verbo Sancti ob- 
secuti exeuntes, et ad cellam 7 Diuni pervenientes, suas legatiunculse qualitatem 
8 Cailtano intimaverunt. Qui eadem hora, nullo demoratus modo, Sancti pro- 
secutus legates, ad eum in 9 Ioua insula commorantem, 10 eorum itineris comes, 
celeriter pervenit. Quo viso, Sanctus ad eum taliter locutus, his compellat 
verbis, O " Cailtane, bene fecisti ad me obedienter festinando : requiesce paulis- 
per. Idcirco ad te invitanduni misi, amans amicum, ut hie mecum in vera 
finias obedientia vitas cursum tua3. Nam 12 ante hujus 13 hebdomadis u finem ad 
15 Dominum in pace transibis. Quibus auditis, gratias agens Deo, Sanctumque 

1 titul. J)m. C. D. F. S. Boll. tenor cap. x. continuatur. 2 om . D. 3 calteanum D. *- 5 om. 
C. D. F. S. 6 dicite C. D. F. S. ? om , c. D. F. S. calteano D. *> A. C. iona B. om. F. 
11 calteane D. & om. D. n ebdomadis A. B. D. F. S. fine D. " A. B. deum C. D. F. S. 



a Cailtanum. Colgan seeks in vain to find 
for him a place in the Irish Calendar ; but what 
he observes upon the form of the name is de- 
serving of notice : " Observo quod vox CaoZ, 
cail, sive Coel (varie enim a priscis scribitur) 
quse macilentum significat ; et in proprium no- 
men usu transierat, duo derivata habeat dimi- 
nutiva, viris propria, ut Caolan, Cailan, sive 
Coelan, et Cailten, sive Coelten, idem signifi- 
cantia." Tr. Th. p. 379 c, n. 76. See also 
ibid. p. 597 b. 

h Stagno Abce fluminis. Dr. Smith under- 
stands this of Loch Awe (Life of S. Columba, 
p. 151); and, after him, Dr. Lanigan (Eccl. 
Hist. ii. p. 172). Or, Lochavich, formerly 
Loch-Affy, a smaller lake lying to the north- 
west, may be here intended. A charter of King 
Robert Bruce, circ. 1322, grants to Roderic son 
of Alan the lands of the latter as Louchaby in 
Argyle. (C. Innes, Orig. Paroch. ii. pt. i. p. 
jo4-) The markland of Kilmun, lying near 



Lochavicb, is the only place in that quarter 
which bears a name at all resembling the Cill- 
Diuni of St. Columba's age. The neighbouring 
church of Kilchrenan, formerly Kildachmanan 
and Ecclesia S. Petri Diaconi de Loch Aw, 
which has been a subject of discussion among 
Scottish antiquaries (Origines Paroch. ii. pt. i. 
p. 120) may have its origin in the Cella Diuni 
of the text. There is a lake in Mull called 
Loch Ba, at the north-west end of which is 
an old burial-ground on the lands of Knock, 
called Kill-Martin ; and the style of the nar- 
rative seems to indicate a nearer position to 
Hy than Loch Awe. The Annals of Ulster, 
at 675, have the entry: Multi Pictores dimersi 
sunt i Llaind Abae, which may have reference 
to the lake mentioned in the text, but whose 
identification, like much of the ancient topo- 
graphy of Scotland, is, owing to the total ab- 
sence of ancient Gaelic records, subject, as 
yet, to painful uncertainty. See note b , p. 64. 



CAP. 31, 32.] Auctore Adamnano. 61 

lacrymans 16 exosculatus, 17 ad hospitium, accepta ab eo benedictione, 18 pergit: 
eademque subsecuta infirmatus nocte, juxta verbum Sancti in eadem septi- 
mana ad Christum 19 Dominum migravit. 



1 DE DUOBUS PEREGRINIS FRATRIBUS SANCTI PROVIDA PROPHETATIO VIRI. 

QUADAM Dominica die ultra ssepe memoratum clamatum estfretum a . Quern 
audiens Sanctus clamorem, ad fratres qui ibidem 2 inerant, Ite, ait, celeriter, 
peregrinosque de longinqua venientes regione ad nos ocius adducite. Qui 
continue obsecuti, Hransfretantes adduxerunt hospites : quos Sanctus 4 exoscu- 
latus, consequenter de causa percontatur itineris. Qui respondentes aiunt, 
Ut 5 hoc etiam anno apud te peregrinemur, venimus. Quibus Sanctus hanc 
dedit responsionem : Apud me, ut dicitis, anni unius spatio peregrinari non po- 
teritis, nisiprius 6 monachicum promiseritis votum. Quod qui 7 inerant prsesen- 
tes valde mirati sunt 8 ad hospites eadem hora 9 adventantes dici. Ad quse 
Sancti verba senior respondens frater ait, Hoc in mente propositum licet in 
hanc horam usque nullatenus 10 habuerimus, tamen tuum sequemur consilium, 
divinitus, ut credimus, inspiratum. Quid plura ? Eodem hora3 momento orato- 
rium cum Sancto ingressi, devote, flexis genibus, votum n monachiale vove- 
runt b . Sanctus turn 12 deinde, ad fratres conversus, ait, Hi duo proselyti c 
vivam Deo seipsos exhibentes hostiam, longaque 13 in 13 brevi Christianas tem- 
pora militias complentes, hoc mox eodem mense ad Christum Dominum in 
pace transibunt. Quibus auditis ambo fratres, gratias Deo agentes, ad hospi- 
tium u deducti sunt: interjectisque diebus septem, senior frater ccepit infirmari, 
et, eadem peracta septimana, ad Dominum emigravit. Similiter et alter post 

16 osculatus est D. w e t C. S. 18 perrexit D. om. B. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 erant D. 3 mandatum add. D. * exosculatos D. E. 5 et 
add. D. 6 monasticum D. 1 erant D. 8 om. D. 9 advenientea D. w habuimus D. u mo- 
nachile B. C. 12 om. D. om. D. >* ducti D. 

a Fretum. See i. 25, 26, 27, 43. a year's probation should always precede. At 

b Voverunt Colgan observes that this is an length, the Council of Trent (Sess. xxv. c. 15) 

instance of admission to the monastic profession decreed for Regulars that in cases where the 

without the year of probation : to which Baer- year's probation was omitted, the profession 

tms adds, that the period of probation varied should be invalid. (Act. SS. Jun. ii. p. 208 6.) 

originally at the discretion of the founder. c Proselyti. Called also peregrini and hos- 

Pope Alexander III. ordained that the term of pites elsewhere in the chapter. See Glossary. 



62 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



septem alios dies infirmatus, ejusdem in fine hebdomadis, ad Dominum feliciter 
"transit. Et sic secundum Sancti veridicam prophetiam, intra ejusdem men- 
sis terminum, ambo praesentem finiunt vitam. 



J DE QUODAM ARTBRANANO a SANCTI PROPHETIA VIRI. 

CUM per aliquot dies in insula demoraretur 2 Scia b vir beatus, 8 alicujus loci 
terrulam niari vicinam baculo percutiens, ad comites 4 sic ait, Mirum dictu, O 
filioli ! hodie in hac liujus loci terrula quidam gentilis senex, 6 naturale per 
to tarn bonum custodiens 6 vitam, 7 et baptizabitur, et morietur, 8 et sepelietur. 
Et ecce, quasi 9 post unius intervallum horae, navicula ad eundem supervenit 
portum ; cujus in prora 10 quidam advectus est decrepitus senex, H Geona3 d 
12 primarius cohortis, quern bini juvenes, de navi sublevantes, ante beati con- 
spectum viri 13 depontmt. Qui statim, verbo Dei a Sancto per interpretem re- 
cepto% credens, ab eodem baptizatus est, et post expleta baptizationis 14 minis- 

15 einigravit D. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 scotia C. skia F. om. D. S. 3 columba add. D. * om , c. D. F. S. 
5-6 per totam vitam naturale bonum custodiens D. 7 om. D. 8 ac D. 9 om. F. 10 om. D. 
11 genere D. 12 insulse inserunt Colg. Boll. 13 deposuerunt D. * 4 A. misteria B; C. F. S. 



a Artbranano This is a Gaelic as well as a 

Pictish name, being compounded of ape, which 
Cormac explains by nap al, 'noble,' or cloch, 
'a stone' (Glossary, subvoc.*), and bpcman.the 
diminutive of bpan, 'a raven': hence the whole 
name may be interpreted Noble-raven, Hardy- 
raven, or Rock-raven. We find the form Art- 
bran in Tighern. 716, 758; Ann. Ult. 715, 757. 
See Zeuss, Gram. Celt. i. pp. 78, 281. 

b Scia. The island Skye. Concerning the 
churches of S. Columba there see the note on 
ii. 26, infra. The word Scia appears from the 
form of the name in the following instances to 
be an adjective agreeing with insula. Naviga- 
tiofiliorum Gartnaith ad Hibernian cum plebe 
Scith. (Tigh. 668 ; Sceth, Ann. Ult. 667.) Sci, 
(Lib. Lecan. fol. 139 a a.) Sgdccns (Trans. 
Gael. Soc. p. 118.) Skid (Haco's Exped. pp. 16, 
46); ubi Vestra-fyrdi (Johnstone's Olave, p. 
10.) Shydu (Death-Song of Lodbroc, p. 107). 
Scaethi (Ib. p. 23). C. Innes explains the name 



by " the winged isle." (Orig. Paroch. ii. pt. i. 

P- 350 

c Gentilis. A term which the writer fre- 
quently applies to the Picts. See i. 37, ii. ir 
bis, 27, 33, iii. 14. 

d Geonce cohortis. Colgan and the Bolland- 
ists insert insulce, but without authority. Pin- 
kerton seems to have never consulted them, for 
in his note on Geonee cohortis he observes : " Sic 
MS. et editiones" (p. 82). If Geona be the 
name of an island, it may be the same as the 
modern Gunna. Gunna, however, between 
Tiree and Coll, is too small to be deserving of 
notice. The Geona cohors was probably a 
Pictish corps, deriving its name from the dis- 
trict to which it belonged. 

e Per interpretem recepto. This case saves 
that recorded in ii. 32, infra, from being " a so- 
litary_allus|on to Jb^..4iver.sity of Gjielifi and 
Pictish" (Irish Nennius, p. 40). St. Columba 
was evidently unacquainted with the latter Ian- 

* i- .- .,.-.-.-. ----..r 



CAP. 33.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



teria, sicuti Sanctus prophetizavit, eodem in loco consequenter obiit, ibidemque 
socii, congesto lapidum acervo f , 15 sepeliunt. Qui 1G hodieque in 17 ora cernitur 
maritima; fluviusque ejusdem 18 loci in quo idem baptisma acceperat, ex nomine 
ejus, 19 Dobur 19 Artbrananis usque in hodiernum 20 nominatus diem, ab accolis 11 
vocitatur. 



15 eum add, D. 10 hoclie quoque D. 17 hora B. S. hac hora C. 
om. C. D. F. S. 20 B. Colg. Boll, nominatus est A. 



18 om. C. D. F. S. A. B. 



guage ; for the reference cannot be to the 
Latin language, because in such case the 

.sc^r 

teacher could be his own interpreter. Ven. 
Bede, also, recognises the distinction, for he 
states the five written languages, of Great Bri- 
tain to be " Anglorum, Brittonum, Scottorum, 
Pictorura, et Latinorum" (H. E. i. i) ; and the 
foursooAcTi tongues to be " Brittonum, Picto- 

^ *"*" -*"s..-. f , -C*. '- ' 

rum, Scottorum, et Anglorum" (Ibid. iii. 6). 
The Pictish was undoubtedly a Celtic_djalgc1;, 
but mor^^jaj^y allied_to_the British or.. Welsh 
than the Gaelic. Of this the eastern topogra- 
phy of Scotland is satisfactory evidence: to 
which may be added the four recorded Pictish 
words Cartoit (.1. bealg .1. becrpla Cpuicnea6, 
' a pin, in the Pictish tongue' Cormac, Gloss, 
in uoc.); Pean-fahel (Bede, H. E. i. 12); and 
Scollofthes ("clerici qui Pictorum lingua cog- 
nominantur," Reginald. Dunelm. de Cuthberti 
Virt. p. 179, Surtees Soc. Publ. ; Robertson, in 
Miscell. Spalding Club, vol. v. p. 56.) 

{ Acervo. A sepulchral earn. See the ac- 
count of one which was opened in the parish of 
Snizort in this island, Old Statist. Survey, vol. 
xviii. p. 1 86. 

s Dobur Artbranani. Oobap, amm coio- 
6enb icep 5 ai ^ elic c u ? Combpec b'uipce, 
unde dicitur bobap-6u, ocup bqbap-ci ip in 
Combpec. " DOBHAH, a common name both 
in the Gaelic and Cymric for water : unde dici- 
tur Dobhar-chu [' a water-dog,' i.e. 'an otter," 
in the Gaelic], and Dobhar-chi in the Cymric." 
Cormac's Glossary (woe. Oobap and Coin 
Poboipne). See the word Dobap, and its com- 
pounds, in O'Brien's and O'Reilly's Dictionaries, 
also di&beip in the latter. The Welsh diction- 



aries, too, have the word, but spelled Dywr : 
also Dytor-gi) ' an otter.' See Lhuyd's Archze- 
ologia, pp.43 b, 201 d, 288 c, 2900, 351 a; 
Giraldus Cambrensis, Itinerar. Cambr. i. 8; 
Zeuss, Gram. Celt, i., pp. 156, 160, 163. A 
stream in the west of Donegall, called Dobhar, 
probably the modern Gweedore (i. e. fiaet 
Oobmp, ' estuary of the Dobhar'), was the 
northern boundary of Tir Boghaine, or Banagh 
(see Battle of Magh Rath, pp. 156, 158) ; but 
Dour is much commoner in British topography 
than its cognate word in Irish. There is a 
spring near one of the old churches in Skye, 
called Tobar Bhrennan, but the name seems to 
have a different origin. Indented as Skye is 
on all sides with loughs, and presenting, from 
its lobster shape, so extensive a line of coast, 
with the Out Isles on the west, Rosshire on 
the east, and Invernesshire on the south, it is 
very difficult, in the absence of local evidence, 
to conjecture from what side the old Chief 
came, or what was the part of the coast at 
which the interview took place. It is a curious 
feature in this, the largest island of Scotland, 
that there is not a spot in it four miles from 
the sea, and few parts more than two. Mug- 
stot, a farm beside Loch Choluimcille, in the 
north of Skye, was the usual landing-place 
from the Long Island. On the east is Portree, 
in the inner bay of which is a small island called 
Eilean Choluimcille. On the north-west, at 
Skabost-bridge, on an island of the river Sni- 
zort, near its entrance into Loch Snizort, is an 
old church, anciently known as Sanct Colmis 
Kirk in Snesfurd. 
h Accolis. In the margin of D. is written in 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



'DE NAVICULA TR AN SMUT AT A SANCTO PR.ZECIPIENTE. 

ALIO in tempore trans Britannia Dorsum a iter agens, aliquo in desertis 
2 viculo agellis reperto, ibidemque juxta alicujus marginem 3 rivuli stagnum b in-' 
trantis, Sanctus mansionem faciens, eadem nocte dormientes, semisopore de- 
gustato, suscitat comites, dicens, Nunc, nunc, celerius foras exeuntes, nostram 
quam ultra rivum naviculam posuistis in 4 domum, hue citius advehite, et in 
viciniore 5 domuncula ponite. Qui continue obedientes, sicut 6 eis prasceptum 
est, fecerunt; ipsisque iterum quiescentibus, Sanctus post quoddam intervallum 
silenter Diormitium pulsat inquiens, Nunc stans extra domum aspice quid in 
illo agitur viculo ubi prius 7 vestram posuistis naviculam. Qui Sancti praecepto 
obsecutus, domum egreditur, et respiciens 8 videt vicum flamma instante totum 
concremari. Beversusque ad Sanctum quod ibidem agebatur retulit. Sanc- 
tus proinde fratribus de quodam narravit asmulo persecutore qui easdem domus 
eadem incenderat nocte. 



i capitulum totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 B. et A. inferius vehiculo A. Colg. Boll. 
3 rivoli A. * domo B. 3 domucula A. 6 om. B. 7 nostrum B. * yidit B. 



an old hand, * Accola non propriam; propriam 
colit incola terram.' But this does not apply 
here. See the word again in i. 35, infra. 

a Britannia Dorsum. Djiuim-bpeoaiTi. See 
ii. 31, 42, 46, iii. 14; Tighernach, 717; Ann. 
Ult. 716. The vernacular name Drum-Bretain 
at an early date passed into the form Drum- 
Alban, which was in use_jin,til..the_ thirteenth 
century, and was applied to the great mountain 
chain dividing Perthshire and Argyle, and ter- 
minating in the Grampian Hills. This range 
forms the backbone of Scotland, and from its 
sides the eastern and western waters respec- 
tively flow. 

b Stagnum. The name, which is omitted in 
this place, is supplied in the Capitulationes (p. 
i r, supra), as " stagnum Loch DIBS." It is found 
in the Annals of Ulster, A.C. 728: Bellum 
Monitcarno juxta stagnum Loogdae inter hostem 
Nechtain et exercitum Aengusa, et exactatores 
Nechtain ceciderunt, hoc est JBiceot mac Moneit, 
etfilius ejus Finguine mac Drostain, Ferotji.mac 



Finnguine et quidam multi ; et familia Aengusa 
triumphavit. (Cod. Dubl.) Chalmers, who 
never stops at a topographical difficulty, deals 
with the name as a familiar one, and describes 
the encounter as the " battle of Moncur in the 
Carse of Gowrie." (Caledon. i. p. 2 1 1.) But 
there is no lake at Moncur, and the similarity 
of the name is more apparent than real. " Bel- 
lum Montis Carno." (Annal. Cambr. 728.) Pan 
vu vrwydyr ym mynyd Carn, 'when there was a 
battle on Carn mountain.' Brut y Tywyso- 
gion, 728. This is supposed to be the pass of 
the Grampians, in the west of Kincardineshire, 

*-'" 

called Cairn-o-mont, the Mons Mound of Giral- 
' 

dus Cambrensis, and the Monoth of Ann. Ult. 
781, beside which is Glendye, through which 
flows the river Dye; but, unfortunately for 
the present identification, there is no lake 
there. 

c Naviculam A currach, which, being made 
of wicker-work covered with hide, was easily 
carried. The river seems to have been an in^ 



CAP. 



Auctore Adamnano. 



J DE GALLANO FILIO FACHTNI QUI ERAT IN 2 DICECESI COLGION F1LII 

3 CELLAIG. 

QUAD AM itidem die Sanctus, in suo sedens Huguriolo, 5 Colcio a eidem, lecti- 
tanti juxta se, prophetizans ait, Nunc unum tenacem primarium de tuse prrc- 
positis diocceseos b dsemones ad inferna rapiunt. At vero hoc audiens 7 Colcius 

i capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 diocisi A. diocesi B. 3 A. cellaclii B. 

* tegoriolo A. & A. colgio B. 6 diociseos A. 7 A. colgius B. 



considerable one, as the messenger crossed it 
on foot to get the boat ; unless we interpret 
ultra as meaning ' having crossed.' 

a Colcio. Here, and Hi. 15, we have the Latin 
form of the name Colga, while in the title we 
have the Irish, in the genitive case. Colyen 
is the genitive in i. 43, infra. So Cellaig in 
the title, the genitive of Cellach, which is la- 
tinized Cellachi in iii. 15, infra. Colgan, the 
hagiologist's name, is properly Mac Colgan, 
'son of Colga,' which the Annals of Ulster read 
Mac Colgen at 621. The subject of the present 
anecdote is mentioned again at iii. 15, under 
similar circumstances. Colgan notices him in 
his Acta at Feb. 20, but adduces nothing addi- 
tional of importance. He supposes him to have 
been a bishop from the expression tuce dicece- 
seos, possibly Colga of Kill-cholgan in Dealbh- 
na-Eathra or Garrycastle. (Act. SS. p. 381-) 
Dr. Lanigan, however, observes that " the 
phrase your diocese may mean no more than the 
diocese in Ireland to which Colgeus belonged, 
without his being bishop of it." (Eccl. Hist. ii. 
p. 328.) But both suppositions are open to this 
grave objection, that diocesan episcopacy was 
unknown at this period in Ireland. See the 
following note. Tighernach, at 622, records 
the death of Colga mac Ceallaig. So Ann. Ult. 
621 ; Four Mast. 617 ; and the two names in the 
same relation occur again in the Four Masters 
at 776, 849. The word eidem refers to the 
name in the titulus, and proves the genuine- 
ness of it. The Bollandists, who have thrown 



all these chapters into a continuous narrative, 
and have discarded the tituli, so as not to inter- 
rupt the tenor, occasionally create a defect in 
their text, by omitting, as in the present in- 
stance, the antecedent. 

b Diceceseos. The word used in the oldest 
Irish records to denote ' a diocese' is parochia. 
(S. Patricii Synod. 30, 34, Villanueva, pp. 5, 6. 
Paruchia, Lib. Armac. fol. i r ab, i6aa, 20 b b, 
21 b b, 22 a a.) Sulpicius Severus uses dicecesis 
in the sense of ' parish,' and parochia of ' an 
episcopal seat.' (Vit. S. Martini, Lib. Armac. 
fol. 209 b b, 220 a a, 202 b b ; pp. 578, 526, 550, 
Ed. Hornii.) In the present instance the term 
dicecesis seems, like the Greek fooucTjtne, to be 
taken in the sense of ' administration,' or, se- 
condarily, of ' district,' conveying the idea 
expressed by " quidam de provincialibus tuis 
clericis," iii. 7 infra. In this sense it is em- 
ployed in the solitary instance in which it 
occurs in the ancient memoirs of St. Patrick in 
the Book of Armagh (fol. 20 b 6). In the case 
of widely extended monastic systems, like that 
of St. Columba, while the supreme government 
was vested in the superior of the mother church, 
there were local administrators, under whose 
direction the churches of a particular district 
or province were unitedly placed, and the pre- 
sent expression seems to have reference to such 
jurisdiction. Occasionally we read, in the An- 
nals, of theTFlaoji mmncTpepacpaicc, ' Stew- 
ard of the congregation of S. Patrick,' in a 
certain province. SeeEccles. Antiqq. of Down 



K 



66 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



teinpus et horarn in tabula describens, post aliquot menses ad patriam reversus, 
Gallanum filium Faclitni eodem horse momento obiisse, ab accolis ejusdem re- 
gionis percunctatus, invenit, quo vir beatus eidem a daemonibus raptum enar- 
ravit. 



'BEATI PllOPHETATIO 2 VIRI DE FINDCHANO PRESBYTERO, ILLIUS MONASTERII 
FUNDATORE QUOD SCOTICE 3 ARTCHAIN a NUNCUPATUR, IN ETHICA TERRA. 

ALIO in tempore supra memoratus b presbyter Findchanus c , Christ! miles, 
Aidum cognomento Nigrum d , regio genere ortum, 4 Cruthinicum gente c , de 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul om. Boll. 1-2 om. B. 3 ardcaiin B. 4 A. B. 



and Connor, pp. 136, 137; King's Primacy of 
Armagh, references in Index, under Diocesan 
Episcopacy. 

a Artchain. Sib. Gjit> caoin ' altitudo 
amoana.' The name exists in Ireland, as be- 
longing to a parish in the county of Down, in 
the form Ardkeen, but has been lost in the Ethica 
terra or Tiree. A spot on the north side of the 
island, a little south-east of the farm-house 
of Balphetrish, is called Ardkirknish, where a 
chapel and cemetery are known to have for- 
merly existed. In the farm of Kenoway, south- 
west of Balphetrish, is a rocky space called 
Kilfinnian, having faint vestiges of a small 
building lying east and west. See the paper 
on the Island of Tiree in the Ulster Journal of 
Archseology, vol. ii. p. 241, and map. T. Innes, 
who erroneously supposed the Terra Ethica to 
be Shetland (Civ. Eccl. Hist. pp. 204, 205), 
seems to have been satisfied of his correct- 
ness, for he four times makes mention of "Art- 
chain in Shetland." (Ibid. pp. 179-181.) 

b Supra memoratus This refers to the titu- 
lus, which the Bollandists omit, and thereby 
mutilate the text. Instances of this kind are 
frequent in the course of the Life. 

c Findchanus Colgan assigns his festival to 
March n, choosing that one from the five se- 
veral days at which the name occurs in the 



Irish calendar, because on it Marian Gor- 
man commemorates pmbchcm gel oc sp ato- 
ned), Findchanus virgo, purus et amarosus ; 
and the Martyrology of Tamhlacht, "pimichcm 
ClTpC 1 pljiemh, Finnchanus quifuit in angustiis 
(sive cruciatibus') diuturnis : the expressions 
of suffering having reference, as he supposes, 
to the visitation recorded at the close of this 
chapter. (Act. SS. p. 584 J, n. 2.) Tiree was, 
in early times, greatly resorted to by Irish ec- 
clesiastics. Besides the immediate followers 
of St. Columba, it was visited by St. Brendan, 
St. Cainnech, St. Comgall, St. Colmanela; 
and on the present occasion St. Findchan 
" brought Aidus Niger with him from Scotia 
to Britain," to his monastery on the island. 
Among the lowland Scotch this saint is com- 
monly called St. Fink, and his name is pre- 
served in Kilfinichen, a parish in the island of 
Mull, situate between Lochs Na Keal and Scri- 
dan ; which is noticed in records under the 
forms Eeilfeinchen, Killinachan, and Killinchen. 
The Sancta Fincana, proposed in the Origines 
Parochiales as the patron of this parish, seems 
scarcely possessed of equal claims with St. 
Findchan. (Vol. ii. pt. i. p. 314.) 

d Aidum Nigrum.Qie'Dh tnibh of the Irish. 
He was son of Suibhne, and was chief of the 
Dal Araidhe in 565. In 581 he became king of 



CAP. 36.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



Scotia ad Britanniam f sub clericatus habitue secum adduxit, ut in suo apud se 
monasterio per aliquot peregrinaretur annos. Qui scilicet Aidus Niger valde 
sanguinarius homo et multorum fuerat trucidator 11 ; qui et Diormitium filium 



Uladh, and in 588 he lost, his life. (Tigk, So 
Annal. Ult. 564, 587 ; Four Mast. 558, 592. See 
O'Donovan's note on last reference j and Reeves' 
Eccles. Antiqq. pp. 340, 353.) 

e Cruthinicum yente. The Dal Araidhe, in- 
habiting the southern half of the county of 
Antrim, and the greater part of the county of 
Down, were known among the Irish by the 
name of Cruithne, or Picts, also ; and their 
territory by that of Cpic no Cpuicne, ' region 
of the Picts.' See i. 7 (p. 33) supra, and the 
note on the name at i. 49 infra. 

1 Britanniam. See the note on the word at 
Prsef. 2, p. 9, supra. 

e Habitu The Irish annals abound with ex- 
amples of the exchange of the regal for the 
monastic condition. Niall Freasach, King of 
Ireland, after a reign of seven years, retired 
to Hy, and, having taken the religious habit, 
died in 778. So Selbach of the Dalriada, and 
Echtan of the Picts. (Tigh. 723, 724.) See 
Four Mast. 703. " Contemporaneus fuit Sancto 
Columbse sanctus Constantinus rex Cornubise, 
qui, relicto regno terreno, regi coelesti militari 
coepit, et cum Sancto Columba ad Scotiam per- 
venit, et fidem Scotis prsedicavit et Pictis." 
Fordun. (Scotichr. iii. 26.) 

h Trucidator. His name first appears in the 
Annals as the murderer of King Dermot. In 
an ancient Life of this sovereign, preserved in 
the MS. H. 2. 1 6, Trinity College, Dublin, his 
future assassin is introduced at an early stage 
of his history, and a reason assigned for the 
vindictive feelings which he entertained. If 
h-e bno [.i. bee mac De] po paib ppi t)iap- 
muib mac Ceppbaill ipin Gempaig, tna m- 
bacap in c-oep aomolca ac molao an pig, 
acap a piba acap a pobep. TCo bai Qeo bub 
mac Suibni pig t)ail n-Qpaibe pop a belaib 
bic, ap ipeo t)iapmaib po mapb in Suibni 
Pin. CXcap po gab thapmaib a mac pop al- 



cpom .1. Qe& bub mac Suibni. Co n-ebaipc 
bee: 

Gc ciupa in com conamail 
l/oicpep in pic pomeamail. 

a bic cia cu, ap deo. Cu pecaipe, bep ip 
cu, ap bee. Caibe amae ol Oiapmaib. mn. 
in lampa amne ap bee, Qeba buib ipi bo 
bepa bis connaig ic beolu i cis banban 
bpiugab, acap lem oen poipm umac, acap 
bpac oen 6aepa6 umac, acap cuipm oen 
gpambi ac chupn, acap paill muici na po 
genaip pop bo meip; acap ipi ochcach .1. 
Peigi, in CIST acai cuicpeap ic cenb lap na 
c-aipleach bo naimbib. Qeo bub bo map- 
bai6 ol cac. Naco ol t)iapmaib, a6c blom- 
paicep b6 ap inb n-6pmb cheana acap m 
caiseolla cen bam beopa h-i. Cuipceap 
lappin Qeb bub i cpich n-Qllban pop m- 
bapba la t)iapmaib, acap nip leiceab i n- 
Gpinn lappin cein bai t)iapmaib a pi 51. 'It 
was he, now, [Bee mac De] that said to 
Dermaid mac Cerbhaill at Temar, at a time 
that the panegyrists "were praising the king, 
and his peaceful reign, and his accomplish- 
ments. Aedh Dubh, son of Suibhne, king of 
Dalaraidhe, was before Bee, and it was Der- 
maid who killed that Suibhne. And Dermaid 
then took his son in fosterage, namely, Aedh 
Dubh son of Suibhne. And Bee said : 

I see the snarling hound 
That will destroy the happy peace. 

O Bee, what hound ? said Aedh. A dog that 
desires ; and it is thou, said Bee. What is it, 
pray, said Dermaid. It is, this hand alone of 
Aedh Dubh, said Bee, shall convey the draught 
of death to your lips in the house of Banban the 
knight ; and a shirt of one pod upon you, and 
a cloak of one sheep on you, and the ale of one 
grain in your cup, and the i'at of a pig that 

2 



68 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



Cerbulis 1 , totius Scotiae regnatorem k , Deo auctore ordinatum 1 , interfecerat. Hie 
itaque idem Aidus, post aliquantum in peregrinatione transactum tempns m , 
accito episcopo", quamvis non recte, apud supradictum Findchanum presbyter 



was never born, on your table. And it is the 
ochtach (i. e. ridge-tree) of the house in which 
you are that shall fall upon your head, after 
that you have been transfixed by your enemies. 
Let Aedh Dubh be killed, said all. Not so, 
said Dermaid, but he shall be sent out of Erin, 
however; and he shall not return to it while I 
am alive. Aedh Dubh, then, was sent into the 
country of Alba in banishment by Diarmait, 
and he was not allowed into Erin after that 
during Diarmait's reign.' (fol. 809.) 

1 Diormitiumfilium Cerbulis. t)iapmaic mac 
Cepbaill. His father was Fergus Cerbhall, 
son of Conall Crimthann, and grandson of Niall 
of the Nine Hostages. This Diarmait (who is 
to be distinguished from Diarmait son of Cerb- 
hall, lord of Ossory in 900) succeeded his kins- 
man Tuathal Maelgarbh as sovereign of Ireland 
in 544, and reigned 21 years. He was head of 
the Southern Hy Neill, and his descendants 
were represented in after ages by the O'Me- 
laghlins of Meath. His reign is remarkable in 
the civil history of the country as the one in 
which Tara ceased to be a regal abode ; and, 
in the ecclesiastical, for his patronage of St. 
Ciaran, and his alleged disputes with St. Co- 
lumba and St. Ruadhan. His death is thus re- . 
corded by Tighernach : A. C. 565, Diapmaic 
mac Cepbaill occisus est i 'Raich bich a TYltns 
Line la hQeb nt)ub mac Suibne Qpaibhe pi 
Ulabh : ocup a cent) co Cluain, ocnp po ab- 
nachc a colainb a Conepe: cui successerunt 
duofilii mic 6apca .1. Pepgup coup t)omh- 
nall. 'Diarmait, son of Cerbhall, was slain at 
Rath-beg in Magh-Line by Aedh Dubh, son of 
Suibhne Araidhe, King of Uladh : and his head 
was conveyed to Cluain [mac nois], and his 
body was buried at Connor. To whom suc- 
ceeded the two sons of Mac Erca, namely Fer- 
gus and Domhnall.' Ratbbeg is situate beside 
Rathmor, the seat of the Dalaradian lords, 



about two miles east of Antrim, and seven 
south of Connor. The distance of Clonmac- 
nois prevented the removal of his body thither, 
. which was interred in St. Macnissi's church of 
Connor, the oldest and most important founda- 
tion in the neighbourhood ; but his head, being 
more portable, was carried to St. Ciaran's 
church of Clonmacnois, which lay in his patri- 
mony, and had been the special object of his 
bounty. There is a detailed account of the 
manner of Diarmait's death in the ancient Irish 
memoir already cited (MS. Trin. Coll. Dub. 
H. 2. 16, p. 809), from which it appears that 
he was pop cuaipc pisi beipill h-Cpenb, 
' upon a royal visitation, right-hand-wise, of 
Erin' at the time, and that his assassination 
occurred in Rathbeg, at the house of a chief 
called Banban. An extract from the story is 
given by Lynch in Cambrensis Eversus (p. 75, 
or vol. ii. p. 12 reprint.) See Eccles. Antiqq. 
Down and Connor, p. 279. 

k Regnatorem. Every province had a regular 
succession of kings, and under them were va- 
rious degrees of subordinate chiefs, also styled 
kings. But superior to all was the King of all 
Ireland, who took his title from the regal seat 
of Tara, and held about the same relation to 
his inferiors that the Primate of all Ireland at 
present does to the various orders of the 
Church. In most respects the supremacy was 
more titular than real, and, unless accompa- 
nied by personal enterprise, was rather a mark 
for treason than an engine of government. 
Owing to some extraordinary influence the mo- 
narchy of Ireland was limited to the race of 
Niall, until the eleventh century, during all 
which period the dignity was ambulatory, with 
three or four exceptions, in the families of Co- 
nail Crimthann, head of the Southern Hy Neill, 
of Eoghan, head of the Cinel Eoghain, and of 
Conall Gulban, head of the Cinel Conaill, the 



CAP. 36.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



6 9 



ordinatus est. Episcopus tamen non est ausus super caput ejus manum impo- 
nere, nisi prius idem Findchanus, Aidum carnaliter amans, suam capiti ejus 
pro confirmatione imponeret dexteram . Quae talis ordinatio cum postea sancto 



founders respectively of the kingdoms of 
Meath, Tyrone, and Tirconnell. Diarmait be- 
longed to the first family, and was ithe eighth 
monarch of the race. 

1 Ordinatum. Dr. Lanigan observes : " What 
will those who abet the fable of Columba's ex- 
citing a war against Diermit say of this trans- 
action ? Will they venture to assert, that he 
would not have scrupled to contribute to the 
death of that monarch, while he was fired with 
such indignation against the man who actually 
killed him?" (Eccl. Hist. ii. p. 169.) The prin- 
ciple of war, however, is different from that of 
assassination, and the evidence in favour of St. 
Columba's exertions against Diarmait is too 
strong to be so easily set aside. The will of 
Providence in ecclesiastical appointment is re- 
cognised by our author in iii. 8, 19; and in 
secular in i. i, 14, and the present case ; which 
is the more remarkable, as at this period a 
vacancy was seldom created in royalty by na- 
tural causes, war and assassination being the 
usual avenues to the throne. 

m Transactum tempus. An early canon of the 
Irish Church ordained: " Omnes homicidse, si 
toto corde conversi fuerint, septem annorum 
penitentiam districte sub regula Monasterii 
poeniteant." (D'Achery, Spicileg. torn. ix. 
p. 16. par. 1669.) See ii. 39 infra. 

" Accito episcopo. This monastery was re- 
gulated by the discipline of the parent institu- 
tion, in which a presbyter was Superior, and, 
in virtue of his conventual rank, exercised ju- 
risdiction over the associate bishops, without, 
however, the slightest attempt to usurp the 
functions of their order. The present narra- 
tive is a very valuable illustration of Bede's 
statement concerning the administrative eco- 
nomy of Hy (H. E. iii. 4), and the sagacious 
T. Innes fails not to turn to good account the 
evidence which it so decisively affords. He 



observes: "Since Findchan was resolved to 
have Aidus made priest at any rate, the or- 
daining him by Findchan himself, and the other 
presbyters and seniors of a monastery, in so re- 
mote a corner, might have made no noise any- 
where else. Now when we see that Findchan, 
notwithstanding his earnestness to get Aidus 
ordained priest, and the importance of not di- 
vulging the ordination of a man so infamous for 
his crimes, could find no other means of having 
his ordination performed than by sending, and 
perhaps far enough, through the Picts and 
Scots, for a bishop, which could not fail to 
make a noise ; and in the next place, that he 
engaged the bishop to perform the function, 
notwithstanding his reluctancy to take upon 
himself alone the guilt of an ordination (which 
it appears he doubted, at least, was criminal 
and sacrilegious) unless Findchan would at 
same time lay his right hand upon Aidus to bear 
a part, as it were, of the guilt and of the re- 
proach. When we consider, I say, and ponder 
all the circumstances of this ordination, it seems 
not possible to conceive that Findchan, with all 
his qualities of priest, of founder, and of Supe- 
rior of a Columbite monastery, and, by conse- 
quence, that any other Abbot, Superior, or 
Priest of Ycolmkill, or all of them together, 
destituted of the episcopal Character, ever so 
much as claimed, or pretended any right or 
power to ordain a priest, much less to ordain 
or consecrate a bishop." (Civil and Eccles. 
Hist, p. 1 8 1.) 

Imponeret dexteram. Though there was an 
apparent compliance with the canon of the 
fourth Council of Carthage, which enacted 
that the presbyters present at the ordination 
of a priest "manus suas juxta manum Epis- 
copi super caput illius teneant," yet it would 
seem that regard was not had to it on the pre- 
sent occasion, because Findchan was required 



Vita Sancti Colunibce 



[LIB. i. 



intimaretur viro, aegre tulit : turn proinde hanc de illo Findchano et de Aido 
ordinato formidabilem profatur sententiam, inquiens, Ilia manua dextra quam 
Findchanus, contra fas, et jus ecclesiasticum, super caput filii perditionis impo- 
suit, mox computrescet p , et post magnos doloruni cruciatus ipsum in 6 terrain 
6 sepelienda prsecedet ; et ipse post suam humatam manum per multos superstes 
victurus est annos. Ordinatus vero indebite Aldus, sicuti canis, ad vomitum 
revertetur suum, et ipse rursum sanguilentus trucidator existet* 1 , et ad ultimum 
lancea 'jugulatus, de ligno in aquani cadens, submersus morietur. Talem 
multo prius terminum promeruit vitae, qui totius regem trucidavit Scotiae. 
Quae beati viri proplietia de utroque adimpleta est ; nam presbyteri Findchani 
8 dexter 9 per "pugnum 10 putrefactus in terrain eum praecessit, in ilia n sepultus 
insula quae 12 Ommon r nuncupatur : ipse vero, juxta verbum Sancti Columbfe 



5 A. terra B. 6 sepeliendam A. 7 B. jugulentus A. jugulandus Colg. Boll. 8 A.B. 
pugnus A. prepugnus B. per pugnum Colg. Boll. 10 A. B. J1 A. B. 12 omon B. 



'per 



to do so prius and pro confirmatione, for the 
reason assigned in the preceding note. That 
the decree of the Council of Carthage, which 
was generally adopted in the Western Church, 
was intended to be recognised in Ireland may 
be inferred from the Irish Canon, printed by 
D'Achery, De Ordinatione Diaconi : " Cum 
Diaconus ordinatur solus Episcopus qui eum 
benedicit manum super caput ejus ponat, quia 
non ad Sacerdotium sed ad ministerium conse- 
cratur." Spicileg. torn. ix. p. 7. (Par. 1669.) 
P Computrescet. The notion was probably 
borrowed from Job, xxxi. 22, and was very ge- 
neral among the Irish. For instance : S. Mac 
Nissi committed a grievous offence, and "Ecce 
res mira 1 manus Mac Nessii extemplo abscissa 
in terrain cadit." (Vit. Trip. S. Pat. ii. 129, 
Tr. Th. p. 146 6.) When Saranus slew Bran- 
dubh, King of Leinster, S. Moedoc prayed "Uti- 
nam ilia manus, quae defensorem ecclesiarum 
etc. jugulavit, ex latere suo caderet . . . . Et 
cum dixisset, manus Sarani cecidit de latere 
ejus, sicut prius optavit S. Moedoc." Vit. S. 
Maidoci, 0.47,48 (Colg. A. SS. p. 213 6). " Cru- 
delis homo et infselix aliquando jugulavit aliun* 
juxta S. Aedum : cui auriga S. Episcopi dixit ; 
pereat manus tua, et cadat a te, quia non dedisti 



honorem sancto Dei." Vit. S. Aidi, c. 28. 
(Colg. A. SS. p. 421 c.) S. Pulcherius pro- 
nounced against the slayer of his ward : " Ma- 
nus ejus jam citius vindicta Dei a latere suo 
cadet, de qua istum occidit, et inde statim 
morietur. Et sic omnia facta. Slebinus au- 
tem, cadente dextera manu ejus a latere suo 
mortuus est Vit. S. Mochoemoci, c. 19 (Colg. 
A. SS. 592 6 ; Fleming, Coll. p. 385 6.) When 
St. Colman-Ela was a boy, a woman struck him 
as he came out of church, whereupon his master 
said : " Sinistra manus tua qua percussisti in- 
juste Christ! famulum cadet crastina die a la- 
tere tuo, et sic factum est. Acervus jam lapi- 
dum positus est super ill am manum in signum 
virtutis." MS. E. 3. 1 1, T. C. D. fol. 106 a b. 

i Trucidator existet. He returned to Ireland 
before 575, for he is represented in the Preface 
to the Amhra Choluimcille as one of the Aedhs 
who were reigning when the convention of 
Druimceatt took place. (H. 2, 16, Trin. Coll. 
Dubl. p. 680.) On the death of Baedan son of 
Cairill, in 581, he usurped the sovereignty of 
Uladh, but eventually perished by the hand of 
Fiachna son of that Baedan. 

r Ommon. Not identified. JEmonia, the old 
name of Inchcolm, will not answer, for that 



CAP. 37.] Auctore Adamnano. 71 

per multos post vixit annos. Aldus vero Niger, solummodo nomine presby- 
ter, ad sua priora reversus scelera, dolo lancea transfixus, de prora ratis in aquam 
lapsus stagneam, disperiit 8 . 



QUODAM SANCTI SOLAMINE SPIRITUS MONACHIS IN VIA LABORIOSIS 

MISSO. 

INTER has prsedicabiles prophetici spiritus prophetationes non ab re videtur 
etiam de quadam spiritali consolatione nostris commemorare literulis, quam 
aliquando sancti Columbse monachi, spiritu ejus ipsis in via obviante, sentie- 
bant. Alio namque in tempore, fratres, post messionis opera, vespere ad mo- 
nasterium redeuntes, et ad ilium pervenientes locum qui Scotice nuncupatur 
2 Cuuleilne a , qui utique locus inter occidentalem 3 Iouae insulse campulum b et 

i capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 jj. cuul eilne A. 3 A. ione B. 

island is at the east side of Scotland. The place 'Aodh Dubh son of mild-judging Suibhne; 
where S. Mac Nissi's hand was buried was Seven years was his fame on tMs earth. 

, _ , , . , , ,m The marks of Cruithnean weapons in his wounds : 

called Carn-lamha, i. e. < tumulus manus. (Tr. Fierce and actiye in deedg was he , (/J p 590 } 

Th. p. 146 6.) 

* Disperiit.-^ C. 588, SUIT) debha t)uibh The " a 1 ua s t a S nea " which received him was- 

mic Smbhne Qpmbhe qui t>o mapbh Oiap- most P r <>bably Lough Neagh, within two miles 

maib mac Cepbuill. The mortal wound of of which was his re g al abode of ^thmore. 

Aedh Dubh son of Suibhne Araidhe, who slew ^stances of penal drowning among the Picts 

Diarmait son of Cerbhall.'-T^. A. C. 587, of Scotland occur in the Annals of Ulster at 

Jugulatio QebTia Nigri mic Suibne i LUITIS [in 733 73^, and Chalmers concludes that this 

navi]. An. UU. A. C. 592, "Aedh Dubh son of was a mod . e of Punishment common among the 

Suibhne, King of Uladh, was slain by Fiachna Picts - (Caledon. i. p. 21 r.) 

son of Baedan." Four Mast. Tighernach's a Cuuleilne.-The word cuil, which Colgan 

is the true date. In a catalogue of the Kings alwa ? s interprets secessus, signifies commonly 

of Uladh, copied by Mac Firbis from the Book ' a corner >' and there are three or four P laces in 

of Saul, we meet with Qobh Dubh mac Suibne Iona to which ' li is sti11 a PP lied > but nonein the 

uii. blia&na, a mapba& i luiTi 5 la Cptncne- position mentioned here. However, just half- 

cuib. 'Aodh Dubh son of Suibhne [reigned] wa y between the Machar and the Monastery, 

seven years. He was killed in a ship by the a little east of Cnoc-Orain, is a spot called 

Cruithneans.' (Geneal. MS. p. 595.) Again, Bol-leihne, which may be a corruption of the 

in a metrical series : original name. From the narrative it would 

seem that here the most laborious part of the 

Qobh t)ubh mac p aipbpefcach Suifrne; way commenced; and at Bol-leithne there is 

Seachc mblia&na abla& ap bic c6. a considerable ascent, and the path becomes 

Slio6c apm Cpincnea6 ma 6pe6coib: rugged. 

Iuicmea6 i n-eccaib 6. b Campulum. It is now called the Machar, 



72 Vita Sancti Colwribce [LIB. i. 

nostrum monasterium c medius esse dicitur, mirum quid et inconsuetum singuli 
sibi sen tire videbantur : quod tamen alius 4 alii intimare nullo modo audebat. 
Et sic per aliquot dies eodem in loco, eademque vespertina sentiebant hora. 
Fuit autem 6 iisdem G in diebus sanctus Baitheneus inter eos operum dispensa- 
tor d , qui sic ad ipsos alia die est prolocutus, inquiens, Nunc, fratres, confiteri 
debetis singuli si aliquod in hoc medio loco inter messem et monasterium in- 
consuetum et inopinatum sentitis miraculum. Unus turn ex eis senior, Juxta 
tuam, ait, 'jussionem, quod inihi hoc in loco ostensum est dicam ; nam et in his 
prsetereuntibus dieculis, et nunc etiam, quandam miri odoris 8 fragrantiam ac si 
universorum florum 6 in unum sentio collectorum ; quendam quoque quasi ignis 
ardorem, non poenalem, sed quodammodo suavem : sed et quandam in corde 
insuetam et incomparabilem infusam Isetificationem, quse me subito mirabiliter 
consolatur, et in tantuni leetificat ut nullius ma3roris, nullius laboris, meminisse 
possim. Sed et onus quod meo, quamvis grave, porto in dorso, ab hoc loco 
usque quo ad monasterium perveniatur, quomodo nescio, in tantum relevatur, 
ut me oneratum non sentiam. Quid plura ? Sic omnes illi messores operarii de 
se singillatim profitentur per omnia sensisse, sicuti unus ex eis coram 9 enarra- 
verat, singulique simul flexis genibus a sancto postularunt Baitheneo ut ejus- 
dem miri solaminis causam et originem, quod et ipse, sicut et ceteri 10 sentiebant, 
illis ignorantibus, intimare procuraret. Quibus consequenter hoc dedit respon- 
sum, Scitis, inquiens, quod noster senior Columba de nobis anxie cogitet, et 
nos ad se tardius pervenientes segre ferat nostri memor laboris, et idcirco quia 
corporaliter obviam nobis non venit, spiritus ejus nostris obviat gressibus, qui 
taliter nos consolans laetificat. Quibus auditis verbis, ingeniculantes, cum in- 
genti gratulatione, expansis ad coelum manibus, Christum in sancto venerantur 
et beato viro. 

11 Sed et hoc silere non debemus quod ab expertis quibusdam de voce beati 

4 alio A. s hisdem A. B. 6 om. B. 7 jusionem A, uisionem errore vocalium B. 8 flagran- 
tiam A. B. 9 A. enarravit B. 1( > sentiebat B. n litera S majuscula, minio scripta, paragraphtim 
novum designat in B. Piiikertonus capit. xxxviii. inchoat, et titulum proprio jure suppeditat, refragan- 
tibus codd. 

or Plain, and is the most level and productive d Dispensator Here we find him ceconomus, 

part of the island. Here is the Cnoc Aingel, steward, in other parts superior of a monas- 

mentioned at ii. 44, iii. 16. See also ii. 28. tery, illustrating the mixed nature of the mo- 

c Nostrum monasterium. Thus in i. r, "hac nastic system of the day. 

nostra deinsula;" in i. 30, " nostro huic monas- e Florum. See Vit. Tripart. S. Patricii, iii. 

terio;" indicating that these memoirs were writ- 104. (Tr. Th. p. 168 &); Vit. a Jocelino, 

ten in Hy, and by a member of its community. c. 192. (Ibid. p. 108 a.) 



CAP. 37.] Auctore Adamnano. 73 

psalmodies viri indubitanter traditum est. Quaa scilicet vox venerabilis viri in 
ecclesia cum fratribus decantantis, aliquando per quatuor stadia, hoc est, quin- 
gentos passus, aliquando vero per octo, hoc est, mille passus, incomparabili 
elevata modo audiebatur f . Mirum dictu ! Nee in auribus eorum qui secum 
in ecclesia stabant vox ejus modum humane vocis in clamoris granditate exce- 
debat. Sed tamen eadem hora qui ultra mille passuum longinquitatem stabant, 
sic clare eandem audiebant vocem, ut illos quos canebat versiculos etiam per 
singulas possent distinguere syllabas : similiter 12 enim ejus vox in auribus 
prope et longe audientium personabat. Sed hoc de voce miraculum beati viri 
non semper, sed raro, accidisse comprobatur ; quod tamen sine Divini Spiritus 
gratia nullo modo fieri potuisset. 

13 Sed et illud non est tacendum quod aliquando de tali et incomparabili 
vocis ejus sublevatione juxta Brudei regis munitionem g accidisse traditur. 
Nam ipse Sanctus cum paucis fratribus extra regis munitionem dum vesperti- 
nales Dei laudes ex more celebraret h , quidam Magi 1 , ad eos propius accedentes, 
in quantum poterant, prohibere conabantur, ne de ore ipsorum clivinse laudis 
sonus inter Gentiles audiretur populos. Quo comperto Sanctus quadragesi- 

13 B. ft A., ut passim pro voce enim in Libra Armacano. I3 litera S. majuscula, ccurulea, B. 

f Audiebatur. The following anecdote illus- '.The sound of the voice of Colum-cille, 

trative of the power of S. Columba's voice, even Great its "weetaess above aU clerics : 

. ,., , ,. ,,. , . T . , T . To the end of fifteen-hundred paces. 

m his boyhood, is told m the ancient Irish Life Though great the ^^ ft was ^^ heard , 

preserved in the Book of Lismore, Leabhar 

Breac, and Highland Society MS. : "At another g Brudei regis munitionem. From ii. 33 we 

time he went to watch by a sick person. As learn that this was s i tu ate near the north-east 

they were passing through a thicket, the foot end of Loch Ness . In iit 35 an account i s given 

of the cleric [who attended him] slipped on the o f tne Saint's first journey to Brudeus, to which 

path ; upon which he suddenly died. Columcille it is pro b a ble that the present anecdote is to be 

put his hood under the cleric's head, thinking referre d. See the notes there. 

that he was asleep. And he began to rehearse h Celebraret.So, at the close of his life, 

his lesson, so that he was he heard by certain Sanctus ad vespertinalem Dominicse nootis 

nuns in their convent. The learned estimate missam ingreditur ecclesiam." iii. 23, infra. 

that there was a mile and a half between them ; , MagL _ This is the Latin word al way s used 

and the sound of his voice was often heard at .^ the actg of fhe Irigh gaints ag equivalent 

that distance, ut dixit : to the vernacu i ar term Dpaoine, Druids, or 

Son a goca Coknm cille t)pm&, as in earlier compositions. Thus, in the 

mop a binbe nap ce6 cleip : I rish MS - of st - Paul's Epistles, at Wurtzburg, 

Co cent) cuic cet> bee cemenb th e gloss on Jannes and Jambres (2 Tim. iii. 8) 

dibble peimenb ea$ ba peill, is ba bnuich aesepcacbi, ' duo druidse ^Egyp- 

L 



74 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



mum et quartum psalmum k dccantare crepit, mirumque in modum ita vox 
ejus in acre eodem momento instar alicujus formidabilis tonitrui elevata est, 
ut et rex et populus intolerabili essent pavore perterriti. 



*DE QUODAM DIVITE QUI LUGUDIUS CLODUS VOCITABATUR. 

ALIO in tempore, cum in Scotia per aliquot Sanctua demoraretur dies, 
alium cuiTui insidentem a videns clericum, qui gaudenter peragrabat Campum 
Breg b ; primo interrogans de eo quis esset, hoc ab amicis ejusdem viri de eo 
accipit responsum, Hie est Lugudius Clodus, homo dives et honoratus in 
plebe. Sanctus consequenter respondens inquit, Non ita 2 video ; sed homuncio 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. tituL om. Boll. 2 A. vides B. 



tiaci.' (Zeuss, Gram. Celt. i. p. 278.) See 
Fiech's Hymn, vs. n ; Petrie's Tara, p. 40. In 
Mat. ii. i, we have Opaoice for { Wise men.' 
The memoirs of St. Patrick in the Book of Ar- 
magh state that, at the time of his arrival, 
the monarch of Ireland had scivos, et magos, et 
aurispices, et incantatores, et omnis malte artis in- 
ventores, in his service (fol. 2 b a). The contests 
between St. Patrick and the Magi are related 
at fol. 4 a a, &c. In an ancient hymn ascribed to 
St. Columba we find the following sentiment : 

lp e mo bpcn Cpipc mac Oe. 

1 Christ the Son of God is my druids 

(MiscelL Irish ArchseoL Soc. vol. i. p. 6.) 

This word t>pai is the origin of the term 
Druides, and not Spvg, as Pliny suggests (N.H. 
xvi. 44), or tni> as Vossius. Concerning the 
Magi and their vestiges among the Irish after 
the establishment of Christianity, see Colgan, 
Acta SS. p. 149 6, n. 15. On the word Druid see 
the Irish Dictionaries, voce Opaoi ; Zeuss, 
Gramm. Celt. i. pp. 8, 17, 265, 271, 273, 274, 
276 ; Caesar, Bell. Gall. vi. 13. 

k Psalmum. That is, according to the order 
in the Septuagint and Latin Versions ; but which 
is the 45th according to the Hebrew, and the 
Authorized English Version. This is proved 



by the quotation from the Psalms in iii. 23, infra t 
which is stated to be from the 33rd, and which 
is so in the Septuagint ; but is the 34th in the 
Hebrew. 

a Currui insidentem. The memoirs of St. Pa- 
trick in the Book of Armagh make frequent 
mention of his chariot (fol. 7 b a, 9 b a, 14 a 6), 
and even name his driver (fol. n a 6, 13 b 6). 
St. Columba himself used such a conveyance in 
Ireland (ii. 43, infra). On the ancient currus 
of the Irish, see O'Conor, Rer. Hib, Scriptor. 
iv. p. 148. A spirited drawing of an ancient 
car is given from a monument at Meigle in the 
late lamented Patrick Chalmers' Sculptured 
Monuments of Angus. (Plate 18. Edinb. 1848.) 

b Campum Breg. See ii. 39, infra. TTlag 
bfies, sometimes latinized Bregia, is reputed 
to have received its name from Bregha son of 
Breogan, a Milesian chief. (Keating, Hist. i. 
p. 286, Ed. Haliday.) The territory originally 
comprised five triocha-cheds, or cantreds, in the 
east portion of ancient Meath. In after times 
the name was applied to the extensive tract of 
country reaching from Dublin northwards to 
near Dundalk, and north-westwards to the 
Fews Mountains. It is still preserved in the 
territory, in the form Slieve Bregh, which be- 
longs to a hill on the north-east of the county 
of Meath. (Ord. Surv. s. 13.) 



CAP. 38,39.] Auctore A damnano. 75 

miser et pauper, in die qua morietur, tria apud se vicinorum prsetersoria in 
una retentabit 3 maceria d , unamque electam de vaccis 4 pr3etersoriorum occidi 
jubebit 6 sibi, de cujus cocta carne postulabit aliquam sibi partem dari, cum 
meretrice in eodem lectulo cubanti 6 . De qua utique parti cula morsum acci- 
piens, statim ibidem strangulabitur et morietur. Quse omnia, sicuti ab ex- 
pertis traditur, juxta Sancti 7 propheticum adimpleta sunt 8 verbum. 



NEMANO a FILIO 2 GRUTHRICHE SANCTI 3 PROPHETIA. 

4 HuNC 5 enim cum Sanctus de malis suis corriperet, parvipendens Sanctum 
subsannabat. Cui respondens vir beatus ait, In nomine Domini, Nemane, 
aliqua de te veridica loquar verba. Inimici tui 6 reperient te in eodem cum 
meretrice cubantem cubiculo, ibidemque trucidaberis. Dasmones quoque ad 
loca pomarum tuam rapient animam. Hie idem Nemanus, post aliquot annos, 
in uno cum meretrice lectulo repertus in regione Cainle b , juxta 7 verbum 
Sancti, 8 ab inimicis decapitatus, disperiit. 

3 A. B. maneria suo jure BolL 4 praetersorium B. 5 om. B. 6 unius B. 7 prophetiam B. 
8 om. B. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 gluteriche B. 3 prophetise verbum B. 
4 " s nemanum filium grutricse Boll. 6 periment B. 7 om. B. 8 vaticinium add. B. 

c Prcetersoria. The present is the only ex- which are scattered over the Campagna are 

ample of the word in Du Cange, which he still known by the name Maseria. 

explains " Grex alienam segetem depascens." e Cubanti. As this individual was a " cleri- 

The Bollandists interpret it, " Grex aliena de- cus, dives, et honoratus in plebe," it would seem 

pascens." (In loco, and Index Onomast. Junii that self-denial was not an invariable ingre- 

tom. ii.) All seem to borrow from Colgan, dient, even at this early period, in the clerical 

whose note on the present passage is: "Per character. 

prsetersorium videtur intelligere par bourn, vel a Nemano. Hib. Neman. Other individuals 

gregem, depascentem segetem alienam." (Tr. of the same name are mentioned at i. 21, ii. 4. 

Th. p. 379 b, n. 83.) ' Stray cattle,' or ' tres- A Neman was abbot of Lismore in Scotland in 

passing cattle.' " Electum autem de vaccis 610. (Four Mast.) 

praetersoriorum, vitulum intelligo ex tali ar- b Regione Cainle. Called Mons Cainle at 

mento." -Baertius. ii. 17, but without any clue to the identifica- 

d Maceria. Hib. caipiol, cashel, ' a walled tion. If the words at the commencement of 

enclosure.' The remarkable charter (A. D. next chapter refer to the mention of this dis- 

1004) which is entered in the Book of Armagh, trict, it must be fixed in Ireland, and in the 

styles the southern kings lieges Macerice, that neighbourhood of Trevet. But they rather 

is, ' Kings of Cashel.' (fol. 16 b 6.) It is a cu- seem to point to Campus Breg of chap. 38, in 

rious fact that in Italy the fortified farm-houses which Trevet is .situate, leaving the Eegio 

L2 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



*DE QUODAM PRESBYTERO 2 SANCTI VIRI 3 PROPHETATIO. 

ALIO 4 in tempore Sanctus, cum in 5 Scotiensium paulo superius moraretur 
memorata region e a , casu Dominica die ad quoddam devenit vicinum monaste- 
riolum b quod Scotice G Trioit vocitatur. Eadem 7 proinde die quendam audiens 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 qui erat in triota add. B. 3 prophetia B. 4 om. D. * hy- 
berniencimn D. 6 A. F. triota B. trioint C. treoit D. 7 om. D. 



Cainle unappropriated. Mons Cainle certainly 
would not suit the plain of Bregia, or the vici- 
nity of Trevet. It was more probably in Scot- 
land. In this view the word vicinus in next 
chapter will have reference to the Saint's pre- 
vious place of sojourn, and not to the relation 
of the monastery and region, for Trevet was 
in Bregia. 

a Memorata regions. Probably, not the regio 
Cainle of last chapter, but the Campus Breg of 
chap. 38. It is worthy of observation that the 
shorter recension of Adamnan's text, repre- 
sented by Canisius and Messingham, contains 
the present chapter, but omits all that have in- 
tervened between chap. 33 and it. Therefore 
we must in that text look to chap. 33, or one 
immediately preceding, for the correlative to 
the present words : but the island of Skye is 
the subject of chap. 33, and Hy of the preced- 
ing ones. It follows, then, that as the foremen- 
tioned region is in this chapter identified with 
that in which Trevet is situate, neither Skye 
nor Hy can be the place referred to ; and that 
there must be a chasm in the shorter text ; in 
other words, that the shorter is an abbrevia- 
tion of Adamnan's original, and not, as Dr. La- 
nigan would have it, that the present text is 
interpolated. (Eccl. Hist. ii. pp. 109, 246.) 

b Monasteriolum Prsef. 2, ii. 7. This diminu- 
tive is also found in Bede, where he describes 
Dicul the Scot as " habens monasteriolum per- 
modicum in loco qui vocatur Bosanhamm, silvis 
et mari circumdatum, et in eo fratres quinque 
sive sex, ia humili et paupere vita Domino fa- 



mulantes." (H. E. iv. 13). So in the Life of St. 
Dega : " Huic autem monasterio [Daiminensi] 
aliquod secretum adjacet monasteriolum, quod 
schola dicitur." (Act. SS, Aug. torn. iii. p. 
659 a.) The term was an appropriate one in 
the case of Trevet. See next note. 

c Trioit. Cpeoic in Tighernach and Ann. 
Ult. ; sometimes with the epithet mop 'great.' 
In the Four Masters the form Gfiepoic is occa- 
sionally found, which is agreeable to the etymon 
cpi poic 'three sods' given in some ancient au- 
thorities cited by O'Donovan (Four Mast. 734), 
and Petrie (Round Towers, pp. 97, 99). St. 
Lonan, who is commemorated at Nov. i, was 
probably the founder: toncm o Cpepoic i 
mbpegaib 05 boinn, ' Lonan of Trefoit in 
Bregia, on the Boyne.' Cal. Dungall. It is 
styled monasteriolum in the text, and appears 
to have been, though an ancient, for some time 
an inconsiderable, establishment, as neither the 
name nor date of its founder occurs in the Annals, 
and the first time it is noticed is 739. However 
it subsequently rose to importance, and was ad- 
ministered by episcopal abbots in 769, 898, and 
1004. From the supposed similarity of the 
name to Tredagh, the English form ofDrogh- 
eda, O'Conor and others have been led to 
identify it with that town; but erroneously, 
for its true representative in modern topogra- 
phy is Trevet, a parish in the barony of Skreen, 
and county of Meath, a little south-east of the 
conspicuous church of Skreen. (Ord. Surv. 
s. 38.) This church of Skreen was formerly 
called Serin Coluim-cille, and is mentioned by 



CAP. 40, 41.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



77 



presbyterum sacra eucharistia3 mysteria conficientem d , quern ideo fratres, qui 
ibidem comraanebant, ad missarum elegerant peragenda sollemnia, quia valde 
religiosum 8 aestimabant, repente hanc formidabilem de ore profert vocem, 
Munda et immunda pariter nunc "permisceri cernuntur, hoc est, munda sacrse 
oblationis 10 mysteria per iminundum hominem ministrata, qui in sua "interim 
conscientia 12 aliquod grande occultat facinus. Haec qui 13 inerant audientes 
tremefacti nimis obstupuere. Ille vero de quo hsec dicebantur verba coram 
omnibus u peccantiam compulsus est 15 suam confiteri. Christique commili- 
tones, qui in ecclesia Sanctum circumstantes occulta cordis audierant inanifes- 
tantem, divinam in eo scientiam cum magna admiratione glorificarunt, 



*DE ERCO FURE 2 MOCUDRUIDI a QUI IN COLOSO INSULA COMMANEBAT SANCTI 

PROPHETIZATIO VIRI. 

ALIO 3 in tempore Sanctus 4 in 5 Ioua commanens insula, 6 accitis ad se 
binis 7 de fratribus 7 viris, quorum vocabula 8 Lugbeus b et 9 Silnanus c , eisdem 
prascipiens dixit, Nunc ad Maleam d transfretate insulam, et in campulis mari 
vicinis 10 Ercum quaerite furacem ; qui nocte prasterita solus occulte de insula 
H Coloso e perveniens, sub 12 sua feno tecta navicula inter arenarum cumulos 

8 existimabant D. 9 misceri B. 10 B. C. D. F. S. ministeria A. J1 om. D. 12 adhuc add. D. 
33 erant D. 14 peccatum suum B. 15 om. B. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 A. mocudriudi B. 3 om. B. D. * columba add. D. b A. 

iona B. D. 6 accersitis D. 7 om. D. 8 A. C. lubbeus B. lugidus D. 9 A. C. F. S. selnanus B. 
sillanus D. w ertum B. ll colosa D. 12 suo B. C. 



the Four Mast, at 875, 1027, 1037, 1058, 1127, 
1152. On the N. W. is "St. Columbkille's 
Well." (Ord. Surv. s. 32.) 

d Conficientem. See the expression at cap. 44, 
infra, and the note. 

a Mocudruidi. 171ac-Ua-D]iuibi, the tribe- 
name of an obscure family. 

b Lugbeus. There were two brethren of this 
name, one styled Mocumin (i. 15, 24, 28), and 
the other Mocublai (i. 43). 

c Silnanus. His parentage is given at ii. 4, 
where he is described as sent on a longer er- 
rand. Sillan was the Irish form of the name, 
and was borne by three famous abbots of Ulster 
in the seventh century. Sillan, abbot of Ban- 



gor, who died in 6io(Tigh.),is called Sinlanus 
in the Antiphonary of Bangor. (Muratori, Opere, 
torn. xi. pt. iii. p. 251 ; Peyron, Ciceron. Orat. 
Fragm. ined. p. 225.) 

d Maleam. Agreeing with insulam. See note 
on the name i. 22 supra (p. 51). The district 
called the Ross, formed by the deep indenta- 
tion of Loch Scridan, is a long narrow tract, 
running in a south-westerly direction, and ter- 
minating opposite the island of Iona. 

e Coloso. There are two islands called Co- 
lonsay within a moderate distance of Hy, 
namely, the large island lying south-east, be- 
tween it and Islay, and another, called for dis- 
tinction Little Colonsay, south of Ulva, opposite 



Vita Sancti Colurnbce 



[LIB. i. 



per diein se occultare conatur, ut noctu ad parvam transnaviget insulam f ubi 
marini nostri juris vituli g generantur et generant; ut de illis 13 furenter occisis 
edax valde furax suam replens naviculam, ad suum repedet habitaculum. Qui 
haac audientes, obsecuti, emigrant, furemque in locis a Sancto prsesignatis 
absconsum reperiunt, et ad Sanctum, sicut illis praeceperat, perduxerunt. 
Quo viso Sanctus ad cum u dicit, Quare tu res alienas, divinum transgressus 
mandatum, sarpe furaris ? Quando necesse habueris, ad nos veniens necessaria 
accipies postulata. Et hsec dicens praecipit 16 verveces h occidi, et pro 10 phocis 
dari misero furaci, ne vacuus ad sua remearet. Et post aliquantum tempus 
Sanctus, in spiritu vicinam furis prasvidens mortem, ad "Baitheneum 1 eo 18 in 
tempore pra3positum commorantem in Campo 19 Lunge k mittit, ut eidem furi 



is'furanter A. furantur F. furtim C. l4 ait D. 
A. F. S. furtis C. 17 baltenum C. baitenura D. 



16 berbices A. F. S. vervecem Boll. 
is om. B. C. D. S. longe D. 



16 focis 



the entrance of Loch na Keal, on the west side 
of Mull. Of these the latter lies nearer to Hy, 
but does not answer the description here as well, 
ist, it is likely Colosa was an inhabited island, 
which Little Colonsay is not ; 2nd, there would 
be no advantage gained by crossing from Little 
Colonsay, because the islands on that side are 
nearer to it than to the shore, and his object in 
landing was to be near his work ; 3rd, there 
are no " campuli mari vicini" or " arenarura 
cumuli" on the west coast of Mull near Hy. 
The name occurs again at ii. 22, where the 
larger island seems to be again intended. 

f Insulam. Most probably Erraid Isle, the 
largest of a little group of islands at the south 
entrance^' the Sound, south-east _of_Hy, and 
close to the shore of Mull. Immediately oppo- 
site to this island the sand is abundant on the 
shore of Mull, but the coast is iron-bound 
higher up, and so continues for a long distance. 
The course from Colonsay was north-west, for 
about thirteen miles. The stranger landing on 
the near end of Mull could then conveniently 
cross over to the seal island. Selsey in Sussex 
was anciently called " Selaeseu, quod dicitur La- 
tine Insula Vituli marini." (Bede, H. E. iv. 13.) 

s Marini vituli So Pliny calls seals (N. H. 

., ..,.,- -*. ... . _ . .., 



ix. 13). They are called phocce lower down. 
The Irish term is pon. These animals are 
frequently seen on the islands in the neigh- 
bourhood, but not so regularly or in such num- 
bers as to constitute a preserve. Martin, writ- 
ing in 1703, states that in Harris seals " are eat 
by the meaner people, who say they are very 
nourishing" (West. Islands, p. 36). On west 
coast of Harris is the island Eousmil, a^rock, 
where is a yearly fishing of seals, which belong 
to the adjacent landholders. The parish mi- 
nister has his choice_of,alLthe_yQung seals, and 
that which he takes is called Cullen Mory, i. e. 
the Virgin Mary's Seal. So many as 320 have 
been killed at one time. The natives salt the 
fish with the ashes of burnt sea--ware. People 
of distinction eat.the hams, only. (Ibid. pp. 61- 
65.) See Hardiman's edition of O'Flaherty's 
West Connaught, pp. 27, 95, 96. 

h Vervcces. The legends about the extreme 
abstemiousness of St. Columba appear to be 
without foundation. See Praef. 2 (p. 9) supra. 

* Baitheneum. See the note on the name, 
chap. 19 (p. 49), and the references there. 

k Campo Lunge. InEthica terra, now Tiree. 
This island was much larger and more fertile 
than Hy; hence it was better calculated to 



CAP. 42.] 



Auctore Adamnana. 



79 



quoddam pingue pecus et 20 sex modios novissima 21 mittat munera. Quibus a 
22 Baitheneo, sicut Sanctus commendaverat, transraissis, ea die inventus 23 est 
morte subita praeventus furax misellus, et in exequiis ejus transmissa expensa 
sunt "xenia 1 . 



J DE CRONANO POETA SANCTI PROPHETIA VIRI. 

ALIO 2 in tempore, Sanctus cum juxta Stagnum 3 Cei a , prope ostium fluminis 
quod latine Bos dicitur, b die aliqua cum fratribus sederet, quidam ad eos 
* Scoticus poeta c devenit ; qui cum post aliquam recessisset sermocinationem, 



21 om. B. 22 baltheneo C. baitheno D. 23 om. D. 21 A. C. F. S. exenia B. 
titulum om. C. D. F. S. Boll. s A. B. F. S. om. C. D. 3 ce D. 4 scotticus B. 



2 vii. D. 
exennia D. 



furnish the supplies mentioned in the text. See 
the notes on Ethicam, p. 48, supra, and on Campo 
Lunge, p. 59 ; also Ulster Journal of Archaeol. 
vol. ii. p. 237. 

l Xenia. See i. 50, infra, and the Glossary. 

R Stagnum Cei Loch Ce in Moy-Lurg, com- 
monly called Lough Key. The name is of fre- 
quent occurrence in the Annals and other Irish 
authorities. Lough Key is situate north-east 
of the town of Boyle, in the northern part of the 
county of Roscommon, and covers an area of 
2276 acres. " In insula cujusdam lacus inCon- 
nacia siti,"etc. O'Don.i. 101, (Tr. 111.405 6.) 
See ii. 19, infra. 

b Bos dicitur At ii. 19, it is called by the 
Irish equivalent JBo. The river, which gives 
its name to the town and barony of Boyle, is 
always written in Irish btnll, and latinized 
Buellia. A monastery, anciently called Ath- 
da-laarg, from a ford on the river, became affi- 
liated to Mellifont in 1161, and was subse- 
quently known by the name of maimfcep na 
buille, ' Monastery of the Boyle.' See O'Do- 
novan on Four Mast. 1174. The river runs 
out of Lough Key and enters the Shannon a 
little north-west of Kilmore, anciently called 
Cill-Tn6p-t>ichpaib, the Cella Magna Deathrib 



of i. 50, infra. The neighbourhood of this Colum- 
bian cell will account for the familiar mention 
of the lake and river here, and at ii. 19. 

Scoticus poeta. Hib. pile. O'Donnell, 
O'Roddy, andColgan, regard the bards or poets 
as the representatives, under Christianity, of 
the old Pagan magi or druids of Ireland. (Vit. 
S. Columbse, iii. 2, Tr. Th. p. 430 6 ; Act. SS. 
p. 149 b, n. 15.) They were a very influential 
class at all times, and from their numbers, 
when superadded to the clergy, a very oppres- 
sive one. From their exorbitant demands 
arose the legend of their Copi panci, ' Pot of 
covetousness,' which was the depository of their 
gains. They are said to have been in danger, 
on three occasions, of expulsion from the king- 
dom, and each time to have found in a king 
of Ulster a successful advocate of their cause. 
It is stated that one of the objects sought by 
King Aedh in holding the convention of Druim- 
ceatt was to procure from the chiefs of Ireland 
a formal sentence of banishment against the 
body, but that St. Columba appeared as their 
apologist, and procured a compromise of their 
suppression in a limitation of their number and 
demands. The account of his proceeding is 
given in the prefaces to that semi-bardic com- 



8o 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



fratres ad Sanctum, Cur, aiunt, 5 a 6 nobis regrediente 7 Cronano poeta aliquod 
ex more suse artis canticum non postulasti modulabiliter decantari ? d Quibus 
Sanctus, 8 Quare 9 et 10 vos nunc inutilia profertis verba? quomodo ab illo mi- 
sero homuncione carmen postularem laetitise qui nunc, ab inimicis 11 trucidatus, 
finem ad usque ocius pervenit vitas. His a Sancto dictis, et ecce 12 ultra 
flumen aliquis 13 clamitat homo dicens, Ille poeta, qui 14 a vobis nuper sospes 
rediit, hora 15 in hac ab inimicis in via interfectus est. 16 Omnes tune qui prse- 
sentes inerant valde 17 mirati, se invicem intuentes obstupuere. 



J DE DUOBIS TlGERNIS a SANCTI VATICINATIO VIEI, QUI AMBO MUTUIS VUL- 

NERIBUS DISPERIERANT. 

ALIO itidem 2 in tempore, Sanctus in 3 Ioua 4 conversans insula, 5 repente 
inter 6 legend um summo, cum ingenti admiratione, gemitu ingemuit msesto. 

*-6 om. D. 7 coronano C. 8 ait D. 9 ad D. 1 nos D. " A. C. F. S. trucidandus B. 
Boll. 12 ad D. is clamabat D. ^ om . c. 15 om. D. w O m. D. " admirati D. 

i titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. C. D. 3 A. C. F. S. iona B. D. * om. D. A conver- 
satus D. 6 legendo D. 



position, the AmhraCholuimcille, (Lib. Hymnor. 
fol. 67 a ; Leabhar nah-Uidhre, fol. 8 ; H. 2, 16, 
Trin. Coll. Dubl. fol. 68 1 ; Highland Soc. MS. 
fol. 12 bb) ; and is to be found at full length in 
Keating's account of the convention of Druim- 
ceatt. (Hist. reg. Aedh.) The present anec- 
dote does not indicate much cordiality between 
the ecclesiastic and the bard ; but in the Life 
of St. Colman of Dromore there is a striking 
instance of the hostility which prevailed be- 
tween the orders : " Ipso aliquando in quadam 
sitva turbis praedicante, Poetae impudentes su- 
pervenerunt, ac importune ab eo aliquid petie- 
runt. Quibus vir Dei ait, Non habeo, inquit, 
niodo quod vobis dem, praeter verbum Dei. 
Unus autem illorum ait, Verbum Dei tibi habe, 
aliud nobis tribue. Et ille : Insipienter, me- 
liora respuens, pejora eligis. Tune Poeta, 
hominem Dei tentans, dixit, Arborem hanc 
magnam ad terram prosterne. Vir sanctus, 
Si, inquit, in fide proficeres, virtutem Dei vi- 
deres. His dictis, orationi paululum institit, et 



statim arbor ilia in terram corruit. Sed films 
diffidentise non est mutatus, sed in malitia ob- 
stinatus, blasphemando ait, Hoc non est mirum, 
quia annosa robora quotidie cadunt: sed si 
modo earn erigeres, miraculo reputarem. Nee 
mora, divina virtute arbor ilia est subito erecta, 
ac si antea non caderet. Illos vero Poetas, in 
infidelitate induratos, tamquam alterum Dathan 
et Abyron terra absorbuit. Quo viso, omnes 
qui aderant coram viro Dei genua flectentes, 
Dominum Deum in ipso glorificaverunt." ( Acta 
SS. Junii, torn. ii. p. 27 b.~) See Reeves' Eccl. 
Ant. p. 358. 

d Modulabiliter decantari O'Conor under- 
stands this of a song accompanied by the harp. 
(Rer. Hib. Script, iv. p. 154.) " Ipse rex Mu- 
menise jEngussius cytharistas habuit optimos, 
qui dulciter coram eo acta heroum in carmine 
citharizantes canebant." Vit. S. Kierani, c. 17. 
(Colg. Act. SS. p. 460 a.) Dalian's elegy on 
St. Columba, cited by the Four Masters (A. C. 
592), says : 



CAP. 43.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



8t 



Quod videns, qui prsesens inerat, 7 Lugbeus 8 Mocublai b coepitab eo percunctari 
subiti causam D maeroris. Cui Sanctus valde msestificatus hanc dedit respon- 
sionem, Duo quidam 10 nunc regii generis viri in " Scotia mutuis inter se 
vulneribus 12 transfixi disperierunt 13 haud procul a monasterio quod dicitur 
14 Cellrois c , inprovincia 16 Maugdornoruin d , 16 octavaque die, hac peracta 17 heb- 



7 lugidus D. 8 om. C. D. F. S. 9 mesti D. om. T>. hybernia D. 12 totum D. 

is et est add. F. 14 cellros B. cellarois C. ceall p6ip D. cellorois F. A. F. S. maugdorneo- 
rum B. magdenorum C. muganorum D. i octava C. D. ^ ebdoraada B. C. F. S. 



lp obpan pe cpuis 5011 66ip 
Sinbe b6ip ap napgain uaip. 

1 Like a song to a harp without the bass-string 
Are we after having been deprived of our noble.' 

a Tiyhernis. A Latin transformation of the 
Irish noun cigepna, ' a lord' proving that the 
5 in the word is a radical letter ; and pointing 
to CIS, ' a house,' as the derivation, like dominus 
from domus, rather than to TvpavvoQ, which 
O'Brien proposes. In the narrative these 
princes are called regii generis viri and no- 
biles viri. In the Lives of the Irish Saints 
Dux is the usual representative of the word. 
The founder of Clones was called Tiyhernach, 
"quia multorum dominorum et regum nepos 
est." (Act. SS. Apr. torn. i. p. 401.) The word 
appears in the old Welsh form of tiyirn, and the 
Cornish teyrn, as also in the proper names 
Guorthigern, Eutigern, Tiarnan, Maeltiern. 
(Zeuss, Gram. Celt. i. pp. 100, 151, 158, 162.) 
So Kentigern is interpreted Capitalis Dominus. 
(Pinkert. Vit. Ant. p. 207.) 

b Lugbeus Mocublai. Lugneus Mocublai, iii. 
15, 22, infra. We find the patronymic enter- 
ing into the composition of Opuini-Tmc-hUa- 
blae, the name of a place in the barony of 
Slane, county of Meath. (Four Mast. 830; 
Calend. Dungall. Mar. 9.) 

Cellrois. Now Magheross, a parish in the 
county of Monaghan, better known by the name 
of its town Carrickmacross, which derives its 
name from the same source, the former being 
ITIacaipe Roip, Campus Rossiorum; the latter 



M 



Cappcuc macaipe TCoip, Rupes campi Rossio- 
rum. (Ord. Surv. Monaghan, s. 31.) The 
surrounding territory was formerly called Ros 
or Crick Rois, and the inhabitants Feara Rois. 
The monastery spoken of in the text is men- 
tioned in the Annals of Ulster (A. C. 826, 846 ; 
Four Mast. 825, 845), under the tribe name 
Per Rois, where the obits of two Priors are 
recorded. Subsequently it became a parish 
church, and appears in the Ecclesiastical Tax- 
ation of Clogher, circ. 1300, as Ecclesia de Ros. 
(Excheq. Records, Carlton Ride.) It occupied 
the south-western portion of the barony of 
Farney, in a district impracticable by woods 
and marsh. To which B arbour alludes : 

" Quliill till a gret forest come thai ; 
Kylrose it hat as Ik hard say." 

Brus, x. 251, 2. 

See Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 151 a; A. SS. p. 345 a; 
O'Donovan, Book of Rights, pp. 144, 155 ; 
Shirley's Farney, pp. 7, u, 153, 162; Reeves' 
Eccles. Antiqq. p. 205. 

d Maugdornorum. Mughdorn Dubh, son of 
CollaMeann (circ. 340), gave name to a territory 
in the county of Monaghan, which was called 
from his descendants Cpi6 TTlugftopna, now 
pronounced Cremorne, and applied to a barony 
adjoining Farney on the north. Sometimes it 
was called lYIus&opTia TTlaigiTi. In St. Pa- 
trick's time it was more extensive than at pre- 
sent; forDomhnach J/a^ew,nowDonaghmoyne, 
which is part of Farney, was then "in regione 
Maugdornorum." (Vit. Tripart. iii. 12, Col- 
gan, Tr. Th. p. 151 a.) It was so two centu- 



Vita Sancti Cotumbce 



[LIB. i. 



domade, ultra f return 18 alius clamitabit e , qui 19 hsec, cle 20 Hibernia veniens, ita 
31 taliter facta enarrabit. Sed hoc, O filiole, quamdiu vixero nemini 22 indices. 
Octava 23 proinde ultra fretum clamatum est die. Sanctus 2 Hum supra memo- 
ratum ad se 25 Lugbeum vocans, silenter ad eum ait, Qui nunc clamitat ultra 
fretum ipse est, de quo tibi prius dixeram, 2fi longa3vus viator. 27 Vade, et 
28 adduc eum ad nos. Qui celeriter adductus, inter cetera, hoc etiam retulit, 
Duo, inquiens, 29 in parte 30 Maugdornorum nobiles viri, se mutuo vulnerantes, 
mortui sunt; hoc est, Colman 31 Canis f , 32 filius 33 Aileni, et 34 Ronanus 35 filius 
36 Aido g filii Colgen, de 37 Anteriorum h genere, prope fines illorum locorum 5 , 

" aliquis C. D. w ti A. hec B. C. F. S. hue Colg. Boll. om. D. 2 B. C. D. evernia A. S. 
21 et add. D. i2 dices D. 23 delude D. 2 * tuncD. 25 higidum D. 26 c. D. F. S. longeus A. 
vide var. lect. 22, lib. ii. c ib infra. longus B. 27 V alde B. " 8 educ C. 20-30 om . c. D. F, S. 
30 nmugdorneorum B. 31 cognomento canis B. canus C. D. F. S. 32 ~ 33 om. C. D. F. S. 
mauus C. z om. C. D. F. S. aidi Boll. 37 A. B. Colg. Boll. 



ro- 



ries afterwards also, for Adamnan, in the text, 
places Cellrois, now part of Farney, "in pro- 
vincia Maugdornorum." The Maugdorni may 
therefore be regarded as coextensive, at the 
date to which the narrative refers, with the mo- 
dern baronies of Cremorne and Farney, forming 
the southern portion of the county of Mo- 
naghan. An emigration from this district to 
that ofSeanna JSoirche, in the south of the pre- 
sent county of Down, about the middle of the 
twelfth century, conveyed to the new settle- 
ment the name of the old, and it has since been 
called Mughdorna or Mourne. See Shirley's 
Farney, p. 152; Ulster Journ. of Archseol. vol. 
ii. p. 48 ; O'Donovan, Book of Rights, p. 150. 
In 831 the Danes carried away the shrine of 
St. Adamnan from Domhnach Maghan (Do- 
naghmoyne) in this territory. (Ann. Ult.) 

e Clamitabat. See note a , chap. 25, supra. 

f Colman Canis. The annalists make no 
mention of him, but the obit of his brother is 
recorded at 611: Mors Maeileduin mic Aleni 
regis Mogdornae (Tighernach, incorrectly 
printed by O'Conor; Ann. Ult. 610; Four 
Mast. 606). The term cu, canis, is of very fre- 
quent occurrence in Irish names, both as an 
epithet and in composition, and the individual 
" cui Canis, ex vero ductum, cognomen ad- 



haeret," derives it, not from the baser, but, the 
nobler properties of the animal. Thus in the 
Four Masters we find the word cu entering, in 
different combination, .into the names of two 
chiefs, at the year 706: " Cucuaran [Canis 
Cuaran Ann. Ult.] King of the Cruithne and 
of Ulidia was killed by Finnchu [albus canis] 
hUa Ronain." See the Index Nominum in O'Do- 
novan's edition of the Annals of the Four Mas- 
ters, under Cu 

B Aido. The genitive of Aedh, see note a , p. 
37, supra. His death is thus recorded: 609, 
Mors Aedho mic Colygen regis na [of the] 
nAirther Ann. Ult. More fully in Tigher- 
nach : 610, bapp Qebha mic Colgo pig Qip- 
5iall ccup na nQipchep [mors Aedhi filii 
Colgse, regis Argialliee, et TWV Orientalium] in 
peregrinacione Cliiainmicnuais. See Four Mast. 
606. The life of St. Mochta commits a serious 
error in making " Aidus films Colcan" a con- 
temporary of that saint. See Colgan, Act. SS. 
p. 730 &, and note r p. 7, supra. 

h Anteriorum. Colgan and the Bollandists 
read the name correctly here, but it is evident 
from the note of the former on this passage, 
from the note of the latter on the name at iii. 
7, infra, and from the reading of both in that 
place, that neither understood the word. Pin- 



CAP. 43-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



ubi illud monasteriurn cernitur quod dicitur 38 Cellrois. Post hsec illius verba 
39 narrationis, idem 40 Lugbeus, Christ! miles, Sanctum seorsum coepit inter- 
rogare, dicens, Quseso mihi de his talibus narres propheticis revelationibus 

39 cellroiss A. 39 A. narratoris B. C. D. F. S. 40 lugidus D. 



kerton's Auteriorum is both unmeaning and 
unauthorized. The word is the genitive of 
Anteriores, which Adamnan employs instead of 
the more obvious Orientales. In this he is sup- 
ported by two remarkable passages. The first 
is a line in the alleged druidical prophecy of St. 
Patrick's coming (Petrie's Tara, pp. 53, 54): 

Q miapa i n-aipcep a cigi, 

which Muirchu, in the Book of Armagh, renders 
" A sua mensa ex anteriore parle domus suse" 
(fol. 2 b ct), and Probus by the same words (Vit. 
S. Patr. c. 26, Tr. Th. p. 49 a). In the scholia 
on Fiech's Hymn, however (Tr. Th. p. 5 6), 
the second, third, andfourth Lives of St. Patrick 
in Colgan's collection (ib. pp. 14 , 23 b, 4.00), 
as well as Jocelin, c. 31 (ib. 71 &), and Colgan's 
version of the Tripartite Life (i. 43, ib. 123 6), 
the word cnpcep is rendered by the more com- 
mon expression oriens, or or ienlalis plaga. The 
other passage occurs also in the Book of Ar- 
magh, where Muirchu, relating St. Patrick's 
course along the coast of Leinster and Ulster, 
notices the little island of Inis Padruic, now 
St. Patrick's Island, off Holmpatrick on the 
east coast (Ord. Surv. Co. Dublin, s. 5), in 
these words : ' Ad anteriorem insolam quze ejus 
nomine usque hodie nominatur prurim navis 
convertit' (fol. 2 b b). In this use of the word, 
the writers had reference to the primary notion 
entertained by the Irish of the cardinal points, 
which supposed the face turned to the East 
('contra ortum solis,' Lib. Armac. fol. 12 a a), 
constituting this point, which is aip ante, the 
aipcip anterior (like the Heb. Q^p, which from 
antrorsum comes to signify oriens'), that is the 
East ; the lap plat/a postica (Heb. iintf retro, 
then occidens), the West; that on the bepp 



dextra (Heb. n dexter, then meridies) the tep- 
cepc dextralis plaga, or South ; and that on 
the cuac sinistra, the cu aipcep c plaga sinis- 
tralis, or North. But the use of right and left 
for south and north is much more frequent in 
the Latin of Celtic writers than fore or rear. 
Thus dextera, Lib. Armac. fol. 300, 360, 6 b a, 
1 8 a a ; sinistralis, ib. fol. 2 b b, 'jab', Nen- 
nius, 12, 42, 62. (Ed. Stev. pp. 10, 34, 52.) 
On the use of these two words see Ussher, Brit. 
Eccl. Ant. v. xv. (Wks. vol. v. p. 103, vi. pp. 1 14, 
187); Zeuss, Gram. Celt. pp. 67, 283, 566; Pe- 
trie's Tara, pp. 41, 42; Irish Nennius, p. 41. 
In the present case Anteriores is a radical equi- 
valent for the Irish Qipceapa, a name which 
was applied to the eastern section of the Airghi- 
alla, or inhabitants of the territory afterwards 
called Oriel or tFriel. The Airghialla wen; 
the descendants of Colla Dachrich, and derived 
their name from Oip gialla, 'golden hostages.' 
(O'Donovan on Book of Rights, p. 140.) They 
were represented in the Middle Ages by the 
Mac Mahons, Maguires, O'Hanlons, and Mac 
Canns. When St. Patrick founded the church 
of Armagh, a descendant of Colla was king of 
the Airtheara, whose territory contained the 
greater part of the present county of Armagh. 
Accordingly, Tirechan places the church of 
Armagh in reyionibus Orientalium, and repre- 
sents the Orientates as striving to obtain 
possession of St. Patrick's remains (Lib. Ar- 
macan. fol. 6bb, 8Z>a). The Tripartite Life 
also represents Daire as king of the region 
called Oirt/iir, id est, Orientalis (iii. 71, Tr. 
Th. 162 6). Ronan's father was lord of the 
territory in St. Columba's time. Subsequently 
the name Airthear underwent limitation: the 
district round Armagh became appropriated 

M2 



Vita Sancti Columbce. 



[LIB. i. 



quomodo, 41 si per visum 42 tibi, an auditu, an alio, hominibus incognito, 43 ma- 
nifestantur 1 modo. Ad heec Sanctus, De qua mine, ait, inquiris valde subtili 
re nullatenus tibi quamlibet aliquam intimare particulam potero, nisi prius, 
flexis genibus, per nomen excelsi Dei mihi firmiter promittas hoc te obscu- 
rissimum sacramentum k nulli unquam hominum cunctis diebus vitse mese 
enarraturum. Qui, hsec audiens, flexit continue genua, et, prostrate in ter- 
rain vultu, juxta Sancti prseceptionem plene omnia promisit. Qua statim 
perfecta promissione, Sanctus ad surgentem sic locutus inquit, Sunt non- 
nulli, quamlibet pauci admodum, quibus divina hoc contulit gratia, ut etiam 
totum 44 totius terrse orbera, cum ambitu oceani et creli, uno eodemque 
momento, quasi sub uno solis radio, mirabiliter laxato mentis sinu, clare et 
manifestissime speculentur. Hoc miraculum Sanctus, quamvis de aliis electis 
dicere videatur, vanam utique fugiens gloriam, de seipso tamen dixisse, per 
obliquum licet, nullus dubitare debet qui Paulum legit Apostolum, vas elee- 
tionis, de talibus narrantem sibi revelatis 4s visionibus. Non enim ita scripsit, 
Scio me, sed, Scio hominem, raptum usque ad tertium coelum 1 . Quod quam- 
libet de alio dicere 4G videatur, nemo tamen dubitat sic de propria, humilitatem 
custodiens, enarrare persona. Quem 47 etiam et noster Columba in spiritalium 
visionum narratione secutus est superius memorata, quam ab eo supradictus 
vir, quem plurimum Sanctus amabat, magnis precibus prsemissis, vix potuit 
extorquere, sicut 48 ipse coram aliorum personis sanctorum, post sancti Co- 



4i out. D. 
46 videretur C. D. 



42 om. D. 
47 jam D. 



43 tibi add. D. 
48 om. B. 



44 licet non semper add. B. 



om. D. 



to the family in which the Primacy grew to be 
hereditary ; the TJi Niallain, who were also a 
branch, obtained a severalty, and gave name 
to the portion of the original territory now 
known as the baronies of Oneilland; while 
the generic name Airthear became confined to 
the strip of country which formed the eastern 
margin of Airghialla, as it still does of the 
county and diocese of Armagh, retaining the 
old appellation under the slightly modified 
form of Orior. 

1 Locorum. The Fane Eiver bounds Donagh- 
moyne, the old limit of the Maugdorni on the 
north-east, separating the counties of Armagh 



and Monaghan, which, in this portion, represent 
the ancient territories of the Anteriores and 
Maugdorni. 

k Sacramentum. See also i. 50, iii. 6, 7, 22, 
where the word signifies 'a solemn secret,' or 
' deposit.' Thus in St. Brendan's Life : " Veni 
et vide sacr amentum hu jus rei." cap. 18 (Cod. 
Marsh, fol. 58 b b}. Mvarripiov in Eph. v. 32 is 
rendered sacramentum in the Latin versions. 

1 Coelum. ^ Cor. xii. 2. Sedulius, St. Co- 
lumba's countryman, commenting on the words 
Scio hominem, observes : " Hoc de se humili- 
tatis causa, quasi in alterius persona loquitur." 
(Annot. in S. Pauli Epist. p. 276. Basil. 1538.) 



CAP. 44.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



lumbse transitum, testatus est : a quibus hsec quse de Sancto supra narravimus 
indubitanter didicimus. 



J DE CRONANO EPISCOPO*. 

2 ALio 3 in tempore, quidam de 4 Muminensium provincia b proselytus ad 
Sanctum venit ; qui se in quantum potuit 5 occultabat humiliter, 6 ut nullus 
sciret quod esset episcopus : sed tamen Sanctum hoc non potuit latere. Nam 
alia die Dominica a Sancto jussus d Christi corpus ex more conficere 6 , Sanctum 
7 advocat,utsimul, quasi duo presbyteri, Dominicum panem frangerent. Sanctus 
proinde ad altarium accedens, repente intuitus faciem ejus, sic eum compellat, 



i titul. om. C. D. F. S Boll. 
partem i. 15 efficiunt. 3 om. D. 



- hie sequuntvr in C. D. F. S. ii. 29, 30, hujus recensionis, et 
4 meminensium C. * om. C. 6 quod C. 7 convocat D. 



a Cronano episcopo. Possibly the Bishop 
Cronan, whom Colgan notices at Feb. 9, and of 
whose identity with the subject of the present 
anecdote he has no doubt. Cuapan m eccna 
in Oeipift ITIuman. dp bo pob amm Cponan 
mac NechpeTnon, ' Cuaranus, sapiens, in 
Desiis Momonise, est qui et Cronanus filius 
Nethsemonis dicitur.' Mar. Gorra. Feb. 9. 
" Mochuarocus Sapiens in regione Desiorum 
quiescit: qui et Cronanus filius Nethsemonis 
dicitur. Vocatur Mochuarocus de Nona, ideo 
quod sit primus qui curavit celebrationem Missse 
fieri seorsim, quse cum media Nona apud anti- 
ques celebrabatur." (Colg. Act. SS. p. 302.) 

b Muminensium provincia That is, Munster. 

If the citations in the last note apply to him, 
he belonged to that part of the province now 
called Decies, in the county of Waterford. 

Proselytus Or, peregrinus, as at the close 
of the chapter. See Prsef. 2, i. 26, 30, 32. 

d Jussus. ' Invited.' " Another instance of 
customary respect, which the clergy were 
obliged to show to one another, was, that when 
any bishop or presbyter came to a foreign 
church, they were to be complimented with the 
honorary privilege of performing divine offices, 
and consecrating the Eucharist in the church." 
Bingham, Orig. Eccles. v. i, 2. (Wks. vol. ii. 



p. 3, Ed. Lond. 1840.) The Council of Aries 
prescribed " ut peregrino episcopo locus sacri- 
ficandi detur ;" and the fourth Council of Car- 
thage, " Ut episcopi vel presbyteri, si causa 
visendae ecclesise alterius episcopi, ad ecclesiam 
venerint, et in gradu suo suscipiantur, et tarn 
ad verbum faciendum, quam ad oblationem 
consecrandam invitentur." (Ibid.) 

e Conficere. Thus, " audiens presbyterum 
sacra Eucharistise mysteria conficientem." 
i. 40, supra. Seeiii. 17, infra. "Dominicicorpo- 
ris hostiam puris conficiebat manibus." Vit. S. 
David, c. 13. (Colg. Act. SS. p. 427 a; Lives 
Cambro-Brit. SS. p,i29.) We find the ex- 
pression at even an earlier date : " Christi 
corpus sacro ore conficiunt." Hieron. Ep. ad 
Heliodorum. (Opp. torn. i. p. 33, Ed. Vallars.) 
" Ad quorum preces Christi corpus sanguisque 
conficitur." Id. Ep. ad Evangelum. (Ib. p. 
1075.) " Consecramus et sanctificamus hanc 
patenam ad conficiendum in ea corpus Do- 
mini nostri Jesu Christi." Missale Francor. 
(Muratori, de Reb. Liturg. Diss. col. 125.) 
The second Council of Seville, in 619, prohi- 
bited priests, in the presence of the bishop, 
" sacramentum corporis et sanguinis Christi 
conficere" (can. 7) ; but the general usage of 
the western Churches was " ut in confectione 



86 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



Benedicat te Christus, frater ; hunc solus, 8 episcopal! ritu, frange panem f : 
nunc scimus quod sis episcopus. Quare "hucusque te occultare conatus es, 
ut tibi a nobis debita non redderetur veneratio 8 ? Quo audito Sancti verbo, 
humilis peregrinus, valde stupefactus, Christum in Sancto veneratus est ; et 
qui inerant prassentes, nimis admirati, glorificartmt 10 Dominum. 



! DE ERNANO PRESBYTERO SANCTI PROPHETIA VIRI. 

ALIO itidem in tempore, vir venerandus 2 Ernanum presbyterum, senem, 
suum avunculum*, ad prseposituram illius monasterii transmisit quod in 3 Hinba 

8 episcopus add. C. 9 usquequo D. 10 deum B. C. D. F. S. 
i titul. om., et tenorcm cap. 16 continuant, C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 hernanum D. 3 himba C. D. F. S. 



immolationis Christi adsint presbyteri, et si- 
mul cum pontifice verbis et manu conficiant." 
(Martene, Antiq. Eccl. Rit. i. 3, 8, torn. i. p. 
120.) The Irish Church seems to have coin- 
cided with the Spanish in its estimate of epis- 
copal dignity, and the present narrative comes 
with greater weight, being written by one who 
not only was a priest himself, but was officially 
disqualified for the higher order ; and concern- 
ing one who created the precedent by his own 
subordinate condition. 

f Frange panem. We gather from these me- 
moirs that the practice of the Irish Church in 
the celebration of the Lord's Supper, at this 
period, varied in regard to its ministration ; 
that sometimes the attendant priests selected 
one of their number, either as eminent for piety 
(as in i. 40), or for station (as in iii. 17), or be- 
cause a visiter, as in the present instance. 
Sometimes two, or probably more, acted as 
concelebrants, " simul verbis et manu confici- 
entes," in which case they were wont "simul 
dominicum panem frangere:" this as performed 
conjointly was, if we may so say, " presbyterali 
ritu." But when a bishop was present, there 
being none of equal rank at hand, he " solus 
panem fregit," and thus the celebration was 
"episcopali ritu." In i. 40, supra, we find the 



expression " audiens presbyterum sacra eucha- 
ristise mysteria conficientem," from which we 
may infer that the consecration was held to be 
effected by the sentence of consecration ; and 
hence it might be supposed that the invitation 
" panem frangere" had reference to the distri- 
bution of the bread to the communicants, and 
not to the act of consecration. See Morinus, 
Sacr. Ordinat. Exerc. viii. ; Valesius's note on 
Euagrius's Eccl. Hist. i. 13. 

s Veneralio It appears from a comparison 
of cap. 36, supra, and ii. i, with the present chap- 
ter, that under the Columbian discipline the 
several orders of bishop, priest, and deacon, 
were duly recognised, and that the conferring 
of Holy Orders was considered the peculiar 
function of the first. The present narrative 
contains not only a plain acknowledgment of 
the distinctness of bishop and priest, but also 
the founder's express declaration of the superior 
privilege, rank, and honour, of the bishop. In- 
stead of the episcopal office being ignored, or 
its proper function being usurped by presbyters 
in Hy, "a greater respect," as Innes truly re- 
marks, " was in some manner paid to bishops 
in that monastery, and a greater distinction 
made betwixt them and priests in the celebra- 
tion of the sacred mysteries, than in other 



CAP. 45.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



insula 1 ' ante plures fundaverat annos. Itaque cum ipsum 4 Sanctus emigrantem 
exosculatus benediceret, 6 hoc de eo intulit vaticinium, dicens, Hunc meum 
nunc "egredientem amicum non me spero iterum in hoc seculo viventem visu- 
rum. Itaque idem 7 Ernanus post non multos dies, quadam molestatus segri- 
monia, ad Sanctum volens reportatus est: cujus in perventione valde gavisus, 
ire obvius ad portum cocpit. Ipse vero 7 Ernanus, quamlibet infirmis, propriis 
tamen, vestigiis a portu obviare Sancto conabatur valde alacer. Sed cum 
esset inter ambos quasi 8 viginti quatuor 9 passuum intervallum, subita morte 
prasventus, priusquam Sanctus faciem ejus videret viventis, expirans in terrain 



4 sanctum C. 
passum C. 



5 et add. F. 6 ingredientem C. 7 hernanus D. 8 ~ 9 vias viginti iv. M. 



Churches of the Occident, either in those ages 
or ours. For by this relation it appears that 
in Ycolmkill a priest, even the abbot S. Co- 
lumba himself, looked upon a bishop so far su- 
perior to him, that he would not presume, even 
though invited, to concelebrate or celebrate 
the holy mysteries jointly with him." (Civil 
and Eocl. Hist. p. 175.) 

a Avunculum. "Ernaan sancti avunculus Co- 
lumbee" is mentioned in the Epilogus of Cod. B. 
as one of the twelve followers of the saint. 
Being brother of Ethnea, St. Columba's mo- 
ther, he was son of Dima, son of Noe, and a 
descendant of Cathaeir Mor. On account of 
his grandfather's name, Colgan identifies him, 
among twenty-sixErnans in the calendar, with 
St. Ernin or Mernoc of Rath-Noe in Hy Garr- 
chon, whose day is Aug. 18; but in this he errs. 
See note ', p. 25 supra. On the other hand, 
this cannot be the Mernoc of the Scotch ca- 
lendar at the 25th of October, nor St. Marnan 
of the 2nd of March, for both of these are styled 
bishops, while the individual in the text is 
stated to be a presbyter. It is to be observed 
that Ernan, Ernin, Mernoc, and Ferreolus are 
different forms of the same name, and inter- 
changeable. See the note on Ferreolus or Er- 
nene, Hi. 23, 4, infra. St. Columba had a 
nephew, also called Mernoc or Ernan, who 
was son of his sister Cuman. J&ngus, de Matr. 



SS. Hib. 13 (Book of Lecan) ; Epilogus 
Adamnani (Cod. B. fol. 70 a). 

b Hinba insula See ii. 24, iii. 5, 17, 8, 23, 
4. Hinbina insula, i. 21, supra. It has not 
yet been identified, and unfortunately the clues 
afforded by the writer are very slight. How- 
ever, from iii. 5 and 18, it may reasonably be 
conjectured to have been north of, and not far 
distant from, Hy. The island Canna, which 
bears some resemblance in name, lies about 
four miles north-west of Rum. Its church, of 
which the ruins and a small cross existed. in 
1772, was named from St. Columba. The par- 
sonage of the island belonged to the abbot of 
Hy, and the vicarage to the bishop. (Mar- 
tin, West. Isles, p. 275 ; C. Innes, Orig. Paroch. 
ii. pt. i, p. 339; Collectan. de Reb. Alban. pp. 
2, 3; Old Statist. Survey, vol. xvii. pp. 272, 
283.) Father Innes says : "It is like Himba 
was what is since called Ouyst or the Long 
Island." (Civil. Eccl. Hist. p. 189.) If Himba, 
the reading in the Lives by Cummian, John of 
Tinmuth, and O'Donnell, and in some MSS. of 
Adamnan, be correct, the name may have its 
origin in the old Irish word Imbao (Imbali), 
which Cormac explains, .1. Ocicm bac .1. muip 
[mare] ut est muip ecip epmt> ocup Ollbain 
vel aliud quodcunque mare (Gloss, in voc.); 
that is, ' a surrounding sea.' (O'Donovan, Ir. 
Gram. p. 274.) 



88 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



cecidit, ne yerbum Sancti ullo frustraretur modo. Unde in eodem loco ante 
j ami am canabae crux infixa est, et altera ubi Sanctus restitit, illo expirante, 
similitcr 10 crux "hodieque infixa stat d . 



! DE ALICUJUS PLEBEII FAMILIOLA SANCTI PROPHETIA VIRI. 

ALIO quoque 2 in tempore, quidam inter ceteros ad Sanctum plebeius 
venit 3 in loco hospitantem qui 4 Scotice vocitatur Coire 5 Salchain a ; quern cum 
Sanctus ad se vespere venientem vidisset, Ubi, 6 ait, habitas ? Ille inquit, In 
regione quse littoribus stagni 7 Crogreth b est 8 contermina ego inhabito. Illam 



i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 
salcair male, Colg. Boll. 6 inquit D. 



1 que B. 11 hodie B. 

. D. 3 ~ 5 om. C. D. F. S. * scottice B. 
7 crog reth A. crochreth B. om. C. D. F. S. 



e A. salcani B. 
8 conterminata D. 



c Canabce. The meaning attached to this 
word by Irish writers may be elicited from the 
following curious examples: " Familia ipsius 
non habuit artifices et operatores fortes qui 
possent facere canabam ad spicas siccandas et 
triturandas, sed super nudum pavimentum in 
campo triturabant." Vit. S. Kannechi, c. 33. 
(p. 20, Ed. Ormonde.) " Quodam die cum S. 
Kiaranus in loco qui dicitur Cluain Innsythe 
[on the Shannon] vidit navim super fluvium 
positam, et vidit zabulum super ripam fluminis, 
et erat in eo rota de virgis contexta plena spi- 
cis igni supposita, ut siccarentur ad trituran- 
dum secundum morem occidentalium, id est, 
Britaniae et Hybernise. Et dixit S. Kiaranus 
prophetice sociis suis secrete, Ilia navis quse 
est super aquas hodie comburetur, et zabulum 
quod est super terrain mergetur. Illis contra- 
dicentibus et admirantibus, ait eis, expectate 
modicum, et videbitis oculis vestris : et ilico 
ilia navicula de aqua super terrain elevata est, 
et posita in canabam ut rimae et fractursB ejus 
ibi conjungerentur. Et accenso rogo ilia ca- 
naba combusta est, et navis in medio ejus sirai- 
liter combusta est; et zabulum autem eruentes 
viri fortes a terra projecerunt illud de ripa in 
fluraen, et ibi mersum est." Vit. S. Kiarani, 



c. 12. (Cod. Marsh, fol. 145 b a.) See Glos- 
sary. 

d Stat It was usual among the Irish to mark 
with a cross the spot where any providential 
visitation took place. See Hi. 23, infra. "Ubi 
nunc usque crux habetur in signum." Vit. S. 
Patricii. (Lib. Armacan, fol. 3 a a.) 

a Coire^Salchain. The use of the word Coire, 
and the expression barbari vastatores, referring 
probably to the Picis or^Saxons, seem to indi- 
cate SjioJJan4_as^ tkjL??: 6 .?. 6 of tms narrative. 
The term Coire, so common in the Scotch High- 
lands to designate ajhollow or cul de sac in 
the mountains, is scarcely known* in Ireland. 
Salchain may be Salen on the east side of Mull, 
near which is a chapel called Collumkill. There 
is a.Salachain^n.Upper Lorne, between Loch 
Creeran and Loch Appin. Sallachan Bay, Sal- 
lachan-isol, Sallachan Point, and Sallachan-ard, 
are situated on the west side of the entrance 
of Loch Eil. There is a Sallachan in Morvern, 
opposite Aros; and a Glen Sallachan on the 
south-east of Loch Creeran, opposite Airds. 
Among these and other places of the same 
name it is difficult to fix the scene of the pre- 
sent interview. 

b Stagni Crogreth. Not identified. Pro- 



CAP. 46, 47.] Auctore Adamnano. 89 

quam dicis provinciolam, ait Sanctus, nunc barbari populantur yastatores. 
Quo audito, miser plebeius maritam et filios deplangere coepit. Quern 
Sanctus valde maarentem videns, consolahs inquit, Yade, homuncule, vade, tua 
familiola tota in montem 10 fugiens evasit ; tua vero omnia pecuscula secum 
invasores n abegerunt, omnemque domus suppellectilem similiter ssevi raptores 
cum praida rapuere. Hajc audiens plebeius, ad patriam regressus, cuncta, 
sicuti a Sancto praedicta, 12 sic invenit 13 expleta. 



J DE QUODAM PLEBETO, GOREO NOMINE, F1LTO AIDANI, SANCTI PROPHETIA VIRI. 

ALIO 2 itidem in tempore 3 quidam 4 plebeius, omnium illius setatis inpopulo 
6 Korkureti a fortissimus virorum, 6 a 7 sancto 8 percunctatur 9 viro qua morte 
esset pra3veniendus b . Cui Sanctus, Nee in bello, ait, nee in mari morieris : 
comes tui itineris, a quo non suspicaris, causa erit tuas mortis. Fortassis, inquit 
Goreus c , aliquis de meis comitantibus amicis me trucidare cogitet, aut marita 
ob alicujus junioris viri amorem me maleficio mortificare. Sanctus, Non ita, 
ait, continget. Quare, Goreus inquit, de meo interfectore mihi nunc intimare 
non vis ? Sanctus, Idcirco, ait, nolo tibi de illo tuo comite nocuo nunc mani- 
festius aliquid edicere, ne te ejus crebra 10 recogniti recordatio nimis msestificet, 

9 maritum C. 10 effugiens D. u ambigerunt B. w sunt C. 13 exempla C. D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3-4 om . p. * homo D. 5 KOPKYPETI Uterus 

majusculis A. corforepti B. om. C. D. F. S. 6 goreus nomine D. om. C. 7 sanctum colurabam C. D. 
8 percunctatus est C. D. 9 virum C. om. D. 10 om. C. 

bably near border land, in the neighbourhood MacFirbis, Geneal. MS. p. 136), and now known 
of the Piets or Saxons. Colgan places it in as Corkaree, a barony in the county of West- 
Ireland, and tries, but unsuccessfully, toaccom- meath, lying north of Mullingar. But this, the 
modate an Irish name in Westmeath. only apparent identification of the name, is 
a Korkureti. The word is written in Cod. A. open to the objection that Corkaree is an inland 
in a different style of letter from the rest of the district, whereas the expressions mare and navis 
narrative, namely in the semi-uncial Greek are used in reference to the inhabitants of that 
character of the Irish school. If the place be- recorded in the text. 

long to Ireland, as the structure of the name b Prceveniendus. This is a question of the 

seems to indicate, it is clearly a form of Copca same nature as that recorded in chap. 15, 

TJen&e (the Race of Raidhe), which Tirechan (p. 44) supra. 

renders Regiones Roide (Lib. Armac. fol. u c Goreus Probably a Latinform of the Irish 

), so called from Fiacha Raidhe, grandson 5 uai r e > a name which was called Gowry in the 

of Fedhlimidh Rechtmar, who flourished A. D. county of Londonderry in the iyth century 

(O'Flaherty, Ogyg. iii. 69, p. 333; (Rot. Pat. Jac. I. p. 576; Ulst. Inquis. Lon- 

N 



9 



Vita Sancti ColumbcK 



[LIB. T. 



donee n illa veniat dies qua ejusdem rci veritatem probabis. Quid 12 immora- 
mur verbis ? Post aliquot "annorum excursus, idem supra memoratus Goreus, 
casu u alia die sub navi residens, cultello proprio 15 cristiliam d de 10 hastili era- 
debat; "turn 18 deinde aliosprope inter se belligerantes audiens, citius 10 surgit 
ut eos a belligeratione scpararet, eodemque cultello ilia subitatione negligen- 
tius in terra dimisso, ejits 20 genicula ofFenso graviter vulnerata est. Et tali 
faciente comite, causa ei mortificationis oborta est ; quam ipse continuo, se- 
cundum sancti vaticinationem viri, mente perculsus, recognovit; postque 
aliquantos menses, eodem aggravatus dolore, moritur. 



ALIA ETIAM RE, QUAMLIBET MINORE, PUTO NON ESSE TACENDA SANCTI 
JUCUNDA PR^ESCIENTIA, ET 2 PROPHETIZATIO VIRI. 

3 ALio nanique in 'tempore, 5 cum Sanctus G in 7 Ioua 8 inhabitaret insula, 
unum de fratribus advocans, sic 9 compellat, Tertia ab hac 10 illucescente die 
expectare debebis in occidental! hujus insulae parte, super maris oram sedens : 
nam de aquilonali "Hibernias regione quafidam hospita grus, ventis per longos 
aeris agitata circuitus, post nonam diei horam valde fessa et fatigata superveniet, 
et pene consurnptis viribus, coram te in litore cadens recumbet ; quam miseri- 
corditer 12 sublevare curabis, et ad propinquam deportabis domum, 13 ibidemque 
hospitaliter receptam, per tres dies et noctes ei ministrans, sollicite cibabis; et 
post expleto recreata triduo, nolens ultra apud nos peregrinari, ad priorem 
14 Scotise dulcem, unde orta, 15 remeabit regionem a , plene resumptis viribus ; 
quam ideo tibi 16 sic diligenter commendo quia de nostrse paternitatis regione b 

11 om. C. 12 moramur D. ^ om. D. ^ aliqua C. 15 cristilia F. w astili A. F. castili C. 
astali D. w tune D. 18 om. D. 19 surrexit D. 20 B. C. genucla A. genucula D. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 3 prophetica B. 3 ' 4 om. D. 5 dum D. 6 columba add. D. 
~ A. C. iona B. 8 habitaret D. 9 ait D. 10 lucetenente D. n everniae A. 12 sullevare B. 
is ibidem C. ibique D. u hyberuie D. w est add. C. D. w om. C. D. F. S. 



donderry, No. 4), and is still preserved in Sey- 
gorry [pui&e ^uQTe, Sessio Gorei], the name 
of a townland in Aghadowey parish. 

d Cristiliam. Colgan's interpretation "Per 
Christiliam intelligit christam seu cuspidem 
hastse," is adopted by the Bollandists and Du- 
cange. See Tr. Th. p. 3800, n. 97. But it 
seems objectionable. See Glossary. 

a Scotia: dulcem regionem. Observe the ten- 



der manner in which the Saint ascribes to the 
bird the love of country which prevailed so 
strongly in his own breast. See also the severe 
penance, "nee ad Scotiam usque ad mortem 
reversus fueris," which was enjoined in chap. 
22, (p. 52) supra. 

b Nostrce paternitatis regione. St. Columba's 
birth-place was Gartan, in the county of Done- 
gal (O'Donnell, i. 22, Tr. Th. p. 392 6), which 



CAP. 48, 49.] Auctore Adamnano. 91 

est oriunda. Obsecundat frater, tertiaque die post horam nonam, 17 ut 18 jussus, 
prsescitae adventum praestolatur hospital, adventantemque de littore levat lap- 
gam, ad hospitium portat infirraam, esurientem cibat. Cui ad monasterium 
vespere reverse Sanctus, non interrogans sed 19 narrans, ait, Benedicat te Deus, 
mi fili, 20 quia peregrine bene ministrasti hospitse , quaa in peregrinatione non 
demorabitur, sed post ternos soles ad j^Rtriarn 21 repedabit. Quod ita ut Sanc- 
tus prsedixit 22 et res etiam probavit. Nam trinalibus hospitata diebus, coram 
hospite ministro de terra se prim urn volando elevans in 23 sublime, paulisperque 
in acre viam speculata, oceani transvadato aequore, ad 24 Hiberniam recto vola- 
tus cursu die repedavit tranquillo. 



BELLO QUOD IN MUNITIONE CETHIRNI POST MULTA COMMISSUM EST TEM- 
PORA, ET DE QUODAM FONTICULO EJUSDEM TERRULJE PROXIMO 2 BEATI 
PR^SCIENTIA VIRI. 

ALIO 3 in tempore vir beatus 4 cum 5 post regum in Dorso 6 Cette condictum a , 
Aidi videlicet filii 7 Ainmurech b , et Aidani filii 8 Gabrani , ad campos reverte- 

17 - 19 om. B. i 8 jiissusfuerat C. D. l9 enarrans D. 2 qui B. 21 repedavit A. 22 om. C. 
sullime B. 21 B. C. D. everniam A. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll, in quibus cap. xviii, continuatur. 2 sancti B. 3 om. D. * co- 
lumba add D. 5 ' 8 om. C. D. F. S. 6 cete B. 7 aramurech B. 

was situate in the heart of the ancient Tir- oves ante se abigens in custodiam reclusit. Se- 

Conaill, the district occupied by the descen- quenti autem die, exiit S. Albeus ut salutaret 

dants of Conall Gulban, St. Columba's great- grues, dicens, Recedite a finibus istis, et disper- 

grandfather, and now known as the county of gite turbam vestrara in diversis locis. Statim 

Donegal. vero obedientes hue illucque in gronnas divise- 

c Ministrasti hospitce The Lives of the Irish runt se." (E. 3, n, Triu. Coll. Dubl. fol. 

Saints abound with legends concerning their 13500.) The legend of St. Brendan's voyage 

familiarity with birds. See the story of St. is especially rich in marvels concerning birds. 
Mochaoi intheFeilire ofJEngus, June 23. St. a Dorso Cette condictum. Hib. TTiopbail 

Finnian's crane, in O'Donnell, ii. i. (Tr. Th. Dpoma ceacc, ' Convention of Druim-ceatt,' 

p. 4086.) See Trias Thaum. p. 3846, n. 34; held A. D. 575. See chap. 10, supra (p. 37), 

Act. SS. pp. 141 b, n. 19. Also Giraldus Cam- also ii. 6, infra. Messingham, not understand- 

brensis de Falcone Kyldarice. Topog. Hib. ii. ing the author's use of the word condictum, has 

37 (p- 729, ed. Camd.). In St. Ailbhe's Life suggested conflictum in the margin (Florileg. 

is a curious legend, how a flock of cranes de- p. 157 b), a most unhappy emendation, as the 

stroyed the hay and grain of the neighbourhood, result of the Convention of Drumceatt proves, 

and upon the saint sending his attendant Bui- On the word condictum see Glossary, 
airnen to fetch them, " Exiens ille grues velut b Aidifilii Ainmurech. He was sovereign of 

N2 



Vita Sancti Colunibce 



[LIB. i. 



retur_sequoreos d , ipse et Comgellus e abbas quadam 10 serena "sestivi temporis 
die, baud procul a supra memorata munitione f resident. Turn 12 proinde aqua 
de quodam proximo ad maims lavandas fonticulo 13 ad 14 Sanctos in seneo de- 



9 congellus C- comgallus D. 10 secreta C. aestei A. 12 om. D. 



om. D. 



Ireland, and died in 598. See note c , p. 39, su- 
pra. There is a good deal of uncertainty as 
to the year of his accession, but if the date of 
the convention of Druimceatt given in the An- 
nals of Ulster be correct, he was sovereign 
before 575. 

c Aidanifilii Gabhrani. He succeeded to the 
lordship of the Scotch Dalriada in 574, and pos- 
sessed sufficient power and address not only to 
secure the independence of his race, but to lay 
the foundation of that supremacy which it af- 
terwards acquired in Scotland. The account 
of his inauguration by St. Columba, and the so- 
lemn charge he received not to molest the sub- 
jects of the Irish King, are given in iii. 5, infra. 
Immediately on his elevation he seems to have 
aspired to the forming an independent king- 
dom, and to have renounced all subjection to 
the Irish monarch ; nay, as some assert, he went 
so far as to claim jurisdiction over the parent 
Dalriada. The Irish monarch, on the other 
hand, laid claim to the tributes and service of 
the Scotch Dalriada as a colony which was 
bound to the mother country. To make an 
amicable adjustment of these differences was a 
principal object for which the convention of 
Druimceatt was held, and 575, the year after 
Aidan's accession, was that in which it took 
place. The matter in controversy and the 
award are stated in the prefaces to the Amhra, 
as follows : " The Dal Riada were those about 
whom there was a contention between the men 
of Alba and the men of Erin ; because they 
were both of the race of Cairbre Righfada, that 
is, of the men of Munster. For, upon the occa- 
sion of a great famine which came upon Mun- 
ster, the descendants of Cairbre Righfada left 
it, and one party of them went to Alba, and the 



other party staid in Erin, from whom are the 
Dalriada at this day. They took root after- 
wards in those territories, till the time of 
Aedhan mac Gabhrain, King of Alba, and of 
Aedh mac Ainmire, King of Erin. And a con- 
test arose between those two kings about them. 
And that was one of the three causes for which 
Columcille came to Erin, to make peace be- 
tween the men of Erin and of Alba, namely, 
about Dal Riada. When he came to the meet- 
ing, Colman son of Comgellan [whom St. Co- 
lumba, when departing from Ireland for Hy, 
had met as a boy near Coleraine, and who sub- 
sequently died in 625 Tigh.~] accompanied him, 
and Columkille was requested to give judgment 
between the men of Erin and Alba. It is not I 
that shall give it, said he, but yonder youth, 
pointing to Colman mac Comgellain. Colman 
then gave judgment ; and the decision that he 
gave was : Their expeditions and hostings to be 
with the men of Erin always, for hostings al- 
ways belong to the parent stock. Their tri- 
butes, and gains, and shipping, to be with the 
men of Alba. And when one of the men of 
Erin or Alba should come from the east, the 
Dal Riada to entertain them, whether few or 
many : and the Dal Riada to convey them on, 
if they require it." (Leabhar na hUidhre, fol. 8 ; 
H. 2, 16, Trin. Coll. Dubl. ; Highland Soc. MS. 
fol. 13 a b.) To the same purport also O'Don- 
nell, iii. 10 (Tr. Th. p. 432 6) ; Keating, Hist. 
(Reg. Aedh). The result was, as O'Flaherty 
succinctly states: " In quo conventu Aidanus 
immunitatem a pendendo Hibernise regibus tri- 
bute, adeoque liberi, absolutique principatus 
eminentiam adeptus est." (Ogyg. p. 475.) Ac- 
cordingly, when the Tripartite Life relates 
St. Patrick's prophecy concerning the family 



CAP. 49.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



93 



fertur vasculo. Quam cum sanctus Columba accepisset, ad abbatem 16 Com- 
gellura a latere sedentem sicprofatur, Hie fonticulus, O 16 Comgelle, de quo hsec 
effusa nobis allata est aqua, veniet dies quando nullis usibus humanis aptus 
erit. Qua causa, ait 17 Comgellus, ejus fontana corrurapetur unda? Sanctus 
turn Columba, Quia humano, inquit, cruore replebitur: nam mei 18 cognatio- 
nales amici et tui secundum carnem cognati, 19 lioc est, Nellis Nepotes g et 
Cruthini 20 populi h , in hac vicina munitione "Cethirni 1 belligerantes commit- 
tent bellum. Unde in supra memorata fonte aliquis de mea 22 cognatione 
trucidabitur homuncio, 23 cujus cum caeteris 24 interfecti sanguine ejusdem fon- 

ts congellum C. comgallum D. 1G congelle C. comgalle D. 17 congellus C. comgallus D. 
is cognitionales A. B. 10-20 O m. C. D. F. S. 21 A. cecliirni B. om. C. D. F. S. 22 cognitione A. B. 
23 de add. D. u interfectis D. 



of Fergus mac Ere, it adds, " Quse prophetia 
postea completa est in ^Edano filio Gabhrani, 
ex ejus semine procedente, qui raanu violenta 
regnum Albanise occupavit." ii. 135 (Tr. Th. 
p. 147 6). To the same effect Jocelin also, 
cap. 137 (Tr. Th. p. 95 6). See chaps. 8, 9, 
supra, and note e, p. 36. 

d j32quoreos. Derry was a point of commu- 
nication with Hy, see i. 2, ii. 39 ; O'Donnell, 
iii. 21. In coming to Druimceatt, St. Columba 
entered the mouth of Lough Foyle (O'Don. iii. 
3, Tr. Th. 431 a) ; but in proceeding to Scot- 
land on this occasion, he embarked atColeraine. 
In his first voyage he followed the northern 
coast from Derry to the mouth of the Bann, 
and thence across. O'Don. ii. 10 (Tr. Th. 
p. 410 6). 

c Comgellus Founder and first abbot of Ban- 
gor in the Ards of Ulster, born in 517, died in 
602. The introduction of his name here is very 
natural, as the church of Cambas, which is men- 
tioned a little further on, was founded by him, 
and is situate in the next parish to that where 
this interview took place, being distant about 
four miles east of Dun-Cehern, or the Sconce. 
Concerning his parentage, see the following 
note on Cruthini populi, and that on his name in 
iii. 17, infra. On his chief monastery see the 
note iii. 13, infra. 



f Supra memorata munitione. This refers to 
the name in the titulus, the omission of which 
by the Bollandists leaves their text in this 
place imperfect. The same observation applies 
to the text of the shorter recension represented 
by Codd. C. D. F. S., which exhibits the words 
supra memorata, but has no antecedent mention 
of the name ; proving that there has been an 
omission, and that consequently the text in 
that family of MSS. is an abridged one. See 
note b , p. 66, and note a , p. 76, supra. 

B Nellis Nepotes That is, Hi Neill, com- 
monly called Hy-Neill, or the descendants of 
Niall of the Nine Hostages. The sons of this 
monarch by his first wife were Laeghaire, St. 
'Patrick's contemporary, and Conall Crimthann, 
grandfather of Dermait Mac Cerbhail, men- 
tioned above in cap. 36, whose descendants oc- 
cupied Meath, and were, from their position, 
styled the Southern Hy Neill. By his second 
wife he had Eoghan, ancestor of the Cenel 
Eoghain, who gave name to Tyrone and Inish- 
owen, and were in after times represented by 
the O'Neill family; Conall Gulban, ancestor of 
the Cinel Conaill, who gave name to Tir-Con- 
nell, nowDonegal ; Cairbre, Enna, and others of 
inferior note, collectively forming the Northern 
Hy Neill. St. Columba was great-grandson of 
Conall Gulban, and first-cousin of Ainmire, the 



94 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



ticuli locus replebitur. 26 Qiu ejus 20 veridica suo tempore post nmltos vatici- 
natio expleta est annos. In quo bcllo, ut multi 27 norunt populi, 28 Domnallus 
29 Aidi filius victor sublimatus est k , et in eodem, secundum sancti vaticinium 

25 corrupt! add. D. 2G viri dicta D. S7 non ignorant D. 2I * domnalius C. donnldus D. 
domnaldus F. S. ~ cietia D. 



grandfather of Domnalius mentioned in the 
text, as the following Table shows : 



CONALL GULBAN 



FERGUS CENNFADA == EAROA 



Prajf. 2, p. 8. 



il/AKUA 

i. 7, 12, 



, pp. 32, 40. 



SEDNA FEDHLIMIDII = ETHNE 

i. 7, p. 32. Praif. 2, p. 8. Prof. 2, p. 8. 

i 

AlNMIRE COLPMBA 

1. 7, p. 32. 

AEDH or AIDUS 
i. 11, p. 38 ; 49. 

DOJIHNALl Or DOMNALLUS 

i. 10, pp. 36, 37; iii. 5. 

Hence the clans led by Domhnall in the battle 
are styled in the text " mei cognationales 
amici." 

h Crulhini populi. Cpvnohne, the Irish Picts, 
a name frequently given to the Dal-Araidhe. 
They inhabited the southern half of the county 
of Antrim, and the greater part of the county 
of Down, and their territory was sometimes 
called epic na Cpuichrie, 'region of the Picts.' 
Mons Mis, or Sliabh ITIip, now Slemish, a re- 
markable hill in the centre of the county of 
Antrim, is placed by the Book of Armagh 
(fol. 3 a a), and the Second and Fourth Lives 
of S. Patrick in Colgan's collection (Tr. Th. 
pp. 14, 39), " in regionibus Cruidnenorum." 
Fiacha Araidhe, who gave name to the Dal 
Araidhe, was, according to Tighernach, lord 
of the Cruithne in 236. Book of Lecan, fol. 
140 b, 141 a, 194 a b ; O'Flaherty, Ogyg. iii. 18 
(p. 190), iii. 47 (p. 278); Ussher, Br. EC. Ant. 
c. 15 (Wks. vi. p. 105) ; Irish Nennius, p. xlviii.; 
Reeves' EC. Ant. p. 337. Adamnan makes men- 



tion of the Cruithnii at i. 7, and 36, and draws 
the distinction which is generally observed in 
the Annals of Ulster, calling the Irish Picts 
Cruithnii, and the Scottish, Picti or Pictores. 
The Life of St. Comgall says : " De aquilonali 
Hiberniaj regione, nomine Dail-naraidhe, qua? 
est contra mare in aquilonali provincice plaga 
Ultorum, sanctus abbas Comgallus ortus fuit." 
(Cod. Kilken. fol. 90 b a ; Fleming, Collect, p. 
303.) According to his pedigree he was ninth 
in descent from Fiacha Araidhe, the founder of 
the race ; while Congal Claen, who commanded 
the Dalaradians in this battle, was tenth in de- 
scent from the same individual. For the his- 
tory of Congal Claen, see O 'Donovan's Battle 
of Magh Rath, pp. 22, 34, etc. For the place 
of St. Comgall's birth, see Reeves' Eccl. Antiqq. 
p. 269. 

1 Munitio Cethirni. The Latin equivalent 
for t)un Ceichipn, Dun Keliern. This fortress 
derived its name from Cethern, son of Fintan, 
one of the famous heroes of the Red Branch 
who flourished in Ulster about the Christian 
era. His grandfather Niall Niamhglonnach 
[' of the shining deeds'], son of Ross Ruadh, 
son of Rudhraighe, ancestor of theClannaRury, 
had his residence, about five miles eastwards, 
in the majestic earthen fort over the Bann, 
anciently called Dun-da-bheann [Fort of the 
two peaks], and now known as Mountsandal, 
near the Cutts of Coleraine. (Cathreim Con- 
ghail Clairingnech, p. 12, MS. R. Ir. Acad.) 
Cethern, the founder of Dun Ceithern, occupies 
a prominent place in the ancient historical ro- 
mance called the Tain-bo-Cuailgne, in which 
he is represented as coming from Dun-da- 
bheann (Book of Leinster, fol. 62 a a) ; and 
again as sent for to Carn Loig [Four Mast. 



CAP. 49.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



95 



viri, fonticulo, quidam de parentela ejus interfectus 30 est homo. Alius mihi 
31 Adamnano ] Christ! miles, Finanus nomine, qui vitam multis anachoreticam 
annis juxta Koboreti monasterium Campi n irreprehensibiliter ducebat, de 



30 om. C. 31 B. adomnano A. C. 



478] to come to the aid of Cuchullen. The 
fortress of Dun-da-bheann was on the north- 
western edge of the true Ultonian territory, 
while Dun-Ceithern was within the debateable 
ground which now constitutes the north of the 
county of Londonderry. Cethern was of the 
stock of Ir, from which the Irish Picts are said 
to have derived their origin (Ogyg. p. 190; 
Reeves' EC. Ant. p. 336) ; but the possession 
passed from his family to the sons of Mall, and 
remained so until the battle of Ocha, when it 
was temporarily restored to the Dalaradians 
or Picts. (See note c , p. 32, supra.) It was 
recovered by the Hy Neill after the battle of 
Moin-doire-lothair in 563 (ibid.'), and thence- 
forward was a scene of contention between the 
rival races. In 572, the joint sovereigns of 
Ireland, who were of the race of Eoghan, were 
slain by Cronan, king of Cianachta, the terri- 
tory on the border of which Dun Ceithern was 
situate (note a , p. 40, supra) ; and the battle re- 
ferred to in the text arose out of the slaughter 
of Suibhne Meann, who was also a sovereign 
of the race of Eoghan, by Congal Claen, king 
of Uladh, himself a Dalaradian or Pict, who is 
supposed to have undertaken the deed upon the 
condition of receiving from Domhnall, the suc- 
cessor to the throne, a restoration of the terri- 
tory which had been seized by the Cinel Eoghain. 
(Bat. of Magh Rath, p. 39.) Again, in 68 1, 
this very fortress was the scene of a conflict, 
as related by Tighernach : " Combustio regum 
in Dun Ceithirn i. e. Dungal mac Scandail pi 
[rex] Cruithne et Cendfaeladh mac Suibhne pi 
Cianachta Glinne Gemin in initio estatis la [per] 
Maelduin mac Mailefithrigh. In this instance 
we again find the lords of the Dalaraidhe and 
Cianachta ranged against the chief of the house 
of Eoghan. This is the last mention of the for- 



tress in history, and probably it soon after 
ceased to be occupied. In later times, even the 
name passed out of memory, and O'Donnell, 
writing of this interview, vaguely says : u Quo- 
dam tempore S. Columba et S. Comgallus cum 
moram traherent in regione Kianachta ad 
amoonos clivos et dunos mari adjacentes," etc. 
i. 95. (Tr. Th. p. 404 6.) Colgan, who was 
born in the neighbouring barony of Inishowen, 
does not seem to have been acquainted with the 
situation of the place, and, failing him, it has 
been reserved for the great restorer of Irish 
topography to identify the place and its long 
lost name. Writing, Aug. 18, 1834, Dr. O'Do- 
novan, then employed on the Ordnance Sur- 
vey, emphatically observes : "I have travelled 
through Dunboe, but found no Irish people. I 
visited the Giant's Sconce, and viewed it with 
religious contemplation. I am perfectly satis- 
fied that it is the Munitio Cethirni of Adamnan, 
and the Dun Ceithirn of Tighernach and other 
( annalists. I have consulted several of the old- 
est inhabitants around it, but none could tell 
me any legend connected with it. They only 
heard that it was called Lungern in Irish, which 
is also the name by which the townland is known 
to tax-gatherers." (Londonderry Letters, Ord. 
Surv. p. 60.) The hill commonly called the 
Sconce is the most conspicuous one in the 
neighbourhood of Coleraine, situate about four 
miles west of that town, in the parish of Dunboe, 
on the old Newtown road. It is 797 feet above 
the level of the sea, and the top, which is a ta- 
ble measuring 160 by 94 feet, exhibits the re- 
mains of an ancient fortress. On the west and 
south, opposite Bratwell [blmplebe, Tigh. 
681?] and Formoyle [poprncioil], the face of 
the hill is very precipitous ; on the north and 
east it is less so, and at a lower level has a 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



eodem bello se praesente commisso aliqua enarrans, protestatus est in supra- 
dicto fonte truncuni 32 cadaverinum vidisse, eademque die ad monasterium 
sancti 83 Comgelli quod 34 Scotice dicitur 36 Cambas commisso reversum bello 

32 cadaver D. 33 congclli C. comgalli D. 31 scotticc B. 35 cammus D. 



small semicircular platform, formed by an ex- 
pansion of the hill. On the north-east is a well, 
and on the south-east is the entrance to the fort, 
5 feet wide, ascending abruptly by rude steps. 
On the north-east was also a long gallery, 
formed against the side of the apex by large 
stones regularly laid, with an inclination in- 
wards, and covered with cross flags, similar to 
the cyclopean structure of the Grianan Ailech 
(Ord. Mem. Templemore, pp. 217-221), 40 feet 
long, by 2 broad, serving as a covered way, and 
also as breast-work on the accessible side. The 
whole crest of the hill was enclosed by a cyclo- 
pean wall, of which some traces remain, though 
the mass of it has been precipitated down the 
sides, and either carried away for building pur- 
poses elsewhere, or suffered to lie in debris at 
the foot. The remarkable gallery which has 
been just mentioned was disturbed and reduced 
to its present condition, which is little better 
than a great ridge of dry stones, by a person 
who, about thirty years ago, brought a number 
of men to the spot "to search the cove for 
money," and, with them, a barrel of beer to 
stimulate their exertions. In the Ord. Survey 
the hill is placed in the townland Sconce, which 
is a modern denomination. (Sheet 7, east 
edge.) Properly, three townlands meet at the 
spot, now called Lenagarron, Belgarra, and 
Knocknamult, and comprehended in Lennagor- 
ran and Knockmult, in the Londonderry Char- 
ter. (Concise View of the Irish Soc. Append., 

P- 36.) 

k Sublimatus est. This battle was fought in 
629. The Annals of Ulster, at 628, have the 
following record of it : Bellum Duin Ceithirnn 
in quo Congal Caech fugit, et Domhnall mac 
Aedo [victor] erat : in quo cecidit Guaire mac 
Forindain. Between the Dalaradians and the 



Hy Neill there existed a hostile feeling from the 
time of the battle of Moin-doire, mentioned at 
cap. 7. Aedh Dubh, lord of the former, in 
565, slew Diarmait (see cap. 36). In the year 
preceding the present engagement, Congal 
Caech, or Claen, King of Uladh, slew Suibhne 
Meann, monarch of Ireland, who was of the 
Cenel Eoghain branch of the northern Hy Neill, 
and thus made room for the accession of Domh- 
nall, as predicted in chap. 10, supra, who 
avenged his kinsman's death in the manner re- 
lated in the text. For Congal Claen's move- 
ments after this battle, see the note on Bellum 
Roth, iii. 5, infra. 

1 Mild Adamnano. He was born in 624, so 
that he was in his fifth year at the date of the 
battle. He speaks in the first person also in 
i. 2, iii. 19, 23. 

m Finanus. Of the nine saints of this name 
in the calendar, Colgan supposes him to be the 
Finan Lobhar of Mar. 16. (Act. SS. p. 627.) 
O'Donnell, upon what authority is uncertain, 
says of him : " S. Finnen qui in monasterio de 
Magh- Cosgain anachoreticam vitam diu trans- 
duxit." i. 95. (Tr. Th. 404 &.) That place 
is now called Macosquin. See note on Cambas. 

n Roboreti Campi. Durrow. See i. 3, 29, 
ii. 2, 39, iii. 15. 

Cambas This monastery was founded by 

S. Comgall, probably under the patronage of 
the Pictish residents in Dun-da-bheann or 
Mountsandal, and Dun-Ceithern, whose oc- 
cupation of this territory is still attested by 
the townland ofDrumcroon, or ' Picts Ridge,' in 
the same parish, and Duncroon, or ' Picts Fort,' 
in the adjacent parish of Magilligan. In the 
Calendar we find Col/mom abb 6 Cammap 
Comgaill pop bpu banna, ' Colman, abbot 
of Gammas Comghaill on the banks of the 



CAP. 50.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



97 



quia inde prius venerat, 36 ibidemque duos sancti "Comgelli senes monachos 
reperisse: quibus cum de bello coram se acto, et 38 de fonticulo Huraano cruore 
corrupto, aliquanta cnarraret, illi consequenter, Verus 39 propheta Columba, 
aiunt, qui hoec omnia quae liodie de bello et 40 de fonticulo expleta 4I enarras, 
ante multos annos futura, nobis audientibus, coram sancto 42 Comgello, juxta 
"Ccthirni sedens munitionem, praenunciaverat. 



1 DE DIVERSORUM DISCRETIONE XENIORUM SANCTO REVELATA VIRO DIALI 

GRATIA. 

EODEM 2 in tempore Conallus, episcopus 3 Culerathm a , collectis a populo 
Campi 4 Eilni b pene innumerabilibus 5 xeniis c , beato viro hospitium praeparavit, 

30 ibi dcnique C. 37 comgilli A. congelli C. comgalli D. 38 om. D. 39 est add. C. 40 am. C. 
41 enurrans D. 42 congello C. comgallo D. 43 A. F. S. cethirin B. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om , D. 3 ~ 4 om. C. D. F. S. 4 elni B. s exeniis B. D. 



Bann." Cal. Doneg. Oct. 30. And again, 
Colma, boga, -| Laippi i Catnap Cornwall!, 
' Colma, Bogha, and Laisri, in Camas Com- 
ghall.' Ib. Jan. 22. The connexion of Bangor 
with the present monastery was long main- 
tained, for in 938 Muircertach Camsa, that is, 
' of Camus,' was abbot of Bangor. Four Mast. 
Camus gave name to a parish situate on the 
west of the Bann, in the diocese of Derry, which, 
for distinction's sake, is called Camus juxta 
Bann, there being another of the same name in 
the Tyrone part of the diocese, styled, from 
the neighbouring river, Camus juxta Mourne. 
An island in the Baun, opposite the churchyard 
of Camus, was formerly called Imp Lochain 
(Four Mast. 1170, 1544), beside which was a 
shallow spot known as peapcap Campa, ' the 
Ford of Camus,' from which the island is called 
Enis Parsed on Speed's Map of Ulster. In the 
twelfth century an abbey was founded in ano- 
ther part of the parish, called in Cistercian re- 
cords De Claro Fonte (Martene, Thes. Nov. 
Anecd. iv. coll. 1460, 1524), but by the Irish 
Nlag-Copspani (Four Mast. 1505), which now 
gives to the whole parish, according to civil 



usage, on the Ordnance Survey, the name Ma- 
cosquin. All traces of the church have disap- 
peared from the cemetery of Camus ; but an 
ancient sculptured cross or pillar, divided by 
transverse bands into four compartments, each 
containing three human figures in relief, stood 
on a base at the west side till 1760, when it was 
overturned, and, having been mutilated, was 
converted into a gate-post for the churchyard, 
in which condition it still exists. See Reeves' 
Colton's Visitation, p. 83; Sampson's Survey 
of L. Derry, p. 484. The name Camap is sup- 
posed to be compounded of cam-ap, ' crooked 
stream,' and in Ireland there are twelve town- 
lands of the name. In Scotland it is sometimes 
Camus, as in Argyleshire, and sometimes Cam- 
bus, as in Lanark and Perthshire. See note on 
Ait-chambas at ii. 22, infra. 

a Culerathin. Now Coleraine, well known 
town on the east side of the river Bann. The 
nameinlrishis Cuil paicen, Secessusfilicis. St. 
Patrick is said to have founded the church, and 
to have appointed Carbreus its bishop. Vit. 
Trip. ii. 136 (Tr. Th. p. 148 a} ; Calendar. Done- 
gal. Nov. 1 1. "Perrexit trans flumen Bandaj et 

o 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. i. 



post condictiun d supra memoratorum rcgum, turba prosequente multa, rever- 
tenti: proinde sancto advenienti viro 6 xenia populi multa, inplatea ' monasterii 
strata, benedicenda 7 assignantur. Qua3 cum benedicens aspiceret, 8 xenium 
alicujus opulenti viri specialiter demonstrans, Virum, ait, cujus est hoc 
B xenium, pro misericordiis pauperum, et ejus largitione, Dei comitatur miseri- 
cordia. 10 Itemque aliud discernit inter alia multa 8 xenium, inquiens, De hoc 
ego n xenio viri sapientis et avari nullo modo gustare possum, nisi prius veram 
de peccato avoritias poenitudinem egerit. Quod verbum cito in turba divulga- 
tum audiens, accurrit Columbus filius 12 Aidi f conscius, et 13 coram Sancto flexis 
genibus "pomitentiani 16 agit, et de cetero avaritiae abrenunciaturum se pro- 
inittit, et lorgitatem cum morum emendatione consecuturum. Et jussus a 
Sancto surgere, ex ilia hora est sanatus de vitio tenacitatis. Erat enim vir sa- 
piens, sicuti Sancto in ejus revelatum 16 erat 17 xenio. Ille vero dives largus, 
Brendenus nomine, de cujus 16 xenio paulo superius dictum est, audiens et ipse 



6 exenia B. D. 7 signantur D. 8 exenium D. 9 diu B. 
12 ae&a D. is veram C. u veram add. D. 15 sancto add. D. 



10 item D. n exenio D. 

est D. 17 exenio D. 



benedixit locum in quo est cellola Guile Raithin 
in Eilniu in quo fuit episcopus." Tirechan. 
(Book of Armagh, fol. 15 a b.) Of the Conal- 
lus in the text we have no other record. The 
first mention of Cuil-rathain in the Annals is 
A. C. 731. See Reeves' EC. Ant. pp. 75, 247. 

b Campi Eilni Eilniu in Book of Armagh, 
as in preceding note. Sometimes written Eille, 
as, barm eccip Le acup Gille, ' The Bann be- 
tween Le and Eille.' Lee was on the left side. 
See note on cap. 22 (p. 52) supra. The terri- 
tory of ma<5 61ne was bounded on the east 
by the Bush, and on the west by the Bann, and 
was known in the seventeenth century as the 
" Tuogh between the Band and the Boys." It 
is now nearly represented by the North East Li- 
berties of Coleraine. Reeves' EC. Ant. p. 330. 

c Xeniis i. 41 (p. 79) supra. See Glossary. 

" Xenium beato viro eadem ilia virgo trans- 
misit; fecitque Martinus quod antea non fe- 
cerat ; nullius enim ille xenium, nullius munus 
accepit." Sulp. Sever., Vit. Martini. (Lib. 
Armac. fol. 213 a b ; or p. 592, Ed. Hornii.) 

d Condictum. See note a , chap. 49 (p. 91). 



Platea The plateola of the monastery at 
Hy is mentioned in iii. 6, infra. The equivalent 
Irish term is pcncce. The abbey of Coleraine, 
of which not a vestige remains, occupied the 
site of the present shambles, beside the ri- 
ver. The situation of the abbey is shown in 
" The Plot of Coleraine" among the MS. maps 
in Trin. Coll. Dubl. Dr. Lanigan observes that 
at this place " the text is much confused in 
Colgan's edition, but is very clear in Messing- 
ham's." (Eccl. Hist. ii. p. 246.) This is a 
strange prejudice, for the opening sentence as 
it stands in the shorter recension, which Mes- 
singham copies, is scarcely translateable. 

f Columbus filius Aidi. He was a vir sapiens, 
Hib. paoi, and Colgan identifies him with the 
individual commemorated in Marian Gorman's 
calendar, at Nov. 8 and Dec. 1 1, TTIQC QeDQ 
CldlN COlUTll .1. Cuile tJarhavn .1. Cuile 
bpivmt, ' Colum, son of Aedh Clain, of Cuil 
Damhain, i. e. Cuil Briuin.' (Tr. Th. p. 381 a, 
n. 107.) Columbus, Columba, Columbanus, and 
Colman, are various forms of the same name. 
See i. 5 (p. 29) ; and Index. 



CAP. 50.] Auctore Adamnano. 99 

Sancti verba de se dicta, ingeniculans ad pedes Sancti, precatur ut pro eo ad 
Dominum Sanctus fundat precem : qui, ab eo primum pro quibusdam suis ob- 
jurgatus peccatis, pocnitudinem gerens, de cetero se emendaturum promisit; et 
sic uterque de propriis emendatus et sanatus est vitiis. 

"Simili scientia Sanctus et alio tempore xenium alicujus tenacis viri, inter 
multa cognovit xenia, Diormiti nomine, ad Cellam Magnam 18 Deathrib g in 
ejtis adventu collecta. 

Haec de beati viri prophetica gratia, quasi de plurimis pauca, in hujus li- 
belli textu primi 19 caraxasse sufficiat. Pauca dixi, nam hoc de venerabili viro 
non est dubitandum quod valde numerosiora fuerint quae in notitiam hominum, 
sacramenta interius celata, venire nullo modo poterant, qnam ea quae, quasi 
quasdam parva aliquando stillicidia, veluti per quasdam rimulas alicujus pleni 
vasis ferventissimo novo distillabant vino. Nam eancti et apostolici viri, va- 
nam evitantes gloriam, plerumque in quantum possunt interna quajdam arcana, 
sibi intrinsecus a Deo manifestata, celare festinant. Sed Deus nonnulla ex eis, 
velint nolint ipsi, divulgat, et in medium quoquo profert modo, videlicet glo- 
rificare volens glorificantes se Sanctos, hoc est, ipsum Dominum, cui gloria in 
secula 20 seculorum 21 . 

l ~-~ om. C. D. F. S. J 8 dethrib B. ^ B. craxasse A. exarasse Colg. Boll. 21 amen add. B. 

s Cellam Magnam Deathrib. Hib. Gill-mop Briuin of the Shannon,' or Cill-mor na Sinna, 
bicpift (Tigh. 736, 757; An. Ult. 735, 756). ' Kilmore of the Shannon' (Four Mast. 1232, 
t)icpeab, ' a wilderness;' bicpulj, Fiech's 1249, 1330). This was one of the churches 
Hymn, 22 (Tr. Th. p. 3). Derived by Cor- founded by St. Columba previously to his re- 
mac from bi, negative, and cpeab, ' a house.' moval to Scotland, and it was probably in con- 
Colgan supposed that this was the church nexion with his sojourn in this neighbourhood 
in the county of Cavan which gives name to that the incidents occurred which are related 
the diocese of Kilmore (Tr. Th. p. 381 a, of the Boyle river in i. 42, and ii. 19, of these 
n. 108) ; but Dr. O' Donovan, more correctly, memoirs. The Life of St. Munna relates : 
identifies it with Kilmore in the county of "Venit B. Munna ad scholam S. Columbae, 
Roscommon, barony of Ballintober North (Four qui tune erat magister in loco qui dicitur Sco- 
Mast. 730). In this he is supported by an tice Ceallmor Dithraimh, id est, Cella magna 
entry at 752, where the Ui Crumthainn, the remota, et ibi S. Munna legit apud virum sa- 
inhabitants of the modern baronies of Bally- pientem Columbam." cap. 5 (Cod. Marsh, fol. 
moe and Killian, in the north-east part of 127 b a; Tr. Th. p. 460 b, c. 35). The name 
Galway, adjacent to Kilmore, are represented occurs twice in the Calendar of Donegal at the 
as burning Cill-mor-dithraibh. From its po- gth of August. Kilmore is now a parish in the 
sition on the Shannon, in the territory of Tir- diocese of Elphin, situate a short distance 
Briuin, it is sometimes called in the Annals south-east of the confluence of the Boyle and 
Cill-mor Tir Bruin na Sinna, 'Kilmore in Tir- Shannon. (Ord. Surv. Roscom. ss. 17, 18.) 

O2 



i oo Vita Sancti Columbw [LIB. n. 

"Huic primo libro 23 hic imponitur terminus ; 24 nunc sequens 25 orditur 
2fi liber de virtutum 87 miraculis, 28 quge plerumque etiam prophetalis praescientia 
"comitatur. 



CAPITTJLA* SECUNDI LIBRI INCIPIUNT, 

DE VIRTUTUM MIRACULIS. 

DE vino quod de aqua factum est b . 

De amarissimis alicujus arboris pomis, in dulcedinem per Sancti benedictio- 

nem versis c . 
De terra, post medium oestatis tempus arata et seminata, mensis Augusti in- 

cipientis exordio maturam messem proferente d . 
De morbifera nube, et languentium sanitate 6 . 
De Mauguina sancta virgine, et fractura coxa? ejus sanata f . 
De multorum morbis fimbrise vestimenti ejus tactu, in Dorso Gete, sanatis g . 
De petra salis a Sancto benedicta, quam ignis absumere non potuit h . 
De librariis foliis manu Sancti scriptis, qua3 aqua nullo modo corrumpi pot- 

uere 1 . 

De aqua, quae, Sancto orante, ex dura producta est petra k . 
De aqua fontana, quam Sanctus ultra Britannicum benedixit Dorsum, et sa- 

navit 1 . 
De Sancti periculo in mari, et de magna tempestate in tranquillitatem 

continuo, orante ipso, conversa" 1 . 

De altero ejus periculo, et de sancto Cainnecho pro ipso et sociis ejus orante 11 . 
De baculo in portu sancti Cainnechi neglecto . 

22-37 rubriva B. 22 de B. & om. B. ^-26 capitula secundi libri incipiunt B. 25 oritur D. 
M-29 A. C. D. F. S. om. B. 

a Cod. A. has no capitula for the second or the chapters in Cod. B., vary from that in 

third books, and the present are supplied from Cod. A. 

Cod. B., which, though of inferior age, are en- b Cap. i. h Cap. 7. 

titled to some consideration, as they are not c Cap. 2. * Capp. 8, 9. 

servile transcripts of the titles prefixed to d Cap. 3. k Cap. 10. 

the chapters. It will be seen by the follow- e Cap. 4. l Cap. u. 

ing references that, in some instances, these f Cap. 5. m Cap. 12. 

capitula, which correspond to the order of s Cap. 6. n Cap. 13. 



CAPITCLA.] Auctore Adamnano. 101 

De Baitheneo et Columbano filio Beognoi, qui a Sancto secundum, eadem 

die, sed diversa via, ventum sibi dari postularunt p . 
De dsemonis repulsione qui in lactis vasculo latitabat q . 
De vasculo quod quidam maleficus, lacte de masculo bove expresso, diabolica 

replevit arte ; sed, Sancto orante, ipsum quod videbatur lac, in sanguinem, 

hoc est, in naturam propriam, versum est r . 
De Lugneo Mocumin, quern Sanctus de profluvio sanguinis, qui crebro ex 

naribus ejus profluebat, oratione et digitorum tactu sanavit 8 . 
De esoce magno in fluvio, juxta verbum Sancti, invento*. 
De duobus piscibus, illo prophetante, in flumine quod vocatur Boo repertis". 
De quodam plebeio qui Nesanus Curvus dicebatur v . 
De quodam divite tenacissimo, nomine Uigeno. 
De Columbano asque plebeio viro, cujus pecora admodum pauca vir sanctus be- 

nedixit ; sed post illius benedictionem usque ad centenarium creverunt 

numerum x . 
De interitu Johannis filii Conallis, eadem die qua Sanctum spernens dehonor- 

avit*. 

De alicujus Feradachi morte, fraudulent! viri, a Sancto proanunciata 2 . 
De alio persecutore, cujus nomen latine Manus Dextera dicitur a . 
De alio innocentium persecutore, qui in Laginensium provincia, sicut Anna- 

nias coram Petro, eodem momento, a Sancto terribiliter objurgatus, cecidit 

mortuus b . 
De apri mortificatione, qui a Sancto eminus cecidit, signo prostratus Dominicae 

crucis c 
De alia aquatili bestia, quse, eo orante, et manum e contra levante, retro re- 

pulsa est ne Lugneo natanti vicino noceret d . 
De insulaa lonae viperinis serpentibus, qui, ex qua die Sanctus earn benedixit, 

nulli hominum nee etiam pecoribus nocere potuere 6 . 
De hasta ab eo signata, quaa deinceps nullo modo, quamlibet fortiter impulsa, 

alicui potuit nocere animanti f . 
De Diormiti asgrotantis sanitate^. 

Fenteni filii Aido, in extremis positi, sanitate 11 . 

Cap. 14. * Cap. 19. y Cap. 22. J Cap. 27. 
P Cap. 15. u Cap. 19. z Cap. 23. e Cap. 28. 

1 Cap. 16. v c a p t 2 o. a Cap. 24. f Cap. 29. 
r Cap. 17. w Appendage to cap. 20 B. b Cap. 25. e Cap. 30. 
* Cap. 1 8. x Cap. 21. c Cap. 26. h Cap. 31. 



IO2 



Vita Sancti Columbm 



[LIB. ir. 



De puero quern mortuum, in nomine Domini Jesu Christi, in regione Picto- 

rum, suscitavit 1 . 
De conflictu ejus contra magum Broichanum, ob ancillee retentionem; et de 

lapide quern Sanctus benedixit, qui in aqua quasi pomum supernatavit k . 
De beati viri contra Broichanum magum refragatione, et venti contrarietate 1 . 
De spontanea regiae munitionis portse subita apertione. 
De ecclesiai Duorum Agri Kivorum simili reclusione". 
De alio paupere, plebeio mendico, cui Sanctus, sudem faciens, benedixit, ad 

ferarum jugulatiouem silvestrium . 

De utre lactario, quern unda maris abduxit, et reduxit ad terram p . 
De Librano Haruudineti sancti prophetatio viri q . 
De quadam muliercula, magnas et valde difficiliores parturitionis tortiones 

passa, et sanata 1 '. 

De conjuge Lugnei odiosi gubernatorial 

De Cormaco Nepote Lethani, et ejus navigationibus, sancti Columbae prophe- 
tatio*. 
De venerabilis viri in curru evectione, absque currilium obicum commu- 

nitione u . 
De pluvia post aliquot siccitatis menses, beati ob honorem viri, super sitientem, 

Domino donante, terrain effusa v . 
Miraculum quod nunc, Deo propitio, describere incipimus, nostris tempori- 

bus facturn, propriis inspeximus oculis : 
De ventorurn flatibus contrariis, venerabilis viri virtute orationum, in secundos 

conversis ventos w . 
De mortalitate x . 

EXPLICIUNT CAPITULA SECUNDI LIBRI. 



i Cap. 32. 


n Cap. 36. 


r Cap. 40. 


v Cap. 44. 


k Cap. 33. 


Cap. 37. 


5 Cap. 41. 


Cap. 45. 


1 Cap. 34. 


P Cap. 38. 


4 Cap. 42. 


x Cap. 46. 


m Cap. 35. 


i Cap. 39. 


11 Cap. 43. 





CAP. I.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



103 



1 LIBER SECUNDUS. DE VIRTUTUM MIRACULIS. 

2 DE VINO QUOD DE AQUA FACTUM EST. 

ALIO 3 in tempore, cum vir venerandus 4 in 5 Scotia apud sanctum 6 Find- 
barrum a episcopum, adhuc juvenis, sapientiam sacra3 Scriptura3 b addiscens, 



1 titulus dee&t A. incipit secundus liber de virtutum miraculia quae plenissime plerumque etiam 
pncscientia prophetalis comitatur B. incipit liber secundus de virtutum miraculis C. F. S. sancti co- 
lumbe add. D. 2 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 3 om. D. * columba add. D. 5 scothia C. 

hybernia D. fenbarrum B. finbarrum D. 



a Findbarrum Soi. r (p. 13) supra. Further 
on Vinnianus; and Finnio in iii. 4, infra. The 
Irish pirmen, pinben, and pmnia, are dimi- 
nutives of pinn, ' albus,' equivalent to Albinus, 
and appear in the Latin forms Finnianus, Fin- 
dianus, Finnio, Vinnio, and Vinnianus; to which 
the Italians add Fridianus and Frigidianus. 
Findbarr is a compound name, formed from 
pinn bapp, ' pulcher vertex,' " propter can- 
dorem capillorum." (Colg. Act. SS. p. 638 a.) 
There were two famous abbots called Finnian, 
who were successively teachers of St. Columba: 
one of them founder of Magh-bile, now Movilla 
in Down; the other, of Cluain-Eraird, now 
Clonard in Meath. With the former of these, 
the ancient Irish Life, followed by O'Donnell 
(i. 39, Tr. Th. p. 395 a), Keating (reg. Aodh), 
and Lanigan (Ec. H. ii. p. 117), identifies the 
Findbarr of the text. l/vno lapuih bo pog- 
luimm ecnai cup in nopal eppcop .1. co 
Pinben TTluigi bile, peccup anb cepca pin 
ocup baipgen ol pinben on aipppiunb. ben- 
nachaip Colum cille in tipci cop poab h-i 
pin, co cap cab ipm coilech n-aipppmb. ' He 
went, then, to learn wisdom, to the illustrious 
bishop, namely, Finden of Magh-bile. On a 
certain occasion wine and bread were wanting 
to Finden for the offertory : Golumcille blessed 
the water, and it was turned into wine, and put 
into the offertory chalice.' With this agree the 
Lives of SS. Ere and Callin (Colg. Act. SS. 



p. 644 a). Colgan is undecided in his choice, 
for at Feb. 23 he inclines to Clonard (Act. SS. 
pp. 403 i, 644 a); and at March 18 to Movilla 
(Ib. p. 644 a; Tr. Tr. p. 381 a). St. Finnian 
of Movilla was son of Cairbre, one of the Dal 
Fiatach, the royal family of Ulster, and became 
the patron saint of the Ultonians (Reeves, Eccl. 
Ant. p. 151). Besides Movilla, he was the 
founder of Druim-fionn, now Dromin in Louth 
(' Eccl. S. Fintani de Dromyng,' Regist. Fle- 
ming, fol. 44 a) ; and here the dispute between 
him and St. Columba respecting the manuscript 
of the Gospels is said to have occurred. He 
died Sept. 10, which is his festival ; and his 
obit is thus recorded by Tighernach at 579: 
Quies Finniani episcopi Nepotis Fiatach. Where 
O'Conor corruptly for Finniani reads Mani. 
Also in the Annal. Ult., at 578 : Quies Vin~ 
niani episcopi mic [filii] Nepotis Fiatach, as 
in the Dublin MS. ; though O'Conor's text 
unmeaningly gives Umaniain as the Saint's 
name. The Irish Life states that St. Co- 
lumba, on leaving St. Finnian of Maghbile, 
placed himself under a senior called Gemman 
mentioned at ii. 25, infra), from whom he re- 
moved to St. Finnian of Clonard. The Life 
by Cummian subjoins the present anecdote to 
that recorded at iii. 4, infra, where see note. 

b Sacra Scriptures. If this refer to the teach- 
ing of St. Finnian of Movilla, it renders the le- 
gend of the quarrel between him and St. Co- 



IO4 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. n. 



commaneret, quadam 7 solenni die vinum ad "sacrificale mysterium casu aliquo 
minime inveniebatur : de cujus defectu cum ministros altaris inter se conque- 
rentes atidiret, ad fontem sumpto "pergit urceo, ut ad 10 sacrae Eucharistiae 
"mmisteria aquam, quasi 12 diaconus, fontanam hauriret c : ipse quippe illis in 
diebns erat in diaconatus gradu administrans. Vir itaque beatus aquaticum, 
quod de latice hausit, elementum, invocato nomine 13 Domini 14 Jesu Christi, 
fideliter benedixit, qui in 16 Cana Galileos aquam 10 in 17 vinum convertit: quo 
etiam 18 in 19 hoc operante miraculo, inferior, hoc est aquatica natura, in gratio- 
rem, videlicet vinalem, per manus prasdicabilis viri conyersa est d speciem. Vir 
itaque sanctus, a fonte re versus, et ecclesiam intrans, talem juxta altare urceum 
intra se liabeutem deponit liquorem; et ad ministros, Habetis, ait, vinum, 
quod Dominus 20 Jesus ad sua misit peragenda mysteria. Quo cognito, sanc- 
tus cum 21 ministris 22 episcopus eximias Deo referunt 23 grates. Sanctus vero 
jtivenis 6 24 hoc non sibimet, sed sancto 25 Vinniano adscribebat episcopo. Hoc 



7 solemni A. sollenni D. 
ia diacon A. " om. B. C. 
!'> om. D. 20 christus C. 
25 A. B. F. S. finnbarro D. 



8 sacrificii D. 9 om. B. w sacra D. F. " mysteria Boll. 

ii nostri add. D. chana B. 1( 5-" om. A. is-w om . c. 

21 o?n. D. 23 episcopo D. 23 gratias C. 21 columba add. D. 



Iumba 5 both as to cause and fact, extremely 
improbable. For the legend, see O'Donnell, 
ii. i (Tr. Th. p. 408 a), and Keating (reg. 
Aodh). In the Life of St. Fintan of Dunbleisch, 
there is a story told of the same St. Finnian re- 
fusing to lend him a copy of the Gospels (Colg. 
Act. SS. pp. n a, 643 6). The other St. Finnian, 
however, was, confessedly, a famous teacher of 
the Scriptures. See the various testimonies 
collected by Colgan from the Lives of his dis- 
ciples (Act. SS. pp. 403 6-405 a). 

c Quasi diaconus hauriret. The duty here 
performed by the deacon was that which in the 
western Church was usually assigned to the 
acolyte. The fourth Council of Carthage pre- 
scribed that when an acolyte is ordained, " Ac- 
cipiat et urceolum vacuum ad suggerendum vi- 
num in eucharistiam sanguinis Christi." 
(Labbe, Concil. ii. p. 1200.) The custom of 
mingling water with the wine in the Eucharist 
was a very ancient one. See Martene, Ant. EC. 
Rit. i. 3, 7 (Vol. i. p. 118 6); Bingham, Orig. 
Eccl. xv. 2, 7 (Wks. vol. v. p. 47). 



d Conversa est. The turning of water into 
more palateable fluids has supplied sanctology 
with a large stock of legends. A miracle re- 
sembling the present, and under like circum- 
stances, is said to have been wrought by St. 
David (Rees, Cambro-Brit. SS. p. 130); and 
by St. Fursa (Colg. Act. SS. p. 87 a). Wine was 
similarly provided by St. Aidus (76. 419 6) ; by 
St. Finnian of Clonard (76. p. 404 6) ; by St. 
Kieran of Saighir (76. p. 461 a); by St. Mo- 
choemhog (/6. p. 593 6) ; by St. Gildas (/6. p. 
1840); by St. Sezinus (76. p. 478 a); by St. 
Hymelinus (76. p. 575 6) ; by St. Cuthbert (76. 
p. 119 a) ; by St. Kiaran of Clonmacnois (Vit. 
c. 31 Cod. Marsh, fol. 147 66). Water was 
changed into honey by St. Patrick (Tr. Th. p. 
119 a); and by St. Kiaran (Cod. Marsh, fol. 
144 a a). St. Brigid turned water into milk 
(Tr. Th. p. 529 a) ; as did St. Finian of Movil- 
la (Colg. Act. SS..p. 643 6). St. Brigid changed 
water into beer (Tr. Th. p. 516, vs. 19), and 
into any other kind of drink which the infirm 
desired (76. pp. 538 6, 551 c). 



CAP. 2.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



105 



itaque 2fl protum f virtutis documentum Christus Dominus per suum declaravit 
discipulum, quod in eadem re, initium ponens signorum in 27 Cana Galilean, 
operatus est per semetipsum. 

28 Hujus, inquam, libelli, quasi quaedam lucerna, illustret exordium, quod 
per nostrum Columbam diale manifestatum est miraculum ; ut deinceps transe- 
amus ad cetera, qua3 per ipsum ostensa sunt, virtutum 29 miracula. 



'DE ALICUJUS ARBORIS FRUCTU AMARO PER SANCTI BENEDICTIONEM IN 

DULCEDINEM VERSO. 

QUJEDAM arbor erat valde pomosa prope monasterium 2 Roboris Campi a , in 
australi ejus parte; de qua cum incolae loci 3 quoddam haberent pro nimia 
fructus amaritudine querimonium, quadam die Sanctus 4 ad 5 eam accessit au- 
tumnali tempore, vidensque lignum incassum abundos habere fructus qui ex 
eis gustantes plus laederent quam delectarent ; 6 sancta elevata manu, benedi- 
cens ait, In nomine omnipotentis Dei omnis tua amaritudo, O arbor amara, 
a te recedat; tuaque hue usque amarissima nunc in dulcissima vertantur 
poma. Mirum dictu, dicto citius, eodemque momento, ejusdem arboris omnia 
poma, amissa amaritudine, in miram, secundum verbum Sancti, versa sunt 
dulcedinem b . 

28 F. pro turn A. Colg. Boll, primum C. promptum D. *' coena male Boll. 28 litera H. 

jiitRi'.ulfL r.tp.rijlf.n. Ti. 28~29 om. C. D. F. S. 



majuscula cosrulea B. _. _ ... .- 

i titul. om., cap, i. continuatur, C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 t)iapmci5 D. 3 quondam C. 4 " 5 om. D. 
c sanctus D. 



e Juvenis. St. Columba founded the church 
of Derry in 546, when he was twenty-four years 
of age, and his fourth preceptor, St. Finnian 
of Clonard, died in 550 ; so that the occurrence 
recorded in this chapter is likely to have taken 
place when he was about twenty. See Lanigan, 
Eccl. Hist. ii. p. 118. 

f Protum Ilpoirov. The var. lection, show 

that some of the copyists and editors misun- 
derstood the word. We find in the Antipho- 
nary of Bangor, in the Hymnus Apostolorum 
(Muratori," Opp. xi. pt. 3, p. 225) : 

" Dleque proto 
Vires adimens cako." 



The present expression was suggested to the 
writer by S. John, ii. n. 

a Roboris Campi. t)arp mag, Burrow. See 
i- 3 (? 2 3) supra. Qbal in Irish is an ' apple- 
tree.' The parish of Aghowl in Wicklow is 
so called from Q6a& abla, ' field of Apple-trees.' 

b Dulcedinem. A similar story is told of St. 
Mochoemoc : u Rediens inde sanctus vir ad 
cellam, vidit quandam arborem plenam fructu, 
qui erat hominibus inutilis prse amaritudine 
nimia : benedixitque signo S. crucis arborem, et 
fructus ejus illico in dulcedinem conversi sunt." 
Vit. c. 25. (Colg. Act. SS. p. 393 [recte 593] b; 
Fleming, Collect, p. 387 6.) 



io6 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



*DE SEGETE POST MEDIUM JESTATIS TEMPUS SEMINATA, ET IN EXORDIO 
3 AUGUSTI 3 MENSIS, SANCTO ORANTE, MESSA, IN 4 IOUA CONVERSANTE 
INSULA. 

ALIO B in tcmpore Sanctus 8 suos misit monachos ut de alicujus plebeii 
agcllulo virgarum fascicules 11 ad hospitium afferrent construendura. Qui cum 
ad Sanctum, 7 oncraria repleta navi de supradictis 8 virgularum materiis, re- 
versi venirent, dicerentque plebeium ejusdcm causa dispendii valde contrista- 
tum ; Sanctus consequenter pnecipiens 9 dicit, Ne ergo 10 illum scandalizemus 
virum, ad ipsum a nobis bis terni deferantur hordei modii b , eosdemque his "in 
diebus arata ipse seniinet in terra. Quibus ad plebeium, 12 Findchanum no- 
mine, juxta Sancti jussionem, missis, et coram eo cum tali commendatione 
adsignatis, gratanter accipiens, ait, Quomodo post medium 13 aesteum tempus 
seges seminata, contra hujus naturam terras, proficiet ? Marita e contra, Fac, 
ait, secundum Sancti mandatum, cui Dominus donabit quodcunque ab eo pos- 
tulaverit. Sed et qui missi sunt simul hoc addiderunt dicendo, Sanctus 



titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 agusti A. 3 mense A. 4 A. iona B. s om. D. 



6 columba 



add. D. 7 onera D. 8 virgarum D. 9 dixit D. 
frindehanum C. fiuchanum D. 13 sestivum C. 



om. C. om. D. 



12 findcanum B. 



a Virgarum fasciculos.^These were for the 
hurdle-work of which the walls of houses, both 
secular and ecclesiastical, were constructed in 
the primitive architecture of the Celts. The 
founders of the first church in Britain built on 
Ynswitrin " quandam capellam, inferius per 
circuitum virgis torquatis muros perficientes." 
(Gul. Malmesbur. ap. Ussher, Wks. v. pp. 
26, 132.) St. David's original chapel was 
"musco silvestri solum et hederse nexibus ador- 
nata," (Girald. Cambrens., Itinerar. Cambr. 
1.3.) St. Gwynlly w, circ. 580, " signavit cimi- 
terium, et in medio tabulis et virgis fundavit 
templum." (Rees, Cambro-Brit. SS. p. 148.) 
In Ireland, when St. Kieran of Saighir pre- 
pared to build his church, " aper statim in 
conspectu viri Dei, virgas et fenum ad mate- 
riam cellae construendse dentibus suis fortiter 
abscidit." (Colg. Act. SS. p. 458 5.) St. Ke- 
vin of Glendaloch " oratoriolum sibi construxit 



ex virgis." (Act. SS. Jun. torn. i. p. 316 a.) 
" In loco Raithin S. Columba-kylle cellulam 
antea proposuit fundare, et tres fasces virga- 
rum reliquit, dicens suis, Veniet alius post me, 
cui prsefinitus est ille locus a Domino. Et de 
illis fascibus S. Carthacus sibi cellulam sedifi- 
cavit, ut prophetavit S. Columba." (Act. SS. 
Mai. torn. iii. p. 381 a.) St. Finan, coming 
from Hy on his episcopal mission, " in insula 
Lindisfarnensi fecit ecclesiam episcopal! sedi 
congruam ; quam tamen more Scottorum, non 
de lapide, sed de robore secto totam composuit, 
atque harundine texit." (Bede, H. E. iii. 25.) 
St. Voloc built as his abode " pauperculam ca- 
sam calamis viminibusque contextam." (Brer. 
Aberdon. Propr. SS. Part. Hyemal. fol. 45 ac.) 
See note , p. 114, infra, and that concerning 
St. Columba's monastery, chap. 45, infra. 

b JBis terni modii. So " sex modios," i. 41 
(p. 79) supra. 



CAP. 3, 4.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



107 



Columba, qui nos ad te cum hoc misit munere, hoc mandatum per nos de tua 
commendavit segcte, dicens, Homo ille in omnipotentia Dei confidat: 14 seges 
15 ejtis, quamvis de mense Junio 10 duodecim praemissis diebus c seminata 17 , in 
lfl principiis 19 Augusti mensis metetur d . Obsequitur plebeius 20 arando et semi- 
nando; et messem, quam supradicto 21 in tempore 22 contra 23 spem seminavit, 
cum omnium admiratione vicinorum in exordio 19 Augusti mensis maturam, 
juxtaverbum Sancti, 24 messuit, 26 in loco terras qui dicitur 26 Delcros c . 



J DE MORBIFERA NUBE, ET PLURIMORUM SANITATE. 

ALIO 2 itidem 3 in tempore, cum Sanctus in 4 Ioua 5 commoraretur insula, 
sedens in monticulo qui Latine Munitio Magna a dicitur, videt ab aquilone 

14-is om. C. i A. C. quindecim B. D. F. " fuerit add. D. is principle D. tamen add. D. 
agusti A. 20 orando B. 21 om. D. 22 -23 om. D. 24 v iri add. D. 25-20 om . c. D. F. S. 

20 A. B. deleros Colg. Boll. 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. B. 3 om. D. * A. C. F. S. iona B. D. 5 commaneretD. 



c Diebus. See cap. 44, infra. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Iona barley is occasionally sown 
early in July ; but the usual time of sowing is 
June ; of reaping, the early part of September. 

d Metetur The Life of St. Fintan records 

a much more surprising occurrence : " Finta- 
nus cum suis cum legerent Evangelium, quidam 
leprosus in vernali tempore venit ad Comgal- 
lum, et quod impossibile erat, quserebat ab eo 
panem scilicet messis nuperrime factse, quasi 
segetes in vere maturse esse solerent. Tune 
jussus est a sancto Fintano ut agrum seminare 
semen, post boves adiret. Primo ergo sulco 
seminato statim frumentum crevit, et maturuit, 
et ita mirabiliter recens panis inventus est le- 
proso." cap. 5 (Colg. Act. SS. p. u 6). See 
the case recorded by Bede (H. E. iv. 28). 

e Deleros Not identified. Possibly the 
name is formed from t>eals pop, ' promontory 
of thorns.' The ancient Irish Life refers this 
anecdote to the neighbourhood of Derry : " On 
a certain occasion he sent his monks into a wood 
to cut wattling for a church for him in Daire." 
The title, however, of the present chapter is 
opposed to such a supposition. 



a Munitio Magna. The Irish of O'Donnell 
gives Oamgean mop, for which Colgan substi- 
tutes Rath-mor (Tr. Th. p. 419 a), but erro- 
neously, because that name signifies Atrium 
Magnum, as it is rendered in the Lives of St. 
Comgall(cap. 45, Flem., Collect, p. 312 a), and 
St. Fintan (cap. 1 8, Colg. Act. SS. p. 352 a), while 
Dun is the word which elsewhere is rendered 
Munitio by Adamnan. Dun-mor is the true 
representative of the Latin name ; but there is 
no place in Iona now so called. There are, 
however, two eminences in the north of the 
island called Dun-i and Dun-bhuirg. The for- 
mer, which is the highest ground in the island, 
has no traces of fortification ; but the latter, 
which is more compressed and abrupt, is situate 
a little to the south-west, commanding a wide 
prospect on the north, and has round the sum- 
mit the traces of a parapet such as are often 
seen enclosing ancient forts in Ireland and Scot- 
land. " The Names of fortified Places in the 
western Isles, are in several places called 
Sorg, and the Villages in which the Forts 
stand, are always with Sorg." Martin, West- 
ern Islands, p. 389. 
2 



loS 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. IT. 



nubem densam et pluvialem, de 7 mari 8 die serena obortam : qua ascendente 
visa, Sanctus ad quondam de suis juxta se monachum sedentem, nomine 9 Sil- 
nanum b , 10 filiiim "Nemani-don 13 Mocusogin c , Hsec nubes, ait, valde nocua 
hominibus et pecoribus erit ; hacque die velocius transvolans super aliquantam 
Scotias partem, u hoc est, ab illo rivulo qui dicitur Ailbine d usque ad Vadum 



6 plxiialem A. 
11 nemaidon A. 



T8 meridie C. A. F. S. 
n-13 nemaidonmocusogin B. 



silunnum B. C. sillanum D. 
w-w om. C. D. F. S. 



. C. D. F. S. 



b Silnannm. See i. 41 (p. 77), supra. 

c Mocusogin. A clan name, formed probably 
from rnocu So'fcQ.vn, filiorum Soyhani, or mac 
u So5am,^//Hs nepolum Soghani. Soghan, or 
Sodhan, was son of Fiacha Araidhe, founder of 
the Dal-Araidhe. See O'Flaherty, Ogyg. p. 
327 ; O'Donovan, Hy Many, p. 72. 

d Ailbine. This is now corrupted to Delvin, 
but has no connexion with the true Delvin, 
which is t)ealbna, a territorial -name. The 
Delvin river rises in the county of Meath, and, 
flowing through a rocky valley called the Glen 
of Roches, passes under Knocknagin Bridge, 
and falls into the sea at Gormanstown, a little 
north of Balbriggan. It is an inconsiderable 
stream, and is only remarkable on account of 
its old associations, and as being the boundary 
between the counties of Dublin (Ord. Surv. s. i) 
and Meath (i'6. s. 28). The present allusion to 
it and Dublin is a very curious topographical 
notice, for it proves that the territory of Fin- 
gall was defined at that early date by the same 
limits as in modern times. The name Ailbene 
occurs only once in the Four Masters, but in 
that instance in exactly the same relation that 
it does here. A. D. 1052, Cpeach la mac 
THail na TiVbo hi pine 5^a^> 50 po loipc an 
cip 6 Go cliac co hQlbene. ' A foray [was 
made] by the son of Mael-na-mbo on Fine-Gall, 
and he burned the country from Ath-cliath to 
Albene.' The original name of this territory 
was TTlag TKluipe&a i mbpfgoib, ' the plain of 
Muiredh in Bregia' (Four Mast. A. M. 4606), 
which was preserved until the seventeenth cen- 
tury in the form Moymurthy, the name of a 



manor and chapelry near Gormanstown, in the 
parish of Moorchurch. (Dean Butler's Trim, 
p. 262; Leinster Inquis., Meath, No. 153 Car. i.; 
Bp. Dopping's Visitations of Meath, Marsh's 
Libr.) In the Dinnseanchus its origin is thus 
explained : 

ITIab airnn pop maige nnab n-aic 
(5aipm cian cen caipe compaic 
TJaibcip on cnip eban cailc 
O !Tluipiba6 mac Copmaic. 

1 As for the name of your noble pleasant plain, 
'Tis an ancient name without doubt or question ; 
So called from the high-faced stout pillar, 
From Muiredlmch son of Cormac.' 

This occurs at the close of a poem of twenty- 
four stanzas, on the origin of Inbher Ailbine. 
Its legend is thus told in the prose recital : 
" Inbher Ailbine, whence it was named. That 
is not difficult. Ruadh mac Righduinn, son of 
the king of Fir-Muiridh, collected a crew of 
four canoes to cross the sea in order to visit 
his foster-brother the son of the king of Loch- 
lann. When they reached the middle of the sea, 
they failed to move in any direction, but stood 
as if held by an anchor. Ruadh then went out 
over the ship to ascertain the cause of the de- 
tention, and went under the tide, and saw nine 
women the fairest of the race, holding, three to 
each canoe. They took Ruadh with them, and 
he lay nine nights with them in their land ; and 
one of them became pregnant by him. And he 
promised to visit them on his return, if he could. 
Ruadh then went to the house of his foster- 
brother, and remained with him seven years, 



CAP. 4.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



109 



16 Clied c , pluviam vespere distillabit morbiferam, 10 quae gravia 17 et purulenta 
humanis in corporibus, et in pecorum uberibus, 18 nasci faciet ulcera f ; quibus 
homines inorbidi et pecudes, ilia venenosa gravitudine usque ad mortem mo- 
lestati, laborabunt. Sed nos eorum miserati subvenire languoribus, Domino 
miserante, debemus. Tu ergo, 10 Silnane, nunc mecum descendens de monte, 
navigationem prapara crastina die, vita comite et Deo volente, a me pane 
accepto, Dei invocato nomine 20 benedicto, quo in 21 aqua intincto, homines ea 



15 cleeth B. et D. 
20 ad scotiam transfretato add, S. 



O m. D. w quae add. D. 
21 aquam C. 



i A. F. S. siluane B. C. sillane D. 



and then returned. But he kept not his appoint- 
ment ; and he arrived at Muiridh. The nine 
women then went, having with them the son that 
had been born, to be avenged of the father ; 
but they met him not. The mother then killed 
her own and Ruadh's son, and she flung his 
head on shore. Whereupon all said, as if with 
one mouth, Ip oill bine, It is an awful crime; 
unde dicitur Inbher Oillbine." 

Qnb apbepc pluag ponapb pe 
710 cecc "Ruab po gaps pige 
uili cen conb im glonn n-gle 
ba h-oll ba h-oll in bine. 

' Then said the powerful army this, 

Ruadh the fierce enjoys the sovereignty 
Of all without opposition in fierce deed : 
'Tis a great, 'tis a great crime.' 

(Book of Ballymote, fol. 191 a.) 

To this wild, but very ancient, legend may be 
added another early notice of the stream: 
" Primo vero venit [S. Patricius] ad vallem 
Sescnani et aedificavit ibi aecclesiam primam 
et portavit filium Sesceneum nomine episcopum 
secum et reliquit ibi .ii. pueros perigrinos, 
Vespere vero venit ad hostium Ailbine ad 
quondam virum bonum et babtitzavit ilium, 
et invenit cum illo filium placitum sibi et dedit 
illi nomen Benignum." Tirechan. (Lib. Arma- 
can. fol. 9 b a.) This hostium Ailbine was the 
Iribep Oillbine mentioned above. 
*Vadum died. at cliac, 'Hurdle ford,' 



the ancient name of Dublin, and that by which 
it is still known among the Irish-speaking na- 
tives. The Dinnseanchus says that it was called 
the Ford of Hurdles from the bundles of twigs 
which the Lagenians, in the reign of their King 
Mesgeira, placed across the river Liffey for the 
purpose of conveying the sheep of Athirny Ail- 
geasach to Dun Edair. See the interesting 
paper by J. O'Donovan in Dubl. Pen. Journal, 
vol. i. p. 174. The name, however, was not 
peculiar to Dublin, for there was an Qc cliac 
TTIea&paige, now Clarin Bridge, in Galway ; 
an Qc cliac an Chopamn, now Ballymote, in 
Sligo. The etymology of the name Dublin is 
thus given in the ancient Life of St. Coemhgen : 
" Civitas Athcliath, quae est in aquilonali La- 
ginensium plaga, super fretum maris posita : 
et illud Scotice dicitur Dublin, quod sonat La- 
tine Nigra Therma." (Act. SS. Jun. i. p. 319 a ; 
Colg. Tr. Th. p. 112 a, n. 69, 71 ; Act. SS. p. 
147 b, c. 16 ; Calend. Dungall. Feb. 12.) Cliac, 
' a hurdle,' is allied to the old Welsh cluit, the 
Latin clitellce, and more remotely, to crates 
( Anglice crate} and its diminutive craticula ; 
closely to the Greek K\rj9pa, and its cognate 
clathri; and is directly represented by the later 
forms, cleda, cleia, cleta, cloea, cloia, which are 
to be found in Ducange, in the sense of wicker 
or basket work, and have passed into French 
in the form claie. See Zeuss, Gram. Celt. i. 
pp. 21, 114, 186. 
f Ulcera, -Not noticed in the Irish Annals, 



no 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. n. 



conspersi g , et pecora, celerem recuperabunt salutem. Quid moramur ? Die 
crastina, his quae necessaria erant citius praeparatis, 22 Silnanus, accepto de 
manu Sancti pane benedicto, in pace enavigavit. Cui Sanctus, a se eadem 
emigrant! hora, 23 addit hoc 24 consolatorium verbum, dicens, Confide, fill, ven- 
tos habebia secundos etprosperos die noctuque, usque 25 dum ad illam pervenias 
regionem 2G quae dicitur Ard "Ceannachte 11 , ut languentibus ibidem celerius 
cum salubri subvenias pane. Quid plura ? 28 Silnanus, verbo obsecutus Sancti, 
prospera et 29 celeri 30 navigatione, auxiliante Domino, ad supra memoratam 
perveniens partem 1 illius regionis, plebem de qua Sanctus praedixerat devasta- 

w A. B. F. S. siluanus C. sillanus D. M addidit D. 84 etiam add. C. 25 om. A. 26-27 om. 
C. D. F. S. 27 cenacte B. 28 A. B. F. S. siluanus C. sillanus D, 20 8ce leri B. so enavigatione D. 



s Conspersi. See following chapter, and ii. 33. 
Thus also Bede relates of St. Oswald's cross : 
" Nam et usque hodie multi de ipso ligno sa- 
crosanctse crucis astulas excidere solent, quas 
cum in aquas miserint eisque languentes homi- 
nes aut pecudes potaverint sive asperserint 
mox sanitati restituuntur." (H. E. iii. 2.) A 
like virtue was supposed to reside in Irish ma- 
nuscripts : " Denique vidimus quibusdam a 
serpente percussis, rasa folia codicum qui de 
Hibernia fuerant, et ipsam rasuram aquae im- 
missam ac potui clatam, talibus protinus totam 
vim veneni grassantis, totam inflati corporis 
absumsisse ac sedasse tumorem," (/&. i. i.) 

h Ard Ceannachte. Cian, son of OiliollOlum, 
was slain in battle circ. 240 ; his son Tadhg, 
having defeated the Ultonians in the battle of 
Crinna, received, in consideration of his ser- 
vices, a grant of that part of Bregia extending 
from Glasnera near Druim-Inesclann [Drumis- 
kin] on the north, to Cnoc Maoildoid by the 
river Liffey on the south. His descendants 
were called from his father the Cianachta, and 
this territory, being occupied by them, was called 
the opio6a cet> Cicmacca, or ' cantred of 
Cianacht.' Another branch of the family pro- 
seeded northward, and obtained a settlement in 
the present county of Londonderry, to which also 
the clan name of Cianacht was given, and which 
for distinction's sake was called Cicma6ca 



seiTnin, now known as the barony of 
Keenaght. This grant seems to have resulted 
from the success of Tadhg at the battle of Car- 
ric-Eolairg in the same territory (Tigh. 248). 
But the chief region of the tribe was Cicma6ca 
bpe<5, ' Cianacht of Bregia,' whose limits were 
those above mentioned. Daimhliacc [Duleek] 
in Meath was in the centre of it. Another 
name was that in the text, Gpt> Ciana6ca, 
Altitudo Cianachtorum, of which we find ex- 
amples in Tighernach at 248, 662, 688, 736, 
742, 748, 749, and in the parallel places of the 
other Annals. The Four Masters, at 868, de- 
scribe Druim-caradh, now Drumcar, as situate 
in Ard Cianachta. The inhabitants of the 
north portion of the territory were called pip 
Qpba Cicma6oa, Viri Altitudinis Cianachto- 
rum, or, more concisely, pip Gpba, which is 
still preserved in Ferrard, the name of the 
southern barony of Louth, and a Viscountcy in 
the Irish Peerage. On the name Cianachta, 
see Keating, Hist. (reg. Feargus) ; O'Flaherty, 
Ogygia, pp. 328, 332 ; O'Donovan, Book of 
Rights, p. 186; Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 177 #, 
n. 90. 

1 Supra memoratam partem. That is, the por- 
tion of Ard Cianachta lying between the Ail- 
bine and Ath-cliath, afterwards known as 
Fingall. This shows that Ard Cianachta ex- 
tended southwards to the Liffey. 



CAP. 5.] Auctore Adamnano. 1 1 1 

tarn nubis prsedictas morbifera reperiit pluvia 31 superpluente, citius 32 praecur- 
rentis. Inprimisque bis terni viri in eadem mari vicina k domo reperti in ex- 
tremis morte positi appropinquante, ab eodem 33 Silnano aqua benedictionis 
aspersi, in eodem 34 die opportunius sanati sunt. Cujus subitae sanationis 
rumor, per totam illam, morbo 35 pestilentiore vastatam, regionem cito divul- 
gatus, omnem morbidurn ad sancti Columbse legatum invitavit populum ; qui, 
juxta Sancti mandatum, homines et pecora pane 36 intincta benedicto aqua 
conspersit, et continuo plenam recuperantes salutem, homines, cum pecudibus 
salvati, Christum in sancto Columba cum eximia gratiarum actione laudarunt. 
In hac 37 itaque suprascripta narratione, ut a3stimo, duo haec manifeste pariter 
38 comitantur; hoc est, gratia prophetationis de nube, et virtutis miraculum in 
aegrotantium 39 sanitate. Haec per omnia esse verissima, supradictus 40 Silnanus, 
Christi miles, sancti legatus 1 Columbae, coram 41 Segineo abbate et ceteris 
testatus est senioribus. 



J DE 2 MAUGINA SANCTA VIRGINE DAIMENI FILIA QUJE INHABITAVERAT IN 

3 CLOCHUR FILIORUM DAIMENI. 

4 ALio in 5 tempore Sanctus, 6 cum in 7 Ioua demoraretur insula, prima diei 
hora, quendam 8 advocans fratrem, 9 Lugaidum a nomine, 10 cujus cognomentum 
Scotice Lathir b n dicitur; et taliter eum compellat, dicens, Praepara cito ad 
18 Scotiam celerem navigationem, nam mini valde est necesse te usque ad 
Clocherum "filiorum 15 Daimeni c destinare legatum. In hac enim praeterita 



13 



31 superfluente C. 32 pnecurrens F. 33 A. B. F. S. siluano C. sillano D. 3* om. B. 

35 pestilencieB. 36 A. B. F. intincto C. D. 37 equidem D. 38 comittuntur B. 39 sanctitate C. 
40 A. B. F. S. siluanus C. sillanus D. 41 segeneo C. D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 mauguina B. 3 loco qui scottice dicitur add. B. clocher B. 

4 ' 5 om. D. 6 coluraba add. D. 7 A. C. F. S. iona B. D. 8 advocat F. 9 lugaidium B. 

lugidum D. 10-11 om , C. D. F. S. 12 hyberniam D. * 3 chiliocherum C. clochor D. w-is om. 
C. D. F. S. 

k Mari vicina. The territory spoken of in b Laihir. Hibernice laibip 'fortis.' Laiti- 

the text skirts the sea for fifteen miles. rus, ii.jS, infra. 

} Legatus Columbce. See i. 18, 31, supra; Clocherumfiliorum Daimeni. Clochap mac 

ca P- 5> 38, infra. nOaiTtiene is a form in which the name of 

m Segineo. See i. i (p. 16), 3 (p. 26), supra. Clogher is frequently found. See Ann. Ult. 

a Lugaidum.Hib. Lujjaib. See i. 22 (p. 51) 769, 841, 868, 930, 960, 1137. The distinction 

supra. was not unnecessary, for Clo6ap, which signi- 



I 12 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



nocte, casualiquo, 16 Maugina rt , sancta virgo, 17 filia 18 Daimeni, ab oratorio post 
missam domum reversa, titubavit, coxaque ejus in duas confracta est partes. 
Ha3C ssepius meum, inclamitans, nomen commemorat, a Domino sperans se ac- 
cepturam per me consolationem. lfl Quid plura ? 20 Lugaido obsecundanti, et 
consequenter emigrant!, Sanctus pineam tradit cum benedictione 21 capsellam, 
dicens, Benedictio, qua? in hac 23 capsellula continetur, quando ad 2S Mauginam 



is mauguina B. magnia D. "- O m. C. D. F. S. et add. D. 
lam D. 23 capsula D. 33 mauguinam B. nwguiam D. 



20 luigido D. 21 capsu- 



fies 'a stony place,' is of such frequent occur- 
rence, that among the townland names in Ire- 
land there are no less than forty-five instances 
of Clogher, and forty-two of the same word in 
composition. The nucleus of the settlement 
mentioned in the text was the earthen fort in 
the episcopal demesne, which was anciently 
called Rath-mor Maighe-Leamhna, and was 
said to have been constructed in the beginning 
of the second century by Baine, wife of King 
Tuathal Teachtmar (Four Mast, in; O'Fla- 
herty, Ogygia, p. 303). It afterwards became 
the seat of the kings of Airghialla, and when 
St. Maccarthen founded the see of Clogher in 
this place, it was in compliance with the in- 
structions of St. Patrick : " Vade in pace fili, 
et monasterium tibi construe in platea ante 
regalem sedem Urgallensium." (Colg. Act. SS. 
p. 738 b, c. 7.) Hence it was that this church, 
being grafted on the lordship, acquired prece- 
dence in the dominions of Airghialla, so that 
in after ages episcopus Ergalliee became a 
common designation of the bishops of Clogher. 
The filii JJaimeni, from whom the place took 
its distinctive name, were sons of Damhin, son 
of Cairbre Damhairgid, King of Airghialla, 
and were called the Clann Damhin (Ogyg. 
p. 365) ; whose descendants retained the name, 
and were represented in 1353 by the family of 
Duibthire, now Dwyer (Cambrens. Evers. vol. 
i. p. 246 reprint}. Mugania was ingen t)airii7Ti, 
' daughter of Damhin.' The following table 
will illustrate the family relations : 



EOCHAIDH 

Sixth In descent from Colla Dachrich. King of Airghi- 
alla when St. Patrick first visited Clogher. (Tr. Th 
p. 150 a; Act. SS. p. 738 b.) Called Echu by Jocelin 
(capp. 79, 80). 



BURASAL 

Rejected Christianity, 
and was cursed by 
St. Patrick. (Tr. Th. 
p. 150 a.) 



CAIRBRE DAMH-AIRGID 
Embraced Christianity, and was 
blessed by St. Patrick. (Tr. 
Th. p. 150 a.) Became King 
of Airghialla, and died in 513. 
(An. Ult.) I 



DAIMIN 
Tlie Daimemts of tiie text. Ob. 566. (TigJi.) 



CONAM-DEARG 

' Conallus Rubeus de Clochar.' 
Mar. Gorrn. Slain in 609. 
(Tigh.) 



MOQHAIN 

'MattginafiliaDaimeni' of 
the text. 



There was also a Clann, or Cinel-Fiach, de- 
rived from Tuathal, son of Niall, who were 
settled near Clogher. ' Daimhin Drech -argaid 
[silver face], i. e. Tuathalan of the North, had 
seven sons in Feara Leamhna, and it is they 
who are called the Sil Tuathail at Clochar- 
mac-Daimhin. Others say that these sons who 
are about Clochar were not the sons of Tuathal, 
but of Daimhin Drech-airgid. This, however, 
is not correct, for they were sons to Tuathal of 
the North, and this Tuathal was called Daim- 
hin."_Mac Firbis, Geneal. MS. p. 169. The 
name Damhin is the diminutive ofDamh, ' bos,' 
and may be rendered Vitulus. See Colg. Act. 
SS. p. 216 6, n. 14 ; Tr. Th. p. 381 b, n. 7. 

d Maugina Hib. TTIogaiTi. Three virgins of 
this name are commemorated in the Calendar, 
at Nov. 15, Dec. 9, Dec. 15 ; but the only one 



CAP. 5,6.] Auctore Adamnano. 113 

pervenies visitandam, in 24 aquae vasculum intingatur, eademque benedictionis 
aqua super ejus infundatur coxam ; et statim, invocato Dei nomine, coxale 
conjungetur os e , et densabitur ; et sancta virgo plenam recuperabit salutem. 
Et hoc Sanctus 25 addit, En ego 20 coram in 27 hujus 28 capsse operculo numerum 
viginti trium annbrum 29 describo, quibus sacra virgo in hac prsesenti, 30 post 
eandem 31 salutem, victura est vita. 32 Qua3 omnia sic plene expleta sunt, sicuti 
a Sancto prasdicta : nam statim ut 33 Lugaidus ad sanctam pervenit virginem, 
aqua benedicta, sicut Sanctus commendavit, perfusa coxa, sine ulla morula 
condensato osse, plene sanata est; et in adventu 34 legati sancti Columbse cum 
ingenti gratiarum actione gavisa, viginti tribus annis, secundum Sancti pro- 
phetiam, post sanitatem, in bonis actibus permanens, vixit. 



! DE HIS QU^E IN DORSO 2 CEATE 3 PEEACT^E SUNT DIVBRSORUM SANITAT1BUS 

MORBORUM. 

VIR vita3 praedicabilis, 4 sicuti nobis ab expertis traditum est, diversorum 
languores infirmorum, invocato Christi nomine, illis in diebus sanavit, quibus, 
ad regum pergens condictum a in s Dorso G Cette, b brevi commoratus est tem- 
pore. Nam aut sanctam manus protensione, aut aqua ab eo benedicta, segroti 
plures aspersi, aut etiam fimbriae ejus tactu 7 amphibali c , aut alicujus rei, salis 
videlicet vel panis, benedictione accepta, et lymphis intincta, plenam credentes 
recuperarunt salutem. 

24 aqua C. 2S addidit D. 20 A. B. ponam C. Colg. Boll, dico D. w ejus B. 28 cap- 
sule C. 29 B. om. A. C. D. F. S. 30 vita add. S. 31 om. S. & ponam add. S. 33 lugidus D. 
31 om. C. 

i titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 ce te B. 3 peracta B. * columba add. D. 5-6 C olle qui vo- 
catur bpuim ceab D. G ceteB. caetae C. cettae F. ? C. D. anfibali A. B. (vid. var. lect. 12, 
P- 25, supra) amfibali F. ansibali Colg. amphilabi Boll. 

with whom the present individual can be iden- land was influenced more by family relation 

tified is the TTIogain 05 o Cluain boiperm, than by local circumstances. 
'Moghain, virgin, of Cluainboirenn,'of Dec. 15. e Conjungetur os. A bit of moss from the 

Clonburren is in the parish of Moore, county cross of St. Oswald is related by Bede to have 

of Roscommon. Its distance, however, from effected a similar cure. (H. E. iii. 2.) See Vit. 

Clogher is in itself no hindrance to the identi- Moluae, c. 34. (Fleming, Collectan. p. 375 a.) 
fication, for it was situate in the territory of a Condictum See note a , i. 49 (p. 91) supra. 
the Hy-Many, a branch of the Airghialla, who b Dorso Cette Druimceatt. See note b , i. 

had removed to Connaught at an early period ; 10 (p. 37), and note a , i. 49 (p. 91) supra. 

and ecclesiastical connexion at this date in Ire- c AmphibaK See i. 3 (p. 25) supra. The 

Q 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



'DE PETRA SALIS A SANCTO BENEDICTA, QUAM IGNIS ABSUMERE NON POTU1T. 

2 ALio itidem in tempore, 3 Coign a filius Cellachi 4 postulatam 5 a Sancto 
'petram 7 sails 8 benedictam accipit, sorori et suae nutrici 9 profuturam, 10 qua3 
ophthalmias laborabat valde gravi n languore. Talem eulogiam 1 ' eadem soror 
et nutricia de manu fratris accipiens, in pariete super lectum suspendit ; casu- 
que post aliquantos contigit dies, ut idem viculus, cum supradictse domuncula 
feminae, flainma vastante, totus concremaretur. Mirum dictu, illius parietis 
particula, ne beati viri in ea deperiret suspensa benedictio, post totam ambus- 
tarn domum, stans illassa permansit ; nee ignis ausus est attingere binales, in 
quibus 12 talis pendebat 13 salis 14 petra, sudes . 



J DE LIBRARIO FOLIO SANCTI MANU DESCRIPTO, QUOD AQUA CORRUMPI NON 

POTUIT. 

ALIUD 2 miraeulum sestimo non tacendum, quod aliquando factum est per 
contrarium elementum. Multorum namque transcursis annorum circulis post 
beati 3 ad Dominum transitum viri, quidam juvenis de equo lapsus in flumine, 
4 quod Scotice 5 Boend a 6 vocitatur, mersus et mortuus, viginti sub aqua diebus 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll, in quibus cap. v. continuatur. 2 ~ 4 om, D. 3 colgiu B. 6 quidam 
homo add. D. 6 columba D. " sal D. 8 benedictum D. 9 profuturum D. 10 oculorum 
dolori add. D. n id est oculorum dolore add. C. 12 tale D. 13 sal D. 14 om. D. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 u t add. D. 3 columbe add. D. 4-6 om , c. D. F. S. s bofind B. 



term is thus explained in the Life of St. Dei- 
cola : " Ipse vero de itinere lassus, antequam 
sessum pergeret, birrum suum, quern Graeci 
amphiballum vocant, deponere voluit, refrige- 
randi gratia." cap. 4. (Colg. Act. SS. p. 1 19 &.) 
So, in Sulpicius Severus : " Diaconus vero nib.il 
intelligens, quia extrinsecus indutum amphi- 
balo, veste nudum interius non videbat." Dia- 
log, de S. Martino (Lib. Armacan. fol. 209 a b ; 
p. 576, ed. Hornii). From an erroneous read- 
ing in the Acts of St. Alban, the term amphi- 
balus has been converted into a proper name, 
and a saint so called has been appropriated to 
the church of Winchester, and a festival as- 
signed him at the 2jth of June. See Ussher 



(Wks. vol. v. p. 181, vi. p. 58). 

a Colgu. See note a , i. 35 (p. 65) supra. 

b Eulogiam. It is called benediclio further 
on in this chapter. The Greek word occurs 
sixteen times in the New Testament ; and in 
i Sam. xxv. 27, it is employed by the LXX. to 
express what the Vulgate renders benedictio, 
in the sense of a present. It is used in a differ- 
ent sense in chap. 13, infra; where see note. 
See also Suicer, Thesaur. Eccl. in voce (torn. i. 
col. 1248); Du Cange, Glossar. in voce. 

c Sudes These were the stakes or uprights, 
which formed the skeleton of the hurdle wall. 
See note a , cap. 3 (p. 106) supra. 

a BoendHib. t>6mne. " Vadum Carnoi i 



CAP. 7, 8.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



1 1 



permansit; qui, sicuti sub 'ascella 1 ', cadens, libros in pelliceo reconditos c eac- 
culo habebat, ita etiam post supra memoratum dierum numerum est repertus, 
sacculum cumlibris inter 8 bracliium et latus continens ; cujus etiam ad aridam 



7 asella C. assella D. axilla Boll. 8 manum D. 



mBoend." Tirechan (Lib. Armac. fol. 1 1 a a) ; 
"AmnisBoindeo." Id. (7i. fol. 16 b a.) Bovovivda, 
Ptolcray. Latinized Buvinda. On the present 
form of the name, see Zeuss, Gram. Celt. pp. 
67, 74. The river Boyne, famous in the mili- 
tary history of Ireland, rises in the north- 
west of the county of Kildare, and, enter- 
ing the county of Meath, pursues a north- 
easterly course, and, widening as it approaches 
Drogheda, falls into the sea at Colpe, the an- 
cient inbep Colpcha. It was the southern 
limit of Ulster in its largest proportions, and 
was also a boundary of Bregia. (O'Donovan, 
Ir. Gram. p. 318.) An interesting account of 
the river and its neighbourhood, along its en- 
tire course, may be seen in Wilde's Beauties of 
the Boyne and Blackwater (Dubl. 1850). 

b Ascella. Or axilla. See i. 24 (p. 54), 
supra. 

c Pelliceo sacculo. For convenience and 
safety's sake, the service-books, which the 
itinerant habits of the early Irish ecclesiastics 
required them to carry about from place to 
place, were provided with leather cases which 
varied in size and execution. They were called 
polaipe and ciajja, which are thus distin- 
guished in the ancient Irish Life of St. Co- 
lumba: uaip ba bep t>o prim cpeppa acap 
polaipe acap 01050 lebop acap aibme eclap- 
cacba bo oemim, ' for it was his custom to 
make crosses, and cases, and satchels for books, 
and all church furniture.' The polaipe (written 
poolipe in the Book of Armagh, foL i8a&) is 
explained in an old gloss, airnn t>o ceig liubaip, 
' name for a cover of a book,' and seems to have 
been the case of a single book, carefully formed 
and embossed. Thus St. Dega, a famous arti- 
ficer, among other articles of ecclesiastical fur- 
niture, is said to have made " librorum cooper- 



toria, qusedam horum nuda, quadam vero alia 
auro atque argento gemmisque pretiosis cir- 
cumtecta." Acta SS. Aug. torn. iii. p. 659 a. 
Of leather cases the cover of the Book of Ar- 
magh is the most interesting example now 
remaining. It came, together with its inesti- 
mable enclosure, into the writer's possession 
at the end of 1853, and is now lying before him. 
It is formed of a single piece of strong leather 
36 inches lorfg, and 12 broad, folded in such a 
way as to form a six-sided case 12 inches long, 
1 2f broad, and if thick, having a flap which 
doubles over in front ; and is furnished with a 
rude lock, and eight staples, admitted through 
perforations in the flap, for short iron rods to 
enter, and meet at the lock. The whole outer 
surface, which has become perfectly black from 
age, is covered with figures and interlacings 
of the Irish pattern in relief, which appear to 
have been produced by subjecting the leather 
in a damp state, before it was folded, to pres- 
sure upon a block of the whole size having a 
depressed pattern, and allowing it to remain 
till the impression became indelible. A reduced 
drawing of the back, faithfully executed, may 
be seen in Petrie's Round Towers, p. 327. But 
as this case does not fit the book, which, with- 
out the boards, measures only 7^ by 5| inches 
and is thicker than the receptacle, it is likely 
to have been one of a number of impressions 
executed from the same block for various ma- 
nuscripts. At the upper corners of the sides 
are the remains of coarse straps which were 
stitched on with leather thongs. These were 
for the purpose of slinging the case from the 
shoulder, like a modern postbag. It is remarka- 
ble that all the books in the library of the Abys- 
sinian monastery of Souriani, on the Natron 
Lakes in Egypt, were recently found by an 



Q2 



n6 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. IT. 



reportato cadavere, et aperto sacculo, folium sancti Columbse sanctis scriptum 
9 digitulis, inter aliorum folia librorum non tan turn corrupta sed et putrefacta, 
inventum est 10 siccum n et nullo modo corruptum, ac si in 18 scriniolo esset 
reconditum. 



a DE ALIO MIRACULO IN RE S1MILI GESTO. 

ALIO in tempore, hymnorum liber a septimaniorum sancti Columbae manu 
descriptus, de cujusdam pueri de ponte elapsi humeris, cum pelliceo in quo 
inerat sacculo b , in quodam partis Laginorum fluvio submersus cecidit. Qui 



digitis D. 10-11 om. C. D. 12 scrinio C. D. 

1 capital, totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 



English traveller in a condition singularly re- 
sembling that of the Book of Armagh, and 
adding an interesting illustration of a practice 
probably derived from the same school. " The 
books of Abyssinia are bound in the usual way, 
sometimes in red leather and sometimes in 
wooden boards, which are occasionally elabo- 
rately carved in rude and coarse devices : they 
are then enclosed in a case, tied up with leather 
thongs ; to this case is attached a strap, for 
the convenience of carrying the volume over 
the shoulders ; and by these straps the books 
are hung to the wooden pegs, three or four on 
a peg, or more if the books were small : their 
usual size was that of a small, very thick 
quarto." Curzon's Monasteries of the Levant, 
p. 93 (Lond. 1849), where see the interesting 
drawing of the library of Souriani. Concerning 
the larger leather receptacles for books, see 
the note b on the following chapter. 

a Hymnorum liber. A volume containing 
hymns for the various services of each day in 
the week. "We have no collection remaining to 
answer the present description ; but there are 
abundant materials for an Irish Hymnal pre- 
served in the Antiphonary of Bangor, the Lea- 
bhar Breac, Mone's Hymni Medii M\\ (Frey- 
burg, 1853-4), and, above all, the celebrated 
Liber Hymnorum, now preserved in the Library 



of Trinity College, Dublin, which Dr. Todd has 
undertaken to edit for the Irish Archaeological 
and Celtic Society, and of which the first fas- 
ciculus has already appeared. 

b Pelliceo sacculo. Besides the polaire, the 
Irish employed, for the carriage of their books, 
leather receptacles of larger and rougher con- 
struction. These were called ciaga, or ' satch- 
els,' and were generally carried on the back. 
We do not find this term in the Latin lives, but, 
instead of it, we meet the word scetha, which 
assumes the various forms of sceta, squesa, and 
cetha, and is probably akin to the English word 
sheath. The earliest allusion to such recepta- 
cles is probably that in the Tripartite Life of 
St. Patrick : " Dum enim ipse vir Apostolicus 
in Romano [de Britannia regressus Joceliri] 
itinere constitutus esset, occurrerunt ei in via 
sex clerici Hiberni, Romam peregrinationis 
causa tendentes totidemque pueri eorum co- 
dices cingulis appensos, gestantes. Hoc vi- 
dens vir Dei, ait, ecce vobis pellem quandam, 
super qua ego olim in Hibernia discumbere, et 
in celebratione missarum annis duodecim stare 
consueveram, ex ea facite vobis peram, in qua 
libros gestetis." ii. 9. (Tr. Th. p. 130 >.) In 
the Life of St. Kiaran we find mention made of 
the " sarcina cethee quae erat de pelle facta, in 
qua evangelium positum erat, [quae] circa pe- 



CAP. 9.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



117 



videlicet libellus, a Natalitio Domini usque ad Paschalium consummationem 
dierum in aquis permanens, postea in ripa fluminis a feminis quibusdam ibidem 
deambulantibus repertus, ad quendam Iogenanum d presbyterum, gente Pic- 
tum c , cujus prius juris erat, in eodem, non solum madefacto, sed etiam putre- 
facto, portatur sacculo. Quern scilicet sacculum idem logenanus aperiens, 
suum incorruptum libellum invenit, et ita nitidum et siccum, ac si in scrinio 
tanto permansisset tempore, et nunquam in aquas cecidisset. Sed et alia de 
libris manu sancti Columbae 2 caraxatis f similia ab expertis indubitanter didici- 
mus in diversis acta locis : qui scilicet libri, in aquis mersi, nullo modo cor- 
rumpi potuere^. De 3 supra memorato vero 4 logenani libro a viris quibusdam 
veracibus et perfectis bonique testimonii, sine ulla ambiguitate, relationem 

2 craxatis. 3 supramemorati B. 4 eugenani A. 



dem vaccsB adhsesit, et sic vacca in pede cetham 
traxit secum ad terram, et inventus est liber 
evangelii in cetha pellicea putrefacta siccus et 
aridus atque candidus sine ullo humore ac si 
conditus esset inbiblioteca." c. 27 (Cod. Marsh, 
fol. 147 a a.) " S. Kiaranus benedixit fratribus 
suis, et accipiens cethas suas cum libris in hu- 
meris, perrexit inde." Ib. c. 25. (Ibid. fol. 146 
bb.} "Ignis non ausus est partem urere in 
qua squesa cum libris sancti viri fuerat." Vit. 
S. Cainnichi, c. 31 (p. 19, ed. Orm.) " Dixit 
Sanctus, Nos ambo eamus in viam et squesam 
nostram cum libris deduc tecum." Again : 
' ' Libros de squesa prome et nos interim lega- 
mus." Ib. c. 53. (76. p. 32.) " Duas cethas 
libris plenas suis humeris imposuit." Vit. S. 
Carthaci (Act. SS. Maii, torn. iii. p. 380 &). 
Reliques also were carried in these satchels : 
" Aperiens jam S. Fiachra scetam suam ad du- 
cendum ihde librum baptismi, brachium S. 
Comgalli in aerem sursum velociter avolavit." 
Vit. S. Comgalli, c. 50. (Fleming, Collect., 
P- 3 J 3 ) This last passage is the only au- 
thority for the word in Du Cange. It is 
worthy of notice that in Sulpicius Severus' 
Preface to his Life of St. Martin, where the 
printed text reads, " Libellum quern de vita 
S. Martini scripseram scheda sua premere," 
(Horn. p. 483), the Book of Armagh uses the 



more significant term scetha (fol. 191 a a). See 
the curious mention of ciaga in the legend of 
Longaradh (Todd's Introd. to Book of Obits 
of C. C., p. Ixxi.); from which it may be in- 
ferred that they used to be hung up in the 
manner already mentioned. 

c Laginorum From l/cugen, ' Leinster.' 

d logenanum The name of King JSdan's 

son. See iii. 5, infra. We meet Eugenanus in 
the An. Ult. 659, 691, 700. 

e Pictum. Here we find a Pictish .priest 
living in Leinster. Dalaradia was the proper 
region of the Picts in Ireland ; we are told, 
however, of an early settlement of Picts in 
Breghmagh in Meath. (Keating, Hist. vol. i. 
p. 318, ed. Haliday.) Eochaigh larlaithe pi 
Cpuicne TThbhi [rex Pictorum Midensium] 
mortuus est. Tigh. 666. 

f Caraxatis. See note d , Pr. i (p. 4) supra. 

s Corrumpi potuere This virtue of resisting 

the influence of water was, however, supposed 
to reside generally in the writings of the early 
Irish saints, and formed one of the standing 
subjects for legends in the compiling of their 
Lives. Thus, St. Kiaran's copy of the Gospels 
fell into a lake, and remained there till it was 
brought out uninjured, adhering to the foot 
of a cow, which went in to cool herself (Cod. 
Marsh, fol. 147 a a). St. Cronan's Gospels fell 



n8 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



accepimus ; qui eundem libellum, post tot supradictos submersionis dies, can- 
didissimum et lucidissimum considerarunt. 

Hsec duo h , quamlibet in rebus parvis peracta, et per contraria ostensa ele- 
menta, ignem scilicet et aquam, beati testantur honorem viri, et quanti et 
qualis meriti apud habeatur 6 Dominum, 



AQUA QUJE SANCTO ORANTE EX DURA PRODUCTA EST 2 PETRA. 

ET quia paulo superius aquatici facta est mentio elementi, silere non debe- 
raus 3 etiam alia miracula, quse per Sanctum Dominus ejusdem in re, licet 
diversis temporibus et locis, creaturse 4 peregit. 5 Alio namque G in tempore, 
cum Sanctus in sua 7 conversaretur 8 peregrinatione, 9 infans 10 ei per parentes 
11 ad baptizanduin 12 offertur 13 iter 13 agenti; et quia in vicinis aqua non invenie- 
batur locis, Sanctus, ad proximam declinans rupem, flexis genibus paulisper 
oravit, et post orationem surgens, ejusdem rupis l4 frontem benedixit ; 15 de qua 
consequenter aqua 16 abundanter ebulliens fluxit; in 17 qua continuo 18 infantem 
baptizavit. De quo 19 etiam baptizato ha3C, vaticinans, intulit verba, inquiens, 
Hie puerulus usque 20 in extremam 21 long93vus vivet aatatem; in annis juve- 
nilibus carnalibus desideriis satis serviturus, et deinceps Christianse usque 22 in 
exitum militiae mancipandus, in bona senectute ad Dominum emigrabit. Quse 
omnia eidem viro juxta Sancti contigerunt vaticinium. 23 Hic erat 24 Lugucen- 
calad a , cujus parentes fuerant in 25 Artdaib MuirchoP, ubi 26 hodieque 27 fon- 
ticulus, 28 sancti nomine Columbse 29 pollens, cernitur. 

5 deum B. 

*~4 titul. ruorica script. "B. om. C. F. S. x ~ 8 om. D. 2 petro A. 3 et B. 5 incipit cap. vi. 
C. F. S. 6 om. C. i versaretur C. 9 quodam die add. D. 10 sancto columbe iter agenti D. 

15 ex qua quidem rupe aqua profluit add. D. 
B. longeus A. vide var. led. 26, p. 82. 



11 est D. 12 oblatus D. 13 om. D. u fontem C. 

ic-17 om. D. w jnfantulum D. w et C. 20 ad C. 

22 ad B. 23 ~ 26 om. C. D. F. S. 24 ligu cencalad A. lugucen calath B. 25 ardaib muircol B. 

2 " et qui add. C. qui add. D. adhuc add. G. D. F. S. 29 ibidem add. C. D. F. S. 



into Loch Ore, and remained under water 
without injury for forty days (Act. SS. April, 
torn. iii. p. 582 &). St. Finnian left his book open 
under rain without its being affected (Vit. S. 
Cadoci, Rees, Cambro-Brit. SS. p. 39). In like 
manner St. Aidan's book, though exposed to a 
flood, remained intact. (Vit. S. David, Ibid, 
p. 131 ; Colg. A. SS. pp. 209 b, c. 12; 427 6, c. 
1 6.) St. Abban's book lay on a stone exposed 



to a snow storm, and escaped without a drop. 
(Colg. A. SS. p. 6i8i, c. 33.) St. Cainnech's 
case of books resisted even fire. (Vit. c. 3 r, 
p. 19, Ed. Orm; Brev. Aberd. Propr. SS. Part. 
Estiv. fol. 126 oa.) 

h Duo. There were three miracles. 

a Lugucen- calad. Probably l/ugucen, a di- 
minutive of l-ugu, and cala&, ' of the ferry. 

b Artdaib Muirchol. See note b ;i. 12 (p. 40). 



CAP. 10, II, 12.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



119 



1 DE ALIA MALIGNA FONTANA AQUA QUAM VIR BEATUS IN P1CTORUM REGIONE 

BENEDIXIT. 

2 ALio in 3 tempore, vir beatus, 4 cum in Fictorum provincia a per aliquot de- 
moraretur dies, audiens in plebe gentili de alio fonte divulgari famam, quern 
quasi 5 deum b stolidi homines, diabolo eorum obc&cante sensus, venerabantur ; 
6 nam de eodem 'fonticulo bibentes, aut in eo manus vel pedes de industria 
lavantes, da3moniaca, Deo permittente, percussi arte, aut 8 leprosi, aut lusci, 
aut etiam debiles, aut quibuscunque aliis infestati infirmitatibus 9 revertebantur. 
Ob quse omnia seducti gentiles divinum fonti deferebant honorem. Quibus 
compertis, Sanctus alia die intrepidus- accessit ad fontem. Quod videntes 
magi c , quos 10 sepe ipse confusos et victos a se repellebat, valde gavisi sunt, 
scilicet putantes euni similia illius nocuse tactu aqua3 passurum. Ille vero 
imprimis elevata manu sancta, cum invocatione Christi nominis, manus lavat 
et pedes ; u tum deinde cum sociis de eadem, a se benedicta, 12 bibit. Exillaque 
die dsemones ab eodem recesserunt fonte, et non solum nulli nocere permissus 
est, sed etiam, post Sancti benedictionem et in eo lavationem, multse in populo 
infirmitates per eundem sanatae sunt fontem. 

*DE BEATI VIRI IN MARI PERICULO, ET TEMPESTATIS 2 EO ORANTE SUBITA 

SEDATIONE. 

3 ALIO in tempore, 4 vir sanctus 5 in mari periclitari co3pit; totum 6 namque 
vas navis, valde concussum, magnis undarum cumulis fortiter feriebatur, grandi 



1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll., cap. vi. continuatur. 2-3 om , D. 4 columba add. D. 6 divi- 
num C. D. 6-9 om . Colg. Boll. i fonte D. 8 lepri A. 10 om. D. tune D. w aqua 
add. C. aqua manu correctoris suprascriptum F. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. B. 3 ~* om. D. 5 columba aliquando add. D. 6 que D. 



a Pictorum provincia. The Dorsum Britan- 
uicum, as in the Capitula (p. 100), was the 
boundary between the Picts and the Scots. 
See note a , i. 34 (p. 64) supra. 

b Quasi deum. This heathen veneration for 
fountains seems to have prevailed in Ireland 
also. Tirechan relates of St. Patrick that 
" Venit ad fontem Findmaige qui dicitur Slan 



quia indicatum illi quod honorabant magi fon- 
tem, et immolaverunt dona ad ilium in donum 
dii, quia adorabant fontem in modum dii-" 
(Lib. Armac. fol. 13 bb.") See Vit. Trip. ii. 70. 
(Tr. Th. p. 138 6.) The transmission of this 
feeling to succeeding generations, under Chris- 
tianity, may account for the esteem in which 
holy wells have ever been held by the Irish, a 



120 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. it. 



undique insistente ventorum tempestate. Nauta6 7 tum forte Sancto, 8 senti- 
nam cum illis exhaurire conanti, aiimt, Quod nunc agis non magnopere nobis 
10 proficit periclitantibus ; exorare potius debes pro pereuntibus. Quo audito, 
aquam cessat araaram exinanire, "hininglas 11 ; dulcem vero et intentam precem 
coepit ad Dominum fundere. Mirum dictu, eodem hora? momento, quo Sanctus, 
in prora stans, extensis ad coelum palmis, Omnipotentem exoravit, tota aeris 
tempestas et marls srevitia, dicto citius sedata, cessavit, et statim serenissima 
tranquillitas 12 snbsecuta est. Qui vero 13 navi "ineront, obstupefacti, cum 
magna admiratione, referentes gratias, glorificaverunt 15 Dominum in sancto et 
prsedicabili viro. 



i 



DE ALIO EJUS IN MARI a SIMILI PERICULO" 



3 ALio 4 quoque *intempore, sseva nimis insistente etpericulosa tempestate, 
sociis, ut pro eis Sanctus Dominum exoraret, 6 inclamitantibus; hoc eis dedit 
responsum, dicens, Hac in die non est meum pro vobis in hoc periculo consti- 
tutis orare, sed est abbatis 6 Cainnichi b , sancti viri. Mira dicturus sum. Eadem 

7 ' 9 ad sanctum exhaurientem secum aquam adeunt D. 8 om. C. 10 proficitis D. n hinin 
glas A. hinninglas B. om. C. D. F. S. 12 supersecuta C. 13 ~ 14 in navi erant C. D. F. S. 

15 deum B. D. 

1 titvl. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 in vortice brecain add. B. 3 cap. vii. contin. C. D. F. S. 4 om. D. 
5 clamitantibus D. 6 cahinnichi C. cainnici D. 



sentiment not likely to have been prompted by 
rarity or intrinsic value in an over-irrigated 
country. 

Magi. See note ', i. 37 (p. 73) supra. 

a Hininglas. This curious word, 'being un- 
noticed by Colgan, was not likely to receive a 
satisfactory explanation from editors unac- 
quainted with the Irish language. The Bol- 
landist observes : " Nomen (ut credo) antiquum 
tractus illius marini." Pinkerton, with unusual 
caution : " Sic MS. Reg. sed quod hininglas 
vult nescio." The explanation of the word, 
however, is simply this : the biographer, playing 
upon the word fundere, institutes a comparison 
between the aquam amaram and dulcem precem, 
and as he uses, for the sake of antithesis, an 
ambiguous word amara, as applied to sea- 
water, he adds the common vernacular expres- 
sion hininglas, which, according to modern or- 



thography, would be written in n-5lap, that 
is, the green element; or glaip no map a, as it 
is now usually called, i. e. viirea aqua marts. 
The word may either have been a gloss on the 
text, which, from a form like this, 

.1. .hin inglap 
aquam amaram 

crept, in the process of transcription, into the 
text ; or, what is more likely, it may have . 
been a parenthetical explanation, added, in the 
tenor of the narrative, by the original writer. 
The word hin or in is the old form of the ar- 
ticle an, and inglap, of the modern n-glaip, 
'green water.' The author's words, vitreas 
aquas, in chap. 22, infra, are equivalent to the 
Irish expression here. It may be observed that 
5laipea6, also derived from slap, ' green,' sig- 
nifies 'the foam of the sea.' The word 
signifies also ' a rivulet.' See cap. 36, infra. 



CAP. 13.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



121 



hora sanctus 7 Cainnichus, in suo 8 conversans monasterio, quod 9 Latine Cam- 
pulus Bovis dicitur, 10 Scotice vero ''Ached-bou , Spiritu revelante Sancto, 
supradictam sancti Columbse interiore cordis aure vocem audierat ; et cum 
12 forte post nonam ccepisset horam in 13 refectorio I4 eulogiam d frangere, ocius 

7 cahinnichus C. 8 commanons D. 9 ~u scotice dicitur achat) b6 .1. ager vacarum D. io-n O m. 
C. F. S. ll A. achetbbou B. 12 om. D. 13 oratorio C. D. u eylogiara sic cap. vii. (p. 1 14) 
supra (liter a Y ex grceca Y cjficta) A. 



a Mari. The cod. B. limits it to the Vortex 
Brecain, or Coire Brecain, the dangerous sea 
between Rathlin Island and the north coast of 
Ireland. See note e , i. 5 (p. 29) supra. 

b Cainnichi This famous saint, of whom 
frequent mention is made by Adamnan, was 
born in 517, and died in 600. He was a native 
of Keenaght, in the county of Londonderry, in 
which barony his principal northern church, 
called Drumachose, was situated, where for 
many centuries his memory was specially vene- 
rated, and the superior of which was styled ' the 
Coarb of Cainnech in Cianacht.' See Reeves' 
Colton's Visit, pp. 25, 39, 132; Eccles. Ant. p. 
374. For his descent see the note on Cainne- 
ckus Mocu Dalon, iii. 17, infra. His principal 
churches in the south were Aghaboe, on which 
see next note, and the two Kilkennys, on which 
see note b , i. 4 (p. 28) supra. In Scotland he is 
generally called Kenneth ; and Kilkenneth, or 
Kilchenzie, is a common name of churches in 
Argyleshire and the "Western Islands. His fes- 
tival, both in Ireland and Scotland, is October 
1 1. There are six lessons at his festival in the 
Breviary of Aberdeen, intituled, " Sancti cay- 
nici abbatis qui in Kennoquhy in diocesi sancti 
andree pro patrono habetur." The church 
here mentioned is Kennoway in Fife. 

c Ached-bou. Now Aghaboe, a parish in the 
Queen's County, and diocese of Ossory. The 
site and lands of the monastery were granted 
to St. Cainnech by his patron, Colman, son of 
Feradach, King of Ossory. See note a , i. n 
(? 39) supra. " Sanctus Cainnicus a sua ci- 
vitate Achedbo i. e. Agro Bourn." (Vit. c. 38, 
Cod. Marsh.) " Campulus bovis." (Vit. 0.43, 



p. 26, ed. Orm.) "Sanctus Cainnicus in mo- 
nasterio Achadh-bo v. Id. Octob. feliciter ini- 
gravit ad Dominum." (Vit. c. 46, Cod. Marsh.) 
Aghaboe subsequently became the episcopal 
seat of Ossory : " Anno Domini MCII. [rede 
MCCII.] obiit reverendus pater Felix Odullane 
episcopus Ossoriensis ; cujus ecclesia cathe- 
dralis tune erat apud Aghboo in superiori 
Ossoria." Ussher, Brit. EC. Ant. c. 17 (Wks. 
vi. p. 5 26). Before 1250 the cathedral was trans- 
ferred to Kilkenny [Cill Camnigb, 'Cainnech's 
church'], where was an ancient religious esta- 
blishment, of which the Round Tower still 
remains an evidence. See Harris' Ware's 
Works, vol. i. pp. 399, 403, 406 ; Archdall's 
Monasticon Hib. p. 588. In the Taxations 
contained in the Red Book of Ossory, Aghaboe 
is the head of a Rural Deanery (Col. 21, 24). 
A very interesting memoir of Aghaboe, com- 
piled about 1793, by Dr. Edward Ledwich, then 
incumbent of the parish, appears in Mason's 
Parochial Survey of Ireland (vol. i. pp. 13-78); 
in which work it is stated that reprints of Led- 
wich's account of Aghaboe, and Sir John Sin- 
clair's account of Thurso (Old Stat. Surv. of 
Scotland, vol. xx. p. 493), were circulated 
among the clergy of Ireland as models for their 
contributions to an Irish Parochial Survey, (p. 
xii.) On the orthography of the name, see 
Zeuss, Gram. Celt. i. p. 67. 

d Euloyiam. " Id est, salulationem, vel do- 
num." Gloss, interim. Cod. D. " Edulia sacer- 
dotis benedictione consecrata." Ind. Onomast. 
Act. SS. Jul. torn. i. In ecclesiastical language, 
EuXoyia primarily signified the Eucharist, but 
afterwards it came to denote ' consecrated 



122 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



deserit mensulam, 15 unoque 16 in pede inhserente calceo, et altero 17 pro nimia 
festinatione relicto, festinanter 18 pergit hac cum voce ad ecclesiam, Non est 
nobis mine 19 temporis prandere quando in mari periclitatur navis sancti Co- 
liimbje. Hoc enim momento, ipse 20 hujus nomen Cainnichi ingeminans com- 
memorat, ut pro eo et sociis periclitantibus "Christum 22 exoret. Post haec 
illius verba oratorium ingressus, flexis genibus paulisper oravit ; ejusque ora- 
tionem exaudiente Domino, illico tempestas cessavit, et mare valde tranquillurn 
factum est. Turn deinde sanctus Columba, Cainnichi ad ecclesiam 23 propera- 
tionem in spiritu videns, quamlibet longe conversantis, mirabiliter hoc de puro 
pectore profert verbum, dicens, Nunc cognovi, O 24 Cainniche, quod Deus 
tuam exaudierit precem ; nunc valde nobis proficit tuus ad ecclesiam velox 
cum uno calceamento cursus 6 . In hoc itaque tali miraculo amborum, ut cre- 
dimus, oratio cooperata est Sanctorum. 



15 in uno C. D. " om , B. " prte C. 18 perrexit D. w tempus C. 20 ejus B. om. C. D. 
31 om. C. D. 22 oraret D. 23 prajparationem C. 21 cainneche B. cahinniche C. 



bread,' distinct from the Eucharist. See Is. 
Casaubon, Exercit. xvi. p. 374 (ed. Francof. 
1615). The eulogies, which were offerings or 
oblations, were supposed to be hallowed by 
prayer, and from them the bread was taken, 
for consecration in the Eucharist. Of them, 
also, many who were not disposed or allowed 
to communicate were in the habit of partak- 
ing. Thus the Council of Nantes, circ. 658, 
prescribed: " Paries incisas habeat in vase ni- 
tido, ut post missarum solemnia, qui commu- 
nicare non fuerunt rati, eulogias omni die 
Dominico et in diebus festis exinde accipiant, 
et ilia, unde eulogias presbyter daturus est, 
ante in hsec verba benedicat. Oratio. Domine 
Sancte Pater omnipotens, zeterne Deus, bene- 
dicere digneris hunc panem tua sancta et spi- 
rituali benedictione, ut sit omnibus salus mentis 
et corporis, atque contra omnes morbos et uni- 
versas inimicorum insidias tutamentum, per 
dominum nostrum Jesum Christum filium tuum, 
panem vifce qui de ccelo descendit, et dat vitam 
et salutem mundo et tecum vivit et regnat," 
&c. (Hardouin, Concil. torn. vi. part i. col. 459.) 
See also Le Brun, Explicatio Missse, torn. i. 



p. 141 ; Ducange in voc. n. 2. The Rule of St. 
Columbanus directs: "Eulogias immundus ac- 
cipiens, duodecim percussionibus." c. 4 (Fle- 
ming, Collectan. pp. 20 b, 29 a). In like manner 
the Rule of St. Benedict : " Nullatenus liceat 
monacho nee a parentibus suis, nee a quoquam 
hominum, nee sibi invicem literas, aut Eulogia, 
vel quaelibet munuscula accipere aut dare, sine 
prsecepto Abbatis sui." cap. 54 (Nov. Bibl. 
Vet. Patr. torn. i. p. 701, Par. 1639). The pre- 
sent passage shows that in the Irish Church, 
in St. Columba's time, it was the practice to 
participate reverentially of the Eulogiae at the 
commencement of the afternoon meal, and in 
the refectory. The later manuscripts, to ac- 
commodate the practice to more modern usage, 
substitute oratorio for refectorio, but in violence 
to the context, which adds, " festinanter pergit 
hac cum voce ad ecclesiam, Non est nobis nunc 
temporis prandere. Post haec illius verba ora- 
torium ingressus." See the word eulogia used 
in another sense in cap. 7 (p. 114) supra. 

e Cursus. The anecdote is thus told in tne 
Life of St. Cainnech : " Quodam autem tempore 
cum S. Columba Kylle in mari navigaret, et 



CAP. 14.] Auctore Adamnano. 123 

J DE BACULO, IN PORTU, SANCTI 2 CAINNICHI NEGLECTO. 

ALIO in tempore, idem supra memoratus Cainnichus suum, a portu 3 louse 
insulse ad 4 Scotiam navigare incipiens, baculum secum portare oblitus 6 est; 
qui scilicet ejus baculus, post ipsius egressum in litore repertus, sancti in ma- 
num traditus est Columbse ; quemque, domum reversus, in oratorium portat, 
et ibidem solus in oratione diutius demoratur. Cainnichus proinde ad G Oide- 
cham a appropinquans insulam, subito de sua oblivione compunctus, interius 
perculsus est. Sed post modicum intervallum, de navi descendens, et in terra 
cum oratione genua flectens, baculum, quern in portu 7 louse insulae oblitus 
post se reliquit, super cespitem terrulse 8 Aithche ante se 9 invenit. De cujus 
etiam effecta divinitus evectione b valde est miratus cum gratiarum in Deo 
actione. 

i capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 cainechi B. 3 ione B. * scociam B. 
5 om. B. 6 A. ouidecham B. 7 ione B. 8 ouidechae B. 9 positum add. B. 

navis in tempestate magna periclitaret, dixe- ghus the Little, son of Ere, had one son, viz. 

runt ei fratres sui, Roga Deum pro nobis. Qui- Muiredhach, who first inhabited He; viz. Oi- 

bus Columba dixit, Non est meum hodie liberare dech, 20 houses. Freag [Proag, on the east], 

vos, quod non mihi sed sancto Kannecho Domi- 120 houses. Caladros [An. Ult. 677, 735], 60 

nus donavit. Tune Kannechus inter fratres houses or families. Ros-deorand [Jura? for- 

suosjuxta mensam stems in Achuth-bo audivit merly Dura and Dowry], 30 houses. Ardeacht 

vocem Columbse nunc periclitati. Tenens unum [Ardechy], 30 houses. Loieh-rois, 30 houses, 

ficonem circa pedem cucurrit ad ecclesiam, et Aitha Caisil, 30 houses there.' (Lib. Ballymot. 

orante illo facta est tranquillitas magna in fol. 84 bb; Mac Firbis MS. p. 402.) The name 

mari. Tune Columba dixit, O Kanneche op- Oidech seems to be preserved in the Mull of 

portunus est nobis tuus cursus cum uno ficone Oe, at the southern extremity of Islay, f'or- 

ad ecclesiam." c. 50 (p. 31, ed. Orm.). merly Owo, near which is Dun Aidh, a high 

a Oidecham. Called terrula Aithche further and nearly inaccessible rock, 

on. Ouidecha is the reading of cod. B. in both b JEvectione. The story is thus related in 

places. The place in question lay somewhere St. Cainnech's Life: " Alio quoque tempore, 

in the course from Hy to Ireland, and is pro- Cainnicus die domiuico hospitatus est in alia 

bably that first mentioned in the following ex- insula, quae dicitur Insula Avium [Eninis, Cod. 

tract from the tract on the Men of Alba, pre- Salmant., possibly the Elian Inch-ian, near 

served in the Books of Ballymote and Mac Fir- Islay, of Dean Munro]. Cum autem S. Cain- 

bis : G on gup beag mac 6pc aomtiac lef nicus inde navigaret cum festinatione ad Hy- 

.1. Tnuineaoa6, ceb cneab in. lie .1. Oibech berniam, baculum suum inlittore maris oblitus 

pp. ceach. Ppeas c pcpc. ceac. Calabnoip est. Cumque in mari navigasset, cor suum de 

Ipc. ceac, no cneab. TCoir Deopanb .pc^. baculo oblito semper secum comitante com- 

ceac. Qpbea6c .pc;:pc. cea6. l/oic poif ??? punctum est; sed cum de navi in terram de- 

ceac. Qica Caipil .^pc. cea6 inpin. ' Aon- scendisset, baculum in portum vidit; et genua 

R2 



124 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. n. 



J DE BAITHENEO ET COLUMBANO FILIO 2 BEOGNI n , SANCTIS PRESBYTERIS, 
EADEM SIBI DIE VENTUM PROSPERUM A DOMINO PER BE ATI VIRI ORA- 
TIONEM DONARI POSTULANTIBUS, SED DIVERSA NAVIGANTIBUS VIA. 

3 ALio quoque in tempore, superius 4 meraorati b sancti viri ad 5 Sanctum ve- 
nientes, ab eo simul nnanimes postulant ut ipse a Domino 7 postulans 7 impe- 
traret prosperum crastina die ventum sibi dari diversa emigraturis via. Quibus 
Sanctus respondens, hoc dedit responsum, 8 Mane crastina die, "Baitheneus, a 
portu 10 Iouoe enavigans insular, flattim u habebit secundum usquequo ad por- 
tum perveniat Campi 12 Lunge c . Quod ita, juxta Sancti verbum, Dominus 
donavit: nam 9 Baitheneus plenis eadem die velis magnum totumque pelagus 
usque ad 13 Ethicam transmeavit terrain 4 . H Hora vero ejusdem diei tertia, vir 
venerandus Columbanum "advocat presbyterum 6 dicens, Nunc Baitheneus 



i titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 beognoi B. s-4 aliquando D. 
tulabant D. 7 om. D. 8 om. B. 9 battheneus C. baithenus D. 
12 lugne D. aetliicam A. u hie D. om. D. 



beatam columbam D. c pos- 
10 ione B. D. u habebat B. 



flectensDeo gratias egit." c. 25 (Cod. Marsh.). 
This authority shifts the places. 

1 Filio Beogni. " Fuit vir vite venerabilis 
Colmanus nomine de nobili gente Hibernie .i. 
de Nepotibus Neill, et pater ejus Beogne voca- 
batur. Qui, cum esset regio Midi [Meath] a 
Laginensibus devastata, fugit cum suis in Val- 
lem Hoichle [Glenelly, com. Tyrone], et ibi 
natus est sanctus Colmanus." Vita S. Colmani 
Ela, c. i (E. 3, u, Trin. Coll. Dubl. fol. io6a b; 
Cod. Marsh, fol. 129 b a ; Reeves, Colton's Visit, 
p. 55). " S. Colmannus filius Beagni." Vit. S. 
Finiani (Colg. Act. SS. p. 397 a). Colmcm 
eia mac beognai TrncTno6cai mic Cumbiba, 
70. Lib. Lecan. According to the Calendar of 
Donegal (Sept. 26) his mother was Mor, daugh- 
ter of Fedhlimidh, and sister of St. Columba. 
He was twenty-second in descent from Fedhlim 
Saillne, the head of the Dal-Selli, and from 
whom this Colman derived the tribe name Mac- 
U-Sailni. See notes b , d , i. 5 (p. 29) supra. 

b Superius memorati. That is, in the title. 
The codd. which retain these words, but omit 



the title, are manifestly corrupt. See note f , 
p. 93, supra. 

c Campi Lunge In the Ethica terra, the 
modern Tiree. See note f , i. 30 (p. 59), and 
41 (p. 78), supra; also cap. 39, iii. 8, infra. 

A Ethicam terrain. See i. 19 (p. 48), 36 (p. 66) 
supra ; ii. 39, iii. 8, infra. 

e Columbanum presbyterum. Throughout this 
chapter he is called Columbanus, but elsewhere 
Colmanus, the two names being convertible. 
See note d , i. 5 (p. 29) supra. Colman Ela, 
sometimes called Colmanellus, derived his sur- 
name from Ela, a stream which also gave name 
to his church of Lann-Ela, now Lynally, near 
Tullamore, in the King's County. (Gloss on Fe- 
lire, 26 Sept.) He was founder of Muckamore, 
in the county of Antrim, and joint patron with 
St. Mac Nissi, of Connor (Jocelin, c. 96; ITssher, 
Wks. vi. p. 530). He was born in Glenelly, in 
the county of Tyrone, in 555, and died in his 
monastery of Lynally, in 611, aged 56. (Tigh.) 
His festival is Sept. 26. In the present chapter 
he is styled a presbyter, and so he is represented 



CAP. 15, 1 6.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



125 



prospere optatum pervenit ad portum : ad navigandum te 10 hodie 17 prsepara; 
mox 18 Dominus ventum convertet in aquilonem. Cui sic prolato beati viri 
verbo eadem hora auster obsecundans 19 ventus se in aquiloneum convertit 
flatum ; et ita in eadem die uterque vir sanctus, alter ab altero in pace aversus, 
Baitheneus mane ad 20 Ethicam terram, Columbanus post meridiem 21 Hiber- 
niam incipiens appetere, plenis enavigavit velis et flatibus secundis. Hoc 
illustris viri virtute orationum, Domino donante, eiFectum est miraculum ; 
quia, sicut scriptum est, Omnia possibilia sunt credenti. Post ilia in die sancti 
Columbani egressum, sanctus hoc de illo propheticum Columba protulit ver- 
bum, Vir sanctus Columbanus, cui emigranti benediximus, 22 nusquam in hoc 
sfRCulo faciem videbit meam. Quod ita post expletum est, nam eodem anno f 
sanctus Columba ad Dominum transiit. 



*DE REPULSIONE DJEMONIS QUI IN LACTARIO LATITABAT VASCULO. 

2 ALio 3 in Hempore, quidam juvenis, Columbanus nomine, 6 Nepos 6 Briuni a , 
7 ad januam 8 tugurioli b subito perveniens restitit, in quo vir beatus 9 scribebat c . 
Hie idem, post vaccarum reversus mulsionem, in dorso portans vasculum novo 
plenum lacte, dicit ad Sanctum, ut juxta 10 morem tale benediceret onus. 
Sanctus turn ex adverse eminus in acre signum salutare d manu elevata de- 

!6 om. D. 17 propera D. 18 enim add. D. 19 ventis A. 20 etheticam A. 21 ever- 

niam A. 22 nunquam E. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2-4 om. D. 3 quoque add. C. 5-6 om. C. D. F. S. ? qui add. 
C. D. 8 jj. C. D. F. S. tegorioli A. columba erat D. " om . D. 



in his Life; but in the title of i. 5 (p. 29) supra, 
he is called episcopus, which seems to be an er- 
ror. Colgan, to make good his episcopal rank, 
identifies him with the individual mentioned in 
the Life of Ita, " cui nomen erat Columbanus, 
qui ad insulam Hyth ad S. Columbam pergens, 
illic gradum episcopalem accepit." (Act. SS. 
p. 69 a.) But this supposition is exposed to 
the objection that his ordination took place in 
St. Ita's lifetime, that is, before 570, which 
would allow only 15 years for Colman's age at 
his consecration, he having been born in 555. 

f Eodem anno. St. Columba died in 595. 

n Columbanus Nepos Briuni. Probably ano- 
ther instance of Columbanus for Colmanus. 



Nepos Briuni, i. e. Ua bpiuin. Colgan has a 
long note to prove that this was the Colman, 
abbot of Lindisfarne, who, after the Synod of 
Whitby, sailed with his fraternity, in 668, to 
Inisbofind, and died in 676. But the compari- 
son of dates renders this very unlikely. 

b Tugurioli. See i. 25 (p. 54) supra. 

c Scribebat. See i. 25 (p. 54), iii. 15, infra. 

d Signum salutare. That is, the sign of the 
Cross. See chaps. 27, 29, 35, infra. The an- 
cient memoirs of St. Patrick by Muirchu re- 
late of him that " tropeo etiam crucis in omni 
hora diei noctisque centies se signans, et ad 
omnes cruces quascunque vidisset orationis 
gratia de curru discendens declinabat." (Lib. 



126 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



pinxit, quod illico valde concussum est, n gergennaque e operculi, per sua bina 
foramina retrusa, longius projecta est, 12 operculum terra tenus cecidit, lac ex 
13 majore mensura in solum defusum est. Juvenculus vas, cum parvo quod 
remanserat lactis, super fundum in terra deponit, genua suppliciter 14 flectit. 
Ad quern Sanctus, Surge, ait, 15 Columbane, hodie in tua operatione negli- 
genter egisti, daemonem f enim in fundo vacui latitantem vasculi, impresso 
Dominicae crucis sig.no, ante 16 infusionem lactis, non effugasti: cujus videlicet 
signi nunc virtutem non sustinens, tremefactus, toto pariter turbato vase, ve- 
lociter cum lactis effusione aufugit. " Hue ergo ad me propius vasculum, ut 
illud benedicam, approxima. Quo facto, Sanctus semivacuum 18 quod 19 bene- 
dixerat vas, 20 eodein momento divinitus repletum repertum est; parvumque 
quod prius in fundo vasis remanserat, sub sancta3 manus benedictione, usque 
ad summum citius excreverat. 



J DE VASCULO QUOD QUIDAM MALEFICUS NOMINE SILNANUS a LACTE DE MAS- 

CULO BOVE EXPRESSO REPLEVERAT. 

Hoc 2 in domo alicujus plebeii divitis, 3 qui in monte Cainle b commorabatur, 
Foirtgirni nomine, factum 4 traditur. Ubi 5 cum Sanctus hospitaretur, inter 
rusticanos contendentes duos, quorum prius adventum prsescivit, recta judi- 
catione judicavit : unusque ex eis, qui maleficus erat, 6 a Sancto jussus, de bove 
masculo, qui prope erat, lac arte diabolica expressit d : quod Sanctus, non ut 

n gergenaque D. 12 vasque D. is more D. li flexit C. D. l6 columba C. D. is effu- 
sionem D. 17 hoc C. 18 om. C. D. w benedixit D. 2 eodemque C. D. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. s factum subsequens C. D. 3-4 owl . c. D. F. S. 5 om. D. 

6 et add. F. 



Armac. fol. 7 b a.) Thus, in St. Brendan's Life, 
" Venerabilis pater armavit se de Dominico 
tropheo," where the margin of the cod. Marsh, 
reads i.e. signo crucis (fol. 61 a a). See under 
Crucis in Index Moral., Colgan's Act. SS. 

e Gergenna. " Ferrum aut lignum teres, quo 
per duas ansas transmisso operculum firmatur 
ne excidat." Act. SS. Jun. ii. p. 219 b. It was 
the wooden cross bar which fastened down the 
lid of the pail. 

f Dcemonem An enumeration of all the su- 
perstitions regarding milk in its various stages, 



prevalent even in the present day among the 
peasantry of Scotland and the north of Ireland, 
would require more space than the limited na- 
ture of a note permits. 

a Silnanus. On the name see note c , p. 77. 

b Monte Cainle. See the note on Regio 
Cainle, i. 39 (p. 75) supra. 

c Foirlgirni Probably a form of poipc- 
diepn, a name which appears among St. Pa- 
trick's disciples. 

d Lac expressit. This reminds one of the 
story in St. Fechin's Life, except that the 



CAP. I7,l8.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



127 



ilia confirmaret maleficia, fieri jussit, quod absit ; sed ut ea coram multitudine 
destrueret. Vir itaque beatus vas, ut videbatur-tali plenum lacte, sibi ocius 
dari poposcit ; et hac cum sententia benedixit dicens, Modo probabitur non 
esse hoc verum, quod 'putatur, lac, sed daemonum fraude, ad decipiendos 
homines, decoloratus sanguis : et continue lacteus ille color in naturam versus 
8 est propriam, hoc est, in sanguinem. Bos quoque, qui per unius horae momen- 
tum, turpi macie tabidus et maceratus, erat morti proximus, benedicta a 
Sancto aqua superfusus, mira "sub celeritate sanatus est. 

J DE LUGNEO MOCUMIN a . 

QUADAM die quidam bonae indolis juvenis, Lugneus nomine, qui postea 
senex in monasterio 2 Elenae insulae b praepositus erat, ad Sanctum veniens, 3 quer- 



7 putabatur B. C. D. F. 
nitul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 A. B. 

agency was different : " Contigit alio tempore 
quod a matre sibi commissa est cura custo- 
diendi vaccas inter quas taurus unus erat. 
Puer vero Fechinus diutina abstinentia fatiga- 
tus esurire ccapit. Cum vero taurum intuere- 
tur, per columbinam simplicitatem inter taurum 
etvaccam discernere nesciens, ad taurum accur- 
rit, et genitalia ejus tamquam vaccae compri- 
mebat ubera: et primo impulsu lac non inveniens 
suae culpae imputabat, dicens ; ignorat, inquit, 
me Dominus meus pro eo quod vacca ista mu- 
lieribus lactat, et non mihi. Res miranda atque 
prae novitate inusitata, taurus abundantius sibi 
lac praebuit, quam aliq\ia vaccarum lactifera- 
rum daret." c. 9 (Colg. Act. SS. p. 131 a). 

a Lugneo Mocumin Cap. 27, infra. Lugbeus 
Mocumin, i. 15 (p. 43 ), 24 (p. 53), 28 (p. 56). 

b Elena insulce. The proper name seems to 
be formed from eileann, ' an island,' and the 
addition of insula is like the use of the word 
mountain in connexion with a name having 
Slieve in its composition. It is hard to say 
among the many islands of Argyle, what one 
is here intended; but if the number and age of 
monastic ruins demand a preference, none bids 



6 om. B. C. 9 om. D. 

helene C. D. F. S. 3 columbam add. D. 

fairer to be the spot in question (unless indeed 
this be the Hinba of Adamnan) than Elachnave 
or Eileann naomh, 'holy island,' the Helant 
Leneou of Fordun (Scotichr. ii. 10), and one 
of the Garveloch Isles, lying north-west of 
Scarba. The number of remains grouped to- 
gether on the south-eastern side of the island 
are evidence of its early importance as an ec- 
clesiastical establishment, and the simplicity 
of their structure supports their claims to 
antiquity. On a slope close to the shore are 
the remains of two beehive cells, constructed 
of slate, and bearing a striking resemblance to 
the primitive cells sketched in Petrie's Round 
Towers (pp. 127, 128). One of them is half 
demolished, but the other is more perfect, co- 
vered on the outside with mould and sods. 
The entrance was so low as to require one to 
creep on his hands and face to gain admission, 
and there was a passage communicating be- 
tween them of like contracted dimensions. In 
a sheltered grassy hollow at the foot of the 
eastern slope is the cemetery, with traces of 
graves of great age, and a few rude head- 
stones, but none with any inscription, save a 



128 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 





itur de 4 profluvio sanguinis, qui crebro per multos menses de naribus ejus 
immoderate profluebat. Quo propius accito, Sanctus ambas 6 ipsius nares 
binis inanus dexterse digitulis constringens benedixit. Ex qua hora bene- 
dictionis, nunquam sanguis de naso ejus usque ad extremum distillavit diem c . 

*DE 2 PISCIBUS BEATO VIRO SPECIALITER A DEO 3 PR^PARATIS. 

4 ALio 5 in tempore, cum prsedicabilis viri G sociales n , strenui piscatores, 
quinos in rete pisces cepissent in fluvio Sale b piscoso, Sanctus ad eos, 8 iterate, 

* fluvio D. s illius F. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2-3 esoce magno in fluvio sale juxta verbum sancti invento B. 4 in 
C. D. F. S. hoc capitul. post ii. 26 subscquitur, et ambo in lib. iii. amandantur. 4 " 5 quodam D. 6 sco- 
tiales C. D. F. S. 7 piscosos D. 8 om. D. 



small square slab having a Greek cross in- 
cised. Attached to this space, on the north, 
are the remains of some conventual buildings. 
North of them, at a little distance, is the ora- 
tory, a small roofless building, formed of slates 
without mortar, having the door in the west, 
and a small, doubly-splayed window in the east. 
A little north-east of this is a very curious 
building, with rounded corners, and one en- 
trance in the middle of the north- side, without 
any traces of windows. Further oif from the 
oratory, on higher ground to the east, is a 
small building, divided into two compartments, 
the southern one of which is nearly semicircu- 
lar, having a platform of masonry, in the centre 
of which is a circular funnel, giving one the idea 
of a kiln. On the face of the slope south of the 
cemetery is a little earn, like a rude altar, and, 
beside it, a small square slab with a cross in- 
cised. The writer visited the island on the 
22nd of July, 1852, in company with his friends, 
Cosmo Innes and William F. Skene, the former 
of whom has since most truly stated concerning 
these remains, " The crowd of low buildings 
has all the appearance of a monastic establish- 
ment ; and, if it was so, these are perhaps the 
oldest vestiges of the sort now standing in 
Scotland" (Orig. Paroch. ii. pt. i, p. 277); of 



course always excepting the monastic group 
on Loch Columkille in Skye. Mr. Muir of 
Leith adds : " Eilean Naomh has the enviable 
reputation of being closely connected by com- 
mon tradition with St Columba, who is said to 
have often visited and resided on the island 
while prosecuting his missionary labours." 
Ecclesiological Notes, p. 59 (Edinb. 1855). 
Eilean Naomh, both in the case of this island, 
and of that on the north-west of Islay, is evi- 
dently a secondary name. Query, is this Hinba ? 

c Distillavit diem. This, and the first part 
of the following chapter, which come here in 
the natural order under the head of virtutum 
miracula, are transferred in the manuscripts of 
the shorter recension to the Third Book (cap. 5), 
although that book purports to treat de An- 
gelicis Apparitionibus. 

a Sociales The MSS. of the shorter recen- 
sion read Scotiales, upon which Messingham 
gives the marginal gloss Hyberniales (Florileg. 
p. 173 c). 

b Sale The latter portion of this chapter 
refers to Ireland, and if the former also, the 
Blackwater in the county of Meath, anciently 
called the Sale (as in Fourth Life of St. Pa- 
trick, 0.51, Tr. Th. p. 420), or Sele, may be 
intended, although St. Patrick denounced it, 



CAP. 



Auctore Adamnano. 



129 



ait, Bete in flumen mittite, et statira invenietis grandem, quern mihi Dominus 
prseparavit, piscem. Qui, verbo Sancti obtemperantes, mirae magnitudinis 
traxerunt in 9 retiacul6 10 esocem c a Deo sibi prseparatum d . 

H Alio quoque in tempore, cum Sanctusjuxta Cei Stagnum e aliquantis demo- 
raretur diebus, comites ire ad piscandum cupientes retardavit, dicens, Hodie 

9 rethe D. 10 essocem A. F. chocem C. u captt. novum orditur, cut prccjigitur titulus de 
duobua piscibus illo prophetante in flumine quod vocitatur boo repertis B. ll " 14 om. C. D. F. S. 



saying, " Non erunt pisces magni in flumine 
Sele semper." (Lib. Armac. fol. 10 a b ; Vit. 
Trip. ii. 4, Tr. Th. p. 129 6.) From the recur- 
rence of the name Sale, however, at cap. 45, 
infra, where it undoubtedly belongs to Scot- 
land, we may conclude that the scene of the 
present anecdote is to be laid there also. The 
river is possibly the Shiel, which flows from 
Loch Shiel into the sea, forming the northern 
boundary of Sunart. 

c Esocem. This word appears in a great va- 
riety of forms, and its interpretation wavers 
between 'a pike* and 'a salmon.' Pliny men- 
tions the " esox in Rheno" (N. H. ix. 17), which 
Hardouin conjectures to be the lucius or pike 
(vol. i. p. 505, n. 5). Aldrovandus observes : 
" Angli item Lutz dicunt, ubi provecta sunt 
aetate : minores enim Pike vocare Bellonius 
tradit." (De Piscib. iv. c. i, p. 482 ; v. 39, 
p. 630.) So Gesner, concerning the Huso of 
the Danube (De Pise. Nat. iv. pp. 60, 438, 
Tigur. 1558). Yen. Bede says of Britain, 
" issicio abundat et anguilla" (H. E. i. i) ; 
which Hussey interprets of the pike. Hesychius 
exhibits the word in a Greek form: *I(ro ixQiis 
iroiog Kt]T(iiSi]S. Lex. in voc. (Ed. Alberti, torn, 
ii. c. 75, n. 15.) The fisherman who ferried 
St. Peter across the Thames after the conse- 
cration of his church at Westminster took a 
great haul offish, and "omnes erant ejusdem 
generis pisces prseter unum mirse enormitatis 
esoczwm. 1 ' Vit. S. Edvardi Conf. c. 17 (Act. SS. 
Jan. i. p. 296 6). Where Bollandus observes : 
" Eum quidem salmonem, alii forte rectius lu- 
cium interpretantur." (76. p. 297 a.) In Bri- 
tish use, however, there can be little doubt 



concerning the meaning of the term. In a 
Cornish vocabulary, cited by Zeuss, we find 
Isicius vel sal mo, ehoc (Gram. Celt. ii. p. 1114). 
The Life of St. Kentigern supplies an equally 
decisive interpretation: "Sanctus pontifex prse- 
cepit nuncio cum hamo ad ripam praefati flumi- 
nis Clud [Clyde] pergere, que hamum gurgiti 
injicere, et primum piscem qui inescatus fuis- 
set, ex aquis extractum continuo ad se repor- 
tare. Quod Sanctus dixit nuncius explevit, et 
esocem, qui vulgo salmo dicitur, captum prae- 
sentiaa viri Dei exhibuit." cap. 36 (Pinkert. 
Vit. Antiq. p. 276). So, also, in a charter of 
1252, cited by Du Cange, "medietatem esocium 
qui vulgo salmones vocantur." (Gloss, in woe.) 
The Life of St. Cadoc tells " de enchiridione 
in ventre isidi reperto," which was caught in 
the sea. cap. 25 (Rees* Lives of Cambr. Brit. 
SS. pp. 63, 64). The meaning is not so certain 
in Sulpicius Severus' Life of St. Martin : "Ad 
primum jactum reti permodico immanem esocem 
diaconus extraxit" (Opp. p. 607 , ed. 1 654). Where 
the Book.of Armagh reads essicem (fol. 216 b 6). 
" Turn in Dei et in ipsius sanctse Helense no- 
mine laxantes rete, gemino ditati gaudent 
esoce." (Flodoard. Hist. Rhem. Eccl. c. 8.) The 
word esox, as Zeuss observes, is allied to the 
Welsh ehawc, now eog, and to the Armorican 
eok, eog, eaug, all which denote the ' salmon' 
(Gram. Celt. i. pp. 144, 145, 146, 302, ii. p. 1114, 
note), and indicate it as the proper interpreta- 
tion of the Latin word. 

d Prceparatum. See the note c on preceding 
chapter. 

e Cei Stagnum. Now Lough Key, in the 
county of Roscommon. See note a , i. 42 (p. 79) 



S 



130 Vita Sancti Columbce [LIB. n. 

ct eras nullus in flumine reperietur piscis : tertia mittam vos die, et invenietis 
binos grandes, in rete retentos, numinales 12 esoces. Quos ita post duas dieculas, 
rete mittentes, duos rarissimae rnagnitudinis, in fluvio qui dicitur 13 Bo f repe- 
rientes, ad terrain traxerunt. In his duabus memoratis piscationibus, miraculi 
apparet tirtus et prophetica simul praescientia comitata, pro quibus Sanctus 
et socii Deo grates eximias 14 reddiderunt. 



J DE NESANO 2 CURVO a QUI IN EA REGIONE 3 CONVERSABATUR QUJE STAGNO 

APORUM b EST CONTERMINA. 

Hie Nesanus , cum esset valde in ops, sanctum alio tempore gaudenter hos- 
pitio recepit virurn. Cui cum hospitaliter secundum vires, unius noctis spatio 
ministrasset, Sanctus ab eo 4 inquirit, cujus boculas numeri haberet: ille ait, 
Quinque. Sanctus consequenter, Ad me, ait, adduc, ut eas benedicam. Qui- 
bus adductis, et elevata manu sancta benedictis, Ab hac die tuse pauculas 
quinque vacculse crescent, ait Sanctus, usque ad centum et quinque vaccarum 
numerum. Et quia idem Nesanus homo plebeius d erat, cum uxore et filiis, 

12 essoces A. sic supra. 13 boo B. 
i titul. et cap, totum om. C. D. F. S. 2 cervo B. conversabat B. * requirit Boll. 

supra. O'Donnell, in the parallel passage to (Tr. Th. p. 3830, n. 21.) Lochaber was an- 

that here referred to, represents " Columbam ciently an extensive lordship reaching on the 

in insula cujusdam lacus in Connacia siti, qui south to Loch-Leven, and is still a large dis- 

Hibernis Loch-Ke dicitur, commorantem." trict in the county of Inverness on the borders 

i. 101 (Tr. Th. p. 405 i). of Argyleshire, but the name has departed 

f Bo The Boyle river, which runs into the from its primary application, and does not 

Shannon, near Carrick-on-Shannou, a short now belong to any sheet of water so as to an- 

distance north-west of St. Columba's church swer the description in the text. It may be 

of Cill-mor Deathruibh, or Kilmore. See note b , inferred, however, that the inlet of the sea, 

i. 42 (p. 79)> and notes, i. 50 (p. 99), supra. forming the north-eastern continuation of the 

a Nesano Curvo. Neap an cam. The epithet Linnhe Loch, and known as that part of Loch 

cam is not unfrequent in Irish proper names. Eil lying between Fort William and Corran 

b Stagno Aporum. " Regione quse Stagni Ferry, was Loch Abor proper of early times, 

littoribus Aporici est contermina." cap. 37, c Hie Nesanus. This refers to the titulus, 

infra. Colgan correctly observes : " Est regio showing that it is an integral part of the nar- 

Scotise, quse Buccanano lib. i, pag. 20. Abria rative. 

vocatur ; a qua adjacens canalis, seu lacus ' d Plebeius. The force of this term may be 

longus, qui stagnum Aporum, et Scotic Loch- collected from the contrasted promise, " Erit 

abor vocatur ; videtur nomen desumpsisse." semen tuum in filiis et nepotibus benedictum." 



CAP. 20, 21.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



'3 1 



hoc etiam ei vir beatus benedictionis augmentum intulit, dicens, Erit semen 
tuum in filiis et nepotibus benedictum. Qua3 omnia plene, juxta verbum Sancti, 
sine ulla expleta sunt imminutione. 

[ 5 De quodam e viro divite tenacissimo, nomine 6 Uigenio f , qui sanctum Co- 
lumbam despexerat nee eum hospitio recepit, hanc e contrario protulit prophe- 
talem sententiam, inquiens, Illius autem avari divitiae, qui Christum in peregrinis 
hospitibus sprevit, ab hac die paulatim imminuentur, et adnihilum redigentur; 
et ipse mendicabit ; et films ejus cum semivacua de domo in domum perula 
discurret; et, ab aliquo ejus emulo securi in fossula excussorii g percussus, 
morietur. Quae omnia de utroque, juxta sancti prophetiam viri, plene sunt 
7 expleta.] 



1 DE COLUMBANO JEQUE PLEBEIO VIRO, CUJUS PECORA ADMODUM PAUCA VIR 
SANCTUS BENEDIXIT; SED POST ILLIUS BENEDICTIONEM USQUE AD CEN- 
TENARIUM CREVERUNT NUMERUM. 

ALIO 2 quoque Hempore, vir beatus 4 quadam nocte, cum apud 5 supra 
6 memoratum a Columbanum 7 tunc temporis inopem, bene 7 hospitaretur, mane 
primo Sanctus, 8 sicuti superius de Nesano commemoratum 9 est, de quantitate 
et 10 qualitate substantiae plebeium hospitem n interrogat. Qui interrogatus, 
Quinque, ait, tantummodo habeo 12 vacculas ; quae, si eas benedixeris, in majus 
crescent. Quas illico, a Sancto jussus, adduxit, 13 similique modo, ut supra de 
Nesani quinis dictum est u vacculis, et hujus Columbani 15 boculas b quinales 

5 " 7 om. A. sine rubrica, paragrapho, titulo, aut quavis distinctions, tenori pracedentiwn adliccret B. 

6 ingenio B. uigeno in capitulat. p. 101 supra. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3 i n a dd. B. * columba add. T>. 5 ~ 6 om. C. D. F. S. 

7 hospitaret C. . 8 ' 9 om. C. D. F. S. 10 de add. D. " interrogavit D. 12 vaccas D. w-u om , 
C.D.F. S. is buculas C. D. 



e De quodam. The following section is want- 
ing in cod. A, and is supplied in the present in- 
stance from cod. B, where it forms a sequel to 
the preceding narrative, but has neither title 
nor rubric to constitute it a distinct chapter, as 
Pinkerton has made it. Though its style re- 
sembles Adamnan's, yet, being of doubtful au- 
thority, it is here enclosed in brackets. 

f Uigenio. Written Uigeno in the capitula- 
tiones (p. 101) supra. The 'original, which is 



very capricious in the grouping of letters formed 
by strokes, seems to read ingenio. 

s Excussorii.' Excussorium, Area ubi fru- 
mentum excutitur.' Du Cange. 

a Supra memoratum. Referring to the name 
in the titulus. 

b Boculas. The poverty of the animals seems 
to be indicated iu this and the preceding chap- 
ters by the use of the diminutives boculce, 
vacculce, pauculce. 



S2 



132 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



jequaliter benedicens, inquit, Centenas et quinque, Deo donante, habebis vaccas, 
et erit in filiis et nepotibus tuis florida benedictio. Quse omnia, juxta 10 beati 
viri prophetationem, in agris et pecoribus ejus et prole, plenissime adimpleta 
sunt ; mirumque in modum numerus a Sancto praefinitus, supra 17 memoratis 
ambobus 18 viris 5 in centenario vaccarum et quinario expletus numero, nullo 
modo superaddi potuit : nam ilia, qua3 supra praefinitum excedebant numerum, 
diversis prasrepta casibus, nusquam comparuerant, excepto eo quod aut in usus 
proprios familiar, aut 19 etiam in opus eleemosynse, expendi poterat. In hac 
itaque narratione, utin ceteris, 20 virtutis miraculum et prophetia simul aperte 
ostenditur: nam in magna vaccaruni ampliatione benedictionis pariter et 
orationis virtus apparet, et in prsefinitione numeri prophetalis prsescientia. 



J DE 2 MALEFACTORUM INTERITU QUI SANCTUM 3 DISPEXERANT. 

VIR venerandus 4 supra memoratum Columbanum, quern de paupere virtus 
benedictionis 6 ejus 6 ditem fecit, valde diligebat; quia ei multa pietatis officia 
prsebebat. Erat autem illo 7 in tempore quidam malefactor homo, bonorum 
persecutor, 8 nomine 9 Joan a , filius Conallis filii 10 Domnallis, de regio u Gabrani 
ortus genere b . Hie supradictum 12 Columbanum, sancti amicum Columba?, 

16 sancti D. "-is memorato viro C. D. F. S. w om. C. 20 virtutibus C. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2~ 3 interitu iohannis filii conallis eadem die qua sanctum spernens 
dehonoravit B. 4 columba add. D. 5 om. B. 6 divitem C. D. ' om. D. 8-10 om , C, D. F. S. 
9 iohannes B. 10 domnalli B. " om. C. D. F. S. 12 C 6lu A. 



a Joan. Mentioned again in cap. 24. There 
is a difficulty attending his descent as given in 
these places. He is called the son of Conall, 
son of Domhnall, who was son of Gabhran, 
that is, he was great-grandson of Gabhran ; but 
Aidan, Gabhran's son, was St. Columba's con- 
temporary, and lived till 606, while his grand- 
nephew is represented as at man's estate many 
years before. The sons of Gabhran are thus 
enumerated in the Irish tract on the Men of 
Alba : 5 a ^P ari ) umoppo, cuis mec lep .1. 
Qo&an (.1. Goo picrm) Goganan, Cuilba6 
(no Callac), Oomnall, agup tJoriicmsopc. 
'Gabhran, now, had five sons, viz., Aodhan 
(i. e. Aodh Finn), Eoghanan [mentioned by 
Adamnan, iii. 5, ob. 595], Cuildach (or Callach) 



Domhnall, and Domhangort.' (Book of Bally- 
mote, fol. 84 b a ; Mac Firbis, Geneal. MS. 
p. 401.) 

b Gabrani genere Gabhran, son of Domhan- 
gart (by Fedhelm, daughter of Brian, son of 
Eochaidh Muighmedhain), son of Fergus Mor, 
succeeded his brother Comgall as king of the 
Scotic Dalriada in 558. He died in 560, ac- 
cording to Tighernach: bapp 5 a ^P aiT1 miG 
Domansmpc pi Qlbcm, ' Death of Gabran, 
son of Domangart, king of Alba.' He was 
succeeded by his nephew Conall. Of the 
cecpe ppirii6iTieoil "Dculpiaba, ' the four 
chief families of Dalriada,' the cmeul n- 
(5abpair), Gabrani genus, was one (Mac Firbis, 
p. 404). Cmeul Ti-Sabpcnn annpo. Cpi . 



CAP. 22.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



persequebatur ; domumque ejus, omnibus in ea inventis, devastaverat, ereptis, 
non semel, sed bis inimiciter agens. Unde forte non immerito eidem maligno 
accidit viro, ut tertia vice post ejusdem domus tertiam depraedationem, beatum 
virum, quern quasi longius 13 positum dispexerat, proprius appropinquantem, 
ad navem revertens praeda onustus cum sociis, obvium haberet. Quern cum 
Sanctus de suis corriperet malis, praedamque deponere rogans suaderet, ille, 
immitis 14 et 15 insuadibilis permanens, Sanctum dispexit, navimque cum prasda 
ascendens, beatum virum subsannabat et deridebat. Quern Sanctus ad mare 
16 usque 17 prosecutus est, vitreasque intrans aquas usque ad genua aequoreas, 
levatis ad ccelum 18 ambis manibus, Christum intente precatur, qui suos glorifi- 
cantes se glorificat electos. 19 Est vero ille portus, in quo post egressum 
persecutoris stans paulisper Dominum exorabat, in loco qui Scotice 20 vocitatur 
21 Ait-Chambas 22 Art-muirchol c . 23 Tum 24 proinde Sanctus, expleta oratione, 
ad aridam re versus, in eminentiore cum comitibus 25 sedet loco : ad quos ilia in 
hora formidabilia valde profert verba, dicens, Hie 26 miserabilis 27 humuncio, 
qui Christum in suis dispexit servis, ad portum, a quo nuper coram vobis 
emigravit, nunquam revertetur ; sed nee ad alias, quas appetit, terras, subita 
prseventus morte, cum suis 28 perveniet malis cooperatoribus. Hodie, quam 
mox videbitis, de nube 29 aborea 30 orta immitis immissa procella 31 eum cum 
sociis 33 submerget; nee de eis etiam unus 33 remanebit 34 Tabulator. Post 
aliquantum paucularum 35 interventum morarum, die serenissima, et ecce de 
mari 36 oborta, sicut Sanctus 37 dixerat, nubes, cum 38 magno fragore venti 
emissa, raptorem cum praeda inter Maleam d et 39 Colosum e40 insulas 41 inveniens, 

13 om. C. D. F. S. u om. C. 15 insuadibiliter C. 16 om. D. " secutus D. M A. B. am- 
babus C. D. S. manu correctoris F. 19 " 22 om. C. D. F. S. 20 vocatur B. 21-22 A. ad cambasi ard 
muircoll B. 23 tune D. 24 deinde C. D. 25 su is add. D. sedit B. 26 miserabiliter C. 27 homo D. 
28 superveniat D. 29 om , C. 30 ortam B. 31 quse add. D. 3 2 emerget D. 33 remeabit C. 
34 famulator D. 35 intervallum D. 36 aborta A. D. 3? praedixerat B. 3 8 magna B. A. 
colosam B. D. colossuin C. 40 insulam C. 41 veniens C. D. 



c Ait-chambas Art-muirchol. See note on 
Artdamuirchol, i. 12 (p. 40), and Artdaib Muir- 
chol, ii. 10 (p. 118), supra. There is no place in 
Ardnamurchan called Ait-cambas, but there is 
Camusnangel, and Canusinish ; Comisteras, on 
the south-coast, and Cammaseen to the east in 
Sunart. 

d Maleam. Sc. insulam, now Mull. See note b , 
i. 22 (p. 51), and note d , i. 41 (p. 77), supra. 

e Colosum. Probably the larger Colonsay, 



ce ap 0015 ceubaiti. Cearm Cipe 
Cpioo Comgrnll cona inpib. Da pecc pep 
506 .;c;c. ces a pea6c mapa. ' The Race of 
Gabhran here. Five hundred and three score 
houses. Ceann-tire [Cantyre, see note e , i. 
2 ^ (P- 57) supra], and Comgall's land [now 
Cowal], with its islands. Twice seven-benches 
to every 20 houses was their sea muster." (Book 
of Ballyraote, fol. 84 b b ; Mac Firbis, p. 403.) 
Genus Gabhrani, Tigh. 719. 



'34 



Vita Sancti Coluinbce 



[LIB. ii. 



subito turbato 42 submersit 43 medio mari: nee ex eis, juxta verbum Sancti, 
qui navi 44 inerant 15 etiam unus 46 evasit ; mirumque in modum, toto circumqua- 
que inanente tranquillo sequore, talis una rapaces ad inferna submerses pro- 
stravit procella, miser e quideni, sed digne. 



QUODAM FERADACHO SUBITA MORTE 3 SUBTRACTO. 

ALIO quoque 4 in tempore, vir sanctus, 6 quendam de nobili Pictorum genere 
exulem, 6 Tarainum a 7 nomine, in manum alicujus 8 Feradachi b ditis viri, 9 qui 
in 10 Ilea c insula "habitabat, diligenter assignans commendavit, ut in ejus 

*2 mersit D. in add. D. erant D. vel C. 4o jam add. D. 
1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 " 3 alicujus feradaelii morte .fraudulent! viri a sancto prsenuneiata B. 



* om. D. 
10 ilia B. 



columba add. D. 



6-7 om . c. D. F. S. 



8 om. C. D. F. S. 



om. C. D. F. S. 



south of Mull. A boat sailing southwards 
would hardly go so much out of its way as to 
hug the shore on the Ulva side of Little Colon- 
say. See note e , i. 41 (p. 77) supra. 

a Tarainum We find the name Tarain at a 

later date in the catalogue of the Pictish kings : 
Taranfilius Enfidaid, iiii. [annis regnavit] (Irish 
Nennius, pp. i64,lxxvi.) He is probably the sub- 
ject of the following notices in the Annals of 
Ulster: 696, Taracin de regno expulsus es(Tigh. 
697); 698, Tarain ad Hiberniam pergit. Taram, 
the name of an earlier king, is probably an 
error for Tarain. (Ir. Nennius, pp. 158, Ixxv.) 

b Feradachi. pepaboch was the Irish name. 

c Ilea insula Now Islay, the large island 

west of Cantyre. Ilea is an adjective form of 
the name lie. lie, Four Mast. 565, 1444; Keat- 
ing, Hist. (vol. i. p. 192, Ed. Haliday.) 11, in 
Haco's Exped. pp. 54, 56 ; Lodbrochi Epiced. 
pp. 23, 107, 108. It was occupied by thePicts 
as a temporary resting-place in their migration 
from Ireland to subdue the north of Scotland. 
See the ancient poem in the Irish Nennius, p. 
146. Subsequently it came into the possession 
of the Dalriadic colony, and early in the sixth 
century Muiredhach, son of Aengus Beg, son 
of Ere, settled in it, being, as the tract on the 



Men of Alba states, the one 'who first,' that is, 
of the Scoti, ' inhabited He.' See the passage 
cited in note *, cap. 14 (p. 123) supra. " Mured- 
achus JEnese filius primus Ilese Hebridum in- 
sulse [Scoticus] colonus." O'Flaherty, Ogyg. 
p. 470. peapgup beas mac 6pc (seasna 
no 50050 na bpacaip) eun mac lep .1. 
Seubna a quo Cineul Concpibe in lie, no 
Cineul Concpaise .1. Concniafc no Concnise 
mac boils mic Seutma mic peapgura bis 
mic 6pc mic 606006 TTluinpeamaip. ' Fer- 
gus the Little, son of Ere (who was slain by 
his brother), had one son, viz. Seudna, a quo 
Cinel Concridhe in He, or Cinel Concraige, i. e. 
Concriath or Concrighe, son of Bolg, son of 
Seudna, son of Fergus the Little, son of Ere, 
son of Eochaidh Muinreamhar.' (Book of Le- 
can, fol. 118 ba; Mac Firbis, p. 401.) The 
parallel place in the Book of Ballymote calls 
this family of Islay the Cenel Secno (8460). 
From Aengus, son of Fergus Mor, and father 
of Muiredhach, the family called Cinel n Qen- 
Supa derived its name. In 568 Colman Beg, 
son of Diarmait Mac Cerbhail, in company with 
Conal, son of Comgall, Lord of Dalriada, in- 
vaded this island, and carried away much booty 
(Four Mast. 565). The island consists of the 



CAP. 23, 24.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



comitatu, quasi unus de amicis, per aliquot menses conversaretur. Quern cum 
tali commendatione de sancti manu viri suscepisset commendatum, post paucos 
dies, dolose agens, crudeli eum jussione trucidavit. Quod immane scelus cum 
Sancto a commeantibus esset nunciatum, sic respondens profatus est, Non 
mihi sed'Deo ille infelix homunculus mentitus est, 12 cujus nomen de libro 
vitse delebitur. Hrcc verba 13 aesteo nunc mediante proloquimur tempore, sed 
autumnali, antequam de suilla 14 degustet came, 15 arboreo saginata fructu, subita 
prseventus morte, ad 1G infernalia rapietur loca. Haec sancti prophetia viri, 
cum misello 17 nuntiaret homuncioni, despiciens irrisit Sanctum : et post dies 
aliquot autumnalium mensium, eo jubente, 18 scrofa d nucum impinguata nucleis 
jugulatur, necdum aliis ejusdem virijugulatis suibus; de qua celeriter exinte- 
rata partem sibi in veru celerius 19 assari 20 praecipit, ut de ea impatiens 21 homo 
praegustans, beati viri prophetationem destrueret. Qua videlicet assata, dari 
sibi poposcit aliquam 22 praagustandam morsus particulam ; ad quam percipi- 
endam extensam manum priusquam ad os converteret, expirans, mortuus 
retro in dorsum cecidit. Et qui viderant, et qui audierant, valde tremefacti, 
admirantes, Christum in sancto propheta honorificantes glorificarunt. 



*DE ALIO 2 QUODAM NEFARIO HOMINE, 3 ECCLESIARUM PERSECUTORE, CUJUS 

NOMEN LATINE MANUS DEXTERA DICITUR. 

ALIO in tempore, virbeatus, cum alios ecclesiarum persecutores, in 4 Hinba a 
commoratus insula, excommunicare crepisset, fih'os videlicet Conallis filii 
DomnailP, quorum unus erat 5 Ioan, de quo supra retulimus c ; quidam ex eorun- 



12 ejus C. w sestivo B. C. D. w gustet C. 15 arborum B. w inferna D. " nuncia- 
retur C. D. is A. B. C. 19 prseparari Boll. 2 prsecepit C. 21 om. C. 22 prsegustandum A. 

> capit. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2-3 om . B. 4 himba B. 



5 A. iohannes B. 



three parishes, Kilarrow [rede Gill TTlaol- 
Tiutia], Kildalton, and Kilchoman. See C. 
Innes, Orig. Paroch. ii. pt. i. pp. 260-275. It 
appears from the Scotch Retours that the 
lands of Nerrabolfada [now Nerabols] in the 
Rinns of Islay, together with Woull [now 
Vaull] in Tiree, belonged to the monastery 
of Derry. (Inquis. Spec. Vic. Argyll. No. 67, 
^3 93-) This supplies the information required 
in the Orig. Paroch. Scot. ii. pt. i, p. 266. 



d Scrofa. " Visa est scropha prseclara, et 
duodecim surices cum ea." Vit. S. Kierani, 
c. 13 (Colg. Act. SS. p. 459 6.) 

a Hinba See note a , i. 21 (p. 50), note h , 45 
(p. 87), supra, iii. 5, 17, 18, infra. Can this be 
Elachnave (note b , p. 127) ? That island would 
be more within the range of the Genus Gabh- 
rani than one further north,- as Canna. 

b DomnailL See cap. 22 (p. 132) supra. 

c Retulimus. In cap. 22 (p. 132) supra. 



136 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. IT. 



dem malefactoribus sociis, diaboli instinctu, cum hasta irruit, ut Sanctum 
interficeret. Quod preecavens unus ex fratribus, Findluganus a nomine, mori 
paratus pro sancto viro, cuculla ejus indutus intercessit. Sed mirum in 
modum beati viri tale vestimentum, quasi quaedam munitissima et impenetra- 
bilis lorica, quamlibet fortis viri forti impulsione acutioris hastse, transfigi non 
potuit, sed illsesum permansit ; et qui eo indutus erat, intactus et incolumis 
tali protectus est munimento. Ille vero sceleratus, qui Manus Dextera 6 , 7 retro 
repedavit, aestimans quod sanctum hasta transfixisset virum. Post ex ea die 
completum annum, cum Sanctus in loua commoraretur insula, Usque in hanc 
diem, ait, integratus est annus, ex qua die Lam-dess f , in quantum potuit, Find- 
luganum mea jugulavit vice; sed et ipse, ut sestimo, hac 8 in hora jugulatur. 
Quod juxta Sancti revelationem eodem momento in ilia insula factum est, quas 
Latine Longa^ vocitari potest : ubi ipse solus Lam-dess, in aliqua virorum 

6 A.* finducanus B. 7 dicebatur add. B. latitie riominatur suojure Boll. 8 om. B. 



d Findluganus. The name pionnlugh occurs 
in the Irish Calendar at Jan. 3, May n, June 5, 
Nov. 13. The gloss on ^Engus' martyrology at 
the first of these dates is thus translated by 
Colgan : " Finnluga fuit discipulus et frater 
S. Fintani de Dunblesque ; et ideo cum eo no- 
minatur : et in peregrinationem exiit in Albio- 
nem : estque Sanctus qui colitur in Tamlact 
Finnlogain in regione Kiennachtse de Glennge- 
min. Finnloga et Fin tan us duo filii Demani, 
filii Fingenii, filii Demani, filii Carelli, filii 
Muredacii Muinderg." (Tr. Th. p. 383 b, 
n. 23.) St. Fintan's church was Dunblesque in 
Hy Cuanach, now Doon, in the barony of Coo- 
nagh, county of Limerick. Here, according to 
his Life, Finnloga, his brother, abode until he 
and his companion "ad mare pervenerunt, et 
inventa ibi navi usque in Albaniam transfreta- 
verunt, ubi Finloga, sicut prsedictum est, man- 
sit etobiit." cap. 12 (Colg. Act. SS. p. 120). 
The same authority represents him as con- 
temporary with St. Columba, St. Finnian, and 
St. Comgall. The church which commemo- 
rates Fimiloga is Tamlaght-Finlagan, adjoining 
Drumachose or Newtownlimavady, in the county 
of Londonderry. Loch Finlagan, in the parish 
of Kilarrovv in Islay, has an island, formerly 



called the Island of St. Finlagan, on which are 
the ruins of a small chapel commemorative of 
St. Fiulagan. It was anciently in the patron- 
age of the Lords of the Isles, who had their 
chief castle also on the same island. The 
chaplaincy of St. Colme and St. Finlagan em- 
braced this church and that on the east at 
Kilcholmkill. See Martin, West. Islands, pp. 
240, 243 ; C. Innes, Orig. Par. ii. pt. i. pp. 261, 
267 ; Collectan. de Reb. Alban. p. 297. 

e Manus Dextera. Larii bepp, as his name 
is given in Irish further on. The custom of 
representing Irish names by their Latin equi- 
valents prevails all through this Life (see note b , 
p. 3 supra), and frequently displays itself in the 
memoirs of St. Patrick in the Book of Armagh, 
some of which are referable to about the same 
date : it even continues as late as a charter of 
the year 1004, preserved in the saine manu- 
script ; where the proper name Maol-suthain 
is rendered Calvus Perennis, and Cashel Maceria 
(fol. 1666). 

f Lam Dess. Called Manus Dextera above. 

e Lonya. This in Irish would be Imp paba, 
a name which is given by the Highlanders to 
the Long Island, namely, the close range of 
islands from the Butt of Lewis to Barra Head. 



CAP. 25.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



'37 



utrinque acta belligeratione, Cronani filii 9 Baithani jaculo transfixus, in nomine, 
ut fertur, sancti Columbse emisso, interierat ; et post ejus interitum, bellige- 
rare viri cessarunt. 



X DE ALIO 8 ITIDEM INNOCENTITJM "PERSECUTORS. 

4 CUM vir beatus, adhuc juvenis diaconus a , in parte Lagenensium b , divinam 
addiscens sapientiam, conversaretur, quadam accidit die ut 5 homo quidam 
innocuorum immitis persecutor crudelis, quandam in campi planitie filiolam 
fugientem persequeretur. Qua? cum forte 6 Gemmanum d senem, supra memo- 
rati 7 juvenis diaconi magistrum, in campo legentem vidisset, ad eum recto 
cursu, quanta valuit velocitate, confugit. Qui, tali perturbatus subitatione, 

9 baetani B. 

i tituL om. C. D. F. S. ubi hoc capitulum iii. 4 subnectitur. z om. B. 3 qui in laginensium pro- 
vincia sicut ananias coram petro eodem momento a sancto terribiliter objurgatus cecidit mortuus add, B. 
* dam F. 5 bono C. 6 A. B. D. F. germanum C. 7 juvenilia B. 



But this is much too far north for the applica- 
tion in the text. There are two islands near 
Scarba, called Lunga and Luing, the latter of 
which is a long narrow island. Its name sig- 
nifies 'of a ship," but it may be a corruption 
of Longa. Cormac derives long thus : long 
bip pop. irmip, ab eo quod cst lonya, .1. lang, 
i. poca, ' Ship, that is on the sea, ab eo quod 
est longa, i. e. lang, i. e. long.' Gloss, in voc. 
(Petrie's Tara, p. 161.) 

a Diaconus See ii. i (p. 104) supra. 

b Lagen'ensium. From iLaigen, ' Leinster.' 

c Campi planitie Probably, of Meath. 

d Gemmanum. Canisius reads Germanum, 
which Lanigan adopts (Ec. Hist. ii. pp. 117, 
119). Colgan, though he retains Gemmanum 
in the text, conjectures that it is an error, be- 
cause the name does not appear in the Calendar, 
and proposes Gormanum as an emendation (Tr. 
Th. p. 383 b, n. 25). The old Irish Life in the 
Leabhar Breac reads ^emmcm, in the High- 
land Soc. MS. <5enian, but in the Book of Lis- 
more ^epTncm. O'Donnell, as abridged by 
Colgan, reads Germanus.i. 40 (Tr. Th. p. 
395 ) There can be no doubt, however, that 



Gemman is the true reading. An Enan mac 
Gemmain is found in the Calendar of Donegal 
at Jan. 30 : which proves the existence of the 
name. But the following passage from the 
Life of St. Finnian of Clonard, which refers to 
the very individual mentioned in the text, puts 
the matter beyond dispute : " Item quodam alio 
tempore venit carminator nomine Gemanus ad 
S. Finnianum, habens secum quoddam carmen 
magnificum, in quo multa virtutum ejus conti- 
nebantur, pro quo carmine non aurum vel ar- 
gentum, vel aliam mundi substantiara, sed 
tantum in agris suis, pro duritia terrse, fructus 
quserebat ubertatem. Cui respondens cultor 
Trinitatis, ait ; Hymnum quern fecisti canta 
super aquam, et de ilia agros tuos asperge. 
Cumque jussa compleret, ex illo die ager suus 
fructuosus est factus usque in hodiernum 
diem." c. 23 (Act. SS. p. 395 6). This Gem- 
man was probably a Christian bard, of the 
same class as Dalian Forgaill, St. Columba's 
panegyrist ; and, being an inhabitant of the 
plain of Meath, was brought into communica- 
tion with St. Finnian, whose church was the 
principal one in the territory. 



138 Vita Sancti Coluinbce [LIB. n. 

Colurnbam eminus legentem advocat, ut ambo, in quantum valuissent, filiam a 
persequente defenderent. Qui statim superveniens, nulla eis ab eo data reve- 
rentia, filiam sub vestimentis eorum lancea jugulavit; et relinquens jacentem 
mortuam super pedes eorum, aversus abire coepit. Senex 8 tum, valde Hristi- 
ficatus, con versus ad 10 Columbam, Quanto, ait, sancte puer Columba, hoc scelus 
cum nostra delionoratione temporis spatio inultum fieri Judex Justus patietur 
Deus ? Sanctus consequenter hanc in ipsum sceleratorem protulit sententiam, 
dicens, Eadem hora qua interfectae ab eo filise anima u ascendit ad co3los, 
anima ipsius interfectoris 12 descendat ad inferos. Et dicto citius, cum verbo, 
sicut Ananias coram Petro, sic et ille innocentium jugulator, coram oculis 
sancti juvenis, in eadem 13 mortuus 14 cecidit 15 terrula. Cujus rumor subitse et 
formidabilis vindictas continue per inultas Scotias provincias 6 , cum mira sancti 
diaconi fama, divulgatus est. 

16 Hue usque de adversariorum terrificis ultionibus dixisse sufficiat : nunc 
de bestiis aliqua narrabimus 17 pauca. 

! DE 2 APRO PER EJUS ORATIONEM 3 INTEREMPTO. 

4 Ano 5 in tenipore, vir beatus, cum in 6 Scia insula a aliquantis demoraretur 
diebus, paulo longius solus, orationis intuitu, separatus a fratribus, silvam 

8 tune D. 9 tristificatur C. 10 sanctum add. B. n ascendet manu rccentiore D. 12 descendet C. 
descendit in descendet inutat. D. descendit F. 13 om. B. 14 ~ 15 est hora D. w-w om. C. D. F. S. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 " 3 apri mortificatione qui a sancto eminus cecidit signo prostratus 
dominicae crucis B. * capitul. totum ad lib. iii. c. 4 transfertur in C. D. F. S. 6 om. D. G A. D. 
sua B. sicia C. 

e ScoticB provincias. This expression shows of Trotternish bounded by a line drawn from 

in what a limited sense the term provincia was Portree to the head of Loch Snizort. At the 

used by the Irish in Adamnan's time. north-western extremity of this district, in the 

a Scia insula. Now Skye. See i. 33 (p. 62) parish of Kilmuir, about two and a half miles 

supra. The chief patron saints of this island north of Uig Bay, is the alluvial bed of a lake 

were St. Columba and St. Maelrubha : the for- formerly known as Loch Columkille, which was 

mer having the north-eastern, and the latter drained some thirty years ago by Lord Macdo- 

the south-eastern portion. Killashig, or As- nald, the proprietor. Towards its northern ex- 

kimilruby, with Kilmaree in Strath, and Kil- tremity is an elevated spot, about three acres 

molruy in Brackadale, were commemorative of in extent, which was formerly insulated, and 

St. Maelrubha, whose principal church of Aper- was known as St. Columkille's Island. On the 

crossan, now Applecross, is within view on the north side of this island is an irregular circular 

main land to the north-east. The portion of enclosure of rude and extremely ancient ma- 

the island peculiar to St. Columba is that part sonry, measuring about 16 yards in diameter 



CAP. 26.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



'39 



ingressus densam, mii'33 magnitudinis aprum, 7 quern forte venatici canes 8 per- 
sequebantur, 9 obviam habuit. 10 Quo viso eminus, Sanctus aspiciens n eum 
12 restitit. Turn deinde, invocato Dei nomine, 13 sancta elevata manu, cum 
intenta dicit ad eum oratione, Ulterius hue procedere 14 noles : 15 in 16 loco 17 ad 
quein nunc devenisti 18 morere. Quo Sancti in silvis personante verbo, non 



7-8 om. B. 9 tune add. B. 10-12 O m. D. 
n hoc add. B. quantotius add. B. 

E. and W., and n, N. and S. ; and having, 
within, the traces of three distinct chambers or 
compartments. It was surrounded by a cy- 
clopean cashel, the north face of which is the 
most perfect, and is, in parts, nearly 8 feet 
thick. This was probably "the Tower" which 
a writer of the seventeenth century describes 
as existing here (C. Innes, Orig. Paroch. vol. ii. 
pt. r, p. 349). Near to this, on the S. W., is a 
quadrilateral building, standing N. and S., mea- 
suring about 30 by 10 feet. About 120 yards 
S. of the cashel is the Temple, facing E. N. E., 
measuring 21 feet 10 inches by 12.2, now com- 
monly employed as an enclosure for cows. The 
roof has long fallen in, and the walls, which are 
built with cement, are reduced to the height 
of about five feet. The adjacent ground is 
covered with masses of large gray stones, the 
debris of the walls, so that it is impossible to 
examine the area where one would expect to 
find traces of the cemetery. It may be that 
some curious sepulchral remains are locked up 
there. At short distances are patches of ground 
covered with gray stones, which appear to have 
been the sites of conventual buildings, probably 
of "the Town" mentioned by an old writer, 
and of "the ruins of some buildings composed 
of stone without mortar," which were to be 
seen in 1772 (Orig. Par. ut supra). Mugsted, 
recte Monkstead, is the name of the adjoining 
farm. 

n. South of this, a little to the west of the 
main road to Portree, where Skabost bridge 
crosses the Snizort river, near its entrance 
into Loch Snizort Bay, is a long narrow strip 



" turn B. 13 am. D. u nolis C. u*-w nisi D. 



of ground, insulated by the river, and formerly 
enclosed by an earthen rampart. On this are 
the remains of two ancient buildings, standing 
within a large cemetery ; that next the bridge 
much the longer of the two, and probably the 
old parish church ; that more remote, of smaller 
dimensions, chiefly worthy of notice on account 
of a curious slab embedded in the floor, exhi- 
biting the figure of an armed warrior. The 
parish church, now known as Snizort, was for- 
merly styled Sanct Calm's Kirk in Snesfurd in 
Trouternes (Orig. Par. ii. i, p. 354). 

m. Proceeding southwards we reach Porl- 
ree, the inner bay of which, N. "W. of the town, 
was formerly called, as some old people remem- 
ber, Loch Columkille. Here, near the shore, 
under the Sheriff's house, is a small island 
still called JEilean Columkille, about an eighth 
of a mile in circumference at high water. It 
is nearly covered with stones, which were 
spread upon it for the drying of sea-wrack, 
and kilns for burning kelp, so that the soil is 
nearly hidden. However, the traces of graves, 
and of a small building standing E. and W., 
may be discerned ; and some old people re- 
member one or two interments on the islet. 

iv. On the small island, Eilean Trody, called 
Troda by Martin (West. Isl. p. 166), lying off 
the north of Kilmuir, was a chapel of St. Co- 
lumba. 

v. On FladdaHuna, called by Martin Fladda- 
chuan, which lies N. W. of last, there stood, in 
1700, a chapel named from St. Columba, having 
on the altar a blue stone, which was supposed 
to be possessed of miraculous powers. (Ibid.~) 

T2 



140 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



solum ultra accedere non valuit, sed ante faciem ipsius terribilis ferus, verbi 
ejus virtute mortificatus, cito corruit. 



*DE 2 CUJUSDAM AQUATILIS BESTLE VIRTUTE ORATIONIS BEATI VI1U 

3 REPULSIONE. 

4 ALio quoque in Hempore, cum vir beatus 6 in Pictorum provincia a per 
aliquot moraretur dies, necesse liabuit fluvium transire 7 Nesam b : ad cujus 
cum accessisset ripam, alios ex accolis aspicit misellum human tes 8 homun- 
culum ; quern, ut ipsi sepultores ferebant, quasdam paulo ante nantem aqua- 
tilis prseripiens bestia c 10 morsu momordit saevissimo : cujus miserum cadaver, 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 " 3 alia aquatili bestia quaa eo orante et marmm e contra levante retro 
repulsa est ne lugneo natanti vicino noceret B. *~ 5 om. D. b columba add. D. 7 nessam B. 
8 hominem D. 9 ipsius C. I0 raptu B. 



a Pictorum provincia, See cap. u (p. 119) 
supra, where regio occurs in the titulus instead 
of provincia. 

b Nesam. See chaps. 33, 34, infra. The ri- 
ver Ness is the outlet of Loch Ness into the 
sea. It leaves the lake at Bona ferry, and, 
running north-eastwards for six miles, passes 
the town of Inverness, which derives its name 
from its situation at the mouth of the river, 
and falls into Moray Firth. 

c Aquatilis bestia. The belief that certain 
rivers and lakes were haunted by serpents of a 
demoniacal and terrible character was current 
among the Irish at a very remote period, and 
still prevails in many parts of Ireland. The 
Life of St. Mochua of Balla relates that a stag 
which was wounded in the chase took refuge on 
an island in Lough Ree, but that no one ven- 
tured to follow it, " propter horrendam bel- 
luam, quae lacum infestans natatores occidere 
solebat." The king at last prevailed on a man 
to swim across to the rock, " sed redeuntem 
hominem bellua devorat." c. 7 (Colg. Act. SS. 
p. 790 a). While St. Molua was at Druim- 
sneachta, now Drumsnatt, in the county of 
Monaghan, " duo pueri quodam in die, in 
stagno propinquo cum natassent, apparuit 



bestia terribilis valde, cujus magnitude erat 
quasi magna scapha. Videns S. Molua bestiam 
venientem ad pueros, vocavit eos de terra, di- 
cens ; natate ad me velociter, ut videam quis 
ex vobis velocius natat : pervenientesque pueri 
ad portum, recepit eos vir Sanctus in terra, et 
illico" post eos percussit bestia portum pectore 
suo, et fecit magnum sonitum ; respicientesque 
pueri retrd, timuit unus de illis terribilitatem 
et formidinem illius, et illico ibi mortuus est ; 
et volens bestia ingredi terrain, jussit ei beatus 
Molua in Christi nomine, ut rediret in lacum, 
et nemini noceret inde postea usque ad finem 
saeculi." c. 25 (Flem. Collect, p. 372 b). St. 
Colman of Dromore, in like manner, success- 
fully interfered on behalf of one who was in a 
more hopeless condition : " Quadam alia vice, 
virginem quandam in ora cujusdam stagni, ca- 
misiam suam lavantem, aquatilis bestia subito 
absorbuit : sed earn vivam atque incolumem, de 
ventre ejus, orationis efficacia revocavit." 
c. 9 (Act. SS. Jun. torn. ii. p. 27 6). The same 
story is told of him in the Breviary of Aber- 
deen, Propr. SS. Part. Hyemal. fol. 10166, 
lect. 7. In the parish of Banagher, county of 
Londonderry, there is a river, in which is a 
spot called Lig-na-Peiste, supposed to be the 



CAP. 27-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



141 



sero licet, quidam in alno d subvenientes porrectis praaripuere uncinis. Vir e 
contra n beatus, hsec audiens, prascipit ut aliquis 12 ex comitibus enatans, 13 cau- 
pallum 6 , in altera stantem ripa, ad se navigando reducat. Quo sancti audito 
prsedicabilis viri prsecepto, Lugneus I4 Mocumin f , nihil moratus, obsecundans, 
depositis excepta vestimentis tunica, immittit se in aquas. Sed bellua, quae 
prius non tarn satiata, quam in 16 pr8edam accensa, in prof undo fluminis latitabat, 
sentiens eo 16 nante turbatam supra aquam, subito emergens, natatilis ad homi- 
nem in medio natantem alveo, cum ingenti fremitu, aperto 17 cucurrit ore. 
isyjr 19 turn beatus videns, omnibus qui inerant, tarn barbaris quam etiam 
fratribus, nimio terrore 20 perculsis, cum salutare, 21 sancta 22 elevata manu, in 
vacuo 23 aere crucis pinxisset signum", invocato Dei nomine, feroci imperavit 
bestias dicens, 24 Noles ultra progredi, nee hominem tangas ; retro citius rever- 
tere. Turn 25 vero bestia, hac Sancti audita voce, retrorsum, ac si funibus 
retraheretur, velociori 26 recursu fugit 27 tremefacta : 28 quse prius Lugneo nanti 
eo usque 29 appropinquavit, ut hominem inter et bestiam non amplius esset 
quam unius contuli 11 longitude. Fratres turn, 30 recessisse videntes bestiam, 

11 sanctus S. 12 e C. is A. B. F. S. caupulum C. caballum D. w om. C. D. F. S. 

15 prseda C. 16 natante B. " occurrit C. ^-w tune vir D. 20 percussis D. 21 devota C. 
-- om. C. 23 e t in add. C. 21 no ii Q. 25 om . c. 20 CU rsu C. D. 27-23 retractions factaque B. 
'> modo propinquavit D. 30 recessisset B. 



abode of a demoniacal serpent which infested 
the river and neighbourhood. 

d Alno. Alnus cavata, ' a boat,' as in Virg. 
Georg. i. 136, ii. 451. Colgan, in the margin, 
proposes alveo. "Inmaryine astabant," O'Don- 
nell, ii. 74 (Tr. Th. 423 a). 

e Caupallum. From the resemblance of this 
word to the Irish copul, ' a horse,' Colgan was 
led to suppose that this animal was denoted by 
it. " Per Hibernismum videtur per Caupallum 
intelligere equum seu Caballum ; qui Hibernic 
Capald vocatur." (Tr. Th. p. 383 b, n. 26.) 
In this notion he was preceded by O'Donnell, 
whom he here represents as saying : " Equum 
in adversa ripa stantem adducat, quo ipse et 
alii socii vecti, fluvium transirent." ii. 74 
(Tr. Th. p. 423 a). This was certainly a novel 
plan for the conveyance of a party across a 
river; especially when Adamnan says, "ad se 
navigando reducat," and further on represents 



the messenger as "incolumem in navicula rever- 
sum." The expression " in altera stantem 
ripa" helped to mislead them. The scribe who 
wrote Cod. D. seems to have entertained the 
same idea, for he reads caballum. Caupulus, or 
caupolus, occurs in Aulus Gellius in the sense 
of a boat, and is explained in Isidore's Glos- 
sary by lembus or cymba. It is akin to the 
word coble, which is commonly used in the 
sense of a little flat-bottomed boat. See Sir 
W. Scott's Antiquary, cap. 31. 

f Lugneus Mocumin See chap. 18 (p. 127) 
supra. O'Donnell reads " Lugneus Macua Cu- 
mine." ii. 74 (Tr. Th. p. 423 a). 

s Crucis signum. The belief in its efficacy 
has been stated above, chap. 16 (p. 125). 

h Contuli. The Bollandist editor observ- 
ing, "Contulus diminutivum a Conto," face- 
tiously adds, " Videtur singular! quodam stu- 
dio Adamnanus diminutiva adamasse ; illis 



142 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



Lugneumque commilitonem ad eos intactum etincolumem in 3l navicularever- 
sum, cum ingenti admiratione glorificaverunt Deum in beato viro. Sed et 
gentiles barbari, qui ad praesens 33 inerant, ejusdem miraculi magnitudine, 
quod et ipsi viderant, compulsi, Deum magnificaverunt Christianorum. 



33 



'DE 2 BENEDICTA A SANCTO HUJUS INSUL/E 11 TKRRULA NE DEINCEPS IN EA 

VIPERARUM ALICUI NOCERENT 3 VENENA. 

QUADAM die ejusdem 4 sestei temporis quo ad 5 Dominum transiit, ad visi- 
tandos fratres Sanctus plaustro vectus pergit, qui in campulo occidental! b 
6 louse insults opus materiale exercebant. Post quorum consolatoria a Sancto 
prolata alloquia, in eminentiore stans loco , sic vaticinatur dicens, Ex hac, 
filioli, die, scio quod in kujus campuli locis nunquam poteritis in futurum vi- 
dere faciem meam. Quos, hoc audito verbo, valde tristificatos videns, conso- 
lari eos in quantum fieri possit conatus, ambas manus elevat sanctas, et totam 
hanc nostram benedicens insulam, ait, Ex hoc hujus horulas momento 'omnium 
viperarmn venena d nullo modo, in hujus insult 8 terrulis, aut hominibus aut 
pecoribus nocere poterunt, quamdiu Christi mandata ejusdem commorationis 
incola3 observaverint 6 . 



31 uaviculam B. 33 erant D. 



33 



qui B. 



1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 " 3 insule ione viperinis serpentibus qui ex qua 
die sanctus earn benedixit nulli hominum uec etiam pecoribus nocere potuere B. * aestivi B. 5 om. B. 
6 ione B. 7 omnia B. 8 terrula B. 



enim utitur etiam cum de rebus magnis lo- 
quitur : nee mirum, nam et ipsiusmet nomen 
diminutivum ab Adam est." (Jun. torn. ii. p. 
2196, note u .) See Glossary voce JDiminutiva. 

a Hujus insulee. Hy. These memoirs were 
written by Adamnan when abbot. See note c , 
i. 37 (p. 72) supra. 

b Campulo occidentali.TSow called the Ma- 
char, the most fertile part of the island. See 
note b , i. 37 (p. 71) supra. 

c Eminentiore loco. Probably on one of the 
Sitheans, or ' fairy hills,' the larger of which is 
the Colliculus Angelorum of cap. 44, and Hi. 16. 

d Viper arum venena. See the statement re- 
peated in iii. 23, infra. St. Patrick's biographers 
give him the credit of freeing Ireland from 



noxious reptiles, although Solinus, in the first 
century, had testified of it, " illic nullus an- 
guis." Campion says : " No venemous creep- 
ing beast is brought forth or nourished, or can 
live here .... Neither is this property to be 
ascribed to St. Patrick's blessing (as they 
commonly hold), but to the original blessing of 
God, who gave such nature to the situation and 
soyle from the beginning." (Hist, of Ireland, 
cap. 2.) Whether owing to accident or natural 
causes, no snakes or vipers have ever been- 
seen in Hy, although they are frequently found 
on the opposite coast, varying from one to two 
feet in length, and very venomous. They are 
locally called Nathair. The writer saw one 
preserved in a bottle in lona, which was killed 



CAP. 28, 29.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



'43 



1 DE PUGIONE A SANCTO CUM DOMINICA CRUCIS SIGNACULO BENEDICTA. 

2 ALio 3 in tenipore, quidam frater 4 nomine Molua% Nepos 5 Briuni, ad 
Sanctum eadem scribentem hora veniens, dicit ad eum, Hoc quod in manu 
habeo ferrum, qua3so benedicas. Qui paululum extensa manu 6 sancta cum 
calamo signans benedixit, ad librum de quo scribebat facie conversa. Quo 
videlicet supradicto fratre cum ferro benedicto recedente, Sanctus percunc- 
tatur dicens, Quod fratri ferrum benedixi? 7 Diormitius, pius ejus minis- 
trator, Pugionem, ait, ad jugulandos tauros vel boves benedixisti. Qui e 
contra respondens 8 infit, Ferrum quod benedixi, confido in Domino meo, 9 quia 
nee homini nee pecori nocebit. Quod Sancti firmissimum eadem hora com- 
probatum est verbum. Nam idem frater, 10 vallum egressus monasterii b , 
bovem c jugulare volens, tribus firmis vicibus, et forti impulsione conatus, nee 
tamen n potuit etiam ejus transfigere pellem. Quod monachi scientes experti, 
ejusdem pugionis 12 ferrum, ignis resolutum calore, per omnia monasterii ferra- 
menta liquefactum diviserunt illinitum ; nee postea ullam potuere carnem vul- 
nerare d , illius Sancti 13 manente benedictionis fortitudine. 



i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 
C. D. F. S. 6 sua add. D. 
ii poterat D. S. 12 om. C. 



2 capitul. totum in i. 15 relegatur. C. D. F. S. 3 om. D. 4 '5 om. 
7 diarmatus D. 8 inquit D. 9 quod C. 10 murum D. nullam S. 
13 remanente D. 



in the Ross of Mull at a stream that had over- 
flowed the road. It was not less than two feet 
in length. 

e Observaverint The exemption continues. 

a Molua. Luais the simple form of the name, 
which, with the particle of affection prefixed, 
assumes the form in the text. Lughaidb, lati- 
nized by Lugidus and Lugidius, is another form 
of the same name (Flem. Collect, p. 368 a). Ne- 
pos Briuni is in Irish Ua bpiuin, of which an 
example has already occurred in chap. 16, supra. 
Colgan supposes this to be the Molua com- 
memorated in the Calendar at June 4 : TTloltia 
mac Sinill bo plio6c bpiain rmc 6a6oa6 
TTIuigmfboin, 'Molua, son of Sinill, of the race 
of Brian, son of Eachach Muighmedhoin.' 

b Vallum monasterii. See note f , i. 3 (p. 24) 
supra. The Rule of St. Columbanus prescribes 
a penance for him " qui extra vallum, id est, 
extra sepcm monasterii, sine interrogation 



ierit." cap. 8 (Flera. Collect, p. 22 a). The 
Welsh monasteries had similar enclosures. 
" Cadoc construxit ecclesiam Macmoillo, dis- 
cipulo ejus, eamque munimine vallavit." Vit. 
S. Cadoci, c. 55 (Rees, Lives of the Cambro- 
British Saints, p. 88). 

c Bovem. We have already seen that the 
community of Hy were provided with wetlicrs 
(i. 41, p. 78, supra") ; here we find preparation 
for the slaughter of a larger animal. 

d Carnem vulnerare. A similar anecdote is 
told in the Life of St. Columba's successor. 
" A}io in tempore, dum vir Dei in lona insula 
habitaret, hasta quiedam, ut ab eo benedicere- 
tur, all at a est : quam signo Crucis benedicens, 
a die illo et deinceps numquam, etiam cutem 
animalis lacerare potuit, et ab hoc ilia hasta 
ferramentis Fratrum a fabro commixta est, ne 
ilia quidquam inciderent." Vit. S. Baithenei, 
c. 8 (Act. SS. Jun. torn. ii. p. 7.37 i). 



144 Vita Sancti Columbm [LIB. n. 



'DE DIORMITII JEGROTANTIS SANITATE. 

ALIO 2 in tempore, 3 Diormitius, Sancti pius 4 minister, usque ad mortem 
segrotavit: ad quern, in extremis 5 constitutum, Sanctus "visitans accessit; 
Christique invocato nomine, infirmi ad 7 lectulum stans, et pro eo "exorans, 
dixit, Exorabilis mihi fias precor, Domine mi, et animam mei ministratoris 
pii de liujus carnis habitaculo, me non auferas superstite. Et hoc die to 
aliquantisper conticuit. 10 Tum proinde hanc de sacro ore profert vocem 
dicens, Hie meus non solum hac vice nunc non morietur puer a , sed etiam 
post meum annis vivet multis obitum. Cujus haec exoratio est exaudita : nam 
11 Diormitius, statim post Sancti exaudibilem precem, plenam recuperavit 
salutem ; per multos quoque annos post Sancti 12 ad Dominum emigrationem 
supervixit. 

J DE 2 FINTENI FILII AIDO b IN EXTREMIS POSITI SANITATE. 

ALIO quoque in tempore, Sanctus quum trans Britannicum iter ageret 
Dorsum c , quidam juvenis, unus comitum, subita molestatus segrimonia, ad 
extrema usque perductus 3 est, nomine 4 Fintenus d : pro quo commilitones 
Sanctum msesti rogitant ut oraret. Qui statim, eis compatiens, sanctas cum 
intenta oratione expandit ad ccelum manus, 5 a3grotumquebenedicens, ait, Hie, 
pro quo interpellatis, juvenculus vita vivet longa ; et post omnium 6 nostrum 
qui hie adsumus exitum superstes remanebit, in bona moriturus senecta. Quod 
beati viri vaticinium plene per omnia expletum est : nam idem juvenis, illius 
postea nionasterii fundator, quod dicitur 7 Kailli-au-inde e , in bona senectute 
prassentem terminavit vitam. 

i titul. om., cap. xv. continuatur C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om . j). 3 diarmatus D. 4 ministrator 
C. D. 5 om. D. 6 visitandum D. 1 lectum S. 8 orans D. 9 om. D. cum D. " diar- 
matus D. 12 columbe add. D. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D.^F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 fenteni B. 3 om. B. 4 fentenus B. 5 aegroque B. 
6 nostrorum A. Colg. Boll, nrm B. 7 A. kaLlli anfind B. kailli, abinde Boll. 

* Puer. This word was applied to St. Co- place for him among the twenty-one Finntans 

lumba when a deacon, cap. 25 (p. 138) supra. in the Irish Calendar, but in vain. The pro- 

b Aido. The Irish genitive. See note a , i. bability is, that, having joined the fraternity 

jo (p. 37) supra. of Hy in early life, his history belongs to the 

e Britannicum Dorsum. See i. 34 (p. 64) North-British Church. 

supra; ii. 42, 46, iii. 14. e Kailli- au-inde. Not identified. Colgan 

d Fintenus. Colgan endeavours to find a places it in Ireland, and strains the name to 



CAP. 30, 31, 32.] Auciore Adamnano. 145 



PUBRO QUEM MORTUUM VIR VENERANDUS IN CHRISTI DOMINI NOMINE 

SUSCITAVIT. 

ILLO in tempore, quo sanctus Columba in Pictorum provincia 8 per aliquot 
demorabatur dies, quidam cum tota plebeius familia verbum vitas per interpre^ 
tatorem b sancto pra3dicante viro, audiens credidit, credensque baptizatus est, 
jnaritus cum marita liberisque et familiaribus. Et post aliquantulum diecula- 
rum intervallum paucarum unus filiorum patrisfamilias, gravi correptus segri- 
tudine, usque ad confinia mortis et vitae perductus est. Quern cum magi 
morientem vidissent, parentibus cum magna exprobratione coeperunt illudere, 
suosque, quasi fortiores, magnificare deos, Christianorum vero, tanquam infir- 
miori, 2 Deo derogare. Quae omnia cumbeato intimarentur viro, zelo suscitatus 
Dei, ad domum cum suis comitibus amici pergit plebeii, ubi parentes nuper 
defunctae prolis maestas 3 celebrabant exequias. Quos Sanctus valde tristifica- 
tos videns, confirmans dictis 4 compellat consolatoriis, ut nullo modo de divina 
6 omnipotentia dubitarent. Consequenterque percunctatur, dicens, In quo 
hospitiolo corpus defuncti jacet pueri ? Pater turn orbatus Sanctum sub maes- 
tum "deducit culmen, qui statim, omnem foris exclusam relinquens catervam, 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om , c. 3 celebrant B. C. * compellavit D. 5 potentia D. 
6 deduxit D. 

correspond to Kill-aibhne in the diocese of the Druid, and king Rrudeus (chaps. 33, 34, 

Clonfert (Tr. Th. pp. 357 a, 490 b, 493 b ; but 35, infra), and of Emchathus (Hi. 14, infra), the 

Kaille-auinde, p. 3840, n. 28). Archdall, on Col- communications of the Saint seem to have been 

gan's authority, fixes Cailleavinde in the county madewitjhouttheiuteryentipn of an interpreter ; 

of Sligo (Monast. Hib. p. 629). But its situa- at least there is n_o jnention of any such medium, 

tion must be sought in Scotland. Mr. Skene having been employed. Mac Firbis (Geneal. 

conjectures that it was situate in the parish of MS. p. 407) cites the following stanza from the 

Bendothy, in Perthshire, where was a burial- Amhraof Columkille relative to the labours of 

ground at a place called Colly, and a chapel the Saint among the various nations of Britain, 

named from St. Fink (Old Stat. Survey, vol. intimating the diversity of their languages : 

xix. pp. -JC7. -jroY 

, D- / r u vi xv. * t. Paipemi dlbcm co muip Ti-16c, 

a Jrictorum provincia Probably that part ' ' , ^ _ ' _, , 

, , . i,-,j TIXT 5aort>rt Cpuicmg, Saix Saxo-bpic, 

which bordered on Loch Ness. V! ' ' ^ ,. J 

b D . ^ T x , . jx U * Qp peapTi peapuibpeap bo 6oit> 

Per inter pretator em. In this case, and that ' ' . 

P ^ : S^~T^T i"TT"" , , . . , , N Cpioca bliaoam ppioccait) boib. 

or the Pictish_ chigfj recorded m i. 33 (p. 62) ri 

,, , ^, T ~~, ,, . , ,. in The people of Alba to the Ictian Sea [British Channel], 

supra, St. Columba was unable to make himself * p on-* 

,. The Gaedhil, Criuthneans, Saxons, Saxo-Bnts: 

directly understood by the object of his address. Best of men was the man who went [to them] . 

On the other hand, in the cases of Broichan Thirty years did he preach to them. 1 

' " """ ---" V 



146 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



solus msestificatum intrat habitaculum, ubi illico, flexis genibus, faciem ubertirn 
lacrymis irrigans, Christum precatur Dominum ; et post ingeniculationem 
surgens, oculos convertit ad mortuum, dicens, In nomine Domini Jesu Christi 
resuscitare, et sta super pedes tuos. Cum hac Sancti honorabili voce anima 
ad corpus rediit, defunctusque apertis revixit oculis, cujus manum tenens 
apostolicus homo erexit, et in 7 statione stabiliens, secum domum egressus 8 de- 
ducit, et parentibus redivivum assignavit c . Clamor turn populi attollitur, 
'plangor in 10 la3tationem convertitur, Deus Christianorurn u glorificatur. Hoc 
noster Columba cum 12 Elia et 13 Eliseo prophetis 14 habeat sibi commune virtutis 
miraculum ; et cum Petro et Paulo et 15 Ioanne apostolis partem honoris similem 
in defunctorum resuscitatione ; et inter utrosque, hoc est, prophetarum et 
apostolormn co3tus, honorificam co3lestis patriae sedem homo propheticus et 
apostolicus asternalem cum Christo, qui regnat cum Patre in unit ate Spiritus 
Sancti per omnia saecula "sseculorum 17 . 



J DE BROICHANO MAGO OB ANCILLJE 2 RETENTIONEM INFIRMATO, ET PRO EJUS 

LIBERATIONE SANATO. 

EODEM 3 in tempore, vir venerandus quandam a Broichano mago a 4 Scoticam 
postulavit servam b humanitatis miseratione liberandam: quam cum ille 6 duro 
valde et "stolido 'retentaret 8 animo, 9 Sanctus ad eum locutus, hoc 10 profatur 
modo, Scito, Broichane, scito quia simihi hanc peregrinam "liberare 12 captivam 
nolueris, priusquam de hac 13 revertar provincia, u citius morieris. Et hoc 
coram 15 Brudeo c rege dicens, domum egressus regianv 4 , ad Nesam venit flu- 



8 deduxit D. 9 planctus B. D. 10 laetitiam B. C. " glorificatus est D. 
1 heliseo B. helizeo D. u habet D. 15 iohanne B. om. C. D. F. S. 



" stationem C. 
12 helia B. D. 
17 amen add. B. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 retentionis B. 3 om. D. * scotticam B. 5 latro B. 6 for- 
titer B. 7 retardaret D. 8 om. B. 9 libertati dare interim, et manu recentiori D. 10 profatua 
est D. u libere A. D. 12 om. B. 13 revertaris F. 14 dimittere add. D. ^ bruideo A. 



c Redivivum assignavit. The details of this 
story are evidently told in imitation of Matt, 
be. 24, and the parallel passages. 

a Broichano mago. He was the tutor of Bru- 
deus (chap. 33). The name is a British one. 
In the Life of St. Nennoca mention is made of 
" Brochan ex genere Gurthierni, rex honora- 
bilis valde in tota Britannia." (Act. SS. Jun. 
torn. i. pp. 408 b, 409 a.) There is a Castle 



Broichin in the island of Raasay, near Skye. 

b Scoticam servam. It appears from the se- 
quel that she was a captive. The neighbouring 
races seem to have been at this time on similar 
terms to those recorded in 2 Kings, v. 2. 

c Brudeo See i. i (p. 13), 37 (p. 73), supra; 
ii- 35 (P- 150), 42, (p- 16?) infra. 

d Domum regiam. See note &, i. 37 (p. 73) 
supra, and chap. 35 (p. 152) infra. 



CAP. 33-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



viurn , de quo videlicet fluvio lapidem attollens candidum, ad cdmites, Signate, 
ait, hunc 1<J candidum lapidem, per quern Dominus in 17 hoc gentili populo 
18 multas segrotorum perficiet sanitates. Et hoc 10 effatus verbum consequenter 
intulit, inquiens, Nunc Broichanus 20 fortiter concussus est, nam angelus de 
ccelo missus, graviter ilium percutiens, vitream f in manu ejus, de qua bibebat, 
confregitin multa 21 biberam g fragmenta; ipsum vero anhelantem aegra reliquit 
suspiria, inorti vicinum. Hoc in loco paululum expectemus binos regis nun- 
cios, ad nos celeriter missos, ut Broichano morienti citius subveniamus : nunc 
Broicbanus, formidabiliter correptus, 22 ancillulam liberare est paratus. Adhuc 
Sancto ha3C loquente verba, ecce, sicut 23 praedixit, duo a rege missi equites 
adveniunt, 24 omniaque quae in regis 2S munitione de Broichano, juxta Sancti 
vaticinium, sunt acta, enarrantes ; et de poculi confractione, 2C et de magi cor- 
reptione, et de 27 servulse parata absolutione; hocque intulerunt, dicentes, 
Rex et ejus familiares nos ad te miserunt, ut nutricio ejus 28 Broichano subvenias, 
mox morituro. Quibus auditis legatorum verbis, Sanctus binos de comitum 
numero ad regem, cum lapide a se benedicto 11 , mittit, dicens, Si in primis 
promiserit se 29 Broichanus famulam liberaturum, turn deiride hie lapillus intin- 
gatur in aqua, et sic de eo bibat, et continuo salutem recuperabit : si vero 
renuerit 30 refragans absolvi servam, statim morietur. Duo missi, verbo Sancti 
obsequentes, ad aulam 31 deveniunt regiam, verba viri 32 venerabilis regi enar- 
rantes. Quibus 33 intimatis regi et nutricio ejus 34 Broichano, valde expave- 
runt : 35 eademque hora liberata famula sancti legatis viri assignatur, lapis in 
aqua intingitur, mirumque inmodum, contra naturam, 36 lithus i in aquis super- 
is om. D. or?!. D. is om. D. w affatus D. 20 OTO . D. 21 om , c. 22 ancillam C. D. 
23 prsedixerat C. 24 omnia C. D. 2S motione C. D. notione inepte Messingham. 26 de broichano 
juxta add. C. 27 servseD. 28 baichano B. brochanoD. 29 brochanus D. 30 om. D. 31 devene- 
runt D. 32 venerabiliter C. 33 auditis B. 3* brochano D. 35 eadem C. 3G lapis C. litatus D. 

* Nesam jtuvium. See note b , c. 27 (p. 140). is told by Basil of Seleucia concerning St. 

Thecla, who appeared to Alypius the gram- 
marian, after the physicians had failed to give 
him relief, and conveyed to him a round stone, 
by the touch whereof he was presently set on 
foot from a long and perilous sickness. (De 
Mirac. S. Theclae, ii. cap. 24, cit. Ussher, Wks. 
iii. p. 442.) See the various superstitions about 
cures by holy or magic stones recorded in Mar- 
tin's Western Islands, pp. 134, 166, 183, 246. 
'Lithus. This is the only authority for the 



f Vitream. Here the word denotes the ma- 
terial ; at ii. 22 (p. 133) supra, and iii. 5, infra, it 
refers to colour. 

B Siberam. Poculum further on. " Septi- 
manarii autem ante unam horam refectionis 
accipiant super statutam annonam, singulos 
biberes et panem." Regul. S. Benedicti, c. 35. 
See Act. SS. Jan. torn. ii. p. 648 6, and Index 
Onomast., Sept. torn. v. p. 555, n. 207. 

h Cum lapide benedicto. A similar anecdote 



U2 



148 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



natat, quasi pdmum, vel nux, nee potuit sancti benedictio k viri submergi. De 
quo Broiclianus natante bibens lapide, statim a vicina rediit morte, integram- 
que carnis recuperavit salutem. Tails vero lapis, postea, in thesauris regis 
reconditus, multas in populo segritudinum sanitates, similiter in aqua natans 
intinctus, Domino miserante, effecit. Mirum 37 dictu, ab his segrotis, quorum 
vitsB terminus supervenerat, requisitus idem lapis nullo modo reperiri poterat. 
Sic et in die obitus Brudei 1 regis quaerebatur, nee tamen in eodem loco, ubi 
fuerat prius reconditus, inveniebatur. 



J DE BEATI VIRI CONTRA BROICHANUM MAGUM REFRAGATIONE, ET VENTI 

CONTRARIETATE. 

POST supra memorata peracta, quadam die 2 Broichanus 3 ad 4 sanctum pro- 
loquens 5 virum 6 infit a , Dicito mihi, Columba, quo tempore proponis enavi- 
gare? Sanctus, Tertia, ait, die, Deo volente et vita comite, navigationem 
proponimus incipere. 2 Broiclianus e contra, Non poteris, ait; nam ego ven- 
tum tibi contrarium facere, caliginemque umbrosam superinducere possum. 
Sanctus, Omnipotentia Dei, ait, omnium 'dominatur, in cuj us nomine nostri 
omnes motus, ipso gubernante, diriguntur. Quid plura ? 8 Sanctus die eadem, 
sicut 9 corde proposuit, ad lacum 10 Nesae fluminis longum b , multa prosequente 
caterva, venit. Magi vero gaudere turn coepere, magnam videntes superin- 

37 que add. D. 

i titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 brochanus D. 3-4 om . D. 5 vir D. 6 inquit D. 1 Nomi- 
nator D. s om. D. 9 om. C. 10 B. nisae A. C. F. in se D. 



Latinized form of \i9og in Du Cange. See In- 
dex voc. Greecismi. 

k Benedict. In chap. 7, supra, it is conver- 
tible with eulogia. It occurs also in chap. 5. 
In these instances, as well as in the present, 
it signifies ' the vehicle of a blessing.' The 
English word blessing is used in this sense in 
i Sam. xxv. 27 ; 2 Kings, v. 15. 

1 Obitus Brudei. It occurred in 583, as Tigh- 
ernach records : " Mors Bruidhe mic Maelcon, 
pigh Cpinchneach [regis Pictorura]." So An. 
Ult. at same year, and An.Inisfall. 576. Tigh- 
ernach by a strange prolepsis places his bapp, 
' death,' at 505, and the Ann. Ult. his mors at 



504, for which O'Conor proposes nalivitas, an 
emendation which harmonizes very well with 
the true date of his death, as it allows a period 
of 78 years for the term of his life, but is open to 
the objection that in both authorities the " Bat- 
tle of Manann by Aedhan" is entered under the 
preceding year, although Aedhan was not yet 
born, and the true date of that battle is 582 : 
which creates a suspicion that these entries 
were taken from an earlier record whose chro- 
nological system was different, or that they were 
displaced through carelessness in the scribe. 
The natioiias of Adamnan, of the An. Ult. 623, is 
bapp {mors} in the parallel entry of Tigh. (624). 



CAP. 34-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



149 



ductam caliginem, et contrarium cum tempestate flatum. Nee mirum haec 
interdum arte daemonum posse fieri, Deo permittente, ut etiam venti et aequora 
in asperius concitentur. Sic enim aliquando da3moniorum legiones sancto 
Germano episcopo, de Sinu Gallico' 1 , causa humanse salutis, ad Britanniam na- 
viganti 6 , medio in sequore occurrerant, et opponentes pericula procellas concita- 
bant, C03lum n diemque tenebrararum caligine obducebant. Quse tamen omnia, 
sancto orante Germano, dicto citius, sedata detersa cessarunt caligine f . Noster 

11 que add. C. 



Info It would appear from the narrative 
that these parties were able to converse without 
an interpreter. See note b , p. 145. 

b Longum. Loch Ness is remarkable on ac- 
count of its length, which is twenty- four miles, 
constituting it the longest and most important 
stage in the Caledonian canal. 

c Magi See note ', i. 37 (p. 7 3) supra. 

d Sinu Gallico. The British Channel. In- 
stead of the name in the text, which is borrowed 
from Constantius, a Galilean writer, the Irish 
use Trvurp niche. See O'Donovan, HyFiach- 
rach, p. 18; Irish Nennius, pp. 30, 272; Schol. 
Fiech, vs. 3, where Ussher reads Muir-nict 
(Wks. vi. p. 381), but Colgan, erroneously, 
mare luium (Tr. Th. p. 4 6). " Deinde S. Pon- 
tifex cum suis discipulis ad mare Ycht, quod 
dividit Galliam et Britanniam non potuit navi- 
gare." Vit. S. Declani. (Act. SS. Julii, torn. v. 
P- 597 &) " Cumque ad mare loth pervenisset, 
quod est inter Britanniam et Galliam. Vit. S. 
Albei. (E. 3, n, Trin. Coll. Dubl. fol. 132 b a.) 

e Ad Britanniam naviganti. St. Germanus, 
bishop of Antissiodorum, now Auxerre, visited 
Britain in 429, and again in 448. On the for- 
mer occasion he was accompanied by Lupus, 
bishop of Tricassii, now Troyes ; on the latter 
by Severus, bishop of Treviri ; and each time 
his object was to combat the spreading heresy 
of Pelagianism. See Baronius, Annal. an. 429, 
n. 10 ; Ussher, Brit. Eccl. Ant. c. n (Wks. v. 
PP- 37 !> 434). The present allusion is to the 
earlier visit. Nennius, more given to fiction 
than to history, details the miracles that St. 



Germanus wrought in Britain. Sect. 32 (p. 24, 
ed. Stevenson); Irish Nennius, pp. 78, xxi. 

f Caligine. The Life of St. Germanus was 
written in prose by Constantius, a presbyter of 
Lyons, who flourished, according to Cave, in 
440, or, according to Casimir Oudin, in 480. 
A metrical Life also was written by Heric of 
Auxerre. Both are to be seen in the Acta 
Sanctorum, at July 31, St. Germanus' day. 
The incident alluded to in the text is thus re- 
lated by the former biographer : " Hi itaque 
oceanum mare, Christo duce et auctore, con- 
scendunt. Ac primum de sinu Gallico flabris 
lenibus navis in altum provecta ducitur, donee 
ad sequor medium pervenirent; ubi porrectis in 
longum visibus, nihil aliud quam ceelum vide- 
rentur et maria. Nee multo post occurrit in 
pelago legionis inimica vis deemonum ; qui 
tantos ac tales viros pertendere ad recipien- 
dam [recuperandam Bede] populorum salu- 
tem, lividis iniquitatibus inviderent. Opponunt 
pericula, procellas concitant, ccelum diemque 
nubium nocte subducunt, tenebrarum caligi- 
nem maris atque aeris horrore congeminant. 
Ventorum furorem vela non sustinent; et 
oceani moles fragilis cymba vix tolerat, ce- 
debant ministeria victa nautarum: ferebatur 
navigium oratione non viribus. Et casu Dux 
ipse vel Pontifex fractus corporis lassitudine, 
sopore resolutus est. . . . Tune beatus Lupus, 
omnesque turbati excitant seniorem, elementis 
furentibus opponendum. Qui periculi immani- 
tate constantior Christum invocat, increpat 
oceanum, procellis saevientibus causam religio- 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



itaque Columba, videns contra se elementa concitari furentias, Christum 12 invo- 
catDominum, 13 cymbulamque ascendens, naiitis haesitantibus, ipse constantior 
factus velum contra ventum jubet subrigi. Quo facto, omni inspectante turba, 
navigium flatus contra u adversos mira 15 vecttim occurrit velocitate. Et post 
haud grande intervallum venti contrarii ad itineris ministeria cum omnium 
admiratione revertuntur. Et sic per totam illam diem flabris lenibus 16 secun- 
dis 17 flantibus, beati cymba viri optatum 18 pervecta ad portum h 19 pulsa est. 
Perpendat itaque lector quantus et qualis idem vir venerandus, 20 in quo Deus 
omnipotens, talibus praescriptis miraculorum virtutibus, coram plebe 21 gentilica 
illustre suum manifestavit nomen. 



SPONTANEA REGIME MUNITIONIS 2 PORT^E SUBITA 3 APERTIONE. 



ALIO 4 in tempore, hoc est, in prima Sancti fatigatione itineris ad regem 
Brudeum a , casu contigit ut idem rex, fastu elatus regio, suae munitionis b , 

12 invocaverat D. 13 cimbalumque D. u om. C. 18 factum B. l6 secundi C. 17 ventis D. 
18 perfecta B. provecta C. 19 appulsa B. zo fuerit C. D. F. S. 2 1 gentili D. 

i titul. om. C. D.F. S. 2-3 om. B. * om. D. 



nis opponit. Statimque assumpto oleo in nomine 
Trinitatis, levi aspergine flatus ssevientes op- 
pressit. Collegam commonet ; hortatur univer- 
ses ; oratio uno ore et clamore perfunditur. 
Adest divinitas ; fugantur inimici ; tranquillitas 
serena subsequitur ; venti contrarii ad itineris 
ministeria vertuntur ; navigium famulatrix 
unda prosequitur, decursisque itineris spatiis, 
brevi optati litoris quiete potiuntur." Lib. i. 5 
(Act. SS. Julii, torn. vii. p. 212). To the same 
purport the metrical Life also (Ib. p. 237 6). 
The shorter Life of St. Lupus, alluding to the 
occurrence, merely states : " Terribilis oceani 
fluctus, temporibus hybernis, inexplorato mari 
se committentes, orationis gubernaculo mitiga- 
bant." (Act. SS. Julii, torn. vii. p. 69 &.) The 
longer Life, in a less matter of fact manner : 
" Inimica vis dsernonum coepit occurrere viden- 
tium insuperabiles viros ad recuperandam salu- 
tem populorum tendere." (76. p. 746.) Ven. 
Bede, in bis account of St. Germanus' visits to 
Britain, transfers to his pages, with a few ver- 



bal omissions and alterations, the narrative of 
Constantius, and that without any notice of the 
source from whence he borrows (H. E. i. 17-22). 

s Elementa furentia. Owing to the narrow- 
ness of Lough Ness, and the great elevation of 
the hills with which it is walled in on either 
side, it is subject to squalls and currents of 
wind, which are both violent and capricious. 

h Portum. Loch Ness terminates on the south 
at Fort Augustus, from which the river Oich 
leads to the Loch of the same name. 

a Ad regem JBrudeum. Ven. Bede makes the 
conversion of Brudeus and his subjects to pre- 
cede the donation of Hy. His words are : 
A. D. 565, " Venit autem Brittaniam Columba, 
regnante Pictis Bridio filio Meilochon, rege po- 
tentissimo, nono anno regni ejus, gen tern que 
illam verbo et exemplo ad fidem Christi con- 
vertit : unde et prsefatam insulam ab eis in 
possessionem monasterii faciendi accepit." (H. 
E. iii. 4.) The Chronicon Pictorum places this 
first visit a year earlier : " Bruide mac Maelcon 



CAP. 35-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



superbe agens, in primo beati adventu viri, non aperiret portas. Quod ut 
cognovit homo Dei, cum comitibus c ad valvas portarum accedens, in primis 
Dominicse crucis imprimens signum, turn deinde manum pulsans contra ostia 



xxx. annis regnavit. In octavo anno regni 
ejus baptizatus est a sancto Columba." (Irish 
Nennius, p. 163.) Ussher, following Hermannus 
Contractus, who borrowed from Bede, places 
the accession of Brudeus at 557 (Wks. vol. vi. 
Ind. ChronoL, and p. 234) ; Innes, a year earlier 
(Civ. Eccl. Hist. p. 193) ; but both dates are 
too late, for Brudeus died in 584 (Tigh. An. 
Ult. 583 ; Ussher, Ind. Chr. 584), and subtract- 
ing 30, the length of his reign, we are brought 
back to 554 for its commencement ; and thus 
563, the true year of St. Columba's removal to 
Britain, is found to be the ninth of Brudeus' 
reign. According to this computation, the 
regnal year in the Chron. Pict. is incorrect, 
unless we suppose the present visit to have 
taken place in 562, the year before the occu- 
pation of Hy. It is very possible that this 
visit to Brudeus may have been preliminary to 
the final settlement in that island. The Scots 
having been already converted, the missionary 
spirit, and a desire to conciliate the favour of 
powerful neighbours, would naturally lead St. 
Coluinba in their direction, and thus we could 
easily reconcile the rival statements of Bede 
and Tighernach as to the donation of Hy; 
concerning which Professor Hussey reasonably 
observes : " Si unquam de jure et possessione 
hujus insulse certatum erat inter illos reges, 
satis causse haberemus cur adeo diverse a di- 
versis auctoribus traditum sit." (Bedse, Hist. 
Eccl. p. 122.) We may fix on 563 as the most 
probable date of the occurrence recorded in 
the text. 

b Su(B munitionis. Mentioned already in i. 
37 (p- 73). From chap. 33, supra, where we find 
domus regia, aula regia, and regis munitio, we 
learn that it was at some distance, though not 
far, from the banks of the river Ness. Now, 
as this river has a very limited course, the 



circuit of inquiry for the situation of the dun is 
greatly narrowed; and there being but one 
spot within it which is answerable to the name, 
the identification may be regarded as nearly 
certain. Craig Phadric/i, situate about two miles 
S. W. of Inverness, across the river, is a natu- 
ral eminence of considerable height, and well 
defined. On the summit is a level space of an 
oval form, about 240 yards in circumference, 
enclosed by a parapet, which, though very 
much reduced in height and regularity, and 
overgrown with vegetable matter, still affords 
satisfactory evidence of its original outline, and 
of the solidification of its parts by the action 
of fire. It is one of those rude structures called 
Vitrified Forts, and which are regarded by 
some as peculiar to the old Pictish inhabitants. 
The summit is 435 feet above the level of the 
sea, and commands, where the ill-judged and 
injurious plantation with which it is crowned 
permits, a most beautiful and extensive pros- 
pect, having a large tract of Rosshire on the 
north, Inverness on the east, Beauly on the 
west, and Loch Ness on the south. The as- 
cent of the hill is rendered difficult by the 
dense plantation with which its sides are 
clothed, a species of ornament better suited 
to the neighbouring eminence of Tom-na-hou- 
rich than to the hill-fort of the Pictish kings. 
There is an interesting description of Craig 
Phadrick, accompanied by a sketch and sec- 
tion, in "An Account of some remarkable 
Ancient Ruins in the Highlands, by John Wil- 
liams" (Edinb. 1777), p. 31. The memoir of 
Inverness parish in the old Statistical Survey 
gives but a meagre account of this curious 
fort (vol. ix. pp. 610, 634). 

c Comitibus The Life of St. Comgall repre- 
sents them as SS. Comgall and Cainnech. See 
following note. 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



ponit ; quae continuo sponte, retro retrusis fortiter seris, cum omni celeritate 
s aperta 6 sunt. Quibus statim apertis, Sanctus consequenter cum 7 sociis 
8 intrat d . Quo cognito, rex cum senatu valde pertimescens, domum e egressus, 
obviam cum veneratione beato pergit yiro, pacificisque verbis blande 9 admodum 
compellat : et ex ea in posterum die sanctum et venerabilem virum idem reg- 
nator, suse omnibus vitae reliquis diebus, valde magna honoravit, ut decuit, 
10 honorifi centia. 



] DE ECCLESI^E 2 DUORUM AGRI 3 RIVORUM SIMILI RECLUSIONE. 

ALIO itidem 4 in tempore, vir beatus, 5 aliquantis in Scotia a diebus "conver- 
satus, ad visitandos fratres qui in monasterio 7 Duum Ruris commanebant 
Rivulorum b , ab eis invitatus, perrexit. Sed casu aliquo accidit ut eo 8 ad eccle- 

5 ' 6 deposuit D. 7 suis add. C. 8 intravit C. 9 ad domum D. 10 reverentia D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. * om. B. 3 rivulorum B. * om. D. 5 columba add. D. 

6 versatus C. 7 divini C. 8 om. S. 

d Intrat. The occurrence is thus related in 
the Irish Life in the Highland Society's MS. : 
" Columcille went, upon a time, to the king of 
the Cruithneans, Bruidi mac Milchon. And 
the door of the court was closed against him. 
And immediately the iron locks of the house 
were opened by the prayers of Columcille. 
Then came the king's son, namely, Maelchu, 
and his druid, and they proceeded to contend 
with Columcille by the aid of magic : but they 
died suddenly, through the words of Columcille, 
both the king's son and the druid with him." 
(fol. 1366.) The Life of St. Comgall repre- 
sents St. Columba as only one of the agents on 
this occasion: "Venerunt aliquando beatissimi 
tres Abbates, scilicet S. Comgallus, S. Co- 
lumba , et S. Cannicus, ad regem gentilem, 
nomine Bridceum, et ille jussit januas castri 
contra eos claudi. Sed S. Comgallus valvas 
signo sanctse crucis signavit, et ceciderunt 
fractse in terrain. Sanctus autem Columba 
valvas domus regalis eodem signo fregit ; 
sanctus quoque Cannicus signavit manum re- 
gis vibrantem gladium ad eos occidendos, et 
statim arefacta est manus regis, et ita erat 



donee ipse in Deum credidit, et effectus est in 
Deo fidelis, manus ejus soluta est." c. 44 
(Flem. Collect, p. 311 6). A similar story is 
told in the Life of St. Fintan, c. 18 (Colg. Act. 
SS. p. 352 a). See i. 37 (p. 73) supra. St. 
Comgall visited Britain, in 566 or, as his Life 
expresses it, " Septimo anno postquam monas- 
terium Bennchor fundatum est," which was 
559 (Vit. c. 22, Flem. Coll. p. 307 6). But this 
seems to have been on a later occasion. 

e Domum. This was inside the munitio, and 
provided with its own doors. See last note. 

a Scotia. Here, as elsewhere in Adamnan, 
and in all writers before the eleventh century, 
Scotia signifies Ireland. Modern Scotland, in 
Adamnan, is always part of Britannia. 

b Duum Ruris Rivulorum. Duorum Agri Ri- 
vorum in the title. Dempster, not observing 
that duum is another form of duorum, reads 
divini, and makes Conallus, a disciple of St. 
Columba, bishop of the place (Menolog. Scot. ; 
Hist. Eccl. p. 167). Preceding editors have 
unsuccessfully attempted to find the Irish name 
of this religious house. O'Donnell makes it 
the " coenobium vulgo Mainistir-anda-Shruth, 



CAP. 36, 37.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



siarn accedente, claves non reperirentur oratorii. Cum vero Sanctus de non 
repertis adliuc clavibus et de obseratis foribus inter se conquirenfres alios 
audisset, ipse ad ostium appropinquans, Potens est 10 Dominus, ait, "domum 
suam servis etiam sine clavibus aperire suis. Cum hac turn voce subito retro 
retrusis forti motu pessulis, sponte aperta janua, Sanctus cum omnium admi- 
ratione ecclesiam ante omnes ingreditur, et hospitaliter a fratribus susceptus, 
honorabiliter ab omnibus n veneratur. 



QUODAM PLEBEIO MENDICO CUI SANCTUS SUDEM FACIENS AD 
JUGULANDAS BENEDIXIT FERAS. 

2 ALIO 3 in tempore quidam ad Sanctum 4 plebeius venit pauperrimus, qui 
in ea habitabat regione quas Stagni litoribus 6 Aporici a 6 est contermina. Huic 

9 columba add. D. 10 deus D. n veneratus est D. 
i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 " 3 quodara D. 4 columbam add. D. 5 aporicie D. e om. 1). 



d est monasterium duorum rivorum," and he 
places this visit immediately after the Saint's 
departure from Drumceatt. Hi.. 15 (Tr. Th. 
p. 433 6). Colgan, regarding this as a name 
coined for the occasion, rejects it, and suggests, 
" Videri posset ecclesia Tir-da-chroebh vulgo 
dicta, in Media, in qua colitur S. Lugaidus S. 
Columbse discipulus. Tir-da-chroebh idem est 
quod Terra seu Ager duorum ramorum, non 
vero rivorum, ut forte mendo apud Adarana- 
nura irrepsit." (Tr. Th. p. 493 6, n. 14.) Tir- 
da-chroebh is set down in the Calendar of Do- 
negal as in Cinel-Fiachach, Kinelea, the present 
barony of Moycashel in Westmeath (Jan. 31). 
It is the townland now called Tcernacreeve, 
in the parish of Castletown-Kindalen, in the 
above-named barony. But to suppose with 
Colgan an error in the text of Adamnan, 
where the name is repeated, or that the Irish 
cyiaob, ' a branch,' was intended by rivus and 
rivulus, savours too much of that school in lite- 
rature which fits the author to the theory. 
Colgan might have known that slap is an ori- 
ginal Irish term for ' a stream,' appearing in 
the familiar compounds, piomi-glap, Finglas, 



X 



Dub- slap, Douglas, Gill-slap, Kilglass, and 
many such names. The Irish sequel to the 
memoirs of St. Patrick in the Book of Armagh 
contains a short charter, in which the word 
Slaip in the sense of rivulus occurs five times 
(fol. 17 ab}. With this understanding, there 
can be no hesitation in pronouncing the famous 
monastery of Cip-t>a-5lap, now Terryglas, in 
the barony of Lower Ormonde, county of Tip- 
perary, to be the place in question. It was 
founded in the first half of the sixth century 
by Colum mac Crimthainn, a contemporary and 
fellow-student of St. Columba at St. Finnian's 
monastery of Clonard. He died of the plague 
in 548 (An. Ult.), on the i3th of December, 
which is his festival in the Calendar. Coarb, 
or successor, of Colum mac Crimthainn, be- 
came in after times the title of the abbots of 
Tir-da-glas. There are thirty-four references 
to Tir-da-ghlas in the Index to O'Donovan's 
Annals of the Four Masters. The Life of the 
founder is preserved in the Cod. Salmanticensis 
at Brussels, and Colgan has printed two chap- 
ters from it (Tr. Th. p. 457 6). See Calendar. 
Dungall. Dec. 13; Ussher (Wks. vi. p. 533; ; 



'54 



Vita Sancti Colwnboe 



[LIB. IT- 



ergo miserabili viro, qui unde maritam et parvulos cibaret non habebat, vir 
beatus petenti, miseratus, ut potuit, quandam largitus eleemosynam, ait, 
Miselle humuncio, tolle de silva contulum vicina, et ad me 7 ocyus defer. Ob- 
secundans miser, juxta Sancti jussionem, detulit materiam ; quam Sanctus 
excipiens in veru exacuit ; quodque propria exacuminans manu, 8 benedicens, 
"etilli assignans 10 inopi dixit, Hoc veru diligenter custodi, quod, ut credo, nee 
homini, nee alicui pecori, nocere poterit, exceptis feris bestiis quoque et pisci- 
bus ; et quamdiu talem habueris sudem, nunquam in domo tua cervinse carnis 
cibatio abundans deerit. Quod audiens miser n mendiculus, valde gavisus, 
domum revertitur, veruque in remotis infixit 12 terrula3 locis, qua3 silvestres 
frequentabant fera3 ; et vicina transacta nocte, mane primo 13 pergit revisitare 
volens veru, in quo mira3 magnitudinis cervum cecidisse reperit u transfixum. 
Quid plura? Nulla, ut nobis traditum est, transire poterat dies, qua non aut 
cervum, aut cervam, aut aliquam reperiret in veru infixo cecidisse bestiam. 
Repleta quoque tota de ferinis carnibus domo, vicinis superflua vendebat, qua3 
hospitium suae domus capere non poterat. Sed tamen diaboli invidia per 
sociam, ut Adam, et hunc etiam miserum invenit ; quas, non quasi prudens, sed- 
fatua, taliter ad maritum locuta est, Tolle de terra veru ; nam si in eo homines, 
aut etiam pecora, perierint, tu 15 ipse et ego cum nostris liberis aut occidemur 
aut captivi ducemur. Ad hsec maritus inquit, Non ita 16 fiet; nam sanctus 
vir mihi, benedicens sudem, dixit, quod nunquam hominibus aut etiam peco- 
ribus nocebit. Post hsec verba mendicus, uxori consentiens, pergit, et 17 tol- 
lens de terra veru, intra domum, quasi 18 amens, illud secus parietem posuit; 
in quo mox domesticus ejus incidens canis disperiit. Quo pereunte, rursum 
marita, Unus, ait, filiorum tuorum incidet in sudem et peribit. Quo audito 
ejus verbo, maritus veru de pariete removens ad silvam reportat, et in 



7 citius C. D. 
J3 pen-exit D. 



8 atque add. D. 
transmissum C. 



9 om. D. 1 que add. D. n mendicus B. 12 terrse C. 
et add. C. 16 fiat D. n tollit C. amaus B. C. D. 



Archdall, Monast. Hib. p. 676; Lanigan, Eccl. 
Hist. vol. ii. pp. 71, 75. There was a church 
in the diocese of Armagh called ITIag-ecip-bi- 
glaif, that is, Campus-inter-duos-rivulos, which 
is mentioned in the Four Masters at 879 and 
950. As it has not been hitherto identified, it 
may be well to mention that it is probably the 
place known as Magheraglass, in the parish of 



Kildress (Ord. Surv. Tyrone, ss. 29, 38), called 
Magheryinglasse in the Ulster Inquisitions (Ap- 
pend. No. ii. p. 8 a), which is held under the 
See of Armagh, and possesses the remains of 
an ancient chapel. 

a Stagni Aporici. Loch Abor, now changed 
to Lochaber. See the note on Stagno Aporum, 
chap. 20 (p. 130) supra. 



CAP . 3 8.] Auctore Adamnano. 155 

densioribus infixit dumis, ut putabat ubi a nullo posset aniraante offendi. 
18 Sed postera reversus die capream in eo cecidisse et periisse 10 reperit. Inde 
quoque illud removens, in 20 fluvio qui Latine dici potest Nigra 21 Dea b , juxta 
ripam sub aquis abscondens infixit : quod alia revisitans die, esocem c in eo 
mirae magnitudinis transfixum et retentum invenit ; quern de flumine elevaris 
vix solus ad domum portare poterat, veruque secum de aqua simul reportans, 
extrinsecus in superiore tecti affixit loco ; in quo et corvus 22 devolatus, impetu 
lapsus disperiit jugulatus. Quo facto, miser, fatuae conjugis consilio depra- 
vatus, veru tollens de tecto, assumpta securi, in plures concidens particulas, 
23 in ignem projecit. 24 Et post, quasi suae paupertatis amisso non mediocri 
solatio, remendicare, ut meritus, ccepit. Quod videlicet penurias rerum 
solamen saspe superius in veru memorato dependebat, quod pro pedicis, et 
retibus, et omni venationis et piscationis genere servatum posset sufficere, beat! 
viri donatum benedictione, quodque amissum miser plebeius, eo ditatus pro 
tempore, ipse cum tota familiola, sero licet, omnibus de cetero deplanxit 
reliquis diebus 25 vitse. 

*DE LACTARIO UTRE QUEM SALACIA ABSTULIT UNDA ET VENILIA ITERUM 

REPR2ESENTAVIT IN PRIORE LOCO. 

ALIO in tempore, beati legatus viri, Lugaidus a nomine, 2 cognomento 
3 Laitirus b , ad Scotiam jussus navigare proponens, inter navalia navis Sancti 
instrumenta utrem lactarium d quaesitum inveniens, sub mari, congestis super 
eum non parvis lapidibus, madefaciendum posuit; veniensquead Sanctum quod 
de utre fecit intimavit. Qui subridens inquit, liter, quern ut dicis sub undis 

l9 -!9 om. Boll. 20 fluvium B. 21 deca D. 22 de volatus G. clevolutus F. Boll. 23 commiu- 
uit et add. D. 24-25 e t ip se post modum iterum factus est pauper sictit prius et usque ad diem mortis 
sue cum tota familia sudem lugebant D. 

1 titul. om. C. F. S. Boll, omnia usque ad quos enim deus in cap. 41 inferius desunt in D. 
a -s om. C. F. S. 

b Nigra Deer. In Irish, t)ub bcmbea. The ^Laitirus. "ScoticeLathir," chap. 5 (p. i r i) 

name has not been identified. It is curious supra. Probably Icnbrptfortis. 

that the word JBandea occurs in the Book of c Scotiam. Convertible with Hiberniam in 

Armagh as the name of a river in Ireland (fol. next sentence. 

1 J & ) d Utrem lactarium. The milk used in the 

c Esocem. A salmon. See the note, ii. 19 monastery was conveyed in a wooden pail 

(p. 129) supra. (chap. 16, p. 126, supra"), but a leathern vessel 

' Lugaidus See i. 22 (p. 51), and cap. 5 (p. was probably judged more convenient for use 

m), supra. at sea. 

X 2 



'56 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



posuisti, hac vice ut oestimo non te ad 4 Hiberniam comitabitur. Cur^ait, non 
mecum in navi comitem eum habere potero ? Sanctus, Altera, inquit, die 
quod res probabit scies. Itaque Lugaidus mane postera die ad retrahendum 
de mari utrem pergit ; quern tamen salacia noctu subtraxit unda. Quo non 
reperto, ad Sanctum re versus tristis, flexis s in terrain genibus, suam confessus 
est negligentiam. Cui Sanctus, ilium consolatus, ait, Noli frater pro fragi- 
libus contristari rebus : uterquem salacia sustulit 7 unda, ad suum locum, post 
tuum egressum, reportabit 8 venilia f . Eadem die post Lugaidi de 9 Ioua insula 
emigrationem, hora transacta nona, Sanctus circumstantibus sic profatus, ait, 
Nunc ex vobis unus ad aBquor pergat ; utrem, de quo Lugaidus querebatur, 
et quern salacia 10 sustulerat unda, nunc venilia retrahens, in loco unde sub- 
tractus est n reprsesentavit. Quo Sancti audito verbo, quidam alacer juvenis 
ad orani cucurrit maris, repertumque utrem, sicut prredixerat Sanctus, cursu 
reversus concito reportans, valde gavisus, coram Sancto, cum omnium qui 
ibidem 12 inerant admiratione, assignavit. In his, ut saepe dictum est, binis 
narrationibus superius descriptis, quamlibet in parvis rebus, sude videlicet et 
utre, 13 prophetia simul et virtutis miraculum comitari cernuntur. 14 Nunc ad 
alia 15 tendamus. 



X DE LIBRANO 2 ARUNDINETI a PROPHETATIO SANCTI VIRI. 

ALIO in tempore, cum vir sanctus in 3 loua conversaretur insula, homo 
quidam plebeius nuper sumpto clericatus habitu b , de Scotia transnavigans, 



* everniam A. 5 ~* O m. B. ' om. C. 8 venalia C. 9 A. C. F. S. iona B. 
repraesentabit F. erant C. 13 propheticse C. 14 ~ 15 om. B. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 harundineti A. B. 3 iona B. 



10 sustulerit F. 



e Salacia unda. The salacia and venilia undsB 
signify the ebb and flow of the tide. St. Au- 
gustine thus disposes of their mythological im- 
personative application : "Jam utique habebat 
Salaciam Neptunus uxorem, quam inferiorem 
aquam maris esse dixerunt, ut quid illi ad- 
juncta est et Venilia, nisi ut sine ulla causa ne- 
cessariorum sacrorum, sola libidine animaB 
prostitutae, multiplicaretur invitatio dsemoni- 
orum ? Sed proferatur interpretatio praeclaree 
theologiae, quse nos ab ista reprehensione red- 
dita ratione compescat. Venilia inquit, unda 
est, quae ad littus venit : Salacia quae in salum 



redit. Cur ergo deae fiunt duaa, cum sit una 
unda, quae venit et redit?" De Civit. Dei, vii. 
22 ; conff. Ib. iv. 10, 1 1. This ebb and flow of 
the tide is to be distinguished from the ledo 
and malina which are used by Bede and others 
to denote the lower and higher tides. In a MS. 
of Bede, De Natura Rerum, containing inter- 
linear Irish glosses, preserved at Carlsruhe, 
the words in lidones are explained, .1. hi con- 
cpachcu, and malinas, .1. hi pobapcai. So 
also in his work, De Temporum Ratione, where 
con cp ache is also the gloss on defectus, and 
pobapci on profectus. The same interesting 



CAP. 39-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



ad insulanum beati monasterium viri devenit. Quern cum alia die Sanctus in 
hospitio" 4 residem hospitantein invenisset solum, priraum de patria, de gente, 
et causa itineris, a Sancto interrogatus; de 5 Connachtarum regione' 1 oriunduni 
se prdfessus est ; et ad delenda in peregrinatione peccamina longo fatigatum 
itinere. Cui cum Sanctus, ut de suae poenitudinis exploraret qualitate, dura 
et laboriosa ante oculos ^nonasterialia proposuisset imperia ; ipse consequenter 
ad Sanctum respondens, inquit, Paratus sum ad omnia qurecunque mihi jubere 
volueris, quamlibet durissima, quamlibet indigna. Quid plura? Eadem hora 
omnia sua confessus peccata, leges poenitentise f , flexis in terram genibus^', se im- 
pleturum promisit. Cui Sanctus, Surge, ait, et reside. Turn deinde residentem 
sic compellat, Septennem debebis in Ethica poenitentiam 11 explere terra 1 . Ego 
et tu usquequo numerum expleas septennalium annorum, Deo donante, victuri 
sumus. Quibus Sancti confortatus dictis, grates Deo agens, ad Sanctum, Quid 
me, ait, agere oportet de quodam meo falso juramento? nam ego quendam in, 
patria commanens trucidavi homuncionem k ; post cujus trucidationem, quasi reus 

* residenti B. s conactarum B. 6 interim. B. 



MS., treating of the ebb and flow of the tide, 
glosses remeat by .1. in diclibiu, and adfluit by 
.1. hi cuiliu : aichbe being recessus, 'ebb,' 
and cuile, affluvium, 'flood.' See Zeuss, Gram. 
Celt. vol. ii. p. 833. 

f Venilia The flow tide. See last note. 

a Arundineti. See the explanation of the 
term at the close of the chapter. 

b Sumpto clericatus habitu. See i. 36 (p. 67) 
supra. We learn from the sequel that he was 
neither in Holy Orders, nor admitted as yet to 
the monastic condition ; so that this expression 
must be understood of his retirement from se- 
cular life, and the adoption of the garb which 
characterized the associates or probationers of a 
religious community. t)o gaticul cleinceacca, 
clericatum suscepit, is the Irish expression 
Four Mast. 800, Conf. 703, 729, 760, 792. 

c Hospitio The intercourse between Ireland 
and the monastery of Hy was very constant, 
and, as in other great monastic establishments, 
there seems to have been here a special lodging 
for the accommodation of occasional visitors. 

d Connachtarum regione. Connaught, one of 



the five ancient provinces of Ireland. See 
Keating,History(vol. i. pp.i22-i26, ed Halid.) 

e Dura imperia The implicit obedience re- 
quired by the strictness of the Columbian Rule 
rendered each member liable to the most labo- 
rious or perilous engagements. 

f Leges poenitentice. See i. .22 (p. 52) supra. 
Cummian's Penitential, entitled " Cumeani ab- 
batis liber de Mensura Poanitentiarum," con- 
sisting of fourteen chapters, is printed in Fle- 
ming's Collectanea, pp. 197-210. 

s Flexis genibus See i. 22 (p. 52), 32 (p. 61), 
supra, iii. 23 infra. 

h Septennem poenitentiam. St. Cacloc dwelt 
seven years near Mount Bannauc in Scotland. 
(Vit. c. 22, Rees, Lives, p. 57.) He granted 
right of sanctuary for seven years, seven 
months, and seven days (/i. c. 65, p. 95). 

1 Ethica terra. Now Tiree. See i. 19 (p. 48) 
supra. The chief monastery in the island was 
that called Campus Luinge. See note m , p. 158. 

* Trucidavi homuncionem. It was after a simi- 
lar act that Aidus Niger, of whom mention has 
been made in i. 36, supra, retired from Ireland 



158 



Vita Sancti Columbcu 



[LIB. ii. 



in vinculis retentus sum. Sedmihi quidam 7 cognationalishomo ejusdem paren- 
tela3, valde opibus opulentus, subveniens, me opportune et de vinculis vincu- 
latum absolvit 1 , et de morte reuin eripuit. Cui post absolutionem cum firma 
juratione promiseram me eidem omnibus mea; diebus vita; serviturum. Sed 
post aliquot dies in servitute peractos, servire homini dedignatus, et Deo 
potius obsecundare malens, desertor illius carnalis domini, juramentum infrin- 
gens, 8 discessi, et ad te, Doniino nieum prosperante iter, perveni. Ad lisec 
Sanctus, virum pro talibus valde angi videns, sicuti prius prophetans, pro- 
fatur, inquiens, Post septenorum, sicut tibi dictum est, expletionem annorum, 
diebus ad me hue 9 quadragesimalibus venies, ut in Paschali solemnitate ad 
altarium accedas, et Eucharistiam sumas. Quid verbis immoramur? Sancti 
viri imperils per omnia poenitens obsequitur peregrinus. 10 Iisdemque diebus 
ad monasterium Campi missus n Lunge, ibidem plene expletis in pronitentia 
septeni annis, ad Sanctum, diebus quadragesimas, juxta ejus priorem propheti- 
cam jussionem, revertitur. Et post peractam Paschas solemnitatem, in qua 
jussus ad altare accessit, ad Sanctum de supra interrogans memorato venit 
juramento. Cui Sanctus interroganti talia vaticinans responsa profatur, 
Tuus de quo mihi aliquando dixeras, carnalis superest dominus; paterque 
et mater et fratres adhuc vivunt. Nunc ergo pra3parare te debes ad naviga- 
tionem. Et inter liasc verba macherani 11 belluinis ornatam dolatis protulit 

~ cognitionalis A. 8 decessi A. quadragensimalibus A. 10 hisdemque A. B. u longe B. 



" sub clericatus habitu." The violation of his 
oath was considered by the penitent a greater 
crime : or, at least, being a continued offence, 
it was more distressing to his conscience. 

1 Absolvit. That is, he paid the eric, or fine, 
in satisfaction to the nearest kinsmen of the 
deceased. " Ad feroces hominum animos a 
mutuis caedibus coercendos lege sanctum erat, 
utfamilia, ex quahomicida vel mutilator ortus 
erat, juxta numerum personarum ac facultates 
et damni illati mensuram, solveret familiae 
damnum passse, ejusve Principi certam mulc- 
tam, quam vulgo vocant Ernie, et latine san- 
guinariam pensionem, vel mulctam dixeris." 
O'Donnell, iii. 10 (Tr. Th. p. 432 6). See also 
Vallaneey's Collectanea, vol. i. p. 392. 

Campi Lunge. In Ethica terra, or Tiree. 
See note f , i. 30 (p. 59) supra. 



n Macheram From inaxaipa. Thus in the 
Life of St. Winwaloe, cited by Du Cange : 

" Ancipitem fugiens duro cum dente maceram." 

The charms of the Greek language had begun 
to give to western ecclesiastics a pedantic turn 
about this time, which was carried to a ludi- 
crous excess in Aldhelm's letter to Eahfrid, 
cir. 690. (Ussher, Syll. xiii.) The Irish hymns 
in the Antiphonary of Bangor, which are of an 
earlier date, have "Audite pantes ta erga," 
"agius," "protus," "cako," " zoe." In Adam- 
nan we find sophia, lithus, protus, omonimum, 
machera, &c. The same style is observable in 
Johannes Scotus, and even in the Irish school 
at St. Gall (Ussher, Syll. xxii. xxiii. ; Pertz, Mo- 
nument, vol. ii. p. 55). It kept its hold on ha- 
giology to a much later date. Thus the Life 



CAP. 39-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



159 



dentibus , dicens, Hoc accipe tecum portandum munus, quod domino pro 
tua redemptione offeree; sed tamen nullo modo accipiet. Habet enim bene 
moratam 12 conjugem, cujus salubri obtemperans consilio, te eadem die gratis, 
sine pretio, libertate donabit, cingulum ex more captivi de tuis resolvens 
lumbisi'. Sed hac anxietate solutus, aliam a latere surgentem non effugies 
sollicitudinem : nam tui fratres undique 13 coarctabunt te, ut tanto tempore 
patri debitam, sed neglectam, redintegres pietatem. Tu tamen, sine ulla 
hassitatione voluntati eorum obsecundans, patrem "senem pie excipias confo- 
vendum. Quod onus, quamlibet tibi videatur grave, contristari non debes, quia 
mox depones : nam ex qua die incipies patri ministrare, alia in fine ejusdem 
septimanae mortuum sepelies. Sed post patris sepultionem, iterum fratres te 
acriter compellent, ut matri etiam debita pietatis impendas obsequia* 1 . De qua 
profecto compulsione tuus junior te absolvet frater ; qui tua vice paratus omne 
pietatis opus, quod debes, pro te matri serviens reddet. Post haec verba supra 
memoratus frater, Libranus nomine, accepto munere, Sancti ditatus benedic- 
tione perrexit ; et ad patriam perveniens, omnia, secundum Sancti vaticinium, 
invenit vere probata. Nam statim, ut pretium sute offerens libertatis ostendit 
domino, accipere volenti refragans uxor, Ut quid nobis, ait, hoc accipere quod 
sanctus pretium misit Columba ? Hoc non sumus digni. Liberetur ei pius hie 
gratis ministrator. Magis nobis sancti viri benedictio proficiet, quam hoc quod 
I5 offertur pretium. Audiens itaque maritus hoc maritae salubre consilium, con- 
tinue gratis liberavit servum. Qui post, juxta prophetiam Sancti, compulsus 
a fratribus, patrem, cui ministrare coepit, septima die mortuum sepelivit. Quo 
sepulto, ut et matri debite deserviret compellitur. Sed subveniente juniore 
fratre, sicut Sanctus praedixerat, vicem ejus adimplente, 16 absolvitur. Qui ad 
fratres sic dicebat, Nullo modo nos 17 oportet fratrem in patria retentare, 18 qui 



12 cojugem A. coartabant B. 
om. B. is oportet add. B. 



tuum add. B. offert Colg. Boll. 16 sed junior add. B. 



of St. Cadoc, which was written when " Al- 
bania vulgo Scotia vocabatur," has effebus, 
pneuma, sophia, uranitus, and, after the style 
of Edgar, basileus. (Rees' Cambr. Brit. SS. 
pp. 26, 38,46, 51, 52, 56.) 

Ornatam dentibus Solinus, speaking of 
the inhabitants of Ireland, says : " Qui student 
cultui, dentibus marinarum belluarum insigni- 
unt ensium capulos." 



P Resolvens lumbis. The form of manumis- 
sion here alluded to will probably derive illus- 
tration from the Brehon Laws now in course 
of preparation for the press. 

i Pietatis obsequia. The allusion to filial 
obligations in this chapter indicates the exist- 
ence of a better social and moral condition in 
Ireland at this date than the tone of the native 
Annals would lead one to expect. 



i6o 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



per septcm annos npud sanctum Columbam in 10 Britannia salutem exercuit 
animrc. Post qiwo, ab omnibus quibus molestabatur, absolutus, matri et fra- 
tribus valedicens, liber re versus, ad locum qui Scotice vocitatur 20 Daire 21 Cal- 
gaich 1 ' pervenit. Ibidemque navim sub velo a portu emigrantem inveniens, 

19 brittannia A. B. 20 dnire Colg. Boll, liter a d, qncc in cod. A, formam cl pro; se fcrt, minus 

observata. 21 13. calcig A. calig male Colg. Boll. 



r Daire Calyaich. The name is Latinized 
Poboretum Culyaclii in i. 2 (p. 19), 20 (p. 50), 
supra. Calgach, the Galgacus of Tacitus (Agric. 
c 29), is a name occasionally found in the Irish 
Annals (Four Mast. 593 ; and in composition, 
ibid. 622). It is derived from cctlg, ' a sword,' 
or 'thorn ;' and, as an adjective, denotes 'sharp' 
or 'angry.' Hence Calsach, gen. Caljaicli, 
became a proper name in the sense of ' fierce 
warrior.' The foundation of the church of 
Derry by St. Columba is thus recorded in the 
Annals of Ulster, at 545 : Daire Coluim cille 
fund at a est. There is, however, a prolepsis in 
this name, for in every other instance where 
the place is mentioned in the Annals, until the 
middle of the tenth century, it is called by its 
original designation, Daire Calgaich. The first 
time that the form Daire Coluimcille occurs in 
the Four Masters is at the year 950, about 
which time it would seem that the memory of 
the founder prevailed over the ancient name. 
According to the early Irish Life, the church 
of Derry was founded in consequence of a grant 
from King Aedh, son of Ainmire, and within 
the royal precincts. Luib Coluim cille lapum 
bo Daipe .1. pig oun Qeoa mic Ginrmpech 
ba pi 6penn eppioe in can pin. Ti-ibppaip 
in pi in bun pin bo Colum cille acap opaio- 
pium pobich cimna TTIobn. Ic oioecc cpa 
bopum ap in bun imach conbpicc ppia blip 
bo munncip TTIobn acap cpipp Tflobn occai 
boparii, acap beonugao pepain bo gabail, 
lap n-ec TTIobn. 5 a ^ ai r Colum cille lap 
pin h-i n-bun Qe6a, acap pocaigip eclaip 
anb, co pipcaib h-ile bo benam innce. 
1 Columcille went, then, to Daire, that is, to 



the royal fort of Aedh, son of Ainmire, who 
was king of Erin at that time. The king of- 
fered the fort to Columcille ; but he refused it, 
because of Mobi's command. On his coming 
out of the fort, however, he met two of the 
people of Mobi, bringing to him Mobi's girdle, 
with his consent that Columcille should accept 
a grant of territory, Mobi having died. Co- 
lumcille then settled in the fort of Aedh, and 
founded a church there, and wrought many 
miracles in it.' Now it is to be observed that 
Mobi Clarainech, of Glas-naoidhen, now Glas- 
nevin, near Dublin, died, according to the An- 
nals of Ulster, in 544, the year preceding that 
to which they assign the founding of Derry. 
But Aedh, son of Ainmire, was slain, as 
Tighernach states, in 598, in the 63rd year of 
his age, so that he was born in 535, and there- 
fore could have been only ten years old at the 
date of the alleged grant. O'Donnell, who co- 
pies this account, qualifies the statement con- 
cerning Aedh by observing: " Ejus turn loci 
Princeps Aidus, filius Ainmrechi Regis Hiber- 
nise; et ipse postea Rex, Dei suique cognati," 
&c. i. 48 (Tr. Th. p. 397 a). A slight addi- 
tion to the age of Aedh, as given by Tigher- 
nach, would represent him sufficiently advanced 
in years to become the patron of St. Columba ; 
but even this is unnecessary, if we regard him 
at the age of ten as the representative of the 
race, and the donation made, as the Four 
Masters state (though 535, the year they as- 
sign, be untenable), " by his own tribe, i. e. 
the race of Conall Gulban, son of Kiall." The 
strongest evidence in support of the date given 



CAP. 39-] Auctore Adamnano. 161 

clamitans de litore rogitat, ut ipsum nautae cum eis susciperent navigaturum 
22 ad "Britanniam 8 . Sed ipsi non suscipientes refutaverunt eum, quia non 
24 erant de monachis sancti Columbae. Turn deinde ad eundem venerabilem 
loquens virum, quamlibet longe absentem, tamen spiritu prsesentem, ut mox 
res probavit, Placetne tibi, ait, sancte Columba, ut hi nautss, qui n\e tuum 
non suscipiunt socium, plenis velis et secundis enavigent ventis ? In hac voce 
ventus, qui ante illis erat secundus, dicto citius versus est contrarius. Inter 
hsec videntes virum eundem e regione secus flumen* cursitantem, subito inter 
se inito consilio, ad ipsum de navi inclamitantes dicunt nautici, Fortassis 
idcirco citius in contrarium nobis con versus est ventus 25 quia te suscipere renu- 
erimus. Quod si etiam nunc te ad nos in navim invitaverimus, contraries 
nunc nobis flatus in secundos convertere poteris ? His auditis, viator ad eos 
dixit, Sanctus Columba, ad quern vado, et cui hue usque per septem annos 
obsecundavi, si me susceperitis, prosperum vobis ventum a Domino suo, vir- 
tute orationum, impetrare poterit. Quibus auditis, navim terrse approximant, 
ipsumque ad eos in earn invitant. Qui statim, rate ascensa, In nomine Om- 
nipotentis, ait, cui sanctus Columba inculpabiliter servit, tensis rudentibus 
levate velum. Quo facto, continuo contraria venti flamina in secunda ver- 

22 in B. 23 brittanniam A. B. 24 A. B. erat Boll. ^ quod B. 

in the Annals of Ulster is the statement in the < Secus flumen. That is, the Feabhal or 
Preface to the hymn Noli Pater indulgere, in Foyle, the river on which Derry is built. The 
the Liber Hymnorum : " Colum cille fecit hunc Ordnance Memoir of Templemore states that 
hymnum eodem modo ut In te Christe. Locus " the ancient Irish appear to have applied the 
Oopnp bipipc Doip.1 Chatcais [porta deserti name Lough Foyle to the river up to Lifford, as 
Daire-Calgachi], Tempus, idem .1. Aeda meic well as to the present lough ; but, in the accounts 
[filii] Ainmerech." After which it proceeds in of the early settlement by the English, they are 
a narrative, partly Latin and partly Irish, to distinguished as the ' harbour of Lough Foyle' 
relate the death of Mobi, as in the Irish Life (the present lough), and the ' river of Lough 
already cited. See Liber Hymnor. pp. 26, 27 ; Foyle,' by which name the river is called in 
Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 476. These authorities are the Down Survey, as well as in some later do- 
a sufficient answer to Dr. Lanigan's objections cuments." p. 2. The former part of this state- 
(Eccl. Hist. ii. p. 122). For a detailed account ment derives some support from the fact that 
of Derry, in all its relations, see the Ordnance O'Donnell, as translated by Colgan, uses the 
Memoir of Templemore (Dubl. 1837). word euripus to denote this part of the river 
s Ad Britanniam. Derry was at this time a (Tr. Th. p. 397 a). It is to be observed, how- 
common point of communication with Hy. See ever, th&tjlumen is used in the present instance 
i. 2 (p. 19) supra. In after times its monastery by one of " the ancient Irish," and that in 1397 
acquired jurisdiction over Hy. See Ann. Ult. we again find mention made of thejluvius Derice 
1*64; Four Mast. 1203. (Colton's Visitat. pp. 19, 31). 

Y 



162 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. it. 



tuntur, prosperaque usque ad 8G Britanniam plenis successit navigatio veils. 
Libranusque, postquani ad loca perventum est "Britannica, illam deserens 
navim, et nautis benedicens, ad sanctum devenit Columbam in 28 loua com- 
morantcni insula. Qui videlicet vir beatus, gaudenter suscipiens eum, omnia 
quje de eo in itinere acta sunt, nullo alio intimante, plene narravit, et de 
domino, et uxoris ejus salubri consilio, quomodo ejusdem suasu liberatus est ; 
de fratribus quoque ; de morte patris, et ejus, finita septimana, sepultione ; de 
matre, et de fratris opportuna junioris subventione ; de his qua) in 29 regressu 
acta sunt ; de vento contrario, et secundo ; de verbis nautarum qui primo 
eum suscipere recusarunt, de promissione prosper! flatus ; et de prospera, eo 
suscepto in navi, venti conversione. Quid plura? Omnia, quse Sanctus 
adimplenda prophetavit, expleta euarravit. Post haec verba viator pretium 
sura quod a Sancto 30 accepit redemptionis assignavit. Cui Sanctus eadem 
liora vocabulum indidit, inquiens, Tu Libranus vocaberis eo quod sis liber. 
Qui videlicet 31 Libran u 32 iisdem in diebus votum monachicum devotus vovit. 
Et cum a sancto viro ad monasteriuni v , in quo prius septem annis po3nitens 
Domino servivit, remitteretur, haec ab eo 83 prophetica de se prolata 34 accepit 
verba 35 valedicente, Vita vives longa, et in bona senectute vitam terminabis 
prassentem. Attamen non in 36 Britannia, sed in Scotia w , resurges. Quod 
verburn audiens, flexis genibus, amare flevit. Quern Sanctus valde maastum 
videns, consolari cpepit dicens, Surge, et noles tristificari. In uno meorum 
morieris monasteriorum*, et cum electis erit pars tua meis in regno monachis; 

26 brittanniam A. B. 27 brittannica A. B. iona B. 29 ingressu B. so B. accipit A. 
3i A. libranus B. 32 hisdem A. B. M valedicens add. BolL 34 B. accipit A. 35 om . Boll. 
36 brittannia A. B. 



u Libran. The Irish Calendar has a " Libran 
abbot of la," at Mar. u, although not noticed 
in the Annals ; and a " Libren of Cluainfoda,' 
at the same day. The name occurs in the Four 
Masters, also, at 617. There are four saints 
called Liber in the Calendar. See Colgan, Act. 
SS. p. 584. 

* Monasterium. That is, Magh Lunge in 
Tiree. See note >, p. 157 supra. 

v Scotia. This is another instance of the 
use of the word for Ireland, as contradistin- 
guished from Scotland, then part of Britain. 

1 Meorum monasteriorum. Yen. Bede seems 
to recognise Durrow and Hy as the only mon- 



asteries founded directly by St. Columba, and 
to regard them as the nuclei of all the Colum- 
bian foundations in either country. " Ex quo 
utroque monasterio plurima exinde monasteria 
per discipulos ejus et in Brittania et in Hiber- 
nia propagata sunt." (H. E. iii. 4.) Derry, 
Kells, Kilmore-dithreabh, Swords, Rechra, and 
Drumcliff, were founded by him in Ireland. 
Durrow, however, is the one alluded to in the 
text. The congregations of all were included* 
in one general denomination, the mum dp 
Choknm-6ille, or familia Columbee-cille, as in 
the Book of Armagh (fol. 1 1 b 6), and the abbot 
of Hy was their common head. 



CAP. 40.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



163 



cum quibus in resurrectionem vitae de somno mortis evigilabis. 37 Qui, a 
Sancto accepta non mediocri consolatione, valde Isotatus 38 est, et Sancti bene- 
dictione ditatus, in pace perrexit. Qua? Sancti de eodem viro verax postea est 
adimpleta prophetatio. Nam cum per multos annales cycles in monasterio 
Campi 39 Lunge post sancti Columba? de mundo transitum, obedienter Domino 
deserviret, 40 monachus, pro quadam monasteriali utilitate ad Scotiam missus, 
valde senex, statim ut de navi descendit, pergens per Campum Breg 7 , ad mo- 
nasterium devenit Roborei Campi 7 ' ; ibidemque, hospes receptus hospitio, 
quadam molestatus infirmitate, septima a3grotationis die in pace ad Dominum 
perrexit, et inter sancti Columbae electos humatus est monachos, secundum 
ejus vaticinium, in vitam resurrecturus seternam. Has de Librano 41 Arundi- 
neti sancti veridicas Columbse vaticinationes scripsisse sufficiat. Qui videlicet 
Libranus ideo "Arundineti est 42 vocitatus, quia in 43 arundineto multis annis 
4 ' J arundines colligendo laboraverat. 



'DE QUADAM MULIERCULA MAGNAS ET 2 VALDE DIFFICILIORES PARTURITIONIS, 

UT EVJE FILIA, TORTIONES PASSA.. 

QUADAM die, Sanctus in 3 Ioua 4 commanens insula, a lectione 6 surgit, et 
subridens dicit, Nunc ad 6 oratorium mihi properandum, ut pro quadam misel- 
lula 7 Dominum deprecer femina, quse nunc in 8 Hibernia nomen hujus incla- 
mitans commemorat Columbse, in magnis parturitionis difficillimae 9 torta 
punitionibus, et ideo per me a Domino de angustia absolutionem dari sibi 
sperat, quia et mihi est 10 cognationalis, de mese matris parentela a genitorem 

37 qua B. 38 om , B. 3 9 lugne male Colg. Boll. *o monachis B. 4l harundineti A. B. 
i2 vocatus B. harundineto A. B. harundines A. B. 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. B. 3 A. C. F. S. iona B. * commoraiis C. 5 surgens C. 
6 orationem C. ' deum C. 8 B. C. F. S. evernia A. 9 om. F. 1 C. F. S. cognitionalis A. B. 



y Campum Breg. The plain of East Meath. 
See i. 38 (p. 74) supra. He cruised round the 
north and east coast of Ireland, till he arrived 
near the mouth of the Boyne, following the 
same course as Silnan in ii. 4 (pp. 109, 1 10) 
supra. Proceeding in a south-westerly direc- 
tion through Meath and Westmeath, he would 
arrive in the part of the modern King's County 
where Durrow is situate. 

1 Roborei Campi. Roboreti Campus, i. 29 



(p. 58), 49 (p. 95), Hi. 15. Roboris Campus, ii. 
2 (p. 105). The Irish name Dair-mag occurs 
at i. 3 (p. 23) supra. Dearmach, now Durrow, 
is the only Irish foundation of St. Columba 
mentioned by Bede (H. E. iii. 4). 

a Matris parentela. Eithne, his mother, was 
descended from Cathaeir Mor, who was King 
of Leinster, and afterwards of Ireland, in the 
early part of the second century. See Prsef. 
ii. (p. 8). She was ninth in descent from Daire 



Y2 



164 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



liabens progenitum. Ha3C dicens Sanctus, illius mulierculse motus miseratione, 
ad ecclesiam currit, flexisque genibus pro ea Christum de homine natum 
exorat. Et post precationem oratorium egressus, ad fratres profatur occur- 
rentes, inquiens, Nuno propitius Dominus lesus, de muliere progenitus, op- 
portune miserae subveniens, earn de angustiis liberavit, et prospere prolem 
peperit ; nee hac morietur vice. Eadem hora, sicuti Sanctus prophetizavit } 
misella femina, nomen ejus invocans, absoluta salutem recuperavit. Ita ab 
aliquibus postea de Scotia b , et de eadem regione ubi mulier inhabitabat, 
transmeantibus, intimatuni est. 



QUODAM LUGNEO 2 GUBERNETA a , COGNOMENTO 3 TUDIDA, QUEM SUA 
CONJUX ODIO HABUERAT DEFORMEM ; QUI IN RECHREA COMMORABATUR 
INSULA. 

ALIO in tempore, cum vir sanctus in Rechrea b hospitaretur insula, quidam 
plebeius ad eum veniens, de sua querebatur uxore, qua3, ut ipse dicebat, 4 odio 

i capitul. totum om. C. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 A. gubernatore B. 3 tutida B. tudicla 

(litera d dissecta) Colg. Boll. (p. 213 6.) 4 ' 5 om. B. 

Barrach, his second son, whose descendants 
occupied Ui Bairrche, now Slievemargy, on 
the south-east of the Queen's County, near 
Carlow, and were represented in after ages by 
the family of MacGorman. St. Fiech, bishop of 
Sletty, a church in this territory, was fourth 
in descent from Daire Barrach ; and St. Diar- 
maid, of Killeeshin, in the same territory, was 
seventh. 

b Scotia. Called Hiberrda in an earlier part 
of the chapter. 

c Eadem regione. Cuac taigen, 'North 
Leinster,' was the territory assigned to Daire 
Barrach, the ancestor of Eithne (Book of Rights, 
pp. 194, 212). ^Engus, in his tract De Matribus 
SS. Hib. says : Gicne ingen t)imae mic Noe 
qnae ec Depbinb belaba bo Chopppai&e 
panab maoaip Cholumi chilli. ' Eithne, 
daughter of Dima, son of Noe, who was also 
called Derbind Belada ; of the Cairbre of Fa- 
nad, was mother of Columcille.' (Lib. Lecan.) 
The old Irish Life says : Q mafcaip cpa bo 



Laijen, his mother, now, was of 
the Corpraighe of Leinster.' 

a Guberneta. A Grsecism from Kv(3epvriTi](;. 
Cod. B. reduces the word to a more Latin 
form. 

^Reckrea. The island of Rathlin or Raghery, 
off the north coast of the county of Antrim, is 
called Rechru in the title of i. 5 (p. 29) supra; 
TCaclipa (Ir. Nennius, p. 48). It is doubtful, 
however, whether that island, or another si- 
tuate off the coast of the county of Dublin, is 
intended in the present chapter. The con- 
nexion of St. Columba with the latter is thus 
stated in the old Irish Life : pooaigip eclair 
ip TCacpainb oipcip bpe, acap pacbaip 
Caiman beochain innce. He founded a 
church in Rachra in the east of Bregia, and 
left Colman the deacon in it.' This is the 
" Colman mac Roi, of Reachra," who is com- 
memorated in the Calendar at June 16. Rachra 
is shown by Dr. O'Donovan to be the mo- 
dern Lambay (Irish Gram. pp. 155, 281 ; see 



CAP. 41.] Auctore Adamnano. 165 

habens, eum ad 5 maritalem nullo modo admittebat concubitum accedere. 
Quibus auditis, Sanctus, raaritam advocans, in quantum potuit, earn hac de 
causa compere co3pit,inquiens, Quare,mulier, tuam a te carnem abdicare conaris, 
Domino dicente, Erunt duo in carne una ? itaque caro tui conjugis tua caro 
est. Quas respondens, Omnia, inquit, qusecunque mihi pra3ceperis, sum parata, 
quamlibet sint valde laboriosa, adimplere, excepto uno, ut me nullo compellas 
modo in uno lecto dormire cum Lugneo. Omnem domus curam exercere non 
recuso, aut, sijubeas, 6 etiani maria transire , et in aliquo puellarum monas- 
terio d permanere. Sanctus turn ait, Non potest recte fieri quod dicis, nam 
adhuc viro vivente alligata es 7 a lege viri. 8 Quos enim 9 Deus licite conjunxit 
nefas est separari. Et his dictis, consequenter intulit, Hac in die tres, hoc 
est, ego et maritus, cum conjuge, jejunantes Dominum precemur. Ilia dehinc, 
Scio, ait, quia tibi impossibile non erit ut ea quse vel difficilia, vel etiam im- 
possibilia videntur, a Deo impetrata donentur. Quid plura? Marita eadem 
die cum Sancto jejunare consentit, et maritus similiter : nocteque subsequente 
Sanctus 10 insomnis pro eis deprecatus est; posteraque die Sanctus n maritam 
pra3sente sic compellat marito, O femina, si, ut hesterna dicebas die, parata hodie 

6 vel C. 7 om. C. 8 ~ 9 quia CRIOS dominus cap. 37 excipiens D. ] in soranis C. n marita D. 

Irish Nennius, p. 138). Of St. Comgall it is pronunciation of Raghery. For conjectures 

related, "Cum cellam voluisset sedificare in about the derivation of the name, see Ussher, 

insula nomine Reachrain, venerunt triginta Brit. Eccl. Ant. c. 17 (Wks. vi. p. 528), and 

milites et tenentes manum ejus, eum inde ex- Zeuss, Gram. Celt. (i. p. 75, note.') For an 

pulerunt." Vit. c. 43 (Flem. Coll. p. 311 i). In account of Raghery, see Reeves' Eccl. Ant. 

634, according to Tighernach, Seigene abb. le pp. 248, 288. 

ecdesiam Rechrain fundavit. Again, in the An- Maria transire. O'Donnell makes this a 

nals, several abbots, and one bishop, ofRechra very comprehensive offer: "vel Hierosolimas 

are mentioned; and in one instance (Four Mast. peregrinari." ii. 81 (Tr. Th. p. 425 a). 

848) Rechra was jointly held with Durrow under d Puellarum monasterio. We have no record 

the abbot Tuathal, son of Feradhach ; which of any conventual establishment for women in 

proves that it was a Columbian foundation. It connexion with the Columbian rule. In the 

is therefore likely that the church of Rechra, thirteenth century a nunnery was built in Hy, 

in the Annals, is Lambay, and not Raghery. of which a considerable portion still remains. 

The church, however, which was founded by It is first mentioned by Fordun, who in his 

Seighene may have been in Raghery. This island brief notice of the monasteries on the island, 

is called Ricnea by Pliny, 'Pmiva by Ptolemy, says : "Aliud [monasterium] sanctarum monia- 

and in civil records is variously written Rack- lium ordinis Sancti Augustini rochetam defer- 

runn, Racry, Reachrainn, Rauchryne, Rachreyne, entium." Scotichr. ii. 10. An islet in the 

Raughlin, Rawlines. There are several islands Sound of lona, on the Mull side, is called 

in Ireland called Rathlin, which is the refined Eileann na mBan, < Island of the women. ' 



1 66 Vita Sancti Columbce [LIB. n. 

es ad feminarum emigrare monasteriolum ? Ilia, Nunc, inquit, cognovi quia 
tua Deo de me est 12 audita oratio; nam quern heri oderam, hodie amo ; cor 
enim meum hac nocte praeterita, 13 quo modo ignore, 14 in 1B me 10 immutatum 
est de odio in amorem. Quid moramur? ab 17 eadem die usque 18 ad diem 
obitus, 18 anima ejusdem maritas indissociabiliter in amore conglutinata est 
mariti, ut ilia maritalis concubitus debita, qusB prius reddere renuebat, nullo 
modo deinceps recusaret. 



J DE NAVIGATIONE CORMACI NEPOTIS LETHANI a PROPHETATIO BEATI VIRI. 

2 ALio 3 in tempore Cormacus, Christi miles, de quo in primo hujus opus- 
culi libello breviter aliqua commemoravimus pauca b , etiam secunda vice cona- 
tus 4 est eremum in oceano quserere. Qui postquam a terris 6 per infinitum 
oceanum plenis enavigavit velis, 6 iisdem diebus sauctus Columba, cum ultra 

12 exaudita C. D. 13 quonam C. 14-1 5 om. B. 16 mutatum D. n hac D. 18 om. D. 
i titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2-3 qu odam D. * om . D. 5 om , c. D. e hisdem A. B. 

a Nepotis Lethani. So i. 6 (p. 30) supra. About the same period, when dioceses in Ire- 

Nepos Leathain, iii. 17, infra. This surname, land were partitioned into rural deanries, Ole- 

in Irish Ua Liacain, is met with in the Galen- than became the name of a deanry in the diocese 

dar at Oct. 21; Ann. Inisfall. 718; and the of Cloyne, and appears on the ancient Taxa- 

Four Masters, 865, where a second Cormac tionRoll as a district extending over eighteen 

Ua Liathain is mentioned, who is called in the parishes, the principal of which was Castrum 

parallel entry of the Ann. Ult. (866) Nepos Olethan, now Castle-lyons. In the Regal Visi- 

Liatkain. The Ui Z/iacain, Nepotes JLethani, tation of 1615 the decanatus de Castle-lyon 

were a clan descended, and deriving their represented the same portion of the diocese, 

name, from Eochaidh Liathain, or Liathanach, The territory was situated in the south-east of 

a Munster chief, who was sixth in descent from the present county of Cork, and is now nearly 

Oilill Olum, King of Munster, A. D. 234. Crim- represented by the baronies of Barrymore and 

thann Mor, nephew of this Eochaidh Liathain, Kinnatalloon. According to the pedigrees of 

was monarch of Ireland from 366 to 378 ; so Cormac given in the Book of Lecan, he was 

that we may consider the middle of the fourth son of Dima, son of Coman, son of Cudumaig, 

century as the period at which the latter flou- son of Congal, son of Cairbre, son of Sionach, 

rished. In after times, the name of the Ui son of Eochaidh Liathain. The pedigree in 

Liathain was given to their territory, and the Mac Firbis is incorrect in making Daire Cerb 

lordship of it became hereditary in the family his grandfather (Geneal. MS. p. 740 a). On 

of O'hAnmcadha (Four Mast. 745, 760, 1014; the name Ua Liathain, see O'Flaherty, Ogyg. 

Cambrens. Evers. vol. i. pp. 273, 277, reprint). Hi. 81 (p. 381); O'Donovan, Book of Rights, 

After the English invasion the cantred of p. 72; Four Mast. 1579. 

Olehan was granted to Robert Fitz Stephen, b Commemoravimus pauca. Cormac's first 

from whom it passed to William de Barry. voyage is related in i. 6 (p. 30) supra. 



CAP. 42.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



167 



Dorsum moraretur Britannia^, Brudeo 7 regi d , prsesente 8 Orcadum e reguloj 
commendavit dicens, Aliqui ex "nostris nuper emigraverunt, desertum in 
pelago intransmeabili invenire optantes; qui si forte post longos circuitus 
Orcadas devenerint insulas, huic regulo, cujus obsides f in manu tua sunt, dili- 

7 rege C. D. 8 ordacum S. 9 nobis D. 



c Dorsum Britannia. See i. 34 (p. 64), cap. 
31 (p. 144) supra, cap. 46, iii. 14, infra. 

d Brudeo rege. See cap. 33 (p. 146), and 35 
(p. 150), supra. It appears from the latter that, 
after his conversion, Brudeus continued till the 
end of his life to hold St. Columba in the highest 
esteem. 

e Orcadum. This is the name of the Orkney 
Islands in Mela and Pliny. The Irish called 
them Innpi hOpc, and the adjacent sea the 
muip nOpc, which they regarded as the ex- 
treme northern boundary of Britain, the mmp 
niche, or British Channel, being the southern 
(Ir. Nennius, p. 30). They were inhabited in 
the first century, for Agricola " incognitas ad 
id tempus insulas, quas Orcadas vocant, inve- 
nit domuitque. Dispecta est Thule quadam te- 
nus," &c. (Tacit. Agric. 10.) We may suppose 
that the first wave of Celtic population in 
Britain extended northwards to them (Ir. 
Nen. p. 30). Tradition says the Fir-Galeoin (a 
tribe of the Firbolgs), and the Picts, were suc- 
cessively occupants of them : and that thence 
a portion of the latter passed over to the Franks 
(Ib. pp. 48, 50, 52). The Latin Nennius also 
states that the Picts, at an early period, occu- 
pied the Orcades, c. 12 (p. 9, ed. Stev.); but 
elsewhere he speaks of the island, "in extremo 
limite orbis Brittanniae ultra Pictos, et vocatur 
Ore." c. 8 (p. 7, 6.) When Hengist offered 
the services of Octha and Ebissa, "ut dimi- 
cent contra Scottos," they were invited to 
Britain, and " cum navigarent contra Pictos, 
vastaverunt Orcades insulas."" (Nennius, c. 
38, p. 29, ib.~) From which it would appear 
that in the fifth century these islands were 
possessed by the Picts, whose occupation pro- 
bably continued till at least the close of the 



sixth century. Chalmers supposes that at the 
date referred to in the text the inhabitants 
were Scandinavians (Caledon. i. p. 262). See 
the judicious remarks in Irish Nennius, p. 146 ; 
and the authorities cited in the following note. 
See also Letronne, Recherches Geogr. sur Di- 
cuil, p. 133 (Par. 1814). 

f Cujus obsides The Dalriadic Scots at this 
period extended their enterprise as far as these 
islands. The An. Ult., at 579, record pechc 
Ope la hGebcm mic gabpain, 'an expedition 
against the Orkneys by Aedan, son of Gabh- 
ran' ; and again at 580. It may be that at 
this time a northern colony had established 
itself in the Orkneys, if we may judge "from 
Godbold, the name of their king, who, according 
to Brompton, fell at the battle of Hsethfelth in 
633. (Twysden, Hist. Angl. Script. Dec., p. 784; 
also Galfrid. Monemut. xii. 8.) In 682, Bruidhe 
mac Bile, king of the Picts, the successful op- 
ponent of the Saxons, reduced these islands : 
Orcades deletes sunt la [per] Bruidhe. Tigh. 
(So An. Ult. 68 1.) They were again invaded 
in 709 : Bellum. pop Opcaibh [contra Orcadas] 
in quo filius Artablair jacuit. An. Ult. 708. 
T. Innes, in reference to the present passage, 
observes : " By this it appears that the prince 
of the Orkneys was subject and tributary to 
the king of the Picts, and that the Pictish do- 
minions extended to the utmost bounds of the 
north of Britain and adjacent islands." (Civ. 
Eccl. Hist. p. 206.) Chalmers, on the other 
hand, declares "it is sufficiently apparent that 
neither the Picts, nor Scots, had any pretence 
of right over the Orkney, and Shetland isles. 
The contemporary inhabitants of both were, of 
a different lineage, as we have seen ; and owed 
their obedience to their original country. The 



i68 



Vita Sancti Columlce 



[LIB. ii. 



genter coinmenda, ne aliquid adversi intra terminos ejus contra eos fiat. Hoc 
vero Sanctus ita dicebat, quia in spiritu praecognovit quod post aliquot menses 
idem Cormacus esset ad Orcadas venturus. Quod ita postea evenit; et prop- 
ter supradictam sancti viri coimnendationem, de morte in Orcadibus liberatus 
est vicinal Post 10 aliquantum n paucorum intervallum mensium, 12 cum 
Sanctus in 13 Ioua u commoraretur insula, quadam die coram eo ejusdem Cor- 
maci mentio ab aliquibus subito 16 oboritur sermocinantibus, et taliter dicentibus, 
Quomodo Cormaci navigatio, 16 prosperane 17 an non, provenit, adhuc nescitur. 
Quo audito verbo, Sanptus 18 hac profatur 19 voce dicens, Cormacum de quo 
nunc 20 loquimini hodie mox pervenientem videbitis. Et post quasi unius 
horaa interventum, mirum dictu, 21 et ecce inopinato Cormacus superveniens, 
oratorium cum omnium admiratione et gratiarum ingreditur actione. Et quia 
de hujus Cormaci secunda navigatione beati prophetationem breviter 22 intu- 
lerimus viri, nunc et de tertia aeque prophetical ejus scientia? aliqua descri- 
benda sunt verba. 

23 Cum idem Cormacus tertia in oceano mari fatigaretur vice, 24 prope usque 
ad mortem periclitari coapit. Nam cum ejus navis a terris per quatuordecim 
25 sestei temporis dies h , todidemque noctes, plenis velis, 26 austro flante vento, ad 
27 septemtrionalis plagam 1 coeli directo excurreret cursu, 28 ejusmodi navigatio 

10 aliquantulum D. " parvum D. 12 cap. 27 incipit D. w A. C. F. S. iona B. D. w m o- 

raretur D. ^ abontur A. w prospere C. D. " om. G. D. 18 hec B. " om. B. 20 lo- 

quimur C. 21 om. B. 22 intulimus C. 23 dum C. 24 om. C. 25 e stivi B. C. D. 26 astro B. 
27 septemtrionalem C. 29 hujusmodi D. 

as he had done of Iona." (Ir. Nen. p. 147.) If 
this be correct, it will follow that the Norwegian 
occupation of Orkney was of a date considerably 
subsequent to the age of St. Columba, for his 
missionaries had not yet obtained a footing 
there, and when the Northmen made their set- 
tlement, the nation ofPapce was found in part 
possession. See Orkneyinga Saga, p. 549 ; Us- 
sher, Brit. Eccl. Ant. c. 15 ("Wks. vi. pp. 103, 

213)- 

h Quatuordecim dies. Reykjanaes in Iceland 
was considered six days' sail in a fair wind 
from Jolduhlaup on the north coast of Ireland. 
(Reeves, Eccl. Ant. p. 386.) 

Septemtrionalis plagam. Of St. Ailbhe of 
Emly, who died A. D. 534, it is related that 
" ad insulam Tile in oceano positam uavigare 



Picts, and Scots, far from subduing them, were 
often harassed, by those enterprising island- 
ers." (Caledonia, i. p. 344.) 

g Morte vicina. It may be concluded from 
this that the inhabitants were still Pagans, 
and that the occurrence here mentioned either 
took place before Brudeus had time to extend 
the profession of Christianity to this portion of 
his subjects, if they were Picts, or that the 
people not being of his nation, he was unable to 
influence their religious creed. The Norwe- 
gians are recorded to have found two nations 
in Orkney, .the Peti or Picts, and the Papae, 
whom Mr. Herbert conjectures to have been 
"the Irish fathers of the rule of St. Columkille, 
who repaired to the Orkneys, and obtained 
possession of Papa Stronsa and Papa Westra, 



CAP. 42-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



169 



ultra human! excursus modum, et irremeabilis videbatur. Unde contigit, ut post 
decimam ejusdem quart! et decimi horam die!, quidam pene insustentabiles undi- 
que et valde formidabiles consurgerent terrores; qusedam quippe 29 usque in id 
temporis invisa3, mare obtegentes, 30 occurrerant tetrse et infestae nimis 31 bestiola3, 
quse horribili impetu carinam et latera, puppimque et proram ita 32 forti feriebant 
percussura, ut pelliceum tectum k navis 33 penetrales putarentur penetrare posse. 

29 om. C, 30 occurrerent D. 3i bestie D. 32 fbrtiter C. A. B. om. C. Boll. 



decrevit," but that being hindered by the king 
of Cashel, " vigintrduos viros in exilium supra 
mare misit." (Colg, Act. SS. p. 241 a ; Cod. E. 
3, u, Trin. Coll. Dubl. fol. 135 a a.) This was 
most probably Mainland among the Shetland 
Isles, and the Thule of Tacitus. That Irish 
Christians had at a very early date made good 
their way into the remotest regions of the 
north, appears from the testimony of the Land- 
namabok, translated by Johnstone : " Antequam 
Islandia a Norvegis inhabitaretur, ibi homines 
fuerunt, quosNorvegi Papas vocant, qui religio- 
nem christianam profitebantur, et ab occidente 
per mare advenisse creduntur, ab iis enim re- 
licti libri Hibernici, noise, et litui, et res adhuc 
plures reperiebantur, quse indicare videbantur 
illos Vesimannos fuisse. Haec inventa sunt in 
Papeya orientem versus et Papyli." (Antiqq. 
Celt.-Scand. p. 14.) See O'Conor, Rer. Hib. 
SS. vol. iv. p. 140. Dicuil, the Irishman, who 
wrote his tract De Mensura Orbis Terra in 825, 
treating of Thile, relates some particulars con- 
cerning that island which had been communi- 
cated to him by certain clerics who had been 
there before 795; and he adds, "navigatione 
unius diei ex ilia ad boream, congelatum mare 
invenerunt." (Ed. Letronne, p. 39.) His Thile 
must be Iceland. Treating of the Feroe Islands, 
he says : " Sunt alise insulse multae in septen- 
trionali Britannise oceano, duorum dierum ac 
noctium recta navigatione, plenis velis, assi- 
duo feliciter vento, adiri queunt ... In quibus, 
in centum ferme annis, eremitse ex nostra Scot. 
tianaviganteshabitaverunt." (Ibid.) See also 
the authorities cited in Colgan, Act. SS. p. 241. 



k Pelliceum tectum This boat, which, as the 

text states, was impelled by oars, belonged to 
the class called curach by the Irish, corvog by 
the British, and coracle by the modern English. 
Jul. Caesar, having occasion to build some of 
them after the British model, thus describes 
their structure : f( Carinae primum, ac statu- 
mina [gunwales] ex levi materia fiebant ; reli- 
quum corpus navium viminibus contextum, 
coriis integebatur." (Bell. Civil, i. 54.) Or, as 
Lucan (lib. iv.) expresses it : 

1 Primum cana salix, madefacto vimine, parvam 
Texitur in puppim, csesoque induta juvenco.' 

So, Pliny (N. H. vii. 56), and Solinus (c. 35). 
Gildas puts the Celtic word into a Latin form : 
" Emergunt certatim de cwricis, quibus sunt 
trans Tithicam vallem vecti . . tetri Scotorum 
Pictorumque greges." De Excid. Brit. c. 15 
(Monument. Hist. Brit. p. n). So Adamnan, 
in cap. 45, infra. Muirchu represents St. Pa- 
trick as saying to Maccuil, " Mitte te in navim 
unius pellis absque gubernaculo et absque re- 
mo." (Lib. Armacan. fol. 6 b a.) " Lembum 
exiguum de uno corio." Vit. Trip. iii. 61 (Tr. 
Th. 161 a). "Which Probus renders culleum* 
c. 8 1 (Tr. Th. p. 45 6). Larger curachs were 
covered with two or more skins. In the year 
878, "tres Scotici viri Dubslan, Macbeathu, 
Malmumin, peregrinam ducere vitam pro Do-; 
mino cupientes, assumpto secum unius hebdo- 
madse viatico, occulte de Hibernia fugerunt, 
carabumque qui e?c duobus tantum coriis et 
dimidio factus erat, intraverunt, mirumque in 
modum sine velo et armamentis post septem 



170 



. Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



Qua3, ut hi qui inerant ibidem postea narrarunt, prope 34 magnitudinem ranarum, 
aculeis permolesta3, non tamen volatiles sed natatiles 1 , erant; sed et remorum 
infestabant palmulas. Quibus visis, inter cetera monstra quae non hujus est 
temporis narrare, Cormacus cum nautis comitibus, valde 36 turbatiet 30 pertimes- 
centes, Deum, qui est in angustiis pius et 37 opportunus auxiliator, 38 illacrymati 
89 precantur. Eadem bora et sanctus noster Columba, quamlibet longe absens 
corpore, spiritu tamen preesens in navi cum Cormaco erat. Unde, eodem 
momento, personante signo m , fratres ad oratorium convocans, et ecclesiam 
intrans, astantibus, 40 sic, more sibi consueto, prophetizans profatur, dicens, Fra- 
tres tota intentione pro Cormaco orate, qui nunc humanae discursionis limitem, 
immoderate navigando, excessit, nunc quasdam monstruosas, ante non visas, 
41 et pene indicibiles, patitur horrificas perturbationes. Itaque nostris commem- 
bribus in periculo intolerabili constitutis mente compati debemus fratribus, et 
Dominum exorare cum eis. Ecce enim nunc Cormacus cum suis nautis, faciem 
lacrymis ubertim irrigans, Christum 42 intentius precatur; 43 et nos ipsum 



34 magnitudiue A. C. 
tus B. 39 precatur B. 



35 turbatis B. 
4o tune D. 



36 pertimescentibus B. 37 optimus D. 
4i om. C. 42 intentus B. 43 om . c. 



38 illacrima- 



dies in Cornubia applicuerunt." Flor. Wigorn. 
An. 878 (Monum. p. 564). This is taken from 
Ethelwerd's Chronicle, An. 891, where it is said, 
" consuunt lembum taurinis byrsis." (76. p. 
517.) "With which the Saxon Chron. (An. 891) 
agrees. (/&. p. 362.) The most circumstan- 
tial account we have of the building of a cur- 
ach is that preserved in the Life of St. Brendan, 
the contemporary of our saint : " Sanctus Bren- 
danus et qui cum eo erant, fecerunt naviculam 
levissimam costatam et columnatam ex vimine, 
sicut mos est in illis partibus i. e. prope mon- 
tem qui dicitur Brendani Sedes, hodie Mount 
Brandon, in Kerry], et cooperuerunt earn coriis 
bovinis ac rubricatis in cortice roborina, linier- 
untqueforis omnesjuncturas navis, etexpendia 
quadraginta dierum et butirum ad pelles prse- 
parandas assumpserunt ad cooperimentum na- 
vis, et cetera utensilia quse ad usum vitae hu- 
manse pertinent. Arborem posuerunt in medio 
navis fixum, et velum, et cetera quse ad guber- 
nationem navis pertinent." (Jubinal, LaLegende 



de S. Brandaines, p. 7.) See O'Flaherty, Ogyg. 
iii. 34 (p. 250) ; Harris' Ware's Works, vol. ii. 
p. 179; O'Conor, Rer. Hib. SS. vol. iv. p. 142 ; 
Chalmers, Caledonia, i. p. 101 ; Stillingfleet, 
Orig. Britann. Introd. p. Ixvi. (Lond. 1840) ; 
Spelman, Glossary, voc. Carrocium; CqwePs 
Interpreter, voc. Coracle (Lond. 1701). The use 
of the curach has long ago been abandoned in 
the seas near St. Columba' s chief monastery, 
but it continues in the Severn, and on many 
parts of the coast of Ireland, especially of the 
counties of Donegal and Clare. See the inte- 
resting description of a modern curach in the 
account of Tory Island by Edmund Getty, Esq., 
Ulst. Journal of Archseol. vol. i.p. 32. 

1 Natatiles. It is said that Crustacea answer- 
ing to the description in the text have, in mo- 
dern times, been met with, under similar cir- 
cumstances, in high northern latitudes. 

m Personante signo.-rfhe same expression 
occurs at iii. 13, infra. See Bede, H. E. iv. 23. 
Adamnan uses clocca at i. 8 (p. 33), iii. 23- 



CAP. 43.] Auctore Adamnano. 171 

orando adjuvemus, ut austrum flantem ventum usque hodie per quatuordecim 
dies, nostri miseratus, in aquilonem convertafc ; qui videlicet aquiloneus ventus 
navem Cormaci de periculis 44 retrahat. Et hsec dicens, flebilicum voce, flexis 
genibus ante altarium, omnipotentiam 45 Dei ventorum et cunctarum guberna- 
tricem 46 precatur rerum. Et post orationem cito 47 surgit, et 48 abstergens 
49 lacrymas, gaudenter B0 grates Deo 51 agit, dicens, Nunc, fratres, nostris congru- 
tulemur, pro quibus 52 oramus, cards : quia Dominus austrum nunc in 53 aquilo- 
narem 64 convertet flatum, 56 nostros de periculis 66 coramembres retrahentem, 
quos hue 57 ad nos fie iterum reducet. Et contiuuo cum ejus voce auster cessavit 
ventus, et 69 inspiravit aquiloneus per multos post dies : et navis Cormaci ad 
terras redacta est. Et pervenit 60 Cormacus ad sanctum Columbam, et se, do- 
nante Deo, facie 61 in faciem, cum ingenti omnium admiratione 62 viderant et 
non mediocri 63 lsetatione. Perpendat itaque lector quantus et qualis idem vir 
beatus, 64 qui talem propheticam habens scientiam, ventis et oceano, Christi in- 
vocato nomine, potuit imperare. 

] DE VENERABILIS VIRI IN CURRU EVECTIONE ABSQUE CURRILIUM OB1CUM 

COMMUNITIONE. 

ALIO 2 in tempore, cum in Scotia per aliquot dies Sanctus conversaretur, 
aliquibus ecclesiasticis 3 utilitatibus a coactus, currum b ab eo prius benedict am c 
ascendit junctum; sed non insertis primo, qua 4 negligentia accedente 5 nescitur, 

44 retrahebat B. retraxerat D. 45 domini C. 4r> precatus est D. 4 ' surrexit D. 46 ~ 49 abs- 

tinens lachrimis C. 60 gratias D. ^ egit D. 52 oravimus D. 53 aquilonem B. & convertit C. 

55 nostra D. 56 commembra D. . & iter add. D. 58 om. D. 59 spiravit C. G cormac A. 

61 ad C. D. 02 reprsesentavit C. viderunt D. 63 exultatione D. fuerit add. C. fuerat D. 

1 tituL om, C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3 visitantibus male Colg. Boll. 4 nescio add. C. 5 om. C. 

a Ecclesiasticis utilitabus. O'Donnell places for secular purposes, and the visits then paid 

this occurrence, together with the visits men- to churches were said to be " post regum in 

tionedinchap.36(p. 152), and i. 3 (p. 23), supra, Dorso Cette condictum." See i. 49 (p. 91), 

in the narrative of St. Columba's transactions 50 (p. 98), supra. 

in Ireland immediately after the convention of b Currum. See i. 38 (p. 74) supra. In St. 

Drumceatt (iii. 16, Tr. Th. p. 433 6) ; but in Brogan's metrical Life of St. Brigid we find 

this he seems to overlook the peculiar expres- the word ceicim in the sense of ' currus vimi- 

sion in the text, which states that the present neus.' vs. 13 (Tr. Th. p. 515); and cappac 

journey was undertaken for ecclesiastical pur- tnpat for currus duarum rotarum.' vs. 42 

poses, probably a visitation of his Irish monas- (/&. p. 517). 

teries, whereas his coming to Drumceatt was Benedictum. See chap. 16 (p. 125) supra. 

Z2 



172 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ir. 



necessariis obicibus d per "axionum extrema foramina. Erat autem eadem die- 
cula Columbanus filius 'Echudi , vir sanctus, illius monasterii fundator quod 
Scotica vocitatur 8 lingua Snam-luthir f , qui operam aurigae in eodem curriculo 
cum sancto exercebat Columba. Fuit itaque talis ejuadem agitatio diei per 
longa 10 viarum spatia sine ulla rotarum humerulorumque separatione n sive 
labefactatione, 13 nulla, ut supra dictum est, obicum retentione vel 13 commu- 



6 axium B. occeanum D. 1 eochayd D. 8 longua D. 
r - ulla D. 13 communione B. corurainucione D. 



9 suam D. 10 dierum D. n sine D. 



d Obicibus See the passages cited in note s 
(p. 174) infra, the former of which is Du Cange's 
only authority for roseius, or roseta, which he 
interprets "paxillus ferreus," commonly called 
the linch-pin, or in Irish bealg-poi Gleam. But 
it rather means a large nut or box fastened on 
the end of the axle. The construction was af- 
terwards changed, and the block wheel was in- 
troduced, where the axle was firmly fixed in 
the wheels, and revolved with them. Carts 
thus made are still common in Ireland. 

e Columbanus filius Echudi. The connexion 
of this Columbanus (or Colmanus, as the name 
is more generally written, vid. note d , p. 29, 
supra) with the monastery mentioned in the 
text, is noticed also in the Life of St. Fechin 
of Fore : " Perrexit quodam die S. Fechinus 
ad locum, qui Snamh-luthir dicitur, in regione 
de Carbre gabhra. Et cum ibi offendisset Col- 
manum filium Eochadii a longo tempore oculis 
captum, aqua, qua suas manus lavit, ad oculos 
ejus admota, et aspersa, eum perfectissime 
visus beneficio redonavit." cap. 30 (Act. SS. 
p. 136 b). St. Fechin died in 665, so that this 
occurrence was of a much later date than that 
in the text, at which time Colman was probably 
a youth : at least his employment with St. Co- 
lumba, and his condition when visited by St. 
Fechin, indicate the opposite extremes of life. 
It may be observed here that St. Fechin is 
stated in his Life to have had an interview 
with Adamnan, and that the ancient author 
declares he was informed of it by Adamnan 
himself. cap. 47 (Act. SS. p. 139 a). This 



Columbanus, or Colman, was of the race of 
Laeghaire, son of Niall, and was commemo- 
rated, Sept. 6, in Ros-glanda, now Donaghmore 
in the county of Tyrone, as well as in Snamh- 
luthair, where the festival of his sister Comaigh 
was kept on May 27. The Genealogy of the 
Saint in the Book of Lecan gives the following 
account of his lineage : pincom mac 6chach, 
ocup Colman .1. Coluim TCuip 51! glanba pil 
ic Snam lucaip ocup TYlibipeal, ocup Nam- 
bio Cilli comae, ocup l/uftaib Qrrpi-ba- 
chpaeb, ocup IDuipeabac Chilli hdluis a 
n"Uib Qmalgaib, cuio meic anbpin eachach 
mec Qet>a mec Laegaipe mec Neill Naigial- 
1015. Qisleanb ingen Lenin mafcaip pmcam 
ocup Lusuib, ocup Coluim. Comaigh mgfn 
Gchach mic Qililla mic S^^P 1 tnio Lusach 
mio Laegaipe ic Snam lucaip in am chill 
ooup bpacaip. ' Fintan, son of Eochaidh and 
Colman, i. e. Coluim of fair Ros-glanda, who is 
[commemorated] at Snamh-luthair and Midi- 
seal, and Nainnidh of Cill-toma, and Lughaidh of 
Tir-da-chraebh, and Muiredhach of Cill-Aluigh 
in Ui Amalgaidh, five sons of the same Eochaidh, 
son of Aedh, son of Laeghaire, son of Niall of 
the Nine Hostages. Aigleand, daughter of 
Lenin, was mother of Fintan, and Lughaidh, 
and Colum. Comaigh, daughter of Eochaidh, 
son of Ailill, son of Guaire, son of Lughaidh, son 
of Laeghaire, [is commemorated] in Snamh- 
luthair, in the same church with her brother.' 
The various members of this family are noticed 
on several days in the Calendar, the harmony 
of which among themselves, and with the state- 



CAP. 43-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



nitione retinente. Sed sola diali sic venerando pnestante gratia viro, ut currus 
cui insederat salubriter, absque ulla impeditione, recta incederet orbita g . 

ments in the Life of St. Fechin, and the text, The following Table exhibits the descent and 
afford a most important testimony to the au- contemporary relations of the individual who 
thenticity of these independent authorities. forms the subject of the present note : 

LAEGHAIRE 
Monarch of Ireland, ob. 403. 

LXJGIIAIDH 
Monarch of Ireland, ob. 508. 



AlLILL 
AlQLEANN = EOCHAIDH = LlGACH BREDMAINECH 



or Ailgend 
d. of Lenin. 



the Echudus 
of the text. 



FlNTAN 

liis church not 

mentioned. 

Jan. 1. 



LTJGHAIDII 

of Tirdacraebh. 

(See note, p. 153.) 

Jan. 31. 



COI.UIM 
Columbanus 
of the text. 

Sept. 6. 



or Ligan Bregmuineach, 
m. of St. Fursa, qui ob. 652. 



COMAIGH 

ofSnamh- 
luthair. 
May 27. 



NAINNIDH 
of Cill-Toma, or 
Kiltoom, in W. 
Meath. Nov. 13. 



MOIREDHACH 

Bp. of Cill-Aladh, 

now Killala. 

Aug. 12. 



f Snam-luthir. Stated in the passage cited 
in last note from St. Fechin's Life to have 
been in Carbre Gabhra. To which may be 
added the following, from the Life of St. 
Ruadhan of Lorrha : " Quadam autem die cum 
venisset Rodanus ad civitatem quae dicitur 
Snam-Luthir, in regione Generis Karbri, in 
eadem hora rex Generis Karbri mortuus fere- 
batur in curru ad civitatem illam, totaque 
plebs circa ilium valde lugens erat. Tune 
Rodanus illis misertus oravit Dominum, et 
statim rex surrexit vivus, et obtulit civitatem 
illam Snam-Luthir et gentem sibi adhserentem 
sancto Rodano." (Act. SS. April, ii. p. 383 a.) 
Colgan thought that this Cairbre Gabhra was 
the same as Cairbre of Drum cliff, now the ba- 
rony of Carbury, in the county of Sligo, and 
accordingly takes Snamh-luthir to that re- 
mote part of Connaught, but, as might be ex- 
pected, is unable to fix its position. (Tr. Th. 
P- 3846. n. 35 ; Act. SS. p. 141 6, n. 18.) Col- 
gan's authority led Archdall to place Snamh- 
luthir in the county of Sligo : and, as a conse- 
quence, to confess, " we know nothing further 



of this abbey." (Monast. p. 639.) But Dr. 
O'Donovan was not to be so easily misled, for 
he shows that Cairbre Gabhra is represented 
by the modern barony of Granard, in the N. E. 
of the county of Longford. (Four Mast. 731.) 
That the territory, however, extended much 
further northwards, and included a considera- 
ble portion of Loughtee Upper, in the county 
of Cavan, will appear from the identification of 
Snamh-luthair. We are brought still nearer on 
our way by the ecclesiastical Inquisition taken 
at Cavan, in 1609, in which we read : " And the 
said jurors doe further uppon their oathes, say 
and present, that in the said barony of Loughty 
als. Cavan, are the abbey landes, ensuinge, viz. 
the late abbey or priorie of Trinitie iland 
scituate neere the Toaghor, with fower polles 
and a halfe of land therunto belonginge, viz. 
the poll of Clanlaskan, the poll of the Derrie, 
the poll of Bleyncupp and Dromore, the poll of 
Snawluyher and Killevallie, and the halfe poll 
of Trinitie iland, out of which halfe poll of 
Snawlougher the said bushopp of Killmore hath 
three shillings fower pence per annum, but 



Vita Sancti Columba 



[LIB. ii. 



Hue usque de virtutum miraculis quse per prsedicabilem virum, 14 in praj- 
senti 15 conversantem vita, divina operata est omnipotentia, scripsisse sufficiat h . 
16 Nunc etiam qusedam de his qua? post ejus de carne transitum 5 ei a Domino 
donata comprobantur, pauca sunt commemoranda. 

1 DE PLUVIA POST ALIQUOT SICCITATIS MENSES BEATI OB HONOREM VIRI 2 SUPER 
SITIENTEM, DOMINO DONANTE, TERRAM "EFFUSA. 

ANTE annos namque ferine quatuordecim a , in his torpentibus terris valde 
grandis verno tempore facta est siccitas jugis et dura, in tantum ut ilia Domini 

14 columbam add. D. 15 conversante C. 16 cetera hujus libri desiderantur in C. D. F. S. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 om. B. 3 miraculum quod nunc domino 
propitio describere incipiinus nostris temporibus factum propriis inspeximus oculis add. B. 



claimes the land as his mensall." (Ulster In- 
quis. Append, vii.) These lands are now called 
Togher, Clonloskan, Berries, Bleancup, Drum- 
mora, Killy vally, Trinity Island, all townlands 
in the parish of Kilmore, in whose company 
there can be no hesitation in pronouncing ano- 
ther townlandin the same parish, called Slanore, 
to be the required place. A metathesis of the 
letters I and n has taken place in the name within 
the last two centuries, for in Petty's DownSur- 
the place is written Snalore. Thus we have 
the name in the successive forms of Snam-luthir, 
Snamh-luthair, Snawlougker, Snalore, and Sfa- 
nore, descending from the biography of St. Co- 
lumba to the Ordnance Survey of the present 
day. Slanore contains 130 acres, and is situate 
a little south of Lough Oughter, nearly oppo- 
site Trinity Island, on the west side of the parish 
of Kilmore. The spot marked Abbey Field on 
the Ordnance Map (Cavan, sheet 25, N. W. 
corner) is the site of the ancient monastery. 
The Abbey Eield is now in pasture; not a 
vestige of the abbey remains ; nor even of that 
last relique of a religious establishment, the 
cemetery 

" Quandoquidem data sunt quoque ipsis fata sepulcris." 
About fifty-five years ago, when the field was 



first broken up, traces of Christian interment 
were abundantly discovered ; but for ages there 
had not been a burial there, the place having 
been superseded by the Premontre foundation 
of 1237 on Trinity Island opposite, the ceme- 
tery of which is the principal burial-place of 
the peasantry in that neighbourhood. Besides 
SS.Coluim and Comaigh, two other names occur 
in the Calendar in connexion with this spot, 
namely, fflaelcm ocup Cumc oc Snam luch- 
aip, 'Maelan and Cuint, at Snam-luthair.' 
Martyr ol. Tamlact., May 27. 

s Recta orbita. St. Brigid's blessing effected 
the same for bishop Conlaedh : " Quadam au- 
.tem die, volens redire ad locum suum, dixit ad 
S. Brigidam; benedic diligenter currum meum, 
et ilia benedixit. Auriga vero illius Episcopi 
jungens currum, rosetas oblitus est ponere 
contra rotas. Tune currus ipse velox pertran- 
sivit campum. Cumque post magnum spatium 
diei Episcopus conspexisset currum, vidit ilium 
rosetas non habere." Vit. Tert. c. 51 (Tr. Th. 
p. 532 c). So also Vit. Quart, ii. 20 (/&. p. 552 &). 
Thus also in Caelan's metrical Life : 

" Tune benedixit eos, signum crucis addit et illis : 
Axis solus evat, currusque sine obice abibat, 
Nee rota tune cecidit Christo custode per arva." 

(Tr.Th. p. 591 &0 



CAl'. 44.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



in Levitico libro b transgressoribus coaptata populis comminatio videretur immi- 
nere, qua (licit, Dabo ccelum vobis desuper sicut ferrum, et terrain aeneam. 
Consumetur incassum labor vester; nee proferet terra germen, nee arbores 
poma praebebunt ; et caetera. Nos itaque haec legentes, et imminentem plagam 
pertimescentes, hoc inito consilio fieri consiliati sumus, ut aliqui ex nostris 
senioribus nuper aratura et seminatum campum cum sancti Columbse Candida 
circuinirent tunica d , et libris stylo ipsius descriptis ; levarentque in acre, et 
excuterent eandem per ter tunicanr, qua etiam hora exitus ejus de came indutus 
erat; et ejus aperirent libros, et legerent in Colliculo Angelorum 6 , ubi ali- 
quando coelestis patriaa cives ad beati viri condictum visi sunt descendere. 
Quse postquam omnia juxta initum sunt peracta consilium, mirum dictu, eadem 
die coelum, in praeteritis mensibus, Martio videlicet et Aprili, nudatum imbi- 
bus, mira sub celeritate ipsis de ponto ascendentibus illico opertum est, et 



But St. Aldus performed a greater wonder 
than either : " Pergens ad castra Mumonien- 
sium, rota currus sui, in via plana fracta est, 
et currus altera rota sine impedimento curre- 
bat sub sancto Dei, suffultus Divino nutu." 
Vit. c. 7 (Colg. Act. SS. p. 419 a). 

h Scripsisse sufficiat Here the codd. of the 
shorter recension terminate the second book, 
with the observation: " animadvertere Lector 
debet, quod et de compertis in eo multa propter 
legentium prsetermissa sunt fastidium." 

1 De came transitum. Some of his posthu- 
mous powers have been related in i. i (pp. 13, 
17) supra. 

a Annos quatuordecim. The drought here 
mentioned was probably partial : had it been 
generally felt in Ireland, the likelihood is that 
it would have been recorded in the Annals, and 
thus means have been afforded of calculating 
exactly the date of Adamnan's writing. Tigh- 
ernach at 714, and the Annals of Ulster at 713, 
record a Siccitas magnet, but this cannot refer 
to the visitation mentioned in the text, for 
Adamnan died in 704. The substance of this 
chapter is briefly related in Cummian's Life, 
where it is prefaced, " Post mortem viri Dei." 
Now if this be a genuine work, and if the writer 
be Cuimine Ailbe, it will follow that the present 



chapter of Adamnan was written between 679 
and 683 : for Cummian, who relates the occur- 
rence, died in 669, therefore that is the latest 
date to which we can add the 14 years in the 
text, which brings us to 683, four years after 
Adamnan's elevation to the abbacy of Hy. 

b Levitico libra. Chap. xxvi. 19, 20. The 
reading in the text agrees exactly with that in 
the Vulgate, 

c Seminatum. It appears in the sequel that 
this had been done at the end of April or be- 
ginning of May, so that we may conclude that 
agricultural operations were conducted in that 
age at an earlier time of the year than they 
now are. See chap. 3 (p. 107) supra. 

d Candida tunica. This was his inner gar- 
ment. The garments which the rule of St. 
Benedict prescribed for monks in moderate 
climates were the Tunica and Cucullus Cap. 
55. St. Columba's outer garment is called am- 
phibalus in i. 3 (p. 25), cap. 6 (p. 113), aud 
cuculla, cap. 24 (p. 136), supra. On one occa- 
sion St. Martin took off his tunica for a poor 
man, and proceeded " extrinsecus indutus am- 
phibalo, veste nudus interius." Sulp. Sever. 
Dial. (p. 576, ed. Horn.) 

e Colliculo Angelorum. This is the round 
green knoll in the Machar, commonly known by 



176 



Vita Sancti Columlce 



[LIB. ii. 



pluviii f'acta cst magna, die noctuque descendens; 4 etsitiens prius terra, satis 
satiata, opportune germina produxit sua, et valde laetas eodem anno segetes. 
Uniua itaque beati commemoratio nominis viri in tunica et libris commemorata 
multis regionibus eadem vice et populis salubri subvenit opportunitate. 



*DE VBNTORUM FLATIBUS CONTRARIIS VENERAB1LIS VIRI VIRTUTE ORATION UM 

IN SECUNDOS CONVERSIS VENTOS. 

PR/ETERITORUM, nobis, quas non vidimus, talium miraculorum prsesentia, 
quse ipsi perspeximtis, fidem indubitanter confirmant. Ventorum namque 
flamina contrariorum tribus nos ipsi vicibus in secunda vidimus conversa. 
Prima vice cum dolata3 2 per terrain 3 pinea3 et roboreas 4 trakerentur longse 
naves n , et magnas naviuin pariter materise eveherentur domus; beati viri vesti- 
nienta et libros, inito consilio, super altare, cum psalmis et jejunatione, et ejus 
nominis invocatione, posuimus, ut a Domino ventorum prosperitatem nobis pro- 
futuram impetraret. Quod ita eidem sancto viro, Deo donante, factum est : 
nam ea die qua nostri nautse, omnibus prseparatis, supra memoratarum ligna 
materiarum proposuere scaphis per mare et curucis b trahere, venti, praBteritis 
contrarii diebus, subito in secundos conversi sunt. Turn deinde per longas et 
obliquas vias tota die prosperis flatibus, Deo propitio, famulantibus, et plenis 
sine ulla retardatione veils, ad louam insulam omnis ilia navalis emigratio 
prospere pervenit. 

4 om. B. 

1 capitul. totum om. C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 " 3 om. B. * trabes longae et magnse navium 
pariter et domus materiiK, eveherentur Boll. 



the name SitheanMor. See iii. 16, infra, where 
the occurrence from which it derived the name 
in the text is related. 

a Naves Probably made of hollowed trees. 

Some boats of great length, thus formed, have 
been found in bogs and the bottoms of lakes. 
See Chalmers, Caledon. i. p. 101. 

b Curucis. Three kinds of vessels are men- 
tioned in this chapter, naves longa, scaphce, and 
cwrMCffi. Elsewhere we meet barca (i. 28, p. 57), 
navicula (i. 34, p. 64) ; navis oneraria (cap. 3, 
p. 1 06) ; alnus (cap. 27, p. 141) ; caupallus (ib.); 
cymba, cymbula (cap. 34, p. 150). The Ann. Ult., 
at 640, record the Naufragium scaphae families 



Jae. Tighernach, 622, relates the drowning 
of Conan, son of Gabhran, with his curach. 
Curuca is evidently a Latinized form of the 
Irish cupac. Gildas speaks of the descents of 
the Scots and Picts de curicis, which Josselin 
reads curucis. But the compiler of the Monu- 
menta Brit, is by all means to be corrected 
when he explains Curicce in his Index Rerum 
by " naves Saxonum ita vocatse" (p. 903 a). 
The word is essentially Celtic. Ciula:,orceolce, 
would be the Saxon term. We find in the sequel 
that the curuca were furnished with antenna, 
vela, and rudentes, as well as with oars, which 
were used as the occasion required. 



CAP. 45-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



177 



6 Secunda vero vice, cum post aliquantos inter venientes annos alias nobis- 
cum roborese ab ostio'flummis 6 Sale , duodecim curucis d congregatis, materise 
ad nostrum renovandum traherentur monasterium 6 , alio die tranquillo nautis 



5 paragraphus novus, et liter a S majuscula rubra B. 



6 sale prius salx. B. 



n Sale. See chap. 19 (p. 128) supra. The 
river Shiel, which connects the fresh- water lake 
of Loch Shiel with the sea, and forms part of 
the boundary between the counties of Inverness 
and Argyle, is excluded from identification with 
the name in the text, because it was a S. E. wind 
which conveyed the party from it to Hy, where- 
as a N. E. wind would be required to do this 
from beyond Ardnamurchan. We must there- 
fore leave this name unidentified. 

11 Duodecim curucis. We find this number 
prevailing, during the early ages of Chris- 
tianity, in almost every department of religious 
economy. See iii. 4, infra. It was, however, 
largely adopted in secular use also : thus we 
read of Vortigern's 12 Druids (Irish Nennius, 
p. 90); the 12 battles of Arthur (76. p. 108); 
the 840 [70 x 12] men whom he slew in one 
day (76. p. 112); the 12 soldiers and Oadoc 
(Vit. Cad. c. 5, Rees, Lives, p. 32) : the 12 horse- 
men (76. c. 20, p. 53) ; the 12 workmen (76. 
c. 17, p. 46); the 12 companions of Oswald 
(i. i, p. 15, supra); the 12 soldiers of Eanfrid 
(Bede, H. E. iii. i) ; Oswy's donation of the 
"duodecim possessiunculse terrarum" (Ib. iii. 
24); and the crew of 12 in the Orkney boat 
(Johnstone, Antiqq. Celt. Scand. p. 262). 

e Renovandum monasterium See note a , cap. 
3 (p. 106) supra. An improvement seems to 
have been made, before this, on the rude sys- 
tem of building with wattles, St Columba 
used to study in a hut "tabulis suffultum" (i. 
2 5 P. 54i supra). St. Finan, in 652, erected a 
church after the model of Hy, "quam more 
Scottorum, non de lapide, sed de robore secto 
totam composuit, atque harundine texit ;" that 
is, the walls were made of wooden sheeting, 
which was protected from the weather outside 



by a coat of rush thatch. An improvement 
was again made on this system when a suc- 
ceeding bishop, " ablata harundine, plumbi 
laminis earn totam, hoc est, et tectum et ipsos 
quoque parietes ejus cooperire curavit" (Bede, 
H. E. iii. 25). In the same manner Paulinus, 
having visited Glastonbury (the Inyswitrin of 
note a , p. 1 06, supra"), "muros vetustse ecclesiae 
ligneo tabulatu construere fecit, et extra a 
sumino usque deorsum in terram plumbo un- 
dique cooperire fecit" (Gul. Malmesbur, ap. 
Ussher, Wks. v. p. 141). The church of St. Peter 
at York was also first " de ligno" (Bede, H. E. 
ii. 14). Stone building was considered at the 
time characteristic of Roman practice. Ni- 
nian's church of Whithern, among the southern 
Picts, got its name Candida Casa " eo quod 
ibi ecclesiam de lapide, insolito Brittonibus 
more fecerit" (76. iii. 4) ; and N ait on, king of 
the northern Picts, in 710, "architectos sibi 
mitti petiit, qui juxta morem Romanorum ec- 
clesiam de lapide in gente ipsjus facer ent" (76. 
v. 21). Thus also Biscop Benedict, in 676, 
brought over from Gaul " cesmentarios qui lapi- 
deam sibi ecclesiam juxta Romanorum morem 
facerent" (Id. Hist, Abb. Wirem. 5). In Ire- 
land the national taste seems to have displayed 
itself in the same manner as in Britain. When 
St. Palladius came to Ireland, "tres ecclesias 
de robore extructas fundavit" (Jocel. c. 25, Tr. 
Th. p. 70 6). St. Patrick visited Tirawley, " et 
fecit ibi secclesiam terrenam de humo quadra- 
tarn quia non prope erat silva" (Tirechan, Lib. 
Armac. fol.1466). St.Monenna of Cill-Sleibhe- 
Cuilinn, died in 5 17. Derlaisre was her third 
successor : " In cujus tempore contigit in omni 
Scotia famosum et tarn grande miraculum. 
Ecclesia in monasterio sanctse Monennse cum 

A 



178 Vita Sancti Columbce [LIB. n. 

mare palmulis verrentibus, subito nobis contrarius insurgit Favonius, qui et 
Zephyrus ventus, in proximam turn declinamus insulam, quse Scotice vocitatur 
7 Airthrago f , in ea portum ad manendum quserentes. Sed inter hsec de ilia 
importuna venti contrarietate querimur, et quodammodo quasi accusare nos- 
trum Columbam coepimus, dicentes, Placetne tibi, Sancte, hsec nobis adversa 
retardatio ? hue usque a te, Deo propitio, aliquod nostrorum laborum prsestari 
speravimus consolatorium adjumentum, te videlicet aestimantes alicujus esse 
grandis apud Deum honoris. His dictis, post modicum, quasi unius momenti, 
inter-vallum, mirum dictu, ecce 8 Favonius ventus cessat contrarius 9 Vultur- 
nusque g flat, dicto citius, secundus. Jussi turn nautse antennas, crucis instar, 
et vela protensis sublevant rudentibus, prosperisque et lenibus flabris eadem die 
nostram appetentes insulam, sine ulla laboratione, cum illis omnibus qui navi- 
businerant nostris cooperatoribus, in lignorum evectione gaudentes, devehimur. 
Non mediocriter, quamlibet levis, ilia querula nobis sancti accusatio viri pro- 
fuit. Quantique et qualis est apud Dominum meriti Sanctus apparet, quern 
in ventorum ipse tam celeri conversione audierat. 

9 Tertia proinde vice, cum in 10 aesteo tempore, post n Hiberniensis synodi 
condictum h , in plebe Generis "Loerni 1 per aliquot, venti contrarietate, retar- 

7 airtrago B. 8 fabonius A. 9 paragraphus incipit, T majuscula in minio B. 10 aestivo B. 
11 iberniensis A. 12 lorrni B. 

supradicta abbatissa construitur tabulis dedo- s Vulturnus This proves that the island in 

latisjuxtamorem Scotticarum gentium, eoquod question lay to the S. E. of Hy. 

macerias Scotti non solent facere, nee factas h Synodi condictum. Instead of this expres- 

habere. Tota ergo ecclesia pene ad integram sion, we find Congressio sinodorum at An. Ult. 

constructa, iterum artifices et lignorum ess- 779. The date of this synod is not recorded, 

sores vadunt ad silvas sibi propinquas arbores but from the closing words of the chapter it 

secare ad ea quse deerant domui perficienda." may be inferred to have been held a considera- 

( Vita S. Monennse, fol. 54 a, Cod. Cottonian. ble time before the writing of these memoirs ; 

Cleop. A. 2, Brit. Mus.) The well-known pas- possibly before Adamnan became 'abbot, or at 

sage in St. Bernard's Life of St. Malachi, con- least at an early period of his incumbency, 

cerning the church of Bangor, proves that the The recorded visits of Adamnan to Ireland are 

Scotic attachment to wooden churches contin- at 687 (Ul. 686), 689, 692 (Ul. 691), 697 (Ul. 

ued in Ireland to the twelfth century, and 696), of Tighernach. In the interval between 

that though stone churches existed, they were the last two dates he attended at a Synod of 

regarded as of foreign introduction. See the forty bishops or abbots (antistites), which was 

able disquisition on this subject in Dr. Petrie's convened by FlannFebhla, the abbot of Armagh, 

Essay on the Round Towers, pp. 122-154. at Derry or Raphoe as Colgan conjectures 

f Airthrago. Lying to the south-east of Hy. (Tr. Th. p. 503 a). A copy of the acts of this 

Unidentified, unless it be Arran. synod, with the subscriptions of the members, 



CAP. 45.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



179 



daremur dies, ad Saineam devenimus insulam k ; ibidemque demoratos festiva 
sancti Columbse nox 1 et solemnis dies nos invenit valde tristificatos, videlicet 
desiderantes eandem diem in loua facere laatificam insula. Unde sicut prius 

was in Colgan's possession; but he has done no Irgalacb, surnamed UaConaing, seems to have 



more than make a few allusions to it, which is 
the less to be regretted as the document is for- 
tunately preserved at Brussels, Burgund. Libr. 
No. 2324. He states that the acts were intituled 
Cain Adhamnain, [that is, Canons of Adamnan 
(Act. SS. p. 382), from which it is probable that 
they were the same as the eight Canons bear- 
ing Adamnan's name which have been printed 
by Martene (Thesaur. Nov. Anecd. torn. iv. 



been a neighbouring chief. He is mentioned 
by Tighernach at 701; and at 702 he was 
slain on Inis-mic-Nesan by the Britons. (Ann. 
Ult. 701.) It may have been on this occasion 
that Adamnan procured the enactment of a 
law prohibiting women from taking part in 
faction fights, which was called, from him, the 
Cam Qbamnain, ' Law of Adamnan,' cen na 
mna bo mapbab, ' not to kill women ;' and to 



col. 1 8), and are also in a MS. in Marsh's Li- which probably reference is had in the entry of 
brary, Dublin, called Precedents of the See of Tighernach, A. D. 697 : Gbomnan cue pechc 



Armagh (p. 395), where they are intituled 
Canones Adomnani, into which they were co- 
pied from a MS. of Sir E. Cotton. Of the sub- 
scribing members Colgan has preserved the 
following names: -i. Aidus, Episcopus Slep- 
tensis (Tr. Th. p. 218 a). 2. Colga films 
Moenaigh, Abbas Luscanensis (Act. SS. p 
382). 3. Mosacer, Abbas (/&. p. 4540). 4. Kil- 
lenus films Lubnei, Abbas Sagirensis (76. p. 
473 &) 5- Mochonna, Antistes Dorensis (Ib. 
p. 566 a ; Tr. Th. p. 503 a). 6. Ecbertus, An- 
glus (Act. SS. p. 6040). These acts were not 
dated, and though Colgan generally assigns 
them to the year 695, he is undecided between 
it and 694, 696, or 697. The topographical 
history of Tara Hill also records a synod at 
which Adamnan presided. Close to the wall 
of Tara churchyard, on the west, are the 
traces of an earthen enclosure anciently called 



leip m 6pinb an blia&am pea, ' Adomnan 
brought a law with him to Ireland in this 
year;' and in that of the Ulster Annals, 696:' 
Adomnanus ad Hiberniam pergit, et dedit legem 
innocentium populis. It is to be regretted that 
we have not a more historical account of the 
institution of this law than the following, which 
is taken from the Leabhar Breac, and Book of 
Lecan : " Adamnan happened to be travelling 
one day through the plain of Bregia with his 
mother on his back, when they saw two armies 
engaged in mutual conflict. It happened then 
that Ronait, the mother of Adamnan, observed 
a woman, with an iron reaping-hook in her 
hand, dragging another woman out of the op- 
posite battalion with the hook fastened in one 
of her breasts. For men and women went 
equally to battle at that time. After this Ro- 
nait sat down, and said, Thou shalt not take 



the T?a6 na Senab, 'Rath of the Synods,' me from this spot until thou exemptest women 



within which the Dinnseanchus places the 
Lacpad pupaill Gbomnain, 'the site of the 
Tent of Adamnan' (Petrie's Tara, pp. 115, 
*5 1 }- Here, according to an ancient poem, 
was held - 



Sena& Gbamnam lap pin 
Go epcaine 



' The synod of Adamnan afterwards. 

In cursing Irgalach.' (76. p. 122.) 



for ever from being in this condition, and from 
excursions and hostings. Adamnan then pro- 
mised that thing. There happened afterwards 
a convention [mopbail] in Ireland, and Adam- 
nan, with the principal part of the clergy of 
Ireland, went to that assembly, and he ex- 
empted the women at it." (Petrie's Tara, p. 
' 147.) It is possible also that Adamnan, in his 
exertions to promote the observance of the 

2 A2 



i8o 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. it. 



alia querebamur vice, dicentes, Placetne tibi, Sancte, crastinam tuse festivitatis 
inter plebeios et non in tua ecclesia transigere diem ? facile tibi est talis in 
exordio diei a Domino impetrare m ut contrarii in secundos vertantur venti, et 



Roman Easter, may have attended synods of 
the Irish clergy : indeed it is scarcely to be 
conceived that he could otherwise have effected 
such a change as Bede describes (H. E. v. 15). 
But the reference in the text must be to an 
earlier period of his life. The Life of St. Gerald 
states that Adamnan spent the last seven years 
of his life in the presidency of the Saxon abbey 
of Mayo (Colg. Act. SS. p. 6020). This account 
is open to exceptions; for it is a suspicious cir- 
cumstance to find Adamnan unable, as Bede 
states, to make any impression upon the Co- 
lumbian communities which were subject to 
him, yet cordially received in a monastery of 
settlers, who had left their home and travelled 
to a strange country, to avoid acquiescence in 
that very system which their honoured visitor 
was now endeavouring to promulgate. In re- 
ference to the synod mentioned in the text, 
Colgan (who seems to have been beside himself 
at the moment) questions whether it was any 
other than the Convention of Drumceatt (Tr. 
Th. p. 3846, n. 36) ; upon which the Bollandist 
editor observes : ' ' Meminisse debebat Synodum 
Drumchettensem, non tempore Adamnani, sed 
S. Columbae celebratam." (Jun. ii. p. 226 6.) 

1 Plebe generis Loerni. Colgan, despite of 
the text, conjectures Lotharna, now Larne, on 
the coast of Antrim (Tr. Th. p. 384 b, n. 37); 
and, for want of better information, is followed 
by the Bollandists (Junii, ii. p. 226 6). Pinker- 
ton, who should have known to the contrary, 
fixes it "In boreali parte Hibernise" (p. 152). 
O'Flaherty, however, puts the matter in its 
true light : " Quatuor in hac colonia primarise 
Dalriedinorum illis fratribus oriundse sunt fa- 
miliae, viz. Cm el n<5crt>pam, Gaurani familia, 
Cinel Loaipn, Loarni familia, unde Lorna su- 
pradicta regio in Dalrieda videtur denominata, 
Cinel nQn5Upa,.a2neae familia, et Cinel Corh- 
l, Comgalli familia." (Ogyg. p-47o.) This 



is borrowed from the Irish tract on the Men of 
Alba preserved in the Books of Ballymote and 
Mac Firbis. To the Cinel l>oaipn we find the 
following references in the Annals of Ulster : 
A. C. 677, Interfectio Generis Loairnn i Tirinn. 
A. C. 718, Bellum maritimum Ardenesbi inter 
Dunchadh mBecc [regem Cinntire, 720] cum 
Genere Gabhrain, et Selbacum cum Genere 
Loairn, et versum est super Selbachum pridie 
Nonas Septembris vel Octimbris, die vi. ferie in 
quo quidam comites corruerunt. A. C. 732, Mu- 
redac mac Ainfcellach regnum Generis Loairnd 
assumit. Selbach, tenth in descent from Loarn 
Mor, who has been already mentioned as chief 
of the Genus Loairn, occupied Dun Ollaig, 
now Dunolly, near Oban (An. Ult. 685, 700, 
713, 733), and it became the chief stronghold 
of the Cinel-Loairn, as it continued to be of 
the district of Lorn, when Mac Dougall was its 
lord, and as it still is, of the representative of 
that ancient branch of the Mac Donnells. This 
race of Loarn was closely allied to the founder 
of Hy ; St. Coluraba was grandson of Erca, 
daughter of Loarn Mor ; and, of the first twelve 
abbots of Hy, nine, including Adamnan, were 
descended from her. This connexion naturally 
gave the community a great hold upon the re- 
gard of their nearest neighbours, and rendered 
Adamnan's short sojourn among them less irk- 
some than it would otherwise have been. In 
after times, when the race had permanently 
established themselves, the word cm el, or 
Genus, was dropped, and their settlement 
took the name simply of their founder, and 
appeared in the form Lorn, which, from being 
a secular name, was borrowed for ecclesiasti- 
cal convenience also ; and hence in the thirteenth 
century we read, not only of the sheriffdom, but 
of the rural deanry of Lome (C. Innes, Orig. 
vol. ii. pt. i. pp. 91, 109). One of the sub-ter- 
ritories of Lorn was Kinnelbathyn [cinel boe- 



CAP. 4.5.] Auctore Adamnano. . 181 

in tua celebremus ecclesia tui natalis missarum solemnia. Post eandem trans- 
actam noctem diluculo mane consurgimus, et videntes cessasse contraries 
flatus, conscensis navibus, nullo flante vento, in mare progredimur n , et ecce 
statim post nos auster cardinalis, qui et 13 notus, inflat. Turn proinde ovantes 
nautas vela u subrigunt : sicque ea die talis, sine labore, nostra tarn festina na- 
vigatio, et tarn prospera, beato viro donante Deo, fuit, ut sicuti prius exopta- 
vimus, post horam diei tertiam p ad louse portum pervenientes insulse", postea 
manuum et pedum peracta lavatione, hora sexta r ecclesiam cum fratribus in- 

13 nothus A. B. 14 subraergunt Boll. 

cam], so named from Boetan, great-grandson vel inchoaverit vel finierit." (Wks. vi. p. 235.) 

of Loarn Mor. The rural deanry, which is The present expression favours inchoaverit, 

the best evidence of the original extent of the and thus indicates the latter year, 

lordship on which it was modelled, included m A Domino impetrare. The following chap- 

the parishes of Kilmartin, Craignish, Kilchat- ter has, " orante pro nobis nostro venerabili 

tan, Kilbrandon, Kilmelford, Kilninver, Kil- patrono." Ini. i (p. 13) supra, he speaks of the 

bride, Kilmore, Kilchrenan, Inishail, Muckairn, Saint as a " victorialis et fortissimus propug- 

Glenorchy, Ardchattan, Lismore, and Appin, nator." The existence of a belief in the minis- 

that is, the portion of the present county of tration and intercession of deceased saints in 

Argyll lying north and west of Loch Awe, ex- temporal matters is clearly indicated in the 

tending to Loch Leven on the north, and the three concluding chapters of this book. St. 

Crinan Canal on the south-west. See Innes, Columba was invoked, during his lifetime, from 

Orig. Par. ii. i, pp. 91-159. The Genus Gab- remote places. See ii. 5 (p. 112), 13 (p. 122), 

rani has been mentioned by Adamnan, cap. 22 39 (p. 161), 40 (163), supra. 

(p. 132) supra. n In mare progredimur. That is, by rowing. 

k Saineam insulam. Now Shuna, an island Presently, on getting clear of the islands, "nau- 

in the parish of Kilchattan, lying close to tae vela subrigunt." 

Luing on the east, and separated from it by the Notus. Shuna lies E. S. E. of Hy. 

Sound of Shuna. It is situate in Nether Lome, P Post horam tertiam. They were within a 

near its southern extremity. The contrary fortnight of the longest day; and if they started 

wind which delayed them there was probably a at three in the morning, diluculo mane, the 

north-west one, but they were in safety on the journey might have been accomplished in six 

sheltered side of Luing. Fordun writes the hours : that is, supposing them to have arrived 

n&meSunay. (Scotichr. ii. 10.) There is another at nine. But the present expression allows a 

Shuna off Appin, on the north of Lismore, but longer time, for it only asserts that the cano- 

it is too far up to suit the present description; nical " tertia hora" was past, 

still more so is Shona, off Moydart. i Portum insulce See note b , i. 30 (p. 58) 

1 Festiva nox The choice between 596 and supra. If they chose to disembark at the 

597) as the year of St. Columba's death, depends, nearest landing-place, Port-a-churaich was 

Abp. Ussher says, upon the determination of the one which they would choose. See Map. 

the question, "num nox ilia media, qua Co- ' Hora sexta The Missa Brendeni was ce- 

lumba decessisse diximus, diem Junii nonum lebrated soon after " mane primo" by St. Co- 



l82 



Vita Sancti Columbcu 



[LIB. ii. 



trantes, sacra missarum soleinnia pariter celebraremus, in festo die in quam 
natalis sanctorum Columbae et 15 Baithenei 8 : cujus diluculo, ut supradictum 
est, de Sainea insula, longius sita*, emigravimus. Hujus ergo prsemissse nar- 
rationis testes, non bini tantum vel terni, secundum legem, sed centeni et 
amplius adhuc exstant". 



J DE MORTALITATE. 

ET hoc etiain, ut festimo, non inter minora virtutum miracula connumer- 
andum videtur de mortalitate, quse nostris temporibus terrarum orbem bis 
ex parte vastaverat* majore. Nam ut de ceteris taceam latioribus 2 Europae 

15 baitheni B. 
1 capituL totum om, C. D. F. S. titul. om. Boll. 2 eoropae A. 



lumba (Hi. u, infra), probably at Prime. So 
also that of bishop Columbanus (Hi. 12, infra). 
On the present occasion the chief commemora- 
tion of St. Columba was reserved till noon. 

s Natalis ColumbcB et Baithenei. That is, the 
ninth of June. St. Baithene, the immediate 
successor of St. Columba, was his first cousin, 
being son of Brendan, brother of Fedhlimidh. 
He was younger than St. Columba, being only 
sixty-six years of age at his death, which oc- 
curred in 599, after a presidency of three years. 
His acts are preserved in the Codex Salmanti- 
censis at Brussels (fol. 201), from which they 
were printed by the Bollandists immediately 
after those of St. Columba. (Junii, torn. ii. pp. 
236-238.) In them we find the following allu- 
sion to the coincidence of his and St. Columba's 
festival : " Tertia feria, dum S. Baithinus in 
ecclesia juxta altare Dominum oraret, sopor 
pene mortis super eum illic cecidit : cum autem 
Fratres circa eum lamentarentur, Diermitius 
minister Columbse, ait : Ecce, Fratres, videtis, 
quod inter duas solennitates seniorum vestro- 
rum magnum intervallum non erit. Hsec eo 
dicente Baithinus, quasi de gravi somno exci- 
tatus ait ; Si inveni gratiam in oculis Dei, et si 
cursum perfectum in conspectu ejus consum- 
maverim usque hodie ; ego confido in eo, quod 



usque ad natale Senioris mei non obiturus oro : 
quod sic fere post sex dies factum est." c. 10 
(Jun. ii. p. 238 a). The joint festival is thus 
noticed in the Feilire of JSngus, June 9 : 

"Ron pnabuc b'on bich-laich, 
1 m-bich-bi lepp lainbpech, 
baechme apt) ainslech, 
Colam cille cainblech. 

1 They went into the eternal kingdom, 
Into eternal life of brightest splendour, 
Baethine the noble, the angelical; 
Columb-cille the resplendent* 

(Book of Obits of C. C., Introd. p. Ixiii.) 
i Longius sita. Shuna is full thirty miles 
distant from Hy. 

u Adhuc exstant. This expression seems to 
indicate that a considerable interval had 
elapsed between the occurrence and the pre- 
sent narrative of it. 

a Bis vastaverat. The disease here referred 
to belonged to the class called by the Irish 
<5alap bui&e, ' yellow disorder,' and was 
known by the specific name Cpon Chonaill, 
or bui&e Chonaill. In Britain it bore the 
name of Vad Velen, and was commonly called 
the ' Yellow Plague.' (Lhuyd, Archseol. voc. 
Conail) " Flava pestis, quam et Physici ic- 
tericiam dicunt passionem." (Girald. Cambr. 



CAP. 46.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



183 



regionibus, hoc est, Italia et ipsa Romana civitate, et 3 Cisalpinis Gralliarum 
4 provinciis, 5 Hispanis quoque Pyringei mentis interjectu 7 disterminatis, oceani 
insulaB per totum, videlicet Scotia b et Britannia, binis vicibus vastatae sunt dira 
pestilentia, exceptis duobus populis , hoc est, Pictorum plebe et 8 Scotorum 



3 cisalpinas B. * provincias B. 
torum B. 



' hispanias B. 6 pirenei B. 7 disterminatas B. 



8 scot- 



Itinerar. Cambr. ii. i.) The first appearance of 
this disease in Ireland is stated by Tighernach 
to have been in the year 550 ; and in Britain, 
by the Annales Cambrise, at 547. However, 
if the Life of St. Declan be entitled to credit, it. 
was previously experienced in the former king- 
dom j for it is related that in the lifetime of 
that saint, " dira pestis venit in Momoniam ; 
sed venenosior erat in civitate Cassel, quam in 
ceteris locis ; quse flavos primitus faciebat ho- 
minos, et postea occidebat." (Act. SS. Jul. 
torn. v. p. 602 6.) The second recorded visita- 
tion of the island by the disease was the most 
severe, when, during the abbotship of Cuimine 
Ailbe, in the year 664, Adamnan being then forty 
years of age, as Bede relates, " subita pestilen- 
tiae lues, depopulatis prius australibus Brittaniee 
plagis, Nordanhymbrorum quoque provinciam 
corripiens, atque acerba clade diutius longe 
lateque desaeviens, magnam hominum multi- 
tudinem stravit. Hsec autem plaga Hiberniam 
quoque insulam pari clade premebat." (H. E. 
iii. 27.) Tighernach records its appearance 
in 664 in these words : Tenebrce [i. e. Eclipsis 
solis] in Culendis Mali in hora nona, et in eadem 
estate celum ardere visum est. Mortalitas magna 
in Hiberniam pervenit in Calendis Augusti, i. e. 
in Mayh Itha in Lagenia. Et terra motus in 
Britannia. In campo Ith in Fochairt exarsit 
mortalitas primo in Hibernia, a morte Patricii 
cciii. Prima mortalitas cxii. These computa- 
tions, it is to be observed, go back to the death 
of Sen-Patrick. Under the following year, the 
Annalist adds : Abbatesque Regesque innumera- 
biles rnortui fuerant. With him agree the no- 
tices in the An. Ult. at 663, 664, 666, in which 



the continued prevalence of the mortality is 
recorded. At 667, it was still raging, for they 
have the entry, Mortalitas magna Buidhe Co- 
naill. After this the disease appears to have 
abated for a time ; but it soon after broke out 
with renewed violence. The Annals of Inis- 
fallen, at 671, which is 683 of the common era, 
notice the Initium tertiee mortalitatis ; and the 
Ann. Cambr. (68 3) record "Mortalitas in Hiber- 
nia, "with which agrees the Brut y Tywysogion 
at the same date; while at 682 they tell us, 
"Mortalitas magna fuit in Britannia in qua 
Catgualart filius Catguolaum obiit." (Monum. 
Hist. Brit. pp. 833, 841.) The Ann. Ult., at 
682, have, Initium mortalitatis puerorum in 
mense Octobris; and again, in the following 
year, Mortalitas parvulorum. The Four Mast. 
at 684 record, " A mortality upon all animals 
in general, throughout the whole world, for 
the space of three years, so that there escaped 
not one out of the thousand of any kind of ani- 
mals." "Which Florence of Worcester, at 685, 
describes as " Magna pestilentiae procella, Bri- 
tanniam corripiens, lata nece vastavit." (Mo- 
num. p. 537.) The existence of the scourge in 
England at 680 may be gathered from Bede 
(H. E. iv. 7, 14) ; and at 686, from his Historia 
Abb. Wiremuth (c. 8). From the date of its 
appearance in 664, to the commencement of 
the following century, the Irish Annals record 
a continued train of portents and calamities ; 
thus aifording evidence of the sufferings and 
terrors experienced during this period. 

b Scotia. Ireland as contra-distinguished 
from Britain. 

c Duobus populis. The other inhabitants 



184 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



Britannia^, 9 inter quos utrosque Dorsi montes Britannici e disterminant. Et 
quamvis utrorumque populorum non desint grandia peccata f , quibus plerum- 
que ad iracundiam seternus provocatur judex ; utrisque tamen hue usque, pati- 
enter ferens, ipse pepercit. Cui alii itaque haec tribuitur gratia a Deo collata, 
nisi^ancto Columbse, cujus monasteria intra utrorumque populorum terminoss 
fundata ab utrisque ad prsesens tempus valde sunt honorificata.l Sed hoc quod 
nunc dicturi sumus, ut arbitramur non sine geniitu audiendum est, quia sunt 
plerique in utrisque populis valde stolidi, qui se Sanctorum orationibus a 
morbis defenses nescientes, ingrati Dei patientia male abutuntur. Nos vero 



10 



9 om. B. 



inoribus B. nobis male Colg. Boll. 



were the Saxons and Britons. See note c , i. 
33 (P- 6 3) and note h , cap. 32 (p. 145), supra. 

d Scotorum Britannia Thus, Ven. Bede 

styles ^Edan, " rex Scottorum qui Brittaniam 
inhabitant," and his successors, "reges Scot- 
torum in Brittania." (H. E. i. 34.) " Pictorum 
atque Scottorum gentes, quse septemtrionales 
Brittanise fines tenent." (Ib. ii. 5.) Speaking 
of King Oswald's banishment, he uses the word 
Scoti absolutely, "Scotti sive Picti;" "doctrina 
Scottorum" (H. E. iii. i) ; " majores natu Scot- 
torum;" " septentrionalis Scottorum provincia" 
(J6. c. 3). Copying the account given by Gil- 
das (Hist. c. 15) of the eruptions of the Scots 
and Picts, Bede substitutes for the Tithicam 
vattem \_Tythicam vallem, Nennius, c. 37, evi- 
dently a poetic expression denoting a ' marine 
valley,' i. e. a strait or firth, probably a corrup- 
tion of Tethicam, like the Irish TTlag Lip, 'Plain 
of Lear,' and TTlag Rein, Plain of the Track,' 
denoting the sea,] of his author, the word trans- 
marinas, which he qualifies thus : " Transma- 
rinas autem dicimus has gentes, non quod extra 
Brittaniam essentpositse; sedquiaaparteBrit- 
tonum erant remotae, duobus sinibus maris in- 
ter jacentibus." (H.E. i. 12.) The occupation by 
these Scots was anterior to the Dalriadic settle- 
ment in 502 : they were more migratory ; but to 
guard against any mistake concerning their 
origin, he calls these same marauders Hiberni 
lower down (7&. c. 14). The mention of Scoti 



in Britain no more proves that it was Scotia, 
than that of Romani does that it was Roma. 

e Dorsi montes JBritannici. See i. 34 (p. 64), 
chap. 31 (p. 144), 42 (p. 167), svpra, iii. 14, infra. 
When Nechtan [Naiton of Bede, H.E. v. 21], 
on his adoption of the Roman Easter and 
Tonsure, drove the non-conforming Colum- 
bian monks past his frontier in 717, the act is 
recorded by Tighernach as JExpulsio families 
le trans Dorsum Britannia a Nectano rege. 

{ Grandia peccata The so-called Epistle of 
St. Patrick to Coroticus had previously de- 
clared " In morte vivunt socii Scottorum atque 
Pictorum apostatarum." Coroticus was styled 
" traditor Christianorum in manus Scottorum 
atque Pictorum." Again, " ibi venumdati in- 
genui homines Christian! in servitutem redacti 
sunt, prasertim indignissimorum, pessimorum- 
que, atque apostatarum Pictorum." (O'Conor, 
Rer. Hib. SS. i. Prol. i. pp. 117-119; Villanueva, 
Opusc. S. Patricii, pp. 241, 244, 245.) Gildas 
described these allies as " tetri Scotorum Pic- 
torumque greges, moribus ex parte dissidentes, 
et una eademque sanguinis fundendi aviditate 
Concordes." (Hist, c, 15.) 

s Utrorumque terminos. "Erat autem Co- 
lumba primus doctor fidei Christianse trans- 
montanis Pictis ad aquilonem, primusque fun- 
dator monasterii quod in Hii insula multis diu 
Scottorum Pictorumque populis venerabile 
mansit." Bede (H. E. v. 9). 



CAP. 46.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



Deo agimuscrebras grates, qui nos et in his nostris insulis, orante pro nobis 
venerabili patrono 1 , a mortalitatum invasionibus defendit; et in Saxonia k , 
regem 11 Aldfridum 1 visitantes amicum, adhuc non cessante pestilentia, et 



alfridum B. 



1 Orante pro nobis patrono. See note m , cap. 
45 (p. 181) supra. 

* Saxonia. See i. i (p. 15), 9 (p. 36), supra. 
The word is not found in Bede's Hist. Eccl.; 
it occurs once in his Hist. Abb. Uuirem., where 
the abbot of Jarrow describes himself as an 
ecclesiastical office bearer in Saxonia c. 14 
(p. 329^ ed. Hussey). The Four Masters use 
Sapca, and its inflexions, for Saxones. 

1 Aldfridum. Oswy, King of Northumbria, 
died in 670, and was succeeded by his son Eg- 
frid. Aldfrid, though an elder brother, was 
superseded on the ground of illegitimacy. 
Whereupon, it is related, " in Hiberniam, seu 
vi seu indignatione, secesserat. Ibi, et ab 
odio germani tutus, et magno otio literis im- 
butus, omni philosophia composuerat animum. 
Quocirca, imperil habenis, habiliorem sestiman- 
tes, qui quondam expulerant ultro expetive- 
runt." Wilhelmi Malmesbir., Gest. Reg. 52 
(ed. Thomas D. Hardy, 1840). Bede states that 
when Elfleda applied to St. Cuthbert for infor- 
mation about her brother Egfrid's successor on 
the throne, his answer was : "Cernis hoc mare 
magnum et spatiosum, quot abundet insulis? 
Facile est Deo de aliqua harum sibi providere 
quern regno prseficiat Anglorum. Intellexitergo 
quia de Aldfrido, qui ferebatur filius fuisse pa- 
tris illius, et tune in insulis Scotorum ob stu- 
dium litterarum exulabat." And adds, "Egfri- 
dus post annum Pictorum gladio trucidatur, et 
Alfridus in regnum frater ejus nothus substi- 
tuitur, qui non paucis ante temporibus in re- 
gionibus Scotorum lectioni operam dabat, ibi 
ob amorem sapientise, spontaneum passus exi- 
lium."_Vit. S. Cuthberti, c. 24 (Colg. Act. SS. 
p. 668.) So in the Legenda Aurea (76. p. 683 a). 
Thus three reasons are assigned for his retire- 
ment to Ireland. Irish writers add two more : 
they state that his mother was a native of that 

2 



country, and observe: " Non sui tantum literis 
excolendi causa in Hiberniam venit, verum etiam 
ut sanctis Hibernise deprecantibus limace qui 
in aurem ejus irrepsit, et capitis humoribus at- 
tractis intumuit educto, molestia, et morbo ex 
ea re contracta immuuis efliceretur." (Lynch, 
Cambr. Evers. p. 128 ; or vol. ii. p. 236, reprint.) 
His descent by his mother's side is stated by 
JEngus, a writer of the eighth century, to have 
been from the princely house of Niall : pina 
ingfn Chmbpaelab macaip plomb pina mio 
Oppa. Aliter, pina mgfn Colmcnn TCime 
mic baebain mic TTIuipcepcai<5 mic TTltii- 
pebaig, macaip ploinb pina pig Safari. 
' Fina, daughter of Cennfaeladh, was mother of 
Flann Fina, son of Ossa. Aliter, Fina, daugh- 
ter of Colman Rimidh, son of Baedan, son of 
Muircertach, son of Muiredhach, was mother 
of Flann Fina, king of the Saxons.' (Tract, 
de Matr. SS. Hib., Liber Lecan., fol. 43; H. 
2. 1 6, Trin. Coll. Dubl. p. 365.) In the Clann 
Neill genealogy (Lib. Lecan. fol. 63), Fina is 
represented as great-granddaughter of Muir- 
certach, either through his son Baedan, or 
Ailill, father of Cennfaeladh. Under the name \ 
Flann Fina Aldfrid was familiarly known by I 
the Irish. Thus at A. C. 704, Tighernach re- 
cording his death says : Qlppich mac Oppu 
.1. Pkmb pina la <5 a ebelu hinaibh [he was 
called Fland Fina by the Irish] Rex Saxon fuit. 
So the Ann. Inisfall. in the parallel place, 
plarm pine mac gOppa Rex Saxonorum qui- 
evit (An. 694). An Irish poem, of twenty-four 
ranns, said to have been composed by him in 
reference to his sojourn in Ireland, is still pre- 
served. (H. 2. 1 6, Trin. Coll. Dubl.) It begins 
TCobeab in imp pinn pail 
1 nepinn pe lap n-imapbaig, 
Immac ban, fii baech an bpeach, 
Imac Iae6, imac clepeach. 



i86 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. ii. 



J 



multos hinc inde vlcos devastantc, ita tamen nos Dominus, et in prima post 
belluin 13 Ecfridi m visitationc", et in sccunda , iutcijcctis duobus annis, in tali 
mortalitatis medio deambiilantcs pcricnlo libcravit, ut ne imus etiam de nostris 
comitibus morcrctur, ncc aliquis ex cis aliquo molestaretur morbo. 



cgfriili B. 



plcfrm ptna mac Copa 
Gpbvaoi Cpeim eolopa 
G]i bpn o-ppoca 1^611 apeec 
Puaip a pcip map bo paibeab. 

'It is natural in fair Inis-fuil, 
In Erin, without contention, 
Many women, no silly boast, 
Many laics, many clerics.' 

' Flann Finn, son of Osa, 
Arch-tloctor in Erin's learning, 
On the banks of the river Ecu composed [this] ; 
Received his due, as was natural.' Rann 23. 

Charles O'Conor, senior, had a copy of " this 
poem in a very obscure character" (O'Con. 
Rer. Hib. SS. iv. p. 129 ; Sto\ve Catal. i. p. 95); 
and other ancient copies are mentioned by 
O'Reilly (Irish Writ. p. 48). The original has 
been printed in ^Sardinian's Irish Minstrelsy, 
vol. ii. p. 372 ; a literal translation, by Dr.O'Do- 
novan, in the DublinPenny Journal (vol. i. p. 94) ; 
and a metrical one by the late J. C. Mangan. 
His surname Fina was derived from his mother, 
and thus he is distinguished from plarm pirm, 
an ecclesiastic, whom the Gloss on the Felire 
of JEngus at Jan. 14 places at Inbher Neola 
[onpeaMd'oftheFoyle'?] on the confines of Tir 
Connell and Tir Eoghain ; or at Chuillinn be- 
side Corcagh, as Marian Gorman at same day; 
as well as from Flann Finn, a chief of the Cinel 
Eoghain in 698, whom the An. Ult. call Flann 
Albus (An. 699). Pinkerton greatly errs in 
confounding this Aldfrid with Alchfrid, a legi- 
timate son of Oswy, who was invested with 
regal power by his father, but died at an ear- 
lier date. T. Innes endeavours to make it 
appear that Aldfrid's place of retirement was 
Ycolmkill, and draws the startling conclusion: 
"We see that it was usual to the exactest 
writers to confound Scotland with Ireland in 
these times, when the name Scotia, and, as ap- 



pears by this passage of Malmesbury and others, 
even the name Hibcrnia was common to both.' 1 
(Civ. Eccl. Hist. p. 278.) Goodall finishes the 
climax : " per illas insulas minime Hibcrnia, 
lilcris nunquam Celebris, sed Hebrides, et ex eis 
Hii vel lona insula prsocipue designari vide- 
tur." (Fordun, vol. i. p. 159, note .)..) ^Fordun 
was less exclusive : " Qui non paucis annis in 
Scotia et Hibernia discendo literas curam de- 
dit." (Scotichr. iii. 51.) 

m BellumEcfridi. In 685, according to Tigh- 
ernach (684 An. Ult.), Saxoncs Campum Breg 
vastaverunt et ecclesias plurimas in mense Junii. 
In 686 he records : Cac t)um ISIechcain 
[prceliurn Dun-Nechtain], xx. die mensis Maii 
sabbati die factum est, in quo Ecfrit mac Ossu 
rex Saxonum xv. anno reyni sni, consumata 
magna cum caterva militum suorum interfectus 
est la [a] Brudhi mac Bill rege popcpein 
[Pictinioj]. The An. Ult. at 685 have : Bellurn 
Duin Nechtain in vicesimo die mensis Maii, die 
sabbati, factum est, in quo Elfrith mac Ossu rex 
Saxonum, xv. anno regni sui, consummata magna 
cum caterva militum suorum interfectus est; et 
combussit cula aman t)tnn Ollcnsh. Dun 
Nechtain of the Annalists is supposed to be the 
modern Dunnichen, a parish in Forfarshire, 
next Forfar, on the south-east, and which is 
mentioned as Dunnechtyn in a charter of Wil- 
liam the Lion to the abbey of Arbroath. (Liber 
de Aberbrothoc, pp. 4, 10, 124, 165.) The 
Saxon Chronicle places the scene of action 
near the North Sea (An. 685), to which the 
situation of Dunnichen answers, as it is only 
twelve miles distant from the German Ocean. 
(Old Stat. Account, vol. i. p. 419 ; Chalmers, Ca- 
ledon. vol. i. pp. 210, 255.) Simeon of Durham 
adds : " Extinctum regem apud Nechtanes- 
mere, quod est Stagnum Nectani, ejusque cor- 



CAP. 46.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



14 Hie secundus de virtutum miraculis finiendus est liber: in quo animad- 
vertere lector debet, quod, 15 etiam de compertis, in eo multa propter legentium 
evitandum pra3termissa sint 10 fastidium. 

17 FINITUR SECUNDUS 18 LIBER. 

14-10 p os t vcrlum sufficiat in cap. 43 supra, adjicitur monitio ut supra in C. D. F. S. 15 et C. 
n-i8 $1 NIT VP CHKVNDVC A1BEP litcris greeds uncialibus A. explicit liber secundus B. C. F. S. 



pus in Hii insula Columbse sepultum." (Hist. 
Dunelm. Eccl., Twysden, p. 3, 5.) This lake for- 
merly occupied the place of Dunnichen Moss. 
The above events are thus coupled by Bede : 
A.D. 684, " Ecgfrid rex Nordanhymbrorum 
missoHiberniam cum exercitu duceBercto, vas- 
tavit misere gentem innoxiam et nationi Anglo- 
rum semper amicissimam ; ita ut ne ecclesiis qui- 
clem, aut monasteriis, manus parceret hostilis. 
At insulani, et quantum valuere, armis arma 
repellebant, et invocantes divinse auxilium pie- 
tatis, cselitus se vindicari continuis diu impre- 
cationibus postulabant. Et quamvis maledici 
regnum Dei possidere non possint, creditum 
est tamen quod hi qui merito impietatis suse 
maledicebantur, ocius Domino vindice poenas 
sui reatus luerent. Siquidem anno post hunc 
proximo idem rex, cum temere exercitum ad 
vastandam Pictorum provinciam duxisset, 
multum prohibentibus amicis, et maxime beatse 
memorise Cudbercto qui nuper fuerat ordinatus 
episcopus, introductus est, simulantibus fugam 
hostibus, in angustias inaccessorum montium, 
et cum maxima parte copiarum quas secum ad- 
duxerat, exstinctus anno setatis suse quadrage- 
simo, regni autem xv. die xiii. Kal. Juniarum. 
Et quidem, ut dixi, prohibuerunt amici ne hoc 
bellum iniret; sed quoniam anno prsecedente 
noluerat audire reverentissimum patrem Ecg- 
berctum, ne Scottiam nil se Isedentem im- 
pugnaret, datum est illi ex poena peccati illius, 
ne nunc eos qui ipsum ab interitu revocare 
cupiebant, audiret." (H. E. iv. 26.) 

n Prima visitatione. It was probably to effect 
the release of the captives whom Beret had 

2B 



carried away in 685. Alfred's accession, in 686, 
enabled him to entertain an application which 
his antecedent familiarity with the Irish pre- 
disposed him to grant. Accordingly, as Tigh- 
ernach (A. C. 687) and the Annals of Ulster 
(A. C. 686) relate, Adomnanus captivos reducsit 
ad Hibernian, sexaginta. The Four Masters 
place this mission, as well as the "General 
Mortality," in the year 684. 

Secunda Tighernach, at 689, has the 
entry, Adomnanus reduxit captivos in Hiber- 
niam, which may be a repetition of the similar 
entry at 687, or may refer to the second visit 
mentioned in the text. It was probably to the 
latter occasion that Bede alludes in his ho- 
nourable mention of our abbot: " Adamnan 
presbyter et abbas monachorum qui erant in 
insula Hii, cum legationis gratia missus a sua 
gente, venisset ad Aldfridum regein Anglorum, 
et aliquandiu in ea provincia moratus, videret 
ritus ecclesue canonicos ; sed et a pluribus qui 
erant eruditiores esset sollerter admonitus, ne 
contra universalem ecclesise morem, vel in ob- 
servantiapaschali, vel in aliis quibusque decre- 
tis cum suis paucissimis, et in extreme mundi 
angulo positis vivere prsesumeret, mutatus 
mente est." (H. E. v. 15.) Matthew of West- 
minster fixes this mission at 701 : and, if this 
be correct, a third visit was probably paid, as 
Adamnan would hardly have time, in the interval 
between that date and his death, for the compi- 
lation of these memoirs, which record the second 
visit. It was on the occasion of one of his 
visits to Alfred that he presented him with 
his work de Locis Sanctis, of which Bede has 
2 



i88 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB, in. 



INCIPIUNT CAPITULA a TERTII LIBEL 

De Angelicis Apparitionibus quae vel aliis de beato viro, vel eidem de aliis, 

revelatse sunt b . 
De angelo Domini qui ejus genitrici in somnis post ipsius in utero conceptio- 

nem apparuit . 

De radio luminoso super dormientis ipsius pueri faciem viso d . 
De angelorum apparitione sanctorum, quos sanctus Brendenua, beati comites 

viri, per campum viderat eommeantes 6 . 

De angelo Domini quern sanctus Fennio beati viri socium itineris vidit f . 
De angelo Domini, qui ad sanctum Columbam in Himba commorantem insula 

per visum apparuit, missus ut Aidanum in regem ^rdinaret 5 . 
De angelorum apparitione alicujus Brittonis animam ad ccelum vehentium h . 
De angelorum revelata eidem sancto viro visione, qui animam alicujus Dior- 

mitii ad coelum ducebant 1 . 

1 ordinarent B. 



cited enough to prove that the treatise on the 
Holy Land, printed under our author's name by 
Gretser (Ingolstd. 1619; and Opp. torn. iv. pt. 
ii. p. 239), and more correctly by Mabillon 
(Act. O. S. Bened. SS. torn. iv. p. 456), is the 
genuine production of Adamnan. It was dur- 
ing his stay in Northumbria that he visited 
Jarrow, and had the conference with Ceolfrid 
the abbot on the paschal and tonsure questions 
(Bede, H. E. v. 21). He visited Ireland in 
692, the record of which in Tighernach and 
the An. Ult. has this peculiarity, that a prede- 
cessor's name is coupled with it: Adomnanus 
xiiii. anno post pausam Failbhe lea ad Hiber- 
niam pergid. This was probably his first en- 
deavour to introduce paschal uniformity into 
Ireland. How long he remained is not re- 
corded, but the Annals relate that, in 697, 
Adomnanus ad Hiberniam pergit, et dedit legem 
innocentium populis (Ult. 696). See note h , cap. 
45 (P- X 79) supra. According to Bede he was 
in Ireland in 703 : possibly having remained 
there since 697. " Navigavit Hiberniam, et 
prsedicans eis, ac modesta exhortatione de- 



clarans legitimum paschse tempus, pluriinos 
eorum, et pene omnes qui ab Hiiensium do- 
minio erant liberi, ab errore avito correctos 
ad unitatem reduxit catholicam, ac legitimum 
paschse tempus observare perdocuit. Qui cum 
celebrato inHibernia canonico pascha, ad suam 
insulam revertisset, suoque monasterio catho- 
licam temporis paschalis observantiam instan- 
tissime prsedicaret, nee tamen perficere quod 
conabatur posset, contigit eum ante expletum 
anni circulum migrasse de sseculo." (H.E. v. 15.) 
a Capitula. The capitula of this book are 
supplied, as in lib. ii. (p. 100 supra), from 
cod. B. and observe exactly the order of the 
chapters. The omission of capitula for the 
second and third books in cod. A. may in some 
measure be accounted for by the fact that the 
prcegustanda, which form the subject of i. i 
supra, contain a synoptical, though irregular 
review of the contents of the three books. See 
pp. 12, 13, supra. 

b Cap. r, prsef. e Cap. 3. h Cap. 6. 

Cap. i. f Cap. 4. > Cap. 7. 

d Cap. 2. e Cap. 5. k Cap. 8. 



CAPITULA.] Auctore Adamnano. 189 

De angelorum contra ctainones forti belligeratione, Sancto in eodem bello op- 

portune subvenientium k . 
De angelorum apparitione quos vir Dei viderat alicujus animam nomine 

Columbi, fabri ferrarii, Coilrigini cognomento, ad coelos evehere 1 . 
De angelorum simili visione, quos vir beatus aspexerat alicujus bene moratas 

feminae animam ad coelum ferre m . 
De angelorum apparitione sanctorum, quos sanctus Columba obvios in transitu 

viderat bead Brendeni animae, illius monasterii fundatoris quod Scottice 

Birra nuncupatur 11 . 
De angelorum visione sanctorum, qui sancti Columbani episcopi, Moculoigse, 

animam ad ccelum evexerant . 
De angelorum apparitione qui obviam animabus sancti monachorum Comgelli 

descenderant p . 

De angelorum manifestatione alicujus 2 Emchathi anima3 obviantium q . 
De angelo Domini, qui alicui fratri lapso de monasterii culmine rotundi in 

Roboreti Campo opportune tarn cito subvenerat r . 
De angelorum multitudine sanctorum visa ad beati condictum viri de coelo 

descendentium s . 

De columna luminosa sancti viri de vertice ardere visa*. 
De Spiritus Sancti descensione sive visitatione quae in eadem insula, tribus 

continuis diebus, totidemque noctibus, super venerabilem mansit virum u . 
De angelicas lucis claritudine, quam Virgnous, bonae indolis juvenis, qui post, 

3 Deo auctore, huic prasfuit ecclesias, cui ego, indignus licet, deservio, super 

sanctum Columbam in ecclesia, fratribus hiemali nocte in cubiculis quies- 

centibus, descendere viderat v . 
De alia prope simili celsae claritudinis visione w . 
De alia parili divinas lucis apparitione*. 
De alia angelorum sancto manifestata viro apparitione ; quos sanctas ejus animae 

obviare incipientes quasi mox de corpore viderat migraturse y . 
De transitu ad Dominum sancti nostri patroni Columbse 2 . 

EXPLICIUNT CAPITULA TERTII LIBRI. 

2 emdathi B. 3 <j e B. 



! Cap. 9. o c a p. I2m r Cap. 15. "Cap. 18. * Cap. 21. 

m Cap. io. P Cap. 13. s Cap. 16. v Cap. 19. >' Cap. 22, 

n Cap. ir. q Cap. 14. t Cap. 17. w Cap. 20. z Cap. 23. 



1 90 Vita Sancti Columbce [LIB. m. 



'HIC TERTIUS LIBER ORDITUK, DE ANGELICIS 

'VISIONIBUS. 

IN Primo a ex his tribus libellis 3 libro, ut superius commemoratum est, de 
Propheticis Revelationibus qutedam breviter succincteque, Domino navante, 
descripta sunt. In Secundo superiore, de Virtutum Miraculis, quge per beatum 
declarata sunt virum, et quas, ut ssepe dictum 4 est, plerumque proplietationis 
comitatur gratia. In hoc vero Tertio, de Angelicis Apparitionibus, quse vel 
aliis de beato viro, vel 5 ipsi de aliis, revelatae sunt ; et de his, quse utroque, 
quamlibet disparili modo, hoc est, 5 ipsi proprie et plenius, aliis G vero improprie, 
et ex quadam parte, sunt manifestatse, hoc est extrinsecus et explorative, in 
7 iisdem tamen, vel angelorum vel 8 coelestis 9 visionibus lucis: quas utique 
10 talium n discrepantiae visionum 12 suis I3 caraxatse locis inferius clarebunt. 
Sed nunc, ut a primordiis beati nativitatis viri easdem describere angelicas 
apparitiones incipiamus : 

ANGELIC Domini in somnis genitrici venerabilis viri quadam nocte inter 
conceptum ejus et partum apparuit, eique quasi quoddam mirse pulchritudinis 
peplum d adsistens 14 detulit; in quo veluti universorum 15 decorosi colores florum 

1-3 incipit textus tertii libri de angelicis yisionibus B. incipit liber tertitis de angelicis apparitionibus 
et de transitn sancti columbse C. D. F. S. 3 libello D. 4 0?w . 33. s ip se D. 6 om. B. 7 his- 
dein A. B. 8 celestibus D. 9 visionis C. 10 cultum D. n descriptarum C. discrepant D. 
discrepante F. 13 diversitate add. F. 13 craxate A. ataxate D. 14 retulit D. 15 decolorosi 
C. D. discolorosi F. 



. The opening part of this chap- Aethnea in Prsef. 2 (p. 8) supra. For her 

ter forms a kind of preface to the book. lineage, see ii. 40 (pp. 163, 164) supra. 

b Angelus, This narrative is copied from d Peplum. In the Life of St. Kiaran of Clon- 

Cummian. It approaches, however, nearer to macnois, a vision is related, which both he and 

Mabillon's than Colgan's text. The whole of Enna saw, of a tree that grew upon the banks 

the Life by Cummian, with the exception of of the Shannon, and covered all Ireland with 

two chapters, has been transferred by Adam- its shadow, which St. Enna thus interpreted : 

nan into this third book ; and, though it has " Honor tuus Hiberniam implebit, et umbra ad- 

been considerably enlarged, still the order of jutorii pietatis et gratise tuse proteget earn a 

events is observed, and often the very forms of daemonibus, plagis, et periculis j et fructus tuus 

expression retained. See the acknowledged plurimis longe lateque proficiet." c. 21 (Cod. 

extract in cap. 5. Marsh, fol. 146 a &). For Talech's vision about 

c Genitrici. Eithne, called, in a Latin form, her son Finnian, see Colgan, Act.SS. p. 393 a . 



CAP. 1,2.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



191 



16 depicti videbantur; quodque post aliquod breve intervallum 17 ejus de 18 ma- 
nibus reposcens abstulit ; I9 elevansque et expandens in 20 aere dimisit vacuo. 
Ilia vero de illo tristificata sublato, sic 21 ad ilium venerandi habitus virum, 
Cur a me, ait, hoc ketificum tarn cito abstrahis pallium? Ille 22 consequenter, 
Idcirco, inquit, quia hoc sagum alicujus est tarn magnifici honoris, apud te 
diutius retinere non poteris. His dictis, supra memoratum peplum e mulier 
paulatim a se elongari volando videbat, camporumque latitudinem in majus 
crescendo excedere, montesque et saltus majore sui mensura superare; vo- 
cemque hujuscemodi subsecutam audierat, Mulier noles tristificari, viro 1 enim 
cui matrimoniali 23 es 24 juncta 25 foedere talem filium editura es floridum, qui 
quasi unus prophetarum Dei inter ipsos 2G connuraerabitur, innumerabiliumque 
animarum dux ad coelestem a Deo patriam est pra3destinatus. In hac audita 
voce mulier expergiscitur. 



a DE RADIO LUMINOSO SUPER DORMIENTIS IPSIUS PUERI FACIEM VISO. 

ALIA in nocte, ejusdem beati 2 pueri nutritor a , spectabilis vitas vir, presbyter 
3 Crtiithnechanus b , post 4 missam ab ecclesia ad hospitiolum revertens, totam 

16 et frondium "D. 17 ~ 18 temporis subito D. 19 elevans D. 20 loco D. 21 inquit add. D. 
52 consequens F. 23 copula add. B. jure add. D. 24 vincta D. 25 manu recentiori suprascript. A. 
om. B. 2G coronam merebitur D. commemorabitur Colg. Boll. 

1 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 viri D. 3 om. G. D. F. S. 4 missarum sollemnia D. 



e Supra memoratum peplum The old Irish 
Life describes it as bpac mop co pocc o 
Inbpib TTloo co Caep na mbpocc, 'a large 
cloak which reached from the Islands of Modh 
to Caer-na-mBroc,' that is, from Inishymoe, 
or the group of islands in Clew Bay, on the 
coast of Mayo, to the north-east coast of Scot- 
land, probably to Burg Head. Caer-Abroc, 
or York, can hardly be intended. 
, f Viro. Fedilmithus in Prsef. 2 (p. 8) supra. 

a Nutritor. Many Irish saints are repre- 
sented in their Lives as placed, at an early age, 
under the care of distinguished clerics. 

b Cruithnechano Called in the old Irish Life 
Cpuicnechem mac Cellacham in c-uapal 
racapc, Cruithnechan, son of Cellachan, the 
illustrious priest.' The name does not occur 



in the Irish Calendars, but there is a parish in 
the diocese and county of Derry now called 
Kilcronaghan, that is, Cill Cptncnechain, 
cella Cruitlmechain, or Killcruclmacan, as in 
the old Taxation. (Reeves, Colton's Visit, 
p. 82.) Colgan, in order to make a place for 
him in the Calendar, has identified him with 
Cairiotan of Druimlara, whose festival is 
March 7, and at that day has collected in a 
short memoir all that is recorded concerning 
him, drawn chiefly from this chapter, and the 
narrative of O'Donnell. (Act. SS. p. 600, 
recte 510.) But the connexion of the two 
names extends no further than their initials. 
Cruithnechan is a diminutive of Cruithnech, 
Pict, and occurs in the Irish Nennius, p. 126. 
c Ecclesia. Cillmicnenain, Ecclesia filiiEnani, 



192 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. in. 



invenit domum a suam clara irradiatain luce ; globum quippe igneum d super 
pueruli dormientis faciem stantem viclit. 6 Quo viso statim intremuit, et pros- 
trato in terrain vultu valde miratus, Spiritus Sancti gratiam super suum intel- 
lexit alumnum coelitus 7 eiFusam. 



'DE ANGELORUM APPARITIONE SANCTORUM QUOS SANCTUS BRENDENUS 
BEATI COMITES VIRI PER CAMPUM VIDERAT COMMEANTES. 

POST 2 namque multorum intervalla temporum, cum a quodam synodo a pro 
quibusdam veniabilibus et 3 tam excusabilibus causis, non recte, ut post in fine 



5 om. C. 6 qui C. 
i titul om, C. D. F. S. Boll. 

anciently Doire-Ethne, and now Kilmacrenan, 
a parish in the county of Donegal, which gives 
name to a barony that was originally known as 
the territory of Cinel Z/uig&ead mic Secna, 
' Tribe of Lughaidh, son of Setna,' or Siol 
Secna, ' Race of Setna,' being so called from 
Setna, brother of Fedhlimidh, St. Columba's 
father. The churches connected with the his- 
tory of St. Columba's early life are all situated 
in this neighbourhood, namely, Gartan, where 
he was born; Tulach-Dubhglaisse, now Tem- 
ple-Douglas, in the parish of Conwall, about 
half way between Letterkenny and Gartan, 
in the parish of Conwall, where he was bap- 
tized, by the individual mentioned in the text; 
Killmicnenain, where he was fostered; and 
Rath-enaigh, or Rath-maighe-enaigh, in Tir- 
enna, now Raymochy, in the barony of Ra- 
phoe, whither he resorted with his teacher, to 
hear the instruction of Bishop Brugach, son of 
Deagadh. (O'Donnell, i. 22-32, Tr. Th. p. 393.) 
The old church of Kilmacrenan stood a little 
N. E. of the -village of the same name, and be- 
side it, on the N. E., are the remains, principally 
the south wall, of a small Franciscan monas- 
tery. The O'Firghils, now Freels, a family of 
the Cinel-Conaill, were the hereditary wardens 
of this church, whose privilege it was to inau- 
gurate the chiefs of the O'Donnells, a ceremony 
which usually took place at the Roc'k of Doon 



7 effusum C. 

3 om. C. 3 om. C. 

in this parish. This civil distinction was pro- 
bably the reason why the name of the parish 
was extended to the barony, under the English 
administration. 

d Globum igneum. A ball of fire was seen 
over the place where St. Declan was born. 
(Colg. Act. SS. p. 601 [recte 511] a.) The mo- 
ther of St. Mochaomhoc left her infant asleep 
in her house, and, returning, witnessed a pro- 
digy similar to that in the text. (76. p. 590 a.) 
St. Comgall's mother beheld a pillar of fire 
that extended from heaven to the head of her 
sleeping infant. (Flem. Collect, p. 304 6.) The 
place where St. Brigid lay when an infant was 
indicated by a similar wonder. (Tr. Th. p. 
547 6.) Such portents, however, are not pe- 
culiar to hagiology : 

" Ecce levis summo de vertice visus lull 
Fundere lumen apex, tactuque innoxia molli 
Lambere flamma comas, et circum tempora pasci." 

JEn. ii. 682. 

At a later date, " Puero dormienti, cui Servio 
Tullio nomen fuit, caput arsisse ferunt multor- 
um in conspectu." (Liv. i. 39.) The story in the 
text is borrowed from Cummian in almost his 
very words, with the addition of the presbyter's 
name (cap. 2). 

a Synodo. We have no means of ascertain- 
ing with certainty the date of this synod, or 
the acts of St. Columba which it condemned. 



CAP. 3.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



'93 



claruit, sanctus excommunicaretur Columba, ad eandem contra ipsum collec- 
tam venit congregationem. Quern cum eminus appropinquantem 4 sanctus vi- 
disset Brendenus b , illius monasterii fundator quod Scotice 6 Birra c nuncupatur, 
citius surgit, et inclinata facie, eum veneratus 7 exosculatur. Quern cum 8 ali- 



4 om. D. 5 byrra D. 6 surrexit D. 



osculatur D. 8 alicui B. 



Adamnan's mention of it is only casual, and as 
an introduction to the main event of the chap- 
ter, the angelic manifestation. Had there been 
no vision to relate, no fact would have been re- 
corded ; and thus we have a pjunfuJLinstance 
of the secondary importance attached by the 
biographer to historical narrative. A word 
from him would have freed the inquiry of its* 
difficulty, but to relate an ecclesiastical occur- 
rence for its own sake was foreign to the scope 
of his work. O'Donnell, in his endeavour to 
reduce the irregular anecdotes of Adamnan 
into chronological order, places this occurrence 
immediately after the departure of St. Columba 
from the monastery of Clonard, and styles him 
" probus adolescens." i. 42 (Tr. Th. p. 395 6). 
The present chapter, however, seems to imply 
his having now attained to manhood. The 
anonymous Life of St. Columba, most probably 
compiled by Stephen White, of which Abp. 
Ussher published an extract that had been 
communicated to him by that learned Irish- 
man, represents St. Columba's conduct in 
bringing about the batthj_..of _C.u,lJQr,eimhn,e as 
the offence which the synod was assembled to 
condemn : " In illo vero tempore, quo hsec 
fiebant, seniores Hibernise miserunt per nun- 
cios fideles epistolam ad S. Gildam de genere 
Saxonum [rede Britonum], ut charitatem mu- 
tuam nutrirent. Cumque literas per ordinem 
legeret, et epistolam a Columba scriptam in 
manibus teneret, statim illam osculatus est, 
dicens : Homo qui scripsit hanc, Spiritu sancto 
plenus est : et ait unus de nunciis : Ut dixisti 
ita est ; sed tamen a synodo Hibernise repre- 
henditur, eo quod cognates suos in periculo 
mortis constitutes belligerare jusserit." Brit. 



Eccl. Ant. (Wks. vi. p. 468.) Ussher accord- 
ingly places this synod immediately after the 
battle of Cul Dreimhne, in the year 561. (76. 
Ind. Chronol.) Whom Colgan follows (Tr. Th. 
p. 450 a, n. 43). Messingham, in a marginal 
note on the present chapter, suggests, " Ob ce- 
lebrationem Paschatis" (Florileg. p. 171 a); 
but this is a misconception, because, as Dr. 
Lanigan observes, "there was no dispute in 
Ireland about the time of celebrating that fes- 
tival until after his death." (Eccl. Hist. ii. p. 
150, n. 138.) O'Donnell, to save his patron's 
reputation, thus distorts the present narrative : 
" Improborum quorundam hominum invidiam 
provocavit, odia conscivit: qui invidi virtutis 
ejus falsum, nescio quod, crimen aifiugunt, affic- 
tumque divulgant. Inde secutum, ut loci An- 
tistes insontem excommunicatione impeteret. 
Fulminata excommunicatio cum Columbse in- 
notuit, ad Episcopum coacto turn Clero co- 
mitia celebrantem, convolavit, non magis suse 
infamise, quam multorum scandalo occursurus. 
Capitularem locum intranti S. Brendanus Birra 
qui turn forte Congregationi inerat, comiter 
assurgit," &c. i. 42 (Tr. Th. p. 395 6). The 
question is discussed by Dr. O'Donovan, with 
his usual ability, in his note on the year 555 
of the Four Masters (vol. i. p. 193). 

b Brendenus. This Brendan, son of Neman, 
founder of Birr, is to be distinguished from 
Brendan, son of Finnlogh, the founder of Clon- 
fert. They were contemporary, and intimate 
friends of St. Columba. For an account of St. 
Brendan of Birr, see cap. n, infra. 

c Birra Now Birr, commonly called, from 
the Earl of Rosse's family name, Parsonstown. 
See note on the name, cap. n, infra. 



2C 



192 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. in. 



invenit domum s suam clara irradiatam luce ; globum quippe igneum d super 
pueruli dormientis faciem stantem vidit. c Quo viso statim intremuit, et pros- 
trato in terrain vultu valde miratus, Spiritus Sancti gratiam super suum intel- 
lexit alumnum coelitus 7 effusam. 



J DB ANGELORUM APPARITIONE SANCTORUM QUOS SANCTUS BRENDENUS 
BEATI COMITES VIRI PER CAMPUM VIDERAT COMMEANTES. 

POST 2 namque multorum intervalla temporum, cum a quodam synodo a pro 
quibusdam veniabilibus et Ham excusabilibus causis, non recte, ut post in fine 



e om. C. 6 qui C. 
i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 

anciently Doire-Ethne, and now Kilmacrenan, 
a parish in the county of Donegal, which gives 
name to a barony that was originally known as 
the territory of Cmel Luig&ead rmc Secna, 
' Tribe of Lughaidh, son of Setna,' or Siol 
Secna, ' Race of Setna,' being so called from 
Setna, brother of Fedhlimidh, St. Columba's 
father. The churches connected with the his- 
tory of St. Columba's early life are all situated 
in this neighbourhood, namely, Gartan, where 
he was born; Tulach-Dubhglaisse, now Tem- 
ple-Douglas, in the parish of Conwall, about 
half way between Letterkenny and Gartan, 
in the parish of Conwall, where he was bap- 
tized, by the individual mentioned in the text; 
Killmicnenain, where he was fostered; and 
Rath-enaigh, or Rath-maighe-enaigh, in Tir- 
enna, now Raymochy, in the barony of Ra- 
phoe, whither he resorted with his teacher, to 
hear the instruction of Bishop Brugach, son of 
Deagadh. (O'Donnell, i. 22-32, Tr. Th. p. 393.) 
The old church of Kilmacrenan stood a little 
N. E. of the village of the same name, and be- 
side it, on the N. E., are the remains, principally 
the south wall, of a small Franciscan monas- 
tery. The O'Firghils, now Freels, a family of 
the Cinel-Conaill, were the hereditary wardens 
of this church, whose privilege it was to inau- 
gurate the chiefs of the O'Donnells, a ceremony 
which usually took place at the Roc'k of Doon 



7 effusum C. 

2 om. C. 3 om. C. 

in this parish. This civil distinction was pro- 
bably the reason why the name of the parish 
was extended to the barony, under the English 
administration. 

d Globum igneum. A ball of fire was seen 
over the place where St. Declan was born. 
(Colg. Act. SS. p. 601 [recte 511] a.) The mo- 
ther of St. Mochaomhoc left her infant asleep 
in her house, and, returning, witnessed a pro- 
digy similar to that in the text. (76. p. 590 a.) 
St. Comgall's mother beheld a pillar of fire 
that extended from heaven to the head of her 
sleeping infant. (Flem. Collect, p. 304 J.) The 
place where St. Brigid lay when an infant was 
indicated by a similar wonder. (Tr. Th. p. 
547 6.) Such portents, however, are not pe- 
culiar to hagiology : 

" Ecce levis summo de vertice visus lull 
Fundere lumen apex, tactuque innoxia molli 
Lambere flamma comas, et circum tempora pasci." 

JSn. ii. 682. 

At a later date, " Puero dormienti, cui Servio 
Tullio nomen fuit, caput arsisse ferunt multor- 
um in conspectu." (Liv. i. 39.) The story in the 
text is borrowed from Cummian in almost his 
very words, with the addition of the presbyter's 
name (cap. 2). 

a Synodo. "We have no means of ascertain- 
ing with certainty the date of this synod, or 
the acts of St. Columba^~which it condemned. 



CAP. 3.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



claruit, sanctus excommunicaretur Columba, ad eandem contra ipsum collec- 
tam venit congregationem. Quern cum eminus appropinquantem 4 sanctus vi- 
disset Brendenus b , illius monasterii fundator quod Scotice 6 Birra nuncupatur, 
citius "surgit, et inclinata facie, eum veneratus 7 exosculatur. Quern cum 8 ali- 

4 om. D. 6 byrra D. o surrexit D. 1 osculatur D. 8 alicui B. 



Adamnan's mention of it is only casual, and as Eccl. Ant. (Wks. vi. p. 468.) Ussher accord- 



an introduction to the main event of the chap- 
ter, the angelic manifestation. Had there been 
no vision to relate, no fact would have been re- 
corded ; and thus we have a painfuLonstance 
of the secondary importance attached by the 
biographer to historical narrative. A word 
from him would have freed the inquiry of its* 
difficulty, but to relate an ecclesiastical occur- 
rence for its own sake was foreign to the scope 
of his work. O'Donnell, in his endeavour to 
reduce the irregular anecdotes of Adamnan 
into chronological order, places this occurrence 
immediately after the departure of St. Columba 
from the monastery of Clpnard, and styles him 
" probus adolescens." i. 42 (Tr. Th. p. 395 6). 
The present chapter, however, seems to imply 
his having now attained to manhood. The 
anonymous Life of St. Columba, most probably 



ingly places this synod immediately after the 
battle of Cul Dreimhne, in the year 561. (/&. 
Ind. Chronol.) Whom Colgan follows (Tr. Th. 
p. 450 a, n. 43). Messingham, in a marginal 
note on the present chapter, suggests, " Ob ce- 
lebrationem Paschatis" (Florileg. p. 171 a); 
but this is a misconception, because, as Dr. 
Lanigan observes, " there was no dispute in 
Ireland about the time of celebrating that fes- 
tival until after his death." (Eccl. Hist. ii. p. 
150, n. 138.) O'Donnell, to save his patron's 
reputation, thus distorts the present narrative : 
" Improborum quorundam hominum invidiam 
provocavit, odia conscivit: qui invidi virtutis 
ejus falsum, nescio quod, crimen affingunt, affic- 
tumque divulgant. Inde secutum, ut loci An- 
tistes insontem excommunicatione impeteret. 
Fulminata excommunicatio cum Columbae in- 



compiled by Stephen White, of which Abp. notuit, ad Episcopum coacto turn Clero co- 
Ussher published an' extract that had been mitia celebrantem, convolavit, non magis suse 
communicated to him by that learned Irish- infamise, quam multorum scandalo occursurus. 



man, represents St. Columba's conduct in 
bringing about the battlg_.jo _Cul_Dr_eimhn,e as 
the offence which the synod was assembled to 
condemn : " In illo vero tempore, quo hsec 
fiebant, seniores Hibernise miserunt per nun- 
cios fideles epistolam ad S. Gildam de genere 
Saxonum [recte Britonum], ut charitatem inu- 
tuam nutrirent. Cumque literas per ordinem 
legeret, et epistolam a Columba scriptam in 
manibus teneret, statim illam osculatus est, 
dicens : Homo qui scripsit hanc, Spiritu sancto 
plenus est : et ait unus de nunciis : Ut dixisti 
ita est ; sed tamen a synodo Hibernise repre- 



Capitularem locum intranti S. Brendanus Birra 
qui turn forte Congregation! inerat, comiter 
assurgit," &c. i. 42 (Tr. Th. p. 395 b). The 
question is discussed by Dr. O'Donovan, with 
his usual ability, in his note on the year 555 
of the Four Masters (vol. i. p. 193). 

b Brendenus. This Brendan, son of Neman, 
founder of Birr, is to be distinguished from 
Brendan, son of Finnlogh, the founder of Clon- 
fert. They were contemporary, and intimate 
friends of St. Columba. For an account of St. 
Brendan of Birr, see cap. ir, infra. 

c Birra Now Birr, commonly called, from 
the Earl of Rosse's family name, Parsonstown. 



henditur, eo quod cognates suos in periculo 

mortis constitutos belligerare jusserit." Brit. See note on the name, cap. n, infra. 

2C 



194 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. in. 



qui illius seniores "coetus seorsim 10 ceteris redarguerent "semotis, dicentes, 
13 Quare coram excommunicato surgere 13 et euni exosculari 14 non renueris? 
taliter ad eos inquiens, Si vos, ait, videritis ea quse mini Dominus hac in die 
de hoc suo, quern dehonoratis, electo manifestare 15 non 16 dedignatus est, nun- 
quam excommunicassetis "quern 18 Deus non solum, secundum vestram non 
rectam sententiam, nullo excommunicat modo, sed 1B etiam magis 20 ac magis 
21 magnificat. Illi e contra, Quomodo, aiunt, ut dicis, ipsum glorificat Deus, 
quern nos non sine 22 causa excommunicavimus, scire cupimus ? Ignicomam 
et valde luminosam, ait Brendenus, columnam vidi eundem quern vos despi- 
citis antecedentem Dei hominem. Angelos quoque sanctos per campum ejus 
itineris comites. Hunc itaque spernere non audeo quern populorum ducem ad 
vitam a Deo prseordinatum video. His ab eo dictis, 23 non tantum, ultra Sanc- 
tum excommunicare non ausi, cessarunt, sed etiam valde venerati honorarunt. 
31 Hoc tamen factum est 25 hi 26 Teilte d . 



9 fetus B. 
communicare D. 
21 glorificat D. 
Colg. Boll. 



om. B. a add. F. H semotim C. D. 12 miramur te D. i3"i* nisi eura ex- 

15 " 16 dignatus D. " eum add. D. is dominus C. w O m. D. 20 e t C. 

" culpa D. 23 om . D. 24-26 om . Q. D. F. S. 25 in add. Boll. 25-20 hiseilte 



d Hi Teilte. There being no Latin preposi- 
tion in the clause, it is plain that the particle 
hi, -which is the Irish for in, must be understood 
as supplying its place. Thus in the sequel 
to this Life, preserved in the Cod. B., we find 
' ' qui sepultus est hi Cuiluisci " (f 01.70 a). In like 
manner, in the Latin memoirs in the Book of 
Armagh, hi RaitJi-chungi, hi Tamnuch (Tol. 
u 66), hi Muiriscc (Ib. fol. 1360), hi Rath- 
Argi (Ib. fol. a a), fecit alterant hi Tortena 
(fol. 15 6 a), &c. Teilte is most probably the 
name which is written Gen lice in Irish records. 
It was a place in Meath, situate between Kells 
and Navan, famous in old times for the great 
annual assembly and fair, called aonac Caill- 
cenn, which was held there about Lughnas, or 
the first of August, of which we find eleven 
notices in the Four Masters between the years 
539 and 1168. Taillte was also a seat of roy- 
alty, so that the monarch of Ireland was some- 
times styled pig Caillcenri, * King of Taillte' 
(Book of Rights, p. 143) ; and as the ancient 



Irish synods generally embraced representa- 
tives of the secular as well as ecclesiastical 
authorities, and were, for this reason, held in 
places of civil note, as Tara, Uisnech, and 
Cashel, we can easily perceive the principle 
upon which the present synod was held at a 
royal station in Meath, especially if the object 
was, as White, Ussher, and Colgan suppose, to 
censure St. Columba in precipitating the battle 
of Cul-Dreimhne, Dermot Mac Cerbhaill being 
monarch of Ireland at the time, and Meath his 
hereditary dominion. A remarkable record of 
the union of the secular and religious in refer- 
ence to this place and saint, occurs in the An. 
Tilt, and Four Mast, at 1006 : Gcrvu5U& oenais 
Caillcen la Tuaelreclmall. pepbomnach i 
coThapbup Coluim cille a corhaiple pep 
neperm ipm oenach pin. ' The renewal of 
the fair of Taillte by Maelsechlann. Ferdom- 
nach [placed] in the successorship of Colum- 
cille by appointment of the men of Ireland, in 
this fair.' How would the Derry clergy of the 



CAP. 4.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



J DE ANGELO DOMINI QUEM SANCTUS a FINNIC BEATI VIRI SOCIUM ITINERIS 

3 VIDIT. 

ALIO in tempore, vir sanctus venerandum episcopum 4 Finnionem a , suum 
videlicet magistrum b , juvenis c senem, adiit ; quern cum sanctus 5 Finnic ad se 
appropinquantem vidisset, angelum Domini pariter ejus comitem itineris vidit: 



i-s titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll, 
iynbarrua D. 



2 fennio B. 



fennionem B. finbarrum D. 



fennio B. 



present day regard a bishop whose patent or 
rescript emanated from Donnybrook or Balli- 
nasloe instead of Westminster or the Vatican ? 
Taillte is now called Teltown, which is formed 
from Caillcecmn, the genitive case of the word, 
agreeably to a common process in anglicizing 
Irish names. We find cill Gcnlceann in Mar. 
Gorman, May 18, and ceach Caillcerm in the 
Calendar of Donegal at the same day. In the old 
Taxations of the diocese of Meath, Kiltaltyn is 
the form in which the name appears. Teltown is 
a small parish adjoining Kells on the south-east, 
and possesses not only a cemetery and the ruins 
of an old church, but the remains of a large rath 
and other ancient works (Ord. Survey, s. 17). 
On the origin of the name, and the ancient im- 
portance of the place, see Keating's Hist. (vol. 
i. pp. 192, 210, ed. Haliday); O'Flaherty, Ogyg. 
iii. 13, 56 (pp. 177, 304); Four Masters, An. 
Mund. 3370, and Dr. O'Donovan's note (vol. i. 
p. 22). Colgan, misled by an incorrect copy 
of Cod. A., reads Hiseilte, which he proposes 
to change (a favourite process with him) to 
Geseilde, that he may bring the word round to 
Geisille, the old name of Geashill in the King's 
County (Tr. Th. pp. 364 &, 385 b, n. 4). The 
Bollandist editor follows Colgan, and adds, on 
his own responsibility, the Latin preposition, to 
govern Uiseilte in the ablative case. 

11 Finnionem Cummian, from whom this 
anecdote appears to be borrowed, calls him 
Finnianus, and identifies him with the indivi- 
dual whom Adamnan calls Findbarrus in ii. i 

2C 



(p. 103) supra. St. Columba, as has been ob- 
served in the note on that place, had two 
teachers called Finnian, and the authorities 
there cited refer the event related in that pas- 
sage to the Finnian of Magh-bile, to whom also 
the present narrative would seem referable. 
In support of this choice, it may be observed 
that Adamnan in both places calls Finnian 
bishop ; and that while Finnian of Magh-bile 
is generally acknowledged to have been of this 
order, Finnian of Clonard is nowhere, either in 
his Life or the Calendars, so designated, and 
the only place where he is called a bishop is in 
the Life of St. Columba of Tirdaglas (Colg. 
Act. SS. p. 404 a). On the other hand, there 
is no reference to St. Columba in the published 
Lives of the former Finnian, with whom tradi- 
tion describes him as being engaged in a se- 
rious dispute (p. 104, supra), while the Life of -'' 
St. Finnian of Clonard not only numbers St. 
Columba among his disciples, but refers to the 
present interview in the following words : 
" Quodam tempore S. Finnianus intuens suum 
discipulum Columbam Kille venientem ad se, 
ait uni de suis Monachis ; Vide comitem iti- 
neris Columbse. Et respondit ille ; video An- 
gelos Dei in comitatu ejus. Et ait Finnianus, 
vere qui adhseret Deo, unus spiritus est cum 
eo." c. 30 (Colgan, Act. SS. p. 397 a). 

b Magistrum. St. Finnian of Clonard is com- 
memorated in the Calendar at Dec. 12, where 
Mar. Gorman, and after him O'Clery, style 
him oibe naerii 6]ieTin ina Gnmpip, 'magister 
2 



196 



Vita Sancti Columbw 



[LIB. in. 



et, ut nobis ab expertis traditur d , quibusdain astantibus intimavit fratribus, 
6 inquiens, 7 Ecce nunc 8 videatis sanctum advenientem Columbam, qui sui 
commeatus meruit habere socium angeluni coelicolam. lisdem diebus e Sanctus 
cum duodecim f cominilitonibus discipulis 9 ad 10 Britanniam transnavigavit. 



6 clicens C. 7 eu B. 



videtis C. D. 



om. C. 10 brittanniam B. 



sanctorum Hiberm'ae sui temporis.' St. Kiaran 
of Clonmacnois was one of his disciples, in 
whose Life it is stated, " Jn schola sapientis- 
simi magistri Finniani plures sancti Hibernias 
erant." c. 15 (Cod. Marsh, fol. 14.60,0). St. Co- 
lumba of Tirdaglas " audiens famam S. Fin- 
niani Episcopi de Cluain-eraird, ut sacram 
scripturam addisceret, accessit." (Colg. Act. 
SS. p. 404 a.) St. Ruadhan of Lothra abode 
with him, " Legens diversas scripturas, et 
multum proficiens in eis. Et beatitudo vite 
S. Ruadani multis magisterium praebuit." (/&. 
p. 404 6.) St. Molash of Damh-inis retired to 
the appointed place, "postquam divinam pa- 
ginam sub magisterio S. Finniani studiose didi- 
cisset." (7Z>. p. 405 c.) These quotations, which 
might easily be multiplied, form an admirable 
commentary on the interesting passage of Ven. 
Bede, where, speaking of the Anglo-Saxons 
who were in Ireland in 664, he says : " Et qui- 
dam quidem mox se monasticae conversation! 
fideliter mancipaverunt, alii magis circumeundo 
per cellas magistrorum, lectioni operam dare 
gaudebant: quos omnes Scotti libentissime sus- 
cipientes victum eis quotidianum sine pretio, 
libros quoque ad legendum, et magisterium 
gratuitum prgebere curabant." (H. E. iii. 27.) 
Afterwards, when the monastic system became 
better organized in Ireland, the educational du- 
ties which were discharged by the superior, as 
in St. Finnian's case, were delegated to a spe- 
cial officer styled pip-leginn, or Scholasticus. 
See Colgan, Tr. Th. p. 632. 

c Juvenis. St. Columba is called juvenis 
(ii. i), and even puer (ii. 25, p. 138, supra), 
when in the diaconate. If the close of the pre- 
sent chapter properly refers to this interview, 



he was now forty-two years of age. The 
anonymous Life of St. Columba, cited by 
Ussher (which the Bollandists call the Pseudo- 
Adamnan, but which most probably was a com- 
pilation made by Stephen White), represents 
the occurrence related in the present chapter, 
as a sequel to the battle of Cul-Dreimhne, and 
furnishes the following commentary on it : 
"Post hsec S. Columba ad S. Finianum epis- 
copum accessit, ut ab eo poenitentiam condig- 
nam causa prsefati belli acciperet. Angelus 
vero Domini comitator ejus apparuit : qui prse 
nimio splendore obtutibus humanis non videba- 
tur, nisi tantum a sancto viro Finniano, qui 
Finnbarrus nominatur. Cumque a viro Dei 
poenitentiam condignam S. Columba qusereret, 
respondit : Oportet, ut quot instigatione belli 
ad infernum dejecti sunt, tot per exemplum 
tuu'm ad ceelum vehantur." (Brit. EC. Ant. 
c. 17, Wks. vi. p. 467.) 

d Traditur. This is added by Adamnan to 
the narrative as given by Cummian. 

e lisdem diebus This clause is borrowed 
from Cummian, but differently applied. He 
concludes the third chapter with the words, 
" qui sui commeatus habere meruit angelum 
Domini;" and then commences the fourth in 
this manner : " Hiisdem diebus Sanctus, cum 
duodecim commilitonibus discipulis ad Britan- 
niam transnavigavit. Quo proveniens, quadam 
solenni die, sancto magistro suo, et episcopo, 
Finniano, missam celebranti, vinum ad sacrifi- 
cale mysterium casu non inveniebatur," and 
the narrative proceeds as in ii. i, supra. Col- 
gan endeavours to overcome the difficulty by 
reading, " quo antequam pervenisset." (Tr. Th. 
p. 3246, n. 3.) But even so, as the Bollandist 



CAP. 5.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



197 



'DE ANGELO DOMINI QUI AD SANCTUM COLUMBAM IN 2 HINBA COMMORANTEM 
INSULA PER VISUM APPARUIT, MISSUS UT AIDANUM IN REGEM 3 ORDINARET. 

4 ALIO 5 in tempore a , cum vir prasdicabilis in Hinba b commoraretur insula, 
quadam nocte in extasi mentis angelum Domini ad se missum vidit, qui in 
manu vitreum ordinationis regum 7 habebat librum : quern cum vir veneran- 
dus de manu angeli accepisset, ab eo jussus, legere ccepit. Qui cum secundum 
quod ei in libro erat commendatum d 8 Aidanum in regem 9 ordinare recusaret, 
quia magis logenanum 6 fratrem ejus diligeret, subito angelus, extendens 



i-3 titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 himba B. 
mian. 1 haberet D. 8 ae&. 9 om. D. 

editor observes, *' vix omnem anachronism! 
suspiciouem tolles." (Jun. torn. ii. p. 187 i.) 
The truth is, there is a serious anachronism in 
Cummian, which Adamnan has endeavoured to 
correct, subjecting himself to the difficulty only 
of making a man ajuvenis at forty-two. 

f Duodecim discipulis Their names are pre- 
served in the sequel of Cod. B., and have 
been printed at various times with more or 
less incorrectness. See Additional Notes. 

a Alio tempore. Tighernach, with whom the 
Annals of Ulster and Ussher agree, places the 
death of Conall, son of Comgall, JEdan's pre- 
decessor, at 574. T. Innes, whom Chalmers 
follows, refers it to 571. But the former is a 
much higher authority. 

b Hinba.See i. 21 (p. 50), 45 (p. 87), ii. 24 
(P- J 35). supra ; chaps. 17, 18, 23, infra. The 
identification of this island remains the great 
desideratum in Hebridean topography. 

c Vitreum librum. Called vitreus codex fur- 
ther on. T. Innes says of it : " This ceremo- 
nial book is called by Adamnan, Liber Vitreus, 
because, perhaps, the cover of it was encrusted 
with glass or crystal." Civ. Eccl. Hist. p. 202. 
He supposes the contents to have been "the 
prayers and ceremonies of the Ordination or 
Inauguration of kings." (Ib. p. 200.) From 
the context, however, it may be inferred that 



4 ~ 5 quodam D. c himba B. F. hymba D. Cum- 



the present expression is not intended as a 
proper name, but rather as descriptive, and 
that the idea conveyed is ' a book of glass, 1 
containing heaven's decrees concerning the 
succession of earthly monarchs, among whose 
names that of -ZEdan was expressly entered, as 
the individual destined to govern Dalriada. 
This was the prcerogativa monarchies prcedesti- 
nata, mentioned in i. 14 (p. 42) supra, and the 
Deo auctore ordinatio of i. i (p. 16), 36 (p. 68), 
supra. This book of glass, " clear as crystal," 
was only presented to the saint while in an 
extasis mentis, and on each occasion of its pe- 
rusal was delivered by the angel. It contained 
the fiat of uEdan's inauguration ; and the saint's 
hesitation was, not an unwillingness to employ 
any formulas supposed to have been contained 
therein, but a reluctance to receive the object 
of heaven's choice instead of his own. See the 
story told by Bede of the soldier's vision, in 
which " candidum codicem protulerunt angeli, 
deinde atrum dsemones." (H. E. v. 13.) 

d Ei commendatum This may either mean 
that an injunction to ordain ^Edan was spe- 
cially addressed to him, or, what is more likely, 
that the will of Providence concerning JEdan 
being herein communicated to him, it became 
his duty to perform it, 

e logenanum. This is a diminutive of logen, 



198 



Vita Sancti Columbw 



[LIB. in. 



manum, Sanctum percussit flagello, cujus livorosuin in cjus latere vestigium 
omnibus sure dicbus pcrmansit vitse. 10 Hocque n intulit n verbum, Pro certo 
scias, inquiens, quia 1S ad 14 te a Deo missus sum cum 16 vitreo libro, ut juxta 
verba qua; in eo legisti, 10 Aidanum in 17 regnum ordines. Quod si obsecundare 
huic nolucris jussioni, percutiam te iterate. Hie itaque angelus Domini, cum per 
tres continuas noctes, eundem in 18 manu vitreum habens codicem, apparuisset, 
eademque Domini jussa de regis ejusdem ordinatione commendasset, Sanctus, 
verbo obsecutus Domini, ad louam transnavigavit insulam, ibidemque 
19 Aidanum, iisdem adventantem f diebus, in regem, sicut erat jussus, ordinavit. 
Et inter ordinationis verba, de filiis g et nepotibus 11 pronepotibusque* ejus 
30 futura proplietizavit : imponensque manum super caput ejus, ordinans bene- 
dixit j . 



10 hoc D. u " 12 esse angelicum D. Js-u O m. 
navi B. 19 ae&anum D. 20 futuris D. 

a name which we find in St. Columba's family. 
The death of logenanus is recorded by Tigh. 
at 595 : Mors Eoghani mic Gabhrain. An. TJlt. 
594. See Four Mast. 616; ii. 9 (p. 117) supra. 

{ Adventantem. Chalmers despatches the 
proceedings of this chapter in the following 
brief manner "Aidan, the successor of Conal, 
thinking that the solemnity of inauguration . 
might contribute to the stability of his power, 
passed over to the sacred isle, for obtaining 
his object, whether of policy, or religion :' and, 
here, in 574, was the king ordained, and inau- 
gurated, by the abbot, according to the ceremo- 
nial of the liber vitreus." Caledon. i. 322. 
The idea of the ceremonial he derives from 
Innes ; and in divesting the story of its mira- 
culous character he should have left it out. 
The service which St. Columba rendered on 
this occasion was productive of reciprocal ad- 
vantage, for, while it conferred the sanction of 
religion upon the questionable title of JEdan, 
it secured to the abbot of Hy a prescriptive 
supremacy in the politico-religious adminis- 
tration of Dalriada. 

e Filiis See note c , i. 9 (p. 35) supra. 

h Nepotibus. His successor in the kingdom 
was Eochaidh Buidhe, whose sons were, ac- 



hoc D. 1C ae&anum D. regem D. 



cording to the Irish tract on the Men of Alba, 
Domhnall Breac (mentioned in the text) ; 
Domhnall Bonn; Conall Crandamhna (rex. 642- 
660) ; Conall Beag ; Connadh Cearr (success., et 
occis. 630) ; Failbhe (fell in battle of FedaEuin, 
Tig. 629) ; Domhangart ; and Cuganmathair. 
Eochaidh Finn, .35dan's second son, had eight 
sons, namely, Baodan ; Pordan ; Pleatan ; Cor- 
mac ; Cronan ; Fearadach ; Fedhlimidh ; and 
Caiplene. Conang, ^Edan's sixth son (who was 
drowned in 622), had nine sons, namely, Riogh- 
allan; Fearchar; Artan; Artur; Donnchadh ; 
Domhangort ; Nechtan ; Nemh ; Cruimine. 
Gartnat, JEdan's eighth son, had four sons, 
whose names are not recorded. (Lib. Bally- 
mot, fol. 84 b a; Mac Firbis, Gen. MS. p. 401.) 

1 Pronepotibus. Fearcadh, or Fearcar, son 
of Connadh Cearr, succeeded his father in 630. 
Cathusach (who died in 650), and Domangard, 
were sons of Domhnall Breac. Domhnali Donn 
(rex. 660-673), and Maolduin (rex. 673-690), 
were sons of Conall Cranndamhna (Duan Al- 
ban. ; Ogyg. p. 478) ; and it was on their death 
that the house of Loarn came into power. 

j Ordinans benedixit. Conventual, not epis- 
copal, rank was what conferred importance on 
ecclesiastics in the eyes of the Scots at that 



CAP. 5,] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



199 



21 Cummeneus Albus, k in libro quern de virtutibus sancti Columbse "scrip- 
sit 1 , sic dixit quod sanctus Columba de 23 Aidano et de posteris ejus, et de 
regno suo, prophetare cospit, dicens, Indubitanter 24 crede, O 2S Aidane, 26 quo- 
si usque ad fin. cap. om. B. 22 scribens D. 23 ae&ano D. 24 credo C. M ae&ane D. 20 q uo d C. 



day ; and St. Columba, whose influence was 
now confirmed by a ten years' successful admin- 
istration of Hy in addition to his royal de- 
scent, occupied the same relation to the Dalriadic 
kings that the abbot of Armagh did to the so- 
vereigns of Ireland. There was this difference, 
however, in the systems, that the Dalriadic 
dynasty commenced under Christian auspices, 
whereas the sovereignty of Ireland had des- 
cended from Pagan times, and had probably 
conveyed into Christian ages a Pagan mode of 
inauguration. The earliest notice we have of 
ecclesiastical interference in the confirmation 
of royalty in Ireland, is found in the Annals of 
Ulster, A. C. 992, where it is recorded that the 
Coarb of St. Patrick, po eple gpat> pigh 
pop Qe& mac nt)omnaill i piabhrvupe parhca 
Pacpaic, contulit gradum regis super Aedum 
filium Domnatti in conspectu congregationis Pa- 
tricii. This, however, was only the case of a 
provincial king, and was probably the com- 
mencement of the practice. But see O'Dono- 
van, Hy-Fiachr. p. 452 ; Four Mast. 992 ; 
R. King, Memoir of Primacy, p. 38. Martene, 
treating De solemni Regum benedictione, has 
the following observation on the present oc- 
currence: " Antiquissima omnium, quas inter 
legendum mihi reperire licuit, ea est quae a 
Columba abbate Hieiisi facta est jussu angeli 
in Aidanum Scotorum regem, cujus meminit 
Cumeneus Albus in Vita S. Columbse n. 5. 
Ssec. i. Benedictine. Sed ea supponit hunc 
ritum tanquam usu jam receptissimum, quippe 
ait angelum Domini, ad dictum abbatem mis- 
sum, qui in manu vitreum ordinationis regum 
habebat librum: Quse verba plane innuunt jam 
antea reges ordinatos fuisse. Sed in Aidani 
benedictione illud singulare occurrit, quod non 
ab episcopo, sed ab abbate fuerit ordinatus." 



De Antiq. Eccl. Ritib. ii. 10 (torn. ii. p. 213 , 
Antverp. 1763). Martene supposed the book 
presented by the angel to have been a formu- 
lary, and suggested the mistaken notion to 
Innes, who refers to the passage just quoted. 
k Cummeneus Albus Son of Ernan, son of 
Fiachna, of the race of Conall Gulban. He was 
seventh abbot of Hy, and presided from 657 to 
669. The name is variously written in Irish 
Cumine (Tigh. 66 1), Cumcnne (id. 669), Cum- 
mine (Four Mast. 668), Cummem (Mar. Gorm. ; 
Cal. Dungall. 24 Feb.), Cumine (Mart. Taml.) 
To which is added the surname Gilbe (Tigh. 
661, 669), or PIOTITI (Mart. TamL ; Cal. Dun- 
gall. ; Four Mast.), rendered Albus in the pre- 
sent instance, and An. Ult. 668. The writer 
of the Paschal Epistle printed by Ussher (Syll. 
xi.) calls himself Cumeanus, and is generally 
supposed to have been the same as Cummineus 
Albus, though the identity is very question- 
able. The abbot of Hy died in 669, Feb. 24, 
which is the day of his commemoration in the 
Calendars. Colgan has collected all the facts 
and conjectures that are recorded of him, at 
Feb. 24. (Act. SS. pp. 408-41 1.) 

1 Libro quern scripsit. Colgan printed an 
anonymous Life of St. Columba, which had been 
taken from a manuscript of Mirseus, at Ant- 
werp, and was included in Belfortius' supple- 
ment to Surius. He pronounced it ancient, and 
placed it first in order in his collection, but 
expressed no opinion of its authorship. (Tr. 
Th. pp. 321-324.) Subsequently there appeared 
in Mabillon's Acta Sanct. Bened. Ord. (vol. i. 
pp. 342-349, Venet. 1733) a Life of St. Co- 
lumba, differing only, as the Bollandist editor 
observes, " in aliquibus loquendi formulis," 
from that in Colgan. It was printed from a 
manuscript of Compeigne (Compendiensis mo- 



2OO 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. in, 



niam null us odversoriorum tuorum tibi poterit resistere, donee prius 28 fraudu~ 
lentiam agas in me et in posteros meos. Propterea ergo tu filiis commenda 
ut et ipsi filiis et nepotibus et posteris suis commendent, ne per consilia mala 
eovum sceptrum regni hujus de manibus suis perdant. In quocunque enim 
tempore "adversum me aut adversus cognatos meos qui sunt in Hibernia 
fccerint, flagellum, quod causa tui ab angelo sustinui per mannm Dei super 
eos in magnum flngitium vertetur, et cor virorum auferetur ab eis et inimici 
eorum vehementer super eos confortabuntur" 1 . 

Hoc auteni vaticinium temporibus nostris completum est, in bello M B,oth n , 



2? malum add. G i\ 

nasterii), and was intituled Auctore Cummeneo 
Albo. Thus a work which was supposed by 
some to have been lost was brought to light 
from two independent sources. It forms the 
groundwork of Adamnan's third book, into 
which he has transferred the whole tract, with 
the exception of two chapters which he has 
worked into an earlier part, observing the 
order of the narrative, and in many instances 
employing the very expressions of his prede- 
cessor. The Bollandist editor was of opinion 
that the scribe who wrote the Compeigne MS. 
" recentiorem Latinaeque linguse studiosorem 
fuisse" than the writer of the Belfort exemplar, 
and for that reason gave a preference to the 
latter as a text for the Vita, Brevior at St. Co- 
lumba's day. (Act. SS. Jun. torn. ii. p. 185 b.) 
On comparison, however, it will be found that 
Mabillon's text agrees better with Adamnan's 
than that of Colgan. The Irish Franciscans, 
who saved the hagiology of their country, sup- 
posed that the Life, or rather portions of two 
Lives, which are preserved in the Codex Sal- 
manticensis, and are printed No. 2 in Colgan's 
collection, were the genuine production of 
Cummineus. Accordingly O'Clery, in the Ca- 
lendar of Donegal, under Cummian Fionn, at 
Feb. 24, observes : Do pgpiob bfoa Coluim- 
cille i 34 bo caibbilib, tnapob cup Ven. Abbas 
et plurimorum pater cenobiorum, ' He wrote a 
Life of Columkille in 34 chapters, which com- 



28 mai&e pach D. 

mences thus: Venerabilis Abbas, &c.' This 
description led Colgan to express it as his opin- 
ion that the second Life in his collection was 
by Cummineus ; and though he was unable to 
find in it the passage cited by Adamnan, he 
supposed that its absence was caused by a 
chasm in the manuscript. Pinkerton reprints 
Mabillon's text. (Vit. Antiq. pp. 27-45.) 

m Confortabuntur. The following are Cum- 
mineus' words as found in Mabillon's text, to 
which are added in brackets the variations in 
Colgan : ' ' Indubitanter crede o Aidane, quo- 
niam [quod] nullus adversariorum tuorum [om. 
Colg.] tibi poterit resistere donee prius frau- 
dem agas in me et in posteros meos. His eisdem 
[ipsis] verbis alloquere filios tuos, ne regnum 
perdant. Quod si non obaudierint flagellum 
quod causa tui ab Angelo Dei [om. Colg.] sus- 
tinui, in eos retorquebitur." (Act. SS. Bene- 
dict. Ord. i. p. 343; Colg. Tr. Th. p. 3216; 
Act. SS. Jun. ii. p. 186 a.) 

n Bello Roth. It was fought in 637, and 
the following is the record of it in Tighernach, 
under that year : Cac TTIuige TJach pia 
n-bcmmall mac Qe&a, ocup pia Tnacaib 
Qe&a Slame [The battle of Magh Rath by 
Domhnall, son of Aedh (see p. 94, supra}, and 
by the sons of Aedh Slaine (p. 42, supraj], sed 
Domnall regnavit Temoriam in illo tempore ; in 
quo cecidit Conyal Caech, pi Ulabh i [king of 
Uladh, and] Faelan cum multis nobilibus. The 



CAP. 5-] Auctore A damnano. 201 

2 Domnail Brecco , nepote 30 Aidani, sine causa vastante provinciam 31 Domnill p 
nepotis 32 Ainmuireg. Et a die ilia usque hodie adhuc in proclivo sunt ab 
extraneis' 1 : quod suspiria doloris pectori incutit. 

29 donaldo C. D. ao ae&om D. 31 domnaill C. donaldi D. 32 amureg C. ainmireach D. 
aininuireg F. ainrairech Colg. 

An. Ult. relate the occurrence more succinctly, diately encamped near the enemy at Moyrath, 
but in the exact form of the text : A. C. 636, and began as bloody a battle as can be found 
Bellum Roth. An ancient historical romance, in the records of that age : it continued with 
called The Battle of Magh Rath, was published various success for six whole days, until vie- 
in the original Irish, with a translation and tory declared for the nation on the seventh, 
notes, for the Irish Archaeological Society, in Congal Claon, the soul of the enemies' army, 
1842, by Professor O'Donovan. This curious was defeated and slain at the head of the troops 
tale, while it contains many statements that are of Ulad. The foreign troops were soon .broke 
inaccurate, seems in its main features to have with great slaughter ; and Domnal Breac, King 
been founded upon fact, and supplies the infor- of the Albanian Scots, hardly escaped to Bri- 
mation which is required to identify the ac- tain, with the sorry remains of a fine army, 
counts of Adamnan and the Annals. It states which should be employed for the defence of the 
that Congal Claen, the prime mover of the ex- people he so wantonly attacked." Dissert, on 
pedition, was maternal grandson of Eochaidh Hist, of Ireland, p. 210 (Dubl. 1812). Fordun, 
Buidhe, and consequently that Domhnall Breac who notices this prophecy, represents ^Edan 
was his uncle. That, flying to Alba, he pre- as acting "contra B. Columbse monita," and 
sented himself at his grandfather's court of paying the penalty in defeat (Scotichr. iii. 27) ; 
DunMonaidh (p. 46), at Sliabh Monaidh (p. 56). but he omits to notice the real drift of the al- 
Which place is identified by some with Dun- leged prediction. Magh Rath is supposed to 
staffnage (Battle of Magh Rath, p. 46 ; Irish be the modern Moira, a well-known village and 
Nennius, p. 285), but on insufficient grounds. parish in the county of Down ; but as the iden- 
Edinburgh is called Dun Monaidh on the title tification is based upon the name alone, the 
of Bishop Carsewell's Psalms. (See also Trans. existence of other places in the county of Down 
Gael. Soc. p. 1 1 8.) The following summary similarly called, renders the supposition doubt- 
of the tale is given by Charles O'Conor of ful; especially as the chief clue given in the tale 
Belanagare : " Domnall, son of Aodh, the son leads to the neighbourhood of Newry (pp. 274, 
of Ainmirey, ascended the throne, and began 276). The places mentioned in connexion with 
his administration with an act of extreme jus- the battle, Magh-comair (pp. 110,227), Tulchan- 
tice; that of taking vengeance on the mur- na-dtaillgeann (p. 119), Daire-in-latha, Cam 
derer of his predecessor. Congal Claon he Congail (p. 174), Ard-na- himaircsi (p. 180), 
defeated in the battle of Duukehern (see p. Cnocan-an-choscair(p.2i6),a.ndAth-an-ornaimh 
95> supra), and obliged him to fly into Britain. (p. 226), will probably determine the situation. 
Congal Claon remained nine years in exile. Domnail Brecco. Son of Eochodius Buidhe 
Saxons, Britons, Albanian Scots, and Picts (i. 9, pp. 35, 36, supra"). The Dyvnwal Vrych 
flocked to his standard. His domestic par- of Aneurin's continuator. Gododin. vss. 753, 
tizans prepared for his reception, and he landed 884 (ed. Williams, pp. 150, 156, 184, 199). 
safely on the coast of Down. Domnall, king vDomnill. Seei. io(p. 37), 49 (p. 94), supra. 
of Ireland, was not unprepared. He imme- 1 1n proclivo ab extraneis The text of Cum- 

2D 



202 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. HI. 



1 DE ANGELORUM APPARITIONE ALICUJUS BEATI BRITONIS ANIMAM AD CCELUM 

VEHENTIUM. 

ALIO 2 in tempore, cum vir sanctus in loua 3 commoraretur insula, quidam 
de suis 4 monacbis, Brito, bonis actibus intentus, molestia correptus corporis, 
ad extrema perductus est. Quern cum 6 vir venerandus in hora sui visitaret 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. D. 3 conversaretur C. 4 monachus C. D. 5 om. D. 



mian in Mabillon thus expresses the fulfilment 
of St. Columba's prediction : u Quod ita factum 
est : mandatum namque viri Dei transgredi- 
entes, regnum perdiderunt." Colgan's text is 
less explicit : " Quod ita evenit mandatum viri 
Dei transgredientibus." The expression reg- 
num perdiderunt seems to refer to the departure 
of the sceptre from the house of Gabhran to 
that of Loarn, which took place when Ferchar 
Fada succeeded Maelduin. Chalmers fixes this 
event at 68 1, while the Irish Annals record the 
death of Maelduin at 689. In either case the 
words appear to be interpolated, for Cummian 
died in 669. Adamnan, however, with propriety 
uses the words in the text, for he was thirteen 
years old when the battle of Magh Rath was 
fought, and he lived to see Ferchar Fada, of 
the house of Loarn, several years on the throne. 
During this period various reverses happened 
to the house of Gabhran ; and not only did the 
rival families of the race improve them to their 
own advantage, but the Picts, Strathclyde 
Britons, and Saxons were sure to profit by 
their neighbours' declension. Tighernach re- 
cords, at 678, and the An. Ult. 677 [recte 634, 
for the entry is taken from a chronicle, forty- 
four years in arrear], Bellum i Calathros, in 
quo victus est Domhnall Breacc. (Query, Ca- 
lathros, now Culros, on the north side of the 
Forth ; or a tract in Stirlingshire ? See An. 
Ult. 735, Bellum Cnuicc-Cairpri i Calatros uc 
ecap. linnbu [ad inter stagna] inter Dalriatai 
et Fortren [i. e. Scotos Albienses et Pictos], et 
Talorggan mac Fergusofilium Anfceallaich fugi- 



entem cum exercitu persequitur ; in qua congres- 
sione multi nobiles ceciderunt. Williams identi- 
fies Cattraeth and Calatros, Gododin, p. 184.) 
And again, at 638 (An. Tilt. 637), Cach 5^ 1T1 Tie 
Tnaiynpon [TTluperon Ult.'] in quo muinn- 
cip tJorhnaill bpicc bo ceicheb : ec obp ep- 
fio Gcain, 'the battle of Gleann-Maireson, 
in which the army of Domhnall Breacc* was 
routed : and the siege of Etan.' The scene of 
this battle was not Glenmorison, on Loch 
Ness in Inverness, as Chalmers (i. p. 286) and 
O' Conor (vol. iv. p. 47) suggest, but a tract 
in the debateable ground of West Lothian. 
Etan, again, is not Edinburgh, as some sup- 
pose (Williams, Gododin. p. 99), which was 
anciently Agned, and Dun Monaidh, but Cair- 
Eden, the Eiddyn of Aneurin (Gododin, vss. 
113, 157, 183, 733), now Carriden, a parish 
on the Forth, in Linlithgowshire, the identi- 
fication of which we learn from the interpo- 
lator of Gildas' History : " Kair Eden, civitas 
antiquissima, duorum ferine millium spatio a 
monasterio Abercurnig, quod nunc vocatur 
Abercorn." (Capit. 9, Monument, p. 5.) In 
642, according to Tighernach, and 641 of the 
An. Ult., Domhnall Brecc, i each Spaca Cai- 
pmn [in the battle of Strath-Cairin] in fine 
anni in Decembre interfectus est xv. regni sui ab 
Hoan rege Britonum. This occurrence is en- 
tered a second time in those Annals forty-four 
years later, a repetition which is observable in 
other cases, and indicates the employment of a 
different authority. There king Hoan is called 
Haan, who seems to be the same as Auin, 



CAP. 6.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



203 



exitus, paulisperad "lectulum 7 ejus 8 assistens, et ei benedicens, ocyus domum 
egreditur, nolens videre 10 morientem. Qui eodem momento post sancti de 
domu " secessum 12 viri praesentem finiit vitam. Turn vir praedicabilis, in 
13 plateola tt sui deambulans monasterii, porrectis ad coelum oculis, diutius valde 
obstupescens, admirabatur. Quidam vero frater, "Aidanus nomine, 15 filius 
16 Libir b , bonse indolis et religiosus homo, qui solus de fratribus eadem adfuit 
hora, flexis genibus, rogare cospit ut Sanctus eidem tantae admirationis causam 
17 intimaret. Cui Sanctus, Nunc sanctos angelos in acre contra adversarias 
potestates belligerare vidi ; Christoque 18 agonothetae gratias ago quia victores 
angeli animam hujus peregrini, qui primus apud nos in hac insula mortuus est c , 
ad ccelestis patriae gaudia evexerunt. Sed hoc quseso sacramentum nemini 
in vita mea reveles. 

G lectura C. 7 om. D. 8 assidens C. accessit D. 9 " 10 se ab aliis videri D. n recessum 
C. D. 12 om. D. 13 platea D. " aedanus D. is-ie O m. C. D. liber B. " diceret D. 
18 agonithetse A. B. agonizante D. 



whose son, Domhnall, king of Ailcluaithe (see 
note b , p. 43, supra), died in 694. This battle 
was fought in the valley of the Carron in Stir- 
lingshire. At 650, is recorded the ' Death of 
Cathasach, son of Domhnall Breac.' At 673, 
is recorded the Jugulacio Domaingairt mic 
Domhnaill Bricc regis Dalriata. In 689, Mors 
Cathasaiff nepotis Domhnaill Bricc, and Mors 
Maelduin mic Conaill Crandamhna. On the 
death of Maelduin, the royalty passed to Fer- 
char Fada, of the house of Loam, who was 
able to entail the dignity on his descendants. 

a Plateola. See note e , i. 50 (p. 98) supra. 

b Aidanus filius Libir. Colgan, who strives 
to canonize every member of the fraternity, 
conjectures that this was the bishop Aidan 
who was sent in 635 to convert the Northum- 
brians, and died in 651. But as it appears 
from the narrative that the present occurrence 
happened soon after 563, at which date this 
Aidanus was an adult, it is not likely that he 
could have undertaken the active duties of a 
missionary sixty or seventy years after. 

c Qui primus mortuus est If this be under- 
stood absolutely, it may help to qualify the 
curious and not very creditable story of the 

2D 



first Christian performance in Hy. Qcbepc 
Columcille inbpin pa muincip ip maich bun 
ap pperiia bo bul po calmam punb, acap 
acbepc ppiu, ip cec bib nech ecin uaib bo 
bul po uip na h-innpipe bia coipecpao. 
Qcpachc puap Oopan eplaccao, acap ipeo 
acbepc. Oia nam sabca olpe ip eplom lem 
pin. Q Oopain ol Colum cille pocbia a log 
pin .1. m cibepchep a icjjje bo neoch i com- 
lige pi mina popcpa pippep ap cup. l/ui& 
lapuTn Oopan bo6um mrtie. pochaigip lum 
eclaip hi la lapum. ' Columkille said, then, to 
his people, It would be well for us that our 
roots should pass into the earth here. And he 
said to them, It is permitted to you that some 
one of you go under the earth of this island to 
consecrate it. Odhran arose quickly, and thus 
spake : If you accept me, said he, I am ready 
for that. O Odhran, said Columcille, you shall 
receive the reward of this : no request shall be 
granted to any one at my tomb, unless he first 
ask of thee. Odhran then went to heaven. He 
(Colum) founded the church of Hy then.' Such 
is the story in the old Irish Life, which O'Don- 
nell transfers into his narrative (ii. 12, Tr. Th. 
p. 41 1 a), adding, " Sacrum corpus eo loco cre- 
2 



204 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB, in. 



'DE ANGELORUM REVELATA EIDEM SANCTO VIRO VISIONE, QUI ANIMAM ALICU- 

JUS DIORMITI AD CGELUM DUCEBANT. 

ALIO in tempore, quidam 2 Hiberniensis peregrinus ad Sanctum perve- 
nicns, per aliquot apud eum menses in 3 Ioua 4 commanebat insula. Cui vir 
bcatus alia die, Nunc, ait, quidam de provincialibus 7 tuis clericis ad ccelum 
ab augelis portatur, cujus adhuc ignore nomen. Frater vero hoc audiens 
co3pit secum de 8 provincia perscrutari Anteriorum a , 9 qui Scotice 10 Indairthir b 
"nuncupantur, et de illius beati hominis vocabulo ; 12 hocque consequenter 
intulit verbum, "inquiens, Alium Christi scio 14 militonem qui sibi in eodem 
territorio, in quo et ego commanebam, 18 monasteriolum construxit, nomine 
Diorinitium . Cui Sanctus ait, Ipse est de quo dicis, qui nunc ab angelia 



16 



i titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll, 
vincialibus B. provincia D. 
12 hoc eis D. 13 dicens D. 



2 evernieusis A. C. 3 iona B. 4 commanens D. 6 compro- 
i tua D. 8 vita B. 9-u om. C. D. F. S. 1( > ondairtir B. 
commilitonem C. 15 monasterium D. 1G diarmatum D. 



ditum est, qui deinceps Odrani sepulchretum 
est appellatus." It is a remarkable fact that 
the principal, and now only cemetery in Hy is 
called the Reilig Orain, after him instead of the 
patron saint, and has been so for many centu- 
ries ; for in the gloss to the Feilire of JEngus, 
at St. Odhran's commemoration, Oct. 27, it is 
observed, o hi Cholaim cille .1. "Relic Ofrpcnn, 
' of Hy Colaim-cille, .1. of Relic Odhrain.' Pro- 
bably Odhran was the first of St. Columba's fra- 
ternity who was interred in the island, and the 
whole island being called after the patron, the 
cemetery took its name from the first kinsman 
of his community who was buried in it. The 
story had not lost in its carriage when it was 
told to Pennant, and the late Hon. A. Herbert 
has revived it in a way which will surprise if it 
does not convince. See his Peculiarities of Cul- 
deism, British Magazine, vol. xxvi. p. 10 ; Irish 
Nennius, p. xxv. See also the drawings of St. 
Oran's chapel, a building of the twelfth cen- 
tury, but the oldest now remaining in the island, 
and of the Reilig, in Graham's Antiqq. of Iona, 
plates 5, 6 (Lond. 1850). 



a Anteriorum. Equivalent to Orientalium. 
See the note on the word, i. 43 (p. 82) 
supra. 

b Indairthir. This word is compounded of 
int>, an old form of the article in the nom. plu- 
ral, which is usually joined to its noun (see 
Zeuss, Gram. Celt. i. pp. 230, 237 ; O'Donovan, 
Ir.Gr.p. 67), and Qipchip, 'Easterns.' Some- 
times it appears in the early Annals in the form 
na riGipchep, and sometimes, as An. Ult. 640, 
in its equivalent Latin Orientates. "Ri na nGvp- 
chip, of Tigh. 722, is rex Orientalium in An. 
Ult. 721. Thus in the Tripartite Life of St. 
Patrick, Oirthir, id est Orientalis, iii. 71 (Tr. 
Th. p. 162 6). The people were so called, as 
inhabiting cnpceop Gipgiall, East Oriel (Four 
Mast. 1099). See the note, p. 83, supra. 

Diormitium. Not expressly noticed in the 
calendars. Colgan conjectured that he was 
"Diarmait, son of Meachar, bishop of Airther- 
magh in Tuath-ratha," who is commemorated 
at Jan. 16; but incorrectly, for Tuath-ratha is 
now called Toora, and is part of the barony 
of Magheraboy, in the county of Fermanagh ; 



CAP. 7, 8.] Auctore Adamnano. 205 

Dei in paradisum deductus est. Sed hoc 17 etiam non negligenter adnotandum 
est, quod idem vir venerabilis multa sibi a Deo arcana, ab aliis celata, sacra- 
menta d , nullo modo in hominum notitiam prodi passus sit, duabus, ut ipse ali- 
quando paucis 18 intimaverat fratribus, causis existentibus ; hoc est, ut jactan- 
tiam devitaret, et ad semetipsum interrogandum, insustentabiles turbas de se 
aliqua interrogare volentes, divulgata revelationum fama, non invitaret. 



'DE ANGELORUM CONTRA D^EMONES FORTI BELLIGERATIONE SANCTO IN 
EODEM BELLO OPPORTUNE 2 SUBVENIENTIUM. 

ALIA die, vir sanctus, in 3 Ioua conversans insula, remotiorem ab 4 homini- 
bus locum, aptumque ad orationem, in saltibus quaesivit : ibidemque cum 
orare ccepisset, subito, ut ipse postea paucis intimaverat fratribus, videt contra 
se nigerrimam da3monum a cum ferreis verubus aciem prceliari : qui, sicuti 
sancto viro per Spiritum revelatum erat, monasterium ejus invadere, et multos 

n jam D. is om. D. 
1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 subvenientis B. 3 iona B. 4 omnibus B. D. 

whereas the church mentioned in the text was defence of Brandubh's soul. And the battle 

on the east side of the county of Armagh. passed over Rome, and the style fell out of 

d Sacramenta See note k , i. 43 (p. 84), and Columkille's cloak, and dropped in front of 

chap. 6 (p. 203), supra. Gregory, who took it up in his hand. Colum- 

a Dcemonum. St. Columba is represented as kille followed the soul of Brandubh to heaven, 
engaged on various occasions in personal en- When he reached it, the congregation of hea- 
counters with demons ; as, when he went to the ven were at Celebration, namely, Te deeet 
aid of Cainnech of Aghabo, and Eugenius of hymnus, and Benedic anima mea, and Laudate 
Ardstraw (O'Donnell, ii. 22, Tr. Th. p. 4126); pueri Dominum; and this is the beginning of 
and of Ruadhan of Lothra (Tr. Th. p. 461 a, the Celebration of heaven. Columbkille did the 
0.39). But his most brilliant achievement is same as the people of heaven. And they brought 
related in the Irish legend of King Brandubh's Brandubh's soul back to his body again. Co- 
death, of which the following is a literal trans- lumbkille tarried with Gregory j and brought 
lation : " Brandubh was killed on the morrow, away Gregory's brooch [t>ealc] with him, and 
and demons carried off his soul into the air. it is the hereditary brooch [t>els cnbechca, 
And Maedhog [abbot of Ferns] heard the wail literally testamentary brooch, being an heir- 
of his soul as it was undergoing pain, while he loom in Hy, as the clos an ea&acbca, or tes- 
was with the reapers. And he went into the tamentary bell, was in Armagh] of the coarb of 
air, and began to battle with the demons. And Columkille to this day. And he left his style 
they passed over Hy; and Columkille heard with Gregory." Lib. Lecan, f 01.1830. The 
them while he was writing ; and he stuck the legend is transferred from the Irish original 
style [571 aib, graphium] into his cloak, and into O'Donnell's Life. See Colgan's abridg- 
ment to the battle to the aid of Maedhog, in ment, iii. 45 (Tr. Th. p. 439 a). 



206 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. in. 



ex fratribus iisdem volebant jugulare sudibus b . Ipse vero contra tales semulos 
imus homo innumeros, accepta Pauli armatura c apostoli, forti conflictu dimica- 
bat. Et ita ex majore diei parte utrinque dimicatum est, nee innumerabiles 
unum 5 vincere poterant, nee eos unus de sua valebat insula repellere ; donee 
angeli Dei, ut Sanctus post quibusdam non multis retulerat, in adminiculum 
affuere; 6 quorum timore 7 proturbati dsemones loco cessere. Eademque die, 
Sanctus ad monasterium post daemoniorum reversus de sua insula effugatio- 
nern, hoc de 8 eisdem Hurmis hostilibus verbum profatur, inquiens, Illi 10 exitia- 
biles u aemuli qui hac die de hujus 12 terrulse, Deo propitio, regione, angelis 
13 nobis subvenientibus, ad 14 Ethicam d 15 effugati sunt e 16 terram, "ibidemque 
18 saevi 19 invasores, fratrum monasteria invadent, et pestilentes 20 inferent mor- 
bos, quorum molestia infestati, multi morientur. Quod iisdem diebus, juxta 
beati 21 praescientiam viri, ita 22 et factum est. Et post, interveniente biduo, ei 
revelante Spiritu, Bene, ait, Baitheneus f , auxiliante Deo, dispensavit ut ejus- 

5 om. D. 6 quo B. 7 perturbati C. D. 8 demoniacis D. 9 om. D. 10 exitiati D. 
demones D. 12 terra D. 13 om . D. " aethicam C. 15 fugati C. D. F. S. 16 om. D. 
i? ibidem C. 18 ' 19 intrantes D. 20 f er ent D. sententiam D. 22 om. D. 



b Sudibus. This may be taken metaphori- 
cally, for, on the expulsion of the demons to 
the Ethica terra, their assaults were felt in the 
form of pestilent diseases. Thus the word 
arrow is used in Psal. xci. 5 ; and log in Iliad, 
A. 48. At sea their violence was experienced 
in the raging of tempests. See ii. 34 (p. 149) 
supra, cap. iii. 13 (p. 214) infra. 

c Pauli armatura. Ephes. vi. 13-17. It was 
thus, as Bede relates, that St. Cuthbert freed 
the little island of Fame from demoniacal oc- 
cupation. Vit. S. Cuthb. c. 17 ; Hist. Eccl. iv. 28. 

d Ethicam terram The island of Tiree. See 

note b , i. 19 (p. 48) supra. To which may ba 
added, in reference to the transition forms of 
the name, that Martin calls it Tire-iy, but 
partly errs in deriving it from Tire, a country, 
and iy, an isthmus. (West. Islands, p. 267.) 

e Effugati sunt. Cruachan-aichle, now 
Croagh Patrick, a mountain in Mayo, is fa- 
mous in legendary record as the scene of St. 
Patrick's final conflict with the demons of Ire- 
land : from its summit he drove them into the 



ocean, and completed their discomfiture by 
flinging his bell, the Seaman Brighde, among 
their retreating ranks. (Vit. Trip. ii. 64, Tr. 
Th. p. 138 a.) Passing northwards, they 
emerged from the deep, and took up their 
abode in the savage wilds of Seangleann, on 
the south-west of Donegal. Here they re- 
mained unmolested till our Tirconnellian saint 
was directed by an angel to rid the place of 
its foul inhabitants. After a violent struggle 
with the demons, he completely routed them, 
and with the help of the Dubh-duaibseach, his 
bell, drove them once for all into the sea. His 
name was henceforward associated with the 
tract, and the wild parish of Glencolumbkill 
preserves in its topography and traditions a 
living commentary on the legend of St. Co- 
lumba's first visit to it, as told by Manus O'Don- 
nell in 1520. (Vit. S. Columbae, i. 89, Tr. Th. 
p. 403 6.) Sliabh Liag, commonly called Slieve- 
League, a precipitous mountain in this region, 
commands, in clear weather, a view of Croagh 
Patrick on the south-west. 



CAP. 9-] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



207 



dem ecclesias cui, Deo auctore, prasest, in Campo 23 Lunge g , jejuniis etorationi- 
bus collectio 11 a dsemonum 24 defendatur invasione : ubi nemo, excepto uno qui 
mortuus est, hac vice morietur. Quod ita, juxta vaticinium ejus, expletum 
est. Nam cum multi ii ; ceteris ejusdem insulee monasteriis 1 eodem morbo 
morerentur, nemo, nisi unus de quo Sanctus dixit, apud 25 Baitheneum in sua 
est mortuus congregatione. 



ANGELORUM APPARITIONS QUOS VIR DEI VIDERAT ALICUJUS ANIMAM, NO- 
MINE COLUMBI, FABRI FERRARII, COILRIGINI COGNOMENTO, AD CGELOS 
EVEHERE. 

QUIDAM faber ferrarius in 2 mediterranea 3 Scotise habitabat 4 parte% eleemo- 
synarum operibus satis intentus, et ceteris justitias actibus plenus. Hie, cum 
ad extrema in bona senectute perduceretur, supra memoratus Columbus 5 cog- 



23 lugne D. 24 defendantur B. ^ baithenum D. 

1 titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 ~* media parte hybernie que vocatur midi habitabat D. 
om. C. D. F. S. 



3 scothicse C. 



f Baitheneus. His connexion with the Ethica 
Terra is mentioned in i. 19 (p. 49), 30 (p. 59), 
41 (p. 78), ii. 15 (p. 125), supra. 

s Campo Lunge. See note f , i. 30 (p. 59). 

h Collectio. Called congregatio further on. 

1 Ceteris insulce monasteriis. Besides that of 
Campus Lunge, mention is made by Adamnan 
of that at Artchaindn Ethica Terra (i. 36, p. 66, 
supra). Compared with its extent, the eccle- 
siastical remains of Tiree are very numerous : 
Kilbride, Kilchenich, Kilfinnan, Kilmoluag, 
Claodh-Odhrain, and Templepatrick, comme- 
morative of SS.Brigid,Cainnech, Finnian, Mo- 
lua, Odhran, and Patrick, in the common cal- 
endar of Ireland and Scotland, are the names 
of farms on which there are, or were, religious 
houses. Soroby and Kirkapoll, the ancient 
parish cemeteries, are rich in curious monu- 
ments; besides which, the vestiges of Christian 
sepulture have been found in Ardkirknish, 
Knock-a-chlaodh, Claodhbeg, and Templefield. 
See the ecclesiastical notice of Tiree in the 
Ulst. Journal of Archaeol., vol. ii. pp. 238-244. 



a Mediterranea Scotice parte Durrow is 
placed there in i. 3 (p. 23) supra. Cod. D. 
supplies in the present passage the name of 
Meath. The five original provinces [CUTS 
coigf&a] of Ireland are said to have met at 
the hill of Uisnech in Westmeath, where the 
point of junction was marked by a large stone 
called (III na impeanTi (Elnamiran), ' stone of 
the portions.' Tuathal Teachtmar is reported 
to have cut off from each the part adjacent to 
the common centre, and from them combinedly 
to have formed the province of TKlifri, or Meath. 
See Keating, Hist. vol. i. pp. 126, 128, 140 (Ed. 
Haliday). Thus Giraldus Cambrensis, speak- 
ing of the five provinces, observes : " Quarum 
capita in lapide quodam conveniunt apud Me- 
diam juxta castrum de Kyllari, qui lapis et 
umbilicus Hibernice dicitur : quasi in medio et 
meditullio terree positus. Unde et Media pars 
ilia Hibernise vocatur, quia in medio est insulse 
sita." Topogr. Hib. iii. 4 (p. 736, ed. Camden). 
" Pro quo tamen umbilico, Birrse in comitatu 
regio alius quidam excavatus lapis hodie osten- 



208 Vita Sancti Columbce [LIB. m. 

nominatus c Coilriginus b , eadem hora qua de corpore eductus est, sanctus 
Columba in loua commanens insula, paucis quibusdam 7 se circumstantibus, 
sic profatus, senioribus, 8 Columbus Coilriginus, ait, 10 faber ferrarius , non 
incassum laboravit, qui de propria manuum laboratic$ie suarum praemia, emax, 
felix, n compariiit sterna. Ecce enim, nunc anima ejus a sanctis vehitur an- 
gelis ad coclestis patriai gaudia. Nam quodcunque de sure artis negotiatione 
acquirere potuit, in egenorum eleemosynas expendit. 



'DE ANGELORUM SIMILI VISIONS QUOS VIR BEATUS ASPEXERAT ALICUJUS 
BENE MORATJE FEMINJE ANIMAM AD CCELUM FERRE. 

ALIO itidem 2 in Hempore, vir sanctus in loua conversans insula, 4 quadain 
5 die, subito oculos ad co3lum dirigens, ha3C profatus est verba, Felix mulier, 
felix bene morata, cujus animam nunc angeli Dei ad paradisum evehunt. 
Erat autem quidam religiosus frater, Genereus nomine, Saxo a , 6 pistor b , opus 

7 de D. 8 columb A. 9 om. G. D. F. S. 10 et add. D. comparavit C. 

i titul. om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 om. C. D. 3 die D. - om. D. 6 A. B. C. D. F. S. 

pictor Colg. Boll. 

ditur." Ussher, Brit. EC. Ant. cap. i3(Wks. v. occupation Colgan supposes him to be the 

p. 518; and vi. Ind. Chronol. 591). The Life Colum gotta, 'Columthe smith,' commemo- 

of St. Kiaran is still more exact: "Cluain- rated in the calendars at June 7. St. Patrick's 

mic-nois qui est in medio Hibernije." cap. 29 three smiths appear in the Calendar (O'Dono- 

(Cod. Marsh, fol. 147 a b). Thus Finnian saw van, Four Mast. 448, i. p. 137.) St. Dega, the 

at Clonmacnois a silver sun which " Hiberniae bishop of Iniscaindega (now Inishkeen in Mo- 

umbilicum mire irradiatum prope incendebat." naghan), derived his name of Dayg (" hoc enim 

O'Don. i. 20 (Tr. Th. p. 392 6). Even Seir- nomen Scotica lingua magnam flammam so- 

kieran in the King's County is represented as nat") from his employment in making "plu- 

a central position : Saiger " in medio Hibernise rima de ferro et sere de auro atque argento 

positum." Vit. S. Kierani, c. 25 (Act. SS. p. . utensilia ad usum ecclesise." (Act. SS. Aug. 

461 6). Athlone is nearly the exact centre of torn. iii. p. 659 a.) His day is Aug. 18. 

Ireland, and the adjacent parts of Westmeath * Saxo Another is mentioned in cap. 22 

and King's County are indicated as the pro- infra. " These converts were not indebted 

bable scene of the present narrative. for their faith to Augustin or the other Ro- 

b Coilriginus A surname possibly denoting man missionaries, who had not as yet arrived 

that he was of the Calraighe, a tribe of whom, in G. Britain, nor to British preachers, whereas 

called Calraighe Teathbha, gave name to Sliabh the Britons, as Gildas and Bede have com- 

gCalraidhe, now Slieve Golry, near Ardagh, in plained, added to their other crimes the horrid 

the middle of Longford, not far north of the sin of neglecting to announce the Gospel to the 

exact centre of Ireland. Anglo-Saxons. On the contrary, the Irish 

c Faber ferrarius. From the mention of his clergy and monks undertook that duty as soon 



CAP. 10, ii.] Auctore Adamnano. 209 

7 pistorium exercens, qui hoc audierat verbum ex ore Sancti prolatum. Eadem- 
que die mensis, eodem terminato anno, Sanctus eidem Genereo, Saxoni, Mirani 
retn video, ait ; ecce, mulier de qua, teprsesente, prseterito dixeram anno, 8 nunc 
niariti sui religiosi cujusdam plebeii in aere obviat anima?, et cum sanctis an- 
gelis contra 9 emulas pro ea 10 belligerat, potestates: quorum adminiculo, ejus- 
dem homuncionis justitia suffragan te, a daemonura belligerationibus erepta, ad 
a3terna3 refrigerationis locum anima ipsius est perducta. 



J DE ANGELORUM APPARITIONE SANCTORUM QUOS SANCTUS COLUMBA OBVIOS 
IN TRANSITU VIDERAT BEATI 2 BRENDENI ANUVLE, ILLIUS MONASTERII FUN- 
DATORIS QUOD SCOTICE BIRRA a NUNCUPATUR. 

ALIA itidem die, dum vir venerandus in 3 Ioua 4 conversaretur insula, 
mane primo suum advocat saepe memoratum ministratorem 5 Diormitium no- 

7 A. pistorum B. C. D. F. S. pictorium Colg. Boll. 8 om. D, 9 emulos D. 10 belligerantes D. 
1 tituL om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 B. brendini A. 3 iona B. * conversatur D. 5 diarmatura D. 

as a fit opportunity occurred, and have been on Gueren, a Saxon ; and a Saxon baker, or pistor 
that account often praised by Bede. It can (Edit. Pinkert.}, which the editions oftheBol- 
scarcely be doubted, that they were the instru- landines, Colgan, and other Catholics, have 
ments used by the Almighty for the conversion printed pictor. But as Columba had no images, 
of those early Anglo-Saxon Christians in Co- he had no occasion for a painter." Life of St. 
lumba's time ; and that, with regard to a part Columba, p. 1 15. This statement is full of 
of that nation, they got the start of the Roman blunders ; less flippancy and more learning 
missionaries in the blessed work of bringing would have excused other Catholics, for Cani- 
them over to the Christian faith." Lanigan, sius and Messingham read pistor. The joint 
Eccles. Hist. ii. p. 174. error in Colgan and the Acta Sanctorum arose 
b Pistor. The corrupt reading pictor in Col- from the use of a common manuscript, Stephen 
gan and the Bollandists has been productive White's transcript of Cod. A., which probably 
of opposite results. On the one hand, it has contained the incorrect reading. Colgan's 
afforded to the admirers of ancient Irish art a abridged version of O'Donnell has pictor, ii. 26 
supposed evidence of its cultivation in Hy (see (Tr. Th. p. 413 4) ; so has the Vita Secunda, 
Dr. F. Keller's Bilder und Schriftzuye in den from the Cod. Salmanticensis, c. 24 (Tr. Th. 
irischen Manuscripten, p. 73, where Westwood's p. 328 a). Possibly in these places Colgan has 
Palaogr aphia Sacra is cited) ; and, on the ventured on an imagined emendation, 
other, it suggested to the half-informed Dr. a Birra. See cap. 3 (p. 193) supra, biop, or 
John Smith the notion that it was a wilful per- bip, gen. bippa, signifies a ' stream,' and some- 
version of the text, to serve religious ends. times becomes a proper name, as in this case, 
" Thus we find Adomnau mentions several and that of the Moyola Water in the county of 
Saxons in Iona, such as St. Pilo, a Saxon ; St. Londonderry, which was anciently called the 

2E 



210 



Vita Sancti Columbw 



[LIB. in. 



mine, eique prrocipit, inquiens, Sacra celeriter Eucharistiaj ministeria prajpa- 
rentur. Hodie enim natalis b beati Brendeni c 'dies. Quare, ait minister, 
talia missarum d solemnia hodierna "prarparari "praccipis ? nullus enim ad nos de 
Scotia sancti illius viri obitus pervenit nuncius. Vade 10 tum, ait Sanctus, 
mere obsecundare jussioni debes. Hac enim n nocte pra3terita e vidi subito 
apertum coelum, angelorumque chores 12 sancti 13 Brendeni animae obvios descen- 
dere : quorum luminosa et incomparabili claritudine totus eadem hora illus- 
tratus est mtindi orbis. 



J DE ANGELORUM VISIONE SANCTORUM QUI SANCTI COLUMBANI EPISCOPI, 
MOCU 2 LOIGSE% ANIMAM AD CCELUM EVEXERANT. 

QUAD AM 3 itidem die, 4 dum fratres, se calceantes 5 , mane ad diversa monas- 
terii opera ire prsepararent, Sanctus e contra ea die otiari prsecipit, sacrseque 



6 B. brendini A. brendani D. 7 est add. C. 8 die add. D. 
13 innumerorum add. B. 13 B. brendini A. brandani D. 

i titul om. C. D. F. S. Boll. 2 A. B. 3 om. D. * cum C. 



9 die add. C. 10 tu C. " die D. 



JBior (see note d , p. 52, supra; Colg. Tr. Th. p. 
396 a, c. 46). The monastery of Birr, so called 
from the stream on which it stood, grew in 
after times into a town bearing the same name, 
for which Parsonstown is a modern substitute. 
Birr is set down by Keating as a boundary of 
ancient Meath (vol. i. p. 128, ed. Haliday). It 
was formerly part of Eile O'Carroll, in Mun- 
ster, but is now at the S. W. extremity of the 
King's County, in Leinster, "in ipso Hiberniae 
meditullio." (Ussher, Wks. vi. p. 523.) 

b Natalis. That is, dies obiius. See ii. 45 
(p. 182) supra; Ussher, Brit. EC. Ant. c. 17 
(Wks. vi. p. 445)- 

c Brendeni Mentioned already in cap. 3 

(p. 193) supra. He was son of Neman and 
Mannsena, and was one of the race of Corb 
Aulam, great-grandson of Rudhraighe, the 
founder of the Clanna Rudhraighe (O'Flaherty, 
Ogyg. p. 274). Ussher in one place (Ind. 
Chron. 57 1) erroneously calls him films Luaig- 
nei, but elsewhere he correctly writes "Neimi 
sive Nemaindi clari poetae films." (Wks. vi. 



p. 523.) He was sometimes called senior Bren- 
danus, to distinguish him from Brendan of 
Clonfert, son of Finnlogh, and is spoken of as 
" Brandanus Biorra, qui Propheta in scholis 
illis, et etiam sanctorum Hiberniensium habe- 
batur." Vit. Finniani, c. 19 (Colg. Act. SS. p. 
395 a). His acts are preserved in the Cod. 
Salmant., from which Colgan published the por- 
tion relating to St. Columba (Tr. Th. p. 462 a, 
n. 44). The date of his founding the church of 
Birr is not recorded, but Tighernach, at 559, 
has this curious entry: Ascensio Brenaind in 
curru suo in aerem. His death is entered in 
Tighernach at 565 and 573 ; in the An. Ult. at 
564 and 57 1 ; and in the An. Inisfall. at 565. 
The later date in Tighernach seems preferable. 
Ussher and the Four Mast, fix the event at 57 1. 
He died on the night before the 29th of No- 
vember, which is his day in the Calendar, in 
the eightieth year of his age. 

d Missarum. See the observations of Ussher, 
Works, vol. iv. p. 276. 

e Node preterita Here, as in the case of 



CAP. 12.] 



Auctore Adamnano. 



21 I 



oblationis obsequia prseparari, et aliquam, quasi in Dominico, prandioli adjec- 
tionem fieri . Meque, ait, hodie, quamlibet indignus 5 sim, ob venerationem 
illius anirnse quaj hac in nocte d inter sanctos angelorum chores vecta, ultra 
"siderea crelorum 7 spatia ad paradisum ascendit, sacra 8 oportet Eucharistia? 
celebrare 9 mysteria e . Et his dictis fratres obsequuntur, et, juxta Sancti jus- 
sionem, eadem ociantur die : prasparatisque sacris, 10 ad ecclesiam, n ministeriis, 
quasi 12 die solenni 13 albati f cum Sancto pergunt. Sed forte, u dum inter talia 
cum modulatione officia 16 illa consueta 10 decantaretur 17 deprecatio g , in qua 
sancti Martini 18 commemoratur nomen h , subito 19 Sanctus ad can tores, ejus- 

5 sum D. 6 sydera D. 7 om. D. s om. D. 9 decet add. D. 10 misteriis add. D. 

11 om. D. 12 om. D. A. abbati B. C. sabbati Colg. Boll. ^ cum C. 15 " 17 illam consuetam 
deprecaretur prefacionem D. 16 decantarcnt C. 1B commemoraretur C. 19 pater D. 



St. Columba's death, the occurrence of the 
night was commemorated, on the following 
day. Thus hac in node in cap. 12, infra. 

a Mocu Loigse That is, mac U i/ci^pe, 
filius Nepotum Loiyisi. Loigsech or Laeigh- 
seach Cenn-mor was the son of Conall Cer- 
nach, a famous hero of the first century ; his 
son, Lughaidh Laeighseach, obtained from the 
then king of Leinster a tract in that province, 
in which he settled, and which received from his 
descendants the name of Laiyhis, afterwards 
called Leix. That territory is now repre- 
sented by the. four central baronies of the 
Queen's County, and the ancient name is pre- 
served in the compound Abbeyleix, a parish sit- 
uate therein. Oennu, second abbot of Clon- 
macnois, who was of the same race, is designated 
TTlac hua Laigpe in Tighernach, An. 570, and 
the Calendars at Jan. 20. See the note on Co- 
lumbanus, next page. Concerning the terri- 
torial Laeighis, see O'Flaherty, Ogyg. p. 293 ; 
Book of Rights, p. 215. 

b Calceantes. See ii. 13 (pp. 122, 123) supra. 
In the Irish Lives we often meet with the 
words fico, and subtalaris or sotularis, instead 
of calceus. 

c Adjectionem fieri. From this passage we 
learn that Sundays and other holidays were 
marked at Hy by rest from labour, celebration 
of the Eucharist, and improved diet. 

2 



d Hac in nocte. According to our mode of 
speaking he would have said nocte proeterita. 
See note i, i. 45 (p. 181), note e , cap.n (p. 210), 
supra. 

e Celebrare mysteria. See note d , on preced- 
ing chapter. 

f Albati The reading in Colgan and the 

Bollandists is absurd, for sabbatum, which in 
Adamnan and other authors until modern times 
always signifies Saturday, was a dies solemnis 
only among Jews. So albatis induti vestibus, 
cap. 16 : albatorum millium, cap. 23, infra. 

e Consueta deprecatio. This was a prayer, 
" pro animabus defunctorum," among which St. 
Columba now introduced a fresh name, directing 
the choristers pro sancto Columbano episcopo 
decantare. 

h Martini nomen In the ancient Gallican 

Liturgy, which seems to have been closely fol- 
lowed by the Irish, it was usual for the priest, 
after he had placed the oblation on the altar, 
to say the prayer, " Veni Sanctificator Omni- 
potens JEterne Deus, et benedic hoc sacrificium 
tuonomini praeparatum, per Christum Dominum 
nostrum." This was followed by the recital 
from the diptychs of the saints' names, both 
deceased and living, in whose memory, or for 
whom, the offering was made. The nature of 
this commemoration we learn from the form 
prescribed by St. Aurelianus for the church of 

E 2 



212 



Vita Sancti Columbce 



[LIB. in. 



dcm onomatis 1 ad locum pervenientes, Hodie, ait, pro sancto Columbano 
episcopo decantare debetis. Tune omnes 20 qui inerant 21 fratres intellexere 
quod Columbanus k , episcopus M Lagcnensis l , cams Columbaj amicus, ad Domi- 

20-21 fratrcs qui cum co crant D. ~~ laginensis C. D. 



Aries, as given by Mabillon : " Simulque pre- 
cantes oranius etiam, Domine, pro animabus 
famulorum tuorum Patrum atque institutorum 
quondam nostrorum, Aureliani, Petri, Floren- 
tini, Redempti, Constantini, Himiteri, Hilarini, 
Januarini, Reparati, Childeberti, Wltrogota3, 
vel omnium f rat rum nostrorum, quos de hoc 
loco ad te vocare dignatus es. Cunctorum- 
que etiam hujus loci memores Fidelium, pari- 
terque parent um nostrorum atque servientium 
hujus loci : et pro animabus omnium Fidelium 
famuloruin tuorum, vel famularum, ac peregri- 
norum in pace Eeclesize defunctoi'um : ut eis 
tu, Domine Deus noster, peccatorum tribuas 
veniam, et requiem largiaris Eeternam; meritis 
et intercessionibus Sanctorum tuorum, Marise 
genitricis Domini nostri Jesu-Christi, Johannis 
Baptists et Prsecursoris Domini nostri Jesu- 
Christi, Stephani, Petri, Pauli, Johanni