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Commercial Development Plan 

for the 

International Space Station 


16 November 1998 




Commercial Development Plan 
for the 

International Space Station 


Objective 

• Long Term: To establish the foundation for a marketplace and stimulate a national economy for 
space products and services in low-Earth orbit, where both demand and supply are dominated by 
the private sector. 

• Short Term: To begin the transition to private investment and offset a share of the public cost for 
operating the space shuttle fleet and space station through commercial enterprise in open markets. 


Strategy 

• In partnership with the private sector, initiate a set of pathfinder business opportunities which can 
achieve profitable operations over the long run without public subsidies. Employ these businesses 
to break down market barriers in the near term and open the path for economic expansion. 

• Initialize the process through the internal NASA study of pathfinder candidates, as a point-of- 
departure, with emphasis on pushing the envelope in terms of both public and private sector 
policies, procedures and cultural predispositions [study results provided in attachment /]. 

Tactics 

1. Release Baseline Pathfinder Study with NASA Assessment of Goods and Services with 
Commercial Potential 

• Identify nine pilot business areas for private sector validation [completed], 

• Initiate business development in partnership with industry. 

2. Commission an Independent Market Assessment to Initiate the Most Effective Pathfinders 
{Horizon: 6 Months) 

• Task a nationally prominent business school with recognized high technology acumen, 
through a new cooperative agreement, to evaluate the prospect of the space station becoming a 
fee-for-service commercial technology development testbed. 

• Task SpaceVest, through existing cooperative agreement, to evaluate the private investment 
potential in emerging markets for space products and services which could be enabled through 
access to space shuttle, shuttle replacements and space station accommodations. 

• Task the United Space Alliance, through existing contract, to evaluate the prospect of space 
shuttles and space station as platforms for commercially provided products and services. 

• Task the Boeing Aerospace Corporation, through existing contract, to evaluate the prospect cf 
the space station as a customer for commercially provided growth elements, distributed 
systems, and utility services. 

• Task the Commercial Space Centers, through existing cooperative agreements, to query then- 
existing 135 industrial affiliates and evaluate the prospect of the space station becoming a fee- 
for-service product development laboratory or production center. 


• Task the KPMG Peat Marwick Space and High Technology Practice, through existing 
contract, to convene a panel composed of representatives from each of the previously identified 
areas, and others as needed, to review the range of market assessments and to synthesize a 
report on: (a) the market potential; (b) perceived barriers to market entry, and; (c) the most 
effective pathfinder enterprises. 


3. Characterize Barriers to Market Entry and Identify Corrective Actions 

(Horizon: 6 Months) 

Access to Space 

• Direct a cross-program team to audit current practices for assigning space shuttle middeck 
accommodations and establish a minimum set-aside for flight opportunities on every mission 
[underway]. 

• Appoint a dedicated Senior Assistant for Access to Space, charged to continuously scan for, 
and secure, alternative flight opportunities on both reusable and expendable launch vehicles 
[underway]. 

• Benchmark the NASA cost to sortie one dedicated space shuttle mission per year, Commerce 
Lab , until the space station achieves full payload readiness. Identify as an augmentation in the 
FY 2001 NASA submit to the Office of Management and Budget 


Administrative Process 

• Establish a clearing house function at NASA headquarters for the logging and dispositioning 
of commercial proposals. Implement through an agency- wide Organizational Work Instruction 
in compliance with ISO-9001 [draft provided in attachment 2]. 


Policy 

• Acquire an experienced professional economist to update the 1985 Congressional Budget 
Office report on “Pricing Options for the Space Shuttles” and the 1994 National Academy cf 
Public Administration report on “A Review of Space Shuttle Costs, Reductions Goals and 
Procedures”. Benchmark historic marginal and average costs of space shuttle flights, and 
project costs for space station accommodations. 

• Task the KPMG Peat Marwick Space and High Technology Practice to evaluate the effects of 
transitioning from a cost-based to value-based pricing policy with provisions for government 
cost offsets, and define objective methods for establishing value. 

• Task the NASA Office of Policy and Plans and Office of Public Affairs to: (I) acquire the 

services of a recognized firm in the practice of name brand management to evaluate the value of 
space program associations in advertising and customer relations, and; (2) initiate a review cf 
NASA practices related to commercial enterprises involving public service sponsorships, 
expressed or implied endorsements, or other situations which affect public perception of the 
nation*s = space program. " dTdJddJ"' V" _ 

• Implement the pathfinder strategy as a forcing function to advance policies which will enable 

the commercial development of space shuttle and space station. - - 

Intellectual Property 

• Task the NASA Office of General Counsel to complete a reference guide discussing the 
statutory, regulatory and programmatic strictures on the deployment, utilization and 
ownership of intellectual property within the space station program. 


3 



• Building on General Accounting Office audit #707379 of technology control plans for the 
space station, task the NASA Office of General Counsel to review agency policy related to the 
handling and treatment of proprietary data. If necessary, issue a NASA Policy Directive to 
correct any deficiencies. 


4. Establish a Non-Government Organization for Space Station Utilization Development and 

Management (Horizon: 1 + Year) 

• Develop a reference model to communicate vision, goals, purposes and working principles fix 
a non-govemment organization (NGO) to manage US utilization of the space station and to 
reduce cost/schedule impediments at the user-operator interface [provided in attachment 3]. 

• Conduct a comprehensive vetting of stakeholders in the government, academic and industrial 
sectors, with the objective of elucidating advantages and disadvantages associated with for- 
profit, non-profit, and hybrid consortium approaches implemented under contractual or 
cooperative agreements. 

• Develop an organizational and telecommunications architecture that will be most effective fix 
evolution to an international scope of operations consistent with the national objectives and 
existing infrastructure of all partners in the space station program. 

• Issue a Request for Proposals and select a NGO in parallel with deployment of the US 
Laboratory in calendar year 2000. 


This plan we have set forth, in concert with the 1998 Commercial Space Act, represents an unprecedented 
initiative to stimulate business growth in the space sector. With the ongoing support of Congress and the 
Executive Branch, we look forward with great excitement to the opening of the 2 1st century and the role cf 
NASA in continuing to push the frontiers of science, technology and economic development. 



Microgravity Sciences and Applications 



4 



Restructuring the Space Economy 


Short Run 


Lons Run 


Future 
Private Proposals 


Future Government 
Requirements 


Interna! Proposal 
Clearing House 
(ISO 9000) 




NASA Interna! 
Pathfinder Study” 


Independent Externa ! W 
Market Study 
(Commercial Space Act) 


^ Independent External 
Pricing Analysis ^ 
(Shuttle & Station) 


Private 

Pathfinder 

Enterprises 




‘Commerce Lab’ 
Reimbursable Missioi 


Pricing 

Policy 




Non-Government 
Organization* *“* 
(e.g., COMSAT, STSI) 


Privatized 

Space Transportation, 

Space Station 

Operator 
(SFOC Evolution) 


* A Non-Government Organization could be for-profit , 
non-profit, or a hybrid consortium, as determined in the 
course of evaluating pros and cons during the 
stakeholder vetting period \ 


Establishing the Customer - Supplier Relationship 


Customer 

i 




Supplier 


Government 

Uses 

Users 

Known 

Commercial 

Uses 

Untapped 

Commercial 

Opportunities 

NGO for Space Station 
Utilization Development & Management 
(for-profit, non-profit, or hybrid consortium) 





Operators 


New Capability Developers 


5 




Attachment 1 




Internal Study 


Potential Pathfinder Areas 
for 

Commercial Development 
of the International Space Station 


Discussion Draft 
October 1998 


NASA Headquarters Point-of-Contact 

Len Sirota 
Phone: 202-358-4428 
Fax: 202-358-2835 
lsirota@,hq. nasa.gov 


Contents 


l. Introduction 

II. Internationa] Space Station Commercial Opportunities 

A. Scope of Commercial Opportunity 

B. Potential Pathfinder Commercial Opportunities 

C. Assessment and Selection of Potential Pathfinders 

m. Pathfinder International Space Station Commercial Opportunities 

A. Non-Proprietary Pathfinders 


B. Proprietary Pathfinders 



Introduction 


An internal study was undertaken to identify pathfinder business enterprises with the potential to illuminate 
the commercial development of the International Space Station (ISS) and break down any perceived barriers 
to such development. The process used to identify opportunities for commercialization, as well as potential 
pathfinders to evaluate these opportunities is shown in Figure 1 and described in this report The study 
concentrated on delineating the scope of potential commercial opportunities associated with the ISS, as 
well as evaluating, from the NASA perspective, several pathfinder areas of potential interest to the private 
sector. The NASA approach, evaluation criteria, and results are provided in the following study report. As 
the plan for commercial development proceeds, it is anticipated that new business concepts will emerge and 
move to the forefront as private industry becomes involved. These concepts may be related to the 
pathfinders identified in this study, or they may represent entirely new and innovative space products or 
services. In either case, NASA intends to proceed with the most effective set, as determined by the new 
Government-industry partnership. 


Scope 

Commercial 

Opportunities 


Identify 

Potential 

Pathfinders 


Assess and Select 
Pathfinders 


Figure 1: Process Description 


II. International Space Station Commercial Opportunities 
A. Scope of Commercial Opportunity 

The ISS has three broad categories of commercial opportunity: (1) users; (2) operations, and; (3) new 
capability development (Figure 2). With each of these areas, NASA is using its position as both a 
customer and a service provider to stimulate new commercial space businesses. As the user base broadens, 
it is expected that NASA will become just one of the customers for commercial operations and new 
capabilities. 


USERS 


NASA 

Known 

Untapped 

and 

Commercial 

Commercial 

U.S. Government 

Uses 

Uses 


OPERATIONS 


NEW CAPABILITY 
DEVELOPMENT 


Figure 2: Scope of Commercial Opportunities 


3 






Users 


NASA provides resources geared toward the unique capabilities and vantage point of the Station. The ISS 
will be an orbiting laboratory that will provide an unprecedented facility for long-term scientific research, 
technology development, and the achievement of commercial goals in the environment of space. To this 
end, the ISS has a variety of laboratory facilities available. These accommodations and services range from 
laboratory racks in pressurized modules, with full utility and crew services, to externally mounted attached 
payload sites that are exposed to the near vacuum of space. There are also viewing windows for 
observation. 

The spectrum of ISS uses will broaden as the program evolves. For example, there are currently two 
proprietary users, which represent non-aerospace companies, with interests in using the ISS as a product 
development platform. In these cases the companies are pursuing ventures that are unprecedented in terms of 
willingness to invest private resources, as well as the diversity of their envisioned product lines. 

As shown in Figure 3, there will be many new and previously untapped opportunities for using this unique 
facility once the ISS is deployed on orbit. To ensure that there will be adequate opportunities available for 
commercial uses, NASA has already committed to set aside at least 30 percent of the ISS’s payload 
capacity for commercial development. 


Operations _ 

Private industry will provide the services necessary to maintain and continually improve ISS capabilities. 
Operating a space-based laboratory is different and far more complex than similar activities on Earth, but 
these are not insurmountable barriers for major U.S. service providers to overcome if they are to take their 
Earth-based services to space. The services needed for a research platform in low-Earth orbit are, in many 
cases, the same as are required anywhere on Earth or needed by the many satellites orbiting Earth. In the 
case of the Space Shuttle and the ISS -Mir programs, logistics support for both operations and the research 
community are already commercially provided. 

The growing base of users will shape the future operational needs of the ISS. Commercial sources will 
provide and evolve these operational capabilities. NASA will become one of a number of paying customers 
for these augmented services. Candidates for ISS cover a wide range of opportunities, as encompassed in 
Figure 3. 


New Capability Development 

The commercial sector can provide capital improvements to the ISS based on the demand of both public 
and private customers. Such new capability development can be either enhancements to existing 
capabilities — for example, increasing the available power to the ISS users with commercially supplied 
power — or it can be a new capability — for example, a commercially provided module. Because of the large 
investment cost, this area represents the highest commitment of private funds. As with operations, new 
capability development will be market-driven by the profitability of the ISS uses and the increased demand. 
NASA, as one of many users, will benefit from these new and improved capabilities without bearing the 
burden of the total development cost. 


4 



B. Potential Pathfinder Commercial Opportunities 

NASA inventoried ISS capabilities, facilities, and services to identify the areas that may represent 
commercial opportunities within each of the three major categories: (1) users; (2) operations, and; (3) new 
capability development. To this was added our past experience with research activities, the experience with 
each NASA Commercial Space Center (CSC), our discussions with industry, and insight from prior 
proposals received. We intend to continue use of the CSC’s and industry to further validate these 
opportunities in future updates to this plan. 

As the ISS user base develops and new requirements are identified, NASA plans to use commercial 
providers to meet emerging needs. One area that exemplifies this is the ISS Product Improvement Project, 
which identifies the requirements for upgrades, as well as determines whether they can be provided by 
commercial products or services. On July 31, 1998, six public announcements were issued to identify 
companies interested in participating in ISS Product Improvements. 

A primary source for identifying commercial opportunities has been and will continue to be the CSC’s, 
along with their many ties to industry and academia. The CSC’s are, by charter, breeding grounds for new 
commercial ventures and, as such, serve as excellent sources for finding high-potential commercial 
candidates. 

Finally, from time to time, NASA receives unsolicited commercial proposals from companies and 
individuals offering their products or services to NASA. This avenue of development is expected to 
continue, and NASA intends to reengineer internal processes for streamlining the dissemination c £ 
unsolicited proposals across the Agency. 

Seeking new opportunities for commercial development is a continuous process. NASA has completed an 
initial search, and Figure 2 summarizes the range of potential commercial opportunities identified to date. 
The next step is for industry to perform a similar process to validate and enhance our results. 


Users 

Operations 

New Capability Development 

Pharmaceuticals 

Mission Planning 

Augmentation: Core Resources 

Biotechnology 

Training 

Augmentation: New Resources 

Materials 

Flight Control 

Additional Modules and 
Elements 

Electronics/Photonics 

Ground Processing 

Free Flyers 

Communications 

Logistics, Repair, and 
Maintenance 

Technology Development 

Remote Sensing 

Transportation 


Agriculture 

Crew and Cargo Delivery/Retum 


Imagery 

On-Orbit Utilities (e.g., Space-to- 
Ground Communications, 


Education 

Maintenance Engineering, 


Entertainment 

Design Support to Customers, 


Advertisement (e.g., PBS Model) 
Space Technology Testbed 
Manufacturing 

Problem Resolution) 



Figure 3: Potential Commercial Opportunities 



C. Assessment and Selection of Potential Pathfinders 


In order to assess and select candidate pathfinder commercial opportunities, NASA developed a set cf 
evaluation factors and rating criteria. The following figures show the rating criteria and method used fcr 
identifying pathfinder cases. Figure 4 contains a brief explanation of the rating criteria, followed by a more 
detailed explanations of the criteria. Figure 5 is a tabulation of the preliminary ratings for each of the initial 
commercial opportunities. Figure 6 demonstrates the method for comparing and ranking the candidate 
opportunities by focusing on the high-potential, low-risk, and minimum barrier characteristics. 


Industry Business Business Capital Cross NASA Potential 

Interest Potential Risk Requirement Impacts Risk Barriers 


L = Low 
M = Medium 
H = High 


Figure 4; Preliminary Rating Criteria 


Industry Interest 

The first criterion used to evaluate each opportunity is the perceived commercial interest in developing a 
business in this area. The rating assigned is based on several factors: 


Investment Size: 

- Under $10 Million 

- $10 Million 

- $100 Million 

- $1 Billion Plus 


Commercial Inters! 
Existing industry 
Unsolicited Proposals 
Concept Discussions 


Estimated Size of 
Market: 

- $10 Million 

- $100 Million 

- $1 Billion Plus 


Technology Maturity 
Level: 

- NASA as a Customer 
(% of business) 

- NASA as a Supplier 

- Preexisting Demand 


I 

N = NASA Policy 
C = NASA Culture 
P = NASA Process 
G = Gov't Regulation 
S = Statute 
I = int’l Agreement 


Impact to Assembly 
Impact to Gov't Uses 
Impact to Gov't Costs 
Public Perception to 
Business 


Dependent Customers 
International Partners 
Product Liabilities 


• Is there an existing industry operating in this field? 

• Has NASA received many unsolicited proposals? 

• Have there been many concept discussions with businesses or individuals seeking to start a new 
business? 


Business Potential 

The business potential criterion estimates of the size of the potential market for the product or service. This 
estimate was based on such considerations as the cost and market size of similar items currently available 
either in the United States or elsewhere or the item’s impact on another industry (for example, protein 


6 




crystal growth has the potential to be the foundation for new drug development, thus adding value beyond 
the initial value of space-grown crystals). 

The rating for an estimated market size of $100 million or less annually is Low, SI 00 million to $1 billion 
is Medium, and over SI billion is High. 


Business Risk 

NASA has performed an initial assessment of the business risk associated with each of the opportunities 
based on several subjective characteristics. The Agency considered the maturity level of the technologies 
required for each opportunity and rated them on a technology readiness scale used for many other NASA 
projects. An evaluation was made of the expected percentage of the business that NASA demand would 
represent and whether there was preexisting demand for the product or service. Finally, an estimate of the 
lead time required to bring the product to commercial viability was factored into the overall rating of Low, 
Medium, or High. 


Capital Requirement 

The capital requirement, or investment size, estimate was based on NASA experience in developing new 
projects involving the development of space flight hardware. 

The rating for an estimated investment size of $100 million or less annually is Low, SI 00 million to $1 
billion is Medium and over $1 billion is High. 


Cross Impacts 

This criterion assesses the impact of implementing the commercial opportunity on other activities or 
groups. Specifically, it asks the following questions: 

• Does this activity have any effect, either positive or negative, on the ISS international partners? 

• Does this activity have any effect, either positive or negative, on other future customers of the ISS? 

• Does this activity have any effect, either positive or negative, on other ISS participants? (For example, 

does it add power to the overall ISS capability, or does it use so much that it affects other users?) 

• Does implementing this business create other business opportunities? 

This criterion gets a subjective rating of Low, Medium, or High. 


NASA Risk 

Each opportunity implemented bears risk for the company starting in the new business area and for NASA. 
If the new endeavor has the potential to delay or accelerate the ISS assembly schedule, it would receive a 
negative or positive rating, respectively. Therefore, it is one of the most heavily weighted factors. Other 
questions entering into the overall rating for this category are: 

• How much money must the Government invest in this venture, and how much would be 
nonrecoverable in case of failure? 

• Could this cause the Government to lose other revenue (opportunity cost)? 

• What is the expected public perception of this activity? 


7 



Potential Barriers 

Barriers today can be turned into enablers or motivators tomorrow. Some barriers are easier to change than 
others. Some can be changed by actions taken within NASA; others require legislation and therefore are 
more difficult and take longer. By examining the potential barriers to each of the opportunities, NASA 
identified who controls the barrier and assessed the difficulty to overcome. 

Specifically, the opportunities were scrutinized for: NASA policy, NASA culture, NASA processes, 
Government regulations, U.S. statutes, and international agreements. The types of barriers and the level cf 
difficulty they present (Low, Medium, nr High) were then noted in the analysis and entered into the 
decision of prioritizing opportunities. 


8 



Un- 

known 


Example 

Opportunities 


Aeronautics 




NASA 

Pot. 

Risk 

Barr. 


NASA 


Earth Science 


Life/Microgravity 

Sciences 


Space Flight Systems 


Pharmaceuticals 


Known 


Comm. 


Uses 


Materials 


Electronic/Photonics 


Nonelectronic 


Communications 


Remote Sensin 


Image 


Education 


Entertainment 


Advertisin 


Space Tech. Testbed 


Manufacturin 


Hzsxa 


M/T, G 


L-M/C 


L/C 


H/ N, C 


!■ saal 


3.1 I Mission Plannin 


3.2 Trainin 


3.3 


Ground Processin 


Logistics/Repair and 
Maintenance 


3.6 Transportation 


Crew/Payload Return 
Vehicles 


On-Orbit Resources 


enance 
eer' 


3.10 Design Support 
to Customers 


3.11 I Problem Resolution 


M/C, S, 
G 


M/T, C 


M 

M 

M/C 

L 

M 

L/C 

M 

M 

M/C 


Augmentation: 
Core Resources 


.2 Augmentation: 
New Resources 


Add. 

Modules/Elements 


M 

H 

M 

L 

L 

H 

H 

H 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 


IBM3E9 


Figure 5: Preliminary Ratings 


9 
















































































































































































































































Business Risk Business Risk Business Risk 



















m. Pathfinder International Space Station Commercial Opportunities 

Each pathfinder has been selected specifically to demonstrate NASA’s ability to satisfy commercial 
interests, to “push the envelope” in the way NASA currently does business, and to enhance the probability 
of success. The initial set is listed below. 


Uses: 

Consumer Goods in Space 

Brand Name Public Service Sponsorships 

Educational Products 

Payload Accommodations Auction 

New Product Development (Proprietary) 

On-Orbit Research Facility (Proprietary) 

Operations: 

Imagery 

New Capability Development: 

Communications 

Ground Operations Facility (Proprietary) 


NASA is currently evaluating several proprietary proposals, as indicated above, which will be pursued in 
parallel with the other pathfinder cases. NASA is also using these proprietary cases to improve its handling 
of incoming unsolicited commercial proposals and proprietary data. 


A. Non-Proprietary Pathfinders 


Potential Pathfinder: Commercial Communications 

Description 

Several commercial groups have received licenses for an allocated spectrum in the broadband region (Ku 
and Ka bands) based on concepts to develop systems that include satellites and would provide worldwide, 
continuous coverage. Their target markets are both businesses and individuals. The ISS would augment 
ISS communications capabilities, at about 2002 ox beyond, using these new space-based systems on a 
purely commercial basis. 

Long-Term Objectives 

Provide greater communications services to support users and ISS operations at acceptable, market-based 
prices. Utilize commercial service providers to meet ISS needs. Reduce ISS operational costs. Further 
stimulate in-space commercial communications providers. 

Boundaries Pushed 

NASA use of commercial service on orbit is novel and will help promote NASA culture, procurement, and 
technology. The ISS design will likely require designed-in and built-in capabilities to enable the future use 
of new commercial communications systems. 


II 




Strategy 

Review new communications systems capabilities. Define specific ISS communications requirements. 
Identify legal, policy, and procurement steps to be taken. Identify and make technical changes required by 
the ISS and commercial system (at vendor option) to enable service provision. Procure service on a 
commercial basis. 

Commercial Interests Identified 

NASA has initiated discussions with several potential service providers to determine the level of service 
each plans to make available and the compatibility of their systems with the current ISS design. 


Potential Pathfinder: Brand Names in Public Service Sponsorship (PBS Model) 

Category : Users 
Description 

Using the Space Shuttle as a precursor to the ISS, NASA should demonstrate the potential for public 
service sponsorships of key elements, such as flight equipment (for example, cameras) or services (for 
example, food and beverages), by nonaerospace companies. The model to be followed is aligned with that 
of the Public Broadcasting System, in which sponsorship is low key and tastefully done. 

Long-Term Objectives 

Allow opportunities for industry to generate marketing benefits in space while providing meaningful public 
services. Potentially offset NASA costs. Increase public exposure to the Space Shuttle. 

Boundaries Pushed 

This should broaden NASA’s range of acceptable uses of the Shuttle. Innovative procurement mechanisms 
may be required, as well as the partial recovery of Space Shuttle operating costs in return for industry 
opportunities. 

Strategy 

Identify legal, policy, and procurement steps to be taken, including reassessing NASA limitations on 
promotional uses of the Shuttle. Evaluate the potential effect on the public’s perception of NASA, and 
determine parameters of acceptable brand name displays and methods. With industry, evaluate the potential 
scope using market studies. Implement the pathfinder with a near-term flight opportunity. 


Potential Pathfinder: Consumer Goods in Space 

Category: Users 
Description 

NASA should demonstrate the potential for industry to create added value and generate revenue from the 
transport of consumer goods to and from space without adversely affecting safety or public perception and at 
no marginal cost to NASA. Private goods might include memorabilia, honoraria, or educational products 
that would be transported on the Space Shuttle to the ISS and returned to Earth for sale. 

Long-Term Objectives 

Expand opportunities for industry to generate revenue in space, creating new markets. Potentially offset 
NASA costs. Increase public exposure to the Space Shuttle and the ISS. 

Boundaries Pushed 

This should broaden NASA’s range of acceptable uses of the Shuttle and the ISS. Innovative procurement 
mechanisms may be required. The potential recovery of operating costs in return for opportunities to fly on 
the Shuttle and the ISS should be explored. 


12 



Strategy 

Identify legal, policy, and procurement steps to be taken, including reassessing NASA limitations on the 
transport of goods on the Shuttle or the ISS. Evaluate the potential effect on the public’s perception <£ 
NASA, and determine parameters of acceptable goods to be transported. With industry, evaluate the 
potential scope using market studies. Implement the pathfinder with a near-term flight opportunity. 

Commercial Interests Identified 

Numerous companies have contacted NASA. Most recently, Spacehab has expressed a desire to broaden the 
range of goods that is carried to orbit in Spacehab modules. 


Potential Pathfinder: Payload Accommodations Auction 

Category: Users 
Description 

NASA should authorize auctions for Space Shuttle and ISS accommodation and resource bundles that 
correspond to fully functional flight opportunities for one internal pressurized payload site and one external 
attached payload site. Government constraints on use should be limited to safety and standard payload 
integration practices. 

Long-Term Objectives 

Establish private perception of value and magnitude of demand for ISS accommodations in an open market, 
as free as possible of Government distortion. Employ the results to develop a value-based pricing policy 
with clear subsidization levels. Using a value-based price can stimulate the creation of new industries, 
markets, and innovations. 

Boundaries Pushed 

The auctioning of access to space will likely require advances in policy, procurement, and potentially 
legislation. In addition, using auctions to provide full ownership to industry will advance NASA’s 
organizational, procedural, and cultural approach to working with industry. 

Strategy 

Identify legal, policy, and procurement steps required to establish auctions. Fully define resource bundles to 
be auctioned and specific auction terms, such as duration and minimum bids. Consider auction periods of 2 
years to periodically reassess value and demand. Define Government constraints, limited to safety and 
standard payload integration practices. 


Potential Pathfinder: Imagery 
Category : Operations 
Description 

By the year 2000, the ISS will return to Earth more imagery in the form of video each day than most local 
television stations provide. By obtaining commercial sponsorship of selected portions of the video stream, NASA 
may achieve several goals, including commercialization, wider dissemination of ISS information to the public, and 
recovery of Government costs. 

Long-Term Objectives 

Determine the market value of the general downlink imagery aboard the ISS, with the objective of stimulating the 
creation of new markets. Increase the dissemination and use of such video. Enhance ISS video capture and 
downlink capabilities, and potentially offset NASA costs. 

Boundaries Pushed 

The use of commercial sponsorship would be a departure from traditional Federal Government approaches. Policy 
and procurement boundaries must be advanced. NASA will need to learn how to work with sponsors in a way that 
meets both NASA and industry goals. 


13 



Strategy 

Identify policies required to be changed. Define imagery to be reserved for commercial use, and define acceptable 
uses. Via an open and fair competition, seek, review, and select corporate sponsorship offers. Such sponsorship 
would include a barter arrangement, in which the commercial firm would receive use of the video (and the right to 
put its name brand on some of the imagery) in exchange for services or products (such as imagery equipment) 
provided by the company to the ISS. The privacy rights of the crew, international partners, and scientific and 
commercial researchers will need to be protected. 


Potential Pathfinder: In-Space Educational Experiments 

Category: Users 

Description 

NASA will seek to expand the Government-industry partnership to provide an in-space educational 
experiment program for students and educators. This initiative seeks to help NASA meet its educational 
goals in a commercial manner, with reduced costs, and supports the development of a commercial space 
educational service. 

Long-Term Objectives 

Support NASA’s educational programs. Stimulate the development of a commercial educational service 
program. 

Boundaries Pushed 

Policy and procurement boundaries will need to be advanced. NASA and industry will need to learn how 
to work together to meet shared educational goals, particularly in meeting the rigors of educational 
requirements (such as national standards) in developing an in-flight program. 

Strategy 

Define industries’ educational service goals and NASA educational needs. Identify the policies required to 
be changed. Establish a procurement mechanism. Define and negotiate cost allocations between NASA and 
the company, such as costs to design and fly the experiment and to develop the educational elements of the 
program. 

Commercial Interests Identified 

A NASA CSC, the Microgravity Automation Technology Center, and the Spacehab corporation have 
already initiated the *S*T*A*R*S* program for student education through space experiment involvement. 
This could form the basis for this pathfinder. 


B. Proprietary Pathfinders 

The following are brief descriptions of commercial cases in which industry has initiated discussions with 
NASA. Each of these cases is serving as a pathfinder to help NASA create an improved environment fa- 
serving commercial needs. The details of these cases cannot be revealed because of their proprietary nature. 


Case 1 — User Category 

A company provides an on-orbit research facility in exchange for the ability to market a share of the 
capability. NASA receives rights to a share of the capability. The company desires a corporate astronaut as 
part of package. Status: Under negotiation. 


Case 2 — User Category 


14 


A company has developed a systematic method for identifying high-potential commercial opportunities for 
scientific uses of the ISS. Status: Initial opportunities identified, and feasibility studies under way with 
NASA technical support. 


Case 3 — New Capability Development Category 

A company provides ground facilities and services to NASA and other users. This eliminates the need fcr 
NASA to build and maintain similar capabilities. Status: Proposal presented, and discussions under way. 


15 



Attachment 2 



NASA 


NASA Headquarters 
HEDS Enterprise 


HQ/HEDS/OWI -XXXX 
REVISION_Baseline Draft_ 
October 16, 1998 


Human Exploration and 
Development of Space 

(HEDS) 


Organizational Work Instruction 


Unsolicited Commercial 
Proposal Clearing House 


CHECK THE MASTER LIST at http:// / 

VERIFY THAT THIS IS THE CORRECT VERSION BEFORE USE 



[ BEDS | 

ISS Unsolicited Corrmercial 
Proposal Clearing House 

HEDS 

Revision: Baseline Draft 

Date: October 16, 1998 

Page 1 of 5 


DOCUMENT HISTORY LOG 


Status 

(Baseline/ 

Revision/ 

Canceled) 

Document 

Revision 

Effective 

Date 

Description 

Baseline 

Draft 


10/16/98 















CHECK THE MASTER LIST at http:// / 

VERIFY THAT THIS IS THE CORRECT VERSION BEFORE USE 











HEDS 

ISS Unsolicited Commercial 
Proposal Clearing House 

HEDS 

Revision: Baseline Draft 

Date: October 16 , 1998 

Page 2 of 5 


ISS Unsolicited Commercial Proposal Clearing House 


1 . SCOPE 

1.1 Scope . This HEDS standard procedure (OWI) defines the 
Commercial Unsolicited Proposal Review process utilized, at HEDS to 
ensure the continuing suitability and effectiveness of ISS 
Commercial Clearing House in satisfying the HQ quality policy and 
objectives and the requirements of the HQC Quality Systems 
Manual . 

1.2 Purpose . This OWI provides instructions for the conduct 
of NASA dispositioning of unsolicited commerical proposals for the 
HEDS Enterprise. 

1.3 Applicability . This OWI applies to NASA HQ and all NASA 
Centers . 

2. APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS: 

NASA Handbook - Guidance for the Preparation and Submission of 
Unsolicited Proposals 

3 . DEFINITIONS 

3.1 Unsolicited Proposal - 

An unsolicited proposal is a written proposal that is submitted to 
an agency on the initiative of the submitter for the purpose of 
obtaining a contract (or other agreement) with the Government and 
which is not in response to a formal or informal request 
(other than an agency request constituting a publicized general . 
statement of needs) . 

To be considered as a valid unsolicited proposal, a submission 
must : 


- Demonstrate an innovative and unique concept or capability. 

- Present a specific product or service not otherwise 
available that would contribute to NASA's mission. 

- Be independently originated by the Proposer without 
Government supervision. 

- Contain sufficient technical and cost information to permit 
a meaningful evaluation, and 

CHECK THE MASTER LIST at http:// / 

VERIFY THAT THIS IS THE CORRECT VERSION BEFORE USE 






ISS Unsolicited Commercial 
Proposal Clearing House 


HEDS 


Revision: Baseline Draft 
Page 3 of 5 



- Be signed by an official authorized to contractually commit 
the organization. 

3.2 CH = HEDS Unsolicited Commercial Proposal Clearing House 

4 . PROCEDURE 


NASA Entry 
Points 


4.1 



Receive Unsolicited Commercial Proposal for 
ISS 


NASA Entry 4.2 Submitted to HEDS Unsolicited Commercial 

Points Proposal Clearing House 

CH 4.3 Review proposal for minimum business and 

technical criteria and preliminary barrier 
screening. Resolve any identified barriers. 
Determine which offices need to review. 
Decision made whether to assign for more 
detailed review or reject. If rejected 
request appropriate Center to disposition 
(step 4.4). If acceptable for further 
review assign to appropriate NASA offices 
(step 4.5) Log actions taken. 

CH 4.4 Request Center disposition if rejected in 

4.3 


CH 4.5 Assign proposal for evaluation and 

disposition to NASA offices. Designate lead 
office . 


NASA offices 4.6 Evaluate proposals for technical, legal, 

programmatic, policy and economic 
acceptability. If acceptable, determine if 
barriers exist - if yes send back to CH for 
assistance. If no barriers and acceptable 
on all other criteria - accept proposal, 
notify proposer and CH and begin 
implementation. If not acceptable reject and 
notify proposer and CH 


CHECK THE MASTER LIST at http:// / 

VERIFY THAT THIS IS THE CORRECT VERSION BEFORE USE 









BEDS 1 

ISS Unsolicited Commercial 
Proposal Clearing House 

HEDS 

Revision: Baseline Draft 

Date: October 16, 1998 

Page 4 of 5 


NASA lead. 4.7 Process rejection notice 

offices 

CH 4.8 Update log with disposition and prepare 

periodic reports . 

5. FLOW CHART 


CHECK THE MASTER LIST at http:// / 

VERIFY THAT THIS IS THE CORRECT VERSION BEFORE USE 





HEDS I 

ISS Unsolicited Commercial 
Proposal Clearing House 

HEDS 

Revision: Baseline Draft 

Date: October 16, 1998 

Page 5 of 5 



CHECK THE MASTER LIST at http:// / 

VERIFY THAT THIS IS THE CORRECT VERSION BEFORE USE 













| HEPS 

IS S Unsolicited Commercial 
Proposal Clearing House 

HEDS 

Revision: Baseline Draft 

Date: October 16, 1998 

Page 6 of 5 


6. APPENDICES, DATA, REPORTS, AND FORMS 

* 

None 

7. RECORDS, REPORTS AND FROMS 

- Records maintained at NASA HQ by CH. 

- Log of all actions taken 

- Periodic report summarizing proposal activity and dispositions 

These records are retained and dispositioned in accordance with 
NPG 1441.1, Schedule l/14B.l(a), Permanent - Retire to FRC when 2 
years old; transfer to NARA when 20 years old. 


CHECK THE MASTER LIST at http:// / 

VERIFY THAT THIS IS THE CORRECT VERSION BEFORE USE 






Attachment 3 



Reference Model 


A Non-Government Organization (NGO) 

for 

Space Station Utilization Management 


Discussion Draft 
October 1998 


NASA Headquarters Point-of-Contact 

Mark Uhran 
phone: 202-358-2233 
fax: 202-358-4166 
muhran@hq.nasa.gov 


1 


"K.E. Tsiolkovsky once wrote: The idea, fantasy, or fairy tale invariably comes first. 
Following this is the stage of scientific investigation. Last comes the crowning 
achievement of the idea'. From this undoubtedly accurate summarization we need to 
extract the concept of 'scientific investigation' and examine it more carefully. It is not as 
easy as it would first appear. Regarding the first step -- the idea, fantasy, or fairy tale - 
everything is clear. Man has always dreamed of achieving the unattainable (and still does 
today). Without dreams and the efforts made to attain them progress would be 
unthinkable. Even if the dream is initially unattainable, this does not mean that it may 
never be realized. Although harsh reality may intervene repeatedly to prove the 
impossibility of realizing the dream as yet, reality cannot force people to forget or discard 
it. Instead the dream is transferred to an original data bank: the fairy tale. There it lives 
on, continually reminding people of its existence, seeming to await the time when its 
realization will no longer be impossible. 

A more complicated matter is that which Tsiolkovsky called 'scientific investigation.’ 
This stage begins when the general development of scientific knowledge has reached a 
level of sophistication sufficient to allow someone to appear who is able to envision a 
way of realizing the dream (very often it is several people who live far apart and who work 
independently of one another). During this stage the dream begins to move towards 
reality, but it does not go beyond the discovery that what everyone has heretofore 
considered an unattainable -- and therefore empty - dream is in fact possible after ail." 


from Herman Oberth; The Father of Space Flight 
Boris V. Rauschenbach, 1994 


2 



Contents 


page 

VISION 4 


GOALS 


PRINCIPAL PURPOSES 

4 

WORKING 

PRINCIPLES 

5 

(a) 

Scope of R&D Programs 

5 

(b) 

Scope of Commercial Program Development 

6 

(c) 

Role in Space Exploration 

6 

(d) 

Program and Project Funding 

6 

(e) 

Program and Project Opportunities 

7 

00 

Program Integrity and Project Selection 

7 

(g) 

Notification of Project Awards 

8 

GO 

Distribution of R&D Project Awards 

8 

© 

R&D Results 

8 

a) 

Research Staff 

9 

00 

Project Scientists and Project Engineers 

9 

(i) 

Research Facilities 

9 

(m) 

Laboratory Assets 

9 

(n) 

Payload Physical, Analytical, and Operations Integration 

9 

(o) 

Organizational Interfaces 

10 

(P) 

Instruments of Agreement 

10 

(q) 

Program Planning 

10 

(r) 

Board of Directors 

11 

(s) 

Accountability 

11 

0) 

Advisory Committees 

11 

(u) 

Educational Responsibilities 

11 

(v) 

Criteria for Site Selection 

11 


APPENDIX 


Terminology 

13 

Transactions 

13 

Organization 

14 

Functions 

14 

Responsibilities 

15 

Stakeholder Vetting 

15 


3 



The purpose of this reference model is to initiate a discussion of a new management approach to 
R&D in low-earth orbit consistent with the present and future constrained budget challenges . The 
objective is to create a non-government organization (NGO) for accomplishing an aggressive science, 
technology and commercial development program while simultaneously limiting government 
functions to policy and oversight 

The ultimate success of the orbital R&D program depends equally on the efficient operation of the 
space and ground assets (laboratories, spacecraft, space station...) and on the optimal utilization of 
the assets by the R&D and business communities . The utilization component must be managed in a 
manner which ensures productivity of the space station and other future ground and space assets. As 
depicted below, a NGO would serve as the interface between users and operators, in order to maximize 
the range of productive uses, as well as minimize the cost and schedule associated with conducting 
user operations in low-Earth orbit 

The framework for a NGO should be based on a management structure that is representative of, and 
responsive to, a broad base within the utilization community . This management structure must 
possess a high degree of stability that will permit it to undertake and complete an integrated program 
over the expected life of the space station and associated assets . 



Customer 

k 


* # 

'r 

Supplier 


Operators 


New Capability Developers 


Government 

Uses 

Users 

Known 

Commercial 

Uses 

Untapped 

Commercial 

Opportunities 

NGO for Space Station 
Utilization Development & Management 
(for-profit, non-profit, or hybrid consortium) 


4 







VISION 


• A dedicated NGO that will develop the low Earth orbit environment for all users (scientific, 
technological, and commercial), in order to more efficiently advance scientific knowledge, 
technological capability, and commerce on Earth as a gateway to 21st Century exploration 
and development of space. 


GOALS 

1 . Complete an operational concept and establish a NGO in the United States by FY 2000. 

2. Employ the NGO to reduce the cost and schedule associated with payload operations in space. 

3. Employ the NGO to revolutionize the approach to research, exploration and development of 
space through increased academic cooperation and industrial collaboration. 

4. Offer to expand the initial organization to accommodate international aspects in conjunction 
with completion of the International Space Station. 


PRINCIPAL PURPOSES 

1 . Engage the science community in a cooperative endeavor to aggressively expand the scientific 
foundation for human exploration and development of spacfe. 

2. Engage the engineering community in a collaborative endeavor to aggressively expand the 
technological capability of the International Space Station and enable future human 
exploration and development of space. 

3. Engage the space operations community in a revolutionary transition toward cheaper, better 
and quicker access to space for the conduct of R&D and commercial endeavors. 

4. Disperse information on the resulting scientific and technological achievements for the benefit 
of life on Earth, while stimulating the commercial community to expand the global economy 
in space products and services. 


WORKING PRINCIPLES 

(a) Scope of R&D Program Management 

• The scope could include all R&D projects which utilize a US share of the International 
Space Station. 

• Collaborating and supporting research using other NASA ground, air, and space assets 
could be included by written agreement. 

• Basic and applied, flight and ground, research in science and technology could be pursued 
with strategic direction in selected areas such as, but not limited to: 

- biology, chemistry and physics 


5 



- medical research and applications 

- environmental sciences and life support technologies 

- spacecraft system, subsystem and component engineering 

- space processing of materials 

- biotechnology 

- remote sensing 

- communications 

• The scientific research program could be managed by the NGO and the research projects 
could be conducted by distributed laboratories, institutes, and research and development 
facilities in the academic, industrial, and government sectors. 

• The technology development program could be managed by the NGO and the 
development projects could be conducted by distributed laboratories, institutes, and 
research and development facilities in the academic, industrial, and government sectors. 

(b) Scope of Commercial Program Development 

• Proof-of-concept or full-scale private commercial projects could be administered by the 
NGO in accordance with national policy. 

• The policy could include specific provisions to address totally subsidized, partially 
subsidized, and non-subsidized entrepreneurial endeavors. 

• A value-based pricing schedule could be established during the early operations period, 
with a transition to cost recovery when commercial enterprises become profitable. 

• In the event recovery of public operating costs prohibits profitable operations, or the 
supply of station accommodations is exhausted, commercial enterprises could relocate to 
privately owned and operated space platforms. 

(c) Role in Space Exploration 

• The NGO could undertake R&D projects, sponsored by NASA, with applications to the 
human exploration and development of space enterprise. 

(d) Program and.ProjectJFunding 

• Funds could be provided by both public and private sources. 

• Public sources could include government agencies which serve as catalysts, such as, but 
not limited to, NASA. 


6 



• Private sources could include philanthropies, industrial organizations, 
university/industrial consortia, financial institutions, and venture capitalists. 

• A privately managed space trust corporation could be created to operate in close 
association with the NGO, in order to assist in the evaluation and financing of 
entrepreneurial ventures. 


(e) Program and Project Opportunities 

• Scientific and technological R&D opportunities, which are funded through public monies 
could be announced on a regular periodic basis and could be open to competition among 
academic, industrial and government scientists and engineers world-wide. 

• Commercial opportunities could be open on a continuous basis for proposals by private 
organizations. 

• Since the magnitude of opportunity will be constrained by available station resources and 
accommodations, an allocation policy could be established by the NGO Board of 
Directors. 

(f) Program Integrity and Project Selection 

Scientific Research: 

• Projects could be externally peer reviewed to the highest standards and rated, prior to 
selection by the NGO Science Program Office based on scientific merit. 

• The selections would conform to the programmatic objectives and funding levels of the 
respective sponsors. 

Technology Development: 

• Projects could be internally reviewed by the NGO Technology Program Office and 
selected based on engineering feasibility. 

• The selections would conform to the programmatic objectives and funding levels of the 
respective sponsors. 

Commercial Ventures: 

• Projects could be administered by bonded personnel in the NGO Commercial Program 
Office. 

• Selection criteria could vary with the level of public subsidization. 

• Non-subsidized ventures could be selected on the basis of the magnitude of private capital 
at risk; partially subsidized ventures could be rated by the ratio of private-to-public 


7 


funding, and; fully subsidized ventures could be selected at the discretion of the 
government sponsor. 

• The NGO could be required by the Board of Dirctors to administer a portfolio with 
minimum shares in each of these categories. 

(g) Notification of Pro ject Awards 

• The NGO could issue formal notifications of award, subject to the principles on program 
integrity and project selection. 

• In cases of commercial ventures, with private funding, notifications could be confidential 
by prior request, 

(h) Distribution ofJR&D Project Awards 

• Funds could be allocated for award to both NGO-resident (e.g., 10%) and non-resident 
(e.g., 90%) scientists and engineers on a competitive basis. 

Open Item; do the advantages associated with some degree of resident R&D outweigh the 

disadvantages? 

Advantages include: 

(1) the ability to attract a high-quality, professionally recognized science and engineering staff; 

(2) the ability of the resident NGO staff to work at a peer level with the non-resident R&D 

community and to serve a "smart buyers”; 

(3) the increased professional credibility of the NGO ; and 

(4) the incentive created by broadening the NGO f s scope of operations to include resident R&D. 

Disadvantages include: 

(1) the potential appearance, or actual existence ; of a conflict of interest in the resident and 

non-resident R&D award process. 

(0 R&D Results 

Proprietary Results: 

• All R&D results and information could be the property of the funding source and handled 
without public disclosure, as addressed through binding agreement among the parties. 

Non-Proprietary Results: 

• All research results could be treated as within the public domain. 

• Every research project awarded would be required to conform to the data policy of the 
funding source. 


8 



• All reports could be archived at the NGO and available on-line through international 
telecommunications networks, 

(j) Resident Staff 

• Resident staff could be representative of the core science and engineering disciplines with 
visiting senior scientists and engineers in selected specialties. 

• All visiting staff could be fully authorized to make decisions and enter into agreements on 
the behalf of their home institutions. 

• Options for a government presence could include a liaison office limited to on-site 
representatives of the program sponsors, or visiting Senior Scientists and Engineers. 

(k) Project Scientists and Project Engineers 

• Every R&D project could include the designation of a resident NGO staff member as 
Project Scientist or Project Engineer. 

• The role of the NGO Project Scientists and Engineers could be to assist non-resident 
flight research projects through the steps associated with physical, analytical, and 
operations integration of flight research projects. 

(l) Research Facilities 

• The NGO could be based in a physical facility (public or private) with either on-site, or 
geographically dispersed, laboratory assets, or both. 

• It could employ state-of-the-art international telecommunications networks for 
communications with associated organizations from either the public or private sectors. 

(m) Laboratory Assets 

• Existing government assets could be transferred to the NGO for management or made 
available through negotiated agreement. 

• These assets could include both space and ground-based facilities. 

• Development of new assets, including flight instruments and facilities, could be 
performed by the NGO or placed under NGO management. 

(n) Payload Physical, Analytical, & Operations Integration - 

• Functions could be performed by the NGO, or a mission support contractor to the NGO. 

• Orbital real-time operations replanning could be performed by the space station operator 
in cooperation with a Mission Director and R&D Working Group assigned by the NGO. 


9 



• The NGO could perform all tactical planning for R&D operations on flight and ground 
systems. 

(o) Organizational Interfaces 

• The NGO could interface with public and private funding sources for space station related 
policy, oversight and strategic direction; 

• with the space station operator (public or private) for payload accommodations and 
system operations integration; 

• with world- wide academic, industrial and government organizations for space station 
R&D project performance; 

• with private organizations for commercial ventures, and; 

• with an external advisory committee for independent annual review. 


(p) Instruments of Agreement 

• Agreements between the NGO and associated organizations could be established through 
a variety of instruments and would be limited only by public law. 

• These instruments could be tailored on a case-by-case basis to best protect the interests of 
the parties. 

• The instruments could include, but would not be limited to: 


* memoranda of agreement 

* terms of reference 

* contracts 

* grants 

* joint endeavor agreements 


> memoranda of understanding 

• cooperative R&D agreements 

> space system development agreements 

* industrial guest investigator agreements 

> intergovernmental personnel agreements 


(q) Program Planning 

• The NGO could develop projections of available orbital accommodations and resources 
based on information supplied by the space station operator. 

• The NGO could formulate options for accommodating research requirements, maintain a 
dynamic Mission Model, and produce an annual one-year R&D Program Plan and an 
annual one-year Commercial Prospectus. 

• The Plan and Prospectus could be reviewed and approved by the NGO Board of Directors 
at an annual meeting. 

• The annual Plan and Prospectus could be formulated within the broader context of the 
funding sponsors’ long-term strategic plans and commitments. 


10 



Board of Directors 


• The NGO board could include academic, industrial, and government directors. 

• Voting shares on the board could correspond to annual funding commitments of the 
sponsoring directors. 

• The Board could ensure the NGO operates in accordance with its charter and within the 
policy established by the sponsoring directors. 

Accountability 

• The NGO could produce quarterly reports on cost, schedule and performance status for 
every active R&D project and an annual report on achievements for every active R&D 
program. 

• All reporting could be subject to proprietary information restrictions. 

• The quarterly and annual reports could be the primary products delivered to the funding 
sponsors (e.g., NASA, or other public and private program sponsors). 

Advisory Committees 

• An independent external advisory committee could perform periodic independent reviews 
of NGO progress and achievements. 

• In the case of the United States, independent advice and guidance could also be provided 
by the standing boards and committees of the National Research Council. 

• The NASA Advisory Council, and its standing committees and subcommittees, could 
perform periodic reviews at the request of the NASA program sponsoring offices. 


Educational Responsibilities 

• The NGO could include a dedicated Education Office with responsibility for 
communicating the beneficial attributes of the orbital environment and the progress of the 
R&D program to public and private audiences at all levels in the academic, government 
and industrial sectors. 

• The costs associated with this function could be funded by the space station owners and 
operators. 

Criteria for NGO Site Selection 

• Criteria could include, 

• availability of existing facilities and skilled personnel; 


* geographic attractiveness for personnel relocation; 

* easy access for program sponsors and project managers; 

• potential for evolution to international operations; 

• association with an internationally recognized university; 

* support of the local and state governments; and 

• proximity to advanced telecommunications resources. 


12 



APPENDIX 


TERMINOLOGY 


Working Draft 

10/09/98 


Public Sponsors 

(Non- Proprietary R&D) 

Private Sponsors 

(Proprietary R&D) 


R&D 

SPONSORS 



© 


POTENTIAL 

INSTRUMENTS of AGREEMENT 




- Terms of Reference - Space Act 



(public or private) 



DISTRIBUTED 

PROJECTS 

(100’s of sites) 


Government 

Academic [ 

industrial 

Sector 

Sector 

Sector 

Examples 

Examples 

Examples 

•NASA 

• State Universities 

• Pnvate Labs 

• N1H 



• NOAA 

• Private Universities 

• Private Product 

•NIST 


Development Centers 

•DOE 



• NSF 

• Academic / Industrial Consortia 

• FFRDCs 

(eg. Commercial Space Centers) 

• others 

• Educational Associations 


TRANSACTIONS 


Working Draft 
10/01/98 


• Strategic Direction & Funding 
(R&D programs) 

* Policy & Oversight 



teport on R&D Program Achievments 
Annual R&D Program Plan 
Quarterly Status: All R&D Projects 
(cost, schedule, performance) 


• Strategic Dilection & Funding 
(R&D programs) 

• Policy & Oversight 


• Annual Report on R&D 
- Program Achievments 


A13VI5 UK T 

GROUPS 


•R&D Program Announcements 

• R&D Project Selection and Award 
•R&D Project Funding 

• Assigned Project Scientists/Engineers 

• Access to Laboratory Assets 

• Approved Payload integration Plans 

• Assigned Operating Periods 



Annual R&D Program 
Plan 

Approved Payload 
Integration & Ops Plans 
Mission Directors & 

R&D Working Groups 
Ops Assessments and 
Systems improvements 


Payload Integration/Ops 
Guidelines 

Time-Phased Resources 
and Accommodations 
Operating Windows 



• R&D Pt 

• Visiting Senior Sdentists/Engineers 

• R&D Instruments 
•R&D Project Operations 
•R&D Project Results Reports 


DISTRIBUTED 

PROJECTS 


13 





ORGANIZATION 


Working Draft 
10/09/98 



• Commercial Operations * Science Operations • Technology Operations 


FUNCTIONS 

Office of the Director 

• selected by the Board of Directors 

• utilization program development 

• management and administration 

Board of Directors 

• annually reviews & extends research programs 

• communicates policies of the sponsoring organizations 

• approves Annual R&D Program Plan 
and Commercial Prospectus 

Uason Office 

■ staffed by national and international program sponsors 

• represents sponsors and provides oversight 

Education Office 

• develops collateral products for education 

• communicates attributes of orbital environment 
and achievements of the R&D programs 

Operations Office 

• strategic, tactical, and contingency planning 

• manages resource allocations & mission model 

• manages mission support contract 

• produces annual R&D Program Plan and annual 
Commercial Prospectus 

Operations Board 

• selects Project Scientists & Engineers for residency 

• approves visiting Senior Scientists & Engineers 

• assigns Mission Directors and R&D Working Groups 

• approves payload integration plans & flight assignments 

• assigns operating periods & accommodation sites 


Working Draft 
10/09/98 

Science Program Office 

• scientific research program management 

• conducts nominal share of scientific research 

• establishes science project queue 

• defines requirements for flight instruments 

• procures/develops flight instruments 

• manages analytical, physical and operations integration 

• manages science results archive 

Technology Program Office 

• technology development program management 

• conducts nominaf share of technology development 

• establishes technology project queue 

• defines requirements for flight equipment 

• procures/develops flight equipment 

• manages analytical, physical and operations integration 

• manages technological results archive 

Bonded Commercial Program Office: 

• implements commercial policy of government sponsors 

• liaisons to private sector and Commercial Space Center network 

• establishes commercial project queue 

• manages analytical, physical and operations integration 

• maintains proprietary procedures and protocols 

Space Trust Corporation 

• manages private capital funds 

• selects private ventures for funding with equivalent rigor to 
private capital markets 

• finances qualified private ventures, if necessary 


14 





Working Draft 

RESPONSIBILITIES ioos/sb 


NASA 

NGO 

Headquarters 


STRATEGIC NASA RAD PROGRAM PLANNING: 

• Strategic direction and funding of R&D programs. 

• Policy formulation. 

• Oversight of NGO. 

STRATEGIC SPACE STATION UTILIZATION PLANNING 

• Strategic utilization planning for science, technology and 

commercial programs/projects. t 

• National & International collaboration and coordination for scientific research 
and technology development programs. 

• Integration of station-wide utilization requirements. 

• Definition and assignment of orbital operating periods to R&D projects. 

• Mission modeling, resource allocation, and bartering. 

• Utilization advocacy and education. 

Field Centers 


R&D PROJECT MANAGEMENT 

• specific NASA projects 

SPACE STATION UTILIZATION PROGRAM MANAGEMENT 

• station-wide management integration for US programs. 

• US interface to international partner utilizationprograms for mission integration. 

DEVELOPMENT 

* Manage and conduct design, development, test, and evaluation of 
advanced spacecraft system projects for NASA Enterprises. 

• Manage and conduct design, development, test, and evaluation of 
current space station paytoad facility class hardware, through to 
completion and on-orbit test and verification. 

DEVELOPMENT 

» Manage development of requirements and specifications for next generation 
government sponsored payload hardware. 

* Manage design, development, lest and evaluation of future government 
sponsored payload elements. 

• Develop recommendations for flight/ground system improvements. 

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE (potential GO-CO elements) 

• Manage safe operation and maintenance Space Shuttle and International 
Space Station. 

• Manage safe operation and maintenance of government ground-based 
laboratories, control centers, and facilities. 

HUMAN RESOURCES (potential GO-CO elements) 

• Maintain occupational safety and health of flight crews and ground 
personnel. 

• Manage & conduct training of flight crews and ground personnel. 

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE 

• Manage payload flight / ground systems operations & maintenance. 

• Manage payload analytical, physical and operations integration. 

• Represent US interests in international forums and provide 
Mission Directors) and R&D Working Groups. 

• Develop requirements for payload crew skills and qualifications. 

• Manage payload data processing, data distribution, and results archiving. 


Working Draft 

STAKEHOLDER VETTING lomam 


NGO Model 
Refinement 


GFY 

99 

1 OTR 

2 QTR 


3 OTR 

4 QTR _ 

OCtI NOV 1 DEC 

JAN 1 FEB 

MAR 


julI aug! SEP 


Iff! 

f l 

fH 

< 


Reference 

Model 


Update 

#1 


Update 

#2 


Draft 

RFP 


RFP 

Release 


OMB/OSTP 

Briefings 

Congressional 

Briefings 


NASA HQ Kickoff 

& Field Center Review Memo 


NASA Advisory Council 
-ACISS & SSUAS 
-LMSAAC/ESAC/SSAC/TCAC 

National Research Council 
SSB / Task Group 

Industry 

-Aerospace States Association 
International 

-User Operations Panel (UOP) 
-Internationa] Space University 
(ISU) Conference 


~ ► fob 
" " ^ foil 

r? 

low-up as required 
low-up as required 

A 

v 

qACISSqSSUAS 

£2 

q ACISS 


as scheduled 

A 

V 

r* 


£. 

—A 

V Informal 

Discussio 

UOP 

ns 

z: 

V 


A Legislative Proposals to 
FY-OI Authorization Act 

( if necessary) 


SSUAS 


Workshop 


Letter 

Report 

Final 

Recommendations 

I 


15