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Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004 

This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records 
found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, 
affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as 
defined by NASA’s Report of the President’s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration 
Policy, published in June 2004. 


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Affordable Heavy Lift Capability 
2000-2004 


A Custom Bibliography From the 

NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program 


October 2004 




Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004 

This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records 
found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, 
affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as 
defined by NASA’s Report of the President’s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration 
Policy , published in June 2004. 


OCTOBER 2004 


20040095274 

EAC trains its first international astronaut class 

Bolender, Hans, Author; Bessone, Loredana, Author; Schoen, Andreas, Author; Stevenin, Herve, Author; ESA bulletin. 
Bulletin ASE. European Space Agency; Nov 2002; ISSN 0376-4265; Volume 112, 50-5; In English; Copyright; Avail: Other 
Sources 

After several years of planning and preparation, ESA’s ISS training programme has become operational. Between 26 
August and 6 September, the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) near Cologne gave the first ESA advanced training course for 
an international ISS astronaut class. The ten astronauts who took part— two from NASA, four from Japan and four from 
ESA— had begun their advanced training programme back in 2001 with sessions at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston 
and at the Japanese Training Centre in Tsukuba. During their stay in Cologne, the ten astronauts participated in a total of 33 
classroom lessons and hands-on training sessions, which gave them a detailed overview of the systems and subsystems of the 
Columbus module, the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the related crew operations tasks. They were also introduced 
to the four ESA experiment facilities to be operated inside the Columbus module. After their first week of training at EAC, 
the astronauts were given the opportunity to see the flight model of the Columbus module being integrated at the site of ESA’s 
ISS prime contractor, Astrium in Bremen. The second week of training at EAC included hands-on instruction on the Columbus 
Data Management System (DMS) using the recently installed Columbus Crew Training Facility. In preparation for the first 
advanced crew training session at EAC, two Training Readiness Reviews (TRR) were conducted there in June and August. 
These reviews were supported by training experts and astronauts from NASA, NASDA and CSA (Canada), who were 
introduced to ESA’s advanced training concept and the development process, and then analysed and evaluated the training 
flow, content and instructional soundness of lessons and courses, as well as the fidelity of the training facilities and the skills 
of the ESA training instructors. The International Training Control Board (ITCB), made up of representatives from all of the 
ISS International Partners and mandated to control and coordinate all multilateral training for ISS crew and ground-support 
personnel, testified to ESA’s readiness to provide Advanced Training by declaring the EAC TRR successful. The completion 
of this first training course was therefore a good opportunity for the Astronaut Training Division to assess the status of its 
training programme. The comments and recommendations of the training experts and the astronauts who took part have been 
carefully evaluated and the results are being fed back into the ongoing training development process. 

NLM 

Astronauts; Personnel Development 


20040082376 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA 

Application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) During Conceptual Design for the NASA Orbital Space Plane 
(OSP) 

Rogers, James H.; Safie, Fayssal M.; Stott, James E.; Lo, Yunnhon; [2004]; In English, 14-18 Jun. 2004, Berlin, Germany; 
No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A02, Hardcopy 

In order to meet the space transportation needs for a new century, America’s National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration (NASA) has implemented an Integrated Space Transportation Plan to produce safe, economical, and reliable 
access to space. One near term objective of this initiative is the design and development of a next-generation vehicle and 
launch system that will transport crew and cargo to and from the International Space Station (ISS), the Orbital Space Plane 
(OSP). The OSP system is composed of a manned launch vehicle by an existing Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). 
The OSP will provide emergency crew rescue from the ISS by 2008, and provide crew and limited cargo transfer to and from 


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the ISS by 2012. A key requirement is for the OSP to be safer and more reliable than the Soyuz and Space Shuttle, which 
currently provide these capabilities. 

Author 

Aerospace Planes; Risk; Space Transportation; Spacecrews; Launch Vehicles 


20040082309 Boeing Phantom Works, Huntsville, AL, USA 

Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station 

Smith, David A.; June 06, 2004; In English, 30 May - 6 Jun. 2004, Miyazaki, Japan; Original contains color and black and 
white illustrations 

Contract(s)/Grant(s): NAS8-02093; Copyright; Avail: CASI; A02, Hardcopy 

Boeing’s Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International 
Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will 
reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment 
cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner 
launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit 
refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA’s new Exploration Initiative. 

Author 

Cargo; International Space Station; Logistics; Launch Vehicles 


20040077136 NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA 

Propellant Preservation for Mars Missions 

Kittel, Peter; Research and Technology 1999; December 2000, 134; In English; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A01, Hardcopy 
The last few years have seen extensive technology planning for human missions to Mars. These missions will make 
extensive use of cryogenic propellants, some of which will be transported to Mars. Additional propellants will be 
manufactured, liquefied, and stored on Mars. The missions that use these propellants could start early this century. Although 
many of the plans are still evolving, it has been possible to derive a set of cooler requirements. Recent estimates of these 
requirements are given here along with a discussion of whether the requirements can be met with existing coolers and coolers 
currently being developed. In recent years, a variety of transportation scenarios have been considered. The analysis reported 
here relates to one of the more promising nonnuclear options. It makes use of solar electric propulsion (SEP). The SEP baseline 
concept follows: 1. A SEP tug boosts the TMI (trans-Mars injection) stage to a highly elliptical orbit. This phase requires 400 
days of propellant storage for the TMI piloted stage and 250 days for the TMI cargo stages. 2. The ascent and descent stages 
require about 580 days of propellant storage for the piloted mission and 550 days for the cargo case. These stages use oxygen 
(02) and methane (CH4) for propellants. 3. The TEI (trans-Earth injection) stage requires a storage duration of 1200 days. 
This stage uses hydrogen (H2) as the propellant. 4. All tanks are cooled by cryocoolers to eliminate boil off. 5. The tank design 
is standardized to 3.29-meter-diameter spheres. Fixing the volume results in the stages having multiple tanks, with many of 
the tanks full at launch. A thermal model was used to estimate the cooler requirements. This model could estimate the tank 
size and mass for MLI (multilayer insulation) insulated tanks with and without coolers. The cooling power and the mass of 
the power source and radiators were included for ZBO (zero boil-off) storage. In the first case, the volume of the tank was 
variable. The volume was adjusted until it was large enough to accommodate the boil-off during the mission and still preserve 
the required propellant until it was needed. In the latter case, the volume was fixed. An optional cooled shield has been 
included in the model for hydrogen tanks. The results of the model are presented. 

Derived from text 

Mars Missions; Preserving; Propellant Storage; Cryogenic Rocket Propellants 


20040068088 American Inst, of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, USA 

Will the ATV Deliver? 

Iannotta, Ben; Aerospace America; July 2003; ISSN 0740-722X; In English; Copyright; Avail: Other Sources 

he European Space Agency’s work on a fleet of expendable cargo spacecraft for the International Space Station (ISS) has 
long been viewed as a form of payment-in-kind by European space leaders for the right to attach their Columbus laboratory 
to the station starting in October 2004. With the grounding of the U S space shuttle fleet, timely development of the Automated 
Transfer Vehicle (ATV) has acquired new importance for the partners of the ISS.The ATV is the most technically challenging 
spacecraft Europe has ever designed, because of its automated navigation capabilities and multiple duties. Each ATV will dock 


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automatically at the station s Russian-built Zvezda service module and will remain there for up to six months. 

Derived from text 

Automated Transfer Vehicle; Planning 

20040020231 

Star Tram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For Large Space Architectures 

Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.; AIP Conference Proceedings; February 04, 2004; ISSN 0094-243X; Volume 699, Issue 
no. 1, 863-874; In English; SPACE TECHNOLOGY and APPLICATIONS INTERNAL FORUM-STAIF 2004: Conf.on 
Thermophys.in Microgravity; Commercial/Civil Next Gen. Space Transp.; 21st Symp. Space Nuclear Power & Propulsion; 
Human Space Explor.; Space Colonization; New Frontiers & Future Concepts, 8-11 February 2004, Albuquerque, New 
Mexico, USA; Copyright 

The StarTram Maglev system can launch hundreds of thousands of tons of cargo per year to orbit ([approx] 1000 times 
present capability) plus many thousands of passengers. The launch cost is only $30/kilogram of cargo, [approx] 1/300 th of 
present cost. Magnetically levitated spacecraft accelerate to [greater-than-or-equal, slanted]8 km/see in an evacuated ground 
tunnel using superconducting (SC) Maglev technology now operating in Japan for high speed trains. No propellant is used; 
energy from the electrical grid costs $0. 50 per kg of launch weight. After reaching orbital speed, the levitated craft ascend 
in a curving evacuated launch tube that is magnetically levitated above Earth’s surface by the repulsion force between SC 
cables attached to it and an opposing set of SC cables on the surface. The levitation force is 4 tons/meter of tube length at 
20 km altitude, and exceeds the tube weight. High strength Kevlar tethers to the ground prevent vertical and lateral motion. 
Craft enter the atmosphere at 20 km through an open exit that prevents in-leakage of low density air by high speed gas ejectors 
and an MHD (Magnetic Hydro Dynamic) pump, and coast to apogee, where a small V burn ([approx]500 m/s) establishes 
orbit. Deceleration as it enters the atmosphere at 20 km is modest, [approx] 1 g. Peak heating is [approx]5 KW/cm2 for times 
of a few seconds before the craft reaches space. The technology for StarTram-C now exists, and no breakthroughs in materials 
are required. Two possible StarTram systems are compared, one for cargo only, and the second for both passengers and cargo, 
[copyright] 2004 American Institute of Physics 
Author (AIP) 

Architecture; Atmospheric Pressure; Cost Analysis; Cost Effectiveness; Cryogenics; Heating; Low Cost; Magnetic 
Suspension; Spacecraft; Superconducting Magnets 

20040020177 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic Thruster Program 

LaPointe, Michael R.; Pencil, Eric J.; AIP Conference Proceedings; February 04, 2004; ISSN 0094-243X; Volume 699, Issue 
no. 1, 388-398; In English; SPACE TECHNOLOGY and APPLICATIONS INTERNAL FORUM-STAIF 2004: Conf.on 
Thermophys.in Microgravity; Commercial/Civil Next Gen. Space Transp.; 21st Symp. Space Nuclear Power & Propulsion; 
Human Space Explor.; Space Colonization; New Frontiers & Future Concepts, 8-11 February 2004, Albuquerque, New 
Mexico, USA; Copyright 

Interest in high power electromagnetic propulsion has been revived to support a variety of future space missions, such 
as platform maneuvering in low earth orbit, cost-effective cargo transport to lunar and Mars bases, asteroid and outer planet 
sample return, deep space robotic exploration, and piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. Magnetoplasmadynamic 
(MPD) thrusters have demonstrated, at the laboratory level, the capacity to process megawatts of electrical power while 
providing higher thrust densities than current electric propulsion systems. The ability to generate higher thrust densities 
permits a reduction in the number of thrusters required to perform a given mission and alleviates the system complexity 
associated with multiple thruster arrays. The specific impulse of an MPD thruster can be optimized to meet given mission 
requirements, from a few thousand seconds with heavier gas propellants up to 10,000 seconds with hydrogen propellant. In 
support of NASA space science and human exploration strategic initiatives, Glenn Research Center is developing and testing 
pulsed, MW-class MPD thrusters as a prelude to long-duration high power thruster tests. The research effort includes 
numerical modeling of self-field and applied-field MPD thrusters and experimental testing of quasi-steady MW-class MPD 
thrusters in a high power pulsed thruster facility. This paper provides an overview of the GRC high power electromagnetic 
thruster program and the pulsed thruster test facility, [copyright] 2004 American Institute of Physics 
Author (AIP) 

Asteroid Missions; Cost Effectiveness; Deep Space; Electric Generators; Electric Propulsion; Electromagnetic Propulsion; 
Gas Giant Planets; Grand Tours; Ion Engines; Low Earth Orbits; Lunar Bases; Magnetohydrodynamics; Mars (Planet); Mars 
Bases; Mars Missions; Plasmas (Physics); Propulsion; Research Projects; Sample Return Missions; Space Exploration; 
Space Missions; Spacecraft; Spacecraft Power Supplies 


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20040005901 NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE Missions to Callisto 

McGuire, Melissa L.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James; December 2003; In English, 2-6 Feb. 2003, 
Albuquerque, NM, USA 
Contract(s)/Grant(s) : WBS 22-706-87-02 

Report No.(s): NASA/TM-2003-212349; E-13937; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy 

This documents the results of a one-year multi-center NASA study on the prospect of sending humans to Jupiter’s moon, 
Callisto, using an all Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) space transportation system architecture with magnetoplasmadynamic 
(MPD) thrusters. The fission reactor system utilizes high temperature uranium dioxide (U02) in tungsten (W) metal matrix 
cermet fuel and electricity is generated using advanced dynamic Brayton power conversion technology. The mission 
timeframe assumes on-going human Moon and Mars missions and existing space infrastructure to support launch of cargo and 
crewed spacecraft to Jupiter in 2041 and 2045, respectively. 

Author 

Nuclear Electric Propulsion; Artificial Gravity; Callisto; Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters; NASA Space Programs; Space 
Transportation System; Manned Space Flight 

20030111797 Lockheed Martin Space Mission Systems and Services, Littleton, CO, USA 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program 

McKenzie, Patrick M.; September 19, 2003; In English, 29 Sep. - 3 Oct. 2003, Bremen, Germany 
Contract(s)/Grant(s): NAS8-01098; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A02, Hardcopy 

Lockheed Martin has been an active participant in NASA’s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) programs over the past several 
years. SLI, part of NASA’s Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), was restructured in November of 2002 to focus the 
overall theme of safer, more afford-able space transportation along two paths - the Orbital Space Plane Program and the Next 
Generation Launch Technology programs. The Orbital Space Plane Program has the goal of providing rescue capability from 
the International Space Station by 2008 and transfer capability for crew (and limited cargo) by 2012. The Next Generation 
Launch Technology program is combining research and development efforts from the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle (2GRLV) program with cutting-edge, advanced space transportation programs (previously designated 3rd Generation) 
into one program aimed at enabling safe, reliable, cost-effective reusable launch systems by the middle of the next decade. 
Lockheed Martin is one of three prime contractors working to bring Orbital Space Plane system concepts to a system definition 
level of maturity by December of 2003. This paper and presentation will update the international community on the progress 
of the’ OSP program, from an industry perspective, and provide insights into Lockheed Martin’s role in enabling the vision 
of a safer, more affordable means of taking people to and from space. 

Author 

Space Transportation; International Space Station; Systems Analysis; Aerospace Planes 

20030106071 Lockheed Martin Space Systems Co., Huntsville, AL, USA 
Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program at Lockheed Martin 

Ford, Robert; September 19, 2003; In English, 24 Sep. 2003, Long Beach, CA, USA 
Contract(s)/Grant(s): NAS8-01098; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A02, Hardcopy 

Lockheed Martin has been an active participant in NASA’s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) programs over the past several 
years. SLI, part of NASA’s Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), was restructured in November 2002 to focus the 
overall theme of safer, more affordable space transportation along two paths the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) and the Next 
Generation Launch Technology programs. The Orbital Space Plane program has the goal of providing rescue capability from 
the International Space Station by 2008 or earlier and transfer capability for crew (and contingency cargo) by 2012. The Next 
Generation Launch Technology program is combining research and development efforts from the 2d Generation Reusable 
Launch Vehicle (2GRLV) program with cutting-edge, advanced space transportation programs (previously designated 3 Id 
Generation) into one program aimed at enabling safe, reliable, cost-effective reusable launch systems by the middle of the next 
decade. Lockheed Martin is one of three prime contractors working to bring Orbital Space Plane system concepts to a system 
design level of maturity by December 2003. This paper and presentation will update the aerospace community on the progress 
of the OSP program, from an industry perspective, and provide insights into Lockheed Martin’s role in enabling the vision 
of a safer, more affordable means of taking people to and from space. 

Author 

Aerospace Planes; Space Transportation; Reusable Launch Vehicles; NASA Space Programs; Spacecraft Orbits; Spacecraft 
Configurations 


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20030093602 Rose-Hulman Inst, of Tech., Terre Haute, IN, USA 

Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guidance for Terminal Area Energy Management 

Burchett, Bradley; The 2002 NASA Faculty Fellowship Program Research Reports; April 2003, IX-1 - IX-5; In English 
Contract(s)/Grant(s) : NAG8-1859; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; C01, CD-ROM; A01, Hardcopy 

The second generation reusable launch vehicle will leverage many new technologies to make flight to low earth orbit safer 
and more cost effective. One important capability will be completely autonomous flight during reentry and landing, thus 
making it unnecessary to man the vehicle for cargo missions with stringent weight constraints. Implementation of sophisticated 
new guidance and control methods will enable the vehicle to return to earth under less than favorable conditions. The return 
to earth consists of three phases— Entry, Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM), and Approach and Landing. The Space 
Shuttle is programmed to fly all three phases of flight automatically, and under normal circumstances the astronaut-pilot takes 
manual control only during the Approach and Landing phase. The automatic control algorithms used in the Shuttle for TAEM 
and Approach and Landing have been developed over the past 30 years. They are computationally efficient, and based on 
careful study of the spacecraft’s flight dynamics, and heuristic reasoning. The gliding return trajectory is planned prior to the 
mission, and only minor adjustments are made during flight for perturbations in the vehicle energy state. With the advent of 
the X-33 and X-34 technology demonstration vehicles, several authors investigated implementing advanced control methods 
to provide autonomous real-time design of gliding return trajectories thus enhancing the ability of the vehicle to adjust to 
unusual energy states. The bulk of work published to date deals primarily with the approach and landing phase of flight where 
changes in heading angle are small, and range to the runway is monotonically decreasing. These benign flight conditions allow 
for model simplification and fairly straightforward optimization. This project focuses on the TAEM phase of flight where 
mathematically precise methods have produced limited results. Fuzzy Logic methods are used to make onboard autonomous 
gliding return trajectory design robust to a wider energy envelope, and the possibility of control surface failures, thus 
increasing the flexibility of unmanned gliding recovery and landing. 

Derived from text 

Fuzzy Systems; Logic Design; Trajectories; Terminal Area Energy Management; Automatic Control 


20030067885 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA 
NASA’s Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy 
Dumbacher, Dan; [2003]; In English, 14-17 Jul. 2003, Dayton, OH, USA 
Report No.(s): AIAA Paper 2003-3332; Copyright; Avail: CASI; A02, Hardcopy 

This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the 
technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy 
that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and 
contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and 
enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will 
take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that 
must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth 
orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection 
systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall 
risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while 
applying appropriate lessons learned. 

Author 

Risk; NASA Space Programs; Aerospace Planes; Reusable Launch Vehicles; Autonomy; Orbital Maneuvering Vehicles 


20030067855 NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer Missions in Cislunar Space 

Falck, Robert D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; luly 2003; In English, 2-6 Feb. 2003, Albuquerque, NM, USA 
Contract(s)/Grant(s) : WBS 22-706-87-02 

Report No.(s): NASA/TM-2003-2 12227; E-13847; NAS 1.15:212227; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A02, Hardcopy 

The performance of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) in transporting cargo and propellant from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) 
to the first Earth-Moon Lagrange point (EML1) is examined. The baseline NEP vehicle utilizes a fission reactor system with 
Brayton power conversion for electric power generation to power multiple liquid hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) 


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thrusters. Vehicle characteristics and performance levels are based on technology availability in a fifteen to twenty year 
timeframe. Results of numerical trajectory analyses are also provided. 

Author 

Cislunar Space; Low Earth Orbits; Nuclear Electric Propulsion; Propellant Transfer; Brayton Cycle 


20030046833 

Solar Sails for Mars Cargo Missions 

Frisbee, Robert H.; A1P Conference Proceedings; January 14, 2002; ISSN 0094-243X; Volume 608, Issue no. 1, 374-380; In 
English; SPACE TECHNOLOGY and APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL FORUM- STAIF 2002, 3-6 Feb 2002, 
Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA; Copyright 

This paper presents an analysis of Solar Sails for the Mars Cargo Mission. The figures-of-merit used are the total system 
Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO) and Trip Time. The total IMLEO includes the payload, solar sail, and any orbit 
transfer vehicle (OTV) required to move the sail and its payload to the operational altitude of the sail (e.g., 2. 000 km minimum 
altitude Earth orbit for the solar sail due to air drag). Once the sail and its payload are transported to the sail’s minimum 
operational orbit by the OTV, the sail begins its Earth-escape spiral and heliocentric transfer to the orbit of Mars. In order to 
minimize the payload’s Earth-to-Mars trip time, the sail does not perform a Mars orbit insertion capture spiral but rather 
deploys its payload during Mars flyby. The payload then aerobrakes into Mars orbit or to the surface to await arrival of the 
crewed portion of the mission. The sail loiters in heliocentric space until it is time to return to Earth. Note that one important 
constraint on the payload’s Earth-to-Mars trip time is the requirement that the payload be delivered to Mars (and be 
checked-out and verified operational) before the crew departs Earth at the next Earth-Mars launch opportunity. We further 
assumed that the solar sail would be a reusable system; thus, in addition to delivering the payload to Mars prior to the next 
crew departure, the solar sail must return to Earth before the next sail Earth-departure opportunity. With these constraints, the 
solar sail areas required for a 58 and 72 metric ton (MT) payload are, respectively, 20 and 25 km2. The corresponding IMLEO 
values are 149 and 185 MT, such that the total transportation system (sail and OTV) is only 1.6 times the payload mass, 
[copyright] 2002 American Institute of Physics. 

Author (AIP) 

Earth Orbits; Mars (Planet); Mars Missions; Solar Corpuscular Radiation; Solar Sails; Solar Wind; Spacecraft; Spacecraft 
Propulsion; Transportation 


20030006889 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System Between Earth and Mars 

Nock, Kerry; Duke, Michael; King, Robert; Jacobs, Mark; Johnson, Lee; McRonald, Angus; Penzo, Paul; Rauwolf, Jerry; 
Wyszkowski, Chris; AIP Conference Proceedings; January 28, 2003; ISSN 0094-243X; Volume 654, Issue no. 1, 1075-1086; 
In English; SPACE TECHNOLOGY and APPLICATIONS INT.FORUM-STAIF 2003: Conf.on Thermophysics in 
Microgravity; Commercial/Civil Next Generation Space Transportation; Human Space Exploration, 2-5 February 2003, 
Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA 
Contract(s)/Grant(s): 07600-49; 07600-59; Copyright 

A revolutionary interplanetary rapid transit concept for transporting scientists and explorers between Earth and Mars is 
presented by Global Aerospace Corporation under funding from the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) with 
support from the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and others. We 
describe an innovative architecture that uses highly autonomous, solar-powered, xenon ion-propelled spaceships, dubbed 
Astrotels; small Taxis for trips between Astrotels and planetary Spaceports; Shuttles that transport crews to and from orbital 
space stations and planetary surfaces; and low-thrust cargo freighters that deliver hardware, fuels and consumables to Astrotels 
and Spaceports. Astrotels can orbit the Sun in cyclic orbits between Earth and Mars and Taxis fly hyperbolic planetary 
trajectories between Astrotel and Spaceport rendezvous. Together these vehicles transport replacement crews of 10 people on 
frequent, short trips between Earth and Mars. Two crews work on Mars with alternating periods of duty, each spending about 
4 years there with crew transfers occurring about every two years. We also discuss the production of rocket fuels using 
materials mined from the surfaces of the Moon, Mars and the Martian satellites: the use of aerocapture to slow Taxis at the 
planets; and finally the life-cycle cost estimation, [copyright] 2003 American Institute of Physics 
Author (AIP) 

Mars (Planet); Photoelectric Cells; Rapid Transit Systems; Spacecraft 


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20030006861 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer Missions in Cislunar Space 

Falck, Robert D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; AIP Conference Proceedings; January 28, 2003; ISSN 0094-243X; Volume 654, Issue 
no. 1, 844-852; In English; SPACE TECHNOLOGY and APPLICATIONS INT.FORUM-STAIF 2003: Conf.on 
Thermophysics in Microgravity; Commercial/Civil Next Generation Space Transportation; Human Space Exploration, 2-5 
February 2003, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA; Copyright 

The performance of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) in transporting cargo and propellant from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) 
to the first Earth-Moon Lagrange point (EML1) is examined. The baseline NEP vehicle utilizes a fission reactor system with 
Brayton power conversion for electric power generation to power multiple liquid hydrogen magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) 
thrusters. Vehicle characteristics and performance levels are based on technology availability in a fifteen to twenty year 
timeframe. Results of numerical trajectory analyses are also provided, [copyright] 2003 American Institute of Physics 
Author (AIP) 

Cislunar Space; Electric Propulsion; Jupiter (Planet); Low Earth Orbits; Nuclear Electric Propulsion; Nuclear Propulsion; 
Nuclear Reactors; Propellant Transfer; Spacecraft; Spacecraft Propulsion 

20030006860 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE Missions to Callisto 

McGuire, Melissa L.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mason, Lee M.; Gilland, James; AIP Conference Proceedings; January 28, 2003; 
ISSN 0094-243X; Volume 654, Issue no. 1, 837-843; In English; SPACE TECHNOLOGY and APPLICATIONS 
INT.FORUM-STAIF 2003: Conf.on Thermophysics in Microgravity; Commercial/Civil Next Generation Space 
Transportation; Human Space Exploration, 2-5 February 2003, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA; Copyright 

The following paper documents the results of a one-year multi-center NASA study on the prospect of sending humans 
to Jupiter’s moon, Callisto, using an all Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) space transportation system architecture with 
magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. The fission reactor system utilizes high temperature uranium dioxide (U02) in 
tungsten (W) metal matrix ‘cermet’ fuel and electricity is generated using advanced dynamic Brayton power conversion 
technology. The mission timeframe assumes on-going human Moon and Mars missions and existing space infrastructure to 
support launch of cargo and crewed spacecraft to Jupiter in 2041 and 2045, respectively, [copyright] 2003 American Institute 
of Physics 
Author (AIP) 

Architecture (Computers); Artificial Gravity; Electric Propulsion; Electromagnetic Propulsion; Jupiter (Planet); 
Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters; Natural Satellites; Nuclear Electric Propulsion; Nuclear Propulsion; Nuclear Reactors; 
Space Transportation System; Spacecraft; Spacecraft Propulsion 

20030003756 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., USA 
PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable Transport System) 

Aherne, Michael; Davis, Phil; England, Matt; Gustavsson, Jake; Pankow, Steve; Sampaio, Chere; Savella, Phil; RASC-AL 
(Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation; 2002, 23-38; 
In English; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy 

The Plasma Accelerated Reusable Transport System (PARTS) is an unmanned cargo shuttle intended to ferry large 
payloads to and from Martian orbit using a highly efficient VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). The 
design of PARTS focuses on balancing cost and minimizing transit time for a chosen payload consisting of vehicles, satellites, 
and other components provided by interested parties. 

Author 

Mars (Planet); Cargo; VASIMR (Propulsion System); Reusable Spacecraft; Spacecraft Design; Plasma Propulsion 


20030001590 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL USA 

Launch Vehicle/Carrier Interaction, Improving the Analytical Integration Process 

Shariett, Charles A.; McClendon, Randy, Technical Monitor; [2002]; In English; Space Ops 2002 Conference, 9-12 Oct. 2002, 
Houston, TX, USA; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only 

A goal of the aerospace industry is to reduce the cost of space transportation by a significant within the next decade. The 
present cost of launching a space transportation system which includes propulsion system, vehicle, carrier, and payload 
integrated together to form a system, encompasses much more than the design of the propulsion system and vehicle. The total 
cost includes the recurring cost of the process of integrating carriers, and payloads into the vehicle for each flight. The 


7 


recurring cost of the integration of carrier/payloads systems is driven by the interaction of the vehicle. If the interaction can 
be well characterized and made to be very predictable for a range of payloads, or if it can be minimized then the cost of 
integrating a payload can be reduced significantly from today’s levels. The Space Shuttle is very interactive with the payload. 
The interaction has been well characterized through finite element modeling and is reasonably predictable for a specific 
payload. Experience has shown, however, that the interaction is very manifest dependent, and small changes in one portion 
of a payload complement can change the interaction significantly in another portion. That is the affects of one on the other 
are such that if one or the other is changed slightly the environment at the interfaces can change significantly. To date the 
Shuttle has made in excess of one hundred flights. For each of these flights several iterations of dynamic analyses have been 
required in the development of each vehicle/carrier/payload system. The iterative analyses are needed because of the 
sensitivity of the interaction of the launch vehicle to the attached carrier/payload. The Multi Purpose Logistics Module 
(MPLM) is a carrier designed for flight in the Space Shuttle carrying a wide variation of cargo, supplies, and experiments to 
and from Space Station. Its integration process provides a unique area for improvement in the template in use today for 
transporting items to space. Discussion of the present MPLM integration analysis requirements and possible areas for 
improvement of the process are provided in the subject paper. Special emphasis is placed on reduction of requirements based 
on similarity of items being transported, and the use of carrier hardware for protection of the Shuttle Orbiter. 

Author 

Analogies; Finite Element Method; Logistics; Mathematical Models; Payloads; Propulsion; Launch Vehicles 


20020092010 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL USA 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability and Supportability Approach for NASA’s Second Generation Reusable 
Launch Vehicle 

Safie, Fayssal M.; Daniel, Charles; Kalia, Prince; Smith, Charles A., Technical Monitor; [2002]; In English; Workshop on Life 
Cycle System Engineering, 6-7 Nov. 2002, Redstone Arsenal, AL, USA; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy 

The USA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a 10-year Second Generation 
Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program to improve its space transportation capabilities for both cargo and crewed missions. 
The objectives of the program are to: significantly increase safety and reliability, reduce the cost of accessing low-earth orbit, 
attempt to leverage commercial launch capabilities, and provide a growth path for manned space exploration. The safety, 
reliability and life cycle cost of the next generation vehicles are major concerns, and NASA aims to achieve orders of 
magnitude improvement in these areas. To get these significant improvements, requires a rigorous process that addresses 
Reliability, Maintainability and Supportability (RMS) and safety through all the phases of the life cycle of the program. This 
paper discusses the RMS process being implemented for the Second Generation RLV program. 

Author 

Reliability; Reusable Launch Vehicles; Safety; Maintainability; Life Cycle Costs; Life ( Durability ) 


20020091874 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL USA 

Operations Analysis of the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle 

Noneman, Steven R.; Smith, C. A., Technical Monitor; [2002]; In English; Space Ops 2002, 9-12 Oct. 2002, Houston, TX, 
USA; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy 

The Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program is developing a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. The program goals 
include lowering the risk of loss of crew to 1 in 10,000 and reducing annual operations cost to one third of the cost of the Space 
Shuttle. The SLI missions include NASA, military and commercial satellite launches and crew and cargo launches to the space 
station. The SLI operations analyses provide an assessment of the operational support and infrastructure needed to operate 
candidate system architectures. Measures of the operability are estimated (i.e. system dependability, responsiveness, and 
efficiency). Operations analysis is used to determine the impact of specific technologies on operations. A conceptual path to 
reducing annual operations costs by two thirds is based on key design characteristics, such as reusability, and improved 
processes lowering labor costs. New operations risks can be expected to emerge. They can be mitigated with effective risk 
management with careful identification, assignment, tracking, and closure. SLI design characteristics such as nearly full 
reusability, high reliability, advanced automation, and lowered maintenance and servicing coupled with improved processes 
are contributors to operability and large operating cost reductions. 

Author 

Reusable Launch Vehicles; Spacecraft Launching; Design Analysis; Maintenance 


8 


20020068832 Louisiana State Univ., Shreveport, LA USA 

Operations Analysis of Space Shuttle System 

Sarker, Bhaba R.; Research Reports: 2001 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program; July 2002, XLVI-1 - XLVI-5; 
In English 

Contract(s)/Grant(s): NAG8-1786; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A01, Hardcopy 

The space science program at NASA since 1950’s has gone through stages of development and implementation in 
rocketry and scientific advancement. It has become the nation’s largest scientific institution of research and innovation for 
space exploration and military research, and overall a pride of the nation at an exorbitant cost. After placing man on moon, 
space shuttle program at NASA is an on-going project with a high success rate at an average cost of about $450m per flight. 
A future endeavor from both government and private sectors needs to be undertaken for commercialization of this expensive 
mission. In order to attract private enterprises, it needs to boost up its operations with better technology at lower cost to cope 
with rapid changes in scientific advancement and economic competition. Thus, a second-generation reusable launch vehicle 
(2GRLV) will play a major role in future operation of NASA centers. Envisioning this potential way of saving the program 
by reducing the cost, NASA is currently managing an innovative program called the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to develop 
key technologies that will support the development of second-generation reusable launch vehicles (RLV) which will be more 
economical and safer and reliable than the existing space shuttle system. The selection of which technologies to fund for 
further development is being based on their likelihood to contribute to providing cost reduction or safety improvements. It is 
envisioned that in the 2006 timeframe, NASA will make a decision as to whether or not to commit to the replacement of the 
current space shuttle system with a new RLV. The decision to proceed with a new RLV will be partly based on the likelihood 
that the new system will be better than the existing space shuttle. Government and private entrepreneurs are currently 
considering four different types of RLV projects: commercial programs, government programs, international concepts, and X 
Prize competitors. NASA has already commissioned a series of X-programs to study the future RLV program. Today, NASA 
decision makers need analytical tools to help determine which technologies to fund the development of this technology. In the 
2006 timeframe, these same decision makers will need analytical tools to evaluate and compare various RLV architectures, 
including the existing space shuttle so as to make the best decision for whether or not to proceed with the development of a 
new RLV, and if so, then which one. A study is conducted here to establish ground level knowledge from the historical data 
and expertise experiences of the field personnel. Such information is compiled in the form of mission statement, goals, space 
shuttle operations, payloads and cargo constraints, resource constraints, and bottlenecks to the enhancement vector. 

Derived from text 

Reusable Launch Vehicles; Research and Development; Space Shuttles; Assessments; Project Planning; Operations Research 

20020049427 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL USA 

Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo Elements for Space Station 

Kappus, Kathy O.; Driskill, Timothy C.; Parks, Russel A.; Patterson, Alan, Technical Monitor; [2001]; In English; 
International Modal Analysis Conference, 4-7 Feb. 2002, Los Angeles, CA, USA; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A02, Hardcopy 
From December 1996 to May 2001, the Modal and Control Dynamics Team at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center 
(MSFC) conducted modal tests on seven large elements of the International Space Station. Each of these elements has been 
or will be launched as a Space Shuttle payload for transport to the International Space Station (ISS). Like other Shuttle 
payloads, modal testing of these elements was required for verification of the finite element models used in coupled loads 
analyses for launch and landing. The seven modal tests included three modules - Node, Laboratory, and Airlock, and four truss 
segments - P6, P3/P4, Sl/Pl, and P5. Each element was installed and tested in the Shuttle Payload Modal Test Bed at MSFC. 
This unique facility can accommodate any Shuttle cargo element for modal test qualification. Flexure assemblies were utilized 
at each Shuttle-to-payload interface to simulate a constrained boundary in the load carrying degrees of freedom. For each 
element, multiple-input, multiple-output burst random modal testing was the primary approach with controlled input sine 
sweeps for linearity assessments. The accelerometer channel counts ranged from 252 channels to 1251 channels. An overview 
of these tests, as well as some lessons learned, will be provided in this paper. 

Author 

Space Station Modules; Space Shuttle Payloads; Performance Tests; Test Stands 

20020030127 Auburn Univ., AL USA 
Power Without Wires (POWOW) 

Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Howell, Joe, Technical Monitor; Feb. 20, 2002; In English 
Contract(s)/Grant(s): NAG8-1617; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy 

Electric propulsion has emerged as a cost-effective solution to a wide range of satellite applications. Deep Space 1 


9 


successfully demonstrated electric propulsion as the primary propulsion source for a satellite. The POWOW concept is a 
solar-electric propelled spacecraft capable of significant cargo and short trip times for traveling to Mars. There it would enter 
areosynchronous orbit (Mars GEO equivalent) and beam power to surface installations via lasers. The concept has been 
developed with industrial partner expertise in high efficiency solar cells, advanced concentrator modules, innovative arrays, 
and high power electric propulsion systems. The present baseline spacecraft design providing 898 kW using technologies 
expected to be available in 2003 will be described. Areal power densities approaching 350 W/sq m at 80 C operating 
temperatures and wing level specific powers of over 350 W/kg are projected. Details of trip times and payloads to Mars are 
presented. Electric propulsion options include Hall, MPD, and ion thrusters of various power levels and trade studies have 
been conducted to define the most advantageous options. Because the design is modular, learning curve methodology has been 
applied to determine expected cost reductions and is included. 

Author 

Electric Propulsion; Propulsion System Configurations; Mars Missions; Laser Power Beaming; Solar Arrays 

20020020427 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL USA 

NASA Alternate Access to Station Service Concept 

Bailey, Michelle D.; Crumbly, Chris; [2002]; In English, 10-19 Oct. 2002, Houston, TX, USA; No Copyright; Avail: Other 
Sources; Abstract Only 

The evolving nature of the NASA space enterprise compels the agency to develop new and innovative space systems 
concepts. NASA, working with increasingly strained budgets and a declining manpower base, is attempting to transform from 
operational activities to procurement of commercial services. NASA’s current generation reusable launch vehicle, the Shuttle, 
is in transition from a government owned and operated entity to a commercial venture to reduce the civil servant necessities 
for that program. NASA foresees its second generation launch vehicles being designed and operated by industry for 
commercial and government services. The ‘service’ concept is a pioneering effort by NASA. The purpose the ‘service’ is not 
only to reduce the civil servant overhead but will free up government resources for further research - and enable industry to 
develop a space business case so that industry can sustain itself beyond government programs. In addition, NASA desires a 
decreased responsibility thereby decreasing liability. The Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program is 
implementing NASA’s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to enable industry to develop the launch vehicles of the future. The 
Alternate Access to Station (AAS) project office within this program is chartered with enabling industry to demonstrate an 
alternate access capability for the International Space Station (ISS). The project will not accomplish this by traditional 
government procurement methods, not by integrating the space system within the project office, or by providing the only 
source of business for the new capability. The project funds will ultimately be used to purchase a service to take re-supply 
cargo to the ISS, much the same as any business might purchase a service from FedEx to deliver a package to its customer. 
In the near term, the project will fund risk mitigation efforts for enabling technologies. AAS is in some ways a precursor to 
the 2nd Generation RLV. By accomplishing ISS resupply with existing technologies, not only will a new category of 
autonomous vehicles deliver cargo, but a commercial business base will be incubated that will improve the likelihood of 
commercial convergence with the next generation of RLVs. Traditional paradigms in government management and acquisition 
philosophy are being challenged in order to bring about the objective of the AAS project. The phased procurement approach 
is proving to be the most questionable aspect to date. This work addresses the fresh approach AAS is adopting in management 
and procurement through a study of the AAS history, current solutions, key technologies, procurement complications, and an 
incremental forward plan leading to the purchase of a service to deliver goods to ISS. Included in this work is a discussion 
of the Commercial Space Act of 1998 and how it affects government purchase of space launch and space vehicle services. 
Industry should find these topics pertinent to their current state of business. 

Author 

Reusable Launch Vehicles; International Space Station; Space Commercialization 
20020015696 Washington Univ., Seattle, WA USA 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospherie Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a Manned Mission to Mars 

Cummings, Hillary; Ross, Mike; Welsh, Daren; Choe, Paul; Inaba, Derek; Kachel, Chris; Ready, Katherine; Suthers, Elspeth; 
Warrick, Ben; Winstrom, Luke, et al.; Fourth Annual HEDS-UP Forum; 2001, 168-182; In English; No Copyright; Avail: 
CASI; A03, Hardcopy 

This paper presents two variations of a manned mission to Mars incorporating the Mini-Magnetospheric Plasma 
Propulsion (M2P2) System, under development at the University of Washington by Professor Robert Winglee, as a less 
expensive, flexible alternative to the traditional nuclear propulsion systems proposed in the NASA Mars Reference Mission. 
The M2P2 produces a magnetic plasma bubble that interacts with the ambient solar wind to produce an energy-efficient, high 


10 


specific impulse thrust. Two scenarios are presented to show the versatility of the M2P2 propulsion system. The first consists 
of a standard mission similar to the NASA Mars Reference Mission, in which cargo is sent to the Martian surface prior to the 
piloted mission. The second scenario is a non-traditional mission, in which a single, piloted mission is sent to Mars with 
multiple landers. These landers would be able to explore multiple sites on the surface of Mars. Multiple orbit trajectories with 
varying total and Martian surface stay times have been calculated to show the time flexibility of this advanced propulsion 
system versus the limited launch windows dictated by traditional propulsion systems. The minimum round trip time is shown 
to be 1.7 years, with potentially 50% less departure mass from low Earth orbit than required by the Mars Reference Mission. 
Author 

Manned Mars Missions; Plasma Bubbles; Plasma Propulsion; Propulsion System Configurations 

20010094060 NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH USA 

High Power MPD Thruster Development at the NASA Glenn Research Center 

LaPointe, Michael R.; Mikellides, Pavlos G.; Reddy, Dhanireddy, Technical Monitor; August 2001; In English; 37th Joint 
Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 8-11 Jul. 2001, Salt Lake City, UT, USA 
Contract(s)/Grant(s): NCC3-860; RTOP 755-B4-07 

Report No.(s): NASA/CR-2001-211114; E-12961; NAS 1.26:211114; AIAA Paper 2001-3499; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; 
A03, Hardcopy 

Propulsion requirements for large platform orbit raising, cargo and piloted planetary missions, and robotic deep space 
exploration have rekindled interest in the development and deployment of high power electromagnetic thrusters. 
Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can effectively process megawatts of power over a broad range of specific impulse 
values to meet these diverse in-space propulsion requirements. As NASA’s lead center for electric propulsion, the Glenn 
Research Center has established an MW-class pulsed thruster test facility and is refurbishing a high-power steady-state facility 
to design, build, and test efficient gas-fed MPD thrusters. A complimentary numerical modeling effort based on the robust 
MACH2 code provides a well-balanced program of numerical analysis and experimental validation leading to improved high 
power MPD thruster performance. This paper reviews the current and planned experimental facilities and numerical modeling 
capabilities at the Glenn Research Center and outlines program plans for the development of new, efficient high power MPD 
thrusters. 

Author 

Electromagnetic Propulsion; Plasma Propulsion; Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters; Rocket Test Facilities; Mathematical 
Models; Research Facilities 

20000120038 FDC/NYMA, Inc., Hampton, VA USA 

International Space Station Evolution Data Book, Volume 1, Baseline Design 

Jorgensen, Catherine A., Editor; Antol, Jeffrey, Technical Monitor; October 2000; In English; Original contains color 
illustrations 

Contract(s)/Grant(s) : NAS 1-960 13 

Report No.(s): NASA/SP-2000-6109/VOL1/REV1; NAS 1.21:6109/VOL1/REV1; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A10, 
Hardcopy 

The International Space Station (ISS) will provide an Earth-orbiting facility that will accommodate engineering 
experiments as well as research in a microgravity environment for life and natural sciences. The ISS will distribute resource 
utilities and support permanent human habitation for conducting this research and experimentation in a safe and habitable 
environment. The objectives of the ISS program are to develop a world-class, international orbiting laboratory for conducting 
high-value scientific research for the benefit of humans on Earth; to provide access to the microgravity environment; to 
develop the ability to live and work in space for extended periods; and to provide a research test bed for developing advanced 
technology for human and robotic exploration of space. The current design and development of the ISS has been achieved 
through the outstanding efforts of many talented engineers, designers, technicians, and support personnel who have dedicated 
their time and hard work to producing a state-of-the-art Space Station. Despite these efforts, the current design of the ISS has 
limitations that have resulted from cost and technology issues. Regardless, the ISS must evolve during its operational lifetime 
to respond to changing user needs and long-term national and international goals. As technologies develop and user needs 
change, the ISS will be modified to meet these demands. The design and development of these modifications should begin now 
to prevent a significant lapse in time between the baseline design and the realization of future opportunities. For this effort to 
begin, an understanding of the baseline systems and current available opportunities for utilization needs to be achieved. 
Volume I of this document provides the consolidated overview of the ISS baseline systems. It also provides information on 
the current facilities available for pressurized and unpressurized payloads. Information on current plans for crew availability 


11 


and utilization; resource timelines and margin summaries including power, thermal, and storage volumes; and an overview of 
the ISS cargo traffic and the vehicle traffic model is also included. 

Author 

International Space Station; Evolution ( Development ); Large Space Structures; Space Station Modules; Space 
Commercialization; Life Support Systems 

20000094226 Georgia Inst, of Tech., Atlanta, GA USA 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture: The MARTA Project 

Alexander, Roger; Bechtel, Ryan; Chen, Ted; Cormier, Tim; Kalaver, Sachin; Kirtas, Mehmet; Lewe, Jung-Ho; Marcus, 
Leland; Marshall, Dave; Medlin, Matt, et al.; Third Annual HEDS-UP Forum; 2000, 206-224; In English; No Copyright; 
Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy 

The Moon-based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture (MARTA) Project conducted an in-depth investigation 
of possible Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to lunar surface transportation systems capable of sending both astronauts and large masses 
of cargo to the Moon and back. This investigation was conducted from the perspective of a private company operating the 
transportation system for a profit. The goal of this company was to provide an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 25% to its 
shareholders. The technical aspect of the study began with a wide open design space that included nuclear rockets and tether 
systems as possible propulsion systems. Based on technical, political, and business considerations, the architecture was 
quickly narrowed down to a traditional chemical rocket using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. However, three additional 
technologies were identified for further investigation: aerobraking, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and a mass driver on 
the lunar surface. These three technologies were identified because they reduce the mass of propellant used. Operational costs 
are the largest expense with propellant cost the largest contributor. ISRU, the production of materials using resources on the 
Moon, was considered because an Earth to Orbit (ETO) launch cost of $1600 per kilogram made taking propellant from the 
Earth’s surface an expensive proposition. The use of an aerobrake to circularize the orbit of a vehicle coming from the Moon 
towards Earth eliminated 3, 100 meters per second of velocity change (Delta V), eliminating almost 30% of the 11,200 m/s 
required for one complete round trip. The use of a mass driver on the lunar surface, in conjunction with an ISRU production 
facility, would reduce the amount of propellant required by eliminating using propellant to take additional propellant from the 
lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). However, developing and operating such a system required further study to identify 
if it was cost effective. The vehicle was modeled using the Simulated Probabilistic Parametric Lunar Architecture Tool 
(SPPLAT), which incorporated the disciplines of Weights and Sizing, Trajectories, and Cost. This tool used ISRU propellant 
cost, Technology Reduction Factor (a dry weight reduction due to improved technology), and vehicle engine specific impulse 
as inputs. Outputs were vehicle dry weight, total propellant used per trip, and cost to charge the customer in order to guarantee 
an IRR of 25%. SPPLAT also incorporated cost estimation error, weight estimation error, market growth, and ETO launch cost 
as uncertainty variables. Based on the stipulation that the venture be profitable, the price to charge the customer was highly 
dependent on ISRU propellant cost and relatively insensitive to the other inputs. The best estimate of ISRU cost is $ 1000/kg, 
and results in a price to charge the customer of $2600/kg of payload. If ISRU cost can be reduced to $ 160/kg, the price to 
the customer is reduced to just $800/kg of payload. Additionally, the mass driver was only cost effective at an ISRU propellant 
cost greater than $250/kg, although it reduced total propellant used by 35%. In conclusion, this mission is achievable with 
current technology, but is only profitable with greater research into the enabling technology of ISRU propellant production. 
Author 

Commerce; Cost Effectiveness; Lunar Surface; Propellants; Propulsion System Configurations; Lunar Resources; Space 
Logistics 

20000094224 Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ USA 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants 

Conley, Jordan; Lefler, Devon; Shaw, Steve; Third Annual HEDS-UP Forum; 2000, 169-185; In English; No Copyright; Avail: 
CASI; A03, Hardcopy 

With a mission to Mars no longer merely an idea of science fiction, it is not too early to determine the technology 
requirements that will ultimately make it possible for humans to establish a long term outpost on Mars. One key aspect is the 
development of a reliable, reusable launch vehicle to shuttle astronauts between the Mars surface and low Martian orbit. This 
preliminary design study serves to provide an in depth comparison of liquid, solid, and hybrid propulsion concepts for a 
long-term In-Situ Mars Ascent Vehicle (IMAV) which relies only on propellants which can be harvested from the Mars 
atmosphere or soil. Because of the low Delta-v, a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle can be used to carry the crew 
plus cargo from the Martian surface back to, the command module. Theoretical chemical equilibrium calculations have been 


12 


performed to determine the optimum in-situ propellant combination for each propulsion type. The approach we took in 
performing a comparison of the possible design configurations contained several steps. First, we identified a baseline 
configuration against which we compared our design. The baseline configuration we choose was the Mars Ascent Vehicle 
(MAV) outlined in the current Mars Reference Mission. The second step was the addition of several constraints not specified 
in the baseline configuration, but which have been deemed important for this analysis. One significant constraint was that only 
non-hydrogen containing fuels - -were considered. Finally, we compared three different design alternatives to the baseline 
configuration. The areas of comparison were performance, safety, and feasibility. Based on these evaluation criteria, we have 
recommended a liquid propulsion system using CO/02 propellants as the most favorable configuration for the development 
of a long-term. Mars ascent vehicle. 

Author 

Mars Missions; Reusable Launch Vehicles; Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles; Manned Mars Missions; Mars Bases; Hybrid 
Propulsion; Liquid Rocket Propellants; Chemical Fuels 

20000094220 California Inst, of Tech., Pasadena, CA USA 

Mars SCHEME: The Mars Society of Caltech Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor 

Hirata, Christopher; Brown, Nathan; Shannon, Derek; Third Annual HEDS-UP Forum; 2000, 96-115; In English; No 
Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy 

The Mars Society of Caltech Human Exploration of Mars Endeavor (Mars SCHEME) is a detailed description of robotic 
and human missions necessary to establish a permanent human presence on the surface of Mars. The sequence begins in 2009 
with a robotic Mars sample return mission on a larger scale than that currently planned. This is followed in 2011 by a pair 
of HEDS landers designed to test in-situ propellant production and other necessary technologies. Cargo for the human crews 
is sent in 2016 and in 2018, with the first five-member crew traveling to Mars during the 2020 opportunity. The Mars 
SCHEME features design redundancy; for example, the capsules for Earth ascent, Mars ascent, and Earth arrival are based 
upon a common design. Systems redundancy is also included to provide multiple habitats on Mars and in interplanetary space. 
The plan uses only chemical propulsion, starting with the Z-5 launch vehicle that can deliver up to 112,000 kg to low Earth 
orbit. Costs of human missions are comparable with those of the NASA Design Reference Mission 3.0. Human missions have 
low recurring costs, high reliability, and high scientific return. Extensive computer simulations were used to develop launch 
vehicles and trajectories. Further details are available at http://mars.caltech.edu/. 

Author 

Mars (Planet); Mars Exploration; Mars Bases; Mission Planning; Manned Mars Missions; NASA Space Programs 

20000094217 Texas Univ., Austin, TX USA 

Automated Construction of a Martian Base 

Braun, Angela Nicole; Butler, Dan Bordeaux Burk; Kirk, Benjamin Shelton; White, Scott William; Third Annual HEDS-UP 
Forum; 2000, 44-56; In English; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy 

This document describes the construction of a Martian base that will support human exploration. The base will be 
constructed without a human presence in order to minimize the risk to the crew. The base will be verified remotely before the 
crew leaves Earth to ensure that all systems are performing as expected. Life support is the most obvious function the base 
will have to perform. The crew will require consumables such as food and water. They must also be provided with a controlled 
atmosphere. The base will use in-situ resource generation (ISRG) as the primary means to provide these services. The ISRG 
system will extract chemicals from the Martian atmosphere and convert them to usable resources. Power is a key resource for 
the base. The primary power needs will be met by an SP-100 nuclear reactor and three Stirling engines. This primary power 
source can provide 375 kW of power under nominal conditions, which is sufficient to support all base operations. Backup 
systems are present that can sustain critical functions such as life support and communications in the case of primary system 
failure. The base will provide a substantial communications infrastructure. Both Earth to Mars and surface communications 
are supported. A satellite constellation will be used to provide this capability. Backup systems are also provided that can be 
used in the event of primary system failure. Surface operations and science capability is an important aspect of the base design. 
The base includes two primary laboratories. One laboratory is contained in a lab module that is stationary, and the other is 
part of a pressurized rover. This mobile science unit (MSU) gives the exploration team the capability of collecting samples 
and exploring geologic features up to 500 km away. The MSU can operate autonomously from the base for periods up to two 
weeks with a crew, or it can function robotically for longer periods of time. A transportation and delivery scheme has also been 
developed. This scheme requires 4 cargo and assembly missions. The cargo modules will transfer from Earth to Mars on a 
low energy, near-Hohmann trajectory and then aerocapture into Martian orbit. The cargo modules will then descend to the 
Martian surface and land within 1km of the chosen landing site. Each cargo module can land up to 15 metric tons on the 


13 


surface. Construction will begin as soon as the cargo modules land. The first launch opportunity will send the power and 
resource generation systems for the base as well as the surface communications infrastructure and two unpressurized rovers 
in a single launch package. Resource generation will begin as soon as possible. The second launch package will contain the 
water extraction system, an ascent vehicle, and scientific equipment and instruments. The remainder of the base will be arrive 
with the second launch opportunity. The first cargo mission in this opportunity will transport the science and utility modules 
and a pressurized science rover to the surface. The final launch will contain the habitation module, crew consumables, and a 
supplemental life support system. Base assembly is accomplished through component movement and integration. This work 
is accomplished primarily with the two unpressurized rovers. The assembly procedure is controlled from the surface with the 
help of artificial intelligence. The final base is comprised of a central hub, three inflatable utility modules, the power system, 
and the ascent module. The base is validated using telemetry from each subsystem. The validation must be successfully 
completed before sending a crew to Mars. 

Author 

Construction; Life Support Systems; Mars (Planet); Mars Surface; Mars Bases; Extraterrestrial Environments; Space 
Habitats; Extraterrestrial Resources; Space Logistics 


14 


Subject Terms 


AEROSPACE PLANES 

Application of Probabilistic Risk Assess- 
ment (PRA) During Conceptual Design 
for the NASA Orbital Space Plane (OSP) 
- 1 

NASA’s Orbital Space Plane Risk Re- 
duction Strategy - 5 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program at 
Lockheed Martin - 4 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program - 4 

ANALOGIES 

Launch Vehicle/Carrier Interaction, Im- 
proving the Analytical Integration 
Process - 7 

ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS) 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 7 

ARCHITECTURE 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

ARTIFICIAL GRAVITY 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 

ASSESSMENTS 

Operations Analysis of Space Shuttle 
System - 9 

ASTEROID MISSIONS 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

ASTRONAUTS 

EAC trains its first international astronaut 
class - 1 

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

AUTOMATED TRANSFER VEHICLE 

Will the ATV Deliver? - 2 

AUTOMATIC CONTROL 

Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guid- 
ance for Terminal Area Energy 
Management - 5 

AUTONOMY 

NASA’s Orbital Space Plane Risk Re- 
duction Strategy - 5 

BRAYTON CYCLE 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 5 

CALLISTO 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 


CARGO 

Cargo Assured Access to International 
Space Station - 2 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

CHEMICAL FUELS 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

CISLUNAR SPACE 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 5 

COMMERCE 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 12 

CONSTRUCTION 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

COST ANALYSIS 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

COST EFFECTIVENESS 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

CRYOGENIC ROCKET PROPELLANTS 

Propellant Preservation for Mars 
Missions - 2 

CRYOGENICS 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

DEEP SPACE 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

DESIGN ANALYSIS 

Operations Analysis of the 2nd Genera- 
tion Reusable Launch Vehicle - 8 

EARTH ORBITS 

Solar Sails for Mars Cargo Missions - 6 

ELECTRIC GENERATORS 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

ELECTRIC PROPULSION 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 7 


High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 7 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

Power Without Wires (POWOW) - 9 

ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPULSION 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 7 

High Power MPD Thruster Development 
at the NASA Glenn Research Center 
- 11 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

EVOLUTION (DEVELOPMENT) 

International Space Station Evolution 
Data Book - 11 

EXTRATERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

EXTRATERRESTRIAL RESOURCES 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 

Launch Vehicle/Carrier Interaction, Im- 
proving the Analytical Integration 
Process - 7 

FUZZY SYSTEMS 

Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guid- 
ance for Terminal Area Energy 
Management - 5 

GAS GIANT PLANETS 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

GRAND TOURS 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

HEATING 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

HYBRID PROPULSION 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION 

Cargo Assured Access to International 
Space Station - 2 

International Space Station Evolution 
Data Book - 11 

NASA Alternate Access to Station Ser- 
vice Concept - 10 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program - 4 


A-1 


ION ENGINES 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

JUPITER (PLANET) 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 7 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 7 

LARGE SPACE STRUCTURES 

International Space Station Evolution 
Data Book - 1 1 

LASER POWER BEAMING 

Power Without Wires (POWOW) - 9 

LAUNCH VEHICLES 

Application of Probabilistic Risk Assess- 
ment (PRA) During Conceptual Design 
for the NASA Orbital Space Plane (OSP) 
- 1 

Cargo Assured Access to International 
Space Station - 2 

Launch Vehicle/Carrier Interaction, Im- 
proving the Analytical Integration 
Process - 7 

LIFE CYCLE COSTS 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability 
and Supportability Approach for NASA’s 
Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle - 8 

LIFE (DURABILITY) 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability 
and Supportability Approach for NASA’s 
Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle - 8 

LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

International Space Station Evolution 
Data Book - 1 1 

LIQUID ROCKET PROPELLANTS 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

LOGIC DESIGN 

Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guid- 
ance for Terminal Area Energy 
Management - 5 

LOGISTICS 

Cargo Assured Access to International 
Space Station - 2 

Launch Vehicle/Carrier Interaction, Im- 
proving the Analytical Integration 
Process - 7 

LOW COST 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

LOW EARTH ORBITS 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 5 


NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

LUNAR BASES 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

LUNAR RESOURCES 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 12 

LUNAR SURFACE 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

MAGNETIC SUSPENSION 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

MAGNETOPLASMADYNAMIC THRUST- 
ERS 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 

High Power MPD Thruster Development 
at the NASA Glenn Research Center 
- 11 

MAINTAINABILITY 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability 
and Supportability Approach for NASA’s 
Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle - 8 

MAINTENANCE 

Operations Analysis of the 2nd Genera- 
tion Reusable Launch Vehicle - 8 

MANNED MARS MISSIONS 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

Mars SCHEME: The Mars Society of 
Caltech Human Exploration of Mars 
Endeavor - 13 

MANNED SPACE FLIGHT 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 

MARS BASES 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

Mars SCHEME: The Mars Society of 
Caltech Human Exploration of Mars 
Endeavor - 13 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 


MARS EXPLORATION 

Mars SCHEME: The Mars Society of 
Caltech Human Exploration of Mars 
Endeavor - 13 

MARS MISSIONS 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

Power Without Wires (POWOW) - 9 

Propellant Preservation for Mars 
Missions - 2 

Solar Sails for Mars Cargo Missions - 6 

MARS (PLANET) 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

Mars SCHEME: The Mars Society of 
Caltech Human Exploration of Mars 
Endeavor - 13 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

Solar Sails for Mars Cargo Missions - 6 

MARS SURFACE 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

MATHEMATICAL MODELS 

High Power MPD Thruster Development 
at the NASA Glenn Research Center 
- 11 

Launch Vehicle/Carrier Interaction, Im- 
proving the Analytical Integration 
Process - 7 

MISSION PLANNING 

Mars SCHEME: The Mars Society of 
Caltech Human Exploration of Mars 
Endeavor - 13 

NASA SPACE PROGRAMS 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 

Mars SCHEME: The Mars Society of 
Caltech Human Exploration of Mars 
Endeavor - 13 

NASA’s Orbital Space Plane Risk Re- 
duction Strategy - 5 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program at 
Lockheed Martin - 4 

NATURAL SATELLITES 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 7 

NUCLEAR ELECTRIC PROPULSION 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 


A-2 


High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 5 

NUCLEAR PROPULSION 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 7 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 7 

NUCLEAR REACTORS 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 7 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 7 

OPERATIONS RESEARCH 

Operations Analysis of Space Shuttle 
System - 9 

ORBITAL MANEUVERING VEHICLES 

NASA’s Orbital Space Plane Risk Re- 
duction Strategy - 5 

PAYLOADS 

Launch Vehicle/Carrier Interaction, Im- 
proving the Analytical Integration 
Process - 7 

PERFORMANCE TESTS 

Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo 
Elements for Space Station - 9 

PERSONNEL DEVELOPMENT 

EAC trains its first international astronaut 
class - 1 

PHOTOELECTRIC CELLS 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

PLANNING 

Will the ATV Deliver? - 2 

PLASMA BUBBLES 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

PLASMA PROPULSION 

High Power MPD Thruster Development 
at the NASA Glenn Research Center 
- 11 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

PLASMAS (PHYSICS) 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

PRESERVING 

Propellant Preservation for Mars 
Missions - 2 

PROJECT PLANNING 

Operations Analysis of Space Shuttle 
System - 9 


PROPELLANT STORAGE 

Propellant Preservation for Mars 
Missions - 2 

PROPELLANT TRANSFER 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 5 

PROPELLANTS 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

PROPULSION SYSTEM CONFIGURA- 
TIONS 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 12 

Power Without Wires (POWOW) - 9 

PROPULSION 

Launch Vehicle/Carrier Interaction, Im- 
proving the Analytical Integration 
Process - 7 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

RELIABILITY 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability 
and Supportability Approach for NASA’s 
Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle - 8 

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 

Operations Analysis of Space Shuttle 
System - 9 

RESEARCH FACILITIES 

High Power MPD Thruster Development 
at the NASA Glenn Research Center 
- 11 

RESEARCH PROJECTS 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLES 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability 
and Supportability Approach for NASA’s 
Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle - 8 

NASA Alternate Access to Station Ser- 
vice Concept - 10 

NASA’s Orbital Space Plane Risk Re- 
duction Strategy - 5 

Operations Analysis of Space Shuttle 
System - 9 

Operations Analysis of the 2nd Genera- 
tion Reusable Launch Vehicle - 8 


Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program at 
Lockheed Martin - 4 

REUSABLE SPACECRAFT 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

RISK 

Application of Probabilistic Risk Assess- 
ment (PRA) During Conceptual Design 
for the NASA Orbital Space Plane (OSP) 
- 1 

NASA’s Orbital Space Plane Risk Re- 
duction Strategy - 5 

ROCKET TEST FACILITIES 

High Power MPD Thruster Development 
at the NASA Glenn Research Center 
- 11 

SAFETY 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability 
and Supportability Approach for NASA’s 
Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle - 8 

SAMPLE RETURN MISSIONS 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

SINGLE STAGE TO ORBIT VEHICLES 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

SOLAR ARRAYS 

Power Without Wires (POWOW) - 9 

SOLAR CORPUSCULAR RADIATION 

Solar Sails for Mars Cargo Missions - 6 

SOLAR SAILS 

Solar Sails for Mars Cargo Missions - 6 

SOLAR WIND 

Solar Sails for Mars Cargo Missions - 6 

SPACE COMMERCIALIZATION 

International Space Station Evolution 
Data Book - 11 

NASA Alternate Access to Station Ser- 
vice Concept - 10 

SPACE EXPLORATION 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

SPACE HABITATS 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

SPACE LOGISTICS 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

SPACE MISSIONS 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 


A-3 


SPACE SHUTTLE PAYLOADS 

Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo 
Elements for Space Station - 9 

SPACE SHUTTLES 

Operations Analysis of Space Shuttle 
System - 9 

SPACE STATION MODULES 

International Space Station Evolution 
Data Book - 1 1 

Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo 
Elements for Space Station - 9 

SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 

SPACE TRANSPORTATION 

Application of Probabilistic Risk Assess- 
ment (PRA) During Conceptual Design 
for the NASA Orbital Space Plane (OSP) 
- 1 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program at 
Lockheed Martin - 4 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program - 4 

SPACECRAFT CONFIGURATIONS 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program at 
Lockheed Martin - 4 

SPACECRAFT DESIGN 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 


SPACECRAFT LAUNCHING 

Operations Analysis of the 2nd Genera- 
tion Reusable Launch Vehicle - 8 

SPACECRAFT ORBITS 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program at 
Lockheed Martin - 4 

SPACECRAFT POWER SUPPLIES 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

SPACECRAFT PROPULSION 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 7 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 7 

Solar Sails for Mars Cargo Missions - 6 

SPACECRAFT 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 7 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 7 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

Solar Sails for Mars Cargo Missions - 6 


StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

SPACECREWS 

Application of Probabilistic Risk Assess- 
ment (PRA) During Conceptual Design 
for the NASA Orbital Space Plane (OSP) 
- 1 

SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program - 4 

TERMINAL AREA ENERGY MANAGE- 
MENT 

Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guid- 
ance for Terminal Area Energy 
Management - 5 

TEST STANDS 

Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo 
Elements for Space Station - 9 

TRAJECTORIES 

Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guid- 
ance for Terminal Area Energy 
Management - 5 

TRANSPORTATION 

Solar Sails for Mars Cargo Missions - 6 

VASIMR (PROPULSION SYSTEM) 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 


A-4 


Corporate Sources 


American Inst, of Aeronautics and Astro- 
nautics 

Will the ATV Deliver? - 2 

Auburn Univ. 

Power Without Wires (POWOW) - 9 

Boeing Phantom Works 

Cargo Assured Access to International 
Space Station - 2 

California Inst, of Tech. 

Mars SCHEME: The Mars Society of 
Caltech Human Exploration of Mars 
Endeavor - 13 

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ. 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

FDC/NYMA, Inc. 

International Space Station Evolution 
Data Book - 1 1 

Georgia Inst, of Tech. 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

Lockheed Martin Space Mission Systems 
and Services 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program - 4 


Lockheed Martin Space Systems Co. 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program at 
Lockheed Martin - 4 

Louisiana State Univ. 

Operations Analysis of Space Shuttle 
System - 9 

NASA Ames Research Center 

Propellant Preservation for Mars 
Missions - 2 

NASA Glenn Research Center 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 

High Power MPD Thruster Development 
at the NASA Glenn Research Center 
- 11 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 5 

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability 
and Supportability Approach for NASA’s 
Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle - 8 

Application of Probabilistic Risk Assess- 
ment (PRA) During Conceptual Design 
for the NASA Orbital Space Plane (OSP) 
- 1 


Launch Vehicle/Carrier Interaction, Im- 
proving the Analytical Integration 
Process - 7 

Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo 
Elements for Space Station - 9 

NASA Alternate Access to Station Ser- 
vice Concept - 10 

NASA’s Orbital Space Plane Risk Re- 
duction Strategy - 5 

Operations Analysis of the 2nd Genera- 
tion Reusable Launch Vehicle - 8 

Rose-Hulman Inst, of Tech. 

Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guid- 
ance for Terminal Area Energy 
Management - 5 

Rowan Univ. 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

Texas Univ. 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

Washington Univ. 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 


B-1 


Document Authors 


Aherne, Michael 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

Alexander, Roger 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

Antol, Jeffrey 

International Space Station Evolution 
Data Book - 1 1 

Bailey, Michelle D. 

NASA Alternate Access to Station Ser- 
vice Concept - 1 0 

Bechtel, Ryan 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

Bessone, Loredana 

EAC trains its first international astronaut 
class - 1 

Bolender, Hans 

EAC trains its first international astronaut 
class - 1 

Borowski, Stanley K. 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 5 

Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr. 

Power Without Wires (POWOW) - 9 

Braun, Angela Nicole 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

Brown, Nathan 

Mars SCHEME: The Mars Society of 
Caltech Human Exploration of Mars 
Endeavor - 13 

Burchett, Bradley 

Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guid- 
ance for Terminal Area Energy 
Management - 5 

Butler, Dan Bordeaux Burk 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

Chen, Ted 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

Choe, Paul 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 


Conley, Jordan 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

Cormier, Tim 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

Crumbly, Chris 

NASA Alternate Access to Station Ser- 
vice Concept - 10 

Cummings, Hillary 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

Daniel, Charles 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability 
and Supportability Approach for NASA’s 
Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle - 8 

Davis, Phil 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

Driskill, Timothy C. 

Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo 
Elements for Space Station - 9 

Duke, Michael 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

Dumbacher, Dan 

NASA’s Orbital Space Plane Risk Re- 
duction Strategy - 5 

England, Matt 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

Falck, Robert D. 

High Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion 
(NEP) for Cargo and Propellant Transfer 
Missions in Cislunar Space - 5 

Ford, Robert 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program at 
Lockheed Martin - 4 

Frisbee, Robert H. 

Solar Sails for Mars Cargo Missions - 6 

Gilland, James 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 

Gustavsson, Jake 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

Hirata, Christopher 

Mars SCHEME: The Mars Society of 
Caltech Human Exploration of Mars 
Endeavor - 13 


Howell, Joe 

Power Without Wires (POWOW) - 9 

lannotta, Ben 

Will the ATV Deliver? - 2 

Inaba, Derek 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

Jacobs, Mark 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

Johnson, Lee 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

Jorgensen, Catherine A. 

International Space Station Evolution 
Data Book - 11 

Kachel, Chris 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

Kalaver, Sachin 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

Kalia, Prince 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability 
and Supportability Approach for NASA’s 
Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle - 8 

Kappus, Kathy O. 

Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo 
Elements for Space Station - 9 

King, Robert 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

Kirk, Benjamin Shelton 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

Kirtas, Mehmet 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

Kittel, Peter 

Propellant Preservation for Mars 
Missions - 2 

LaPointe, Michael R. 

High Power MPD Thruster Development 
at the NASA Glenn Research Center 
- 11 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 


C-1 


Lefler, Devon 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

Lewe, Jung-Ho 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

Lo, Yunnhon 

Application of Probabilistic Risk Assess- 
ment (PRA) During Conceptual Design 
for the NASA Orbital Space Plane (OSP) 
- 1 

Maise, G. 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

Marcus, Leland 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

Marshall, Dave 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

Mason, Lee M. 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 

McClendon, Randy 

Launch Vehicle/Carrier Interaction, Im- 
proving the Analytical Integration 
Process - 7 

McGuire, Melissa L. 

High Power MPD Nuclear Electric Pro- 
pulsion (NEP) for Artificial Gravity HOPE 
Missions to Callisto - 4 

McKenzie, Patrick M. 

Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program - 4 

McRonald, Angus 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

Medlin, Matt 

Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Trans- 
portation Architecture: The MARTA 

Project - 1 2 

Mikellides, Pavlos G. 

High Power MPD Thruster Development 
at the NASA Glenn Research Center 
- 11 

Nock, Kerry 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

Noneman, Steven R. 

Operations Analysis of the 2nd Genera- 
tion Reusable Launch Vehicle - 8 


Paniagua, J. 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

Pankow, Steve 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

Parks, Russel A. 

Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo 
Elements for Space Station - 9 

Patterson, Alan 

Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo 
Elements for Space Station - 9 

Pencil, Eric J. 

NASA GRC High Power Electromagnetic 
Thruster Program - 3 

Penzo, Paul 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

Powell, J. 

StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For 
Large Space Architectures - 3 

Rauwolf, Jerry 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 

Ready, Katherine 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

Reddy, Dhanireddy 

High Power MPD Thruster Development 
at the NASA Glenn Research Center 
- 11 

Rogers, James H. 

Application of Probabilistic Risk Assess- 
ment (PRA) During Conceptual Design 
for the NASA Orbital Space Plane (OSP) 
- 1 

Ross, Mike 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

Safie, Fayssal M. 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability 
and Supportability Approach for NASA’s 
Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle - 8 

Application of Probabilistic Risk Assess- 
ment (PRA) During Conceptual Design 
for the NASA Orbital Space Plane (OSP) 
- 1 

Sampaio, Chere 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

Sarker, Bhaba R. 

Operations Analysis of Space Shuttle 
System - 9 


Savella, Phil 

PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable 
Transport System) - 7 

Schoen, Andreas 

EAC trains its first international astronaut 
class - 1 

Shannon, Derek 

Mars SCHEME: The Mars Society of 
Caltech Human Exploration of Mars 
Endeavor - 13 

Shariett, Charles A. 

Launch Vehicle/Carrier Interaction, Im- 
proving the Analytical Integration 
Process - 7 

Shaw, Steve 

A Comparison of Preliminary Design 
Concepts for Liquid, Solid and Hybrid 
Propelled Mars Ascent Vehicles Using 
In-Situ Propellants - 12 

Smith, C. A. 

Operations Analysis of the 2nd Genera- 
tion Reusable Launch Vehicle - 8 

Smith, Charles A. 

A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability 
and Supportability Approach for NASA’s 
Second Generation Reusable Launch 
Vehicle - 8 

Smith, David A. 

Cargo Assured Access to International 
Space Station - 2 

Stevenin, Herve 

EAC trains its first international astronaut 
class - 1 

Stott, James E. 

Application of Probabilistic Risk Assess- 
ment (PRA) During Conceptual Design 
for the NASA Orbital Space Plane (OSP) 
- 1 

Suthers, Elspeth 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

Warrick, Ben 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

Welsh, Daren 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

White, Scott William 

Automated Construction of a Martian 
Base - 1 3 

Winstrom, Luke 

Incorporation of the Mini-Magnetospheric 
Plasma Propulsion System (M2P2) in a 
Manned Mission to Mars - 10 

Wyszkowski, Chris 

An Interplanetary Rapid Transit System 
Between Earth and Mars - 6 


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