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No 62,544 

•:! A 




Thatcher aims 
to keep her 
present team 

By Nidiohs Wood, Political Reporter 



Mrs Maijaret Thatcber 
wants to {i^t tbe next ssneral 
election with her present ^bi- 
net largely oncban^ and is 
resisting pressure for whol^ 
sale chan^ in the reshu^ 
planned for next montlL 

She may even decide to 
leave undisturbed her present 
team of senior ministers, 
Jimi^ tbe changes to middle 
. and junior ranks. 

• Tbe Prime NOnister^s eal- 
'codatjons are being heavily 
. influenced by the tiflung of ^e 
. neau election. 

Party chiefs are up 

fbr a concerted public rela- 
tions and adveruting cam- 
' pugn through the autumn and 
' winter aimed at wiping out 
- Labour’s lead in the oi^on 

They are also (tiling the 
wheels of the party machine 
. with a view to having it in a 
stale of campaign readiness by 
' Christmas. 

If that strategy woilcs Mrs 
' Thatcher is almost certain to 
take the opportunity to go to 
the country early. 

She is understood to believe 
there is tittle to be gai^ by 
fighting an Section with a 
revamped Cabinet in which 
ministers are stiU stiug- 
to master their new 

Instead, ^ wants the 
p r e s e nt team to concentrate 
on trumpeting the Gov- 
emmenrs achievements and 
drawing up bold new policies 
ttet will capture tbe putriic's 
imagination to ensure the 

continnatioD of Conservative 
rule into 1990s. 

About a dozen policy 
groups, chaired by a Cabinet 
minister but including outside 
experts, will b^ meeting 
soon in an anempt to bring 
her vision to reality. 

They mil report, probably 
by the end of the year, to the 
inner drde.of senior minisrers 
the Prime Mintettr, 

Mr Wald^rave, who is 
pressii^ & promotion. 

who will draw up the next 
party manifesto. 

Conflict between the tax- 
cutters and the spenders Iub 
largely evapoiated, it was said, 
to be replaced by an agree- 
ment that accepts tbe force of 
both arguments. 

Taxes wiO be cut but at the 
same time spending will be 
increased in selects areas 
such as health and education 
to meet rising public ex- 

Speculation about the re- 
tiiume centres on the fiiture of 
Mr Norman ffoudec. -vriio, 
after five gruelli^ years 
managir^a^Q billion budget 
as Seoetary of Smte for Soaal 
Services, wants a move. 

He is beii% canvasaed as a 
replacement for Mr Pairl 
Cbannon, wliose term of of- 
fice at the Department of 
Trade and Industry has Been 
maned by persoi^ tragedy 
and profe^onal (UflBculties. 

But whh the Government's 
record on the hedth service 
likely to prove an important 
issue at the dection, Mrs 
Thatcher is reluctant to en- 
trust so politically sensitive an 
area to a newcomer, who 
would need the bA part of a 
year to come to grips with his 

She may ask Mr Fovrier to 
put the pa^ before posonal 
considerations and solder on, 
canyirtg through his pfann^ 
autumn counter-ati^ on 
Labouz^s prop^anda. 

Nor does tbe Prime Min- 
ister share backbench oonoem 
over the performance of Mr 
Michael Joplin^ Minister of 
Agriculture, who has come 
under fire fiom the firtnmg 
and avinminental lobbies. 

She r^ards him as a loyal 
member of tbe Cattinet who 
has done a difficult jtti) well 

If, as seems likely, those two 
posts remain wrih their 
present holders, ft is hard to 

Coatmoed m page col 1 


of glory? 

As yet another 
school year looms, 
a look at the 
dress options and 
the best buys 

■ • There is no Times 
r:.> PortfoTio Gold 
- competition today 
: .i because the Stock 

Exchaime is closed 
fbrthe E^k holiday. 

• The daily prize 
' tomorrowmlbe 



£12,000, treble the 
' usual amount because 
there were no 
' whiners on Friday or 
Saturday. TTie weekly 
prize of £8,000 was won 
on Saturday by 
Commander R.M. 

Romer (Retd) of Bath. 
Details, page 3. 

• Rules and how to 
play, information 
service, page 14. 

Diet deaths 

The Government is accused of 
foiling to provide guidaim on 
food and health, in spite of 
hi^ death rates fiom diet- 
related diseases Page 3 

Summit move 

African leaders will invhe 
Fresident Reagan to a summit 
on ending apa^id 5 

Chess draw 

^ tenth game in the Worid 
Chess Championship in Lon- 
don was drawn Page 2 

Hone News 2-4 
Oewseos '' SA 
.ArehMolog)- 12 
Appts 12 
^ 13 

aaniigts 12 
Bridge I2 
Ches 2 

Chiotii 12 
Coott 12 
Crosswords 8.14 

L ead CIS 
Sport 20-24,26 
liieaircsieic 25 
TV&Radio 25 
Unieershies 12 
Westber 14 








1b ft 

AnstritD .Oscar Ped erso li i 

Hii iiiinghgiti *ie inner City F( 

Road race 
by vandals 


Vandals delayed the start of 
the first momr racing on 
public roads in Britain for 
nearly three hodn yesterday 
when organizers of the Bir- 
min^iam Super 1^ found 
bolts had been removed from 
crash barrieis around tbe 

The ovemi^t vandalism 

thnn^ the city centre dnii^ practice laps on 
3000 track yesterday. Photograph: Pettf Llewellyn. 

on Willis 


Pre»ure in the.higbereoun- 
cils of the trade union move- 
ment is jawing on Mr 
Norman Willis, general ^ 
retaiy of the TUG for the past 
two years, to rengn or at least 

Mr Willis has been suf- 
ficiently troubled by rep 9 rts 
that his public style is boring, 
lontwinded and lacking m 
conndence, to take them up 
with ir^e unionists on tbe 
general council Those to 
whom he has spoken have 
assured him of their backing 
with varying d^rees o: 

Some union leades have 
been privately critical of Mr 
Willis's style since he took 
over from Mr Lionel Munay. 
The foct that he had, unlike 
his m^^cessors. to fight an 
election to get the job is an 
indication that there were 
doubts tom the beginning. 

Mr Willis has had consid- 
erable more success in private 
negotiations than in his public 

Y'esierday, Mr Ron Todd 
general secretary of Britain's 
bi|^t union, seized on that 
point when he defended Mr 
Willis in a radio interview but 
he did not deny that there 
mi^t be a campaign against 

At the end of an interview 
on BBC Four's The World 
This Weekends he said! 
'There is a lot of smoke and 
very little in it” 
uriier, Mr Todd had sug- 
gerted that the whole thi^ 
mi^t be a plot by the media 
to create destablization before 
the TUC Congress in Brighton 
next week. 

‘10 million 
paid too 
much tax’ 


* An estiiDatM 10- ntiUiem 
people in Britain paid more 
tax than they should have 
done in 1984-85, a former tax 
inspector claims in his book 
publisbed tod^. 

Mr Henry Todi, fbr seven 
years an Inland Renrenue tax 
inspector and now an author 
and lecturer <m taxatioit bases 
his estimate partly on ev- 
idence 9 ven to the Commons 
Public Accounts committee in 
1980 arKl paitiy on his own 
estimation of the peofdte who 
foil to claim Uiot rightful 

lo Toxaion Made Simple 
his eleventh book on tbe 
sulgect, Mr Todi says that 
according to the Inland 
Revenue's own evidence in 
1980, one in three tax assess- 
ments was incorrect, and, 
more recently, more thsm half 
the cofflpomes examined did 
not operate fty As You Earn 

He records that in evidence 
to the committee, tbe Chair- 
man of the Board of Inland 
Revenue admitted that a ran- 
dom check had shown that 27 
per cent of all PAYE assess- 
ments were wrong. 

Atired ye^rday whether 
this was not closer to a quarter 
than a titird, Mr Tocb con- 
ceded that be mi^t have 
overstated his case. 

But given a total of some 24 
million laxpayeis. h could be 
assumed that betweea six and 
eight million had been ^ven 
wrong ov outdated assess- 
ments, which in the majority 
of cases meant that those 
concerned had oveipard. 

The halanpg of the 10 
Continued on 14, col 1 

was discoverecT in earty morn 
tn| checks around the 2.47 
mile circuit close to 
Birmingham's dty centre, 
delayir^ prutise sesa'ons and 
quaufying rounds in . which 
racing cars were to travel at 
speeds of over 160 mpb. 

Mr John Charftoo, tbe 
.ebaianan of ffinninghamX^ 
Coundl's road race commit- 
tee, blamed (liberate vandal- 
ism^ “When we checked the 
barriers h was fourxj that in 
certain places bolts and 
wedges hu disappeared.** 

Om radi:^ siar^ tbe 
delay was quickly forgotten. 

Family dividecl 
Xeading article 




Thousands of spectators lined 
the circuit as Formula 3000 
cars - (uily one step down tom 
super fast Fonnula 1 - thiin- 
dered axul roared ahmg the 
“round the houses” route at 
average speeds of up to 105 

Fifteen thousand tickets for 
grandstands more *han 
1 5,000 other tickets have been 
sold for the two-day event, 
which organizers hope will 
have at&abed over 100,000 
people by tonight 

Abont 1,000 policemen 
were on du^ for yesterday’s 
event which was twvised in 
35 countries. A temporary fire 
station was estabUshed and 
ambulancemen stood by in 
case of aeddents, but there 
were no early mishaps. 

Birmingh^ Council 
has inverted £1.5 million to 
sia^ng the event which re^ 
quired parliamentary ap- 
proval. llte council hopes it 
will be held each year to boost 
the area's depnss^ economy 
and the city's chances of 
sia^ng the 1992 Olympics. 

Birmingham Ci^ Counefl 
held a referendum of local 
residents and won a 4-1 
majority in Oivour of staging 
the event 

Rain and gales forecast 

Helicopter flies to 
stricken hoveronft 


A Ro)^ Air Force heli- 
copter airlifted an injured 
stewardess to hospital and 
made another flight to deliver 
a drug needed tv & pregnant 
woman when a hovercraft 
with 132 passengers on board 
was strantted in the English 
Channel yesterday. 

The Hovn^peed vessel was 
stationary about 10 miles oft 
Dover on a flight tom Calais 
aftera fire destroyed electrical 

There had been no danger 
to passengers, Dover Coast- 
guard said last ni^t, but a 
Wessci -helKOpter toin RAF 
Manstoit in i^t sem to aid 
the stricken craft. Swift, t(x>k 
Miss jChristine Dale, tbe 
stewardess, off for treatment 
to an injur^ hand. 

Last night the hovercraft 
and passengers were back in 
Dover after being tov^ by a 
tug while tvro engjoeers, trans- 
ferred tom another hover- 
craft by the sea-rescue 
helicopter, tried to repair the 

Mr David Wise; projects 
manager of Hoverspeed, said 
that the fire broke out in one 
of the main electrical bays. Tt 
was put out immediatdy by 
crew members and there was 
DO risk to passengers at any 
stage,” be said. 

• An air and sea search was 
launched yesterday in the 
Bristol Cb^el for three of 
the four crew of a missing 
Beigtan trawler, after a mer- 
chut ship rescued one man 
who had spent three days on a 

He said that tbe trawler, the 
Ingrid, sank on Thursday. It 
was returning fiom fitiring 
rouncis in tbe Irish Sea to its 
ome port of Ostend There 

has been no radio contact 
• A man aged 37 was k iMed 
and bis brother and another 
man seriously injured when 
the Lotus Eclat sports car in 
which they were travelling on 
the M4 between Reading and 
Maidenhead careered m the 
road and bum into flames. 

The crash late on Satur^y 
night was less than a quarter of 
a mile tom the scene of a 

Carnival time 



multiple pile-up earlier this 
year in which 13 people.died. 
None of the men was named 
by police yesterday but the 
two injured men, Slough. 

Berkshire, were in hospital 
and described as “stable” 

B Police were investigating 
the death yesterday ofa cyclist 
aged 64. believed to have 
suffered a bean atiack ai 
Congresbsury. Avon, after 
completing 200 miles of a 375- 
mtle road race 

• The Automobile Associ- 
ation and the Royal Auto- 
mobile Oub r^rted 
problems on Britain's roads 
yesterday but traffic was said 
to be msk in south coast 
resorts and the Lake DistricL 

Tbe Meteorological Office 
sard that tbe weather was 
better throughout roost of the 
country than forecast, but said 
that today would be “very 
nasty for a number of people 
and would cause problems for 

A depressioD moving in 
from the Atlantic was bringing 
with it strong to g^e force 
winds and hravy rain which 
would sweep all of tbe country 
except nonbern Scotland dur- 
ing the day. 

Viv Richards refuses 
to take drugs test 

By JitiiD Goodbody* Sports News Correspond^ 

Bumper harvest likely despite rain 

By John Yonng 
Agricnlture CiMrespradent 

Another bump^ harvest is 
in prospecL de^ite the rain 
a^ lack of sunshine during 
the past month, the second of 
this year’s three annual crop 
surveys compiled by The 
Times indieafes. 

After a generally gloomy 

assessment at the time of the 
first survey in June, when 
formers were still looking at 
the efforts of a wet autumn 
and spriru and a bitterly cold 
winter, their mood appears 
markedly more optimistic. 

Yields are reported to be 
patchy and unlikely to com- 
pare with the huge levels of 

1984, but crops seem to be 
exceptionally healthy and of 
high (ptelity. Apart tom po- 
tato Might in Cornwall, dis- 
eases hardly rale a mention 
Another grain crop wjQ 
not be wetomed by the 
Goveninient or the European 

Details, page 4 

Vivian Richards, the Som- 
erset and West Indies bats- 
man. has been ordered to 
appear tomorrow before tbe 
Test and County Cricket 
Board (TCCB) discipluiary' 
committee aftCT refirnrig to 
take a random drugs test, 

it is tbe first lime any 
cricketer has declined to be 
tested since the TCCB. with 
the si^pjort of the Cridteiers* 
Assodalion, which r e pr e s e nts 
tbe players, began last year 
supporting the Sports Courw 
cil's campaign against drug- 

Tbe contracts of all fiist- 
class cricketers include the 
clause that they must submit 
to testing if drawn to do so. 
Richards declined to take the 

lest at an unidentified Somer- 
set match. Mr Peter Lush, of 
the TCCB. declined yesterday 
to say what action tbe TCCB 
could take or what penalties 
Richard focecL 

In athletics any competitor 
refusing to take a random 
drugs test is automaticaDy not 
considered for the British 

Somerset's decision not to 
re-enea^ the West Indian 
captain is not cormected with 
his appearance before the 

• Britain ended ^ the World 
Rowing Championships at 
Nottingham with their best 
performance so far two gold 
and thrR silver medals. 

Roning, pi^ 26 

Reagan drugs crackdown moves into high gear 

From Mirtiael Binyoa 

.As the war of words with 
Mexico over drugs continues, 
the Reagan Administration 
hx stewed up its crackdown 
on ^gs witii a well-publi- 
cized series of raids, a block- 
ade of New York harbour and 
the suspension of dozens of air 
traffic controllers in California 
on suspicion of using drugs. 

The angry contomatioa 
with Mexico in the wake of the 
If iri nap ping and loiiiire of a 
United States Drag Enforce 
ment agent by poliw in 
Guadalajara led to recrimina- 
tions on both sides at the 

Mr William Webster, the 
Director of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, rejected 
Mexican chatges that US 
agents ' had been operating 
ille^ly in Mexica 
“we ate there by invitation 
of the Mexican Government 
as pan of a co-opei^ve 
effort”he said 
However. Senor Garcia 
R^irez, Mexico's Minister 
of Justice, was report^ » 
saying any agents operating in 
his country did so at their own 

Tbe agents returned this 
u'eekend after being sum- 
moned here to discuss the new 
dangers. The DEA and the 

Customs Service is pressing 
the Reagan Administration 
Tor sharp retaliatory measures 
t^Dsl Mexico. 

Among plans discussed was 
the detention and questioning 
of idl residents fiom Jalisco 
state who want to cross into 
the US. Guadalajara, where 
Mr Victor Cortez, the DEA 
agent, was abduct is the 
camt^ of Jalisca 

Meanwhil^ the Admin- 
istration carri^ out drug raids 
all over the country at the 
wed^d. In New York 18 
pwple were arrested after 
raids netted heroin worth 
million (£47 million), the 

third largest amount ever 
seized in tbe dty. 

A task force stonned 14 
locations includi^ . one de- 
scribed as a packaging and 
cutting centre for a heroin 
ring. Officials said the ting 
distributed heroin worth 
$450,000 each week. 

On Friday tbe Coastguard 
blockaded New Yofk harbour 
with the imemion of boarding 
every ship lo look for drugs. 
''Operation Glass Eye", 
accompanied \n a flotilla of 
press ships and film crewsnnd 
punctuated by frequent press 
confimraces. did not yield any 

The mm was to publicize 

the increased vigilance of the 
Coas^uard and Harbour Po- 
lice with an operation de- 
scribed as the first blockade of 
New York since that by the 
British in 1812. 

Since the Administration's 
war on drags begu a few 
weeks ago. authorities in 15 
stales have seized more than 
6.0001b of cocaine, nearly a 
month's supply for the US. 

The raids in Bolivia in 
conjunction with the US 
Army have also temporal 
ended cocaine production 
there. This is estimated to 
have cut offbciween 20 and 40 
per cent of the US cocaine 

Stalker cannot 
rule out theory 
of conspiracy 

By Richard Ford 

Mr John Stalker, tbe re- 
instated deputy chief con- 
stable of Greater Manchester, 
said yesterday that he could 
not rule out the con5pirac>' 
theories surrounding his re- 
moval from heading an in- 
vestigation into allegations 
that the Royal Ulster 
Constabulary operated a 
“shoot to kill” policy in 
Northern Irebnd. 

But Mr Stalker will not 
return to the Province to 
resume leadership of a team 
concludinga detailed two-year 
inqui^ into six controversial 
shootings in Co Armagh dur- 
ii^ the autumn of 1982. 

Despite calls tom two So- 
cial Democratic and Labour 
Party MPs and the Labour 
Party's deputy Northern Ire- 
land spokesman for him to be 
reinstated as head of the 
inquiry team, Mr Stalker said 
yesterday that he had been 
constitutionally removed and 
could only rciiim if invited by 
Sir John Hermon. chief con- 
stable of the RUC, or the 
Northern Ireland police 

Mr Stalker conceded that 
was an unlikely prospect yes- 
terday when he said: “1 would 
not ever see myself going back 
to Northern Ireland in 
connection with this in- 
vestigation. I would have 
liked to finish the job.” 

He said he had given an 
undertaking not to comment 
on the inquiry now being led 
by Mr Colin 'Sampson, chief 
constable of West Yorkshi^ 
who conducted the inquiry 
into allegations made against 
Mr Stalker. He reused to 
comment when asked whether 
he thought the final report 

would inevitably be tainted. 
“The speculation has been 
rife. 1 don't want to add to it.” 

But he said he was still 
conflrscd about being taken off 
the Northern Ireland inquiry 
and added: “I am not entirely 
convinced of some of the 
reasons for that removal.” 

.Asked about the conspiracy 
theories surrounding his re- 
moval he said: *‘I don't know 
whether I am satisfied. I don't 
know what the truth is and 
with the greatest of respect to 
others I would say they don't 
know either. I think there's 
still a long way lo go, still 
things to be discovered, things 
still to come out. I'm certainly 
not saving there is a conspir- 
acy but 1 think it's a wise man 
to say there wasn'L” 

Mr Stalker, who was re- 
instated after 10 weeks, was 
speaking on Radio Tcicfis 
Eireann. the Irish Republic's 
state radio service. He was 
confident that the inquiry 
which was almost completed, 
will be satisfactorily finished. 

When he realized tluit the 
same team of Greater Man- 
chester detectives was to con- 
tinue the investigation under 
Mr Samps 9 n. he was con- 
fident certain lines of inquiry 
would be conducted. “I know 
they knew whai I would have 
ask^ and they would conduct 
the investigation as they are 
doing along the lines I would 
have done.” 

Mr Stalker began his in- 
quiry in May 1984 into the 
shooting RUC undercover 
officers or five unarmed ter- 
rorists and one tcen^ civil- 
ian in three separate incidents 

CoDtiniied on page 2, col 4 

Soviet UN 
man faces 
spy charge 

From Michael Binyon 

A Sov'iet United Nations 
official was arrested in New 
York bn Sanirday and aonised 
of spying after he was caught 
accepting classified US de- 
fence documents he bought 
for $1,000 (£670) tom a 
governmenl mformaaL 
Mr Gennady Zakharov, a 
scientific affoirs officer, was 
arrested by Federal Bureau of 
Investigation agents on an 
underground platform. He 
was not armed, but struggled 
and was wrestled to tbe 
ground. The agents took away 
three documents. 

Tbe FBI said Mr Zakharov 
was a known KGB agent who 
bad induced a student tom 
the Third World into 
for the Soviet Union. The 
student from Queens Coll^ 
was approach^ in 1983. but 
reported the Zakharov offer to 
the FBI. 

Charge of 
on Bhutto 

From a Correspondent 

Miss Benazir Bhutto, the 
detained opposition leader, 
and eight members ofiier 
Pakistan Peoples Par^ have 
been charged with sedition for 
“instigatiug tbe people against 
the Government”. 

Police said a case had been 
filed against Miss Bhutto after 
she made a spmh in 
Uaqatabad. a Karachi suburb, 
on July 31. Maximum punish- 
ment under the relaveni sec^ 
tion of the Pakistan legal is life 

l^nister sacked, page 6 

Fans in fight 

Rival football fons fought 
with bricks and wooden staves 
at a topping centre in Stoke- 
on-Trent, Staffordshire, be- 
fore a First Division match 
between Stoke City and Bir- 
mingham on Saturday. 

One day son. 




For 25 years, 
the British Heart 
Foundation has 
been funding vital 
research into 
Bntain^ biggest 
killer, heart disease, 
vueve achieved a 

great deal already. 

But we need your | I 

helpifweteto ' 
continue building a 
healthier, safer 
world for the next 
generation to grow 

Ttie more you 
help us^the more 
well find out 

icouiahejp * 

smtiKeomnncnrflnDsiiHearTiuwxutiea I 

XC ODucester Race. loiWBn ww OOH 




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^ Brtj^Hjgart Foundation I 

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TUC caU for 
end to 
reliance on 

Britain's development 
nuclear eneisy should 
halt^ and the nen generation 
of power stations should be 
coal-flred, the TUC said yes- 
terday in a report on the 
nuclear industry. 

In its 3S-page report. 
Nuclear Energy: Work to be 
Done, uj be presented at the 
annual congress next week, 
the TUC says the reper- 
cussions of the Chernobyl 
disaster and the general lack of 
public faith in nuclear energy 
have resulted in an uigent 
need to review and overhaul 
the approach to nuclear 

It specifically targets for 
attack the reprocessing of 
nuclear waste and the safety 
records of the older generation 
nuclear power stations, and 
demands “a radical pro- 
gramme of action to deal with 
a very serious situation". 

The Central Electricity 
Generating Board has stated 
that it is planning to build a 
“small fomily" of five to six 
pressurized water reactors ^ 
the end of the century in 
conjuction with two or three 
coal-fired power stations to 
cope with the growing energy 

Future policy regarding the 
new generation reactors is 
likely to be moulded next 
month in recommendations 
set out in the Layfield inquiry 
into the Sizewell B planL 

The TUC report argues that 

By Nicholas Beestioii 


unless the inquiry produces 
compelling reasons otherwise, 
DO new nuclear installations 
should be built until a thor- 
ough review has been con- 
ducted of the industry. 

The TUC wants airncw 
power stations to be coal-fired 
and recommends expansion 
of cc^-fired combing ^t 
and power for district heating. 

It also wants older nuclear 
stations to be retired where 
they fail to meet modem 
safety standards and for links 
to be severed between the civil 
and military programmes. 

In the report's introduction, 
Mr Norman Willis, the TUC 
general secretary, admits that 
many members jobs would be 
affected if the proposed 
changes were introduce^ but 
says that they are “decisions 
which must be foced". 

Unions represencii^ en- 
gineers and electricians, 
whose members work in 
nuclear power stations, are 
strong opponents of phasing 
out nucl^ power. 

To appease them, the report 
suggests that a foUow-up stiuly 
be made on “job conversion" 

The report concedes that 
nuclear power will continue as 
a source of electricity genera- 
tion for many- years. In the 
interim it recommends that 
health and safety r elatio ns 
be loudened and that Official 
Secrets Act barriers about the 
civil nuclear prograrnme be 
lifted to facilitate monitoring . 

Threat to Nimrod 
dismissed by RAF 

By Rodney CowtxHi, DdenceCmespondent 
RAF yater^y dis- gramme if the Nimrod can be 


missed as “rubbish" sugges- 
tions that senior officers had 
threatened to resi^ if the 
service was required to accept 
the Nimrod airborne early 
warning aircraft. 

A senior RAF source said: 
“GEC has until September 3 
10 demonstrate that the Nim- 
rod can meet our performance 
requirements. If it can do so 
we shafl be delighted." 

In March GEC was given 
six months under a £S0 mil- 
lion contract to show it could 
meet the RAFs requirements, 
and for the past two or three 
months has been claiming to 
have achieved performance 
improvements which repre- 
sented “major progress in 
resolving die - outstanding 

There is no doubt however, 
that whatever those improve- 
ments the RAF remains scep- 
tical about whether Nimrod 
will be brought to the standard 
demanded. There are under- 
stood to be papers circulating 
in the Mimstiy of Defence 
which express that scepticism. 

The GEC Nimrod project 
has so far cost about £900 mil- 
lion and the RAF recognizes 
that there would be political 
and financial attractions in 
continuing with the pro- 

shown to meet or even, per- 
haps, come dose to its p^or- 
manoe requirements. 

The question of RAF 
resignations at senior levels 
would be likely only if it were 
felt that the service was bring 
required to accept for political 
reasons an aircraft that would 
not do the job demanded ofiL 
■ -Since at least. the banning 
of the year the has 
doubled whether the Nimrod 
could be broi^t up to its. 
standards and has ravoured, 
instead, the Boeing Awacs, 
which is one of six contenders 
if Nimrod is canoriled. 

However, it is thought that 
the cost of seven Awacs would 
be about £1 billion, vdiereas 
GEC is understood to have 
put in a bid of £450 million or 
less for completing the Nim- 
rod projem. 

There is also an agreement 
with the ministry that if GEC 
failed to complete the ^noject 
to time and to mice, it would 
have to bear the cost of any 

The Awacs is said to be 
operating well with Nato al- 
ready, and it is argued that if 
Britain were to switch it would 
have proven aircraft whidt 
met its performance 

poll defeat 

The future of Ireland's co- 
alition government dimmed 
further yesterday as 
backbench supporters of Dr 
Garret FiuGcraid talked 
openly of a probable general 
election this year. 

Dublin observers believe 
that if a poll is held before 
^ristmas. Dr FitzGerald's 
two-party administration will 
be defeated by former Prime 
Minister Mr Charles 
Haughey's Fianna Fail group. 

A threat to the coalition's 
future emerged last week 
when the Irish Labour Party 
looked forward to a go-it- 
alone policy. Later, the former 
Labour minister Mr Frank 
Cluskcy' indicated he would 
not b^k the Government in 

Yesterday. Mr Joe 
Bcrmin^am. a veteran par- 
liamentarian who left Labour 
earlier this year, confirmed he 
would most likely vote against 
Dr FitzGerald in a vote of 

Mrs .Alice Glen, a leading 
backbench critic within Dr 
FitzCkrald's Fine Gael Par^' 
said: “The Government i$ 
belcagured on all sides and we 
arc being crucified by 

She singled out the pro- 
vision of security along the 
border with Ulster, “li costs us 
£500 million a year. If Mrs 
Thatcher and the British want 
to maintain it they should be 
asked to subscribe." 

The build-up of omrasition 
to Dr FitzGerald's coalition is 
seen as a threat to the Prime 
Minister's intention to hold 
out until November next year, 
the I^t possible date for 
voluntarily calling an election. 

Defeat for Dr FitzGerald, 
would deal a potential body 
blow to the nine-month-old 
An^o-lrish .'^reemenion Ul- 

STUC join 
over exam 

The Scottish Trades Union 
Congress yesterday joined the 
aigumeni over the intn^uc- 
tion of new standard grade 
examinations in schools 
whidi has left thousands of 
pupils with “no award" 

*1116 STUC says that thou- 
sand secondary school pupils 
lost because the Government 
diregarded warnings and 
pressril ahead with the new 
standard grades, largely ba^ 
on continuous classroom 
assessment, durii^ the 
teachers* dispute. 

Its education and training 
committee condemned the 
“incompetence and comp- 
lacenr^'" of the Government's 
handling of the introduction 
of the new certificates. 

The STUC was calHng on 
the Government and the 
examination board to ensure 
recognition for affected 
siudents.“We believe that 
with some significant 
modification of exam board 
regulations, the teachers* 
oiganizations would be able to 
ask their members to offer 
their professional judgment." 
Mr Campbell Christie, the 
STUC general secretary said. 

Stalker getting back into his stride 

Fears on 


By Peter Davenport 

Mr John Stalker, die re- 
instated Deputy Cltirf Cmi- 
stable of Greater Mandester, 
begfais his first foil wedt back 
at owk tiHnorTOW amid con- 
oeni abont fiitnre rdadonships 
with his chief constable a^ 
tb^ effect on the force. 

Last nl^t, 48 hoars afiw 
the decism of the Greater 
Manchester Police Anthoiity 
to rd^ the critical report 1^ 

Mr Coiiii Sampson, die Chief 
CoBstdile of West Yorkshire 
Mr Stalker had stQl bad ao 
contact with Mr Jaams 

The two men, never sodaDy 
close bat always an efferiive, 
profesional partnership, have 
not qwkoi far three immths, 
dw day afim Mr was 

told by the clerk to the police 
andiority of die disefofinary 

fftmplaints a gaingt him, 

Tlten, in response to a 
tdqiliOM call, Mr Anderton 
called hb d^nty at home. Ite 
emversadon was brieL £Bs 
last wwds were: ‘*Mr Stalker, 
yon must look after yonrsclf 

Mr Anderton spent tbe 
Bank bolide weAead in the 
Lake Kstrict TedudeaDy, ia 
his absence Mr Stalker was in 
charae of tbe 7,000 men to ers 
of die Gre^ Manchester 
force, alAoadi day-to-day 
control was hi the ha^ of a 
dnty assistant diiefeoaslible. 

Mr Anderton is doe to 
beemne innsident of tte 
Assodation <rf Chief Po^ 

Officers (ACPO) next mooth, 
which will involW his spend- 
ing mach dme away fiom his 
desk. Mr Stalker in effect wQ] 
be did constoble for aacb d 
die year. 

Mr StaDur spent six hoars 
at hb desk tm tbe elevendi 
floor of die headqnarters, next 
to Mr Anderton's <^ce^ on 
Satnrday to “breathe in ^ 
atmosphere of the job i^ain". 

An inddent on Friday, be- 
ftwe foe meetii^ d foe Greatm* 

Mandiesta' police aattority 
did not hdp to smooth die 
return to normal wwkiiig 

Mr Stalker was tdd that Mr 
Anderton had instructed that 
hb pariung facilities were to 
be withdrawn so he could 
not leave hb car at a police 
statum near hb bwyer's dfice 
where he was to wait the 
Mneome d the orodd meet- 
uig. A television crew in the 
Stolk» boose at'tiie time 
filmed Mrs SteUa Stalker's 
tearfol response to die vefnsaL 
Tomorrow Mr talker b 
doe to attend hb first monih^ 
codecence d senior officers in 
diree months. Mr Andmton b 
expected back to dnir the 

Snne d the officecs who 
vrere active in the iavestfoation 
d Mr Stalkerb Ihiks with the 

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Mr Stalker woEkiiig on hb form yesterday before rdiiniii« to hb poUce duties. 

Stalker cannot rule out conspiracy 

Conthmed fron p:^ 1 

within a matter of wedcs in the 
autumn of 1982. 

He was removed fiom head- 
ing tbe inquiry only days 
bdore he was due to retuni to 
the Province. He was hoping 
then to get access to an MI5 
tape of the shooting of the 
teenier in a hay bam near 
Lurgan, Co. Armagh. He also 
wanted to question the RUC 
chief constable and hb deputy 

about thrir knowledge ofthe 

He was reinstated as deputy 
chief constable after alleg^ 
lions of misoemdua made 
against him were investbatod 
fy a team of detectives from 
west Yorieshire. 

The Greater Manduster 
police authority voted 36-6 on 
his reinstatement, dismtssiiig 
recommendations in the re- 
port that he had mixed -in 

unwise company and abused 

the use of o^cial police 
vehicles' and tbar these mat- 
ters diould go to an indepen- 
dent tribunal 

Hb reinstatement brought | 
demands from Mr Stuart Bell 
the Labour Party d^uty j 
Northern Ireland 
for him to return to tbe 
Province to finbh hb reporL 
That was badeed by Mr John 
Hume, leader, of the. SDLP. I 

Manchester bashiessman Mr 
Kevin Taylor, vriiidi ewen- 
tnally led to hb suspension 
and die acensatian that be had 
k<^ nnwbe assodatknis with 
cnbuiials, vffil also be present 
at the meking. 

Yestmday, andd cracems 
expressed by MPs abmit the 
effect of the uhole affair on die 
Manchestn^ foree^ Mr Stalker 
.viras anxbas to play down a^ 
suggestion of with .hm 
chief cMistable or odim senior 

He said: *%rfOTe May Mr 
Anderton and I had a marvel- 
lous woric^ idmioiisUp. 1 
respect him ipeatfy as a 
protfesrional poUoeman and I 
am snre be respects me. 

“On Tuesday I hope to 
resnnie and re-estaUbh that 
rdatiooship for the benefit of 

the force and the puUic 
Greater Mandiester. 

“I go back vrhh no grudges. 
As for as the mher officers and 
thrir role in the matter b 
concerned, I have no reason to 
hriieve they acted in ^ler 
diangood Eeidi at the time.** 

The report by Mr Sampson 
recommended dud Afr Striker 
sfaonld foce an . independent 
db^Iinmy trihiairi m 10 

After six hour^ defiberation 
the Lriionr-cmitrolled andior- 
ity rejected the recommenda- 
tion and sent Mr Strike bade 
to work widi imly a rebake 
that he shoidd he more cirenm- 
sftect In hb politicri and 
oinii naJ retationships in die 

Of hb frieiidsliip with Mt 
Taylor, who -has no criminri 
record bnt. b ender investiga- 

don mto frand, Mr Stalker 
said yesterday: 

“My frien&hip has been ia 
abeyance and. vrfU naudn so 
uatil the dead over him b 
resMived one way or anodier. 
Thai 1 will endr^ reaninbe 
my relationship whh iJia.” 

. On hb retmn to vnuk.'i^ 
Steifleer vrfll tecfanicrify be in 
charge of detectives -Worki^ 
on Oe Ta)^ investigation, 
but, he s^^ ' yesterday,- he 
vronU not interiere.vria.the 

The afteimatfa of ffie 
Stalker affiur shows no signs 

Yestnrday, MPs called fora 
jwdirfal inquiry into ffieotbfos 
and tbe handfiM of tbe alli^ 
tions iqpnnst Mr Stalker tud 
asked why the -£250,01)0 
Sampson hiqiniy needed to he 

World chess champioushgi 

Kasparov opts for 
truce in game 

By Raymond Keene, Chess Comspondeifr 

The toitb- game in the 
World Chess Championship 
at the -Park Lane Hotel, mtral 
London,.. -was agi^ drawn 
with no funher play after 
Friday'4 adjouininenL 
Kasparov's sealed move 
bad been 44 Kf!S, but hours of 
analysis convinced .die cham- 
pion that there was no reastm- 
able way to breach hb 
opponent's defences. 

As late as 3.45 on Saturday 
af^oon, grandmasters ano 
chess experts were grouped in 
th&anal)^ centre ofthe Park 
Lane Hotel convincrii that 
Kasparov 'would seek io win. 

But juiA before 4pm, Herr 
Lothar Sdimid, the Gennan 
Chief Arbiter, announ^ that 
Kasparov had ■ suggested a 
truce and eight minutes later 
the peace treaty was signed on 
b^alf of Karpov. 

Game 10 proved conclu- 
sively that Ktupgv b tremen- 
dously resilient. He had been 
<fis^)pointed by hb failure to 
wiu games , seven and eight 
and subsequently failed to 
-make any. progpr^. with the 
white pieces u game nine. . . 

However, the former cham- 
pion expertly parried all of 
white's efforts to win this 
latest gam& it was a marvel- 
loiB defensive achievement tty 
Karpov under difTicuft 

Tbe score is now 5ii^ points 
to KaimFOv and 4i6 to 
Karpov. Two games remain to 
betnayed thb week in London 
betore the match transfera to 
Loiingrad for' the second ba2.£ 

There has .been mu^ 
qiet^tioa concerning the 
.£10,000 spedai prize offered 
by &ve and Pro^jer for the 
most brilliant ganw of the 
London half. The view b that 
eitber Karpov's win in gaiu 
five or Kaqmrov's win in 
ganie ei^t are the front 

The Times Grand Master 
Commentary Room transfers 
to tbe Great Fastern Hotel 
during the Leningrad seriion 
■of the match. Moves 
typed in Erectly from Lenin- 
grad and expboations will be 
gjveu by leading international' 

White: Kasparov 

Lloyds’ challenge 

After four "rounds of tbe 
Lloyds' Briik ' toiinuonem, 
Cremaster . Adesteih '. of 
Norway, riid Interhatic^ 
Master Murty of Isr^ share 
the 1^ with the maximum 
^re offbur points .esSii 
. (Harry Golombek vnitesi 

In round four Adesirin 
defeated the Fn^bh pbyri; 
.Pein, and Murey mated bs 
young Danish opponehi;, 
Kiistensen, ' 

Half a point briiind ^ 
seven players: Adams, Chan^ 
dler, Hjaitarson, Ho^gsoif, 
Ker. Tartgbom and. Amn- dty 

-'Results from, round. four 
van der -Sterren Kb* 'lb, 
-Hodgkm I, Hebden 9: Odvo 
0. .Chandler, i; Nicholson 0, 
•Hjaribson 1; Landeibbque 
\k^ Kudrin . K; - Rechlis : 
Ravisekhri' V|>: Adams 'L 
Kosariivili 0; de Firmnui h 
NijBoer 0; Plaritett 1, Ooube 
0 . • " 

in ' 

Two exotically-oostnmed diildven taking n rest fiom the 
dancing at the Nottnm ffiU Candvri yestarday (noti^rqih: 
Ros Drinkwater). 

Carnival spirit fills the 
streets of Notting Hill 

By Angelin Johnson 

The Nottii^ EBU Carnival Efonic 9Wps lhii% in foe 

area saved fodba 
West Indian patties, Chteese 
spring rolls, and fish and 

The carnival was kept 
largdy ponble^reebyarovi^ 
police “compateMye" Unkiag 
the varions police. units to 
Scotland Yard. 

A priioe spokeonan said: 
“Traditionally Monday b iSso 
Iwsiest day a^ we are askh^ 
people to continne follovrii^ 
our crime prevention instrec^ 
tions to travel by pablic tians- 
poit and leave 

when foMsands 
peopb flodeed into tiib podeet 
of west London tor the events 
twoDty-ffrst birthday. 

Within horns the foice’Ond- 
a-halfmfle roote was trans- 
forj^ into a colemfid aad 
noisy street party. 

Alfoongh foe crowds were 
slightly fewer than the 
200,000 on tbe same day last 
year-becanse of predicted rain, 
foe carnival retaiaed hs Carib- 
bean flavonr. 

for No 10 


Diplomats in London and 
Moscow are trying to settle a 
date fbr Mrs Thatcher to visit 
Mr Goibadiov in- Moscow 
be fo re the end of nextyear. 

Mrs Thatcher may find that 
if she sets tiie date frir tbe 
siting or autumn of next year 
it- could dash with- any lata 
plans fin* a general election. 

If it did, foe would probably 
inieiTii|rt her election cam- 
paign for the two or three^y 
trip to Moscow, and derive 
maximum jxilitical benefit 
from tbe vbiL 

The Prime Minuter inter- 
rupted her larf general election 
campaign fbr foe. Williams 
burg economic summit with 
President Rea^ and other 
world leaders m foe United 

The meeting pledged to 
work for lowri iiuBation arid 
stalrfe exchange rates. Mrs 
Thatcher returned to Britain 
at the end of May and went on 
to non her second electimL 

In the unlikely event- that 
foe two. leaders were to meet 
before Christmas, Mrs 
Thatcher might be said to be 
“clearing tbe decks” for an 

early general dectfoiL 

Mr Gorbachov’s invitation 
was issued by Mr Eduard 
Shevardnadze, the Russian 
FoisigD Mim^, vfoen he 
visited Britain last month. 

Mis 'Thatcher will be the 
first British Prime Mhibterin 
office to make a foil official 
visit to Moscow since Mr 
Harold Wilson was tiiiere in 
February 1975. 

‘Pay up’ 
call by 

By John Goodbqdy 
Sports News Correspondoti 
Mr. Robert Maxv^ co- 
duirman of the -Common- 
-wddlh- Gaines oiganizing 
committee, has ask^ the 32 
countries vriio ttoyemted last 
month's Games in Edinbuigb 
for a. total of £2.7 milh'on to 
help to pay creditors: 

With the Games showing a 
deficit of £3.8 millin n, Mr 
Maxwell has written to tbe 
heads . of Commonwealth 
countries saying that the boy- 
cott caused Ity tbe British 
Go-vernmem's. refusal to im- 
pose fiiU economic sanctions 
against South Afiica, daouigisd j 
l^-miniite sponsorship ' and ' 
fond-iaisin^ . - 

Mr Maxwell has afoed for 
an avera^ of £85,000 fiom 
each of tbe countries. Kenya 
fa» foe biggest biU, £277,0(jb, 
India has been afoed for 
£245,000 and Nigeria 

Mr Maxwti! says in his 
letter foat ahhough- the com- 
pany still hopes to raise part of- 
foe£3.8 million needed “with- 
out hdp from governments, 
there is no prospect of meeting 
more-friap a fraction of foe 
total deficit." 

A spokeswoman fbr Mr 
Maxwell owner of Mirror 
Group Newspapers, declined 
to say what foe next step 
would be if the countries,- as 

expected in most cases, do not 

Mr Ryoichi Sasakawa, a 
Japanese philamhropisL is ex- 
p^ed to underv^te tbe 
losses, although that has never 
been offidaDy confinned. ' 

- By Pfidiolas Beeston . 
One in five seniw-bosiness- 
men bdfieves bmeaucratic con- 
stniiils have increased, to 
spite of govanment effteto to 
T^Hoe red tape, foe Ib^titfe 
of Ettrectois »ys today. 

A survey coaducted among 
2(M senior company dnKtors 
discloses ' that the 
GovonmentV efforts to ease 
foe coartimiits- on busting 
have had only a tiny impact on 
foe business oonununity. 

Of those intenievred. 72 per 
cent said foot the problenis of 
red tape vrere unchanged, . 22 
per 0 ^ dahned thty' had 
' inoeased, and only 4 per cent 
reported a redaction in 

Tbe sniT^;OMiducted in foe 
past three -vteeks;^ 'disclosed 
that -34 pex 'cedt of-tiiose 
question^ identified - the 
vdne^udded tax sutem as tbe 
latest proUem area. 

Equal secMKt were local 
andiority reqniremaits and 
nati onal insurance contribu- 
tions, whidi eadi polled 12 per 

Mr &aliani Matiier, foe 
held of foe iastitnte's policy 
onit, wrote to Lord Yon^ tbe 
Secretary ofSlate for Employ- 
pi^. lart week sayii^ 

^ .die government has 
Imhhd -two White Papa's 
Intended .to .^nal a.jnqior 
programme rf dcr^Blafion to 
ease-burdoison bnsiness, his 
dear that bnfoiessmen im tbe 
md are hot yet tfring 

New Jersey, Japan wd 
Texas are among foe possible 
“bolfooles" bdi^ viewed by 
bosinessmen -feirfiil of a 
Conservative defeat at foe next 
genosl eiecdoa, accordh^ to 
an executive recruitment 
i^oicy. - - -- - 
Taloited tonness pe^te-in 
iafgennd small companies are 
said to be raaking tentative 
plans to move abroad should a 
govqniineiit which they ^ as 
out of sympfoy wifo tasiness 

Aims nf Industry, the free 
enterprise pressnre group, 
said Presidut Reag^'s. tx- 
artting plans would- make the 
United States i **very 
attractive" to talented biisi- 
ness people, even under the 
present ' UK administration. 

Family divided as racing cars speed past front window 

By Craig Seton 

The normally sedate Sunday 
lunch of the Gardner fiunfly m 
Binningham was shattered yes- 
terday as supercharged radng cars 
thundered ity only 10 y^s from 
tbdr modest semi-detached hoiM at 

speeds of over 150 mph. 

The fai^ lives at one of tbe 
closest pouts to the Binnin gham 
Super Mx drenh a^ on one of foe 
fastest sections. As foey tucked uto 
roast lamh, potatoes and v^tabl^ 
racily drivers preparii^ far a 
bend decelerated and braked in a 

crescendo of noise r^ outside 
their bouse. 

The stagiDg of the Soper Prfx, the 
first motor ladm on pablic roads in 
Britain, has divided the fimily, who 
live at B^rnve Middleway, a two 
lane section of Birmh^hum's riim 
road system whidi is part the 2^ 

Steel crash barriers and 8ft hi^ 
wire debris fenc^ has been erected 
at the end of their short frMt garto 
and hundreds of spectators were on 
tile pavement outside as a loud- 
speaker positioned on a pole only a 

few yards frimi the Gardno- hons^ 
hold blared out the race 

Mr Tony Gardner, aged 47, 
Viwoves of the “round the honses" 
radng and voted for it hi a 
referendiim of local residents -whidi 
overwhelmingly approved Bir- 
mingham City Conndl's pi«i« fin- 
the Super Prix. Bnt, his wife Joyce, 
voted gainst. 

She sud yesterday, after three 
hours of practice races and qualify^ 
0 % ronndK “It was ab^t w ahoot 

five miniites hot now foe -ndmt-is 

“I suppose if it is a snccew, we 
w31 have to put up v^ it evmy year 
and 1 do not want 

“Old fiolk liviog cqipoate are 
viitaal prisemers m th^ nones and. 
I am worried aiboat what vroutd 
happen if there was a crafo at such 
spe^ 1 jnst wonder if ears onid 
crash over the barrites." 

Mr Gardno, a ^vanizer, ^was 
UBcritical and saim “1 am quite 
prqmred to accept ^s for ooly two' 
da 3 « a year if it Binah^jiant 

^I do not think there is any 
danger. The drivors are very good 
and we have a' ringmde 

afthongh the radng does not coicem 
nieveryhncli.Itisbettertowatcb it 

-on tdevisioi. 

The tire-^ Soper Prfac went ha* 
also divided the local conmiiiiijty 
around the dimtit. Bnk many re$- 
iddite, partifglarly 'yonng peopte,- 
said they, woe d^ghted to have a 
. riimsiderseat ihr such an “excitiu 
.and dufiin^ event" Qtiieis'boiight 
'ear irihgs and drat thdr dons and 


'.'Mr Ridiard Biausbn cotifi) 
take ins music and enteitaio- 
ment' empire, the Viigih 
Grotty, to foe stock maikei to 
the next few months (Judith 
■ Huntley writes). ' - ■ J 

- A flotation for foe com- 
pany, w^h' includes, rert^ 
recording studios, 'prop^ 
and record shops, nas' 
likely fiirrome iinie/ 
However, it is believed thm 
Mr Branson's Viigin Atlantjc 
Airiine nuty be 'exdudd 
because it could confuse tlfe 
market's image of foe cbifr- 
pauy, ertimated to be worfo 
£20Qmiliioa. - • 

Mr Branson who was' ap- 
pointed by tbe Prime Minfeter 
.to bead a --“clean up Britain 
campaign" was not- av^bfe 
.for comment at the weekeodT 

Port strike : I 
fear ends ; | 

Tbe threat of a sniire ity 
immigration officers at Chan- 
nel ports was .removed 
terday after the Home Giro 
withdrew an order jbr tbe 
transfer of 30 officers -to 
Heathrow Airport. 

The officers had -voted for a 
oncrday . strike on Fridty -iii 
protest., at. the compn&ny 
transfer of 21 officers fibon 
Harwich, Dover, Folkestone 
and Ramsgaie-to'Heaihrow.r 

Professor dii^ 

Professor John Gwyti 
aged 62. head of the De^- 
ment of Moderii Langua^kt 
Strathclyde University, dial 
on Saturday While hilt>^aHd^ 
with a Boys'- Brigade- grotty 

• near Ben Venue, in Taya^it 

• was disclosed yesterday;- ife 
'lived in Gifihock, Gla^^’^ 

* . , ■ **• * 1 ^ 

Blaze drama 

A' SuiTty ambttiaoce crew 
fled their burning velticle-j^ 
terday. The crew were beading 
for their base ih' Onildfofd 
after attend^ a fire call when 
colleagues behind . roosed 
moke pouriiig from ine.-vg* 
-hide. A faulty mcbaiist'-pipe 
was blamed. 

PC shooting 

-A man is recovering in 
'hospi!^ after' beH)g-~acd^n* 
udly'^shot by Police C^nse^ 
^lup Olds. who*’W& paty- 
iysed by a gunman six-^years 
^•llie iHfeidciu happenecUt 
PC Olds' home in Pirmer.':West 
London, on Saturday;-. . 

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THE TlAHa MONDAY AUGUyf 25 1986 





















Ministers accused of 
faiUng in fight 
against bad-diet deaths 

By Thoosoii Pnadce* Sdeace CbmspMideiit 
T^e Government is failing The current advice on eat- **There is little 
' ~ in§ animal &s. snga^ salt. 

m-TO duty to provide national 
guidttice on fbod anri health 
in spite of Britain's **disniar' 
tales fi^ diM-relaied 
according to a lead- 
ing ntetUcal journal 
, A strongly-worded editorial 
in 77ie Lancet accuses min- 
isters and officials of delaying 
or disowning important re- 
ports by food and health 
experts and thus playing into 
the hands of vested interests 
in the fbod bdnstry. 

The artiide calls on the 
Govemment to develop a 
national policy on food and 
health and to introduce ^ 
etary guideUnes as a matter of 

dairy products, didaiy fibre 
and the consumption of al- 
cohol has hem either ambigu- 
ous or inadequate, the 
editorial says. 

Under a headline **&itun 
needs a fbod and health poti^ 
— the Government must &ce 
its duty", the editorial gives a 
earning that the British death 
rales from heart disease and 
diet-related cancers are dismal 
compared with other indus- 
iriaUzed countries. 

Tlie British diet is "one of 
the least likdy among the 
intakes of comparable coun- 
tries to promote brahh and 
longevity", it says. 

Ulcer hazard in a cup 
of steaming hot tea 

A medical research team 
believes it may have pm- 
pointed a new hazard to 
bealii^ living; a steaming hot 

Two surgeons. Dr Rory 
McCloy and Dr Robert Pear- 
son, have discovered a 
"significant link'* b^ween the 
tempoature at which people 
like to^p hot drinks and ulcer 
comidaints. They have been 
researching a p(»ribte assod- 
.ation for six months at Man- 
chester Royal Infirmary. 

The preferred food and 
drink temperatures of ulcer 
patients have been compared 
with those which "normar 
subjects select They are run- 
ning a fine tea mid ooSee 
servia to achieve "control 
^up** comparisons and have 
found that the ul^ pattenis 
generally prefer a hotter cup 

"Our research has abeady 
diown a si^ificant link 
tween hot drinks and ulcers 
. but whether it is a causal link 
we do not know. That will be 

for future researcii," Dr Mc- 

Dr McGdy added: "We 
have found some patients 
pro^ their tea or coffee at 
temperatures up to 70 d^ees 
centigrade. If yon stei^ied into 
a teib with water that tem- 
perature it would scald you." 

Dr McQoy b^an to 
qiecialise in stomach prob- 
Iras after operafing on a 
psydiiatiic panmt had 
svi^owed a dinical thennom- 
eter. It had ^veo a maximum 
temperature reading of 43.3 
d^i^ c^us, compared 
with a normal blood ton- 
poalure of 37C "It made me 
think that hot things could 
cause stomach and duodenal 

Dr McQoy and his col- 
leagues are including some 
cancer patients in their re- 
search but so for their data 
does not sug^ a link be- 
tween hot drinks and that 

The doctors earoect to b^n 
publishing their findings early 
next year. 

sign, how- 
ever, of dther a dedicated 
govemment advocacy of eat- 
ing patterns which might 
vent disease or the proviaon 
of offidally sanctioned gnid- 
anoe whei^ indi^uals 
might mote readily fonn their 
own judgement about the 
healthiness of their diet" 

The Lanc& ankle accuses 
the Government of def^ring 
ordisowning reports drawn up 
by expCTts. It says that efforts 
to obstrua one sudi report in 
1983 seemed mcomefitun the 
Department of Health itself. 

The tenns of reference of a 
subsequent report of the 
Committee on Medical As- 
pect of Food were 

limited and a third report, 
from the Joint Advisory 
Committee on NutritioDal 
Education, "suffered from fur- 
ther govonment interference" 
over dairy product Neither it 
nor the NACNE repon has 
received government 

Eariier thb year, the article 
says, the Government pro- 
duct evidence on the poor 
^et of schoolchildren only 
after there were puUic criti- 
cUms over delays in publish- 
ing the evidence. 

The editorial says vested 
interests in the food industry 
are gaining from the 
Government's reticence and it 
inges ministers to adopt a less 
ambiguous stance. 

"A first step would be to 
identify healthy ea^ as a 
responaWity of a single min- 
ister. The minista* fm health 
seems a most ^ipsopriate 
owner of this charge. 

"A national fbod and health 
policy should be devdoped, 
identifying the Goveroment's 
co-ordinatuig responsibility 
between all areas of national 
policy which affect food 

"Most mgently, the Gov- 
ernment should iNoduce and 
promote national dieta^ 
guidelines which are sdentifi- 

. fear TV 

By Gavin Ben 
Arts Onrespondent 

Teievision documentaries 
on persond rdationdiips raise 
moral issues d)Out intrusion 
ofpriva^, and H may be more 
appropriate to deal with sudi 
-subjects through drama, Mr 
Udi Eichler, an independent 
jjxoducer. yesterday. 

Mr EidUer told a ddiate on 
"real-peoiSe shows" at the 
Edinburgh International Tele- 
vision I%stival that he had left 
Tham» Television four years 
ago after bdng disturbed Iqr 
the ethics of some of the 
documentaries he had made. 

"I found it m<Me and more 
difficult to deal with, so 1 
stopped doing h. 1 sometimes 
suspected that the motive of 
people partidpating in the 
programmes was self-des- 
trudion." he said. 

Producers frequently turned 
pet^ into objects, treating 
tb^ in a way ib^ would not 
I do in normal relationships. 

^ "Perhaps documentanes 

should focus on public issues, 
and not investigate private 
matters. Drama would be a 
more powerful medium for 
this." he said. 

Mr Paul Watson, a BBC 
producer, conceded that docu- 
mentary-maters sometimes 
"played God". However be 
that they exploited 
peo^de ^ intruding in their 
private lives; rather, they tried 
to devdop an understanding 
with people who had agreed to 
.be filmed. 

Mr Alan Boyd, controller of 
entertainment at London 
A Weekend Television, said that 

be was aware of the risk of 
humiliating people, and 
would not broMcast any ma- 
terial that diey wished to be 

However, the headmaster of 
a schotd which bad been the 
sulgect of a documentary said 
that producers should agree in 
advance to share editorial 
control wnth the contributors, 
induding the ri^t of veto. 

Mr Chuck Banris, who pro- 
duces game shows for Umted 
States t^viskn networks, 
said that documentaries in the 
^ 'US were diminishing because 
of the hu^ popularly and 
profitabiUty of the kind of 
• programmes be made: 

School ‘can make 

By Peter Enuts^ Hofire Afihirs Corfespoodart 

The way schools can 
duce delinquents is diown in a 
bulletin of the Home Office 
Researdi and Planning Unit 
to be putdisbed on Wed- 

Pupils at risk are those who 
become isolated and pushed 
to the fringes of sdiool life 
because do not feel 

sufficiently attached to it or 
because of their bdiaviour or 
academic status, the bulletin 

The detrimental effect of 
academic feflore on the wa^ 
pupils see themselves is 
peiustently associated with 
delinquency, Mr John Gra- 
ham, of the unit, says. 

Anti-school groups develop 
as a result of influences that 
push pupils away from the 
core of the school 

Truancy has been a problem 
for more than 100 yearn, with 
rates of absenteeism remain- 
ing stable, since the 

b»oniag of this century. 

Sudi bdiavious has long 
been associated with ddin- 
qtiency and antisocial behav- 
iour. One study showed that 
between 44 per cent and 48 per 
cent of secondary school tru- 
ants were oflmders, compared 
with 14 per cent to 16 per cent 
of non-truants. 

But other research indicates 
that welfare and juvenile jus- 
tice agencks may pick out 
oSenders with adverse records 
of truancy or behaviour. 

A working party of the 
Natimial Association for the 
and Resetdement of 
Offenders (Nacro) concluded 
in 1984 that school reports 
provided an important source 
of evidence on many juvenile 
offenders. But the reports' 
influence is likely to confirm 
the juvenile’s aiminal dis- 
pisition, Mr Graham says. 

The Nacro report condoded 
that some school reports con- 
tained unsubstantiated allega- 
lions of criminal behaviour, 
riamag in g remarks about con- 
duct and character out of 
context, and neariy all reports 
tended to emphaaze native 

Mr Graham concludes that 
schools do not necessarily 
have a powerfiil and direct 
influence <m ddinquency. 

But, t^ugh their ability to 
motivate, to integrate and to 
of^ each pupil a sense of 
achievement r^ardless of 
ability, "th^ may have a 
powerful iodirea influence on 
whether or not some of their 
pupils are drawn into the 
juvenile justice system". 

Children in adult jails 
a scandal, says trust 

By Oor Home Affoirs Correspondent 

The imprisonment of diil- 
drra means that little has 
changed since Victorian 
times, Mr Stephen Shaw, 
director of the Pnson Reform 
Trust, said yesterday. 

He was commenting on a 
report. Remanding cf Ju- 
veniles. by the trust which 
showed that more than 1,500 
aged 15 and 16 were* 
remanded in {ffison last year, 
llie report referred to one case 
in «4iicfa a boy aged 15 was 
held in Hull top security 
prison on a charge of shoplift- 
ing goods worth £3. 

"Wben our prisons are gro- 
tesquely oveiburdened and 
local authority resources 90 s- 
sly overstretched it is scan- 
dalous that so many young 
peoi^e are being remanded 
into prison or other secure 

accommodation", Mr Shaw 

Because up 10 half of re- 
manded juveniles did not 
receive a custodial sentence 
on conviction, more than 
1,000 young pet^e were 
undeigoing a jiotentially dam- 
aging expenence with no 
smpreciable benefits rither to 
them or the commum'^'. 

The trust also critici^ the 
faa that, unlike a remand in 
custody, lime by a 

juveniie in secure units did 
not count i^a^ sentence. 

The trust said it was writing 
to the Home Secretary callii^ 
upon him, in this autumn's 
Criming Justice Bill to 
tigbien ibe rules governing the 
remanding ofjuveniles. 
Remanding o/Jureniles (Prison 
Reform Trust, 59 Cal^onian 
Road. London Nl 9BU:£IX 

in London’s fourth International Power Boat Grand nis p ro ri di ig a fhriBing »ectacie yesterday as they 

^ high spe^tm the Thames at KOTal Victoria Dodt. Boats frmn. Italy, Germany, France, me'United States and Brit- 

ain aee vying for the wi^ sales and w tiie Hannswovtt Trophy. Hie event finishes today (nrott^n^h: Stuart Nkol). 

Carii^ in the commimity 

SDP plans ‘family charter’ 

A "carers diarter" to help 
the thousands of people who 
look afier relatives at home, is 
proposed by tiie Social Demo- 
cratic ^ity today in a dis- 
cussion paper 00 care in the 

Ninety per cent of mentally 
iU people and 80 per cent of 
those who are mentally handi- 
ct^ped are cared for full time 
by thdr femilies. "V^oot 
these carers the burden on 
public services would be 
overwb^ing," it sa 3 |F& 

It aigues that femilira will 
have to cany more of tire 
burden as a result of govern- 
ment polides to dose down 
long-stay bo^tals and small 
geriatric hesitate without 
providing sufficient resources 
to bi^ community services. 

The charter calls for a 
special cam’s benefit and the 
extension of the invalid care 
allowance to married women. 

It pR^Mises providii^ res- 
idential places for "respite" 
leave to give carers a break, 
builffing more day care centres 
with a range of medical, social 
ai^ educational services, and 
offering reliable transport ser- 
vices at ^reed times. 

Rqpilar meals on vriieels, 
luoc^n clubs, frequent laun- 
diy services for incontment 
patients and evenii^ and day ' 
sitting services are also pro- 
posed. In addition carers 
should also be givoi priority 
housing allocation, it says. 

"Informal carers must be 
given power and resources to 
bdp them care, and to enaUe 
them to build their own lives," 
the paper saysu 

By Jfll9ieniiatt 

The party also wants to 9 ve 
consumers more power to 
determine the services they 
need. "Consumers should be 
able to express what they want 
and to participate in decisioii- 
makiiig about the planning 
development and implement- 
ation of services to hdp 
them," it says. 

Qienis should have an 
equal status with tiie pro- 
fe^onals provtdiiig the ser- 
vices, the paper says. 

Voluntary organizations 
should provide advoca^ ser- 
vices a^ pec^ going into 
residential care shook! have a 
right to infonnation, advice or 
counselling about what is 

Hie paper proposes that a 
national community vtriun- 
teer service scheme, mainly 
made up of young peojrie and 
ofganized fry local authorities 
and voluntary- organisations, 
should be set up. 

Give GPs cash to treat 
elderly, says charity 

Family doctors should be 
gjven financial incentiTes to 
ancoarage than (0 treat el- 
derly people, a report pnb- 
Ush^ by the volmitary 
organisatkw Age Cooceni En- 
glm says tod^ (JIB Sher- 
man writes). 

The d^ty s^gesls fiiat 
general innctitioners conld be 
paid on a system similar to 
timt used fm frumly plamui^ 
where doctors midertate to 
provide certain care estab- 
iisbed in govenuneat gnide- 

Doctors woe nwre attracted 
to work with yom^er peo|de 
because rii^ could daim 
for maternity care, rhiM im- 
inimwati iin. fomfly plannmg 
and cerricai cancer screeoii^ , 
the report says. 

payments made to 
GI^ for ead dderiy person mi 
their Ikts (per cqiita fees) 
accounted for only 5 per cent of 
riiOT total income. 

Fees for the ehierly conld be 

paid to doctors foe phyiricat 
examinations tulored to dr 
derly disorders; settn^ iqi 
age/sex registos far health 
sarvefllaiice and for dnom- 

report admowl 
am Oe immediate removaTof 
per capita payments wonld be 
onHmed by fiie medical prd- 
fessiM but si^ests diat those 
rise at less than the infialion 

The money saved could be 
used fw used for eiqierinieiital 
projects to look at ways of 
encouT^jng GFs to wtnk wifo 
eldmiy people. 

Ase Concern also calls mi 
die Govornment to provide 
extra cash frir frtiiuly dortor 
services. "Only 6.6 per cent of 
foe NHS bm^ k spent mi 
GP services, yet 95 po* crat of 
all oonsultatioiis wifo doctors 
are widi NHS GPs^**. it says. 
Doctors should be mme will- 
ing to make hmne visits mid 
sjwnd time wttb older people. 

Police see 
friends of 
dead hoys 

Police in Yorkshire and 
firampian gge to interview the 
friends of two schoolboys who 
died in separate incidents 
wh^ playiite at dw weekend. 

In North Yorahireth^ will 
question 20 children who 
attended a birthday party at a 
remote fenn where a b(^ aged 
six died in a cesspiL 
In Scotland pttiice are in- 
vestigating tiie drath' of a-^ 
aged whose body was 
reemtered yesterday from the 
sea near Findeii, soofo of 
ydierdeen, as he and three 
boys of the same age were 
trammed tw the rising tide at 
the foot of a diff cm Saturday 
evening. Tte others were res- 
cued ^ an inshore rescue 

Nora Yorkriiire police 
frogmen found the bo^ of 
Janies Radmoie, of Wood- 
land^ Ru& iai^ raterittg, 
eaiiy yesterday as a kardi 
involving 200 volunteers and 
a RAFhmicoptm resumed. He 
disappemed about on Sat- 
urday afternoon as the chil- 
drea riayed party games cm 
Ox Oose Farm, Hatton4e- 

The priioe were called in 
after about two hours and 
lo^ rescue teams, local game- 
keepers and parents of party 
guests b^an searchmg the 
moors around tire form. 

Last ni^t. Chief 
Superintendent Brian 
Berminglmi said a that post 
mortem examination was-be- 
iog carried ' out. He added: 
"This could be a tra^c ao- 
ddent but inveni^tiQns wilf 

— ^cld— 

£8,000 win 

for former 
RN officer 

A retired Royal Navy cem- 
mapder firom ^ B ath wra 
vesteriayTs wUrtelit winnee uf 
Oe iramtiv Pprtfiilio GeU 

Marit Romer, 
«ed 62, ef Skm Bm, Bath, a 
M ula r reader of The 
SM he had been playii% tim 
game reg ula rly seem after- it 

He- said yesterday: "This is 
very hdpm iOeo yoa are 
retSad s^ k wDl cenie hi 
handy, fte aH sorts of -tbnogs 
suA u a holiday and buying 
aneOcr car as the oM one is 
dnelbracfaai^ . . 

"I have pleBly of iriatives, 
indadin an made and varioas 
coostamm Portugal and Ttiiittfc 
I vnU haro a nrona ont there 
as a hiffiday to see thm alL 
wh»_ experience 
diffienlty obtai^Sg a gedd card 
sbooM said a stained ad- 
dressed cnvriive tee 
POfftfiiffio Gold, 




BBl 6 AJ. 




A seem^ operatimi, de- 
scribed by Oe pofiee as a 
l^ger prabicw than "a 
presidcBtial tear wrapped ap 
wia a royri visif"^ vns 
BOOBted yesterday for tte 
biestiag of die marriage of Mr 
Bob GeUof SBE airi Mbs 
Paula Yaties, a IderisioB pop 
show hostess. 

The coaple's home, 
Dxvbigten Priory, aeir Fa^ 
vosim Sent, VIS riisted by 
pedioe siai private secarity 
affioeis as pop steis-airived 
forttiece r cMw a y. 

Bat aboat 100 focal wdl 
vishm PV foas gaOered 
oatside wore disappoiated 
whea. the ooB^ did not make 

.A pblioe spohssmn said: 

"lankly, there weald be less 
of a pnmem wia secarity tf 
fins was a. preridcadal tow 
wnwed ap vhh a royal visit. 
Only iaritedOMsts are befog 
alfowed iasMe. They an 
it is a private fime- 
1 imi,aadaatlsit" 

Mr Geldflf aad Mbs Yates, 
who have fived together for 

years and have a daegh- 

tei; ^ed 3, mere nauried ia 
Las Vegas fo Jane. 

. Mbs Yates’ fofber, Afr Jeff 
Yates, ^ayed Oe at Oe 

20 HBBame service^ peifmed 

by the Aer lUGchacI Anderson 
in St Mary Magdeicne iad St 

Lawrence Chondh next la Oe 


who get 
£20 a week 

Neariy one duM in foor b 
given rt least £20 a week 
pocket money, accordii^ to a 
snrvey poblbbed yesterday, 
and 7 pm cent get about £30, 
or more than £1,500 a year. 

The figures are in a snrvey 
carried out oa behalf of 
Pontin's Holidays. 

Researchm also found timt 
children in the Nofo ratho- 
than the Soirtfa benefit most 
from tb^ parents* generosity 
at die £20 level and above. 

Tbe survey says that 1 per 
cent Id children said they got 
DO pocket money; 40 per cent 
got £5 or less a week and 65 
per cent £10 or under. Tbe 
total receivii^£ 20 ormofewas 

The snrvey was based on a 
sample of children aged 
between 8 and 15 from Greater 
London and tbe Sratb-east 
Birnfo^bam, Leeds, Gla^ow 
and BrmtoL 

It was made op eqnally of 
beys and girls and there was 
an equal split between chil- 
dren whose parents wm from 
professioiial classes and those 
in blne-eoUarand manual jobs. 

The researchers found that 
parents' income did not gen- 
erally affect the amount they 
gave their children, except at 
tbe £3(H>las-a-week level 
where most of Oe yom^sters 
came from professional 

Tlie Pontin's survey's main 
aim was to find out children's 
holiday habits. It confirmed 
that most cbOdreo prefeired to 
^lend their holidas^ pfayi^! 
sports and eating fish and 
chips. Only 6 per cent fa- 
voured sunbathing 

Not a bad summer, after all 


'!■ Britaiu^ weather tins snm- 
ner has been no worse Chan 
usual des^ die popular 
.impression dmt it has been 
' quo of tbe the Meteoroh^ical 

It adds that lu ffidys abnmd 
und memories of sritry British 
'summers have conditioned 
people to expect better 
T^yeadwr t*«»" oar dimate al- 
" 4 ows; hi foci the SDmmw so for 
- bra been aboirt-aver^ in an 

j upai- te **"*tMtt atnl 

Fhna Jane 1 to Aqgast 15 
daytime temperatnies were 
slfobdy bdow normal in most 
of the cenatry, bat better in 
East Anglia and the Simth- 

__ :halfofdkesmiiier 
^ggw some .of Oe best warier. 

Tbe hipest recorded tem- 
perature was at Littiehamptmi 
in West Sussex with 32C 
(90F) cm Jane 28; Socriump- 
ton m> the previous dw was a 
dose second wia 3I.9u (89F). 

The coldest -0.2C 

(32F), whidi was low eaongh 
for an air frost, at 
Eskdatemvin DnmfrfesaBd 
Gallowi^, Scodand. 

Jane and Jnly were drier 
than averse, bat a wet Almost 
shifted tbe haiqw**** 

The Sona-west had more 
ram chan other parts of Brit- 
ain, bm the Earn was much 
drier. The total aver^ rain- 
foil for England and Wales 
was 129.8 inillimeties, which 
was 74 per cent of normal In 
Scodand it was l9S.9m91 po- 
coit of normal 
Honrs of sunshine totalled 
437j6 in Faigland and W'aks, 
which was 93 per cent of what 
was expected, and 
wia 3M hours, had its fhO 

average share summer sun- 

Angwt has been disappoiat- 
ing. vnth generally more rain 
and dofier days and the Bank 
holiday forecast presents little 
hope of a sharp recovery. 

Biitam's wannest pl^ by 
tbe coast a week last Saturday 
was Clacton, Essex, at 2^ 
(73FI which was coed by 
compalsoa wia die Spanish 
isla^ of Majorca whid has 
had daytime temperat u re s of 
30C ( 86 F) and above for most 
of die month. 

Forecast, page 14 

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Free newspapers: 1 

Hard-sell success gives 
new confidence in hunt 
for advertising revenue 

Targeting for Profit is an apt 
llieme for next month's sixth 
annual conference of the 
Association of Free News- 
papers. as it highlights the 
hard-selling success of a 
booming business. 

More than 600 delates are 
expected to meet for iour days 
at the Meiropole Hotel, Bir- 
mingham. With free news- 
paper revenue predicted to 
reach £300 million by the end 
of this year, from a total 
circulation of more than 36 
million copies a week in 
Britain, there will be plenty to 

Despite the 'problems with 
his troubled Today. Mr Eddy 
Shah's decision last week to 
boy the Warrington Guardian 
Group of 1 3 free and paid-for 
newspapers, a rival' to his 
Messenger Group, for £5.3 
million, is a show of con- 
iidence in the future of ihe free 
newspaper indusu^. . 

Only a minority of house- 
holds in Britain have escaped 
the unsolicited deliveries of 
one or more free newspapers. 

The growth of the free 
newspaper industry dates 
f^m the late 1960s when a 
handful of enterprising 
publishers exploited a gap in 
the local i^d-for weekly 

A dvnamic new force in Britain 's publishing industry 
has been the growth ^ free newspapers. In the first of 
two articles, Mark Euis charts the growth of the wheats 
now a multi-million pound business, and the story be- 
hind Us success. 

newspaper market and pro- 
duced papm with virtually 
all-advertising content 

Cut-price rates poached 
advertisers from the weeklies, 
depriving them of an im- 
portant source of revenue, 
although the free newspaper 
industry blames the death of 
some weekly titles on the 
disappearance of readers. It 
cites recent research by die 
Regional Newspaper 
Advenising Bureau and the 
Newspaper Society, which 
showed that than half the 
population are regular readers 
of paid-for weekly papers. 

However, the gro^h was 
not unabated and the industry 
had to convince advertisers 
that not only were the papers 
being delivered, but Uiat they 
were also being read. 

During the 1 970s the free 
newspaper gained a reputation 
as a throwaway. The industry 
quickly realiKd it had to try to 
provide appealing editorial 
content with local news and 
photographs to encourage 

readership, which could -be 
quantified by market research. 

In 1981 the Audit Bureau of 
Circulations set up Verified 
Free Distribution as a subsid- 
iary company to certify free 
publications* delivery. The 
Association of Free News- 
papers. which represents ^ 
under half of Britain's free 
newspaper^ a total of 364 
titles, monitors standards and 
has a code of practice. 

According to Advertising 
Association figures, free 
weekly newspapers have en- 
joyed a steady growth in 
advertising revenue between 
1975 and 1984, increasing 
theirsharelrom 1.9 percent to 
5.5 per cent largdy at the 
expense of paid-for weeklies. 

The free newspaper in- 
dusby is keen to publicize 
various research surveys. One 
of the latest claims is that 
three out of four adults in 
Britain are regular readers . 

Tomorrow: ProUems and dm 

Sir Malcolm Campbell shs behind the wheel of the powerfbl BlnelHrd at Daytona Beadif 
* Florida. Active fimn The lanes, Jaimaiy 10, 1935. 

Trust aims to bring Bluebird home 

raised the reemd froa23lBph 
to 301mplL 

After his deatt in 1947, his 
sw Donald sold Bluebird m 
finance his own attempts on 
the water qteed rcco^ at-. 
tempts mat ended in his fimd 
pinnge to the depUis of 
Confeton Water in Onnbiia. 

Blndbird firand its way to 
the US and eventnaHy to tte 
Motor Sports Hall of Fmne 
adjohiii^ the radng track at 
TaOsidega when it is die star 
of ^ now. 

A fresh attempt is to be 
made to bring & Mafcolm 
CamidieU's BlwUrd back to 
ftfmin frtmi the United States 
(Mich^ Ba^ writes). 

The maefaine, seven timpu 
world speed record breaker in 
the 1920s and early 1930s, is 
on di^faiy at a spe^ tapfo mw 
in Alabama. 

A groop d entbnsiasts, 
mdodittg Sir Makofan's rac- 
ing granddanghter Gina, 
been fonned by the Tnmspoit 
Trust, a charity devoted to 

preservii^ Britain's transport 

It hopes to raise abont 
£1 millioa to boy Blnebfail, 
renovate it, and pnt it on 

Bunt by Sir Malcolm with ' 
£10,000 of his own money — a 
huge sam in those days — the 
five-ton car captured the 
record from Sir Henry 
Segiave's Golden Aivow in 

Over the next five years It 

The TTmes crop snrr#, 


level, say farniere 

By John Yomg^ AgEkaltnre : 











• Domestic production will 
be well above last year's total' 
harvest and could' well ap* 
preach 1984*5 tecord, the sec-' camteuge 
ondofthisyeafs crop surveys “L . 
compiled by The Times su^ 

That is deqm poor 
weather in the past month and 
ddays mid difficulties in 

Responses ■ to ques- 
tiomtaim £sdose a more 

r 'mistic amw^sal than in 
surv^ pushed on June 

Furnas in all parts of the 
countiy taking part in the 
survey express surprise and 
pleam at the way crops have 
recovered from ibt t&ects of 
the cold winter and wet firing. 

**^eraU a fiivouiable setk- 
son after an unjpromising 
start," a Gwynedd reader 
A nd^bouT agrees that the 
outcome has been better than 

But further south, m 
^amoigan, the tain has t^ain 
come at the wrong time. 

*'Whaz could have been a 
reasonable hmvest following a 
hard, bitter winter is at^ 
solutely firusuatod by continn- 
ous wet weather," a grower 
reports. Yield losses are 
inqeasittg, he says, and -many 
grmn diyera are unable to cope 
vrith the conditions. 

In the main arable areas 
eastern England the mood is 
one of cautious optunism. 

*^AU cereal crops look dean 
and bright with minimum 
weather dambfe" a Beit 

tr’l 0 > 'a> n 


OMbto . 

100 85 95 96 to 90- 
88 90 88 9f .- - to 
srmstmio m 
98 94 - 75 - 89 
990 - 90 - 88 


94 91 8798 89 87 

DMstanS - 

W; » 0 PSP 









m m 83 84 .100 

88 to 78* 86 - 87 
to. 94 98 > > 93 

m 88 85 m m 94 
93 92.85-92 85 to 
m'9i, - m 84 
90 88 88 90 ^ to 


90 90 85 90 'to se 


w a e P .-a- a 










95 9B -99 - 90 
-90 ^70 - m 
9595 85 90 - 95 
94 m 89 90 - 80 

tom -m .- « 

m 95 95 m • 90 
'82 95 91 94 99 91 
90 to m 82 .» m 

Avereaee • 

m to 91 m m 90 

BeOMiAMBee 9S 80 to 87-87. .89 


w a- 0 F .n h 


fbrdshire correspondent says, 
that neither yi^ nor 
quality is anything qiedaL 
A Norfolk powte reports 
that, while umeat yields ate 
Qotoiog to get exdted about, 
biishd wdgbts are hitft V/ia- 
ter baifcy harvesttng began 
unusually early in mid-inly, 
but sprmg varieties, whidi 
could not be sown until late 
Ap^ are not yet reatN. 

A coUeague m Sufic^ states 
that winter bailey quality is 
good, with higher than average 
bnshd wei^ts, and that wh& 
prospedB also look fair, pro- 
vided tire strong expor t de- 
mand continues. - 
Another Sufiblk. man says 
that be has iooeased his yidd 
estimates for all crops anoe he 
last reported in Jane. "After 
qiffh a dreadful autumn, with 
seed lying ip the ground for 
eigfat'wedB before genniDat- 
ioft The recovery of vdieat and 
tape has becri tittle short OT 
miraculons," He says. "Given 
good weather for harvest, I 
DO reason fbe'yidd ''of’ 
vdieat at least sho^ pot 
qiproachlhatof 198A" 
RainfoU has bad lo- 
calized efibets than is gencnJly 
appreciated, so that while .a 
Cambiidges^ fiumer re- 
ports that his citgteare stand- 
ing vi^ a ooDeague in 
Hertforddibe has found some 
idiem fianened by storms. 

Oilseed rape, wfiidi despite 
hs boom in ^ranilarity has 
proved a difficult crop in 
recent eearons, spears to 
have recovered remarkably 
well in maror areas. A 
Homberside rmder reports 
ti^'in Sphe of fivst A»iniiy, 
his crop has yielded well A 
Doiset grower desoibes it as 
"the transformation of the 
seasrw", and a Omshire man 
says that his-crop has marf# a 
marvellous recovery, m spite 
ofa pooc; thmstan. ' 

Birtan Essex omespemdeot 
' Its out that many rape 
were ploudied up in tbe 
spring, bemg mmight to be 
bqrou. salvation, and dse^ 
where expoienoes have been 
markedly difierent ^t- 

Cvnirai . 



HMUtitf . 
whiff i . 

- -es -M .1W 

aiw-ef- * .v - 
arsaaso' • so 
94 9B W100 . - 95 

9Q'a5 80*91 b to 

• • • • • w w 


91 98 to 98 .- m 

UMina' ' 

'er w a-p-'*L-o 

Owyd ' - >'• ■ 

Dyfad a 89 . - a .- 94 

Syanl a a . - a - 94 

er a - ao - a 
MM GmnMgw a a a a .’-la 

Mwy* - *. .» 


W O lwto nM n*' ■ - 

■94 a 77 a - a 

armwaw aaaaya 

dost leckoaisihat his beet crop 
could be 105 best ever and a 
Woroestenhire -obUmigue re- 
ports that fain has Mped an 
abtoKly good cropL But grow- 
ers in OonwiU bompl^ that 
pomtoes hsve^ been severely 

Grass, -wltiSr tliriva on 
rain, ha grown kss pr^fi- 
caHy than test' year, porticu- 
larty during the dry spells of 
June and early July. In North- 
amptonshire titere wa a go(^ 
eariy silage cn«is Surrey and 
Siism 1^ tf rain has tiam- 
pered nridsummergiowth. 

Id the West Country form- 
ers report a geneiteUy good 
year; and a Woxoesteisbiie 
man ays be has managed to 
store plenty - of goodrquali^ 
fodder. In contrast a North 
Yorfcslure coireqxmdent tb- "dro^t sup pie sM oa” 
and even in nonnalty wet 
Powys growth . jg re^ be lea than its^, . 

A Norfolk reader sgys be 
has made some usdiil bay and 
that there is .adequate g r a j i ijg ' 
for sheep. But his star- crop is 
peas, in terms of yield and 
troublo^ee .-harverting, ' al- 
thou^ be .iiaars that oyor- 
capadty among, proces s 
wiu mean a reduced cmitrarg 
acreage next .year. .. 

- A Worcestershire former 
also rates peas as his crop of' 
tbe year. 

A conespetodent in &ta£^ 

^ Oftfohire suggests tiiat. the har- 

tisb former, ftw exempli re- ’ y ff; ^ 

Seeing more of the patient. 
Without X-Rays. 

Most people would think that they were looking 
at an X-Ray In an image produced on the 
MAGNETOM syst^ developed ^ produced by 
Siemens, using magnetic resonance which has distinct 
advantages over conventional X-Ray. 

Although it emits no rays, it^ able to scan and see 
areas other diagnostic systems cannot, and together 
with exceptionally high picture quality, helps make 
diagnosis more predsa The first are now in use in major 
hospitals in London. 

Doctors are able to see more patients too, as 
MAGNETOM cuts down waiting time As one person 
is being examined details can be fed Into its memory to 
be called up while the next patient is being scanned. 

Siemens is one of the worlds largest and most 
innovative electrical and electronics companies. Here in 

the UK we employ arbund 3000 p^e in Research & 
Development Manuf»tiurlng, Ehgineering, Service and 
other customer related activities. ' 

Siemens technology embraces ’ computer and 
busirtess communication systems, telecommunicatiori 
networks, electronic components, power engineering, 
industrial automation arxl rriedical engineering. 

Siemens Limited, Siemens House 
Windmill Road, Sunbury-on-Thames 
Middlesex TW16 7HS 
Telephone: 0932 785091 

MAGNETOM^ magnetic resonance 
diagnostic system. 

Innovation Tedinology ■ Quality : Siemens 

ports disappointing yitfds. 

In N<^ Yorkshire, po- 
tatoes and sugar beet are said 
to be suffering firom the eSecis 
of late sowing; but a former in 
East Lotiiian says his potato 
crop is locddiig gbo^- In 
Cambridgeshire beet and po- 
tatoes are deroribed as good, 
dean crops; a Stafibidsfaire 
grower Sim his are promfoing. 

A Bedfordshire cone^iH 

expensive one. A Cberiine 
colleague observes that, who- 
ever, the oatcoihe,iBaDyfoiiii- 
ers are in a sad state betf^ of 
cadi' fiow-|Hobleins and die 
generally 6o6r outlook -for 
prices. 1 led tbe. industry has ' 
lost its/oierfo niveas long as 
dieworid isswamped withibe 
abundance of the horn of 
cornucopia," he writes. - . 
Tomorrow: oak erfois. • 

The Qty wbi^ldds. 

Where gnt reacdons 
are tools of the trade 

ByMarkDowd - 

Yoni^ ^ot dealaif an the 
cogs in the Badnneiy of (he 

Tlllldim gBMl|pi MM«llM^ pn|l- 

fcet, . (he worid^ Wgei^ 
aooarding'to a tf En- 
gfond sarver, poMidicd last 

-In (he dealiw loom'of tibe 
Lloyds Bank Tieaanry Di- 
Tfoun in fite Chy« an open jrfan 
area is pe p pered with- young 
■Ma hi iri^ shirts and ties; 
telephones pressed to both 
ean, - performing monetary 

keep themselves in tMdi:iriA 
the ccottbiirie news for eta 
con^ they^' dealing-'^ 
and, above aD, pei^ who 
develop a- got ftcmic for 
conency .movamcafo^, Mr 
Phillips saU. 

Mr Ahn Want, Ul assfo- 
tant ma nag e r; sai^thafamch 
'Of the; deutos' stfanafos-aDd 
stress resohed 'from Ate 
havina to live or die on-Adr 


dienti; whm a moinait*s 
lapse in concentratida amid 
cost rile Ifonk mfiOons-tf 

' "It'd a gone of educated 
goessiBg” Mr MIcfaael Phil- 
os, a spot dmfo '• manager 
leqponsiblo flH' 12 yomig peo- 
ple fopthig 20 fiflbrent enr- 
randeSt Said. . .. 

Forefon 49 cchuge spot deal- 
ms.b^an.M the. lottoiii rang 
of (he - ladder as ' position ' 
‘dorks.' *^dre looi^ ' for 

people with fost reictions. who 

.y. : ' 

"Eaefa oonenqrfo^a special 
uimal in fts own 
-TheyVe (flte hnimm' 
wiA riidr oaraf qai^ 'and 
personalities", Mr said. 

Those Httle- MlsQnansim 
toke some gfettihg/ used - tot 
Someone who to fiitod 'ia 
profits for years qnbte 
Deatedi marks 'ooto -firo 
hhnseif ntterly at'sendtoiv 
with Frewfo.fiwiGs. . 
.^Rowerar Mr P himp iy 

^(ed that reports'bT nto* 

ridden HaQippy eanian jMe 

w n o rp ^ a- 

90 85 77 88 95 to 


94 95 89 85 94 96 
96 90 80 - - 8 

90 99 85 -78 ' h R 
9B90«99 '96 70' 
e9 86 

91 80 8rar'to’m 

Aviaam 98 90 98 89 92^95 

97 99 95 99 -'98 

81 totf . . 80 

96 90 89 94 

98 969099 -/78 
91 98 88 mm m 
90988 72 10 




nun r 


AiiiZi i. aIti ■:«.> *1 ^UOL>^i 1700 

\j V £.xvoi:.j^o iNi:, w o 


• n-': fa5 

■ ^ 

fs‘k% ri 

invite Reagan 
on apartheid 


Russians win support 

Safety measures 
after Chernobyl 

By Pearce Wright Science Editor 

Lusaka (Reuter) - The lead- 
619 of Ainca's ^tiine states 
have agreed to invite Pre^ 
dent Reagan to a summit in 
soumerh Africa to discuss bow 
to end apartheid in South Afri* 
ca, sources at the Zambian 
presideiK^ said yesteiday. 

They said Preadent Kaun- 
die diainnari of the group, 
dtsciosed this for the first time 
when he met Mack Amencan 
rivil rights leader, Mr Jesse 
Jackson, on Satiad^ ni^t 

If President Reagan had 
tnrn^. down the invitation, 
frontline leaders fit>m Aiuola, 
Botswana, MozambiqneTTan- 
zania, Zambia and Zmtebwe 
wm prepared to go to Wash- 
ington, the sources ayairf- 

The decidon to invite Pred- 
dent Reagan was made at a 
one-day meeting of fiondine 
leaders held dunxig a summit 
confereiKe of the South Afiica 
Devdopment Co<»rdiBatio& 
Conference, in Angola last 

Preddent Katmda told Mr 
Jackson that Preddent Reagan 
was one man who could pj^ a 
leading role in helfnng to 
change the comae of hisu^ in 
the r^on. Ihe. invitatioD was 
t)ei%. drafted for approval 
during the. triennial summit 
conference of the Non- 
Aligned Movement in Harare 

Preddent Kau^ was am- 
ong hundreds of people Mib 
attended a spec^ service at St 
pauTs-.cfaurA in Lusaka yes- 
terday during whid) Mr Jack- 
;wn preached. He told the 
congregation to protea their 
souls from the scoufge of apar- 
theid throi^ God*$ word. 
‘*/^)arihdd ts uneodly and an 
eiiemy of all souls,**^ be said, 
befine leaving for for Tanza- 

• JOILU<4N£^l]RG: Law^ 
repremting a lead^ 
LhthMic miest, ^ther &nan- 
galiso Mkbaishwa — the seo- 
' letary-geoeral of the Sontbera 
Afri<^ Catholic ^shops' 

■ Conference, who is detained 
under the state of emeigency 
' * are to seek an injunction 
from de Pretoria Supreme 
Court restrainiiv the police 

from **fiirtber assaulting or 
torturing" him (Michael 
Hornsby writes). , 

AfBdavhs quoted by City 
Pnss, a hen^iaper written 
mainly tw and for blades, say 
Ruber. Mkhatshwa was taken 
last Wednesday night to an 
unknown dedutation .where I 
be was forced to stand almost 
continuously for .20 hours 
while bring interrogated and 
assaulted: - 

Independent monitoring 
groups believe the numbff m 
people bdd is murii higher 
than the 8,500 admitted the 
Oovenunent, possiMy 1 2,000. 

The worid's leading experu 
in atomic energy and radi- 
ation medidne are gathering 
in Vienna for an internaiioori 
inquest into April's Chernobyl 
disaster amid signs of support 
for the Russians from coun- 
tries with large invesuneots in 
nuclear power, such as Brit- 
ain, the UniW States. West 
Gennany, Franite and Japan. 

They will receive, however, a 
sympathetic hearing from 
most of the major nuclear 
power states. 

Nuclear safety expens from 
Britain and America, in 
panicular, have made it clear 
they are very impressed with 
Moscow's frankness at spell- 
ing out the “incompetence ! 


the end of the week the breaches of safety mea- 
meeting organizer, the Inter- sutik which precede the 
national Atomic Energy Agen- aoetdem". 
cy. is expected to make at 1^ The delegates are expected 
four proposals for i« member u) be split into four specialist 
countnes te adopu These wiU working groups to deal with- 
cover Tighiersafeiy measures The accident sequence- the 
to avoid a repetition of effectiveness of the follow-up 
Chernobyl; a more efiective procedures: the environmen- 

fe^ measures 

t, possf' y 2,00(L 

general condition of emeigen- F<^ people were known to have died last n^ht after Typbomi Wayne strnck the Faic-ha 
cy detainees, but the authori- ^u^eastofTaiwaB,destroyms3J100lMMiies,caiisizingU)00fishingboatsanddaBniMns 

ties recently agreed to hn- 98.000 acres of farmlanil. A ginlrmg pflfrf*| a*"”* fh* ivy wlropo of oflM> r 

prove their food when h was - - 

Museveni blames Sudanese 

alarm network to alert neigb- 
bouring countries; an emer- 
gency service throi^ which 
help and rescue can be chan- 
nelled; and an internaiioi^ 
medicri research promanube 
to help mom'tor the effects of 

lal consequences; and, the 
medical effects. 

There is also a feeling here 
among anti-nuclear groups, 
such as Friends of The Earth, 
which have arrived to petition 

Chernobyl fall-out in the So- meeting, that the inter- 
viet Union, possibly for the national nuclear industry will 

The les lr i cte d diet, as a 
columnist in Johannesburg's 
Sunday Tima pointed out 
yeste^y, was “not the w hWn 
of ah isolated station com- 
mander. It was a response to 
somethiin caOed *StandiDg 
Order 200*. which govrined 
this matter. 

‘'Some offidal drafted, and 
someone approved, a serial 
mder to the rifoct that those 
detained without bring tried, 
without bring heard, without 
knowing why they were de- 
nied tiieir liberty, should also 
be denied oeoain basic neces- 
sities of life and health," the 
news(hiper smd. 

A grenade and rifle attack 
last raday night on the home 
of a senior member of the 
conservative ^ilu-dominated 
Inkatha movement, which 
killed his wife and injured his 
three children, is seen as fur- 
ther evidence of feuding be- 
tween Inkadha ^ the United 
Democratic Front (UDF). 

Government offidals were 
rq)eatedly hedded at a meet- 
ing- on Saturday to protest 
against plans fr>r a huge new 
feteck township to the north 
west of Jobannesbuig, which 
has provisionally bem chris- 
tened Norweta 

David Stede^ 10 

FromCharies ibxriseii 

President Museveni of 
Uganda has accused Suto of 
arming and supplying the 
rebel troops who ^ week 
launched strong attacks 
against several itiaces in 
northern Uganda, including 
, the main tovm, Gulu. 

He told diplomats in Kam- 
pala on Saturday that 3.000 
members of the former Uganr 
dan Army, which his National 
Resistance Anny ousted in a 
coup last January, had 
launched the attacks from the 
southern Sudan, where they 
fled earlier this year. 

He asked friendly countries 
to mit pressure on the Sudan 
Government to control the 
situation on the border. 

Mr Museveni ato said that 
Sudanese Army units which ■ 
had been isolated in the 
goerrilla war in the southern 
Sudan Imd irianoed to use 
norihera Ugjuoda as a simply 
base for their operations — 

whb the support of the Ugan- 
dan rebels. 

More clashes have taken 
place between Ugandan 
troops and the rebels, who 
were driven off. leaving 30 
dead, at Gulu to week. 
Museveni says more than 100 
of the rebds have now been 
killed. His foioesare confident 
of their ability to control the 

iSome of the rebris have 
moved east from Gulu mto 
Karamoja, where tb^ are said 
to be linld^ up with aimed 
raiders active in that semi- 
desert area. 

Captured rebds say they 
planned to take Gulu and use 
it as a base fimn which to 
attack Kampala, 200 miles 

In Khartoi^ however, a 
new orgnnization calling itrelf 
the Uganda Patriotic Demo- 
cratic Movement says that it 
was behind the attacks. It says 
it has a large membership of 
soldieis from the former army 

and some from Mr 
Museveni's own force. 

In Kampala on &turday, 
Mr Ponsiano Mulen^ the' 
Ugandan Finance Minister, 
his budget for 1986/87, 
announcing tax incrmises to 
balance the country's runaway 
inflation, and a w per cent 
increase in civil service 

The budget shoukf have 
been presented in June, but 
Uganda's economy is so badly 
run down that a bud^ pro- 
gramme has only now beat 
drawn up. 

The two-tier exdiange rate 
for the Ugnndan in- 

tr^uced a few weeks ago, is 

next 50 years. 

During the week the Soviet 
delegation, which was among 
the 23-member State Comm- 
ission which prepared a 388- 
page report on the accident to 
be tabled today ai the private 
meeting, can expect a grilling 
from the countries that do not 
rely heavily on nuclear power. 

New plant flooded 

Undergronad floodnig at the 
weekend at France^ newest 
nndear power idant at Cat- 
lenoin, on the Lnxembourg- 
Westuerman border, is likely 
to have set bade its antnnm 
openii^ date (Sosan Mac- 
Donald writes fiw Paris). 

M Jean-PiefTe Bereeron. 

now abai^iiKL Instead of 

the former rate of 7.500 P«S*n8 resulted from a break 

shillings to the £ for non- “ ^ ^ primary 

essen^ imports, a new rate “4 ** 

of 2,100 shiOings has been ^ SL S'"?®" 

introduced. This is slightly ISSShS.**, 
higher than the forrnCT eJfecte«r.TIie plant has been 
rate which applied ™e scene of coatinnons antn 
only to essential imports like demonstrations over 

the past few months. 

close ranks and proieci its 
Soviet coll^ues from too 
hostile questioning. 

The anxiety rests partly on 
the fact that the International 
Atomic Energ}’ Agency, which 
is the United Nations oigan- 
ization responsible for mon- 
itoring the nuclear Non- 
Proliferation Treaty, also has 
the job of promoting nuclear 
eneigy for industrial, agri- 
culiura! and medical pur- 

But in the past few years 
several member governments, 
such as those of Austria and 
Sweden, have declared a 
moratorium on the expansion 
of nuclear eneigy. 

()u^ons from the Scan- 
dinavians are expected to be 
very direct They felt the first 
impact of the fril-oui from 
Chernobyl; raised the alarm 
when their radiation monitors 
showed fall-out occuring; and, 
can remember how for 48 
hours the Russians denied 
that anyrihing had happened in 
the Soviet Union which could 
produce the radiation. 

Kenya prints keep Figures of jobless 

politics private 

Comnut or flee, 
i^omeM tells Saddam 

. Trim ^BentxrX V The 
Iranian , spiritnaf leader, 
AyatoQab Kbonrini, said yes- 
. today tint Inn most rriMt 
■ any arlpitnlion in dm Grif 
war, fqmt tertfl victary and 
off** Iraqh Prmideiit 

• Saddam HnsseoL 

shoaM submit neitlier 
' to htotosed peM nor to im- 
post ubvtratioD,** he told' 
senior officials and militory 
commanders at a mosgoe near 
his north T^ran hoom. 

**We sbonM cont fam e die 
war nnti] vtoory « a^ it is 
' near. If oiw nation wants to 
. bring this victory closer, it 

• most prepare in the tine sense 
' of- the word- to . . . finish (A 
. ttis man ^addam Hnssein)," 

the Ayatollah said in-a broad- 

*Then are peoj^ vrim mge 

-Not feat ffiqr are of any 
cooseqnenoe," be said. 

''Some aqr; find an 
. arinter to sort ddi^ onf. In 
‘ these seven years we have 
come to know who dmse 

• artHleis are and -lAat sort of 
people the woold-be peace- 
makers can be," be add^ 

Tehran has set three con- 
ditions fin* cndii^ ^ six-year- 
‘ rid wan Wfthdrawal of trolls 
- to niternatiooal borders, pay- 

Frinn Our Correspondent 

Pastors 'in Protestant 
churches in Kenya have been 
attacked by President Moi for 
sayi^ tfari they cannot 
participate in new proposals 
to select paifiameptoy can- 
didates by lining up in public 
briund the can^date of tlteir 


A conference or^nized by 
the National Oristian Coun- 
cil of Kenya last wsricagr^ it 
would be incompatible with 
tbrir role as qnntual leaders 
to declare puMicly their sup- 
port for one candi^te against 

Kenya's only political party, 
the Kenya African Nationri 
Union (KannX has endorsed 


lent up” system at the primi^ 

stage of the next pail^ Rom David Bernstein 

elections, .due m Tmcaiein 

itant 1988. jowsaiem 

On Saturday, Picrident Prerident Oaiin Herzog of 
31 for Ig presidrat of Israel at the wedeend par- 

Rkhu, attad^ ibe cfaurdi 'doneda:frirtbersevenShinBet 
leaders for their attitu^ operatives all^edly involved 
He defended the decision to “* ^ captured 

K; abolish secret tollois in some Arab guerrillas two years ago 
stages of the par^enia^ orin the subsequent cover-up. 
efectioDS — and said a public The seven, believed to 
P IV declaration of support for a middle and low ranking oper- 
candidate was in line with atives. requested pardons after 
^ “ African traditions. Mr Herzog agreed last June to 

Although secret brilots wiU pardon the former Shin Bet 
be retained for the final vote chieC Mr Avrabam Shalom, 
^P~ where there are several can- and three senior aides. 

^tes for a co^tuency ActingontheJusticeMinis- 
Kasub^nowde^^t,if ler’s recommendation that the 
one candidate achiei^ 70 per seven men be pardoned. Mr 

to the 

Washtn^ion — The lay, 
wsiigfs i»l ihe t jrJvT Admin- 
islrariun were rcnuit^ed Irom 
the While Huuse wilh the 
dismantling of a solar naier 
healer, installed b> the ri.>m;er 
President to saw ene^tiy cosis 
(Michael Bin\on uniesi. 

The solar ei>lleeii*rs. used 
to supply ahoui p‘r cvni of 
the hut water lor the presiden- 
tial onices and statf dining 
cost abtUM 

(£2Q.(NXII. The savings (rom 
the system were •■nejdigiWc*’. 

Ship skipper 

Toronto ( UPl ) — One of the 
mure than 1?U Sn Lankan 
castaways n^Hued oil I'aii- 
ada's east coast iw o w Lvks ago 
identified Herr V\«>]|gjng 
Bindel. the .skipper of the \\ e-.i 
German freighier Anneje as 
ihe captain who sv.*! tiie refu- 
gees adnft. ihe /•'/. *;.-■• S.'ur 

il said 
Mahendran, Zx Menniu'd 
Herr Bindel from a phoio- 

Moscow drugs 

Moscow (Reuter) — The 
daily .Vor/tY.vAji'j Rf ■««/!'«; gii- 
ing examples of growing dnig 
addiction in the Si>\ let I ‘mon. 
reported that meniK'rs of a 
teenage gang .stole drugs trom 
Moscow medical msiiiiiiions 
and two of them, .ig^-d 15 and 
17. died of drug poiMinmg. 

The report w'as the latest in 
theollleial press togise details 
of increasing drug addiction 
among Soviet youths. 

China floods 

Peking (AP) — Roods dur- 
ing the past two months in 
China 'a north-eastern prov- 
ince of Jilin destroyed 4 l)0.L)ik.) 
homes, leaving SOU.iXNj peo- 
ple homeless.' the A-orA’i 
Daily reponed. The Hoods 
started in July with torrential 
rainstorms and resulted in 
damage to 3.500 villages and 
44 per cent of the province's 

shock the French Nimem mo>;e 

cent support m the public Herzog said his dedsioa was 
prehmiD^ stoge, he OT she groun&lmliisdetenitiiiation 
will be elected unopposed. “not to discriminate” against 
“ ~ any of tiie men invrived, as 

'06 n*1Anfl6 well as in bis concern 'ibr the 
JU .tCuUd security of the state and the 
. j public good". 

rOOfI lOnfllV^ circles here acknow- 

l \y\yRM. K WA J tejjged yesterday that the Pre- 

rtejn, Jerosalem sident had no dioice but to 

^ . pardon the seven after be had 

portent Step in IsraeTs drive to pardoned their superiors. His 

Ayatollah Khomeiiii: *Pre- | 
pm to finish off Hnssrin.' 

meat of r^aratkos by Iraq* I 
and poidsIuBeiit of Prerideiti 
Hnssein as the regressor. 

Ajatrilah Khomeiiii said be 
feared Prerident . Saddam 
Hassem nright harm tfbe- 
hfcamp mere desperrie. "He 
is foe type to say: 'Now foat I 
am drawni^ let ermyone 

"He rimidd ^ another slap 
in tto fiue and sent packtog 
~ either ounmntmg saicide or 
fledng frnn foat oonntry." 

tiie proposal to use the "lining will be Hefl fd unoppos^ 

Peres makes Mends 
with Cameroon today 

Darid Bemstrin, Jerosalem 

Israel and Cameroon are ex- por^tstepinis 
pected to announce the re- regam some 
sumption of diplomatic rela- lost in Afiica in 
lions dur^ a jdahned visit by It follows the r 

the Israeli Pd^ Minister, Mr ties with the Iv 
Shimon Peres, to Yaounde to- Fsbniaiy this y« 

From Susan MacDonald, 

After the relatively en- 
«>iua^ng July figu^ on 
growrth, exp(^ and prices, the 
recoFcMHeaking iu^ unem- 
{doyment figures for the same 
month have strude a blow to 
the French Government and 
openedadebate on alternative 

The figures for July — which 
for the first time listed the 
number of jobs wanted as well 
as the percentage of those out 
of work — showed a 1.4 per 
cent increase in demands ftM* 
jobs and an unemployment 
rate ri i0.S per cent, com- 
pared with ](X4 per cent for 

Ahhougb Frances unem- 

figure unless radical change is 
fi^coining. The idea of such 
a figure has caused several 
economic experts to warn 
against complacency on the 
issue and has led M Edmond 

Cairo (Reuter) - Egvpiian 
lawyers aciing for Sudan asked 
for the withdrawal of former 
Sudanese President Nimeiri's 
right to political asylum in 
l^ypt The^' also asked the 
State .Administrative Court 

Maire. secretary general of the for Mr Nimeiri's passport to 
CFDT union group, which is te confiscated to prevent him 
dosely aligned to the Sodal- leaving ^pi. 
ists. to demonstrate his prag- 154 . ^5 J 

matism in a long Le Monde ISflIlClll FfllU 
artide suggesting a new ap^ Ks,n,nhi i _ a. i«,« 

proach to the unemployed. 

M Maire talks ri a new 
approach where everyone can 
be involved in some form of 
activity, even if not in work in 
the usual sense, and therefore 
be part of the working popula- j 
tion. To achieve this, both 
unions and workers must 
adapt their ideas and the rigid 
line between the active and 

Karachi (Reuter) — .At least 
seven people, including two 
policemen, were killed in a 
gun battle between police and 
bandits armed with rocket 
launchers in Pakistan's Sind 
province. The battle erupted 
after about .50 bandits at- 
tacked a village near the town 
of Dadu. destroying its watch 
tower with rockets. 

ploytnent level is still lower inactive must te overcome, he I Ainc 

than ttet of many Europ^ says. UCStlU^ 

regam smne ri tte grouixl ii authority to pardon suntects 
lortm Afiica m 1973. before had been brought 

. It follows the resumption of to trial anri convicted was 
tics with the Ivory Coast m challenged but eariicr 

countries, induduig Britein, 
the July demands-for-jobs fig- 
ure of Z47^000 represents a 
ZS percent increase tince July 
last year. 

M Philippe S^uin, the Min- 
ister for Social Af&iis, fore- 
cast last month that the July 
figures would be worse than 


M S^uin has already begun 
to boost the number of tem- 
porary jobs with laws pas^ 
in July which make it easier 
for employers to hire lem- > 
poraiy workers and dismiss | 
employees, by eliminating the > 
need for government author- 1 

Zurich (Reuicrl — Two 
Hungarian climbers fell to 
their deaths while aiiempiing 
10 scale Switzerland's 14.400- 
ft Matterhorn. In West Ger- 
many. four climbers were 
killed in a sudden snow storm 
wrhich hit ihe Waizntann peak 
near Berchtesgaden. 

ChraerooD severed diplo- 
matic ties wrath Israel in 197Z 
alopg with all but three black 
Afh^ states, in protest at Is- 
raePs invariott of the western 

Fsbni^ this year, with Li- 
beria in August 1 983 and with 
Zaire in h&y I98Z In addi- 
tion, Israd has extensive eco- 
nomic relations with several 
otiter Afiicaa countries, cUef 
ammig them Nigeria, where 

Pan Am in safety fine 

Ftom Midiari Binymi, Waslrii^toa 

Pan American Airways has 
been fined a record $1.95 
' million (£l.43m) for violatiite 
US r^ulations on aherw 
safety maintenance, the Fed- 
eral Aviation Adininistraiion 
has announced. 

The naancially hard- 
pressed airline has agreed to 
pay the fine, the laii^ ever 
collected by the FAA. 

' A two-month audit of Ite 
, Am's maintenaiice records 
:: last spring disclosed hundreds 
,.of errors. 

InspectoR found the airiine 
" had opmted aircraft in need 
of repair, had installed parts 
that were l^ond their ap- 
» proved service life and 
^ failed to inspect jrfanes within 
-• the time limits Imd down. 

One plane was sent on 37 
flights beyond the scheduled 
o^iertiaul of one of its landing 

^ara Another was.flownll matic relations marks an im- 
times despite a misalignment c 

in the pan of the wing that lllS0CtS iDEV 
guides direction and ^ ^ 

movement Ka AiVismiii 

Cta 45 occaaons Pan Am /xUliaill 

returned axreraft to service * .j • 

without assessing the impact AlflS CfllllClS 
of probtems discovered. 

The FAA cited one Boeing Budapest (AFP) - A range 
747 resuming service ^th a of Central African insects — 
centre tank fuel lesdc in ax mosquitoes, cockroaches, 
different places, with no isetsefliesand lion ants— are 
evaluation of the rtamaee- infected by Aids and could be 
The audit also found book- its carriers, a French re- 
keeping discrepancies, out- searcher, M Jean-Claude 
dated operations manuals and Chemian, of the Paris-based 
an inaccurate list ri people Pasteur Institute has vM an 
authorized to perform mam- international congress on can- 
tenance. cerhere. 

(African) bank of the Suez some 2,000 Istadies are en- 
Canal during the YomKippitf gag^ in various economic 
warwitfa^y^ The only AjH- projects. Israel also has qiecial 
can steles who did not do so interest sections operating in 
were Malawi, Swaziland and the embas^ of othrt ooun- 
Lesotho. tries in e^t otiier states, in- 

Mr Peres's visit to Cam- eluding Ghana and Kenya, 
eroon—which will be the first torael has import^ rip- 

byan Israeli Prime Minister to lomatic relations with two 
Africa since 1962 — and the other countries on the Afiican 
expected resumption of dipto- continent, ^ypt and South 
malic relations marks an im- Afiica. 

this month by the SujHcme 
Court. j 

Hie police investigation 
into the April 1984 IdlHiig of I 
the two guerrillas, capti^ I 
alive and handed over to the 
Shin Bet for questioning after 
the bus they had hijacked was 
! stormed by Israeli troops, is 
expected to proceed mme 
quickly now that the status of 
the seven has been resolved. 

It has been suggested, how- 
ever, that even if charges 
cannot be press e d, the pr^ 
could still throw some U^t on 
the role, if any, of the political 
echelon in the aflair. 

cast last month that the July need for government author- wtiicn hii ihe waizntann pet 
figures would be worse than ization to do so. It remains to near Berchtesgaden. 
the figures for the previous be seen, in the autumn lui- a.. 9 f 

month. He also said he did not employment figures, whether ly ynfliSrV Tflil- 
expect an improvement until one piece of legiriation will H«>mhiiro /i iph 
the aotunm. when new cancel out the Xr. 
employment laws would take r also remains to be seen 

whai stimulus the Govern- cEr„H,Mn?!S?rn?‘Lnr iJ 
M Seguin has also said ^ ment's 1987 budget, to be , n 

between 2 and Z5 milhon announced in the autumn, can rfln- ^ 
unemployed is an irreducible give to industry. JS. 

Chinese live longer 

Pelting (Reuter) — The av^ 
etage Cbinese can expert to 
live for almost 69 years, nearly 
double the life expectancy 
before the 1949 communist 
revohition, the Nw China 
News Agency said yesterday. 

It quoted the Stete Statis- 
tical Bureau as sayii^ men 
could now expect to leadi 66.9 

SneeT^ iheXr Hamburg (UPIi - Rudolf 

It ato li be seen 

S;SVs“bnd|et?rta T V 

give to inousiry. newspaper Bild 

t -m reported. 

ive longer Lover recalled 

years and women 70.9. Life Hollywood (LiPI) - Weep- 
rttpeclancy for both sexes in- ing women and one "ladv in 
19-W was about 35 years, it black" joined hundreds of 


Better living standards and 
healti) care and an 83 per cent 
drop in the infant mortality 
rate were the main reasons for 
the jump in life expectency, in 

Devil’s brew of dissension in Church 

Moscow defiance on Star Wars 

A- The Soviet Union could 
^ counter .America's Star Ware 
.missile defence siystem by 
^ such methods as space mines 
• or saturation deployment of 
..w^eads. a senior 
->sdentist said on Mwcow tde- 
^ vision (Reuter reports). 

In a broadcast, monitored 
' in London Iv the BBC, Mr 
.Roald Sagd^ev, the director 
. of the Acadmy of Scimees 
..Space Research Institute, said 
•various options were available 
»for use against President 
rReagan's planned anti-missile 

shield the Strategic Defence 
Initiative (SDI). 

Hie least profitable counter- 
measure, he said, would be to 
create a similar system. 

Mr &igdeyev described 
space mines as "relatively 
sm^ and seeming harmless 
devices that move in orbh and 
come in contact with the Star 
Wars stetioDS at the ri^t 

He said SDI was completdy 
animistic as the destnictive 
power of s udear weapons was 

so gipt that creation of a 
meaningful defence would 
rule out foe penetration of 
even a single nuclear charge. 

"A^nst a badeground of 
10,000 or 20,000 simuha- 
neously incoming nuclear 
it is TRactically 
impo^ible to block them afl," 
he said. 

Mr Mikhail Gorbachov, the i 
Soviet leader, recently said 
Moscow would, if necessary, 
find a response to the SDI 
programme and negate its 

From Peter bfichris 

The DevO and Father 
Charles E Cnrran are awakrti- 
new fears of tighter disd- 
pluie riRmnan inC^ 

lectnals by the Vatican. 

Father Cmraii was dis- 
missed last Monday from his 
I post as Professor of Moral 
Theology at the Catholic Uni- 
vCTs i ty of Amnica in Wash- 
higtop. The announcement fid- 
lowed two talks by the Pope on 
tiw presence of the Devfl in ^ 
modesn world. 

The of tite aonoBoee- 

ment mid tte two papal honiH 
lies was no dooU firfiipMen*a|, 
hot diere is seen to be a dis- 
qmdingp^r^do^al Unk be- 
tween them. 

The Pepe made his first 
speed) al^ foe Deril on 
August 13 as his general andi- 
ence and part of a series of 
♦aMf-tiiny on good and bad an- 

He expressed fears- about 
foe real powrt of foe Deri) and 
revived traditfiaal definitioDs 
of his role ami appearance by 
references to hhn as an ai^ 
who had rrt^ed against 

aserpesLadragonandagoaL on tight discipliBe witiira the victory over die Devil" witieh 
Tlie sp ee ch was seen to be chorcb. This is no time, he again can be seen lo reinforce 
coBtrovmial more for its time would aigne, for the chnrch to bis belief that a heavy disd- 
tlun its content gjven that the be ffvhted by thedoped dif- plmary luuid most be used to 

Pope was drawing largely from ferences. 

the Gospels in gfvii^ hb vai^ In his talk of the Devfl be This is the atmosphere in 
■oos desaiptions. explicitly imdeiliDed tire dan- which Father Cnrrut's case 

Bnt it was seen to be an gen of fa*bei1y. The dn^ of came to ite concinsion. He has 
extremist statement of the the creator was that men consistently aligned that his 
Dev3*s presence in modem life foodd be free **bm from liber- differences with anthority, 
and caused a split anmig Ita- ty evil is bun**. At (he same which are in the field of sexual 
tian tbedogians, some of time he explained how **the morality, do not clash wifo es- 
vriiOB obierted to bvik foe chmh participates in Christ^ sential doctrines remuded as 

keep dissent in check. 

lliis is the atmosphere in 
which Father Cnrrut's case 

Iran tbeologBUis, some of 
vriiOB object to foe 

Devil so specific a diararter. 

A week later the ire- 

tuiied to foe fomne at hte next 
general andieiice and said tte 
Devil was nevertheless des- 
tined to be defeated. 

His tone was, if any thin g , 
more apoedyp^ becuse be 
revealed hb belief that foe 
world was now mteri^ **11011 
htotwic phase of the ridoiy of 
Chri^" eelmmatiiig ia the sec- 
ond comiu Ihe struggle be- 
tween good and evil would be- 
come increasioj^y violeiit as 
the end apiMoacbed ‘the d»> 
finitive riet^ of the good". 

This highly drama&i view 
of cmitempwary life is one of 
the dbti^nbhii^ marks of 
foe Pontificate and helps to 
explaia the'Popeh iasistaice 


The Pope; Powerful stote- 
ment on foe DeriL 

differences with authority, 
which are in foe field of sexual 
morality, do not clash wifo es- 
sential doctrines re^uded as 
infalUble and so should be res- 
pected as "responsible dis- 

Rome's reply was nnyield- 
He was told that tbeoJo- 
gtons mast also abide Iqr the 
normal offidal teaching aoth- 
ority of the chuch. T1& res- 
ponse looks dangerously like 
what some Britisb Catholics 
define as "creeping infallibO- 
ity"« which means teachings 
not regarded as infallible doc- 
trine are gradually becoming 
indistii^uBhable from it when 
foe Pope wants them to be. 

This is seen to be especially 
tme in Father Carran's field of 
personal mmaJity — m eaning 
Inith control, abortion, sex 
outside marriage, homosex- 
uality and divorce. 

mourners ai the cr>pt of 
Rudolph Valentino to pav 
homage to foe sileni screen 
idol as "foe world's greaiesi 
lover" on ihe 60ili anniver- 
sary- of his death. 

Toxic gas 

Yaounde (AP) — Tu\ie gas 
spewing from a lake inside a 
'volcanic crater m Cameroon 
has killed 40 people. Cam- 
eroon radio said ihai special- 
ists and equipment were sent 
to the region to cope viith the 

Poll raids 

Basna (Reuter) — Masked 
men attacked three Corsican 
b>-cleciion polling siuiions. 
setting off. tear gas caniMers 
and destroying voting ma- 
chinesand papers. Three sepa- 
rate groups of up to W) men 
I staged the raids several hours 
l-after voting begun for luo 
parliameniarv scats in the 
region of Hauic-Corsc. 

Doctors’ guilt 

Copenhagen iReuieri - 
Medical doctors take pan in 
lonure in many counirics and 
arc especially vulnerable to 
involvement if they work Ibr 
foe military, or in prisons, an 
international seminar on doc- 
tors. ofoics and torture 
told here. Doctors in priv'ns 
and the military run a higii 
nsk of. human rights v toU- 
lions. Or Joerwh Thomsen d' 
Denmark saifo 




























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South Yemen fear that 

Ali Nasser may try 
to stage counter-coup 

Seven months after Presi- 
dent Ali Nasser Mohamed was 
overthrown in a blood!»th in 
which thousands of South 
Yemeni officials ven massa- 
cred, the left-wing Govern- 
ment in Aden that the 
former leader may be about to 
return fiW exile in Ethiopia 
and st^ a counter-coup. 

According to authoritative 

RUD| to i 

rnwrts in Bdrut a campaign 

01 arrests and political execu- 
tions has restarted in Aden as 
the government of President 
All Baker al-Attas demands 
the return of Ali Nasser and 47 
of his supporters for ‘^crimes 
against the country" 

From Robert Fish, Beinit 

over Yemen and was *^sked 
to land at Aden” after its {dot 
refused to change direction. 
This explanation has not 
isfied pjibouti but the in- 
cident was dearly a wanting to 
Ali Nasser and the neighbour- 
ing states which are still 
supporting him, among them 
Noi^ Yemen, Ethiopia and 
Syria, with the Soviet Union a 
highly interested bystander. 

Moscow is still intent on 
healing the divisions between 
**ihe comrades in the Yemeni 
Socialist P^” an aspiration 
which has not been met with 
much favour in AdetL Al- 
Attas and his ooUeagues know 

The present leac^hip of ody too well that the letum of - is a tiaiuL 

ment prefects in the couzUzy 
following a visit by President 

At a meeting in Tripdi - 
h^ at the invitation of 
Crenel Cadaffi — al-Attas has 
been meeting with his North 
Yemeni omxrsite number, Ali 
AbduU^ S^h, but the talks, 
while they involved complex 
discussions on the eventual 
uni^ of the two Yemens. 
achieved little. 

While the former and 
present leader^p of South 
Yemen — u^etha* with their 
reqrective friends — are thoe- 
foie talking nobly of reconefli- 
ation, both sides realise that it 

the Yemeni Socialist Pai^ — 
the only legal political party in 
&uth Yemen — is now so 
concerned about Ali Nasser's 
growing popularity in the 
country that only last week it 
tried to seize some of his 
supporters from an airliner 
flyi^ from the North Yemeni 
caiMiai, Sanaa, to Djibouti. 

The Djibouti authorities, 
who own the Boeing 720. cut 
air a^ sea links with South 
Yemen two MiG jet 

fighters forced the idane to 
land in Aden, whm armed 
men searched the aircraft but 
allowed one follower of Ali 
Nasser Mohamed — Hussein 
Kassem Ahmed — to fly on to 
Cb'ibouti when the pilot r&> 
fii^ to take off without him. 

The South Yemenis later 
daimed the aircraft bad 
strayed SO miles off course 

Ali Nasser— force or onder 

the aegis of an amnesty — will 
inevitably lead to fiinher 

Ali Nasser has been u 
D^ascus, praising the Soviet 
Union f^ its attempts at 
Yemeni leconciliation — de- 
spite the fto that fsvestia 1^ 
bm officially blaming him 
for last January's upheaval 

In Aden, the G^emmeot 
suqiects the Rusians may be 
playing a double game to 
fcstoie Ali Nasser. Why jHse, 
they are wondering, would Ali 
Nasser describe Moscow as 
‘nhe best fiiend we have had”? 

Yemeni Ministers have also 
been spealdng tfoout the need 
hftfliing old wounds. 

The Saudis are trj^ to 
alleviate the situation in South 
Yemen by granting millions of 
Alters of creditefor jde^t^ 

In the fierce tribal rivalries 
that have been generated 
around the hot, volcanic 
mountains of Aden, it is 
extremely unwise to place 
one's confidence in laSc of 
forgiveness — as a South 
Yemeni jtrodamation made 
dear earlier this month. 

Al-Attas' government, it 
said, had relea^ 2,900 politi- 
cal prisoner and was inviting 
former sup^rtetrof All Nas- 
ser to return home from North 
Yemen under an arnnes^. 
^Bul,” the statement went 
**mvestigations and ficts (sic) 
have shown that some Yeme- 
nis who fled the conntxy . . . 
are not included in the gmieial 
amnesty . . . they are uii^ to 
surrender to be tried for 
crimes against the coimtiy.** 

It is an offer tiiey are l^y 
to refuse. 

Trip to prove Goveriiment stability 

Military placed on red alert 
as Aquino travels overseas 

President Aquino of the 
ntilippines bcgui a four-day 
visit j^erday to Indonesia 
and Sii^pore, her first of- 
ficial trip abroad, to foi]^ 
closer political and economic 
ties and reassure them that her 
six-montb-old Government is 
politically stable. 

**1 am not afraid to leave 
because I know the people 
support me,” Mrs Aquino told 
a 10,000-smDg lal^ in her 
home province of Tarl^ on 
the eve of her departure for 
Jakarta. In a me-departnre 
statement she said she was 
confident she was leaving the 
Government in "good and 
trusted hands”. 

The S^-year-old President 
boarded the presidential jet 
just hours afti^ the countiys 
armed forces were placed on 
full alert and a special Marine 
battalion was deployed in 
Manila to contain any pos- 
sible aoti-Government de- 
monstrations. ' 

Her departure from the 
suburban Villamor air base 
was preceded by full militaiy 
honours: a brief military pa- 
rade passed a reviewing 
where she and members of her 
Government and diplomatic 
corps were joined 1^ Juan 

Ponce Emile, the Defence 
Minister, and General 1^1 
Ramos, the armed finces 
chief vriio led the Felmiaiy 
revolt that toppled the 20- 
year-old Marcos regme. 

Both men dismissed ru- 
mours of a possible military 
putsch by entrenched Marcos 
supporters within the armed 
forces. A Defence Ministry 
spokesman said the placing of 

Frian Keidi Dalton, Manila 

all troops on *'ied alert” —the 
highest state of readiness — 
was routine and- the order 
would be revQ^ as soon as 
Mis Aquino"' xetiims on 
Wednesday. ; ' 

Military intitiligenoe agents 
and a govcfoiment 
however, l^ve given warning 
of a possible attempt by 
Marcos loyally to stage a 
revolt and reiiistate the de- 
posed President while Mrs 
Aquino is ooir fif the county. 

A posstbfejtb-entry point, 
Lao^ aiii^-m Mr M 2 aoos%.. 
north^ home prorince of 

Docos Norte, was dosed last 
week to light afroaft. 

By h^Tining her official 
overseas visits & travelling fr) 
Indonesia and Singiqx^ Mrs 
Aquinp is empiiarizing the 
Philippines* ‘ continued 
commitment to the $nc4iem- 
ber Association of Sootii East 
Arias Nations (Asean), vriiose 
other three members are Uiai- 
land , Malasia and Brunei. 

Manila's rdations witii the 
19-year-old aUfmee. were 
strained during the Marcos 
regime.^ ' 

Throng commonly^ per- 
ceived economic mismanages- 
meat — highlighted by cor- 
ruption and plunder by Mr' 
Marcos and his cronies ^ the 
Philippines became the eco- 
nomic l^gard of the Asean 

• Fi^iitive captain: One of file 
25 soldiers accused in the 
murder of Mr Benigno 
i^uino, the former oppo- 
sition leader and huriiand of 
President Aquino, used a 

foiged pasq^ to leave the 
Phflippines in April and is 

now bdieved to be in hiding in 
the US. 

Mrs Aqnino waves as she 
leaves for Jakarta. 

An Air Force spokesman. 
Colonel Pablo Gonades, ad- 
mitted that the Air Force 
”erre(r last week when it 
publicly (tenied media rqxirts 
that one of the accused was 


He said Captain Felipe 
Valerio, aged 35, left the 
Philippines tbrou^ the ''sou- 
thern back door*' of the Snlu 
archipelago near tM east 
Malaysian state of Sabah. 

Stanley to 

By Rodney Cowton 

Mr John Stanley, Minister 
ofStaie for the Armed Forces, 
flies to Hong Kong tomorrow 
to talk to senior Army com- 
manders about the dismissal 
of 108 Gurkhas. 

Mr Stanley's visit seems 
likely to be dominated by the 
controversy vriiich arose fol- 
lowing the refusal of the Gurk- 
has to co-operate in an inquiry 
into a fracas in Hawaii, in 
which two officers were 

The Gurkhas still have the 
right to appeal against their 
discharge and there is no- 
reason to think Mr Stanley's 
visit will lead to a change in 
the Army's decision. 

An Army source diMniiaed 
suggestions yesterday that 
there was any dispute between 
it and ministers over the issue, 
or that the decision to di^ 
charge the Gurkhas had-been 
hoisted on the Army by Mr 

One source said the de- 
cision to discharge the men, 
bad been taken by miniriers in 
accordance with a recommen- 
dation by the Army. ”We 
recommended exactly what 
ministers decided to do.” The 
decision had been taken after 
exhaustive consideration of 
aheroative courses of action, 
and in full awareness that it, 
would be likely to arouse pub- 
lic controversy. 

The Army would have pre- 
feiT^ to have brought the 
pages before a court martial, 
but tbe Gurichas* refiisal to oo 
operate made it impossible. 

Two ou kiduap charge 

Bangkok (Reuter) — Thai 
police said yesterday they had 
arrested and charged two West 
Germans with kidnapping a 
British shipping comity ex- 
ecutive and holding him fora 
S75aO(K} (£500.000) ransom. 

Police raided a house on 
Saturday to free Mr Tim 
Milner, aged 50. an executive 
with a Hong Kong shipping 
firm, who been teld by 
Michael Roenisch Hans, aged 
34. and Wolfgang Gogepz. 

aged 27, for more than a week. 

Police charged the two with 
illegal detention, delving the 
freedom of another and caus- 
ing serious injury. 

Mr Milner, who suffered 
.broken ribs and appeared to 
have been assaulted, . was 
found staggering and drowsy. 
He said he was abducted on 
Awust 1 5. Police seized faandr . 
cu& tranquillisers and faked 
Thai and German immigra- 
tion seals. 

Japanese ladicals taimt lioC police with bamboo staves dnriag a rally protesfing agafost the arrival of fiie New Jency. 

Hostile welcome to Japan for warship 

Irtmi David Watts 

IKldi a flotilla of anfi- 
nnelear protert ships in atten- 
dance die American warship 
New Jersey put into Sasriw 
port yerteraay aaoinii^ - 

Ashore, some KMWO people 
inotestod i^ainst its airivil at 
rallies organized by the Social- 
ist and Comnuniist parties. 
Another thousand or so had 
tiidr say at a meeting heavily 
guarded by riot pidiGe. 

Five protertms were ar- 
rested in what were largely 
pauefnl dononstrations. 

The imitesters fearthat the 
New Jersey is carryh^ 
hnclear-tipped Tomahawk 
craise misses. The ship has 
32 bumdiers for ToamhaiHES, 
whidi may be ettbe- con- 
ventional or nudeaiHumed. 

If some to aO of the misriles 

are equipped with unclear 
warheads they would be in 
riola&n of Japan‘s three noDr 
nodear principles, which for- 
bid the pro&cticm,' deploy- 
ment and stor^ of nndear 
weapons tot Ja|MUiese sofi. 

Under cnideliDes drawn op 
between Tokyo and Washii^ 
ton, the US is supposed to 
J^mn if a vessel eoterug Hs 
ports is carryhQ nndear weap- 
ons. If ttev is no su^ 
notification Tokyo assumes 
tfam are no aodeu wmqNms 

This polite firtion was main- 
tained once again yesterday 
when Ae New Jmsey sailed 
into the sqierb natn^ har-. 
boor at Sasebo, in N^aadd, 
on the sontiim islm of 

The captain of tiw New 
Jersey told a wetemning cere- 
mony rather enigmatically: 

**We tovredate the sentF- 
mmts of tbe Jiqmnese people 
with rward to midear weap- 
ons. m do not; discuss tbn 
weapons kmds, conventional 
or nndear, that onr wuAips 

If its arrival was memtt to 
s^npl to Ae Soviet Union Ae 
American strengA in die Fa- 
dfic, die Japanese coaM be 
for^ven if they did interprec 
yester^y's events as a three- 
pronged assanlt on their wm- 
nndear prindples, because, as 
the New Jersey was berthing, 
three men. in ■■imarriata 
whites, American naval imits 
w^ nodear oomMctfons were 
. airiving at two other Japa ne s e 

At Knre on the Inland Sea— 
where the New Jtoscy^ great- 
est rival, tiie Yeniato, was bnflt 
— the US firtotte Merrill was 
pnlliiQ in and fintfaer np the 

coast at Yokosaka, near Yo- 
kohama, two fixates and the 
ttoclearpoiwered entisor Lom 
Beadi were dne to dock. 

Acoordiw to reports from 
Tokyo on Sunday night, tiie 
vessels are die first of a 
considerdiie mnnber ships 
that will be assenUed in tiic 
comii^ weeks for a Ing naval 
exerdze off the east coast of 
die Soviet Union next mmitik 

Under Gandhi socialist dominance 
has been checked and smaUer 
nations find more world influence 

The Non-Aligned Mofpment 
begins meeting in Harare 
tomorrow. In t& first article in 
a two-part series, Miduul 
Han^ examines India*s 
duusmanship of the lOhnor 
tion organization over the past 

It miiJit not appear so from 
•die ^tone of some of the 
c6mmim^£s that come out 
of meeti^ Of Ae Non- 
AfiStted Movement (NAMI 
but India's rh^irmanshi p of 
Ae (Hganization during the 
past three years has had a 
dedsive efim m turning it 
away fixmi a slavish foOowmg 
of die socialist Mock line. 

"We have,** said one Indian 
observer proudly,‘*saved the 
onrancation.^ We have en- 
abled it to continue in being.^ 

It is true tiiat under the 
eoAusiastic chair manshi p of 
Ae Cuba of President Fidd 
Castro, NAM became highly 
polarized. PieskleDt Castto^ 
bdief was that the com- 
munists were the natural allies 
of the non-aligned, and seri- 
ous tensioas were building in 
the movement between the 
Cubans and such other for- 
mally non-aligned countries as 
NorA Korea on one hawt and 
Ae more 

the r^on, and a ccmriderable 
poweron any worid scale. Mis 
Gandhi herself was re^)ected 
and admired for her for- 
midable personality and 
political slcilTs, India, Aou^ 
dose to the ^viet Union m 
many ftneign policy matters. 

They'rite the Afghan and 
Cambodian conflicts as in- 
stances of the way directions 
towards a solution have been 
indicate hy the movement 
”We have;” said an Indian 
Aplomal in Delhi, "restored a 


sense of unity of pmppse: 
true it is only ju^ so. 



able to indicate a direction in 
'' v^ch the Iran-Iiaq war may 

OAer ptominent examples 
of India's provisioo of new 
direction for tbe movement 
are to be seen m its concentra- 
tion on Asarmament 
paiticulaily nudear disarma- 
ment — and on die gfobal 

Since Mrs GandhTs deatii, 
has benefited from 

none the less looked to tbe 
West frtr many of its cuituial 
and industrial imports. 

Adia was one of the origiiial 
founders of NAM, and m its 
• early years one of its chief 
^motive .frnces, along wtth 
Ghana, and Yngoslavia. Ndi- 
m, Nknimab -mid Tito were.;her son 
the three principal figures in it' 'AA'a^chairinanship; sinoeit 
Before Mr r^ndhi stepped gave him an inWnt {rfatfom 
bade into the lead, only Yugo- from whidi to be bw^ndwd on 

tile world stage. 

slavia was sHii 
real status to the movement 
India's admiren praise ^ 

chairmpiwhip of Mr flanHhi 

for ha^iig enabIM the org- 
anization to reassert its abffity 
to indicate directions m whirA 
problems of worid tendon 
may be solved. It has not, 
westwarcMooking ■ however, even under Ae most 

countries, led m the main by 
Lto K-wan Yew to 

Had die polarization con- 
tinued, the organization could 
vm well have dismtqraled, 
with such nations as 
Arabia, Morocco to Malaysia 
iwaHing Ae way. 

It was not India's turn to 
take Ae chair. Iraq was next m 
line, but Ae war wiA Iran 
made it impossible for tbe 
organization to accept Bagh- 
dad as hs capital for the next 
three years, and India was 
persuaded to step m instead. 

Mr Indira fianrthi' was 
perhaps the perfect NAM 
chairman. She the 

' most populous country m the 
movement, and one that was 
unc^lengtobly draocratic. 
India is tbe principal power in 

enlightened leaderships been 
able actually to solve any of. 
the probtems. 

The iion«ligBed moveneat 
was ionned by leaden 1^ 
nerident Tito ot Yi^oslavia, 
Resident Nasser of and 
Mr Nehra, Prime ACnister <rf 
India, sedm^ infliience fto 
weakto conntries wiA the 
major powers and break down 
Ae system of opposiiv UodB. 

The first emferenoe aret in 
ia 196^ atteaded by 
: of 25 countries. Today 
the OMwaaent has aboat 100 
mmnbets, faidndng 51 African 
nadmis, 29 Asian, 14 LtAi 
Anafean and duee Enn^ean. 

mectiags nocmally take 
place every Aree years, the 
lak oae; Imring been h^ in 
DeOii in 1983. 

While some initiatives, 
notably tbe economic one, 
qipear to have Imiguished 
undto his ' leadership, othera 
lave flourished. On nuclear 

/fiormanriffnl hC ha* just 

turned firom another ax-na- 
tion summit, vAich called ft>r 
an end to the nudear arms 

■ Mr GandhTs main area of 
mterest has been in southern 
Afiica. and meetings of die 
NAM Coordinating Bureau 
on Namibia, have emtided the 
Third World nations to ex- 
press a conceited view of 
events in the area. 

At Ae same time Mr Gan- 
dhi has appeared to be leading 
the Commonweahh attack on 
SouA Afiica and indeed on 
IdR Ibrndierifor her reluc- 
tance to impore sanctions. In 
doing . so ne has broo^t 
authori^ a^ stains to the' 
Non-Aliped point of view, 
and hands over Ae movement 
to the Zimbabwean Prime 
Mnuster in a healAy state, 
ready for any new opmention. 

ToaMRTOw: The way ahead 

Army mans Delhi telephones 

Fonner minister’s frostratimis bring down line 

FVom Midiael Hamhni 

Troops ringed the central 
tdephone exAange in Dellii 
at the weekttd and the Indian 
Corps of Si gnal* mawn^H Ae 
swAAboards abandoned 
strikhig worfctos — all h****"*^ 
of a protest by an infhriated 
telephone snbttriber. 

^lyone who has dealt wfrh 
the wmnen of die cmiM ex- 
change will have^a gnuaUng 
sympaAy for Mr P C Sethi, 
-recentiy a senior Cabinet Min- 
ister, bnt now an inaetoh^y 
eccentric has-been. 

Conraonicatiims are tme of 
^ most frnstrating aspects 
living and workup in 
Tdepbones oftmi break down, 
maintenanee standards are 
uniformly appaUfing, equip- 
ment is OBt-diPd, overiMdied 
and worn out. The attitade of 
die. excliai^ staff does not 
help. It is oAai off-hand, 
uncomprehending and mitlkh. 

Hoiror stories abouid, and 
many snbseriben have been 
driven to dirow the tdephmie 

to die wall in fr a s ti ath ui and 
.resentment Many have felt 
like takiiig a pistol down to dm 
exchange and soitiim them out 
there, bnt endy MrSetU has 
done h. 

Infuriated beyond measure 
by Ae foiiiire of the exdhwige 
to connect him to a Bombv 
nnmber, despite his giri^ the 
call a "liptaing” priority, and 
palling his rank as an ex'Chb- 
inet ISunister, Mr Setiil arriv- 
ed at Ae rwiwMgft in JanpAi' 
the Champs Ets^fos of Ddid, 
teandishi^ a Ctocb-made 

the kind ef ipA vAo woold 
sleqi with anyone frv five To- 
pees. Later he described the 
women as "fot lazy todies, 
every single one of them**. 

Three thonsand women to 
tiK-exdm]^ wait on strike, 
entting die c^tol from dm 
rest of the eomttiy and the 
world. They dem a nd e d Mr Se- 
Ai be aneated; they demanded 
greater secnity; they wanted 
the "defeminiziititer af the 

They .took Ae opportn^ 
to raise die pestion of 1 JiOO 

mttomatic pisttd and acomp^- asnal worfciers who have beat 
nied by sevoral armed beavm •liired'vm a.dafly rate fbr Ae 


He sttomed into die todU- 
iiig's restricted am and 
nrandly (and probably jns^ 
ably) abreed all and sandqr. 
"It should not be a restricted 
area,” he sakL "It sbonU be 
thrown open to the citizens so 
that they ean see lAat sort of 
ness the tetephene system is.” 

He went too for, of.'ebnise. 
He patted one of the wbmai M 
Ae cheek and told ber she was 

andhbooa- past fow jfears. They rriected 
the advice of their unions, be- 
canse of die mrion affiliatioB 
WiA varioHS poUticalparties - 
-indDdhig Mr SethT^ Congress 

also sriiotoged the 

switahes as they left work, and 
many-tf them sat in to prevent 
thc'work bring done by oAos. 

r. MrSoAL^pd^^inen 

■togovenniirer'virtnalte conA- 
nnmisly s i nce 1962. He was 
Chief Mbtistto of hb home 

state, Madhya .Pndesh, fin. 
fimr years, and was Home 
mait at the-fime of Oimiation 
Blnestar, the army seiznie of 
the Golden Tonpfe of Amrit- 

He was one of the fow mhi-. 
bteis not revpoiDted Mr 
Gandhi when he as- 
powa, and has beca 
Httreashigiy Mtter abont it He 
has recentiy began bdiavii^' 
wiA noticeable eccentricity, 
first wril^ a serira of letters . 
to the Ihiine Minister arimig 
for a more importaiit role. 

Hie basiled aromid Pn^ . 
fiament recently trying to en- 
gine memben in a campa^ ' 
to ^poit hnn. He has bm 
carrying ont a vendetta against 
Mr Aijnn who sncceed- 
ed him as Oua Nfinister and 
who was Ae arcMtect of the 
Punjab peace accord. 

toys later to the Ind^rade n ce 

Day criebratwns be washnst- 
led ont of Ae front row of 
gneste Ustaaing to die Prime 
Bluster’s spMch, and wim 
later removed after sbMtmg at 
ing about the behavionr' of die 

In Chairitgarh a few days 
latar be caimed a sooie stand- 
ing on Ae balcopy of dm offi- 
cial gnest house in his imdei^ 
wear demanding cjctifa seenr- 
ity. -The next day he was back 
in Auliament intmvenins in a 
debate rm omvnption^ yrifim 
"frCnisten are also comtetl 
am vriling yon fram perronal 
experience Ministas are also 

~ Mr Sethi says be was set 
apion Iv tite wmnen in the ex- 

Ito said he- was sober at the 
time. Knowina . that msny 

A week ago he threw a huge ; would totribatewootbreak to 
party at his Delhi home and Ae; inOnence of altthot.-lie 
personally dtetribmed 300 ’ said:' "Immediatriy after' the 
VIP invitatioiis. Only SO peo- ' inddriit-I-weiit toAeir 
pie came, and die PiinwMi^ aihd- got myself a 
ister was not oae of Aem. Two tint I was not drank.' 

urge halt to 
Tunil talks 

FrimMidmel HamlyB 



' Someth^ of a setback for 
the striifigiing peace process m 
Sri t came yesterday as 
the i<^4pr of one of the prin- 
cipal Tanul niOitant groups 
urged moderate politicians to 
call c^ialks wiA the Govern- 

Mr Uma Maheshwaran, 
leader of the Pole's libera- 
tion Oimmization for Tmnil 
Edam (PLOT), who returned 
to Madias yesterday after talks 
wiA the Indian (jovenunent 
in Ddtri, said tiie Tamil 
United Liberation Front, - the 
pcAtical party Much repre- 
sented Tamil distrios in the 
island jojliameot, Aould 
break off talks in Sri Lanka 
and return to Madras for talks 
whh militant groups first 

Mr. Maheshwaran'a groiqi 
has so for not taken mudi part 
in the armed struggle in Sri 
Lanka, because of a pronounce 
ed Astaste for what Aey have 
derided as 'Aittoid-nui” tac- 
tics. "We have also darted 
hitting the enemy at random 
afteragvof 18 montiis,” Mr 
Maheshwaran si^ "spying 
our ..stand against 

-'-The nuUtont leader, .whose 
oiganizatiohiias beat bedeed 
by that wing of Ae -PsJestine 
Liberation Organization led 
Ire Mr Gemge Ifobash, sakL 
•the proposal offered by the 
Sri Lanka Government "could 
not even be the staitingpoint” 
ftw ne^itiations.' "The process 
inhiateH fry Mr Jayewantene 
fe iDierely to end prrosure'from 
die imernatiomd commun- 
ity,” he said. 

. Indian Government is 
aiuuous to-put all Ae iwessure. 
it can briiiiid the present peace 
process: "We want to see these 
talks make progress,”' an In- 
Aan Government qioktoniaiL 
said last night Commuting 
on Mr Mahesbwaran's re- 
marks; die .OMAesman suA 
"We hope 'violOice is not 
beii% resorted to." 

A spokesman for Ae Lodian 
Foreign kffnirtry said the re- 
port u the Sri- Lankan news- 
paper, 'Ae Sunday (^server,' 

ra Aat talks wQl be 
3elhi between the 
extremists and the Oslombo 
Govenunent is simply "a bit 







Hong Kola's coiotrowf^ 
Independent Commission 
Against Corruption (ICAO 
has bm swamped wAtoro^ 
pbinis about ^aft .in (oivate 
business, hampering its atnlity 
to deal wiA more .serious 
crimes. . 

Informed sources say the 
anti-graft body - set up in 
1 974 - would uke 10 see more 
such comi^nts handled by 
Ae Royal Hong Kong police 
fraud ^uad, some of whose 
fiinctions were taken oyer Iqr 
the ICAC because of comip. 
tion in tbe police. 

In recent monAs the low- 
profile commission has brric- 
en huge svrindles in the horse- 
lacing worid which . is Hong 
Kong'S dtid* ftvm of legal 
gamUing It is eunendy m- 
vestigaiii^ scandals involving 
suthsiandard public housrag. 
some of wfaidi is literally 
felling to pieces. 

The l,00(Vstrong commis- 
sion's annual budget is n^ 
puUiriied, but is Aought to be 
m excess of £10 mfliion. Its 
senior ranks are mortly re- 
cruited from police forces in 
the United Kingdom. How- 
ever. its latest potential offi- 
cer. Mr Alan Dann ofthe Kent 
county police, has so fer been 
unable to take up his duties 
because his force is under 
investiption for alleged inflai- 
tion of crime detection figu^ 

Last year tbe conunisshHi 
sucoessnilly prosecuted, 160 
ra<te«B of CtoTUptiOn, Of vAldl 
the largest groups 36 cases " 
were in tbe polioe. NoneAe- 
less. police corruption is be- 
iiev^ to bave-dedined due lo 
tbe ICAC There were 124 
cases in tbe private sector in 
1985; involvifig sndi Ain^as 
"kick-bads” add bribes. 

ffir . Murray MacLehose 
(now Baron MacLdwse), the 
ftniner Governor of Hi»g 
Kong, set im Ac ICAC to 
circumveot the ineffectual in- 
vestigation of corruption by 
the police themsdves. 

In 1977 some polioanen 
became so incensed at Ae 
more vigorous investigition 
of Aeir activities by the new 
body that Aey ph^cally at- 
lad^ hs premises. To restore 
br^ the Governor had to 
promise amnesty for the 
m^'ority of coinipt poli^ 

ComipticM was also wide- 
spr^.tn service and 

. The commisrion has been 
frequently critidzed for hs 
secretive behariour and its 
l>owers of arrest and mtenoga- 
tion, which some peoide con- 
rider excessive. 

However, h has been effec- 
tive in bringmg 'it to the 
ftoblic's attention that corrup- 
tion is not a' moDopo^ of 
^inere pdicemen and 
ficials. but has been wid^ 
practised by British-born ofn- 
ceR toa 

Tbe ICACs great success 
Ais year has bera the smash- 
ing of the so<aOed "Shang- 
har ^ridkate at the Royal 
Hong Koi^ Jodoey Qub..'a 
pillar of modern ^ortiiv 

Minister: is 


From Baaim jCkhiiif ' 

A Minister of die.Ntodi- 
West Rrmtier 
ernment was sactod ou 
Saturday by -Mr ■ Anba. 
Mohamii^ Jahan^ Khan, 
the (Thid" Minister, tor allied 
public merry-makiiig on 
Pakistan's Indnendence Day 
(AiQUSt 14) whto parts. of tite 
.coanny.were.todted by anti^ 
govenunent riots and ddnon^ 
strations-r T . 

The resigntoioir (ff Mr Aynb 
Tanolt, Commuiucatkms and 
Worics' Minisid;' .'was' -4^ 
manded fry tbeCmefMiiiistd, 
who later met Getoial Zteul- 
Haq, foltistaa's- President, 
welHcnowin as u highly, re- 
jons and puihnicai nteO; 
wden he arri^ at Iriamabad 
airport from a . visit to Saudi 
Arabia. ' • 
Pesbawaitoased neWroaper 
rbporteiiraid MrTafrou 
allegedly drank and toi id v 
roup which created a toh in it- 
ill resort, dandiig' 'firi^ 

Ban on Dhaka ralli^ 
to stop poll violence 

■ From Ahmed IFazL Dhaka ’. 

Authorities imp(K^ a 48- sheifch l^nn Waa* the 

hour -ban on rallies, and 
demonstrations in the Ban gia- 
capital yesterday m a bid 
i6 amrt. violence during 10 - 
morrow's' paHiameniaiy 
electioni ' 

A police official, said 860 
people were airested at the 
weekend to. keep *nroubl^ 
makera” out of action during 
Ae election, in which the 
official Jatiyo p^' and the 
oppe^ion Awteni League wilf 
be contesting a ke\- Dhaka 
coitetituency. ' • - 
fa Ae Aree days police 
have detained more than 
people- jiT Ae: cspSial 'in a 
m^or security drive, oppo- 
sition sources saici' 

Awami League chief; atinised 
General Ershad, the. counny^s , 
PresidenL bf-ustng.jfolice to . 
harate her supporters. Bhe-hto.. - 
asked Aat soidiera bq .witi^ 
from her hometown of 
Copalganr. in the eounti^ 
south. «wre 'another- 
constituencies are goiiiff'to die ' 

About 50 pttpi^ ‘tone 
wounded at Aewedeend duf^\, 
»ng a gun battle - 
. A total of. eight consdK 
uencics are going to 
wd political circles too* 
Government is .expect; to; : i 
win at lean six seats.' 
jng its majority of20l seats fit - 
the 33P:member Parliamem, ■ 

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Ring that 


not fit 

The M25 London orbital motorway. 

already, so congested that parts of 
it are being widened, encircles nearly 

one-eighth of the UK population. 

Bryan Appleyard patrols a road 
that is also a social phenomenon 

T hne was a time 
whm London was to 
be turned into a 
dartboard. Corioen- 
tric rings of three 
motorways would be cut by 
radi^ routes aimed at the 
bull's-^ of the West End and 
the City. BuL like so many 
other 1960s dreams, it turned 
out to be over-ambitious. 

Victorian and Edwardian 
inner-city areas were already 
being rapidly colonized by the 
articulate middle classes; the 
rape of these areas by stilt- 
leg^ flyovers and muilty 
underpasses was too much to 

. ^ ,in J97S John Gilbert, 
then Minister of Transport, 
r^laced the dartboard with a 
single giant connL One-eighth 
of Britain's population wpuld 
be penned inside and the 
perimeter fence would be the 
longest city ring road In the 

With a radius varying be- 
tween 12 and 18 miles it 
would cut through the pas- 
tures of Surrey and 
plunge under the Thames at 
Dartfbnl swerve nonhwanls 
through Essex, swing west 
throi^ Hertfordshire and 
Buckin^amshire. recross the 
river near Staines and link 
with the M3 near Virginia 

As a piece of civil engineer- 
ing the M25 was speracular. 
As social en^neering it was a 
leap into the unknown. But 

Bert Morris, highways man- 
ager of the . Automobile 
Association, with whom I 
drove round the Big Ring, is 
not a man given to wild 
surmise. As we headed along 
the M3 fbr the traffic jam 
where we were to join the 
M25. he said: ‘*At the AA we 
have identified three prob- 
lems: lack of capaci^, bad 
driving and poor diri^on 

At the smiling junctioii, it 
turns out to be a quiet 
morning which means that the 
traffic is actually moving. 
From here you can stay on the 
M3 as ^ as Sunbury or take 
the M2S dockwise or anti- 
dockwise. We opt for the 
latter and find our^ves in the 
middle of the secUon whidi 
the Ministry of Traiisixm has 
decided to widen to four lanes. 

This is not necessarily the 
area with the woist capad^ 
problems, it's simply the easi- 
esi bit to widen. An unusually 
large central reservation was 
left to allow for this. 

The dedgn capad^ for a 
three-lane motorway with 
good ''flowing alignmenf* 
(which means it is reasonably 
straight) is between 75,000 
and 80.000 vdiides a day. 
Around here the M2S has bea 
taking 115,000. At Chertsey 
the wideniiu win help, but 
there are 300 bridges crossing 
the Big Ring aiKl most of those 
would have to be virtually 

whh some ^egui ; tapering 
bridges. We m now dippum 
the edge of me Dafenth vat- 
ley. There Otford, 

Shofdnm arKf Eyiiesfirrd — 
Samuel Rahner county which 
even the inott harden^ -fiee- 
market Tmy wotid think 
twice about desecratii^ in the 
event Shorebam ^nesdes on, 
undisturbed, dbeh sbom 
implicatidn of some of its 

rdMiilt if the ivfaole road were 

So what went wipng!? Why 
is the road handling traffic 
loads which should not have 
happened until wdl into the 

Traffic nationwide has been 
growing al 3 to 4. per cent 
annually. In the south-east, 
with its much hi^er eco- 
nomic growth rme, the in- 
crease has been 
ooirespondingly higher. 

But nobody could have 
foreseen the extent to wAicfa 
the road would have to serve 
both as a motorway and- as a 
local route. On the one band 
there are lorries and salesnien 
on their normal business: 
uring the road to bypass 

■ London altogether, to get fixnn 
cme onto' suburb to another or 
just io drive to- a mme 
fovourable-. exit for moving 
into London. 

On the other hand, subur- 
ban life has been txansformed 
by tbe abili^ of local inhab- 
iiants to nse- the road ^ 
shorter trips. Thousands 
cars now stay on for just cme 
or two exits. And this is whm 
Bert Morris's, other probleins 
of bad tfaiving and inadequate 
signing come Hl 

Tbe M25 has brou^t peo- 
ple who normally only <faive 
on the A and B roads into the 
motorway system . They are 
unused to the ritnab of exit 
ramps and lane disdpfine (not 

to mention, cowboys in '.blade 
BMWs trying to do fOOmifoX 
This leads to d^ ^^sbunts” — 
the AA and poUce^udiemism 
fbr crashes — — and fiequent 
and dangerous frustration. 
aaioog the professionals. 

The prtfolem nnth rigns 
arose because the mmbtry 
lays down strict guiddines 
aimed at preventing distiact- 
dutter fbr all BMtorway 
signs. These rules not only" 
cover the appearance of in- 
dividual riffis, but dso apedfy 
wfucfa daces can be indicated. 
Many v^stoa are' regarded as 
too specialized, too ccunmer- 
dal or too small, but Mesris 
and his colleagues have been 
^ng to convince, the min-. 
irtry mat the local fiinpiitms of 

the. M25. demand more. signs. 
th more places. 

We pt^ the. Junction with 
the M23 whidi heads soum to 
'Catnnek Airport maiked by 
five flat ugly bridges mss’ 
crossing in' an anmrently ran- 
dom foshion. and go (cm into 
■Kent Here the lanctope 
becomes deddedly better as 
the banks on dtber side of foe 
road d^ away. 

The junction wim die M26 
is no fun atalL Here tlie'M2S 
lakes a 9(Megree turn nbrtbr 
wards and a few minntts of 
inattention could have you 
. heading east through 
Wrotharo aid down - to 
Maidstone. . 

But after that the road, 
becomes decidedly piet^. 

N ext it's- dg^ to 
the appealyptic 
landscape' of the 
Thames Eauary. 
Flumes- of smoke 
rise from fectories along the 
shorefine and after, crosang 
the AZ we find the si^ have 
turned frun .Une .to g reen — 
we are no huiger on a motor- 
way. Hiese are the Oartford 
Tunnel approaches; 

The road is bdng widened 
here to dispose of the mree- 
lanes-into-two botdenedc, but 
the' tunnd itself, whh its. 
strange, pock-marked, prime- 
v^ walls, remains. On the fer 
ride, tn^ headiiq; south is 
bad^ up fbr miles. The 
ministry is conridering ah 
additional brid^ of - tunnd 
crosriis to be built io the early 

Ihen there are the flat blank 
plains of Essex until we cross 
me M25 at Theydon Bob and 
arrive at Epiwg Forest, the 
scene of the bittereri-ehyiron-' 
mental battles ovin- the 'M2^ 
Here Upshife — '^he last 
Epinf^ Forest viUa^" — wim 
hs Uuididl wood b said to 
have died. 

in feet, the speed at wim 
which the motewway has been 
compteted indicates mat sudi 
battles were, few and usually 
easily won. PUft ofthismust 
lie wim tbegovermhent .tacUc 
of cQttidg ibe-foad upioio 2& 
contratA sections, eadi wim ife" 
own. programme^and inqturyL 

But it airi) must hti^ hem 
because the- opf^tidn was 
abvays 1n two minds. For all 
iMit those living in tbe im- 
mediate viernhy, the bendhs 
of the road must have out- 
weighed b its dbadvantagiK. 
And, Besides, . pnming the 
original ffixfies 196(bni^ess 
do^ to just one motoeway 
must be kind of 
vict^. - • ' 

At Waltham Abbey ..we stop 
fbr 'coffee.' GtojOiny signs had 
rqieamdly anhoiuiced “No 
senrioes (Hi M2S'*, so a detour- 
was necessary. Fb^ .for ser- 
vices have Iqged behind on 
this motorway because it ms 
mought most drivers ' would 

not Slay (m fbr long enou^ to 
mate it wortlnriiile. Now two 
are going.ahead and two mme 

- A^ crosring the Ml, we 
reach the uncompi^ section 
between South Mimms and 
. Honton Bridge, thbb due to 
open' in the autumn, but fbr 
the . moment it requires a 
complex zig^ which pro- 
vides tantalizing ^impses of 
St Albans in the distance: 

Rr^iy oomesthe home nm 
down me western ride, past 
He^iiow where die aircraft 
seem to be diving straight fbr 
your car and cm to the M3 
junction. The trip took us two 
hours four minutes of deefrfy 
legal AA driviib. 

Once the:north-westem tfP 
is cios^ the whote 117-fniie 
circuit should be drivable, 
traffic aHowing. in wdl under 
. two hours. The target for the 
exported Jlle^ racers will 
presumaUy be .nearer, one 
'iHW. In 1978. an6tlier Times ■ 
' JournaKst did -die same Jour^ 
ney uring what roads there 
were. It toeflt Mm rix and a 
quarter hours and he travelled 

But aB the geogra^y. the 
' driving and & enpneering 
are (M^ half tile stan of the 
M2S. The' other halrb only 
just biginni^ to become 
apfnrent This is iu social 
eMneerhg fuaction.'Fv not 
only has it on tbrou^ the 
hitherto mysterious and exci^ 
mg and Surrey wood- 
lands. it has also provufed a 
dangerous and .uninedictable 
lure of weaim.away fimn'die 
denire of Ixmcion. 

Aiapg Us domestic 
propoty prices have soared, 
as has tbe cost of comoiercia] 
..fend. O^t-offonm shops -are 
beginning IO appear -^-hypieF- 
martets and DIY superstores 
wbidi-tave' shmipera'dieaiDii- 
bfa^cTHIghtnig .whh sMnirtiaai 
dentres'or eyen-tfae Weii£nd. 

The. obvious possitrility is a 
drrinin|t of weahh from die 
inner oty to doHnfested sub- 
urbs. In addition it will lead to 
a steady linking of tbe centres 
of population and commerce. 
The M25 b still too new to be 
sure of how fer thb process 
will ga Bill, if only because cf 
tbe staggering volume of traf- 
fic, h has aitnuted, it is .dear 
that'life .rn-tbe south-east wiU 
never be tbe same again. Yet it 
stiH leaves us with imderZOOO 
miles of mtitorway compaied . 
to almost 4,(X)0 milm in 
France and West Germahy's 
5,ooa • 

TCP Antiseptic relieves the pain 
of insect bites and stings, eases 
skin irritation. Also av aflahl g, 
TCP First Aid Antiseptic Cream. 

TCP soothes pain^ 
fights infection 

How to turn on the TV sch^uiers 

What does a BBC televirion- 
direcUH’ do when he learns 
that a ' sex discussion pro- 
gramme, due to be broadcast 
at a critical weekend viewing 
time; cornains an explicit sex 
scene that hamietts to involve 
the presenter of a popular 
children's show? 

How dom hb adversary ui a 
leading ITV com'pany re- 
arrange his schedules, -u4ien a 
new i^ngbydie Independmt 
Broadcasting. .^Anthority 
obliges hbn to increase Ins 
quota'Of productions in- 
dependent producers? 

The answeis to liiese,..and 
Other hypothetical but equally 

When two fdevision 

pn^rammers held a 
mock ratings battle 

in Edinbuigh, some 
tricks of the trade 

got a public airing 

OI— O oW 

intr^ing dilemmas, were to 
be found 

in the AssemUy' 
Rooms, Edinbuiirii, at the 
weekend, .iriien delates. tt> 
(he d^'s Inurnatioi^ Td& 
virion Feriival witnessed a 
simulated battle in the ratings 
war between the networks. 

The BBC wheeled out hs 
front-line rtHninander- for tiie 
ridrmisb in the fcHm oFMt 
M ichael Grade.' diiiBct(U''.of 
irieviripn- pr y a iin ne^'-Tak- 
• ing the fiem .ror.lTV was hb ' 
former colleague, , and succes- 
sor as director of programmes 
at London Wedxnd Tde- 

. Each controller had been 
given a Ibt of 30 programmes, 
and three (bo's m .which to 
oomjrile seh^ufes for the 
highly competitive Frid^'and 
Saturday .viewing p^iodl 
Prior- consultation between 
them was prohibited. 

In addition, tbdr reactions 
were tested by. ‘Joker” cards' 
played during the contest — 
such - as the sex issue, un- 
expected legal pFOblems and 
the sudden loss of an option 
on a popularquiz progFamm& 

Mr Alistair Hetherii^on, a 
former controller <^BBC Scm- 
bnd and member of , the 
Peacock- . Committee on 
Braadcastinjg. and Mr Colin 
Clarke, a time imyer for an 
advertising agency, act^ as 

The “g^e” was MM asan ' 
attempt to -filustrate' the 
mysterious and fiendishly 
complicated ruiesof television 
scheduling.. Mr Hetberington 
asserted in introdtictory re- 
marks diat it was a great art. 
which few pec^ had 

• In the event foe two direc- 
tors laisect more lay^ than 
eyebrows from an audience 
folly conversant with the cut- 
and thrust of media rivalry. 
Nevertheless, then- jnstinctive 
reactions to emergencies of- 
fered a ffoe insight into, their, 
views on topical issues and the 
merit, of- individual pro- 

. When Bin's Riday evening 
schedule was unveil^ it was 
appaiem he had elected -for a 

quidckill by.fitilowiiig-Daffizr 
at 8pm with- the populv LWT 
adventure series zMi/uqi muf 
Mgkepeaeeat9pm. • ■ ' 
Gi^ conceded that tiie 
tiinir^ of . “Du^jbet mid 
Makeshift^ presenM him 
with a niQor. -problem. The 
key to hi.5 Friday night sched- 
ule was a new. drama series 
which be had pbiraed to 
.screen, at 9 JOlpm — h^an 
hour after-most viewers would 
.have tuned into the rival ITV 
programme. . -. 

- The- BBC- hh bMc wiiii a 
Iiri>t 'fusillade, of -OrnnifiMs, 
-foJidwed by a. major counter- 
attack with LA. Law, a new 
American seritt from the 
writer and exeentive producer 
of ffU/ ^reet Bhies. 

Tbe: -Sattirday night battle 
raged around tbe respective 
flagriripsof^lyaasO’on BBCl 
at 7.25pin mA A Fine 
/nonce on fTV ai'8.13pin. 
Grade, confidently: (Miedicted 
he would -win the day. with 
bte-eveniiig remforcements — 
led bsr-'Jasper'Cairror and by 
the femsome Rambo in First 

He expectecl nothii^ less 
than unconditional surrender 
from Bin's comping selec- 
tion of ' stand-up comics 
Conhdlyand ^ephemon and 
LA. Ur» (already scooped ^ 
die Beeb on Friday), 

Birt saiid he:had esdwwed 
American Gigoio ' 'because 

momdots .before'fobse oTfoe' 
'rival dianneb; .. 

- Hb initial rehouse to the 
sex poser wasr ^Es it billed in 
Raefio Time^ .So we can't 
shift it on to BBCZ” Even- 
tually, he decided the scene- 
-would have to boent ' . 

For those, of ua unfamiliar 
with tbe term ‘'hammocking”. 
the cmitestaots egfriauM it 
was a .way* -of 'su'nxHting a 
relatively weak programme 1^ 
slonms ft betwm two hfefily 
popular hem's. 'Both said they 
used, the teriinkiue* particn- 

larfy fbr .'inirodiidi^ .' new 
dramaserite. - 
- ‘The iM Job b about 
Gommbsionitig. acquiring the 
right programmes.” said Mr 
Grade.. “Scheduling b like 
producing the layout of a 
new^per. presenting good 
stories from corrKpondrats 
foir the maximum. emcL” 

For the recorcL .the judges 
pfoS^^- admiration .for his 
skill in cofMiig witb emer- 
.gepdes. and awarded tiie BBC 
vkipry .“by a- nandw margin”. 

Gavin Ben 

so'nfe: sex scenes in the film 
bad posed problems for raid^ 
evening vtbvii^ Nor did he 
consider the weekend to be ah 
appFopriate.'iime to screen an 
omnibus edition of Conh 

In .practise, foe -BBC can 
usually gain -a sneak :preview 
of ITV schedules, because of 
iher commercial netwotk^ 
.need. tt> disdose- them, lii 
advance to advertisers. 

Heacie-Gradewas'^ven ah 
oppbrtnhity" to Ajinst his 
programmi^ — and promptiy 
look foil advantage screen- 
ing popular 'items just a -few 



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gSu^ni^ Lamplugjh 
!: has given rise to - 

national concern^ ■ : : 
feys.for the safety ; 
^ of ivpiicing women 
} > i'^^dsbineq^ 

«eeks 'today Susinndi.'' 
. rLamplu^ vanished. For her fiiih- 
• Ij -V'^jly and dose friends; nothing win 
V erase Uie anxious agony of the past 
: - ;S'*'inondi:itls^iaredhyliundr^of 
. V '..fiinilies in' this country every year. 
Sometimes a vanished person 
'• vcomes' beclc unharmed: loo often. 
t'‘'the sloiy end» with a body and a 
. ' -1 manhunt. What is different about 
' '‘:!:s::«hestoryorSuzyisthewiiiy thatthe- 
. media has embraced it knowing 
instiiicltyely lhai. this particuJar 
-i^disaivearance is, to put it cruddy. 

" -j'^^-box-officeV " • ; ; 

Howcy«- the aniiiy sufters by 
' :':V‘'ihc intrusion, it has its uses. 
Dozens of other parents of missing 
• '' young women would have ^ven 

— • their (p^tccih Ibr the' nationwide 
publiaty. and the reiterated ap- ' 
‘ ..'^ V peals for people to cofiie forward ' 
. .. f • Vwiih inftHmation. Su^s move- 
* ments on July 28 have become far ' 

. . better known.lhan they wouid have 
. been if she had simply remained a 
•...■^paragraph in die local paper. • 
. . t -%!.**Cladoh'girI'inis5ing*' or **Bams> 

‘ Icy family's anxiety’*- are not the* 

' ' X' sortorheadlineahvaystakehupl^-- 
the national papers, as the Saiva- - 
tion'Army's &ihoiis Missing Per- 
sons bureau knows from' its vast 
backlog of files.- • 

The police appear to press some 
‘-rr-.cases; onto die media with -more 
insistenoethan'tl^ do others, but 
' ; , often — after this many weeb — 

'! they- -are doing -their own poster 
.v -Veam^ign^ unaided 1^ the 'fickle, 
media. • 

- . :r Hereisastatisbcftfortnjghtt^ 

. a check, revealed, dial are. 

‘ currently .493 missing. ftmales 
and .344 males on. the ‘Central' 

2 Index kept by the. Metropolitan 
" Police. .Some of than may be as 

Mnte tragedy, public smioe, media eri^ as the police appeal for assistance, tte JP^ess has a field day 

.intrigui^^ phenomenon.. An 

^'^.naihe.'is' sb. has 
become siiutger: Mr. - 

. But abcive all^' thm is the ftict 
that she' Is a careo- girl,' an estate 
agent . On die day after her dis- 
appeaianoe.^the Dai/yMailpomted 
-Qui-that her aniarent &te would 
strike a chiR into all-young career- 
women whose work takes them out 
alone4o meet strange meiL A ftw 
days -later, a - female columnist 
riposted that this attitude was 
bound -'to -lead to men -being 
appmnted in prderenc^lo women. 

interview?. Oi; should I, a grown 
woman, travd round with a 
minder? I cooid,' 1 sufyxMe^' have 
asked- to telephone someone, and 
murmured .the address while the 
einbarrassod chap looked on but, of 
course, in the end I just did the job 
and left. 

&tate agents, social woricers. 

-andSnsaiinab.Lanpiiigh (right) becomes a national talking point 

Both girls have been 

.pp»n«. m pp=.e™«io women, adopf^^as playeis in 

'because they are less .vulnerabfe r. * H re^-llfe SOap OpCTa 
and -therefore, less tcDiible. ' " 

much at risk as Miss -Lamplugh. 
But we do not see-their day 
' : after .day, in the ta1)loids. Nor- 
tbis-son of rdendesE publicity. So 
why?Whaiisibspeaalab 6 ulSu 2 y' 
z LainpUigh?: ;• > 

'V-: The.-more Tcof^idir'tlie 
".-VC lions the less 1 ii1ce:w answerii 
’ *s Mi^ .Lamph«h i» dT'"* 

^ ... course, -helps. . Ah .-off4hereconl-c 
, . ! polire.bfiicw admitted that h 'ts--. 

harder to get Press assistance in . 

. trad^ women who'^look like the 
i back of abiis^f Secbiidly, there is a ■ - 
. '.J mystery man ' in the equation 

Young and- youngidi wbrking' 
women, everywhere, felt a frisson 
of darm:. | remembered th^ the 
week before Suzy vanished 1 was 
aloiiewiUi a totally sdange man, an 
entrepreneur, in-an upstairs flat ip 
,Ho)i^ Park, .^k)bo^ knew where 
] was^j^hadcome tormtervidv himv 
5 hayiiig<rii 5 Poyei!Cid bis 
jence-fln.,iBy..bwD...jKUhout wit- 

insurance assessors, polidnvomen, 
reporters:. coundess women today 
have jobs which, occasionally place 
them alone with strange - men. 
JRareiy do we even think it odd that 
a mere 50 years after the demise of 
the chaperone - the Mitfbrd sisters 
■''■remeihber never being aUowed to 

estate agent' is by d^nition a 
^ppie’^,- her job' is smari and ' 
money-making, her lifestyle, as 
presumed by on-lookets; is what 
marketing men like to mU 

Some of the same factors may 
have applied 'in the case -of poor , 
Sarah Lambert, who disappeared 
on a “lost weekend” and who, on 
her return had to give a Pr^ 
conference to explain that “1 was 
noLa 5 .stupid as I have bemi made 

OUL” .- 

Sarah, during her brief absence, 
attracted as much ballyhoo as' 
Susanrah Lampiu^: her adven- 
ture- vied mtb the newer revel^ 
dons that Lamplugh was seen, on 
the day die vanished, in another 
"aspimiioitar dichd situation - 
walking off to lunch with a mystery 
man' and a bonfe of b^bbcmi^ 

- 3 «?r-old girt might cam. her Jiving The ooini 

.. .adopted, 

that dte ,addre^ was an offii^ 
l^heT.^^ifla^.‘,^ .''1 : 

^ . Blit- findijig myself alone ^tJi’ 
.this stranger, was I to scream and 
run? Or-Junry downstairs mutten- 
mg -«ccuses and abandoning thb 

oint is that both thes^ris 

.^rourse; aht^ .^ve: j!iau&,iHive. 
.^bten chased round flats by dirty bid, 
bachribrs for ye^ 

. But the. nicely bred rid who 
traipses around alone and talks to 
-Strangers as part ofher job is a new- 

.^fharac^ ijTa itaHife s^p bp^ 
The 'revolting no longer has muc^ 
to do:anth the rcalfe^hfid pain ra . 
Suzy Lampli^'s real friends: she 
has become a symbol ofa sodri 
group; And the nasty bit is diat. 

firan the tone of-mudi of the 
reporting and casual talk- on com- 
muter trains, not far beneath the 
siirfoce of concern lies a sort 
concealed gloating. 

There is a dark, envious, sexisL 
strand of thought which is rather 
pleased that all these smart giris, 
these brittle business-like New 

Tile week before Suzy 
vanished 1 was alone 
with a strange . man 

Women, have been put back in 
their place as objects of sexual 

”11)15 is It**, the chaps are saying 
(and. I sadly suspect, some of their 
wives took *They may reckon they 
can do thejefoas well as a man can. 
But when it comes down to it, 
-fw4io*« the-5iitm|ier?^ - 
.i British .society- Js growing 
- increasingly jungley.and this isjua- : 
one more jaw; of -the -jungle being 
reasserted. Miu Jones may get the -. 
B^ional Sales Manager’s job, but 
it wouldn’t do her much good 
down a dark alley, haw haw. Nasty? 
Oh, yes, very. 

So L and a million other women, 
will carry-on -regardless. More than 
half of my working life as a radio 
reporter was spent dashing to catch 
people for interviews, by day and 
n^L 1 suspect that the duty editor I 
often didn't know where 1 wax ' 
We shall be keeping our f»rs to 
ourselves. I have sat alone at dusk 
beside the Mississippi, and had a 
tough young man sit down Ity me. 
As it Irappened he meant no harm 
and gave me one of the best stories 
of my vip. so my nervousness and 
quick look round for an escape 
route was emphatically my own 
business and nobody else'x 
We may buy ’’shriek alarms’* 
(Banham’s sold out the other week) 
but we do not want pity or 
(irotection. beyond what a rou- 
tinely decent society should give all 
ritizens. We are not children. And 1 
doubt wheiheranyiorus, if disaster 
struck, would want a moral to be 
drawA for. other ”carecr. girls’*. 
Whatever has ■ happened to 
Susannah Lamplugh. it woufd be 'a 
poor tribute' lo'hcr if we tehaved 

Libby Pnires 

QTIhm IMS * 

Clear case 
of cruelty 
to cleaners 


AVww MiyJoanX'Iiapniaih 
.then/mtr Rood. 



As a recently retired domes- 
tic, may I make a few 
observations as to why there 
is a shortage of women pre- 
pared to clean other nomen^ 
houses (August 18)? 

I remember leaviiqt one 
boBse w-here I had worked flat 
out for six hours and seeing a 
car sticker which said: *Cive 
Blood.** I thought: **| doT 

Why is it that women who 
have lived (hr years with the 
lops of their NwidrobM and 
doors covered in dust find that 
they cannot bear It a minute 
longer once they acquire a 

On my first day I was told 
to wash don'B the kitchen 
walls, which meant standing 
IN) a high ladder to'lng to 
balance a bucket of water on 
lop. On aimtlur occasion, 
when 1 presented myself to an 
employer I was told I would 
be needed only every six 
weeks or so to spring-clean 
the bouse. This involved 
washing evc^' bit of paint- 
work, including the kitchen 
and bathroom tiles, and 
cleaning all the window-s. For 
this I was paid £lii0 an boor. 

On man)- occasions I ar- 
rived for work soaking from 
the rain, dripping water all 
over the step. I have never 
been offered a towel, merely 
toh) which room to Mart on. 

I conid rive numerous in- 
stances of the thonghtl^ 
employers of domestic hrip, 
bnt suffice it to say that nntf 
they pay a decent wage and 
show some consideration, 
there will always be a short- 
age of domestics. 

From Xfrs Shafkai .ikbtar. 
Vnion qfjifusfim Families, 
Balfour Road. 

London NS. 

It is SBipriring that such a 
renowned feminist as 
Germaine Greer seems to 
have made a U-tnro in her 
views and understanding of 
the position — and its advan- 
tages— of the woman in Islam 
(August 15). 

t assume that it is because 
she has actually taken the 
trouble to speak with one of 
those fedies she hitherto 
considered to be wretched, 
exphtiled and segregated, and 
find out the true cmiditions ot 
a Muslim womun from Mai 
Yamanfs highly located 
point of "View. 

thou^ romaiice? 


The most mori^ly iwnaBtic 
Eld and guaiairteed to 
aayoae, whatorw ttrir gen- 
dei; cry bndwtfhls is Tie 
Norm^ Htart^ iu which botii 
the lovoa are UNO." 

Their rdatiODsUp is ftdl of 
jokes, rnitoal undcwtondiito 
and genuine gwidwMS, vriiieh 
mude me byto RBumber 
last time someoDe had writtM 
^ a^eyubout 'aiiniroflictcnh 
ni whid aflbdwn 
played -qaito a large - 
..Romeo ni ASet sprang' to 

ne ladk of dviUzed and 
. ritarmfa^' reiatioibhips be- 
: eween ineB and wonoi 'in 

- conicmimrary dimaa has 
made me wonder whether die 
stage has been a. widiod 
iBflneaee on niy generation 

. were MutoKSskMmblc 
udolesoeiits when Imok Bodk 
in Anger Rtstmiagieiitsinif 
•CTom tiw ibodigKs. 

IM.foe feet that the .Rest 
' Pfaty ifoout modern marritgo 
tint I ever, saw eoncaraed a 
. woman at wwk oran endless 
pOe of ironiie while her 
hasbaad sprawled in iui:arai- 
rinir, stage right, beiw nde 
to her; sban my view, ttf 
wifehood? Qaite pos^yi 
fhioe I snbseqnendy spent a 

- lot of till** wt the ironfeg 
heard whQe .shnnltoneonsly . 
hetenmg to conqriainto abont 
MTltek'ofiiitellect ' 

The gist of die complaint 
was tiiat if I was so smart bow 
ento I MW got tm tiv id the 
ho i wew er k ? By that time I 
had seen the coilectod ontpat 
^ Osborne, Wesker and 
Nichols so 1 didn’t expect 
Miythiug diflerent. ■ 

It is bard to say lAo 
Buhienced whom. Did werall 
km to be meanly provoo* 
tt've towards each othk, kick 





the wbridf 

was what we saw on 
ffedfesbiuy Avemie? Or did 
Shaftesbmy Avenim dmfei 
aU these honors becaase they 
had beernne social realism? 
IVe may neyer know. 

As sodal realism makes me 
hide my head nader the pillow 
m the hope that it 'triQ go 
away, 1 havue takentosirilth- 
mg off Mteviskm dnm series 
ooout deserted ' wives and. 
tramented bank ' 

^ Suh sti to tin g an old movie, 

1 don’t flkk~ti)e video-bnttM 
to escape to a wmM In whiA 
boy oieeto/loses/finally cap- 

tmes ghrl so find 
one -where- hoy.-hm. gU 
however appal^girJ m$it 

• Take Betto'Daris in M 
jfhoar Buk She drinks herseiC 
legless, insnlto the gnesto at 
her own parity and rorms-ber 
moetfa into the -slmpe of a 
imtorbrnc -every time she ex- 
• hales donds of smoke fiom 
Me of her endleso ^ereth 
Bnt she still Gets Iw hfea. 
-This was 195fe after alL a 
time when men and women 
seemed to get ahum with each 
.other, dnematically speafc- 
iim* And, possibly, jirigmg 
ftonr die low dfvoicejnte, in 
.real life too.. 

I can imagine what would 
be Bette OnvisV fate if she 
carried m hi. -her wickedly 
witty way in some mare 
contonqiovary feanuu Jfer 
lover, iustoad (ff ttferhig com- 
-fbrr and solace, woud be 
booking a smife of awiiiitT 
meins for her * at tte 
neighhonrliood psycho-, 
.anatytic centre in an attmi^ 
to core her iff -all her addict 
dons, indndiim herneed to be 
sassy at all tiiMS. ThenMe 
other of timm wooM ran iff 
vrith the psydwaiialyst for a 

- I feinkldeddied tiiatrhad 
had it aD np to here with 
modern, drama when 1 "was 
taken to see a ^ay about t#a 
bid men boring each other 
Ittlf to death on a' park bend 
fbr almost an mitire. first act 
Man me • of ' them - was ' 
-knodied senseless by a yoimg 
tfaag.'This wns supposed to be ' 
a coiMdy. When .1 eoai- 
platoed bftteriy abort the lack 
of lights, misk amt aetkm ir 
was; told that tbfee days dmfs 

Andrew R -Vadim looks 
Cogney-tou^ Bogait-tough — 
veiy tough indeed: A’ crusad- 
ing New York attoiDey and 
ea^iert on . Juvenile define 
quency and diild d>use, he 
could ^ easily be Bu^ the 
hard-boiled, street-wise jni- 
vate detective and narrator of 
his first novd.-F/oo«l 
The book has been called a 
I classic thriller in.the mould (ff 
Chandler mid Hammett, but 
.Yadiss-is less, interested ' in 
authorship than in convicting 
-ttie perpetrators of .child sex 
crimes; . protecting tfaetr .vic- 
tims and defendiiig the teen- 
age criniinals that many of the 
^used youngsters become. - 
Already a star on the ci^^ 
fegaJ diruft, Vachss, a 
^year-oM, is coneditrating 
his conriderable energies on 
forming a lobby group to force 
eater action on the issue, 
oping .for' the efibet that 
dnak-^ving campaigners in 
America had in redimng the 
number of deaths on the road. 

.**If you’re angry about 
scHnetiiing you should do 
something**,' he said,- the 
Qepatch he wears fw a recur- 




Dofa^ it by tibe book: Vachss, canqmigDW ttinmd antbor' 

.to his iqten^. **rve devoted 
my life to this cause, and I got 
in .because 1 wanted ven- 
geance. It's no use drinking 
beer and complaining.*^ . 

There is no doubt accord- 
ing, to. him, -that there is . a 
dlfim link between child sex 
abuse and juvenile dime. 
Children v4io have beeii -pro- 
founiSy'abused are likdy-to 
become - "yoiir teenage sui- 
ddes. your dope fiends, run- 
away kiddie p^ltutes. The 
disease-wiU out in some foiin 
or fashion.” 

Recent statistics in America 
digg^ that as many, as four in 
five jnven lie delinquents' were 
seximlly abused when chil- 
dren. Vachfe. the former 
dtredor of Boston’s Andips 
-maximum security ihstitutibi) 
for violent jnvenileoffendds, 
believes that society and gov- 
ernment on 'both sides of-tife 
Atlantic are foiling to fooe np 
10 the challenge. 

~It’s the human condition 
we’re talking.. about It’s .not 
som'ething' -unique to 
America” he said. ”Unti] 
p^le know about it they 
can't hope to do anything 
about .S^ual abuse hasn’t 
changed. The. tedinology Jtas 
chai^. It's a inoie .sophis- 
ticate. more advanced trans- 
mission. The.fwoduclion of 
kiddie pornography, for exton- 
ple, no longer requires IS 

Acedaimed thriilefs 
by a New York 
lawyer are only the 
cutting edge of 
his campaign against 
child sex crime . 

peoitie sworn to secreity. Now 
an it needs is a Polaroid.” 

Vachss. who worked as a 
factory worker, cab driver, 
gambler, advertising- copy- 
writer and itiioiQgrapher 
fore becoming a sodri worker 
and lawyer, wants a linked 
response to ’’the twin-headed 
Ogre” of child sex abuse and 
Juvenile crime: 

”Yott have a system set up 
to deal .wfth delinquents and- a 
so<alled diild .protective, ^s^ 
tern to (feaj with victims.. But 
as soon as the child merges 
into the animal yon\e lost aD 
W'pathy. The two systems 
should be the same ^stem. 
Delinquents are not bom. 
there’s nothing genetic when U 
comes to crime. So we errate 
our own monsters.” 

Vadiss insists that his opin- 
ions are shap^ by reality, not 
liberalism. He would, for in- 
stance. like to see : child 
molesters, rapists,. - and 
pomo^ph^ the . ”scum, 
dinb^ and garbage” df.hls 
hovel' incapacitate tfao^. . 
unlike his lethal, karate-kick- 

ing heroine Rood he is a gaini ff 
the death penalty. America's 
crihunal ji^ce tystem is too 
Imperfect for that he says. 

The cast of Flood, featuring 
Max the Silenu a deaf and 
dumb Tibetan martial airts 
expert: Mama Wong, the 
Prophet: and a hooker 
Michdie, are a composite of 
the l(w4ife.d»rBctera..Vacfu$ 
deals with in his law bcactfce. 

He' wrote the story, a delib- 
erately-sHocking ' amplifica- 
tion of bis own rampajgn, hi 
rix weeks. It ibllow« (he search 
for a diild' rapist and kiUo' 
known as the Cobra. A sequel 
called Slf^ about the dtild- 
poroograpny underworid will 
soon be publish^ in America’I 
and the film rights to bodi 
books havb been' sold for* ”a 
substantial six-figtm.sum”. 

Yadiss, who is nuirried; but 
has no children, iS capabfe of 
filling the'wider frame, it 

iolhcrease the efiectiveneto of 
his campaign. He said: ”Brit- 
ain should leaiu from our 
mistakto. No) only riifet but 
lo^c is on my side'*- and sdf- 
inieresL Make your 'Invest- 
ment in intervening in early 
childhood. Ti wiU pay great 
dividends. It's a fight 1 can't 
lose. Even if I get knocked out 
in the third round.” ' • - 

. David Bhiwiie 

OHwwtinmiinpiii liwn . 

Rood is published fy Collins 
(£I0.PS) and Pan fCJO). 

To celebrate the second year of the Dunhill C^p, an event 
has been devised which should prove equally as exciting. 

And:the winner will receive £15,000 worth of Dunhill 

Simply visit your nearest Dunhill store before the 19th of 
September and enter your name and address on a leafleL No 
purchase is necessary. You will then ^ matched with one of 
the forty-eight players competing in die final at St. Andrews. 

If your player scores the best individual round, your name 
will go into a draw. The first name drawn will win the first prize of 
;£ 15,000 wo^ of Dunhill merchandise of their own choosing. The 
npft five will win a second prize ofa Dunhill watch, and there will 
be prizes of Dunhill silver-plated Dress Pens for the next 100 names 

Naturally, as the Dunhill Cup has become the world’s- 
premier team golfing evenly you will be able to follow your player^ 
progress by watching the live .coverage on BBC Television. And 
with a ‘stake’ in the action, you should find this final even more 
exciting than last yearls. 

Visit DunhiD in London at Duke Street, Sr James^ 
Burlington Arcade and at Harrods,Selfridees and Harvey Nichols. 


■ 1 t . irfi .• ..s fvOoOoi -4^ 




Are Uverpool's already' over- 
burdened ratepayers about to liind 
a last-ditch attempt by Derek 
Hatton to gel back into the Lalraur 
F^y? Ey^rows have been raised 
by an item soon to be rabber- 
stamped un^r spedal powers 
' ^nied by the city council to Its 
industrial and public relations 
committee, which Hatton chairs. 
It proposes that the council spends 
about £1200 sending two officers 
and two coundllors to the Labour 
^rly conPerence at Blackpool 
next month - an opponunity, as 
opposition politicians point out. 
to seek to ovenum Hatton's 
expulsion from the party fbr his 
membership of MiliianL' Will 
Hatton be among those making 
the all-expensesi-paid trip? I can 
only report that the matter will be 
decided on Wednesday by a 
meeting of two councillois — 
Derek Hatton and his deputy. 


The Chemical Industries Ass- 
ociation's ‘H^pen Door 86" cam- 
paign to U 7 to improve ' the 
industry's image backfired the 
other day. The PR brief was to 
show "what a massive contribu- 
tion we make to the quality of 
life". So. to demonstrate its hu- 
mane qualities, director general 
Martin Trowbridge was filmed by 
the Thames surrounded by 
gambolling children. Alas, the 
scene was marred by an ui>- 
welcome walk-on in the form of a 
substantial pall of black smoke . 
whidi suddenly billowed ^m 
Id's headquarters on the opposite 
bank. A straight-faced IC! spokes- 
man blamed it on Westminster 
HospiiaPs waste-burning stack 
ncaity. although he did admit that 
builders renovating the ICl HQ 
could have been responsible. 

Home truth 

Further news reaches me of the 
Tory campaign to persuade 
expatriate Britons to register to 
vote. One of Norman Tebbii's 
letters exhorting support from 
Conscrvatix-cs in foreign pans has 
landed on the desk of a reader. 
PJ. Seager. who woilcs in London 
W I and lives in London W 4. 

Burning issue 

The issue of the' young Tory 
magazine A'pw .-Igenaa hammer- 
ing Lord Stockton over the 
repatriation of Cossack prisoners 
promises to become a collector's 
Item. Conservative Central Office 
tells. me that.of the 2.000 copies 
printed, publisher Harry' Phibbs 
has agre^ to return 1.600' — 
d^ined. presumably, for the in- 
cinerator. Meanwhile the Alter- 
native Bookshop in Covent 
Carden, having exhausted its 
supply, started to sell photocopies 
at 20 pence a go. It has 
now ceasM to do so for f^ of 
l^al action. 


* It Clean-up 

Jg.. J ^ V BDY5 

Duffed up 

Even as a straight play, Mixbeth 
has long been beset with produo 
tion dimculties, to the extent that 
most actors Uanch at the very 
mention of its name, choosing to 
refer to it simply as “The Scottish 
play.*" Hardly surprising, then, 
that a musical version by the 
National Youth Theatre has h^ 
more than its fair share of prob- 
lems. Having finally secured 
financial backing in the form of 
Sean Conneo''s gift of £50.000, the 
cast of Signtshriek (it was orig- 
inally to . have been call^ 
Rockbah) at London's Shaw l^e- 
airc discovered that the entire set 
had been built four feet too small, 
designer Brian having been 
given the wrong dimensions for 
the stage. Perhaps the cramped set 
helps to explain why the unfortu- 
nately named Rod Jinks stumbled 
in rehearsal and was forced to play 
the pan of Banquo with a stick. 


With which dishes would you i 
nourish our leading politicians in 
the (I hope) unlikely event of dieir 
turning up on your doorstep for a 
meal? Hie question is prompted 
by Michael Dawe. who prov^ a ! 
helpful aid in my recent quest for ' 
MPs' most appropriate reading 
matter. There could be only one 
menu, albeit a repetitive one. for l 
Mr Speaker Hors d'oeuvre. hors i 
d'oeuvre: Mrs Thatcher, I think. I 
would find herself faced with an 
unconventional repast of bully | 
beef followed by Windsor soup, in 
^e awkward company of Zklyell. 
supping hard at his Leak Soup; the 
Davids, Steel and Owen, could 
fight over a plate of bubble and 
squeak, while there are three party 
puddings on offer Yorkshire for 
Roy Hattersicy. Cabinet for Sir 
Geofftey Howe, and Roly Poly 
for. of course. Cyril Smith. Ted 
Heath gets sour grapes, and Cecil 
Parkinson nothing but hot water. 
I'm afraid there are not enough 
nut cutlets to go round, ppjg 

The Commonwealth Eminent 
Persons Group described the 
South African administration as 
“government by semantics". Tbe 
interview with President Botha on 
this page on &turday fits neatly 
into this definition. Beneath die 
glib phrases that seem to indicated 
desire for genuine reform and an 
end to apanheid. the desperate 
desire to ding to white minority 
rule continues. 

President Botha speaks of the 
true struggle in South Afnca as 
being an ideological one between 
those who want freedom and 
stability and those who fovour a 
“socialist dictatorship by a small 
power clique". This is not the case: 
Tlie struggle is between those who 
seek to uphold, by force where 
necessa^, a ^em under which 
4.5 million whites control 80 per 
cent of the most productive land 
(with 24 million blacks denied all 
political rights and crammed into 
the remainder) and those who 
believe this sydem must change. 

It is the National Party govern- 
ment that is the "small power 
clique". It maintains high li^ng 
standards fbr whites, contemplat- 
ing with equanimity the Tliird 
World existence to ^idi h con- 
demns those living in the black 
townships. Its policy of foreed 
removals, albeit now supposedly 
“voluntary", has obliged millions 
to move away from their homes, 
and their work, while aving them' 
the trappings of "independence" 
in the so-called “homelands". 

The need to alleviate tbe tenible 
conditions in which black people 
must Ii'«re is often cited, by Mrs 
Thaicho- among others, as an 
argument against sanctions But 
the claim that sanctions would 
cause the death by starvation of 
many black children is highly 
suspki. White children do not 
starve to death in South Africa, 
while the black infont mortality 
rate is higher than Uiat in Zim- 
babwe. Even if tbe most stringent 
sanctions were imposed. South 
Africa could easily produce 
enough food to feed its entire 
population, black.and white. 

Since 1939 our cultural life has 
produced a creditable liumber of 
arUsts nurtured in a climate of 
creative competition. Rainiers 
such as Francis Bacon and How- 
ard Hodgkin, sculptors such as 
Henry Moore and Anthony C^ro 
have achieved international recog- 
nition. The status of the novel has 
been maintained by. among oth- 
ers. Iris Murdoch. Angus Wilson 
and William Golding. whUe youn- 
ger authcHS and pom sudi as Peter 
Ackroyd and James Fenton show - 
that -hterature is still critfoally 
engaged in imaginatively shaping 
the worid. Our musical life has 
flourished, and we take justifiable 
txide in the performing arts, 
particularly the theatre. 

But, to stay healthy, the arts 
must have a collective well being. 
We cannot judge a culture by the 
quaHty-of 'a dozen -individual • 
achievements. If we look further 
into the arts ovet-the 'last four i 
decades it is dear that they have 
been afflicted by ‘the .creeinng 
paralysis of nostalgia.. Even. the 
Beatles found their true imagi- 
naij ve identities inthe personae of 
the moustachioed Edwardian 
bandsmen of Sergeant PeiQ}er*$ 
Lonely Hearts Gub Band. 

Much of this is the resuh of the 
changes forced upon us by the war. 

1 939 was a watodied. Inculcating 
a nostalgia for the innocence of 
childhood for p^oral life, fortfae 
' worid of the country house, for 
some moment ia the not-too- 
disuuit past when the oommtmity 
seemed whole. After tbe war, the 
myth of this English Arcadia was 
joined by another, urban myth — 
the social cohesion and porposive- 
ness of the Blitz. 

By the early 1 9S0s the backward 
glance had become almost a fixed 
stare. Even those whose politics 
inclined them to be prt^ressive 
were hindered by a hankering after 
a past period of communal 
solidarity that probably never was. 
George Orwell seem^ to regret 
the passing of Edwardian England 
Richard Hoggart and Raymond 
Williams the working-class 
communities of their childhood 
And there was the ruling example 
of the cultural pesamism of 
F.R. Leavis. 

To believe in the past existence 
of an ideal state, now dissolved — 
and this applies to Hoggart's 
I Leeds as much as Evelyn Waugh's 
I Bridesbead — is to think in terms 
' of conservation, and to be sus- 
pjeious of all change. That sus- 
.picion has if anything intensified. .. 

in have to choose one example 
of the ruling mood it 'is Philip 
Larkin's poem. Going. Goi^. 
There are good reasons for treating 
this as more than just one ut- 
terance among many. At his death, 
Laiicin enjoy^ the status of our 
leading contemporary poet Go- 
ing, Go/A? also has the status of an 
“offidar poem, for it was orig- 
inally written as the prologue to a 
Depariment of the Environment . 
report of 1972. How do you watu 
to live? 

Cowboy is a word that has 
worsened raindly. When we talk, 
as it is idiomatic to do. about 
cowboy builders, plumbers, elec^ 
iricians, drivers, and coufooy 
policing, we imply roiteh-and- 
, ready and unofficial performers, 
who take shon cuts and may be 
ps^ of the black economy, and 
with whom the supper guest 
should use a long spoon. 

I think this fashionable modern 
use of cowboy be^ in the United 
States in the Fifties, and was 
originally specifically applied to 
driving and the uppety young; 
"One of those dnigsior^cowboy- 
moiorcycle types, just past Uiar 
first juvenile denaquency." A 
dictionary of American slang of 
the period defines a cowboy as a 
reckless driver. The foct that ft felt 
' the need to define the word 
suggests a recent new meaning 

In the golden days of the 
cowboy he the archetype 
hero, the strong silent man who 
had to do what a man had to do 
and' rode off into the sunset to a 
crescendo of sentimental music 

Brutal reality 
of Botha’s 
talk of reform 

by David Steel 

The Botha government has 
taken some measures to soften the . 
effect apartheid, but they are 
superfidaL "Free-trade areas" 
open to all races have been 
cstabli^ed in some cities, mixed 
race marriages are now permitted, 
and the pass laws have . been 

It would be fooH^ not to 
welcome these developments, but 
what benefidal effects they may 
have are. severely mitigai^ by 
Other foctbfs.. The repeal of the 
Mixed Marrii^ Act affects only, 
a tiny minority, and even then 
couple are for^ by the Group 
Areas Act to live in the area of the 
“radally inferior" partner. Like- 
wise the hated “pbs" is to be 
replaced by a “common identity 
document", about which orany 
blacks rightly remain sceptical. 

Time done will teO whether this 
constitutes a real move towards 
dismantling ^larthdd or is .yet 
another change with fittle actual ' 
substad^. Meanwhile the pOIars 
of apa^eid — tbe Population 
Registration Act and Group Areas 
Act'— remain in force. Tbe black 
majority remains politically dis- 

President Botha shows great 
pride in his reform programme 
wherdry Indians and coloureds 
(those of mixed race) partidpaic 
in the tricameral parijament and 
blacks have a pan in the lower 
tiers of governmenL The reality is 
the continued maintenance of 
white power and tbe idiite veto. 

. despite the talk of po^-4haring 

The tricameral pariiament has 
bera a tolerable reform to the 
white minority only becaiw 
white ch^ber can impose its will 
on the other two chambers hi the 
event of dadlock. Likewise, the 
lower -.tiers of government ate 
desisted 10 shore up the apartheid 
ireginie. They are a sham, based on 
the iKendo^ndependent home- 
lands and' a bogus local govern- 
ment sj^tem that stands in tatters. 

■ -Botha emphasizes the divided 
iteture of the blade community in 
a “nation of minorities", ^iie 
conveniently forgetting the di- 
visions between those whites of 
British. Dutdi, Ponuguese and 
Other European origins. Perhaps 
his greatest fear is of a unifi^ 
black majority, under the mod- 
erate leadership of Nelson Man- 
dela and Oliver Tanibo. 

Botha's unwOliiigness to rdease 
Mandela from prison and speak to 
him must be the most short- 
tinted of bis policies. There can 
' be' tittle doifot that Mandela 
possesses the necess^ leadertiiip 
. qualities and popular support to 
unify the blade .population. In- 
deed. ^ief Buihele^ for the last 
few years at loggerheads witii the 
African National .Confess, has 
none the less expressed his willing- 
ness to follow Mandda's leader- 

The Soudi African government 
says *it win not release him because 
be and the refuse to repudi- 
ate violence and are merely a front 

Robert Hewison calls for a more critical 
appro^h to nostalgia in the arts 

Cast aside 

never was 


Larkin's theme is disillusion . 
ai^ di^pointmmi with the. 
Inoderh woHd~~ new 'buildings, 
new peopled new money. AU are 
pollutants. But whereas before he 
had always felt that the England he 
loved would at least last long 
enough fbr his own purposes. . 
For the first time I'JM some- 

That ii isn 7 ffting to last. 

That / snujff' ii, the whole 

Boiling wiU be brick^ in 
Except ';ibr the tourist pans 
At a firti reading this seems a 
condemnation, of contempoi^ 

vafiies 'trith vriuefa all can agree. 

And that will be Engfitnd gone, 

The shadows, the ineathws, the 

The guildhalls, the carved 

There’ll be books: it will ling& 

in gallmes: but all that remains 

For. us will be concrete and 

But what are the values that are 
being lamented? Fust of all there 
is reget for a pastoral vision of 
England that jias inspired En^sh 
. poets for 2^ years — for tiie 

for communist - revolutionanes. . 
Neiiber accusation stands, up to 
detailed analysis. Indeed. Botha 
has never graced the foet that it is 
inaction by western countries 
which is lik^to push movements 
ctm ggiing for freedom inro the 
arms of world communism. It was 
tbe vidence of the . apartheid, 
system that drove Mandela and 
the armed struggle. When 
the Eminem Peraons Group spoke 
to him in jail he emphasi^ that 
negotiation, not violence, was the 
route to a soluticm. He welcmned 
the Commonwealth initiative and 
dedated his pmnal acceptance 
of its negdtuting concepisL AI- 
ihoi^ tbe ANC did not make a 
simifor dedaradon. one would, 
almost certainly have followed. 

Mandela h<ved to syndironize 
efforts by the ANC and the 
government to vnthdraw the army 
and potioe ^m the townships and 

Anne Sofer 


Mix metaphor 

Philip Howard: new words for old. 

and a mad scramble of people 
geuing out of foe stalls before 
beii^ forced to stand still for the 
National Anthem. In those days, 
when • everybody went to the 
cinema at least once a week, the 
western was one of the most 
popular.'genres: the first cowboys 
on film appeared flickering and 
pooping olT their pistols as long 
.ago as 189^. The. Great Train 
Robbery of 1903 is erroneously ' 
describe as foe first western. 
Since then there have been thou- 
sands, no fewer than 4S with 
Buffalo Bill as the hero. Today the 
western is less popular, and . its 
message has become more com- 
plex foe old Cowboys, versus 
Indians., white versus brown 

In the real West rather than foe 
silver screen version, tbe cowboy - 
was usually referred to as a 

tiations took' place.This possiw 
compromise was Uown apait by 
the South' African raids into 
Zimbabwe, Zambia and Bot- 
swana, an action gi^hically Illns- 
tratii^ the lack of political wOi to 
achieve substantive political re-- 

The. Botha government has 
contisiemly wrned its bade on 
Ofynminitigg fer compromise and 
refonn. a reality which the shallow 
hypocrisy of Saturday's intemew 
cannot oonceaL The result U an 
ever-increasing swell of violenee 
at home ana growiiu isolation 
abroad. Regaidi^ of sanctions, 
foreign compames are already 
voting with their feet. M)out SO 
.American companies havn putted 
out- this year alone. 

The tong^ Botha pertisis vriih 
btiligereht rhetoric and .pditical 
obduracy, the more likely will be 
the Uoodbaih every rrapo ns ible 
person must hope to avoid. Meanr 
while the western democracies 
most press ahead with targeted 
sanctions which will roister our 
dissociation from a r^me based 
on the fundamentally hninoral 
pnnd^ of ladaUy defined 
minority rule. 

- - OTlmrllwNpiv«aiSia' 

period of the Industrial Revolu- 
tion that to produced the^iiihan 
socie^ which Laridn dqrlores, bot 
i^n «4iicfa he actually depended. 
Tne r^ret is understandable, but 
it is based on a fantasy. 

Secondly, "the guildh^s, the 
carved choirs": Laridn's im^ is 
of bingher virtue and dristian 
art, iMit we Jenow that he was not 
motivated by rdi^ous bclie£ 

. What is most disturbmg about his 
poem, . howevo', is die combina- 
tion of nostalgia with restoadoi. 
Hedespisra thorn who pre m tfreah 
that pollution, and th^ hopi^ 
to.' but there is no conviction in- 
the values nith whiefa he oi^Kises 
foeni. Somehow; "it isn'*t going to 

In the atmosffoere of eoonoante 
uncertainty that to inevailed 
since foe .eariy 1970s, there is 
unsuiprismgiy a renini to conser- 
and 'Conservation, 'Reeple- 
• took- b>-their entture for reastiir- ■ 
. ance; they do .tiot.want an that is 
difficult or- even formally inno- 
Th^ has been .a revival of 
' figurative painting, narrative' po- 
^ry, and le-emphatis on con- 
ventional naturalistic fiction. And 
above aU, we have bad a return to 
the past Here we may fed safe, 
but foe .past we ledeate . in 
industrial muSeuiUs and ceremo- 
nial pagt^try is an illusion. -The 
security is a dream. Hie 

imaginary past is. deidOyed- to 
.make bearable the dnbearabte 

-Inmyrq^onofnostai^.and ' 
pesrimism I am ..not aigning ; 
against a refeiect for cultural 
tuition. UnfiMtiinately, tbe word . 
“tradition" lias bemi almost as 
tbmonghfy appropriated cul- 
tural conservatives as die word 
“heritage" Seamus Heaney to 
said, poetry can be "a restoradmi 
of the ^ture’ to itself....- an 
attempt to define and inieip^ tbe • 
present by brindiig it into-sigaffi- • 
cant idationslup with' the'-psst" 
The proUem -of most' -contem- 
porary cultural' activi^ is. that it 
seems to place foe pre^t In an in- 
sipiificant - relationdiip with, the . 

Market rcseaidu we ZRtdltL has 
caused, fierce afgumenis in the 
Conservati^ Party. Is foe rew 
American "psycht^phic" tedi- 
- nique for ddineating s^mems of 
1 ^ dectorate to be used ro ^iing 
foe'ndngen^ election? Are -we 
lo'stbp talking about ABs. D& 
avid Os and hunt out ii»iead.the 
Hidongers"? I hope sa Ai wQl be 
much more fuiL 
Valnes aitd iifedtyfes are fer 
more entertaining to describe and 
about foan the statidics of 
dass'arid income, abd amdiiions 
of woik. Furthditiore, it; is ika 
alien but a British -appro^ of 
long standing. ■ going 
. . . well at Mst 'as/w as - 
Mitford and her U and 
non-U definitions.. ' • 

• One American imported caie- 
. gory we are goii^ to have to do a 
lotmore woficon isfoe"Yiq^e". 
the 'Young Urban Professiona], 
who does not easily tran^tose: 
he^^ is zippy, smooth, aspiring, 
feirty libertarian in social attitudes 
but D^-nosed at the same time; 
faard-wmidng yet laid-bacL We 
don't have many of tiiem- here. . 

In frMt foe most obvions Young 
Urban Professituial I see in my 
part of London is tiie complete 
opposite: it 'is' that immonaljzed 
by Richard. North as the Drabbie; 
a puUic sector worker who-dfiesses 
scniffily, prmends to be poorer 
, foan. he is. and is perpetually 
consumed with a sense of moral 
j outrage about "the.' cuts". 

^ I^bbim five in north London; 
they are teachers, soctel woricers 
and local government officers and 
are tite backbone of local Labour 
Party orgkniz^on. ^ 
if one ' wanted; to iediefine 
Drabtto as4r sub^ Of Yuppies 
one mightcaH them -Younr Urban 
Riulical Professionals, or Yuipies. 
(Tte term conve;^.foe somewhat 
r^rptatiw' nature, of their ffis* 
course.) They are fbrmidaMd in 
numbers andstaying power — not 
least because they seem to have an 
unerring instinct fbr buying dU^ 
dated property in districts that are 
about to *^come up". * 

' With a romantic attachment to 
the working class'and 'a honor of 
gentrification, foey are in.fect foe 
main, agents of it, pioneos of 
middloelass standards of living in 
one rundown .aiea ^er ahoihei; 
Whm they have done to house 
prices is oobodoy's business:, but . 
because tl^ have made siidi hi^ie- 
caprfol gains on their crani prop- 
erties th^ can afford to continue 
living in innei: London and run- 
ning thins? fi>rthe re^ of us.' 

But it would be a mistake to see 
foe Yun»es as foe only. Young 
Urban Piofessio^ type ‘There 
are dsQ iheL^.Ycomg.QuxyiBiffiy 
^Mobftef7i^es8i<uuds,m^Vbp}^^ ' 

ciuiddy'as in 

foe private sector —me City, tlte . 
law, busnes and “ccaisultaocy". .. 
.They look a lot smarter than foe 
Yurpies and probably vote Tory. 

Most of them- yearn fbr a 
suburban fife; style and isrtainly 
for suburban — or. private — ' 
sdhools for their diOdroL B[ut' fbr 
their firet hoine th^ wfl] look fbr 
small new ccmvfosions in . Putney 
er die reqiectable of toter- ' 
sea. Tbey-are not as'bourageous in 


ate* aU, they wifi want to sett and 

• move out sooner. .They also have a 

taste for parts oTLondon. wjfo a 


them, though, thqran afot'^pfonhi 
that ihoome faradeet- 
quite as numerous as YnriwthQ' 
not qeariy as mutfome as>potttica{ 
activists; tbdr 'kdcia) Im afe 
bigriy apcfotiadandansi^ t^ 
aretoobutymtim^TOonty. - 

Then fom ik an evea -laiger 
third group; youagar,- -'poorer 
more swingii^: These are. foe 
Ektroyeri London. .Ffo. 
fegionajls, or-Yelpies-aDd jn- 
deed tto dosKridc and .sbouta 
lou paitiGularly in nwbourhig 
back oidm od a Satunfoy iii^ 
wfaml am trying to getio steep. 

They cot g wgte in hsge dum- 
bers in Covent Gardmi ate office 

- houR and spin dheerfultyoutoCaQ 
foe smartte pifos. Tl^ lend, lo 
‘woEk in foe less lucrative pai^(|f 
foe medlar- is reponteS-oniUie 

. local finebte^ conference rm* 
ganizos, "restia^ aettesaes- 
foey shire flats and hems 
fesbkmabfe dodies wifo one an- 
other. Their sarinm me mem on 
last-minute speciMflfer foreteh 
hoUdays, 'ev^ one ai wbich is 
iqnided as a huge .treat 
contrast Yurpies take tbdr:fer- 
eign ' holidays fiirtivdy -and 
Yompiesas a matterofccterse,). 

Ydpies may go on demos 
oiganued by Anti-Aparfoeid or 
Save foe Wtoe but otherwise foty 
tend to be bond by politics. Most 
of them probaUy vote Labour- or 
Alliance but they don't fee!- tf- 
frmited by somebody «4io wants 
to vote Conservative. 

• The ifiteie^ng foing, fifon foe 
'market reseaschei^s point of view, 

: isthataUthreegroapsbavqalotui 
ceminoreThey buy tlteir frirniniR 
at Habitat and tm-lknidrers at 
Marks Sc. SpfBoa. They oonsame 
a lot jjnduo takeawm and wine 

- in tu^itre bottles. They w«di 
(fol filnis on televidbn and foqy 
read private . ]^ They dSt w 
jtian to odO foctr duldren Willian 
and Jofoua tfod Laura and-Kate. 

inity bdOBg to the same-ffim- 
ily— mipfee even liter^;;it;ii 
casv to ima^ne three .riMingi. in 
their twenties,a Yinpie,a Yompie 
anda Yelpk, meeting occasioii^ 
fbrlundi attiidrparMts^ comfort* 
able mtdfoe'dass home in Wim- 

or Sevttioaks and arauing 
over comjirdiensive schools or 
' South African'sattctkm& - 

So I thiifo .-l am with foe new 
.- style of thinl^g foal regards, the 
old class categories as -inadequate 
guides to voting inteniifoa. Ai a 
wiM - guess I wofdfo'^lfotee the 
ytiipitei as TBpcxcatt Labour, 30 
, w cent tlfeVofopies as 


Cctau Aifolfede;ranfofote'^infoiies as 

. Alliance and lO percentCon^- 
^tive: ' In': other wonte, pretty 
'muifo- of a ntixtoie., - 
' - But whereas: Young & Rutaicam 
will no-doubt be chaismg Conser- 
vative^ Cennak Office hiuibito of 
thousands of 'pounds for .their 
analysis, 'mihe — as a qfecial treat 
this B^:.Ucjiday Monday- 
comes fru’ nofoing.' 
nationafatmmiliee, - 

Paul Jennings 

of the mains 

cowhand. He was the king of the 
ran^ the horseman worked 
catue, roping, branding, 'rounding 
up. Trailing.' cutting out ' and 
galloping to turn a stamp^ lf 
you call him acowpol^ duck. <x 
grin like you was jest kiddin'. A - 
cowpoke was an inferior hand to 
foe proud. . hoTsemaiL AU he 
need^ was a poor sense of smdl 
.and little skill He rode with the 
cattle during rail shipment poking 
them with a finle s^ vfoen they 
- showed signs of lying foi'wn. to 
pevent them from trii^iDg the 
otber$.and breaking their legs.- 
But before Hollywood ^am-' 
orfzed the cowboy, he had- a long 
and tangled pedigree; He started 
life .10 denote the boy who looked 
aftfo* the cows. During foe Ameri- 
can- Revolution and War -bf lur 
dependence, cowboy was -piri^ 
up as a term of abuse fbr American 

The distinction. 1 am maldiig is 
between two culmres: a heritage 
culture which beautifully- pr^ 
serves the past but vfoidi is 
qosmlgic and,, ultimatdy, rp- 
actionaty,.and a critical c^ture, 
trindt again in' Heaney's words, 

'. "keeps Open tbe imagination's 
supply fines to tbe past'*, but wi^ 
does- not turd away 'from- the 
present ' 

' lamthinkHigofanopeacuItuie 
which does not depeml. a 
minority to setect tbe particular' 
meanings and values that 'they 
cherish and which rocourages tbe 
individual independent even 
heretical — -voice- to put into 
question the inherited tradition, 
determined premnt .and the 
unstable future. ' ' 

The author’s Too Much: Art and 
Sociw in the Sixties nV/f be 
' publi^ted by Methu^rm -Satem- 
per 4 at£l4.‘9S. 

Tories who fought with the British 
and were reganted as brutal and 
barbarous by the American rebds. 
This has a {mcedent for foe pew 
modern use of cowboy as incOni- 
ppient and unscrupulous wfok- 

Blit there is evidence- that .-foe 
Scots were using cowboy as a rude 
word more than a centuty.bribie 
the Americahs. There is an exam- 
ple of foe derogatory 'use.ih a-tetter 
dated January 10,' 1642 -to 
Ardiibald Sie«^ of* Bidlmtoy,' 
colonel of .a scratch r^inent 
thFmvn te^foa* to keep '.foe Info 
reb^ out' of Ulster. Tire writer 
comfoains about foe cmfoHct.of 
‘nhoK Captains of yours- Mifon 
you may caS\ rather Couboyes. 
every day using oursdvesand our 
tennants of purpose to 

Out where the . hrtmkkisp's a 
little, stnm^. . 
■ Oat- whert the smile dweas.a 
■ • fittle tong^, 

• Thed’s'nhcreiheWestb^fta 
But it-may-not end'aaslmitiy as - 

Watfoirig ' ' titer . latest British 
Tdebcfoi com'merdds, iii which 
-for* some itooii -xbo' creatuies 
: laugiiig ' from hipp^iotaml to 
tortoises maite appointmeiits in 
strangled pseudb-upper-dara; old- 
boy voices ("Nine^iitfo? Eeoh, 
yecss,. all .ri^ then, niiie-ihittifo. 
'm'bymei.r Qickj one can't help 
wonderii^ all over aran what'on 
earth is the ptfoit- of any public 
monopoly advertising ax alL 
. Can one person' in the 
entire country who ms d^ded lo 
get rMofherelectric.cookerand go 
Qvorjo' wbilderfiiri gas (especially 
if site' lives in the cpuntiy- where 
tiKie'is no fos)' befoiise .of that 
.frantic 'woman sinfoig abdut it? 
Or who has gone over, froih 
instanttycontrofiable gas to elfo-^ 
tridty (power-Aiige -wasted to - 
paid for whOe wanning ufK -dying 
red. heat also wasted even', if not 
pud fbr when switched off afr^‘ 
pan taken-off) because ofalLfoose 
201.commernds? lliey sfiouldbe' 
called 201 becaiuse mey pateiy 
imitate the ideas of the -film 2001. 
all -scudding donds. fifotning 
flashes,, pnnifoii^ hoDzois and 
humming sub-Ljra.musKL T 

What other tdqfoohes ' tten 
Chose of British Tetecom emf/u we 
.use? Or are thw trying 
people who Stitt use pigeons Qc 
perhaps some defiantly antimech-' 
liolcgy. secret ruraI.networic.flafo» 
ing messages .from rid^.tb rid^ 
by heliogiaplh or ftag signals, or 
crfokuig wooden tefegraph sys- 
tems of foe bxoA used 'to send the 
li^ of Trafetear from Poit^ 
mouth to'toiidon?:(la-tlie.01ivier 

In Ibis bewttdapngpetiodwhen 
liobody is sure^'vte is natimi^' 
ized aiKl nbatr is' priviuized. but 
they all .qdyeratte...(fod.'tfways 
ha[ve.'.siirety)'weTair- stare^ 
cbmrneitiair' nddi. 'no reaction 
whatever ^dicepf ^posribly -a 
fooufot thaL'some agen» -with a 
name like ^ Gobble . Grabhold 
Deane or Ward Moriey :Bateron.or 
Brother Crowfoer Bofoer is mak- 
ing J^I.(XX) a.^tecond' (out of oiir 
bifi^ Evni' foe- fall'' of. the lut 
bastion <A : irnpersemaL -foony- 
. mto poifo’tyservioedigiiity would 
noi'Sikpcise'-iis;:Aiiy.foiy’. now-we 
-may exqect, brer God krrovra what 
- visual 'Images,;;«itic . dbse- 
harmoiiy-ffoup sdfing water to us: 

•. '• 

- BoifftHptotojteyouriea • 

. Useitia^ip:.coo&ree 
r .' Turn the tap on in the Sink- 
' . Wafer fiv.yftat wash or drink! 

. From your mains enjoy Aefipw 

Of clear qhdu^ulH'4wo-0.' 

Yeh! . . - . ^ 

As' sdeitee pufoes on. witb 
things like “forvrard scatter", and 
carbon fibre anti the other mys^ 
teries perhaps there- is an incicas* 
ing gulf between mheritto of foe 
old jabs-fbr-ad»4nen ' gov^ 
mental tiaffition that goes bade to 
-Trollop!^ PMG; er foe Max 
Beerbohm . cartooii captib^ 
“Statesman of Olden Tnne^ mak- 
. irfewiitbout ^fo for emohmteata.' 
-fiat''but feifoftil- version of 'foe 
Georgies, in Et^'sh hexameieis" 
and. the scientist - irnpatifot . d 
. Iiteracy.-letalone'Hterature;hroce 
the poster and van notice sa;^ 
■Who did you fitrga to pmrie 
rodai? under .which one tongs, to 
squirt with a spr^^can ibe wtnds 
,Vj»-s»aw#>iar (edtsaer: . . 

' wKeothegentieinanlyQldjflbst:. 
. Office did make contact' - 
modern .media hjm it .prodi^ 
real .works ofait'Jiltethe-fenam 
; documeoiary Hig/d' Afaii (cfsto 
inemaiy by. Auden, . music .'for 
. BrinenL' But the Post Office foa 
-was! eflbrth^y in 'm 
natirirtek' consciouatess; ' Peoffo 
Imew exitt^ -wfam -tinHarW 
red" indeed once hai^ 
paint-box* in 'whidi it was'^sp^ 
named.: The. Poist Offiite 
was- both unnecessary and' oEI 
dtertified tosell itsdfaad foekiSd' 
of: serioce .which, one tbok 'frir 
grauted.rU^ld-defiva’.a pbsteMd 
-<Mr the sfeiie day that itiras posted. 

NoW,^ superseding^; the* dte^ 

- ttnloivetfel& Bufoiy^ and 'fooie 
fxightflBJ -.-pe’nguins-' going 
bizzypisay eeoh hisy'Msty quatx 
quack, iwe have these dephkftfs 
and o^itodiJra pretoidiiig ra, be 
compn^dhectbis. last ' week- 

end --piBst goes ai 9i}0 am oh 
. Saturday morning. • And - in an 
ever^ai^ng temldthey'are'gpi- 
ting, ready to set- tip ' British 

Wetcoht and 
Sarap^m too. 

opS' .British 
know^- ': . 

Ohe-'tfaii^ is cenafn. No pa^ . 
' bqx ‘is .ever going' ib ^ Bri^ 
Tdecqm Yellow. Meanwitileteus 
'think ‘of uavy-blw And bmte^lo. 
'.God 'foeie wbn^ -'be :*a : mSfo- 
-Navcora;' • - r •' 

-• j/- 


lJUs Ijjvafca MUNUAy AUUUSI z:i I98h 




ceiyed on aniva]. to Her 
^jes^s Lord Ueutmant for 
Morayshire (Captain " lain 

The Princess Mareareu 
Countess of Snowdon thfe afiei^ 
nc^ visited Elgin Museum. ' 

The Hon Mis Willy was in 



' Atigufl 24: Divine service was 
held in Ciatbie Parish Church 
"this mominfr 

The Sermon was preach^ by 
Cthe Reverend Dr Finlay' 



"August 33: The Princess Mar- 
‘garet. Countess of Snowdon 

3.10day visited Brodie Chstle. 

Forres, and undertook engage- quarters of 

. mcnis in connection with “A and the London Interior De- 
■ Taste of Moray 1986**. signers Centre at 2 

Her Royal Highness was re- I^ric Road on September 30. 

Princess Alice Docbess of 
C^ucester, Patron (rf'tlie British 
Limbless ex-Service Men*s 
Association, will attend a ganira 

party at Diumlanrig, Damfiie^ 
shire, on Sqrtember 22. 

The Duke of doncester' wifl 
open the new cmnpany head- 

Forthcoming marriages 

..Mr NjL Clarke 
jsnd Miss O Smith 
The engagement is announced 
' between NigeL son of Dr and 
Mrs Doudas Clarke, of Hamp- 
"■ton, Middlesex, and Cared, only 
l.itai^ier of Mr and Mrs Ronald 
Smith, orBarrow, Cumbri^ 

Mr D. Feller 
and Afiss j.CL Chapman 
The ertgagement is announced 
between Derek, youi^ son of 
Mr and Mrs R. Fuller, of 
Boston. Lincolnshire, and Julb 
Caroime. dder dai^ter of Mr 
and Mrs C.L.L Chamnan. of 
Reigate, Suney. 

Dr TJL Hands 
and Miss JJEJH. Smart 
The engument is announced 
between lunothy, son of Mr 
and Mts RJL Hands, of Putney, 
and Jane, daughter of Mr and 
Mrs Ian Smart, of Wootion, 
Woodstock. ‘ 

and Miss AJtf. Ibrlilieek 
-The engagement U announced 
‘between ^rles, son of Colonel 
,and Mrs T.A. Hunt, of Wool, 
Dorset, and Mary, dai^ter <d 
.Mr F. Roh^k and the late Mis 
.ftoblicek, of Dominica, West 

and MBss AJL James 
The engagement is atmounoed 
between Robert, eldest son of 
Mr and Mis D. Loader; of 
Welwyn, Henfbrdshire, and 
Alexandra, youngest daughter of 
Mr and Mrs R. James, also of 
Welwyn, Henfoidshire. 

MrB,G. Pettet 
and Mim CJ’. Str^ 

The engagement is announced 
betwe e n Ben, elder son of Mr 
and Mrs O.G. Rsnel, of Seaicird, 
East Sussex, and Cony, younger 
daughter of Mr and Mrs C 
Sta^ of ^*bekar^. Jfonand. 

and Miss J.M. Pyle 
The engagenml is aonoimoed 
betw e e n David, son of Mr and 
Mrs S.A. Pugh, of Farndon, 
Noitin^ramshire, and Jackie, 
daughter of Mr and Mrs JXB. 
Pyle, of Tynemouth, 
North umbeiiand. 


Miss I. HendramartDM 
The engagemeot is announced 
between Omaopher, son of Mr 
and Mrs He^ Senn, of 
Avonside, Fordingbridge, 
Hampshire, and Inge, youn^ 
daughter of the bte Mr Jos^ 
Hendroinartono and of Mrs 
Jane Hendromaitoao, of Peka- 
Umgan, IiKkme^ The marriage 
will lake (dace in Jakarta. 


J A._ 
-CtM/mioni. t6 
■flunr d lo w M . 

_ Tb» R«\' M H 

Church news 

View. EM Ham. 
.wfbBrt, diocBv or 
viar. a OMli. 

iL vicar, a 


n Tcai 

.Mark. StocKion on IW diooM of 
'Durtiam lo m viot. a abhu and a 
Farnck. eordnlor. tnoccir of mr- 

r TfK Rri' M A a ir o Mk . Oaraie a 
Maithew wiili »ioiy Trinity. 
"MaMrWiani Caves, inotMe of 

plackom. lo br Vicvra HatilMw. 
Pftaaa,'. >aim dloetar. 

. The Rrw D C Owran. TWaa VicM 
Straiford woh aataoptan. dawn# of 
Cox-onuy. to br vioar. Nrwt nn 
Ayriifrc. dlociA of Durham. 

' Rex* G Q ISrwhmi. Vior. 

Horton, a mrr. dlacuw of Duitiani. 
ID be Inoimbcnt. tuuicd bcncfic* of 
CMIr Eden vruh McBikhcaMcn. mbo 

'ThvlWx- 1 Id FcaiuMr. DMA's Vicar 
■and SucTwnor . a Oporun Oiapci. 
-MUnctaor. to br OiiDlam.and 
.Tmtar of CMmWM CaOw dra i- 
The Rev J R D Husbaa. fundhae 
~lcorlMT and Bce i wed lo ofaiai^ Hie 
o w c e w of Chei^. lo be PilcsHn- 
cliaroe. united benefice of 
• liurwardRcy. a John, and HartMU. 
AUSainl^ Moe dlocM. 

. The Rex- N c E buemer. vicar. 
WaUngum. dtonee of Souinwarh. lo 
be ebliM of OMnoferox MMon and 
Ex-anseihiTi Adx-ieer. dioce a e of 

The Rev- N ueweayn. Conic, a 
MarUnS. Henfoni dioceee of Her- 
-eford. to be Chaplain to the MU iio M 
lo Sewwn. RotMtOam. HoUand, 

. The Rex- N D Senmti. Aiiidwiiii 
Cunic. Holy TnnKy. Dalton, dioctoe 

of Sheffield, to be Vicar. Si WOfnih. 
Moorendt. OoncMbr. same diocaae. 

The Rev D j Tmgiar. Vlnr. 
HMinax. Holy TreiUy. dioem or 
Chidmer. to Or Rector. omdMd. SI 
Laureoce wsh crowhum. a Ocom. 

Leonardo. PadUiawTiSBMe of 8la£ 
bm. to be vinr. a JanMs. i'**- 
near BtackMoL aame diocese, 

The Rev O T YotaiawL Vlcm-. a 
John the Sai 

on Tees. 

JaRM. swcuion 

fllocere at ijurtam. to be 

Owton MaruR. saoe djocesc. 

Rragnations and retiremaits 

T^ liev R M Bretldl. vicar. BodiUL 
a acolm. diocese of OdclicMcr. m 
O ciober 91. 

.canon D e F Oodn. vicar. 
OMfhaa. Rms Dean of Hartiepael. 
and idMM- of OuBiham homm. 
dloeae of Ourtmu on Odober 91. 

CInnA hi Wales 

Diocese of Maamotdh 
The Rev A J Edomndk Vksr «r 
OtimiMRnvn and diacesan Otneclorof 
Educadon. lo be Rwar to the 
Reaorlal D enelloe of Cwmbran. 

The Rev 1. w Mna. vicar la ew 
Rectorial ReneUce cd Owmbrmi. to be 
VMv or OHriveai wiih puihaia and 
Uanwair Dtmcd and ffliimiiiiitun 
xtfioi Newetiwoi. 

The Rev J E L While. View In Oie 
Rectorial Rcneflce of UBonuRiln. lo be 
Rector oMJandon Wltliebrook Chd- 
pel and Tinfern Rirva. 

The Rev j kiwwIm. awWwii emw 
of a McDons. 10 be Reoor of 
TTfduiwoc VKor or UaocrHi em and 
Rector of Uanltcnop 

-Birthdays today 


Air Marsha! Sir Michael 
Armiiage. 56: Mr Leonard Bern- 
stein. 68; Mr Sean Connery. 56; 
Mr Frederick Forsyth, 48: Mr 
Andrew Gardner, 54; Lord 
McGregor of Durris, 65; Mr 
'Brian Moore, 65; Ueutenant- 
Gmeral Sir Harold Redman, 87; 
Sir Thomas Shankland, 81; Dr 
Paul Sieinitz. 77; Mrs M. S. 
Trenaman. 67. 


Mr RJC.W. Baxter 
and Miss P J. GlidewaD 
*rbe marriage took place on 
Saturday in Pshn Beach, Flor- 
ida. of Mr Robert Baxter, son of 
Mr and Mrs J.D Baxta-, of 
Sprin^iiU, Cuddmgtoo, Chesh- 
ire. and Miss Pendope Jarre 
GUdewell, daughter of Sir lain 
and Lady Glidewell, of Oldfiekl, 
KuutsToid, Cheshire. 

Mr Frank Bond, an amafy ii r 
archaeologist, holds np his latest find, a 
three-inch hrooch which he has dated to 
soffietune between 500 and 550 AD, dte 
later part of the ea^ Ai^o-Saacon 

It was found in a h ar row at Borey 
Ttacey, Devon, during bidduig wttfks 
at the edge of the Dartmoor National 
Park. The cast. Iwonze-gylt (shnilar to 
modern-day brass) Iwooch is in good 
conditibn and features a TeotonSc 
des^ of three interloddng peacocks. 
Nu- Bond fidd tl^ it was made using 

the chip-carring or **Eerbschmtt’** 
method and probably originated from 
the Middle Rhine area in Western 

*Tt is a large (me and quite distinctive. 
There is one like it in the Britteh 
Mnsemn, so it is mriqne in ttselT*, he 

If antbenticated, MrBond^ fmii pre- 
dates a brooch with a »iti»n«r A m i pii 
fonnd at the Lindisfarne in 

N(Rliiiunber!and« which ha-v been dated 
to 700 AD. 


Venerable survivor of Turkish politics 


Clues to lost Anglian city 

By Neman Hanmua^ AichaeoloEy CocTespandent 

Excavations now drawijQ to a 
close ootside the walls of Yoric 
have uncovered lai^ woo(len 
buildizigs of dte eighth a^ 
nhiih centuries AD vriiieh gve 
a clue to the nature of the loi^ 
lost AngUah dty of Eorforwic 

The settlement, the preenr- 
sor of VUdog Jorvik and 
modem York, seems to have 
run along a street panlld to 
the river, and to ^ve been 
g milar (o the coeval "old Mii^ 
at the AJdwych in London. 

"We have found an exten- 
sive series of domestic and 
persona) articles such as 
bronn dress pins; decorated 
strap ends, fin^rin^ be^ 
^ jeweUefy**, said Mr Peter 
Adfhman, director of the 
Yoik Aichaeolo^cal Trust 
Knives and tools and ev- 
idence for a variety of cta^ 
have been recovered, too, 
especially for comb malting 
nsim both antler and bone. 

Dog coprolites . seem to 
have been collected ftouse in 

tanning, and there h ami^ 
evidence for metal woridng.** 

The excavations have 
gelded mudi Middle Anglian 
pottery of the eighth and ninth 
Otelturies, hanHtYtaH>. bowls 
and roi^ cooking pots. There 
is also imported pottery from 
the Contiaeat, which together 
with coins attests to tbe for- 
eign trade described in 
contemporary documents. 

"Eorforwic lies on a level 
riverride she althe confluence 
of the Ouse and tbe Foss, just 
outside tbe medieval city 
v^Us" said Mr Richard 
Kemp, who has been directing 
the excavations f<» the txusL 
‘‘Its toilding were set out 
aloi^de a street running 
paraBd to the river, and most 
of them were of timber, now 
represented by post holes. 
There were aim the dhebes, 
pits and latrines commonly 
found in settlements of this 

"£nou|^ was recotrered of 

the buildings and their general 
layout to suggest that there 
bad been disoeet individual 
properties, some defined by 
ditches and associaied with 
fenced yar^ In some cases 
tbe occupation levris bad been 
fortuitously preserved under 
the floors of the medieval 
Gilbertine priory" (The 
TinteSt July 25, 1986X 

Htstoricu sources describe 
the fine churches and build- 
ings of Eorforwic, which was 
the focus of major political 
events and the home of famed 
scholars juch as Alcuin, but 
until now there has been little 
arcfaaeol(%ical evidence for 
even the location of the 
community, let alone its 

The present discoveries sug- 
gest ttot it was a riverside 
trading town similar to 
London's Aldwycb and 
Hamwic, the Saxon port 
underlying modern 
Southampton,- Mr Addyman 


University news 


To a HaRtoya^^aantoT jUMianHpe 


tRA HiA: 

doo-Smilh, ^ Geoige's H 
Medical School; 

B A Gusterson, Institote of 
Cureer Reseaicfa; dmical eiirk>- 
crinolQ|K p G Jofajision. St 
Kainanm. • j p Kmap. ra. Mary s Hospital Medical School 

S^'^S and R^*al Postgraduate Medx- 

Hymm OaUaoR. C N^^am. SC cid SchOO): ObStetTICS aod 

gyaaecolan; C H Roctoek, In- 
stitute of Obstetrics and 
Gynaecology, medical micro- 
biology; Sold Tabaqchati. Si 
Bartboioinew’s Hospiial Medi- 
cal CoUqe. 

CoDfennerit of title of 
p rofessor 

Histo^ of arc D Bindman, 
WesCS^ Collcfe; ceO bk>- 
diemistty; J B Clark, St 
Bartholonrew's Hospital Medi- 
cal CoU^ clinical science in 
respiratory medicine; G 
Gumming. Cardiotboracid - 

F10C9 WPA atodoiUito; Mama S M 

Rsalii. Qum'k and UCNW BMor; to 

rebttdannlpK MUtam J Sra£R^ 

Ouaoi^ and School or SI MdMi andS 

Kalharlm. AUngdnn: J p Kmap. BA. 

numinar ScT 


OuMn^ and MMtolBi CUUto ScJwoL 

Oatoi^ to MkAai acManMna: P O 
BartML RUbarauWi Cailape. NoOtog- 
im: SODhto E Mdoon. KnuRfonl 
Counti- HiRh ScTMl: to a MIcM 
ecMbUion; M A KaUand. %VMIM 
SOioal. oeydon: to a wimn £(. 
Rwoon; S L irxloa. 81 Jotooh's 
School. wortapBtooTai glwcova frcto 
O ct ohar 1. 

Pioftaar Sir 
John Hda. M^duil FBA. niofttoui 
of Uailan Hiucy. IRitaanUy of 
LoiKlon. FVUow Mid_Tukir In Modani 
HMOfV <19C9«4> Puiftjiui- or Rai- 
top. l^anliy or Landau <1970061; 
Protaaor H D tpwls. MA. Hon DO St 
AiHhiwv Hon DUn Emoty Univar. 
— USA. ProfeRor or Hstonr od 
univaity ~ 


of BaHaton. 

Births, Marriages, Deaflis 
and In Memnriain 

ntiHS, BMawES, 
il a Ite 4- IM ¥«r 

(mininuuD 3 lines) 

Mmounccmciiu. authniiicaied hv tbe 
name and peimaocm addtee ei the 
sender, mar te »>■ 

PO BOX 484 
Viniinia Street 
l\ 9XS 


eiben only) w: 

Agne iin cemenii on be iccetved by 
leleiiiKme beracen e.D0am and 
SiSUpni Mondib ’ 10 Fridu-. on Saiur- 
b c umcn 'CDOara and noon. 
-JO aiM For ptiUicuion ibe 
ms day by I.JOpiii. 

M BIH t OMIli a IMB H a e B. WBOOWa 
etc on Own and Social Pane B a iM 

+ im wr. 

Coon and Social Wise annoucemeids 
can not be nmpKd by idcphone. 
EngwriM to: n-& 99^ 
tafier lOJOam). or lend UK 
1 PMakglM SbiA Laatea El BSOL 

Ptense alloo at leas 48 lioiiis befbee 

Loxp xunrkeoi no III lo h» natgn- 
Mur; tMrrforr tone m toe 
Rwmina of the taw. 

Roman* 13:10 


.. On Augusi 21sl at 
Oonhnter HosnlWI. lo Altre antd 
Cordon, a son. Tiunnas George. 
esaOBNE on AuenM 23nl. to SaDy 
(AW Dotviwk) and Dax-ld. a son. 
Ruperi Da\-ld WMieman. a broiner 
for Beniamin. Thomas and Saralt- 
■new on August SSM M Veves', 
Swiizn-iand. le EBsabMh (nee Carr) 
and David, the gHl of a daughur. 
Sarah Jano. a sisier for Dnalel and 

WALTON • On Slst August, to PauUne 
uiM Van-m) and John, a daughter. 
Georoina PMUpga. a stRer for 
A nnabe l. 

WARREH • On Aogiui 2lsL lo Carol>Ti 
inee Herbert) and John, a son. Jauo 


NOLAN s PAISM . On . 23rd Augisl. 
at Si. Michael's ciSiollc 
Church. Afl W ord. MWiUeseN. 
MlenaH of Bdtnbnroh to Healtirr of 
WooRon Basartt. Wiltatalre. 


CUIIIPN Jenny. M3.. OlB. • Peace- 
nuiy after a ahen mneto on AuguR 
Slsi al Mflion Keynes HoraftaL Cre* 
malion at 330pm Friday 29Ui 
August al Crown Hhl Crematerlam 
MEDon Keynes. FamOy Howan 
Only. donaUoos lo WiBin Heapke 
c/o H w Maaon « Sons. 9 High St 
Newport ”-1)—* 

NOW, Anna Marie, D No w edjnomer 
of Grace Dudley and nnla 
BronlWIeld. peaceTUBy in i 
19m AugosL Funeral was pcWale. 
MUSSIMVE On August aoih al no- 
home m East Hofsiev. Nina Beiyt 
Musoreva In her TSih year; devoted 
and coarageous wife oF the iaie Ledle 
Charlas Musgram. belavad moQte t 
or Margaret Olana and Davu and 
adored grandmeUier of Laura and 
Elena. Funeral Sendee at lt.30Bm 
on Friday Augist 29ih al CuBdford 
Untied Re f ormed Church. Ports- 
moulh Rd. liolloitfed by ConunUlal at 
Randan'S Park Creinaieilura. 
Leatherhaad. Flowera and enquiries 
to Messrs Ponms. Mary Rd. 
Guildibrd. Surrey. 

PHVSWK Doris. PiacefUlly on asnd 
August 1986. al the vicarage cme 
Nurslno Home. Widow of the lale 
John Sear cy Pliysicit- Much loved 
Mother. GrandmoUter and Great 
Grandmolher. Private funeral ai St 
Mary's Church. Long Otttoa Family 
flowen only. 

m a i AIU ISO N On August 2l8t 1966. 
In hospital after a long Ubiess. Dr. 
Jamas iPeiar) RkS ia tdwa. MA. 
BiCJUJIm LJt.CP.. M.RXI&. of 
Waal Malvern and foraaily or 
Colwau. Much loved nusbiiML Csfber 
a) Service SI .Janies Church. Cnlwah 

Saturday Seoiemoer l3lhai2.S0piB. 
ContrllHiUons If desired lo. Royal So- 
cKiy for PreieeUDn of Stods. 
RAVENRU On August 22nd Marjorie 
May. dear wife or Uie Me Capiain R. 
W. RavenhllL R.N.. and stepmother 
of Ghrtslopher Crosotey. Smloe al 
Worthing Crematonum. Flndon. on 
Thursday August 28th al 3.30pm. 
SFEAKMAN . On August 22nd. after a 
short Illness. John, dearly beloved 
husband of Rebecca: devoted IMher 
oi Elizabeth. Charles and 
Chri s topher. laUterhi-iaw ot Shnoo; 
loxing grandtaiher of Alecandra and 
belox-ed son of Murid Speakman. 
Funeral Service udU take place on 
Thursday. August 28th. al Bourne 
MeUiodisI Chapel, Henid Honp- 
slead. 1 lam. foUowsd by (nterment 
ai woedweii Cemetery. Family Oow. 
ers only, donadons u dcdred to Uie 
Hospice or St Ftands. ShruMuds 
Rd. Berkhansled. 

WRANGHAM On August SMl aged 
86 years. Sir CeoHrey ~ 
Wrangham fO. or Butleedon Howe, 
Low Buston, Northumberland. Dear- 
ly toved husband ol Joan and a imKh 
(oxed lalber. grandfather A mnai 
orandfaiher. PrAale finieraL 

Einerttui PdlotMsfilp. Mr E C Thomp- 
son. MA Senior neiearcli Feitowmup. 


AppCHniments io chairs 
Economics: D K H B^ Biik- 
beck Colkge: dmical caidiokjgy 
(British Heart Foundation 
Prudential chair): A J ramm, st 
Ceoige's Hosintal Medical 
Schoot haematology; E C Gor- 

Appclntmmts to 

Ocneral hnatodiCB Rum M Ki 
school «r oitontol and 

Sniiaiei; Wotogy; P D Cnffitoa. 

Free HoroMd Sdwol of Mediciac 
— ' T ilam efc Sdwei of 

onenw vto AnTran Stodito. HMe- 
palhotogy: Eame Hoderman. United 
MitocintnO Dental Seneem al Ouyw 
and SI Tfwreas's H fwmf a fi: respT- 
ratory medtOnr Marparel E Hedaoa. 
oaroMhoractc losatuu. 

Close finish 

After nine days of trials ax tbe 
Youog Oieisea Bridge Oub to 
determne the Briiisb team for 
next yw's European Bridge 
Championship, only one round 
remains in whicb A. P. Sowter 
will play S Fishpool and 1. N. 
Rose will iday J. M. Armstrong 
in the final kg of tbe second 

There is liole chance that any 

one team wiU ftnisb 15 points 
ahead to earn automatic selec- 
don. S. FUhpool woo tioth 
matches oa Saturday beating I. 
N. Rose by 15^ and J. M. 
Annstrong by 23-7 to produce 
an exerting final sesg'oiL 


D J Ciegmiiwid. A 

D Shell 129.7; 2. J M 

Amutraag, G T Klr^. R S aroOL. A R 
FBm tier tas.i: 3. I N Rcee. R 
sroaUM. M J FUni. R M SheWun 
ia« A;.4. A P Sowtg. s J Lodge. Mn 
s Hgcton. Mi» S LMy iUlST 

Appointments in 
the Forces 

Royal Navy 

to Ctncfleei. Clnchaa. aod 
nnegto mtifc Pe cemaer I. 
COMMANDOS: I 1D Andmon lo 
Ootangweed Octobn- 28: J A Sevnen 
IqTMUC. Novembn- 2S: J P Bond to 

MOO (Lon^v Noxtotiber 21: D j I 

ClMlklpMOO(BUh).MMTh lOlOBT: 
P R OaviK Id fdsM. Januwy 25 
1987: R S UMon to *400 oendont 
FTOnUry 19 X^: L ORMw to MOD 
<Pt TthKJ awiaty30l987;TfCj ward 
to MOD Uxmton). JaoiiBy 23 1987. 

REAR ADMDtAl..- M A VaUla ea 
OrtolMr 24. 

OOetor 26; R A Wordd^. on Octoher 



P AHops*. on October 24; W J 

waUM- OB o ep mitou - so. 

The Amy' 

BRiCAOlERS: C C Barnett to be 
comdt/'Brtg inr BAOR i •am com*. 
Aimi 29: W K L Protao- to be DARC 
MOD. BeMeinber B. 

RARQE. AufM 29: J M BeCdnSrale. 
to RHQ. RAj^iembto ja MO 
DougtooWiihcre. to IMOD Srptenber 
1: C A Kinvig. to MOD. S ewaii tw 3- 
Bletsingion ra lo PtcEE 
Shoeonty neto. August 86: M J H 
Obodaen RT% n be CO X RTR. 
AuguH 29; N B Huoier Qiwro, to be 
Opened M Trto)> BOev Untt. AihuI 
26; H R a Jooee RCT to to CD HQ 
X67 TVt RegL AueuH 26; D LockKiri 
Cheehtfe. lo LEtAl^MUt 26; R D 
Ont Qordoto to to 00.2761 HttoUaoto 
IVL AUBUto 26: K R StoOair RE. to 
NATO. Auguet 25. 

BRICAOIER; H C Woodrow tale 
REtSVY). Oft Oe pi miii e f X. 

Riqral Air Force 

wing cemmanders: KOowIngtoRAF 
S&S***. ^"Syta 23: B J Weavtr to 
MOD. Auew 23: R W Ouy to MOD. 
AuguH c> J Hoyman lo MOD. 
Auqtat 26; AC Reed to OASC Btatan 
Hilt, August 26: R F Mtmdy to RAF 



• R F R 

CBrr lo RAT loistriich. AigiBt 29. 


Mr Timotby Dwate, lo 
ambasstelor to Turkey. 


Sdmice report 

Soviet surprise at salt discovery 

Each year the most ri^nS- 
can't So^ sdendfic 
are recorded in the official 
USSR State R^^stry <d 
Discoreries. A receat eotry. 
described as "aiwring" by the 
neiR t^cocy Novosti (AFIN). 
covers the behaviour of or- 
dinary salt. 

Two researchers at the In- 
stitute of Physical Chemistry 
of tile Sov^ Acadei^ of 
ScKRces dain to have identi- 
fied a previoiisly bdIoiowb 
behaviour of tius crystaliae 
oompouDd, which could have 
importaot iDplkatiras for uh 
dnstry and agricaltnre. 

AiDQBg ooier benefits, it 
coidd reduce wastefal use of 
lexcess artifidai fertilisers, 
they say. 

Ihe Soviet chemists wore 
[c ar ry ing out Tontine exptei- 
Aedts dealii^ with tbe prop- 
lerties of soOds, when th^ 
noticed that^ coirtraiy to ex- 
pected beharionr from tbe 
iuKm physical chentistry of 
the compound, salt crystals 
dissolved more siowly - in- 
wSter Istead of faster - when sob- 
iected lo an electron beam. 

This greatly surprised them, 
because until then it ted been 

By a Spedaf Correspondent 

assumed tiiat all methods of 
diwohru^ solids, inchid ing tbe 
use of mmsonad and high 
frequeocy, ted been ex- 
haistxvcly studied. Tbe sci- 
mitists decided (o hxok further 
into the phenotueiiOB. 

Their startii^ point was the 
knowledge that salt was a 
didec^ able to support an 
electric stress and therefore ao 
insulator. An electron beam 
foensed on it causes it to 
potarizie: each of its nnlecides 
is turned into a dipole, an 
electric magset with its own 
ntutfa and sonth, as a result of 
which tbe salt's moleciiiar 
s t nKture is rearranged into a 
pre^e pattern. But why 
steuld dissolve more 
slowly because of this ? 

Dr Yi^imirGromovand Dr 
VaktttiA Krylov evolved a 
thtery to expiaio what they 
had (tiscovered. They arg^ 
tiiat the process of dissohing 
was govmned by two factms: 
the electrostatic field of a 
polarized crystal and an elec- 
tric ^’er in the area of tbe 
solution next to the surface of 

Both act in the dividing zone 
between the solid crystal .and 

the liqmd solotioo. Unpredict- 
ably, molecnies of dbsolved 
crystals became snspended in 
the tone tf hs dielectric 
penneability was greater tiian 
that of the solntion. Thfe 
slowed down their progress 
from crystal to solntion. 

Sobs^nentiy the research- 
ers were able to confirm tills 
theory during laboratory 

They beCeve tint technol- 
ogy coald be devek^ to 
recover vninable raw materials 
from rocks by controUii^ tbe 
rate at whidi they dissolve. 
Because some minerals di^ 
solve more quickly than oth- 
ers, it vriN be earier to separate 


In agricnitgre, the discoveiy 
could reduce waste of artificial 
fertilizers. After tiiey are ap- 
plied to sBow-covered fields (a 
conuDOD practice in the Soviet 
Uuioo), a sipiificant percent- 
age is washed away during the 

If individnal grannies were 
to dt&stdve in tbe soQ after tbe 
thaw, losses would be greatly 
reduced. This could be 
achieved by polariznig mineral 
ftelilizefs b^ttre sprra^i^ 

Mr Jelal Bayar. I^esideni of 
Turicey from 1950 to 1960. 
who was sentenced to death in 
1961 following a military coup 
that toppled him from power, 
died in Istanbul on .August 21, 
at the age of 104. He was a 
close associate of Kemal .Ata- 
tuik, founder of the modem 
Turkish state. 

Mahmut Jelal Bayar was 
bom in May. 1884, on a.daie 
unknown, in the village of 
Umurbey, near Buisa. western 
Turkey. His feiher was a 
schoolteacher and Bayar was 
largely educated at home. He 
be^woikatan early age asa 
bank deik in a local branch of 
Deutsche Orient Bank and 
rapidly proved his ability. 

In 1907, he joined the Party 
of Union and Progr^ where 
he efforts were quickly re- 
warded, and he became its 
principal representative for 
the Bursa district. The follow- 
ing year he was again promot- 
ed and appoiniM executive 
secretary' for the Party's Smyr- 
na organization. 

Bayar was elected from 
Smyrna to the last Ottoman 
Parliament but after the dis- 
membenneot of the Ottoman 
Empire, escaped to Ankara 
where he help^ to form a 
provisional National .Assem- 

He was one of the first to 
take pan in tbe national 
struggle for liberation and 
independence and, as the 
commander of a unit of 
Turkish irregulars in Akhisar 
and Bursa, fought aloi^de 
Mustafa Kemal Aiaturk in the 
1919-1922 war that led to the 
foundation of the modem 
Turkish republic. 

After the war. he was elected 
deputy for Smyrna lo the First 
National Assembly and 
served in various cabinet 
posts, successively as Minister 
of National Economy. Assis- 
tant Minister of Foreign .Af- 
fairs, and Minister of 
Reconstruction and Settle- 
menL In 1924. he returned to 
banking to become bead of the 
newly established Ish Bank, 
which by now ted developed 
into one of the country's 
largest national banks. During 
the criticaj days of world 
depression, in 1932, he was 
once again apirointed to the 
1^ post of Minister of Na- 
tional Economy and intro- 
duced five-year development 

He played an Important 
part in alleviating the effects 
of depression and furthering 
the country's industrialization 
and economic recovery. Un- 
der President Alacurk. Bayar 
succeeded General Israel Ind- 
nu as Prime Minister in 1937. 
With Atatfirk's death the fol- 
lowiire year, In6nn was elected 
presidoxt aj^ Bayar was a^n 
entrusted with tte formation 

He held oftioe under Inonu 
for just one year before resign- 
ing unexpeaedJy in January. 
1939. at a time wben serious 
financial scandals were being 
iovesugated. But no stigma 
atiachfd to Bayar personally, 
and he continued to enjoy 
great prestige both in the 
country and in business cirries 
as a straightforward, earnest 
and reliable figure: 

Throughout the Second 
War, be 

seat in the National Assembly 
as deputy for Smyrna. Ai the 
end of the war. however, he 
resigned from the Republican 
People's Party and. with three 
members of the Grand Na- 
tional Assembly who were 
excluded from the People's 
Party by "disciplinary 
action", founded the opposi- 
tion Democratic ^rty, of 
which he became the head. 

The new party, which w'as 
politically to the left of the 
People's Party, soon became 
the main hope of the younger 
people in the country who 
fear^ a slowing dowm of the 
administrative machine undx'r 
the long rule of the Republi- 
cans. Over the next five years 
Bayal organized it on a nation- 
wide basis and led it a 
bndslide victory in the elec- 
tions of May, 1950. in which 
he was overwhelmingly elect- 
ed president. 

.As president he became for 
the first lime a figure in world 
politics. Previously his knowl- 
edge of foreign affairs had 
been somewhat limited, 
though his work as a banker 
and as an economics minister 
had involved some traxel. 
During his president' he paid 
numerous state visits to for- 
eign countries, including one 
to Washington at the invita- 
tion of Pr^idem Eisenhower 
in September, 1953. 

He had seen his country- 
men play an important pan in 
the Korean War. and in 1 ‘)S4 - 
again on an American visii - 
told an audience in Chicsen 
that Nato should be extended 
‘To include the economic and 
social fields, as well as 
strengthening military and po- 
litical collaboration"* Perhaps 
his new interest in global 
matters had made him less 
attentive than he should ha^’e 
been to what was happening 
beneath the surface at home. 

A sharp fusillade of ma- 
chine^un fire in Ankara be- 
fore davm on May 27, 1960, 
signalled tbe stan of the 
almost bloodless military coup 
d’&or which, in three to four 
houis, saw the entire govern- 
ment arrested and replaced by 

Accusations were heaped on 
Ba>3r. w ho was cfaaiged with 
lii^i treason and violation of 
the constitution by acting as a 
partisan head of state. .At the 
same lime, the law- was quick- 
ly changed to make it posibic 
to sentence to death someone 
over the age of 65. .Among the 
alleged crimes were attempts 
to place pans ofTurkey under 
the sovereignty of a foreign 
power - a reference to earlier 
accusations that the govern- 
ment had plans to cede ports 
of eastern Turkey to Russia in 
exchange for eronomk aid, 
accusations which were never 

Bayar tried to commit sui- 
cide by strangling himself with 
his bell after locking himself 
in a bathroom. But a guard 
became suspicious and broke 
down the door to find him 
Ixing unconscious. He was 
given oxygen and revived. 
Bracing himself for the noose, 
he later recalled that when the 
guards came to his cell to tell 
him that the sentence had 
been commuted to life impris- 
onment he thought it was to 
take him to the scaffold. "I did 
not believe ihem", he said. 
Menderes was less fortunate: 
he. along writh two other 
ministers, was hanged. 

Bayar. however, served only 
four years in prison before he 
was pardoned on grounds of 
sickness and old age. "My 
release has no value", he 
declared, "I have left friends 
behind in prison. That is very 
sad. I am still under the 
influence of my sorrow at 
having left them". It was a 
quid reiuro to freedom. 

His civil rights as an cx- 
convici were not restored until 
1 974. but in protest at his past 
ircaimeni Bayar refused to sit 
in the Senate, as was his right 
as a former president. He went 
to live near Istanbul 
Bayar was more banker and 
administrator than politician. 

Al the time of his trial he 
announced to the court: "1 do 
not intend lo boasL but the 
services I have rendered roy 
L'uuntry are written in 
Turkov ‘s history". 

An accomplished linguist - 
he spoke Arabic. Pmian. 
French and German as well as 
a little English - he remained a 
remarkably fit roan. Two 
years ago he said his brain was 
in good order and his teeth his 
own. He attributed his longev- 
ity to politics and friendship. 

In his sev'enties he still 
sw-am with a vigorous breast 
stroke. He did not drink 
alcohol and. though he had 
laiierly given up smoking, he 
olTered guests cigarettes spe- 
cially made for him bv the 
Turkish Slate Tobacco* Mo- 
nopoly. which bore his initials 
in black. He was also one of 
ihe few Turks who never 

a 2(j-memter committee of tirank coffee, preferring fniii 
National Union under Gener- juice. Much of his leisure was 


retained his 

al Cemal Gursel, Command- 
er-in-chief of the Turkish land 
forces. President Bayar and 
Prime Minister Menderes. an 
anry spokesman announce^, 
had been taken into custody- 
on Yasi Ada island "for their 
own protection*', and a group 
of univeraiiy professors had 
been given the task of prepar- 
ing a new constitution . 


Mr Jock Hasion, one of the 
founders of the Trotskyist 
movement in Britain, who as 
general secretary of the Revo- 
lutionary Communist Party 
became tbe first Trotskyist to 
contest a parliamentary elec- 
tion, died recently at tbe age of 

Jaines Ritdtie Haston was 
born in Edinburgh and went 
to sea at the age of 15. As a 
communist seaman instruaed 
in 1933 to cany illegal Comin- 
tern literaiuse to the anti-Nazi 
underground in Geonany, he 
was shocked by the sight of 
Soviet merchantmen breaki^ 
boycott and offloading in 
Hambu^ harbour raw materi- 
al for Hiller's war machine. 

He left tbe Communist 
Party three years later to join 
tbe Trotskyist movement, be- 
coming a founder of the 
Workers' International 
Le^e. a direct forerunner of 
the present Militant Tenden- 

When tbe Revolutionary 
Communist Party was found- 
ed in March, 1944, he became 
its general secretary, while 
Ted Grant today's guru of the 
Militant Tendency, became 
editor of the party's journal. 
SociaJist App^. The follow- 
ing year, Haston stood for 
election at Neath, polling 
1.781 votes. 

After the war, he soon 
realized that the Trotskyist 
prognosis of a catasirophic 
post-war slump was faulty, 
and concluded that in an era 
of long-lived boom, violent 
revolution was not on the 
cards. The Revolutionary 
Communist Party failed to 
g^. and in 1949 voted to 
dissolve itself. Haston finally 
broke with Trotskyism and 
was admitted into the Labour 
party where he remained for 
the rest of his life. 

He then became an 
OTganizer/lecturer for the Na- 
tional Council of Labour Col- 
leges and proved himself a 
communicator of outstanding 
ability. From 1964 to 1973. he 
was head of the Electrical 
Trades Union Training Col- 
lege at Esher and, for the next 
three years, was national edu- 
cation officer of what is now 
the General Municipal and 
Boilermakers' Union 

Haston was a man of great 
natural vitality and mariied 
independence of mind: above 
all he was a natural enthusiast 
in all he set out to do. 

He is survived by his wife. 
Millie, a comrade and partner 
in all his activities for more 
than 40 years. There were no 
children of the marriage. 


Mr Christopher Carl 
Hentschel. zoologist, died re- 
cently at the age of 87. His 
father. Carl, was the "Harris" 
of Jerome K. Jerome's Three 
.l/fff in a Boar., and Jerome 
was Henischel's godfather. 

Educated at St Phul's 
School, where he was a classi- 
cal scholar, and at King's 
College London, he was dem- 
onstrator in biology at St 
Bartholomew's Medical 
School before moving, in 
1 93 1 . as lecturer in zoology to 
Chelsea Polytechnic. whe]ie he 
spent the rest of his working 

In 1953 l he became head of 
tbe department ofbotany and 
zoology, and in 1 962 - after the 
polytechnic had changed its 
name to Chelsea Coli^ of 
Science and Technology - he 
became vice-principal of the 

college. From 1962 lo 1965 he 
served as its principal. 
Lhroughont the crucial period 
of its transition to full univer- 
sity status. 

At this lime he was also 
active in the Universit> of 
London in numerous other 
ways; for instance, as chair- 
man of the b^rd of studies in 
zoolog>’ ( 1 952 10 1957) and as 
a member of Senate (1956 to 
1964 and 1966 to 1970). 

He published, in 1932. with 
W. R. Ivimey Cook, the highly 
successful Biology for Medical 

In retirement he continued 
to correspond with old col- 
leagues and to show a lively 
interest in all aspects of bioh 
lo^cal research. He was al- 
ways robust, forthright and 
humorous, retaining the alfec- 
tion and esteem of all who 
knew- him. He never married. 

spent in writing his memoirs 
or reading - he had a large 
pnvaie library - and he rarely 
went to bed before two or 
three in the morning. 

His wife, Reshide, to whom 
he was married for over 60 
years, died in 1961 There 
were two sons (one of whom 
died in 1 946) and a daughter 
of the marriage. 


Sir Geoffrey Wran^m. 
Judge of the High Court. 
Family Division, from 1958 
until his retirement in 1973. 
died on August 21 He w-as 86. 

Geoffrey Walter Wrangham 
was born on June 16. 1900. 
and was educated at Eton and 
Balliol College. Oxford. He 
was called to the Bar in 1923 
and joined the North-Eastern 
Circuit, practising from Lon- 
don helbre moving his cham- 
K'rs nxtnh in Bradford. 

He was appointed .Assistant 
Rx'corder ul' Leeds in 1939. 
and two yxxirs later became 
Recorder of ^’ork. reUiining 
the post until 1050. 

During the Second World 
War he ser\cd in the King's 
Own Vorkshia* Light Infamry 
and the Royal .Armoured 
Corps w iih ihe'rank of Heuten- 

He was chairman of the 
North Riding Quarter Ses- 
sions from 1946 to 1958. 

In January. 1950. 
Wrangham was 'appointed a 
Judge oi'ihc County Courts on 
C'lreuii 20. which covered 
Lx'iecMershirc. Bedfordshire, 
Linetilnshire. Northampton - 
shire ;md Rutland. 

In I ^58. he was appointed a 
Judge of the Family Division 
{IbiTnx'rly Probate. Divonre 
and Adniirally Division).'^! 
that time only the sixth county- 
coun judge to have reached 
the High Court Bench. At the 
same lime he became Master 
of Ihe Bt'nch of the Inner 

In he allox'i'ed parties 
i n a di V ure-e case to come to "a 
deliberate and collusive 
Itarguin". to save time and 
co^<ls. He was the first judge lo 
permii iliis. 

Wrangliam had an excellent 
Coun manner, a pleasant, 
musical \oiee and the ability 
lo pljiv a jury completely at 
ease. He edited the ]8tb 
edition olChiuyvn Ctmiracis 
and. with W. a. Macfarlane. 
the sih edition of Clerk and 
Linii\e!l >>n Tigris. 

He was twice married: firsL 
in 1^12?. to Marx Winkwonh. 
who died in 1 933: second, in 
194”. to Joan Boyle, who 
survives him. There was one 
son and one daughter of each 



















































1 f, 

f _ 

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1 Pennington Street, London El 9XN Telephone: 01-481 4100 


' Habitual visitors to great mo- 
- tor sporUng occasions may 
‘ find themselves remarking this 
morning, as th^ flunble 
around Spagheni Junction 
through the August Bank Holi* 
day tmiiic, that the e34)erience 
does not bear very much 
resemblance to the mimosa- 
bordered descent fh>m the 
Grande Cornicfae on the way 
to the Monaco Grand Prix. 
Indeed, the Crossroads Motel 
is unlikely to have turned itself 
overnight into the Hdtel de 
Paris: nevertheless today, 
thanks to a combination of 
visionary i^istence and 
laudable dvic ambition, the 
pragmatic city of Birmingham 
joins itself to the noisy and 
sometimes inconvenient but 
decidedly romantic tradition 
of radng in the streets. 

Motor radng began, at the 
end of the last century, as a 
point-to-point q)Oii. On a 
summer's day in 1894, 22 
horseless carriages of various 
shapes, sizes and d^rees of 
mechanical ingenuity set out 
to cover the 79 miles from 
Paris to Rouen; the first to 
arrive. Count de Dion, in a 
steam car of his own manu&c- 
ture. averaged a shade under 
12 miles per hour. During the 
next few years, the Count and 
his fellow enthusiasts raced 
fh>m the French capital to 
Marseilles, Amsterdam. Berlin 
and Vienna, their solid tyres 
kicking up the dust and 
ploughing Ae mud of unmade 
FO^s. Only after the Paris- 
Madrid race of 1903. in which 
five competitors — including 
Marcel Renault, the auto- 
mobile pioneer ~ and a num- 
ber of spectators were killed, 
did the sport move into a more 

controUable environment 

The 'British weie hardly to 
be seen at those early events. 
Yet today, as the domestic 
motor industry limps along 
with a permanent misfire and 
a slow puncture, motor sport is 
something at which the nation 
excels. Faaoria in such exotic 
locations as Didcot and Ewell 
dominate the grand prix world 
to such an extent that even the 
great Ehzo Ferrari, that proud 
I talian whose name is prac- 
tically synonymous with the 
sport and its enduring motif of 
Continental glamour, is 
recruiting British designers to 
help restore his fi>rtunesL At 
this year's Indianapolis 500 
race, an insular ^owpiece of 
American sport 29 of the 33 
comping cars — including all 
14 finishers — were conceived 
and built in the Midlands. 

Before today, motor radng 
has never been permitted on 
the public roads of mainland 
Britain. Birmingham is at the 
he^ of what was once 
Stain's car coun^, but a 
numb^ of local residents, not 
to mention those denied their 
regular worship by yesterday's 
practice sessions, gree^ the 
enabling Act of Pariiament 
with something less than ra^ 
ture. Notwithstanding their 
reservations, today's event 
seems essentially in tune with 
a growing tendency' in Bri^n 
towards public fe^vity. per- 
haps, with fingers cros^ we 
may suggest that the 21 years 
of the Netting Hill Carnival 
have helped us relearn the 
pleasure to be derived from 
such gatherings, be they fir^ 
woiic displays, marathon races 
or royal weddings. 

Of course, no motor sport 

occasion is devoid of danger, 
and the uninitiated may be 
little consoled by the sugges- 
tion that acddents at dty- 
centre circuits such as 
Monaco. Pau and Detroit are 
generally less severe in nature 
and consequence than those at 
permanent autodromes, where 
speeds are higher. (It does 
seem possible, looking at the 
plans, that in their desire to 
create a spectacle the designers 
of the Birmingham drcuit 
have placed too great an 
emi^asis on abeer sp^d.) Nor 
will it help them raiu^ to 
know that such accidents as do 
occur will be dealt with ^ 
volunt^ marshals whose skill 
and disdpline, honed evay 
weekend at the purpose-built 
venues, are admired around 
the v^d. 

Therein, however, lies an 
irony. Should today's meeting 
achieve outstanding success, 
the call will be beard for 
Birmingham to host future 
editions of the British Grand 
Prix, the oouniry's leading 
annual motor sport event 
Such a step ought not to be 
taken without considering the 
implications for the two 
permanent circuits. Brands 
Hatch and Silverstone, which 
currently share the race, each 
using the considerable biennial 
income to subsidize regular 
meetings for the amateurs and 
aspiring professionals who 
form the sport's healthy 
foundation. That caveat aside, 
Birmingham deserves good 
wishes. For this day at least, as 
the high-strung engines scream 
and the sponsors' flags flutter 
in the slipstream, the Bull Ring 
will have an aura to rival 
Casino Square. 


The recent renewal of consular 
relations between Great Brit- 
ain and Guatemala, with the 
prospect of cool diplomatic 
relations to come, is a re- 
minder that the dispute over 
Belize is ^11 with u& But it 
also holds out hope that this 
qumi may, after a relatively 
im^sational two^nturies or . 
so. be drawing to an end. : 

The history of the dispute is 
almost as long as that of the 
argument over the Falkland 
Islands, and a deal more 
obscure to the Britisb public. It 
originated in a disagreement 
between Great Britain and 
Spain over the territory of 
what was then Britisb Hon- 
duras. Spain's part was sub- 
sequently taken over by 
Guatemala and Mexico 
jointly, then left to Guatemala 
to pursue alone. 

Last December the Chris- 
tian Democrat Marco Vinicio 
Cerezo was elected President 
of Guatemala. He is the first 
civilian to lead Guatemala 
since a brief interlude in 1966, 
and he heads what is effec- 
tively the first populaiiy 
elected government since 
1954. He was elected, 
moreover, under a constitu- 
tion that has abandoned ^ 
extravagant claims to the terri- 
tory of Belize that Guatemala 
has' asserted for the last 50 

Talks between British, 
Guatemalan and Belize dip- 
lomats had resumed even 
before E)r Cerezo's election, 
with agreement to differ on the 
question of who were observ- 
ers and who were participants. 

(Guatemala takes the view 
that Britain's responsibilities 
were not ended by Belize's 
independence.) Last held in 
February 1985, these talks will 
doubtless be renewed in the 
not-toondistant future. 

. Guatemala has found virtu- 
ally no support for her terri* 
toriaf claim among her 
immediate neighbours or 'in 
the rest of Latin America, a 
reflection both of its juridical 
weakness and of the dip- 
lomatic isolation that 
Guatemala's brand of military 
government has brought about 
in the last 30 years. But a new 
mo^ has b^un to prevail 
there, and in his Central 
American policy Dr Cerezo 
has already shown a desire to 
end his country's isolation and 
show a different face to the 
world. These changes could 
not have occurred without a 
substantial degree of 
acquiesence on the part of the 
country's military. 

How successful the new 
President will be in bringing 
stable democratic rule and 
ending violent repression in 
Guatemala remains a matter 
of speculation. As dsenliere in 
Central America, rapid social 
and economic chai^ in the 
last two decades has mobilized 
forces that cannot be con- 
trolled in the old ways and 
which are unlikely to be con- 
tained by a new authoritar- 
ianism. The necessary 
transitionsareeverywhere hard 
to man^. Dr Cerezo has 
made a realistic start: eco- 
nomic circumstances are dire 
but the coffee price has risen. 

Not all the rigns are against 

All the same, a British 
military presence is still likely 
to be nee^ in Belize for some 
time. The Falklands and Gre- 
have recently broi^t 
home to us that wishful think- 
ing, amnesia, conde^iision 
and indifference have their 
costs when it comes to relics of 
EmpiiiB in the Western hemi- 

The phase of our involve- 
ment with the defence of 
Belize that when Ernest 
Bevin sent marines and troops 
in HMS Sheffield to reinforce 
the colonial garrison in 1948 
has not yet ended, and our 
responsibilities remain un- 
transferaUe. An attempted 
United States mediation be- 
tween Belize and Guatemala 
failed in the 1960s, the terms 
proposed being unacc^table 
to ^1 parties. For the citizens 
of Belize the modest British 
deployment (1800 men and 
four Harriers) remains their 
best guarantee in the current 
dangerous climate of Central 
America, and a significant 
British contribution to order 
in the Caribbean as a wb^e. 

Good relations with Guate- 
mala are to be welcomed. They 
may make it safe eventually to 
reduce the Belize garrison. But 
we should never fbiget that 
good fences make good nei^ 
hours, that all territorial ques- 
tions between nations are 
liable to sudden exaceibation. 
They must, therefore, always 
be handled with the greatest 
deliberation, with no false 
signals sent 


Last week, a widowed lady 1 09 
\ears old flew in an aeroplane 
for the first time. She had 
clcar)> decided that, having 
waited so long to break her 
duck, she ou^t 10 do it in 
si>]c. so she embark^, with 
the compliments of British 
Airwavs. on Concorde, and 
U3S $honl\ afterwards to be 
seen sipping champagne at 
gelling on fora thousand miles 
an hour. Asked about the trip, 
she said that it had been 
planned some lime in ad- 
vance. and that her only worry 
had been thai she pop 
olT before it arrived*'. 

We are delighted that she 
did not. But we must reveal 
that the Concorde experience 
was noi ihc first time this 
vcicrjn gadabout had dis- 
plavcd a belated passion for 
rapid movement. At the age of 
ins she had iravclicd. again 
with ihe compliments of the 
management, on one of British 
Rail's fastest trains, clocking 
up 1 23 mph. ( At that spe^d she 
mav well have had no time to 
noiia* the dirt.) 

Far be il from us to dis- 
courage enterprise and daring: 
tliesw'ift old lady has doubtless 
pul heart inlo many elderly 

people who had begun to think 
that nothing interesting would 
ever again happen to them. 
Only we do feel bound to ask: 
where is it going to end? 

First, this alarming 
centenarian embarks in a form 
of transport that was still in its 
infancy when she was bom: 
nc.NL she leaps to a mode that 
was not invented until she was 
in her thirties: il docs not need 
much imagination to think of 
a third form of mechanized 
progress, the earliest expm'- 
nicnts on which were being 
made at just about the time she 
began hcrlongand - atfast - 
exciting life. Will $hc give us 
an assurance that she is not' 
about to leap inlo a racin^car 
and hasten about at the maxi- 
mum velocity? 

Mind: wc do not sugg^i that 
ifshc is going to get behind the 
wheel, goggled and crash- 
helmcled. she will be in the 
least likely to drive -recklessly, 
or even w-iihout due care and 
attention. But she could hardly 
deny that she docs have a taste 
for speed, and wc confess that 
something in us feels, however 
illogically or even unfairly, 
that for a lady of 109 to be 
consianiK whizzing about is 


not — well, to be blunt, not 
quite seeiir/y. 

Hamlet had a decided view 
of the subject, and expressed it 
forcibly when his mother 
merely announced that she 
was going up in a balloon: ''At 
your a^. the heyday in the 
blood is tame, it waits upon 
the jud^menL** The truth is. 
the imitative effect of our 
heroine's jaunts could well 
lead to the airways, the rails 
and the roads becoming 
iammed with crowds ofSenior 
Citizens hurtling about in a 
manner that could do their 
blood pressure no good. (And 
what about the sca-lancs? She 
has said nothing, so far. about 

A compromise suggests it- 
self. Let us dub together and 
buy her one of those amuse- 
meni-arcadc machines that 
simulaica hair-raising drive at 
very high speed: it could easily 
be adapted to change, at the 
touch of a button, from car to 
plane, and from plane to BR 
express. But while this is being 
arranged, let us hope that she 
does not decide to visit a 
circus, lest she should see a 
spangled lady being shot out of 
a cannon, and get ideas. 


Easing the way in 

From Mr Patrick Camdf 
Sir. Id an otherwise thou^tfiil 
article os what should be done to 
check the ever<s(Heading blight of 
unemployment in this eount^ 
Graham Seaijeant (Au^ 18) 
makes a curious omission. He 
does not si^gest retiring at 60 men 
who are presently having to wait 
until 65 to colleci their pension. 

There is no reason why many of 
the IAS0.000 men in the age 
group 60^ in the United King- 
dom tiioiiJd not welcome retire- 
ment if their reasonable 
expectations of a pension are 
fulfilled. This would dear the way 
for making substantial inroads 
into the "2^ million out of work, 
who might be in work" mentioned 
by Graham S^'eant 

The continuation of different 
retirement rates for men and 
women in the State pension 
scheme is itself an anom^ that u 
overdue for rectification, tlie wiA 
now reflected in legislation for 
employment is for equal opportu- 
nities and equal rewards. 

The baric State penrion in the 
United Kingifom is comparatively 
low by international standards, 
having been increased in July by 
40p for a single person to £38.70 
and by 6Sp to £63.95 for a married 
couple. So the net cost on this 
score would be low after taking 
into account what could be saved 
on unemployment benefit. 

The action by the French Gov- 
ernment to loner the pension age 
for evoyone to 60 from 6S, taken 
around 1981, has met with a 
general acceptance across the 
Frendi political qiectrum and has 
been successful in belp^ to 
contain unemptoyment among 
young people to a substantially 
lower level than we have experi- 
enced in the United KingdcHn. 

Private penrion schemes in tbe 
United Kingdom are known to 
show in many cases substantial 
surpluses over valuation of liatMl- 
ities. Le., an excess of assets over 
past service reserves. A suitable 
use of such surpluses is to increase 
bendits by w^ of eariier retire- 
ment of memb^ 

Some leading British indus- 
trialists, who are aware of the cost 
of earlier retirement felting on 
their company pensions sdiemes. 
are also aware of the 
‘incalculaUe" cost unempb^ 
ment amcHig young people and are 
advocating measures of this kin^ 
Of course the cost in terms of 
increased pmirion benefits at a 
time when the population is 
ageing merits serious study. Tbe 
necessary acuiarial and statistical 
research could be done with a ■ 
modicura of financial support 

Yours feithfuDy, • - 

P. S. CARROIl, Director, 

Centre for Actuarial Statistics, 

3S Catnonbary Road. NL 
August 18. 

and out of jobs 

From MrJ. & Chadwick 
Sir. Id his Comment today (Au- 
gust 18) Graham Seageant could 
perhaps have added the worcte 
'XNcalth for the nation" at the end 
of his statement that "the burden 
of the Thatcher revolution is to 
remind us that growth is people 
pi^ucing more". 

Surely It's the system, or if you 
wirii the volume of statuioiy 
le^lation. which largely causes 
people not to bother about 
producing national wealth. 

A recent example makes tbe 
poinL A Chinese lady wished to 
convert a long-standing fish and 
chip shop into a Chinese hot food 
take-away. F6r a short period 
before the change, and in order 
that the premises were not left 
vacant, toey were used^ as an 
antiques shop, for which no 
frianning ^iplication was nec- 

However, in order to put the 
originai (dan into effect the Court 
of App^ was ultimately to be 
invoNed in rontortions of ^tas- 
tic proportions in inteipreting the 

If o^ the junior in the plan- 
ning office had turned a blind eye 
or usol common sense (or been 
allov^ to), consider the saving in 
time, cost (taxpayers' expense) of a 
multitude of |)eople, planning 
department sfefT, ooundUofs. 
strficitors. barristen. Civil Ser- 
vants. counsri. inspectofs, min- 
isteis, j'udges etc, as the final battle 
was between the borough ooundl 
mid the Secretary of Stale. 

To revert to toe b^innii^ . . 
growdi is people producing more" 
— morevAat? 

Yours feithfully, 


BeauchieC Wycombe Road. 
Hcrimer Green, Biidringhamriirrft. 

Pension bonanza 

From Mr John G. M. Stamp 
Sir. When I retired in 1972 I 
visited tbe labour exchange in 
OTder to arrange for my old age 
pension to be remitted. Amiar- 
entiy. I was also due a small 
earuings-related penrion of £1.0i5 

It was then that tiie manager 
emerged from his office, shook me 
warmly by the hand and congratu- 
lated me as the first penrioner in 
his tom to "break the £ barrier", 
as be put it 

That pension eventurily grew to 
£2.10 a week — that is until the 
payment which I have just re- 
ceived from a kindly DHs who 
informed me that my afore- 
mentioned penrion bad been in- 
creased by LI per cent which has 
been rounded up to 3p to £2. 13 a 

On what shall I spend the extra 

I am. Sir, yourobedientservant, 

6 Wingate Way, 

Trompington, Cambridge. 

Power from the sun 

Fhom Processor Rtdxn Hill 
Sir, In his i^ter of August 14, 
Professor Biyce-Smitb advocates 
the use of $o^ cells for large-scale 
electricity generatioo in tbe UK; 
but it is an unfortunate feet that 
elecnrid^ generated on sumpier 
days has littie value when our praik 
demand Is in winter. Until 
electricHy strange costs and 
efficiencies improve dramatically, 
the Cenuai Dectridty Generating 
Board would be unwise to con- 
sider solar dectricity generation. 

Tbe solar ceil indu^ in the 
UK is. however, growing rapidly 
at preset and indudes an amor- 
phous silicon production plut set 
up by Chronar Ltd in feridgend 
with the assistance of tbe Depart- 
ment of Trade and Industry and 
the Welsh Office. 

Solar cells have a vital role to 
play in promoting social and 
economic development in tbe 
Third Worid, through water 
pumping. Uritting, communica- 
tions aM vaedne refrigeration 
and are attractive for power 
generation in southern EEC coun- 
tries where megawatt-sized 
projects are now undra* consid- 

The solar technologies apino- 
priate to large-scale dq>l 9 ymeBt in 
the UK include passive solar 
beating, which could provide over 
25 per cent of our space beating, 
bio-conversion of wastes and vribd 
generation of electricity, which 
even on the CEGB's cautious 
estimate could supply ^ per cent 
of our needs. 

These tedinolo^es. plus a ma- 
jor investment in enerigy 

could make a rig^cant 
contribution to a secure energy 
future for the UK. despite their 
misrepresentation in the recent 
emotive arid tendentious speech 
by the Secretary of State for 

Yours sincerely, 

ROBERT HILL (Chairman, 

UK Section, International Solar 
Energy Sodety), 

Newcastle Photovohaics 
Applicatioos Centre, 

Newcastle- upon T^ie. Poly- 
technic. Ellison Place. 

Newcastle upon Tyne. 

August 18. 

I^diadian harmony 

From the Chairman t^ the Bath 
PresenWMn Trust 

Sir. Mr Henderson's comments on 
glazing bars (August 1 5) strike an 
answering diord here at. the Bath 
Preservation Trust Wc have b^ 
campaigning for the restoration of 
the cornea glaring hers in the 
Palladian buildings of Bath for 

Wc have a fond for restorations 
of this son. to which many lovers 
of Bath have contributed, and this 
enables us to give grams of up to 
30 pa cent to owners of 
buildings who wish to put back the 
original windows: wc cannot 
however, oblige them to do this. 

. The glazing bars are an.intraral 
pan of tiic overall harmony of^ 
original designs and we v^ much 
wi^ that owners of homes in tbe 
Rc^-al Crescent would foifow the 
example of the Royal Crescent 
Hotd and those few othens who 
have restored them. The improve- 
ment would be immense. 

Yours feithfully. 

Bath Preservation Trust 
Countess of Huntingdon's Chapd. 
The Vineyards. 

Bath. Avon. 


Sister dioceses in 
UK and S Africa 

From the Bishop of 
Sir. Your leading anicic of July 31 
was an accurate appraisal of the ' 
futility of attempts by the outside 
world so fer to end amnheid in 
South • Africa. It , offered -no 
consuuctive alternative, however, 
in promoting the real objeoive hi 
tha t bdeapiered country — 
namely, to replace the present 
system ofgovernmCTl “wifoa ji« 
govenimait established for the 
common of ail the proirie" 
(The Kairos Document 43). 

In February this year, the 
diocese of Brentwood twjnn^ 
with a diocese in South Afrka in 
which over 90 per cent of the 
population is black. Since that 
time, a growing number of 
schools, parishes and individuals 
have linked and are now in touch 
with one another. We have discov- 
ered sev^ ways in which we en 
play a small but valuable pan in 
building a more just society there. 

Firstly, we are beginning to pray 
together, which has the effea 
putting us all on tbe same side 
with a common problem. Sec- 
ondly. we are deepening our 
knowledge and understanding of 
the lives of the people who are 
living under the apartheid q^stem. 
Thirdly, we have a unique 
oppoitunio, through this link, to 
f x prg r s our solidari^ with tiiem 
and to affirm their infinite value 
and dignity as human brings, 
whether they are Mack. Colour^ 
Indian or white: 

Fourthly, we support the vita) 
work of the Church there, vdiidu 
in spite of acute shorties of 
money and of raanpomer, contin- 
ues to offer opportunities to the 
people denied to them under the 
apartheid system. In education 
and trauiing of all kinds: in heahb 
care; in integration and commu- 
nity building between people of all 
races: and in countless other ways 
workir% with them as th^ prepare 
to play a part in tbe running of the 

Of course, involvement of this 
kind is not in itself a solution to 
South Africa's problems: but I am 
reasured of its value and im- 
portance from tbe many letters 
reoriv^ from people living in oiir 
sister diocese, as th^ siru^ so 
painfully towards a more just and 
peaceful future fr>r their country. 
Yours feithfully. 
rrHOMAS McMahon. 

Bishop's House, 


Ingatestdne, Essex. 

August 19. 

Nuclear dumpily 

.Stir. :0n.. August; 19. pn.ihc back . 
page of Tine TinKSi you displayed 
a piaure of me standing wiifi my 
children beside the roadside at - 
Fulbeck to register my raotest. 
along with a few hundred other 
local Lincolnshire residents, 
against Nirex's proposals to exam- 
ine the potential of Fulbeck air- 
field as a nudear dump. 

Your Icadii^ article described 
US as middle-^cd hooligans. My 
Oxford English Dictionary' defines 
hooligan as "one of a gaim of 
young roughs" . The usc. oT the 
term hooligan is cfcariy incorrect, 
but I thank you for restoring my 

Yours feithfully. 


Sclfordykc. Westborou^.. 

Nr Newark. Nottingham^irc. . 
August 21. • . 

For the record 

From Mrs C. J. Mabey 
Sir, Why. does everyone have to ' 
have a tratic.record nowadays? If it 
is because we have become a 
nation of joggers, we must also 
have devrieved one-tiack minds. 

The Guinness Book qF Trt^ 
Records, which presumably we 
now await, will be misleading to 
foreigners. However, if' we must 
keep ip with the times, we shall 
just, like' Hamlet have to "wipe 
away all trivial fond records" 
prepare for our ultimate interview 
with tbe Trade-Recording Ang^ 
Yours feithfully, 


35 Sandhills Road, 
fiarnt Green. Binninghant 

Back to school 

From Mrs Us Williams 
Sir. I agree whb Stuart Sexton's 
view (feature, August 13) that 
education policy mil be a major 
feaor up to and beyond the next 
eleoion. and that "the Govern- 
ment is not pereeived as having 
done a good job". 

What does be tiiink has woken 
the slequng army of parents to the 
current .of concern and 

dissatisfection? It was not concern 
with the way -the schools were 
■being run: it was the stark reality 
of Qur children bring sent home, 
day in. month out. and sometimes 
for weeks at a time, as a result of 
the teachers* pay dispute, Milch 
the Govenuneot refused to talse 

The dispute had parats coming 
to' meetings in tbrir bundrids, 
with the vast majority supporting 

tbe teachers* case, if not always 
their tactics. 

If MrSexton thinks the Govern- 
ment deserves praise for two 
years' dimption of schooling he 
can't have spoken to many parents 
or pupils or felt the an^ and 
frustration that has built up at the 
under-valuing of education. 

Now tiiat we parents are aware 
of our riectoial s tr e n gth, we shall 
be aridng serious and informed 
questirais of tbe politicians as we 
approach tbe next election.- But 
the first desperate need is to get 
teacbm and children back in the 
classrooms from day 1 of the new 
term and without imemipUon 
thereafter. Only then should we 
think of the future. 

Yours feitfafiilly, 


39 Dartntouth Road. NWl 
August 15. 

Yellow peril 

FnnnDrTrudvA.WaU ' 

Sir. Your recent correspondents 
(August If. 16. 17) have rightly 
drawn attention to the jtoisonous 
nature of ragwort and to its 
current profusion both in pastures 
grazed by horses and on roadside 

I have found that in southern 
En^nd- different species of rag- ' 
wort usuallv grow in these two 
habitats. The common ragwort 
Senecio jactdkttv. ‘ thrives in 
grazed fields, whereas ho^* rag- 
wort. Senecio' erucifb/tus. ts'eom- 
monl> found b> the roads. 
'Howc\cr. both contain poisonous 

alkaloids and so could pose a 
threat to Mvcsiock. 

Rcocm work in this department 
has shown that hoary ragwort 
could grow from seed in low- 
fectiiiiy grassland heavily grand 
by sh^ but its seedlings were 
much less able to tolerate oom- 
peution from the grass than were 
those of common fsgwon. 

So the spread of hoary ragwort 
is unlikefy to be a jjrtfolem in well 
managed p^ures. It could invade 
grassland in which large bare 
patches have formed as a result 
o^‘Clgrazi^g. alihou^ its 'sub- 
sequent growth would probably be 
loss vigraous than that of common 

ragwort in fertilized pasture. 
Yours feJthfolly. 

T. .A W.ATT. 

Oxford. Forestry Institute. ■ 
South Parks Road. Oxford. 
August 17. 

Fn»n Dr David Kohnan 
Sir. By afl means go ahead and 
remove ragwort from areas where 
livestock might cat its poisonous 
flowers, but risewhcrc please spare 
a thought .for the cinnabar moth, 
whose major food plant it is. and 
let them both sun-ivc. . 

Yours feithfuliv. 

David norman. 

' Rbwswood Cottage. 

Ridding Lane: Sutton Wcaicr. 

. Runcorn. Cheshire. . 


august 25 1927 

What dw Dresfus^riiW 
Fmnce, *) uww the Steen- Van; 



eoirto America 77ie ten 
worchui Ibdians were found 
euUty of mimler Ut 1921; th^ 
were exeaitriiert August 33, 193/. 

I The politick ba^round aroused 
srrat coterooeray, whieh has aeoer 
' di^ down. In 1977 the then 
Governor (dhfassachusetta 
rertu^ *imystiffnocnddisfpace 
from the names of Soeeo and 


(From Our Own Conc^ondeiiL) 
PARIS. Aug. 34 
The material damage wMch was 
done daring tiie Sacco-Vanatti 
riots (xapooied in Ute Times 
ye^eidqy) in Piaris last xd^ is 

Afterbring driven from tbe main 
boulevards ^ the police, some of 
the xioteta reassemUed in hfote- 
martie, wbete they attacked caba 
rets known to be f re we B te d by 
American vfslton. Others, «dio 
had .fe^ to reach tbe United 
Statte ^ifoBBsy. ptbeted at the 
Etoile. .... 

Inthe nMantinie.n bo&’ of aboot 
SOO triad to xetum oiaw Boole- 
vard SriNStopol to the Porte St 
Martin. TiRie they atta^ed shops 
(porticiilaxly those with En^^ 
names and American shoe sh^) 
^enteen shm in the street were 
wredeed and ue windows looted. 
All the newteaper kiefes were 
wrecked, and the testings Mifeh 
protect the trees were broken vp 
and used as misriles.. In the 
Boulevard de CEcfay also a 
many shgiB were attacked and die 
whidows rathe hfikado Cafe were 
brokoL While the cro w d 
passing In the Cbanips Efysees a 
revolver shot was frw tbe 
teiraoe of the Cafe Tortonl The 
mob tberojprai stoned the cafe and 
broke its windows and thoee of the 
Hotel Chambord next door. . . . 

(From Our Own Corie^ioiident) 
BERimAqg.24 . 
One man was kiOed and a number 
of persons were iqjuretLat 
IsBt n^t after .a Commiaiist 

demonstratioa of protest agahut 
the exeeribm' Of Saooo and 

When one of tbe diqMising 
processions reached tbe'Mmqdats 
the priice on duty -tried to make 
way fra a tramcar, Tbe mob turned 
on them. One was knocked down 
and beaten ami two received knife 
wounds. 11m crowd then attadted a 
police station amid cries of "Re- 
venge for Sacco and VanzettiT 
Kn^ the- dogs.'ddtvbr’ He 
p(^ defending the statirai were 
ateailed paving stones and 
pitees dinm; Hard pressed, th^ 
fired' a few -shots frran their 
nvohms and two persons were fait. 
Cfaie. a youth of 19, died immedi- 
ate^ ato admission to hospitsL 
Communists took tbe bo<^ away in 
a motor-car and paraded it thrcMI^ 
the streets and past the United 
States Consulate, shout^ **The 
first victim of tbe Sacco-Vanzetti 
scandal”. ... 

(From Our Own CorreqioDdmits.) 

SYDNEY, Aug. 24 . 
More than 1,0(X) men were dis- 
missed at the City railway worics 
today ovring to th^ unauthorised 
absrace yesterday on the occasion 
of a Sacco-Vansetti protest march, 
and have been infonned that they 
can aivbF for re-employment 
through the Labour Bureau. The 
men are now seeking Ministerial 
aid to ' secure 

rp iriBla to itMm t- ... 

MELBOURNE, Aug. 24. 

aHhftng h Tift p»Mw» 

rot^ aminst (be eseciitioa of 
Sateo and vanretti was by 
membeis of the Mriboume trade 
iffiioiie, die Austialarian Coundl of I 
TVade Umons has resolved to 
launch a boycott of Amraiean 
goods because of what it all^ieg to 
be the izdustice of the sentence. . . . 

(From Our Crareqiondent.) 

GENEVA. Aug. 24 
Order may now be considered as 
conqiletely restored in Geneva, 
thanks to. the stm^ r na nair aj 
taken by the police in 
with the riotras, were assisted by 
.about 600 gardes aoiquea — chi- 
I sm belonpng to the anti-Bcdshe- 
vist orgBUBation. . . • 

fFtem ODrGrareqxwdent) 
BRUSSEtf. Aug. 34. 

A meetiiQ of protest, oraanized b* 
Communists, against tbe esecutioi 
of Sacco and Vanzetti was held h 
Brussels toniriit. About 1.600 per 
sons were present. . . . 

Looldng askance 

From the Chainnan t^the Britisii 
Rail Environm^ Acne/ 

$ir. I should like to thank Di 
Lister Wilson (August 19) -fte the 
suggestion of chevron-angled 

name boards at the ends of station 
platforms to inform passengers 
travelimg through at sp^ h fe an 
cxcelleot idea and we shall install 
some experimentally at selected 
ImerCity stations io see how well 
they work. We are considerins 
Grantham as thefirst candidate. 
Yours feithfoUy. 

British Rail Environment Panel 
Brititii Railways Board. 

Rail House. Eu^ Square. NWl 
August 21. 

On the fast line 

Front Mr John Biggs 
Sir. You lepon (August 20) tha 
athlete has won the Brit^ ] 
srain^ tro|foy. You omit 
mention how long the plaifl 



1 19 Longton Avenue, 
Sydenham, SE26. 

August 20. 






- ■>;! 




■ r-rs; 

* i'. 

. • ' ^ 



•. V! 




**lA'hat can' a yoong lassie do 
hP an auld man?** HTOte 
Robert Bums. Unrortwiately 
the great Scots bard did not 
live loog enough to ]d'e us a 
defflORstration. Jih^^ how- 
ever, from SaturdayV frolic^ 
tiome The Pioaghman Poet 
(Channel 4) he had already 
done more tlan enoi^ irith 
wee lassies in his near 40 

liiis witty film bk^raphy 
Has part of the Stamp of 
{/irariMsr series, wbicli tells 
the stories behind Scottish 
faces on postage stamps. 
Boms did not make h phila- 
telkally until 1966 — and that 
Has in the Sovj^ Unkw ~ but 
there was nothing he did not 
know about stamping hb im- 
agfi nearer home. He not only 
seems to have bedded almost 
ever}' lassie he met bnt to have 
given each a one bairn as well. 
The anther of *^faonld anld 
acquaintance be forgot** cer- 
tainly knew how to "Mb* 
himself Temembeied. Even as 
be was beiiv laid to rest 
another spitting likeness of 
himself was behig thrust in*" 
the Horld. 

Bill Wyman did not reveal 
anythiim either about what a 
yonim I^ie mhlht do with an 
aoM man in Whistle Test's 
**speda]** on 7%e RoUiag 
Snmes (BBC2, Saturday), a 
cebbled4(mether coUecfioa of 
dips in which the rock 
wrinklies ribbed tlsw earnest 
inleniewer, David Hepwoitk 
However, Wynun did admit 
that, when be was a resp^ 
sible young family man witt 
drainpipe trousers and a jobi 
he thoig(bt the shabbOy 1^^ 
haired Mkk Jigger and Keifii 
Richard were beatniks — only 
he was not quite sore what 
beatniks were. Apparently 
dagger and Richards were so 
poor and cold one whiter they 
spent it in bed. They were 
alHaj-s bwn survivors. And 
there they sdll were, idl those 
years later, recdving their 
"lifetime achievement** 
Grammy award hatring sur- 
vived aU that sex, drugs and 
rock V roll coald dirow at 
them — even the tax-man. 

Poor Robbie Bums eoold 
not beat die tax-men so he 
joined theoL lUding to work 
gave him some mn^-needcd 
cold showers. wUas, they dlss 
killed him. Somdinies yon get 
more than enough of what yon 

Andrew Hislop 

The. trouble with planning the 
Proms, as Robert Ponsonby might 
confirm (the current season is his 
ihirtccnih and fast), is that they 
aspire to be all things to all persons. 
More new music, more old. more 
British, more forct^. more popu- 
lar. more adventurous, more big 
names, more new fhees: each 
demud has its vociferous 
aiguiiig thgu with 60 concerts 
available, the world's finest mu- 
sicians queuing up to p4ay and the 
BBCs unlimited resources « hand, 
nothing could be easier rhan 
accomodating their particular 
hobli^horse. could it? 

With this season two-thirds over, 
the cunning of Ponsonby's juggling 
is obvious. There /ssomethingfor 
nearly everyone, and for some — 
those -who &vour Bruckner sym- 
phonies. intense 30ih-ccntury op- 
eras or the BBC Symphony 
Orchestra striving to emprfoy every 
ficclancc horn and percussion 
player in London in order to 
mount bloated Romanfic epics — a 
good deal more than that. 

The reward has been good 
audiences, in so far as ibe naked 
eye can judge in the Albert Hall. 
&mc critics may have sighed at the 
number of conceits following the 
venerable “ovcrture-conceno-sym- 
phony** formau but when such 
events — played by respectable but 
by no means worid-cla&s ensembles 
— arc drawing crowds of S.0Q0 it is 
hard to disagree that the public 

|||Hpil||||||H This season’s Proms have run two-thirds 

of their course: Richard Morrison asks 

whether they are on quite the right track 

A home for every 

iiu u uy "iiui isc l 

VeniOD Handley, grossly DDderrafed. giving an electrifying Bdshazzfltr’s fiuxr 

Gny de Mey, memorably foremost in the title-role of Orfeo the first weekend 

should, sometimes, be ^ven what 
it appears to want. The one really 
poor house so far. for Dalla- 
piccola's marvellous but unknown 
// prigioniero. could probably have 
Ixxn doubled had the opera bMn 
coupled with a work less certain to 
administer the kiss of death at the 
box-office than fictg's Chamber 

But big crowds do not necessar- 
ily guarantee a sense of excitement 
and h is this quality that has been 
in short supply in this ^well- 
balaneed" season. Certainly there 
have been the big events: a 
splendid Mahler Ei^t to launch 

the ship (but has this celebrity not 
launched the same ship too often 
before?): an cfcctrifying Betshec- 
zar's Feast under the country's 
most undcrraied conductor. Ver- 
non Handley. The grand gesture of 
the first weekend — a bold schedul- 
ing of arcane Renaissance court 
music and. Monteverdi's Oifeo in 
an authentic production which 
many predicted would sink, in the 
Albert Hairs acres — also paid off 
handsomely. Otfea. in pohicuiar. 
introduced several tiring stars of 
the early-muric field (the outstand- 
ing tenor Guy dc Mcy foremost, in 
the thie-role). In a season which 

otherwise leans heavily for its 
authentic oflbrings on me same old 
“big four" (Piitnock. Norringion. 
Gardiner, l^rrott) new faces were 

But no amount of clever 
programing will excite an audi- 
ence if the players do not seem 
excited ihcmsclvcs. Several times 
in this current season one has felt 
that those on the platform were not 
committing body and soul as 
wholeheartedly as those hundreds 
of youngsters who queue for. and 
stand through, these concerts. If 
only alt tte professional orchestras 
displayed the zest of the National 

Youth Orchestra in Messiaen's 
Turan!ialila-‘Symiihonic. or the un- 
bridled lust for the limelight so 
obvious in the playing of the 
Chamber Orchestra of Europe. 

in this respen the lead offered by 
the BBCs own orchestras has been 
variable. It was especially dis- 
appointing that the BBC Phil- 
harmonic; w'hich has done such 
valuable studio woric in difficult 
r^noires. failed to shine in front 
of a huge live audience, although 
Bcrnha^ Klee's bland conducting 
must be held partly responsible. At 
least the BBC Welsh was admirably 
fired up under Mariss Vansons. 

Similarly, some soloists have 
revelled mon: than others in the 
Proms* peculiar pressures. Com- 
parative youngsters like the 
ish trumpeter Hakan Hardcnbcrger 
and the violinist Annc-Sophic 
Mutter managed to put rarely- 
heard or unknown concertos over 
admirably: they will surelv be 
invited back as often as the 'BBC 
can afford them. More seasoned 
soloists sometimes failed to say 
anything new about cither them- 
selves or the evergreens at their 

When that happens one again 
questions the wisdom of the Proms 
in including war-horses which are 
aired weekly on the South Bank. 
Surely in these days of wall-to-wall 
Radio ^ good record libraries and 
all sorts of student ticket discounts, 
the old concept of the Proms 
“introducing a new audience to the 
clas$i(n“ is redundant. 

Their prime task now must be 
the broadening ofaudicnces for the 
rare and the new. Henze's masterly 
Seventh Symphony, gjxcn its UK 
premiere by a well-prepared CBSO 
under Rattle: the resuscitation of 
Z^mlinsky's orchestral songs; Da- 
vid Atherton's tmpassione^ham- 
pioning of Dallapiccola: a blaze of 
Lisztian splendour ihrou^ the 
.Albert Hall organ's 32-roots: ih^ 
are the sounds that have imprinted 
themselves on this lisiem^s 

Growing Up in the Gorbals^ the sensitive autobiography of 
the psychologist and economist Ralph Glasser, has already 
been compai^ in quality to a latter-day Cider with Rosie, 
interview by Andrew Rissik 

The struggle to develop 


Theatre: Irving W»dle 

- Blood Wedding 

- Lyceum 



With the impending end of the 
3Q-ycar copyri^L which until 
now has imprisoned his plays 
in a dreadful official transla- 
tion. the English stage is due 
for a Lorca boom; and Edin- 
burgh has usefully celebrated 
his liberation in Iasi week's 
two Spanish-Ianguagc produc- 
. lions — the 1 5-year-oId Espert- 
' Garcia vcisidn of Yerma. 
followed by this Madrid trans- 
fer of his first “rural tragedy**. 
Intending British explorers in 
. this uncharted territory could 
take these two shows as its 
'■ polar extremes: total baroque 
' cxiravagancc in the case of 
Garda, and the utmost auster- 
itv in Jose Luis Gomez's 
BUmd WeddUig. 

' . The sioiy of an old fetid. 

. . revived when the bride of an 
injured family elopes with the 
^ son of her bridegroom's fam- 
. • ily enemies, the play ihmoosly 
' displays Lorca's powers of 
. poetic integration. The plot 
'/derives from an actual case. 

- • and the play duly incorporates 
'.its naturalistic origins: ai the 
same time it is loaded with a 
• . sense of the .AndalusUm past. 

• . the sense of fatality, the 
, ancient blood code: and as the 
' tragedy adiances it takes leave 

of the ordinary ceremonies of 
village life for a m^ forest 
where human characters are 
joined by the figures of Death 
and the Moon. 

In Gomez's production 
ma^ is achieved exciurively 
through lighti^ and music 
Man^ Bittrich's set oilers 
no more than an unchanging 
picture of the utmost simplic- 
ity showing two cut-out door- 
ways and a prospect of distant 
hills. When the time comes, 
his lifting is fully capable of 
changing this environment 
into a zone of unearthly 
shadows where the Moon — in 
the likeness of an androgy- 
nous nude — can embark on a 
slow march to the kill in 
^aduaily strengthening lighL 
BuL until these final scenes, 
the production trusts Lorca to 
achieve his own integration of 

The most important direc- 
torial decision is to play out 
the private drama in public. 
Scenes are presented in the 
(breground under the observa- 
tion of the villagers, celebrat- 
ing or mounting events that 
reflect all their lives. When the 
action does involve them, as 
in the 'w^ing party, the 
exhilaration and dread of the 
prindpab nins throu^ them 
like an electric current. There 
is very little formal dancing in 
the show: yet the entire com- 
pany seem engaged in a dra- 
matic dance. 

i^th the main characters, 
the choreographic pattern of 
advance and retreat takes on 
an intensdy sexual form. The 
forbidden lover (Helio Ped- 
regai) visits the bride and 
becomes irresistibly mag- 
netized by her emf^ shoes 
lying on the floof. At the 
wedding feast he comes and 
goes like a fht^ spectre forever 
drawn back to her. Even his 
'wife's lullabies are accomp^ 
nied by the sound of his 
clandestine hoofbeais. And. in 
his . climaaic erotic scenes 

with Gloria Munoz, the great- 
est passion is expressed 
through combat and separa- 
tion. “Wherever you go, 1 go", 
he says, hurling her away mm 
him across the sta^. 

As with sex, so vdth revenge 
in the iransformation of 
Gemma Cuervo from a 
mother terrified of further 
kiliirra into the insugator of 
the final dud. I cannot 
that, as with Yermau this 
production dissolves the 
Spanish cultural barriers: 
there are no performers here 
of Esperi's stature. But its 
fusion of naturalism, dream 
and spdlbitiding Spanish song 
is an experience 1 hope English 
companies will learn to 



For an its down-to-earth 
comic manner, Tom Mc- 
Grath's play is as pessunistk a 
statement about modern Brit- 
ain as I have seen on either 
side of the border. 

Based on research in a 
Dundee housing estate, it tells 
the story of a group of tenants 
who wage a two-year cam- 
paign to improve their 
wretched living conditions. 
Mobilized by a ^rl student 
and a community aichilecL 
they set out to goad the 
lethargic district hbusii^ com- 
mittee into action, d^ing the 
bureaucrats a picture of life in 
Ae *^5031^ with its roving 
buKls of muggers and packs of 
wild dogs, meial-shuttered 
shops and cramp^ decaying 
homes, and drawing up pre- 
cise proposals for environ- 
mental chwge. Meanwhile, 
you see these stoical under- 
dogs developing into articu- 
late citizens, acquiring infor- 
mation and the nerve to stand 
up in public. 

Then the housing commit- 

tee responds. Hrst by propos- 
ing to install mail-boxes and 
intercoms (both sure to be 
instantly vandalized); and 
then by declaring that the 
group frave lost ilmr place in 
the repairs queue by taking 
matters into their own hands. 
Th^ would have been better 
if they had done nothing. 

Cutting across this hopeiess 
fable, however, is the story of 
Kora, a single parent whose 
main joy in life is to kc^ on 
enlarging the family which is 
already causing her house u> 
burst at the seams. As the firA 
recruit to the tenants' ^up. 
Kors seems to be a self- 
improver along the lines of 
Corky's TheMofhor. But. ash 
turns out. she is strictly a 
tnological eanh mother, eye- 
ing every man who enters her 
living room as a p^'ble 
supplier of her next child. As 
the men includea local police- 
man (in an underpolired area) 
and the chairman of the 
dislria council you can see 
that Kora's maternal instincts 
could supply a political 
truiup^ard outmatching any 
number of action-group 

Perhaps because the play is 
still andiored in its docu- 
mentary origins and Mr 
McGrath has too much re- 
spect for the characters to take 
farcical liberties -with them, 
this potentially hilarious deve- 
lopment remains unexplored: 
and there is a certain disloca- 
tion between Kora's story and 
the surrounding events. It 
remains a beautifully written 
piece, with a sour wit and 
hard-headed observation that 
rescues it from taint of 
wonbiness or fecile indlgna- 
tioir. a fine company of four 
led by Michelle Butt as the 
inesisiibly bovine heroine, 
and a production by Jenny 
Killick that rruiifiUly leaves 
you to imagine the children, 
dogs und alcoholic neigh- 

Maria Stuart 
King’s Theatre 

Sergei Sionimsky's opera 
rather puts one in the position 
ofDontc after bis exposure to 
ihc beatific vision: one knows 
there H-as an experience, but 
the terms for describing that 
c.\pericncc do not exist Criii- 
ci&m is, quite simply, power- 
less to deal with the utterly 
valueless. 1 have ransacked 
my memory', which includes 
some prciiy dufi* nights, and 
can find nothing -to compare 

Opera: Paul Griffiths 

with this for ineptitude. 

The music is just strum- 
ming. occasionally with syn- 
copation to give a bizarrely 
Gmhwinesque flavour to the 
court of Mary Queen of Scots. 
Otherwise it is totafiy lacking 
in counterpoint, melody, orc- 
hestral im^naiion and every- 
thing else, though I have to 
confess that I cannot speak for 
the third act the first two. 
carrying some deeply un- 
distinguished vocal peribr- 
mances. were quite enough. 

U becomes clear, at the end 
of a week of making allow- 
ances. that the Maly Theatre 

of Leningrad have little to 
commend them. What has yet 
to be explained is why this 
company should have been 
invited to an international 
festival and why a totally 
empty opera should have been 
pan of the package- Bui J shall 
remember one glorious image 
of the idiocy of the enterprise: 
that of John Knox and bis 
Presbyterians repeatedly 
crossing themselves, but care- 
fully in the manner of the 
Webern church. It was almost 
sufficient to make one wish 
the real Knox resurrecied to 
lash at them. 

Ralph Glasser's autobiogra- 
phy. Growing Up in the 
Gorhals. Is a remarkable piece 
of work, for^nuinely unusual 
reasons. VividN written, with 
a rare blend of sympathy and 
intelligence, it dneribes Glas- 
ser's toyhood and youth in the 
slums of Glasgow during the 
Twenties and 'Thirties, how he 
left school at 14 to become a 
garmeni-presser in a fectory. 
and how, almost by accident 
he entered an essay com- 
petition and won a scholar- 
ship to Oxford. The book ends 
as he prepares to turn his back 
upon the community which 
bred him. troubled by the 
prospea but resolved, never- 
theless. to face the adventure 
that lies ahead. 

In the intervening years 
Glasser's career has been 
rewarding and successful but 
he could not sensibly be 
described as widely known, 
except within his own special- 
ist fuJid. The jacket blurb 
terms him as “a psychologist 
and economist", ai^' he has 
spent most of the last;20 years 
wrestling with development 
problems in the Third World 
advising governments, speak- 
ing at conferences and con- 
ducting a fierce battle against 
the continual erosion of tra- 
ditional communities which 
are deemed to have outlived 
their usefulness. So he has no 
ready-made public reputation, 
or e^ily accessible area of 
expertise, from which to xll a 
book like Growing Up in the 
GorbaJs. 'Yet his publishers. 
Chatto & Windus. are suf- 
ficiently convinced ofits qual- 
ity and market value to have 
commissioned a second vol- 
ume before the fiist was in 
print The head of Chatto, 
Carmen Callil. says “I think it 
has the same quality as Cider 
with Rosie, although it's a very 
different sort of book. I really 
fell 1 was striding up and down 
those Glasgow hills.** 

Glasser admits that when he 
be^n to write the book, on 
spec, and naggingly unsure of 
whether it would find a 
readership, he had only a 
vague sense of destiny to guide 
him. “From as far afield as 
Bang^esh. I was coming 
steadily closer and closer to 
home, to Italy, then north to 
Iceland and finally to the 
Highlands. It was as if during 
all those years away. I was 
deliberately finding reasons 
for not gening ail that close to 
myself. The theme of much of 
my work in the Third World 
had been the decay of commu- 
nity and the loss of identity. It 
uas obvious that this had been 

working within me. at some 
very basic and personal level" 

Glasser describes himself as 
an oddball As a boy he knew 
he did not fit easily into the 
world, and, design^ by tem- 
perament to ask questions, he 
seems to have discovered a 
secretive emotional security in 
his sense of apartness and 
isolation. In childhood it 
made him open-mirtd^ and 
inquisitive, and he was book- 
ish and private, leaving school 
reluctantly out of sheer eco- 
nomic necessity. As an adoles- 
cent. h made him quietly 
sceptical of the rabid socialist 
cre^ that were rife on 
Clj^eside in those days, and 
which drove many of his 
contemporaries to fight in the 
Spanish Civil War. 

His parens were Lithua- 
nian Jews, refugees from the 
intolerable oppression of the 
East European ghettoes. spea- 
king Yiddish and looking for 
stabUi^ and peace in Glas- 
gow. Hhs father was a rabbi's 
son. a g^bler and spend- 
thrift loo impecunious ever to 
secure 'the meagre prosperity 
for which the &nily lohged. 
His mother was devoted and 
loyal in the manner of the 
times, but she died when 
Glasser was small riddled- 
with cancer and wasted by 
exhaustion. Years later, after 
he had left school for the 
factory. Glasser wrote his 
scholarship essay as a kind of 
bet with the Fates. Its title was 
“Has Science Increased Hu- 
man Happiness?", and be 
answered “No" as be has 
continued to do throughout 
his life. 

“1 wish I still had it. 1 lost 
it" he says, with a rueful 
smile. “But I grasped some- 
how that, to me. science 
hadn't any contribution to 
make. What struck me was the 
essential fact of the environ- 
ment in which I was living. 
People were struggling with 
their drcumsiances. not just 
their conditions. My feiher 
was an obsessive gambler and 
I must have understood that it 
was a flight from reality. I 
knew that what I saw of 
science didn't change the 
relationships between 

On the eve of his departure 
for Oxford, a friend called 
Alec, wbo died later on the 
Normandy beaches, warned 
Glasser of the brogue ano- 
nymity of the outside world, 
and stressed the strer^^ of 
the light little community he 
was leaving. “He was dead 
right I'd sum up now what 
Alec was trying to say as 

'human points of rcrcrence*. 
Looking back on it. that 
community moniiorcd itself. 
That's how ji diflered from iKe 
24-storey lowcr-hlocks whi^ 
have replaced it." 

It is those “human points of 
reference" which ^vc Gron'- 
ing Up in the Gorhals its 
remarkable emotional centre, 
which make it more than a 
simple ttarratlve and which 
allow it to aigue a case about 
human nature. Despite the 
poverty and depravation of 
his upbringing. Glasser was 
never fully seduced by the 
ferocious ideal of com- 
munisrrt os his messianic 
friend Bernard was. "The idea 
of the social mechanic seemed 
to me irrelevant It couldn't 
change th^ hean or the mind. 
It demanded that you con- 
form or else. It seemed to me 
to be utterly wrong and 
inhuman." Beriiard. who went 
aw^ to Spain, and became a 
policeman for the Pany. re- 
turned chastened and disillu- 
sioned by a system which took 
so little account of practical 
humanity. And. on Clydeside, 
when the horror of Stalin's 
show-trials began to become 
apparent Glasser remembers 
a stunned, unbcliering si- 
lence: “There had been 
tremendous hope. Even talk of 
making Clydeside an enclave 
of the Soviet Union. John 
MacLean was appointed So- 
viet vice-consul. No one could 
quite take in what was 
happening." It makes a pi- 
quant footnote to the story, as 
Glasser admits, to hear that he 
is sending his own children to 
private schools. 

Much of the value of the 
book lies in the way it 
coniinualiy confounds stereo- 
typical expectations. Glasser 
is not the Red Clyde revolu- 
tionary which fiction mi^t 
have made him. and there is 
little sense that he writes to 
settle old scores or jusiify 
himself. A memo, written for 
his publishers, catches beauti- 
fully his observant modesty 
and unsentimental evocation 
of a vanished world: “The 
entire Gorbals street plan 
having bwn bulldozed away. I 
spent many weeks studying 
old maps and. with their help, 
walking the length and 
breadth of the area, back and 
forth, over and over agun. till 
I had exactly plotted in the 
vast and empty spaces be- 
tween the tower blocks, the 
streets and landmarks I had 

CroHing Up in tltc (iorMs is 

publish^ on Thursday b>' 

Chatto & Windus at £10. OS. 




for fife 


Albert Hall/RBdio 3 

It was one of those Proms in 
which the programme-plan- 
ning was both pragmatically 
and acsthciicalK satisfying 
and in which orchestral en- 
semble playing vindicated its 
careful casting and training. It 
was one of those concerts, in 
shon. which made you feel 
jolly guilty for expecting more. 

But. if Stravinsky's Dion- 
bantm Oaky was a healthy 
counterweight to Nicholas 
Maw's Sonata for strings and 
two horns, then one wanted 
each one to weigh just a Mule 
more. And if Mozart's K4S6 
nano Concerto and his 
"Jupiter" Symphony should 
sign offtheir respective halves 
of the evening, then one 
length for a signature of 
livelier, more disiinciive 

Maw's mid-Sixiics Sonata is 
Strauss with a twist of lemon: 
swathes of lusciously divided 
melodic siring writing, shar- 
pened by animated counter- 
points and two horns who 
keep its required brief of 
contrast and reconciliation on 
its toes. It is a work which 
never dares to wind up quite 
enough before it is lime to 
wind down, and neither Jane 
Clover, nor her fine soloists. 
Chrisioirfier Newport and Pe- 
ter Francomb. could quite 
disguise the fact. 

In the piano concerto, frisky 
staccato rythms and light- 
weight bass provided a shon 
cut to the elusive spirit of the 
Allc^ vivace. . .As a result 
Tamas Vasar\- tended to over- 
compensate by anchoring ev- 
ery cadence in hard-pressed 
trillsand forging entries rather 
more eager than the orch- 

Hiis is not to say he did not 
make the piano speak just as 
pleasingly as Clover's {^>'crs. 
in the symphony the car was 
constantly drawn to the skill 
of her hand-picked team of 
wind soloists; but they had too 
little to say. .A neatly-phrased 
perkiness is simply not 
cnou^ for the stan of this 
work, and both its develop- 
ment and the finale's heady 
fugue showed little exciicmcni 
at passing the musical pared 
and uncovering its harmonic 

Hilary Finch 

Theatre in England 

Anyone Can 


Anf'one Can Whistle is early 
Stephen Sondheim, lyrical 
whimsical and precious. Writ- 
ten to a book by Arthur 
Laurents, the show was first 
staged on Broadway in 1964. 
when It lasted nine perfor- 
mances before vanishing into 
theatrical obscurity and musi- 
cal Ic^nd. .And. in its British 
premiere, this cuic. mild- 
mannered Sixties fantasy 
about madness, nonconfor- 
miiy and idealism in small- 
town America still seems 
dramatically half-baked. But. 
despite the loose and incon- 
^ucAiial plot, the show has 
its own surreal integrity and 
an airy cnchanimcni. 

The achievement, of course, 
is .Sondheim's. He knows that 
ibis daft moral fable about 
corrupt city officials, a lu- 
crati^-c Fake miracle, a pack of 
amiable weirdos who arc 
classed as insane, and a 
drromy-cyed nurse called Fay 
■Apple, who turns out to have a 

hean like a precision-built 
Swiss watch, is simply a 
vehicle for his filigree-rich 
melodic invention. The musi- 
cal is a kateidoscopic sequence- 
of revue sketches on the theme 
of the lunatics taking over the 
asylum, and it would be 
foolish to be too bad-tempered 
about the intractability of the 
narrative. Sondheim is using 
these dramauc bits and pieces 
to get people into positions 
where they can dance and 
sing. As characters, they are 
not rounded, and they have 
notiling imerestii^ lo say, but 
they work splendidly as a 
medium for the yearnings of 
his syncopated, uiban-ro- 
maniic soul. 

Sondheim is an old-fash- 
ioned crooner who composes 
in a jazzy, modernist idiom, 
and it is those piercing, biner- 
swoet harmonies for which he 
will be remembered. John 
Doyle's production is sensiUy 
picturesque, with the com- 
pany in Rowing, flower-power 
costumes. Pip Hinton is a 
^orious Lady Mayor, ebul- 
liently improvisii^ the flour- 
ishes of grand opera, while 
Marilyn Cutis makes Fay 
Apple mcltingly plausible. 

Andrew Rissik 

Invest now 
and start 
enjoying a 



LKome BoiDds now payii^ U25% 
0800 100 100 (&ee) time, 
send you details. 




tor sp 
day in 
to the 
of raci 
end 0 
to CO' 

12 mi 
next f 
his fe 
and ^ 

ST 25 1986 

aims to 
keep her 

same team 

Condnoed from 1 

see how the Prime Minister 
can create room at the top for 
ministers such as Mr John 
Wakeham, the Chief Whip, 
and Mr WiUiam Wald^rave, 
Minister of State at the 
Department of Enviionment, 
who are pressing for Cabinet 

Her options for moves 
involving senior figures such 
as Mr Kenneth Cl^e, Com- 
mons ^okesman on Employ- 
ment and Mr Peter Walker, 
Secretary of State for Energy, 
who both covet the health job, 
and Mr John MacGr^r, 
Chief Secretary to tte Trea- 
sury, who has been tipped for 
the agriculture ministry, are 
^so closely circumscribe 

Bui there seems little doubt 
that she will use the reshufiOe 
to mollify the right of her 
party, increasinriy restive at 
seeing their loydty g 9 largely 
unrewarded, by maldiig swe- 
eping changes at the middle 
and junior levels. 

‘10 million 
paid too 

A tMa na a haigwla SatiwJfly night as tire* HpgaigtateJ the area. Sevewl honaes were bmiltdOWn. 

much tax’ 

Continued from page 1 

Forest fires blaze 
in three countries 

By Onr Foreign Staff 

million was accounted for by 
those who, while correctly 
assessed, foiled to claim 
allowances to which they were 

Mr Tocb points out that 
thm are more than 1,000 
i(^ tax offices, of which 
800 are responsible for 

and the remainder for collec- 
tion of paymenL 

Althou^ the Collector of 
Taxes sends out tax demands, 
be is not responsible for the 
amounts demanded, whidi 
have b^ notified to him by 
Uie Inspector of Taxes. 

Each office handles the tax 
liabilities of about 40.000 
people, but PAYE woiIe, deal- 
ing with some 20 million 
taxpayers, has been 

Taxation Made Simple, by 
Henry Toch. William 
Hdnemaiui publi'shers. 

Soldiers, firemen, volun- 
teers and spedally-eqnipped 
airemft fou^t fteest fires 
during the weekend which 
destr^ped 250 acres eS pine 
forests in Greece, caused the 
eTacnatMHi of 2,000 peiqile and 
destro>'ed 1,600 acres of forest 
in France and took the total 
acreage destroyed in Sintin so 
for ti& year to nxne than the 
total for die whole aS 1985. 
FRANCE: Nearly 14N)0 fire- 
men, aided by 10 fir^fightii^ 
pfon^ battik to contain a 
blare stretching rh wHig h the 
hills behind Cannes. 

Fires, srune started ddib- 
erately, broke out in several 
places simnltaneoiisly in the 
Tanneron Massif in tiie Var 
region and aromid Grasse in 
tbe Alpes Maritimes region on 
Saturday afternoon and qnidt- 
ly ra^ out of cootroL 
SPAIN: Fires raged in north- 
east and sooth-west Spain 
yesterday, as the acre:^ 

burnt this year surpassed that 
destroyed in 1985. Authorities 
said almost half of the 64M0 
fires reported this year were 

Seven fires north of Bern- 
dorm were pnt oat on Friday 
and Saturday, hot new fires 
broke oot in the sooth-western 
area cl Las Hordes and at 
Haesca in the Pyrenees. Two 
blazes near the Catalan shrine 
of Montsorat m Satnrday 
were qmckly brof^lit under 

GREECE: Smne 250 acres of 
|Hne forest oh tiie western 
slopes of Mount Hymettis 
were consumed by a fire whid 
thradened two heavily pevn- 
lated snbarbs on tbe ontdchls 
of Athens on Satorday. 

Hie ftee, whidi stn^ wiads 
directed away from faonses, 
was pot out with die help of 
anny imits fire-fightiag 
aircraft. Police questioned five 

la* r - h 
' y ' 

A fire-fi ghting aircraft drops water tm a blaze in tiie hills behind Omnes. The airentit fiH 
spedal tonifs ivith mder from qnall Fesmroirs widd they keep stodred for the imrpose. 


5, Sun 2 to 6 (ends Sept 31} 
Ghosts: Recent Sculpture 



Organ redtal by Gordon 
Peterson. St Andrew and St 
Gcoige, Geofse St, Ediabaigli, 

Oigan recital by David Price, 
Nonrich CaihedraL 1 1. 

Recital by the Hanley Trio, 
Jubilee HaU. AMetar^ 6.15 

Choral redtal. Parish Church. 
St Cdnmb Maior, 8. 

Drawings by Esmond Bingham; 
Drawings and Prints Sasa 
Marinkov; New Work 

Concen by the Seaford Silva* 
and. De La Ware Pavilion 

Band, De La Ware Pavilion 
Terrace, BexhiD-oo-Sea, 3. 

Talks and lectnres 
Shining Levels, by John Wy- 
att. Lake District National Pailc 
Visitor Centre, Brockhole, V^ln- 
dermere, 1.30. 

Exhibitions in progms 
A Rediscovery: paintings by 
Kaibleen Walne, SalfonI Art; 
Gallery. Ordsdall Hail, 
Taylorsbn Su Mon to Fri 10 to I 

Marinkov; New Work 
lAen Turner; Soilptural In- 
siaUation by Pierre Vivant, 
Woodlands An GaUery, 90 My- 
cenae Rd, SE3; Mon to Fri 10 to 
7 JtX Sat 1 0 to 6, Sun 3 to 6 (ends 


Needlework, Doddington 
Hall, Doddington, Lincoln; Son 
2 to 6, Wed 2 to 6 (ends Ai« 31). 

Glass and Textiles by 40 
artists. Old nre Station Arts 
Centre. 40 Geoige St, Oxford; 
MontoRi 10io4(encfrAug30) 

Caribbean Foens: pho^ 
graphs of Caribbean wtxkuig life 
by Roshini Kempadoo, 
Chalvflte Library, St; Mon 
to Fri 9.30 to 7, Sat 9J0 to 4 
(ends Sept 17) 

Storm, Stream and Sea: ml 
saiDiings and wotercotours; 
Smith An Gallery and Museum, 
E^mbanon Rd, Stirling; Wed 

The Times Crossword Pnzzle No 17,133 

to Sun 2 to 5, Sat lOJO to S 
(ends October 5) 

. Paintings, drawinjgs and 
gr^diics by various artists, Gal- 
lery by tbe ftik. West HOI, 
Gisbuni Rd, Banowford, Ncl- 
soa; Wed to Sun 10 to 6 (ends 
Sept 28) 

Owls: their natural and uo- 
natnral history, Towneley Hall 
An Gall^ and Museum, 
Towndey Park. Bnley; Mon 
to Fri 10 to 5.30, Sun 12 to 5 
(ends Sept 4) 

Summer Exhibition by tbe 
Devon Guild id Craftsmen, 
Riverside MiD, Bovey Ttacey, 
Devon; Mon to Sun 10 to SJO 
(ends Sept 12) 

Ludlow Art Society Summer 
Exhibition, Lodlow Coll^ 
Castle Square; Mon to Sun 
10.30 to 6 (ends Aug 31) 

Maritime Exhibition: A Look 
at Davy Jones* lodcer, James 
Dun's House, 61 Schnfahill , 
Aberdeen; Mon to Sat 10 to 5 
(e^Oin 18) 

The nioiagra|>hic Arc Pic- 
torial Traditions in ftitain and 
America, Hunterian An Gal- 
lery, University of Glaagow; 
Mon to Fri 10 to 5, Sat 9J0 to 1 
(ends Sept 13) 

Natore Notes 


Woodpogeons lay only two 
^gs in their skiiiiiv ue:^ but 
they usually breed three times in 
a year. So there are many plump 
fledglings atpund, feeding in tbe 
fidds — dull brown bird& that 
only slowiy acquire the white 
ring on their neck. Some spotted 
flyratchers still have young fiom 

their smaU Mack - arid - white 
relatives, are beginning to come 
in from the Contment, passing 
down the East coast 


Treasure Hnnt Q iencestre 
Workshops, Biewi» Court 2. 

Elite Antiques I^, De La 
Ware Pavilion, BexldD-oii-Sea, 

Last chance to see 

Black terns, which have 
nested on Eun^ean marshes, 
are also ^ipearmg in Britain 
now: tl^ b^ to and fio over 
reservoirs and pOD^ consiantiy 
dipping down to tuck iqi insects 
from the surfooe. Buzaids are 
chifting away from the hills and 
are sometimes seen high over 

The smaU, sparkling white 
flowers of enchanter’s night- 
shade are common in shady 
daces. On sides there are 
t^ scented mngwort rdants, 
whose orange- brown flowers 
grow out of woolly bracts. The 
briUiam ted berries of cncoo- 
pint are showing under the 
hedget On tbe trees, there is 
little sign of aummn colour yet 
but leaves of many ^ledes are 
marked whb yellow, red and 
black, as smaQ ningj lake hold of 


6am to midpight 

tendon, SE, conM S, SW En- 

dMid, E, W MUhMds. Chwind 
Sknda, S, N Wdea: ckxidy with 
outbreaks of rain, heavy in places: 
wind easteifr fresh or strong; max 
teng) 14 - lob (57 - 61^ 

bright start; wind E, moderate at 

fresh; max temp 16 -180(61 -64F) 
NE MHid, Borde ra , SW Scet- 
ierid, SMtgow. Ainril, NoiBieia 
kniwitf brm I nterv a ls, scatlered 
dwwere; wmd E modMatB;-.ihax 

Edbibisgh, Dundee, A b erdee n , 
otntaal Wditaiids. Mleny PirtliiMW 

Scotland: sunrw Intervals, scattered 
showers; wina E or NE, iW or 
modera t e ; max temp 14 -16Cg7- 

NE Seoand. Orkney, Shaltanfo 
sunny intervals, scattered showers; 
windH Rght‘or moderate; max temp 

Outlook • ter tanwirow .raid 
WadhwMtey: Cloudy, with rain fri S 
at first tomorrow, but drier-weather 
with sumy intervals and stiowers kv 
N, spreading S during day' on 
Wed n esd a y. Sunny Intervals and 
showers In aH parts, most frequerd 


Building Conservation, 
Weald and Downland Open Air 
Museum. Singleton, nr Chidi- 
esier, 1 1 to 6. 

Incidentally.. Installation, 
Video. Sculpture, Drawings and 

Air letters 

Births: Bret Harte, writer, 
Albany, New York, 1835. 
Peathg DaHd Home, phflos- 

Pboiographics work by vxuious 
artists. Oty Museum and Ait 
Gallery, ForKatqSt, Woioestei: 

Drawings by Frank 
Brangwyn, Aberdeen Art Gal- 
lo^and Museum, SdiodhiH; 10 

Train games 


1 Frow'n on the use of awfully 
x’apid prose (10). 

6 Expert in cable TV (4). 

9 The bodge of all his tribe, 
Shylock declar^ (10). 

10 A poet quite the reverse of 
cheerless (4). 

12 Pygmalion's sister got notb- 
ingdone (4). 

13 P^ibly causing gloom in 
an Oriental (9). 

15 Most brighu so taking tbe 
least trouble (8). 

16 .A writer given strict direc- 
tion (6). 

18 Nau^ty child seen by the 
river getting dirty (6). 

20 Bearing the cost of trans- 
portation (8). 

23 Making a painter frown, one 
is taken in chaige (9). 

24 Formerly it could offer a 
way out (4). 

26 Minister filling in for tots 

27 The pit's economic decline 


28 Temporary leader - dose 
watch is n^uired (4). 

29 The estimation of free 


3 To re-use props may be 
quite ridiculous (12). 

4 Very much behind, so raise 
the maxinium (8). 

5 Empty one container into 
another (6X 

7 A coal-burning vessel (7). 

8 Tip over cross put in uiuafk 
position (iO). 

11 They move the furninne in 
spirited foshion (12). 

14 Holy music composed by 
simple cfauidi woncer (lOX 

17 Some go wrong, note, in 
making beds (8). 

An tmerf^ky 1S5 train sat and a ^ant 

years ray Sale. Stay Saia conpaittion 
oraaniasd^ Vltosiam Re0en. ChHren 
up% 1 6 are asked te design a poster wHh 
a rail satoy Cram and aniilK shoiAi 
raaeh erteb Rail by Novsmbar 4 ad> 
onssed 10 RaopMnUe Affairs Man- 
aaer. Bntish Rn, WestBrn, 125 House. 1 
ffffimrHr Street, O win i aon SNi IDL 
Many achoels use the eoMBSt M a 6l8N 
piolML AB waners wU 
be treated to a d^ cut as guests of British 

opher, Edinbuigh. 1776; Ji 
Wsut Heathfieid, Birmingham. 
1819; Sir WOUain Hersebd. 
astronomer, Slough, 

Buckinghamshire, 1822; Mi- 
chael Faraday, pbytidst, Hamp- 
ton Court,- 1867; Friedrich 
Nietzsche. Weimar, 1900: 
Ignacc-Hcari - FantiB-Latoor, 
painter, Burd^ Orne, France, 



Letter from Sydney 

Pretoria’s taiuit 
rubs raw nerve 

The Hawke Governments 
advoc^ of sanctions against 
Preunia has rekindled di^ 
custion . over the pathetic 
state of Austialia's own Mack 

Twice during televised de- 
bates Mr Lewis Net the 
South African Minister for 
Infonnation. has challenged 
Canberra with variations on 
the question: ‘'What about 
tbe Aborimnes then?" 

In so w as Pretoria is 
concerned, it is a spurious 
aigument-as legislative treat- 
ment of blacks in South 
Africa and Australia beam do 
comparison. But the qi^on 
rubs a raw nerve in the 
Australian psyche at) the 

The state of Abongines in 
Australia is best compared 
with. ifaat‘6f the American 
Indians. Both groups suffered 
persecution and massacre by 
eariy settlers, both have been 
the subject of wdl-meant 
campaigns based on guilt, 
and both are still fun- 
damentally out of IdUer wjtb 
their. lesp^ve. white naain- : 
stream societies. - 

Australians of all . races 
have long enjoyed the same 
equally und^ the law. but 
the statistics of Aboriginal 
existence still frind a grinr 
litany!.— alcc^r abuse is 
endemic: unemployment is 
around three tims that for 
whites; intot mortality is 
three times the national av^ 
erage: amL life expectancy is' 
52 years, that is about 20 
years less than for whites. 

But the most shodcing 
figure of all . is that for 
Ahoripnes whb have served 
prison senteiKSS — 726.5 per 
100,000, compared with the 
national average of 60 pv 
100 . 000 : 

Figures like this forced Mr 
Ralirfi WDIis. the-Mniister.of 
Em^oyment,. to make tbe 
public admisaon that the 
^ight of Aborigines was "a 
disgrace to the nation*’. 

The standard liberal view 
is that Australians are passive 
racists who. are saved from 
comparison with South- -A^ 
rica only by the faa that they 
are in an. overwhehning 
nfojoriw — Abori{dnes.fium- 

ber onv 160.000, or 1 per 

cent oFuie total population — 
rather ihan a vulnerable 

Certainly it is possiUe to 
find ugly exam^ of racism 
in .Australian life, tocfr as tiie 
reported harassment of 
t^ks by police m!9eiiiote 
towns in New-South Wales, 
• or the recent ease iiv(|iieen5> 
fond where an Abori^ was 

jailed for three months for 

st^ngtwo loaves ofbtead. 

On the . other hand, the 
Court ofCriminal Ai^xml last 
year noted a tendea^ for the 
Judiciary to treat Aborigines 
more leniently than otiier 

And.' ^nerally speakmg. 
tbe guilt fitit by .iriiites has 
tolenued a level of gpveni. 
meat spending on Aborigiini 
affeirs which may, as many 
contend, have iD-cmi. 
ceived and misdirected.^ but 
which cannot be ciitieiziBdas 
ladting in good intention. 
Fully 71 percent ofnatkual 
.AtK^nal income derives 
from the GovonmeiiL 

In the foce of biner resist 
taoce from two state admin- 
isirations, Canberra recently 
shelved an ambitious Ab- 
original land rights -.plan 
which would -have caused 
electoral furore. Neverthe- 
less, something like 10 per 
-cent of tiie continenta^ Ifod 
- smfoce has. already been 
handed bade to the original 
inhabitiuits as freeholdtide. 

There is a widespread 
conviction, howevei; . that 
C^berra approadies Ab- 
original ne^ from the 
wrong perfective. 

A numbm of blacks have 
criticized the welfare depen- 
dency that handouts induce. 
The devastating levd' td ^ 
coholism in adults and pet- 
rol^iffiitt am'dng youifisaie 
symptomatic of despahv if 
' not bopdessness, they ^say^ . ■ 

One prominent critic , of 
government policy, Ms Mar- 
garet Vafodian, the first Ab- 
origine to . graduate from an 
Australian., university, (in. 
1966). echoes a growi^ b^ 
of opinion that pubfic fundls 
are being misiiSM in welfore 

A whiie critic of affir- 
mative actirm adds: '‘It might 
biiy off our consciences, biit it 
is doing as much hatm to 
l^dcs as tiie bounto hunters 
did in the old days; 

Stephen Taylor 

A -dep!ressKnr''i#r'«j6*=‘- jxioveeas|:waitis . 
along the Eo^ish Oum- 
od duiing to<foy. ' 

The pound 

19 Knight-errant finding 
youngster in distress 

21 Inane is. put another way, 

22 Various people going down 
( 6 ). 

25 Tie for a flier (4). 

The Solution 
of Saturday’s 
Prize Puzzle 

XT« \n ix't 

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